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Seventh President of the United States. From portrait hanging in the White House. Copyright by Bureau 
of National Literature, Inc., New York. N. Y 









"A veteran host, by veterans led, 
With Ross and Cockburn at their head, 
They came — they saw — they burned — and fled! 

'They left our Congress naked walls — 
Farewell to towers and capitolsl 
To lofty roofs and splendid halls! 

'To conquer armies in the field 
Was, once, the surest method held 
To make a hostile country yield. 

"The warfare now the invaders make 
Must surely keep us all awake, 
Or life is lost for freedom's sake." 

— Philip Freneau. 

Vol. 3 



1 92 1 

.1 . 

Errata Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History. 


Page 32, third line read "State Legislature" for "Territorial Legislature". 

Page 26, ninth line read "east side" for "South side". 

Page 194, sixth line read "any government" for the "United States Govern- 

Page 372, tenth line read "Ben Jonson" for "Ben Johnson". 

Page 392, eleventh line from the bottom omit the words "on Januarv 1, 

Page 621, thirteenth and fourteenth lines from the bottom omit the words 
"Col. Chester was only 81 years old at the time". 

Page 646, seventh line from the bottom insert the words "thought to be" 
immediately after the word "army". 


Page 66, first line of second paragraph from tht bottom read as the date 
of the Ft. Minis massacre "August 30, 1813" for "August 30, 1814". 

Page 66, third line read "August 2, 1813" for "August 2, 1814". 

Page 66, thirteenth line read "September 12, 1813" for "September 12, 

The battles of Talluschatches and Talladega were fought in 1813 and the 
battles of Emuckfau and Enotochopco in 1814. 

The Battle of the Horse-shoe was on March 27, 1814. 

Page 114, the date June 8, 1792 set out on the memorial slab in Tunis, Africa, 
as the birthday of John Howard Payne is an error. His birthday 
was June 9, 1791 as stated in the text page 113 and also on the monument 
erected by Mr. Corcoran in 1883 in Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington. 

Page 113, thirteenth line from the bottom read "grand-daughter" for 

Page 193, read "1824" as the date of Jackson's first candidacy for Presi- 
dent instead of 1825. 

Page 199, twelfth line read "Cave Johnson" for "Cave Thompson". 

Page 509, fifteenth line from the bottom read "Elbridge Gerry" for "EI- 
dridge Gerry". 



Illustrations of Volume 3 


Boone Tree 20 

T. A. E. Weadock 23 

Abraham DePeyster _.^ 29 

Andrew Jackson .. ^ . 50 

Andrew Jackson 60 

Andrew Jackson 78 

James Monroe .- 88 

Andrew Jackson 93 

William H. Crawford 93 

John Howard Payne 116 

Monument of John Howard Payne 125 

The Hermitage 135 

The Original Hermitage 162 

Tomb of Jackson : 181 

Mrs. Andrew Jackson 189 

Mary Cofifee 201 

W. G. Brownlow- 203 

Andrew Jackson 227 

Andrew Jackson 243 

Andrew Jackson 261 

Andrew Jackson. 269 

Mary Emily Donelson Wilcox 273 

Andrew Jackson 280 

Mrs. Andrew Jackson • 291 

Nicholas Biddle 295 

Andrew Jackson 313 

2 Illustrations of Volume 3. 


Peggy O'Neal ■- 318 

Andrew Jackson.. 325 

Samuel D. Ingham 339 

William J. Duane 339 

Roger Brook Taney 346 

Lewis Cass 353 

W. C. C. Claiborne 353 

William T. Barry.. 360 

Edward Livingston 360 

Robert Y. Hayne 365 

James Hamilton, Jr 372 

John Forsyth 381 

John Branch 381 

Andrew Jackson 396 

Robert Y. Hayne 396 

Water Scene of Upper East Tennessee 400 

Mahlon Dickerson 410 

John M. Berrien 410 

Lewis Cass 416 

Louis McLane 416 

Church Built by Andrew Jackson 424 

Andrew Jackson 432 

Mrs. Andrew Jackson 440 

Andrew Jackson Coflfee 45 1 

Martin Van Buren 457 

Andrew Jackson _ 465 

John C. Calhoun - 488 

George W. Sevier .. 500 

Xavier or Sevier Coat of Arms - 512 

Illustrations of Volume 3. 


John Randolph of Roanoke 517 

John Quincy Adams 530 

Autograph Letter of John Sevier 540 

Levi Woodbury 562 

Stephen A. Douglass , 562 

JohnH. Eaton 597 

Andrew Jackson 625 

Battle Monument at Chalmette 656 

Marble Bust of Isaac Shelby . 666 

Isaac Shelby 677 

Isaac Shelby.: 679 

The Whitehouse, Washington 690 

Henry A. Wbe 700 

Anne Jennings — Mrs. Henry A. Wise 700 


This volume completes the work Andrew Jackson and Early 
Tennessee History and I feel that it is due the public to extend 
thanks for the ver>' cordial reception given it during the past three 
years. It has been sold in forty-two States, the Canal Zone and 
Paris, France, and many strong testimonials and endorsements 
have been sent me from various parts of the United States. Old 
friends who helped in the last edition rendered material aid in this 
and new friends came forward also. 

My thanks are tendered to Hon. John K. Shields, Col. John 
B. Brownlow, Capt. Wm. Rule, Judge Hugh L. McClung, J. 
Harry Price, Miss Mary U. Rothrock, Mrs. Inez Deaderick, Miss 
Mary Nelson, Mrs. Tapley Portlock, Hon. L. D. Smith, Hon. 
James Maynard and Miss May Rogers all of Knoxville; 

To Milton B. Ochs of Chattanooga; 

To Hon. John W. Gaines, Mrs. Bettie M. Donelson, Col. 
John Trotwood Moore, W. E. Beard, and Miss Will Allen Drom- 
goole, all of Nashville; 

To Adolph S. Ochs of New York; Col. Sam King and Mrs, 
Blanche Laffitte of Bristol, Tenn.; Wm. Heiskell Brown and 
Miss Sophie Brown of Greeneville, Tenn.; Dean Albert C. Holt 
of Tusculum College near Greeneville; Dr. Archibald Henderson 
of the University of North CaroHna, Chapel Hill; Mr. Sam'l M. 
Wilson, Lexington, Kentucky; Hon. T. A. E. Weadock of Detroit, 
Michigan; Mrs. Sarah W. N. Leonard of Baltimore, Maryland; Hon. 
Gideon Morgan of Mayes County, Oklahoma; Mr. and Mrs. W. O. 
Hart of New Orleans, Louisiana; E. W. Hughes and Miss Myrtle 
Leonard of Washington County, Tennessee; Congressional Libary, 
Washington, D. C; Newberry Library, and Arthur Meeker, Chi- 
cago; Otto Bernct of the American Art Association of New York 
and Bureau of National Literature, New York, H. M. WiUiams. 

I am more and more convinced that the proper way to write 
history and the most efhcicnt way to study it, is through complete 
documents, and hence there are introduced entire here some of 


the strongest of Jackson's State Papers. These papers are known 
to but few Americans and have been seen by a less number, yet a 
study of them is necessar>' to anything Hke an adequate appre- 
hension of the great force and patriotic strength of Jackson as a 
man and of the moves of his two administrations. 

So entire documents of other kinds have been inserted here 
which were fast growing scarce, with total extinction by time or 
fire or accident evidently not far away. 

May I be permitted to express the opinion that I have presented 
here a juster estimate of Mrs. Andrew Jackson, Peggy O'Neal 
and Hon. W. G. Brownlow, and have created a better historical 
setting for all three. The treatment accorded to Mrs. Jackson 
and Peggy O'Neal is among the super infamies of politicians and 
newspapers of Jackson's day. I have examined every scrap of 
evidence affecting the character of both and find not a whisper 
against Mrs. Jackson except the trip of Jackson wnth Mrs. Ro- 
bards and some of her friends on a boat to Natchez. This of 
course, according to Mrs. Grundy's code of social ethics was un- 
pardonable, and by those who tremble at Mrs. Grundy's frown, 
must be conceded to be indiscreet. But that w'ould never have 
been thought of if the rumored divorce had turned out to be true, 
or if Jackson had never been a candidate for president. This 
gave Jackson's enemies a club to strike with and the slander fac- 
tories material to operate on. 

The assaults on Peggy O'Neal's character were investigated 
by both friend and foe, and the charges against her found not to 
have even one leg to stand on. Two unscrupulous preachers, 
J. W. Campbell at Washington and E. S. Ely in Philadelphia, 
were two of the busiest calumnators. Campbell collected some 
slanderous gossip, carried it to Ely and procured him to carry it 
to Jackson and that started the investigation. Ely himself went 
to New York to investigate the hotel register which he had told 
Jackson, on the authority of Campbell, gave the evidence of Maj. 
Eaton and Peggy having registered there as man and wife, and 
found Campbell's charge baseless. It was with a view to sound 
to the bottom all of the venerable slanders against Mrs. Eaton 
that I read everv'thing tangible or evidential alleged against her. 
and have reproduced the many pages that appear in this volume 
so that the reader can form an opinion for himself. 

So far as Gov. Brownlow is concerned no one writer, whatever 
his force or learning, can at this day eliminate all the prejudice 


against him in many sections of the country. It will have to be 
left to the slow process of time. Union men and their descend- 
ants will laud the Governor forever; secessionists and their descend- 
,ants will condemn him. His fame is inseparately bound up ia 
the controversy of Union against Secession, and as the champions 
of secession mellow in their opinions, so will they mellow toward 
Brownlow. In their bitterness toward him because he was a 
Union man, his enemies have always ignored the fact that in all 
respects except the preservation of the Union, Brownlow was a 
southern man through and through. He was an out-spoken 
champion of slavery and was himself a slave-holder. He was bitter 
but everybody was bitter in that vast contest of war. He was one 
of the best hated men in all history, and also one of the most lavish- 
ly praised, and both on account of a public question. Few per- 
sonal charges were made against him. His personal integrity 
could not be questioned. He was simple in habits and appearance 
and fully looked the part of a Methodist preacher all over, which 
he was. The kindliest of neighbors, he was charitable to those 
in want and in all personal relations a model citizen. I never saw 
the Governor but twice ; once in the last illness of my father when 
he called one Sunday afternoon to pay his respects; and once in 
1876 in Staub's Theatre in Knoxville, when Henry S. Foote, a for- 
mer member of the Confederate Congress, was making a speech 
for Hayes and Wheeler, as an Elector for the State at Large in 
Tennessee, when Gov. Brownlow, in bad health, was lying on a 
couch on the stage. 

In Eastern Tennessee, occupied as it was successively by the 
Confederate and Unions armies, there was infinite bitterness, 
followed by reprisals by both sides, and with Brownlow's terrific 
denunciation of disunion men, it has always been a wonder to me 
he was not killed a hundred times. 


I think I may confide to the reader that the completion of 
this third volume mark's the fruition of an expectation of a life- 
time, indulged in from boyhood and the fulfillment of which never 
for a moment was ever doubted, namely, that the time would come 
when I would be the author of a work or works on some historical 
or economical subject. 

My father decreed that I should be a lawyer, my mother wanted 


me to follow the footsteps of her brother and become an Episcopal 
minister, and I wanted to be a college professor and write books. 
My father's views, of course, prevailed, and I became a lawyer. 

Being the first born of a desire to write books that I hoped 
might be found worthy of being read, this work is, like the first 
born always is in the family circle, greatly cherished, and whatever 
its demerits may be, and I am afraid they are many, I present it 
especially to students and also to the general reading public, and 
will hail the verdict with great joy should it be found to throw 
some little light that is new upon the Jackson period, one of the 
greatest in American history. 

Knoxville, Tenn., October 15, 1921. 

S. G. Heiskell. 


Chapter 1. Act of North Carolina ceding to the United 'States 
the present state of Tennessee; Act of Congress declaring war 
between England and the United States; Gold Medal for Jack- 
son; letter of Mrs. Sarah W. N. Leonard, great grand-daughter 
of Governor John Sevier, on Governor Sevier's religious views; 
letter of 1793 of Col. James King to General John Sevier; letter 
by Major Jno. Reed on a visit by General Jackson and himself 
to the tomb of Washington; letter by Davy Crockett setting 
forth his hostile opinion of Jackson; correspondence between 
E. W. Hughes and Miss Myrtle Leonard of Washington County, 
Tennessee, with the author, in reference to the "Boone Tree", 
in Washington County; sketch of Hon. T. A. E. Weadock, De- 
troit, Michigan; United States Senator James A. Reid's speech 
at funeral of ex-speaker Champe Clark; poem "The Hermitage" 
by Will Allen Dromgoole; Nashville Banner, Feb. 27, 1921 9- 28 

Chapter 2. "The Affair at King's Mountain", an article giving 
the British version of that battle, by John Watts de Peyster, 
nephew of Abraham de Peyster, second in command at the 
battle, Oct. 7, 1780 29- 49 

Chapter 3. Letters of living persons who saw Andrew Jackson; 
Jackson's resignation from the United States Senate; his views 
on the tariff in 1824; his reply to the charge of being a "Military 
Chieftan"; letter from Hon. James Maynard of Knoxville to 
the author; Jackson's letter declining appointment of Minister 
to Mexico 50- 77 

Chapter 4. Correspondence between President James Monroe and 

Andrew Jackson in October, November and December, 1816 78- 92 

Chapter 5. The Official proceedings of the Court Martial that 
condemned Arbuthnot and Ambrister to death, which finding 
was approved by General Jackson 93-1 15 

Chapter 6. John Howard Payne, author of "Home Sweet Home", 
made a prisoner by the Georgia State Guard; extracts from his 
communication in Knoxville Register on his imprisonment; he 
is endorsed by public meeting at Knoxville; letter to his sister; 
offered a public entertainment at Knoxville but declines 1 16-134 

Chapter 7. Letters beginning in 1808 from and to Andrew Jackson_ 135-180 

Chapter 8. Poem on Andrew Jackson published in 1842 by W. 
Wallace, Esq.; address of Daniel Webster at New York Histor- 
ical Society on death of Jackson; poem "Welcome to General 
Jackson" by Mrs. Adams, quoted from Knoxville Register of 
March 4, 1829; poem "Jackson" by Ella Bcntly Arthur; poem 
"Memories of General Jackson" published Auburn, New York, 
1845; poem "The Hero Sleeps", Auburn, New York, 1845; ed- 
itorial on Mrs. Rachel Jackson in Knoxville Register May 27, 
1829; action of the Board of Aldermen of Knoxville, December 


6 Contents 

29, 1828, on the death of Mrs. Jackson; "Dirge to the memory 
of Mrs. Jackson", by Dr. James McHenry; Refutation of charg- 
es on Mrs. Jackson in 1827; action of Nashville authorities on 
her death; Adjutant General's report on General John Coffee; 
Gov. C. C. Claiborne to Gen. Coffee; Gen. Coffee's reply; let- 
ters from Jackson 181-202 

Ch.\pter 9. W. G. Brownlow gives family history; his newspapers; 
leaves Tennessee on a tour of the North; quotations from his 
speeches; visits the Hermitage; early religious history of Ten- 
nessee; his published books; discussion on slavery with Rev. 
Abram Pryne in Philadelphia; doctrinal controversies with Rev. 
J. R. Graves and Rev. Frederick A. Ross; Brownlow a Union 
slaveholder and advocate of slavery 203-226 

Ch.\pter 10. Narrative of the life, travels and circumstances in- 
cident thereto, of William G. Brownlow, written by himself 227-272 

Ch.\pter II. Mary Emily Donelson Wilcox on Rachel Donelson 
Jackson, wife of General Jackson, and on numerous facts and 
incidents connected with Jackson, the Donelson family and 
Jackson's two Administrations 273-290 

Ch.\pter 12. Jackson's Cabinets, State Papers, first Inaugural 
address. Bank Veto, second Inaugural address, Message on Tex- 
as and Mexico 291-317 

Chapter 13. Life and history of Peggy O'Neal; her own story in 
interview in the National Republican of Washington in 1874; 
resignation of Major J. H. Eaton from the Cabinet; Jackson's 
reply to Major Eaton; correspondence between Major Eaton 
and Secretary of the Treasury, S. D. Ingham; Ingham to 
Jackson; Jackson to Col. Campbell of the U. S. Treasury and 
others; their reply 318-345 

Chapter 14. Sam Houston visits Washington in 1831; invited by 
citizens of Nashville to accept a public dinner, he declined; 
full text of his speech before Congress in defense of himself for 
his assault on Congressman William Stanberry, of Ohio. Speech 
quoted from Knoxville Register 346-364 

Chapter 15. Nullification; Ordinance of South Carolina nulli- 
fying Acts of Congress; address of Convention in South Carolina 
to the people of the United States; Jackson's proclamation on 
the nullification ciuestion December 11, 1832; inaugural address 
of Gov. Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina; Gov. Hayne's 
proclamation 365-415 

Chapter 16. Jackson's paper read to his Cabinet September 18, 

1833, on "Removal of the Deposits." 416-431 

Chapter 17. Jackson's "Protest", April 15, 1834, on the Senate's 

Resolution of Censure for moving the Deposits 432-456 

Chapter 18. Martin Van Buren and his Autobiography 457-487 

Ch.\pter 19. Letters to and from Martin Van Buren; taken from 

the Congressional Library in Washington 488-5 16 

Ch.M'TER 20. Letters beginning in 1833 from and to Andrew Jackson. 517-561 

Chapter 21. Oration of Stephen A. Douglas at the inauguration of 

Contents 7 

Mills' equestrian statue of General Jackson in Washington, Jan. 
8, 1853; Oration of L. J. Sigur, Esq., Jan. 9, 1856, at New Or- 
leans, at the inauguration of Mills' equestrian statue of General 
Jackson; origin of the statue and the monument at Chalmette; 
oration of W. O. Hart of the Louisiana Historical Society at the 
the eighty-third anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans 562-596 

Ch.\pter 22. Appeal to the public in 1831 by Major John H. Katon 
in reply to Messrs. Ingham, Branch and Berrien in the Peggy 
O'Neal-Eaton controversy. A carefully prepared defense of 
his wife whose character had been made a political issue 597-638 

Chapter 23. Funeral oration by Honorable Ephraim H. Foster of 
Tennessee in the McKendree Church in Nashville on the occasion 
of the honoring of the obsequies of Henry Clay, July 28, 1852 639-655 

Ch.\pter 24. Celebration in New Orleans of one hundred years of 
peace, 1815-1915, and of the Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8 to 
Jan. 10, 1915; oration by S. M. Wilson, Lexington, Kentucky 656-678 

Ch.apter 25. Rev. James S. Gallaher, pioneer preacher, knew Old 

Hickory personally and gives his opinion of him 679-689 

Ch.\pter 26. Jackson's "Farewell Address" on March 4, 1837, the 

date of his retirement from the presidency 690-705 


W. G. Brownlow, when a Methodist Minister, was a 
Delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church which met in Philadelphia in May, 
1832, when Jackson was President and, en route, stopped 
over in Washington, and, with other Ministers, called 
on the President. This is his account of the call : 

On my way to Philadelphia, I spent a week in the 
city of Washington, in visiting the different parts of the 
city, and in listening to the debates in Congress. While 
in Washington, in company with some ten or a dozen 
clergymen, I visited the President s house, also, and was 
honored by an introduction to Gen. Jackson. He had 
just recovered from a slight state of indisposition. He 
sat with Mr. Livingston, the then secretary of state, 
examining some papers, when we entered, and though 
paler than usual, I was struck with the fidelity of the 
common portraits I have seen of him. Alexanders, I 
think, however, is the best by far, and his reflection in 
the mirror is not more like him. He rose with a digni- 
fied courtsy to receive us, and conversed freely and agree- 
ably ; till, unfortunately he bounced on the missionaries, 
who had crossed his views, and feelings, in opposing the 
measures of Georgia and the general government. His 
whole appearance is imposing and in the highest degree 
gentlemanly and prepossessing. He is a very fine looking 
old man, though I left him with an unfavorable opinion 
of him. And though I dislike and disapprove of his ad- 
ministration, yet, I am free to confess, that if his face 
is an index of his character, he is an upright, fearless 
man. But I have long since learned that it will not do 
to take men by their looks." 

S15H i2SS5E52^H5525HSS23HHKS525aE555H52523-S52S25H5H5E5252S2525M2S2S2525K5MH5EKK]K 


Act of North Carolina ceding to the United States 
the present State of Tennessee ; Act of Congress 
declaring war between England and the United 
States; Gold Medal for Jackson; letter of 
Mrs. Sarah W. N. Leonard, great grand-daught- 
er of Governor John Sevier, on Governor 
Sevier s religious views; letter of 1793 of Col. 
James King to General John Sevier; letter by 
Major Jno. Reed on a visit by General Jackson 
and himself to the tomb of Washington; letter 
by Davy Crockett setting forth his hostile opin- 
ion of Jackson; correspondence between E. W. 
Hughes and Miss Myrtle Leonard of Washington 
County, Tennessee, with the author, in refer- 
l ence to the Boone Tree, ' in Washington 

S County; sketch of Hon. T. A. E. Weadock, 

? Detroit, Michigan ; United States Senator James 

5 A. Reid s speech at funeral of Ex-speaker 

i Champe Clark; poem "The Hermitage " by Will 

a Allen Dromgoole in Nashville Banner Feb. 

J 27, 1921. 

"an act ceding To the congress of the united states 


"I. Whereas, the United States in Congress assembled, by their 
resolutions of the sixth of September and tenth of October, one 


10 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

thousand seven hundred and eighty, have earnestly recommended 
to the respective vStates in the Union claiming or owning vacant 
Western territory to make cessions of part of the same ; and whereas 
by their resolution of the eighteenth of April one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-three, as a further means as well as hastening 
the extinguishment of the debts as of establishing the harmony of 
the United States, it was recommended to the States which have 
passed no Acts towards complying with the said resolutions, to 
make the liberal cessions therein recommended; and this State 
ever desirous of doing ample justice to the public creditors as well 
as establishing the harmony of the United States. 

II. "Be it Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of 
North Carolina, and it is hereby Enacted by the authority of the 

That this State do hereby cede to the Congress of the United 
for the said States, all right, title and claim which this State has to 
the lands west of the Apalachian or Alleghany Mountains, begin- 
ing at the Virginia line where the said line intersects the extreme 
height of the said mountain, thence with the said mountain to the 
thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, being the southern boimdary, 
thence running in the said thirty-fifth degree to the Mississippi, 
thence up the Mississippi to the thirty-six degrees thirty minutes 
of north latitude, being the northern boundary of this State, thence 
to the first station ; and delegates from this State in the Congress 
of the United States are hereby authorized and impowered to ex- 
ecute a deed or deeds on the part of this vState, conveying to the 
Congress of the United States all the right, title and claim to the 
government and territory thereof, that this State now has or ever 
had in or to the said territory above ceded, upon the following ex- 
press conditions and reservations, and subject theieto, that is to 
say: First, That neither the lands nor the inhabitants of the 
territory westward of this said line shall be estimated after this 
cession shall be accepted in the ascertaining of the proportion of 
this State with the United States in the common expense occasioned 
by the late war. 

"Secondly, That the lands laid off or directed to be laid oflf by 
any Act or Acts of Assembly of this State for the officers and 
soldiers, their heirs and assigns, respectively, and if the bounds of 
the lands already prescribed for the officers and soldiers of the 
Continental line of this State shall not contain a sufficient quantity 
of lands fit for cultivation to make good the several provisions 
intended by law, that such officer or soldier who shall fall short 
of his allotment or proportion after all the lands lit for cultivation 
within the said bounds are appropriated be permitted to take his 
quota, or such part thereof as may be deficient in any other part 
of the said Western country not already appropriated within the 
time limited by law for the said officers and soldiers to survey 
and lay off their respective proportions; and where entries have 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 1 

been made and titles under them not perfected by grant or other- 
wise, then and in that case, the Governor for the time being shall 
and is hereby required to perfect such titles in such manner as if 
this Act had never been passed; and that all entries made by, or 
grants made to all and every person and persons whatsoever under 
the laws of this State, and within the limits hereby ceded to the 
United States, shall have the same force and effect as if this cession 
had not been made ; and that all and every right of occupancy and 
pre-emption, and every other right reserved by any Act or Acts to 
persons settled on any or occupying any lands within the limits of 
the lands hereby ceded as aforesaid, and all reservations of hunting 
grounds for the use of the Indians, shall continue to be in full 
force in the same manner as if this cession had not been made, 
and as conditions upon which the said lands are ceded to the 
United States: And further, it shall be understood, that if any 
person or persons shall have by virtue of the law commonly called 
the land law now in force in this State located his or their entry 
to any spot or piece of ground on which any other person or 
persons shall have previously located an entry or entries, that then 
and in that case the person or persons making such entry or 
entries or their assignee or assignees, shall have leave and be at 
full liberty to remove the location of such entry or entries to any 
lands on which no entry has been specially located, or on any vacant 
lands included within the limits of the lands hereby ceded; Pro- 
vided, That nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed 
to extend to the making good any entry or entries, grant or grants 
heretofore declared void by any Act or Acts of the General Assem- 
bly of this State. 

"Thirdly, That all the lands hereby ceded to the United States 
and not reserved or appropriated as before shall be considered as a 
common fund for the use and benefit of such of the United American 
States as now are or shall become members of the confederation or 
federal alliance of the said States, North Carolina inclusive, ac- 
cording to their respective and usual proportion in the general 
charge and expenditure; and shall be faithfully disposed of for that 
purpose, and for no other use or purpose whatever. 

"Fourthly, That the territory so ceded shall be laid out and 
formed into a State or vStates, containing a suitable and convenient 
extent of territory; and that the State or States so formed shall be 
a distinct republican State or vStates and admitted members of the 
federal union, having the same right of sovereignty as other States; 
and that the State or States which shall be hereafter erected within 
the territory now ceded, shall have the most full and absolute right 
to estabUsh and enjoy, in the fullest latitude, the same constitution 
and the same bill of rights which are now established in the State 
of North Carolina, subject to such alterations as may be made by 
the inhabitants at large or a majority of them, not inconsistent 
with the confederation of the United States. Provided always, 

12 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

that no regulations made or to be made by Congress shall tend to 
emancipate slaves, otherwise than shall be directed by the Assembly 
or Legislature of such State or States. 

Fifthly, That if Congress do not proceed to accept the lands 
hereby ceded in due form and give official notice thereof to the 
delegates of this State, if in Congress, or to the executive or legis- 
lative authority within twelve months from the passing of this Act, 
then this Act shall and will be of no force, and the lands hereby 
ceded revert to the State. 

"Mr. Davie moved for leave to enter the following protest on 
passing on the third reading the Bill ceding to the United vStates 
in Congress Assembled, certain Western Lands therein described. 


"Because, the extent of our Territory as bounded by the late 
Treaty of Peace could never endanger the general Confederacy. 

"Because, if the principles of the Federal Union could ever 
be injured by an imequal possession of Territory, a cession of so 
large a portion of this State, while Virginia and Georgia will re- 
tain an immense Territory, would be certainly dangerous and 

"Because, this State, from her local circumstances and the 
weakness of the tw-o Southern States, was obliged to advance 
large sums for their aid and defense which are still unliquidated, 
and as our credits for those advances have been uniformly op- 
posed by the Eastern States, we think that it ought to have been 
expressly stipulated, as a preliminary to the cession. That the 
whole expense of the Indian Expeditions and our Militia aids to 
Georgia and South Carolina should pass to account in our quota 
to the Continental expenses incurred by the late war. 

"Because, the resolve of Congress of the seventeenth of Feb- 
ruary, or the resolve of the eighteenth of April, seventeen hundred 
and eighty-three, should have been first carried into effect in 
order to ascertain the just quota or proportion of the Federal 
debt due from the individual States and their respective accounts 
should have been liquidated and their claims fully established 
before, any cession took place. 

"Because, the Western territory being the undoubted prop- 
erty of this State, was justly considered by the people as a se- 
curity to their claims against the public, and was solemnly pledg- 
ed to them by the Legislature in the Act of opening the land office 
'for the redemption of specie and other Certificates'. 

"Because, experience has shown us that our want of public 
honesty has been already severely punished by our want of public 
credit, we deem it a false and mistaken conception that our credit 
would be increased with foreign nations, by the adoption of a 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 13 

measure founded on an open and palpable breach of faith to our 
own citizens. 

"Because, justice and policy required that the domestic debt 
should either have been discharged by the sale of the Western 
Lands or substantiated in the hands of the creditor by establish- 
ing a fund for the punctual payment of the Interest annually. 
The first great resource is destroyed by the cession, and it is our 
opinion that the State emerging from the miseries of a destruc- 
tive war, is perfectly unable to discharge the interest of her inter- 
nal debt, amounting to a sum far beyond her abilities; Taxes in 
a certain degree we know are just and expedient, that by stim- 
ulating the industry of the individual they increase the aggregate 
wealth of the community, but when extended so far as to en- 
trench upon the subsistance of the people they become burthen- 
some and oppressive. 

"Because, though our internal debt is in the nature of a do- 
mestic loan and circumstances and constqucncL^s are widely differ- 
ent ; loans are made by those who can spare from their consumption 
to the necessity of the Government and without doubt contribute 
to its stability and alleviate the pressure of taxation ; but a large part 
of our domestic debt grew out of the generous advances of Indi- 
viduals to the public in the hour of distress, many of these are 
now impoverished and even ruined by their confidence in the 
justice of the Legislature; immense sums were also contracted 
by general contributions and military impresments of the most 
valuable property, and often from the most necessitous body of 
the people; suspension of payment must prove ruinous to those 
patriotick suffers and a disgrace to the State. 

"Because, the Auditors, from their desultory manner of doing 
business, have left many claims unadjusted. The great body of 
the people sustained an irretrievable injury by the cession, they 
were undoubtedly equally entitled to this commutation for their 
claims, and we could never consent that the public faith should 
be violated and the general interest sacrificed to the aggrandize- 
ment of a few Land Jobbers who have preyed on the depreciated 
credit of their Country and the necessities of the unfortunate 

"Because, by the Bill of rights the limits of the State are not 
to be altered, but for the purpose of erecting a new Government 
only, certainly a cession for the express purpose of constituting 
a common fund can never be construed into this constitutional 
object, but was it even constitutional to dismember the State 
by Act of Assembly, or politick to cede two thirds of the soil and 
Sovereignty of our Country without any ascertained equivalent? 
A just regard to the rights of the people would have induced us 
to suspend the passage of the Bill until the sense of our constit- 
uents could be collected on this irrevocable siep. 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Wm. R. Davie, 
James Gallaway, 
James White, 
Joseph McDowell, 
James Withrow, 
James Emmet, 
Richard Singleton, 
Joseph Robins, 
Daniel McKissick, 
David Wilson 
Wm. Clark, 
J. Lennard 
Wm. Lenoir, 
Wm. Hill, 
Thomas Person, 
John Atkinson, 
Henry Montfort, 
Elijah Robertson, 
John vSloan, 

"David Flowers, 
Caleb Phifer, 
G. H. Barrinjjer, 
James Hinton, 
Wm. Kendal, 
Richd. Ransom, 
E. McLean, 
David Shelton, 
John Bonds, 
John Speed, 
Sam'l Smithwick, 
Wm. Pickett, 
Matthew Lock, 
Thos. Sherrod, 
Jesse Franklin, 
Sam'l Cain, 
Landon Carter, 
Wm. Alford." 


"An Act Declaring War Between the United Kingdom of 

Great Britian and Ireland and the Dependencies 

thereof, and the United States of America 

AND their Territories. 

"Be It enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, That WAR be, 
and the same is hereby declared to exist between the United King- 
dom of Great Britian and Ireland and the dependencies thereof, 
and the United States of America and their territories; and that 
the President of the United States be and he is hereby authorised 
to use the whole land and naval force of the United States to 
carry the same into effect, and to issue to private armed vessels of 
the United States commissions or letters of marque and general 
reprisal, in such form as he shall think proper, and under the seal 
of the United vStates, against the vessels, goods, and effects of the 
government of the same. United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and the subjects thereof. 

"June 18, 1812. 

"James Madison." 


This act declareing th t war of 1812 is reproduced here in order 
that the modern reader and student may see th^ verbiage of the 
document that made the battle of New Orleans a possibility, and 
Jackson the victor there, and created a great popular hero and a 
President of the United States. 

Andrew Jackson and Kari,y Tennessee History 15 

Thanks of Congress to Jackson and His Command. 

"RESOLVED, By the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the 
thanks of Congress be, and they are hereby given to Major Gen. 
Jackson, and through him, to the officers and soldiers of the 
regular army, of the volunteers, and of the militia under his com- 
mand, the greater proportion of which troops consisted of militia 
and volunteers, suddenly collected together, for their uniform gal- 
lantry and Good Conduct, conspicuously displayed against the 
FROM ; and particularly for their valor, skill and good conduct on 
the eighth of January last, in repulsing, with great slaughter, a 
numerous British army of chosen veteran troops, when attempting 
by bold and daring attack to carry by storm the works hastily 
thrown up for the protection of New Orleans ; and thereby obtain- 
ing a most signal victory over the enemy with a desparity of loss, 

"RESOLVED, That the President of the United States be 
requested to cause to be struck, a gold medal, with devices em- 
blematical of this splendid achievement, and presented to Major 
General Jackson as a testimony of the high sense entertained by 
Congress of his JUDICIOUS and distinguished conduct on that 
memorable occasion. 

"RESOLVED, That the President of the United States be re- 
quested to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communicated to 
MaJ. General Jackson, in such terms as he may deem best cal- 
culated to give effect to the objects thereof." 


"Baltimore, Md., March 30, 1921. 
"Hon. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"Dear Sir, — 

"Since reading the Diary of John Sevier, published in your 
"Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History," in which he 
frequently mentions attending services at the Roman Catholic 
Church, it occurs to me that some of your readers may infer that 
he was of that religious faith. 

"As a Daughter of the American Revolution, I am interested 
in facts and not fables going into history and am desirous that 
the question of my ancestor's religion be not left open, for those 
who do not know, to form false conclusions. I, therefore, take 
the liberty of writing to you on this subject, that you, as an his- 
torian, may be able to answer the question conclusively. 

"I do not hesitate to state that Gov. Sevier was not a Roman 
Catholic. His ancestor, with a brother, left France after the 

16 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Massacre of St. Bartholomew," and during the rehgious dis- 
sension in France, went to London, and there changed the spel- 
ling of their name from 'Xavier' to 'Sevier.' 

"The family were Huguenots, with the exception of St. Fran- 

"Gov. Sevier was very proud of his Huguenot extraction, and 
on all occasions, when possible, attended Protestant services. 

"While in Congress and in Washington, he evidently availed 
himself of his first opportunity for attending the Catholic Church, 
and he, no doubt, was interested in learning all there was in the 
faith of that Church, which had so highly honored his kinsman, 
St. Francis Xavier. 

"Family traditions and historians claim that St. Francis Xavier, 
and John and Valentine, who went to I^ondon, were brothers. 

"The Xaviers were all akin, a rich and illustrious family, of 
the town of Xavier, in the French Pyrenees, and of very strong 

"I have always felt deep interest in my family history on both 
sides of the house, and have imbibed all the information I could 
concerning them. It may not be out of place here to state that 
I was the first woman from Tennessee to join the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, being a charter member, No. 85, in the 
Society, which now numbers more than a hundred thousand. I 
was also the first descendant of John Sevier and Lipscomb Norvell, 
to become a member of that Society. 


"Sarah W. N. Leonard. 


"KnoxvUle, Sept. 23, 1793. 

Dear Sir: 

"Mr. Walker who will give you this will bring a canoe with 
twenty bb s. of flour two casks of whiskey three pots and four 
ovens I have set several Blk. smiths to work and you shall have 
some axes this week. Esq. Hamilton has engaged to send 12 
good axes helved and ground to your camp on or before Saturday 
next and I shall miss no Opportunity in sending you all necessary 
tools that I can get; hope to hear from you all opportunitys. I 
have 100 Head of fine cattle on the Road to camp they will per- 
haps need a Guard from Hellys Station. 

"I am Dr. Sir Yor. Obdt. Serv. 
"James King. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 7 

"Gen Sevier. 


I have applycd for your hat, it will not be finished before the 
last of the week. 

"J. K." 



"The following is an extract of a letter written by our lamented 
friend, Maj. John Reid, after an excursion in company with Gen- 
eral Jackson to Mount Vernon. It will be recollected that the 
Legislature of Virginia has very properly reminded Congress of 
that respect which is so justly due 'to the remains of our most ex- 
alted Chief.' It is indeed not a little strange that this tribute 
should have been thus long neglected, under such circumstances. 
The pathetic manner in which Major John Reid notices this neg- 
lect, is calculated to awaken in our minds a recollection of virtues 
in a great man which should never be forgotten. And to cherish 
such recollections we think is not inconsistent with our duty. 
— Lynchburg Press. 

"Washington City, 16th Nov. 1815. 

"Dear L: 

"It is now night, and I am just returned from a visit to Mount 
Vernon, a spot rendered sacred to every American bosom by the 
residence of its former owner. Judge Washington was unfor- 
tunately not at home; but from Mr. Herbert, who married his 
niece, and from the rest of the family, we received the utmost 
hospitality and politeness. 

"The road to Mount Vernon leads by Alexandria through which 
we passed incog, that we might not in so solemn a pilgrimage, be 
interrupted by the intrusion of impertinent curiosity. 

"The site is really a delightful one. By a gentle ascent you 
reach the summit of an eminence which commands, on the one side 
an extensive country prospect, and overlooks, on the other, the 
majestic Potomar, on the bosom of which, vessels of various de- 
scriptions are continually gliding. On the summit stands the 
venerable dwelling of the patriarch of our liberties, corresponding 
in its style with the plain and simple style of him who planned it. 
A neat little flower garden, laid out and trimmed with the utmost 
exactness, and ornamented with green and hot houses, in which 
flourish the most beautiful and tropical plants, afifords a happy 
relief to the solemn sadness produced by a view of the antique 
structure which it adjoins and leads you insensibly into a train of 
pleasing melancholy musing, in which you review, in imagination, 
the manner in which the greatest and best of men, after the most 
active and eventful life, solaced in retirement the evening of his 
days. Indeed every thing you behold derives a thousand-fold 

18 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

interest from being associated with the memory of its venerable 
proprietor — all the splendor of the most fanciful decorations, 
formed to gratify a nation's or an individual's vanity can excite 
no such interest. 

"From the garden, I went to vist a spot in which no enlivening, 
scarcely a consoling emotion could find a place in my bosom. In 
a small vault on the river side of the hill, ill constructed and over- 
grown with shrubbery, repose the bones of the father of his country. 
Why is this so ? Must the charge of ingratitude forever rest upon 
Republics? It is now several sessions since Congress solicited 
"the remains" of him whose life had been devoted to his country's 
service, in order that some suitable testimonial of that country's 
respect might be shewn to them. The venerable widow who cher- 
ished them, as a most precious relict, sacrificed her individual 
feelings to the nation's wishes, and granted the request. Since 
then, as though this apparently warm interest had been but as 
studied mockery, those remains have been permitted to moulder 
in the 'dark and narrow cell' where they were at first deposited. 
I perceive that the whole family are mortified and hurt at it — not 
that they desire any splendid national Mausoleum to preserve 
the perishable remains of one whose virtues are entombed on their 
hearts and will live forever — but that they themselves, are now 
debarred an opportunity of testifying that decent respect for their 
dear lost lord which their feelings dictate to them as a duty, 
Oh, my country, when Washington is forgotten, who of thy Sons 
can ever hope to be remembered." 


"Washington City, 27th May, 1834. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Your kind favor of the 8th inst. came safe to hand and I will 
hasten to answer it. I am in good health and hope these lines will 
find you in alike health. 

"I can give you but little political news more than you can see 
by the papers; you will sec that our long and happy mode of 
Government is near at an end, we may from present appearances 
soon bid farewell to our republican liberties, we have completely 
the Government of one man and he has tools and slaves enough in 
the house of representatives to sustain him in his wild carear. I 
do believe his whole object is to promote the interest of a set of 
scoundrels; hope these lines will find you in the alike country. 

"You recollect that I said in Brownsville in my speech that the 
whole object of Jacksons great zeal to get the moneys out of the 
United States Bank, was to get it placed where he could have the 
control of it to use for the purpose of making that political Judas, 
Martin Van Buren, our next president and you now see my pre- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 19 

diction came true, you see Andrew the first King hold both Sword 
and purse and claims it as the other public property by the Con- 

"Will the people agree that no man, not even those that formed 
the Constitution, did not luiderstand it, nor no man that ever 
wielded the destinies of this nation ever understood that Sacred 
article until Andrew Jackson mounted the throne I am much mis- 
taken in the people of this country if they have forgot the Blood 
and treasure that was lost in relieving this country from a govern- 
ment of one man, and will fall back to the kingly powers. The 
truth is the poor Superanuated old man's vanity has prompted him 
to think that his popularity could stand anything. You state to 
me that the people is well pleased with my course, this is gratifying 
to me beyond measure and I hope you will tender to my friends 
my greatful acknowledgement for their complementary letter ex- 
pressing their intire satisfaction at my course as their servant I 
never did know any mode of legislating only to go and do what my 
conscience dictated to me to be wright. I care nothing for any 
party more than to do justice to all. 

"The old man thinks he has put down the Bank of the United 
States and he has commenced w^ar on the Senate, as he thinks 
that to be the only barior in his way to kingly powar. Let him 
once conquer the senate and he will put his foot on the Constitu- 
tion and tell the Judicial powar to go to hell. I do believe this to 
be his calculation but I hope he may be mistaken. The Senate 
will save the Constitution and the laws of the country in spite of 
Andrew Jackson and all his minions around him. 

"I was one of the first men that ever fired a gun under his 
command, and I supported him while he supported his promised 
principles, but when he abandoned them I abandoned him and I 
have never regretted my course. 

"I have been trying for some time to get up my land bill, but 
we have not even passed the appropriation Bills and there is no 
chance to do anything. I know of no opposition to it if we could 
get to act on it. 

"I must close with great respects. 
"I remain your friend and ob't servt. 
"David Crockett." 

"Colo. T J. Dobyns, Brownsville, Tennessee. 

"P. S. We are at the contested election between Moore & 
Letcher; if it is made a party question Moore will get it and if it is 
decided on Justice, Letcher will get it. 

"D. C. 

20 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 
e. w. hughes to the author, 
wolfe brothers & co., incorpororated ^l\nufacturers. 
the boone tree. 

"Piney Flats, Tenn., Mav 31, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Yours recieved. I have just had four gavels finished up 
and will mail today. There can be no doubt but what they were 
made from the Boone tree, as the owner of the land (Air. Isley) 
on which it grew, brought the planks to our factor}- to have small 
tables made for himself. 

"This tree was blown down some time back, and was some- 
what damaged by rot and w-orms. I have been told that the slab 
with the famous inscription was removed and sent to Washington, 
but don't know this to be a fact just now. 

"I am getting up some facts in regard to this tree, and will 
send them to you when I get them collected. 

"Very truly yours, 

" "E. W. Hughes." 


"Piney Flats, Tenn., Aug. 23rd., 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I come at last with some facts regarding the Boone tree. I 
made a special trip to the site last Sunday and have talked to 
some of the very best citizens of the county and all say the facts 
are about as' I have set them down. 

"There is no doubt of the gavels being made of the Boone 
Tree as the owner bought the board to have worked up for him- 
self. He has some of the lumber on hand yet and is selling the 
gavels and tables made from it. He claims to have gotten $100.00 
for the table with the bullet showing in it. So they are not apt 
to be very rare in this community until his stock of lumber is ex- 

"I am sending a painting of the tree which I had a pretty hard 
time to secure the loan of 

"Yours truly. 
"E. W. Hughes," 


Pai nted by Miss Myrtle Leonard of Jonesboro, Tenn. , R. F. D. and procured for i llustrationi n this book by Mr. 

E. W. Hughes of Piney Flats, Washington County, Tenn. 

See Chapter One. 

Andrrw Jackson and Early Tennessee History 2 1 
e. w. hughes to the author. 

"Piney Flats, Tenn., Aug. 23, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 

"Dear Sir:- 

" About ten miles North of Jonesboro, Tenn., in Washington 
County, East Tennessee, on the waters of Boone Creek, there 
stood until a few years ago a giant Beech Tree that was the most 
famous tree in the State of Tennessee, or probably in the United 
States. Thousands of people from the State and nearby States 
have journeyed to see the historical inscription that was carved 
on its smooth bark. The inscription was plain to read until about 
eighteen years ago, but since, visitors and curious people have 
obliterated this inscription which reads, 

"D Boon, 
"Cilled A Bar 
"In Year 1760" 

"This tree stood on the land now owned by Mr. LaFayette 
Isley, in a magnificent forest of beech and hickory. It was 29 
inches across the stump and about 70 feet high. It leaned sharply 
to the west, probably 20 degrees, in which direction it fell about 
1916. I believe the scene around this spot has changed very little 
since D. Boon passed that way over 150 years ago. The stately 
trees have never been disturbed and the only work of man that 
can be seen is a stone marker standing in eight feet of the spot on 
which the Boone Tree stood. These markers were erected a few 
years ago by the Tennessee Daughters of the Revolution and are 
placed a few miles apart, designating his trail through Tennessee 
from North Carolina to Kentucky. Mr. Isley cut off some logs 
from this tree and it was the writer's privilege to make some 
library tables and other souvenirs for its owner. Three or four 
gavels were sent to Mr. S. G. Heiskell, of Knoxville, with the 
request to place them where they would be preserved to the people 
of the State. 

"It is a curious fact that in the operation of making these 
tables, a leaden bullet was sawn through its middle and each half 
adhered to its wooden bed all through the operation of manu- 
facture and finished, and shows in the table today. The bullet 
was about five inches in from the bark toward the heart. The 
painting was made by Miss Myrtle Leonard, of Jonesboro, and 
loaned for this picture. 

"Verv respectfullv, 
"E. W. Hughes. 

22 jVndrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the author to miss leonard 

Knoxville, Tenn. Aug. 29th, 1921. 
"Miss Myrtle Leonard, 
care of E. W. Hughes, 
"Piney Flats, Tenn. 

"My Dear Miss Leonard: 

"On yesterday I sent you a copy of the Journal & Tribune 
containing a picture of your painting of the Boone Tree. I tried 
to get you this morning by telephone but failed. I wanted to 
learn when it was you painted the picture of the Boone Tree which 
Mr. Hughes sent me and which I will return to Mr. Hughes. 

"Please state all the circumstances connected with your paint- 
ing the Boone tree — how you came to paint it, the date of the 
painting, where the tree is located with reference to Jonesboro; 
how long your were in doing the painting; whether the inscription 
on the tree was visible to the eye when you did the painting. 

"If you did the painting from a description given you of the 
tree and not by actually seeing it, please tell me the name of the 
party who gave you the description. 

"I am tr>'ing to get all the authentic facts connected with the 
tree for the Tennessee Historical Society and for the State Archives 
at the Capitol in Nashville. A great deal of interest has been 
manifested here in Knoxville in your picture which appeared in 
yesterday's (Sunday) Journal & Tribune. 

"Yours truly, 

"S. G. Heiskell" 


"Jonesboro, Tenn., Route 
"September 2, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 

"Dear Sir: 

"The interest you have taken in the Boone Tree and the pic- 
ture of it is appreciated very much, and I want to thank you for 
the copy of the paper containing the sketch and picture. 

"I am glad to give you all the facts I can about the location 
of the tree and the painting of the picture. 

"The Boon Tree is on the old stage road leading from Jones- 
boro to Blountsville. It is about eight miles northeast of Jones- 
boro, and nine miles from Johnson City. It is about four miles 
from where Duncan, the first white man, was buried in Tenn., 
and only two miles from where William Bean built his cabin. 
Then just a mile from this tree, on Boon's Creek, is the Boon 
Falls. It is said that Boon safely escaped from the Indians by 
hiding under the rocks over which tlie water falls. 



Member of Congress from Michigan, from March 4, 1891 to March 3, 1895, and a collector of books, paintings, 
engravings and historical data relating to Andrew Jackson. See sketch of Mr. Weadock, 
Chapter One. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennesser History 23 

"My reasons for painting the picture were as follows: 

"My home is not in Jonesboro, as the paper stated, but at 
Boon, just one mile from the Boon Tree. From childhood, I 
have played beneath the tree, and it was there that we had our 
little picnics and dreamed of the past. In fancy, I saw Boon 
shoot the bear or helped him escape from the Indians. As I 
grew older, I was proud of our historical section with its many 
legends, and dearer to me than all was that of the Boon Tree. 

"I decided last year to paint the tree while my memory of it 
was fresh. Then too, an old kodak picture of the tree was a 
great help, especially the position of the roots. As to how long 
I was in painting it, I cannot tell, for I would work until it would 
not look right, then put it away and work again when I decided 
what was wrong. I only finished it in June of this year. 

"Mr. L. A. Isley and family, owners of the tree, told me my 
picture was exactly as they remembered it. The inscription has 
not been plain since I can remember, altho' you could see where 
it was. It had been cut over. In fact, the tree was covered 
with the names of thousands that had come to see it. 

"All you see now is a few roots falling to pieces, a marker that 
follows the Boon Trail and lofty Beech Trees bearing names of 
those that could find no room on the Boon Tree, or loved it too 
well, to mar it. But we have memories that cannot be taken 

"If I have omitted anything you would like to know, I will 
try to find out if you will write me at Jonesboro, Tenn., R. F. D. 
No. 4, or call me through Johnson City, then Boon's Creek central. 

"Yours truly, 
"(Miss) Myrtle' Leonard." 


Hon. Thomas A. E. Weadock of Detroit, Michigan, is a life 
long admirer of Andrew Jackson and a collector of books, pam- 
phlets, pictures of every variety, autographs and letters of Andrew 
Jackson, and the leading statesmen and politicians of the Jackson 
era. There are probably larger Jackson collections in the United 
States than Mr. Weadock's but none more carefully selected, or 
according to its extent, more historically valuable. 

To this collection Mr. Weadock voluntarily gave liberal access 
to aid in the preparation of this volume, and sent a part of it to 
Knoxville, Tennessee, the author's home, for that purpose, 
and he feels that gratitude as well as reciprocal courtesy, 
demand that the volume should present a sketch of Mr. Weadock's 
devotion to the name and fame of Andrew Jackson to all to whom 
it might itself carry Jackson's name. 

24 Andrew Jackson and Early Tenn'Essee History 

Hon. Thomas A. E. Weadock was born in Ballygarret County, 
Wexford, Ireland, on Januar}" 1, 1850, and came with his parents 
to America in 1850 and located on a farm near the town of St. 
Mary's, Ohio. He attended the district school and also the union 
school at St. Mary's, and on the death of his father in December, 
1863, he left school and managed the farm, his older brother having 
enlisted in the Union Army in 1862. While so employed he kept 
up home studies, his favorites being history and biography. When 
his brother returned from the Union Army in 1865, Mr. Wead- 
ock went to Cincinnati in search of employment and entered a 
printing office, then became a clerk, then went back to St. Marys 
and taught school for five years, carrying on his own studies while 
teaching. On the money made by teaching, he entered the Law 
Department of the University of Michigan in 1871 and graduated 
as Bachelor of Laws March 26, 1873, and was admitted to the Bar 
of the Supreme Court of Michigan at Detroit, April 8, 1873, and 
to the Bar of the Supreme Court of Ohio in June 1873. He 
located at Bay City, Michigan, September 12, 1873, and in 1883 was 
elected Mayor of Bay City and Served until 1885. He declined a 

He entered into a law partnership with his brother John C. 
Weadock, and their practice which has continued to this day, 
has extended into many counties of Michigan and to other states. 
He was Assistant Prosecuting Attorney for Bay County, Michigan, 
for two years, and on the death of the prosecuting Attorney, suc- 
ceeded him and served till December 31, 1878. 

In politics Mr. Weadock has always been a Democrat, and in 
every campaign he has been on the stump for the Democratic 
party. He was Chairman of the Democratic Congressional Con- 
vention of 1884 and of the joint congressional convention when 
the Greenback party united with the Democrats. In 1885 he was 
permanent Chairman of the Democratic State Convention. In 
1890 Mr. Weadock was unanimously nominated at Alpena, Mich- 
igan, for Representative in Congress, made 57 speeches in the 
campaign and was elected by 1,666 majority. He was re-elected in 
1892. In 1893 he made an extensive tour of Europe and returned 
in time for the special session of Congress held that year. 

In the 53rd Congress, he was Chairman of the Committee 
of Mines and Mining and a member of the Committee on Pacific 
Railroads He supported the Wilson tariff bill, the income tax 
law, the repeal of the Sherman law, the repeal of the election 
laws and the increase of the Navy. 

Andrew Jackson and Karly Tennessee History 25 

In 1894 he declined a re-nomination to Congress in a letter in 
which he said, "I desire to return to my profession, and having 
found the only office I ever wished to hold, to be in a large measure 
a disappointing thankless task, I relinquish it without regret." 

"The Bench and Bar of Michigan," copyright 1897, presents 
Mr. Weadock's personal characteristics in this way: "Mr. Weadock 
was never popular in the ordinary sense. He stood unflinch- 
ingly by his opinions and while he made strong friends, he also 
made enemies. He expressed his views strongly but fairly. He 
loved his friends and fought his enemies. His deep convictions, 
dauntless courage and unyielding persistence are among the sources 
of his power." 

In 1896 he was chosen one of the Delegates from the State 
at large in Michigan to the National Democratic Convention. 

In 1895, he opened a law office in Detroit for the general prac- 
tice of his profession. He has been a member of the American 
Bar Association since 1880 and was the Democratic nominee for 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Michigan in 1904. His favorite 
author is Shakespeare, his hero Napoleon and his ideal lawyer 
Daniel O'Connell. 


On March 14, 1918, Honorable Champe Clark, then 
Speaker of the Lower House of Congress, wrote the Fore- 
word of this work from the Speaker's Room of the House. 
He was a fervent admirer of Andrew Jackson. Now that 
he is dead after a great and patriotic service as Con- 
gressman from Missouri of more than twenty years, the 
author feels that he cannot more perfectly express his 
great admiration for the ex-speaker than by adopt- 
ing and reproducing the grand tribute of United States 
Senator James A. Reid of Missouri at the funeral of Mr. 
Clark on March 5, 1921, in the House of Representatives 
in Washington, D. C. 

"SENATOR REED: A wonderful stream is the river 
of life. A slender thread emerging from the mysterious 
realm of birth, it laughs and dances through the wonder- 
world of childhood. Its broadening currents sweep the 
plains of youth between the flowerdecked banks of ro- 
mance and of hope. A mighty torrent, it rushes over the 
rapids of manhood and breaks in foam upon the rocks 

26 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee Hist:)Ry 

of opposition and defeat, then glides away across the bar- 
ren, sterile fields of age until it is engulfed and lost with- 
in the waters of the eternal sea. 

"The robes of royalty, the beggars rags, the rich 
man s golden hoard, the pauper's coppsrpence, the jewel 
diadems of princes, and the thorny crowns of martyrs 
are swept by the same ceaseless tides. 

The miracle of birth, the mystery of death remain 
the unsolved problems of all time. The shepherd phi- 
losopher who three thousand years ago upon the Syrian 
plains observed the procession of the planets and con- 
templated the decrees of fate was as wise perhaps as is 
the wisest of to-day. He only knew that standing here 
upon this bank of time his straining eyes could not 
glimpse even the shadowy outlines of the farther shore. 
He could only behold the white sails of receding fleets; 
ships that sail out, but never come again. He only 
knew that at the grave s dread mouth all men must cast 
aside the burden of their honors and their griefs; that 
man takes with him only that which he has freely given 
away; but that even death may not despoil him of the 
riches of service and self-sacrifice. 

"Measured by that standard, he who sleeps today 
bears with him to the tomb a legacy so rare that even 
envy is compelled to pay the tribute of admiration. 

His long life was devoted to the public weal. Upon 
his country s altar he placed his wonderful natural 
talent, the zeal of his youth, the energy of middle life, 
the wisdom of old age. 

"With tireless brain he wrought to promote the gen- 
eral good, with sympathetic spirit he labored to lift the 
burdens of sorrow from the shoulders of the oppressed. 
His heart cried out for all who trod adversity s harsh 
road. He explored every avenue of learning and burned 
his candle late into the night, that he might gather for 
them the lore of other countries and of other times. 

The fires of patriotic love for home and country con- 
sumed his very soul. He faced each task with the heroic 
courage of those who do not count the cost. His charac- 
ter rested upon a foundation laid deep in human love. 

"Champ Clark lives because his works live. He lives 
because he helped to defend and keep secure the Con- 
stitution that preserves our rights. He lives in the De- 
claration of Independence, whose principles he nurtured 
with a tender and fearless affection. He lives because he 
helped liberty to live. Men who have so achieved never 
die. In ever-widening circles the influences of Champ 
Clark will be felt, and deeper and yet deeper the tender 
love the people of his State have borne for him will sink 
into their hearts. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 27 

"As time runs on and the historian surveys the picture 
of these troubled days, there will arise in it no figure 
more heroic than the rugged form that lies so still to- 

"He was the best beloved of Americans. 
How cold are words. Let me speak of the man as 
my friend. For thirty years I have known him intimate- 
ly. I watched his course through all the storms of life. 
How big and brave and rugged was this man. He met 
each danger like a brave soldier. He never flinched from 
any task. He stood square-fronted to the world. 

"They say that he is dead, but we who gaze upon 
his marble brow must realize the man we knew does not 
lie here to-day. The soul that made him what he was 
cannot have been destroyed. To his family I cannot 
speak, but of them let me say, in all the world I never 
knew so much of filial affection, of wifely tenderness, 
of fatherly love as was manifested in his home. They 
must find consolation in the memory of this glorious 

"Soon he will sleep in the soil of his beloved State. 
As it enfolds him, the very clods that touch his coffined 
clay will be blessed with the love he bore for the old 
Commonwealth of Missouri." 

"the hermitage 

"It stands with face uplifted to the light — 
The Hermitage, just as he left it there; 

Crowned in the sun by day, the stars by night. 
And, day or night, the shadows everywhere — 

The shadows of the ancient cedar trees, 

Their languid, long plumes waving in the breeze. 

"Within a corner of the garden plot 

He sleeps beside his Dear, his darling Dear; 
And so men whisper as they near the spot — 

'The heart of Andrew Jackson slumbers here.' 
That dauntless heart which still could burn and break, 
And battle proudly for a woman's sake. 

"The wood, the fields, the limestone-girdled spring. 
The garden with its sweet old-fashioned flowers — 

They call them Jackson's Hermitage; we bring 
A finer tenure to insure it ours — 

The Hermitage — a thing we hold in trust. 

As true men jruard their forbears' swords from rust. 

28 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Forbid it, God, that ever there should come, 

In length and breadth of this fair land of mine, 

Such dearth of patriots that a warrior's home 

Should come to seem less holy than a shrine; 

Deny him in her own brave breast a bed 

Whose pride guards not the greatness of her dead. 
— Will Allen Dromgoole in Nashville Banner, Feb. 27, 1921. 

< j 



Of "The King's American Regiment, and second in command at King s Mountain on the British side. See 

The Affair at King s Mountain,' Chapter 2. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 29 


"The Affair at Kings Mountain", an Article giving 

the British version of that battle, by John ^ 

Watts de Peyster, nephew of S 

Abraham de Peyster, second H 

in command at the battle, k 

Oct., 7, 1780. S 

In the Revolutionary War the de Peyster family, one of the 
oldest New York famihes, had three sons who were L,oyalists and 
served on the British side as officers. One of these was Capt. 
Abraham de Peyster who was second in command on the Loyalist 
side and succeeded to the command when Patrick Ferguson, Major 
71st Regiment Loyalists, was shot and killed at Kings Mountain. 

Another was Captain Frederick de Peyster who attained the 
rank of Captain in the Revolutionary War, distinguished himself 
at Eutaw Springs and died in New York in 1834. 

Another was Captain James de Peyster, born May 16, 1753, 
who at the age of twenty was commissioned Captain-Lieutenant^ 
and served in the Loyalist Army, and died unmarried at Lincelles, 
Flanders, August 19, 1793, being at the time 1st Lieut, of Artillery. 

Capt. Abraham de Peyster of Kings Mountain was born Feb- 
ruary 18, 1853, and after the close of the Revolution became Treas- 
urer of New Brunswick and died there leaving descendants. 

Gen. John Watts de Peyster, the author of the article "The 
Affair at Kings Mountain," produced below, was a great nephew 
of Abraham de Peyster of Kings Mountain and was a voluminous 
writer, especially on military subjects. He was a kinsman of 
Gen. Phil Kearney of the Union Army in the Civil War and wrote 
his biography. This article was first published in 1880, 41 years 
ago, and is now out of print. More than a generation of Americans 
have come on the stage of action who never heard of the article or 
its author, and who, while they will not endorse various things in it, 
will welcome a Loyalist view of a supremely important battle in 
which pioneer Tennessee bore so splendid a part. 

33 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

"The Affair at King's Mountain. 
7th. October, 1780 

"The principal object of this article is to present in new but 
true colors the prominent features of this battle: delineations 
novel, although authentic, because contrary to narratives hitherto 
given as correct. 

"The chief facts are these: 

"1st. The fall of Ferguson did not determine the battle. He 
was not killed at the end of the action, as always hitherto repre- 
sented, but 'early in the action,' and, therefore, his second in com- 
mand and successor must have some credit for the protracted 
resistance instead of being held amenable to the charge of having 
surrendered as soon as his superior was slain, and the responsibil- 
ity devolved upon him. He had gone through pretty much all 
of the previous receiving and giving of hard knocks, and had been 
shifted like a shuttle from one point of impact to another, wherever 
danger threatened, again and again, throughout the whole engage- 
ment, and he continued to fight on until, as his subordinate sub- 
sequently testifies (Charlestown, 30th January, 1781), "Captain 
de Peyster, on whom the command devolved, seeing it impossible 
to form six men together, thought it necessary to surrender to save 
the Hves of the brave men who were left.' 'We lost, early in this 
action, Major Ferguson, of the 71st Regiment.' Ferguson's 
obituary notice in Rivington's Royal Gazette (New York), 24th 
February, 1781, begins: 'On the death of Maj. Patrick Ferguson, 
who was killed early in the action at King's Mountain, South Car- 
olina.' Another letter, dated Charlestown, 4th March, 1781, 
written by an officer who also was in the battle, says, 'after our 
"misfortune in losing Major Ferguson, the command devolved on 
Captain de Peyster; he behaved like a brave, good officer, and 
disputed the ground as long as it was possible to defend it.' Fi- 
nally, General Lenior ('Wheeler's North Carolina,' 105) who was 
a Captain with Major Winston's command, writing to correct 
'accounts of that battle (King's Mountain) which are very er- 
roneous,' states, 'Colonel Ferguson had seven or eight bullets shot 
through him, and fell some time before the battle was over.' 

"If General Graham, in his plan of the battle, locates correct- 
ly the spot where Ferguson fell, it is not unlikely that he was shot 
in repelling one of the effective charges at the west end of the 
summit, opposing the advance of the left under Cleveland. It 
is conceded on all sides that Ferguson might have burst through 
the American forces when his lieutenant drove their first attack 
down the slope in the direction of Tarleton and Cornwallis, as the 
latter advised him to do. Shortly after Major Winston came in 
to the right, and the circle was complete. 

"2nd. There was no corps of British Regulars in the fight, 
but those called 'Regulars' were a detachment of selected troops 
from the 'Provincial Corps' or 'Brigade' of American Loyalists, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History. 31 

and Ferguson was 'territorial' Brigadier. Like Hanging Rock 
and other severe collisions, King's Mountain was a fight altogether 
between Loyal and Whig Americans, not between British, proper, 
and Colonists. 

"3rd. Instead of the British outnumbering the Americans, 
the latter were to the British as 1 3-4 to 1 ; as 1310 (Shelby) to 1,370 
(calculation), to 908 (Allaire) to 960 (Stedman), or to 850 (War- 
ren), or to 960 (Davidson, W. N. C. 103); perhaps the Whigs 
were fully twice as many as the Loyalists, 1,900 to 950. 

"4th. With the exception of the 100 Provincials, Regulars, 
or 'Veteran Volunteers,' the British were all green troops or 

"5th. The Americans were not green militia, properly speak- 
ing, but men acclimated to battle, seasoned by life-long service to 

"In order to understand the importance of the battle of King's 
Mountain, the decisive battle of the Revolutionary War of the 
South, and, perhaps, the decisive result everywhere, it is necessary 
to consider the preceding events, their bearing upon this engage- 
ment and its influence upon what followed. 

"The defeat of Camden was a terrible blow to the colonies. 
No disaster was so unexpected. None was followed by such 
lasting consequences. It left Cornwallis in the centre of the new 
State the master of the situation; and if Clinton had given him a 
few more troops, or the British Government had followed the 
advice of every general of ability and poured reinforcements in 
at once and at critical points, the South would have been irretriev- 
ably lost. The Southern States were always the vulnerable point 
of the Union, and it was in this quarter Washington expected an 
invasion when made Lieut. -General, and preparing against hos- 
tilities on the part of the French. 

"Cornwallis had with him a man remarkable for spirit, ability 
and courage, Patrick Ferguson, Junior, or Second Major of the 
Seventy-first Regiment Highlanders. He possessed many of the 
qualities which ennoble a soldier. He was temperate in his habits, 
magnanimous in his disposition, fearless in danger, and manly at 
all times. Such was the confidence reposed in him by Cornwallis 
that he conferred upon him a Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel; 
constituted him a 'local' or 'territorial' Brigadier-General of 
militia; confided to him an independent command and allowed hirn 
to select his subordinates and troops. His mission was to insure 
the submission of the western part of the two Carolinas, embody 
the Loyalists, organize and discipline them, sweep away the par- 
tisan corps and guerillas which endangered communications, 
utilize the resources of the country, and, in fine, act as his chief's 
left arm in the effectual subjugation of the outlying territory. 
Ferguson had already won considerable reputation in the German 
wars, and at an early age, before he came out to America in 1777. 
He brought with him his own invention, the first breech-loading 

32 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

rifle ever used by regular troops in actual battle, combining a num- 
ber of improvements deemed of comparatively very recent dis- 
covery or application. These rifles, contructed upon this principle, 
were issued to a picked body of men, at the Brandy-wine, 11th 
September, 1777, astonished the American sharpshooters by the 
superiority of their aim and the rapidity of their lire. In this 
battle Ferguson had his right arm shattered, and lost the use of 
it so as to i)ecome in reality the 'one-armed devil' that he is rep- 
resented as having been during his service, elsewhere, and to the 

"Ferguson had been uniformly successful in every operation 
confided to him. He distinguished himself at the seige of Charles- 
ton (29th March- 12th May, 1780), and in the operations sub- 
ordinate thereto, especially at Monk's Corner and Lanneau's 
Bridge, in connection with Tarleton. American writers on these 
events do not stint the praise so justly due to his military capacity. 
They style him 'the celebrated Ferguson.' 

"The animosity aroused by Ferguson's penetration so deep into 
their fastnesses, and his manifest intention of sparing no exer- 
tions to restore the authority of the king, inspired the hardy ele- 
ment, which dwelt amid the Alleghanies, to unite with their freinds 
to crush out one who seemed to be the most dangerous common 
enemy. It is usual and proper to attribute the general irritation 
against Ferguson to his own severity and the outrages committed 
by his followers. This is totally inconsistent with the language 
used about him by local historians. It is needless to dwell on 
his intrepidity, for that he was utterly fearless is acknowledged 
by every one; likewise his extraordinary ability. If any one to 
whom he was nearest and dearest desires to see his praises set 
forth in the strongest language they need only to resort to Ramsey 
and to Wheeler. 

"Patrick F^erguson was no ordinary man. General Davidson 
styles him 'the Great Partisan;' General Lenior 'the celebrated 
Colonel Ferguson.' His rank in 1780, has occasioned consider- 
ble controversy. In different works and on different occasions 
he is styled 'Major,' 'Colonel' and 'General.' This is easily 
explained. He held the 'hne' commission of Second Major in 
the vSeventy-first Regiment ('White') Flighlanders ; was 'bre- 
veted' Lieutenant-Colonel; is addressed as Colonel, a few days 
before he fell, by Colonel Cruger in the latter's last communica- 
tion to Ferguson from '96;' and held the 'local' rank of Briga- 
dier-General of Militia. The Ivnglish have a variety of military 
titles which are unknown and unrecognized on other services, 
especially our own; 'local' or 'territorial,' is one of these; 'tem- 
porary,' another; there are five or six. 

"Shortly after Sir Henry Clinto returned to the North and 
Cornwallis succeeded" him in command at the South, Patrick 
Moore, against the instructions of Cornwallis, placed himself at 
the head of a strong body of Loyalists from Tyron (afterward 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee; History ■ 33 

Lincoln) County, N. C. He was successful in recruiting his corps 
throughout the region between the Catawba and the Alleghanies. 
As the British advanced northwards, Moore marched towards 
them, and established himself at an old post (such as is generally 
known at the West to this day as a fort) which had been built 
years previously by General Williamson on the Pacolet River, one 
of the feeders, from the Northwest, of the Broad River, which it 
joins at the present village of Pinkneysville. (See Ramsey's 
Tennessee, 213-15; Stedman's Quarto, 11, 196). Here he was 
attacked by Colonels Sevier, Shelby and Clarke, and surrendered 
to them the 20th (Lee 22d) June, 1780. This premature rising 
against the advice of Cornwallis, was a movement he ever after 
greatly deplored. 

"The sufferings experienced by the Loyalists of North Caro- 
lina wore out their patience. They assembled again under Col- 
onel Samuel Bryan (Sabine 11, 272-3), and marched into vSouth 
Carolina. Those who escaped Major Davies and Colonel Sumter 
were present in the battle and constituted a portion of the army 
victorious at Camden 16th Aug., 1780. Previous to these oc- 
currences, near the border line of the Carolinas, Ferguson, with 
his 'Flying Corps' or column, had been ranging the country be- 
tween the Wateree, or Catawba, and the Saluda Rivers, gradually 
drawing nearer to North Carolina. Even to indicate the different 
movements which ensued would be almost equivalent to writing 
a complete history of the operations in South Carolina during 
the 'Battle Summer' of 1780. Suffice it to say that these 'in- 
sults' of the mountain men induced Cornwallis to select the 
spirited, active and intelligent Ferguson to follow the invaders 
into their own districts, embody the Loyalists, and occupy the 
strongest suitable positions in the interior. Colonel Ferguson 
possessed qualities peculiarly adapted to win the attachment of 
the marksman of Western vSouth Carolina. To a corps of orig- 
inally 150, but soon reduced by disease and hardship to 100 picked 
men. Provincial regulars (armed with his rifles), he soon advanced, 
his command increased to over 2,000 men, besides a small squad- 
ron of horse. To watch and harass this expidition Colonel Mc- 
Dowell sent Colonels Shelby and Clarke, (Dawson, 606) with 600 
picked mounted riflemen. Instead of awaiting an attack Fer- 
guson pressed forward after Clarke, and his advance struck, if it 
did not surprise, the latter at the Green Spring, in the Spartan- 
burg District, South Carolina, on the 1st August. Clarke got 
off as quickly as possible, and justly so, because he was greatly 
outnumbered. This mishap did not dampen the spirits of the 
Americans, and five days afterwards Sumter attacked the British 
post at Hanging Rock, or Rich's Mountain, where, on the 6th 
August, occurred one of the most obstinately contested engage- 
ments of the Revolution. The fight lasted four hours. It was a 
conflict, pure and simple, between the native Whigs and Tories, 
or Loyalists — not a regular soldier was present — and the former 

34 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

were defeated. On the 15th August, Sumter surprised the re- 
doubt which covered the Wateree Ford. Here he gained a httle 
success which his enormous preponderence of force rendered in- 
evitable. Next day, the 16th, is the date of the catastrophe at 

"This disaster for the Americans has already been sufficiently 
considered. Before its extent and efifect had become generally 
known, McDowell had achieved a remarkable triumph, on the 
19th August at Musgrove's Mills, on the Enoree River. It was 
a triumph, but, nevertheless, one of the merest side issues, since 
the destruction of the main army at Camden rendered it of no 
consequence. It was won by the same tactics as were afterwards 
applied at King's Mountain, and yet, strange to say, the British 
and Loyalists seemed stupidly blind to their fatal efficacy. The 
British depended on their discipline, their manhood and the bay- 
onet. The Americans took to the trees, shunned everything like 
personal encounters, and while safe under cover, shot down their 
enemies one by one, just as the Indians of the present day slaugh- 
ter our troops at the West. Undoubtedly they were right to do 
so; but if the British had discarded their intrepidity and followed 
a similar plan of military killing, the Muse of History would have 
had a different story to tell. It was a repetition of Braddock's 
defeat in 1755, of Oriskany in 1777. At this time, Ferguson lay 
between the different lines of these incursions. As soon as he 
received intelligence of the disaster of his friends on the Enoree, 
he swooped like an eagle upon Clarke (R. 220), who retreated as 
fast as his horses could carry him away. The flight towards the 
mountains lasted two days and the intervening night, without 
any stop for refreshments. The pursuit was equally vigorous. 
Major de Peyster, with a strong body of mounted troops from 
Ferguson's column, pursued closely until late on the evening of 
the second day after the action at Musgrove's Mills, and did not 
draw rein until excessive fatigue and the fearful heat of the season 
and region broke down both men and horses. 

"Family tradition places Captain Frederic de Peyster, aged 21, 
of Fannings King's American Regiment of New York Loyalists, 
at the head of these pursuers; and it is said that a similar assign- 
ment to detached duty preserved him from the catastrophe at 
King's Mountain. It may have been, however, his elder brother, 
Abraham, Aged 27, who was Ferguson's second-in-command. 

"This appears to be an appropriate place to explain how Fergu- 
son got to the spot, King's Mountain, where his career was brought 
to such a sudden termination. After his victory at Camden and 
the rout of Sumter, Cornwallis, with his main body, moved due 
north (east of the Catawba), to the Waxhaws, the scene of the 
previous slaughter of Buford's command by Tarleton, and thence 
to Charlotte, eighteen miles eastward of King's Mountain, in- 
tending to proceed on to Salisbury, some forty miles to the north- 
east again. West of the Catawba lay the route of Tarleton's 

Andrew Jackson and Early Trnnussee History 35 

Legion and the Light Infantry. Cooperating with Tarleton, 
Colonel Turnbull was stationed with his New York Volunteers, 
in conjunction with Ferguson's corps of Loyalists, on Little 
River (Lcc, 98). 

"After the failure of Colonel Elijah Clarke's attempt upon 
Augusta, 14th- 19th vSeptember, P'^erguson was ordered by Corn- 
wallis to attack the Americans on their retreat, and cooperate 
with Colonel Cruger, who was in command at Ninety-Six, seventy 
miles north of Augusta, and about one hundred miles south of 
Gilbret Town, whitherward, as was supposed, Clarke was retreat- 
ing. 'Cruger, after gaining some advantage, found the pursuit 
would carry him too far from Ninety-six, to which place he judi- 
ciously returned. Ferguson unfortunately adhered to the plan of 
continuing on, striking at Clarke and his associates, and thought 
the direction which they had taken towards Gilbert Town was per- 
fectly consonant with his ulterior purposes. The object Clarke 
arrived at was to form a communication with many detachments 
of his friends who were approaching; or, if the superiority or ad- 
vanced situation of Ferguson prevented that intention, to join 
Colonel Sumter on the borders of South Carolina.' 

"It was to break up the 'Personel and Material' which led to 
such expeditions as that of Clarke and nourished them, that 
Ferguson was ordered into northwestern South Carolina. His mis- 
sion was also to organize, arm and discipline the Loyalists. On the 
18th August, 1780, an assemblage of these were attacked and de- 
feated by Colonels Williams, Shelby and Clarke, near Musgrove's 
Mills, on the Enoree River, about where the present lines of the 
Spartanburg and Union districts touch that of the Laurens. 
Ferguson was not far off, he sent a detachment to overtake the 
victors. These came to grief, but the Americans, well aware of 
Ferguson's energy, fled, or retreated with a speed resembling flight, 
'pursued closely until late in the evening of the second day after 
the action, by Major Dupoister, and a strong body of mounted 
men from Ferguson's army. These became so broken down by 
excessive fatigue, in hot weather, that they despaired of overtak- 
ing the Americans and abandoned the pursuit' (Ramsey, Tenn., 
220). The same authority at another place (223) remarks: 'The 
detachment under Ferguson, as has been already seen, had been 
for several weeks on the left of the main army, watching the move- 
ments of McDowell, Sevier, Shelby, Sumter, and Williams, and 
Clarke and Twiggs. His second in command, Dupoister, pursued 
hard and fast after the mountain men as they retired, after their 
victory at Enoree, to their mountain fastnesses. Ferguson him- 
self, with the main body of his army, followed close upon the heels 
of Dupoister, determined to retake the prisoners or support his 
second in command, if he should overtake and engage the escaping 
enemy. Finding that his efforts were fruitless, Ferguson took 
post at a place then called Gilbert Town, near the present Ruthcr- 
fordton, in North Carolina. From this place he sent a most 

36 AxDRiiW Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

threatening message by Samuel Phillips, a paroled prisoner, that 
if the officers west of the mountain did not lay down their op- 
position to the British arms, he would march his army over, burn 
and lay waste their country and hang their leaders. 

"It has always been believed, and so stated in histories, that 
the nucleus or kernel of Ferguson's forces at King's ^fountain 
who did all the fighting there were British regulars. This is so 
far from being the case that it can be clearly shown that those who 
were termed British regulars were Loyal American Volunteers, 
picked out as a rule, from three (two New York and one New 
Jersey) Loyal battalions. There were, undoubtedly, one or two 
British regular officers present, selected for peculiar qualities which 
adapted them to the service in hand, and there may have been in- 
dividual British regular soldiers incorporated for their proficiency 
as marksmen. As at Oriskany, the turning point of the war and 
the bloodiest action for the numbers engaged at the North, so at 
King's Mountain, the turning point of the war and the deadliest 
for numbers who actually fought in it at the South, the Conflict 
was one between Americans, Americans drilled to fight as regular 
soldiers, and Americans instinctively trained to bushwhack as 
guerrillas. While the event at King's Mountain was exactly the 
reverse of the immediate issue at Oriskany, the course and conse- 
quences of both were the same; the discomfiture of the British 
plans of conquest, and a rapid ebb, which, owing to foreign inter- 
vention, never knew a flood corresponding to the previous high- 

"Those who, writing in the interest of truth, have striven to 
divest stories of the Revolution of the myths which envelop them 
like an atmosphere, have always maintained that Ferguson's corps 
has been invariably exaggerated both as to numbers and efficiency, 
and the force of his opponents diminished to satisfy the popular 
craving for the marvelous triumph achieved by undiciplined back- 
woodsmen and mountaincrs over regulars and oppressors. The 
fact is Ferguson did not know from day to day what numbers he 
did have in camp. This statement is attested by a disinterested 
military witness. His strength fluctuated in accordance with the 
hopes, fears or passions of the population favorable to the Royal 
cause. No real general, endowed with ordinary judgment, has 
ever placed any reliance in Militia. Washington is emphatic 
in regard to their unreliability if not absolute worthlessness, and 
he is corroborated by a number of our own best, as well as 
observant French officers who served with him. 

"It is a great error to even suppose that this body of 3,000 
American Whigs, the number reported by General Davidson writ- 
ing of this assemblage at Gilbert Town, 10th October, 1780, were 
new to the exigencies and dangers of battle. Their fighting qual- 
ities could not be regarded as otherwise than respectable by pro- 
fessional soldiers, except those whose judgments were bounded 
by the narrowest horizon and distorted by senseless prejudice. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 37 

These valley and mountain men had been born and had grown up 
in an atmosphere of danger. From their earliest years they had 
breathed in powder-smoke, if not in actual set battles, in more 
perilous struggles with fierce wild beats and adversaries like the 
Indians, as dangerous in their ferocity and more so in the union of 
cunning, weapons and combination. Many of them had been 
acclimated to something like regular war by engagements, skirm- 
ishes and collisions with Loyal uprisings and regular forces. They 
were of totally different and far better stuff than the militia who 
threw down their arms after a single scattering discharge, or with- 
out firing at all, and fled from Camden, leaving their regular com- 
rades to certain destruction. If they were not regular soldiers 
they were brave men and stalwart adversaries, and if they did not 
understand the tactics of the Continentals, they had tactics of 
their own which suited the region in which they had to operate. 
The tactics of the associated Whigs Colonels, whoever suggested 
and w^hatever inspired them, were unexceptionable, and as applied 
by Cleveland, worthy of the stratagem of Hannibal, which implies 
the highest commendation. They were far superior to those of 
Ferguson. From what few facts are known of his plans, except 
through an unfortunate result, his simply seemed to be, 'Imitate 
my own and my Provincials' comtempt of death and our de- 
votion. Remember this, and show yourselves men.' The British 
tactics were those of the Romans, complete in the valor that 
dies fighting but does not conquer the aggregated craft and cour- 
age of men skilled in the use of firearms. 

"The aspect of the storm clouds, portending a veritable cyclone, 
gathering upon the neighboring mountains, was too indicative to 
have an effect upon even such a fearless man as Ferguson. It 
seems to have demorilized the Loyalist of this section. His cir- 
cular letter to overcome its effects and their timidity, of the 1st 
October, breathes of indignation and contempt which alone could 
have induced an elegant gentleman to pen such a scathing appeal, 
in the roughest Saxon, to even tepid manhood. He broke up his 
camp at Gilbert Town after sending out these missives, and sent 
two messages to Cornwallis at Charlotte to reveal his own crit- 
ical situation, and to ask for a reinforcement. Three days after, 
on the 4th, he marched southward over the main branch of Broad 
River to the Cow Pens. On the 5th he wheeled to the left, or east, 
marched to Tates, since Dears, (Davis's) (?) Ferr>', recrossed the 
Broad River, and camped about a mile above. On the 6th he 
marched about fourteen miles, and pitched his camp on an emin- 
ence now known as King's Mountain. 

"Here a question presents itself which is insoluble to the 
closest scrutiny and analysis. From Gilbert Town to Charlotte, 
by a road distinctly marked on Tarteton's map, was less than 
fifty miles, and from Gilbert Town by the route Ferguson follow- 
ed was seventy miles, and looking at the system of roads laid down 
on the maps of the period, it would seem to have been almost as 

38 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessek History 

easy to proceed direct to Charlotte as to make the circuit that he did. 
The Americans did not reach Gilbert Town until the 4th October. 
Ferguson's retreat emboldened them and hastened their pursuit. 
They followed exactly the route he took, and they did not over- 
take him until the afternoon of the 7th. This shows he had over 
five days start of them, which at the rate he marched would have 
carried him into Charlotte, or brought him within the reach of 
the helping hand of Cornwallis. There are only two explanations 
for Ferguson's movements. Either he expected to be reinforced 
by Tory orginizations, or he did not know the extent of the force 
about to overwhelm him. The latter alternative contradicts re- 
ceived opinions, and is the best proof that he acted in accordance 
with a plan which he considered judicious, a plan which he carried 
into the grave with him. 

"The epithet Tories has been used immediately above for the 
first time because if the large parties of Tories who were collect- 
ing along the route passed over by the Americans had been true- 
hearted Loyalists, they would not have left Ferguson in the lurch 
to perish in the trap into which he had been lured by delusive prom- 
ises of support. At the Cow Pens, 6th October, the Whigs were 
informed that a body of 600 Tories were assembled at Major Gibbs', 
four miles to their right, and would join Ferguson the next day. 
On the morning of the 7th Ferguson was within 15 or 20 miles of 
these Tories, and if they had simply followed up the Americans 
as the latter followed Ferguson, they could have fallen upon the 
rear of the Americans, captured or stampeded their horses, and 
taken the associated Whig Colonels in the very act. Judging 
from the few known facts of which historians are in possession, 
such Tories deserved the epithet with which Cleveland stigmatized 
them in his battle-speech. 

"Before entering upon a description of the battle, this appears 
to be the proper point at which to settle the numbers engaged. 
General Davidson, (Gates papers), wrote that 3,000 men were 
assembled at Gilbert Town on the 1st October. Ramsey, (228), 
says 'scarce a single gunman remained that day, 25th September, 
at his own house.' The first rendezvous had been at Watauga 
on the 25th September. This place is beyond the Stone Moun- 
tains, in the present state of Tennessee, further to the northwest of 
Gilbert Town than the latter is west of Charlotte. This proves 
that there was no force between Ferguson and Cornwallis on the 
1st October, nor for three days afterwards, to militate against a 
safe retreat to Charlotte. Ferguson was not afraid of the 'moun- 
tain men,' but he knew that he did not have numbers sufficient to 
cope with the force nor the kind of force which was marching 
against him. Like any wise commander he fell back on his sup- 
ports, and they proved the veriest Pharaoh's reeds. 

"How many men did Ferguson actually have? McKenzie 
says that his militia constituted 'a fluctuating body, whose num- 
bers could not be depended on as they increased or diminished, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 39 

with the report of the day.' Allaire's estimate foots up 906 or 
907, which agrees more closely with the majority than the facti- 
tious calculation founded on the ration return, so often quoted, 

"In regard to the American Whigs, their organization and 
march, there are a number of clear indications to establish the 
correctness of Ramsey's account. The first spontaneous assem- 
blage of the improvised column of backwoodsmen and their as- 
sociated colonels was at the Sycamore Shoals, or Watauga, on the 
Watauga River, then in the northwest corner of North Carolina, 
or now over in the border in Northeastern Tennessee, on the 25th 

"The associated Whig forces consisted of Colonel Shelby's 
240 from Sullivan County, then in the northwest corner of North 
Carohna, now in East Tennessee; of Colonel John Sevier's (Xav- 
ier's) 240 men, from Washington County, then in the northwest 
North Carolina, now a part of East Tennessee; of Colonel Charles 
McDowell's 160 refugees from Burke and Rutherford Counties, 
western North Carolina, who had fled before the Loyalists to the 
western waters across the mountains; and of Colonel Willam 
Campbell's command 400 men, from Washington County, south- 
west portion of Virginia, bordering on Tennessee. This made 
1,040 mounted riflemen. On the 26th, these began their first 
march, passing along the valley of Gap creek, and encamped the 
first night at Talbot's Mill. 'The staff was incomplete; rather, 
there was no staff; no quartermaster, no commissary, no surgeon, 
no chaplain. As in all their Indian campaigns, being mounted 
and not encumbered with baggage, their motions were rapid. Each 
man, each officer, set out with his trustworthy Deckhard on his 
shouldjer. 'A shot pouch, a tomahawk, a knife, a knapsack and a 
blanket, completed the outfit. At night, the earth afforded him a 
bed, and the heavens a covering, the mountain stream quenched 
his thirst ; while his provision was procured from supplies acquired 
on the march by his gun.' Some beeves were driven in the rear, 
to furnish subsistence while in the settlements, but they impeded 
the rapidity of the march, and after the first day, were abandoned. 
After passing the mountain, the troops, sparing the property of 
the Whigs, quartered and subsisted upon the Tories.' On the 
27th they continued on, following Bright's Trace across the Yellow 
Mountain, almost due north of Gilbert Town. At the foot of the 
Alleghanies proper, 16 to 18 miles distant from Gilbert Town, 
they were joined on the 30tli by Colonel Benjamin Cleveland and 
Major Jacob Winston with 350 to 400 men from Wilkes and Surrey 
Counties, Northwestern North Carolina. 

"From the 1st to 3d October no movement was made. Ramsey 
(231) says because the weather was so wet. Here Colonel Camp- 
bell was selected to command, to avoid entrusting the office to 
Colonel McDowell, because the latter was considered as ' too far 
advanced in life and too inactive for the command of such an enter- 

40 An'drkw Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

prise as we were then engaged.' Colonel Campbell was made the 
leader at the suggestion of Shelby to reconcile difficulties, 'not 
on account of any superior talent or experience he was supposed 
to possess.' Colonel Charles McDowell then turned over his 
command to his brother, Alajor Joseph ^McDowell, and set out 
to communicate the condition of things to General Gates and con- 
sult with him. Here, on Green River, or at Gilbert Town, Wednes- 
day, 4th October, the American forces, according to Davidson, 
'formed a conjunct body, consisting of 3,000; from this body 
were selected 1,600 good horse, who immediately went in pursuit 
of Colonel Ferguson, who was making his way to Charlotte.' 
Colonel Shelby says, 'On the next night, 5th ( ?) it was determined, 
in the council of officers, to pursue him unremittingly with as many 
vof our troops as could be well armed and well mounted, leaving the 
weak horses to follow on as fast as they could. We accordingly 
started about light next morning with 910 men thus selected. Con- 
tinuing diligently our pixrsuit all that clay, we were joined at the 
Cow Pens on the 6th by Colonel John W^illiamsof S. C.,and several 
field officers, with about 400. men.' 

"Mark this: it is most important testimony from the highest 
authority, and determines that the American numbers were from 
1,310 to 1,370 in the fight, because at the Cow Pens the 910 selected 
out of the first aggregate were joined by 60 men from the Lincoln 
Coimty, west of Gilbert Town, in North Carolina, and about 400 
under Colonel John Williams from the Spartanburg District, then 
embracing the whole circumjacent country of South Carolina, 
which furnished the guides, whose pilotage had as much to do witli 
Ferguson's defeat as any other cause. Although referred to in 
several other places, it may be as well to mention it here that 
W^illiams is said to have had in his pocket a commission as Brig- 
adier-General from Governor Rutlcdge of South Carolina, and 
that he it is, not Campbell (according to Allaire), whom the British 
considered as commanding against them on the 7th. 

"For the last thirty-six hours of the pursuit the Americans 
did not dismount but once. This was at the Cow Pens. About 
12 m., of Saturday, the 7th, the advance guards met some unarmed 
men who had just quitted Ferguson, and from them his position 
was accurately ascertained. The rain, which had poured down 
all the previous morning, ceased shortly after noon, and the sun 
shone out brightly. A council of war was held, dispositions made 
for the attack, and its course determined, to surround their enemy 
and attack him on all sides simultaneously. Then the riflemen, 
and without breaking their fast, or taking any rest, moved on to 
assume their stations around the fatal hill. Within a mile of the 
Loyal position, a messenger was arrested bearing a dispatch from 
Ferguson to Cornwallis, urging the latter to hurry forward rein- 
forcements. This paper is said to have stated the number under 
the command of Ferguson. What number did it mention? What 
became of the paper? Why was it never textually quoted? It 
would settle the disputed question of the British force. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 41 

"The King's Mountain range extends northerly and southerly 
about sixteen miles with several lateral spurs. The highest peak 
of this system might be recognized in Crowder's Knob, crowning 
a northeasterly radiation in North Carolina, while the most prom- 
inent summit in the opposite direction at the end of a vSoutheastern 
rowel is Henry's Knob, north by west of Yorkville, in South Caro- 
lina. Although the elevation of King's Mountain, proper, is 
given at 1,500 feet above the sea level, that portion of the ridge 
on which the battle was fought, about a mile and one-half south of 
the dividing line between north and South Carolina, does not rise 
more than 100 feet above depressions drained by adjacent streams. 

"At the very outset, in describing the battle-ground a difficulty 
occurs. According to Map Xll., accompanying Marshall's Life 
of Washington, and likewise the beautiful map attached to Tar- 
le ton's history of his campaigns of 1780-1, there is a road or wagon- 
track distinctly laid down on the first, leading from the Cow Pens, 
by the Cherokee Ford, to Ramsour's Ferry, and thence to Char- 
lotte ; on the second from the Cherokee Ford — the Cow Pens, where 
Morgan routed Tarleton is omitted — to Tryon, half way to Ram- 
sour's (Ransower's?), and thence by the Great Tuckesege (To- 
gaseechee) Ford, of the Catawba, to Charlotte, eighteen miles to 
the southeast, where Cornwallis lav with the main body of the 
British army. (L. F. B. A. R., 11.627). From Clarke's'Fork of 
(Buffalo?) Creek (Lossing calls it 'Kings' Creek, which, if cor** 
rect, would solve a multitute of difficulties), which is shown on the 
plan to the eastward of Ferguson's right, is almost imperceptible 
to the group or series of greater or lesser undulations among which 
the collision occurred. These hills, gravelly, sparsely strewn with 
a few small boulders, are covered with hard and soft wood, some 
grand trees, but mostly a smaller growth of post-oaks, laurel and 
sorrel. The large trees stand far apart, and even the lesser ones 
are not close together, so that they present scarcely any impedi- 
ments to the movements of troops. The big trees afforded ex- 
cellent cover for riflemen, who, stealing from one to another, 
found in them admirable temporary screens, (blindages) or mant- 
lets to protect their approaches. In fact they might be compared- 
to the huge shields of which the English archers — the sharpshoot- 
ers of the period prior to the introduction of firearms — availed 
themselves for protection while clearing the works of a besieged 
place of their defenders. Lossing, who saw it many years ago, 
justly observes 'it was a strange place for an encampment or a 
l)attle; and to one acquainted with that region, it is difficult to 
understand why Ferguson and his band were there at all.' This 
is the most logical conclusion, and the artist's sketch reveals the 
locality, which would seem to be the very last which a professional 
soldier would select whereon to make a stand against a prepond- 
erating force of the best marksmen in the world. 

"The whole fighting was done within an area of less than half 
of that of Madison Square, (N. Y. city), and some correct idea of 

42 Andrew Jackson and Eari<y Tennessee History 

it may be had by supposing that the American Whigs occupied the 
surrounding houses and picked off the British LoyaHsts in the 
open square from the windows, until, finally, when the troops in 
the square are pretty much killed, disabled, or demoralized, the 
Whigs made a simultaneous rush from the houses and captured the 
remainder. The cleared area or bare summit of the King's Moun- 
tain range, 'narrow, stony ridge' on which Ferguson pitched his 
camp, has an outline not unlike that of an Indian paddle, with the 
end of the blade pointing south of west; 'the shadow of the timber 
at half -past one P. M. ranging with its median line ' Colonel 
Shelby states that the Loyalists 'were encamped on an eminence 
called King's Mountain, extending from east to West, which on 
its summit was about 500 to 690 yards long and 60 or 70 broad.' 
These bearings must be correct, because they reconcile contradic- 
tions, and explain why Ferguson fronted as he did, which would 
be inexplicable if his line of battle faced as General Graham would 
make it, according to the shadow. Graham sets down the length 
of Ferguson's encampment (line (?) at 80 poles (1,300 feet), which 
does not contradict Shelby. After an examination of perhaps one 
hundred authorties, it is still extremely difficult to reconcile many 
of the particulars. It is most consistent however, to believe that 
Ferguson's line fronted southerly and easterly, with his camp on 
the left, occupying pretty much the open space from 1,170 to 
1,320 feet in length and some 210 feet in width. If such is not 
the case the American reports go to water. 

"Still, in justice to a soldier of so much ability as Ferguson is 
admitted by friend and foe to have been, the selection of the battle 
ground must have been due to some good reason. It is very likely 
that he chose an open place that he might have militia under 
complete and constant supervision, fearing that if he fought in the 
woods his levies might instantly or quickly dissolve imder a hot 
fire if not under his own eyes or those of his trusted subordinates, 
'inu'hojn,' (as in their immediate commanders), Mckenzie assures 
us, 'perfect confidence might on all occasions be placed.' As to the 
militia the same contemporaneous authority is far less compli- 
mentary. He says that in the course of this campaign, Ferguson 
had 'from one to two thousand militia, a fluctuating body, whose 
numbers could not be depended upon, as they increased or diminished 
with the report of the day.' No one would dare question the fact 
that many of these Loyalists were animated by the highest senti- 
ments of honor and duty, but what could have been the principles 
of the majority, when Colonel Martin Armstrong, in command 
in vSurrey County, in North Carolina, and in charge of those cap- 
tured at King's Motmtain 7th October, in writing to General 
Gates on the 7th November, states 'the Torie prisoners all en- 
listed into the Continental Service, excepting a Small number, 
which the Justices have committed to Halifax, there being but 
a few of the British.' Such sudden conversions, or pervisions, 
would indicate very little constancy, unless they transferred their 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 43 

services to the enemy, with the intention of deserting as soon as 
possible again, and so get home and rid of mihtary service alto- 

"Why Ferguson made such an eccentric retreat is easi'y ex- 
plained. The approach of the associated Colonels frightened the 
Loyalists. Instead of joining Ferguson in the numbers expected 
they left him and went home. Conscious that his force was too 
weak to stem the approaching torrent, he marched southwards, 
having every reason to believe that he would be joined, day after 
dav, bv bodies of Loyalists already assembled in arms. One body 
of 600 was within a few miles of him when he fought his last battle, 
and yet did not hasten to his assistance. These might have fallen 
upon the flank and rear of the Americans whilst fully occupied 
with Ferguson, just as the Prussians took Napoleon in flank and 
rear at Waterloo. The only excuse for their inaction is to believe 
that they were infected by the recollection of the fate of Boyd's 
men at Kettle Creek in 1779, of Moore's Loyal levies at Ramsour's 
Mills, and those of Bryan at the Catawba in midsummer, 1780. 

"At, or near, the Cows Pens, which is not more than fifty 
miles north of Ninety-Six, Ferguson received the letter, found on 
his dead body, from' Cruger, dated at '96,' 3d October, giving 
him to understand that he could expect no assistance from that 
quarter. This communication is a curious one. It shows that 
Cruger at all events, if none of others, comprehended the situation. 
It disillusionized Ferguson. Hitherto he had been falling back to 
the south ; he now wheeled off to the northeast towards Cornwallis 
at Charlotte. This new route gave him a double chance of sup- 
port, since Tarleton was operating in the intermediate district, 
and the victorious Americans retreated at once for fear that Tar- 
leton would fall upon them with a fury which nothing as yet had 
stayed, and with a sabre which knew no mercy. 

"Ferguson is charged with being afraid of the force pursuing 
him, whereas, in a private communication to his commander, he 
expresses almost contempt for the very adversaries from whom 
he was said to be fleeing. Ferguson failed from over-confidence, 
not want of it. Everything goes to show that his militia did not 
fulfill his expectations. It is pretty well established by the con- 
current testimony on both sides that all the real fighting was done 
by the 70 to 100 provincial regulars, and the pick of the Tories or 

"About 3 P. M. the Americans, having dismounted and se- 
cured their horses out of gunshot and left them under a sufficient 
guard, advanced to the attack in three columns,under the guidance 
of men who knew every inch of the ground, on nine or ten different 
routes, as clearly laid down in the plan, 

'As hunters round a hunted creature draw.' 

"The idea that Ferguson could have cut his way through and 
escapted seems very fallacious. A body of infantry, encumbered 
with baggage, could scarcely expect to escape or elude the pursuit 

44 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

of superior numbers of mounted riflemen, on hardy horses, without 
any encumbrance whatever. Had Ferguson as soon as he knew 
that he was followed up so closely and in force, he might have 
saved his men. Still such a retreat would have been little better 
than a flight, and its effect, except as regards his own personal 
safety, which a man of his character would not take into account, 
must have been almost as disastrous for the cause which he rep- 
resented as the defeat which did ensue. 

"In the absence of reliable information, and its disappearance 
or destruction through lapse of time, it is but equitable to beUeve 
that Ferguson had good reasons for every step of the cour.-e he 
pursued. Unquestionably he had a professional soldier's contempt 
for all militia, and it was through striking on this 'rock of offense' 
'that his bark was so injured that it foundered in the storm that 
followed. Of one fact, which might have exercised an important 
influence upon his decision to stand or retreat, he could not have 
known. The mounted riflemen who 'fought the battle were 
fasting and almost famished.' Consequently, as the country 
could not have afforded provisions, they would have had to break 
up in a few hours to obtain the necessaries of life. One day's 
respite would have carried Ferguson to Charlotte where Cornwallis 
lay in force. Davidson says that Ferguson was making his way 
to this point. Unfortunately for him he did not respect his ad- 
versaries sufficiently to allow their approach to hurry his march 
until it was too late. 

"Ferguson's Provincial regular detachment, some seventy dis- 
ciplined infantry, were on his right. The only way to account for 
his deployment, is to believe that from the manner in which 
his adversaries showed themselves at different points, he could not 
make out from what quarter he might expect the principal attack. 
Therefore, he faced in the direction in which the mass of the enemy 
was first distinguishable. 

"With the controversy as to who exercised command among the 
Americans ( G. P. 4, Gates recognizes no chief) this article has 
nothing to do. Popular history, almost always incorrect, assigns 
it to Campbell. The only discoverable statement on the British 
side, reads as if the British considered that Brigadier-General 
Williams enjoyed it, and that it devolved on Campbell after he 
was mortally 'wounded. The Shelby papers, published in this 
Magazine, (V. 351), embodying affidavits, certainly make Shelby 
the prominent figure, and place Campbell in a very unfavorable 
light. Whoever issued the preliminary order was alive with sold- 
ierly instinct. One more laconic and at the same time apposite 
has scarcely ever been given. 'Tie up overcoats, pick touchholes, 
fresh prime, and he ready to fight.' As Cleveland's subsequent 
speech to his immediate command, the American extreme left, 
was as pertinent as this order, and as splendid a specimen of au- 
thenticated battle oratory as can be found, it is only fair to credit 
him with the inspiration of the Spartan order for battle. 

Andrew Jackson and Karly Tennessee History 45 

"According to ' the statement which has generally been adop- 
ted,' Colonel Cleveland led off the dance, and Lossing (F. B. A. 
R., 11., 631), who says he copied from the original report among 
Gate's Papers, and furnishes fac similes of signatures, places Ben- 
jamin Cleveland first, Issac Shelby second, and William Camp- 
bell last. The writer's copy of this document reverses that 
airangemcnt. Whatever Cleveland's rank he seems to have been 
the animating spirit of, just as to Shelby is due the credit of orig- 
inating the plan of the campaign, and to have been the author of 
'that great partisan's miscarriage.' Imediately after he encount- 
ered a picket of the enemy he delivered the following spirited and 
sagacious address to his men, pertinent to the occasion, and so full 
of common sense that it fits every other similar character: 'My 
brave fellows, we have beat the Tories, and we can beat them 
again. They are all cowards; if they had the spirit of men thay 
would join their fellow-citizens in supporting the independence of 
their country-. When you are engaged, you are not to want (wait) 
for the word of command from me. / will show you by my exam- 
ple, how to fight; I can undertake no more. Every man must consider 
himself an officer, and act from his own judgment. Fire as quick 
as you can, and stand your ground as long as you can. When you 
can do no better, get behind trees, or retreat; hut I beg you not 
to run quite off. If we are repulsed, let us make a point of return- 
ing and renewing the fight; perhaps we may have better luck in 
the second attempt than in the first. If any of you are afraid, 
such shall have leave to retire, and they are requested immediately 
to take themselves off.' 

