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The fif^h part of a century almost has sped with the flight 
of time since the outbreak of the Slaveholder's Rebellion against 
the United States. The young men of to-day were then babes 
in their cradles, or, if more than that, too young to be appalled 
by the terror of the times. Those now graduating from our 
schools of learning to be teachers of youth and leaders of 
public thought, if they are ever prepared to teach the history 
of the war for the Union so as to render adequate honor to 
its martyrs and heroes, and at the same time impress the obvious 
moral to be drawn from it, must derive their knowledge from 
authors who can each one say of the thrilling story he is 
spared to tell : **All of which I saw, and part of which I was.** 

The writer is honored with the privilege of introducing to 
the reader a volume written by an author who was an actor 
and a sufferer in the scenes he has so vividly and faithfully 
described, and sent forth to the public by a publisher whose 
literary contributions in support of the loyal cause entitle him 
to the highest appreciation. Both author and publisher have 
had an honorable and efficient part in the great struggle* and 
are therefore worthy to hand down to the future a record of 
the perils encountered and the sufferings endured by patriotic 
soldiers in the prisons of the enemy. The publishery at the 
beginning of the war, entered, with zeal and ardor upon the 
work of raising a company of men, intending to lead them to 
the field. Prevented from carrying out this design, his energies 
were directed to a more effective service. His famous '^Nasby 
Letters** exposed the absurd and sophistical argumentations of 


rebels and their sympathisers, in such broad« attractive and 
admirable barlesque, as to direct against them the ^loudf long 
Uaghter of a world I** The unique and telling satire of these 
p^>ers became a power and inspiration to our armies in the 
field and to their anxious friends at home, more than equal 
to the might of whole battalions poured in upon the enemy. 
An athlete in logic may lay an error writhing at his feet, and 
after all it may recover to do great mischief. But the sharp 
wit of the humorist drives it before the world's derision into 
shame and everlasting contempt. These letters were read and 
shouted over gleefully at every camp-fire in the Union Army, 
and eagerly devoured by crowds of listeners when mails were 
opened at country post-offices. Other humorists were content 
when they simply amused the reader, but '* Nasby's " jests were 
arguments — they had a meaning — they were suggested by the 
necessities and emergencies of the Nation's peril, and written 
to support, with all earnestness, a most sacred cause. 

The author, when very young, engaged in journalistic work, 
antil the drum of the recruiting officer called him to join the 
ranks of his country's defenders. As the reader is told, he 
was made a prisoner. He took with him into the terrible 
prison enclosure not only a brave, vigorous, youthful spirit, 
bat invaluable habits of mind and thought for storing up the 
incidents and experiences of his prison life. As a journalist 
he had acquired the habit of noticing and memorizing every 
striking or thrilling incident, and the experiences of his prison 
life were adapted to enstamp themselves indelibly on both 
feeling and memory. He speaks from personal experience and 
from the stand*point of tender and complete sympathy with 
those of his comrades who sufiered more than he did himself. 
Of his qualifications, the writer of these introductory words 
need not speak. The sketches themselves testify to his ability 
with such force that no commendation is required. 

This work u needed. A generation is arising who do not 
know what the preservation of our free government cost in blood 


and suffering. Even the men of the passing generation begin 
to be forgetful, if we may judge from the recklessness or 
carelessness of their political action. The soldier is not always 
remembered nor honored as he should be. But, what to the 
future of the great Republic is more important, there is great 
danger of our people under^estimating the bitter animus and 
terrible malignity to the Union and its defenders cherished by 
those who made war upon it. This is a point we can not 
afford to be mistaken about. And yet, right at this point this 
volume will meet its severest criticism, and at this point its 
testimony is most vital and necessary. 

Many will be slow to believe all that is here told most 
truthfully of the tyranny and cruelty of the captors of our brave 
boys in blue. There are no parallels to the cruelties and 
malignities here described in Northern society. The system of 
slavery, maintained for over two hundred years at the South, 
had performed a most perverting, morally desolating, and we 
might say, demonizing work on the dominant race, which people 
bred under our free civilization can not at once understand, 
nor scarcely believe when it is declared unto them. This 
reluctance to believe unwelcome truths has been the snare of 
our national life. We have not been willing to believe how 
hardened, despotic, and cruel the wielders of irresponsible power 
nuy become. 

When the anti-slavery reformers of thirty years ago set forth 
the cruelties of the slave system, they were met with a storm 
of indignant denial, villiBcation and rebuke. When Theodore 
D. Weld issued his ** Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses," to 
the cruelty of slavery, he introduced it with a few words, 
pregnant with sound philosophy, which can be applied to the 
work now introduced, and may help the reader better to 
accept and appreciate its statements. Mr. Weld said: — 

''Suppose I should seize you, rob you of your liberty, drive 
you into the field, and make you work without pay as long as 
you lived. Would that be justice? Would it be kindness? 



Fifteen months ago — and one month before it was begun— I 
had no more idea of writing this book than I have now of tak- 
ing up my residence in China. 

While I have always been deeply impressed with the idea that 
the public should know much more of the history of Anderson- 
ville and other Southern prisons than it does, it had never 
occurred to me that I was in any way charged with the duty of 
increasing that enlightenment. 

No affected deprecation of my own abilities had any part in 
this. I certainly knew enough of the matter, as did every other 
boy who had even a month's experience in those terrible places, 
but the very magnitude of that knowledge overpowered me, by 
showing me the vast requirements of the subject — requirements 
that seemed to make it presumption for any but the greatest 
pens in our literature to attempt the work. One day at Ander- 
sonville or Florence would be task enough for the genius of 
Carlyle or Hugo. Lesser than they would fail preposterously 
to rise to the level of the theme. No writer ever described such 
a deluge of woes as swept over the unfortunates confined in 
Rebel prisons in the last year-and-a-half of the Confederacy's life. 
No man was ever called upon to describe the spectacle and the pro- 
cess of seventy thousand young, strong, able* bodied men, starv- 
ing and rotting to death. Such a gigintic tragedy as this stuns 
the mind and benumbs the imagination. 

I no more felt myself competent to the task than to accom- 
plish one of Michael Angelo's grand creations in sculpture or 

ziT. author's prkpacx. 

Study of the subject since confirms me in this riew, and my 
only claim for this book is that it is a contribution — a record of 
individual observation and experience — which will add some- 
thing to the material which the historian of the future will find 
available for his work. 

The work was begun at the suggestion of Mr. D. R. Locke, 
(Petroleum V. Nasby), the eminent political satirist. At first it 
was only intended to write a few short serial sketches of prison 
life for the columns of the Toledo Blade. The exceeding 
fisvor with which the first of the series was received induced 
a great widening of their scope, until finally they took the range 
they now have. 

I know that what is contained herein will be bitterly denied. 
I am prepared for this. In my boyhood I witnessed the savagery 
of the Slavery agitation — in my youth I felt the fierceness of 
the hatred directed against all those who stood by the Nation. 
I know that hell hath no fury like the vindictiveness of those, 
who are hurt by the truth being told of them. I apprehend 
being assailed by a sirocco of contradiction and calumny. But 
I solemnly afiSrm in advance the entire and absolute truth of 
every material fact, statement and description. 1 assert that, so 
far from there being any exaggeration in any particular, that in 
no instance has the half of the truth been told, nor could it be, 
save by an inspired pen. I am ready to demonstrate this by any 
test that the deniers of this may require, and I am fortified in 
my position by unsolicited letters from over 3,000 surviving 
prisoners, warmly indorsing the account as thoroughly accurate 
in every respect. 

It has been charged that hatred of the South is the animus of 
this work. Nothing can be farther from the truth. No one has 
a deeper love for every part of our common country than I, and 
no one to-day will make more efforts and sacrifices to bring the 
South to the same plane of social and material development with 
the rest of the Nation than I will. If I could see that the suf- 
ferings at Andersonville and elsewhere contributed in any con- 

author's piuurACx. xr. 

tiderable degree to that end« and I should not regret that they had 
been, filood and tears mark every step in the progreu of the 
race, and human misery seems unavoidable in securing human 
advancement But I am naturally embittered by the (ruitless- 
ness, as well as the uselessness of the misery of Andersonville. 
There was never the least military or other reason for inflicting 
all that wretchedness upon men, and, as far as mortal eye can 
discern, no earthly good resulted from the martyrdom of those 
tens of thousands. I wish I could see some hope that their 
wantonly shed blood has sown seeds that will one day blossom, 
and bear a rich fruitage of benefit to mankind, but it saddens 
me beyond expression that I can not. 

The years 1864-5 were a season of desperate battles, but in 
that time many more Union soldiers were slain behind the 
Rebel armies, by starvation and exposure, than were killed in 
front of them by cannon and nfle. The country has heard 
much of the heroism and sacrifices of those loyal youths who 
fell on the field of battle; but it has heard little of the still 
greater number who died in prison pen. It knows full well 
how grandly her sons met death in front of the serried ranks 
of treason, and but little of the sublime firmness with which 
they endured unto the death, all that the ingenious cruelty of 
their foes could inflict upon them while in captivity. 

It is to help supply this deficiency that this book is written. 
It is a mite contributed to the better remembrance by their 
countrymen of those who in this way endured and died that 
the Nation might live. It is an ofiering of testimony to future 
generations o( the measureless cost of the expiation of a national 
sin, and of the preservation of our national unity. 

This is alL I know I speak for all those still living com- 
rades who went with me through the scenes that I have 
attempted to describe, when I say that we have no revenges 
to satisfy, no hatreds to appease. We do not ask that anyone 
shall be punished. We only desire that the Nation shall 
recognise and remember the grand fidelity of our dead com- 

xTi. author's prkpacx. 

rades, and take abundant care that they shall not hare died 
in yain. 

For the great mau of Southern people we have only the 
kindliest feeling. We but hate a vicious social system, the 
lingering shadow of a darker age, to which they yield, and which, 
by elevating bad men to power, has proved their own and 
their country's bane. 

The following story does not claim to be in any sense a 
history of Southern prisons. It is simply a record of the 
experience of one individual — one boy — who staid all the 
time with his comrades inside the prison, and had no better 
opportunities for gaining information than any other of his 
40,000 companions. 

The majority of the illustrations in this work are from the 
skilled pencil of Captain O. J. Hopkins, of Toledo, who served 
through the war in the ranks of the Forty-second Ohio. His army 
experience has been of peculiar value to the work, as it has 
enabled him to furnish a series of illustrations whose life-like 
fidelity of action, pose and detail are admirable. 

Some thirty of the pictures, including the frontispiece, and the 
allegorical illustrations of War and Peace, are from the atelier 
of Mr. O. Reich, Cincinnati, O. 

A word as to the spelling: Having always been an ardent 
believer in the reformation of our present preposterous system — 
or rather, no system — of orthography, I am anxious to do what- 
ever lies in my power to promote it. In the following pages the 
spelling is simplified to the last degree allowed by Webster. I 
hope that the time is near when even that advanced spelling; 
reformer will be left far in the rear by the progress of a people 
thoroughly weary of longer slavery to the orthographical absurdi* 
ties handed down to us from a remote and grossly unlearned 
ancestry. JOHN McELROY. 

Toledo, O., Dec. 10, 1879. 


^ » » * 


1 "War- .... 

tL Comberiftod Ckm Lonkff 

i. A CmTmlry Squad 

8. The Rebeb Marcbhig Throofh Jaoaavflla « , ^ ^ . 41 

6. Tieren Tank KiUiof the Rebel 4t 

7. A Scared Mule DriTer 4f 

a Bai^ler Souodiag ** Taps " m 

9. CompAQj L Gathering to Meet the Rebel Attack « « ^ . f4 

10. The Major Ref mea to Sarreoder ^ « ffr 

11. Ned JohoaoQ TrTiog to Kill the Rebd Coloael 49 

la. Oiria Aftooiahed at the Jacket Taba #T 

IS. Goodbye to " Hktoga * 71$ 

14. An Eaat Tenneweean n 

VL ARebelDandj TT 

15. The Rebel Flag 7% 

17. Tomer in Qoeet of Britiah Gold . . . ^ . « i^ 

la Bamade-backa Diaoonraging a Viait frooi a Soldier . . » , M 

19. Roea OaUing the RoU m 

90. An Sreaing'a Amnieaiant with the Goarda fl 

91. Priaonera' Colinarf Outfit Vfn 

%\. Skimming the Boga From My Soop %m 

9^ **Spooning** UM 

94. A Richmond Kewa Boy M 

99. **S«y, Guard: Do Yon Want to Bay Some Greenbacks? ** . • SOi 

911. A'^lTYaarker" . . Ill 

97. Decoying Boiaeeux't Dog to lu Death lU 

9a The Dead Scotchnum 117 

99 Map of Georgia. Sooth Carolina and part of North C^rulina . . 199 

90 Cooking Rations 130 

91. General John W. Winder 119 

92. A Field Haml 135 

811. Scaling the Stockade • • , 139 

94. Captain Henri Win 143 

9&. The Priie-flght for the Skillet 147 

la Killing Uce I7 Singeiag 106 



•7. Stripping the Dead for Clothet 197 

I8w A Fljmoath Pilgrim ..•••«••• 169 

19. The Crasy f^notylTanUii 170 

40. Midnight Aitock of the Raiden 179 

41. Ignominioiu £ud of a Tunnel Enterprise • • • • • 176 

4ft Tunneling 177 

48. Tattooing the Tunnel Traitor 179 

44. OTerpowering a Guard 199 

45. A Matter of the Houndt 184 

46. Hounds Tearing a Pritoner 185 

47. Shot at the Creek hy the Guard 189 

48. Cooking Mush * . 109 

49. SeiU on Honehack • • • • 901 

Oa Finding Beits Dead 908 

61. A Case of Scurry 90S 

69. ConOscatinx Soft Soap 211 

68. Religious Services 916 

64. The Prit^ Anointing the Dying 916 

65. Raider Fight with one of EllcU's Marine Brigade ... 998 

66. Key Blufflng His WoulJ-bc AssaM ios • • • 9*38 

67. Rehel Artillerists Training the Cannon on the Prison • • • 981 
60L Orerthrow of the Raiders .989 

69. Arrest of Pete Donnelly « . • • 987 

6a Death of the Sailor . . . ' 940 

61. Execution of the Raiders 945 

69. Sergeant A R Hill, lOUth O. V. I 958 

68. ** Spanking ** a Thief 956 

61 The Wounded Illinois Sergeiint 961 

65. The Idiotic Flute Player 2Gi 

66. OneofSberman*s ** Veterans*' 208 

67 "You Hour Me" 270 

6ft Logan Taking Command of the Army of the Tennessee • • 97:i 

69. Dea.h of M'Pbersnn ' ... 976 

Tft The Work of a Shell 978 

71. The Fight for the Flag 281 

79. In the Rifle-pit After the Battle 2h:1 

78 Taken In 935 

74. The Author's Appearance on Entering Prison • • • • 287 

75 His Appearance in July, 1864 Z^ 

7ft Uttlelit^Cap 2U1 

77. -FrrshFish- 29:i 

7ft Interior of the Stockade. Viewed from the S<Mithwrst . • . 205 

79. Burring the Dead 807 

80. The QiaTeysrd at Andersonrille. as the Rehels Left It . . . 8U 

81. Denouncing the Southern Confederacy 835 

89 The Charge 8 8 

88. ** FlaiCBtaif " 838 

81 Nursing a Sick Comrade 8^ 

Oft A Dream 844 


The English Bugler ••840 

87. The Break In the Stockade 881 

88. Al Ihe Spring 888 

80. Monilng AMemblage of Sick at the Sonth Gate • ... 886 

80. Cancer In the Month • 800 

01. Old Sailor and Chicken 881 

08. Death of Watts 888 

08. Planning Escape •• ... 865 

04 Our Progress was Terribly Slow-^Ereiy Step Hurt Fearfollj 870 

06 *' Come Ashore, There, Quick'* 878 

06. Be Shrieked Imprecations and Cnrsee 875 

07. The 1 haln Qsng 876 

Oa Interior of the Stockade— The Creek at the East Side . 886 

00. A Section from the East Side of the Prison Showing the Dead Line 880 

100. ** Hsir past Eight O'clock, and AthuiU*s Gone to H— II ** . 805 

101. Off for •* God's Country •• 807 

100. Geoiglan Development of the ** Proud CaucasUn** • • • 800 

108. It was Very Unpleasant When a Storm Came Up • • • 405 

104. When Wc Alatcbed Our IntellecU Against a Bebel't ... 406 

105. There was a Post and a Fire 408 

106. Carrying Away the Dirt 400 

107. His New Idea was to hare a Heayily Laden Cart Driven Around 

Inside the Dead Line 410 

lOa They Stood Around the Gate and Yelled DerlalTely . • . 411 

108 Sergeant Frank Beverstock 418 

lia ** Sec Heah; You Must Stand Backl" 418 

111. He Bade Them GiMxl bye 415 

111 **Whaahye!*' 428 

118. A Mad Sergeant 488 

114 One of Ferguson's CsTaliy • • 445 

115. Then the Clear Blue Eyes and Well-remembered Smile • . 418 

116. He Propped This Up Before the Fire 458 

117. Millen 454 

118. A House Bullded With Our Own Hands 457 

110. Our First Meat 45J 

190. A Lucky Find • 463 

121. Sergeant L. L. Key 473 

122. We Find Our»elTos In the Densest Pine Forest I Ever Saw . . 478 
183. The l>ogs Came Within Not Less Three Hundred Yards of Us . 475 

184 '* Where Are You Going, You D-d Yank? ** 482 

125. They Threw Their Blaoketa, Etc., to Those laslda • • • 501 

196 He Crushed It Out of All Shape .••••.. 502 

197. ** Who Uout These Bet*' 506 

128. A Uoadside View 500 

ISO. The Charleston A Sarannah Railroad 510 

180 A Rice PUintstion Negro 511 

Ml. A Rice Held Glil 514 

l&i. ARceSwamp 515 

ni A ticene In the*' Burnt District* 518 


184. The Part Where We Laj Wtm a Ma« of Rains .... MS 

1S5. Rains of Si. Finbtf Cathedral • 021 

laO. The Unlucky Negro Fell, Pierced by a Score of BolleU • • 523 

187. Recapture of the Runaways • • 580 

188. Corporal J. !1. Blatthcws 588 

13V. ** Take These Shears and Cut My Toos Off " . • • • 536 

140. CoqK>raI John W. January 545 

141. Corporal Calvin Bate» 548 

148. Andrews Manai;ed to Fish Out the Bag and Pass to Ma Three 

R ast^-d Chickeos 504 

148. In Q(id*B Country at Last 600 

144. Map of Wilmington and Neighborhood .••••. 603 

145. Till- Mock Monitor 613 

146. Fort Fisher and CoDn«*ct«d Works • .614 

147. The One Hundred and Fifty Pound Armstrong . • • • 615 

148. The Infantry Awault im Fort Fisher 617 

110. They Removed Every Trace of Prison Qrime .... 084 

150. Bottton Corbctt 038 

151. The Cemeury at An lersooTille, as Placed In Order by the Party 

Tnder Charge i if Miss Clara Barton 638 

158. Trial of CapUin Wirz 64;) 

158. SxecuUoo of Captain Win 648 

154. «* Peace" 655 




A Stranfe Land — The Heart of the Appalachians — The Gatewi^ of an 
Empire -^ A Sequestered Vale, a&d a PrimltiTe, Arcadian, Non-pro- 
gressiTe People tt 


Scarcity of Food for the Armr — Raid for Forage — Enconnter with the 
Rebels — Sharp Cavalry Fight— Defeat of the *' Johnnies**— POweU*t 
Valley Opened Up . . . 87 


Liring Off the Enemy— ReTcling in the Fatness of the Coantiy— Soldierly 
Purveying and Camp Cooliery — Susceptible Teamsteft and Their 
Tendency to Flightiness — Making a Soldier's Bed . ... 45 


A Ditter Cold Morning and a Warm Awakening — Trouble All Along the 
Line — Fierce Conflicts, Assaults and Defense — Prolonged and Des- 
perate Struggle, Ending witn a Surrender ..... (El 


The Reaction — Depression — Biting Cold — Sharp Hanger and Sad Ba- 
fleciion • • • 61 


" On to Richmond I **— Marching on Foot Over the Moantaina — My Hone 
has a New Rider — Unsophisticated Mountain Qirla — Discussing the 
lasoea of the War —Parting with ** Hiatoga'* ... 61 


Entering Richmond — Disappointment at its Appearance — Eveiybody in 
Uniform — Curled Darliniis of the Capital — The Rebel FUg^ Ubbj 
Prison — Dick Turner — Searching the New Comers ... 74 



IntrodactioB to Piiaon Life -^ The Pembertoo Baildlogftod Its Occupaati 
~ Neat Sallori — RoU Call— Ratioot and Clothing— Chi Talrio ''Con- 


Beans or Peat — InaniBclency of Darkj Testimonj — A Ooard Kills a 
Prisoner — Prisonen Tease the Ouards — Desperate Outbreak 80 


The Exchange and the Cause of its Interruption — Brief Resume of the 
Different Cartels, and the Difficulties that Led to Their Suspension 06 


Pnuing in the Time — Rations — Cooking Utensils— *« Fiat'* Soup — 
'* Spooning **- African Newspaper Venders — Trading Qreenhacks 
foe Confederate Honey — ^Yisit from John Morgan • • • 101 


Bemarks as to Nomenclature —Vaccination and lu Effects-** N^Yaarker's,** 
Their Chaiaoierlstics, and their Methods of Operating 100 


BaDe Isle — Terrible Suffericg from Cold and Hunger- Pate of Lieuten- 
ant Boissenz*s Dog — Our Company Mystery — Termination of AU 
Hopes of Its Solution ....••••• 114 


Hoping for Exchange — An Exposition of the Doctrine of Chances — Off 
for AodersonTille — Uncertainty as to Our Destination — ArriTsl at 
AndersoaTille 118 


Qaofg^a — A Lean and Hungry Land — Difference between Upper and 
Lower Geocgia— The Vilbge of AndersottTilla .... 1ft 


^aktag Up in AnderbonTllle — Some Description of the Place — Our 
First MaU — BuUding Si^elter — Qen. Winder — Himself and Lineage 198 


Tbe Plantation Negros — Not Too Stupid to be Loyal— Their DIthyrambIc 
Music — Copperhead « opinion of Longfellow • . • • 184 


S^emea and Plans to Escape — ScaUng the Stodmde — Establishing the 
Dead Line— The Pint Man Killed 188 



Otpt Henri Win — Some Description of a Bmall-mlnded Ptononagei wlio 
Gained Great Notoriety — First Ezperienoe with His Disciiillnarf 
Metiiod 14S 


Priie-flgbt Among the ITTaarkers —A Great Man j Formalities, and Little 
Blood Bpilt — A Futile Attempt to Recover a Watch — Defeat of the 
Law and Order Partj 146 


Diminishing Rations — A Deadly Cold Rain — Horering Orer Pitch Pine 
Fires— Increaseof Mortality — A Theory of Health ... 161 


DUference Between Alabamians and Georgians — Death of 'ToU PAnott** 
— A Good Joke Upon the Guard — A Bmtal Rascal ... 166 


A New Lot of Prisoners— The Battle of Oolustee — Men Sacrllloed to a 
Genenil*s Incompetency — A Hoodlum Reinforcement — A Queer 
Crowd— Mistreatment of an Officer of a Colored Beciment — Killing 
the Sergeant of a N^gro Squad 160 


Ayrfl — Longing to Get Out — The Death Rate — The Plsgne of Uoe — 
The So-called Hospital • • • • 164 


The "Plymouth Pilgrims **— Sad TransiUon from Comfortable Barmcks 
to AndersonTille— A Craied PennsylTanian — Deretopment of the 
Sutler Business • • • 166 


Longings for God*s Country — Coosideratio&s of the Methods of Qettlag 
There — Exchange and Escape — Digging Tunnels, and the DUBctd- 
ties Connected Therewith — Punishment of a Traitor • • • 174 


The Hounds, and the DiflcuUiet They Put In the Way of XKapo — The 
Whole South Piurolled by Them ... .... 181 


M^ — Influi of New Prisoners- Disparity In Numbers Between the 
Eastern and Western Armies — Terrible Crowding — SUuighter of 
Men at the Creek 166 



Bona Diflfttcttott BeCwmi Boldtoily Duty aad Umdmt -» ▲ Flol lo Bntpe 
— IlIiRetMledttdFroiintod Ill 


June — PoMibnitlat of a Harderoui CmniKHiade — What wm PropoMd 
to iM DoM la That BtmI — A Falte AJam-^Deteriontioiiof Uia 
Rukmi — IWrful laoreue of MortaUtj . • • • . IM 


Pyliig by iDchet— SelU, tba Slow, aod Hit Death — Stiggall and Emer- 
■oa — RaTi^ee of tlie Sdury 900 


*'01o Boo,** eod *' Ole 8o1, the Haymaker **— A FMid, Barning Deeert — 
Noisome Water, and the Effecu of Driokiog It ^-Stealing Soft Soap 907 


*' Poar Paaeer le Tempe **— A Set of Chessmen Procared Under Diffloul- 
Uae — Religiooa Senrices — The Devoted Priest — War Song • 918 


Hagfota, Lice and Raiders— Practices of Tbf- llaman Yermin — Ploii- 
deriog the Sick and Dying — Night Attacks, and BaiUet by Day — 
Hard Times for the Small Traders 990 


A Community without (Government — Pormntion of tba Regulators — 
HsideiT Attack Key but are Rluffdl Off — Assault of the Regulators 
on the Raiders — Desperate Battle — Overthrow of the Raiders . 995 


Why the Regulators were not Assisted by the Entire Camp — Pecullarl- 
lies of Boys from Different Sections— Hunting the Raiders Down — 
Ezploiu of My Left-handed Ueuteoaot — Running the Oaunllet . 994 


The Execution — BnUdiog the Scaffold — Doubu of the Camp — Csplahi 
Win Thinks It Is Probably a Ruse to Force the Stockade — His 
Preparations Against Such an Attempt — Entrance of the Doomed 
Cms ~ They Reaiixe Their Fate-— One Makes a Desperate Effort to 
Escape — His Recapture » I nteofe Excitement — Win Orders tha 
Oons to Open ^Fortunately They Do Noi — The Six are Hanged — 
One Breaks His Rope— Soeoa When the Raiden are Cut Down • 911 


After the ExMotlon — Forasatlon of a PoUoa Fdfoa— Us First Chief— 
'•Spanking** an Offender 989 

COirTBlfT& Mxr. 


Jufy — The Prison Becomes More Crowded, the Wealher Hotter, lUtloBt 
Poorer, ftod MortaUij Greater ^ 8oiiie of the Ptienonieii* of Balltt>- 
log und Death , . 968 


The Battle of the 82d of Julj — The Army of the Tenneieee AMaalted 
From and Rear— Death of General McPheraon — Ai8iimj;>tion of 
Commaiia by General Logan — HeauU of the Battle M4 


Clothing: Its Rapid Deterioration, and Devices to Replenish It^Dee- 
perate Efforu to Corer Nakedness-— *' Little Red Cap** and His 
Letter 981 


Some Features of the Mortality — Percentage of Deaths to Those LMng 
— An Average Man Only Standi the Misery Three Months — Dencrip* 
tion of the Prison and the Condition of the Men Therein, by a Lead- 
ing Scientific Man of the South 8M 


DiiBculty of Exercising— Eml>arras8nients of a Morning Walk — The 
Rialto of the Prison — Cursing the Southern Confedoraoy^The Story 
of the Battle oi SpotUylrania Court House . • • • • 83S 


Rebel Musio — Singular Lack of the Creative Power Among the South- 
erners — Contrast with Similar People Elsewhere — Their Fuvorite 
Music, and where it was Borrowed from — A Fifer with One Tune 880 


August — Needles Stuck in Pumpkin Seeds — Some Phenomena of 
Starvation — Rioting in Remembered Luxuries • 888 


A Borty Briton — The Stolid Courage that makes the English Flag a Ban- 
ner of Triumph — Our CompAoy Bugler, His Characteristics and 
His Death — Urgent Demand for Mechanics — None Want to Go — 
Treatment of a Rebel Shoemaker — Enlitr^f^ment of the Stockade — 
It Is Broken by n Storm ^ The Wonderful Spring • 848 


**8lck Call,** and the Scenes that Aroompanted It — Mustering the Lama, 
Halt and Diseased at the South Gate — An Unusually Bad Case — 
Going Out to the Hospital — Accommodation and Treatment of the 
Patients There -^ The Horrible Suffering in the Gangrene Ward -^ 
Bungling Amputations by Blundering Practitioners — Affection Be- 
tween a Stilor and His Ward — Death of My Comrade 



Detennination to Encftfw — Different PIaim uid their MeriUi — I Prefer 
the AppeJacbloola Route — PreparatioQn for Departare — A Hoi Day 
— The Fence Pasted SuccestfuHy — Pursued by the Hounds — 
Caogbt— Returned to the Stockade ...... 8M 


Angnst — Good Lock in not Meeting Captain Win— That Worthy^ 
Treatment of Recaptured Prisoners — Secret Societies in Prison — 
Singular Meeting and its Result — Discovery and Remoral of the 
Officers Among the Enlisted Men 874 


Food — Its Mea ge mesa, Inferior Quality, and Terrible Sameness — Rebel 
Testimony on the Subject— Futility of Successful Explanation . 


SoUdtode as to the Fate of AtUnta and Sherman's Army — Paucity of 
News— How We Heard that Atlanta Had Fallen — Announcement 
of a General Exchange — We Leare Andersonville 


Barairaah- Derloei to Obuin Materials for a Tent —Their Ultimate 
Success — Resumption of Tunneling ^ Escaping by Wholesale and 
Being Re-captured en masse —The Obstacles that Lay Between Us and 
OnrLines ... 404 


Vimnk BeTerstoek*s Attempt at Escape — Passing Off as a Rebel Boy Ha 
Reaches OriswoldTille br Rail, and then Strikes Across the Country 
for SlienBaB, but ia Caught within Twenty Miles of Our Lines . 418 


Ssfmmiah Proves to be a Change for the Better — Escape from the Brata 
of Ouaids— Comparison Botween Win and DaTis — A Brief Inter> 
Talof Good Ratloos— Winder, the Man with the E?U Eye — The 
Disloyal Work of a Shyslar 410 


Why We Wera Hurried Out of AndcrsooTiUe- The Effect of the Fall of 
Atlanta — Our Longing to Hear the News- Arrival of Some Fieah 
Fish— How We Knew They Were Wrsl«m Boys— Diiferenoe in 
the Appearance of the Soldlan of the Two Armies ... 481 


What Caused the Fall of AtlanU— A Dissertation Upon an Important 
Psychological Problem -The Battle of Jonesboro — Why It Was 


Fought — How Shennan Deceived Hood » A Desperate Bayonet 
Cbarffe, aod the Only Succefwful One in the Atlanta Oaropaiin> — A 
Gallant Colonel and How He Died — The Heroism of Soma Enlisted 
Men— Going Calmly CerUin Death 48$ 


A F^r Sacrifice — The Stoiy of One Boy Who Willingly Gare His Young 
Life for His Countiy 446 


We Leave Savannah — More Hopes of Exchange — Scenes at Departure 
—"Flankers**— Od the Back Track Toward Andersooville^ Alarm 
Thereat — At the Parting of Two Ways — We Finally Bring Up at 
CampLawton 450 


Oor Kew Qnartert at Camp Lawton — Building a Hut — An Exceptional 
Commandant — He is a Good Man, but will Take Bribes — RaUons 455 


Tbe Raiders Re-appear on the Scene— The Attempt to Assassinate Those 
Who were Concerned In the Execution — A Couple of Lively Fights, 
la Whkhtlie Raiders are Defeated — Holding an Election . 400 


Tbe Rebels Formally Propose to Us to Desert to Them — Contumelions 
Treatment of the Proposition — Their Rage — An Exciting Time — 
An Outbreak Threatened — Difficulties Attending Desertioa to the 
Babels 406 


fisfgeaat Leroy L Key — His Adventures Subsequent to the Execution- 
He Goes Outside at Andersonville on Parole — Labors in the Cook- 
house — Attempts to Escape — Is Re-captured and Taken to Macon 
— Escapes from There, but is Compelled to Return — Is Finally Ez- 
duuiged at Savannah 471 


Drany Weather — The Cold Rains Distress All and Kill Hundreds — 
Exchange of Ten Thousand Sick — Captain Bowes Turns a Pretty, 
hoi Not Very Honest, Penny 4M 


^iMiAifc^ Bsmoval — 8herman*s Advance Scares thd Rebels Into Runnhig 
Ut Away From Millen — We are Taken to Savannah, and Thenoa 
Down Iha Atlantic ft Gulf Road to Blackshear .... 400 



BlackabMr tad Pierct Coootj— We Takt Up New Qiuurten, bat are Called 
Out for Szcbaoge — Ezoheraent Over Signing ibe Parole » ▲ Happy 
Joamej to BaTaanah— QrieTout Dieappi liniment 


A Specimen ConTenation witli an ArerAgo Natire Oeorgiaa — We 
Learn that Sherman ia Heading for SaTannah ^ The Reeetree Get a 
Little Setting Down 


Oif to Chtrleeton — Paralng Through the Rice Swampe — Two Extremes 
of Society— Entry into Charle!»ton — Leisurely Warfare — Shelling 
the City at (Regular Interrals— We Camp in a Haas of Rulna — De- 
parture for Florence 51t 


FlialDaye at Florence — Introduction to Lieutenant Barrett, the Red- 
headed Keeper — A Brief DeHcripiion of Our New Quartert— Win- 
der*e Malign Influence Manifest ... ... 9%i 


Barrett'e Inaane Cruelty — How He Punished Thoee Alleged to bo En- 
gaged inTunnrliog— The Misery in the Stocliade — Men*s Umba 
Rotting Off Willi Dry Gangrene 


Home and Clothee — Efforu to Erect a Suitable Reddenoe — Difflcultiea 
Attending Thia — Varieties of Florentiue Architecture — Wailing for 
Dead Men's Clothes — CraTiog for Tobacco 


Deoraiber— Rations of Wood and Pood Grow Lees Daily —> Uncertainty 
aa to the Mortality at Florence — Even the GoTemment'a Sutlitlea 
are Very Deficient — Care for the Sick ... 543 


Doll Winter Days — Too Weak an*! Too Stupid to Amuse Ourselvea — 
AttempU of the ReMs to Rrcnii Us Into Their Army — The ClsM 
of Men They Obtained — Vengennce on ** the Galvaaised **— A Sin- 
gnhur Eiperienoe — Rare Glimpses of Fun — Inability of the Rebela 
toCuunt .500 


ChflelBMi, and the Way It Was Passed— The Dally Hoatloa of Ration 
Drmwlng- SonePecallaritleaof Uviflf aadDyiqff ... 557 



Kew Te«r*t Daj^ Death of John H. Winder— He Diet on Hit Waj to 
a Dinner — Something as to Character and Career— One of the 
Wont Hen That ETer Lived 661 


Onelnttanoeofa Successful Escupe — The Adventures of Sergeant Waiter 
Uarttough, of Company E, Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry — He Gets 
Away from the Rebels at Thomasville, and after a Toilsome and Dan- 
gerous Journey of Several Hundred Miles, Reaches Our Lines in 
Florida 667 


The Peculiar Type of Insanity Prevalent at Florence — Barrett's Wanton- 
ness of Cruelty — We Learn of Sberman^s Advance Into South Car- 
olina — The Rebels Begin Moving the Prisoners Away — Andrews 
and I Change Our Tacticsi, and Slay Behind — Arrival of Five 
Prisoners from Sherman*8 Command — Their Unbounded Confidence 
la 8he«man*s Success, and Its Beneficial Effect Upon Us . 676 


Vhiitkn Waiting for Sherman — We Leave Florence — Intelligence of the 
Fall of Wilmington Communicated to Us by a Slave — The Turpen- 
tine Region of North Carolina — We Come Upon a RetMl Line of 
Battle— Yankees at Both Ends of the Road 686 


BitiirB to Florence and a Sliort Sojourn There —Off Toward Wilming- 
ton Again — Cribbing a Rebel Ofllcer^s Lunch — Signs of Approach- 
ing Our Lines — Terror of Our Rascally Quards^ Entrance Into 
God*s Country at Last . , . . . ... 602 


Getting Used to Freedom — Deligbu of a Land Where There Is Enough 
of Everything — Glimpse of the Old Flag — Wilmington and its 
History — Lieutcntiot Cuflbing — First Acquaintani^ with the Colored 
Troops — Leaving tor Hume — Desi ruction of the ** Thorn" by a Tor- 
pedo— The MocIl Mom oi*s Achievement 609 


YUt to Fort Fisher, ami Inap.*ctioo of that Strooghold — The Way It 
Was Captured-Out on the Ojean Sailing — Terribly SeaSiciL — 
Bapid Recovery — Arrival at Annapolis — Washed, Clothed and Fed 
— Unbounded Luxury, and Daya of Unadulterated Happiness 614 



BaUgkNifLifii sad Work la AjidenooTllla— EUnr Oiplored — Imprew to M 
oo RHicbinf the Prinoa — How Trvatrd — Looftlnf for Religious 
ConiMuiloiia— Noirt from Daj to Daj — Oosdjuton la Organlslof 
Prajer Meetiagi^ Brutal TrMtmenl of Uie Sick bj Rabeb — Meager 
RitifHH, Etc • • . . • 688 


GbpCain WIrs, tbeOalj Oae of the Priaoa-keepen Puaithed— Hit Arnet, 
Trial aad Executioa 888 


TheRivpooalMlltj — WlioWaa to Blame for All the Mlaerj — AaEs- 
aailnatloa of the Flimsy Ezcuaoi Made for the Rebels— Oae Doca- 
SBealThat Ooaficu them— What Is l>eaired • • • • 815 




A Lnxr, square, 
pUEnly-hewn stone, 
set near the summit 
of the eastern ap- 
proach to the form- 
idable naturni fort- 
B of CumbcrUad 
Gap, indicates the 
boundaries of the 
three great States 
of Virginia. Ken- 
tucky and Tennos- 
It is such a place as, n- 
raembering the old Greek 
and Roman myths and super- 
stitions, one would recogniio 
as fitting to mark the con- 
flues of the territories of great 
masses of strong, aggrcssiTfl^ 
and frequently ooDBiotinj[ 
peoples. There the god Tenuinus sliould have had one of bis 
chief tmnples, where his shrine would bo shadowed by bairien 
xiliDf above the clouds, and his socrod solitude guanled from 


the ru<le invasion of anned hosts by range on range of battle- 
mcnteil rocks, crowning almost inaccessible mountains, inter- 
ix>sc<l across every approach from the usual liaunts of men. 

Roundabout the land is full of strangeness and mystery. The 
throc'S of wjme great convulsion of Nature are written on the 
face of the four thousiind s(|uare miles of territory, of which 
Cumlxfrland Ciap is the central point. Miles of granite moun- 
tains are thrust up like giant walls, hundreds of feet high, and 
as smooth and n^gular as the side of a monument. 

Huge, fantiistically-shai>ed rocks abound everywhere — some- 
times rising into pinnacles on lofty summits — sometimes hang- 
ing over the verge of lx;etling cliffs, as if i)hicetl there in waiting 
for a time when they could be hurled down u{K>n the path of 
an advancing army, and sweep it away. 

Large streams of water bui-st out in the most unex])ect6d 
places, fnM{uently far up mountain sides, and fall in silver vails 
upon stonc*s beaten round by the ceaseless dash for ages. 
Caves, rich in (]uaintly-furmed stalactites and stalagmites, and 
their rcci*sses filleil with metallic sidts c»f the most ]x>werful and 
diverse natures, break the mountain sid(*s at freijuent intervals. 
Everywhere one is met by surprises and anomalies. Even the 
rank vegetati<m is ec*centric, and as prone to develop into bizarre 
fonns as are the n>cks and mountains. 

The dreadeil luinther rang«.*s through the primeval, rarely 
trodden forests ; everv crevice in the rocks has for tenants rat- 
tlcsnakes or stealthy cop|)erhejwls, while long, wonderfully 
swift "blue raa*rs'' haunt the etlgtis of the woods, and linger 
around the fields to chill his bloo<l who catches a glim|>se of 
their uprearetl head.s, with their great, balefully bright eyes, 
and "white-collar" encircle<l throiils. 

The human events hapi»ening hero have Ix^'U in harmony 
with the natural ones. It has always U-en a land of conflict. 
In 1540 — 339 years ago — De Soto, in that energetic but fruit- 
less search for gold which occupieil his later years, i»cnetraled to 
this region, and found it the fsistnessof the Xualans. a l>old, 
aggressive race, continually warring with its n«MglilK»rs. When 
next the white man reached the c<iuntry — a century and a half 
later— be found the Xualans had Ixvn swept away by the con- 
quering Cherokecs, and Lewilnessetl there the most siinguinarj' 


contest between Indians of which our annals give any account 
— a pitched battle two days in duration, between the invading 
Shawnees, who lorded it over what is now Kentucky, Ohio and 
Indiana — and the Chcrokees, who dominated the country to 
the southeast of the Cumberland range. Again the Cherokees 
were victorious, and the discomfited Shawnees retired north of 
the Gap. 

Then the white man delivered battle for the possession of 
the land, and bought it with the lives of many gallant adven- 
turers. Half a century later Boone and his hardy companions 
followed, and forced their way into Kentucky. 

Another half century saw the Gap the favorite haunt of the 
greatest of American bandits — the noted John A. MurroU — and 
his gang. They infested tlie country for years, now waylaying 
the trader or drover threading his toilsome way over the lonely 
mountains, now descending upon some little town, to plunder 
its stores and houses. 

At length ]!^[urrell and his band were driven out, and sought 
a new field of operations on the Lower Mississippi. They left 
germs behind them, however, that developed into horse thieves, 
oounterfeiters, and later into guerrillas and bushwhackers. 

When the Kebellion broke out the region at once became the 
theater of military operations. Twice Cumberland Gap was 
seized by the Rebels, and twice was it wrested away from 
them. In 1861 it was the point whence ZoUicoffer launched out 
with his legions to " liberate Kentucky," and it was whither 
they fled, beaten and shattenxl, after the disasters of Wild Cat 
and Mill Springs. In 1S62 Kirby Smith led his army through 
the Gap on his way to overrun Kentucky and invade the North. 
Three months later his beaten forces sought refuge from their 
pursuers behind its impregnable fortifications. Another year 
saw Bumsido burst through the Gap with a conquering force, 
and redeem loyal East Tennessee from its Kebel oppressors. 

Had the South ever been able to separate from the North} 
the boundary would have been established along this line. 

Between the main ridge upon which Cumberland Gap is sit- 
uated, and the next range on the southeast which runs parallel 
with it, is a narrow, long, very fruitful valley, walled in on 


either side for a hundred miles by tall mountains as a City street 
is by high buildings. It is called Powell's Valley. In it dwell a 
simple, primitive people, shut out from the world almost as 
much as if they lived in New Zealand, and with the si)eech, 
manners and ideas that their fathers brou/^ht into the Vallev 
when they settled it a century ago. There has l>een but little 
change since then. The young men who have annually driven 
cattle to the distant markets in Kentucky, Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia, have brought back occasional stray bits of finery for 
the ^^ women folks," and the latest improved fire-arms for them- 
selves, but this is about all the innovations the progress of the 
world has been allowed to make. Wheeled vehicles are almost 
unknown ; men and women travel on horseback as they did a 
century ago, the clothing is the product of the farm and the 
busy looms of the women, and life is as rural and Arcadian as 
any ever described in a pastoral. The i)Cople are rich in cat* 
tie, hogs, horses, sheep and the products of the field. The fat 
soil brings forth the substantials of life in opulent plenty. 
Ilaving this there seems to be little care for more. Ambition 
nor avarice, nor yet craving after luxur}', disturb their con- 
tented souls or drag them away from the non-progressive round 
of simple life beijueathed them by their fathers. 



" JOHNNIES " — Powell's valley opened up. 

As the Autumn of 1S63 advanced towards Winter the diffl- 
culty of supplying the forces concentrated around Cumberland 
Gap — as well as the rest of Bumside's army in East Tennessee 
— became greater and greater. The base of supplies was at 
Camp Nelson, near Lexington, Ey., one hundred and eighty 
miles from the Gap, and all that the Army used had to be hauled 
that distance by mule teams over roads that, in their best state, 
were wretcheil, and which the copious rains and heavy traffic had 
rendered well-nigh impassable. All the country in our possession 
had been drained of its stock of whatever would contribute to the 
support of man or beast. That portion of Powell's Valley ex- 
tending from the Gap into Virginia was still in the hands of 
the Kebels; its stock of products was as yet almost exempt 
from militar}' contributions. Consequently a raid was project- 
ed to reduce the Valley to our possession, and secure its much 
needed stores. It was guarded by the Sixty-fourth Virginia, 
a mounte<l regiment, made up of the young men of the local- 
itv, who had then been in the service about two vears. 

Maj. C. II. Beer's Third Battalion, Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry 
— four oomiianies, each about 75 strong — was sent on the errand 
of driving out the Rebels and opening up the Valley for our 
foraging teams. The writer was invited to attend the excmv 
Bon. As he held the honorable, but not ver}^ lucrative ix)sition 
of ^^high private" in Company L, of the Battalion, and the in* 
Titation came from his Captain, he did not feel at liberty to do* 


olina lie went, ts priTate soldiers bare been in the halnt of 
doing ever since tbo days of the old Centurion, who BOiii with 
tha ctuiracteri«tio boastfulnMS of ono of the lower grades of 
rommissionHl olUcers when he iiajipeiis to lie a snob: 

A cavamit mjrAn. 

Thnw hundrrd of tut nxgRHMlvd to the &i(pial of " hootA nnd cad- 
dies," buckled on throe hundred more or Xtitu tnuty tatlN'Ts and 
rurolTerB, ^lillnl thn« liiintln^l morv or lew f^fnlLitil (il£>>iLi, rame 
into hn« "asconipuniis" with Uie aatiiiiuilie liM lc«in<'SK of the 
old luhlii'n, " aninte<l t^ &jf /<nir»" in tiuit quvtTf^nitit-ruiiiung 
stjle that tnakca a company of men *- ooantmg off " — eacli ftlmut* 
ing a Diunbcr in a diffeivnt vukv fmm hit neiglibor — auund like 



miming the scales on some great organ badly out of tune ; some- 
thing like this : 

One. Two. Three. Foot. One. Two. Three. Foar. One. Two. Three. Four. 

Then, as the bugle soundetl ^^ Ti'njht forward ! fourn right l'^^ 
we moved off at a walk through the melancholy mist that 
soaked through the very fiber of man and horse, and reduced 
the minds of both to a condition of limp indifference as to things 
past, present and future. 

Whither we were going we knew not, nor cared. Such mat- 
ters had long since ceasetl to excite any interest. A cavalrjnnan 
soon recognizes as the least astonishing thing in his existence 
the signal to ^^FaU in! " and start somewhere. lie feels that he 
is the "Poor Joe" of the Army — under |)erpetual ortlers to 
"move on." 

Down wo wound over the road that zig-zagged through the 
forts, batteries and rifle-pits covering the eastern ascent to the 
Gap — past the wonderful Murrell Spring — so-calkxl because the 
robber chief had killed, as he stoo])ed to drink of its crystal wa- 
ters, a rich drover, whom he was pretending to pilot through 
the mountains — down to where the "Virginia road" turned 
off sharply to the left and entered Powell's Valley. The mist 
had become a chill, dreary rain, through which we plodded 
silently, until night close<l in around us some ten miles from the 
Gap. As we halted to go into camp, an indignant Virginian 
resente<I the invasion of the siicred soil by firing at one of the 
guards moving out to his place. The guard looke<l at the fel- 
low contemptuously, as if he hated to waste powder on a man 
who had no better sense than to stay out in such a rain, when 
he could go in-iloors, and tlie bushwhacker esca])ed, without 
even a return shot. 

Fires were built, coffee made, horses rublxxl, and we laid down 
with feet to the fire to get what sleep we could. 

Before morning we were awakenetl by the bitter cold. It 
bad cleared off during the night and tume<I so cold that every- 
thing was frozen stiff. This was better than the rain, at all 


In the Duuatiinc^ othor things were talcitig jilnce dsevhero. 
Onr flKtocmed frwndA of the Sixty -fmirth Virfpnia, ivhn were in 
nmp at tlie little tnwn of JnncsnlK alwal 40 tnilus from the 
Oop, hod IuutihI of onr sUrtiitg U]i tdo Valley t« drive tbcm 
out, and they sliowcd that warm reciprocity chiinurtcristic of 
tha Southern noMii^r, by mountinf* nmi Mflrtiiij^dunnitio Vnll«y 
to drire us out. Notbing maid l« more haniiontuus, it <>vill be 
peroeired. Boning the trifling divrr^gcnoi! of viowB aa to who 
m* to drire and who he driren, xIktc wag perfect acrord in oar 

Our namben were about «qual. If I w«v to «ay thut thoy 
oonfidcrably outnumbered na, I would bo fnllowirg Um* uDiver> 


sal precedent. No soldier — high or low — ever admitted engag- 
ing an equal or inferior foroe of the enemy. 

About 9 o'clock in the morning — Sunday — they rode through 
the streets of Jonesville on their way to give us battle. It was 
here that most of the members of the Kegiment lived. Every 
man, woman and child in the town was related in some way to 
nearly every one of the soldiers. 

The women turned out to wave their fathers, husbands, 
brothers and lovers on to victory. The old men gathered to 
give parting counsel and encouragement to their sons and kin- 
dred. The Sixty-fourth rode away to what ho\yQ told them 
would be a glorious victory. 

At noon we are still straggling along without much attempt 
at soldierly order, over the rough, frozen hill-sides. It is yet 
bitterly cold, and men and horses dniw tlicmselves together, as 
if to expose as little surface as possible to the unkind elements. 
Not a word luul been six)ken by any one for hours. 

The head of the column has just i*eached the top of the hill, 
and the rest of us are strung along for a quarter of a mile or 

Suddenly a few shots ring out ujion the frosty air from the 
oarbines of the advance. The geneml apiithy is instantly re- 
placed by keen attention, and the boys instinctively range them- 
•elveB into fours — the cavalry unit of action. The Major, who 
18 riding about the middle of the first Company — I — diushes to 
the front. A glance seems to satisfy him, for he tm*ns in his 
saddle and his voice rings out : 

" Company II Fouks left into line ! — MARCH ! 1 ^ 

The Company swings around on the hill-top like a great, 
jointed toy snake. As the fours come into line on a trot, we see 
every man draw his saber and revolver. The Comjiany raises 
a mighty cheer and dashes forward. 

Company K presses forward to the ground Comjmny I has 
just left, the fours sweep around into line, the siil)ers and 
revolvers come out s|x>ntaneously, the men cheer, and the Com- 
pany flings itself forward. 

All this time we of Company L can see nothing except what 
the companies ahead of us are doing. AVe are ^vrought up to 
the highest pitch. As Comjiany K clears its ground, we press 


forward cn^rly. Now we go into line juat as we raise the hill, 
and as my four comce around, I catch a hurried glimpse through 
a rift in the smoke of a line of butternut and gray clad men a 
hunilntl yards or so away. Thoir guns are at their facea, and I 
see the smoke and fire spurt from the muz^Jes. At the same 
instant our siibers and revolvers are drawn. We shout in a 
frenzy of excitement, and the horses spring forward as if shot 
from a bow. 

I see nothing more until I reach the place where the Rebel 
line stoo«l. Then I find it is gone. Txwking beyond toward 
the bottom of the hill, I see the woods filled with Rebels 
flying in disonlor, and our men yelling in pursuit. This is the 
portion of the line which Companies I and K. struck. Here 
and there are men in butternut clothing, prone on the frozen 
ground, wounded .ind dying. I have just lime to notice cloeely 
one midiUo-iifretl niiin lyinj: alnio.4t under my horse's feet. lie 
has received a carbine bullet through his head and his Wood 
colors a great b{ulcc around liim. 



One brave man, riding a roan horse, attempts to rally his 
companions. He halts on a little knoll, wheels his horse to 
face US, and waves his hat to draw his companions to him. A 
tall, lank fellow in the next four to me — who goes by the nick- 
name of "'Leven Yards" — aims his carbine at him, and, with- 
out checking his horse's pace, fires. The lieavy Sharpens bullet 
tears a gaping hole through the Rcbers heart. He drojys from 
his saddle, his life-blood runs down in little rills on either side 
of the knoll, and his riderless horse da.shes away in a jianic. 

At this instant comes an order for the Com|)any to break up 
into fours and press on through the forest in ])ursuit. My four 
trots oflF to the road at the right. A Eebel bugler, who has 
been cut oflF, leaps his horse into the road in front of us. We 
all fire at him on the impulse of the moment. He falls from 
his horse with a bullet through his back. Company M, wliich 
has remained in column as a ix^^rve, is now thundering u]) 
dose behind at a gallop. Its seventy-five ])owerful horses are 
spuming the solid earth with steel-clad hoofs. The man will 
be ground into a sha|X}less mass if left where he has fallen. We 
spring from our horses and drai;^^ him into a fence corner; then 
remount and join in the ])ui-suit. 

This happened on the summit of Chestnut Kidge, fifteen miles 
from Jones ville. 

Late in the afternoon the anxious watchers at Jonesville saw a 
single fugitive urging his well-nigh s]>ont hoi'se down the slope 
of the hill towanl town. In an a»ronv of anxietv thev hurried 
forward to meet him and learn his news. 

The first messenger who rusheil into Job's i)resence to 
announce the beginning of the series of misfortunes which were 
to afilict the upright man of Vz is a type of all the cowaiils 
who, before or since then, have Ix^en tlie liist to sik^I away 
from the field of battle to spivad the news of disaster. He said ; 

And the Sabeins fell upon t\\om, and toik tht'xn away: yea. they have (lain the Mnaau 
irtlh tkcedfs of the iKord ; ami / on/jf <un ^<oiy»'/ aUtnt to Ml thn. 

So this fleeing Virginian shouted to his expectant friends: 
"The boys are all cut to pieces; Tin tiie only one that got 


The terrible extent of his words was l>eli<Nl a little later, bv 

the appearance on the distant summit of the hill of a consider- 


able mob of fugitives, flying at the utmost speed of their nearly 
exhausted horses. As they came on down the hill an almost 
equally disorganized crowd of pursuers appeared on the sum- 
mity yelling in voices hoarse with continued shouting, and pour- 
ing an incessant fire of carbine and revolver bullets upon the 
hapless men of the Sixty-fourth Virginia. 

The two masses of men swept on through the town. Beyond 
it, the road branched in several directions, the pursued scattered 
on each of these, and the worn-out pursuers gave up the chose. 

Ketuming to Jones ville, we took an account of stock, and 
found that we were ^' ahead " one hundretl and fifteen prisoners, 
nearly that many horses, and a considcrdble quantity of small 
arms. How many of the enemy had bocn killed and wounded 
could not be told, as they were scattered over the whole fifteen 
miles between where the fight occurred and the pursuit ended. 
Our loss was trifling. 

Comparing notes around the cam|vfires in the evening, we 
found that our success had been owing to t)ie ^lajor's instinct- 
ive grasp of the situation, and the sohlierly way in which he 
took advantage of it. When he reache<l the summit of the hill 
he found the Rebel line nearly formed and ready for action. 
A moment's hesitation might have been fatal to us. At his 
command Company I went into line with the thought-like celer- 
ity of trained cavalr}', and instantly diishcil through the right 
of the Ilebel line. Comiiany K followed and plunged through 
the Rebel center, and when we of Company L arrived on the 
ground, and charged the left, the last vestige of resistance was 
swept away. The whole affair did not probably occupy more 
than fifteen minutes. 

This was the way Foweil^s Valley was opened to our foragers. 

Liynro off the jstemy — bsvelino ik the fatness of the ootthtbt 

teamsters and TUEIR tendency to FLIOUTINESS — MAEINO A 

soldier's bed. 

For weeks we rode up and down — hither and thither — along 
the length of the narrow, granite-walled Valley ; between moun- 
tains so lofty that the sun labored slowly over them in the 
morning, occupying half the forenoon in getting to where his 
rays would reach the stream that ran through the Valley's cen- 
ter. Perpetual shadow reigned on the northern and western 
faces of these towering hights — not enough warmth and sun- 
shine reaching them in the cold months to check the growth of 
the ever-lengthening icicles hanging from the jutting cliffs, or 
melt the arabesque frost-forms with which the many dashing 
cascades decorated the adjacent rocks and shrubbery. Occa- 
sionally we would see where some little stream ran down over 
the face of the bare, black rocks for many hundred feet, and 
then its course would be a long band of sheeny white, like a 
great richy spotless scarf of satin, festooning the war-grimed 
walls of some old castle. 

Our duty now was to break up any nuclei of concentration 
that the Rebels might attempt to form, and to guard our for- 
agers — that is, the teamsters and employes of the Quartermas- 
ter's Department — who were loading grain into wagons and 
haulmg it away. 

This last was an aiduous task. There is no man in the world 
that needs as much protection as an Army teamster. He is 
worse in this respect than a New England manufacturer, or an 



old maid on her travels. He is given to sudden fean and 
causeless panics. Very innocent cc<lnrs liave a fashion of assum- 
ing in his eyes the appearance of dcsiwratc Ui^bels aiined with 
murderous guns, and tlicro is no tellin<; what moment a rock 
may take such a form as to freeze liis younjj blood, and mak<> 
each jtarticular hair stand on cn<l like quills ui>on the fretful 
porcupine. One has to be imrticular about snapping cajM in 
his neighborhood, and give to him careful warning before dis- 
charging a carbine to clean it. His first impulse, wiien any- 
thing occurs to jar ujion his delicate nerves, is to cut his wheel 


mule loose and retire with the prefijiitatiun of a man having an 
appointment to ke^-p and Iteintr l»eliind time. Tliere is no man 
who can get as much sih.'wI nut of a nmle iis a teamster falling 
back from the neighborhood of heavy tiring. 

This nervous tremor was not {M.'culiur to tiie engineers of our 
transportation dejiortraent. It was noticeable in the gentry 

▲ 8TOB7 OF UIUTAST BEBEL F&I80^*8. 47 

who carted the scanty provisions of the Rebels. One of 
Wheeler's cavalrymen told me that the brigade to which he be- 
longed was one evening ordered to move at daybreak. The night 
was rainy, and it was thought Ijest to discharge the guns and 
reload before starting. Unfortunately, it was neglected to 
inform the teamsters of this, and at the first discharge they van- 
ished from the scene with such energy that it was over a week 
before the brigade succeeded in getting them back again. 

Why association with the mule should thus demoralize a man, 
has always been a puzzle to me, for while the mule, as Col. 
Ingersoll has remarked, is an animal without pride of ancestry 
or hope of posterity, he is still not a cowaixl by any means. It 
is beyond dispute that a full-grown and active lioness once 
attacked a mule in the grounds of the (Cincinnati Zoological 
Garden, and was ignominiously beaten, receiving injuries from 
which she died shortly afterward. 

The apparition of a badly-scared teamster urging one of his 
wheel mules at break-neck s|)ee<l over the ruugli ground, yelling 
for protection against " them Johnnies," who had apiieared on 
some hilltop in sight of where he was giithering corn, Wiis an 
almost hourly occurrence. Of ooui'se the scjuad disi)atched to 
his assistance found nobody. 

Still, there were plenty of Rebels in the country, and they 
hung around our front, exchanging shots with us at long taw, 
and occasionally treating us to a volley at close range, from 
some favorable point. But we had the decidcil advantage of 
them at this gsune. Our Shaqxi's carbines were nmch sui)erior 
in every way to their Enfiekls. They would sh<x>t much far- 
ther, and a great deal more nipidly, so that the Virginiiins were 
not long in discovering that they wore losing more than they 
gained in this useless warfare. 

Once they played a sharp practical joke upon us. Copi)er 
River is a tleep, exceedingly rapid mountain stream, with a very 
slip|wry rocky bottom. The Rebels blockadcti a fortl in such a 
way that it was almost im{)ossible for a horse to kee]) his feet. 
Then they tolled us olT in pursuit of a small party to this fonl. 
When we came to it there was a light line of skinnishers on the 
opposite bank, who {N>p]Hxl away at us industriously. Our boys 
formed in line, gave the customary cheer, and dashed in to carry 


the ford at a charge. As they did so at least one-half of the 
horses went down as if they were shot, and rolled over tlieir 
riders in the swift running, ice-cold waters. The Kelxjls yelled 
a triumphant laugh, as they galloped away, and the laugh was 
re-echoed by our fellows, who were as quick to see the joke as 
the other side. We tried to get even with them by a sharp 
chase, but we gave it up after a few miles, without having 
taken any prisoners. 

But, after all, there was much to make our sojourn in the 
Valley endurable. Though we did not wear line linen, we 
fared sumptuously — for soldiers — every day. The Cii valryman 
is always charged by the infantry and artillery with having a 
finer and surer scent for the good things in the country than 
any other man in the service. He is I>elieveil to have an instinct 
that will unfailingly lead him, in the darkest night, to the 
roosting phice of the most desinible ix>ultry, and after he has 
camped in a neighborhood for awhile it would require a close 
chemical analvsis to iind a trace of ham. 

We did our best to sustain the reputation of our arm of the 
service. We found the most delicious hams |)acke<l away in the 
ash-houses. They were small, and ha<l that exipiisite nutty 
flavor, i)eculiar to nuist-fed biicon. Then there was an abund- 
ance of the delightful little apple known as '^ romanitos."' There 
were turnips, pumpkins, caibbages, |)otatos, and the usual pro- 
ducts of the fiehl in plenty, even profusion. The corn in the 
fields fumisheil an ample supply of breadstutT. We carried it 
to and ground it in the quaintest, rude:$t little mills that can be 
imagine<I outside of the primitive affairs by which the women 
of Arabia coarsely powder the grain for the family meaL 
Sometimes the mill would consist only of four stout [M»sts thrust 
into the ground at the edge of some stream. A line of l)oul- 
ders reaching diagonally across the stream answenHl for a danu 
by diverting a portion of the volume of water to a channel at 
the side, where it moved a clumsily constructed whix^l, that 
tamed two small stones, not larger than good-si/xHl griniistones. 
Uver this would be a shed made by resting |)oles in forked 
posta stuck into the ground, and covering these with clapttoardi 
held in place by largo flat stones. They resenibknl the mills of 
the gods — in grinding slowly. It used to seem that a healthy 
man oould eat the meal faster tlian they ground it. 


But what savory meals we used to concoct around the camp- 
fireSy out of the rich materials collected during the day's ride ! 
Such stews, such soups, such broils, such wonderful commix- 
tures of things diverse in natui'e and antagonistic in proi)erties9 
such daring culinary experiments in combining materials never 
before attempted to b6 combined. The French say of untaste- 
ful arrangement of hues in dross — " that the colors swear at 
eaoh other." I have often thought the same thing of the 
heterogeneities that go to make up a soldier s^^a/e?w. 

But for all that they never failetl to taste deliciously after a 
long day's ride. They were waslied down by a tincupful of 
coffee strong enough to tan leather, then came a brier-wood 
pipeful of fragrant kinnikinnic, and a seat by the ruddy, spark- 
ling fire of aromatic cedar logs, that diifiiseil at once warmth, 
and sj)icy, pleasing incense. A chat over the events of the day, 
and the prospect of the morrow, the wonderful merits of each 
man's horse, and the disgusting in*egularities of the mails from 
home, lasted until the silver-voiced bugle nmg out the sweet, 
mournful tattoo of the Regidations, to the flowing cadences of 
which the boys had arranged the absunlly incongruous woixls : 

•• S-A-7 — D-e-a-t-c-h-e-r-will-you fljhMnlt SI^l 7 
Zwel-glftM of Uc«r-blt!r, J«t Ja/ ja ! 

Words were fitted to all the calls, which generally bore some 
relativeness to the signal, but these were as destitute of con- 
gmity as of sense. 

Tattoo always produces an impression of extreme loneliness. 
As its weird, half -wailing notes ring out and are answered back 
from the distant rocks shrouded in night, and }>erhaps conceal- 
ing the lurking foe, the soldier remembers tiiat he is far away 
from home and friends — deep in the enemy's country, encom- 
passed on ever}' hand by those in deadly hostility to him, who 
are perhaps even then maturing the ])i'eparations for his destruc- 

As the tattoo sounds, the boys arise from around the fire, 
visit the horse line, see that tlieir horses are securely tieiU rub 
off from the fetlocks and legs such si)ecks of mu<l as nua y have 
escaped the cleaning in the early evening, and if possible, snmg- 
gle their faithful four-footed frieuiU a few ears of corn, or 
another bunch of hay. 


If not too tired, and er^Tythin^' else is favoraMe, the caralry- 
man has prepared himself a comfortable ooucb fur tbo nighl. 
H© always »Itwi» «ith a chum. The two have gathered eaough 
niudl tufut of pine or cedar to make a comfi^rtnble, springy, 
mallrcffl-hke fi.undalioQ. On this b kid tbw poncho or rubber 
bUiiket. Xcxt comuB one of their overcoaUi, and upon thid 
Uiey lio, oovoring Uiemadte* with tlie two MankeUi and tbu 
other overcoat, tbuir foul tuvranht iho fire, tboir boots &l the 
foot, atul their belts, witli rerolver, lubcr ami c;u*bino, at tbe 
sidoB of the bed. It is surprising what an amount of comfort 
a mftn con get out uf such a couch, and how, at an alarm, be 
springs from it, aluuist UutOQUy dressed and anued. 



Half an hour after tattoo the bugle rings out another eadly 
sweet strain, that hath a dying sound : 


If-. nir Pir riii ^g^ 

Irl-g-h-trt 0-a-tl L-l-g*h-»-t O-a-tl UghtB oot, llghu out^for-UM 


w^-h-i I Llghu outt For Uio a-l-g-li-t. Fot-Um n I g liC 



The night hud lx?en the most intensely cold that the country 
had known for iiianv years. Peacii and other tender trees had 
been killed by the frosty rigor, and sentinels had been frozen to 
death in our neighborluMxl. The deep snow on which we made 
our beds, the icy covering of the streams near us, the limbs of 
the trees above us, had been cracking with loud noises all nighty 
from the bitter cold. 

We were camjKHl around Jonesville, each of the four compa- 
nies lying on one of the roads leading from the tou^. Com- 
pany L lay about a mile from the Court House. On a knoll at 
the end of the village toward us, and at a point where two 
roads sejmrated, — one of which led to us, — stood a three-inch 
Rodman ritle, belonging to the Twenty -second Ohio Battery. 
It and its 8C]uad of eighteen men, under conmiand of Lieutenant 
Alger and Sergeant Davis, had been sent up to us a few days 
before from the Gap. 

The comfort less gray dawn was crawling sluggishly over the 
mountain-tc»])8, as if numb ns the animal and vegetable hfe 
which had been shrinking all the long hours under the tierce 

The Major's bugler had salutiKl the mom with the hvely, 
ringing t-a-r-r-r-a-ta-a-a of the Itegulation r«ivi7/<', and the com- 
pony buglers, as hist aa they could thaw out their mouth-pieces, 
were answering him. 

Ilay on my bed, dreading to get up, and yet not anxious to lie 


stilL It was a question which would be the more uncomforta- 
ble. I turned over, to see if there was not another position in 
which it would be warmer, and began wishing for the thou- 
sandth time that the efforts for the amelioration of the horrors 
of warfare would progress to such a point as to put a stop to 
all Winter soldiering, so that a fellow could go home as soon as 
cold weather began, sit around a comfortable stove in a country 
store, and tell camp stories until the Spring was far enough 
advanced to let him go back to the front wearing a straw hat 
and a linen duster. 

Then I began wondering how much longer I would dare lie 
there, before the Orderly Sergeant would draw me out by the 
heels, and accompany the operation with numerous unkind and 
sulphurous remarks. 

This cogitation was abruptly terminated by hearing an 
excite<l shout from the Captain : 

"Jf/r/i Out ! — Company L ! ! TURN OUT I ! ! " 

Almost at the same instant rose that slirill, piercing Bebel 
yell, which one who has once heard it rarely forgets, and this 
was followed by a crashing volley from apparently a regiment 
of rifles. 

I arose — promptly. 

There was evidently something of more interest on hand than 
the weather. 

Cap, overcoat, boots and revolver belt went on, and eyes 
opened at about the same instant. 

As I snatched up my carbine, I locked out in front, and the 
whole woods api)eared to be full of Rebels, rushing toward us, 
all yelling and some firing. My Captain and P'irst Lieutenant 
bad taken up position on the right front of the tents, and part 
of the boys were running up to form a line alongside them. 
The Second Lieutenant had stationeil himself on a knoll on the 
left front, and about a third of the comjmny was rallying 
around him. 

My chum was a silent, sententious sort of a chap, and as we 
ran forwanl to the Captain s Une, he remarkeil earnestly : 

"Well: this beats hell ! " 

I thought he had a clear idea of the situation. 

All this occupied an inai>preciably short space of time. The 



Rebels had not stopped to reload, but were rushing impetuooslj 
toward us. "Wn K>iVf tlieiii a hot, rolling voUev from our car- 
bines. Many fell, more stopped to load and reply, but the niass 

n.MIIKttlN'ii 1(1 MTi-rr tiik kkull aitack. 

wrgpil straight fonviini at iis. Then our firv jirew so dciidlv 
that tlivy shuHf.1 a •ii-| i.siii..n In o>vvr tli<iii>c'lvi-s U'hiiid the 
rocks and tnts. .Xpi.ii ilivy v-t-rv m-nti li.i-wiiiil. ;uul a bodv 
of them hf-adni hy ilji-ir fitldiu-l. m.mnttil cm a whitv hoi'se, 
pu&ln-d fonvuni lhi<.i,:,'h ih<- irii]' U'I«m-m iis und the Sw<>nd 
Licutonaiit- Tin- liiUi * i.Unu'l dashi-il up ii. the ."• Lieu- 
tenant, and <ir.i.nd liiiri i« burrfiidcr. Th.- laltcr — u jrallant 
old gniybwird — ciiistt! tin- IIiK-l liillvily and siutp|if<l his now 
empty rovolvt-r in his fao:. Tht- ('oh>m-l liitti and kilhil hiin, 
whereupon his s.|ii;iil. with two of its Scrjj^-ants kilKni and half 
its nunil>ers on tht: ground. surn-ndvn.-d. 
The licU-ls in our front iind Hank pressed us with eipuil cloae- 


nesB. It seemed as if it was absolutely impossible to check 
their rush for an instant, and as we saw the fate of our com- 
panions the Captain gave the word for every man to look out 
for himself. We ran back a little distance, sprang over the 
fence into the fields, and rushed toward Town, the Rebels en- 
couraging us to make good time by a sharp fire into our backs 
from the fenca 

Whil^ we were vainly attempting to stem the onset of the 
column dashed against us, better success was secured elsewhere. 
Another column swept down the other road, upon which there 
was only an outlying picket. This had to come back on the 
run before the overwhelming numbers, and the Rebels galloped 
straight for the three-inch Rodman. Company M was the first to 
get saddled and mounted, and now came up at a steady, swinging 
gallop, in two platoons, saber and revolver in hand, and led by 
two Sergeants— • Key and McW right, — printer boys from 
Bloomington, Illinois. They divined the object of the Rebel 
dash, and straine<l every nerve to reach the gun first. The 
Rebels were too near, and got the gun and turnctl it. Before 
they could fire it. Company M struck them headlong, but they 
took the terrible imjiact without flinching, and for a few min- 
utes there was fierce hand-to-hand work, with sword and pistol. 
The Rebel leader sank under a hiUf -dozen simultaneoius wounds, 
and fell dead almost under the gun. Men dropinxl from 
their horses each instant, and the riderless steeds fled away. 
The scale of victory was turned by the Major (hiiiliing against 
the Rebel left flank at the liead of Conii)any I, and a i)ortion of 
the artillery squad. The Rebels gave ground slowly, and were 
packed into a dense mass in the lane up which they had charged. 
After they had been crowded back, say fifty yards, word was 
passed through our men to open to the right and left on tlie 
sides of the road. The artillerymen had turned the gun and 
loaded it with a solid shot. Instantly a wide lane o|)ened 
through our ranks; the man with the lanyard drew the fatal 
cord, fire burst from the primer and the muzzle, the long gun 
sprang up and n coiled, and there seemed to be a demoniac yell in 
its ear-splitting cnish, as the heav}* ball left the mouth, ami tore 
its bloody way tlirough the bodies of the struggling mass of 
men and horses. 


This ended it. The Rebek gave way in disorder, and our 
men fell back to give the gun an opportunity to tiirow shell and 

The Rebels now saw that we were not to be run over like a 
field of cornstalks, and they fell Ixick to de\ise further tactics, 
giving us a breathing six?ll to get oui-selves in s\\n\)o for defense. 

The dullest could see that we were in a desj)orate situation. 
Criticiil positions were no new experience to us, as they never 
are to a cavalry command after a few months in the field, but, 
though the pitcher goes often to the well, it is broken at last, 
and our time was evidentlv at hand. The narrow throat of the 
Valley, through which lay the road back to the Gap, was held 
by a force of Ilelx'ls evidently much suiKTior to our own, and 
strongly i)osteil. The i*oad was a sIoiuUt, tortuous one, wind- 
ing through rocks and gorges. Nowhere was there room 
enough to move with even a platoon front against the enemy^ 
and tfiis precludwl all chances of cutting out. The best we 
could do was a slow, dilfimlt movement, in column of fours, and 
this would have been suicide. On the other side of the Town 
the Rel)els were masstnl stronger, while to the right and left 
rose the .steep mountain side.s. We were caught — trap^Kxl as 
surely as a rat ever was in a wii-e trap. 

As we learneil afterwanls, a whole division of ca\"alry, cmder 
command of the note<l Rel)el, Major (nMiend Sam Jones had 
been sent to elTwt our capture, to offset in a nieasui*e Long- 
street's repulse at Knoxville. A gross overestimate of our 
numbers had caiLse<l the sending of so large a foi*ce on this 
errand, and the rough tn»atment we gave the two columns that 
attacked us first confirme^l the Relx»l (General's ideas of our 
strength, and le<l him to adopt cautious taeties, instead of crush- 
ing us out siHMHlily, by a determined advance of all parts of his 
encircling lines. 

Tlie lull in the fight did not last long. A iH>rtion of the 
Rebel line on the east rushtnl forwanl to g:iin a moix* com- 
manding position. We concentrated m that diri.H:tion and 
drove it back, the Rodnmn assisting with a couple of well-aimed 
shells. This was foUoweil by a similar but more successful 
attempt by another ])art of the I{eU*l line, and so it went on 
all day — the Rebels rushing up firht on this side, and then on. 


that, and we, hastily collecting at the exposed points, seeking 
to drive them back. We were freijuently successful ; we were 
on the inside, and had the advantage of the short interior lines, 
80 that our few men and our breech-loaders told to a good pur- 

There were frequent crises in the struggle, that at some times 
gave encouragement, but never hoi)e. Once a detcnnined onset 
was made from the East, and was met by the equally deter- 
mined resistimce of nearly our whole force. Our fire was so 
galling that a large number of our foes crowded into a house 
on a knoll, and making loopholes in its walls, Ix^gan replying to 
us pretty shaii^ly. We sent word to our faithful artillerists, 
who trained the gim uix)n the house. The fii'st shell screamed 
over the roof, and burst harmlessly beyond. We susi>ended fire 
to watch the next. It crasheil through the side ; for an instant 
all was deathly still ; we thought it had gone on through. Then 
came a roar and a crash ; the clapboanls flow off the roof, and 
smoke poured out; panic-stricken liolwls rushed from the doors 
and sprang from the windows — like lx>cs from a disturbed 
hive; the shell had burst among the coniineil uklss of men 
inside! We afterwards heard that twentv-live were killed 

At another time a considerable force of IIoIkIs gainwl the 
cover of a fence in easy nmge of our main force. Conijuinies 
L and K were ordered to charge forward on foot and disltMlge 
them. Away we went, under a fire that seeme<l to droj) a man 
at every step. A hundred yartls in front of the Reliols was a 
little cover, and behind this our men lav down as if bv one 
impulse. Then came a close, desi^ratc duel at short nuige. It 
was a question Ix^tween 2soilhem pluck and Southern courage, 

to which could stand the most punishment. Ikying as flat 

possible on the cnisted snow, only raising the head or body 
enough to load and aim, the men on both sides, with their teeth 
set, their glaring eyes fastened on the foe, then* nerv«\s as tense 
as tightly-drawn stiH*l wires, rained shot on each other as fast 
as excited hands could crowd caitridges into the guns and dis- 
charge them. 

Not a word was said. 

The shallower enthusiasm that expresses itself in oaths and 


Bhonts bad given way to the deep, voiceless rage of men in a 
death grapple. The Rebel line was a rolling torrent of flame, 
their bullets shrieked angrily as they flew past, tliey struck the 
snow in front of us, and threw its cold flakes in faces that were 
white with the fires of consuming hate; they buric<l themselves 
with a dull thud in the quivering bodies of the enraged combat- 

Minutes passed ; they seemed hours. 

Would the villains, scoundrels, hell-hounds, sons of vipers 
never go 7 

At length a few Rebels sprang up and tried to fly. They 
were shot down instantly. 

Then the whole line rose and ran ! 

The relief was so great that we jumped to our feet and 
cheered wildly, forgetting in our excitement to make use of 
our victory by shooting down our flying enomies. 

Nor was an element of fun lacking. A Second Lieutenant 
was ordered to take a party of skirmishers to the top of a liill 
and engage those of tlie Kebels stationotl on another hill-top 
across a ravine. lie had but lately joined us from the Regular 
Armv, where he was a Drill Ser^'eant. Xaturallv, he was verv 
methodical in his way, and scorncil to do otherwise under fire 
than he would u|X)n the }>arade ground. He moved his little 
command to the hill-top, in close order, and faced them to the 
front The Johnnies receive<l them with a veil and a vollev, 
whereat the boys winced a little, much to the Lieutenant's dis- 
gust, who swore at them ; then had them count off with gn.\it 
deliberation, and deployeil them as coolly as if there was not 
an enemy within a hundred miles. After the line deployeil, 
he "dresse<rMt, commanded *'/>/>;</.'" and " ^^v///* /V//>y / " 
His attention was called another way for an instant, and when 
he looked back again, there was not a man of his nicely foriniHl 
skirmish line visible. The logs and stones had evidently Uvn 
put there for the use of skirmishers, the boys thought, and in 
an instant thev availed themselves of their shelter. 

Never was there an angrier man than that Second Lieutenant ; 
he brandished his saber and swore: he Si*eme<l to feel that all 
his soldierly reputation was gone, but the lK)ys stuck to their 
shelter for all that, informing him that when the lielx^s would 


stand oat in the open field and take their fire, they wotild do 

Despite all our efforts, the Bebel Uoe crawled up closer and 
closer to OB ; we were driven back from knoll to knoll, and from 
one fence after another. AVe had maintained the nnequal 
Btmggle for eight hours ; over one-fourth of our number were 
stretched upon the buow, killed or badly wounded. Our cart- 
ridges were nearly all gone ; the cannon had fired its last shot 
long ago, and having a blank cartridge left, had shot the ram* 
mar at a gathering party of the enemy. 

Just as the Winter sun was going down upon a day of gloom, 
the bogle called us all up on the hillside. Then the Rebels saw 
for the first time how few there were, and began on almost 
simultaneous charge all along the line. The Major raised a 
piece of a shelter tent upon a pole. The line halted. An olficer 
rode out from it, followed by two privates. 


Approaching the Major, he said, " Who is in command of 
this force!" 
The Major replied : " I am." 


" Then, Sir, I demand your sword-" 

" What is your rank, sir?" 

" I am Adjutant of the Sixty-fourth Virginia.'' 

The punctillious soul of the old '' U(*>^lar " — for such the Ma- 
jor was — swellcil up instantly, and he answen»<l : 

"By , sir, I will never sum.Muh.*r to my inferior in rank!" 

The Adjutant reineil his horse buck. His two foUowere lev- 
eled their pieces at tlie Major and waitinl onk'is to iiiHi. They 
were covered by a dozen carbines in the hands ol our men. The 
Adjutant onlered his men to "recover arms" and ro<ie away 
with them. He presently returneil with a CoIont^K and to him 
the Major handed his s;iber. 

As the men realizetl what was being done, tht* first thought 
of many of them w{&s to snatch out the cvlindcrs of their revol- 
vers, and the slides of their carbines, and throw them away, so 
88 to make the arms us(*Uss. 

We were overcome with nijrc and humiliation at l)tMng com- 
pelled to yield to an enemy whom wr had hat«Hl so bitterly. 
As we stood there on tiio bl(*ak mountain-sidr, the !>iting wind 
soughing through the h*atless brancht^s, tht* sluulows of a 
gloomy winter night closing around us, the ^n^MUis and shrieks 
of our wounded minghng with the triumpliant yells of the 
Sebels plundering our tents, it sc^^mui**! as if Fat** could 2)ress to 
meii*s lips no cup with bittei*u* di cgs in it thau thi^i. 




** Of being Uken by the iMolent fo«.**«(MA«tfo. 

The night that followed was inexpressibly dreary. The high- 
wrought nervous tension, which had been protracted througli the 
long hours that the fight lasted, was succeeded by a propor- 
tionate mental depression, such as naturally follows any strain 
upon the mind. This was intensified in our cases by the sharp 
sting of defeat, the humiliation of having to yield ourselves, 
our horses and our arms into the possession of the enemy, the 
uncertainty as to the future, and the sorrow we felt at the loss 
of so many of our comrades. 

Company L had suffered very severely, but our chief regret 
was for the gallant Osgood, our Second Lieutenant. He, above 
all others, was our trusted leader. The Captain and First Lieu- 
tenant were brave men, and good enough soldiers, but (.)sgood 
was the one *' whose adoption tried, we grappled to our souls 
with hooks of steel." There was never any difficulty in get- 
ting all the volunteers he wanted for a scouting party. A quiet, 
pleasant spoken gentleman, ])ast middle age, he looked much 
better fitted for the office of Justice of the Peace, to which his 
fellow-citizens of Urbana, Illinois, had elected and re-elected 
him, than to command a troop of rough riders in a great civil 
war. But none more gallant than he ever vaulted into saddle 
to do battle for the right He went into the Army solely as a 
matter of principle, and did his duty with the unflagging zeal 
of an olden Puritan fighting for liberty and his souFs salvation. 
He was a superb horseman — as all the older lUinoisans are — 


and, for all his two-score years and ten, he recognized few 
superiors for strength and activity in the Battalion. A radical, 
oncomproniising Abolitionist, he had frequently asserted that 
he would rather die than yield to a liebel, and he kept his 
word in this as in ever^^hing else. 

As for him, it was probably the way he desired to die. Ko 
one believed more ardently than he that 

Whether on the ecaffold high. 

Or In the bettle*e Tan; 
The fittest place for nian to di% 

la where he dlea for man. 

Among the many who had lost chums and friends was Ned 
Johnson, of CouiiKiny K. Ned was a young Englishman, with 
much of the suggt-stiveness of the buU-dog common to the 
lower class of that nation. His fist was readier than his tongueii 
His chum, Walter Savage was of the same surly type. The 
two had come from England twelve years before, and had been 
together ever since. Savage was killed in the struggle for the 
fence described in the preceding chapter. Nod could not real- 
ize for a while that his friend was dead. It was onlv when the 
body rapidly stiffened on its icy bed, and the eyes which had 
been gleaming deadly hate when he wius stricken down were 
glazed over with the dull film of death, that he Ix^lieved he was 
gone from him forever. Then his rage was terrible. For the 
rest of the day he was at the head of every assiiult u|x>n the 
enemy. His voice could ever be heard above tlie tiriu'j:, (jursing 
the Itebels bitterly, and urging the boys to ''Stand up to 'em! 

Stand right up to 'em ! Don't give a inch ! I^a the 

liave the best you got in the sliop ! Shoot low, and 

don't waste a cartridge ! " 

When we surrendered, Ned soemeil to yield sullenly to the 
inevitable. He threw his belt and ap|)arently his revolver with 
it upon the snow. A guard was formed around us, and we 
gathered al)out tiie fires that were started. Ned sat a|)art, his 
arms folded, his head upon his breast, broixUng bitterly u{x>n 
Waller's death. A horseman, evidently a Coh »uel or General, 
clattered up to give some ilirections conc«.M*ning us. At the 
sound of his voice Ned raiseil his hiNid and giive him a swift 
glance ; the gold stars u|K>n the ReU-Ps collar leil him to believe 

A STonv OF tama, wutabt ritiMLNs. 

that he was the oomnmnder of the enemy. Xed sprang to lii§-] 
foet, made a long stride forward, saatched from the breait of 2 
his overcoat the revolver he hod boon hidiug ihc-ru, uockod il| 


and leveled it at the Kebcrit bit?ast. licfoi-- lie oould pull thi 
trigger Drderly Sergeant Cliarlcs Bcntley. of hia Coinpany,1 
who was waUiliiiig him, leu|>c<.l forward, cani^ht his ivrist 8 
threw tlie revolver up. Otliera joined in. look the weapoal 
away, and handed it over to the olllocr, wbu then orUored us a 
to bo searuhed fur arms, and rode uwuy. 

All our dejtx'tion conld not make us forget Uiat we wei 
iateD9oIy hungry. "Wo bad eaten nothtng all day. Tho fighl 
began before wc had time to get any breakfaiil, and of oourg 
there was no mttfr^'al for n.-fn»hiiicuis during ibe engageroenl 
The Sobub ivcre no bt-ttor otf than we, liaving U-cn iiiarohej 
npidly all night in order to come u[K>n us by daylight. 

Late in the evening a few saeks of niual wuru given us, . 
Ws took the fli'sl lesson in an art tliat long and painful praclioi 
afterward was to make very familiar to us. We had nothiogl 
to mix the mual in, aud it loukol as d we would have to vaX it 

64 A2n>EB80iryiLLS. 

dry, until a happy thoaght struck some one that our caps would 
do for kneading troughs. At once every cap was devoted to 
this. Getting water from an adjacent spring, each man made 
a little wad of dough — unsalted — and, spreading it upon a flat 
stone or a chip, set it up in front of the Are to bake. As soon 
as it was browned on one side, it was i)ulled off the stone, and 
the other side turned to the fire. It was a very primitive way 
of cooking and I became thoroughly disgusted with it. It was 
fortunate for me that I little dreamed that this was the wav I 
should have to get my meals for tlie next fifteen months. 

After somewhat of the edge had been taken off our hunger 
by this food, we crouched around the fires, talked over the 
events of the day, speculated as to what was to be done with 
UBf and snatched such sleep as the biting cold would permit 



At dawn we were gathered together, more meal issued to 
us, which we cooked in the same way, and then were started 
under heavy guard to inarch on foot over the mountains to 
Bristol, a station at the point where the Virginia and Tennessee 
Eailroad crosses the line between Virginia and Tennessee. 

As we were preparing to set out a Sergeant of the First Vir- 
ginia cavalry came galloping up to us on my horse ! The sight 
of my faithful " Iliatoga " bestrid by a Rebel, wrung my heart. 
During the action I had forgotten him, but when it ceased I 
began to worry about his fate. As he and his rider came near 
I csiUed out to him ; he stopped and gave a whinny of recog- 
nition, which seemed also a plaiHtive appeal for an explanation 
of the changed condition of affairs. 

The Sergeant was a pleasant, gentlemanly boy of about my 
own age. He rode up to me and inquired if it was my horse, to 
which I replied in the affirmative, and asked permission to take 
from the saddle pockets some letters, pictures and other trink- 
ets, lie granted this, and we became friends from thence on 
until we separateil. He rode by my side as we plodded over 
the steep, slippery hills, and we beguiled the way by chatting 
of the thousand things that soldiers find to talk about, and ex- 
changed reminiscences of the service on both sides. But the 
subject he was fondest of was that which I relished least : my 
— now his — horse. Into the open ulcer of my heart he poured 


the acid of all manner of questions concerning my lost steed's 
qualities and caixibilities : would he swim i how was he in ford- 
ing ? did ho jump well i how did lie stand fire i I smothered 
my irritation, and answei*eil as {)leasantly as I could. 

In the afternoon of the tiiird day after the capture, we come 
up to where a party of rustic belles were collected at "quilt 
ing." The " Yankees " wciv instantly objects of greater inter- 
est than the panuie of a menagerie would have been. The Ser- 
geant told the girls we were going to camp for the night a mile 
or so ahead, and if they would be at a ceilain house, he would 
have a Yankee for them for close insi)ection. After halting, 
the Sergeant obtaineil leave to take me out with a guard, and 
I was presently ushered into a room in which the damsels were 
massed in force, — a carnation-cheekeil, staring, open-mouthed, 
linsey-clad crowd, as ignonmt of coi-st'ts and gloves as of He- 
brew, and with a iirojxinsity to giggle that was chronic and 
irrepressible. When we entereil the room there was a general 
giggle, and then a shower of comments ujion my ap|)earance, 
— each sentence punctuated with the chorus of feminine cachi- 
nation. A remark w:is made about mv hair and eves, and 
their risiblcs gave way ; judgment wjis (uisseil on my nose, and 
then cjime a ripple of laughter.- I got very red in the face, and 
uncomfortable geneniUy. Attention wixs calltnl to the size of 
mv feet and hands, and the usual chorus followeil. Those use- 
ful members of my b<Kly scchkhI to swell up as they do to a 
young man at his first (uirty. 

Then I saw that in the minds of these bucolic maidens I was 
scarcely, if at all, human ; they did not undeistand that I be- 
longed to the race; I was "a Yankee" — a something of the 
non-human class, as the gorilla or the chimpanzee. They felt 
as free to discuss my {njints before my fjice as they would to 
talk of a horse or a wild anim;d in a show. My e^juanimity 
was jKirtially restortnl by this ivlKt'tion, but 1 wa:* still too 
young to esca|)e embarrassment and irritation at IxMng thus 
dissected and giggleil at by a jnirty of girls, even if they 
were ignorant Virginia mountain(M»i>5. 

I tume<l around to six^ak to the Sergeant, and in so doing 
showed my back to the ladies. The hum of comment deeiiened 
mto surprise, that half stopiKxl aiul then intensiiied the giggle. 




1 was puzzled for a nuQate, and thoa tlio directioa of th«ir 
glancvB, and ihoir rL-iiiarlu explained it all. Al the rear of tho 
lower pan of tiic cavalry jacket, about wliere the up|)er oma- 
mentnl buttoiis aro on the tail of a frock coitt. are two funny 
labs, about thu s\w of smiill pin -oitsb ions. Tbt>y arc fustuoed 
by the wlfje. and ttticJc out stniigbi behind. Their use is to sup- 
port tbo heavy belt in the rrar, aa the butiims do in front. 
When the l»elt is off it would puzzle tho Seven Wiw- Men to 
guos what they are for. The uusophisticiit4>d young ladies, 
with tliat swift intuition which ia one of lovely woman's salient 
mental traits, immediately jtun^Hxl at the conehiaiou that the 
projections covcrud some p(.'«uliur uonfonnatioti of the Yanlnt ■ 
anatomy — some incipient, dromedar)--like humps, orperchanot i 
tin horns ol which they had heard so muuU. 


This anaU>m)catl phenomena was dtscuased intently for a fair 
mliuil«s, during whiob 1 hcattl one of ibo girls ini)airB whether 
" it would bun him to cut 'urn off l " and anotbor bazordod thej 
4i|>ioioD that " it would prttbobly bleed him to dvatb." 


Then a new idea seized them, and they said to the Sergeant : 

^^ Make him smg ! Make him sing ! " 

This was too much for the Sergeant, who had been intensely 
amused at the girls' wonderment. lie turned to me, very red 
in the face, with : 

" Sergeant : the girls want to hear you sing." 

I replied that I could not sing a note. Said ho : 

^ Oh, come now. I know better tlian that ; I never seed or 
heerd of a Yankee that couldn't sing." 

I nevertheless assured him that there reallv were some Yan- 
kees that did not have any musical accomplishments, and that 
I was one of that unfortunate numb<.T. I asked him to get the 
ladies to sing for me, and to this they acceded quite readily. 
One girl, with a fair soprano, who seomeil to be the leader of 
the crowd, sang "The Homespun Drt^s," a song very ix>pular 
in the South, and having the same tune as the '* Bonnie Blue 
Hag." It began 

I envy not tbo Northi-m inrlt 
Thrir »tlkii and Jow i-l* tLuv, 

and proceede<l to com|)are llie hom<»spun habilimonts of the 
Southern women to llio linerv and fripjH»ry of the ladies on 
the other side of Mason and I)ixon*s lino in a nuinner verv dis- 
advantageous to the latter. 

The rest of the girls nuule a line exhibition of the lun<r-l>ower 
acquired in climbing their ])r(.ripiti»us mountains, when they 
came in on the chorus : 

Horn ! nnrrm '. for 8<Mith«*ni ntchu ham 1 
nurr4 k'T Ihc h<>m<*#|mti dn>ii, 
The Soutbtrrn kdio wiMr 

This ended the entertainment. 

On our journey to Bristol we met many T?el)ol soMi«Ts, of all 
ranks, and a small numl>er of citizens. As the conscription ha<l 
then been enforccil i>n'tty sharply for over a year the only 
able-bodied men seen in civil life were thos<» who had some 
trade which exemptetl them from liein;r fon-t^l into active ser- 
vice. It greatly aslonishe<l us at first to lind that nearly all 
the mechanics were include*! among the exempts, or could Ijo if 
thev chose: but a very little reflection showeil us the wisilom 
of such a policy. The South is as nearly a purely agricultural 


oountry as is Russia or South America. The people have little 
indination or capacity for anything else than pastoral pursuits. 
Ck>nsequently mechanics are very scarce, and manufactories 
much scarcer. The limited quantity of products of mechanical 
skiU needed by the people was mostly imported from the North 
or Europe. Both these sources of supply were cut off by the 
war, and the country was thrown upon its own slender manu- 
facturing resources. To force its mechanics into the army would 
therefore be suicidal. The Army would gain a few thousand 
men, but its operations would be embsirrassed, if not stopped 
altogether, by a want of supplies. This condition of affairs 
reminded one of the singular paucity of mechaniail skill among 
the Bedouins of the desert, which renders the life of a black- 
smith sacred. No matter how bitter the feud between tribes, 
no one will kill the other's workers of iron, and instances are 
told of warriors saving their lives at critical periods by falling 
on their knees and making with their ganncnts an imitation of 
the action of a smith's bellows. 

All whom we met were eager to discass with us the causes, 
phases and progress of the war, and whenever opi)ortunity 
offered or could be made, those of us who were inclined to talk 
were speedily involved in an argument with crowds of soldiers 
and citizens. But, owing to the jwleniic poverty of our oppo- 
nents, the argument was more in name than in fact. Like all 
people of slender or untrained intellectual |)owers they labored 
under the hallucination that asserting was reasoning, and the 
emphatic reiteration of bald statements, logic. The narrow 
round which all — from highest to lowest — traveled was some- 
times comical, and sometimes irritating, acconling to one's 
mood. The dispute invariably began by their asking: 

"Well, what are you 'uns down here a-figlitin' we 'uns fort" 

As this was rei)lied to the next one followed : 

" Why are you 'uns takin' our niggers away from we 'uns for ? " 

Then came : 

"What do you 'uns put our niggers to fightin' we 'uns for!" 

The wind-up always was: "Well, let me tell you, sir, you 
can never whip people that are fighting for liberty, sir." 

Even General Giltner, who had achieveil considerable military 
reputation as commander of a division of Kentucky cavalry, 

70 Ain>SBBOirVlLLK. 

seemed to be as slenderly tnniished with logical ammanition 
as the balanoe, for ss he halted by us he opened the oonveTB- 
ation with the well-worn f onnnla : 

"Well: what are you 'ana down here arfighting we 'una fori" 

The question bad become raspingty monotonous to me, whom 
he addressed, and I re)ilied n'ith marked acerbity : 

"Because we are the Northern mudsills wliom yon affect to 
despise, and we came down tiere to lick you into respecting as." 

The answer seemed to tickle him, a pleiisantcr liglit came into 
hia sinister gray eyes, he laughed lightly, and bade us a kindly 
good day. 

Four days after our capture we arrived in Bristol. The 
guards who had brought us over the mountains were relieved by 
others, the Sergeant bade me good by, struck his spurs into 
"lliatoga's" sides, and be and my faithful horse were soon lost 
to view in the darkness. 

A new and keener sense of desolation came over me at the 
Qnal separation from my tried and true four-footed friend, who 
hod been my constant companion througb so many perils and 
hardships. We had endured together the Winter's cold, the 
dispiriting drench of the rain, the fatigue of the long march, 
the discomforts of the muddy camp, the gripings of hunger, 
the weariness of the drill and review, the perils of the vidette 
post, the courier service, the scout and the light. We had 
shared in common 

which a patient private and his horse of the unworthy take; we 

• had had our frequently recurring 

— ■' i' rows with other fellows and tlieir 

«:*■*— -^t — horsCH, over questions of jireoo- 

dence at watering places, and 

S^'^ grass-plots, hud liad lively tilts 

x^wM^^B lA?^" ^^^ guards of forage piles in sur- 

^^^C^B^aS^ -^^ reptitious attempts to get addl- 

f^'^^r* • ■^•"Ti^r tional rations, sometimes coming 

•oon-Bn TO - Biito^." off victorious, and suinetimt» lieing 

driven off ingluriously. I had often gone hungry liiat he might 


haye the only ear of com obtainable. I am not skilled enough 

in horse lore to speak of his points or pedigree. I only know 

that his strong limbs never failed me, and that he was 

always ready for duty and ever willing. 

Now at last our paths diverged. I was retired from actual 

service to a prison, and he bore his new master off to battle 

against his old friends. 

*** * * * **•• 

Packed closely in old, dilapidated stock and box cars, as if 
cattle in shipment to market, we pounded along slowly, and 
apparently interminably, toward the Rebel capital. 

The railroads of the South were already in very bad condi- 
tion. They were never more than passably good, even in their 
best estate, but now, with a large part of the skilled men 
engaged upon them escaped back to the North, with all 
renewal, improvement, or any but the most necessary repairs 
stopped for three years, and with a marked absence of even 
ordinary skill and care in their management, they were as 
nearly ruined as they could well be and still run. 

One of the severe embarrassments under which the roads 
labored was a lack of oil. There is very little fatty matter of 
any kind in the South. The climate and the food plants do 
not favor the accumulation of adipose tissue by animals, and 
there is no other souroe of supply. Lard oil and tallow were 
very scarce and held at exorbitant prices. 

Attempts were made to obtain lubricants from the peanut 
and the cotton seed. The first yielded a fine bland oil, resem- 
bling the ordinary grade of olive oil, but it was entirely too ex- 
pensive for use in the arts. The cotton seed oil could be pro- 
duced much cheaper, but it had in it such a quantity of gummy 
matter as to render it worse than useless for employment on 

This scarcity of oleaginous matter produced a corresponding 
scarcity of soap and similar detergents, but this was a depriva- 
tion which caused the liebels, as a whole, as little inconvenience 
as any that they suiTere<l from. I have seen many thousands 
of them who were obviously greatly in nee<l of sojip, but if 
thev were rent with aiiv suirtfrin'j: on that account thev con- 
oealed it with marvelous scU'-cuuti'ol. 


There seemed to be a scanty supply of oil provided for the loco- 
motives, but the cars bad to run with unlubricated axles, and the 
screaking and groaning of the grinding journals in the dry 
boxes was sometimes almost deafening, especially when we 
were going around a curve. 

Our engine went off the wretched track several times, but as 
she was nut running much faster than a man could walk, the 
worst consccjuence to us was a severe jolting. She was small, 
and was easily pried back upon the track, and sent again upon 
her wheezy, straining way. 

The depression wiiich had weighed us down for a night and a 
day after our capture had now been succeeded by a more cheer- 
ful feeling. We began to look upon our condition as the for- 
tune of war. We were proud of our resistance to overwhelm- 
ing numlK'rs. We knew we had sold ourselves at a price which, 
if the Itebels had it to do over again, they would not [xiy for 
us. We believeil that we had killed and seriously wounded as 
nuiny of them as tliey had killeil, wounded and captured of us. 
Weluid nothing to blame ourselves for. Moreover, we began 
to be buoyed up with the exi)ectatioii that we would be ex- 
changed immediately upon our arriviil at Itichmond, and the 
liebel otiicers contideutlv assured us that this would be so. 
Thci*e Wiis then a teiaix>rary hitcli in the exchange, but it would 
all be straightencil out in a few ilays, and it mi^riit not be a 
month until we were again marching out of Cuiiil>orhmd (tap, 
on an avenging foniy iigainst some of the loixe which had iissisted 
in our capture. 

Fortunately for this delusive hoiwfulness there Wiis no weird 
and Uxling Ct'issiindra to [>iL*rce the veil of the future for us, 
and reveal the length mul the glutstly horror of the Valley of 
the Shallow of Dciith, tlm)Ugli which we must pass for hun- 
dreds of sa^l da vs. stretoliin^r «>ut into lon<: months <if sutferinii: 
and death. Happily tiiere w;^ no one to tell us that of every 
live in th**t party four wouUl never stand umler the Sturs ami 
Strii)cs again, but succuniliing to chronic sUirvation, long-con- 
tinued exposure, the bullet of the bnit;il gaanl, the loathsome 
scurvy, the hideous g-angrene, anil the heart^ickness of hope 
deferred, would And respite from pain low in the barren sands 
of that hungry Southern soiL 


Were every doom foretokened by appropriate omens, the 
ravens along our route would have croaked themselves hoarse. 

But, far from being oppressed by. any presentiment of com- 
ing evil, we began to appreciate and enjoy the picturesque 
grandeur of the scenery through which we were moving. The 
rugged sternness of the Appcalachian mountain range, in whose 
rock-ribbed heart we had fought our losing fight, was now soft- 
ening into less strong, but more gniceful outlines Jis we ajv 
proached the pine-cliul, sandy plains of the seal>oard, upon 
wliich Richmond is built. Wo were skirting along the eastern 
base of the great Blue Ridgt% about whose distant and lofty 
summits hung a perpetual veil of deep, dark, but translucent 
blue, which refracteil the slanting rays of the morning and 
evening sun into masses of color moiH) gorgeous than a dreamer's 
visdon of an enchanted land. At Lyncliburg we stiw the famed 
Peaks of Otter — twenty miles away — lifting their proud 
heads far into the clouds, like giant watch-towei^s sentineling 
the gateway that the mighty waters of the James had forced 
through the barriers of solid adamant lying across tlieir path to 
the far-oflf sea. What we had seen manv miles back start tvom 
the mountain sides as slender rivulets, brawling over the worn 
boulders, were now great, rushing, full-tide streams, enough of 
them in any fifty miles of our journey to furnish w;it«»r j»ower 
for all the factories of New Kngland. Their amazing opulence 
of mechaniciil energy has lain unutilized, almost unnoticini, in 
the two and one-half centuries that the white man has dwelt 
near them, while in M:Lssiichusetts and liei* near n(»i;rIibors every 
rill that can turn a wheel has lx?en put into harness and forced 
to do its share of labor for the benefit of the men who have 
made themselves its mastoid. 

Here is one of the ditferences between the two sections: In 
the North man was set free, and the elements madtj to do his 
work. In the South man was the dcgra<leil slave, and the ele- 
ments wantoneil on in undisturlxHl fii^iHlom. 

As we went on, the Valleys of the »Iames and the Apj)omat- 
tox, down which our way lay, broadon^Nl into an expanse of 
arable acres, and the faces of those streams were fro<|uently 
flecked by gem-like little ishuuls. 



Early on the tenth morning after our capture we were told 
that we were about to enter Richmond. Instantly all were 
keenly observant of every detail in the surroundings of a City 
that was then the object of the hopes and foars of thirty-five 
millions of people — a City assailing which seventy-five thou- 
sand brave men had already laid down their lives, defending 
which an equal number had died, and which, before it fell, was 
to cost the life blood of another one hundred and fifty thousand 
valiant assailants and defenders. 

So much had been said and written about Riclnnond that 
oar boyish minds had wrought up the most extravagant ex])ect- 
ations of it and its defenses. We anticipated seeing a City dif- 
fering widely from anything ever seen before; some anomaly 
of nature displayed in its site, itself guarded by ini]K>sing and 
impregnable fortifications, with ])owerful forts and heavy guns, 
perhaps even walls, castles, postern gates, moats and ditches, 
and all the other panoply of defensive warfare, with which 
romantic historv ha<l made us familiar. 

We were disapiiointed — badly disappointed — in seeing 
nothing of this as we slowly rolknl along. The spires and the 
tall chimnevs of the factories ruse in the distance verv much as 
they had in other Cities we Iiad visitcil. We ])assed a single 
line of breastworks of bare yellow sand, but the scrubby pines 



in ^nt w«ro not out away, and there wero no signs that there 
had ever been any immediate expectation of nae for the works. 
A redonbt or two — without gans — conid be mude out, and 
this wa« alL Griia-visaged war had few wrinkles on his front 


fal tint neighborhood. They wore Uieii seaming his brov on 
the Itappohunnock, seventy milra an-uy, where the Army of 
Korthern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac Uy eonfront- 
iDg each uthur. 

At one of the stopping places I had b<*n separated from my 
oompAnions by entering a car in which were a numbt>4- of East 


Tennesseeans, captured in the operations around Knoxville, and 
whom the liebels, in accordance with their usual custom, were 
treating with studied contumely. I hsul always had a very 
warm side for these simple rusiios of the mountains and valleys. 
I knew much of their unwavering lidelity to the Union, of the 
firm steadfastness with which they endui*eil |x?rsecution for their 
country's sake, and made sacrifices even unto death ; and, as 
in those days I estimated all men simply by their devotion to 
the great cause of National integrity, (a habit that still clings 
to me) I rated these men very highly. I luid gone into their 
car to do my Uttle to encourage them, and when I attempted 
to return to my own I was prevented by the guard. 

Crossing the long bridge, our train came to a halt on the 
other side of the river witli the usual clamor of bell and whistle, 
the usual seemingly purposeless and vacillating, almost dizzying, 
running backwartl and forward on a network of sidetnicksand 
switches, that seemeil unavoidably necessiiry , a dozen years ago, 
in getting a train into a City. 

Still unable to regain my comnides and sluu^ their fortunes, 
I was marcheil off with tlie Tennessoeans through the City to 
the office of some one who had charge of the prisoners of war. 

The streets we pjissetl through were lined with retail stores, 
in which business wjis lx?ing carried on very much as in |K?aceful 
times. Many j^eople were on the strti»ts, but the greater |>art 
of the men wore some sort of a unifonn. Tiiougli numbers of 
these were in active service, yet the wearing of a military garb 
did not necessarilv implv this. Xearlv everv able-lxMliinl man 
in Richmond was enrolled in some sort of an organ izsit ion, and 
armed, and drilled regularly. Even the memliers of the Con- 
federate Congn^ss were uniformeil and attache<l, in theory at 
least, to the Home (vuanls. 

It was obvious oven to the c;isual glim|>se of a ]>assing prisoner 
of war, that the Cxiv did not lack its full sliaiv of the class 
which fonneil S4> large an eh»ment of the stH^iriy of Wiishington 
and other Northern (Mties during tin* war — the dainty carpet 
soldiers, heros of the pmrnenaJe and the lioudoir, who strutted 
in unifonns when the eneniv was far iitT, ami wore citizen*8 
clothes when he was cli>so at hanil. TIumv Wfi*e manv curled 
darlings displaying their line forms in tlio nattiest of uniforms. 



whose f(lo63 had never suffered from so much as a heavy dew, 
let alone a rainy day on the march. The 
Confederate gray could be made into a very 
dressy garb. With the sleeves lavishly em- 
broidered with gold lace, and the collar 
decorated with stars indicating the wearer's 
\ rank — silver for the field o'Hc'rs, and 
gold for the higher grade, — the feet com- 
pressed into high-heeled, high-instejtped 
boots, (no Virginian is himself without a line 
pair of skin-tight boots) and the head cov- 
ered with a fine, soft, broad-brimmed hat, 
trimmed with a gold cord, from which a 
bullion tassel dangleti several inches down 
the wearer's hack, you had a military swell, 
ca|>arisoned for conquest — among the fair 

On our way we passed the noted Capitol of Virginia — a 
handsome marble building, of the column-fronted Grecian tem- 
ple style. It stands in the center of the City. Uiwn the 
grounds is Crawfortl's famous e(]uestrian statue of Washington, 
surroundetl by smaller statues of other Revolutionary patriots. 
The Confederate Congress was then in session in the Capitol, 
and also the Legislature of Virginia, a fact indicated by the 
State flag of Virginia floating from the southern end of the 
building, and the new flag of the Confederacy from the northern 
end. This was the first time I /T^ 
hod seen the latter, which had ' • 
been recently adopted, and I 
examined it with some interest. 
The design was exceedingly 
plain. It was simply a white 
banner, with a red field in the 
corner where the blue field with stars is in ours. The two blue 
stri)>e3 were drawn diagonally across this field in the shape of a 
letter X, and in these were thirteen white stri|)es, corresjKind- 
ing to the number of States claimed to be in the Cunfoileracy. 
The above diagram will show the design. 

The battle-flag was simply the rod field. ^ly examina- 


tion of all this was necessarily very brief. The guards felt that 
I was m Richmond for other purposes than to study architect- 
ure, statuary and heraldry, and besides they were in a hurry to 
be relieved of us and get their breakfast, so my art-education 
was abbreviated sharply. 

We did not excite much attention on the streets. Prisoners 
had by that time become too common in Richmond to create 
any interest. Occasionally passers by would fling opprobrious 
epithets at ^^ the East Tennessee traitors,'' but that was alL 

The commandant of the prisons directo<l the Tennesseeans to 
be taken to Castle Lightning — a prison useil to confine the 
Rebel deserters, among whom they also classed the East Ten- 
nesseeans, and sometimes the West Virginians, Kentuckians, 
Marylanders and Missourians found fighting against them. 
Such of our men as deserted to theni were also lodged there, 
as the Rebels, very pro{x^rly, did not place a high estimate upon 
this class of recruits to their army, and, as we shall see farther 
along, violated all obligations of good faith with them, by put- 
ting them among the regular prisoners of war, so as to exchange 
them for their own men. 

Back we were all marched to a street which ran parallel to 
the river and canal, and but one s(]uare away from them. It 
was lined on both sides by plain brick waivhouses and tobacco 
factories, four and five stories liigh, which were now used by 
the Rebel Government as prisons and military stc»rehouses. 

The first we passed was (Ustle Timnder, of bhxxly repute. 
This occupied the same plac*e in Confetlenitc history, that the 
dungeons beneath the level of the water did in the annals of 
the Venetian Council of Teh. It w:ls lielieveil that if the bricks 
in its somber, dirt-grimed walls could s|)eak« each could tell a 
separate story of a life deem«xl dangerous to the State tiiat ha<l 
gone down in night, at the behest of the ruthless Confederate 
authorities. It was confidently iL*vserte<l that among the com- 
moner oocurrences within its confines was the stationing of a 
doomed prisoner against a certain bit of bloodst^iined, bulleL 
chipped wall, and relieving the Confederacy of all farther fear 
of him by the rifles of a firing {Nirty. How well this dark rep- 
utation was deserved, no one but those inside the inner circle of 
the Davis Government can say. It is safe to believe that more 

▲ 6T0BT OF B£B£L MILITAKV F&180X6. 70 

tragedies were enacted there than the arciiives of the Rebel 
civil or military judicature give any account of. The prison 
was employed for the detention of spies, and those charged 
with the convenient allegation of '' treason against the Confed- 
erate States of America." It is probable that many of these 
were sent out of the world with as little i*csi)ect for the formal- 
ities of law as was exhibited with regard to the suspects during 
the French Revolution. 

Xext we came to Castle Lightning, and here I bade adieu to 
my Tennessee companions. 

A few squares more and we arrived at a warehouse larger 
than any of the others. Over the door was a sign : 

Thomas Libby & Son, 


This was the notorious '* Libby Prison," whose name was 
painfully familiar to every Union man in the land. Under the 
sign was a broad entrance way, large enough to admit a dray 
or a small wagon. On one side of this was the prison ollice, in 
which were a number of dapper, feeble-faceil clerks at work on 
the prison records. 

As I entered tliis space a squad of newly arrived prisoners 
were being searched for valuables, and having their names, 
rank and regiment recoixlod in the books. Presently a clerk 
addressed as '^ Majah Tunnah," the man who wiis sui>erintend- 
ing these operations, and I scanned him with increased interest, 
as I knew then that he was the ill-famed Dick Turner, liated 
all over the North for his brutality to our prisoners. 

He looked as if he deserved his reputation. Seen \i\yon the 
street he would be taken for a second or third class gambler, one 
in whom a certain amount of cunning is pieced out by a readi- 
neB8 to use brute force. II is face, ciean-shaved, except a 
•* Bowery-b'hoy " goatee, was white, fat, and selflsiily sensuaL 
Small, pig-like eyes, set close to^^ether, glanceil around contin- 
ually. Ills legs were short, liis Ixxly long, and made to ap])ear 


Still longer, by fais vreariDg no vest — a custom common then 
with Southemepu. 

His fnculliet were at that momont nbnorhecl in seeing that no 
person concealed any money from him. Ilia suboniinatM Jid 
not wnTfb cIost>Ir ouoiigh to suit liim, and he would run his fat, 
beftTily-ringMl tingi>n through the jiri-soncrV hair, fi«l undt-r their 
amis and ebewherc where he Uionghl a stray live dollar green- 
back might be conocaletl. Uut with ull liis greedy care he was 
no match for V&nku« cunning. Ttie pritioaors U^UI niu afl«t^ 
ward that, suspecting tliey would Iw searchetl, they had token 
off tbeoapaof the lai^, hollow brass buttons of tlieir coats, 
carcfuUy folded a bill into each cavity, and rejilacvd thi) cap. 
In tiuB way they broaght in sevi.'ral hundred dollars safely. 

rTbbre wm one dirty old Engli^bnuin in the jiurty, who, Tor^ 

« L-onvinc«il, had money cxjncvialMl about his {)er»oii. He 

npelled him to strip ofT everything, and stand sbivcriug in 

the abarp colil, while he took up uno llltby rug after am>ihcr, 

felt over nacb carefully, and scnitiniiMl each smui and fold. I 


was delighted to see that after all his nauseating work he did 
not find so much as a five cent piece. 

It oame my turn. I had no desire, in that frigid atmosphere, 
to strip down to what Artemus Ward called ^^ the skanderlous 
oostoom of the Greek Sla^e," so I pulled out of my pocket my 
little store of wealth — ten dollars in greenbacks, sixty dollars 
in Confederate gray backs — and displayed it as Turner came up 
with, " There's all I have, sir." Turner pocketed it without a 
word, and did not search me. In after months, when I was 
nearly famished, my estimation of '^ Majah Tunnah '' was hardly 
enhanced by the reflection that what would iiave purchased me 
many good meals was probably lost by him in betting on a pair 
of queens, when his opponent held a ^^ king full." 

I ventured to step into the office to inquii*e after my com- 
rades. One of the whey-faced clerks Siiid with the super- 
cilious asperity characteristic of guat-brained headquarters 

" Get out of here 1 " 
as if I had been a stray cur wandering in in search of a bone 

I wanted to feed the fellow to a pile-driver. The utmost I 
could hope for in the way of revenge was that the delicate 
creature might some day make a mistake in {larting his hair, 
and catch his death of cold. 

The guard conducted us across the street, apd into the third 
story of a building standing on the next comer below. Here 
I found about four hundred men, mostly belonging to the Aimy 
of the Potomac, who crowded around me with the usual ques- 
tions to new prisoners : What was my Regiment, where and 
when captured, and 

What were the prospects of exchange? 

It makes me shudder now to recall how often, during the 
dreadful months that followed, this momentous question was 
eagerly propounded to every new comer: put with bated 
breath by men to whom exchange meant all that they asked of 
this world, and possibly of the next ; meant life, home, wife or 
sweet-heart, friends, restoration to manhood, and self-respect — 
everything, everything that makes existence in this world worth 


I answered as simply and discouragingly as did the tens of 
thousands that came after ine : 

"I did not hear anything alxuit exchange." 

A soldier in the field had many other things of more imme- 
diate interest to think about than tH^ exchange of prisoners. 
The question only became a living issue when he or some of his 
intimate friends fell into the eneniy*s hands. 

Thus began my iirst day in prison. 



I b^an aoquainting mjrself with my new situation and sur- 
roundings. The building into which I had been conducted was 
an old tobacco factory, called the " Pemberton building," pos- 
sibly from an owner of that name, and standing on the comer 
of what I was told were Fifteenth and Carey streets. In front 
it was four stories high ; behind but three, owing to the rapid 
rise of the hill, against which it was built. 

It fronted towards the James River and Kanawha Canal, and 
the James River — both lying side by side, and only one hun- 
dred yards distant, with no intervening buildings. The front 
windows afforded a fine view. To the right front was Libby, 
witli its guards pacing around it on the sidewalk, watching the 
fifteen hundred officers confined within its walls. At intervals 
during each day squads of fresh prisoners could be seen entering 
its dark mouth, to be registered and searched, and then marched 
off to the prison assigned them. We could see up the James 
River for a mile or so, to where the long bridges crossing it 
bounded the view. Directly in front, across the river, was a 
flat,' sandy plain, said to be General Winficld Scotfs farm, 
and now used as a proving ground for the guns cast at the 
Tredegar Iron Works. 

The view down the river was very fine. It extended about 
twelve miles, to where a gap in the woods seemed to indicate a 
fort, which we imagined to be Fort Darling, at that time the 
principal fortification defending the passage of the James. 



Between that point and where we were lay the river, in a long, 
bread mirror-like expanse, like a pretty little inland lake. Oooa- 
sionally a busy little tug n-ould bustle up or down, agunboat more 
along with noiseless dignity, suggestive of a reserved power, oi 
a Bcliooner beat laiily from one side to the otlier. But 
those were so few as to moke even more pronounced the cus- 
tomary idleness that hung over the scene. Tlie tug's activity 
seemed E])asmodic and f irced — a sort of protest against the 
gradually increasing lethargy that reigned upon the bosom of 
the waters — the gunboat floated along as if ])erforming a per- 
functory duty, and the scliooners sailed about as if tired of 
remaioing in one place. Tliat little stretch of water was all 
that was left for a cruising ground. Beyond Fort Darling the 
Union gunboiits lay, and the only vessel that (ussed the barrier 
was the occasional flag-of-truce steamer. 

