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SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 

LIBRARY 



r 



TEXTBOOK 

COLLECTION 



STANFORD V^^/ U N I V E R S I TY 
LIBRARIES 



SREEK TEXTS AND BEADEBS. 

Arnold'* Greek Reading Book 

Blaka'B Leiloon of the first Three Booka oC HomBr's Hud. . 
Boise's Xenophon'B AuabaBia, Three Books, with Lexicon. . 

Theeame. Four Booke. 

The Bame. Four Books, t 
(•iSI 




Ancient Languages, 



Xenophon's Anabasis. Five Books, with Lexicon |1 40 

Thesame. ^ith Notes 140 

Coy's First Greek Reader 84 

Greek for Beginners 1 00 

Crosby's (Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles 1 05 

Xenophon's Anabasis. Complete, with Lexicon 1 60 

The same. Four Books and Lexicon 1 40 

Thesame. Text only 100 

Lexicon to Xenophon's Anabasis 70 

Lexicon and Notes to Xenophon's Anabasis 90 

Hackett and Tyler's Plutarch on the Delay of the Deity. ... 1 05 

Johnson's (H. G.) Homer's Iliad. Three Books, with Notes. . . 1 12 

The same. Three Books, with Notes and Lexicon 1 82 

Johnson's (H. M.) Selections from Herodotus 1 05 

Ionic Dialect of Herodotus 16 

Owen's Xenophon's Anabasis *.,. 1 40 

Homer's Diad 1 40 

Greek Reader 1 40 

Acts of the Apostles. With Lexicon. 1 22 

Homer's Odyssey 1 40 

ThucyMi g^With M ap . 1 75 

XMiMmfrriSm^^^^S^s^a am. — ^nnm | i 75 

ThSsame. TTferA&Xfll|EN.T.OF- • -^^^ 18 

Bobbini^ (R. D. 0.) S^yCif^ltfO^ |^ 1 40 

Smead'ilfDemosihenes' ^nDt^i(y.£^ith Notes yf. 1 06 

AntUne of SopfapdfifL With Notes 1| 1 22 

Tyler'sHw. S.) PlaAi i^ilgjKaj^^S^ \l 1 05 

4LELAND ypW^DRD « 

1 1 Tl ill i fli iffTlliliyi iH I Til II wQi m m 1 1 

Arnold's First and Second Latin Book 87 

Latin Prose Composition 87 

Bartholomew's Graded Lessons in Latin 80 

Latin Grammar 90 

Daniell's Short Sentences for Writing Latin. 20 

Pisher's (M. M.) Three Pronundations of Latin 1 00 

[•i7l 



Pl^ef. 




AN 



EASY METHOD 



FOR 



BEGINNERS IN LATIN 



> ». 




Jy DEPARTMFN r OF 

BEDUCATi<:>rj A 

HARKNE§§5%'^.^, LL. D. |j 

LLELAND STANFORD g 

JUNIOR UNJVfRSJTY ^ 




NEW YOEK •:. CINCINNATI •:• CHICAGO 
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

FBOX THB PBBSS OF 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY 



7 



597655 
C 

COPTRIOHT, 1890, BY 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

■ .-«.• -.' • ■-.•.•■•■•- 



— •-•"*.•% ■ 1^' .^'^^- 



PREFACE. 



The volume now offered to the public is intended to 
introduce the learner to such a practical and working knowl- 
edge of the Latin language as will enable him to read Caesar 
or Nepos with some degree of pleasure. 

The following are a few of the leading features of the 
work: 

1. This volume is not a mere companion to the grammar, 
but a practical guide for the pupil in the work of reading, 
writing, and speaking Latin. It approaches the language 
on its practical side. The very first lesson, without a word 
of grammar, introduces the learner to complete Latin sen- 
tences with verb, subject, and object. Thus at the very 
outset he finds himself already using the language. He is 
not only reading Latin, but actually writing and speaking 
Latin. 

2. The work is at once a Book of Latin Exercises, a 
Latin Eeader, and a sufficient Grammar for the beginner. 

There is a growing conviction among teachers that the 
attempt to prepare boys to appreciate Caesar by means of 
a few short lessons and exercises is a failure — that to do 
this successfully requires a generous course in reading easy 
and interesting Latin. Indeed, in some schools it has been 
deemed wise to supplement the introductory Latin course 
by additional reading before entering upon the consecutive 
study of Latin authors. An attempt has accordingly beeh 
made to give this work sufl&cient size and scope to meet this 
reasonable demand. 



iv PREFACE. 

3. The exercises are largely conversational. In their 
preparation the author has taken pains to select interesting 
and instructive subjects and to treat them in an attractive 
form. 

4. Moreover, these exercises are diversified and enlivened 
by the frequent introduction of passages of connected dis- 
course, consisting of anecdotes, stories, letters, dialogues, etc. 

6. Questions in Latin on the subject-matter of these 
passages are regularly introduced. These are not only to 
be translated, but they are also to be answered in Latin. 
By such exercises the learner is led to feel that he is dealing 
with a living language. 

6. Throughout the entire volume it has been the con- 
stant aim of the author to lighten the task of the learner 
without endangering the thoroughness of his work. The 
grammar has been made subservient to the study of the 
language, but it has been by no means neglected. Special 
thought has been bestowed upon the question of the kind 
and amount of grammatical information needed by the be- 
ginner and upon the no less important question of the order 
in which grammatical forms and principles may be best 
introduced. The method adopted is at once progressive 
and comparative. In verbs, for instance, the pupil first 
learns in succession the tenses for incomplete action in 
the four conjugations, compares them carefully with each 
other, and gets a clear idea of the four varieties of conjuga- 
tion before he takes up the other tenses. Subsequently the 
Passive forms are compared with the Active. 

7. The special vocabularies accompanying the exercises 
are not intended merely as a help to the pupil in reading 
his Latin, but as an essential and important part of the 
lesson to be learned. Too little attention is given in this 
country to the acquisition of a copious vocabulary, so essen- 
tial to any facility in reading Latin authors. It is earnestly 
recommended that all the vocabularies be so carefully and 



PREFACE. V 

accurately learned that the pupil shall be able to give with 
promptness either the English for the Latin or the Latin 
for the English. Thoroughness in this part of the work 
will be sure to be amply rewarded. 

In the vocabularies words are classified according to their 
forms, and no little attention is paid to the subject of Eng- 
lish derivatives of Latin origin. In the special vocabularies 
a column of such derivatives is introduced partly to help 
the learner retain the form and meaning of the correspond- 
ing Latin words, and partly to show him how closely our 
own language is related to the Latin, and how much it is 
indebted to that tongue for its rich vocabulary. 

8. The method of treatment adopted in this work is 
largely inductive, but not excessively so. The learner is not 
required to make his own grammar, but he learns no arbi- 
trary rules, and is allowed to see grammatical principles em- 
bodied and illustrated in the language itself before he has 
any occasion to apply them in his work. 

9. The book is illustrated with four full-page colored 
plates and a large number of engravings of classical subjects 
carefully reproduced from authentic sources. These illus- 
trations, mainly explanatory of the text, add greatly to the 
interest and value of the work. 

It has not been deemed wise to depart from long-estab- 
lished usage in regard to the principal parts of verbs, but a 
wider scope has been given to the form in turn by including 
under it both the supine and the neuter of the perfect parti- 
ciple. 

In the preparation of this volume the author deems him- 
self fortunate in having had the assistance of Mr. George 
E. Howes, A. M., Junior Master in the Boston Latin School. 
He has thus secured for his work the full benefit of the best 
class-room experience. Mr. Howes in his professional labors 
has occasion daily to observe the difficulties and discourage- 
ments that beset the path of the beginner in Latin. He has 



vi PREFACE. 

heartily co-operated with the author in an earnest attempt 
to reduce to a minimum all these disheartening difficulties. 
He has rendered efficient aid in every part of the work. 

Professor Gustavus Fischer, LL. D., late of Eutgers Col- 
lege, has kindly furnished for this volume several interesting 
dialogues. His critical scholarship, thorough acquaintance 
with Eoman literature and pure Latinity, are a sufficient 
guarantee for the excellence of his work. 

Finally, Professor Albert G. Harkness, of Brown Uni- 
versity, has revised a large part of the manuscript, and has 
thus given the author the benefit of his professional ex- 
perience and accurate scholarship. 

In thus adding a new volume to his series of Latin text- 
books the author desires once more to make his grateful 
acknowledgments to his friends, the classical teachers of the 
country, who, by their fidelity and skill in the use of his 
books, have secured for them such marked success. To 
their hands this work is now respectfully and gratefully 

committed. 

Albert Harkkess. 

Beown University, August, 1890, 



CONTENTS. 



Lesson paoe 

Introduction. Latin Alphabet 1 

Pronunciation of Latin 2 

Quantity 5 

Accentuation 6 

Sentence, Subject, and Predicate 7 

Parts of Speech, Qender, Person, and Number ... 8 

L Subject and Object.— Singular Number .... 9 

II. Subject and Object.— Plural Number 11 

in. Noims.— First Declension 18 

IV. First Declension.— Genitive 14 

V. First Declension.— Apposition 17 

VI. First Declension.— Certain Forms of Verbs .... 19 

Vn. Nouns.— Second Declension 22 

vm. Second Declension.— Nouns in am.— Indirect Object . 25 
IX. Nouns in a, us, lim.— Predicate Nominative.— The Prepo- 
sition in 27 

X. A DicUogtie. — Richard and Henry 80 

XI. Adjectives in us, a, um.— Agreement of Adjectives . . 32 

Xn. Second Declension.— Words in er and ir.— Prepositions . 86 

Xin. Second Declension.— Words in er.— Vocative ... 39 

XIV. Second Declension.— Comparative View .... 42 

XV. A DiaJogtie.— Questions . 45 

XVI, XVII. First and Second Declensions.— Adjective8.—Dative with 

Adjectives 47 

XVm. ASh(yrtStory 52 

XIX-XXI. Third Declension.— Stems in 1, n, and r.— Ablative of Means 58 

XXII. A Father^ 8 Letter to hia Boy at School 61 

XXm. Thhxl Declension.— Stems In s . . . .63 

XXIV. Third Declension.— Stems in b or p, d or t . 65 

XXV. Third Declension.— Stems in c or g 68 

XXVI. Third Declension.— ^4 Dialogue 71 

XXVII-XXX. Third Declension. -Stems in i.—The Oauls and the Ger- 
mans 73 

XXXI. An Anecdote.— Ptince Henry and the Judge ... 82 

XXXn. Third Declension.— Gender.— Cases with Prepositions 84 

XXXin. Something about Animdla 87 

XXXIV-XXXVn. Adjectives of the Third Declension 88 

XXjlvui. a Dialogue 95 

XXXIX, XL. Comparison of Adjectives.— Case with Comparatives . 97 

XLI. Irregular Comparison.— Adverbs 101 

XLII. The Farmer and liis Children 106 



viii CONTENTS. 

Lesson paob 

XLIII. Nouns.— Fourth Declension 107 

XIIV. Nouns.— Fifth Declension Ill 

XLV. A Dialogue 114 

XLVI-XLVm. The Verb Sam 116 

XTJX. The Verb Sum.— Ablative of Time 122 

L, LI. DicUogues 124 

LH, Lin. Verbs.— First Conjugation 128 

LIV. ^ 2>ia{ofir«e.— Agreement of Verb with Subject . . 131 

LV, LVI. T?i€ Farmer and the Sailor 134 

LVn, LVin. Second Conjugation.-rPresent, Imperfect, and Future 136 
UX, LX. Ck>mparatiTe View of A Verbs and £ Verbs.— Pro- 
nouns, Personal, Reflexive, Possessive . .141 

LXI. A Letter to a Friend in Toum 146 

LXn. A Dialogue 147 

LXm, LXrv. Third Conjugation.— Present, Imperfect, and Future.— 

Ablative of Manna* 140 

LXV. Comparative View of Conjugations .153 

LXVI. Jokes on the Doctors 157 

LXVn, LXVm. Fourth Conjugation.— Comparative View of Conjuga- 
tions 158 

LXIX. A Dialogue 162 

LXX, LXXI. First Conjugation.— AU the Tenses.— Ablative of Sep- 
aration.— flannt6aZ^« ^Slpeec^ 164 

LXXn. Second Conjugation.— All the Tenses .169 

LXXm. A Dialogue 178 

LXXIV. Third Conjugation.— AU the Tenses .... 175 

LXXV. The Gauls enter Rome 179 

LXXVI. Fourth Conjugation.— All the Tenses .... 180 

LXXVn. A Dialogue 188 

LXXVm, T.YYTY Passive Voice.— first Conjugation 186 

T.YYY Passive Voice.— Ifore about the Gauls in Italy . . 180 

LXXXI. A Dialogue 192 

LXXXn, LXXXIII. Passive Voice.— Second Conjugation .... 194 

LXXXIV. A Dialogue 197 

LXXXV, LXXXVI. Passive Voice.— Third Conjugation 199 

LXXXVn. A Dialogue .202 

LXXXVm, LXXXDL Passive Voice.— Fourth Conjugation.— Relative Pro- 
nouns.— Agreement of Pronouns .... 204 
XC, XCI. Verbs in W of the Third Conjugation.— Two Accusa- 
tives of the Same Person or Thing .... 206 

XCn. A Dialogue 213 

XCm, XCIV. Deponent Verbs.— AbUtive in Special Constructions . 214 

XCV. A Dialogue 218 

XCVI, XCVn. Adjectives with las in the Genitlve.—Numerals.— Ac- 
cusative of Time and Space.— u4nfo9tmtM iH'u« . 219 
XCVm, XCIX. Pronouns.— Place in which.— Military Honors . . 225 

C. A Dialogue 231 

CL Subjunctive of Desire.— Subjunctive of the First Con- 
jugation 233 

CII. Subjunctive of Purpose.— First and Second Conjuga- 
tions 236 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Lesson page 
cm. SubjunctiTe in Indirect Questions.— Third Conjugation ... 287 
dV. Subjunctive.— Third and Fourth Conjugations.— Infinitive with Sub- 
ject Accusative.- rA« Oods of the Ramans 240 

CV. Subjunctive of the Verb CaplO.— ^ Dialogue 243 

CVL Indirect Discourse.— Moods in Principal Clauses.- Moods in Subordi- 
nate Clauses 246 

CVIL The Irregular Verbs Possum and FerO.— Ablative Absolute . . 248 

CVm. The Irregular Verbs TolO, NOlO, and MftlO. -J Dialogue . 261 
CDL The Irregular Verbs FIO and EO.— Accusative of Limit.— Place from 

which 258 

Latin Sblbotions 257 

Queen Elizabeth and 5»r Walter Raleigh.— Too Clever by Half . 257 

Spartan Brevity 268 

Witticism of Cicero.— Scipio Nasica and the Poet Ennius . 250 

The Guards Outioitted.— Augtutus Cae9ar 280 

King James in Disguise 261 

Androclus and the Idon in the Arena 202 

Scipio Africanus impeached 264 

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the Year 79 265 

Letters : Cicero to Terentia ; BcUbus to Cicero 266 

The Battle of Marathon 267 

Julius Caesar : his Early Life, Public Career, Appearance, and 

Character 269 

War with the Belvetii 272 

Tables of Verbs 274 

Bulbs of Syntax 801 

Latin-English Vocabulary 800 

English-Latin Vocabulary 880 



INDEX TO THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOE 

Colored Plate I.— Roman legionary soldier .... Frontispiece^ 
Head of a Roman empress, adorned with a garland of flowers.— Civic prown 

of oak-leaves 10 

Crowns, triumphal, mm:ttl, naval 12 

Head of Antoninus with triumphal crown 16 

Roman temples 23 

A Roman statue 28 

A Greek statue 29 

Temple of Vesta at Rome, restoration 31 

Temple of Saturn at Rome, restoration 33 

A Roman book 40 

Head of Homer 41 

Colored Plate H.— Temple of Zeus at Olympia.— Temple of Jupiter Capito- 

linusatRome 42j 

Fortune, with rudder, diadem, and horn of plenty AT 

Temple of Vesta at Tivoli 51 

Head of Julius Caesar 57 

Head of Cicero, the orator 59 

Bust of Vergil, the poet 60 

Writing materials 62 

Apollo, the god of the sun 70 

Colored Plate HI.— Military olBcers.— War vessels.— Merchant vessels 74 1 

Minerva, the goddess of wisdom 77 

The Acropolis, or citadel of Athens 81 

A Roman school 84 

Statue of Rome, mistress of the world 86 

Diana, the goddess of the moon and of the chase 91 

The Roman Forum 94 

Bust of Socrates, the Athenian philosopher 100 

A Roman study 103 

Agricultural implements 106 

A Roman house 103 

Vestibule of a Roman house 110 

Atrium, or front court of a Roman house 112 

Peristyle of a Roman house at Pompeii in ruins 118 

One of Hannibal's elephants 117 

A Roman chariot 120 

Bust of Augustus Caesar, the Roman emperor 128 

Bust of Pericles, the Athenian statesman 124 

Chariot and horses, tlie famous Biga of the Vatican 127 



xii INDEX TO THE ILLCJSTRATION& 

PAOB 

An ancient country-house 18g 

Statue of Pudicitia, the goddess of modesty and chastity 188 

The Vatican statue of Augustus, with coat of mail and scepter ... 189 

Temple of Rome and Augustus 140 

Ruins of the temple of Saturn in Rome 144 

Pompey^s theatre in Rome 148 

Statue of Augustus in the toga 162 

Bust of Scipio Af ricanus the Elder 165 

Head of Pompey the Great 16i 

Head of Themistocles, the famous Athenian general and statesman . 167 

Roman temple at Nimes, in France 172 

A Roman marriage 177 

Bust of Quintus Hortensius, the orator 182 

An Athenian silver coin of the age of Pericles 184 

A Roman copper coin of the third century b. c 185 

Jewelry found at Pompeii 188 

A Roman bracelet of gold set with coins 189 

A Roman feast 190 

Head of Juno, the queen of the gods 191 

Amphitheatre at Nimes, view of the interior 192 

Amphitheatre at Nimes, view of the exterior 193 

The Tullianum, or the Mamertine Prison in Rome 198 

Bust of Herodotus, the Greek historian 212 

Clio, the muse of history 21.3 

Buut of Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia 217 

Vase found in the gardens of Sallust 228 

Statue of Antoninus Plus, the Roman emperor 224 

Antique vases 226 

The Arch of Titus in Rome 229 

The Arch of Constanttne in Rome 231 

The Vatican Library, showing the style and arrangement of book-cases in 

ancient Rome 239 

Bust of Jupiter, the supreme god of the Romans 242 

Ceres, the goddess of agriculture 243 

Mercury the messenger of the gods 244 

Colored Plate IV.— Gk)ds and goddesses of the Romans 246 

Roman lamps 249 

Candelabrum 250 

The Pantheon at Rome 2S6 

The Colosseum 263 

Pliny^s villa at Laurentum 266 

Bust of Miltiades, the victor at Marathon 268 

Head of Marcus Junius Brutus, the conspirator 271 

Roman standards 272 



^ 



l 



EASY LATIN METHOD. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Note* — The teacher will doubtless deem it advisable to begin with 
Xesson I, page 9, and to use the introduction for reference. 

Latin^ Alphabet. 

1. The Latin alphabet is the same as the English, with 
the omission of j and w. X and i supply the place of J 
and j, as they are used both as yowels and as consonants. 

2. Letters are divided into yowels and consonants. 

3« Of the consonants — 

B, c, d, g, k, p, q, t are mutes; 

L and r are liquids; 

M and n are nasals; 

X and z are double consonants.^ 

4. O, g, q (q.u), or h, before s, generally unites with 
it and forms x : 

Dues, dux, leader; rega, recs, rex, king; coqw^, coesif coa^, I have 
cooked ; trahtn,, tracs^, traxl, I have drawn. 

6. S is generally changed to r when it stands between 
two vowels : 

FldaeSy flores, flowers ; men^dsumj mensdrumf of tables ; agrdsum, 
agrorum, of fields ; esamj eram, I was. 

^ Xss C8 and zssda, but here c in cs often represents g aad sometimes 
g,A,orv. 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

• 6. Before 8 or t, b is generally changed to p, and g 
to c: 

Seribsi, acHpeH, I have written; scr^tus, 8e7iptu8, written; regs^^ 
rec9l, reoA (4), I have ruled ; regtus, rectus, ruled. 

Pronunciation of Latin.* 
I. Roman Method of Pronunciation.* 
7. Vowels. — The vowel sounds are the following : 

Long. Short. 

fi like a in father: W-ra,^ a like a in Cuba:* ai, 

€ " e " prey:* di, e " e " net? et, 

I " i " machine:* i'-vi. i " i ** cigar: id. 

6 " o " old: 08. o " o " obey: ob. 

u " u " rule:* ii'-su. u " u " full: ut. 



% 



1. n in qu, and generally in g^t and su before a vowel, has the 
sound of w : qui (kwe), lin'-gua (liri'-gwa), 8ud,'-sit (swfi-sit). 

8. Diphthongs. — In diphthongs each vowel retains its 
own sound : 

ae nearly like ai in aisle : ctes, men^sae.* 
au ** " ou " out : a«Y, aw-ruwi. 
ei " «« ei " veil: ei,hH. 
ou " " «a " feud : new, net^ter,^ 
oe " " oi " coin: foe-dus. 
ni " " we: cw»(kwe). 

9. Consonants. — Most of the consonants are pro- 

1 In this country two distinct meUiods, the RoiMm. and the English are reo- 
d^oized in the pronunciation of Latin. The pupil will, of course, study only the 
method adopted in tlie school. 

s Those who adopt the English Method will now turn to page 8. 

* The Latin vowels marked with the macron " are long in qtuxntity^ 1. e., in 
the duration of the sound (17) ; those not marked are short in quantity ; see 17, 
note 3. Observe that the accent Is also marked. For the laws of accentuation^ 
see 18 and 19. 

4 Or ^ like d in made, i like S in me, and H like oo in moon. 

» The short rowels can be only imperfectly represented by English equiva« 
lents. In theory they have the same sounds as Uie corresponding long vowels, 
but occupy only half as much time in utterance. 

* But in pronouncing ae endeavor to unite the sounds of the Latin a and e^ 
and in pronouncing eu unite the sounds of e and u. 



PRONUNCIATION. 8 

nonnced nearly as in English, but the following require 
special notice : 

o like o in come : eo-ma, el-no. 
oh " ch ** chemist : eho^nu. 



g 


({ 


g " get: 


ge^-nu8f gld-H-a. 


i 


i( 


y " yet: 


iam (yam), iua (yoos)." 


B 


ti 


B " son: 


8(HM, 8Cheer, 


t 


« 


t *• time: 


H'-fnor, td''iu9. 


▼ 


(( 


w " we: 


vel, vir. 


qn 


I " 


qn " quit : 


qulyquo. 



10. Syllables. — In dividing words into syllabi 

1. Make as many syllables as there are yowels and diph- 
thongs : ww'-re, per-suS'de^ menf-sae. 

2. Join to each yowel as many of the consonants which 
precede it — one or more— as can be conveniently pronounced 
at the beginning of a word or syllable : pa'-teVy pa'-tres^ 
g^-ne-rly do'-mi-nusy menl-say teV-lum. But — 

3. Separate compound words into their component parts : 
aV-eSy ob-V-re, 

II. English Method of Pronunciation,^ 

11. Vowels. — Vowels generally have their long or short 
English sounds. 

12. Long Sounds. — ^Vowels have their long English 
sounds — a as in fatCy e in metey i in pinsy o in notSy u in 
tuhey y in type — ^in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a vowel : 
Se, si, aer^-vi^ aer'-vOf cor'-nu, mi'-sy, 

2. In all syllables, before a vowel or diphthong : 
De'-vs, de-o'-rumy de'-ae, di-^'-i, ni'-hih* 

* Observe that i is here a consonant ; see 1. 

s Those who adopt the Roman PrfmiwnciatUm will omit the SnglUh Method. 