"Shelby gives the strength of each attacking column in the 
following words: 'The right wing or column was led by Colonel 
Sevier and Major Winston, together with Major McDowell's com- 
mand, which had been considerably augmented during the march; 
the left by Colonels Cleveland and Williams; and each of these 
wings was about as strong as Campbell's regiment (400), and nine 
(240) united composing the centre. Three times 400 plus 240 
makes, 1,920, which justifies the Loyal Lieutenant Anthony Al- 
laire's opinion of the vast superiority of the Whig Americans, and 
other statements to the same effect.' Honest Shelby likewise 
admit: 'This {the quasi official) report, however, omits to mention 
***Colonel McDowell's command***had been considerably aug- 
mented during the march by men who had formerly belonged to it.' 

"Mrs. Mercy W^arren, who enjoyed great oppertunities to learn 
the truth, whose 'History of the Revolution' was 'long considered 
a standard authority,' uses an expression which can mean noth- 
ing else than that the British were swarmed out; 'though the 
British commander exhibited the valor of a brave and magnan- 
imous officer, and his troops acquitted themselves with vigor and 
spirit, the Americans, who in great numbers surrounded them, 
won the day.' 

"Whether Campbell did or did not lead his immediate men, 
but supervised, is not clear, or whether Shelby commenced the 

46 Andrew Jacksont and Early Tennessee History 

movement, ascending the eastern end of the mountain to attack 
Ferguson's left. The firing soon became so heavy in this quarter 
that Ferguson brought over from his right, a portion of his 
Provincial regulars under de Peystcr, his second in command, 
and with these, supported by some of the Loyalist militia, who had 
previously whittled down the handles of their butcher knives so 
that they could be inserted in the muzzles of their rifles and serve 
as bayonets, made a brisk charge, which pushed Shelby and Camp- 
bell and McDowell, who came to their assistance on the left, down 
the mountain. At this juncture the American left column under 
Cleveland ascended the hill and engaged the British right where 
Ferguson himself was present. This portion of his line was 
protected in a measure by the baggage wagons and some slight 
defenses hastily constructed. These were of no avail, because 
while the elevation on which the British line was formed secured 
the Americans from any chance whatever of sufifering from cross- 
fires of their friends on either side of it, the British were exposed 
to being hit by shots coming in from every quarter, so that if they 
attempted to shelter themselves from the bullets of one American 
column, they were immediately subjected to the danger of being 
killed by shots raining in from the opposite direction. Ferguson, 
subjected to pressure on his right, immediately recalled his second 
in command from his left, and the latter retraced his steps length- 
wise the ridge under a galling fire from the South Carolinians under 
Williams. Then with the whole of his Provincial regulars, he drove 
the Americans to the w'est foot of the hill. As yet Ferguson, en- 
veloped on the east, front and w^est, had experienced no dis- 
turbance in the rear, and some critics assert that he might have 
escaped in this direction on the road to Charlotte. It is not like- 
ly that the brave officer who had already repulsed ever}' assault upon 
his position would have abandoned it without a further attempt 
for victory. This outlet, however, was almost immediately closed. 
Major Winston, who on starting, had the longest detour to make, 
became so far separated from columns, next to his left, by the in- 
tervention of a steep hill that he lost sight and hearing of them; 
while thus uncertain, he was hailed and directed to dismount 
and ascend the hill. Expecting to encounter the British on this 
hill he did so, but before his men had advanced two hundred paces 
from their horses they were again hailed and directed to return to 
their animals, mount them, and push on because the enemy were 
a mile beyond. Thereupon they ran back to their horses, threw 
themselves into their saddles, and rode like fox-htmters on full run 
through the woods, until they came in upon the left rear of the 
British, where they were originally intended to fall in and com- 
plete the envelopment. 'Nothing, says the narrator, but the 
interposition of Divine power could have conducted the said right- 
hand-column to so great advantage.' Thus Winston, the last to 
come in to position, 

" 'Flow'd in, and settling, circled all the lists,' 
and so, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 47 

'From all the circles of hills,' death sleeted in upon the doomed. 

"Shelby, ahVays clear and honest, admits that the Americans 
were repeatedly repulsed by the British and driven down the 
mountain; that in the succession of repulses and attacks, and in 
giving succor to the points hardest pressed, much disorder took 
place in the Whig ranks 'and confusion.' There is just as much 
confusion in the various accounts as to when Ferguson was killed 
and where he fell. Colonel Shelby says Ferguson was killed about 
one hundred yards down the western end of the mountain. Gen- 
eral Graham, in his drawing made on the spot, locates the place 
where the British commander fell, on the summit, directly opposite 
the South Carolina regiment of Williams, so that it is very likely 
that the two may have fallen near together, (as sometimes averred) 
but not at the same time. 

"Ramsey, quoting Foster, describes Ferguson as riding from 
one end of his line to the other, encouraging his men to prolong 
the conflict. With desperate courage he passed from one exposed 
point to another of equal danger. He carried in his wounded 
hand — (his left arm had been shattered at the Brandy wine and was 
almost helpless) — a shrill sounding silver whistle, whose signal 
was universally known through the ranks, was of immense service 
throughout the battle, and gave a kind of ubiquity to his move- 

"Rushing from one regiment to another, encouraging some and 
directing others. Major Ferguson performed prodigies of valor, 
when he was shot by an American rifleman, and Captain Abraham 
of 'The King's American Regiment,' a Tory from New York, 
took the command. After the action had raged for an hour and 
five minutes the enemy raised a white flag, and surrendered them- 
selves at discretion.' There is no direct proof that Captain de 
Peyster himself, even at the last, raised the flag. Shelby simply 
remarks, ' a white flag was soon after (the final Whig charge or 
closing in) hoisted by the enemy,' without adding in what quarter 
or by whom. Towards the last part of the action, which must 
have been some time after Ferguson had fallen, de Peyster, who 
had moved to and fro like a shuttle, determined to make one more 
bold attempt to wrest success from the menaced wreck. His fierce 
and gallant charge drove the Americans down the eastern slope of 
the mountain in a retreat which was so rapid that there was great 
danger of its becoming a rout. By this time. Lieutenant Allaire 
says that out of the "seventy (Provincial regulars) {exclusive of 
20 who acted as Dragoons and to who wagons, etc., when we 
marched to the field of action) all were killed and wounded but 
twenty, and those brave fellows were soon crowded into a heap by 
the militia,' just as the frightened crew of a ship in a desperate 
situation will gather around their captain, and thus impede and 
neutralize the efforts of those who remain cool and willing to 'try, 
try again.' 

48 Andrew Jackson and Early Tenn-essek History 

"In examing and comparing the testimony, it is clear that the 
Whigs lost a great many more than was reported. . The statement 
of the associated Colonels reads twenty-eight killed and sixty 
wounded. In General Lenior's corrected account he says 'there 
were not near so many of the enemy (British) wounded as were of 
the Whigs, about forty of whom afterwards died of their wounds.' 
Lieutenant Allaire mentions 123 wounded altogether, which, 
weighing Lenior's language, would justify an estimate of British 
killed and died, 120; wounded, 123; Whigs killed and died, 68; 
wounded, over 150. The Provincial, who was prisoner, and whose 
account was afterwards printed, remarks, T was pleased to see 
their (the Whigs) loss superior to ours.' This corresponds almost 
exactly with Shelby's account, that when the Americans could be 
rallied and turned in overwhelming force upon the scanty few who 
had held them in check so gallantly, and, considering the circum- 
stances, so long, the British Provincial regulars and what Loyalists 
stood up to the work, retreated the whole length of Ferguson's 
first deployment to the western extremity of the bare crest, where 
his camp had been originally pitched. Here on the level the 
horizontal volleys of the Provincial regulars first began to tell, 
when the American Whigs got up on to the plateau. It is admitted by 
friend and foe that not one of the Loyalists escaped; if so, Al- 
laire's calculation of force, 906, or 908, proves itself, and Stcdman 
corroborates it 960, Warren makes it only 850. 

"It was not a battle, it was a battue; a slaughter, parallel in 
circumstances, but not as to numbers, with the destruction of 
Roland and his corps in the defile of Roncesvalles, overwhelmed 
by the missiles of adversaries who shunned every attempt at an 
encounter hand to hand. 

"Our pcope have always put too much reliance in militia, that 
is, militia proper, for if men have been subjected to real discipline 
and gone through a baptism of fire, they become soldiers what- 
ever may be the title applied to them; but then militia, in the 
accepted sense of the word is a misnomer. Colonel Cruger, as 
gallant an officer as ever drew a sword, wrote to Ferguson only 
four days before he fell: 'I flattered myself they (the Tory militia) 
would have been equal to the mountain lads, and that no further 
call for the defensive would have been on this part of the Province. 
I begin to think our views for the present rather large. We have 
been led to this, probably, in expecting too much from the militia.' 

"Not one of the British force escaped the catastrophe. It had 
been completely enveloped, and not a man could extricate himself 
from the coil. The victors remained upon the field the night after 
the battle; the next day, 8th, was Sunday. The dead were buried 
at dawn, but not all; one at least was left to the birds and beasts 
of prey. Colonel Hanger wrote that the body of Colonel Ferguson 
was treated with every indignity and left above ground. 
If it was interred where his grave is indicated on the plan of Gen, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 49 

Graham, it may have been by some of his sorrowing men, since 
the severely v^^ounded who could not march v^ere left on the field, 
and the only surgeon carried off a prisoner. 

"A much more detailed statement was prepared, but space 
justly could not be conceded to it. With time, however, this 
article will be expanded into a volume, with original letters and 
various interesting collateral testimonies. Thus complete, it 
will be worthy of the interesting subject, and constitute a mem- 
orial to 'the unfortunate brave.' 

J. Watts de Peyster 

50 Andrew Jackson: and Early Tenxcsser History 


s?. Letters of living persons who saw Andrew Jackson; 52 

5^ Jackson s resignation from the United States ^ 

52 Senate; Jackson s views on the tariff in 1824; 52 

52 Jackson s reply to the charge of being a ' Mili- 52 

^ tary Chief tan ; letter form Hon. James Maynard ^ 

52 of Knoxville to the author; Jackson s letter ^2 

53 declining appointment of Minister to Mexico. 52 


In the spring of 1921, the author conceived that it would be 
of interest to Americans to know the name of any living person 
who saw General Andrew Jackson when living, and to learn any 
reminiscences such persons might have connected with him, and, 
especially, to learn any who may have talked to General Jackson 
or heard him talk to others. The story that such living witnesses 
might tell, the author thought, would be like the voice of Old Hick- 
ory speaking from the land across the border, "The Undiscovered 
Country" that Hamlet tells about. 

In "Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History," Vol. 1, there 
is quoted a lengthy statement to the 'author by Mrs. Rachael Law- 
rence, now eighty-nine years of age, who is the daughter of Andrew 
Jackson, Jr., adopted son of General Jackson, and there is given 
as an illustration an exact reproduction of the room in which Gen- 
eral Jackson died, when and where Mrs. Lawrence, as a girl of 
twelve years, was present. Mrs. Lawrence is now living about 
two miles from the Hermitage. When this work was first pub- 
lished she was the only living person known to the author who saw 
General Jackson. 

Investigation has developed that there were, at the time the 
investigation was made, nine living persons besides Mrs. Lawrence 
who saw General Jackson, and the author has letters from each. 
They are. Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore; Rev. W. H. Norment 
of Whiteville, Tennessee; Howard Waldo of Campbell Hall, New 
York State; Judge John A. Fite of Lebanon, Tenn.; JohnB. Murrey 
of Franklin, Tennessee; J. W. Huddleston of Lebanon, Tennessee; 
L. Vesey of Memphis, Tennessee; J. W. Tilford of Nashville, 
Tennessee; and W. H. Hayes of Little Rock, Arkansas. Letters 


The Healy Portrait, bought by the Ladies Hermitage Association ot Tennessei for seven hundredand fifty 


Andrew Jackson and Eari<y Tennessee; History 5 1 

from all of these are set out below. Those of Cardinal Gibbons, 
Rev. Mr. Norment and Howard Waldo are sufficiently explana- 
tory as to their writers. Judge John A. Fite, who wrote from 
Florida, is a member of the old and distinguished Fite family o^ 
Tennessee, is a lawyer by profession, but, by reason of age, is not 
now practicing. He was a member of the Tennessee Legislature 
and for seven years Judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit of Tennessee- 
He made an enviable record on the bench. He was Colonel of the 
Seventh Tennessee Regiment in the Confederate Army, and grad- 
uated at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee. He was 
captured during the Civil War and made a prisoner of war at 
Johnson's Island. 

John B. Murrey, J. W. Huddleston, L. Vesey, J. W. Tilford, 
and W. H. Hayes are all men of highest integrity and standing 
wherever they are known, and are recognized as most valuable 
and upright citizens in the communities where they live. 

Chas. B. Sevier, of Harriman, Tennessee, near Knoxville, great 
grand-son of Governor John Sevier, has a fund of information ob- 
tained from his parents and remoter ancestors that is practically 
equivalent to first-hand, and, therefore, his statement is included 
in this list of letters. 

Cardinal Gibbons op Baltimore to the Author, 
"cardinal's residence, 
"408 N. Charles St., 

"Julv 14, 1920. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskeh, 
"Knoxville, Tenn. 

"My Dear Mr. Heiskell: 

"I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your two volumes con- 
taining the life of Andrew Jackson. For many reasons the life 
of this great President and statesman has been of great interest 
to me. 

"First, because I may regard him as the founder of the present 
Democratic party whose cornerstone is the assertion of individual 
liberty with recognition of lawful authority. 

"Secondly, I was always interested in Andrew Jackson for a 
personal reason. When I was an infant, in the year 1837, General 
Jackson received an ovation in Baltimore. The procession escort- 
ing him through the city happened to pass our residence and my 
mother held me up in her arms to contemplate the hero of New 
Orleans, the President of the L'nited States. 

52 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessek History 

"I am reading your work from page 420 where you begin to 
treat of him personally and as far as I have gone I have been very 
much pleased with all that I have read. I was particularly charm- 
ed with your reference to Gov. Henry A. Wise and the noble tribute 
he pays to General Jackson and the moral character of his wife. 

"You refer to Governor Wise's successful efforts in combating 
Know-Nothingism. I can verify that statement. His election 
occurred about the year I left New Orleans for College. February, 
his competitor was declared elected, which news brought dismay 
and sorrow to the citizens of New Orleans. But the city went 
wild with excitement and joy when a few days afterwards the news 
came announcing the election of Henry A. Wise. I enjoyed the 
personal acquaintance of Mr. Wise in Richmond among the early 
seventies and had the pleasure of dining with him and afterwards 
traveling with him. 

"I hope that the rest of the work will afford me as much pleas- 
ure and enlightenment as I have derived from the perusual of a 
good part of the first volume. I am, 

"Faithfully yours, 

"J. Card. Gibbons, 
"Archbishop of Baltimore. 

"P. S. The thought has occurred to me that in publishing a 
further edition, the four hundred pages of the early history of 
Tennessee may be abbreviated or omitted, as they can be but of 
secondary interest to those living outside the state. Chief Justice 
Marshall in writing the Life of Washington devoted the best part 
of a volume to the early history of the Colonies and in a later 
edition he felt it his duty to omit or abridge those pages in order 
to please his publishers and readers." 

THE author's reply. 

"July 19, 1920. 
"To His Eminence James, Cardinal Gibbons, 
"Archbishop of Baltimore, 
"408 North Charles Street, 
"Baltimore, Md. 
"Your Eminence : 

"I write to cordially thank you for your favor of July 14th, 
1920, and to express my pleasure over two statements contained in 
your letter. 

"First, that you saw Andrew Jackson. You are the second 
person I know of, now living, who saw Andrew Jackson. The 
other is Mrs. Rachael Jackson Lawrence, who is the daughter of 
General Jackson's adopted son, and who is now living, at the 
age of eighty-seven, about two miles from the Hermitage, which 
is located twelve miles from Nashville, Tennessee. You will 
find an interview given me by Mrs. Lawrence in the History of 
Jackson, and also a history of the descendants of General Jackson's 
adopted son. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 53 

"Mrs. Lawrence was present at General Jackson's death, and 
was standing at the foot of the bed. You will see this bed in an 
illustration in the book, located in the room just as it was when 
General Jackson died. Mrs. Lawrence was at the foot of this bed. 

"Second, you saw and was personally acquainted with Governor 
Henry A. Wise, of Virginia. I am a great admirer of Governor 
Wise, and I did not know of any American citizen who knew him. 
He died in the early seventies. If, while writing this book, I had 
known that you were personally acquainted with him, I would 
have been tempted to ask you to give me any reminiscences you 
might have connected with the Governor, and also your opinion of 
him. I have always felt that his canvass against Know-Nothing- 
ism in the State of Virginia, and which brought about the death 
of that party, entitled him to be ranked as a real friend of American 
liberty and as a grand advocate of freedom of thought and opin- 
ion in America. 

"I note that you are reading the book from page 420, and I 
hope it will give you some measure of the pleasure it gave me in 
writing it. 

"With highest regard to Your Eminence, I beg to remain, 

"Very truly yours, 

"S. G. Heiskell." 

rev. w. m. norment to the author. 

"Whiteville, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1921. 
Hon. S. G. Heiskell, 

"Knoxville, Tenn. 

"Dear Sir: 

"In answer to yours of the 15th inst. will say I feel proud to 
write a reminiscence of a visit to the Hermitage to see General 

"I was a boy of fifteen years of age, at school at Cumberland 
University at Lebanon. Hearing that the General was becoming 
very feeble, about fifteen of us boys and young men, decided to 
visit him in his home, which we did. 

"We were received by Mr. Andrew Jackson Donelson and 
given the privilege of seeing the house and surroundings. In the 
parlor we saw his duelling pistols on the table, his sword hanging 
on the wall and many other relics and trophies from battles he 
had fought; among them a log with a spear stuck in it which log 
had been taken from one of the battle-fields. Mr. Donelson said 
the General was indisposed that morning but would receive us 
in the afternoon. 

"Accordingly in the afternoon we repaired to his room. When 
we entered, he was seated in an arm-chair with a little silver pipe, 
smoking. Each boy stepped forward and gave his hand and name 
and where from. When all were seated, one of the older boys 

54 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

got up and made a short talk and expressed that all the boys were 
eager to meet and see the Hero of New Orleans; that we were at 
school preparing for the duties of life. 

"The General then expressed his appreciation and gave us a 
hearty, fatherly talk upon the responsibilities of life, of church 
and state, especially of the Christian life, and that soon we would 
be called upon to assume the duties of those then in action. His 
talk, or exhortation, lasted some 15 or 20 minutes. On bidding us 
goodbye he shook our hand warmly, and, to each one expressed the 
hope that we would fulfill our stations in life with credit to ourselves 
and the state. 

"This was about three weeks before his death. When hearing 
that he was dead, I, with others, decided to attend the burial. 
The funeral was preached by a Presbyterian Pastor from Nash- 
ville, standing on the front porch to a great concourse of people. 
His body was then taken by a military company and borne to the 
garden and placed beside his wife in a vault that he had prepared. 
A military salute was then fired and we left him there to rest in 
peace, to await the great resurrection morn. 

"Before the sermon and while the crowd was gathering, a 
wicked parrot that was a household pet, got excited and commenced 
swearing so loud and long as to disturb the people and had to be 
carried from the house. 

"And thus the man of nerve that won battles and guided the 
ship of State thru stormy scenes, had finished his work. The 
late Judge Green was at the funeral. 

"I never saw either Polk or Johnson only when they were can- 
vassing the state for office. Mr. Polk's sister, Mrs. Caldwell, 
attended my wedding in 1849; she was then living at Dancyville, 

"I was born in a mile of this place, the 21st of September, 
1829; have been pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian church 
here since 1857. 

"Hoping these few notes will be of some benefit to you, and 
wishing you success, 

"I am sincerely, 

"Rev. W. M. Norment, 
Per Fannie Norment." 


"Campbell Hall, N. Y., 
"Feb. 9, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Dear Sir: 

"Since Mr. Waldo is unable to answer your letter himself, I 
(his wife), am doing so for him and will be glad to give you what 
information we can on the portrait. Mr. Waldo's recollections 
of General Jackson are naturally very vague. As a boy he was 

Andrew Jackson and Earuy Tennessee History 55 

not allowed in the studio while his father was at work, so he only 
saw the general as he came or went from the house. He remem- 
bers him as a tall, very stern looking man with iron-gray hair 
which he wore cut quite short and in pompadour style. He was 
always dressed in citizen's clothes when he came to the house. 
The uniform was put in by Mr. Waldo as he painted the picture. 
It was a life-size painting of the General on horseback, but Mr. 
Waldo does not remember ever seeing it when finished. His fa- 
ther took a sketch of Jackson's head and shoulders on a wooden 
panel which was never touched except while the General was sit- 
ting for it. Then he painted the portrait on canvas from that 
sketch. That original panel is now in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art in New York City. It was painted in 1840 or 1841, as 
nearly as he can remember. 

"The people of the City of New Orleans commissioned Mr. 
Samuel L. Waldo to paint this portrait to be placed in their cus- 
tom house in honor of Gen. Jackson's victory at New Orleans 
over the British forces under Gen. Pakenham,who was killed in 
that battle. Mr. Waldo thinks the portrait is still in the old 
custom house. He never heard of its removal. The people of 
the City of New Orleans paid for it, not Gen Jackson. The price 
paid was $500, which was a good price in those days. He does 
not own a copy of it. 

"In regard to Daniel Webster, Mr. Waldo met him once on 
the street in New York and was impressed by his unusual appear- 
ance. He was a majestic man in appearance — all of six feet in 
height, very erect, an unusually large head and peculiar smoky- 
black eyes. He wore a rough, long-napped beaver hat of a light 
gray color, a dark blue coat with plain brass buttons and buff 
vest and trousers. Mr. Waldo recognized him by pictures he 
had seen of him. 

"Hope this information will be of some value to you. Mr. 
Waldo is sorry he cannot remember more, but it is a great many 
years for a man of his age to look back. 

"Yours sincerely, 

"Mrs. Howard Waldo." 


"Clearwater, Florida, 

"Feb. 24th, 1921. 
"Hon. S. G. Heiskell, 

Knoxville, Tennessee. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I am in receipt of your favor of the 16th inst., asking me to 
give you my recollection of seeing General Andrew Jackson ; how 
he looked and how he was dressed, and under what circumstances 
I saw him. 

"I am sorry that I am unable to tell you but little that would 
interest anyone. In the first place, I was quite a small boy when 

56 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

I saw him, and only saw him one time and for a short time then. 
I suppose I was between eight and ten years old at the time. I 
was born the 10th of February, 1832, and consequently was eighty- 
nine years old the 10th of this month. 

"The way I came to see him was as follows: My father, with 
whom I lived, lived in Alexandria, about fifty miles from Nash- 
ville, nearly east. He and IMajor Goodner were partners in a store 
in Alexandria, and I think my father went to Nashville to buy 
goods for the store. For some time prior to that time my eyes 
had been very much affected and were being treated by Dr. 
Sneed, who advised my father to take me to Nashville and hate 
Dr. Buchanan, a prominent physician of Nashville, treat my eyes. 
This, I suppose, was why I came to go at that time. We left 
Alexandria and went as far as Lebanon the first day and spent 
the night there, with a relative. I don't know why we stayed 
there unless it was that my father had business there. I remem- 
ber hearing my father tell my cousin that night that he wanted to 
get off early in the morning. So next morning after breakfast 
we left for Nashville. When we got down opposite the Hermitage, 
we left the main road and drove over to the Hermitage. When 
we got near to the house father hitched the animals we were 
driving and we went to the house. We were met at the door by 
a servant. My father told him he wanted to see General Jackson 
He asked us to take a seat in the hall. He was gone but a very 
short time when he came back and escorted us to General Jack- 
son's room. General Jackson was sitting in his chair and, for 
some reason, did not get up. I remember his telling my father 
why he did not get up but don't remember now what it was. He 
shook hands with us and asked us to be seated. I remember 
when he spoke to me he called me 'Little Man'. I don't think 
I had ever been called that before. 

"You asked me to tell you how General Jackson was dressed. 
I remember nothing particular about his dress. If there had been 
anything peculiar about it, I would likely have remembered it. 
I remember that I thought he was the oldest human being I had 
ever seen at that time. His hair was white and seemed to me to 
stand straight up. I don't think he was at all bald-headed. My 
father and he talked for perhaps an hour — I don't remember 
how long. After that my father said something about going and 
the old General insisted that we stay and take dinner. I think 
my father said he had an engagement to meet somebody in Nash- 
ville and was sorry he couldn't stay. About the last thing I re- 
member his saying was to advise my father about the doctor's 
treating my eyes. We shook hands with the old General and left 
for Nashville where I stayed for a couple of months, having my 
eyes treated by old Doctor Buchanan. He finally cured them 
and I have good peepers to this day. 

"Sorry I don't know more to tell you about General Jackson. 

"Yours very truly etc., 

John A. Fite. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennesske History 57 

john b. murrey to the author. 

"Franklin, Tenn., Feby. 18th, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
■'Knoxville, Tenn. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I have your letter of the 16th inst. asking me to give you in 
writing my recollections of Genl. Andrew Jackson. As I was only 
a small boy at the time, and the only time I ever saw him, I can 
only describe him as he appeared to me, but his appearance is as 
clear to me now after the lapse of years as on the day I saw him. 

"I was born July 6th, 1822, at Triune, Tenn., about twenty 
miles southeast of Nashville. In 1832 I moved with my father to 
what is now East Nashville, and I recall that about 1833 or 1834 
(I suppose it must have been in 1834, as I learn General Jackson 
was in Nashville during the spring of that year, and at the time 
I was a small boy). General Jackson visited Nashville, and I re- 
member distinctly standing on the corner of the Square and Mar- 
ket Street and seeing him pass in a carriage. He had on what we 
then called a bee gum hat, and this hat he was continually taking 
off and bowing to the people. I also remember his appearance. 
He was tall and spare or thin and his hair was white. 

"This is the only time I saw him, for my father left Nashville 
in 1837 and moved to near Franklin, Tenn., and I but rarely visited 
Nashville in those days, being quite delicate and attending school 
when my health permitted. 

"I am sorry I am unable to give you any further information 
as it would be my pleasure to do so did I know of anything further 
regarding General Jackson. 

"Very truly yours, 

"Jno. B Murrey." 

"V. M. Broadway." 


"Lebanon, Tenn., February 28, 1921. 

"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 

"Knoxville, Tennessee. 

"My dear Sir: 

"When a boy four or five years old I lived within eight miles 
of the Hermitage, and once on my way from Nashville with my 
father, we stopped at the Hermitage and made General Jackson 
a visit. My recollection of him is that he was tall and slender and 
getting old and did not rise from his chair. He took me on his 
lap and w^as very kind and social. This is the only time I ever saw 
him and my recollection of him is very dim. 

58 Andrew Jackson axd Early Tennessee History 

"My wife, Alice Robertson Huddleston, a granddaughter of 
General James Robertson, used to visit in his home and knew him. 
He gave her a lock of his hair to put in a locket with a lock of James 
Robertson's and said he would like to have them in a locket to- 
gether. I was born January 11, 1833. 

"Yours very truly, 

"J. W. Huddleston." 

Note. The General James Robertson referred to was the 
founder of Nashville, Tennessee, and is frequently called the 
"Father of Middle Tennessee." 


"Memphis, Tenn., Mch. 24, 1921. 
"Hon. S. G. Heiskell, 

"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"Dear Sir: 

"In reply to yours of the 21st inst., would say: You know a 
boy of 5 or 6 years of age would not be very much impressed by 
even shaking hands with so distinguished a man as Gen'l. Jackson, 
and it made no particular impression on me. 

"At the time of my visit I think the General had been ill and 
was just recovering. When father and myself went in his home 
we found him sitting in a large easy chair with a book in his hand 
and smoking his inevitable cob pipe. I remember he looked feeble 
and did not arise, making some excuse for not doing so. He called 
me to his side, shook hands with me and asked me a few questions 
as to whether or not I attended school and whether or not I could 
read, etc. When I told him I could read, etc., he patted me on the 
head and said I was a smart boy. He then called the negro girl 
who had shown us in and told her to take me out to the orchard 
to get some fruit. When I returned we soon left. 

"As I remember him he had a long face which was enhanced 
by the way his hair was roached back. His most distinguishing 
feature to me was his keen, hawk-like eyes. 

"I took pleasure in forwarding your letter to Mrs. Semmes as 

"Yours sc, 

"Mr. L. Vesey." 


"Nashville, Tenn., March 1, 1921. 
"Mr. vS. G. Heiskell, 

"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"My dear Sir: 

"Your letter of February 24, 1921, asking me something about 
myself and about my seeing General Andrew Jackson a few months 
before his death, was duly received, and in reply, I write to say that 

90 120ANDREW Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

fitted for a storm sea. I was immediately branded with the epithet 
Federalists, and you also. But I trust when compared with the 
good adage of the tree best known by its fruits, it was unjustly 
applied to either. 

"To conclude, my dear sir. My whole letter was intended 
to put you on your guard against American Seproniuses, that you 
might exercise your own j udgment in the choice of your own ministry, 
by which you would glide smoothly through your own admin- 
istration with honor to yourself and benefit to your country. 
This was my motive, this is the first wish of my heart, to see you 
when I am in retirement endeavoring to nurse a broken debil- 
itaded constitution, administrating the government with the full 
approbation of all good men pursuing an undeviating course 
alone dictated by your own independant, matured judgment. 

"Present Mrs. J. and myself respectfully to your lady, and 
accept for yourself our best wishes, and believe me to be your 
most obediant servant, 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"The Hon. James Monroe." 

In the next letter it appears that Gen. Jaekson might himself 
have been appointed Secretary of War, had he so desired. 

Air. Monroe to General Jackson. 

"Washington, March 1st, 1817. 

"Dear Sir: I wrote you a short letter lately by General Ber- 
nard, and I intended to have written you another, but had not 
time, indeed, so constantly have I been engaged in highly im- 
portant business that I have not had a moment for my friends. 

"In the course of last Summer the President offered the De- 
partment of War to Mr. Caly, who then declined it. Since it 
was known that the suffrages of my fellow citizens had decided 
in my favor, I renewed to him the offer which he again declined. 
My mind was immediately fixed on you though I thought whether 
I ought to wish to draw you from the command of the army to 
the south, where, in case of any cmeregency, no one could supply 
your place. At this moment our friend, Mr. Campbell, called and 
informed me that you wished me not to nominate you. In this 
case, I have resolved to nominate Gov. Shelby, though it is un- 
certain whether he will serve. His experience and long and meri- 
torious services give him a claim over younger men in that state. 

"I shall take a person for the Department of State from the 
eastward; and Mr. Adams' claims, by long service in our diplo- 
matic concerns, appearing to entitle him to the preference sup- 
ported by his knowledge, abilities and integrity, his nomination 
will go to the Senate. Mr. Crawford it is expected, will remain 
in the treasury. After, all that has been said, I have thought 
that I should put the administration more on national grounds 
by taking the Secretary of State from the eastward than from this 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 89 

"I was fully impressed with the propriety as well as with the 
policy you have pointed out, of taking the heads of departments 
from the four j^rand sections of the United States, where each 
section can afford a character of equal fitness, where that cannot 
be done, fitness and not locality, ought to govern, the Executive 
being entitled to the best talents, when combined with other 
necessar\' qualifications, that the Union can afford. 

"I have read with much satisfaction that part of your letter 
on the rise, progress, and policy of the Federalists. It is, in my 
opinion, a just exposition. I am free to declare had I commanded 
the military department where the Hartford convention met, 
if it had been the last act of my life, I should have punished the 
three principal leaders of the party. I am certain an independant 
court-marshal would have condemmed them, under the second 
section of the act extablishing rules and regulations for the govern- 
ment of the Army of the Unites States. These kind of men, al- 
though called Federalists, are really monarchists and traitors to 
the constituted government. But, I am of the opinion that there 
are men called Federalists that are honest, virtuous, and really 
attached to our government and, although they differ in many 
respects and opinions with the Republicans, still they will risk 
everything in its defense. It is, therefore, a favorite adage with me 
that the 'tree is best known by its fruit'. Experience in the late 
war taught me to know that it was not those who cry patriotism 
the loudest who are the greatest friends to their country, or will 
risk most in its defense. The Senate of Rome had a Sempronius, 
America has hers. When therefore I see a character with manly 
firmness give his opinion, but when overruled by a majority pro- 
tecting the eagles of his country, meeting ever\' privation and 
danger for a love of country and the security of its independants 
rights, I care not by what name he is called; I believe him to be a 
true American, worthy of the confidence of his country, and of 
every good man. Such a character will never do an act injurious 
to his country. Such is the character given to me of Colonel 
Drayton. Believing in the recommendation, I was, and still am, 
confident he is well qualified to fill the office with credit to himself 
and benefit to his country, and to aid you in the arduous station 
our grateful country has called you to fill. 

"Permit me to add that names, of themselves, are but bubbles, 
and sometimes used but for the most wicked purposes. I will name 
one instant. I have, once upon a time, been denounced as a 
Federalist. You will smile when I name the cause. When your 
country put up your name in opposition to Mr. M. I was one of 
those who gave you the preference, and for reasons that, in the 
event of war, \Vhich was then probable, you would steer the vessel 
of state with more energy', etc, etc. That Mr. M. was one of the 
best of men, and a great civilian, I always thought, but I always 
believe that the mind of a philosopher could not dwell on blood 
and carnage with my composure; of course that he was not well 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessef, lii- . 59 

I was born on the 2nd day of October, 1840, at Si 
Wilson County, and have lived in Nashville, Tennesst 
I am, therefore, in my eighty-first year. 

"My grandfather, whose name was the same as nn 
Tilford, was a Scotchman and spoke with the Scotch hu 
lived at Silver Springs, Tennessee, some ten or twelve m.''. 
General Jackson's home, the Hermitage. My grand-fati ■. 
General Jackson were strong personal friends, cronies, ii 
and went back and forth between each other's homes frcqi ■ 
and with perfect freedom. They both liked a glass of good li 
and both were partial to Scotch whiskey, of which my grandfat 
being a Scotchman and a democrat, usually kept some on hai u 
In those days, for a man to be known as owning a barrel of gOL. i 
Scotch whiskey was to make him a very influential and exaltev 
personage in his community; in fact, in the estimation of his friends, 
such a man came very nearly having royal blood in him, and it 
was known that my grandfather kept a barrel. 

"One day it came about that General Jackson was at my grand- 
father's and I was there, and the two old cronies were having a great 
time eating and drinking Scotch and talking. The General was 
a mighty interesting talker when he was stimulated some, and my 
grandfather loved him. By degrees they became mellow, very 
social and very happy, and when finally in the afternoon it came 
time for the General to go home, it was hard to tell which was the 
happier of the two, and when they started out to the General's 
carriage, where the colored driver sat up on the box in very impos- 
ing and grand style, the two old friends were each determined to 
support the other as they walked, so they embraced each other 
for support and in that way made their way to the carriage, and 
the driver came down from his perch and helped the General into 
the carriage and he went home. It has been many a long year 
since that day, but the picture of the General and my grandfather 
supporting each other on the way to the carriage is painted on my 
mind in distinct colors, and will never fade away as long as I live. 

"I wish you great success in collecting material for the third 
volume of your book 'Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee His- 
tory,' and I hope you will be able to bring out much interesting 
matter that has never been published by those historians who have 
heretofore written about Old Hickory. 

"Yours very truly, 

"j. W. Tilford." 


"Little Rock, Ark., March 23rd, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 
"Dear Sir: 

"In the Ark. Gazette of the 22nd, there is an article Xiving 
Americans who saw Andrew Jackson." 

"My husband, W. H. Haynes, as a boy knew Jackson well, 
as his father. Col. William Scott Haynes, lived in Nashville, 

60 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Tenn . My husband is an invalid from paralysis, which has caused 
him to lose his speech, only at times can I understand him. I 
read the papers aloud to him, and as I began reading your article 
he seemed very much excited, and began relating the story I 
have heard him tell many times, how Andrew Jackson would ride 
by his home, pick him from the yard (dirty or clean), put him up 
behind him, ride home, calling to his wife, 'here is our boy', many 
times asking Col. Haynes to give the boy to him. 

"Thinking this would please my husband, I write this. My 
husband of course is an old Confederate Soldier, 84 years old; 
enHsted in the Army Dec. 11th, 1861; was paroled by Maj. Gen'l 
Camby July 27, 1865, in New Orleans. 

"Most sincerely, 

"Mrs. W. H. Haynes." 


"Harriman, Tennessee, April 13, 1921. 
"Mr. S. G. Heiskell, 

"Knoxville, Tennessee. 
"My dear Sir: 

"Your favor of the 10th inst., asking me to give the line of my 
descent irom Governor John Sevier, and also any reminiscences 
I may have heard any members of the Sevier family give of Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackosn, was duly received, and I beg to reply as 
follows : 

"I am the son of Elbridge Gerry Sevier, the grand-son of Ma- 
jor James Sevier and the great-grandson of Governor John Sevier. 
My grandfather. Major James Sevier, was the second son and 
second child of Governor John Sevier by his first w fe, Sarah Haw- 
kins Sevier, and was born in Augusta County, Virginia, October 
25, 1764. He was not sixteen years old when he accompan ed 
Governor Sevier to the Battle of King's Mountain, and it was of 
him that his step-mother, Catherine Sherrell vSevier, made the re- 
mark that has come down in history, to the Governor, 'Mr. Se- 
vier, here is another of your sons who wants to go with you,' and 
the Governor looked up a horse for the boy to ride. There was 
another boy, Joseph by name, eighteen years old, who was in the 
battle of King's Mountain. Seven Seviers took part in the battle. 

"My grandfather married March 25, 1789, Nancy Conway, 
by whom he had eleven children, of whom my father, Elbridge 
Gerry Sevier, was the second son and the eighth child. My fa- 
ther married November 13, 1827, Mary Carolin.' Brown, and 
they had twelve children, of whom I was the youngest. 

"My mother was born in 1810 and was well acquainted with 
General Jackson in her girlhood. Her father, Thomas Brown, 
lived at Brown's Ferry, just above the present bridge east of 
Kingston, Roane County, Tennessee, on Clinch river. At his 
house Andrew Jackson and James K. Polk were accustomed to 

From a daguerreotype by Adams. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 61 

stop on their way to and fro between Nashville and Washington. 
This was the western route from all parts of Tennessee to Wash- 
ington. Starting at Nashville the route came almost due east 
and largely along the line of the present Tennessee Central Rail- 
road through Roane County, thence on up the valley of Kast Ten- 
nessee through the valley of Southwest Virginia, thence on through 
Central Virginia to Washington. 

"The other route from Tennessee was northward through 
Kentucky to the Ohio River and thence by either land or water 
to Pittsburgh, and thence to Washington. 

"After my mother's marriage she lived at Post Oak, six miles 
west of Kingston on the same road as her former home, and Gen- 
eral Jackson and Mr. Polk were accustomed to stop at her house 
here also. My mother attended school at Nashville, and I have 
often heard her tell with great glee how, at a dance when she was 
only about sixteen years old, General Jackson chose her to lead 
the Grand March and later she danced the Minuet with him. She 
had a lock of his hair which she always wore in her breast-pin 
until the Civil War, when a soldier stole it from her. My mother 
died in the year 1894. She was always very proud of the fact 
that, as just a young girl, she had danced with the Hero of New 
Orleans, who was also for eight years President of the United 
States, and this reminiscence of hers has come down to our day 
and is cherished by her descendants. 

"When General Ferguson was killed in the battle of King's 
Mountain, he had a telescope, about two feet long, and a silver 
whistle to cheer his men on with. They fell into the hands of 
Colonel John Sevier, who gave the whistle to his son, Joseph, and 
his descendants, who live somewhere in Louisiana, now have it, 
as I understand. The telescope he gave his son James, who when 
he died, gave it to my brother. Judge James Sevier, now deceased, 
but who lived at Kingston, Roane County, Tennessee, about six 
miles from Harriman. The maker's name and date, London, 
1760, was stamped on the telescope. 

"My father, Elbridge Gerry Sevier, died when I was only 
twelve years old, but his youngest sister, Mary Sevier Stewart, 
who died at Knoxville, Tennessee, at a very old age, told me that 
her father, James Sevier, told her that they tried to bring Robert 
Sevier, who was wounded at the battle of King's Mountain, home 
before he died, but that he died on top of the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains, and his grave could never be found afterwards. 

"When Robert vSevier was shot, James heard that his father 
was killed, and he would not stop firing when the British surren- 
dered, until Colonel Sevier came to where he was, when he threw 
down his gun, ran and leaped upon him and hugged him for joy 
that he was not killed. 

"Hoping that this will be of some interest to you, I remain, 

"Yours verv trulv, 

"Charles B. Sevier." 

62 And rew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


Taken from the Knoxville Register, October 28, 1825. 

"To the Honorable, the Speakers of the Senate and the House 
of Representatives of the State of Tennessee. 

"Two years ago by the unsolicited suffrage of the Legislature, 
I was preferred to the situation at present occupied by me, of Sen- 
ator in Congress. Pursuing the principle by which I have ever 
been governed, neither to seek after nor decline office, the appoint- 
ment conferred was accepted. Aware of the practice which had 
long prevailed of selecting from each extreme of the State a person 
for the high and respectable situation of Senator, I felt regret at 
being brought forward to disturb a system which had so long ob- 
tained, yet, inasmuch as the Legislature, without any knowledge 
or understanding on my part, had called me to the situation, it 
was impossible for me to withhold my assent; and accordingly 
the appointment was, though reluctantly, accepted; not, however, 
without its being professed by my friends that a longer term of 
service than one Congress would neither be required or expected. 
That service has been performed. I was still pondering and in 
doubt whether exceptions to my resignation might not be taken, 
and if it might not be proper for me to execute the full term which 
you had assigned, when my mind was brought to conclusion by 
some late proceedings of your own, and a determination formed 
to surrender immediately back to your hands the responsible 
trust you had heretofore confided. 

"One inducement to my determination was that traveling to 
the city of Washington twice a year imposes no inconsiderable 
fatigue, and although this is a minor consideration and one which 
would have been met with cheerfulness if business involving the 
interest of our happy country had required the exertion; yet I 
was aware of nothing of great national importance which was 
likely to come before Congress, excepting a subject that you have 
lately had before your body, the amending the constitution of the 
United States in relation to the choice of a Chief Magistrate. 
Upon this matter I greatly doubted whether it might not be my 
duty again to appear in the Senate and extend my feeble aid to- 
wards producing an alteration in which great interest with the 
people of the United States exists; and on which the security of 
our republican system may depend. But being advised of a 
resolution of your body presenting again my name to the American 
people for the Chief Magistrate of this Union, I could no longer 
hesitate on the course I should pursue; doubt yielded to certainty 
and I determined forthwith to ask your indulgence to be excused 
from my further service in the councils of the country. 

"Situated as I am, my name presented to the freemen of the 
United States for the first office known to our constitution, I 
could not, with anything of approbation on my part, consent 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennesseh History 63 

either to urge or to encourage a change which might wear the ap- 
pearance of being induced from selfish considerations, from a de- 
sire to advance my own views. I feel a thorough and safe con- 
viction that imputation would be ill founded and that nothing 
could prompt me to an active course on any subject which my 
judgment did. not approve; yet as from late events it might be 
inferred that the prospects of your recommendation could be ren- 
dered probable only by the people having the choice given to them 
direct, abundant room would be afforded to ascribe any exertion 
I might make to causes appertaining exclusively to myself. Im- 
putations thus made would, I assure you, be extremely irksome to 
any person of virtuous and independent feeling; they would cer- 
tainly prove so to me and hence the determination to retire from 
a situation where strong suspicions might at least attach and with 
great seeming propriety. I hasten therefore to tender this my 
resignation to the hands of those who conferred on me the appoint- 
ment that in the exercise of their constitutional rights they may 
confide it to some one meriting their confidence and approbation. 
"Being about to retire once more to private life, it may be the 
last time probably that I shall have of addressing you. Permit 
me to suggest to you then some remarks upon the proposed amend- 
ment of the constitution of the United States. Our political fab- 
ric being regulated by checks and balances, where experience as- 
sures us that those which have been resorted to are inefficient; or, 
that however well their boundries have been defined by the parch- 
ment of the constitution, some new barrier to the encroachments 
of government is necessary, a correctible should be applied and it 
is the duty of the people in justice to themselves to see that one 
is provided. There is no truth more sacred in politics, and none 
more conclusively stamped upon all the state constitutions, as 
well as the federal constitution, than that which requires the 
three great departments of power, the Legislative, the Judicial 
and Executive, to be kept separate and apart. But simple and 
manifest as this truth is, the difficulty of arming it in practice with 
constitutional restraints still remains, and forms a question whether 
in its amendment the wisdom and virtue of the present generation 
may not be usefully employed. Gratitude to the founders of 
our happy government certainly cannot be lessened by honest 
efforts on our part to improve or rather to fortify the blessings 
which have been transmitted to us, with such additional guards 
as experience has proved to be necessary. Upon this principle 
I venture freely to accord with you in the contemplated change 
proposed to the constitution ; and indeed would go farther. With 
a view to sustain more effectually in practice the axiom which 
divides the three great classes of power into independent consti- 
tutional checks, I would impose a provision rendering any mem- 
ber of Congress ineligible to office under the general government 
for and during the term for which he was elected and for two 
years thereafter; except in cases of judicial office; and these I 

64 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

would except for the reason that vacancies in this department 
are not of frequent occurence, and because no barrier should be 
interposed in selecting to the bench men of the first talents and 
integrity. Their trusts and duties being of the most responsible 
kind, the widest possible range should be permitted that proper 
and safe selections may be made. The politician may err, yet 
his error may presently be retrieved, and no considerable injury 
result, but with judges, particularly in the last resort, error is fa- 
tal because without a remedy. 

"The effect of such a constutional provision is obvious. By 
it Congress in a considerable degree will be freed from that con- 
nection with the Executive department which at present gives 
strong ground of apprehension and jealousy on the part of the 
people. Members, instead of being liable to be withdrawn from 
legislating upon the great interests of the nation, through 
prospects of executive patronage, would be more liberally confided 
in by their constituents; while their vigilance would be less inter- 
rupted by party feeling and party excitement. Intrigue and 
management would be excluded. Nor would their deliberations 
or the investigation of subjects consume so much time. The 
morals of the country would be improved, the virtues uniting 
with the labors of the Representatives and with the official ministers 
of the law, would tend to perpetuate the honor and glory of the 

"But if this change in the Constitution should be attained and 
important appointments continue to devolve upon the Repre- 
senatives in Congress, it requires no depth of thought to be con- 
vinced that corruption will become the order of the day, and that 
under the garb of conscientious sacrifices to establish precedents 
for the public good, evil may arise of serious importance to the 
freedom and prosperity of the Republic. It is through this 
channel that the people may expect to be attacked in their con- 
stitutional sovereignty and where tyranny may well be apprehend- 
ed to spring up in some favorable emergency. Against such 
inroads every guard ought to be interposed, and none better occurs 
than that of closing the suspected avenue with some necessary 
constitutional restriction. We know human nature to be prone 
to evil; we are early taught to pray that we may not be led into 
tempation, and hence the opinion that by constitutional provisions 
all avenues to temptation on the part of our political servants 
should be closed. 

"My name having been before the nation for the office of chief 
magistrate during the time I served as your Senator, placed me in a 
situation truly delicate. But delicate as it was, my friends do not, 
and my enemies can not, charge me with descending from the 
independent ground then occupied, or with degrading the trust 
reposed in me by intriguing for the Presidential chair. As your 
honorable body, have, by a resolution, thought proper again to pre- 
sent my name to the American people, I must entreat to be excused 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 65 

from any further service in the Senate, and to suggest in conclusion 
that it is due to myself to practice upon the maxims recommended 
to others, and hence I feel constrained to retire from a situation 
where temptation may exist and suspicion arise of the exercise of 
an influence tending to my own aggrandizement. 

"Accept, I pray you for yourselves and tender to the honorable 
bodies over which you respectively preside, my sincere regard. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Hermitage, Davidson County 
"October 12, 1825." 

Taken from The Knoxville Register, Nov. 4, 1825: 
"Murfreesboro, October 20th, 1825. 

"On Friday last, the two Houses assembled in the Hall of the 
House of Representatives to receive Gen. Jackson, agreeably to 
previous arrangement. At 11 o'clock, Gen. Jackson and Governor 
Carroll, accompanied by several invited friends, amongst whom 
were D. Graham, Esq., Secretary of State, Major Generals, Hous- 
ton and Arnold of the second and third divisions, preceded and 
followed by the joint committee appointed to wait on Gen. Jackson 
and the Governor, entered the bar of the House and after being 
seated, the Speaker of the Senate rose and addressed Gen. Jackson, 

"General Andrew Jackson: The representatives of the people 
of the state of Tennessee, who now surround you, for themselves 
and in behalf of their constituents, greet your appearance in this 
Hall with sentiments of the most profound regard. 

"The homage we thus offer to your virtues and your merit 
emanates from the most lively effusions of that gratitude which 
we, in common with every part of this Republic, acknowledge 
for the eminent services you have achieved, the history of which 
compasses many of the brightest pages in the annals of this nation. 
In the will of Providence, it fell to your lot to unsheath your sword 
on our Southern borders at a moment when gloom and dispair had 
fastened on our prospects, and a conquering army of chosen 
veterans were about to pollute our soil by their hostile tread; 
when the misgivings of others foretold the futility of human op- 
position, then sir, your bold resolutions commenced, and your 
plans were laid. If credulity should demand witnesses to prove 
the splendor and the glory of the triumphs of your army, at your 
side sir, stands the brave, the invincible Carroll, and other dis- 
tinguished companions in arms, and in this assembly of the Rep- 
resentatives of the people, other living Sponsors who having par- 
ticipated in those scenes are ready to say, the half has not been 
told. To you, sir, to them, and the brave soldiers of your banner, 
wherever they may be, we now tender the renewal of our eternal 

"In the crowd that presses around and amongst those who 
now address you, behold sir, a mixed multitude of your intimate 

66 Andrew Jackson and Karly Tennessee History 

friends and personal acquaintances, some of whom have shared 
with you in many of the trying and painful vicissitudes of your 
eventful life ; others who have heard the story of your renown from 
afar, and not a few who have associated with you for near half a 
century, these all unite with one accord and hail in your person 
the able and virtuous defender of their liberties and their homes 
and the scourge of their enemies. 

"But, sir, the occasion that now brings us together presents the 
first fit opportunity, and gladly we embrace it, of declaring to you 
our unqualified approbation of your conduct, in the late Pres- 
idential election. It is not for us now to impugn the motives of 
those who in the congress of the United vStates were instrumental 
in promoting the elevation of the distinguished individual who has 
been constitutionally called into office. That the great body of 
the people had, however, designated you as the object of their 
preference none can doubt. That in the elevation of another, 
no matter how exhalted his character and his pretensions, the 
express wishes of this nation were unheeded, none will deny. Your 
personal conduct through all the various scenes that accompanied 
the important canvass and its issue was marked by that prompt 
and unyielding honesty which your fame and the exalted nature of 
the office demanded. The world then knew you only by the 
brilliancy of your arms, and the native energy of your actions 
They are now convinced that the character of the Military Chief- 
tain and the able civilian may unite in the same individual, and, 
that, in the future elevation of him, whom we now address, the 
freedom and rights of this nation have nothing to dread. Sir, 
the Legislature of Tennessee have devolved on me the pleasing and 
acceptable duty of informing you that they have again submitted 
your name to the citizens of the United States at their next election 
for Chief Magistrate. In so doing, they most solemnly declare 
they have not been actuated by local or sectional feelings, nor are 
they willing any should believe they feel a spirit of hostility to the 
present administration. It is enough to say, that on you the 
wishes of the largest portion of the Republic had centered, and 
that so far from abating, the same feeling still pervades and in- 
creases. In the spirit, then, of those political truths that have 
guided your public and private life and which have always included 
a willing submission to the call of your country, no matter how 
arduous the task, we now cherish the pleasing hope that although 
to you, the sacrifice will be great, yet the service will be offered, 
and our wishes recorded before the nation, by your acquiescence. 

"May Providence long preserve your invaluable life, and when 
the measure of your days shall have been filled, may your last 
moments be as serene as your existance has been useful. 

"Mr. Brady, Speaker of the House of Represenatives, then rose 
and addressed the General: 

"General: — The House of Represenatives has assigned to me 
the duty of bidding you welcome to their Hall — the task is pleasing. 


Andrkw Jackson and Early Tennessrh; History 67 

That Tennessee should dehght to do honor to you, sir, whose best 
years have been spent in her service, is so just a tribute of grat- 
itude that all will unite in bearing testimony to its propriety. 

"But, sir, notwithstanding your whole life has been marked 
with great events, I am at a loss to know how to speak of your 
mighty deeds. Shall I say that in the war of the revolution you 
fought and bled with our fathers in that glorious struggle for 
independence? Shall I say that you were one of the pioneers of 
Tennessee who expelled the savage and caused the wilderness to 
smile and bud and blossom as the rose. Shall I tell that you 
led your countrymen to victory at Talledega, Emucfaw, Enoto- 
cliopco and Tahopeka, or shall I say that with a small body of 
undisciplined militia you vanquished a vastly superior force of 
veteran soldiers on the ever memorable plains of New Orleansf 
To those achievements which have filled the measure of your fame 
and conferred so much glory on our country, it is unnecessary to 
recur; they are known in the cabin of the humblest individual in 
the community and therefore need not the aid of my feeble eulo- 
gium. We remember them with pleasure, proudly, indulging a 
hope that in after times when generations shall have passed away, 
some daring citizen, nerved with patriot firmness, may emulate the 
achievements which you will have left on history's page and 
afford a like protection and deliverance to his country. 

"It is not, sir, your military career alone which has induced the 
affectionate regard of your fellow citizens toward you. Not mere- 
ly in the tented field, pressed by difficulties and surrounded by 
dangers have they seen you, but in private life where the unbend- 
ing nature of the soldier yields to the repose of domestic quiet, 
they have beheld you engaged in the pursuit of civil life, in the 
councils of your country, aiding in the permanent establishment of 
libertv and liberal institutions. You were an efficient and able 
member of the convention which formed the constitution under 
which as a legislative body we are convened to act, a constitution 
which, based upon expanded thought, extends to every freeman the 
right of being represented in this Hall. To whatever situation the 
voice of your country has called, integrity and talent unceasingly 
bore you on the confidence of the public. Nor to your fellow citi- 
zens alone has your private life been less acceptable and pleasing 
than yourmilitary and public career. Such a man we are proud 
to honor and to welcome amongst us, not for any purpose of cer 
emony or adulation, but for the reason that our hearts dictate and 
approve it, and because we but express the sentiment of those 
who have honored us with their suffrage and their confidence. 

"We had indulged the hope sir, that ere this, you should have 
been at the head of affairs of this our happy and free country. 
Our feelings may partially have estranged our judgment, but we 
were led to this belief because we thought the people of this Union, 
whose right it is to govern, had indicated most clearly their pref- 
erence towards you, and we are too unskilled in the political world 

68 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennkssee History 

to suppose that the represenative on any legitimate ground could 
stand in fearless opposition to those whose confidences he shared, 
and whose agent he was to execute their wishes and their will. 
In your success buoyant hope had told us that we might look for 
equal vigilance and care to ever\' section of our country and to a 
restoration of those almost obsolete republican feelings and habits 
which once so happily characterized our nation. Though dis- 
appointed in our expectations, we are yet consoled by the happy 
reflection that throughout the contest you sustained yourself with 
your accustomed propriety and forbore, even at the close, selfish 
consideration and a hope of a self advancement could suggest. 
Such deportment and political firmness in defeat was more glorious 
than success without it. 

"Receive, sir, the ardent and sincere wishes of the body in whose 
behalf I have the honor to address you, for a continuance of your 
health and happiness. 

"The General then replied: 

"Messrs. Speakers of the two Houses: Silence rather than any 
language I can adopt might better speak to you my feelings for 
your kind and friendly expressions towards me. Words are too 
feeble to declare how sensibly affected I am at meeting you on this 
occasion, and more particularly in bearing in recollection as I ever 
shall the numerous evidences of kindness and affection which from 
time to time, have, by the Legislature of Tennessee, been extended 
towards me. Before me are my acquaintances, neighbors, 
personal friends, some of whom ha\'e known me from early life to 
the present moment, and many have gone with me through those 
various vicissitudes of peril, trial and danger inseperable from war, 
and which they met with all that firmness which mingles in the 
soul of the soldier, when he goes forth the defender of his country's 
rights. It is to the zealous and correspondent services of those 
gallant men aided by that power which controls the destiny of 
nations, that our country was enabled to rise above the dangers 
that met her in her march and which contributed to give me so 
flattering a place in the estimation and confidence of my fellow 
citizens. A general in command may devise plans and industrious- 
ly attempt their execution, but for success his dependence is on 
those who go with him to battle. The approbation of such men is 
highly solacing, it brings to pleasurable recollection days and 
dangers that have passed, and smooths the little march of life 
which yet hangs in advance. We must presently be gone. A 
few short years and the places we occupy shall 'know us no more,' 
yet the remnant of our march will be sweet and the recollections 
of our toils forgotten, if we can bear along the hope that \ irtue 
in our country will be regarded ; for then will independence and 
happiness be maintained. 

"The Legislature of Tennessee by a generous indulgence have 
placed me under many and various obligations. In early life when 
my merits and pretensions were perhaps better appreciated than 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tknnrssre History 69 

they deserved, responsible trusts were conferred and however 
feebly the duties assigned may have been performed, a generous 
kindness on their part prevented everything of complaint. 

"At the onset of the late war, through their patriotic liberality 
and a friendly confidence towards me, large and liberal appropria- 
tions were made by which the General Government was assisted, 
and I enabled to advance on the enemy, and preserve from desolation 
our exposed and defenseless borders. And now again, gentlemen, 
am I cheered with the declarations freely offered by you, that in 
mv evening pilgrimages through life, your friendly feelings are re- 
iterated and your confidence not impaired. To me, 'tis happiness 
indeed, it is evidence of your friendly sentiments freely expressed 
and by me so happily appreciated as to be borne while I live in 
grateful recollection. 

"Nor, is it less a matter of pleasing reflection that the course 
dictated by my own judgment as proper to be pursued on a late 
occasion to which you have adverted, meets approbation. It 
was impossible for me to have acted differently because it would 
have been at war with all the declarations I had made and all 
the principles upon which through life I had professed to act. To 
be sure the situation before me was a high and important one, yet it 
was hung around with fearful responsibilities, too many and too 
variant to be undertaken but through the sanction of the country 
freelv given, without which no man could hope to administer its 
affairs with satisfaction to the public and credit to himself. In 
justice therefore to myself and in regard to the great and permanent 
interests of the country, it was preferred by me to leave the matter 
where bv the constitution it was placed, free from any attempted 
control or interference of mine. Through life I have not, for the 
remnant of it I certainly will not, become possessed of any situation 
or place where to compromise any of the essentials recognized by 
the spirit and design of the constitution or by the principles of our 
free government, it shall constitute a condition. 

"For the very marked and respectful attentions in your leg- 
islative characters you have thought proper to extend, I beg you to 
accept my warm and heartfelt acknowledgement, and to receive 
my warmest supplications for your present and future prosperity 
and happiness." 


From the Raleigh (N. C.) Star. 

"The following letter from General Jackson, was sent to Dr. L. H. 
Coleman, of Warrenton, North Carolina, in answer to some in- 
quiries contained in a letter addressed by the latter to the former. 
Similar inquiries having been made from other quarters, the 
General states in a note that the same answer had been re- 
turned them: 

70 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Washington City, 

April 29th, 1824. 

"Sir: I have had the honor this day to receive your letter of 
the 21st instant, and with caiidor, shall reply to it. My name 
has been brought before the nation by which the people themselves, 
without any agency of mine ; for I wish it not to be forgotten that 
I have never solicited office ; nor, when called upon by the con- 
stituted authorities, have ever declined where I conceived my ser- 
vices could be beneficial to my country. But, as my name has 
been the gift of the people, it is incumbent on me when asked 
frankly to declare my opinion upon any political national ques- 
tion, pending before and about which the country feels an interest. 
"You ask my opinion on the Tariff. I answer that I am in 
favor of a judicious examination and revision of it; and so far as 
the tariff bill before us embraces the design of fostering, protect- 
ing and preserving within ourselves the means of national defense 
and Independence, particularly in a state of war, I would advocate 
and support it. The experiences of the late war ought to teach us 
a lesson, and one never to be forgotten. If our liberty and repub- 
lican form of government, procured for us by our revolutionary 
fathers, are worth the blood and treasure at which they are ob- 
tained, it surely is our duty to protect and defend them. Can 
there be an American patriot who saw the privations, dangers, and 
difficulties experienced for the want of proper means of defense 
during the last war, who would be willing again to hazard the 
safety of our country, if embroiled ; or to rest it for defense on the 
precarious means of national resource to be derived from com- 
merce, in a state of war with a maritime power, who might destroy 
that commerce to prevent us obtaining the means of defense, and 
thereby subdue us? I hope there is not; and if there is, I am sure 
he does not deserve to enjoy the blessings of freedoni. Heaven 
smiled upon and gave us liberty and independence. That same 
Providence has blessed us with the means of national defense. If 
we omit or refuse to use the gifts which he has extended to us, we 
deserve not the continuation of his blessings. He has filled our 
mountains and our plains with minerals — with lead, iron, copper, 
and given us climate and soil for the growing of hemp and wool. 
These being the grand materials of our national defense, they 
ought to have extended to them adequate and fair protection that 
our own manufacturies and laborers may be placed on a fair com- 
petition of those of Europe, and that we may have within our 
country a supply of those leading and important articles, so essental 
in war. Beyond this, I look at the Tariff with an eye to the proper 
distribution of labor and to revenue ; and with a view to discharge 
uur national debt. I am one of those who do not believe that a 
national debt is a national blessing, but rather a curse to a repub- 
lic, inasmuch as it is calculated to raise around the administration 
a monied aristocracy, dangerous to the liberties of the country. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 71 

This Tariff, I mean a judicious one, possesses more fancy than real 
danger. I will ask what is the real situation of the agriculturist? 
Where has the American farmer a market for his surplus pro- 
duction ? Except for cotton, he has neither a foreign or home mar- 
ket. Does not this clearly prove, when there is no market either 
at home or abroad, that there is too much labor employed in agri- 
culture, and that the channels for labor should be multiplied? 
Common sense points out at once the remedy. Draw from agri- 
culture this superabundant labor; employ it in mechanisms and 
manufactures thereby creating a home market for your breadstuffs, 
and distributing labor to the most profitable account ; and benefits 
to the country will result. Take from agriculture, in the United 
States, six hundred thousand men, women, and children, and you 
at once give a home market for more breadstuff than all Europe 
now furnishes us. In short, Sir, we have been too long subject to 
the policy of the British merchants. It is the time we should be- 
come a little more Americanized; and, instead of feeding the pauper 
and laborers of England, feed our own, or else, in short time, by 
continuing our present policy we shall all be rendered paupers our- 

"It is, therefore, my opinion that a careful and judicious Tariff 
is much wanted to pay our national debt and afford us the means of 
defense within ourselves on which the safety of our country and 
liberty depends; and last, though, not least, give a proper distri- 
bution to our labor, which must prove beneficial to the happiness, 
independence and wealth of the community.. 

"This is a short outline of my opinions generally on the subject 
of your inquiry, and believing them correct and calculated to fur- 
ther the prosperty and happiness of my country, I declare to you, 
I would not barter them for any office or situation of temporal 
character that could be given me. 

"I have presented you my opinions freely because I am without 
concealment; and should indeed despise myself if I could believe 
myself capable of desiring the confidence of any by means so 

"I am, sir, very respectfully, 

"Your most ob't servant, 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"To Dr. L. H. Coleman, Warrenton, N. C." 

"Friday, March 25, 1825. 

"To the Editor of the N. Y. N. Advocate. 

Sir: ^^ 

"The following letter was received by me a few days since, 
and although a private communication, and not intended for the 
public eye, yet it contains so just an exposition of the cnhghtcned 
views and noble conduct of its distinguished author, that I cannot 
forbear soliciting its publication in your valuable paper. 

72 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"This letter will be read with the deepest interest by the Amer- 
ican people. It breathes the language of the purest patriotism, 
of the most perfect devotion to the rights, the interests, and the 
republican institutions of our country. It is manly, temperate, 
but a convincing vindication of the character and public services 
of one of the greatest men and purest patriots that this, or any 
other countr\', had ever produced. 

THE PEOPLE, are the sovereigns of this country. They have 
established by their blood and treasure, a government, founded 
in knowledge and virtue, which has for its basis the representative 
system. How far General Jackson, in his public career has ack- 
nowledged and respected its maxims and principles, let the actions 
of his past life, and his pure and unsullied conduct during the 
recent election testify. 

"If the people are interested in whatever relates to the conduct 
of their civil rulers, they are equally concerned for the reputation 
of one of their brightest ornaments in war — one of their strongest 
advocates in peace. One, who has never drawn his sword but to 
add laurels to his country, nor his pen but to illustrate the value 
of her happy institutions. 

"Sam'l Swartwout." 


"military chieftain." 

"Washington City, 23rd Feb., 1825. 
"My Dear Sir: 

"Yesterday I received your communication adverting to the 
reasons and defense presented by Mr. Clay to Judge Brook why 
duty and reflection imposed upon him the necessity of standing in 
opposition to me because of my being, as he is pleased to style me, 
'a Military Chieftain.' I had seen the letter before and when it 
first appeared I did entertain the opinion that some notice of it 
might perhaps be necessary for the reason that the expression 
seemed to convey with it the appearance of personalty more than 
anything else; and could the opinion be at all entertained that it 
could meet the object which was doubtless intended, to prejudice 
me in the estimation of my countrymen, I might yet consider some 
notice of it necessary. Such a belief, however, I cannot entertain 
without insulting the generous testimonal with which I have been 
honored by ninety-nine electors of the people. 

"I am well aware that this term 'Military Chieftain' has for 
some time past been a cant phrase with Mr. Clay and certain of 
his friends; but the vote with which I have been honored bv the 
people is enough to satisfy me that the prejudice which was hereby 
sought to be produced has availed but little. This is sufficient for 
me. I entertain a deep and heartfelt gratitude to my country for 
the confidence which she has manifested towards me, leaving to 
prejudiced minds whatever they can make of the epithet 'Military 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 73 

"It is for inj^enuity greater than mine to concieve what idea 
was intended by the term. It is very true that early in hfe, even in 
the days of my boyhood, I contributed my mite to shake off the 
yoke of tyranny and to build up the fabric of free government. 
And when lately our country was involved in war, bearing then the 
commission of Major General of Militia in Tennessee, I made an 
appeal to the patriotism of the citizens of the west, when 3,000 went 
with me to the field to support her Eagles. If this constitutes 
me a 'Military Chieftain,' I am one. Aided by the patriotism of 
the western people and an indulgent Providence, it was my good 
fortune to protect our frontier border from the savages and suc- 
cessfully to defend an important and vulnerable point of our Union. 
Our lives were risked, privations endured, and sacrifices made, and 
if Mr. Clay pleases, martial law declared, not with any view of 
personal aggrandizement, but for the preservation of all and every 
thing that was dear and valuable, the honor, the safety and glory 
of our country! Does this constitute the character of a 'Military 
Chieftain?' And are all of our brave men in war who go forth to 
defend the rights of the country to be termed 'Military Chieftains,' 
and denounced therefor? If so, the tendency of such a doctrine 
may be to arrest the ardour of useful and brave men in future times 
of need and peril. With me it will make no difference, for my 
country at war, I would aid, assist and defend her, let the conse- 
quences to myself be what they might. 

"I have, as you very well know, been charged by some of the 
designing politicians of this country, with taking bold and high- 
handed measures, but, as they were not designed for any benefit 
to myself, I should not, under similar circumstances, refrain from 
a course equally bold. That man who in times of difficulty and 
danger shall halt at any course necessary to maintain the rights 
and privileges and independence of his country, is unsuited to 
authority. And if these opinions and sentiments shall entitle me 
to the name and character of a 'Military Chieftain,' I am content 
so to be considered, satisfied too that Mr. Clay, if he pleases, shall 
give that as the reason to the citizens of the west, why, in his 
opinion, I merited neither his nor their confidence. 

"Mr. Clay has never yet risked himself for his country. He has 
never sacrificed his repose nor made an effort to repel an invading 
foe; of course, 'his conscience' assured him it was altogether 
wrong in any other man to lead his countrymen to battle and 
victory. He who fights and fights sucessfully, must, according to 
his standard, be held up as a 'Military Chieftain.' Even Wash- 
ington, could he appear again among us, might be so considered 
because he dared to be a virtuous and successful soldier, a correct 
man, and an honest statesman. It is only when overtaken by 
disaster and defeat, that any man is to be considered a safe pol- 
itician and a correct statesman. 

"Defeat might, to be sure, have brought with it one benefit, 
it might have enabled me to escape the notice and animadver- 

74 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

sions of Mr. Clay; but considering that by an opposite result, 
my country has been somewhat benefited, I rather prefer it, even 
with the opprobrium and censure which he seems disposed to ex- 
tend towards me. To him, thank God, I am in no way responsible. 
There is a purer tribunal to which I would in preference refer my 
self — to the judgment of an enlightened, patriotic, and uncor- 
rupted people. To that tribunal I would rather appeal whence 
is derived whatever of reputation either he or I may possess. By a 
reference there it will be ascertained that I did not solicit the 
ofliice of President; it was the frank and flattering call of the free- 
men of this country, not mine, which placed my name before the 
nation. When they failed in their colleges to make a choice, no 
one beheld me seeking through art or management to entice any 
representative in Congress from a conscientious responsibility to 
his own or the wishes of his constituents. No midnight taper 
burnt by me; no secret conclaves were held, nor cabals entered into 
to persuade any one to a violation of pledges given or of instruc- 
tions received. By me no plans were concerted to impair the pure 
principles of our republican institution, nor to prostrate that fund- 
amental maxim which maintains the supremacy of the people's 
will. On the contrary, having never in any manner either before 
the people or Congress, interfered in the slightest degree with the 
question, my conscience stands void of offense, and will go quietly 
with me, regardless of the insinuations of those who through 
management may seek an influence not sanctioned by integrity and 

"Demagogues, I am persuaded, have in times past done more 
injury to the cause of freedom and the rights of man than ever did 
a military chieftain, and in our country, at least in times of peace, 
I have seen something of this in my march through life ; and have 
seen some men too making the boldest professions who were more 
influenced by selfish views and considerations than ever they were 
by the workings of an honest conscience. 

"I became a soldier for the good of my country, difficulties 
met me at every step, but I thank God it was my good fortune to 
surmount them. 

"The war over and peace restored, I retired to my farm to 
private life where but for the call I received to the Senate of the 
Union, I should have contentedly remained. I have never sought 
office or power nor have I ever been willing to hold any post longer 
than I could be useful to my country, not myself, and I trust I 
never shall. If these things make me one, I am a 'Military Chief- 

"I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"And' w Jackson. " 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tknnesser History 75 

hon. james maynard of the knoxviele bar 
to the author. 

"Bedford Springs, Penna., 
"Hon. S. G. Heiskell, "August 3, 1921. 

"Knoxville, Tenn. 
"My dear Sir: 

I left Knoxville to come here, looking for health, and since 
getting here, I came across a book written by Ex-Circuit Judge 
W. M. Hall, entitled 'Reminiscences and Sketches.' Bedford 
is an old town, and there is an abundance of material for such a 
book here. As one or two of these reminiscences, in a way, connect 
with Andrew Jackson, I thought they would interest you, if 
you have not seen them before, as I have not, so I send them along. 

"The first relates the story of the building of a Presbyterian 
Church in this town in 1828. It gives a list of more than 100 sub- 
scribers to the building fund. Among other things, it is remarked: 
'when the meeting house was built, Jackson was running for Pres- 
ident, and all the men in Bedford supported him but eight, who 
were for Adams.' 

"Democrats must be more plentiful in Pennsylvania then than 

"The other story is about a certain General Alexander Ogle, 
who is described as the man who wrote the letter to General 
Jackson with the little 'I's.' Old General Ogle, who was a self 
made, strong-minded man, and who had, in his early life, repre- 
sented Somerset county in the Pennsylvania legislature, soon 
after Jackson was elected President, wrote a long letter to the 
General on public affairs, advising him as to the course he thought 
his administration ought to pursue; but before sending it off, 
pleased with his production, he carried and read it to several of his 
neighbors and friends. The old man's education was limited. 
One of the persons to whom he showed the letter noticed that he 
spoke quite a good deal of himself, and filled his letter full of small 
dotted 'I's' instead of the capital T required by the rules of 
composition, and ventured to suggest that this was not quite the 
thing. Whatever General Ogle lacked, he was not deficient in 
ready mother-wit, and, equal to the occasion, he assumed to know 
all about the rules of letter writing and composition, and said: 
"Sir, I am writing this letter to the President of the United States. 
If I was writing this letter to a common man, I would use the 
capital T, but in writing to General Jackson, I think it is proper 
to use small 'I's'. If I was writing this letter to you, sir, I would, 
make an 'I' six times as long as my arm, sir.' 

"I had never heard either of these stories before, and thought 
perhaps, you had not, and that they would interest you. 
"With kind regards, 
"Very truly yours, 

"James Maynard. 

76 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

andrew jackscn to edward livingston: 

Early in 1823, President Monroe tendered to General Jackson 
the post of Minister to Mexico, which the latter declined. On 
that occasion he wrote the following letter to his friend; Ed- 
ward Livingston: 

"Hermitage, March 24, 1823. 

"My Dear Sir: On the receipt of your letter of the 25th Ult., I 
had only time by the return mail to acknowledge its receipt, and 
say to you that on the subject of the mission to Mexico I had not 
been consulted and that I had declined accepting of this mission. 

"It was a just deduction of my friends to conclude that I had 
been consulted before my nomination to the Senate, and, of course, 
that I would accept the appointment; and many of them conclude, 
under this impression, that I am very fickle, when they learn that 
I have declined; for this reason, I have thought it due to you that 
you should be informed truly on this subject and also my reasons 
for declining. 

"First I heard of the intention of the President was in a letter 
from Major Eaton, our senator, who advised me that Mr. Monroe 
had sent for and consulted him upon the subject, inquiring his 
opinion whether I would accept, to which the Major replied that 
he could form no opinion upon the subject. Mr. Monroe express- 
ing a wish that he would assure me of his friendly views in making 
this nomination. I immediately answered that I would not accept; 
and a few days after this answer to Major Eaton, I received Mr. 
Monroe's letter advising me of my nomination and the approval 
of the Senate of the United States, to which I replied that I could 
not accept for reasons following in substance : 

' The present unhappy revolutionary state of Mexico with an 
oppressed people struggling for their liberties against an Emperor 
whom they have branded with the epithets usurper and tyrant, 
convinces me that no minister from the United States would, at 
this period, effect any beneficial treaty for his country, and of the 
impolicy of a republican represenative at a court which might be 
construed as countenancing the empire in opposition to a re- 
public. The people of Mexico, in their honest efforts for freedom 
command my warmest sympathies; and their success is intimately 
connected with the ultimate and general triumph of those liberal 
principles for which our Revolutionary worthies fought and bled, 
and which now form the pride and boast of United America - 
With these feelings and wishes, which I believe to be general a 
in unison with my fellow-citizens, I did believe my situation " 
Mexico would be embarrassing to me, independent of the co - 
viction that I was rendering no service to my country, when, by 
appearing at that court it might strengthen the tottering crown of 
Iturbide, and enable the tyrant to rivit the chains of despotism 
upon his country. To render service to my country could alone 
constitute any motive for acting again in a public capacity. You will 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 77 

find from my reasons stated, that in consulting my own feelings 
I have not been unmindful of or influenced by considerations con- 
nected with the best interests of my country, which I trust have 
heretofore and shall always govern my conduct. Had the affairs 
of Mexico been in a different condition, had the voice of the people 
governed, my conclusions would have been different; for I believe 
it the true principles of our government, that every man's services 
belong to the nation when they are required by the unsolicited 
voice of his country; and the appointment, being made without 
consulting me, embraced what I believe ought to be the governing 
rule of the President in making his nominations. Had I accepted 
this mission, it would have been among the first of my wishes to 
have had you with me. Should I ever be again brought by the 
unsolicited call of my country on the public or political theatre, 
I should calculate to have you near me ; but on such an event I do 
not calculate. I am no intriguer. I would not act in one single 
instance that character for all the public favor that could be be- 
stowed. My country has brought my name before the American 
nation, and the people must decide. The presidential chair is a 
situation which ought not to be sought for, nor ought it to be de- 
clined when offered by the unsolicited voice of the people. To 
their choice the Constitution has left it, and happy for the per- 
manency of the constitutional government and the perpetuation 
of our Union, if designing demagogues will let the people excerise this, 
their constitutional privilege, without attempting to thwart it by 
subtile intrigue and management. 

"On the receipt of this, if leisure permit, I would thank you for 
your view^s of the correctness of my decision and the ground I 
have assumed and on which I have always practiced, and, I would 
add, I have grown too old in the practice ever to change. 

"Present myself and Mrs. J. respectfully to your lady and 
daughter, and to Major Davezac, and accept assurances of my 
friendship and esteem. 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"Edward Livingston, Esq." 

78 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


52 Correspondence between President James Monroe § 
5H and Andrew Jackson in October, November g 

S and December, 1816. 52 

52 52 



The Presidential election of 1824 witnessed five American 
citizens, respectively, • asking the American electorate to prefer 
them for a residence of four years in the White House. They 
were, William H. Crawford, of Georgia, John Quincy Adams, of 
Massachusetts, John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, and Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee. 

There was a general conviction over the Country that the 
battle of New Orleans had predestined Jackson to be President 
sooner or later. All of his friends took this view and began, soon 
after the battle, each in his own way, to mould public opinion to 
the desired end. 

Jackson himself was politician enough to promulgate a great 
slogan and to live up to it; namely, never to seek a public office, 
and never to decline one. This slogan was a masterpiece of its 
kind. It comprehended in its meaning complete political un- 
selfishness, idealism in fact, 'never to seek public office,' and, 
on the other hand, it demonstrated patriotism wide as the world 
and overflowing with undying love for the people, 'never to decline 
one,' that is, never to decline to serve the people. But his friends 
did not know the meaning of idealism, and did not wish to know. 
When they wanted something in politics, either for themselves or 
for General Jackson, they went after it with all the adroitness, 
force, and invincibility that finally landed Jackson in the White 
House, and themselves into any office they wanted at the Pres- 
ident's disposal; or, if no office was wanted, then into the rank 
of those who are powers behind the throne, a status sought by all 

Historical writers seem to be in accord on the proposition, that 
Major William B. Lewis was the most valuable political asset 
Jackson had among his friends. Major Lewis was always looking 

By Jacob Elchholtz, 1776-1842. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennusshe History 79 

ahead — far ahead. Jackson did not always agree with him, but 
had far too much good sense to fall out with him. Old Hickory's 
intuitions were perfect in estimating and selecting the men on 
whose judgment and loyalty to himself he could implicitly rely. 
This faculty was as highly developed in him as the same faculty 
in Napoleon Bonepart. 

Nature's contributions to men are sometimes more lavish and 
prodigal in natural efficiency than can be learned in all the books 
or taught in all the schools. Jackson's career seems absolutely 
marvelous in selecting the right man to carry out the plans and 
movements of the hour. 

What is known as 'The Monroe Correspondence' produced 
below, proves the foresight of Major Lewis in attaching the old 
supporters of the dismantled Federal party to the cause of Jackson 
in his race for the Presidency, into which this correspondence and 
a thousand other devices of Jackson's friends were putting him. 
This correspondence attracted prompt and favorable attention, 
and had a great deal to do with making Jackson President. The 
letters in Jackson's name are the product of Major Lewis, who 
said that the principal one was sent in his own hand writing to 

Major John H. Eaton, on May 10, 1824, at what was thought 
to be the psychological moment in the Presidential Election of 
1824, gave the letters to the public, accompanied by a communica- 
tion to Messrs Gales & Seaton, publishers of the National In- 
telligencer, of Washington, D. C. The letter of Major Eaton is 
set out below. 

Writing these letters in 1816 and having them made public 
eight years later, in 1824, and ready in the mean-time to be made 
public should the proper occasion came about, is a familiar illus- 
tration of the habit of Major Lewis and other far-sighted politicians 
of cultivating public opinion from day to day and month to month, 
to the end that the benefits of the cultivation shall be garnered 
when the clock should strike the proper hour in the future. 


"Washington City, May 10, 1824. 
"Messrs. Gales & Seaton: I send you for publication the letters 
which heretofore passed between Mr. Monroe and Gen. Jackson, 
on the subject of forming his Executive Cabinet in 1817. Mr. 

80 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Monroe's are authentic copies, procured from Nashville, Tennessee. 
Those of General Jackson were placed in may possession, by the 
President, with authority to use them as I might think proper, in 
any way not objected to by the writer. Both those gentlemen have 
expressed a willingness that the entire correspondence should be 
laid before the public; accordingly, and to gratify a desire which 
seems generally to prevail, they are sent to you for publication. 
It is a matter of regret that private confidential letters, breathing 
a freedom and carelessness of expression, based on a mutually 
subsisting friendship, and never intended for the press, should, 
under any circumstances, be drawn forth and exhibited to public 
view. The necessity however, which imposes their publication, 
and of withdrawing the privacy under which they were written, 
will be ascribed to the proper cause, and readily understood by 
those who have witnessed what has recently been said, and written 
and printed, respecting them. 


"John H. Eaton. 


"Headquarters, Division of the South, 
"Nashville, 23d October, 1816. 

"Dear Sir: I returned from the Nation on the 12th instant, and 
seize the first moment from duty to write to you. 

"I have the pleasure to inform you that we have obtained, by 
cession from the Cherokees and. Chickasaws, all their claim south 
of Tennessee that interfered with the Creek cession. 

"We have expierenced much difhculty with the Chickasaws 
from what they call their guarantee or charter, given by Presi- 
dent Washington in the year 1794, and recognized by the treaty 
with that nation in 1801, which not only guaranteed the terri- 
tory but bound the United States to prevent intrusions within 
the limits defined, of every kind whatever. In the treaty with 
the Cherokees, lately entered into at the city of Washington, the 
greater part of the land guaranteed by the treaty of 1801 to the 
Chicasaws was included. The fact is that both President Wash- 
ington and the present Secretary of War (Crawford) must have 
been imposed on by false representations, as neither the Cherokees 
nor the Chickasaws had any right to the territory south of the 
Tennessee, and included within the Creek cession, as the testimony 
recorded on your journal and forwarded with the treaty will show; 
it being within the possession of the Creeks, until conquered by us 
in the Fall of 1813. I feel happy that all these conflicting claims are 
accommodated by the late treaties, and at a moderate premium, 
payable in ten years ; and that extensive fertile country west of the 
county of Madison and north of the Tennessee, which at once 
opens a free intercourse to and defense for the lower country, is 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 81 

"In a political point of view its benefits are incalculable. We 
will now have good roads kept up and supplied by the industry 
of oar own citizens, and our frontier defended by a strong popu- 
lation. The sooner, therefore, that this country can be brought 
into market the better. 

"By dividing this country into two districts, by a line drawn due 
east from the mouth of the Black Warrior to the Coosa river, and 
appointing an enterprising individual to superintend the northern 
district as surveyor, he can have all the lands north of the line ready 
for sale by the 1st of June next. The vast capital now held for the 
purchase of this land, if offered for sale before the holders turn it 
to other objects, will insure the treasury an immense sum of money, 
and give to the government a permanent population, capable of 
defending that frontier, which ought to induce the government to 
prepare it for market as early as possible. 

"Having learned from General David Alerriweather that Mr. 
Crawford is about to retire from the department of war, as a 
friend to you and the government, to bring to your notice, as a fit 
character to fill that office, Colonel William H. Drayton, late of 
the army of the United States. 

"I am not personally acquainted with Colonel D., but, believing 
it of the utmost importance that the office of Secretary of War 
should be well filled, I have for some time, through every source 
that has presented itself, been making inquiry on that subject. 
From information that I can rely on, the result is, that he is a 
man of nice principles of honor and honesty, of military expierence 
and pride, possessing handsome talents as a lawyer and statesman. 

"I am told before the war he was ranked with the Federalists, 
but the moment his country was threatened he abandoned private 
ease and a lucrative practice for the tented field. Such acts as these 
?peak louder than words. 'The tree is best known by its fruits/ 
and such a man as this, it matters not what he is called, will always 
act like a true American. Whether he would accept the appoint- 
ment I can not say but if he would, his talents, experience and 
energy would prove highly useful to his country. It is all im- 
portant in peace and in war, as you well know, to have this office 
well filled; at present when there exists such strife in the army as 
appears in the north, it is important to select a character of such 
firmness and energy as can not be swayed from strict rule and 
justice. From every information I have received, Colonal Drayton 
fills this character, and is better qualified to execute the duties 
of the department of War than any other character, I have a know- 
ledge of, either personally or from information. 

"I write you confidentially. It is said here .... is spoken of to 
succeed Mr. Crawford. Rest assured this will not do. When I 
say this I wish you to understand me, that he does not possess 
sufficient capacity, stability, or energy — the three necessary qual- 
ifications for a war officer. These hints proceed from the purest 
motives, that you may be supported in your administration by the 

82 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee PIistory 

best talents and virtue of our country; that you may be hailed in 
your retirement from the executive chair with that unanimous 
approbation that -has brought you to it. 

"Present Mrs. J. and myself respectfully to your lady and family 
in which is included Mrs Hay, and accept for yourself my warmest 
wishes for your happiness. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Hon. James Monroe, 

"Secretary of State." 


"Nashville, November 12, 1816. 

"Permit me to introduce to your notice Lieutenant Gadsden, 
who will hand you this letter, and who is also bearer of the treaties 
lately concluded with the Creeks, Chickasaws and Cherokees. 

"In my last to you I took the liberty of drawing your attention 
to the benefits that would result, both to the Treasury of the 
United States and the defense of the lower Mississippi, and its 
dependencies, by bringing into market those tracts of country 
lately acquired by the treaties above named. I am so deeply 
impressed with the importance of this subject, that I cannot forego 
the present opportunity of again bringing it to your view. I have 
1 his moment wrote to the comptroller on this highly interesting and 
important business. If the plan proposed is adopted, the land 
can be brought into market within a very short time, which will 
immediately give to that section of country a strong and permanent 
settlement of American citizens, competent to its defense. Should 
the Government divide the surveyors district, as proposed, and 
appoint General Coffee surveyor of the northern, his energy and 
industry will bring it into market in all June next. Should this 
district be divided as contemplated, and General Coffee appointed 
as surveyor, it will leave open the appointment of receiver of public 
moneys, heretofore promised to the General, which vacancy I 
warmly recommend to be filled by Lieutenant Gadsden, who, 
owing to the late, indeed I might say present, delicate state of his 
health, is desirous of resigning his appointment in the army. In 
this, as in all my recommendations, I have the public good in view. 

"From the acquirements of Lieutenant Gadsden the army 
will sustain a great loss by the withdrawal of his services from it; 
but by retiring at present, and avoiding the insalubrious climate 
where his duty as an officer calls him, his health may be restored 
and his life preserved for the benefit of his country at some future 
period. There are few young men in the army or elsewhere pos- 
sessing his merit. His education is of the best kind, and his mind 
is richly stored with the best kind of knowledge; he should there- 
fore be fostered as capable, at some future day, of becoming one of 
his country's most useful and valuable citizens. Lieutenant 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennp:sser History 83 

Gadsden's situation requires some office, the profits of which will 
yield him a competency while preparing himself for some pro- 
fessional pursuit; this office will afford it. These are the reasons 
that induce me so warmly to recommend him. I hope, should the 
events alluded to occur, he will receive the appointment. 

"Being deeply impressed with the importance of another 
subject which relates to yourself, as well as to the government, I 
hope I may be permitted once more to obtrude my opinions. In 
filling the vacancy occasioned by the transfer of Mr. Crawford 
from the war office to the Treasury; it is of the highest moment 
that some proper and fit person should be selected. 

"Your happiness and the nation's welfare materially depend 
upon the selections which are to be made to fill the heads of de- 
partments. I need not tell you that feuds exist, to an injurious de- 
degree, in the northern army. To fill the department of war with a 
character who has taken a part in those feuds, or whose feelings 
have been enlisted on the side of party, will be adding fuel to a 
flame which, for the good of the service, already burns too fiercely. 
This and other considerations induce me to enter on the inquiry 
for a character best qualified to fill that department. It has result- 
ed in the selection of Colonel William Drayton. Since my last to 
you, in which this subject was then named, General Ripley has 
arrived here, who heartly concurs with me in the opinion that 
Colonal Drayton is the best selection that can be made. 

"Pardon me, my dear sir; for the following remarks concerning 
the next presidential term; they are made with the sincerity and 
freedom of a friend. I cannot doubt they will be received with 
feelings similar to those which have impelled me to make them. 
Everything depends on the selection of your ministry. 

In every selection party and party feeling should be avoided. 
Now is the time to exterminate the monster called party spirit. 
In selecting characters most conspicuous for their probity, virtue, 
capacity and firmness, without any regard to party, you will go 
far to, if not entirely, eradicate those feelings which, on former 
occasions, threw so many obstacles in the way of government, and 
perhaps have the pleasure and honor of uniting a people heretofore 
politically divided. The chief magistrate of a chief and powerful 
nation should never indulge in party feelings. His conduct should 
be liberal and disinterested, always bearing in mind that he acts 
for a whole and not a part of the community. By this course you 
will exalt the national character and acquire for yourself a name 
as imperishable as monumental marble. Consult no party in 
your choice; persue the dictates of that unerring judgment which 
has so long and so often benefitted our country and rendered 
conspicuous its rules — if I know my own heart — of an undis- 
sembled patriot. 

"Accept assurances of my sincere friendship, and believe me to 
be your obedient servant. 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"The Hon. James Monroe." 

84 Andrew Jackson and Earuy Tennessee History 

mr. monroe to mr. jackson. 

"Washington, Dec. 14tli, 1816. 

"Dear Sir: I have since my last to you, had the pleasure of reciev 
ing two letters from you, the last of the 12th November. The 
advantages of the late treaties with the Indians are incalculable. 
One of the benefits consists in putting an end to all dissatisfactions 
on the part of Tennessee, proceeding from the former treaty. This 
has been done on very moderate terms. Another consists in en- 
abling the government to bring to market the large body of valu- 
able land, whereby the public debt may be considerably diminished. 
A third, in extending our settlements along the Mississippi and 
towards the Mobile, whereby great strength will be added to our 
union in quarters where it is most wanted. As soon as our pop- 
ulation gains a decided preponderance in those regions. East Flor- 
ida will hardly be considered by Spain as part of her dominions, 
and no other power would accept it from her as a gift. Our atti- 
tude will daily become more imposing on all the Spanish dominions, 
and indeed on those of other powers in the neighboring islands. 
If it keeps them in good order in our relations with them, that 
alone will be an important consequence. 

"I have commimicated what you suggested respecting General 
Coffee and Lieutenant Gadsden to the President, who is, I am 
satisfied, well disposed to promote their views. 

"It is very gratifying to me to receive your opinions on all sub- 
jects on which you have the goodness to communicate them, because 
I have the utmost confidence in the soundness of your judgment and 
purity of your intentions. I will give you my sentiments on the 
interesting subject in question, likewise without reserve. I agree 
with you decidly in the principle that the chief magistrate of the 
country ought not to be the head of a party, but of a nation itself. 
I am also of the opinion that members of the P^'ederal parties who 
left in the late war, and gallantly served their country in the field, 
have given proofs of patriotism, and attachment to free govern- 
ment that entitled them to the highest confidence. In deciding, 
however, how a new administration ought to be formed admitting 
the result to correspond with the wishes of my friends, many con- 
siderations claim attention, as, on a proper estimate of them, 
much may depend in the success of that administration, and even 
of the Republican cause. We have heretofore been divided into 
two great parties. That some of the leaders of the Federal party 
entertained principles unfriendly to our system of government, 
I have been thouroughly convinced; and that they meant to work 
a change in it, by taking advantage of favorable circumstances, I 
am equally satisified. It happened that I was a member of Con- 
gress vmder the confederation, just before the change made by the 
adoption of the present constitution; and afterwards of the Senate 
beginning shortly after its adoption. In the former I served three 
years, and in the latter rather a longer term. In these situations 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 85 

I saw indications of the kind suggested. It was an epoch at which 
the views of men were most Hkely to unfold themselves, if any 
thing favorable to a higher-toned government was to be obtained, 
that was the time. The government in France tended, also, then, 
to test the opinions and principles of men, which was disclosed in 
a manner to leave no doubt on my mind of what I have suggested. 
No daring attempt was ever made, because there was no oppor- 
tunity for it. I thought that Washington was opposed to their 
schemes, and, not being able to take him with them, that they were 
forced to work in regard to him, underhanded, using his name and 
standing with the nation, as far as circumstances admitted, to 
serve their purposes. The opposition, which was carried on with great 
firmness checked the career of this party, and kept it within mode- 
rate limits. Many of the circumstances upon which my opinion is 
founded took place in debate and in society, however that such 
proof exists, founded on facts and opinions of distinguished individ- 
uals, which became public, to justify that which I have formed. 
The contest between the parties never ceased from its commence- 
ment to the present time, nor do I think that it can be said now to 
have ceased. You saw the height to which the opposition was 
carried on in the late war ; the embarassment it gave to the govern- 
ment, aid it gave to the enemy. The victory at New Orleans, for 
which we owe so much to you, and to the gallant freeman who fought 
under you, and the honorable peace which took place at that time, 
have checked the opposition, if they have not overwhelmed it. I' 
may add that the daring measure of the Hartford Convention, 
which unfolds views which had been long before entertained, but 
never so fully understood, contributed also, in an eminent degree 
to reduce the opposition to the present state. It is under such cir- 
cumstances that the election of a successor to Mr. Madison has 
taken place, and that a new administration is to commence its ser- 
vice. The election has been made by the Republican party (sup- 
posing that it has succeeded) and of a person known to be devoted 
to that cause. How shall he act ? How organize the administra- 
tion so far as dependent on him when in that station; how fill the 
vacancies existing at the time ? 

"My Candid opinion is, tRat the dangerous purposes which I 
have adverted to were never adopted, if they were known especially 
in their full extent, by any large portion of the Federal party, but 
were confined to certain leaders, and they principally to the cast- 
ward. The manly and patriotic conduct of a great proportion 
of that party in the other states, I might perhaps say of all, who 
had an opportunity of displaying it, is a convincing proof of this 
fact. But still southern and eastern Fedaralists have been con- 
nected together as a party have acted together heretofore; and al- 
though their conduct has been difficult, of late especially, yet the 
distinction between Republicans and Federalists, even in the 
Southern and middle and western States, has not been fully done 

86 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"To give effect to free government, and secure it from future 
danger, ought not its decided friends, who stand firm in the day 
of trial, be principally relied on ? Would not the association of any 
of their opponents in the administration itself wound their feelings 
or at least very many of them, to the injury of the Republican cause ? 
Might it not be considered by the other party as an artful com- 
promise with them, which would lessen the ignomity due to the 
councils which produced the Hartford Convention, and thereby 
have a tendency to revive that party on its former principles ? My 
impression is that the administration should rest strongly on the 
Republican party, indulging to the other a spirit of moderation, 
and evincing a desire to discriminate between its members, and to 
bring the whole into the Republican fold as quietly as possible. 

"Many men, very distinguished for their talents, are of opinion 
that the existence of the Federal party is necessary to keep union 
and order in the Republican ranks, that is, that free govern- 
ment is maintained by an opposition to the ministry — I well know. 
But I think that the cause of these divisions is to be found in cer- 
tain defects in those governments rather than in human nature, 
and that we have happily avoided those defects in our system. The 
first object is to save the cause, which can be done by those who 
are devoted to it only, and, of cource, by keeping them together, 
or, in other words, not by disgusting them by too hasty an act of 
liberality to the other party, thereby breaking the genious spirit 
of the Republican party and keeping alive that of the Federal. 
The second is to prevent the re-organization and revival of the Fed- 
eral party, which, if my hypothesis is true, that the existance of 
the party is not necessary to free governments, and the other 
opinion which I have advanced is well founded, that the great 
body of the Federal party are Republican, will not be found im- 
practicable. To accomplish both objects, and thereby exterm- 
inate all party divisions in our country, and give new strength and 
stability to our government, is a great undertaking not easily 

"I am, nevertheless, decidedly of the opinion that it may be 
done, and should the experiment fail I shall conclude that its fail 
ure was imputable more to the want of a correct knowledge of all 
circumstances claiming attention, of a sound judgment in the 
measures adopted, than to any other cause. I agree, I think, 
perfectly with you in the grand object that moderation should be 
shown to the federal party, and even a generous policy be adopted 
towards it, the only difference between us seems to be, how far 
shall that spirit be indulged in the onset, and it is to make you 
thoroughly acquainted with my views on this highly important 
subject that I have written to you so freely on it. Of the gentleman 
of whom >ou have spoken, I think as you do, of which I gave him 
proof when in the department of War, by placing him in the 
board of officers for digesting and reporting a system of discip- 
line for the army, and afterwards by other tokens of confidence; 

Andrew Jackson and Earia' Tennessee History 87 

and I add with pleasure that I should be gratified, regardinj^ the 
feeling and claims above stated, to find an apportunity at a proper 
time here after, should the event in contemplation occur, to add 
other proofs of my good opinion and respect for him. 

"In the formation of the administration it appears to me that 
the representatives principle ought to be respected in a certain 
degree at least, and that the head of a department (there being 
four) should be taken from the four great sections of the Union, 
the east, the middle, the south and the west. This principle should 
not always be adhered to. Great emergencies and transcendent 
talents would always justify a departure from it. would 
produce a good effect to attend to it when practicable. Each 
part of the Union would be gratified by it, and the knowledge of 
the local details and means which would be thereby brought into 
the cabinet would be useful. I am nowise compromised in respect 
to any one, but free to act, should I have to act according to my 
own judgment in which I am thankful for the opinions of my 
friends, and practically for yours. 

"On the subject of fortifications or works of the defense of .the 
coasts and frontiers, an arrangement has lately been made by the 
President, with which I wish you will be acquainted. You have 
heretofore, I presume, been apprised that General Bernard, of the 
French corps of engineers, under the recommendation of General 
LaFayette, and many others of great distinction in France, has 
offered his services to the United States, and that the President 
has been authorized by a resolution of Congress to accept them, 
confining his rank to the grade of the chief of our corps. This 
resolution being communicated to General Bernard by the late 
Secretary of War, to whom he was known, he came over in compli- 
ance with the invitation which accompanied it. From Mr. Gallitin 
he brought letters, stating that he was the seventh in rank in the 
corps, and inferior to none in reputation and talents, if not the 
first. It required much delicacy in the arrangement to take ad- 
vantage of his knowledge and expierence in a manner acceptable 
to himself, without wounding the feelings of the Officers of our 
own corps, who had rendered such useful services, and were en- 
titled to the confidence and protection of their country. The 
arrangement adopted will, I think accomplish fully both objects. 
The President has instituted a Board of Officers, to consist of five 
members, two of high rank in the corps. General Bernard, the 
engineer at each station (Young Gadsden, for example, at New 
Orleans, and the naval Officer commanding there, whose duty it is 
made to examine the whole coast and report such works as are 
necessary for its defense to the Chief Engineer, who shall report 
the same to the secretary of war, with his ranks, to be laid before 
the President. M'Ree and Totten are spoken of for the two first, 
who, with General Bernard, will continue till the service is per- 
formed, the two latter will change with the station. The General 
commanding each Division will be offically apprised of this en- 

88 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

gagement, that he may be present when he pleases, and give such 
aid as he may think fit. The attention of the Board will be direct- 
ed to the inland frontiers likewise. In this way it is thought that 
the feelings of no one can be hurt. We shall have four of our Offi- 
cers in every consultation against one foreigner, so that if the 
opinion of the latter becomes of any essential use, it must be by 
convincing his colleagues when the\' differ that he has reason on 
his side. I have seen General Bernard, and find him a modest 
unassuming man, who preferred our country in the present state 
of France to any in Europe in some of which he was offered em- 
ployment, and in any of which he may probably have found it. 
He understands that he is never to have command of the corps, 
but always will rank second in it. This letter, you will perceive, 
is highly confidential; a relation which I wish always to exist 
between us. Write me as you have done, without reserve, and 
the more so the more gratifying your communications will be. 
"With great respect and sincere regard, yours, 
"James Monroe." 


"Nashville, JsLnuary 6, 1817. 

"Dear Sir: I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 14th December last, which I have read with 
great interest and much satisfaction. 

"Your idea of the importance of the newly acquired territory 
from the Indians is certainly correct, and all the importance you 
attach to it will be realized. The sooner these land are brought 
into market, the sooner a permanent security will be given to what 
I deem the most important, as well as the most vulnerable, part 
of the Union. This country once settled our fortfications of defense 
in the lower country completed, all Europe will cease to look at 
it with an eye to conquest. There is no other point, America 
united, that combined Europe can expect to invade with success. 

"On the other subjects embraced by my letter, as well as this, 
I gave you my crude ideas with the candor of a friend. I am much 
gratified that you received them as I intended. It was the purest 
friendship for you individually, combined with the good of our 
country that dictated the liberty I took in writing to you. The 
importance of the Station you were about to fill to our country 
and yourself, the injury in reputation that the chief magistrate 
may sustain from the acts of a weak Minister, the various interests 
that will arise to recommend for office their favorite canidate, 
and from experience in the late war the mischief that did arise to 
our national character, by wickedness or weakness, induced me to 
give you my candid opinion on the importance of the character 
that should fill this office. I have made for this purpose the most 
extensive inquiry in my power from the most impartial sources, for 
the most fit character, combining virtue, honor and energy with 
talents, and all united in the individual named. 

JAMES MONROE. 1758-1831. 
Fifth President of the United States. From painting hanging in the White House. 
National Literature, Inc., New York. 

Copyright by Bureau of 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 91 

quarter, or the south or west. By this arrangement there can 
be no cause to suspect unfair combination for improper pur- 
poses. Each member will stand on his own merit, and the people 
will respect us all by our conduct. To each I will act impartially, 
and of each expect the preformance of his duty. While I am here 
I shall make the administration first for the country and its cause, 
secondly, to give effect to the government of the people, through 
me, for the terra of my appointment, not for the aggrandizement 
of any one. 

"With great respect and sincere regards, vour^;, 

"James Monroe." 


"Nashville, March 18th, 1817. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I had the pleasure this day of receiving your letter of the 1st, 
instant. That by General Bernard I have not received. I learned 
by this day's mail that he has reached Knoxville, and will be on in a 
few days. 