The basement of tlie building was occupied as a store-house 
for the taxes-in-kind which tlie Confederate Government col- 
lected. On the first lloor were about live hundred men. On 
the second floor — where I was — were about four Imndretl men. 
These were princiiKilly from tlic Fii-si Division, Fii-st Corj» — 
distinguishetl by a rnnnd red ]nnv\> on tlioir cai»s : First Division, 
Second Coqis, nuu-l^od by u ntl l-1(jvv1' loiif ; and tlie First Divi- 

BAKKACLS-BACK0 t>I»C'i>l'K.ViilN<t A 

■ion, Third Corjis, who wore a n-J diiinu>n<l. Tliey were raainlv 
captured at Gettysburg and Mine Buu. Ut.sides tlivsu there was a 


oonsiderable number from the Eighth Corps, captured at Win- 
chester, and a large infusion of Cavahy — First, Second and Third 
West Virginia — taken in Averill's desperate raid up the Vir- 
ginia Valley, with the Wytheville Salt Works as an objective. 

On the third *floor were about two hundred sailors and ma- 
rines, taken in the gallant but luckless assault upon tlie ruins of 
Fort Sumter, in the September previous. They retained the 
discipline of the ship in their quarters, kept themselves trim and 
clean, and their floor as white as a ship's deck. They did not 
court the society of the ^'sojers" below, whose camp ideas of 
neatness differed from theirs. A few old barnacle-backs always 
sat on guard around the head of the steps leading from the 
lower rooms. They chewed tobacco enormously, and kept their 
mouths filletl with the extracteil juice. Any luckless " sojer " 
who attempted to ascend the stairs usually returned in haste, 
to avoid the deluge of the filthy li(]uid. 

For convenience in issuing rations we were divided into 
messes of twenty, each mess electing a Sergeant as its head, 
and each floor electing a Sergeantof-t he- Floor, who drew 
rations and enforce<l what little discipline was ol>servcd. 

Though we were not so neat as the sailors above us, we tried 
to keep our quarters reasonably clean, and we washed the floor 
every morning, getting down on our knees and rubbing it clean 
and dry with nigs. Each mess detailed a man each day to 
wash up the part of the floor it occupied, and he had to do this 
properly or no nition would be given him. While the washing 
up was going on each man stripped himself and made close 
examination of his garments for tlie body-Uce, which otherwise 
would have increased bevond control. Blankets were also care- 
fullv hunted over for these " small deer." 

About eight o'clock a spruce little lisping Rebel named Ross 
w(»uld ap]K?ar with a book, and a body-guard, consisting of ii big 
Irishman* who had the air of a Policeman, and carricHl a musket 
barrel made into a cane. Behind him were two or three armed 
guards. The Sergeant-of-t he- Floor comnuinded : 

" Fall in in four ranks for roll-call." 

We formed along one side of the room ; the guards halted at 
the bead of the stairs : Ross walked down in front and ccmnted 
the files, closely followed by his Irish aid, with his gun-barrel 


CUM raised ready for n<w npon any one nrlio sliouH aroDse hii 
raffiuiljr ire. BivaluDg ntalcB we raturacd to our places, ud 
nt around in tooodjr sUetiM Cor three hours. We hnd eaten 


Dothinff ebuw the prerious dooo. ICiaing bun^r, oar Imnj^ 
I in ahtlimotical ntso irith every quarter uf 
an boor. 

Tb«M timoi afforded an Qlustration of the tborongh nibjeotioa 
of rnoa to the tyrant StotnadL A moxv irhtablti lot uf iniliridiuds 
eould Mxroety be foood outside of a tncnagcno Uuia Uieie dimi 
daring the boars waiting for rations. " Cruuer than two stickii " 
ntterly failed aa a oomparaon. Thoy wcro crowt^r than the 
Unci of a ebedl apron. Haay oookl have givt-n ckIOs to the 
traditional bear with a aore head, and ran out of the puno fifty 
poinu ahead of him. It wbji astoniKfaingly oaiv to gv4 ap a 
fight at theae time*. There waa no need of going a step ont of 
t^ way to search for it, as ono ooold bare a full fledged 



article of overwhelming size on his hands at any instant, by 
a trifling indiscretion of speech or manner. All the old irri- 
tating flings between the cavalry, the artillery and the infantry, 
the older '* flrst-call ^' men, and the later or " Three-Hundred- 
Dollar-men," as they were derisively dubbed, between the 
different corps of the Army of the Potomac, between men of 
different States, and lastly between the adherents and opjx)- 
nents of McClellan, came to the lips and were answered by 
a blow with the fist, when a ring would be formed around 
the comlwitants by a crowd, which would encourage them with 
yells to do their Ijest. In a few minutes one of the parties to 
the fistic debate, who found the point raised by him not well 
taken, would retire to the sink to wash the blood from his hat- 
tereil face, and the rest would resume their seats and glower at 
space until some fresh excitement roused them. For the last 
hour or so of these long waits hardly a word would be s{)oken. 
We were too ill-natured to talk for amusement, and there was 
nothing else to talk for. 

This s|>ell was broken about eleven o'clock by the appearance 
at the head of the stairway of the Irishman with the gun-barrel 
cane, and his singing out : 

** Sargint uv the flure : fourtane min and a bread-box ! " 

Instantly every man spning to his feet, and i)ressed forward 
to be one of the favoretl fourteen. One did not get any more 
rations or obtain them anv sooner bv this, but it was a relief, and 
a change to walk the half s<|uare outside the prison to the cook- 
house, and help carry the rations back. 

For a little while after our arrival in Richmond, the nitions 
were toleral>ly pood. There had lieen so much said about the 
privations of the prisoners that our Government had, after 
much quil»bling and negotiation, succee<led in getting tlie priv- 
ilege of sending food and clothing through the lines to us. Of 
course but a small |)art of that sent ever reached its destination. 
There were t<K> many gree<ly Rebels along its line of ]>sissage to 
let much of it be received by those for whom it was intende<l. 
We could see from our windows Rel)els strutting alK>ut in over- 
coats in which the box wrinkles were still plainly visible, wear- 
ing new "U. S.'' blankets as cloaks, and walking in Govern- 
ment shoes, worth fabulous prices in Confederate money. 

88 jjrDEBBOiryiLLX. 

Fortunately for onr Government the Kebels decided to cut 
themselves off from this profitable source of supply. We read 
one day in the Richmond papers that '* President Davis and his 
Cabinet had come to the conclusion tliat it was incompatible 
with the dignity of a sovereign ]>ower to permit another power 
with which it was at war, to feed and clothe prisoners in its 

I will not stop to argue this ]K)int of honor, an<l show its ab- 
surdity by pointing out that it is not an unusual pnictice with 
nations at war. It is a sufficient commentary u{xm this 
assumption of punctiliousness that the {)si{)er went on to say 
that some five tons of clothing and fifteen tons (»f f(xxl, which 
had been sent under a flag of truce to City Point, would neither 
be returnetl nor deliveretl to us, but "converted to the use of 
the Confederate Government." 

** And torelj thej vt all hononblc meal" 

Ileaven save the mark. 



But, to return to the rations — a topic which, with escape or 
exchange, were to be the al)sorbing ones for us for the next fif- 
teen months. There was now issueil to every two men a loaf 
of coarse bread — made of a mixture of flour and meal — and 
about the size and shape of an ordinary brick. This half loaf 
was accompanied, wliile our Government was allowed to fur. 
nish rations, with a small piece of corned beef. Occasionally 
we got a sweet potato, or a half -pint or such a matter of soup 
made from a coarse, but nutritious, bean or \iesu called variously 
" nigger-pea," " stock-pea," or " cow-pea." 

This, by the way, became a fruitful bone of contention during 
our stay in the South. One strong jxirty among us maintained 
that it was a bean, because it was Rha|)ed like one, and brown, 
which they claimed no jxja ever wius. The other jwirty held 
that it was a pea because its various names all a^nvil in describ- 
ing it as a {x^ and because it was so full of bii^rs — none being 
entirely free from insects, and some having as iiuiny as twelve 
— by actual count — within its shell. This, they declaiXHl, was 
a distinctive characteristic of the pea family. The contention 
begun with our first instalment of the legmninous ration, and 
was still raging between the survivors who passc>il into our lines 
in 1S65. It waxed hot occasionally, and each side continuidly 
sought evidence to 8up])ort its view of the citse. Once an old 
darky, sent into the prison on some ernmd, wiis summone<l to 
decide a hot dispute that was niging in the crowd to which I 

90 AKDEBSOmriLLl. 

belonged. The champion of the pea side said, producing one 
of the objects of dispute : 

'^ Now, boySi keep still, till I put the question fairly. Now, 
nndei what do they call that there t " 

The colored gentleman scrutinized the vegetable closely, and 

" Well, dey mos' generally calls .'em stock-peas, round hyar 

'* There," said the pea-champion triumphantly. 

" But," broke in the leader of the bean party, " Uncle, don't 
they also call them beans } " 

" Well, yes, chile, I spec dat lots of 'em does." 

And this was about the way the matter usually ended. 

I will not attempt to bias the reader's judgment by saying 
which side I believed to be right. As the historic British show* 
man said, in reply to the (]uostion as to whether an animal in 
his collection was a rhinoceros or an elephant, '' You pays your 
money and you takes vour choice." 

The rations issued to us, as will \ye seen above, though they 
appear scanty, were still sufficient to support life and health, 
and months afterward, in Andersonville, we used to look back 
to them as sumptuous. We usually ha<l them divided and eaten 
by noon, and, with the gnawinps of hunger ap])eased, we spent 
the afternoon and evening comfortably. We told stories, \mced 
up and down the floor for exercise, playetl canls, sung, read 
what few books were available, st<KxI at the wmdows and 
8tud etl the landscape, and watchcHl the Rebels trying their guns 
and shells, and so on as hmg as it was daylight. < >ccsisionally 
it was dangenjus to be alx>ut the windows. This de{>ended 
wholly on the temper of the guanls. One day a member 
of a S'irginia regiment, on guanl on the jNivement in fn>nt, 
deliberatdv left his lx»at, walktnl out into the center of the 
Street, aimed his gim at a monil)or of the Ninth West Virginia, 
who was standing at a window near, and firing, shot him 
through the heart, the bullet ]Kissing through his IxhIv, and 
through the floor al>ove. The act wiis purely malicious, and 
was done, doubtless, in reven^t* for some injury which our men 
had done the assassm or his family. 

We were not altogether bbmeless, by any means. There 



were few opportunities to say bitterly offenatve tilings to ths 
guards let pass unimproved. 

The prisonure in iIim tliird floor of llie Smith building, 
adjoining us, had their own way of tcasiiif^ them. Late at 
nigbtf when everylxxiy wonld !«■ lying down, and out of the 
w&f oS shots, a window in the third stury would iiiicn, a broom 

J with a ptoco nailetl aci'oss to represent amiK. utid clotbod 
vith a onp and liIou.<)e, would be pmtruded, and a voice c-'^iming 
frooi anmn carefully proti-"CtccI by the wall, would inquire; 

"S-a-y, g-ua-r-d, what time is it?" 

If tbfl guard was of the long snfTenng kind he would niuwur: 

" Take yo* head buck in, up dali ; you kno hits agin all udaha 
to do dat t " 

ThAD the Toica would Bay, aggravaiingly, "Oil, well, go to 
, yoa — Bebel , if you can't answer a civU quos- 


Bvtore the spc«di was ended the guard's rii1i.< would be at bis 


shoulder and he would fire. Back would come the blouse and 
bat in haste, only to go out again the next instant, with a deri- 
Bive laugh, and 

" Thought you were going to hurt somebody, didn't you, you 

. But, Lord, you can't shoot for sour 

apples; if I couldn^t shoot no bettor than you, Mr. Johnny 
Reb, I would " 

By this time the guard, having his gun lo:ulcd a;j::iin, would 
oat short the remarks with another sliot, wliich, followed up 
with similar remarks, would provoke still another, when an 
alarm sounding, theguanls at Libbv and all the other buildings 
around us would turn out. An otiicer of the guanl would go 
op with a squail into the third floor, only to find everybody up 
there snoring away as if they were the Sev<»n SleejK'i's. After 
relieving his mind of a quantity of vigonnis pi*ofanity, and 
threats to '*buck and g^ig" and cut olf the nttions of the whole 
room, the ollicer would return to his ({uarteis in the guard 
house, but before he was fairly enscctiierd theiv the cap and 
blouse would go out again, and the nuuldeued guanl be n^gaile<l 
with a spirited and vividly profane k*etuiv on ihe depravity 
of Rebels in general, and his own unworthiness in |)ar- 

One nicrht in Januarv thin^ni took a ni<»iv serious turn. The 
boys on the lower floor of our Imihling liad Ion«r eonsidereil a 
plan of eseapt*. There were tli«Mi aljout lifio<*n thous^md pris- 
oners in Kichmond — ten tliousiind on r»4'lle Islt- ami live thou- 
sand in the buihiintrs. Of thi*si' one thoiis;uHl ti\'e hundrc<l 
were oflicers in Libby. Besides tlieiv were the prisonera in 
Castles Thunder and Lightning. The <»ss4Mitial fr:itun»sof the 
plan were that at a preconcerted si;^^nal wi? at I lie s(von<l and 
third floors should ap|N>ar at the wimlows wiiii hrieks and irons 
from the tolwcco pnss**s, which we shoiiM shower ilown on 
the guards and drive them away, while the men of the first 
floor would jK>ur out, chast» the ;:uanls inl4i the pianl house in 
the basement, seize their arms, driv4» tlH»s4' away from around 
Dbby and the other prisons, reh*as<» the oMieiM's, organize into 
regiments and brigswies, seize the armory, s*'t lin* to the public 
buildings and retreat from the City, by the south side of the 
James, where there was but a scanty forc«? of Rebels, and more 


ooold be prevented from coming over by burning the bridges 
behind OB. 

It was a magnificent scheme, and might have been carried 
out^ but there was no one in the building who was generally 
believed to have the qualities of a leader. 

But while it was being debated a few of the hot heads on 
the lower floor undertook to pi ecipitute the crisis. They seized 
what they thought was a fa\ oruble uppoitunity, overjjowered 
the guard who stood at the foot of the stairs, and poui-ed into 
the street. The other guards fell back and ui>cncd lire on them ; 
other troops hastened up, and soon drove them back into the 
building, after killing ten or fifteen. A\'e of the second and 
third floors did not auticiiiate the break at that time, arnd were 
taken as much by sur})ribe as were the liebels. xScai'ly all wei'e 
lying Uowu and many were asleep, borne hastened to the 
windows, and droj)j)ed missiles out, but belore any concerted 
action could be taken it was seen that the case was ho^teless, 
and we remained quiet. 

Among those who led in the assault was a di-miimer-boy of 
some >iew York liegiment, a recklessly brave httle rascal, lie 
had somehow smuggled a small fom*-shooter in with him, and 
4S they rushed out he fired it off at the guards. 

After the prisoners were driven back, the Kebel oflicers came 
in and vaj)ored aroimd considerably, but cuiiliiied thenii>elves to 
big words. They were particulai*ly anxious to find the revolver, 
and ordered a general and rigoi*ous seaich for it. The prison- 
ers were all ranged on one side of the room and auol'uUy 
examined by one JHirty, while another hunted thixiugh the 
blankets and bundles. It was all in vain ; no pistol could be 
found. The boy had a loaf of wheat bivad, bouglit from a 
baker during the day. It was a round loal', set together in two 
pieces like a bisctiit. He pulled these a{kait, laid the four- 
shooter between them, pressed the two halves togetlier, and 
went on calmly nibbling away at the loaf while the seai'ch was 

Two gunboats were brought up the next morning, and 
anchored in the canal near us, with their heavy guns trained 
upon the building. It was thought that this would intiiuiilat« 
us from a repetition of the attack, but our sailors conceived 


thaty as they laid against the shore next to us, they oould be 
easily captured, and their artillery nuide to ussist us. A scheme 
to accomplish this was being wrought out, when we received 
notice to movei and it came to naught. 



Few (juestions intimately connectod with the actual operar 
tions of the Rebellion have been enveloped with such a mass of 
conflicting statement as the responsibility for the interruption 
of the exchange. Southern writers and politicians, naturally 
anxious to diminish as much as ])ossible the great odium resting 
u|N.>n their section for the treatment of prisoners of war during 
the last year and a half of the Confederacy's existence, have 
vehemently charged tliat the Government of the United States 
delibenitely and pitilessly resigned to their fate such of its sol- 
diers as fell into the hands of the enemy, and repelled all 
advances from the Rebel Government looking toward a resump- 
tion of exchange. It is alleged on our side, on the other hand, 
that our Government did all that was possible, consistent with 
National dignity and military prudence, to secure a release of 
its unfortunate men in the iN)wer of the Rebels. 

Over this ve.Ne<l question there has been waged an acrimoni- 
OILS war of words, which has apparently led to no decision, nor 
any convicti<ms — the disputants, one and all, remaining on the 
sidi^ of the controversy occupied by them when the debate 

I may not be in possession of all the facts bearing upon the 
c;is<\ and may be waqied in judgment by prejudices in favor of 
my own (Tov(*mmcnt*s wisdom and humanity, but, however 
this may l)e, the following is my linn bcUef as to the ountroliing 
facts in this lamentable affair : 


1. For some time after the beginning of hostUities our Gov- 
ernment refused to excliange prisoners with the Rebels, on the 
ground that this might be held by the £uro])ean powers who 
were seeking a pretext for acknowledging the Confederacy, to 
be admission by us that the war was no longer an insurrection 
but a revolution, which had resulted in the tie facto establish- 
ment of a new nation. This ditBculty was finally gotten over 
by recognizing the lielK'ls as belligerents, which, while it ])laced 
them on a somewhat different plane from mei*e insurgents, did 
not elevate them to the i>osition of soldiers of a foreign |)ower. 

2. Then the following cartel was agreeil u|)on by UeneniU 
Dix on our side and llili on that of the Kebels : 

IIaxall*8 Landing, on Jaue!) River, July 22, 18C2. 

The undcni^ncd, liavingbct'D commlsMoued by t lit* authorities tbry respect- 
ively rvprvstfDt to make arraiigtuit'uts fur a geueral exchauge of prisooera of 
war, have agreed lo ihc folio wiug articles ; 

Articlis I.—It is hereby agrei*d aod Mipulated, that all prisoners of war, 
held by either imrty, including those taken on private armed vessels, known 
as privateers, shLll be exchanged upon the conditions and terms fullowing: 

Pruboners to be exchanged uiun fur mun and utlirer for ullicer. Privataen 
lobe pliux'd upon the fuuting uf utllcer» and men uf the navy. 

Men and otllcers of luwer grade!* may l>e exchanged for utllcersof a higher 
grade, and men and otlicers uf dillerenl bervices may be exchanged according 
io the following bcale of equivalents: 

A General-commanding in-chivf, or an Admiral, shall bt exchanged for 
officers ol equal rank, ur for bixiv privates ur cumiiion heamen. 

A Commodore, currying a broad |>ennunt, or a Urigadicr General, shall be 
eirhangtrd for otlicern of etjual rank, or twenty privates or common seamen. 

A Captain In tbe Nrtvy, ur a Culone), shall be exchanged for ufflcers of equal 
rank, or for fifteen privates or com mun seumen. 

A Lieutenant Colunel, ur Cumuiauder in the Navy, fchall be exchanged for 
oflicers uf equal lank, ur fur ten privates ur cuuimun seamen. 

A Lieutenant, ur a Master in the Navy, or a Captain in the Army or marines 
•hall be exchuiigid fur utlicera uf equal rank, or six privates or common 

Mas'erVmate» in the Navy, ur Lieuieuauis or £u&igns in the Army, shall be 
cxchangi'd for uthcera uf tqual rank, ur lour privates ur com mun seamen. 
Midsliipimn, warrant • tlieers in the Navy, ni:b-ters uf merchant vit»M.'U and 
commantlers of privateer>, hUall be exchanged fur ullirern uf equal rank, or 
three privates or cummun »eamen; Si-cund Capiain>, Lieutenants ur males of 
merchant ve&.Krls ur privateiT», and all ]H.*(ty oilivera in the Navy, and all non- 
commiMiuned titlicera in the Army ur maiim>, bliall be severally exchanged 
for |ier»ons of equal rank, ur fur twu privuieti ur luiiimun M'«imen; and private 
aoldtersor common livanu-n shali t>e e\chaui;ed fur each other man fur man. 


AanoLB IL«- Local, State, civil and militia rank held by persona not in 
tetual militarjr serrice will not be recognized; the basis of exchange being 
the grade aotuallj held in the naval and military service of the respective 

Abtiolv IIL — If citizens held by either party on charges of disloyalty, or 
any alleged civil offense, are exchanged, it shall only be for citizens. Cap- 
tmed sutlers, teamsters, and all civilians in the actual service of either party, 
to be exchanged for persons in similar positions. 

Abticlx IV. — All prisoners of war to be discharged on parole in ten days 
after their capture; and the prisoners now held, and those hereafter taken, to 
be transp<irted to the points mutually agreed upon, at the expense of the cap- 
turing party. The surplus prisoners not exchanged shall not be permitted to 
take up arms again, nor to serve as military police or constabulary force in 
any fort, garrison or flcld-work, held by either of the respective parties, nor 
as guards of prisoners, deposits or stores, njr to discharge any duty usually 
performed by soldiers, until exchanged under the provisions of this cartel 
The exchange is not to be considered complete until the officer or soldier ex* 
changed for has been actually restored to the lines to which he belongs. 

AsTiCLB v.— Each party upon the discbarge of prisoners of the other 
party is authorized to discharge an equal number of their own officers or men 
from parole, fumUhing, at the same time, to the other party a list of their 
prisoners discharged, and of their own officers and men relieved from parole; 
thus enabling each party to relieve from parole such of tlieir officers and men 
as the party may choose. The lists thus mutually furnished, will keep both 
parties advised of the true condition of the exchange of prisoncis. 

Articlb VL — The stipulations and provisions above mentioned to be of 
binding obligation during the continuance of the war, it matters not vvhich 
party may have the surplus of prisoners; the great principles involved being, 
First, An equitable exchange of pribouers, man for man, or officer for officer, 
or officers of higher grade exchanged for officers of lower grade, or for pri- 
Tates, according to scale of equivalents. ISecond, That privates and officers 
and men of different services may be exchanged according to the same scale of 
equivalents. Third, That all prisoners, of whatever aim of service, are to 
be exchanged or paroled in ten days from the time of their capture, if it be 
practicable to tranbfer them to their own linc*8 in that time; if not, so soon 
thereafter as practicable. Fourth, That no officer, or soldier, employed in 
the service of either party, is to be considered as exchanged and absolved 
from his parole until his e(|uivalent has actually reached the lines of his 
friends. Fifth, That parole forbids the performance of field, garrison, police, 
or guard or constabulary duty. 

John A. Dix, Jiajor Oenerai, 

D. U. Hill, Ulnjor OentnU, C\ & A, 


Articlb VIL — All priM>ners of war now held on either side, and all pris- 
oners hereafter Uken, shall be sent with all reasonable dispatch to A. M. 
Aiken's, below Dutch Gap, on the James River, in Virginia, or to Vicksburg, 



on tbe MifslitlppI RWer, Id the Stait of Miisitsippi, and there ezchtDgwl or 
paroled until such exchange can be effected, notice being previously given by 
each party of the number of prttionen it will tend« and the time when they will 
be delivered at thofre points respectively; and in case the vicissitudes of war 
ihall change the military relations of the places designated in this article to 
the contending parties, so as to render the same inconvenient for the delivery 
and exchange of prisoners, other places bearing as nearly as may bo the pres- 
ent local relations of said places to the lines of said parties, shall be, by mu- 
tual agreement, sul>^tiluted. But nothing in this article contained shall pre* 
vent the commanders of the two opposing armies from exchanging prisoners 
or releasing them on parole, at other points mutually agreed on by said com* 

Articlb VIII. — For the purpose of carrying into effect the foregoing arti* 
cles of agreement, each party will appoint two agents for the exchange of 
prisoners of war, whose duty it shall be to communicate with each other by 
correspondence and otherwise; to prepare the lists of prisoners; to attend to 
the delivery of the prisoners at the places agreed on, and to carry out promptly, 
effectually, and in good faith, all the dctaUs and provbions of the said artidea 
of agreement. 

Akticle IX — And, in case any misunderstanding shall arise in regard to 
any claui« or stipulation in the foregoing articles, it is mutually agreed that 
such mi»understanding shall not affect the release of prisoners on imrole, aa 
herein provided, but shall be made the subject of friendly explanation, in 
order that the object of this agreement may neither be defeated nor postponed. 

JoQN A. Dix, M^for General, 

D. il. UiLL, Major General, C. 8. A. 

This plan did not work well. Men on both sides, who 
wanted a little rest from soldiering, could obtain it by stiag- 
gling in the vicinity of the enemy. Their jKiivle — following 
close uix>n their capture, frequently ujwn the s|x>t — allowed 
them to visit home, and sojourn awhile wlu?rc wvm pleasanter 
{Mistures than at the front. Then tlie Uebi'ls grew into the 
habit of i^aroling everybody that they could constrain into 
being a ]»risoner of war. Teaceable, unwarlike and decrepit 
citizens of Kentucky, Eiist Tennessee, West Virginia, Missouri 
and Maryland were *'captureir' aind |)aroled, and set olT ugsunst 
regular liebel soldiers taken by us. 

3. After some months of trial of this scheme, a mo<lilication 
of the cartel was agreed u{)on, tlie main feature of which was 
that all prisoners must be reducxxl to {Kjsscssion, and delivered 
to the excliange oHicers eillier at City Point, Va., or Vicksburg, 
Miss. This worked very well for some mouths, until our Gov- 
ernment began organizing negro truofis. The liebels then 

▲ 8T0BT OF B£B£L lOLITABT PRI80N8. 99 

issued an order that neither these troops nor their offloers 
should be held as amenable to the laws of war, but that, when 
captured, the men should be returned to slavery, and the offi- 
cers turned over to the Governors of the States in which they 
were taken, to bo dealt with acconling to the stringent laws 
punishing the incitement of servile insurrection. Our Govern- 
ment could not permit this for a day. It wiis bound by every 
consideration of National honor to protect those who wore its 
uniform and bore its flag. The Rebel Government w^as 
promptly infc^mied that Rebel officers and men would be held 
as hostages for the pro{)er treatment of such membei^ of colored 
regiments as might be taken. 

4. This discussion did not put a stop to the exchange, but 
while it was going on Yicksburg was captured, and the battle 
of Gettysburg was fought. The lirst placed one of the exchange 
points in our hands. At the opening of the fight at Gettys- 
burg Lee captured some six thousand Pennsylvania militia. 
He sent to Meade to have these exchanged on the field of bat- 
tle. Meade declined to do so for two reasons : lirst, because it 
was against the cartel, which prescribed that prisoners must be 
reduced to possession ; and second, because he was anxious to 
have Lee han^iered with such a body of prisoners, since it was 
very doubtful if he coidd get his beaten army back across the 
Potomac, let alone his prisoners. Leo then sent a communica- 
tion to General Couch, commanding the Pennsylvania militia, 
asking him to receive prisoners on parole, and Couch, not knowing 
what Mi'julo had done, acceded to the re<|uest. Our Govern- 
ment disavoweil Couch's action instantlv, and onlered the 
paroles tu be treateil as of no force, whereu[>on the Rebel Govern- 
ment onlou'il biick into the field twelve thousand of the pris- 
oners caplurud by Grant's anny at Vicksburg. 

5. The iuin»ling now stopiKxl abruptly, leaving in the hands 
of both sidles the prisoner captured at (.leliysburg, exct^pt the 
militia above mentioned. The liebels addeil considerably to 
those in their hands by their captuix^s at Chickamauga, while 
wo gained a great many at Mission Ridge. Cumlterland Gap 
and elsewhere, so that at the time we arrivetl in Richmond the 
Rebels bad about fifteen thousand pris<jners in their hands and 
our Government had about twenty-five thousand. 


6. The Ecbels now began demanding that the prisoners on 
both sides be exchanged — man for man — as far as they went, 
and the remainder piirolod. Our Government offered to ex- 
change man for man, but declined — on account of the previous 
bad faith of the KoU'ls — to i^elease the balance on jmrole. The 
Rebels also refused to make any concessions in regard to the 
treatment of otlicers and men of colored regiments. 

7. At this junctui-e (ieneral B. F. Butler was ap|K)inted to 
the command of the Dc[>artment of the Bhickwater, which 
made him an ex-officlo Commissioner of Exchange. The liebels 
instantly refusal to tivat with him, on the ground that he was 
outlawed by the proclamation of Jeffoi-son Davis. General 
Butler very jwrtinently replied that this only ])laced him nearer 
their level, as Jeffci*son Davis and all associated with him in 
the Rebel Government had lM?en outlawed by the proclamation 
of President Lincoln. The Rebels scorned to notice this home 
thrust bv the Union General. 

8. On February 12, 1^«»4, General Butler addivsswl a letter 
to the Rebel C'c)mmissioner Ould, in wliich he asked, for the 
sake of humanity, that the (]uestions interrupting the exchange 
be left tenijiorarily in alK^yimce while an infonnal oxchan*re was 
put in ojierati^jn. lie would send five hundreil prisoneis to City 
Point; let them Ik» met by a similar nmulMT of Union prison- 
ers. This coulil «r«> on from day to day until all in each other's 
bands sliould Ik.* iransfrritii to their iv>|M'<-iivi» flairs. 

The live hundnd sent with theiteneral's lett«T \veix» ixiceived, 
and five hundred Union ])risoners nHurniMl fur tlh»in. Another 
five hundrwl, sent the next day, weri» refus^nK and so this reason- 
able and humane proiK>sition endeil in nothiiiL^. 

This was the condition of atfain^ in February, 1^«»4, when the 
Rebel authoritii's concluded to send us to Amlersonville. If 
the reader will fix th<>se facts in his mind, I will explain other 
phases as they develop. 



The Winter days passed on, one by one, after the manner 
describeil in a former chapter, — the mornings in ill-natnred 
hunger ; the afternoons and evenings in tolerable comfort The 
rations kept growing ligliter and lighter ; the quantity of bread 
remained the same, but the meat diminished, and occasionally 
days would pass without any being issued* Then we received 
a pint or less of soup made from the beans or peas before men- 
tioneil, but this, too, suffered continued change, in the grad* 
ually increasing proportion of James River water, and decreas- 
ing of that of the beans. 

The water of the James Kiver is doubtless excellent : it looks 
well — at a distance — and is said to serve the purposes of ablu- 
tion and navigation admirably. There seems to be a limit, 
however, to the extent of its advantageous combination with 
the bean (or pea) for nutritive purposes. This, though, was our 
view of the case, merely, and not shared in to any appreciable 
extent by the gentlemen who were managing our boarding 
house. We 8eeme<l to view the matter through allopathic s{)ec- 
taclos, they through homoeojKithic lenses. We thought that 
the atomic weight of peas (or beans) and the James Kiver fluid 
were about equal, which would indicate that the prosier com- 
bining proportions would be, say a bucket of beans (or peas) to 
a bucket of water. They held that the nutritive potency was 
increased by the dilution, and the best results were obtainable 



when the urmptoms of hunger were combated by the tritwif 
lion of a bucketful of the ]ioac-bcaii8 with a bamd of aqvo 

My Bfxl experience with this "fiat" soup was rery instnict- 
iT«, if not a^nacntilij. I liac] come into [trisun, as (Uil meet utber 
prisonen, alinolutoly (f(.«tilutc of (lii(h(?s, or cook!n>f uionsils. 
The well-useJ, l]aU^-iintt;i!ti frj'infi]ian, the blackened quart cup, 
and the iqujou. wliicli foniietl the usual kitchen outlit of the 
cavalryman in the liold, won- in the haversack on my aiddlo, 
and were hwi to nie when I sepamltid from my horee. Xow, 
vrhen we were told that we wen* lo draw soup, I was in great 
danger of l<»ing my ration from liaving no vessel in whicli to 
I fu There were but fuw tin cupe in tlie pnM>n, and 
ttieae wirre, of course, 
waiitnl by their owners. 
Br great goiHl fortune I 
foum) an empty fruit 
oiD, holding about a 
; quart. I was alao lucky 
lugh to lind a piece 
-of wire from which to 
I make a bail. I next 
. maiiufiictur<.'«] a 0{MX(n 
and Icnifc combined from 
a bit of tioop-iron. 
'< humble utvRKilii at onoe placed myself and my i 
.'lis un annttier plane, aa far aa worldly goods wea 
We were better off tlian the tna.<s, and an well a 
oi ttj-.- iii'i-'t fttrtnnatc It was a curious illuKtraticm of that 
law of piilitii^al ecoDomy which tcachent ttutt soralled intrimno 
Tnlue islargvly adYvntitiowL Their potweaoon gareus intinilelr 
more con.tidirmtion atuong oar fcUows than would the pc«sesiioa 
of a brownvtooe fntnt in an eligible loLHtion, fumisluxl with 
hot and cold wator throughout, and all the modem improve- 
menta. Il was a plac^u wbeni cooking ulenxiU werv in diuiiand, 
and title^leetU to Urown-«tonn fnmi« were not. We were in 
po«eMioii of iomething which every oo« needed erery day, 
and, Ibercforc;, were peraona of cnnseqiMiiiefl and oonsidentioo 
to tboae arooiul m who were |iraseat or pniqmiUr* borruwen. 


On our side we obeyed another law of political economy : "We 
clung to our property with unrelaxing tenacity, made the best 
use of it in our intercourse with our fellows, and only gave it 
op after our release and entry into a land where the plenitude 
of cooking utensils of supenor construction made ours ralne- 
les3. Then we flung them into the sea, with little gratitude for 
the great benefit they had been to us. We were more anxious to 
get rid of the many hateful recollections clustering around thean. 
But, to return to the alleged soup : As I started to drink 
my first ration it seemed to me that there was a superfluity 
of bugs upon its surface. Much 
as I wanted animal food, I did 
not core for fresh meat m that 
form. I skimmed them oft care- 
fully, so as to lose as little soup 
^^^^HMT ^ possible. But the top layer 

,(r|l(l!l||||ll|[|i^^^^^K^^pu seemed to be underlaid with an- 
other equally densa This was 
also skimmed off as deftly aa 
possible. But beneath this ap- 
peared another layer, which, 
!!»^= when removed, showed still an- 
^^^ other; and so on, until I had 
raped to the bottom of the 
can, and the lant of the bugs went with the last of my 
soup. I liiivc before spoken of the remarkable bug fecundity 
of the beans (or pcju). This was a demonstration of it. Every 
sooupcd out pea (or bean) which found its way into the soup 
bore inside of its shell from ten to twenty of these hard-crusted 
little weevil. Afterwanl I drank my soup without skimming. 
It was not that I hated the weevil less, but that t loved the soup 
more. It was only another step toward a closer conformity to 
that grand rule which I have made the guiding maxim of my life : 
W/,fn I mtiMt, I had bttttr. 

I recommend this to other young men starting on their career. 

The room in which we were was barely large enough for all 

(tf us to lie doivn at once. Even then it required pretty close 

"spooning" together — so close in fact that all sleeping along 

one side would have to turn at once. It was funny to watt^ 


tim operation. All, for tnstanoe, wwild be lying oa their light 
tiidcB. They woulil bi^in to get tired, and one of the wearied 
onei would sing oat to the Sergeant who was in command of 

"Bergeant: let's Bpoon the otlier wny." 

Tbm individual would reply : 

"AU right Ati^U'ton: Lirr SPOOXII and tJio whole line 
would at once flop over on tbeir left sidei. 

The foot of the mw thnt tilept nlong Uke eo&t wall on the f 
bdow (IS weru in a line witli the oiire of the outer door, nn 
ohalk line dmwn from the cmck ht-tweeii the door and I 
fnune to the op|K)siio wall woald touclt, »ay \hf> pniis of 1 
They were n noisy crowd down tbiire. and one night their n 
■0 provoked the giuird hi front of Oie door that he called c 
to them to Lo(t[) f|uiot or he would tire in upon th«in. 
gteetnl thi» thrt^t with a cbonu profanely uncomplimentary to 
the parity of the guard's anoeslr)- ; they did not imply hii 
dctccnl a la I>arwin, from the remote m«inkcy, hut more imm«- 
dtftto gooentioa by a common donwvtic animal. The innenited 
Btbel opened tbe door wiilo etiuugli tu (hnut his gun in, and he 
fired direoUy down the line of toes. IJin fMeoe waa apparently 
loaded with hoekahot, and the little balls must have stniok the 
\e^ nipped off the toes, pierced the foot, and utbarwiae lUghtly 
wounded the lower extremities of Uf ty men. The simoltaneooi 
riuiek that went up wm dimftsiing. It waaaoooi found ont that 

^^ft wounded ti 


nobody had been hart seriously, and there was not a little fun 
over the occurrence. 

One of the prisoners in Libby wasBrigadicr General Neal Dow, 
of Ifaine, who had then a National reputation as a Tentperanoe 
advocate, and the author of the famous Maine Liquor Law, 
We, whose places were near the front window, used to see him 
frequently on the street, accompanied by a guard. He was 
allowed, we understood, to visit our sick in the hospital. Ilis 
long, snowy beard and hair gave him a venerable and com- 
maading appearance. 

Kewsboys seemed to be a thing unknown in Kichmond. The 
papers were sold on the streets by negro men. The one who 
frequented our section with the morning journals had a mellow, 
rich baritone for which we would be glad to exchange tlie shrill 
cries of our stieet Arabs. "We long remembered him as one of 
the peculiar features of Kichmond. He had one unvarying for- 
mula for proclaiming his wares. It ran in this wise; 
" Great !Nooze in de^pahs! 

" Great Noose from Orange Coaht House, Virginnyt 
"Great Nooze from Alexandry, Virginny! 
" Great Nooze from Washington City ! 
" Great Nooze from Chattanoogy, Tennessw/ 
"Great Nooze from Chalilston, Sou' Cah/i'na/ 
" Great Nooze in de jwpahs I " 

It did not matter to him that theKebela 
had not been at some of these places for 
months. Ho would not change for suoh 
^ mere trifles as the entire evaporation of all 
possible interest connected with Chatta> 
nooga and Alexandria. lie was a true 
liourbon Southerner — he learned nothing 
and forgot nothing. 

Tliore was a considerable trade driven 
between the prisoners and the guard at the 
door. This was a very lucrative ]K«ition 
for the latter, and men of a commercial 
turn of mind generally managed to get 
stationed there. The blockade liad cut off the Confederacy's 
■applies from the outer world, and the many trinkets about a 


nun's person were in goml dcm&nd at high prices. Tlic men of 
the Army of tho Potomac, who were [ttid repilarly, and were 
alwaja iiisar iheir E^ppUe^ had thoir po<:kets tilled witli comlifi, 
^k Liiiidlicrchit'ts. kiiiv«s, nwktica, gold jwns, t«-'ncil8, silver 
imtdieB, playinfj rards, di«, etc Such of tlieso as esicaped 
RppropriatioD hy Lbinr captors and Dick Turnur, 'n'oro eagerly 

"■AT, ocaaot no tou WAm lo our tcaa oKiziraAeint*' 

boaglit by the guardji. who paid fair prices fn CoDfoderato 
aumey, or tnded wboot bruad, tobacco, daily paperv, elc, for 

Tbem was alio eontddoraUe brokerage in money, and the 
mtBOcr of doing this waa an admirable ftxtrmplilication of the 
(oDy of the " flat *" money idea. The RebeU exhaosted tbeir 
ingonnity in fmming laws to sustain the purcltaaing power of 
their paper monor. U waa made l^al teodor for all debta 
pabUo and private ; it was decraed that the man who refused to 
taka it waa a public enemy ; oU the couriderationi of patriotism 
were milled to its support^ and the law provided tliat any 



citizens found trafficking in the money of the enemy **i.^) 
greenbacks, should suffer imprisonment in the Penitontiaiy, and 
any soldier so offending should suffer death. 

Notwithstanding all this, in Richmond, the head and heart 
of the Confederacy, in January, 1864 — long before the Bebel 
cause began to look at all di^i>orate — it took a dollar to buy 
such a loiif of broad as now sells for ten cents ; a newspaper was 
a half dollar, and everything else in proportion. And still 
worse: There was not a dav during our stav in Richmond but 
what one could go to the hole in the door before which the 
guard was pacing and call out in a loud whisper: 

" Say, Guard : do you want to buy some greenbacks?" 

And be sure that the reply would be, after a furtive glance 
around to see that no offictjr was watching : 

"Yes; how much do you want for them}*' 

The ro])ly was then : '• Ton for one." 

" All right : how much have you p>t ? " 

The Yankee would rt^ply: the Rebel would walk to the 
farther end of his lx?at, count out the necessary amount, and, 
returning, ])ut up one hand with it, while with the other he 
caught hol<l of one end of the Yankee's greenbiick. At the word, 
both woulil jvlease thoir holds simultaneouslv, the exchan^^ 
was comph'te, and tiio RoIk^I would imce industriously up and 
down his In^at with the air of the school bov who ** ain't been a- 
doin* nothing." 

There was never any risk in approaching any guard with a 
proiX)sition of this kind. I never heanl of one n^fusing to trade 
for greenbacks, and if the men on guanl couhl not be restraineil 
by these strintrcnt laws, what lioiK? could theiv be of restmining 
anvlKxlv dst* i 

One dav we weiv favownl with a visit from the retloubtable 
Genend John II. ^lorgan, next to J. K. 13. Stuart the greatest 
of Rel»el cavalry leadere. He had lately escajKHl from the Ohio 
Penitentiary. lie was invit«Ml to Richmond to Ik» made a Major 
General, and was given a irrand ovation by the citi7A?ns and civic 
Government. He came into our building to visit a number of 
the First Kentucky Cavalry (loyal) — captui'eil at New Phila- 
delphia, East Tennessee — whom he was anxious to have 
exchanged for mun of his own regiment — the First Kentucky 

108 SJKDJOtBoanuJL 

Cavalry (Rebel) — ^who were captured at the same time he was. 
I happened to get very close to him while he was standing 
there talking to his old acquaintances, and I made a mental 
photograph of him, which still retains all its original distinct- 
ness. He was a tall, heavy man, with a full, coarse, and some- 
what dull face, and lazy, sluggish gray eyes. His long black 
hair was carefully oiled, and turned under at the ends, as was 
the custom with the rural beaux some years ago. His face was 
dean shaved, except a large, sandy goatee. He wore a high 
silk hat, a black broadcloth coat, Kentucky jeans pantaloons, 
neatly fitting boots, and no vest. There was nothing remotely 
suggestive of unusual ability or force of character, and I thought 
as I studied him that the sting of George D. Prentice's ban mat 
about him was in its acrid truth. Said Mr. Prentice : 

** Why don't somebody put a pistol to Basil Duke's head, and 
blow John Morgan's brains out I'' [Basil Duke was John 
Morgan's right hand man.] 



Before going any further in this narrative it may be well to 
state that the nomenclature employed is not used in any odious 
or disparaging sense. It is simply the adoption of the usual 
terms employed by the soldiers of both sides in speaking to or 
of each other. We habitually spoke of them and to them, as 
"Rebels," and "Johnnies ;" they of and to us, as " Yanks," and 
"Yankees." To have said "Confederates," "Southerners," 
"Secessionists," or " Federalists," "Unionists," "Northerners" 
or " Nationalists," would have seemed useless euphemism. The 
plainer terms suited better, and it was a day when things were 
more important than names. 

For some inscrutable reason the Rebels decided to vaccinate 
us all. Why they did this has been one of the unsolved prob- 
lems of my life. It is true that there was small pox in the City, 
and among the prisoners at Danville ; but that any consider- 
ation for omr safety should have led them to order general' 
inoculation is not among the reasonable inferences. But, be 
that as it may, vaccination was ordered, and performed. By 
great good luck I was absent from the building with the squad 
drawing rations, when our room was inoculated, so I escaped 
what was an infliction to all, and fatal to many. The direst 
consequences followed the operation. Foul ulcers appeared on 
various parts of the bodies of the vaccinated. In many 
instances the arms literally rotted off ; and death followed from 
a oorruption of the blood. Frequently the faces, and other 

110 ▲HDSB80»VU4«Si 

parts of those who recovered, were disfigured by the ghaatlj 
cicatrices of liealcd ulcers. A special friend of mine, Sergeant 
Frank Beverstock — them a member of the Third Virginia Cav- 
alry, ( loyal ), and after the war a banker in Bowling Green, O., 
— bore upon his temple to bis dying day, (which occurred a 
year ago), a fearful scar, where the fiesh had sloughed off from 
the effects of the vinis th«at had tainted his blood. 

This I do not pretend to account for. We thought at the 
time that the Rcliels had deliberately poisoned the vaccine 
matter with syphilitic virus, and it was so charged upon them* 
I do not now believe that this was so; I can hardly think that 
members of the humane profession of medicine would be guilty 
of such subtle dialK)liHm — worse even than poisoning the wells 
from which an enemy nmst drink. The explanation with 
which I have satisfie<l mysi'If is that some aireless or stupid 
practitioner took the vaccinating lymph from diseased human 
bodies, and thu^ infecteil all with the blood venom, without any 
conception of what he was doing. The low standard of med- 
ical eiluoatioii in the South makes this theory quite plausible. 

We now formcil the acquaintance of a si)ecics of human 
vermin that united with the Rebels, cold, hunger, lice and the 
oppi*i*s.Mon of (iistniint, to leave nothing undone that could add 
to the miserit^ of our prison life. « 

These were the fletl^lings of the slums and dives of New 
York — graduait*s of that iiietroi)olitan sink of iniquity where 
the rogues and criminals of the whole world meet for mutuid 
instnietion in vice. 

They were men who, as a nile, had never known a d.iy of 
honesty and cleanliness in their miss|)ent lives; wlioee fathers, 
brothers and constant conqkanions wei*e roughs, malefactors and 
felons: whose mothei-s, wives and sisters were prostitutes, pro- 
curesses ami thieves; men who had from infancv liveil in an 
atmosphere of sin, until it siaurattnl every li!n.T of their being 
as a dweller in a jungle imbiUs malaria by every one of his 
millions of |K>res, until his very marrow is surcharged with it. 

They incliide^l repit*s<-ntative8 from all nationalities, and their 
descendants, but the English and Irish elements predominateil. 
They bad an anjot peculiar to themselves. It was partly 
maile up of the ** flush " language of the London thieves, 


mpUfled and enriched by the cant vocabulary and the 
jargon of crime of every Euro- 
pean ton<;ue. Tlicy spoke it with 
a peculiar accent and intonation 
that made them instantly recogni- 
zable from the roughs of all other 
Cities. They called tbemselves 
"N'Yaarkers;" \vc came to know 
them as " Raitloi-s." 

If everything in the animal 
world has its counterimrt among 
men, then tliose were the wolves, 
jackals and hyenas of the race — 
at once cowardly and fierce, — 
audaciously bold when the power 
^ of numbers was on their side, and 
cowaixlly when confronted with 
resolution by anything like an 
'""""■ etjuality of strenj^th. 

Like all other roughs and nisi?iils of whatever degree, they 
were utterly worthless as soldioi-s. There may have been in 
the Army some habitual comer loafer, some tistic champion of 
the bar-room and brothel, some Terror of Plug Uglyrille, who 
was worth the suit in the haitl tack he consunieil, but if there 
were, I did not form his actjuaintance. and I never heard of any 
one else who did. It was the rule that the man who was the 
readiest in the use uf list and sliingshot at home had the 
greatest ditlldencc al>out funning n close iiLtiuaintanco with cold 
lead in the neighborhood uf the front. Tliousiiuds of the so- 
called "dangerous classes"' wci"e i-wniiteii, from whom the 
Government did not i-eceive so much service as would [luy for 
the buttons ou their uniforms. I'eoplo exju-ctwi that they 
would make themst-lves as troublcsunic to the Iteliels as they 
were to good citizens and the IMite. but they wei-e only png- 
niicious to the provost guard, and teirlble to the ]»eu)ilti in the 
i-ear of the Army who had anything that could be stolen. 

The highest type uf soldier which the wurld has yet jirtHlucod 
is the intelligent. sclf-rL's|H'ctin^ Anieriran bi)v, with hoine, and 
father and muther and frii-iuls iK-hiud lain, and duly in front 


beckoning him on. In the sixty centuries that war has been a 
profession no man has entered its ranks so calmly resolute in 
confronting danger, so shrewd and energetic in his aggressive- 
ness, so tenacious of the defense and the assault, so certain to 
rise swiftly to the level of every emergency, as the boy who, 
in the good old phrase, had been " well-raised " in a God-fearing 
home, and went to the field in obedience to a conviction of 
duty. His unfailing courage and good sense won fights that 
the incom{)etency or cankering jealousy of coninian<lere hail 
lost. High officers were occasionally disloyal, or willing to 
sacrifice their country to personal pi({ue ; still more frequently 
they were ignorant and incfiicieut ; but the enlisted man had 
more than enough innate soldiership to make amends for these 
deficiencies, and his 8U{)erb conduct often brought honors and 
promotions to those only who doserveil shame and disaster. 

Our " N' Yaarkers," swift to sec any opiK)rtunity for dishonest 
piin, had taken to bounty-jumping, or, as they termeil it, 
**leppin' the bounty," for a livelihood. Tliose who were thrust 
in upon us had followed this until it iuul l>econie dangerous, 
and then desertwl to the Rolx'ls. The hitter kept them at 
Castle Lightning for awhiio, and then, rightly estimating their 
character, and et»nsi«ioriui: that it was Ixst to traile them off for 
a genuine RelK»l sohlier, si'iit thrm in among us, to Im» exchanged 
regularly "with us. There was not so much goo<l faith as good 
policy shown by this. It was a matter of indiffeifnce to the 
Rebels how soon our Government shot thest» dt^serters after 
getting them in its hands again. They were only anxious to 
use them to get their own men back. 

The moment tliev came into contact with us our troubles 
began. They stole whenever op|)ort unities olfereil, and they 
were indefatigable in nuiking these offer : tliev mhlxMl l>y actual 
force, whenever force would avail ; and more obs4H|uious lick- 
spittles to power never exist eil — they were |M-r|x.»tually on the 
look-out for a chance to curry favor by betraying some plan or 
scheme to those who ^uanletl us. 

I saw one day a <{ueer illustration of the audacious side of 
these fellows^ chanicters. and it shows at the s;ime time how 
brazen effronterv will sometinu^ wt the l)ettf*r of couni<re. In 
a room in an adjacent building were a number of these fellows, 


and a still greater number of East Tenncsseeans. These latter 
were simple, ignorant folks, but reasonably courageous. About 
fifty of them were sitting in a group in one corner of the room, 
and near them a couple or three " X' Vaarkers." Suddenly one 
of the latter said with an oath : 

" j\ was robbetl hist night ; I lost two silver watches, a 

couple of rings, and about fifty dollars in greenbacks. I believe 
some of you fellers went through me." 

This was all pure invention ; he no more had the thmgs men- 
tioned than he had purity of heart and a Christian spirit, but 
the unsophisticated Tenncsseeans did not dream of disputing 
his statement, and answered in chonis : 

" Oh, no, mister ; we didn't take vour things ; we ain't that 

This was like the reply of the lamb to the wolf, m the fable, 
and the N' Yaarker retorted with a simulated storm of passion, 
and a torrent of oaths : 

" , I know ye did ; I know some uv yez has got them ; 

stand up agin the wall there till I search yez ! " 

And tluit whole fifty men, any one of whom was physically 
equal to the N' Yaarker, and his superior m point of real courage, 
actually stooil against the wall, and submitted to being searched 
and having taken from them the few Confederate bills they had, 
and such trinkets as the searcher took a fancy to. 

I was thoroughly disgusted. 




In FebniJirv my chum — P». B. Andrews, now a physician in 
Astoria, Illinois — was hroujrht into our building, greatly to my 
delight and astonishment, and from him I obtained the much- 
desired news its to the fate of my comrades. IIo told me they 
had been sent to I>elle Isle, whither he had gone, but succumb- 
ing to the rigors of that dre;ulful place, he bad been taken to 
the hospital, aiul, u])on his convalesence, place<l in our prison. 

Our men were suffering terribly on the island. It was low, 
damp, and swept by the bleak, piercing winds that howled up 
and down the surface af the Jam**-?. Tlie first prisoners placed 
on the island had )xH.*n given tents that affordeil them some 
shelter, but th«»se were all ix'cupiiHl wIh'U our battalion came in, 
so that th«»v Wi*re cohiim-IUhI to lie on the snow and frozen 
gn>und, without sln^ltrr, eoverin«r of any kind, or lire. During 
this time the mid had Urn so intense that the James had 
frtizen over thiH*e tiims. 

TIh' rations had iH-^m much woi-si* than oui^s. The so-calleil 
8r»up had Inhmi diluti*il tt» a ridiculous thinness, and meat had 
whtilly disitpiMstiiMl. So intrn<«» Ixrame the craving for animal 
ffXKl, that om* dav wln-n Lieutenant I »oisseux — the Comnumdant 
— stn)llwl into the ramp with his U-loveil white bull-terrier, 
which Wiis iLs fat as a (.'hcshire pig, the latter wjis decoye<l into 
a tent, a blanket thrown over him, his thnxit cut within a nxl of 
where his nutster was stan<ling, and he was then skinned, cut up, 
nN-ikeil, and furni'iiiKl a savory mesd to many hungry men. 



"When Boisseox leanied of the fate of his four-footed friend he 
sras, of course, intensely enraged, but that was all the good it did 
him. The only revengo possiblo was to sentence more prisoners 
to ride the cruel wooden horse which ho used as a means of 

Four of our company were alre;uly dead. Jacob Lo\VTy asd 
John Beach were standing near tho gate one day when some one 
snatched tlie guard's blanket from the post where he had hong 
it, and ran. The enragctl sentry lcve1c<l his gun and fired into 
the crowd. The balls passed through Lowry's and Beach's 
breasts. Then Charley Osgood, son of our Lieutenant, a quiet, 


fair-hairvd, plcasast-spoken boy, but as brave and earnest as 
his gallant father, sank under the combination of hunger and 
cold. One stinging morning he was found stiff and stark, on 
the hard ground, his bright, frank blue eyes glazed over in 

One of the mysteries of our company was a tall, slender, 
elderly Scotchman, who appeared on the rolb as William Brad- 
ford. What his past life had been, where he had lived, wliat 
his profession, whether married or single, no one ever knew, 
lie came to ns while in Camp of Instruction near Springfield 
Illinuis, and seemed to liave left all his past )>chind him as ho 
croaied the Une of sentries around the camp, lie never received 
uiy lettera, and never wrote any : never asked for a furlough 

or pass, ami iifvor ox|»:•^'v<t^l a wish to bo elsewhere than in 
ramp. Ilo \va*i ii»uri.' ln ;;iiil i»Io:uj;int, but very reserved. Ho 
intiM-rt'i'iMl witli no oin, uiK'\\\l uixlers promptly and without 
riMiiarl;, and was aiwavs juvsoiit for duty. ^Scrupulously neat 
ill dnss ahvavs as tUmu shavoil as an old-fashioned gentleman 
of till* wnrM, w ith maiiMiMs and conversation that showed him 
io liavn hi'liini^^t'd t(» a rrrnu'tl anvl iK>lishiHl ciivle, he was evi- 
dently out of plarf as a private' soldior in a company of reckless 
and none ttio rclinctl \t»iin:^ Illinois trv)opci*s, but ho never 
availrd liimM-H'ot' any ot' tin* nnmorous opiHirtunitios olTered to 
'liaii;."* Ills a^sii('iatii»ns. His I'loijant iKMimanship would have 
;»i run d liiiii an ta:y berth and bi'ltor society at headquarters, 
but. Ill* d'i linrd tiKii'ri'pt a detail. lie Uvameau exciting mys- 
iii V t'l ;i Knot ol" US ima«/inaiivo yomiL^cubs, who sorted up out 
of till- HiiiiiiHii-nlial rau^ l»air o( hii^li colore and strong: con- 
ii:i:ii v.illi wliH'li tlir st'iiNatioual literature that wo most 
;il!i#ti-d li^d pli-Miiliillv >!«>i'i'd our minds, a half-do/en intensely 
f fijiiii'in:il iMiKii liirliini. We s]HMit much time in mentally 
ii\jn!' till ^^• on, and ili>k'n>.sin;r which liltetl him best. "Wo 
\-. ifir .'l^.^.-i^^) < xpi'i-tiiiu'' a f/* fnfU* /ft* /tt that would come liko a 
i.;.'iJn ii;* ll.i.-h aiid ifM-al liis whole mysterious past, showing 
i.jifj io )..!'.• Ii- • ti iIk' (li^inlirritrd scion uf some no1)le house, a 
ii.jiij oi I. :/\i >t.ii.'»ri, will! was f'Xpiatim; st>me fearful crime; an 
:i.ii •;iiij. ,.-:.« d \ ..:.j.M tl ij. 1 iii^»- his |»ur>uers — in short, a Somel3<xly 
\\L*i \w; i.'l III' a liitiiii: luru I'nr Miss Uradtlon's t»r AVilUie Col- 
..lo'.^i.'' i..f;. I ir|M;..v \Vr !ii-\fr;rnt i)ut two clues of his ])ast, 
.i?id t:.« V \^•l«• l.j m! i. !!•■>. < »!n' Aav Ih' h'ft lvin«r near me a 
.-^niall *"\*y "I "I'.iiadi^" I.«.>i.'* that Im» always carriiMl with 
J.]Hi. 'J ii?, irj I. Mr lu liM\r^ 1 l"i»und all of Milti»n's l»itter 
invi' t.\i ., : •/.! T -» U'.'rii-yi hravily uuiieisi'orrd. Another lime, 
\\iiilc **u ;' i.ird v. .'Ji, in' sprni mu«'h of his tlint* in writin*^ 
b'^m*' I.;.' !i \« r .1-, ;!j \irv « Ii-MUt I hn'OLTiMphy \\\^n\ the while 
paijt'd ii'ijt.i. ..f a l-iiif mIhih: whii-h his Imm! ran. ^Vc 
^.n-^M-i .'- ;.ll!!.' a-..i;V»Mi' Lni»\x !• -hji' «•(' Latin aUiut eanip, 
■.i!id I" •. i I:.;.! !!." I. r;i i nl tin- \i r^r^ was vi-ry nni*«imj»liment- 
arv to I \i.i\ « \.:i*-]u.r.j' * \ w hn !i d«M', us iho lienor of U'iniT our 
iiio^hiTK ;.'i«l h ■.•.«•••;;• ii ! . I i.r-.» «\ idi'nccs ^vc aee«*pt<»«l as suf- 
i\:\i'::l *[*'::»' -'i !r.i!i..:i il.iii- xxa-i a woinim at the bottom of 
•Jie i::y-:. r. , a'.l m . '.•■ i. ■ hmti* iMij»atn-nt fur further develop 



inents. Tlicsc were never to coine. Bmdfonl pinecl away on 
Belle Isle, ami (prcvr wciikor. but no Ii-ss resM-Tvotl, each day. 
At Ipnj^li, one bitter (x>Iil iii<j:bt enibtl it ull. IIi^ wim foond 
in the morning stone doad. wiibliis ir(>n-<;niy )iairfn)/4'n fast to 
the ground. ii|)on wbic-li lie lay. Our inystiT}' bad to rrmnin 
unwjlved. Tborc was notiiin^ alfotil liis [k-inihi to jjivo any 
bint its to liis iKust. 




As each lagging day closed, wo confidently expected that the 
Dext would bring some news of the eagerly-desired exchange. 
We hopefully assured each other that the thing could not be 
delayed much longer ; that the Spring was near, the campaign 
would soon open, and each government would make an effort 
to get all its men into the licld, and this would bring about a 
transfer of prisoners. A Sergeant of the Seventh Indiana 
Infantry stated his theory to me this way : 

** You know I'm just old lightnin' on chuck-aJuck. Now the 
way I bet is this : I lay down, say on the ace, an' it don^t 
come up ; I just double my bet on the ace, an' keep on doublin' 
every time it loses, until at last it comes up an' then I win a 
bushel o' money, and mebbe bust the bank. You see the 
thing*s got to come up some time; an' every time it don't come 
up makes it more likely to come up the next time. It's just 
the same way with this 'ere exchange. The thing's ffot to hap- 
pen some day, an' every day tluit it don't hapiHjn increiises the 
chances that it will hapi)en the next day.'' 

Some months later 1 foldeil the sanguine Srr;:^*ant's stiffening 
hands to^-fther acn»s.s his ileshless ribs, and heliHxl carry his 
body out to the deatl-hoiise at Andersonvillo, in 4ii'iler to get a 
piece of woixl to antk my nit ion of meal with. 

On the evening of the 17th of February, lSi»4, we were 
ordered to get ready to move at thiybreak the next morning. 
We were certain this could mean nothing else tluin exchange, 
and our exaltation was such that we did little sleeping that 


night. The morning was very cold, but wo sang and joked as 
we marched over the creaking bridge, on our way to the cars. 
We were packed so tightly in these that it was impossible to 
even sit down, and we rolled slowly away after a wheezing 
engine to Petersburg, whence we expected to march to the 
exchange post. We reached Petersburg before noon, and the 
cars halted there a long time, we momentarily expecting an 
order to get out. Then the train started up and moved out of 
the City toward the southeast This was inexplicable, but 
after wo had proceeded this way for several hours some one 
conceived the idea that the Bebels, to avoid treating with But- 
ler, were taking us into the Department of some other com- 
mander to exchange us. This explanation satisfied us, and our 
spirits rose again. 

Night found us at Gaston, N. C, where we received a few 
crackers for rations, and changed cars. It was dark, and we 
resorted to a little strategy to secure more room. About thirty 
of us got into a tight box car, and immediately announced that 
it was too full to admit any more. When an officer came along 
with another squad to stow away, we would yell out to him to 
take some of the men out, as we were crowded unbearably. In 
the mean time everybody in the car would pack closely around 
the door, so as to give the impression that the car was densely 
crowded. The Rebel would look convinced, and demand — 

" Why, how many men have you got in de cah I " 

Then one of us would order the imaginary host in the invis- 
ible recesses to — 

" Stand still there, and be counted," while he would gravely 
count up to one hundred or one hundred and twenty, which 
was the utmost limit of the car, and the Kobel would hurry off 
to put his prisoners somewhere else. We managed to play this 
successfully during the whole journey, and not only obtained 
room to lie down in the car, but also drew three or four times 
as many rations as were intended for us, so that while we at no 
time had enough, we were farther from starvation than our less 
strategic com{)anions. 

The second afternoon we arrived at Raleigh, the capitol of 
North Carolina, and were cami)ed in a piece of timber, and 
shortly after dark orders were issued to us all to lie flat on the 

120 JlKdersonville. 

groand and not rise up till daylight. About the middle of the 
night a man belonging to a Usevr Jersey regiment, who had 
apparently forgotten the order, stood up, and was immediately 
shot dead by the guard. 

For four or five days more the decrepit little locomotive 
strained along, dragging after it the rattling old cars. The 
scenery was intensely monotonous. It was a flat, almost 
unending, stretch of pine barrens and the land so poor that a dis- 
gusted Illinoisan, used to the fertility of the great American 
Bottom, said rather strongly, that, 

" By George, they'd have to manure this ground before they 
could even make brick out of it.'' 

It was a surprise to all of us who had heanl so much of the 
wealth of Virginia, Xortli Carolina, South Carolina and Greor- 
gia, to find the soil a sterile s^md bank, intersi^ersed with 

We had still no idea of where we were going. Wo only 
knew that our general course was southward, and that we had 
passed through the Carolinas, and weiv in Georgia. We fur- 
bished up our school knowleil;re of go*»;rniphy and endeavored 
to recall something of the l<K*uti(»n <»f Uuleigh, Charlotte, 
Columbia and Augusta, through which we passe<l, but the 
attempt was not a success. 

Late on the afterno<m of the 2.Mh of Februarv the Seventh 
Indiana Sergeant approachinl me with the in<{uiry : 

" Do vou know where Macon is ( '" 

The place had not then lK*coine as well known as it was 

It seemeil to me that I had nNi<l soimnhini^ (»f Macon in 
Revolutionarv historv, an<l that it was a fort on the stni coast. 
He siiid that the ^uanl had t^>l<l him tliat wtf wimv to Ix^ t<aken 
to a i>oint near that place, ami wo agrcnl tliut it was probably 
a new place of exchan«re. A little later we ikiss4m1 thi\>ugh the 
town of Macon, Ga . and turned u\Hm a road that letl almost 
due south. 

Aliout midnight the train stopjn*;!, ami we wore onlenxl oflf. 
We were in the midst of a fon»st of tall tribes that lo(ule<l the 
air with the heavy iKilsaniic (nlor i>ec*uliar tr> pine trees. A few 
small rude houses were scattered around near. 


Stretching out into the darkness was a double row of great 
heaps of burning pitch pine, that smoked and flamed fiercely^ 
and lit up a little space around in the somber forest with a 
ruddy glare. Between these two rows lay a road, which we 
were ordered to take. 

The scene was weird and uncanny. I had recently read tlie 
^ Iliad/' and the long lines of huge fires reminded me of that 
scene^in the first book, where the Greeks burn on the sea shore 
the bodies of those smitten by Apollo's ])estilential arrows : 

For nine long nlgbtf>, throa;;h all tlie dunkj air, 
TlM pyret, thick flaming. »bol a dismal glarv. 

Five hundred weary men movoil along slowly through 
double lines of guards. Five hundreil men nuirched silently 
towards the gates that were to shut out life and hope from 
most of them forever. A quarter of a mile from the railroad we 
came to a massive palisade of great squared logs standing 
upright in the ground. The fires blazed up and sliowed us a 
section of these, and two massive wooden gates, with heavy 
iron hinges and bolts. They swung open as we stood there 
and we passed through into the space beyond. 

We were in Anderson ville« 



As the next nine months of the existence of those of us who 
survived were siK*nt in intimate connection with the soil of 
Georgia, and, as it exercised a potential influence upon our 
comfort and well-bein^, or rather lack of those — a mention of 
some of its i)eculiar chuia?teristics may help the reader to a 
fuller comprehension of the conditions surroundmg us — our 
environment, as Darwin would sav. 

Georgia, which, next to Texas, is the largest State in the 
South, and has nearly twenty-five per cent, more area than the 
great State of New York, is divided into two distinct and 
widely differing sections, by a geological line extending directly 
across the State from Augusta, on the Savannah River, through 
Macon, on the Ocmulgee, to Columbus, on the Chattahoochie. 
Tlmt i)art lying to the north and west of this line is usually 
spoken of as " Tpjjer (Jeorgia ; " while that lying to the south 
and east, extending to the Atlantic Ocean and the Florida line, 
is called *' Lower Georgia." In this part of the State — though 
far removed from each other — were the prisons of Anderson- 
ville. Savannah, Millen and lUackshear, in which we were incar- 
cerated one aft<T the otiier. 

Upper Georgia — the capital of which is Atlanta — is a fruit- 
ful, productive, metalliferous region, that will in time become 
quite wealthy. Lower Georgia, which has an extent about 
equal to that of Indiana, is not only ix>orer now than a worn- 



11=. r. 

^ •»! 

, • > 


— 1» 

U21L ■*•-: 

i»nrr-- ui-rjr::' jlj> ^"nzi^^tr^'jij. it- niir* lUir^^^ ant. r-iiu*^ u-w 

i-n. a:i*:-t u* :::ut^ i--.:: tr-*:. •"^iirr n ai innrt-'TiLi" r^ i;:uiiiL 


liUT-r vH-L i»--; "T j-^. ••115' -.'f iij*r Ti •-•n.v >:i:.i..>L :rK»s.N. or 
- 'j»a*:l III -s^.*' It: :: i? 1:1. »•» irt* jiit*r*.v {-^1:^.1, >.•.-;. u>: v bt-rt^ :: 

i !;;;•*■ *^:*!nkij*»d h z*^^"^'^'!' 'it^-'TT 1 . :uv ».::.: ihi^ 

LiKti'rr ij*fiiiit :■■,• t*a»fL iii*r tLai irben a srr.iis^' ]»^»}»k- T;iii- ]iii>- 
6e»i'.*a of a It-nlkr iiLiid. tijer rediice it t-.» ci;lT:va::vir.. iLnvo 
iipr^ rtf ^x-iuxiLifuIikess. muliijJr inio millions i:k- m«>uThs lo Iv 
fed frjm ii, lax it lo ibe Lis; limit of prciduc:iL»n %.i ibe neces- 



saries of life, take from it continuaUv, and give nothing back, 
starve and overwork it as cruel, grasping men do a servant or a 
beast, and when at last it breaks down under the strain, it 
revenges itself by starving many of them with great famines, 
while the others go off in search of now countries to put 
through the same process of exhaustion. We have seen one coun. 
try after another undergo this process as the seat of empire took 
its westward way, from the cradle of the race on the banks of 
the Oxus to the fertile plains in the Valley of the Euphnites, 
Impoverishing these, men next sought the Valley of the Nile, 
then the Grecian Peninsula; next Syracuse and the Italian 
Peninsula, then the Iberian Peninsula, and the African shores 
of the Mediterranean. Exhausting all these, they ^voro deserted 
for the French, German and English portions of Europe. The 
turn of the latter is now come ; famines are becoming terribly 
frequent, and mankind is pouring into the virgin fields of 

Lower Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Virginia have all 
the characteristics of these starved and worn-out lands. It 
would seem as if« away back in the distance of ages, some 
numerous and civilized nice IkuI drained from the soil the last 
atom of food-producing constituents, and that it is now slowly 
gathering back, as the centuries (xiss, the elements that have 
been wrung from the land. 

Lower Georgia is very thinly settled. !Much of the land is 
still in the hands of the Government. The three or four rail- 
roads which |xiss tlirough it have little r^forence to lcx?al tititlic. 
There are no towns along them as a rule; stations are made 
everv ten miles, and not nani(.Hl, but nuinb»nHl, as ''iStation 
No. 4-- — *'Xo. 1«C etc. The n»ads w^ii* liuilt as through 
lines, to brinp: to the seaboanl lln» rich pnxhu-t ^ of liic intorior. 

Anders<mville is one of the few stations dii^nilied with a 
name, probably because it c »ntaine 1 some half d«»/«Mi of shabhy 
houses, whereas at the others there was u-iiially notliin;; nit>re 
than a mere o|H?n shetl, to shelter g<XMls an*l tmvrhTs. It is on 
a rudelv const met «nl, ricketv railnja<U that runs fmni Macon 
to Alb:inv, the he:ul of navi;ration on the Hint Kiv«T, which is 
(me hundre<l and six miles from Macon, and two liundivtl and 
fiftv from the Gulf of Mexico. Amiersonville is about sixtv 


miles from Macon, and, consequently, about thrco hundred 
miles from the Gulf. The camp was merely a hole cut in the 
wilderness. It was as remote a point from our armies, as they 
then lay, as the Southern Confederacy could give. The near- 
est was Sherman, at Chattanooga, four hundred miles away^ 
and on the other side of a range of mountains hundreds of miles 

To us it seemed beyond the last forlorn limits of civilization. 
"We felt that we were more completely at the mercy of our foes 
than ever. While in Richmond we were in the heart of the 
Confederacy ; we were in the midst of the Rebel military and 
civil force, and wore surrounded on every hand by visible evi- 
dences of the great magnitude of that power, but this, while it 
enforced our ready submission, did not overawe us deprcssingly. 
We knew that though the Rebels were all about us in great 
force, our own men were also near, and in still greater force — 
that while they were very strong our army was still stronger, 
and there was no telling what day this superiority of strength 
might be demonstrated in such a way as to decisively benefit us. 

Bat here we felt as did the Ancient Mariner : 

Alooc on t wide, wide wa. 

So lonely *twu th«t God blmielf 

Scarce ■eemed there to be. 





We rrmstHl up proininly with tho dawn to take a survey of 
'imr new abidin<^ ]»lai.v. We found ourselves in an iininensc 
l>tMU alHKit cine tliuus;ind feet hm*^ l>y ei«^ht hundreil wide, as a 
yt>un)r surveyor — a ineml>er of the Thirty-fourth Ohio — in- 
f(»rme<l us after he had yKwod it olf. He estimatinl that it con- 
tainiMl ahout sixteen aoivs. The walls were fonncHl by pino 
In*^ twi'Uly-Jive ft'et l»»n^, from two to three fe<.»t in diameter, 
hewn si|uan\ set into the ^'"round to a depth of live feet, and 
plar4Ml s«> rlijse to/^^'lhrr as to U-av** no crack thrc»u*;fh which the 
<x>untrv outside eould he sfiMi. Tliere iK^in*; live ftH?t of tho 
lop; in tln» ^nmmh thi» wall was, of course, twenty feet high. 
This manner of onelosuiv was in some resjK^cts superior to a 
wall of masonry. It was eiiually unscalable, and much more 
ditticult to undermine or bati«M* down. 

The |K*n was lonp»st «lue north an<l south. It was divided 
in theerntiT by a rnvk about a yanl wide and ten inches det»p, 
runn:nir from wi»>t to ca.Nt. < >n each side of this was a qualdn;^ 
Ih>;: 4»f shmv «M»ziM»nt' iiuiidnil and liftv f«'rt wide, and so vield- 
insr that out» allfmpiin*: to walk u|H>n it would sink to the 
waist. rn»m tins swamp tli<' Nindiiills sI«»|mn| iiurtli and south 
to thi' stoi'kailr. All ilir tn*r^ insidi* tin* stiK'kadr, siive two, 
liad Uvn iUt <l«»wn and u>etl in its riinstriution. All the nmk 
ve«retatH»n i*( tiie swamp had aUo bt^'n cut i»ir. 

There wt»ri» two intranets lt» tin' sl«»t-kade, one on each side 
of the creekj midway beiwifu it and the ends, and called ro- 


spectively the " Xorth Gate " and the - South Gate.** These 
were oonstmcted double, bv buildinir smaller stockades aroond 
them on the outside, with another set of gates. When prison* 
ePB or wagons with rations were brought in, they were first 
brought inside the outer gates, which were carefully secured, 
before the inner gates were openeil. This was done to prevent 
the gates being carried by a rush by those confined inside. 

At regular intervals along the palisades were little perches, 
tipon which stood gtiards, who overlooked the whole inside of 

The oidy view we had of the outside was that obtained by 
looking from the highest points of the Xorth or South Sides 
across the depression where the stockade crossed the swamp. 
In this way we could see about forty acres at a time of the ad- 
joining woodland, or say one htmdred and sixty acres altogeth- 
er, and this meager landscape had to content us for the next 
half year. 

Before otir inspection was finislied, a wagon drove in with 
rations, and a quart of meal, a sweet potato and a few ounces 
of salt beef were issued to each one of ii& 

In a few minutes we were all hard at work preparing our 
first meal in Andersonville. The debris of the forest left a 
temporary abimdance of fuel, and wo had already a cheerful 
fire blazing for every little squad. There were a number of 
tobacco presses in the rooms we occupied in Richmond, and to 
each of these was a quantity of sheets of tin, evidently used to 
put between the layers of tobacco. The deft hands of the 
mechanics among us bent these up into square pans, which 
were real handy cooking utensils, holding about a quart. 
Water was carried in them from the creek ; the meal mixed in 
them to a dough, or else boiled as mush in the same vessels ; 
the potatoes were boiled ; and their final service was to hold a 
little meal to be carefully browned, and then water boiled upon 
it, so as to form a feeble imitation of coiTee. I found my edu- 
cation at Jonesville in the art of baking a hoe-cake now came in 
good play, both for myself and companions. Taking one of 
the pieces of tin which had not yet been made into a jmn, we 
spread upon it a layer of dough about a lialf-inch tliick. Prop- 
ping this up nearly upright before the fire, it was soon nicely 



broiTiKxl over. This prix-e* 
the tin, wheu it wud tiiruei,l c 

scls for our food than cattle o 

i mmlo it eiveat itself loose from 
.or and the bottom browned also. 
Save that it was destitute of salt, it 
^^ as quite a toothsome bit of nutri- 
ment for a hungry roan, and I 
recommend my readers to try 
making a " ]X)no " of this kind 
once, just to see what it was like. 
The Biiiireme iadifference with 
which the Ecbcls always treated 
tlie matter of cookings utensils for 
us, excited my wonder. It never 
semed to occur to them that vro 
cuuld have any more need of ves- 
r swine. Xever, during my whole 
prison life, did I sec so much as a tin cup or a bucket issued to 
a prisoner. Starving men were driven to all sorts of shifts for 
want of these. I'antalouns or coats were pulled off and thoir 
sleeves or legs used to draw a mess's mcid in. lioots were com- 
mon vessels for currj'ing water, and when the feet of these gave 
way the legs were ingeniously close<l upwithpino (wgs, so as to 
form rude leathern Lmckets. Hun whono {KX'ket knives had 
escajHKl the search at the gatw m;iiln very ingenious littlo 
tul»s and buckets, and IIk-.*-' deviiM-s i-uabletl us to get along 
after a fiLshion. 

After our nwal was disjx>scil of. we LrM a ri»uneil on the 
situation. Tlmuirh we hail Id-t-n sinlly disiipiNiinte<i in not 
l)cinir exi'hanirifl, it si'<'nnii that t>:i the wlmU: our cimdition 
had liwn ln-tti-n-"!. This Itrst rati-m was a decitli-d imjirove- 
mfnt on th'ist» of the IVnilN-Hnn huihlini;: we had h'ft the 
snow and ii-^- U-hiiid at llirhmnnd — nr iitthir at s<imi> jilace 
l>etw.-n RahiL'h. X. C. iind (■..luiiil.i;i. S. ('.—and lli.' air h.-n-, 
thiiUirh chill, WHS nut nipping', hut hraiitiL-. It Lh.!;.-.! jls if w.> 
wouM havea p|t-nty..f w<««l f..rsln-It.-raiid fui'l ; it was nTtainly 
l<ettcr to havf sixteen acres to i-.«im over than the stilling cun- 
lim-sof a building; and. Mill l»-tter. it sivmr.1 as if thi^n.? would 
be plenty of opjiortunitifS to ft Ii'Voml tin- KliK-kado, and 
attempt a jourRfV through the wo"j<U to that blisisful land — 
"Our lini-s.'' 


We settled down to make the best of things- A Kebel Ser- 
geant came in presently and arranged us in hundreds. TTo 
subdivided these into messes of twenty-live, and began devising 
means for shelter. Nothing showed the inborn capacity of the 
Northern soldier to take care of himself better than the way 
in which we accomplished this with the rude materials at our 
command. No ax, spado nor mattock was allowed us by the 
Kebels, who treated us in regard to these the same ba in respect 
to culinary vessels. The only tools were a few pocket-knives, 
and perhaps half-a-dozen hatchets which some infantrymen — 
principally members of the Third Michigan — were allowed to 
retain. Yet, despite all these drawbacks, we had quite a villaf;e 
of huts erected in a few days, — nearly enough, in fact, to afford 
tolerable shelter for the whole five hundred of us first-comers. 

The withes and poles that grew in the swamp were bent into 
the shape of the semi-circular bows that support the canvas 
covers of army wagons, and both ends thrust in the ground. 
These formed the timbers of our dwellings. They were held 
in place by weaving in, basket-wise, a network of briers and 
vines. Tufts of the long leaves which are the distinguishing 
characteristic of the Georgia pine (popularly known as the 
*• long-leaved pine") were wrought into this network until a 
thatch was formed, that was a fair protection against the rain 
— it was like the Irishman's unglazed window-sash, which 
" kep' out the coarsest uv the cold." 

The results accomplished were as astonishing to us as to the 
Rebels, who would have lain unsheltered upon the sand until 
blcacheil out like field-rotted flax, before thinking to protect 
themselves in this way. iVs our village was approaching com- 
pletion, the Kelx»l Sergeant who culled the roll entered. Ho 
was verv odd-lookinfr. The cervical muscles were distorted in 
such a way as to suggest to us thc^ name of *• Wry-necked 
Smith," by which we always designatcil him. Pete Bates, of 
the Third Michigan, who was the wag of our squad, accounted 
for Smith's conilition by saying that while on dress parade onco 
the Colonel of Smith's regiment had commande<l "eyes right," 
and then forgot to give the order " front." Smith, being a 
good soldier, liad kept his eyes in the ix)sition of gazing at the 
buttons of the third man to the right, waiting for the order to 


restore them to their satural direction, until they had become 
permanently fixed in their obliquity and he iras compelled to 
go through life taking a biased view of all things. 

Smith ivalkod io, made a diagonal survey of the encampment, 
\rhich, if bo had ever seen " Mitchell's Geography," probably 
reminded him of the picture of a Kaffir village, in that instruct- 
ive bat awfully dull book, and then expressed the opinion that 
Dsually welled up to every Kebel's lips: 

"Well, I'll bo domed, if you Tanks don't just beat the 

Of course, wo replied with the well-worn prison joke, that we 
supposed we did, as we beat the Ilebels, who were worse than 
the deviL 

There rode in among us, a few days after our arrival, an old 
man whose collar boro the wreathed stars of a Major GeneraL 
Heavy white locks fell from beneath his slouched hat, nearly 
to his shoolders. Sunken gray eyes, too doll and cold to light 
up) marked a bard, stony face, the salient feature of which was 
a thin-lipped, compressed mouth, 
with comers drawn down deefdy 
— the mouth which seems the 
world over to be the index of scl- 
tish, cruel, sulky malignance. 
It is such a mouth as has the 
school-boy — tlio coward of the 
play ground, who delights in 
pulling off the wings of flies. 
It is fuch a mouth as wo can 
iniiigino Bonn> n-niorst'lcss inquis- 
. itor to liave liati — that is, not an 
inquisitor lillixl with liolv zeal 
fur what ho inisiakonly thought 
"—■■"-"■—"-■ tho i\ui«' K't t'hrist domandtxi. 

but a spleeny, envious, rancv>ix.)us shtivoliiif;, \\]m torturt<d men 
from hatred of their sujtoriority to liiiu. ami Kht^T love of 
inflicting pain. 

The rider was Jt>hn II. AVindi-r. t'onuniMiary tn-nvml of 
Frisoners, Baltimon-an n-negado and tho mtiticii ^viiius to 
whose account sliould be i-hai:gt.<d Iho di'ulh* of itioiv gitlbnt 


men than all the inquisitors of the world ever slew by the less 
dreadful rack and wheel. It was he who in August could point 
to the three thousand and eighty-one new made graves for that 
month, and exultingly tell his hearer that he was '^ doing more 
for the Confederacy than twenty regiments." 

His lineage was in accordance with his character. Ills 
father was that General William 11. Winder, whoso poltroon- 
ery at Bladensburg, in 1814, nullified the resistance of the 
gallant Commodore Barney, and gave Washington to the 

The father was a coward and an incompetent; the son, 
always cautiously distant from the scene of hostilities, was the 
tormentor of those whom the fortunes of war, and the arms 
of brave men threw into his hands. 

Winder gazed at us stonily for a few minutes without speak- 
ing, and, turning, rode out again. 

Our troubles, from that hour, rapidly increased. 



Tbo stt>ckailc was not qiiito finished at tbo timo of our 
arrival — a gap of several ImndrtMl feet appearing at the south- 
west comer. A gang of alMuit two hundred negros were at 
work felling tribes, hewing logs, and ])lacing them upright in 
the trenches. We had an ()j)j)urtunity — soon to disappear for- 
ever — of studying the workings of the *' ix>culiar institution" 
in its verv lK)me. Th(» nc^i^ros were cf the lowest field-hand 
class, stn^ng, dull, ox-likt», but each having in our eyes an 
adinixtuiv of cunning and scTn^tiveness that their masters pre- 
temhnl was not in them. Their demeanor towanl us illustrated 
this. "NVe were the ohjrcts of the most supreme interest to 
them, hut when near ns and in the presence of a wljiie Ilebel, 
this interest t<M)k the shajn* of stupid, ojx»n-eye<l, ojxMi-mouthed 
wonder, sruncthing akin to the hK>k on the faco i»f the rustic 
lout, pizing for the first tim<» ujH>n a hKM)m<»iivt» or a steam 
threshing machint*. ]»ut if rhane<»tlin*won<»of iln-mnearuswhen 
hothou;rht himsrlf unolisrrv«»<ll»y the Kt^lnls, t lie blank, vacant 
face lighte^l up wiihanentin^lydilfrn'nt fxpn^ssiim. lie was no 
longer the cn*ilult)usy4»krl who lN-li<.'V«-<l the Yankns were (mlv 
slightly mcKlili«Nl ilrvils, n»a<ly at any instant to return to their 
nri'nnal hom-an«l-tail eon«lition ami snatch iiim awav to the 
bluest kind of jM^rdition ; he kn^w, apiKin^ntly cpiite as well as 
his master, that tlH\v wt»n* in soum* way his frifmls and allies, 
and he h>st no opi)ortunity in conimunicating his appreciation 
of that fact, and of offering his si»rvitH?s in any iM)ssible way. 
And these offers were sinerre. It is the testimony of every 

;ui:l uiLiTABY rnisoxs. 

Umon prisoner in the Soutli tliat he was never betrayed by or 
disappointed in a field negro, but could always approach any 


one of tbem with perfect confidence in his extending all the aid 
in bis power, whether as a goido to escape, as sentinel to signal 
danger, or a purveyor of food. These services were frequently 
attended with the greatest personal risk, but they were none 
the less readily undertaken. This applies only to the field- 
hands; the house servants were treacherous and wholly un- 
reliable. Very many of our men who managed to get away 
from the prisons were recaptured tlirough their betrayal by 
house servants, hut none were retaken where a field hand could 
prevent it. 

"We were mucli interested in watching the negro work 
They wove in a great deal of their peculiar, wild, mournful 
music, whenever the character of the labor permitted. They 
seemed to smg the music for the music's sake alone, and were 
as hoedlesB of the fitness of the accompanying words, as the 
composer of a modern ojiera is of his hbretto. One middle- 
aged man, with a powerful, mellow baritone, like tlio round, 
fuU notes of a French horo, played by a virtuoso, was the 


musical leader of the party. IIo never seemed to bother him- 
self about air, notes or words, but improvised all as he went 
along, and ho sang as the spirit moved him. He would sud- 
denly break out with — 

** Oh, be*t goat op dah, nerth to come back affin/* 

At this every darkey within hearing would roll out, in 
admirable consonance with the pitch, air and time started by 
the leader — 

•* /\^^^^^^^^^^^ ^-^1 %% 

Then would ring out from the leader as from the throbbing 
lips of a silver trumpet — 

** Lord bren blm Mml; I done hope be if bappy now ! ** 

And the antiphonal two hundred would chant back — 

** O-O-O-OKKO-O'O-O-O-O-OKM)! ** 

And so on for horn's. They never seemed to weary of 
singing, and we certainly did not of listening to them. The 
absolute independence of the conventionalities of tune and 
sentiment, gave them freetlom to wander through a kaleideo- 
scopic variety of harmonic effects, as sjwntaneous and change- 
ful as the song of a bii*il. 

I sat one evening, long after the sliadows of night had 
fallen upon the hillside, with one of my chums — a Frank 
Berkstrcsser, of the ^inth ^larvland Infantry, who before enlist- 
ing was a mathematical tutor in collo;^ at Hancock, Afaryland. 
As we listene<l to the unwearvin*]^ How of melodv from the 
camp of the laborers, I thought of and roi)eated to him Long- 
fellow^s fine lines : — 


• • • • • • 

And tbe Tolce of bii dcrotion 
FUlcd my §cnl wltb ttronc emotion | 
For tu ton«fl by tarn* were ^ImX 
b*tttly tolcmn, « iMW Mil. 

Fan] and Sllae, in their i4iK>n. 
Sanf of CbrliC. tbe L»nl ari»ni. 
And an rarthqnakc't arni of ml;ht 
Broke tbcir donsoon sate* at ul|;bL 

Bat« ala#, vbat holy an^^^I 
Brtnc* tbe tlare tblt c^ad eranscl 
And vbat cartbqiukc'f arm of mli*bS» 
Bicaka bli priKwi s»tv» at nljfSiL 


Said I : " Now, isn't that fine, Bcrkstresser t " 
IIo was a Democrat, of fearfully pro-slavery ideas, and he 
replied, sententiously : 
'^ 0, the poetry's tolerable, but the sentiment's damnable." 



The official desi;rnatl<)n of our prison was " Camp Sumjv 
tor/' but this was scarcely known outside of the Kebel documents, 
reports ami onlers. It was the same way with the 
prison five iiiih»s from Millen, to which we were afterwanl 
transferriMl. The Ilel)ols styled it officially " Camp T^iwton/' 
but we cidlcHl it alwavs *' Millen." 

Ilavin*:^ our huts finished, the next solicitude wjls al)out 
oscajv, an<l this was the buixlen of our thoughts, day and 
night. We held confen^nces, at which every man was requiretl 
to contribute all the gi^)grai>hical knowledge of that section of 
Geor^ria t hat he might have left over from his school lK)y days, an<l 
also thai giiiniHl by jK^rsistent questioning of such guanls and 
other IJ«»Im*1s as he ha<l come in contact with. AVhen first 
landcnl in the pris^>n we were as ignorant of our when\'il)outs 
as if we ha<l Im^'U dn>))iHHl into the center of Africa. I>ut one 
of the pris<»ners was fouml to have a fragm(»nt of a sclnwd atlas, 
in which was an f»utline maj) of (fe<»rgia, that had Macon, 
Atlanta, Milhslgrvillo, and Savannah lai<l down UjMm it. As 
we knew we had (*<»me southwanl fnnn Macon, we felt j^n»tty 
certain we wer-e in the sou t Invest «Tn corner of the State. 
Con venditions with guanls ami others gave us the information 
that the ChattalnxKhe flowtnl some two score of miU»s to the 
westwanl, and that the Flint lay a little neariT on the east. 
Our map showetl that these two unitetl and flowe<l togi.»iher 
into Appalachicola Bay, whert*, some of as rememK're<l, a 
iicwspa]x^r item bad said that we had gunlxuits statione<l. The 



creek that ran through tlie stocknde flowed to tlic cast, and we 
reasoned that if wo followed its cimrso we would bo led to the 
Flint, down which we could float on a log or raft to the A]H)a- 
lachicola. This was the favorite scheme of tho party with 
which I sided. Another party believed the most feasible plan 

Kiiin the mountains, nnd 
■ay fmm the stoc-kade: 

was to go northwiini, ai 
thcnco get into K;ist Tc 

But the main tliiii<r 
this, OS the ]-'n*iidi siy nf i:ll lirst stt'iis. whs wliat would cost. 

Our first att«>iii[)t was iiiaik' almiit a week after our arrival. 
TTe found two lojLr-i nn tin- oast side tliat were a couple of feet 
shorter than the rest, iird it sii'iiic<l as if thcv could bo successfully 
scaled. AlMut tifty <if us ii-snlvi-*! to make the attempt. We 
made a rope twcnty-tiv.' m- tliirty fi-et lon^. and strong enough 


to bear a man, out of strings and strips of cloth. A stout 
stick was fastened to the end, so that it would catch on the 
logs on either side of the gap. On a night dark enough to 
favor our scheme, wo gathered together, ilrew cuts to deter- 
mine each boy-s place in the line, fell in single rank, according 
to this arrangement, and marcheil to the place. The lino was 
thrown skillfully, the stick caught fairly in the notcli, and the 
boy who had drawn number one climbe<l up amid a suspense so 
keen that I could hear my heart beating. It seemed ages 
before ho reached the top, and that the noLse he made must 
certainly attract the attention of the guard. It did not. We 
saw our comrade's figure outlined against the sky as ho slid 
over the top, and then heard the dull thump as he sprang 
to the ground on the other side. " Number two," was whis- 
pered by our leader, and he performed the feat as successfully as 
his predecessor. " Number three," and he followed noiselessly 
and quickly. Thus it went on, until, just as we heard number 
fifteen drop, we also heard a Eebel voice say in a vicious 
undertone : 

*' Halt ! halt, there, d n you I " 

This was enough. The game was up; we were discovered, 
and the remaining thirty-five of us left that locality with all 
the 8pec<l in our heels, getting away just in time to escape :; 
volley which a squad of guards, posted in the lookouts, poured 
upon the spot where we had been standing. 

The next morning the fifteen who had got over the stockade 
were brought in, each chained to a sixty-four-j)ound ball. 
Their storj" was that one of the N'Yaiirkers, who luwl become 
cognizant of our scheme, had sought to c»l»tain favor in tlu 
Rebel eyes by betraying us. The IlelK»ls stationed a squad al 
the crossing place, and as each man dnipiKnl down fi*om the 
stockade he was caught by the shoulder, the muzzle of a revol- 
ver thrust into his face, and an onler to sum^nder whispore<l 
into his ear. It was expected that the guanls in the sentry- 
boxes would do such execution among those of us still inside 
as would prove a warning to other would-bo est^ajvs. They 
were defeated in this benevolent intention by the reailiness 
with which we divined the meaning of that incautiously loud 
halt, and our alacrity in leaving the unhealthy locality. 


The traitorous If 'Yaarker was rewarded with a detail into 
the commissary department, where he fed and fattene<l like a 
rat that had secured undisturbe<l homestead rights in the center 
of a cheese. When the miserable remnant of us were leaving 
Andersonville months afterward, I saw him, sleek, rotund, ami 
well-clothed, lounging leisurely in the door of a tent. He 
regarded us a moment contemptuously, and then went on con- 
versing with a fellow N'Yaarker, in the foul slang that none 
but such as he were low enough to use. 

I have always imagined that the fellow returned home, at 
the close of the war, and became a prominent meinl)er of 
Tweed's gang. 

TTe protested against the barbarity of compelling men to 
wear irons for exercising their natural right of attempting to 
escape, but no attention was paid to our protest 

Another result of this abortive effort was the establishment 
of the notorious " Dead Line." A few days later a gang of 
negros came in and drove a line of stakes down at a distance of 
twenty feet from the stockade. They nailed upon this a stri)) 
of stuff four inches wide, and then an order was issued that if 
this was crossed, or even touched, the guards would fire upon 
the offender without warning. 

Our surveyor figured up this new contraction of our space, 
and came to the conclusion that the Dead Line and the Swamp 
took up about three acres, and we were left now only thirteen 
acres. This was not of much consequence then, however, as we 
still bad plenty of room. 

The first man was killed the morning after the Dead-Line was 
put up. The victim was a German, wearing the white crescent 
of the Second Division of the Eleventh Corps, whom we had 
nicknamed '^ Sigel." Hardship and exposure had crazed him, 
and brought on a severe attack of St. Vitus's dance. As he 
went hobbling around with a vacuous grin upon his face, he 
spied an old piece of cloth lying on the ground inside the Dead 
Line. He stooixnl down and reaclietl under for it. At that 
instant tlie guard fired. The charge of ball-and-buck entered 
the poor old fellow's shoulder and tore through his body. He 
fell dead, still clutching the dirty rag that had cost him his 



The eini>tyin<r of the pris^ms at Ihmvillo ami liicbmond into 
AnilerstmviHo wmt (»ii slowlv during the month of March. 
They caine in hy train loa<ls of frtun five hundred to eiglit 
hundre<K at intervals c»f two or thnx? davs. liv the end of tho 
month theiv were alMnit live thousiuxl in the stockade. There 
was a fair amount of sjkkm* fi»r this numlxT, and as yet we 
suffertHl no inc<mvenien(*e from our crowding, though most 
lH?rsons would fancy that thirti^n acres of px)und was a rather 
limited area Utr live thous;ind nH»n to live, move and have their 
being uix»n. Yet a f<»w weeks later we were to see seven times 
that many jjaeke<l into that space. 

Dne mornin<r a new IJelx*! olKciT came in to sujwrintend 
calling the n»ll. He was an undersizinl, lidgt*ty man, with an 
insignificant face, and a mouth that protrudiMl like a rabbit's. 
His bright liith» ey<s, like tliose of a scjuirrel or a nit, assisteil 
in giving his countenance a hwik of kinship to the family of 
rodent animals — a genus which lives by stwilth and cunning, 
subsisting on that which it can st(»al away from stnmger and 
braver crejituns. 1F«» was tln'ssi^l in a ]Kiir of gray trousers, 
with the other jiart <»f his IhkIv covennl with a calico gannent, 
like that which Muall Uivs us«»<l to wear, called '• wai.sts." This 
was faMi'mil to tl»» pantaloons by buttons, precis4»ly as wjls tho 
custom with the garuK-nts of Imivs struggling with the ortho- 
graphy of wonls in two syllables. Vynm his head wits i)erche<l 
a little gray cap. Sticking in his lN*lt, and fastened to his 



wrist by a strap two or three feet long, was one of thoae for. 
midaljlo looking, but harmless English revolvers, that hare ten 
barrels around the edge of the cylinder, and fire a musket- 
bullct from the center. The wearer of tliis composite costmnc, 
and bearer of this amateur arsenal, 
stepped ner%'ously about and sputtered 
volubly in very broken English. IIo 
said to ■\Vry->'ecked Smith : 

" Py Gott, you don't vatch dem dam 
Yankees glose enough < Dey are schlip- 
pin' Tount, and peatin' you efery dimes." 
This was Captain Ilonri Wirz, the 
new commandant of the interior of the 
prison. There has been a great deal of 
misapprehension of the character of 
AVirz. Ho is usually regarded as a 
villain of largo mental caliber, and 
with a genius for cruelty. He was 
nothing of the kind. He was simply 
contemptible, from whatever point of 
view lie was studied. Gnat-brained, 
cowardly, and feeble nature<l, bo had 
not a quaUty tliat commanded respect 
from any one who knew him. His 
cruelty did not seem designed so 
nmch as the cbuUitions of a peevish, 
snarling little temper, united to a mind incapable of conceiving 
the n<siilts of bis acts, or understanding tlie |>ain ho was 

I iifver licunl anything of liis profession or vocation before 
entering tlio anuy. I always beUeved, however, that he liad 
Urn ft L-hn\\> clerk in a small dry-good^ store, a third or fourth 
rate I»o«»k-kwiH'r, or sometliing similar. Imagine, if you please, 
oni; such, who novt>r liad brains or self-command sutlicicnt to 
cdiitritl himself, placed in command of thirty-five thousand 
men. lU'ing a fool ho could not help being an infliction to 
them, even with the best of intentions, and Wirz was not 
troubled with good intentions. 
I mention the probability of his having been a dry-goodg 


clerk or book-keeper, not with any disrespect to two honorable 
vocations, but because Wirz had had some training as an 
accountant, and this was what gave him the place over us. 
Kebels, as a rule, are astonishingly ignorant of arithmetic and 
accounting, generally. They are good shots, line horsemen, 
ready speakers and ardent politicians, but, like all non-commer- 
cial people, they flounder hopelessly in what jxjople of this 
section would consider simple mathematical processes, (^ne of 
our constant amusements was in befogging and "beating" those 
charged with calling rolls and issuing rations. It was not at 
all difficult at times to make a hundred men count as a hundred 
and ten, and so on. 

Wirz could count bevond one hundnxl, and this determined 
his selection for the place. His first move was a stupid change. 
"We had been grouixnl in the natural way into hundreds and 
thousands. He re-arranged the men in '' squads " of ninety, and 
three of these — two hundreil and seventy men — mto a"de- 
tachment.-' The detachments were numbered in order from 
the Xorth Gate, and the scjuails were numl>ered *'one, two, 
three." On the rolls this was stated after the man*s name. 
For instance, a chum of mine, an<l in the sjimc squad with me, 
was Charles L. Soule, of the Thinl Michigan Infantry. His 
name apj)eare<l on the rolls : 

•*Ch*». L. S«>ulc, priv. Co. E. Sd Mich. Inf., la." 

That is, he Iw^long^Hl to the 8econ<l Squa<l of the First De- 

"NVhere Wirz got his ])rejx)stennis i<lea of or<?anization from 
has ahvavs lK*en a mvsterv to m<*. It was awkwanl in everv 
v.'ay — in dniwin^ rations, counting, dividin*: into messc^s, etc. 

"NVirz was not lonp: in giving us a taste of liis quality. The 
next momin<r after his first apj>«»aranco h** came in when roU- 
^all was soundi.ll, an<l onlon^l all tlio s(juads and detachments 
to fonn, and ivmain standing in ranks until all wei^e counted. 
Anv soldior will siv that tlH»n.» is no dutvmoiv annovinir and 
difficult than standing still in ranks for any considerable length 
<»f tiino. (s|¥X*ially when thm» is nothing to do or to engage 
the att«*ntion. It t(X»k AVirz lj4*tw«.H.'n two and thri\? hours to 
<rount the whole camp, and by that time we of the first detach- 


ments were almost all out of ranks. Thoreupon Wirz an- 
nounced that no rations would bo issued to the camp that day. 
The orders to stand in ranks were repeated the next morning, 
with a warning that a failure to obey would be punished as 
that of the previous day ha<l l)cen. Though we were so hungry, 
that, to use the wonlsof a Thirty-Fifth Pennsylvanian standing 
next to me — his *' big intestines were eating his little ones up," 
it was im|)ossible to keep the rank formntion during the long 
hours. One man after another straggled away, and again we 
lost our rations. That afternoon we became desperate. Plots 
were considered for a daring assault to force the gates or scale the 
stockade. The men were cnizy enough to attempt anything nither 
than sit down and patiently starve. Many offered themselves as 
leaders in any attempt that it might be thought best to make. 
The hopelessness of any such venture wjus apparent, even to 
famished men, and the propositions went no farther than in- 
flammatorv talk. 

The thinl morning the onlers were again repeated. This 
time we succeeiled in ivmaining in ranks in such a manner as 
to satisfy Wirz, an<l we were given our rations for that day, 
but those of the other days were j)erininently withheld. 

That afternoon Wirz ventured into camp alone, lie was 
assailed with a storm of curses and execnitions, and a shower 
of clubs. He pull<Ml out his revolver, as if to lire upon his 
assailants. A yell wjia raisetl to take his pistol away from him 
and a crowd rushed forwanl to do this. Without waiting to 
fire a shot, he turncHl and ran to the gate for dear life. lie did 
not come in again for a long while, and never afterward without 
a retinue of guards. 


PRizR-nonr amoxo the n^yaarkebs — a great many pormal* 


One of the train-loads from Richmond w«as almoBt wholly 
maile up of our ohl acquaintances — the N'Yaarkers. The 
number of tliese had swelknl to four hundred or five hundred 
— all leagued together in the fellowship of crime. 

We did not manifest any keen desire for intimate social rela- 
tions with them, and they did not seem to hunger for our 
society, so they moved across the creek to the unoccupied South 
Side, and established their camp there, at a considerable dis- 
tance from us. 

One aft<Tnoon a number of us went across to their camp, to 
witness a tight according to the rules of the Prize Ring, which 
was to come off between two professional p.igilists. These 
were a couple of bounty-jumpers who had some little reputa- 
tion in New York six>rting circles, under the names of the 
" Staleybridge Chicken " and the *' Haarlem Infant." 

On the way from Richmond a cast-iron skillet, or spider, had 
been stolen bv the crowd from the Rebels. It was a small 
affair, holding a half gallon, and worth to-day about fifty 
cents. In Andersonville its worth was literallv above rubies. 
Two men belonging to different messes each claimed the 
ownership of the utensil, on the ground of being most active 
in securing it. Their claims were strenuously su)»iM>rted by 
their res|)ective messes, at the he;ids of which were the afore- 
said Infant and Chicken. A great deal of strong talk, and 
several indecisive knock-downs resultoil in an agreement to 

~ A rroBt or snu. uiutart rusoxs. 


' wttl« Uie matter by wagvr of buttle between the Inrant and 

When w© arrived a twonty-foup foot ring hud b«cn projxvred 

' br drawing a dw]i mark in tho sand. In diiij^nally oppoaite 
cumeni of tliL-M! tliu spconds wore kneeling on one kneo and 
8up[tnrtin^ their prindpnls on the nthtr. Ry tbeir sides tbey 
bwl little TetiaeU ol wulcr, and buniUcs ol rags to amwer /or 

tnB mzB-noirr for the bkillr. 

spong««. Another corner vras occupied by the nmpJre, ft foal- 
moatlied, lowl-loDguetl Tombs sliystvr, named Pet« Bradloy- 
A loog-bodied, tOiort'Icg;;^! tuxMlIum, nick-noioed " Jleenan," 
armed with a club, acted as ring lieejier, and "biJted" back, 
H^lcssly, any of the si^cclatore wLu crowiinl ovttr tbo 
line. Did he teo a foot obUiiding itself no much u an ioch 
t the mark in the nnd — and the prosmre from tlie crowd 
1 waa so jrrent Uiat ii wax dilUctUt for the frunt felluws to 
7 Ihu lino — bis hmvy club and a blasting curse would 
Fvpon tbe offender simultanoousty. 
Erary effort waa made to bava all thinga coofonn ai aoarljr 

148 JlKdebsonville. 

BB possible to the recognized practices of the " I^ndon Prize 

At Bradley's call of " Time I " the princiiwls would rise from 
their seconds' knees, advance brisklv to the scnitch across the 
center of the ring, and sjxir away sharply for a little time, 
until one got in u blow that sent the other to the ground, 
irhere he wouhl lie until his second picked him up, carriotl him 
back, wastied his face off, and gave him a drink, lie then 
rested until the next call of time. 

This sort of iH?rfonnance went on for an hour or more, with 
the knock-downs and ottier casualities pretty evenly di\ideil 
between the two. Then it Ixvame appart?nt that tlie Infant 
was getting more than he had storage room for. His interest 
in the skillet was evidently abating, the leering grin he wore 
upon his face during the early \x\Tt of the engagement had dis- 
appeared long ago, as the succ«*ssive *' hot ones '' which the 
Chicken had succee<ltHl in plant'lng ui>on his mouth, ])Ut it out 
of his power to *\smile and smile," **e'en thougli he might 
still l)e a vilhiin.-' lie l)ogan coming uj) to the scratch as slug- 
gishly as a IuhhI man starting out for his day's work, and 
finally he did not come up at all. A bimch of blood sosike<l 
nigs was tossinl into tlie air fnim his corner, and Hnidley 
declare<l the ('hickcn to Ix* the victor, amid (Mitliusiastic cheers 
from the crowd. 

We vot4Hl the thing rather tame. In the whole hour and 
a-half there was not so much savag«^ fi^rhtiiii:, not so much 
damage done, as a couj^le of eanu'si, b:ii uns*.'ii»ntific men, who 
have no tnin» to waste, will fiitjiuMilly cn»\vd into an im- 
promptu affair not exoMMlin;: fivi* minutt's in duration. 

Our next visit to the N'Yaark«»rs was on a »litr«'ii»nt errand. 
The moment they arriv»Hl in camp w«» lH»^in Xn ln» annoyinl by 
their depnnlat ions. IManki'ts — tht» soI«' pnit«vtion of uum — 
would 1h» sua t I'll* mI off as tln'V slept at ni;rhl. Ariicl«»s of 
clothing and ONiIcin;; uttMisiis wo:ili| ^o the sum* way. and 
occ;isionalIy a man wouhl U* n»i>iNNl in o|H»n «layli;rht. All 
these, it was lM»lii'Vc*l, with pmmI ns-isim. wtMv tln» work of the 
N*Yaark<»rs, and th«.» stoh»n thinirs wt»n» nuivovtMl to tln»ir 
camp. Occasionally dcpnnlators would bi» causrht and lM»ati>n, 
but they would give a sigmil which would bring t<» their assist- 


ance the whole body of N'Yaarkera, and turn the tables on 
their assiiilants. 

We hiul in our squad a little watchmaker named Dan Mar- 
tin, of the Eighth Xew York Infantry. Other boys let him 
take their watches to tinker up, so as to make a show of run- 
ning, and be available for trading to the guanls. 

One day Martin was at the creek, when a N'Yaarker asked 
him to let him look at a watcli. Martin incautiously did so, 
when the N'Yaarker snatched it and sixhI away to the camp 
of his crowd. Martin ran back to us and told his story. 
This was the hist feather which was to break the camel's back 
of our patience. Peter Bates, of the Tliinl Michig^in, the 
Sergeant of our sc^uad, had consiilerable contidence in his mus- 
cular ability. lie ttametl up into mip^lity wnith, an<l swore a 
sulphurous oiith tliat we would get that watch Uick, whereupon 
about two hundretl of us avoweil our willingness to help re- 
claim it. 

Each of us providing ourselves with a club, we started on 
our errand. The ivst of the ciimp — alnmt four thousand — 
gathered on the hillside to watch us. We thought they might 
have sent us some assistance, as it wsis about iis much their 
fight as ours, but they did not, and we were t<K) proud to ask 
it. The crossing of the swam[) Avas quite ditticult. Only one 
could go over at a time, and he very slowly. The N'Yaiirkers 
onderstooil that trouble was iiemling, and they begsin mustering 
to receive us. From the wav thev turned out it was evident 
that we should have come over witli three hundivtl insteiui of 
two hundreil, but it was too Lite then to alter the prognim. 
As we came up a stalwart Irishman stepinxl out and askcni us 
what we wantetl. 

Biites replietl: " We have come over to get a watch that one 

of your fellows took from one of ours, ami by we're going 

to have it." 

The Irishnuin's ivply was etpially explicit though not strictly 

logic«d in construction. Said he: "We havn't got your 

watch, and I)e ye can't have it.'' 

This joineil the issue just jls fairly as if it had I>een done by 
all the documentary fonnulxe that ]KUisc«l iM^twtvn Turkey and 
Russia prior to the late war. Bates and the Irishman then ex- 

150 A2n>EB80irVILLE. 

changed vcrr derogatory opinions of each other, and began 
striking with their clubs. The rest of us took this as our cue* 
and each, selecting as small a K'Yaarker as we could readily 
find, Buileil in. 

There is a very expressive bit of slang coming into general 
use in the West, which s{)eaks of a man *^ biting off more than 
he can chew." 

That is what we had done. AVe had taken a contract that 
we should have divided, and sub-let the bigger half. Two 
minutes after the engagement l)ocame general there was no 
doubt ttiat we would have been much l>etter off if we had 
staid on our own side of the ci'eek. Tlie watch was a very 
poor one, anyhow. We thought we would just sjiy good day 
to our N' Vaark friends, and ivturn home hastily. But they 
declinoil to be left so precipitately. They wanted to stay with 
us awhile. It was lots of fun for them, and for the four 
thoasimd yelling sinrtators on the opjHJsite hill, who were 
greatly enjoying our disc'oiniitui*e. There was hanlly enough 
of the amus«»ment to gi» cl«»ar anmnd, however, and it all fell 
short just iM'fore it nsu-hed us. We i^arnt'stly wishtnl that 
some of th*» buys wnuUl conio ovor and ln»lp us let go of the 
JfYaarki^is, but they wore t-njoyiiig the thing too much to 

We w<MX» driven down thr hill, pdl-iui'll. with the X'Yaarkers 
pursuin;r hotly with yoll and l»lu\v. At th*» swamp we tried to 
makt* a stand to sei-un* our passair»» a<T«isN. but it was only \kxT' 
tially sucri'ssful. Vitv frw irnt bafk without souif S4»vere 
hurts, and many nn-fivtHl l»|uws tliat ;ri'<'atly liast4*niMl their 

Aft«T this iht» N'Vaarkri-s brraTm* lM»l<h»r in tlioir roblH.»ries, 
ami mi»rt» arriiiTJint in tln'ir tli'iufanur than <*vit. and w«» had 
the jMMir ri'ViMiL'i* u|Min \\u*^* who wnuld imi assist us, of stving 
a reign of lcrix»r iiiaugurat<Hl over lla* whulc cauip. 

DDcnnBHnro rations — ▲ dkadlt cold raik — HOTSRnro otxe 


The rations diminished perceptibly day by day. When we 
first entered we each received something over a quart of toler- 
ably good meal, a sweet potato, a piece of meat about the size 
of one's two fingers, and occasionally a spoonful of salt. First 
the salt disappeared. Then the sweet potato took unto itself 
wings and flew away, never to return. An attempt was osten- 
sibly made to issue us cow-peas instead, and the first issue was 
only a quart to a detachment of two hundred and seventy men. 
This was two-thirds of a ])int to each squad of ninety, and made 
but a few spoonfuls for each of the four messes in the squad. 
When it came to dividing among the men, the beans had to be 
counted. Nobody received enough to pay for cooking, and we 
were at a loss what to do until somebody suggested that we 
play poker for them. This met general acceptance, and after 
that, as long as beans were drawn, a large portion of the day 
was spent in absorbing games of '^ bluff'' and ^^draw/' at a 
bean " ante,** and no " limit.** 

After a number of hours* diligent playing, some lucky or 
skillful player would be in possession of all the beans in a meaSi 
a squad, and sometimes a detachment, and have enough for a 
good meaL 

Next the meal began to diminish in quantity and deteriorate 
in quality. It became so exceedingly coarse that the common 
remark was that the next step would be to bring us the com in 
the shock, and feed it to u^ like stock. Then meat followed 


suit with tho rest. The rations docreasoil in size, ami the nnm* 
btT of days that wimIIiI not get any, k<»i»t constantly increasing 
in pro|)urtii»n to the thiys that we did, until eventually the meat 
bad<* us a tinai adieu, and j(>ine<l the sweet ]K>tato in that 
undiscuveretl countrv from whose bourne no ration ever 

The fufl an<I huildini; material in the st<x'kade were sjXKHlily 
exhaiistttl. The later comers had nothing whatever to build 
shelt«'r with. 

Ihit. aftrr the Sprimr rains had fairly set in, it seemed that 
we had not tastc<l uiImtv until then. AlNuit the nmUile of 
March the windows of ht*avrn <»iN'n(*d, and it l>i*gan a niin like 
that of the time of Noidi. It w:istro|iieal in(|uantity ami {H^i'sis^ 

tencv, and aivtic in trmiMTature. For drearv hours that 

. I • 

len;:then«Ml into weary days and ni<;hts, and these again into 
never-endinir wn*ks, tin* <lrivin;:. ilnMichin;: thnMl |)oured down 
u\Km the S(Nld(*n eariii. sfarrhiii^r thr vrry marn>w of the live 
thousiind ha)»I«*s> men airainst whos«*ehilled frames it In^at with 
pitih*ss monotony, and snak«M] tlie s«iiid bank u|M)n wliich we lay 
until it was like a s|mhii:.' tilled with ice-wuter. It scvms tome 
now that it must have bi'iMi two or three weeks that the sun 
was wholly hidden iN-himl the drip]>in^ clouds, not .shining out 
om*«» in all that time. Tli«' intervals when it did not rain were 
rare an<l sli<»rl. An hour's n's]»itv^ wouhl 1k» f<ilIowe<l by a day 
of .steady, ifgnlar |H»ltiMir of tli«* great rain <In»j»s. 

I tiiul that till* n]Nirt i»f the Smithsonian Institute gives tho 
avt*niire annual niinfall in the siM-titm an>und And«*rs4»nville, at 
fifty-six inelh-s nearly livi'f^'^-t — while that of fi»ggy Knglaml 
is ojilv thirtv-twii. Our exih-rii'Mee Avould lead me to think 

• * 1 

that W*» e-ot tiie livi» feet all at oiu-e. 

AVe lii-st e«imelN, w ho had huts, were mea.surablv l><'tter off 
than the later arrivals. It was much dri«'r in tair h^af- 
thatched tents. an«l we \vi*re >|»;inNl mueh <if tin* annoyance 
that Ciiiiiis fn»m thi* sTe.iilv ilasli uf rain a;;ainsl the \xmI\' for 

The o»ndition of tlm-^e who had no ti'Uts was truly ]»itiable. 
Thev s;it or lay on thi» hill-side tin* live-long «lay and night, 
anti t«Mik the witshing tlow with buch gloomy coui|H.»sure a:i they 
coulil mtister. 


All solJiers will agree with me that there is no campaignipg- 
harship coni{>arable to a cold rain. One can brace up against 
the extremes of heat and cold, and mitigate their inclemency 
in various ways. But there is no esca])ing a long-continue<l, 
chilling niin. It seems to penetrate to the heart, and leach 
awav the very vital force. 

The only relief attainable was found in huddling over little 
fires kept alive by small groups with their slender stocks of 
wood. As this wood was all pitcli-pine, that burneil with a 
very sooty flume, the effect ujxm the apiK'anince of the hover- 
ers was startling. Face, neck and hands became covered with 
mixture of lampblack and tuqx'ntine, forming a coating aa 
thick as heavy brown paj)er, and absolutely irremovable by 
water alone. The hair also ^ame of midnight blackness, and 
gummed up into elf-locks of fantastic shai^e and etfect. Any 
one of us could have gone on the negro minstrel stage, without 
changing a hair, and put to blush the most elaborate make-up 
of the grotes(jue burnt-cork artists. 

No wooil was issued to us. The only way of getting it was 
to stand around the gate for hours until a guard otf duty could 
be coaxe<l or hired to accomj)any a small jwrty to the woods^ 
to bring back a load of such knots and liml>s as could be picked 
up. Our chief iK?rsuaders to the guartls to do us this favor 
were rings, ])encils, knives, combs, and such triHt»s as we might 
have in our ixK-kets, and, more esiK.»cially, the bniss buttons on 
our unifonns. Kebel soldiers, like Indians, nogi-os and other 
imjierfwtly civilized people, were jvassiunately fond of bright 
and gaudy things. A handful of bnLss buttons would catch 
every one of them as swiftly and as surely as a piwe of retl 
flannel will a gudgtHjn. Our regular fee for an escort for three 
of us to the w<xk1s was six over-cujat or drusscoat buttons, or ten 
or tAvelve jacket buttons. All in the nu^s contriimtiHl to this. 
fun«l, and the fuel obtaineil was carefully guanletl and hus- 

This manner of conducting the wooil busim^s is a fair sam- 
j>le of the manap'ment, or rather the lack of it, of every other 
detail of prison administration. All the hardshi|is we sutTere<i 
from lack of fuel and shelter couhl have been prevente*! with- 
out the slightest exi)ense or trouble to the Confeilerucy. Two 


hundred men allowed to go out on parole, and supplied with 
axvtk would have bivught in from the adjacent woods, in a 
wivk*s tinuN cmni^h niatorial to make everybody comfortable 
teatH, and to supply all the fuel nee<ied. 

The mortality causixi by the storm was, of course, very 
^rt^t. The oiticial reiK^rt says the total number in the prison 
in Muivti wtui four thous;uul six hundreil and three, of whom 
two humlriHt and oi^hty-threo died. 

Anu>n^ the tlrst to die was the one whom we expected to 
livo lon^t'At, Ho wiu^ by much the largest man in prison, and 
wan ralUnL )hx*uusc^ of this, *' Kio Jok.'' He was a Sergeant in 
tho Fifth IVnnsylvania (^aviUry, and seemed the picture of 
hiMilth. Ono morning the news nin through the prison that 
** Uig «loo is tlt^id/* and a visit to his squad showed his stiiT, 
lifi'liytM form, iHVupying as much ground as Uoliah's, after his 
omxumtor with Huvid. 