* In these rules no account is taken of the as|rfrate h : hence the first i In 
nihil is treated as a vowel bef <Mre another voweL 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

3. In penaltimate ^ syllables before a single consonant, 
or before a mute followed by a liqaid : 

4. In unaccented syllables, not final, before a single con- 
sonant, or before a mute followed by a liquid : 

Bo-lo'-ris, car^-po-ri, eon'-gihlis, chffrie'-o4a. 

1) A wnaecerUed, except before consonants in final syllables (13, 1), 
has the sound of a final in America: men'sa, a-eu'-hu, 

2) I and y «nciecenied, in any syllable except the first and last, 
generally hare the short soand : nc^'-iAis (nob'-e-lis). 

3) I preceded by an accented a, e, o, or y, and followed by another 
Towel) is a consonant with the sound alyiayei: A-tha'-ia (A-ka'>ya), 
Piom^-iiis (Pom-pe'-yus). 

4) XT in ^, and generally in gu and au before a rowel, has the 
sound of w: ^» (kwi), qua; Kn'-gua (lin'-gwa); «la'-de-o (swa'-de-o). 

5) When the first part of a compound is entire and ends in a eon- 
sonant, any rowel before such consonant has generally the ^wri 
sound : ab'-e», in'M, 

13. Short Sounds. — ^Vowels have their short English 
sounds — a as in fai^ e in ftiet, i in pin^ o in not^ u in tub^ 
y in myth — in the following situations : 

1. In final syllables ending in a consonant : 

A'-^r/uU, a' -met, rex'-it; except post, ea finals and os final in plural 
cases : res, di'-es, hos, a'-gros. 

2. In all syllables before ar, or any two consonants except 
a mute followed by a liquid (12, 3 and 4) : 

Bex'-it, bel'^lum, bel-lo'-rum, 

3. In all accented syllables, not penultimate, before one 
or more consonants : 

Dom'^i-nus, paC-ri-bus, But — 

1) A, e, or o before a single consonant (or a mute and a liquid), 
followed by e, i, or y before another vowel, has the long sound: 
a'-ci-es, a'-cri-a, me'-re-o, do'-ce-o, 

2) XT, in any syllable not final, before a single consonant or a mute 
and a liquid, except bl, has the long sound : sa-lu-brt-tas. 



1 Penultimate, the last qrllable but one. 



SYLLABLES, QUANTITY. 6 

14. Diphthongs. — Diphthongs are pronounced as fol- 
lows: 

Ae like e: Co^'-sa/r^ Daed! -Orlus} Au as in author: au'-rum, 
Oe like e: Oe'-ta^ Oed'-irpus} JEJa* as in neuter: neu'-ter. 

16. OosrsojSTAKTS. — The consonants are pronounced in 
genei*al as in English. Thus : 

L O and g are soft (like s and /) before e, t, y, oe, and oe, and 
h(Mrd in other situations : ' ee'-do (se'-do), ci-via, ecuf-do, a'-ge (a'-je) ; 
ea'-do (ka'-do), co'-go, 

IL S, t, and x are generally pronounced as in the English words 
Bon, time^ ea^eei : aa'-cer, ti'-mar, reaf-i (rekfsi). But — 

1. S, t, and X are aspirated before i preceded by an accented 
syllable and followed by a vowel — s and t taking the sound of «A, and 
X that of ksh : Al'-ai-um (Al'-she-um), ar'-ti-um (ar'-she-um), anscf-i-na 
(ank'-she-us). 

2. «S' is sometimes pronounced like z, especially at the end of a 
word : apes, urbs. 

8. X at the beginning of a word has the sound of z : Xan'-thua, 

16. Syllables. — In dividing words into syllables — 

1. Make as many syllables as there are vowels and diphthongs: 
»fk>'-re, per-aua'-de, men'-aae. 

2. Distribute the consonants so as to give the proper sound to each 
vowel and diphthong, as determined by previous rules (12-14) : pa'-ter, 
pa'-trea^ Orgro'-rum, aurdi'-viy gen'-erH^ dom'-i-wua. 

Quantity. 

17. Syllables are in quantity or length either long, short, 
or common.* 

I. Long. — ^A syllable is long in quantity — 

1. If it contains a diphthong or a long vowel : haec, ria,* 

^ That is, the diphthong is pronounced precisely as e would be in the same 
situation. 

s M and oi are seldom diphthongs, but when so used they are pronounced 
as in height^ coin : hei, proin, CTi, as a diphthong, with the long sound of if 
occurs in cut, hui, huie, 

* C has the sound of 9k before i preceded by an accented pliable and fol- 
lowed by a vowel : »o'-ci-u$ (so'-she-us). 

* Common, L e., sometimes long and sometimes short. • See Note 3, below. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

2. If its Towel is followed by x or z, or any two oonsonants, except 
a mute and a liquid : * dux, rSx, sunt* 

II. Shobt. — ^A syllable is short, if its vowel is followed 
by another vowel, by a diphthong, or by the aspirate A.* 

III. Common. — ^A syllable is common, if its vowel, natu- 
rally short,* is followed by a mute and a liquid : a-grl. 

Note 1« — ^Vowels are also in quantity either long, shoxi, or oommon; 
but the quantity of the vowel does not always ooindda with the quantity of 
the syllable.* 

Note 8»— Vowels are long before fi«, n/, ffn^ gtn^ and generally before 
• oonsonant : edn'-tul^ in-fV-Ux^ reg'-nvm, dgmen^ Hus, 

Note 8* — ^The signs ~ , and ^ are used to mark the quantity of vowels, 
the first denoting that the vowel over which it is placed is lotiff^ the second 
tiiat it is eommony i. e., sometimes long and sometimes short : uH, AU 
vowels not marked are to bo treated as short 

ACCEI^TUATION. 

18. Words of two syllables are always accented on the 
first: mSn^'Sa. 

19. Words of more than two syllables are accented on 
the Pe?iuU,^ if that is long in quantity;^ otherwise on the 
Antepenult : * ho-no'-riSy con^-su-lis, 

1 That is, in the order here given, with the mute before the liquid. 
> Observe that the vowel in such syllables may be either k>ng or short. Thus 
it is long in rftr, but short in dttx and sunt. 

* By referrinffr to page 9, it will be seen that. In the Roman Method, qitantiiy 
and 90und coincide with each other : a vowel }ong in quantity is long in sound, 
and a vowel short hi quantity is short In sound. But, by referring to 18 and 13, 
it will be seen that, in the English Method, the quantity of a vowel does not at 
all affect its sound, except in determining the aooent (19). Hence, in pronounc- 
ing according to the English Method, determine the place of the accent by the 
quantity, according to 19, and then determine the sounds of the letters irre- 
spective of quantity, according to'll^lS. 

« A vowel is said to be naturaUy Bh<M?t, when it is short in its ovm nature ; 
t e., in itself, without reference to its position. 

* Thus in long syllables the vowels may be either long or short as in riz, 
dux, sunt But in short syllables the vowels are also short 

* The penult is the last syllable but one ; the antepenult, the last but twa 

▼ Thus the quantity of the tyHoMe, not of the voweL, determines the place of 
the accent : regen'-tU, accented on the penul^ because that syilaMe is Umg^ 
though its vowel Is thort: see 17, 1, 9. 



SUBJECT AND PREDICATE, Y 

1. A seoondary or subordinate accent is placed on the second or 
third syllable before the primary accentr— on the second, if that is the 
first syllable of the woi^d, or is long in quantity, otherwise on the 
third : tno'-m^-e'-rimtf mo'-wurer^a'-mus^^ inrstau'-rchve'rvnt. 

Sentence, Subject, and Pbedicate. 

20. A Simple Sentence expresses a single thought : 

Deus mundum aedificfivit. God made (built) tJie world, 

21. Every Sentence consists of two distinct parts, ex- 
pressed or implied : 

1. The Subject, or that of which it speaks ; 

2. The Pbedicate, or that which is said of the subject : 

Regina laudatur. Ths queen is praised,* 

Note. — ^In Latin, both subject and predicate may be contained or im- 
plied in a single word, if that word ia a verb : 

Amat, h4 loves, Amant, they 2ootf.* 

22. The Subject of a sentence, if expressed, must be a 
noun or some word or words used as a noun : 

Regina laudatur. The queen is praised,^ 

28. The Predicate must be either a verb, or the copula 
sum — ^the verb to be — with a noun or adjective : 

Marcus laudator. Marcus is praised.* 

Marcus Mt poSta. Marcus is a poet. 

Marcus est doctna. Marcus is leaened. 

Note.— Here the predicates are land&tar, is prained, est po8C», is a 

poet, and est doetns, is learned. A noun used as po§ta u here used to 

' form the predicate, is called a Predicate Noun, and is said to be predicated or 

affirmed of the subject. Thus it is here affirmed of Marcus that he is a post. 

An a4jectiye thus used, doetns in the example, is called a Predicate Adjective. 

* In the EngHsh Method divide thus : mon'-u^'-runt^ mo9»-tt*e-ro'-m«u. 

* BSgtoa, ihe queen^ is the subject, and laudfttur, is praised^ the predicate. 

* The ending t in amtb-t shows that the subject is of the third person singtUar^ 
HB and the endinip nt in ama^ni tibcrm that it is of the third person plurtil. 

* Observe that the subject rCglna Is in antiqae type, and the corresponding 
Wnglish, TBS qvsxs, in small capital8. 

* The Latin predicates are in antique type, and the English in small capital8. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

24* In Latin, as in English, words are divided, accord- 
ing to their use, into eight classes, called Parts of Speech^ 
viz. : Nbuns^ Adjectives, Pronouns^ VerbSy Adverbs^ Prepo- 
sitionSy ConjmictionSy and Interjections} 

26* Nouns have Gender^ Number j Person^ and Cctse. 

I. Gender. 

26. There are three genders:* Masculine^ Feminine^ 
and Neuter. 

Note*— Id some nouns, Geitdeb is determined by SioHinoAnoir ; in 
others, hj ENDoras.* The Gender of nouns as determined by Sigvifioatiok 
may be ascertained by the foUowinji; Genebal Bulbs. 

27. General Rules fob Gendeb. 
I. Masculines: 

1. Names of Males : Oioerd ; vir, man ; riz, king. 

2. Names of Itivers, Winds, and Months : RliAmu, Rhine ; Notiu, 
south wind ; Mfirtiiu, March. 

XL Feminines: 

1. Names of Females: rnnlier, woman ; leaena, lioness. 

2. Names of Countries, Taums, Islands, and Trees: Qraeoia, 
Greece ; H5ma, Rome ; Ddloa, Delos ; plnui, pear-tree. 

II. Pebsok and Number.* 

28. The Latin, like the English, has three persons and 
two numbers. The first person denotes the speaker; the 
Becond, the person spoken to ; the third, the person spoken 
of. The singular number denotes one; the plural, more 
than one. 

> In general, the use of the Parts of Speech is the same in Latin as in English. 

3 In English, gender denotes sex. Accordingly, masculine nouns denote 
males ; feminine nouns, femalea ; and neuto: nouns, objects which are neither 
%naie nor female. In Latin, howerer, this natural distinction of gender is applied 
only to the names of m€ileB and female» ; while, in all other nouns, gender de- 
pends upon an artificial distinction, according to grammatical rules. 

* The gender of nouns as determined by bmdings will be given in connection 
with the several dedensions. « For Casks, see 88. 



NOUNS.— SINGULAR NUMBER. 9 

LESSON I. 

SUBJECT AND OBJECT,— SINGULAR NUMBER.^ 

28. Examine the following sentences and notice care- 
fully the EiirDiNGS of the words : 

1. Laudat. He praises, or praises, 

2. Poeta laudat The poet praises} 

3. Poeta reginam laudat. The poet praises the queen. 

4. Regina poetam laudat The queen praises the poet. 

In these examples observe — 

1) That the verb) laudat, ends in at' 

2) That the noun, poeta, regina, used as the subject of laudat, ends 
in a.* 

3) That the noun, poetam, reginam, used as the object of laudat, 
ends in am.' 

80. Vocabulary. 

NOUNS.— SINGULAR NUMBER. 
MOmNATIYE. AOCUBATTVB. 

corona, eoronam, 

epistnla, epistulam, 

fibnla, f&bulam, 

poeta, poetam, 

paella, puellam, 

regina, reginam, 

^ It is advised that the Introduction be used mainly tor reference, but t^tat 
such parts of it be learned from time to time as the interests of Uie class may 
require. For pronunciiUion the pupil must at first depend upon his teacher, but 
be will soon be able to profit by the rules contained in the Introduction. 

* As the Latin has no article, a noun may, according to the connection in 
which it is used, be translated (1) with the definite article the : as, poetcL, the 
poet ; (2) with the indefinite article a or a»; as, po^to, a poet ; (8) without the 
article: as, po^to, poet 

s This is a regular ending in the «tngular number of a large class of Latin 
Terbe. 

* This is a regular ending in the singular number of a large class of nouns 
when used as the mttifeet of a verb. The forms hi a are in the Nominative Ocxae. 

* This is a regufau: ending in the singular number of a laiKe chus of nouns 
wbem used as the object of a verb. The forms in am are in the Accusative Ckue. 

* The English words inserted In this column are either derived from the 
Latin, directly or indirectly, or are closely related to tt in origin, form, and 
meaning. They are here introduced partly to help the learner retain the form 



MEAfnNO. 


OKBITATTVBS.* 


wreath, garland, crown. 


croum. 


letter, epistle. 


episUe, 


story, tale, fable. 


fable. 


poet. 


poet. 


girl, maiden. 




queen. 





10 



SUBJECT AND OBJECT. 





VERBS. 




BBfaVljAR. 


MSANHia. 




amat, 


(he, she, it) loves.* 


am-iable. 


deleetat, 


(he, she, it) delights, pleases. 


delight. 


laudat, 


(he, she, it) praises. 


laud* 



81. Translate into English, 

1. Fabula pnellam delectat. 

2. Puella f abalam laudat. 

3. Po5ta puellam laudat 

4. Puella poetam laudat 

5. Puella reginam amat 

6. Begina puellam amat. 

7. Corona reginam delectat 

8. Begina coronam laudat 

9. Epistula poetam delectat 
10. Poeta epistulam laudat 

32. Translate into Latin. 

1. The girl praises the queen. 

2. The queen praises the girl. 

3. The story pleases the poet 

4. The poet praises the story. 
6. The wreath delights the girl. 

6. The girl praises the wreath. 

7. The letter delights the queen. 

8. The queen praises the letter. 

9. The queen praises the story. 
10. The story pleases the queen. 




Mead of a Roman empre»»^ 

€uiomed with a poviand 

of flowers. 




Civic crown of oak leaves.* 



and meaning of the corresponding Latin words, and partly to show him how 
closely our own language is related to the Latin, and how much it is Indebted to 
that language for its rich vocabulary. 

1 When amat has no subject expressed, It means he lovee^ the loves^ or ii 
loveBt but with a subject it means simply lovea : po€ta amat, the poet loTes ; see 
also above, laudaty he praises, and poSta laudat, the poet praises. 

* Other derivatives, more or leas closed oonnectad with these Latin words, 
are : eoronct-l, corone-t ; epistola-rj ; /a^u^ou8 ; poaMo ; ama-tory, omo-teur ; 
deligM-tvl, delectorhle ; lattdo-ble, lauda-tory. 

* The reward for saving the life of a Bonuui citizen. 



PLURAL NUMBER. 11 

LESSON II. 
StTBJSCT AND OBJECT,— PLURAL NUMBER, 

33. Examine the following sentences and notice care- 
fully the ENDINGS of the words : 

1. Laudant. They praise, or praise, 

2. Poetae laudant. The poets praise, 

8. Poetae reginas laudant. The poets pradse the queens. 

4 RSginae poetfis laudant. The queens praise the poets, 

. In these examples observe — 

1) That the yerb, laudant, ends in ant.^ 

2) That the noun, poetae, reginae, used as the subject of lauda/nt, 
ends in ae.* 

8) That the noun, poetfis, reginSs, used as the object of la/udant^ 
ends in Ss.* 

34. Vocabulary. 





NOUNS.-PLURAL NUMBER. 




KOMINATiyS. 


AOOUELAnVB. 


MKANINO. 


DEBITATIVK8. 


eordnae, 


eorSnfis, 


wreaths, garlands, crowns. 


erovm. 


epistnlae, 


epistulas, 


letters, epistles. 


epistle. 


fibulae, 


fi&bulas. 


stories, tales, fables. 


fable. 


poStae, 


poetas. 


poets. 


poet. 


puellae. 


puellas, 


girls, maidens. 




regpiBae, 


reginas. 


queens. 






VERBS—PLURAL NUMBER. 




amant. 




(they) love. 


om-iable. 


deleetanV 




(they) delight, please. 


delight. 


laudant, 




(they) praise. 


la^. 



> This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class of Latin yerbs. 

• This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class of nouns when used as 
the subject of a verb. The forms in ae are in the Nominatiwt Plural. Obsenre 
that the verb is plural when the subject is plural, as in English. 

* This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class Ckf nouns when used as 
the object of a verb. The forms in da are in the Accusative PhircU. 

^ Compare these three verbs with the corresponding forms in the singular 
number on page 10 and notice the difference in the endihgs, at, atU : 
am-at deldct-at laud-a( 

am-an^ dSlect-oni laud-atU. 



12 



SUBJECT AND OBJECT, 



36, Translate into English. 

1. Coronae reginfe dSlectant 

3. Reginae coronas laudatit. 

3. F&bulae puellas dilectanL 

i, Paellae f&bulae landant. 

5. Poetae puellits laudant. 

6. Puellae poetis landant 

7. Epistnlaa pnellas delectant 

8. FabuloG poetas delectant. 

9. Cordime reginam dClectant 

10. Regina corona» iaudat. 

11. Fabula pnella? delectat. 

12. Fabula« pnellam dClectant 

13. Paellae regmam amant 
11. Regina pnelias amat 

36. Translate into Latin. 

1. Tbe letters please tbe poeta. 

3. The poets praise the letters. 

3. Poets praise qneens. 

4. Queens praise poets. 

5. The garlands delight the girla. 

6. The girls praise the garlands. 

7. The girls praise the story. 

8. Poets praise the story. 

9. The story pleases the poets. 

10. The girls praise the qoeen. 

11. The qneen praises the girls. 
13. Poets praise the queen. 

13. The letter pleases the girl, 

14. The girl praises the letter. 




A wreaA of lavni leava or of gold, w 



n of gold mwited to t] 



soldier vho Drat scftled Uia 
a Uia KqduiD soldier vho flist boatded an 



NOUNS.— FIRST DECLENSION. 13 

37- In all previous examples and exercises observe — 

1. That the subjects are all in the Nominative case. 

2. That the objects are all in the Accusative case. 
These facts are illustrations of Latin usage as stated in 

the following rules : 

BUIaE III.--Sabject Nominative. 

The Subject of a finite verb^ is put in the Nominative. 

BUIiE v.— Direct Object. 

The Direct Object of an action is put in the Accusa- 
tive. 

LESSON III. 

KOUm.—FJRaT DECLENSION. 

38.. The Latin has six cases : 

NAMES. OBDINABT ENGLISH BQUIYALKNTB. 

Nominative, Nominative. 

Genitive, Possessive, or Objective with of. 

Dative, Objective with to or for. 

Accusative, Objective. 

Vocative, Nominative Independent. 

Ablative,* Objective with /rom, witt, by^ in. 

Note. — Locative. — The Latin has also a few remnants of another case, 
called the Locative, denoting the place in whioh. 

39. Declensions. — The process by which the several 
cases of a word are formed is called Declension. It consists 
in the addition of certain suffixes to one common base called 
the stem. In Latin there are five declensions. 

First Declension. — ^A Nouns. 

40. Most nouns of the first declension end in a, and 
are ferninine. They are declined as follows : 

> That is, of any part of the verb except the Infinitive. 

* Often with a preposition, liJce the Objective case in Rngliah. 



14 FIRST DECLENSION. 

Mensa, ttible. 
surauLAE. 

EZAMPLI. MKANmO. GABB-SHDIMO.* 

Norn, mensa, a tctble} a 

Gen, mensae, of a tahUy ae 

DaL mensae, fo, for a iahle, ae 

Ace, mensam, a table, am 

Voe, mensa, table, a 

Abl, mensft, with, by a table,* ft 

PLURAL. 

Nom, mensae, tables, ae 

Gen, mensftmm, of tables, ftront 

Dat, mensis, to, for tables, !• 

Ace. mensfts, tables, fts 

Voe, mensae, tables, ae 

Abl, mensis, with, by tables. Is 

1. Stem. — In nouns of the first declension, the stem ends in S. 

2. In the Paradigm, observe that the stem is mensa, and that the 
several cases are distinguished by their case-endings. 

3. Examples for Practice. — Like mSnsa decline : 

Ala, mng ; aqua, v}ater ; oausa, eatbse ; fortiina, fortune. 

4. Locative. — Names of towns and a very few other words have a 
Locative, ending in ae in the singular and in is in the plural : Romae, 
cU Rome ; AthSnXi, at Athens, See 88, note. 



LESSON IV. 

FIRST DECLENSIOK-^GENITIVE. 

41. Examine the following sentences and notice care- 
fully the ENDING and use of the Genitive : 

> MSnaa may be translated a table^ iaJble^ or the table. 

* These case-endings should be carefully studied and compared, as they will 
serve as a guide to the learner in distinguishing the different cases and in ascer- 
taining the meaning of words. Observe (1) that the Nominative and Vocative 
are alike, (2) that the Dative and Ablative plural are alike, and (3) that the Geni- 
tive and Dative singular and the Nominative and Vocative plural are all alilre. 

s The Ablative, used sometimes with a preposition and sometimes without, is 
variously rendered, but in the paradigms it is thought best to give only one or 
two meanings, as the appropriate rendering depends largely on the context. 



y^L 



GENITIVE. 



15 



1. Poeta filiam regXnae laudat. The poet prcMes ike daughter of 

THE QUEEN. 

2. Regina filiam poStae laudat. Tlie queen praises the daughter of 

THE POET.* 

Observe that the Genitive in each of these sentences shows whose 
daughter is meant: fxUam rdglnae, the daughter of the queen; 
filiam po§tae, the daughter of the poet. It is said to qualify or 
limit fUiam. It simply answers the question, whose t The genitives 
in the following exercise are all used in this way. 



KOMINATIVB. 



42. Vocabulary. 

GKNinVE.* MKANINO.* 



DBS1VAT1VB8. 



agricola. 


agricolae, m.* farmer, husbandman. 




diligentia, diligentiae, /. diligence, industry. 


diligence. 


niia. 


flliae, /. daughter.» 


filiaA» 


nanta. 


nautae, m. sailor, mariner. 


nauti-QsX, 


patria. 


patriae, /. one's country, native land. 

PROPER NAMES. 


patriaA, 


Cornelia, 


Comeliae, /. Cornelia. 


Cornelia, 


irilia,** 


Inliae, /. Julia. 


Julia, 


Tnllia, 


Tnlliae, /. Tullia. 