"My friend Judge Campbell was instructed and fully authorized 
to make the communication to you that he did, and, I hope gave 
you fully my reasons for my determination and wishes on that 

"I have no hesitation in saying that you have made the best 
selection to fill the Department of State that could be made. Mr. 
Adams, in the hour of difficulty, will be an able helpmate, and I am 
convinced his appointment will afford general satisfaction. 

"No person stands higher in my estimation than . . . He is 
a well tried patriot, and if he accepts will, with the virtuous zeal, 
discharge the duties of the office as far as his abilities will enable 
him. I cannot disguise to you my opinion on this occasion, and I 
am compelled to say to you that the acquirements of this worthy 
man are not competent to the discharge of the multiplied duties 
of this department. I therefore hope he may not accept the ap- 
pointment. I am fearful if he does, he will not add much splendor to 
his present well earned standing as a public character. Should he 
accept, rest assured, as long as I remain in the army it will afford me 
great pleasure in obeying your orders through him, and rendering 
his situation and duty easy and pleasant as far as circumstances 
will place it in my power. 

"I am aware of the difficulties that surround you in the selec- 
tion of your Cabinet, but the plan you have adopted of making 
all consideration yield to the general weal, will bring you to retire- 
ment with the salutations and applause of all the purchase, 
wise and good; and you should be properly seconded by the United 
States. You will be enabled to place the Union in a state of security 
and prosperity that cannot be shaken by the convulsions of Europe. 
To this end you can calculate with confidence on my feeble exer- 
tions, so long as my constitution may permit me to be useful. I 

92 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

have looked forward to that happy period, when, under your 
guidance, our government will be in the 'full tide of successful 
experiment' — when I would retire from public life and endeavor 
to regain a much enfeebled constitution. Should you be properly 
seconded in your views, this period will arrive as soon as the meas- 
ures adopt for the defense of the frontier are carried into effect, 
by completeing those fortifications that have been and may be 
selected for its defense, by erecting founderies and armories, and 
organizing and classing the militia. Then we will have peace, for 
then we will be prepared for war, every man having a gun in his 
hand, all Europe combined cannot hurt us. Then all the world will 
be anxious to be at peace with us, because all will see we wish 
peace with all, but are prepared for defense against those who may 
attempt to infringe our national rights. 

"Accept assurances of my best wishes, and believe me to be 
respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Hon. James Monroe. 

"President of the United States." 



■O £ 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 93 


§ The official proceedings of the Court Martial that s 
^ condemned Arbuthnot and Ambrister to ^ 
SI death, which finding was approved by 52 

9 General Jackson. 52 

5? 5H 



Before sunrise on April 29th., 1818, on the order of Gen. Jackson 
approving the finding of a Court Martial, the execution of Ar- 
buthnot and Ambrister gave rise to tremendous consequences that 
no one foresaw at the time. The execution became a political 
issue of National importance and consequences flowed from it that 
directly and profoundly influenced the destiny of many political 

On January 12th., 1819, the House of Representatives 
began one of the greatest debates that ever took place in either 
branch of Congress. This debate lasted twenty-seven days and 
from Henry Clay's assault on Jackson in that debate dated Jack- 
son's bitter hatred of Clay that lasted until Old Hickory passed 
to the Eternal Judgment. The issue of the debate was the ques- 
tion : 


On February 8th., 1819, the vote of the Committee of the 
whole of the House was taken and resulted in complete vindi- 
cation of Jackson. Ayes 54, noes 90. Happily the members of the 
Court Martial have come down to us and we have their names, 
the charges and specifications against the two prisoners, the names 
and testimony of each witness and the defense set up by each of the 
two defendants. 

The president of the Court Martial was Major-General Edmond 
P. Gaines, one of the most distinguished and accompHshed officers 
in the American Army, and the members of the court consisted of 
officers of character and standing in both the regular and volunteer 
services. This court found both Arbuthnot and Ambrister guilty, 

94 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

and Jackson, as the commanding officer, confirmed the finding. 
We think that students of history generally at this day, and es- 
pecially those who closely study Jackson's career, will read with 
attention the minutes of the proceedings of the Court Martial 
and acquaint themselves with the exact testimony on which Jack- 
son acted. 

"trial op arbuthnot and ambrister. 


"Minutes of the proceedings of a special court organized agree- 
ably to the following order, viz: 

"adjutant general's OFFICE, 

Fort St. Mark's, 26th April, 1818. 
Headquarters, Division of the South. 
"General order — The following detail will compose a special court, 
to convene at this post at the hour of 12 o'clock M. for the piurpose 
of investigating the charges exhibited against A. Arbuthnot, Robert 
Christy Ambrister, and such others, who are similarly situated, as 
may be brought before it. 

"The court will record all the documents and testimony in the 
several cases, and their opinion as to the guilt or innocence of the 
prisoners, and what punishment, (if any) should be inflicted. 


Major general E. P. Gaines, president. 

Col. King, 4th Infantry, Col. Dyer, Ten. Vol. 

Col. Williams, Ten. Vol. U. Col. Lindsav, Cor. Ar. 

Lt. Col. Gibson, Ten. Vol. Lt. Col. Elliot, Ten. Vol. 

Maj. Muhlenburg, 4th Inf. Maj. Fanning, Cor. Ar. 

Maj. Montgomery, 7th Inf. Maj. Minton, Geo. MiU, 

Capt. Vashon, 7th Inf. Capt. Crittenden, K'y vol. 

Lt. J. M. Glassel, 7th infantry, recorder. 

An orderly will be detailed from Gen. Gaines' brigade, and the 
court will sit without regard to hours. 

Bv order of major general Jackson, 

Robert Butler, Adj. Gen. 
Fort St. Marks, 26th April, 1818. 

"The court convened pursuant to the foregoing order, when 
being duly sworn, in the presence of the prisoner, and he being asked 
if he had any objections to any member thereof, and replying in the 
negative, the following charges and specifications were read, viz: 

"Charges vs. A. Arbuthnot, now in custody, and who says he 
he is a British subject: 

Charge 1st— Exciting and stirring up the Creek Indians to war 
against the United States, and her citizens, he (A. Arbuthnot) be- 
ing a subject of Great Britain, with whom the United States are at 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 95 

"Specifications — That the said A. Arbuthnot, between the 
months of April and July, or sometime in June 1817, wrote a letter 
to the little Prince, exhorting and advising him not to comply with 
the treaty of fort Jackson, stating that the citizens of the United 
States were infringing on the treaty of Ghent, and, as he believed, 
without knowledge of the chief magistrate of the United States; 
and advising the Upper and Lower Creeks to unite and be friendly, 
stating that William Hambly was the cause of their disputes; also 
advising the little Prince to write to the governor of New Provi- 
dence, who would write to his royal highness the prince regent, 
through whom the United States would be called to a compliance 
with the treaty of Ghent, and advising them not to give up their 
lands, under the treaty of fort Jackson, for that the American 
citizeps would be compelled to give up to them all their lands, under 
the treaty of Ghent. 

"Charge 2d — Acting as a spy, and aiding, abetting and com- 
forting the enemy, supplying them with the means of war. 

"Specification 1st — In writing a letter from the fort of St. Marks, 
dated 2d April, 1818, to his son John, at Suwany, (marked A) de- 
tailing the advance of the army under Gen. Jackson, stating their 
force, probable movements, and intentions, to be communicated 
to Bowlegs, the chief of the Suwany towns, for his government. 

"Specification 2d — In writing the letters marked B, without date 
and C, enclosures, 27th Jan., 1818, and D, called 'a note of Indian 
talks,' and E, without date, applying to the British government, 
through governor Cameron, for munitions of war and assistance 
for our enemies; making false representations; and also applying 
to yir. Bagot, British Ambassador, for his interference, with a 
statement on the back of one of the letters of munitions of war for 
the enemy. 

"Charge 3d — Exciting the Indians to murder and destroy William 
Hambly and Edmund Doyle, and causing their arrest with a view 
to their condemnation to death, and the seizufe of their property, 
on account of their active and zealous exertions to maintain peace 
between Spain, the United States and the Indians, they being 
citizens of the Spanish government. 

"Specifications 1st — In writing the letters marked F, dated 26th 
August, 1817; G, dated 13th May, 1817: and H, threatening them 
with death, alleging against them false and infamous charges, and 
using every means in his power to procure their arrest. All which 
writings and sayings excited, and had a tendency to excite, the 
negroes and Indians to acts of hostility against the United States. 

"By order of the court, 

* "J. M. Glassel, Recorder. 

"To which charges and specifications the prisoner pleaded NOT 

"The prisoner having made application for counsel, it was granted 
him ; when the court proceeded to the examination of the evidence. 
John Winslett, a witness on the part of the prosecution, being duly 

96 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennesseh; History 

sworn, stated, that some time before last July the little Prince re- 
ceived a letter signed by Mr. Arbuthnot, advising the upper part of 
the nation to unite with the lower chiefs in amity ; and stating the 
best mode for them to repossess themselves of their lands; would 
be to write to Him (Arbuthnot) and he would send complaints 
to the governor of Providence, whence it would be forwarded to 
his Britannic majesty, and he would have the terms of the treaty 
of Ghent attended to. He moreover stated his belief that the en- 
croachment on the Indian lands were unknown to the president of 
the United States. The witness also identified the signature of 
the prisoner in a letter to his son marked A, and referred to in the 
first specification, in the second charge, and heretofore noted, as 
the same with that sent to the little Prince. 

"The witness on being further interrogated, stated the language 
of the letter alluded to, to be, the British Government on appli- 
cation would cause to be restored to them their lands they held in 
1811, agreeably to the terms of the treaty of Ghent. 

"Question by the prisoner — Who is this little Prince? is he 
known by any other name ? 

' Ans. He is known by the name of Tustcnukke Hopin, and is 
the second chief of the nation. 

"Question by the prisoner. — Where is the letter you allude to, 
or in whose possession? 

"Ans. It was left in possession of the Little Prince when I last 
saw it. 

"Question by the prisoner. — Has the little Prince no other name 
than what you state ? 

"Ans. Not that I know of. 

"Question by the prisoner. — Do you swear that the ktter alluded 
to was addressed to the Little Prince ? 

"Ans. I do not. It was presented to me by the Little Prince 
to read and interpret for him, which I did. 

"Question by the prisoner. — Are you certain that the letter stated 
that the chief magistrate of the United States could have no know- 
ledge of settlements made on Indian lands or injuries committed? 

"Ans. Theletterstated that to be the belief of the writer. "John 
Lewis Phoenix, a witness on the part of the prosecution being duly 
stated with regard to the 1st specification of the 2nd charge, that 
being at Suwany in the town about the 6th or 7th of April, he was 
awakened in the morning by Mr. Ambrister's receiving, by the 
hands of a negro, who got it from an Indian, a letter from St. Marks 
at that time stated by Ambrister to be from the prisoner. 

"Question by the prisoner — Did you see that letter or hear it read ? 

"Ans. I did see the paper, but did not hear it read. 

"Question by the prisoner. — Did you state that the letter was 
received by an Indian express ? 

"Ans. vSo the black man that delivered it said. 

"A question being raised by a member of the court as to the juris- 
diction on the third charge and its specification, the doors were 


Andrew Jackson and Karly Tfcnnessei: History 97 

closed, and, after mature dclberation, they decided that this court 
is incompetent to take cognizance of the offenses alledged in that 
charge and specification. 

"Peter B. Cook, a former clerk to the prisoner, and a witness on 
the part of the prosecution, being duly sworn, stated that about 
December or January last, the prisoner had a large quanity of 
powder and lead brought to Suwany in his vessel, which he sold to 
the Indians and negroes, that, subsequent to that time, when he 
cannot recollect, Ambrister brought for the prisoner in his (the 
Prisoner's) vessel, nine kegs of powder and a large quanity of lead, 
w^hich was taken possession of by the negroes. The w'itness also 
indentified to the following letters, referred to in the foregoing 
charges and specifications, marked A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H, 
as being the prisoner's hand writing; also the power of attorney 
No. 1, granted bv the Indians to A. Arbuthnot. 


"from a. arbuthnot to his son, arbuthnot, dated 
fort st. marks 2nd. april, 1818, 9 o'clock 
in the morning. 
"Dear John: 

"As I am ill able to write a long letter, it is necessary to be 
brief. Before my arrival here the commandant had received an 
express from the governor of Pensacola, informing him of a large 
embarkation of troops, & C. under the immediate command of 
general Jackson ; and the boat that brought the despatch reckoned 
eighteen sail of vessels off Appalachicola. By a deserter that 
was brought here by the Indians, the commandant was informed 
that 3,000 men, under the orders of General Jackson, 1000, foot 
and 1,600 horse, under general Gaines, 500 under another general, 
were at Prospect Bluff, where they are rebuilding the burnt fort; 
that 1,000 Indians, of different nations, were at Spanish Bluff, 
building another fort, under the direction of American officers; 
that so soon as these forts were built they intended to march. 
They have commenced. Yesterday morning advice was received 
that they had appeared near — and taken two of the sons of 
M'Queen, and an Indian. Late in the afternoon, three schooners 
came to anchor at the mouth of the river, and this morning the 
American flag is seen flying on the largest. 

"I am blocked here; no Indians will come with me, and I am 
now suffering from the fatigue of coming here alone. 

"The main drift of the Americans is to destroy the black pop- 
ulation of Suwany. Tell my friend Boleck, that it is throwing 
away his people, to attempt to resist such a powerful force as will 
be drawn on Sahwahnee; and as the troops advance by land, so 
will the vessels by sea. Endeavor to get all the goods over the 
river in a place of security, as also the skins of all sorts; the corn 
must be left to its fate. So soon as the Sahwahnee is destroyed, 
I expect the Americans will be satisfied and retire : this is only my 
opinion, but I think it is conformable to the demand made by 

98 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Gen. Gaines to king Hatchy some months since: in fact, do all 
you can to save all you can save, the books particularly. It 
is probable the commandant will receive some communication 
from the vessels to day, when he will know more certainly what are 
their motives in coming off the fort. I think it is only to shut up 
the passage of the Indians. Twenty canoes went down yesterday, 
and were forced to return. The road between this and Mick- 
asucky is said to be stopped, Hillisajo and Him.athlo Mico were 
here last night, to hear what vessels: they will remove all their 
cattle and effects across St. Marks river this morning, and perhaps 
wait near thereto for the event. 

"I have been as brief as I can to give you the substance of what 
appears facts, that cannot be doubted, to enter into details in the 
present moment is useless. If the schooner is returned, get all the 
goods on board of her, and let her start off for Alounater Creek, 
in the bottom of Cedar Key bay. You will there only have the 
skins to hide away. But no delay must take place, as the vessels 
will, no doubt, follow the land army, and perhaps, even now some 
have gone round. I pray your strictest attention, for the more 
that is saved will be, eventually, more to your interest. Let the 
bearer have as much calico as will make him two shirts, for his 
trouble: he has promised to deliver this in three, but I give him 
four days. 

I am yours, affectionately, 

"A. Arbuthnot." 

"from a. arbuthnot to CHAS. CAMERON, GOV. BAHAMAS. 


"Being empowered by the chiefs of the Lower Creek nation to 
represent the state of their nation to your excellency, that you 
may be pleased to forward the same for the information of his 
majesty's government, to whom alone they look for protection 
against the aggressions and encroachments of the Americans, I beg 
leave to submit to your excellency the enclosed representations, 
humbly praying that your excellency will be pleased to take an 
early opportunity of forwarding the same to Great Britian. 

"I am instructed by Bowleck, chief of the Sahwahnee, to make 
the demand herein enclosed, he never having had any share of the 
presents distributed at prospect Bluff, though he rendered equally 
essential services as any of the other Chiefs to the British cause, 
while at war with America, and was at New Orleans with a part of 
his warrors. His frontiers being more exposed to the predatory 
incursions of the back Georgians, who enter his territory and driv^e 
off his cattle, he is obliged to have large parties out, to watch their 
motions and prevent their plundering. And, being now deficient 
of ammunition, he prays your excellency will grant his small de- 
mand humbly submitting the same. 

"I have the honor to be vour excellency's most humble servant. 

"A. A." 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennrssee History 99 

"the humble representations of the chiefs of the 
creek nation to his excellency governor cameron. 

"First, we beg leave to represent, that Edmund Doyle and Wm. 
Hambly, lately clerks, at Prospect Bluff, to Messrs. Forbes &c., 
and who still reside on the Appalachichola River, we consider as 
the principal cause of our present troubles and uneasiness. Ham- 
bly was the instrumental cause of the Fort at Prospect Bluff being 
destroyed by the Americans, by which we lost the supplies intended 
for our future wars. Since then, both these men have kept their 
emissaries among us, tending to harass and disturb our repose, and 
that of our brethren of the middle and upper nation; they spread 
among us reports that the Cowetas, aided by the Americans, are 
descending to drive us off our land; they equally propagate false." 


27TH. of JANUARY, 1818. 


"The enclosed, containing matter of serious moment, and de- 
manding the immediate attention of his excellency the British 
Embassador, I trust he will, for this time forgive the trifling ex- 
pense of postage, which I have endeavored to prevent as much as 
possible by compressing much matter in one sheet of paper. Should 
you sir, be put to any trouble or expense by this trouble I give you by 
being made acquainted with the same, I will instruct Bain, Dun- 
shee and Co. to order payment of the same. I have the honor to 
be sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

"A. Arbuthnot. 

"from a. arbuthnot to the HON. CHARLES BAGGOT. 


"It is with pain I again obtrude myself upon your excellencie's 
notice, but the pressing solicitations of the Chiefs of the Creek 
Nation, and the deplorable situation in which they are placed by 
the wanton aggressions of the Americans, I trust, your excellency 
will take as a sufficient apology for the present intrusion. 

"In August last the head chief of the Seminole Indians re- 
ceived a letter from Gen. Gaines, of which I have taken the liberty 
of annexing your excellency the contents, as delivered me by the 
Chief's head English interpreter, with King Hahhy's reply thereto. 

"This letter appears to have been intended to sound the dis- 
position of the chief and ascertain the force necessary to overrun 
the nation; for ftom then until the actual attack was made on 
Fowl Town, the same general with Gen. Jackson, seemed to have 
been collecting troops and settling in various quarters. 

"If your excellency desires to have further information re- 
specting the situation of this country and its inhabitants I can 

100 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

from time to time, inform your excellency of such facts and cir- 
cumstances as are stated to me by Chiefs of known veracity, 
or which may come under my own observation; and your excel- 
lency, s order addressed to me at New Providence will either find 
me there or be forw'arded me to this country. 

"With great respect I have the honor to be your excellency's 
obedient servant, "A. A. 

"the following memorandum was on the pack of the 
foregoing letter 

King Hahhy 1,000, Boleck, 1,500, Oso Hatjo Choctawhachy 
500, Himashy Miso Chattchichy 600, at present with Hillisajo. 
At present under arms, 1,000 and more ; and attacking those Amer- 
icans who have made inroads on their territory. 

"A quantity of gun powder, lead, muskets and flints, sufficient 
to arm 1,000 or 2,000 men; muskets 1,000, arms smaller if possible; 
10,000 flints, a proportion for rifle put up separate; 50 casks gun 
powder, a proportion for Rifle ; 2,000 knives, 6 to 9 inch blade good, 
quality; 1000 Tomahawks; 100 pounds vermillion; 2000 pounds 
lead, independent of ball for muskets. 

"(Signed) King Hahhv. 
"(Signed) Boleck. 


' 'To the Seminoly chief : 

"Your Seminoly's are very bad people; I don't say whom. 
You have murdered many of my people, and stolen my cattle and 
many good horses that cost me money; and many good houses, 
that cost me money, you have burnt for me ; and now that you see 
my writing you will think I have spoken right. I know it is so; 
you know it is so ; for now you may say, I will go upon you at ran- 
dom; but just give me the murders, and I will shew them my law 
and when that is finished and passed, if you will come about any of 
my people, you will see your friends, and if you see me you will 
see your friend, but there is something out in the Sea, a bird with 
a forked tongue ; whip him back before he lands for he will be the 
ruin of you yet. Perhaps you do not know who or what I mean — 
I mean the name of English men. 

"I tell you this, that if you do not give me up the murderers, 
who have murdered my people, I say I have got good strong war- 
riors, with scalping knives and Tomahawks you harbour a great 
many of my black people among you, at Sahwahnee. If you give 
me leave to go by you against them, I shall not hurt anything 
belonging to you. "General Gaines. 

"from king HATCHY to general GAINES, IN ANSWER 

"To General Gaines: You charge me with killing your people, 
stealing your cattle and burning your houses. It is I that have 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 101 

cause to complain of the Americans. While one American has 
been justly killed while in the act of stealing cattle more than 
four Indians have been murdered while hunting by these lawless 
freebooters. I harbour no negroes. When the Englishmen 
were at war with America, some took shelter among them, and it 
is for you white people to settle these things among yourselves and 
not trouble us with what we know nothing about. I shall use 
force to stop any armed Americans from passing my Towns or my 


"note of INDIAN TALKS. 

"In August, Capp had a letter from Gen. Gaines, in substance 
as annexed, No. 1, and returned the answer as by No. 2. Nothing 
further was said on either side. The end of October, a party of 
Americans from a fort on Flint River, surrounded Fowl Town 
during the night and began burning it. 

"The Indians then in it fled to the swamps, and in their flight 
had three persons killed by fire from the Americans; they rallied 
their people, and forced the Americans to retire some distance 
but not before they had two more persons killed, the Americans 
built a block-house or Fort where they had fallen back to and 
immediately sent to the Fort up the county for assistance, stating 
the Indians were the aggressors; and also settled with Tohemock 
for the loss his people had suffered, at the same time sending a 
talk to King Hatchy, by a head man (Aping) that he would put 
things in such a train as to prevent further encroachments and get 
those Americans to leave the fort. But no sooner was the good 
talk given and before the bearer returned home, then hundreds of 
Americans came pouring down on the Indians; roused them to a 
sense of their own danger, they flew to arms, and have been compell- 
ed to support them ever since. It is not alone from the country but 
by vessels entering Appalachicola River in Vessels with troops, and 
settlers are pouring into the Indian territory; and, if permitted 
to continue, will soon over run the whole of the Indian lands. 
From the talk sent King Hatchy by Gov. Mitchell, I am in hopes 
that those aggressions of the Americans on the Indian Territory are 
not countenanced by the American government, but originate 
with men devoid of principle, who set laws and instructions at 
defiance and stick at no oppressions to obtain their ends. Against 
such oppressions the American government must use not only al 
their influence, but if necessary, force, or their names will be han- 
ded down to posterity as a nation more cruel and savage to the 
unfortunate Aboriginies of this country then ever were the Span- 
iards in more dark ages, to the nations of South America. 

"The English government as the special protectors of the 
Indian nations, and on whom alone they rely for assistance, ought 
to step forward and save those unfortunate people from ruin; 
and as you, sir, are appointed to watch over their interests it is 

102 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

my duty, as an Englishman, and the only one in this part of the 
Indian Nation, to instruct you of the talks the chiefs bring me for 
your information, and I sincerely trust, sir, you will use the powers 
you are vested with for the service and protection of those un- 
fortunate people who look up to you as their savior. I have writ- 
ten to General Mitchell, who, I hear, is an excellent man; and, as 
he acts as Indian Agent I hope his influence will stop the torrent 
of innovations, and give peace and quitness to the Creek Nation. 

"I pray your excellency will pardon this intrusion, which 
nothing but the urgency of the case would have induced me to 

"I have the honor to be your excellency's most obedient ser- 
vant. "A. A. 

"Extract of letter f 
"from a. arbuthnot to col. nicholl. 

"Nassau, N. P. 26th. Aug. 1817. 
"Lt. Col. Edward Nicholl: 

"Especially authorized by the chiefs of the lower Creek Nation, 
whose names I affixed to the present, I am desired to address you 
that you may lay their complaints before his majesty's govern- 
ment. They desire it to be made known, that they have explicitly 
followed your advice. They complain of the English government 
neglecting them, after having drawn them into a war with Amer- 
ica; that you, sir, have not kept your promise, in sending people 
among them, and that, if they have not persons resident in the 
nation to watch over their interest they will soon be driven to the 
extremity of the penninsula. I am desired to return Hillisajo's 
warmest acknowledgments for the very handsome manner you 
treated him in England, and he begs his prayer may be laid at the 
feet of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent. I left him and all 
his family well on the 20th Jime. Old Cappachimicco desires me 
to send his best respects, and requests that you will send over some 
people to live among them, and all the land they took from Forbs 
shall be theirs. At all events they must have an agent among 
them. The powers given me and the instructions were to me- 
morialize his Majesty's government, as well as the Governor Gen- 
eral of the Havanna; but if you will be pleased to lay this letter 
before his Majesty's Secretary of State, it will save the necessity 
of the first, and I fear that a memorial to the Governor General 
would be of no use. 

"Refering you to the answer, I am, most respectfully, your 
obedient servant, "A. Arbuthnot. 

"No. 1. 

"power of attorney from INDIAN CHIEFS TO A. ARBUTHNOT. 

"Know all men by these presents, that we chiefs of the Creek 
nation, whose names are affixed to this power, having full faith and 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tenxesser History 103 

confidence in A. Arbuthnot, of New-Providence, who, knowing 
all of our talks, is fully acquainted with out intentions and wishes, 
do hereby, by these presents, constitute and appoint him, the said 
Alexander Arbiithnot, our attorney and agent, with full power and 
authority to act for us, and in our names, in all affairs relating to 
our nation, and also to write such letters and papers as to him 
may appear necessary and proper, for our benfit, and that of the 
Creek nation. 

"Given at Ocklocknee sound, in the Creek nation, this 17th. 
day of June, one thousand eight hundred and seventeen. 

1. Cappachimaco, his X mark. 

2. Inlemohtlo, his X mark. 

3. Charles Tuckonoky, his X mark. 

4. Otus Mico, his X mark. 

5. Ochacone Tustonoky, his X mark. 

6. Imatchlucle, his X mark. 

7. Inhimatcchucle, his X mark. 

8 Lohoe Itamatchly, his X mark. 
9. Howrathle, his X mark. 

10. Hillisajo, his X mark. 

1 1. Tamuches Haho, his X mark. 

12. Oparthlomico, his X mark. 

"Certified explanation of names and towns to which the fore- 
going chiefs belong, agreeably to the numbers set opposite thereto. 

"Wm. Hambly. 

1. Kinhigee, chief of Mickasuky. 

2. Inhimarthlo, chief of Fowl Town. 

3. Charle Tustonoky, second chief of Ockmulgee Town 

4. Chief on the Conholoway, below Fort Gaines. 

5. Opony chief of Oakmulgee Town. 

6. Chief of the Atlapalgas. 

7. Chief of Pallatchucoley. 

8. Chief of the Chehaws. 

9 Chief of the Red Sticks. 

10. Francis (the Prophet). 

11. Peter M' Queen, chief of the Tallahasscs (an old Red 

12. A Red Stick, created chief by the lower towns. 

"Questions by the Court: Have you at any time within the 
last twelve months, heard any conversation between the prisoner 
and the chief called Bowlegs, relating to the war between the 
United State and the Seminoles ? 

Ans. I heard the prisoner tell Bowlegs that he had sent 
letters to the Prince Regent, and expected soon to have an answer. 
Sometime afterwards, some of the negroes doubted his carrying 
those letters, when the prisoner stated that he had, but, the dis- 
tance being great, it would take some time to receive an answer. 

104 Andrew Jacksox and Early Trnnesser History 

''By the Court. State to the Court, when and where you first 
saw the letter signed A. Arbuthnot, dated April 2nd., 1818, refer- 
red to in the first specification and the second charge. 

"Ans. About the 6th of April, a black man who said he had 
received it from an Indian, gave it to Mr. Ambrister, whom I saw- 
reading it. 

"Question by the Court: Do you know by what means that 
letter was conveyed to Suwany ? 

"Ans. I understood by an Indian who was sent from Fort St. 

"Question by the Court. Who paid the Indian for carrying the 
letter referred to in the last interrogatory ? 

"Ans. I do not know. 

"Question by the Court: What steps were taken by the ne- 
groes and Indians on the receipt of the letter ? 

"Ans. They first believed the bearer to be an enemy, and 
confined him, but, learning the contrary, began to prepare for the 
enemy, and the removal of their families and effects across the 
river; the Indians lived on the opposite side. 

"Question by the Court: Did the Indians and negroes act 
together in the performance of military duty ? 

"Ans. No. But they always said they would fight together. 

"Question by the Court: Did not Nero command the black 
and did not Bowlegs own Nero, and was not the latter under the 
immediate command of Bowlegs ? 

"Ans. Nero commanded the blacks, and was owned and 
commanded by Bowlegs — But there was some negro captains who 
obeyed none but Nero. 

"Question by the Court: What vessel brought to Suwany the 
ammunition which you said was sold by the prisoner to the Indians 
and negroes i" 

"Ans. The schooner Chance, now lying at this wharf; she is 
a foretopsail vessel belonging to the prisoner. 

"The witness also indentified to the manuscript' of the prisoner 
on the following documents, viz: No. 1, granting him full power 
to act in all cases for the Indians, as recorded before; and also 
a letter without signature, to the Governor of "St. Augustine, 
numbered 2; and further, a letter without date, to Mr. Mitchell, 
the Indian agent, numbered 3; and an unsigned petition of the 
chiefs of the Lower Creek Nation, to governor Cameron, praying 
his aid in men and munitions of war, numbered 4; all of which the 
witness stated to be in the handwriting of the prisoner. 

"extract of petition no. 4. 

"petition of the chiefs of the lower CREEK 
nation, to governor CAMERON. 

"We, the undersigned, deputed by the Creek nation to wait 
on your Excellency, and lay before you their heavy complaints. 
To the English, we have always looked up to as friend, as pro- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 105 

lectors, and on them we now call to aid us in repelling the ap- 
proaching of the Americans. When peace was made between the 
English and the Americans, we were told by Lieut. Col. NichoUs, 
that the Americans were to give up all our land they had taken 
from us. Col. Nicholls left JNIr. Hambly in charge of the Fort 
at Prospect Bluff; with orders to hear us, if any cause of complaint, 
and present the same to the British government; but he turned 
traitor, and brought the Americans down on the fort, which was 
blown up, and many of our red brethren destroyed in it. We are 
therefore deputed to demand of your Excellency the assistance of 
troops and ammunition that we may be able effectually to repell 
the attacks of the Americans, and prevent their further encroach- 
ments; and if we return without assistance, the Americans, who 
have their spies among us, will the more quickly come upon us. 
We most humbly pray your excellency will send us such a force 
as will be respected, and make us respectable. 

' ' (The following endorsed on the foregoing) : 
"Charles Cameron, Esquire, Governor, Commander in Chief, 
&c, &c: 

"I beg leave to represent to your excellency the necessity of my 
again returning to the Indian Nation, with the deputies from the 
Chiefs, and as my trouble and expense can only be defrayed by 
permission to take goods to dispose of amongst them, I pray your 
Excellency will be pleased to grant me such a letter or license, as 
will prevent me from being captured in case of meeting any Spanish 
cruizer on the coast of Florida. 

"The Court adjourned to meet tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock. 

"Fort St. Marks, 28th April, 1818. 
"The Court convened pursuant to adjournment. Present; 
Major General E. P. Gaines, President. 

Col. King, Colonel Dyer, 

Col. Williams, U. Col. Lindsey, 

Lt. Col. Gibson, U. Col. Elliott, 

Major Muhlenburg, Major Fanning, 

Major Montgomery, Major Minton, 

Captain Vashon, Captain Crittenden, 

Lt. J. M. Glassell, Recorder. 
"Then the further examination of the witness, Peter B. Cook, 
took place, viz: 

"Question by the Prisoner: — How long have you been acquaint- 
ed with the settlements on the sahwahnee ? 
"Ans. Between six and seven months. 

"Question by the P. For what term of years did you engage to 
live with the prisoner ? 

"Ans. For no stated period— I was taken by the year. 
"Ques. by the P. Were you not discharged by the prisoner 
from his employ ? 

106 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Ans. He told me he had no further use for mc after I had 
written the letters to Providence. 

"Oues. Where did you stay after you were discharged? 

"Ans. I staid in a small house belonging to a boy called St. 
John, under the protection of Nero. 

"Question. What was the subject matter of the letters you 
wrote to Providence? 

"Ans. After being accused by the Prisoner a small venture 
to Providence, I wrote my friend for the means to trade by myself. 

"Question by the prisoner: Do you believe the prisoner had 
knowledge of the ventures being on board the schooner ? 

"Ans. I don't believe he did. It was small and in my trunk. 

"Ques. by the P. Do you know that Ambrister was the agent 
of the prisoner ? 

"Ans. I do not. 

"Question. Do you think that the powder and the lead shipped 
would more than supply the Indians and negro hunters ? 

"Ans. I did not see the powder and lead myself, but was told 
by Bowlegs that he had a great quanity he had there keeping to 
fight with. 

"Ques. Did the Indians reside on the east side of the river? 

"Ans. They did. 

"Ques. You were asked if the negroes and the Indians, when 
the letter marked 'A' was communicated, did not take up arms; 
had they received information of the defeat of the Indians at 
Mickasuky prior to that time ? 

"Ans. It was afterwards, I believe, they received the in- 

"Ques. Did not Bowlegs keep other powder than that gotten 
from the prisoner? 

"Ans. He had some he got from the Bluff which was nearly 
done ; he said his hunters were always bothering him about powder. 

"Ques. Did you state that at the time Ambrister ascended 
the river there was no other vessel at the mouth of the river? 

"Ans. There was none other there; there was one had sailed. 

"Ques. There is a letter A spoken of ;how do you know that 
the son of the prisoner had that letter in his possession ? 

"Ans. I saw him with it, which he dropped, and a boy, called 
John, picked up and gave it to me. 

"Ques. You stated that the Indians and negroes doubted 
fidelity of the prisoner in sending letters to the prince regent — 
do you think the prisoner would have been punished by them, 
had he not complied with their wishes ? 

"Ans. I do not know. 

"Ques. Do you believe the prisoner was compelled to write 
the Indian communications ? 

"Ans. He was not compelled. 

"Continuation of the minutes of the proceedings of a special 
Court whereof major general Gaines is president, convened by 
order of the 26th of April, 1818. 

"Fort St. Marks, 27th April, 1818. 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennrssre History 107 

"The Court proceeded with the trial of Robert C. Ambrister, 
a British subject, who, being asked if he had any objection to any 
one of the members of the Court, and replying in the negative, 
was arraigned on the following charges and specifications, viz: 
"Charges against Robert C. Ambrister, now in custody, who 
says he is a British subject. 

"Chai'ged first. Aiding, abetting, and comforting the enemy, 
supplying them with the means of war, he being a subject of 
great Britian, at peace with the United States, and lately an officer 
in the British Colonial marines. 

"Specification 1st. That the said Robert C. Ambrister did 
give intelligence of the movements and operations of the American 
army between the first and twentith of March, 1818, and did ex- 
cite them (the negroes and Indians) to war against the army of the 
United States, by sending their warriors to meet and fight the 
American army — whose government was at peace and friendship 
with the United States, and all her citizens. 

"Charged second. Leading and commanding the Lower Creeks 
in carrying on a war against the United States. 

"Specification 1st. That the said Robert C. Ambrister, a 
subject of Great Britian, which government was at peace and 
amity with the United States and all her citizens, did, between 
the first of February and twentieth of March, 1818, levy war 
against the United States, by assuming command of the Indians 
in hostility and open war with the United States, and ordering 
a party of them to meet the army of the. United States and give 
them battle as will appear by his letters to Governor Cameron 
of New Providence, dated 20th March, 1818, which was marked 
A, B, C and D, and the testimony of Mr. Peter B. Cook, and Cap- 
tain Lewis, of the Schooner Chance. 
By order of the court, 

J. M. Glassell, Recorder. 
"To which charges and specifications, pleaded as follows, viz: 
"To the first charge and specification — Not guilty. 
"To the second charge and specification — Guilty and justifica- 

"The Court adjourned to meet tomorrow morning at seven 

Fort St. Marks, 28th April, 1818. 
"The Court met pursuant to adjournment. Present: 
Major General Gaines, president. 
Col. King, Colonel Dyer, 

Col. Williams, Lt. Col. Lindsev, 

Lt. Col. Gibson, Lt. Col. Elliott,' 

Major Muhlenberg, Major Fanning, 

Major Montgomery, Major Minton, 

Captain Vashon, Captain Crittenden, 

Lt. Col. J. M. Glassell, Recorder, 

108 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennkssee History 

"The Recorder then read to the court the following order, viz: 
"Headquarters Division of the South, Adj. Gen.'s Office, 

"St. Marks, 2Sth April, 1818. 
"General Order. — Captain Allison, of the 7th Infantry, is detailed 
to form a supernumerary member of the special court now sitting 
at Fort St. Marks. 

"By order 
"Robert Butler, Adj. Gen. 

"Pursuant to the above order, the supernumerary member took 
his seat. 

"John Lewis Phoenix, a witness on the part of the prosecution, 
being duly sworn, stated that, about the 5th or 6th of April, 1818, 
his vessel and himself having been captured by the prisoner, and 
he brought to Suwany as a prisoner, there was alarm among the 
negroes and Indians, created by learning some news from Mick- 
asuky, at which time the present appeared active in sending orders 
and sending detachment to meet the American army. The witness 
also stated that the prisoner appeared to be a person vested with 
authority among the negro leader, and gave orders for their pre- 
paration for war, providing ammunition, etc. And that the leader 
came to him for orders. The prisoner furnished them with powder 
and lead and recommended to them the making of balls, sign & c. 
very quickly. The witness also stated that the prisoner occasion- 
allv dressed in uniform, with his sword; and that, on the first alarm, 
which he understood was from Mickasuky, by a negro woman, he 
put on the uniform. 

"The witness further stated that, sometime about the 20th of 
March, 1818, the prisoner, with an armed body of negroes, (24 in 
number) came on board his vessel and ordered him to pilot them 
to Fort St Marks, which, he stated, he intended to capture before 
the Americans could get there — threatened to hang the witness if 
he did not obey. 

"Question by the Court; Did you ever understand by whose 
authority, and for what purpose the accused came into the country ? 

"Ans. I have frequently heard him say, he came to attend to 
Mr. Woodbine's business at the Bay of Tamper. 

"Question by the prisoner: Did I not tell you, when I came on 
board the schooner Chance, I wished you would pilot me to St. 
Marks, as I was informed that two Americans by the names of 
Hambly and Doyle, were confined there and wished to have them 
releaved from their confinement ? 

"Ans. You stated you wanted to get Hambly and Doyle from 
St. Marks. I do not know what w^ere your intentions in so doing. 

"Ques. Did I not tell you that I expected the Indians would 
fire upon me when arriving at St. Marks. ? 

"Ans. You did not; you stated that you intended to take the 
fort, in the night by surprise. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 109 

"Ques. Did you see me give ammunition to the negroes and 
Indians; and, if so, how much, and at what time ? 

"Ans. I saw you give powder and lead to the negroes when you 
came on board and advised them to make balls; and I saw you give 
liquor and paint to the Indians. 

"Ques. Have you not often heard me say, between the 1st and 
20th of April, that I would not have anything to do with the negroes 
and Indians in exciting them to war with the United States? 

"Ans. About the 15th of April, I heard you say that you would 
not have anything to do with the negroes and Indians ; I heard noth- 
ing about exciting them to war. 

"Ques. Can you read writing? 

"Ans. Not English writing. 

"Ques. Did you not hear me say when arriving at Suwany, that 
I wished to be off immediately for Providence ? 

"Ans. I did not; after the alarm, you said you wished to be off 
for Tamper. 

"Ques. Did you not say to the accused you wished to visit Mr. 
Arthur Arbuthnot, at his store on Suwanv, and get provisions vour- 

"Ans. I did not; I stated I wanted to visit him. 

"Ques. Did I send or command any Indians to go and fight the 
Americans ? 

"Ans. I did not exactly know that you 5ent them; the Indians 
and negroes were crowded before your door and you were dividing 
the paint &c. among them; and I understood a party was going 
to march. 

"Ques. Did I not give up the schooner to you in charge, as 
captain ? 

"Ans. After our return from Suwany Town, you directed me 
to take charge of her to go to Tamper. 

"John I Arbuthnot, a witness on the part of the prosecution, 
being duly sworn, stated that some time about the 23rd. of March, 
the prisoner came with a body of negroes, partly armed, to his 
father's store on Suwany river, and told the witness he had come 
to do justice to the country, by taking the goods and distributing 
them among the negroes and Indians which the witness saw the 
prisoner do; and that the prisoner stated to him, that he had come 
to the Country on Woodbine's business, to see the negroes righted. 
The witness has further known the prisoner to give orders to the 
the negroes, and that, at his suggestion, a party was sent from 
Suwany to meet the Americans, to givC them battle — which party 
returned on meeting the Mickasuky Indians in their flight. The 
witness also testified to the following letter, marked 'A', and re- 
ferred to in the specification of the second charge, as the writing 
of the prisoner. 

110 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


"Sahwahnee, near St. Marks Fort, 
"March 20th, 1818. 
"Sir — I am requested particularly by all our Indian Chiefs, 
to acquaint your excellency, that the Americans have commenced 
hostilities with them two yerrs ago, and have advanced some con- 
siderable distance in this country, and are now making daily pro- 
gress. They say they sent a number of letters to your excellency, 
but have never received one answer, which makes them believe 
that he never delivered them; and will oblige them much if you 
will let me know whether he did or not. The purport of the letters 
were, begging your excellency to be kind enough to send'them down 
some gun powder, musket balls, lead, cannon, & c. as they are now 
completely out of those articles. The Americans may march 
through the whole territory in one month and without arms, 8c c. 
they must surrender. Hillis Hajo, or Francis, the Indian Chief, 
the one that was in England, tells me to let your excellency know 
that the prince regent told him that, whenever he wanted ammu- 
nition, your excellency would supply him with as much as he 
wanted. They begged me to press upon your excellency's mind 
to send the above mentioned articles down by the vessel that brings 
this to you, as she will sail for this place immediately — and let the 
prince regent know of their situation. Any letters that your ex- 
cellency may send down, be good enough to direct to me, as they 
have great dependence in my writing. Any news that your ex- 
cellency may have respecting them and America will be doing a 
great favor to let me know, that I may send among them. There 
is now a very large body of Americans and Indians, who I expect 
will attack us every day, and God only knows how it will be de- 
cided. But I must only say, this will be the last effort with us. 
There has been a body of Indians gone to meet them and I have 
sent another party. I hope your excellency will be pleased to grant 
the favor they request. 

"I have nothing further to add, but am, sir, with due respect, 
your obedient, humble servant, 

"Robert C. Ambrister. 
"Ques. By the Prisoner: Did you hear me say that I came 
on Woodbine's business? 

"Ans. I did. 

"Question by the Prisoner. Were not the negroes alluded to at 
Arbuthnot's store before I arrived? 

"Ans. No, you came with them. 
"Peter B. Cook, a witness on the part of the prosecution, be- 
ing duly sworn, stated, that he never heard the prisoner give any 
orders to negroes or Indians ; that the prisoner distributed Arbuth- 
not's goods, and also, paint to the negroes and Indians. 

"Also, that some powder was brought from the vessel to 
Suwany by the prisoner, and distributed among the negroes by 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 1 1 

Nero. Sometime in March, the prisoner took Arbuthnot's schoon- 
er, and with an armed party of nej^roes, 24 in number, set out for 
St. Marks, for the purpose of taking Arbuthnot's ^oods at that 
place, and stated that he would compell the commandant to de- 
liver them up. On hearing of the approach of the American army 
the prisoner told the negroes it was useless to run, for if they ran 
any farther they would be driven into the sea. 

"The prisoner told the witness that he had been a lieutenant 
in the British army, under Col. Nicholls. The Prisoner was sent 
by Woodbine to Tamper to see about those negroes he had left, 
there. The prisoner told the witness that he had written a letter 
to Governor Cameron for ammunition for the Indians some time 
in March, and also told the witness that he had a commission in 
the patriot army, under McGregor, and that he had expected 
a captaincy. The witness testified to the letters, marked A, B, 
C, and D, and referred to in the specification in the second charge, 
were in the handwriting of the prisoner and one marked E. 



"Suhwahnee, 20th March, 1918. 
Near Fort St. Marks. 

"Sir — I am requested by Francis and all the Indian chiefs to 
acquaint your excellency, that they are at war with the Americans, 
and have been sometime back. That they are in great distress for 
want of ammunition, balls, arms, &c. and have wrote by Mr. 
Arbuthnot, several times, but they suppose he never delivered them 
to your excellency. You will oblige tham much to let them know 
whether he did or not. 

"I expect the Americans and Indians will attack us daily. I 
have sent a part of men to oppose them. They beg on me to press 
on your excellency's mind to lay the situation of the country before 
the prince regent and ask for assistance. 

"All news respecting them, your excellency will do a favor to let 
us know by the first opportunity, that I may make them acquainted. 
I have given directions to the captain to let your excellency know 
when the vessel will sail for this place . I hope your excellency will be 
pleased to send them the ammunition. I expect, if they do not 
procure some very shortly, that the Americans wall march through 
the country. 

"I have nothing further to add. 

"I am, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

"Robert C. Ambrister. 


"Mouth of the River. 

"Dr. Cook: The boat arrived here about three o'clock on 

Thursday. The wind has been ahead ever since; I have been down. 

112 Andrkw Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

The rudder of the vessel is in a bad codition ; but I will manage to 
have it done tonight. The wind, I am in hopes, will be fair in the 
morning, when I will get under weigh, and make all possible dis- 
patch. I will make old Lewis pilot me safe. If those Indians 
dont conduct themselves, straight, I will use rigorous means with 
them. Beware of Mr. Jerry; I found him on board when I came. 
Keep a good look out. I have sent two kegs of powder and bar 
of lead. "Yours &c. 

"R. A. 

"Tuesday 3 O'clock. 

"Ques. by the Prisoner: Did you not frequently hear me say 
that I would have nothing to do with the Indians in exciting them 
to war with the United States ? 

"Ans. I do not recollect. 

"Question by the prisoner. Are you acquainted with Lewis 
Phenix, and have you not heard him express ill will against me, in 
consequence of my wishing him to pilot me to St. Marks? 

"Ans. I never did. 

"Ques. Do you know of my sending troops at any time to fight 
against the United States; and I have not been constantly with 
you, so that you would have had an opportunity, of knowing if 
there had been any sent by me ? 

"Ans. I have not: they might have sent them without my 

"Jacob Harrison, a witness on the part of the prosecution be- 
ing duly sworn, that some time in the latter end of March, or first 
of April, the prisoner took possession of the Schooner Chance, with 
an armed party of negroes, and stated his intentions of taking St. 
Marks. On his way thither, going ashore, he learned from some 
Indians that Arbuthnot had gone to St. Marks, which induced 
him to return. The witness also stated that, while the prisoner 
was on board, he had complete command of the negroes, who con- 
sidered him as their captain. The prisoner took the cargo of the 
vessel up towards Suwany, which consisted of, with other articles, 
nine kegs of powder and 500 pounds of lead. 

"The evidence on both sides closed, the prisoner was allowed 
until 5 o'clock this evening to make his defense. 

"The time allowed the prisoner for the preparatioii of his defence 
having expired, he was brought before the court, and made the de- 
fence marked M, which is attached to these proceedings. 

"The court was then cleared, and the proceedings read over by 
the recorder, when, after due deliberation on the testimony brought 
forward, the court find the prisoner, Robert C. Ambrister, guilty 
of so much of the specification to the first charge, as follows, viz: 
"and did excite to war with the United States; by sending their, 
warriors to m?et and fight the American army, hebinnga subject 
of Great Britian, which government was at peace and friendship 
with the United States, and all her citizens but not guilty of the 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 1 3 

other part of the specification, guilty of the specification of 
the second charge, and guilty of the second charge; and do, there- 
fore, sentence the prisoner, Robert C. Ambrister, to suffer death, 
by being shot, two-thirds of the court concurring therein. 

"One of the members of the court requesting a reconsideration 
of his vote on the sentence, the sense of the court was taken there- 
on, and decided in the affirmative, when the vote was again taken, 
and the court sentence the prisoner to receive fifty stripes on his bare 
back, and be confined with a ball and chain to hard labour for 
twelve calender months. 

"The court adjourned, sine die. 

"Edmund P. Gaines. 

Major-General by brevet. President of the Court. 

"J. M. Glassell, Recorder. 
"defence m. 

Fort St. Marks, April 28th, 1818. 

"United States ot Ameiica, 

Robert Christy Ambrister, 

"Who being arraigned before a special Court Martial, upon the 
following charges towit: 

"First. Aiding, abetting, and comforting (the Indians), sup- 
plying them with the means of war, he being a subject of Great 
Britian at peace with the United States, and lately an officer in the 
British colonial marines. 

"Charge 2nd. Leading and commanding the Lcwer Creek 
Indians in carrying on war against the United States. 

"To the first charge the prisoner at the bar pleads not guilty, 
and, as to the second charge, he pleads guilty, and justification. 
The prisoner at the bar feels grateful to this honorable court for 
their goodness in giving him sufficient time to deliberate, and 
arrange his defense on the above charges. 

"The prisoner at the bar, here avails himself of the opportunity 
of stating to this court, that, inasmuch as the testimony which was 
introduced in this case, was very explicit, and went to every point 
the prisoner could wish, he has nothing further to offer in hi? de- 
fense, but puts himself upon the mercy of the honourable court. 

"Robert C. Ambrister. 



Camp 4 miles north of St. Mark's, April 29th, 1818. 

"general ORDER. 

"At a special court martial, commenced on the 26th inst. at 
St. Marks, and continued until the night of the 28th, of which 
brevet Major-General E. P. Gaines is President, was tried A. 
Arbuthnot, on the following charges and specifications, viz: 

"Charge 1st. Exciting and stirring up the Creek Indians to 
war against the United States and her citizens, he, A. Arbuthnot, 
being a subject of Grcat-Britian, with whom the United States 
are at peace. 

1 14 Andrew Jackscn and Early Tennessee History 

"Charge 2d. Acting as a spy; aiding, abetting, and comfort- 
ing the enemy, and supplying them with the means of war. 

"Charge 3d. Exciting the Indians to murder and destroy 
William Hambly and Edmund Doyle, confiscate their property, 
and causing their arrest, with a view to their condemnation to 
death, and the seizure of their property, they being citizens of 
Spain, on account of their active and zealous exertions to mam- 
tain peace between Spain, the United States and the Indians 

"To which charges the prisoner pleaded not guilty. 

"The Court, after mature deliberation on the evidence adduced, 
find the prisoner A . Arbuthnot, guilty of the first charge and 
guilty of the second charge, leaving out the words 'acting as a 
spy:' and, after mature reflection, sentence him, A. Arbuthnot, 
to be suspended by the neck, until he is dead. 

Was also tried, Robert C. Ambrister, on the following charges, 

"Charge 1st. Aiding, abetting, and comforting the enemy, 
and supplying them with the means of war, he being a subject of 
Great-Britian, who are at peace with the United States, and late 
an officer in the British colonial marines. 

"Charge 2nd. Leading and commanding the lower Creek 
Indians in carrying on a war against the United States. 

"To which charges the prisoner pleaded as follows: to the 1st 
charge, not guilty; to the 2nd. charge, 'guilty, and justification. 

"The court, on examination of evidence, and on mature delib- 
eration, find the prisoner, Robert C. Ambrister, guilty of the 
1st. and 2nd. charges; and do, therefore, sentence him to suffer 
death, by being shot. The members requesting a reconsideration 
of the vote on this sentence, and it being had, they sentence the 
prisoner to receive fifty stripes on his bare back, and be confined 
with a ball and chain, to hard labour, for twelve calender months. 

"The Commanding General approves the finding and sentence 
of the court in the case of A. Arbuthnot, and approves the finding 
and first sentence of the court in the case of Robert C. Ambrister, 
and disapproves the re-consideration of the sentence of the hon- 
ourable court in this case. 

"It appears, from the evidence and pleadings of the prisoner, 
that he did lead and comn>and within the territory of Spain (being 
a subject of Great-Britian) the Indians in war against the United 
States, those nations being at peace. It is an established principle 
of the laws of nations, that any individual of a nation making war 
against the citizens against any other nation, they being at peace, 
forfeits his allegiance and becomes an outlaw and pirate. This is 
the case of Robert C. Ambrister, clearly shown by the evidence 

"The Commanding General orders that brevet Major A. C. W. 
Fanning, of the corp of artillery, will have, between the hours of 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessbe History 115 

8 and 9 o'clock A.M., A. Arbuthnot suspended by the neck with 
rope until he is dead, and Robert C. Ambrister to be shot to death, 
agreeable to the sentence of the Court. 

"John James Arbuthnot, will be furnished with a passage to 
Pensacola, by the first vessel. 

"The Special Court, of which brevet Major-General E- P. 
Gaines is President, is dissolved. 

"By order of Major-General Jackson. 

"Robert Butler, Adjustant-General." 

116 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennesse History 


^ John Howard Payne, Author of "Home Sweet ^ 

H Home", made a prisoner by the Georgia State g 

52 Guard; extracts from his communication in 52 

S Knoxville Register on his imprisonment; offer- 5H 

5H ed a public entertainment at Knoxville but de- g 

52 clines; he is endorsed by public meeting at 55 

S Knoxville; letter to his sister. 52 


The whole civilized world is interested in anything that per- 
tains to John Howard Payne, the author of "Home, Sweet Home," 
but a very small part of that world knowns of his arrest in 1835 
with John Ross, the Cherokee Chief, by the Georgia Guard, at the 
time that feeling was acute and bitter between the State Govern- 
ment of Georgia and the Cherokees and any one who sympathized 
with them. The arrest and imprisonment made a sensation, 
not only among the friends and enemies of the Cherokees, but 
in literary circles in all parts of the Country. The arrest was in 
gross violation of Payne's rights as a citizen, and even among 
the enemies of the Cherokees (who wefe also Payne's enemies) 
the act was denounced, and no one assumed to defend it. We pre- 
sent some interesting quotations both from Payne himself and 
from newspapers in reference to the incident. 


"We have received an extra sheet from the office of the Knox- 
ville Register, published by Frederick vS. Heiskell, containing, in 
an appeal from Mr. Payne to his countrymen, the story of the 
barbarous wrongs inflicted upon this respectable gentleman by a 
band of persons calling themselves "the Georgia guard," but who 
appear to have acted upon suggestions from higher authority, in 
the persons of U. States' agent sent to make treaties with the 
Cherokees. This appeal, though chiefly directed to the citizens 
of Georgia, whose authority has been abused, and to those of 
Tennessee, whose territory has been violated, should be inserted 
at length in our columns if they were not so much occupied just 
now with heavy documents of a national character as to prevent 
it. The reader will perceive, by the subjoined articles from the 
Knoxville paper, however, that the people of that state entertain 
a proper sense of the indignity which Mr. P. has suffered, and of the 

Author of Home Sweet Home.' 

Andrew Jacksox and Early Ti'Nnessee History 1 1 7 

outrage which, in his person, has been perpetrated by these lawless 
persons upon the sovereignty of the state of Tennessee. There 
can be no doubt of an equal indigation being roused in the breasts 
of the people of Georgia against the persons who have trespassed, 
in the name of that state, on the clearest and dearest rights of an 
American citizen." (National Intelhgencer) 


"John Howard Payne, who was arrested by the Georgia Guard 
in the Cherokee country', has been released . after a detention of 
three weeks. 

"DECEMBER 22, 1835. 

"il/r. John Howard Payne. ^ This gentleman has published 
in a Knoxville paper a narrative of his late imprisonment by the 
Georgia Guard in the Cherokee Territory. The narrative is of 
too great a length to admit of our publishing it entire. We shall, 
however, select such passages of it as will enable the reader to 
judge of the pretenses on which he was seized, and the treatment 
which he received. It seems that Mr. Payne was traveling for the 
purpose of collecting historical and other information, to be used in 
certain publications which he has in view, and in pursuit of this 
purpose he made a visit to Mr. John Ross, the principal Chief of 
the Cherokees, whose residence was in the limits of the State of 
Georgia. Mr. Ross received him with great kindness, and gave 
him free use of manuscripts collected by himself, and by his pred- 
ecessor in office. The rest of Mr. Payne's story may be collected 
from the following extracts from his narrative. 

"I pressed Young to let us know on what grounds we were 
arrested. 'Why,' he said, 'I can tell you one thing they've got 
agin you, only you needn't say nothing that I told you. They say 
you're an Abolitionist.' I could not help laughing at the ex- 
cessive absurdity of this, and considered it as mere dream of the 
man whose brain often seemed in the wrong place. At the same 
time he told Mr. Ross that the charge upon him was that he had 
impeded taking the census. Mr. Ross repelled the accusation 
indignantly, and required to know his accuser. Young said all 
he could tell was that Major Currey gave him the order for our 
arrest; that he had not only a written but a verbal order from Ma- 
jor Currey, and upon that we were taken. What the verbal order 
was, he would not tell to anybody. 

"Mr. John Ridge was in the enclosure and closeted with Col. 
Bishop. It was said he was at first denied an interview with Mr. 
Ross; but at length Mr. Ross was sent for to meet Ridge and Bi- 
shop. After a few words. Bishop suddenly arose and left them 
together. When Mr. Ross returned, 'It is all out now,' he ex- 
claimed to me. 'We are both Abolitionists and here for a capital 
offense. We are the agents of some great men, Mr. Clay, Mr. 
Calhoun, Judge White, Mr. Poindexter, and the Lord knows 

118 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

who, — and we have both plotted in concert with them to raise 
an insurrection among the negroes who are to join the Indian 
against the whites!' I could not even yet regard the charge as 
having ever been made seriously, but Mr. Ross was assured it had 
been; and he added, 'Bishop wishes to screen Currey and take the 
arrest upon himself; so we had better say nothing about that.' 
In the evening Mr. Ridge had another interview; and on Monday, 
Nov. 16th, all were closeted for some hours. About four, ;Mr. 
Ross entered our room with a bundle in his hand. 'I've got my 
papers," he exclaimed, dashing them into the bunk, and we went 
to dinner. Bishop and his brother sat opposite. They were 
silent, and all the party appeared nettled. I will do the brace of 
Bishops the justice to own that they both, from first to last, seemed 
in their hearts ashamed to meet my glance, notwithstanding much 
outward swagger. When dinner was ended Col. Bishop, giving a 
sort of menacing look at me, exclaimed to the sentinel, with an 
emphatic gesture, 'Mr. Ross is discharged.' 

"On Friday morning, Nov. 20th, I perceived preparations 
for something unusual. The men were all summoned to be ready 
at the roll of the drum. My horse was ordered out, as I under- 
stood, to be taken to water. But I was convinced, from many 
signs, that I myself was the object of the mysterious movements. 
A son of the Colonel kept staring around at me with intense cur- 
iosity, and many looked on in silence, as persons look upon any 
one about to undergo some terrible ordeal. The Colonel's horse 
was saddled and put in readiness; and another horse was also 
prepared, and Mr. Joshua Holden appeared, equipped for a cam- 
paign. At length, the drum beat. I heard the sergeant say, re- 
commending some one to the Captain, — 'Colonel, Jie may be 
trusted.' And now one of the guard ran to me — 'Your saddle 
bags • — ■ your saddle bags.' 'Why?' 'You're going out.' I 
went to the bunk. 'Is there not some mischief intended?' asked 
I. 'I can't tell; but you'd better make me a present of that buffalo 
hide." 'No,' answered I, 'it was given to me, and has been too 
good a friend to me in trouble.' The guard took the saddle bags 
and buffalo skin, and with it a very large and cumbersome cloak 
and some loose clothes. I found them heaped upon my horse. 
'The straps to fasten these are not here.' "I can't help it,' 
was the answer. — 'Get on — get on.' 'I cannot over this pile 
of things.' — "You must.' 'This is not my bridle — mine was a 
new one and double — where are my martingales? my Straps?' 
'Get on — get on.' I was compelled to mount; the mass of 
unfastened things was piled up before me; the saddle was loosely 
girted, and the horse was startled, and, as if on purpose, covered 
with mud. I still claimed my bridle, but was conducted in front of 
the paraded guard, — he who led my horse muttering as he went, 
'that's the bridle they said was yours.' The Captain-Colonel 
stood in front of his men. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 1 9 

'Halt your horse there, sir, and beware how you speak a word.' 
I attempted to speak, — but he shouted — 'Be silent, sir. Look 
upon them men. Them's the men you in your writtings have 
called banditti.' 

"Whether the eloquent Captain-Colonel imagined I meant to 
reply, I cannot say; but he repeated, eagerly, 'Don't speak, sir.' 

"And I did not speak, but I did look upon the men; and, if 
ever I compared them in appearance to Banditti, the glance of 
that moment made me feel that I ought to ask of any Banditti the 
most respectful pardon. Spirit of Shakespeare, forgive me, too; 
for if thy Falstaff and his ragged regiment came into my mind at 
such a moment, it was my misfortune, not my fault. But I will 

"You've came into this country to pry, ever since you arrtv, into 
things you've no business with. You're a d - d incendiary, sir. 
You've come into this country to rise up the Cherokees against 
the whites. You've wrote agin these worthy men (pointing to 
the Guards) ; You've wrote agin the State of Georgia. You've 
wrote agin the gineral Government of the United States. Above 
all, sir, You've wrote agin ME! Now, sir — " 

"Then turning ■ — with an aside speech with some bystander, 
I think it was Mr. Joshua Holden — 'Hand the things,' said the 
Captain-Colonel; and a bundle with a loop, carefully prearranged 
so as to let the arm through, was given to me. 

"Now, sir, take your papers. Hang'em on your arm, sir, 
and I order you to cut out of Georgia. If ever you dare again shew 
your face within the limits of Georgia, I'll make you curse the 
moment with your last breath. With your foul attacks upon me 
you've filled the Georgia papers." 

"I could not very well endure to hear assertions so utterly un- 
founded, and took advantage of the pause of the eloquent Captain- 
Colonel for breath, and exclaimed, rather vehemently, — 'Upon 
my honor, no, sir!'" 

"Hold your tongue, I say," resumed my jailor. "The minute 
you hear the tap of the drum, I tell you to cut out of this yard, and 
I order you never, while you exist, to be seen in this State of ours 
any more; for if you are, I'll make you rue it. Let this be a lesson 
for you, and thank my sympathy for a stranger that you have 
been treated with extraordinary kindness; and now, sir, clear out 
of this State for ever, and go to John Ross, G-d d — n you!" 

"I looked upon this pitiable exhibition with more of compas- 
sion than of resentment ; and it seemed to me as if most of the guard 
felt sorry for their leader. Never before so forcibly did I realize 
the truth of that beautiful passage : 

"Frail man, frail man, 
Brest in a little brief authority. 
Play such fantastic tricks before high heaven, 
As makes the angels weep!" 

120 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

"I claimed my bridle again, but in vain; and I then moved of 
necessity slowly from the place, because I had great difficulty in 
detaining the things which were piled upon my horse. When I 
got outside of the lines, some of the affairs dropped off, and I stop- 
ped to ask a person to hand them to me, and at the same time to 
enquire the route to Big Spring. On turning a corner, a stranger 
told mc I had better stop and dismount and arrange my. baggage; 
and just then a gentleman called that he wished a word with me, 
and approached. He said he had a letter to show me. I asked 
him the direction towards the residence of Mr. Ross. I saw that 
the letter he handed was from Mr. Ross, and related to my route. 
At that moment Col. Bishop and Mr. Joshua Holden dashed up 
like fiends. Bishop cursed me, threatened me, if I dared to speak 
to any ' d — d Nullifier,' and meanaced to make an example of 
me if I did not get instantly out of the State. 

"My stay with Mr. Ross having been so unexpectedly protract- 
ed, of course the range of my collection was extended. In addition 
to the literature and anecdote of the nation, I involuntarily became 
well acquainted with its politics, because I had transcribed nearly 
all the documents relative to the recent negotiations for a Treaty. 
I thought these curious, not only as historical evidence, but as 
specimens of Indian diplomacy, more complete than any upon 
record in any age or country. I confess I was suprised at what 
these papers unfolded regarding the system pursued by the agents 
of our Government, and I thought if the real position of the ques- 
tion were once understood by our own country and its rulers, their 
ends would be sought by different and unexceptionable means. 
Though no politician, as a philanthropist, I fancied good might 
be done by a series of papers upon the subject. I conceived, as an 
American, it was one of the most precious and most undisputed 
of my rights, to examine any subject entirely national, especially 
if I could render services to the country by such explanations as 
peculiar circumstances might enable me to offer. For this purpose 
I commenced such a series as I have spoken of, but having written 
one number, I thought I would lay it by for consideration, and 
forbear to make up my mind finally until I saw how matters were 
carried on at the Council then approaching. The number in ques- 
tion was consequently put aside — and no second number was ever 

"It had been suggested that great service luight be done by 
an address to the people of the United States from the Cherokees, 
explaining fully and distinctly all their views and feelings. I was 
told that no one had ever possessed such opportunities as mine had 
been for understanding these. I took the hint and felt gratified 
in the opportunity of enabling the nation to plead its own cause. 
I promised to prepare such an address, and if approved it was to 
be seTit round by runners for the signature of every Cherokee within 
the countrv. I confess I felt proud of an advocacy in which some 
of the first talent of the' land had heretofore exulted to engage. 
I only lamented that my powers were so unequal to my zeal. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee Histo.?v 121 

The council adjourned. Mr. Ross pressed me to return to 
his house, which I did for the purpose of awaiting the journey of 
the messenger, whom he had promised to send some eighty miles 
across the country, for a complete file of the Cherokee Phoenix 
newspaper, of which after long search, I had made the discovery 
and obtained the offer. During the absence of the messenger I 
renewed my transcription of documents. I also completed the 
address for the Cherokee nation. It was approved, and measures 
were to be taken for obtaining the signatures of all the people. 
It was now Saturday evening, November 7. I had determined on 
Monday morning to depart, taking, on my road back through 
Athens, the Stone mountain of Georgia, a view of which had been 
one of the leading objects of my journey. 

"Aly papers were piled upon the table, ready to be packed for 
my approaching journey. At about eleven, I was in the midst of a 
copy from a talk held by Gen. Washington in 1794 with a delega- 
tion of Cherokee Chiefs. Suddenly there was a loud barking of 
dogs; the quick tramp of galloping horses, the rush of many feet; 
and a hoarse voice just at my side shouted, Ross! Ross!' Before 
there was time for reply, the voice was heard at the door opposite, 
which was burst open. Armed men appeared. 'Mr. Ross,' 
'Well, gentlemen.' 'We have business with you, sir.' 

"The room was filled with the Georgia Guard — their bayonets 
fixed, and some, if not all, with their pistols and dirks or dirk 
knives. An exceedingly long, lank man, with a roundabout jacket, 
planted himself by my side, his pistol resting against my breast. 
'You are to consider yourself a prisoner,' said he to Mr. Ross. 
'Well, gentlemen, I shall not resist, but what have I done? Why 
am I a prisoner? By whose order am I taken?' "You'll know 
that soon enough. Give up your papers and prepare to go with 
us.' And then a scramble began for papers. I had not moved 
from my place, when the long, lank man, whom I afterwards 
found was Sergeant Young, leader of the gang, began to rummage 
among the things upon the table. 'These, sir,' observed I, 'are 
my papers. I suppose you don't want these.' Young, his pistol 
pointed, struck me across the mouth. 'Hold your d— d tongue,' 
he vociferated. 'You are here after no good. Yours are jest 
what we do want. Have your horse caught and be off with us. 
We can't stay.' It was useless to reply. 

"We went to our prison. It was a small log hut, with no win- 
dow and one door. At one end was what they call a bunk — a 
wide case of rough boards filled with straw. There were two 
others on one side of the room, and opposite to them a fire place. 
Overhead were poles, on which hung saddle bags, old coats, and 
various other matters of the same description. In one corner sat 
an Indian chained to a table, by the leg, his arms tightly pihioned. 
We found it was the son of the Speaker of the Council, Going 
Snake. They had charged him with refusing to give his name and 
the number of his family to the United States Census taker. He 

122 AxDREw Jacksox and Early Trxxess^e History 

denied the accusation but this denial was unheeded. He smiled 
and seemed patient. They removed him, and left us the only 
prisoners; but never alone. The door was always open. The 
place was a rendezvous for all the guard and all their friends. 
Two sentinels with muskets loaded and bayonets fixed kept us 
always in view; the place of one was in the house, and of the other 
outside. I was wet to the skin, fatigued, and unconsciously 
sighed; at that moment I saw two of the yomig men exchange looks 
and laugh. Throughout the day I heard dark phrases which 
I interpreted to betoken some intended mischief. 

(Note: These extracts, with same introductory paragraph, 
are published in the Independent Chronicle and Boston. Patriot, 
December 2 J 1835.) 

sept. 5, 1835. 
"Mr. John Howard Payne, a gentleman well known to the 
literary world, has been arrested under the suspicion of his having 
conspired with Ross, against the welfare of Georgia, and it is said 
his papers give evidence of the fact. We have no precise infor- 
mation on the subject; but we fear that this gentleman has suffered 
injustice from the excited temper of the times. 


'Calhoun, Tenn. Nov. 23d, 1835. 
"John Howard Payne respectfully begs the citizens of Georgia 
to suspend their opinion for a few days, upon the subject of a recent 
arrest within the chartered limits of Tennessee by the Georgia 
guard, of Mr. Payne, in the company with Mr. John Ross, prin- 
cipal chief of the Cherokee nation. Mr. Payne, of course, cannot 
identify the state of Georgia with this gross violation of the con- 
stitution of the United States, or the right of an American citizen, 
and of the known hospitality of the south to strangers. But as he 
is conscious that every act which can be devised will be resorted 
to for the purpose of endeavoring to cover such an act from public 
indignation, he thinks it due to justice to promise that a full and 
honest statement be submitted the moment it can be prepared." 
— From the Georgia Constutionalist., 


"Knoxville, Nov. 30, 1835. 

"John Howard Payne, Esq. 

"We sincerely regret the late circumstances which occured 
on the border of our state, in which your person and rights were 
violently outraged by a band of lawless soldiers; and assure you of 
our cordial sympathy in the feeling of just indignation which such 
conduct cannot but have created in your own breast. We ack- 
nowledge with unfeigned satisfaction the justice of that well-earned 
fame which the author of 'Brutus' has obtained, both in Europe 

Andrew Jockson and Early Tennessee History 123 

and America, and holding your literary worth and attainments in 
the highest esteem, and wishing to render them humble testimony 
of our approbation, we respectfully invite your attendence at a 
public entertainment at the Treamont house, at such time as may 
best suit your convenience. Very respectfully," 

(Signed by a comittee on behalf of the citizens of Knoxville, 
consisting of sixteen of the most respectable names of the town.) 

"Knoxville, Nov. 30, 1835. 
"gentlemen: I beg to return you my sincerest thanks for the 
attention of your letter and for the distinction which you propose. 
Your kindness is valuable to me for more than the compliment 
involved in it to me personally. I prize it as an encouraging 
evidence, given at a very critical moment, that no considerations 
of party politics will prevent you from declaring your indignation 
at a wanton and arbitrary and lawless outrage upon the sacred 
rights of an American citizen. In your expression of that proper 
feeling as compatriots of my own, I feel consoled for what I have 
been made to suffer by those who dragged me from the chartered 
limits of your state to insulting captivity elsewhere. You will, 
therefore, do me the justice to believe, that, in declining the honor 
you suggest, I do not the less appreciate the motive. It is only 
because I find it indispensable to pursue my journey without delay, 
that I must excuse myself from an invitation, which, under any 
circumstances, would be flattering, but under those which surround 
me now is doubly endeared to, gentlemen, most respectfully, your 
obliged countryman, 

"John Howard Payne. 

"To Thomas W. Humes, Esq. and" other gentlemen of Knox- 

"public meeting. 

"At a public meeting of the citizens of Knox County, at the 
court house in Knoxville, on the 2d day December, 1835, on motion 
of Thomas W. Humes, Robert M. Anderson, Esq., was called to 
the chair, and David A. Deaderick appointed secretary. The ob- 
ject of the meeting was explained by the chairman. 

"Spencer Jarnagin, Esq., presented the following preamble and 
resolutions, to wit: 

"Intelligence having reached this place of the lawless action, 
within the chartered limits of the state of Tennessee, of our 
countryman and literary friend, John Payne, of the state of New 
York, by an armed force from the state of Georgia; of his sub- 
sequent detention for thirteen days, and brutal treatment in a 
guard house at Spring Place, in Georgia, all confirmed by the pub- 
lished statement of Mr. Payne, and feeling that this insult to the 
laws of Tennessee, and outrage upon her protection and hospitality, 
this wanton violation of the sacred rights of personal liberty and 
security of an American citizen, call loudly for an expression 

124 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

of public indignation, we, the citizens of Knox county, in the ex- 
ercise of our rights as freemen, have adopted the following re- 
solutions : 

"Resolved, That it is proper for the state of Tennessee to 
assert and maintain the integrity of her territory and laws, dem- 
onstrating that obedience to those laws will insure protection to 
all who may visit her for literary or other lawful purposes. 

"Resolved, That we learned with unfeigned regret, the law- 
less arrest and detention of John Howard Payne, by an armed 
force, pretending to act by public authority; that his situation 
command the sympathy of all but the lawless, and he has our 
praise for his philosophic endurance of insult, outrage and violence. 

"Resolved, That the noble and chivalric character of the state 
of Georgia is not to be compromized by the lawless deeds of per- 
sons pretending to act by her authority, and that we deem her 
incapable of a wilful violation of the territorial jurisdiction, laws 
and rights of Tennessee, and we trust she will promptly inquire 
into the alleged outrage, and do herself justice. 

"On motion of Joseph Scott, Esq., seconded by the Hon. Jacob 
Peck, one of the judges of the supreme court, the following was 

"Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing preamble and reso- 
lutions, together with the published statement of facts by Mr. 
Payne, be sent to the president of the United States, the governors 
of the states of Georgia and Tennessee and to speakers of each 
branch of the legislature of Tennessee. 

"On motion of Dr. Donald Mcintosh, seconded by Dr. William 

J. Baker, the following was added: 

"Resolved, the secretary of this meeting furnish John Howard 
Payne with a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions. 

"The foregoing preamble and resolutions were then read and 
unanimously adopted. 

"The governor of Georgia transmitted the following message 
1o the legislature of that state on the 28th instant: 

"Executive department, Ga. Milledgeville, Nov. 28, 1835. 
A resolution of senate, passed on the 24th inst. was handed to me 
yesterday, requesting 'the governor to lay before that branch of 
the general assembly, all the information in his possession relative 
to the arrest and detention of John Howard Payne, Esq., and John 
Ross, by the Georgia guard, and, what orders or directions may 
have been given him since the information has been received at the 
executive department, if any.' 

"In answer to this request I state, that no official information 
upon the subject has reached this department. The letter re- 
ceived from four Cherokees is all the information, official or un- 
official, which has been received, and was communicated to the 
senate on the day of the date of the above resolution. No 'orders 
or directions' have been given, because there were no facts made 

Erected by W. W. Cochran of Washington, 0. C. in Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington. 

Andrew Jackson and Karlv Tennessee History 125 

known in the executive, upon which 'orders or directions' could 
be given in relation to matter, resting, as it did only in the com- 
mon street loimor of the day. 

"Arrangements have been made to ascertain the truth or false- 
hood of these reports; and so I have informed the senate in my' 
communication of the 24th instant. 



"Macon, Georgia, August 9,1885 
"My dear Sister: You find me much in arrears with you for 
letters; that is, I have only written you several to none, and there- 
fore, of course, you have reason to complain. But it is not too 
late to make atonement for my sins of omission. Here I am all 
alone in a strange place — Macon in Georgia — a good sized hand- 
somely built town nearly twelve years old, and with 4,000 inhab- 
tants. I arrived about eleven last night. I have no acquaintances 
here yet, so, for the sake of company, I will brush up my recollection 
of some of my adventures. I have been among the Indians for a 
few days lately. Shall I tell you about them? You make no 
answer and silence gives consent, so I will tell you about the In- 

"The State of Alabama, you will remember, has been famous as 
the abode of the Creek Indians— always regarded as the most war- 
like of the Southern tribes. If you will look upon the map of 
Alabama, you will find on the west side of it, nearly parallel with 
the State of Mississippi, two rivers — one, the Coosa and the other 
Tallapoosa, which, descending, unite in the Alabama. Nearly 
opposite to these, about one hundred miles across, you will find 
another river, the Chattahoochee, which also descends, to form, 
with certain tributaries, the Apalachicola. It is within the space 
bounded by these rivers, and especially at the upper part of it, 
that the Creeks now retain a sort of sovereignty. The United 
States have in vain attempted to force the Creeks to volunteer a 
surrender of their soil for compensation. A famous chief among 
them made a treaty a few days ago to that effect; but the nation 
arose against him, surrounded his house, ordered his family out 
and bade him appear at the door, after all but he had departed. 
He did so. He was shot dead and the house burned. The 
treaty only took eflfect in part, if at all. Perpetual discontents 
have ensued. The United States have assumed a sort of juris- 
diction over the territory, leaving the Creeks unmolested in their 
national habits, their property — with this exception in their favor, 
beyond all other tribes, but the Cherokees^ — they have the right 
if they wish to sell, to sell to individuals at their own prices, but 
are not bound to treat with the republic at a settled rate, which 
last mode of doing business they rather properly looked upon as 
giving them the appearance of a vanquished race and subject to 
the dictation of conquerors. So, what the diplomatists could not 
achieve, was forthwith attempted by speculators, and among these 

126 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the everlasting Yankee began to appear and the Indian independence 
straightway began to disappear. Certain forms were required by 
government to give Americans a claim to these Creek lands. The 
purchaser was to bring the Indians before a government agent; 
in the agent's presence the Indian was to declare what his possess- 
ions were and for how much he would sell them. The money was 
paid in the presence of the agent, who gave a certificate, which, 
when countersigned by the president, authorized the purchaser to 
demand protection from the national arms, if molested. All this 
was well enough; but it was soon discovered that the speculators 
would hire drunken and miscreant Indians to personate the real 
possessor of the lands, and having paid them the money, they 
would take it back as soon as the purchase was completed, give the 
Indian a jug of whiskey or a small bag of silver for the fraud, and 
so became lords of the soil. Great dissatisfaction arose and lives 
were lost. An anonymous letter opened the eyes of the govern- 
ment. The white speculators wete so desparate and dangerous 
that any other mode of information was unsafe. Investigators 
were appointed to examine into the validity of Creek sales, and 
the examiners met at the time I went to see the Indian festival. 
It was necessary for me to be thus prolix to make you understand 
the nature of the society and a sort of danger by which we were 
surrounded; on the one side, white rogues — border cut-throats con- 
tending, through corrupted Indians, for the possessions of those 
among them who are honest and unwary. The cheated Indian, 
wheedled by some other white cheat into a promise to sell, payable 
in over-charged goods, at a higher price, to the one who should ex- 
pose the fraud — and, when the decision was reversed in favori of 
the pretended friend, the foiled thief flying at the over-reaching 
one with fist and knife, and both in good luck if either could 1 ve 
to see what both had stolen. I beheld a fine, gentle, innocent- 
looking girl — a widow, I believe, come up to the investigator to 
to assert that she had never sold her land. She had been counter- 
feited by some knave. The investigator's court was a low tavern 
bar-room. He saw me eyeing him and some one had told him I 
was traveling to take notes. He did not know but government 
had employed me as a secret supervisor. He seemed to shrink 
and postponed the decision. I have since heard that he is as great 
a rascal as the rest. This illstarred race is entirely at the mercy of 
interpreters, who, if not negro slaves of their own, are half breeds, 
who are generally worse than the worst of either slaves or knaves. 
"In the jargon of the border, they call them linkisters; some say, 
because they, by interpreting, form the link between the nations; 
but I should think the word a mere corruption of linguist. The 
Indians become more easily deluded by the borderers than others, 
because the borderers know that they have no idea of any one be- 
ing substantial, who does not keep a shop ; your rascal of the frontier 
sets up a shop and is pronounced a sneezer — if his shop be large, 
he is a sneezerchubco — if larger than any other, he is a sneezer- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 127 

chubco-mico; but in any of his qualities, sneezer is always consider- 
ed as a personage by no means to be sneezed at. The sneezer 
will pay for the land in goods, and thinks himself very honest, if 
he charges his goods at five hundred times their worth, and can 
make it appear iDy his account against the Indian's claim, that he 
has paid him thousands of dollars, when, in fact, he nay scarcely 
have paid him hundreds of cents. 


"Well, now- for the festival. 

"When the green corn ripens, the Creeks seem to begin their 
year. Until after certain religious rites, it is considered an infamy 
to touch the corn. The season approaching, there is a meeting of 
the chiefs of all the towns forming any particular clan. First, an 
order is given out for the manufacture of certain articles of pottery 
for a part of their festival. A second meeting gives out a second 
order. New matting is to be prepared for the seats of the assem- 
bly. There is a third meeting. A vast number of sticks are broken 
into as many parts as there are days intervening previous to the one 
appointed for the gathering of the clan. Runners are sent with 
these, made into bundles for each clansman. One is flung aside 
each day and every one is punctually on the last day at the appoint- 
ed rendezvous. I must now m.ention the place where they assemble. 

"It is a large square, with four large, long houses, one forming 
each side of the square, at each angle, a broad entrance to the 
area. These houses are of clay and a sort of wicker work, wath 
sharp-topped sloping roofs like those of our log houses, but more 
thoroughly finished. A space is left open all around at the back 
and sides of each house, to afford a free circulation of air; this 
opening came about up to my chin and enables one to peep in on 
all sides. The part of the house fronting the square, is entirely 
open. It cosists of one broad raised platform, a little more than 
knee-high, and curved and inclined so as to make a most comfort- 
able place for either sitting or reclining. Over this is wrought the 
cane matting, which extends from the back to the ground in front. 
At each angle of the square, there is a broad entrance. Back of 
one angle is a high, cone-roofed building, circular and dark, with 
a sloping entrance through a low door. It was so dark that I 
could not make out the interior, but .some one said it was a council- 
house. It occupied one corner of an outer square next to the one 
I have described ; two sides of which outer squares were formed by 
thick and tall corn-fields, and a third by a raised embankment 
apparently for spectators, and a fourth by the back of one of the 
buildings before described. In the center was a considerably high 
circular mound. This, it seems, was formed from the earth accum- 
ulated yearly by removing the surface of the sacred square, to this 
centre of the outer one. At every Green-corn festival the sacred 
square is strewn with soil yet untrodden; the soil of the year pre- 
ceding being taken away, but preserved, as I explain. No Strang- 

128 Andrew Jacksox and Karlv Tennessee History 

er's foot is allowed to press the new earth of the sacred square 
until its consecration is complete. A gentleman told me that he 
and a friend had chanced once to walk through, along the edge, 
just after new soil was laid. A friendly chief saw him and re- 
monstrated and seemed greatly incensed. He explained that it 
was done in ignorance. The chief was pacified, but ordered every 
trace of the unhallowed steps to be uptorn and fresh covering in 
the place. 

"The sacred square being ready, every fire in the towns depend- 
ent on the chief of the clan is, at the same moment extinguished. 
Even^ house must, at that moment, have been newly swept and 
washed. Enmities are forgotten. If a person under a sentence 
for crime can steal in unobserved, and appear among the worship- 
pers, his crime is no more remembered. The first ceremony is to 
light the new fire of the year. A square is brought with a small 
circular hollow in the centre. It receives the dust of a forest tree 
of dry leaves. Five chiefs take turns to whirl the stick, until the 
friction produces a flame. From this sticks are lighted and con- 
veyed to every house of the clan. The original flame is taken to 
the centre of the sacred square. Wood is heaped there and a strong 
fire lighted. Over this fire, the holy urns of new made pottery are 
placed; drinking gourds, with long handles, are set aroimd on a 
bench, officers are over the whole in attendance, and here, what 
they call the black drink, is brewed with many forms and with in- 
tense solemnity. 

"I cannot describe to you my feelings as I first found myself in 
the Indian country. We rode miles after miles in the native forest, 
neither habitation nor inhabitants to disturb the solitude and ma- 
jesty of the wilderness. At length we met a native in his native 
land. He was galloping on horseback. His air was oriental; he 
had a turban, a robe of fringed and gaudily figured calico, scarlet 
leggings, and beaded belts and garters and pouch. We asked how 
far it was to the square. He held up a finger and we understood him 
to mean one mile. Next, we met two Indian women on horseback, 
loaded with water-melons. We bought some. In answer to our 
question of the road, they half covered a finger to say it was half a 
mile further, and, smiling, added " sneezer-much" — meaning that 
we should find lots of our jjrethren, the sneezers, to keep us company. 
"We passed groups of Indian horse' tied in the shade, with cords 
long enough to let them graze freely; we then saw the American 
flag ( a gift from the government) floating over one of the hut-tops 
in the square; we next passed groups of Indian horses and carriages 
and servants, and under the heels of one horse, a drunken vagabond 
Indian asleep, or half asleep; and at length we got to the corner of 
the square, where they were in the midst of their devotions. I stood 
upon a mound at the corner angle to look in. I was told that this 
mound was composed of ashes from such fires as were now blaz- 
ing in the centre, during many preceding years; and that these ashes 
are never peniitt d to be scattered, but must thus b^ gathered up, 
and carefully and religiously preserv^ed. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 129 

"Before the solemnities begin, and, I believe, ere the new earth 
is placed, the women dance in the sacred square. The preliminary 
dance of theirs is by themselves; I missed this. They sipirats from 
the men and remain apart from them, until after the fasting and 
other religious forms are gone through. 

"On my arrival, the sacred square, as I gazed from the corner 
mound, presented a most striking sight. Upon each of the notched 
posts, of which I have already spoken as attached to the houses of 
the sacred square, was a stack of tall cones, hung all over with 
feathers, black and white. There were rude paint-daubs about 
the posts and roof-beams of the houses fronting on the square, 
and here and there they were festooned with ground-vines. Chiefs 
were standing around the sides and corners along and opposite to 
each other, their eyes riveted on the earth and motionless as 
statues. Every building within was filled with crowds of silent 
Indians, those on the back rows seated in the Turkish fashion, but 
those in front with their feet to the ground. All were turbaned, all 
fantastically painted ; all in dresses varying in ornament, but alike 
in wildness. One chief wore a tall black hat, with a broad, massy 
silver band around it, and a peacock's feather; another had a 
silver skull-cap, with a deep, silver bullion fringe down to his eye- 
brows; and plates of silver from his knee, descending his tunic. 
Most of them had the eagle-plume which only those may wear who 
have slain a foe ; a number wore military plumes in various positions 
about their turbans; and one had a tremendous tuft of black feath- 
ers declining from the back of his head, over his back; while 
another's head was all shaven smooth, excepting a tuft across the 
centre from the back to the front, like the crest of a helmet. I 
never saw an assembly more absorbed with what they regarded as 
the solemnities of the occasion . 

"The first sounds I heard was a strange, low, deep wail — a 
sound of many voices, drawn out in perfect unison, and only dying 
away with the breath itself, which, indeed, was longer sustained 
than could be done by any singer whom I ever yet heard. This was 
followed by a second wail in the same style, but shrill, like the 
sound of musical glasses, and giving the same shiver to the nerves. 
And after a third wail, in another key, the statue-like figures 
moved and from two diagonal lines opposite to each other, their 
backs to opposite angles of the square. One by one, they then 
approached the huge bowls in which the black drink was boiling, 
and in rotation dipped a gourd, and took with a most reverential 
expression a long, deep draught each. The next part of the cere- 
mony with each was somewhat curious, but the rapt expression of 
the worshippers and the utter absence of anything to give a dis- 
agreeable air to the act, took away the effect it may produce even 
in description. By some knack, without moving a muscle of the 
face, nor joint, they moved about like strange spectres, more than 
human beings. But soon the character of the entertainment chang- 
ed, and I more particularly observed two circular plates of brass 

130 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

and steel, which appeared to be the remains of very antique 
shields. They were borne with great reverence, by two chiefs. 
The nation do not pretend to explain whence they came, they keep 
them apart, as something sacred; they are only produced on great 
occasions. I was told, too, that ears of green corn were brought 
in at a part of the ceremony today which I did not see, and pre- 
sented to a chief. He took them, handed them back with an in- 
vocation that corn might continue plenty through the year among 
them. This seemed to be the termination of the peace-offerings, 
and the religious part of the affair was now to wind up with em- 
blems of war. These were expressed in what they call a Gun 
Dance. When dispositions were making for it, some persons in 
carriages, were desired by white likister to draw back, and to re- 
move their horses to a distance. Some ladies especially were warn- 
ed. 'Keep out of the way, Ma'rm,' said the likister to a lady, 
'for when they come racing about here with their guns, they gits 
powerful sarcy.' I saw them dressing for the ceremony, if it may 
be called dressing to throw off nearly every part of a scanty cover- 
ing. But the Indians are especially devoted to dress in their way. 
Some of them went aside to vary their costume with nearly every 

"Now appeared a procession of some forty or fifty women. They 
entered the square and took their seats together, in one of the 
open houses. Two men sat in front of them, with gourds filled 
with pebbles. The gourds were shaken so as to keep time, and the 
women began a long chant, with which, at regular intervals, was 
given a sharp, short whoop, from male voices. The women's 
song was said to be intended for the wail of mothers, wives and 
daughters, at the departure of the warriors for the fight; the re- 
sponse conveyed the resolution of th; warriors not tobj withhtld, 
but to fight and conquer. And now appeared two hidious-look- 
ing old warriors, with tomahawks and scalping knives, painted 
most ferociously. Each went half round the circk, exchanged ex- 
clamations, ktpt up a sort of growl all the while, and at length 
stopped with a war-whoop. We were now told to hurry to the 
outer square. The females and their male leaders left their place 
inside, and went to the mound in the centre of the outer square. 
This mound their forms entirely covered, and the effect was very 
imposing. Here they resumed their chant. The spectators 
mounted on the embankment. I got on a pile of wood, holy wood, 
I believe, and heaped there to keep up the sacred fires. There were 
numbers of Indian women in the crowd. Four stuffed figures 
were placed erect, in the four corners of the square. 

"We now heard firing and whooping on all sides. At length 
in the high corn on one side we saw crouching savages, some with 
guns of every sort, some, especially the boys, with cornstalks to 
represent guns. A naked chief with a long sabre, the blade painted 
blood-color, came before them, flourishing his weapon and har- 
anging vehemently. In another cornfield, appeared another 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 131 

party. The two savages already mentioned as having given the 
war dance in the sacred square, now hove in sight, on a third side, 
cowering. One of these, I understood, was the person who shot the 
chief I mentioned in the first part of this letter, the chief vi^ho made 
an objectionable treaty, and whose house was burned. Both 
these warriors crept slyly towards the outer square; one darted 
upon one of the puppets, caught him from behind, and stole him 
off. Another grasped another puppet by the waist, flung him in 
the air, as he fell, tumbled on him, ripped him with his knife, tore 
off the scalp and broke away in triumph. A third puppet was 
tomahawked and a fourth shot. These were the emblems of the 
various forms of warfare. After the first shot, the two parties 
whooped, and began to fire indiscriminately, and every shot was 
answered by a whoop. One shot his arrow into the square, but fall- 
ing short of the enemy, he covered himself with corn and crept 
thither to regain it and bore it back in safety, honored with a 
triumphant yell as he returned. After much of this brush-skir- 
mishing, both parties burst into the square. There was constant 
firing and war-whooping, the music of chanting and of the pebbled 
gourd going all the time. At length the fighters joined in pro- 
cession, dancing a triumphal dance around the mound, plunging 
thence headlong into the sacred square and all around it, and 
then scampering around the outside and pouring back to the 
battle-square; and the closing whoop being given, all then from the 
battle-square rushed helter-skelter, yelping, some firing as they 
went and others pelting the spectators from their high places with 
the corn stalks which had served for guns, and which gave blows 
so powerful that those who laughed at their impotence before, 
rubbed their shoulders and walked away ashamed. We resumed 
our conveyances homeward and as we departed, heard the splashing 
and shouting of the warriors in the water. Leave was now given 
to taste the corn, and all ate their fill, and, I suppose, did not 
much refrain from drinking, for I heard that every pathway and 
field around was strewed in the morning with sleeping Indians. 

"We passed the next day in visiting the picturesque scenery of 
the neighborhood. We saw the fine falls of the Tallapoosa, where 
the water tumbles over wild and fantastic precipices, varying from 
forty to eighty or a hundred feet; and, when wandering over the 
rocks, passed an old Indian with his wife and child, and bow and 
arrows. They had been shooting lishcs in the stream, from a point 
against which the fishes were brought to them by the current. 
The scenery and the natives would have made a fine picture. 
An artist in the neighborhood made me a present of a picture of 
these falls, which I can show you when we meet. 

"The next part of the festival consisted, as I was told, in the 
wives urging out their husbands to hunt deer. We went down to 
the square towards night. We met Indians with deers slung over 
their horses. The skin is given to a priest, who flings it back to the 
young man who gave it the first shot, to retain as a trophy; and at 

132 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the same time asks from the great Spirit that this may be only the 
harbinger of deer in abundance, whenever wanted. There was 
some slight dancing in the evening; but all were reserving them- 
selves for the winding-up assembly of the ladies on Sunday morn- 
ing. Some of our party remained after I left. They found a mis- 
cellaneous dance at a house in the vicinty, negroes, borderers, 
and reprobate Indians, all assembled in one incongruous mass. 
A vagabond frontier man asked a girl to dance. She refused, and 
was going to dance with another. He drew his pistol and swore, 
if she would not dance with him, she should not dance at all. 
Twenty pistols were clicked in an instant, but the borderer swore 
there was not a soul who dared against him to draw a trigger. 
He was right; for the pistols were dropped and the room cleared 
in an instant, whereupon he clapped his wings and crowed and 

"The assemblage of the females I was rather anxious to see, 
and so I was at my post very early. I had long to wait. I heard 
the fathering cry from the men on all sides in the corn fields and 
bushes; it was like the neighing to each other of wild horses. After 
awhile, the ladies began to arrive. The spectators crowded in. 
The Indian men went to their places; and among them a party to 
sing while the women danced ; two of the men rattling the gourds. 
The cauldrons had disappeared from the centre of the sacred 

"And now entered a long train of females, all dressed in long 
gowns, like our ladies, but all with gay colors and bright shawls 
of various hues, beads innumerable upon their necks and tortoise- 
shell combs in their hair; ears bored all around the rim, from top to 
bottom, and from every bore a massy eardrop, very long, and 
generally of silver. A selected number of dancers wore under their 
robes, and girded upon their calves, large squares of thick leather, 
covered all over with terrapin shells, closed together and perforated, 
and filled with pebbles, which rattled like so many sleigh bells. 
These they have the knack of keeping silent, until their accompan- 
iment is required for the music of the dance. The dresses of all 
the women were so long as nearly to conceal the feet, but I saw 
some had no shoes nor stockings, while others were sandaled. 
The shawls were principally worn like mantles. Broad ribbons, 
in great profusion and of ever)' variety of hue, hung from the 
back of each head to the ground, and, as they mo\ed, these and the 
innumerable sparkling beads of glass and coral and gold, gave the 
wearers an air of graceful and gorgeous, and at the same time 
unique, wildness. 

"The procession entered slowly, and wound around the central 
fire, which, although the cauldrons were removed, burned gently, 
and the train continued to stretch itself out, until it extended to 
three circles and a half; the shorter side then became stationary 
and kept facing the men seated in that building which contained 
the chanters; and in this line of dancers seemed the principal 

Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 133 

wearers of the terrapin shell leg-bands. These make their rat- 
tles keep time with the chant. Two leaders at each end of the 
line (one of them an old woiDan and the other not so young), had 
each a little notched stick with two feathers floating from them. 
At a particukir turn of the dance, they broke off, and went the out- 
side round alone and more rapidly than the rest. The body of 
the dancers slowly proceeded round and round, only turning at a 
given signal to face the men, as the men had turned to face the 
emblem of the Deity, the central fire. Every eye among the 
women was planted on the ground, I never beheld such an air of 
universal modesty, it seemed a part of the old men's privilege to 
make comments aloud, in order to surprise the women into a 
laugh. These must often have been very droll and always personal, 
I understand, and not always the most delicate. I saw a few 
instances among the young girls where they were obliged to smother 
a smile by putting up their handkerchiefs. But it was conquered 
on the instant. The young men said nothing, but the Indian 
men all seemed to take as much interest in the show as we. The 
chief, Apotheola, had two daughters there. Both were very 
elegant girls, but the eldest delighted me exceedingly. She seemed 
about seventeen or eighteen; she is tall and of a fine figure. Her 
carriage is graceful and elegant and quite European. She had a 
white muslin gown, a small black scarf embroidered with flowers 
in brilliant colors, and embroidered white collarette (I believe 
you call it), gold chains, coral beads, gold and jeweled ear-rings, 
(single ones not in the usual Indian super-abundance) her hair 
beautifully dressed in the Parisian style, and a splendid tortoise 
shell comb, gemmed, and from one large tuft of hair upon one 
temple to that upon the other, there passed a beautiful gold orna- 
ment, Her sister's head-dress was nearly the same. The elder 
princess, Apotheola, I am happy to say, looked only at me. Some 
one must have told her that I meant to run away with her, for I 
had so said before I saw her, to many of her friends. There was 
a very frolicsome, quizzical expression in her eyes; and now and 
then it seemed to say, 'No doubt you think all these things very 
droll; it diverts me to see you so puzzled by them.' But, excepting 
the look at me (which only proved her taste), her eye dwelt on the 
ground, and nothing could be more interestingly reserved than 
her whole deportment. The dance was over, all the ladies went 
from the square in the same order that they entered it. In about 
an hour, it was repeated, and after that, signal was made for what 
they call the dance of the olden time, the breaking up of the cere- 
monial, when the men and women are again allowed to intermingle. 
This was done in a quick dance around and around again, all the 
men yelping wildly and merrily as struck their fancy, and generally 
in tones intended to set the women laughing, which they did and 
heartily. The sounds most resembled the yelpings of delighted 
dogs. Finally came the concluding whoop, and all the parties 

1 34 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Between these two last dances, I sent for a chief, and desired 
him to take charge of some sHght gifts of tobacco and beads which 
I had brought for them. The chief took them. I saw the others 
cut the tobacco, and share it. Ere long my ambassdor returned 
saying, the chiefs are mighty glad and count it from you very 
great friendship. I had been too bashful about my present. If 
I had sent it before, I might have seen the show to more advantage. 
As it was, I was now invited to sit inside of the square, and witness- 
ed the last dance from one of the places of honor. But I was 
obliged to depart at once, and give up all hopes of ever again seeing 
my beautiful princess Apotheola. My only chance of a guide 
through the wilderness would have been lost, had I delayed. I 
reluctantly mounted my pony and left the Indians of Tuckabatchie 
and their Green-corn festival and their beautiful princess Apoth- 

"It was a great gratification to me to have seen this festival; 
with my own eyes to have witnessed the Indians in their own 
nation; with my own ears to have heard them in their own lan- 
guage; nor was it any diminution of the interest of the spectacle 
to reflect that this ceremoney, so precious to them, was now prob- 
ably performing in the land of their fore-fathers for the last, 
time. I never beheld more "intense devotion; the spirit of the 
forms was a sight, and a religious one: It was beginning the year 
with fasting, with humility, with purification, with prayer, with 
gratitude; it was burying animosities, while it was strengthening 
courage; it was pausing to give thanks to Heaven before daring to 
partake its beneficence. It was strange to see, this, too, in the 
midst of my own land; to travel, in the course of a regular journey, 
in the new world, among the living evidences of one, it may be, 
older than what we call the old world; the religion and the people 
and the associations of the untraceable part, in the very heart of 
the most recent portion of the most recent people upon earth. 
And it was a melancholy reflection to know that these stranger 
people were rapidly becoming extinct, and that, too, without a pro- 
per investigation into their hidden past, which would perhaps 
unfold to man the most remarkable of all human histories." 


S 2 

O « 

> = 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 135 


52 5?. 

52 W 

5? Letters beginning in 1808 from and to 5H 

52 Andrew Jackson. 52 

52 52 





On vSeptember 26, 1921, the Manuscript Division of the Con- 
gressional Library, Washington, D. C, gave the following state- 
ment in reference to the Jackson papers in the Library: 

"There are 150 volumes in the Jackson Collection comprising 
40,000 folio sheets of manuscript by general estimate. 

"In addition to the above there are from 800 to 1,000 letters 
and papers in the Andrew Jackson-Donelson collection. 

"The 5,000 letters referred to in Mr. Heisk ell's letter (written 
heretofore) are letters written by Jackson. There are from 3 to 
5 letters to Jackson for every letter from Jackson." 

Jackson's tremendous labor in writing letters can be more fully 
appreciated when it is considered that stenographers and type- 
writers were not used and typewriters were even unknown. All 
writing was in longhand and Jackson's letters at this day would be 
considered long — unnecessarily long. But long letters then was 
the order of the day. More than one person wrote letters for 
Jackson on his dictation. His letters in his own writing are gen- 
erally hard to read and sometimes illegible. Some of the letters 
in this volume in his hand were copied for the author by photostat 
by copyists in the Manuscript division of the Congressional Library 
and make difficult reading and some of it impossible. 

A complete publication in book form of the entire Jackson and 
kindred collections in the Congressional Library, documents and 
letters from and to Jackson and directly connected with him, would 
make a great publishing undertaking, of many volumes. 

The author at one time considered the idea of publishing all 
of Jackson's own letters, but 5,000 letters would be a great under- 
taking in themselves, to say nothing of explanatory notes and 
references that would be necessary for some of them; so the idea 
was abandoned and this volume substituted. The author is in- 
formed that the Carnegie Foundation of New York has retained 
Mr. John Spencer Basset to make a complete collection and pub- 
lication in 10 volumes of all of Jackson's letters and state papers. 
This would be the last word in Jacksonian history. Such an un- 

136 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

derlakins, carefully and successfully carried out, would make an 
incalculably valuable use of a part of the millions left behind by 
the great Scotch Iron King. 

In writing to his friends Jackson was one of the frankest of men. 
In fact frankness in letters was just as habitual with him as frank- 
ness in speech, and it is doubtful if he ever concealed his views to 
any extent whatever on any subject in which the public had an 
interest. Jackson shows to fine advantage in his letters in not 
only his frankness, but in that old-fashioned high bred courtesy 
that exhibits one of the most attractive phases of his character. 
That courtesy and his unfailing recognition of a higher power 
directing and governing the destinies of man, are two curious 
concomitants in the make-up of a man to whom history has attributed 
such war-like and violent proclivities; and they justify, together 
with his perfect home life, the statement made elsewhere in this 
work that there were two Jacksons of radically contrasting at- 


"Carthage, April 25, 1808. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Since you left here politics have ceased and the greatest 
harmony imaginable pervades all ranks. The only two converts 
vou made while here have retrograded, or in other words they say 
that they only supported Monroe out of politeness to you because 
that you were a stranger, and I can assure you Sir without you or 
sotne other friend of Monroe's return to this quarter, he will have 
but few friends. At present I know of none nor do I suspect but 

"I know that you have been at considerable trouble and ex- 
pense in electioneering for him and I though it a duty that I owe 
you from our long and friendly acquaintance to inform you that 
any further exertion in his favor will be lost, for your friend cannot 
come in this heat. 