UiM i^irly ilomisi' wjis un oxampK^of a general law, the work- 
ings i«f \\ hioh fow in tho army failiHl to notice. It was always 
tlio lurgtt and strong who first suixnimUHl to hanlship. The 
uliilwurt, hug^' hin)HHl« toil inurtnl men s^mk down earliest on 
I ho iiKiivh, yioMtnl smtnost to nudurial inlluences, and fell first 
uiulor tho iHtiuhnuHi otftvts of homo sioknoss, cx])osure and the 
priMitioUM of aniiY lifo. Tho slondor, withy lx)ys, as supple 
uu\l \\i%ik iM rats, hud iip]mrontIy tho nine lives of those ani- 
iimU. Thoiv woiv fow exroptit>n.s to this rule in the army — 
thorn woiv ii«iiio HI .Viuh«rsonviilo. I can rec\ill few or no 
iiiitaiu'«'A wlinv a largi\ slnmg, "hearty" man live<l through a 
(ww iiiduthii i»t iiupriM>iimoiit. The survivors were invariably 
\oMlhi, ut tho \rrgo of uuinluxKl. — slender, <|uiek, active, 
m«Hlu(iii N(atur«d telloWH, of a elKH.>rful tein]K*nunent, in whom 
Olio would h»i\o e\|KVtiHl ix»mi>anilively little jjoweis of endur- 

I ho llirorv whioh I o»»nslniettHl for my oAvn ])rivale use in 
ii. («iuiiitii^ lur thi.t phi'Momeium 1 otfer Avith ])n)[H*r ditlidenco 
1.1 .till* i« v\ ho III. IV U* lu M*an'h of a liyiM*thesis l** explain facts 
iUii itu\ lt.4\e oUm^iwhI. It is this: 


. Ih«< V iu-uhaii*n of tlio MihhI maintains health, and ccmso- 
.jki. iui\ liie i\\ vv.*i4-\inir away fiiMu the various piirts of the 
l>'ii^\ vhv (siiUvK-d oi \vi*iui»ut and |M»is<inous tissue, and replao- 
^«\^ lU^Mu w ilh Livoh, »li'uclure buiKhng material 


h. The man is healthiest in whom this process goes on most 
freely and continuously. 

c. Men of considerable muscular power are disposed to be 
sluggish ; the exertion of great strength does not favor circular 
tion. It rather retards it, and disturbs its equilibrium by con- 
gesting the blood in quantities in the sets of muscles called into 

d. In light, active men, on the other hand, the circulation 
goes on perfectly and evenly, because all the parts are put in 
motion, and kept so in such a manner as to promote the move- 
ment of the blood to every extremity. They do not strain one 
set of muscles by long contmued effort, as a strong man does, 
but call one into play after another. 

There is no compulsion on the readier to accept this specula- 
tion at any valuation whatever. There is not even any charge 
for it. I will lay down this simple axiom : 

iTo strong man is a healthy man — 

from the athlete in the circus who lifts pieces of artillery and 
catches cannon balls, to the exhibition swell in a country gym- 
nasium. If my theory is not a suificient explanation of this, 
there is nothing to prevent the reader from building up one to 
suit him better. 





There were two rei^iinents giianling us — the Twenty-Sixth 
AlaUima ami the Fifty-Fifth (f«H>r;ria. Never were two regi- 
ments of the same arinv more (lilfert^nl. The Ahilmmians were 
thesujieriursof the <ie<>r«rians in every way that one set of men 
could Ik* sniH'rior to anotlier. They wen» manly, sohlierly, 
and honorabh', when» tlie i f«»orpans were treaclierous and brutal. 
AVc had nothing toeomphiin of at tlie hands of the Ahdmmi- 
ans: we sutFeiXHl from the (uH»r<:ians everything that mean- 
spiritetl cnuMty c<»uld 4h»vis«». Th«» (HM»r«rians weiti always on 
the look-4ml for S4»m<*thin^^ tliat t)u*y could torture into such 
a|)|Kiivnt violation of miliM-s, as woidd justify th(»m in shtNiting 
men down; the Alal»;imiansin»v«»r tiretl until ihev wc^resjitislieil 
that a fhdiU'rate otftMisi' was inti*nde4l. I can iivall of mv own 
seeing at h*siNt a do/cn instances when']]ut»n of the Fifty-Fifth 
(teorjria kilhtl j>risoneis under tin* pivt«»nse that they were 
acri>ss the l)i»ad Line, when the victims weiv a vanl or moi-e fixini 
the Dca^l Line, and had n<»t the remotest idea of going any 

The tmlv man I ev<T knt»w to Ik? killc<l hv one of the 
Twenty-Sixth Alabama was nanunl llubUuil, from (.'hicago. 
Ills., and a mendn'r i>f tli«* Thirty-Ki;rhth Illinois. He had 
li>st one le^. and went hobblin^^ aUmt the camp on crutches, 
chattering continually in a loud, «lisf.onlant voic<\ saying all 
manner uf Imteful and ann<»ying things, wherever he »iw an 
opportunity. This and hi;» U-ak-like nose giiinetl f«>r him the 


name of " Poll Parrot." His misfortune caused him to be 
tolerated where another man would have been suppressed. 
By-and-by he gave still greiiter cause for offense by Ins obse- 
quious attempts to curry favor with Captain Wirz, who took 
him outside several times for pnri)osos that were not well 
explained. Finally, some houre after one of Poll Parrot's vis" 
its outside, a Rebal olfijer cam 3 in with a guard, and, pro- 
ceeding with suspicious directness to a tent which was the 
mouth of a large tunnel that a hundred men or more had been 
quietly pushing forward, broke the tunnel in, and took the 
oocupants of the tent outside for punishment. The question 
that demanded immediate solution then was — 

** Who is the traitor who has informeil the Rebels ? " 

Suspicion })ointed very strongly to *' Poll Parrot." By the 
next morning the evidence collected seemeil to amount to a 
certainty, and a crowd caught the Parrot with the intention of 
lynching him. lie succeeiled in breaking away fi*om them and 
ran under the Dead Line, near wliere I was sitting in my tent. 
At first it lookeil as if he had dune this to secure the protection 
of the guard. The latter — a Twenty-Sixtii Alabamian — or- 
dered him out. Poll Parrot rose up on his one leg, put his 
back against the Dead Line, faced the guard, and said in his 
harsh, cackling voice : 

"No; I won't go out. If Pve lost the confidence of my 
comrades I want to die.' 

l*art of the crowd were taken back by this move, and felt 
disposed to accept it as a demonstnition of the Parrot's inno- 
cence. The rest thought it was a piece of brnvado, because of 
his belief that the Kein^ls would not injure him after he had 
serveil them. They renewed their yells, the guard again or- 
dered the Parrot out, but the latter, tearing o{)en his blouse, 
cackled out : 

** No, I won't go ; fire at me, guard. There's my heart ; 
shoot me right there." 

There was no help for it. The PcIkjI leveh^l his gun and 
fired. The charge struck the Parrot's lower jaw, and carried 
it completely away, Iwiving his tongue and the roof of his 
mouth exjJosed. As he was carried Uick to die, he waggo<l his 
tongue vigorously, in attempting to sjvak, but it was of no use. 



"INiI.I. TAKlMiT'' A lit N 111 .MKKLl'uN THK GUARD — A UKUTAL 


Tlifn» won* two n»iriin*Mils i^uanlini; us — tlio Twrntv-Sixth 
Alai>:iin:i and tin* Kilty-Kiflh (ftH>riria. NrvtT \v«mo two n»gi- 
montsuf tilt* s;iin«* aniiv iiion* (litr<T«'iit. Tlu* AlalKiinians woro 
lhesii]H'riorsi>f tin* (•♦••n'^'-iaiis in rvi-ry way tliat oin* sot «»i' men 
c<iiil*l Ik* sii|HTinr to anntlirr. TIm'V w«'n» manly, soMiiTly, 
antl iioiionilili'. wIht*' tli«' <ii'«iririans wrn* tn*arlifM*ons and liriital. 
AVe had not)iin«r tiir(»in)ilain «•! at tlio hands of tho Ahihami- 
ans : w«j sntTt^nHl from ihr <Mor«riaiis r\«M*vtliin<r lliat nu^an- 
s|»irili*d crnt'lty o»uld <h*viNi'. 'flir < HM)r;rians won* always on 
tht* liHikoul fur s<»mt'lhiii:: that thi'V rniijd tnrtmv int«> such 
appariMil vi«»lation «if nrd»'r^, as wmild justify th«*m in shiNitin^' 
incndtiwn: th«* Alaliamiansu>-v«T liivd uittil tlicv wrn*s;itislio4l 
that a (h'hU'ralc ntrcnst* was iritnuhHl. I can phmII nf niv own 
Stvin''" at h'a>t ud«»/.cn in>tauri'> wln»ri*]mrn nfijji* Kiftv-Fifth 
(iiNH'tria kilh^l j»ris<ini'is und<T lli«* pr«*t«'nM' that tln-y woro 
ac'i'tiss the Pfail |jn«*, wIkmi thfviriims wen* a vat'dnrmoit^fmni 
the l)<*at| Linr. anil liad tint tht* r(.-m<»te>t id«'a of p»in;;' any 

The onlv man I evi-r knrw to U* killitl hv onr of the 
Twi-ntv-Sixtli Alaliama wa** nami'il lluhhaiil, fr«»m ('hieairt>, 
IIU., and a miMn)N*r of tin* Tliirt\ -Ij-^hth Illinois. Id* had 
lost on«* h'l:. and \\<-nt holililiii^r aWout tlir eam|> on cTutelii.N, 
i'iiatt«-riTi*' routinuailv in a loud. di>i'onlant v«»io*, SiiVLn>r all 
manner of hat<.'ful anil annitviiii: tliiiiL''N wh«*n*v<*r he s;iw an 


opjMjrt unity. This ami his iM-ak-hke no»e /^Mint^tl ftir him the 


The guard set his gan down and buried his face in his hands. 
It was the only time that I saw a sentinel show anything but 
exultation at killing a Yankee. 

A ludicrous contrast to this took place a few nights later. 
The rains had ceased, the weather had become warmer, and our 
spirits rising with this increase in the comfort of our surround- 
ings, a number of us were sitting around " Nosey " — a boy 
with a superb tenor voice — who was singing patriotic songs. 
We were coming in strong on the chorus, in a way that spoke 
vastly more for our enthusiasm for the Union than our musical 
knowledge. "Nosey" sang the "Star Spangled Banner," 
" The Battle Cry of Freedom," " Brave Boys are They," etc., 
capitally, and wo threw our whole lungs into the chorus. It 
was quite dark, and while our noise was going on the guards 
changed, new men coming on duty. Suddenly, bang ! went 
the gun of the guard in the box about fifty feet away from us. 
We knew it was a Fifty-Fifth Georgian, and supposed that, 
irritated at our singing, he was trying to kill some of us for 
spite. At the sound of the gun we jumi)ed up and scattered. As 
no one gave the usual agonizc<l yell of a prisoner when shot, we 
supposed the ball had not taken effect. We could hear the 
sentinel ramming down another cartridge, hoar him *' return 
rammer,'- and cock his ritle. Again tlie^n cnickeil, and again 
there was no sound of anybody being hit. Again we could 
hear the sentry churning down another cartridge. The drums 
b^;an beating the long roll in the camiis, and ulKcers could be 
heard turning the men out. The thing was becoming exciting, 
and one of us sang out to the guard : 

"S-a-y ! What the are you shooting at, any how I" 

"I'm a shootin* at that Yank lliar, hv the Dead 

Line, and by if you*uns don*t take him in Til blow the 

whole head off'n hmi." 

" What Yank ? Where's an v Yank ? " 

"Why, thar — right thar — a-stamlin agin the Deil Line." 

"Why, you Itcbel fool, that's a chunk of wood. You 

can^t get any furlough for shooting that ! " 

At this there was a general roar from the rest of the cam{), 
which the other guards took up, and as the Itetierves came 
double^uicking up, and learned the occasion of the alarm, they 


gave the rascal who had been so anxious to kill somebody a 
torrent of abuse for having disturbed them. 

A part of our crowd had been out after wood during the 
day, and secured a piece of a log as large as two of them could 
carry, and bringing it in, stood it up near the Dead Line. 
When the guard mounted to his post he was sure he saw a 
temerarious Yankee in front of him, and hastened to slay him. 

It was an unusual good fortune that nobody was struck. It 
was very rare that the guards fired into the prison without hit- 
ting at least one person. The Georgia Reserves, who fonned 
our guards later in the season, were armed with an old gun 
called a Queen Anne musket, altered to percussion. It carried 
a bullet as big as a large marble, and three or four buckshot. 
When fired into a group of men it was sure to bring several 

I was standing one day in the line at the gate, waiting for a 
chance to go out after wood. A Fifty-Fifth Georgian was the 
gate guard, and he drew a line in the sand with his bayonet 
which we should not cross. The crowd behind pushed one man 
till he put his foot a few inches over the line, to save himself 
from falling ; the guard sank a bayonet through the foot as 
quick as a flash. 



So far only ohl pris<^ners — those taken at Gettysburg, 
Chicaniau^ra ami Mine Kun — liatl lx»**n brought in. The armies 
Lad lieen very (|UR't chirin«r the Winter, ]»n»]>aring for the death 
gnipple in the Sprinij. Theiv liad Ixm notiiin^ thme, save a 
few cavalry niids. such as our own, ami Averill's attempt to 
gain and break up thi.» ilflM'l salt works at Wvtheville, and 
ISaltviiUv (\»ns*M|Ucntly none but a few cavalry prisoners were 
ad<le<l to thi* numlNM* aliva«lv in the haiuls of the licU'ls. 

The fii-st lot of new ont^s camtMn alN>ut the middle of March. 
Theiv wen» aiM>ut seven hundi*e4l of them, who had Invn cap- 
tuntl at the Uittleof Oolustei*. Kla., on the 2oth of Februarv. 
About live hundreil of them were white, and Ix'lontrtHl to the 
Seventh ('onn<"iiuut, the Si'Vi'iith New Ilami»shiiv, Forty- 
SeviMith. Foiiv-Ki«'lith ami OnellundriMl and FiftiMMith New 
Y«»rk, and Sherman's n*;:ular l»;itterv. The n*st wen* colon*<K 
and iM'lon^ntl to the Ki;;hlh Fnited JStates, and Fifty-Fourth 

Tiie storv thev t<»ld of the kittle was one which ha<l manv 

• • • 

shaiiK'ful rtiti»rjitions durim; the war. It was the st«»rv told 
whenever I'anks. Stur«:is, Hutler. or one of a lnjst of simihir 
smaller failun-s weiv intrust4*«l with commands. It was a 
iiens«*less waste of the lives of private sohlit*rs, and the pn»jK»rty 
of the Tniteil states by pn*teulioiis blundercn&y who, iu some 


inscrutable manner, had attuiniMl to>Ie commands. In 
this instance, a bungling Brigadier named Seymoro had 
marched his forces across tlu; State of Florida, to do he hanlly 
knew what, and in the neighlM)rhtM.Hl of an enemy of whose 
numbei's,dis{)osition, location, and intentions he was profoundly 
ignorant. The Kel>els, under (Jeneral Finnegjin, waito<l till he 
had strung his command along through swamfH an<l cane 
brakes^ scores of miles t'l'om his supixirts, and then fell unex- 
pectedly ui)on his advance. The n^giinent was over[X)wered, 
and another regiment that hurried up to its sup|H>rt, suffered 
the same fate. The balance of the i-egiments weiv sent in in 
the same manner — each amving on the Held just after its pre- 
decessor had lHM.m thoroughly whi])|KMl by the concentrated 
force of the IIcIk'Is. The men fought gjillantly, but the 
stupidity of a Commanding (ieneral is a thing that the goils 
themselvi^ strive agiiinst in vain. We sulft^red a humiliating 
defeat, with a loss of two thousand men and a fine ritle<l bat- 
tery, which was brought to Andersonville and [>laced in |M>si- 
tion to nmimami the ]»rison. 

The mjijority of the Seventh New IIami>shire were an un- 
wek'ome adtliti«)n to our numln'rs. Thev were N'Yaarkers — 


old time colh»agues of thos4» already in with us — veteran 
bounty jumiK^iN, that had In^i^n dniwn to Nt»w Hampshire by 
the size of the bounty olft^nMl {\u*rv, and had l)e<Mi assigned to 
fill up the Avasttnl n«nks of tin* v<*teran Seventh ivgiment. 
Thov had trie^l to dt\st»rt as s<»on as tlu'V n»eeiv«Ml their Inmntv, 
but the (fovernment ehing to tluMu literally with lMM>ks of st«H»l, 
Bending many of them to iIh» n'ginient in irons. Thus foilinl, 
they <li'si*rtiHl ti> the* KeiM'ls during the ivtivat fn»m tin* l»attle- 
lield. Thry wrn» (piite an accession to the force of our 
N'Yaarkers, and heljHHl nuieh to i-stablish tiie ii(MMllum reign 
which was short Iv inauirurattHl i»ver thu whole nrison. 

The F<»rtv-Kiirhth Nfw York<-rs who eam<» in Aven» a s(»t of 

* • 

cha]>s s<» <Kld in ev(»rv way as to Ik» a soihv»» of never-failing 

intenst. Th<» nam** of tlnir n'«:imt'nt Avas L' /utr'ftnfs Pt/uiu 

(the I-ost Childn'U), whirh w«» angliei/.tHl itito ** The Lost 

Ducks." It was lM'liev«Ml that ('Vrry nation in Kiin»|M» was n»|>- 

rcHf^nteil in their ninks, and it uscil to Ik* said jonilarlv. that no 

two of them siMjke the s;ime languagt\ As near :is I could lind 



out tljrv wore all or noarly all South Kuropoans, Italians, Sjiaii- 
ianls, Portii^U4\si', lA^v^iutiui's, witli a pivUouiinaiico of the 
FnMicli olcMnt'iit. Tlu'V wore a littlu cap with an uptunioJ 
brinu and a stnip restini^ on the chin, a coat with funny littlo 
talcs alniut two inches lon;^. and a hr:iss chain across the breast; 
and for pantahxMis tlicv liad a s<.>rt of a jictticoat reaching to 
tlie knees, and scwe<l to;^ether down tho middle. Tliey were 
just iu» sin^^ular otiierwise as in their looks, sikh^cIi and uniform. 
On one occ;tsion tiie wimlc nn>l> of us went over in a mass to 
their s^piad to see them e(K)k and cat a large water snake, 
whicli two of them IkuI succ<M.Hled in capturing in the swanij^is, 
and carruNl otf to their mess, jahherini^ in high glee over their 
trciusure tn>ve. Any of tuf weixi ivady to eat a pii?ce of dog, 
cat, horse or mule, if we could get it, but, it was generally 
agiXKNl, as Dawson, of my company expivss4.Hl it, that "Xolxxly 
but one of tiiem darned ipu-er Lost Ducks would eat a varmint 
like a water snake/' 

Major All K.»rt l>o«rle, of tho Kightli Tnittnl States, (colored) 
bail fallen into the iiands of the UcIm^Is hv n^ason of a severe 
wound in the leg, which left him helph'ss ujMjn the Held at 
Oolust4V. The Kt»lH*ls treate<l him with studie<l indignity. 
Thev utterlv refused to r»x*o'niize him as an ollicer, or even as 
a man. Insteail of InMUg sent to Macon or Columbia, where 
the other ollicers weiv, he was sent to Antlers«»n\ ille, the same 
as an enlistiHl man. No care was given his wound, no surget.»n 
wouM examine it or dnss it. He was tlir«)wii into asttKtk car, 
without a \hhI or blanket, and iiauled over the niuirh, jolting 
road to Amlei"sonville. Once a ii«»l»el <»Hiri*r nnle up and liretl 
severed shots at him, as he lay In-lpless nn the car thnir. For- 
tunately the KelN>rs marksmanship was as bail as his intentions, 
and none of the sh(»ts t«N)k (*tr<i't. lie wa.s placetl in a s«|Uad 
near me, and coniiK.*lh*tl t(» g«'t uj) and li(»bble into line wht.>n 
the rest were mustennl f«»r n»il-oall. No «»p|N»rtunily in in>ult 
*' the ni;rir«'r olHrrr.'' was ni'«''li.H.-ti'«l, and the N"Vaarki'.> vietl 
with the KeU'ls in heaping' abuse U|Hin him. II«.* was a fine, 
intelligent young man, and Uav it all with dignltlt.Nl seIf-iH»s- 
scssion, until after a la|is«* nf some w«.-«'ks the i^eU'ls cliange«l 
their [hjUcv and tcMjk him Iivm the prison lu s<;iLd to where tho 
otlker ollicers wen5. 


The negro soldiers were also treated as badly as possible. 
The wounded were turned into the Stockade without having 
their hurts attended to. One stalwart, soldierly Sergeant had 
received a bullet which had forceil its way under the scalp for 
some distance, and partially imbedded itself in the skull, where 
it still remained lie suffered intense agony, and would pass 
the whole night walking up and down the street in front of 
our tent, moaning distressingly. The bullet could be felt 
plainly with the fingers, and we were sure that it would not be 
a minute's work, with a sharp knife, to remove it and give the 
man relief. But we could not prevail upon the Rebel Surgeons 
even to see the man. Finally intlammation st>t in and he died. 

The negros were made into a squad by themselves, and taken 
out every day to work around the prison. A white Sergeant 
was placed over them, who was the object of the contumely of 
the guards and other Kebels. One day as he was standing near 
the gate, waiting his orders to come out, the gate guard, with- 
out any provocation whatever, drop|)ed his gun until the muzzle 
rested against the Sergeant's stomach, and fired, killing hini 

The Sergeantcy was then offered to me, but as I had no acoi- 
dent policy, I was constrained to decline the honor. 




April broujjrlit siinnv skies ami balmy weatlier. " Existence 
bec;iine much moiv l<»l<*ral)le. With freedom it would have 
been enjoyahle, even had we Ihimi no better fed, clotheil and 
shelteretl. lUit imprisonment l)ad never seemed so hard to 
bear — even in ihc lirsi few weeks — as now. It was easier to 
submit to eontincnicnt to a limited an^a, when cold and niin 
wen» aiding: hun;r»*r to bciuimh the faculties and cliill the ener- 
gies llian it was iii»w, whrn Nature was ri»usin«r her slumix*ring 
fon.'^'s to activitv, and raiih, and air anil skv weiti tilled with 
stimuhis t<» man t<> imitate her exam]»le. The yearning to be 
up and <A///*7 A/////. /////« 7 — ti» turn these golden ii(>ui*s to gotid 
acconnt fm* si'lf and cniintrv — prt'.^srd into licart ami brain as 
the vivify in;: sap prt'>MM| into tfce-duct ami phmt cell, awaking 

all VrLt'lalin!! \n r]]rV'j\-\\c lifr. 

T*» l>t» ci'in|MHrd, al such a time, to li«»arnuml in vacuous i*lle- 
ness — to s|Ninl days tliat sh«)ultl in' crowd^'il full of action in 
a DliJiTtlrss n^utint* of liunting lic(\ g:itherin!; at 
rolI-4-all. and drawing aiul c<H>king our scoity rations^ was 

Iiul li» many of nur numlnT the a^pir.itions for frt^Mlom were 
not, as witli u^. the ilc^iii* fur a wi<lrr. manlier lirlil nf action, 
so much UN an inti-n**!* l*»!ii::!i:: to m'l whei"e care and comforts 
wt>uld aiTi-?»t ihrlr >'.vift pn«;rrcvs to the siiailowy hen 'after. 
Tii»* cruel rain^ ha»l -^tpjH'.l nwiiy ih<'ir >tamina, and tliey couhl 
ni»l n'<*ov«'r it witli tlif mumiT'T and innulrilious diet of co;n>e 
meal, and an (•i'i-a'»i"nal >ciap 4»f salt meal, ijuick consumj^- 
tiou, bruuchilis, puuuiu-juia, lo«v fever and diarrhea seized U[h>u 



these ready victims for their ravages, and bore them off at the 
rate of nearly a score a day. 

It now became a part of the day's reRiilar routine to take a 
walk {Hist the gates in the morning. insjxM^t and count the dead, 
and see if any friends were among them. Clotlii'S having by this 
time become a very important cunsidenition with the prisoners, 
it was the custom of the mess in wliich a man died to removo 
from his |»erson all giiniients that were of any account, and so 
many IkkIjcs ivere C4irried out nearly naked. The hands were 
cn>sse<l iii>on the breast, the higtcK-s tied together with a bit of 
string, and a slip of )u<|H>r containing the man's name, nink, 
oimimny and ivgiment was ])iiiniHl on tlit> lireiist of his shirt. 

Tin- apjti-anuKv <if the dead Wiis ind<'Sfribjibly ghastly. The 
ur.cUisc«l eyes shone with a stony glitter — 

Mill <lr»: lo hdl 

1* ihr viiMr' III ■ di-ml n^u'v rjo. 

Till- liiN and nostrils were distorti-<l with pain and hunger, the 
Sidlow. dit-t-frriiiHtl skin drawn tenst'ly over the facial Umes, 
and tb« whole fiiuuetl with the long, lank, matte<i hair and 
bean). Milliims of lice swaniied over the wasto<l limbs and 
ridged ril»s. These verminous [n-sts had become mi numerous 
— owing to our lack of changes of clothing, and ot facilities for 
boiling what we had — that tho most a Iniilthy man couhl do 
was to keep the number fectling u|>on his jK-rson down to a 
reasomtblo limit — siiy a few tablo- 
BiNM)nfuls. When a man betvime so 
sick as to In.- unable to help himself, 
the lurasitiii s{XHilily inciviijif<l into 
millions, or. ti> s|K>ak more compre- 
hensively, into pints and ipiarts. It 
did not even si-eni exajrgeration 
' when stnue one declared that he luul 
seen a deiul man with more than a 
g;illon of lice on him. 

Th<>n; is no doubt that the irrita- 
tion from the biting of these myria<ls 
uf ins«.<cts ubridgetl very materially the days uf those wIh) died. 


TVhore n sick Tnnn Iiad friends or commdos, of course part of 
their duty, in takin^r caiv of liini, was to 'Mouse*' his clothing. 
One of the most ollVctnal ways of doing this was to turn the 
garments wroii*; side out and hold tlie soains as close to the lire 
&u> ]N)ssiI>k\ witliout hiirningtlio cloth. In a shoil time the lice 
would sW4>ll u]) and iiur-st o|N'n, likt^ ]N)|)-corn. This method 
was a favoril<* oni' for another reason than its clTicacy : it gave 
onr a ktHn«M* M-ns** oi n-veii;:** u|N»n his rascally little torment- 
ore than h«' c*»!dd irct in anv otiier wav. 

As the w«»ath«T prew warmer and the numher in the prison 
incrcnsiHi, the lice Ixrame more unendurable. Thev even filled 
the hot smd undiT our fiH't. and voracious tnx>])S would climb 
up on one liki* .strt'ams of ants swarmin;^ up a tree. AVebegsin 
to have a full com prel Mansion of the ttiird plague with which 
the I-onl visit«'<l the K^ryptians: 

And t)i«- I^tnl ^a''! tii.Ni M ••••■-. S.iy iint'i A.irr'n. Stn-trh not thj rod, and smite the dnft of 
the laml. Itial !t liia.> U-i lU-if Im tr.ri'iijh :i.; ttif tif K^'X'*. 

And itji V i!.d •>«> : for .\iin'ii ptri (• rir>f nui In- li.iinl Mitli Uit^ nnl, and imnte the dut of tba 
cmrtli. It l;«-t .inn- j'm- in maii aihI in Wu^i ; hli tin.* du^t i>f thv Uitd bi-cAinc lice throiighont 
all thr Uiiil fif M/>j>( 

Tin* tr>tjd iiumlNT of draihs in April, acconljngto the ofllcial 
re|K>rl. was livf Iinndr<'<l aiMJ M-vtiiiy si.\, or an averjigc» of over 
ninel^M-n a <!ay. 'rin'ri*\\as an avri'ap* of live thousiind pris- 
oners in till- jM-n durinL^aii Ijut the frw days of the month, 
when the nunilnr was iiiriraMNl j»y ilii» arrival of the captured 
giirrisnn of riyinnuth. 'J'lus w«iuid makf the Io>s 4iver eleven 
JH.T crnt.. and so worsi* liian drcimaiittn. At that nite we 
should all l..i\i' di«'il in ali'iiit eiL^'ht niuntiis. Wr C4»uld have 
gi»ne thn«u;^'li a ^harp lampa.L^n laslin;: liiose thirty davs and 
not li»>t S4J u'«;«t a priiiMiiiHi!! I't" our Imh-i's. 'J'Ii,» l*.l•ili^^l li^J 
alniul a> iiiaiiv nun as wii*' i!j tin' St«MkaiIeat the kittle of 
NfW c»rlia!>. \«-l ihi-ir !•■>> m kiliiil li-U much slmrl uf the 
d»-iitl.> in tilt- |N!i in AjTil. 

A niakf.sii.ii ••!' a li'i>pital was isi:i]»li^!ir«l in tjn' nnriJj«»astern 
ci»rner ^f ti.f MiHl\a«i«-. A ptniifn ^f iIh- ^Mtiuml wa.s tlivideil 
fn»m till- r»-t 4»f tLf pn>iin i^y a railing', a Uw uni llus were 
stn-trliiij. and in tl.fM* ti;** l«»:ii: It a\i-s nf ili,» pnn* wt'iv made 
int«» a['<'i«'i::ts fi»r Uils of al^iut thi* i;*Mnljir<N nf the straw on 
whliii a Ni'rtiii-rn larnn-r \ntU l.> Nt.H-ix. Tin- ^'ik takt-n there 
were no Utter olf tlian il li.«-y lui»l .siaul with tiicir c<imnules. 



What they needed to bring 'about their rocovery waa 
ck'an clothing, nutritious food, stielter and freedom from the 
tortures of the lice. They obtained none of these. Save a 
fen' decoctions of roots, there were no medicines; the sick 
were fed the same coarso corn meal that brought about the 
malignant dysentery from which they all suffered ; they wore 
and slept in the same vennin-infestcd clothes, and there could 
be but one result : the oflicial records eIiow that seventy-six 
per cent, of those taken to the hosjiital-s died there. 

The establishment of the hospital was s[>ocia]ly unfortunate 
for my little stgund. The ground required for it compelled a 
genend reiluction of the s\>aoo we tdl occupied. "We had to 
tear down our huts and mo%'e. By this time the materials bad 
become so dry tliat we could not rebuild with them, as the pine 
tofts fell to pieces. This retluced the tent and bedding material 
of our party — now numbering five — to a cavalry overcoat 
and a blanket. 'We Bcoo]>ed a hole a foot deep in the sand and 
stuck our tent-poles around it. By day we spread our blanket 
over the poles for a tent. At night we lay down upon the 
overcoat and covered ourselves with the blanket It required 
considerable stretching to m:iku it go over five; the two out- 
side fellows used to get very chilly, and squeeze the three 
inside ones until they felt no thicker than a wafer. But it had 
to do, and we took turns sleeping on the outside In the 
course of a few weeks three of my chums died and left myself 
attd B. B. Andrews (now Dr. Andrews, of Astoria, HL) soto 
heirs to and occupants of, the overcoat and blanket 

VTRIPriNn 1UK |iK.\n Fi>K iLilTUEB, 


»AI:I:A( K.-^ Tt» AMU IJ^«»NV1M.1: — a iKA/KO I'KNNaVLVANlAN 

m;vki.«ii'mim ok iuk .sriij:i: ui^^inl-s. 

Wt? :i\vnk(* niu' in lli«* last j)nrt of April. tt> fiiiil 
alniut Iwn t!iiiii>:iMil Iri'-lily i!i'i-ivf*l priviutTs lying aslrt^p in 
tlj«* main >irriis nwijiijju iimmi tin* ;i;;ttt'.N. TIm'V wni* attiiinl in 
Ktvli.^li nrw imil'iii'!!!^. w iih l.nn-v ii.ii^ innl siiurs; ilir Sn":ri»anls 
anil < 'or|MiiMis v.Mir |«.ii.:ii IfMiin-riH- >ilU cii^vnin^:. and each 
man IuhI a liti-;:i-. \m II lili«<l K-ii.-ip>:i{-!v. <tt tiic kinil new n-i-ruits 
UNMaih C'li I ii il III] (fhiiiii: lii^t Im i!m' liitnt, and w liicli the 
dlih-r s«»l<lii-r?» >|Miki- i.t l:MiMnr«iii \\ ;{•%•• liiuriius." Thi'V wrro 
till' >IiM:.;j«>I. Is.ill .• -I !•■! «•! M»!iiii:^ v.i-liadrVrr Si'i'Il, nulsjdo 
of lln' •• ]•.!]•• r !«.,,. i" i.i!.i\\> ifiiiii.Mi: ih'- l:iadt|narit'r ;;iiai«l 
fit' >niiii' «M'!ii-::il ill a iai_r<-< ;^. A>« '•iii- of mv o»ni pan inns 
hur\«'\ t-(l t iii'iii. I.f >:i'il : 

•• iiulli^'. ! I'm iiLiiiki'il it" ti.r .Inlniiiii's havfii't L'an'dil a n*;;- 
im<-nt i'f l'r]L^»d:i» <n ?n i^U, ""imrw in ii-." 

|I\ and l»\ tin* " 1j» -ii r.'ii," n^ all ni'.»' airixaU \v«.'i*i' tfrnnnl, 
iMifitn !•! u ali'- ii|». afni \\\*-\\ w*- l»-.'i?j«il \\.\\\ lhi*y lnl«iii;.'rd l4> 
11 lnii.'adr r. ii>i*.: ; \: ni" li.*- Kj: 'v l-.ftii N«\v Vnik. < iiii* lliin- 
ilii-«l aiid V \v^\ jit.>i ^ *".f Huhiiri-d and T: ;id I '• Ji-'\ lv,i!ii;i. Six_ 
t«-i'nili < ■••ii!.i « r:ri;:. '!■.•.. rx rmijtii N^w ^..rii ILilbw. 1\m» 
(•Miiii»;iii;i"» ii:' M.I- ,i::.;- ■• :■* f i \ \ alt iilfix . a!id a i^-iJui-iinv nf 
tiir Niv. ^•.;,^ ( . \aii\. 

Tin-y l.;.'l lw«-n l';«M;-« r-.n^r i'l\ .riniith. N. <'.. an im|Min;iiit 
S<-ajN»rt on ih»- llijii.iil;!' I»;\ir. I: r«f Niii;iil iriniri. ..;;^ a^^^iNit-d 
tlit-m in liii-.r duty. TLf IIil*;?* * i-ii-Miiiii d a |'«i\\i!iul ii-iiii 
clail «-all«-'l til*' ** AllN-Mjai'I*-."* .it ;■. ]•••.!.» !ii! i!.'-i iipllii' U..ani«ki», 
and un li:v a:tiTn'"'U ul iii«- ITtii. wiiii iii-r and lhi\*o brig- 


adps of infantry, made an attack upon tlio post. Tlip " Albc- 
uiurle" ran ]uist t)ic fortii unliarmuil, sank one of tliL->;iint>uats, 
and (Irovo tli« otliors away, tilio then tumixl licr attentiun to 
tlie gjirrison, wliicli she took in the rear, while the infantry 
attacki-il in front. Our men hold out until the-intli. when they 
cupilnlatetl. They wereallowetl to retain their |H'rscinal elltcts, 
of all kinds, and, as is the case with all men in giirribon, these 
were consicieniblc. 

The One llumlnxl and First and One Ilumlred and Third 
Pennsylvania and Kijihty-Fifth Xevv York bad just " veteran- 
ized." ami ittvived their Jirst instalment of vetemn bounty. 
Had they not boeu attiukwl they wi>iild have s;iiled for homo 
in a day or two, (»n their vetemn fur- 
lough, and this acc<iunI(.Hl for their lino 
raiment. Tliey weit- made uj> of Iwiys 
from j:ood New York imd Pennsyl- 
vania faniihes, anil wt-iv. as a rule, 
intelli'^nt anil fairly eilueatoil. 

Their horn ir at tlienp]K'iiraneo of their 
plaee of incartenu ion was N-ynnd o.x- 
pi-e&sion. At one nionient tliey cotdd 
not ciiinpivliend tliat wediity and iing- 
garil tattenlenialtons had once Ih'ch 
dean, self-resiM-etin-;. well-fitl soldiers 
like themselves ; at the next they would 
alfirni that they knew they eonid not 
stand it a mouth, where we liail then 
endured it fiiim four to nine months. 
They t<jok it. in every way, the hardest 
of any prisoners that came in, except 
w»in<^ of the llundred-lJays' men, who 
weiv Itiiaijrht in iu Anjrust, from tho 
Valley of Virfrinia. They had serve»t 
in-ianrTn niuiiH. nearly ail their time in various frarrisons 
along the wacoast— rorlre*s Monro«'to licaufnit — where 
they had had com)>umtively little of the actual hanishii>s of soL 
diering in the Held. They had nearly always had eomfortahlo 
quarters, an alaindance of foixl. few hard ituirclies or other 
seven; service. t'oTisctpiently they were not so well hanlene<l 
for Andorsouville as the majority who came in. In other 

170 A>~llLlU>UXl'ILL£. 

n-siKfts tliiT worr Ix'ttcr prt'iiarc*!. ns tliey ha»l nn a1iiin<lAnce 
of dotliiii(^, blaiikeiD nii<l coukiog utensils, ami each iiutit bud 
sumo of liiii vett-nm tMiunty still in ]>ossessioii. 

It wjis ))aiiifiil to sw how rapidly many of them sank under 
the iiiiserifii of the t^ituation. They g:ivc up the moiuetit the 
gates were closed njion tliem, and bcf^an ]iiriing away. We 
older ]irisonei-s hiioyed ourselves up continually with hoi>es of 
eseain- or exeliange. "We dug tunnels with the ]»ersistence of 
heavers, an<l we watchetl every [>ossible opixirturiity to yet out- 
side the a<-('iirs<.-d walls of the ]»en. Ijut \vc could not enlist the 
interest of these tiiseoura^a'd ones in any of our schemes, or 
talk. They resigned themselves to Death, and waitetl desjMjnd- 
ingly till hi* came. 

A niiildle-a<re<l One llundi-cd and First Pennsylvanian, who 
liofl taken up his quarters near me, was an objcet of j)eculiar 
interest. I Reasonably intelligent and fairly ivad, I presume 
that he wiis a ri-s[(celahle nieehanie l^fore entering the Army. 
lie was evidently a very domestic man, whose whole happiness 
ccntere4l in his family. 

When he tirst eaiiie in lie was thoroughly dazcnl hy the great- 
ness of his misfiirtune. lie wonld sit for hours with his face 
in his hands and his elUiws on his knees, gjizing out ujion the 
mass of nivn and huts, with vacant. laek-histrr eyi-s. We 
conld n<)t inti-n-st him in anything. We triinl to slmw him 
how to fix his hhuiket n]i to give him sfmie shell<'r, bat he went 
at thu work in a disheartene<l way, and finally siniltHi feebly 
and st<ipj)ed, lie had some letters 
fmm his familvanda inelaine<ity|)e 
of a plain-fanti \vi>man — his wife 
— aiidlierehil<)n-n.:indsiM-nt mueh 
time in lo<iking at tii<-iii. At llrst 
he ate his nitions whvn he drew 
them. i'Ut Ihialiy lH-f.Mn lo n-jirt 
them. In a I.-vv diiys lie was deh- 
rious with huii;:>M- and liumi-siek- 
m->s. lie would sit on the sand 
for hours imagining that he was at 
1.11 .luiT I'uiriiioui. j^j_. f.,,„j|y ^jiiii^.j disjivnsinjf hid 

I'nigal hospitalitiea tu his \t ife and ehildivn. 


Making a motion, as if presenting a dish, he would say : 

" Janie, have another biscuit, do ! " 


"Eddie, son, won't you have another piece of this nice 
steak ! " 


** Maggie, have some more potatos," and so on, through a 
whole family of six, or more. It was a relief to us when he 
died in about a month after he came in. 

As stated above, the Plymouth men brought in a large 
amount of monev — variouslv estimateil at from ten thousand 
to one hundreil thousjind dollars. The presence of this quan. 
tity of circulating meilium immtHJiatdy stiirttnl a lively com- 
merce All sorts of devices were i*esorteil to by the other pris- 
oners to g(*t a little of this wealth. Kude chuck-a-luck boards 
were constructe<l out of such material as was atUiinable, and 
put in o{)eration. Dice an<l cards wore brought out by those 
skilled in such matters. As tliose of us alreadv in the Stock- 
ade occupied all the ground, there wiis no disiK>sition on the 
part of many to surrender a j portion of their sp;ice without 
exacting a pecuniary comjiensation. Messes having ground in 
a good location would frequently demand and got ten <lollars for 
pennission for two or three to quarter with them. Then there 
was a great demand for polos to stretch blankets over to make 
tents; the Kel)ol8, with their usual stupid cruelty, would not 
su])ply these, nor allow the prisoners to go out and get them 
themselves. Many of the ohler prisoners had }x>les to spare 
which they were siiving up for fuel. They sold these to tl^ 
Plymouth folks at the rate of ten dollars for three — enou^ 
to put up a blanket. 

The most consitlerable trading was done throns^h the gates. 
The Relxjl guanls were found quite as kei»n to Iwirter as they 
had been in KicIimon<I. Though the laws against their dealing 
in the monov of the enomv were still as sirinwnt as ever, their 
thirst for greenluicks was not alwteil one whit, and thoy were 
rwidv to st»ll anvthin;; thev had for the covet«»<l curn^nov. The 
rate of exchange was seven or oi^^lit dollaiN in (*onfi*denit6 
money for one <lollar in ^reenlwieks. AV<kk1, toliaceo, moat, 
flour, beans, molasses, onions and a villainous kind of whisky. 


ttuwte from eorglmm. were liie stiiple articles of trada A wbote 
nice of little IralHcktfnt m lliese iirticlew B|»PiiHg up, timl finally 
Sddt'n, tl.o Ht'U-1 QoarlrnnaBtpr. L-stul.liiJii-il a wiitli^r shop in 
the oenter of tlu' Nonli Si.k'. wliich lip put iD ciuu-jif uf Ira 
BoTorlj, of Ibe 0»« Ulu..Ii-Ii1. 'Jiiu,. .nut Lluuli.' Il.iokltiby, 


)nit:«mnT JtirAcK or tux kaipem. 

of the Eii^lh Tcnn«me«. It wua n Hne Ulnstnition of tbo 
der«lopni(Mit of the <vmnit>rciji] instinct in smuts mvn. Xo 
motv uolikfly plucu fur makinj; m(inf_>y rtKilil lie iiiinirined, 
yet utartint; in witliout a wnl, lliey cuntrivo) lu turn nod 
twict and tm\t^. until tlicy luid tmnMfii-rMl to tiifir (i«>i-kt-ta 
tk pOTliifii of tlie fundii winch H'<T(i in nnmc ont< flw's. 
The RcbelB, of course- prt nine oui of evwv iwi tlollim liwre 
VTMintho prisun, but tlirst* niid<Uvm(>n<-'mtnvt<t)lo Itavn nlitUo 
of it rtick iti (lifir flngtrx, 

It WM only llie vary few who were able to do ilib. N*in« 
handred aad luncty-nlni' out of every tbuiuand wsrv, liku Diy> 

▲ 8T0ET OF BEBEL iniJTAST PBI80N8. 173 

self, cither wholly destitute of money and unable to get it from 
anybody else, or they paid out what money they had to the 
middlemen, in exorbitant prices for articles of food. 

The N'Yaiarkers had still another method for getting food, 
money, blankets and clothing. They foniieil little bands 
calleil '* liaiders," under the leadership of a chief villain. One 
of these bands would sc^'lect ^is their victim a man who had 
good blankets, clothes, a watch, or greenbacks. FnHjuently he 
would be one of the little traders, with a sjick of In'ans, a piece 
of meat, or something of that kind. Pouncing \\\X)n him at 
night they would snatch away his i)ossessions, knock down his 
friends who came to his assistance, and scurry away into the 



To our mimls the world now containeil but two grand 
divisions, as widely different fi*oni each other as happiness and 
misery. The first — that iK>rtion over which our flag floated — 
was usually spoken of as " (unrs Country ;*' the other — that 
under the iianeful shadow of the banner of rebellion — was 
dc8ignate<l by the most opprobrious epithets at the speaker*8 

To jfet from the latter to the fonner was to attain, at one 
bound, the hi^lit^st go<Kl. Better to be a doorkeei)er in the 
House of the Ix)nl, under the Stars and Stri|K»s, than to dweU 
in the tents of wicke<ln«»ss, under the iiateful Southern Cross. 

To take even the humblest and hardest of service in the field 
now would be a delightsome change. We did not ask to go 
home — we would be content with anything, so long as it was 
in that blest place — •• within our lines.'' Only let us get back 
once, and there would be no m«»re grumbling at nitions or 
guanl duty — we would willingly endure all the hardships and 
privations that sohlier fl(*sh is heir to. 

There were two ways of getting back — escape and exchange. 
Exchange was like the ever rectniing mirage of the desiTt, that 
lures the thirsty traveler on over the parched sands, with illu- 
sions of refreshing springs, only to leave his bones at last to 
whiten by the side of those of his unremembered pretleccssors. 
Every day there came something to build up the hupos that ox- 


change was near at hand — every day brought something to 
extinguish the hoi>es of the precoiling one. AVe took these 
varying ])hases according to our sevend teinpeniinents. The 
sanguine built themselves up on the encoumging rejwrts; the 
des))onding sank down and died under the discouniging ones. 

EscaiK? was a j)erj>etual allurement. To the actively inclined 
among us it seemed always possible, and daring, busy brains 
were indefatigable in concoct mg schemes for it. The only bit 
of Rebel brain work that I ever saw for which I did not feel 
contempt was the perfect precautions tiiken to prevent our 
escape. This is shown by the fact that, although, from first to 
last, there were nearly fifty thousand prisoners in Anderson- 
ville, and three out of every five of these were ever on the 
alert to Uike French leave of their caj)tors, only three hundred 
and twenty-eight succeeiled in getting so far away from Ander- 
sonville as to leave it to be presumed that they had reached 
our lines. 

The first, and almost suixirhuman difficulty was to get out- 
side the Stockade. It was simply imi)ossible to scale it The 
guards were too close together to allow an instant's hope to 
the most siinguiue, that he could even pass the Dead Line with- 
out being shot by some one of them. This same closeness pre- 
vented any ho]ie of bribing them. To be successful half those 
on post w*ould have to be bribed, as every part of the Stockade 
was clearly visible from every other part, and there was no 
night so dark as not to allow a plain view to a number of 
guards of the dark figure outlined against the light colored 
logs of any Yankee who should essay to clamber towards the 
top of the palisades. 

The gates were so carefully guarded every time they were 
openeti as to preclude hope of slipping out through them. 
They were only unclosed twice or thrice a day — once to ailmit 
the men to call the roll, once to let them out again, once to let 
the wagons come in with r.itions, and once, perha|)s, to admit 
new prisoners. At all these times every precaution was taken 
to prevent any one getting out surreptitiously. 

This narrowed down the possibilities of i)assmg the limits of 
the pen alive, to tunneling. This was also surrounded by 
almost insui)erable diflicolties. First, it re4uired not less thaa 



fifty foot of subtorranean cxcarfttion to get out, ivlncli was an 
enormous work with our limitwl nu-nns. Tlit'ti tlie lof^fs forming 
tlie Stot'kade wore set in the frrt>unil to a depth of live feet, and 
tlie tiiniK') had to go down honoath tliom. They lird an un- 
ploiisarit hahit of dro|))>ing down into the luirruw iiu<lcr thorn. 
It addeii nuioli to the dit>coiini<n^iiiL>nts of tunneling to think of 
one of tins*' massive tini)>eis dropping ii|Hjn n fellow at: he 
wurkiil liis miile-liko way under it, and oitlior ernshing him to 
doiith outrigtit, or pinning him tht'i-e to diu of siilfocation or 

Ill fiin' inst:inoe, in a tunnel near me. hut in whieh I was not 
inten-stod, the log tilij>)M.-d down afti'r the difrger had got out 
beviind it. He iuinHvliately lK-;ran <li.i.'{:ing for the surface, for 
life, and was fortunately abli- to lavik thiiiugh lii'foiv he nuf- 
foi-atitl. ik- got his head al^ivc the gmund, and t)ii>n fainted. 
Tlie guard outside siiw him, pullo<l 
hint out of ilie hole, and when he 
iit-oviriil scusiliilily hurriiil liiui 
hatk into tho St.>ekado. 

In another I iniui-l, also near tis, 
a ln-oad-shouldfiiil Cfrnmn, uf 
=<-<ond Minui-sota, wt-nt in 
;.■ his turn at di-ririii;.'. Ho !;■! niiii'h lar;ri'r th;in any uf 
his prc<lirt>.s.>i-s that he stuek 
fast in :\ iiarifjw ]iart. and dt-spitt' 
n^n.iM... .^.i- >< ^M;L i.ll tlio etforts of liimsi-)f imd 
iNTiMi.. E. ciuni-.iili'S. it WHS found iiji]Hinsi- 

hle to movf him '.;i.- v.ay or tl tJi--r. Tin- comradi-s wi-n- at 

last n'due.d U> tli.- hiiriiih.iiiou of infoi-iniii;: th.- i Mlinr of iho 
<'Uaiil of thi'ir tiiiinil ami t)i<- conililiou of tlirir I'rii-iid, and 
of iiskinir av.i-l:itn-<' to n-t.-JiM- hiiii. wiis ;.'ivrii. 

Thi' i:f<:it tiinn.-Iiu- t.-.l w;i> ttu- ii!.lisi«-ii^il.V halfn'antf-i'n. 
Thf invi-niiv.' ir'-niii-, of our |<.o|.U-, .■.imiiilat.-il hy thi' war. 
priNim-d notliini: for tit.- rM!iir..!t and clfiiMv, m-ss of tin; 
soldi>-r fjUiii in UM-f'i]ni'>.< to t!ii> hiiiiil':<- :in>l uiirctoL'ui/.ttl 
Utensil. It will U- p-iLK-iidH-ii'd ll;:il :i ra!it>--!i wax roin|H>s<tl 
of two piiii-^ of tin .-tiiir-A i;p iMo t!i.> -ii;!|-.' of sua i?-^. jmd 
»jldi-r*,tl li>i.'i-thcr al ll.i- f<l-'<-s. AltLr a so.dicr Jwd iu 

A eroBT or sebsl wutaby pbisoks. 


the field a little while, and tbrovrn away or lost the curious and 
complicated kitchen furniture be started out with, he foand 
that by melting the halves of his canteea apart, he had a Teasel 
much handier in every way than any he had parted with. It 
ooold be used for anything — to make soup or coffee in, bake 
bread, brown coifee, stew vegetables, etc., etc A suffloient 
handle was made with a split stick. When the cooking was 
done, the handle was thrown away, and the half canteen shpped 
oat of the road into the haversack. There seemed to be no 
end of the uses to which this ever-ready disk of blackened sheet 
iron could bo turned. Several instances ore on record where 
infantry regiments, with no other to6l3 than this, covered 
themselves on the field with quite respectable rifie pita. 

The starting point of a tunnel was always some tent close 
to the Demi Line, and sufHciently well closed to screen the 
operations from the sight of tlic guards near by. The party 
eagiiged in the work orgjinized by giving every man a number 
~ ~ ^^ tA £ ^ secure the proper 

■ ■ V-- i^iK apportionment of the 

labor. X umber One 
began digging with bu 
half canteen. After he 
had worked until tired, 
he came out, and Num- 
ber Two took his place, 
and so on. The tunnel 
was simply a round, 
rat-like burrow, a little 
larger than a man's 
body. Tlic digger lay on his stomach, dug ahead of him, threw the 
dirt under him, and wurkeil it back with his feet till the man 
behind him, alsu lying un his stomach, could catch it and work it 
back to the ue.\t. As tlic tunnel lengthened the number of men 
behind each otiier in this way had to bo increased, so that in a 
tunnel seventy-live feet long there would be from eight to ten 
men lying one Ix-iiiud the utlior. When the dirt was pushed 
back to llie mouth of the tunnel it was taken up in improvised 
bags, made by tying up the bottoms of jiantaloun legs, carried to 
the Bwamp, and emptied. The work in the tunnel was very 







exhausting, and the digger hod to be relieved every half- 

The groaCest troablo waa to oarry the tuanel forward in a 
straight Uoe. As nearly everybody dug most of the time with 
tlie right hand, there vroa an almost irrtisistiblo tendonoy lo 
make the oouiae voer to the left. The tini tunnel I was ood- 
nocted with waa a ladicroua illustration of thiti. About twenty 
of Bs had devoted oar nigbta for over a week to the proltiaga- 
tion <ii a barrow. Wo had not yot rvacbnl tbc Stockailu, which 
artoniihed oa, as moaaurement with a string sliuwud that we 
had gone nearly twice the distance nt-ct^si^jiry fur the [lurpuso. 
The thing waa inexplicable, and we ccaHc^l opcrationH tocon- 
aidor the matter. The nuxt day a man walking by a mat some 
little diirtanoft from the one in which the bole bof^n, was badly 
startled by the ground giving way under bis feet, and bia sink- 
ing nearly to his waist in a hole. It was very aingabtr, bat 
after wondering over the matter for some hours, there oame a 
glimmor of sospiciun that it mi^bt bv, in some way, oonnuctod 
with the missing end of our tunnel One of us started tlirough 
on an exploring exfwdition, and oon"rmed the susptcioos by 
coming oat where the man had bnikco through. Our tunnel 
waa shaped like a hone ahoo, and the bcgincung and end went 
DOl Ofteoo foot aparL After that we practised digging with 
oar left hand, and made certain oumpenaalions for the tendency 
to the sbister aide. 

Another trouble oocoected with tunneling waa the number 
of timiton and spies among ua. There were many — princt- 
pally among the 5'Taarker crowd — who were olwa^-s uiaJoaj 
to botmy a tunnel, in order to curry favor with the Bebtd 
offioetii Then, again, the Rebels had numbcn of their own 
men in the pen at uigfat, as spies. It was hardly wen oeoeeBary 
to dress those in our anifonn, beoaaie a great many of our own 
men came into the prison in Rebel clothes, baring been oom- 
psDed to tmde garments with their cspton. 

One day in Hay, quite on exeit«uient was nuaod by the 
detection of ooo of these " tunnel traiton " io snob a way as 
left DO doolA of bis guilt At fint everybody was in ta,vvr of 
killing him, and th^ nctoally started to boat him to death. 
This was amaiiud by a piuposition to "have Captain Jaok 



Uttoo him," mid the su^estioa was immediately act«d J 

" Captain Jack " was a sailor who had bixMi with ua in Lho Pom- 
bertoD building at Ridunond. lie waa a vury skilful tatUw 
artist, but, I am sure, could moke tlie pruooss ntuttier tliao any 
other that I ever saw attempt it. lie chewiMl lobaooo enoi^ 
moiuly. After pricking away for a lew minutes at llie duagn 
on the arm or »ome ]x>rtion of the body, he would deluge it 
with a Hood of tobaooo cipit, which, he dainied, actud as a land , 
of mordant. Wiping this off with a filthy mjj, he would tttudy 
the effect for an instant, and then go aheail with another serial 
of phekingB and t'>bacoo joioo drenching. 

^le tunnel-traitor whs taken to Captain Jack. That worthy 
decided to brand him with a grval " T," llio top part to oxt«iid 
acTOSK his forehead and the stt'm U) mn down his nose. Ca{h 1 
tain Jack got his tattooing kit ready, and tJie fellovr wit J 

TAnnmio tm tcvhbl "nuiroK 
thrown apon tbe groond ant) bekl there. The Captain took 
hii bead between bia Icj^ and began operations. Aft^ an 
instant's work with the nnslles, he opened hii month, and 
filled the wretch's face and oyoe full of the disgusting saliTi 
The crowd mand about yelled with delight at this new pro 
For an hoar, that was dcnibtteM on eternity to the rascal tuukavT] 
going bnuiding. Captain Jack oontinncd his alinmala pick- 
ing and dnmohingi. At the end of that time the traitor's faoe 


waa disfigared with a hideous mark that he wonld bear to his 
grave. We learned afterwards that he was not one of our men, 
bat a Rebel spy. This added much to our satisfaction with the 
manner of his treatment. He disappeared shortly after the 
operation was finished, being, I suppose, taken outside. I 
hardly think Captain Jack would be pleased to meet him again. 



Those who sucoeeded, one way or another, in passing the 
Stockade limits, found still more difflcoltietf lying between then 
and freedom than would discourage ordiniuily resolute men. 
The first was to get away from the immediate Yicinity of the 
prison. All around were Rebel patrols, pickets and guards, 
watching every avenue of egress. Seveial packs of hounds 
formed efficient coadjutors of these, and were more dreaded by 
possible '' escapes," than any other means at the command of 
our jailors. Guards and patrols could be evaded, or circum- 
vented, but the hounds could not Nearly every man brought 
back from a futile attempt at escape told the same story : he 
had been able to escape the human Rebels, but not their canine 
colleagues. Three of our detachment — members of the Twen- 
tieth Indiana — had an experience of this kind that will serve 
to illustrate hundreds of others. They had been taken outside 
to do some work upon the cook-house that was being built. A 
guard was sent with the three a little distance into the woods 
to get a piece of timber. The boys sauntered along carelessly 
with the guard, and managed to get pretty near him. As soon 
as they were fairly out of sight of the rest, the strongest of 
them — Tom Williams — snatched the Rebel's gun away from 
him, and the other two springing upon him as swift as wild 
cats, tlirottled him, so that he could not give the alarm. Still 
keeping a hand on his throat, they led him off some distance^ 
and tied him to a sapling with strings made by tearing up one 
of their blouses. lie was also securely gagged, and the boy% 

bidding hhn a hasty, but not spociolly tender, farewoll, ftrnck 
ottt, u they fondly boped, for freodoio. It was not long until 
tbey were intsaed, and the parties flent in anarch found and re- 
leaaed the guanl, who gave all the information be possaned aa 


to what had become of his chaig«s. All tbo pocks of IfouDd%J 
the squads of cavalry, and the foot patrols were seDt ovt t 
aooor the adjooent oountnr'. The Tanki-es Icopt in the sn 
■Dd emiti, and no trace of them vraa found that aflemocHi or 
enniag. By this time they were tea or fifteen .miles away, 
tod tbougfal that they could safely leave the oreeks for butter 
walking on the solid ground. Tbuy had gone bnt a few inilei, 
wbaB the pgkck ot bounds Captain Win wan with took their 
trail, and oame after them in full cry. The boys triul Ut run, 
bvt, cxhsostcd OS they wore, they could moke no headway. 
Two ot them were soon caught, but Tom AVilJiams, whu was 
so desperate that be praferred death to recapture, jumped into 
a loOl-pODd near by. ^7bea he com^ uf, it was ia a lot o( 


Baw logs and drift wood that hid him from being seen from 
the shore. The dogs stopped at the shore, and bayed after the 
disappearing prey. The Bebels with them, who had seen Tom 
spring in, came up and made a pretty thorough search for him. 
As they did not think to probe around the drift wood this 
was unsuccessful, and they came to the conclusion that Tom 
had been drowned. Wirz marched the other two back and, for 
a wonder, did not punish them, probably because he was so 
rejoiced at his success in capturing them. He was beaming 
with delight when he returned them to our squad, and said, 
with a chuckle : — 

** Brisoners, I pring you pack two of dem tam Yankees wat 
got away yesterday, unt I run de oder raskal into a mill-pont 
and trowntet him." 

What was our astonishment, about three weeks later, to see 
Tom, fat and healthy, and dressed in a full suit of butternut, 
come stalking into the pen. He had nearly reached the 
mountains, when a pack of hounds, patrolling for deserters or 
n^ros, took his trail, where he had crossed the road from one 
field to another, and speedily ran him down. He had been put 
in a little country jail, and well fed till an opportunity occurred 
to send him back. This patrolling for n^gros and deserters 
was another of the great obstacles to a successful passage 
through the country. The Rebels had put every able-bodied 
white man in the ranks, and were bending every energy to ke^ 
him there. The whole country was carefully policed by Provort 
Marshals to bring out those who were shirking military duty, 
or had deserted their colors, and to check any movement by 
the n^ros. One could not go anywhere without a pass, as 
every road was continually watched by men and hounds. It 
was the policy of our men, when escaping, to avoid roads as 
much as possible by traveling through the woods and fields. 

From what I saw of the hounds, and what I could learn from 
others, I believe that each pack was made up of two blood- 
hounds and from twenty-five to fifty other dogs« The blood- 
hounds were debased descendants of the strong and fierce 
hounds imported from Cuba — many of them by the United 
States Government — for hunting Indians, during the Seminole 
war. The other dogs were the mongrels that are found in 



tooh plflntifolneNS about erenr 8oathen) honse — inoraasing, m 
ft role, in ntuaben u the inhabitant of the house is lowor down 
■nd poorar. They are like wolves, snEnking and cowurdly 
when olooe^ fierce and bold when in [uicbi. Each pack was 

^^ managed by a ivHl-anned man, who rodo a mule, and oairled, 

■long over his Bbouldors br a oord, a cow horn, actapod mj 
thin, with which ho controll<il thi! band by aignahL 

What always puzzled me muvli wui why tho boands took 
only Taokoe traili, in the rioinity of the prison. Therv was 
abont the Stookade from six thounuid to ttm tboasatul livbcls 
aod nogras. tndtuUng guurdo, ofliocre, servants, workmen, etc. 
nnae were, of course, cuntlniuUly in muliim And mint hare 
daflr made trails leading' in crvry dirvt-tion. Tt was the ona- 
torn of the Rebels to aeod a pock tif hoonds arouad tbe priioa 
•Tfliy mominKt to examine if any YAokiws bad enoapeil daring 
the night It wa« bdieved that tlmy mrely faibsd to find ft 
pcteBer*a tnidn, and ftiD sum rwety ma off upoa a Rebcd^ 
~l UxM oatsde the Btodcade had been omftMd looertaia patte 

A UASTKU or nti: nor\7ML 


A KluBV or HUtKl. 11 



and ToaAs wo coiiUl iiavo ittidrrtitood thiii, but, as I anilorstantl, 
they woru not. It was part of Uie intoresrt of the day, for tut. 
to watch the pucks go yelping around the pen fiwirching for 
tracks. Wo got information in this way whotlior any tuiuiels 
hod been succeeKfuU^ opened during the night. 

" :1r 

HOl'N-Wl TEARI80 X flllMI.X EB. 

Thft iw of hniinda furnished ns a crrMhing reply to the erer- 
recmrinc Rfliol (jmstion : 

" Whv iin? VOU-UI18 putlin' niggers in the Bold to fight w6-m» 

The qu(^irtnvr ins olvtuya silcnowl by the niturn Ent«rrog- 

■* Is that as bod as raniiing white men down with blood 
hoiin<U I " 

cnAPTEB xxvm. 


In May the long gatbering storm of war burst with angry 
Tiolcnoe all along the line held by the contending armies. The 
campaign began which was to terminate eleven months later 
in the obliteration of the Southern Confederacy. May 1, 
Sigel moved up the Shenandoah Valley with thirty thousand 
men ; May 8, Butler began his blundering movement against 
Petersburg ; May 3, tlie Army of the Potomac left Culpeper, 
and on the 5th began its deadly grapple with Lee, in the Wil- 
derness; May 6, Sherman moved from Chattanooga, and 
^g&ged Joe Johnston at Eocky Face Ridge and Tunnel HilL 

Each of these columns lost heavily in prisoners. It could not 
be otherwise ; it was a consequence of the aggressive move- 
ments. An army acting offensively usually suffers more from 
capture than one on the defensive. Our armies were penetrat- 
ing the enemy's country in close proximity to a determined and 
vigilant foe. Every scout, every skirmish line, every pickeii 
every foraging party ran the risk of falling into a Rebel trap. 
This was in addition to the risk of capture in action. 

The bulk of the prisoners were taken from the Army of the 
Potomac For this there were two reasons : First, that there 
were manv more men in that Amiv than in anv other; and 
second, that the entanglement in the dense thickets and shrub- 
bery of the Wilderness enabled both sides to capture great 
numbers of the other's men. Grant lost in prisoners from May 
5 to May 31, seven thousand four hundred and fifty ; be prob> 
ably captured two-thirds of that number from the Johnniei. . 


Wirz^B headquarters were established in a large log house 
which had been built in the fort a little distant from the south- 
east comer of the prison. Every day — and sometimes twice 
or thrice a day — we would see great squads of prisoners 
marched up to these headquarters, whore they would be 
searched, their names entered upon the prison records, by 
derks (detailed prisoners ; few Rebels had the requisite clerical 
skill) and then be marched into the prison. As they entered, the 
Rebel guards would stand to arms. The infantry would be in 
line of battle, the cavalry mounted, and the artillerymen standing 
by their guns, ready to open at the instant with grape and can- 

The disparity between the number coming in from the Army 
of the Potomac and Western armies was so great, that we 
Westerners began to take some advantage of it. If we saw a 
•quad of one hundred and fifty or thereabouts at the head- 
quarters, we felt pretty certain they were from Sherman, and 
gathered to meet them, and learn the news from our friends. 
If there were from five hundred to two thousand we knew they 
were from the Army of the Potomac, and there were none ot 
our comrades among them. There were three exceptions to 
this rule while we were in Andersonvillc. The first was in 
June, when the drunken and incompetent Sturgis (now Colonel 
of the Seventh United States Cavalry) shamefuUy sacrificed a 
superb division at Guntown, Miss. The next was after Hood 
made his desperate attack on Sherman, on the 22d of July, and 
the third was when Stoneman was captured at Macon. At 
each of these times about two thousand prisoners were 
brought in. 

By the end of May there were eighteen thousand four hun- 
dred and fifty-four prisoners in the Stockade. Before the 
reader dismisses this statement from his mind let him reflect 
how great a number this is. It is more active, able-bodied 
young men than there are in any of our le^uling Cities, save 
New York and Philadelphia. It is more than the average 
population of an Ohio County. It is four times as many troops 
as Taylor won the victory of Buena Vista with, and about 
twice as many as Scott went into battle with at any time in his 
march to the City of Mexico. 


These eighteen thousand four hundred and fifty-fonr men 
were cooped up on less than thirteen acres of ground, making 
about fifteen hundred to the acre. No room could be given up 
for streets, or for the usual arrangements of a camp, and most 
kinds of exercise were wholly precluded. The men crowded 
together like pigs nesting in the woods on cold nights. The 
ground, despite all our efforts, became indescribably filthy, and 
this condition grew rapidly worse as the season advanced and 
the sun's rays gained fervency. As it is impossible to describe 
this adequiitely, I must again ask the reader to assist with a 
few comparisons. He has an idea of how much filth is pro> 
duced, on an ordinary City lot, in a week, by its occupation by 
a family say of six persons. Now let him imagine what would 
be the result if that lot, instead of having upon it six persons, 
with every appliance for keeping themselves clean, and for 
removing and concealing filth, was the home of one hundred 
and eight men, with none of tliese appliances. 

That he may figure out these proportions for himself, I will 
repeat some of the elements of the problem : We will say that 
an average City lot is thirty feet front by one hundred deep. 
This is more front than most of them have, but we will be 
liberal. This gives us a surface of three thousand square feet 
An acre contains forty-three thousand five hundred and sixty 
iquare feet. Upon thirteen of these acres, wc had eighteen 
thousand four hundred and fif ty-four men. After he has found 
the number of square feet that each man had for sleeping 
apartment, dining room, kitchen, exercise grounds and out> 
houses, and decided that nobody could hve for any length of 
time in such contracted space, I will tell him that a few weeks 
later double that many men were crowded u|K>n that space — 
that over thirty-five thousand were packed -upon those twelve 
and a-half or thirteen acres. 

But I will not antici]iate. With the wann weather the con- 
dition of the swamp m the center of the prison became simply 
horrible. We hear so much now-a-<luys of bloo<l ])oisoning 
from the effluvia of sinks and sewers, that reading it, I wonder 
how a man inside the Stockade, and into whose nostrils came a 
breath of that noisomeness, escaped l>eing carried off by a 
malignant typhus. In the slimy ooze were billions of white 


maggots. They would crawl oot by thougandB on the warm 
sand, and, lying Ihcro a few minutes, sproot a wing or a pair 
of them. With Ui«fW! they would isaay a clumsy flight, landing 
by dropping down ujkiu suihg (JxjMJscd portion uf n man's iKxly, 
and stinging him like a gad-fly. Still worse, thoy would drop 
into what ho wa# oookinj^, and the utmost care could not pre- 
Tent a mesa of food from being coutaminattd with thcnt 

All the water that we had to use wha tliivi in the creek which 
flowed through this seething mass of corruption, and received 
it* sewerngeL How pure the water was when it come into tlio 

b wax a qiuMticm. We always belioral that it rpodred 
Uw (Iminage from tlie c»M)|« of the guanU,u halt-a-mile away. 
A road was made arrtiim the swamp, along the Dead Linfl at 
the west side, wbero the cruek ontun^il the ]m!D. Tbnso getting 
water would go to this spou and rvach ws far up the stream ai 
poMible, to get the water that was least fltthy. Ab they ooold 



reioh nearly to the Dead line this fornished an excuse to sooh 
of the guards as were murderoiisly indiaed to fire upon them. 
I think I hazard nothing in saying that for weeks at least one 
man a day was killed at this plaoa The murders became 
monotonous ; there was a dreadful sameness to them. A gun 
would crack ; looking up we would see, still smoking, the muz- 
zle of the musket of one of the guards on either side of the 
creek. At the same instant would rise a piercing shriek from 
the man struck, now floundering in the creek in his death 
agony. Then thousands of throats would yell out curses and 
denunciations, and — 

" O, give the Rebd a furlough I '* 

It was our belief that every guard who killed a Yankee was 
rewarded with a thirty-day furlough. Mr. Frederick IloUiger, 
now of Toledo, formerly a member of the Seventy-Second 
Ohio, and captured at Guntown, tells me, as his introduction to 
Andersonville life, that a few hours after his entry he went to 
the brook to get a drink, reached out too far, and was fired 
upon by the guard, who missed him, but killed another man 
and wounded a second. The other prisoners standing near 
then attacked him, and beat him nearly to death, for having 
drawn the fire of the guard. 

Nothing could be more inexcusable than these murders. 
Whatever defense there might be for firing on men who 
touched the Dead Line in other parts of tlie prison, there could 
be none here. The men had no intention of escaping; they 
had no designs upon the Stockade; they were not leading any 
party to assail it. They were in every instance killed in the 
act of reaching oat with their cups to dip ap a little water. 



Let the reader anderstand that in any striotoreB I make I do 
not complain of the necessary hardships of war. I nnderstood 
fully and accepted the conditions of a soldier's career. My 
going into the field uniformed and armed implied an intention, 
at least, of killing, woimding, or capturing, some of the enemy. 
There was consequently no ground of complaint if I was 
myself killed, wounded, or captured. If I did not want to 
take these chances I ought to stay at home. In the same way, 
I recognized the right of our captors or guards to take proper 
precautions to prevent our escape. I never questioned for an 
instant the right of a guard to fire upon those attempting to 
escape, and tx> kill them. Had I been posted over prisoners I 
should have had no compunction about shooting at those trying 
to get away, and consequently I could not blame the Rebels 
for doing the same thing. It was a matter of soldierly duty. 

But not one of ttie men assassinated by the guards a^ Ander> 
sonvillo were trying to escape, nor could they have got away 
if not anx^liMl by a bullet. In a majority of instances there 
was not even a trangression of a prison rule, and when there 
was such a trans^it?asion it was a mere harmless inadvertance. 
The slaying of every man there was a foul crime. 

The most of this wtu* done by very young boys ; some of it by 
old men. The Twenty-Sixth Alabama and Fifty-Fifth Georgia, 
bad guarded us since the opening of the prison, but now they 
were ordered to the field, and their places filled by the Georgia 
** ReeerveB," an organization of boys under, and men over tha 


militaiy age. As General Grant aptly phrased it, ^^ They had 
robbed the cradle and the grave," in forming these regiments. 
The boys, who had grown up from children since the war 
began, could not comprehend that a Yankee was a human 
being, or that it was any more wrongful to shoot ono than to 
loll a mad dog. Their young imaginations had been inflamed 
with stories of the total depravity of the Unionists until they 
believed it was a meritorious thing to seize every opportunity 
to exterminate them. 

Early one morning I overheard a conversation between two 
of these youthful guards : — 

^ Say, Bill, I heerd that you shot a Yank last night t " 

^Kow, you just bet I did. Grod ! you jest ought to've heerd 
him holler." 

EvidenUy the juvenUe munierer had no more conception 
that he had committed crime than if he had killed a rattlesnaka 

Among those who came in about the last of the month were 
two thousand men from Butler^s coinniand, lost in the disas- 
trous action of May 15, by which Butler was "bottled up" at 
Bermuda Hundreds. At that time the Kebel Imtrcd for Butler 
verged on insanity, and they vented this upon tliese men who 
were so luckless — in every sense — as to be in his command. 
Ever}' jNiins was taken to mistreiit them. StripiKxl of every 
article of clothing, e(]uipnient, and cooking utensils — every- 
thing, excc'pt a shirt and a i>air of pantaloons, they were 
turned bareheaded and biirefooted into the prison, and the 
worst possible place in the pen huntc^l out to locate them upon. 
This was under the bank, at the edge of the Swamp and at the 
eastern side of the prison, where the sinks wei*e, and all filth 
from the upjier part of the camp flowed down to them. The 
sand upon which they lay was dry and burning as that of a 
tropical desert ; tliey were without the slighter t shelter of any 
kind, the maggot flies s wanned over them, and the stench was 
frightful. If one of them survived the genu theory of disease 
is a hallucination. 

The increasing number of prisoners made it neci^ssary for 
the Itebels to improve their means of guarding and holding us 
in check. They threw up a line of rifle pits around the Stock- 
ade for the infantry guards. At intervals along this were piles 


of hand grenades, which could be used with fearful effect in 
case of an outbreak. A strong star fort was thrown up at a 
little distance from the southwest comer. Eleven field pieces 
were mounted in this in such a way as to rake the Stockade 
diagonally, A smaller fort, mounting five guns, was built at 
the northwest comer, and at the northeast and southeast 
comers were small lunettes, with a couple of howitzers each. 
Packed as we were we had reason to dread a single round from 
any of these works, which could not fail to produce fearfid 

Still a plot was concocted for a break, and it seemed to the 
sanguine portions of us that it must prove successful. First a 
secret society was organized, bound by the most stringent oaths 
that could be devised. The members of this were divided into 
companies of fifty men each, under officers regularly elected. 
The secresy was assumed in order to shut out Kebel spies and 
the traitors from a knowle<lge of the contemphiteil outbreak. 
A man named Baker — belonging, 1 think, to some New York 
regiment — was the grand organizer of the scheme. 'We were 
careful in each of our companies to admit none to memlK^rship 
except such as long acquaintance gave us entire confulenee in. 

The plan was to dig large tunnels to the Stockade at various 
places, and then hollow out the gmund at the foot of the tim- 
bers, so that a half dozen or so could be pushed over with a 
little effort, and make a gsip ten or twelve feet wide. All these 
were to be thrown ilown at a preconcertwl signal, the comi)anie3 
were to nish out and seize the eleven guns of the headcjuarters 
fort. The Plymouth Brigade was then to man these and turn t hem 
on the camp of the Keserves who, it was imagineil, would drop 
their amis and take to their heels after receiving a round or so 
of shell. AVe would gather what arms we crmld, and ))lace 
them in the hands of the most active and determined. This 
would give us fi-om eight to ten thousiind fairly anneiK n*s<>lute 
men, with which we thought we could march to Apjuilachicula 
Bay, or to SlaTriuin. 

We worked energetically at our tunnels, which s<Hm lK»gjm 
to assume such shai>o as to give assunince that they would 
answer our exiM^'tations in (>|)ening the prison walls. 

Then came the usual blight to all such enterjirises : a spv or 



a traitor roveakxl cvervtliing to Wirz. One day a guard came 
in, seiztHl leaker and took him out. AVhat was done with him 
I know not ; we never heanl of him after he passed the inner 

IinincMliatoIv afterwanl all the Sorfroants of detachments 
wore sunimone<l outside. There thev met Wir/., who made a 
sj)o<x'h informing tlu-m that he knew all the di^tails of the plot, 
and had made sutlidi'nt pre])arations to dt'ft^at it. The guard 
had Invu strongly reinforciHJ, and dis|K)SiHl in such a manner as 
to protcrt the gims frf»m capture. The Sim-kade had been 
securfd to prevent its falhnjr. <*vcn if undcnnin(*il. He said, in 
addition, that Shennan had U'en lia<llv defcatiMl hv Johnston, 
and driven hack acn)ss the river, so that any ho|>es of co-o|)er- 
ation hv him would be ill-foundtHJ. 

When the Sergeants returned, he causeil the following notice 
to be pjsteil on the gsites : 


Not widhing to rhnl the blond nf hnnclniN. imt i-nninTtcd wlih thn^ who conrorted • liud 
plan to forrc Ihr S'iirk.ii1<*, mitl iii:ik«' in (IiH wiiv ihi-ir r»<-.i|)'», I hrn-lij warn ihr Irailrn and 
tho-e whit furniiil (hi iiim i\4*f intu h i aiitl (itrnrrr mit lhi», Ihnt I nin In p«»iii.-i>i>liin of all the 
fai-tf. aiiil have nuti*' niy tti»iHi>i'U»:j" aironlii :.* >. -n h- ti> fru-lratv it. N«i c>i<<if e Wi>uM b* 
li-fl III* l'i]t til I'll* II uilh i:r?tiii' niji] f ani-l< r mi ibc MiM-kade, and uhat vffi^'l this winjld have, 
in I hi- di-ii-«-ly «.r>>wd<-il IiIali'. ni-t d imt Imt lnhl. 

Mjv V5, lM/4. U. Wiiu. 

The next day a line c»f tall p»hs, heminnp white tlags, were 
put up at SOUK* little di>t:iiu'«' from iIk* I><-:id I.iiif, and a notice 
was n-ad to us at n»ll call that if, exerpt at r<ill call, any gath- 
ering exc«*<'tlini: one hundred was observe*!, eiosi-r tin* St<K.'ka4le 
than lh«N<» jmiKs, the guns wnuld t»pen wiili grajie and canister 
without warning. 

The numU'r of deaths in the St<»ckatle in Mav was seven 


hundnd and <.'ight, aUmt as many as had been killed in 
^>hermun*s army during the same time. 



After Wir//s threat of grajie and canister upon the slightest 
provocation, we lived in daily apprehension of some pretext 
being found for opening the guns upon us for a general mas- 
sacre. Bitter experience had long since taught us that the 
Rebels rarely threatened in vain. Wirz, especially, was much 
more likely to kill without warning, than to warn without kill- 
ing. This was because of the essential weakness of his nature. 
Ho knew no art of government, no method of discipline save 
** kill them !" Ilis j)etty little mind's scope reached no further, 
lie could conceive of no other way of managing men than the 
punishment of every offense, or seeming offense, with death. 
Men who have any talent for governing find little occasion for 
the death [vnalty. The stronger they are in themselves — the 
more fitte<l for controlling others — the less their need of enforc- 
ing their authority by harsh measures. 

There was a genend expression of determination amonfif the 
prisoners to answer any oinnonade with a desperate attempt to 
force the Stockade. It was agreed that anything was better 
than dying like rats in a pit or wild animals in a battue. It 
was believeil that if anything would occur which would rouse 
half those in the |x^n to make a headlong effort in concert, the 
palisade could be scaled, and the gates carried, and, though it 
would bo at a fearful loss of lifey the majority of those 

196 A2(DEB30NVILLS. 

the attempt would get out. If the Ilel)els would discharge 
grai)e and canister, or throw a shell into the prison, it would 
lash evervlxnlv to such a pitch tliat thev would see that the 
sole forlorn hojx; of sjifety lay in wi-esting the arms away from 
our torment oi-s. The gi^eat element in our favor was theshoit. 
ness uf the distance between us and the cannon. We could 
hoiHJ to travei'se this before the guns could be I'eloaded more 
than once. 

Whether it would have been possil>le to succeeil I am unable 
to say. It would have deiwndeil wln»lly ujiou the spirit and 
unanimitv with which the etfort was made. Had ten thousand 
rushed forwanl at once, each with a determination to do or die* 
I think it would have l)cen successful without a h»ss of a tenth 
of the number. But the insui>era]>le tnmble — in our disorgaa- 
ized state — was want of concert of action. I am quite sure, 
however, that the attempt would have U*en made had the guns 

One day, while the agitation of this matter was feverish, I 
was c<x>king my dinner — that is, l>oiling my pitiful little ration 
of unsidtinl meal, in mv fruit can, with the aid of a handful of 
splintci's that I hail b«vn alile to pick up In* a half day's dili- 
gent search. SiuhU'uly the long ritlc in the hfad«|uartei's fort 
rang out angrily. A fuse shell siirirked across the prisuu — 
close to the tn|)s of the lugs, ami buist in the w<mm1s U^yond. 
It was answered with a yell of deliance from ten tlii>us:ind 

I spranir up — my ln*art in my mouth. The long divaded 
time had arrivinl ; the UeU'ls had n{KMie4l the massjicre in which 
thev must exterminate u??, or we theni. 

I lookinl across to the op|M)sit«» bank, on which were standing 
t.velve thnusautl men — enrl, t*xcit«»<l, defiant. 1 wassuiv that 
at the next shot they wouhl sur«re straight aL'ain^t llieSinekaile 
like a mighty human billow, and then a eaiiiaire wuuM U'gin 
the like <»f which nu>dern timts had never si*rn. 

The e.xcitemi'iit an* I susjvnsi* wen* terril»li». We waited fur 
what seeiiutl a;:«'s f«ir tlie n«'Xl ^'un. It was ni»t iintl. Old 
Winder was mcifly shnwin«r the prisi»ne!s h«»\v heeniiM rally 
the guanls ti> opp4»s«» an outbivak. Tlmu«:h the ir\\i\ had a >hell 
iu ity it w'as meiviy u signal, and the guanl.s came double ijuick 


ing np by regiments, going into position in tiie rifle pits and * / 
the hand-grenade piles. 

As we realized what the whole affair meant, we relieved our 
surcharged feelings with a few general yells of execration upon 
Rebels generally, and upon those around us particularly, and 
resumed our occupation of cooking rations, killing lice, and dis- 
cussing the prospects of exchange and e6ca()e. 

The rations, like everything else about us, had steadily grown 
worse. A bakery was built outside of the Stockade in May, 
and our meal was baked there into loaves about the size of a 
brick. Each of us got a half of one of these for a day's ration. 
This, and occasionally a small slice of salt pork, was all that we 
receiveil. I wish the reader would preiwre himself an objci^t 
lesson as to how little life can be sui)j>orte<l on for any length 
of time, by procuring a piece of corn bread the size of an ordi- 
nury brickbat, and a thin slice of {X)rk, and then imagine how 
he would fare, with that as his sole daily ration, for long 
hungry weeks and months. Dio Lewis satisfied himself that 
he could sustain life on sixty cents a week. I am sure that the 
food furnished us by the Rebels would not, at present prices, 
cost ooe-thinl that. They pretended to give us one-third of a 
pound of bacon and one and one-fourth pounds of com meal. 
A week^s rations then would be two and one-third pounds of 
bacon — worth ten cents, and eight and three-fourths ix)unds 
of meal, worth, say, ten cents more. As a matter of fact, I do 
not presume that at any time we got this full ration. It would 
surprise me to learn that we aveniged two-thirds of it. 

The meal was ground very coarse and produceil great irritar 
tion in the bowels. We uscil to have the most frightful cramps 
that men ever suffered from. Those who were predispo6c<l to 
intestimU affections were speedily carrieil off by incurable 
diarrhea and dvsenterv. Of the twelve thousand and twelve 
men who died, four thoasand died of chronic diarrhea ; eight 
hundreil and seventeen died of acute diarrhea, and one thousand 
three hundred and eighty-four died of dysenteria, making a 
total of six thousand two hundred and one victims to enteric 

Let the reader reflect a moment upon this numl>er, till he 
comprehends fully how many six thousand two hundred and one 


men are, and bow much force, energy, training, and rich posri- 
bilities for the good of the community and country died with 
those six thousand two hundred and one young, active men. 
It may help his perception of the magnitude of this number to 
remember that the total loss of the I^ritish, during the Crimean 
war, by death in all sha{)es, was four thousand live hundred and 
ninety-five, or one thousand seven hundred and six less than 
the deaths in Andersonvillo from dvsentcric diseases alone. 

The huithsomc maggot flies swarmed about the bakery, and 
dropiH?<l into the ti'ough whore the dough was being mixe<l, so 
that it was rare to get a ration of bread not contaminated with 
a few of them. 

It was not long until the bakery l>ccame inadecjuate to sup- 
ply bread for all the prisoners. Then givat iron kettles were 
set, and nu^h was issued to a numl)er of detachments, instead 
of There w;is not so much ch»anlini.^s and care in pre- 
paring this its a fanner shows in c<H>kin;i: food for st<»ek. A 
deep wagon-lH.Hl wouKl Ik* shoveled full of the smoking paste, 
which wiistlien hauled inside and issueilout to thcdetaehmenis, 
the latter iiH:eivinir it on blankets, jiieees of shelter tents, or, 
hiekin<r even lhes4\ u|M»n the bai'e sand. 

As still iiinn' prisuiKMs came in, neither bnMd nor mush rould 
be furnishiMl them, and a ]>art of the d«*laehments nveived 
their rations in meal. Earnest solieitation at len;:th resulle«l in 
havin«x tn-rasional soantv issues of wtMnl to cook this with. Mv 
detaehment was all<»wed t«)rho*»se which it wtjuM take — bix*ad, 
mush or meal. It took the latter. 

CiMiking the meal was the topic of <laily interest. There 
were thn^e ways of doing it : I^read, mush and " duniplint^.'' 
In the latter the meal was dain|H*ne«l until it would hold 
together, and wasrolh»<l int« • little balls, the si/e of marblfs, which 
were then boiled. Tin? bn^a*! was the most Silti^faetorv and 
noiirisliin^^; the nuwh Ih** bulkitst — it made a biirijtT sliow, 
but ditl nt)t slay with one so lonir. The dumplinLTs held an 
interuKNliate ]M»siiit»n — the water in whieli they wen* IwiIIihI 
bi-eoinin;^ a s<»rl of a bn»th that lifli^nl tti stay the stomach. 
"NVe reoMVetl no s;ilt, as a rul»». Ni» one kn^ws tlie intense 
lon«ring fiir this, wh«*n one ^'ih»s witln»:it it for a while. When, 
after a privatitm of weeks we would ^'et a teasinjunful of sidt 


apiece, it Beemed as if every mnscle in oar bodies was mvigor* 

ated. We traded buttons to the guards for rod peppers, 

and made oar mush, or bread, or dumpling hot with the flery 

pods, in hopes that this would make up for the lack of salt, but it 

jfS^ "^^ ^ failure. One pinch of salt 

7 fW Vnt^^ ^^ worth all the pepper pods in 

J'^oflRiJw^A *''* Southern Confederacy. My 

^m,, l^T" iJ htile squad — now diminished by 

:^Vl\ • J death from five to three — cooked 

■^^^^ifc^^ f our rations together to economize 

-^^^n^^jTi iJ^ie^ wood and waste of meal, and 

^SK^SS^d'' .^^^ quarreled among ourselves daily as 

^(PPJPts?^^^^^^ to whether tlie joint stock should 

~^^52- "^^ — -" be converted into bread, mush or 

cMuaa MQca. dumpUngs. The decision depended 

npon tlio state of the stomaclL If very hungty, we made 

mush ; if less famished, dumpUngs ; if dispcMcd to weigh matters, 


This may seem a trifling matter, but it was far from it. We 
all remember tlie man who was very fond of white beans, but 
after having fifty or sixty meals of them in succession, b^an to 
find a 6U8]>icion of monotony in the provender. AVe liad now 
six months of nnvarj'ing diet of com meal and water, and 
even so slight a change as a rariatiou in the way of combining 
the two was an agreeable novelty. 

At the end of June there were twenty-six thousand three 
hundred and sixty-seven prisoners in the Stockade, and one 
thousand two hundred — just forty per day — had died during 
the month. 



ATav and June ma<lo sad hiivix* in the alreadv thin ranks of 
our Uittulion. Xearlv a score died in mv companv — L — and 

• all 

the other conipani<?s suffen^l pro|x>rti(>nately. Among the first 
to die 6f my o«)iii|Kiny comradis, was a genial litth* rori>oral| 
*' Billy " Pliilliiw — who was a favorite with us all. Everything 
was done for iiim that kindin'ss could sugiTL'st, hut it was of 
little avail. Then " liruiio" \VtH*ks — a vouuji: Ih»v, the son of 
a )>reacher, who had run away fnjni his h(»m(Mn Kulton County, 
Ohio, to join us, succuiiiImhI to hanlship and privation. 

The ne.xt to Hit was g(HMl-nature<i, harmh-ss Victor Seitz, a 
Dftroit cigar niak«'r, a (Jennan, an<l one of the slow<.»st of 
createtl ni<»rtals. How he ever came to go into the cavalry 
was U'Vond the wihhst suniiisi»s of his comrailes. Wliv his 
su(KM*natuntl slowness and clumsiness did not in^sult in his Ix'ing 
kilh^l at lea>t 4»nce a dav, while in the servici\ was even still 
farther In^yond tiie ]H>wi.»r of conjirtui-e. No accitlent ever 
hap|»fnttl in the company that SMtz <lid not have some share 
in. I)i«l a h'*!^!' fall on a slipjvry road, it was almost sun» to 
be Seit//.s. and that imj»ortt'd son of the Katln'rlautl w:ls e«|ually 
sure to lN-c'a!)::ht undtT him. Did s«>m«*lNMiv tuml>liM»v<T a hank 
of a tiark niirht, it was Sritz that we s<H)n hranl makinghis way 
Iwck. swiarini: in d«*#'p (u-rman guitends, with fii^juent allu- 
sion t«) /'P/^'/i'/ ^ '/ft//^. I.)id a shantv blow d«»wn, we ran over 

■ « 

and pulh^l Scitz out (»f thr/A//nx, when he would exclaim : 

" Zo I di't vos ]»rfttv vunnv now, ain't it ? ■* 

I • • 

And as ho surveveil the scene of bis trouble with true Ger- 

i. gn>Ur Of MEURL MILITABT rRI«i.Vfl. 


man plilr-^nn, he would fish a bripr-tvix xi pi|to from tho i 
of his jcxikot*. fill it with lolmoi-o, and go pUidding off in a 
cloud of tnnoke in Reoroh of aome frwili way to narpoivly escape 
dvjfiruciioo. lie did not know enough about hones to ptit a 


(sbit in one's moutli, and y«t he nronid draw the fmldeKt, 
t mettlt.'soRie aRiinul tn the tromil, up<jn whu^ bauk he wu 
■oaroely more at homo than he would be upi>n a slnok rope. 
It waa no ancotnmon thing to aeu a harso bruak oat nf ranks^ 
and go post tho battalion liko tbo wind, with [xK>r Svitx clings 
ing to hu mano hke the traditional grim IMotb to a dccnoMMl 
African. We Uicn knew that S<^t2 had thiia;ffatleitsly fiunk th» 
keen spurs he would persist in wearing, dvep into the Qiinka of 
htfi bij;h-ni«ttlMl animal. 

Tbctto aoi'idfflls liecaino so much a muttcr-of-courso that 
irben anything nniiswd occurred in the company oar tlret im- 
pabe was to go and btilp Si^tz nut 

■When the bugle Mjandwi '• IxwW and aaddlw." tho reet of us 
woold pack up, mount, '' count off bjr fonn from the rlglil," 
and be ready to mo\'u out before iho lost ooiea of tho call hod 


fairly died away. Just then we would notice an unsaddled 
horse still tied to the hitching place. It was Seitz's, and that 
worthy would be seen approaching, pipe in mouth, and bridle 
in hand, with calm, equable steps, as if any time before the 
expiration of his enlistment would l)o soon enough to accom- 
plish the saddling of his steed. A chorus of im()atient and 
derisive remarks would go up from his imjiatient comrades : 
" For heaven's siike, Seitz, hurry up I " 
** Seitz ! you are like a cow's tail — always behind ! " 
^^ Seitz, you are slower than the second coming of the 
Savior I " 
" Christmas is a railroad train alongside of you, Seitz I " 
^^ If you ain't on that horse in half a second, Seitz, we'll go 
off and leave you, and the Johnnies will skin you alive I" 
etc., etc. 

Not a ripple of emotion would roll over Seitz's placid features 
under the sharpest of these objurgations. At last, losing all 
patience, two or three boys would dismount, run to Seitz's 
horse, pack, saddle and bridlo him, as if he were struck with a 
whirlwind. Then Seitz would mount, and we would move 


For all this, we liked him. His good nature was boundless, 
ami his disi>o.sition to ubliiri* otjual to the severest test. He did 
not lack a grain of his full share of tin* calm. sl<»adfast courage 
of his race, ami would stay where he was ])ut, thou<rh Kivbus 
yawncil and bade him fly. He was vt*ry useful, <lespile his un- 
fitness for many of tluMluties of a cavairvinan. He wjls a g«)od 
guard, and always ready to take ehar;r<' of priMinei's, or l>e 
sentrv around wa;r<>ns or a forage pile — duties tiiat most of the 
boys cordially hatiHl. 

But he came into the last tnmble at An<le!s«»nville. He 
stood up pn»tty well under the hanlslii|>s of r.eHe Isle. Init lost 
his cheerfulness— his uiiivpinin^: ealinije>^ — afirr a few we«»ks 
in the Stockade. One ilny we rememU*n-<l thai iimn* of us 
had seen him for sevenil days, ami we starl«-<l in s^areh <»f him. 
We found him in a distant i»iirt t»f ihe eanip, Uiimz n.-ar the 
Dead Line. His lung fair hair was matle<l t««;:iilier. Ins blue 
c\-C8 had the flush of fever. Kvery jmrl <»f his el. .thing was 
gray with the lice that were luuitening his death with their 


tormcnu. He utt«rLH) the timt ooiuplNinl I ever heard him 

make, aa I came up to him : — 

" My Gott, M , dis is worsu dan a dog's dot I " 

Id a lew duya we guve Uuu all (he futiui-al Id uur power; 

nxoma Bxnz dkad. 

tied bis big toes tofrether, folded Iiis hands Acron h!a hreut, 
pinned to bis ahirt a slip of paper, u{)on which was written — 

Oa. t, SUMuUi II 

aolt Onllf . 

And Uid his body «t the South Gate, beside some scores of 
Olbun that Wert! awaiting tbc arrival of the six-mule wagon 
tbat hauled them to the Potter's Field, which was to be tlieir 
but resting-place. 

Jobn EmenioQ and John &tij|;gaU, of my company, wete 
two Nortvr}>ijiii boys, and Qne sjiocimeiu of their nice — iat^ 
ligent, faitlifid, and alwA>-9 rendr for dnty. 'J'hey had an 
affection fur eacb other that reminded one of tt>e stories told 


of the sworn attachmont and the unfailing devotion that were 
couunon lK*tween two Gothic warrior youths. Coming into 
Andersonvillc some little time after the rest of us, they found 
all the desirable ground taken u]), and they established their 
quarters at the \m^ of the hill, near the Swamp. There they 
dug a little hole to lie in, and put in a layer of pine leaves. 
Between them th(»v ha<l an overcojit and a blanket. At night 
they lay upon tlie coat an<l coveixH.1 themselves with the blanket. 
By day the blanket servetl as a tent. The hanlshi{)s and 
annovances that we endunxl made evervbcnly else cross and 
irritable. At times it sefmeil imiK>ssible to say or listen to 
pleasant words, and noliody was ever alloweil to go any length 
of time spoiling for a tight. lie could usually l>e accommo- 
dated UfKin the s{)ot to any extent he di^siixnU by simi>ly making 
his wishes known. Even the In^st of chums wtndd have sharp 
quarrels and brisk lights, and this dis^Mtsition increaseil as dis- 
ease made greater inroads u|Nm them. I siiw in one instance 
two bn»thers — Inith of whom died the nrxt dav of scurvv — 
and who wi*n* so helpless jus to be unable lo rise, jmll themselves 
up on their knees by ch»nching the {>oles of their tents — in 
onler to strike each othtT with clubs, and they kept .striking 
until the bystanders inteifennl and took their wea}N>ns away 
from them. 

But Sti<rg;ill and Emers<»n never (inarreh»d with each other. 
Their tenderness and alT«»i-tion weiv remarkable to wit- 
ness. Tiu'V iK'pin to go the way that so many were 
going: diarrhea and .scurvy s<.»t in : they wa.sitnl away till their 
muscles and tissui^ almost dis;ip|M*anHl, leavin^r the skin lying 
flat uj^m the Inmes: but their princi|)al s(»licitnde was fur each 
other, and each se<»nnHl actually jealnus«»f any ikmni^u else iloing 
anything fur the other. I met Kmers«>n one day, with «>no leg 
drawn clear out of sIuijm*, and innlered aliii<»st useh»ss by the 

scurvv. He was verv weak, but was hobbling; down towanls 


the CnH*k with a bucket made from a Uioi leir. 1 ^anl : 

" J(»hnny, just ;:ive me your bucki'i. I'll till it for you, and 

brin^ it uj) to y«>ur li-nt." 

'• Ni»; much obliL'*"**!. M " he whiM-ze<l (»ut ; *' my |);irdnor 

wants a c<m>1 drink, and I guess /**/ lietter get it for him." 
btiggall died in June. He was one of the lirst victims of 


Bcorvy, which, in tho succeeding few weeks, carried off so 
numy. Al! of iis wlio liad read sea stories had read much of 
this disease and its horrors, hut we liad httle conception of the 
dreadful reality. It usnally manifested itself first in tlie mouth. 
The Imvath »«*wame unlx-arably fetid; tho gums swelled until 
they protrudetl, luid and disgusting, bi^yi.nd the liiw. The 
teeth became so loose that 
they frequently fell out, 
and tlie sufferer would 
pick them up and set them 
back in their sockets. Id 
attempting to bite the 
hard corn bread furnished 
by the bakery tlio teeth 
often stuck fast and were 
pulled out. Tlic gums had 
a fit»liion of breaking 
away in large chunks, 
wliidi would !«.• swallowed 
or spit out. All the timo 
one was eating his mouth 
woidd Ik' tille<l wit h blood, fragments of gums and loosened teeth. 
Frightful, malignant ulcers apfifuitil in other parts of tho 
body ; tlie cvcr-pnscnt maggot flics laid eggs in tliose, and soon 
worms swarmed therein. TKe sufferer imiketi and felt as if, 
though lie yet iive<l and movini, his IxmIv was antici[>ating tho 
rotting it would undergo a little later in tin- grave. 

Tho last change wjis ushered in by the lower i>arts of tho 
legs swelling. 'When this api>i'ar«l, we considcretl the man 
duoinc^l. We all had scurvy, more or k-ss, but as long as it 
kept out of our legs we were hoiK-ful. Kirst, the ankle joints 
swelled, tlien the f4»ot Iteoame useless. The swelling increased 
until tlie kn^-s became stiff, and the skin from tlR«e down was 
distemleil until it l'M>ke<l |>ale, colorless and tRins|taivnt as a 
tightly blown bladder. The b>g was so mucli largt;r at the bot- 
tom than at the tliigh, tbat the sufferers usetl to make grim 
jokes aUmt U-ing moilelLil like a churn, " with tlie biggest end 
down." The man then became utterly heijilcss and usually 
died in a short time. 


Tlie ofAcial report puts down the number of deaths from 
scurvy at three thousand five hundred and seventy-four, but 
Dr. Jones, the Rebel surgeon, reported to the Rebel Govern- 
ment his belief that nine-tenths of the great mortality of the 
prison was due, either directly or indirectly, to this cause. 

The only effort made by the Rebel doctors to check its rav- 
ages was occasionally to give a handful of sumach berries to 
some particularly bad case. 

When Stiggall died we thought Emerson would certainly 
follow him in a day or two, but, to our surprise, he lingered 
along until August before dying. 



The gradually lengthening Summer days were insafferablj 
long and wearisome. Each was hotter, longer and more tedi. 
ous than its predecessors. In my company was a none-too-bright 
fellow, named Dawson. During the chilly rains or the nippmg 
winds of our first days in prison, Dawson would, as he rose in 
the morning, survey the forbidding skies with lack-luster eyes 
and remark, oracularlv : 

'* Well, Olo Boo gits us agin, to-day." 

lie was so unvarying in this salutation to the mom that his 
designation of disagnH.^ablo weather as "Ole Boo" became 
generally adopted by us. When the hot weather came on, 
Dawson's remark, n\x>n rising and seeing excellent prospecta 
for a scorcher, chan^l to : *'WeII, Ole Sol, the Ilaymaker, 
is going to git in his work on us agin to-day." 

As long as he livetl and was able to talk, this was Dawson's 
invariable ohsiTvation at the break of dav. 

lie was quite right. The Ole Ilaynuiker would do some 
famous work lM'f<»n» he descended in the West, sending his level 
rays thn»ugh tin* wide interstices between the somber pines. 

By nine o'clock in the morning his beams would begin to 
fairly singe everything in the crowded pen. The hot sand 
would glow as oni» wes it in the center of the unshadetl high- 
way some scorching noon in August. The high walls of the 
prison prevented the circulation inside of any breeze that 
might be in motion, while the foul stench rising from the 


putrid Swamp and the rotting ground seemed to reach the 

One can readily comprehend the hon^ors of death on the 
burning ssinds of a di'sert. But the desert s;ind is at least 
clean: there is nothing worse about it than heat and intense 
dryness. It is not, as that was at Andersonville, iwisoneil with 
the oxerotions of thousands of sick and dyin;: men, WlU^l with 
disgusting vennin, and loading the air with the germs of death. 
The ditfenmce is as that U^tween a brick-kiln and a sewer. 
Should the fates ever decide that I shall l>e Hung out \}\xm 
sands to ]K'rish, I beg that the hottest ]>lace in the Sahara may 
be selected, rather than such a s[K>t as the interior of the Ander- 
sonville Stockade. 

It may be siiid that we had an abundance of water, which 
made a decided improvement on a desiTt. Doubtless — /tad the 
water been pure, I5ut evt»rv mouthful of it was a blood ]X)ison, 
and heliHHl promote diseas4' and death. Even Ix^fore reaching 
the Stockade it was so jiollutetl by the drainage of the llebel 
cam])S as to Ik* utterly unlit for human use. In our juirt of 
the prison we Siink sevtTdl wells — some as de«^p as foity feet 
— to i»rocure water. We ha<l no other tnols for this than our 
ever-faithful half cant«»4»ns, and nothin«r wheivwith to wall the 
wells. Hut a firm dav was reaclh,Ml a few feet Inflow the sur- 
fare, which atTf»nled tolerable strong sides for the lower jiart, 
aiui furnishetl material to make adoU' bricks f(»r curbs to keep 
out the sjmd of tin? upi)er part. Tiie si«les were continually 
giving away, however, antl felli>ws were ix'r|>etually falling 
down the hohs, to the gn.»at dama;re of their le^rs and arms. 
The water, which was drawn up in little cans, or bout le«r buck- 
els, by striuL's ma«le of strips of cloth, was much bi»tter than 
that of the 4-n't»k, Imt was still far fixmi pure, as it cuntaineil 
the seepa^re fi-om the filthy gmund. 

The intense lu-at le<l m«*n to drink great quantities of water, 
and this su]H.'rinduc<*4l maliL^nant tlrnpsical complaints, which, 
next to diarrhea, scurvv an«l «ranirn*ni*, wen* the aihntMits most 
active in carrviiii: men olf. ThoM* atlfcteii in this wav swelbnl 
up frightfully fn»m day to day. Thfir ch»thes s|MM»4lily Uvame 
tixi small for them, and wm* ripin^l otf, leaving ihem enliri'ly 
nakeil, and thev sutfered iutcnsc*lv until death at last came to 


their relief. Among those of my squad who died in this way, 
was a young man numeil Baxter, of the Fifth Indiana Cavabry, 
taken at Chicamauga, He was very fine looking — tall, slen. 
der, with regular features and intensely black hair and eyes ; 
he sang nicely, and was generally likeil. A more pitiable 
object than he, when last I saw him, just before his death, can 
not be imagined. His Ixxly had swollen until it seemed mar- 
velous that the human skin could bear so much distention with- 
out disruption. All the old look of bright intelligence had 
been driven from his face bv the distortion of his features. 
His swarthy hair and beard, grown long and raggeil, had that 
peculiar repulsive look which the black hair of the sick is prone 
to assume. 

I attributed much of my freedom from the diseases to which 
others succumbed to abstention from water drinking. Long 
before I entered tlie anny, I had constructed a theory — on 
premises that were doubtless as insuflicient as those that boyish 
tlieories are usually biiseil ujK>n — that drinking water was a 
habit, and a jwrnicious one, which sap])ed away the energy. I 
took some trouble to curb my ap|K.»tite for water, and soon 
found that I got along very comfortably without drinking 
anything beyond that which was contained in my food. I fol- 
lowed this up after entering the anny, drinking nothing at any 
time but a little coiTee, and finding no need, even on the dust- 
iest marches, for anything more. I do not presume that in a 
year I drank a quart of cold water. Experience seemed to con- 
firm my views, for I noticed that the first to sink under a 
fatigue, or to yield to sickness, were those who were always on 
the lookout for drinking water, springing from their horses 
and struggling around every well or spring on the line of 
inarch for an op|>ortuii ty to fill their canteens. 

I made liberal use of the Creek for bathing purposes, bow. 
ever, visiting it four or Ave times a day during the hot days, to 
wash myself all over. This did not cool one off much, for the 
shallow stream was nearly as hot as the sand, but it seemed to 
do some good, and it helped pa^s away the todious hours. The 
stream was nearly all tlie time tilled as full of bathers as they 
could stand, and the water could do little towards cleansing so 
many. The occasional rain storms that 'swept across the prison 



were welcomp*!, not only because they cooled the air tempor- 
arilv, hut becinise lliev ^rave us a shower-bath. As thev came 
up, nearly every one slrippLil nakml and got out where he 
couM enjoy the full lx'n<.*tit of the falling water. Fancy, if 
possible. th«' sj» vtacle of tw«*nty-tive thous;ind or thirty thou- 
si&nd men withuut a stiteh of clntiiini: u|H»n them. The like 
has not Uvn set-n, I inia;riM*\ since the naked followers of 
Boadicea gathere*! in foive to do battle to the Roman invailers. 

It was imjxissible to gt*t nMlly cle.ui. Oar b»lies seemed 
covered with a varnish-liki'. ^Mia:nv m.ittt^r that «leticd removal 
bv water alone. I ima^^ineil that it eanir* fn»!n the rosin or 
turpentine, arismg from the little pitch pine fin»s over which 
we hoven^l when cotjkinir our rations. It wouhl vield to noth- 
ing except strong soap — and s<»ap, its I have bjfore stated — 
was nearlv its scarce m the »Southern Co:ifeileracv as salt. We 
in prison saw even less of it, or rather, none at all. The 
scarcity of it, and our desire for it, recalls a bit of personal 

I had steadfastly n*fuseil all offers of i>ositions outside the 
prison on |Kin.»le. its, likj the great majority of the prisoners, 
my hatre^l of the Kel>els grew more l»itter, day by day ; I felt 
as if I wo.iM rathrr ilie than su'cept th-; smallest favor at tlieir 
hands, and I the ciimiiion ci>hti»mpt fur those who did. 
Hut, when the movement for a <rraiid attack on the Stockade 
— m<*ntinni-d in a piwitius chapter — Wits apparently nipidly 
coming to a In'ad. I w;ts <iff«;n.Ml a lein|K>rary di'tail outside to 
assist in making up some n»lls. I rcsolveil to accept; first 
bct*aus4? I thouirht I might get some information that would be 
of usi.' in our enterprise : and, nc.\t, b v.iiisi* I fon*s;iw that the 
rush thmu^^h the gai»s in the Stockade wouM l>e blooily and by ^oiii«: out in advance I would avoiti that much 
of tlic dangi'r, and still Ik* able t«» give cffci-tivf itssistance. 

I wiLS taken up to Wirz's olHce. lb» was writing at a desk 
at one end <if a largo r«M>m wh«*n tiie Serp*ant brought me in. 
He turnwl anniml, toM the SiT;reant to leave me, and ordered 
me to sit down u{>on a bo.x at the other end of the room. 

Turning his Ixick and resuming: his writing, in a few minutes 
he had forgotten me. 1 sat (piietly, taking in the dt^tails for a 
half-hour, and then, having exhausteil everything else in the 

■omethiDg there that a ioynl Vnnkcc doicrvciil bettor than k 
Bebe]. I found that tt wasa finonrtick^of soft Mtap. A hanilful 
I Boooped □]! and jipe^Mlily shored nitu my k-ft {uiitnlootui 
Expecting every instant that Win wotild turn ftroiind 
r iQu to oi>Dio to tbc desk to show mr banr) n-riting, I 
luuitDjr and furtiTwly wiped my han<l oQ the back of my ahxrt 
AOd watcbtnl Wirz irith a.t innocent on L-xprvAtion oa a ecbool 
boy aaaamm when he has just flippwl a chewed pa|ier wad 
aoroos the room. Win vews still en^ruuetl in his writing, and 
did not look around. I wiu umtxihipoiMl to rvach down for 
aaolher handful This waa ahm flucfeiufully tninsforrwl, tho 
hand wiped ofT on tho bock of the shirt, and the face wore Its 
expruasion of infantile inguntiotMnon. Still Wins did not look 
up. I kept dipping up handful attar handful, until I had 
flatten atiout a quart in the left hand pocket. Aft<;r each 
baodful I nibbed my bund off on the hack of my ahirt and 
waited Nil initant for a HiniuoDs to th« doik. Tbon tha pro- 
ODH wai repeated with the other hand, and a qiiart of the 
BpOBOooou muah wa« pocked in tho right band pocket. 


Shortly after Wirz rose and ordered a guard to take me away 
and keep me, until he decided what to do with me. The day 
was intensely hot, and soon the soap in my pockets and on the 
back of. my shirt began burning like double strength S])anish 
fly blisters. Tliere was nothing to do but grin and bear it. I 
set my teeth, s^iuatted down under the shade of the panqwt of 
the fort, and stood it silently and sullenly. For the first time 
in my life I thoroughly appreciated the story of the Si)artan 
boy, who stole the fox and suffered the animal to tear his 
bowels out rather than give a sign which would lead to the 
exposure of his theft. 

Between four and fiveo^clock — after I had endured the thing 
for five or six hours, a guard came with orders from Wirz that 
I should be returned to the Stockade. U])on hastily removing my 
clothes, after coming inside, I found I had a blister on each 
thigh, and one down my back, that would have delighteil an 
old practitioner of the heroic school. But I also had a half 
gallon of excellent soft soap. My chums and I took a magnifi- 
oent wash, and gave our clothes the same, and we still had soap 
enough left to barter for some onions that we had long cov- 
eted, and which tasted aa sweet ,to us as manna to the Israel- 



The time moved with leaden feet Do the best we coald, 
there were very many tiresome hours for which no occupation 
whatever could be found. All that was necessary to be done 
during the day — attending roll call, drawing and cookmg 
rations, killing lice and washing — could be disposed of in an 
hour's time, and we were left with fifteen or sixteen waking 
hours, for which there was absolutely no employment Yerj 
many tried to escape both tlie heat and ennui by sleeping as 
much as possible through the day, but I noticed that those who 
did this soon died, and consequently I did not do it Card 
playing had sufficed to pass away the hours at first, but our 
cards soon wore out, and deprived us of this resource. My 
chum, Andrews, and I constructed a set of chessmen with an 
infinite deal of trouble. We found a soft, white root in the 
swamp which answered our purpose. A boy near us had a 
tolerably sharp pocket-knife, for the use of which a couple of 
hours each day, we gave a few s|KX>nfuls of meal. The knife 
was the only one among a largo number of prisoners, as the 
Kebel guards had an affiK^tion for that style of cutlery, which 
led them to search incoming prisoners very closely. The fortu- 
nate owner of this derived quite a little income of meal by 
shrewdly loaning it to his knifeless comrades. The shapes 
that we made for pieces and pawns were necessarily very rude^ 


but they were sufQciently distinct for identiflcation. "We 
blackene^l one set with pitch pine soot, found a piece of plank 
that would answer for a board and purcliaseil it from its posses- 
sor for pjirt of a ration of nioiil, and so were litteil out with 
what si^rvtH.! until our roloiuse to distract our attention from 
much of the sunx)undin«r misery. 

Every one else pnx'uretl such ainus4»ment as they could. 
Newcomers, who still ha<l money antl cards, gambled as long 
as their moans lasted. Tliose who had books read them until 
the leaves fell apart. Those who had paper and {x^n and ink 
tried to write dtscriptions an«i keep journals, but this was 
usually given up after being in pris^jn a few weeks. I was for- 
tunate enough to know a boy who had brought a copy of 
"Gray's Anatomy" into prison with him. I was not spec- 
ially interoste<l in the suliject, but it was IIol>son*s choice; I 
oould read anatomv or n(»thin<r. and so I tackle<l it with such 
good will that Ix'foi-e my frit'n<l l>ecame sick and was taken 
outside, and his li<>ok with him, I had obtainiNl a very fair knowl- 
edge of the rudiments of physiolniry. 

There wiis a littl«» IkuuI of «lfv«»i«*<l Christian workers, among 
whom were Ordrrly Si.'r;r«'aiit Tiiomas J. Shopjianl, Xinety- 
Sevonth O. V. I., now a h*adin«^ r»aj)tist minister in Kastem 
Ohio: r»oston (\>rbrtt, whoaftcrwani slrw .lolm AVilkrs HcKith, 
and Frank Smith, now at tin- h.-ad of tht' Uailroa*! Tii't hel work 
at Toh^lo. Thi'V wm* indrfatiLrahle in trvinir to evangelize 
the prison. A frw of thfin would tak<» tln'ir siatit^n in some 
part of tinj Storka<h* <a ililFfn^nt one every time^, and begin 
sinj^int; some old familiar hvmn like 

•'C««nn\ Tli'-a r"'ii.l iif fVt ry Mi-i-infj," 

and in a fow minuii-s tln-v would havo an atti^ntivo andience of 
as many thoUNaUil as o»iil«l i;«*t wiihiii iifariuLf. The singing 
wouM Ih* fiill'JWt-^lby ri'LTuhir s«-rvir«»';, durin;: whirh Slu^ppjinl, 
Smith, r'«»HH-tt, and sinnf iiiht-rx wouhl maki* short, spiritnl, 
pnictii'al addnsst's, wliirh u** diiul»t did mmrli trrxnl to all who 
ln\inl thrm. thoUL'h th<';;rainNMf h-avfu wrn* on t in»ly to*^) small to 
li*avrn surh an immfiKf m«a<ur»' vi MH*:d. Tln'V c« inducted 
srviTiil funerals, as iwailv l:ki' tin' wav it was <lont» at home as 
{)ossil)Ie. Tiirir miiii>ira lions wfiv not confines I to more lip 


aemoe. bat they taboRMl asgiiluously in caring; for tho sick, 
and made many a poor fellow's \ny to the grave uiocU 
smoother for him. 







This wa« uboat all the religious scrricesUuitwen'ere favored 
with. The Rebel pnaohcrs did not mnk« that effort to i»rft 
oar mikguidt!)! souls wtiioh one would hare imagined they 
wiMild. Iluving US where wr rould not chooBe but bear they 
miftht bavn taken wlvantage of "ur Bttaation to mkc us fore 
and aft with tbiiir thfologiwU artilh-rv. Tht"y only atl«>mptcd 
it in one lustancu. While in lUohniond a preucher came into 

r room and announced m an anthoritative way that he would 

( BB on rdigiooa subjwts. Wis onitjviovd n-spt-ctfully, 

I gathered around him. He wm a loud-tonf^ed, bran-ting 

ian>>rf{r!s. who nddrcfsed the Lord as if drilling i brigadfl^ 
He s|i>ikt- but a fuvr momt-ntn U'foru making Ap]iaront hli 
bclirr tliftt [he wonrt of cnmue was that of being a Vankco^ and 
that a man most not only bo savL-d thruugb Christ's bloml, but 
also tervu in the Rebel army before he cuuld attain to hcaren. . 

Of coutse H-o raiiKid such a yell of clcriwon that tho s 
vu brought to an abrupt oonclusion. 

The only mioister n-Ii» catn«! into Uie Stookudo waa a C&tb> 
olic priest, nikUlIiMigMl, tall, slender, and uuniUtakably devoat. 
He was aaweariud in hix uttunlioii to the sick, iind the wbole 

^^— eradita 



day oonld be »eea moring around through the prison, attending 
to thoee who untied gpirituul cunsuliition. It was interesting 
to see him udmininter tlio extreme unction to a <lying man. 
Placing a lorn; puritlu scarf ul»nt his own neuk aitd a small 
brawn crociHx in llm tiandH of thu dying one;, ho miuld knvtii 
by the latter's sido and ant>int him uftuii ilitf cyvs, Dan, nnetrilst 
lips, liandx. fwt and brenst, with Bacrtnl oil, from a liltio liras 
T«8Hcl, repealing the wbiK in an imprcfisive voice, the solemn 
oltioi'« of the Church. 

His unwfar\'ing devotion gained tlio admiration of all, no 
bow little intrlinef) one might bu to mw pneotliaeis 
favor. Ue wa« <<vidctitly of such stulf lu) OhriS' 
ivu ever Itern made of, and would have facod 
l4igot, at tlie call of duty, with anijuaiUnfr ityc. Hts 
name was Fnthirr Hamilton, and he wo* stationed at Mucoo. 
The world stiould know more of a man whow msrvkKs were »a 
erwlitablo to humanity and his Chunih. 
The good father twd the wialom of the lorpoot, with the 


harmlessness of the dove. Though full of oommiscration for 
the unhappy lot of the prisoners, nothing could betray him into 
the slightest expression of opinion regarding the war or those 
who were the authors of all this misery. In our impatience at 
our treatment, and hunger for news, we forgot his sacerdotal 
character, and importuned him for tidings of the exchange. 
His invariable reply was that he lived apart from these things 
and kept himself ignorant of them. 

'^But, father," said I one day, with an impatience that I 
could not wholly repress, "you must certainly hear or read 
something of this, while you are outside among the Rebel 
officers." Like many other people, I supposed that tlie whole 
world was excited over that in which I felt a deep interest. 