Tullia. 


TIctoria, 


TIctoriae, /. Victoria.' 

VERBS. 


Victoria, 


ambnlat,^ 


(he, she, it) walks or is walking. 


ambula-toij. 


ambulant, 


(they) walk or are walking. 




cantat, 


(he, she, it) sings or is singing. 


canto. 


cantant. 


(they) sing or are singing. 





1 Observe that the Qenitives are in bold-faced type and the corresponding 
English in small capitals. 

' In the Yocabularies the Nominative and Genitive Singular of nouns are 
given. All the other cases in both numbers are readily formed from these. 

* Observe that the words given in the colmnn of derivatives are never to be 
used as definitions^ unless they also stand in the column of meanings. Thus, 
diligence is at once a definition and a derivative. It accordingly stands in both 
columns. FUiai, nautical^ and patricU are only derivatives and not definitions. 

* Gender is indicated by m. for masculine^ /. for feminine^ n. for neuter. 

* We here treat fllia as entirely regular in declension, taking no accoimt of 
an irr^^ular form sometimes used in tlie dative and ablative plural. 

* I in lulia is a consonant with the sound of y ; see 1 and 9. 

' Observe that all the nouns that have occurred in the vocabularies, with two 
exceptions, are of the feminine gender according to 40. The two exceptions, 
agricola and nauta^ are masctUine because they denote males: /armer^ tailor. 
The names of maXes are regularly masculine ; see 27. 

' Observe that the forms in at are singular, those in ant pluraL 




16 FIRST DECLENSION. 

43. Translate into English. 

1. Filia reginae cantat. 

2. Filia Corneliae cantat. 

3. Filia nautae ambulat. 

4. Filia agricolae ambulat. 

5. lulia filiam Yictoriae amat. 

6. Filia rcginae luliam amat. 

7. lulia filias reginae laudat. 

8. Victoria filiam Corneliae amat. 

9. Filia nautae TuUiam amat. Bead of AntoninvA, 

10. Flliae nautarum TuUiam amant. "^^ tHumphai crown. 

11. Cornelia filias nautarum amat. 

12. Begina diligentiam TuUiae laudat. 

13. Begina patriam ^ laudat. 

14. Agricolae patriam * amant. 

15. Flliae poetarum cantant. 

16. Flliae agricolarum ambulant. 

44. Translate into Latin. 

1. The daughter of Tullia is walking. 

2. The daughter of the queen is walking. 

3. The daughter of the poet is singing. 

4. The letter delights the daughter of the farmer. 

5. The letters delight the daughters of the sailor. 

6. The daughters of the poet are singing. 

7. The daughters of the farmer are walking. 

8. The stories please the daughters of the farmers. 

9. Cornelia praises the diligence of the farmer. 

10. The poet praises the diligence of the farmers. 

11. Tullia praises the diligence of Julia. 

12. Julia praises the diligence of Cornelia. 

13. Cornelia loves Acr* native land. 

14. The daughters of Cornelia love their* native land. 

X Render her country, their country. In Latin the ppsaesBive pronouns, 
meaning: his, her, their, when not emphatic, are often omitted. 
• Omit in translating Into Latin ; see foot-note 1. 



FIRST DECLENSION.— APPOSITION. 17 

LESSON V. 

FIRST DECLENSION,— APPOSITION. 

45. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Poeta Victoriam regXnam lau- 2'7ie poet praises Victoria tce 

dat. QUEEN. 

2. Victoria reglna laudatur. Victoria the queen is praised, 

A noun qualifying another noun denoting the same person or thing 
is called an appositive, and is always in the same case as the noun 
which it qualifies.* 

46. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Quia regnat f Who reigns or is reigning f 

2. Tullia non regnat. Tullia is not reigning, 

3. N5n-ne Tullia regnat f Is not Tullia reigning f 

4. N5ii-ne Tullia cantat f Does not Tullia sing f 

In these examples observe — 

1) The effect of the interrogative words, quia, who f and nSn-ne, 
not f ' 

2) That the Latin nOn, in the second example, stands before the 
verb regnat, while in the English the two parts of the verb, is reign- 
ing, are separated and the negative not stands between them. 

3) That in the English of the third and of the fourth example, not 
only the negative but also the subject Tullia stands between the two 
parts of the verbs, is , , , , reigning and does .... sing : is not tullia 
reigning f does not tullia sing f 

Note 1* — ^In English we may say * he loves,' * he is loving' or * he does 
lovo,' but each of these expressions must be rendered into Latin by the single 
word amat; so in the plural, * they love,' * they are loving,' or * they do love,' 
must be rendered by amaivt. So also in other verbs. Thus, *he protses,' 

* be is prying,' * he does praise,' lattdat ; * they praise,' * they are praising,' 

* they do praise,' laudant ; * he pleases,' * he is pleasing,' * he does please,' 
diUdai; Hhey please,' ^they are pleasing,' Uhey do please,' ddectant. In 
writing Latin the learner must constantly bear in mind this peculiarity of the 
English. 

1 Thus in the first example the Appositive is in the Accusative because it 
qualifies an Aoctdsative, Victoriam,^ and in the second in the Nominative be-^ 
cause it qualifies a NomNATivs, Vlctdria. 

s Observe that n&n-ne is formed by appending -ne to n6n. The particle -ne 
simply changes n^n, not, to a question : nOnriie t not ? 

2 



18 FIRST DECLENSION. 





47. Vocabulary. 








PROPER NAMES. 




Amelia,* 


Ameliae, /. 


Amelia. 


Amelia.^ 


L&Tinia, 


LaTtniae, /. 


Ijavinia. 


Lavinia. 


Oraecia, 


Graeciae, /. 


Greece. 


Greece, 


Italia, 


Italiae, /. 


Italy. 

VERBS. 


Italy, 


exspectat, 


(he, she, it) expects, waits for.' 


expect. 


exspectant, 


(they) expect, wait for.* 


M 






ADVERBS. 




non, 




not. 




non-ne, 




not?» 




nunc, 




now. 




gaepe. 




often, frequently. 




semper, 




always, ever, forever. 






INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 




onls, 




whof* 





48, Translate into English 

1. Quis luliam laudat. 

2. Poeta luliam f iliam ^ laudat. 

3. Non-ne Victoria filias^ amat?' 

4. Victoria regina f ilias amat. 

5. Quis reginam saepe laudat ? 

6. Poeta Victoriam reginam semper laudat 

7. Victoria regina poetas laudat. 

8. Epistulae Victoriam reginam delectant. 

9. Non-ne fabula luliam saepe delectat? 

10. Fabula luliam, filiam poetae, semper delectat. 

11. lulia, filia poetae, epistulam exspectat. 

12. Quis Graeciam semper laudat? 

13. lulia, filia poetae, Graeciam semper laudat. 

1 It is not deemed necessary longer to retain the headings NOUiNATrvB, obnx- 

TIVB, MBANINO, DBRIVATIVB8. 

' Or, * he is expecting, is waiting for ^ ; * they are expecting, are waiting for.' 

* See foot-note 2, page 17. 

* Qy.iB is in the Nominative Singular Masculine, and is used like the English 
wko. * Filiam.^ his daughter ; fUias^ her daughters : see foot-note to 48, 1& 

* For ^e rendering of questions with ndn-ne^ see 49, 8 and 4. 



APPOSITION. 19 

'14. lulia, filia poetae, Graeciam patriam poetarum semper 
laudat. 

15. Quia diligentiam agricolae nunc laudat ? 

16. Poetae diligentiam agricolarum saepe laudant. 

49. Translate into Latin. 

1. Does not the poet love his^ daughter?* 

2. The poet loves his daughter Julia. 

3. Does not the queen love her* daughter?* 

4. The queen loves her daughter Lavinia. 

6. Does not the queen love her daughter Tullia? 

6. She loves her daughter Tullia. 

7. The farmer is always praising his daughter Amelia.* 

8. Cornelia loves Italy, her native land. 

9. Who is always praising the story ? 

10. Julia, the daughter of the poet, is always praising the 
story. 

11. The garland delights Julia, the daughter of the poet. 

12. Does not the story please the daughter of the farmer? 

13. Stories always please the daughters of the farmer. 

14. Is not Tullia now expecting a letter?* 

15. Tullia, the daughter of the queen, is not expecting a 
letter. 

LESSON VI. 

FIRST DECLEKS10N.^BEVIEW.^CERTA1N FORMS OF VERBS. 

60. By comparing the examples under 41 with the 
examples under 45, and by observing the Appositives and 
Genitives in the exercises, we discover that a noun which 
qualifies or limits another noun is put — 

> In translating into Latin, omit for the present the poBsessives hia^ her^ their ^ 
etc.; aee foot-note to 44, 13. 

* Remember that the two words does love, though here separated, are ren- 
dered Into Latin by the single word amaf , and that is praising is rendered by 
laudat and is expecting by exspectat ; see 46, Note 1. 



20 FIRST DECLENSION. 

1. In the SAME CASE as that noun if it denotes the same 
person or thing. 

2. In the Genitive if it denotes a different person or 
thing. 

61. These facts are illustrations of Latin usage, as stated 
in the following rules : 

BUUB n.— AppositiTes. 

An Appositive agrees in Case with the noun or pro- 
noun which it qualifies. 

BUIaE XVI.— Genittve with Noniuu 

Any noun, not an appositive, qualifying the meaning 
of another noun, is put in the Genitive. 

Note*— Point out in the Latin sentences in the preceding lesson three or 
more ApposUivea and three or more Genitivet, 

62. Vocabulary. 

VERBS. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 


PASSIVE VOICE. 


amat, (he) * loves ; * 


amatnr, 


(he) is loved. 


amant, (they) love ; 


amantur, 


(they) are loved. 


delectat, (he) pleases ; ' 


delectatnr, 


(he) is pleased. 


delectant, (they) please ; 


delectantnr, 


(they) are pleased. 


exspectat, (he) expects ; * 


exspectatnr, 


(he) is expected. 


exspectant, (they) expect ; 


exspectantur, 


(they) are expected 


landat, (he) praises ; 


landatitr, 


(he) is praised. 


landant, (they) praise ; 


landantnr, 


(they) are praised. 



In the Latin of this vocabulary compare the passive forms with 
the activCf and observe that they may be obtained by simply adding 
ur to the active. Thus : 

1 In the English, the subject of any of these verbs in the singular may be 
he, she, or it, according as the sense requires. 

s In the English the verb in the active voice may take any one of the three 
forms mentioned in 46, Note 1, for each number, singular and plural : amat, ' he 
loves/ ' is loving,^ or * does love ' ; amant, ' they love,' * are loving,' or * do love.' 
So in each of the other verbs. 

* Pleafiea or delights, as in previous vocabulary ; see SO. 

« Expects, aioaits, or waits for ; see 47. 



CERTAIN FORMS OF VERBS. 21 

amat, amat-nr. exspectat, exspectfit-nr. 

amant, amant-ur. exspectant, exspectant 



delectat, delectat-nr. laudat, laudat-i 

delectant, delectant-ur. laudant, laudant-nr. 

Note 1* — In the English— 'w loving^ and 'if loved,^ ''are loving'' and 
^are hved^ — note carefully the differenoe in MSANiiro, and be not misled by 
the resembfanoe in form. ^ Be is loving^ and ^they are loving^ are active 
forms to be rendered by amat and amant^ while *■ he is loved ' and * thejf are 
loved'' are passive forms to be rendered by atndtur and iunantur, 

63. Translate into English, 

1. Qais saepe laudatur? 

2. Poeta semper laudatur. 

3. Poetae semper laudantur. 

4. lulia, filia poetae, semper laudatur. 

5. Non-ne reginae saepe laudantur. 
G. Victoria regina semper laudatur. 

7. Quia exspeetatur? Poeta exspectatur. 

8. Non-ne TuUia exspectatur? Exspectatur. 

9. Non-ne epistulae exspectantur? Exspectantur. 

10. Non-ne nauta delectatur? Non delectatur. 

11. Non-ne nautae amantur ? Non amantur. 

12. Quis delectatur? Tullia, filia reginae, semper de- 
lectatur. 

13. Quis agricolam nunc laudat? Agricola saepe laudatur. 

14. Quis nautam amat? Nauta non amatur. Nautae non 
semper amantur. 

15. Non-ne epistulas exspectant? Epistulae exspectantur. 

16. Non-ne lulia amatur? Tullia luliam filiam poetae 
amat. 

54. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who is always pleased ? 

2. Julia, the daughter of the poet, is always pleased. 

3. Who is always praised ? 

4. The daughter of the queen is often praised. 



22 NOUNS.— SECOND DECLENSION. 

6. Is not the poet expected ? He is expected. 

6. Are not the daughters of the poet expected ? They are 
expected. 

7. Who now praises Greece, the native land of poets ? 

8. Greece, the native land of poets, is often praised. 

9. Does not the garland delight the daughtef of the 
sailor ? 

10. The daughter of the sailor is delighted. 

11. Who is now praising .the diligence of the girls ? 

12. The diligence of the girls is often praised. 

13. The letter delights the daughter of the queen. 

14. The daughter of the queen is delighted. 

15. The stories delight the daughters of the queen. 

16. The daughters of the queen are delighted. 



LESSON VII. 

N0Um.—8EG0ND DECLEMION. 

66. Most nouns of the second declension end in er, ir, 
us, and uxn. Those in er, ir, and lu are masculine, and 
those in um are neuter. 

Note. — ^For tliis lesson, learn only the declension of domlnns. 

IN'ouns in us and um are declined as follows : 
Dominus, master, Templum, temple, 

SIXOULAR. CA8E-ENDIK08.> 

Nom, dominns templunt ns nm 

Oen, domini templl I I 

Dat, dominO templO A A 

Ace, dominnm templunt um nm 

Voe, domine templunt e um 

Ahl, dominO templO O O 

I ^ I ■ ■ ■.! I ■■ M ■_!!_ ■■ I LI ■ I _l ■ _ 

1 Notice carefully the Caae-Endinga. Those in the first column are the regu- 
lar endings of all nouns in us of this declension ; those.tn the second column, of 
all nouns in um. 



Ifom. domiiil templa I a 

6 en. doniinOx^un tempi Omm Snun j>nuH 

Dal. dominl* templlB Is la 

Ace. dominOs tempin As n 

Voc. domini tempi a I a 

AH. do mi His templl* I» is 

Note 1. — The ablative of nouns deooting persons U goneraUy used with 
a preposition : B dominB, £y or /rom a master ; cum domlnO, with a 

eaniog of dominns in Uie diObrent coaea, udug 





66. VOCABULAEY. 




amloDB, I, TO.' 


friend. 


OTOt^-able. 


domlnns, I, to. 


master, owner. 


domin-ioa. 


ladns, I, m. 


game. play. 




medlena, i, m. 


physician. 


medit-^X. 


Berrns, I, m. 


slave, servant. 

PROPER NAMES. 


«ero-ant. 


Albertug, I. »t. 


Albert. 


AUiH. 


MirCMS, I, m. 


Marcus. 


Marai^. 


Phidippns, i, TO. 


Phidippus. 


Fhidippu». 


Tltas, I, m. 


Titus. 


Tifwi. 



24 SECOND DECLENSION. 

VERBS. 

▲CrrVB. PASSIVB. dbbiyativs. 

accnsat, (he) accuses ; accusatur, (he) is accused. acciise, 

accusant, (they) accuse ; accnsantnr, (they) are accused. 

67. Translate into English. 

1. Quis Titum agricolam amat? 

2. Albertus Titum amicum amat. 

3. Kon-ne servus dominum amat ? 

4. Servi dominum saepe amant. 

5. Quis medicum nunc exspectat ? 

6. Titus agricola medicum exspectat. 

7. Albertus medicus exspectatur. 

8. Medici reginae exspectantur. 

9. Medici reginae exspectant epistulas. 

10. Filiae medici exspectant amicos. 

11. Quis Phidippum servum accusat? 

12. Servi Alberti Phidippum accusant. 

13. Servi saepe accusantur. 

14. Non-ne servus Alberti medici^ accusatur? 

15. Servus Alberti non accusatur. 

68. Translate into Latin. 

1. Does not the game delight the girl ? 

2. Games often delight girls. 

3. Does not Titus often praise his servants ? 

4. Titus is always praising the diligence of his servants. 

5. The diligence of servants is not always praised. 

6. Is not Marcus expecting friends? 

7. Marcus is expecting his friend Titus. 

8. The friends of Cornelia are now expected. 

9. Who now expects letters? 

10. The friends of Tullia expect letters. 



> The learner will observe that Alberti and medici are in the Genitive for 
different reasons : Alberti because it limits servus denoting a different person 
according to 60, Rule XVI ; but medici because it is an Appositive to another 
Chnitive^ viz., Albertiy according to 60, Rule 11. 



INDIRECT OBJECT. 25 

11. The letter of the physician delights Titus. 

12. Who praises the daughter of the physician? 

13. The queen praises the daughters of Albert, the physician. 

14. The daughters of the physician are often praised. 



LESSON VIII. 

SECOND DECLENSION.^NOUNS IN mi,— INDIRECT OBJECT. 

—DATIVE. 

Note.— For this lesson learn the declension of temfiliiiii, and compare 
it carefully with cJomlmm ^ ; see 66, Lesson VII. 

69. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Titiis medioO uvam dat Tittts gives a cluster of grapes to 

THE PHYSICIAN. 

2. Ova medic5 datur. A cluster of grapes is given to 

THE PHYSICIAN. 

In these examples observe — 

1) That medio5 designates the person to whom the grapes are 
given. A word thus used to designate the person to or for whom 
anything is done is called an Indirect Object, and is always in the 
Dative. 

2) That the verb dat takes the Direct Object fivam and the Indi- 
rect Object medio5. 

3) That the passive verb datur retains the Indirect Object medicO. 
Prom these and similar facts is derived the following rule : 

RULE XIL— Dative with Verbs. 

The Indirect Object of an action is put in the Dative. 



* 


60. Vocabulary. 




donnm, i, n. 


gift, present. 


dow-ation. 


oppidnm, f, n. 


town, city. 




pericninm, i, n. 


danger, peril. 


peril. 


piram, i, n. 


pear. 


pear. 


praeiniam, il, n. 


reward, premium, prize. 


premium. 



» You will observe— 

1. That in the Nominati7e, Accusative, and Vocative, templwn ends in um in 
the singular and in a ia the plural. 

2. That in the other cases it is declined precisely like dominits. 



26 SECOND DECLENSION. 

templam, T, n. temple. temple, 

incola, ae, /. inhabitant. 

via, ae, /. way, road, street toay,^ 

VERBS. 

dat, (he) 'gives; datar, (it) ' is given. 

dant, (they) give ; dantar, (they) are given. 

monstrat, (he) shows, points out ; monstratnr, (he) is shown. 
monstrant, (they) show, point out ; mdnstrantnr, (they) are shown.' 
Titat, (he) avoids, shuns ; vltatar, (he) is avoided.* 

vitant, (they) avoid, shun ; yitantiir, (they) are avoided.* 

61. Translate into English. 

1. Quis Marco praemium dat? 

2. Eegina Marco praemia dat. 

3. Ecgiua Alberto medico praemium dat. 

4. Non-ne Tito praemium datur? 

5. Tito praemia saepe dantur. 

6. Non-ne Titus agricola servo donum dat ? 

7. Titus servis dona saepe dat. 

8. Dona servis saepe dantur. 

9. Quis Marco viam monstrat? 

10. Servus Titi Marco viam monstrat. 

11. Servus domino viam monstrat. 

12. Servi dominis viam saepe mSnstrant. 

13. Titus agricola perTculum semper vitat. 

14. Nautae pericula non semper vitant. 

15. Pericula non semper vitantur. 

16. Non-ne Titus agricola puellae pirum dat? 

17. Agricolae puellis pira saepe dant. 

18. Dona puellas delectant. 

19. Templum incolas oppidi dClectat. 

20. Incolae oppidi saepe delectantur. 

> Latin, via, pronounced toea, English way. 

* Remember Uiat the subject in English is to be Ae, ahe^ or tf , as the sense 
shall require. 

> Or is pointed ouf , are pointed out. The passive of course admits of mean- 
ings corresponding to all those found in the active, though for want of room only 
one is here given. *0t ia shunned^ are sliunn^ 



PREDICATE NOMINATIVE. 27 

62. Translate into Latin, 

1. Who gives a present to Titus? 

2. Marcus gives a present to his friend Titus. 

3. Who gives pears to the slaves? 

4. Tullia often gives pears to the slaves. 

5. Does not the gift delight the slaves? 

6. Gifts always delight slaves. 

7. The poet gives a present to his friend Marcus. 

8. Does not the queen give presents to her friends ? 

9. Queens often give presents to their friends. 

10. Are not presents often given to the poet? 

1 1. Presents are often given to poets. 

12. Julia is pointing out the road to her friend Marcus. 

13. Danger is not always avoided. 

14. The inhabitants of the town praise the temple. 

15. The temple is often praised. 



LESSON IX. 

NOUNS IN A, US, AND UM, CONTINUED^—PItEDICATE 
NOMINATIVE,— PREPOSITION IN. 

63« Examine the following sentences : 

1. Marcus poeta laudatur. Marcus the poet is praised, 

2. Marcus est po^ta. Marcus is a poet. 

In the first example, poSta is an Appositive ; see 50, Rule II. In 
the second example, however, po^ta is a Predicate Noun, and is said 
to be predicated or affirmed of marcua ; see 23.' Observe that it is in 
the same case as llSSrciui, i. e., in the Nominative, This usage is ex- 
pressed in the following rule : 

BUIjE I.— Predicate Nomuk 

A noun predicated of another noun denoting the same 
person or thing agrees with it in Case. 

> For a clearer understandiniir of Predicate Nouns^ the pupil is advised to 
road very carefully section 83, with the note, in the introduction. 



8 SECOND DECLENSION. 

64. Examine the following sentences : 



■ -'" the queen f 
Cornelia f 







amples the prepo- 






illnwed by ike ab- 






tbat tke ablaih'e 






anpomtion ia used 






!lf like the J'njr- 






liahObjeeliveCaKa 






with the prepo- 






sition in to an- 






1 awer the ques- 






tion WBEREt I.I 




66. VoCAltLLAIiY. 


WHAT PLACE 1 


fiindns, i. m. 


farm, estate. 


fund. 


hortas, T, m. 


garden, grounU. 


Aw/i-culture. 


malam, i, «. 


apple. 




stataa,ae,/. 


statue. 
PROPER NAMES. 


alalue. 


Henrlcns. I, m. 


Henry. 


Henry. 


eicardaa, I, m. 


Richard. 


Richard. 


Epropa. ae,/. 


Europe. 


Europe. 


Virginia, ae,/. 


Virginia. 


Virginia. 


nbf, adv. 


where! 




et, cony. 


and. 




In, prep, vnlh abl. 


it). 

VERBS. 


in. 


habet, 


(he, she, it) has, holds. 




habent, 


(they) Lave, hold. 




est. 


(he, she, it) is. 




smnt. 


(they) are. 