"Your friend Kite says that he cannot stand alone and at 
present he does not know who he shall support for Elector, and 
without James Lyon declares unequivocally in favor of Madison, 
he shall not vote for him . but let the presidential election termi- 
nate as it may, my friendship for you is the same it ever was and 
will not cease tuitil I have reasons to change my present opinion. 
You know cau casing is necessary on extraordinery occasions. 
At all events my sincere wish is that the best man may be elected 
and if I should be mistaken in my choice and hereafter be con- 
vinced as I heretofore have been I shall acknowledge my error and 
repent for the injury done iry Country and try to repair it on 
some future occasion, which is all I think that is required of sin- 
ners. But I hope that we shall get all right after a while. 

"Accept Sir the Assurances of my Esteem and believe me to 
be a true Republican of 76. "s. williams." 

Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 137 

jackson to gov. wm. buount. 

"Camp Jackson, March 15, 1813 
"Dear Sir: 

"I had on yesterday my feelings more awakened than I have 
ever had before. It was on the receipt of the enclosed extraordi- 
nary Order from the Secretary of War ordering the dismissal of 
the Detachment under my Command. 

"The Order was addressed to me at the city of New Orleans, 
presuming that I had marched my Detachment there according to 
your order. What do you think of the justice of Government to 
make a requisition of so many men, have them assembled in an 
inclement season, and marched more than a thousand miles amidst 
ice and snow and the dangers of the river, and then desert them 
without making provision for their return ? 

"Would you be willing for those brave and patriotic men, 
whom I have the honour to command, to be deserted in a strange 
and inhospitable country, where there are no resources to support 
them and where they would be a prey to the diseases of this un- 
wholsome climate ? 

"The measures of government are dictated by policy more 
than generous motives. If our brave countrymen had been dis- 
charged here, there would have been a fine harvest for petty re- 
cruiting officers to have taken advantage of their necessities, which 
would constrain them to enlist, in order to get the means of sub- 

"If we have not rendered the Government any important ser- 
vices, it was their own fault in not pointing out an object for us. 
We have shewn our willing dispositions to serve them, by making 
many sacrafices of our domestic comforts. Yet they abandon us 
in a strange country, and have ordered us to be divested of all 
public property. There is no reservation not even a tent for the 
canopy of a sick man's bed. 

"I have, however, from the necessity of the case determined 
to keep some of the tents and to march the men home in as good 
order as possible, and I will make every sacrafice to add to their 
comfort. I have required of the contractor here twenty days 
rations which take my men to Colberts, and I must trust in Prov- 
idence and your exertions to furnish them with supplies from there 
to Nashville. If I fail in those, there is one alternative left which 
altho' it might alarm those who are enjoying plenty and comfort 
at home, yet it will be resorted to by soldiers who think that their 
country is not grateful, and who are pinching under lean gripe of 
hunger. Provisions I must have and hope you will save me from 
the unpleasant necessity of procuring them Vi et Armis. 

"Will you be good enough to concert measures with the con- 
tractor and Ass. Dep. Qr. Master about furnishing supplies suf- 
ficient for our march from Colberts to Nashville. 

138 Andrew Jackson axd Early Tennessee History 

"Arrangements will also have to be made for the payment of 
my troops when they arrive at Nashville. 

"I have the honour to be with sentiments of very friendly es- 
teem Yr. Ob. Servt. 

"Andrew Jackson." 


"Nashville, April 24, 1813. 
"Dear Sir: 

"When I marched from your territory I did intend to keep you 
duly notified of my progress, but the want of candles in the night 
and the attention to the sick in the day, prevented me, and the 
only letter I was able to write you w^as from the Tennessee advising 
you of my arival at that place, meeting supplies, and that I would 
return your tents in the hahds of the Inft., so liberally and hu- 
manely furnished for a covering to my sick. I have now the pleas- 
ure to inform you that on the evening of the 19th I reached Colum- 
bia, there meeting Major Hynes who I had sent on and finding from 
him that there was no orders from government for the payment of 
my troops, I there halted on the 20th and discharged the 2nd. Regt. 
of Infantry and part of the first, on the 21st proceed with the 
residue and reach Nashville on the 22d instant (a distance of 45 
miles) and on that day discharged the residue of the Infantry and 
the guards, and on this day to meet the cavalry 9 miles distant 
and muster and discharge them. I have the pleasure to inform 
you, that this moment I have reed, advices from the war depart- 
ment which goes to shew that if we were for a moment neglected 
by the government, we were not forgotten and that the return 
of my detachment to Tennessee, as. I have marched them fully, 
meets the wishes of government, they are directed to be paid and 
all expenses of the return march. This will surprise your D. Q. 
Master and astonish the officer who ordered recruiting officers 
to my encampment to enlist my brave fellows, then in the service, 
of their country. Inclosed you w^ill find the wagoner's receipt 
for the tents returned by him. Those in the hands of the cavalry 
will be sent to you in good order by the first safe conveyence. 

' Be pleased to present me to Mr. Dangerfield and lady, Major 
Freeman, if with you, Capt Guildart, lady and family, including 
my friend Miss Stark, and accept for yourself, my best wishes. 

' 'Andrew Jackson 

MAJ. W. B. lewis to GEN. JOHN COFFEE. 

"Nashville, Apl. 14th, 1813. 
"My dear friend: 

"Yours dated in Franklin has been reed. Your conjectures as 
to my not being authorized to furnish the cavalry with forage are 
well grounded. I cannot act iniless it be from the instructions of 
Governor Blount, who, tho' now absent, will be in this place within 
8 or 10 days, which will be time enough, in case he should authorize 

Andrew Jackson and Earuy Tennessee History 139 

me, to furnish the supplies required; however, we will talk this 
business over more fully on your arrival here next week, until then 
believe me. 

"Your very humble and most Obt. Servt. 

"W. B. Lewis. 
"Cvl. John Coffee." 


"Nashville, July 12th, 1813. 

"I have the pleasure to enclose a copy of an order to you from 
the Secretary of War of date the 14th of June, directing you to 
'Settle and discharge the accounts for the transportation of the 
Tennessee Volunteers on their return march.' 

"I have no dovibt but you w411 obey this order, as you are now 
placed clear of any control of Col. Shomburgh; from your letters 
to me and from the information reed, from Col. Purdy I have 
cause to believe that you were disposed to have done right at first 
but you conceived you were under the immediate orders and control 
of Shomburgh. From the tenor of your orders you are the proper 
officer to pay the accounts (of the officers) for the transportation 
of the baggage of any detachment, and as you well know, trans- 
portation for their baggage was not furnished, you will point out 
to me what vouchers is necessary under the new regulations to 
authorize the officers to receive payment from you for the trans- 
portation of their baggage. 

"You will also have the goodness to point out to me, the nec- 
essary vouchers upon which you will be authorized (under the 
new rules) to pay me for the forrage furnished to the 13 wagons 
and twenty-six pack horses employed in transporting the sick and 
the baggage of my detachment to the Tennessee river. I hope 
Sir as you refused to furnish the cash promised to the wagoners 
to lay in their supplies that no difficulty will arise in remunerating 
me for the cost advanced for forage for the teams and packhorses. 
You will please make this order public that all concerned may 
have notice to attend and receive payment. Upon the receipt 
of this I shall expect to receive your answer. 

"I am respectully Yr Obd. Servt.' 

"Andrew Jackson." 


"New Orleans, January 26, 1815. 
"Head Quarters 
"7 M. District 
"Dear Col.: 

"I have this moment reed, yours of the 17th. Am happy to find 
the ladies have started at last. I hope there will be no danger from 
a return of the enemy. You say you wish I would write often. 
Were you to see the business with which I am surrounded you would 

140 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

I know readily excuse me. I rejoice to hear of the health of our 
friends there and thank my God we have all escaped here although 
I do not enjoy good h^^alth at present. I thank you for your at- 
tention to my farm, and beg you to see it now and then. Tell Knot 
to take care of my stock, my colts and lambs particularly. 

"I inclose you a paper including my address and Genl. order 
to the troops since which, about eighty prisoners has been taken, 
who state that the total loss of the enemy amounts to six thousand 
five hundred, and Major General Kean has died of his wounds. 
It appears that the unerring hand of Providence shielded my men 
from the showers of balls, bombs and rocketts, when every ball 
and bomb from our guns carried with them the mission of death. 
Tell your good lady and family god bless them and give my respects 
to all friends. Adieu. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"(Addressed): Col. Robert Hays." 


"Nashville, Oct. 24, 1815. 
"Dear Gen'l:- 

I have but a few days since returned from Kentucky, and while 
there I heard your name often mentioned most respectfully, yet 
there are some who still pretend to be dissatisfied, because the 
same need of praise was not bestowed on the Kentuckians as was 
on the Troops of Tennessee. The portion of the discontented are 
so small that they form but a few black specks in the mass of the 

"I was in Lexington when the Hon. Henry Clay arrived. There 
was great joy manifested on the occasion. His return was greeted 
by the most kindly welcome. 

"On my return, I stayed all night at Gen. Adair's and he really 
appears very well disposed towards you. He spoke of you in an 
anxious manner, and said that he had but little doubt with the 
proper management of your friends, that you might be elevated to 
the highest office in the American Government. 

"I do not know your sentiments or disposition on the occasion 
and I know your delicacy will not permit you to speak or write 
about it. Yet if the people of the United States should wish it 
you no doubt will acquiese. 

"Not only G:n. Adair, but many others of Kentucky are anxious 
for your elevation among whom are many of my friends at Bards- 
town. Yet I am sorry to say that the Representative from that 
place, Mr. Benj. Hardin, possesses such a cynical turn that he 
delights to find fault with everybody. You may however get 
acquainted with him, and a few social jokes or a little familiar 
conversation will make him very friendly. 

"I rec. not long since the enclosed letter from Mr. Fletcher. 
It is confidential and the information therein contained you can 
use as you think proper. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 141 

"So soon as Mr. Worsley's disposition towards you is ascertain- 
ed, perhaps some of your friends in this quarter may furnish the 
Reporter something on the above subject, which shall be published 
as coming from a citizen of Kentucky. 

"Whatever may be the present sentiments of the people of 
America, I will venture to pronounce they will be entirely swayed 
by the nomination of the Caucus of Members of Congress at Wash- 
ington and the broad field of Elective prerogative will be reduced 
down to the capricious opinions of a few men. 

"I hope you will give a hearty response to all the kind attentions 
which may be paid you by members of congress. Altho' they 
may not be great men, yet they have power in the Nation. 

"I have many friends in Baltimore and Philadelphia and I 
have understood several of them are of the same sentiments of 
Mr. Carswell, but not having seen them personally for about 
two years I can hardly know their dispositions. 

"Will you be good enough to call on those gentlemen to whom 
the enclosed letters are addressed, Macdonald & Ridgeley and 
Luke Turnan & Co (eminent merchants) and let yourself be known 
to them. They are my particular friends and they are popular 

"Should Mrs. Jackson be willing to spend a retired hour in the 
company of a plain quaker woman whom she will find an affec- 
tionate friend, I hope she will call on Mrs. Catherine vSmith, and 
for that purpose I have given you a lettr to her husband, Matthew 
Smith. I only mention those two last as displaying the greatest 
simplicity of manners, which you may contrast with the gay ex- 
travagance which will surround you at other places. They are 
not considered among the fashionables and as the rich and the gay 
will be emulous to entertain you, you may not be doing right to 
mingle with the humble. Permit me to remark that Mr. Turnan 
is a Catholic and has great weight among that people and by his 
wealth and sterling integrity is universally esteemed. MacDonald 
& Ridgeley are popular with the Irish and have long been and 
are now the most particular friends of Maj. Jas vSmiley of Bards- 

"I will probably have it in my power to pay you and Mrs. 
Jackson a visit during your tour in the north this winter. 

"I am respectfully Yr. friend, 

"And. Haynes." 


"Clarksvillc, Nov. 7, 1815. 
"My dear General :- 

"Upon my arrival at Russelville I met with your letter in reply 
to mine written you from Limestone: I regret it was not in my 
power to have seen you before you left home; the subject I wished 
to converse upon was no less important than who should be the 
next President? On my way through Pennsylvania and Virginia 

142 A.xDREw Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

I had numerous conversations with persons of the first consid- 
eration both for their talents and their standing in the community, 
and I found a strong disposition manifested to run your name for 
the Presidency. In those conversations some of which were held 
with members of congress, I heard no dissenting voice: to com- 
municate these facts, was one object of the interview requested. 
And one other object (and not the least important with me), 
was to use whatever influence I could have with you to induce you 
to stand a candidate if solicited to do so whilst you were at Wash- 
ington City. Upon this subject I have no doubt that I entertain 
and indulge that interest which a sincere regard for the individual 
concerned will always excite in an ardent and honest mind, and 
that under such circumstances the partialities of private friend- 
ship have their weight. Yet I am equally certain that the para- 
mount motive in this case is my country's welfare to which all 
other considerations will be made to yield when an object so im- 
portant shall engage my attention. Our country for some time 
past, as you know, has been unfortunately under the dominion of 
men who altho' extremely well fitted for the calm of peace were 
illy calculated to guide the affairs of the nation in war. The 
war we have just concluded, has to be sure, by a fortunate tlw' 
late selection of leaders terminated honorably and gloriously for 
our arms. Yet the conduct of that war taken as a whole, proves 
most strikingly the proposition I laid clown of the unfitness to 
rule us in time of war, either by providing means, or an independent 
selection of instruments best calculated to secure success and cover 
the nation with glory. The state of affairs in Europe call upon us 
to be prepared for every emergency, and requires most especially 
that a man should be placed at the head of our government whose 
firmness and judgment in deciding on measures, and whose bold- 
ness in execution, would unite the nation around him. Every 
man in the U. S. looks to you as this individual and whatever might 
be your private wishes on this subject you would owe it to your 
county as a patriot not to refuse the station if offered* to you. 
I have written you upon this topic lest my journey to the city 
should be so long delaxed as to prevent me from offering the sug- 
gestions of my mind, untill the time was past. I feel no doubt 
that the affair will be mentioned to you very shortly after your 
arrival and if it be I pray you in the name of our country pause and 
weigh well the subject before you refuse the tender. Many va- 
cancies I learn are to be filled up in the peace establishment, if 
so, permit mc to recommend to your patronage some young men 
ardently devoted to the profession of arms and who are an orna- 
ment to their country, but who for want of friends at court have 
been neglected for many less worthy. Captain Gray, late of the 
24th. Infantry (Anderson's regiment), is a man of fine mind and 
ardent character. I pray you endeavour to have him a Captain. 
1st. Lieutenant Thomas Edmondson, late of the 28th. Infantry, is 
also an intelligent, gallant, honorable man who would do credit 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 143 

to himself, and honor to the country. He would also be glad to 
remain in military life. In fine, should the peace establishment 
be auijjmented, and you can have me appointed with my former 
rank to any of the new regiments under your command, I would 
immediately accept. Write me the news of the Capitol and be- 
lieve me respectfullv and truly your friend 

"A. Butler 
"Major Gen. Andrew Jackson, 
"Washington City. 

"Chickasaw Agency, 
"Sept. 5, 1816. 



"By Major Thos. L. Butler, I wrote you inclosing a letter to 
Genl. Coffee requesting certain papers to be forwarded. If 
papers requested are not already forwarded, you Must have them 
forwarded to Genl. Coffee, by expres at the earliest oppor- 
tunity. The council begins this day, & we Must have them 
as early as possible. These papers we find will be of the utmost im- 
portance. The Creek Chiefs not being here we Must have them 
in a few days. If all influence but the Native Indian was out of 
the way, would have but little trouble. But a letter from the Sec- 
retary of War to the agent, which had been reed, and read to the 
Naion in council before our arrival, has done Much Mischief, To 
counteract this will give as Much trouble, and makes the posses- 
sion of these papers promised by Genl. Coffee of the utmost im- 
portance. Mr. Bell etc. is now here. I delivered your mesage to 
him; he says he will comply wdth it. Tell Major Eaton I have 
Reed his letter will answer it in due time. But my whole time 
and thoughts are occupied finding out the wiles of the deceitful, 
to obtain if possible the object in view', and finally disappoint the 
li'ould be President. 

"Say to Mrs. J. I am well, will write her when I have anything 
to communicate. I wish Gen. Coffee was here. 

"Tell my son to be a good boy and learn his books & give my 
affectionate good wishes to all. Adieu. 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"Col. Robert Butler, Adjt. Genl. of D. 



"dec. 12, 1818. 

"My Dear General: 

"I owe you an apology for not having called on your lady, agree- 
ably to your friendly invitation. Mr. Graham and myself were 
both anxious to reach the end of our journey, and it was not until 
the 14th ultimo, that I arrived in this citv. You have doubtless 

144 Andrew Jackson axd Early Tennessee History 

seen the notice taken of the events of the Siminolf war in the 
message of the President. So far as I am enabled to Judge it 
breathes a spirit of amity towards yourself. The communication 
has been distributed in the usual manner, among a variety of select 
committees; but each of them seem desirous of casting off the 
burden and responsibility of this part of the message. The Mili- 
tary Committee allege that it belongs to our foreign relations, 
and the committee on foreign affairs deem the whole subject 
purely military. A motion was made the other day to obtain the 
sense of the House upon the conflicting duties of these comittees, 
which gave your Georgia friends an opportunity of showing the cloven 
foot. Mr. Cobb moved a special instruction to the commiftee to en- 
quire whether the Constitution and Laws of the United States and 
the Laws of Nations had not been violated. The House without 
understanding the force of the amendment adopted it, and then 
ordered the Resolution to lie on the table. The next norming, I 
went to the House prepared to move additional instructions to 
the committee which I take liberty of inclosing you. I however, 
thought it prudent, first to try the effect of a motion to postpone 
to a subsequent day the consideration of the subject, which on the 
suggestion of my friend, Doct Floyd of Virginia, was modified, so 
as to postpone it indefinitely. Some of your friends were anxious 
to broach the discussion and give vent to the feelings which the 
conduct of a few members had excited, but I did not think the 
moment had arrived when such a discussion ought to be urged; I 
therefore persisted in the motion which was carried by a very large 
majority. You may rely on it there is a "back stairs" influence 
exerted to induce the adoption of some measure by Congress which 
will have a tendency to withdraw from you the confidence and 
affection of the American people. I do not mean this hint to ex- 
tend to the President, for I am sure he is your friend, and if he was 
not he would scorn to descend to such mean contrivances by which 
to produce a result unfavorable to your fame. Time will probably 
show who they are, you need not be surprised if you find among 
them some of your most enthusiastic flatterers. Certain individ- 
uals are on the alert to find on which side the current will set, that 
they may float down it, without encountering the hazard of ship- 

"Should either committee make a report calculated to implicate 
your feelings or reputation, you may be assured of the feeble aid 
which my best exertions can afford you. And I feel confident 
that you will be supported by Congress and the Nation. When 
I last saw you something was said concerning, a massacre which 
had been committed on the Tombigbee, of an innocent family, 
headed by the Alabama chief who was taken to the Havanna. Will 
you be so good as to give me the particulars, when you have a 
moment of leisure ? I am anxious to lay this whole matter fairly 
before the American people and the world. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 145 

"I am well aware, General, that some efforts have been made, 
to excite in your mind prejudice a^^ainst me. They may have had 
weight with you in the absence of the explanations of which my 
conduct is susceptible. I have marked some individuals whom it 
is imnecessary to name as the promoters of this object. I have 
called on them and have their written assurances that they are 
innocent of any attempt. I have done with them, and only men- 
ion it now that you know, that I never suffer fleeting circumstances 
of this kind to change my opinion of men or measure. Calumny 
when directed against a man of honest views and intentions, 
invariably recoil on those with whom it originated. 

"Wishing you long life, health & happiness, 

I remain, yr. friend with sincerity 

"Geo. Poindexter. 

"(Addressed): Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Nashville. 


"14 Dec, 1818. 
"Dear Gen'l.: 

"Yours 28 Nov. was reed, this morning & I have only time be- 
fore the mail goes out to say that I am well. We are playing a sort of 
game of hide & seek here in relation to Florida, little subleties and 
nice manuverings are much practiced. The Sec. of War has laid 
before Congress a statement of the Seminole business, with "an 
extract of an order to Maj. Gen'l. Jackson" which you may, like me, 
deem little strange that we should only have given to us an extract 
from that which forms the ground of controversy on relation to 
that business. This tho' will not go down, for all & every thing 
appertaining to that business will be forced from their hiding place 
in the War Dept. and brought to view. 

"I wrote you on Sunday last, in which I stepped first into the 
field of conjectures regarding many things. As others are brought 
to light you shall hear from me. You enquire if your presence 
should be here. I have frequently thought upon business & this 
has been my conclusion: that I would be glad you were with us if 
the inclemcnces of the journey could be dispensed with. But again 
you must & do know that here are little finesses and cunning prac- 
ticed, a knowledge of which to you if here would excite the warmth 
of your feelings and lead to improper results. Were you present 
and could stand aloof, cool, collected & unruffled by what might be 
said by the little glum worry of others, 1 should be highly gratified, 
but knowing that this would by no means be congenial to your 
temper of feeling & mind, think it best for you to be absent, know- 
ing and believing that you have friends here that so far as their 
feeble powers may go, will luring forth to the world an unvarnished 
view of all things. 

"I regret you had not separated the functions in yr. treaty in 
relation to Ind. & Kent. Congress is bound to No. Carolina to 
extinguish the Indian title in Tennessee but not so as regards 

146 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Kentky. or her compact with Virga. This may give rise to diffi- 
culties. The treaty is not yet acted on but I hope will be in a few 

"In haste, very respectfully, 

"Yr. friend, 

"Jno. H. Eaton. 
"Maj. Gen. A. Jackson, Nashville, Tennessee. 

"Broney & Butler are still here. Doc. Butler has also arived> 
&: will suceed I think in his business. The papers of the city have 
and are published all things full & entire in relation to the Semi- 
nole war." 


"Washington City, December 15, 1818. 
"Dear General: 

"I yesterday read your letter to Doctor Cavanaugh with con- 
siderable interest, and we here previously determined that a state 
of things might exist here which would render your presence 
necessary, we hear much rumor that Georgia and New York have 
joined forces, and determined to injure the administration, if pos- 
sible, on the Florida Question. There has been much warmth al- 
ready manifested, but I think it is now subsiding on the documents 
being given to the world. If this attempt is made you are to be 
the wounded instrument on the occasion. This party is very few 
and from preparations making I think they will get lashed in the 
House beyond endurance. 

"It is desirable you should jump into the stage and come on 
for several reasons. 

"It is said Gen. Brown will be here, and much intrigue will be 
on foot in relation to the army. 

"The Chickcsaw Treaty is still in the Senate and I learned 
there will be some opposition to it on two grounds: 1st with regard 
to paying for the relinquishment of lands for Kentucky; secondly, 
establishing the principle of suffering reservations to be given in 
fee simple, thereby leaving open room for such stipulation in all 
future treaties. However futile these opinions are they have their 
supporters, but I fancy the thing will be brought without danger. 
Crittenden swears it shall go down and assigned a reason to me for 
delay which I think prudent. 

"Agreeable to your note I shall not return until I see you here, 
or learn that you will not come on, for however disagreeable it is 
to me to be separated from my little family, yet considerations 
growing out of your military reputation would have induced me to 
remain even without your note. 

"Please write me by return mail and present me affectionately 
to all friends. 

"Health accompanv vou, adieu. 

"Ralph Butler. 
"Maj Gen Jackson." 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 147 

maj. j. h. eaton to jackson. 

"Washington City, March 11, 1820. 
"Dear Genl: 

"In my letter a few days ago, I promised that shortly thereafter 
I would again write you. Your memorial was at that time post- 
poned that gentlemen might have an opportunity to examine and' 
see how far it would prove to them palitable and how far the lan- 
guage might be considered decorous; as you will have perceived 
by the news papers it was shortly afterwards called up, but in- 
terrupted upon the discussion by the slave bill which had been re- 
turned to us from the House of Representatives. That being dis- 
posed of, the memorial was again adverted to by Mr. King, and 
after about six or eight speeches, and divers animadversions on the 
character of the report of last year; and after the acremony & 
severity of your memorial had been descanted upon & defended, 
it was ordered to be printed. 

"The advocates and the opposers you will have seen in the 
Intelligencer : amongst the number was Mr. Pinkney who advocated 
the memorial. He said it was true that it did not, as regarded the 
Committee, speak in laudatory phrase, or in suppliant style, nor 
would such language have been worthy of yourself — that it was a 
manly argumentative and dignified appeal, and a bold and free 
examination of an Indictment preferred at last session, and was 
drawn in a style & manner suited to the cause that produced it. 
He said it was a duty the Senate owed, after what had hereto- 
fore transpired, to give, under their sanction, publicity to the 
m?morial, and by this official act to ward off assult from one whose 
reputation and character was the property of the nation and 
ought to be so considered. 

"It must b? to you a matter highly satisfactory that men so 
eminently distinguished, and at the same time so competent to 
judge as King and Pinkney, are discovered to be approvers of your 
course and conduct in the vSeme. war, men who being almost stran- 
gers to you, can feel no other impulse than that which reason sanctions. 
. . . The opposition to printing was so feebly maintained, and the 
strength of argum nt and numbers being on the side of the me- 
morial, that in the end, before the discussion had closed, opposition 
was withdrawn, & six hundred copies were ordered to be printed; 
so soon as they are finished I will send you one. 

"You will remember I stated to you, that Doct Bronagh and 
myself had transcribed and made some changes in the memorial. 
Alter this it was handed over to Mr. Pinkney and to Mr. King, 
who had desired to sec it. They proposed, after having examined 
it, that some alteration or changes should be made in the first 
pagQs; and particularly desired that the sentences which alleged 
that you had 'understood' the report had not been drawn by any 
of the Committee should be crossed out & not printed. Th y said 
that anything the memorial might contain, directly personal would 

1 48 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

in coming before the public prove injurious, not beneficial to the 
end, which ought to be the only one intended to be answered, (to wit) 
the placing the report of the Senate properly before the public. I 
at first refused, but on a second interview with ihem on the sub- 
ject, this was my reply: that you would I well knew be satisfied 
with any fredom or course your friends might deem advisable and 
if hey would state their opinions in writing, to be sent to you, & 
thereby unite with me in the responsibility, I would consent to the 
alterations proposed. Accordingly they were made ; and when you 
shall see the memorial I am persuaded that in what has been done, 
there is nothing to which you will object. I will enclose you the 
waiting referred to, as the basis of what was done, when next I 
write; it is not at hand or it would be now forwarded. The mem- 
orial will, I expect, be printed in eight or ten days hence. 

"Those gentlemen and others warmly your friends are opposed 
to any further examination of this subject. There is no way to 
reach it but by reference of the whole matter again to a commottee 
and they say that this ought not to be done — that the Report of 
last year is duly appreciated every where, &: is without any the 
elTects in relation to you, that you conjecture to have been pro- 
duced ; — that the Senate never made the report 1 heirs by adoption, 
o' did more than to direct, as a matter ordinarily usual, its print- 
ng: and that your memorial which is as full and satisfactory as 
any report that could be made, being also by the Senate ordered 
to be printed, is making the reparation commensurate with the 
injustice. They say it is not an answer and defense published by 
yourself, & therefore a private matter ; but a reply presented to the 
Senate, who by the order made for its publication, sanction your 
opinion as much as they, by ordering the publication of the report, 
gave it sanction ; and that, henc?, the whole matter stands as tho' the 
Senate never had acted on it as the opinion of three men. Added 
to all 1his a great majority concur with you, that it is a business 
with which the Senate had, and ought to have had nothing to do, 
and that a sacrifice of this opinion would be contained in pressing 
the enquiry again. Such being the opinions of those whose friend- 
ship is unquestionab'e gives additional weight. Of the good wishes 
of h m who is principal actor in this bus'ness the presenter of the 
memorial you have heretofore had evidence — tha of Mr. Pinkney 
is no less than his. 

"A further objection however to the reference is this, that (for 
you know they are chosen in the Senate by ballot) an unfavorably 
disposed committee might be selected. It is very easy in a body 
of 40, for 12 or 15 men acting in concert to appoint a committee of 
their own: their own ballots would be certain, while the scattering 
votes of those unapprised of the scheme might effect the purpose: 
true a similar concert by a majority might defeat it, but then here 
is the objection; you have presented the memorial and stirred the 
investigation, and for your friends under such circumstances to 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 149 

attempt any concert of the kind would afford room for recrimination 
& censure to you; having a regard for your honor & feeHngs they could 
not venture upon such a course : and not to do so, but to trust the 
matter to those inimicably disposed, would be to venture at great 
hazard, in pursuit of an unprofitable result, and to afford an oppor- 
timitv for the venting of any lurking spleen. Your memorial hav- 
ing been printed by order of, and bearing with it the sanction, of 
the Senate, s as full a report as any Committee could give, however 
favorably disposed. 

"Besides the opinions entertained by many, that the Senate 
have not & never should have entertained jurisdiction, as you have 
well argued, would render an attempt to recommit the enquiry 
hazardous; & should it be made & fail of success it might produce 
an injurious effect. Upon the whole therefore, your friends have 
come to this conclusion, that the 'strong' spirited and dignified 
appeal you have made through the Senate, and by them under a 
feeble opposition ordered to be printed, will effectually put the 
'LacoL-k Report' to rest, and ought forever to quiet your feelings 
upon the subject. My desire to consult and to pursue your own 
wishes upon this subject would be sufficient to attempt the ref- 
erence but your friends deeming a different course advisable and 
proper, renders it prudent to forbear any further attempt; e~p:cially 
too as public opinion is now decidedly with you. The Committee 
on foreign relations in the Ho. Rep. yesterday made ;-eport author- 
izing the President to take possession of E & W Florida. Mr. 
Forsyth's correspondence in addition to what you have seen was 
yesterday laid before both houses. His remonstrance, as he calls it, 
to the Spanish Secy, of State was referred & sent back as highly 
offensve. He informs Mr. Secty Adams that he shall retire from 
Madrid into France. Doubtless he has left the Spanish Court. 

"Some of our profound politicians have shown a great know- 
ledge of the situation of the affairs of their Country and if clothed 
with sensibility must feel a little mortified. A reference to the 
Intelligencer of yesterday will shew them debating on the reduction 
of the army & navy, & urging it as necessary, when lo, on the very 
next day, out comes a report for active measures of a warlike nature, 
which points to the necessity of an increase instead of a diminution. 

"In the progress of my house bill for the relief of the Volunteers 
it has been urged that they were paid for clothing. There is an 
old law, during the war which directs volunteers tendering their 
services for one year, & accepted of by the President, to be supplied 
or paid for clothing; but this law is obsolete, & at any rate applied 
not to the Seminole volunteers who were to have the sarne pay &c 
as had been given to the Militia during the war, which was $6 66/100 
under the act of 1795 in lieu of everything. Pray did they receive 
cloathing, & was it by your orders ? 

"The President says he has reed your letter. He said he wanted 
to have with me some conversation in relation to it, but it being a 

1 50 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

levee evening & much crowded, no opportunity was then had. He 
desired me to say to you that he has been so taken up with the deep 
agitation here the (Missouri Bill) that he did not have time but 
that he would shortly write you. The agitation was indeed great 
I assure you, dissolution of the Union had become quite a familiar 
subject. By the Compromise, however, restricting slavery north 
of 36^ degrees we ended this unpleasant question. Of this the 
Southern people are complaining, but they ought not, for it has 
preserved peace, dissipated angry feelings & dispelled appearances 
which seemed dark & horrible & threatening to the interest & har- 
mony of the nation. The constitution has not been surrendered 
by this peace offering, for it only applies while a territory', when it 
is admitted, congress have the power & right to legislate, & not 
when they shall become states. 

"I fear I have tired you, so good night. Present me respect- 
fully to Mrs. Jackson & to my friend Capt Call. 

"Yours trulv, 

"J. H. Eaton. 
"Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson, Nashville, Tennessee. 


"March 15, 1820. 
"Dear Gen"l: 

"Calling at the office to examine the proof that it might be 
correctly printed, I obtained a form of the first part of your me- 
moral and now enclose it that you may see the style and character 
of it as it stands after the alterations which in my letter of Sat- 
urday last you were apprised had been made by certain of your 
friends. I stated to you in my last the desire entertained that some 
expressions should be altered, on my own responsibility while 
Doctor Bronaugh and myself were transcribing I felt an imwill- 
ingness to alter farther than to render it chaste and perfect as I 
could in many parts which owing to your haste in drawing it had 
been neglected. Mr. P and Mr. K on examining it suggested and 
desired that I might venture to make some changes which thev 
thought would prove advisable. My course and reasons in this 
respect were suggested in my last letter and I now enclose you the 
paper which they signed to shew you how and wherefore any 
alterations were made. I am persuaded on examing the part I 
have sent you, it will be perceived that enough of strength and 
firmness remains to do ample justice to yourself upon this subject. 

"The Senate have ordered 600 copies. Gentlemen are de- 
sirous to circulate them and an additional number has been printed 
making 1,000. In addition to this the memorial will appear in the 
Intelligencer and other papers, so that its circulation will be general 
and extensive. 

"Your last letter is received. My — is not here; he promised 
to leave these accounts with me, but has gone to New York and 
carried them with him. I will as you desire see the Secretary of 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 5 1 

War, and having conversed with him, will give a prudent and 
proper direction to the papers; and shortly will again write you. 

"Adieu, Yours respectfully 
"J. H. Eaton. ' 

"The enclosed paper was signed with a view to be s'^nt to you. 
It v.'as at my room wh;?n I wrote before and was not enclosed. 


"Washington, April 2, 1820- 
"Dear Gen'l: 

"Yesterday your letter of March the 15th, reached me. Mine 
of the nth, particularly explaining the course concluded on in 
relation to your memorial has ere this reached you, and has I hope 
been deemed satisfactory. The evidences of the public mind as 
derived thro' the different newspapers is expressive of the opinions 
entertained towards you, and of the character and style of your 
answer. Independent of these I can assure you that I have heard 
many, ver}' many persons, from different parts of the union speak 
of it, and but one sentiment prevails ; that it is a most able and dig- 
nified paper; and all concur in applauding as well the argument, 
as the decorous and covered severity with which it is drawn. 

' 'The New York Evening Post, which you know during last winter 
and summer was decidedly and warmly opposed to you on this 
question has published your reply; and in the editorial remarks 
submitted, pronounced it an able paper, and declares himself 
converted by it. The Baltimore Federal Republican, I understand, 
tho' I have not seen it, says that it is for sound argument and con- 
viction, superior to everv' thing that has ever been said in congress 
upon the subject. Other such similar opinions also you will find 
in the paper which is here inclosed. With these concuring testi- 
monies on its side, where is the necessity of any reference of the 
matter in the Senate ? There is no way to get at it but by appoint- 
ing a committee to examine the whole ground anew, and then with 
the most favourable and flattering report, they could say nothing 
that you have not said; or contribute in the least to make the 
opinions of the people (every where) more favourable than they 
are already. 

"Upon this subject tho' I have twice written to you, and when 
I assure you, that, my conclusion has been made out of the best 
reflections for your interest and regard for your feelings; and with 
the concurrence too of such as are truly your friends, you will, I am 
persuaded, be satisfied with my decision. The memorial in Pam- 
phlets and in newspapers will go to every part of the Union. 

"The* Secretary at War, says your transportation account is 
not objected to. As regards that for quarters and fuel I have said 
to him what you requested; that if he thought it improper and 
other officers had not received it; you wished it not to be insisted 
on. This reply to me is that none has ever been allowed for quart- 

152 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

ers and fuel while at Washington except such officers as have been 
stationed here regularly ; visitants have not been allowed it. That 
General Brown has been paid for such items heretofore accruing 
while at home; but that at present both his account and yours 
are suspended, because of some doubts lately suggested on the law 
in relation to this allowance. Mr. Calhoun requests that I would 
say to you, that the inclination of his mind at present is that the 
interpretation heretofore given was correct and that payment 
ment should be made, but that he should examine it fully, and 
before I left this place would apprise me of his determination. 

"Col. Williams and Judge Overton will not I, expect, disagree 
when they shall understand each other. Williams' letter com- 
plains that the Pamphlet charges him with entering Florida with- 
out orders, that 'his whole proceedings were without authority.' 
Now as it regards raising the Corps and appointing his officers, 
it is true, for from Gen. Pinkney's letter, and the Secretary of War, 
answer which I sent to Judge Overton, it appears that no tender of 
service was ever made under the act, or any thing known of the 
Corps until they arrived in Georgia. All this Col. Williams 
would be compelled to admit, for the documents shew it; but he 
says, and I believe the documents show this too, that he entered 
Florida imder orders from Gen. Flournoy; and hence in this par- 
ticular the Pamphlet is incorrect. I am of opinion that many 
things have been said of Williams about this Scmenole war which 
are unfounded. Doc. Bronaugh told me, that he had enquired 
here about it, and could ascertain no exceptionable or improper 
remarks that he had ever used. I well remember to have heard last 
winter of remarks which had been attributed to him by Gen. Stokes. 
I believe Bronaugh conversed with the general, and so far as I 
understood the Doctor, it was, that there was in it all, nothing 
improper. During this winter he has said nothing about it, I 
think ; and had any strong opposition been raised to the printing 
your memorial, I am persuaded the Col. would have been on your 

"I desire you will not send your resignation on imtil after my 
return home. 

"Your friend, 

"J. H. Eaton." 


"Washington, April 16, 1820. 
"Dear Gen'l: 

"On Saturday I received your letter of the 29th ultimo, and 
was pleased to find that the course pursued here in relation to your 
memorial was acceptable to yourself. That what was. done is 
supported by prudence and conduces more effectually to the main 
object designed by you to be effected, to wit: the placing the matter 
understandingly and fu'ly before the nation, I am more than ever 
convinced of. There have been many strictures and remarks 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 153 

made upon your memorial by different papers thro' the States, and 
in none yet have I seen any other than the strongest expression in 
its favour; even two prominent papers one at New York and one 
at Baltimore heretofore decidedly on the opposite side have ack- 
nowledged themselves convinced by what you have said. 

"The copies sent to you and others have before this been re- 
ceived. You will find on perusal that the alterations made were 
inconsiderable: the one named to you before (viz) that the com- 
mittee as you had understood had not drafted the report, was the 
most material; other changes were principally as to phraseology, 
such as poison, attrocious falsehoods and such like expressions 
which were exchanged for words of softer import. The suppression 
of the sentence in relation to 'the gentleman who was the chief 
juggler behind the scenes' you say you somewhat regret. I think 
tho' you ought not to regret it; for independent of the harshness of 
expression, your proof was hardly sufficient to support the remark, 
I expect. Your expression used was that you had understood the 
report was not drafted by any one of C. I believe I know your 
authority for saying so; it grew out of some statements made by 
Bronaugh that the chairman had on getting a copy of the 
at Gab's office gone immediately to Mr. Chouse. Now nobody 
acquainted with Laycock ever supposed that he could write it, 
yet this circumstance of yours would not sanction such a con- 
clusion and hence was it better to say nothing about it, but merely 
to leave it before the public on the general literary reputation of the 
man. There is no reasoning against the effect and influence of one's 
feelings, but these apart, I would say you have done enough and 
more is not required. The subject can not be placed before the 
nation stronger or better, no matter who shall take it in hand, and 
this being the case, I repeat, more is not required. 

"You seem to be a little dissatisfied with Storr's report, and 
talk of replying. Believe me Sir you ought not. If you are to 
suffer your repose to be disturbed at the snarles of every man who 
availing himself of his little brief official authority shall speak of 
you, when pray will you get thro' ? By yourself and thro' your 
friends your case has been heard in Congress and is fairly before 
the Country; there trust it, nor believe that any little party yelp- 
ings will change its features. 

"Your memorial came before the public at the moment that 
Gtorrs from his select committee discovered his budget. His book 
fell still born from the press, and nothing here has been spoken or 
said about it in any way, by any body; and thus you perceive its 
feebleness, and how little it is to be regarded. 

"I had a copy of it which it became necessary for me to examine 
particularly, inasmuch as it had a bearing as 'twas said on my 
vSemenole horse bill which I had reported to the Senate; before I 
could part with it, the report was published in the Intelligencer, 
where I concluded you would ee it, or else the copy I had would 
have been sent you, that y«u might have known all that was doing. 

154 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"I examined this book critically, and spoke of it freely as being 
destitute of accuracy. It was used against me in the Senate, with 
a view to prevent the troops being compensated for their horses, 
because they had received the 40 cents improperly. I argued it 
in the way you have suggested; that the act of 1795 had nothing to 
do with it: that the act of 1818 had said that they should have the 
highest compensation given to militia during the war, and that 
whatever had been given to troops of the same description they 
were by right entitled to; and that hence all the emoluments se- 
cured under the act of 1818, rightfully belonged to them: and so 
the Senate by a great majority determined. Cloth: s they were not 
entitled to; the only law upon this subject was in relation to Vol- 
unteers who had actually served during one year, then, and not 
else were they to have an allowance for clothing: this law had ex- 
pired and was not revived by the act of 1818, at any rate, they had 
not served a year. As regards what is said on the subject of 'sub- 
sidizing' the Indians, by all men of intelligence this general remark 
is made that they always have and always must be employed, not 
from any advantages to be derived from them, but to make them 
neutral; if not employed, they will unite with the enemy; this Mr. 
S. seems not to have known. All that has been said in the Report 
about the Volunteers, the departure from orders and the con- 
stitution, those old topics are answered and fully met by what you 
have already said; to repeat my text then, more need not be said, 
and so I trust you will consider it. 

"You will see in the Washington Gazette of Saturday a pretty 
severe commentary on Mr. Clay's Florida resolutions. They are 
from the pen of perhaps some one of the heads of departments, 
vou can guess as I do. Before the caucas he was looked to as Vice 
President, but with all the manuvering resorted to, not more than 
30 members attended, and so the caucas failed in producing any 
result. I believe not more than one member from ten attended 

"Gen'l Veros is here, he appears to be about 54 or 5 years of 
age, small and spare, with a countenance marked with much 
firmness and intelligence. Rumor, which is all we have, reports 
him the bearer of the treaty; if so we shall be here some time yet — 
otherwise congress will adjourn by the middle or 20th of Alay. 
I shall be glad to get away, and glad once again to get back to the 
management of my own little private affairs, and leave the affairs 
of the nation to wiser heads. I am not dissatisfied with the little 
political journey I have taken, for in it I have seen much of the 
ways of the world and from it shall derive some little benefit. I 
have seen the great men of this nation, and they are mere men; 
instead of marching forward with an eye singled to the public good, 
the quest of vision, a thirst after popularity, marks their progress. 
We have too many desirous to occupy the highest seat in the syn- 
agogue, and amidst the strife, the public jnterest, if not sacrificed, is 
neglected. Our affairs are sad enough I think, tho' perhaps it will 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 155 

remain a secret yet a while longer. Our treasury is empty; in this 
state of things 2 millions are to be borrowed, and the residue is to 
be made up by attaching the sinking fund. This may do very well 
just now — we still may go on to invade this fund (that ought to be 
held sacred) for four years longer, for I believe that none of our war 
debt is due and payable until 1825 ; but what then why when this 
period arrives, the fund prepared for it being taken away, heavy 
taxes must be resorted to, as the credit of the nation is impaired. 
The politician who has never read beyond Blackstone, might have 
learned that to refrain from taxes, and to goon accumulating debt 
will at last create a load, which revolution can only remove; and yet 
a system of partial taxation at first would avoid the evil and leave 
posterity at ease ; but from the highest, to the lowest, popularity is 
the hobby, and taxes dare not be resorted to. I have come to this 
opinion, after what I have seen, that no man ought to be in the 
Cabinet Councils who seeks to be President. The moment he is 
found to entertain such views, dismiss him. Unfortunately how- 
ever we have three, and while each is pulling against the other, the 
interest of the country will be wrecked. I could say much to you, 
and not without regret upon these governmental affairs, but I 
will forbear until we meet, and then we will talk together. My 
opinions arise from no fastidiousness, no discontent, I seek no fav- 
ours, for I know of no office that I would solicit, could I procure it; 
my opinion and my regrets arise alone from what I see, and from a 
solicitude to see my country prosperous ; but these pigmy politicians 
who like Knickerbocker's justice, weigh every thing in the balance, 
and calculate before they act, upon their why's and wherefores, 
are good for nought, unfit to rule. 

"We shall have no war, let Spain act as she may, my reasons for 
this opinion are already before you, lack of independence. Taxes 
would be necessary and sooner than impose them, congress would 
submit to ordeal. Nevertheless as I have before remarked to you 
don't surrender your commission until I return to Nashville. 

"I know you are wearied of my political nostrums, and long 
letter; but when writing to you, I ever speak freely, and perhaps 
often too fully for your convenience : but you can read them when 
you have leisure; and should you even from their length be deterred 
from a perusal, nothing will be lost, for I always write in haste, and 
often submit undigested matter. 

"Present me to Mrs. Jackson and Capt. Call. 

"Yours truly. 

"J. H. Eaton." 



"Nashville, June 27th, 1822. 
"Dear General: 

"It will not be in my power to pay you the promised visit — The 
absence of Mrs. Grundy, who has gone to see our daughter at 

156 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Gallatin, prevents my leaving home — The subject to which I wish 
your attent'on is this — Your friends, wish to know, whether there 
is any cause, unknown to them, which would render it improper 
in them to exercise their own discretion and judgment, in bringing 
forward your name in such way as may be thought best, for the 
office of Chief Magistrate of the United States at the approaching 
election — The General Assembly will meet on the 22nd of next 
month. Then is the time to take a decisive step. I have latterly 
attended to political matters of this kind at a distance or in other 
parts of the Union — But I think I know the people of Tennessee — 
Of the unanimous vote of this State, no doubt need be entertained. 
Indeed, I believe the anxiety of many of this subject is increased by 
the consideration, that it will afford the citizens of this state an 
opportunity of refuting the slander which has gone abroad — That 
you are not popular at home; by which the people of this state are 
indirectly charged, with ingratitude and insensibility to your public 
services — Will you deliberate on this subject, and when you come to 
Nashville, I will call on you. 

"Your friend, 

"Felix Grundy. 


"Hermitage, July ISth, 1S22. 
"Dear Bronaugh: 

"I have had the pleasure to receive your letter of the 17th of 
June which reached me by due course of mail and also yours of the 
24th, which is just to hand. 

"I delayed answering your letter of the 17th, with a hope that 
I would have had it in my power to have seen Doctor McCall who 
had, a few days before its receipt, went to Alabama. I saw his 
father yesterday who says he expects his return daily, when he 
will call upon me, and I shall endeavour to hasten his journey to 
you and by him (ii he goes) send your horse. I sincerely regret 
the disagreeable situation of the territory from the absence of the 
officers appointed to carry the organization into effect given to the 
territory by the late act of congress; but one thing is certain, that 
the existing authority continues, until the officers appointed under 
the late regulations arrive and are sworn into office, and the idea 
of an interregnum which I see afloat in your country is entirely 
ideal. The conduct o: Mr. Monroe in appointing councellors, not 
inhabitants of the Floridas at the time of the appointment is 
inconsistant with (my recollection of) the act of congress, for that 
act if I mistake not confines the selection of the council from 
amongst the then citizens or residents of Florida. It is very 
strange that he has not filled the vacancy in the judiciary of West 
Florida by the nonexceptance of Mr. Branch, but not more strange 
than his appointing him when he'knew he would not accept the 
appointment; I am of the opinion he does not intend to appoint 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 157 

our mutual friend Brakcnrid^e if he can get anybody in North 
Carolina to accept it; for my part I cannot understand him, he has 
wrote me a very cautious, and studied answer in which he takes no 
particular notice of the anonymous letter; I have not replied to it 
as yet. 

"It -affords me much pleasure to hear that the Governor has 
reached you, and that he has been well received by the people, 
this augurs well — but I know the people there, and you may look 
out for feuds and party — and unless the Governor shapes his 
course at first, and firmly pursues an undeviating policy, he will 
get h msclf in difficulty, the council (if united) will be his efficient 
prop ; but Col. Barnett will raise a party in opposition to the views 
of the Governor, except he goes with Barnett, which I am certain 
he will not — nay that he cannot, if he pursues a course to produce 
the best results to the interest and prosperity of the country — and 
say to Governor Duvol to have his eye upon the Colonel. He is 
arch and cunning, and if he can, will intrigue. By pursuing an 
energetic, steady, coursQ the Governor will succeed in keeping 
down party spirit, and administering the government, both to 
the happiness and harmony of the people, as well as to the benefit 
of the country — but to effect this he must at once take his course 
with energy, and convince those spirits of party, that he cannot 
be shaken. I have not the act of congress before me, but I am of 
the opinion the Legislative Council can by law point out -and 
establish the mode of electing the delegate, and if it is found from 
the lateness of the season, that a law authorizing the election of 
the delegate by the people can not be passed and promulgated in 
due time for an election before Congress meets, it strikes me, that 
the council can, temporily, appoint the delegate until an election 
by the people can take place — but not having the law before me, I 
cannot, nor do I pretend to give a deliberate opinion upon this 

"I hope you will have nothing to fear from the opposition of 
Col. Barnett; should not Mr. Worthington of East Florida be a 
candidate, I will write him, and I expect he will support you. 
Should he, with the interest of the Governor you will have but 
little to apprehend — from Mr. McW's farewell address I was ap- 
prehensive he was preparing the way for some favour from the 

"I am happy to find from letters from Capts. Cole and Easter 
that all my old friends will support you. I knew Alajor Bowie was 
a snake in the grass — he is opposed to you. I hope ]\Ir. Austin 
will support you — say to Col. Wolcott I cherish for him the 
sincere feelings of friendship, he has my best wishes. I would 
write him but I am really oppressed with answering letters in the 
last quarter. My postage amounted to $54.; this is equal to 
my cotton crop. Give my good wishes to all my friends. I shall 
write Overton, Call, Easter and Brakenridge tomorrow — IMrs. J. 
and the Andrews join me in good wishes. You will see from the 

158 Andrew Jackson axd Early Tennessee History 

papers that my name has been brought forward ; ever\' application 
to me I give the same answer, that I have never been a candidate 
for any office. I never will. But the people have a right to choose 
whom they will to perform their constitutional duties, and when 
the people call the citizen is bound to render the service required. 
I think Crawford is lost sight of, and his friends are about-to bring 
forward Mr. Clay; Calhoun ( Eaton says) at congress is the strong- 
est man. I am told Mr. Adams at present the strongest in this 

"Accept My Dear Sir, of my best wishes. Adieu for the pres- 

"Andrew Jackson. 

"Doctor J. C. Bronaugh." 


"Hermitage, August 1st, 1822. 
"Dear Doctor: 

"Doctor McCall returned from Alabama yesterday and visit- 
ted me last night, he is grateful to you for your professed friendship, 
and will set out to join you at Pensacola,'so soon as he can arrange 
his private concerns, which he thinks will detain him seven days, 
you may calculate on his joining you about the 28th instant — the 
Doctor will ride your horse, he is in good order and I have no 
doubt will reach you in good condition. 

."I see you have an opponent in Col. Barnett. This I expected, 
as i well knew he was unfriendly to me, I expect he will be sup- 
ported by Major Bowie. I always viewed him from the time of 
my collision with the Spanish officers, as inimical to me, and I 
could see a great intimacy between him and Barnett, and although 
Barnett was not open in his opposition, I knew he was secretly my 
enemy, and I had no confidence in the Major from the period 
spoken of, they are both weak men and full of duplicity. I name 
this to you that you may be on your guard, for a secret enemy can 
do more injury than two open ones. I have just received a letter 
from Governor Duval, he expresses towards you the most sincere 
friendship, and I expect his influence in East Florida will give you 
a majority there if prudently wielded. 

"The newspapers will give you the political news of this quar- 
ter, our Legislature is in session and I am told has passed a res- 
olution by a unanimous vote in the house of representatives on the 
presidential election. I have not seen it, I therefore must refer you 
to the newspaper containing their proceedings — I have not visited 
the assembly. I had intended it but my health was not good, and 
hearing accidently that something of the kind was intended, I 
instantly declined going there. I knew it would have been said 
that I was there electioneering as I never have nor do not intend. 
I shall remain at home. I never have been an applicant for office. 
I never will. The people have a right to do as they please in this 
instance as you are well advised I mean to be silent. I have no 
desire, nor do I expect ever to be called to fill the Presidential 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 159 

chair, but should this be the case, contrary to my wishes and ex- 
pectations, I am determined it shall be without any exertion on 
my part, and on this unexpected event all that can be expected of 
me is to obey the call of the people, and execute the duties to the 
best of my matured judgment. 

"I am very solicitous about your success am I. sure you will 
meet with the support of all the enlghtened and honest class, 
and I think if you manage Doctor Brasinham well, he can wield the 
Spanish interest regardless of the miles of Animosity, who I have 
no doubt one of Col. Barnett's solicitous friends, that caused him 
to come out. 

"Let me hear from you and your prospects. I have not seen 
Doc '.or Hogg since you left me. Shall write him shortly on your 
business, should I not meet with him. 

"Mrs. J. joins me in good wishes for your success, and believe 
me to be your friend sincerely. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Doctor J. C. Bronaugh: 

"P. S. Present me to the Governor respectfully. 


"P. S. Give my compliments to all friends, particularly to 
Call, Easter, Rutledge, Wolton, Miller, Brakenridge Curry etc." 


"Hermitage, November 22nd, 1826. 
"Dear Gen'l: 

"I set out to-morrow for the neighbourhood of Florence to 
make some arrangement relative to the interest of my little ward, 
H., whose cotton ginn and all the cotton has been consumed by 
fire. I therefore before I leave home trouble you with this letter. 

"I am anxious as early as your convenienc will admit, that 
you should see Doctor Wallace and Col. Gray, and obtain their 
statement in writing of what the Secretary of the Navy should 
have said, at the public dinner given him at Fredericksburg, Va., 
relative to my leaving the army without leave or orders etc., and 
communicate a copy to me and retain the original yourself; so 
soon as this is done present my note to the secretary and transmit 
me his reply. I trust you will attend to this thing promptly for 
me; for I find the heads of departments have been ranging the 
union and secretly intimating slanderous things of me. This I 
mean to expose, and put down, one after the other, as I can obtain 
the positive proof. Let it not he long before I hear from you. 

"I have received several letters from the western district since 
you left Nashville, the current has changed there, and you will 
(unless a mighty change) receive an overwhelming majority. The 
result of your political quarrel, and Major Eaton's re-election, has 
put down the faction, and unanimity and harmony will pervade our 
whole state. 

160 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Present me to Mr. John Randolph and all my friends in the 
senate. If you find it convenient, you may suggest a desire I have 
of obtaining a good filly got by Sir Archey and full bred by the 
dam side — knowing that he as the purest blood, if he has a filly 
of this description broke to the halter, that he can sell for $300 
or under that sum, say a two or three year old, if he will deliver 
■ such a one to you, and you will bring her out, I will be prompt in 
remitting him the amount. 

"Mrs. J. and all my family including Mr. Earle unite in kind 
salutations to you. Present us to Major Polk and Lady and all the 
Tennessee delegation with such other friends as enquire for me. 

"Respectfully Your friend, 

"Andrew J.^ckson'. 

"Gen. Sam Houston: 
"P.S. Please transmit under cover, the enclosed, to its address. 


"Capt. A. J. Donelson who has engaged my stud colts, desires 
me to say to you, if a faithful good keeper of race horses can be got, 
he will give them good wages, a freeman of colour, who could be 
well recommended for his capacity and honesty would be preferred, 
from one hundred dollars to one hundred and fifty of standing 
wages would be given, besides other privileges, but none except 
those well recommended would be employed; he must be sober, 
honest, capable, under such recommendations, I will guarantee 
any engagement for the Capt. that you may make. 



"Washington, July 8th, 1827. 
"Dear Sir: 

"The multiplied duties of my office have kept me so much en- 
gaged that I have not indulged myself in writing letters as I should 
do. You have been of the number neglected. You will however 
permit me through you to tender to Mrs. Jackson the congrat- 
ulations of a sincere friend on the satisfactory and conclusive 
vindication of her innocence which has been presented to the public 
by the Nashville Committee. To a lady of her great sensibility 
the knowledge of her own innocence would bring much consolation 
but that sensibility must have been the more acute when she saw 
that the envenomed shafts of malice were aimed at her on your 
account . . . Let her rejoice her vindication is complete — the voice 
of slander is hushed — and she must be gratified to know that your 
magnanimity to her is rightly appreciated by an intelligent public. 
That so far from impairing the confidence of the people in you this 
attack has made you many friends. I am aware of the delicacy of 
the subject and under other circumstances would be last to intrude 
such remarks upon your notice, but I have not been without my 
share of difficulty in this matter. I know the necessity of bringing 

Andrew Jacksox axd Early Tennessee History 161 

home the matter to Mr. Adams' own family and by threats of 
retaliation drive the Journal to condemn itself. This you have no 
doubt seen and understood. The effect here was like electricity. 
The whole Adams corps were thrown into consternation. They 
had no doubt that I would execute my threat and I was denounced 
in the most bitter terms for assailing /n;za/c character by those very 
men who had rolled the slander on Mrs. Jackson under their 
tongues as the sweetest morsel that had been dressed up by Peter 
Force and Co., during the whole campaign. It was plainly hinted 
that my paper must not be taken at the public offices and some 
of those who had been suspected of Jacksonism were weak enough 
to discontinue, and some others to threaten me with a meeting of 
your friends to disavow any approbation of my remarks unless I 
would make some apology! I put them at once at defiance — told 
them that they had done nothing for the support of the cause- 
that I had never looked to their fears or their hopes for counsel, 
and that I looked to the people and not to the attaches of the palace 
for approbation. The gentlemen were checkmated and some of 
them have bowed to me most politely since — especially if no spies 
are near when we meet. 

"I find that I have dwelt much more at large on this unpleasant 
topic than I intended. One great object in addressing you this 
is to say that I suspect that Mr. Monroe is apprised that you have 
discovered his treachery to you and is desirous to lend the influence 
of his name to promote the re-election of Mr. Adams. I am told 
that numerous documents in relation to the Campaign of 1814-15 
have been furnished him from the War Department and that he 
and Southard have been in active correspondence. Is it not 
probable that the late notice of your correspondence with Southard 
in the National Intelligencer is intended to provoke a publication 
on your part, so as to give Mr. Monroe an opportunity to come 
out If this conjecture be right it would appear to me proper 
that Monroe's former treachery (for I can call it by no other name) 
should be exposed. How much did the sight of that letter change 
my opinion of the man! 

"I have written to Doctor Wallace to send me a copy of your 
correspondence, that I may be prepared to act. I shall endeavor 
to do the best I can and altho' I will not unnecessarily bring ISIr. 
Monroe into the controversy, if he obtrudes himself, he will find 
me prepared to do him ample justice. 

"I feel the want of confidential friends and advisers. I have a 
few fast friends who are true and ready to aid with advice but, there 
are but two or three in whose opinions I can confide. The at- 
mosphere is infected, those in office (wait upon) permission of 
the President and his influence is felt in every work-shop in the city. 
It will not do for me to receive my impulses from such sources. 
I should soon sink even below Gales and Seaton were I to do so. 

"Your friend, 

"D. Green. " 

162 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


"New Orleans, December 27th, 1827. 
*'My dear General: 

"I arrived here to-day, by way of Havana, from Charleston. 
It is my intention to join you at some point on the river, previouf 
to your arrival at New Orleans. I considered it my duty to be at 
your side, on the approaching military festivities. And now 
General, in accordance with that privilege, you have always granted 
me, unqualified and unfit as 1 am to give advice, especially to such 
an individual as yourself, yet still, I beg leave most respectfully to 
suggest two ideas for your consideration, and which I should like 
to see embodied in that address of yours which will be made public, 
for I hope you will consent to publish but one of your addresses, 
altho' I understand three will be required of you, to- wit — one on 
the field of Battle, one to the Governor and Legislature and one at 
the dinner party. The first idea I would wish to see expressed is 
this — That, like 'Cincinnatus,' you left your farm — the shade of 
your own 'Vine and Fig Tree,' at the call of your country, in the 
hour of peril and danger, and that like 'Cincinnatus' you return to 
your farm the first moment the public service of your country would 
allow. The next idea I would have you advert to, is some mild, 
manly and proper allusion to the wicked, false, unmanly and un- 
feeling attacks made by our enemies on your domestic happiness 
and fireside. In every other respect it appears to me that your 
address should be altogether military; the gallantry of Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Kentucky and Tennessee afford for the occasion de- 
lightful subjects. It appears to me also, that your address should 
be concise and like Washington, whom of all other men you most 
resemble, I would wish you to read them, rather than deliver them 
extemporaneously, altho' your friends all know it would be as easy 
for you to adopt the latter as the former mode. Will you not 'my 
dear General, think me forward in suggesting what I have done.' 
To which question, / distinctly respond no, because you know my 
heart there all is right, and you would be the very first to excuse my 
head if necessary. 

"Present me respectfully and affectionately to my friends, 
Gen'l. Coffee and to Judge Overton, whose presence on the ap- 
proaching festivities will be cheering to you. 

"I remain dear General your faithful and aflfectionate friend, 

"A. P. Hayne. 
"To General Jackson." 


"January 21, 1828. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I am constantly importuned by your friends here to write 
you, and urge you by no means to notice Clay's Book which has 
fallen still born from the press. My answer to them is, fear not. 

3- 5 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 63 

General Jackson will not so far insult his friends as to take his 
own cause into his owns hands, and from his friends! You will 
have seen by the telegraph, that the Jackson Committee of cor- 
respondence, at this place, intend taking up this matter: a rampart 
of facts will be forthcoming now I think, over and around which, 
Clay with all his host of compurgators will scarcely be able to get 
'round: they are waiting for some facts which I understand will 
very shortly be at hand. He will find some new accusers, and 
stranger than any that have yet appeared. 

"Mr. Calhoun has lately found out that you have a private 
letter of Monroe — the one you shewed me, last fall — Would you 
have any objection to send me, a copy of it, merely that he may 
see it, I myself retaining it in my own possession. He thinks it 
must be of the date of the 7th of August, 1818; and that the de- 
sign of Monroe in writing it was he well knows of the most favor- 
able kind towards you ; and begs me to say, that he is fully aware, 
Mr. Monroes feelings in relation to that Semenole affair were 
never otherwise than sincere and firm towards you. Be this as it 
may, I should be glad, if proper, to procure a copy of the letter 
which shall rest with me to be used as I have before stated. As 
regards Monroe, your course and policy is to notice nothing re- 
specting him; indeed the newspapers, happen what may, shall be 
altogether avoided. Then let your friends, who are fully com- 
petent, battle the affairs; your course under any and all circum- 
stances is retirement and silence. All things are well, and some 
act of indiscretion might jeoparidise matters as they are now. 
Let us look to the main battle without regard to the small picket 
guard that may come into conflict with each other. 

"The die is cast, and the contest over; under no circumstances, 
as indicated by the present signs of the times ,can your vote be 
less than 170. It can not but be complimentary to you to know 
that a majority of both Houses in Congress are your friends and 
advocates. They will take care of your cause and interests without 
any interference on your part; they only ask of you under any and 
all circumstances to be still and let them manage whatever is to 
be done. 

"With my kind and sincere regard to Mrs. Jackson. 

"I am very truly yours, 


"Philadelphia, June 21, 1828. 
"Dear General: 

"I was yesterday favored with your letter of the 2nd. Inst. 

"In my talks with Mr. Nichol, and my other friends in your 
quarter, I spoke highly in praise of the country about that neigh- 
bourhood, as the place where I would wish to select a residence, 
if I were to leave Philadelphia. I like your soil, climate and people; 

164 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

and the spot which you are so good as to recommend to me would 
have a pecuHar advantage in my eyes, in adjoining the Hermitage. 

"After living, however, man and boy, more than forty years 
in this flat city of ours, my boys several of them in business about 
me, with a large body of relations, and some friends, I have no 
idea of changing my domicile, strong as is the attraction you offer 
me — in fact, the country retirement has long been one of my favor- 
ite day-dreams. I should not be sure of sleeping soundly apart 
from the battle of carts and carriages, the cries of watchmen, 
and the other lulling noises of a crowded population. 

"Before entering into your honors and trammels of the 4th 
of March, I hope we shall have the pleasure of seeing you with 
Mrs. Jackson in Philadelphia. Mrs. Cadwalader desires me to 
say that no endeavours will be spared to supply Mrs. Jackson the 
places of those warm friends whom she will leave behind her — and, 
with my kindest remembrances to that excellent lady, 

"I remain always most respectfully and truly, 

"Your friend and servant, 

"T. Cadwalader. 
"Major Gen'l. Jackson." 

cadwalader to JACKSON. 

"Philadelphia, October 15, 1828. 
"Dear General :- 

"Our Election has closed most triumphantly — the right tickets 
have succeeded throughout — for Congress, Asscmby, and City 
Councils — Sergeant is beaten by 557 votes — the City and County 
together give majorities of between five and six thousand. The 
vote for Electors on the 31st will be even more decisive — from the 
dispiriting effect of this over-whelming victory. 

"We have no accounts yet from Jersey — this being the 2nd and 
last day of their election. That ground is debateable and we can 
well spare its votes — if we get them, it will be, to me, an agreeable 

"Having had a particular agency in selecting the first list of 
Directors of the office of the B. U. S. in your quarter, I feel very 
anxious to know how far public opinion approves of the Admin- 

"Complaints have been made to me that the men are un- 
popular — that 'the Press is selfish, without the least influence, 
except that which his official station gives him' — that 'he has a 
numerous train of relatives engaged in commercial pursuits and 
the bank is made an instrument for the promotion of their private 
interests, without regard to the effects upon the community, or the 
bank itself — etc.,' that with the exception of Geo. W. Campbell, 
there is not an individual in the direction who has the least influence 
beyond his own shop upon the public square — they consist for the 
most part of men who would not dare to express an independent 
opinion, if they were capable of entertaining one. '"Our friend, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 165 

Major L — is removed, in order to make way for a man recently 
accused and convicted (in public opinion) of fraud for a series 
of years, by the use of false weights at his cotton gin' — etc., 'this 
change however is made by the suggestion of the President and 
Cashier for the purpose of procuring business men\ This excuse 
for getting rid of an independent man is too flimsy to gain credit 
anywhere but in Philadelphia.' 

'Should you favor me with any communications on a subject 
in which I feel interest personally, as well as in my character of 
Director of the Parent Bank, I need hardly say that I should re- 
ceive them as strictly confidential — and they would be considered 
as additional obligations to those under which your former kind- 
nesses have laid me. 

"Mrs. Cadwalader unites in compliments to Mrs. Jackson. I 
remain dear General, with the most sincere respect and regard, 

"Your Obedient Servant, 

"T. Cadwalader." 


"Washington, December 18, 1828. 
"My dear Sir: 

"I trust that my delay to congratulate you, on your late great 
and glorious victory has not been imputed to any indifference on 
my part, in relation to that event. I hope that my feelings towards 
you are too well known to make it necessary for me to say that no 
man in America can rejoice more sincerely in your happy triumph — • 
a triumph of principle over intrigue, of truth over falsehood — in one 
word — of the people over corruption. But being sensible that 
calls on your time and attention must now have become oppresive, 
I had determined to refrain from offering my congratulations 
'till I should have the pleasure of meeting you in Washington. 
It has occured to Mrs. Hayne, however, that her services might 
possibly be of use to Mrs. Jackson, before her arrival here. I en- 
close a note on that subject. Should Mrs. Jackson or yourself 
have any commands, it will give us pleasure to attend to them— 
if not — I beg that you will not put yourselves to the trouble to 
answer our letters. I have lately heard from my brother who is 
in high spirits, at having had the gratification of giving his vote as 
an elector to his old friend and commander. 

"Belive me to be with the highest respect and esteem, very 
trulv yours, 

"Rob. Y. Hayne." 


"Washington, February 23, 1829, 
"My dear Sir: 

"We look day after day with the utmost anxiety for a letter 
from you announcing your acceptance of the General's offer. I 
do not ask you not to delay it because I believe it is now on its 

1 66 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

way. The General has made up his mind to make no change in 
his cabinet but has consented that if Eaton and the P. M. G. choose 
to change places he will not object — I have been engaged today 
in preventing Eaton from consenting to the change by all means 
in my power. This and the suggestion that you will not accept 
at present engages all attention. We, that is those of your friends 
who are not disappointed, express an unhesitating confidence that 
you will not reject the proffer, because we believe and so declare 
that there is no reason for your doing so. 

"I have just left the General, he is annimatcd by the shew 
of opposition which has appeared against Eaton from the Ten- 
nessee Delegation and he consequently is more like himself. He 
said to me this makes me well. I was born for a storm and a calm 
does not suit me. He wrote a letter to one of that delegation in 
which he spoke of you as the person to whom all eyes were turned 
and upon whom the nation had fixed for the first place; I anim- 
adverted upon this opposition in a severe but becoming mancr. 
Write to me. 

"Has it ever occured to you that the change of the location of 
the Navy Yard from Long to Governors Island affords you a 
happy opportunity for manifesting a just and flattering solicitude 
for the interests of the city of New York ? If it has there is an end 
to all I have to say — If not, ought you not to take advantage of the 
circumstance to write to the President on the subject? You may 
advert to the apprehension whither well or ill founded of a failure 
of the Colosus that extending dock yards from that Island into 
the river may increase the rapidity of the current of the East River 
so much as to render the approach to the warves difficult — that 
its tendency may be to enlarge the passage through the meadows 
into Governors Bay (already increased so as to afford a channel for 
sloops) and by carrying out to the bar a mass of matter which may 
be deposited thus endanger our harbour. The passage to which 
I refer has certainly been formed by the increased rapidity of the 
current owing to extending the Piers of New York. I believe it is 
very clear that thesession was for a military defense and not a navy 
yard (which cannot but be unsightly.) I find I have gone seriously 
into the matter when I really only intended to hint to you a subject 
for inquiry. God bless you sincerely prays your friend, 

"J. A. Hamilton. 

"I hope my letters do not partake of it, but altho. undismayed 
I am rendered quite unhappy by Adams, last cursed slander." 


"Private and Confidential. 

"Charleston, March 25, 1829. 
"Your kind and acceptable favor My Dear Sir of the 15 inst. I 
received two days since immediately after My return to My own 
home which I reached on the 22d. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 167 

"I assure you that I was disposed to attribute your reserve in 
relation to My strictures on a portion of the Cabinet to anything 
but a want of confidence in myself but to a proper caution (perhaps 
which may be pushed in some cases a little too far) becoming 
both your station and your interests as a Politician. 

"But after writing >t>u Col. J. H. Hamilton showed me your 
letter by which your silence was most satisfactorily accounted for, 
and in a manner highly complimentary and gratifying to myself by 
the mode and terms in which your most friendly message to myself 
was conveyed. 

"I am here in the midst of my friends going the rounds of the 
same hospitality in which you participated two years since, and 
I assure you at all these assemblies it is particularly gratifying to 
me to find that your appointment at least affords the most cordial 
satisfaction founded on a personal regard which Many cherish for 
you and an entire conviction of your qualification for your new 

"I can not however conceal from you the fact that the other 
appointments have created great disappointment and dissatis- 
faction. I have however got over my own chagrin and now zealous- 
ly set to work to reconcile as many of my friends to the cabinet as 
possible. I have asserted what I really believe that our party will 
be agreeably disappointed, that the cabinet will work well in 
practice and be much more successful in accomplishing the public 
expectation than is supposed. I have made this stipulation be- 
cause I rely much on old Hickorys firmness, and honesty and on 
your wisdom when he gets fairly under way. Besides Ingham is 
an acute strong man with very great power of labour in official 

"I wrote you from Fayetville in behalf of the editors and pro- 
prietors of the S. Patriot, John N. Cardozo whom Mr. Clay de- 
prived of the public printing because he could not hope to make a 
tool of him. His claim is almost a matter of contract, it is at all 
events one of assertable justice. I was therefore much mortified 
on my arrival here to find that my friend Henry 1. Pinckney the 
editor of the Charleston Mercury had applied for this poor pittance. 
If his application could have been sustained with any propriety 
you may readily suppose his brother-in-law Hayne and myself 
would have supported it. More especially when a pecuniary inter- 
est which we both have in the Mercury would not certainly have 
damped the party sympathy which we cherish for him as an able 
advocate of the Jackson cause in this city. But party sympathy is 
one thing and justice another, and after the treatment by the 
late administration of the editor of the S. Patriot, it would be as 
great an act of hardship on the part of our friends to give this 
patronage to Cardozo. You may therefore rest satisfied that his 
appointment as Public Printer will be sustained by public opinion, 
on grounds which every impartial man who hears must admit. 
Mr. Cardozo has instruced Mr. Pleasonton to discount the amount 
of his printing from his debt to the Government. 

168 Andrew Jacksox axd Early Tennessee History 

"I send j-ou a copy of my retrenchment speech to read at your 
leisure because I am sure you have not had time to look at it. You 
will see that I have signed a bond for our party which you must all 
endeavour to pay. Without retrenchment and reform are insti- 
tuted in all the branches of administration our party can not be 
sustained, and I really hope that the rapacious kites who were 
hovering over the carcase of Uncle Sam when I left Washington 
with an eagle eye and appetite have been driven back with the 
scorn and contempt they deserve. 

"I think I told you what Gen. Washington's rule was in regard 
to all honorary trusts, which I hope Jackson will rigidly enforce. 
The man who will solicit a foreign Mission or authorize solicitation 
to be made for it, is utterly unworthy of the appointment, and this 
should be considered de facto as a disqualification. I am told that 
old venal Swiss Gallatin is fishing for France, I hope to God that 
the General will not disgrace himself by countenancing the rapacity 
of this old vulture. I say these things to you with perfect candor, 
for thank God I w^ant nothing for myself as I would not give a damn 
'to call the King My Brother.' 

"All I want is to see a high minded administration, indelicate 
office Hunters rebuked. Men of talent modesty and independence 
honor'd and noisy corrupt and brawling partizans made to know 
that their selfish interests are not always those of the public. 

"I trust in God old Hickory may put his foot down firmly. 
The sooner he does it the better, for come it must at last or he 
will be little else than the instrument of a faction of disgusting 
office hunters. Go for hight talent, unempeachable integrity, 
economy, moderation, and reform and all will be well. 

"God bless you. The old Chief and yourself have my best 

"And believe me with them most sincerely and respectfully 
My dear Sir your friend. 

"J. Hamilton, Jr. 

"Hon. Martin VanBuren: 

"P. S. — I shall leave my plantation on Savannah in May for 
the North and shall without doubt have the gratification of seeing 
you somewhere in the course of the Summer. 

"Direct to Charleston until the 1st of May, as myjetters will 
be forwarded to me from this plac?." 

"draft in Jackson's hand unfinished. 

"Washington, April 26th, 1829. 
"My dear Sir :- 

"Major Donelson has read me part of your letter just received 
I have also received one from my old friend Judge Overton, which 
I will answer as soon as a leisure moment occurs. I am much 
engaged — a rat that has been marauding on the treasur\-, finding 
he was detected, has left the place and I am engaged preparing 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tenne.ssee History 169 

legal process to pursue and arrest him. It may be, that the late 
Secretary of the Navy is concerned in the frauds, the presumption 
is strong still, he may be able to explain. This for yourself, and 
your confidential friends, a few days will give publicity to this 
transaction, but all must be still until the principle is arrested, and 
tmtil the ex-secretar\' of the navy explains for which I have directed 
a call to be made upon him in writing, which is done ; and I presume 
he will forth-with answer — should he hesitate he will be called on 
by a judicial enquiry, and be put upon his defense, should a jury 
find him guilty, the punishment a penitentiary offense. As to the 
guilt of Tobias Watkins in this fraud upon the treasury, there can 
be no doubt — but he has disappeared. I beg my friends in Ten- 
nessee to have no fear, I will go on in the even tenor of my ways 
in harmony with my cabinet, who is one of the strongest, as I 
believe, that ever has been in the United States, cleansing the 
auge^n stable, my cabinet gaining upon the popularity of the nation 
daily, and my deceitful enemies in Tennessee will fall into utter 
disgrace and contempt not in Tennessee alone but in the whole 
union. I am aware of the base conduct of some of our Tennes- 
see friends towards Eaton. I heard some of the most unfounded 
lies ever propagated, that must have been circulated by some mem- 
bers of congress, be them whom they may. If Eaton can trace it 
to a source worthy of notice, they will feel the chastisement that 
such base conduct and secrete slander deserves, he has already 
paid his respects to two gentlemen here, for the tales of their wives, 
and I suppose their tongues will be hereafter sealed. I have heard 
that it has been circulated in Tennessee that Timberlake cut his 
throat on account of his jealousy of Eaton. There never was a 
baser lie. To the last moment of his life he had every confidence 
in Eaton, and in November 1826 sent him a full power of attorney 
to attend to all his business, by which Major Eaton has saved from 
the rack of his fortune about $25,000 which he has willed to his 
wife and children. Read the two letters enclosed, they are from 
two gentlemen that were with him on the whole cruise intimate 
friends of his and who closed his eyes in death, and then recollect, 
that Timberlake was a Mason, Major Eaton a Mason, and Major 
Oneal, the father, a Mason and must he not be a villain who could 
ascribe to Major Eaton, such base conduct and violation of ever)- 
virtuous obligation I would enclose you a copy of the letter of 
attorney but time will not permit — but I have had it in my pos- 
session it is authenticated in due form at Gibraltar. 

"I have long ago intended to do something for General Carroll, 
I will give him a charge de affair to South America if he will accept 
it so soon as one is open ; it is all that can be done for him, as we are 
trying to curtail our diplomatic corps at least of ministers of the 
first grade. 

"I fear nothing that Clay or such treacherous friends as Miller 
and others can do. There are men who cry out principle but are on 
the scent of treasury pap — and if I had a tit for every one of these 

1 70 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

pigs to suck at they would still be my friends. They view the ap- 
pointment of Eaton as a bar to them from office and have tried 
here with all the tools of Clay helping tliem on to alarm and prevent 
me from appointing him. I was elected by the free voice of the 
people. I was making a cabinet to aid me in the administration 
of the government agreeable to their will. Major Eaton was 
necessary to me to fulfill the expressed will of the people. He 
was my friend, I knew his worth, like Washington, Jefferson and 
Madison 1 took him from my own state. I was not making a cab- 
inet for General Desha, Isaacs, Mitchel and Miller, I was making 
a cabinet for myself, as I told them, I did not come here to make a 
cabinet for the ladies of this place but for the nation, and that I 
believe, and so I do, that Mrs. Eaton is chaste as those who attempt 
to slander her. Assure my friends we are getting on here well, 
labour night and day and will continue to do so until we destroy 
all the rats who have been plundering the treasury. I am not 
in good health, but as long as I am able I will labour to fulfil the 
expectations of the nation. The press for office exceeds every 
thing known before and every man who voted for me lays in a claim. 
Present me affectionately to all my friends and accept my blessing." 



"Washington, Sept. 27th, 1829. 
"My dear Sir:- 

"In your letter of the 21st instant, marked confidential — you 
are pleased to inform me, that information has reached you through 
a channel on which reliance can be placed, that a 'few ladies of this 
place, Washington, with a Reverend Gentleman at their head, 
has formed a determination to put Mrs. Eaton out of society, 
and who for that purpose are circulating by themselves, and their 
secrete agents, the most foul and malicious slanders, some, if not 
all, I know from investigation to be basely false, and that my 
family have attached themselves to this secrete inquisition, who 
are to admit, or not to admit into society in this place, such Ladies, 
and only such as they may think worthy,' and enquire, and hope, 
it is not true, as it respects my family. To which / answer, as 
to my family I believe, and trust, it is not true, and pledge myself, so 
far as my advice can govern, that it shall not be the case. 

"You do me but justice when you say that I took Major Eaton 
into my cabinet of my own free choice, where, but for his friend- 
ship for me, he would not have gone into it, that all the cabinet 
was harmonious in the whole selection, and to abandon him, before 
all sides are heard would be so injurious to him, and to me, that my 
friends believe I am incapable of such a course. And you have so 
declared that Eaton is the last man on earth I ought, or would abaftdon. 
You have judged rightly of me. The world, in truth cannot say 
that I ever abandoned a friend, without on such grounds, that a 
righteous course founded upon the principles of that gospel, which 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 7 1 

I not only profess to believe, but do religiously believe, or when they 
abandoned me without cause. You know my opinion of the 
purity of Eaton, I believe, and ever have believed that his morale 
character was without a blemish, and had the other day the pleas- 
ure to hear the clergyman who give currency to the tale of the dead 
Doctor and the Rev. Gentleman from Philadelphia to whom 
you allude declare in the presence of the Secretary of State, of the 
Treasury, War, Navy, Attorney General, Postmaster General, 
Major Lewis, and Major Andrew Donelson, that in all their in- 
quiries, they were free to declare, there was nothing to impeach the 
moral character of Major Eaton. And I am sure from the tes- 
timonials I have seen, that there is nothing that can, or ought to 
attach the least stain upon her virtue. I am free to declare to you, 
that I do think Major Eaton, and Mrs. Eaton more unjustly, and 
cruelly slander(ed) than history has every recorded in any other 
instance and a short time will prove it, and all this by tales cir- 
culated in the most secrete manner, under strict confidence. How 
then could the unjust world for a moment suppose I would abandon 
him. I would sooner abandon life. I have long knew the value of 
the man, and his high standing both in New York, Pennsylvania, 
and the west, and as far as justice, and truth, will authorize, I 
will sustain him. You could not shudder more at the depravity 
of morals than I have, that would sanction a system, that a clergy- 
man detailing the tale which he says he received from a deceased 
Doctor, and who has been dead nearly if not upwards of six years, 
unsupported by any other testimony, should be sufficient to destroy 
female character. I am too well acquainted with the religious 
part of our country and the high minded and honorable, to believe 
the moment this slander is placed before the world, and the manner 
of its being circulated, but the whole people will spurn the wicked 
slander, and prostrate the slanderer. 

"I will only now add — that if this combination of which you 
speak, is really in existence, the virtuous, moral and religious world 
will begin and inquire, by what authority these ladies with their 
clergyman at their head has assumed for themselves this holy 
allience and secrete inquisition to pass in secrete upon the conduct 
of others, and say, who shall, and who shall not be permitted into 
society. If it does exist, the inquiry will go farther, it may extend 
to the inquiry into their own immaculate characters, and their 
divine right to assume such powers, and I would not for the Pres- 
idency be in their places. The indignation is arising here, as well 
as with you, and the moment it is known, must arise over the 
christianised world — for the matron, the daughter, the father 
will all cry out, where is the safety for our character, if it is placed 
within the pale of a vindictive clergyman, who from the art, shows 
he has no religion, who may get displeased with a fair and virtuous 
female, who has nothing to do, but put forth the saying of a dead 
man, and the female character is gone forever. I can assure you 
that the morals and virtue of our country is not prepared to sup- 

172 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

port or countenance such things as this, and I am happy to hear, 
that the indignation of your citizens has become so much arroused 
at the mere recital of the conduct here — it will have a good effect, 
it must in the end, put down gossipping here, and chasten society 
every where, and give a greater respect to female character, and 
an utter detestation of slanderers. Then will society enjoy peace, 
and harmony, and character be secure from secrete and unfounded 
calumnies — our society wants purging here. When you write to 
your distant friends present me to them kindly and believe me your 

"Signed A.J. 
"ToMr. S. N. Y." 


"July 19th, 1830. 
"I have perused the note of Judge Berrien to you (Major Eaton) 
of the 1 8th of June and I regret, as he has ref ered to an interview 
with the President, that he has not given a fair statement, that 
you might understand (or if for publication) the public might 
understand it. First then I have to state, and do it without fear 
of contradiction, that no member of Congress was by me ever 
authorized to say that Judge Berrien, Mr. Ingham and Branch 
with their families should associate with ]Major Eaton and his 
or they should be removed, and Judge Berrien on the interview I 
had with him Mr. Ingham and Branch were well advised of this 
by me and to them I entered my protest against any such inter- 
ference. The Judge ought to have stated, for he well knew the 
fact, that various members of Congress, had communicated it to 
me, that there were a combination entered into with a foreign 
Lady with these gentlemen and families to drive Major Eaton and 
family out of society and had appealed to me if I would suffer such 
indignity to myself after inviting Major Eaton into my Cabinet 
and he reluctantly assenting. To all which I replied I surely would 
not, but I could not believe that these gentlemen would act such 
dishonorable a part, having come into my cabinet with the greatest 
harmony; but if I found them capable of such Dishonorable conduct 
as combining together with this foreign lady for such unworthy 
purpose I would promptly remove them from my cabinet. I was 
informed that the plan was this, the foreign lady was to make 
a'party and invite all the heads of departments and families but 
Major Eaton, that Mr. Ingram was to follow, Branch and Berrien, 
I was informed by members of congress that the combination had 
thus been carried into effect, and again appealed to me, was I going 
to submit to such indignity. I assured them I would not — and sent 
for Mr. Ingham, Governor Branch and Judge Berrien, to have an 
interview with them, they came, I faithfully detailed the facts 
above communicated to me, and wish to be informed whether 
they had entered into the combination communicated ; that if they 
had, the indignity was offered to me and not to Major Eaton, that 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 173 

they well knew I had solicited Major Eaton to become a member of 
my cabinet and he had reluctantly yielded his assent, that they all 
had come in without any objections, and such a combination to 
drive him out of society was an insult to me which I would not 
suffer. They all declared they had no intention of the kind and 
would be the last to do any act with a view to the in'ury of Major 
Eaton and his family or lessen them in society. To which I re- 
plied, that I had too high regard for them to doubt their words, 
but the prediction had gone forth and the event having occured as 
predicted, it had gone forth to the world and the members of con- 
gress as tho intended and its evil effects were as great as tho it had 
been intended, and to prevent the like again, and to promote har- 
mony, it might be well that these parties might be given in a way 
not to produce such effect upon society as tho it was intended; 
that I had brought Major Eaton into the cabinet and I would part 
with every member in it before I would him and I was determined 
to have harmony in my cabinet or I would remove those that pro- 
duced the want of it, and if there were any that could not harmo- 
nize with Major Eaton they had better withdraw. Here Mr. 
Ingham remarked that he could not interfere or control his wife 
in her associates in society. I assured him I would be the last 
man in society that attempt to interfere in such matters, that it 
was the right of all to select their society, but all I wanted was 
harmony in my cabinet, that he and all others might rest assured 
that I never would part with Major Eaton nor should he be drove 
out of my cabinet by any combination that could or might be 
formed for that purpose, that I would remove the whole party. 
Again it was repeated by the gentlemen that they would be the 
last men who would do any act with a design or knowledge, that it 
would injure Major Eaton or his family. Here the matter was 
left. How far they have acted agreeable to this pledge the people 
will judge. 


"Aug. 3, 1830. 
''Private and for your own eye. 
"My dear Major: 

"I send my son to meet you at Judge Overtons, and to conduct 
you and your lady with our other friends to the Hermitage where 
you will receive that heartfelt welcome that you were ever wont 
to do. When my dear departed wife was living; her absence makes 
every thing here wear to me a gloomy and meloncholy aspect, but 
the presence of her old and sincere friend will cheer me amidst the 
meloncholy gloom with which I am surrounded. 

"My neighbors and connections will receive you and your lady 
with that good feeling that is due to you, and I request you and 
your lady will meet them with your usual courtesy, which is so well 
calculated to gain univcral applause even from enemies, and the 
united approbation of all friends. Our enemies calculate much 

1 74 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

upon injuring me, by — raising the cry that I had forced Mr. A. J. 
Donelson from me, and compelled him to retire, because he would 
not yield to my views, which they call improper. I mean to be 
able to show that I only claimed to rule my household, that it 
should extend justice and common politeness to all and no more, 
and thus put my enemies in the wrong, and if any friends desert me 
that it is theirs, not my fault. 

"General Coffee has, since here, produced a visable, and sensible 
change in my connections, and they will all be here to receive you 
and your lady, who I trust will meet them with her usual courtesy 
and if a perfect reconciliation cannot take place, that harmony 
may prevail, and link broken in the Nashville conspiracy. 

"I trust you are aware that I will never abandon you or sep- 
arate from you, so long as you continue to practice those virtues 
that have always accompanied you, nor would I ask you, or any 
friend to pursue a course to compromet or be degrading to them- 
selves, or feelings — but I am anxious that we pursue such a course 
as will break down the Nashville combination, which I view as 
the sprouts of the Washington conspiracy. This effected, and we 
have a peaceful administration, and when we have waded thro' 
our official labours, a calm retirement. I wish us also to heap 
coals uuon the heads of our enemies, by returning good for evil. 
When I see you I have much to say to you. I have received letters 
from Major Haley and Peachlynn and a string of resolutions from 
the citizens of Mississippi, all of which will l3e presented to you 
when here. 

"With my compliments to your lady, Mr. B. and his, I am in 

"Your friend, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Hermitage, August 3rd., 1380. 
"Major J. H. Eaton. 

Secretary of War." 


"Washington, december 7th, 1830. 
"My dear Sam'l:- 

"I inclose you my message this day delivered. It is published 
in the Globe. 

"I send for you Doctor Butler, Col. S. D. Hays and my friend 
Chester, this message is for you all, not having one for each, with 
the prospectus of the Globe. It is of the true faith, no nulification 
in the Globe. Patronize it. I will be happy to hear your opinion 
of the message and expect you all to patronize the Globe. The 
editor is the late editor of the Kentucky Argus, no nulifier but of 
the true faith. I will be happy to see you, and your dear wife here, 
with my namesake. Carolina is torn to pieces. I hope the steam 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 175 

will blow off without bursting a boiler, and that our friend Ham- 
ilton will be elected Governor, but all is doubtful, I would like to 
see Narcissa with you. Salutations to all. 

"Yours affectionately, 
"Samuel J. Hays. 

"Jackson, Madison County, Western District, Tennessee. 


"Flint Hill, April 20th, 1831. 
"My dear Sir :- 

"By the last mail I received your favor under date of the 9th. 
instant. I am sorry that anything should have occured, to render 
it necessar}' that any of your cabinet should desire to withdraw, 
or that you should request them to do so. With Major Eaton I 
was intimately associated for several years, in the course of which 
I formed a sincere friendship for him, which I hope and expect will 
last as long as life is spared to me; and should he return to Ten- 
nessee, it will give me the most sincere pleasure to contribute all 
in my power to place him in any public station desired by him, 
or his friends. It ought not however to be concealed from him or 
you, that he will have difficulties to encounter with some of our 
friends, on account of some of his votes while in the Senate. With 
Jr. Van Buren I served several sessions and ever found him frank, 
candid and firm, in the course his judgment approved. His talents 
are unquestioned even by his bitter enemies. You are correct in 
placing me among the numbgr of those who desired to withdraw 
you from your chosen retreat and to place you in the conspicuous 
station you now occupy. For this I had many reasons. First 
I wished to see the good old democratic doctrines practically 
restored to the Federal Government, and the modern doctrine of 
constructive powers abolished. With you at the head of the 
Government I believe this would be more likely to be effected, 
than with any other man. Secondly: I had some state pride. 
You were a Tennessean. Thirdly: I believe the public owed 
you more, for services actually rendered, than it did to any living 
man, and lastly you were my friend, and my father's friend, and I 
wished to do any thing, and every thing in my power, consistent 
with my country's good, to prove my unlimited confidence in your 
capacity for business, and in your integrity of character. Happily, 
as I think, for the people of the United States, we succeeded to the 
extent of our wishes, and thus far I have not been disappointed. 

"My dear Sir, your kind wishes towards me personally cannot 
be realized. Nothing would add more to my comfort than to be so 
near you as to have a constant personal inter-course with you so 
long as we both live; but I am a believer in the doctrine of the late 
Lord Littleton, 'That every man who is fit for any public employ is 
a better Judge of what he is fitted for than any of his friends, and 
that he shows his weakness by permitting himself to be placed in a 

1 76 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

station for which he is not quahfied.' I am not ciualificd to dis- 
charge the duties of the office your partiahty would confer upon me, 
and to quahfy myseh' would require more labour than at this time 
of life could conveniently be submitted to. Again I must retain 
a home in Tennessee, and were I to go to Washington, my property 
would not only be unproductive but much of it wasted. Lastly 
I am your personal and political friend, and from you cannot accept 
office. If I wished an office, within the gift of the President, 
it would be my heart's desire that you should be displaced, be- 
cause from a man whose undeviating friendship I have experienced 
from boyhood to advanced life, I never can think of either asking 
or accepting office. In this rule of conduct my opinion is so firmly 
fixed, that nothing could induce me to depart from it, but a be- 
lief that unless the public could receive my services in some par- 
ticular office my country would sustain an injury\ I have no idea 
that such a crisis has arrived, or ever will, in my day. Among 
your acquaintances there are many from whose services both you 
and the public would derive more benefit than any my humble 
abilities would enable me to render. With all the grateful feelings 
which a man ought to possess, for the honor your kindness would 
bestow I must be permitted to decline the offer you have made 
in such obliging terms, under a conviction that farther reflection 
will satisfy you that my non-acceptance was alike due to the public, 
to you, and to myself. 

"Your sincere friend, 
"H. L. White. 
"Andrew Jackson, Esq. 

"President of the United States. 


"Washington, April 29th, 1831. 
"My dear Sir :- 

"Your letters of the 18th and 20th are just received, your de- 
termination expressed in yours of the 20th has filled me with pain. 
I beg of you most seriously to reconsider it. The public confidence 
you possess in a most eminent degree. This is every thing to the 
administration, your talents are as good as I wish them, you are 
well acquainted with our Indian affairs which is the most important 
branch of the war department, and no one I could get is half so 
well qualified as yourself as for the mere arrangement of the mil- 
itary branch, you have whatever aid I can afford and also the aid 
of Mr. Comb whose long experience in the military department 
will render that part of your duties easy. Your knowledge of law 
and your talents and acquirements will render the place easy to 

"Plad I time to bring to your view the circumstances with which 
I am surrounded the necessity, from actual experience, of having 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 177 

men round me in whom I can confide, and particularly one to whom 
I can freely inibosom myself I know would yield to my wishes. 

"The great principles of democracy which we have both at 
heart to see restored to the Federal Government, cannot be ac- 
complished unless a united cabinet who will labour to this end. 
The struggle against the rechartering of the United States Bank 
are to be met. The corrupting influence of the Bank upon the 
morals of the people and upon congress are to be met and fear- 
lessly met. Duff Green has violated his pledge on this subject and 
is neutralized — many who you would not have supposed, has secretly 
enlisted in its ranks and between bank men, nulifyers, and internal 
improvement men it is hard to get a cabinet who will unite with 
me heart and hand in the great task of Democratic reform in the 
administration of our Government. In this work if possible 
the Cabinet must be united, or the executive whilst labouring to 
effect it, some one of the cabinet may be secretly labouring with 
congress to prevent it from being carried into execution. 

"As it respects your domestic concerns that can be arranged so 
that you can visit it every year — and one of the two succeeding 
years I will agree to accompany you or at least take you up on my 
return and bring you with me here. I cannot do without you for 
the two first years, if you should become wearied by that time, 
then I will if continued here agree to spare you — but if you should 
now decline you derange all my well laid plans. Who can I get to 
fill the war office. I could get Col. Drayton perhaps, who may be 
in faVor of rechartering the bank, acquainted with military matters, 
but unacquainted with Indian matters and whose appointment 
would arouse half of South Carolina and let it be remembered 
that he has been a strong Federalist. I like the man but I fear his 
politics — and having taken McLane (a Federalist) into the treas- 
ury I do not want to be compelled to take another — your refusal 
at present would produce and throw around me a laberinth of 
difficulties from which it would be hard to extricate myself. I 
will just add, if it had not been that I wanted your aid or that of 
Major Eaton I never would have permitted myself to have been 
here. I trust you will reconsider this matter, and answer me 
speedily that you will accept. I will be more than happy to have 
you under the same roof, and you have no friend but will say you 
ought to yield to my request. What a sacrifice I have made to the 
solicitations of my friends and what a sacrifice am I still making 
to the request of my country : and I trust you will not hesitate 
to make the one I have solicited. 

"(unsigned — perhaps a draft)" 


"Knoxville, May 22d, 1831. 
"General Jackson. 

"Dear Sir:- 

"I reached here on Saturday the 20th. Instant. On yester- 
day I visited Judge White. We had a long conversation on the 

178 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

subject of his acceptance of the office of Secretary of War. I 
repeated to him the conversation between us. He read to me the 
answer to your second letter. I said to him that I was to write 
you and that nothing would be done until after you heard from me. 
He replied that he could say no more. That it would be like 
putting a torch to his happiness, and that the sacrafices would be 

"But that if you did believe it necessary either for yourself or 
the country notwithstanding his own objections, he would accept. 
I told him of the feelings of Virginia — and of the great anxiety 
felt by all for his acceptance and said to him that I did believe 
that you would insist on it — because the crisis required it. 

"I am much gratified to say that judging from any thing in 
traveling to this point your course meets the approbations of your 
friends and I hope all will be right. 

"I shall leave in a few days for the nation. 

"I have the honour to be your Obedient Servant. 

"F. W. Armstrong. 
"To the President of the United States." 


"Flint Hill, June 15th, 1831. 
"My dear friend: 

"Until Monday evening, I did not return from the west, your 
favor of the 1st instant was therefore not received till yesterday. 
I mention this to account for the apparent neglect in not returning 
an immediate answer. 

"Major Armstrong detailed to you correctly the conversation 
he had with me, and nothing but the situation of my daughter 
should now prevent my acceptance of the office you have tendered 
n such flattering terms. Accompanied by her husband she has 
taken a journey to the west, with a hope that traveling might 
aid in throwing off a complaint threatening the worst results. 
At Judge Overtons they buried their little daughter, and upon 
their return I met them at Sparta. Her disease is, apparently 
making slow but sure progress towards a fatal termination. She 
is now at home so much enfeebled, that all hope of her recovery 
must, in my opinion, be abandoned. Were I to leave her for a 
residence in Washington, or elsewhere, and more especially were 
I to take with me her sister and brother, the only other survivors 
of my family, such a step, would I apprehend, be immediately 
fatal to her. 

"Should I accept under an expectation that an absence from 
Washington might be allowed, until her fate was decided, the 
nature of her complaint might make the time of my absence so 
protracted, that public opinion would condemn an indulgence so 
imreasonable. Under these circumstances I can do nothing but 
decline the office vour kindness would confer. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 179 

"Had I desired an additional evidence of the sincerity and 
strength of your personal friendship and regard, it has been most 
amply furnished in relation to the office I am constrained to decline 
accepting; and should you for a moment believe I have made no 
suitable return, I beg you only to remember, that if I am worthy to 
be considered the friend of any man, I must have been experiencing 
the pangs of the dying, for a greater portion of the period, which 
has elapsed since the year 1825 ; and that from such a man but little 
eflfectual aid could be expected, even had I accepted. 

"Your friend, 

"H.Iv. White. 
"Andrew Jackson, Esquire. 

"President of the United States. 

"P.S. Until I saw it announced in the Globe of the 25th. May, 
that I had declined accepting, I had been perfectly silent on the 
subject, except in a letter to J. K. Polk, who I knew was safe. 
Since that publication, in answering the letters of friends, in several 
instances, I have mentioned the fact of having declined, and in 
some instances very briefly stated some of my principal reasons. 
However, these circumstances would not have created any dif- 



' 'Private. 

"Post Oflfice. 
"Nashville, September 25, 1832. 
"My dear Friend : 

"Your kind favor of the 23d, Instant handed by Mr. Chester 
is before me, nothing of consequence has occurred since you left 
us. Major Claiborne did not make his nullification speech as was 
expected on yesterday, and I am informed has declined discussing 
the subject before the Legislature. Indeed he is as far as I can 
learn entirely silent. Attempts were made to draw him out with- 
out success. 

"Major Eaton is gaining ground, and will I am confident, be 
elected. Grundy is still loading the mails with letters to his 
friends, to get up instructions to vote for him. We are writing 
letters too, to counteract his movements, and some of the members 
have already received counter instructions to vote for Eaton. 
Our friends are firm and decided, and I have no hesitation in as- 
suring you, that Eaton will be the Senator, or that there will be no 
election this session. The election is put off to Friday the 5th, day 
of October, and I have no doubt but that on that day John H. Eaton 
will be declared by the proper authority, duly and constitutionally 
Senator in congress &c. 

"I have just been informed, that certificates are about to be 
obtained, stating that you have no political prefference for Eaton, 

1 80 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

that it is merely a personal friendship entertained for him, and that 
politically you prefer Mr. Grundy. They will try to make much 
of this. I, you knoiv can contradict this, and will do so ivherever I 
meet it, but if you will write me a letter substantially such as is 
herewith enclosed, the effect will be good. I may not use it but I 
wish to have it ready to be used by me with great caution. I feel 
intensely anxious for Batons success and must guard every point, 
and I really think a letter similar to the one enclosed may be neces- 
sary to success. Write by the first mail, all our friends in good 

"Ver>' sincerely 

"Your friend, 

"Jno. C. McLemore. 
"General Andrew Jackson. 

"Lexington Kentucky. 

" I have just come in while McLemore is closing his letter. 
What he states is true. Grundy is saying that your opinions 
are not correctly represented; and that he would obtain certif- 
icates to show that your political desires are for him. 

"Letters to me tonight from Gallatin say that the fever is up 
since I came out, that all Grundy's instruction men are turning 
over and in three days a majority of the county will direct Watkins 
and Boddie to vote against him. So much for his management of 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 181 



52 Poem on Andrew Jackson published in 1842 by W. 52 

§ Wallace, Esq. ; address of Daniel Webster at § 

52 New York Historical Society on death of Andrew 52 

52 Jackson; poem "Welcome to General Jackson" 52 

52 by Mrs. Adams, quoted from Knoxville Re- 5^ 

52 gister of March 4, 1829; poem "Jackson" by 52 

52 Ella Bentley Arthur; poem "Memories of Gen- 52 

§ eral Jackson" published Auburn, New York, ^ 

52 1845; poem "The Hero Sleeps, Auburn, New 52 

52 York, 1845; editorial on Mrs Rachel Jackson 53 

^ in Knoxville Register May 27, 1829; action of ^ 

52 the Board of Aldermen of Knoxville, December 52 
I 29, 1828, on the death of Mrs. Jackson; "Dirge i 
^ to the Memory of Mrs. Jackson," by Dr. James § 
g McHenry, Refutation of charges on Mrs. Jack- 52 

53 son in 1827; action of Nashville authorities on 53 
^ her death; Adjutant General's report on Gen- § 
52 eral John Coffee; Gov. C. C. Claiborne to Gen. 52 
52 Coffee ; Gen. Coffee's reply ; letters from Jackson. § 

52 :"2325252525252525252525252525H525252SZ52525E52S2525HS2525252S2S2S2525252S252S2S2525252S25252H 

"STAR OF THE WEST! whose steadfast light 

Sparkles above our troubled sea, 
Well may the watcher of the night 

Turn with a trusting heart to thee — • 
To thee, whose strong hand steered the bark 

When all around was wild and dark, 
And bent the white wing of the mast. 