" No, my son," replied he, in his usual calm, measured tones. 
^ I go not among them, nor do I hear anything from them. 
When I leave the prison in the evening, full of sorrow at what 
I have seen here, I find that the best use I can make of my 
time is in studying the Word of God, and especially the Psalms 
of David." 

We were not any longer good company for each other. We 
had heard over and over again all each other's stories and jokes, 
and each knew as much about the other^s previous history as we 
chose to communicate. The story of every individual's past life^ 
relations, friends, regiment, and soldier experience had been told 
again and again, until the repetition was wearisome. The cool 
nights following the hot days were favorable to little gossiping 
seances like the yarn-spinning watches of sailors on pleasant 
nights. Our squad, though its stock of stories was worn thread- 
bare, was fortunate enough to have a sweet singer in Israel — 
"Nosey" Payne — of whose tunefulness we never tired. lie 
had a large repertoire of patriotic songs, which he sang with 
feeling and correctness, and which hel{)ed much to make the 
calm Summer nights pass agreeably. Among the best of these 
was the following, which I always thought was the finest 
ballad, both in poetry and music, produced by the War : — 





^ ^ ' f ^ 

Heav - i • ly falU llio rain, Wild «rv ihc brw*-e* to- 

hikIiI; Hut *iK>ath the r<Ntf, ttTc houn an tliej fly, Are 
H^ K Hilars. ^^-^ w 


— ' — ::^ — r -^ V • V — I s s — - ^ J — m n 

hap-py ami calm and l>riglit. (fath-i*r- ing roiiDd uur 


\ I 


tin* • nidf, Tho* it Ik* pum-nuT lime, We hit and talk ul 


liri*th-erM a - hriKid, Ftir-j^'t - ting the mid - night chime. 

C'HOIIt ft. 

I BraVf In»\.4 :ir*' tlu'vl i'u^nv iw ilirir einin-trxV eall ; And 

TSnvi' Imiv- :in* iht \ I < at ihiir «Mnin - trv*-) rail; And 

__ _ — , » ' - —0 J ., 

i^Ly..tL^€ -«_]#j,#__J' :_i^ - . -Ir V 1 


vi't, and vi I. wr i .in ik-I fi-Tj't. Thai mmiv hra\r Imv* nin«*t f.ill. 

fi-T-V-- x; n;*" ^/w * ]•:•!• - --;/ -.-:::rii 

y<l, an<l vil, ni-can n>>t {■•ri."t, Tli:il iii.iiiy lirnvr t>'-y> niii>t fall. 


XMm tlM honiMtcAd roof, 

MesUed ao coiy and wum. 
White aoldlen sleep, with litite or naiight» 

To shelter them from tlM storm. 
Besting on gnssj cooches, 

PlUowM on hillocks damp ; 
Of msrtisl fare, how llule we know. 

Till brothers are in the camp. 

Ckonu—BrvFt bojs are they I 

Gone at their country's call ; 
And yet, and yet, we cannot focgtli 
That many brave boys most faU. 

Thinking no leos of them. 

Loving our country the more. 
We sent them forth to fl:;ht for the flag, 

Their father* before them bore. 
Though the great teur-drop« started. 

This was our parting trui^t : 
"God bleM yon boys I we'll welcome yon hoot 

When Itebels are in the durt.'* 

Ck09 1- Brave boys are they I 

Gone at their country's call ; 
And yet, and yet, we cannot forgeli 
Tlt:it many brave boys mnst falL 

May the bright wings of love. 

Guard them wherever they roam ; 
The time ha» cr»me when brothers must %hl 

And sifters mu*t pray at home. 
Oh I tlie dread fleld of battle I 

Soon to be strewn « 1th graves I 
If brothers fall, then bury them wheft 

Onr banner in triumph waves. 

C3konw«Brave boys are they 1 

Gone lit their country's call ; 
And yet, and yet, we cannot forgeli 
Tliat many brave boys mnst falL 



With each long, hot Summer hour the lice, the muggot-flies 
and the N'Yaarkers increased in numbers and venomous activ- 
ity. They were ever-present annoyances and troubles ; no time 
was free from them. The lice worrie<l us by day and tormented 
us by night; the maggot-Hies fouled our food, and laid in sores 
and wounds larvsc that 8{>eedily bec*anie ma^^i^es of wriggling 
worms. The N'Yaarkers were human vermin that preyed upon 
and harried us unceasingly. 

They formed themselves into bands numbering from five to 
twenty-five, each led by a bold, unscrupulous, energetic scoun- 
drel. We now called them " liaiders,'^ and the most prominent 
and best Ivuown of the bands were called by the names of their 
ruffian leaders, as "Mosby's Ifaiders," "Curtis's Raiders,'^ 
" Delaney's Itaiders," '* Sarslield's Itaiders," " CoUins's Raid- 
ers," etc. 

As long as we old prisoners fonnetl the bulk of those inside 
the Stockade, the Itaiders had slender picking. They would 
occasiomdly snatch a blanket fn»m the tent iK»Ies, or knock a 
boy down at the Creek and take his silver watch from him ; 
but this was all. Abundant (»piK.»rtuiiilies for securing richer 
swag came to them with the advent of the Plymouth Pilgrims. 
As had been before statwl, these lH»ys brought in with them a 
largo portion of their first instalment <»f veteran bounty — 
aggregating in amount, according to varying estimates, between 
twenty-five thousand and one hundred thousand dollars. The 


Pilgrims were likewise well clothed, had an abundance of 
blankets and camp equipage, and a plentiful supply of per- 
sonal trinkets, that could be readily traded off to the Rebels. 
An average one of them — even if his money were all gone — 
was a bonanza to any band which could succeed in plundering 
him. His watcli and chain, shoes, knife, ring, handkerchief, 
combs and similar trifles, would net several hundred dollars in 
Confederate money. The blockade, which cut off the Rebel 
communication with the outer world, made these in great 
demand. Many of the prisoners that came in from the Army 
of the Potomac repaid robbing equally well As a rule those 
from that Army were not searched so closely as those from the 
West, and not unfrequently they came in with all their belong- 
ings untouched, where Sherman's men, arriving the same day, 
would be stripped nearly to the buff. 

The methods of the Raiders were various, ranging all the 
way from sneak thievery to highway robbery. All the arts 
learned in the prisons and purlieus of New York were put into 
exercise. Decoys, ^'bunko-steerers" at home, would be on the 
look-out for promising subjects as each crowd of fresh prison- 
ers entered the gate, and by kindly offers to find them a sleep- 
ing place, lure them to where they could be easily despoiled 
during the night. If the victim resisted there was always suffi- 
cient force at hand to conquer him, and not seldom his life 
paid the penalty of his contumacy. I have known as many as 
three of these to be killed in a night, and their bodies — with 
throats cut, or skulls crushed in — be found in the morning 
among the dead at the gales. 

All men having money or valuables were under continual 
espionage, and when found in places convenient for attack, a 
rush was made for them. They were knocked down and their 
]x?rsons rifled with such swift dexterity that it was done before 
they realized what had happened. 

At first these depredations were only perpetrated at night. 
Tlie quarry was selected during the day, and arrangements 
made for a descent. After the victim was asleep the band 
dashed down upon him, and sheared him of his goods with 
incredible swiftness. Those near would raise the cry of 
" Raiders I " and attack the robbers. If the latter had secured 


their booty they retreated with all possible speed, and were 
soon lost in the crowd. If not, they would offer battle, and 
signal for assistance from the other bands. Severe engage- 
ments of this kind were of continual occurrence, in which men 
were so badly Ijeaten as to die from the effects. The weapons 
used were lists, clubs, axes, tent-ix)les, etc. The Eaiders were 
plentifully provided with the usual weapons of their class — 
slung-shots and brass-knuckles. Several of tliem had succeeded 
in smuggling bowie-knives into prison. 

They had the great advantage in these rows of being well 
acquainted with each other, while, except the Plymouth 
Pilgrims, the iH?st of the prisoners were made up of small 
squads of men from each regiment in the service, and total 
strangers to all outside of their own little band. The liaiders 
could concentrate, if necessary, four hundred or five hundred 
men u]K)n any {xjint of attack, and each member of the gangs 
had become so familiarizeil with all the rest by long association 
in New York, and elsewhere, that he never dealt a blow amisSi 
while their op{)uuents were nearly as likely to attack friends as 

By the middle of June the continual success of the liaiders 
emboldeneil them so that they no longer confined their depre- 
dations to the night, but made their forays in broad daylight, 
and there was hardiv an hour in the twentv-four that the orv 
of '' li;iiders : Kaidei*s!** did not go up from some (uirt of the 
pen, and on l<M»king in the dii\*ction of the cry one would see a 
surging commotion, men struggling, and clubs being plied 
vigon)usly. This was even moit) common tlian the guards 
shooting men at tlie Crivk crossing. 

One day 1 s;i\v "Dick Allen's Kai<lors," eleven in number, 
attack a man wearing the uniform of Kllett's Marine Brigade, 
lie was a reci*nt comer, and alone, but he was brave. He had 
come into |)«iss4*ssion of a sjuide, by some means or another, and 
he used this with delightful vigor and effect. Two or three 
times he stnick one of his assjiihints so fairly on the head and 
with such good will that I congratulated myself that he had 
killed him. Finally, Dick Allen managed to slip around 
behind him unnoticeil, and striking him on the head with a 
ilung-shot, knocked him down, when the whole crowd pounced 


Upon him to kill him, but wvro driven off liy oUters rallying to 
hit assistooce. 

The proccedEt of these forays enabled tho Raidore to was fat 
tod lusty, wlulo othun weru dyiii^' from siun-atioo. Thoy aU 

KAtTKR FioiiT wmi ONI or fi.iett's MAUINE BCIOAPE. 

hod good tonU, constrnctetl of stolen blankets, and thoir lintd- ' 
quarters was a larg«. roomy t«nl, with a circular to)), situaK-d 
on tlie street Inuling to tho Soath Gate, and <3i[NibIo of Accom- 
modating from wivpnty-flve to one hnndmd mon. All the 
materiiU for thb hud Uwn wreatixl anay from others. While 
bondmds were dying of scurry and diarrhea, from thfi miner- 
able, insofBcicnt food, and lack of vngvlablua, then fuUaws bad 
flour, frosb meat, orkhw, potatoes, gncn bootu, ood otliar 


things, the very loolcs of which were a torture to huTi«Ty» Boor- 
butic, dysenteric men. Tiiey were on the best ])ossible terms 
with the Rebels, whom they fawned ui)on and groveled before, 
and were in return allowed many favoi*s, in the way of tmding, 
going out upon detail, and making ])ui*clinses. 

Among their sjx?cial objects of attack were the small traders 
in the prison. AVe had quite a number of these whose genius 
for barter was so strong that it took root and flourished even 
in that unpi*opitious soil, and during the time when new pris> 
onera were constantly coming in with money, they managed to 
accumulate small sums — fi'om ten dollars upward, by trading 
between the guards and the prisoners. In th^ ])eriod immedi- 
ately following a prisoner's entrance he was likely to s^iend 
all his money and trade oil all his possessions for food, trusting^ 
to fortune to get him out of thei-e when these were gone. 
Then was when he was profitable to these go-l>etweens, who 
managed to make him \my liandsomely for what he got. The 
Raiders kept watch of these tnulers, and ])lundered them 
whenever occasion serve<l. It remindeil one of the habits of 
the fishing eagle, which hovers around until some other bird 
catches a iisb, and then takes it away. 



To fully appreciate the condition of affairs let it be remem- 
bered that we were a community of twenty-five thousand boys 
and young men — none too regardful of control at best — and 
now wholly destitute of government. The Rebels never made 
the slightest attempt to maintain order in the prison. Their 
whole energies were concentrated in preventing our escape. So 
long as we staid inside the Stockade, they cared as little what 
we did there as for the performances of savages in the interior 
of Africa. I doubt if thev would have interfered had one-half 
of us killed and eaten the other half. They rather took a 
delight in such atrocities as came to their notice. It was an 
ocular demonstration of the total depravity of the Yankees. 

Among ourselves there was no one in position to lay down 
law and enforce it. Being all enlisted men we were on a dead 
level as far as rank was concerned — the highest being only 
Sergeants, whose stripes carried no weight of authority. The 
time of our stay was — it was hoped — too transient to make it 
worth while bothering about organizing any form of govern- 
ment. The great bulk of the boys were recent comers, 
who hoped that in another week or so they would be out again. 
There were no fat salaries to tempt any one to take upon him- 
self the duty of ruling the masses, and all were left to their own 
devioes, to do good or evil, according to their several bents, 
and as fear of consequences swayed theoL Each little squad of 


220 AM^KKr^iNVILLE. 

mon was a law tinlo tlnMns^'Ivw, and made and enforced their 
own ri''Milatini)s on t)i<*ir own tcrritorv. Tiie administration of 
justice was riMliifcd to its siniplcsl t«.'rms. If a fellow did 
wn»ii;r Ik* was |iouimI4h| — if ilji*i"e was anylxxly cajiable of 
cloiii;^ It. If not lie Wf'Ht fn-'*. 

Till* almost unvarviniT sunrss <if the IJaidfis in their forav* 
pive llir ;:«-iifral ii!i|in-s>ion that tln-y wen? invineihle — that is, 
that not i'nou;:h men could l»e coiucnt rated a^^iinst them to 
whip thfiii. ( hir ill siirrcss in tin* attaek we made on them in 
April h<'l|iiMl us to the same lirlief. It we could not U'at them 
then, we eoidd not now, after we had Ixi-n eiifeeliUH.1 bv months 
of starvation and diseasi*. It mmmikmI to us that the i'lvmouth 
I'il^rims. wIiom* or;.^ani/ation was yet very stron;r,shouUl under- 
take the task : liut. as is u-uailv the ease in this W(»rld, where 


we think snmeJHidy else uu^rht to uuijertake the jHM'f«)rmaneeof 
a dis:i;:reealile public duty, they did not sin* it in the li^lit that 
we wished thi-m to. Thi-y establi>hi'<l ^uatils anmnd their 
Bipiads, and Ik^IinmI beat off the Kaiders when their own territory 
wiLs invadinl. but this was all tliev woidd do. The rest of us 
formetl similar ^ruards. In the south we>t ronn*r of the Stock- 
ade - wlii-re I was -we fi»ruHil oui-selves into a eouipany of 
liftv aeiive Imivs- ni'istlv belniiirino^ ti» mv own battaliou and 
to other Illinois reiriineiils — of which I was eh-clnl Cajv 
tain. Mv I'lrst I.ieuii-nant was a tall, taciturn, loiij'-arnieil 
mendier<it' tht* (hie jlundretl and Kleveiith IlIiiKiis. whom we 
calleti " Ki:ypi/' as he came iVum that s«'ctii»n of I hi' State. 
lie was wiiiiileitnllv handv with his tist<. I think he ei>uld 
knock a fi-llow di»wii so that he would fall liariitT, and lio 
JonifiT than any pt-iNnii 1 ever saw. We made a tacit division 
i»f dui'.es : I ilid I hi' laikiT'L'. auil '* IlL^vpl *' wrut tiirouirh the man- 
ual la^N»r ot kniH-ksi'L'^ oui" o|'!iis di»\\n. In the numt*n»us 
little eiiriiini!f!"s in w h i h nur company wmn e!ii.':ii,'iM|, "Ki^vpl" 
Would >laiit| by my s\A*\ >ilf?ii. Lrnm and painiil. whih- I pur- 
8U«>I tin' d'.al«»::ue Willi tin* j«-.idi'r of the i»t i.«r ci'tiu d. As SiH»n 
as he tlioUirht llie CM'i\»'"n hail n-at-lud TJiC pnijH-r |«oinl, 
his loTii: litl arm slrett lud oul liivea ll.i'»li. and the i»liier fellow 
drop|»iMl as if hi' Middi !j|y c«»iu" in imul'*' of a mule that 

wa> ffi-iini: wr!l. Tim uni'Mnit*-*! litt-iiandi-r m-v.-r faile«l 


II wviuld h.i\e made C iiarU^ lkead(.'*> Iimi-i h-ap ii.r j«»v to m.'i: iu 


In spite of our company and onr watchfulness, the Raiders 
beat us badly on one occasion. Marion Friend, of Comiiany I 
of our battalion, was one of the small traders, and bad accumu- 
lated forty dollars by his bartering. One evening at dusk 
Delaney^s Eaiders, about twenty-five strong, took advantage of 
the absence of most of us drawing rations, to make a rush for 
Marion. They knocked him down, cut him across the A\Tist 
and neck with a razor, and robbed him of his fofity dollars. 
By the time we could rally Dclaney and his attendant scoun- 
drels were safe from pursuit in the midst of their friends. 

This state of things had become unendurable. Sergeant 
Leroy L. Key, of Company M, our battalion, resolved to make 
an effort to crush the Saiders. lie was a ])rinter, from Bloom- 
ington, Illinois, tall, dark, intelligent and strong-willed, and 
one of the bravest men I ever knew. lie was ablv seconded 
by ** Limber Jim," of the Sixty-Seventh Illinois, whose hthe, 
sinewy fonn, and striking features reminded one of a young 
Sioux brave. He had all of Key's des{)erate courage, but not 
his brains or his talent for leadership. Though fearfully 
reduced in numbers, our battalion had still about one hundred 
well men in it, and these fonned the nucleus for Key's band of 
** Regulators^" as they were styled. Among them were several 
who had no e({uals in physical strength and courage in any of 
the Raider chiefs. Our best man was Neil Carrigan, Cor{X)raI 
of Comi>any I, from Chicago — who was so confessetUy the 
best man in the whole prison that he was never called upon to 
demonstrate it. lie was a big-hearted, genial Irish boy, who 
was never known to get into trouble on his own account, but 
only used his lists when some of his comrades were imposed 
upon. He had fought in the ring, and on one occa.sion had 
killed a man with a single blow of his list, in a prize fight near 
St. Louis. AVe were all very proud of him, and it was as good 
as an entertainment to us to see the noisiest roughs subside into 
deferi*ntial silence as Neil would come among them, like some 
grand mastiff in the midst of a pack of yelping curs. Ned 
entered into the regulating scheme heartily. Other stalwart 
specimens of physical manhood in our battidion were Sergeant 
Ooody, Ned Johnson, Tom Larking and others, who, while not 


ai>proaohing Carrignn's perfect mnnhood, were still more thu 
ft match for the best of tlio RaiiJurg. 

Key prooooded with the greatntt secreoy in the organizatio 
of his forces. He accepted none but Wu9tem men, and ] 

, 6'> - 


(■rrad nUnoifluis, loiruiB, Kan^llm^ Indianiiuu and ObIo*ni.1 
The bo^ from those States seemed to naturally go together, , 
and be morod by the same moti^-cs. Ilo informed AVlrz whnfcl 
ho propowd doing, so that any uniuiiAl (?oiii motion within thai 
prisoa might not \» mistaken for an attempt u]>un the 8tod^■ | 
ada, and made the excuse for o|iening with tlie artillery. 

IWiix, who happonnl to lie in a oomplflisnnt humor, iipprored of ' 
Ute detugn, and allowed him the use of the onclimre of the 
North (inte to ponflnc his prlsutK'n in. 
In spite of Kev's efforts at wercsy, information as to bis 



qnarten, and decided there that Key must be killed Three 
men were seleoted to do this work. They called on Key, at 
dusk, on the evening of the 2d of July. In response to 
their inquiries^ he came out of the blanket-covered hole on the 
hillside that he called his tent. They told him what they had 
heard, and asked if it was true. lie said it was. One of them 
then drew a knife, and the other two, ^' billies " to attack hinu 
But, anticipating trouble. Key had procured a revolver 
which one of the Pilgrims had brought in in his knapsack, 
and drawing this he drove them off, but without firing a shot. 

The occurrence caused the greatest excitement. To us of 
the Regulators it showed that the Haiders had penetrated our 
designs, and were prepared for them. To the great majority 
of the prisoners it was the first intimation tliat such a thing 
was contemplated ; the news spread from squad to squad with 
the greatest rapidity, and soon everybody was discussing the 
chances of tlie movement. For awhile men ceased their inter- 
minable discussion of escape and exchange — let those over- 
worked words and theq|es have a rare spell of repose — and 
debated whether the Haiders would whip the Regulators, or 
the Regulators conquer the Raiders. The reasons which I 
have previously enumerated, induced a general disbelief in the« 
probability of our success. The Raiders were in good health, 
well fed, used to operating together, and had the confidence 
begotten by a long series of successes. The Regulators lacked 
in all these respects. 

Whether Key had originally fixed on the next day for 
making the attack, or whether this affair precipitated the 
crisis, I know not, but later in the evening he sent us all orders 
to be on our guard all night, and ready for action the next 

There was very little sleep anywhere that night The 
Rebels learned through their spies that something unusual was 
going on inside, and as their only interpretation of anything 
unusual there was a design upon the Stockade, they strength- 
ened the guards, took additional precautions in every way, and 
spent the hours in anxious anticipation. 

We, fearing that the Raiders might attempt to frustrate the 
scheme by an attack in overpowering force on Key's squadi 


which would be accompanied by the assassination of him and 
Limber Jim, held ourselves in readiness to offer any assistance 
that mi^ht be needed. 

The Itaidrrs, thou<):h confident of success, were no less 
cxercis<Hl. They threw out pickets to all the apju-oaches to 
their hcachpiartci's, and i)ix>vi<lcd otherwise against surprise. 
They had sniufr^kHl in some eantei»ns of a eheajK vile whisky — 
made from sor;^hu]n — and they givw quite hihirious in their 
Bij^ Tent over tlieir potations. Two son«rs had h)nfr ago been 
acceptitl by us as invuliarly the Kaidei-s' own — as some one 
in their crowd siin^ them nearlv everv evenin;r. and we never 
heard them anvwheiv The lii'st lH^«r«in: 

In ADhiI Ihi'il A nmn namitl Jrrrr I^no^^an; 

He lia(trn-«l a^^uy liil In* liin! ii'l u |Miiiiiil. 
ni* fullicr hv (liiii, tiiiil til* inudi' iimi a nun agin; 

Lvft lilm a r.inu of ivu nvrtn nf ^ruuiiil. 

The other related tlie cxi»h»its of an Irish highwayman 
nameil Ihvnnan, whose chief virtue was iliat 

WLat lie nib-hvd rn>ni the ri< h he \;a\v uiitu ihe \>>->t. 

And this was the villainous ehonis in whieh they all joine*!, 
and s;in<' in sueh a wavas >U'''M'>itMl hit'liwav rnl»l.»erv, muiiler, 
mayhem auil arMin : 

Hn-iiiian im tlit- iiiour ! 
llri I I. Ill) *'U il.r III .nr ! 

I'll -ml ail-! i:i.i!aui>?i-il pTo'hI 
Ji-tiii iln-i.iiiiii I III lUv iipMir. 

Thev hi)wleil tln'se two !:i*arlv the live-li»ntr niirht. Thev 

• • ft 

became eventually «juile niniii.iiiiinns in u>. whn wwf waiting 
and watelJinL^ It wmiltl lja\«' !•« « ii «jiiil«' a iflirf if ihev had 
thrown in a in-w nnt* rxt-rv lu»ur «■!• mi. I»v wav of variftv. 

Aliirning al la>t r.-siin*. < >ur o»i!i]ia!iir«; ihuvIiiimI nii tln*ir 
gnjumls. ai:d thfii niarilnd in tin* >\ku*' \*u tl:«* Snuili Siilo 
when.' the rat inns uiir i>-.i:i«l. Kat li man was arm»-d with a 
small eli.b. Mi-mtd in lii^ u i.-^i liv a >lri!»L'. 


The lif!M-l> il.rir ilM«'ii:f fiar nf an •inilmak ani- 
mannu' iImhi - l.;nl all ll;»' infaiitiv in liiif nf IijjMm' wuh 

Inadrd ;:UI1S. T!.»- ral.lii»n ill ti.f WnikN \\i-!«' >l;t»l!««l. I 111* fu><.'S 

thni-i mill tl.f t.iiji!;lii«!« ^ aiiil tin- iiu-n -^I'hmI w nh lanxauU in 
hand reailv to m«»w di»wn o\«r\ I«hIv. al aiiv iiisiaiil. 

■ sloped towitni cutii t'iij>-i iikt- tliose of a preat tnmgh. 
Tbo Rju4l<M^' liPAtlqunrters stood upon tliv cvntor of Uw soulhero 
slope, and ixiiis«|aeiilly tbonu sUrding on tlie iiortliom riopo 
nw fn-crything um if upon tho stage of a theater. 

While fltandin}jr ■>> miks wuitin-^ lbi< nrduv to move, one of 
my ootnm'cs IoucImij iiu> on thv uriii, and mid: — 

" My titid I ju»t Uiok ovw therel " 

I tonie<l tmm walching the ICc1h-I artilleriiitK. whom inl 
tkwi gKve tiie ittorv unvutinew tliun anylhin{; vW*, and 
in Ui« iliiTction indicated tir the H]>enkor. The 8i>;ht wa« the 
•tnuigivl HOP my <?yca cvnr cDCtmnlun^ There won! at leuRl 
lifteen thuuHUtl — pcrh»)» iwcDty thuumind — mvn packed 
logothur t(D t)M?r Imnk, and every oyu wah tunif<l on i». Tbo 
tlope WB* iDch that cuch man's fuce showed over the Bbonldett 
of the one in front of him, making aerv» on acres of faooa. It 
was as if the vrbo1« bnwd hiUdde was pared or Ukalchod vith 
human cuunlenaooes. 



adTwBM wiOi their cotnp«nic». The jmaoa was aa fiiloit u a 
graverunL As Ke apiircuichvd, tht> RsHlors massiecl tii<MiiwIrai 
in a strong, heavy liiic, willi ihe a-iiler, ujcninst n-hich onr 
•draocti Kiia moving, l)i>lil by tlif- most r«douUat)li! nf tbdr 
leaders. How mooy Uiere were of Uiem oonlil nut lie tokl, as 
it wu imporaible to say wbere tbcir Un« ended nnd the nin» of 
ipecUttirs began. Th«y could not tbetngdm li'll, as tbu atti- 
UiAe of II lar^ portion uf Ihe ^tedators woald be detonufoed 
by which way the batlUi went 

Not a blow w&« Btmdc unlit tlio Uoce camo close together. 
Then the Itaider center latinchod itwlf for«iird apiitiHt oan, 
and gmii[i|«l nx'agply with the leading Itc^latots. For an 
Initant — it Kerned an hour — tho itrugglQ waa deepenU& 


Strong, fierce men clenched and strove to throttle each other ; 
great muscles strained almost to bursting, and blows with fist 
and dub — dealt with all the energy of mortal hate — fell like 
hail. One — perhaps two — endless minutes the lines surged 
— throbbed — backward and forward a step or two, and then, 
as if by a concentration of mighty effort, our men flung the 
Haider lino back from it — broken — shattered. The next 
instant our leaders were striding through the mass like raging 
lions. Carrigan, Limber Jim, Larkin, Johnson and Goody 
each smote down a swath of men before them, as they moved 
resistlessly forward. 

We light weights had been sent around on the flanks to 
separate the spectators from the combatants, strike the Saidcrs 
en reverSy and, as far as possible, keep the crowd from reinforo- 
ing them. 

In flve minutes after the first blow was struck the overthrow 
of the Raiders was complete. Resistance ceased, and they 
sought safety in flight. 

As the result became apparent to the watchers on the opposite 
hillside, they vented their pent-up excitement in a yell that 
made the ver}' ground tremble, and we answered them with a 
shout that expri'sscd not only our exultation over our victory 
but our great relief from the intense strain we had long borne. 

We picke<l up a few prisoners on the battle field, and retired 
without making any s])ecial effort to get any more then, as we 
knew that they could not escape us. 

We were very tired, and very hungry. The time for draw- 
ing rations had arrived. Wagons containing bread and mush 
had driven to the gates, but Wirz would not allow these to be 
opened, lest in the excited condition of the men an attempt 
might be made to carry them. Key ordered operations to 
cease, that Wirz might be re-assured and let the rations enter. 
It was in vain. Wirz was thoroughly scared. The wagons 
stood out in the hot sun until the mush fermented and soured, 
and had to be thrown away, while we went rationless to bed, 
and rose the next day with more than usually empty stomachs 
to goad us on to our work. 



I may not have nuule it wholly clear to the reader why we 
dill not have li f active assistance uf the whole prison in the 
stni^irle with tin* Ilaidei-s. Tlicre were many reasons for this. 
First, the ^tval bulk of the prisoners were new comers, having 
been, at the farthest, but tlinv or four wivks in the Stockade. 
They did not conipivhcnd tlic situation of alTairs as we older 
prisoners di<i. Tiiry did not understand tliat ail the outinf^ 
— or vcrv iirariv all — witc the work of a ivlativelv small 
crf)wd of ^raduali'S I'roin the mi'trojx>lilan school of vice. The 
nctivitv and audaciiy uf the Kaidci*s gave them the impi'ession 
that at half the able-lNHliiil men in the SttK'kaile were 
ong;ip'd in thesi* de|ireilali<»ns. This is always the case. A 
half do/en burglars or otiier active criminals in a town will 
produce the impressi(»n that a lar^^^e i>ortion of the {>opulation 
are law-breakei's. We never estimated that the raiding 
X'Yaarkers, with thi'ir spit-s anil other aceomplices, e.\cet»tled 
five hun<ir(*<l, but it would liave U*en ditllcult ti» convince a new 
prisoner that there were not thi»us;in<ls of lijem. Sei'ondly, 
tlie pristmei's weiv made up of small sijuails fi-oin every regi- 
ment at the fn»nt alon;r lh«' wholt* line fi\»m ihf Mississippi to 
the Atlantic. Tliese wen- >trangers in ami distrustful of all out- 
side their own little ciivlis. The Kastern men weiv esjKvially 
si\ The rennsylvaniansand N»*w Yorkei"s eaeh formetl gn>ui>s, 
and dill not fraternize readilv with those outside their 


State lines. The New Jerseyans held aloof from all the rest, 
while the Massachusetts soldiers had very Uttle in common 
with anybody — even their fellow New Englanders. The 
Michigan men were modified New Englanders. They had the 
same tricks of speech ; they said "I be " for " I am," and 
^^haag" for ^^hog;" ^'Let me lookatyoar knife half a sec- 
ond," OP " Give me just a sup of that water," where we said 
simply " Lend me your knife," or " hand me a drink." They 
were loss rcser^'ed than the true Yankees, more dis])osed to be 
social, and, with all their eccentricities, were as manly, honor- 
able a set of fellows as it was my fortune to meet with in the 
army. I could ask no better comnules than the boys of the 
Third Michigan Infantry, who belonged to the same ** Ninety" 
with me. The boys from Minnesota and AVisconsin were very 
much like those from Michigan. Those from Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa and Kansas all seemed cut off the same piece. 
To all intents and pur]x>ses they might have come from the 
same County. They siK>ke the same dialect, read the same 
newsi>a|)ers, hud studied ilcGuffey's Readers, MitcheH's Geog- 
raphy, and Kay's Arithmetics at school, admireil the same 
great men, and held generally the same opinions on any given 
subject. It was never difficult to get them to act in 
unison — they did it spontaneously ; while it required an effort 
to bring about harmony of action with those from other sec- 
tions. Had the Western boys in prison been thoroughly 
advised of the nature of our enterprise, we could, doubtless, 
have commanded their cordial assistance, but they were not, 
and there was no way in which it could be done readily, until 
after the decisive blow was struck. 

The work of arresting the leading Raiders went on actively 
all day on the Fourth of July. They made occasional shows of 
fieroe resistance, but tiie events of the day before had destroyed 
their prestige, broken their confidence, and driven away from 
their sui>iwrt very many who followed their lead when they 
were considenxl all-j)owerful. They scattereil from their 
former haunts and mingUnl with the crowds in other i»arts of 
the prison, but were reeognizetl, and n>|K>rtiHl to Key, who 
sent parties to arrest them. Several times they managed to 
collect enough adherents to drive off the squails sent after them, 


but this only pive tliein a short respite, for the squad would 
return reinfnixred. and make short work of them. Iksidcs, the 
pnson<*is ^r^n^•^aIly were lH*{jrinnin{r to understand and approve 
of tlie K(*;;uIatoi*s' niuvemeiit, and were dis|N)setl to give all the 
assistance n<.'i'<liMl. 

Myself and " K«:ypt," my taciturn Lieutenant of the sinewy 
left arm, were sent with our company to arn^st Pete Donnelly, 
a notorious diameter, and leader of a bad crowd. He was 
more '* knocker" than Kaider, h(^wcver. He was an old Pem- 
berton buildin;; accpiaintance, and as we marehe<l up to where 
he was standing at the head of liis^Mtheringclan, he recognized 
me an<l said : 

'• Hello, Illinoy," (the name by whi<-h I wjis gi»nerally known 
in prison) '* what do you want hi'i-e T' 

I replii^l, " Pct(», Key has sint me for you. I want you to go 
to headtpiartcrs." 

"What the does Kev want with me?" 

"I don't know, I'm suiv; lie onlv sjiid to brinjr vou." 

"I>ut I haven't ha<I anythin;^ to do witli them ot her snoozers 
you have UtMi a-having troubk* with.'' 

"I don't know anything: aUnit that ; you can talk to Key afl 
to that. I onlv know tiiat we an* MMit for vou." 

''AVclK vou don't think vou can take me unhss I choose to 
go? You haint ^rot anylnxly in that crowd big enough to make 
it worth while fur him to waste his time trying it." 

I n»pli<Ml ditlidcntly that one never knew wliat he could do 
till he irietl; that while none of us were very liig, we were OB 
willing a lot of little fellows as he evi'r siiw, and if it were all 
the Siime to him, we would undertake to waste a little time 
getting him to headquarters. 

Thecunversiition wnMiied unnee<ss;irily long to "Egypt," who 
stood by my side, al>out a half ste]» in a<lvance. Pete was 
becoming angrier and more detiant every minute. Ilis 
followers were cn^wding up to us, club in hand. Finally Pete 
thrust his list in my face, and nxired out: — 

'• Dv , I ain't a going with ve, and ve can't take me, 

you ^ " 

This was '• Egypt's" cue. His long h*ft ann uncouphxl like the 
loosening of the weight of a pile-driver. It caught Mr. Donnelly 


from, and why be did not sco it in time to dodge or \rard 

Ai Pete dropped, tbo rest of ue stepped forward with onr 
oIdIm, to eng*^ his folluirt-ts, white "£g;)'pt'' and one or two 
others tiwi his haud^ oihI otherwise Mcunxl hiin. Itul his 
beochmen niatle no effort to rescue him, and we carried him 
over to hindquarters nittioiit tuolostalioo. 

The Work of arresting incrcusi-d in interest and excitement 
tiDtil it devclope<l into the fiimre of a hunt, wiih thdtisunds 
eagerly en^ged in it. Tim Haiders' tents were t<.irn down and 
jiilUgcd. Itlankcta, tent jwlus, and cooking iilensiU were 
carried off a« spoils, and the ground nu dug over for secreted 
property. A hu)^ qoantity of watches, clmin<t, knives, rings, 
gtilil pens, etc^ etc. — the booty of many a raiti — wtm found, and 
beljied to give impetus to the hunt. Ercn the TEi'bel Quarter- 
tnaster, with the charectorigtic kwn went of the IteheU for 
^oili^ imcUod from the outside the opportunity (or gniaing 


plander^ and camo in with a squad of Rebels equipped with 
spades, to dig for buried treasures. How successful he waa I 
know not, as I took no {uirt in any of the operations of that 

It was clainuHl that several skeletons of victims of tlie Raid- 
ers were f<»uiul burietl beneath the tents. I cannot six'sik with 
any certainty as to this, though my impi-ession is that at least 
one was found. 

By evening Key had iHjrhajvs one hundred and twenty-five of 
the most note<i Raiders in his hands. Wirz liad allowed him 
the use of tlio small st(>oka4le forming tlie entrance to the 
North (fate to confine tliem in. 

The next thing wa;3 the jud«:ment and punishment of the 
arresteil ones. Fur this pur|K>se Key orirani/jnl a court martial 
oom}X)stHl of lhirlet.»n Sergeants, chosen from the latest arrivals 
of prisoners, that they might have no pi-ejutliee ainiinst the 
Raiders. I lielieve that a man nainetl Diek McC'ulIou:rh, 
belonging to the Thinl Missouri Cavalry, was the Tivsident of 
the Court. The trial was carefully ronduettHl, with aU the 
formality of a legal pnK-cHlun* that the Court ami tht»si» manag- 
ing the matter could reiiieinlKT as a)>)>li('al>I<' to the crimes with 
which the accnsiMl Wfiv cliarp-d. Kacli tif thrs.* wjis con- 
fronleil by the wiim-SNi's win* t«'>titii*d aLMin^t him, aTid aUowtnl 
to cross-i'xamine llnMii in any exit-nl In* tlt'siri.Ml. Tin* tlefi*iise 
was manaL''«*<l bv <»n«' of tlirjr crowd, ili«» fouliuiirrin'*! Toml>s 
shv.stiT. r«lc Uradlrv, tif wliom 1 havf lN* sjNikt'n. Such 
was the frar of thi* vnip-anci' of tin' Uauli'iN and their friends 
that manv wlio had In-i-h hatilv aliu^itnl d:ii*i*il nut tfstifv a^rainst 
them.di't'ailinL'' niiilnii:lit ti>si><iination if tlnv did. ( >thei*s would 
not go l»rl'ori* tli»- < '*nirt i-xcrjii at ni;:hi. Hut for all tiiis there 
was !!•» Iii*-k of rvidi'n«'f : ihi*i*e wwr ilitni^antl^i who had Wvn 
robU*d and inallri-aI«Ml. nr w lio had M-eii thrsi* oiitraires com- 
mittctl on ••liiiTN. and lln' ImMrif^N of tin* It-adi-rs in thfir hi'dit 
of ]Kiwi*r it'iidcrt'd thdr i<ii'.'itilicatioii a matter of !)•» ilitlicultv 

Tile trial LisIimI sfvrral days, and ctincludiMl with M'nteneing 
i|nite a largf niimlN'r to run tlit- ;:aiinlirt. a smiillfr numlN*r tu 
wear halls and <-ltain<. aiiii tin* loliuwiiiL'' six to Ik* han^^tMJ : 

John Sarslicld, < Mie liunthx**! ami lurlv rourih New York. 


William Collins, alias " Mosby," Company D, Eighty-Eighth 

Charles Curtis, Company A, Fifth Rhode Island Artillery. 

Patrick Delaney, Company E, Eighty-Third Pennsylvania. 

A. Muir, United States Navy. 

Terence Sullivan, Seventy-Second New York. 

These names and regiments are of little consequence, how- 
ever, as I believe all the rascals were professional bounty -jump- 
ers, and did not belong to any regiment longer than they could 
find an opportunity to desert and join another. 

Those sentenced to ball-and-chain were brought in immedi- 
atelv, and had the irons fitted to them that had been worn 
by some of our men as a punishment for trying to e8ca|>e 

It was not yet determined how punishment should be meted 
olit to the remainder, but circumstances themselves decided the 
matter. AVirz became tired of guarding so large a number es 
Key had arrested, and he informed Key that he should turn 
them back into the Stockade immediately. Key begged for 
little farther time to consider the disiX)sition of the aises, but 
Wirz refused it, and ordered the Officer of the Guanl to return 
all arrested, save those sentenceil to death, to t!ie Stock- 
ade, In the meantime the news had si)read through the prison 
that the Raiders were to be sent in again unpunished, and an 
angry mob, numbering some thousands, and mostly composed 
of men who had suffered injuries at the hands of the maraud- 
ers, gathered at the South Gate, clubs in hand, to get such sat- 
isfaction as Ihev could out of the rascals. Thev formed in two 
long, parallel lines, facing inward, and grimly awaited the 
incoming of the objects of their vengeance. 

The Officer of the Guard openeil the wicket in the gate, and 
began forcing the Raiders through it — one at a time — at the 
point of the bayonet, and c^ich as he entered was told what he 
already realizod well — that he must run for his life. They 
did this with all the energy that they possessed, and as they 
ran blows raine<l on their heads, anns and backs. If thev could 
succeed in breaking through the line at any place they were 
generally let go without any further punishment. Three of the 
number were beaten to death. I saw one of these killeil. I 
had no liking for the gauntlet perfonnance, and refused to have 


anything to do with it, as did most, if not all, of my croird. 
"WbOo the gauallct was in 0[)craliDii, I was stAiiding by my temV. 
ai tbo bead of a little strwt. about two hundred fcct from t~ 
line, watching what waabein^ dono. A sailor wag lot in. Hohw 
a large bowie knife concealed alwMit hi» pej-son Bomewhere, whio 
li* drew, and struck savagely with at his tormentors on eitli 

BiAm w Tm taiun 

Mb. They fell back from before him, but clo«od In belli 
and jxKindcd him terribly. He broke tbrougli the line, andn 
up the street towards me. About midway of the dist 
stood a boy who had hclprd carry a dt-ad man out during t 
day, and wbtlc out bad scoured a large pine rail wbich he 1 
brought in with faim. He was holding this stmigbt up in thai 
air, aa if at a " present arms." lie seemed to have known from 
tha ftnt tliat the Raider would run that way. Just aa he cwna 
■qaarely under it, the boy droppnl tbo rail like the bar of a toll 
gat& It struck the Balder acrow iho head, felled him ai if by 
a ifaot, and hia punuen then beat him to death. 




It began to be pretty generally understood throngb the priBon 
that six men had been sentenced to be hanged, though no 
authoritative announoement of the fact had been made. There 
wa6 much canvassing as to where they should be executed, and 
whether an attempt to hang them inside of the Stockade 
would not rouse their friends to make a desperate effort to reB> 
cue them, which would precipitate a general engagement of 
even larger proportions than that of the 8d. Despite the 
result of the affairs of that and the succeeding days, the camp 
was not yet convinced that the Kaiders were really conquered, 
and the Regulators themselves were not thoroughly at ease on 
that score. Some five thousand or six thousand new prisoners 
had come in since the first of the month, and it was claimed 
that the Raiders had received large reinforcements from those, 
— a claim rendered probable by most of the new-oomers being 
f i-um the Army of the Potomac. 

Key and those immediately about him kept their own counsel 
in the matter, and suffered no secret of their intentions to leak 
out, until on the morning of the 11th, when it became generally 



known that the sentences were to becarrieil into effect that dayt 
and inside the prison. 

My first direct information as to this was by a messenger 
from Key with an onler to assem])le my com|>iiny and stand 
giiani over tlie i-ariM^ntew who weiv to eitrt the scatfold. IIo 
informi'd me that all the R(*«^ulatoi*s woidd he hehl in readiness 
to come to our relii.»f if we were attackeil in force. I had 
ho)XHi that if the men were to tx.* han^nl I would l)e s])ai*ed tho 
unpleasiint duty of iissisting, for, though I bt^ieved they richly 
deserve<i that punishment, I had much rather some one elso 
adniinistt^red it U|)on them. Then' was no way out of it, how- 
ever, that I could see, ami so "E«ryi>t" and I got the boys 
together, and marchiHi <luwn to the dt^si^nated place, which 
was an o])en sfvice near the end of the street running from the 
South Gate, an<l kept vacant for the pur|M)sc» of is^^uintr rations. 
It was quite near the s{)ot wliere the Kaidcrs' Big Tent had 
stood, and atforde<I as giMxl a view to the rest of the camp as 
could be found. 

Key had secure<l the loan of a few l)eams and rough planks, 
sutficient to build a rude scaffi>Kl with. Our lii-st dutv was to 
care for tlu^se as thev came in, for such was the misl of wood, 
and plank for tent juiriMises, that thi\v wtiuld sc*aively have fallen 
to the ground lM^fon»th*»v wciv s]»irile<l away, had we nut stoo<l 
over them all the time with clubs. 

The carjionters st»nt liy Key came over and set to work. 
The N'Vaarkers g;ithrrc»<l anniml in consitkTabk» numlx^rs, 
sullen and abusive. Tlu'V eui's«'<l us with all tluMr rich vocab- 
ulary of foul epith<*ts, vowtnl that we should nt'ver carry out 
the ex(H:ution, ami swon* that tln»v had mark***! uach one for 
vengeance. We rL'turn***! tlH*rompIimonts in kind, and ^nrcasion- 
allv it seeminl as if a «^fn«'ral nilllsion was immiiKMit : but wo 
succeedeil in avi>idinir tiiis, ami by noon thr si'atT(»lil was 
linislHMl. It was a very sim)>li* affair. A stout iN*am was 
faiitent.»ilonthetopof two|Mi>ts.alKiut lifli*«'n ftvt hiirh. AtaUiUt 
the hiirht of ji man's h«"a«l a c<»upli» of Ui^inU sin'tt-luHl across 
the s|KKV belwn'n tin* jmms, and im/t in thr miti*r. Tlie ends 
at the {Mists laid on cheats ; th«' rnds in th«* o'litrr i*i'Nti*d U|M»n 
u couple of lM»anls, standini: upriirht, ami isu-ii havin«; a piece 
of ro|ie fastened through a hole in it in such a manner, that a 


man could snatch it from under the planks serving as the floor 
of the scaffold, and let the whole thing drop. A rude ladder to 
ascend hj completed the preparations. 

As the arrangements necu^ed completion the excitement in 
and around the prison grew intense. Key came over with the 
balance of the Regulators, and we formed a hollow square 
around the scaffold, our company making the line on the East 
Side. There were now thirty thousand in the prison. Of 
these about one-third packed themselves as tightly about oar 
square as they could stand. The remaining twenty thousand 
were wedged together in a solid mass on the North Side. 
Again I contemplated the wonderful, startling, spectacle of 
a mosaic pavement of human faces covering the whole broad 

Outside, the Rebel infantry was standing in the rifle pits, the 
artillerymen were in place about their loaded and trained 
pieces, the No. 4 of each gun holding the lanyard cord 
in his hand, rciidy to flre the piece at tlie instant of command. 
The small squad of cavalry was drawn up on the hill near the 
Star Fort, and near it were the masters of the hounds, with their 
yelping packs. 

All the hangersK)n of the Rebel camp — clerks, teamsters^ 
employes, negros, hundreds of white and colored women, in all 
forming a motley crowd of between one and two thousand, 
were gathered together in a group between the end of the rifle 
pits and the Star Fort. They had a good view from there, but 
a still better one could be had a little farther to the right, and 
in front of the guns. They kept edging up in that direction, 
as crowds will, though they knew the danger they would incur 
if the artillery opened. 

The day was broiling hot. The sun shot his perpendicular 
rays down with blistering fierceness, and the densely {lacked, 
motionless crowds maile the heat almost insup]x>rtable. 

Key took up his position inside the square to direct matters. 
With him were Limber Jim, Dick McCullough, and one or two 
others. Also, Ned Johnson, Toiu Larkin, Sergeant Uoody, 
and three others who were to act as hangmen. Each of these 
six was provided with a white sack, such as the Rebels brought 
in meal in* Two Corporals of my company — ^' Stag " Uarrig 


and Wat Payne — wore appointeil to pull the stays from under 
the platform at the signal. 

A little after noon the South Gate openeil, and Wirz rode in, 
dressed in a suit of white duck, and mounted on his white 
horse — a cunjuncli<m which had gained for him the api)ella* 
tion of ^^ Death on a Pale Horse.*' Pchind him walked the 
faithful old priest, wearing his Churcli^s purple insignia of the 
deepest sorrow, and rciuling the »t»rvice for the condemned. 
The six doomed men followed, walking between double ranks 
of liebel guards. 

All came inside the hollow square and halteil. HVirz then 

"Brizners, I return to y4>u dese men so goot as I got dem. 
You haf trie<l dem yourselves, and ft»und dem guilty. I haf 
had nottinf^to do wit it. I vash my hands of eferyting con* 
nected wit dem. Do wit dem as vou like, and mav Gott haf 
mercy on you and on dem. Garts, alwut face I Vorwarts, 
march ! " 

With this ho marcliiHl out and left us. 

For a nxmient tlie condemniHl l(N»kisI stunned. Thev seemed 
to compri'hend for the lii-st time that it was i-eally the deter- 
mination of the Regulators to hang tliem. l>efore that they had 
evidently thought that tlie talk of haiivrin*; was merelv bluff. 
One of them gas)HHl out : 

" My Goil, men, ycai don't really mean to liang us up there!" 

Kev answenxl grimlv and laconieallv: 

"That seems to be al>out the size of it." 

At this they burst (»ut in a passionate storm of intercessions 
and imprecations, which histi*il for a minute or so, when it 
was stopjietl by one of them living imjH'nitively : 

"All of you stop now, and let the priest talk lor us." 

At this tlie priest chiMtl the iMMik ujk*!! which he had kept 
his eyes b.-nt since his entrance, and facing the multitude on 
the North Side Ix'gan a plfa for mercy. 

The coridemnetl fac^tl in the s;ime dirivtion, t4> n-ad their 
fate in the c«>unlenaiu-es of th<»se whom lie was aihlressinir. 
This movement brouglit Curtis — a htw-statun^l, massivelv 
built nuin — on the right of their linci and about leu or liftccu 
ste|)s from my comiuiny. 


The whole camp had been as still as death since Wirz's exit 
The silence seemed to become even more profound as the priest 
began his appeal For a minnte every ear was strained to 
catch what he said. Then, as the nearest of the thousands 
comprehended what he was saying they raised a shout of 

"No! fi^//N011" 

" Ilang them I hang them I '' 

" Don't let them go 1 Never 1 '* 

" Hang the rascals I han^ the villains ! ** 

" Hang 'em I hang 'em 1 hang 'em ! " 

This was taken up all over the prison, and tens of thousands 
throats veiled it in a fearful chorus. 

Curtis turned from the crowd with dcs()eration convulsing 
his features. Tearing off the broad-brimmed hat which ho 
wore, he flung it on the ground with the exclamation : 

" By God, I'll die this way first ! '' and, drawing his head 
down and folding his arms about it, he dashed forward for 
the center of my company, like a. great stone hurled from a 

" Egypt " and I saw where he was going to strike, and ran 
down the line to help stop him. As he came up we rained 
blows on his head with our clubs, but so many of us struck at 
him at once that we broke each other's clubs to pieces, and 
only knocked him on his knees. He rose with an almost super- 
human effort, and plunged into the mass beyond. 

The excitement almost became delirium. For an instant I 
feared that everything was gone to ruin. " Egypt " and I strained 
every energy to restore our lines, l>efore the break could be 
taken advantage of by the others. Our boys behaved splen- 
didly, standing firm, and in a few seconds the line was 

As Curtis broke through, Delaney, a brawny Irishman stand- 
ing next to him, started to follow. He took one step. At the 
same instant Limber Jim's long legs took three great strides, 
and placed him directly in front of Delaney. Jim's right hand 
held an enormous bowie-knife, and as he raised it above 
Delanev he hissed out : 

" If you dare move another step, you — — , PU 

open you from one end to the other.'' 


Delaney stopped. This checked the others till our lii 

When Wirz saw the commotion he was panic-stricken with 
fear that the long-dreadeil assault on the Stockade had b^;un» 
lie ran down from the headquarter stei>s to the Captain of the 
battery, shrieking 

"Fire! fire I fire!" 

The Cuptuin, not bein^ a fool, could see that the rush was not 
towards the Sttx^kade, but away from it, anil ho refrained from 
giving the onler. 

But the s|)ectatorB who had pitten before the guns, heard 
"Wirz's excitf^l yell, and ixMncmU'rin^' the consequemts to them- 
selves shouhl the artillrrv l>e diM.*har>nMl, lieoanic fronzieil with 
fear, and scivameil, and fHl down ovi-r and tnun))lodu]K)n each 
other in endeavoring to p.*t away. Tho quants on that side of 
the Stocka4lo nm down in a ]Kinic. and the ti^n thousiind pris- 
oners inimoiliately an»und us. t^xiNrtin^^ no less than that the 
next instant we would In^ swrpt with ^rai^e and canister, stam- 
peded tumulluously. TIkmv wciv i|uitt.» a nunilHT of wells right 
around us, and all of thtse wen* lilkMl full of men that fell into 
them as the crowd rushe<l awav. Manv had h*<:s and arms bro- 
ken, and I have no doubt that sevt^ral wciv kilknl. 

It was the st4»mii<*st tlvt' minuter that I ever siiw. 

While this was p»in^ on two of my company, UOonging to 
the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, wimc in hot ]iui-suit of Curtis. I had 
seen them start and shouted to them to c«»me back, as I feared 
they wouhl be set u|Nin by the Kaiders and muixiered. But 
the din was so overiK>wering that they could not hear me, and 
doubtless would not have come Imck if thev had heard. 

Curtis ran diagonally down the hill, jumping over the tents 
and knocking down tln» men who hap|)ene<l in his way. Arriv- 
ing at the swamp he plun^ail in, sinking nearly to his hips in 
the fetid, filthy ooze. H<.' for*:*^! his way through with terrible 
effort. Ilis pursuers followed his example, and caught up to 
him just as he emerpil on the other side. They struck him on 
the back of the hea<l with their clubs, and knocke^l himdown« 

By this time order had Inm^u r<*storetl at)out us. The guns 
remained silent, and the enjwd ukiss^mI aroimd us again. From 
vhero we were we could see tht* successful end of the chase 


after Curtis, and could seo bis captors start back with bim. 
Tbeir success was announced witb a roar of applause from the 
North Side. Both captors and captured were greatly ex- 
hausted, and they were coming back very slowly. Key ordered 
the balance up on to the scaffold. They obeyed promptly. 
The priest resumed his reading of the service for the condemned. 
The excitement seemed to make the doomeil ones exceedingly 
thirsty. I never saw men drink such inordinate quantities of 
water. They called for it continually, guliKxl down a quart or 
more at a time, and kept two men going nearly all the time 
carr}Mng it to them. 

"When Curtis finally arrive<l, he sat on the f^^round for a min- 
ute or so, to rest, and tiien, reeking with filth, slowiy and pain- 
fully climbed the steps. Delaney seemed to think he was 
Buffering as much from fright as anytiiing else, and said to 

"Come on up, now, show yourself a man, and die gjime." 

Again the priest resume<l his reading, but it had no interest 
to Delaney, who kept calling out directions to Pete Donelly, 
who was standing in the crowd, as to dispositions to be made 
of certain bits of stolen proi)erty : to give a watch to this one, 
a ring to another, and so on. Once the priest stop{XHl and 

" My son, let the things of this earth go, and turn your atten- 
tion toward those of heaven." 

Delaney paid no attention to this admonition. The whole 
six then began delivering farewell messages to those in the 
crowd. Key pulled a watch from his pocket and said : 

" Two minutes more to talk." 

Delaney said cheerfully : 

" Well, good by, b'ys ; if I've hurted any of yez, I hope ye'll 
forgive ma Shpake up, now, any of yez that I've hurted, and 
say ye'll forgive me." 

We called upon Marion Friend, whose throat Delaney had 
tried to cut three weeks before while robbing him of forty 
dollars, to come forward, but Friend was not in a forgiving 
mood, and refused witb an oath. 

Key said : 

"Time's upr 


pat the watch \mck in his pocket and raised his band like an 
oificer commanding a gun. Harris and Payne laid hold of the 
ro{x» to the 8up()orts of the planks. Each of the six hangmen 
tied a condemned man*s hands, pulled a meul sack down over 
his head, ])laced the noose around his neck, drew it up tolerably 
close, and sprang to the ground. The priest began praying 

Key drop{)ed his hand. Payne and Harris snatched the sup- 
ports out with a single jerk. The planks fell with a clatter. 
Five of the bodies swung around dizzily in the air. The sixth 
— that of " Mtwby," a large, powerful, raw-boned man, one of 
the worst in the lot, and who, among other crimes, had killed 
Limber Jim's brother — broke the rojK?, and fell with a thud to 
the ground. Some of the men nin forwartl, examined the 
body, and decided that he still lived. The roi)e was cut off his 
neck, the meal sack removeil, and water thrown in liis face until 
consciousness returned. At the first instant he thought he was 
in eternity. He gasixnl out : 

'* Where am I i Am I in the other world i " 

Liml>er Jim mutteivd that tliey would soon show him where 
he was, and went on grimly fixing up the scaffold anew. 
^' Mosby '* soon realize<i what had ha])))ened, and the unrelent- 
ing ])ur|M>se of the Kcgulalor Chiefs. Then he U^gan to beg 
piteously for his life, s;iying: 

"O for (iod's siike, do not put me up there ag:iin! God has 
spared my life once. He meant that you should be merciful 
to me." 

Limber Jim deignetl him no reply. When the scaffold was 
re^arranpMl, and a stout roiK? had replactnl the bn>ken one, he 
puUeil the m^al sack once more ov«t " Mosby 's" head, who 
never ceaseti his pleadings. Then )>icking up the larp' man as 
if he were a Ixibv, la* carriiHl him to the scairold and handiHl 
him up to Tom l^irkin, who litte<l the niMisi* around his nt^ck 
and spning down. The sup(Kirts ha<i not Uhmi set with the 
same delicacv as at first, ami LimlNT Jim had to si^t his heel 
and wrench desiienitoly at ttu*m U'forc* he could force them 
out. Then "Mosby'' jmsstHl away without a struggle. 

After hanging till life was extinct, the lMKlit*s wt?re cut down, 
the mealsacks puUeil off their faces, and the Kegulators formed 


two parallel lines, through which all the ])risoners i)assed and 
took a look at the bodies. Pete Donnelly and Dick Allen knelt 
down and wiped the froth off Delaney's Uiys, and swore ven- 
geance against those who had done him to death. 



After the executions Key, knowing that be, and all those promi- 
nently connected with the hanging, would be in hourly danger 
of assassination if they remained inside, secured details as 
nurses and ward-masters in the hospital, and went outside. In 
this crowd were Key, Ned Carrigan, Limber Jim, Dick 
McCulIough, the six hangmen, the two Corporals who pulled 
the props from under the scaffold, and perhaps some others 
whom I do not now remember. 

In the meanwhile provision had been made for the future 
maintenance of order in the prison by the organization of a 
regular {Mjlice force, which in time came to number twelve 
hundrcil men. These were divided into companies, under 
appropriate officers. Guards were detailed for certain loca- 
tions, patrols passed through the camp in all directions contin- 
ually^ and signals with whistles could summon sufficient assist- 
ance to suppress any disturbance, or carry out any orders from 
the chief. 

The chieftainship was first held by Key, but when he went 
outside he appointed Sergeant A. K. Hill, of the One Hun- 
dredth O, V. I. — now a resident of "Wauseon, Ohio, — his suc- 
cessor. Hill was one of the notabilities of that immense 
throng. A great, broad-shouldered giant, in the prime of his 
manhooil — the beginning of his thirtieth year — he was as 
good-natured as big, and as mild-mannered as brave. He 
spoke slowly, softly, and with a slightly rustic twang, that was 
very tempting to a certain class of sharps to take him up for a 




*^MHn4y S*"^"}'*" "^^^ "^" ^^''"^ '''*' '^^ U'iitally repeotdi bis 
crar tb Mck-dolti umX nsho^ 

Hill first came into pniminoncuj as the victor in tbe most 
Uubbornlj coDtaitod ligbt in Ibc prison historv of Bvlle Isle. 
"Wlien the 
squad of tlio 
One iUn- 
drccltb Ohio 
— capturwl at 
Liinmtonc Sta- 
tion, East Ten- 
nes8L<«, in Sep- 
arrived on 
I. Bollo lalo, a 
/ ci^rtain Jack 
5 Oliver, of the 
k Mineteentb In- 
¥ diuuL, was tbe 
fistio monarch 
of tbe Ifiland. 
lie did not 
boar lili blu&l]- 
ing honors 
modestly ; few 

Eingt of Muade can, or do. The possession of a right arm 
capable of knocking an ordinary man Into tbut iudcQnito 
locality known OM "tbe middle of next ireek," is sometbing 
thai tliu possenor can as littlo resist showing aa can a girl 
bor first ioUtaire ring. To know tbat one can certainly 
strike a di«grec«ble felluw out of time is pretty siiro to breed 
a desire to do that thing whenever oocoKion Korves. Jack 
Oliver was one wbo did not let his biceps rust in inaction, 
bat tbnuhed evvryhody on tbe Island whom be thought 
iweded it, and bis idttas us to thone who should be included 
tn this cUsB widened daily, until it began to appear that bo 
would siKin tvA it bis duty to let no onwhipped man esoapo^ 
but pound erorybodv on the Ishuid. 

naaxurr a. b. niLL, lOOrn o. t. l 


One day his evil genius led him to abuse a rather elderly man 
belonging to Iliirs mess. As he fired off his tirade of con- 
tomely, II ill said with more than his usual ''soft" rusticity: 

"Mister — I — don't — think — it — just — right — for — a— 
young — man — to — call — an — old — one — such — bad — 

Jack Oliver turned on him savagely. 

** Well 1 may be you want to take it up? " 

The grin on Hill's face looked still more verdant, as he 
answered with gentle deliberation : 

" Well — mister — I — don't — go — around — a — hunting — 
things — but — I — ginerally — take — care — of — all — that's 
—sent — me!" 

Jack foamed, but his fiercest bluster could not drive that 
infantile smile from Ililfs face, nor provoke a change in the 
calm slowness of his speech. 

It was evident that nothing would do but a battle-royal, and 
Jack had sense enough to see that the imperturbable rustic was 
likely to give him a job of some difficulty. He went off and 
came back with his clan, while IlilFs comrades of the One 
Hundredth gathered around to insure him fair play. Jack 
pulled off his coat and vest, rolled up his sleeves, and made 
other elaborate ])n»{>aration8 for the affniy. Hill, without 
removing a garment, said, us he surveyeil him with a mocking 

" Mister — you — seem — to — be — one — of — them — par- 
tick — e — lor — fellere." 

Jack nKiriMl out, 

" By , rU make you partirlvhr l)efore T get through with 

you. Now, how shall we settle thisi lingular stand-ui>-and. 
knock-down, or rou;;h and tumbled' 

If anything; IlilKs face was more vacantly serene, and his 
tones blander than ever, as he answerttl : 

'* Strike — any — piit — t hat — suits — you, — Mister ; — I — 
g^ess — I — will — U» — able — to — keep — up — with — you.** 

Thev cIose<l. Hill feinte<l with his left, and as Jsick uncov- 
eroil to ^uanl, he caught him fairly on the lower left rilis, by a 
blow from his mighty right fist, that soundc<l — as one of the 
bystanders expix'ssed it — ^'like striking a hollow log with a 


The color in Jack's face paled. He did not seem to under- 
stand bow he bad laid himself open to such a pass, and made 
the same mistake, receiving again a sounding blow in the short 
ribs. This taught him nothing, either, for again he opened his 
guard in response to a feint, and again caught a blow on his 
luckless left ribs, that drove the blood from his face and the 
breath from his body. lie reeled back among his supporters for 
an instant to breathe. Recovering his wind, he dashed at HilU 
feinted strongly witli his right, but delivered a terrible kick 
against the lower part of the latter's abdomen. Both closed 
and fought savagely at half-arm's length for an instant, during 
which Hill struck Jack so fairly in the mouth as to break out 
three front teeth, which the latter swallowed. Then they 
clenched and struggled to throw each other. Ilill's superior 
strength and skill crushed his opponent to the ground, and he 
fell u\xm him. As they grappled there^ one of Jack's followers 
sought to aid his leader by catching Ilill by the hair, intending 
to kick him in the face. In an instant he was knocked down 
by a stalwart member of the One Hundredth, and then literally 
lifted out of the ring by kicks. 

Jack was soon so badly beaten as to be unable to cry 
"enough I" One of his friends did that service for him, the 
fight ceased, and thenceforth Mr. Oliver resigned his pugilistic 
crown, and retired to the shades of private life. He died of 
scurvy and diarrhea, some months afterward, in Andersonville. 

The almost hourly scenes of violence and crime that marked 
the days and nights before the Regulators began operations wore 
now succtHHled by the greatest order. The prison was freer 
from crime than the best governed City. There were frequent 
squabbles and fights, of course^ and many petty larcenies. Rar 
tions of bread and of wood, articles of clothing, and the 
wretched little cans and half canteens that formed our cooking 
utensils, were still stolen, but all these were in a sneak-thief 
way. There was an entire absence of the audacious open-day 
robbery and murder — the *• raiding" of the previous few 
weeks. The summary punishment inflicted on the condemned 
was sufficient to cow even bolder men than the Raiders, and 
they were frightened into at least quiescence. 

Sergeant Hill's administration was vigorous^ and secured the 


beet results. lie became a juilge of dJI infractions of morals 
and law, and sat at the door of his t«nt to dispense justice to all 
comers, tike the Cadi of a Mahometan Village. His judicial 
methods and punishmfntJi also remindo<l one strongly of the 
primitive judiwvturc of Orienud ItiuiU. The wrongwl one come 
before him and told his tale: he had his blouse, or his ({iiart 
cap, or his shoes, or his watch, or his money stolen during the 
night. The Buspccteil one was also Bummoned, confrontnl with 
his accuser, and shariily inlorroguled. Hill would revoke the 
Btortcs in his mtnd, decide the innocence or guilt of the acctisod, 
and if he thought the accusation su!<tainti<), order the culprit to 
ponisbment. lie did not imitate his Mussulman prototy])os to 
the extent of bowxtringing or decapitating the condemned, nor 
did bo cut any thief s hands off, nor yei nail his ears to a door- 
posti but he introduoed a moditication of the bastinado tliat 
made tlioso who were punished 
by it even wish they were dead. 
The instrument used was what is 
CAlle<l in the South a "shake" — 
a split shingle, a yard or more 
long, and with one end whittbid 
down to form a handle. The 
culprit was made to bend down 
ontil he conid catch around hia 
ankles with bis hands. The port 
of the body thus brought into 
most prominence wasd)*nuded of 
clothing and "si»anked" from 
one to twenty timeo, as Hill 
ordered, by the "sliake" in a 
■ strong and willing hand. It vru 
, very amusing — to tJie brstand- 
' ers The "spankee" never Eocm«d 
to enter rery boartily into the 
mirth of the <«caiiion. At a mto 
t on his face for a week or so after, and took hit n 


The Baidere who had been put into irons were very restive 
under the infliction, and begged Hill daily to release them. 
They professed the greatest penitence, and promised the most 
exemplary behavior for the future. Hill refused to release 
them, declaring that they should wear the irons until delivered 
up to our Government. 

One of the Raiders — named Heffron — had, shortly after his 
arrest, turned State's evidence, and given testimony that assisted 
materially in the conviction of his companions. One morning, 
a week or so after the hanging, his body was found lying among 
the other dead at the South Gate. The impression made by the 
fingers of the hand that had strangled him, were still plainly 
visible about the throat. There was no doubt as to why he had 
been killed, or that the Raiders were his murdererSi but the 
actual perpetrators were never discovered. 




All tliirin^r July tliu ])risi)niTs t-aiiio strcaniin:; in hylmndrcHts 
ami tliuusanils fmiii cvitv jiuiiitui tif iIm* U*i\*: liiu* of battle, 
stivtriiiiiLT from the Ka.strni iiaiik ul' th«.* Mississippi to tho 
slinivs ni the Atlaiilif. Hwr <»ik* tlmusantl s<{iiaiiiUM*<r(I by 
Siuriri?* ill (iiintnwii caini' in; iwn ilinii>auil of tlinst* i-aptureil 
in tlir ili'>iMTalr Mow iUwh liv lliMuj airain^t llir Arinv of tho 

T'-uiii-^-s 11 tin* I'L'.j ni" tin* iiiiiiitii iHi.»r«' Allaiila; Imnditxls 

truiii IlimiiT's hh'vlrsN rnlimni IiiiIm* S!;i-M:iip|Mali \'allf v, ilmii- 


s.iiuls ir«.:n (iraiitN liiit's in fmui ni" ^l■l^•l>l»lll•L^ In all, Sfveii 
t'i'iii^ lU'l «'iii* iiiiinlpMJ ;iii«l i\v«.'iii\ isltIiI wi'ir. tlurini; tlio 
iiKiiitli. luriifil iiitu that M i'tliiii:^r iii:,x> ct ciMriipiini: liuinanity 
t<» Im* pnlluliil aii'l tainti«l i>y it. ami tn a<*>!<*t in turn to make 
it l<»ui«T aii'l «lt ailLt-r. <»\rr M'\fiitv lj«Tii;iniili-; i»f cIjmm'h vie- 
t iM> - i»t l.i.r yotiiiiN in tlif tir^t lliisti «»{' Ii>i|m>iii1!i<MM|. at 
•!:•• li:!»-^lmlil t»l a l;h' «'!' liitHiH' In lln'iii^fivi-s anil i>f uvfu!- 
■ I--N to lii«.- o»miunii;lv ; iH.-iinJli'N^ Imi\>. rirli in iln* i»ric«'l«*ss 
al!i'i';ii»n> «»i' liii:Mi>. faiiM-p'*. mniin'is. ?s;>tt'rs aii«l swn'tln'aris, 
v.:n mi!nls liiiili.iiL'' witli Ijilmi a.NpiratiiiUN UtV tin* briirlit 
:';t r.t\ wi-n* siiit m a> tlu» luonililv ^ai-rilic*' t*» tins Miuntaur 
fi till' Kt'lN 1. :••!!. wnn. 4-iiui.'|iril ui ins tuul lair. >lt'W tlii'iii. ii«»t 
■A nil liiij iin-iv::ul ili.'i.virv nl >|h'i-i|v »li-aiii, as his C'n'lan 
• >•-. .t«iiy|H< iliil li.i-annuai tr.butrnt' Alltciiian yi>utlj>an(l maiilt* ns, 
oui. «ri«'atin;: <»v«.-r ins pi'-y, thnMiHtl thi'in to lini:i.'nii;.»' tlostriic- 
itun. He luiiiil tl.i-ir ll«->li witli the !»curvy, lacktMl tht-ir niimU 


with intolerable suspense, burned their bodies with the slow fire 
of famine, and delighted in each sepamte pan<r« until they 
sank beneath the fearful accumulation. Theseus — the de- 
liverer — was coming. His terrible swortl could be seen gleam- 
ing as it rose and fell on the banks of the James, and in the 
mountains beyond Atlanta, where he was hewing his way 
towards them and the heart of the Southern Confetloracy. But 
he came too late to save them. Strike i\s swiftly and as heavily 
as he would, he could not strike so hard nor so sure at his foes 
with saber blow and musket shot, as they could at the hapless 
youths with the dreadful armament of starvation and discai>e. 
Though the deaths were one thousiind eight hunditnl and 
seventeen — more than were killed at the battle of Shiloh — this 
left the numlxT in the prison at the end of the month thiily-one 
thousand six hundred and seventy-eight. Let me assist the 
reader's comprehension of the nuignitude of this numl)er by 
giving tlie ]x>puIation of a few imj)urtaut Cities, according to 
the census of 1^70: 

CambrlilKc, Mam 39.639 

Cbarltri'loii. S. C 4f*,«6 

Charlcrtuun. MajM t!i,S3 

Columbo*. o »l;!r:4 

Dayton. 8U.4T3 

Fall liivir. Ma** «.7«« 

Hftrtfonl, Onm jn,l«0 

KMXiMf niy. Mo :K.«0 

Lawrrncc. MaiMi **.C*tl 

L}nD, M«^-« St<.S83 

Mcnijihl-. Tvnn 4U.%0 

Mobllr.Am «vV»4 

Pmtrnoti. N. J 33,579 

Portland, Mv 31.4;3 

RtAdlut;. Pb 33.U0 

8A«Mnab,0a '>,t!33 

Syncufc. N. Y i3.i01 

Tolctlo. O 81.3rt4 

VOca. X. Y »-.«0| 

WUnUtictif). Dvl 8U.tM0 

The number of prisoners exceeded the whole number of men 
between the ages of eighteen and forty-live in sevetai of Uie 


States and Territories in the Union. Here, for instance, are 
the returns for ISTO, of men of military age in some j)ortion8 
of the country : 

Arizona BJS7 

Colorado 1MS6 

Dakou B,30l 

Florida M,S» 

Idaho •.481 

Monuna 1«,418 

Kebraika ».«n 

Nr\-ada M,7« 

Kew IIani|Mhlre C0.6B4 

Orx-gon Sn.>60 

Rhode ItlaDd 44JK77 

Vvrmciat 01,4.^0 

Weal ViiSlnia T6^a 

It was more soUliers than couM Ik? raise<l to-ihiy, under strong 
pressure, in either Ahibama, Arizona, Arkansas, Cahfomia, 
Colorado, Connecticut, Dakota, I)i»laAvan.», District of Columbia, 
Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Maiiu\ MiiuKsota, Montana, Nehras- 
ka, Nevada, New IIain|)shin», Xt»\v Mrxic<i, Oiv^on, Uliode 
Island, South Carolina, Vtah, Vcrnnint or \V<»st Virginia. 

These thirty-one tliousimd six hundn*d an<l sovcnty-oight 
active vounc men, who wort* likdv tt» lind the rontinrs of a 
State too narrow for tliom, wt*n* cfMHK.Ml up cm thirt<*en acres 
of ground — kss than a fanner gives for j»lay-^r«»und for a half 
dozen colts or a small Ihx-k of shr^op. Tht'rt» was hanlly room 
for all to lie down at night, and to walk a few hundred ft*et ia 
any dinH.*tion would re(|uire an hour^s jiatient threading of the 
mass of men and tents. 

The weutlier l)eeame hotter and hotti*r; at midday the sand 
would burn the hand. The thin skins of fair and aul>urnhainxl 
men blistered under the sun's niys. and swelli^l u]> in great 
watery jmffs, which scKm Invame the hreedinir (rn>unds of tho 
hideous maggots, or the still nK>re deadly gangn»ne. The 
loathsome swamp grew in nmk olfiMisivrn^s^ with every burn- 
ing hour. The iH*stilence literally stalketl at ncNin-ilay, and 
struck his victims d(iwn on every hand. One could not ItMik a 
rod in any direction witiioiit scHMUg at least a dozen men in the 
last frightful stages of rotting Death. 



Let me describe the scene iinmediatetj around my own tent 
during the last two weeks of July, as a sample of the con- 
dition of the whole prison : I will take a 
space not lai^r than a good sized parlor or 
sitting room. On this were at least Mty 
^ of us. Directly in front of me lay two 
I -^ brothers — named Sherwood — belonging to 
Company I, of my battalion, who came 
originally from Missouri. They were now 
in the last stages of scurvy and diarrhea. 
Every particle of muscio and fat about 
their limba and bodies had apparently 
wastotl away, leaving the skin clinging 
close to the hone of the face, arms, hands, 
"ribs and thiglis — everywhere except the 
feet and legs, where it was swollen tense 
ami transparent, distended with gallons of 
punilent matter. Their livid gunw, from 
which most of tlioir t<'cth had already 
fallen, protruded far beyond their lips. To 
THi wM-KDiu iu.»<«ua- their left lay a Sergeant and two others of 
•■*"»■ their com])any, uU three slowly dying from 

diarrhea, antl beyon<l was a fuir-lmired German, young and 
intelligent looking, wiioee life was ebbing tediously away. 
To my right was a handsome young Sergeant of an Illinois 
Infantry Uogiment, captured at Ivenesaw. His left arm had 
been ani]>utated between the shoulder and elbow, and he 
was turned in'o the Stockade with the stamp all undressed, 
save the ligatii g of the arteries. Of course, he had not been 
inside an liuur until the niaggot flies had lui<l eggs in the open 
wound, and b<'fore the day was gone the worms were hatched 
out, ami rioting amid the inflamed and su|ter-tiensitivc nerves, 
where their every motion was agony. Accustomed as we 
were to misi'ry, we foumi u still luwer depth in his miisfortune, 
and I would be happier could I forget his ]Ktl(S drawn face, as 
be wumlercil uncompliiiningly to and fro, holding his maimed 
limb with his right hand. iHrtMsionally stopping to stpieeze it, as 
one <I<N.4 a tioil, and pn>ss from it u stream uf maggots and pus. 
I do not think lie ate or slept for a week before he died. Next 



to Ilim staid an IriEh Sergeant of n New York Beg^mcnt, * fine 
soldierly man, who, with jiardonable pride, wore, congpicuously 
on hiii left lireaiit. a iiictliil gained bv gallantry' while a British 
soldier in the Crimeiu He was wiusting away with diarrhea, 
and died liefoiv the inuuth was out. 

This was wliat one cunld see on every Sfjnarc rod of the 
prisim, Where I was was not unly no worse than the rest of 
the |iris<>n. Ijut Wi\n ]iriiiiid>h' much Wtter and healthier, as it 
was the hi;;lM'st ^itHUiil insiile. fartliest fniiii the Swani|), and 
harin;; tin- di-:id line on two sidi-s. had a ventilation that those 
nearer the i-unter coidd not |Kissil»ly have. Yet. with idl these 
conditions in <niv favyr, the mortality wus as I have described. 
Near usanexas|H>rnting idiot, 
who phkve<l the (late, had 
ei^tahlisli.^l liiniM-lf. Like aU 
)H»ii- phiyi'TN, he alKvted the 
low, iinnii'iifid iiDtex, us [ilaint- 
ive as the distant eiHiiiigof the 
d'lvi- in lowerini: weather. He 
plii.vnl or nilhir timtwl away 
in liis "lilnis"-indni'ing strata 
hiiar :ifii.'r linn?-, dcs|>ite our 
•^i-iifri:rtii- piiiii'Ms. iunl mva- 
•j sii.riiil Ilin;: -if a I'luli at him. 
Th'Te W!is nil niiiii-sli>p|iilum 
than Id ii mini wiili a hand- 
cir;:»n. and t<> this-liiv the low, 
vitust ii'iriiiidiT tif nil.' of tl»«e 

sad n'>i,N i.f ;i Iliiti> ai>- ihi- si 
sornivvfiil, il'siih-hidcii ijavs. 

I had an illu>tn(liM]i i.iii- m> 
wt.iilii i.i'-ri— ; in 11 iiiiiii'> l"«i 
I roiinij :i ii'iM>ni-i -iiMV ill ihc 

■nini:t.f how i";,r il.r.iin|w.sition 
)N-l..ivh.-dJ.-.l. My Hitiniand 
>iivi-is. in Uif chilli- I'f till' IhhIv 

ofan.^^N vv),..d;.'<ldiiriiiL'lii-iiiL'lii. T!j-- v:ilii.' 
was il We t.-.k it lii tii.' lmI.-. w winl.i 
carry \i -xii^ilf t>> th<- d'udKini^--. and i>n i>iii' wn 
oiii'r;:i;i;;v to piik up a ri.iu.k nl' Wi.i«i. t^i i 
yVU:, .!M'ii»:n- ..ur i:--I l>i.k !!- |.:inv 
c!:i.ii>..i the IxhIv. a v.tI.:i] .ii.[,ui.' l-l to .'.| 
Wh.,-:i v.i. fiiiuv ..tV vi,l..M ati.l 1 l:a-i;lv rail; 

of iliis "liml" 
1... allowrd to 
\Un\i li:i\ean 
IS.' in erNikiiii;. 
eaiiii- ii|i and 
e ..I 1.1..HS. in 
•i.i hn!.l..t the 


arm near the elbow to help bear the body away. The skin gave 
way under my hand, and slipped with it down to the wrist, like 
a torn sleeve. It was sickening, but I clung to my prize, and 
secured a very good chunk of wood while outside with it. The 
wood was very much needed by my mess, as our squad had 
then had none for more than a week* 



Naturally, wc had a consuminf^ hunger for news of what 
was being aoconiplish(Hl by our armies towanl crushing the 
Rebellion. Xow, nion? than ever, had ivo reiuson to ardently 
wish for the destruction of the Uelx4 i)o\ver. lk»fore ea])ture 
we had love of country and a natural d«*sin' for the triumph of 
her flag to animate us. Now wo had a i]atre<l of the Ilcbels 
that paibscd expression, and a fierce longing to soo those who 
daily tortun*d and insulted us trampled down in the dust of 

The daily arrival of prisoners kept us tolerably well informed 
as to the genenil pn:)gress of the campaign, and wo added to 
the information thus ubtainoil by ^tting — almost daily — in 
some manner or another — a co]>y of a Rebel paixsr. Most fre- 
quently these were Athinta pjipers, or an issue of the '' Memphis- 
Corinlh-Jaekson-(.f^enluhl-(JllattanoogJl-Resa«Cil-^[ariettsl- Atlan- 
ta Ajip'iifS^ v^ they use<l to facetiously term a ^[empiiis pa]»er 
that left that Citv when it was taken in 18r»2,and for twovears 
fell Ixick from place to ])Iace, as Sherman^s Army advanceii, 
until at htst it gave up the stni^^Ie in September, 1S(»4, in 
a little Town south of Atlant^u after al>out two thousiind miles 
of weary retreiit from an indefatigable pursuer. The papers 
were brought in by ^' frcsih lisii,'* purchased from the guards 
at from fifty cents to one dollar apiece, or occasionally thrown 
in to us when they had some s()ecially disagreeable intelligenoe. 


like the defeat of Banks, or Sturgis, or ITunter, to exult over. 
I was particularly fortunate in getting bold of these. Becom- 
ing installed as general reader for a neighborhood of several 
thousand men, everything of this kind was immediately brought 
to me, to be read aloud for the benefit of everybody. All the 
older prisoners knew me by the nick-name of "Illinoy" — a 
designation arising from my wearing on my cap, when I 
entered prison, a neat little white metal badge of "Ills." When 
any reading matter was brought into our neighborhood, there 
would be a general cry of 

" Take it up to * Illinoy,' " 
and then hundreds would mass around my quarters to bear the 
news read. 

The Rebel papers usually had very meager reports of the 
operations of the armies, and these were greatly distorted, but 
they were still very interesting, and as we always started in to 
read with the expectation that the whole statement was a mass 
of perversions and lies, whore truth was an infrequent accident^ 
we were not likely to be much impresseil with it. 

There was a marke<l difference in the tone of the reports 
brought in from the different anni(*s. Sherman's men were 
always sanguine. They had no doubt that they were pushing 
the enemy strai^jht to the wall, and that every day brought the 
Southern Confeileracy much nearer its downfalL Those from 
the Army of the Potomac were never so ho|ieful. They would 
admit that Cvrant was pounding Lee terribly, but the shadow of 
the fro<[uent defeats of the Army of the Potomac seemed to 
hang depressingly over them. 

There came a day, however, when our sanguine hopes as to 
Sherman were checkeil by a possibility that he had failed; that 
his long campaign towards Atlanta had culminated in such a 
reverse under the very walls of the City as would compel an 
abandonment of the enterprise, and possibly a humiliating 
retreat. We knew that Jeff. Davis and his (Tovemment were 
strongly dissatisfietl with the Fabian policy of Joe Johnston. 
The i>Jij)ere had told us of the Kebel President's visit to 
Atlanta, of his bitter comments on Johnston's tactics; of his 
going so far as to sneer about the necessity of providing poo* 
toons at Key West, so that Johnston might continue his retreat 


even to Ciiha. Tlion came the news of Jolinstoirs siii^oisossion 
l)v IIikhL and the |i:i|»ers \vei*e full <»f tlie exultin<r pivtlietions 
of what woulil now he aecuniphsheil "when that gulhmt young 
jwjhlier is once fairlv in the siuhlle.** 

All tins meant ont' supi*eine viTari to ari*est the cmwanl ooui^se 
of Sherman. It indieatinl a risolv«' to stake the fatt'of Atlanta, 
and tho ft)rtnnes of the ConfiMhM'aey in tht» West, uj)on the 
Iia/anl of one des|K»rale li«rhl. We watelnul the summoning up 
of every Keln'l ener«ry for the blow with appn^hensicm. AVo 
dreaded another Chiekamaii;ra. 

The iilow frll on the 'J^d of .luly. It was wrll planmnl. The 
Armv of the Tennessi*c\ the U»ft of Sherman's foives, was the 
{isirt striK'k. On the ni;^ht of the i^lst Hood maniieii a heavy 
force annind its l(*ft tlank and ^lined its n>:ir. On the 22<l this 
force n»ll on the n»ar with the impi'tuous violence of a cyclone, 
while the UelN'ls in the works immediatelv around Atlanta 
attacked furiously in front. 


It w.LS an ordeal that no otinT .irmy ever passinl through 
.suecvssfully. Tln» st«*:uliest tnM»ps in Kun>])e wuuhl think it 
foiilhariliness to attempt to withstand an assault in force in 
front and rear at tiiesame time. Tiie finest lei^ions that follow 
anv flair ttMlav must almost inevitahlv sueeumhtosnch a mode 
of attaek. Mut the se:isi»ntM| veterans uf the Armv of the Ten- 
nessf»e enenunierml the sii«».-k with an nhsiinaey which showed 
that tile tlii«-st material for soldiery tiiis planet holds w;i8 
that in wlpch undaunteil hearts )>eat iMMieath hliit^Mousts. Sprin^^- 
in;: •'ver the fr»»nl of their lireiusiw«»rks, ihev tlrovt» hack with 
a witherinir lire the force ;ussailin;r them in the ivar. This 
iKMtrn otf. they jumped hack to thfir pri»per places, and 
repulsiNl iiu» assault in front. This was tin* way the hatlle was 
waL''i'«l until niirht coiii|h*I1(hI a ccs^saiinu of ii]K*rations. Our 
l)i»vs w«Te aiternati'lv Inhind the hn»a>twf»rks tirinir at KelN*ls 
advaneim: U|Min tiie fi-oiit.and in fmiu of the woiks tirin;r u|N>n 
tht»s«» eominLT up in liio rear. Sometimes part «'f «iur line would 
lj«» on one sidt* of the w«irks, and part on the oiIht. 

In the prison we won* L'reatly exi'ite«l nvt-r the result of the 
eiiiraL'^MUfnl, of which we wen.* unc<*rtain for manv davs, 
A li«"*i **i ni'W prisoii«*i's — ]H*rliaj»s tw«i th«»usanil — washrnUtrht 
::i h'liii liiere, hut as they weiv captuiiil tluring the pr^^^^»•t■ss of 


the fight, they could not speak definitely as to its issue. The 
Bebel papers exulted witliout stint over what they termed "a 
glorious victory." They were particularly jubilant over the 
death of McPherson, who, they claimod, wjus the brain and 
guiding hand of Sherman's jmny. One jxij^er likened him to 
the pilot-lish, which guides the shark to his proy. Now that 
he was gone, said the pai^er, Sherman's army liei'omes a great 
lumbering hulk, with no one in it capable of dii'ecting it, and 
it must soon fall to utter ruin under the skilfuUv delivered 
strokes of the gallant Hood. 

We also knew that great numl)ors of wounde<l had been 
brought to the prison hospital, and this seemed to confirm the 
Rebel claim of a victory, as it showttl they retaineil ]K>ssession 
of the battle Held. 

About the 1st of August a large s(]uad of Shennan's men, 
aaptured in one of the engagements suhst*<juent to the 22d, came 
in. We gathered around them eairerly. Among them I noticed 
a bright, curlv-haii'ed, blue-eveil infanlrvman — ur \ni\\ rather, 
as he was yet beanlless. His cap was mark<nl "«;.>th <). V. V. 
I.," his sl«H,»ves weiv garnished with iv-enlistment stri|H^^, and on 
the breast of his blouse was a silver arrow. To the eve of the 
soldierthis said that he wasa veteran memliorof the Sixty-Eighth 
Regmient of Ohio Infantry (that is, having alreiuly served 
three years, he hail re-enlisted for the wan, and that he ix.*longed 
to the Thinl Division of the Seventei^nth Army Coq)S. He 
was SO voun<r and fresh lookin*' tliat one could hanllv l>elieve 
him to be a vetenin, but if his strip's had not sai«l this, 
the wjldierlv arrjin«rf*ment of clothini: ami accoiitivnients, and 
the graceful, self-i>osst»sse<l jx^se of limbs and body would have 
told the ol»server that he wasonenf tht>se "Old Keliables'' with 
whom Sherman and (irant had alreadv suhdueil a third of the 
Confe<leracy. His )»hink(*t, whieh, fnra wnnd»'r, the KcIk'Is had 
nogl«Hrte<l to take from him, was tiirhtly ii>lle 1, its ends ti«.Ml 
togi'lher, ami thrown over his shoulder searf-fashinn. His 
{KintalcKins were tueke^l inside iiis sl«M-kiii;r tup-;, ilial were 
pulltHl upas far as ]>«»ssil»le. and tied tiirlitly an»und his ankle 
with a strin;:. A n«»ne-i4M>-el«*an liavrr>aek. otntaininij the 
inevitable so<»ty «|uart cup. and even blacker ha I f-canttvn, was 
slung easily fi*om the shouKler opjMtsite to that on which the 

blukH rested. Hand him bis faithful Sprin^cld ride, put 
thTM days' ntMQS ia his haversack, und forty rountla in his 
cartridge box, and he would be remly, without an iiistniit's 
demur or i]u«»lion, Uy niareh 
to tbo eDils of the earth, and 
fight anything that crossed 
his i>ath. Ue wm a. type of 
the honest, hononible, self- 
reoitecting American boy, who, 
M a soldier, the world haa not 
Ci|nalt.-d in thv sixty wnturios 
that wur bus bt-oii « profusuoo. 
I sugge^ltil to him tli»t be 
was rather a youngster to be . 
wrmring veteran chcvrotuL 

" Twi," said hv, " I am n 
so uUl as soiQv of the poA of ' 
the hoys, but I have seen 
about as much serviuo and 
boco in thtt businitis about aa^ 
long lu any of tlHim. Tbi 
_ call me ' Old l>a<l,' I supp( 
~- becaow I was the youngwt 
boy in the Regiment, when 
we first cnt4-'r«l the surrioo, 
though our whole Company, 
officers and all, were only a lot of boys, and the Ito^mont to 
day, wbars left of 'em, an> about as young a lot of ofHoern and 
nwD as there are in the service. Why, our olt) Colonel ain't 
only twenty -four yeuniold now, and he has bMU in oomniand evof 
aiaob we nTnt into Vlckshurg-. I have heard it said l>y oar 
boys that sintre we vctenmiz^d the whi>le Ri^inient, officers, 
and men, average less than twenty-four years old. But they 
are grayhounils lu maj\-h uuil stavers in a light, jiki liut. Why, 
tbe ml of the tmofH ovist in West Tenn'*«t« uaed to will our 
Brigade 'l^-ggpit's Cavalrj*,' for they always bad us diainng 
Old f\im»t, and wr ke[>t hini skedaddling, too, prdly Uvuly. 
But I tell yon we did gvt into a red bot scrimuiagv on tlw 
SSd. It just laid over Champion IliUs, or any of the big Ughta 


around Yicksburg, and they were lively enough to amuse any 

** So vou were in the affair on the 22d, were vou t We are 
awful anxious to hear all about it. Come over here to my quar- 
ters and tell us all you know. All we know is that there has 
been a big Rghtj with McPherson killed, and a heavy loss of 
life besides, and the Rebels claim a great victory." 

" O, they be . It was the sickest victory they ever got 

About one more victory of tliat kind would make their infernal 
old Confeileracy ready for a coroner's inquest Well, I can tell 
you pretty much all about that tight, for I reckon if the truth 
was known, our regiment fircil about the first and last shot that 
opened and closeil the figliting on that day. Well, you see the 
whole Army got across the river, and were closing in around the 
City of Atlanta. Our Corps, the Seventeenth, was the extreme 
left of the army, and wore moving up toward the City from the 
East The Fifteenth (Logman's) Corps joined us on the right, 
then the Armv of the Cumberland further to the ri":ht. We 
run onto the Rebs about sundown the 21st. They had 
some breastworks on a ridge in front of us, and we had a pretty 
sharp fight before wo drove them off. We went right to work, 
and kept at it all night in changing and strengthening the old 
Rebel barricades, fronting them towards Atlanta, and by mom« 
ing had some gooil solid works along our whole line. During 
the night we fancieil we could hear wagons or artillery moving 
away in front of us, ap|uirently going South, or towards our 
left Al)out throe or four o'clock in the morning, while I was 
shoveling dirt like a beaver out on the works, the Lieutenant 
came to me and siiid the (.'olonel wanted to see me, pointing to 
a large tree in the rear, where I could find him. I reix>rted and 
found him with General Leggett, who commanded our Division, 
talking mighty serious, and Bob Wheeler, of F Company, 
standing there with his Springfield at a {>arade rest As soon 
as I cunie up, tlie Cohmel says: 

**^ lk>ys. the General wants two level-headed chaps to go oat 
beyond the ])icket3 to the front and toward the left I have 
selected you for the duty. Go as ((uietly as (xissible and as fast 
as you c;in ; keep your eyes and ears open ; don't fire a shot if 
you can help it, and come back and tell us exactly what you 



hare «<vn and homl, and not what yon hnnginc or BU8))cct. I 
have selfcte*! voii fm- the duty.' 

" III* ;:;ive us tlio cmmti'i-sifrn. and off we started ov<t the 
breasiwiirks imd tliioiiifli tin- tijick witods. AVl' sixm canu> to 
our i^kirlllisb or ['ickt-ts, nnly a f>'\v mds in fnmt of our works, 
and cuutioiii'd ili'-iii nut toliivf>ii iis in ^.'oiii;.' or ivtiirninfr. We 
wt-nt out as iiuii.-ii :is Ijiilf a iniU< or iiion-. until \vr coiitd plainly 
hear till? sound of wa;,'ons ami mtilliry, Wf tlii-n CHiUimisly 
crejit forwanl inilil \vp ooiiKI sci- tin' niiiiii miid li'ailin<; simtli 
from till- Citylilk-d with man-liiii:: iinii. jirt:ll>-n' iuni tfanis. 
AVc rotdd In-ar tlic ooniniiiruls nf tlir Mltiii-is iind s>->> tli<' tl:i<!^ 
and Kinners of ri'}:iini-iit iifti-r rfiriiiU'iit as lii.-y ]i;i>M-d lis. 
We gni hni-k ((iiii'lly and (|iii(-kly. )>ii<^>i'd tliniiiL'li mu- )iicki-t 
title all rtrrlit. and found tin- (o'lu't-;!! and mir ('i>1i>iii-l sittin-; un 
a loff wlu'iv we had lift tln-in. waitinL' for ns. Wt* it-i«.rti*d 
what we had hwn and l.i-ard, and ^rtiv.- ii as oiir oj-iniun 
that tlii- 

I siir.- Niii hi-'s 

'ili.y aim L'i>ini: 

" V..1 ii: .m; Mi.." '■' "^'-I' '-'ill"-' l'>" ^ ;ind 

falh.i- Kri.k I., all i-u-r- 

nity. 1'iit ap- jii-t ■.\■J'•\^^ t-- L'iv.- iis a ri]- vnwtf^ i:n at l.l^- li::ht 

un.-olli.-^.-.lay^- «l:.-iiih.yi:-t a ......t i-i a.jy. V..11 1,„,,- „„. ; ' 

•■SayinL';Oiii-h «v|.,,tl, ivi-nt ti. oiir .■..m].aiiV^. and laid down 
lo-,.t al;t:l.' s)..-].. Il was aU-nt -lavliL-lit lh-11. aii<l I niii>l 
have iitii>ozt-<i away until near n<H>n, uhvn 1 huaiil tin,' uiik-r 


*£all in ! ' and found the regiment getting into line, and the boys 
all talking about going right into Atlanta ; that the Itebels liad 
evacuated the City during the night, and that we were going 
to have a race with tlie Fifteenth Coqis as to which would get 
into the City first. We could look away out across a large 
field in front of our works, and see tlie skirmisli line atlvancing 
steailily towards the main works around the City. Not a shot 
was being fired on either side. 

" To our surprise, instead of marching to the front and towartl 
the City, we lileil off into a small roiul cut through the woods 
and maroheil rapiiUy to the rear. We coul<l not understand 
what it meant. We mai^clieil at quick time, feeling pretty mad 
that we liad to go to the rear, when the rest of our Division 
were going into Atlanta. 

" We passed the Sixteenth Corjys lying on tlieir arras, back 
in some ojK^n fields, an<l the wagon trains of our Corjw all 
comfortably corralleil, and finally found ourselves out bv the 
Seventeenth CoT\r8 heaiUiuarters. Two or three companies 
were sent out to picket several roads tluit seemeil to cross at 
that point, as it was rejwrted * Rebel Cavalry ' had been seen on 
these roads but a short time Iwfore, and this accounted for our 
being rushed out in such a great hurry. 

** We hud ju»t stacked arms and were going to take a little 
rest after our nipiil march, when several Rebel prisoners were 
brought in by s*)me of the boys who had stragglo^l a little. 
They found the Relx»ls on the nxvl we luwl just marche<l out on. 
Up to this time not a shot had been fired. All wils quiet back 
at the main works we luul just left, when suddenly we saw 
tfcveral staff ofiicers come tearing up to the Colonel, who ortlereil 
us to 'fall in!' *take arms!' •about, face!' The Lieutenant 
Colonel dashed down one of the roads where one of tlie com- 
panies had gone out on picket. The Miijor and Adjutant 
g:illo|K.Ml <li>wn the oth<.»rs. We did not wait for them to come 
Ixick, though, but moved right back on the road we had just 
come out, in line of battlr, our colors in the roa^l, and our Hanks 
in oj)en timber. We s<H»n reached a fence enchwing a large 
field, and there couhl see a line of Rel)els moving by the flank, 
and forming, facing towanl Atlanta, but to the left and in the 
rear of the position occupied by our Corps, As soon as we 


reached the fence wo fired a round or two into the backs of 
these gray coats, who broke into confusion. 

"Just then the other coni|mnies joinoil us, and we moved oflf 
on ' double quick by the ri;Ljlit flank,' for you see wo wew com- 
pletely cut off from tlie troo])s up at the front, and w(* had to 
get well over to the right to get anjun<I the Hank of the KcU-ls. 
Just about the time we iiretl on the KoIhOs tiic Sixteenth C'ori)s 
openiKl up a hot tire of musketry and artiUiTV on them, some 
of their sliot coming over mighty dose to where we were. We 
marched pretty fast, and finally turnetl in thi-ough some o|x.*n 
fields to the left, and came out just in the rear of the Sixteenth 
Coq)s, who were lighting like devils ah>ng their whole line. 

"Just OS we came out into the ojien liekl we sjiw (ienenU R. 
K. Scott, who used to l>e our Colonel, and who commanded our 
brigade, come tearing toward us witli one or two aids or order- 
lies. He was on his big clay-bank horse, * Old Ilatehie,' as we 
callcil him, as we captui-ed liim on the battlefield at the battle 
of ^Matamora,' or ^IIoll on the Ilatchie,^ sis our Utys always 
called it. He rode up to the Colonel, said s(»mething hastily, 
when all at once we heard the all-lircKk-st crash of musketry and 
artillery way up at the front where we had built the works the 
night before and left the rest of our brigade and division get- 
ting ready tq prance into Atlanta when we were st^nt off to the 
rear. Scott put s])urs to his old horse, who was one of the fast- 
est runners in our Division, and away he went Imek towards the 
position where his brigade and the troops imme<liately to their 
left were now hotly engaged. He rode right along in rearof the 
Sixteenth Corjts, paying noattention ap]Uirently to the shot and 
sliell and bullets that were tearing up the earth and expUxling 
and striking all around him. His aids and orderlies vainly 
tried to keep up with him. AVe couUl phiinly see tlie Kebel 
lines as they came out of the wornls into the o]ien ^nmnds to 
attack the Sixti^*nth Coq>s, which had ha.stily formed in the 
open Held, without any signs of works, and were standing up 
like men, having a hand-to-hand light. "We wen* just farenough 
in the rear so that everv blasted shot or shell that was fintl t<K> 
high to hit the ranks of the Sixti*enth Cor|)s came nittling 
over amongst us. All this time we were marching fast, follow- 
in^r in the direction General Scott had taken, who evidenll v had 


I the Colonel to joio his brigade up at the front. We 
i down Under the crest of a little hill, following along the 
bank of a little cnxk, beeping under cover of Iho bank as much 
as possible to prolwit U8 from the shota of the enemy. Wo 
Buddcnljr saw General Logan and one or two of his staff opoQ 

the right bank of the ranoe riding rapidly t<>' 

IRBBTGd the hvad of the regiment he shouted : 
"'lluhl What n-giment iti that, and where are you going I' 
"The Colonel, in u Jotid voice, that all oonld bear, told him: 
"The Sixty-Eighth Ohio; going to join oor brigade o( the 
Third Division — yourold DiviBion, tieneral, of theSerentcentJi 
"Logan Kays, 'yon bad better go right in here on the left of 
Dodge- The Third Division have hardly ground enough loft 
DOW to bury their dead. Ciod knon-a they need you. But try it 
on, If you think you can get to them.' 
** Jut at thia moment a vtaO oSoer oame riding up od the 


opposite side of the ravine from where Logan was and inter- 
rupted Logan, who was about telling the Colonel not to try to 
go to the position held by the Third Division by the road cut 
through the woods whence we had come out, but to keep off to 
the right towards the Fifteenth Corps, as the woods referred to 
were full of Rebels. The otlicer saluted Logan, and shouted 

" ' General Sherman directs me to inform you of the death of 
General McPherson, and orders you to take command of the 
Army of the Tennessee; have l)oilge close well up to the 
Seventeenth Corps, and JSheiman will reinforce you to the 
extent of the whole army.' 

'^ Logan, standing in his stirrui>s, on his beautiful black horse, 
formed a picture against the blue sky as we looked up the 
ravine at him, his black eyes fairly blazing and his long black 
hair waving in the wind. He replied in a ringing, clear tone 
that we all could hear : 

"'Say to General Sherman I have heard of McPherson^s 
death, and have assumed the command of the Aimy of the 
Tennessee, and have ali-eady anticipated his onlers Iti ivgard to 
closing the gap between Dcnlge and the Seventeenth Coq)S.' 

"This, of course, all happened in one quarter of the time I 
have been telling you. Logan put spui-s to his lu»rse and rode 
in onedii^ection, the staff oHicer of (u*iu»ral Shennan in another, 
and we started on a rapid st(*)) toward the fit>nt. Tliis was the 
first we had heard of Mc'riiei*s(>n*s death, and it made us feel 
very bad. Some of the otlicers and men crietl as tlnuigh they 
had lost a brother; others pressed llu'ir lij»s, ^mIiiihI iheir teeth, 
and swore to avenge his dtath. He was a givat favorite with 
all his Army, particularly of our C(»r|)s, whidi he etnnmanded 
for a long while. Our company. tsjHvially, knrw him well, 
and loved him dearly, fur we had )>een his IIcaiKiiiarters (fuard 
for over a year. As we marche<l along, towanl the front, we 
could see brigades, and regiments, and buiteriis of artillery, 
coming over from the right of the Army, and taking |N)sition 
in new lines in rear of the Sixtt.H?nth and Seventet*nth C*or|is. 
Major Generals and their stalfs, ISngadier Cienerals and their 
staffs, were mighty thick along the Uinks of the little nivine 
we were following; stragglers and wounded men by the 


hundred were pouring in to the safe shelter formed by the 
broken ground along which we were rapidly marching ; stories 
were heard of divisions, brigades and regiments that these 
wounded or stragglers belonged, having been all cut to pieces ; 
officers all killed ; and the 8]XMLker, the only one of his command 
not killed, wounded or captured. But you boys have heard and 
seen the same cowardly sneaks, probably, in fights that you 
were in. The battle raged furiously all this time ; part of the 
time the Sixteenth Corps seemed to be in the worst ; then it 
would let up on them and the Seventeenth Corps would be 
hotly engaged along their whole front. 

'* We had probably marched half an hour since leaving Logan, 
and were getting pretty near back to our main line of works, 
when the Colonel ordered a halt and knapsacks to be unslung 
and piled up. I tell you it was a relief to get them off, for it 
was a fearful hot day, and we had been marching almost double 
quick. We knew that this meant business though, and that we 
were stripping for the fight, which we would soon be in. Just 
at this moment we saw an ambulance, with the horses on a dead 
run, followed by two or three mounted officers and men, coming 
right towards us out of the very woods Logan had cautioned 
the Colonel to avoid. When the ambulance got to where we 
were it halted. It was pretty well out of danger from the 
bullets and shell of the enemy. They stopped, and we recog- 
nized Major Strong, of McPherson*^ Staff, whom we all knew, 
as he was the Chief Inspector of our Corps, and in the ambu- 
lance he had the body of General McPherson. Major Strong, 
it appears, during a slight lull in the fighting at that part of 
the line, having taken an ambulance and driven into the very 
jaws of death to recover the remains of his loved commander. 
It seems he found the body right by the side of the little road 
that we had gone out on when we went to the rear. Ue was 
dead when he found him, having been shot off his horse, the 
bullet striking him in the back, just below his heart, probably 
killing him instantly. There was a young fellow with him who 
was wounded also, when Strong found them. lie belonged to 
our First Division, and recognized General McPherson, and 
stood by him until Major Strong came up. He was in the 
ambuhmoe with the body of McPherson when they stopped by us. 



"It secniB Uiat when the fight opened away back in thfl rear 
where vtn had Ixwn, and at the left of t]ie Sixteenth Corj* 
wliioh was alinostdlreclly in the rear of the Seventeenth Coq*, 
UcPhereuD sent his EtatT and orderlies with various onlen to 



^^^ uw 


different parts of the line, and started liinuolf to ride orer 
from the Seventeenth Corp* to the Sixteenth ('orjw, taking 
exactly tbo same courso oar Regiment had, perhaps an b<iar 
befora, but the Rebels liad dtsixiverw] thoro vras a gii\> iMHween 
the Sixteenth and Seventeentli C'oips, and mrdinR^ nu oppoai- 
tioa to their advances in this strip of woods, whfiv thev were 
hidden from view, thoy had uiarched rif;bl along down in the 
mar, and with thoir line at rig^ht an|*li-« with the line of worita 
occupied by the left of the Sevwntwnlh Cnr\i* ; they wer^ tliua 
ptralld and doso to tbo little road McPbenon hail tnkm, and 
prulnbly he nido right into tbotn and waa killed before ho tx-al- 
iicd tb« true siloatioo. 

— - iL. 


^ Ilaving piled our knapsacks, and left a couple of our older 
men, who were played out with the he^it and most ready to 
drop with sunstroke, to guard them, we started on again. The 
ambulance with the corpse of Gen. iMcPherson moved off 
towards the right of the Army, which was the last we ever saw 
of that brave and handsome soldier. 

^' AVe bore off a little to the right of a large open field on top 
of a high hill where one of our biitterics was pounding away at 
a tremendous rate. We came up to the main line of works just 
about at the left of the Fifteenth Corps. They seemed to be 
having an easy time of it just then — no fighting going on in 
their front, except occasional shots from some heavy guns on 
the main line of Rebel works around the City. We crossed 
right over the Fifteenth Corps' works and filed to the left, 
keeping along on the outside of our works. We had not gone 
far before the Rebel gunners in the main works around the 
City discovered us ; and the way they did tear loose at us was a 
caution. Their aim was rather bad, however, and most of their 
shots went over us. We saw one of them — I think it wm a 
shell — strike an artillery caisson belonging to one of oar bat- 
teries. It exploded as it struck, and then the caisson, which 
was full of ammunition, exploded with an awful noise, throw- 
ing pieces of wood and iron and its own load of shot and shell 
high into the air, scattering death and destruction to the men 
and horses attached to it. We thought we saw arms and legs 
and parts of bodies of men flying in every direction ; but we 
were glad to learn afterwards that it was the contents of the 
knapsacks of the Battery boys, who had strapixid them on the 
caissons for transportation. 

^^ Just aft^r passing the hill where our battery was making 
things so lively, they stopi)ed firing to let us pass. We saw 
General Leggett, our Division Commander, come riding toward 
us. lie was outside of our line of works, too. You know how we 
build breastworks — sort of zigzag like, you know, so they can- 
not be enfiladed. Well, that's just the way the works were 
along there, and you never saw such a curious sliape as we 
formed our Division in. Why, part of them were on one side 
of the works, and go along a little further and here was a reg- 



Imcnt, or part of a rc^ment oa Mm other side, both Kt« firiog 
in opposite directions. 

" No sir'cje, they were not demoralized or in confusion, the/ 
vere cool and as steady as on parade. But the old Division 
had, you know, never bt-cn driven from any position tbey bad 
ODoe taken, in oU Uicir long aorvice, imd Uiey did not prc^xwa 




to IiMive that ridge until they got orders from Aome one beaJdi 

*' There were timee when a fellow did not know whiob i 
of the works waa the safest, for the Johnnira were in front of 
ns and in re«r of as. Yoa see, our Fourtli nirisioii, which hod 
been to the h>ft of ua, had bcvn forced to quit their works, when 
the Reha got into the works in their rear, so that our l>ivis»aa ■ 
was now at tlie point where our lino turn«l sharply to the h ' 
snd rear — in the direction of the Sixt<«nth Corps. 

"Wo got into btuinuas b«>fore we had been there orer tltm^ 
minutes. A line of the Ilebs tried to char(i;e across the open 
fields in front of us, but by tJie help of the old twenty-foor- 
poonders (whii:h pro^'L-d to bt> part of Coojmt's Illinois Itatlery, 
that we boil been alongifide of in many a hard tight U'fore), 
we drove them bock a-flying. only to have to Jump over on the 
ootade of our works the next minute' to tooklo a heavy foi 


that came for our rear through that blasted strip of woods. 
We soon drove them off, and the firing on both sides seemed to 
have pretty much stopped. 

^^ ' Our Brigade,' which we discovered, was now commanded 
by ' Old Whiskers ' (Ck>lonel Wiles, of the Seventy-Eighth Ohio. 
I'll bet he's got the longest whiskers of any man in the Army.) 
You see General Scott had not been seen or heard of since he 
had started to the rear after our regiment when the fighting 
first commenced. We all believed that he was either killed or 
captured, or he would have been with his command. He was a 
splendid soldier, and a bull-dog of a fighter. His absence was 
a great loss, but we had not much time to think of such things, 
for our brigade was then ordered to leave the works and to 
move to the right about twenty or thirty rods across a large 
ravine, where we were ])laced in ])osition in an open corn-field, 
forming a new line at quite an angle from the line of works we 
had just left, extending to the left, and getting us liack nearer 
on to a line with the Sixteenth Corps. The battery of howit- 
zers, now reinforced by a \mn of the Third Ohio heavy guns, 
still occupied the old works on the highest part of the hill, just 
to the right of our new line. We U)ok our position just on the 
brow of a hill, and were ordered to lie down, and the rear rank 
to go for mils, which we discovered a few rods behind us in the 
8hai>e of a gixnl ten-mil fence. Every rear-mnk chap came 
back with all the rails he could lug, and we barely^ had time to 
lay them down in front of us, forming a little baricade of six 
to eight or ten inches high, when we heard the most unearthly 
Rebel yell directly in front of us. It grew louder and came 
nearer and nearer, until we could see a solid line of the gray 
coats commg out of the woods and down the opposite slope, 
their biittle Hags flying, officers in front with dmwn swonls, 
arms at right shoulder, and every one of them yelling like so 
manv Sioux Indians. The line seenietl to be miissed six or 
eight mnks iltN»p, followed closely by the second line, and that 
by the thini, each, if i)ossible, yelling louder and api^earing 
more desiK'mtely reckless than the one ahead. At their first 
api^eamnce we o|x^ned on them, and so did the bully old twenty- 
four-pounders, with canister. 

^ On they came ; the first line staggered and wavered back on 

280 ANDER802«TILL£. 

to the second, which was coming on the doable quick. Such a 
raking as we did give them. Oh, Lordy, how we did wish that 
we had the breech loading Spencers or Winchesters. But we 
had the old reliable Springficlds, and we poured it in hot and 
heavy. By the time the charging column got down the oppo- 
site slope, and were struggling tlirough the thicket of under- 
growth in the ravine, they were one confused mass of officers 
and men, the three lines now formmg one solid column, which 
made several desperate efforts to rush up to the top of the hill 
where we were punishing them so. One of their first surges 
came mighty near going right over tlie left of our Regimenti 
as they were lying down betnnd their little rail piles. But the 
boys clubbed their guns and the officers used their revolvers 
and swords and drove them back down the hilL 

" The Seventy-Eighth and Twentietii Ohio, our right and left 
bowers, who had been brigaded with us over since *Shiloh/ 
were into it as hot and heavv as we ha<I been, and had lost 
numbers of their officers and men, but were hanging on to their 
little rail piles when the fight was over. At one time the Rebs 
were right in on top of the Seventy-Ei*j:htli. One big Reb 
grablxxl their colors, and tried to pull tluMii out of the hands of 
the color-bean*r. But old Captain Orr, a little, short, dricd-up 
fellow, about sixtv vears old, struck him with his swoiil across 
the back of the neck, and killed him deader than a mackerel, 
right in his tnicks. 

" It wiii now getting dark, and the Johnnies concluded they 
had taken a bigger contnict in trying to drive us off tliat hill 
in one <lay than they had counti^I on, si> tht*y quit charging on 
us, but drew Ixick under cover of the wo<h1s and along the old 
line of works that we ha^l left, and kept up a (x^cking away and 
shar|)shiK>tin^ at us all night long. They o|>entMl fire on us 
from a nunilH»r of pie<v»s of sirtillery fn>ui the front, fmm the 
left, and from S4»nie heavy guns away over to the right of us, 
in the main works amund Atlanta. 

••We did not fiM»l away much time that night, either. "We 
got our shovels and picks, and while |>jirt of us were sharp- 
shooting and trying to kivp the I{fU*ls fn>m working up too 
chjse to us, the nst of the ht»ys wen* putting up some good 
solid earthworks right where our mil i»ilei had been, and by 


morning- \vy w«ro in splerniiil shupo to bate r«oi<iv«l our friends, 
I niattor which way they had comB nt u», for tboy kopt up 
h an all-fired BhpUing of ua from so many different directjoms 
t the boys had built traverses and bomb-proofs at all sorts 
r«igiei ftOd in all directions. 
<*3beminM0iw point off to our right, a fov roda uj) alonj> 

THK rioirr fob itik flao. 

oar old line of workK where there wan a crowd of Itehrl sliorp- 
■bootcrs that onnoywl as moru tlion all thn rest, by their con- 
itant firing,' at ua through the nifj^hL Tiu-y IcLIImI one of Com- 
pany H'a boym and wonnded several others. Ftnally Captain 
Willianu, u( D CoDipony, came along and said be wanted a 
ooafJc of good ahutii out uf our company to go with him, so I 
Went for one. lie took altout ten of no, and wn crawJMt down 
into the ravine in ftunt at where wo were building the worka, 
and got behind a largo fallon troe, and we laid there and oookl 
jart fire right np into the rear of thuw fellows as they lay ia 

282 Ain)ER60NVILLE. 

behind a traverse extending back from our old line of works. 
It was so dark we could only see where to fire by the flash of 
guns, but every time they would shoot, some of us would let 
them have one. They staid there until almost daylight, when 
they concluded as things looked, since we were going to stay, 
they had better be going. 

*' It was an awful night. Down in the ravine below us lay 
hundreds of killed and wounded Rebels, groaning and crying 
aloud for water and for help. We did do what we could for 
those right around us — but it was so dark, and so many shell 
bursting and bullets flying around that a fellow could not get 
about much. I tell you it was pretty tough next morning to 
go along to the different companies of our regiment and hear 
who were among the killed and wounded, and to see the long 
row of graves that were being dug to bury our comrades and 
our ofiicers. There was the Captain of Company £, Nelson 
Skeeles, of Fulton County, O., one of the bravest and best 
officers in the regiment. I^y liis side lay First Sergeant Lesnit, 
and next were the two great, |)owerful Shepherds — cousins — 
but more like brothers. One, it seems, was killed while sup- 
porting the head of the other, who had just received a death 
wound, thus dying in each other's arms. 

** But I can't begin to think or toll you the names of all the 
poor boys that we laid away to rest in their last, long sleep on 
that gloomy day. Our ^Major was st'V(»rely wounded, and 
several other ottlcers had been hit more or less badly. 

"It was a fri«^htful sight, though, to go over the Held in front 
of our works on that mornin^r. The K«*1k»1 dead and badly 
woundeil laid where they had fallen. The hottoin and op{K>site 
side of the ravine showed how destructive our lire and that of 
the canister fn^m the howitzers had Imh^h. Th<» un(l<*rhnish was 
cut, shusluHl. and torn into shmis, and the hir«,^T ti\»c*s were 
scarreil, bniise<l and broken by the thousiiiuls of hullets and 
other niissih^ that ha<l lxN»n i>ounHl into thfin fn>in almost 
everv coneeivahle dii*eetion durin<i: the dav iH-fore. 

"A lot of us Imivs went wav <»ver to the left into Fullers 
Division of the Sixteenth ('or|»s, to ^^* how some of our boys 
over th«*re had got thn>ii;:h the scrim iiiair*', for ihev luui alK>ut 
as nasty a tight as any i>arl of the Army, and if it had not been 


for tbeir being jurt where they were, I am not sure but what 
the old Seventi-oDth Corps would have liad a ditTerent atory to 
t^ now. We found our friends bud been way out by Decatar, 
when* their brigade hiu\ got into a pretty lively fight on their 
own hook. 
" W« got back to camp, and the first thing I knew I was 

H^ that wfi 
^^B He inid 

IS Ttre WFt^rrr afteb thk BATn-r- 

detaHod for piclcet duty, and we were posted over a few rods 
ftoroa the ra^Hne in our front. "We luul not bcvn out but a 
ibort time wbt'n wc saw a flag of truce, borne by an ofGcer, 
oomLng towards us. We balled bim, and made biw wail until 
ft report was sent back to Corps headquarters. The Rebel 
ofllcer was quite chatty and tJilkalivc with our picket oQiocr, 
wbllo waiting. He eaid be was on General Clebome's staff, 
and that the troopa that cbargixl tis bu lioivelr the evening 
before was Cleburne's whole Uiviaion, and that after their last 
npubte, knowing the hill where we were i>osli?d was the most 
importjint p<«ition along our line, he fi-ll thiii it tber would 
keep close Ut us dnring the night, and keep up n >bow of tight, 
that we would pull out and alundun the bill liefore niuming. 
He mid that he, with about fifty uf their beat meti, had Tolan- 

Uned to ko«p up tbe demonstration, and It was liid paHv that 
bad occupied the travenw in our old works tlie nigbt before 
and hftd annoyt'd ns and the Battery men by thoir constant 
sbaqMbooting, whicb wu fi^llows bvliiiul the old tree bad 
fliudly litvd out. He said tliey »taid until uliiKist dayli^bt, and 
that be lost more than balf bis men before li« left. lie also 
told as that General Scott was cajitured by tbeir Division, at 
aboat the tiine and ulmo«t the same 8]>ot ns where General 
ICcFborson was kill^I, and that be was not hurt or wou&ded, 
and was now a prisoner in their liondg. 