PREDICATE NOMINATIVE. 29 

66. Translate into English. 

1. Quis est Mtlrous? Marcus est poeta. 

2. Ubi est poeta? Poeta Marcus est in EurOpft. 

3. Non-ne Victoria est regina? Eat regina. 

4. Ubi est Cornelia? Cornelia in Graecia est. 

5. Quis est medicuB? PhldippuB eat raedicus. 

6. Non-ne Phidippae est senrus? Phidippus est medicus 
et servus. 

7. Ubi est medicuB? Phidippus medicus est in oppido. 

8. Ubi sunt statuae ? Statuae in templis sunt. 

9. Non-ne lulia est f ilia poctae ? Est f ilia poetae. 

10. Ubi est lulia? lulia filia poetae in Eurdpa est. 

11. Ubi est Ricardua? In horto est. 

12. Quia puelliB mala dat? RicarduB puellia m^la et pira 
dat. 

13. Pira el 

14. Ubi eB 

15. Quis e 
domim 

67. IVc 

1. Is not 

friend 

He is 

friend 

TituB. 
3. Who 

is the 

Cian ? 0™4 rtatue.i 

Albert is the physician. 
3. Is not Tullia the daughter of the queen? She is the 
daughter of the queen. 



30 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



4. Who is the poet ? The poet is Marcus. 
6. Are there not temples in Greece? There are temples 
in Greece and in Italy. 

6. Who is Titus ? Titus is a farmer. 

7. Is not Italy the native land of poets? Greece is the 
native land of poets. 

8. Where is TuUia? TuUia, the daughter of the queen, is 
in Italy. 

9. Where are the girls? They are in the garden. 

10. Is not Eichard in the garden? He is in the garden. 
He is giving pears to the girls. 

11. Where is Julia's estate? It is in Italy. 

12. Who has an estate in Virginia? Bichard has a farm in 
Virginia. 

13. Where is Henry ? He is now in Virginia. 



LESSON X. 

A PIALOQUE.-RICHARD AND HENEY. 



68. Vocabulary. 



colloqaiam, il,^ n. 


dialogue, conversation. 


coHoqui'^X. 


con-discipnlns, i, m. 


school-mate.* 




Insula, ae» /. 


island. 


irmUa-r. 


tTcus, 1, m. 


village, ward. 

PROPER NAMES. 




Aetna, ae, /. 


^«tna, Mount ^tna. 


JStna. 


Corinthns, i, /• 


Corinth. 


CortntK 


R5ma, ae, /. 


Rome. 


Home, 


Sicilia, ae, /. 


Sicily. 


Sicilp» 


Testa, ae, /. 


Vesta, goddess of the 
Roman hOutehold. 


Vesta. 


eerte, adv. 


certainly, surely. 


ccrf-ainly. 



1 The Genitive ends in il : coUoqttH. 

* Discipulua meang * a pupil/ * learner,^ and con-ditcipvUus^ * a fellow«pupil,* 
' a school-mate/ 



A DIALOGUa 31 

69. Colloquium. 
RicAKDUS BT HEKsicua, condiscipulL 
Bicardas. — TJbi est Italia? 
Henricus. — Italia in Eurdpa est. 
It — Non-ne incolae Italiae habent oppida? 
H. — Oppida et vicSa habent. Eoma in Italia est, 
E. — N6n-ne habent f undds ? 
H. — Habent fundds et hortos. 
B. — Non-ne sunt templa in oppidis? 

H. — Certe. Sunt templa in oppidis et in templla statuae. 
Templum Vestae saepe laudatur. 



Temple of Vetta at Eome.' 

R. — Non-ne Ifllia in Itali& f undnm habet ? 

H. — Certe. lulia et Cornelia fundoe in Italia habent 

B.— TJbi est Sicilia? 

H. — In Enr&pfi eat. Sicilia est ineula. In Sicilifi est Aetna. 

B. — Ubi est Oraecia ? 

■ Taken b; permlwlon from LiBdMri*» Anoknt Bonw. 



82 SECOND DECLENSION. 

H. — Graecia est in Europa. Graecia est patria poetarum. 

Incolae Graeciae sunt poctae et agricolae et nautae. 
R. — Non-ne sunt oppida in Graecia? 
H. — Certe sunt oppida et vicT in Graecia. 
R. — XJbi est Corinthus? 
H. — Corinthus est in Graecia. 

70. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Ubi est Eoma? 2. Ubi est fundus luliae? 3. Non- 
ne incolae Graeciae habent oppida? 4. Non-ne sunt templa 
in Graecia? 6. Ubi sunt statuae? 6. N"6n-ne in Italia 
sunt oppida ? ^ 

LESSON XI. 

ADJECTIVES IN US,. IN A, AND IN UM. 

71. We have now learned the declension and use of 
three important classes of nouns : 

1. Nouns in U8, generally masculine* 

2. Nouns in a, generally feminine, 

3. Nouns in um, always neuter. 

72. Corresponding to these three classes of nouns are 
three forms of adjectives : 

1. A masculine form in us, used only with masculine 
nouns. 

2. A feminine form in a, used only with feminine 
nouns. 

3. \A neuter form in um, used only with neuter nouns. 

Thus the three forms, mSgntui, mSsna, magntun, all mean greats 
large, liut mSgnus can be used only with masculine nouns, mSgua 
with feminine nouns, and mfignum with neuter nouns : mfignus nu- 
menu, a large tvumber; migna oorOna, a large crown; magnum 
oppidum, a large toum. 



ADJECTIVES m US, IN A, AND IN VM. 83 

73. Theae adjectives are declined precisely like nouns 
of the same endings. Thus — 

1. Bonus, good, h declined through all the cases of both 
numbers like dominus. Decline it in full. 

2. Bona, good, is declined like menm. Decline it in 
full. 

3. Bonum, good, is declined like templum. Decline it 
in full. 



Temple of Saturn, tke Ood a/ AgricuUun and (Hvilixation.' 

Decline together the following nouns ftnd adjectives : 
1. domlniu bomifl, the good master; 2. rCglna t>Dua, llie good 
gaeen; 8. oppidvm mSgunm, the large toum; 4. modloiu dootiu, 
the learned phytitian; 6. apUttila longa, a long UlUr; 6. t«i>q)lam 
nBgirificuni, a magnifieerit len^le. 

le bead of Satuin, see Plate IT, 18. For 



u 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



74. Examine the following examples : 

1. ServuB bonus. A good slave. 



2. ServuB est bonus. 
8. Servi boni. 

4. Servi sunt bonl. 

5. Servis bonis. 

6. Regina est bona. 

7. Oppida sunt mSgna. 



T?ie slave is good. 
Good slaves. 
The slaves are good. 
For good slaves. 
The queen is good. 
The toums are large. 



In these examples, observe that the adjectives are all in the same 
Gender, Number, and Case as their nouns. This usage is expressed in 
the following 

BUIiE XZXiy.— Agreement of A^JeettToa. 

An adjective agrees with its noun in gbnder, number, 
and OASE. 

76. VOCABULABY. 



anrens, anrea, anrenm, 


golden, of gold. 




beatas, beata, beatnm, 


happy. 


beai'itude. 


bonus, bona, bonnm, 


good. 




darns, clara, clirnm, 


illustrious, famous. 




doctns, docta, doctnm, 


learned. 


doctor. 


fidns, fida, fldnm, 


faithful, trustworthy. 


fid^Wtj, 


Ignarns, Ignara, Ignimm, 


indolent, idle, lazy. 




longns, longa, lonf^nm, 


long. 


long. 


magrniflcns, magniflca, 






mftgniflcnm, 


magnificent, splendid. 


rrMgnifle-enU 


magnns, magrna, magnum. 


great, large. 


mo^rn-itude. 


mens, mea, menm,* 


my, mine. 




maltns, mnlta, mnltnm. 


much, many. 


muZMtude. 


tuns, tna, tnnm. 


your, yours, thy, thine. 





76. Translate into English, 

1. Quis tuum amicum laudat? 

2. Begina bona meum amicum laudai 

3. Quis est tuus amicus? Marcus est mens amicus. 

4. Non-ne amici tui sunt fidi? Mei amici semper sunt 
fidL 



1 The Vocative Singular masculine is mi. 



ADJECTIVES IN US, IN A, AND IN UM. 35 

5. TuUia multds amicos habet. 

6. Quis epistulas exspectat? lulia epistulam longam 
exspectat. 

7. Epistula longa medicum doctum delectat. 

8. ISTon-ne tua corona est aurea? Mea corona non est 
aurea. 

9. Non-ne medicus est clarus ? Est clarus. 

10. Medicus doctus praemium magnum exspectat. 

11. Non-ne oppidum est magnum? Est magnum. 

12. Non-ne templa sunt magnifica? Sunt magnifica. 

13. Quis est beatus ? Filia poetae est beata. 

14. Quis est ignavus? Mens servus est ignavus. 

15. Bonae puellae semper sunt beatae. 

77. Translate into Latin. 

1. Are your servants faithful? My servants are faithful. 

2. Are not the towns large? They are large. 

3. Have not the towns large temples? The large towns 
have magnificent temples. 

4. Who is a good master? Titus, the farmer, is a good 
master. 

5. Who is expecting a large present? Julia is expecting 
large presents. 

6. Your friend, the poet, is expecting a large reward. 

7. Large rewards are often expected. 

8. The farmer gives many pears to your servants. 

9. In the large towns are many statues. 

10. Where are the large temples? They are in the large 
towns. 

11. Are not your servants idle? They are often idle. 

12. The inhabitants of the town are always praising the 
good queen. 

13. The good queen gives many presents to the inhabitants 
of the town. 



86 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



LESSON XII. 

SECOND DECLEmiON.-WOnDS IN JSBL AND m.- 

PBEPOSITIONS. 

78. Nouns in er and ir of the second declension are 
declined as follows : 



Note l.-'Obsenre that the oate-endings are the same as in nouns in 
UB (55), but that the encUngs ue and 4 are wanting in the nominative and 
vocative singular. 

Note 8.— Note oarefhlly the difference in declension between puer and 
ag«r^ Most nouns in er are declined like ager, 

79. As some masculine nouns of this declension end in 
er, so some adjectives have a masculine form in er, while 
the feminine ends in a and the neuter in tun, as in bonus : 
liber, Ifbera, Uberum, free. 

Decline in full, Uber like puer ; libera like mema ; and Kberom 
like templum» The declension will be given in full on page 47. 

Decline together puer Uber, a free boy ; rSglna miaera, the un- 
happy queen ; and oppidum Ubemm, a free town. 

> For this lesson leani puer and Wr, and observe wherein thejr differ in 
declension from dominua. 



Puer, hoy» 


Vir, man* 


Ager, field. 






SINGULAE. 




GASB-KNDtMOS. 


puer 


vir* 


ager 




puerl 


virl 


agrt 


1 


puerU 


vir* 


agr« 


« 


puenmi 


vinam 


agnmi 


ttm 


puer 


vir 


ager 




puer6 


vir6 

PLURAL. 


agre 


e 


puerl 


virl 


agrl 


1 


puer6ruii& 


virftnuit 


agr6nui& 


6riim 


puerle 


virl» 


agrls 


le 


puer6e 


vir6e 


agrUe 


«e 


puerl 


virl 


agrl 


I 


puene 


virle 


agne 


le 



PREPOSITIONS. 37 

80. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Begina S (ab) poeta laudStur. T?ie queen is praised bt the poet, 

2. Regina in horto est. The queen is in the garden, 

3. Begina oum Tullia est. Th^ queen is with Tullia. 

Observe that a, ab, in, and onm are prepositions, and that they 
are here all followed by the ablative. Prepositions are often thus 
used with the ablative, very much as prepositions are used with the 
objective case in English. Observe also — 

1. That the ablative with S or ab answers the question, by whom f 

2. That the ablative with in answers the question, where f in 
what place f 

8. That the ablative with oum answers the question, with whom f 

81. VOCABULAEY. 

gener. generi, m, 
pner, pneri, m. 
Bocer, socerl, m, 
Tir, Tirl, m. 

asper, aspera, aspernm, 
liber, libera, liberam, 
miser, misera, misernm, 
tener, tenera, tenenim, 

arns, ayi, m, 
Ificas, lucl, m. 

fi, or ab, with eUflaiivs, 
cam, with ablative, 

82. Translate into English, 

1. UbI est puer miser? Puer miser in hortS est? 

2. Puerl non saepe sunt miser!. 

3. RCgina puerum miserum amat. Puer miser d. r5g!na 
am&tur. 

4. Puerl miserl rCglnam amant. ECglna & pueris miserls 
amgitur. 

5. UbI est vir miser? Vir miser in IdcO est. 

6. Socer virl miser! est nauta. 



son-in-law. 




boy. 


l?Mcr-ile. 


father-in-law. 




man, true man, hero. 


vir-ile. 


ADJECTIVES. 




rough, hard, harsh. 


flwper-ity, 


free. 


liher-ij. 


wretched, unhappy. 


miaer-y. 


tender, young, delicate. 


tender» 


grandfather. 




grove, sacred grove. 




PREPOSITIONS. 




by, from. 




with. 





38 SECOND DECLENSION. 

7. Non-ne Marcus socerum laudat? Socerum semper 
laudat. 

8. Generi n6n semper a soceris laudantur. 

9. Non-ne generi Marc! sunt miseri ? Non sunt miseri. 

10. Me! amici generos Marci laudant. 

11. Tui servi puero misero viam monstrant. 

12. NSn-ne poeta generum laudat? Poeta a genero lau- 
datur. 

13. Ub! sunt generi Marci ? In horto ambulant. 

14. Ubi sunt pueri? In horto cum avo tuo sunt. Tuns 
avus a puerTs amatur. 

15. Ubi sunt puellae ? In luco cum lulia sunt. 

16. Non-ne oppidum est liberum? Est liberum. Multa 
oppida sunt libera. 

17. Ubi est Titus? Ambulat cum amico poeta. 

83. Translate into Latin. 

1. Do not the boys expect presents? They always expect 
presents. 

2. Who gives presents to the boys? TuUia gives many 
presents to boys. 

3. Does not TuUia love boys? She loves boys. 

4. The boys praise the sailor. The sailor is praised by the 
boys. 

6. The daughter of the poet loves her father-in-law. 

6. The daughters of Titus are loved by their father-in-law. 

7. Is not the road rough? Many roads are rough. 

8. The queen always avoids rough roads. 

9. Rough roads are not always avoided by farmers. 

10. Is not your daughter delicate? My daughters are delicate. 

11. Is not the man unhappy? Men are often unhappy. 

12. Titus is always praising his son-in-law. 

13. Titus is always praised by his son-in-law. 

14. Where is your daughter? She is with her father-in- 
law in the garden. 

15. The queen gives many presents to her sons-in-law. 



VOCATIVE. • 39 

LESSON XIII. 

SECOND DECLEN8I0N, — WORDS IN EB, — VOCATIVE. 

Note.— Learn the declension of WLger, JUld (78), and observe wherein 
it differs from ]^vAr, 

84. As some masculine nouns in er are declined like 
ager^ so in some adjectives the masculine in er is declined 
in the same way, while the feminine in a is declined like 
libera^ hona^ and mmsa^ and the neuter in um like liberuniy 
bonunij and templum : ruber, rubra, rubrum, red. 

Decline in full, ruber like ager; rubra like menea; and rubrum 
like templum. The declension will be given in full on page 49. 

Decline together ager pulcher, a beautiful field ; riglna pulohra, 
the beautiful queen; and templum pulohrum, the beautiful temple, 

85. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Epistula tua, Tite, reginain de- Your letter, Titus, delights the 

lectat. queen, 

2. Epistula tua, lulia, reginam Tour letter, Julia, delights the 

delectat. queen. 

In these examples observe that TUe and lulia designate the per- 
son ADDRESSED, and that they are both in the vocative. Hence we 
have the following rule : 

BUIiE IV.— Case of Address. 

The name of the person or thing addressed is put in 
the Vocative. 

86* VOCABULABY. 

vuger, agri, m. field. acre. 

liber, libri, m. book. libr-skry, 

magister, magistrl, m. master, teacher. master. 

ADJECTIVES. 

aeger, aegra, aegram, sick, ill. 

palcher, pnlchra, palchmm, beautiful. 

diselpnlas, dlscfpull, m. learner, pupil, scholar. disciple. 

eqnns, eqal, m, horse. equine. 



40 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



PROPER NAMES. 

Carolns, Caroli, m. Charles. 

Fredericns, FrederlcT, m, Frederick. 

Homerns, Homeri, m. Homer, the famous Greek poet. 



VERBS. 

timet, (he) fears ; timetiir, (he) is feared. 
timent, (they) fear; timentitr, (they) are feared. 



timid. 



87. Synonyms. 

Dominiu, magister; mastery teacher, 

1. Dominns ; master, owner, proprietor — as of a house, an estate, 

slaves, etc. See 55. 

2. Magister; master, director, teacher— especially the master or 

director of a school, a master of arts or of one or more 
departments of study, a teacher. 




Boman Book,^ 



88» Tratislate into English, 

1. N5n-ne est liber pulcher? 
Liber est pulcher. 

2. Libri, Carole, sunt pulchri. 

3. Ubi sunt libri pulchri, 
lulia ? Carolus libros pul- 
chros habet. 

4. Ubi, Carole, est magister? 
Magister in horto ambulat. 

5. ISTon-ne magister est aeger? Est aeger. 

6. Magistri non saepe sunt aegri. 

7. Discipuli magistro librum pulchrum dant. 

8. Non-ne pulchrum donum magistrum delectat ? 
trum delectat. 

9. Pulchra dona magistros semper delectant. 

10. K5n-ne discipuli magistrum laud ant? Magistrum sem- 
per laud ant. 

11. Magister a bonis discipulis semper laudd.tur. 



Magis- 



1 From a Poxnpeian painting. Soman books were anciently in the form of 
papyrus rolls. 



VOCATIVE. 41 

12. Non-ne lad! magistrum dSlectant? Lud! puerorum 

semper magistroa delectant. 

13. Tua epistula, Frederice, puerum miBenim delectat. 

14. Non-ne eervi dominum timeiit? Dominam timent. 

15. RSgina templum magnificum laudat. 

16. Templum m&gnificum a regina laudiLtur. 

17. Titns agricola multos equos semper habet. 

89. Translate into Latin. 
1. Who haa the book? The teacher haa the beautiful 

book. 
ft. Teachers alwajs have beautiful books. 

3. Marcus, your daughter lores beautiful books. 

4. Titus, where are your daughters? They are now ilL 
6. Are jour daughters often ill ? They 

are not often ill. 

6. Are not the books beautiful? The 
books of the teacher are beautiful. 

7. Titus, the farmer, haa beautiful 
fields. 

8. Beautiful fields are often praised by 



9. Your diligence, Charles, is praised 
by the teachers. 
• 10. Your letters, Julia, are beautiful. 
11. The daughters of the queen are Biad isomer. 
beautifiU. 
, 12. Homer, the famous poet, praises the beautiful daughters 
of the queen. 

13. The beaatlfnl daughters of the queen are often praised 
by the poet. 

14. Where is Charles? He is in the garden with his 
t«acher. 

15. Many slaves fear their masters. 

16. The boys are often praised by their teachers. 



42 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



LESSON XIV. 

SECOND DECLENSION,— COMPARATIVE VIEW. 

90. Compare the several examples in the following table. 
Comparative View of the Second Declension, 



Dominus, mctster. 


Puer, hoy. 


Ager, field. 


Templum, temple» 




SINGULAB. 




Nom. domiim» 


puer 


ager 


templnm 


Gen, dominl 


puerl 


agrl 


templl 


Dat, dominO 


puerO 


agr» 


templO 


Ace, domimun 


puemm 


agmm 


templnm 


Voc, domine 


puer 


ager 


templnm 


All, dominO 


puerO 


agr« 


templO 




PLURAL 


• . 




Nom, dominl 


puen 


agrl 


templa 


Gen, dominOmni 


puerOmnt 


agrOnm 


& templOram 


Dat, dominis 


puerln 


agn» 


templls 


Ace, dominOs 


puerOn 


agrOs 


templa 


Voc, dominl 


puerl 


agrl 


templa 


Abl, dominis 


pueils 


agii« 


templls 



1. Stem. — In nouns of the second declension, the stem ends in o.' 

2. Proper names in iiui generally contract ie in the Vocatiye 
Singular into X without change of accent: Meroto for Meronrie, 
Mercury, FUiiu, son, also contracts fUie into fUL 

3. Locative. — Names of towns, and a few other words, have a 
Locative (40, 4), ending in X in the singular and in Is in the plural ; 
OorinthI, at Corinth ; domi, at home ; DdphXs, at Delphi, 

91. In the last three lessons observe carefully the end- 
ings of the adjectives, and compare them with the endings 
of the nouns with which these adjectives agree. You will 
find them absolutely identical, but an adjective of one end- 
ing may agree with a noun of a different ending. Thus, 

> In the Paradioics the stems are domino^ puero^ agro, and Umplo^ but the 
final o becomes n in the endingps tu and um, and e In domine. It dlsappeara 
by contraction in the endings a, {, and U^ and is dropped in the forms puef 
and ager. 



PlaUir. 



COMPARATIVE VIEW. 



43 



any masculine adjective, whether it ends in us or er, may 
agree with any masculine noun, whether it ends in us, er, 
or a: bonoB servus, a good servant ; miser servns, 
an unhappy servant ; bonus puer, a good hoy; pulclier 
puer, a beautiful hoy ; bonus agricola, a good farmer; 
miser agrioola, an unhappy farmer. 

Decline together puer boniii, a good hoy ; mediomi miMr, an «n- 
happy physicia/n ; dfinu poSta, the renoipned poet. 



92. VOCABULAEY. 


itiir^, nlgr% Bi^mm, 


black, dark. 


noster, nostra, nostriim, 


our, oiir& 


ruber, rubra, rabmm. 


red- 


Tester, yestra, TestnuiL, 


your, yours. 


Graeens, €traeea, €traeeam, 


Greek. 


Laliiiiis, Latlna, Lafliiiuii, 


Latin. 


Utos, lata, Utnm, 


broad, wide. 


noTVB, noTa, botuhi, 


new. 


fossa, ae,/. 


ditch, trench. 


liBfiriia,ae,/. 


tongue, language. 




VERB. 


erat. 


(he, she, it) was. 


erant. 


(they) were. 


CONJUNCTION. 


«nL 


but 



red, 

GHreek, 
Latin, 

new, 
linguoA» 



93. Translate into English, 

1. Quis, me! amlci, est vester medicus? Albertus est 
noster medicus. Est medicus cl&rus. 

2. Phidippns est medicus doctus. 

3. N6n-ne est Phidippus servus? Est servus doctus. 
Phldippus est medicus cl&rus et servus doctus. 

4. Quis erat Hom^rus? HomSrus erat poSta clftrus. 

5. Magistrl nostri Homerum po^tam clftrum saepe lau- 
dant 



44 SECOND DECLENSION. 

6. Graecia est patria poetarum clarorum. 

7. Non-ne est Italia yestra patria? Italia est nostra 
patria. 

8. In Italia et in Graecia sunt mult! poetae. 

9. Noster magister linguam Latinam amat. 

10. Non-ne vester magister linguam Graecam laudat? 
Nostri magistri linguam Graecam saepe laudant. 

11. N5n-ne pueri sunt ignavi? Nostri pueri non sunt 
ignavi. 

12. Marcus non est medicus doctus, sed poeta clarus. 

13. Non-ne fossae sunt latae ? N5n sunt latae. 

14. Carolus librum novum habet. 

15. Non-ne liber novus Garolum delectat? Librl novi 
pueros semper delectant. 

94. Translate into Latin. 

1. Does not our teacher love the boys? He loves good 
boys. 

2. Boys, are not your books new? Our books, Charles, 
are new and beautiful. 

3. Julia is a beautiful girl. She is the daughter of a 
famous poet. 

4 Where is our friend Charles? He is with Frederick in 
the grove. 

5. Does not Charles love books? He loves good books. 
Good boys always love good books. 

6. Good stories always delight boys and girls. 

7. Boys and girls are always delighted with good stories. 

8. My friends, are not the horses of your physician black? 
Our physician is famous ; he has many horses. 

9. The farmer's horses are red. 

10. Homer, the famous poet, is often praised by teachers. 

11. Our teacher often praises Greece. 

12. Greece, the native land of poets, is often praised by 
our teachers. 



DIALOGUB.-^QUESTiaNa ' 46 

LESSON XV. 
LIALOQUE.^QUE&TIom. 

06. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Kdn ambulat. Re is not walking, 

2. NOn-ne ambulat f la he NOT walking f^ 

3. Ambulat. He is walking, 

4. Ambulat-na f la he walking 1 ' 

5. Niim ambulat f Is Ae walking f 

In these sentences observe— 

1) That the negative sentence, non anibulat, is converted into a 
QUESTION by simply appending >ne to non, making n5n-ne : nonrne 
ambulat / is he not walking 1 * 

2) That the affirmative sentence, ambulat, is converted into a 
QUESTION in two different ways : (1) by appending -ne to amhvlat, just 
as in the negative sentence it is appended to non : arnbidat-ne ^ is he 
WALKING f and (2) by placing nmn before ambulat : n/um ambulat f is 
he walking f 

Note !•— In these three questions observe carefully the force of the 
different particles, 4ie, nOiiFiie, and num. Practically in translation their 
force may be shown as follows : 

1) In rendering nOn^ne emphasize not: ia he not walking f 

2) In rendering -ne emphasize the partidple or the main part of the 
verb : is he walkiko, or does he wale 9 > 

8) In rendeiing mmi emphasize the auxiliary, ii, doss, etc. : ii he walk' 
ing, or does he walhf^ 

96« In the following sentences observe carefully the use 
and meaning of suds, hia^ her, their. 

1. Carolus snOs amfcos amat. Cha/tlea loves his friends, 

2. lulia siiOs amicos amat. Jviia loves her friends, 

3. Pueri BuGs amicos amant. Ths boys love their friends. 

Observe that, in each of these three sentences, suds refers to the 
SUBJECT : in the first, to the subject, Oarolas, and so means his ; in 

> Remember that you hare already had abundant lllustralions of questions 
with nOn-ne. 

> Observe that -ne has the same effect upon ambtUat as upon non^ i. e. it 
(dianges it to a question, 

* It may be added that -ne simply converts a statement into a guestion, that 
n^n^fttf expects Uie answer tbs, and that num expects the answer no. 



46 SECOND DECLENSION. 

the second, to Ifilia, and bo means her; and in the third, to puerl, 
and so means their,^ 

97. VOCABULART. 

albns, alba, album, white. 

me, me. me. 

-ne (enclitic),' for meaning, see 95, 4. 

nam,' for meaning, see 95, 5. 

snas, sua, snnm, his, her, their ; see 96. 

Talde, greatly, very, very much, exceedingly. 

Tale, farewell, good-bye. voZc-dictory. 

eqnitat, (he, she, it) rides. 

eqaitant, (they) ride. 

98. Colloquium. 

BiCARDUS ET HkneIcUS, CON-DISCIPULL 

Bicardus. — Carolus, amicus tnus, saepe in agris ambulat. 

Amat-ne agros. 
Henricus. — Multos in agris habet equos et equis' valde 

delectatnr. 
R. — Monstrat-ne equos suis amicis? 
H. — Monstrat equos amicis suis, sed aliis * non monstrat. 
E. — Est-ne Marcus Caroli amicus? 
H. — Marcus a Carolo non laudatur. 
E. — ^Num Carolus Marco equos monstrat? 
H. — Marco Carolus non monstrat equos suos. 
E. — Nigri-ne sunt equi ? 
H. — Sunt nigri et pulchri. 

1 Observe also that «ud«, like any other adjective, agrees with its noun 
amlcoa^ and that its form is not affected by the gender or number of the subject 
to which it refers, but that its meaning is determined in part by the gender and 
number of that subject. If the subject is masculine and singular, suxlb means 
his^ as in the first example ; If the subject is feminine and singular, 8uua means 
her J as in the second exami^ ; if the subject is plural, «tttM means their ^ as in 
the third example. 

s Nwn and -ne are Interrogative particles, used in questions ; -ne Is an en- 
clitic, i. e., it is always appended to some other word : ambulat-ne^ ndtyne. 

> £qals, with horses ; see 114, Ablativs of Mbaks. 

* Allb, to others ; used substantively. For declension, see 878. 



ADJECTIVES. 

E. — Habet-ne TituB agricola mul- 

tos equos ? 
H. — Habet multds et' rubrfia 

equos. 
R, — ^Non-ne equi tui sunt albi ? 
H.— Sunt albi. 

R. — Equitat-ne Carolns in agriB 7 
H. — Saepe equitat cum Fhidippo, 

servo 8u6. 
R. — Non - ne niger eat Phidip- 

pus? 
H. — Eat niger, eed Tald5 amat 

dominum aaum. 
R. — Vale, ml • amioe ; magister 

nig ezapectat. 

99. Translate ike following 
questions and answer them in 
Latin.^ 

1. Ubi ambulat CaroluB? 3. 
UbI habet Garolne equoa ? 3. 
Habet-ne pulchros equos ? 4. 
Non-ne Carolus Marcum laudat? 
6. Habet^ne Carolns aervum? 6. Niger-ne est Berme? 



100. Some adjectivea are partly of the firet declension 
and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely of 
the third declension. 



48 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONa 



First and Second Declensions: A and O Stsms.^ 
101. Bonus, bona, bonum, good} 





8IN0ULAB. 




UABO. 


FBIC. 


NETT. 


Norn, bono* 


bona 


bonnnt 


Oen, boni 


bonne 


bonl 


Dat bon4l 


bonae 


bono 


Ace, bonnnt 


bonam 


bonnnt 


Voc, bone 


bona 


bonnnt 


Ahl, bono 


bonft 

PLURAL. 


bonft 


Norn, bonl 


bonae 


bona 


Oen. bonOnun 


bonftinuit 


bonOrnnt 


Dot. bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace, bonOs 


bon&s 


bona 


Voc, bonl 


bonae 


bona 


Abl, bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


102. Liber, libera, Uberum, free,* 






SINGULAR. 




MASO. 


VEH. 


KBUT. 


Nom, liber 


libera 


libemnt 


Gen, liberl 


liberae 


liben 


Dat, liber* 


liberae 


liberft 


Ace, libenim 


Hberam 


libemm 


Voe, liber 


libera 


libemm 


Ahl llberO 


Uberft 


liberft 




PLURAL. 




Nom, liberl 


liberae 


libera 


Oen, liberOnun 


liber&mni 


liberftrnnt 


Dat. liberls 


libeils 


liberls 


Ace, liberOs 


liber&s 


libera 


Voe, liberl 


liberae 


libera 


Ahl, liberls 


liberls 


liberls 



> These paradigms of ad jectiyes, although precisely like those of nouns, are 
placed here together for review and for reference. 

s Bonus is declined like dominua ot Decl. II (66), bona like mSnaa of Decl. I 
(40), and tionam like templum of DecL II (55). The stems are bono in the Masc. 
and the Neut., and bond in the Fem. 

> Uber is declined like ptier ; libera like bona ; llberam like bonum. 



DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 



49 



103« Ruber, rubra, rubrum, red.^ 





SINGULAR. 




MARO. 


FEM. 


NBtJT. 


iVorn. ruber 


rubra 


rubmm 


Gen, rubn 


rubrae 


rubn 


Dot rubrO 


rubrae 


rubrO 


Ace, rubmin 


rubram 


rubram 


Voc, ruber 


rubra 


rubram 


Abl, rubrO 


rubr& 

PLUBAL. 


rubrO 


Nom, rubn 


rubrae 


rubra 


Gen. rubrOnun 


rubr&min 


rubrOmm 


Dat, rubn» 


rubn» 


rubns 


Ace. rubrOs 


rubrfts 


rubra 


Voc, rubn 


rubrae 


rubra 


Abl, rubns 


/ rubns 


rubns 



104, Examine the following sentences: 

1. Patria MarcG cara est. T?ie native land is dear to Marcus. 

2. Donum puerO gratum est. Tfie gift is acceptable to the boy. 

In these examples observe that MSrc5, to Marcus, and puer9, 
TO THE BOY, limit the adjectives, cdra and gratum^ by answering the 
questions, to whom dearf to whom acceptable? Dear to Marcus, 
acceptable to the boy. A Dative thus limiting an adjective by an- 
swering the r^uestion to or for whom f or to or for which 1 is called 
an Indirect Object ; see Indirect Object after verbs, 59. For the 
Dative after \djectives, we have the following rule : 

RXTIiE XIV.— IHitlTe with AcUeetives. 

Many adjectives take an indibect object in the 

DATIVE. 



1 Ruber in declined like ager^ rubra like bona^ mbrnm like bonum. Most 
adjectives ia er of this declension are declined like ruber. For adjectives de- 
clined like liber^ see 81. 

Note now the difference in declension between Il&er and ruber^ and ob- 
serve— 

1. That the stem of liber is Zl&ero, and that accordingly the e before r is 
carried through all the cases and genders. 

8. That the stem of ruber ia not rubero but rtibro^ and that accordingly the 
e before r appears only in the nominative and vocative singular masculine, 
where it has been developed by the r, as rubr could not be easily pronounced. 

4 



60 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 



LESSON XVII. 



ADJEOTIVES.—DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 



105, Vocabulary. 



altns, alta, altam, 


high, lofty, deep. 


aZMtude. 


Ainenea,ae,/. 


A merica. 


America, 


Americanns, Americana, 






Amerieanum, 


American. 


American 


Ainericani, AmerTca- 






nomm, m.,plur. 


the Americans. 




mams, i, m. 


wall. 


mur-aL 


yerbam, i, n. 


word, Terb. 


verb. 



ADJECTIVES THAT TAKE THE DATIVE. 

cams, cara, camm, dear, precious. 

grratns, grata, gratam, acceptable, welcome. grate-fnL 

iacandas, iacnnda, incandam, pleasing, agreeable, de- 
lightful, interesting. 
notns, nota, notnm, known. know. 



hodie, 
interdam, 
lam, 
nnnqaam. 



ADVERBS. 

to-day. 
sometimes, 
already, 
never. 



106. Synonyms. 

I. Gratufl, incnndus ; acceptable, agreeable, 

1. Gratas ; acceptable, welcome — especially because of value or 

worth. 

2. Iacandas ; pleasing, agreeable, delightful, interesting. 

Note. — Grains implies that the object to which it is applied is acceptable 
because of its value, whether agreeable or not ; iucundua^ that it is in itself 
agreeable. 

IT. Nunc, iam ; now, already, 

1. Nanc ; now, at the present time. 

2. Iam ; alreadt, bt this time, ere now. 



DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES. 81 

107. Translate into English. 

1. Est-ne Italia poetia cars? Multis poetis est cara, 

3. Graecia, patria poetarum clarortim, nostro magiBtrS 
c&ra est. 

8. Toa epistula, lulia, puellis miaeris erat grata. 

4. Nou-ne pericula nauti8 interdum sunt grftta? Nun- 
quam BUDt i&can- 

da. 
fi. Multae f abnlae jam 
aunt discipiUlB aoa- 
tris notae. 

6. Magistria nostris 
fabulae pogtarum 
Gmecdrum Bunt 
notae. 

7. Num verba domini 
servis aemper aunt 
iucnnda ? Servis 
n6n semper sunt 
iflcanda. 

8. Quia magiBtri) sem- 

per e8t oSru.f T>-^ar„^MT,M 

Discipuli boni magiatriB aemper sunt cari. 

9. Ubisunt templapulchraP In oppid5 aunt mnlta templa 

10. AltiJB-ne est muruB? Non eat altuB. 

11. Eat-ne fossa alta? Fossa non est alta, sed lata. 

12. Ubi est CaroluB? Hodie in oppidO est. 

13. Eat-ne vester medicos AmericS.niie ? Noster medicus 
eat AmencanuB. Multl Americ&ni sunt clari medic!. 

108. Translate into Latin, 

1. Is not Greece dear to our poet? Greece ia dear to 
many poets. 

2. Eojs, is not America your native land? It ia our 
native land. 



62 



FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONa 



3. America, our native land, is dear to the boys. 

4. Is not America the native land of a famous poet ? It 
is the native land of many poets. 

6. Your gifts, Tullia, were acceptable to the boys. 

6. Was not the gift acceptable to your friend? It was 
acceptable. Beautiful gifts are always acceptable to 
friends. 

7. Girls, your gifts were acceptable to your grandfather. 

8. The words of the teacher were agreeable to the pupils. 

9. Beautiful books are always acceptable to teachers. 

10. Were the pears acceptable to the boy? Pears and 
apples are always acceptable to boys and girls. 

11. The diligence of the pupils is pleasing to the teachers. 

12. Are not stories pleasing to the pupils? Good stories 
are always pleasing to our pupils. 





LESSON XVIII. 






A SHORT STOBT, 






109. Vocabulary. 




aqna, ae, /. 


water. 


aquorMQ, 


f nga, ae, /. 


flight. 


/ti^-itive. 


tanrns, i, m. 


bull, bullock. 

VERBS. 




instat, 


(he) is at hand, pursues. 


instant. 


intrat, 


(he) enters. 


enter. 


liberat. 


(he) liberates, frees. 


liberate. 


mandat, 


(he) commits, intrusts. 




spectat, 


(he) looks at, watches. 


speetchcle. 


tentat, 


(he) tries, attempts. 


tenfartiye» 


terminat, 


(he) bounds, limits. 


terminate. 


Yidet, 


(he) sees. 


j^TO-vide. 


forte, adv. 


by chance, accidentally. 




se (accusative), 


himself. 





A SHORT STORY. 63 

110. Story about ak Idle Boy. 

Albertus, ignavus puer, lingnam Latinam non amat. A 
magistro non laudatur; a discipulis non amatnr. Magis- 
trum suum saepe yitat et in agris ambalat. Est nunc in 
agris avi. Magnus taurus iam puerum videt. Albertus 
f ugam tentat ; taurus instat. 

Forte lata fossa agrum terminat. Miser puer se aquae 
mandat.^ Aqua non est alta,* sed taurus periculum aquae 
timet. Spectat ^ Albertum, sed agricola agrum forte intrat 
et puerum miserum liberat. 

111. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Num Albertus est bonus puer? 2. Num magister 
Albertum laudat? 3. Amant-ne discipuli Albertum? 4. 
TJbi saepe ambulat Albertus? 5. Non-ne Albertus mag- 
num taurum timet? 6. Num lingua Latina ab Alberto 
saepe laudatur? 7. Num ignavi discipuli a magistris 
saepe laudantur? 



LESSON XIX. 

TBIBD DEOLENSION.^STEMa IN "L, U, 'S. 

112. Nouns of this declension may be divided into two 
classes : 

I. Nouns whose stem ends in a Consonant.^ 
II. Nouns whose stem ends in I. 

> 88 aquae mandat, commits himself to the toater^ I. e., throws himself Into 
the water. Sfi, accusative, direct object of mandat ; aquae, dative, Indirect 
object of mandat. See 59. 

3 What is the meaning of alta in this sentence ? What other meaning has 
this word? See 105. 

* Note the difference In meaning between videt and spectat, 

4 The stems of all other nouns in Latin end in a vowel. 



54 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



Class I. — Consonant Stems. 



118. Stems 


IN li, R, N. 






G5nsu], M., 


Pastor, M. 


, Passer, m., 




Pater, ic, 


consul. 


shfpkerd. 


sparrow. 




father. 




SINGULAR. 






Norn, consul 


pastor 


passer 




pater 


Oen, coDSuli» 


pSstoris 


passeris 




patris 


Bat, consull 


pastor! 


passerl 




patn 


Ace, c5nsnleiit 


pastorem 


passerent 




patrem 


Voe, consul 


pastor 


passer 




pater 


Abl. consule 


pastore 


passere 




patre 




PLURAL. 






Norn, consults 


pastor©* 


passer©s 




patr©0 


Gen, cdnRulnm 


pastomu 


I passenmt 




patmm 


Bat, coosullbvui 


pastoribns passerlbns 


patribvui 


Ace, consults 


pastor^s 


pa8Rer©s 




patr©s 


Voc, consul©» 


pfistor©s 


passer©» 




patr©s 


Abl, consullbifts 


pastoribifts passeribvu 


1 


patribufi 


Leo, H., 


Virgo, p., 


Carmen, n., 






Han, 


maiden. 


song, poem. 


Case-sutfizes. 




SINGUT.AR. 




M. and F. Neut. 


Nam. led 


virgo 


carmen 




1 


Oen, leonls 


virginis 


carminis 


Is 


Is 


Bat, leonl 


virginl 


carmini 


I 


I 


Ace, leonem 


yirginem 


carmen 


em 


1 


Voe, leo 


virgo 


carmen 






Abl, leone 


virgine 

PLURAL. 


carmine 


e 


e 


Nbm, leonl^s 


virgin©* 


carmina, 


©0 


a 


Gen, leonnm 


virginum 


carminnm 


nm 


nm 


Bat leonibns 


virginibifts 


carmintbiftfi 


ibns ibnfi 


Ace, leonCs 


Virginia 


carmina 


©0 


a 


Voc, leonl^ 


virgin©» 


carmina 


©• 


a 


Abl, leonlbns 


virginfbns 


carminibifts 


Ibns ibnfi 



^ The dash Implies that auffix Is wanting. 



ABLATIVE OF MEANS. 66 

In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems are consul, pastor, passer, pater, patr, leon, 
virgon, virgin, and carxnen, carmin} 

2) That in the Nominative and Vocative Singular the stem pastor 
shortens o, while Uon and virgon drop n. 



LESSON XX. 

TEIBD DECLENSIOK-^STEMS IN Ii AND n,— ABLATIVE OF 

MEANS. 

114. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Pueri puellas terrent. The hoys are frightening the girls. 

2. Puellae ft pnerXs terrentur. The girls are frightened by the 

BOYS. 

8. Dona puellSs delectant The gifts delight the girls. 

4 Puellae dSnXs delectantur. The girls are delighted with the 

GIFTS. 

In these examples observe — 

1. That in passing from the active to the passive construction — 

1) That which is the object of the active, puellSs, changed to the 
nominative, puellae, becomes the subject of the passive. 

2) That which is the subject of the active, puerl, dSna, is put in 
the ABLATIVE, with the preposition ft or ab if it denotes persons, 
ft pnerls ; but without a preposition if it denotes things, dSniB. 

2. That ft puerls answers the question by whom f (see 80, 1), and 
denotes the Agent of the action ; while dSnXs answers the question 
by what f WITH WHAT f and denotes the Means or Instrument. Hence 
the following rule : 

BULE 2L^v«—AblatiTe— Anient and Means* 

1. The Agent of an action is denoted by the Ablative 
with fi or ab. 

2. The Ikstrument and Means are denoted by the 
Ablative without the preposition. 

> That is, the stems of pater, virg6, and carmen appear in two forms : pater, 
pair ; virgon, virgin ; carmen, carmin. 



56 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



116. Vocabulary. 

Caesar, Caesarls, m. Caesar.^ 

Hannibal, Hannlbalis, m. 

clamor, clamorls, m, 
imperator, imperatdris, m. 
mercator, mercat5rlg, m. 
orator, dratoris, m, 
praeceptor, praeceptoris, m. 
soror, sororis, /. 
Tictor, Tictoris, m, 

frater, fratris, m. 
miter, matris, /. 
mnlier, mnlieris, /. 

VERBS. 

fait, (he) was. 

fnernnt, (they) were. 

terret, (he) frightens, terretnr, (he) is frightened, 

terrifies ; is terrified. 

terrent, (they) frighten, terrentur, (they) are frightened, 

terrify ; are terrified. 



Hannibal.* 




shout, shouting, cry. 


ekmor. 


commander, general. 


mvperof. 


merchant, trader. 


mercTumt, 


orator. 


orcUor, 


instructor, preceptor. 


preceptor. 


sister. 




conqueror, victor. 


victor. 


brother. 


frater-n&L 


mother. 


mater-nal. 


woman. 





terrify. 



116. Synonyms. 

r, praeceptor ; master^ teacher^ instructor, 

1. Maglster ; master, director, TEACBER—especially the master or 

director of a school, a master of arts or of one or 
more departments of knowledge, a teacher. 

2. Praeceptor; teacher, instructor, preceptor, guide — especially 

one who by precept and counsel instructs and trains 
the young for future usefulness, an instructor or 
preceptor.' 

117. Translate into English 

1. Quis fuit Caesar? Non-ne fuit imperator? Caesar 
clarus imperator fuit. 

2. Non-ne praeceptor vester Caesarem interdum laudat? 
Caesar a praeceptore nostro saepe laudator. 



1 The famous author, general, and statesman. * The Carthaginian general. 
* Any efficient teacher may be designated by either or both of these terms. 



ABLATIVE OP MEANS. 57 

- 8. NoQ-nelibri pulchri 5rftt6remdelectaiit? Orator libria' 
pulchris delectS,tur. 

4. Quis Hannib&lem, clarum imperatorem, hodie laudat? 
Hannibal, clarus imperator, 

interdum ab dratdribus lauda- 
tur. 

5. Non-na verba oratoria merca- 
torga dulectant? Mercatdres 
verbis* oratflria dSleotantur. 

6. Terrent-ne nautae mulierem 
elamoribus? Malier cl&mori- 
bns Dautarum terretur. 

7. K5n-ne poetae victOres Bemper 
laudant? Victorcs clari a 

poStis semper laDdantnr. juiiut caaar. 

8. Non-ne liid! puerorum inter- 
dum praeceptores dulectaut? Praeceptdrgs eaepe ludis 
puerSrum delectantur. 

9. Fnernnt-ne oratorea in Graeci^? In Graecia faerunt 
clari oratorea. 

10. Fuit-ne epiatala mea fratri tuo grata? Epistula tua 
fratri meo grata f uit. 

11. Quia fuit Homerua? Fuit-ne orator? Homerue fmt 
cUrna pogta. 

13. Non-ne lulia a matre am&tnr? Amatur. Matres 
filiaa semper amant. 

118. Translate into Latin. 

1. Are the merchant's stories interesting? They are very 
interesting to our bojs. 

2. Do your siatera love books? They are always delighted 
with books'. 

■ Ubrif, Abi.ititb or Huhh ; see 114. 

■ VerbiB, why in the AilaWiw / See 114. 

• In what case will you put the lAtin word f See 114 



68 THIRD DECLENSION. 

3. Does not Julia sometimes give books to yonr sister? 
She often gives books to my sister. 

4. Who was the conqaeror? Caesar, the famous general, 
was the conqueror. 

5. Do not the conquerors by their shouts, sometimes terrify 
the women ? Women are often terrified by the shouts 
of the conquerors. 

6. Do not the games of the boys sometimes please their 
sisters ? The girls are often pleased with the games of 
their brothers. 

7. Are your brothers merchants ? They are not merchants, 
but teachers. 

8. Were there merchants in Italy? There were famous 
merchants in Italy. 

9. Presents are often given to the daughter of the gen- 
eral. 

10. The daughters of the orator are delighted with their 
presents. 

LESSON XXI. 

TBIRD DE0LEN8I0K-^TE2£a IN N. 