That trembled, like a thing of fear 
Within the tempest's thurider-blast, 

Before its haven-rest is near. 

"Undying ray! unfading flame, 

Of glory set within our skies. 
Forever burning there the same. 

Above a nation's destinies, 
And linked with all the noble band 

Of Freedom worship in their hid. 
Whose rolling streams and rugged sod 

Still, still no monarch own but God ! 
Beam on! Beam on! while millions turn 

To where thy lofty splendors burn. 
Like seraph-wings, whose rainbow plumes, 

From Heaven's far battlement unfurl'd, 
Shine grandly through the fearful glooms 

That pall a sun-deserted world ! 

"CHIEF OF THE BRAVE ! 'Twas thine to wield 

Resistless arms in battle-field ! 
Twas thine to give the gallant blow 

182 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

That struck the lion-standard low ! 
E'en as a mighty harp with strings 

Thrilling beneath the tempest's wings, 
So thrilled the nation's soul, when thou 

Trampled the foe beneath thy feet, 
And saw, victorious o'er thy brow 

Unfurled, Columbia's glory-sheet. 

"Oh ! when the storms of Treason lower 

O'er freedom's consecrated tower, 
And that for which the grey-haired sire 

With boyhood gladly gave his life. 
Shall wither fast beneath the fire 

Of wild Ambition's demon-strife; 
The Patroit then shall boldly start. 

With kindled eye and swelling heart, 
Murmur devotedly thy name. 

Rush where the ranks of Treachery stand, 
And fearless quench the unholy flame 

Lit on the altars of our land. 

"What though around thy brow sublime 

We see the snowy wreath of Time ! 
Aye ! let the very marble rest. 

Old Chieftain! on thy mouldering breast — 
Thy spirit bravely flashing out. 

Like the bright Grecian torch of old 
By mailed warriors hurled about, 

Shall beam on centuries untold. 

"Long as a Hero's grave shall be 
A Cherished altar for the free — 
Ah ! dearer far, and more divine, 

Than Persian orb or orient shrine — 
Long as the River, by whose wave 

Thou led'st the armies of the brave, 
Shall, in the shades of the evening dim. 

Echo the anthem of the sea, 
And mingle with its solemn hymn 

The ancient songs of liberty. 

Long as the spirits of the blest 

Shall hover o'er each patriot's sleep, 
True as those planets of the west 

That watch the shut eyes of the Deep; 
Long as our starry banner flies 

On dashing seas, through azure skies, 
\ radiant hope from heaven displayed 

To all who groan in tyrant-chains, 
That still, despite of throne and blade, 

' For them a brighter lot remains. 
So long, Oh! Soldier-Patroit-Sage, 

so long, untcrrified, sublime, 
Shalt thou, unheeding envy's rage. 
Tower up, the land-mark of our age, 

The noblest glory of thy time ! 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 183 

remarks of hon. daniel webster, at the meeting of 
the new york historical society, on the death 
of general jackson. 

"Nothing could be more natural or proper than that this Society 
should take a respectful notice of the decease of so distinguished 
a member of its body. Accustomed occasionally to meet the 
Society, and to enjoy the communications that are made to it, 
and proceed from it, illustrative of the history of the country and 
its government, I have pleasure in being present at this time also, 
and on this occasion, in which an element so mournful mingles 
itself. General Andrew Jackson has been from an early period 
conspicuous in the service and in the councils of the country, 
though not without long intervals, so far as respects his con- 
nections with the general government. It is fifty years, I think, 
since he was a member of the Congress of the United States, and 
at the instant, sir, I do not know whether there be living an as- 
sociate of General Jackson in the House of Representatives of the 
United States at that day, with the exception of the distinguished 
and venerable gentlemen who is now President of this Society. 
I recollect only of the Congress of '96, at this moment now living, 
but one — Mr. Gallatin — though I may be mistaken. General 
Jackson, Mr. President, while he lived, and his memory and char- 
acter, now that he, is deceased, are presented to his country and 
the world in different views and relations. He was a soldier — a 
general officer — and acted no unimportant part in that capacity. 
He was raised by repeated elections to the highest stations in the 
civil government of his country, and acted a part certainly not 
obscure or unimportant in that character and capacity. 

"In regard to his military services, I participate in the general 
sentiment of the whole country, and I believe of the world. That 
he was a soldier of dauntless courage — great daring and perse- 
verance — an officer of skill and arrangement and foresight, are 
truths universally admitted. During the period in which he 
administered the General Government of the country, it was my 
fortune, during the whole period of it, to be a member of the Con- 
gress of the United States, and as it is well known, it was my mis- 
fortune not to be able to concur with many of the most important 
measures of his administration. Entertaining himself, his own 
view, and with a power of impressing his own views to a remarkable 
degree, upon the conviction and approbation of others, he pursued 
such a course as he thought expedient in the circumstances in 
which he was placed. Entertaining on many questions of great 
importance, different opinions, it was of course my misfortune to 
diflfer from him, and that difference gave me great pain, because, 
in the whole course of my public life, it has been far more agreeable 
to me to support the measures of the Government than be called 
upon by my judgement and sense of what is to be done to oppose 
them. I desire to see the Government acting with an unity of 

1 84 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee Historv 

spirit in all things relating to its foreign relations, especially, and 
generally in all great measures of domestic policy, as far as is 
consistant with the exercise of perfect independence among its 
members. But if it was my misfortune to differ from General 
Jackson on many, or most of the great measures of his admin- 
istrations, there were occasions, and those not unimportant, in 
which I felt it my duty, and according to the highest sense of the 
duty, to conform to his opinions, and support his measures. There 
were junctures in his administration — periods which I thought 
proper to adopt, corresponded entirely with my sentiment in re- 
gard to the protection of the best interests of the country, and the 
institutions under which we live; and it was my humble endeavor 
on these occasions to yield to his opinions and measures, the same 
cordial support as if I had not differed from him before, and ex- 
pected never to differ from him again. 

"That General Jackson was a marked character — that he 
had a very remarkable influence over other men's opinions — that 
he had great perseverance and resolution in civil as well as in 
military administration, all admit. Nor do I think that the can- 
did among mankind will ever doubt that it was his desire — mingled 
with whatsoever portion of a disposition to be himself instrumental 
in that exaltation — to elevate his country to the highest prosperity 
and honor. There is one sentiment, to which I particularly recur, 
always with a feeling of approbation and gratitude. From an 
earlier period of his undertaking to administer the affairs of the 
government, he uttered a sentiment dear to me — expressive of 
truth of which I am most profoundly convinced — a sentiment 
setting forth the necessity, the duty, and the patriotism of main- 
taining the union of these states. ]\Ir. President, I am old enough 
to recollect the deaths of all the Presidents of the United States who 
have departed this life, from Washington down. There is no doubt 
that the death of an individual, who has been so much the favorite 
of his country, and partaken so largely of its regard as to fill that 
high office, always produce — has produced, hitherto, a strong 
impression upon the public mind. That is right. It is right 
that such should be the impression upon the whole community^ 
embracing those who particularly approved, and those who did 
not particularly approve the political course of the deceased. 

"All these distinguished men have been chosen of their country. 
They have fulfilled their station and duties upon the whole, in the 
series of years that have gone before us, in a manner reputable and 
distinguished. Under their administration, in the course of fifty 
or sixty years, the government, generally speaking, has prospered, 
and under the government, the people have prospered. It becomes, 
then, all to pay respect when men thus honored are called to anoth- 
er world. Mr. President, we may well indulge the hope and belief 
that it was the feeling of the distinguished person who is the subject 
of those reolutions, in the solemn days and hours of closing life — 
that it was his wish, if he had committed a few or more errors in the 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 1 85 

administration of the government, their influence might cease 
with him; and that whatever of good he had done, might be per- 
petuated. Let us cherish the same sentiment. Let us act upon 
the same feehng; and whatever of true honor and glory he ac- 
quired, let us all hope that it will be his inheritance forever! And 
whatever of good example, or good principle, or good administra- 
tioji he has established, let us hope that the benefit of it may also 
be perpetual." 

(Knoxville Register, March 4th 1829.) 

"A Welcome, Chieftain, to these halls; 

The doors are opening joyously — 
And loud the voice of Millions calls 

Thee to thy glorious destiny; 
A welcome, Patriot, to this dome. 

Where Care before thee long a guest 
Hath made these marble walls its home 

And broke the hours of balmy rest. 

"Come — on Fame's sounding pinion borne 

The guardian eagle's sun-bright wing. 
With laurels thou hast justly worn, 

Come to a nation's welcoming; 
And let the star sown banner wave, 

O'er him of Orleans, sternly good, 
Who sent the Lion to his grave. 

Where Mississippi rolls its flood. 

'"Tis meet for thee to stand where first 

Immortal Washington arose, 
His brow still dark with battle dust 

And vengeance to his countrys foes — 
But where is she — the better one — 

On whom to lean thy weary head. 
When toils and council cares have done, 

And thou hast sought a quiet bed? 

"Pale — Pale — as glory's coronet, 

When she the lov'd one cold in death. 
Hath seen the earth's bright sunbeams set, 

And dawn, in other words, her breath ; 
Ah, Chieftain; here thy banner clings 

In sadness round the standard spear — 
Nor gives its empire drapery wings 

To gild a world's wide admosphere. 


"He stands in grim relief against the dark 

And bloody era of his troublous time 
Like some stark pine, gaunt and of rugged bark 

Etched on the red west of a Southern Clime. 

"He fought with valor and he fought with brain; 

Rough-hewn, but modeled on a hero's plan. 
And thus posterity sums up his Fame — 

A general — a soldier — and a Man. 

-Ella Bentley Authur. 

186 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


"Weep, Columbia, weep; 

Breathe once again the note 
Of sorrow, stern and deep, 

Wide o'er the land to float, 
He rests-the Hero-Sage; 

His earthly toils are o'er, 
And History's golden page 

Shall wait for him no more. 

'"Tis closed — his book of life 

Is full — his race is run; 
With fame and honor rife — 

His work forever done. 
But while in sadness here, 

We heave an earth-born sigh — 
He lives, where not a tear 

Shall flow — no more to die. 

"He lives mid spirits free, 

Who toil'd with him in life, 
That God and Liberty 

Crowned in that holy strife, 
For them a nation wept 

At Freedom's sacred shrine; 
In glory they too slept, 

Where he, with them, will shine. 

"Yet shall the patriot's name 

Be cherished by the free; 
In every soil his fame 

Shall dwell with Liberty; 
But vainly o'er his grave 

A sorrowing nation weeps. 
Her banners drooping wave — 

For aye, the Hero sleeps. 

"Her booming guns may roar, 

The clang of armor come, 
Her eagle proudly soar 

Up towards his spirit-home, 
His country long may weep 

His glorious setting sun, 
It will not break his sleep — 

His deeds of might are done. 


"Go bring his battle blade 

His helmet and his plume; 
And be his trophies laid 

Beside him in the tomb. 

"Green be the willow bough 

Above the swelling mound, 
While sleeps the hero now 

In consecrated ground; 
When files of time-worn veterans come 

With martial trump and muffled drun'. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 187 

mrs. r.\chel donelson jackson. 
(Editorial Knoxville Register, May 27, 1829.) 

"As the lamented and much injured partner of our President- 
elect has been the subject of cold blooded calumny and manly 
defense, and as she has now gone to her long home where the 
'Wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest,' perhaps 
some account of the last scene of her earthly pilgrimage may not 
be uninteresting to a feeling community. 

"After its publication, Mrs. Jackson was early made acquainted 
with the libel upon her good name. The effect that such an attack 
would have upon a lady of sensitive character, one too, whose life 
had been devoted to deeds of charity and benevolence, may easily 
be conceived. She supported herself under it, however, until 
the excitement produced by the late contest was over. From that 
moment her energy subsided, her spirit drooped and her health 
declined. She has been heard to speak but seldom since. 

"Having been drawn into conversation by a friend about a 
fortnight before her death, she remarked that although she had 
lived with Mr. Jackson nearly forty years, there had never been 
an unkind word between them, and the only subject on which they 
ever differed, or, where there was the slightest opposition, was 
his acceptance of appointments when conferred upon him, she 
being always unwilling for him to enter upon public life. 

"She was the woman whom General Jackson was called upon to 
separate from at a moment of all others the most trying. 

"Although the weather was unfavorable, her friends assembled 
from every point, where the melancholy tidings had been received, 
to pay the last tribute of respect to one who could be-friend them no 

"When the hour of interment drew nigh, the General, who had 
not left the corpse, was informed that it was time to perform the 
last sad rites. The scene that then ensued is beyond description. 
There was no heart that did not ache, no eye that did not weep. 

"The writer was informed by many of the officers present, who 
had shared with the General in his difficulties and dangers, who had 
seen him in the most trying situations, who had eyed him when his 
gallant soldiers were suffering for food to sustain them in life and 
he unable to relieve them, who had witnessed him on the battle- 
field when the wounded and dying were brought before him, and 
every muscle seemed moved and his very frame agonized with 
sorrow, but no suffering however poignant or excessive, could 
compare with the late affliction. Then he bade his final adieu to 
the last kindred link that bound him to the earth, his Roman 
fortitude seemed for a time to be completely over-come. It was a 
soul rending sight to see an old veteran whose head whitened by 
the hardships he had endured for his country bending over the 
lifeless body of an affectionate wife, whose death was hastened by 
the cruelty of those whose rights he had so nobly defended. 

188 Andrew Jackson and Karly Tennessee History 

"By a muscular and almost superhuman effort, he endeavored 
the check of the current of his ,^rief, and waving his hand to the 
afflicted company begged them to weep no more. I know, said he, 
'tis unmanly but these tears were due to her virtues. She shed 
many for me. There was but one wish pervaded the assembly — 
that the individuals who had hastened this scene by their relentless 
attack on an unoffending woman could be brought to witness the 
saddest spectacle that any present had ever beheld." 


{Knoxville Register, December 31, 1828.) 

"At a meeting of the Board of Alderman of the town of Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, on the 29th day of December 1828. 
1"^ Col. S. D. Jacobs submitted the following preamble and res- 
olutions, which were unanimously adopted and ordered to be 
placed on Record. 

"Having learned with feelings of the most painful regret the 
inteligence of the death of Mrs. Jackson, the amiable and much 
respected consort of General Jackson, and being desirous to man- 
ifest our feelings on this unexpected and distressing occasion as 
well with regard to the estimation in which we hold the exemplary 
virtues and amiable character of Mrs. Jackson, as to express our 
sincere condolence with her bereaved husband, on whom the hand 
of Providence has dispensed his sore affliction at a time when age 
and the peculiar circumstances of his situation rendered her ex- 
istance particularly dear and desirable, therefore, 

"Resolved, that while we deeply regret the death of Mrs. Jack- 
son we cannot but express our gratitude to the Supreme Governor 
of the universe that she was not taken from time to eternity until 
the people of the Union had given a clear and distinct manifestation 
of the high estimation in which they held the reputation of herself 
and her husband. 

"Resolved, That, in consequence of the death of Mrs. Jackson 
the Mayor be directed to request the Rev. Thos. H. Nelson, to 
preach a sermon, suitable to the occasion in the First Presbyterian 
Church at 11 o'clock A. M. on Thursday the 1st day of January 

"Resolved, That, the inhabitants of Knoxville be respectfully 
requested to attend Church and abstain from their ordinary bus- 
iness on Thursday the 1st day of January' next, as a tribute to 
respect to the memory of the deceased. 

"Joseph C. Strong, Mayor. 
"Will Swan, Recorder 
"December 29, 1828." 





Photographed from Painting by Earle. 


Andrew Jackson and Karly Tennessee History 189 

By Dr. James McHcnry, 1S29. 

"In sorrow sunk beside the mournful bier 

Of her who long had blest his bright career, 
Th' illustrious chosen of his country, see, 

In meekness bending to the stern decree. 
View there a struggle which all hearts must move, 

The hero's firmness with the husband's love. 
Freemen; 'tis he whose spirit, prompt and brave, 

On patriot pinions flew your realm to save; 
'Tis he whose hand, conducting vic'try's car. 

Crushed your invaders on the field of war; 
Who when the fierce appalling strife was o'er, 

Which shook the land, and danger was no more; 
Contented with his country's thanks, retired 

To rural shades, nor pomp nor power desired. 
But well his worth his grateful country knew; 

No secret shades could hide it from her view; 
And to its proper sphere, with loud acclaim. 

She drew it forth, and crowned her Jackson's fame. 

"But what is power or splendor to his heart, 

Now doomed from all that formed his bliss to part? 
In vain around his brow a wreath is twined. 

The fairest ever worn by human kind, 
While the loved mem'ry of that lost one dwells 

Fresh in his soul, and all his sorrow swells. 
And well to him her mem'ry may be dear; 

Round him she clung with holy faith sincere; 
Her pride, her stay, her lover and her lord, 

And only less than Heaven itself adored. 

She loved the manly heart that made her blest, 

She loved the patriot flame that warmed his breast, 
She loved the toils that could his virtures wake. 

She loved ev'n glory for her husband's sake. 
For well she knew that he was glory's heir, 

Though envy scoffed, and slander did not spare. 
His noblest deeds, though viperous tongues assailed. 

While faction triumphed, and deceit prevailed, 
She fondly hoped the glorious day to see, 

When truth would vanquish factious calumny. 
Oh shame to manhood! that our times have seen 

Monsters possessed of man's uplifted mein, 
Whose hearts the base, unfeeling tale could frame, 

That tried to blast so pure a being's fame! 
Alas! we know them, heartless as they are, 

With feeling, truth and manliness at war, 
Who but to gratify a factious end, 

The poisoned shafts to woman's heart could send! 
And thine, much injured and lamented fair, 

'Twas thine the torture of those shafts to bear. 
Until a generous nation nobly rose, 

And hurled disgrace and ruin on thy foes. 
Then to the world, with unstrained lustre, shone 

Thy honored husband's virtures and thy own, 
While shrunk the vile assailants of thy fame. 

From public scorn, in terror and in shame. 
How fervently, in that auspicious hour. 

Thy thankful bosom blest th' immortal Power, 
Whose voice the justice of thy country woke, 

And truth in thunder to thy slanderers spoke! 

190 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Oh, 'twas to generous minds an hour of pride, 

When injured innocence was justified. 
And merit drawn from its concealing shade. 

To be with honor, fame and power repaid! 
Then was the triumph of the patriot wife, 

Which filled with ample joy her cup of life. 
"It is enough!" th' illustrious matron cried; 

And blessed her country, praised her God, and — died! 


"Harrodsburg, April 16th, 1827. 
' 'Gentlemen: 

"Impelled by feelings which I trust the most embittered partizan 
will not condemn, I enclose you several letters elicited by enquiries 
made by myself and statements obtained by others who felt indig- 
nant at the wrong done by the late attacks on the private char- 
acter of General Jackson and his wife. You are authorized to 
make such use of them as you think proper. I have reserved 
copies which I shall forward to Tennessee, when, as speedily as 
practicable, a reply will be made to every point of the charge in- 
volving the early conduct of the General towards his much injured 
ladv. "Respectfullv, 

"T. P. Moore. 
"Messrs. Kendall and Johnston." 


"Harrodsburg, March 31, 1827. 
"Dear Major: 

"In compliance with your wishes, expressed in yours of yesterday, 
it may not be improper to inform you, that in the fall of 1781, 
I made my place of residence in Lincoln County, (now Mercer) 
where I have continued to live ever since. I think it was in 1782, 
not later than 1783, (but I think the former) I became a deputy 
sheriff in Lincoln, and acquainted with Col. Donaldson, and his 
family. The Colonel had then two daughters, young ladies, viz: 
Jane and Rachel, the latter of whom I understand, is the lady of 
General Andrew Jackson. 

"Sometime shortly after my acquaintance in the family, Miss 
Rachel became the wife of Capt. Lewis Roberts, of the same coun- 
ty, who then lived in the family of his mother, a widow lady near 
Harrodsburg, where he brought his wife, and continued to live 
with her, in the family of his mother, until some disagreement took 
place between the Captain and his wife which resulted in a sep- 
aration, and the Captain sent her to her fathers, who previous to 
that separation had removed to the neighborhood of Nashville, 
Tennessee, as I was informed, and where I presume she first saw 
and became acquainted with Gen. Jackson. I never saw Gen. 
Jackson in my life to my knowledge, nor have I any reason to 
believe, nor do I believe, that Mrs. Jackson ever was acquainted 
with the General until after her separation from Roberts and her 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 191 

arrival at her fathers in Tennessee. Capt. Roberts obtained a 
special act of the Virginia Legislature for a divorce I think in the 
fall of the year 1787, and prosecuted the same to judgement in the 
quarter sessions of Mercer County, (of which court I was clerk) 
at the September term of said court, 1793. About that time 
Capt; Roberts married a Miss Winn, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Winn, then, I think of Louisville or Bardstown. I was much 
sur prised when the separation took place between Capt. Roberts 
and his first wife, as previous to that affair, I had ever considered 
Mrs. Roberts, (now Mrs. Jackson) a fine woman, and of irreproach- 
able character. Upon an examination of the papers of the suit 
for the divorce aforesaid, I find nothing showing that the defendent 
had any kind of notice of the existence of progress of that suit. 
Should you consider anything I have communicated, worth notice, 
you are at liberty to use it in any way you may think proper. 

"Your friend etc., 
"Thos. Allin. 

"Maj. T. P. Moore." 


"Harrodsburg, April 13, 1827. 
"Dear Sir: 

In answer to your inquiries in relation to a publication in the 
last Spirit of '76, involving the character of Mrs. Jackson, in which 
I am referred to as being 'one of the jury' who found a verdict 
against her, I say that it is utterly untrue. I was well acquainted 
with Mrs. Jackson previous to her first marriage with Mr. Lewis 
Roberts, and for several years afterwards and I can assure you she 
sustained an unblemished character, and was considered one among 
the first of our young ladies; her father Col. Donalson, being a man 
of the most respectable standing. 

"After her marriage with Mr. Roberts, a disagreement took 
place between her and her husband, on account of a charge of 
immoral conduct on his part, and also his becoming jealous of a 
certain individual (not General Jackson) which eventuated in her 
being compelled to return to her mother's, who had in the mean- 
time removed to the State of Tennessee, where her father died 
or was killed by the Indians. I was intimate with Mr. Roberts 
and after the separation, in a conversation with him, he admitted 
to me that his suspisions were unjust, and he exprtssly acquitted 
her of any illicit intercourse with the individual suspected. 

"As to General Jackson, I am of the opinion he never saw her 
previous to her separation from Mr. Roberts, and the divorce, 
I believe, was obtained, entirely exparte. An act of the Virginia 
Legislature was passed at the instance of the well known Capt. 
Jack Jouitt, then a member of that body, and a brother-in-law of 
Mr. Roberts, (having married his sister) and with out any notice, 
as I believe, to Mrs. Roberts, but of this, I suppose, Maj. Thos 
Allin who was the clerk of the court, can speak. 

192 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"For my part, I consider Mrs. Jackson most unjustly and 
ungenerously slandered. I am well acquainted with most of the 
circumstances, and regret to see the whole transaction, misrep- 
resented. I have always believed that Mr. Roberts had no person 
to blame but his own improper conduct and jealousy, I knew him 
well, but do not wish to enter into a detail of facts, calculated to 
wound the feeling of his respectable relations and friends. 

"I am myself for General Jackson as next President and wish 
'The spirit of '76' not again to refer to me without authority, as 
I consider the attack on Airs. Jackson as ungenerous, unmanly and 

"Yours with respect, 

"James Ray. 
"Major T. P. Moore, Harrodsburg." 


"Mr. John McGinnis states, that he lived for sometime in the 
immediate neighborhood of Mrs. Betsey Roberts, the mother of 
Lewis Roberts, the former husband of the present Mrs. Jackson, 
that Roberts and his wife then lived with old Mrs. Roberts, that 
Lewis Roberts was generally considered by the neighbors a bad 
husband that his mother acknowledged that Rachel Roberts was 
an amiable woman, and deserved better treatment, that she in 
fact loved her as well as any child she ever raised, that old Mrs. 
Roberts, told this aflRiant a short time before Mrs. R. Roberts 
left her husband for the purpose of returning to her mother's in 
Tennessee, that her son had ordered his wife to clear herself, and 
never again show her face in his house, that she appeared for 
sometime before she returned to her mother to be an unhappy and 
miserable woman, but finally her brother came to Kentucky and 
carried her off to her friends in Tennessee. He states explicity 
that he never heard of General Jackson being in the neighborhood, 
and that he believes that General Jackson never visited the house 
of Lewis Roberts during the time that they lived together, that 
Roberts wife sustained a fair and irreproachable cliaracter, as 
long as this affiant knew her. 

"This day personally appeared before me, a justice of the 
peace for the county of Mercer, the within named John McGinnis, 
and made oath to the truth of the within statement. Given under 
my hand this 13th April, 1827. 

"George W. Thompson." 

JOHN MEAUX statement. 

"To all whom it may concern, be it known that in the year 
1784, I lived at Col. John Bowman's station in the then county of 
Lincoln, now Mercer, and have continued to live in Mercer County 
ever since. Whilst I lived at Col. Bowman's I became acquainted 
with Col. Donalson and his family, who lived then near Col. Bow- 
man's. Col. Donalson at that time had two single daughters, 
young women, to wit: Jane and Rachel, the latter of whom I under- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 193 

stand is the present Mrs. Jackson, the lady of General Andrew 
Jackson of the State of Tennessee. I continued to be intimately 
acquainted with Col. Donalson and his daughters until the younger, 
Rachel, was married to Capt. Lewis Roberts, and for some time 
afterwards, when some unhappy difference arose between Capt. 
Roberts and his lady, which terminated in a separation between 
them, and when Mrs. Roberts went to her father's who had prev- 
ious to that time removed to the State of Tennessee near Nashville. 
Previous to that separation, I have ever considered that lady's 
character as fair and irreproachable as that of any other lady I 
ever knew in my life, nor have I any reason to believe that General 
Jackson ever saw her until after her separation from Roberts. 
I recollect being one of the jury when Roberts obtained his divorce, 
but have not the most distant recollection what evidence was 
offered on the trial. 

"John Meaux. 
"April 16th, 1827." 


"DiED:-On the 22nd instance at the Hermitage and in the 
62nd year of her age, Mrs. Rachel Jackson, wife of Andrew Jackson, 
President-elect of the United States. Her health, which had for 
some months been more delicate than usual, became seriously 
impaired about a week ago, by the fatigue of a long walk. She 
was attacked with alarming spasms in the chest, which after 
remitting and recurring for a few days, became transferred to the 
heart, and in a moment of apparent convalescence, terminated 
without a groan or struggle her well spent life. 

"This melancholy event, which has visited her family with 
unspeakable sorrow^ and clothed our community in sadness, will 
excuse the following faint and brief notice which though far 
inferior to the dignity of her virtues, is the best offering we can 
make to her beloved and venerated memory. The history of 
Mrs. Jackson, from her early years, is closely and (considering 
her sex) remarkably connected with the history of our country. 
Her father Col. John Donalson, who was a gentleman of fortune, 
probity and enterprise, removed with his family while she was 
yet a child, from Pittsylvania County, Va. (the place of her birth), 
to the Western County, and settled in this neighborhood on the 
banks of the Cumberland. Surrounded by the dangers which our 
brave pioneers had to encounter, he was killed in the prime of 
manhood and the flush of success by the Indians in Kentucky. 
At the time General Jackson came to this country, she was residing 
with her widowed mother and in August 1791 she became his wife. 
His well known hardships and perils in our Indian and English 
wars, his distant and dangerous campaigns, his frequent battles 
and triumps, rrade her a silent but anxious sharer in the dangers 
and glories of the nation, and many of her relatives, following the 
standard of her martial husband gave her more painful interest in 

194 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

our struggles. General Coffee, the husband of her niece, was 
always in the front of the battle, and her nephew, Alexander Don- 
alson fell gloriously fighting by his side. 

"In the recent political contest which has terminated so for- 
tunately for the institutions of our country, and so honorably for 
the illustrious partner of her heart, the same connection subsisted. 
In order to obstruct his course to just popularity and rightful 
power, she was made the object of injuries more barbarous than 
murderous savages could inflict. And Providence, after permitting 
her to witness the downfall and confusion of those who patronized 
and those who committed these atrocities, gently withdrew her 
wounded spirit to the mansions of eternal bliss, 'where the wicked 
cease from troubling and the weary are at rest.' Even after death, 
the course of public feeling is blended with her name. The honors 
with which it was intended to commemorate on the same day a 
national victory, and the tritmiphant election of General Jackson, 
were suspended for by her fate and exchanged by a patriotic people 
for the public expressions of respect for her virtues and regret 
for her departure. And those who in the evening had expected 
to salute her with joy and gratulation, hurried next morning to look 
for the last time on her inanimate countenance, and to follow 
her cold remains to the tomb. Piety and age, innocence and 
childhood, the brave and the fair, the humble and the exalted, 
mingled their tears and blessings around her grave, and attested 
in accents of deep and spontaneous sorrow, in sobs of affection 
converted into agony by the awful presence of death, her endearing 
merits and her exemplary life. 

"In the character of this excellent and lamented lady, feminine 
charms, domestic virtues and Christian perfections were united. 
Her person in youth was beautiful, her manner was always en- 
gaging, her temper cheerful, her sensibility delicate and mild. 
She was a tender wife, an affectionate friend, a benignant mis- 
tress, a generous relation, a kind neighbor and a humble Christian. 
Her pure and gentle breast, in which a selfish, guileful or malicious 
thought never found entrance, was the throne of benevolence 
and under its noble influence, her faculties and time were con- 
stantly devoted to the e.xercise of hospitality and to acts of kind- 
ness. To feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, to supply the in- 
digent, to raise the humble, to notice the friendless and to com- 
fort the unfortunate, were her favorite occupations ; nor could the 
kindness of her soul be repressed by distress or prosperity, but 
like those fountains which rising in deep and secluded valleys, 
flow on in the frost of winter and through summer's heat, it main- 
tained a uniform and refreshing current. Thus she lived, and 
when death approached, her patience and resignation were equal 
to her goodness, not an impatient gesture, not a vexatious look, 
not a fretful accent escaped her, but her last breath was charged 
with an expression of tenderness for the man whom she loved more 
than her life and honored next to her God." 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 195 

action of nashville city authorities. 

The following were the resolutions adopted on the occasion, 
by the committee of arrangements and the Mayor and Aldermen of 
the City: 

"The committee appointed by the citizens of Nashville, to 
superintend the reception of General Jackson on this day, with 
feelings of deep regret, announce to the public that Mrs. Jackson 
departed this life last night between the hours of ten and eleven 

"Respect for the memory of the deceased, and a sincere con- 
dolence with him on whom this providential affliction has fallen, 
forbid the manifestations of public regard intended for the day. 

"In the further consideration of the painful and unexpected 
occasion which has brought them together, the committee feel 
that it is due to the exemplary virtues and exalted character of the 
deceased, that some public token should be given of the high 
regard entertained towards her whilst living. They have therefore 
resolved ; 

"That it be respectfully recommended to their fellow-citizens 
of Nashville, in evidence of this feeling, to refrain on to-morrow 
from the ordinary pursuits of life. 

"Josiah Nichol. Chairman. 
"December 23rd. 

"The Committee in behalf of the Citizens having determined 
that it is :proper to abstain from the business tomorrow, therefore, 

"Resolved, That the inhabitants of Nashville are respectfully 
invited to abstain from their ordinary business, on tomorrow, as 
a mark of respect for the memory of Mrs. Jackson, and that the 
Church bells be tolled from 1 until 2 o'clock, being the hour of 
her funeral. 

"Felix Robertson, Mayor" 
"E. Dibrell, Recorder." 





"February 25, 1815. 

"It affords me the greatest pleasure to enclose you a resolution 
of the general assembly of Louisiana, acknowledgeing the faithful 
and useful services of our western brothers, and tendering their 
thanks to you amoung our distinguished officers. 

"The love of country, which unduced you to change the calm of 
domestic life for the privations incident to a camp, is no less ardent 
in the brave volunteers whom you lead than the gratitude which 

196 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the people of Louisiana bear towards them; a heroic band, whose 
firmness in the field has alike contributed to avert from our settle- 
ments the horrors of an Indian warfare, and to the entire defeat 
and discomfiture of the powerful foe, who so, arrogantly menaced 
the safety of this great and growing city. 

"Receive for yourself, and be toward your companions in arms 
the organ of expressing the highest confidence and sincerest good 

"Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

general coffee's reply. 

"Camp Coffee, near New Orleans, 

"March 4th, 1815. 

"I have the honor of acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 25th ultimo, and the resolution it enclosed from the leg- 
islature of Louisiana, presenting the thanks of that honourable 
body, to their brother soldiers from the west, for, 'the share they 
have taken in the defense of this country, and the harmony they 
have maintained with the inhabitants and malitia of the state.' 

"To know that we have contributed, in any degree, to the 
preservation of our common countr}% is to myself and the brave men 
under my immediate command, the most pleasing reflection. To 
have received so flattering and distinguished a testimonial of our 
services adds to the pleasure which that conscious alone would 
have afforded. 

"While we indulge the pleasing emotions that are thus pro- 
duced, we should be guilty of great injustice, as well to merit as 
to our own feelings, if we withheld from the commander-in-chief 
to whose wisdom and exertions we are so much indebted for our 
successes, the expression of our highest admiration and applause. 
To his firmness, his skill, his gallentry — to that confidence and 
unanimity amoung all ranks produced by those qualities, we must 
chiefly ascribe the splendid \ictories in which we esteem it a hap- 
piness and an honour to have borne a part. 

"We enter with sensibility into the feelings of the legislature, 
and of your excellency on occasion of the harmony which has 
been so happily preserved with the inhabitants and militia of the 
state. May the same spirit of the brotherhood always unite us 
when contending against a common enemy in defense of our best 

"I tender the assurances of my own and my companions' thanks 
for the distinguished manner in which you and the legislature have 
been pleased to notice and honor our exertions. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, etc. 
"John CoflFee. 
"Brig. Gen. T. V. M. G. Men." 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 197 

GEN. coffee's official RECORD. 

"War Department. ] 

"The Adjustant General's Office. 
"Memorandum for the Secretary of war. 

"The name of John Coffee, appears with the rank of Colonal 
on a muster roll of the field and staff officers of the regiment of 
Tennessee Volunteer Calvalry under command of Col. John Coffee, 
(war of 1812) covering the period between December 10, 1812, 
and April 27, 1813. This roll is dated April 27, 1813, and shows the 
date of his appointment as November 21, 1812, and a payroll of 
the organization shows the date of his service as April 27, 1813. 

"The name John Coffee also appears, with rank of Colonal, 
on a muster roll of the field and staff belonging to Col. John 
Coffee's regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Calvalry and mounted 
Rifllemen 'on an expedition against the Creek Nation of Indians' 
(war of 1812) covering the period between September 24, and 
October 29, 1813. This roll is dated October 29, 1813, and shows 
September 24, 1813, as the date when he mustered into service 
and October 29, 1813, as 'time of service performed.' 

"The name also appears with rank of brigadier general on a 
muster roll of the general and staff officers of Brig. General Coffee's 
Brigade of Tennessee Volunteer Calvalry and Mounted Gunmen 
(war of 1812) covering the period from Oct. 30, 1813, to May 10, 
1814. This roll is dated May 10, 1814, at Fayetteville, and shows 
October 31, 1813, as the date of his appointment and May 10, 

1814, as date of expiration of service. 

"The name also appears, with rank of Brigadier General on 
muster roll of the general and staff officers of Brigadier General 
Coffee's Brigade of Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen 'in the 
late campaign in the south' (war of 1812) covering the period 
between September 11, 1814, and June 20, 1815, when discharged. 
The roll is dated June 20, 1815, at Nashville and shows June 20, 

1815, as the date of expiration of service. 

"The name also appears with rank of Brigadier General on a 
muster roll of officers belonging to Brigadier General Coffee's Bri- 
gade of Tennessee Volunteer Mounted Gunmen in the service of the 
United States at New Orleans on the first of March, 1815 (war 
of 1812). This roll is dated March 1st., 1815, at New Orleans, 
Louisiana, and shows September 11, 1814, as date of commence- 
ment of service. 

"It further appears from the records that this officer marched 
from Nashville, Tennessee, to Washington, M. Ter., in the months 
of January and February, 1813, thence to Nashville Camp Coffee 
on the Tennessee river (September 26, 1813), 'Black Warrior's 
Town,' Fort Deposit and Chenubbe (October 13, 1913); that he 
marched from Camp Chenubbe by Camp Pleasant, thence to 
Talishetehay, near Ten Islands Fort Strother (November, 1813), 
Taledga, Fort Strother, Rutherford County, Tennessee, Enoto- 
chopo, Emuckfau, Fort Strother, (January, 1814), Fort Williams, 

198 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Tohopeka, (March 1814), Fort Williams, Hoithlewalea, Fort 
Jackson and Rutherford County Tennessee, and that he- marched 
between September 28, 1814, and April 27, 1815, from Fayetteville, 
thence to Fort Montgomery, Pensacola, Fort Montgomery, mouth 
of Sandy Creek, on the Mississippi, to the encampment below 
New Orleans, and to Nashville, Tennessee. 

"Nothing additional has been found in this department relative 
to the services of this ofhcer, but it appears from an unofficial 
publication (Dictionary of the Army of the United States, Gardner) 
that this officer was wounded in battle under Major General Jack- 
son with Creek Indians at Emuckfau, January 22, 1814, and in an 
attack on Pensacola November, 1814, and that he distinguished 
himself in the defense of New Orleans in battles of December 
23, 1814, and January 8, 1815. 

"It also appears (from No. 19, 'Filson Club Publications' en- 
titled 'The Battle of New Orleans' by Zachery F. Smith) that the 
thanks of the general assembly of the state of Louisiana were 
presented to General Coffee and other officers 'For the brilliant 
share have had in the defense of this country and the happy har- 
mony they have maintained with the inhabitants and malitia of 
the state.' 

"P. C. Harris, 
"The Ajustant General. 
"Agust 19, 1920." 


"August 20th, 1819. 
"Dear General: 

"I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of this morning and congratulate you upon the happy delivery of 
Mrs. Coffee, and the birth of a line son. The honor you have done 
me in giving it my name commands my gratitude and it will 
afiford me pleasure to bestow on his education such means as 
may be in my power to fit him for the stage in society that I trust 
his creator has destined him for. We have the company of Doctor 
and Mrs. Shelby, Mrs. McDowell, daughter of Governor Shelby, 
Mr. James Jackson, Major Laton, and Major Wm. B. Lewis. 
So soon as we are released from confinement Mrs. Jackson and 
myself will do ourselves the pleasure to visit our young stranger 
and friend. In the mean time Mrs. Jackson requests me to tender 
to you and Polly her heart felt congratulations on the joyful oc- 
casion, and our blessings for the health of the mother and pros- 
perity of the infant. 

"With sincere regards. Yours, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"General John Coffee. 

"P. S. Mr. James Jackson will see you at your house before 
he returns should you not be there." 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 199 

The name-sake of General Jackson, Andrew Jackson Coffee, 
was born near Nashville, Tennessee, August 20, 1819, educated at 
the University of Nashville, and was appointed to West Point 
Military Academy by President Jackson. He served on General 
Taylor's staff in the Mexican war and at its close remained in the 
service and served in Texas and Louisana, until 1853, when he was 
assigned for duty on Tampa's coast, with headquarters at San 
Francisco, with General Albert Sidney Johnson and General Curtis 
Lee. In the Civil War he sympathized with the south. He 
returned to civil life in 1859. 

The author has in his possession the original of this letter 
from Old Hickory to Gen. John Coffee in Jackson's own writing. 
It was sent to the author by Mrs. Mary Coffee Campbell of Flor- 
ence, Alabama, great grand-daughter of General Coffee. 

Jackson's affectionate regard for Gen. John Coffee and his 
family are shown in fine spirit by the letters following : 


"Washington, November 26th, 1832. 
"My dear General : 

"I have the pleasure to inform you that your aimable daughter 
Mary reached us today, with Col. and Mrs. Polk, all in good health 
and fine spirits. 

"Mary looks as well and as cheerful as I ever saw her, and 
with her cousin, Mary McLemore, and her aunt (Mrs. Andrew 
Jackson Donelson), will spend her winter pleasantly, and I am 
sure will add much to my happiness here, and you may rest assured 
mine will be to her a father's care whilst she remains. 

"All join in a tender of our affectionate regards to you and 
your amiable family, and believe me your friend, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"General John Coffee. 

"Florence, Alabama." 


"Washington, August 31, 1S33. 
"My dear Nephew : 

"I have received your kind letter of the 17th instant, that of 
your sister Mary was handed to me by Mr. Pearson on the 27th 

"I have to tender to your sister Mary, thro' you, my thanks 
for her affectionate and intelligent letter. Say to her I will answer 
it the first leisure moment, and will be always happy to receive a 
letter from her. 

200 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Present me kindly to your mother, to Mary and every member 
of the family, and believe me your affectionate uncle, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Mr. John D. Coffee, 
"Florence, Alabama." 

"Washington, August 31st, 1833. 
" Aly dear Nephew : 

"Present me kindly to your mother, Mary and every individual 
of the family. Say to Andrew he will attend to his studies and be 
an obedient and affectionate child to his dear mother, sisters and 
brothers, and believe your affectionate uncle, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"To Mr. John D. Coffee, 
"Florence, Alabama. 


"Washington, November 17th, 1834. 
"My dear Sir: 

"On yesterday I received yours of the 2nd, instant, enclosing 
the acceptance of your brother Andrew Jackson Coffee's appoint- 
ment to West Point Academy, which I sent to the Secretary of 
War to remain on file in that department. 

"I am glad that he has gone to the Nashville University, he 
will spend one session there to great advantage with application. 
Write him I have great solicitude about him and anticipate that 
he will, when he gets to West Point, stand high in his class if not 
at its head; that I hope to see himand Andrew Jackson McLemore 
on their way to the Point, when I will give them both such advice 
as will be certain to benefit them, if they adopt and practice it. 

"Accept my best wishes for your prosperity and happiness, 
and believe me your affectionate uncle, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Mr. John D. Coffee. 

"Florence, Alabama." 


"Washington, June 27th, 1836. 
"Dear Hutchings: 

"Please present my kind regards to Mary, to Mrs. Coffee and 
every branch of her family, to John and lady and to Andrew Jack- 
son Coffee, and say to him I hope he is closely attending to his 

"Andrew Jackson." 


Daughter of Gen. John Coffee. Painted by R. E. W. Earle in 1834, now owned by Edward Asbury O'Neal, 
III, at his home, Chestnut Hills, near Florence, Alabama. Mary Coffee married Andrew Jackson Hutchings 
and was a favorite as a young girl of Old Hickory. See Jackson's letter to her, Chapter 8. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 201 

jackson to andrew jackson hutchings. 

"Hermitage, June 5, 1837. 
"My dear Hutchings : 

"Andrew Jackson Coffee left me in fine spirits. I furnished 
him with letters and have no doubt he will do well and become a 
great General. 

"Andrew Jackson." 


"Washington, June 27, 1836. 
"Dear Hutchings : 

"I was much gratified by the receipt of your letter of the 5th 
instant. I was beginning to think my friends at and near Florence 
had forgotten me. 

"I am happy to hear that your dear Mary is about to present 
you with an heir, my prayers will be offered for her safey and that 
of the babe. I trust a kind providence will preserve them both to 

"Please present my kind regards to Mary, to Mrs. Coffee and 
every branch of her family, and accept for yourself the affectionate 
regards of your uncle and sincere friend, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Andrew Jackson Hutchings. 

"Florence, Alabama." 

A characteristic letter by Andrew Jackson to Miss Mary Coffee, 
daughter of his friend General Coffee, written when he was Pres- 
dent and at the time when public affairs were pressing him greatly 

follows : 

"Rips Raps, August 15, 1833. 
"My dear Mary: 

"Having returned to this spot for the benefit of my health by 
sea bathing, and get free from that continued bustle with which I 
am always surrounded in Washington and elsewhere, unless when 
I shut myself up on these rocks, I did not receive your kind and 
affectionate letter until day before yesterday, rehearseing to me 
the melancholy bereavement which you have sustained in the loss 
of your dear father. 

"I had received this melancholy and distressing intelligence by 
sundry letters from his friends who surrounded him in his last mo- 

"It is true, my dear Alary, that you have lost an affectionate 
and tender father, and I a sincere friend. When I shook him by 
the hand in Washington, I did not then think it was the last adieu 
to a dear friend, nor would I have taken the trip to the north had 
I known his disease was approaching such a crisis; no, Mary had 
I been advised of his peril, I should have hastened to see him once 
before he left this troublesome world and yielded to him all the 

202 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

comfort in my power. But why these reflections? He is gone 
from us and we cannot recall him. We must follow him for he 
cannot return to us, and it becomes our duty to prepare for this 
event. His example will be an invaluable legacy to his family, 
and his dying admonition a treasure, if adopted, beyond all price. 
True religion is calculated to make us happy not only in this, but 
in the next and better world, and therefore it was his regret that 
he had not joined the church. It is a profitable admonition to his 
family that they may all become members of the church at an 
early day, for it is in religion alone that we can find consolation for 
such bereavement as the loss of our dear friend ; it is religion alone 
that ever gives peace to us here and happiness beyond the grave; 
it is religion alone that can support us in our declining years, when 
our relish is lost for all sublunary enjoyments, and all things are 
seen in their true lights as mere vanity and vexation of spirit. 
Your father's admonition on his dying bed ought to be cherished 
by you all and practiced upon. 

"My dear Mary, his request for my prayers for his dear wife 
and children, w'ill be bestowed with pleasure. They will be con- 
stantly offered up at the throne of grace for you all, and our dear 
Saviour has spoken it: 'That he will be a father to the fatherless, 
and a husband to the widow.' Rely on his promises; they are 
faithful and true and he will bless you in all your outgoings and 
incomings and in your baskets and in your store. Rely upon 
and trust in his goodness and mercy and prepare your minds, in the 
language of your dear father, always to be ready to say with heart- 
felt resignation, 'May the lord's will be done.' 

"If I am spared to next spring and my health will permit, I 
will visit your dear mother and mingle my tears with hers over his 
silent grave; till then, my dear Mary, if I can be of any service to 
her and the family in any way, I hope you will make it known to 
me. To your dear mother and all the family, tender my blessings 
to their health and happiness, now and hereafter. 

'Emily and the children, with Andrew and Sarah, are with me, 
all in good health, and all join me with best wishes to your mother 
and the family, and also in the tender of our sincere condolence in 
this very distressing and mournful occasion. 

"Major Donalson is in Tennessee; we left him in Washington 
and he was to set out in two days after we left and we are advised 
he did so. 

"It will give me much happiness to hear from your mother and 
the family often; do, my dear Mary, w'rite me occasionally. Your 
father, whilst living knew the deepest interest I felt in everything 
that related to his and their welfare. He wrote me often and 
except for him and your-self, I have not received a line from any of 
our connection except announcing the death of your dear father 
for twelve months. Do write me occasionally and believe me 
to be, with the highest esteem, your affectionate uncle, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Miss Mary Coffee." 

.'f '■-OSN FO u N D X 7 ; o V ■* j 


Methodist preacher, and Controversialist Editor, Writer of books. Governor of Tennessee 1865-1869, United 
States Senator 1869-1875. Died atKnoxville. Tennessee, April 29. 1877. See Chapters 9 and 10. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 203 

W. G. Brownlow gives family history; his news- ^ 
papers; leaves Tennessee on a tour of the North; SE 
quotations from his speeches; visits the Her- 53 
mitage ; early religious history of Tennessee ; his S 
published books ; discussion on slavery with Rev. 52 
Abram Pryne in Philadelphia; doctrinal con- § 
S troversies with Rev. J. R. Graves and Rev S 

g Frederick A. Ross ; Brownlow a Union slave- R] 

^ holder and advocate of slavery. S 


"I am, as were my parents before me, a native of Virginia. 
A portion of my relations, on my mother's side, were in the war of 
1812, and the second war of Independence and lost their lives at 
Norfolk. My father was a 'High Private,' in Capt. Landen's 
quarter, Sullivan County, Tennessee, when peace was made and 
terminated that war. 

"My uncle, William L. Brownlow, was a Captain in the United 
States Navy, died in the service, and his bones repose in the Navy 
Yard at Norfolk. 

"Another, Alexander Brownlow, was first Lieutenant in the 
navy, in that same war, and his bones rest in the Navy Yard, 
at New Orleans, having died in the service; a third uncle, Samuel 
L. Brownlow, was a wagon master under General Jackson, and 
was in the battle of the Horse Shoe ; a fourth uncle, Isaac Brownlow, 
was an inferior officer under General Jackson, and bore his dis- 
patches from the Creek War to Huntsville, swimming the Ten- 
nessee river on horse back; a fifth uncle, John Brownlow, was an 
inferior office in the navy, and died at sea. 

"I am known throughout the length and breadth of the land 
as the 'Fighting Parson;' while I may say, without incurring the 
charge of egotism, that no man is more peaceable, as my neighbors 
will testify. Always poor, and always oppressed with security 
debts, few men in my section and of my limited means have given 
away more in the course of each year to charitable objects. I have 
never been arraigned in the church for any immorality. I never 
played a card. I never was a profane swearer. I never drank a 
dram of liquor, until within a few years, when it was taken as a 
medicine. I never had a cigar or chew of tobacco in my mouth. 
I never was in attendance at a theatre. I never attended a horse 
race, and never witnessed their running, save on the fair-grounds 
of my own county. I never courted but one woman; and her I 

204 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

He learned the trade of a carpenter, but concluded to become a 
preacher, and entered the Methodist ministry as a circuit writer 
in 1826, and continued in that service for ten years, when, according 
to the Methodist rule of that day, he was allowed to take a sta- 
tionary residence and retain his license as a preacher and continue 
to preach or not, as he saw proper. 

In 1828, he advocated the election of John Quincy Adams over 
Andrew Jackson. He left Virginia, came to Tennessee and took 
up his permanent home at Elizabethton, Carter County, in 1839, 
and in that year established the Tennessee Whig there, a weekly 
newspaper, which ran for one year, and issued exactly fifty-two 
numbers. In 1839, he moved to Jonesboro, Washington County, 
Tennessee, the oldest town in the state, and there continued to 
publish his paper, but changed its name to the Jonesboro Whig. 
He then moved to Knoxville, Tennessee, May 2, 1849, where he 
lived until his death. He there changed the name of his paper to 
Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, published weekly, but a few years 
before the Civil War, it was published tri-weekly. In the days of 
its greates influence, it is said to have had the largest circulation 
of any paper in the South, except probably the Louisville Journal, 
edited bv Geo. D. Prentice. It ceased publication October 19, 

In the early stages of the war, and while Knoxville was in the 
hands of the Confederate authorities, he was put under arrest 
December 6, 1861, and confined in the Knoxville Jail; released and 
started to the Union lines at Nashville March 3, 1862, reaching 
Nashville, March 15, 1862. 

After the Federal Army took possession of Knoxville, he again 
changed the name of his paper to Brownlow's Knoxville Whig and 
Rebel Ventilator. 

He returned to Tennessee in 1864, and was elected Governor 
in 1865, re-elected in 1867 and elected to the United States Senate 
in 1869, where he served to March 4, 1875. 

In 1869, when he became United States Senator, he sold the 
Whig, but on the expiration of his term in the Senate, March 4, 
1875, he bought a controlling interest in it again and settled down 
in Knoxville to resume its publication. 

In 1875, the Knoxville Chronicle, a Republican daily, was 
published in Knoxville by the firm of Rule and Ricks, composed of 
Capt. William Rule and A. J. Ricks. Capt. Rule founded the 
Knoxville Journal in 1885, and is now, August, 1921, the editor 
of the Knoxville Journal and Tribune, which he has edited ever 
since the paper was started. He is the oldest active editor in 
Tennessee, and probably in America, he being, at this time 83 
years old. 

Governor Brownlow bought Mr. Ricks' half interest in the 
Chronicle, and Capt. William Rule bought a half interest in the 
Whig, and the new firm of Brownlow and Rule was organized. 
The name of the weekly Chronicle was changed to Whig and 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 205 

Chronicle, and the daily Chronicle retained its old name, with 
Brownlow and Rule as editors, and so remained until Governor 
Brownlow's death. He continued editorial work until his death 
as his health would permit. 

After leaving the South, and getting within the Union lines, 
Parson Brownlow made speeches in various cities of the North, 
including Cincinnati, Chicago, Pittsburgh, New York, and Phil- 
ladelphia. In these various speeches, he gave his own political 
career, his personal opinions on slavery as an institution, on abol- 
itionists and secessionists. A study of his speeches shows that he 
was absolutely consistent and that he did not change his view 
to any extent whatever. The burden of his speeches was his 
intense opposition to abolitionists and secessionists, and his bitter 
hatred of each. He frankly declared himself a pro-slavery man at 
all times; his hatred for abolitionists was just as strong as his hatred 
for secessionists. His supreme devotion to the Union was the 
great passion of his life. Parson Brownlow's bitterest opponent 
must give him credit for having at all times the supreme courage 
of his convictions. Even while making speeches in Northern 
States, where slavery was abhorred, he there declared for slavery. 

In his speech in Cincinnati, April 4, 1862, in Pikes Opera House, 
he said, as quoted in the Cincinnati Gazette, and reproduced in 
'Parson Brownlow's book :' 

"It is no new thing with me that I am a Union man, for I have 
been that all my life. I was living in the counties of Pickens and 
Anderson, South Carolina, the latter the home of Jno. C. Cal- 
houn, in 1832, during the nullification rebellion. I declared for 
the Union then — wrote a phamplet, in which I denounced dis- 
union, and defended the proclamation of General Jackson. 

"I commenced by political career in 1828, when I was one of a 
corporal's guard, who got up an electoral ticket for John Ouincy 
Adams against Andrew Jackson. I named this fact to show that 
I have never been sectional but always national, supporting men 
of integrity and intelligence, w'ithout looking to which side of the 
line they were on. I was for Adams, because of his talents and 
pure moral character, and last, but not least, because of his Federal 
politics. I have always been a Federal Whig, of the Alexander 
Hamilton and George Washington school, believing in a strong 
circle of the concentrated Government, strong enough to sustain 
itself, and put down all such infamous rebellion, such as this is. 
Though I was opposed to Jackson, I would have reserected him, 
if I could have done so two years ago, and placed him in the chair, 
disgraced by that mockery of a man Buchannon, and had him crush 
this rebellion. Jackson was a pure patriot, mover of his country, 
and a Union man, and if he had been living when this rebellion 
broke out, he would have hanged the leaders and prevented this un- 
natural war. 

"In 1832, I was for Clay for the presidency; in 1836 I was for 
Hugh Lawson White, who was beaten by Mr. Van Buren; in 1840 

206 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

I was a zealous supporter of General Harrison, of Ohio, a true 
man and a tried patriot; in 1844 I supported Clay and Frcling- 
huysen; in 1848 I supported Taylor and Fillmore; in 1852 I was for 
Daniel Webster, but he was not the candidate and died before the 
election came off; in 1856 I was for Fillmore and Donaldson; 
in 1860 I was for Bell and Everett, and I am for the hind legs of 
this kangaroo ticket yet. A better or a more nobler disinterested 
man than Everett never lived. 

"Bell has goneover to secession; but he is atheart a Unionman, 
and only yielded on account of the great pressure which but few of 
our Union leaders found themselves able openly to resist. 

"And now let me call your attention to the suj beet of slavery, 
the great topic of the day. I have no sentiments at the South that 
I do not hold here. I have no sentiments here, that I do not en- 
tertain when I am in Tennessee. I should despise myself and 
merit your scorn and contempt, if I held one set of opinions at the 
North and another at the South. I have for years been publishing 
my sentiments upon the Slavery question, and I have only to say 
to-night they have undergone no change. 

"if then the South in her madeness and folly will make the 
issue of 'No Union and Slavery, or no Slavery and a Union,' I am 
for the Union, though every institution in the country perish. 
And if I had been authorized some two or three years ago to select 
about two or three hundred of your most abominable Slavery agi- 
tators in the North, and an equal number of God-forsaken and 
most hell-deserving dis-Unionists at the South, and had marched 
them to the District of Columbia, hanged them on a common gal- 
lows, dug for them a common grave, and embalmed their bodies 
with gimson weed and dog fennel, there would have been none 
of this trouble, nor should I have been here to-night. 

"Let the Federal Government now guarantee to all loyal men 
in seceded States the right and title to all their property, including 
negroes, and protect them in the enjoyment of the same, but let 
the title held by Rebels, seeking to destroy the Government, be 
annihilated, both as to negroes and all other property; and I trust 
in God that it will be done, and that such confiscated property will 
go to make up the losses of loyal men." 

This speech at Cincinnati was one of the longest and most elab- 
orate made on this speaking trip to the cities of the North. 

The sentiment contained in this Cincinnati speech is set out in 
in the following letter, which is also reproduced in his book. His 
frankness is shown not only in his speeches but in his letters. As 
for example: 

"Knoxville, Tenn., 
"May 14, 1861. 
"To L. M. E. 

"I have your letter of the 8th, and also the evening Journal. 

"You correctly interpret the Union men of the border States 
when you pronounce them 'pro-Slavery' men. I think I correctly 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 207 

represent them in my paper, as I shall do in this brief epistle, ex- 
cept, perhaps, that I am more ultra than most of them. I am a 
native of Virginia, and so were my parents before me, and together 
with a numerous train of relatives, they were and arc Slave holders. 
For thirty years I have lived in Tennessee, and my wife and children 
are natives of Tennessee. 

"I am a pro-Slavery man, and so are the Union men generally 
of the border Slave States. I have long since made up my mind 
upon the Slavery question, but not without studying it throughly. 
The result of my investigation is that there is not a single passage 
in the New Testament, nor a single act in the records of the Church 
during her early histor>% even for centuries, containing any direct 
professed or intended censure of Slavery. 

"Christ and the Apostles found the institution existing undt-r the 
authority and sanction of law, and in their labors among the people, 
and under like ultra abolitionists, masters and slaves bowed at the 
same altars, and were taken into the same Church, communing to- 
gather around the same table, the Savior and his apostles exalting 
owners to treat Slaves as became the gospel and Slaves to the 
obedience and honesty that their religious profession might not be 
evil spoken of. 

"While I say this, let me say in all candor, that if we were once 
convinced in the border Slave States that the administration at 
Washington, and the people of the North who are backing up the 
administration with men and money, contemplated the subjugation 
of the South or the abolishing of Slavery, there would not be a 
Union man among us in twenty-four hours. Come what might, 
sink or swim, survive or perish, we would fight you to the death, 
and we would unite our fortunes and destinies with even these 
demoralizing seceded States, for whose leaders and laws we have 
no sort of respect. But we have not believed, nor do we believe 
yet, that the administration has such purposes in view. Dem- 
agogues and designing men charge it here and by this means enlist 
thousands under their banner, who otherwise would never support 
their wicked schemes of secession. " 

"Allow me to say that the curse of the Country has been that 
for years North of the Mason & Dixon line you have kept pulpits 
open to the abuse of Southern Slavery and of the Southern people. 

"In like manner, the clergy of the South, without distinction of 
sects, men of talent, learning, and influence, have raised the howl 
of secession, and it falls like an Indian's war cry upon our citizens from 
their prostitute pulpits each Sabbath. Many of them go so far 
as to petition their God in their public prayers to blast the people 
of the North. I have no idea that a God of peace will answer any 
such blasphemous supplications. 

"(Signed) W. G. Brownlow," 
"Editor of the Knoxville Whig. 

William G. Brownlow was a Union man, consistently from the 
time of Jackson's Proclamation to the nullifiers of South Carolina . 

208 Andrew Jackson and Karlv Tennessee History 

When that Proclamation came out, Brownlow was doing ser- 
vice as a Methodist Circuit writer in South CaroHna, and from the 
pulpit he declared in favor of Jackson's immortal document, which 
gave offense to persons who heard it, and who expressed their 
disapprobation at his sustaining Jackson, to which the Circuit 
Rider replied: 

"So far as I am concerned, I ask no favors of the enemies of 
my Government, neither in South Carolina or elsewhere. I can 
live without you, and live among a people who are loyal and have 
the fear of God before their eyes. They will be more likely to 
receive and appreciate the teachings of the gospel. There were 
more Tories here during the Revolutionary War than in all the 
other States put together, and that the decendents of these old 
Tories are now in the lead of this nullification rebellion needs no 
proof whatever to make the charge good. 

"I talked plainly for one who is liable to be mobbed every 
day; but this is the way to talk in times like these. I am not 
to be taught my duty by a set of gassy Union destroyers, such as 
constitute the staple of South Carolina's chivalry. I shall fall 
back into Tennessee where the people appreciate the blessing of 
the best Government in the world, and where the gospel is likely 
to produce some other effect than that of arraying the people 
against the legal and constituted authorities of the land." 

In his book, "The Great Iron Wheel Examined or its various 
spokes extracted, and an exhibition of Elder Graves, its builder," 
published in Nashville, Tennessee, 1856, Parson Brownlow again 
comes out with unrestricted frankness upon the subject of Slavery: 

"This is no time for frank and patriotic men to remain neutral 
upon a subject alike affecting the interests of the Church and the 
country. I volunteer to show my hand upon this great question, 
not caring one dime whether it array the entire North against me 
or not. And the people of the South should require this adopted 
citizen, Elder Graves, to state, in unmistakable terms, whether or 
not he now entertains the same feelings and views, touching the 
great slavery question, that he did while a citizen of the 'Western 
Reserve,' in Ohio, where abolitionism is a trade with nine-tenths 
of the inhabitants. Let Mr. Graves be interrogated, and forced 
to define his position at once, or leave the South in hot haste. 
Let him be driven at once out of the stagnant pool of abolitionism, 
that his whispers and insinuations may no longer send forth ma- 
laria and death among the institutions of the South. Political 
disquiet and commotion are daily giving birth and sustenence to 
new and loftier schemes of agitation and disunion among the vile 
abolitionists; to bold and hazardous enterprises in the States and 
Territories, and even in Congress; to insurrection and revolution 
throughout the entire country. Among political men, without 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 209 

distinction of party, the common virtues of honesty and truth 
have become superannuated and obselete. The slavery agitation, 
that has been buried by the Compromise Acts of 1850, is anew 
Hfting its head, and under the piratical flag of 'Black Repub- 
licanism,' asserting the rights of 'human liberty:' her infernal 
altars smoke with fresh incense, and, enlisted in her defence, are 
scores of designing men in the South — some filling pulpits, some 
occupying high positions in colleges, and academies, and who, 
though among us, are 'not of us,' our Southern friends may rest 

"I am not, and never had been, interested in the slave-traffic, 
or immersed in the cares, advantages, or disadvantages of the in- 
stitution of slavery, and therefore I claim to be a disinterested 
looker-on. A native of Virginia, I have lived half a century in the 
South and seen the workings of the institution of slavery, in its 
best and worst forms, and in all the Southern States. I have gone 
among the free negroes at the North, and, in every instance, I 
have found them mere miserable and destitute, as a whole, than 
the slave population of the South. In our Southern States, 
where negroes have been set at liberty, in nine cases out of ten, 
their conditions have been made worse; while the most wretched, 
lazy, and dishonest class of persons to be found in the Southern 
States, are free persons of color. I, therefore, go against the eman- 
cipation of slaves altogether, unless they can be sent to Liberia at 
once. I take my stand with the friends of the institution of slavery 
in the South, and, in defense of the rights of the South, connected 
with this question, I will go so far as the next man — even dying 
in the last ditch." 

In his speech on September 7, 1858, at Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, on the first day of the joint debate with Rev. Abram 
Pryne on the slavery question, Mr. Brownlow said: 

"As churches at the South, we cannot affiliate with men who 
fight under the dark and piratical flag of Abolitionism, and where 
infernal altars smoke with the vile incense of Northern fanaticism. 
I have no confidence in either the politician or the divine at the 
North constantly engaged in the villainous agitation of the slavery 
question. There are true, reliable, conscientious, pious and patri- 
otic men in the North, and there are similar men in the South, 
who came from the North, but they are not among these graceless 
agitators, and if I find any of these agitators in Heaven where I 
expect to go after death, I shall conclude they have entered that 
world of joy by praticeing a gross fraud upon the doorkeeper." 

Harpers Magazine for July, 1862, makes this interesting com- 
ment on Brownlow upon his appearance in New York at the Acad- 
emy of Music while on his tour of Northern cities: 

"The visit of Parson Brownlow to this city was one of the mem- 
orable events of the month. His name had been so long familiar 
to the public, and was surrounded with such various and peculiar 
associations that the interest in him was universal and profound. 

210 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

It was easy enough to foretell that his public reception at the 
Academy would be what is popularly called 'an ovation.' But 
it was much more than a spectacle. There was a tragic reality 
in what he said and in the impression he personally produced. . . 
Now, certainly, most men who have heard of Parson Brownlow, 
who have read his speeches and marked his career, must have ex- 
pected to see a thick, coarse figure, with a corresponding face, 
which would not surprise if it should seem vulgar. If a man had 
■described his expectation would he not have probable said: 'A 
swearing, swaggering parson a hard customer?' Well, the pic- 
tures and the descriptions are not faithful. There stood a tall, 
rather spare man, with marked but delicate features, careworn, 
perfectly pale, but both sad and intellectural. If there were any- 
thing like a smile on his face at any moment it was but a transitory 
gleam. The expression was calm, firm, sweet but pensive. He 
received everybody with great simplicity, shaking hands and con- 
versing easily and pleasantly with men of all parties and ages, but 
whose cause was his cause — the cause in which he had so faith- 
fully fought and so sadly suffered." 


Whatever Andrew Jackson may have done and said in his inter- 
course with his fellow man outside of his home, it goes without 
controversy that he was a very prince of hospitality in his home, 
and in corrobaration of this we give an incident told the author by 
Col. John B. Brownlow, a son of Parson Brownlow, that occurred 
between his father and Jackson. 

Col. Brownlow said that in 1845, the Tennessee Whigs held a 
convention, at Nashville, and nominated Ephriam H. Foster for 
Governor, and his father and other leading Whigs of the State were 
there. After the adjournment of the Convention, his father. Judge 
Thomas A. R. Nelson, of Knoxville, and eight or ten other leading 
Whigs of the Eastern part of the State, started for their home in 
Eastern Tennessee, and it was suggested that they go by the Herm- 
itage and pay their respects to Old Hickory. They rode out to 
the Hermitage, and Governor Brownlow reconsidered the matter 
of calling on General Jackson and doubted the propriety of it, so 
that when they reached the Hermitage, all the party got off their 
horses except Brownlow, and the question was asked him why he 
didn't dismount also, to which he replied that he had strongly 
and with all his power opposed General Jackson for years in his 
paper, Brownlow's Jonesboro Whig, and he did not know whether 
General Jackson would want to meet him, and he doubted whether 
it was the proper thing for him to call at the General's residence. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 211 

The others of the party insisted that he should go in, which he 
finally consented to do with the understanding that he should keep 
in the back ground when the party was presented to Old Hickory, 
so that it might not be necessary in the crowd to call his name and 
disclose his identity with that understanding they presented 
themselves at the Hermitage door and met Jackson; but that 
experienced eagle eye noticed that there was one man in the 
crowd whose name was not called, and he stepped up to Brownlow, 
and held out his hand and said, here is one gentleman who has not 
been introduced to me, and thereupon Brownlow was formally pre- 
sented. Old Hickory replied, "I have heard of you before," shook 
his hand cordially again, and in the course of conversation, while 
the party remained, directed a large part of his remarks to Gov. 
Brownlow, but never gave the slightest hint that he knew of the 
determined war Brownlow had made on him for years. The in- 
cident passed oflf with that; but illustrated, as Col. Brownlow put 
it, that Jackson was a Prince of hospitality in his own home, no 
matter whether he was visited by a friend or a foe. 

Col. Brownlow gave another incident of Jackson's high court- 
esy to everyone in his own home. He said that Leslie Combs, at 
one time a member of Congress from Kentucky, was secured by 
Henry Clay as a messenger to take to General Jackson a copy of 
one of Clay's measures in Congress, strongly opposing Jackson. 
Mr. Combs reached the Hermitage, delivered his document, and 
was received by Jackson with the most eminent courtesy. He in- 
vited Combs to stay as a guest at his house, showed him every 
attention, and, on leaving, put some apples in his saddle-bags for 
his return trip; but told Combs he wished to meet him in a hotel 
that he named, in Nashville, the next day, at a certain hour. Both 
parties kept the appointment, and there Jackson gave Combs a 
denunciation for being, as he termed it, a tool of Henry Clay, and 
denounced Clay, beyond measure, as he always did. But not a 
discourteous word to Mr. Combs was said at the Hermitage. 

The slave holding Union Whigs of the South sided with Mr. 
Lincoln and in Tennessee with Brownlow. Some large slave hold- 
ers and influential men in Tennessee took their view, and to illus- 
trate Whig sentiment at that day, and for the enlightenment of 
this generation of Tennesseans, the following partial list may be 
cited who lived in and around Knoxville ; 

Hon. John Baxter who was later Circuit Judge of the United 
States; Col. John Netherland the Whig candidate for Governor 

212 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

against Hon. Isham G. Harris, and who later became a Democrat; 
Col. John Williams, son of United Senator John Williams, who 
from an old Whig became a Democrat, but always adhered un- 
flinchingly to the Union; Judge Thomas A. R. Nelson, who was a 
Whig Member of Congress, from the first Congregational District 
of Tennessee, and who became a Democrat, and was a judge of the 
Supreme Court of Tennessee, after the enfranchisement of the Con- 
federates in the State; Col. William Heiskell, the author's father, 
a Union man, was Speaker of the Tennessee House of Represen- 
tatives, during the administration of Brownlow as Governor; Col. 
John R. Branner of Jefferson County, Tennessee; Major Frederick 
S. Heiskell, the old time Whig Editor of the Knoxville Register, 
whose influence in Tennessee was fully as great or greatsr than 
that of any journalist of his time; Judge Conelly F. Trigg who was 
later United States District Judge in East Tennessee; Col. Thom- 
as H. Calloway who became President of the East Tennessee and 
Georgia Railroad. 

Scores of others of the most prominent men of the State, slave 
holders and old Whigs, were Union men. They put the Union 
above slavery even though the South was for Secession, and they 
themselves, in most instances, bankrupted by Lincoln's emanci- 
pation proclamation. History affords no finer illustration of an 
adherence to principle bringing financial ruin than was afforded by 
the Union slave holders of the South loyally adhering to the Union 
notwithstanding the triumph of the Union cause could but result 
in the freedom of every slave in the South. 

A study of Gov. Brownlow's public record discloses that in 
everything, except on the question of Secession, he was with the 
South. He was a slave owner and openly, both in speech and writ- 
ing, defended slavery. . 

When the Civil Rights Bill was passed by Congress, against 
which the people of the South were practically a unit, Gov. Brown- 
low came out in an editorial in the Knoxville Chronicle, denouncing 
that bill, much to the surprise of the Southern people. The bill 
was afterwards declared unconctitutional by the Supreme Court of 
the United States. There will probably never be unity of opinion 
in Tennessee as to his administration as Governor, because quest- 
ions then before the public arose directly out of Secession, and the 
historians of the two sides will probably never agree as to the merits 
of the legislation of that period ; but, aside from that, it is due the 
Governor to say that he was always a friend of the Southern States. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 213 

There was no compromise with him on the subject of Secession, 
He was a Union man, first, last, and all the time, without variation 
or shadow of turning. 

Slavery raised no issue with him on that question. He stood 
upon the same platform as Abraham Lincoln in his great letter to 
Horace Greeley, and upon that same letter and the course of con- 
duct set out in it, stood the slave holding Whigs mentioned who 
lived in and around Knoxville ; and in fact all slave-holding Union 
men in Tennessee. The Union was first and everything else sub- 


"Executive Mansion, 
"Washington, August 22, 1862. 
"Hon. Horace Greeley: 

"Dear Sir: ' I have just read yours of the 19th addressed 
to myself through the New York Tribune. If there be in it any 
statements or assumptions of fact which I may know to be erroneous 
I do not, now and here, controvert them. If there be in it any 
inferences which I may believe to be falsely drawn, I do not, now 
and here, argue against them. If there be perceptible in it an 
impatient and dictatorial tone, I waive it in deference to an old 
friend whose heart I have always supposed to be right. 

"As to the policy I 'seem to be pursuing,' as you say, I have 
not meant to leave any one in doubt. 

"I would save the Union. I would save it the shortest way 
under the Constitution. The sooner the national authority can be 
restored, the nearer the Union will be 'the Union as it was.' If 
there be those who would not save the Union unless they could at the 
same time save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be 
those who would not save the Union unless they could at the same 
time destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. My paramount 
object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save 
or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing 
any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the 
slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leav- 
ing others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slavery and 
the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; 
and what I forbear, I f :rbear because I do not believe it would help 
to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what 
I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall 
believe doing more will help the cause. I shall try to correct 
errors when shown to be errors, and I shall adopt new views so 
fast as they shall appear to be true views. 

"I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official 
duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal 
wish that all men everywhere could be free. 

"A. Lincoln." 

214 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the union and the constitution. 
The brief extract here given is taken from a speech of Air. 
Brownlow dehvered in a debate in Philadelphia with the Rev. 
Mr. Pr}'ne. No abolitionist of the North could have shown a 
more ardent love for and belief in the Union than this anti-aboli- 
tionist of the mountains of Tennessee. 

"Who can estimate the value of the American Union? Proud, 
happy, thrice-happy America! The home of the oppressed, the 
asylum of the emigrant! where the citizen of every clime, and the 
child of every creed, roam free and untrammelled as the wild 
winds of heaven! Baptized at the fount of Liberty in fire and 
blood, cold must be the heart that thrills not at the name of the 
American Union! 

"When the Old World, with ' all its pomp, and pride, and cir- 
cumstances, " shall be covered with oblivion — when thrones shall 
have crumbled and dynasties shall have been forgotten — may 
this glorious Union, despite the mad schemes of Southern fire- 
eaters and Northern abolitionists, stand ami 3 regal ruin and 
national desolation, towering sublime, like the last mountain in 
the Deluge — majestic, immutable, and magnificent! 

"In pursuance of this, let every conservative Northern man, who 
loves his country and her institutions, shake off the trammels of 
Northern fanaticism, and swear upon the altar of his countr\' that 
he will stand by her Constitution and laws. Let every Southern 
man shake off the trammels of disunion and nullification, and 
pledge his life and his sacred honor to stand by the Constitution 
of his country as it is, the laws as enacted by Congress and inter- 
preted by the Supreme Court. Then we shall see every heart a 
shield, and a drawn sword in ever\- hand, to preserve the ark of 
our political safety! Then we shall see reared a fabric upon our 
National Constitution which time cannot crumble, persecution 
shake, fanaticism disturb, nor revolution change, but which shall 
stand among us like some lofty and stupendous Apennine, while 
the earth rocks at its feet, and the thunder peals above its head!" 


Tennessee's early history- presents a striking illustration of a 
pioneer people wuth unflinching self-reliance and the most fearless 
courage, overcoming every danger and obstacle in their way in 
conquering the trackless wilderness and in subdueing the red- 
man, and founding a white man's civilization and government 
within the present limits of the state. 

That early history also illustrates those same pioneers fighting 
and contending for their several religious doctrines with almost 
the same fierceness and persistence with which they cleared the 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 215 

wilderness and destroyed the Indians. Hot religious discussion 
was a part of the lives of those people and a history of it is both 
instructive and entertaining. The curious part of it is that re- 
ligion seems to have been a matter of doctrine only which was held 
to be so fundamental as to constitute seemingly the sum total of 
religion. In warm advocacy of the several doctrines, the contest- 
ants seemed to lose sight of charity, neighborly kindness, loyalty 
to the widow and orphan, love to one's fellow and all that is ele- 
vating and ennobling in the story of the good Samaritian. Elec- 
tion, saving grace, apostacy, adult baptism, predestination, all 
phases of Calvinism, regeneration, infant baptism, the communion, 
the confessional, justification and a score of other controversal 
topics, stirred the people all over Tennessee, and, in fact, in all 
the adjoining states. Contestants were not only controversial but 
denunciatory and bitter, and discussions occurred that recognized 
no restrictions as to the invective used. The leaders were Parson 
Brownlow as champion of John Wesley and the Methodists, J. R. 
Graves of Nashville as defender and exponent of the Baptists, 
and Frederick A. Ross a bold and aggressive upholder of the 
Presbyterians. Doctrinal books were written that displayed 
great research and intellectual strength. Sermons and speeches 
without number were delivered and controversial newspaper 
articles were in almost every public journal. Parson Brownlow 
was living at Jonesboro, Tennessee, a part of this period, publishing 
his Jonesboro Whig, a weekly newspaper and Brownlow's Monthly 
Review in 1847, 1848 and 1849. "The Great Iron Wheel Ex- 
amined," a reply made in 1856 to J. R. Graves' book "The Great 
Iron Wheel" was written after he removed to Knoxville. It is 
a closely printed volumn of 330 pages. He also preached and 
made addresses on doctrinal subjects. 

The book-writing part of his life was between 1834, when 
"Helps to the Study of Presbyterianism" appeared, and in 1856, 
when "The Great Iron Wheel Examined" came out, a period of 
twenty-two years. Born in 1805, he was 29 years old when his 
book on Presbyterianism appeared. 

From 1828 to his death he was also in politics on the side of the 
Whigs and later of the Republicans. But the intellectual side of 
the man is exhibited best in his books, writings and speeches of 
religious controversy, and here his most vindictive enemy must 
admit that he is entitled to be classed among the mental leaders of 
the day, and that in debate with Graves and Ross, who were both 

216 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

educate dand learned men in religious discussions, he rendered 
Methodism a service in bold and successful advocacy greater than 
which no other champion ever rendered that church in America, the 
two Wesleys and Whitfield alone excepted. Their work was the work 
of founding and evangelizing. Brownlow defended and up-held 
when the church was attacked, which, in some form or from some 
source was almost a daily occurrence. He became a great leader 
in the discussion of religious doctrines, and one is surprised at his 
breadth and thoroughness, and the question naturally arises as 
to where he got them. His school education was meagre and 
such as only the very deficient schools at that time in Southwest 
Virginia could furnish, and this was his condition when he began to 
preach; but with a success that turned out to be wonderful, he be- 
gan the labor of self-education while performing the duties of a 
Methodist Circuit Rider, and the persistence and will power in 
this work displays him as one of greatest personalities of his day. 
His culture is admirably proven in his application, quotation and 
great appreciation of extracts from some of the best poets. He 
never mis-applied a quotation or used inferior or hackneyed poetical 
lines. His mastery of strong and spectacular English was com- 
plete and his vocabulary' ample for all the purpose of a preacher, 
a political orator or a doctrinal controversialist. His use of 
malediction was marvelous, and the high dexterity and joyous 
enthusiasm with which he resorted to it, showed great capacity 
by gift of nature rendered increasingly efficient and skillful by 
much usage. 

His physical, moral and political courage were excelled by no 
man of his time, or any time, and the title "the fighting Parson" 
came to be applied to him naturally as something proper and to 
be expected. In the three sided battle in which Graves and Ross 
were the other two contestants, students of the times lean to the 
theory that Graves and Ross and their respective followings had 
made up their minds to crush Brownlow and drive Methodism 
out of the country. Baptists and Presbyterians were first in the 
field and best entrenched in Tennessee and the South West, and 
naturally wanted no rival in their way. Ross and Graves did not 
turn their guns on each other but on the Methodists, John Wesley 
and Parson Brownlow, the latter being the one champion among 
the Methodists who had all the stalwart qualities of brain and 
heart necessar>' to hold his own against his two masterful antag- 
onists combined. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 2 1 7 

Brownlow clearly appreciated the fact that in assaulting Graves 
and Ross personally he was dealing some exceedingly hard blows. 
In the dedication to his book "The Great Iron Wheel Examined," 
he presents this apology to the public : 

"The author here most respectfully as a local preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, apologizes to the church 
public for the seeming severity of this work in some parts, on the 
ground that he has performed the painful task of refuting a series 
of the most scurrilous falsehoods and a collection of the lowest 
abuse of the age." 


Parson Brownlow's book "The Iron Wheel Examined" contains 
331 closely printed pages; his "Life of Henry Clay", 349 pages; 
his "Parson Brownlow's Book," 458 pages; and the bound volume 
of his "Monthly Review" for the years 1847, 1848 and 1849, 384 
pages; his "Help to the Study of Presbyterianism" which will be 
noted hereafter, 299 pages. 


We said heretofore that Parson Brownlow was a loyal Union 
man and that he was loyal to the South on the subject of slavery. 
In the city of Philadelphia beginning September 7th 1858, a public 
debate was commenced by Parson Brownlow and Rev. Abram 
Pryne, on the question "Ought American Slavery to be Perpet- 
uated?" Brownlow taking the affirmative and Pryne the neg- 
ative. The debate began on Tuesday and continued for five days 
in the afternoon of each day. The disputants alternated in open- 
ing the discussion from day to day. 

The Brownlow Knoxville Whig has the following to say about 
this unique debate. 


"The reader will see from the following correspondence that the 
battle spoken of in many of the newspapers comes off on Tuesday, 
the 7th of September, in the City of Philadelphia, between the 
editor of this paper and the Rev. Abram Pryne, a Congregational 
minister, and the editor of the anti-slavery paper, published in Mc- 
Grawville, Courtland County, New York, styled the 'Central 
Reformer.' The following challenge appears in his Reformer for 
March 10, 1845: 


"The public will remember that this gentlemen has challenged 
the friends of freedom in the North to debate with him as to the 
merits and demerits of slavery. His very elaborate challenge has 
not been accepted unless it be a conditional acceptance from 

218 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Frederick Douglass. I now propose to reduce the question to a 
single proposition sweeping the entire area of the subject, and in 
that form, I challenge him to its dicussion. The proposition I 
would state as follows :" 

"Ought American Slavery' be Abolished ?" 

"This question to be reversed when the debate is half through 
and to be stated as follows :' ' 

"Ought American Slavery to be perpetuated ?" 

"He may select the time and place of holding the debate, I only 
stipulating that it shall be in the state of New York, and that I 
shall have four weeks notice between his acceptance of my challenge 
and the commencement of the debate. 

"As my name may not have reached him, I may state that like 
Mr. Brownlow, I am a clergyman and editor, and will take the 
liberty to refer him to the Hon. Gerret Smith, Hon. J. R. Giddings, 
Dr. Mark Hopkins, President of Williams College, and Rev. Wm. 
Calkins, President of the New York Central College, McGrawville. 

"Abram Pryne." 

BROWNLOw's reply: 

"Morristown, Tennessee, April 20, 1858. 
"Rev. Abram Prvne, 

"In your issue of an abolition paper of the 10th ultimo styled the 
Central Reformer, and of which you seem to be the ostensible 
editor, you challenge me to meet you in debate on the slaverv^ ques- 
tion. You say you are a 'clerg}'man and also an editor,' and for 
your character you refer me to several distinguished abolitionists. 

"There are two points of information I wish from you before 
I accept your challenge. First, what church are you connected 
with ? Next, are you a white man or a gentlemen of color .^" 


"William G. Brownlow, 

"Editor of Knoxville Whig." 

Mr. Pryne replied that his father was a Scotchman and that 
there was no negro blood in his viens, so the debate was agreed 

It attracted great attention all over the Union. Large crowds 
attended it and paid admission fees to get to hear it, and the Phil- 
adelphia papers had reporters present at every one of the discus- 
sions. Parson Brownlow dealt with the subject historically and 
treated it in detail from the first introduction of slaves in America, 
and showed just how the American people had been educated in 
reference to it. His argument was very strong. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 2 1 9 

Mr. Pryne's speeches were not remarkable for strength, and 
consisted mainly in an effort to show that slavery was abstractly 
and intrinsically wrong. 

The debate was published in book form during the year 1858 
by the two disputants and they shared equally in the proceeds of 
the sale of the books. 

In 1834 when Parson Brownlow had been a Circuit Rider for 
eight years in Tennessee, North and South Carolina and other 
sections, he published a book at Frederick S. Heiskell's 
printing office in Knoxville, the exact title page of which is as 
follows : 

"helps to the 

"an unsophisticated exposition of CALVINISM WITH 
"For there is nothing covered that shall not be revealed; 
and hid, that shall not be made known" — Christ. 
"Knoxville, Tennessee. 
"Frederick S. Heiskell, Printer, 
It is from this book that we quote in the next chapter the nara- 
tive of the life, travels and circumstances incident thereto, of 
William G. Brownlow. This narative is unique and affords a 
detailed-picture of the life in Tennessee and Western North Caro- 
lina at the time, and is reproduced in full and just as Parson Brown- 
low included it in his book. His book is long since out of date 
and the author feels that his narative should be preserved. 

One cannot fully appreciate the bitterness of the doctrinal 
controversies between Brownlow, Graves and Ross, without seeing 
actual quotations from the three, and to that end, we print quota- 
tions from Brownlow and Graves. The trend of Ross' argument 
and teachings can be seen by references to him in the extracts 
from Brownlow. 

Brownlow's attacks were personal and largely directed at 
Graves and Ross individually; while Graves and Ross turned their 
batteries on the Methodist Church, with a shot here and there at 
Brownlow personally. 

220 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

quotations from brownlow's "great iron wheel examined." 

"J. R. Graves edits the 'Tennessee Baptist' at Nashville, a 
paper published at Nashville, having quite a large circulation, and 
being now in the twelfth year of its existence. His paper is a low, 
dirty, scurrilous sheet, and is so regarded by many of the intelligent 
Baptists of the country, who refuse to patronize it. And why? 
Because, as they say, it is conducted by a man who cannot elevate 
himself above the level of a common blackguard — a man who 
habitually indulges in language toward other Christian denom- 
inations which would hardly be tolerated within the precincts of 
Billingsgate, or the lowest fish-market in London! No epithet 
is too low, too degrading, or disgraceful, to be applied to the bish- 
ops, ministers, and usages of the Methodist Church. The .con- 
temporaries of the 'Baptists' usually shun coming into contact 
with it as they would avoid a night-cart, or other vehicle of filth; 
and decent men of the Baptist persuasion have been known to 
throw the slanderous sheet from their doors with shovel or tongs, 
disdaining to touch it with their hands. As some fish are said to 
thrive only in muddy water, so the paper of which I am speaking 
would not exist one year out of the atmosphere of slang and vitup- 
eration. It administers to the very worst appetites of mankind; 
and whether speaking of the most eminent bishop or minister, the 
purest of the sainted dead, the venerable FOUNDER of Meth- 
ism, or the excellent institutions of said Church, it pursues the same 
strain of vulgar and disgusting abuse. It is enough for a man, 
woman or child to have been baptized by a Methodist minister, 
or by one received into their church, to insure the ill-will and con- 
temptuous denunciations of the editor of that vehicle of falsehood 
and defammation ; whilst, on the other hand, he can see no demerit 
in one who has been immersed by a Baptist preacher, and he can 
take into his fellowship a prostitute, and hug to his bosom a bur- 
glar, if they had been baptized by immersion! With him, the 
Baptist Church is the only kingdom of God on earth, and to find 
fault with any of its doctrines, ordinances, or abusive preachers, 
is to sin against the Holy Ghost! With him, no virtue, no honor, 
no truth, exists anywhere but in the breasts of partisans of his 
own 'faith and order,' and no vice or immorality is found but 
with the members of other churches." — Page 20. 

"The whole tenor of Graves's course, editorially, has been that 
of a vagabond politician, who expected to live only by excitement — 
making ruffian-like attacks upon private character, committing all 
manner of excesses, standing preeminent in .selecting themes for 
lying, and the lowest and most scurrilous abuse of Methodist 
preachers. He has made repeated attacks upon me, through his 
paper, with a view to engage me in a controversy upon points of 
doctrine and Church policy. I was engaged in defense of one of 
the political parties of the country, and in promoting the internal 
improvement schemes of our vState, and did not choose to occupy 
my columns in a controversy of this kind with a humiliating spec- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 231 

tacle of vice and depravity literally crawling in the dust of conten- 
tion. This unwillingness of mine to bandy epithets with an inflated 
gasometer, whose brain I believed to be a mass of living, creeping, 
crawling, writhing, twisting, turning, loathsome vermin, he politely 
construed into a want of courage on my part to encounter the caitiff 
of the 'Tennessee Baptist.' I confess to a want of moral courage 
to meet one who eats carrion like the buzzard, and then vomits the 
mass of corruption upon decent human beings." — Page 23. 

"Take J. R. Graves in his length and breadth, in his height and 
and depth, in his convexity and concavitj', in his manners and in 
his propensities and he is a very little man, but in that little- 
ness there is combined all that is offensive and disagreeable among 
Christian gentleman. For several years past, in portions of 
several states, with an unearthly din, this man has been barking, 
neighing, bleating, braying, mewing, pufhng, swaggering, strutting; 
and in every situation, an offensive smell, to gentlemen of refined 
tastes and Christian habits, has gone out from him! And believ- 
ing the homely old adage, that 'he who lies down with dogs must 
rise up with fleas,' he has been permitted to pass unwhipped by 
justice." — Page 26. 

"J. R. Graves, of Nashville, and 'Editor of the Tennessee Bap- 
tist,' claims to be one of the clerical successors of the apostles; 
and by virtue of his lineal descent from John the Baptist, claims, 
in connection with the ministers of his own 'faith and order,' the 
exclusive right of administering the ordinances of the Church, ex- 
clusive qualifications to instruct mankind in the important doc- 
trines of salvation, and, as a matter of course, to reform the 
manners and customs of the several spurious sects of the country." 
—Page 243. 

"I propose to show that Graves has perpetrated twenty-five 
FALSEHOODS in one chapter of this book, a short chapter at that, 
composed of only twelve pages, making more than two lies to a 
page. Not so bad for one of the successors of the apostles, in a 
direct lineal descent from John the Baptist! The chapter I allude 
to is Chapter 20th, commencing on page 225; and I declare, upon 
the honor of one who expects to give an account in the future to 
the Judge of all men, that this is but a fair specimen of the other 
thirty -nine chapters of his book!" — Page 243. 

"chapter XV. 

"Three specimens of deliberate lying — A vulgar, false, and 
slanderous caricature of a Methodist revival! The challenge by 
the North Carolina Publishing Society of the Baptist Church — 
Replies of Doctors Lee and Deems — Graves publicly caned for slan- 
der — The Baptist 'Western Recorder' against Graves, alluding to 
his Church troubles in Nashville — His abuse at Bowling Green — 
Damages obtained against Graves in Tennessee for Hbel, to the 
extent of $7,500 — Mortgages all his property away, under peculiar 
circumstances — Page 254. 

222 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

quotations from graves' " great iron wheel." 

"Look at the distracted state of Christendom — look at Tennes- 
see and the southwest! What a spectacle! The so-called Christ- 
ian churches armed in bitter hostility! Methodists and Baptists 
engaged in an exterminating warfare. Presbyterians and IVIethod- 
ists in East and West Tennessee unchurching and unchristianizing 
each other, and pronouncing each other's peculiar doctrinal teach- 
ing dangerous to the souls of men! ... Will Tennessee or the world 
ever be christianized so long as this state of things exist ? Will the 
world ever believe on Christ? If all the world were this day con- 
verted and banded under the colors of these hostile parties would 
it be a millenium? Peace would no more be restored than now. 
Since opposites and contradictories must of necessity antagonize 
but storms of tenfold fury await the years to come. What we 
now feel is but the breathings of a zephyr in comparison to the 
whirlwind that is rushing upon us. The great questions of this 
age are, 'Which of all the claimants is the true Church of Christ? 
Ought Christ Jesus alone to be obeyed in religious matters, or may 
the authority of Bishops and Elders be regarded?," — Page 16. 

"letter XV. 

"Methodism a Great Iron Wheel — a Clerical Despotism, and 
yet American Christians tolerate and support it." — Page 158 

"letter XVI. 

"Methodism the Popery of Protestantism — as absolute and all 
controlling as Jesuitism — Papal Bishops." — Page 169. 
"letter XXI. 

"The Roman Catholic features — the Doctrine of the Power of 
the 'Keys' held by the Methodist Clergy in common with the Pope. 
The Divine right to govern held by the Methodists in common with 
the Pope and Priests of Rome. Methodist Ministers claim the 
power to admit into, and exclude from their societies whomsoever 
they please, and the Discipline grants them the power." — Page 234. 
"letter XXIV. 

"the episcopacy and the people. 


"The principles of legitimate Governments — Man's inalienable 
Rights — They cannot be conceded or alienated without Sin — 
They cannot be usurped without Impiety — What is a Tyranny and 
a Despotism, according to Bishop Bascom? — Methodism proven 
to be a Tyranny, a clerical Despotism, Anti- American in its Genius 
and Tendency — Republicanism backwards — A New Definition of 
Methodism and an Illustration." — Page 276. 
"letter XXVI. 

"A Calvinistic Creed, a Popish Liturgy, and an American 
Clergy."— Page 327. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 223 

1848, 1849, BOUND VOLUME. 

"In the October No. of the Calvinistic Magazine, Mr. Ross 
boasts of his being sustained in this war upon Methodism by the 
members and friends of his church, and mentions quite a number 
of Ministers and Periodicals, who sustain him in his views, even of 
class and band meetings! We believe with Mr. Ross, that he is 
sustained in his course towards the Methodist. We have proof 
of this that none can doubt. Indeed, disguise the fact as much as 
the Presbyterian Church may, it is well known, and extensively 
known, that the present state of disorder and quarrel is not on 
account of any controverted point of faith or doctrine, as alleged — 
it is a strife between despotism on the one hand, and free principles 
on the other; it is a strife between the DESPOTISM OF PRES- 
METHODISM. In proof of this, their church has opened a fire 
upon us, from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico. They have bearded 
us in our own dominions, with every circumstance of insult and 
violence, from the gentleman of refinement and character, down to 
the brutal illegimate of Scotch and African mixture! The Meth- 
odist church has long watched the movements of the hoary Mon- 
archy and subtle Diplomacy of Presbyterianism. She has now 
resolved to face up to both, and will bear herself in the storm with 
heroic front, till the world shall see a glorious triumph of the Rights 
of Man! She will maintain her right to a place among the Church- 
es of the country ; and in doing so, deny the right of Civil Author- 
ities, at the call of F. A. Ross and Co., to put her down. She 
will insist, from the pulpit, through the press, and even on the 
stump, before the populace, that her peculiar institutions, are not 
'death to all the institutions for which Washington fought and 
freedom died' — that her form of government is not 'a naked des- 
potism' — that her system of doctrines is not 'a debauched pietyism,' 
which renders 'true moral character subordinate and degraded' — 
and that her ministry, is not 'an irresponsible ministry,' as charged 
by the Magazine, over the imposing names of Isaac Anderson, 
Fred A. Ross, James King and James McChain." — Page 4. 

" We repeat, that we are not unapprised of the evils which 
flow from such a divided state of Christian society, as exists at 
present, in all this section of country, and we deplore them as 
sincerely, as does any man in the country. The controversy has 
already burst assunder the bounds of Christian love, and prevented 
that harmonious and affectionate intercourse among Christians 
which is one of the chief enjoyments of social religion. It has in- 
fused jealousies, fanned the flame of discord, set friends, brethren, 
and families, at variance, and shattered whole communities into 
factions and parties. It has kindled contentions and heart burn- 
ings, produced envyings, animosities, and hatred of neighbors and 
brethren, and, in not a few instances, burst asunder the strongest 
ties of natural affection — while it has led professed Christians to 

224 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

violate the plainest dictates of humanity and of natural justice. 
It has excited a feverish zeal for the peculiarities of a sect, at the 
head of which an unworthy man is placed, while the distinguishing 
features of Christianity, have either been overlooked or trampled 
under foot. It has wasted money unnecessarily, in publishing and 
republishing the slanders of a rufTan and hypocrit, which might 
have been devoted to the promotion of the interests of our common 
Christianity. It has even corrupted fire-side conversations, in- 
fused into them a spirit of false-hood in apologies, for a self-im- 
portant gladiator, whom we have sought to excuse, with a firm 
conviction of his guilt. Nay, more and worse, it has corrupted our 
prayers, infused into them human passions, and a spirit of per- 
secution, and a party, confining them to the narrow limits of a 
sect, as if the God of all grace, whom we profess to adore, were 
biased by the same low prejudices which control us, and dispensed 
his favors according to our contradicted views. All this, and more, 
has this controversy done for this section, for the evil consequences 
of which, Ross and his supporters are justly responsible." — Page 8 . 


"The Christian Observer, now in the 26th year of its existence, 
is a Presbyterian paper published in Philadelphia, and edited by 
the Rev. A. Converse, D. D., a veteran hater of Methodism. All 
the tolerant, ferocious, and contemptuous publications against 
Methodism, which meet the eye of Mr. Converse, he transfers to 
his columns with eagerness and delight. Such slander, for in- 
stance, as Mr. Ross' 'Iron Wheels,' against Class Meetings, and 
private character, he considers as divine, actually dictated and 
authorized by God himself! 

'In the Observer of Sept. 24th, the ' meek and lowly,' "Mr. 
Converse says : 

"The low and vituperative manner in which Mr. Brownlow, 
a Methodist preacher, and others, have assailed Mr. Ross, in- 
stead of answering his arguments, appear like a concession to 
the truth of his main positions, as well as a singular exhibition of 
the influence of clerical power on the bearing and spirit of gentle- 
men." Page 39. 

"I dreamed I stood outside of hell, 

Dark walls, and cries, and groans and yells, 
Heard faintly, from afar within 

That dark abode of pain and sin. 
Louder and louder on the ear 

Those murmurs broke, and seemed more near 
To be advancing; like the roar 

Of some dark storm cloud breaking o'er 
A mighty forest, old and still; 

And rushing on o'er vale and hill. 
Curses and imprecations dire, 

Terms of contempt and vengeful ire, 
From myriad tongues, I now could hear 

Each moment seeming still more near. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 225 

Toward where I stood, the tumult drew, 

And hell's broad gates wide open flew; 
Out rushed a being sore in haste 

By demons, imps and devils chased, 
'Drive him far ofTI' loud Satan cried, 

'And you, gate keeper, woe betide, 
If e'er within these walls is seen 

Another being half as mean!' 
A friend came near, I said, Pray tell. 

Is aught too mean, too vile, for hell! 
Who can that wretched being be. 

Whom thou has forced so far to llee 
From this dark den of sin and shame? 

Tell whence he came, and what his name. 
He grinned a smile of fiend-like mirth. 

And said, A Slanderer from earth." 

"In the Calvinistic Magazine for August, 1846, Mr. Ross 

"But the broad fact remains, after all concessions, that Meth- 
odism is a debauched pietyism, in which the imagination has run 
wild, and passion, bodily sympathy and mysticism are supreme, 
while true moral character is subordinate and degraded. We 
speak out, and challenge examination. We speak out, and say, 
that rottenness is the very bones of the moral system created by 
Methodism, to an awful extent." 


"It is sometimes asked, with great greenness, what business 
have we, the Editors of the Calvinistic Magazine, with the Meth- 
odist system?... We answer-just the same business we would 
have, if a man living in the same house with us, had a barrel of 
gunpowder in his room. We think we should have the right to 
get that powder out of the house. So, we have the right to expose 
Popery, and Prelacy and Methodism, as dangerous to the civil 
and religious liberty of our country." 


"We have often remarked a peculiar insensibility, as a charac- 
teristic of the Methodist common mass, a peculiar insensibility 
to moral honor and integrity of character. We have not dropped 
this sentence in hasty writing. We say deliberately— it is so— it 
is so— wide and deep." — Page 101-102. 

"and speaking of METHODISM, ON PAGE 135, OF THE 

"It hardens the conscience to moral obligations. It pros- 
trates body and soul under the feet of an irresponsible ministry. It 
injures the piety of the good man. It encourages hypocrisy. It 
must, if fully developed, demoralize society." 

226 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"and in this article of the 'great iron wheel,' 
mr. ross adds." 

"It is astounding that any set of men, after the American Rev- 
olution, should have dared to fabricate, and set in motion, this 
great Iron Wheel of the Itinerancy! Just look at it, and you see 
it is a perfect system of passive obedience, and non-resistence. 

"The thing is a naked despotism — imperial power, in an ec- 
clesiastical aristocracy, unblushingly avowed and gloried in. 

"The system is dangerous to our liberties, civil and religious. 
It ought to be understood, and done away by public opinion, en- 
lightened by the spirit of the Bible; and the movement to do it 
away cannot be too soon. 

"The Methodist system is death to all the institutions for 
which Washington fought and freedom died." — Pages 102-103. 



Painted in New York City by Samuel L. Waldo in 1840 or 1841 on a panel which is now in the Metropolitan 

Museum of Art, New York City. This panel picture is thought to be the original of the portrait of Jackson 

that hangs in the Mayor's office, New Orleans, Louisiana, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 227 


H Narrative of the life, travels and circumstances 

S incident thereto, of William G. Brownlow, 

g written by himself. ^ 

"Few persons, who have arrived at any degree of eminence in 
Hfe, have written memorials of themselves, that is, such as have 
embraced both their private and public life ; but many, very many, 
who never arose to anything like eminence in this life, have written 
such memorials of themselves; therefore, knowing as I do, that I 
have never arisen to anything like eminence, and that it is the 
custom of such only, to write out a full history of themselves, I 
proceed to the performance of the task. However, the public 
transactions of many great men, have been recorded by their con- 
temporaries or themselves, apparently too with the best of motives; 
but why such and such things occurred, and are thus recorded; 
and why such and such other events which are not related, have 
been passed by in silence, we are rarely told. 

"Now, I maintain, that the bad as well as the good acts of a 
man should be related; and then, the reader, having the whole 
man before him, is the better prepared to award to him a righteous 
verdict. But it will, perhaps, be urged, that a man should so con- 
duct himself as to be wholly free from improprieties,— especially 
a minister of the gospel. To this I reply, that if the memoirs of 
only such as have lived and died without fault, were written, we 
should seldom, if ever, see a production of the kind. 

"But if there be more evil than good attached to a man, what 
are we to do ? Why, put your veto upon him, and determine not 
to follow his footsteps. But what shall we do when there is more 
good than evil attached to the life and travels of a man? Why, 
faithfully relate the whole, and then profit by his example, in that 
he has done good. But when the scale is so perfectly poised that 
neither end preponderates, what shall we do? Why, balance 
accounts and strike off even ! 