"Quite a lot of our itlaff oitlcera soon came out, and u oear 
as we could learn the Kebels wantetl a iruee li> bury their dead* J 
Our folks tried to get up an cxcbange of prisoners that 1 
been taken by both sides the day before, but for bouio i 
they cxwid not bring it about, tiut the trui-e for burying the 
dead was agreed to. AIodk alxmt du.ik Home of the boys on 
my post got to tdling about a lot of Kilver and brass instru- 
meata that belonged to one of the bands of the Fourth division, 
which bad been bung np in some small Itvch a litt le way o\'et in 
front of where we were when tlic tight wiis going on the day 
before, and that when a bulUa wtmlil strike one of the boms 
they oould bear it go ' pin - g ' and in a few niinutee ' jios - g ' 
wonld go another bullet through one of them. 

" A new picket was jusl coining on, untl I bad picked up my 
blanket and havenuick, and wait about reudy to Ktart luick to 
camp, when, thinks I, ' I'll just go out there and sc^^ about them 
horns.' I told the boys what I woa going (u rio. Tbcy all 
seemed to think it was twfe enough, so out I Ktarletl. 1 had not 
gone more than a hundred yanls, I iibould think, when here X i 
found the boms all banging around on the trees just as l' 
boys hod dtMcribetL Some of them had lots of ballet holes ll 
tbem. But I saw a beautiful, nice looking silver liuglu hanging 
off to one side a little. ' Thinks' rays I, > I'll ju«t take tb 
little toot bom io out of the wet, and take it back (o cnmp.' 
waa just reaching up after it when 1 heatnl some one nf,- 
* Halt 1 ' and Til lie dog-gtmrnl if there wasn't two of tb* 
meanest looking Rebels, standing not teu feet from mo, witli 
their gnos cocked and pointer] at me, and. of coane, 1 know I 
«■■ a goner. They walked me back about one bondred and 


' yards, where their picket line was. From tboro I was 
t going for an hour or two until we got over to a plaoe on 
the railroad called East Point. Thuru I got in with a big 
crowd of our prisoners, who were talien the day before, aad wo 











w 3 *^^j 














I boon fooling along in a lot of old rattle cots gettbig 
1 here urer siooc. 
this is ' AtiderwDTiUc,' is ttl Well, by 1" 


nlotulsq: its rapid deterioration, and devices to beplknibh 
it — desperate efforts to cover nakedness — ^^linijb bkd- 
cap" and his letter. 

Clothing had now become an object of real solicitude to us 
older prisoners. The veterans of our crowd — the surviving 
remnant of those captured at Gettysburg — had been pris- 
oners over a year. The next in seniority — the Chickamauga 
boys — had been in ten months. The Mine Run fellows were 
eight months old, and my battalion had had seven months' in- 
carceration. None of us were models of well-dressed gentle- 
men when capturetl. C)ur garments told the whole story of 
the hard cami>aigning we had undergone. Now, with months 
of the wear and tear of prison life, sleeping on the sand, 
working in tunnels, dijrging wells, etc., wo wei-e tattered and 
torn to an extent that a second-class tramp would have con- 
sidered disgraceful. 

This is no reHeetion ujKm the quality of the clothes furnished 
by the Government. We simply reached the limit of the wear 
of textile fabrics. I am |«irticular to wiy this, liecause I want 
to contribute my little mite towanls d(»ing justicM? to a badly 
abused i«irt of our Army or<ranization — the Quarlennasters 
Dejmrtment. It is fashionable to s|»i*ak of ** shoddy," and uttip 
some stei-eotyiKHl sneers alxait " brown |Kii)er shcK^s" and " mus- 
keto-nettinp overccmts," when any discission of the Quarter, 
master siTvice is the subject of coiiversjition, but I have no 
hesitation in asking the indorsement of my comnides to the 
stiitement that we have never found anywhere else as durable 
garments as those furnisheil us by the Government during our 



serrioe tn the Anny. The clothes were not as tine in texture, 
nor BO stylish in cat as those we wore before or since, but when 
it oame to wear they conltl be relied on to the last thread. It 
was always marvelous to me that they lasted so well, with the 
rough usage a soldier in the field must necessarily give them. 

But to return to my subject. I can best illustrate the way 
our «lothes dropped off us, piece by piece, like the petals from 
the last rose of Summer, by taking my own case as an example: 
When I entered prison I was clad in the ordinary garb of an 
enlisted man of the cavalry — stout, comfortable boots, woolen 
Books, drawers, pantaloons, with a " re-enforcemcnt," or " ready* 
made patches," as the infantry called them ; 
vest, warm, snug-fittiog jacket, under and 
over shirts, heavy overcoat, and a forage-cap. 
First my boots fell into careless ruin, but this 
was no special hardship, as the weather had 
' become quite warm, and it was more pleasant 
than otherwise to go barefooted. Then part 
of the underclothing retired from service. 
The jacket and vest followed, their end being 
hastened by having their best portions taken 
to patch up the pantaloons, which kept givinjf 
; out at the most embarrassing places. Then 
"Tj the cape of the overcoat was called upon to 
^ assist in repairing these continually-recurring 
m lvYwn-> Amu- hreaches in the nether garments. The same 
um M nTEBDia insatiate demand tlnallv consumed the whote 
'***"'■ coat, in a vain attempt to prevent an exposure 

of person greater than consistent with the usages of society. 
The pantaloons — or what, by courtesy, t called such, were a 
monument of careful and ingenious, hut hopeless, patching, that 
^ould have called forth the admiration of a Florentine artist 
in mosak^ I have been shown — in later years — many teble 
tops, ornamented in marquetry, inlaid with thousands of Uttle 
bits of wood, cunningly arranged, and jtatiently joined together. 
I always look at them with interest, for I know the work spent 
npon them : I remember my Andersonville pantaloons. 

The clothing upon the upper part of my body had been 
redoced to the remains of a knit undershirt It had fallen into 



80 many holes that it JoukMl like tbo coarse "riddles" tbrougfa 
which aahes and gravel are sift«d. Whorovcr these holw were 
the sun had burned my back, breast and slioulders deeply black. 
Tbo parts covered by tlie threads and fraguicnt^ forming the 
boundaries of the holes, ivura still 
white. When ] pulled my alleged 
shirt off, to wash or to ttve it from 
Bomo of its toeming |Kipulation, my 
gkin ehon'e<l a line laco pattern in 
black and whitc> lliat was very in- 
teresting to my comnidos, and the 
biibjoct of oountluKs jokes by them. 

They useil to descant loudly ou the 
' lioiite elegance of the design, th« 
T'Jcbness of the tmc-ing, etc, and btg 
i:if to furnish them with a popy of it 
ti hen I got home, for their sisian to 
work window curtains or tidtos by. 
They were sure that bo striking n 
novelty in patterns woold be very noccptoble. I would reply 
to their wittiotsnu io the bingnage of J*miia't Pristct ^ 

One of tbe stories told me in my childhood by an old D^ro 
nune, was of a poverty stricken little girl " who slept on Um 
floor and was covered with the door,*' and she once a^ed — 

" Mamma, bow do j>9or folks get along who haven't any 
door I" 

In the some spirit I oaed to wonder how jxkkt toUows got 
along who hadn*t any shirt. 

One common way of keeping op one's clothing was by stealing 
mealsacks. Tbe weal fumisbed as rations n'oa brought in in 
white cotton sacks. 6e(;g<>ants of deta«hment« wetv requind 
to rataini tboe when tbe rations were Lwued the n^'xl tbiy. I 
have before alluded to the general incApootty of the Itelwls to 
deal accurately with eveu simple numbera. It was never very 
dilBcult for a shrewd Sergeant to axakt nine socks count as ten. 
After awhile the Bebela began to see throqght this sleigbt of 


band manipulation, and to check it. Then the Sergeants 
resorted to the device of tearing the sacks in two, and turning 
each half in as a whole one. The cotton cloth gained in this 
way was used for patching, or, if a boy could succeed in beating 
the Eebels out of enough of it, he would fabricate himself a 
shirt or a pair of pantaloons. We obtained all our thread in 
the same way. A half of a sack, carefully raveled out, would 
furnish a couple of handf uls of thread. Had it not been for 
this resource all our sewing and mending would have come to 
a standstill. 

Most of our needles were manufactured by ourselves from 
bones. A piece of bone, split as near as possible to the required 
size, was carefully rubbed down upon a brick, and then had an 
eye laboriously worked through it with a bit of wire or some- 
thing else available for the purpose. The needles were about 
the size of ordinary darning needles, and answered the purpose 
very well. 

These devices gave one some conception of the way savages 
provide for the wants of their lives. Time was with them, 
as |With us, of little importance. It was no loss of time to 
them, nor to us, to spend a large portion of the waking hours 
of a week in fabricating a needle out of a bone, where a civi- 
lized man could purchase a much better one with the product 
of three minutes' labor. I do not think any red Indian of the 
plains exceeded us in the patience with which we worked away 
at these minutias of life's needs. 

Of course the most common source of clothing was the dead, 
and no body was carried out with any clothing on it that could 
be of service to the survivors. The Plymouth Pilgrims, who 
were so well clothed on coming in, and were now dying ofiF 
very rapidly, furnished many good suits to cover the nakedness 
of older prisoners. Most of the prisoners from the Army ol 
the Potomac were well dressed, and as very many died within 
a month or six weeks after their entrance, thev left their clothes 
in pretty good condition for those who constituted themselves 
their heirs, administrators and assigns. 

For my own part, I had the greatest aversion to wearing 
dead men's clothes, and could only bring myself to it after I 


290 A^'DER80NVILLE. 

had been a year in prison, and it became a question between 
doing that and freezing to death. 

Every new batch of prisoners was besieged with anxious 
inquiries on the subject whicli lay closest to all our hearts: 

" M'hat are ttiey doituj about exchaufjt i " 

Nothing in human exiwrience — save the anxious expectancy 
of a sail bv castawavs on a desert island — could e^ual tlio 
intense eagerness with which this question was asked, and the 
answer awaited. To thousiinds now hanging on the verge of 
eternity it meant life or death, l^etween the first day of July 
and the first of Novemlx^T over twelve thousand men died, who 
would doubtless have liveil had they been able to reach our 
lines — "get to God's country," as we expressed it. 

The new comers brouglit little reliable news of contemplated 
exchange. There was none to bring in the first place, and in 
the next, soldiers in active service in the field had other things 
to busy themselves with than reading up the details of the 
negotiations between the Commissioners of Exchange. They 
had all heanl rumors, however, and bv the time thev reached 
Andersonville, they hadcrystallizeil these into actual statements 
of fact. A half hour after they entered the Stockade, a report 
like this would spread like wildfire: 

** An Anny of the Potomac man has just come in, who was 
capturt^l in front of Petersburg. He siiys that he reail in the 
New York /At<//</, the day before he was taken, that an 
exchange had Uvn agn^Ml uiKjn, and that our shijhi had already 
starteil for Savannah to take us home." 

Then our lu»i)es would s<.»ar up like Inilh^ins. We feil our- 
selves on such stuff from dav to dav, and doubth^s manv lives 
were greatly prolonginl by the continual encouniirrment. There 
was hanllv a dav when I did not s;iv to mvsi'lf that I would 
much rather die than endure impris^mmtMit auotiier nmnth. and 
had I l)elievetl that another month would see me still liiere, I 
am pretty certain that 1 should have endeil ihr matter by 
crossing the Deail Line. I was firmly resi»lvt*<l not to ilie the 
disgusting, agonizing death that so many around mr wrre dving. 

One of our U*st purveyors of infonnati<»n was a l»right. blue- 
eyeil, fair-haired Uttle drummer boy, as hands4jmc as u girl. 


Trell-bred as a lady, and evidently the darling of some refined, 
loving mother. He belonged, 1 think, to some loyot Virginia 
raiment, was captured in one of the actions in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and had been with us in Kicbmond. We called him 
"Red Cap," from his wearing a jannty, gold-laoed, orimson 
cap. Ordinarily, the smaller a drummer boy is the harder he 
is, but no amount of attrition 
with rough men oould ooatsen 
the ingrained refinement of Bed 
Cap's manners. He was between 
thirteen and fourteen, and it 
seemed utterly shameful that 
men, calling themselree soldiers, 
should make war on such a tender 
boy an<l drag him off to prison. 
But no six-footer bad a more 
soldierly heart than little Red 
Cap, and none were more loyal 

,\ \ to the cause. It was a pleasure 
>^M toh 

\ to hear him tell the story of the 
fights and movements his regi- 
ment ha<l been engaged in. He 
was a good observer and told 
his tale with boyish fervor. 
Shortly after Wirz assumed command he took Red Cap into 
his uiRvc an an Onlerly. Ills bright fnce and winning manners 
fascinatetl tlie women visitors ut hondquarters, and numbers ol 
them tric<l to iitlopt him. but witli poor suoocas. Like the rest 
of ns, he could sec few cluirms in an existence under the Rebd 
flag, and turned a dejif ear to their blandishments. He kept 
his ears oik'u tu the conversation of the Rebel otilcers aronnd 
him, and frequently securwl [wrraission to visit the interior of 
the Stockade, when tic would communic^ite to us all that he had 
licanl. lie n<t-eive<l » fluttering reccptifm every time he came 
in, and no onitor ever lUHrurvt) a more atlontive audience than 
would gatlier antund him to listen to what he ha«l to say. He 
waK. lieyond a dnuht, the lM?st known and most piipular [lersoD 
in the prixon. ami I know all the survivors of his old admirers 
share wy great interest in him, and my curiosity as to whether 


he yet lives, and whether his subsequent career has justified the 
sanguine hopes we all had as to his future. I hope that if he 
sees this, or any one who knows anything about him, he will 
oonununicate with me. There are thousands who will be glad 
to hear from him. 

[A most remarkable coincidence occurred in regard to this 
comrade. Several days after the above had been written, and 
^ set up," but before it had yet appeared in the paper, I received 
the following letter : 


AlUghan^ County, Md., March 94. 
To Ikt Bditor of Um Bladi t 

Last evening I saw a copy of jour paper, in which was a chapter or two of 
a prison life of a soldier durinfl^ the iate war. I was forcibly struck with the 
correctness of what be wrote, and tbe names of several of my old comradea 
which he quoted: Hill, Limber Jim, etc , etc. I was a drummer boy of Com- 
pany I, Tenth West Virginia Infantry, and was flft4*en yean of sge a day or 
two after Arriving in Andersonville, which was In the laitt of February, 18M. 
Nineteen of my comnuSes were there with me. And, poor fellows, they Are there 
yet. I hAve no doubt tbAt I would have remained thure, too, had I not been 
more fortunAte. 

I do not know who your soldier correspondent is, but AMiime to say that 
from the following description he will rcmemlHrr bavin? mm^o m* in Ander- 
■onville: I was the little boy that for three or four moot lis oflflciated at 
orderly for Captain Wirz. I wuru a red cap. and cvrrv day could l>e seen 
riding Wirz't) gray mare, cither At h('ad4uart<'rs, or alN)iit th(* St<K*kade. I 
was actini; in this capacity when the six raiJi*r>* — ''Mi><liy,** ipntpiT name 
Collins) Dclaney. Curtis, and — I fi>r^et the other numcs — were oxoruted. 
I believe that I was the fir^t that conveyed the iiitelli;:en(*e to them tliat Con- 
federate General Winder had approved their K*nten -e. As sixin at Wirz 
received the dinpAtch to tliAt efTcet. I ran down to ilii^ s!iK'k< and told them. 

I viMte<l Hilt, of Wauseon, Kultim County. O.. since the war. and found 
him hale and hearty. I have not heard from hini fur a number of years u!itil 
reading your correspondent*:* letter la^-t evmini^ It i« thi only litter of iho 
aeries Ihat I have »e<'n. but after re idiniri hat one. I frel i':i11e i upn'i to certify 
that I have no doubts of the truthfulness of your enrre^pomlent'H Morv. 

• • * 

The world wilt never know or believe the hurnirs nf .VniltTMiniille and 
other prisons in tiic St >uih No llrin.:. human bt-inL*. in my jiit!::meiit, will 
ever be able to proiH>rly paint the horriir< of ihi»-r infi'rn:il ilt-n*. 

I fonned the ac(}uaint:ince of >evi'ral Oliin ^ i|-jier^ whiNi in priMin. 
Among th«'!*o wer; () I>. Streeior, «if ("levelayjd. whi» went tn Ainb-r^iinville 
about th<' ^ame time that I did. and esc >pfil. and wa-: the imiy m:in ibat I 
ever km-w that eo-caprd and reaeheii our line« After an nhnMiee of .H-viTal 
mi>ntho he was retaken iu one of ^h>'rin.r)'« lii'tlex b-furi* Atlanta, and 
briuijht baek. I also knew Jolin L IlichanN. nf KtiMiiria. Senega (Viunty, 
U., or Eaglesviilo, Wood County. Alsio, a man by the name of Beverly , mho 

A noBT or B 



wu a putaer of Charirr BncUebj, of TannoBKo. I would like to hear tioa 
all of tlMae partlea. Tha; all know me. 

Mr. Editor, I will cloae by wiahinK all mj comradoa who iharad Id the •of- 
feriiigt and dugen of UoDfederale prboai, a long and uaeful life. 
Youra truly , 

lUuBOM T. Pownb 

"VSBSU riBH." 



SjM^ikinp: of tlio Hiannor in wliii'li tho Plymouth Pilgrims 
veiv now <lyin«^, I am n'mindoil of my tlu'ory that the ordinary 
man's rHiluraiuc of this juistm life did not average over three 

months. Th(' IMvnioiith Ih»vs arrivcil in Mav: the bulk of 

• • • 

thosi* who di«Ml j»assi(l away in July and Auiriist. The great 
incn'asr «»f juisontTs \'nni\ all s«>urr«s was in May, June and 
July. Thi» v'*"*'!'**'^^ iiiniiiility ainon^^ tlM-s*- was in August, 
Sejiti'mlH-r and < U'IoImt. Tiu: Inllowiii;^^ i;il»lr, wliii-h shows the 
nundifi* of iii'W ]»r.Nnn«'rs arrivin^^ f:i(h nioinh. and the number 
dyin;: tiio ihii-d month al'itT. will ilhiNiiatc on what I b;ise my 
theorv : 

M «iini AiiKio.p IN I M MiTii ]>;rp in 

Mmt *•"* ' ^ ■-'«•• S.WS 

Jiinn ■•' -I ^' ; •• i »'. r t.T9« 

JuJy :.-J* ni:..l.,r 1.5M) 

Manv (iimt- in win* l.isd Imii in Lro<»«l li«'.iUIi dmiiiLT tlirirser- 


vicv in i1m» tii-M. l»nl ui.«» .Miini-d ulbrlv ovirw hfjiiu'd l»v the 
apj»allinir misi'i'v ili»-y ^;i\\ ^n i-vi-ry luMid. ;ii:d L'i\ini: way to 
dt/siKindi'iiry. ilinl ilia It \v (!;iys or wi in>. I do imi moan to 
ini'ludi* tlji-m in il.f alnivf iI.jsn. :in ii.ili -" !;iu'>s was more 
mental than ]»hy'«iial. My iii<a is that, t.ikin:: t*uv hundred 
onlinai'ilv in-allhtul vouiil' >«-Mf!< a ifu iiii-nt in active 
B«'i'Vio'. an<l ]»utt.iii: ti:« in ;i'..«« .\nd»»'*i'ii\ i!).-. Iiv tlu* i-nd i>f the 
third month at ItaNt i;..jt\ thrrt- ul thoM- wi-akt-sl and most 


vulnorablc to disease would have suocumbed to the exposure, the 
pollution of ground and air, and the insufRciency of the ration 
of coarse corn meal. After this the mortality would be some- 
what less, say at the end of six months fifty of them would be 
dead. The remainder would hang on still more tenaciousty, 
and at the end of a year there would be fifteen or twenty still 
alive. There were sixty-three of my company taken ; thirteen 
livcil through. I believe this was about the usual proportion 
for those who were in as long as we. In all there were forty- 
five thousand six hundred and thirteen prisoners brought into 
Andersonville. Of these twelve thousand nine hundred and 
twelve died there, to say nothing of thousands that died in 
other prisons in Georgia and the Carolinas, immediately after 
their removal from Andersonville. One of everv three and 
a-half men \\\x)n whom the gates of the Stockade closed never 
reixisseil them alive. Twenty-nine j)er cent, of the boys who 
so much as set foot in Andersonville ditnl there. Let it be kept 
in mind all the time, that the average stay of a prisoner there 
was not four months. The grt^at majority came in after the 
1st of May, and left before the middle of September. May 1, 

1804, there were ten thousand four hundretl and twentv-seven 

' ft 

in the Stockade. August 8 there were thirty-three thousand 
one hundred and fourteen ; September 30 all these were dead or 
gone, except eight thousand two hundreil and eighteen, of 
whom four thousand five hundred and ninety died inside of the 

next thirtv davs. The records of the world can show no 

» ft 

parallel to this astounding mortality. 

Since the above matter was first published in the Blade, a 
friend has sent me a transcript of the evidence at the Wirz 
trial, of Professor Joseph Jones, a Surgeon of high rank in the 
Rebel Army, and who stood at the head of the medical pro- 
fession in Georgia. lie visited Andersonville at the instance of 
the Surgeon-General of the Confederate States' Army, to make 
a study, for the benefit of science, of the phenomena of disease 
occurring there. His capacity and opportunities for observar 
tion, and for clearly estimating the value of the facts coming 
under his notice were, of course, vastly superior to mine, and 
as he states the case stronger than I dare to, for fear of being 
accused of exaggeration and downright untruth, I reproduce 


the major part of his testimony — embodying also his official 
report to medical headquarters at Eiehmond — that my readers 
may know how the prison a])i)eared to the eyes of one who, 
thouirh a bitter EebeK was still a humane man and a conscien- 
tious observer, striving to learn the truth : 


fTniuicrlpt from the printed tcitimonr at the Wir^ Trial, pacm 618 to 880, InelttfiTC.] 

October T, 1865. 

Dr, Joseph Jones, for the prosecution: 

Bv the Judw Advocate: 

<Jui*stion. AViicn* do you reside? 

Answer. In Au^rusta, (ieor^na. 

Q. Are you a graduate of any medical college? 

A. Of the TniviM'sitv of PiMinsvlvania. 

Q. How h^n*^ iiave yuu been engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine ( 

A. Eight y«*ars. 

Q. Has your ^'XjMTionoo Imvii as a pnu-titiimerj or rather as 
an invi'stii;:ilnr of mt'iliciiH* as a science f 

A. P.utli. 

1^. Wliat |M)sitinn <lnyi»u 1h»1«1 u«>w? 

A. Tiiat nf Mfdical Chemist in tiie !Medieal College of Geor- 
gia, at Auiru^ta. 

Q. Ili»w luiii: iiave you held your jxisition in iliat college? 

A. Siiiei* l*^.^'^. 

Q. Ilow wiMr you eTU|il«»yrd durinir the lJi-lnIlion ? 

A. I siTvi'd -^ix Tuomiis in tlif ^arly part nf ii as a private in 
the iank<. and tin* n-^i of tlir time in tlie nirdieal di-partnient. 

Q. I'ndi-r till' diri-riiMn nj" wlmm i 

A. Cnder tin* ilii'-riinii nf I)r. Mimm'i*. Snrirt'nn <fi*ni»ral. 

Q. I>i*l yi»u. wliiN- art.iii: uii'l'-r iiis dirt-iiinn, visit Audei*son- 
villi», ju'nir-i'.iiinally ; 

A. Yfs. sir. 

(^>. Ktir tin* purpK#» iif maUinir Invt'stiiratiunN thr^n"*? 

A. Ktir the ]nir|MiM? at pruaecuiing inve>iigalions uiilered by 
the Surgt?«.»n Cienoral. 


Q. You went there in obedieooe to a letter of instmotions t 

A. In obedience to orders which I received. 

Q. Did yon reduce the results of your investigations to the 
shape of a report t 

A. I was engaged at that work when General Johnston sur- 
rendered his army. 

(A document being handed to witness.) 

Q. Have you examined this extract from your report and 
compared it with the original ? 

A. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Q. Is it accurate t 

A. So far as my examination extended, it is accurate.^ 

The document just examined by witness was offered in evi- 
dence, and is as follows : 

Obiertatians upon ik$ di»ea$e$ of the Federal priMonen^ eonflned in Camp SHmftr, 
Andemonti'U^ in Sumtsr County ^ Oeorgui, instituted with a riea to ittuMiraU 
eki^g the origin and eauM$ of hospital gingrtn\ the relations of continued 
and malarial fet^r$, and the ptithologi/ of camp diarrhea and dgaen^erg, bg 
Joseph Janet^ Surgeon P. A. C S., Prtfeneor of Medical Chemistrg in the MedU 
cat CoUege of Georgia, at Augueta, Georgia, 

Hearing of the unusual mortality among the Federal pris- 
oners confined at Anderson vi lie, (reorgia, in the month of 
August, 1S64, during a visit to Richmond, Va., I expressed to 
the Surgeon Greneral, S. P. Moore, Confe<lcrate Stiites of 
America, a desire to visit Camp Sumter, with the design of 
instituting a series of inquiries U]x:>n the nature and causes of 
the prevailing diseases. Sinall|X)x had ap])eared among the 
prisoners, and I bolieved that this would prove an admirable 
field for the establishment of its characteristic lesions. The 
condition of Peyer*s glands in this disease was considered as 
worthy of minute investigation. It w;uj bclievinl that a large 
bxly of men from the Northern i>ortion of the Unitwl States, 
suddenly tnins|)orte<.l to a warm Southern climate, and confined 
nix>n a small iK)rtion of land, would furnish an excellent field 
for the investigation of the relations of typhus, typhoid, and 
malarial fevers. 

The Surgeon General of the Confederate States of America 
furnished me with the following letter of introduction to the 


Surgeon in charge of the Confederate States Military Prison at 
Anderson ville, Ga.: 


Au^st 6 

\, 18G4. ) 

Sir: — ^The flcld of patholoi^ical Investt^tion^ a(T>>rdP(l by the l&rjcrc collec- 
tion (if Federal prisoners in Georgia, is of great t*xt;-iit and imptirtaiioe, and 
It is believed that results of value to the pnifcssion may be olitained by a 
careful ioTcstigation of the effects of di8i*a<e up'>ii the lari^e body of men sub- 
jected to a decided chan<^ of cliioate and tlie circuni4tanco?< peculiar to prison 
life. The Surgeon in change of the hospital for Federal prison -rs, together 
with his assistants, will afford every facility ti> Siir.'roii Joseph Jojc^, in the 
prosecution of the laliors ordered by thi* Surge<in G(*Ufnil. K:Tlclent assist- 
ance must be rendered Surgeon Jtines l>y th'' niediiMl olllv-ers, not only in hii 
examinations into the causes and jiympti^nw of tli<> various diseusfs, but 
especially in the arduous labors of po^t m iriein <-.taniiiiation<«. 

The medical olllcers will aN>idt in the pcrfunnturi* i»f -iioh po>t mortems aa 
Surgeon Jones may indicate, in order that this itpmI i)>'ld for pathological 
investigation may he explored for the bene lit of the Medical Department of 
the Confederate Army. 

S. P. MOOKK. SttrffTon OfkeraL 

Surgeon Isaiah II. WniTs, 

Ineh'trgeofll'Mpitiilfor Federal prl»f»n^r», Aml^r^utriile, On. 

In compliance with tliis letter of the Sur;:i'«»ii <n'inTaK I:«iiiah 
II. White, Ciiief Suri^eon <»f the i)«»st, and II. It. Sti^vi'iison, 
Siirgix>n in chiirtre of the Pri.*<on IIi)s]»ii;tK all'«»r<hHl tin* ni*ces- 
sary facilities for the prosi^cution of niy inv4*sTiLMtions aini»nj|^ 
the sick outside i>f the Stocka<Ie. After tin- (-••inplction of my 
labors in the military prison hospital. th<* fullMwinir communi- 
cation was adilri'sseil to Hri^i«lier (fi'nrrai .li»iiii II. Wintler, in 
conset]uence of the n*fus;il on tht* |);Lrt of th«* oiinmandant of 
the interior of the Confeilerate Statts Miliary PiImiu tn admit 
me within the K?toi.'k;ule ujwn iheonler nf thf Siiri:t'«»n (len- 

Camp Si'MTtn. Amii:i:*"'N\ii i.k. tl\.,} 

GE5RRAL: — I re*prctfully nque*! iho co-nnnn laui .-f ih-^ jk*-: ».f An !erw 
sonville to grant me ptTmi^di'^n and to furnish ilu* nri . ««.i \ ;>\>« :.. \i«ii the 
sick and otBi-er* within the StiM-linI of lU- i .ti ]ir%:i' State* 
rri.4«>n I desire to instiiuJe cerium in'juirio* i-rd- r i ^»\ 'in ••■.jrj-in <ten- 
erul Surgeon L«aiih 11 Whilr. Chit-f >urjr..n -f :!.•■ ; .-: av I >.ir.r»va 
R. R Stevenson, in charge of the I*ri»*»n H.»,u54.. l..»v x\\ :■ .; r.n- i-%i-rf 


ftcility for the prosecation of my labors among the tick outdde of the 
Stockade. Verj respectfully, your obedient serrant, 

JOSEPH JONES, Surgwn P. A. a 8. 
Brigadier Qeneral John H. Winder, 

Cbmmandant^ F^t AnderwnvilU, 

In the absence of General Winder from the post, Captain 
Winder furnished the following order : 

Camp SuimcR, Andbrsonttllb, ) 
September 17, 1861 ) 

CAPTAnr : — Yon will permit Surgeon Joseph Jones, who has orders from 
the Surgeon Gkneral, to visit the sick within the Stockade that are under 
medical treatment. Surgeon Jones is ordered to make ccrtnin invebtigationa 
which may prove useful to his profession. By direction of General Winder. 

Very respectfully, 

W. S. WIXDER, A. A, 0. 
Captain H. Winz, Commanding Priwn. 

Inscription of tlu ConftderaU Slain JiUHUjiry Priion ffotpUal at AndenontOU, 
Number ofprisonerSf physical condition^ food^ clothing, habiU, moral oondUiam^ 

The Confederate Military Prison at Andersonville, Ga., con- 
sists of a strong Stockade, twenty feet in height, enclosing 
twenty-seven acres. The Stockade is formed of strong pine 
logs, firmly planted in the ground. The main Stockade is sur- 
rounded by two other similar rows of pine logs, the middle 
Stockade being sixteen feet high, and the outer twelve feet. 
These are intended for offense and defense. If the inner 
Stockade should at any time be forced by the prisoners, the 
second forms another line of defense; while in case of an 
attempt to deliver the prisoners by a force operating upon the 
exterior, the outer line fonns an admirable protwtion to the 
Confetlerate troops, and a most formidable ol>stacle to cavalry 
or infantry. The four angles of the outer line are strengthened 
by earthworks upon commanding eminences, from which the 
cannon, in ciise of an outbreak among the prisoners, may sweep 
the entire enclosure; and it was designed to connect these 
works by a line of rifle pits, running zig-zag, around the outer 
Stockade; those rifle pits have never lx?en cf>mpleted. The 
ground enclosed by the innermost Stockade lies in the form of 
a parallelogram, the larger diameter nmning almost due north 


and south. This space includes the northern and soathem 
opposing sides of two hills, between which a stream of water 
runs from west to east. The surface soil of these hills is com- 
posed chiefly of sand with varying admixtures of clay and 
oxide of iron. The clay is suiHciently tenacious to give a con- 
siderable de<]'i'ee of consistencv to tlie soil. The internal 
structure of the hills, as revealed by the deep wells, is similar 
to that alreadv described. The alternate la vers of clav and 
sand, as well as the oxi<le of iron, which forms in its various 
combinations a cement to the siiml, allow of extensive tunnel- 
ling. The prisoners not only constructed numerous dirt huts 
with balls of clav and sand, taken from the wells which thev 
have excavated all over those hills, but thev have also, in some 
cases, tunneled extensively from these wells. The lower |X)r- 
tions of these hills, bordering on the stn*am, are wet and boggy 
from the constant or>zing of water. The Stockade was built 
originally to accommodate only ten thousand prisoners, and 
included at first seventeen acres. Near the close of the month 
of June the area was enlargeil by the ailditi<m of ten acres. 
The ground added was situated on the northern slo\ye of the 
largest hill. 

The following tiible presents a view of the density of the 
population of the prison at difTei^ent |KM'iods : 

TaUe illutt rating ih€ mfnn numf>er of privtufrt coiifinetl in the Confederate 
Siate9 m&itnry pri*-m at Amifr^'mtHU^ Oe'*njia, from its organti'ttiitn, Feb- 
nifiry 24, 180 1, to Septemhrr, 1864, and the arer*iff€ number of tquare feet of 
ground to each pruaner. 

ICoxTn AVD TiAi. 

Marrh. IV4.. 
April. \^A... 
Mik\. IMH .... 
Jlllir. I««*| ... 
Jll.T, 1*M,4 . . . 


1 is 


^m ^ 

b b 

^^ m ^ 



c — 



^ ^3 

»a a 

1 s| 



^ - 


T..'i «» 








i:. itii 







■,•• Mftt 








Within the circumserilMNJ un»a of tin* St<Kkade the Fi-ilend 
pribouers were comj^elknl to {lerform all the otlii.*es of life* — 


cooking, washing, the calls of nature, exercise, and sleeping. 
During the month of March the prison wns less crowded than 
at any subsequent time, and then the average space of ground 
to each prisoner was only 98.7 feet, or less than seven sc^uare 
yards. The Federal prisoners were gathereil from all parts of 
the Confederate States east of the Mississippi, and crowded 
into the confined space, until in the month of June the average 
number of square feet of ground to each prisoner was only 33.2 
or less than four square yards. These figures represent the 
condition of the Stockade in a better light even than it really 
was ; for a considerable breadth of land along the stream, flow- 
ing from west to east between the hills, was low and boggy, 
and was covered with the excrement of the men, and thus ren- 
dered wholly uninhabitable, and in fact useless for every pur- 
pose except that of defecation. The pines and other small trees 
and shrubs, which originally were scattered sparsely over these 
hills, were in a short time cut down and consumed by the pris- 
oners for firewood, and no shade tree was left in the entire 
enclosure of the stockaile. With their characteristic industry 
and ingenuity, the Fetlerals construeltMl for themselves small 
huts and caves, and attempted to shield themselves from the 
rain and sun and night dam{)s and dew. But few tents were 
distributed to the prisoners, and those were in most cases torn 
and rotten. In the location and arrangement of these tents 
and huts no order appears to have been followed ; in fact, regu- 
lar streets api^ear to be out of the i{ue8tion in so crowded an 
area; esj)ecially too, as large Ixxlies of prisoners were from 
time to time added suddenly without any ])revious preiKirations. 
The irregular arrangement of the huts and imjK^rfect shelters 
was very unfavorable for the maintenance of a proj>er system 
of {lolice. 

The police and internal ec<momy of the prison was left almost 
entin»ly in the han<ls of the pris<mers themselves ; the duties of 
the Confederate s«»ldiers act in;r as guanis Inking limitiMi to the 
occuimtion of the boxes or l(M>k<>uts range<l around the stockade 
at regular intervals, and to the manning of the batti'ries at the 
angles of the prison. Even judicial matters I>ert4iiningt4> them- 
selves, as the detection and punishment of such crimes iis theft 
and murder api)ear to have been in a great mesisure abandoned 


to the prisoners. A striking; instance of this oocnrred in the 
month of Julyi when the Federal prisoners within the Stockade 
tried, condemned, and hanged six (6) of their own number, who 
had been convicted of stealing and of robbing and murdering 
their fellow-prisoners. They were all hung u{K)n the same day, 
and thousands of the prisoners gathered around to witness the 
execution. The Confederate authorities are said not to have 
interfered with these proceedings. In tliis collection of men 
from all parts of the world, every phase of human character was 
represented ; the stronger preyed upon the weaker, and even 
the sick who were unable to defend themselves were robbed of 
their scanty supplies of food and clothing. Dark stories were 
afloat, of men, both sick and well, who were munlered at nighty 
strangled to death by their comrades for scant supplies of cloth- 
ing or money. I heard a sick and wouiuleil Federal prisoner 
accuse his nurse, a fellow-prisoner of the Uniteil States Army, 
of having stealthily, during his sleep intx^ulateil his wounded 
arm with gangrene, that he might destroy his life and fall heir 
to his clothing. 

The large number of men confinetl withiirthe St<Kkade soon, 
under a defective system of police, and with inipTfeot arrange- 
ments, covered the surface of the low ^n»un<ls with e.\cn»inents. 
The sinks over the lower pi»rtions i>f the siri'ain wen' imiH»rfect 
in their plan and stnictuiv, and the exrreim-nts wtTc in large 
meiisure tleiHisitiHl s<i near the Injinlei's nf the stn^am jus not to 
be washe«l away, or else accumulatiHl ii|Min the low Ix^^gy 
ground. The volume of water was n*»t sulliiient to w;uili away 
the feci^ and they accunuilattMl in surli (|nantiii(*s in the lower 
portion of the stream as to fc^rui a mass of litjuid exen^nent. 
Ileavv rains causiMJ the water of thi' slri-am t*» rise, and as the 
arrang«Mnents Inr the |»iissiiire of tin* inrrfasrd amounts of 
water out of tlu* St«K'kailf wen* insullieinil. the lnjiiid ftv^-s 
overllowiNl the low ;rr<fiinds and covfriMJ inrin s'-vt-ral inehes, 
after the suhsid«»nee of the watn-s. The aeiio!i ••[ lli«* sun 
UjKjn this putrefy in«r mass of exeremt-niN afhl frairmenis of 
bread and meat and lioni's excited nio^i ra|Mil I'l-rmrntatiou 
and develojieil a liorrihle steiieh. lm|»ri»vi-mfUi> wm- i«roj«rtetl 
for the removal of the tilth ami for the prevention vi ii» accu- 


mnlation, but they were only partially and imperfectly carried 
out As the forces of the prisoners were reduced by confine- 
ment, want of exercise, improper diet, and by scurvy, diarrheal 
and d3rsentery, they were unable to evacuate their bowels 
within the stream or along its banks, and the excrements were 
deposited at the very doors of their tents. The vast majority 
appeared to lose all repulsion to filth, and both sick and well 
disr^arded all the laws of hygiene and personal cleanliness. 
The accommodations for the sick were imperfect and insufficient. 
From the organization of the prison, February 24^ 1864, to 
Hay 22, the sick were treated within the Stockade. In the 
crowded condition of the Stockade, and with the tents and huts 
clustered thickly around the hospital, it was impossible to secure 
proper ventilation or to maintain the necessary police. The 
Federal prisoners also made frequent forays upon the hospital 
stores and carried off the food and clothing of the sick. The 
hospital was, on the 22d of May, removed to its present site 
without the Stockade, and five acres of ground covered with 
oaks and pines approprated to the use of the sick. 

The supply of medical officers has been insufficient from the 
foundation of the prison. 

The nurses and attendants upon the sick have been most gen- 
erally Foileral prisoners, who in too many cases appear to have 
been devoid of moral principle, and who not only neglected 
their duties, but were also engaged in extensive robbing of the 

From the want of proper police and hygienic regulations 
alone it is not wonderful tliat from February 24 to September 
21, 1S04, nine thousand four hundred and seventy-nine deaths, 
nearly one-third the entire number of prisoners, should have 
been recorded. I found the Stockade and Hospital in the fol- 
lowing condition during my |>athological investigations, insti- 
tuted in the month of September, 1S04: 


At the time of my visit to Andersonville a largo number of 
Fetleral prisoners Iiad been removed to Millen, Savannah, 
Charleston, and other parts of the Confederacy, in anticipation 



of an advanco of General Sherman's forces from Atlanta, with 
the design of lilx?rating their captive brethren; however, about 
fifteen thousand prisoners remained confined within the limits 
of the Stockade and Confe<lerate States Military Prison Hos- 

In the Stockade, with the exception of the damp lowlands 
bordering the small stream, the surface was c*overed with huts, 
and small niggcil tents and ]xirts of blankets and fragments of 
oil-cloth, coats, and blankets stretchcnl ui)on sticks. The tents 
and huts were not arrange<l acconling to any order, and there 
was in most parts of the enclosure scarcity room for two men 
to walk abreast between the tents and huts. 

♦ ♦•♦♦••• 

If one might judge from the large i)iec»es of com-brend scat- 
tered about in everj' direction on the ground the prisoners wore 
either very lavishly supplied with this article of diet, or else this 
kind of food was not relishetl bv them. 

Each dav the dead f n^m the Stocka<le were carrie*! out by 
their fellow-prisoners and depositccl u[N>n the ground under a 
bush arlx)r, just outside of the Southwestern (iate. From 
thence they were carrieil in carts to the buryin;: ground, one- 
quarter of a mile northwest of the Prison. The dead were 
burie<l without ctillins, sitle by snh^ in tn»ncli<*s four f«N»t dtvp. 

The h)W grountls lx»nlcring the stn*am wen* rovciinl with 
human excrements and fihh of all kintls, wliidi in many phices 
api^aretl to lx» filive with working ujaggots. An ind(*s(M*i liable 
sickening stench arose fn)m these fermenting ma.sses of human 


There were near five thousiind scTii»uslv ill F^sliTals in the 
Stcx'kade and Omfnlerate States Military Prison Hospital, and 
the deaths excei.Nle<l one hundre<l jht <lay, an«l Iarp» nuinliei'sof 
the prisom»rs who wore walking alnait, and wIn) liail not lM»#*n 
eulertil U|H»n the sick re]H.»rts, were sutfering from si'Vi-iv and 
incnrahle diarrhea. dvsi*nterv. an«l scurvv. Tli»» sick were 

• • • 

attendinl almost eiitin4y by their fellow-prisoners, ap|»ointe«l as 
nurs<»s, and as tliev ni'eive<l but litlli* attfntii»n. tiii-v wni* ri»m- 
|x*11«nI to exert themselv<*s at all tinu-s tn attt*nd to the calls of 
natnrt». ami henc«» th«y n'taint^l the jMiwer of movJDrr alMuit to 
within a comjiaratively short ]N*riiNl of the eli»s<» of \\U\ ( )\\ ing 


to tbo Blow pmgresB of tiio dii»e«s« moat prevalent. <liarrlie« 
and chronic (lya>nt«iy, the ooqwes were as a gctwral rule 
I Tisiteil two thoOBOBd dole witliili the Stockuile, lying luutef 


■ome long tbedi wbivh had been built at Uio nurtlwrn |x>rtkMi 
for theniwlves. At this timo »nly one iimliml uffiow vraa in 
alleotbuici% n-bdvaa at luist twooty tnalical oDiccrH r)i«iuIiI bavo 
been tunploynl. 


Tdui AcMte IB aowiMl 4nia 


Scurry, iliiurfaea, dyKOlury, and bcffipital gnngrvne n-ure tlitj 
pm-nilioK diMnm*. I was Buqiriwd to lint) but few frtttiem oC . 
malarial fovor, and nn wfll-tnarkwl ttae* viiIkt of ly)iJiiu ( 
typbijid fefer. The aheenra of the difTctvnl fcirnu of n ' 
fever may be accounted for in the supiuMtttMi tlutt tlio artificial ' 
atmo«|)l)(:re of Uio Stoekadn, orowdnJ dcnsdy vrilb human 


beings and loaded with animal exhalations, was unfavorable to 
the existence and action of the malarial poison. The absence 
of typhoid and typhus fevers amongst all the causes which are 
supposed to generate these diseases, ap|K'ared to be due to the 
fact that the gi-eat majority of those prisoners had been in cajw 
tivity in Virginia, at Belle Island, and in other parts of the 
Confederacy for months, and even as long as two years, and 
during this time tliey liad been subjected to the same bad influ- 
ences, and those who had not had these fevers before either had 
them during their confinement in Confeilerate prisons or else 
their systems, from long exposure, were proof against their 

The effects of scurvy were manifested on every hand, and in 

ft ft 

all its various stages, from the muddy, pale complexion, pale 
gums, feeble, languid muscular motions, lownt^ss of spirits, and 
fetid breath, to the dusky, dirty, loadcn complexion, swollen 
features, six^ngy, purple, livid, fungoid, blecnling gums, l(»ose 
tcH?th, aMlematous limbs, covercil w ith livid vibic«»s, and iH»ttH.»hia? 
S{)asm(xlically flexed, jminful and hanlcn<Hl (*xtivmitics, s|Kmta- 
neous hemorrhages fix>m mucous canals, and large, ill-condi- 
tioned, spreading ulcors coveretl with a dark purplish fungus 
growth. I oliserve^l that in s«mie of tin* casc»s of scurvy the 
jKirotid glands wt'iv ;jrr<*atly swollen, ami in s^mih* instances to 
such an i»xlrnt as to pnrliule t^iiiirrly tin- power to articulate. 
In several rases of dropsy of lln» alM|uiri«*n and lower extreme- 
ties suiNM'vening uihui scurvy, tht* patients alHnniMl that pre- 
viously to the apjMNirance of the 4ln»psy they liad sntri'iiHl with 
profuse anil ubstinate diarrhea, and that win mi this was eluvked 
by a ehanire of diet, fmm Indian eMrn-l»n'ail ImUimI with the 
husk, to ImhIimI rice, the dropsy apiH-art-.i. Tin* srvi-n* pains 
and livid patehrs \\rw fr«Mpnnlly a>s«Hiatri| with swi-jhuir^ in 
various parts, and •'>jHH'ially in tin* ixin'iiiilii-s. :i4'i*<ini|»;in- 
itnl with slitTnt-ss and ennlraetioiiMif the knri- j«»:iils nid aiilJi's. 
and ofliMi with a luawny In'i of thi* parts, ii<s it' l\nipii h.hi In^'Ii 
ctTiis«sl iH'tWi't-n tl;e inti':r«inii*:ils ;ia«l ;i]»eiii*nrnM*-». p?-«-\«iitinv: 
the moti«in i»f lh»' >k'\n nver the swiillni ]»arT<. Many >•; tin* pris- 
i»ni'i's lN»lii*\ril that lh«' s-urvv wa^ r«iniai:n»iis. asid I >,tu uwn 
Lrnardlnjr thrir wt-Ils smd >priri;:s, fi-arir.L'' l»'^l ^*\u*' ni;.ii stilTiT- 
ing witii the scurvy migiil use the water and liiii> p'»iM»n liieiii. 


I observod also nameroiui cases of hospital gangrene, and of 
spreading soorbutio ulcers, which bad supervened upon slight 
injuries. The scorbutic ulcers presented a dark, purple fungoid, 
elevated surface, with livid swollen edges, and exuded a thin, 
fetid, sanious fluid, instead of pus. Many ulcers which origi- 
nated from the scorbutic condition of the system appeared to 
become truly gangrenous, assuming all the chamcteristics of 
hospital gangrene. From the crowded condition, tilthy habits, 
bad diet, and dejected, depressed condition of the prisoners, 
their systems had become so disordered that the smallest abra- 
son of the skin, from the rubbing of a shoe, or from the effects 
of the sun, or from the prick of a splinter, or from scratching, 
or a musketo bite, in some cases, took on rapid and frightful 
tdceration and gangrene. The long use of salt moat, ofttimes 
imperfectly cured, as well as the most total deprivation of veg- 
etables and fruit, appearwJ to Ik? the chief causes of the scurvy. 
I careful! v examineti the bakor\' and the bread fuinished the 
prisoners, and found that they were supi)lie<I almost entirely 
with corn-bread from wliich the husk ha*! not been sei)arate(L 
This husk acto<l as an irritant to the alimentary canal, without 
adding any nutriment to the bresul. As far as my examination 
extended no fault could be found with the mode in which the 
bread was baked ; the difficulty lay in the failure to separate 
the husk from the corn-meal. I strongly urgetl the prefiaration of 
large quantities of soup made from the cow and calves' heads 
with the brains and tongues, to which a liberal supply of sweet 
potatos and vegetables might have been advantageously added. 
The material existed in abundance for the preparation of such 
soup in large quantities with but little additional ex^iense. 
Such aliment would have been not only highly nutritious, but 
it would also have acted as an efficient remetlial agent for 
the removal of the scorbutic condition. The sick within the 
Stockade lay under several long sheds which were originally 
built for barracks. These sheds covered two floors which were 
open on all sides. The sick lay upon the bare boanls, or upon 
such ragged blankets as they posscsseil, without, as far as I 
observed, any bedding or even straw. 

The haggard, distressed countenances of these miserable, ooni- 


plaining, dejected, living skeletons, crying for medical aid and 
food, and cursing their Government for its refusal to exchange 
prisoners, and the ghastly corpses, with their glazed eye balls 
staring up into vacant space, with the flies swarming down 
their o])cn and grinning moutlis, and over their ragged clothes, 
infested with numerous lice, as they lay amongst the sick and 
dying, fonncd a picture of helpless, lio))eIess misery which it 
would be im|K)ssible to portray by words or by the brush. A 
feeling of disapi)ointment and even resentment on account of 
the Uniteil States Government upon the subject of the exchange 
of prisoners, appeared to be widespread, and the apjxirent hope- 
less nature of the negotiations for some general exchange of 
prisoners api>eareil to be a cause of universal regwt and deep 
and injurious des|)ondcncy. 1 ht^anl some of the prisoners go 
BO far as to exonerate the Confederate Government from any 
charge of intentionally subjecting them to a protractinl confine- 
ment, with its necessary and unavoidable sutferings, in a coun- 
try cut off from all intercourse with foi-eign nations, and sorely 
pressed on all sides, whilst on the other hand they charged 
their prolonged captivity uiKjn their own (ioverninent, which 
was attempting to make the negro e(]uul to the white man. 
Some hundreil or more of the prisont'rs had btvn rekuised from 
confinement in the Stockade on paroI<\;ind tilled various ofHces 
as clerks, druggists, and cariK*nit»rs, eli-., in tin* various depart- 
ments. These men were wM rlotlitnl, an<l |»n*s4»nti.Hl a stout 
and healthy apiKnirance, and its a grni^ral nik* tliov presented a 
much mon^ robust and healthy a])})earaiK'e than theConfeilerate 
troo])s guanling the prisoners. 

The entire grounds are surruuntknl by a frail boartl fence, 
and are strictly guanhnl by C'onfi.NhTait' s«»Kli<'i's, and no pris- 
oner except the pan»l«*<l att«'ndanis is allowinl to loave the 
grounds except by a >i)irial i>ennit from the Commandant of 
the Interior of the Prison. 

The patients ami attendants, near two thuusiind in numlx>r, 
are er<jwile<l into tliis contifKnl sjwioe ami aiv but jHHiriy suj>- 
plied with ohl and ni^'m^l t«»nts. I^ir^e nunilNTs of them were 
witJHMit any bunks in the t«*nis, ami lay u|M»n the ground, 
oft limes without even a blanket. Mo Utls or straw a]»]ieurod 


to have been furnished. The tents extend to ^vithin a few 
yards of the small stream, the eastern portion of which, as we 
have before said, is used as a privy and is loaded with excre- 
ments ; and I observed a large pile of corn-bread, bones, and 
tilth of all kinds, thirty feet in diameter and several feet in 
bight, swarming with myriads of flies, in a vacant space near 
the pots used for cooking. Millions of flies swarmed over 
everything, and covered the faces of the sleeping patients, and 
crawled down their open mouths, and deposited their maggots 
in the gangrenous wounds of the living, and in the mouths of 
the dead. Musketos in great numbers also infested the tents, 
and many of the jxiticnts were so stung by these i)estiferou8 
insects, that they resembled those suffering from a slight attack 
of the measles. 

The police and hygiene of the hospital were defective in the 
extreme; the attendants, who api)eared in almost every 
instance to have been selected from tlie prisoners, seemed to 
have in manv cases but little interest in the welfare of their 
fellow-captives. The accusation was made that the nurses in 
many cases robbed the sick of their clothing, money, and rations, 
and carried on a clandestine trade with the paroletl prisoners and 
Confederate guards without the hospital eaclosare, in the oloth- 
ing, effects of the sick» dying, and dead FeiloraLi. Tuey certainly 
appeared to neglect the comfort and cleanliness of the sick 
intrusteil to their care in a most shameful manner, even after 
making due allowances for the difUculties of the situation. 
Many of the sick were literally encrusted with dirt and filth 
and c*overed with venuin. When a gangrenous wound needed 
washing, the limb was thrust out a little from the blanket, or 
boanl, or rags u]>on which the {mtient was lying, and water 
|M>ured over it, and all the putrescent matter allowed to soak 
into the ground floor of the tent. The supply of raf^ for dress- 
ing wounds was said to be very scant, and I saw the most filthy 
rags which had Unm applied several times, and imperfectly 
washed, used in dressing wounds. Where hospital gsmgrene 
was prevailing, it was im]iossible for any wound to escape con- 
tagion under these circumstances. The results of tlie treatment 
of wounds in the hospital were of the most unsatisfactory char> 



acter, from this neglect of cleanlineM, in the dreasingo and 
voundR theinselvea, lui well as from vorioaa other chub's which 
wili bo more fully coDsidiTcvl. I saw scwrul ^n;frenoi» 
wonniU fillwl with mu^^P''^. 1 havo rnyjiiently wwn negte<M«i 
noundii amongst lli« CuiifiHlfi-iitu soIiIrts similorl^T affcctwl; 



and a» tmr u my experience oxlvniU, titesa wumiH ilratroy only 
tbe dcftd tissueR and do out injure sjH-cially tli« wvU pans. I 
bnTe even heonl siir^Minii afHnn that a gnngrvmHU wuoad 
which had been tltoniighly okniia(.>«l by ma^jrou, henlL-il iiiuru 
mpidly than if it had boon left to itM'lf. Tim «vaiit of cluonli- 
DOS on the juart of lite ourics a|)p<»ircd U> bit thv itwilt of care- 
lentuss and inatlentiun, rather than »f mali^aaut dcisigii, and 
Um whole troubhj can bo tra4x<d lo the wiuit of the |>rQper 


police and sanitary regulations, and to the absence of intelligent 
organization and division of labor. The abuses were in a large 
measure due to the almost total absence of system, govern- 
ment, and rigid, but wholesome sanitary regulations. In 
extenuation of these abuses it was alleged by the medical offi- 
cers that the Confederate troops were barely sufficient to guard 
the prisoners, and that it was impossible to obtain any number 
of exjierienced nurses from the Confederate forces. In fact the 
guard appeared to be too small, even for the regulation of the 
internal hygiene and police of the hospital. 

The manner of disposing of the dead was also calculated to 
depress the already desiK>nding spirits of these men, many of 
whom have been confined for months, and even for nearly two 
years in Richmond and other places, and whose strength had 
been wasted by bad air, bad fooil, and neglect of personal clean- 
liness. The dead-house is merely a frame covered with old 
tent cloth and a few bushes, situated in the southwestern comer 
of the hospital grounds. When a patient dies, he is simply laid 
in the narrow street in front of his tent, until he is removed by 
Federal negros detailed to carry off the dead ; if a patient dies 
during the night, he lies there until the morning, and during 
the day even the dead were frequently allowed to remain for 
hours in these walks. In the dead-house the corpses He upon 
the bare ground, and were in most cases covered with filth and 

The cooking arrangements areof the most defective character- 
Five large iron pots similar to those used for boiling sugar cane^ 
appeared to be the only cooking utensils furnished by the hos- 
pital for the cooking of nearly two thousand men ; and the 
patients were dependent in great measure upon their own mis- 
erable utensils. They were allowed to cook in the tent doors 
and in the lanes, and this was another source of filth, and 
another favorable condition for the generation and multiplica- 
tion of flies and other vermin. 

The air of the tents was foul and disagreeable in the extreme, 
and in fact the entire grounds emitted a most nanseous and dis- 
gusting smelL I entered nearly all the tents and carefully 


examined the cases of interest and especially the caf^es of gan. 
grene, u|x)n numerous occasions, during the prosecution of my 
pathological inquiries at Andersonville, and therefore enjoyed 
every opjx>rt unity to judge correctly of the hygiene and iK>Iioe 
of the hospital. 

There apix?ared to be almost absolute indifference and neg- 
lect on the ]mrt of the ])atients of ]K>rsonul cleanliness ; their 
persons and clothing in most instances, and esixxsially of those 
suffering witli gangrene and scorbutic ulcers, were filthy in the 
extreme and covereil with vermin. It was too often tlie case 
that patients were receiveil from the Stockade in a m<ist deplor- 
able condition. I have seen men bix>U(j:ht in from the Stoc*kade 
in a dying condition, begrimeil from head to foot with their 
own excrements, and so black from smoke and filth that they 
resembled negros rather than white men. That this descrip- 
tion of the Stixrkadc and hospital has not )>een ovenlrawn, will 
appear from the reports of the surgeons in charge, apj)ended to 
this reiKirt. 

We will examine first the consolidateil report of the sick and 
woundeil Feileral prisoners. During six months, from the 1st 
of ^larch to the 31st of Au^rust. forty-two thousand six hun- 
dred and eighty-six cases of diseases and wounds wore reiiortixi. 
No classifiiKl record of the sick in the St<K'kaile was kept after 
the establishment of the hospital without the Prison. This 
fact, in conjunction with those alreaily i>n»s«»nt4Hl ri'lating to 
the insutliciencv of meilical ollicers and the extrt*me illm^ss and 
even death of many prisoners in the tents in the ^^t<x*kadc, 
witiiout anv metlical attention or reconl l>evond the Ixire num- 
ber of till' ik'ad, demonstrate that these liguivs, large as they 
ap|X'ar to \n.\ are far Ix'low the truth. 

As the nunilier of i»risoners viirieil gn»atly at tlifffii'Ut iH.TiodSy 
the relations betwiK>n those ro|>orted siik and wi-ll, as far as 
those statistics extend, can best be determine<l i)y a nMn|):irison 
of the statistics of each month. The followin;^' table presents 
the mean strength, the total dis^^asts and deaths, and the total 
cases aud deaths of the most fatal diseases : 



TaNe Uluiirating the mean strength, total ca$e$ qfdiaeate and deaths and the rob. 
tione of the eases and deaths of the most fatal diseases among the Federal pris- 
oners confined at AndersonviUe, Oa. (Consolidated from the original reports 
on file in the ofire of the Surgeon in charge of the post ef AndersonviUef Ig 
Joseph Jones, Surgeon Proeisional Army Confederate JLtates,) 









Xeftn tCreiuttb, Federal priMmcn .. 
Total taken nick or wounded dur- 
ing th«nf'>nth ..... 



4 0-10 









4 8-100 




















9 8-10 












9 6-10 












9 0-10 









* "7.719 

Batio of nick to well; one nick In- 
Total deatbi* fmrn all can»e« 

Per cent, of deathn to »irk onteti'd 

on lick rvportj* UuHng month 

One death in m> many »lck and 

woonvlcd iiri-onerx 

Par cent, of d<'«ihH to mean strength, 

■Ickandwell - 

Tjrpboid levor— 








Intennlttcnt fe%-er. quotidian— | 




Drathn ■ 

Intermittent fever, tertian— 






Intermittent ft-vor, quartern— 







Bemlttent fcrer— 
CmfM .- 










EUloan remittent fercMr— 

























































Ca«c«i ^^» , j.» 


D^Athn , 


Acate diarrhaa— 



















Cbr 'nlc dlarrb<£a— 
Caatw X 





Acute djtvntrry - 


Cbrttnic U^wntery— 




]f orNttien - 










During this ])erio(l of six months no less than five hundred 
and sixty-live deaths arc recorded under the head of morbi 
In other words, tliose men died without having received 



sufl9cient medical attention for the determination of even the 
name of the diseiise causing death. 

During the month of August fifty-three cases and fifty-tliree 
deaths are recorded as due to marasmus. Surely this large 
number of deaths must have lieen due to some other morbid 
state than slow wasting. If they were due to impro|x»r and 
insufiicient food, they shouhl have lxH.»n chisseil accordingly, 
and if to diarrhea or dvsenterv or scurvv, the classification 
should in like manner have been explicit. 

We observe a progressive incn*iise of the rate of mortality, 
from 3.11 |x?rcent. in March to iMU> |)ercent. of mean strength, 
sick and well, in August. The ratio of mortality cimtinucd to 
incretiso during Septembt^r, for notwithstanding the removal of 
one-half of the entire numlx'r of (trisoners during the early 
portion of the month, one thousand svvm liuiitlnHl and sixty- 
seven (1,7*57) deaths aiv rt»gistrreil from SfptfiiilK-r 1 to 21, and 
the larg(.Nt nninUTof dt^atlis u|N>n any tmc day ik-cui'iihI during 
this month, on the l^Uli, viz. : on*' huiuln*d and ninet<H*n. 

The entire numlxT of FiHK»ral prisoiuM-sronliiuMlal Anderson- 
ville was alwuit fortv tlioiisiuid six liuiidnHliindi^K^vrii ; ami dur 
ingthej)eri<Klof nears<:ven months, fnmi Ffbriiarv :i4 to Septem- 
ber :il, nine tlmusjUKl four huiidn'd ami s«'Vriity-niiu» «*.».470) 
deaths wrn» nvonhtl ; that is, dnrin;: this)H'ri<M| M«'aroii(*-fourth, 
or more, i'xacilv <»nr in 4.'J, or :i'*)/^ rn'r n-iii., tcrmiiiattMl Hitallv. 
This iiK-n'ast' of mortality was dut» in "rnsit inrasuiv to tho 
accumulation of the sourct's of disease*, as tin' iiu-n'ast' of excre- 
ments and tilth of all kinds, and the concentration of noxious 
effluvia, and also to the pn^gressive elfccts of siilt diet, crowding, 
and the hut climate. 


1st. The great mortality among the F<Nlend ])risoner8 con- 
fined in the military prison at Aiulersnnvillf w;ls iu>i n*fenible 
to climatic causts, or to tiie nature «»f tli«* s<iil and wat«'rs, 

2d. The chief eaiisi's <»f dialh wen* siurvy and its results and 
bowrl atr«Htions — dinmic ami acute tliarrhi-a and dysi-ntery. 
The Ik^wcI atrecli<»ns apiH^ar to have Uvn due to the diet, tho 
habits at the jKitients, the tlepn^^ifd, tlejiftinl stale of the ner- 
vous svstem and mund and intellectual jKiwers, and to the 


eflBuvia arising from the decomposing animal and vegetable 
filth. The effects of salt meat, and an unvarying diet of corn- 
meal, with but few vegetables, and im]K'rfect sup])lies of vinegar 
and S3*rup, were manifested in the givat prevalence of scurvy. 
This disease, without doubt, was also intluenceil to an ini|H)rtant 
extent in its origin and course by tlie foul animal emanations. 

3d. From the sameness of the food and form, the action of 
the poisonous gases in the densely crowded and filthy Stockade 
and hospital, the blood was altenxl in its constitution, even 
before the manifestation of actual disease. In both the well 
and the sick the red corpuscles were diminishe<l; and in all 
diseases uncomplicated with intlamnuition, the fibrous element 
was deficient. In cases of ulceration of the nmcous membrane 
of the intestinal canal, the fibrous element of the bloiMl was 
increased ; while in simple diarrhea, unc<.>mplicute<l with ulcera- 
tion, it was either diminisluHi or else n^nutiniHi stationar}*. 
Ileart clots were very common, if not univei-siilly present, in 
cases of ulcenition of the intestinal nmcous membrane, while 
in the uncomplicatinl cas4*s ot diarrhea and si*urvy, the bltHxl 
was fluid and did nut coatrulate rea<lily, and the heart clots and 
fibrous c«mcr(»ti«ms were almost univeisiillv aitsent. From the 
waterv c<»ndition of the bloiKl, llu»iv n»sult<Hl various si*ix>us 
effusions into the |KTicardium, ventrieh's <»f the hrain, and into 
the alMl(»nien. In almost all the<'as<*s whicii I exaniiniHl after 
death, even the nmst emaciati*<l. tiien* was nu»n» or less si'rous 
effusion into the aUlominal cavity. In eases of hospital gan- 
grene «»f the extremities, ami in caM»s <if «r«in^rene t»f the 
intestines, heart clots anil flbnuis eoairula weiv univeisiillv 
pn»sent. The pn»s<»nee <»f tlios<» elois in the <'asvs of iiospital 
gan^Ti-ene, while they wen» abst^nt in thi» eas«»s in whirli theiv 
wiLs no intlammat<»rv svmptoms. sustains the <*«»iiriiision that 
h<»s)»ital ;^an<:nMie is a s|KH'it's of intlauiinatioii. iniiHTfiH't and 
irre^nilar tliouirli it may In* in its proirix*>s. in whirli tlie tilM'ons 
element ainl eoa<:ulati(»n of the b!«NKl aif iiu-r(*asi*<l, rvm in 
thos4* wiio an* ^^t^('rin;: from such a eonditi«>ii of tiit* IiIihkI, 
and fmrn snrli di>easi's as an* natiinilly arei>nipaiii(*d with a 
deen^asi* in tiie filmuis e«tnstitiirnt. 

4th. T\\v faet that hospital LMn^riiMii* ap|N'ar«*<l in tht* Stockade 
first, and uriginuteil s{N>ntan«*<iusly without any previous con- 


tagion, and occarred sporadically all over the Stockade and 
prison hospital, >vas proof positive that this disease will arise 
whenever the conditions of crowding, filth, foul air, and bad 
diet are present. The exhalations from the hospital and 
Stocka/Ic appesireil to ex<Tt their ctfix^ts to a considerable dis- 
tance outside of these localities. The origin of hospital gan- 
grene among these prisoners api>eaiiHl clejirly to (impend jn 
great measure uix>n tiie state of the general system induced oy 
diet, and various external noxious in!luenei»s. The rapidity of 
the appearance and action of the gangrene <loi)endeil uixm the 
powers and state of the constitution, as well as uix>n the inten- 
sity of the poison in the atmasphere, or u|M>n the direct appli- 
cation of poisonous matter to tiie woumleil surface. This was 
further illustrated by the im]X)rtant fact that hospital gangrene, 
or a disease resembling it in all essential ri*si)eets, attacked the 
intestinal canal of |x&tients laboring unth^r ulceration of the 
bowels, although then.* were no local manifestations of gsingrene 
upon the surface of tiie Ixxly. This imnle of termination in 
cases of dysentery was quite common in the foul atmosphere of 
the Conft»<lerate States Military ll«>spital, in the depressed, 
depraveil condition of tiie system of tiieso F<sleral ])risoners. 

5th. A scorbutic <*ondition of tiie system ap|H.*atvtl to favor 
the origin of foul ulcei-s, which fi\M|UeMily Untk on true hos[)itaI 
gangrene. Scurvy and hospital «;aii«:n'ne fiiH|U«»ntly existed 
in the same individual. In such casts, vegetable diet, with 
vegetable acids, vt'«)uld nMUove the si'oriintic ('onditi<»ii without 
curing the hospital gan«rivn«». From the nsulis «»f the existing 
war for the establishnitMit of the inile|M*iidence <if the C<mf«.Hle- 
rate Stales, as well as fn>m the pubhsiiiHl (il>servati«»ns of Dr. 
Trotter, Sir GilU»ri lUane, an«l oiIhm-s «»f liie Kmrlisli navy ami 
armv, it is evident that the scorbutic conditiitn «»f tlie svstem, 
esjKHrially in crow«liMl siii|>s and cam|»s. i*^ iiifisi favonil>le to tlio 
origin and spn^ad of f«»ul u1c*ms and h«»spital tram^iiMie. As in 
the presi'iit of Andrrsoiiville. si» alsi» in |kisI limes wiieu 
medical hviriene was alum t en!in*lv nci:livi«'<l, th«»s«* two 
disi»as«*s were alTm»st uiiiversiiUy as>iN'iah*d in i-iiiwdiMl Nhi|»s. 
In manv i' it was verv ditlicult to d<H.'i«l«» al first whethtT 
the ulcer was a simplt» riNult of M'urvy or <»f iln* actit»n nf the 
prison or hospital gangrene, for there was great similarity in 


the appearance of the nlcers in the two diseases. So commonly 
have those two diseases been combined in their origin and 
action, that the description of scorbutic ulcers, by many authors, 
evidently includes also many of the prominent characteristics 
of hospital gangrene. This will be rendered evident by an 
examination of the observations of Dr. Lind and Sir Gilbert 
Blane upon scorbutic ulcers. 

6th. Gangrenous spots followed by rapid destruction of tissue 
appeared in some cases where there had been no known wound. 
Without such well-established facts, it might be assumed that 
the disease was propigated from one ])utient to another. In 
such a tilthy and crowdeil hospital as that of the Confederate 
States Military Prison at Andersonville, it was impossible to 
isolate the wounded from the sourct^ of actual contact of the 
gangrenous matter. The tlies swarming over the wounds and 
over filth of every kind, the filthy, imiKjrfectly washed and 
scanty supplies of rags, and the limiteil supply of washing 
utensils, the same wash-bowl serving for scores of patients, 
wen» sources of such constant circulation of the gangrenous 
matter that the disease might rapidly spreacl from a single gan- 
grenous wound. The fact already stated, that a fonn of moist 
gangrene, resembling hospital gjingrene, wiis quite common in 
this foul atmosphere, in Ciuses of dysentery, both with and with- 
out the existence of the disease u|)on the entire surface, not only 
demonstrates the dependence of the disease upon the state of 
the constitution, but proves in the clearest manner that neither 
the contact of the poisonous matter of gangrene, nor the direct 
action of the poisonous atmosphere u|x>n the ulcerated surface 
is necessary to the development of the disease. 

7th. In this foul atmospiiere amputation did not arrest hos- 
pital gangrene ; the disease almost invariably returned. Almost 
every amputation was followed finally by death, either from 
the etTects of gangrene or from the prevailing <iiarrhea and 
dvsenterv. Nitric acid and escharotics irenerallv in this 
crowileil atmosphere, loaded with noxious etlluvia, exerted only 
temponiry effects; after their application to the iliseased sur- 
faces, the gangrene would fnx|uently return with redoubled 
energy ; and even after the gangrene bad been completely 
removed by local and constitutional treatment| it would fie- 


qnently return and destroy the patient As far as my observ- 
ation extended, very few of the cases of amputation for gan- 
grene recovered. The progress of these cases ^^as frequently 
very deceptive. I have observed after death the most exten- 
sive disorganization of the structures of the stump, wiien dur- 
ing life there was but little swelling of the part, and the {mtient 
was apparently doing well. I endeavored to imi)ress u|)on the 
medical officers the view that in this disease treatment was 
almost useless, without an abundant supply of ]>ure, fresh air, 
nutritious food, and tonics and stimulants. Such changes, how- 
ever, as would allow of the isolation of the cases of hospital 
gangrene appeared to be out of the power of the medical officers. 

8th. The gangrenous mass was without true pus, and con- 
sisted chiefly of broken-down, disorganized structures. The 
reaction of the gangrenous matter in certain stages was alkaline. 

9th. The best, and in truth the only means of protecting; 
large armies and navies, as well as prisoners, from the ravages 
of hospital gangrene, is to furnish liberal supplies of well-cured 
mcsit, together with fresh beef and vegetables, and to enforce a 
rigid system of hygiene. 

10th. Finally, this gigantic mass of human misery calls loudly 
for relief, not onlv for the sake of suffering humanitv, but also 
on account of our own brave soldiers noweiiptivesin tho hands 
of the FiMleral Government. Strict justice to the ^ilhint men 
of the Confederate Annies, who have Ixvn or who niav l)e, so 
unfortunate as to be coini)elled to surivnder in battle, demands 
that the C'oiifeilerate Government sliould a<lopt tliat course 
which will l»est secure their health and comfort in captivity ; or 
at least leave their eiieniic*s without a shadow of an excusi» for 
anv violation of the rules of civili/.eil warfare in the treatment 
of pris<»iier3. 

[K»d vt the WlmcM't Tvrlmiunr.] 

The variati«>n — fn»m !n<»nth to month — of the pro|>ortion 
of deaths to the wh«»le nunilKT living' is sinL'uhir and interestmg. 
It sui»|M»ris tlio the<»rv I have alnive, as the following 
facts, taken fnun llie oHicial reiHu-t, will show: 

In April <»ne in every si.\t<'<*n'dii'«l. 

In Mav one in everv tw«ntv-six iVn^l, 

In June one in everv twi.*utv-two die<L 



In July one in every eighteen died. 

In August one in every eleven diet!. 

In September one in every three died. 

In October one in every two dioil. 

In November one in everv throe died. 

Does the reader fully understand that in September one- 
third of those in the 'pen died, that in ()ctol)er one-lialf of the 
remainder perishwl, and in Nov<»mlKT one-third of thos<» who 
still survived, died? Let him piiuse for a moment ami read 
this over carefully ag-ain, because its startling ma«:nitude will 
hardly dawn u|>on him at first reading. It is true that the 
fearfully dispro|)ortionate mortality of those months was largely 
due to tlie fact that it was mostly the sick that remaine<l behind, 
but even this diminishes butlitth^ the fright fulness of the show- 
ing. Did any one ever liear of an epidemic so fatal that one- 
third of those attacked bv it in one month dieil ; one-lialf of the 
remnant the next month, and one-third of the feeble remainder 
the next mouth ? If he did, his reading has been much more 
extensive than mine. 

The number of prisoners in the Stockade, the number of 
deaths each month, and the daily average is given as follows : 


Nambn' la 



March -\ 













Jnnc .................................................. 





nrtjtc'niDcr ............................................ 




Novt*intK'r. ... ........*....,.. .... .... t,,t .... ......... 


The greatest number of deaths in one day is reported to have 
occurreil on the 23<l of August, when one hundred and twenty- 
seven dietl, or one man every eleven minutes. 

The greatest number of prisoners in the Stockade is stated to 
have been August 8, when there were thirty-three thousand 
one hundreil and fourteen. 

I have always imagined both these statements to be short of 
the truth, because my remembrance is that one day in August 






Certainly in no other great community that ever existed upon 
the face of the globe wsus there so little daily ebb and flow as 
in this. Dull as an onlinary Town or City nmy be; however 
monotonous, event K>is, even stupid the lives of its citizens, there 
18 yet, nevertheless, a flow every day of its life-blood — its pop- 
ulation — towards it.s heart, and an ebb of the same, every even- 
ing towards its cxtrttmitios. These recurring tides mingle all 
chisses tog<^ther and promote the general healthful ness, as the 
constant motion hither and yon of the ocean^s waters purify 
and sweeten tlieni. 

The lack of those helped vastly to make the living mass 
inside tlio Stockade a human Deiid Sea — or rather a Dying 
Sea — n putrefying, stinking lake, rrssolving itself into phos- 
phorescent corruption, like those rotting southern seas, whose 
seething filth burns in hideous reds, and ghastly greens and 

Tleing little call for motion of any kind, and no room to 
exercise wliatever wisii there migiit be in that direction, very 
many suivumlxHl unrestistingly to the a|Xithy which was so 
strongly favored by <Ies}M)ndency and the weakness induced by 
contiimal hunger, and lying supinely on the hot sand, day in 
and day out. s|NN*dily brought themselves into such a condition 
as invit<Hl the attacks of disease. 

It nH|uirt*d U>th determination and effort to take a little 


walking exercise. The ground was so densely crowded with 
holes and other devices for shelter that it took one at least ten 
minutes to pick his way through the narrow and tortuous 
laiiyrinth which served us paths for coinmunic;ition between 
different parts of tiio Camp. Still further, there was nothing 
to S4M* anywhere or to form sullicient inducement for any one 
to make s<» lalKjrious a journey. One simply encountered at 
every iww step the siimo unwelcome sights that he had just 
left ; there was a monotony in the misi»ry as in everything else, 
and conse<|U(*ntIy the temptation to sit or lie stiii in one's own 
quarters U^came very gi-eat. 

I usihI to mak<* it a {xiint to go to s<»mc of the remoter parts 
of the Stockade once every <lay, simply for exercise. One can 
gain some idea of tiie crowd, and the <liftieulty of making one^s 
way through it, when I siiy that no {M»int in the prison could 
be more than fifteen hundrcil feet from where I staid, and, 
had the wav been clear, I could have \ralked tiiither and back 
in at most a half an hour, yet it iLsually took mo from two to 
three hours to make one of tiiese journeys. 

This daily trip, a few visits to tiie (.'ret*k to wash all over, a 
few games of clu^ss, attendance U])on mil call, drawing rations, 
oooking and eating the siime, 'Mousing *' my fragments of 
clothes, and doing sr>me little dutiis for my sick and helpless 
comnules, const it utiHi the daily routine for myself, as for most 
of the active youths in the pris<m. 

The Creek wjis the gi^eat nu-eting jKiint for all inside the 
Stockiule. All able to walk wen* certain io he there at least 
once during the duv, and we nuide it a ren(h*/vous, a place to 
exchange gi»ssip, discuss the latest news, c^mvass the pros|)ects 
of e.\chang(s and, most of all, to curse the IleU-ls. Indeed no 
convers;ilion ever pnigresseti vrry farwithtiut l>«»ih s|»eaker and 
listener Utking fre<|Uent n'sts to siiy hitter things iis to the 
Reliels generally, and Wir/, \Vin«ler and Oavis in particular. 

A convi*rs;ition U-tween two Imivs — stran^rei's t(»eaeh other — 
who came to the ('rtH»k to wjlnIi thein*^'lvts or their clothes, or 
for st»ine other pur|K>s«», wouhl pm^Tess thus: 

//W //r/// — •• I iM.'long to the Second CoriK, — llanc<vk*st 
[the Army of the I*«»toiiuic l»«iys always nn-ntioneil what <Wry*f 
they U'longed to, where the Western lx»ys staleii llieir //^y- 



im^ntJ] They got me at Spottsvlranin, when they were butting 
their heatls n^inst our breast-works, trying to get even with as 
for gobbling up Johnson in the morning," — He stops suddenly 
and chnnjfis t«)ne to say : •' I hojte to God, that when our fotlci 
get Richmond, they will put old Ben Butler in command of it, 
with orders to limb, 
skin and jayhawk it 
worse than he did 
New Orleans," 

Second Boy, {tee- 
vently :) " I wish to 
(iod he would, and 
tliat he'd catch old 
Jeff., and that gray- 
headed devil. Win- 
der, and the old 
Dutoh ('aptain, strip 
'em just as we were, 
put 'em in this pen, 
, with justthe rations 
I they are givin' os, , 

and set a guard ol 
I plantation niggm 
over 'em, with orders 
to blow their whole 
infernal heads off, if they dared so much as to look at the dead 

J^imt limj — (returning to tbe story of his capture.) "Old 
Ilancock e«U);ht the Johnnies that morning the neatest yoa 
ever Haw unyihin); in your life. After the two annit^ bad 
munlert-fl ciu-h other for four or five days in the Wilderness, by 
lighting so close together that much of the time you could 
almost shake hands with the (iraylmcks, l)uth hauled off a 
little, and lay and glowentl at each other. I'^ch side had lost 
about twenty thousand men in learning that if it attacked tbe 
other it would get inaslie<l line. So each built a line of works 
and lay lM>hind them, and tried to nag the other into coming 
out and attaeking. At S|HittiiyIvania our lines and those of tbe 
Johnnies weren't twelve hundred yards apart. The groand 

niHfoi-sciso T 



was clear and clean between them, and any force that 
attempted to cross it to atUick would be cut to pieces, as sure 
as anything. We laid there three or four days watching each 
othor — just like boys at school, who shake fists and 'dare' 
em'li other. At one place the U<*bol line ran out towunls us 
hki* the top of a gre:it letter 'A.' The night of the 11th of May 
it raintxi verv huixl, and then ciime a fos ^o thick tiiat vou 
Ci»uldn*t see the longtii of a c*oni|Kiny. IIanc<»ck thought he*d 
take* advantage of this. We were all turnctl out very quietly 
about four o^clock in the morning. Not a bit of n<»ise was 
allowed. We even had to take off our canteens and tin cu})S, 
that they might not r.ittle against our bayonets. The ground 
wassu wet that our f(K>tste|K couldn't lie heani. It was one of 
those deathly still movements, when you think your heart ia 
making as nmch noise as a bass drum. 

''The Johnnies didn't seem to have the faintest suspicion of 
what was coming, thou;rh they ought, lNH:ause we would have 
expected such an attack fi*om thtMU if we hadn't made it our- 
selves. Their pickets were out just a little ways from their 
works, and wo were alniost on to them iM-foi-e lh*»v discovered 
08. Thev fired and nm back. At tliis we rais<sl a V(*ll and 
dasheil forwanl at a cliar;:e. As we |N»unNl over tlie w«u*ks, the 
Rebels came double* | nick in;; up to <lrfeiul iImmii. Wc flanked 
Johnson's I)ivisioni|uicker*n youcoiihl siiy '.Ia<'k Il(>l»ins4»n,' and 
bad four tliousiind of *<*m in <»nr i:rip just as nice as ymi ph'iuju*. 
Wes<*nt them to tlu* rear under •^uanL aiitl startiMl ft^r tht* n(*xt 
line of Ii«'lK*l w«»rks alNMit a half a iiiil<* away. Iiut we had 
now wak<ii U[) till* w hi ill* nf Iav's army, and thi*v all camo 
straight for us, like |»iicks of mad wolves. Kwrll struck us in 
tlie center: I-on;r^lnH*i let <lrive at our left flank, and Hill 
tackleil our ri;:ht. We fell back to thi* wi»rks we had taken, 
Warn'U and Writrhl came upt«» help u>, and we hail it ht»t and 
heavv for the ii-m of tin* dav ami part nf the niirht. The.Iohn- 
nies sii'inetl >•» mad <ivcr what weM di»ne that tliey wi-re iialf 
cnizv. Thev char;:i'il us five tim ■>. c*iiuinir up evi-ry time just 
as if th«*v were "'oini; to lift us ri:;:hl «»ut of the works with the 
bavonet. AlH>ut midni;:ht. after llii\vM lo>i o\t»r ten thous^md 
men. they scN'Uie*! to understand tliat we had pn»eniptiil that 
piece of n-al i-slate, and didn't proiMise to allow an\lNKly to 



jamp oar claim, so they fell baok sullen like to their main 
works. When they came on the last charfj^, our Brigadier 
walked behind each of our regiments and said : 

^* * Boys, we'll send 'em back this time for keeps. Give it to 
'em by the acre, and wiien they begin to waver, we'll all jump 
over the works and go for them with the bayonet/ 

"We did it just that way. We iK)ure<l such a fire on them 
that the bullets knocked up the ground in front just like you 
have seen the deep dust in a road in the middle of Summer fly 
up when the first f^^rcat big drops of a rain storm strike it. 
But they came on, yelling and swearing, officers in front wav- 
ing swords, and shouting — all that business, you know. When 
they got to about one hundred yanls from us, they did not seem 
to be coming so fiist, and there was a good deal of confusion 
among them. The brigade bugle sounded 

" * Stop firing.' 

" We all ceased instantly. The Rebels looked np in astonish- 
ment. Our General sang out 

" *Fix bayonets 1 ' 
but we knew what was coming, and were already executing the 
order. You can imagine the cnish that ran down the line, as 
every fellow snatched his bayonet out and slappe<l it on the 
muzzle of his gun. Then the (leneral's voice rang out like a 

"'Readvl — forward! charoe!' 

"We cheere<i till everything sei»mo<l to split, and jumped 
over the works, almost every man at tlu* sjirne minute. The 
Johnnies seeme<l to have been puzzle<i at the Kt<»p|mgf^ of our 
fire. When we all came sailing over tho w(»rks, with guns 
brought rijrht down where Ihey nH»ant businc'ss, they wore so 
astonished for a minute that they stc)c>d stock still, not knowing 
whether to ccmie for us, or run. Wo did nc»t allow tliom long 
to debate, but went nght towanis tlx^in on the <loublo quick, 
with the bayonets looking awful sava^' and hun;>:ry. It was 
too much for Mr. Johnnv Reh's nerves. Thov all w-emwl to 
* about face' at once, and thev lit out of then' :is if tliev had 
been sent for in a hurr}'. Wo cIulsoiI after \*m :is f.xst as we 
could, and pickod up just lots of Vm. Finally it I>ogan to be 
real funny. A Johnny's wind would bogin to give out he'd 


3S8 AmiEKMlNVILLB. ^^^| 

fall Iwhiiwl his comrades ; ho'd hear us ycU and think Uiat wo 
KTcre right liehind him, ready to Kink a bayoDfit throngb him 
ho'd tarn iinmixl. thravr a[) his bunds »nil Ring out : 
"'I surrvnUor, uiisttTl I surrondor I ' and tinil tlia. w<j wore 



^ rJ^ 



'jf^-^"^"^ ^juJ-^F; 

fe»<f_-r- , .. : 


» humln*) r^^t nfr. And vrould Iiave to bare a fasjonet m iMK 
i& one (if Mc-Ck'llan's general ordrrs to touch him. 
•' Wi'U, my cuiniBiny was Ibt- Wit of our rvglmeotv and our 

of all tho roat of tbo IwyH. Id our t^xcitomvnt of cluuing tba 
Fohnnim, y<v didn't km* tbat w» bad pUMNl an angle of their 
wcirlu. About thirty of va tutd beronw sFpanUed fnim tbo 
oompnny and wrv chasing a xiuad of abuat aorcnty-lTo or on« 
bandmL VTe bad got up so cli)se to Ihom that we boUerod ; 
"*llalt iberci, now, or well Mow you- hcadi oA,' 



" They tarned roand with * Halt yoDraelveB ; yon — — 

^ We looked aroand at this, and saw that we were not one 
hundred feet away from the angle of the works, whioh were 
filled with Rebob waiting for our fellows to get to where they 
oould have a good flank fire upon them. There was nothing 
to do but to throw down our guns and surrender, and we had 
hardly gone inside of the works, until the Johnnies opened on 
our brigade and drove it back. This ended the battle at Spott- 
Bvlvania Court House." 

Second Boy (irrelevantly.) " Some day the underpinning will 

fly out from under the South, and let it sink right into 

the middle kittle o' hell." 

Fir%t Boy (savagely.) ^' I only wish the whole Southern Con- 
federacy was hanging over hell by a single string, and I had a 




I have before mentioiiiHl as among the things that grew apoa 
one with incresLsiii;^ iioqiKuntanco with the Rebels on their 
native heath, was iistonisliment at their kick of mechanical skill, 
and at their inability to grapple with numbers and the simpler 
processes of arithmetic. Another characteristic of the same 
nature was their wonderful lack of musical ability, or of any 
kind of tuneful creativeu(*ss. 

Elsewhere, all over the world, people living under similar 
conditions to the Soutlierners are exceedingly musical, and we 
owe the great inajurity of the sweetest compositions which 
delight the ear and siilHhie the sensL*s to unlettered song-makera 
of the Swiss mountains, the Tyroleso valleys, the liavarian 
Ilighlands, and the minstrels of Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 

The music of Eni^lish-s|H»aking i>oople is very largely made 
up of these contributii>iis from the folksong of dwellers in the 
wilder and more m<»untai!;ous i^irts of the British Isles. One 
rarely gt.)es far out of iUr way in attributing to this source any 
air that he may hear that captivates him with its seiluctive opu- 
lence of harmony. Kx(piisit«* ini'Iodies, limpid and unstrained 
as the carol of a bird in Sprin^^-tiuie, and sm plaintive us the coo- 
ing of a turtle-di»ve si-<mhs ius natural products of the Scottish 
Ilighlamls as the gi»rs«* whirh bhi/uns on their hillsides in 
August. Deb;iri*e<l fn»m rxprt-ssing their uspinitions us people 


of broader cultare do — in painting, in sculpture, in poetry and 
prose, these mountaineers make song the flexible and readj 
instrument for the communication of every emotion that sweeps 
across their souls. 

Love, hatred, grief, revenge, anger, and especially war seems 
to tune their minds to harmony, and awake the voice of song 
in their hearts. The battles which the Scotch and Irish fought 
to repkice the luckless Stuarts upon the British throne — the 
bloody rebellions of 1715 and 1745, left a rich legacy of sweet 
song, the outpouring of loving, piissioiuite loyalty to a wretched 
cause; songs which are to-day esteemed and sung wherever the 
English language is si)okcn, by people who have long since for- 
gotten what burning feelings gave birth to their favorite mel- 

For a century the bones of both the Pretenders have mol- 
dered in alien soil ; the names of Jamei Edward, and Charles 
Edward, which were once trumpet blasts to rouse armed men, 
mean as little to the multitude of to-day as those of the Saxon 
Ethelbert, and Danish Ilardicanute, yet the world goes on sing- 
ing — and will probably as long as the English language is spo- 
ken — " Wha'U be King but Chariie i " ** When Jamie Comes 
IJame," "Over the Water to Charlie," "Charlie is my Dar- 
ling," " The Bonny Blue Bonnets are Over the Bonier," "Sad- 
dle Your Steeils and Awa," and a myriad others whose infinite 
tenderness and melody no modem composer can equal. 

Yet these same Scotch and Irish, the same Jacobite English, 
transplanted on account of their chronic rebelliousness to the 
mountains of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia, seem to have 
lost their tunefulness, as some fine singing birds do when car- 
ried from their native sliorc-*. The descendants of those who 
drew swords for James and Charles at Preston Pans and Cullo- 
den dwell taday in the dxdes and valleys of the .Vlleganies, as 
their fathers did in the dales and valleys of the Grampians, but 
their voices are mute. 

As a rule the Southerners are fond of music They are fond 
of singing and listening to old-fashioned ballads, most of which 
have never been printed, but handed down from one generation 
to the other, like the VfJklietUr of Germany. They sing these 
with the wild, ferviil impressivoness characteristic of the ballad 


singing of unlettered people. Very many play tolerably on the 
violin and banjo, and occcisionally one is found whose instra- 
mcntation may bo called good. But above this bight they 
never soar. The only musician ]>roduccd by the South of whom 
the rest of the country has ever Ijcanl, is Blind Tom, the negro 
idiot. No com])oser, no song writer of any kind has appeared 
witliin the Ixmlers of Dixie. 

It was a disappointment to me tliat even the stress of the 
war, the passion and fierceness with which the Rebels felt and 
fouglit, could not stimulate any adherent of the Stars and Ban 
into the production of a single lyric worthy in the remotest 
degree of the magnitude of the struggle, and the <lepth of the 
popular feeling. Where two million Scotch, fighting to restore 
the fallen fortunes of the worse than worthK^ss Stuarts, filled 
the world with immortal music, eleven million of Southernersi 
fighting for what they claimed to bo in<lividual freelom and 
national life, did not pnnluce any original verse, or a bar of 
music that the world could recognize as such. This is the fact; 
and an un<Irnial)Ie one. Its explanation I must leave to abler 
analvsts than I am. 

Searching for jKH-uliar causes wo find but two that make the 
South differ fmm the ancestral home of these |HM)]>le. These 
two were Climate and Slaverv. (Miniatie rffrets will not 
account f«>r tin* phenomenon, Ixvause we see that the |H»jisiintry 
of the mountains of Spain and the South «»f France — as 
ignorant ;us lliese |x*ople. an<l dwellers in a still !nt»n» enervating 
atinosphen* — an* very fertile in musical cou)|>osition. and their 
s^^ngs are to the Koinanic languages what the Scotch and Irish 
ballads are to tlie Kn^^lish. 

Then it must be aserilMMl to the ineubus of Slaverv uj)im the 
intelhvt, whieh has n^pirsseil this iis it has all other healthy 
growths in the St»ulh. Slaverv se<Mus to lN.*nunib all tiie 
faculties exeej it tin* ]»assions. The fart tliat the niuuntaiiuvrs 
had but f<'W or no slaves, (1imv> nut simmu tn \u- nf iui|NirtaiU'e in 
the ciLse. Th«*v I i veil umliT the deadly sliaili»\v i>l' the U|)as 
tree, and suffi»n^l thf ct)nsri|Ui'iu'es of its stuiuiiii; tlirir devel- 
opment in all din*<*tii»ns, as tli«* a,L:ue-siuitten iiilialiitaut of the 
liDiuan Campana tiruls 4»verv si'ns<» an<l rverv mu<el«» el«>;»':;ed 
by the fiIt«M*ing in of the insidi(»us mi;Lsma. Tl)«*y dal not 


oompose songs and music, because they did not have the intel- 
lectual energy for that work. 

The negros displayed all the musical creativeness of that sec- 
tion. Their wonderful prolificness in wild, rude songs, with 
strangely melodious airs that burned themselves into the mem- 
ory, was one of the salient characteristics of that down-trodden 
race. Like the Russian serfs, and the bondmen of all ages and 
lands, the songs they made and sang all had an undertone of 
touching plaintivencss, born of ages of dumb suffering. The 
themes were exceedingly simple, and the range of subjects lim- 
ited. The joys, and sorrows, hopes and despairs of love's grat- 
ification or disappointment, of struggles for freedom, contests 
with malign persons and influences, of rage, hatred, jealousyi 
revenge, such as form the motifs for the majority of the poetry 
of free and strong races, were wholly absent from their lyrics. 
Religion, hungA* and toil were their main inspiration. They 
sang of the pleasures of idling in the genial sunshine; the 
delights of abundance of food ; the eternal happiness that 
awaited them in the |ie*ivenly future, where the slave-driver 
ceased from troubling and the weary were at rest ; where Time 
rolled around in endless cycles of days s})ent in basking, harp 
in hand, and silken clad, in golden streets, under the soft 
effulgence of cloudless skies, glowing with warmth and kind- 
ness emanating from the Creator himself. Had their masters 
condescended to borrow the music of the slaves, they would 
have found none whose sentiments were suitable for the odes 
of a people undergoing the pangs of what was hoped to be the 
birth of a new nation. 

The three songs most popular at the South, and ^nerally 
regardeil as distinctively Southern, were "The Ronnie Rlue 
Flag," " Mar}'land, My Maryland," and "Stonewall Jackson 
Crossing into Maryland." The first of these wa.s the greatest 
favorite bv long ikUIs. Women sang, men whist Icil, and 
the so-called musicians playeil it wherever we went. While in 
the field before capture, it was the commonest of exiH^riences to 
have Rebel women sing it at us tauntingly from the houses 
that we passed or near which we stnp|>e<l. If ever near enough 
a RelK'l Ciimp, we were sure to hear its wailing crescendos 
rising upon the air from the \\}^ or mstruments of some one or 


more quartered there. At Itichniond it rang upon us oon- 
stantly from source or another, and the suae was true 
wherever else we went in the so-called Confederacy. I give 
the air and words below : 


Wr an* u buiitl ui brothi-rr*. And lia - live Ui ihr niil. 

VlaUi-Uvj: I'lir mir Lili-ir- iv, W' iiraMin', IjIuinI, aikl luil : Ami 
hIii-ii our ri;:liti< were thn-.iiriiril, Tiu' itv ro-i- near :iiiil far, lliir- 
rail fiir llic l^m-iiii- It!iii> I'', that U-ar-* a Sin • gle Star! 


Ilnr • r.ih! Iliir- r.ili ! fur S.iiitii • i-rn Kl.rlii'*. IIi:r - i.i:. ! Iliir- 

N ^ 

l|'--,«"''^ir:_i:_;k, :"; ;L:.:.ll 

rah! fur ilir Ifniiiiie IJlii*' KI.ij. ilia: li':ir* a >;n - ;:Ii' >; u 

All familiar with Rcotdi sonjrs will roadily nvoLmizo the 
name and air as an old friiMuL and one of the ti(*ri*4* .laoihite 
melodies that for a l<>n<;^ tiinedisturlH^I the trantiuility t>f the 
Brunswick family on the £n;L'lish tlirone. Tlio new words suj>- 
plied ^by the IteN'ls are the merest doi:;^en'l, and fit the 
music as [Xiorly as the unehan<;(*4l name of the sontr titt4*d to its 
new use. The tlag of the Uebellion was not a bonnie blue one ; 


bot had quite as much red and white as azure. It did not haTO 
a single star, but thirteen. 

Next in popularity was '^ Maryland, My Maryland." The 
Tersification of this was of a much higher order, being fairly 
respectable. The air is old, and a familiar one to all college 
students, and belongs to one of the most common of G^erman 
household songs : 

O, TannenVaainl O, TaaiienlMain, wl« trn ilnd delne BtartUrl 
Da gni«nat nicht nar jrar Sommenelt, 
Mciii, Mich Id Wiaur. when et Schnelt, ate 

which Longfellow has finely translated, 

O, hmnlock tre«l O, hnnlo k treel how faithful are thj hnncbatf 

Green not alone In Sammcr time. 

Bat In the Winter'* fiopt and rime. 
O, hamlock tree! O, hemlock tree I bow falthfal are thj 

The Bebel version ran : 


The de^pot'a heel In on thy ahofii 

nia toach la at thy temple door, 

ATenge the patnoUc ^ore 
That ll«<ked the Dtreetii of BaltioMi^ 
And be the battle que«n of yore, 
MaryUnd! MyMarylandl 

Bark to the wand'rinfc KHi'a appeal, 

My mother Stair, to thee I kneel, 

Fbr life and dt-ath. for woe and wail. 
Thy peerleM chivalry reveal, 
And fird thy bcaotcoaa llmba with 
MaryLand! My Maryland! 

Tboa wUt not cower In the dnaC, 
' Maryland! 

T^ beaming vwurd »hall never nial| 

BeoieBbrr CarroUV Mcred tnut, 
BeoieBber Howard'* warlike thnMJ 
And all thy •lamberrm with the Jorti 
Maryhuidl My Maryland! 

»! *tfa the red dawn of the dij, 

(I with thy paitoplted array, 
With Rhvr>ld'»»p4r1t for the f»^, 
With WatKNi'a blf»nd at Monteray, 
With fcorliM* I.Awr and daahli« Ifagr, 
MaryUnd! My MaryUnd! 


one of the goards seemed to be perpetually beguiling the wear, 
iness of his watch by singing in all keys, in every sort of a 
voice, and with the wildest latitude as to air and time. They 
became so terribly irritating to u% that to this day the remem- 
brance of those soul-lacerating lyrics abides with me as one of 
the chief of the minor torments of our situation. They were, in 
fact, nearly as bad as the lice. 

We revenged ourselves as best we could by constructing 
fearfully wicked, obscene and insulting parodies on these, and 
by singing them with irritating effusiveness in the hearing of 
the guards who were inflicting these nuisances upon us. 

Of the same nature was the garrison music. One fife, played 
by an asthmatic old fellow whose breathings were nearly as 
audible as his notes, and one rheumatic drummer, constituted 
the entire band for the post. The fifer actually knew but one 
tune — " The Bonnie Blue Flag " — and did not know that well. 
But it was all that he had, and he played it with wearisome 
monotony for every camp call — five or six times a day, and 
seven days in the week. lie called us up. in the morning with 
it for a reveilU; he sounded tne ^^i*oll call" and ^^ drill call,'' 
breakfast, dinner K^d supper with it, and finally sent us to bed, 
with the same dreary wail that had rung in our ears all day. 
I never hated any piece of music as I came to hate that thren- 
odv of treason. It would have been such a relief if the old 
asthmatic who played it could have been induced to learn another 
tune to play on Sundays, and give us one day of rest He did 
not, but desecrated the Lord's Day by playing as vilely as on 
the rest of the week. The RebeU were fully conscious of their 
musical deficiencies, and made repeated but unsuccessful 
attempts to induce the musicians among the prisoners to oome 
outside and form a band. 




"Ulinf jV said tall, gaunt Jack Xorth. of the One Ron- 
dred and Fourteenth Illinois, to mc. one day, aa we sat contem- 
plating our naked, and sadly attenuated underpinning; "what 
do our legu and feet must look like t '' 
"Give it u|). Jack," said I. 

"Why — darning needles stuck in pumpkin secdit. of course." 

I never heard a better comparisim for our wastetl limbs. 

The effects of the great bodily oniaeiation vrerv sometimes 

Tcry startling. Boys of a llesliy habit 

woulil change so in a fen* week.4 us to lose 

all resemblaiK-e to their former si'! ves, and 

cuuinidcs who came into pmum later 

woulil uttfrly fait to recogui/e them. 

M(j6t fat men. as iixtst large men, tlieil 

in a little while after entering, though 

there were exceptions. One of these 

was a Ixty of my own comjKiny, named 

George Ilillicks. Oeoi^ge liiul shot up 

within a few yejirs tu over six f(H>t in 

hight, and then. lui such boys tK*c<iKionally 

do. had. lifter enlisting with us. taken on 

^ such a development nf flesh that we nick- 

'^namot him the "(nant," and he Uvamca 

-~ pretty gixMl load for even the strongest 

horse. (ii<orgt- held his ttvsli through 

Belle Isle, and the earlier wtvks in Anderscmville, but June, 

Julv. and August -fetcheil him," as the b«>yft said. lie 

A noar or kkbbl unirABT pb 

seomed to melt nway like an idcle on a Spring day, ood be 
grew K> thin that his higtit teemed preternatural. AVo called 
him " Flagstaff," and crackwl all sorto of jok<-« nlxiut potting 
aa insulator on his boati, and acUing him tip fur a tclt-graph 
pole, braiding bi« ltig» ami i»ing him for a i<rhip, lotting 
his haJr grow a littli> longer, and trariinf^ him off ti3 tbt- UutwU 
for a i(]K>ngL> at\*\ xtuff for the arlilU-ry, etc. UV all fxpi'ctcd 
1 to die, ami l<K>kud cx>ntinually for the dpvolopiuent of the 
I acurvii- fivmplaina, whicli ivere to wvU his doom. B«t ho 
1 tlinm^h. and cnnu* out at loot iii ;^nI )(h»|(C. a happy 
ft due as much aa to anything fiM-' to iiix having in Cbostor 
Haywonl, of Pmirio City, III., — one of the m<i«t deroied 
obonu I ever know. CbGat«sr uuncd and looked out for Gcorgg 

nrBsmo A not coinuits. 


nitb wife bice fidelity, and had his reward in bringing him cafe 
thriKigh our linn. Theiv wen? tlMMitands of insianrci nf this 
getieruu4 ilevoUon In i>oi:h olhfir hy chuitin in AndenK*nTilh>, 
and I know of nothing that reJ1t<cu any nton* cmlit Ujion oar 
boy »ldU*n. 

Tboro wa« little diance for any one to arrumulale fleah on 
the ratkMU we were reoeiiing. I ny it in all lUflM'mvw that I 
do kA bdinva that a healthy ben oould have gruwn £at 


upon them. I am sore that any good-sized ^' shanghd " eats 
more every day than the meager half loaf that we had to 
maintain life upon. Scanty as this was, and hungry as all 
were, very many could not eat it. Their stomachs revolted 
against the trash; it became so nauseous to them that thej 
could not force it doi;\Ti, even when famishing, and they 
died of starvation with the chunks of the so-called bread 
under tJleir head. I found myself rapidly approaching this con* 
dition. I had been blessed with a good digestion and a talent 
for sleeping under the most discouraging circumstances. These, 
I have no doubt, were of the greatest assistance to me in my 
struggle for existence. But now the rations became fearfully 
obnoxious to me, and it was only with the greatest effort — 
pulling the bread into little pieces and swallowing each of these 
as one would a pill — that I succeeded in worrying the stuff 
down. I had not as yet fallen away very mucli, but as I had 
never, up to that time, weighed so much as one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds, there was no great amount of adii)ase to 
lose. It was evident that unless some change occurred my time 
was near at hand. 

There was not only hunger for more food, but longing with 
an intensity beyond expression for alteration of some kind in 
the rations. The changeless monotony of the miserable saltless 
bread, or worse mush, for days, weeks and months, became 
unbearable. If those wretched mule teams haul onlv once a 
month hauled in something different — if they had come in ^ 
loaded with sweet potatos, green com or wiieat flour, there 
would be thousands of men still living who now slumlier 
beneath those melancholy pines. It would have given some- 
thing to look forward to, and romemlwr wlien {klsi. But to 
know each day that the gates would o{>en to admit the same 
distasteful apologies for fooil took away the ap]X'tite and raised 
one^s gorge, even while famishing for something to eat. 

We could for a while forget the stondi, the licv, the heat, the 
maggots, the dead and dying around us, the insulting malig- 
nance of our jailors; but it was vory hard work to banish 
thoughts and longings for food fn>m our minds. Ilundnnis 
Ix^came actually insane from bnxxling over it, Crjax men 
could be found in all i^art^ of the camj). NumU*rs of them 


wandered around entirely naked. Their babblings and maun- 
derings about something to eat were painful to hear. I have 
before mentioned the case of the Plymouth Pilgrim near me^ 
whose insanity took the form of imagining that he was sitting 
at the table with his family, and who would go through the 
show of helping them to imaginary viands and delicacies. The 
cravings for green food of those afflicted with the scurvy were 
agonizing. Large numbers of watermelons were brought to 
the prison, and sold to those who had the money to pay for 
them at from one to five dollars, greenbacks, apiece. A boy 
who had means to buy a piece of those would be followed 
about while eating it by a crowd of perhaps twenty-five or 
thirty livid-gummed scorbutics, each imploring him for the 
rind when he was through with it. 

We thought of food all day, and were visited with torturing 
dreams of it at night. One of the pleasant recollections of my 
pre-military life was a banquet at the ^^ Planter's House," St. 
Louis, at which I was a boyish guest. It was, doubtless, an 
ordinary affuir, as banquets go, but to me then, with all the 
keen appreciation of youth and first experience, it was a feast 
worthy of Lucullus. But now this delightful reminiscence 
became a torment. Hundreds of times I dreamed I was again 
at the " Planter's." I saw the wide corridors, with their mosaic 
pavement; I entered the grand dining-room, keeping timidly 
near the friend to whose kindness I owed this wonderful favor ; 
I saw again the mirror-lined walls, the evergreen decked ceil- 
ings, the festoons and mottos, the tables gleaming with cut- 
glass and silver, the buffets with wines and fruits, the brigade 
of sleek, black, white-aproned waiters, headed by one who had 
presence enough for a Major General. Again I reveled in all 
the dainties and dishes on the bill-of-fare ; calling for every- 
thing that I dared to, just to see what each was like, and to be 
able to say afterwards that I had partaken of it; all these 
bewildering delights of the first realization of what a boy has 
read and wondered much over, and longed for, would dance 
their rout and reel through my somnolent brain. Then I would 
awake to find myself a half-naked, half-starved, vermin-eaten 
wretch, crouching in a hole in the ground, waiting for mj 
keepers to fling me a chunk of com bread. 


Natarally the boys — and especially the coimtry boys and 
new prisoners — talked much of victuals — what they had had, 
and what they would have again, when they got out. Take 
this as a sample of the conversation which might be heard in 
any group of boys, sitting together on the sand, killing lice and 
talking of exchange : 

Tom — " Well, Bdl, when we get back to God's country, yoii 
and Jim and John must all come to mv house and take dinner 
with me. I want to give you a square meal. I want to show 
you just what good livin' is. You know my mother is just the 
best cook in all that section. When she lays herself out to get 
up a meal all the other women in the neighborhood just stand 
back and admire " 

BiU—'^O, that's all riglit; but I'll bet she can't hold a 
candle to my mother, when it comes to good cooking." 

Jim — "No, nor to mine." 

John — (with {mtronizing contempt.) " O, shucks ! None of 
you fellers were ever at our house, even when we had one of 
our common week-day dinners." 

Tom — (unheeilful of the counter claims.) I hev been 
studyin" up the dinner Td like, and the bill-of-fnre I'd set oat 
for you fellers when you come over to see me. First, of course, 
we'll lay the foundation like with a nice, juicy loin roust, and 
some mashed {M)tatos. 

Bill — (interrupting.) "Now, do you like inaithM potatos 
with beef? The way my mother dcx?s is to jwire the {xUatos, 
and lay them in the pan along with the beef. Then, you know, 
they come out just as ni<\* and criinjK and hnnm ; they have 
soaked up all tlie beef gravy, and they crinkle between your 
teeth — " 

Jim — "Now, I tell you, m:i.sheil Neshanncx'ks with butter 
on 'em is plenty g<X)d onougli for //*<\" 

John — "If you'd et some of the new kind of poaclihIowB 
that we raisetl in tlie old {KLstun^ lot the yt»ar lx»fore I enlisted, 
you'd never siiy another wonl alxmt y<>ur NesluuiiuH'ks." 

Xom — itakinp breath and starling in fresh.) "Tlien we'll 
hev .some friixl Spring chicken.s, <if our doininick bntHl. Them 
doniinicks of ours have the nicest, temlerosl nu'at, U'ttor*n 
quail, a dumed sight, and the way my nu)ther can fry Spring 
chickens " 


Bm — (aside to Jim.) *^ Every durned woman in the comi- 
try thinks she can * spry ching f rickens ; ' but my mother -— " 

John — "You fellers all know that there's nobody knows 
half as much about chicken doin's as these Hinerant Methodis' 
preachers. They give 'em chicken wherever they go, and folks 
do say that out in the new settlements they can't get no 
preachin', no gospel, nor nothin', until the chickens become so 
plenty that a preacher is reasonably sure of havin' one for his 
dinner wherever he may go. Now, there's old Peter Cart- 
wright, who has traveled over Illinoy and Indianny since the 
the Year One, and preached more good sermons than any otlier 
man who ever set on saddle-bags, and has et more ctiickens 
than there are birds in a big pigeon nx)st. Well, he took din- 
ner at our house when he came up to dedicate the big, white 
church at Simpkin's (Vomers, and when he ))assed up his plate 
the third time for more chicken, he sez, scz he: ^ I 've et at a 
irreat manv hundred tables in the fiftv vears I have labored in 
the vineyard of the Redeemer, but I must say, Mrs. Kiggins, 
that your way of frying chickens is a leetle tlie nicest tliat I 
ever knew. I only wish that the sisters generally would get 
your resect.' Yes, that's what he said, *a leetle tlie nicest.' " 

Tom — *' An' then, we'll hev biscuits an' butter. I'll just bet 
five hundred dollars to a cent, and give back the cent if I win, 
that we have the best butter at our house that there is in Cen- 
tral Illinoy. You can't never hev good butter onless you have 
a spring house ; there's no use of talkin* — all the patent chums 
that lazy men ever invented — all the fancy milk pans an' cool- 
ers, can't make up for a spring house. Locations for a spring 
house are scarcer than hen's teeth in Illinoy, but we hev one, 
and there ain't a better one in Orange County, New York. 
Then you'll see some of the biscuits my mother makes." 

liiU — "Well, now, my mother's a boss biscuit-maker, too." 

Jim — '*You kin just gamble that mine is." 

John — "O, that's the way you fellers ought to think an' 
talk, but mv mother ^" 

Torn — (coming in again with fresh vigor) — " They're just as 
light an' fluffy as a dandelion puff, and they melt in your mouth 
like a ripe I^rtlett pear. You just pull 'em open — [Now you 
know that I think there's nothin' that shows a person's raisin' 

844 uiDKBScamLLB. 

to well as to see him eat biscuits an' batter. If he's been 
raised mostly on com bread, an' common doins,' an* don't know 
mach abont good thin^ to eat, he'll most likely cut his biscuit 
open with a case knife, an* make it fall as flat oa one o' yester- 
day's pancakes. But if he is used to biscuits, has had 'em often 
St his bouse, he'll just pull 'em open, slow an' easy like, then 
he'll lay a little slice of butter inside, and drop ii few drops of 
dear honey on this, an' stick the two halves back together 
again, an' — " 

"O, for God Almighty's sake, stop talking that infernal 
nonsense," roar out a half dozen of the' surrounding crowd, 
whose mouths have been watering over tliis unctuous recital of 
the good things of the table. " Vou bluincd fools, do you want 
to drive yourselves and everybody else crazy with s 
that Dry up and try to think of something else." 



Early in Augost, F. Marriott, our Company Bugler, died. 
Previous to coming to America he had been for many years an 
English soldier, and I accepted him as a type of that stolid, 
doggedly brave class, which forms the bulk of the English 
armies, and has for centuries carried the British flag with 
dauntless courage into every land under the sun. Rough, surly 
and unsocial, he did his duty with the unemotional steadiness 
of a machine. He knew nothing but to obey orders, and 
obeyed them under all circumstances promptly, but with stony 
impassivencss. Was the command to move forward into action, 
he moved forward without a word, and with face as blank as a 
side of sole leather, lie went as far as ordered, halted at the 
word, and retired at command as phlegmatically as he advanced. 
If ho cared a straw whether he advanced or retreated, if it 
mattered to the extent of a pinch of salt whether we whipped 
the Rebels or they defeated us, he kept that feeling so deeply 
hidden in the recesses of his sturdy bosom that no one ever sus- 
pected it In the excitement of action tlie rest of the boys 
•liouted, and swore, and expressed their tense feelings in various 
ways, but Marriott might as well have been a graven image, for 
all the expression that be suffered to escape. Doubtless, if tba 




Captain had ordered litm to sboot odo of the cniiipany Ihrot^h 
the heart, tie would havR pxeciited the command aoctinling In 
the manual of anns, bnxi^ht his carbine to a " recover." and at 
the word murtihed bock to bia quarters without an inquirv *• 
to the causti of Im pnxwalings. 
Ho made no fnonds,atiJ though 
his surliness repelled us, lie inude 
fuw cnitmiea. Indeed, he waa 
ruther u fiivorite. since he wm 
a (i^nirinf* tihaniotfr; liis puff- 
nti8a hud no tiunt of ivlfish 
gTvcd in it ; he minded his own 
biisinoB strict ly. and wanlvd 
othem to do the «ame. When 
he first name into the companj, 
it is true, he piim-d tlie cniitUy 
of noarlr pverybocly in it, but 
an incident occurred which 
turned the tide in ht^ favur. 
Some annoying little de|)m]ji> 
tions hail biion prartim] cm the 
boys, and it nufkrl but u word 
of HUHpicion to inilitmi* hII their 
mindfl against the surly Engliahnuin as the unknown |i<>rpetni- 
tor. The fivlin^ intensified, until abf^ut half of the rouii«ny 
were in a mood to kill the Bugler ontnght. Aa we were 
returning from stable duty oni* evening, some little oivurrciice 
£uine<l the Hmoldering anger into a lierec Uuo; a otupto of 
the itnuill«r boys began iin attack apon hitn ; others hastened to 
their asristance, and soon half the company were engnp>(l in 
the aasutdt. 

lie suectyded in dbcngaging himself from his amutanls, and. 
squaring' liiinself off, said, defiantly : 

" I>i>ni ycr «)Wttr«lIy heyes ; jest come hat me one hal a time, 
hand bl'll wulhip tJie *ole gang ur yeV 

One of our SergeanU stylwl himiwlf prntully "• rh>«t|^ 
rough," and wax ax vain of his {lOgiltstte ahditiM aa a small boy 
is of a father who playii in tlie band. We ftll hatiti him cor- 
dially — even more than we did Marriott, lie thot^t this wn 


a good time to show off, and forcing his way throngh the 
crowd, he said, vaontingly : 

^' Just fall back and form a ring, boys, and sec me polish off 
the fooll" 

The ring was formed, with the Bugler and the Sergeant in 
the center. Though the latter was the younger and stronger^ 
the first round showed him that it would have profited him 
much more to have let Marriott's challenge pass unheeded. As 
a rule, it is as well to ignore all invitations of this kind from 
Englishmen, and especially from those who, like Marriott, have 
served a term in the army, for they are likely to be so handy 
with their fists as to make the consequences of an acceptance 
more lively than desirable. 

So the Sergeant found. " Marriott," as one of the spectators 
expressed it, " went around him like a cooj)er around a barrel." 
He planted his blows just where he wished, to the intense 
delight of the boys, who yelled enthusiastically whenever he 
got in " a hot one," and their delight at seeing the Sergeant 
drubbed so thoroughly and artistically, worked an entire revo- 
lution in his favor. 

Thenceforward we viewed his eccentricities with lenient eyes, 
and became rather proud of his bull-dog stolidity and surliness. 
The whole battalion soon came to share this feelin<>:, and ever>'- 
body enjoyed hearing his de^vtoned growl, which mischievous 
boys would incite by some jxjtty annoyances deliberately 
designed for that purpose. I will mention, incidentally, that 
after his encounter with the Sergeant no one ever again volun- 
teered to " polish '' him off. 

Andersonville did not improve either his temper or his com- 
municativeness, lie seemed to want to get as far away from 
the rest of us as possible, and took up his quarters in a remote 
comer of the St'X5ka<le, among utter strangers. Those of us 
who wandered up in his neighborhood occasionally, to see how 
he was gettmg along, were receive<l with such scjint courtesy, 
that we did not hasten to repeat the visit. At length, aUer 
none of us had seen him for \«eeks, we thought that comrade- 
ship demanded another visit. We found him in the last stages 
of scurvy and diarrhea. Chunks of uneaten cH)m bread lav bv 
his head. They were at least a week old. The rations since 


then bad evidently been stolen from the helpless man by tliose 
around him. The place where he lay was indescribably filthy, 
and his body was swarming with vermin. Some good Samari- 
tan had filled his little black oyster can with water, and placed 
it within his reach. For a week, at least, he had not been able 
to rise from the ground ; he could barely reach for the water 
near him. lie gave us such a glare of recognition as I remem- 
bered to have seen light up the fast-darkening eyes of a savage 
old mastiff, that I and my boyish companions once found dying 
in the woods of disease and hurts. Had he been able ho would 
have driven us away, or at least assailed us with biting English 
epithets. Thus he had doubtless driven away all those who 
had attempted to help him. We did what little we could, and 
staid with him until the next afternoon, when he died. We 
prepared his body, in the custonuiry way : fokled the hands 
across his breast, tied the toes together, and can-ietl it outside, 
not forgetting each of us, to bring buck a loud of wooil. 
• ««««««« 

The scarcitv of mechanics of all kinds in the C onfederacv, 
and the urgent needs of the people for manv things which the 
war and the blockade prevented their obtaining, Icil to contin- 
ual inducements being otfereil to the artiziins unxing us to go 
outside and work at tlieir trade. Shoemakc^rs scouiod most in 
demand ; next to these blacksmiths, machinists, moldrrs and 
metal-workers generally. Not a week passcil during my 
imprisonment that I did not see a Rebel emissary of s<.>n)e kind 
about the prison seeking to engage skilled wi»rkuivn fur some 
purpose or another. AVhile in Richmond the nuinagors of the 
Tredegar Iron Works were brazen and iKM-sistent in their efforts 
to seduce what are termed ^* malleable iron workers," to enter 
their employ. 

A boy who was master of any one of the conunoner trades 
had but to make his wishes known, and he would l»e ullowtxi to 
go out on parole to work. I was a pnnt<.T, and I think that 
at least a dozen times I was approacljed by IIvIk^I publishers 
with offers of a parole, and work at gixxl prio's. One fix»m 
Columbia, S. C, offerwl me two dollars and a hall* a *• thousiind*^ 
f<ir composition. As the highest price for s*ieh work that I had 
received before enlisting was thirty cents a thousand, this 


seemed a chance to accnmnlate untold wealth. Since a man 
working in day time can set from thirty-five to fifty ^^ thou- 
« sand " a week, this would make weekly wages run from eighty- 
seven dollars and fifty cents to one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars — but it was in Confederate money, then worth from ten 
to twenty cents on the dollar. 