119. Observe the following idiomatic use of multl 
in combination with other adjectives : 

1. Multi et magnl labores. Mcmy ffreat labors» 

2. Multae et magnae Insulae. Mcmy large islands» 

8. Multa et pulchra templa. Many beautiful temples, 

Latin Idiom. English Idiom. 

Many and great. Many great 

Many and beautifuL Many beautiful. 

Note.— To this ^neral usage there are numerous exceptions ; espeeially 
when the noua stands between the two ac|jectiveB : 

1. Multl elves BOmtoL Manp Roman cUie&nt, 

2. Multl vin fortes. Afanf lrai>$ m#». 
8. Multl vin honl. Ifanp good msn. 



STEMS IN N. 



59 



120. Vocabulary. 

Cicero, Clceronis, m, Cicero, the Roman orator. 

5r&tlo, Srationis, /. oration. oration, 

sermo, sermonis, m, discourse, conversation. sermon, 

hom5, hominis, m,^ man, a human being ; see 121. human. 



facetus, facSta, facetum, witty, facetious. 
Bomanus, Bomana, 

Bomanum, Roman. 

Tergrilias, Yergilil, m, Vergil, the Roman poet. 

qnemf m.* whomf 

quidf n.* what? 

VERBS. 

legit, (he) reads ; legltnr, (he) is read. 
legnnty (they) read ; legantar, (they) are read. 



facet'ioMs, 



Ugi-hle, 



121. Synonyms. 

Hom5, Tir ; man, h&ro, 

1. Homo ; man, a human being— the ordinary word for man. 

2. Yir ; man, a true man, hero— « term of respect See 81. 

122. Translate into English, 

1. Quid legit Carolus? Garolos, 
noster amicus, orationem Gice- 
ronis legit. 

2. Non-ne discipuli libros Caesaris 
interdum legunt? Libri Caesa- 
ris a diseipulis saepe leguntur. 

3. Multa et magna oppida pueris 
sunt nota. 

4. Praeceptor multos et bonds libros 
habet. 

5. In Graecia sunt multa et pulehra templa. 

6. Quis f uit Cicero ? Cicero f uit clarus orator Bomanus. 

> It Ls Dot deemed necessaiy to repeat in the vocabularies the words used in 
the paradigms except for special reasons. Carmen is accordingly here omitted. 

* Q^em and quid are in the accusative singular, masculine and neuter of 
^if,who? See 47. 




Cicero^ tlie Roman orator. 



eO THIRD DECLENSION. 

7. Qaem laudant reatri praeceptSres ? Ciceronem firjLtO- 
rein RSmiliium interdum laudant. 

8. Fuit-ne Vergiliua poeta? Vergilina clarue poeta Eo- 
manus fuit. 

9. !Ndii-ne puellae carmioa Vergilil interdam legant? 
Carmina Vergilii a puellia sa«pe leguntur. 

10. Kdn-ne puellae carminibus Yergjli! dglectantur? Valdg 
delectautur. 

11. Quid hodie legit lulia? Carmina HomSri poetae legit. 
Garminibus Homeri delectatur. 

12. Num homines docti dratiooes Giceronis legant? Ora- 
tiones clan oratoris Roman! a mnltis Tiris doctis 
leguntur. 

13. Nou-ne mult! hominga pericula tiiuent? Fericula & 
niultia hominibus timentur. 

14. Quern delectat Bermfi fac5- 
tuB ? Poetae aerindne f aceto 
semper delectantur. 

15. JDoctI homines BermonibuB 
facetiB saepe delectantur. 

123. Translate into Latin. 

1. Are the poerae of Vergil 
interesting? They are very 
interesting to boye and 
girls. 

2. Charlea, what is your sister 
reading to-day? She is read- 
ing a Latin poem. VergO, ttm Roman, poet. 

3. Do not the songs of Homer 

delight our poets? Our poeta are delighted with the 
songs of Homer. 
1. l>o learned men often praise the poems of Homer? 
The poems of Homer are always praised by learned 



A FATHER'S LETTER. 



61 



5. Do your pupils read the orations of Cicero, the famous 
Koman orator ? The orations of Cicero are always read 
by our pupils. 

6. What always pleases your instructors? Our instructors 
are always pleased with the diligence of their pupils. 

7. Does not Cicero the orator often praise good men? 
Good men are often praised by the famous orator. 

8. Are learned men always witty? They are sometimes 
witty. 

9. Was not the great poet's conversation often witty? It 
was often witty. 

10. Julia is always delighted with witty conversations. 



LESSON XXII. 

A FATHER' 8 LETTER. 
124. VOCABULABY. 



annus, anni, m. 


year. 


annvrd^. 


decern, 


ten. 


decim-al. 


niias, filii, m. 


son ; see 90, 3. 


jUi-dX, 


indastrins, a, nm,* 


diligent, industrious. 


industrious. 


nam. 


for. 




stndiose, 


studiously, zealously. 


studious-lj. 


te, 


thee, you (as object). 


thee. 



VERBS. 

scribit, (he) writes ; scribitnr, (it) is written. scribe, 

scribnnt, (they) write ; scrfbuntiir, (they) are written. 
valet, (he) is well, 

is strong. vo^-iant. 

valent, (they) are well, 

are strong. 
vale, farewell, be well. 



1 Here a and um are the Nominative endings of the Feminine and Neuter 
forms. Thug, indtLstrius^ indtuiria^ industrium. In subsequent vocabularies 
the Feminine and Neuter forms in adjectives of this class will thus be indicated 
by the endings. 



63 THIRD DBCLENSIOK. 

ISfi. A Father's liBTTEB to his Boy at School. 

Epiatula magistri tul, Carole, mi fill, me valde delectat: 
nam diligentiani tuam landnt. Magister Bcribit : " Tniis 
filias Carol us est bomia puer et induBtrtuB discipulus. 
Linguam Latinam amat ; fabulia LatlDls delectatur. A 
pueria amatar et & praeceptoribus laudatur. Praeceptor^s 
C&rolo praemia saepe dant. Carolus Bemper eet be&tas. 
Vaie." 

Tuus avus liodig eat aeger. Te amst et tuaB epistalils 
semper laudat. Tua soror lulla bodie be&ta est ; nam decern 
annos habet'; suam matrem caram amat. T5 exspectaL 
Tui fratres valent ; Marcus libris delectatur, equis Frederi- 
cus. Marcus multds librSs babet ; carmina Vergilii semper 
laudat Nunc orationea Ciceronis stadidsS legit. 

M&ter te amat.* Vale. 



Writing taalerial».' 

126. Translate thefoUmoing questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1, Quia diligentiam Carol! laudat? 2. Ndn-iie discipuli 
Carolum amant? 3. NQn-ne fabulae Latinae Carolum 
delectant? 4. Delectant-ne te fabulae Latinae f fi. Quern 
dgleutant equi ? 6. Non-ue librl Marcum dSlectant ? 7. 
Quis eat Marcus ? 

> IJt«TAn7, At luH fen yuan. I. e,, i> ton jean old. 

• UUirBll]', louei VDU = BencU Jove. 

■ Notice the roUi. tablets, rewptaicle tor nunuACrlptB, lakEtand and pen. 



STEMS ENDING IN JS. 



63 



LESSON XXIII. 



TBIBD DECLENSION, 



127. Stems ending in S. 



Flos, M., 
flower, 

Norn, flos 
Gen. floris 
Dat. florl 
Ace. florem 
Yoc, flos 
Ahl, flore 

iVbm. floras 
Oen, flomm 
Dat. floribns 
Ace. floras 
Voc. floras 
Ahl. floribns 



lus, N., Opus, N., 

right. work, 

SINGULAR. 

iiis opus 

iuris operis 

iuil operl 

ius opus 

ius opus 

iure opere 

PLUILAL. 



lura 

iunun 

iuribifts 

itira 

iura 



opera 

opemm 

operib 

opera 

opera 

operib 



luribns 

In the Paradigms observe that the stems are fl^a^ 
and corjpua, corpor,^ 

128. VOCABULABY. 



Corpus, N., 
body. 

corpus 

corporis 

corporl 

corpus 

corpus 

corpore 

corpora 

corponim 

corporibi 

corpora 

corpora 

corporibi 

iu8, opus, oper} 



grenns, generis, n.* 
mos, moris, m. 
mores, plur. 
tempns, temporis, n. 
tempora, plur. 

color, eolorls, m. 
odor, odoris, m. 
scriptor, seriptoris, m, 

Oerm&ni, German5- 

rnm, m., 'plur. 
Tacitus, TacitI, m. 



race, kind, class. 

custom. 

customs, manners, character. 

time, season. 

the times, times. 

color. 

odor, perfume. 

writer, author. 

the Germans. 

Tacitus, Roman historian. 



^ener-al. 
mor-als. 

tcmpor-aL 

color, 
odor, 
scrtpt-nre. 



> That is, the stems of opiu and corpus appear in the form of opus and corpus 
in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and in the form of oper 
and corpor in the other cases. 

s For the omission of opiu and JlCa in this vocabulary, see foot-note to 190. 



64 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



antiqnas, a, nm,' 


ancient, old. 


antique. 


egregius, a, am, 


remarkable, excellent 


egregious. 


Tarlns, a, urn, 


variona, different. 


voHoua, 



VERBS. 

ornat, (he) adorns, drnatnr, (he) is adorned, 
decorates, is decorated, 

furnishes ; is furnished. 

Smant, (they) adorn, ornantur, (they) are adorned, 
decorate, are decorated, 

furnish ; are furnished. 



oma-ment* 



129. Translate into English. 

1. XJbi sunt, pueri, vestri flores pulchri ? In nostro horto 
sunt multi flores pulchri. 

2. Tui flores, mi fili, matrem tuam delectant. Mater tua 
floribus pulchris semper delectatur. 

3. Est-ne odor florum iucundus? Varii sunt odores 
florum ; multi flores iucundum odorem habent. 

4. Flores pulchri sorori tuae, Alberte, semper sunt grati. 

5. Quis bonos pueri mores laudat? Mores pueri a prae- 
ceptoribus semper laudantur. 

6. Boni mores ab hominibus bonis semper laudantur. 

7. Mores discipalorum praeceptoribus sunt noti. 

8. Non-ne multi homines mores antiques amant ? Mores 
antiqui a multis script5ribus laudantur. 

9. Quis fuifc Tacitus? Tacitus fuit doctus scriptor Ko- 
manus. 

10. Non-ne Tacitus antiquos Germanos laudat? Mores 
antiquorum Germanorum a Tacito valde laudantur. 

11. Num pueri opera Taciti legunt? Opera Taciti non a 
pueris sed ab hominibus doctis leguntur. 

12. Carolus sorori suae coronam florum dat. 

13. Non-ne puellae floribus templum omant? Templa 
floribus saepe ornantur. 

1 For anttguxu^ antiqua^ antiquum, see foot-note to 123. 



STEMS ENDING IN B OR P, D OR T. 65 

180. Translate i7ito Latin. 

1. Who is reading the works of Cicero? My brother is 
now reading the orations of Cicero. 

2. Do many men praise the works of Tacitus? The 
works of Tacitus are greatly praised by many famous 
authors. 

3. Who loves flowers ? Cornelia is always delighted with 
beautiful flowers. 

4. Are not flowers always acceptable gifts? They are 
always acceptable to girls. 

5. Are there many flowers in your garden ? Our garden 
is often adorned with flowers. 

6. Is not Julia pleased with the color of flowers? The 
colors of flowers are various. 

7. Are there many kinds of flowers? There are many 
kinds in the gardens and fields. 

8. What are your pupils now reading? They are now 
reading the works of Vergil. 

9. Many men are always praising ancient times and an- 
cient customs. 

10. Our poets are delighted with the remarkable works of 
Homer. 



LESSON XXIV. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

181. Stems ekding in B or F, D or T. 

Pnnceps, M., a chief. Lapis, m., atone, AetSs, f., age, 

SINGULAR. 

Norn, princeps lapis aetas 

Gen, principis lapidls aetatis 

Bat, principl lapidl aetatl 

Ace, principent lapidem aetatem 

Voc, princeps lapis aetfis 

Ahl, principe lapide ft^tSte 

6 



DO 


J. J.J.J.XVX, 


PLURAL. 




Nom, 


priucip^s 


lapid^B 


aetatCs 


Gen, 


principniift 


lapidnm 


aetatnm 


Bat. 


principibifts 


lapidfbns 


aetatibns 


Ace. 


princip^s 


lapid^s 


aetSt^s 


Voe. 


prfncipCii 


lapid^n 


aetat^n 


Abl 


principibiui 


lapidibns 


aetatibi»0 




MHes, M., soldier. 


Virtus, p., virtue. 

SINGULAR. 


. Caput, N., liead. 


Norn. 


TnTles 


virtu» 


caput 


Gen. 


militis 


virtiitis 


capitis 


Dat. 


militl 


virtutl 


capiti 


Ace. 


militcm 


virttitcni 


caput 


Voe. 


rnilen 


virtils 


caput 


Abl 


milice 


virttite 

PLURAL. 


capite 


Norn, 


milit«« 


virtut©» 


capita 


Gen. 


militnm 


virtutnm 


capitnm 


Dat. 


militibiui 


virtutibiis 


capitibvui 


Ace. 


militen 


virtu t©» 


capita 


Voe. 


milit^s 


virtiit©» 


capita 


Abl 


militibiis 


virtutibmi 


capitibiu 


In these Paradigins observe — 




1) That the stems are prineep, pHneip,^ lapid^ 


aeidt, mUet,^ mUit, 


nepdt, virtut, and caput, eapit. 


1 




2) That with the exceptioi 


\ of the neuter caput 


' they all take the 


snffix ■ 


in the nominative and vocative singular : pr^ncep, pHneep-s ; 


lapid, lapid'8, lapis*; and that in all the other cases they are declined 


like consul, passer, etc., already learned." 




8) That the neuter oapnt 


is declined like the neuter carmen} 



132. Vocabulary. 

ciYitfis, CI yit&tis, /. state. 

libertag, libertatls, /. freedom, liberty. liberty. 

eqnes, eqnitis, m, horseman, trooper, knight, eques-trian.. 

eqoitSs, plur. horsemen, cavtjry, knights. 

hospes, hospitls, m. and /. guest, visitor. hospit-ahle. 

1 See foot-note to 127. 

s The 4eiit^— d or t— is dropped before 8 for the sake of euphony : lapU for 
lapids., ctetda for aetAU^ miles for mUeU, virtHs for virtUta, 
* The learner should carefully note these facts. 



STEMS ENDING IN B OK P, V OR T. 



67 



princeps, prinelpis, m. 


chieftain, leader, prince. 


prince. 


onstos, cnstodls, m, 
nepos, nepotls, m. 


keeper, guard, guardian, 
grandson. 


cuetod-iaji. 


laug, landis, /. 
salus, salutls, /. 
Tirtns, Tirtnti8, /. 


praise, comniendation. 

safety. 

virtue, valor, bravery. 


laud. 

8alut-&ry. 

virtue. 


bellum, I, n. 
fortiter, adv. 


war. 

bravely, valiantly. 


forti-tndie. 


pngnat, 
pngnant, 


VERBS. 

(he, she, it) fights, 
(they) fight 


pugna-cious, 



133. Translate into English. 

1. Quid legunt tui nepotes? Egregia Homeri cannina 
nunc legunt. 

2. Praeceptores diligentiam nepotum tuomm laudant. 

3. Praemia nepotibus tuis a praeceptoribus saepe dantur. 

4. Egregia virtus vestra, milites, ab imperatore saepe 
laudatur.^ 

6. Laudat-ne imperator virtutem nostrorum equitum? 
Egregiam equitum virtutem semper laudat. 

6. Non-ne laudes hominibus gratae sunt? Multi homines 
laudibus delectantur. 

7. Non-ne Cicerd saepe milites Bomanos laudat? Milites 
Komani a Cicerone saepe laudantur. 

8. Non-ne milites Bomani fortiter pugnant? Nostri 
milites fortiter pugnant. 

9. Bellum militibus vestris gr&tum est. 

10. Habet-ne prmceps multos equos? Habet equos multos 
et pulchrds. Principes semper pulchros equ5s habent. 

11. Non-ne liberae sunt nostrae civitates? Liberae sunt; 
nam American! libertatem amant. 

12. Habet-ne regina hodie multos hospites? Habet. Ke- 
gina semper hospites habet. 

> For the arms and dress of the oflEioers and soldiers of the Roman legion, 
see Plate I, frontispiece, and Plate HI, page 74. 



68 THIRD DECLENSION. 

134. Translate into Latin, 

1. Was not my father "your guest ? Your brothers were 
my guests. 

2. Does not the queen sometimes give beautiful presents 
to her guests? Magnificent presents are sometimes 
given to the guests of the queen. 

3. Are the keepers of your gardens always faithful ? They 
are always faithful. 

4. Where are your grandsons? They are in the garden. 
They are delighted with the flowers. 

5. Is your state free ? Our states are free and happy. 

6. Are the guardians of our liberties faithful ? They are 
good and faithful, for they love liberty. 

7. The safety of the state was dear to Cicero, the famous 
orator. 

8. Is not war sometimes acceptable to your soldiers ? War 
is often acceptable to our cavalry. 

9. Father, who was Vergil? Vergil, my son, was the 
prince of Roman poets. 

10. Does not Vergil often praise the bravery of soldiers? 
The remarkable bravery of soldiers is often praised by 
the poet. 

LESSON XXV. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

186. Stems ending in O ob G*. 





Bex, M., 


ludex, M. A F., 


Radix, F., 


Dux, H. A F 




king. 


judge. 


root. 


leader. 






SINGULAR. 




Norn, 


rex 


ludex 


radix 


dux 


Oen, 


regl» 


iudici» 


radTcfs 


duds 


Dot. 


regl 


iildicl . 


rSdicI 


dud 


Ace, 


regem 


iudicem 


radicem 


ducem 


Voc. 


r6x 


iudex 


rSdix 


dux 


Abl, 


rege 


itldioe 


radice 


duce 



STEMS ENDING IN C OR G. 



69 



Nom. r6g«» 
Oen, regnin 
Dat, regibns 

Ace, reg4Ss 
Voc, regCs 
AbL reglbns 



PLURAL. 

iudic4Ss 

iudicnm 

iudidbus 

iudic4Ss 

iudic4S9 



i:adic4Ss 


duc4Ss 


radicniit 


ducum 


radidbits 


duclbus 


radic4Ss 


duc4Ss 


radices 


duc4&s 


radidbits 


ducibus 



iudicibus 

In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stems are reg^ iudee, iudie, radiCf and due, 

2) That 8 in the Nominative and Vocative Singular unites with 
c or ^ of the stem, and forms z.^ 

3) That in all the other cases these examples are declined like the 
paradigms already learned in this declension. 



136. 


Vocabulary. 




dux, duels, m. 


leader, commander. 


duke. 


lex, legls, /. 


law. 


leg-al. 


pax, paels, /. 


peace. 


jKic-ific. 


Ancns Martins, Anci Mar- 


Ancus Martins, reputed king 


tii, m. 


of Rome. 




Apollo, Apolllnls, m. 


Apollo, the sun-god. 




anctoritas, anctoritatis, /. authority, influence. 


atdhority. 


Draco, Draeonis, m. 


Draco, Athenian lawgiver. 




Nnma Pompiliiis, Numae 


Numa Pompilius, reputed 


# 


Pompilii, m. 


king of Rome. 




Tulnus, ynlneris, n. 


wound. 


w«7ner-able. 


aeqnns, a, nm, 


fair, impartial, equitable. 


equorl. 


perfcnldsus, a, nm. 


perilous, dangerous. 


p&rilouA, 


seyeras, a, nm, 


severe, strict, stem. 


severe. 



137. Translate into English, 

1. Quis fuit bonus Eomanorum r6x? Numa Pompilius 
fuit bonus rex. 

2. Non-ne scriptdres E6mani reges interdum laudant? 
Boni rgggs a scriptSribus Eomftnis saepe laudantur. 

3. Carmina Homeri a doctis regibus saepe leguntur. 

4. Bex Ancus Martins fuit nepos Numae regis. 



1 R€x 18 for rig^^ iUdex for mdec-a^ rddix for nZeCic-a, duo; for dtu^s. 



70 THIRD DECLENSION, 

6. Quid regi dant mnites? Be^ cordnam aaream dant, 

6. Quid due! dant mHi- 
t53? Duel coronam 
florum dant. 

7. Non-ne iudex serSniH 
fait? Fuit seTCnie 
sed aeqnus. 

8. Non-ne indices aequi 
ab Oratoribua laadan- 
tnr? Oratorea iudi- 



laudant. 
9. Non-ne leges Dra- 
conia fuCrunt aevfi- 
rae? Faerant severae, 
Mnltae et antiquae 
leges fuerunt severae. 

10. Non-ne malti homi- 
nes leges antlqufis 
laudant? Leges an- 
tiquaa & multis et 

doctis ifidicibus lau- , . ^ , . 

Apolto, the god of the mm. 
dantur. 

11. Indices seven et aeqai sunt ciistSdgB I^gum. 

12. Agricolaa pacem, milites beiium amant. 

13. Civitates nostrae leges egregias habent. 

14. Ndn-no templum Apollinis fuit pulcbmm? MSguifi- 
enm fuit. 

138. Translate into Latin. 
1. Is not the judge someUmes severe? He is always fair. 
3. Impartial judges are always the fiuthful guardians of 

good laws. 
3. Are our laws severe? They are not severe; they are 

excellent 



DIALOGUE. 



71 



4. The influence of an impartial judge is always great. 
6. Peace is always welcome to farmers, but war is some- 
times welcome to soldiers. 

6. Are the wounds of the king dangerous ? They are not 
dangerous. 

7. The wounds of the soldiers are many and dangerous. 

8. Good men do not fear severe judges. 

9. Do good men fear the laws? Good men are never ter- 
rified by severe laws. 

10. Many men are always praising ancient customs and 
ancient laws. 

11. Are the severe laws of Draco often praised? They are 
not often praised by learned judges. 



LESSON XXVI. 



THIRD DECLENSION,— DIALOGUE. 



• 139. Vocabulary. 



cansa, ae, /. 

eontentio, contentionis, /. 

furtum, furti, n. 

gramen, graminis, n. 

multitndo, maltitndinis, /. 

poena, ae, /. 

poenam dat, 

quae, 

tergnm, tergri, n. 

tergum dat, 

appropinqnant, 

eireumdant, 

dabunt, 



cause. 



ccmse. 



strife, quarrel. eontentioti, 

theft, stealing. furt-ivQ, 

grass. ^a-ss. 

multitude, great number, multitude, 
satisfaction, punishment. jpeno-L 
(he) suffers punishment.^ 
what f 
back, 
(he) flees.' 

VERBS. 

(they) approach, draw near, 
(they) surround, collect about, 
(they) will give. 



1 Literally, Ae gives aatisfctction, 1. e., by being punished. 
* Literally, he gives or turns his h<uk. 



72 THIRD DECLENSION. 



iaeet, 
petnnt, 
snrgrit, 
taeent, 
Tnlneratns est. 


(he, she, it) is lying, lies, 
(they) seek, 
(he, she, it) rises, 
(they) are silent, 
(he, she, it) is wounded. 


surge, 
tm^ner-able. 


dno, m, plur. nom. 


two. 





140. Colloquium. 

Duo puer!, Albertus et HenrIcus. 

Albertus. — Magnus in luco est clamor. 

Henricus. — Pueri cum pastore pugnant. 