"Few men can be said to have inimitable excellencies, or inim- 
itable failings ; let us watch them in their progress from infancy to 
manhood, and we shall soon be convinced that while we imitate 
their virtues, we should shun their vices. Then to profit by the 
past lives and conduct of others, we should exhibit them in full. 
This done, we cannot fail to receive benefit by an attentive perusal 
of what has past, unless we are 'such as cannot teach, and will not 

"That a man, engaged solely in thework of propagating Christian- 
ity — in carrying the light of the gospel among the people — in 
opposing error, and defending the cause of truth — and, finally, in 
going about it like his Saviour, endeavoring to do good to all, 

228 Andrew Jackson and Earia' Tennessee History 

should find himself exposed to enemies, or should meet with opposi- 
tion, may seem strange! But history and observation inform us, 
that this has been the lot of all public men, in a greater or less de- 
degree. While some emblazon a man's virtues, others will amplify 
his faults. A majority, however, labor 

'The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide, 

To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame,' 
rather than pursue the opposite course ; and, it is not unlikely, that 
on this account, so few public characters have justice done them. 

"Again: While the shafts of immerited censure are hurled 
against some men, and they are doomed to bear the base insinua- 
tions of invidious tongues, they never-the-less rise to victorious 
eminence, having to all appearance, taken fresh courage from the 
circumstance! But alas for others! They seem to sink beneath 
the load, and, with the poet they are ready to exclaim : 
'While sorrow's encompass me round, 
And endless distresses I see : 
Astonish'd I cry! can a mortal be found, 
That's surrounded with troubles like me.' 

"Perhaps it may be asked, who is the person that offers this 
volume to the world? In this the inquisitive reader shall be 
gratified, for short and simple are the domestic annals of one who 
has not even reached his thirtieth year. I am the eldest son of 
Joseph A. Brownlow, who was born and raised in Rockbridge coun- 
ty, in Virginia, in the year 1781, and died in Blountville, in Ten- 
nessee, in the year 1816. My father died when I was so young 
that I could not have been a judge of his character — but it has 
been a source of comfort to me, to hear him spoken of by his old 
associates, as a man of good sense, brave independence, and great 

"The death of my father was a grevious affliction to my mother, 
as she was left with five helpless children, three sons and two daugh- 
ters, all of whom are still living. Her maiden name was Catherine 
Ganaway, a Virginian likewise, and of respectable parentage. 
But she departed this transitory life in less than three months 
after the death of her husband. Being naturally mild and agree- 
able in her temperament, she was strongly endeared to a large 
circle of friends and acquaintances. But their consolation is in 
this, that when sinking into the cold embrace of death, she was 
happy in the religion of Christ. 

"However, accounts of the parentage of a man, unless con- 
nected with some very peculiar circumstances, are generally un- 
interesting; and more particularly, when their names are not 
intimately interwoven with the history of their own country, or of 
any other. Besides this, if a man's parents, whether dead or 
alive, are known to have possessed great merits, they will be ap- 
preciated, and therefore need not to be blazoned by the pen of 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 229 

"I was born (and chiefly raised) in Wythe County, in Virginia. 
After the death of my parents, I Hved with my mother's relations, 
till within three years of the time I joined the Methodist itinerancy, 
and was appointed to labor as a circuit preacher. I can say — and 
I think it my duty not to pass over the fact in this brief narrative, 
that I feel towards those relations for their parental care over me, 
a degree of gratitude and affection, which can only spring from the 
laws of nature, and the social relations of life. 

"As to the days of my childhood, they passed away as those 
of other children, carrying with them the pleasures and pains, com- 
mon to that season, I could, however, relate many interesting 
incidents, connected with the history of my boyhood; but lest 
I justly incur the charge of egotism, I will pass them by in silence, 

"At a very early period in my life I had impressions of a religious 
nature, which were never erased from my mind; and though I made 
no profession of religion until I arrived within two years of mature 
age, and was even rude, yet, I had the utmost respect for professors 
of religion, and particularly ministers of the gospel. 

"During the month of September, in the year 1825, at which 
time I resided in Abingdon, I attended a camp-meeting, at the 
Sulpher Springs, twenty miles east of that, when it pleased God to 
give me the witness of the Spirit. There is a concentration of 
feeling, — a glow of fancy, — I may say of religious affection, con- 
nected with the recollection of that circumstance, which I delight 
to enjoy. It was here I felt the Lord gracious, and was enabled to 
shout aloud the wonders of my redeeming love. All my anxieties 
were then at an end— all my hopes were realized — my happiness 
was complete. From this time I began to feel an increasing desire 
for the salvation of sinners; and in order, more effectually, to en- 
gage in this work, I returned to Wythe, and spent the ensuing year 
in going to school to William Home, an amiable young man, and a 
fine scholar, who, poor fellow! has long since gone to his long home. 

"My education was plain, though regular in those branches 
taught in common schools. And even now, though I have en- 
deavored to study one science after another, and have been pouring 
over books, pamphlets, and periodicals of every description, by 
night and by day, for the last nine years, my pretensions are of the 
most humble kind. 

"At the second regular session of the Holston Annual Con- 
ference, held in Abngdon, Va., under the superintendence of 
Bishop Soule, in the fall of 1826, I was received into the traveling 
connection on trial, and appointed to the Black Mountain circuit, 
in North Carolina, under Goodson McDaniel. I had now to 
exchange the company of affectionate friends, for the society of 
persons with whom I had no acquaintance. This was a most 
affecting time, and will not soon be forgotten by the writer. I 
entered on the labors of this year with many painful apprehensions. 
There were not a few on this circuit, as I was previously informed, 
whose minds were very much prejudiced against the Methodists. 

230 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

And to my astonishment, upon arriving there, I found our most 
inveterate foes to be professors of Christianity! They were the 
followers of an old man, who used to go about 'preaching in the 
wilderness of Judea, and saying, repent ye: for the kingdom of 
heaven is at hand;' — and who had 'his raiment of camel's hair, 
and a leathern girdle about his loins;' his 'meat' being 'locusts and 
wild honey;' — while the people flocked to him from 'all the region 
round about Jordan, and were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing 
their sins!' 

"I allude to a denortiination of people called Baptists. This 
was my first acquaintance with these people. I had no altercations 
with any of them, this year; nor did I attend their meetings, only 
when our appointments clashed at those union, or go-between 
meeting houses. One of those meetings, set apart for feet-washing, 
I never can forget. For, never did I, before or since, see as many 
big dirty feet, washed in one large pewter basin full of water! The 
Baptists are a people whose theory is so narrow, and whose creed 
is so small, that, like their shoes, they seem to have been made for 
their exclusive use. They consider them-selves deputed from 
heaven for the general reformation of men and manners, and would 
try all men at their bar. They are amazed to find that any one 
should doubt the accuracy of their system, because they are sat- 
isfied with it. Their judgment is biased, and resembles a pair 
of scales of which to beam is forever awry. General society, and 
particular religious associations, formed by other denominations, 
are so imperfect, they cannot endure them; and in the investiga- 
tion of their laws and rules, their aim is, not to enjoy that which is 
right, but to exult over that which is wrong. They survey creation 
through the medium of a contracted vision, and consequently forget 
that thev are not the only persons, who have a claim upon the 
bounty of the skies. They pity all who differ from their persuasion, 
and wonder how it is that they can dream of being right. They 
revolve in a circle of which the centre is themselves. Those who 
are squeezed in with them are the lucky few; all without are dogs 
if not something worse. Unused to much thinking, and too im- 
patient to pursue it, petty purposes, and a kind of a pin's head 
policy are all they compass! Still, they are struck with the de- 
generacy of all around them! In these sweeping censures they 
never .suspect the prejudices of their own minds; though they pro- 
duce a jaundiced yellowness on all they inspect. Of the truth of 
these things every body is sensible but themselves. Well, a little 
maggot in a nut shell might come to the same conclusions, and for 
a similar reason, because the little thing has a maggot's mind! 

"The only misfortune which befell me this year, was that of 
having almost froze to death, on the 26th of December. Having 
led my nag over to Cain river, on the ice, I proceeded to cross a 
spur of the Black Mountain, when, I suppose, I came as near 
freezing to death, as ever any poor fellow did, to escape. Indeed, 
upon arriving at a small cabin, on the opposite side of the mountain. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 231 

I was so benumbed with the cold, that I was not only perfectly 
stupid, but extremely sleepy. Here I began to discover, that in 
exchanging the cold and salubrious atmosphere of my native up- 
lands in Virginia, I had not gained anything. However, there is 
no finer country in the summer season, than Western Carolina, 
or even the State of Buncombe, as it is sometimes called. There 
are few places in the world which can vie with the counties of 
Buncombe and Burke, in beauty and novel of scenery — the ex- 
tended hill-side fields, rich ridges, beautiful springs, mountain 
coves, high conical peaks, and astonishing verdure covering the 
soil, set off to the best advantage, the lofty Black Mountain! In 
the mean-time, the Table Rock is in the vicinity; and every season, 
the summer visitors add new and increasing interest, in their 
pursuit of deer, and other game. 

"Although we did not enjoy the pleasure of seeing hundreds 
converted this year, yet, we had every reason to believe that some 
good had been effected, through our feeble instrumentality. In 
the latter part of the year, the professors seemed much revived, 
and appeared to be alive to God. Upon the whole, in taking my 
leave of the circuit, I felt safe, well, and happy in my soul. May 
the Lord bless the good people of that county ! 

"1827. — in the fall of this year, our conference met in Knoxville, 
and the venerable Bishop Roberts presided, with his usual degree 
of cheerfulness and acceptability. Here, the recurrence of another 
aniversary occasion, in the history of our conference, called for the 
warmest expression of our gratitude to the great Head of the 
church, for having privileged us once more to mingle our praises and 
thanksgivings together. I will name one circumstance which occured 
during the sitting of the conference in Knoxville. It was this: A 
young storekeeper, a member of the Presbyterian church, drew up 
a subscription paper, and was, by way of burlesque, going about 
tr\nng to raise money to have my likeness taken! I was called on 
to know if I would subscribe! I replied that I would subscribe 
liberally, if, when they had taken my likeness, they would deposit 
it in the East Tennessee College, or the Seminary at Maryville, for 
the inspection of Doctors Coffin and Anderson, and as a pattern for 
minister-making! This reply, in view of the fact that I looked bad, 
was indifferently dressed, and had on a very old fashioned hat, 
rather confused the young Presbyterian. 

"At this conference I was appointed to French Broad circuit, 
lying mostly above Ashville, in North Carolina, under an excellent 
and agreeable little man, M. E. Kerr. We labored in this new 
appointment with increasing success, till the ensuing spring, when 
I was taken by my presiding elder, W. S. Mason, to travel the 
Maryville circuit, in lieu of James Cummings, then absent .to gen- 
eral conference. 

"Here I could not avoid coming into contact with Anderson's 
young divinity-shoots; for the impetuous little bigots, would assail 
me in the streets, or pursue me into private houses, and commence 

232 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

an argument on natural ability, or moral inability, or the impossi- 
bility of falling from grace. I fought manfully, and did the very 
best I could, though they always reported that they had used me up. 
I remained on this circuit but three months. Among the many 
circumstances which occurred during my short stay on this circuit, 
I will only name the two following : 

"My appointment in Maryville happened on the Sabbath of 
the Hopkinsian sacrament, held at their camp-ground near the 
village ; and as I had previously arranged by appointment to be in 
the after part of the day, I attended theirs, and heard them preach 
two or more sermons. Well, an inflated little priest by the name of 
Minis, who talked pretty much through his nose, and whose head 
seemd buried between his shoulders, apparently to make way for 
the proturberances of his back, addressed the congregation from "I 
would that ye were either hot or cold," etc. In the elucidation of 
his subject, he went on to show that the Methodists were the luke- 
warm whom the Lord would vomit up, &c &c. He also went on 
to speak of our fasting, secret prayers, secret meetings, and of our 
down looks, and manner of dress; and finally, he represented us 
as being more hideous monsters than the Sphinx of Egypt! In 
describing the cut of a Methodist preacher's coat, and tr\'ing to 
round it off with his finger, he seemed so exceedingly awkward, 
that I arose from my seat, and held one skirt of my coat saying. 
Sir, I presume this is the style you are aiming at! This confused 
the little man so, that it was some time before he got started again. 
Soon after this, myself and Mr. Brown of the Hopkinsian order, 
happened to meet on Sabbath, in the vicinity of a little village 
called Louisville. Although Mr. Brown was as bad looking a man 
as I am, and not more talented, yet, he affected to treat me with 
great contempt! When the congregation had assembled, he com- 
menced reading his hymn, and as I thought a very appropriate one, 
towit : 

'How sad our state by nature is, 
Our sin how deep it stains, &c.' 

"Having prayed a long dry prayer, he proceeded to address the 
people from these words, 'For God so loved the world, that he 
gave his only begotten son,' &c. Well, having divided his subject 
into three parts, on he went, preaching to a mixed multitude, in 
the most lifeless manner imaginable. After the preacher closed 
we had an intermission of about forty minutes, when I endeavored 
to address the people from the same subject. And as he had tried 
to poke his fun at me, I took the liberty to pay him back ; and really, 
when I was closing my remarks, he looked to me, more like hard 
times abridged, than a preacher of righteousness! From that day 
to this, I could never get Brown to know me. 

'! About the first of July I took my leave of Blount County, and 
returned to my former circuit. Here we had wars and rumors of 
wars, but it was among the Hopkinsinians. During one single year 
no fewer than five clerg\'men of this order, came to Buncombe 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 233 

County, in quest of a call. Three of them struggled and fought 
for more than twelve months. They carried their disputes so far 
as to indulge in the most low and vulgar personal abuse, disputing 
and quarreling even about the money which was collected in hats 
at their sacremental meetings! One of them, Bradshaw, actually 
claimed, and kept the most of the money. Such strivings for 
the mastery, was never seen in that country before! The result 
was, a division took place among the congregations, some voting 
for one preacher, and some for another. And the final result was, 
that many of the people determined to have nothing more to do 
with any of them. And Hall, the most furious of them all, fled to 
the lower part of the State, and I am told, has never been in Bun- 
combe since. Mooney, another one of the swarm, visited South 
Carolina, in quest of a call, and has chosen to remain there. How 
shocked must people have been to hear preachers incessantly cry- 
ing out that their reign was not of this world, when their infirmities 
were such, that they could not forbear quarrelling about a little 
money! But, while these unfortunate men were thus disputing, 
we Methodists travelled up and down the country, and endeavored 
to persuade the people that religion was the one thing needful. 
Some experienced religion, and a goodly number were added to our 
church this year. 

"There is no finer country, in the summer season, than that 
about the head waters of French Broad. There the clear streams 
glide with smooth serenity, along the valleys; and when amidst a 
calm summer's sunshine, they glitter to the distant view, like sheets 
of polished crystal, and soothe the attentive ear, with the softness 
of those aquatic murmurs so exhilirating to the fancy. But O, the 
huge, enormous mountains! the steep and dizzy precipices; the 
pendant horrors of the craggy promontories — how wild and awful 
they look of a rainey evening! 

'The hoary winter here conceals from sight 
All pleasing objects that to verse invite, 
The Hills and dales, and the delightful woods. 
The flow'ry plains, and silver-streaming floods, 
By snow disguis'd in bright confusion lie, 
And with one dazzling waste fatigue the eye.' 

"Who can ever suflfiiciently admire the immense benignity of the 
Supreme Disposer of events? How maniold are the mercies of 
God, and how surprising the scenes of Providence! Adieu to those 
scenes, till the last loud trumpet of God shall sound; and until 
eruptions, earthquakes, comets, and lightnings, disgorge their blaz- 
ing magazines! 

"1828. — In the autumn of this year, our annual conference 
convened in Jonesborough, and Bishop vSoule again presided, des- 
spatching business with his usual promptness and acc.-ptibility. 
In his sermon, on Sabbath, he certainly tore the very hind-site 
off of Calvinism! 

234 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"At this conference, I received deacon's orders, and was ap- 
pointed to travel in charge of the Washington circuit, a small cir- 
cuit in the lower end of East Tennessee. Here, I met with enemies, 
and for a time, had my difficulties; I had a law-suit upon my 
hands, against potent adversaries, and my all depended on its 
issue. The circumstances of the case I will briefly relate. An 
elder in the Hopkinsian church, who had long been distinguished 
for his violent opposition to Methodism, and particularly Meth- 
odist preachers, made an unwarrantable attack on me, by address- 
ing me an insulting letter; requesting an immediate reply from me, 
and a prompt avowal or disavowal of certain hearsays, mentioned 
in his letter. To this communication I replied with some degree 
of asperity. A rejoinder followed on the part of my adversary, in 
which he called me a puppy, a liar, an infidel, a fool, &c &c. To 
all this, I replied wuth a degree of moderation, though in a manner 
not very pleasing to my opponent. He then published some gar- 
bled extracts from my letters, in the Calvinistic Magazine. And 
I in turn, published the whole correspondence in pamphlet form 
with such additional remarks as I thought necessary. 

"My friend, then, promptly by certain other leading characters 
in the Hopkinsian church, as he himself afterwards acknowledged, 
instituted a suit of slander against me, in the superior court for 
Rhea County, and employed two able lawyers to prosecute the 
same. Well, as I always was disposed to stand up to my rack, as 
the saying is, I employed able counsel likewise — made out a plea 
of justification in full — subpoenaed witnesses near at hand — went 
on to West Tennessee to take the depositions of others,— and as 
Crockett says, prepared to go ahead. But, when the day of trial 
came on, the plaintiff, for reasons best known to himself, dismissed 
the suit at his own cost. And this was the end of the matter; save 
that, the Hopkinsians have uniformly represented me as the ag- 
gressor, and as having been outed! If the curious reader will take 
the pains to enquire of his honor, Charles F. Keith, or any one of 
my counsel, particularly Thomas L. Williams, he will learn that 
it was not the defendent who crawfished out of this affair. 

"But I found friends here, in the midst of all my embarrass- 
ments, whose hospitality and friendly conversation cheered my 
desponding youth. (For during the winter season, I had frequent 
and dangerous swimming of water courses, in the lower end of the 
circuit, and, to say nothing of my other privations, great mental 
affliction). And what was better than all, we were favored on 
parts of the circuit, with some drops of mercy, which were followed 
up with reviving showers of divine grace. The Lord added to 
our numbers greatly. The world, the flesh, and the devil, may 
array themselves against the Lord and his annointed, but it is of 
no avail. The Lord shall have them in derision. These remarks 
are made with gratitude to God, for the success that crowned my 
feeble efforts under these forbidding circumstances. 

"Here it was, that I first became acquainted with the people 
called Cumberland Presbyterians, — I mean personally acquainted 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 235 

with them. The leading object with these people, seems to be 
that of proselyting from other churches. This is a most shameful 
practice. If these people were as anxious to persuade sinners to 
separate from the ranks of the devil, and join the church of God, 
as they are to proselyte members of other churches and get them 
to join their party — ^then would they exhibit the true missionary 
spirit. This was the first time in all my life, I ever understood 
that men were called of God, and ordained by the church, to go on 
a mission to convert those who had previously been converted! 
As a Methodist preacher, when ever this shall have become the 
business of my life, I know I shall appear both inconsistent and 
ridiculous in the eyes of every man of sense. 

"It was by hearing the Cumberlands preach, that I became 
fully convinced of the superior advantages of short sermons, al- 
though I have heard many of them preach, I do not recollect to 
have ever heard more than one who closed till he was completely 
out of strength, words and ideas! This is a failing which attaches 
itself to the Baptist and Hopkinsian clergy likewise. Nor are 
all the Methodist preachers clear in this matter. Too many min- 
isters, among the different denominations, tell all they know in 
one sermon, and some of them tell that all twice in the same dis- 
course! Others, will hum and haw, and tell what they intend 
to say, and negatively, what they will not say, and apologize, &c, 
till they should be half done preaching. All this I despise. In- 
deed there are but few ministers, if any, w^ho can be justified in 
preaching more than an hour on any subject. The great mass of 
the people, in every part of our country, are so accustomed to hear- 
ing the gospel, that all a preacher need do is, to give the leading 
ideas in his subject. A good sermon is better for being short, and 
to make a sorry sermon long, is out of the question! In a word, 
of all the deaths that ever any people died, there is none so dis- 
tressing as that of being preached to death ! 

"In the latter part of October, in this year, I visited an uncle of 
mine, who then lived at the head of the Muscle Shoals in Alabama. 
Curiosity, or a desire to become acquainted with the Indian mode 
of living, led me to travel through the Cherokee nation, on to th:' 
south side of the Tennessee River. In doing so, I happened one 
night, after a hard day's ride, to reach the house of a wealthy In- 
dian, a member of the Methodist church, where, soon after my 
arrival, I met several Methodist missionaries, and Indian interpre- 
ters, on their way to the Tennessee Conference, which was soon to 
convene at Huntsville. The man of the house, in addition to being a 
slave-holder, had a number of his relatives about him, living most- 
ly in cabins; so that, upon the whole, the yard was alive with human 
beings! This was an interesting night to me. Turtle fields, na- 
tive preacher, held prayers for us, and we had a feeling time. 
This man was naturally of a very intrepid and independent spirit ; 
but, when engaged in the worship of God, his lion-like fierceness 
seemed gradually to melt down into the mildness of the lamb. 

236 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

After closing the exercises of the evening, I retired to bed, in a Uttle 
open room, and there lay musing until a late hour. While thus 
occupied, sounds and circumstances of a very different character 
again and again arrested my attention. The night w^as exceed- 
ingly calm; every thing around me wore the aspect of perfect se- 
renity; while the stars, with their usual brightness, glittered in 
the firmament. But amidst this pleasing stillness, so favorable 
to contemplation, I heard a voice, yea, voices; and these were the 
voices of a few poor Indians, who, after chatting around their 
evening fires, were closing the day with hymns of praise and united 
prayed to heaven. Had any been here present, who are at all 
doubtful as the mind of an Indian being susceptible to the power 
of divine grace, I doubt not that they would have stood confounded, 
if not convinced. Since that time, however, I have attended 
several Methodist meetings in the Cherokee nation, and at several 
of them I have tried to preach. It is not less pleasing than en- 
couraging to observe, that those of our native preachers and in- 
terpreters, who are truly converted to God, are frequently found 
boldly, though unostentatiously, addressing the multitude upon 
divine subjects and fearlessly answering the objections that are 
urged by gainsayers, against the gospel. The substance of our 
sermons being familiarly reiterated by them, amidst the different 
groups aroimd, the seed of truth is much more extensively spread 
abroad than even the missionary himself may be ready to imagine. 
By this means a kind of a new era is commencing in our Indian 
missions; so that, without greatly multiplying missionaries in a 
tribe, we shall be able to meet the wants of this scattered popula- 
tion; and without great expense promote the ever-blessed gospel, 
together with a rapidly increasing knowledge of the English lan- 
guage. It cannot be otherwise than that this is of God; and, to 
to my own mind, it appears with all the clearness of demonstration, 
that from year to year God is working out good for the Indians. 

"But it is not by means of these men only, that these people 
are zealously assisting us in the grand and glorious work of evan- 
gelization; the great Head of the church is raising up from among 
them, also to proceed with the everlasting gospel in their hands, 
to the savage hordes on our western frontiers. Like the vine, 
therefore, the church is here spreading forth her branches over the 
wall; and these wandering sons of Ham are sitting down under its 
shade, and partaking of its fruit. To God be all the praise. 

"Having paid my visit to the shoals, I returned via Huntsville, 
Winchester, Bellfonte, and Jasper. I remained in Huntsville dur- 
the week of conference, and was much gratified on becoming ac- 
quainted with many of the members of that conference. 

"1829^In the fall of this year, our conference again met in 
Abingdon — Bishop Soule in the chair. This year I was appointed 
alone to the Athens circuit. At an early period in this year, I 
had occasion to call at the seminary in Maryville, to see a Meth- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 237 

odist- student; and soon after I had entered his room, a young 
Hopkinsian minister sHpped the following note to me, under the 
lower edge of the door: 

'Sir:- Are you not fearful that you will break some 
of the old rooster's eggs, when you slip into this instit- 
tution so much like a thief, waiting for an opportunity 
to steal something? 

'Your humble servant, 

"Fearless", g. 
"If the reader has perused the whole of thi" work, he will un- 
derstand the allusion to the 'eggs,' and will consequently be pre- 
pared to make the necessary allowance for the severity of my reply. 
There being a table, pen, ink and paper, all just at hand, I immedi- 
ately seated myself, and returned the parson the following answer : 
'Sitting in the Southwest corner of the Factory! 
'Reverend Sir: — 

'In answer to your note just received, I have to observe, 
that I am not in any dread of breaking the eggs to which 
you allude, or of my doing any mischief; for I presume the 
old Rooster, is capable of taking care of his nest. As to my 
slipping 'into this institution so much like a thief, waiting 
for an opportunity to steal something,' I would say, as 
Paul did by being a Roman, when in Rome, &c. Yes 
sir, when I am among thieves and robbers, I usually slip 
and slide about as they do! 

'Yours, &c. 
'Peter Thundergudgeon, the Crow Bar Grinder.' 
'Now, that mildness, meekness, and gentleness of disposition, 
should characterize every minister of the gospel, is a fact which no 
one will doubt; but that these graces can only be inspired in a 
naturally amiable and somewhat refined mind, by the sanctifying 
influences of Christianity upon the heart, is equally true. And it 
is doubtless this commendable quality of the heart, this meekness 
and gentleness of conduct, which so completely removes the Meth- 
odist ministry from that haughty demeanor so characteristic of 
the Hopkinsian clergy, or of an unsubdued mind swelled with a 
false notion of superiority over its fellows, and which betrays its 
possessor into so many inconsistencies of conduct. While we 
instinctively turn with disgust from the man who assumes to him- 
self the claim of a dictator, and betrays on all occasions the vanity 
of his own mind by a supercilious contempt of others, we as nat- 
urally bow before the virtues of him who in his intercourse with 
his associates evinces a suitable deference to their opinions, and 
manifests that meekness and diffidence which arises from a thor- 
ough knowledge of his own heart. But these virtues only shine 
forth in the conduct of the followers of Him who said, 'Learn of 
me, for I am meek and lowly of heart.' 

"During this year, a high-toned professor of religion in Athens 
and a member of the Church of Christ, named a dog after me! In 

238 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

this, the Hopkinsians of Athens, considered they had comptctely 
over-matched me. As I rode through town one evening, in the 
midst of a company of them, I was enquired of as follows: 
'Brownjow, did you know that the Hopkinsians of this place had 
called a dog after you" ? I replied that I had understood so. Said 
the gentleman, 'Well, what do you think of it?' O said I, if the 
dog is good pluck, and will hang to a hog when set on, &c., I have 
no objection to his being called after me, laut if the dog is cowardly 
I shall not own him as a name-sake; for continued I, when I take 
after a Hopkinsian shoat, I make him charge and squeal all over 
the village. This caused the by-standcrs to laugh, but at the ex- 
pense of the owner of the dog. 

"Here, also, a violent attack was made on the institutions of 
our church, by a Hopkinsian minister, who wrote in defense of 
the national societies, in the 'Hiwassean and Athens Gazette,' a 
scurrilous little paper, under Hopkinsian influence. To some of 
the many false statements and insinuations of this writer, I replied 
in an article of some length. He continued to write, and I to answer 
him; but alas, the editor of the paper refused to publish for me, on 
the alleged ground, that he did not wish to admit into his columns 
anything like religious controversy. Still the Hopkinsian min- 
ister wrote on! 

"Not long after this, however, this conscientious editor ad- 
mitted some very severe anonymous articles into his columns a- 
gainst me, written by a Hopkinsian minister and physician, some- 
times called Lord Hackberry! Poor fellow! he has had his 
troubles since that. Subsequent events authorize me to address 
this man in the following language: — • 

'Your heart is gall — your tongue is fire — 
Your soul too base for generous ire — 
Your sword too keen for noble use — 
Your shield and buckler are — abuse.' 

"Within the last four years, there have been meny such anony- 
mous pieces published against me; generally too by Calvinistic 
writers. But nothing looks more cowardly, than for an individual, 
or set of individuals, to be firing at a man in this way. And in- 
deed, none hide themselves under fictitious names, or appear 
without any name at all, but those who publish things of which 
they are ashamed. The only protection a nameless scribbler can 
claim or expect, is, either his worthlessness, or the dark mantle 
in which he shrouds himself. And it is well for many of these 
anonymous writers, that their names are thus concealed; for if 
they were really known, in many instances, they would have less 
credit for their statements. . Such a course betrays a dastardly 
spirit; it is the resource of one who wants courage to avow his de- 
signs. All such, however, can peal away at me, without being in 
any way interrupted; for it does not comport with my views of 
self-respect to wage even a defensive war with a misnomer. For 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 239 

what I publish, my name is given as a voucher — for the truth or 
falsehood of the same, myself am held responsible. 

"If a man's cause be a good one, why should he hide his face 
behind the curtain of secrecy? Does honesty need concealment? 
Do virtuous actions shun the pure and open light of day ? Does 
honor— does religion seek to hide behind the mantle of night? No! 
No!! — virtue, pure and unsullied virtue delights to bask in the 
sunshine of Heaven, and nothing is farther from real rectitude of 
conduct than concealment. Concealment is the companion of 
guilt; together they walk the gloomy path of crime and calumny; 
together they guide the assassin's dagger to the heart of the un- 
conscious victim; and together laugh at the awful flames, that 
ascend in curling wreaths over the head of defenseless innocence. 
Nor is it at all unreasonable to suppose, that where things look 
thus dark and mysterious, there is something 'rotten in the State 
of Denmark'! How ridiculous for men of honorable pretensions 
to act thus! But how much more so for men who are engaged in 
the sacred exercises of the pulpit, proclaiming the will of God con- 
cerning man, to act thus! What! a man clothed in the reveren- 
tial habilments of a minister, who occupies a stand as the repre- 
sentative of the Almighty, and professes to be the organ of truth 
and righteousness, to degrade his character and profession, by 
stooping to the low and dirty practice of secret slander! Yet, 
hypocritical and unprincipled as the practice is, a Hopkinsian 
minister acted quite a conspicuous part in it, on the occasion to 
which I have special reference. Shameful! Worse than ridic- 
ulous!! Cromwell, O thou monster! blush at this conduct. Nero, 
O thou bloody monster! rebuke such ministers. Thou Inquisi- 
tion of Spain, turn pale at the bare mention of this prostitution 
of the sacred office! Of all the abominations that disgrace and 
dishonor the ministry in these portentous times, I know nothing 
more deserving of reprobation, than the prostitution of the sacred 
functions, for purposes so base! 

"On this circuit, during this year, we had a considerable revival 
in our church. In short, the fallow ground of many a heart, there 
is reason to believe, was broken up and the seed sown in right- 
eousness, which brought forth fruit to the honor and glory of God. 
This, to me, was truly refreshing, after having encountered those 
severe trials the year before. It was meeting with a verdant 
Oasis in the midst of an African desert, or the shadow of a great 
rock in a weary land. It was like the dew of Hermon sweetly 
distilling upon the mountains of Zion; and many of the hospitable 
members, and worthy local preachers of that circuit, can bear 
witness that 'there the Lord commanded a blessing, even life for 

"I feel grateful to my friends and acquaintances on the Athens 
circuit, for the courtesies I received from them, but more so to 
that being who, in his infinite mercey, has protected me in every 
peril; and to whom I now say: 

240 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

'For this, my life, in every state, 

A life of praise shall be : 

And death, when death shall be my fate. 

Shall join my soul to Thee.' 

1830 — About the last of October, in this year, our conference 
met at Ebenezer in Greene County. Bishops M'Kendree and 
Soule were both present — the latter presided. At this conference 
I received elder's orders, and was appointed to travel in charge of 
the Tellico Circuit, in the Hiwassee district. For the first three 
or four tours round this circuit, I labored with increasing success, 
but it was not long till I discovered there were some stumbling 
blocks in some of the societies, or obstacles to the influence of 
religion, which it was necessary to remove. Hence, I set about 
the work of reform; and in a very short time, I had not only ascer- 
tained the real state of the societies, but as I believe, actually 
bettered their condition. In the little town of Madisonville, 
there were several malcontents belonging to our society, who gave 
us some trouble before we could get rid of them. 

"The exercise of proper discipline in the church requires much 
wisdom, and not a little fortitude ;• and in proportion to the dis- 
ordered state in which a minister may find that part of the Lord's 
vineyard he is called to labor in, will be his difficulty; generally 
those who are accustomed to break our rules, do so from a secret 
repugnance to them — the lukewarm and the worldly-minded re- 
spect the rules of the church so far as they suit their convenience; 
and it is not always the case that men have influence in a church 
in consequence of their more exalted piety. The duty of the min- 
ister, however, lies plain before his eyes: let him scrupulously 
and vigilantly regard the honor of God, and the prosperity of his 
cause, rather than any man's person, though he may have on 'gay 

"In the town of Madisonville, the Methodist, Baptists and 
Hopkinsians, all had their separate houses for worship; and it 
was not an uncommon thing for all to be hymning the praises of 
their maker at once. This was as it should have been : let each and 
every denomination have their own house of worship, and attend to 
their own business ; and then, to use a vulgar saying, let the longest 
pole take the persimmons. 

"Here, again, I was somewhat annoyed by those people called 
Baptists. It is true they were not very formidable; still, there 
were several preachers of this order (if it lawful to call them preach- 
ers) who were continually haranguing the people on the subject of 
baptism, or rather of immersion. By day and by night, their cry 
was water! water! water! as if heaven were an island, situated some- 
where in the British sea, and we all had to swim to get there! — or 
as if the Saviour of mankind were a penny winkle, and could only 
be found hanging to a sandstone, in the bottom of some water 
course! And, one could as easily track a cat-fish through the Sucks 
in the Tennessee river; or side-line a whale through the Muscle 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 241 

Shoals in Alabama; or illumine the universe with the tail of light- 
ning-bug; or, hold a soaped pig by the tail, as convert these people 
from the error of their way. 

"It was on this circuit, too, that I had controversy with the 
agents of the American Sunday School Union, alluded to in the 
first section of this work. And it was here, that I published the 
pamphlet entitled an 'Address to the Hiwasseans, on the Subject 
of Sabbath schools,' &c.; and for the sin of this publication, it 
seems, I am not to get forgiveness, either in this life, or in the life 
to come. I did greatly expose their machinations in this pamphlet. 
And this I must ever continue to do; for I view with jealousy the 
general movements of the Presbyterian church. I unfortunately 
suspect that there is more of political management in all their 
affairs, than of concern for the souls of men. This may be my 
misfortune, but I am sincere in avowing it. Many of the common 
people, attached to this church, are unsuspecting and innocent; 
and ought to be pitied rather than blamed; for if their preachers 
were not to impose upon their gullibility, and thus designedly and 
knowingly lead them astray, they would not connive at their 
measures. As to the preachers themselves, most of them know 
they are in error, and they seem determined to continue in error. 
Clergymen are of all other men the most difficult to convert. One 
of the evangelists informs us, that it was not till multitudes of the 
common people believed, that a great company of the priests be- 
came obedient to the faith! I hope those moderate persons who 
aim to steer between all extremes, will pardon me, for having said 
so much in relation to the Presbyterians, and for having said it so 
plainly too. God knows I have no desire to increase the bickerings 
and uncharitable feelings which now prevail among the different 
denominations. I mourn this evil in the church, but I see clearly 
it cannot be remedied. Though I never did nor never will advocate 
union : on the contrary I will ever oppose it. An attempt to effect 
such a thing is vanity, and try it who will, it will be found to give 
rise to vexation of spirit. 

"During this year, there was no little excitement throughout 
the Hiwassee district, on the all-absorbing subject of Free Masonry ; 
and this excitement has been kept up and increased, as the public 
prints will shew, till the present day; and in imitation of those 
zealous partizans at the north, they are even forming Anti-Masonic 
societies there. There is a lodge of no inconsiderable force in 
Athens, and another in Madisonville — with many of the members 
of both these lodges, I am personally and particularly acquainted. 
Many of them are honorable men and worthy citizens: others of 
them are scoundrels of the baser sort. This, however, argues noth- 
ing against the system of Masonry ; for there are good and bad men 
belonging to all, and even the best associations. I have never pub- 
lished or preached one sentence against the system of Masonry, for 
the very reason too, that I know nothing certainly about the system. 
I suppose, however, that Morgan's exposition of it is a correct one; 

242 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

and this opinion has been strengthened and confirmed, from the 
consideration that, from the days of Morgan down to the present, 
the system has been on the dechne. Yet, I would give it as my 
opinion, that a minister had better say but httle about Free Mason- 
ry in the pulpit, lest he should make false statements before he is 
aware of it. I am not a mason myself — I never was one — I never 
intend to be one. For I consider that the religion taught by Jesus 
Christ and his Apostles, and which is contained in the New Testa- 
ment, will answer all the gracious ends proposed in the system of 

"Thus I have thrown tog:ither, as they occurred, a few thoughts, 
which may suffice for the present, to show the state of mind, and 
things on the Tellico circuit, during this year. 

"May the good people in that section, live and die in the full 
enjoyment of that religion which is peaceable, permanent, and 
purifying; and whose reward is glory, honor, immortality, and eter- 
nal life. 

"1831 This year, our conference was held in Athens — Bishop 
Hedding presided. From this conference I was sent to the Frank- 
lin circuit, in the western part of North Carolina. Here, again, I 
had another law-suit upon my hands, brfore I was aware of it, and 
that too against a host of the most bigotted and infurated Baptists 
I ever met with in any country. Yes, I will venture to affirm — to 
use no harsh language — that they are without a parallel — they 
stand unrivalled in the whole world of inquisitorial accusers! The 
plaintiff in this suit, was however, a Baptist Preacher, who had all his 
lifetime been engaged in some paltry peculation or other, and in perse- 
cuting and slandering Methodist preachers, doctrines, disciplines 
&c. In a word, a man less depraved by means of ministerial trick- 
ery, less hardened by ardent and insidious aspirations for money, 
cannot be found in the western country. If I were called upon to 
point out a preacher, lost to all sense of honor and shame, blind to all 
the beauties of religion, and every way hackneyed in crime, I would 
point to this man. But, for the satisfaction of the reader, I will, 
by way of preliminary, give a brief account of this whole transaction 
First, this man, in addition to having been almost all his lifetime 
engaged in mercilessly fleecing the flock, and in litigations of one 
kind or another, has also been unremittingly aspiring after pre- 
ferment; and like some noxious character who lived in the days of 
our Saviour, he has always manifested a desire to 'walk in long 
robes," while he has even loved 'greetings in the markets, and the 
highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts.' In 
the next place, there has never been a Methodist traveling 
preacher in that country, for ten or fifteen years back, who this man 
has not directly or indirectly assailed, and attempted to injure. 
And as many as five highly respectable traveling preachers, have 
since certified that he had grossly slandered them, and their cer- 
tificates have been twice published to the world. But to proceed. 
Previous to my entrance into that country, my predecessor, viz: 


From the bust by Hiram Powers now at the Hermitage near Nashville, and owned by the Ladies Hermitage 
Association of Tennessee who bought it from Col. Andrew Jackson for three thousand dollars. 

A NDREw Jackson and Early Tennessee History 243 

the preacher who had traveled there the year before, had been 
assailed, at the instance of this man, in an infamous little publi- 
lication, written by a little old apostate whig — an official member 
of the Baptist church — the very but-cut of original sin. To this 
publication, this circuit preacher felt himself bound to reply, and 
accordingly did so. Some two months after this, the old Baptist 
priest replied in a pamphlet of some size, and in this publication 
slandered a number of Methodist preachers, together with the 
doctrines, government, and general policy of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. * In the midst of this state of things, and upon the 
very heels of this controversy, as it were, I was appointed to this 
circuit, and the very next day after my arrival on the circuit 
before I had even seen this preacher, he made a violent attack 
upon my moral character, by circulating a most shameful false, 
and injurious report. After a few weeks had passed away, I was 
advised to clear up the matter. I accordingly addressed the parson 
a note, asking him if he had circulated so and so, and if he . had, 
to be so good as to give me his authority for so doing. Contrary 
to my expectation, he wrote me quite an evasive answer. I 
addressed him again. He then united with a little Hopkinsian 
physician, and they replied to me jointly, at the same time laying 
the whole matter on an infamous negro, giving him as the author 
of the report!!! Now, in my last communication to this clergy- 
man, I scored him so deeply that it, together with the report in 
the country, that I had used him up, led him to indict me before 
the grand jury, for a libel. — And it is worthy of remark, that this 
presentment was not made till in October, just a week before the 
circuit for conference. And, it is also worthy of remark, that this 
minister, in order to become a witness against me, artfully intro- 
duced one of the members of his church, as the prosecutor in the 
case. Nor would the grand jury have found a true bill against 
me at all, but for the fact, that this miserable old man, before 
them declared upon oath, that he had never circulated a report 
concerning me, which should have come from a negro, or provoked 
me in any way. This fact, with many other important items re- 
lating to this lawsuit, I have long since substantially confirmed by 
a host of respectable certificates, and published the same to the 
world, and as many as two different pamphlets. This unfortunate 
man, thought that this falsehood was deposed in secret, and that 
the jurors dared not div-ulge it, and that no ear had heard it. He 
forgot that the eye of an omniscient God was upon him; and he 
little thought that the dark deeds of that hour, would ever be pro- 
claimed to the world, through the medium of the press! Surely 
nothing short of an emetic from hell, could have forced him to 
vomit so base a falsehood in the presence of Almighty God, and 
twelve honest men! I should not write this, but for the reckless, 
remorseless, and unrelenting manner in which this depraved set 
attacked, pursued, and persecuted me. For ministers of the 
gospel, and other professors of religion, who serve but one 

244 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

master, manifesting their faith by their good works, I have 
a respect bordering on veneration; but for those Hbellers of the 
rehgion they profess, who, in the true spirit of him they serve, go 
about singing and praying, preaching, lying, slandering, defraud- 
ing, and false swearing, I feel inexpressible contempt. Nor shall 
their over-rated talents or mock-dignity; or yet, their menaces of 
violence, screen them from the rebuke they have merited. As 
nothing more was done in this "suit at law," during this year, I 
will dismiss it for the present, and resume the subject again in the 

"Thus it will be seen, that my labors on this circuit, were com- 
menced, under auspices very unfavorable. I had expected, on en- 
tering into the coves and mountains of this country, to have found 
an atmosphere entirely freed from the baneful influence of Calvin- 
ism, but alas! the hydra. headed monster had reached the country 
before I did. Here it was, that I became more and more impressed 
with the conviction, that this doctrine is death to religion, and the 
prolific mother of human miseries. A whole encyclopedia of wit, 
argument, and abuse, could not more than do the subject justice. 

"Here, too, in a good degree, I witnessed the dreadful effects 
of drunkenness upon religious society. I here expelled several of 
our members for this crime. As it respects the Baptists, custom 
seems to have licensed them to drink when they pleased ; in so much 
that it was no uncommon thing to see them, with impunity, stag- 
gering about, having their faces carbuncled with brandy! In vain 
may a minister leave his house and home, and encounter the incle- 
ment skies to build up believers, and administer relief to dying 
sinners, while they continue to pour fermenting liquors down their 
throats. And as already intimated, I was here more deeply con- 
vinced than ever, of the propriety of entering a solmn protest 
against so fearful an enormity, particularly as it threatens to over- 
run our country, and lay waste our churches. But, the reader will 
not regard me as saying, that the citizens of this section of the 
country were all drunkards, or Calvinistic Baptists. The cause of 
Methodism was quite popular there ; and the cause of temperance 
was daily gaining ground. There are some as worthy and honor- 
able members of the Methodist church there, as I ever met with in 
any country. And I shall have a great many warm-hearted friends 
there, and I shall long carry with me the remembrance of the many 
kind favors, wishes, and feelings, I have received from them. — I 
trust I have not been and may not be ungrateful for them. 

"During this year, I performed as many as three tours through 
what are called the Taxaway mountains, crossing the Blue Ridge, 
and wandering along among the head branches of the southern 
water courses, on a sort of "a. missionary excursion. Agriculture 
and the mechanic arts, were not in as high a state of cultivation 
there, as I supposed them to be in the States of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania ; while there existed at least a shade of difference be- 
tween the inhabitants of those mountains, and the citizens of Phila- 
delphia, so far as their manners and customs were concerned. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 245 

"Having been elected a delegate to the general conference, held 
in Philadelphia, in May, 1832, 1 set out from my circuit for the city, 
the last of March, via Abingdon, Fincastle, Staunton, Fredricks- 
burg, Washington and Baltimore. Upon my arrival in Abingdon, 
I was insulted and tongue-lashed by a people called Protestant 
Methodists, who were there employed in reforming from Episcopal 
Popery, for having dared to express my views of their system! 
Here I found a parson C. of this order, whose flaming zeal in main- 
taining the doctrines of 'reform,' led him to forge thunderbolts, 
and to pour out anathemas against despotism! This man was 
evidently actuated by a bad spirit, or a sordid interest, or a barbar- 
ous disposition to revenge, which animates most of the radicals as 
they are sometimes called, and produces all their pretended love of 
freedom. This town, once so harmonious, was now divided in re- 
ligious opinion. And, as an emblem of the division, two spires 
now pointed up to heaven in Abingdon; and two men, who styled 
themselves Methodists and ministers of Christ, preached to distinct 
congregations, and as all allow, resorted to measures widely different 
in their tendency, in order to carry their points. But here, as in 
most other places, where these sticklers for reform have caused a 
secession from the mother church, the same has been found in 
reality, to have been an accession to it. 

"At Evensham, some fifty miles beyond Abingdon, I was again 
charged on by the postmaster of that place, a sort of head man in 
the ranks of Protestant Methodism, who, as I was told after leav- 
ing there, published me in the Wythe paper. But poor man! he 
has since been tucked up for robbing the mail, and that too of no 
small amount of money. Since that time, the latest advices from 
that country say, that his zeal in the cause of religion has greatly 

"On my way to Philadelphia, I spent a week in the city of 
Washington, in visiting the different parts of the city, and in listen- 
ing to the debates in Congress. While in Washington, in company 
with some ten or a dozen clergymen, I visited the President's house, 
also, and was honored by an introduction to Gen. Jackson. He 
had just recovered from a slight state of indisposition. He sat 
with Mr. Livingstone, the then secretary of state, examining some 
papers, when we entered, and though paler than usual, I was 
struck with the fidelity of the common portraits I have seen of him. 
Alexander's, I think, however, is the best by far, and his reflection 
in the mirror is not more like him. He rose with a dignified courtsy 
to receive us, and conversed freely and agreeably; till, unfortunately 
he bounced on the missionaries, who had crossed his views and 
feelings, in opposing the measures of Georgia and the general 
government. His whole appearance is imposing and in the highest 
degree gentlemanly and prepossessing. He is a very fine looking 
old man, though I left him with an unfavorable opinion of him. 
And though I dislike and disapprove of his administration, yet, I 
am free to confess, that if his face is an index of his character, he 
is an upright, fearless man. But I have long since learned that it 
will not do to take men bv their looks. 

246 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"I am no politician, but so far as I am capable of understanding 
what I read, I am a Jcffersonian Republican. 

"From here I proceeded to Baltimore, where, in company with 
a number of the preachers, I remained for several days. While 
here, I preached to the convicts in the penitentiary, at the request 
of the preacher in charge of the station. And while there, it 
occured to me, that the Hopkinsians of Tennessee, had previously 
predicted that I would end my days in some such place, and that 
they would no doubt be somewhat gratified to hear that I was in 
the state prison of Alaryland; and I accordingly sat down and 
communicated the information to a friend in Athens, who, as I 
was afterwards told, apprised them of the fact, without letting 
them know the circumstances under which I had gone there. 
Some of them rejoiced, and others mourned lest the report should 
not be true. While here, the keeper of the prison related to me an 
anecdote, which I cannot deny myself the pleasure of publishing. 
It was this: Some time before that, two self-important young 
Presbyterian ministers, during the sitting of the presbyter}^ in that 
city, visited the penitentiary; and while they were walking about 
viewing the prisoners at work, one of them said to the other, T 
suspect that if the truth were known, the most of these unfortunate 
creatures came here out of the Methodist church.' 

"The keeper having heard this, and knowing who they were, 
determined to score them, if a suitable opportunity presented itself. 
Well, it was not long until one of them asked him if any of the con- 
victs had ever been members of any church, &c. He answered 
them in the affirmative. 'What church,' enquired the priest, 
'were they members of?' Said the keeper, 'the most of them came 
here out of the Presbyterian church!!!' The result was, the young 
clerg\-man made no further enquiries on the subject. 

"From Baltimore, I proceeded to Philadelphia, on board of a 
steam-boat, accompanied by some tw(?lity-five or thirty Meth- 
odist preachers, delegates to the general conference. Here, I 
remained all the month of May. While in this city, I attended the 
anniversary of the American Sunday School Union. To a super- 
ficial observer, this would have been an interesting meeting; but 
I saw too much management to please me. 

"While the Methodist general conference was sitting, the 
Presbyterian general assembly was in session likewise. I was 
present in the assembly, when they had the great doctrinal ques- 
tion on the carpet — I mean the new school and the old school 
divinity, or as some of them tenned it, 'heresy' and 'orthodoxy.' 
The debate grew out of an appeal from the decision of a synod, to 
the general assembly, on the part of some new school men, for a 
division of the Philadelphia Presbytery. On this question a 
violent personal debate arose, which would, for intemperance of 
language and wholesale abuse of private character, absolutely 
disgrace the lowest poster house, or ale cellar, in the lowest place 
in the lowest town or city in the lowest country in the world. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 247 

"During the sitting of this assembly, and also of our conference, 
in the midst too of the debates of the former, I was invited to dine 
at the house of Alexander Cook, Esq., in company with venerable 
Bishop Roberts, Ezekiel Cooper, John P. Durbin, Francis A, 
Owen and others, and before the bell rang for dinner, while we were 
sitting together in the parlor with several other persons, one of the 
company lifted a Presbyterian paper, just published, and read a 
brief sketch of the proceedings of the assembly, written by a mem- 
ber of that body, in which he stated that great peace and harmony 
prevailed among them, and that they had indubitable evidence 
that the Lord was with them! 

"Bishop Roberts then enquired of me to know, smiling at the 
same time, how I would reconcile that statement with the account 
myself and others had given of their debates. I replied, that I 
supposed the writer did not use the terms peace and harmony, 
in their most common acceptations, and that on this ground there 
was no discrepancy in our statements; and that as to the Lord 
being present, the writer could prove by me, that John Lord, 
one of our delegation from New England, a very tall fine looking 
man too, was present and heard their debates, and that it was 
possible the writer alluded to him! But said I, if he meant to say 
that the good Lord of Heaven and earth was with them, he was 
certainly mistaken. 

"Now, that an omnipresent God was there, in the sense in 
which he is in every part of creation, no man who believes the 
scriptures will doubt ; but that the almighty was there to sanction 
and approve of their jarring affections, malevolent wishes, broils 
and contentions, discordant voices, hard names, and confusion, is 
impossible. I would say that a being of revengeful and depraved 
passions, slightly varnished over with hypocrisy, dissimulation, and 
the various forms of politeness which prevail in parliamentary 
usages and debates, presided over the assembly; and the spirit 
which evidently stimulated and excited them to action, and the 
horrible and extensive effects produced by their inflammatory 
debates, bear me out in this supposition. 

"They called other 'heretics,' and gave other the 'lie;' and 
indeed, one of the members of the assembly called Dr. Ely an 
'unregenerate heretic!' And in vain the moderator attempted to 
reconcile them. During the heat of their debate, the moral at- 
mosphere surrounding the place, became so tainted, that it was 
fatal to dignity, respectability and virtue to breathe it. And, they 
must alter their manner of conducting their controversies in the 
general assembly, if they would turn our 'moral wilderness' into a 
paradise of national, social, and domestic happiness. In one word, 
there have never been just such signs in the Presbyterian zodiac, 
since the stamp act of 1765, and the night when Samuel Adams, 
and John Hancock, caused the tea to be thrown overboard in the 
harbor of Boston! I confess, for one, that I entertained a hope, 
that the system would soon be discomfitted, slain and buried, till 
the general judgment at least, and then finally, completely, and 
irretrievably annihilated! 

248 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"1832-This year, our conference held its annual session in 
Evensham, in western Virginia. Bishop Emory presided. At 
this conference, I was appointed to the Tugalow circuit, lying most- 
ly in the district of Pickens, South Carolina. On this circuit, I 
was enabled to efifect but very little in a moral point of view, it 
being over-run with Baptists. Though I had no controversy with 
the Baptists this year, I had the pleasure of preaching with their 
greatest man Mr. , more than once. 

"If by the term 'great preacher,' be understood the fermen- 
tations of a roving brain, paradox united to a depraved taste, un- 
ceasing apostophes, exclamations, obscure hyperboles — in a word, 
if a style inflated with extravagant metaphors, indicates greatness 
in a preacher, then indeed was this a mighty man! And if sterile 
ideas clothed with a redimdancy of improper words, accumulated 
substantives, crowded epithets, rapid contradictions, repetitions 
re-echoed, abundance of synonymous words, and unceasing con 
trasts, constitute true eloquence, then does this man stand un- 
rivalled as an orator! 

"This was a very cold winter; and the water courses kept up 
till late in the spring. I swam the Tugalow river four times during 
this winter, besides the large creeks, &c. More than once, after 
swimming these water courses, I preached in open meeting houses, 
with my clothes froze on me! At one time, in swimming the river, 
when it was very full, I was driven below the ford by the strength 
of the current, and had like to have never reached the land again. 
Indeed I was in a squirrel's jump of the good world! 

"Here I learned that nullification is emphatically death to 
religion. The churches were all enveloped in the smoke of faction. 
The Presbyterian and Baptist clergy, in this country, volunteered 
to support the ordinance, and preached expressly on nullification, 
declaring that it was both scriptural and right! Having received 
a new commission from heaven, or elsewhere, to 'Go into all the 
world and preach nullification to every creature;' like the fol- 
lowers of Mahomet, and not like the disciples of Jesus, whose duty 
it is to preach peace and good will to mankind, they carried the 
alcoran of nullification in one hand, and the sword in the other, 
saying to the people, 'choose ye this day whom ye will serve.' 'If 
nullification be God serve it, and if submission to the law of the 
land be God, then follow it.' A Baptist minister in Greeneville 
district, just above where I traveled, made the discovery, that 
nullification was the 'quintesccnce of religion,' and that 'Jesus 
Christ himself was a nuUifier!' Different Presbyterian ministers 
preached sermons on the subject, and some of them had their 
discourses published in pamphlet form, and circulated among the 
people, at large. In some Baptist congregations where the union 
party was the strongest, motions were submitted to exclude nulli- 
fiers from the pale of the church. The Methodist preachers, with 
few exceptions, were not guilty of such improprieties. As to 
Calvinistic ministers, they have both precept and example in their 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 249 

churches, for nulUfication. John Calvin, in the cases of Servetus 
and CasteUio, nulhfied that law of God which says, 'Thou shalt 
not kill.' 

"The nullifiers throughout the country, distinguished them- 
selves by wearing a cockade on their hats, made of blue ribbon. 
Even the boys, not free from the apron strings of their mothers, 
had them displayed in bold relief, and in the true style of chivalry. 
Som.e of the union party, however, by way of contempt, fastened 
the cockade on the necks of their dogs. And I heard much said of 
a certain little bobtail fiste, in one of the country towns, having the 
cockade upon the tip end of his tail, trotting about the streets, and 
thus carrying nullification 'sky-high!' Surely, Don Quixotte 
himself would have charged a dozen wind mills, and broken a hun- 
dred lances, and fought a kingdom of giants for* such a badge! 

"A vast number of the common people, or peasantry, left the 
state ; and if many of those who held land and other property, could 
have disposed of it, on any thing like reasonable terms, they would 
have fled from the 'peaceful remedy' as fast and as thick as did 
the darts in the Trojan war. 

"But as it regards this thing called nullification, I find scripture 
both for and against it. When the Babylonian king passed a law 
not warranted by the law of God, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed- 
nego, nullified it at the hazard of their lives, and were by the power 
of God successful. Darius, afterwards king of the Medes and 
Persians, trying a similar project, had his laws nullified at the per- 
il of his life — he succeeded, and his enemies were destroyed, and 
the power and majesty of God in both instances was spread over 
the immense realms of those potentates. 

"But there are other cases, in which nullification was attended 
with the worst of consequences. In the garden of Eden, our first 
parents were induced by the devil, in the form of the serpent, to 
nullify the law of God and taste the forbidden fruit; and believing 
it to be a 'peaceful remedy,' they made the 'experiment.' Cain, 
in the case of his brother Abel, nullified the law of God, for which 
he received a black mark in his forehead! A nation of Jews who 
perished in the siege at Jerusalem, were all nullifiers. So were 
the wretched inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorah. And the Ante- 
deluvians, for their South Carolina politics, were all baptized by 
immersion. Last of all, the king of Egypt, in trying to carry his 
ORDINANCE into effect, got drowned in the 'Red Sea. And 
had the South Carolina nullifiers gone a little further witlf their 
scheme, old Hickory would have drowned them in the port of 

"For my own part, I think it best to obey the injunction of St. 
Paul, who says, 'Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, 
for there is no power but of God. The powers that be are or- 
dained of God, whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth 
the ordinance of God, and they that resist shall receive to them- 
selves damnation.' 

250 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"During this year, I visited the Telulee Falls, in Habersham 
county, Georgia. The revolutions on our earth, by which its 
original appearance has been so repeatedly changed, together w^ith 
the manner in which nature has embellished the temporary res- 
idence of man, have, at all times, commanded the attention, and 
excited the astonishment of the learned. These traces of des- 
olation have always acted on the human mind; and the traditions 
of deluges, preserved among almost every people, are derived 
from the different phenomena, and the great variety of marine 
productions scattered over the earth. But, we can never learn 
much on a subject so extensive, so very remote, and so wonderful. 
I have been in different states in the Union, and have looked with 
peculiar delight upon the order, harmony, and beauty of the works 
of creation in each; but never have I witnesses a scene which 
struck my mind with such profound awe, and so completely filled 
me with admiration of the infinite skill of the great Architect of 
nature. These falls are situated twelve miles from Clarksville, 
the county seat of Habersham, on the Telulee river, a beautiful 
stream indeed, which meanders through the hills, dales, valleys and 
piney woods, till it loses itself in the great Savannah. These falls, 
for several years past, have been a place of great resort, especially 
with the lowlanders, who, for their health, spend the summer in 
this 'hill country.' And I have to regret, that I do not possess a 
more lively and acute genius, that I might give a more graphic 
and interesting description of them. The scene, is said in point of 
grandeur, to be superior to that at Niagara, by some who have 
visited both. But as I have never seen the falls of Niagara, I will 
not vouch for the truth of this statement. I will say however, 
that it is difficult to form even a tolerable idea of this stupendous 
cataract without visiting and examing it. And even then it is not 
easy to bring the imagination to embrace the magnitude of the 
scene. For some distance above rolls the gentle stream, almost 
without wave or ripple to disturb the tranquility of its bosom, till, 
all of a sudden, sweeping along to the dreadful precipice, leaping 
from rock to rock, gathering all its energies, it plunges into the 
awful abyss below. 

"Where the water falls, and between the bluffs on either side, 
there is such an astonishing chasm, as, viewed from above, strikes 
the beholder with terror! Down this chasm the water rushes with 
surprising velocity, after its first and most tremendous pitch, which 
is a faH of some considerable distance, though not perpendicular. 
The pitch of the whole body of water produces a tremendous 
sound which may be heard at some distance. The dashing of the 
water also produces a mist which rises to a great height. And 
some small distance below, the water, the waves, and the foam, 
have quite a great appearance indeed. The eye of an obser- 
vant mind must rest, indeed, with peculiar delight on the 
structure of these falls, viewing them as a matchless display 
of Almighty power. To be in sight of these falls, at this 
season of the year, upon an adjacent eminence, surrounded by an 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 25 1 

extensive field, handsomely interspersed with timber; where one 
can inhale the balmy zephyrs, charmed with the splendor of the sun, 
and the variegated coloring spread over the face of the country, 
and then, in the midst of this grandeur, let the rich harmony of a 
choir of feathered songsters come pealing on the ear, and certainly 
no heart can be so dead to feeling, as to resist the charms. 

"I am told by those who visit them amidst wintry storms, 
clouds, rain and fog, when a dense, hazy atmosphere, surcharged 
with watery exhalations, hangs all around, that the scene is aw- 
fully grand. 

"If the traveller, in crossing the mountains to or from the 
south, will take the trouble to call in and see these falls, he may see 
the works of nature on a scale of magnitude and grandeur which 
it will be highly gratifying to behold and investigate, and which 
will raise to the highest pitch his conceptions of the magnificence 
and glory of him, whose works are very truly 'great and marvelous!' 
He will feel within him a burning desire to reach that eternal world 
of joy, where the redeemed shall acquire a more minute and com- 
prehensive view of the attributes of the diety and of the connec- 
tions, relations, and dependencies, of the vast physical and moral 
system over which his government extends. 

"Decision of the Law-Suit. Having given security, at the time 
I was first presented, for my appearance at the ensuing superior 
court, I returned from the south, to North Carolinia in February, 
in this year, and took out subpoenas for the witnesses by whom I 
intended to make good the charges alleged in the bill of indict- 
nient. Well, I came on to court; and on Monday, the first day of 
court, my counsel demanded a trial, and continued to do so every 
day, till the last evening of court, when, just at night, it was grant 
ed. The reason why a trial could not be had sooner, was, that the 
bill which had been drawn up at the former court, and which I 
was then prepared to answer, was found to be defective, or such 
an one as I would blow up; and hence, a new bill was drawn up, 
and a new presentment made to the jury, and a new plan of ar- 
rangements adopted. And what is more strange than all, the 
state (for this was a state case) nullified this bill, and the state 
forced me to pay the cost of the same, though I was ready for 
trial ! The like was never heard of before ! 

"In this last bill of indictment, there were three specifications, 
of which the following was considered the most important: 

"But sir, I am constrained to believe, that you are so destitute of 
feeling, so blind to the beauties of religion, so hacknied in crime, 
and so lost to all sense of honor and shame, that nothwithstand- 
ing your faculties still enable you to continue your sordid pur- 
suits, they will not permit you to feel any remorse, or acknowledge 
your errors.' To support this charge, I had various respectable 
witnesses present to prove the man a liar, a slanderer, and a de- 
frauder; and after doing so, I intended to infer, according to scrip- 
ture and reason, that he was what I had represented him to be. 

252 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

I knew very well, that no man in his sober senses, would swear 
positively, that he was dead in sins and trespasses, and lost to all 
sense of honor and shame ; but I simply supposed that upon making 
out this proof, the conclusion would be inevitable. And indeed, 
I afterwards procured the certificates of nineteen respectable men 
eight of whom were ministers of the gospel, proving him to be 
this kind of a man, and published them to the world, as before 

"Upon failing to get witnesses to swear to the man's heart, my 
counsel submitted the case without any pleading, and I was fined 
five Dollars. 

"But it is worthy of notice, that this man, in going to law, in- 
stead of bringing an action of slander, indicted me for libel. His 
motive for acting this, was, he had been told that in action for 
slander, the truth of the words spoken, or written, affords a com- 
plete justification, which is seldom the case in an indictment for 
libel. Besides, an action of slander would have enabled me as 
defendant, to defend my own character, and attack his more suc- 
cessfully, than the rigid rules which govern an indictment for libel 
would allow of. For, in this state, the British doctrine of libelling 
is incorporated in the constitution; and the laws enacted on the 
subject in Old England, were, for the most part, intended for the 
protection of the king, and when explained amount to this — the 
greater the truth, the greater the libel. So that, had the once 
intended scheme of the parliament of Great Britain, to pass a bill, 
which denied to persons accused on a criminal account the privilege 
of defending themselves by the help of counsel, been here carried 
out and acted upon, I could have sustained no additional injury by 
it. For, under the regulations which governed this indictment, the 
legal knowledge of a Blackstone, or a Mansfield, combined with 
the eloquence of Lord Bolingbroke and Charles Fox, would have 
been of no service to me. Now, under the laws which govern an 
indictment for a libel, David and Solomon, were they on earth, 
might be charged and convicted for having libelled the whole 
human race. David has said, 'all men are liars,' and Solomon 
has said, 'there are none good.' Now deprive the former of the 
testimony of an inspired prophet, who, speaking of the human 
family, as soon as they are born, says, 'they go astray speaking 
lies,' and he could not sustain the charge. Well, deprive the 
latter of the scripture proofs of general depravity, and he would 
make a complete failure likewise. And here I will remark, for 
your information reader, that if you are ever disposed to select 
a legal remedy in a case of this kind, and your general character 
is bad, indict for a libel, and not for slander; for, if you do, your 
opponent will be allowed to investigate your character from your 
youth up. And, if you should ever conclude to sue for your char- 
acter, and it is not better than that of this man, sue for a new one, 
and not for the one you have! 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 253 

"But, when a man is indicted for a libel, and is found guilty and 
taxed with the cost, the idea goes out among the ignorant and un- 
informed, that he signed a libel^an instrument of writing in which 
he acknowledges himself to be a liar, &c. And this has been said 
of me, both in Carolina and Tennessee, by the ignorant and mal- 
icious ministers and members of the Baptist church. But it is 
all as false, as its numerous authors are infamous. Nor am I 
anxious for those who are not accustomed to think for themselves, 
or the corrupt, or those who are under the influence of trained 
and active intriguers, to entertain any other view of the subject. 
The majesty of truth will command the reverence of the candid — 
those who refuse to comply with its stern demands, can peaceably 
enjoy their own opinions. 

"Were I disposed to do so, I might give the public a dissertation 
on the posse comitatus, equally as ponderous, as that with which 
Lord North furnished the British House of Commons 

"I will, however, only say, that there has never been such a 
trial, since the trial of William Penn, before the court of Old Bailey, 
in England, for preaching to the Quakers in the streets of London; 
and, for his controversy with the Baptists and Catholics. Perhaps, 
I might except the trial of John Wesley at Savannah, in 1737; 
and, more recently, the trial of Lorenzo Dow, in Charleston. Dow 
was indicted for a libel; and although he plead \he truth of the 
allegations in justification, and rested his defense solely upon this 
plea, he was nevertheless, convicted, and the sentence of the law 
was that of a fine and imprisonment! 

"A few remarks in relation to the cost of this suit, and I have 
done for the present. Having lost the suit, as a matter of course, 
it fell to my lot to pay the cost. The legal cost of the suit, amount- 
ed to quite a trifle, there being only two witnesses on the part of 
the prosecution, and but few of these whom I had subpoenaed, who 
proved their attendance. But, on my return to that country, I 
learned that a third person, not known in the suit, had summoned 
a host of old Baptist witnesses, who, after court had adjourned, 
and I had paid most of the legal cost and left there, went forward 
and proved their attendance! These witnesses were sum- 
moned for no other purpose under the sun but to create 
cost; and as evidence of this, they were never called into 
court, nor was it known to me that they were there as witnesses! ! 
Well, on Sabbath, in the month of June, about five miles from the 
court house, while I was at church, in company with my presiding 
elder, William Patton, and the circuit preacher, Stephen W. Earn- 
est, a corrupt and inexperienced deputy sheriff, seized upon me 
for this illegal cost! 

"To satisfy the demands of this extra-judicial claim, on the 
next morning, I gave the officer an elegant dun mare, saddle, bridle, 
saddle-bags, and umbrella, all of which he disposed of in short 

254 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"How true the remark of an eminent writer; 'he that opposeth 
hell, may expect hell's rage.' Surely their conduct savors more 
of that of an Algerine banditti, than of a body of civilized men — 
not to say christians. And surely, in traversing the vast con- 
tinent of America, in wandering over the barren plains of inhos- 
pitable Denmark, through honest Sweden, and frozen Lapland, 
rude and churlish Finland, unpri ncipled Russia, and the wide 
spread regions of the wandering Tartars, I shall never have to 
encounter a more savage and unprincipled set! With but few 
exceptions, the whole pack are steeped to the very chin in cor- 
ruption, living upon its wages, and pandering to its purposes. 
They are shrouded in the sack-cloth and ashes of shame and dis- 
grace, and enclosed in vaults full of buried venality. Like the 
fabled apples on the shore of the Dead Sea, they are fair without, 
but ashes wuthin. They are daily accustomed to low and dirty 
.contemplations, and familiarized by habit to the most filthy and 
mistaken views of truth. 

"Their abominable impurites — their enormous injustice — their 
profanation of holy things — their contempt of the Supreme 
Being^their rancor and animosity — their hypocritical artifices— 
their dark designs and insidious calumnies, if unrepented for, 
will one day seize upon them, and burn them with the most in- 
expressible anguish. 

"But publfc opinion has long since sealed the fate of these 
miserable offenders, and they have well nigh perished amidst the 
universal execrations of an honest community; while the winds 
of heaven have w^afted the dying shrieks of their flimsy characters, 
from the shores of time to the distant vaults of merited oblivion! 
Still, I would pray Omnipotence, in the dying language of Stephen, 
who, when a similar set were mangling his body with stones, said, 
'Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.' But as sure as that moral 
justice is not a fiction, when the day of retribution shall come, and 
the unclouded light of eternity dawns upon the disordered chaos 
of all human concerns, it will be seen that, throughout, this was a 
shameful transaction, on the part of these my inquisitorial accusers. 
For, never before, perhaps, has a case occurred within the compass 
of the whole civilized world, in which the laws intended for the 
protection of personal rights, have been so openly and basely 
set at defiance, and have proved, in practice, so entirelv inad- 
equate to their object. The judge, many of whose relations are 
Baptists, before and after he came to court, declared he would 
put it to me, or words to this amount. And the attorney-general, 
before the court, represented me as a foreigner, having come into 
the country, and made the attack upon the plaintiff! This is 
carrying out the doctrine of state rights much further, than even 
contended for by South Carolina; for if a member of the Hartford 
convention, were to settle within her limits, she would allow him 
all the privileges of a bona fide juredivino citizen. This is indeed 
state restrictions, instead of state rights. In matters of contro- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 255 

versy in Tennessee, this primogeniture citizenship is not taken into 
the account. The laws of Draco, were the very quintescence of 
justice and mercy, if compared with this inexpHcable system of 
judicial ethics! 

"The most infamous culprit is entitled to the benefit of a fair 
and impartial trial; and no individual, however talented or high in 
office, should be allowed to assume to himself the office of Judge, 
jury and executioner, all at the same time. 

"The following extract from Volney's Ruins; or Meditation on 
the Revolutions,' upon the 'Universal basis of all Right and all 
Law,' contains an excellent view of the origin of all justice and of 

"Whatever be the active power, the moving cause that governs 
the universe, since it has been given to all men the same sensations, 
and the same wants, it has thereby declared that it has given to 
all the same right to the use of its treasures, and that all men are 
equal in the order of nature. Secondly, since this power has given 
to each man the necessary means of preserving his own existence, 
it is evident that it has constituted them all independent one of 
another— that it has created them free — that no man is subject 
another — that each is absolute proprietor of his own person. 
Equality and Liberty are therefore two essential attributes of 

"In conclusion, all who are not too deeply rooted and grounded 
in error, to be convinced by reason and argument, will be perfectly 
satisfied with this account of this part of my life. The people of 
Carolina, who are well acquainted with the parties and circum- 
stances under consideration, are the best judges, and with them 
rests the verdict, which will be awarded for or against the proper 
person. For my own part, I do not feel daunted in the least de- 
gree, in view of their decision; nor have I at all been annoyed 
because of the vile and scurrilous abuse of party, and of sectarian 
venom which have been poured upon me. And I shall go on in 
the bold, but even tenor of my way, and perform the duties I owe 
to God, to my conscience, and to the church of which I have the 
honor to be both a member and a minister. I have but little 
ambition to gratify, no private ends to answer, and no desire but 
the good of the whole human family; and while public and private 
scandal, secret malice, and all the baser passions of the human 
heart are brought to bear against me, I shall stand firm and steady, 
and endeavor by the assistance of God, to walk worthy of the 
vocation to which it has pleased God and the church to call me. 
As an individual, my reputation is untarnished; and all the worst 
occurrences of my life, are herewith submitted to the world. 

"The great body, both of the membership and ministry, in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, for many miles round, know me — 
and they know me well ; and those who live at a distance, are well 
enough acquainted with Methodism to know, that no man of a 
suspicious character would be continued in the travelling con- 

256 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

nection, or sent by an Annual Conference, to labor on any circuit, 
station or district. And the Journals of the Holston Annual 
Conference will shew, that a charge of immorality has never been 
brought against me and sustained, sincr I have been a member of 
said Conference. 

"Indeed ministerial character, like female virtue, should chal- 
lenge scrutiny; and with the fearlessness of conscious uprightness 
and purity, recoil not at the severest and most tr>'ing ordeal. 

"1833 — ThisyearourConferencemetatKingsport,in the month 
of November. Bishop Roberts attended, but owing to bad health, 
did not preside more than a part of two days. Our esteemed 
brother, Thomas Wilkerson, by the appointment of the Bishop, 
presided the remainder of the session. At this conference, I was 
appointed to travel alone on the Dandridge circuit, a three weeks 
circuit, lying in the fork, between the Holston and French Broad 

"In the commencement of this year, we had some encourage- 
ment. Our first quarterly meeting was very interesting; but 
considerations of a highly important character prevented the pro- 
gress of the work in the latter part of the year. On this circuit, 
as on several other circuits, I had to expel some malcontents from 
the pale of our communion. 

"Some of these miscreants immediately set about the work ol 
raising a party, and of destroying the societies of which they hai 
been members; but fortunately for the cause of Methodism, they 
could get but few disciples to aid them in this fiend-like work. 
And although the few followers they did muster up, made it their 
business to cry daily, 'Great is Diana of the Ephesians!' — 'un- 
fairness of trial' — 'snap judgment,' &c. They were unable to 
effect anything save their own disgrace. And although they 
were untiring in their efforts, yet it should seem to me, that a con- 
scious inability to defend a cause so weak, and to sustain a position 
so notoriously at variance with everything like truth, should have 
calmed them down to silence. Poor unfortunate creatures ! They 
did not even act understandingly, in reference to their own interest . 
Every struggle they made to involve other and extricate them- 
selves, only made their condition worse. By this time, I pre- 
sume, they are prepared to adopt the sentiment, that man's whole 
life is but school hours; this world a great university; and the 
vicissitudes of the time his preceptor! 

"The Meteoric Phenomenon Accounted For! — 

"Between five and six o'clock on Wednesday morning, Nov. 
13, 1833, it will long be recollected by thousands, that one of the 
most beautiful phenomena ever seen by the eye of man, appeared in 
the heavens. This extraordinary phenomena, consisted of a great 
number of what are vulgarly called shooting stars, which, from 
common centres, appeared to be shooting in every direction, ex- 
cept upwards, radiating the whole heavens, by leaving a streak of 
mild light on the unsullied blue. This occurred during my first 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 257 

round on the Dandridgc circuit. And while many were wrapped 
in wonder and deHght, in contemplating the mild sublimity and 
glory of the millions of lines of light which were gradually appearing 
and disappearing in succession, during the continuance of this 
most beautiful of all celestial phenomena, others were seriously 
alarmed. Some predicted that the end of all things was just at 
hand; or that the prophetic period had arrived, 'in the which the 
heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall 
melt with fervent heat,' — and when 'the earth also and the works 
that are therein shall be burned up!' And some thought that, in 
the language of the General Epistle of Jude, they were 'wandering 
stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever!' 
Others thought the meteors ominous of war ; and some of one thing 
and some of another. While, to cap the climax, some knowing 
ones among the Baptists, who, I suppose, were disposed to account 
for this prodigy in nature, solely on philosophic principles, said it 
was a sign of the downfall of the Methodists ! ! ! 

"But, soon after this occurrence, a company of females met 
at a quilting, in the bounds of a circuit I ones traveled, 
and while they were wondering, and guessing, and prophesy- 
ing, &c., with regard to the cause of this wonder of wonders, 
a Hopkinsian lady remarked, 'the whole matter has been occasioned 
by the death of Brownlow!' 'What,' exclaimed another, 'is it 
possible that Brownlow is dead!' 'Yes,' replied this sister Phebe 
f*f Cenchrea, 'he has been dead several weeks, and by tight squeez- 
ing he made out to go to heaven; but he had been there no time 
scarcely until he raised a fuss, and was running about all over the 
good world taking certificates to clear himself; and it took such 
hard work to get him out of heaven, that it set the stars to falling!' 
"This, after my acknowledged and known dexterity in writing 
pamphlets, and in using up Hopkinsian missionaries and Sunday 
school agents, by certificates, I frankly confess, had liked to have 
plagued me. May this good hearted humorous sister, when she 
gets to heaven, in obedience to the apostle's injunction, bridle that 
unruly member, the tongue, and not meet with a similar defeat, 
is, I believe, about all the harm I wish her. And in the mean time, 
should I be so fortunate as to get to heaven again, the next time I 
die, I will try and be more on my guard. 

"QUERY: From the circumstance of my having been cast 
'out of heaven,' must I not have gotten there, upon Dr. Hopkins's 
principles of natural ability? Certainly I must. For the scrip- 
tures say, all who get there by grace, through faith in the son of 
God, 'go out no more.' And if all who go there on this principle, 
are in danger of being driven out, had not the most of the Hopkins- 
ians now living, better do their 'first works over' again? Indeed, 
editor Hoyt, of the parish of Maryville, in publishing his phil- 
ippics soon after this occurrence, in common with other editors, 
remarked, that on a certain morning 'a phenomena appeared in the 
heavens, which greatly alarmed the inhabitants!' — that is, the 
inhabitants of Heaven; for he makes a full stop after the word 

258 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Now, brother Hoyt would have his readers beHeve, that the 
inhabitants of the good world were as 'greatly alarmed' on seeing 
the meteors, as were the pius priests and Levities of Maryville, 
on hearing that the Cholera was in West Tennessee! And, I 
suppose, that if the priests themselves had not been 'greatly alarm- 
ed,' they would have taken the advantage of the occasion, as they 
did in the case of the Cholera, and thereby produced another 
"great re vial' of religion! 

"But, if any of the inhabitants of heaven were alarmed on ths 
morning of the memorable thirteenth of November, they must 
have been Hopkinsians; for sure I am, that no persons who have 
gone there diegratia, have ever been alarmed at an occurrence 
which could be accounted for on principles of philosophy. For, 
from the very constitution of the human mind, it is evident, that 
every branch of science is recognized and fully understood by the 
righteous, in the blessed world above us. 

"If the considerations now adduced be admitted to have any 
force, and if the position I have endeavored to establish, cannot be 
overthrown, either on scriptural or rational grounds — it must 
follow, I think, that brother Hoyt is altogether mistaken. But 
who informed him that the inhabitants of heaven were alarmed? 
I am conscious of not having reported such a thing on my return to 
earth. He must have gotten his information from this sagacious 

"Upon the whole, I have much reason to rejoice and give thanks 
for what I heard, and seen, and felt, during this year, and to re- 
gret that any circumstance should have occurred to prevent greater 
good from being done. But ray regrets, though profound, shall be 
temperate and resigned, as one who mourns over a dispensation of 
Providence which seems to have been inevitable, and has been 
mercifully delayed far beyond what I could have expected. Deep, 
sincere, and lasting, will be these sensations, and mingled with 
them, the consolatory reflection, that I was acting correctly, and to 
the best of my abilities, endeavoring to promote the cause of truth. 

"Dandridge, and the country round about, in a moral point 
of view, is a cold, unhealthy, damp and foggy region! When in 
this region, I felt pretty much as I suppose Job did when in the 
hands of the enemy. The Hopkinsians of this region, are fully as 
hostile to Methodism as any set I ever met with. When they 
speak of the Methodists, they do it without ceremony. They 
constantly appoint opposition meetings, to keep their members 
from attending Methodist meetings. In short, they oppose Meth- 
odism in every way; and latterly, they have opposed it under a 
false pretence of friendship, by endeavoring to persuade some of 
our own members that they feel a deep concern for our prosperity! 

"Whenever they could hear of any one that had fallen out with 
me, or who had any slang to retail concerning me, they would 
flock to, and hang around such an one, like famished calves around 
a parent cow ! 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 259 

"In a word, their employment during this year, with here and 
there an exception, was, to either ruminate upon the rugged hills 
of malice, or to skulk about in the hollow caverns of falsehood, in 
pursuit of those whom they sought to devour. And yet, after 
death, they expect to go to heaven. It is devoutly hoped they may. 
But the heaven to which they are now journeying, I fear, is a 
dreadful place, the geographical location of which is nowhere, and 
whose tenants are the haggard phantoms of an over-heated im- 
agination ! 

"The Lord, the Judge, his churches warns: 
Let hypocrites attend and fear. 

Who place their hopes in rites and forms. 
But make not faith nor love their care. 

Wretches! they dare rehearse his name, 
With lips of falsehood and deceit; 

A friend or borther they defame, 
And soothe and flatter those they hate.' 

"This year, at the request of the editor of the New Market 
Telegraph, I wrote several articles for publication in this paper — 
none of them were controversial. I wrote over the signature of 
'An Observer;' and as it was not known who the writer was, most 
of these articles were quite popular with the Hopkinsians. But I 
felt confident that they would not be received, if they knew who 
the writer was. Hence, I determined to make an experiment. 
I wrote an article headed, 'THERE IS A GOD,' and endeavored 
to sustain the position by adducing the evidences of nature, reason, 
and revelation, making known at the same time that I was the 
author. Well, as strange as it may seem, I heard of two or three 
persons w^ho objected to the article, and espoused the opposite 
side of the question, saying in effect, that there was NO GOD! 

"During the month of June, in this year, a most vulgar, abusive 
and shameful publication, appeared against me in the New-Market 
Telegraph, entitled a 'Protest,' and having the signature of a poor, 
miserable creature tacked on to it, equally destitute of character 
and standing. But, I did not let myself down, in a formal way, 
to answer the publication under consideration; and some supposed, 
from this consideration, that I admitted the allegations it contained 
to be true. The truth is, however, I did not wish to wage either 
a defensive or offensive war with a misnomer. Nor can I con- 
descend hereafter, to notice in any way, anything emanating from 
any such source, unless a voucher, or endorser of some note can be 
found to father what may appear. However, it has since been 
discovered, that this production was written by a Hopkinsian 
clergyman, and that the real author had only made a cat's paw of 
this miserable creature, w^hose name accompanies the same. The 
author of the piece, however, very artfully introduced a quantity 
of bad spelling, and sorry punctuation; and in numbers, he gen- 

260 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

erally confounded the singular with the plural, and but seldom used 
the proper tense, intending thereby to influence the community 
to believe, that his relative had written it sure enough. 

"Early in the month of August, in this year, a small circular 
made its appearance against me, purporting to be an appeal to the 
'Christian public,' coming from the meridian of Western North 
Carolina, and having the names of seventeen men annexed there- 
unto. This miserable thing was afterwards published in the 
'Christian Index,' and 'Baptist Miscellany,' a religious paper 
published in Washington, Georgia, a few copies of which found 
their way into Tennessee, and were read with great avidity by the 
ignorant Baptists, and malicious Hopkinsians of my acquaintance. 
This circular, or 'half-sheet,' as it has since been denominated, was 
intended to be a reply to a pamphlet I published thirteen months 
before its appearance, consisting of thirty-six octavo pages. Some few 
of the signers of this document, inchne to the Hopkinsians; others 
of them are the oldest and most bigotted members of the Baptist 
church in that country; and others of them, as the saying is, lean 
towards the Baptists. And six out of the seventeen, are the rela- 
tives of the Baptist preacher with whom I had the lawsuit! In 
short, I have recently learned, that only one man out of the seven- 
teen can be considered, in any respect, friendly to the Methodist 
church; and this poor little man permitted the Baptists to make 
a tool of him, in order to accomplish some political ends. In 
proof of their opposition to the Methodist church, they style the 
Methodists in that country a 'lawless mob!' As to the number of 
names attached to this circular, I care not for this circumstance 
For had the writer written ten times as much more, and had it 
been ten times as slanderous as it is, these men would have stuck 
their paws to it. And if the firm will yet take the pains to come to 
Tennessee, they may find one himdred persons, who will either 
certify or swear, anything against me, their malice and ingenuity 
may dictate. Still, I stand as fair, and have as many friends in 
Tennessee as I desire to have. But these certifiers never advance 
an argument in their production. Take for example the following 
sentence: 'The evidence is so caricatured, that it is impossible 
for any person to understand, from the reading of his pamphlet, 
anything in truth about the matter!!!' Now it is a little strange, 
that there should not be 'anything in truth,' concerning a certain 
matter, in a pamphlet of thirty-six pages, when that whole pam- 
phlet too, was written upon that one single subject! As to the 
impossibility of understanding the pamphlet, I have no doubt but 
those persons against whom it was written, would rejoice, could 
they believe it had not been read and fully understood by thous- 
ands. With what unpardonable laxity these certifiers have writ- 
ten! The whole pamphlet is false! And why is it false? Why, 
because! Because what? Just because it is!! Exquisite reason- 
ing this!!! However, with a certain class of persons, strong as- 
sertions have great weight. 

hciv^ ... 


Painted by C. W. Peale, 1741-1827. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 261 

"After an attentive perusal of this affair, I hesitated whether I 
ought to take any notice of it or not. However, I ultimately 
replied to it, in a pamphlet of twelve pages. This hesitation, 
however, did not arise from any conviction on my part, of the dif- 
ficulty of answering it; but mostly from an unwillingness to make 
something out of nothing. For surely he must be very indifferent- 
ly employed, who would take upon himself to answer non-sense 
in form; to ridicule what is of itself ridiculous; and trouble the 
world to read a second seomething, for the sake of the impertinen- 
ces of a former — to which his is a reply. 

"In conclusion, I know not to what school of morals I shall 
trace the unblushing and false charges with which this circular 
abounds. The guilt of lying, which attaches itself to the features 
of the thing, is that of the most odious kind; it is guilt, the off- 
spring of malice, illy reflected on, deeply corrupt, shamefully 
false, and secretly though badly matured. 

"STEAM DOCTORS!— During this year, in the county of 
Jefiferson, I renewed my acquaintance with a species of vermin 
called "steam doctors." During the spring and summer of 1833, 
in South Carolina and Georgia, I became personally acquainted 
with several of these miscreants, and with feelings of indescribable 
horror, I witnessed the spread of carnage, rapine and death, under 
their administration; and I then hoped, I might never meet with 
them again. But alas! I found them in great abundance in this 
part of Tennessee. These miserable victims to human refine- 
ment and intelligence, go about transforming portions of gum, 
pepper and alcohol, into a strong decotion called number six; and 
by a sort of mechanical process, they steam the animal life out of a 
man, almost in a moment, and thus cause him, in short order, to 
exchange an earthly, for a heavenly inheritance! These are won- 
derful men! Their mental eyes survey the whole circle of the 
science of medicine, and point out the path by which every branch 
of knowledge may be carried to perfection! They can detach the 
element of fire from the invisible air, surrounding a weed called 
lobelia, and cause the strongest constitution, and the stoutest 
frame to melt like wax under its powerful agency! These steamers 
can go still farther. They can penetrate beyond the limits of all 
that is visible in the immense world of experiments and range 
amidst the infinity of unknown systems and worlds dispersed 
throughout the boundless regions of Thomsonianism, and they 
can overleap the bounds of time, and expatiate amidst future 
scenes of misery, and pain, and suffering, and man-slaughter and 
murder, which 'eye hath not seen,' nor even 'ear heard,' throughout 
the countless ages of their infamous duration! 

"Socrates, Plato, Archimedes, Newton, Locke, Boyle, La Place, 
and all other similar illustrious characters, Oh! that you were now 
living! That you might witness a demonstration of the vast 
capacity of the human intellect, the extensive range of thought 
it is capable of prosecuting, and the immense number of ideas 

262 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

steaming crusaders, who are marching in such wild confusion 
through the country, can distinguished between the muscles and 
the bones belonging to the human frame, and the lacteal and 
lymphatic vessels of the same; or the veins and arteries belonging 
to man, and tympanum of his ear! 

"Now, there is one consideration, which, apart from all others, 
is of itself sufficient, to forever fix the doom of this system of prac- 
tice. It is this : they apply the same remedy to all sorts of com- 
plaints. All who know anything about diseases and remedies, 
know very well that that which relieves a person in certain cases 
of affliction, is death to the individual in other cases. And though 
this odious prodigy of would-be doctors, has now become almost as 
numerous as the croaking fry of Eg>'pt, and though I perceive no 
limits to the excursions of these man-killers, but those which arise 
from the triumphant march of common sense; yet, until I wish to 
exchange worlds, or find myself chained down, as it were, with an 
unwieldly corporeal frame, I will never suffer one of them to 
come about me. I have never had any sickness in my life (thanks 
be to God for his mercies), and consequently have never needed 
a physician of any kind, farther than to give me some one or two 
simple doses of medicine; but should I ever need one, and one of the 
old school cannot be had, I shall certainly prefer dying a natural 
death, to be killed. However, we live in a free countr}', and all 
who prefer steaming have a right to be steamed or hanged or 
drowned, or put to rest in such other way as they choose. 

"But in conclusion, I will take the liberty of advising the Meth- 
odist clergy, generally, to have nothing at all to do with this pepper 
and whiskey system of practice. It will do very well to connect 
this system of practice with the womanish, squeaking, canting, 
odd, whimsical, whining tone, and insipid jargon of a Baptist 
preacher. Or it would suit the cold-blooded selfishness of a Hop- 
kinsian priest, who believes that the introduction of moral evil into 
the world, is for the greatest good of the universe! But never 
let a Methodist preacher, who believes that men are to be judged 
according to their works, have any thing to do with the wretched 
system. Nor never let a Methodist preacher use the medicines, 
unless, in the language of Job, he prefers 'strangling and death, 
rather than life.' And let a Methodist preacher, instead of reading 
these doctor books, read that noble and excellent book, the old 
records of God's providence. Finally, there is nothing more 
disgusting to me, than to see a Methodist minister with a Bible and 
hymn book in one end of his saddle bags, and a large black bottle 
full of number six, stopped with a corn cob, having a rag around it, 
in the other end! Well may the Presbyterians charge such with 
being incompetent. Brethern, quit it! For God's sake — for 
your own credit's sake — and for the sake of the honor of Meth- 
odism, quit it ! And let all our people say amen ! 

"HOLSTON SEMINARY— In the close of this year, I at- 
tended the semi-annual examination of this institution, which 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 263 

it is capable of acquiring?! Esculapius, thou father of the science 
of medicine, Rush, and all others who have since written, and all 
ye knowing men, so far as the science of medicine is concerned, 
that you were yet living! that you might witness the new dis- 
coveries in the healing art, which these reformers are making! 
And ye subliaier sciences of Geometry, Trigonometry, Conic Sec- 
tions, Fluxions, Algebra, and other branches of mathematics, stand 
aside, and see Thomsonianism evince the acuteness and perspi- 
cacity of the human intellect! Our world has produced numerous 
philanthropic characters, who have shone as lights in the moral 
world, and have acted as benefactors to the human race. But 
the names of Alfred, Penn, Barnard, Raikes, Neilde, Clarkson, 
Sharpe, Buxton, Wilberforce, Venning, and many others, so fa- 
miliar to all who are at all acquainted with the annals of benevo- 
lence, must give way to these new-comers! These illustrious 
steamers, from' a principle of pure benevolence, devote their lives 
to active beneficence, and to the alleviation of human wretched- 
ness, in every section where they travel, — diving into the depths of 
coves, and exposing themselves to the infectious atmosphere of 
towns and villages, in order to ameliorate the conditions of the 

"From realm to realm with cross or crescent crowned. 
Where'er mankind and misery are found, 
O'er towering mountains, deep valleys, or wilds of snow 
These steamers journeying seek the house of woe! 
They go, inemulous of fame or wealth. 
Profuse of toil and progidal of health; 
Lead stern-ey'd calomel to certain dark domains, 
If not to sever — to relax its chains ; 
Persecuted and opposed, by the living and the dead, 
Regardless of them all, as Crockett says, they 'go ahead!' 
Onward they move! disease and death retire. 
While the Old Faculty hate them and admire." 
"But as a supplement to the preceding eulogy, it may be serious- 
ly asked — is it possible that an obscure, and ordinary citizen, 
possessing neither learning nor superior powers of intellect, and 
having read but very few books of any kind, can spring up like 
a mushroom — purchase 'a right' for twenty dollars — and all of a 
sudden, become fully acquainted with the human system, and the 
various and complicated diseases of our country, and as suddenly 
eflfect a cure for them all? If such a supposition could be ad- 
mitted, man would be the most inexplicable phenomenon in the 
universe; his existence an unfathomable mystery; and there could 
be no conceivable mode of reconciling his condition and destination 
with the wisdom, the rectitude, and the benevolence of his Creator! 
I do not say that all the steam-doctors are ignorant and unlearned ; 
but in the language of St. Paul, I do say, that the most of them 
have 'streched themselves beyond their measure,' and that they 
'boart in another man's line of things.' And not one in ten of these 

264 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

took place in the hall of the seminary. The exercises were con- 
ducted under the special directions of Mr. Saffel, the president of 
the institution, and in his usually prompt and efficient manner, 
who, on the last day of the examination read an eloquent, learned 
and appropriate address. The students were all examined very 
minutely, in the various branches of literature in which they had 
been engaged during the session, and in the hearing of a number of 
visitors, acquitted themselves with great honor. On the last day 
of the examination, the students closed by delivery, each, an ora- 
tion, of original composition; and in this, particularly, they did 
themselves great honor, and greatly delighted the listening audi- 

"The friends of this institution may rest assured that East 
Tennessee does not aflford a fmer young man than Mr. Saflfel, or 
one better qualified, in every respect, to take charge of an insti- 
tution of the kind; and the conference which appointed him to 
preside over it, has more than once expressed its entire satisfaction 
as to the manner in which he has performed his arduous duties. 

"I thus particularize, because I wish to recommend this in- 
stitution to all, into whose had a copy of this work shall fall. 

"This seminary, was set on foot three years ago, under the 
patronage of the Holston annual conference, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, at the suggestion of the members and friends 
of said church, who desire an opportunity of giving their children 
an education, on reasonable terms, without endangering both 
their religious principles and moral habits — as is the case at our 
public colleges and academies. Still, ours is not a theological 

"The town in which this seminary is located — New-Market, 
Jefferson County, Tennessee — is a beautiful little village, situated 
in one of the most fertile valleys in the state. 

"Beside the advantage already named, and many others not 
named, which this institution possesses— I would mention the 
cheapness of tuition and boarding. 

"Once more: The time has at length arrived, when the trustees 
of this institution, have found themselves able to commence the 
manual labor system, in connection with the seminary, by means of 
which, industrious and promising young men, destitute of pe- 
cuniary means, may acquire an education. 

"During this year, I incurred the sore displeasure of the Hop- 
kinsians by circulationg a pamphlet entitled, 'Calvinism, and its 
influence on the church,' written and published by Rev. James 
Cumming, a minister of high standing in the Holston Conference. 
I had no further connection with this production, than simply to 
circulate it; and this I did with great pleasure. This pamphlet 
is well written, and for its size, is the best exposition of the kind I 
have ever seen. And the truth is, it is unanswerable. The Hop- 
kinsians, however, have replied to it, in the way they generally 
reply to a production of the kind, they have affected to treat it with 
silent contempt! 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 265 

"1834 — Knoxville, Tennessee, October 15th. Our conference 
is now in session in this place, and has been since Wednesday, the 
8th of this instant. Our bishop having failed to attend with us, 
from some unknown cause, we have called our esteemed friend and 
brother, John Henninger, to the chair, who has filled the highly 
responsible station in such way, as to do honor to himself, and at 
the same time give general satisfaction to the conference. 

"The preachers have generally attended, and are in the en- 
joyment of usual health and spirits. Thus, God in his goodness 
has rolled us together once more. What changes have been wit- 
nesses since we assembled last. How many of our friends have 
gone to reap their reward in heaven, while we have been spared as 
monuments of unchanging goodness! Yes, the recurrence of 
another annual meeting, in the history of our conference, calls for 
the public expression of our gratitude to the great head of the 
church, that we have been privileged one time more, to mingle 
our praises and thanksgivings together here in the temple of the 
Lord, and in celebration of the prosperity of our efforts. As 
ministers, these thoughts should lead us to a serious examination 
of our hearts before God, to ascertain whether or not we are grow- 
ing wiser and better in proportion to the privileges we enjoy, and 
the opportunity of improvement afforded us. The year just past, 
has been replete with such events, as have left the public mind in 
that state of excitement which is not very friendly to the prosperity 
of religion. And even now, both the civil and religious atmos- 
pheres, seem highly charged with combustible materials. What 
the final issue of all these things will be, time alone can tell. How- 
ever, in the midst of the 'signs of the times,' God has abundantly 
blessed the labors of his servants, in various parts of the world. 

"From this conference I hope to be enabled to date the com- 
mencement of the reign of reform — a most signal triumph of Wes- 
leyan itinerancy over a sort of legalized semi-itinerancy. 

"It is manifest that our people are on the eve of revolting in 
disgust from established local traveling ministry. For one, 
I rejoice to think that our conference is about to be redeemed from 
the sway of a miserable system of 'accommodation,' whose whole 
course for several years past, has tended to anarchy and destruc- 
tion, in a moral point of view. By this, I mean that we, as a con- 
ference, have, for several years past, paid too much attention to 
the interests of individuals, and not enough to the wants of the 
circuits and stations within our bounds. These remarks are cor- 
rect. They are truth — every word truth. 

"As a conference, we have an immense field spread out before 
ij£i and great encouragement to labor. I say encouragement to 
iabor, for I apprehend that some of our friends have incorrect 
deas of the real state of things, and having heard so much of the 
triumphs of the cross in different parts of the country, and of the 
utter defeat and ruin of so many enemies of the Son of God, are 
disposed to regard the soldiers they have sent hither, rather as a 

266 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

garrison quartered in an enemy's country in a time of profound 
peace, than as an army with their weapons in their hands, daily 
meeting and contending with the foes of their king. But, I must 
not be regarded as attempting to discourage the exertions, to dead- 
en the hopes, and to quell the spirits of our friends by proclaiming 
to the world, that nothing is doing in the Holston conference. 
Nor is there a lack of harmony in our conference. Nor yet, do the 
tongues of our preachers, when in the pulpit, dance only to the 
jingle of the dollars and cents in the people's treasury, as is the 
case with some of our clerical neighbors. Of such neibhbors, I 
have only to say, I am puzzled to account for their conduct up- 
on any known principle of ministerial fidelity. 

"That which has most particularly arrested my attention at 
this conference, is the circumstance of so many of the preachers 
having married the past year. Never have I known so many of 
them to marry in one year. But, I cannot object to this — for, 
as Cowper, who by the by, was a hypochondriac old bachelor, 
asked : 

"What is there, in the vale of life, 
Half so delightful as a wife?" 

"Old bachelor! are you so lost to a sense of the pleasures and 
enjoyments of a married life, that you can remain contented in a 
state of 'single blessedness,' while the old and young, the middle 
aged, and all around you, are joining their hearts and hands in this 
lawful and scriptural enterprise ? But do you excuse yourself on 
the ground, that no one seems willing to have you ? This is by no 
means a plausible excuse; for it is well known, that every old widow, 
maid and girl, in all the country, are candidates for matrimony. 

"As an individual, I have ever stood aloof from every-thing like 
coquetry, and I hope ever to do so. The truth is, no gentleman 
ever did or ever will make a constant practice of courting every 
girl he might chance to meet with, and impress the belief upon 
her mind that he intended to marry her, &c. Much less would 
a christian minister act thus. And although I never was engaged 
to be married, and never even asked a female to marry me in my 
life, yet, I have some good desires, as the Hopkinsians would say, 
on this subject; and I think it quite probable, I shall some day or 
other, make some amorous advances towards some one. For, 
born as man obviously is, for the companionship of his fellows, 
it must be evident that the main tendencies and aptitudes of 
his nature, should every day be looked for in connection with his 
social relationships. After the marriage ceremony is the most 
interesting spectacle social life exhibits. To see two rational beings 
in the glow of youth and hope, which invests life with a 'halo 
of glory,' appear together, and openly acknowledging their pref- 
erence for each other, voluntarily enter into a league of perpetual 
friendship and christian union — is it not delightful? Be constant 
my brother — Be condescending, my sister — and what can earth 
ofTer so pure as your friendship, so dear as your affection? Well 
might Virgil say: 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 267 

"The wife and husl)and equally conspire, 

To work by night, and rake the winter fire: 
He sharpens torches in the glimmering room; 

She shoots the Hying shuttle through the loom; 
Or boils in kettles must of wine, and skins. 

With leaves, the dregs that over flow the brims. 
And till the watchful cook awake the day, 

She sings to drive the tedious hours away." 

"As my book is now printing, I have gone to the office and 
examined that part which is ready for folding. I consider that 
the t>'pe for its size is very good, and seems to be well distributed 
over the page; so that the words are everywhere sufficiently dis- 
tinct, which is not always the case with the books printed in this 
country. The paper is good — the ink very good, and the typo- 
graphical execution quite respectable. Of course I think the 
matter is excellent. I am also of opinion, that the punctuation 
is at least passable. But my readers, I presume, will not, as do the 
Mahommedans, consider the points essential. 

"This work, from first to last, be it well or ill executed, has not 
been done without great labor and toil, on my part, nor has any 
labor been omitted, to make it, in every respect, as far as possible, 
what the title page promises — 'Helps to the Study of Presbyterian- 
ism,' &c. Thus, through the merciful assistance of God, my labor 
now terminates, a labor which, were it yet to be commenced, I 
would, in view of its being called for, most cheerfully undertake. 
Since it is finished, I regret not the labor; while writing it I have 
had 'the testimony of a good conscience.' 

"Having critically and cautiously examined a point in the 
prosecution of this work, I have fearlessly followed the convictions 
of my own mind, without servilely crouching to the opinions of 
others, whether right or wrong. Having carefully studied a subject, 
deriving all the light I could from every source within my reach, 
without timidly calculating the consequences which might result 
from publishing my convictions in reference to it, I have boldly 
proclaimed what I conscientiously believed, allowing others the 
liberty of thinking, writing, speaking, and acting for themselves. 
And, while this fearless course subjects me to censure from the 
timid, as well as unmerited abuse from the bigotted, it will re- 
lieve me from servilely imitating others, and secure to me the 
approbation of an approving conscience. And let my occupa- 
tion in future life be what it may, God forbid that I ever should 
pursue that timid and vascillating course of conduct, which evinces 
a greater solicitude to please the multitude than to arrive at truth, 
and to obtain popular applause at the expense of a good conscience ! 
And may the Lord pity the man, who would compromit his char- 
acter, by prostrating principle, before the idol of popularity! 