Still better offers were made to iron workers of all kinds, 
to shoemakers, tanners, weavers, tailors, hatters, engineers, 
machinists, millers, railroad men, and similar tradesmen. Any 
of these could have made a handsome thing by accepting the 
offers made them almost weekly. As nearly all in the prison 
had useful trades, it would have been of immense benefit to 
the Confederacy if they could have been induced to work at 
them. There is no measuring the benefit it would have been to 
the Southern cause if all the hundreds of tanners and shoe- 
makers in the Stockade could have been persuaded to go 
outside and labor in providing leatlier and shoes for tlie almost 
shoeless ixK)ple and soldiery. The macliinists alone could have 
done more good to the Southern Confederacy than one of our 
brigades was doing harm, by consenting to go to the railroad 
shops at Griswoldville and ply their handicraft. The lack of 
material resources in the South was one of the strongest allies 
our anns had. Tiiis lack of resources was primarily caused by 
a lack of skilled labor to develop those resources, and nowhere 
oould there be found a finer collection of skilled laborers than 
in the thirty-three thousand prisoners incarcerated in Ander- 

All solicitations to accept a parole and go outside to work at 
one's trade were treated with the scorn they deserved. If any 
mechanic yielded to them, the fact did not come under my 
notice. The usual reply to invitations of this kind was: 

*'No, sir! By God, Fll stay in here till I rot, and the mag- 
gots cairry me out through the cracks in the Stockade, before 
rU so much as raise my little finger to help the infernal Con- 
federacy, or Rebels, in any sha{)e or form." 

In August a Macon shoemaker came in to get some of his 
trade to go back with him to work in the Confederate shoe fac- 
tory, lie prosecuted liis search for the^e until he reached the 
center of the camp on the North Side, when some of the shoe- 


makers who had gathered around him, apparently considering 
his pro]X)sitions, seized him and threw him into a well. He 
was kept there a whole day, and only released when Wirz cut 
off the rations of the prison for that day, and announced that no 
more would be issued until the man was returned safe and sound 
to the gate. 

The terrihle crowdin^r was somewhat anjelioratwl by the 
opening in July of an additiun — six liundnMJ f<vt long — to the 
North Side of the >t H*kade. This incr(*as<Hl tlio room inside to 
twenty acres, giving about an acn^ to every one thousimd seven 
hundivtl men, — a prei>osterously contrat'tiHl area still. The 
new ground was not a hot-beil <if virulent |M)ison like the old* 
however, and those who moveil on to it had that much in their 

The palisades between the new antl the old j>ortions of the 
pen were left standing when the ni»w portion was ojkmuhI. We 
were still suffering a gix»at <lcal of inconvtMiiciKv fnnn lack «if 
woo<l. Tliat night tlie standing tiniU'rs wc*n» attaeketl by 
thousands of prisoners arnuHl with «n'rrv s|N'(*i<*sof a t<Mil t«»cut 
wood, from a caM»-knife to an ax. Tln*y worke<l tin* live-long 
night with such energy tiiat by morning not tmly every ineh 
of the logs al>ov<* (;roun<I hatl (lis;ip|HNin'd, but that In^Iuw had 
been dug up. and then* was not <Mioii;:h k-fl of tiu» ei«:lit hun- 
dre<l foot wall of twonlv Mve-fool h»;rs io make a box of 

One aftem<Min — «*arlv in Au»:usi — one of ih(» vioh»nt rain 
storms common to that s^vtion sprun<r up. and in a little while 
the water was falling in tonvnts. TIj«» little en-ek running 
thnmgh the camp swelh^l up immensely, and swept out large 
gii|>s in the Stmkath*. both in the w«»sl and ra>t sides. The 
Uel>els noticetl tin* bn-aehes as s<M»n as the prisnnrrs. Tw<i 
guns were lire*l fit»m the Star Fort, and all the «:uanls ruslR*<l 
out, and fornnnl so as to prevent any ej^^nss, if one w;ls 
attenipt«Hl. Takc*n by surprisi*. w«* w^^n* not in a ennditiim to 
profit by the op|M»rtunity until it was to«» late. 

Th«» st«»rm did one g«MMi thin^: it swept away a ^jn^at deal 
of lilth. and left the camp much moiv \vho|«*Miinr. The f«>ul 
stench rising from the camp made an exicllfut «*lei'trical con- 


OQiIy ipdinod bertmsJ a PravidcntiaJ DUponsatioD. The water 
in the Cwek wan indrMTibably imJ, No utmniut of faniilinritr 
with it, no inrreoito of inlimiicy vritl) our ofTtruitivc «uiTi>Diidtn([i«. 
could leiaen the tlis)pist at tliu poUutctI water. As I huvc snitl 
preTJoualy, buforo tJio stmua uotcrul th» ^tockitdu, it was run- 
dwad ttio filthy fur any lue by lh«i cunLaminatiutis from the 
auu)Hi ut the ^^^'^'^'^ aitiiatul about a linlf-mile above. Imiuo- 
(liately ou entering tbv 8tockiute tbu n^iutaruinatiun bonune 
ti4TibU<>. The ihmv seep at Iho bottom of the hillsiiliM ilminnl 
directly intti it oil the tmiat of filth from a population of tliirty- 
throo iboutaud. Imagine tho condition of on open wwor, putt- 
ing thrifugh the heart of a city of that many {>co|>lc, and 
receiving all Ibv offctutvo produrt of m ilcnao a gothcriog into 
a ihallow, tlo^giib straam, a yard wide and fiv« inobat daop^ 




aad heated b; the bornmg rars of the sno in the thlrtr-acoood 
iIi.'KTt« of latitude. Imagioo, if one can, without btwoiuing nok 
St the stomach, ail of these people having to wash in and drink 
of thiH foul flow. 

Thero is not a ncintilla of exagguratioa in this statvineot- 
Tbftt it in within the exact truth is demunstrattio by the tostt- 
mony of any man — Itebol or Union — who ever saw the inside 
of the Stockade at Andersonville. I am quite content to haro 
its truth — as wcU as that of any other statement made in tim 
book — be determined by the evidence of any one, no matt^ 
bow bitter bis balnxl of the Union, who had any penooal 
knowledge of the condition of alTuirs at Andenionnllii. No 
one tan sooceaafully deny that there were at least thirty-three 
thousand prisononi in the Stockade, and that the one shallow, 
narrow creek, which passed through the prison, was at onoo 
their main sewer and Uieir source of supply of water for bath- 
ing, drjnlcing and washing. With those main facta admitted, 
the reader's common sense of natural oonsoquenoos wdl famish 
the rest of tlie detalla. 

It is true that some of the more fortanate of ns had velU ; 
thanks to oar own energy in orarvomm;; cxtr.vordinary obitaoles ; 
DO thanks to our gaolers for making the slightest elTort to pro- 
vide these necessities of life. We dug the wells with cose and 
pxkot knives, and half oontaeiu to a dopth of from twenty to 
thirty feet, pulling up the dirt in pjntal'>:>a9 \ogA, and runntog 
continual risk of being smothered to death by Uie oaring in 
of the unwalleil aides. Xot only did the R^haU refuK to give 
OS boards with which to wall the wells, and buckets for draxving 
the water, bat tboy did all In their power to preirenl u« fn'jm 
dig^ng the wells, and made continual forays to capture the 
..di^ng toob, because the wells were frequently nauil H3 the 
J places for tnonels. Professor Jonm Uys s|itK:tal struts 
s tunnel feature in bis testimony, which I have tntrodaoed 

I previous chapter. 

) great majority of the prisoocn who wont to the CrMk 
for water, went as near as possible to the Dead Line on the 
Wot Side, where tbo Credc entered the Stockade, that they 
might get water with as little filth in it as possible. In the 
crowds struggling there for their tarn to take a dip, some oae 



nearly every day got so close to the Dead Line as to arouse a sot- 
picioD in the guard's mind that be was touching it. Thd sus- 
picion was the unfortunate one's death warrant, and also its 
execution. As the sluggish brain of the guard oonoeive«l it he 
lereled hia gun ; the distance to his victim wus not over one hun- 
dred feet; lie never failed hisaim : thefirst warning the wretched 
prisoner got that be wiis suspected of transgressing a jirison rale 
was the charge of " ball-and-buck" that tore through his body. 
It was lucky if he was the only one of the group killed. More 
■wicked and unjustifiable murders never were committed than 
these almost daily assassinations at the Creek. 

One morning the camp was astonished beyond measure to 
discover that during the nicht a large, bold spring hod burst 
out on the North Side, about midway between the Swamp and 
the summit of the hill. It )K>ured out its grateful flood of pure, 
Bweet water in an ap|>urently exhaust lr.« quantity. To the many 
■who looked in wonder u[»on it, it seemed as truly a heaven- 
wrought miracle as when Moses's enchanted rod smote the 
parched rock in Sinai's desert waste, and the liring waters 
gashed forth. 

The pcdioe took charge of the spring, and every one was com- 
pelled to take his 
regular turn in Ail- 
ing his vessel This 
was kept up du^ 
ing our whole stay 
^ and every morn- 
ing, shortly after 
daybreak, a thou- 
sand men could be 
D standing in 
line, waiting their 
turns to fill their 
cans and cups with 
the precious liquid. 
I am told bv 
comrades who have 
nviuted the Stockade of recent years, that the spring is yet 





Every moniing after roll-call, thousands of sick gathered at 
the South Gate, where the doctors made some pretense of 
affortling medical relief. The scene there reminded me of the 
illustrations in my Surnhn^-School lessons of that time when 
''great multitudes came unto Ilim," by the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee, ''having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb, 
maimed, and many others." Had the crowds \voni the flowing 
robes of the East, the picture would have lacked nothing but 
the pres(*ncc of the Son of Man to make it complete. Ilere 
were tiie burning sands and parching sun ; hither came scores 
of groups of three or four comrades, laboriously staggering 
under the weight of a blanket in which they had carried a 
disabled and dying friend from some distant part of the Stockaide. 
Beside them hobbled the scorbutics with swollen and distorted 
limbs, each more loathsome and nearer death than the le\ren 
whom Christ's divine touch made whole. Dozens, unable to 
walk, and having no comrades to carry them, crawled poinfuDy 
along, with fre(|uent stops, on their hands and knees. Every 
fonn of intense physical suffering that it is possible for disease 
to induce in the human frame was v'.s ble at these <laily |iarados 
of the s;ck of the prison. As over three thousand ^threu thou- 

1 and seTenty-six) died in August, thero were probably twelTS 
'■ — ^"^"^^^n lliousintl dungvrotu- 

i^^f ^^^if ly sick at any ^ven 

time during Lha 
montb, anil a large 
\mrt of thcso collect- 
ed ul Lbe South Gate 
every morning. 
Measurably cal- 
Iou».h) as we liad t>o- 
come by ibe daily 
flights of borrar 
arunnil itt, un cn> 
countered B|iectjiclea 
in these gatherings 
u'htcb DO amount 
of visible inbcry 
oonld acftutom ua 
to. I nrmfmltorone 
eqM^:JNlly that turn-' 
ed it>>elf deeply into 
my iiiuiiiury. It waa 
of a young uiao — 
not over twenty- 
fivo — tvhij a few 
weeks ago — bis 
dtrtiiot Imiked eom- 
paratively new — 
bad evidently been 
Ihe picture of manly 
U^Huty and youthful 
rigor. llt'luMlboda 
well-knit,)ithe fonn ; 
dork curling hair 
full orer a fun^lioad 
which bad unro b<<en 
fiur, und 111!! rv oa still 
•liimvtl that tbey 
had gbsUBiid with a bold, advcotunMu spirit. The rod clovor 


leaf on his cap showed that he belonged to the Fin t Division 
of the Se<Sond Corps, the three chevrons on his arm that he 
was a Ser/2^eant, and the stripe at his cuff that he was a veteran. 
Some kind-hearted boys had found him in a miserable condition 
on the North Side, and carried him over in a blanket to where 
the doctors could see him. lie had but little clothing on, save 
his blouse and cap. Ulcers of some kind had formed in his 
abdomen, and these were now masses of squirming worms. It 
was so much worse than the usual forms of suffering, that 
quite a little crowd of compassionate spectators gathered 
around and expressed their pity. The sufferer turned to one 
who lay beside him with : 

" Comrade : If we were only under the old Stars and Stripes, 
we wouldn't care aO — dd — nfora few worms, would we! " 

This was not profane. It was an uttonince from the depths 
of a brave man's heart, couched in the strongest language at 
his command. It seemed terrible that so gallant a soul should 
depart from earth in this misonible fashion. Some of us, much 
moved by the sight, went to the doctors and put the case as 
strongly as possible, begging them to do mtmethhig to alleviate 
his suffering. They declined to wh* the case, but got rid of ns 
by giving us a bottle of turpentine, with directions to pour it 
upon the ulcers to kill the maggots. We did so. It must have 
been cruel torture, and as absurd remc<lially as cruel, but our 
hero set his teeth and endured, without a groan. He was then 
carried out to the hospital to die. 

I said the doctors made ^ pretense of affonling medical relief. 
It was hardly that, since about all the prescription for those 
inside the Stockade consisted in giving a handful of sumach 
berries to each of those complaining of scurvy. The berries 
might have done some good, liad there lx?en enough of them, 
and had their action been assisted by proper food. As it was, 
they were probably nearly, if not wholly, useless. Nothing 
was given to arrest the ravages of dysentery. 

A limited number of the worst cases were admitted to the 
Ilospital each day. As this only had caiKicity for about one> 
quarter of the sick in the Stockade, new patients could only be 
admitted as others died. It seemeil, anyway, like signing a 
man's death warrant to send him to the Hospital, as three ont' 


of every four who went oat there died. The folio winj from 
the otficial report of the Uospital shows this : 

Total Bomber admitted .•••••• Vt^Bb 

iMed njm 

Bxchanged • ...• 80 

Tuok the ocuh of all<fi;laoce M 

8«ot ebewhrre • MBi 

ToUl 1%HOO 

Arenjge deatlie, 76 per oenL 

Early in Au<2:ust I made a successful effort to get out to tha 
Ilospital. I bad several reasons for this: First, one of mjr 
chums, W. W. Watts, of my own coniimny, had been sent out 
a little while before very sick with scurvy and pneumonia, and 
I wanted to see if I could do anything for him, if he still lived. 
I have mentionotl before that for awhile after our entninco into 
Anderi;4>nville five of us slept on one overcoat and covered our- 
selves with one blanket. Two of these had alreadv died, leav- 
ing as pMisessors of the blanket and overcoat, W. W. Wattii 
B. B. Andrews, and mys*»lf. 

Next, I wanted to go out to see if there was any pros|H»ot of 
escape. I had long since given up hojH^ of eseaping from the 
Stockade. All our attempts at tunneling had iy'suUihI in dead 
failures, and now, to make us wholly despair of success in that 
direction, another Stockade wils built clear anmnd the prison, 
at a distance of one hundred and tw<*ntv feet from the first 
palisacles. It was manifest that though we might succeed in 
tunneling psist one Stockade, we could not go beyond the 
second one. 

I had the R<*urvy rather badly, anil l>eing naturally slight in 
frame, I presenteii a very sick appearance to the physicians, and 
was {liiSMMl out to the Ilospiud. 

While this was a wn*tch«*<l affair, it wils still a vast impnA'e- 
ment on the Stockadt*. Alx)ut five acns of gn>und, a little 
southeast of the SUN^kacle, and lM»nl<>nng on a cnH*k, were 
enclosed by a boanl fence, aniund which the guanl walktHJ, 
Trees shaded the gn>und tolenibly well. There W4*rt* tents and 
flies to shelter |)art of the sick, und in thisi* wen* InmU made of 
pine leaves. Then* were rvgular streets ami alleys running 
through the grounds, and as the management was in the liands 


of our own men, the place was kept reasonably dean and 
orderly — for Anderson ville. 

There was also some improvement in the food. Rice in some 
degree replaced the naoseous and innutritions com bread, and 
if served in sufficient quantities, would doubtless have promoted 
the recovery of many men dying from dysenteric diseases. 
We also received small quantities of "oknv," a plant peculiar to 
the South, whose pods contained a mucilaginous matter that 
made a soup very gniteful to those suffering from scurvy. 

But all these ameliorations of condition were too slight to 
even arrest the progress of the disease of the thousands of 
dying men brought out from the Stockade. Thow still wore 

(' same lice-infested garments as in prison ; no Imtlis or even 
ordinary applications of soap and water cloane<l their dirt-grimed 
skins, to give their pores an op|x>rtunity to asitist in restoring 
them to health ; even their long, lank and matted hair, swarming 
with vermin, was not trimmed. The most ordinary and obvious 
measures for their comfort and care were negl<>cted. If a man 
recovered he did it almost in spite of fate. The medicines given 
were scanty and crude. The princi|>sil remedial agent — as far 
as my observation extended — was a rank, fetid species of 
nnrectifled spirits, which, I was told, was m<ule from Rorgum 
seed. It bad a light-green ting(\ and was al>out as inviting to 
the taste as spirits of tuqient-ine. It was given to the sick in 
small quantities mixed with water. I had had some ex|)erienoe 
with Kentucky *^ apple-jack," which, it was |x>pularly believed 
among the boys, would dissolve a piece of the fattest pork 
thrown into it, but that seemed balmy and oily alongside of 
this. After tasting some, I ceased to wonder at the atrocities 
of Wirs and his associates. Nothing would seem too bad to a 
man who made that his habitual tipple. 

[For a more particular description of tlio Hospital I must 
refer my reader to the testimony of Professor Jones, in a pre- 
vioos chapter.] 

Certainly this continent has never seen — and I fervently 
trust it will never again see — such a gigantic concentration of 
misery as that Hospital displayed daily. The official statistics 
tell the story of this with terrible brevity : There were three 
thousand seven hundred and nine in the Hospital m August; 

ono Uiousand four biindrod und ttiglity-ninft — nesriy cvorjr 
other man — died. The rate afterwards became mudi liigher 
than this. 

The most oonK])iouoas outToring' was in tbo gangreno wanU. 
Uorriblo soro* B[)r«a*lia(f almost visibly from hottr to hour, 
derourod men's liiutw and tHxIio^. I n-niBinber one wani in 
which tlio ulcerations a{iiH«]n>d to be alto^>t lier in tbo luiok, 
where thuy at4- out the ti&iiio Ivtwopa tbo akin ami the nlio. 
The attendants seemed tryinjf t^i am^t l.lto progretw of Hm 
dooghinff by droncbing the snrts nitb asolution of blao vttrioL 
This was oxqutHitoly fiainful, and in the morning, when tbo 
drencbini; wmt ^>titig on, the wbult-r lUnpilal rang with Ute inost 
■gonizing M;ream.4. 

Bat the gangrene cnosUy attacked the logs and arms, and 
the Ic^ mor« than tbo arms. Sometimea it killed mnn insido 
of & week ; someliiaes tbey lingered on indefinitely. J rvmcm- 
berone man in the Stockade who cut his band with the sharp 
oomer of a canl of cum bread he wtut lifting from tho mtton 
wagon ; gangrene sot in immediately, and bo tlie^i four days 

Oao form that whs quite (M>;vaJont was a oaniror of the lowur 

lip. It seemed U> »tart at cute cornur of the motilh, and it fla> 

•Uy ate the whole side of Uie face >fut. Of ooursi; Uie suITeror 

bud the greatettt troultJe in f<otlng 

and drinking. For Ibe Utler it was 

customary to whittle out a little 

wooden tulxt, and fuiUii it in a tta 

cup, through whioli be ouuld sao* up 

tbe water. A» thia mouth caooer 

f' toriiii it eontugii>us, mina of as niiaUl 

I allow any ono afflietud with it to una 

my of our cuokiog ut*mHlv 

The nebd doetors at the lUfpttal 
resorted to whotfsah* anipulatiouto 
check the pnigren of the gnngreia. 
They had a two bmin ewwion of liuib lopping evwy momitig, 
each of wbteh tvsulled in quite a ptli; of Mvcrw) memlmn. I 
r more bungling operations are raruly seen outside of 
1 or Torkiab h»|>ilal«. Their utwkUfalnM waa appar- 



ent QTon to non-sciutitiQc olwervt.Trs liko tny»elt. Tli« sUindutI 
of medical odtication in the tiouth — as indwd of every otber 
form of vilacation — was quite low. The Cliief Surgwjo of Lho 
prison, Dr. ImiiuIi Wliii«, and i)erhap9 two or tliree others, 
seemed to tx- ^.•nttemm of fiur alitliLit>s nnd iituunmi>nt«. The 
remainder were of tliut cliu« of illiturato oad unleaming ciuacks 
wbo pIi.vEic and bliiih-r Die [vjot whitOH und ui>);;ro(( in tliu coun- 
try diMlricts of till' Sunlit; who bi^ieve Uivv oim mIu^i blu!<ling 
of the Dose by re|K-iittn;; a vcreo from (lio Bible; wbo tiiiiik 
that if in gathcj-ing tbeir favorite remedy of Iwnciiet ihoy cut 
the stum vpitHini* it will iinrKo llnnr |mtiontfi, and if downiDorda 
it will vomit tlicm. uini »ho Imld tbat tbero is notliinfi 80 good 
for "fits" as a, b]:u-k c:it, killod in tUe diu-k of tlie moon, cut 
open, and lioantl wbili> yut wurni, a|K)n tbe nuked cbost of tbe 
victim of Ifau convulsions. 

They bail it atsei of instruments captured from Homc of oitr 
field buspitulii, wliicb were dull and fearfally out of order. 
WitJi poor instruments and unskilled bands tbe operatioog 
became mongUng. 

In the Ho»|tital I saw 
an adiuimblB illustr^ 
tion of the alfLVtioD 
wbicb a Bailor will lavish 
on a ship's boy,wh<dQ bo 
(akfs a fancy to, and 
makes his "diicken," 
■a Uio pbmse is. Tbe 
United States sliwp 
"Water Wilch" bad 
recentJy been oaplurcd 
in Ussahaw Bound, and 
ber oniw brou^cbt into 
prison. One of her boys 
— a bright, bandsomo 
little fellow of about 
fihwn — bad lost one 
of bis ariiui in tbu ll^bt. 
lie was bruugbt into 
Uui nocpital, and tlie okl feUuw wbow "obickeo" bu was, was 


allowed to accompany and nnrse him. This ^old barnacle* 
back " was as surly a growler as ever went aloft, but to bi» 
*^ chicken " he was as tender and thoughtful as a woman. Thqy 
found a shady nook in one comer, and any moment one lookiid 
in that direction he could see the old tar hard at work at some- 
thing for the comfort and pleasure of his pet Now he was 
dressing the wound as deftly and gently as a mother caring for 
a new-bom babe ; now he was trying to concoct some relish out 
of the slender materials he could beg or steal from the Quar- 
termaster; now trying to arrange the shade of the bed of pine 
leaves in a more comfortable manner ; now repairing or washr 
ing his clothes, and so on. 

All the sailors were particularly favored by being allowed 
to bring their bags in untouched by the guards. This 
^chicken'' had a wonderful supply of clothes, the handL 
work of his protector who, like most good sailors, was very 
skillful with the needla lie had suits of fine white duok, 
embroidered with blue in a way that would ravish the heart of 
a fine lady, and blue suits similarl}*^ embroidered with white. No 
belle ever kept her clothes in better order than these were. 
When the duck came up from the old sailor*s patient washing 
it was as spotless as new-fallen snow. 

I found my chum in a very ba<i condition. Ilis apix^tite was 
entirely gone, but he had an inordinate craving for tol)acco — 
for strong, black plug — which he smokoii in a pi{)e. lie had 
already traded off all his brass buttons to tiie guanls for this. 
I had accumulated a few buttons to bribe the guard to tiike me 
out for wood, and I gave these also for tolnicco for him. 
When I awoke one morning the man who laid next to me on 
the right was dead, having died sometime during the night. I 
searched his pockets and took what was in them. These were a 
silk pocket handkerchief, a gutta percha finger ring, a comb, a 
pencil, and a leather pocket-book, makmg in all quite a nice little 
** find." I hied over to the guard, and succetMliHl in trading the 
personal estate which I had inherite<l from the intestate difcaased, 
for a handful of peaches, a handful of hardly ri|)e fi^^n, and a 
long plug of tobacco.. I hastened back to Watts, ex|xx.'ting that 
the figs and ])eaches would do him a world of gtMnl. At first 
I did not show him the tobacco, as I was strongly op|)osed to 

A srroRT or ekbu. hilitart PBiitrtsa. 



bis ttsing it, thinking that it vrtts mnliing him mimh wm».'. But 
ho looked At the tein|iting pi-uchtis and flga with liick-Iuster 
; ho was too tar gone to care for tbcm. tie pushed them 
to m«, saying faintly : 
No, you take 'om, Mc ; I don't want 'om ; I ciin'i «flt 'om !" 

I then produced tho tobacco, and his face liglilt-*! up. (lon- 
duding that this vrttn all the comfort that hv roulil have, and 
that I might as well gratify him, I cut up soiii« of the weed. 
filled bis pi|io and ligliuxl it. IIu Bnifikc*) raltnlv and nlmost 
happily all the afterntxin, hanlly spuaking a w*>r<] to nis. As 
it grow dark be asked nle to bring him a drink. I did so, and as I 
raiswl him up he said : 

" Mc, this thing's ended. Tell ray father that 1 stood it as 
long an I could, and — " 

The death rattle wjimdod in histhrruil, and whiii I laid hrm 
back it was all over. Straightening out his IIuiIh, folding his 
bands across his hrt^ast. and comjiosing his fvaturui as best I 
conld, I lay down bcsi<k' the Ujily mid slopl till morning, when 
I did what little else I miihl toward preparing for the grave all 
that van leti of my long-suffering little friend. 



After Watt's death, I set earnestly about seeing what ooold 
be done in the way of escape. Fnink Harney, of the Fint 
West Virginia Cavalry, a bo}' of about my own age and dis- 
position, joined with nio in tiie scheme. I was still possessed 
with my original plan of making my way down the creeks to 
the Flint River, down the Flint Kiver to where it emptied into 
the Apiuilachicola River, and down that stream to its dtlouchure 
into the Uiy tiiat connecteii with the Gulf of Mexico. I was 
sure of finding my way by tiiis route, because, if nothing else 
offered, I could get astride of a log and float down the current- 
The way to Sheriuan, in the other direction, was long, torturous 
and ditiicult, with a fearful gauntlet of bloodhounds, patrols and 
the scouts of Hood's Armv to be run. I had but little diffi- 
culty in persuading Harney into an acceptance of my viewSi 
and we began arranging for a solution of tlie first great prob- 
lem — how to get outside of the Hospital guards. As I fmve 
explaineil before, the Hospit^d was surrounded by a board 
fence, with guards walking their beait^ on the ground outside. 
A small creek flowed through the southern end of the grounds^ 
and at its lower end was used as a sink. The Iniunls of the 
fence eaine down to the surface of the water, where the Creek 
|> out, but we found, by careful piiniding with a stick, that 
the hole between the Ixiards and the bottom of the Crt\,'k was 



safflcientl; large to allow the paasa^ of our bodiM, and tttoro 
had b«en tui stakes driven or otliur precautioiu used to present 
ogress by this chunnel. A guard was pti^taJ Th»r»>^ and prob- 
ably ordered to stand nt the ed^ of the »lroam, but it sniellod 
90 vilely in those ecurching (luya iLat he had cdiuulteil lii« f«il- 
iugs aud probably his health, by retiriti^ to Iho top of thi- bank, 

(■ rod or more distant. We watohod nipht afli-r night, and 
at last vrero gratified to llnd that none went nr:in^r tho Crock 
Uiao the top of this bank. 
Then vre waitnl for the moon to come right, so tluit tbo flmt 
put of the night should t>o tlark. This took serL-ral dii>'», but at 
last we knew that Ihu next night shv would not riw nntO 
bctwwn l*aud 10 u'cli-ck, which would ^ivnu iHMrly Iwohnursof 
the denso darkncs of a inoonbxH t^umnicr nifiht in (lie .South. 
Wi? had lirttt thonc;ht of oaTinfr up xomv mtiona for thi.> trip, bat 
then reflvctiM] thnl ihi'su would bu minetl by the tillhy wator 
into which we mu'ct tiink to gi> uudvr the tmu.v. It was not 
difficult to nltandon the food idea, «ncc it wnji Vury liord to 
forue onrstilvw to hiy by ovtm thi> suuUest [nrtinn of our vcanty 
Am Xiuf next day wore on, our minds wero wrought up Into 


exalted tension by the rapid approach of the supreme moment^ 
irith all its chances and consequences. The experieooe of the 
past few months was not such as to mentally fit us for such a hax- 
anl. It prepared us for sullen, uncomplaining endurance, for. 
calmly contemplating the worst that could come; but it did not 
strengthen that fiber of mind that leads to venturesome activity 
and daring exploits. Doubtless the weakness of our bodies 
reacted uix)n our spirits. We contemplated all the perils that 
confronted us; perils that, now looming up with impending 
nearness, took a clearer and more threatening shape than they 
had ever done before. 

AVe considered the desperate chances of passing the guard 
unseen ; or, if noticed, of escaping his fire without deatli or 
severe wounds. But supposing him fortunately evaded, then 
came the gauntlet of the hounds and the patrols hunting 
deserters. After this, a long, weary journey, with bare feet 
and almost naked bodies, through an unktK>wn country abound- 
ing with enemies; the dangei's of assassination by the embit- 
tered populace ; the risks of dying with hunger and fatigue in 
the gloomy depths of a swamp; the scunty hopes that, if we 
reached the seashore, we could get to our v<>ssels. 

Not one oi all tliese contingencies faiioil to expand it^f to 
all its alarming pi*o{x>rtions, and unite with its fellows to form 
a dresidful vista, like the valleys iilknl with demons and genii^ 
dragons and malign enchantments, which confront the heros of 
the *' Arabian Nights," when they set out to jx>rform their 

But behind us lay more miseries and horrors than a riotous 
imamnation could ctmceive; Ix^fore us could certainlv be noth* 
ing worse. We would put life and freeilom to the hazard of a 
touch, and win or lose it all. 

The (lav had been intoleniblv hot. The sun's ravs seemed to 

. . • 

sear the earth, like lieat^nl irons, ami the air that lay on the 
burnint; siind was broken bv waw lines, such as one sees indi* 
cate the radialicm from a hot stove. 

E.xcept the wrelche<l chain-«:ang pUnhlin;^ tortun>usly back 
and forwani on the hillside, not a soul nor an aniuial could be 
s<»en in motion outsi<le the StiK-kade. Tin* hounds were ]iunt* 
ing in their kennel; the Itebol oihciirs, lialf or wholly drunken 


witA villainous sorgum whisky, were stretched al fall length in 
the shade at headquarters; the half-naked gunners crouched 
under the shadow of the embankments of the forts, the guards 
hung limply over the Stockade in front of their little perches; 
the thirty thousand boys inside the Stockade, prone or supine 
upon the glowing sand, gas{)ed for breath — for one draft of 
sweet, cool, wholesome air that did not bear on its wings the 
subtle seeds of rank corruption and death. Everywhere was 
the prostration of discomfort — the inertia of sluggishness. 

Only the sick moved ; only the pain-racked cried out ; only 
the dymg struggled ; only the agonies of dissolution could 
make life assert itself against the exhaustion of the heat. 

Harney and I, lying in the scanty shade of the trunk of a 
toll pine, and with hearts filled with solicitude as to the out- 
come of what the evening would bring us, looked out over the 
scene as we had done daily for long months, and remained 
silent for hours, until the sun, as if weary with torturing and 
slaying, began going down in the blazing West. The groans 
of the thousands of sick around us, the shrieks of the rotting- 
ones in the gangrene wards rang incessantly in our ears. 

As the sun disappeared, and the heat almted, the suspended 
activity was restored. The Master of the Hounds came out 
with his yelping pock, and started on his rounds ; the Rebel 
ofScers aroused themselves from their siesta and went lazily 
about their duties ; the fifer produced his cracked fife and piped 
forth his unvarj'ing ^ Bonnie Blue Flag,'' as a signal for dresa 
parade, and drums beaten by unskilled hands in the camps of 
the different regiments, repeated the signal In the Stockade 
the mass of humanity became full of motion as an ant liill, and 
resembled it very much from our point of view, with the boys 
threading their way among the burrows, tents and holes. 

It was becoming dark quite rapidly. The moments seemed 
galloping onward toward the time when we must make the 
decisive step. We drew from the dirty rag in which it was 
wrapped the little piece of com bread tliat we had saved for 
our supper, carefully divided it into two equal parts, and each 
took one and ate it in silence. This done, we held a final 
consultation as to our plans, and went over each det^iil care- 
fully, that we might fully understand each other under ail 


possible circumstances, and act in concert. One point wa 
laboriously impressed upon each other, and that was, that under 
no circumstances were we to allow ourselves to be tempted 
to leave the Creek until we reached its junction with the 
Flint Itiver. I then picked up two pine leaves, broke them off 
to unequal lenj^hs, rolled them in my hands behind my back 
for a second, and pix'senting them to Ilarney with their enda 
sticking out of my closed liand, said : 

" The one that gets the longest one goes first.'* 

Ilarney reached forth and drew the longer one. 

We made a tour of reconnoissance. Everything seemed as 
usual, and wonderfully calm compared with the tumult in our 
minds. The Hospital guards were pacing their beats lazily; 
those on the Stockade were drawling listlessly the first " call 
around " of the evening : 

^' Post numbah foah 1 Ilalf-ixist seven o'clock I and arl-l's 
w-e-M ! " 

Inside the Stockade was a I>al)el of sounds, above all 
of which rose the mehxly of religious and patriotic songSi 
sung in vai-ious parts of the camp. From the headquarters 
came the shouts and laughter of the Rebel otiicers having a 
little *• frolic " in the cool of the evening. The groans of the 
sick aroumi us were gradually husliing, as the abatement of the 
terrible heat let all but the worst cases sink into a brief slumber, 
from which tliev awoke bc»fore midni^^lit tort»new their outcries. 
But those in the Gangrene wartls seemed to be denied even 
this scanty blcbsing. Apjxirently they never slept, for their 
shrieks never ceasi*<l. A multitude of whi|VjKX)r-wills in the 
woods around us Ugan their usual dismal cry, which had never 
seemed so unearthly and full of dreadful presiiges as now. 

It was now quite dark, and we stole noiselessly down to the 
Creek and reconnoitered. We listened. The guard was not 
{xicing his beat, as we could not hear his footsteps. A large, 
ill-sha)K*n lump against the trunk of one of tin* trees on the 
baink showed that he was leaning there resting himself. We 
watched him for several minutes, but he did not move, and the 
thought shot into our minds that he might be asleep; but it 
seemed im]N>ssible: it was too early in tiie evening. 

Now, if ever, was the opportunity. Harney squeezed my 


handy 8tep)>ed noiselessly into the Creek, laid himself gently 
down into the filthy water, and while my heart was beating so 
that I was certain it could te heard some distance from me, 
began making toward the fence. lie ])assed under easily, and 
I niised my eyes toward the guanl, while on my strained ear 
fell the soft plashing made by Harney as he ])ulled himself 
cautiously forwanL It seemed us if the sentinel must hear this ; 
he could not help it, and every second I ex|>ected to see the 
black lump ad<lress itself to motion, and the musket flash out 
fiendishly. I^ut he did not; the lump remained motionless; 
the musket silent. 

When I thought that Harney had gained a sufficient distance 
I followed. It seemeil as if the disgusting water would smother 
me as I hiid myself down into it, and such was my agitation 
that it a]>i)eared almost iinix>ssil)le that I should esca{X) making 
such a noise as would attract the guanPs notice. Catching hold 
of the roots and liml>s at the side of the stream, I pulled myself 
slowly along, and as noiselessly as |H)ssible. 

I juissiMl under the fence without difficulty, — and was out. 
side, and within fifteen feet of the guard. I had lain down 
into the cret»k uj)on my right side, that my face might lie toward 
the guard, and I could watch him closely all the time. 

As I came under the fence he was still leaning motionless 
agsiinst the tree, but to my heateil inuigination he appeared to 
have turne<l and be watching me. I hardly breathed; the 
filthy water rippling ()ast me seemed to roar to attract the 
guard's attention ; I reached my hand out cautiously to grasp a 
r<x>t to pull myself along by, and caught instead a dry branch, 
which broke with a loud crack. Mv heart absolutelv st<xxl still. 
The guaixl evidently heard the noise. The black lump seiKirated 
its4*lf from the tree, and a stniight line wliich I knew to be his 
musket se|)arated itself from the lump. In a brief instant I lived 
a year of mortal apprehension. So certain was I that lie bad 
disc«»vrrfd me, and was leveling his piece to fire, that I could 
scartM.»ly restrain mysi»lf fnMU springing up and dashing away 
to avoid the shot. Then I heani him take a step, and to my 
unutterable surprise and relief, he walked off farther from the 
Creek, evidently to speak to the man whoso beat joined his. 

I pulled away more swiftly, but still with the greatest cau- 




tioo, until alter balf-an-hour s painful effort I liw) gotten fullj 
ooe himdpoii and Ilfiy yanls mvuy (rora tUo Ilospit*! fonoe, 
ami foand Ilarnev ci'oucbed on a cypmats kavo, <do«o to tho 
water's odffv, ivtttcLmg for me. 

We \va^U.h) tlion* a fcir tninuttis, until I cuold rust, and calm 
my perturlx.-d iibrve* down to somi'thing nearer their aornuU 
oquUibrium, and tht^i sUrted on. \Vc bu|NHl that if wa vrara 



I:VIU1V nlUf ni'M 

At lodcy in oar next 8t4*[> as in tho Rrtl one h-« would rmch tiie 
Flint Rivur by (Uyligtit, and have a good iong sUirt burure tho 
momiag ruU-call revealed our atncaa!. We couUl luar tho 
hounda fttiU baying io the distanoo, but tltis Kutad wm too oos* 
tomary to givtt us noy nnoasiiuau. 

But our progreaB wa« terrilily slow. Every step hnrt foe- 
folly. The Creek b«d wob full of rooU and uutga, and briecB, 
and Tines trnilfti acrua iL TboM caught and tore our bara 
feet and h^ nndored abnomuUy teodar by Ibe scurry. U 


seemod as if every step was marked with blood. T!ho vines 
tripped us, and we frequently foil headlong. Vfe struggled on 
determinedly for nearly an hour, and were perhaps a mile from 
the Hospital. 

The moon came up, and its light showed that the creek con- 
tinued its course through a dense jungle like that we had been 
traversing, while on the high ground to our left were the open 
pine woods I have previously described. 

We stopped and debated for a few minutes. We recalled 
our promise to keep in the Creek, the experience of other 
boys who had tried to escape and been caught by the hounds. 
If we staid in the Creek we were sure the hounds would not 
find our trail, but it was equally certain that at this rute we 
would be exhausted and starved before we got out of sight of 
the prison. It seemed that we had gone far enough to be out 
of reach of the packs patrolling immediately around the Stock- 
ade, and there could bo but little risk in trying a short walk on 
the dry ground. We concluded to take the chances, and, 
ascending the bank, we walked and ran as fast as we could for 
about two miles further. 

All at once it struck me that with all our progress the hounds 
sounded as near as when we started. I shivered at the thought, 
and though nearly ready to drop with fatigue, ui^p;ed myself 
and Ilanicy on. 

An instant later their baying rang out on the still night air 
right behind us, and with fearful distinctness. There was no 
mistake now ; they had found our trail, and were running us 
down. The change from fearful apprehension to the crushing 
reality stopiHxl us stock-still in our trucks. 

At the next breath the hounds came blunting through the 
woods in plain sight, and in full cry. We obeyed our first 
impulse ; ruslied back into the swamp, forced our way for a few 
yards through the fiesh-tearing im{)ediments, until we gained a 
large cypress, upon whose great knees we climbed — thoroughly 
exhausted — just as the yelping pack reached the edge of the 
wator, and 8top|)ed there and bayed at us. It was a physical 
impossibility for us to go another step. 

In a moment the low-browed villain who had charge of the 


373 A:(l>KB»OXTttJ.K. ^^^H 

boiinOa came galloping up on iiix mule, tooting signiUs to bia 
dogs OS he caiDO, on the cow-born slung from his sboultlors. 

He immediately disoorored us, covered as with his revolver 
and yelled out : 

" CViiiip ashotw, theru. quick: yon g!" 

There was no help for ii. We climbed down off the knees 



"OOUK ASIInlii:. inEKE, Qfiat." 1 

ant) started towards the land. As we ncBTod it, the hoanda 
Ifecome alm<«t fmntic, and it aeemiKl as if we wunld be torn to 
|)ioco8 till! moment iIm-v could rwich us. Hut the raarter dia- 
loounlod and dmve them back. He wan surly— m-f-n uva^ 
— to ua, but sMinod in t^>o much hurry to grt bnek to waate 
IB7 time anrnjying i» with the di«^i«, lU «»nlef\tl us lu ifrt 
hmind in front of the raulw, ami start lurk ti) cuinp. We 
UDVi-d aa mpidly iw our fntigiu* and our hu-crated feet wouk 
allow oa, oDd before midnight were again in the butpital, 


fatigued, filthy, torn, bruised and wretched beyond description 
or conception. 

The next morning we were turned back into the Stockade as 

irorsT — GOOD luck in not MKicnyo captain wna — thatwob* 

try's treatment of recaptured prisoners — 8ECRKT BOCIETUI 

Ilarnev and I wero specially fortunate in being turned back 
into tlie Stockade without being brought before Captain Win. 

We suliso<iuentl3* learned that we owed this good luck to 
Wirz's absence on sick leave — his place being supplied by Liea- 
tenant Davis, a tn(xlerate brained Ualtimorean, and one of that 
horde of Marylanders in the liebcl Army, whose principal ser- 
vice to the Confe<lenicy consisted in working themselves into 
'•bomb-proof '' places, and forcing those whom they displaced 
into the field. Winder was the illustrious head of this crowd 
of bomb-proof Keliels from ''Marvlaml, Mv Marvlandl" whose 
enthusiasm fur the Southern cause and consistency in serving it 
only in such phices as were out of mnge of the Yankee artillery, 
was the suhjtri of many bitter jil>es by theKei>els — esiK*cially 
bv those whose secure UTths tliev ixtssesstHl thrmselves of. 

Lieutenant Davis wi*iit into the war witli great brashness. 
He was one of the mob which attaeketl the Sixth Massachusetts 
in its passji^^e through lialtimore, but, like all of that class of 
roughs, he p>t his stomach lull of war ius s<K>n sis the real busi- 
ness of li^rhting lx*«:an, and he letiriHl to where the chances of 
attaining a rii>e <jld age were better than in front of the Army 
of the l'otomac*s muskets. We shall hear of Davis again. 

Kiicountcring Captain Wirz wius one of the terrors of an 
alx>rlive attempt to escajie. When recaptured prisoners were 
brought before him he would fiv<jueutly give way to jNuroxyi 

AnUT 0*1 


of Boreuning rage, bo violent u to oloBeiy verge on tnaaatty. 

Braodiabisg the fearful and woDilorful reTolrer — of which I 
have spoken — 
in Bucli a man- 
ner as tothreat- 
en the lucklun 
capliV4^« with in- 
stant death, he 
would Hliriek 
out impreca- 
and foul epi- 
thets in French, 
fivnnap and En- 
i^'iish. until he 
fairly (rotlitMl at 
th« mouth. 
There were 

ivi :. . .J SH ASID »;ilO.».." pl,«lyof llorio» 

curniut m iMu^ ul his having tit*VLTal timns ^iven away to 
hk nga M fur lU to actually sliuot men down in these inter 
Tiewa, and still more of hi* knocking boys down and jumping 
upon them, until he infUctefl injuries tiiataoon nsalted in death. 
How true ttiese rumors were I am unable to nay of my own 
penonal knmvlcalju^r. sinoe 1 nevitr saw him kill any uut!, nor 
have I talked with any one who diiL Ttiero were a niimlK-r of 
casM of this kind testiBod to upon his trial, hut tliey all 
happened among " |«n>Ic8 " uubude iho Stix.'kaile, or among the 
priKHiars iiuJde after we left, so 1 knew nothing of tbcm. 

Ono of the Old Switzer's favorite ways nf ending i 
■eances was to inform the hoys that be would have them 
in on hour or my, and bid them pre|Mre for <k'ath. Aftw keep- 
ing thejn in fearful suKpcnse for houni he would onlur tbcm to 
be ponisbed with thu etix^bi, the bull-and-cliain, tbe chain- 
or — if bis Bufoo mood hod bum<'«l lUclf encircly out — a 
qoile Ididj with a man' of Wu slutllow bruin and 
temper — to be dm^dy returneil to the Stockade. 

Kotbing, I am sure, ainoL' the daya of the Inquiaition — or 
■till Ul4ir, aince the terrible puntabmcntf TUitad upon the insur- 

gents of 1M!4 by ihp Austrian aristocrats — has lieon itn duiI«K- 
cul at the bUk^Ich unci chiun-gAngH, as used by Wirz. At otM 
limu »pvi;n incn, sittinju; in th)> HloL-ks ni-ar ihn 8lar Furl —in 
plain view of tin.' i:uuiy — btx-uiuv ubJecU'if iDtt^ivat to avery- 


body in8i(ll^ Tbejr won: never relie^-ed rrom Uteir palnfal 
position, hat were kept ihv-rc until nil uf thfni iUmL I (lilnk 
it was NPariy twu wixJcr before th» \tul oav Kuix'tiiiibxl. Wluit 
they enduTvd in that time own imn^nntion cnnnift crln«^rc. 
I do Doi think that an Imltan tribv wur Jevisi^ koenor turtun} 
for it< captives. 

The chain-gang consiitetl of a number of mim — vnrying from 
twdre to tvri!tity-nvi% all rhainiHl lo una fHsly-four pounil IkUL 
Tbvy were alM statioiiei) itfiir itx- Sur Fih-1. standing oiit in 
the hot nun, without a particle uf thiwie over tln«m. When (Mie 
moved they all bod to more. Tbey were Bomirgt^ with tlie 
dyientery, and tbo neoomtiet of aome one of their numbt-r kept 
tbcm oonstuitly in motioa. I oui mq lliem diatiuctly yet. 


tramping laboriously and painfully back and forward over that 
burning hillside, every moment of the long, weary Summer 

A comrade writes to remind me of the beneficent work of 
the Masonic Order. I mention it most gladly, as it was the 
solo recognition on the part of any of our foes of our claims to 
human kinship. The churches of all denominations — except 
the solitary Catholic priest. Father Hamilton, — ignore<l us as 
wholly as if we were dumb beasts. I^y humanitarians were 
equally indifferent, and the only inten»st nuinifestod by any 
Sebel in the welfare of any prisoner was by the Ma.sonic 
brotherhood. The Rebel ^fiisons intereste<l themselves in secur- 
ing details outside the Stockade in the cook-house, the commis- 
sary, and elsewhere, for the brethren amon*^ the prisoners who 
would accej)t such favors. Such as iliil not feel inclined to go 
outside on {mrole n»ceiviHl freijuent pres<»nts m the way of fwxl, 
and esiieciail}' of vegetables, which weix» liteniUy lx»yond price. 
Materials were sent inside to buihl tents for the Masons, and I 
think such as made themselves known Ix^fore death, n^creived 
burial according to the rites of the Order. Doctor Wliite, and 
l)erha|)s other Surgeons, belongtnl to the fraternity, and the 
wearing of a ^[asonic emblem by a new j)risi>ner was j)retty 
sure to catch their eyes, and be the means of securing for the 
wearer the tender of their good offices, such as a detail into the 
Hospital as nurse, wanl -master, etc. 

I was not fortunate enough to be one of the mystic brethren,, 
and so missed all share in any of thesi' lienetits, as well as in 
any others, and I take s{XK:ial jiride in one thing: that during 
my whole ]mpris<mment I was not lx*holden to a Keltel for a 
single favor of any kind. The Rebel does not live who can 
say that be ever gave me so much as a handful of meal, a 
s[xx>nful of salt, an inch of thread, or a stick of wood. From 
first to last I receivetl nothing but my nitions, except occasional 
trifles that I sucx^cihUmI in stealing fn>m the stupid olHcers 
charged with issuing ration.s. I owe no man in the Southern 
Confederacy gratitude for anything — not even for a kind word. 

Speaking of secret society pins recalls a noteworthy stor}' 
which has been told me since the war, of boys whom I knew. 
At the breaking out of hostilities there existed in Toledo a 


festive little secret society, such as larking boys frequently 
organize, with no other object than fun and the usual adoles- 
cent love of mvsterv. There were a dozen or so members in it 
who called themselves "The Royal Keubens," and were headed 
by a Ix»'>kbinder named Ned Hopkins. Some one started a 
branch of the Onler in Na])oleon, O., and among the members 
was Charles E. Reynolds, of that town. The badge of the 
society Wiis a jKxruliarly sha|KHl gold pin. licynolds and Hop- 
kins never met, and had no acijuaintance with each other. 
When the war broke out, Hopkins enlisti»d in Battery H, First 
Ohio Artillery, and was sent to the Army of the Potomac, 
where he was captured, in the Fall of l^ruJ, while scouting, in 
the neifrhborhood of Richmond. Revnolds entered the Sixty- 
Eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and wa.s taken in the neigh- 
borhood of Jacks*>n, Miss., — two thousiind miles from the place 
of Hopkins's capture. At Andei*sonville Hopkins became one 
of the ollicers in charge of the Hospital. One day a Rebel 
Sergeant, who calknl the roll in the Stockade, after studying 
Hopkins's pin a minute, siiid : 

*' I see<l a Yank in the St<xjkade to-day a-wearing a pin 
egzackly like that ere.'' 

This aroustsl Ihipkins's inten»st, and he went inside in search 
of the other *' feller." Having his s<iuad and driachment there 
was little dilliculty in liiiding him. He rrcn^rnizcil the pin, 
sjHjke to its wt'jin'r, gave him the "*rrand haiiin*; sign" of the 
*' Royal Reubens," and it was duly res|>onded to. The U])shot 
of the matter was that he took Reynolds out with him as clerk, 
antl .Kaveil his life, jls the latter wius g«»in«; ilown hill very rap- 
idlv. Revn»iMs, in turn, secured the detail of a comrade of the 
Si.xty-F.iirlith who was failiii;: fast, and sucee«NltH.l in siiving his 
life — all of whieh happy n-sults were direeliy attributable to 
that inNJijnilieant Inivisli s«K-ieiy, and its njually unimtN>rtant 
ba<l«::e «)f meniU»rship. 

AloULT in the last of Au;rusi the Ri-bels li*arntHl that there 
wen? K'twef-n two and ihn-e humlred Captains antl Lieu* 
tenants in the Sl<K-kadt\ j»a><iii;: ihriii^t-Ufs i»ir as enlisti'd 
men. The motive of ihesi' <»tli(t'r"N \vas two fuM : first, a chiv- 
alrous wish to share the fi)rlunes and fat** <>f their bovs, and 
second, disinclination to gratify the iielx*ls by the knowledge 


of the rank of their captives. The secret was so well kept that 
none of us suspected it until the fact was announced by the 
Rebels themselves. They were taken out immediately^ and 
sent to Macon, where the commissioned officers' prison was. 
It would not do to trust such possible leaders with us another 



I have in other places dwelt up>n the insiilHeleney and tho 
nauseousness of tho f<Kxi. No wonls that I can use, no insist- 
ence u{X)n this theme, can give the reader any idea of its mortal 
importance to us. 

Let the rea<ler consider for a moment tlie ((uantity, quality, 
and variety of footl that he now hoKls to be nt»cess;iry for 
tho maintenance of life and health. I trust that every one 
who |)eruses this l^Kik — that every one in fact over whom tho 
Stars and Stri|)es wave — Ikls his cup of cotfce, his bisi^uits and 
his bi*efsteak for breakfiLst — a sult^tantial dinner of n>ast or 
boiled — and a li;i:hlcr, but still sutlicirnt rn^al in the evenin«f. 
In all, certainly not less than fifty different artick*s are set 
before him during the day, for his choice as 4'U*ments of nour- 
ishment. Ia^ him scan this extendetl bill-of-faiv, which 
long custom has made so commonplace as to U' uninteresting 
— {)erha|»s even wearisome to think aUmt — and si»e what he 
could omit from it, if mressity com|N'll(*<l him. After a reluct- 
ant farewell to tish, butter, eggs, milk, sugar, gn-en and pre- 
served fruit.*«, etc., he thinks that |K'rha|>s under extraoixlinary 
circumstances he might be able to merely sustain life fur a 
limiteil {K^ri<xl on a diet of bread and meat thiiH5 tinus a day, 
washcnl down with creamlt^ss, unswt^'teneil coffet\ anil varieil 
occ*asii»nally with additions of {KUatos, onions, lx.*ans« etc. It 
would astonish the Innocent to have one of our veterans inform 
him that this was not even the first stage of destitution ; that a 


soldier who had these was expected to be on the summit level 
of contentment. Any of the boys who followed Grant to 
Appomattox Court House, Sherman to the Sea, or "Pap" 
Thomas till his glorious career culminated with the annihilation 
of Ilood, will tell him of many weeks when a slice of fat pork 
on a piece of "hard tack'' had to do duty for the breakfast of 
beefsteak and biscuits; when another slice of fat ix)rk and 
another cracker served for the dinner of roast beef and vegeta- 
bles, and a third cnicker and slice of ix>rk was a su Institute for 
the sup{>er of toast and ciio])s. 

I say to these veterans in turn that they did not arrive at 
the first stages of ilestitution coin|Kireil witii the depths to which 
we were dragged. The i*tstriction for a few weeks to a diet of 
crackers and fat |K)rk was certainly a hardship, but the crackers 
alone, chemists tell us, contain all the elements necessary to 
sup{x>rt life, and in our Anny they weiv always well maile and 
very palatable. 1 lK»lieve 1 risk nuthing in siiyin;^ tliat one of 
the oixlinary scjuare crackers of our C\)niniissiirv DeiKiitment 
containiHl much more real nutriment than the whole of our 
average ration. 

1 have Ix'fore comiuiivd the size, .shajM* and a])|varance of the 
daily half hmf of corn bivad issueil to us to a iuilf-brick, and I 
do not yet know of a more fitting c<»m|Kirison. At first we got 
a small piece of rusty Uicon along with this; luit tliesize of this 
diminishiNl steadilv until at last it fiuliMl away entiivlv, and 
during the last six months of our imprisonment 1 ilo not lielieve 
that we receiviHl ratitms of meat above a half-4l«»%en timi*s. 

To this smallness was added inetTablo ijadness. The meal 
was gn)uml very coai-sely, by dull, weakly pi*o|)elleil stones, 
that im|K*rfirtly cruslietl the gniins, and left the tough, hard 
coating of tlie kernels in largi*, sharp, mic*ii-like scales, which 
cut and intlameii the stomach and intestim's, like handfuls of 
)x>undiMl glas.s. The alimentary canals of all c*«>m|H'lhHl to eat 
it were kept in a c<jntinual state of irritation tluit usually term- 
inatinl in incurable dysentery. 

Tliat 1 have not over-siati*il this evil can Im^m^^'U by reference 
to the tt'stimony of so etimiN^ent a scientilic i»bM*rver sis Pro- 
fessor Jones, and I aild to that unim|)i*achable testinumy the 
following extract from the statement made in an atteni])tod 


defense of Anderson ville by Doctor R. Randolph Stevenson, 
who styles liimself "formerly Surgeon in the Anny of the Con- 
federate States of America, Chief Surgeon of tlie Confederate 
States Military Prison IIi)spitaLs, Anderson ville, Ga.": 

V. From the samene^tf of the ftwd^ and from the action of the 
polanmous (jasi/f in the d* ntufj/ crowded and jilthy Stockade and 
UoMpitidy tht' Uoftd W(tJi altered in its constitution^ even Infore the 
manifestation of actual disiase. 

In both the well and the sick, the re<l corpuscles were diniin- 
isbe^l ; and in all discuses uncomplicateil with intlammation, the 
fibrinous clement was deficient. In caiM?s of ulceration of the 
mucous membrane of the intestinal canal, the fibrinous element 
of thebliKxi appeared to be incix*ascd ; while in simple diarrhea, 
uncomplicated with ulceration, and d(*pendcnt ujkju the charac- 
ter of the food and the existence of scurvv, it was either 
diminisheil or i*emained stationary. Jleart-clots were very 
common, if m>t univci'sally ])i*escnt, in the cases of ulceratioa 
of tlie int(*stinal mucous membrane ; while in the uncomplicated 
cases of diarrhiNi and scurvy, the blntMl was fluid and did ml 
co;i<:uhite readilv, and tlie heart clots and fibrinous concivtiona 
were alnu»>t univ»T>a]l\ ab^'ut. From the watrTV condition of 
the bliMMJ th«*i*e re>;nltei| varitms srronsetl'iisii>ns into tin* jH.»ricar- 
dium, into the venlncli\s of tiic iirain, and into the al.Hiominal 
cavil V. 

In almost all ca«s which I examined aftt»r di'ath, even in the 
most emaciated, the it* was mi»re or le>s si-mns elFusion into the 
alxiominal cavity. In cas^-s uf hospital ;:anL''n*ne vi theextreni- 
ities, ant I in cas«'s of irantrfene of the intrsiim's, heart -clots and 
tirm c*»jiirnhi were iinivei-siilly jin-^iMit. Tin* pifseiice of these 
clots in the cases of hospital L'anLTfin*. wiiiUi th»*v wereabsi»nt 
in the ca>es in whieh there witi* no inllainmatorv symptoms, 
app'urs to su>tain the e<>nelu-»:iin thiit liti^ipilal Lranu'ivne is a 
s{K'ci<'s of inflanmiMtion (inipi-rleet anil ii-re^^wlar ihouirh it may 
be in its ]»ri»iri'essi, i!i whieh the libi-iiinus elrnifni ami c«Ki«rnla- 
bililv of thebloiMl an* iiien*asei|. even in tlmse who aiv sutTerin:' 
fi'iim >UL'h a conditii»n of the bhNnl an*! from such diseases as 
ure natm-ally uccompanicd with a dccrc;u>e iu the fibrinous con- 
st it ueuL 


VI. The impoverished condition of the Uood^ which led to 
ieroue (ffusions within the ventricles of the hraiii^ and around the 
brain and spinal cord^ and into the pericardial and abdominal 
cavitieSy was gradually induced by the action of several causes^ 
but chiefly by the character of the food. 

The Federal prisoners, as a general rule, had been reared upon 
wheat bread and Irish ix)tatos ; and the Indian corn so exten- 
sively use<l at the South, was almost unknown to them as an 
article of diet previous to their capture. Owing to the impossi- 
bility of obtaining the necessary sieves in the Confetleracy for 
the se])aration of the husk from the corn-meal, the rations of 
the Confederate soldiers, as well as of the Federal prisoners, 
consisted of unbolted com flour, and meal and grist ; this cir- 
cumstance rendereil the corn-bread still more disiigi*eeable and 
distasteful to the Federal prisoners. While Indian meal, even 
when prepireil with the husk, is one of the most wholesome 
and nutritious forms of food, as has been already shown by the 
health and rapid increase of the Southern population, and 
especially of the negros, previous to the present war, and by 
the strength, endurance and activity of the Confederate soldiers, 
who were throughout the war contine<l to a great extent to 
unbolted corn-meal ; it is nevertheless true that those who have 
not been reared u{)on corn-meal, or who have not accustomed 
themselves to its use gradually, become excessively tired of this 
kind of diet when suddenly contined to it without a due propor- 
tion of wheat bread. I-argo numbers of the Fetleral prisoners 
ap]x^ared to be utterly disgusted with Indian com, and immense 
piles of corn-bread could be seen in the Stockade and Hospital 
inclosures. Those who were so disgusteil with this fonu of 
foo<l that they had no ap{)etite to [)artake of it, except in quan- 
tities insulficient to supply the waste of the tissues, were, of 
course, in the condition of men slowly starving, notwithstand- 
ing that the only farinaaM>us form of food which the Confede- 
rate States producetl in sufficient abundance for the maintenance 
of anuies was not withheld from them. In such cases, an 
urgent feeling of hunger was not a prominent symptom ; and 
even when it existed at first, it soon disappeared, and was suc- 
ceeded by an actual loathing of food. In this state the muscit- 


lar strcn<^h was rapidly diminished, the tissues wasted, and the 
thin, skeleton-like forms moved ul)Out with the ap}x>urance of 
utter exhausticm and dejection. The mental conditiim con- 
necteil with long confinement, with the most miserable sur- 
roundings, and with no ho{x? for the future, also ileprt^ss^nl all 
the nervous and vital actions, and was t^|K»cially active in 
destroying the apjwlite. The elFccts of mental dcpivssitm, and 
of defective nutrili«»n, weix? manifcsti*<l not only in the shiw, 
feeble motions of the waste<l, skeleton-like forms, but also in 
such lethargy, listk*ssness, and tor|M>r i»f the m<Mit:;l facultu's sis 
rt^ndeitnl llu\se unfortunate men oblivious and inditfeivnt to 
their al!licte<l condition. In many cases, even of the greatest 
ap|win>nt siilfcring and distrt^ss, instead of showing any anxiety 
to communicate the causis of their distress, or to ivlate iheir 
privations, and their longings ft)r their luiuu^ ami their friends 
and n»lativt% they lay in a listleNS, lethargic, uncomplaining 
state, taking no nolici* either of their own distn'sscnl condition, 
or of the gigantic nuiss of huiimn miscTV by which ihcy were 
surroundiHi. Nothing a)»{)alled and depress<'d me so much as 
thissih»nt. uncomplainin«r misery, h is a fact of great interest, 
that ni>twithstandin;r this d(*f(H'tive nutrition in men subjivteil 
to cixjwdi ng an* I lilth, contairious f**V('i*s weiv raiv; and typhus 
fever, whieh is sup|himm1 lo 1h» ^'lu-raled in just such a .state of 
thin;:s as exi-sted at Anilei-soiivillf, was unknown. These facts, 
estalilishiMl bv mv invi-sti'MiiifUs, stand in strikin^r contnist 
with such a statement as the follow in«^ bv a recent Kn;:lish 

'•A deficiency of ftHnl, <»s}K*cially of the nitroirenous [Kirt, 
<|uickly leads lo the breaking up of the animal frame. IMa^rue, 
]H'stilt*nce and famine are ass(K*iated with each other in the 
imblic mind, and tlH» nrords of i*verv counlrv show htiw el«»s*»lv 
thev are relat«Ml. The mtnliral hi>lorvof Iit'laiul is n'markabic 
for the illustrations of h(»w miieh misehiff mav bi* «HH-asiomHi 
by a general defuifncy of fiMxI. Always the halutat of ft'ver. 
It <»ViTV n«»w and then Uii^mes the very Iml b mI i»f its pni|Ki- 
pition and devflopnii'nt. l>*t tli«'n* \h' Imt a .small fadiire in 
tlic usual im|H*rf4rt supply f»f foud, and the lurkiii;: .sintls of 

iH->tilfnce an* n»ailv toburst inlofrii^^litful aclivitv. Tin* famine 
I » ■ • 

ol tlie present c(.*ntury is but ti.»o foivible and illustralive of 


thif. It fostered epidemics which have not been witnessed in 
this generation, and gave rise to scenes of devastation and 
misery which are not sur|)asscd by the most appalling epidemics 
of the Middle Ages. The principal form of the scourge was 
known as the contagious famine fever (typhus), and it spreads 
not merely from end to end -of the country in which it had 
originated, but, breaking through all boundaries, it crossed the 
broad ocean, and made itself painfully manifest in localities 
where it was previously unknown. Thousands fell under the 
virulence of its action, for wiierevcr it c;ime it struck down a 
seventh of the people, and of those whom it attacked, one out 
of nine perished. Even those who escaped the fatal influence 
of it, were left the miserable victims of scurvy and low fever. ^* 
While we readily admit tliat famine induces that state of the 
system which is the most susceptible to the action of fever 
poisons, and thus induces the state of the entire population 
which is most favorable for the rapid and destructive spread of 
all contagious fevers, at the same time we are f )rced by the 
facts established by the present war, as well as by a host of 
others, both old and new, to admit that we arc still ignorant of 
the causes necessary for the origin of typhus fever. Added to 
the imperfect nature of the rations issued to the Federal 
prisoners, the ditticulties of their situation were at times greatly 
increased by the sudden and desolating luNleral raids in Vir- 
ginia, Georgia, and other States, which necessitated the sudden 
trans{>ortation from Richmond and other ]>oints threatened of 
large bodic?^} of prisoners, witiiout the {x»ssibility of much pre- 
vious pre{Kiration ; and not only did these men suffer in transi- 
tion u|>on the dilapidated and overbunlened line of niilmad 
communication, but after arriving at Andei^sonville, the rations 
were fre^iuontly insufficient to su|>ply the suddi^n addition of 
sevonil thousjind men. And 21s the ConfcMloracv became more 
and more pressetl, and when |)owfrful hostile arniios were 
plunging through her bosom, the Feileral jirisoners of Ander- 
sonvillo suffered incredibly during the hasty removal to Millen, 
8avannah, Charleston, and other |)oint^ supiioseil at the time 
to be secure from the enemy. Each one of these causes must 
be weighed when an attempt is made to estimate the unusual 
mortality among these prisoners of war. 



Vn. Srwrry. arinny from tamnun* ^ foo3 and nn/tet^iMl 
Uion, cauwd, dther dir*<<ly or indirfciJy, ni$vi'(fniA» <ff M« 
tiunonff tft« Federal priwtt^rt at And^nonvUU. 
h jtut only wei-8 tbe deathii referred lu unknown canSMt, to 
apoplexy, ti> lutuutma, and to debility, trooeulile \o scnrvy and 
ita effects; juid oot oaly wu the mortality in amoU-pox, poea- 


moniiL nn<l tj'plioid forer, uad in all tucattt AxfKw*, m'lm thim 
duubltxl by thi^Mcorbatta tuiot, but own Ui<>«> nil Uit iiniwrMil 
•od deadly bowel alTt<clinn« aniai< fnim thu wruj caqm-^ nnd 
dftrivnl tlirir futu] cluinict<T fn>in tlwi sitnc condition* i«liK-b 
prodocnd tlw scurry. In tmtl^ ibnw mi>ii ut ADilfniontilln 
wen^ in tbe a>ndition of a cn^w at son, ronlinnd iu a foul sbip 
npun ult meat and unvarying food, and witliout fraih vcge- 


tables. Not only so, but these unfortunate prisoners wore like 
men forcibly conKnecl and crowded uix>n a ship tossed about 
on a storinv ocean, without a rudder, without a coinnass, with- 
out a guiding-star, and without any apparent boundary or end 
to their voyage; and they reflected in their steadily increasing 
miseries the distressed condition and waning fortunes of a 
devastateii and blee<ling country, which was c<>ni|K»lletl, in jns;- 
tice to her own unfortunate sons, to hold these men in this 
most distressing captivity. 

I sjiw nothing in the scurvy which prevailed so universally 
at Amlersonville, at all different from tliis dist»ase as di»scril>ed 
by various standard writers. The mortality was no greater 
than that which has afllictetl a hundred shifts upon long voy- 
ages*, and it did not exceeil the mortality wliich has, ujwn more 
than one occasion, and in a much shorter iK*rio<l of time, anni- 
hilate<l largo armies and desolated beleaguereti cities. The 
general results of my investigations upon the chronic diarrhea 
and dysentery of the Fe<leral prisoners of Anderson ville were 
similar to those of the English surgeons during the war against 

IX. Dntgn exercl^d hut littU inftuence over the progress and 
fatal tft mi nation of chronic diarrhia and dy^tntery in the 
Military Pritton ami Hospittd at AndersonvilU^ chitjly bt'cause 
the propter form of nourishment {milky Ww, v^yetahies^ anti-ecor- 
hutirs^ and nourishing animal and vegetable soups) was not 
isstu*d^ and could not be procured in si{jficienl quantities for these 
jfick pri^toners. 

Opium allayed pain and checke<l the bowels temporarily, but 
the frail dam was soon swept away, and the p:itient ap|H*ared 
to \to but little better, if not the worse, for this merely palliative 
trejitment. The root of the difficulty could not be reaehetl by 
drugs ; nothing short of the wanting elements of nutrition 
would have tended in anv manner to rc%itore the tone of the 
digestive system, and of all the wasted and degenenited organs 
anil tissues. My opinion to this effect was exjiressed most 
diH.*ide<lly to the medical oflici*rs in charge of these unfortunate 
men. The ctirrectness of this view was sustained by the 
healthy and robust condition of the paroled prisoners, who 


received an extra ration, and who were able to make oonsider- 
able sums by trading, and who supplied themselves with a 
liberal and varied diet. 

X. The fact that luMpital gangrene appeared in the Stockade 
firsts and originated Mjfontanevu^lf/, without ant/ previous conta- 
gion^ and occurred ftjx/radicallg ail over the Stockade and Prison 
IL)Hjntal^ was ]>r*7i if positive that this distuiMe will arise wheryever 
the conditions of crowding^ filthy foul air^ and lad diet are 

The exhalations from the Hospital and Stixrkade a)>penrcd to 
exert their etTects to a considerable distance outsiile of these 
localities. The origin of giingn^ne among thc^se prisoners 
ap]K.*ared eUuirly to depend in givat nu'iusure upon the state of 
the general system, induced by diet, exposure, neglect of personal 
cleanliness, and by various external noxious influences. The 
rapidity of the a))|x?arance and action of the gangrene de{)ended 
ui)on the ix)\vers and state of the constitution, as well as upon 
the intensity of the {Kiiscin in the atmosphere, or u|M)n the direct 
application of poisonous miittor to the wounde<l surface. This 
was further ilhistrated by the im|)ortant fact, tliat hospital 
gangrene, or a disease resem tiling this form of gangrene, attacked 
the intestinal canal of patients hil>orin<; under ulreration of the 
bowels, although there were no local manifestations of gangrene 
uiK>n the surface of the body. This nifMle of termination in 
cast^ of dy.<entery was quite common in the foul atmosphere 
of the ConftHlerate States Military Pristni Hospital ; and in the 
di'pii?ssitl. depraved condition of the system of thi'so Ftnleral 
prist mefs, death ensued very rapidly after the gangn.*nous state 
of the intestines was established. 

XI. A s*»rhutic condition of the sysf*-m append to favor 
the origin if foul ulctrsy which frtq^uutly t*-»k un true Itospital 

Si'urvy and gsmgrene fn^uently existi^l in the same indi- 
vidual. In such cases, ve^i'table diet with vegetahle acids 
would remove the scorbutic condition without curing the 
hi>spital gangrene. . . Scurvy consists not only in an alteration 
in the constitution of the blood, which leads to jiassive hemor- 


rbflgfM from the IxtweU, And the cfTnsion into tlie rarioiu tissoot 
ot a dftvply-oloreid fibrinoas oxmUUtin; but, as we liaTS Don> 
oIuHtvcly sliown by jtojit-mortem cxumioation, tlib state is also 
altundcd xrith L-onsisti-ncc iif tlio mnsclL-s of the li«art, rikI of 
the uiuoom menitiruno of tbe iiliiucnl«rjr canal, and of Lbo 


A racno* ruiM Tint lABTcmi or rnr. nmov unov/nto -nii dkai> umi. 

■olid part* genisrallj?. Wn have, aooorriing to th** extent of tho 
deflcioncy of certain a.rtj<.-lc< of fowl, erory dd^^reo of KorbuUe 
di-mn'p-nu-nt, from Uio moft fiiarfiil dojirnratioR of tbe blood 
and tliv jM^fvmion iif vrcry funeLion giiliK>rvptl by thu blood, 
to thuK slight dE!ran;^incnU xvhich mre scarcely ilUtin^uislutble 
from B slat« of hcKlth. Wo are lu yet i^mnraat of the tnie 
utara of thu chan^^ of the bltxMl and tisKOo in Mitrvy, and a 
fliJil for inrestigntion m open for tlie dourminatitio of 
ebarmdchstia ohangca — ph^-ncal, chemical, and physio- 


logical — of the blood and tissues, and of the secretions and 
excretions of scurvy. Such inquiries would be of great value 
in their beiiring upon the origin of hospitsil gangrene. Up to 
the present war, the results of chemical investigations U])on 
the patiiolo^y of the blooil in scurvy were not only contradic- 
tory, but ino;i<i:iT, and wanting in that careful detail of the cases 
from which the blin^d was abstra4*ted which would enable us 
to explain the cause of the ap|)ai*ent discr4'pancies in different 
analyses. Thus it is not yet settled whether the librin is 
incrciised or diminished in this disease; and the differences 
which exist in the statements of ditfei*ent writers ap])ear to be 
referal)le to the negK»ct of a critical examination and recoixl of 
all the symptoms of the casis fnim which the blood was 
abstracttnl. Tiie true nature of tlie chan;j:cs of the bh>od in 
scurvv can Im' t'stablishcd onlv bv numrnuis analvses during 
different stages of the diseas**, and followi*d up by carefully 
perforuKMl and ivmnlnl jnMf-/,itfrf* /h examinations. With such 
data wo could settle such important ipiestions as whether the 
increase of librin in scurvy was invariahly dcpLMident u[x>n 
some local inflammatinn. 

tiMMti»\ iijtjtf iir^t) in i<*un' rtijuM In trhirh tht-r* h*ul //»#/* /*#* pvi^ 
Vio'is ifi* *jrisf}n«j wtnin*! or ahnrsiun; ttml ir!t!i*»iit aurh icM 
e^fti^t/t/t/o 1/ T\i''fM, tt /it !>//§( Jh. iiJtMunnt/ tlutt thi ili/^**tKf trajn propt^ 
gat* it f rank nn* j^nfi* nt to annth* r in / r* /•// f«M», tith**r hy tjeluUa. 
tion M from th* on norf n»mn h u rfa ' '•' io* b u tllr* * ■/ / *<//< txict. 

In such a Ulthy and crowd«»<l ho<|)ital as that of the Con- 
feih'rale States Military l*rison of Camp Sumter, Anderson- 
ville, it was im|Nis.Nibl(* in i*;nhiti» the WMund«Mi fmm thi» .soun-es 
of actual C4inta4't <»f the •r.mgi'entius matter. Thf tlii-s swarming 
ovtT the Wounds and over tilth of **very <lescriplii»n: the Hllhy, 
im|N*rfiH-tly washe<l, and scanty rairs; the limit(*d number uf 
s|N»n;res an«l wash -bu wis uhe s;im«* wasli-bi»\vl ami s|Mnge 
serving for a .sci>re or moiv of patieiitsi, wen* one and all 
soun-es of such constant cireulatiun of the gaii;:i"eniiu< matter, 
that the mi;:lil ni]»ldly l>e pmpairaieil frnm a single 
gan^n^nous wt»un»l. While the fact ainsidy ci»nsidenHl, that 
a form uf moi.-^l gangrene, re.M-mbliiig ho^pital gangrvue, was 


quite common in this foul atmosphere in cases of dysenterj, 
both with and without the existence of haspital gangrene upon 
the surface, denionstnitt^ tlie tle])en(lence of the disc^itsc upon 
the state of the constitution, and proves in a clear manner that 
neither the contact of the j)oison<^us matter of ganjjivne, nor 
the dii*cct action of the poisoneil atmospliere u])on the ulcerated 
surface, is ncressary to the development of the disease : on the 
other hand, it is tHpially wrll-established that the disease may 
be cumnmnioattMl by the vari<.Kis ways just mentioned. It is 
imiK)ssible to determine the length of time which rags and 
clothing saturated with gangivnous matter will retain the 
power of repHKlucing the dis^^ase when applied to healthy 
wounds. Professor Urui^mans, as ({uoteil by (rutlirie in his 
commentaries on the surgery of the war in Tortu^nd, Spain, 
France, and the Netherlands, says that in IT'^T, in Holland, 
charpie, comi)osed of Imen thn^ads cut of dilfeirnt lengthsi 
which, on inijuii'V, it wius foun4l hiul Uvn alix'aily used in the 
great hospitals in Franco, and had been subseipi'Miily v.ashed 
and bleachwl, causcnl every ulcer to which it wjus applied to be 
aiTt^ctcd by hospital gangivne. (lUthrie atlirms in the same 
work, that the fact that this disease was readilv communicated 
by ti)e application of instruments, lint, or bandaji^es which had 
bei*n in contact with inftnteil {uircs, was too tirmly clablishod 
by the ex|>erieni'e of every one in Portugal ivul Sjmin to be a 
matter of doubt. There are facts to show that tliei may be 
the means of communicating malignant pustu!;^. Dr. Wagner, 
who has related several causes of malignant pustule prcMluced 
in man and beasts, both bv contact and bv eat in '^ the flesh of 
diseas(*d animals, which hapiK'ntnl in the village of Striessa in 
8axony, in 1834, gives two very renmrkable ciiSi\H which 
occurred eight days after any beiist hail been atTivteil with the 
disease. Ik>th were women, one of twentv-six an4l the other 
of fifty years, and in them the |)ustules were well marked, and 
the general symptoms similar to the other cases. The latter 
patient said she had been bitten by a fly u]X)n the back of tbo 
neck, at which \iari the carbuncle appeared ; and the former, 
that she had also been bitten U|)un the right upper arm by a 
gnat. Upon incjuin', Wugner found that the skin of one of 
the infected beasta had been hung on a neighboring wall, and 


thought it very possible that the insects might have been 
attracted to them by the smell, and had thenoe conveyed the 

[End of Dr. Stomuoo*! StoteiMiit] 

The old adage says that '^ Ilungcr is the best sauce for poor 
food/' but hunger failed to render this detestable stuff |ialat- 
able, and it became so loathsome that very many actually 
starved to death because unable to force their organs of deglu- 
tition to receive the nauseous dose and \yi\ss it to the stomach. 
I was always much healthier than the avenigi^ of the boys, and 
my appetite conse<|uentIy much l)ctter, yot for the Inst month 
that I was in Anderson ville, it rcc|uiriM.l all my determination 
to crowd the bread down my tlin>at, and, as I have statctl 
before, I could only do this by breaking off small bits at a time, 
and forcing oacli down iu» I would a pill. 

A large part of this repulsivcMioss was due to the axirsonoss 
and foulness of the meal, tlu* wivIcIkmI conking, anti the luck of 
salt, but there was a still more ]N)t(Mit it^asnn than all these. 
Nature does not int(*nd that man kIiuII live bv bread alone, nur 
by any one kind of ftnul. She indicates this by the varying 
tastes and longings that she giv4's liiiii. If his IxnIv ntnnls mio 
kind of c<institiieiits, lii*^ tastes lead Iiiin to desire tite fiNnl that 
is richest in those con^titueIlts. When he has taken as much 
as his system nnjiiires, the senst» «»f satiety sii|N'rveiies. and ho 
"becomes tinnl" f>f that particular UhmI. If tasii^i a!v not jmt- 
verted, but allowetl a fi\i* but teniiK*rate exei\'is«\ tiny an* the 
surest indicators of the way to piiverve health and stn»nglli by 
a judicious selection of alimentation. 

In this c;Lse Nature was ]>n^iesiing by a n^lM-llion of the 
tastis against any further usi» c^f that s|KH'ii*s of UhkI. She was 
lavin;:. its nlainlv :ls she ever siN»ke, that 4l(*atii cmild onlv Ih9 
avertixl by a clian^^e of diet, which wnuld sup[ily our UMlies 
with the constituents thev so s;idlv nivdetl. and which could 
not lie supplitnl by corn meal. 

How neetlless was this confinement of «inr ratii»ns to com 
meal, and «»s|H»cially lo such wrelche*lly pifpannl mral, is i.*on- 
clusivelv shown bv the KeU'l testiuionv heivinfiHv I'iven. It 
Would have been verv little extra tmulile to the Ikclx'ls to have 

A ROBT or REBRL MILITA&Y l»IUi>i)N8. 898 

had <far meal sifted ; we would gladly have done it oarsdvoB if 
allowed the utensils and opportunity. It would bftve been as 
little trouble to have varied our rations with green oom and 
sweet potatos, of which the country was then full. 

A few wagon loads of roasting ears and sweet potatos 
would have banished every trace of scurvy from the camp^ 
healed up the wasting dysentery, and saved thousands of lives. 
Any day that the Rebels had chosen they could have gotten a 
thousand volunteers who would have given their solemn parole 
not to escape, and gone any distance into the country, to gather 
the potatos and com, and such other vegetables as were read- 
Oy obtainable, and bring them into the camp. 

Whatever else may be said in defense of the Southern man- 
agement of military prisons, the permitting seven thousand 
men to die of the scurvy in the Summer time, in the midst of 
an agricultural region, filled with all manner of green vegeta. 
lion, must forever remain impossible of explanation. 



We a^m l)Ogan to be exceedingly solicitous over the fate of 
Atlaiitu und Sherman's Ann v. We had lieanl but little directly 
from that front for several weeks. Few prisoners had come in 
since those captured in the blixKly engagements of the 20th, 
22d, ami 'J'^th of July. In spite of tlieir confident toneSi 
and our own sanguine hoi)es, the outlook admitted of very 
grave doubts. The battles of the bust week of July had been 
— look at it in the best light {possible — indecisive. Our men 
had held their own, it is true, but an invading army can not 
afford to simply holtl its own. Anything short of an absolute 
8ucci\ss is to it disguist»il defeat. Then we knew that the cav- 
alry cohimn .sent out under Stoneman had bei»n so badly 
handled by that ini'Hieient commander that it had failed ridio> 
ulously in its obJLH.'t, Ix'ing lx*aten in detail, and suffering the 
loss of its commander and a considerable |Kirtion of its num- 
bers. This had Ix-en followeil by a defeat of our infantry at 
Etowah Creek, and then came a long interval in which we 
receivtHl no news save what the Kel^el papers contained, and 
they pn'tentlctl no doubt that Sherman's failure was already 
demonstnited. Next came wrll^uthenticated news that Sher* 
man had raistnl thi* sicgf and fallen b;ick to the Chattahoocheei| 
and we felt something of the bitterness of des|xur. Fordaya 
thereafter we hcanl nothing, though the hot, close Summer air 
seemt\l surcharged with the premonitions of a war storm about 
to burst, even as nature heralds in the same way a concentra- 

fc rrottir ov kkhul militauv fKHfoKs. 

D of the mighty forco of the elements for the gnnd crash of 
I tbundorstorm. We waited in tense expwtancy for the 
scision of the fulex wltutfacr Bnal indory or dufc<at shduld end 
th« Ion;; uml anluouit <.-niiii«i^. 

At i]i<,'lit ih)- lupianLn in the perche* amund ttw Stockiide 
calln) <iut ovt-rv half hour, bu as to sliow the olfice» that they 
wore awiikc und iittunding to tbwr duty. The formula for this 

^ran thus: 
*'Pfl«t iiuiiiliali 1; half'|KLst eight o'cloolc, nod a~l-l-'t 
PoMt Xo. it ru|M<ntud thb cty, und bo ii went aroond. ' 
Om* t'VfnJnf( trhon our anxiety as to Atlimta wna wrought 
to the high^Hl pitcli, one of tlie gaardH sang oat : 
"^ Post numliuh ftiah — half povl eight o'cluck — and Atianta't 
-~ffOM — t~'0 — A—l/.'" 
The heart of every man within bearing leaped to his month. 
^^^^^^^^^ We looked totrard eadl 

V y^ Jtff^^ "iher, almost s|K!ecbl«B 

I f ^3jt^ ^^''''> s'*^ Huqirioo, and 

^^^MP^^^M^^^^^f-jL ''Hid y" hntr 

P^Ht^^^^^H^^^^^^^SHi l')>e iiiich a 

Ji^^HJ^^^^H^^^^H^C^ ringing ulirer burst out as 
wvll^ ftpfjiitikfivuiuily from 
the thrnnl.t and Iti^irU uf 
men, in the tlntL i-cstatio 
^ moiiicntA of Victory — a 
'- ch«vr to whit^h our «ad- 
-: deued hisarta uiul enfee- 
' blul lungs liud long t)<t><-n 
' Htrangi-r&. It trustiio geo> 
utue, hunuHt, niiiiily North- 
ern cb(«r, lut ditftrvnl tn>m 
the slirill Ueixri yell as ttio 
h o D V s t III ft s t i ff ' s i](y»p- 
■ Tuicvd w(^ei>wo t> frijiu the 
■~"' howl of the prowling wolf. 

The about waa taken up all over the prison. Even tbou who 
had not henn) the guard ondentood ttiat it meant that "Atlanta 


was ours and fairly won," and they took up the acclamation 
with as much enthusiasm as we had begun it. All thoughts of 
sleep were put to flitch t : we would have a season of rejoicing. 
Little knots gathered together, debut(.*d the news, and indulged 
in the most sanguine hofies as to the elfect ui)on the Rebels. 
In some parts of the Stcx-kade stump siH*eches were made. I 
believe that Hoston Corbett and his party organized a prayer 
and ])niise meeting. In our corner we stirriHl up our tuneful 
friend "Nosey," who Siing again tlie grand ohi {liitriotic hymns 
that set our thin hUnnl to hnMnding, and made us remember 
that we were still Union s<jldiers, with higher Iiii|m*s than that 
of starving and dying in Andci-Minvilh*. lit' sjing th«* ever- 
glorious Star Sitangled I'anner, as ht* us<h1 to sing it arouml the 
camp tire in happier days, when wo were in the Held, lie gang 
the rousing " liiiUy Hound the I lag," with its wealth of |iutri- 
otic lire and martial vigor, and we, with thro;its hoarso from 
slioutiiig, joined in the chorus until the welkin Ring agsim. 

The KelK.*Is bei'unie excited, ll•^t (»ur f.xaltatidu of spirits 
would lead to an ass;iult uixm the Stm-katle. They got untler 
arms, and remaineil so until the enthusiasm became less demon- 

A few days later — on the evening of the tith i»f Seplembtir 
— the IJeliel Sergeants wht» called the roll entrriMl tlie Stock- 
ade, aiul each assembling his s(|nads, addrcss4Ml them :is follows: 

" l*iciM)XKRs: 1 am instruc-t«Hl bv (U^nenil Winder to inform 
you that a general exeliange lui^ Unmi agn-inl u|M>n. Twenty 
th(>u.s;ind men will lie exehanL'i.*4l imnuHliatelv at Savannah, 
where your vessels are now waiting for you. Detaehments 
from One to Ten will prepare lc»li*:ive early tiJ-nuirnAv nnirning.-' 

The excitement that this news priKhu'^HJ was siinplv inde- 
scrilnible. I have se<»n men in evi«rv iMixsibU* exigency that 
can cunfiXiUt men, and a largi* ]iro{Nirtif»n vuwcnI that 
which imi^endLHl over them with at leaM uutwanl eotn leisure. 
The Ikjvs around me had endun-d all that we sutfei-eil with sto- 
ical firmnciss. (innins fii>iii ]iain-raekiil iNtdh-s enuld not lie 
repn'sst-tl, and bitter curses and inaiiMllitinns again>t the UeU'ls 
lea|HHl unbidden to the lips ai lh»' s!ii;l«te^l iHi-a>i«»ii, liul there 
wa> no murmuring or w^lminL^ TlitTf was i\n\ a «lay — iianlly 
an hour — in which one did not mi* sueh exluliiiii»ii> uf manlv 


was ours and fairly won," and they took up the aeclamation 
with as much enthusiasm as we had begun it. AH thoughts of 
sleep were put to flight : we would have a season of rejoicing. 
Little knots gatherc*il together, debated the news, and indulged 
in the most siinguine ho|)es as to the elfect u|M>n the Rebels. 
In some parts of tl)e fcjtockude stump s|HH'chos woix*. made. I 
believe that l*c^ton Corbett and his juirty organized a prayer 
and jiniise meeting. In our corner we slintHl up our tuneful 
friend " Nosey," who siing again tln» grand oKI {Kitriotic hymns 
that set our thin bhxKl to iHrmding, and made us remember 
that we were still Union soldii*i*s, with higher ho|vs than that 
of starving and dying in Anders* )nvilie. lit' siing the ever- 
glorious Star Spangleil I>anner, as ht* usttl to sing it around the 
camp tire in happier days, when we wer4' in the Held. He eang 
the rtiusing •* lially Hound the Fhig," with its wealth of |iatri- 
otic fii*e and martial vigor, and we, with thro;its hoarse from 
shouting, joined in the ehorns until the welkm rang agsim. 

The liel>els became excited, lest our e\altati(»n of spirits 
would lead to an assiiult u|Kin the St<M'kaii«*. They got under 
arms, and remained so until the enthusiasm liec;ime less demon- 

A few days later — on the evening of the iSih «if September 
— the UeU'l Sergeants who calK'd the roll entere*} the Stock- 
ade*, and each assemblin<; his si|naiis. adtin\sse<l them as follows: 

" l*Kisi)XKRs: I am instructiHl bv (Jeneral Winder to inform 
you that a general exchange Ikls lM»en a^rntnl ujKin. Twenty 
thous;ind men will Ix; exchanLre<l iminetliatelv at Savannah, 
where your vessels are now waiting for you. detachments 
from One to Ten will ])n*pare to leave «-ariy tomorrow morning." 

The excitement that this news prodiieinl was sim|)ly imlo- 
scriljuble. I have s«vn men in every {NKsibie exitri-ncy that 
can confront men, and a largi* ])ro|N»rti(»n vi<\ve«l that 
which imjiended over th«Mn witii at li\i>t fintwanl coni|iosure. 
The ImjVS around me had endup'tl all that we >ntTtMf'<l with sto- 
ical finuness. (rnKins from pain-rackrd UidiiN could not lie 
repn^ssttl, and bitter curs<*s and maied let ions a<:ainNi the Uidu'ls 
lea|NMl unbidden to the lip> at tln' slii^htt'^t «Mi*:L^i<i!i. bui there 
wa> n«» nuirmuring or whniinL'. riM-n- ua> m»! a «l:iv — hanllv 
an hour — in which one did not mi> siii-h exhtiiition> 4if manly 

A nuBy or ukbki. tuurrAitT nu^uxa. 


ftHtitude as made him proud of belonging to a moo of wbioh 
every iodtvidual wss a hero. 

But the emotion nbiob pain luid suffering and danger ooold 
not develop, joy oould, and boys sang, and &hout««I and cried, 
and danood as if in u delirium. "Gud's country," fairer t^an 
ibo sweet promised land of Canaan up)>eanvl to the rapt vision 
i>t the Hebrew poet pruphut, sprt^id out in glad vista liefors tbo 
mind's oyi." of evurv one- Ithadoome — at laat it had oonu} — 
that which we bad no lunged for, wished for, prayed for. 

drauned of; achemed, planned, toilnd for, and for which mnt 
Dp the last eametii, dying wish of the thottinnibor oaroom- 
radea who would now know no exchange save into thai eternal 
" God's ooontry" where 


Oar " preparations " for leartng were few and sjinple. When 
the mumtng cune^ and shortly after the order to moro, Androwi 

893 AM»KKS(>N%'ILLE. 

and T pirkH our well-worn blanket, our tattered overcoat, our 
rude eliessnien, and no less rude iMiard, our little black can, and 
the s])(»on made of hooiHrun. and bade farewell to the hole-in- 
the-gn)und that liad been our home for nearly seven long 

Mv fcH't were still in miserable condition from the lacerations 
nveivtMl in the attempt to escape, but I took one of our tent 
poles as a staff and hobl)led away. We re-jKissed the gates 
which we had entered! on that February night, ages since, it 
secMUed, and cm win! slowly over to the de|)ot. 

I had rome to reirard the KcIk'Is around us as such measure- 
less Hal's that my lii-st impulse was to Mieve the reverse of 
anytliin;^ th(*y said to us; and even now, while I hoyied for the 
Ix'st, my old habit iff mind was so stnm^ly u}K>n me that I had 
some dnubts (»f our going to Ik* exchanged, simply because it 
was a Uebel wlio hm] s;iid so. Hut in the crowd of lielx^ls who 
sttNHl rifise to the road uiK>n whieh we wei-e walking was a 
youn«r S«>('f>n<I Lieutenant, who s;iid tn a CoKinel as I ])as8cd: 

"Weil, those fellows can sing 'llomewartl Hound,' can^t 
thev r 

This set my last misgiving at n»st. Now 1 was certain that 
we were gi»ing to l»e exchanginl, ami my spirits soured to the 

Kiitering the cais we thum|HNi and poumknl toil.somcly along, 
afti-r tilt* manner of Scuithnn railrimds, at the nite of six or 
eight iiiih's an hmir. Savannah was two hundre<i and forty 
milt's awav, and in nur imnatimt minds it seemed as if we 
wiuiM n«*viT gel ilieiv. The rnute lay the whole distance 
tlirtiULrh I he ehe«Ti«'Ss pine harr»*ns which cover the greater 
]»ari «»l" <irn:-gia. The nnly cnns:d«»r;ible town on the way was 
Macf»n. wiiiih liad then a |HfpuIalion of iive th(iUs:ind or there- 
abduts. I'nr M'oies of miles there would not U* a siirn of a 
human habitation, and in the cfue liundrL^ii an<l eighty miles 
li«'t\\ren Maeiin antl Savannah there were only three insignifi- 
cant vilhiLT'-s. Thfiv was a station everv ten miles, at which 
thf oitly ii:i:l(ling was an open >h('d, to shelter from sun and 
rain a r;i^i:a! pa>M-n^f'r, or a b.t of giNKls. 

1 !;•• «•<«•; >Minal >|H'c:iin-ns i«f il.t* |M.ur whiti' "cracker" iv»pil- 
lal.":i !!..!» '. *■ si'A. >• ' nit.'il w 'i l'« i;"'i"* pi««lntis of tiie Ntarved 



aoon be in one vhioh, ootnpored to it, tm as the fatnesi a( 
Egypt to the luumuss of the desert of Sinai. 

TbeBeoond di\y after leaving Anderson rille our train slnggloi 
acros the swamps into Sa^'anuali, and rolled slowly doim the 
live oak shadod streets into tlio center of the City. It seemod 
lilfe another Deserted V'illAge, so vacant and noiseless thtt 
streets, and the buildiu^i everywhere so overgrown with Inxn* 
riant vc-jrotulion. The limbd of the aUado trees crashed aloo^ 
and broke upon the topi of our oars, as if no train hod puiAd 
that war for yean. Through the interstices between the treat 
und clumps of folioKo ouuld be seen the gluaminj; white marUa 
ot the luouumente erected to Greene and Pulaski, looking lika 
giant tombitoncs in a City of the Dead. The unbroken stiU' 
neaa — so different from what wo expected on entering ths 
mctroifulia of (jeorf^io, and a City that was an imporUnt port 
in lievolutionary days — became absolutely oppreesira Wo 
ooujd not □□der»taud it, but our thoughts were more intent 
npon tite coming transfer to our Hag than upon any speculation 
OS to tile cauitu of the nimarkable aomnolonoe of Sarannah. 

Finally tiotne little boys straggled oot to where oar car wu 
standing, and we opened up a oonrorsatioQ with tbcm : 

" Say, boys, are our vessels down in the harbor yet f 

The re])ly came in tbot pteretng treble dirtek in which a boy 
of ten or twelve makes even his most oonfidGntial oo m mnnio^ 

" I don't know." 

"Well," (with our ooDfldenoe in exchange ■ontewbatdaafaodj 
" ibey intend to exchange us beto, don't they f* 

Anotlicr faketto scream, "I don't know." 

"Wi^l," (nith aoint>thing of a quaver in the questiooef't 
voice,) " what are tliey going to do wilJi n*, any way f 

** O," (the treble siiriek became almost dsmoniao) " they are 
fixing up a |>Ucn uver by the old jail (or yoa." 

Wtiat a sinking of hearts wai there tlieal Andrews and I 
would not gire up hope so gpeedily as some oUwiv did, and 
rewired to bclivve, (or awhile at Irast, that we were going to 
be exchanged. 

Ordered uut of the can, we were manned along tbe street 
A crowd of small boys, (all of the cariosity ot tbe anit«»l, 


gathered around us as we marched. Suddenly a door in a 
rather nice bouse opened ; an angry-faced woman appeared on 
the stci)6 and shouted out : 

^^Boys! DOYslI What are you doin* there? Come up on the 
steps immejitely ! Come away from them nra-^-t^ thingsX " 

I will admit that we were not prepossessing in appearance; 
nor were we as cleanly as young gentlemen should habitually 
be; in fact, I may as well confess that I would not now, if I 
could liolp it, allow a tramp, as dilapidated in raiment, as 
unwashed, unshorn, uncombed, and populous with insects as we 
were, to come withm several rods of me. Nevertheless, it was 
not j>f*'amnt to hear so accurate a description of our personal 
apiH^irance sont forth on the wings of the wind by a shrill- 
voicotl Iiol)el female. 

A short march brought us to the place '^ they were fixing for 
us by the old jail." It was another pen, with high walls of 
thick pine plank, which told us only too plainly how vain were 
our oxi>ectation8 of exchange. 

When we were turned inside, and I realized that the gates of 
another prison had closed u|x>n me, hope forsook me. I flung 
our CMlious little possessions — our can, chess-board, overcoat, 
and blanket — u|)on the ground, and, sitting down beside them, 
gave way to the bitterest des{)air. I wanted to die, O, so 
badly. Never in all my life had I desired anything in the 
worhl so much as I did now to get out of it. Had I had pistol, 
knife, n>|)e, or |K)ison, I would have ended my prison life then 
and there, and departed with the unceremoniousness of a French 
leave. I rememljered that 1 could get a quietus from a guard 
with very little trouble, but I would not give one of the bitterly 
hatcnl KeU^ls the triumph of shooting me. I longed to be 
another Samson, with the whole Southern Confederacy gath- 
cn*i\ in another Tein])le of Dagon, that I might pull down the 
sup|Mirting pillars, and die happy in slaying thou.siinds of my 

While I was thus sinking dee])er and deeper in the Slough of 
I>esiiK>ml, the tiring i>f a musket, and the shriek of the man who 
was struck, attracte<l my attention. Looking towards the 
o,>|M>site end of tlie ]h;u I saw a guard bringing his still smok- 
ing musket to a '' recover arms,"' and, not fifteen feet from hin|^ 



a prisoner lying on the fi^ound in the agonies of death. The 
latter luul a \n\iii in his niuuth when he was shot, and his teeth 
still clenchitl its stem. His legs and arnis were drawn up ooa- 
vulsiv(*ly, and he was nx'king backwanl and forward on his 
back. The charge had struck hiiu just above the hip-bone. 

The Kel>el oflicer in coniuiand of the guard was sitting on his 
horse inside the ])en at the time, and ro<le forward to see what 
the matter was. Lieutenant Davis, who had come with us from 
Amlersonville, was also sitting on a horse inside the prison, and 
he call<Hl out in his usual harsh, disagreeable voice : 

'* That's all right, Cunnel ; the man's done just as I awdahod 
him to," 

I found that lying around inside were a number of bits of 
plank — each about live feet long, which had been sawed off 
by the car])enters engaged in building the prison. The ground 
being a bare common, was destitute of all shelter, and the pieces 
looke<l as if they would be quite useful in building a tent. 
Thei*e may have been an onler issued forbidding the prisoners 
to touch them, but if so, I had not heard it, and I imagine the 
first intimation to the prisoner just killed that the boards were 
not to be taken was the bullet which penetrated bis vitals. 
Twenty-tive cents would be a liberal appraisement of the value 
of the luMi))er for which the bov lost his life. 

Half an hour afterwanl we thougtit we saw all the guards 
march out of the front gsite. There Wiis still another pile of 
these same kind of pieces of boanl lying at the further side of 
the prison. The crowd around me noticed it, and we all made 
a rush for it. In spite of my lame fei*t I out.strip|KHl the rost« 
and was just in the act of st4N)ping down to pick the IxHirtls up 
when a loud yell iixmi thi«e behind startliM.1 me. Glancing to 
my left 1 saw a guanl cocking his gun and bringing it up to 
shoot me. With (me frigliteni-tl spring, asipiick as a tlash, ami 
before lie could cover me. I landetl fullv a txhI luick in thecrtiwd, 
and mixiil with it. The fellow tritnl hanl to dniw a beiul on m«\ 
but I was too quick for him, and he finally loweixnl his gun with 
an cxith expressive of dis:ipiKiintment in not being able to kill a 

Walking Kick to my place the full hidioniusness of the thing 
dawned upon me so forcibly that I forgot all about my excite- 


ment and scare, and laughed aloud.' Here, not an hour ago, 
I was murmuring because I could find no way to die ; I sighed 
for death as a bridegroom for the coming of his bride, and 
yet, when a Itebel had pointed his gun at me, it had nearly 
scared me out of a year's growth, and made me jump farther 
than I oould possibly do when my feet were well, and I was in 
good condition otherwisa 



Andrews and I did not let tlie fate of tlic boy who was killed, 
nor my own narmw escai)e from losing the top of my bead, 
deter us from fail her efforts to secure possession of those got* 
eted boanls. My readers remember the story of the boy who, 
digging vigorously at a hole, replie<l to the remark of a passing 
traveler that there was probably no ground-hog there, and, 
even if there was, "ground-hog was mighty poor eating any 

wav," with — 


•'Mister, there's got to be a ground-hog there; out famiIj/^9 
out // iHtat!'^^ 

That was what actuated us: we were out of material for a 
tent. Our S4.»litarv blanket had rottinl and worn full of holoB 
by its lon^ double duty, as bed-clothes and tent at Anderson- 
vilh*. and tliere w«ls an im])erative cidl for a substitute. 

Andrews and I llattered ourselves that when we matched our 
colkvtive or individual wits against those of a Johnny bis 
defeat was j»rriiy certain, and with this olieerful estimate of 
our own |M»wers to animate us, we si»t to work to steal the 
IhkuiIs from und«*r the guanl's nose. The Johnny had nudice 
in his heart and bui'k-and-kdl in his musket, but his eves were 
not surtirii-ntly nunieri>us to a<ltH|uatrly di>cliar^'e all the duties 
laid u|N>n hiuL He had to4» many dilTen^nt tilings to watch ut 
the s;ime tinu*. I would appn»ach a gap in tlie fenci* n«»t vet 
closed as if I inteiideil making a ihish througli it for liberty, 




ud when tiie Johnny had oonoentratcd sJI his ftttentioa on 
letting nie liarc the contenU of tiLi gnu just us aoon as he ooold 
have a reasonablo exctuo for doing so, AnilrowB would pick np 
a ooaplo of boanls und slip ari-ay with them. Then I ivotilU 
^1 bade in prcUMiiltMl (ami Dome real) alarm, and Arulrowi 
would c«imo up and draw bis attention by a similar feint, T ~ ~ 
1 miulE! olT with a couple moro pii-oes. Aiter a few hoars c 
this rtnitt^'r wv foonil ouraulvcs tho posMwsora of some li 
ptanks, with which wu made a loan-to, th»t formvd u tolerable 
shelter for our heads and thn upper portion of our bodim. Aa 
the Ixmrds wcro not over li<re feet long, and tho slope tvdacod 
the Bhelluro) bjuux In about four-and -one- half feet, it left the 
lower i»art of otir nokwl fwt and legs lo project " out-of-doora." 
Andrews lucit to lament very toiichin^ly the siinbunting bis 
toe-nails \r&e reodring. He know that hin oumplexion was 
botngniinodforlifci, and all tho " Balm of a Tbousnnrl Flowers" 

in the wcH-ld 
wofdd not n' . 
store h» ixmim- ' 
ly ankles to 
lliat oondition 
of prist! neloTo- 
linesB which 
would admit of 
their introduo- 
tinn into good 
jj'«-;ity again. 
was tlmt, Uk« 
the fan in a 
prn<^iral juke, 
. all on 
■'■ : Uicre 
; .niiugh 

WT onpleaaant, wh- 1 up in a direoUui differ 

— k that w« had calculntt^^ u[K>n, to b« oompelled to get oot li 


tho mul»t of it, anil Imild our boose oror to face tfa« otbor 

Still vrv Uad a lent, and were that much better off than threr 
foiirtliK nf uur Lxminidcs who had no ithcJKT at olL We wen 
owners of u bruivn stone front on Fifth Avenae comfMired to 
the ottior fellowst. 

Our tent envted, we began a general surrey of nnr new 
abiding place. The ground was a sandy eotnmoa in the oat- 
•kirts of Saruinah. The Mad iras oorered with a light sod. 


Wtetta totnniMl out. We wcrenottboboya t< 
invitation. By nigbt about tbreo tbonsud had been nimivcd 
from Andenionrille, and place<l inside. When moralng mine it 
lookeil an if a coliiuy of gi>>aatic rats had been at work. There 
was a tunuH every ten or flfl<'en feet, and at least twelve htm- 
drod of ns had gone out thrcmgh ibt-m during the oigbt. I Dew 
onderstood wby all in tbe {-en did not follow oitrezunpli^ 
and leen the guards watebing a fomaken Priaoo. Then was 
Dotbing to prevent tL An hoar's industriooi work with a half 


oantoen would take any one outsidey or if a boy was too lazy to 
dig his own tunnel, he could have the nse of one of the handred 
others that had been dug. 

Hut escaping was only began when the Stockade was passed. 
The sito of Savannah is virtually an island. On the north is the 
Savannah River ; to the east, southeast and south, are the two 
O^reochce Rivers, and a chain of soands and lagoons connecting 
with the Atlantic Ocean. To the west is a canal connecting 
the Savannah and Big Ogeechee Rivers. We found ourselves 
hea<led otT by water whichever way we went. All the bridges 
were guanlcnl, and all the boats destroyed. Early in the morn- 
ing the Rebels discovered our absence, and the whole garrison of 
Savannah was sent out on patrol after us. The}* picked up the 
boys in s^iuaids of from ten to thirty, lurking around the shores 
of the streams waiting for night to come, to get across, or 
engage<l in building rafts for transportation. By evening the 
whole mob of us were back in the pen again. As nobody 
was punished for running away, we treatCHl the whole affair 
as a lark, and those brought back first stood around the gate 
and veiled derisivelv as the others came in. 

That night big fires were built all around the Stockade, and 
a line of guards plitced on the ground inside of these. In spite 
of this precaution, quite a number escaped. The next day a 
Dead Lino was put up inside of the Prison, twenty feet from the 
Stockade. This only increased the labor of burrowing, by 
making us go farther. Instead of being able to tunnel out in 
an hour, it now took three or four hours. That night several 
hundred of us, rested from our previous performance, and hope- 
ful of better luck, brought oar faithful half canteens — now 
scoured very bright by constant use — into requisition again, 
and before the morning dawned we had gained the high reeds 
of the swami)s, where we lay concealed until night 

In this way we managed to evade the recaptare that came to 
most of those who went oat, but it was a fearful experienoe. 
Having been raised in a country where venomous snakes 
abounded, I had that fear and horror of them that inhabitants 
of those districts feel, and of which people living in sections free 
from soch a scourge know little. I fancied that the Southern 
twamps were filled with all forms of loathsome and poisonoQi 



reptilpR, and it rcquiny] all my courago to Tnnlure into tlum 
buPc!<>o[«]. lieside*. the snags and rooU hurt our feet fear- 
fully. Onr liii|* was to find a boat nomewhere, in which ire 
oonid float nut to sea, and trust to licing picke'l op by «ome at 
tb« blixrkuding Hi^t. But no bo&t could wo timl, with ull oar 
painful (Uid ililigcnl tst^arvh. We learnt^) afterward that th« 
Rebels made a practice of breaking Dp all the boaU alon^ th« 
shoru to prevuit 
neffrra and their 
osoitping to tbf) 
blockading flaei. 
W I houglit o ( 
iQukiiig a raft of 
logs, but hiid we 
bad thv strength to 
do this, wo woold 
donbtloss bATe 
thoaght it too 
rinky, Hinoo we 
drmdei) misiia|f 
thu Tcssula, and 
being oarricil oat 
to sea to pinish of 
hunger. l>uriDg 
th« niglit wn cnme 
to tb« niilniad 
bridge aoron tlw Og««cluw. We bad some alc-ndcr hope that 
if wn conld reach thia ni! migbt porhopi get acron th« rivor, 
and find bciilRr u|i|NirLunilies for flsca|)e. But tbote last cxprot^ 
ali»na wore bhist«?d by Ihw disoovery that it was (jannlpd. 
T\tvn: wnK a i>i«t and a firs on tbo nboTB next utt, and a tingle 
guanl with a Uintem was stattooed oa one of thv middle sjiatti. 
Almint fainisbfMl with hunger, and to weai^' and fiKfUure Uiat 
we could tfCitrci'ly inovi? anotltur stop, we went Inck to a doared 
phtcv on i)k! high ground, and laid down to alvup, entirely reek- 
loM ai to what bwmnie of ua Late m the morning we wen 
awakened by ibe Rebel patrol and talcca back to tbe priaoo. 
Lieutenant Davia, di^tuted with the perpetual atteoipti !• 

THsaa WAS A poer jutd a nax. 



e»cape, mnved the Doad Lino out forty /eet from tlio Stooltade ; 
but this nwtriolwi our room greatly, Bnc« Uio number of (wi*- 
oners in tlie (mn hiwl now risen to nbout six thousand, anil, 
beddes, it offered litUo additional prou>ction aguiust lunitoling. 

. nns Dot much more diffloott to dig 

I fifty feet than it bad be^ to dig thirty 

I foet. Davis aooo realixed this, luid pot 

I tliG Dead Lino hock to twenty fout. 

n>>xt ilpvioo was a much more soiui- 

"Ho. A crowd of one handred and 

y nognte diig a treoob twenty feet 

I wide and fire feet deop around the 

> wbnlc pristm oQ tba outsido, and this 

j ditch vtoi filled with water from tho 

I Oity Water Works. No one ooald croas 

* this without aUrautiog the attention of 

the guards. 

CABRTUtOAWATTnBtnKT. SUU WO WW* not discounigtyl, and 
Andrews and I joined a crowd Uiat was 
constructing a large tunnel from n«ar onr quartern on iho cast 
nde of the poo. Wi< finiKhod the burrow to within a few 
inches iif (lie e<l^ uf th** ditch, and then ceased operations, to 
Bwnit some stormy night, when we could hope to got aoroH 
the ditch unouliecd. 

Ordm wen: iwued to guards to Are without warning oD moD 
who were observed to \te dij^ng or aurying out dirt after 
nightftdl. They ocouionally did hi, but the risk did not keep 
anyone fnjm tunneling. Uur tunnel rau directly under a sentry 
box. Wliefl carrying dirt away tho bearer of tbo bodtet bid 
to turn hii back on ibo guani and walk direoUy down the 
street in front of bim, two bondnxl or three handred foot, to 




reptilK. and it required all mj ooiirago to ventaro into tham 
footed. Bt-sides, the snugs and twta hurt our feet feor- 
Our hi>|M! was to tind a boat eotuowherc, iu which we 
Id lliHit oiU to sen. and trui^t to Ix^inR picked np by Bomo of 
blixrkudinjr flivt. But no boat could we tind, nrjtb all oar 
pftlnful and diligont search. We Icanml afterward that tlio 
Rebels made a {traoiioo of bruuking up oil tlie boata along the 
sliore to prevWDt 
tii.>j.Tt>s and tboir 
own dt^Tl^^irs from 
RM.'apinjr to the 
b]fK.'kiulin^ iloet. 
W e thought of 
tnakinf; A rait o( 
ioi,rs, but luul wo 
dii thU, we would 
doubtloBs bant 
Ibiiught it too 
risky, ein<-e «e 
dreaded miasing 
the vcsbpU, and 
being Carried out 
to see to pt^riah of 
banger. During 
the tught vt) tmatm 
to the railroad 
Igo acroa the Ogvcchee. We bad mrw slunder hope thai 
could ranch this wo niigtit perhaps get ncroas the river, 
find b>-ttcro]i|)<>rtunitic« fur escapa But these butt <'X)ioat- 
wcn- blasuil by the diHorery that it wm fruf^*^- 
\ru.s a |MHt and a Bra on the shore next na, and b single 
guard with n lantern was stationed oo one of the inidiUi' it|i<inA. 
Almost famished with hunger, and so wearr and fooifeoiv that 
we wnihl scarcely move another step, we went bade to a cleared 
place on tint high ground, and laid down to sleep, entirely nok- 
|«« as to wluu bvconw of as. Late in the morning we ware 
awakened by the Hebol patrol and taken baok to the pritaa. 
Lien tenant Davit, disgusted with the perpetual attempti t* 

TBEai WAt A ron avd a ratE. 


^ i, movtA the Dead Line oat forty feet from the Stockade ; 
i this restriciod our room greatly, «nce the number ot pri* 
oners in tlic imii had now risoii to ftbout six Uioa«ui(i, and, 
besides, it oiTered titUo additional protuotion nguinst tannuling. 

, inu not mnuh more difflcalt to dig 

I fifty feet than it Lad beea to dig thirty 

I feet. Davis moa rooUied this, luid pat 

Dead Lino b«ck to ttreitty foot 

ut'it device H-u.i a nindi more scosi- 

iiii\ A crowd of one hundnjd and 

,- tiogn« dug a tiviioh IwMty feet 

I wide and fira foot doop around the 

I whole priiton on tiie ottuide, and this 

I ditch «vus tilled with iraler from the 

i City Water Works. Ko one ooold cross 

' tins without attracting the attention of 

tbe guards. 

OA««rwo*WAVTHBiJi«T. Still we were not disooomgwl, and 
Andrews and I joined a crowd tliat was 
oottstmoting a large tunnel from near our quartern on tlio east 
stde of ihu pen. Ww Qnialtod the burrow to within a few 
incbeti of Uio ty^^ of the diloh, and then ceowd operations, to 
await bome stormy night, when we oould bopo to get acrosa 
ibc ditch unnotic«d. 

Orden wore imiued to guards to fire without warning on men 
who were otMoned to Im digging or carr}'ing out dirt after 
mghtfoll. Thvy ocouionally did si>, but thi:> riitk did not keep 
any one from tunneling. <.)ur tunnel ran directly under a tootry 
box. When carn-itig dirt away tlie bearer of the bucket had 
to tarn his back on tbe guard and walk direotly down the 
street in front of him, two hundred or tlu«e hundred feel, to 



the center of tbo camp, wliere iio scattt-red UiP sand aroand — wo 
M to giro no indicalion of where it came from. Thofigh wa 
alvra\-H waited till the moon went down, it (teemed u if, unlen 
tbo guard were k fool, both hy nature and training, he could 

ma nw mu wai to hats a kbattlt ladbs cast o 


iMt bolp taking notic« of wlint was going on under hb eje& I 
do not recall any more ncrrotis promcnAdca in my UNt, thu 
those wlicn, taking my turn, I rec^-ivcd my liacket of sood at 
the niontlj of the tonnel, and walked slowly nway wit li ii. Tlt« 
TDOst dingreeahle part was in tamin[r my back to 1t< 
Could I bare faced him, I luul sufHcii'ni oooijdvncu in i 
ncsaof purcejitiou, and talents as a dodger, to imar: 
ooald make it difflonlt for him to hit me. Bat in walktii^- u tih 
my bock to him I waa wholly at his mercy. Fortune, bowever, 
favored ns, and wc were allowed to go on with our work — ai^ 
after night — withoat a ihot 

In tho meanwhile another happy tbon^t slowly gestated in 
Davis's alleged intellect. How he came to give birth to two 
UeoB with DO more than a wwk U^twcvn tbem. puaded all who 
knew him, and atiU more that bu sarvired this extnwrdiniiy 

L lUI-lTAItY l*Rtik>NS. 



[xin tlie gray matter of the ovrcbratn. Ilis new idea 
iBVO drivtin H lkouvily-lBd«u uulu cart around the inside 
of tliv I>cuil Line at leavt once a day. Ttie wli««l«ortli<! mule's 
feet bn;)ke through the thin hnI covering the tunneb and 
expos^ tlieiu. Our tunnel went with the rest, and thoee of 
our crowd who won* sliotn had huRiiliation addud to sorrow by 
being coniiielled to go iu and Bpode tlie hole full of dirU This 
put an end to subterranean engineering. 

One day one of tlio boys watched his opportunity, got ooder 
tbe rottoii waguD, aud clinging closv to tbe ouupUug pole with 
huda and feet> was carried oataida Uo waadeteoted, bowerer, 
u he came Eroiu under tbe wa^oo, and brought book. 



■& ACRoaa thk oodxtxt for BtmiufA!*, bctt n cAnoirr 
wirniN Tv.»yry iiiLts or ova tixEs, 

Odo of the dircntlntt Knd nearest snccessful attempts to 
eicftpe tbAt came unilet my notice was that of injr fhood Ser- 

■noKAiTT rsAirx nvyrv 

gnuit Frank Beventock, of llie Tliinl Wt-nt Virgnni* ravmlry, 
of wbom 1 bave bufore spoken. Fmnk, who wu qaite imull. 




vitb a smooth boyish face, bad concerted to bis own use a oiU> 
I's ooat, belonging to a young boy, a Sutler's aasistant, who 
1 d)e<l JD Anilc-reonvilla Ho tuul miulo hinisclf a pair of bag 
utaloonx and a sliirt from pieces of mcaJ saolu which be hail 
'•■pproprialed from day to (Uy. He had also the Sutler's a 
ant's sboofl, and, to crown all, ho wore on bis head one of t 
hidMKUi looking bats of quilted oiUoo which the Itobcls I 
taken to wearing in tho l^ck of fHt hnts, wliidi thoy cool 
' i nor buy. Al{.>j;i-tlifr Frank looked enough like a 
Iftibol to be dan- 
gvruu^ to tntst near 
a country store or 
a BtatilL' full of 
borsos. When we 
lir»l arrtvod In tba 
prison quite a 
crowd of the Sa- 
rannahians roabed 
in to inspect as. 
The guards had 
wjinc difUcuIly in 
tkM-piiig them and 
ui* separate. While 
perplexed with 
this annoyance, 
one of them saw 
Frank standing in onr crowd, and, tonohing him with bis bavo- 
net, said, with aome sharpness : 

'• See heah ; yon matt stand bock ; yoo tnuan't crowd on them 
prisDoun sa" 

Frank st^Mtd back. Ho did it promptly Imt ealmlv.and Ibun, 
us if bis curiosity as to Vankuos was fully snlisflmll bu walked 
slowly away up the street, deliberating as he went on a 
plan ftB- gvtling out of the City- H-.- Iiii ui-m :iii excellent 
one. Going to tbe engineer of a (f< _■ rwadv to 

start back to Mucim, bu told bim t! . ^vorkinir 

in tbe <!]'onfedenit« machine sbo]« ni < < i . . ., r Afauon ■ 

that be himself was also one of the ■n.nliiniiu uiupkiyed timi^ 

"tr.n iiBAn; toc uvrr eriiro baokI" 


and desired to go thither but lacked the necessary means to pay 
his (mssiige. If the engineer would let him ride up on the 
engine he would do work enough to pay the fare. Frank told 
the sturv ing<Miiously, the engineer and firemen were won over, 
and gave their consent. 