A. — Non-ne pastor multitudinem timet ? 

H. — ^AmerTcanus est. Americani non terrentur multitudine. 

A. — Ducem-ne habent pueri? 

H. — Habent ducem egregium, Carolum nostrum. 

A. — Quae est causa contentionis? 

H. — Pastor pueros accusat f urti florum.^ 

A. — Pueri taeent. Num terrentur? Habent-ne pacem? 

H. — Vulneratus est homo ; in gramine iaeet. Pueri homi- 

nem circumdant. 
A. — Est pastor. Poenam dabunt* pueri. 
H. — Vulnus non est periculosum; nam surgit homo et 

ambulat. 
A. — Pueri vulnere pastoris terrentur et terga dant.' Non- 

ne equites appropinquant ? 
H. — Sunt custodes luci. Pueri salutem in fuga petunt 

14 !• Translate the following questions and answer thetn 
in Latin, 

1. Quae est causa magni clamoris? 2. Num multi in 
luco sunt pueri? 3. Non-ne pueri timent custodes luci? 
4 Est-ne noster Carolus dux puerorum? 5. Non-ne est 
Carolus dux egregius? 6. Num pastor in gramine iaeet? 

1 FurtI fl5rum. of stealing floioera ; literally, of the theft of flowen. Verbs 
of AcvasiNO take the C^enitive of the crime. 

* Poenam dabunt, will suffer punishment^ vdU he punished ; literally, wiU 
give satisfaction. " Terga dant, flee ; literally, give or turn their backs. 



CLASS II.— i-STEMS. 



73 



LESSON XXVII. 



THIRD DECLENSION.—CLASS IL—1-^TEM8. 



Class IL — ^I-Stems. 

142. Stems endiis^g is I. — Nouns in is and Ss, not 

increasing in the Genitive.^ 



Turris, p., 


Ignis, M., 


Hostis, M. ft F 


'., Ntibes, F., 




tower. 


fire. 


enemy. 


cloud. 






SINGULAR. 




CASB-BNDTNO.> 


Nom. turris 


ignis 


hostis 


nub4&s 


is, 4&S 


Gen, turris 


ignis 


hostis 


nubis 


is 


Dat, turri 


ignl 


hosti 


nubl 


I 


Ace, turrim, em 


ignem 


hostem 


nubem 


int, em 


Voc, turris 


Ignis 


hostis 


nub^s 


is 


Ahl, turn, e 


ignl,e 


hoste 


nube 


I,« 




PLURAU 






Norn, turr4&s 


ign4&s 


host4&s 


nub4&s 


«s 


Qen, turrium 


Igniniit 


hostium 


nubinnt 


inm 


DcU, turribus 


ignibus 


hostibus 


nubibns 


ibns 


Ace, turrCs, Is 


IgnCs, Is 


hostCs, Is 


nub«s, Is 


«s,ls 


Voc, turr€s 


ign4&s 


hostCs 


niib4&s 


«s 


Ahl, turribns 


Ignibus 


hostibns 


niibibus 


ibns 




143. Vocabulary. 




aYl8,aTi8,/.» 




bird. 






civis, ciris, m, and /. 


citizen. 




cim-l. 


elassis, classis, /. 




class, fleet, 


navy. 


clusa. 


eoUis, collis, m. 




hill. 






naris, naris, /.* 




ship. 




navy. 


naris longra, naris longrae, /. 


ship of war, long ship.' 





1 That is, haying as many syllables in the Nominative Sin^lar as in the 
Genitive Singular. 

* In the Paradioms observe that the stems are turrit igni^ hoati, and ntlbu 
bat that the final i is changed to e in em and e, and disappears by contraction 
in €b. 

* Decline avis^ civis, ddssia^ and coUia like ignis, 

* Decline ndvia like turris. 

* For the form and appearance of ancient shij» of war, see Plate HI, page 74. 



74 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



eaedes, eaedis, /. 
clfides, cladis, /. 
nnbes, nnbis, /. 


slaughter, 
disaster, defeat, 
cloud. 




altitudo, altitddinis, /. 
comes, eomitis, m, and /. 
mains, a, um, 
nnmerus, I, m. 


height, altitude, 
companion, associate, 
bad, vicious, 
number. 


altitude 
number. 



144. Translate into English. 

1. Ubi est turris pulchra? In oppido sunt turres altae et 
pulchrae. 

2. Hostes nostri multas turres habent. 

3. In turribus altis sunt multi milites. 

4. Est-ne altitude turrium magna ? Non est magna. 

6. Pugnant-ne f ortiter vestri hostes? Hostium nostrorum 
numerus est magnus. Fortiter pugnant 

6. Non-ne vestri cives magnam hostium multitudinem 
timent? Nostri cives nunquam timent hostes. 

7. Non-ne pax vestris civibus est iucunda? Nostris civi- 
bus pax semper est iucunda. 

8. Habent-ne hostes multas naves ? Multas naves longas 
habent. 

9. Ubi est dux hostium ? Est in turri alta. 

10. Bellum civibus nostris non est gratum. 

11. Duces hostium milites nostros laudant. 

12. Ubi sunt av6s pulchrae ? In horto nostro sunt multae 
et pulchrae aves. 

13. Nubes nautis non sunt iucundae. 

14. Sunt-ne in Graecia multi coUes? Multi et alti colles 
in Graecia sunt. 



145. Translate into Latin, 

1. Who is the leader of the enemy? The king is the 
leader of the enemy. 

2. Has the leader of the enemy many ships? He has a 
large number of ships. Kings often have large navies. 



Plate m. 



LGOMMAMDER, 2LlBnTBNANT. 3,Genturion. 4.LlCT0n . 

5.Vuu)Vbssels. O^ercbantVessbi., I.Bqats. 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



75 



3. Is your fleet large ? It is not large. 

4. The number of our ships of war is known to the enemy. 
6. Was not the slaughter great? The slaughter of the 

cavalry was great. 

6. The enemy are terrified by the defeat of their cavalry. 

7. Good citizens always love their country. 

8. The judge is always praising our citizens. 

9. Good judges are always praised by our citizens. 

10. Do not our enemies praise the valor of our soldiers? 
The valor of our soldiers is praised by our enemies. 

11. Bad citizens often have bad associates. 

12. Are not clouds often beautiful? Clouds are often 
praised by famous poets. 

13. There are magnificent temples and lofty towers in the 
large towns. 



LESSON XXVIII. 

THIRD DECLENSION,— CLASS IL— 1-8 TE MS.— NOUNS AND 

ADJECTIVES. 



146. Stems ending in I. — . 

Cubile, eotich. Animal, animal. 



Keuters in e, al, and ar. 

Calcar, spur. 







BinUULtAK. 




CASB-ENDINOB. 


JNom, 


cubile 


animal 


calcar 


^ 1 


Gm. 


cubilis 


animalis 


calcarls 


is 


Dai. 


cubill 


animall 


calcarl 


I 


Aec. 


cubile 


animal 


calcar 


e— 


Voe. 


cubile 


animal 


calcar 


e— 


Abl. 


cubill 


animall 

PLURAL. 


calcan 


I ■ 


Nom, 


cubilla 


animSlla 


calcaria 


ia 


Gen. 


cubilinm 


animallnm 


calcarinm 


inm 


Dai. 


cubilibns 


animSlibns 


calcaribus 


ibits 


Ace. 


cubilla 


animalla 


calcaria 


ia 


Voe. 


cubilla 


animSlla 


calcaria 


ia 


Abl 


cubilibus 


animfilibiis 


calcaribns 


ibas 



> The dash here means that, the caae-endiog is sometimes wanting. 



76 THIRD DECLENSION. 

1. In the Paradigms observe — 

1) That the stem-ending i is changed to a in the Nominative, 
Accusative, and Vocative Singular of cuM/«, and dropped in the same 
cases of animal (for animale) and calcar (for ccUcdre), 

2) That the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative are alike, and 
end in the plural in ia, 

147. As some nouns in is, as hostis, are both mascu- 
line and feminine, so some adjectives in is are both mascu- 
line and feminine ; as, txlstis, sady fltilis, useful 

148. These adjectives in is are declined like hostis, 
except in the ablative singular, where they take I, not e ; 
as, tristl. 

Write out the declension of utilis, masculine and feminine, in 
fuU. See 142 and 175. 

148. As neuter nouns in e are declined like cublle, 
so neuter adjectives in e are declined in the same way. 

1. Like oublla decline the neuter adjective Utile, uaefiU See 146 
and 175. 

2. Decline together fLtilis oXyJa, a u&eful citizen; utilis 15jc, a use^ 
ful law; fitile animal^ a useftU animal. 



LESSON XXIX. 

TIUBD DECLENSION.— I'STEMS,— If 0UN8 AND ADJECTTVES. 

150. Vocabulary. 

animal, animalis, n. animaL animai. 

calear, ealcaris, n. spur. 

mare, maris, n. sea. moH-iimQ» 

Athenae, amm, /. pi* Athens, a famous city of Greece. 
Minerva, ae, /. Minerva, goddess of wisdom. 

fertilis, fertile, fertile. fertile. 

fortis, forte, brave, valiant. /(w/t-tude. 

omnis, omne, all, every. omnihua. 

fitilis, utile, useful. utili-tj,, 

Tastns, Tasta, yastum, vast, immense. vast. 



NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. T7 

161. Translate into English. 
1. Quis nunc mare timet? Multi elves mare nostrum 

timent. 
3. N6n-ne omnia maria interdum aunt nautie pericnlosa? 

Fenculosa sunt. 

3. NoD-ne Tastum est mare? Multa maria sunt Tasta. 

4. Habet-ne prinoeps calcaria au- 
rea? Calcaria priiicipls nSa 
sunt aorea. 

fi. Non-ne calcaria rggis restri 
aurea sunt? Aurea sunt Be- 
gSs ititerdum aurea calc&ria 
habent. 

6. Non-ne animalia sunt magna? 
Multa animalia sunt magna et 
pulclira. 

7. Ubi sunt animalia? In agris 
est magna animalium multi- 
tudo. 

8. Multa et magna anim&lia ho- 
minibus sunt iitilia. 

9. Animalium vana sunt genera. 

10. In maribus multa et varia sunt 
genera animalium. 

11. N5n-ne Ifiggs sunt Qtil5B? Lfi- 
ges bonae bominibua omnibus 
sunt utiles. 

12. Libripuoris omnibus suntutiles. 

13. Non-ne vestri agri sunt fertiles? M^ostri agri sunt 
fer tiles. 

14. Non-ne agricolae agria fertilibua delectantur? Agns 
fertilibua semper delectantur. 

15. Non-ne milites veatri sunt fortes? Semper sunt 
fortes. 

16. Minerva fuit cnstOs AthSn&mm. 



78 THIRD DECLENSION. 

162. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who has golden spurs? The cavalry of the enemy 
have beautiful spurs. 

2. Are there many animals in Europe? There are in 
Europe many kinds of animals. 

3. Were many animals known to the ancient inhabitants 
of Europe? Many kinds of animals were known to the 
Bomans. 

4. Are not many kinds of animals useful to farmers? 
Many animals are useful to all men. 

6. Is not the sea often praised by brave sailors? Many 
sailors are always praising the sea. 

6. Are many seas known to our sailors? Many seas are 
known to all sailors. 

7. Are not our brave soldiers praised by poets? Poets 
always praise brave soldiers. 

8. The wounds of our brave soldiers are many and dan- 
gerous. 

9. Brave soldiers always love brave commanders. 

10. Have your instructors many books? Our instructors 
have many useful books. 

11. Are not games pleasing to all boys? All boys are de- 
lighted with games. 

12. Is not the country dear to all the citizens? All good 
citizens love their country. 

153. Vocabulary. 

Gallia, Galliae, /. Gaul, the province of Gaol. 

Oalli, Oallornm, m. Gauls, the inhabitants of Gaul. 

Gallicns, a, nm, Gallic, belonging to Gaul. 

Bhenns, Bheni, m. Rhine, the river Rhine. 

igitnr, eonj, therefore, accordingly. 

trans, pr^, vnlh ace, across, on the other side. 
tr&ns Bhenum, across the Rhine, on the other 

side of the Rhine. 



CLASS II.— i-STEM& 



79 





VERBS. 




occnpat, 


(he) seizes, takes possession of. 


occupy. 


occupant, 


(they) seize, take possession of. 




Tidet, 


(he) sees. 


pro-vide. 


yident, 


(they) see. 




trans-eunt, 


(they) cross, go over. 





164s. The Gauls and the Germans. 

In Gallia sunt agricolae multi. Agros fertiles habent. 
Germani, Gallorum hostes, oppida trans Ehenum habent, 
sed agros fertiles non habent. Germani Ehenum transeunt 
et agros Gallorum vident ; f ertilibus Gallorum agris delec- 
tantur. Cum Gallis igitur pugnant et agros Galileos occu- 
pant. Nunc Germani agros fertiles habent. 



LESSON XXX. 



rmSD DECLENSION.— CLASS n.—l-STEMS. 

166. Stems ending in I. — Nouns in s and z gen- 



erally preceded by a 


consonant. 








Cliens, M. 


Urbs, p.. 


Arx, p., 


MflS, M. 




clievU, 


city, 

SINGUTiAR. 


citadel. 


mouse. 


Nom, 


cliens 


urbs 


arx 


mus 


Qen, 


clientis 


urbls 


arcis 


murls 


DaU 


clintl 


urbl 


arcl 


mun 


Ace, 


clientem 


urbem 


arcem 


murem 


Voc. 


cliens 


urbs 


arx 


mus 


Ahl, 


cliente 


urbe 

PLURAL. 


arce 


mure 


Nom. 


client4&s 


urb«s 


arcCs 


mur4&s 


Gen, 


clientinm 


urblnnt 


arcimn 


milriiim 


Dat. 


clientlbus 


urblbns 


arcibns 


muribus 


Ace. 


client4&9, Is 


urb4&s, Is 


arc4&s, Is 


miir4&s, Is 


Voc. 


client^s 


urb4&s 


areas' 


mur4&s 


Abl. 


clientlbus 


urbibns 


arcibns 


mQribus 



80 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



1. Observe that these nouns are declined in the singular precisely 
like consonant-stems, and in the plural precisely like all other mascu- 
line and feminine i-stems.* 

1B6, Summary of I-stems. — To I-stems belong — 

1. All nouns in is and Ss which do not increase in the 
Genitive. 

2. Neuters in e, al (for Slis), and ax (for firis). 

3. Many nouns in 8 and z preceded by a consonant. 

N<lte« — ^Many names of towns have a Locative (40, 4) ending in i or e 
in the singular and in ilras in the plural : TOmrl or TOyore, (U Tibur / 
Cnribus, at Cure», 





167. Vocabulary. 




fSns, fontis, m. 


fountain. 


/oun/-ain. 


mens, montis, m. 


mountain. 


mowfU-H\r\n 


p5n9, pontis, m. 


bridge. 


pont-oon. 


ars, artis, /. 


skill, art. 


a/rt. 


mors, mortis, /. 


death. 


mort-BL 


pars, partis,/. 


part 


part 


urbSjUrbis,/. 


city. 


aub-urbs. 


arx, arcis, /. 


citadeL 




aqua, aquae,/. 


water. 


ctqiM-tio. 


frigidos, a, nm, 


cold. 


frigid. ' 


olim, 


formerly, once upon a time. 

VERBS. 




aediflcat, 


(he) builds. 


edifice. 


aediflcant, 


(they) build. 




habitat. 


(he) dwells, lives. 


JidbitchtioiL 


habitant, 


(they) dwell, live. 





168. Translate into English. 

1. TJbi habitat medicus yesterP In urbe nostra habitat. 

2. Est-ne pulchra urbs vestra ? TJrbs nostra saepe laudatur. 

3. Sunt-ne multae urbes in America? American! urb^s 
semper aediflcant. 

4. TJbi sunt statuae? Sunt in multis urbis partibus. 

> The stems are niienH^ client ; urbi, wrb ; arci, are ; mflW, mas. 



CLASS II.— i-STEMS. 81 

6. Sunt-ne montiis in America? Sunt montes mnlti et 
alti. 

6. In montibuB sunt multi fontes. 

7. FontSs aquae frigidae animjUibns grati et utiles sunt 

8. UbI est Corinthaa? In Graecia est. Olira m&gna et 
pulchra urbs f uit 

9. Olim fnerunt in Graecia multae et pulchrae urbes. 



The Aeroptait. or citadel Of Athem.* 

10. GermSni turribna altis urbes interdura ornani 

11. Omn@s artes bonas docti homings amant. 

12. Multae artes Graecia et RomflnTs n6tae fuSrunt. 

13. Anc Athenanim alta et mftgna fuit. 

14. TJbi fuit templum Minervaef Non-ne in Graecifl fuitf 
In arce Atbgnilram fuit 

15. Nostri militSs fortSa mftgnam nrbis partem occupant. 
Occupant-ne pontem f Pontes omuOs occupant. 

169. Translate into Latin. 
1. Is not onr fountain beautiful ? Your fountain is large 

and beautiful, 
%. There are ten largo and beautiful fountains in our city. 



82 THIRD DECLENSION. 

3. Is not our fountain often praised by the citizens? All 
the citizens praise your beautiful fountain. 

4. The citizens are now adorning many parts of our city 
with fountains. 

5. There were famous fountains in Greece. 

6. Famous poets often praise beautiful fountains. 

7. Our soldiers are seizing the citadel of the enemy. 

8. Do not our brave soldiers fear death ? They never fear 
the enemy. 

9. The citizens are adorning their bridge with a large 
fountain. 

10. The Germans adorn their large cities with statues and 
fountains. 

11. The names of many famous cities are known to Henry. 

12. Are many arts known to the Germans? All good arts 
are known to the Germans. 



LESSON XXXI. 

AN INTEEBSTINQ ANECDOTE,— TBE PRINCE AND THE 

JUDGE. 

160. Vocabulary. 



apnd, prep, mth ace. 


before, in presence of, among. 




Britanni, Britann5- 


the Britons, inhabitants of Great 


rum, f7».p?tir. 


Britain. 




catSna, ae,/. 


chain. 




dSlIetnm, 1, n. 


fault, offense. 




Galas, i!, m. 


Gains. 




gladins, il, m. 


sword. 


gladi'&tor. 


invenis, is, m. 


youth, young man. 


fuveni'le. 


post, prep, with cice. 


after, behind. 


post'Scnpt. 


qu&rtiis, a, um, 


fourth. 


guarU 


qnlntus, a, am. 


fifth. 




turn, adv. 


then, at that time. 




Tenia, ae, /. 


pardon, grace. 





AN INTERESTING ANECDOTE. 83 

VERBS. 

amayit, (he) loved. 

habnit, (he) had. 

negat, (he) denies, refuses. nega-tiye, 

negant, (they) deny, refuse. 

postulat, (he) asks, demands. 

postulant, (they) ask, demand. 

gtringity (he) draws, unsheathes. 

Tincit, (he) binds. 

161. Prince Henry and Judge Gascoigne. 

Henricus Quartus, rex Britannorum, filium Henricum 
habuit.* luvenis ignavus fuit et males comites amavit. 

Forte cives Gaium amicum principis apud iudicem 
f urti * accusant. Princeps Henricus veniam delicti ^ postu- 
lat, sed itidex, vir fortis et bonus, veniam negat. Princeps 
igitur gladium stringit. Tum index fortis iuvenem catenis 
vincit. 

Post mortem patris, iuvenis Henricus, iam rex creatus,* 
dat iudici magna praemia. Nunc princeps Henricus et 
iudex bonus ab omnibus civibus laudantur. 

162. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Quis fuit pater principis Henrici? 2. Non-ne fuit 
rex clarus? 3. Non-ne r6x, Henricus Quartus, a poeta 
magno* laudatur? 4. Quis fuit Gains? 6. Num rex malos 
principis comites amavit? 6. Quis post mortem Henrici 
Quart! fuit rex Britannorum ? 7. Quis ab omnibus civibus 
nunc laudatur? 

» Henricum, i. e., prince Henry ^ afterward Henry Fifths King of England. 

• Furti ; see foot-note on fUrtl flSrum^ 140. 

* Veniam delicti, the pardon of the offense^ i. e., of the offense of his friend 
Gaiua. 

« lam rSz creStus, who was aireouiy king ; literally, having tUready been 
made king. 

B X po§tfi magnd ; see Shakspeare's King Henry the Fourth. 



81 THIRD DECLENSION. 

LESSON XXXll. 

TUinO DE0LEmi01<l.—aENDEB.~FREP0SJTI01SS. 

Gendeb in the Third Declension.' 

163. Masculines. — Nouna ending in 0, or, 68, er, ea, 
and in 6r increasing in the Genitive. 

164. Peuinines. — Nouns ending in SB, la, X, in 6s 
not increasing in the Genitive, and in ■ preceded bj a 
consonant. 

166, Kelters. — Nouns ending in a, e, o, 1, n, t, ar, 
ur, 118. 



A Soman Kkool. 

166. Examine the following sentences : 
1. Marena ad Carolura Bcribit, Mareita is writing to Charlee. 

3. Apud iadices accilsStur. He is accused bepobb thejvdgeg, 
S. Puer dfi virtDte eeribit. The boy is uniting about virtue. 

4. MilitSsprB patrii pugnant The soldiers arc fighting fob their 

country. 
In these exam plea observe — 
1. That ad, to, apnd, before, dS, about, and prB, for, are Pbeposi- 



11 (97) may be eieepHoni 



PREPOSITIONS. 



85 



2. That the nouns after the prepositions ad and apad are in the 
Aecuaatiwi, while those after d5 and pr5 are in the Ablative, From 
these and other examples we derive the following rale : 



BUIiE X X X H L— Caees with Firepositiaiuu 

The Accusative and Ablative may be used with prepo- 
Bitions.^ 

167. Vocabulary. 

PREPOSITIONS WITH ACCUSATIVE. 



ad, 


to, toward, near, at. 


at. 


ante, 


before, in front of. 


ante-room. 


inter, 


between, among. 

PREPOSITIONS WITH ABLATIVE. 


»n/er-twine. 


de, 


in regard to, concerning, about. 


from. 


pro. 


for, in behalf of. 


^o-noun. 


aqnila, ae, /. 


eagle. 




eapnt, capitis, n. 


head, capital. 


capit'^X, 


facilis, e, 


easy. 


facili-ij. 


flamen, flnminis. 


river, stream. 




Oermania, ae, /. 


Germany. 




orbis, is, m. 


ring, circle, circuit. 


orb. 


orbis terrarnm. 


circle of the lands, the world. 




gehola, ae, /. 


school. 


school. 


silra, ae, /. 


wood, forest. 


sf/lva-Tu 


terra, ae, /. 


land, earth. 

VERBS. 




dieit, 


(he) speaks, talks, says. 




dicnnt. 


(they) speak, talk, say. 





168. Translate into English, 

1. Carolus, frater tuus, de leonibus scribit. 

2. Quis de avibus scribit? liilia, tua sorer, de passeribus 
scribit at multi pueri de aquila Americana scribunt. 

3. Non-ne tuus f rcLter ad tuam matrem scribit ? Ad meam 
matrem de schola scribit. 



> In the Vocabulary, each preposition, as It occurs, will be marked as such ; 
and the case which may be used with it will be specified. 