"At this conference, which has just closed, I have been ap- 
pointed to travel the Scott circuit, in Virginia. I shall set out for 
the circuit in a few days. I am told this circuit is situated in the 
mountainotis part of the state — in a fine grazing country, which 
enables the farmer to raise stock, &c. The valleys between the 
mountains are generaly fertile, and produce excellent grain. 

268 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"RELIGION: Methodists are the most numerous denomi- 
nation. Nextto these, the Baptists. 

"CLIMATE: Scott county enjoys a mild chmate. 

"The weather is generally moderate till towards Christmas, 
when winter commences, and continues variable till the middle of 
March, sometimes pleasant, and at other times disagreeable. 

"The life of a Methodist travelling preacher, with all its losses, 
crosses, and disappointments, has nevertheless been a pleasant one 
to me; and had its vicissitudes been more numerous and grevious 
than they even were, I should not have retired from the field. 
On every circuit I have travelled, there have been acts of kindness 
paid to me which, though I can never repay them in this life, I 
will never forget them. Kind attentions are at all times pleasent, 
but when one is far from home, and among strangers, it is delight- 
ful indeed to meet with those who are kind and affectionate. My 
stay on each circuit, has of course been short, but I shall long 
remember the polite, yea, the christian friendship of many persons 
on those circuits. There is something in these transient attach- 
ments which show us that we were born to do each other good, 
notwithstanding all the evil there is in the world. But to many 
of those friends, whose kindness induced me to love them as re- 
lations, I have long since bid a last adieu, perhaps, no more to 
meet, till, 

"Wrapt in fire the realms of ether glow. 

And heaven's last onset shakes the world below." 

And O Lord, irradiate our minds with all useful truth, instill 
into our hearts a spirit of benevolence, give us understanding, 
meekness, temperance, fortitude, patience, and all the excellent 
graces of the Spirit. Be indulgent to our imperfect nature, and 
supply our imperfections with thy heavenly favor. 


"I have a few remarks to make on some four or five points, 
before I finally close. As a man, and as a minister, I am objected 
to from several considerations, by many within the circle of my 
acquaintance. Every man living, has those within his vicinity 
who hate, who envy, and affect to despise him ; — these will see his 
actions with a jaundiced eye, and will represent them to others 
in the same light in which they themselves behold them. No 
virtue, no prudence, no caution or generosity, can preserve a man 
from misrepresentations; his conduct must be judged of by weak 
and prejudiced intellects, or by such as only see a part of it, and 
hastily form a judgment of the whole. Well might the poet say: — 

"When cruel slander takes her impious flight, 
What man's secure against her baleful sway, 
Virtue herself must sink in shades of night, 
And spotless innocence must fall a prey." 



This photograph is from an engraving sent to Dr. E. M. Patterson by Andrew Jacl<son. thanlting Dr. Patterson 
forsomenewcornmeal, a neighborly gift. Dr. Patterson lived in Davidson County, Tennessee. The engrav- 
ing is now the property of Hon. Jno. W. Gaines of Nashville. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 269 

"I will state the several objections urged against me, and answer 
them in detail. I say I hasten to reply to these several objections, 
with the hope that my remarks will be read — carefully and candidly 
read — by every class of readers. I intend no quibbling — no special 
pleading. I shall plead upon the broad merits of the case, First, 
Inconsistency of Character: 

"This is the most common, though not the most inconsiderable 
objection to me, as a minister. By the term inconsistency, we are 
to understand a disagreement — incongruity. When, therefore, 
it is urged that I am inconsistent, it is not intended to say that I 
am hypocritical, or that I am clad with a tissue of deception, by 
W'hicli I impose on my fellow-creatures. I am glad of this, for of 
all the offsprings of depravity, deception, perhaps, bears the nearest 
resemblance to its father the devil. But to the subject. It is true, 
I cannot mingle in my looks, the piety of Abraham, the meekness of 
Moses, and the fervor of Isaiah; nor am I exact to a degree of 
scrupulosity in small matters, and at the same time neglect the 
most important points in the law of God. I have never thought 
myself deputed from the heaven for the general reformation of 
manners, nor would I try all men at my bar. Nor yet, am I one of 
those blind guides, who would strain at a gnat and w^allow a camel. 
I have my faults, no doubt, as well as all other men — I am not in- 
falliable, because I am not immortal. There are spots in the sun — 
there are specks in me. I am a man, and therefore liable to err. 
Yes, I am a right down man, and without any sort of disguise, 
I exhibit to the world what I am. In a word, many say, 'Lo! 
here is Christ, or Christ is there,' but few can consistently witness 
that ' the kingdom of heaven is within them.' With more truth 
than ever, we may say : 

"Ye different sects, who all declare, 
Lo! here is Christ, or Christ is there; 
Your stronger proofs divinely give, 
And show us where the christians live ; 
Your claim, alas! ye cannot prove. 
Ye want the genuine mark of love." 

"A Great Alany Persons Dislike Me: 

"To this I reply, that every man who does his duty in life, 
in the uncompromising spirit of integrity, must make enemies, 
and meet with opposition. Daniel, Isaiah, Micah, Elijah, and all 
the Lord's faithful prophets, had their enemies. So had Peter, 
and Paul, and James and the rest of the apostles. In modern 
times, what man had more enemies than Luther? — And Knox, 
and Wesley, and Fletcher, and Whitfield?; not comparing myself 
to them however. Even the mild and amiable Son of the Most 
High, could not escape the persecutions of the wicked. And 
every faithful witness for the vSaviour, may expect to be constantly 
exposed to the enmity of evil doers. While I dwell in a ' house of 

270 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

clay whose foundation is the dust; ' while I sojourn in ' a land of 
pits and snares,' and within ' the region of the shadow of death ; ' 
while I walk amidst scenes of sorrow and suffering, surrounded by 
' the tents of strife,' and exposed to the malice of ' lying lips and 
deceitful tongues,' I am admonished not to make any other calcu- 
lations, but to ' suffer for righteousness sake.' As long as I live, 
I expect to stand as a mark, for the vengeance of cankered hearts, 
and the malice of envenomed tongues. Nor do I even desire a 
different state of things. 

"No glory I covet, no riches I want, 

Ambition is nothing to me; 
The one thing I beg of kind heaven to grant, 

Is a mind independent and free. 
With passion unruffl'd untaint 'd with pride. 

By reason my life let me square; 
The wants of my nature are chiefly suppli 'd. 

And the rest is but folly and care." 

"Indeed, it is a matter of but little consequence with me, to 
hear, that this, that, or the other man, is displeased with me, and 
' utter loud swelling words ' against m^ One among the many 
incontestible evidences I have, of making advancement in the 
divine life is, that all men do not speak well of me. I rather re- 
quest of all, who, when they look at me, have a blot on their optics, 
and over the same spectacles of malice, never to say anything in 
my favor. And I should be seriously alarmed, to learn certainly, 
that the community at large, admire me, or that I am exceedingly 
popular. I hope, therefore, always to have certain winning ways, 
to make a certain class of human beings hate me! For by this I 
shall know, I am in the road to a better world. Said a divine 
personage, ' Wo unto you, when all men speak well of you! for so 
did their fathers of the false prophets. 'And again: ' If the world 
hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you.' Again: 
' If ye were of the world the world would love his own : but because 
ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, 
therefore the world hateth you.' And again: ' Blessed are ye, 
when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all 
manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and 
be exceedingly glad : for great is your reward in heaven : for so 
persecuted they the prophets which were before you.' ^Vnd to cap 
the climax, Christ says: 'If the world hate you, ye know that it 
hated me before it hated you.' Now, the religion which can 
endure these things, is a firm and effectual support in the midst of 
every calamity to which a believer is exposed. Is the christian 
persecuted ? — this is a part of his earthly inheritance. Is he visited 
with sickness? — he anticipates the period when pain and sorrow 
shall forever flee away. Is he oppressed by poverty? he reflects 
with peculiar delight, upon the treasure which he possesses in the 
heavens. In a word, he knows and believes, that all things shall 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 271 

work together for his good; and that his Hght afflictions, which are 
but for a moment, shall work out for him a far more exceeding, 
even an eternal weight of glory. 


"To this grave charge, I reply, I have, it is true, been engaged in 
several judicial and clerical contests; but I assert, in view of a judg- 
ment to come, that I have never engaged in any controversy what- 
ever, unless I myself, my brethern in the ministry, or our doctrines 
and institutions, have first been assailed. And in defense of 
each, or all of these, I would risk as many characters, lives and 
fortunes, if I had them, as there are atoms of the universe, or 
minims embodying the immensity of space. Yes, should secret 
calumnies and public scandals, private associations and public 
testimonies, ridicule, and satire, poetry and prose, paragraphs and 
pamphlets, dreams, and dialogues, and all the presses and lying 
tongues, in the union, be employed against me, I shall neverthe- 
less maintain the truth. For I have embarked in the glorious 
enterprise of preaching the gospel, with a proportion of ambition 
and zeal, and with a perseverance not to be daunted by the chilling 
and sickening blasts of poverty and persecution. Therefore, I am 
prepared to endure all the dreadful consequences of sectarian 
malice and management, even should they include — pains and 
penalties — bills of attainder — confiscation of estate — allthehorors 
of ecclesiastical and civil war — nay, death upon the scaffold! 

"Then let it be urged, that I am, and always have been, ' a 
mover of seditions' — the pest of general society, and the fruitful 
source of domestic broils; or a being whose heart is full of rancor 
and animosities, jarring affections, and discordant and malevolent 
feelings! Yes, ring my death knell from steep to steep — let its 
swelling sounds be heard in startling echoes, mingling with the 
rush of the mountains ' torrents, and the mighty cataract's earth- 
quake voice! Spread the unfurled banner of calumny upon every 
breeze — let it float in the atmosphere till my name becomes a 
mockery and a byword! Like the Phoenix, in newness of beauty 
and majesty, amid the fires of opposition, I hope to rise to victory 
and triumph. What can be more noble than to brave the censure 
of disappointed ambition — to bear with arrogance, pride, and in- 
firmities of a priest-riden community, and blind bigots, for the 
good of mankind! To suffer all this, I am perfectly aware, must 
require a considerable degree of moral courage ; and I think I possess 
the courage that can endure it all, and even death itself. I pretend 
not to be a candidate for the honors of martydom, yet, I should 
feel that I had gone down to my grave disgraced, did I not incur 
the censure and abuse of bloated bigotry, and priestly corruption. 


"When I write, preach, converse, or mingle with society, I do 
all after the texture so to speak, of ray own mind. But it will be 

272 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

said, I am a minister of the gospel, and that no temptation, no 
unjust usage, should provoke me to come down from my high 
abode, and seat myself upon the dunghill of anger and revenge. 
This is all very true. I believe the scriptures when they say, 
' God is love; and he that dwelleth in love, dwelleth in God.' But 
I have yet to be convinced that it is sinful for a christian to defend 
himself, and that too, in an independent and pointed way. As 
in respects my accomplishments, I never professed to have a great 
deal of polish about me, nor do I desire to be polite. 

"As it regards my intellectual faculties, I never believed I was 
a Solomon. I have never been able as yet, by my flowing elo- 
quence, and manly arguments, or the incomparable liveliness and 
power of reasoning, to enable a congregation to see things that 
are not. I could never induce a man to believe, by the magic in- 
fluence of a long whining exhortation or prayer, that twice five 
would not make ten in America, as well as in France! In a word, 
I never thought I was a great man — I never desire to be what the 
w^orld calls a great man. No verily : 

"My name from out the temple where the dead 
Are honored by the nations — let it be — 
And light the laurels on a loftier head! 
And be the Spartan's epitaph on me — 
Sparta hath many a worthier son than he." 

In testimony whereof, I sign the same with my own hand, this 
seventeenth day of October, in the town of Knoxville, and state of 
Tennessee, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 
thirty-four, and in the fifty-ninth year of American Independence. 

"William G. Brownlow." 




Daughter of Major Andrew Jackson Donelson and great niece of Mrs. Andrew Jackson. Born in the White 
House in Jackson's first administration: sister-in-law of Mrs. Bettie M. Donelson of Nashville, Tennessee, 
who was one of the five founders of the Ladies Hermitage Association of Tennessee ,and who for thirty years 
was a member of the Board of Directors of the Association, 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 273 


ii Mary Emily Donelson Wilcox en Rachel Djnslson 1 

p Jackson, wife of General Jackson, and on num- ^ 

^ erous facts and incidents connected with Jack- S 

^ son, the Donelson family and Jackson^s two ^ 

^ Administrations. ^ 

The matter in this chapter was written by Mary Emily Donelson 
Wilcox, and is reproduced as an authoritative statement from the 
standpoint of Mrs. Andrew Jackson's family — the Donelsons — of 
many things connected with Jackson, Mrs. Jackson, the Donelsons, 
and Jackson's two administrations. Coming from Mrs. Wilcox 
what is set out is historically very valuable, and, allowing for her 
warm advocacy of Mrs. Jackson and everything pertaining to 
Andrew Jackson, it can be accepted as throwing great light on 
matters which it undertakes to treat. There are statements in it 
which were first given to the public by Mrs. Wilcox by whom it 
was prepared for Leslie's Magazine about twenty-five years ago. 
When Hon. Horace Maynard, deceased, formerly member of Con- 
gress from the Knoxville District, United States Minister to Turkey 
and Postmaster General, was holding the latter office, he gave Mrs. 
Wilcox an appointment in the postoffice department at Washing- 
ton. She was a sister-in-law of Airs. Bettie M. Donelson now of 
Nashville who was one of the founders of the Ladies Hermitage 
Association of Tennessee, and, for about thirty years, a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors. 

Major Andrew Jackson Donelson was a nephew of Mrs. An- 
drew Jackson and son of Mrs. Jackson's brother Samuel Jackson, 
who was a law partner of Andrew Jackson. Major Donelson was 
raised and educated by Gen. Jackson, graduated at West Point 
and accompanied Jackson as aide-de-camp to Florida in the Sem- 
inole War. He resigned his position in the Army when Jackson 
became President to perform the duties of his private secretary, 
which he did through the entire eight years of his presidency with 
the exception of a few months when the Peggy O'Neal differences 
were up. 

In the first presidential term a daughter, Mary Emily Donel- 
son, the author of this chapter, was born in the room of the White 


274 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

House that fronts on Pennsylvania Avenue, and the christening of 
the infant was made a brilhant function. Representatives in Con- 
gress, Senators, Members of the Cabinet and the Diplomatic Corps, 
and prominent citizens were present at the cermony which was per- 
formed in the East Room by Rev. Mr. Gallaher, a Presbyterian 
Minister. The ritual of the protestant Episcopal Church was used. 
Miss Cora Livingston, daughter of the Secretary of State, was God- 
Mother, and x\ndrew Jackson and Martin VanBuren were God- 
Fathers. Robert E. Lee then a young lieutenant of engineers, was 
present with Mrs. Lee. 

At the close of Jackson's second term, Major Donclson and 
family went back to the Hermitage and remained there for a period; 
and in 1846 he took his family with him to Prussia where he went 
as minister by appointment of President James K. Polk, and re- 
mained abroad five years, returning to th^ United States in 1851. 
On May 27th, 1852, his daughter Mary married John A. Wilcox, a 
member of congress from Mississippi, who had served as Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel in the Mexican War. The cermony was performed by 
Rev. Mr. Gallaher, the same who had christened the bride. Col . 
Wilcox subsequently moved to Texas and represented that State 
in the Confederate Congress. 


"To few women has history been so unjust as to Andrew Jack- 
son's wife, and a review of her life, disproving the misstatements of 
her husband's enemies, and showing her claims to the respect and 
admiration of her compatriots, seems demanded by right and 
justice. Well born, highly endowed, both mentally and personally, 
she enjoyed every educational advantage then attainable, and was 
the equal in culture and refinement of any mistress of the White 
House, not excepting Mrs. Washington and Mrs. Madison, and 
she was superior to these two in individual charm and native wit. 
Many of her letters still extant compare favorably in spelling, 
diction and entertaining information with any known to have been 
written by prominent women of her day. She inherited a musical 
ear, sang sweetly, and took great delight in playing on a piano 
similar in size and design to the one at Mount Vernon said to have 
belonged to and been used by Nelly Custis, which Jackson had 
obtained on one of his Eastern trips. He had a flute and violin, 
and playing duets was a favorite evening recreation. My father, 
who went to live with them when quite young, often mentioned his 
childish pleasure at hearing them play "Campbells are Coming" 
and "Money Musk," himself stowed away for the night in a corner 
trundle-bed, a pet cat and dog dozing on the hearth, forming de- 
lighted auditors of an enjoyable if not artistic concert. There are 
interesting traditions of her as an inimitable entertaining raconter. 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 275 

"Mrs. Jackson's father, Colonel John Donelson, was the only 
son of John Donelson, a successful London ship-merchant, who 
emij^rated to America in 1716, s>?ttled on Delaware Bay, and married 
Catherine Davis, a sister of the famous Presbyterian divine. 
Their son, born in 1720, early gave promise of the energy, integrity 
and executive ability prominent in his after career. Having studied 
• surveying and engineering, he married Rachel Stockley, of Mar>'- 
land, and removed to Virginia, where the Colonial Government 
appointed him Surveyor of Pittsylvania County. Many lines and 
charts surveyed by him are still recognizable on maps, and some 
treaties negotiated by him as Colonial Agent with Indian tribes 
were never abrogated. Elected, in 1 764, Colonel of a Colonial regi- 
ment, he served, in 1765, '66 and '67, intheHouseof Burgesses, where 
his speeches on finance and taxation elicited favorable comment. 
Washington, Jefferson and Patrick Henry were personal friends 
and occasional guests at his comfortable Dominion home. Owning 
valuable iron works and large tracts of land, he was considered one 
of Virginia's most respected and influential citizens; but becoming 
involved, by reason of some unfortunate securityships, he was forc- 
ed to sacrafice much valuable property, and concluded to emigrate 
West. He built, in 1779, mostly by his own means and labor, a 
flotilla of boats, accompanied by about forty emigrant families, 
embarked in December for the Cumberland settlements. Captain 
James Robertson, with a pioneer party, having preceded them to 
build cabins, plant corn, and otherwise provide for their comfort 
and safety. Colonel Donelson kept a diary, the first entry of which 
reads: "Journal of a voyage intended by God's permission in the 
good ship Adventure, from Fort Patrick Henry, on the Holston 
River, to the French Lick Salt vSprings, on the Cumberland" — 
which is noteworthy not only because well spelled, well penned, 
well expressed, it describes geographically a remarkable expedition; 
but also because it is the only diary ever kept by a Western pioneer 
(those men, so brave and wise, seldom wielding pen or pencil), the 
only document illustrating the domestic life of those who subdued 
the wilderness and founded that great empire now leading and 
controlling national civilization. Conspicuous among the "good 
ship Adventure's" voyagers was Rachel, the youngest of Col- 
onel Donelson's thirteen children, born in 1867. There are pleas- 
ant pictures of her leading the flatboat dance, steering the helm, 
while her father and brothers answered the fire of Indians lining the 
river banks, and of nursing the sick, cheering the disheartened, 
always bright and helpful. 

t"The little colony encountered innumerable hardships and dan- 
gers. Indians were numerous and aggressive; provisions scarce; 
peace, comfort, pleasure impossible. Their brave leader, active 
and indefatigable, seemed almost ubiquitous — now crossing to 
Clover Bottom to plant the first corn and cotton grown south of 
the Ohio River, now locating lands in widely separated sections, 
now journeying to Kentucky. Returning from his second Ken- 
tucky trip about 1784, he was murdered, supposedly by Indians. 

276 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

After his death his widow, accompanied by her younger children, 
removed to Kentucky and settled in a neighborhood in which there 
lived a Widow Robards, who, having built a large handsome house, 
rented to Mrs. Donelson the one just vacated. 

"If historic injustice to Mrs Jackson be regretable, historic neg- 
lect of her first husband is equally so, and it seems unaccountable 
that, in the century in which he has been quoted as the unworthy 
husband of an injured wife, none of his relatives, many of whom 
were rich, influential and ditinguished, should have volunteered a 
word in his defense. About 1750 William Robards, a well-to-do 
Welchman, immigrated to America, settled in Goochland County, 
Virginia, and married Sally Hill, related to the Mosby, Lee, 
Imboden and Carter families. Two of their sons enlisted in 
Colonial regiments and became captains. When the war closed 
they emigrated to Kentucky, buying with the scrip accepted for 
military service land in Mercer County. Their sisters, noted for 
beauty and social tact, made brilliant marriages, the eldest marry- 
ing Thomas Davis, first Congressman from Kentucky; the second, 
Floyd, Territorial Governor; the third, John Jouett, ancestor of 
the artist and Admiral Jouett; the youngest, William Buckner, 
ancestor of General Simon Boliver Buckner. Their mother, proud 
and high-spirited, was considered the most influential personage 
in the Blue Grass region. Rachel Donelson' s wit, beauty and 
vivacity attracted many suitors, among whom was Lewis Robards. 
A speedy marriage, sanctioned by his mother and sisters, followed 
an ardent wooing. That she should have been welcomed to such 
a household is proof positive that the charges of her illiteracy, 
coarseness and levity were unfounded. He was handsome, well 
educated, polished in manner and conversation, far superior to 
any man of her acquaintance in those attributes supposed to have 
facination for women; but, high-tempered, jealous-hearted, he 
proved a cruel, tyrannical husband. 

' 'There are men — and men not altogether bad — with whose affect- 
ions there mingles a strain of singular perverstness. If they have- 
pets — cats, dogs, birds and horses — they tease and torment them, 
and their wives and children are alternate victims and idols. Robards 
belonged to this category. He doubtlessly loved his wife, but with 
a passion that blighted, violent love scenes would end in jealous 
wrangles, cruel taunts and upbraidings follow flattering endear- 
taents. The first object of his jealousy, Peyton Short, a young 
lawyer boarding with his mother (in those days, inns being scarce, 
private houses accomodated boarders) hearing of his suspicions, 
swore in court that he believed her to be a faithful wife, and that 
he had never addressed her an improper word. Surprising them 
chatting together on his mother's porch, Lewis Robards sent a 
messenger to Mrs. Donelson, lately returned to the Cumberland, 
to send for Rachel, as he was convinced of her infidelity. He had 
often threatened to do this, but Rachel, conscious of her innocence, 
paid no heed to him and, even when her brother came, laughingly 
said: 'Lewis is not in earnest — he could not live a day without 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 277 

me.' Rising the next morning early, Robards rode off, saying to 
her: 'The sooner you leave and the longer you stay the better.' 
His mother and sisters, unifornil\- kind and considerate, regretted, 
though tliey did not attempt to prevent her departure. 

"One can easily imagine her shame and humiliation, as, turning 
from her husband's home, she began her desolate wilderness ride. 
Sitting on a blanket behind her brother, they trotted along on 
horse-back through the v\'oods, constantly dreading attacks from 
Indians or wild beasts. There was a midway house where travel- 
ers generally rested over-night; but, fearing curious question, she 
persuaded her brother not to stop there, so he kindled a fire, and 
lying near it, slept while she watched — too miserable for sleep. 
Robards, speedily repenting his unseemly action, came for her, 
bringing a letter from his mother, who seems to have really loved 
and admired her daughter-in-law, and to have been a generous, 
warm-hearted woman. 

"Rachel called her 'Mother Robards,' and always remembered 
gratefully her kindness. Had she consulted her own feelings she 
would probaly have refused to go with him, but Mrs. Donelson, than 
whom no Pope of Rome ever held more sacred and inviolable the 
marriage tie, urged her to do so. Mrs. Donelson's descendants, 
now numbering many hundreds, are to be found in nearly every 
State of the Union, and, true to the traits inherited from her, are 
models of conjugal fidelity and domestic excellence, true, loving 
wives, kind, generous husbands. 

"Boarding with his mother on their return was a young attorney 
from the Cumberland — Andrew Jackson, whom she, having pre- 
viously described him as "uncouth and ignorant, but honest and 
true," introduced to her son's wife. Occupying a room near the 
young couple, Jackson unwillingly heard Lewis's jealous accusa- 
tions and Rachel's protestations of innocence. Robards, after his 
return from Tennessee, was at first kinder toward his wife, but 
soon redoubled his spiteful persecution, and his mother, thinking 
the presence of her relatives would exercise a restraining influence 
on him, advised him to take her to the Cumberland and advanced 
the money wherewith to buy land there. 

"Jackson, who had returned from Kentucky, was boarding with 
Mrs. Donelson, and occupying a room near Mr. and Mrs. Robards, 
again heard their incessant bickerings. No knight of the Holy 
Grail cherished holier reverence for women than Andrew Jackson, 
or felt himself more imperatively called to shield the persecuted and 
oppressed. Sincerely pitying her he remonstrated with Robards, 
saying, 'Had God given me such a wife no tear should dim her 
beautiful eyes.' Robards furiously resented his interference, and 
they had several stormy interviews, at one time exchanging harm- 
less shots, when Jackson found another boarding house. 

"Driving to church one Sunday they — Mrs. Donelson, Captain 
and Mrs. Robards — met Jackson, and Mrs. Donelson having a 
vacant seat, invited him to take it. As he entered the wagon 

278 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Robards sprang out of it. Returning from church they found he 
had left, saying to a servant: 'I am going home. Jackson can 
take her and be d — — .' He, however, wrote, ordering her to join 
him, and Mrs. Donelson advised her to obey and offered to accom- 
pany her; but Rachel, heretofore meek and yielding, resolutely re- 
fused to go, saying: 'He drove me off once like a dog; now, if he 
cares for me, let him come here and give some sign of his regard.' 

"About this time, December, 1790, some friends planned a trip 
to Natchez, Miss., and asked her to join them. There being 
rumors of heavy river overflows below, and of dangerous Indian 
outbreaks, they invited Jackson and two other men to go along 
for protection. 

"Jackson returned to Nashville in May, and found in his office 
two Kentucky papers; one contained Robard's application through 
his brother-in-law, Major Jouett (a member), to the Virginia Legis- 
lature for divorce from his wife, alleging that she had eloped and 
was co-habiting adulterously with one A. Jackson; the other paper 
announced that, the allegations having been proved, the divorce 
had been granted. 

"Stung to the quick, Jackson's first impulse was to pursue 
Robards and at the pistol's point make him retract his base, coward- 
ly charge, but, duly reflecting, he said: 'Our first duty is to guard 
her sacred name from further gossip.' Then, Sir Lancelot like, 
he went to IMrs. Donelson and asked permission to offer his hand 
and heart to her daughter. Her astonished query and his chival- 
ric reply were equally characteristic: 'Mr. Jackson, would you 
sacrifice your life to save my poor child's good name?' 'Ten 
thousand lives, madam, if I had them.' 

"En route to and at Natchez, Rachel, haunted by the fear that 
Robards was pursuing and would overtake and inflict some terrible 
punishment, was restless and miserable, often being found on her 
knees in tears. Learning of the divorce proceedings she cried: 
'I expected him to kill me, but this is worse.' Divorces, then rare 
and universally condemned, were considered the foulest stigma 
possible to cast upon a wife, and in no circle was a divorced woman 
persona grata. Like the wounded heart which turns in despair 
from the purling brook and tempting shade, she shrank from pity 
and sympathy and paid no heed to Jackson's suit; but there is 
nothing so irresistible as earnestness, and he was terribly in earnest. 
They were married at Natchez by a Catholic priest in July, 1791, 
and spent several weeks in a cabin near Bayou Pierre. Returning 
to the Cumberland they occupied a cabin built by him on some 
newly purchased land, and in poverty and obscurity began that 
wedded life never darkened by a suspicion or reproach, lighted by 
love and sympathy and crowned with life's choicest blessings. Her 
prospects as his wife were far inferior to those of the rich auto- 
cratic Kentuckian. The turn in Jackson's fortune leading so rapid- 
ly to wealth and power came only fifteen years before her death, 
when age and infirmity rendered them more embarassing than de- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 279 

"V^ivacious, high-spirited, witty and tactful, she was of medium 
height, beautifully molded form, lustrous black eyes, dark, glossy 
hair, full red lips, brunette complexion, though of brilliant color- 
ing, a sweet oval face rippling with smiles and dimples and bright 
with intelligence — just the style of beauty irresistible to men of 
Jackson's type. Tall, angular, reddish bristling hair,' face badly 
"freckled and pockmarked, he was awkward and constrained, un- 
attractive in person and repulsive in manner. His marriage to 
Colonel Donelson's daughter, though dictated by chivalric motives, 
was the first of the lucky steps — something like Napoleon's to 
Josephine — that insured his marvelous future, securing the support 
of a powerful clannish family and admittance to a circle not access- 
ible to all. 

"Mrs. Jackson's brothers and brothers-in-law were prosperous, 
influential men. Their name to a note gave it gold value; their 
indorsement of a man marked him as trustworthy. To Jackson 
their support was invaluable — time, money, influence being given 
without stint. Many will befriend a man poor and obscure; but 
let him rise above them, and they stand aloof, marvel at his luck, 
sneer at his pretensions. Not so with Jackson and the Donelsons. 
Friends and allies when needed, they were loyal to life's end. 

"In October, 1793, Judge Overton visited Kentucky, and re- 
turning, informed them that the divorce applied for by Robards in 
1791 had just been granted. Jackson immediately obtained a 
license, and, in the presence of a large assembly, had the marriage 
ceremony again performed. They had lived together as man and 
wife over two years before she was legally free; but, believing the 
divorce granted when published in the Kentucky papers, they ex- 
onerated themselves from blame or guilt, and the subject would 
never have been publicly discussed had not partisan malice seized 
it to wound one otherwise invulnerable to spite and jealousy. 
Nobody blamed her, but many believed that Jackson, being a law- 
yer, should have convinced himself of the legality of the proceed- 
ings before asking her to become his wife. But he was really not 
a lawyer in the technical sense of the term, and so wasted no time 
on abstruse legal points, and probably never investigated divorce 
laws. When in his practice he needed'authorities, he hunted them 
up and used them. Roused from sleep by hissing flames, and find- 
ing the roof over our heads falling in, we seek the first exit regard- 
less of effect or consequences; and they, suddenly confronting pub- 
lic contumely and pursued by malevolent hate, accepted the 
relief apparently offered by personal safety and religious duty ; and 
if ever a marriage illustrated the maxim 'Matches are made in 
heaven,' it was the marriage of Andrew Jackson to Rachel Ro- 
bards. Hear his testimony: 'We lived togather, happy husband, 
loving wife, for nearly forty years; in all those years, whenever I 
entered my home it seemed hallowed by a divine presence. I never 
heard her say a word that could sully an angel's lips, or knew her 
to commit anv act her Maker could have condemed. What I have 

280 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

accomplished I owe to her; had I always taken her advice, deeds I 
now regret would never have been committed. She made earth a 
paradise for me; without her there could be no heaven.' Could 
tongues of angels or archangels pronounce a more touching eulogy' ? 
Only the smiles of God could add brightness to a memory so lum- 
inous with love and content. 

"Their affairs prospered; riches, public honors, domestic happi- 
ness crowned their labors. They built and occupied Hunter's Hill, 
a two-story brick house overlooking Cumberland River, and in it in- 
augerated that baronial style of living never .abandoned. Here, 
about 1797, occured the marriage of her brother Samuel (her com- 
panion on her wilderness ride) to General Daniel Smith's only 
daughter, with whom he had a few hours before eloped. To Jack- 
son home had a peculiar significance. His childish recollections 
were of humiliating dependence and galling discomfort, his poor 
mother performing household drudgerv' in return for the niggardly 
maintenance of herself and children. He once said he never re- 
membered receiving a gift as a child, and that, after his mother's 
death, no kind, encouraging words ever greeted his ear. Having no 
blood relations, none he cared to claim, he adopted his wife's family, 
and lavished on her nephews and nieces the care and tenderness 
his generous heart could not repress. Kind and considerate to 
dependents and inferiors, to be a member of his household seemed 
to furnish an undeniable claim on his bounty and protection; and 
probably, could Sevier, Clay, Nick Biddle, Poindexter, or any one 
of that long list referred to by him so often and so grandiloquently 
as 'mv enemies' have slept beneath his roof or broken bread at 
his table, some picturesque historic episodes, if described at all, 
would have received different coloring. 

"In early married life, when desire for offspring was natural, 
a sister-in-law, bringing her baby, came to spend the day. The 
ladies sat chattering while Jackson played with the baby under the 
trees, now stroking its curls, now kissing its hands and feet, now 
delighting it with that never-failing source of infantile ectasy, 'This 
little pig went to market; this little pig stayed at home; this little 
pig went squeak, squeak!" Mrs. Jackson, watching them greedi- 
ly, burst into tears, sobbing: 'Oh, husband! how I wish we had 
a child!' Returning the baby gently to its mother, he embraced 
her, saying tenderly: 'Darling, God knows what to give, what to 
withhold; let's not murmur against Him.' Shortly before her 
death, she referred to this scene, adding: 'He would have given 
his life for a child ; but, knowing how disappointed I was at never 
being a mother, he, pitying me, tried to console me by saying: 
'God denies us offspring that we may help those who have large 
families and no means to support them.' Once, returning from a 
child's funeral, the bereaved mother's frantic grief almost unman- 
ning us, he said: 'Your heart, my love, will never be pierced by 
that cruel knife.' 

"An excellent housekeeper, taking great pride in all housewifely 

From engraving by Sartain of J. R. Landin's painting. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 281 

accomplishments — sewing, pickling, preserving, gardening — she 
managed home affairs during his long absences as Congressman, 
Senator, Judge, Attorney, Military Commander — farm, store, even 
race-track showing a master-hand's careful supervision. A gentle, 
affectionate mistress, her slaves — many of them, like Abraham's, 
born and reared in the family, tenacious of its customs and in- 
stincts, loyal to its traditions and memories — almost worshipped 

"In 1804, a man to whom Jackson had made large land sales, 
accepting in payment notes used to buy goods in Philadelphia, 
failed and, forced to validate these notes, he was obliged to sell 
Hunter's Hill and other property. When his wife learned his em- 
barrassment, she said, cheerfully: 'I knew something was wrong, 
and am relieved that it's only about money.' Jackson explained 
to her that some of the property involved being hers by inheritance 
could not be rightfully sacrificed; but she nobly said: 'Your debts 
are mine, your troubles mine; together we can easily bear hard- 
ships and privations.' They removed to a frame house (still stand- 
ing) on the Hermitage tract, using adjoining cabins as guest rooms; 
and there, as at Hunter's Hill, their home was the family rallying 
point — the centre of a generous hospitality, shared alike by the 
rich and distinguished, the poor and unfortunate. She had the 
art of making ever\'body feel at home, instinctively divined people's 
sore points and pet pretensions, gracefully avoiding the former and 
tactfully exploiting the latter. 


"Among the guests of the Jacksons while they lived in the frame 
house in the Hermitage grounds was Aaron Burr, who, after his 
duel with Hamilton, came South, having previously written Jack- 
son relative to the construction of flat boats for the transportation 
of troops and provisions to the Wachita River, where he proposed 
establishing a settlement. He arrived in May, 1805, remained a 
while and returned in December, and probably no visitor ever en- 
tertained by Jackson so potently influenced his opinions and shaped 
his future course. To impressions received from Burr may be 
ascribed his distrust and aversion, never overcome, to Jefferson, his 
antipathy to Hamilton's financial schemes, to the National Bank, 
to New England cant and fanticism; his predilection for Van 
Buren and approval of New York political methods. History has 
emphasized Burr's magnetic personality, and no two people ever 
yielded more readily to its fascination than Mr. and Mrs. Jackson. 
They talked, on the night he spent with them, into the wee sma' 
hours, he delighting Jackson with inside pictures of national politics 
and politicians and charming Mrs. Jackson with tender allusions to 
his dead wife, and bright anecdotes of his beautiful yoimg daughter 
whom he promised to bring to see her while visiting Blannerhesset 
Island, and whom he begged her to remember in her prayers. 

282 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"Posterity has reached no decision as to Burr's real aims and 
ambitions, though it is conceded that, dazzled by Napoleon's suc- 
cess, he hoped, in imitation of him, to found a Western empire, 
including Mexico and Texas. This, though impracticable, was 
possible, and did not necessarily imply treason to the Federal Govern 
ment. While in Nashville he expressed the opinion that Jackson, 
the most forceful, prominent man in the West, would be the first 
Westerner elected President of the United States, and then and 
there nominated him. After Burr's departure Jackson received 
some anonimous letters accusing Burr of treasonable designs and 
of trying to implicate him in them. He at once said 'the contracts 
agreed upon must be fulfilled, but no new ones considered until all 
suspicion is removed, for I have no sympathy with treason or trait- 
ors!' Then came the collapse of the expedition — Burr's arrest, 
trial and nominal acquittal at Richmond. Insisting that no man of 
his affectionate nature could be a traitor, Mrs. Jackson urged her 
husband to attend the trial and befriend him, and it was while pre- 
paring his testimony as a witness in that trial that Jackson began 
that thorough and exhaustive study of constitutional law which 
made him so familar with the provisions and limitations of the 
Constitution and enabled him to contend so successfully in after 
years with Congress and the courts. When Burr's daughter was 
lost, supposedly in a storm at sea, Mrs. Jackson wrote him, saying: 
'Let me, who have no daughter, weep with you in your great 

"It was also while living in that little frame house that the most 
deplored event of Jackson's life — the Dickinson duel — occurred. He 
had a store at Clover Bottom (three miles distant) to which he 
daily rode to and fro, and in the valley below, where Colonel Don- 
elson planted Tennessee's first corn and cotton patch, he had a 
track noted as the scene of many exciting races. In December, 
1805, a race planned between Jackson's horse Truxton, and Plow- 
boy, owned by Captain Erwin, came off. Charles Dickinson, 
Erwin's son-in-law, bet heavily on Plowboy, and seeing Truxton 
forge ahead, screamed, though Mrs. Jackson sat near: 'His horse 
is gaining, an will win the stake, just as he ran off with and kept 
another man's wife!" 

"It was said and believed that a political clique, alarmed at 
Jackson's immense popularity, saw the necessity of getting rid of 
him, and to accomplish this, prompted Dickinson to pick a quarrel 
by this and other insulting remarks, sure to be repeated. Dickinson 
remembered that in the »Sevier- Jackson feud the unforgivable, only 
to-be-wiped-out-with-blood words were, ' I know of no great service 
rendered by Jackson unless it be running off to Natchez with 
Robard's wife.' Dickinson was considered the best shot in the 
world, while Jackson, known to be a poor marksman, was singularly 
averse, notwithstanding his numerous frays, to personal encounters. 
A challenge was sent and accepted, date and place being named for 
the meeting. Mrs. Jackson, knowing that Dickinson's young wife 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 283 

was with child, implored her husband earnestly to arrange the 
difficulty if possible. Kissing him good-by 'as he rode off with his 
second, Judge Overton, she said: 'Forget his remarks about me, 
think only of his wife and babe, and if consistent with honor spare 
him.' Awaiting his return and noting his pallor and blood- 
stained clothes, she screamed: 'You are wounded!' 'Yes, only 
slightly, but Dickinson will insult no more innocent women;' then, 
remarking her look of dismay, he added: 'I promised you to spare 
and meant to keep my promise. On the road I saw signs of his 
skill — hairs cut in two, small circles on trees and fences black with 
shot, then heard his messages, 'Tell Jackson I will snap his life's 
threads like that hair, will pepper his craven breast with lead like 
that disk!' Even when we took our places on the ground and 
waited for the seconds to give the word, I still intended to fire in 
the air, but when I felt his bullet plowing through my body and 

heard him shriek, 'Great God, have I missed the d d 

scroundrel,hate of me overpowering even death's agony, the demon 
in me awoke. I fired and he fell.' Mrs. Jackson, almost fainting, fell 
on her knees, praying: 'Oh, God have pity on the poor wife, pity 
on the babe in her womb.' Years afterward, Jackson said: 
'There never lived a woman in whom the mother instinct so pre- 
dominated, she would have gathered in her pitying arms every 
afflicted being. Why, she even wept and prayed for Dickinson's 
wife and child.' 

'In 1809, they adopted a twin son born to Mrs. Jackson's 
brother, Severn Donelson, named him Andrew Jackson, reared 
him tenderly, and bequeathed him their large estate. Naturally 
religious and a devout Bible reader, Mrs. Jackson, under the teach- 
ings of Parson Blackburn, joined the Presbyterian Church. Wish- 
in to make her a present, Jackson asked what she would prefer. 
'A church near-by where I can worship God regularly,' was the 
ready reply. The little brick church, now the object of such curi- 
ous interest, and the scene of many memorable services, was the 
result of that wish. Without steeple or belfry, nave or chancel, 
it looks more like a plain farmhouse than a church. It was there 
that General Jackson made his first profession of faith and 
took his first communion. Mrs. Jackson's family, the Donelsons, 
still worship there and keep it in repair. 

"When war was declared against Great Britian in 1812, Jack- 
son, then in command of Tennessee militia, offered his services to 
the Government; and, they being accepted, he headed that South- 
ern expedition which, though it accomplished no great public bene- 
fit, brought into prominence his great executive ability and superior 
military qualifications. It was in that expedition that he acquired 
the familiar soubriquet of 'Old Hickory,' and laid the foundation 
of that all-embracing popularity never before or since equaled by 
an American, and which today, over fifty years after his death, is 
still strong. 

"One bright October morning, 1813, they attended service to- 

284 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

g^ether in the little brick church, after which, embracing her tenderly, 
he, though still prostrated by Benton's bullet, hardly able to mount 
his horse,' but determined to check Creek depredations and avenge 
Fort Alims, started on that campaign from which, victorious at 
Tallustatchie, Talladega, Emuckfaw, Pensacola, Mobile, New 
Orleans, he returned the most famous, most courted, most idolized 
man in the world, hailed by his own nation as its deliverer, by all 
as the conquering hero. The country, depressed and humiliated 
by the disasters attending the Northern and Eastern commands, 
by the capture and burning of Washington, and dreading a suc- 
cessful British invasion in the South, hailed the news from 
New Orleans with extravagant demonstrations of rejoicing. People 
said: 'Jackson seals and perpetuates the liberty and independence 
gained by Washington and Bunker Hill receives its glorious ful- 
fillment at Charleston.' Mrs. Jackson, urged to accompany the 
delegation that went to meet him on his return to Nashville, de- 
clined, saying: 'I prefer waiting for him at home;' and probably 
her simple greeting, T am so thankful to have you back again!' 
outweighed the many laudatory addresses he received. Hence- 
forth exchanging the happy, peaceful quiet of backwoods farmers 
for glamour and turmoil of public notoriety, they lived amid cere- 
monial pomp and parade. Their home became the Western Mecca, 
was always crowded with visitors and alive with excitement. 
Finding their residence (the little frame house) unsuited to new 
conditions, they built a large, handsome home, christening it the 
Hermitage, and a hermitage it proved — a refuge from all care and 
worry; a haven w'hence, departing for the spirit land, they entered 
heaven as from an outer chamber. Then came the Presidential 
campaigns of '24 and '28, when the flood-gates of partisan virulence 
stood wide open and torrents of slanderous falsehoods deluged the 
country. Unable to check his great popularity or deny his gallant 
public service, his opponents sought to mortify and belittle him 
by besmirching his wife's character. Charges ad nauseam were 
rung on 'the marriage before divorce,' caricatures of her person 
and manners were scattered broadcast, processions singing bur- 
lesques aimed at her paraded the streets. This vituperation, how- 
ever, did him no harm. Brave men honor a man for fidelity to an 
injured wife. Yet mud-flinging generally leaves some stain, and 
falsehoods, often repeated and widely circulated, finally gain 
credence. Impressions still prevailing of Jackson's ignorance (bad 
spelling and bad grammar) and of his wife's unrefinement may be 
traced to the malice of partisan enemies in those crucial years. 

"Lately Mr. Richardson, by authority of Congress, has complied 
and published the records of Presidential administrations, an ex- 
amination of which shows Jackson to have been the equal in spell- 
ing, rhetoric and general scholarship of any contemporary — to 
have been an earnest student of state matters and thoroughly con- 
versant w'ith constitutional law and governmental policy. At a 
dinner party in London in 1850, at which my father (then United 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 285 

States Minister to Prussia) and the Duke of Wellington were 
guests, the latter, speaking of American affairs, said: 'I know you 
Americans admit no comparison with Washington; but, in my 
opinion Jackson is the greatest man your Republic has produced. 
His course in his Indian campaigns was remarkable, his general- 
ship at New Orleans worthy of Hannibal or Caesar; and his policy 
as President, though arbitrary and despotic, was both wise and 
patriotic. I predict that the time will come when the absence of 
a man of his nerve and self-confidence in the executive office will 
result in a great national disaster.' Did his prophetic eye foresee 
the days in '61, when people, seeing Buchanan blanch and quail 
before the coming storm, cried: 'Oh, for twenty-four hours of 
Jackson in the White House!' 

"There was great political excitement in Tennessee in the sum- 
mer of 1844, even school-children becoming violent partisans. I, 
then in the preparatory department of the Nashville Female 

Academy, was the Democratic champion, Lou being the 

Whig. After school we met in the hall to discuss public questions. 
One Thursday afternoon we had an angry debate, Lou quoting 
Clay, I Jackson, closing my argument with the words then familiar: 
'Westward the star of empire wends its way.' Suddenly Lou 
sprang up, arms akimbo, head erect, danced up and down the plat- 
form, singing to jig tune: 'The girl kicked the kiver off and I kotcht 
cold.' The girls, giggling at first, said: 'Don't, Lou; that's un- 
fair.' The meeting broke up, Lou's friends going with her, mine 
with me. Then one of them told me that it was said that, at a 
grand ball given in New Orleans to General and Mrs. Jackson, she 
said to a lady inquiring kindly about her health: 'Poorly, thank 
God. To tell the truth, the girl kicked the kiver off and I kotcht 
cold! — that the Whigs, using these words as the chorus to a scurril- 
ous song, had chanted them all over the United States during his 
Presidential campaigns. Of course I was indignant and deeply 
hurt. Aunt Jackson died before my birth, but I had been taught 
to love and honor her memory, revering her name as do good Catho- 
lics the Holy Virgin's. I generally went home Friday (Tulip Grove, 
twelve miles from Nashville), returning Monday, and calling Satur- 
day at the Hermitage to tell Uncle Jackson the week's school 
incidents, seemingly much relished by him. I found him propped 
up in an easy chair hear his wife's tomb, where, when the weather 
and his strength permitted, he always went after breakfast to 
smoke and meditate. Greeting me affectionately, he said, point- 
ing to the birds overhead and the flower-beds near : 'In life she loved 
birds and flowers, and I enjoy seeing them near her grave.' He 
was then very feeble — seldom able to leave his bed ; and his snow- 
hair, palled, pain-drawn features, bent, trembling form, warned 
his friends that the empty grave near his wife's would soon be 
tenanted. I had intended to mention and ask the verity of the 
occurrence alluded to at the debate, but, to save my life, I could 
not repeat those revolting words at that sacred spot, where the very 

286 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

air seemed redolent with the fragrance of deathless love. I, how- 
ever, visited and questioned mv grandmother, who lived near, and 
who was Aunt Jackson's sister-in-law and most intimate friend. 
'False, cruel and wicked,' she said, emphatically. 'Sister 
Jackson was not only well-informed, but elegant and dignified- 
far superior to her detractors. Her father stood well, and moved 
in the best Virginia society. She visited with him, when a little 
girl, both Monticello and Mount Vernon, and had interesting 
reminiscences of Colonial customs and usages, often describing to 
us the appearence, manners and customs of the grand dames then 
prominent in aristocratic circles. No woman in the Western 
country had traveled so extensively or better used the opportunities 
for self-improvement afforded by travel and association with cultur- 
ed people. On her trips with General Jackson to New Orleans, 
Mobile, Pensacola, Washington, Cincinnati and other cities, she 
was the honored guest, the recipient of the most distinguished court- 
esies and attentions. They entertained handsomely and lavishly at 
the Hermitage, Louis Philippe, Lafayette, Aaron Burr, and many 
distinguished men and women enjoying their hospitality, and test- 
ifying by word and letter to her grace as a hostess and charm as a 
woman. Generous and kind-hearted, none appealed to her in vain 
for comfort, advice or pecuniary aid, bestowed as of acceptance 
were the favor, and she, the donor, the one obliged. 


New Port, March 22nd, 1803. 
"My Love: 

"I am this far on my way to Knoxville from Jonesborough and 
being about to part with Colo. Christmas, who has promised to 
call and deliver some garden seeds and this letter to you, I write 
fully impressed with a belief that the letter and garden seeds will 
be handed you. 

"These are a variety of seeds and as large quantities of each as 
I could obtain. If there should be any to spare of any kind sent 
I have said to Colo. Christmas that you would divide with him. 

"On the 15th instant in Jonesborough Mr. Rawlings stable 
was set on fire. It and two more stables were burnt down and 
four horses, with great exertions and the calmness of the night, and 
other buildings were saved. During this distressing scene I was a 
great deal exposed, having nothing on but a shirt. I have caught 
a very bad cold which settled on my lungs, occassioned a bad cough 
and pain in my breast. It was with the utmost exertion I saved my 
horse from the flames — not until I made the third attempt before 
I could force him into the passage. You may easily judge the 
anxiety by seeing the poor animals in danger. I shall write you 
from knoxville, and would write yovi more fully, but the Colo, 
has promised to call, from whom you can receive all the information 
that I could give. I wish you to say to Mr. Gowery that I wish 


Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 287 

my cotton planted between the 15th and 25th of April. I hope the 
apple trees have been safely brought and planted. I have been 
afraid they received injury from frost, from the very severe frost 
that fell about that time. 

"I hope it has been in his power to make your time more agree- 
able with the servants. I also hope that he has brought Aston to 
a perfect state of obedience. I have not heard a single syllable 
from vou since I left home. I hope you have enjoyed and are now 
enjoying health, and may health and happiness surround you un- 
til I have the pleasure of seeing you is the sincere wish of your 
affectionate Husband. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Mrs. Rachel Jackson." 


"Fort Jackson, July 16th 1814. 
"7th M. District. 
"My Love: 

"I reached this place on the 10th instant, found the Indians 
through whom v^e passed apparently friendly — Rumor states, that 
the followers of the Prophet, Nelleshaja, or Frances, and the leader 
of the war party McQueen — has gone to Pensacola with their found- 
ders, and have been rec'd. with great attention by the Spanish 
Governors, and has been furnished with arms and ammunition by 
the British. I have taken the best means in my power to ascer- 
tain the truth of their reports in the shortest time. 

"Should not the hostile attitude of my war party, supported 
by British Troops, detain me in the nation, I shall be able to leave 
this on the 10th proximo, for Tennessee. The Chiefs are to meet 
me here on the first of next month and the convention with them 
cannot take up more time than five days, in five more I can make 
the necessary engagements for the support and defense of the chain 
of garrisons, from Georgia to the Alabama Heights. This being 
done, unless war rages, I shall immediately set out for Nashville. 
I hope my brown filley and the sorrell horse that I was compelled 
to leave on the way, has reached home. I have to ask you, my love, 
to charge the overseer to have them in good order when I return. 
I am induced to believe this is a healthy country*, the soldiers here 
are imusually healthy and my escort and Lt. Donelson all enjoy 
health. You can inform Mrs. Caffery that her son is well. 

"With my prayers for your health, and that of my little Andrew, 
and the compliments to all friends, I am with sincere respect your 

"Affectionate Husband, 
"P. S. "Andrew Jackson. 

"It is enough to make humanity shudder to see the distressed 
situation of the Indians. Eight thousand are kept alive, being fed 
by the government daily — and I fear, should they be supported by 
foreign aid, we will have half of the men we are feeding to keep 
from starvation to fight. 

288 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"The bearer of this letter is Lt. Colonel Carson, who I beg leave 
to introduce to your acquaintance, and polite attention — the Col., 
if he calls, can give vou a full account of the prospects here. Adieu 

"headquarters 7th M DISTRICT. 

"Mobile, October 20th, 1814. 
"My Love — 

"I had the pleasure of receiving yours of Sept. 18th last night 
by Capt. Deadrick. It was handed him by Cap. J. Donelson, who 
had halted at Fort Stephens to refresh his horses and men, the 
patriotism displayed by the connection reflects on them great 
honor, and I hope a greatful country will reward them. The ex- 
ample set by the western part of State of disinterested patriotism, 
if followed by our sister States, will soon put an end to the war, 
an end to the war, and restore the blessings of peace to our country, 
on an honorable and durable basis. I reed, a letter from Genl. 
Coffee last night of the 14th instant, all well, he will be with me in 
a few days. I sent Billey and Jackey with an answer to him today, 
I hope they will meet him tomorrow. Be assured that I will watch 
over these two youths with all the care of a father, and every 
attention shall be paid to them that my situation will permit. 

"I am happy to hear that Mr. Fields is doing well. If he is 
slow he is honest, and in honesty there is safety; he will be faithful 
in the — *, he will be faithful elsewhere, and better to keep him 
than risque a new one with the recent recollection of Nalley boy 
on our minds. I wrote you last mail, which will have advised you 
of the hopes and prospects I have of sending for and meeting you, 
I trust in the smiles of heaven and the justice of our cause, added 
to the valour of my troops for success, through this means to place 
this section of the union in safety. The moment that is done I 
shall write and get some faithful friend to bring you and my sweet 
little Andrew to me. How is Syncoga? If he is a heathen he is 
an orphan, and I know you will extend a motherly care over him. 

"My health is perfectly restored altlio I am weak, but a little 
active life will soon restore my strength. I shall write you often, 
altho you must reflect if a mail passes and you do not receive a 
letter from me, that it is owing to the press of business. ' I am truly 
sorry to hear that your ancle is again troublesome. I hope it may 
be restored shortly to health. You must not walk much on it until 
it is well. With compliments to all friends I reciprocate my ardent 
prayers for your health, and believe me to be your affectionate 

".\ndrew Jackson. 

"P. S. — Tell my son God bless and keep him for his sweet papa* 
"Mrs. R. Jackson. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 289 

' Huntsville, Janry. 27th, 1818. 
"My Love: 

"I reached the Bluff on yesterday nine o'clock A. M. after the 
most fatiguing ride I ever experienced, occasioned by unusual 
muddy roads. 

"I found our business only in a tolerable condition, however, 
I made such engagements from which I trust things will progress 

"I left there this morning at 4 o'clock and reached here a little 
in the night, such was the state of the roads, until we got clear of 
the land, that we have been compelled to get out every morn- 
ing before day. I leave here early tomorrow morning. I fortunately 
met General Coffee here. I have left you this journey with 
greater regret than I have ever done. I hope that that God 
who controls the destinies of nations and decrees to all things, will 
permit me to execute the duty assigned me and return to you in a 
short time. Kiss the two little Andrews for me and accept a 
tender of my best wishes and sincere affection. With my prayers 
for your preservation and happiness. I shall write you from Geor- 
gia, adieu. "Andrew Jackson. 
"Mrs. Rachel Jackson. 
"P. S. Give my love to Jane and Mrs. Caffery and all friends. 


"Staunton, Novbr 28th, 1823. 
"My Love — 

"I reached here at 1 1 o'clock last night in the mail stage in my 
usual health. I rest here to-day for my friend Major Eaton who 
I left yesterday morning, he is on horse back, and will take the 
stage with me here. ... If we can procure private Hacks we will go 
on to-morrow morning, if not we will leave on Sunday in the mail 
stage for Fredricksburg, where we will take the Steam Boat; and 
two days travel will now take us to the steam boat, and in 14 hours 
after we will reach the city. I can now say that my fatigue of the 
journey is nearly over, we have been blessed with fine weather on 
our journey, we have experienced but one inclement day, to avoid 
which I took the stage and Major Eaton came on horse back. 

"I have been greeted by the people wherever I have halted. 
To avoid much of this was one reason why I took the stage, and 
even then in many places, on the way side were collections who 
hailed and stopped the stages, to shake me by the hand. This 
through Virginia I did not calculate on. Altho tiresome and 
troublesome still it is gratifying to find that I have triumphed over 
the machination of my enemies, and still possess the confidence of 
the people. Were you only with me I could be satisfied. But 
should providence once more permit us to meet, I am solemnly re- 
solved with permission of Heaven never to separate, or be separated 
from you in this world. Present me to Capt. A. J. Donelson, say 

290 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

to him I will write him so soon as I reach the city. Say to my son 
and my little ward Hutchings that I expect them to be obedient 
and attentive to you, bless them for me, and accept my prayers for 
your health and happiness until I return, and believe me to be your 
affectionate Husband, "Andrew Jackson." 


"Washington, April 2nd, 1824. 
"My dear Wife: 

"Major Eaton on yesterday showed me your letter to him which 
gave me much pleasure to be informed of your continued good 
health, may it continue. 

"I cannot yet say when I will be able to leave this, or when Con- 
gress may rise, I hope I will be able to give this information in all 
next week. The Tariff bill is still under discussion and until that 
is disposed of, no idea can be formed when Congress will rise. 

"My route when I leave here will be that which will afford me 
the greatest despatch combined with ease; my anxiety to see you 
is superior to all other considerations. I therefore will not pass 
through Philadelphia; as I know it would detain me some days. 

"My health is improving altho we experience much variable 
weather and is now very cold for the season ; I am obliged to take 
great care, and never go out in the evenings. 

"Say to Capt. A. J. Donelson I have nothing new to write him; 
the papers will give him all the news on political subjects that I 
possess; and as yet I have nothing to write Colo. Butler: present 
me to them both and all our relations; say to the Andrews and 
Syncoga I hope to be home soon when I shall expect to find they 
all have much improved. My love to the young ladies who may be 
with you ; and accept the prayers of your affectionate Husband for 
your preservation, and health until his return. Yrs. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Mrs. Rachel Jackson." 


Washington City. 
Wednesday Evening, May 19th, 1824. 
' My dear Wife — 

"The Tariff Bill that has been under discussion so long and 
which has retarded all other business, has this day finally passed 
both houses of Congress. I am now detained only by Genl Call; 
I hope tomorrow to get his Bills through the Senate and leave here 
on Sunday morning next. I would leave here tomorrow morning, 
but one of the Bills is to authorize the Prsident of the U States to 
order that the Florida lands shall be surveyed, under which I hope 
to have Colo. Butler appointed survayor-Genl., and I do not wish, 
as I have staid so long, to leave here before I see that done, as there 
are but little relience here to be placed in promises. I have another 



Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 29 1 

reason for delay. The act for paying your father and other com- 
missioners under Georgia was lost by intrigue and inattention of 
its friends in the House of Representatives; Major Eaton intro- 
duced a Bill in the Senate which passed unamimously, and is now 
before that House ; and I hope it will be acted on to-morrow and on 
Sunday I hope to leave here by the way of Wheeling, Louisville 
and home. But my Love, as it is so uncertain at what day I could 
reach Louisville and I might miss you on the way, and being so 
anxious to see you, and reach home, that I think it will be best for 
you not to set out to meet me. If I get a Steam Boat at Wheeling 
when I arrive there, I shall, I hope, reach you shortly after you 
receive this letter. Give my respects to the Andrews, and all 
friends, and may God take you, and them in his holy keeping until 
I unite with you; is the prayer of your affectionate husband. 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Mrs. Rachel Jackson. 

"P. S. We passed a Joint Resolution today for Congress to 
rise on the 27th of this month. I feel happy to believe that I can 
get away from this place in a few days. My anxiety is great, and 
I am truly wearied, nothing but imperious necessity has detained 
me; all the wealth of the Indies could not. 

"A. J." 


Novbr. 2nd, 1835. 
"My dear Andrew: 

"I enclose you a letter from your dear Sarah, and have only 
time to say that our dear little ones are in good health, improving 
every day, the son with tironic sway governs all. 

"As you have set the 15th instant to leave the Hermitage you 
need not expect any more letters from us unless we should be ad- 
vised by you that you will be detained longer. With my prayers 
for your health and speedy return, referring you to my former letters 
I remain yr affectionate father 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"A. Jackson, Esq., Jun." 

292 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


g Jackson's Cabinets, State Papers First Inaugural 
g Address, Bank Veto, Second Inaugural Address, 
^ Message on Texas and Mexico. 

& rQ 

Jackson's cabinets. 
Secretary of State: 

Martin Van Buren, New York, March 6, 1829. 
Edward Livingstone, Louisiana, May 24, 1831. 
Louis McLane, Delaware, May 29, 1833. 
John Forsyth, Georgia, June 27, 1834. 

Secretary of Treasury: 

Samuel D. Ingham, Pennsylvania, ]March 6, 1829 
Louis McLane, Delaware, August 8, 1831. 
William J. Duane, Pennsylvania, May 29, 1833. 
Roger B. Taney, Maryland, September 23, 1833. 
Levi Woodbur>', New Hampshire, June 27, 1834. 

Secretary of War: 

John H. Eaton, Tennessee, March 9, 1829. 
Lewis Cass, Michigan, August 1, 1831. 

Secretary of Navy: 

John Branch, North Carolina, March 9, 1829. 
Levi Woodbur\^ New Hampshire, May 23, 1831. 
Mahlon Dickerson, New Jersey, June 30, 1834. 

Attorney General: 

John M. Berrien, Georgia, March 9, 1829. 
Roger B. Taney, Maryland, July 20, 1831. 
Benjamin F. Butler, New York, November 15, 1833. 

Postmaster General: 

William T. Barry, Kentucky, March 9, 1829. . 
Amos Kendall, Kentucky, May 1, 1835. 

Jackson's state papers, 1829-1837. 
First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1829 

First Annual Message, December 8, 1829 

Veto Message, May 27, 1830 

Second Annual Message, December 6, 1830 

Message on Indian Affairs, February 22, 1831 

Third Annual Message, December 6, 1831 

Veto Message, Bank of the United States, July 10, 1832 

Fourth Annual Message, December 4, 1832 

Message on the South Carolina Ordinance 

and Proclamation of Governor Haynes, January 16, 1833 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 293 

Anti-Nullification Proclamation, December 10, 1832 

Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1833 
Removal of the Public Deposits — Paper 

read to the Cabinet, September 18, 1833 

Fifth Annual Message, December 3, 1833 

Veto Message — Public Lands, December 4, 1833 

Protest on the Expunging Resolution, April 15, 1834 

Sixth Annual Message, December 1, 1834 

Seventh Annual Message, December 7, 1835 

Message on Affairs with France, January 15, 1836 

Eighth Annual Message, December 5, 1836 

Message on Texas and Mexico, December 21, 1836 

Farevsrell Address, March 4, 1837 

Jackson's state; papers. 

Jackson's State Papers include the twenty-one documents set 
out above, all of which but two were officially communicated 
to Congress. The two were the papers read to his Cabinet Sep- 
tember 18, 1833, on the Removal of the Deposits and his Fare- 
well Address, issued March 4, 1837, the day Van Buren was 
inaugurated as his successor. It was found inexpedient to include 
all these twenty-one communications in this volume in full, but we 
have reproduced in full his two Inaugural Addresses, the Veto of 
the Bank of the United States, the great Nullification Proclamation, 
the Message on Texas and Mexico, the Paper on the Removal of 
the Deposits, the Protest on the Expunging Resolution and his 
Farewell Address. These are the greatest. 

A study of these will, we believe, convince any student of Ameri- 
can State papers that Jackson's rank among the very best of them 

We believe also that they will convince the student that Jack- 
son's enduring and bright fame will rest not on the Battle of New 
Orleans nor on his successful Indian campaigns, but upon the 
strength and power and statesmanship so abundantly shown in his 
communications and views throughout his civil life. His career in 
this respect is the exact reverse of that of General U. S. Grant. 
Gen Grant was one of the great Generals of history and he operated 
upon a vast scale and success followed him. As President of the 
United States he was out of place and a failure. 

Jackson was a successful General operating on a small scale, 
but as President he was one of our greatest, and in conc.ption of 
patriotic duty, willingness to perforin, and in comprehension of 
what his duty was, he was excelled by no character in our history. 

His limited military success gave him the opportunity by mak- 
ing him President to achieve things not before dreamed of. 

294 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Jackson's first inaugural address. 
(March 4, 1829.) 

"fellow citizens: About to undertake the arduous duties 
that I have been appointed to perform by the choice of the free 
people, I avail myself of this customary and solemn occasion to 
express the gratitude which their confidence inspires and to acknowl- 
edge the accountability which ray situation enjoins. While the 
magnitude of their interests convinces me that no thanks can be 
adequate to the honor they have conferred, it admonishes me that 
the best return I can make is the zealous dedication of my humble 
'abilities to their service and their good. 

"As the instrument of the Federal Constitution it will devolve 
on me for a stated period to execute the laws of the United States, 
to superintend their foreign and their confederate relations, to 
manage their revenue, to command their forces, and by communi- 
cation to the Legislature, to watch over and promote their interests 
generally. And the principles of action by which I shall endeavor 
to accomplish this circle of duties it is now proper for me briefly 
to explain. 

"In administering the laws of Congress I shall keep steadily in 
view the limitations as well as the extent of the Executive power, 
trusting hereby to discharge the functions of my office without 
transcending its authority. With foreign nations it will be my 
study to preserve peace and to cultivate friendship on fair and hon- 
orable terms and in the adjustment of any differences that may 
exist or arise to exhibit the forbearance becoming a powerful nation 
rather than the sensibility belonging to a gallant people. 

"In such measures as I may be called on to pursue in regard to 
the rights of the respect for those sovereign members of our Union, 
taking care not to confound the powers they have reserved to them- 
selves with those they have granted to the Confederacy. 

"The management of the public revenue — that searching op- 
eration in all governments — is among the most delecate and im- 
portant trusts in ours, and it will, of course, demand no inconsider- 
able share of my official solicitude. Under every aspect in which 
it can be considered it would appear that advantage must result 
from the observance of a strict and faithful economy. This I shall 
aim at the more anxiously, both Ix^cause it will facilitate the ex- 
tinguishment of the national debt, the unnecessary duration of 
which is incompatible with real independance, and because it will 
counteract that tendency to public and private profligacy which a 
profuse expenditure of money by the Government is but too apt to 
engender. Powerful auxiliaries to the attainment of this desirable 
end are to be found in the regulations provided by the wisdom of 
Congress for the specific appropriation of public money and the 
prompt accountability of public officers. 

"With regard to a proper selection of the subjects of impost 
with a view to revenue it would seem to me that the spirit of equity, 
caution, and compromise in which the Constitution was formed 


President of the Bank of the United States at the time of the Bank s conflict with Andrew Jackson. 

tional Portrait Gallery. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 295 

requires that the great interests of agriculture, commerce, and 
manufacturers should be equally favored, and that perhaps the 
only exception to this rule should consist in the peculiar encourage- 
ment of any products of either of them that may be found essential 
to our national independence. 

"Internal improvement and the diffusion of knowledge, so far 
as they can be promoted by the constitutional acts of the Federal 
Government, are of high importance. 

"Considering standing armies as dangerous to free governments 
in time of peace, I shall not seek to enlarge our present establish- 
ment, nor disregard that salutary lesson of political experience 
which teaches that the military should be held subordinate to civil 
power. The gradual increase of our Navy, whose flag has displayed 
in distant climes our skill in navigation and our fame in arms ; the 
perservation of our forts, arsenals, and dockyards, and the intro- 
duction of progressive improvements in the discipline and science 
of both branches of our military service are so plainly prescribed 
by prudence that I should be excused for omitting their mention 
sooner than for enlarging on their importance. But the bulwark 
of our defense is the national militia which in the present state of 
our intelligence and population must render us invincible. As long 
as our Government is administered for the good of the people, and 
is regulated by their will; as long as it secures to us the rights of 
person, and of property, liberty of conscience and of the press, it 
will be worth defending; and so long as it is worth defending a 
patriotic militia will cover it with an impenetrable aegis. Partial 
injuries and occasional mortifications we may be subjected to, but 
a million of armed freemen, possessed of the means of war, can 
never be conquered by a foreign foe. To any just system, there- 
fore, calculated to strengthen this natural safeguard of the country, 
I shall cheerfully lend all the aid in my power. 

"It will be my sincere and constant desire to observe towards 
the Indian Tribes within our limits a just and liberal policy, and to 
give that humane and considerate attention to their rights and 
their wants which is consistent with the habits of our Government 
and the feelings of our people. 

"The recent demonstration of public sentiment inscribes on the 
list of the Executive duties, in characters too legible to be over- 
looked, the task of reform which will require particularly the cor- 
rection of those abuses that have brought the patronage of the 
Federal Government into conflict with the freedom of elections, 
and the counteraction of those causes which have disturbed the 
rightful course of appointment and have placed or continued power 
in unfaithful or incompetent hands. 

"In the performance of a task thus general delineated I shall 
endeavor to select men whose diligence and talents will insure in 
their respective stations able and faithful cooperation, depending 
for the advancement of the public service more on the integrity 
and zeal of the public officers than on their numbers. 

296 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"A difference, perhaps too just, in my own qualifications will 
teach me to look with reverence to the examples of public virtue 
left by my illustrious predecessors, and with veneration to the 
lights that flow from the mind that founded and the mind that re- 
formed our system. The same difference induces me to hope for 
instructions and for the indulgence and support of my fellow-citi- 
zens generally. And a firm reliance on the goodness of that Power 
whose providence mercifully protected our national infancy, and 
has since upheld our liberties in various vicissitudes, encourages 
me to offer up my ardent supplications that He will continue to make 
our beloved country the object of His divine care and gracious 

Jackson's veto message — bank of the united states. 
(July 10, 1832.) 

"to the senate: The bill 'to modify and continue' the act 
entitled 'An act to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the 
United States' was presented to me on the 4th July instant. Hav- 
ing considered it with that solemn regard to the principles of the 
Constitution which the day was calculated to inspire, and come to 
the conclusion that it ought not to become a law, I herewith return it 
to the Senate, in which it orginated, with my objections. 

"A bank of the United States is in many respects convenient 
for the Government and useful to the people. Entertaining this 
opinion, and deeply impressed with the belief that some of the 
power and privileges possessed by the existing bank are unauthor- 
ized by the Constitution, subversive of the rights of the stat.s, and 
dangerous to the liberties of the people, I felt it my duty at an early 
period of my Administration to call the attention of Congress to the 
practicability of organizing an instution combining all its advantages 
and obviating these objections. I sincerely regret that in the act be- 
fore me I can perceive none of these modifications of the banks 
charter which are necessary, in my opinion, to make it compatible 
with justice with sound policy, or with the Constitution of our 

"The present corporate body denominated the president, direc- 
tors and company of the bank of the United States, will have ex- 
isted at the time this act is intended to take effect twenty years. 
It enjoys an exclusive privilige of banking under the authority of 
the General Government, a monopoly of its favor and support, 
and, as a necessary consequence, almost a monopoly of the foreign 
and domestic exchange. The powers, priviliges, and favors be- 
stowed upon it in the original charter, by increasing the value of 
the stock far above its par value, operated as a gratuity of many 
millions to the stockholders. 

"An apology may be found for the failure to guard against 
these results, in the consideration that the effect of the origi- 
nal act of incorporation could not be certainly forseen at the 
time of its passage. The act before me proposes another gratuity 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 297 

to the holders of the same stocks, and in many cases, to the same 
men, of at least seven millions more. This donation finds no 
apology in any uncertainty as to the effect of the act. On all hands 
it is conceded that its passage will increase, at least twenty or thirty 
per cent more, the market price of the stock, subject to the pay- 
ment of the annuity of $200,000 per year secured by the act; thus 
adding, in a moment, one fourth to its par value. It is not our 
own citizens only who are to receive the bounty of our Government. 
More than eight million of the stock of this bank are held by foreign- 
ers. By this act, the American Republic proposes virtually to 
make them a present of some millions of dollars. For the grat- 
uities to foreigners, and to some of our own opulent citizens, the act 
secures no equivalent whatever. They are the certain gains of 
the present stockholders under the operation of this act, after mak- 
ing full allowance for the payment of the bonus. 

"Every monopoly, and all exclusive privileges, are granted at the 
expense of the public, which ought to receive a fair equivalent. 
The many millions which this act proposes to bestow on the stock- 
holders of the existing bank, must come directly or indirectly out 
of the earnings of the i\merican people. It is due to them, there- 
fore, if their Government sell monopolies and exclusive privileges, 
that they should at least exact for them as much as they are worth 
in open market. The value of the monopoly in this case may be 
correctly ascertained. The twenty-eight millions of stock would 
probably be at an advance of fifty per cent., and command in the 
market at least forty-two millions of dollars, subject to the pay- 
ment of the present bonus. The present value of the monopoly, 
therefore, is seventeen millions of dollars, and this act proposes to 
sell for three millions,payable in fifteen annual instalments of $200,- 
000 each. 

"It is not conceivable hovv the present stockholders can have 
any claim to the special favor of the Government. The present 
corporation has enjoyed its monopoly during the period stipulated 
in the original contract. If we must have such a corporation, why 
should not the Government sell out the whole stock, and thus secure 
to the people the full market value of the privileges granted ? Why 
should not Congress create and sell twenty-eight millions of stock 
incorporating the purchasers with all the powers and privileges 
secured in this act, and putting the premium upon the sales into 
the Treasury? 

"But this act does not permit competitions in the purchase of 
this monopoly. It seems to be predicated on the erroneous idea 
that the present stockholders have a prescriptive right not only to 
the favor, but to the bounty of Government. It appears that more 
than a fourth part of the stock is held by foreigners, and the residue 
is held by a few hundred of our own citizens, chiefly of the richest 
class. For their benefit does this act exclude the whole American 
people from competition in the purchase of this monopoly and dis- 
pose of it for many millions less than it is worth ? This seems the 

298 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

less excusable, because some of our citizens, not now stockholders, 
petitioned that the door of competition might be opened, and 
offered to take a charter on terms much more favorable to the 
Government and country. 

"But this proposition, although made by men whose aggregate 
wealth is believed to be equal to all the private stock in the exist- 
ing bank, has been set aside, and the bounty of our Government is 
proposed to be again bestowed on the few who have been fortunate 
enough to secure the stock, and at this moment wield the power of 
the existing instutition. I cannot perceive the justice or policy of 
this course. If our Government must sell monopolies, it would 
seem to be its duty to take nothing less than their full value ; and 
if gratuities must be made in fifteen or twenty years, let them not 
be bestowed on the subjects of a foreign government, nor upon a 
designated and favored class of men in our own country. It is but 
justice and good policy, as far as the nature of the case will admit, 
to confine our favors to our own fellow-citizens, and let each in his 
turn enjoy an opportunity to profit by our bounty. In the bear- 
ings of the act before me, upon these points, I find ample reasons 
why it should not become a law. 

"It has been urged as an argument in favor of rechartering the 
present bank, that the calling in its loans will produce great em- 
iDarrassment and distress. The time allowed to close its concerns 
is ample; and if it has been well managed, its pressure will be light, 
and heavy only in case its management has been bad. If, there- 
fore, it shall produce distress, the fault will be its own; and it would 
furnish a reason against renewing a power which has been so ob- 
viously abused. But will there ever be time when this reason will 
be less powerful? To acknowledge its force, is to admit that the 
bank ought to be perpetual, and, as a consequence, the present 
stockholders, and those inheriting their rights as successors, be 
established a privileged order, clothed both with great political 
power, and enjoyment of immense pecuniary advantages, from their 
connection wdth the Government. 

"The modifications of the existing charter, proposed by this act 
are not such, in iry view, as make it consistent with the rights of 
States or the liberties of the people. The qualifications of the 
right of the bank to hold real estate, the limitation of its power to 
establish branches, and the power reserved to Congress to forbid 
the circulation of small notes, are restrictions comparatively of 
little value or importance. All the objectionable principles of the 
existing corporation, and most of its odious features, are retained 
without alleviation. 

"The fourth section provides 'that the notes or bills of the said 
corporation, although the same be on the faces thereof, respectively, 
made payable at one place only, shall, nevertheless, be received by 
the said corporation at the bank, or at any of the offices of discount 
and deposit thereof, if tendered in liquidation or payment of any 
balance or balances due to said corporation, or to such office of 
discount and deposit, from any other incorporated bank.' This 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 299 

provision secures to the State banks a legal privilege in the Bank of 
the United States, which is withheld from all private citizens. If 
a State bank in Philadelphia owe the Bank of the United States, 
and have notes issued by the St. Louis Branch, it can pay the debt 
with those notes; but if a merchant, mechanic, or other private 
citizen be in like circumstances, he cannot, by law, pay his debt with 
those notes; but must sell them at a discount, or send them to St. 
Louis to be cashed. This boon conceded to the State banks, 
though not unjust in itself, is most odious; because it does not 
measure out equal justice to the high and the low, the rich and the 
poor. To the extent of its practical effect, it is a bond of union 
among the banking establishments of the nation erecting them 
into an interest separate from that of the people ; and its necessary 
tendency is to unite the Bank of the United States and the State 
banks in any measure which may be thought conducive to their 
common interest. 

"The ninth section of the act recognizes principles of worse 
tendency than any provision of the present charter. 

"It enacts that 'the cashier of the bank shall annually report 
to the Secretary of the Treasury the names of all stockholders who 
are not resident citizens of the United States; and, on the appli- 
cation of the Treasurer of any State, shall make out and transmit to 
such Treasurer a list of stockholders residing in, or citizens of 
such state, with the aTiount of stock owned by each;' although 
this provision, taken in connection with a decision of the Supreme 
Court surrenders, by its silence, the right of the States to tax the 
banking institutions created by this corporation, under the name of 
branches, throughout the Union, it is evidently intended to be con- 
strued as a concession of their right to tax that portion of the stock 
which may be held by their own citizens and residents. In this light, 
if the act becomes a law, it will be understood by the States, who 
will probably process to levy a tax equal to that paid by the stock 
of the banks incorporated by themselves. In some States that tax 
is now one percent., either on the capital or on the shares, and that 
may be assumed as the amount which all citizens or resident stock- 
holders would be taxed under the operation of this act. As it is 
only the stock held in the States, and not that employed between 
them, which would be subject to taxation, and as the names of 
foreign stockholders are not to be reported to the Treasurers of the 
States, it is obvious that the stock held by them will be exempt 
from this burden. Their annual profits will, therefore, be one per- 
cent, more than the citizens stockholders; and, as the annual divi- 
dends of the bank may be safely estimated at seven percent., the 
stock will be worth ten or fifteen per cent more to foreigners than 
to citizens of the United States. To appreciate the effect which 
this state of things will produce, we must take a brief review of the 
operations and present condition of the Bank of the United States. 
"By documents, submitted to Congress at the present session, 
it appears that, on 1st of January, 1832, of the twenty-eight millions 

300 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

of private stock in the corporation, $8,405,500. were held by 
foreigners, mostly of Great Britain. The amount of stock held in 
nine western and south-western States, is $140,200. and in the 
four southern States, is $5,623,100. and in the middle and east- 
ern States, is about $13,522,000. The profits of the bank in 1831 , 
as shown in a statement to Congress, were about $3,455,598.: of 
this there accrued, in the nine western Stat-js about $352,507. ; and 
in the middle and eastern States, about $1 ,463,041 . As little stock 
is held in the west it is obvious that the debt of the peoples, in that 
section, to the bank, is principally a debt to the eastern and foreign 
stockholders ; that the interest they pay upon it, is carried into the 
eastsrn States and into Europe; and that it is a burden upon their 
industry, and a drain of their currency, which no country can bear 
without inconvenience and occasional distress. To meet this bur- 
den, and equalize the exchange of the bank, the amount of specie 
drawn from those States, through its branches, within the last two 
years, as shown by the official reports, was about $6,000,000. More 
than half a n illion of this amount does not stop in the eastern 
States, but passes on to Europe to pay the dividends of the foreign 
stockholders. In the principle of taxation recognized by this act, 
the western States find no adequate compensation for this per- 
petual burden on their industry, and drain of their currency. The 
branch bank at Mobile made last year 95,140 dollars; yet, under 
the provisions of this act, the State of Alabama can raise no reve- 
nue from these profitable operations, because not a share of the stock 
is held by any of her citizens. Mississippi and Missouri are in the 
same condition in relation to the branches at Natchez and St. Louis ; 
and such, in a greater or less degree, is the condition of every west- 
ern State. The tendency of the plan of taxation which this act pro- 
poses, will be to place the whole United States in the same relation 
to foreign countries which the western States now bear to the 
eastern. When, by tax on resident stockholders, the stock of this 
bank is made worth ten to fifteen percent more to foreigners than 
to residents, most of it will inevitably leave the country. 

"Thus will this provision, in its practical effect, deprive the 
eastern as well as the southern and western States of the means of 
raising a revenue from the extension of business and great profits 
of this institution. It will make the American people debtors to 
aliens, in nearly the whole amount due to this bank, and send across 
the Atlantic from two to five millions of specie every year to pay the 
bank dividends. 

"In another of its bearings this provision is fraught with danger. 
Of the twenty-five directors of this bank, five are chosen by the 
Government, and twenty by the citizen stockholders. From all 
voices in these elections, the foreign stockholders are excluded by 
the charter. In proportion, therefore, as the stock is transferred 
to foreign holders, the extent of suffrage in the choice of directors 
is curtailed. Already is almost a third of the stock in foreign hands 
and not represented in elections. It is constantly passing out of 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 301 

the country; and this act will accelerate its departure. The entire 
control of the instution would necessarily fall into the hands of 
citizen stockholders; and the case with which the object would be 
accomplished, would be a temptation to designing men to secure 
that control in their own hands, by monopolizing the remaining 
stock. There is danger that a president and directors would then 
be able to elect themselves from year to year, and without responsi- 
bility or control, manage the whole concerns of the bank during the 
existence of its charter. It is easy to conceive that great evils to 
our country and its institutions might flow from such a concen- 
tration of power in the hands of a few men, irresponsible of the 

"Is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank, 
that, in its nature, has so little to bind it to our country ? The Pres- 
ident of the bank has told us that most of the State banks exist by 
its forbearance. Should its influence become concentrated, as it 
may be under the operations of such an act as this, in the hands 
of self- elected directory whose interests are identified with those 
of the fonign stockholders, will there not be cause to tremble for the 
purity of our elections in peace, and for the independence of our 
country in war } Their power would be great whenever they might 
choose to exert it ; but if this monopoly were regularly renewed every 
fifteen or twenty years, on terms proposed by themselves, they 
might seldom in peace put forth their strength to influence elec- 
tions or control the affairs of the nation. But if any private citizen 
or public functionary' should interpose to curtail its powers or pre- 
vent a renewal of its privileges, it cannot be doubted that he would 
be made to feel its influence. 

"Should the stock of the bank principally pass into the hands 
of the subjects of a foreign country, and we should unfortunately 
become involved in a war with that country, what would be our 
condition? Of the course which would be pursued by a bank 
almost wholly owned by the subjects of a foreign power, and man- 
aged by those whose interests, if not affections, would run in the 
same direction, there can be no doubt. All its operations within, 
would be aid of the hostile fleets and armies without. Controlling 
our currency, receiving our public moneys, and holding thousands 
of our citizens in dependence, it would be more formidable and 
dangerous than the naval and military power of the enemy. 

"If we must have a bank with private stockholders, every con- 
sideration of sound policy, and every impulse of American feeling, 
admonishes that it should be PURELY AMERICAN. Its stock- 
holders should be composed exclusively of our own citizens, who, 
at least, ought to be friendly to our Government, and willing to 
support it in times of difficulty and danger. So abundant is dom- 
estic capital, that competition in subscribing for the stock of local 
banks has recently led almost to riots. To a bank exclusively of 
American stockholders, possessing the powers and privileges grant- 
ed by this act, subscriptions for two hundred millions of dollars 

302 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

could readily be obtained. Instead of sending abroad the stock of 
the bank in which the Government must deposit its funds, and on 
which it must rely to sustain its credit in times of emergency, it 
would rather seem to be expedient to prohibit its sales to aliens 
under penalty of absolute forfeiture. 

"It is maintained by the advocates of the bank that its con- 
stitutionality in all its features ought to be considered as settled by 
precedent, and by the decision of the Supreme Court. To this 
conclusion I cannot assent. Mere precedent is a dangerous source 
of authority, and should not be regarded as deciding questions of 
constitutional power, except where the acquiesence of the people 
and the States can be considered as well settled. So far from this 
being the case on this subject, an argument against the bank might 
be based on precedent. One Congress, in 1791, decided in favor 
of a bank; another in 1811, decided against it. One Congress, in 
1815, decided against a bank; another, in 1816, decided in its favor. 
Prior to the present Congress, therefore, the precedents drawn 
from that source were equal. If we resort to the States, the 
expressions of legislative, judicial, and executive opinions against 
the bank, have been, probably, to those in its favor as four to one. 
There is nothing in precedent, therefore, which, if its authority 
were admitted, ought to weigh in favor of the act before me. 

"If the opinion of the Supreme Court covered the whole ground 
of this act, it ought not to control the co-ordinate authorities of 
this Government. 

"The Congress, the Executive, and the Court, must each for 
itself be guided by its own opinion of the constitution. Each public 
officer, who takes an oath to support the constitution, swears that 
he will support it as he understands it, and not as it is understood 
by others. It is as much the duty of the House of Representatives, 
of the Senate and the President, to decide upon the constitution- 
ality of any bill or resolution which may be presented to them for 
passage or approval, as it is of the Supreme Judges when it may be 
brought before them for judicial dicision. The opinion of the 
judges has no more authority over Congress, than the opinion of 
Congress has over the judges, and, on that point, the President is 
independent of both. The authority of the Supreme Court must 
not, therefore, be permitted to control the Congress or the Execu- 
tive when acting in their legislative capacities, but to have only 
such influence as the force of their reasoning may deserve. 

"But in the case relied upon, the Supreme Court have not 
decided that all the features of this corporation are compatible 
with the constitution. It is true that the Court have said that the 
law incorporating the bank is a constitutional exercise of power by 
Congress. But taking into view the whole opinion of the Court, 
and the reasoning by which they have come to that conclusion, 
I understand them to have decided that, inasmuch as a bank is 
an appropriate means for carrying into effect the enumerated 
powers of the General Government, therefore the law incorporat- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 303 

ing it is in accordance with that provision of the constitution which 
declares that Congress shall have power ' to make all laws which 
shall be necessary and proper for carrying those powers into ex- 
ecution.' Having satisfied themselves that the word 'necessary ' 
in the constitution, means ' needful,' ' requisite, ' ' essential, ' 
' conducive to ' and that ' a bank ' is a convenient, a useful, and 
essential instrument, in the prosecution of the Government's 
' fiscal operations, ' they conclude, that to ' use one must be within 
the discretion of Congress,' and that 'the act to incorporate the 
Bank of the United States is a law made in pursuance of the con- 
stitution ; but, say they, ' where the law is not prohibited, and is 
really calculated to effect any of the objects entrusted to the Gov- 
erment, to undertake here, to inquire into the degree of its ne- 
cessity, would be to pass the line which circumscribes the judicial 
department, and to tread on legislative ground.' 

"The principle here afhrmed is, that the ' degree of its necessi- 
ty,' involving all the details of a banking institution, is a question 
exclusively for legislative consideration. A bank is constitutional; 
but it is the province of the Legislature to determine whether this 
or that particular power, privilege or exemption, ' is necessary 
and proper ' to enable the bank to discharge its duties to the Gov- 
ernment; and, from their decision there is no appeal to the courts 
of justice. Under the decision of the Supreme Court, therefore, 
it is the exclusive province of Congress and the President to decide 
whether the particular features of this act are necessary and proper 
in order to enable the bank to perform conveniently and efficiently 
the public duties assigned to it as a fiscal agent and therefore 
constitutional; or unnecessary and improper, and therefore un- 
constitutional. Without commenting on the general principle 
affirmed by the Supreme Court, let us examine the details of this 
act in accordance with the rule of legislative action which they have 
laid down. It will be found that many of the powers and priv- 
ileges conferred on it cannot be supposed necessary for the purpose 
for which it is proposed to be created, and are not, therefore, 
means necessary to attain the end in view, and consequently not 
justified by the Constitution. 

"The original act of incorporation, section 21, enacts ' that no 
bank shall be established, by any future law of the United States, 
during the continuance of the corporation hereby created, for 
which the faith of the United States is hereby pledged; Provided, 
Congress may renew existing charters for banks within the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, not increasing the capital thereof; and may 
also establish any other bank or laanks in said district, with cap- 
itals not exceeding in the whole six millions of dollars, if they 
shall deem it expedient.' This provision is continued in force, 
by the act before me, fifteen years from the 3rd of March, 1836. 

"If Congress possessed the power to establish one bank, they 
had power to establish more than one if, in their opinion, two or 
more banks had been ' necessary ' to facilitate the execution of 

304 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the powers delegated to them in the constitution. If they pos- 
sessed the power to estabHsh a second bank, it was a power derived 
from the constitution, to be exercised from time to time, and at 
any time when the interests of the country or the emergencies 
of the Government might make it expedient. It was possessed 
by one Congress as well as another, and by all Congresses alike, 
and alike at every session. But the Congress of 1816 have taken 
it away from their successors for twenty years, and the Congress 
of 1832 proposes to abolish it for fifteen years more. It cannot be 
' necessary ' or ' proper ' for Congress to barter away, or divest 
themselves of any of the powers vested in them by the constitution 
to be exercised for the public good. It is not ' necessary ' to the 
efficiency of the bank, nor is it ' proper ' in relation to themselves 
and their successors. They may properly use the discretion vested 
in them ; but they may not limit the discretion of their successors. 
This restriction on themselves, and grant of a monopoly to the 
bank, is, therefore, unconstitutional. 

"In another point of view, this provision is a palpable attempt 
to amend the constitution by the act of legislation. The consti- 
tution declares that ' the Congress shall have power to exercise 
exclusive legislation, in all cases what-so-ever,' over the district of 
Columbia. Its constitutional power, therefore, to establish banks 
in the District of Columbia, and increase their capital at will, is 
unlimited and uncontrolable by any other power than that which 
gave authority to the constitution. Yet this act declares that 
Congress shall not increase the capital of existing banks, nor create 
other banks with capital exceeding, in the whole, six millions of 
dollars. The constitution declares that Congress shall have power 
to exercise exclusive legislation over this District ' in all cases 
whatsoever;' and this act declares they shall not. 

' ' Which is the su preme law of the land ? This provision cannot be 
' necessary,' or ' proper, or constitutional, unless the absurdity be 
admitted, that whenever it be ' necessary and proper,' in the opin- 
ion of Congress, they have a right to barter away one portion of 
the powers vested in them by the constitution, as a means of ex- 
ecuting the rest. 

"On two subjects only does the constitution recognize in Con- 
gress the power to grant exclusive privileges or monopolies. It 
declares that ' Congress ' shall have power to promote the progress 
of science and useful arts by securing, for limited times, to authors 
and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and 

"Out of this express delegation of power, have grown our laws 
of patents and copy-rights. As the constitution expressly del- 
egates to Congress the power to grant exclusive privileges, in these 
cases, as the means of executing the substantive power ' to promote 
the progress of science and useful arts,' it is consistent with the 
fair rules of construction, to conclude that such a power was not 
intended to be granted as a means of accomplishing any other 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 305 

end. On every other subject which comes within the scope of 
Congressional power, there is an ever Hving discretion in the use of 
proper means, which cannot be restricted or aboHshed without an 
amendment of the constitution. Every act of Congress, therefore, 
which attempts, by grants of monopoHes, or sales of exclusive 
privileges for a limited time, or a time without limit, to restrict or 
extinguish its own discretion in the choice of means to execute 
its delegated powers is equivalent to a legislative amendment of the 
Constitution, and palpably unconstitutional. 

"This act authorizes and encourages transfers of its stock 
to foreigners and grants them an exemption from all State and 
national taxation. So far from being ' necessary and proper ' 
that the bank should possess this power to make it a safe and 
efficient agent of the Government in its fiscal operations, it is 
calculated to convert the bank of the United States into a foreign 
bank to impoverish our people in time of peace, to disseminate a 
foreign influence through every section of the Republic, and in war 
to endanger our independence. 

"The several States reserved the power at the formation of the 
constitution to regulate and control titles and transfers of real 
property, and most, if not all, of them have laws disqualifying 
aliens from acquiring or holding lands within their limits. But 
this act, in disregard of the undoubted right of the States to pre- 
scribe such disqualifications, gives to aliens stockholders in this 
bank an interest and title, as members of the corporation, to all the 
real property it may acquire within any of the States of this Union. 
This privilege granted to aliens is not ' necessary ' to enable the 
bank to perform its public duties, nor in any sense' proper,' because 
it is vitally subversive of the rights of the States. 

"The Government of the United States have no constitutional 
powers to purchase lands within the States except ' for the erection 
of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful build- 
ings,' and even for these objects only ' by the consent of the leg- 
islature of the State in which the same shall be.' By making 
themselves stockholders in the bank and granting to the corpora- 
tion the power to purchase lands for other purposes they assume a 
power not granted in the Constitution and grant to others what 
they do not themselves possess. It is not necessary to the receiv- 
ing, safe-keeping, or transmission of the funds of the Government 
that the bank should possess this power, and it is not proper that 
Congress should thus enlarge the powers delegated to them in the 

"The old bank of the United States possessed a capital of only 
$11,000,000, which was found fully sufficient to enable it with 
dispatch and safety to perform all the functions required of it by the 
Government. The capital of the present bank is $35,000,000 — at 
least twenty-four more than experience has proved to be necessary 
to enable a bank to perform its public functions. The public 
debt which existed during the period of the old bank and on the 

306 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

establishment of the new has been nearly paid off, and our revenue 
will soon be reduced. This increase of capital is therefore not for 
public but for private purposes. 

"The Government is the only ' proper ' judge where its agents 
should reside and keep their ofhces, because it best knows where 
their presence will be ' necessary.' It can not, therefore, be ' nec- 
essary ' or ' proper ' to authorize the bank to locate branches 
where it pleases to perform the public service, without consulting 
the Government, and contrary to its will. The principle laid 
down by the Supreme Court concedes that Congress can not 
establish a bank for purposes of private speculation and gain, but 
only as a means of executing the delegated powers of the General 
Government. By the same principle a branch can not consti- 
tutionally be established for other than public purposes. The 
power which this act gives to establish two branches in any State, 
without the injuction or request of the Government and for other 
than public purposes, is not ' necessary ' to the due execution of 
the powers delegated to Congress. 

"The bonus which is exacted from the bank is a confession upon 
the face of the act that the powers granted by it are greater than 
are ' necessary ' to its character of a fiscal agent. The Govern- 
ment does not tax its officers and agents for the privileges of serv- 
ing it. The bonus of a million and a half required by the original 
charter and that of three millions proposed by this act are not 
exacted for the privilege of giving ' the necessary facilities for 
transferring the public funds from place to place within the United 
States or Territories thereof, and for distributing the same in pay- 
ment of the public creditors without charging commission or 
claiming allowance on account of the difference of exchange,' as 
required by the act of incorporation, but for something more 
beneficial to the stockholders. The original act declared that 
(the bonus) is granted ' in consideration of the exclusive privileges 
and benefits conferred by this act upon the said bank,' and the 
act before me declares it to be ' in consideration of the exclusive 
benefits and privileges continued by this act to the said corporation 
for fifteen years, as aforesaid.' It is therefore for ' exclusive priv- 
ileges and benefits ' conferred for their own use and emolument, 
and not for the advantage of the Government, that a bonus is 
exacted. These surplus powers for which the bank is required to 
pay cannot surely be ' necessary ' to make it the fiscal agent of the 
Treasury. If they were, the exaction of a bonus would not be 
* proper.' 

"It is maintained by some that the bank is a means of executing 
the constitutional power ' to coin money and regulate the value 
thereof.' Congress have established a mint to coin money and pass 
laws to regulate the value thereof. The money so coined, with 
its value so regulated and such foreign coins as congress may adopt 
are the only currency known to the constitution. But if they have 
other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be ex- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 307 

ercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation. 
If the bank be estabHshed for that purpose with a charter un- 
alterable without its consent, congress have parted with their 
power for a term of years, during which the constitution is a dead 
letter. It is neither necessary nor proper to transfer its legislative 
power to such a bank, and therefore unconstitutinal. 

"By its silence, considered in connection with the decision of 
the Supreme Court in the case of McCulloch against the State of 
Maryland, this act takes from this state the power to tax a portion 
of the banking business carried on within its limits, in subversion 
of one of the strongest beariers which secured them against Federal 
encroachments. Banking, like farming, manufacturing, or any 
other occupation or profession is a business, the right to follow which 
is not originally derived from the laws. Every citizen and every 
company of citizens in all of our states possessed the right until the 
State Legislatures deemed it good policy to prohibit private bank- 
ing by law. If the prohibitory state laws were now repealed, 
every citizen would again possess the right. The State Banks are 
a qualified restoration of the right which has been taken away by 
the laws against banking, guarded by such provisions and limita- 
tions as in the opinion of the State Legislatures the public interest 
requires. These corporations, unless there be an exemption in 
their charter, are, like private bankers and banking companies, 
subject to state taxation. The manner in which these taxes shall 
be laid depends wholly on legislative discretion. It may be upon 
the bank, upon the stock, upon the profits, or in any other mode 
which the sovereign power shall will. 

"Upon the formation of the Constitution the states guarded 
their taxing power with peculiar jealousy. They surrendered it 
only as it regards imports and exports. In relation to every other 
object within their jurisdiction, whether persons, property, bus- 
iness, or professions, it was secured in as ample a manner as it was 
before possessed. All persons, though United States officers, are 
liable to a poll tax by the States within which they reside. The 
lands of the United States are liable to the usual land tax except 
in the new States, from whom agreements that they will not tax 
unsold lands are exacted when they are admitted into the Union. 
Horses, wagons, any beasts or vehicles, tools or property, belonging 
to private citizens, though employed in the service of the United 
States, are subject to State taxation. Every private business, 
whether carried on by an officer of the General Government or not, 
whether it be mixed with public concerns or not, even if it be car- 
ried on by the Government of the United States itself, separately 
or in partnership, falls within the scope of the taxing power of the 
State. Nothing comes more fully within it than banks and the 
business of banking, by whomsoever instituted and carried on. 
Over this whole subject-matter it is just as absolute, unlimited, and 
uncontrollable as if the Constitution had never been adopted, be- 
cause in the formation of that instrument it was reserved without 

308 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

"The principle is conceded that the States can not rightfully 
tax the operations of the General Government. They can not 
tax the money of the Government deposited in the State banks, 
nor the agency of those banks in remitting it; but will any man 
maintain that their mere selection to perform this public service 
for the General Government would exempt the State banks and 
their ordinary business from State taxation? Had the United 
States instead of establishing a bank at Philadelphia, employed a 
private banker to keep and transmit their funds, would it have 
deprived Pennsylvania of the right to tax his bank and his usual 
banking operations ? It will not be pretended. Upon what prin- 
ciple then, are the banking establishments of the bank of the 
United States and their usual banking operations to be exempted 
from taxation? It is not their public agency or the deposits of the 
Government which the States claim a right to tax, but their banks 
and their banking powers, instituted and exercised within State 
jurisdiction, for their private emolument — those powers and 
privileges for which they pay a bonus, and which the States tax 
in their own banks. The exercise of these powers within the State, 
no matter by whom or under what authority, whether by private 
citizens in their original right, by co-operate bodies created by the 
States, by foreigners or the agents of foreign governments located 
within their limits, forms a legitimate object of state taxation. 
From this and like sources, from the persons, property, and bus- 
iness that are found residing, located or carried on under their juris- 
diction, must the States, since the surrender of their right to raise 
a revenue from imports and exports, draw all the money necessary 
for the support of their Government and the maintainence of their 
independence. There is no more appropriate subject of taxation 
than banks, banking, and bank stocks, and none to which the 
States ought more pertinaciously to cling. 

"It cannot be necessary to the charter of the bank as a fiscal 
agent of the Government that its private business should be exempt- 
ed from that taxation to which all the State banks are liable, nor 
can I conceive it ' proper ' that the substantive and most essential 
powers reserved by the State shall be thus attacked and annihilated 
as a means of executing, the powers del gated to the general Govern- 
ment. It may be safely assumed that none of those sages who 
had an agency in forming or adopting our Constitution ever im- 
agined that any portion of the taxing power of the States not pro- 
hibited to them nor delegated to Congress was to be swept away 
and annihilated as a means of executing certain powers delegated 
to Congress. 

"If our power over means is so absolute that the Supreme Court 
will not call in question the constitutionality of an act of Congress 
the subject of which ' is not prohibited, and is really calculated to 
effect any of the objects intrusted to the Government.' Although, 
as in the case before me, it takes away powers expressly granted to 
Congress and rights scrupulously reserved to the States, it becomes 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 309 

us to proceed in our legislation with the utmost caution. Thouj^h 
not directly, our own powers and the rights of the States may be 
indirectly legislated away in the use of means to execute substan- 
tive powers. We may not enact that Congress shall not have the 
power of exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia, 
but we may pledge the faith of the United States, that as a 
means of executing other powers it shall not be exercised for 
twenty years or forever. We may not pass an act prohibiting 
the States to tax the banking business carried on within their 
limits, but we may, as a means of executing our powers over other 
objects, place that business in the hands of our agents and then 
declare it exempt from State taxation in their hands. Thus may 
our own powers and the rights of the States, which we can not 
directly curtail or invade, be frittered away and extinguished in 
the use of means employed by us to execute other powers. That 
a bank of the United States, competent to all the duties which 
may be required by the Government, might be so organized as not 
to infringe on our own delegated powers or the reserved rights of 
the States I do not entertain a doubt. Had the Executive been 
called upon to furnish the project of such an institution, the duty 
would have been cheerfully performed. In the absence of such a 
call it was obviously proper that he should confine himself to 
pointing out those prominent features in the act presented which 
in his opinion make it imcompatible with the Constitution and 
sound policy. A general discussion will now take place, eliciting 
new light and settling important principles; and new Congress, 
elected in the midst of such discussion, and furnishing an equal 
representation of the people according to the last census, will bear 
to the Capitol the verdict of public opinion, and, I doubt not, 
bring this important question to a satisfactory result. 

"Under such circumstances the bank comes forward and asks 
a renewal of its charter for a term of fifteen years upon conditions 
which not only operate as a gratuity to the stockholders of many 
millions of dollars, but will sanction any abuses and legalize any 

"Suspicions are entertained and charges are made of gross abuse 
and violation of its charter. An investigation unwillingly con- 
ceded and so restricted in time as necessarily to make it imcomplete 
and unsatisfactory discloses enough to excite suspicion and alarm. 
In the practices of the principal bank partially unveiled, in the 
absence of important witnesses, and in numerous charges con- 
fidently made and as yet wholly uninvestigated there was enough 
to induce a majority of the committee of investigation — a com- 
mittee which was selected from the most able and honorable mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives — to recommend a suspen- 
sion of further action upon the will and a prosecution of the inquiry. 
As the charter had yet four years to run, and as a renewal now 
was not necessary to the successful prosecution of its business, it 
was to have been expected that the bank itself, conscious of its 

310 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

purity and proud of its character, would have withdrawn its ap- 
plication for the present, and demanded the severest scrutiny into 
all its transactions. In their declining to do so there seems to be 
an additional reason why the functionaries of the Government 
should proceed with less haste and more caution in the renewal of 
their monopoly. 