No inoi\; zealous iissistant ever climbed upon a tender than 
Frank provi^il to be. lie loaded wood with a nervous industry, 
that stcNxl him in ])lace of great strength. Ue kept the tender 
in perfect onler, and antici]>ated, as far as possible, every want 
of the enginetT ami his assistant. They were delighted with 
him, and treated him with the greatest kindness, dividing their 
food with hiui, and insisting that he should share their bed 
when thoy ** laid by" for the night. Frank would have gladly 
declincil this hitter kindn«?ss with thanks, as he was oonsoioofl 
that the quantity of **graylxicks" his clothing contained did not 
make him a vi^ry ilesinible sleeping companion for any one, but 
his friends W4»iv so |)ix*ssing that he was comi)elled to accede. 

His giiNittNt tiimble wiis a fear of recognition by some one 
of th(* ]»risoiiiM-s that were continually passing by the train load, 
on thfir way from Anderson ville to other ])risons. He was one 
of the )N*st known «»f the pris^mers in AndersonviUe ; bright, 
active, always rin'erfaK and foi'ever in motion during waking 
lioui*s. i»vrrv line in tiie Trison N|H.vilily became familiar with 
him, and all ailiin.-s>»'d him as •• St'rg»»ant Krankie.*' If any one 
on the pa.vsin^r trains ha4l eau^^fht a glim|)scof him, that glimpse 
wouhl havi* )N'<>n t'ullowt'd almost inevitablv with a shout of — 

" Hfllo, SiTiri'ant Fninki4»I Wliat are vou doin^r there?" 

Then tlje wlH»lt* irame would have l>een up. Frank escapi^d 
this by ]H»i-sisii»nt watehfuln«»ss, and by busying himself on the 
Mp|Ni>ite side of the enirine, witii his back turnoil to the other 

At la^t when nearinir ^iriswuldville, Frank, {Miinting to a 
larire wlntr liiHis4' at x»me distance ;u.ti>ss tlie ti«*lds, s;titl : 

" Nnw, ri;rlit ov*'r ilim- is wlit'ivmy unele lives, and lU^Iieve 
ril juM nnu»v»Tand st*** him, and then walk int«» ^iriswuldnlle.*' 

Hf ihanki'il iiis friiiids fi-rvently ft »r their kiniln4*>s, |iromi.sed 
t4> eall and M-e them fi-e«juently, Ixule them g«MHl by. and jum|M.Hl 
otf the train. 



lie walked towards the white house as long as he thooglit 
ha cuuld be seen, and then entered a large oom field 
and concealed himself in a thicket in the center* of it antil 
dark, when he made 
his way to the neigh- 
boring woods, and be- 
gan joumeyingnorth- 
ward as fast as bis 
legs oould carry him. 
When morning broke 
he bad made good 
pn^ress, but was ter 
ribly tired. It was 
not prudent to travel 
by daylight, so he 
gaiberod himself 
some ears of com and 
some borritsi, of which 
he made bis breakfast, 
and finding a suitable 
thicket be crawled 
into it, fell asleep, and 
did not wake up until 
late in the afternoon. 
Aftpr another meal of raw com and berries he resumed 
his joumev. and that night made still better progress. 

lie rt-iMtitc*! this for several days and nights — lying in the 
wtxiils in ttur day tinus traveling by night through woods, fields, 
iind by-iuiths — avoidiogoU the fords, bridges and main roads, 
aiu) Iiviii<; on what he oould glean from the fields, that he 
ini:;)it iitit take evfn ao much risk as was involved in going to 
the ni';;ri> cubins for footl. 

Itiit tlii'n* urf always Haws in every man's armor of caution — 
••v<>n in m> |H.>rf<vt a one as Frank's. His complete success so 
fur had tlit* naturul cITcct of inducing a growing carclusnees, 
whii-li wn>ii|;lit his rain. One evening he started off bnskly, 
ufttT a n-fmihing rest and sleep. He knew that he must be 
vi-rv nt-nr Shomiun's linen, and hope cheered him up with tbo 
iM-liff ihut his fivwiom would auon be won. 



Descending from the hill, in whose dense brnshwood he had 
made his Ix^hI all day, he entered a large field full of standing 
corn, and made !:is way between the rows until he reached, on 
the oilier side, the fence that separated it from the main road, 
across which was another corn-field, that Frank intended 

But he neglected his usual precautions on approaching a road, 
and instead of coming up cautiously and carefully reconnoitering 
in all directions before he left cover, he sprang boldly over the 
fence and strode out for the other side. As he reached the 
middle of the road, his ears were assailed with the sharp oliok 
of a musket lK>ing cocked, and the harsh command — 

"Halt! halt, dah, I say I" 

Turning with a start to his left he saw not ten feet from 
him, a mounted p:iti*ol. the sound of whose approach had beea 
niiiskoil by the (let*p dust of the road, into which his horse's 
hoofs s:ink noist^lcsslv. 

Knnik, «>f coui'se, yielded without a word, and when sent to 
the otliciM' in command he told the old story about his being an 
emplovL* of the Ci riswoldville shops, off on a leave of absence 
to mak(* u visit to sick ivlatives. But, unfortunately, his capton 
belon<^Hl to that stH'tion themselves, and s|)eedily caught him 
in a mazo of cross-^iiKstioning from which he could not extricate 
hiirisflf. It also ixrame apnurent from his language tliat he 
Wits a Vank«N\ and it was not far from this to the conclusion 
that he was a s|>y — a conclusion to which the proximity of Sher- 
man's liiK.s. tiieu less than twenty miles distant — greatly 

By th<* next morning this belief had become so firmly fixed 
in tlit> minils of the R'^bels that Frank saw a halter dangling 
alarmiui:] y ntvir. and he concluded the wisest plan was to confoss 
who ln» ri'allv was. 

It was not the smillest of his griefs to realize by how slight 
a chanrt' hi> had faik*tl. Had he loijkiMl down the road before 
ln» ciinilHsl the foiico, or had ho bwu tea mmutes earlier or 
lat«T. till' patrol wi>uld not have b^en there, he could hare 
galIl«^l tilt* iii'Xt tiold unpLMveived. and two more nights of 8U0- 
ct'ssful pi'oii;n-^s woulil have taken him into 8herman*8 lines at 
Saiitl Nloimtain. Tlie [Xitrol which caught him was on the 


look-out for deserters and shirkinj^ ooosoripts, who had become 
unusually numerous since the fall of Atlanta. 

He was sent back to us at Savannah. As he came into the 
prison gate Lieutenant Davis was standing near, lie lookei 
sternly at Frank and his Hebel garments, and muttering, 

" By God, I'll stop this ! " 
caught the coat by the tails, tore it to the collar, and took it 
and his hat away from Frank. 

There was a strange sequel to this episoda A few weeks 
afterward a sp'jcial exchange for ten tliousand was m:ide, and 
Frank succeeded in boing included in this. He was given the 
usual furlough from the paroled camp at Annapolis, and went 
to his home in a little town near MansQold, O. 

One day while on the cars going — I think to Newark, O., — 
he saw Lieutenant Davis on the train, in citi/.ens' clothes. lie 
had been sent by the Rebel Government to Canada with dis- 
patches relating to some of the raids then harassing our Nor- 
thern bortlers. Davis was the last man in the world to success- 
fully disguise himself. He had a large, coarse mouth, that 
made him remembered by all who had ever seen him. Frank 
recognized him instantly and said: 

** Y«m are Lieutenant Davis?" 

Davis replied : 

" You are totiiUy mistaken, sah, I am " 

Frank insisted that he was right Davis fumed and blus- 
tered, but though Frank was small, he was as game as a bantam 
rcMister, and he gave Davis to understand that there hiid been 
a vast change in their relative positions ; that the one, while 
still the same insolent swaggerer, had not regiments of infan- 
try or batteries of artillery to emphasize his insolence, and the 
other was no longer embarrassed in the discussion by the 
immense odds in favor of his jailor opjionent 

After a stormy scene Frank called in the assistance of some 
other soldiers in the car, arresteil Davis, and took him to Camp 
Chose — near Columbus, O., — where he was fully identified by 
a number of {mruled prisoners. lie was searched, and docu- 
ments showing the nature of his mi&sion beyond a doubt, were 
found upon his person. 

A court martial was immediately convened for his trial. 



This found him guilty^ and sentenced him to be hanged as % 

At the conclusion of the trial Frank stepped up to the pris» 
oner and said : 

** Mr. Davis, I believe we're even on that coat, now." 

Davis wiis sent to Johnson's Island for execution, but influ- 
ences were immediately set at work to secure Executive clem- 
ency. Wliat they were I know not, but I am inforiued by the 
Rev. Robert McCune, who was then Chaplain of the llua- 
dred and Twenty-EigUth Ohio Infantry and the Post of John* 
son's Island and who was the spiritual adviser ap|K>inted to 
pre|Kire Davis for execution, that the sentence was luinlly pro- 
nounced before Davis was visited by an emissary, who told 
him to dismiss his fears, that he should not suffer the punish* 

It is likelv that leadinn^ Baltimore Unionists were enlisted in 
his behalf throu;;h family connections, and as the Border State 
Unionists were then iK>tent at Wiishinj^on, they readily secured 
a ccmimutation of his sentence to imprisonment during the war» 

It seems that the justice of this world is very unevenly dis- 
pensed when so much solicitude is shown for the life of such a 
man, and none at all for the much better men whom he assisted 
to destrov. 

The ollicial notice of the commutation of the sentence was 
not published until the day set for the execution, but the ci*iw 
tan knowlc<lge that it would be forthcomin<^ enablc<l Davis lo 
display agrt*at deal of bravado on approaching what was sup* 
p(»scil to be his end. As the reader can re;ulily imagine* fn>m 
what I have heretofore said of him, Davis was the man to 
improve to the utmost every op|K>rtunity to strut his liitle 
hour, and he did it in this insUince. He |)osed, attitudinized* 
nnil va|x>'*eii, so that the Ciimp and the country were tilleil with 
stories < f ihe womUrful coolness with which he contemplated 
ii./i apnro;ichin;^ fate. 

Amonir other things he said to his guanl, as he washed him- 
self elalH)rately the night before the day announced for the* r u»n : 

*' Well, you can be sure of one thinir : to-morrow night there 
will certainly bo utie clean cor|isu on this Island.'' 


Unfortunately for his braggadocio, he let it leak out in some 
way that be tiad boon well aware all the time that he would 
not be executed. 

lie was taken to Fort Delaware for confinement| and died 
there soin«) time after. 

Frank Bcverstock went back to his regiment, and served 
with it until the close of the war. He then returned home, and 
after awhile became a banker at Bowlings Green, O. lie was 
a line business nuin and became very pros{)erous. But though 
naturally healthy and vigorous, his system carried in it the seeds 
of death, sown there by the hardships of captivity. He had 
been one of the victims of the Ilobels' vaccination ; the virus 
inj cted into his blood had caused a large part of his right tem- 
ple to slouch off, and when it healed it left a ghastly cicatrix. 

Two years ago he was taken suddenly ill, and died before las 
friouds had any idea that his condition was serious. 



After all Savannah was a wonderful improvement on Ander- 
sonville. Wo ^ot away from the pestilential Swamp and that 
])oisonous grt>und. Every mouthful of air was not laden with 
disease germs, nor every cup of water polluted with the seeds 
of death. The earth did not breed gangrene, nor the atmo«> 
phero promote fever. As only the more vigorous had come 
away, we were freed from the depressing spectacle of every 
thinl man dying. The keen disappointment prostrated very 
many who had l)een of average health, and I imagine, several 
Imndretl ditnl, but there were hospital arrangements of some 
kind, and tht> sick were taken away from among us. Those of 
us who tunneled out had an op]K>rtunity of stretching oar legs, 
which we had not had for months in the overcrowded Stockade 
W4> had left. The attempts to esca{)e did all engaged in them 
^4hm1, (*v('n though they faile<l, since they arouscnl new ideas and 
h«»|Hs, si*t the blo«Hl into more rapid circuhition, and toned np 
the mind and svstem IxHh. I had come awav from Anderson- 
viUe witi) considerable scurvy manifesting itself in my gumi 
and feet. So«>n these signs almost wholly di.Siip[)eared. 

We also got away from those murderous little brats of 
Ites4»rvi«s, who guarded us at Andersonville, and shot men down 
an they would stone apples out of a tree. Our guards now were 
mostly sailors, from the Il*?bel fleet in the harbor — Irishmen, 
Englishmen and Scandinavians, as free-hearted and kindly as 


sailors always are. I do not think they ever fired a shot at 
one of lis. The only trouble we had was with that portion of 
the guaid drawn from the infantry of the garrison. They had 
the samo rattlesnake venom of the Ilome Guard crowd wher- 
ever we met it, and shot us down at the least provocation. 
Fortonatelv thov onlv fonnod a small imrt of the sentinels. 

lient of alt, we csc^iihmI for a while from the upas-like shadow 
of Wndor and Wirz, in whose presence strong men sickened and 
died as when near some malign genii of an Eastern story. 
The peasiintry of Italy believed firmly in the evil eye. Did 
they ever know any such men as Winder and his satellite^ I could 
oomfTeiiend how much foundation they could have for such a 

Lioutonant Davis had many faults, bu: there was no com- 
l)arijon lH>tw(H>n him and the Andersonville commandant IIo 
wac a typical young Southern man; ignorant and bumptious as 
as to the most c^)miuon matters of school-boy knowledge, inor- 
dinately vain of himsi*lf and his family, coarse in tastes and 
thoughts, violent in his prejudices, but after all with some 
streaks of honor and genei*osity tliat made the widest possible 
dilTercnce b.^twecn him and Wirz, who never had any. As one 
of my chums said to me : 

'* >Virz is the most even-tempered man I ever knew ; he's 
always foaming mail.'" 

This was nearly the truth. I never saw Wirz when he was 
not angry : if not violently abusive, he was cynical and sar- 
donic. Never, in my little experience with him did I detect a 
glint of kindly, genemus humanity; if he ever was moved by 
any si;;ht of sulfering its exhibition in his face escaped my eye. 
If he ever liad even a wish to mitigate the pain or hardship of 
any man tiie expression of such wish never fell on my ear. 
How a man could move daily through such misery as he 
cncouutereil, and never be moved by it except to scorn and 
mocking Lh beyond my limited understanding. 

Davis vai>ored a great deal, swearing big round oatlis in the 
broadest of Southern (Kitois ; he was peq)etually threatening to 

'* Ojwn on ye wid de ahtillery,*' 
but the only ileath that I knew him to directly cause or sanction 
was tliat 1 have describetl in the previous chapter. He would 


" wn-in-ril" 

vfork in thb <Iirectton. One day, itanding ai tiie gate, hit gvn 
ona of bia peouliar jrdls that be oited to aunot tbe attentioa at 
thocatiip with: 

We nil came lo "attontion," and beftDoooDoodi 
" Yuct^nlay. wliile I vnix in tbo uamp* (a Robel alnurs tajv 
oom/M.i Mtine nt you prisonon |Mcked my pookeU of Mrenty>flr« 
dolbn in ifivonljdoic^ N'lwr, I give yua Dotioe that FU Mi 
•eod in anv muali rnUuos till t!w nonev'« tvWrDod to ma." 


This was a very stupid method of extortion, since no one 
believed that he had lost the money, and at all events he bad 
no business to have the greenbacks, as the Rebel laws imposed 
severe jwnalties upon any citizen, and still more upon any 
soldier dcalinfi^ with, or having in his possession any of " the 
money of the enemy." We did without rations until night* 
when they were sent in. There was a story that some of the 
boys in the prison had contributed to make up part of the sum, 
and Davis took it and was satisfied. I do not know how true 
tlie story was. At another time some of the boys stole the 
bridle and halter oflf an old horse "lat was driven in with a 
cart. Tlie tliin^^s were worth, at a liberal estimate, one dollar. 
Davis cut off the rations of the whole six thousand of us for 
one day for this. We always imagined that the proceeds went 
into his pocket. 

A special exchange was arranged between our Navy Depart- 
ment and that of the Kebcls, by which all seamen and marines 
among us were exchanged. Lists of these were sent to the 
different prisons and the men called for. About three-fourths 
of them were dead, but many soldiers divining the situation of 
affairs, answered to the dead men's names, went away with the 
squad and were exchanged. Much of this was through the 
connivance of the Rebel officers, who favored those who had 
ingratiated themselves with them. In many instances money 
was paid to secure this privilege, and I have been informed on 
good authority that Jack Iluckleby, of the Eighth Tennessee^ 
and Ira Beverly, of the One Hundredth Ohio, who kept the 
big sutler shop on the North Side at Andersonville, paid 
five hundred dollars each to be allowed to go with the 
As for Andrews and me, we had no friends among the RebelSi 
nor money to bribe with, so we stood no show. 

The rations issued to us for some time after our arr'val 
seemed riotous luxury to what we had been getting at Ander- 
sonville. Each of us received daily a half-dozen rude and ooane 
imitations of our fondly-remembered hard tack, and with these 
a small piece of meat or a few spoonfuls of molasses, and a 
quart or so of vinegar, and several plugs of tobacco for each 
*^ hundred." How exquisite was the taste of the crackers and 
molasses I It was the first wheat bread I had eaten since mj 



eotT7 into TticIimoDd — oino moDths licfure — and moluses had 
bceu a jslrangur to mo for years. After the com broiul wo luul 
so long lived ujwn, IhU n'lu manmi. It taum* that tho Com- 
missary at SavanniUi labored uiiiler the ih<hu>i<in that be must 
Usuo to us the same ratious as were served out to the lEvbtd 
■oldiers and saJlors. It was tioine Utile time before the fearful 
mistake came to the knnwUilffi.' of Winder. I fane; that the 
notvB almost thrcnr hitii into an apoploctic Gt. Nothing, uve 
bin being ordered to the front, cotild have caoscd him such 
poignant sorrow as the infonnation Uiat so mach good food 
luul boen Worse than tv:uted in undoing his work by building up 
the bo«lies of bis bated enemies. 

Without being told, we knew that be Iiad been heard from 
wbcQ the tobacco, vinegar and molasses failed to come in, lutd 
the crackers gavu way to com inoaL 6tdl Uiis wu a vast 
itD[HX)vement on Anderson lille, lu the uaeal was fine and sifMt, 
and we each bad a spoonful of salt issued to us regularly. 

I am quite sure that I cannot make the retulur who has not 
had un experience simihtr to oure coui{)rehend the wondcrfol 
important-e to uit of that spoonful of salt. Whether or not the 
appetite fur salt bo, as some BcienUHta claim, a parely ortifioial 
want, one thing is certain, and that its. that either the habit of 
ooantless generations or some other cmum', has m dceply 
iograiDud it into our ctimmon nature, that it luis come to ba 
nearly u esaeutial as food itself, und no amount of deprivatioa 
can accustom ns to its absence. Ilatber, it seemed that the 
longer we did without it the more overpowering braanw our 
craving. I could get along tu4uy and to-morrow, perhaps the 
whole WLMk, without salt in my food, since the Uck would be 
sapplird from the excess I tuul already tiwallowwl, but at Ate 
end of tlmt time Nature would be^n to demand thai 1 raneir 
the supply of saline constituent of my tiasous, nml she would 
become more clamorous with every day tliat 1 neglected har 
bidding, and finally summon Nausea to aid Longing. 

The light artillery of the garriaon of Savannah — four bat- 
teries, twenty-four jiieces — was staiioncd around three tides of 
the prison, thv guns nnbmbered, planted at convenient diitl.uic», 
and trained upon us, ready tor instant osu. Wu couUl see all 
the gnnning montlui through the emdca fa the fence. Th«f« 
wi!ru enougli of them to send us as high as tltn traditiooal 

1 • if^rmn 


kite flown by Gilderoy. The having at his book this array of 
frowning metal lent Lieutenant Davis such an importance in 
his own eyes tliat his demeanor swelled to the grandiose. It 
bcciiine very amusing to see him puff up and vaunt over it, as 
he did on every poisible occasion. For instance, finding a 
crowd of several hundred lounging around the gate, he would 
throw o])en the wicket, stalk in with the air of a Jove threat- 
ening a rebellious world with the dread thunders of heaven, 
and shout: 

" W-li-a-a y-o-e ! Prisoners, I give you jist two minutes to 
clesih away from this gate, aw PU open on ye wid de ahtillery I" 

Ono of ilie buglers of tlie artillery was a superb musician — 
evi(l4*ntly some old *'ri'gular" whom the Confederacy had 
sihIuohI int<.» its service, and his instrument was so sweet toned 
that we imagined that it was made of silver. The calls he 
playtHi weiv nearly the same as we used in the cavalry, and for 
the fi>^t few days we became bitterly homesick every time he 
Bi'nt ringing out the old familiar signals, that to us were so 
closely assocMatinl with what now seemed the bright and happy 
davs when we were in the lield with our battalion. If we were 
only baeic in the valleys of Tennessee with what alacrity we 
wouKl n»sjK)nd to that ** lussembly ; '' no Onlerly's patience would 
be worn out in getting laggartls and lazy ones to *'fall in for 
roll-eall;'' how cjigerly we would attend to '* stable duty;" 
how gladly mount our faithful horses and ride away to '* water," 
and what barebsick races ride, going and coming. We would 
be even glad to liear '' guard " and '' drill " sounded ; and there 
would Ik* music in the disconsolate ^'surgeon*8 call:" 

** Ciitnr — gvf ~ yoQr — q-«-l-D*l-D-«: cooM, g«C yoar faialDt; tt*U mak» jos md i ftH mate fM 
•Irk. CooM, c( 

(), if we were only back, what admirable soldiers we would be I 
One morning, about three or four o^clock, we were awakened 
by the ground shaking and a series of heavy, dull thumps 
sounding off seaward. Our silver-voiced bugler seemed to be 
awakeneii, too. He set the echoes ringing with a vigoroosly 
playtnl **n'veille;" a minute later came an equally earnest 
''ass4*iiibly,** and when ^^Ixiots and saildles" followed, we knew 
that all \^as not well in Denmark; the thumping and si 




DOW tiAd a signiOcanco. It meoDl boavy Taoteo gnns Bonifi- 
nheie near. Wc beaixl Uie gunners hitdiing ap; tlio buglfl 
signiU " romnnl," llio nliivlii rull o(T, and for a ball bour afUdV 
n-nnln we caugbl the receding sound of iliv bug]« commanding 
"right torn." "left turn." etc., as llio batterits miircbeil away. 
Of uoorse, wu became conaidcnibly nroogbt up over tbo mat- 
ter, as wo fancied Ibat, knowing we were in Savannah, our vat- 
•obi wcirs lr\*)ng to poas up to the City and take it. Tba 
tliumping and nliaking continued until hite in Uie afternoon. 

We sutisc()ucntl,v learned that some of our blockaders, find- 
ing time banging beery u|>on tbcir bands, bad essayed a bitia 
divcTBion by knocking Forli Jackson and Blcdsoo — two small 
forts defending the passage of tlio Savannah — about tbcir 
defenders' oars. Aflor capturing the forts oar folks desisted 
and c:ime no fartluT. 

QiiitA a nuinlH>r of the old Raider crowd bad oome with m 
from AndersfinviUe. Among these was the abyster, Peter 
Bradley. Tb^y ko|>t up their old luetics of lumging around the 
galea, and currying favor with the Hebchi in every poMible 
way, in hopes to get pamtfat outsirlo or [itfaor favors. TliQ grttt 
moss of (be prisonons went so bitter against tb« Itebt^ as to 
fed ttial they would rather die than ask or ocoept a favor from 
tlieir bandit, and they had lilUe olfte tiian contempt far tbeae 
tnickl4>rs. The Raider crotvd's favorite theme of oonvereation 
with the Rcbifis was th(> strung discontent of the boys with tba 
manner of their treatment by our GovcnimenL Ttie assertion 
thai tho-ro was any such wiilcapread feeling was ntieriy falsa. 
We all bad confidence — as we continue to have to this day — 
that our Qovcmtnont would do everything for us possibly 
CMMuiHtent with its b<ioor, and the success of military o{ierattou, 
and outside of the Uttte squad of which I speak, not an admia- 
don coold be extracted from anybody that Uame could b» 
attAobed to any od^ except the BebiJs. It wai roganled ■■ 
onmooly and unaoldieilike to the lut degree, m weQ as aeiM»- 
leas, to revile our Oovenunent for the crime* oommitted by tta 

Uut the Rebels were led to believe that we were ripe for 
revult againet oar Qag, ami to side with them. Imajnoa, if 
pcmUo, the stupidity that would miiUka oar Utter hatrsd oC 

A 9T0BY OF RKB£L lllLITAKT i*KUON8. 437 

those who were our deadly enemies, for any feeling that 
would lead us to join hands with those enemies. One day we 
were surprised to see the carpenters erect a rude stand in the 
center of the camp. When it was finished, Bradley appeared 
upon it, in company with some Rebel officers and guards. We 
gathered around in curiosity, and Bradley began making a 

lie said that it had now become apparent to all of us that 
our Government had abandoned us; that it cared little or 
nothing for us, since it could hire as many more quite readily, 
by offering a bounty equal to the pay which would be due us 
now ; that it cost only a few hundred dollars to bring over a 
shipload of Irish, ^* Dutch," and French, who were only too 
glad to agree to fight or do anything else to get to this coun- 
try. [The peculiar impudence of this consisted in Bradley him- 
self being a foreigner, and one who had only come out under 
one of the later calls, and the influence of a big bounty.] 

Continuing in this strain he repeated and dwelt upon the old 
lie, always in the mouths of his crowd, that Secretary Stanton 
and General Ilalleck had positively refused to enter upon nego- 
tiations for exchange, because those in prison were ^'only a 
miserable lot of * coffee-boilers' and ' blackberry pickers,' whom 
the Army was better off without." 

The terms ** coffee boiler," and ** blackberry pickers" were 
considered the worst terms of opprobirum we had in prison. 
They were applied to that class of stragglers and skulkers, who 
were only too ready to give themselves up to the enemy, and 
who, on coming in, told some gauzy story about ^^just having 
stopped to boil a cup of coffee," or to do somethmg else which 
they should not have done, when they were gobbled up. It is 
not risking much to affirm the probability of Bradley and most 
of his crowd having belonged to this dishonorable class. 

The assertion that either the great Chief-of-Staff or the still 
greater War-Secretary were even capable of applying such epi- 
thets to the mass of prisoners is too preposterous to need refu- 
tation, or even denial No person outside the Raider crowd 
ever gave the silly lie a moment's toleration. 

Bradley concluded his speech in some such language as this : 

^And now, fellow prisoners, I propose to you this : that wa 





unite in informing oar Government thai unless we areexchangad 
fn thirty tlays. we will bo (orooJ by BelT-prtwrv-atioa to join tlM 
Confedwnto army." 

For an instant hta hearen Boemed stnnned at ibe fellow*! 
audacity, and tbcn there wMit up such a ruar of dcnnnciattoa 
and oxe«-mtion that tli« air tn'mblod. Tbe IN^-bfl* tliought that 
the wbole cam|i was going lo rush on Dnullcy and (ear him to 
j'its.'wi, luid timy drew revolvers and leveled muskets to defend 
liim. The uproar only oviiw-d when Bradley >vi« hnrriotl out of 
the prisun, but for hoars everybody was savage und mitlen, and 
fall of threatening« ugninst him, when 
opportunity served. We never raw him 

Angry as I was, I ooald not help being 
amuned at the tempestaoim rngc of a tall, 
6nL<-l(K)king and well eilucatud Irish Ser- 
gmnt of an ntinoin regiment. He poured 
forth d<iuunciatioDs of the traitor and tba 
Kel»eln, with the vivid fluency of hi« Ilibor- 
Mrf -j-O^j ([Mj man nature, vow«l he'd "give a yeaf of 

me Ufa, bo J b, to have the handling- 

of the dirty spalpeen for (en minatett; 
bo (.i — d." and finally in hu rage, tora 
off his own ahirt and threw H «) tho 
ground and trampled on it. 

Imagine my otttonixhment, aomfi UnM 
aiU'r Kiting out of prison, to find the 
Sonthern • papers publishing aa a defeoM 
against the charge* In regonl to Andcr- 
sonvUle, the following docitinent, whUjh 
A lUD ttaoTiXT. ^'}' claimed to hare be^n adopted by "& 

itiDss m<-eiing of the pritonen:" 
"At a man meeting held September 28tb, \»tH, by the Fed- 
eral prisitnen csonflned at 8a>-annah, Ga^ it waa unanimooaly 
il that the following n!«olntionR be lent to tlie Pre^ideot 
rnited Statea, in the ho|)i< thai ho might then-by tako 
EtepM aa in h!a wisdom he may think neceasarj- for oar 

— ^^' 


** Betohedt That while we would dechre oar unboanded love for the Uokm« 
for the borne of our fsthert, and for the gnrea of tboae we Tenenle, wt 
would beg most respectfully tbat our eltustion as prisoners be dllifentlj 
inquired Into, and erery obstacle consistent with the bonor and dignitj of 
the OoTernment at once remoTod. 

'* Radvedj That while allowing the Confederate autboritiee all due praise 
for the attention paid to prisoneni, numbers of our men are daily consigned 
to early grarea. in the prime of manhood, far from home and kiudrcd. and 
this is not caused intentionally by the Confederate (SoTernment, but by force 
of circumstances ; the prisoners are forced to go without shelter, and, in a 
great portion of caaea, without medicine. 

** Belted, That, whereas, ten thousand of our braTc comrades have 
descended into an untimely grave within the lasi six montlis, and as we 
beliere their death was caused by the difference of climate, the peculiar kind 
and insufflciencT of food, and lack of prop-r medical treatment; and, 
whereas, those difficulties still remain, we would declare as our firm belief, 
that unless we are speedily exchanged, we haye no alternatire but to share 
the lamentable fate of our comr<ides. Must tliis thing still go on? Is there 
no hope? 

^^JtemUted^ That, whereas, the cold and inclement season of the year Is faat 
approaching, we hold it to be our duty as soldiers and citizens of the United 
States, to inform our Ooremmant that the majority of our priMuen are 
without proper clothing, in some cases being almost naked, and are without 
blankets to protect us from the scorching sun by day or the beayy dews by 
night, and we would most respectfully request the Oorernment to make some 
arrangement whereby we can be supplied with these, to us, neoeisary articles. 

**/2MWfifd; That, whereas, the term of senrioe of many of our comradea 
haTing expired, they, baring senred truly and faithfully for the term of their 
several enlisitments, would most respectfully ask their OoTemment, ara they 
to be forgotten f Are past serrlces to be ignored f Not bar lag seen their 
wives and little ones for over three yean, they would most respectfully, but 
(Irmly, request the Govemnient to make some arrangements whereby they 
can be exchanged or paroled. 

**Iiejolted, That, whereas. In the fortune of war, It was our lot to become 
priHooen, we have suffered patiently, and are still willing to suffer, if by ao 
doing we can benefit the country; but we must most respectfully beg to say, 
that we are not willing to suffer to further the ends of any p^rty or clique to 
the detriment of our honor, our families, and our country, and we beg thai 
this aff«ir be explained to us. that we may continue to hold the Qo?emiiient 
in that respect which is necessary to make a good citizen and soldier. 

•^Ckalnum oC CommiUM la bsbalf of 

In regard to the above I will simply say this, that while I 
cannot pretend to know all, or even much that went on around 


me, I do not think it was possible for a moss meetin;; of pro- 
oners to have been bcld without my knowing it, and its osson- 
tial feiiturcs. Still le^is was it iK>sdible for a mass meeting to 
have been held which would have adopted any such a docu- 
ment as the above, or anything else that a Ilebel would liave 
found the least pleasure in republishing. The wbole tlung is a 
bnizcn falsehood. 



Tho reason of our being hnrriod out of Andcrsonrille nnder 
tlio false pretext of exelinnge dawned on us before we had been 
in Savannah long. If the reader will consult the map of 6eor> 
gia he will understand this, too. Let him remember that sey- 
eral of the railn>ad8 ^hich now appear were not built theiu 
The ruoil upon which Andersonville is situated was about one 
hundrcil and twenty miles long, reaching from Macon to Amer- 
icus, Andersonville being al)out midway between these two. 
It luul no connections anywhere exee|)t at Maoon, and it was 
hundretis of miles across the country from Andersonville ta 
any other road. When Atlanta fell it brought our folks to 
within oixty miles of Macon, and any day they were liable to 
make a forward movement which would capture tbat plaoO| 
anil have us where we couhl lie retaken with ease. 

There was nothing left undone to rouse the apprehensions of 
the Rebels in that direction. The humiliating surrender of 
(tencrol Sumeman at Macon in July, showed them what oar 
folks were thinking of, and awakened their minds to the disaa- 
tnius consequences of such a movement when executed by a 
Uilder and abler commander. Two days of one of Kilpatrick^s 
swift, silent marches would carry his hard-riding troopers 
amund IlocNrs right flank, and into the streets of Macon, 
where a half hour's work with the torch on the brid<Fe8 Bcrom 


as to convey no real information. But few new prisoners were 
coming in, and none of those were from Sherman. However, 
towanl the last of September, a handful of " fresh fish ** were 
turned inside, v/hom our ex{X3rienccd eyes instantly told us were 
Western bovs. 

There was never any difficulty in telling, as far as he could 
be seen, whether a boy belonged to the East or the West. 
First, no one from the Armv of the Potomac was ever 
without his coqw badge worn conspicuously; it was rare 
to see such a thing on one of ShermanVs men. Then there was 
a dressy air about the Army of the Potomac that was wholly 
wanting in the soldiers 84>rving west of the Alleghanies. 
" The Armv of the PotiMnac was aiwavs near to its base of 
supplies, jdways had its stores accessible, and the cure of the 
clothing and oipiipmonts of tlio men was an essential part of its 
disiMplino. A raggtnl or shabbily dressed man was a rarity. 
Dress coats, i)ai>er collars, fresh woolen shirts, neat-litting 
])antal<>>ns, go<Hi comfortable shoes, and trim caps or hats, with 
all the blazing bnissof comjKiny letters an inch long, regimental 
number, bugle and eagle, according to the Regulations, were as 
common to Kastern boys as they were rare among the West- 

The latter usually wore blouses, instead of dress coats, and 
as a rule their clothing had not been renewed since the opening 
of the cam|Kiign — and it showed this. Those who wore good 
boots or shu<'s goncrally had to submit to forcible exchanges 
by their captors, and the same was true of head gear. The 
liebels were Ixully off in regsird to hats. They did not have 
skill and ingenuity enough to make these out of felt or straw, 
and the make shifts they contrived of quilted calico and long- 
lea vini pine, were ugly enough to frighten horned cattle. 

I never blamed them much for wanting to get rid of these, 
even if they did have to commit a sort of highway robbery 
uix>n defenseless prisoners to do so. To be a traitor in arms 
was IkuI (*(*rtainly, but one never appreciated the entire magni- 
tuile of the crime until he saw a Itebel wearing a calico or a 
pine-leaf hat. Then one felt as if it would be u great mistake 
to ever show such a man mercy. 

The Anny of Northern Virginia seemed to have supplied 



themselves with head-gear of Yankee mannfactare of previous 
years, and tboy then quit taking the hats of their prisoners. 
Johnston's Army did not have such good luck, and had to 
keep plundering to the end of the war. 

Another thing about the Army of the Potomac was the 
varifty of the nniforms. There were members of Zouave reg;i- 
monts, wearin;: ba^gy breeches of various hues, gaiters, crinisoa 
fezes, and profus<.*Iy bniidixl jackets. I have before mentioned 
the queer giirb of the ** Lost Ducks." {Les Enf anU Perdu^ 
Forty -eighth New York.) 

One of the most striking uniforms was that of the '^Four- 
teenth Brooklyn." They wore scarlet pantaloons, a blue jacket 
handsomely braided, and a reil fez, with a white cloth wrapped 
around the head, turban-fiishion. As a large number of them 
were capturwl, they formeil quite a picturesi]ue feature of exery 
crowd. They were geneiiUly good fellows and gallant soldiers. 

An* t her uniform that attnicteil much, though not so favor- 
able, attention wiis that of the Third New Jersey Cavalry, or 
First New Jersey Hussars, as they preferred to call themselves. 
The designer of the uniform must have had an interest in a 
curcuma plantation, or else he was a fanatical Orangeman. 
Each uniform wimld furnish occ:ision enough for a dozen Neir 
York riots on the 12Lh of July. Never w;is such an eruption 
of the yellows seen outside of the jaundiced livery of some 
Eiistern {Xitentate. Down eiich leg of the pantaloons ran a 
8tri|K3 of yellow braid one ami one-half inches wide. The 
jacket had enormous gilt buttons, and was embellished with 
yellow bniid until it w;ls ditlicult to tell whether it was blue 
cloth trimmeil with yellow, or yellow adorned with blue. 
From the .shoulders swung a little, false hussar jacket, lined 
with the Siime flaring yellow. The vizorless cip was similarly 
warmeil up with the hue of the |>erfecteil sunflower. Their 
satfrun magnificence \\\is like the gorgeous gold of the lilies 
of the fielil, and Solomciii in all his glory could not have been 
arrayeil lilwc one of them. I hopj he was not. I want to 
retain my resi)ect for him. We dubbod the^e dalTo.lil cavtdiers 
'* liutttTflics/" and the name stuck to them like a |K>or relation. 

Still anotiier distinction that wxs ahvavs noticeable between 
the two armies wu:s in the bodily bearing of the men. The 


Anny of tho Potoniao was drilled more rigidly than the West- 
em men, and hod oomparutively few long marches. Its mem- 
bors had something of the stiffness and precision of English and 
German soMiery, while the Western boys had the long, ^^ reachy" 
stride, and easy swing that made forty miles a day a rather 
commonphice march for an infantry regimont 

This was why we knew the new prisoners to be Sherman*8 
bo3's as soon as tliey came inside, and we started for them to 
hoar the news. Inviting them over to our lean-to, we told 
them our anxiety for the story of the decisive blow that gave 
us the Central Gale of the Coafoderacyi and asked thoui to 
give It to us. 



An intelligent, quick-eyed, snnbumod boy, without an oaiioo 
of surplus flesh on faoe or limbs, which hud been reduoed to 
gray -hound condition by the labors and anxieties of the numtht 
of battling between Chattanooga and Atlanta, seemed to be the 
accepted talker of the crowd, since all the rest looked at him, 
as if expecting him to answer for them. lie did so : 

*^ You want to know about how we got Atlanta at lasti do 
you t Well, if you don't know, I should think you vxndd wmnt 
to. If / didn't, rd want somebody to tell me all about it jast 
as soon as he could get to me, for it was one of the neatest 
little bits of work that ^ old Billy ' and his boys ever did, and 
it got away with Uood so bad that he hardly knew what hurt 

'' Well, first, ril tell you that we belong to the old Fourteenth 
Ohio Volunteers, which, if you know anything about the Army 
of the Cumberland, you'll remember has just about aa good a 
record as any that trains around old Pap Thomas — and ha 
don't Mow no slouches of any kind near him, either — you oaa 
bet $500 to a cent on that, and offer to give back the cent if 
you wiiL Ours is Jim Steedman's old regiment — youWe all 
beard of old Chickamauga Jim, who slashed his division of 


TyOOO fresh mon into the Rebel flank on the second day at 
Chickamauga» in a way thait made Longstreet wish he*d staid 
on the Itai)i)ahannock, an<l never tried to get up any little 
sociable with the We^UMiern. If I do say it myself, I believe 
we've got as go.Kl a crowd of s^iiiare, stand-up, trust 'em-every- 
minute-in-your-life bjy:i, as over c!i:iwe.l hard-tack and sow- 
belly. Wo got all the grunters au.l weak sisters fanned out 
the flrst yaar, and sinc3 then wo*ve b.^n on a basinois basis, all 
the time. AWre in a mighty good brigade, too. M^st of the 
regiments liave been with us since we forin3d the first brigade 
Pap Thomas ever commanded, and waded with him through 
the mud of Kentucky, from Wild Cat to Mill Springs, where 
he gave ZollicofFer just a little the awfulest thrashing that a 
Rebel General ever got. That, you know, was in January, 1803, 
and was the first victory gaimnl by the Western Army, and 
our people felt so n.»joice<l over it that — " 

" Yes, yes ; we've read all about that,'* we broke in, "and weM 
like to hear it again, some other time; hut tell us now about 

" All right. Let's see : where was II O, yes, talking about 
our brigade. It is the Third Rrig:ide,of the Third Division, of 
the Fourteenth Cor{)s, and is made up of the Fourteenth Ohio, 
Thirty-eighth Ohio, Tenth Kentucky, and Seventy-fourth 
Indiana. Our old Colonel — George P. Este — commands it 
We never liked him very well in e^imp, but I tell you he^s a 
whole team in a fight, and heM do s^) well there that all would 
take to him again, and he'd be real popular for a while." 

" Now, isn't that strange," broke in Andrews, who was given 
to fits of speculation of psychological phenomena : " None of 
us yearn to die, but the surest way to gain the affection of the 
boys is to show zeal in leading them into scrapes where the 
chances of getting shot are the best. Courage in action, like 
charity, covers a multitude of sins. I have known it to make 
tlie most unpopular man in the battalion, the most popuUir 
inside of half an hour. Now, M. (addressing himself to me,) 
you remember Lieutenant II., of our battalion. You know Le 
was a very fancy young fellow; wore as 'snifisish' clothes as 
the tailor could make, had gold lace on bis jacket wherever the 
reguhitions would allow it, dec<»rated his shoulders with tbo 


stunningest pair of shoulder knots I ever saw, and so on. Well| 
he did not stay with us lon^ after we went to the front, lie 
went back on a detail for a court martial, and staid a good 
while. When he rejoined us, he was not in good odor, at all, 
and the boys weren't at all careful in saying unpleasant things 
when he could hear them, A little while after he came back 
we made that reconnoissance up on the Virginia RoacL We 
stirred uj) the Johnnies with our skinnish line, and while the 
firing wits going on in front we sat on our horses in line, watt- 
ing for the order to move forward and engage. You know how 
solemn such moments are. 1 looked down the line and saw 

Lieutenant II at the right of Company , in command 

of it. I had not seen him since he came back, and I sung out: 

" ' Hello, Lieutenant, how do you feel ? \ 

" The reply came back, promptly, and with boyish cheerful- 

" * Bully, by ; I'm going to had seventy men of Company 

into (irtJnn to-day !^ 

"How his boys did cheer him. When the bugle sounded 
* forward, trot/ his conij)any sailed in as if they meant it, and 
swept the Johnnit^ off in short meter. You never heard anj- 
Ixxlv siiv anvlhin«; a«r«iinNt Lieutenant after that." 

*' You know how it was with Captain U., of our regiment,** 
said one of tlie Fourtrrnth to another. '*IIewas promoted 
from Onlt'rly StT^^oant to a Sti.ond Lieutenant, and assigned to 
Company D. All the* ni«Mnl>ers of Comj>any D went to head- 
quarters in a IkmIv, and prot<*steil against his being put in their 
comi>any, and he was not. Woll, he l)ehaved so well at Chicka- 
maugsi that the l>oys <;:iw that thov had done him a great 
injustice, and all thos<* that still livcnl went again to headquar- 
ters, and askt.ll to take all back that thev had said, and to have 
him put into the niinpany." 

" Well, that was doin;: the manly thing, sure; but go on aboat 

''I was tellinir alM>ut our brigade," resume<l the narrator. 
"Of cnurs«', we think our nutriment's the liest by long odds in 
the army - every fellow thinks that of his regiment — but next 
to it coint* the other retriin«.nts of our brigade. There*8 not a 
cent of discount on anv of tht*m. 


^ Sherman had stretched out his right ETvay to the south and 
west of Atlanta. About the middle of August our corps, com- 
mander! hv J<»fferson C. Davis, was lying in works at Utoy Creek, 
a couph' of miles from Atlanta. We could see the tall steeples 
and tlie high buildings of the City quite plainly. Things had 
gone on dull and quiet like for about ten days. This was 
longer by a gfKxl deal than we had been at rest since we left 
Kesaca in the Spring. We knew that something was brewing, 
and that it must voxne to a head soon. 

*'I Iwlong to Comimny C. Our little mess — now reduced 
to three bv the loss of two of our best soldiers and cooks, 
Disbrow and Sulier, killed l>ehind head-logs in front of Atlanta, 
by shaq)sh<M)t<*rs — had one fellow that we calle<l * Observer,' 
because ho had such a faculty of picking up news in his 
prowling around head(piai*ters. He brought us in so much 
of this Jiud it was gi»nerally so reliable that we frequently 
made up his al)s<»nce from duty by taking his place. He was 
never away from a Hght, though. On the night of the 25th of 
August, *()l»servor' came in with the news that something was 
in the wind. Shennan was getting awful restless, and we had 
found out that this alwavs meant lots of trouble to our friends 
on the other side. 

** Sure enough, onlers came to get ready to move, and the 
next nigiit we all move<l to the right and rear, out of sight of 
the Johnnies. Our well built works were left in charge of 
Garrard's Cavalry, who concealed their horses in the rear, and 
came up and took our ]>laoea. The whole army except the 
Twentieth Corps moveil <|uietly off, and did it so nicely that we 
were gone some time before the enemy suspected it. Then the 
Twentieth (M>r])s pulle<l out towanis the North, and fell back 
to the ChattalxNtchie, making quite a show of retreat. The 
Itelx*ls snup|HHl up the bait greedily. They thought the siege 
was l>eing niise<l, and they poured over their works to hurry 
the Twi*nti<»th bovs off. The Twentieth fellows let them know 
that then* wsis lots of sting in them yet, and the Johnnies were 
uot long in disi*overing that it would have been money in their 
pockets if they had let that Mnoon-and-star ' (that^s the Twen- 
tieth's liadgiN you know) crow^l alone. 

^' But the I£cIm thought the rest of us were gone for good. 

440 ▲irDESS01ITILL& 

and that Atlanta was saved. Naturally they felt mighty bapfiy 
over It; and resolved to have a big celebration — a ball, a meet- 
ing of jubilee, eta Extra trains were run in. with girls and 
women from the surrounding oountry, and they just had a 
high old time. 

** In the meantime we were going through so many difTerent 
kinds of tactics that it looked as if Sherman was really crazy 
this tinie« sure. Finally we made a grand left wheel, and then 
went forward a long way in line of battle. It puzzled us a 
good deal, but we knew that Sherman couldn't get us into any 
8cra]X! that Pap Thomas coiUdn't get us out of, and so it was 
all right. 

" Along on the evening of the 31st our right wing seemed to 
have run against a hornet's nest, and we could hear the mus> 
ketry and cannon speak out real spiteful, but nothing came 
down our way. We had struck the railroad leading south from 
Athmta to Macon, and Ix'gan tearing it up. The jollity at 
Atlanta Wiis stop|K.Hl ri;;ht in the middle by the appallin*>: news 
that the Yankees hadn*t n^treatiHl worth a cent, but had broken 
out in a new and much woi-si.* s{H)t than ever. Then there was 
no end of trouble all around, and Hood started {xirt of his 
annv back after us. 

'•Part of Ihmltv's an<l Pat Clobiirne's aimmaud wont into 
position in front of us. \Vi» k'fi tlu^m al<»m» till Stanley could 
come up on our left, and swing around, so its to cut olT their 
retreat, when we would bag every one of tliem. lUit Stanley 
was as slow ius he always wius, and did not come up until it was 
too latr, and the ^swrnv was ^'<me. 

"The sun was just ^'oinir down on the evening of the 1st of 
BeptenilK-r, when wi» U-L^aii to si*e we wt-re in for it, sure. The 
Fourteenth Corps wheeliil into jxisition ni'ar the railntiid, and 
the sound of musketry and artiliiM-y iN-c-anie very loud and clear 
on our fnmt an<l h-ft. We turned a little and marelietl straight 
towaixl the raikrt, lKM.'«»n]in«r nion* i'.\i:ii'<l evt-ry minute. We 
saw the ( arlin's briiradr of re^rulai-s, who wi*re M»nie distance 
alieail of us, pile knaiiTsiieks, form in lim*. fix bavonets, und dash 
olT with a niusint: el hit. 

**Th<* Ui*InI tire Inmi u|Hin tlnMu liki* a Summer niin-storm, 
the ^^n»und bhiMik with the noisi*, and just us we reached the 


edge of the cotton ticld, we saw the remnant of the brigade 
come flying bock out of the awful, blasting shower of bullets. 
The whole 8lo|)e was coverecl with dead and wounded — .^^ 

" Y«8,'' internipts one of the Fourteenth; "and they made 
that cimrgo right gamely, too, I can tell you. They were good 
soldiers, and well Itnl. When we wont over the works, I 
remember scoing the body of a little Major of one of the regi- 
ments lying right on tlie top. If he hsuln't been killed heM 
been inside in a haIf-a-<lozen steps more. There's no mistake 
about it ; those regulars will tight'* 

" When we saw this," resumed the narrator, " it set oar 
fellows fairly wild ; they lxK*ame just crying mad ; I never saw 
them so before. Tlu' onliT came to strip for the charge, and 
our kna|)sacks were ])ileil in half a minute. A Lieutenant of 
oar coni|Kiny, who was then on the statT of Qen. liaird, oar 
division commander, nnle slowly down the line and gave as 
our instructions to loud our guns, fix bayonets, and hold fire 
until we were on top of the Uelx'l works. Then Colonel Este 
sang (»ut clear and steady as a bugle signal : 

*' * nrigade, forwani I (iuide center 1 March 1 1' 
**and wu sturttnl. Heavens, how they did let into us, as we 
canu» up into rangi*. TIk'V had ten pieces of artillery, and 
mon* men lH.*hin<l the breastworks than we had in line, and the 
fire tlu*y miuriMl on us was simply withering. We walked 
acriKvs tht» lunuln.Hls of dead and dying of the regular brigade^ 
and at t*vt*ry st4*p our own men fell down among them. General 
BainTs h<>rs«» was shot down, and the (ieneral thrown far over 
his liead« tnit he juin|)iNl up and nm alongside of us. Major 
Wils<»n, our re<riniental comman<Ier, fell mortally wounded ; 
Lieutenant Kirk w«is killetl, and also Captain Sto])fanl, Adjutant 
Gent^nil (»f the brig:ule. Lieutenants Cobb and Mitchell dropped 
with wuunds that prove<l fatal in a few days. Captain Ogan 
lost an arm, on«*-thinl of the enlisted men fell, but we went 
straight ahead, the gni|)e and the musketry becoming worse 
every step, until we gaine<l the e<lge of the hill, where we were 
chet^ketl a minute by the brush, which the I^'bels had fixed up 
in th(* hlia|M* of alMittis. Just then a terrible fire from a new 
dini*tion, our left, swept down the whole length of our Una 
The Colonel of tht» Seventeenth New York — wn gallant a man 

443 A2n)E3»oinnLLB. 

as ever lived — saw the new trouble, took his regiment in on 
the nin, nml relieved us of tliis, but he was himself mortally 
wounded. If our Ik)Vs were half-cnizv before, thov were frantic 
now, and as wo ^ut out of the entanglement of the brush, we 
raise<l a f<'arful veil an<l ran at the works. We climlxHl the 
sides, lirtnl right ilown into the defenders, and then l>egiin with 
the bavonet and sword. Vor a few minutes it was simply 
awful. On both sides men acted like infuriated devils. They 
daslxd each other's brains out with clubbed muskets; bayonets 
wen' driven into men*s bodies up to the muzzle of the gun ; 
officers ran thoir swords thnjugh their opjxments, and revolvers, 
after being ompti(*<l into the faces of the Rebels, were thrown 
with des{MM-ate force into the ranks. In our regiment was a 
stout (uTmnn butcher named Krank Fleck. He became so 
excitcnl that he threw down his sword, and ini.sheil among the 
Ilel)els with his bare iist.s, kn<K'king down a swath of them, 
lie VelUtl to the fii'st llebel he met : 

*" I*v (iotl, I've no i)iitience mit vou.' 
''antlkn<K.'ke<l)iinis])niwIiiig. ]Ieeau;:ht holii of the commander 
of the Kelx-I Iiri<^Md(\ and snatehiMl him imck over the works 
by main strenLTtii. AVondert'ul to s:iy, he esea]XHi unhurt, but 
the Ix)vs will pri>bablv not siNm I<*t him hear the htst of 

**'ry <ioit, I've no patience niit you.' 

"Tht» Trnth Keiitiuky, by tin* cpaM»re^l luck in the world, 
wa.s matehfd a«'ainsi the Ki b«'l Ninth Keiituckv. The com* 
manders of tli»» two reLrinients weit» bniiliers-in-law. and the 
men nMativts, fru-ntls. ai-<|uaintances and sehiMilinatis. They 
hated each other aeroidint^^ly, and the ti;rht iN'twren them was 
mi>n* bit t IT. if jMissibli^. tlian anywhere flsr on the line. The 
ThirtvKi<:hth Oliio atid Seventv-fourili Indiana put in some 
work that was just nia;:iiifieent. AVe hadn't linn* to lo<ik at it 
then, but the ili-aii and wounded ]m1(hI up after the fight told 
the sti>rv. 

"We irnulnallv foreiil «>ur wav over the work.s, but the Ileb- 
els wiMi' e-ann' to the last, and we had to niaUf them surriMider 
almost one at a time. The artilli*rvnien triisl to tin> on us 
whi-n we wep'sn cln'Si' wt* eiMild lav mir hanils on the irims. 

" Kinally nearly ail in the wtiikn Niirreni it-red. anil wi-iv dis- 
arnieii ainl niarcijiHJ iKiek. '\\i^\ tln-ii mi a-il •.iiiie iLiNliing up 


Tnth the information that we must turn the works, and get 
ready to receive Hardee, who was advancing to retake the posi- 
tion. We snatched up some shovels lying near, and began 
work. We had no time to remove the dead and dying Rebels 
on the works, and the dirt we threw covered them up. It 
proved a false alarm. Hardee had as much as he could do to 
save bis own hide, and the affair ended about dark. 

" When we came to count up what we had gained, we found 
that we had actually taken more prisoners from behind breast- 
works than there were in our brip^ade when we started the 
charge. We had made the only really successful bayonet 
charge of the campaign. Every other time since we left Chat- 
tanooga the party standing on the defensive had been successfuL 
Here we had taken strong double lines, with ten guns, seven 
battle flags, and over two thousimd prisoners. We had lost 
terribly — not less than one-third of the brigade, and many of 
our bt*st men. Our regiment went into the battle with fifteen 
officers ; nme of these were killeil or wounded, and seven of 
the nine lost either their limbs or lives. The Thirty-Eighth 
Ohio, and the other regiments of the brigacle lost equally 
heavy. We thought Chickamauga awful, but Jonesboro dis- 
counted it." 

"Do you know," said another of the Fourteenth, "I heard 
our Surgeon telling al>out how that Colonel Grower, of the 
Seventeenth New York, who came in so splendidly on our left, 
died i Thev sav he was a Wall Street broker, before the war. 
He was hit shortly after he led his regiment in, and after the 
fight, was carried back to the hospital. While our Surgeon 
was going the rounds Colonel Grower called him, and said 
quietly, ' When you get through with the men, come and see 
me, please.' 

** The Doctor would have attended to him then, but Grower 
wouldn't let him. After he got through he went back to 
Grower, examined his woun<l, and told him that he could onlj 
live a few hours. Grower reeeive<l the news tranquilly, had 
the Doctor write a letter to his wife, and gjive him his things 
to send her, and then grasping the Doctor's hand^ he said: 

" * Doctor, I've just one mon* favor to ask ; will you grant iti* 

"The Doctor said, • Certainlv ; what is it !* 


" ' You say I can't live but a fow hours ! ' 

" * Yes ; that is true.' 

" * And that I will likely bo in groat pain f ' 

" * I am sorry to siiy so.' 

''^Well, theiu (lu give mo morphia enough to put me to 
sleep, so that I will wake up only in another world.' 

"Tlio Doctor did so; Colonel Grower thanked him; xrrang 
bis hand, bade him good-by, and went to sleep to wako no 

'^Do you Ix^Iieve in pivsirntiments and superstitions?" said 
another of the Fourteenth. *' There was Fisher Pray, Orderly 
Sergeant of (Jompany I. He came from Watcrville, O., where 
bis folks are now livin^ir. The dav before we started out he 
had a presentiment that we wore going into a fight, and that 
he would be killeii. He couldn't shake it off, lie told the 
Lieutenant, and some of the bovs about it, and thev tried to 
ridicule him out of it, but it wiis no good. When the sharp 
firing broke out in fn»nt some of the boys ssiid, ^ Fisher, I do 
believe you are right/ and he nixldeil his head mournfully. 
When we were piling kna{»sarks for the* charge, the Lieutenaati 
who wiLs a gival friend of Fishrr's, siiid : 

" * Fisher, you stay heii.' an<l guaiil the knapsacks.' 

"Fisher*8 face bla/.t»<l in an instant. 

" * No, sir,' said he ; I never sliirkeil a fight yet, and I woQ*t 
begin now.' 

*' So he went into the liglit, and wiis killcil, as he knew he 
would be. Now, iluii's what /call nerve.'' 

"The .siime thinj; wjus true of Sergeant Arthur Tarbox, of 
ComiKiny A," siiid ih«* narrator; '* he had a presentiment, too; 
he knew he was goiii;: to U* killtni, if lie went in, and he was 
offeiXHl an honorable rhanee to .stav out, but he would not take 
it, and went in and was killt-tl/* 

" Well, we staid tln.'re tlu* next day, linriiHl our dead, took 
care of our woundtnl, and ;rathenMl up the pliindiT we had 
taken from the Johnni(s. Tlir ii'st of tlie army w«*nl off, * hot 
blocks/ after Ilarthv and tlif ix-st of lI<»o«rs army, which it was 
hoiKtl would b(* caugiit mtlside r»f en trench men t.s. Rut Hood 
had liMi much the start. an<l jL;i»t into the works at Ixivejoy, 
alK'ad of <»ur fellows. The ni^-lit i»efore we heard several very 



lond explosions up to the north. TVe jessed what that meant, 
and BO did the Twentieth Corps, who were lying book at tho 
Chattahoochee, and the next morning the Uencrul commanding 
— Slocum — sent out a reconnoiasance. It was met by the 
Mayor of Atlanta, who said that the RpIkOij had blown up the>r 
stores and retreated. The Twentieth Cor|» then came in and 
took possession of tlic City, and tlio next day — the 3d — Sher- 
man came in, and i&»iM uii onlur declaring the cnm)iaigu at an 
end, and that we would rust awhilu and rolit. 

"AVe laid around Atlanta a gou<l while, and things quieted 
down so that it seemed almost like i>e;icc, after the four months 
of continual fighting we had gone through. We had boon 
under a strain so long that now we boys went in the other 
direction, and became too careless, and that's bow we got picked 
up. Wo went out about five miles one night after a lot of nico 
smoked hams that a nigger told us were stored in an old cotton 
prcBS, and which we knew would be enough sight better eating 
for Company C, than the commissary pork we liad lived on so 
long*. We found the cotton press, and the hams, just as the 
nigger told us, and we hitched up a team to take them into 
camp. As we hadn't seen any Johnny signs anywhere, we let 
our guns down to help looil the meat, and just as we all came 
stringing out to the wagon with as much meat as ire could 
carry, a company of Ferguson's Cavalry popped out of the 
woods about one hundred yards in front of us and were on 
top of us before we cuold say ' scat' Ton see they'd heard of 
the moat, too." 




Cburley Barbour was one of the truestr hearted and bestrliked 
of my school-lx>y claims anil friends. For several terms we sat 
together on tlie same uncompromisingly uncomfortable bench^ 
worried over the siime boy-maddening problems in '' Iiay*s 
Arithmetic — Part III./' learneil the same jargon of meaning- 
less rules from ** Grc»ene's Grammar,'* pomleretl over '• ]iIiteheU*a 
Geogniphy and Atlas," and trieil in vain to understand why 
Providence made the surface of one State obtrusively pink and 
another ultramarine blue ; trcnl slowly and painfully over the 
ruggetl ruad '• l>ullion " i>oints out for beginners in I^tin, and 
began to believe we should hate oursi'lves and everylxxly else, 
if we wen* gotten up after the manner shown bv •* Gutter's 
Physioh »;ry." We were caught togoilMTin the sime long series 
of scImm»1-U»v scra|)es — and wen» usuallv ferruletl t«»wther bv 
the sanif slrt)n;^-armeil teacher. We sharetl neurlv everv thins: — 
our fun and work; enjoyment and annoyance — all were 
genenilly nieted out to us together. We reail from the same 
b(K>ks the st«»ry of tiie wonderful world we were going to see in 
that bright future*' when we were men;" we .sjieni our i>atur- 
davs and vacations in the miniature e.xplon\tic»ns of the rocky 
hdls and caves, and dark cedar wcxkIs antund (»ur homes, to 
giitlier iH iihir hei|»s to a better comprehension of that magicsU 
land wiiieli we were convinced lK*g;in just Un'ond our honzun, 
anil luul in it, visible to the eve of him who traveled tlirougb 
its i'iu'h.Lnt«Hl bivadth, all that "(iuUiver's I-'abU's." the '* Ar»- 


bian Nights," and a hundred books of travel and adventore 
told of. 

We imagined that the only dull and oommonplace spot on 
eartli was that where we lived. Everywhere else life was a 
grand siXHrtacular dmnia, full of thrilling effects. 

Brave and hantlsonie young men were rescuing distressed 
damsels, beautiful as they were we^ilthy; bloody pirates and 
swarthy murderers were being foiled by quaint K|x>ken back- 
wooilsmen, who carried unerring rifles ; gallant but blundering 
Irishmen, s|M»aking the most delightful brogue, and making the 
funniest mistakes, were daily thwarting oool and determined 
villains ; bold tars were encountering fearful sea perils ; lion- 
liearttHl adventurers were cowing and quelling whole tribes of 
biirbarians ; magicians were casting siiclls, misers hoarding 
gold, scientists makin;; astonishing discoveries, poor and 
unknown buys achieving wealth and fame at a single bound, 
huldt'n mysterit*s coming to light, and so the world was going 
on, makin^jT n^ams of history with each diurnal revolution, and 
furnishing boundli^ss material for the most delightful books. 

At tilt* a<j:e of thirteen a [lerusal of the Hves of Benjamin 
Franklin and Ilonicc Cireeloy precipitated my determination 
to no longer hesitate in launching my small bark upon the 
great (icean. I nin away from home in a truly romantic way, 
and place<l my foot on what I ex|)0Cted to be the first round of 
the ladder of fame, by becoming '* devil boy " in a printing 
office in a distant large City. Charley's atUichment to hia 
mother and his home was too strong to [)ermit him to take this 
stop, and we [uirted in soirow, mitigated on my side by roseato 
dreams of the future. 

Six years |wssed. One hot August morning I met an old 
aa|uaintunco at the Creek, in Andersonville. lie told me to 
come there the next morning, after roll-cull, and he would take 
me to see some fierson who was very anxious to meet me. I 
was prompt at the rendezvous, and was soon joined by the 
other |iarty. lie thre:ided his way slowly for over half an 
hour through the closely-jumbled mass of tents and burrows* 
and at length stopped in front of a blanket-tent in the north- 
Wi-btcrn corner. The occu|iant rose and took my hand. For 




an ln«Uinl 1 was puzzled ; Uioti the clisar, bluo oycs, and wtSL- 
maoai\nTaii suiiie rocaliod tu me my old-liine ooiiimde, Cbmrle^ 
Uarbonr. llisHtoiy 
was soon luld. IJs 
vcas a Sergvant in 
a W««lorn Vir- 
ginia cavalry regi- 
uiciit — tlio Fourth, 
I Uiink. At tlM 
time llunter was 
makiu<; his retreat 
fruin ihv VoUejr ot 
Virgioia, itn-as(le> 
cideil to mislead 
the ene[u,r liy so Qtl~ 
ing out u oaurior 
with false di»- 
potclie* to be ca{>> 
tured. There waa 


BEMKXBEKKR sMiLx. teef for this Bor- 

xim. Chatiay was 
the flrat to offer, ffitb tbat Bpirit of generooa aelf-«ucril1(» tbjit 
vns one of liis |)li-jb<ant4»t Iraitu vrhRii ■ boy. lie knew what 
he bad to ex|tt%t. i^pture mntint iinpri»onment nt Andonon- 
villtf ; uur men bad notv a pretty clear undervtanding of what 
thiiiwat. (.'harluv look thedispatcbmaiiil rode into Lhi'enftmy'a 
tines. Ili^ was taken, and the false itifornuitiun pro<iue«d tba 
desired effect. (>n bin way to Andersonrille he wniiatrippetl 
of all his clothing bat his Hhirt and (>aiitaloana, and tttrned into 
the Stockade in thia condition. When I nw him be had ba«M 
in a week or more. He lold bis stiiry quietly — alauMi 
difBdently — not K^mitig aware Uiat he had done more than 
bis simple duty. 1 left him with the promise and expcotatkm 
of Tvturnin^ Lbe ni^st day, but nhnn I attempted to find him 
again, I was lott in the maze oF t4*nl» luul burrowi. I luul for- 
gotten to auk the number of bis detachment, and after BfiondiDg 
Several days in bunting for bim, I tvaa fonwd to give the a 


up. He knew as little of my whereabouts, and though we were 

all the time within seventeen hundre<l feet of each other, neither 

we nor our common acquaintance could ever manage to meet 

again. This will give the reader an idea of the th*'ong com- 

presse<I within the narrow limits of the Stockade. After leaving 

Andersonville, however, I met this man once more, and learned 

from him that Charley had sickened and died within a month 

after his entrance to prison. 

Sc ended his day-dream of a career in the busy world. 



On the evening of the 11th of October there came an ozder 
for one thousand })risoner8 to fall in and march outy for trans- 
fer to sumo other point. 

Of course, Andrews and 1 " flanked " into this crowd. That 
was our usual way of doing. Holding that the chances were 
strongly in favor of every movciuent of prisoners being to our 
hnes, we never failed to be numbered in the first squad of pris- 
oners tliat wei*e sent out. Tlie seductive mirage of " exchange " 
was ahvavs hirin<; us on. It must come some time, ccrtainlv. 
and it wouKl be most likely to come to those who were most 
earnestly searching for it. At all events, we should leave no 
means uiitrieii to uvail ourselves of whatever seeming chanoos 
there might be. There could be no other motive for this move, 
we argut'*!, than exchange. The Confedenicy was not likely 
to be at the trouble and ex|)ense of hauling us about the ooun^ 
try without some good reason — something better than a wish 
to make us acquainted with Southern scenery and to|H>graphy. 
It would hanlly take us away from Savannah so soon after 
bringing us there for any other purpose than delivery to our 

The Rebels encouraged this belief with direct assertions of 
Its truth. Thoy framed a plausible lie about there bavinff 
arisen some ditliculty concerning the admissi(»n of our vi'ssols 
{Nist the harbor defenses of Savannah, which made it necessary 


to take us elsewhere — probably to CharleBton — for delivery 
to our men. 

Wishes are always the most powerful allies of belief. There 
is little difficulty in convincing a man of that of which he wants 
to be convinced. We forgot the lie told us when we were 
taken from Andersonville, and believed the one which was told 
us now. 

Andrews and I hastily snatched our worldly possessions — 
our overcoat, blanket, can, spoon, chessboard and men, yelled 
to some of our neighbors that they could have our hitherto 
much-treasured house, and running down to the gate, forced 
ourselves well up to the front of the crowd that was being 
assembled to go out. 

The usual scenes accompanying the departure of first squads 
were Iteing actcil tumultuously. Every one in the camp wanted 
to ho one of the supposed-to-be-favored few, and if not selected 
at first, tritnl to '' flank in" — that is, slip into the place of 
some one else who had had better luck. This one naturally 
resisti^l displacement, vi et armis^ and the fights would become 
so general us to cause a resemblance to the famed Fair of Don- 
nybrtwk. The cry would go up — 

•* IjtKik out for flankers! " 

The lines of the selected would dress up compactly, and out- 
siilers trying to force themselves in would get mercilessly 

We finally got out of the pen, and into the cars, which soon 
rollfMi away to the westward. We were packed in too densely 
to be abl(* ti» lie down. We could hardly sit down. Andrews 
and I t4K»k up our position in one comer, piled our' little trea- 
sures under us and trying to lean against each other in such a 
way as to a(Ti»nl mutual support and rest, dozed fitfully through 
a Icmjr, weary night. 

When morning csime we found ourselves running northwest 
thniuirh a |M>or, pine-barren country that strongly resembled 
that we luul tra^rsed in coming to Savannah. The more we 
looke<l at it the more familiar it became, and soon there was no 
doubt we were gv>ing back to Anderson ville. 

Hy noon we had reached Millen — eighty miles from Savan- 
nali, and fifty-three from Augusta. It wss the junction of the 


road loading to ^lacon and tliat running to Augusta. Wa 
halted a little while at the <' Y," and to us the minutes were 
full of anxiety. If we turned off to the left we were going 
back to Andersonville. If we took the right hand road we 
were on the wav to Charleston or Richmond, with the chanoes 
in favor of exchange. 

At length we started, and, to our joy, our engine took the 
right hand track. We stopped again, after a run of five miles, 
in the midst of one of the open, scattering forests of long 
leaved pine that I have* before described. We were ordered 
out of the cars, and marching a few rods, came in sight of 
another of those hateful Stockades, which seemed to be as 
natural products of the sterile sand of that dreary land aa its 
desolate woods and its breed of boy murderers and gray-headed 

Again our hearts sank, and death seemed more welcome than 
incarceration in those gloomy wooden walls. We marohed 
despondently up to the gates of the Prison, and halted while a 
party of Kebel clerks made a list of our names, rank, companiefl^ 
and regiments. As they were liebels it was slow work. Read- 
ing and writing never came by nature, as Dogberry would aay, 
to any man fighting for Secession. As a rule, he took to them 
as reluctantly as if he thought them cunning inventions of the 
Northern Aliulitionist to iieri)lex and demoralize him. What a 
half-dozen boys taken out of our own ninks would have done 
with ease in an hour or so, these Rebels worried over all of the 
afternoon, and then their register of us was so imperfect, badly 
written and miss|)i*Iled, that the Yankee clerks afterwaida 
detaileil for tlie pur|)ose, never could succeed in reducing it to 

We h*arn«Hl that the place at which we had arrived waa 
Camp I^iv»ton, but we almost always s|>oke of it as "Millen,'' 
the same as (*unip Sumter is universally known as Andcrsun- 

Shortly after dark we were turne<l in?^de the Stockade. 
Being the tirst that had entereti, then* wits tpnte a quantitv of 
wockI— till* offal fiH>m the timber us4il in c*(»nstructin^ the 
Stockade — lying im the f;ruund. The ni|ijht w;lh chilly and 
we soon had a nunil>er of tires blazing, (i nvn pitch pine, when 




, giTM off ft pecoliar, par^ent odor, nrhioti is never tav- 
by one whi) has once smdled it. I first bocania 
ftnqnuntccl witli it on orntAring Andersonvillts und tu tliiii djiy 
it is tbn niijst ptiwrrful remeinlinince 1 r-an li»rv i>f tttrt opening' j 
of thiU dn-jwlful Ilio'i of wow*. On luy journoj- to Wasliingtoa 
of Ijitc ,v«arji the locomotives are invariably fe<i with pitch 
pine nil we near the Capital, and ax the wcU-rcmoiu In-red smell 
reaches me, 1 grow sick at hmrt with ttio Hood of ladduouig 
recollect ions tndi»(8olubh- af»ooiate«l with it. 

As our Ht^ blazed np tlie clinging, penetruting fumet dif* 
fnaetl lliptnselves everywhere. Tlw nigbt was as cool as the 009 
when we arrivifd at AndersonTille, the earth, nii^agvrly sodded 
with spunwi, hard, win* (^nun, was the soine ; tliu same ploey 
broez«) blew in (roui the surroundiiiif trovs, the same dismal 
owU hootei) at us ; the satn» mournful whip^ior-wtll kmunted, 
God knows what, in (he Kathei-in^ twilif^hL What we both 
fdt in the gloomy receasm of downcast hearts Andrews 
exprMsod as be tumnl (n mc with : 
*' Mv God, Mr, thi« looks like AndentonviUc all over igain." 
A eiipfal of com nvpAl waa tsswd to each of un. I hunted op 
■omc water. A ndrewB made a stiff doagh, and spread it about 
half an inch thick on the back of our chessboard. Ue propped 
this up before thu tire, and when the surface was neatly browned 

"na pBoppn> 

18 rr KKPniix the fikB. ' 

over, slipped it oft the buard and turned it over Ut brown tlio 
other siiii' similariv. This done, we diviiled it earefully between 
US. •wallowetl it tn«lrnee,spreadouroldovercoBt on thegruuod, 
tucked chns-bonnl, can, and spoon under far enough to be oot 
of the tvoch of thieves, adjutod the tbio blanket to as to get 


the most possible warmth oat of it, crawled in dose together, 
and went to sleep. This, thank Heaven, we oould do; wa 
could still sleep, and Nature had some opportunity to repur 
the waste of the day. We slept, and forgot where we were. 



In the morning we took a snrvoy of our now qnaiters, and 
found that wc were in a Stockade resembling very much in 
construction and dimensions that at Andersonville. The princi- 
pal diiTorcnce was that the upright logs were in their rough 
state, whereas they were hewed at Andersonville, and the brook 
running through the camp was not bordered by a swamp, but 
bad clean, tirm banks. 

Our next move was to make the best of the situation. We 
wore divideii into hundreds, each commanded by a Sergeant. 
Ten hundreds constituted a division, the head of which was 
also a Sergeant. I was elected by my comrades to the Ser- 
geantcy of the Second Hundred of the First Division. As soon 
as we wore assigned to our ground, we be^^an constructing 
shelter. For the first and only time in my prison experiencei 
we found a full supply of material for this purpose, and the use 
wo mado of it showed how infinitelv better we would have 
fared if in each prison the Rebels had done even so slight a 
thing as to bring in a few logs from the surrounding woods and 
distribute them to us. A hundred or so of these would probably 
have saved thousands of lives at Andersonville and Florence. 

A large tree lay on the ground assigned to our hundred. 
Andrews and I took possession of one side of the ten feet 
nearest the butt Other boys occupied the rest in a similar 
manner. One of our boys had succeeded in smuggling an ax in 
with him, and we kept it in consunt use day and night, eaoh 


group borrowing it for an hour or so at a time. It was as doll 
as a lioo, anil we were very weak, so that it was slow work 
" niggering off '• — (as tlie boys termed it) a cut of the log. It 
seenu'd as if beavers could have gnawed it oiF easier and more 
quickly. We only cut an inch or so at a time, and then |xissed 
the ax to the next usi*rs. Making little wedges with a dull 
knife, we dn»ve tht'in into the locr with elulis, and split off long« 
thin strijw, liki* the wealherlxjaiils i>f a house, and by the time 
we had split off our shaiv of the kig in this slow and lalK»riouB 
way, we had a fine lot <if these strijw. We were lucky enough 
to lind fuur forkeil sticks, of which we made the corners of our 
dwellin<;, and roofeil it carefully with our stri|)s, held in place 
by suils torn up from the eil;jre of the ciwk hank. The sides 
and ends wen* fiulosfd ; wi* ;rathert'4l enou;j:li pine toj« to cover 
the ground ti» a depth of sovenil inelu's: we banked up the 
outside, and ditciicd around it, and then had the most comfort- 
able alKMk* we had during our prison can*er. It wsis truly a 
house buihliHl with our own hands. f(»r we had no tools wliat- 
ever siivt* the occasional use of the afon*nK*ntiuneil dull ax and 
etjually dull knife. 

Th(* nuU* littli* hut rrpn*si*nti*4l as inucli actual lianl. manual 
lalKir as wnuid Ik* rciiuiiiHl ti» build a comfortable little cotta^ 
in the North, but we l^IjuHv jNTfi»rnn'<l it. iis we would have 
done aiiv dthrr wnrk t«» brtier (»nr cnndititin. 

For a wiiiif wninl was ijiiiii* ]»lfntifnl, ami we had the luxury 
dailv nf wjiirn lii*"*. wliieh tin- iiu-reasiniroMilness nf liie weather 
nia«le ini]Miria!it ati-r»«Mii-> !•► i»ur er>nilnrl. 

OiiiiT jiri'^iiiiriN kf|ii oiiiiiniT in. Tii«iM« \\r Irft lK*hind at 
Savannaii t'«»llo\\(-il n^. and tlif ]>risii;i tin mi* was biiiken up. 
Quite a nunilK'r aUo iMim* in fncii Aiiilersonvilli'. so that in a 
litli*' wliilr Wf liail lirtwi-i'ii >:.\ and M-Vfii tlniUNarnl in the St<K'k- 
ade. Thi* last rtiiiiiT^ f«iiiiid all tilt- iii:it«Tial fur tents an«i all 
the fiit*l ii>mI u|i. ami o>nst.-4|iii iitly did iitil fare sn uril sis the 
earlier arrivals. 

The eiini!nand:inl of the pris«»n — uni" ( "aptain Tiowi^s — Wiis 
the Ih'si i»f his i-la-vs It was my furiiiih* t^ in«fl. C'nni{iiin*«i with 
the M'nsi'livvi brutal iiy nf Wnv. tin* rr«*klt*'vs ih»viltry uf Davia^ 
iir tiie .stupid mali^^nanee itf liarn*ti. at I'h »n.*nce, his adminis- 
tnitiou wa."* inddut'ss an* I wi^hini iis«.'li'. 




He uofarced dbci{>line better than any of those named, bsl 
Lad whnt iln-y lUl Uckwl — uxocutire •bdlty — and he ttcant 
(Mulis that they could not ponibly attain, and withoat any 
hiug hke the friction that attended their efforts. I do nol 

r J 


1 M^N^^^ 


nr " -..*!^^^ 







nmrmbcr that any one wiu iihot during our six wi-ckii' >tay §A 
liUi-n — a riroamaUnw «imply rwinarkablc, ainow I do Ml 
ecall a tingle vradi pom^t aurwhoru l>1^- withoat at least oiM 
anrder bv tin* giuirds. 

4eMant-ha<(l, intvUig^t-nppearing lad of aboat fin«oD fl 
bctceo. lie Hud lo lu : 

rbeii w« reoetrod eo polite a designation.) Thk is my kid, vrbl, 

k ^^^ 




will hereafter call your roll. lie will treat you as genUemen, 
and I know vou will do the same to him." 

This understanding was ol>serve<l to the letter on both sides. 
Young Bowes invariably sjwke civilly to us, and we obeyed his 
orders with a prompt cheerfulness that left him nothing to 
complain of. 

The only charge I have to make against Bowes is made mors 
in detail in another chapter, and that is, that he took money 
from well prisoners for giving them the first chance to go 
through on the Sick Exchange. How culpable this was I most 
leave each rtsider to decide for himself. I thought it veiy 
wrong at the time, bat possibly my views might have been 
colore<l highly by my not having any money wherewith to 
procure my own inclusion in the hapi>y lot of the exchanged. 

Of one thing I am certain : that his acceptance of money to 
bias his oflicial action was not singular on his part. I am oon- 
vinced that ever}*^ commandant we had over us — except Wiix 
— was habitually in the receipt of bribes from prisoners. I 
never hoard that any one succeeiled in bribing Wirz, and this is 
the sole goml thing I can say of that fellow. Against this it 
may be said, however, that he plundered the boys so eifectaally 
on entermg the ])ri^i()n as to leave them little of the whei^ 
ivithal to brilx^ anvbodv. 

Davis was probably the most unscrupulous bribe-taker of the 
lot. He actually received money for i^rmitting prisoners to 
escape to our lines, and got down to as low a figure as one hun- 
dretl ilollars for this sort of service. I never heard that any of 
the otlu.'r coinnian<lants went this far. 

The rations issue<l to us were somewhat better than those of 
Andersonville, as the meal was finer and better, though it was 
absunkHlly insufiiciont in quantity, and wo receiveil no salu On 
several occasifiuc; frrsh beef was ih^alt out to us, and each time 
the excitement createil among those who had not tasted fresh 
meat for weeks and months was wontlerful. On the first occa- 
sion the meat was simply the heads of the Ciittle killed for the 
use of the guarils. Several wagcm loads of these were brought 
in and distributed. We broke them up so that every man got 
a piece of the bone, which wius boileil and reboiletl, sa long as 
a single bubble of grease would rise to the surface of the water; 



sveiy vestige of meat wu gnawed and scraped from the saTface> 
and then the bone was charred until it crumbled, when it wac 
eaten. Ho one who has not experienced it can imagine the inor- 
dinate hunger for aniuuU food of thoM who had eaten little alsa 



than com bread for so long. Our exhausted bodies were perish- 
ing for lack of proper sustenance. Nature indicated fresh beef 
as the best medium to repair the great damage already done, 
and our longing for it became beyond descriptioiL 


upon his head. lie was neither killed nor stunned, as they had 
reason to exi)ect. He succeeded in rising to his feet, and break- 
ing through the crowd of assiusins. He da^od down the sido 
of the hill, hotly pursuoil by thcin. Coming to the Creek, he 
leaped it in his excitement, but his pursuei's could not, and were 
checked. One of our battalion boys, who saw and oompre* 
hendeil the whole affair, nin over to us, shouting: 

'* Turn out ! turn out, for God's sake ! the Raiders aro killing 

We snatcheil up our clubs and started after the Raiders, 
but before we could i-eacii them, Ned Carrigan, who also compre- 
hendcMl what the trouble was, had run to the side of Goody, 
armed with a terrible looking club. The sight of Ned, and the 
demonstration tliat he was thoroughly aroused, Wiis enough for 
the Raider civw, and ihev abandoned the Held hastily. We 


did not feel oui*sc»lves strong enough to follow them on to their 
own dung hill, and try conclusions with tliem, but we deter- 
mIncMl to repjrt th«* matter to the lliAnA Commandant, from 
whom we hatl iviuson to Ix'lieve we could exiK-ct assistance. 
We wciv riglit. Ilfst/nt in a sijuad of guan Is, ar nested Dick 
Allen. IV'tc Doniielk, and si.*veral other riiiglcatlers, took them 
out and ]Kit th<M!i in thi* sii>cks in such a manner that they 
were coniprllfMl to lie uiN»n th^ir sti>machs. A shallow tin 
vessel eontaiiiiiig winter was plaei'd under their faces to furnish 
them drink. 

TIh'V >! Ml! then* a d;iy ami niglit, and when releastnl. joined 
the UelM'l Aniiv. fiifniiir tlie artillerv ei»nipaiiv llial manned 
th(* guns in tin* t«»ri covi-riiig the prison. 1 usi»<l to imagine 
with what /.<'al ili«'V wnnM AtMid ns over a n»und of shell or 
L'r.UH* if t!i'*v cmlil irfi anvthiiiir Hke an t^xcuse. 

This ::avf» un ithmI riiiilaiiee »»i i»ur «laii;:iToiLs enemies, and 
we ha«l little furtinT irouMt' wiih any 'if thi'in. 

Tin* depression iii the i«Mii|HTaturi» made me very sensible of 
the di'titierieies in my wa:ilp»lN«. I'msIumI fo^t. a shirt like a 
liNiiiiii: !jfl. a:i«l jiaiital-Hiii-, a> well vrniilatiil as a paliii:.'' fence 
mi'^ii: il«i viTv wi-ll I'nr llje broiliiii: >im at Andrrs4invdle and 
>:i'.a i?Mh. b'.il now. \\:!h th-* tii«Minoinfi«T niirhtiy tlipping a 
;.::ii' n'M!vr liu* fru.>l ha •. it b hm'iu' unplf.:Na:ii!y evident that 

A noBr or rrokj. mujiakt i>stauSi. 

w gnrments theEr oiBoe vraa purolr perfunotiiry ; oob might 
say ornamental Bim|>ly, if be wanted to be very sarcostia Tiny 
were wiirn 8ol«ly-t« oiTunl convenient quarters for multitude* 
of lioe, and id ileforence to Ihc. (irvjuilicv wlticti bas existed siooe 
the Full of Man ligainat our iningliug wiLb our fellow croaturos 
in the attire [iruvidiyl us by Xuloro. Hod I read Osrwln U; 
I stiould tuive cxjiuctwJ tbut my long cxixMUtv to thti WGtttber i 
would ilatx a One suit of fur, in tbp elfort o( Nature to adapft 
me to my cmrironmeiiL But no mora indiuatioog of this 
ajipcarvd ttmu if 1 bad Uwn u bairU'SM dug of Mexico, auddcdily 
tnuupliuilixl to mum northum latiludua. Providunou did i 
seom to be in tbo tem|tering-ibe-wind-to-thv-<(liorti-Iaiiib btuineM^ | 
M far afl ] wu conoemcd. I still retaituxl an almost unoonquflT' \ 
able {irejudiuonuainst stripjiing tb« dead to st-tiure clotbes, and ao 
uolcsa pxdiaiif^tr or dontli came Hpooddy, I wns in a bad tix, 

Om« mumini^ about day bruak, Andreirs, who had itartod to 
go kt unuUier jiort of tbc camp, camu alipping bock in a stale 
of gleeful (>xcit«- 
tDCDt. At flrst I 
thought he either 
bad found a tunnel 
or bad huaixl sumu 
good non'B about 
exchange. It was 
neitlittr. lie opened 
hu ja(^kct and hand- 
ed me an infantry- 
man's blouse, w btch 
he Uaid found in ttiv 
main iitrvct, wlurru 
it luul dru|ipi-d out 
of aomo feUoir'a 
boodle. We did 
not make any extr* 
exertion to Sod ttte 
ovrn«r. Andrewa 
waa in ton oed of c^lhca himself, bat my oecenitiea wore 
ao mtioti gruiier that the ^^ciiiroiu fellow thou4,dit of mr wanu 
dm. W'v examittwl the garment with an much intenMt as ever 



a belle bestowed on a new dress from Worth's. It was in fair 
proser\'ation, but the owner had cut the buttons off to trade to 
the guard, doubtless for a few sticks of wood, or a spoonful of 
salt. AVe supplied the place of these with little wooden pins, 
and I donned the garment as a shirt and coat — and vest^ too. for 
that mutter. The best suit I ever put on never gave me a 
hundredtii {uirt the s^itisfaction that this did. Shortly after, I 
managed to suIkIuc m v aversion so far as to take a good shoe 
which a one-legged dead man had no farther use for, and a 
little later a comraile giive me for the other foot a boot bottom 
from which he had cut the top to make a bucket. 

The day of the Presidential election of 1864 approached. 
The Rebels were naturally very much interested in the result, 
as they belie veil that the election of McClellan meant compro- 
mise and i-essation of hostilities, while the re-election of Lincoln 
meant prosecution of the War to the bitter end. The toodj- 
ing liiiiders, who were perpetually hanging around the gate to 
get a chance to insinuate themselves into the favor of the Rebel 
officers, ]xjrsuade<l them that we were all so bitterly hostile to 
our Government for not exchanging us that if we were allowed 
to vote we would cast an overwhelming majority in favor of 

The RelK*ls thought that this might perhai)s be used to advan- 
tage iis ]>(>litical capital for their friends in the North. They 
g;ive onlers that we might, if we chose, hold an election on the 
same day of the Presidential election. They sent m some 
ballot lx»Xi's, and we elected Judges of the Election. 

Alnjut n<jon of that day Captain Rowes, and a crowd of 
tight-lx>otiHl, bnad-hattcd Rebel officers, strutted in with the 
]ieculiar *' Kf -yer-ilon*t-b'lieve- Pm-a-butcher- jest-smell -o'-me- 
butes " swagger clianicteristic of the chiss. They had ct»me in 
to see us nil voting for McClellan. Instead, they found the 
\X)l\s surroundtnl witli ticket ])eillers shouting: 

"Walk right up here now, and get your Tnconditional- 
Union-Abraham Lincoln tickets!** 

" Here's your straight-hairetl pnisei'Ution-of-the-war ticket." 

*' Vote thf Lincoln tickt-t ; voto to whip the ItelvLs and 
make i»eace with them when they've laid <lown their arms/* 


^ DonH vote a lloClellan ticket and gratify Itobeli^ 

every whore," etc. 

The Rebel officers did not find the scene what their fancy 
painted it, and turning around they strutted out 

When the votes came to be counted out there were over seven 

thousand for Lincoln, and not half that many hundred for 

McClellan. The latter got very few votes outside the Raider 

crowd. The same day a similar election was held in Florence, 

with like result. Of course this did not indicate that there was 

any such a preponderance of Republicans among us. It meant 

simply that the Domo^ratic b jys, little as they might have liked 

Lincoln, would have voted for him a hundred times rather 

than do anything to please the Rebels 

I never heard that the Rebels sent the result North. 



One day in XoTember, some little time after the oooarreoi 
narrated in the last chapter, orders oame in to make oat rolls 
of all those who were bom oatside of the United States^ and 
whose terms of service bad expired. 

We held a little council among ourselves as to the memgdng 
of this, and concluded that some partial exchange had been 
agreed on, and the Rebels were going to send back the olaaa of 
boys whom they thought would be of least value to the GoTera- 
ment. Acting on this conclusion the great majority of na 
enrolled ourselves as foreigners, and as having served out 
our terms. I made out the roll of my hundred, and maiuured 
to give every man a foreign nativity. Those whose namea 
would bear it were assigned to England, Ireland, Sootland^ 
France and Germany, and the balance were distributed throng 
Canada and the West Indies. After finishing the roll and 
sending it out, I did not wonder that the Rebels believed tha 
battles for the Union were fou;^ht by foreign meroenariea The 
other rolls were maile out in the same way, and I do not sup- 
pose tliat they showed live hundred native Americans in tha 

The next day after sending out the rolls, there came an order 
that all those whose names ap]K*ared thereon should fall in. 
We did so, jimiiipily, and as nearly every man in camp waa 
included, we fell in as for other |mr|N^ses, by hundreils and 


thousands. We were then marohed ontdde, and massed around 
a stump on whioh stood a Rebel oflSoer, evidently waiting to 
make us a speech. We awaited his remarks with the greatest 
impatience, but he did not begin until the last division had 
marched out and came to a parade rest dose to the stump. 

It was the same old story : 

** Prisoners, you can no longer have any doubt that your 
Gk>yemment has cruelly abandoned you ; it makes no efforts to 
release you, and refuses all our offers of exchange. We are 
anxious to get our men back, and have made every effort to do 
so, but it refuses to meet us on any reasonable grounds. Your 
Secretary of War has said that the Qovemment can get along 
very well without you, and General Tfalleok has said that you 
were nothing but a set of blackberry pickers and coffee boilerii 

** YouWe already endured much more than it could expect of 
you ; you served it faithfully during the term yoo enlisted for, 
and now, when it is through with you, it throws yoo aside to 
starve and die. You also can have no doubt that Uie Southern 
Confederacy is certain to succeed in securing its independenca 
It will do this in a few months. It now offers you an oppop> 
tunity to join its service, and if yoo serve it fiuthfully to the 
end, yoo will receive the same rowards as the rest of its soldiers. 
You will be taken out of here, be well clothed and fed, given a 
good bounty, and, at the condnsion of the War receive a land 
warrant for a nice farm. If yoo^^— • 

But we had heard enough. The Sergeant of our division— 
a man with a stentorian voice — qMrrnng out and shooted: 

"^ Attention^ Hrti DwUion/'' 

We Sergeants of hundreds repeated the command down tha 
line. Shouted he : 

"^ First Division, afoul''— 

Said we: 

" First Hundred, about— "^ 

*" Second Hundred, afoul— *» 

"^ Third Hundred, about—'' 

"* Fourth Hundred, aiotU-^ eta, eta 

Said he— 

"Face! I" 


Ten Sorgoants repeated ^^ Face ! " qno after the other, and 
man in the hundreds turned on his heeL Then oar leader oom- 
minded — 

" First Division, forward ! march I '* 
and we stroile back into the Stockade, followed immediatoly bj 
all the other divisions, leaving the orator still standing on the 

Tlie Rebels were furious at this curt way of replying. We 
had scarcely readied our quarters when thoy came in with 
several coni|)anies, with loiuled guns and fixed bayonets. Thej 
drove us out of our tents and huts, into one corner, under the pre- 
tense of hunting axes and spades, but in reality to steal oar 
blan!:L*ts, and wliatever else they could find that they wanted, 
and to break <h>wn and injure our huts, many of which, costing 
us days of putioiit hil>or, they destroyed in pure wantonness. 

We were burning with the bitterest indignation. A tall 
slender man named Lloyd, a member of the Sixty-First Ohio — a 
rough. une<lucated fc^llow, but brim full of patriotism and manlj 
common sense, jumped up on a stump and poured out his soul 
in rude but fiery elo(|uence : ^* Comrades,*' he said, ^^ do not let 
the blowing of these Rebel whelps discourage you; pay no 
attention to the lies they have told you to-day ; you know well 
that our Government is too honorable and just to desert any 
one who serves it; it has not deserted us; their hoU-born Con* 
federary is not going to succeed. I tell you that as si^^ as 
there is a God who reigns and juil;:^es in Israel, before the 
Spring bn*t^iu)s stir the to))s of these blasted old pines their 
— ('onf(Ml(*racy and all the lousy gray backs who support it 
will In* so dtvp in hi'II that nothing but a search warrant frtim 
the throne of (vod Almighty c;in over tind it again. And the 
glorious old Stars and Stri|)es — " 

ller»^ we bi»;^an cheering tn?in!»nclously. A Rebel Captain 
came running up, s:iid to the guard, who was leaning on his 
gun, j^ruzing curiously at Lloyd : 

"What in ^are you standing gaping there fori Whv 

don't you shoot the Yankee son \^ and 

snatching thf gun away fn>m him. c(x;ked and leveled it ^t 
Lloyd, but thi' l>'>ys iitur jt^rked th** sp.Mkrr down fruiu the 
stump anil savf*d his life. 


We become fearfully wrought up. Some of the more excit* 
able shouted out to charga on the liae of f^oanU, snatch their 
guns away from them, and force our way through the ffates. 
The shouts were taken up by others, and, as if in obadienoe to 
the 6Ugge3tion, we instinctively formsi in line-of-bjittle facing 
the guards. A glance down the line showed me an array of 
desperate, tensely drawn fao33, such as one seas who loolu at 
men when thay are summoning up all their resolution for some 
deed of great pariL The Rabal officers hastily retreated bahind 
the line of guards, whose faces blanched, but they leveled their 
muskets and prepared to receive us. 

Captain Bowes, who was overlooking the prison from an eleva- 
tion outside, had, however, divined the trouble at the outset, and 
was preparing to meet it The gunners, who had shotted their 
pieces and trained them upon us when we cama out to listen to 
the speech, had again covered us with them, and were ready to 
sweep the prison with grape ani canister at the instant of 
command. Tlie long roll ^vas summoning the infantry regi- 
ments back into line, and some of the cooler-headed among us 
pointed these facts out and succ33Joi in getting the line to 
dissolve again into groups of muttering, sullen-faced men« 
When this was done, the guards marched out, by a oautionSi 
indirect manuver, so as not to turn their backs to us. 

It was believed that we had some among us who would like 
to avail themselves of the offer of the Rebels, and that they would 
try to inform the Iiebcls of their desires by going to the gate 
during the night and speaking to the Officer-of-the-Guard. A 
squad armed themselves with clubs and laid in wait for these. 
They succeeded in catching several — snatching some of them 
back even after they had told the guard their wishes in a tone so 
loud that all near oould hear d ist inctly. The Offlcer-of-tbe-Gnard 
rushed in two or three times in a vain attempt to save the would- 
be deserter from the cruel hands that clutched him and bore him 
away to where he had a lesson in loyalty impressed upon the 
fle^liiest part of his person by a long, flexible strip of pine^ 
wielded by very willing hands. 

After this was kept up for several nights different ideas began 
to prevail It was felt that if a man wanted to join the Rebels, the 
best way was to let him go and get rid of him. lie was ot no 


benefit to the Government, and would be of none to the Babels. 
After this no restriction was pat upon any one who desired to 
go outside and take the oath. But very few did so, however, 
. and these were wholly confined to the Baider crowd. 



xxxcunoir — bs oobs outsidb at andessokyillb on pabolb 


Leroy L. Key, the boroic Sergeant of Company If, Sixteenth 
niinois Cavalry, who organized and led the Regulators at 
Andersonville in their successful conflict with and defeat of the 
Raiders, and who presided at the execution of the six con- 
demned men on the 11th of July, furnishes, at the request of 
the author, the following story of his prison career subsequent 
to that event : 

On the 12th day of July, 1864, the day after the hang^ing of 
the six Raiders, by the urgent request of my many friends (of 
whom you were one), I sought and obtained from Wirz a parole 
for myself and the six brave men who assisted as executioners 
of those desperados. It seemed that you were all fearful that 
we might, after what had been done, be assassinated if we 
remained in the Stockade ; and that we might be overpoweredi 
perhaps, by the friends of the Raiders we had hanged, at a 
time possibly, when you would not be on hand to give m 
ftftftftAfinA^ and thus lose our lives for rendering the help we 
did in getting rid of the worst pestilence we had to contend 

On obtaining my parole I was very careful to have it so 
arranged and mutually understood* between Win and mysdf^ 
that at any time that my squad (meaning the survivors of mj 
comrades, with whom I was originally captured) was sent awaj 



from Andcreonville, cither to be exchanged or to go to anotbor 
pruon, that I should bo olIotTnl to go with thorn. TtiU wu 
agreed to, and eo ivrittvn iD my pnrolo n-hicli I carricxl until it 
abfiolulfly wore cat. I took a position in the cooli-liooso, and 
thtt olhor boya cither went to work there, or at tbo hospilal or 

intaKAjrT u u ixr. 


graTo-yarO as occasion reqoiml. I worked bero^ end did tb« 
bcatl could for tbi many EUirviiig wrutches inside^ in Iho wa/ 
of preparing their food, until the eighth day of September, at 
Trhicb tiuo. if yuti reiuoinlxr, qnito ii train load of men wora 
removed, u many of as thought, for tlio purpose of exchange; 
but, OS wn aflcrwardH discovered, to be Uken to omtber priaon. 
Among the crowd so ri'Rtovod was my squad, or, at hn't, a por- 
tion of th4<ra, being my intimate mes-mate* while in the Stock- 
ada A8 toon as 1 found this to be the case I waited on Win 
at bis otEue, and auUod pcnnisaton to go with tbem, which hft 




refused, Rtating tlmt he was compcllod to have men at tbo oook- 
u> cuok for those in tlio Siuckodo uDtik Umy were all gone 
excUati)^!. I reminded Iiitn of the cxMidition in my parole, 
this only had the vITduI uf making him iiuul, and he thnsat- 
tite with ihv stocks if i did not go back und resume work. 
I then nnd tlinre niHde up my mind to attempt my escape, con- 
aiderin^ Uiat the parole had tint been broken by the man that 
gnintwl It. 

On inquiry after my return to the c<x)k-hoU9e, I found four 

oUlor boys who were also planning nn escape, and who \rere 

only too glud to get mc to jom (hvm and 

take cliargi.' of the atfair. Our plans were 

irell laid and well exwuted, as tlio Be(]uel 

will prove, and in this particular my own 

experience in the endeavor to cscajw from 

Andcrsonville is not entirely dissimilar from 

yours, tltough it had different resulu. Ivory 

much regret tliat in Uie attempt I lost my 

peoviled uivmorandum, iu wliicJi it was my 

to chronicle what went on around me 

and where I badlbenamoof my braro 

i<Fj<»K7r mat roKCirr i itkb saw. 

eoinmdn who made the effort to etcape i?ith me. Unfortii- 
Batoly, I atnnot tvoiv recull to mem^M'y t he name of one of tbmn 

or remumbcr to what mn 

nils Ihi-y Uftoo^L 

I knew thiit uur greatest risk waa mn in eluding the giurd% 




mod that in the morniDg we should be compelled to cheat tha 
blood-hounds. The flrat we managed lo do very well, not 
without many hairbreadth escapes, however; but we did boo- 
ceed in gcttinj^ through both lines of guards, and found our- 
selrei in the denstnt pine forest i ever saw. We traveled, as 
nearly aa we could judge, due north all night until daylight. From 
our fatigue and bmiaes, and the long hours that bad elapsed i 
«nce 8 o'clock, the time of our starting, ive thought we bid 
come not less than twelve or fifteen miles. Imagine our sur- 
prise and mortification, then, when we could plainly hear th« 
rereOle, and almost the Sergeant's voice calling (be roll, while 
the answers of "Here I" were perfectly distmct. We oould 
not possibly have been more than a mile, or a mile^nd-a-half 
at the farthest, from the Stockade. 

Our anxiety and mortification were doubled when at I 
usual hour — as we supposed — we heard the well-known i 
long-familiar sound of the hunter's bom, calling his bounds t 
their aocnstomod task of making the circuit of the Stockade, for ' 
the purpose of ascertaining whether or not any " Yankee" 
bad the audacity to attempt an escape. The hounds, anticipating 
no doubt, this usual daily work, gare forth glad barks of jojF at 
being thus called forth to duty. We heard them start, as wn 
usual, from about the railroad depot (as we imagined), but Um 
sonnds growing fainter and fainter gave us a little hope tiiat 
0%ir trail had been missed. Only a short time, however, wen 
we allowed this pleasant reflection, for ere long — it could sot j 
have been mora than an hour — we could plainly see thai th^ J 
were drawing nearer and nearer. They finally appeared so doilLl 
that I adrUed the boys to ciimb a tree or sapUng in order to ^ 
keep tbe dogs from biting them, and to be nady to sarroDder 
whan tbe hunters came up, hoping thus to experience as little 
mbery as possible, and dm dreaming but that we were oangfak 
On,oocamethohoands,nearerai)d nearer still, till we imagined I 
that we oould see tbe undergrowth in tbe forest shaking bf J 
coming in contact with their bodies. Plainer and plainer c 
the sound of the hunter's voice urging them forward. Oar heart 
were in our throats, and in tbe ternble excitement we wondered 
It oould be possible for Providence to so arrange it that iIm d 
would pass us. Thb last thought, by some strange fancy, badl 

^^iMk ^ 



won of me, and I here frankly aclcnowledge that I 
i H would happen. WAi/ 1 believed it, God only knowi. 
My exoitemenl was so great, iodoed, that 1 almost loM sigbt of 

THS Doos cAint wirnm mr LmraAV th>ik mrxoBED tastm or ua. 

our dan^r, and (elt like Bhoutiag to tba dogs myself, while 1 
canM near loain^ my hold on the tree in which I was hidden. 
By dtanoe I happened to look around at my nearevt neigfabof 
fndiitress. Bisexpresion wa;sufflcionttoquellany enthnsiasm] 
might have had, and 1, too, became despondent In a very few 
miuntes oar loipenae was over. The dogs oame within not leaa 
than three hundred yards of as, and we could even see one of 
tbem. God in Uearen can only imagine what great joy waa 
then brooght to oar aching heart*, for almost instantly npoa 
eoming into sight, the hounds stmok off on a different trail, and 
passed us. Their voices became fainter and fainter, until Anally 
we could hear them no Ioir,'.*r. About noun, huwerer, they 


wore called back and taken to camp, bat until that time not 
one of us left our position in the trees. 

When we were satisfied that we were safe for the present, we 
descended to the ground to get what rest we could, in order to 
bo prepared for the night's march, having previously agreed to 
travel at night and sleep in the day time. *^Our Father, who 
art in Heaven," etc., were the first words that escaped my lips, 
and the first thoughts that came to my mind as I landed on 
terra firma. Never before, or since, had I experienced such a 
profound reverence for Almighty God, for I firmly believe that 
only through some mighty invisible power were we at that 
time delivered from untold tortures. Ilad we been found, wo 
might have baen torn and mutilated by the dogi, or, taken 
back to Andersonville, have suffered for days or perhaps weeks 
in the stocks or chain gang, as the humor of Wirz might have 
dictated at tlic time — either of which would have been almost 
oortain death. 

It was very fortunate for us that before our escape from 
Andersonville we were detailed at the cook-house, for by this 
means we were enabled to bring away enough foo:l to live for 
several days without the necessity of theft. Each one of us 
had our haversacks full of such small dtlica^ies as it was pos- 
sible for U3 to get when wo started, these consisting of com 
bread and fat bacon — nothing less, nothing more. Yet we 
mana;!:od to subsist comfortably until our fourth dav out, when 
we hap|)ened to come up >n a swoet potato patch, the |>otatos in 
which had not h\*n du;^. In a very short spiu*« of time we 
were all well supplit* I with this article, and liveil on them raw 
during that day and the nt»xt night. 

Just at evening, in gj>ing through a field, we suddenly came 
across three negro m;^'n, whi> at first sight of us showed signs of 
running, thinkin;^;. as they told us afterwanl, that we were the 
"patrols.-' After explainini^: to them who we were and our con- 
dition, they took us to a verv ipiiet retreat in the woods, and 
two of them went off, statin;^ that t!iey would soon be back. In 
A very short time they n^turnevl laden with well cooked provis- 
ions, which not only gav«» u^ a ginKl supjKT, but supplied us for 
the next day with all that we want^^vl. They then guided us 


on our Tray for several miles, and left 03, after having refused 
compensation for what they had done. 

We continued to travel in this way for nine long weary 
nights, and on the morning of the tenth day, as we were going 
into the woods to hide as usaal, a little before daylight, we came 
to A small pond at which there was a negro boy watering two 
males before hitching them to a cane mill, it then being cane 
grinding time in Georgia. He saw us at the same time we did 
him, and being frightened put whip to the animals and ran off. 
We tried every way to stop him, but it was no use. He had 
the start of us. We were very fearful of the consequences of 
this mishap, but had no remedy, and being very tired, could do 
nothing else but go into the woods, go to sleep and trust to 

The next thing I remembered was being punched in the ribs 
by my comrade nearest to me, and aroused with the remark, 
" We are gone up." On opening my eyes, I saw four men, in 
citizens' dress, each of whom had a shot gun ready for use. We 
were ordered to get up. The first question asked us was : 

«* Who are you I " 

This was spoken in so mild a tone as to lead me to believe 
that we might possibly be in the hands of gentlemen, if not 
indeed in those of friends. It was some time before any one 
answered. The boys, by their looks and the expression of their 
countenances, seemed to appeal to me for a reply to get them 
out of their present dilemma, if possible. Before I had time to 
collect my thoughts, we were startled by these words, coming 
from the same man that had asked the original question: 

** Tou had better not hesitate, for we have an idea who you 
are, and should it prove that we are correct, it will be the worse 
^ for you." 

** * Who do you think we are! ' I inquired. 

** * Horse thieves and moss-l>acks,' was the reply. 

I jumped at the conclusion instantly that in order to save 
oar lives, we had liettor at once own the truth. In a very few 
words I told them who we were, where we were from, how 
long we had been on the road, etc. At this they withdrew a 
short distance from us for consultation, leaving us for the time 
in terrib!e suspensi! as to what our fate might l>e. S<x>n, how- 


over, they retamod and informwl na that they woald be cons 
peliod to Uikd ua to the County Jail, to await further ordot* 
from the Military Coramantler of the District. While tbey 
vren talking togetbor, I took a hasty inventory of what valua- 
bles we had on haniL I found tn the crowd four tulreriratchcfl, 
about three hundred dollars in Confederate money, and poeibly 
about one hanilrod dollam in grcentwicks. Ilefore tlieir retoni, I ' 
told the boys to bo sura not to refuse any request I should nu 
Said I: 

" ' Qenttemon, we liave here four silver watches and BCrenil 1 
hundred dollars in Confederate money and greenbacks, all of I 
which wa now offer yon, if yon will but allow us to proceed <3 
our journey, wo taking our own clianees in the future." 

This propoution, to my ^reat surprise, was refused. I tfaoogfat J 
then that possibly t had been a little indiscreet in expouog oar 
Taluablee, but in this I was mistaken, for we had, Indeed, taXiea 
into the handit of gtntltmtn, whose zeal for the Lost Cause mw 
greater than that for obtaining worldly wealth, and who not 1 
only refused the bribe, but took os to a well-furnished and « 
supplied farm hou.<e close by, gave as an excellent break f ail, 
allowing ns to sit at the table in a beautiful dtntng-room, with 
a lady at tlie I.. ad. Oiled our haversacks with good, wholesomo 
food, and allowed ua to keep our property, with an admonition 
to be careful bow we showed it again. Wo were then put ialt^ . 
a wagon and taken to Hamilton, a small town, the county Msfc f 
of Ilamilton County, Georgia, and placed in jail, wbore wv 
remained for two days and nights — fearing, always, that th» 
jail would be burned over our beads, as we beard (raqnent 
threats of that nature, by the mob on the streets. But tbs 
same kind Proridence that had heretofore watcbed onr ii% i 
•oemed not to hare deserted ns in this trouble. 

One of the days we were oonfined at this place was BimdAyr 
and some kind-hearted lady or ladies (I only wish I knew their 
names, as wpU as those of the gentlemen who bad ns tint ia 
charge, so ttiat t oould chronicle them with honor here) taking 
oomittBston npon our forlorn condition, sent ns a apleodid ^ 
dinner on a very hir^ chinit platter. Whetbisr it waa dc 
fnteotionally or not, we never leametl, but it was a fact, how- ] 
•ver, that Utere was not a knife, fork or spoon npon the dW^ 1 



ani] no table to wt it n|>on. It mu placed on the floor, around 
ivUicb we tooti gntiiered, and, with gntcful hearts, we " got 
away" with it nil, in an iocredibiy tbort spnoo of time, while 
many men and boys look«<l on, enjoying our ludicroos attttudea 
and manncn. 

From here we were tidien to Colnmbus. Qa^ and again 
plaioed in jail, and in the charge of Confederate aoldi<>rs. Wo 
oonld easily see tJial wo were gradually getting into hot wat«r 
again, and that, ere many dayi, we would have to resume our 
old habits in (n-ison. Uur only hope now was that we would 
not be returned to AndersonvUle, kouwing wdl that If we got 
back into the clutcb«s of Wirx our chanoce for life woold be 
slim indeed. From Columbos we were sent by roil to Macon, 
wbere we wen placed in a prison somewhat similar to Ander- 
■oovUle, bat of nothing liJte its pretensions to security. I soon 
leuiwd that it was only used as a kind of reception place for 
the prLMners who were captured in small sqoads, and when 
they numbered two or ibree hundred, they would be 
shipped to Aodersonrillo, or soave other plaoe of greater dimen- 
aioDS and,Ktrcngth. What became of tbe otlier boys wbo were 
with me, after we got to Uaooo, I do not know, for I lost sight 
of them ttiere. The very next day after our arrival, there 
were shipped to AodenonriUe from this prison between two 
and three hundred men. I was oalled on to go with, 
tbe crowd, bat baring had a sofllctent experience of the hos- 
pitality of that hotel, I ooncloded to play " old soldier," to I 
beoame too siok to travel In this way I escaped being sont off 
foor different timaa. 

HeauwhOe, quite a large Dumber of oonuntaaoned trilloen. 
had been sent up bom Charlestoo to be exchanged at Roogh 
ami Ready. With them were about forty more than the cartel 
called for, and they ware left at Uaoon for ten days or twO' 
weeks. Among these oOioeii were several of my ooijuaintance, 
one being Lieut Hontly of our regiment (I am not quite *ur« 
that I am right in the name of this officer, but I think I ami, 
through whose influeooe I was allowed to gt> out>ido with tbom 
on parole. It was while enjoying this parole that I got murt% 

familiarly acquainted with Captain Hurtell, or Uurtrell* 

who WHS in oommand of the prison at Uaoun, and to bis hooor^ 


orer, tbcy rDtamod and Enformod as that Ihoy ironld be 6 
pelled to tube as to the County Jail, to await further o 
from the Uilitary Commander of the District. While I 
wens tallfing logotbur, [ tuok a hasty inventory of what volua- 
Ues we had on band. I found in tliu crowd four silver watches, 
about three hundred dollars in Confedei-ate money, and possibly 
about one hundred dollars in greenbacks. Before their retom, 1 1 
told the buvs to bu sure not to refuse any request I should make. 4 
Said I: ' 

" ' Gentlemen, we hare here four alver watches and serenl I 
hnndml dollars in Confederate money and greenbacks, all of 1 
which we now ofTer you, if you will but allow us to proceed o&'J 
our joarney, we taking our own clmnocii in the future." 

This propositiot^ to my great surprise, was refused. I thought I 
then that pombly I hod been a little indiscreet in exposing oar 
▼aloablea, bat in this I was tnistjikon, for wu had, indeed, fallea 
into tho hands of gentUmen., whooe /.ml for the Lost Cause WM ' 
greater than lliat for obtaining worldly wnUlh, and who not J 
only fefuscd tlie bribe, but tiwk us to a well -f urn ished and weUr I 
BOl^ied farm house close by, gare us an excellent breakfas^ \ 
allowing us to sit at the ubie in a buautiful dining-room, with I 
a hidy at the, Qlled our harersacks with good, wholflSoiil»1 
food, and allowed us to kwp our property, with an admonitioQ \ 
to be cansful how we showed it again. We were then pnt intO'l 
a wagon and taken to Hamilton, a smalt town, the county seat f 
of Hamilton County, Georgia, and placed in jail, where w» 
remained for two days and nights — fearing, always, that th» 
jail would be hurued orer our heads, as we hi-ard freqtwnt 
threats of that nature, by the mob on the strei-ris. Bat the 
same kind Provideoce that had heretofore watched over i 
teemed not to hate deserted as in this troubla 

One of the days we were confined at this plnoe was Smiday, 
and some kind-hearted lady or ladies (I only wish I knew their 
munea, as well as tboee of the gentlemen who bad as ttrst in 
charge, so that I o^ald ohmnicle them with honor here) taking 
oomfoision opon oar forlorn ooodition, sent oa a splendid 
dinner on a very larje cliina pIntUT. Whether it was done 
intenlionally or not, we oevef learned, but it was a fact, how- 
aver, that titers was nol a knife, fork or spoon npon the dish. 

A troar or bcbio. iouiabt naosu. 


00 pi 

an<) no Ubla to get it upon. It vta placed oo the tloor, aroand 
ivbich we toon galherod, aotl, wiih grateful hearts, we " got 
airay" with it ill, in an incredibly short space of lime, while 
many men ind boys lookod on, enjoying oar ludicrous attitudes. 
and nunncn. 

From here we were taken to Columbiu, Ga., and again 
pUoed in jail, and in the charge of Coiifedi'mta soldiont. AVe 
oould easily see that wo were groflually getting inio hot water 
KLgBio, and that, ere many days, we would liave to resuoie our 
old habits in prison. Our only hope now was that we would 
not be returned to Andenonville, knowing welt that if we got 
back into the dntobci of Win oar chances for life would ba 
slim indeed. From Oolumbos we were sent by rail to Mncoo, 
where we were placed in a prbon somewhat similar to Aader> 
stHiTille. but of nothing Uko it« pretiuuions to (security. I soon 
learned that it was only naed as a kind of reception place for 
the prisonen who were captured in small squads, and when 
they numbered two or three bandrod, they would be 
■hipped to ADdenonviUe, or some other pUioo of greater dimen- 
sioas and,ttrettgth. What became of the other boys wbo were 
with me, after we got to Maoon, I do not know, for I lost tight 
of them tbersi Tba rery next day after onr arrival, there 
wen shipped to AndersonriUe from this prison between two 
and three bDndred men. I was called on to go with 
the crowd, but baring had a soffloient experience of the hos- 
pitality of that hotel, I oondoded to play " old soldier," so I 
became too Bok to tiaveL In this way I escaped being sent off 
tour different times. 

Ueanwhile, qnlte a large somber of oommissioned oIBoets. 
bod been sent np bom CharUstoo to be exohoaged at Rough 
and Ready. With them were oboot forty more than the cartel 
called for, and they were left at Macon for ten days or two 
weeha Among these oOloera were several of my ao(|uaintance. 
one being Lieut Hnntly of our regiment (I am not qnito iur» 
tJiat I am right in the name of thi> officer, but I think I ami. 
thttingh whMe influeuoe I was alluwed to go outside with tbem 
oo parole. It was while enjoying this parole that I got mora 

familiarly acquainted with CapUin Uortull, or UortreU* 

who was in commood of the prison at Maoon, and to bis hoaor». 


I here assert, that he was the only gentleman and the onlj 
oflicer that had the least humane feeling in his breast, who e^er 
had charge of me while a prisoner of war after we were taken 
out of the hands of our original captors at JonesTille, Va. 

It now became ven* evident that the Rebels were moTing the 
prisoners from Andersonville and elsewhere* so as to place them 
beyond the reach of Sherman and Stoneman. At my present 
place of confinement the fear of our recapture had also taken 
possession of the Rebel authorities^ so the prisoners were sent 
off in much smaller squads than formerly, frequently not more 
than ton or fiftf^-n in a gang, whereas, before, they never thought 
of dispatching less than two or three hundred t)gether, 
I acknowIrWiTf that I liogan to get ven* uneasy, fearful that the 
^old soldier" dodge would not be much longer successful, and I 
would be forced back to my old haunts. It so happened, how- 
ever, that I mannged to make it serve me, by getting detailed 
in the prison hospital as nurse, so that I was enabled to plaj 
another ^'do<lge" upon the Rebel otiicers. At first, when the 
Sergeant would come around to iiuil out who were able to walkt 
with assistance, to the depot, I was shaking with a chilly which, 
according to my representation, had not abated in the least for 
several hours. My teeth were actually chattering at the time, 
for I ha<l learne<l how to make them do so. I was passe<l. The 
next <l.iy the orders for removal were more stringent than had 
yet been issucnl, stating that all who could stand it to be removed 
on stretchers must go. I concluded at once that I wjis gone, so 
as so<jn as I lrarne<l how matters were, I got out from under 
my <lirty lilunket, stocxi up and found I was able to walk, to my 
great astonishment, of course. An officer came early in the 
morning to muster us into ranks preparatory for removal. I 
fell in with the rest. AVe were marehed out and around to the 
gate of tlie prison. 

Now, it so hap])ened that just as we neared the gate of the 
prison, tlie prisoners were being marehed from the Stockada 
The oflicer in charge of us — we numbering possibly alxiut ten 
— undertook to place us at the head of the column coming out, 
but tht* guard in charge of that squad refused to let him do so. 
Wi* \vrn» tli<rn onlortMl to stand at one side with no guanl over 
us but tlie oHicrT who ha4l bmu'^ht us fmui th** lltKipitid. 