"The bank is professedly established as an agent of the execu- 
tive branch of the Government, and its constitutionality is main- 
tained on that ground. Neither upon the propriety of present 
action nor upon the provisions of this act was the executive con- 
sulted. It has had no opportunity to say that it neither needs nor 
wants an agent clothed with such powers and favored by such 
exemptions. There is nothing in its legitimate functions which 
makes it necessary or proper. Whatever interest or influence, 
whether public or private, has given birth to this act, it can not 
be found either in the wishes or necessities of the executive depart- 
ment, by which present action is deemed premature, and the 
powers conferred upon its agent not only unnecessary, but danger- 
ous to the Government and country. 

"It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend 
the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in 
society will always exist under every just government. Equality 
of talents, of education, or of wealth can not be produced by human 
institutions. In the full enjoyment of the gifts of Heaven and the 
fruits of superior industry, economy, and virtue, every man is 
equally entitled to protection by law ; but when the laws undertake 
to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions, 
to grant titles, gratuities, and exclusive privileges, to make the 
rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of 
society — the farmers, mechanics, and laborers — who have neither 
the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have 
a right to complain of the injustice of their Government. There 
are no necessary evils in government. Its evil is only in its abuses. 
If it would confine itself to equal protection, and, as Heaven does 
its rain, shower its favors alike on the high and the low, the rich 
and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act 
before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary department 
from these just principles. 

"Nor is our Government to be maintained or our Union pre- 
served by invasions of the rights and powers of the several States. 
In thus attempting to make our General Government strong we 
make it weak. Its true strength consists in leaving individuals 
and States as much as possible to themselves — in making itself 
felt, not in its power, but in its beneficence; not in its control, but 
in its protection, not in binding the States more closely to the 
center, but leaving each to move unobstructed in its proper orbit. 

"Experience should teach us wisdom. Most of the diflficulties 
our Government now encounters and most of the dangers which 
impend over our Union have sprung from an abandonment of the 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 311 

legitimate objects of Government by our national legislation, and 
the adoption of such principles as are embodied in this act. Many 
of our rich men have not been content with equal protection and 
equal benefits, but have besought us to make them richer by act 
of Congress. By attempting to gratify their desires we have in 
the results of our legislation arrayed section against section, inter- 
est against interest, and man against man, in a fearful commotion 
which threatens to shake the foundations of our Union. It is 
time to pause in our career to review our principles, and if possible 
revive that devoted patriotism and spirit of compromise which 
distinguished the sages of the Revolution and the fathers of our 
Union. If we cannot at once, in justice to interests vested under 
improvident legislation, make our Government what it ought to 
be, we can at least take a stand against all new grants of monopolies 
and exclusive privileges, against any prostitution of our Govern- 
ment to the advancement of the few at the expense of the many, 
and in favor or compromise and gradual reform in our code of 
laws and system of political economy. 

"I have now done by duty to my country. If sustained by my 
fellow-citizens, I shall be grateful and happy; if not I shall find in 
the motives which impel me ample grounds for contentment and 
peace. In the difficulties which surround us, in the dangers which 
threaten our institutions, there is cause for neither dismay or 
alarm. For relief and deliverence let us firmly rely on that kind 
Providence which I am sure watches with peculiar care over the 
destinies of our Republic, and on the intelligence and wisdom of our 
countrymen. Through His abundent goodness and their patriotic 
devotion our liberty and Union will be preserved." 

Thomas H. Benton inhis"Thirty Years View," Volume 1, page 
265, makes this quotation from Hugh Lawson White, Senator from 
Tennessee : 

"On the other hand, Mr. White, of Tennessee, exalted the merit 
of the veto message above all the acts of General Jackson's life, 
and claimed for it a more enduring fame, and deeper gratitude 
than for the greatest of his victories; and concluded his speech 

' When the excitement of the time in which we act shall have 
passed away, and the historian and biographer shall be employed 
in giving his account of the acts of our most distinguished public 
men, and comes to the name of Andrew Jackson; when he shall 
have recounted all the great and good deeds done by this man in 
the course of a long and eventful life, and the circumstances under 
which this message was communicated shall have been stated, the 
conclusion will be, that, in doing this, he has shown a willingness 
to risk more to promote the happiness of his fellow-men, and to 
secure their liberties, than by the doing of any other act whatever.' 

Jackson's second inaugural address. 
(March 4, 1833) 
"fellow CITIZENS; The will of the American people, ex- 

312 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

pressed through their unsoHcited suffrages, calls me before you to 
pass through the solemnities preparatory to taking upon myself 
the duties of President of the United States for another term. 
For their approbation of my public conduct through a period which 
has not been without its difficulties and for this renewed expression 
of their confidence in my good intentions, I am at a loss for terms 
adequate to the expression of my gratitude. It shall be displayed 
to the extent of my humble abilities in continued efforts so to ad- 
minister the Government as to preserve their liberty and promote 
their happiness. 

"So many events have occurred within the last four years which 
have necessarily called forth sometimes under circu nstanci^s th.^ 
most delicate and painful my views of the principles and policy 
which ought to be pursued by the General Government that I 
need on this occasion but allude to a few leading considerations 
connected with some of them. 

"The foreign policy adopted by our Government soon after 
the formation of our present Constitution, and very generally pur- 
sued by successive administrations, has been crowned with almost 
complete success, and has elevated our character among the nations 
of the earth. To do justice to all and to submit to wrong from 
none has been during my administration its governing maxim, and 
so happy have been its results that we are not only at peace with 
all the world, but have few causes of controversy, and those of 
minor importance, remaining unadjusted. 

"In the domestic policy of this Government there are two 
objects which especially deserve the attention of the people and 
their representatives, and which have been and will continue to be the 
subjectsof my increasing solicitude. They are the preservation of 
the rights of the several States and the integrity of the Union. 
"These great objects are necessarily connected, and can only 
be attained by an enlightened exercise of the powers of each within 
its appropriate sphere in conformity with the public will consti- 
tutionally expressed. To this end it becomes the duty of all to 
to yield a ready and patriotic submission to the laws constitution- 
ally enacted, and thereby promote and strengthen a proper con- 
fidence in those institutions of the several States and of the United 
States which the people themselves have ordained for their own 

"My experience in public concern and the observation of a 
life somewhat advanced confirm the opinions long since imbibed 
by me, that the destruction of our State governments or the anni- 
hilation of their control over the local concerns of the people would 
lead directly to revolution and anarchy, and finally to despotism 
and military domination. In proportion, therefore, as the General 
Government encroaches upon the rights of the States, in the same 
proportion does it impair its own power and detract from its abil- 
ity to fulfill the purposes of its creation. Solemnly impressed 
with these considerations, my countr\'men will ever find me ready 


Painting now hanging in the Council Chamber of the City Hall. Charleston, South Carolina. 
Vanderlyn, 1775-1852, in 1815 it is thought. 

Painted by John 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 313 

to exercise my constitutional powers in arresting measures which 
may directly or indirectly encroach upon the rights of the State to 
tend to consolidate all political power in the General Govern- 
ment. But of equal, and, indeed, of incalculable importance in 
the union of these States, and the sacred duty of all to contribute 
to its preservation by a liberal support of the General Government 
in the exercise of its just powers. You have been wisely admon- 
ished to ' accustom yourselves to think and speak of the Union as 
of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity, watching 
for its preservation with jealous anxiety, discountenancing what- 
ever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be aban- 
doned, and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of any 
attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to 
enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.' 
Without union our independence and liberty would never have been 
achieved; without union they never can be maintained. Divided 
into twenty-four, or even a small number, of separate communities, 
we shall see our internal trade burdened with numberless restraints 
and exactions ; communication between distant points and sections 
obstructed or cut oflf ; our sons made soldiers to deluge with blood 
the fields they now till in peace; the mass of our people borne 
down and impoverished by taxes to support armies and navies, and 
military leaders at the head of their victorious legions becoming 
our lawgivers and judges. The loss of happiness, must inevitably 
follow a dissolution of the Union. In supporting it, therefore, 
we support all that is dear to the freeman and the philanthropist. 
"The time at which I stand before you is full of interest. The 
eyes of all nations are fixed on our Republic. The event of the 
existing crisis will be decisive in the opinion of mankind of the 
practicability of our federal system of government. Great is the 
stake placed in our hands; great is the responsibility which must 
rest upon the people of the United States. Let us realize the 
importance of the attitude in which we stand before the world. 
Let us exercise forbearance and firmness. Let us extricate our 
country from the dangers which surround it and learn wisdom from 
the lessons they inculate. 

"Deeply impressed with the truth of these observations, and 
under the obligation of that solemn oath which I am about to take, 
I shall continue to exert all my faculties to maintain the just 
powers of the Constitution and to transmit unimpaired to posterity 
the blessings of our Federal Union. At the same time, it will be 
my aim to inculcate by my official acts the necessity of exercising 
by the General Government those powers only that are clearly 
delegated ; to encourage simplicity and the economy in the expend- 
itures of the Government ; to raise no more money from the people 
than may be requisite for these objects, and in a manner that will 
best promote the interests of all classes of the community and of 
all portions of the Union. Constantly bearing in mind that in 
entering into society ' individuals must give up a share of liberty 

314 • Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

to preserve the rest,' it will be my desire so to discharge ray duties 
as to foster with our brethren in all parts of the country a spirit 
of liberal concession and compromise, and, by reconciling our 
fellow-citizens to those partial sacrifices which they must un- 
avoidably make for the preservation of a greater good, to recom- 
mend our invaluable Government and Union to the confidence and 
affections of the American people. 

"Finally, it is my most fervent prayer to that Almighty Being 
before whom I now stand, and who has kept us in His hands from 
the infancy of our Republic to the present day, that He will so over- 
rule all my intentions and actions and inspire the hearts of my 
fellow-citizens that we may be preserved from dangers of all kinds 
and continue forever a united and happy people. 

Jackson's message on texas and mexico 
(December 21, 1836). 

"To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States: — During the last session information was given to Congress 
by the Executive that measures had been taken to ascertain ' the 
political, military, and civil condition of Texas.' I now submit for 
your consideration extracts from the report of the agent who had 
been appointed to collect it relative to the condition of that coun- 

"No steps have been taken by the Executive toward the ack- 
nowledgment of the independence of Texas, and the whole subject 
would have been left without further remark on the information 
now given to Congress were it not that the two Houses at their 
last session, acting separately, passed resolutions ' that the inde- 
pendence of Texas ought to be acknowledged by the United States 
whenever satisfactory information should be received that it had 
in successful operation a civil government capable of performing 
the duties and fulfilling the obHgations of an indepedent power., 
This mark of interest in the question of the independence of Texas 
and indication of the views of Congress make it proper that I should 
somewhat in detail present the considerations that have governed 
the Executive in continuing to occupy the ground previously taken 
in the contest between Mexico and Texas. 

"The acknowledgment of a new state as independent and 
entitled to a place in the family of nations is at all times an act of 
great delicacy and responsibility, but more especially so when such 
state has forcibly separated itself from another of which it has form- 
ed an integral part and which still claims dominion over it. A 
premature recognition under these circumstances, if not looked 
upon as justifiable cause of war, is always liable to be regarded 
as a proof of an unfriendly spirit to one of the contending parties. 
All questions relative to the government of foreign nations, whether 
of the Old or the New World, have been treated by the United 
States as questions of fact only, and our predecessors have cautious- 
ly abstained from deciding upon them until the clearest evidence 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 315 

was in their possession to enable them not only to decide correctly, 
but to shield their decisions from every unworthy imputation. 
In all the contests that have arisen out of the revolutions of France, 
out of the disputes relating to the crowns of Portugal and Spain, 
out of the revolutionary movements of those Kingdoms, out of the 
separation of the American possessions of both from the European 
Governments, and out of the numerous and constantly occurring 
struggles for dominion in Spanish America, so wisely consistent 
with our just principles has been the action of our Government 
that we have under the most critical circumstances avoided all 
censure and encounted no other evil than that produced by a 
transient estrangement of good will in those against whom we have 
been by force of evidence compelled to decide. 

"It has thus been made known to the world that the uniform 
policy and practice of the United States is to avoid all interference 
in disputes which merely relate to the internal government of other 
nations, and eventually to recognize the authority of the prevailing 
party, without reference to our particular interests and views or 
to the merits of the original controversy. Public opinion here is 
so firmly established and well understood in favor of this policy 
that no serious disagreement has ever arisen among ourselves in 
relation to it, although brought under review in a variety of forms 
and at periods when the minds of the people were greatly excited 
by the agitation of topics purely domestic in their character. Nor 
has any deliberate inquiry ever been instituted in Congress or 
in any of our legislative bodies as to whom belonged the power of 
originally recognizing a new State — a power the exercise of which 
is equivalent under some circumstances to a declaration of war; 
a power nowhere expressly delegated, and only granted in the 
Constitution as it is necessarily involved in some of the great power 
given to Congress, in that given to the President and Senate to 
form treaties with foreign powers and to appoint ambassadors 
and other public ministers, and in that conferred upon the Pres- 
ident to receive ministers from foreign nations. 

"In the preamble to the resolution of the House of Represent- 
atives it is distinctly intimated that the expediency of recognizing 
the independence of Texas should be left to the decision of Con- 
gress. In this view, on the ground of expediency, I am disposed to 
concur, and do not, therefore, consider it necessary to express any 
opinion as to the strict constitutional right of the Executive, either 
apart from or in conjunction with the Senate, over the subject. 
It is to be presumed that on no future occasion will a dispute arise, 
as none has heretofore occurred, between the Executive and Leg- 
islature in the exercise of the power of recognition. It will always 
be considered consistent with the spirit of the Constitution, and 
most safe, that it should be exercised, when probably leading to 
war, with a previous understanding with that body by whom war 
can alone be declared, and by whom all provisions for sustaining its 
perils must be furnished. Its submission to Congress, which rep- 

316 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

resents in one of its branches the states of this Union and the 
other the people of the United States, where theremayb.^ reason- 
able j^round to apprehend so grave a consequence, would certainly 
afford the fullest satisfaction to our own country and a perfect 
guaranty to all other nations of the justice and prudence of the 
measures which might be adopted. 

"In making these suggestions it is not my purpose to relieve 
myself from the responsibility of expressing my own opinions of 
the course the interests of our country prescribe and its honor per- 
mits us to follow. 

"It is scarcely to be imagined that a question of this character 
could be presented in relation to which it would be more difficult 
for the United States to avoid exciting the suspicion and jealousy 
of other powers, and maintain their established character for fair 
and impartial dealing. But on this, as on every trying occasion, 
safety is to be found in a rigid adherence to principle. 

"In the contest between Spain and her revolted colonies we 
stood aloof and waited, not only until the ability of the new States 
to protect themselves was fully established, but until the danger of 
their being again subjugated had entirely passed away. Then, 
and not till then, were they recognized. Such was our course in 
regard to Mexico herself. The same policy was observed in all 
the disputes growing out of the separation into distinct govern- 
ments of those Spanish-American States who began or carried 
on the contest with the parent country united under one form of 
government. We acknowledged the separate independence of 
New Granada, of Venezula, and of Ecuador only after their inde- 
pendent existence was no longer a subject of dispute or was actually 
acquiesced in by those with whom they had been previously united. 
It is true that, with regard to Texas, the civil authority of Mexico 
has been expelled, its invading army defeated, the chief of the 
Republic himself captured, and all present power to control the 
newly organized government of Texas annihilated within its 
confines. But, on the other hand, there is, in appearance at 
least, an immense disparity of physical force on the side of Mexico. 
The Mexican Republic under another executive is rallying its forces 
under a new leader and menacing a fresh invasion to recover its 
lost dominion. 

"Upon the issue of this threatened invasion the independence 
of Texas may be considered as suspended, and were there nothing 
peculiar in the relative situation of the United States and Texas 
our acknowledgment of its independence at such a crisis could 
scarcely be regarded as consistent with that prudent reserve with 
which we have heretofore held ourselves bound to treat all similar 
questions. But there are circumstances in the relations of the two 
countries which would require us to act on this occasion with even 
more than our wonted caution. Texas was once claimed as a part 
of our property, and there are those among our citizens who, always 
reluctant to abandon that claim, can not but regard with solicitude 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 317 

the prospect of the reunion of the territory to this country. A 
large proportion of its civilized inhabitants are emigrants from 
the United States, speak the same language with ourselves, cherish 
the same principles, political and religious, and are bound to many 
of our citizens by ties of friendship, and kindred blood; and, more 
than all, it is best known that the people of that country have insti- 
tuted the same form of government with our own, and have since 
the close of your last session openly resolved, on the acknowledg- 
ment by us of their independence, to seek admission into the 
Union as one of the Federal States. This last circumstance is a 
matter of peculiar delicacy, and forces upon us considerations of 
the gravest character. The title of Texas to the territory she 
claims is identified with her independence. She asks us to acknowl- 
edge that title to the territory, with an avowed design to treat im- 
ediately of its transfer to the United States. It becomes us to 
beware of a too early movement, as it might subject us, however 
unjustly, to the imputation of seeking to establish the claim of 
our neighbors to a territory with a view to its subsequent acquisi- 
tion by ourselves. Prudence, therefore, seems to dictate that we 
should still stand aloof and maintain our present attitude, if not 
until Mexico itself or one of the Great foreign powers shall recog- 
nize the independence of the new Government, at least until the 
lapse of time or the course of events shall have proved beyond cavil 
or dispute the ability of the people of that country to maintain 
their separate sovereignty and to uphold the Government con- 
stituted by them. Neither of the contending parties can justly 
complain of this course. By pursuing it we are but carrying out 
the long-established policy of our Government — a policy which has 
secured to us respect and influence abroad and inspired confidence 
at home. 

"Having thus discharged my duty, by presenting with sim- 
plicity and directness the views which after much reflection I have 
been led to take of this important subject, I have only to add the 
expression of my confidence that if Congress shall differ with me 
upon it their judgment will be the result of dispassionate, prudent, 
and wise deliberation, with the assurance that during the short 
time I shall continue connected with the Government I shall 
promptly and cordially unite with you in such measures as may be 
deemed best fitted to increase the prosperity and perpetuate the 
peace of our favored country." 

318 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


Life and history of Peggy O'Neal; her own story in K 

interview in the National Republican of Wash- 35 

ington in 1874; resignation of Maj. J, H. Eaton ^ 

from the Cabin 2t; Jackson's reply to Maj. Eaton; 25 

25 correspondence between Maj . Eaton and Secre- m 

25 tary of the Treasury, S. D. Ingham; Ingham to ^ 

§ Jackson; Jackson to Col. Campbell of the U. S. 25 

S Treasury and others; their reply. ?5 

The story of Peggy O'Neal, who married Maj. John H. Eaton, 
for eleven years United States Senator from Tennessee and also 
Secretary of War in the first Cabinet of Andrew Jackson, 
is one in which the pathos, mistakes and suflFering make an appeal 
to all right-minded men and women; and in which the same class 
can see an exhibition of some of the most offensive possibilities 
of American politics either in high places or low. Early American 
politics had no hesitancy about getting down into the mud and 
throwing the mud upon both men and women. Such methods 
seem to have been looked upon as a matter-of-course procedure 
and as deserving censure from nobody. Bringing Mrs. Andrew 
Jackson into a public discussion that was rotten created an easy 
precedent for assaulting in the newspapers of the day, the character 
of the wife of Jackson's Secretary of War, who generally, and 
probably truly, was regarded as having as much influence over 
Old Hickory as any other one man among his friends. 

The sad part of her life after she married Major Eaton was due 
to no fault of hers and to no true and authenticated charge against 
her character. History brings down to us not a scrap of testimony 
establishing the charge that she was or ever had been an impure 
woman. She was the victim of that irresponsible social gossip 
in Washington that riots in detraction and spares nobody. 

A study of all available sources of evidence as to the allegations 
of misconduct that have reached us, fails utterly to diclose any 
charge against Peggy except vague Washington gossip that ex- 
hibits neither substance, dimensions, probability or circum- 
stances of time and place. Nothing alleged against her character 
will stand the test of criticism or reason or that does not dissolve 
nto the thin air of social gossip when tests are applied to it. 

PEGGY NEAL EATON, 1796-1879. 
Wife of John H. Eaton, Secetary of War. Engraving is copied from an oil painting by Henry Inman, 1801- 
1846, made in Mrs. Eaton s lifetime, and now owned by Mr. Arthur Meeker of Lake-Shore Drive, Chicago 
by whose permission a copy is reproduced in this volume. See Chapters 13 and 22. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 319 

Where Peggy O'Neal is subject to criticism was when at the age 
of sixty she married a young Italian who was the dancing master 
of her two daughters, and who wheedled her out of the greater 
part of her property, and fled to Europe with it. This marriage 
of hers was an act of supreme folly for which it is impossible to 
find any excuse or mitigation. 

But let us take up in some detail the story of this woman who 
in Jackson's Administration loomed large in newspapers, politics* 
the kindest regards of Old Hickory and in the devoted affection of 
Major Eaton. 

Wm. O'Neal, her father, also spelled O'Neil was a Pennsyl- 
vanian by birth, fine looking, friendly, given to hilarity, very pop- 
ular, and a tavern keeper in Washington, D. C, ina house that 
was subsequently called "The Franklin." After his death in 
1837 his hotel was bought by John Gadsby, greatly improved, and 
run by him for several years as a hotel. Gadsby then moved into 
what was called the "National Hotel" and changed the Franklin 
into five residences. 

Wm O'Neal had a wife who died in 1860, three daughters, 
Margaret Peggy, Mary, Georgiana, and two sons, Robert andWiliam . 
Peggy married John Bowie Timberlake, a purser in the Navy, June 
16, 1816, who committed suicide leaving two daughters. She wag 
17 years of age when married. Timberlake was a Virginian. 
Mary O'Neal married Lieut. Grimes Randolph of Va., an Assis- 
tant Surgeon, United States Navy, and Georgiana married Rev. 
Frank S. Evans, on July 23, 1829, a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

Wm. O'Neal was probably of Irish descent, but he had no 
brogue and all accounts agree that he was a man of respectability 
and many friends, and that General Jackson, Major John H. Eaton> 
John Randolph and many of the political leaders of the day, lived 
at his hotel when Congress was in session. Here Peggy got ac- 
quainted with the politicians of the country. She was a pretty if 
not a beautiful woman, a close observer, gay, quick, lively, prompt 
in retort, fearless, sarcastic and combative from her girl-hood up. 
She was just such a woman that would be popular with men and 
unpopular with women, and it was women more than men who 
contributed most to the misfortunes of her life. 

No American woman ever had the influence in politics and 
public affairs that she had, and none ever had more loyal and de- 

320 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

termined friends or more relentless enemies, and these enemies 
were mostly women. Opinions that have come down to us differ 
as to the kind and degree of her beauty but are unanimous as to 
the fascination and magnetism that she possessed. She had a 
wholesome joy of life and keen and exuberant love of pleasure. 
No wonder she was popular among men. Living was a joy to 
her and that of itself radiates attractiveness to others. 

Her personality was marked and distinguished whereever she 
went, and drew from the first American lyric poet, Edward Coate 
Pinkney, who saw her in Baltimore after she married Timberlake, 
this beautiful toast, entitled '"Healthy" and dedicated it to the 
most beautiful woman in America: 

"I fill this cup to one made up 

Of loveliness alone, 
A woman of her gentle sex 

The seeming paragon. 
To whom the better elements 

And kindly stars have given 
A form so fair, that like the air, 

' Tis less of earth than Heaven. 

"Of her bright face one glance will trace 

A picture on the brain. 
And of her voice, in echoing hearts 

A sound must long remain ; 
And memory such as mine of her 

So very much endears. 
When death is nigh my latest sigh 

Will not be life 's but hers. 

"Affections are as thoughts to her, 

The measure of her hours ; 
Her feelings have the fragrancy 

"The freshness of young flowers. 
And lovely passions changing oft 

So fill her, she appears 
The image of themselves by turns, 

The idol of past years. 

"I filled this cup to one made up 

Of loveliness alone, 
A woman of her gentle sex 

The seeming paragon. 
Her health ! And would on earth there were 

Some more of such a frame, 
That life might be all poetry 

And weariness a name!" 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 321 

On January 1, 1829, Major Eaton married Peggy O'Neal whom 
he had known at her father's hotel as a girl, as Mrs. Timberlake 
and as a widow, and with this marriage began the troubles of 
himself and wife which got into politics and forms one of the 
most contemptible episodes in American history. 

That the reader may appreciate the real inwardness of the 
Peggy Eaton episode it should be stated that John C. Calhoun 
was elected vice-president with Jackson as President in 1828, 
and was very anxious to succeed Jackson in the White House. 
It was uncertain whether Jackson would want a second term. In 
fact at heart he did not want a second term, but his friends talked 
him into running again. 

Calhoun's friends opposed Jackson for a second race as they 
wanted Calhoun to run. The Senate refused to confirm Van 
Buren as Secretary of State in Jackson's first Cabinet and the 
Democrats nominated him for Vice-President with Jackson as 
President in the election of 1832. 

Then began a determined political battle as to who should 
succeed Jackson at the end of his second term, on March 4, 1837, 
Van Buren or Calhoun. 

It became known before the names of Jackson's first Cabinet 
were sent to the Senate, that Major John H. Eaton would be 
Secretary of War. The opponents to his being Secretary of War 
turned out afterwards to be all advocates of John C. Calhoun for 
President and against Van Buren, who w^as Jackson's choice as his 
successor. They began to try to keep Jackson from making Van 
Buren his successor, and in this light began to make vague charges 
against the chastity and character of ]\Irs. Eaton. If Major Eaton 
had been for Calhoun for President the world vv'ould never have 
heard of what Van Buren calls in his autobiography "The Eaton 
Malaria." Calhoun's friends reasoned that Jackson would have 
controlling influence in the selection of his successor; that Major 
Eaton had great influence with Jackson, and was a friend and 
supporter of Van Buren for President, and if allowed to get in and 
remain in the Cabinet, would prove the undoing of Calhoun's 
ambition to run for President at the next election. 

Happily for Major Eaton and his wife, Peggy O'Neal Eaton, 
they have both left behind them full statements of their social and 
political troubles which are reproduced in full in this volume, and 
which to a thoughtful reader does not afford a pleasant picture of 
the life and customs of that day. The author can recall no in- 

322 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

stance in American history where a reputable piibhc man has been 
compelled to endure the humiliation of placing before the public 
his domestic and private affairs in order to defend his wife, who 
held no public position, and w^ho in decent politics was not amen- 
able to assault from any political source for any reason of a public 
nature whatever. There are numbers of black episodes in our 
politics, but on none of them can an American citizen gaze with 
more humiliation than upon the treatment accorded Major Eaton 
and his wife. 

The bone of contention was that Mrs. Eaton w-as not a virtuous 
woman, yet John C. Calhoun took his wife to call on her, and the 
call was returned by the Eatons. If Mrs. Eaton was not a vir- 
tuous woman what justification can there be for Calhoun and his 
wife calling on her at all? Calhoun shrinks in our estimate of 
him in this matter. 

But our contempt for J. M. Berrien is probably greatest of all. 
He was a guest at the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Eaton and after- 
wards repudiated both of them. Here is his explanation in a pub- 
lic letter to Major Eaton in trying to justify himself. 

"Although therefore I have the most unaffected reluctance to 
enter upon such a subject, and certainly did not acquiesce in your 
right to demand it, it seems to me that you have by making the 
inquiry, imposed upon me the obligation to do so, from a just con- 
sideration of what I owe to myself and to the public. I have then 
to state to you, that up to the time of your marriage I had not 
heard the rumors which have since in various forms, been presented 
to the public, and was ignorant of Mrs. Eaton's relation to the 
society of this place. I accepted your invitation to be present at 
your wedding therefore, with no distrust of the propriety of ray 
doing so other than that which resulted from my own situation at 
that period. You are yourself no doubt aware how much that 
event and your subsequent introduction into the Cabinet, made 
these rumors the subject of conversation. I could not longer 
continue in ignorance of that which was publicly and generally 
spoken of, and it consequently became necessary for me, embar- 
rassed as the question was by the official relation in which we stood 
to each other, to determine my future conduct. In doing this it 
did not seem to me to be necessary to decide upon the truth or 
falsehood of the statements which were made. It was sufficient 
to ascertain the general sense of the community of which I had re- 
cently become a member; and having done so, to conform to it." 

This explanation is worse than the original offense. It brands 
Berrien as a social trimmer and political coward, and, withal, as 
having so little judgement as to believe that his defense would 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 323 

justify him in the eyes of any intclhgent person. He says, in 
effect, he did not consider it his duty to pass on the charges made 
against Mrs. Eaton and did not do so; but that he found the run 
of pubHc opinion to be against her and he concluded he would fall 
in with what the people among whom he had come to live while 
in the Cabinet, appeared to think of Mrs. Eaton, and therefore, 
did not exchange social courtesies with her and Major Eaton. 
This is not only pussillanimous, it is silly. He not only did pass 
judgment on Mrs. Eaton and found her guilty on the testimony 
of the social gossip of Washington, but he proclaimed her guilty to 
all the United States by refusing to have social contact with her, 
and letting that fact be known in the controversy over Mrs. Eaton 
that was going on in Washington. The fact of his refusing to 
recognize her socially was in itself a judgment of guilty and could 
not be construed any other way. He was cited as among those who 
credited the charges against her. He never publicly or privately 
said a word in her defense, yet, this spineless politician would have 
posterity believe that he did not pre-judge her to her detriment. 


In 1874 during a visit of Mrs. John H. Eaton — Peggy O 'Neal— 
to Washington, D. C, from her home in New York City, the 
National Republican newspaper of Washington sent one of its 
representatives to call on Mrs. Eaton, and, if possible, have a 
lengthy interview with her about incidents of her life, and, if pos- 
sible, get her consent to make the interview public. The represent- 
ative was successful in his mission and reported a very carefully 
prepared statement of what was said at the interview, which was 
published in full in the National Republican. It is historically 
the most valuable statement in reference to Peggy O 'Neal and her 
life that was ever published, and throws much light upon many 
incidents in her life over which controversy once angrily raged. 

The author thinks that the truth concerning this part of Jack- 
son's first administration as well as justice to Major Eaton and 
his wife, demand that the latter's version of their unhappy exper- 
iences, narrated from their stand-point, should be preserved in 
some permanent form. Amidst all the dreary and nauseating 
slush that has reached us in vague, indefinite and slanderous terms, 
Mrs. Eaton's statement is the only one that faces and overthrows 
every insinuation, and quiets the submarine charges and gum-shoe 
whispers that did her and her husband so much harm. 

324 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

Among those who have written against Eaton and his wife, 
riot one has ever quoted a witness or furnished credible proof of 
wrong doing at any definite time or place or given circumstances of 
guilt, against them. 

We quote from the National Republican's article which em- 
braces Mrs. Eaton's interview: 

"That decade included within the dates of 1828 and 1838 is one 
of the most remarkable in our nation's history. It glistens with 
noted achievements of statesmen and diplomats. The best powers 
of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the Govern- 
ment were in constant exercise and attrition, and with results 
which made political fortunes for some, political graves for others; 
destroyed factions, built up parties, and shaped the course of em- 
pire. There were giants in those days, men of tremendous pas- 
sions, hungering and thirsting for glory; men whose stakes were 
for high places, and whose ambition pervaded the atmosphere 
like the burning rays of the midday ^un. 

"The records of this decade are imperishable as the pyramids. 
They form many of the high mountains, the deep canons and the 
mighty rivers on the surface of our political history. The able, 
impartial and dignified administration of John Ouincy Adams, 
which from the first w-as full of patriotism, and eminent through- 
out for beneficent measures, had fulfilled its mission, and its 
closing day was attended by many setting stars, hitherto brilliant 
in American annals ; but the shining names of Clay, Webster, Van 
Buren, Calhoun, Benton, Hayne, Woodbury, Cambreling and 
Everett were rising to the zenith of their fame and among them, like 
a central orb, the name of Andrew Jackson. 

"In 1829 one of the most remarkable women America ever 
produced came prominently into view before the public. At the 
age of seventy-five she is still a hale, vigorous, well-preserved 
lady, and in her form and face there are now many of the lines and 
lineaments of that queenly beauty which once led captive many 

"MRS. general JOHN H. EATON 

is now in Washington on a brief visit from her home in New 
York. Yesterday it was the privilege of a representative of the 
National Republican to have an hour or two's conversation with 
her and to obtain her consent to make the conversation public. 
All the following statements of facts concerning her are 1)}' her 
authority, and they cover incidents in her wonderful history from 
earliest infancy to the present time, and constitute a chapter 
thrilling as the romantic imagination of the great masters of fiction. 
While it confirms some of the items familiar to the general reader 
touching her life, it explodes many a false idea and gives a clear and 
true insight into the foundation and history of the scandalous 
charges which made her name famous, which led to dissolutions 




Palming hanging In the City Hall, New York. Executed in 1820 by John Vanderlyn, 1775-1852. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 325 

of Cabinets, which killed the higher aspirations of Calhoun for 
political preferment, which made Van Buren President of the 
United States, and which illustrated the devotion of Old Hickory 
to an injured woman. 

"general JOHN H. EATGN. 

"Inasmuch as this paper or memoir is dealing with facts, and 
taking a step backward to the world that lies behind, it can hardly 
be an error to make younger readers, at least, entirely familiar 
with the prominent persons figuring in the drama. John H. 
Eaton, the second husband of our heroine, was a native of Ten- 
nessee, the chosen, and perhaps most intimate friend of Andrew 
Jackson. He was in Congress from that State from 1818 to 1829, 
Secretary of War from 1829 to 1831, Governor of the Territory of 
Florida from 1834 to 1836 and Minister Plenipotentiary to vSpain 
from 1836 to 1840. He held in Washington some minor offices, 
and died here November 17, 1856, at the age of sixty-six. 

"Who is this wonderful woman? 

"her own ST3RY. 

"We were kindly received by Mrs. Eaton in her parlors at 
338 Pennsylvania Avenue, where a frank statement was made her 
as to the purpose of the visit. vShe instantly and cheerfully com- 
plied with the request made of her saying that so much has been 
said about her that was entirely untrue she had become afraid and 
feared additional misrepresentation. Besides under the direction 
of her pastor in New York, Rev. Dr. Deems, her life was being 
written by a competent biographer, and when she should be dead 
it would be given to the world. However, when impressed with 
the fact that fair and truthful treatment was intended, Mrs. Eaton 
consented to the recall of some of the historical and deeply interest- 
ing memories of her active life. 

"You were born in this city, Mrs. Eaton ?" 

"Yes sir; in 1799^ I was just two weeks old when my mother 
sat up in bed to cue father's hair for his attendance at Washing- 
ton's funeral. Washington was often a guest at father's house." 

"Your maiden name was — ?" 

"Margaret O 'Neal. My father, Wm. O 'Neal, was a wealthy 
man, and during girlhood days I never had cause for trouble or 
sorrow of any kind. ' ' 

"And were you married young?" 

"Yes, and very happily, too. My husband's name was John 
Bowie Timberlake, and he was a purser in the Navy. My first 
child was born when I was seventeen, and in just thirteen months 
after my wedding day." 

"Was it a boy?" , 

"Yes; he died when six months old. The second was a girl. 
She was named Virginia. She resides in Paris, where she mar- 

326 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

ried Monsieur Sampayo, a Frenchman of distinction, but now 
dead. Virginia had a daughter, Blanclac Marie, who also mar- 
ried a PVenchman of position and wealth. My third one was 
Margaret Timberlake. She married John Randolph, a grandson 
of old Dr. B rock enbro ugh, of Richmond, a great friend of John 
Randolph, of Roanoke. Through her, I have four grandchildren, 
George Chapman, named after the celebrated Dr. Chapman, of 
Philadelphia, John H. Eaton, Mary and Emily Randolph. My 
domestic life was happy. It was as happy a marriage as ever w-as. 
Mr. Timberlake died abroad, at Port Mahon, in 1828." 

"A natural death?" 

"I'm so glad you asked me that question. Yes, he died a 
natural death. A year or more previous to his death, and during 
great physical suffering, he made a slight and most ineffectual 
attempt at suicide, and that is all the foundation there is for the 
story that he did not die a natural death. His disease was the 
asthma. Just previous to his death he wrote me a sixteen page 
letter, addressed to 


That was one of his pet names for me. He was greatly respected 
by his brother officers, and they erected a handsome monument 
over his grave. He died with my miniature clasped in his hands. 
That was returned to me by Commodore Lavalette. In his will 
he left me all his property. His watch and ring he left to General 
Eaton. They were warm personal friends. It was the General 
who brought me the news of his death, and for two weeks I never 
left my room to see any one. General Eaton had known us for a 
long time." 

"And when were you married to him?" 

"In December, 1828, he made the offer of marriage in the 
presence of both father and mother. At that time the marriage 
did not attract malicious remark. It was only after General 
Eaton's appointment the following March, as Secretary of War, 
that I began to feel the effects of the envy of w-omen and to suffer 
from wholesale slander. I had been and was then flattered as a 
handsome woman. Was fond of society, gay as a lark, full, of 
fun and nonsense; sometimes, maybe, a little original and lawless 
in my remarks, but, sir, before heaven and my God, as innocent 
of actual wrong to any one as an unborn babe." 

"Now, Mrs. Eaton, we come to the vital part of this conver- 
sation, and that a clear understanding may be had, tell us of your 
personal relations to General Jackson." 

"It is simple enough. General Jackson and my father were 
friends before I was born. You recollect he first came to the 
Senate soon after Tennessee was admitted as a State, and was 
there until 1798. H« came again to the Senate in 1823, and was 
there two years. He was a boarder at my father's house. My 
mother and Mrs. Jackson were so greatly attracted to each other 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 327 

and of course I was a favorite with them, and when I became the 
wife of General Eaton, Jackson's dearest friend, why, of course 
he took greater interest in me, and for reasons and motives of the 
highest character he became, in the hour of trial, such a staunch 
defender as only Jackson could be." 

"Well, now, what constituted these reasons and motives?" 

"You must recollect that General Jackson's wife was a Mrs. 
Robards, and that his enemies did not hestitate to villify her char- 
acter, previous to and after her marriage to him. It is true sha 
was not highly accomplished, nor fitted as an ornament to a draw- 
ing room, but she was a pure, virtuous, generous, high-souled 
woman, and none knew it so well as her brave husband. General 
Eaton was present at her marriage and we were both at the Hermi- 
tage when her funeral took place. It seemed as though the entire 
state was in mourning, and all her friends, including her servants, 
manifested the most poignant grief. General Jackson was wholly 
unnerved and inconsolable, for he loved his wife with all the strength 
and devotion of his soul. He believed that the stories — rather 
lies — told about her during the Presidential contest killed her, and 
from that moment he became the sworn and unyielding foe of all 
slanderers of women ; and wiien they began to drag the name of 
Eaton through the mire — a name specially dear to him — he was 
naturally indignant. But this was by no means all. He saw in 
the attempt to ruin me an adverse influence against his adminis- 
tration, led and secretly worked by John C. Calhoun. 

"What was the nature of the slander against you?" 

"To be plain — that I was enciente after Timberlake had been 
gone a year at sea, and by General Eaton. A more monstrous 
lie was never told." 

"Was there anything to base it on?" 

"Nothing* absolutely nothing. My mother and myself were 
invited to go out riding by General Eaton. It was a night previous 
to one of his departures for home and before we were married. 
When near Kalorama, the horses took fright, ran away, upset the 
carriage and threw us all out. When I got home I found myself 
badly bruised ; was put to bed, and Dr. Craven was sent for. When 
he came father and mother were present in my chamber. It was 
alleged that I said, 'Doctor, if you had come sooner you might 
have seen a little John H. Eaton;' but I never made any such re- 

"Who started that slander?" 

"It came about in this way. For the present I omit references 
to the ladies of the Cabinet. I shall tell you of them by and by. 
There was one Rev. J. N. Campbell here who was pastor of a 
Presbyterian church, who intermeddled with the affair, joined the 
gossip against me, and did all he could to blast my reputation. 
He supposed that General Jackson would attend his church and 
that he could have influence over him. He told the Rev. E. S. 
Ely, of Philadelphia, a budget of lies about me. and induced him 

328 AxDREw Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

to communicate the same to General Jackson in a letter. That 
is the same Rev. Ely whose daughter is now connected with the 
scandal of the robber\' of the diamonds by the Grand Duke of 
Russia, and who once found A BABY IN A BASKET on his 
doorstep in the morning, with a note asking him, as its father, to 
take care of it. He is also the man who had the original Quaker 

"Quaker vision! what was that?" 

"Why, you see, he was always stirring up strife and dissention, 
and he published a little pamphlet telling the story of a vision of 
his ; how he dreamed that he died and went to hell — all over it, and 
at ever\' turn he met a member of the society of friends, but in all 
its realm could not find a single Presbyterian. That was the 
substance of it. Some time after that a Quaker published his 
vision. He, too, dreamed that he died and went to hell, and though 
he wandered up and down, all around and everywhere, and met 
members of all denominations, he was greatly surprised at not 
meeting with any Presbyterians. At last he saw a man of tremen- 
dous proportions, having on his head a crown and in his hand a 
sceptre, and seated on a throne blazing with crimson. He ventured 
to tell this king of hell wliat the matter was, whereupon the king 
commanded him to follow where he led. He was taken in a round- 
about way through long, dark caverns, the air growing hotter at 
every step and filled with denser volume of sulphurous smell. 
At last they arrived at a plane, which had a trap-door, which the 
king opened, and immediately there burst out forked and furious 
flames and high up in the air flew great clouds of dust and cinders, 
mingled with horrible shrieks. 'This, said the king,' is the home 
of the Presbyterians. On earth they are so full of fire and brim- 
stone that they would make any respectable place in hell too hot 
for decent folks.' But we wander from the subject!" 

"Yes, Parton, in his life of Jackson, refers to that letter." 

"Indeed! What does he say?" 

"Why, he says that Ely wrote Jackson that you instructed 
your servants to call your children Eaton, not Timberlake." 

"Great heavens! I never heard of that before. So help me 
God, I never did anything of the kind. It is a base, unmitigated 
lie. What else did the wretch say ?" 

"He said that you and General Eaton traveled together, and 
registered at hotels as man and wife before you were married to 

"This is too much sir. Put that down as a lie. It is the first 
time I ever heard of having traveled anywhere previous to marriage 
with General Eaton more than once, and that was to New York 
and Mr. Timberlake and my father were with us." 

"the letter. 

"It is proper to say here, as a matter of history, that this letter 
of Ely's was written to General Jackson, March 18, 1829, soon after 
the formation of the Cabinet. Jackson replied to it, stating 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 329 

that from personal knowledge he knew most of the charges to be 
entirely false, and in his heart of hearts, he believed them all to be. 
He did not rest, however, without seeking in every way to dis- 
prove them, and according to Mr. Parton, he sent a confidential 
person to New York to inspect the hotel registers. This, though, 
needs strong confirmation, but Mr. Parton adds that his zeal in 
behalf of Mrs. Eaton was fired by the keen recollections of how 
his own wife suffered by similar aspersions. To resume: 

"When you found out what Ely had done, what did you do?" 
"I went with my father and mother to Philadelphia, and leav- 
ing them at a hotel, I sought a friend of mine by the name of Brad- 
ford and went with him to Mr. Ely's house, and calling him to the 
parlor, demanded of him the source of his information. He said 
he could not give it. Very well said I, I shall not leave your house 
till I get it. He turned to Mr. Bradford and said, come, let us 
walk in the garden. No sir; you do not leave my presence until 
I have your author. You pretend to be a Christian minister. 
You have basely wronged an innocent woman, and have got to tell 
me from whom you obtained your information. After further 
parleying and angry discussions he told me that he got it from the 
Rev. Campbell. I then told him it was all a wicked lie, and vowed 
that he should suffer for it. Returning to Washington, and 
without taking off my things, I went directly to Mr. Campbell's 
house, and found him in his parlor with my husband, who didn't 
know that I had been to Philadelphia on this business. I told 
him what I had learned in Philadelphia and asked him what ob- 
ject he had in filching from me my good name. Campbell pro- 
posed to have a witness to the conversation; said it was important, 
and I thought so too. Just then Col. Towson, an old gray-headed 
officer, came in, and we both agreed he should be the witness. 
In a moment I discovered that he was as deep in the mire as the 
other was in the mud, and that it would be necessary to have the 
dates; so we sent to the Navy Department for a record of the time 
of the sailingof the vShark,. Towson's and Campbell's dates did 
not agree, and then Towson made an attempt to alter the dates 
in the book to make their story fit. When I saw Towson doing 
that I exclaimed. Great God! I am undone. The man whom I 
supposed was a friend was proving an enemy. Then Major Eaton 
said: Sir, you must answer for this, and made an attempt to get at 
Campbell. I seized him by the arm and prevented a collision. 
I fainted and fell, striking my head against the sofa. It was then 
that Campbell made use of the remark, ' Would to God I never 
had anything to do with this,' and that he got the story from Dr. 
Craven. I found out from friends and neighbors that Campbell 
had been moving heaven and earth for proofs against me. He had 
even been to my laundress and to my mantau-maker, Mrs. Wil- 
liams. Her husband was a sailmaker in the first ward. He was 
told by Mr. Williams that he had better get out of his house or he 
would kick him out. Now Dr. Craven was dead, and I could not 

330 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

speak to him in his grave; so I went to his pastor, Rev. Obadiah 
Brown. Mr. and Mrs. Brown both averred that Dr. Craven had 
never said anything of the kind to them; on the contrary, that he 
had spoken very kindly of me just previous to his death, and re- 
. ferred to a pot of preserves and bottle of old port wine that I sent 
him when he was sick. But, sir, the poison had gone into the 
veins of my enemies, and it was hard to cure them of their madness ; 
but little did I dream of the political significance of these things. 
I was only thinking of the wanton lies as they personally affected 

"Now Madame, let us return to the Cabinet. What did the 
ladies do?" 

"I was quite as independent as they and had more powerful 
friends. To tell the truth, Mrs. Donelson, Mrs. Calhoun, Mrs. 
Branch and Mrs. Ingham were a very indifferent set, and if half 
the stories about the latter were true she was quite as bad as they 
tried to make me out. None of them had beauty, accomplish- 
ments, or graces in society of any kind, and for these reasons — I say 
it without egotism — they were very jealous of me. Mrs. Donelson 
was a poor, silly thing, and was not much cured of her nonsense 
by a six months' trip to Tennessee. Mrs Branch w-as particularly 
noticeable as a first-class dowdy, and it was a great relief not to 
be obliged to entertain any of the set a great deal. Mrs. Ingham, 
was a large, coarse, brawling creature, raised too suddenly into a 
position she little knew how to fill. She never called on me nor 
Mrs. Branch either. Mrs. Calhoun, with her husband, called once 
during my absence in Philadelphia. Mr. Baton and myself re- 
turned the call. We were politely, not warmly received. After 
a few days Duff Green's paper, the Telegraph, said Mrs. Calhoun 
had not called on me. Martin Van Buren was a widower and a 
great friend of mine, and gave many handsome entertainments 
in my honor, and so were the Barrys and all General Jackson's 
real friends, and at State dinners I always received most deferen- 
tial notice. The stories about my being cut in society are grossly 
exaggerated. Sir Charles Vaughn, the British Minister, was a 
warm friend, and at his ball and receptions I had many honors." 

"We have read that at one of Baron Krudener's balls, the 
wife of the Minister from Holland, Mrs. Huygens deliberately 
cut you. Parton tells the story." 

"I do not recollect the ball at all, and as for Madame Huygens, 
she never gave me an affront in public or anywhere else, to my 
knowledge; but the Inghams, Branches, Calhouns, Berriens and 
their friends could invent you anything. I was with my friends — 
the President, Van Buren, the Barrys, my husband, and the host 
with them. Minnie Bankhead, whose husband was Secretary of 
the British Legation, was a great friend of mine. Her mother, 
Lady Paul, sent me from London a beautiful set of cameos. 

"I recollect another incident. Jackson had appointed Gen. 
Eaton Minister to France. The rumor was immediately started 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 331 

that it was for the purpose of cnabHng me to go out of the country. 
At one of Sir Charles Vaughn's balls a Mrs. Pleasanton came up 
to me, and in most obseqious manner congratulated me, and 
asked to have her son taken abroad with us. I knew that Mrs. 
Pleasanton had been an active enemy. Soon as I could I said to 
General Eaton: 'Darling, are you going to France?' He replied: 
' You say you will not go.' I told him I would never leave the 
soil of America until nine months were passed in the presence of 
my enemies, and open proof given of the lies they had told. 
General Jackson and my husband both complimented me for the 
decision, and Jackson said it suggested a thought which had not 
occurred to him before." 

"You were accused of making most of his appointments." 

"Yes, they said that. But I never made but two appoint- 
ments during General Jackson's administration. One was for 
humanity and the other at solicitation of friends. The first was 
a son of the widow Coolidge, who kept a boarding house in the 
First Ward, and was hunted down by everybody for some indis- 
cretion. The appointment was made by Major Barry. The other, 
Mr. Cooper, was appointed purser in the navy, and became one 
of my worst traducers." 

"Were you agreeably situated in Spain?" 

"Very much so. We resided in the beautiful home of the 
Duke St. Lorenzo. His duchess had just died when we reached 
Madrid. We received much attention from Queen Christina. 
Virginia was a great favorite of hers, and she gave her a blooded 
King Charles spaniel, which was brought home. There, thank 
God, I was beyond the reach of venom, and Middleton, the private 
secretary of the Embassy, remarked that my name was always 
referred to in the cafes and public places in terms of the greatest 
respect. I gave many balls, some of them very grand ones, and 
which all the nobility attended. We also went to most of the 
bull fights. At the first one we were chaperoned by Lady Carm.ine, 
who was a sist?r of the Duke of Larenzo. She carried with her 
all sorts of perfumes, a thing afterwards never neglected by us. 
The Queen was present and gave her royal consent for the bulls to 
to be killed. During this fight not only all the bulls were killed, 
but four men — matadores — were carried out of the arena dead. 
Our colored coachman was present, and he literally turned as 
white as a sheet. General Eaton himself was a good deal affected, 
and nearly fainted away. I showed symptons of alarm, too. The 
Spaniards were perfectly delighted to see us so badly frightened, 
and went wild with waving of handkerchiefs and clapping of hands. 
But you ought to see those high born dames handle a fan. They 
can fairly make one talk outriglit." 

"The Sunday Capital of recent date stated that you were at 
the Louise Home ?" 

"Quite as true as the balance of the statements in that article 
I was never at the Louise Home in my life, though, perhaps, I 
would not object to a residence there." 

332 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


"Mrs. Eaton, with evident pain, rehearsed the story of her last 
marriage, and with an ItaHan adventurer by the name of Antonio 
Buchignani, who managed to deprive her of all her property and 
then to run away with her grand-daughter, Emily Randolph. 
She was a rich woman. Mr. Timbcrlake left her all his property. 
General Eaton left her a large fortune, and her mother left her all 
her property, but Buchignani stripped her of the last cent by one 
device and then another, and has left her in her age desolate and 
dependent for support upon her male grandchildren. Buchignani 
afterwards married Emily Randolph, but where they are now she 
does not know. She had heard that Buchignani is dead, and the 
last seen of Emily she was traveling West with two children. This 
part of her history has neither public interest nor importance." 


"The reader now has a clear idea of the nature of the scandals 
affecting Mrs. Eaton, and is also made aware of the fact that the 
President, in espousing her cause, was necessarily involved in op- 
position to her enemies. Van Buren was her most active and in- 
fluential friend in the Cabinet, and at that early day aspired to the 
Presidency. Calhoun was her most influential enemy, and had 
the same aspirations attributed to Van Buren. In further conver- 
sation with Mrs. Eaton the following facts were elicited, and the 
nature of them will be, perhaps, better understood by throwing 
them into the narrative form: Besides the persons named above, 
Mrs. Eaton had the special friendship of Amos Kendall, Isaac Hill, 
Dr. Randolph and others. Duff Green, the editor of the United 
States Telegraph, was the champion of Calhoun, and hence op- 
posed to her. So interested was General Jackson in Van Buren 
for the succession that as early as the latter part of 1 829 he wrote 
a letter to Judge Overton, carefully commending Van Buren, and 
speaking the lost confidence in Calhoun, and in 1830, Jackson 
openly told his friends thatCalhoun was moulding influence against 
Van Buren. Of course the Cabinet was wanting in anything like 
harmony, and some times for months together General Eaton held 
nothing but strictly official intercourse with Messrs. Ingham, 
Branch and Berrien. The President, iron-nerved as he was, 
could not stand this sort of a thing, and he resolved on its harmony 
or dissolution. After a determined effort on his part matters be- 
came a little better, and for something more than a year there was 
some show of decent feeling, but after all Jackson saw very little 
of the three, Ingham, Branch and Berrien, and Cabinet meetings 
almost wholly ceased. But in the meantime Van Buren wonder- 
fully increased his influence. Circumstances transpired which 
made the breach between Jackson and Calhoun a ' bloody chasm ' 
which nothing could bridge.' It was then that Duff Green's 
open disaffection was proclaimed in the Telegraph. This led to 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tenne'ssee History 333 

the establishment of the Globe, with Francis P. Blair, senior, as its 
editor. It took the place of the Teleg^raph as the organ of the 
administration. The President got rid of Ingham, Branch and 
Berrien, through the agreed upon resignations of Van Buren and 
Eaton. This was in December, 1830. The first change in the 
Cabinet was made, and the new one — Edward Livingston, Louis 
McLean, Levi Woodbury, Lewis Cass and Roger B. Taney, was 
confirmed at the following session of Congress. Van Buren was 
nominated as Minister to England, but rejected by the casting vote 
of Calhoun, for he believed Van Buren had conspired with and led 
the President in opposition to himself. That vote settled Calhoun 
and made Van Buren President. The influence of Airs. Eaton was 
here most signally illustrated. The veto of the bank bill, the his- 
tory of nullification, the removal of the deposits and the French 
imbroglio, and other great events of Jackson's administeration, 
fill out the decade. In nullification Calhoun was the conspicious 
and central object. Had he not been thwarted in his early and 
original schemes, he might have succeeded. It was fatal to all 
his plans that he incurred the anger of Jackson, which was first 
kindled against him by his close association with Mrs. Eaton's 


"This paper would hardly be complete without a personal 
description of this wonderfully gifted woman. In the full bloom of 
her early womanhood, Margaret O'Neal was a perfect beauty. 
Her crowning glory was a rich full suit of dark brown hair, shadow- 
ing a forehead low, broad and' deep, and impressive with keen, 
intellectual, natural strength, and hiding eyes of intensest blue, 
beaming, sparkling with fun and life, and changing like a kalei- 
doscope, with every passing, varying passion and fancy. Her 
nose, thoroughly Grecian, in its style, and yet most expressive of 
its Irish blood, was harmonious, with a beautifully curved mouth 
and a firm, well-set chin. In form and figure she was a model 
of grace itself, and in her step ' she revealed the true goddess.' 
To-day even she is still a beautiful woman, an old-time lady, one 
of the ancient regime, who looks as if she had just stepped out of a 
revolutionary frame, heavy/ with gold and marginal scrolls, to 
remind the devotees of the intoxicating German of to-day of the 
old history of our republican court. Girls of seventeen, in a maze 
regarding the morality of statesmen, brass buttons, naval and 
marine shoulder knots, could hardly fail of a little sound advice 
if they had the privilege of taking a moment with Mrs. Eaton. 
To-day at the age of seventy-five, and when at all excited, her 
beautiful, bright fiery eyes gleam and sparkle with original fire. 
Her white, rosy though furrowed face, lights up with a warm, 
passionate glow, and her whole being is instinct with that mag- 
netism which once the greatest dignitaries of the Government 
obeyed. Her character is best summed up in the words pluck, 

334 Andrew Jacksox axd Early Tennessee History 

^ame, hateur, care for No. 1, quality, blood, and if we were un- 
fortunate enouo^h to be a woman, we would hesitate, even now, 
about a collision with her. And yet she is a white-haired old lady. 
Her gray curls twine about her noble forehead like ' silvery seething 
waters.' They lap and kiss furrows and channels, hollowed by a 
long and memorable life. She is a woman, in her later life, of 
' gloomy yesterdays and dim tomorrows,' but here and there dying 
sunbeams, playing about her classical features, light up with 
beauty a splendid soul prepared to meet its God." 

"It is no wonder that her name has occupied so much space 
and that she has been the subject of fiercest controversy. ?' 

But if the conduct of Berrien was weik and hypocritical, what 
shall be said of two preachers. Rev. E. vS. Ely of Philadelphia and 
Rev. J. N. Campbell of Washington, who, without any other basis 
than the gossip of Washington, undertook to eliminate Mrs. Eaton 
from the favorable opinion of General Jackson, and to crush her 
in the opinion of her political friends, as they and others were 
trying to out-law her socially. 

Campbell was afraid to make charges against Mrs. Eaton in 
his own proper person directly to Jackson. He preferred to beard 
the Jackson lion in his den from a long ways off. So he got another 
preacher, Rev. E. S. Ely, to write to Jackson and open the war. 
Ely and Campbell make a precious pair of clerical hyenas — two 
of a kind. Ely wrote to Jackson and made the following charges 
against Mrs. Eaton without a scintilla of evidence to base it on 
except current social and political gossip : 1 , Mrs. Eaton bore a 
bad reputation in Washington from girlhood; 2, the ladies of 
Washington would not speak to her; 3, a gentleman at the 
table at Gadsby's said that he personally knew her to be a disso- 
lute woman; 4, Mrs. Eaton had told her servants to call her 
children Eaton and not Timberlake as Eaton was their rightful 
name; 5, a clergyman of Washington had told Mr. Ely that a 
deceased doctor had told him that Mrs. Timberlake had a mis- 
carriage when her husband had been absent a year; 6, that 
friends of Major Eaton had persuaded him to board elsewhere to 
get him away from Mrs. Timberlake; 7, that Mrs. Jackson 
entertained the worst opinion of ]Mrs. Timberlake; 8, that 
Major Eaton and Mrs. Timberlake registered as man and wife 
in hotels in New York City and elsewhere. 

This letter of Ely's was dated March 18, 1829, and Jackson sent 
a reply on March 23, 1829, that riddled it. Further letters passed 
and Jackson demanded of Ely the name of the person who had in- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 335 

formed him of the charges. Ely then wrote to Mr. Campbell and 
asked him to call on General Jackson and tell him all he knew. 
Now if such a thing were possible, Campbell was a dirtier and more 
despicable slanderer than Ely. He called on Jackson who wrote 
out an account of the interview and shows that the sum total of 
all he could tell against Mrs. Eaton was what he had heard others 
say. On September 10, 1829, Jackson called his Cabinet together 
and invited Ely and Campbell to be present. Both came and, 
curiously enough, Ely admitted that there was no evidence to 
convict Major Eaton of wrong doing, and this admission not 
withstanding the fact that Eaton was the only man Mrs. Eaton's 
name had been connected with in an improper way. Ely also 
reported that he had investigated the hotel charge in New York 
City and found there was nothing in it. 

Campbell and Jackson had some spirited clashes but nothing 
could induce Campbell to give the name of any witness as to wrong- 
doing by Mrs. Eaton or to produce any testimony of any kind. 
He had none to produce and could get none. Jackson had nothing 
further to do with Mr. Campbell's church, for which all just men 
honor him. 

Martin Van Buren in his autobiography, page 364, makes this 
sage comment: 

"Was it possible that gentlemen who sincerely thought Mrs. 
Eaton unfit for the society of Washington could deem it proper to 
place her at the head of that one of our territories — certainly not 
the lea:st polished or moral of our communities! Two years after- 
wards Eaton's name is again sent to the Senate to represnt the 
country abroad as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary at the Court of Spain and in the circles of Madrid and 
again confirmed by the Senate, without a division — a Senate of 
which Messrs. Clay, Calhoun and Webster were members. Are 
not these striking commentaries upon the hue and cry that was 
raised against this couple when they were supposed favorites of 
General Jackson, and suspected of favoring my elevation to the 
Presidency, whose fate it was after all to bear the brunt of their 

Mrs. Eaton lived till 1879 and died in Washington and was 
buried in Oak Hill Cemetery where Major Eaton was buried. 
He also died in Washington and in the year 1856. 

While the war on Mrs. Eaton undoubtedly injured her 
socially, it did not crush or ostracise her. One of the unexpected 
results of this war was the total annihilation of any chance John 

336 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

C. Calhoun had to become President of the United States. In 
the results of this war of slander, the woman got the best of the 

Jackson's devotion to her cause of course made Mrs. Eaton a 
worshipper at his shrine. In her latter years the question was 
put to her "What do you think of Andrew Jackson as a man ?" "A 
man?" she replied. "He was not a man, he was a god." 

No part of Andrew Jackson's career makes a stronger appeal 
to the manhood of America than his grand devotion to Peggy 
O'Neal. Nowhere else does the chivalry that was innate in him 
appear with finer lustre. Intellectually he did not owe a great 
deal to books or schools, but nature made up for the lack of these 
in a mind that was keen, alert and bright and which could promptly 
detect the real from the bogus, the counterfeit from the genuine. 
He saw that the real bone of contention was not Mrs. Eaton's 
purity or the lack of it, but just a game of politics by politicians 
who were willing to do some dirty work to gain their ends. He saw 
and exposed the two preachers, Ely and Campbell, and they will 
stay on the pages of history as objects of contempt as long as 
mankind despises human carrion birds as they Avere. 

As time went on the trend of events lead Major Eaton to chal- 
lenge Mr. Ingham, Secretary of the Treasury, but Ingham declined 
the challenge. It was in reference to his declining to meet Eaton 
that Mrs. Eaton made her famous remark that "all Mr. Ingham 
needed was petticoats." 

Major Eaton resigned as Secretary of War on April 7", 1831, 
and the following was the correspondence with General Jackson: 


"Washington City, 7th of April, 1831. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Four days ago I communicated to you my desire to relinquish 
the duties of the War Department, and I now take occasion to 
repeat the request which was then made. I am not disposed by 
any sudden withdrawal, to interrupt or retard the business of the 
office. A short time will be sufficient, I hope, to enable you to 
direct your attention towards some person, in whose capacity, 
industry, and friendly disposition, you may have confidence, to 
assist in the complicated and laborious duties of your administra- 
tion. Two or three weeks, perhaps less, may be sufficient for the 

"In coming to this conclusion, candor demands of me to say 
that it arises from no dissatisfaction entertained towards you — 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 337 

from no misunderstanding between us, on any subject; nor from 
any diminution, on my part, of that friendship and confidence, 
which has ever been reposed in you. 

"I entered your Cabinet, as is well known to you, contrary to 
my own wishes ; and having nothing to desire, either as it regards 
myself or friends, have ever since cherished a determination to 
avail myself of the first favorable moment, after your administra- 
tion should be in successful opcratorion, to retire. It occurs to 
me, that the time is now at hand, when I may do so with propriety, 
and in proper respect to you. Looking to the present state of 
things — to the course of your administration, which, being fairly 
developed, is before the people, for approval or condemnation — I 
cannot consider the step I am taking, objectionable, or, that it is 
one, the tendency of which can be to affect or injure a course of 
policy by you already advantageously commenced, and which I 
hope will be carried out to the benefit and advancement of the 

"Tendering my sincere wishes for your prosperity and hap- 
piness, and for your successful efforts in the cause of your country, 

"I am, very truly, vour friend, 

"J. H. Eaton. 
"To Andrew Jackson, 
"President of the United States. 


"Washington City, April 8, 1S31. 
"Dear Sir: 

"Your letter of yesterday was received, and I have carefully 
considered it. When you conversed with me the other day, on the 
subject of your withdrawing from the Cabinet, I expressed to you 
a sincere desire that you would well consider of it; for, however 
reluctant I am to be deprived of your services, I cannot consent to 
retain you contrary to your wishes, and inclination to remain, 
particularly as I well know that in 1829, when I invited you to be- 
come a member of my Cabinet, you objected, and expressed a 
desire to be excused, and only gave up your objections at my 
pressing solicitation. 

"An acquaintance with you, of twenty years standing, assured 
me, that, in your honesty, prudence, capacity, discretion, and judg- 
ment, I could safely rely and confide. I have not been disappoint- 
ed. With the performance of your duties, since you have been 
with me, I have been fully satisfied, and, go where you will, be 
your destiny what it may, my best wishes will always attend you. 

"I will avail myself of the earliest opportunity to obtain some 
qualified friend to succeed you; and, until then, I must solicit 
that the acceptance of your resignation be deferred. 

"I am, very sincerely and respectfully, your friend, 

"Andrew Jackson. 
"Major J. H. Eaton, 
"Secretarv of War." 

338 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

mr. eaton to mr. ingham. 

"Friday night, June 17th, 1831. 

"I have studied to disregard the abusive slanders which have 
arisen through so debased a source as the columns of the U. S. 
Telegraph. I have been content to wait the full development of 
what he had to say; and until persons of responsible character 
should be brought forth to endorse his vile abuse of me and mv 
family. In that paper of this evening is contained the following 
remark of my wife : ' It is proven that the Secretaries of the Treas- 
ury and of the Navy and of the Attorney-General refused to asso- 
ciate with her.' This publication appears in a paper which pro- 
fesses to be friendly to you and is brought forth under your im- 
mediate eye. I desire to know of you whether or not you sanction 
or will disavow it. The relation we have sustained towards each 
other authroizes me to demand an immediate answer. 

"Ver\' respectfully, 

"J. H. Eaton. 
"S. D. Ingham, Esq." 


"Washington, 18th June, 1831. 

"I have not been able to ascertain whether it is the publication 
referred to by you, or the fact stated in the Telegraph, which you 
desire to know whether I have sanctioned or will disavow. If it 
be the first you demand, it is too absurd to merit an answer. If 
it be the last, you may find authority for the same fact in a Phil- 
adelphia paper, about the first of April last, which is deemed to be 
quite as friendly to you as the Telegraph may be to me. When 
you have settled such accounts with your particular friends 
it will be time enough to make demands of others. In the mean- 
time, I take the occasion to say, that you must be not a little 
deranged, to imagine that any blustering of yours could induce me 
to disavow what all the inhabitants of this city know, and perhaps 
half of the people of the United States believe to be true. 

"I am, sir, respectfully yours, &c. 

"S. D. Ingham. 
"John H. Eaton, Esq." 


"June 18th, 1831. 

"I have received your letter of to-day, and regret to find that 
to a frank and candid inquiry brought before you, an answer im- 
pudent and insolent is returned. To injury unprovoked, you are 
pleased to add insult. What is the remedy? It is to indulge the 
expectation that, though a man may be mean enough to slander, 
or base enough to encourage it, he yet may have bravery sufficient 

^3 rc ■ 




4 CO <£ 


5 i£ 

e ^ 


> s 


CO <*= 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 339 

to repair the wrong. In that spirit I demand of you satisfaction 
for the wrong and injury you done me. Your answer must de- 
termine whether you are so far entitled to the name and character 
of a gentleman as to be able to act like one. 

"Very respectfully, 

"John H. Eaton. 
"Sam'l D. Ingham, Esq." 


"Washington, June 20th, 1831. 

"Your note of Saturday, purporting to be a demand of satis- 
faction for injury done to you, was received on that day; company 
prevented me from sending you an immediate answer. Yesterday 
morning, your brother-in-law. Dr. Randolph, intruded himself 
into my room, with a threat of personal violence. I perfectly 
understand the part you are made to play in the farce now acting 
before the American people. I am not to be intimidated by 
threats, or provoked by abuse, to any act inconsistent with the 
pity and contempt which your condition and conduct inspire. 
"Yours, Sir, respectfully, 

"S. D. Ingham. 
"John H. Eaton, Esq. 


"June 20th, 1831 

"Your note of this morning is received. It proves to me that 
you are quite brave enough to do a mean action, but too great a 
coward to repair it. Your contempt I heed not; your pity I de- 
spise. It is such contemptible fellows as yourself that have set 
forth rumors of their own creation, and taken them as a ground of 
imputation against me. If that be good cause, then should you 
have pity of yourself, for your wife has not escapted them and you 
must know it. But no more; here our correspondence closes. 
Nothing more will be received short of an acceptance of my demand 
of Saturday, and nothing more be said by me until face to face we 
meet. It is not in my nature to brook your insults, nor will they 
be submitted to. 

"John H. Eaton. 
"S. D. Ingham, Esq." 


"Washington, 21st June, 1831. 
"The President of the United States: 

"Before I leave the tity, it seems to be due to the Government 
that I should perform a painful duty, imposed upon me by the 
events of the last forty-eight hours. It is not necessary for me now 
to detail the circumstances which have convinced me of the ex- 

340 Andrew Jacksox axd Early Tennessee History 

istence of vindictive personal hostility to me among some of the 
officers of the Government near your person, and supposed to be 
in your special confidence, which has been particularly developed 
within the last two weeks, and has finally displayed itself in an at- 
tempt to way-lay me on my way to the office yesterday, as I have 
reason to believe, for the purpose of assassination. If you have 
not already been apprised of these movements, you may perliaps 
be surprised to learn that the persons concerned in them are the 
late Secretary- of War and the acting Secretary of War: and that 
the Second Auditor of the Treasury, Register of the Treasury, and 
the Treasurer of the United States, were in their company; and 
that the Treasurer's and Register's rooms, in the lower part of the 
building of the Treasury Department, and also a grocery store 
between my lodgings and the office, were alternately occupied as 
their rendezvous while lying in wait; the former affording the best 
opportunity for observing my approach. Apprised of these move- 
ments on my return from taking leave of some of my friends, I 
found myself obliged to arm, and, accompanied by my son and 
some other friends, I repaired to the ofhce, to finish the business 
of the day, after which I returned to my lodgings in the same 
company. It is proper to state, that the principal persons who 
had been thus employed for several hours retired from the De- 
partment soon after I entered my room, and that I received no 
molestation from them either at my ingress or egress. But, having 
recruited an additional force in the evening, they paraded until a 
a late hour on the streets near by lodgings, heavily armed, threaten- 
ing an assault on the dwelling I reside in. 

"I do not present these facts to your notice for the purpose of 
invoking your protection. So far as an individual may rely on 
his own personal efforts I am willing to meet this peril; and against 
an assault by numbers I have found an ample assurance of pro- 
tection in the generous tender of personal service from the citizens 
of Washington. But they are communicated to you a:s the Chief 
Magistrate of the United States, and most especially of the District 
of Columbia, whose duties in maintaining good order among its 
inhabitants, and protecting the officers of the Government in the 
discharge of their duties, cannot be unknown to you. 

"I have only to add that, so far as I am informed, all the per- 
sons engaged in giving countenance to this business are officers of 
the Government, except the late Secretary of War. ' 

"I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"S. D. Ingham." 


"Messrs. Col. Campbell, Treasurer; Major Smith, Register; 
Doctor Randolph, Acting Secretary of War, and Major Lewis, 

"I have this moment received the enclosed letter from Mr. 
Ingham, dated the 21st instant and having immediately, on its 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 341 

receipt, sent to ask an interview with him, I find that he left the 
city before it reached me. I wish you to state to me, if you, or 
either of you, have had any agency or participation, and if any, 
to what extent in the alleged misconduct imputed in his letter 
iierewith enclosed. 

"I surely have been deceived in your characters if you are cap- 
able of so far forfeiting the responsibilities of your stations as to 
participate in the reprehensible conduct charged. To the serious 
charges contained in Mr. Ingham's letter, which gave me the first 
information that I have had upon the subject of his difficulties, I 
wish you to give me a prompt and explicit answer. 


"Andrew Jackson. 


"Washington, June 22, 1831. 

"I have had the honor to receive your communication of this 
day, enclosing a copy of a letter to you from the late Secretary 
of the Treasury of the 21st instant, complaining of an attempt to 
way-lay him on the part of certain officers of the Government, for 
the purpose of assassination, and charging me with being in their 
company, and my room in the Treasury with being alternately 
occupied with other officers as a rendezvous for them while lying in 
wait. It might perhaps be sufficient for the purpose for which you 
have referred this communication to me, for me to apply to the 
charges against me, a simple and unqualified denial. They are 
entirely destitute of the least foundation in truth; but to show 
you more clearly how far I was from aiding or participating in 
anything connected with this matter complained of, I will beg your 
permission to add the following circumstances. The late Secre- 
tary of War, jNIajor Eaton never consulted me upon the subject 
of his controversy with Mr. Ingham, nor did I ever see him on the 
day in question, except in an accidental meeting of a few minutes. 
I never saw the correspondence between them until it appeared in 
the Telegraph, and although I had heard that a correspondence was 
going on which might result in a personal conflict, I did not believe 
it was likely to take place on that day, or even that Washington was 
to be the scene of it. 

"Trusting that these facts and explanations will be entirely 
satisfactory to you, I cannot withold the expression of my astonish- 
ment, that charges so wholly uncalled for and groundless, should 
have been made against me by a gentleman with whom I never 
had the least cause of quarrel, and with whom my official inter- 
course, since my entrance into the Treasury, had uniformly been 
of the most friendly character. I certainly had no idea of arming 
against him, or of interfering in any way in his dispute with Major 

"I have the honor to remain your most obedient servant, 

"John Campbell. 
"The President of the United States." 

342 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

mr. lewis to the president. 

"Washington, 22nd June, 1831. 

"Your letter of this morning has this moment been received' 
and in reply I have to say that the charge made against me by Mr. 
Ingham of having been engaged in a conspiracy against him, is 
devoid of truth. If there were any such conspiracy against him 
as alleged in his letter to you of yesterday, it was entirely unknown 
to me. 

"I arrived at my office on ^Monday morning, 20th instant, 
about half past eight o'clock, and never left the building until 
about half after two, when I walked down to the U. S. Bank to at- 
tend to some Bank business. After seeing the Teller of the Bank, 
and informing him what I wanted done, I went to a barber's shop 
a little below Mr. Strothers's Hotel. On my return I called at the 
Register's Office, a few minutes before three o'clock, where I saw, 
unexpectedly, Mr. Eaton, it being the first time I had seen him 
since last Saturday evening. I remained in the Register's Office 
about five minutes, and then walked up to my own office in company 
with no other person than ]Mr. Eaton. Dr. Randolph was not 
there, nor did I see him anywhere on that day, out of the War 
Office, until late in the evening. I neither saw nor heard of Mr. 
Ingham while I was at the Treasury Department. I had no arms 
of any description about me. 

"I am, very respectfully, 

"Your most obedient servant, 



"Washington, June 22, 1S31. 

"In reply to your note of today, enclosing a copy of a letter from 
Mr. Ingham to you, bearing date the 21st instant. I beg leave to 
state, that the charges contained in Mr. Ingham's letter, as far 
as they relate to me, are wholly untrue. I have had no partici- 
pation or agency, whatever, in the controversy between Maj. 
Eaton and I^Ir. Ingham. I have given neither aid nor succor to 
Major Eaton, nor any one for him. I have not walked with him, 
near him. I have not sought Mr. Ingham, nor been in the neigh- 
borhood. I have been unarmed constantly, and in all respects 
I have been unconnected with anything that threatened his safety. 
As to the charge that my office was used for any such purposes 
as are named by Mr. Ingham, it is not less untrue than 
the rest of the statement. Major Eaton was in my office twice, 
once between ten and eleven o'clock, and once about fifteen minutes 
before three, each time he came alone, and did not remain more than 
ten minutes. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 343 

"I regret, Sir, that Mr. Ingham, in making charges ofjsuch 
grave import, had not thought proper to refer to the authority 
upon which he based his allegations, and awaited the issue before 
he left the city. 

"With the highest respect, your obedient servant, 

"T. L. Smith. 
"To the President. 


"Washington, 22nd June, 1831. 

"In answer to your letter of this date, asking the extent of my 
participation in the controversy lately passed between Mr. Ingham 
and Major Eaton, and how far I am amenable to the charges made 
by Mr. Ingham against me, in his letter of yesterday, I have to 
reply, that I had no further agency in the matter than is shown in 
the correspondence between those gentlemen, as published in the 
Telegraph on Tuesday last. I was not with Major Eaton more 
than ten minutes at any one time between 9 and 3 o'clock on 
Monday, on which day, the charge of a combination for the pur- 
pose of assassinating Mr. Ingham is made by him against me 
and others. I did not participate in, nor did I know of any design 
to attack Mr. Ingham's residence as is charged by him, nor was I 
armed at any time during the hours mentioned, having no appre- 
hension of danger from Mr. Ingham or those ' friends,' whom he 
says surrounded him. Major Eaton was alone when he sought an 
interview with Mr. Ingham, as will be shown by the certificates 
of two respectable individuals. 

"Respectfully yours, 
"P. G. Randolph." 


"June 23, 1831. 
"Mr. Blair: 

"I owe it to myself and to the cause of truth to solicit the favor 
of offering a few explanations through the Globe. 

"A strange letter of Mr. Ingham is published in your paper 
this morning. It charges me with a design to assassinate him; 
and in having organized a conspiracy to accomplish it. Why did 
I not organize this band from the War, rather than the Treasury 
Department, for most of the gentlemen charged are of the latter? 
The public will not, I presume, give credit to such an accusation, 
coming from such a source. Wantonly insulted by Mr. Ingham, 
with a view, as I believed, to provoke an adjustment of our differ- 
ences in an honorable way, I adopted the course which evidently 
seemed to be invited by my adversary; and which appeared to 
be the only alternative that was left to me. 

344 Andrew Jacksox axd Early Tennessee History 

"I plead not guilty to the charge of conspiracy and meditated 
assassination. From the moment I perceived that Mr. Ingham 
was incapable of acting as became a man, I resolved to pursue that 
course, which was suited to the character of one who had sought 
difficulties, and shunned all honorable accountability. I harbored 
no design upon the heart of one who had shown himself so heart- 
less. Having ascertained that his sensibilities were to be found 
only upon the surface, I meant to make the proper application. 

"On the 19th I notified him, that unless the call I had made 
upon him, was promptly and properly answered, he might expect 
such treatment as I thought his conduct deserved. My note of the 
20th also advised him of my intention. Accordingly it appeared 
matter of duty for me to dissolve all connection with the admin- 
istration of the Government. How then can Mr. Ingham suppose, 
that I would involve those gentlemen in a disgraceful conspiracy 
against him — one in which, as public officers, they could not 
engage even If inclination had sanctioned ? Their own characters 
are a sufficient answer to the accusation, unaided by their positive 
denial of its truth. I did endeavor to meet Mr. Ingham, and to 
settle our differences. Unattended by any one, I sought after, and 
awaited his appearance, during the accustomed hours for business, 
openly and at places where he daily passed to his office. He was not 
to be found! I passed by but at no time stopped at, or attempted 
to enter his house, nor to besiege it by day or by night. I offer no 
statement here that is not susceptible of the clearest proof. 

"My note of the 20th was written with indignant feelings, 
and under strong excitement, hence the reason why any reference 
was made to a female. I regret it; although the letter was a 
mere private notice to Mr. Ingham, and was so intended. By me, 
it never was designed to meet nor never would have met the public 

"Respectfully, &c. 

"J. H. Eaton." 


"To the Editor of the Globe: 

"It may be proper for me to state, that when I consented to 
bear the communication from the late Secretary of the Treasury, 
Mr. Ingham, it was distinctly understood by Major Eaton, that 
in the event of the correspondence leading to a meeting, my agency 
was to cease entirely, and that Major Eaton was to be attended by 
another friend who was not in the city when the note was sent. 
"The assertion of Mr. Ingham, that I intruded into his room, and 
threatened personal violence is entirely erroneous. I called at his 
lodging, inquired if he were at home was answered in the affirm- 
ative, and invited to his room by the servant. After the usual 
salutations, I asked him if he intended to answer Major Eaton's 
note. He replied that he should take his own time, &c. I then told 
him that it was my business to communicate to him the intention 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 345 

of Major Eaton to take a decisiv^e and prompt course in relation to 
the matter, if he failed to respond to the note of which I had been 
the bearer the day before. I then took my leave without the 
slightest menace of personal violence on my part. 


' 'Washington, June 25, 1831. 

346 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 


^ Sam Houston visited Washington in 1831 ; invited by 
S citizens of Nashville to accept a public dinner, 

K which he declined; full text of his speech before 

S Congress in defense of himself for his assault on 

^ Congressman William Stanberry of Ohio; speech 

K quoted from Knoxville Register. ^ 

Sam Houston was elected to Congress in 1823 and again in 
1825, and it was during his second term that he fought the due^ 
with General William White, of Nashville, which came off Septem- 
ber 23, 1826, in Simpson County, Kentucky, near the Tennessee 
line. White was severely but not fatally wounded. It arose out 
of political matters. In June, 1827, the grand jury of Simpson 
County, Kentucky, indicted Houston for shooting General White 
and the Governor of Kentucky issued a requisition on the Gov. 
ernor of Tennessee to deliver Houston to the Kentucky authorities, 
but the requisition was not complied with, and the prosecution 

After going to Texas, Houston received a number of challenges 
to fight duels, but never engaged in another contest of that kind. 

On August 2, 1827, the election for Governor of Tennessee was 
held and Sam Houston received twelve thousand majority over 
Newton Cannon and Willie Blount, both former Governors of Ten- 
nessee. Houston, at the time of this election, was thirty-four 
years old. Col. D. D. Claiborne, at one time of Goliad, Texas, 
saw him on the day of the election and gives this unique description 
of his appearance. 

"He wore on that day (August 2, 1827) a tall bell crowned 
medium brim shining black beaver hat ; shining black patent leather 
military stock or cravat, encased by a standing collar; ruffled shirt, 
black satin vest, shining black silk pants, gathered to -the waist 
band, with legs full, same size from seat to ankle; and a gorgeous 
red ground many colored gown or Indian hunting shirt, fastened 
at the waist by a huge red sash, covered with fancy beadwork, 
with an immense silver buckle, embroidered silk stockings, and 
pumps with large silver buckles. Mounted on a superb dapple 
gray horse. He appeared at the election unannounced and was 
the observed of all observers." 


Attorney General, July 30, 1831 to September 23, 1833, Secretary of the Treasury, September 23, 1833 to June 
23, 1834, both in Jackson s Cabinet, Chief Justice of the United States 1836 till his death. Rendered the de- 
cision in the Dred Scott case March 1857. Case reported in 19th Howard United States Supreme Court 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 347 

This preposterous attire would seem to conclusively indicate 
derano^cd mental faculties, which would unfit one for any s«erious 
effort or initiative, but such was not the case with Houston. 
It demonstrated only the man's monumental and rediculous van- 
ity, aside from which he displayed qualities and characteristics 
that have placed him in the class of great and memoriable Amer- 

Houston was a candidtate for re-election as Governor against 
General William Carroll, who fought with Jackson at New Orleans 
and had served as Governor of Tennessee three successive terms, 
but was ineligible for a fourth term by reason of the limit contained 
in the State Constitution, prohibiting more than three successive 

On April 16, 1829, Houston sent in his resignation to the Sec- 
retary of the State of Tennessee, and suddenly left the State and 
took up his home with his old friend Chief Jolly, in Arkansas, where 
a number of Cherokees had gone after leaving Blount County, 
Tennessee. Just what part Houston took in the public affairs 
of the Cherokees or connected with any white community, it is 
difficult to say. History takes him on a visit to Washington, 
accompanying a delegation of Cherokees, to make complaint to 
the administration that the Indian agents of the Government 
were swindling and defrauding the Cherokees. This trip to 
Washington was in 1830, and he succeeded in having five rascally 
Indian agents removed, but made enemies of what was then called 
the "Indian Ring." He, at the same time, made a bid to the 
Government to furnish rations to the Indians at 18 cents a head, 
which bid was rejected. 

In June, 1831, probably on his return from this trip to Wash- 
ington, he was back again in Nashville, Tennessee, and was received 
cordially by his old friends and extended an invitation to a public 
dinner, given in his honor, in Nashville, which he declined. The 
Knoxville Register, Wednesday, August 17, 1831, gives the cor- 
respondence about this dinner: 

"Nashville, 30th June, 1831. 
"General Samuel Houston, 
"Dear Sir: 

"We have the happiness of learning that you are again in Ten- 
nessee. With heartfelt pleasure. Sir, would we greet your return 
again to the bosom of your old friends and constituents. 

348 Andrew Jacksox and Early Tennessee History 

"And shall we not venture the expression of a hope, that the 
result may be permenent restoration to all those endearments and 
joys of civilized society, of which you have so long been deprived, 
and for which, by nature and habit you are so eminently calculated 
both to receive and reciprocate in the various circles of social life. 
"At all events, whatever your own decision, or that of an over- 
ruling Providence may be, in reference to your future destiny, most 
heartly would we once more welcome upon the soil of Tennessee, 
the man whose character and achievments are so intimately iden- 
tified with her own to the advancement of whose best interests and 
lasting glory, the greater portion of his eventful life has been faith- 
fully devoted, and in defense of whose national rights and honor, 
his youthful blood has so freely flown. 

"In common. Sir, with the great mass of your late constituents, 
we contemplated with deep but silent grief, the unhappy train 
of circumstances which, as it were by the hand of magic, severed 
the tie and at once dissolved our political connection — resulting in 
the voluntary exile, or rather immolation, of our distinguished 
and favorite Chief Magistrate. But, whatever the nature or 
true character of the circumstances which lead to this unhappy 
result, may have been, we ever regarded them in the light of private, 
personal misfortunes — consequently sacred. And while, on the 
other hand, we reluctantly yielded to what seemed to be your 
adverse destiny, on the other, we felt that it would be worse than 
sacrilege to attempt to rend the veil of individual misfortune 
or rudely to invade the sacred sanctuary of private sorrows; and 
deeply would we depreciate an unwarrantable interference in 
such matters. As a humble token, therefore, of our undiminished 
confidence and esteem for your character as a private citizen, 
our gratitude and veneration for your signal services, not only in 
the cause of our native State, but in that of our common country, 
as well in the counsels of the Nation as, in the field of carnage and 
of death, permit us for ourselves and in behalf of a large portion 
of your fellow citizens, to request the pleasure of your participation 
in a public dinner to be given in commemoration of our national 
Independence, at the country seat of Col. Phillip Campbell, on 
Saturday the 2nd. Proximo. 

"With sentiments of the highest regard, 

"Your fellow citizens, 

Issac H. Howlet, 

Wm. M. Hinton. 

Austin Gresham. \ Managers. 

James D. Parrish. 

James Cooper. 

C. Lanier. 

"Nashville, Tenn., July 1st, 1831. 

"Your favour of yesterday has been received, and I thank you 
for the invitation so kindly given. The interest which you have 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 349 

expressed and continue to feel towards me, cannot fail to awaken in 
mv brest, the liveliest emotions blended with recollections sincere- 
ly grateful. 

"The ties of feeling which so long subsisted between the citizens 
of Tennessee, and myself, have not been dissolved by absence, nor 
is it possible that circumstances can ever obliterate the remem- 
berance of an identity which subsisted from boyhood to maturity. 

"Early adoption made me a Tennessean; circumstances as- 
sociated me with the destiny of her sons, and if I have been in a 
small degree instrumental in the promotion of her interests, the 
approbation of those for whom I have acted, and a consciousness 
of the rectitude of my motives, are the highest rewards that a 
patriot can enjoy. 

"Should the relation which has once existed between the citizens 
of Tennessee and myself, never again be renewed, and destiny point 
to some other place of abode, I shall ever feel proud and happy in 
the assurance, that the brave, patriotic, and enlightened character 
of her citizens, will enable her to preserve those pure republican 
principles for which she has been so justly distinquished. 

"However, much pleasure I should derive from uniting in 
any festivity connected with the celebration of our Independence, 
and in mingling again with my long tried friends, I regret to say, 
that it will not be in my power. 

"I have therefore to request of you individually, gentlemen, 
to accept my most respectful salutations and communicate to 
those on whose behalf you have acted, assurances of my grateful 

"I am, w4th sincere regard, gentlemen, 

"Your obedient servant, 
"Sam Houston. 

"Messrs. J. H. Howlett, A. Gresham, William M. Hinton, James 
D. Parrish, Churchwell Lanier, Jas. Cooper, Managers." 

Houston's speech before congress. 

On March 31, 1832, representative William Stanberry, of 
Ohio, made some adverse comment on Houston, and his bid to 
furnish the Indians rations, to which Houston took exceptions, 
and a personal difficulty ensued upon the streets of Washington, 
where the original assault was made by Houston. Stanberry 
reported to Congress that he had been assaulted for words used 
in debate, and the House hailed Houston before that body for 
trial. Houston was allow^ed counsel, and also to make a speech 
in his own defense. Great interest has always been manifested in 
Tennessee over his speech. It was delivered April 13, 1832. 

The author has never seen the entire speech reproduced but 
once and that was in the Knoxville Register of Wednesday, June 
30, 1832. Extracts from the speech have been published from 
time to time in one connection and another, but were unsatisfactory 
in furnishing Houston's entire defense of himself. As a part of 

350 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

the history of Tennessee, the author feels that the entire speech 
ought to be reproduced, and so prints it in full, taken from the 
Knoxville Register as stated. : 
"Mr. Speaker: 

"Arraigned for the first time in my life, on a charge of violating 
the laws of my country, I feel all that embarrassment which my 
peculiar situation is calculated to inspire. Though I have been 
defended by able and enlightened counsel, possessing intellect of 
the highest order, embellished too, by all that science and literature 
can bestow, yet it seems proper that under such circumstances I 
should be heard in my own vindication. 

"The charge which has been perf erred against me is one of no 
ordinary character. If I shall be convicted of having acted from 
the motive alleged by my accuser, lasting infamy must be the 

"To my apprehension, the darkest dungeons of this government, 
with all the pains and penalties of treason present a trifling con- 
sideration when compared with that load of infamy which under 
such circumstances, must attach itself forever to my name. 

"What is the nature of the charge? I am accused of lying 
in wait, for the purpose of depriving a fellow man of the efficient 
use of his person, if not of existence itself? Sir, can there be a 
greater crime? Who, but a wretch unworthy of the name of man, 
could ever be guilty of it? I disclaim utterly every motive un- 
worthy of an honorable man, if when deeply wronged, I have fol- 
lowed the generous impulse of my heart, and have thus violated the 
laws of my country, or trespassed on the prerogatives of this honor- 
able body, I am willing to be held to my responsibility for so doing. 
No man has more respect for this body, and its rights and privileges. 
Never can I forget the associations connected with this Hall. 
Never can I lose the remembrance of that pride of heart which 
swelled my bosom when finding myself, for the first time, enjoying 
those privileges and exercising those rights as one of the represent- 
atives of the American people. Whatever may have been the 
political collision in which I was occasionally involved ; whatever 
diversity of feelings may have for a moment separated me from 
some of my associates, they have never been able to take away 
that respect for the collective body which I have ever proudly 
cherished — The personal associations I have enjoyed, with many 
of those who I now see around me, I shall ever remember with 
the kindest feelings. None of these things, however, are to operate 
as the extenuation of my offense that shall be proved against me. 
All I demand is, that my actions may be pursued to the motives 
which gave them birth. Though it may have been alleged that I 
am a man of broken fortune and blasted reputation, however lim- 
ited, is the high boon of heaven. Perhaps the circumstances of 
adversity, by which I have been crushed, have made me cling to 
the little remains of it which I still possess, and to cherish them 
with the greater fondness. 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 351 

"Thouj^^h the ploughshare of ruin has been driving over me 
and laid waste my brightest hopes, yet I am proud to think, that 
under all circumstances, I have endeavored to sustain the laws of 
my country, and to support her institutions. Whatever may be the 
opinions of gentlemen in relation to these matters, I am here to be 
tried for a substantive offense, disconnected entirely with my 
former life or circumstances. I have only to say to those who 
rebuke me, at the time when they see adversity sorely pressing 
upon me, for myself. : 

'I seek no syinpathies, nor need; 

The thorns which I have spread are of the tree 
I planted ; they have torn me — and I bleed. ' 

"In support of the charge on which I am here arrainged, I ask 
what facts have been adduced to prove either my motive or my 
course of action? I am well aware that this honorable body, in 
the incipient stages of this prosecution, acted under the allegation 
that I had been guilty of a very great outrage ; that I had been lying 
in wait, and had been guilty of an attack upon an unarmed and 
helpless man. 

"Sir, had I comtemplated any such an attack, I should have 
been prepared for the purpose. Had I thought it possible, that 
in walking on that Avenue, I was to meet an individual who had 
ought against me, and was disposed to redress, the wrong by a 
personal rencontre, should I have been found in the circumstances 
in which I was ? Was I armed ? Was I lying in wait ? What 
says the testimony? My meeting w'ith the member from Ohio 
was perfectly accidental. We came together wholly unexpectedly 
on my part, and under circumstances of provocation, such as I am 
well persuaded no member of this body would ever brook. Did 
I attack him without previous challenge ? No. Did I not apprise 
him that I was the individual that he had injured ? He had ample 
time to place his hands upon his arms, which he did! I was un- 
armed. Sir, has this the semblance of assassination? However 
culpable my conduct may, by some be considered, the crime of 
lying in wait had its existence only in the imagination of my ac- 
cuser. The honorable Senator from Missouri (Mr. Buckner) 
has testified to the House, that I was not apprised beforehand of 
any such meeting — that it was purely accidental, and wholly un- 
expected — that the action took place under a heated state of 
feeling, and was prompted by his arrainging me, before this honor- 
able body, and his subsequent outrages upon my feelings and 

"It has been said by my accuser, that the attack made upon 
him was for words he had uttered in his place. It is true that he 
had laid before the House a charge of corruption, in which my 
name was implicated, but it was not for the words he uttered here 
that I assailed him. It was for publishing in the Intelligencer 
libelous matter, to my injury — such as no member of this honorable 

352 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

court, who is conscious of the rights of an American citizen, would 
ever tamely submit to. It was for a false and libelous letter, 
published ' in anticipation of its regular place ' in the debates of 
this House. After having been ' blasted ' by the stroke of ad- 
versity, and hunted from society, as an outlaw, to be now libelled 
for corruption, and charged with fraud upon the Government, is 
too much to endure! Could the human mind brook it? Could 
I submit to this, I should indeed think I was a man not only of 
' broken fortune,' but of ' blasted reputation.' It is well known 
that a private citizen has no opportunity of a reply to an attack 
that may be made upon him on this floor! It was for the publi- 
cation of such an attack — for the publication of a charge which 
has been here disproven, inasmuch as no testimony has been ad- 
duced to support it. It was for this that I assiled the member, 
and I now assert that his charge is groundless. The proof has 
failed. The proof was on him. I was not called on to prove a 
negative, though I was prepared to do it. After an attack like this 
had been made on my good name, with all that respect for the 
privileges of this House which I have ever felt, and which arises 
from the conviction that they have been entrusted to it, for the 
public good; although I considered the publication false and libel- 
lous, I was induced, by my respect for this body, not to look upon 
him as a private individual, who had wronged me, but as a member 
of this House. I therefore addressed to him a note. It was my 
privilege to do so. However humble I may be, and however 
blasted in the estimation of some gentleman, it was still my priv- 
ilege, in common with the humblest citizen that treads American 
soil, to address an inquiry to the honorable member. I asked of 
him, respectfully, and in language to which none can object, wheth- 
er that publication was his, and under what circumstances it had 
been made? Sir, he did not deign to reply; but, proceeding on 
his own assumption, that I was a man of ' blasted reputation,' 
he would not condescend, nor even stoop, from the lofty height 
of his oflicial dignity, to notice me, a mere private individual. 
The terms in which he couched his refusal were of the most insult- 
ing character! He declared that I had no right, after all that he 
had said to make even a request for an explanation. That was 
assuming higher grounds than that of his privilege. It is the right 
of all — of the lowest and humblest, to request an expl^^nation 
where they are personally concerned. But this was denied me. 
That universal right of petition, which is guaranteed by the con- 
stitution, to all the people of the United States, on which right 
my application was based. This common — this sacred — this wise, 
indefeasible privilege was refused to an American citizen. What 
indignation would such a refusal excite in every manly bosom? 
It was in substance saying to me, although I have injured you 
without provocation, and in the most public manner, you have 
no right to inquire anything about it, and I shall continue to do 
the same thing until your reputation is completely degraded and 

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Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 353 

"Of the nature of the accusation, and the manner in which he 
sustained it, I need not remind this honorable court. My accuser 
declared in reply to the first interrogator^' put to him, that it had 
not been his object to impute a fraud. On after thought, however, 
he changed his position, and avowed his belief that I was a guilty 
man. Still relentless — still resolved to sacrifice his victim — he 
bore down upon him with all the weight of his official station. Al- 
though the individual had withdrawn himself from civilized society, 
still he must be pursued, and hunted and blasted. With what? 
With truth? With fact? No. With surmises. With suspicions. 
With hearsays, and affidavits. But did these proofs, such as 
they were, exist at the time his accusation was made? Not at 
all. He made the charge on a mere vague rumor; but as means 
of inflicting a more deadly stab, he gave in the names of men who 
had disclaimed the truth of their own declaration. Names of which 
I need not say much. 

"I am not curious to speculate much on the affidavit which has 
been produced to the House; a matter, which in its origin, for the 
honor of all concerned, had better been left to sleep in oblivion — a 
matter conceived in malice — matured in corruption and perjury, 
and introduced here in a manner most mysterious. He, who made 
the affidavit, instantly fled. I trust he may be the scapegoat who 
will bear the sins of his association in this transaction to the wilder- 
ness. It would be unnecessary for me to dwell longer on the sub- 
ject of this affidavit. The time at which it was obtained — the 
circumstances which preceeded, attended, and those which fol- 
lowed it. When the individual sought to insinuate himself into 
my favor, after having previously injured me — when he sought 
my forgiveness for past offenses, I forgave him generously; and this 
is the requital. 

"Air. Speaker, I can not be insensible to the situation I occupy 
before this honorable Court — a situation well calculated to inspire 
alarm and solicitude on my part! In the nature of the accusation, 
there is a matter cognizable in the courts of the country. I am 
arrainged here for the offense of having redressed a personal wrong. 
I am charged with not having respected the rights of this House, 
yet I am not allowed the judgment of my peers. I can claim no 
equality with the honorable members of this House, who I see 
around me. Their station has raised them far above me. I am 
only a private citizen. Thus, siuated who are to be my judges? 
Those who form a party to this accusation. How unequal the 
contest! — and how hopeless must innocence itself be, if such a 
court were pleased to demand a victim ? I know there is no such 
purpose here. The honor, as well as the integrity of gentlemen 
would withhold them from it. But behold the influence which 
may be exerted against me. I see no judge upon the Bench, with 
power to instruct the jury as to the law of the case — I see no ac- 
cuser, and no accused standing side by side before that judge! 
I am arrainged before a court which is standing on its own priv- 

354 Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 

ileges — which arraigns me in its own case. And thus situated, I 
am tried for the commission of a great, flagrant crime — for in- 
sulting the whole American people, in the person of one of the 
members of this body. Yet, I have violated no law; I have trans- 
gressed no precept known to the people of this land. If I have 
violated any privilege, that privilege must be somewhere declared. 
If it exist at all, it lies as a little spark deeply covered — not even 
the smoke of it has appeared. It is a privilege which the American 
people do not know, and I demand on their behalf to know what it 
is ? I shall bow to that privilege when it shall have been defined, 
and when it shall have become constitutional, by the people's 
acquiesence. But where there is not law, there is not transgres- 
sion. I admit that the members of this House have privilege, and 
that their persons ought to be protected, because they represent 
citizens of this republic. On those privileges, I should be the 
last to encroach. But when a member of this House places himself 
out of the protection of this privilege by trespassing on my rights, 
I shall view him in his indiyidual capacity, and deal with him as 
with any other private man. But I will never trespass on the 
privileges of the House — I will never assail a member of this House 
while he represents the American people, nor will I encroach on 
any privilege which belongs to gentlemen as such! I need not 
say that there exist in this Government, three distinct co-ordinate 
branches. Every gentleman knows what they are. And in respect 
to one of them. Congress have declared what shall, and what shall 
not be considered as a contempt. They have declared that a judge 
shall be protected in the duties of his office ; but when he steps 
from the high function of administering the laws enacted by this 
body, and its co-ordinate branches — when he leaves the judicial 
seat, and lays aside the judicial robes, then his privileges cease. 
If, then, we may reason from analogy, in deducing the rights of 
this body, it seems reasonable to suppose that they do not trans- 
cend those of a co-ordinate branch of government ; and if not, 
then it is idle to say that when this body has adjourned, its members 
remain under the protection of their privilege, and that it goes 
with a member, and remains with him, while outraging the rights 
of citizens. 

"Where is the privilege? Shew it to me, that I may obey the 
law. I am told that it is undefined and undcfinable, and that it 
is to be regulated by your discretion alone. If such discretion is 
in your hands, the power of punishment must extend to life itself, 
and that over a man who has not in any way interrupted your 
deliberations. If you can arrest him, you may not only fine him, 
and imprison him, but you may inflict upon him torture and death. 
Sir, tyrants have made laws, and in enacting them, have had no 
regard to graduating them in proportion to the offenses punish- 
able. By one of these tyrants all offenses were made capital. 
Draco determined that for a small offense a citizen deserved death, 
and as nothing more than death could be inflicted for the great- 

Andrew Jackson and Early Tennessee History 355 

est, the punishment of all crimes became equal. If this body will 
publish its privileges, and graduate its punishments, then we shall 
know what to fear, and how to avoid transgression. Callagula 
enacted laws — they were not for the purpose of regulating his 
subjects, but of entrapping them. He might as well not have 
e.xertcd his legislative power, but left his action solely to the govern- 
ment of his wanton caprice. But he was adjudged a tyrant and a 
monster for punishing men for the transgression of a law that 
they could not know. For it is the conscience and motive of men 
alone which give turpitude to their actions. 

"The ground has been assumed by some gentlemen that if 
the House neglected to punish in such a case as the present, its 
legislation might be exposed to danger: that companies might be 
organized — conspiracies formed — and mobs collected, and thus 
the measures of the House be effectually controlled. Sir, I must 
enter my protest .against the application of any such argument to 
myself. My disposition has never been factious — my conduct 
obsrteperous, nor my feeling malignant. It is said that honorable 
gentlemen must be protected. I grant it. I would fall in the 
first ditch when their persons were assailed. I would be the 
last to entrench myself behind it. I feel that, as a patriot, it would 
be my greatest glory to defend their privileges as sacred ; but let it 
not be forgotten that the citizen, however obscure, and however 
ruined his fortune, has privileges too. It is his privilege to earn 
and to wear an honest name — to deserve and enjoy a soptless rep- 
utation ; this is the proudest ornament that any man can wear, and 
it is one that every American citizen ought to press tenderly to his 
heart ; nor should his arm ever hang nerveless by his side when this 
sacred, brightest jewel is assailed. When a member of this House, 
entrenched in his privileges, brands a private citizen in the face of 
a whole nation, as a fraudulent villian, he forgets the dignity of 
his station, and renders himself answerable to the party aggrieved! 
Are honorable gentlemen to send abroad their cal