Taking this in at a glance, I concluded that now was my chanoe 
to luake my second attempt to escape. I stepped behind the 
gate otHce (a small frame building with only one room), which 
was not more than six feet from me, and as luck (or Provi- 
dence) would have it, the negro man whose duty it was, as I 
knew, to wait on and take care of this ofHce, and who had 
tiken quite a liking for mo, was standing at the back door. I 
winked at him and threw him my blanket and the cup, at the 
same time telling him in a whisper to hide them away for me 
until he heard from mo again. AVith a grin and a nod, he 
accepted the trust, and I started down along the walls of the 
Stockade alone. In onler to make tliis more plain, and to show 
what a risk I was running at the time, I will state that between 
the Stockade and a brick wall, fully as high as the Stockade 
fence that was parallel with it, throughout its entire length on 
that side, there Wiis a space of not more than thirty feet On 
the outside of this Stockade was a platform, built for the 
guanls to walk on, sutliciently near the top to allow them to 
look inside with ease, and on this side, on the platform, were 
three guards. I had traveled about fifty feet only, from the 
gate otilee, when I heard the command to *' Ilalt I " I did so, 
of course, 

" Where are you going, you d— 4 Tank!" said the guard. 

^ Going after my clothes, that are over there in the wash,'' 
pointin/r to a small cabin just beyond the Stockade, where I 
hap|>ened to know that the officers had their washing done. 

^* Oh, yes,'' said he ; '^ you are one of the Yank's that's been 
on parole, are you I '* 

" Yes." 

•* Well, hurry up, or you will get left** 

The other guards heard this conversation and thinking it all 
right I was allowed to \yfiss without further trouble. I went to 
the cabin in question — for I saw the last guard on the line 
watching me, and boldly entered. I made a clear statement to 
the woman in charge of it about how I had made my escape» 
and asked her to secrete me in the house until night I was 
soon oonvince<I, however, from what she told me, as well as 
from my own knowledge of how things were managed in the 
Confederacy, that it would not be right for me to stay there^ 



the morning had not been groundless, for the guards had 
actually searched the house for me. The woman told them 
tliat I had got my clothes and left the house shortly after my 
entrance (which was the truth except the part about the clothes). 
I thanked her very kindly and begged to be allowed to stay in 
the cabin till morning, when I would present myself at Cap- 
tain IL's office and suffer the consequences. This she allowed 
me to do. I shall ever feel grateful to this woman for her pro- 
tection. She was white and her given name was '^ Sallie,'' but 
the other I have forgotten. 

About daylight I strolled over near the office and looked 
around there until I saw the Captain take his seat at his desk. 
I stepped into the door as soon as I saw that he was not occu- 
pied and saluted him ^*ala militairey 

^ Who are you t " he asked ; ** you look like a Yank.^ 

'' Yes, sir,'' ^* said I, ^' I am called by that name since I wai 
captunnl in the Federal Army." 

^* Well, wliat are you doing here, and what is your namel ^ 

I told him. 

^^ AVby didn't you answer to your name when it was called at 
the pate yesterday, sir I " 

" I never hoard anyone call my name.** * 

" Whore were you ? " 

**I ran away down into the swamp.'' t 

^' Were you re-captured and brought back t ^ 

'^ No, sir, I came back of my own accord." 

" What do you mean by this evasion t '' 

<* I am not trying to evade, sir, or I might not have been 
here now. The truth is, Captain, I have been in many prisons 
since my ccipturo, and have been treated very badly in all of 
ilwuu until I came here." 

'' I then cxphiinod to him freely my escape from Andersonville, 
an<l my 8ubso({uent re^sapture, how it was that I had played 
•*old soldier" etc. 

'' Now," said I, '^ Captain, as long as I am a prisoner of war, 
I wish to stay with you, or under your command. This is my 
reu^n for running away yesterday, when I felt confident thai 
if I did not do so I would be returned under Wirz's command, 
and, if I had been so returned, I would have killed myself 

4M ASD! 

nther than sobmit to tlie imtold tortnm whidi he would ha^o 
pot me iOy f or haring the modacitT to attempt an enmpe tram 

The Captain^s altoitioii was here called to some other mat- 
ten in hand, and I was sent back into the Stockade with a oom- 
mand Terr pleasantly given, that I should staj there until 
ordered out, which I very gratefnllj i»omised to do» and did- 
This was the last chance I ever had to talk to Captain Hurt- 
rell, to mj great sorrow, for I had really fonned a liking for 
the man, notwithstanding the fact that he was a Bebel, and a 
commander of prisoners. 

The next day we all had to leave Macon. Whether we were 
able or not, the order was imperative. Great was mj joj when 
I learned that we were on the wi^ to Savannah and not to 
Andersonville. We traveled over the same road, so well 
described in one of yoor articles on Andersonville, and arrived 
in Savannah sometime in the afternoon of the 21 st day of 
November, 1861. Our sqnad was placed in some barracka and 
confined there until the next day. I was sick at the time, so 
sick in fact, that I could hardly hold my head up. Soon after, 
we were taken to the Florida depot, as they told ns, to be 
shipped to some prison in those dismal swamps. I came near 
fainting when this was told to us, for I was confident that I 
could not survive another siege of prison life, if it was anything 
to compare to what I had already suffered. When we arrived 
at the depot it was raining. The officer in charge of us wanted 
to know what train to put us on, for there were two, if not 
three, trains waiting orders to start lie was^told to march as 
on to a certain flat car, near by, but before giving the order he 
demanded a receipt for us, which the train officer refused. We 
were accordingly taken Ixick to our quarters, which proved to 
be a most fortunate circumstance. 

On the 23U day of November, to our great relief, we were 
called upon to sign a parole prejiaratory to being sent down the 
river on the flag-boat to our exchange ships, then lying in the 
harbor. When I say we, I mean those of us that had recently 
come from Macon, and a few others, who had also been fortunate 
in reaching Savannah in small squads. The other poor fellows^ 
who had already been loaded on the trains, wore taken away to 


Florida, and many of them never lived to return. On the 24th 
those of us who had been paroled were taken on board our ships, 
and were once more safely housed under that great, glorious 
and beautiful Star Spangled Banner. Long may she wave. 





As Novembor wore away long-continuod, chill, searching raioB 
desolated our days and nights. Tlie great, cold drops pelted 
down slowly, dismally, and incessantly. Each seemed to beat 
through our emaciated frames against the very marrow of our 
bones, and to be battering its way remorselessly into the 
citadel of life, like tlie cruel dro|)s that fell from the basin of 
the inquisitors ui)on the firmly -fastened head of their victim, 
until his reason fled, and the death-agony cramped his heart to 

The lagging, leaden hours were inexpressibly dreary. Com. 
pared with many others, we were quite comfortable, as our 
hut protoc'tcil us from the actuiil beating of the rain u{x>n oar 
bodies; but we were much more miserable than under the swel- 
tering ht*at of Antlersonville, as we lay almost naked U|x>n 
our uf pine leaves, shivering in the raw, rasping air, and 
lo<>ke<l out <>VL»r acivs of wretches lying dumbly on the soilden 
sand, nveiving tlu* l>cnumbing drench of the sullen skies with- 
out a groan or a motion. 

It Wits enough to kill healthy, vigorous men, active and reso- 
lute, with Ixnlies well-nourisheil and »vell clothed, and with 
minds vivacious ami ho|K'ful, to stand these day-and-night4ong 
cold drenchings. No ono can imagine how fatal it was to bojg 
whos<» vitality was sjip|>ed by long mt>nths in AndersonviUe, bj 
coarst\ meagiT. changi»l t*ss UhaI^ by gn >voling on the bare earthy 
and by ho|H.*lossness as to any improvement of condition. 


Fever, rheumatism, throat and lung diseases and despair now 
came to complete the work begun by scurvy, dysentery and 
gangrene, in Andersonville. 

Hundreds, weary of the long struggle, and of hoping against 
ho|)e, laid themselves down and yielded to their fate. In the 
six weeks that we were at Millen, one man in every ten died. 
The ghostly pines there sigh over the unnoted graves of seven 
hundred boys, for whom life's morning closed in the gloomiest 
shadows. As many as would fonn a splendid regiment — as 
many as constitute the first bom of a populous City — more 
than three times as many as were slain outright on our side in 
the bloody Imttle of Franklin, suocumbqd to this new hardship. 
The country for which they died docs not even have a record 
of their names. They were simply blotted out of existence; 
they became as though they had never been. 

• •••••«« 

About the middle of the month the Rebels vielded to the 
importunities of our Grovernment so far as to agree to exchange 
ten tliousand sick. The Ilebel Surgeons took praiseworthy 
care that our Government should profit as little as possible by 
this, by sending every hopeless case, every man whose lease of 
life was not likely to extend much beyond his reaching the 
parole boat. If he once reached our receiving officers it was 
all that was n(XM?!8s;iry ; he counted to them as much as if he 
had lKH?n a Goliah. A very large portion of those sent 
through died on the way to our lines, or within a few hours 
after their tnins|)orts at being once more under the old Stan 
and Stri|)e8 had moderated. 

The sending of the sick through gave our commandant-* 
Captain Bowes — a fine opportunity to fill his pockets, by con- 
niving at the (Kissage of well men. There was still considerar 
bio money in the hands of a few prisoners. All this, and more^ 
too, were they willing to give for their lives. In the first batch 
that went away were two of the leading sutlers at Anderson. 
ville, who had accumulated perhaps one thousand dollars 
each by their shrewd and successful bartering. It was generally 
believed that they gave every cent to Bowes for the privilege 
of leaving. I know nothing of the truth of this, but I am 
onably certain that they {xiid him very handsomely. 


Soon we heard that one hnndred and fifty dollars eaoh had 
been sufficient to buy some men out; then one hundred, seventy- 
five, fifty, thirty, twenty, ten, and at last five dollars. Whether 
the upright Bowes drew the line at the latter figure, and refused 
to sell his honor for less than ti.e ruling rates of a streetwalk- 
er's virtue, I know not. It was the lowest quotation that came 
to my knowIe<Ige, but he may have gone chea{)er. I have 
always observed that when men or women begin to traffic in 
themselves, their price falls as rapidly as that of a piece of 
tainteil meat in hot weather. If one could buv them at the 
rate they wind up with, and sell them at their first price, there 
would be room for an enormous profit. 

The cheapest I ever knew a Rebel officer to be bought was 
some weeks after this at Florence. The sick exchange was still 
going on. I have before spoken of the Rebel passion for bright 
gilt buttons. It used to be a proverbial comment upon the 
small treasons that were of daily occurrence on both sides, that 
you could buy the soul of a mean man in our crowd for a pint 
of com mesil, and the soul of a liebel guard for a half dozen 
brass buttons. A boy of the Fifth-fourth Ohio, whose home 
was at or near Lima, O., wore a blue vest, with the gilt, bright- 
rimmed buttons of a staff officer. The Rebel Surgeon who wis 
examining ttie sick for exchange saw the buttons and admired 
them very much. The Ixn' stepped back, borrowed a knife 
from a comrade, cut the buttons off, and handed them to the 

^^ All right, sir," said he as his itching palm closeil over the 
oovete<l ornaments ; ^^you can pass,*' and [kiss he did to home 
and friends. 

Captain Ik>we8*s merchandizing in the matter of exchange 
was as o{>en as the issuing of rations. Ilis agent in conducting 
the bargjiining wjts a Kai<ler — a New York gambler and 
stool-pigeon — whom we calleil " Maltie." He dealt quite fairly, 
for sevenil times when the exchange was interrupted, Bowes 
sent the money bsick to those wlio had |iaid him, and received 
it again when the exchange was renewed. 

Had it been possible to buy our way out for five cents each 
Andrews and I would have luul t<» stay back, since we had not 
had that much monev f4ir months, und all our friemls were ia 


an equally bad plight. Like almost everybody else we had 
spent the few dollars we happened to have on entering prison, 
in a week or so, and since then we had been entirely penniless. 

There was no hope left for us but to try to pass the Surgeons 
as desperately sick, and we expended our energies in simulating 
this condition. Rheumatism was our forte, and I flatter myself 
we got up two cases that were apparently bad enough to serve 
as illustrations for a patent medicine advertisement. But it 
would not do. Bad as we made our condition appear, there 
were so many more who were infinitely worse, that we stood no 
show in the competitive examination. I doubt if we would 
have been given an avera42:e of ^^ 50 " in a report. We had to 
stand back, and see about one quarter of our number march 
out and away home. We could not complain at this — much 
as we wanted to go ourselves, — since there could be no question 
that these poor fellows deserved the precedence. We did 
grumble savagely, however, at Captain Bowos's venality, io 
selling out chances to moneyed men, since these were invariably 
those who were best prepared to withstand the hardships of 
imprisonment, as they were mostly new men, and all had good 
clothes and blankets. We did not blame the men, however, 
since it was not in human nature to resist an opportunity to get 
away — at any cost — from that accursed place. '^ All that a 
man hath he will give for his life," and I think that if I had 
owned the City of New York in fee simple, I would have given 
it away willingly, rather than staid in prison another month. 

The sutlers, to whom I have alluded above, had accumulated 
bufflcient to supply themselves with all the necessaries and some 
of the comforta of life, during any probable term of impris- 
onment, and still have a snug amount left, but they would 
rather give it all up and return to service with their regiments 
in the field, than take the chances of any longer continuance in 

I can only surmise how much Bowes realized out of the 
prisoners by his venality, but I feel sure that it could not have 
been less than three thousand dollars, and I would not be 
astonished to learn that it was ten thousand dollars in green- 



One night, toward the last of November, there was a general 
alarm around the prison. A gun was fired from the Fort, the 
long-roll was beaten in the various camps of the guards, and 
the regiments answered bj getting under arms in haste, and 
forming near the prison gates. 

The reason for this, which we did not leam until weeks later, 
was that Sherman, who had cut loose from Atlanta, and started 
on his famous March to the Sea, had taken such a course as 
rendered it probable that MiUen was one of his objective points. 
It was, therefore, necessary that we should be hurried away 
with all possible speed. As we had had no news from Sherman 
since the end of the Atlanta campaign, and were ignorant of 
his having begun his great raid, we were at an utter loss to 
account for the commotion among our keepers. 

About 3 o'clock in the morning the Rebel Sergeants, who 
called the roll, came in and ordered us to turn out immediately 
and get ready to move. 

The morning was one of the most cheerless I ever knew. A 
cold rain poured relentlessly down upon us half-naked, shiver- 
ing wretches, as we groped around in the darkness for oar 
pitiful little belongings of rags and cooking utensils, and hud- 
dled together in groups, urged on continually by the curses and 
abuse of the Rebel officers sent in to get us ready to move. 

Though roused at 8 o'clock, the cars were not ready to receive 


US till nearly noon. In the meantime wo stood in ranks— 
numb, trembling, and beart-sick. Tbe guards around us crouched 
over fires, and shielded themselves as best they could with 
blankets and bits of tent cloth. We bad nothing to build fires 
with, and were not allowed to approach those of the guards. 

Around us everywhere was the dull, cold, gray, hopeless 
desolation of the approach of Winter. The hard, wiry grass 
that thinly covered the once arid sand, the occasional stunted 
weeds, and the sparse foliage of the gnarled and dwarfish under- 
growth, all were parched brown and sere by the fiery heat of 
the long Summer, and now rattled drearily under the pitilesSi 
cold rain, streaming from lowering clouds that seemed to 
have floated down to us from the cheerless summit of some 
great icel>erg ; the tall, naked pines moaned and shivered ; dead, 
sapless loaves fell wearily to the soilden earth, like withered 
hopes drifting down to dee])en some Slough of Despond. 

Scores of our crowd found this the culmination of their misery. 
They laiil down xxyion the /2^n)und and yielded to death as a 
welcome relief, and we left them lying there unburiod when we 
moved to the cars. 

As we |xisscd through the Rebel camp at dawn, on our way 
to the cars, Andrews and I noticed a nest of four large, bright^ 
new tin i^ins — a rare thing in the Confederacy at that time. 
AVe managed to snatch them without the guard^s attention 
being attmcteil, and in an instant had them wrapped up in our 
blanket. But the blanket was full of holes, and in spite of all 
our efforts, it would slip at the most inconvenient times, so as 
to show a bnxul glare of the bright metal, just when it seemed 
it could not help attracting the attention of the guanls or their 
offic*ers. A dozen times at leiist we were on the imminent brink 
of detection, but we linally got our treasures safely to the cars, 
and s;it down upon them. 

The cars were o|)en flats. The rain still beat down unrelent- 
ingly. Andrews and I huddled ourselves together so as to 
make our bodies affonl as much heat as possible, pulled our 
faithful old overcoat around us as far as it would go, and endured 
the inclemency as best we could. 

Our train heade^l back to Savannah, and again our hearts 
warmed up with hoi)os of exchange. It seemed as if there could 

493 jUTDiBsomriLLE. 

be no other purpose of taking us out of a prison so rebently 
established and at such cost as Milieu. 

As we approached the coast the rain ceased, but a piercing 
oold wind set in, that threatened to convert our soaked rags 
into icicles. 

Very many died on the way. When we arrived at Savannah 
almost, if not quite, every car had upon it one whom hunger no 
longer gnawed or disease wasted ; whom cold had pinched for 
the last time, and for whom the golden portals of the Beyond 
had opened for an exchange that neither Davis nor his despicable 
tool, Winder, could control 

We did not sentimentalize over these. We could not mourn ; 
the thousands that we had seen pass away made that emotion 
hackneyed and wearisome ; with the death of some friend and 
oomrade as regularly an event of each day as roll call and drawing 
rations, the sentiment of grief had become nearly obsolete. 
We were not hardened ; we had simply come to look upon death 
as commonplace and ordinary. To have had no» one dead or 
dying around us would have been regarded as singular. 

Besides, why should we feel any regret at the passing away 
of those whose condition would probably be bettered thereby t 
It was difficult to see where we who still lived were anv better 
off than they who were gone before and now " forever at peace, 
each in his windowless palace of rest." If imprisonment was 
to continue only another month, we would rather be with them. 

Arriving at Savannah, we were onlered off the c^irs. A squad 
from each car carried the dead to a designated s|x>t, and laid 
them in a row, coniixjsing their limbs as well as possible, but 
giving no other funeral rites, not even making a record of their 
names and regiments. Negro laborers came along afterwards, 
with carts, took the bodies to some vacant ground, and sunk 
them out of sight in the saml. 

We were given a few cnickers each — the same rude imitation 
of "hard tack" that had been served out to us wlien we arrived 
at Savannali the iirst time, and then were marched over and 
put upon a train on the Atlantic & Gulf lisiilroiul, running 
from Savannah along the sea coast townnls Florida* What 
this meant we had little conception, hut hoi>e, which sprang 
eternal in the pris«>ner's, wIusjkmvJ that |>t*rlia{»s it wi 


exchange; that there was some difBoalty aboat our vessels 
coming to Savannah, and vre were being taken to some other 
more convenient sea port ; probably to Florida, to deliver us to 
oar folks there. We satisliod ourselves that we were running 
along the sea coast by tasting the water in the streams we 
crossed, whenever we oould get an opportunity to dip up some. 
As long as the water tasted salty we knew we were near the 
sea, and hope burned brightly. 

The truth was — as we afterwards learned — the Rebels were 
terribly puzzled what to do with us. We were brought to 
Savannah, ')ut that did not solve the problem; and we were 
sent down the Atlantic & Gulf road as a temporary expedient. 

The railroad was the worst of the many bad ones which it 
was my fortune to ride uiK)n in my excursions while a guest of 
of the Southern Confederacv. It had run down until it had 
nearly reachcil the worn-out condition of that Western road, of 
which an employe of a rival route once said, ^' that all there 
was left of it now was two streaks of rust and the right of 
wav." As it was one of the non-essential roads to the Southern 
Confederacy, it was stripped of the best of its rolling-stock and 
machinery to supply the other more important lines. 

I have before mentioned the scarcity of grease in the Soath» 
and the difficulty of supplying the railroads with lubricants. 
Apparently there had been no oil on the Atlantic & Gulf since 
the beginning of the war, and the screeches of the dry axles 
revolving in the worn-out boxes were agonizing. Some thing 
would break on the cars or blow out on the engine every few 
miles, necessitating a long stop for repairs. Then there was no 
supply of fuel along the line. When the engine ran out of 
wood it would halt, and a couple of negros riding on the 
tender would assail a panel of fence or a fallen tree with their 
axes, and after an hour or such matter of hard chopping, would 
pile sutHcient wood upon the tender to enable us to renew our 

Frequently the engine stopped as if from sheer fatigue or 
inanition. The liebel officers tried to get us to a:»ist it up the 
grade by dismounting and pushing behind. We res|)cct fully, 
but firmly, declined. We were gentlemen of leisure, we said, 
and decidedly averse to manual labor ; we had been invited on 



this excnrsion by Mr. JofT. Davis and hU friends, who set tbem- 
sdves up na our mitiTtainen*, anil it would lie a gross brcacii of 
hospitality to reflect uiwn our hosts by working our passage 
If tbts was insistod upon, wo sliouM certainly not visit tUum 
litL Bmidos, it made no difference to as wbetlier tliu train 
long or not. Wfi were not losing anything by ili« delay ; 
e not anxious to go anywhere. One part of the Southern 

jderacy wa« jiut as good as another to ua. So not a finger 

«oald tliey iwnma<le any of us to raise to help along the juumoy. 

The country wo wur« traversing vras sturile and jwor — n 
even than that in the nvigliborhood of Andemonville. Fi 
and farm-housia were scarce, and of towns there were notM. 
Not even a collection of houses big enoagh to justify a black- 
gmith shop or a store app««rod along tlio whole routes But 
few fields of any kintl wure ^HLm, and nowh<TO was there a farm 
irhich gave evidenoo of a determined effort on the part of it4 
occupants to till the Boil and to improve their condition. 

When the train slopiwd for wood, or (or repaint, or from 
exhaustion, wo were allowed to descend from tlie cars anil 
stretch our nnmbod limlis. It did us good mother ways, too. It 
Mwmeil almost happim^ss to bw outside of tliose cursMl Stockadna, 
to rest our eyeti by looking away through the woods, and seeing 
birds and animals that v-vrf/re*. They must be happy, beoatue 
to ua to be free onoe more was tbe soinmit of earthly bappt* 

There was a ohance. too, to pick up something green to eat, 
and we were famishing for this. The scurvy still lingered in 
our systems, and wo won hungry for an antidote. A plant grew 
rather plentifully along the track that looked very innrh as 1 
ima^no a palm leaf fan does in ila green sute. The leaf 
was not so lar;ge as an ordinary palm loaf fan, and canto diirctly 
oat of the grunnd. The natives called it " bull-grasa." but any- 
thing more unlike gniss I never saw, so we rejected that nomen. 
claturu, and dubbed them "green fans.*' Tliey were rcrj' hard 
to ptill upi, it being usually as much as the stivngtst of as 
oould (to to draw tbem out of the grtjund. When pulled up 
I Uien was found the smallmt bit of a slock — not as mni.'b ba 
I s joint of one's little finger — that was eatable. It bad no por- 
' ticolar taste, and probably little nutriment, still it was fresh and 


fifreen, and we strained our weak muscles and enfeebled sinews 
at every opportunity, endeavoring to pull up a ** green fan.** 

At one place where we stopped there was a makeshift of a 
garden, one of those sorry " truck imtches," which do poor duty 
about Southern cabins for the kitchen gardens of the Northern 
tanners, and produce a few coarse oow ))eas, a scanty lot of 
collards (a coarse kind of cabbage, with a stalk about a yard 
long) and some onions to vary the usual side-meat and corn pone 
diet of the Georgia "cracker." Scanning the patch's ruins of 
vine and stalk, Andrews espied a handful of onions, which had 
remaineil ungathered. They tempted him as the apple did Eve. 
Without stopping to communicate his intention to me, he sprang 
from the car, snatched the onions from their bed, pulled up 
half a dozen collard stalks and was on his way back 
before the guanl could make up his mind to iire upon him. The 
swiftness of his motions saved his life, for had ho been more 
deliberate the guanl would have concluded he was trying to 
esca])e, an<l shot him down. As it was he was returning back 
before the guard could get his gun up. The onions he had 
secured were to us more delicious than wine u[x>n the lees. They 
seemed to tind their way into every fiber of our bodies, and 
invigorate every organ. The collanl stalks he had snatched up 
in the ex|)ectation of finding in them something resembling the 
nutritious ** h<*art ** that we remembered as children, seeking and 
findin<; in x\w stalks of aibliiige. But wo were disap]K>inted. 
The stalks were as drv and rotten as the bones of Southern 
scKiet y. Kv(*n hunger could find no meat m them. 

After sonu* ihiys of this leisurely journeying toward the South, 
ive haltiHl {lermamtntly alwiut eighty-six miles from Savannah. 
There was no reason why we shouUl stop there more than any 
plac'i' else where we had been or were likely to go. It seemed 
as if the I^eliels had simply tired of hauling us, and dumped us 
otr. We hail another lot of dead, accumulated since we left 
Savannah, and the scenes at that place were repeated. 

The train returned for another load of prisoners. 



We were informed that the place we were at was Blackshear, 
and that it was the Court House, t. e.j the County seat of Pierce 
County. Where they kept the Court House, or County seat, is 
beyond conjecture to me, since I could not see a half dozen 
houses in the whole clearing, and not one of them was a respecti^ 
ble dwelling, talcing even so low a standard for respectable 
dwellings as that afforded by the majority of Georgia houses. 

Pierce County, as I have since learned by the census report, 
is one of the poorest Counties of a poor section of a very poor 
State. A ]X)pulation of less than two thousand is thinly scat* 
tered over its five hundred square miles of territory, and gain 
a nieagiT subsistence by a weak simulation of cultivating patches 
of its sandy dunes and plains in " nubbin '- com and dropsical 
sweet {x>tatos. A few ^^ razor-back " hogs — a species so gaunt 
and tliin that I heard a man once declare that he had stopped a 
lot belonging to a neighbor from crawling through the cracks 
of a tight Ixxinl fence by simply tying a knot in their tails — 
roam the woods, and supply all the meat used. 

Andrews used to insist that some of the hogs which we saw 
were so thin that the connection between their fore and hind- 
quarters was only a single thickness of skin, with hair on both 
siiles — but then Andrews sometimes seemed to me to have a 
tendency to exa^iirerate. 

The swine certainly did have proportions that strongly 


resembled those of the animals which children cat out of card- 
board. They were like the geometrical definition of a super* 
floe — all length and breadth, and no thickness. A ham from 
them would look like a palm-leaf fan. 

I never ceased to marvel at the delicate adjustment of the 
development of animal life to the soil in these lean sections of 
Georgia. The poor land would not maintain anything but 
lank, lazy men, with few wants, and none but lank, lazy men, 
with few wants, sought a maintenance from it. I may have 
tangled up and effect, in this proposition, but if so, the 
reader can disentangle them at his leisure. 

I was not astonished to learn that it took five hundred square 
miles of Pierce County land to maintain two thousand ^'crackers," 
even as iK>orly as they lived. I should want fully that much 
of it to 8up]x>rt one fair-sized Northern family as it should be. 

After leaving the cars we were marched off into the pine 
woods, by the side of a considerable stream, and told that this 
was to be our camp. A heavy guauxl was placed around U8| 
and a numl>er of pieces of artillery mounted where they would 
command tlie camp. 

We started in to make ourselves comfortable, as at MiUen, 
by buildmg shanties. The prisoners we left behind followed 
us, and we soon had our old crowd of five or six thousand, who 
had been our companions at Savannah and MiUen, again with 
us. The place looked very favorable for escape. We knew 
we were still near the sea coast — really not more than forty 
miles away — and we felt that if we could onoe get there we 
should be safe. Andrews and I meditated plans of escape, and 
toiled away at our cabin. 

About a week after our arrival we were startled by an order 
for the one thousand of us who had first arrived to get ready 
to move out. In a few minutes we were taken outside the 
guard line, massied close together, and informed in a few words 
bv a Itobel officer that we were about to be taken back to 
Savannah for exchange. 

The announcement took away our breath. For an instant 
the rush of emotion made us speechless, and when utterance 
retumtnl, the first use we made of it was to join in one simul* 
l.tiieouA outburst of acchiination. Those inside the guard line^ 





DBdunttondiag witni our olieer nunat, answenx) us vriUi a load 
■tioat uf uongrutuliLiiun^tJiu flrst nai, geiiainc, hearty elioar- 
ing that had b»en doDe sinoe reoeivinj; Lba anaoanoemeot of 
Ibo oxcbangtt at Andersonville, three months before. 

Ail eoon lu the cxcitcoutnt hiul subsided somctvliat, the Rebel 
proooeitod to exiilain that we ivoulil all be required to »ign & 
parole. This sol U3 to thinkinj^. After our scoroful rejoctioa 
fit the {jrojKMition to uiUuit IQ the Rubel army, tho Rebels luul 
felt around among us cifasiderably as to bow we were dispoaod 
toward lokio^ what was called the " Kon-Combatanl's Oatb ; " 
that is, [lie sweiirin;,; not to toko up arms against ths 
Southern Confedoracy a^in during the war. To the most of 
us thia secniud only a little ]eas duilionuruble than joiniDg the 
Il«bul army. Wo b«lU thai our outbs to our uirn Govonimont 
placed us at its dispo^ until it chose to di»obikr;ge us, and wo 
oould not make any engagements nrith ita enemies that mij^l 
ou<ne in contravention of that duty. In abort, it looked rerj 
much Like dasortiun, and this we did not fed at liberty to ooa- 

There wore stlU many among us, who, feeling certain that 
they ooold not survive imprisonmontmuob longer, were disposed 
to look favorably upon the Non-Combatant's Oatli, thinking that 
tbe circumstanocs of the case would justify their apparent der»- 
Uction from duty. Whether it would or not I must loavo to mors 
■!tillod casuists Uud layseU to decide. It was a mutter I 

believed every man must settle with his own oonsoenoe. The 

opinion that I then heki and expressed was, that if a boy fa| 
that be was hopelessly sick, and that be ooul<l not lira if I 
remained in prison, ha was justified in taking tho (^th. lo t 
ahsBQoe of unr own Sui;geons he would hare to decide for bitn- 
mU wbeUier bo was sick enough to be warranted in resorting u> 
this means of saving bis life. If be was in as good health as the 
m^osity of as werc^ with a reasooahle prospect of surriTJ 
■ooM weeks kueer, there was no cxcoau for taJting tbe Oath* fi 
ia that few weeks we might be exchanged, be rooapumd, o 
make oar ^K»pe. I think this was the general opinion of t' 

While Um Rebel was talking about our signing the { 
then Qa^cd njion all of as at the saine moment, a suspioiiMl tl 


this was a trap to delude as into signing the Non-Conabatanl^t 
Oath. Instantly there went up a general shout : 

'* Read the parole to us.*' 

The Rebel was handed a blank parole by a companion, and 
he read over the printed condition at the top, which was that 
those signing agreed not to b^ar anns against the Confederacy 
in the Held, or in garrison, not to man any worlcs, assist in any 
ex])cdition, do any sort of guard duty, serve in any military 
constabulary, or perform any kind of military service until 
properly exchanged. 

For a minute this was satisfactory ; then their ingrained dis> 
trust of any thing a Rebal said or did returned^ and they 
shouted : 

** Xo, no ; let some of us read it ; lot * Illinoy ' read it*** 

The Rebel looked around in a puzzled manner. 

" Wlio the h— I is * lUinoy ? » Where is he T' said ha 

I saluted and said : 

" That*8 a nickname they give mo.'* 

'^ Very well," said he« ^* get up on this stump and road this 
parole to these d — d fools that won't believe me.^ 

I mounted the stump, took the blank from his hand and road 
it over slowly, giving as muoh emphasis as possible to the all^ 
important clause at the end — ** untU properly esocKanfed/* I 
then said : 

'' Boys, this seems all right to me,** and they answered, with 
almost one voice : 

*• Yes, that's aU right We*U sign that** 

I was never so proud of the American 8oldier>boy as at that 
moment. They all felt that signing that paper was to give 
them freedom and life. They knew too well from tad expert^ 
ence what the alternative was. Many felt that onle« released 
another week would see them in their graves. All knew that 
every day*s stay in Rebel hands greatly lessened their chances 
of life. Yet in all that thousand there was not one voice 
in favor of yielding a tittle of honor to save Ufa They would 
secure their freedom honorably, or die faithfully. Remember 
that this was a miscellaneous crowd of boys, gathered from all 
sections of the country, and from many of whom no exalted 
conci*ptions of duty and honor were expected. I wish some one 


would point out to me, on the brightest pages of knigbtly 
recoil, some deed of lealty and truth that equals the simplo 
fidelity of these unknown heros. I do not think that one of 
them felt that he was doing anything especially meritorioos. 
lie only obeyed the natural promptings of his loyal heart 

The business of signing the paroles was then begun in oamest. 
We wore seitarated into squads according to the first letters of 
our names, all those whose name began with A being placed in 
one squad, those lx*ginning with B, in another, and bo on. 
Blank piin^les for each letter were spread out on boxes and 
planks at different plaices, and the signing went on under the 
8U{KTinten<lenco of a Rebel Sergt^int and one of the prisoners. 
The squad of M*s selected me to su])erintend the signing for oa, 
and I stood by to diix^ct the boys, and sign for the very few 
who could not write. After this was done we fell into ranks 
again, called the roll of the signers, and carefully compared 
the number of men with the number of signatures so that 
nobody should pass unparoled. The oath was then administered 
to us, and two day's rations of corn meal and fresh beef were 

This formality removed the last lingering doubt that we had 
of the exchange being a reality, and we gave way to the 
happiest emotions. We cheered ourselves hoarse, and the 
fellows still inside followed our example, as they expected that 
thoy would share our good fortune in a day or two. 

Our next performance was to set to work, cook our two days* 
rati4>ns at once and eat them. This was nut very difficult, as 
the whole supply for two days would hanlly make one square 
meul. That done, many of the boys went to the guard 
line and threw their blankets, clothing, cooking utensils, etc, 
to their comrades who were still inside. No one thought they 
would have anv further use for such thin;:^ 

^^Toniorruw, at this time, thank Ilfuven,** said a boy near 
me, as he tosseil his blankta and overcoiit biick to some one 
inside, '' we*ll be in Goil's country, and then I wouldn*t touch 
them d d lousy old rags with a ten-foot {>ole/' 

One of the boys in the M squad was a Maine infantryman, 
who had been with me in the Pemberton building, in Ilich- 


mond, and biul fuhioned bimaeU a little square [mui out of a lin 
plate of a tobacco press, snob u I have d<»orib«d in an earitor 
ohaptor. Ho luut carried it with bim ever siooe, and it waa his 
Bol« TCMsot for all pur|>OMS — for cooking, carrying intter, 
drawing mtiuM, etc lie had cherished it as if it were a tana 


a f^>od ntnntion. But now, as be 

lumed away from signing hts nante to 

thf> pam)i>, he lonked at his faithful tor. 

viint for a minate in nndtngutsod con- 

t-m{it; on the cvo of resturatitm to 

luippier, bi-ttvr thing*. It was a rctuindor 

of all thfi p«.-tty, inglorious contotnpiihle 

trials and sorrows he bad endured ; b« 

srtunlly loathed it for its mncmbranccM, 

nnd Hinging it upon ihngntitnd be crushed 

it out of all shape and osefulnesi with 

hb foot, tmmpliog upon it an be vrrnild 

lUu to tmnple upon urvr^-lhing oonDeclod with his prisoa Ufa 

UoQtht afterward, I liad to lead this man my liitlo can to 

oook hii rations in. 

Andrvws and 1 flung the bright new tin pans we had stolen 
at Uilleo in^de tiie Une>, to be scrambled for. It wiui bard to 
idl who were the mnst sorpriwd at their appearand — Iho 
n«beU or our own boyi — for few had any idea tlut tliere were 
■Dch things in the whole <>>nfi>k<racy, and certainly none 
looked for them in the ponestnon of two such poverty -sLrickoa 


rnvnn m we were. We thonght it best to iHain poaowwioa 
r little Dan, ^hmd, obcs-btwrtl, blankot, and ovorcoat. 
As we tnarchod tlowa »d<) boardml the train, tbo Reh^U oon- 
grrnwl tliuir previous action by taking^ all the guanlj from 
arouoi] US. Ooly some eigbt or tan were aont to the train, anU 
those quartcrml tlieniselvva in tho cubooM), and paid lu Do far- 
thor attention. 

llie train rolled away amid cbc-ering br ourselves and those 
~ behind. One tliousand happier boys than ire aerer 

Im] oq a Juurnoy. U'lt taere ffotn^ hoins. That via enoagh 
to wreathe the ^xva with 
L't'try. and 011 tho world 
V. ith sweelntns and lighL 
The wintry Hun had som»- 
tlims of geniality an 
wnnnth, the Iand«CA|ie los* 
some of itM repatsivennsa, the 
drenry patm<-Uaa had less of 
Ihitl hii U-otixnefn whit:h iniulo 
tii4 reinird them u very Bt- 
tmg etnhlcina of Cnuaon. 
We even tn-gan to feel % 
little gixxlhumorvd ooo- 
tempt for our hateful little 
Itrata of ^anja, and to ro- 
fleet bow maoh viciuiifl edu* 
cation and iiarroiindingi 
war« to be held respoiuibie 
for their inluK'odA. 

We la ngfa al and aang ■■ 
w« mllod along toward 8»> 
vonnah — going bock mooh 
m oBcinKD XT OOT or ku. boafb. faster than we cama. We 
re-lold old ctorioB, and re- 
peated old jokes, that bad become woenaome inontlis aod 
montlia ago, but were now freahened up and given tbmr oldes 
pith by the juyooaneM of the oorosioo. We revived and talked 
orer old wbetucs gi>u«o up in the earli«)r Uaya of priaon lif^ ol 

1. ^ 

a' '"i' 





what ^ we would do when we got out," bat almost forgotten 
Binodf in the general uncertainty of ever getting ont We 
exchanged addressee, and promised faithfully to write to each 
other and tell how we found everything at hom& 

oo the afternoon and night passed. We were too excited to 
sleep, and passed the hours watching the scenery, recalling the 
objects we had passed on the way to Blackshear, and guessing 
how near we were to Savannah. 

Though we were running along within fifteen or twenty miles 
of the coast, with all our guards asleep in the caboose, no one 
thought of esea[)a We could step off the cars and walk over 
to the seashore as easily as a man steps out of his door and walks 
to a neighboring town, but why should we t Were we not 
going directly to our vessels in the harbor of Savannah, and 
was it not better to do this, than to take the chances of escaping, 
and encounter the ditiiculties of reaching our blockaders t We 
thought so, and we staid on the airs. 

A cold, gray Winter morning was just breaking as we reached 
Savannah. Uur train ran down in the City, and then whistled 
sharply and ran back a mile or so ; it repeated this manuver 
two or three times, the evident design being to keep us on the 
cars until the people were ready to receive us. Finally oar 
engine ran with all the speed she was capable of, and as the 
train daishcd into the street we found ou»elves between two 
heavy lines of guards with bayonets fixed. 

The whole sickening reality was made apparent by one glance 
at the guard line. Our parole was a mockery, its only object 
being to get us to Savannah as easily as possible, and to pre> 
Tent benefit from our recapture to any of Sherman's Raiderii 
who might make a dash for the railroad while we were in 
transit. There had been no intention of exchanging us. There 
was no exchange going on at Savannah. 

After all, I do not think we felt the disappointment as keenly 
as the first time we were brought to Savannah. Imprisonment 
had stupefied us ; we were duller and more hopeless. 

Ordered down out of the cars, we were formed in line in tlie 

Said a Rebel offloer: 


''Now, any of 70a fellahs that ah too tick to go to Chahla- 
tem, step fohirahd one pace." 

We looked at each other an instanti and then the whole line 
itepped forward. We all felt too aide to go to Charleaton, or 
to do any thimr else in the workL 



Ab the train left the northern suburbs of SaTannah we oama 
apon a scene of busy activity, strongly contrasting with the 
somnolent lethargy that seemed to be the normal condition of 
the City and its inhabitants. Long lines of earthworks were 
being constructed, gangs of negros were felling trees, bnilding 
forts and batteries, making abatis, and toiling with numbers of 
huge guns which were being moved out and placed in position. 

As we had had no new prisoners nor any papers for some wedci 
— the papers being doubtless designedly kept away from as — we 
were at a loss to know what this meant. We could not under> 
stand this erection of fortifications on that side, because, knowing 
as we did how well the flanks of the City were protected by the 
Savannah and Ogeeche Rivers, we could not see how a force 
from the coast — whence we supposed an attack must come, 
could hope to reach the City's rear, especially as we had just 
come up on the right flank of the City, and saw no sign of our 
folks in that direction. 

Our train stopped for a few minutes at the edge of this line 
of works, and an old citizen who had been surveying the scene 
with senile interest, tottered over to our car to take a look at 
us. lie was a type of the old man of the South of the scanty 
middle class, the small farmer. Long white hair and beardy 
spectacles with great round, staring glasses, a broad-brimmed 
hat of ante-Revolutionary pattern, clothes that had apparently 
descended to him from some ancestor who had come over witK 




OglBthiirpo. and a two-haniled staff with & head of twititbom, 
upon which be kaiiod as old peasants do in plays, formt^ soob 
an irnu^v a« t>.vjtUe<l to mo the picture of tho old man in the 
iUastrutiuQs in "The Diurytnan's Daughter." lie iras as gar- 
rulous as a mngiiie, and iis opin- 
ionated as a Southern whit« 
always lA. 

IliUling in front of our car, 
be steadied himself by planting 
hia staff, clasping it with both 
lean and skinny hondii, and 
leaning forward apoQ it, bit 
j:nvs tli«n ad<lrcMed thmuolTet 
to motion thus: 

"Ilova, vrbo moot tluM be 
thai ye got t " 

h some Yanl:i( that we're bin 
bivin' down at Camp Sumter." 
" Yes '( " (with an upwari 
t&flcclion of tin votca, follnnrwt 
by a doM* scraltny of as through 
^B S<)g8)^^3^ gliwieA,) " Wall, 
they're a powerful omary look- 
in' lot, I'll diMilah." 
It will be Keen that tb« old gestleraan's perreptive povera 
Trere much mon- highly duTelujied tbaa bb politenfltis. 

" Well, they ain't nrlial ya mont call purty, that's a faok," 
Kiid the gnartl. 

** So yer Vanba, air ye I " said tbc Tsnorable Ooober-Ombbar; 
(tha nlck-iuime in Uie .South for Geoi^giana), diracttag bis ao» 
WMlMm to jnm. " Wall, I'm pow«rfa] gbd to aaa ya, a^ 
'■pKtally whar ye can't do no barm ; I're wanted to m tomm 
TaakM* ever senc« the beginnin' of the wab, but beT Bever bad 
BO flhanoa. Whah did ye tram from I " 

1 nenwd oallud upon to annwer, and said : ** 1 eama trooi 
lUinote ; most of the boys in lbi» <ar are front Hllnobi, Obio^ 
Indiana, Uiohigan and lovra." 
"'Deed I AU West«mon,air yal Wall, dn ye know I alia 


Ifked the Westerners a heap sight better than them blne-bellled 
New England Yankees." 

No discuflsion with a Kebel erer proceeded very far without 
his making an assertion like this. It was a favorite declaration 
of tbeir^s, bnt its absnrditj was eomical, when one remembered 
that the majority of them could not for their lives tell the 
na^esof the New England States, and could no more distinguish 
a Downeaster from an lUinoisan than thev could tell a Saxon 
from a Bavarian. One day, while I was holding a conversation 
similar to the above with an old man on guard, another guard, 
who had been stationed near a squad made up of Germans, that 
talked altogether in the language of the Fatherland, broke in 

** Out there by post numbah foahteen, where I wuz yestei^ 
day, there's a lot of Yanks who jest jabbered away all the hull 
time, and I hope I may never see the back of my neck ef I 
could understand ary word they said. Are them the regular 

The old gentleman entered upon the next stage of the invari* 
able routine of discussion with a llebel : 

^ Wall, what air you 'uns down heah, a-flghtin' we 'uns fob t " 

As I had answered this question several hundred times, I bad 
found the most extinguishing reply to be to ask in return : 

''What are you'uns coming up into our country to fight 
we'uns for t " 

Disdaining to notice this return in kind, the old man passed 
on to the next stage : 

^ What are you'uns takin' ouah niggahs away from us fob t ^ 

Now, if negros had been as cheap as oreoide watches, it is 
doubtful whether the speaker had ever had money enough in his 
possession at one time to buy one, and yet he talked of taking 
away '* ouah niggahs,'* as if they were as plenty about his place 
as hills of com. As a rule, the more abjectly poor a Southerner 
was, the more readily he worked himself into m rage over iht 
idea of *^ takin' away ouah niggahs.'' 

I replied in burlesque of his assumption of ownership : 

^ What are yon coming up North to bum my rolling miUi^ 
and rob my comrade here*s bank, and plunder my brother't 
store, and bum down my uncle's factories i" 


Ko reply to this ooontor Uinist. The old maa passed to t] 
third inevitable proposition : 

" What ftir yoa'uos puttin' ooah niggahs in the Sekl to flgl 
we'niM fob J " 

Tlwn tJie wliolo oarlood shoutod bock at him at oqob : 

"What are yoa'aiu putting blomUhounda on our trails I 
bant as down, fwT" 

Oid Man — (sava^ly). " Waal, ye doa't Uiink yo kin over li 
tu ; leostwayH sicti felleni as ye air ) " 

M^»t}f — "Well, we wanned it to you pretty lively until yoa 
caojfbt us. Tbvro wore none of us but ivliat were doing about 
a> good work as any stock you follows oould turn out No 
Rebels in our ncigtiborbotxl had much to brag on. We ore 
not a drop in tbe bui^ket, cither. There's millions more better 
men thnn Tve are where we came [roin, and they are all 
determinud to stamp out your miserable ConfLtlcntcy. Vou'vo 
got to come to it, eooner or later ; yon muHt knock under, nra 
■8 white blossoms make httlo apples. Vou'd better make up 
yoar mind to it." 

Old Man — "No, sab, novah. Ve nc^'nh kin conquer oil 
We're ttie bravest people and the best fighters on airtb. Ya 
uerah kin whip any people that's a lightm' tur their Iihcrty> 
an' their right; an' ye nevah con whip tbe South. mh, any way. 
Well light ye until all the men air kilk-d, and then tlM < ' 
men'Il tight yo, aah." 

Myaelf — " Well, yon may think so, or you may noL 
tbe way our boys are snatching the Confcdcmcy's real i 
away, it U^ns to lot^ as if yon'd not Ilivo i-nougb to figl 
anybody on pretty aooo. What's the meaning of all tliis (wtin 

Oid Man — " Why, don't you know I Oar folks are fixin' ap 
a place fob Dill Sbermao to bull his brains uut agin'." 

" Bill Sherman 1 " we all shoutMl in j^urprtse : ** Why he ain't 
within two bnodrod miles of this place, is be I ' 

Old Man — " Yea, but be is, tbo.' Ho thinks he's played a 
■harp Yankee trick on Ilood. Ue found oot be couldn't lick 
him in a aquar* fight, nohow ; hn'd lri«d that on too often ; so 
ho just suvakM) 'round behind him, and made a break for thv^ 
oeotor of tbe State, wbere be thought there was lota of | 

1. HILrTARY rRIflONn. 


stoalia' to be doae. Bui we'll bIiow him. Wo'll xoon bcv him 
jttstwharwo want him. lui' we'll learn him bow to go traiixsria' 
'round the oouotry, alcalin' aiggah&, barnin' oolUin, an' runnia' 
off folluoa' beef vritlors. Ho ikm» aow tUu surapo lut'« got into, 

an* he's tryin* to get to the const, whar the ^nb-oata'U help 
' fm out But be'll Dorab gH ifaar, mh ; do sab, nerah. Ue't 
uouly nigh the end of bis rope, sab, and we'll purtjr soon bav 
*'im jint whar yon fellows air, sah." 

jVy«B/^"— " W>J1, if roo fellows intended stoppin^j him, why 
didn't yon do it up about Atlanta t Wbat did yoe let him 
oome dear tbnnigb (h» 8ut4% burning and stoalinjcBfl you tay I 
It waa money in your pix:ket« to bead him off aa soon aa 

Old Man — "Ob, wo didn't set notbing afora him up thar 



tsa onAU-nrmr * ■avaksah KAttAOjoi. 

VMM •»*•••■»*•■• OwpWI WmU; J 

that the aoDTwmtion had p w y — od farther than irw proOtaUi^ I 
and OM of than apoke ap RHif(Uly : 
" fwft heah, old man, voa must go off ; I can't hAf je taUdi^' 

10 these prisoncra ; hits agio ny awilslu. Oo 'mty now J" 
The olU felluw mov«d uO, hut un he did he fluog thiB F 


"When Sherman pta down fa«ah,be*U BndaomBtbin'd 
from tlio little inotA of Ttawrm be nut otrorapaboaiy 
ville ; ho'll BnJ bc'i. got tu Qght real aoldinv." 

Wt* oudld not help enjnyinif the nge of tbe gnarda, o 
Uivt i«timala plnced upon the fl;;fhting ability of UieiBaelrea a 
tiurimiliw, anil as (buy ravMl arutind abtiat M'hat thi>y would do 

11 tlioy were only given an tiptionanity to go intj> a lino of 
IkilUc ngiunst Sherman, wo aihlcd fuel to tbe flainw o( I 
aogor by ounlltling tu caeli uthur that Wo olvraya " koaW t 


little Brats nhose higlitst ambition was to munler a defense- 
less prisoner, oould be uutbing else tluui oowunls and skullien 
in tlie field." 

" Vaos — Boonies," said Charlie Burroughs, of the Third 
Uichigim, in that nasal Vaokee drawL that he always amniiiwil 





^\^y a\ 

f 1 iB ^^^^^ 'i 

^, 7 

mm^''^^. ' 










when he iranted to say anything very cutting; "yon — tmndto 

— bed — loldierB — who' vo — never — seen — a — nxd — wild 

— Vankoo — don't — know — how — different — they — are — 
fmni — the — kind — that — are — starved — down — to — 
Uiiucness. They're — jest — as — different — as — a — lion — in 

— a — menagerie — is — from — his — brother — in — the — 
woods — who — has — a — niggur — every — day — for — din- 
ner. Vou ^•fellows — will — gu — into — a — circus — tent — 
and — throw — tobaoou — (juiih — in — tho — fuco — of — Um 


— lion — in — the — cage — when — yon — haven't — spnnk— 
enough — to — look — a — woodchuck — in — the — eye — if — 

you — met — him — alona It's — lots — o' — fun — to — you 
— to — shoot — down — a — sick — and — starving — man — in 
— the — Stockade, — but — when — you — see — a — Yank — 
with — a — gun — m — his — hand — your — livers — get — so 
— white — that — chalk — would — make — a — black — mark 
— on — 'em." 

A little later, a paper, which some one had gotten hold of, 
in some mysterious manner, was secretly passed to me. I read 
it as I could find opportunity, and communicated its contents 
to the rest of the boys. The most important of these was a 
flaming proclamation by Governor Joe Brown, setting forth 
that General Sherman was now traversing the State, commit- 
ting all sorts of depredations ; that he had prepared the way for 
his own destruction, and the Gk>vemor called upon all good 
citizens to rise en nuu9e^ and assist in crushing the audacious 
invader. Bridges must be burned before and behind him, roads 
obstructed, and every inch of soil resolutely disputed 

We enjoyed this. It showed that the Bebels were terribly 
alarmed, and we began to feel some of that confidence that 
'* Sherman will come out all right,'' which so marveloualj 
animat4)d all under his command. 





The train started in a few minutes after the close of the oon- 
versation with the old Georgian, and we soon came to and 
crossed the Savannah Uiver into South Carolina. The river 
was wide and ap[)arentl y deep ; the tide was setting back in a 
swift, muddy current ; the crazy old bridge creaked and shook, 
and the grindin*; axlra shrieked in the dry journals, as we 
pulled acruss. It looked very much at times as if we were to 
all crash down into the turbid flood — and we did not care very 
much if we did, if we were not going to be exchanged. 

The road lay thn>ugh the tide swamp region of South Caro- 
lina, a ))cculiar and interesting country. Though swam{)s and 
fens stretcluHl in all directions as far as the eye could reach, the 
landsca[)e was mori' grateful to the eye than the famine-stricken, 
pine-lmrrens of (tt'orgia, which hiul become wearisome to 
the sight. The soil where it ap|x*^ircd, was rich, vegetation 
was luxuriant ; gnat cluiii]is of laurel showed glossy richness 
in the greenness of its venlure, tliat reminded us of the fresh 
color of the vegetation of our Northern homers, so different 
from the parched and im]K)verished look of (teorgian folnige. 
Immense flocks of wild fowl fluttered around us; the Georgian 
wcmhIh were almost <h*stitute of living creatures; the evergreen 
liviMNik, with its (|Ufvr ft^stoons of S|Ninish moss, and the ugly 
and ns4*less |mlmett<is gave novelty and interest to the view. 

Tilt* ricv s\vam|is tiin»ugii which wa wort! |NAssing were the 


[oiooely possessions of the few nabobs who before the war stood 
at the hea4 of South Carohna aristocracy — they wore Suath 
Okrolino, ia fact, as absolutely as Louia XIV. was Fmuoe. In 
tbeir bands — but a few sooru in number — was oonoontnited 
about all there was of South Carolina education, wealth, oah 
ttire, and brcedinf;. Tliey representi.'d a pinchbeck imitation of 
that regime in Frunoe which was happily swept out of exisl^noo 
by the Kevulution, and the desiructioft 
of which more than oomponsatod 
every drop of blood shed in those terribi 
d«ji. Like the provincial 
»eii/nsurt of Loaia XVI.'a rei^ tbey 
were gay, dissipatod and turbulent; 
** ai-complish«d " in the supcrfictal ao- 
quiremunts tliat made the "gentle- 
man" one bundrc>d ycnrs ago, but am 
groiosqucly out of place in this sensi- 
ble, solid age, which demandii that a 
man shall be of use, an<l not merely 
for show. They ran borew and fought 
oocks, dawdled tbrtMtgfa society wlien 
yoang, and intrigued in poUtica the rest 
of their lives, with frequent sp 
of duels, {^teeming personal oonn 
as a supreme human rirtoe, and i 
wearying of prating tbdr derotion I 
the highest standard of intrepidity, 
thoy Dover produoed a Oenend who 
nor did any OM eTcr hear of a South 
Carolina regiment gaining distinction. Rt^rding pi^litics and 
the art of gOTcmment aa, equally with arms, their natural 
vocations, they have never given the Nation a stateaman, ■ 
their greatest politicians achieved eminenoe by advocating idi 
which only attracted attention by their lialefoloew. 

6tiU further resembling tbe French frand*» imfftuun of tii* 
eigbteenth century, they rolled in wealth wrong from Ibe 
laborer by reducing the rewards of bis tot) to tbe last fmctioo 
that would support his life and strength. The rioe caltare « 
immeDsely profitable, becnuae tbey had found lb« soorat I 

was even mediocre; 

raiting H mom cheaply thnn even tUp puuper bibnrer of (he old 
world cooUt. Th«Jr lands liad tiKt ttit^m notlnnj^ ciriginolly, 
tb« iitipnivonicnts tif dikes and ditrhvs were ooinponitivijy 
inox})eiuiiv<^. thv taxrai wcro ttominnl, und their iilnvea were not 
ito exp<>nsiTA to koa^p ojs good boracM in Lbc Nurtb. 

Ttiousands ol ttie acmt along the rood Ixdongwl to the Rbotti, 

to the neywnrdi, thotmnds to the Manlgaalti^ 
the Lowodod, the Uiddtatoot, th« Hng«n, the BornwcllB, and 
the Elliots — all naineit too well known in the hittory of our 
oountrj''a lorrowx. Ocoanonally one of their Mau>ly mansions 
eoald be aeeo on Kiniu jlifttant devalion, siimxindnl by nobla 
oM Irooa, and niperb Kn^anda. Here they bvi-d during tha 
beolUiy pan of the year, bnt fled thence to niRinier morts 
in the bighbuiils as the mtasmatic masoo approached. 

The people we saw at the ■tatilmi along o«r route were mel- 
ancbdly illustrations of the exnUt of the rule of sDch an oli^krcfay. 
There was no miildlo class risible anywhere — nothing l>ut Uie 
twii extmitea. A man was cither a "gentleman," and wore a 
while shirt and ciilr-matb) dothea, or be wasa luutisfa binil, oUd 
in mere «|wlogiea for gnmients. We tbtog-hl we biul funnd la 
Uu- OttuiPA *' cracker" the k>west HI) bitrntuin q[ huiiuutxi^UfiUt. 

516 AJsvmssovriLLE. 

but he was bright intelligence compared to the South Carolina 
**clayeater'' and "sand-hiller." The ** cracker" always gave 
hopes to one that if he had the advantage of common schools, 
and could be made to understand that laziness was dishonora- 
ble, he might develop into something. There was little foun- 
dation for such hope in the average low South Carolinian. His 
mind was a shaking quagmire, which did not admit of the erec- 
tion of any 8U|)er8tructure of eilucation u|)un it. The South 
Can)lina guards about us did not know the name of the next 
town, though they had been raised in that section. They did 
not know how far it was there, or to any place else, and thej 
did not care to learn. They had no conception of what the 
war was Ix^ing waged for, and did not want to find out ; thej 
did not know where their regiment was going, and did not 
rememl^er where it had been ; they could not tell how long 
they had been in service, uor the time they had enlisted for. 
They only remembered that sometimes they luul hail ^^ sorter 
good times,'' and sometimes '^ they had been ]K)werf ul bad,'' 
and they hoped there would bo plenty to eat wherever they 
went, and not too much liard marching. Then they wondered 
*' whar a feller'd be likely to make a raise of a canteen of good 
whisky i " 

Dad as the whites were, the rico plantation n<»gnis were even 
wors*', if that were |)ossible. liniuglit to tlu» country centuries 
ago, as brutal savages from Africa, they ha<i leurntHl nothing of 
Christian civilization, except that it meant endless toil, in mala- 
ri«>us Hwam|«, under the lash of the task-master. Tliey wore, 
]M)ssil>ly, a little more clotliin^f than th(*ir Senei^mbian ances- 
t4>i*s «lid : they ate corn me^il, yams and riiv, insteafi of Ixinanas, 
vains and riee, as their foix'fathers did, an<l ila»y had learned a 
iKLstanl, almost unintelligible, English. Tlu»si» wen» the sole 
blessin;p4 aajuire^l by a tninsfer from a life of free<h>ni in the 
jun^lts of the (void Coast, to one of slavery in the swamjis of 
the ('umlwIitM*. 

I could not then, nor can I now, n»gret the downfall of a 
system of socMetv which bon? such fruits. 

ToManIs night a distress.n^Iy cohl bnvze, laden with a pen^ 
t rating mist, set in from the si^ and put an end to future 
oljM*r\ationsby making us lo«i un^*onifortable to care for scenery 

▲ rroRT or rkbkl militabt prisons. 617 

or social conditions. We wanted most to devise a way to keep 
warm. Andrews and I pulled our overcoat and blanket closely 
about us« snu^gle<l toother so as to make each one's meager 
body afford the other as much heat as }K)ssible — and endured. 

We became fearfuUv hun«n*v. It will be recollected that we 
ate the whole of the two davs' nit ions issued to us at Black- 
shear at once, and we had recoive<l nothing since. We reached 
the sullen, fainting stage of groat hunger, and for hours nothing 
was said by any one, except an occasional bitter execration on 
Ucbels and Kebel practices. 

It was late at night when we reached Charleston. The lights 
of the City, and the apparent warmth and comfort there 
cheered us up somewhat with the ho|)es that we might have 
some share in them. Leaving the train, we were marched 
■ome distance through weiMighte<I streets, in which were 
plenty of [leople walking to and fro. There were many 
stores, apparently stocked with goo(U and the citizens seemed 
to be going about their business very much as was the custom 
up North. 

At length our head of column made a ** right turn," and we 
marchctl away from the ligliteil ])ortion of the City, to a part 
which I could see through the sliadowH Wiis filled with ruins. 
An almost insup]>ortable odor of gsis, escaping I suppose from 
the ruptured piiK^s, mingled with tlie cold, rasping air from the 
sea, to make every breath mtensely disagreeable. 

As I saw the ruins, it flashed upon me that this was the 
burnt district of the city, and they were putting us under the 
fire of our own guns. At first I felt much alarmed. Little 
relish as I had on general principles, for being shot I had much 
less for being killed by our own men. Then I reflected! that if 
they put me there — and kept me — a guanl would have to be 
placed around us, who would necessarily l>e in as much danger 
as we were, and I knew I could stand any fire that a Rebel 

We were halted in a vacant lot, and sat down, only to jump 
up the next instant, as some one shouted : 

*• There comes one of Vm ! " 

It was a great shell from the Swamp Angel Battery. Start- 
ing from a [loint miles awa3% where, seemingly, the sky came 



doiva to llio sea, wm a narrow ribbon of Arc. wbidh slowlyi 
OnroUat itself ugainst tbe sUtr-Iit vault over oar licnds. On, c 
it cumo, and was apparently following tho tkj down to tha ' 

A tCKSf. IN Tint "l 
if»M-i W«Ur, Ilka 


Itorixon behind oo. As it roaohed the tenith, tliera oame to oar 
tan a prolonfied, bat not sharp, — 

" Wbtab — ish — ish — tsh — iah!" 

We watiihed it brGathioaily, and it euomod to be long miDolM 
in running its oiurte; t)i«n a thump npon the gronnd, and a 
vibration, told that it had xtruck. For a moment there wai a j 
dead fiili>nc*«. Then came a bad roar, and the cnuh of bnnk- 
ing timber und cmshing walla. The shell tuul biir^lMl. 

Ton ininutt-A later another shell followed, with like reaolu. 
For uwhilH we forgot all about hunger in the uidtemnnt of 
watching tlie meaaodgoni from " (iod'n wmntry." What happi- 
nan t«i be vthvrn tboau abells caim^ fmio. S^Mm a Rebel battnry 
of hi-avy );uns somcwttere near and in fMnt of ua. wakctl up, 
and began iinfttvering with dull. Blow thuiu[M that mnilv the 
ground shudder. This amtinut'd abuut an hour, when it qnjeted 
down again, but our slioUs kept cuniing orer at regular intarraU i 

KKHL Ulbm^T FBl«OKt. 

with ibo MIQO alow dulibcnition, the samo prolonf^ vraming, 
and Uie nnio dreadful cnuib wItoD thoy struck. Tfaejr bdd 
Rlrecuiy f^ne on tbia vray tor oxer a year, uid wen to kmp it 
Dp nKintha longer until tbn Oity wiu captured. 
The routine wu tbu umo from day to day, month In, and 

•na PAST mtsa wx ult w*» a. mam or suna. 

montb out, from early in August, lisOS, to the middle of April, 
18A6. Every fuw minutM during the day our folks wuulil bnri 
a groat ibdl iolo the beleaguenHt City, and tvrioo a clay, for 
perhaps an hour each time, tbc Robd batterieti would talk hack. 
It must have buwn a lesson to the Cbarbatonianaof tha pornateot, 
methodical spirit of the North. Theypritled tbemsDlves oo the 
length of the lim« tbey vere holding out against the eoemy, 
aikd tJie papers eofih day hail a column bnuled 


or StILst, S93d, oto, u tha aumlwr might be sinoe our people 
opened fire upon the City. The put where wo Uy was u mass 
ot mini. Many large buildings had been knookml down ; vary 
many mure were riddled with shot holes and lultaring to tbetr 
fall. Una night a sbBll passed tlirough a largo building 
about a quarter of a mile from us. It had already Ixen struck 
aevcml times, and was ahaky. Thu shell went through with 
a deafening «nwb. All was stUl for an instant; then it 


exploded with a dull roar, followed by more crashing of 
timber and walls. The sound died away and was succeeded by 
a moment of silence. Finally the great building fell, a shapeless 
heap of ruins, with a noise like that of a dozen field pieces. 
We wanted to cheer but restrained ourselves. This was the 
nearest to us that any shell came. 

There was only one section of the Oity in reach of our guns 
and this was nearly destroyed. Fires had come to complete 
the work begun by the shells. Outside of the boundaries of 
this region, the people felt themselves as safe as in one of oar 
northern Cities Uxlay. They had an abiding faith that they 
were clear out of reach of any artillery that wo could mount. 
I learned afterwards from some of the prisoners, who went into 
Charleston ahead of us, and were camped on the race course 
outside of the City, that one day our fellows threw a shell 
clear over the Citv to this race course. There was an imme- 
dlate and terrible panic among the citizens. They thought we 
had mounted some new guns of increased range, and now Uie 
whole city must go. But the next shell fell inside the estab- 
lished limits, and those following were ecjually well behaved, so 
that the i>anic abateil. I huvc never heanl any explanation of 
the mattiT. It may have l>cen some fn»ak of the ^un-squad, 
trying the effect of an extra cliar«je of |H»\v(ler. Had our 
people known of its sit;;nal effect, thev could have depopulatea 
the place in u few liours. 

The whole matter iiiii)rt»ssetl me queerly. The only artillery 
I had ever seen in action wen? Held pieces. They made an ear- 
splittin;^ eriLsh when they were dischar^nl, and thero was likely 
to be oceans of trouble f()r everybo<ly in that neighborhood 
about that time. I rciisoniHl from this that bi;^ger guns made 
a proiKjrtionaily greater amount of noise, and bnil an intinitely 
larger quantity of trtjuhle. Now I wjis hearing the giants of 
the world's ordnance, and they were not so im[>n'ssive as a 
lively battery of three-incii rifles. Their re|K»rts did not threaten 
to shatter everything, but luul a dull n\sonance, something like 
that pnKluc*eil by striking an empty barrel with a wooden maul. 
Their shells did not come at one in that wildlv, fenK'ious wav, 
with which a missile from a six-|M>uiMler convinc*es every fellow 
in a lon<r line «»f Uitth* that he is the i(l<*i)ti(*al «»ne it is meant 

KOIX* or ST. rtSBUt catokdiuu 

exprened it,— utclof I>eingl)rvd back nt Tor nn hour a( o'clock 
every tnoming- otid evvning; of Hfty tlioiuaiul pcojilc going on 
baying anil selling, mting, drinkin;; anil slL-eping, having ilancta, 
drim Uiri Uillit, innrrytn^ unJ giving in nrnrriugn, ull irithin a 
.few bondrvd yartU of where ihe siiicWa were falling — struck 
mo Bi a mnst ffingiilnr mcllifid of oundocling narfan:. 

We rvmirtHl no nitk»nii until liie <l;iy afler our arrival, and 
then tlm' were nnnty, though fair In quality. We nrere by 
thi* titncMi hnngrt- and foinl that we ctmid honlly more Wa 
did notliitig for hours but lii* amund on the ground and try to 
forgttt )h>w famiidie<l we were. At llie annuunc«inent of ratioiu, 
many ai'lnil as if ornzy, and it vrna ull that lht> Sertpmntii coold 
do to revtntin the iiti|i!itiont ra"b fmni tearing the food away 
and di-viiuring it. when llwry H-<yv trying lo diridi? it out Very 

^22 . ANDKBaONyiLLB. 

many — perhaps thirty — died during the night and morning. 

Ho blame for this is attached to the Oharlestonians. They 
distinguished themselves from the citizens of every other plaoa 
in the Southern Confederacy where we had been, by making 
efforts to relieve our condition. They sent quite a quantity of 
food to us, and the Sisters of Charity came among us, seeking 
and ministering to the sick. I believe our experience was the 
usual one. The prisoners who passed through Charleston 
before us all r poke very highly of the kindness shown them by 
the citizens there. 

We remained in Charleston but a few days. One night we 
were marched down to a rickety depot, and put aboard a still 
more rickety train. When morning came we found ourselves 
running northward through a pine barren country that resem- 
bled somewhat that in Georgia, except that the pine was short- 
leaved, there was more oak and other hard woods, and the 
vegetation generally assumed a more Northern look. We had 
been put into close l)ox cars, with guards at the doors and on 
top. During the night quite a number of the boys, who had 
fabricated little saws out of case knives and fragments of hoop 
iron, cut holes through the bottoms of the cars, through which 
they dropped to the ground and escaped, but were mostly 
recaptured after several days. There was no hole cut in our 
car, and so Andrews and I staid in. 

Just at dusk we came to the insignificant village of Florence, 
tlie junction of the road leading from Charleston to Cheraw 
with that running from Wilmington to Kingsville. It was 
about one hundred and twenty miles from Charleston, and the 
same distance from Wilmington. As our train ran through a 
cut near the junction a darky stood by the track gazing at us 
curiously. When the train had nearly |)as:$ed him he started 
to run up the bank. In the im{)erfect light the guards mistook 
him for one of us who had jumped from the train. They all 
fired, and the unlucky negru fell, pierccil by a score of bullets. 

That night we camjKHi in the o|x?n field. When morning 
came we saw, a few hundred yards from us, a Stockaue of 
rough logs, with guards stationetl around it. It was another 
prison |)en. They wore just bringing the dead out, and two 
men were tossing the Uxlies up into the four-horse wagon 

A STOICr or ILKOXL HtLTTAKr rsuuxi. 

ivbiob hauled them KWAy for burial. Tlio men were going 
about Uieir business as oooUy as if loading alauglilvred hogi. 
One ot Lbem would oitch the body by ibn fwt, ttu^ the olbar 
by tbo arma. They would give it • swing — " One, twu, time," 


and up it would go into the wagon. This fllt»l heoping full 
with corpses, a negro mounted tJie wboel hone, gnupud the 
liMa, and ahontol to h» antraab: 

" Now, walk olT on your tAiU, boys.** 

Tbe boraea etrainnt, the wagon moved, and )t« load of what 
were onoe galtnnt, devoted loldiers, was carted off to namel«M 
gTSTea. This was a part <■( the daily morning routinn. 

As we stood looking at tbe sickeningly fuiiiliju- arcliitnotora 
of the prison pen, a Heveatb Indianian near me said, in toDoa 
of wearisome disgust : 

"Well, tbts Soutbem Confedemoy is tbe d— dest coontrj to 
•taikd logi on eod on Uod Almigfaty^i footatool.'* 



It did not require a very acute comprehension to understand 
that the Stockade at which wo were gazing was likely to be our 
abiding place for some indefinite i)eriod in the future. 

As usual, this discovery was the death-warrant of many whose 
lives had only boon prolongeil by the hoping against hope that 
the movement would terminate inside our lines. When the 
portentous palisiides showed to a fatal certainty that the word 
of promise had l)een bi*oken to their hearts, they gave up the 
struggle wearily, lay back on the fro/en gnmnd, and die<l. 

Andi-ews and I were not in the humor for dying just then. 
The long imprisonment, the privations of hunger, the scourging 
by the ekMuents, the death of four out of every live of our 
number had indei^ dulled and stupetieil us — bnxl an inditfer- 
ence to our own suffering and a si-eming callosity to that of 
othei*s, but there still burned in our hearts, and in the hearts of 
every one about us, a dull, sullen, smoldering tire of hate and 
defiance toward everything Rel>el, and a lust for revenge upon 
those who had showoixHl woes u|>on our hemls. There was 
little fear of death ; even the King of Terrors loses most of his 
awful diameter u|x>n tolt»rably close anpiaintance, and we had 
been on verv intimate terms with him for a vear now. lie 
WiLs a constant visitor, who drop|K.'<l in u[)on us at all bourn of 
the day and nighty and would not Ik.» denied to any one. 

Since my entry into pri.s4»n. fully fifteen thousand boys bad 
died around me, and in no one of them had i seen the leust 


dread or roluctanco to go. I believe this is generally trae of 
death by disease, everywhere. Our ever kindly mother, Nuture, 
only makes us dread death when slie desires us to preserve life. 
When she summons us hence she tenderly provides that we 
shall willingly obey the call. 

More than for anything else, we wanted to live now to 
triumph over the Iirl)els. To simply die would be of little 
importiince, but to die unrevenge«i would be fearful. If we, 
the despiseil, the contiMniKHl, the insulted, the starved and mal- 
treiite<l, could live to come luick to our oppivssoi's as the armed 
ministers o! retribution, terrible in the remembrance of the 
wrongs of ourselves and comrades, irresistible as the agents of 
heavenly justice, and mete out to them that l>iblical ivturn of 
seven-fold of what thev had mt'iisuitHl out to us, then we would 
be content to go to death — afterwanU. Had the thrice- 
accursed Confederacy and our iiuilignaiit gaolers millions of 

lives, our great i*evenge would have stomach for them alL 


The December morning was gray and leaden; dull, somber, 
snow-laden clouds swept acniss the sky l>efore the soughing 

The ground, frozen hard and stiff, cut and hurt our bare feet 
at ^\'MV\ step ; an icy biXH»ze drove in through the holes in our 
rags, and smote our IxKlies like blows from sticks. The trees 
and shrub1x?rv around w ere as nakeil and forlorn ils in the North 
in the davs o! earlv Winter i^efoiv the snow eomt*s. 

Over and amund us hun;: like a (Told miasnui the sickening 
odor |>eeuliar to Soutiurn forests in Winter time. 

Out of thenake<U ii»i»elling, unlovely earth n»se the Stiickade, 
in i)i<lei>us uglinc*ss. At thegsite the two men ci>ntinutHl at their 
HKinotonous lalN>r of tossing the dead of the pn.'vious day into 
the w:igon — hea\ing into that nule liearsi* the inanimate 
n*mainb that iiad <inee teni|»l«Ml gjillant, manly htnirts, glowing 
with and drv«>tion to country — ]>iling up listli*ssly 
and wearily, in a mass of nameless, emaciate«l c«ir|>ses, fluttering 
with rags, and swarniing with vermin, the pride, tlie joy of a 
hundiid fair Northern hom<.*s», wlaise ligiit had now gone out 

Around the prison walls shambled the guaixls, blanketed liko 


Indians, and with faces and hearts of wolves. Other Rebels— > 
also clad in dingy butternut — slouched around lazily, crouched 
OTer diminutiye fires, and talked idle gossip in the broadest of 
^nigger" dialect. OfiScers swelled and strutted hither and 
thither, and negro ser\'ants loitered around, striving to spread 
the least amount of work over the greatest amount of time. 

While I stijod gazing in gloomy silence at the depressing 
roundings Andrews, less speculative and more practical, saw a 
good-sized pine stump near by, which had so much of the earth 
washe<l awav from it that it looked as if it could bo readilv 
pulled up. We had had bitter experience in other prisons as to 
the value of wood, and Andrews reasoned that as we would be 
likely to have a repetition of this in the Stockade we were 
about to enter, wo should make an effort to secure the stump. 
We both attacked it, and after a great deal of hard work, suc- 
ceeded in uprooting it It was very lucky that we did, since it 
was the greatest help in preserving our lives throi gh the three 
long months that we remained at Florence. 

While we were arranging our stump so as to cany it to the 
best advantage, a vulgar-faced man, with fiery red hair, and 
wearing on hisccjilarthe yellow bars of a Lieutenant, approached. 
This was Lieutenant Barrett, commandant of the interior of 
the prison, and a more inhuman wretch even than Captain 
Wirz, luH-auso he had a little more brains than the commandant 
at An(lers4»nville, and this extra intellect was wholly devoted 
to cruelty. As he came near he commanded^ in loud, brutal 

•* Attention, Prisoners ! " 

We all stood up and fell in in two ranks. Said he: 

"By com|>iLnies, right wheel, march P^ 

This was simply preposterous. As every soldier knowi^ 
wheeling by companies is one of the most difficult of manuvers, 
and ro<|uires serine preparation of a battalion before attempting to 
execute it. Our thou.sand was made up of infantry, cavalry and 
artillery, representing, perha[is,one hundred different regiments. 
Ww had not l>«*on divided off into companies, and were encumb- 
enil with blankets, tents, cooking utensils, wood, etc., which 
prevented our moving with such freedom as to make a com[)any 

A aroBT or rxbkl lOLiTAftY FBitom. 6S7 

wheel, even had we been divided up into companies and drilled for 
the manuver. The attempt to obey the command was, of conrsei 
a ludicrous failure. The Rebel officers standing near Barrett 
laughed openly at his stupidity in giving such an order, but he 
was furious. Ho hurled at us a torrent of the vilest abuse the 
corrupt imagination of man can conceive, and swore until he 
was fairly black in tlie face. lie fired his revolver off over our 
heads, and shrii*kod and shouted until he had to stop from sheer 
exhaustion. Another officer took command then, and marched 
us into prison. 

We found this a small copy of Andersonville. There was a 
stream running north and south, on either side of which was a 
swamp. A Stockade of rough logs, with the bark still on, 
inclosed several acres. The front of the prison was toward the 
West. A piece of artillery stood before the gate, and a 
platform at each comer bore a gun, elevated high enough to 
rake the whole inside of the prison. A man stood behind each 
of those guns continually, so as to open with them at any 
moment. The earth was thrown up against the outside of the 
palisades in a high embankment, along the top of which the 
guards on duty walked, it being high enough to elevate their 
head, shoulders and breasts above the tops of the logs. Inside 
the inevitabfe dead-line was traced by running a farrow around 
the prison — twenty feet from the Stockade — with a plow. 
In one rcs|ioct it was an improvement on Andersonville: 
regular 8tr<H?ts were laid off, so that motion about the camp 
was possible, and cleanliness was promoted. Also, the crowd 
inside w]is not so dense as at Camp Sumter. 

The prisoners were divided into hundreds and thousands, 
witti Sergeants at the heads of the divisions A very good 
\x)\\ce force — organized and officered by the prisoners — main- 
tained onler and prevented crime Thefts and other offenses 
wt^re punished, as at Andersonville, by the Chief of Police sen- 
tencing the offenders to be spanked or tied up. 

We found very many of our Andersonville acquaintances 
inftiile, and for several days comparisons of experience were in 
onler. They had left Andersfinville a few days after us, but 
were taken to (Charleston instead of Savannah. The same 
story of exclmnge was dinned into their ears until they arrived 


at Charleston, when the trath was told them, that no exchange 
was contemplated, and that they had been deceived for the 
purpose of getting them safely out of reach of Sherman. 

Still they were treated well in Charleston — better than thej 
had been anywhere else. Intelligent physicians had visited the 
sick, prescribed for them, furnished them with proper medicines, 
and admitted the worst cases to the hospital, where they were 
given something of the care that one would expect in such an 
institution. Wlieat bread, molasses and rice were issued to 
them, and also a few spoonfuls of vinegar, daily, which 
were very grateful to them in their scorbutic condition. The 
citizens sent in clothing, food and vegetables. The Sisters of 
Charity were indefatigable in ministering to the sick and dying. 
Altogether, their recollections of the place were quite pleasant. 

Despite the dis:igi*ee:ible prominence which the City bad in 
the Secession movement, there was a very strong Union element 
there, and many men found op{x>rtunity to do favors to the 
prisoners and reveal to them how much they abhorred Secession. 

After they had been in Charleston a fortnight or more, the 
yellow fever broke out in the City, and soon extended its 
ravages to the prisoners, quite a number dying from it. 

Early in October they had been sent away from the City to 
their present location, which was then a piece of forest land. 
There wixs no stockade or other encK>sure alK>ut them, and one 
night they forced the guartl-line, about fifteen hundreil i»soap- 
ing, under a pretty sharp fire from the guanls. After getting 
out thev scattercil, each group taking a different route, simie 
seeking Heaufort. and other places along the stMboani, and the 
rest trying to gain the mountains. The whole State was thrown 
int4> the greatest |)erturbatiou by the oocurri»ntv. • The {Kipers 
magnifie<l the pro|>ortion of the outbreak, and laudt^l fulsomely 
the gallaiitry of the guanls in endeavoring to withstand the 
des])erate assaults of the frenzied Yankees. The {)eople were 
wrought up into the highest alarm as to outrages and excesses 
that thes«» flying des|)erado8 might 1x3 ex|>ecleil to commit. 
One would think that another (IriH^ian iiorsi\ intrixluceii into 
the heart of the Confederate Tn>y, hml let out its fatal band of 
arnietl men. All good citizens were enjoine<i to turn out and 
assist in arrciting the runaways. Ttie vigilance of all [Nitroliing 


was redoabled, and saoh was the effeotiTeness of the measuras 
taken that before a month nearly every one of the fagitites 
had been retaken and sent back to Florence. Few of these 
complained of any special illtreatment by their captors, while 
many reported frequent acts of kindness, espedally when 
their captors belonged to the middle and upper classes. The 
low-down class — the day-eaters — on the other hand, almost 
always abused their prisoners, and sometimes, it is pretty cer- 
tain, murdered them in cold blood. 

About this time Winder came on from Andersonville, and 
then everything changed immediately to the complexion of that 
place, lie began the erection of the Stockade, and made it 
very strong. The Dead Line was established, but instead of 
being a strip of plank upon the top of low posts, as at Ander- 
sonville, it was simply a shallow trench, which was sometimes 
plainly visible, and sometimes not The guards always resolved 
matters of doubt against the prisoners, and fired on them when 
they supposed them too near where the Dead Line ought to be. 
Fifteen acres of ground were enclosed by the palisades, of which 
five were taken up by the creek and swamp, and three or four 
more by the Dead line, main streets, eta, leaving about seven 
or eight for the actual use of the prisoners, whose number 
swelled to fifteen thousand by the arrivals from Andersonville. 
This made the crowding together nearly as bad as at the latter 
place, and for awhile the same fatal results followed. The 
mortality, and the sending away of several thousand on the sick 
exchange, reduced the aggregate number at the time of our 
arrival to about eleven thousand, which gave more room to all, 
but was still not one-twentieth of the space which that number 
of men should have had. 

No shelter, nor material for constructing any, was furnished. 
The ground was rather thickly wooded, and covered with 
undergrowth, when the Stockade was built, and certainly no 
bit of soil was ever so thoroughly cleared as this was. The 
trees and brush were cut down and worked up into hut build- 
ing materials by the same slow and laborious process that I 
have described as employed in building our huts at Millen. 

Then the stumps were attacked for fuel, and with such 
persistent thoroughness that after some weeks there was cer> 




Uinly nnt enoa^i vroody niAterisl left in that whole fifteen 
acres of groaod to kindk* a fitnoll kitchen lire. The mva would 
begin wuric on tJio !(tunD|> of u gooil sizod tmi, and uliip aod 
ipttt it off painfully and slowly nntil they iuul followed it 
to llio vxtn'iniiy of lht> tap nmt ten or fifUwn Tm-I below 
the Burfuoo. Tho laloral rooU would be foUowwl wuh equal 
detenu inat ion, and trenches thirty feet long, and two or throe 
feet dwji wiTQ (lu^ n-ithcanvkntva and half-cantn-ii«, to g«t a 
root 08 ttiick as one's wrist. The ru<jt« of Hlirubti and vines 
were followed up and ^thered with similar industry. The 
cold wuatber and the scanty hsaes of wood forced men to do 

utcxrmtx or rm smwAn. 

The bal« oonxtniot«d were u vmrioiu nn tlte materials and the 
Usteti of the buildcre. Those who were fortunate . - -' - 
get plenty of timber biiilt such cabins us I have d- 
UiUon. Thote who had leas eked out their material- 
wayi. Moat frequently all that a Kjuatl of thrr« rtr l<->ir i->iiiiii 
get ffouJd be a few slender polos wul sunie bmah. Tbev woubl 



dig a hole in the ground two feet deep and large enough for 
them all to lie in. Then putting up a stick at each end and 
laying a ri<lge pole across, they would adjust the rest of their 
material so as to form sloping sides capable of supporting earth 
enough to make a water-tight roof. The great majority were 
not so well off as these, and had absolutely nothing of which to 
build. They had recourse to the clay of the swamp, from 
which they fashioned rude sun-dried bricks, and made adobe 
houses, sliaped like a bee hiye, which lasted very well until a 
hanl rain came, when they dissolved into red mire about the 
bodies of their miserable inmates. 

Remember that all these makeshifts were practiced within a 
halfa-mile of an almost boundless forest, from which in a day's 
time the camp could have been supplied with material enough 
to give every man a comfortable hut 



Winder had found in Barrett even a better tool for his omel 
porposeB than Wirz. The two resembled each other in many 
respects. Both were absolutely destitute of any talent for com- 
manding men, and could no more liandle even one thousand 
men properly than a cabin boy could navigate a great ocean 
steamer. Both were given to the same senseless fits of insane 
rage, coming and going without apparent cause, during which 
they fired revolvers and guns or threw clubs into crowds of 
prisoners, or knocked down such as were within reach of their 
fists. These exhibitions were such as an ovei^rown child might 
be expected to make. They did not secure any result except to 
increase the prisoners* wonder that such ill-tempered fools could 
be given any position of responsibility. 

A short time previous to our entry Barrett thought he had 
reason to suspect a tunnel. lie immediately announced that no 
more rations should be issued until its whereabouts was 
revealed and the ringleaders in the 'attempt to esca]ie 
delivered up to him. The rations at that time were very 
scanty, so that the first day they were cut oiT the sufferings 
were fearful. The boys thought he would surely relent the 
next day. but they did not know their man. Ih was not 
sufferinjT anv, whv should he relax his scveritv ! lie strolled 
leisurely out from his dmncr table, picking his tooth with his 
))enknife in the comfortable, solf-s:itislied way of a coarse man 
who has just filled his stomach to his entire content — an atti- 



tade and ao otr that wiu simply maddeotng to the ftunishi 
wntobcs, of whom be inquired lantAlizingly : 

" Air yo'ro bunj^ enough to give up them G — d d — d b — i ] 
of b— syetl" 

That night thirteen thousftBd men, crazy, fainting with han- 
ger, walked hither anil lhith«r, anlil exhaustion forced them to 
become quiet, sat on the ground and pruesod their bowels in by 
leaning agaiait Bticks of woo«1 laid across thotr thighs ; trooped 
to the Croek and dnuik water antU tbear 
gorges rose and they oould swallow do 
more — did everything in fact that imagina- 
tion could suggeet — to aesaage ttio pangs 
of the deadly gnawing that was consuming 
their vitals. All the cmelUce of the terrible 
Spanish Inquisition, if heaped together, 
would not sum up a greater aggre^te of 
anguish than was endured by them. The < 
thinl day canio. and still no signs of yiddinff j 
by Barrett. Tht>Scrgeantsc<jun»oled together, 
l^omethingmust be dona The fellow would 
starve the whole camp to death with oa 
, UtUe compunction as one drowns blind pup- 
a./'./ivtt/^uo'inta- pioft. It wmB neooBsary to got up a tunnel to 
<i»Mi • phou uk« aftM ghow Barrett, and to get boys who would 
**""""* *^''*°' confess to being leaders in the woric. A 
onmber of gallant fellows volunteered to brave his wrath, an4 j 
nve the rest uf their comnulea. It required high oourage to do ■] 
this, as then was no question but tliat the punishment met«d ooi 
would be as fearful as the cruel mind of the fellow oouhl con- 
ceive. The Sergeants decided that four would be sufficient to 
answer the purpose : they selected Uiese by lot, marchetl tbem 
to the gate and delivered them over to Barrett, who thereupoo 
ordered the rations to be sent in. lie was considerate enough, 
too, to feed the men be was going to torture. 

The ftarring men in the Stockade could not wait after tba 
ntkHU wera issued to cook them, but in many instances mixed 
the tnoal Dp with water, and sitrallowod it raw. Frequently . 
Iheir vtomacbs, irritat«4l by Ibe long fast, rejected the messi i 
iny vety many hail reucheil the stage when they loathed food; | 

5^ AX!/r.Ba^f.vriLLE. 

a burning fever was oonsumin^ them, ard seethins: their 
with dehriam. Hundreds died within a few da vs. and hundi 
more were so debilitated by the terrible strain that thev did 
lin^rer lon^ afterward. 

The bovs who had offered themselves as a sacnfice for tlie 
rest were put into a frnard house, and kept over night that Har- 
rett might make a day of the amusement of torturing them. 
After he had laid in a hearty breakfast, and doubtless fortified 
himself with some of the villainous sorgum whisky, which the 
Ilebeis were now reduced to drinking, he set about his enter- 

The devoted four were brought out — one by one — and their 
hands tied together behind their backs. Then a noose of a slen* 
der, 8trr>ng hemp rope was slipped over the first one*s thumbs 
and drawn tight, after which the rope was thrown over a log 
projecting from the roof of the ^ard house, and two or three 
Bebels hauled u[)on it until the miserable Yankee was lifted 
from the ground, and hung suspended by the thumbs* while his 
weight seemed tearing his limbs from his shoulder bladeSb 
The other three were treated in the same manner. 

The agony was simply excruciating. The boys were brave^ 
and had resolved to stand their punishment without a groan, 
but this was too much for human endurance. Ttieir will was 
strong, but Nature could not be denied, and they shrieked aloud 
so pitifully that a young KescTve standing near fainted. Each 
one screamed : 

"For God's sake, kill me! kill me! Shoot me if vou want 
to, but let mc down from here I " 

The only elFcct of this upon I>arrett was to light up his brutal 
face with a leer of fiendish satisfaction. lie said to the guards 
with a gh'^-ful wink: 

**Iiy (lo<I, ril Iciim these Yanks to be more afeanl of me 
than of the old devil himself. They'll soon understand that 
I'm not the man to fool with. Tm ol<l pizcn, I am, when I git 
6tarte<l. Jest hear 'em squeal, won't yer I " 

Then walking from one prisoner to another, he said : 

** D— n yer skins, ye'U dig tunnels, will ye i Ye'U try to git 
out, and run through the country stealin' and carry in' off 
niggers, and makin' more trouble than yer d — d necks 


worth, ril learn ye ail about that If I ketch ye at this sort 
of work again, d — d of I don^t kill ye ez soon ez I ketch ye.'' 

And so on, ad injinitam. How long the boys were kept ap 
there undergoing this torture can not be said. Perhaps it was 
an hour or more. To the looker-on it seemed long hourSy 
to the poor fellows themselves it was ages. When they were 
let down at last, all fainted, and were carrieil away to the hos- 
pittil, where they were weeks in recovering from the effects. 
Some of them were crippled for life. 

When we came into the prison there were about eleven 
thousand there. More uniformly wretched creatures I had never 
before seen. Up to the time of our departure from Andersonville 
the constant inHu.x of new prisoners had prevented the misery 
and wasting away of life from becoming fully realized. Though 
thousands were continually dying, thousands more of healthyi 
clean, well-clothcd men were as continually coming in from the 
front, so that a large |)ortion of those inside looked in fairly 
good condition. But now no new prisoners had come in for 
months; the money which made such a show about the sutler 
shoi)S of Andersonville had been spent ; and there was in every 
face the same look of ghastly emaciation, the same shrunken 
muscles and feeble limbs, the same lack-luster eyes and hopeless 

Une of the commonest of sights was to see men whose hands 
and feet were simply rotting off. The nights were frequently so 
cold that ice a quarter of an inch thick formed on the water. 
The naked frames of starving men were p(x>rly calculated to 
withstiind this frosty rigor, and thousands had their extremities 
80 badly frozen as to destroy the life in those ])arts, and induce 
a rotting of the tissues by a dry gangrene. The rotted flesh 
fretpiently remained in its place for a long time — a loathsome 
but {Kiinless mass, that gradually sloughed off, leaving the sin- 
ews that })assed through it to stand out like shining, white 

While this was in some respects less terrible than the hospital 
gangrene at Andersonville, it was more generally diffused, and 
dreadful to the last degree. The Kebel Surgeons at Florence 
did not follow tlie habit of those at Andersonville, and try to 
check the disease by wholesale amputation, but simply let it ran 



its ooano, and thoasands finally carried their putreflod t 
Uiroagli oar lines, when the CoDfe<Ieracy broke up in the Spi 
to be treated by onr Sargeons. 

I bod been in pnson but a little while when a voice cnUoii 
oat from a bote in the ground, as I wiu parting: 

"S-Orv, Sergeant 1 Won't you pleaise take tbose sliean and 
oat my toca oS ! " 

" What i " said I, in amazement, Btopping in front of tbu dogw 

" Jmt take tbe«e sheam, won't yon, and out my toes off I" 
answered tbe inmate, an Indiana infantryman — holding ops 
pair of dull sbetus in 
his band, and dara- 
ting: a foot for me to 
look at. 

I c.\amii)o<I the lat- 
ter rarefully. All tbo 
floali of tbe toeti, ox- 
Cfpt little pods at Iba 
ends, had rutted off, 
K'living the boDM M 
clean as if KaapsiL 
The UtUe tendons lUll 
and held 
the bones to thoir 
plaoes, bat this seemed to hurt the roet of tbe feet and annoy 
tbo man. 

** Voa'd better lot one of the Hebcl doctors see thia,'' I said, 
after finisbing my survey, " before yoo conclude to have tbam 
off. Slay be tbey can bo nved.** 

*'No; d — d if Vm going to have any of thorn Rebel butdtcn 
fooling aroond me. Td die first, and then I wouldn't," waa 
tbe reply. " You can ilo it better than tbey can. It's jast • 
little snip. Jost try it" 

" I don't like to," I repUed. *' I might hune joa for life, and 
nuke yoa lots of tniublu." 

"O, bother I what business is that of youni They're ny 
toes, and I want 'em off. Tbey hort toe ao I out't tlaep. 
Cone^ now, take tbo shears and cot 'em off." 



I yielded, and taking the ahearSi mipped one tendon after 
another, close to the feet, and in a few seconds had the whole 
ten toes lying in a heap at the bottom of the dug-out. I picked 
them up and handed them to their owner, who gazed at them 
complacently, and remarked : 

^ Well, I'm dumed glad they're off. I won't be bothered 
witL corns any more, I flatter myselt" 



We were put into the old s<]iia(ls to fill the places of those 
who had recently died, being assigned to these T^icandes 
according to the initials of our surnames, the same rolls being 
used that we had signed as {xiroles. This separated Andrews 
and me, for the ^' A's " were taken to fill up the first hundreds of 
the First Thousand, while the ^' MV' to which I belonged, went 
into the next Thousiind. 

I was put into the Second Ilundrcd of the Second Thousand, 
and its Sergeant dying shortly after, I was given his place, and 
commandeil the Ilundivd, drew its rations, made out its rolls, 
and looked out for its sick during the rest of our stay there. 

Andrews and I got togetlier again, and be/;an fixing up what 
little we could to proti»ct ourselves against the weather. Cold 
as this was we decidcil that it was safer to endure it and risk 
frost-biting every night than to build one of the mud-walled 
and mud-covered holes that so many lived in. These were much 
warmer than lying out on the frozen ground, but we believed 
that they were very unhealthy, and that no one lived long who 
inhabited them. 

So we set about repairing our faithful old blanket — now full 
of frreat holes. AVe watched the dead men to get pieces of 
cloth from their pirments to make patches, wliich we sewed on 
with yarn nivelt'tl from otlier fniL'infiit'i (»f w<M>li»n cloth. Soma 
of our colli] •;iiiv. whom \\c f«»u!i«l in ili<*, donated us tii6 


thi-ee sticks necessary to make tent-poles — wonderful generosity 
when the preciousness of firewood is remembered. We hoisted 
our blanket upon these ; built a wall of mud bricks at one endy 
and in it a little fireplace to economize our scanty fuel to the 
last degree, and were once more at home, and much better off 
than most of our neighbors. 

One of these, the proprietor of a hole in the ground covered 
with an arch of adobe bricks, had absolutely no bedclothes — 
except a couple of short pieces of board — and very little other 
dothing. lie dug a trench in the bottom of what wsis by cour- 
tesy called bis tent, sufficiently large to contain his body below 
his neck. At nightfall he would crawl into this, put his two 
bits of board so that they joined over his breast, and then say ; 
" Now, boys, cover me over ; " whereupon his friends would 
cover him up with dry sand from the sides of his domicile, in 
which he would slumber quietly till morning, when he would 
rise, shake the sand from his gannents, and declare that he felt 
as well refreshed as if he had slept on a spring mattress. 

There has been much talk of earth baths of late years in ad- 
en tific and meilieiil circles. I have been sorrv that our Flor- 
ence comrade — if he still lives — did not contribute the results 
of his exjx?rience. 

The pinching cold curetl me of my repu<jnance to wearing 
dead men's clothes, or rather it made my nakedness so painful 
that I was glad to cover it as best I could, and I began forag* 
ing among the corpses for garments. For awhile my efforts to 
set myself up in the mortuary second-hand clothing business 
were not all successful. I found that dying men with good 
clothes were as carefuUv watched over bv sets of fellows who 
constitute<l themselves their resi<luarv le<nitecs as if thev were 
men of f(»rtnne dying in the midst of a circle of ex{)ectant 
nephews and niocos. Itefore one was fairly cold his clothes 
would be appropriatcNl and divideii, and I have seen many 
sharp fi;rhts Ih.*iwimmi contt*stin£i: claimants. 

I srH)n |)crc«Mveii that my In^st chance was to get up very 
early in the niornini:. and do my hunting. The nights were so 
cold that many could not sK'ep, and they would walk up and 
down the stroi*ts, tryini^' to ket»p warm by exerciser Towards 
morning, becoming exhausted, they would lie down on the 


groTind almost anywhere, and die. I have frequently seen as 
many as fifty of these. My first <<find" of any importance 
was a young Pennsylvania Zouave, who was lying dead near 
the bridge that cros^ the Creek. His clothes were all badly 
worn, except his baggy, dark trousers, which were nearly new. 
I removed these, scraped out from each of the dozens of great 
folds in the legs about a half pint of lice, and drew the gar- 
ments over my own half-frozen limbs, the first real covering 
those members had had for four or five months. The pantsr 
loons only came down about half-way between my knees and 
feet, but still they were wonderfully comfortable to what I had 
been — or rather not been — wearing. I had picked up a pair of 
boot bottoms, which answered me for shoes, and now I b^pm 
a hunt for socks. This took several morning expeditions, but 
on one of them I was rewarded with finding a cor|)se with a good 
brown one — army make — and a few days later I got another, 
a good, thick genuine one, knit at home, of blue yam, by some 
patient, careful housewife. Almost the next morning I had the 
good fortune to find a dead man with a warm, whole, infantry 
dress-coat, a most serviceable garment. As I still had for a 
shirt the blouse Andrews had given me at Millen, I now con- 
sidered my wardrobe complete, and left the rest of the clothes 
to those who were more needv than I. 

Those who used tobacco seeinetl to suffer more from a depriva- 
tion of the wee<l thiin from lack of fooil. There were no 
sacrifices thev would not make to obtain it, and it was no uncom- 
mon thing for boys to trade off half their rations for a chew of 
"navy plug." As long as one had anything — es|KX.*ially 
buttons — to trade, tobacco could be procun.'il fi-oni the ^uanL«^ 
who were plentifully sui)plietl with it. AVhen means of barter 
were gone, chewers frequently became w> des|>enite as to lieg 
the guards tot hn>w them a bit of the prtx'ious nicotine. Shortly 
after our arrival at Florence, a prisoner on the Eaiit Side 
approache<l one of the Reserves witli the requi*st : 

" Say, Guanl, can't you give a fellow a chew of t<»l);icco?" 

To which the guanl replied : 

" Yes ; come right across the hne there and TU drop yon 
down a bit." 


The unsuspecting prisoner stepped across the Dead Line, and 
the guard — a boy of sixteen — raised his gun and killed hinL 

At the North Side of the prison, the path down to the Creek 
lay right along side of the Dead Line, which was a mere furrow 
in the ground. At night the guards, in their zeal to kill some- 
body, were very likely to imagine that any one going along the 
path for water was across the Dead Line, and fire upon hinL 
It was as bad as going upon the skirmish line to go for water 
after nightfall. Yet every night a group of boys would be 
found standing at the head of the path crying out : 

" Fill your buckets for a chew of tobacco." 

That is, they were willing to take all the risk of running that 
gauntlet for this moderate compensation. 



The rations of wood grew smaller as the weather grew 
colder, until at last they settled down to a piece about the size 
of a kitchen rolling-pin per day for each man. This bad to 
serve for all puqx)ses — cooking, as well as warming. AVe split 
the nitions up into sliiis about the size of a car|)enter's lead 
pencil, and used them parsimoniously, never building a lire so 
big that it could not be covered with a half-))ock me;tsure. We 
hovered closely over this — covering it, in fact, with our hands 
and Uxlies, so that not a {uirticle of heat was lost. KenuMu- 
bering the Indian's s^ige remark, ''That the white man built a 
big tire and sat away otF from it; the Indian made a little tire 
and got up clos*? to it," we let nolhiuir in the way of caloric be 
wasted by distance. Tin* pitch-pine pnxluceil great quantities 
of soot, which, in cold and rainy days, when we hung over the 
fires all the time, blackened our faces until we were beyond the 
recognition of intimate friends. 

There was the same economy of fuel in cooking. I^^ess than 
half as much as is containeil in a |)enny bunch of kindling wa« 
made to suffice in preparing our daily meaL If we cooked 
mush we elevated our little can an inch from the ground upon 
a chunk of clay, and piled the little sticks around it so carefully 
that none should bum without yielding all its heat to the 
vosst'l. and not one more was burned than absolutely necessary. 
If \\«> liaki'il bread we spread the dough upon our chcss-buanl. 


and propped it up before the little fire-place, and used eyerj 
particle of beat evolved. We bad to pincb and starve ourselves 
thus, while within five minutes' widk from the pnson-gate 
stood enough timber to build a great city. 

The stump Andrews and I had the foresight to secure now 
did us excellent service. It was pitch pine, very fat with resin, 
and a little piece split off each day added much to our fires and 
our comfort. 

One morning, upon examining the pockets of an infantryman 
of my hundred who had just died, I bad the wonderful luck to 
find a silver quarter. I hurried off to tell Andrews of our 
unexpected good fortune. By an effort be succeeded in calm- 
ing himself to the point of receiving the news with philosophic 
coolness, and we went into Committee of the Whole Upon 
the State of ( >ur Stomachs, to consider bow the money could be 
spent to the best advantage. At the south side of the Stockade 
on the outside of the timbers, was a sutler shop, kept by a 
Rebel, and communicating with the prison by a hole two or 
three feet square, cut through the logs. The Dead Line was 
broken at this pointy so as to permit prisoners to come up to 
the hole to trade. The articles for sale were com meal and 
bread, flour and wheat bread, meat, beans, molasses, honey, 
sweet potatos, etc I went down to the place, carefully inspected 
the stock, priced everything there, and studied the relative food 
value of each. I came back, reported my observations and 
conclusions to Andrews, and then staid at the tent while he 
went on a similar errand. The consideration of the matter was 
continued during the day and night, and the next morning 
we detcrmine<l upon investing our twenty-five cents in sweet 
potatos, as we could get nearly a half-bushel of them, which 
was ** more fiUin' at the price," to use the words of Dickens's 
Fat Boy, than anything else offered us. We bought the pota- 
tos, carried them home in our blanket, buried them in the 
bottom of our tent, to keep them from being stolen, and 
restricted ourselves to two per day until we bad eaten them all. 

The Itebels did something more towards properiy caring for 
the sick than at Andersonville. A hospital was established in 
the northwestern comer of the Stockade, and separated from 
the rest of the camp by a line of police, composed of our own 



men. In this space several large sheds were erected, of ttuU 
rude architecture ooramon to the coarser sort of building in 
the South. There was not a nail or a bolt used in tlioir ootJra 
construction. Forked posts at the ends and sides supportfld 
poles upon which nere laid iho long "shakes," or s|^it sJiinglea, 
forming the roofs, and which wore hold in place by other poles 
laid upon them. The sides and ends were enclosed br similar 
"sliakcs," and altog<Qlher they formed quite a fair protectioii 
against the weather. Bods of pine leares were provided for 
the sick, and some ooverlcls, which our Sanitary CommiiBiA 
bad been allowed to send through. Bat nothing was dona to 
botbo or cleanse tbem, or to exchange their lico-iofestad gir- 
ments for others lees full of torture. The long tanglod hair 
and whiskers were not cut, nor indeed were any of the oom- 
monest imggestiona for the improvement of the condition ai 
tbe sick put into cxocutiun. Hen who had Inid in their mod 
hoveU until they hod beooine holplvds and hopoloso, wen 
admitted to the haipital, usually only to die. 

The disoa.<iea v/ctv dilTerent in character from those whieh 
swept ufT the prisoners at Andersonvilla Tltore they vera 
mwlly of tbo dlg«6tJT« oc^g&ns; here of the nsspiratory. The 
filthy, iHitrid, speedily UiaX googrene of Anderw>nville became 
here a dry, slow waatiiig away of the parts, T?bicb continued 
for weeks, evao inoDtbs, witboot being peocssarily fatoL Ma)** 
fost mod legs, and loss freqoently their hands and anii% 
decayed and skwigbed off. The parts baoame so dead that & 
knife could bo run tbrougb them without causing a particle td 
pain. The dead flesh hung on to the bones and toodona long 
alter the nenm and vsuis bad oeasod to perform theU* function^ 
and aomeUmea startled one by dropping off in a lump, wtthoot 
caudng pain or hemorrhsgei 

Tbe appearance of these was, of oooraa, frightfal, or would 
have basa, bad we not become ncoustonud to thetn. Tbo spao* 
tacte of men with their feet and legs a nuus of dry ulcvrMtioo. 
which had reduoed the flesh to putreaoeat deadnoss, and lL>fl iha 
undons standing out like ounls, was too oommoD to oxctta 
remark orevi'U attention. Unless the victim was a ownrads^ 
no one specially bcvdod his condiliou. Lung diseases and low 
feren ravngfid the camp, existing all the tiiue in a mors or lea 



virulent condition, aooording to the changes of the weathen 
and occasionally raging in destractive epidemics. I am unable 
to apeak with any dt^ree of de(init«nes9 as to the death rate, 
nnoe I bad ceased to interest myself about the number dying 

each day. I 
had now been 
a prisonera 
year, and had 
become so top- 
pid and stupe- 
fied, mentally 
and physically, 
that I oared 
oomparati vely 
little for any- 
thing save the 
rations of food 
and of fuel. 
The differeooe 
of a few spoon- 
fuls of m^, or 
a large splin- 
ter of wood in the daily issues to me, were of more actual 
inijtortuDce than the increase or decrease of the death rate by a 
half a score or mora. At AndersonviUe I frequently took the 
trouble to count the number of dead and living, but all cari- 
osity of thia kind had now died out. 

Nor can 1 find that anybody else is in possession of much 
more than my own information on the sabjeot. Inquiry at the 
War Di'^iartmeat has elicited the following letters : 

Ob. a, /twrimtt TIHMb C^walTr- 
(Ftoa 4 pboctifiapta ukso itwr hli inln] 

Tlie prison records of Florence, 3. C, have never come to 
light, and therefore the number of prisoners oonflned there could 
not be ascertained from the records on file in this office; nor 
ihi 1 think that any statement purporting to show that number 
lius ever been made. 

In the report to Congress of March 1, 18C9, it was shown from 
records as follows: 



Escap(Hl, fifty-eight; paroled, one; died, tiro thou5Kind seven 
bundre<l and ninety-three. Total, two thousand eight hundred 
and fiflv-two. 

Since date of said report there have been added to the records 
as follows : 

Died, two hundred and twelve; enlisted in Rebel army, three 
hundred and twenty-six. Total, five hundre<l and thirty-eight. 

Making a total disposed of from there, as shown by reoords 
on file, of three thousand three hundred and ninetv. 

This, no doubt, is a small proportion of the number actually 
confined there. 

The Hospital register on file contains that part only of the 
alphabet subsequent to, and including part of the letter S, but 
from this register, it is shown that the prisoners were arranged 
in hundro<is and thousands, and the hundixMl and thousand to 
which he belonged is recorded opix>site each man's name on 
said register. Thus: 

"John Jones, 11th thousand, 10th hundred." 

Eleven thousjind l>eing the highest number thus roconled, it 
is fair to presume that not less than that number were confined 
there on a certain date, and that more than that number were 
conUneil there during the tmie it was continueil as a prison. 


Statomont showin^r the wliole nuinl>or of FtNltTals and Con- 
feilenU4*s capturiMl, (less the ninuber [)an>le<l on the Hold), the 
numlxT who died w liik* prisoners, a!i*l the i)crcentage of deaths, 

Captum! l«7.S1§ 

DIM. ».■»■• "hijwn hy |irl«*«ni and h<*-i»ltal rv« onl» <»u flit- 1 9D.H74 

PcrcrnUje uf drathn lb.5T5 

(i>NrEi*i:uATi *. 

Captimti srr.rin) 

D«,-.i ^».r:i 

lVrrfMla4»e <»f deaths J I ^^ 

In tli«Mh»taileil statement p;v|Kin.Hl for ('oii;;n»ssdatiMl Mareh 
1, ls«;i», the whole number of deaths given its shown by Pris- 
oner of War H'conls wjis twenty-six lhous;intl thnv hundrMl 
and twentv-4M«'ht, but sinee tliat dat«» evidence of ilinv thous;ind 
six hundnnl and twenty -4»i^'ht ailditional draths has been 
obtained from the captureil Confeileralo recoixl^, making a tulaJ 


of twonty-nino thousand nine hundred and fifty-six as above 
shown. This is believed to be many thou:iands less than the 
actual nunil>er of Federal prisoners who died in Confederate 
prisons, as we luive no records from those at Montgomery, 
Ala., Mobile, Ala., Millen, Ga., Marietta, Ga., Atlanta, Ga., 
Charleston, S. C, and others. The reconls of Florence, S. 0., 
and Salisbury, N. C, are very incomplete. It also ap|)ears from 
Confederate inspection reports of Confederate prisons that a 
larfi^ percentage of the deaths occurred in prison quarters, 
without the care or knowledge of the Surgeon. For the month 
of Decombor, 1S64 alone, the Confederate "burial report" at 
Salisbur}', N. C, show that out of eleven hundred and fifteen 
deaths, two hundred and twenty-three, or twenty per cent., died 
in prison quarters and are not accounted for in the report of the 
Surgeon, and therefore not taken into consideration in the above 
re])ort, as the only records of said prisons on file (with one 
exception) are the I lospital records. Calculating the percentage 
of deaths on this basis would give the nuAfiber of deaths at 
thirty -seven thousand four hundred and forty -five and percent- 
age of deaths at 20.023. 

[Kod of Um LaCten from Om Ww DapwOMnt] 

If we assume that the Government's records of Florence are 
comna, it will l>o apparent that one man in every three died 
there, since, while there might have been as high as fifteen 
thous;ind at one time in the prison, during the last three months 
of its existence I am quite sure that the number did not exceed 
seven thous:ind. This would make the mortality much greater 
than at Andt*rsonville, which it undoubtedly was, since the 
physical condition of the prisimers confined there had been 
gn*atly depn'ssed by their long confinement, while the bulk of 
the prisoners at Anderson ville were those who had been brought 
thither din^ctly from the fiehi. I think also that all who 
i*x{)orienced confinement in the two places are united in pro- 
nouncing^ Flon^nce to lie, on the whole, much the worse place, 
and niortr fatal to life. 

Tlu* nuHlicinis furnishe<i the sick were quite simple in nature, 
and mainly coni{>ose<i of indigenous su)>stances. For diarrhea, 
r%s\ pi*p|HT and docixrticms of blackberry root and of pine leaves 
were given. For coughs and lung diseases, a decoction of wild 

A 8T0XT or REBEL XTLrrAUY ruiik»X8. 549 

relatives liring in North Carolina, who sent him a small package 
of eatables, out of which, in the fulness of his generous hearty 
he gave me this share — enough to make me always remember 
him with kindness. 

Speaking of eatables reminds me of an incident Joe Dar- 
ling, of the First Maine, our Chief of Police, had a sister living 
at Aupista, Oa., who occasionally came to Florence with a 
basket of food and other necessaries for her brother. On one 
of these journeys, while sitting in Colonel Iverson's tent, wait- 
ing for her brother to be brought out of prison, she picked out 
of her basket a nicely browned doughnut and handed it to the 
guard pacing in front of the tent, with : 

*^ Ilere, guard, wouldn't you like a genuine Yankee dough- 

The guard — a lank, loose- jointed Georgia cracker — who had 
in all his life seen very little more inviting food than the hog^ 
hominy and molasses, upon which he had been raised, took the 
cake, turned it over and inspected it curiously for some time, 
without apparently getting the least idea of what it was or was 
for, and then handed it back to the donor, saying: 

^ Really, mum, I don't believe I've got any use for iV* 





The Ko1)els continued their efTorts to induce prisoners to 
enlist in their army, and with much better success than at any 
previous time. Many men bad UHX)me so des{K'rute that they 
were reckless as to what they did. Home, relatives, friend% 
bappin<»ss — all they bad remembered or looked forward to, all 
that bad nerve<l them up to endure the present and brave the 
future — now scH»meil separated from them forever by a yawn- 
ing and im{KtS.siible For many wet'ks no new prisoners 
bail come in to rouse their dnxiping courage with news of the 
progress of our arms towanls final vict<»ry, <»r refresh their 
rememb?':incc*s of home, and the gladsomeness of ^*(iiMrs Coun- 
trj'." Ik'fore them they siiw nothing but wet*ks <»f sh)W and 
painful pnjgress towanls bitter death. The other alternative 
was enlistment in the Ilebel armv. 

AnotluT class went out and joine<I, with no other intention 
than to esc*aj)e at the first up|K»rtunity. They justitied their 
bad faith to the Helx^ls by rt*calling the numberU*ss instances of 
the Kelx*ls' bad faith to us, and usually closed their arguments 
in defense of their course with : 

'* No oath administeriHl by a Kclvl can have any binding 
obli^^Mtion. Tlif*se men are outlaws whi» have not only broken 
thfir oaths to th«* < iovcrniiieiit. but who have d«*S(*rteil from ita 
service, and turhed its arms ag-aiuht it. They are {>erjurera and 


traitors, and in addition, the oath they administer to us is 
under compulsion and for that reason is of no account." 

Still another class, mostly made up from the old Raider 
crowd, enlisted from natural depravity. They went out more 
than for anything else because their hearts were prone to evil, 
and they did that which was wrong in preference to what was 
right. By far the largest portion of those the Rebels obtained 
wei*e of this chiss^ and a more worthless crowd of soldiers has 
not Ikh'u seen since Falstaff mustered his famous recruits. 

After all, however, the number who deserted their flag was 
astonishingly small, considering all the circumstances. The 
official n»|)ort says three hundred and twenty-six, but I imagine 
this is under the truth, since quite a niimlx^r were turned 
back in after their utter uselessness had been demonstrated. I 
suppose that five hundre<i *^ galvanize<t," as we termed it, but 
this was very few when theho{M?lessness of exchange, the despair 
of life, and the wretchedness of the condition of the eleven op 
twelve thousand inside the Stockade is remembered. 

The motives actuating men to desert were not closely 
analyzed by us, but we held all who did so as despicable scoun- 
drels, too vile to be adecjuately describe<l in words. It was not 
safe for a man to announce his intention of ^* galvanizing,'* for 
he incurred much danger of being beaten until he was physi- 
cally unable to reach the gate. Those who went over to the 
enemy had to use great discretion in letting the Rebel offlcers 
know so much of their wishes as would secure their t)eing taken 
outside. Men were fretjuently knocked down and dragged 
away while telling the officers they wanted to go out. 

On one ocn^usion one hundred or more of the Raider crowd, 
who had galvanized, were stopped for a few hours in some little 
Town, on their way to the front. They lost no time in steal* 
ing ever}'thing they could lay their hands upon, and the 
disgustetl Rebel commander ordered them to be returned to 
the Stockade. They came in in the evening, all well rigged out 
in Rebel uniforms* and carrying blankets. We chose to con- 
sider their giMMl clothes and equipments an aggravation of their 
offense and an insult to ourselves. We had at that time quite a 
squad of negro soldiers inside with us. Amongthem was a gigan- 
tic fellow with a fist like a wooden beetle. Some of the white 

^r, . -:^::t 

boji r*solT*d to use these lo irnak the camp's di5{d< 
the OaivanjeL Tie plan was carr.^d cct c-^^>i'jiliy. The t^g 
darkr. foilov^d bj a cr»: -xd of smAll^r ard nimbler ** &faadfii^" 
woold ApproGLcii one of lie Itoden azivz^ iLvm with 

*• Is voa a Gal Tarized f ~ 

The iiirly replv wc-^d be, 

*• Yes, you black . What the basicess is thai 

of yours!" 

At that instant the bonv fist of the darky, descending like m 
pile^nvfrr. 'n-ould catch the rtv-reunt ur.der the e;ir, and lift him 
about a n>L As he fell, tne smaller darkies would pounce apon 
him. and in an instant des{ o:l of his blanket and perhaps 
the larger iort;un of Lis uarm cloti.irg. The oi^ration iras 
repeate^l with a dozen or mure. The whole camp enjoyed it as 
rare fun. and it was the only time that I saw nearly e\ery body 
at Florence laugh. 

A few prisoners were brought in in December, who had been 
iaken in l^/stcr s attempt to cut the Charleston (9^ Savannah 
Railroad at Pucatuligo. Among them we were astonished to 
find Charley Ilirsch, a member of Comi<iny K of our battalion, 
lie had Lad a btnin^rt; e.\|ierience. He was originally a mem- 
ber of a Tcxiis n'giment and w;is captuix'd at Arkansas Post, 
lie then touk thi: oath of allegiance and enli>lcd with u& 
While we wen.' at Savannah he approachcil a guard one day to 
trade for tobacco. The moment lie siH.»ke to the man he reoog. 
nized him its a former comra<le in the Tex:is regiment. The 
latter knew liim also, and siinj; out, 

'* I know you ; you're Charley Ilirsch, that used to bo in my 

Charley backe<I into the crowtl as <|uiokly as |Mn»sibi(\ to elude 
the fellow's eyes, but the latter calleil ft»r the Cor[>onil of the 
Guanl. had liimselt relieved, and in a few minutes came in with 
an otlicer m search ot the il('>erter. He found him with little 
ditlicultv, and t<H»i: him out. The luckless Charlev was triwl 
by court martial, found guilty, sentencitl to Im* shot, and while 
waiting e\**i'Ution wils confineil in the jaih iJefore the sentence 
could lie carried into effect Sherman came so close to the City 
that it wiLS thought best to remove the prisoners. In the con- 
fusion Charley managinl to make his escajn*, and at the moment 


the battle of Pocataligo opened, was lying concealed between 
the two lines of battle, without knowing, of course, that he was 
in such a dangerous locality. After the firing opened, he 
thought it better to lie still than run the risk from the fire of 
both sides, especially as he momentarily expected our folks to 
advance and drive the liebels away. But the reverse hap> 
pened; the Johnnies drove our fellows, and, finding Charley 
in his place of concealment, took him for one of Foster^s men^ 
and sent him to Florence, where he staid until we went through 
to our lines. 

Our days went by as stupidly and eventless as can be con- 
ceived. We had grown too spiritless and lethargic to dig tun- 
nels or plan escai)es. We