86 TBIRD DECLENSION. 

4. Praeceptor epistulam ad tunm patrem aci^it. 

5. Ubi est flumen RhenuB? Bh^nusest inter Oalliam et 
Germaniam. 

6. Milit^B fortes semper 
pr6 patria ' f ortiter 
plignaat. 

7. Nostri mercatureB ante 
bellum erant be&ti. 

8. UbI sunt hoates ? Snnt 
post BilTam. 

9. Virtus militum ab fira- 
toribus saepe laad&tnr. 

10. UbI est Marcus f Eat 
cum nostro praecep- 
t5re. 

11. Vestram opns, pneri, 
est facile. 

12. Xlrba Rdma caput orbis 

terrarum fuit. statue of Somt. mittrtti of the worid* 

169. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who is writing a letter to my father ? Toiir teacher is 
writing a letter to your mother. 

2. Who is fighting for liberty?* The slaves are fighting 
for liberty. 

3. Is not the girl writing a letter to her mother? She is 
writing a letter to her sisters. She is writing about her 
many friends. 

4. The sailors are tatting about the ships. 

5. The citizens are talking about the war. 

6. Phidippus was a slave before the war. 

7. The soldiers were happy after the victory. 

" Pra wltli tbe Bblative nie«ns for, in beSnV of-, it dtfmte of, etc Note the 
difference la meaDlDg betveen pr6 vdih tht ablativt ftnd the tlmplt dative, de- 
doUdk tha Itidinct Object ; see W. 

< Seated upon tiie Capltollne Rock. • U>e pra vltb tlie Ablative. 



SOMETHING ABOUT ANIMALS. 



87 



8. All the citizens are talking about the bravery of our 
soldiers. 

9. Who is accused before^ the judge? A sailor is accused. 
10. Where is your brother? He is in school. 

il. What is your brother reading in school ? He is reading 
the works of Caesar. 





LESSON XXXIII. 




SOMETHING ABOXTT ANIMALS. 






170. Vocabulary. 




lMca,ae,/. 


Africa. 




Asia, ae, /. 


Asia. 




bestia, ae, /. 


beast, animal. 


heai^. 


elephantns, I, m. 


elephant. 


elephant. 


India, ae, /. 


India. 




onus, oneris, n. 


burden, load. 




piscis, piseis, m. 


fish. 




docills, docile, 


docile, teachable. 


doetle. 


graris, grare. 


heavy, weighty. 

VERBS 


gra/vi-tj. 


arat, 


(he) plows. 


ara-ble. 


arant, 


(they) plow. 




portat, 


(he) bears, carries. 


jpor^o-ble. 


portant, 


(they) bear, carry. 





171. Something about Animals. 

Animalium genera varia sunt. Homines et bcstiae et 
aves et pisces sunt animalia. Rex animalium est homd. 
Homines oppida, urbes, naves aedificant. Multi homines 
in urbibus habitant. Mult! homines agricolae sunt ; multi 
sunt milites. Agricolae agros arant; militcs pro patria 
pugnant. 

> Use apud ; see 160. Ante is the ordinary word In the sense of before In 
time or place, while apud means before^ in the presence qA etc. 



88 THIRD DECLENSION. 

Leo est rex bestiarum. In Asia sunt multi leones. In 
Africa et in Asia multa sunt bestiarum genera. Leones in 
multis Asiae partibus agricolas saepe terrent. In libris 
poetarum multae sunt fabulae de leonibus. Multae de 
leonibus fabulae pueris nostris ndtae sunt. 

In silvis Africae et Indiae sunt multi elephant!. Omni- 
bus pueris elephant! sunt not!. Mult! elephant! sunt doei- 
les et utiles. Onera gravia saepe portant. 

Bex avium est aquila. Multa sunt avium genera in 
mult!8 partibus Asiae et Africae et Europae. In omnibus 
Americae partibus sunt multae aves. Puer! et puellae aves 
pulchras semper amant. Aquila Americana omnibus pueris 
Amerlcanis est nota. 

172. Traiislate the following questions and answer thein 
in Latin. 

1. Sunt-ne multa animalium genera pueris nota? 2. 
Quid aedificant homines? 3. Ubi habitant agricolae? 4. 
Sunt-ne homines animalia ? 5. Num omnia animalia sunt 
homines? 6. Num puer! fabulas de leonibus saepe legunt? 
7. Non-ne discipull de avibus saepe scrlbunt? 8. Sunt-ne 
multae aves in vestrls hortis? 



LESSON XXXIV. 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

173. Adjectives of the third declension may be divided 
into three classes : 

I. Those which have in the Nominative Singular three 
different forms — one for each gender. 

II. Those which have two forms — the masculine and 
feminine being the same. 

III. Those which have but one form — the same for all 
genders. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 



89 



174. Adjectives of Three Endings in this declen- 
sion have the stem in 1, and are declined as follows : 











Acer, sharp. 












SINGULAR. 








iiAsa 




FEX. 


NSUT. 




Nom, 


acer 




acris 


acre 




Oen. 


acris 




acris 


acris 




Dai. 


acn 




acn 


acn 




Ace. 


ficrem 




acrem 


acre 




Voc, 


acer 




acris 


acre 




AhL 


acrl 




ficn 

FLURAT.. 


jScn 




Nom. 


acres 




acres 


acria 




Gen, 


acrinnt 


acrinm 


acrinm 




Dot. 


acri1»iis 


acribns 


acribns 




Ace, 


ficr^s, 


IS 


acres, is 


acria 




Voc, 


acres 




acres 


acria 




AM. 


acri1»iis 


acribns 


acribns 


175. Adjectives of Two Endings are 


declined as 


follows : 












Tristis, sad,^ 




Tristior, sadder 


1 

• 










SINGULAR. 






K. ANDF. 


NBUT. 


M. ANDF. 


NEUT. 


Nom. 


tristis 


triste 


tristior 


tristius 


Gen, 


tristis 


tristis 


tristioris 


tristioris 


DaL 


tristl 




tristl 


tristiorl 


tristiort 


Ace, 


tristem 


triste 


tristiorem. 


tristius 


VOC: 


tristis 


triste 


tristior 


tristius 


Abl 


tristl 




tristl 


tristiore (1) » 

PLURAL. 


tristiore (1) 


Nom, 


trist«s 


tristiA 


tristiores 


tristiora 


Oen, 


tristimn 


tristimn tristidntm 


tristiomm 


Dot. 


tristi1»iui 


tristibns tristioribns 


tristioribns 


Ace, 


tristis, Is 


tristia 


tristidres (Is) 


tristiora 


Voc 


tristis 


tristia 


tristiores 


tristiora 


All. 


tristibns 


tristibns tristioribns 


tristioribns 



1 Tristia and trUte are declined like dcris and dcre. Triatior is the com- 
parative of trUtis, * Inclosed endings are rare. 



90 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



LESSON XXXV. 
ADJECTIVES or THE THIRD DECLENSION. 





176. Vocabulary. 




Seer, acris, acre. 


active, spirited, fierce. 




celeber, eelebris, 






celebre, 


frequented, populona, celebrated. 


cdebri-tj. 


celer, celeris, eelere, 


, quick, swift, fast, speedy. 


celeri-tj. 


eqnester, eqnestris, 






eqnestr^, 


of cavalry, equestrian. 


equeatri'BXL 


pedester, pedestris, 






pedestre, 


of infantry, pedestrian. 


pedestrt-^axu 


anxilinm, il, n. 


help, aid. 


auxtlia-ry. 


anxilia, plur. 


auxiliaries. 




copia, ae, /. 


abundance, plenty. 


copi-ous. 


Gopiae, i?/ttr. 


forces, troops. 




Diana, ae, /. 


Diana, the goddess of the moon. 




Ephesius, a, nm. 


of Ephesus, Ephesian. 




nomen, nominis, n. 


name, title. 

VERBS. 


nominskte. 


natat, 


(he) swims, is swimming. 




natant, 


(they) swim, are swimming. 





177. Synonyms. 

Fortifl, acer ; hravCf spirited. 

1. Fortis ; manly, steadfast, brave, valiant — in character. 

2. Aeer; spirited, fierce, brave — in spirit and feeling. 

178. Translate into English. 

1. Non-ne Koma est urbs Celebris? Roma antiqua fuit 
nrbs Celebris. 

2. Corinthus fuit Celebris Graeciae nrbs. 

3. In Italia et Graecia f uerunt urbes multae et celebres. 

4. Est-ne nomen Caesaris celebre ? Celebria sunt nomina 
Caesaris et Ciceronis. 

6. Non-ne duces hostium sunt acres ? Sunt acres. 
6. Nostri milites sunt acres et fortes. 



ADJECTIVES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION. 91 

7. Sunt in nostra urbe multae atatuae equestrfis. 

8. Civea equeatribns atataia delectantur. 

9. Pueri de equestribua atatuis saepe scrlbunt. 

10. In Eur5p& sunt multae urbes pulchrae et celebrfis. 

11. Roma, Celebris Italiae urbs, virorum fortiam patria fuit. 

12. Equi celeres delectant fortga 
equitea. 

13. Equitea acres equis eeleribua 
delectantur. 

14. N4v6a classia Rdmfinae celeres 
fuenint. 

15. Clarum et eelebre fuit templum 
Bianae Ephesiae. 

16. Tlbi est Oarolus? In fiumine 
natat. 

17. Pueri saepe in flamine natant. 

178. Translate into Latin. 

1. Where ia the equestrian statue 
of the king? It is in our 
city. 

S. Ia not the king pleased vith 
hia equeatrian statue? Kinga 
are alwaya pleased with equea- 
tnan sHitues. ^ ,„^^ „^ ^^ ,^^ ^^^^^ 

3. Are there many equestrian stat- 
ues in Europe? There are equestrian statues in many 
parts of Europe. 

4. Do the enemy's cavalry (equestrian forces) fight brave- 
ly? They always fight bravely. They are brave and 
spirited. 

5. The enemy praise our cavalry. 

6. All the soldiers are speaking about the equeatrian statue 
of the king, 

7. The boya are writing about the temple of Diana. 



93 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



8. Our soldiers were brave and spirited. 

9. Our brave soldiers are waiting for* your help. 

10. Our brave and spirited leaders expect a speedy vic- 
tory. 

11. Are your horses fast? They are not fast, but they are 
large and spirited. 

12. Was not Diana the sister of Apollo ? She was the sister 
of Apollo. 

LESSON XXXVI. 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 

180. Adjectives op One Ending* generally end in 
8 or x^ but sometimes in I or r. 



181. Audax, 1 


wudacious.^ 


Felix, happy.* 




SINGULAR. 






K. AKDF. 


KKUT. 


M. AND F. 


NKUT. 


Nom. audax 


audax 


fSlTx 


felix 


Oen, audacis 


audacis 


felicis 


felicis 


Dat audaci 


audaci 


ielicl 


felicl 


Ace, audacem 


audSx 


fellcem 


felix 


Voc. audax 


audax 


felix 


felix 


AbL audaci (e) 


audaci (e) 

PLURAL. 


felicl (e) 


felicl (e) 


Nom, audacSs 


audaclA 


felicSs 


folicia 


Gen. aud&ciiuii 


audacinm 


fellciniift 


felicinnt 


Dat aud&cil^its 


audScAi!.» 


fellci1»iis 


felici1»as 


Ace. audac^s (Is) 


audacla 


felicta (10) 


felicia 


Voc. audacSs 


audacia 


felicOs 


felicia 


Abl. audacI1»its 


audaci1»iui 


felicibns 


felici1»iis 



1 Remember that are waiting for is to be rendered by a single Latin verb, 
and that the verb governs the Accusative. 

* These are called adjectives of one ending because in the Nominative 8ing%k- 
lar they have only one form— the same for all genders. Thus, auddx may be 
masculine^ feminine^ or neuter; see 178. 

* Observe that i in the Ablative Singular, and in, ium^ and la in the Plural, 
are the regular case-endings for t-stems. See 142 and 146. 



ADJECTIVES OP THE THIRD DECLENSION. 



93 



182. AmSxis, lovinff. 



Prudens, prudent, 

SINGULAR. 



M. AMDF. 

Nom, amans 
Oen, amantifi 
Dat. amaDtl 
Aee, amantem 
Voe. amans 
Abl, amante (1) 



KBOT. 

amans 

amantifi 

amanti 

amans 

amans 

amante (I) 

PLURAL. 



amantia 

amantinin 

amantil^ns 



K. ANDF. 

prudens 

prQdentis 

prudenti 

prudentem 

prudens 

prddentl (e) 

prudentSs 

prudentinnt 

prQdentil» 



NBUT. 

prudens 

prudentis 

prudenti 

prudens 

prudens 

prudenti (e) 

prudentia 

prudentium 

prudentib 



Ifom, amantl^s 

Oen. amantinnt 

DaL amanti1»iui 

Aec. amantSs (Is) amantia 

Voe. amant^s amantia 

Abl. amanti1»as amanti1»iui 

Note.— The participle amdns differs in declension from the adjective 
prOdma only in the Ablative Singular, where the participle usually has the 
ending e, and the a4jective, L 



prudent^» (Is) priidentia 
prudent^s prudentia 

prudenti1»as prudentib 



LESSON XXXVII. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 





183. Vocabulary. 




atrox, atrSeis, 


savage, fieroe, cruel. 




andax, andacis, 


bold, daring. 




infSlix, infSlicis, 


unhappy, unfortunate. 




dlligSns, dlligentis, 


diligent, industrious. 


diligent^ 


ingens, iogentis, 


great, huge, vast. 




sapiens, sapientis, 


wise. 




eampiis, I, m. 


plain. 




c5nsal, cSnsnlis, m. 


consul, a chief magistrate of 






the Roman Republic 


conauL 


dea, ae, /. 


goddess. 




diyitiae, arnm, /. 


riches, wealth. 




forum, 1, n. 


forum, market-place. 




Improbns, a, nm, 


wicked, unjust. 




ifistitia, ae,/. 


justice. 


juetiee. 


plemmqne, adv. 


generally, for the most part. 




pftgrna, ae,/. 


battle, fight. 


pugna-ciovia. 



04 THIBD DECLENSION. 

MarathSnlns, a, nm, of Marathon. 

Persae, PersSmin, m.plur. the Persians. 

1 84. Translate into English. 

1. Quis felix est? HominJ^s boni plerumque sunt felicSs, 

2. Homings improbi eaepe Infelices sunt. 

3. Qnis discipulds diligentSe Undat? Magiatri sapientSa 
discipalos diligentes saepe laudant. 

4. Discipuli diligentes JL magiatria sapientibua laudaQtnr. 

5. Cdnstil fnit a&pi&ns. 

6. Apad Rom^QoB Minerva fuit dea sapientiae. 



TKe Forvm, JoiMng vml. ': 

7. In lAbulIs po5t&rum Minerva eat sapiSna et omiieB viros ; 
sapientSs amat et landat. '. 

8. Habet-ne rox multaa naves? Eex Peraftram ingentem ' 
n avium nnmemm habet, 

9. Atr5x fuit pugna Gra«c5rum et Peraaram in campo 
Marathonio. 

10. IngenB fuit numerus Persarum in pugna Marathonia. 

11. Bella Graecdrum et Persarum fuerunt acria. 

13. Non-ne bella saepe sunt acria? Plerumque aunt ficria, 



A DIALOGUE. ^5 

13. Non-ne tempora nostra felicia sunt? Su'it f elicia. 

14. Ubi, Carole, est frater tuus? Est in foro. MultT 
homines in ford sunt. Consulem exspectant. 

185. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who was consul? Marcus, a good and wise man, was 
consul. 

2. Does Marcus love his country ? He loves his country 
greatly. Good and wise men always love their country. 

3. Have the leaders of the enemy many soldiers ? They 
have a vast number of soldiers. 

4. Are the ships of the enemy large? The enemy have 
huge ships. 

6. In the huge ships of the enemy are many daring sailors. 

6. Do wise men often fear justice ? Good and wise men 
do not fear justice. 

7. Do not fathers often praise their diligent sons ? Wise 
fathers often give rewards to their diligent sons. 

>^8. Good and wise men are often praised by orators. 
)^. Where was the battle of Marathon? It was on (in) the 
plain of Marathon. 

/0. Where is the plain of Marathon? It is a celebrated 
plain in Greece. 



LESSON XXXVIII. 

A DIALOGUE. 

186. Vocabulary. 

difficnltas, difficnltfitis, /. difficalty. difficulty. 

dlscrimeo, diserlminis, n. distance, interval. diacrimin-dX^ 

pertnrbatio, perturba- 

tioniSy /. confusion, disturbance. 

pr5mi8Ciie, ctdv. confusedly, in confusion. 

remStns, a, nm, separate, apart. remote. 

Yita, ae, /. life. w^o-lity. 



.1 



96 THIRD DECLENSION. 

VERBS. 

debet, (he) owes, ought. debt 

debent, (they) owe, ought 

tenet, (he) holds. 

tenetnr, (he, it) is held. 

andio, I hear. 

larantnr, (they) are bathing.' 

separantnr, (they) are separated. 

gabmergitur, (he) is sinking.^ submerge, 

saperantar, (they) are overcome, conquered. 

dnae, fern. plurcUy* two. 

nulla, fern, singular, not any, no. 
quae, fern, mngvlavy what f 

187. Colloquium. 

RiCABDUS ET HeNBIcUS, CONDISCIPULI. 

Ricardus. — Multitude hominum in flumine est. 
Henricus. — Sunt militcs et civos. In flumine lavantur. 
E. — Partes sunt duae ^ ; nam magno discrimine separantur. 
H. — Cives a militibus remoti lavantur ; nam non amantur 

milites a civibus. Acres saepe habent contentioncs. 
E. — Clamorem audio. Natat promiscug militum et eivium 

multitudo. Quae^ est causa perturbationis? 
H. — Nulla* est contentio. Puer in aqua submergitur. 
E. — lam pueri corpus a militibus tenetur. Virtuti militum 

et celeri auxilio puer debet vitam suam. 
H. — Non facile erat opus militibus. 
E. — Virtute diflScultates omnes facile superantur. Milites 

mortem non timent. 



^ Literally, lavantur^ * they are washed 7 or * wash themselves'; avbmergitwry 
* he is submerged/ 

* Duae^ nalla^ and quae are here introduced simply as vocabulary words for 
present use. Their declension will be given later. 

* Duae^ two, is an adjective in the nominative plural, agreeing with partes. 

* Quae^ what ? is an interrogative adjective in the nominative singular, 
agreeing with causa, 

* Nulla^ not any, no, is an adjective in the nominative singular, agreeing 
with contentio. 



COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 97 

H. — lam puer in insula est. Milites a civibus.laudantur. 
R. — Multi urbis incolae iam circumdant puerum et mllitum 
virtutem laudant. 

188. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Ubi sunt milites? 2. Non-ne in aqua sunt? 3. 
Non-ne milites cum civibus lavantur? 4. Num cives mili- 
tes timent? 5. N"on-ne cives cum militibus contentiones 
habeut? 6. Non-ne contentiones saepe sunt acres? 



LESSON XXXIX. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

189. The Latin, like the English, has three degrees of 

comparison — the Positive, the Comparative, and the 

Superlative — denoting diifferent degrees of the quality 

expressed by the adjective : 

alius, altior, altissimus, high^ higher^ highest. 

carus, carior, carissimus, dear, dearer, dearest. 

levis, levior, levissimus, light, lighter, lightest. 

sapiens, sapientior, sapientissimus, wise, wiser, vnsest. 

Note. — The compamtives are all declined like trintwr, trisUus, see 175 ; 
altior, altius, altiOris, etc. ; the superlatives, like bonus, bona, bonum, see 101. 

190. From the examples given above, observe that ad- 
jectives are regularly compared by adding to the stem of 
the positive the endings : * 



CO»»AEATIVE. 




SUPERLATIVE. 


MA8C. FEM. NEUT. 


MASO. 


FEM. NEUT. 


ior ior ius 


iflsimus 


iflsima iBsimum 



Note«~The superlative is sometimes best rendered by tbbt : 

altissimus, highesi or tebt high. 
oarissimus, dearest or vbbt dear. 

> But Vowel Stems lose their final vowel before these endings : cUto^ aZtior^ 
aUissimua, 

7 



98 COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 

Compare the following adjectives, and decline the comparative and 
the superlative : 

doctus, learned, audaz, bold, 

fidus, faithfiU, felix, happy, 

fortis, brave, prQdens, prudent, 

191. Adjectives in er are compared as follows: 

acer, acrior, acerrimus, ahaip^ sharper, sharpest, 
celer, celerior, celerrimus, smft, smfter, swiftest, 
liber, llberior, liberrimus, free, freer, freest. 

Note* — In these examples observe that the comparative is formed rega- 
larly, as in alttta, odrus, etc., but that the superlative is formed by adding 
rimua to the positive. 

Compare miaer, uoretched; plger, indolent ; pulcher, beautiftd, 

192. Special Irregularities of Comparison. 

bonus, melior, optimus, good, better, best, 

mains, peior, pessimus, bad, worse, worst, 

magnus, maior, maximus, great, greater, greatest, 

parvus, minor, minimus, sfnall, smaller, smallest, 

193. Examine the following sentences : 

1. MSrcus est melior qiiam Oaro- Marcus is better than Charles. 

Ins. 

2. Marcus est melior Oarol5. Marcus is better than Charles. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That in the first example the Latin construction is the same as 
the English, and that the two nouns compared, Marcus and Carolus, 
are both in the same case. 

2) That in the second example quam, meaning than, is omitted, 
and that the second noun is put in the Ablative, This Latin idiom 
is expressed in the following rule : 

BUIiE XX III»— Cade with ComparatlTes. 

I. Comparatives with quam are followed by the ease 
of the corresponding nonn before them. 

II. Comparatives without quam are followed by the 
Ablative. 



REGULAR COltfPARlSON OF ABJECTIVEa 



99 



LESSON XL 

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES,— PARTITIVE 

GENITIVE, 

194.. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Omnium QallOmm fortissimi Of all the Gauls iht bravest are 

sunt Belgae. ths Belgae, 

2. Plato QraecOrum doctissimus Plato was the most learned of the 

fuit. Greeks. 

Note* — In these examples Gall&mm and Graecdrum are called PABimvE 
GxNiTiyES. Galldrum depends upon fortim/mfi^ used substantiyely,^ the 
bravest^ just as any Genitive depends upon the noun which it limits, accord- 
ing to Bule XVI ; see 51. In the same way Graec&rum depends upon docttS" 
tinvus. The Partitive Genitive always designates the whole of which a past 
is spedfied.3 



aaram, i, n. 
nemo, nemini, nemi- 
• nem, m. and /.* 
praeda, ae, /. 

difficilis, difficile,^ 
praesens, praesentis,* 
pretiosns, a, nm,- 

Atheniensis, is, m. 
Croesus, i, m. 
Socrates, is, m. 
Solon, Solonis, m. 

antem, conj. 
qnam, 

facit, 
facinnt, 



195. Vocabulary. 

gold. 

no one, nobody. 



preda-tory. 



booty, plunder. 

difficult. 

present, at hand. present 

valuable, precious. precious. 

an Atheniaiu 
Croesus, king of Lydia. 
Socrates, Athenian philosopher. 
Solon, Athenian lawgiver. 

but, moreover, 
than. 

VERBS. 

(he) does, makes, performs, celebrates, 
(they) do, make, perform, celebrate. 



> We shall soon see that Adjectives are often thus used aubstantiveli/. 

' Thus, fortissimh * the bravest/ form a part of the whole designated by 
Oalldrum ; and doctiaaimus^ * the most learned/ a part of the whole designated 
by Oraecdrum. 

* Nim6 has only these three forms in use, the nominative, dative, and ae- 
cusative singular. ^ Difficile is the neuter ; see 176. 

* Praeaenti» is the genitive of praesSna, declined like prudena, 182, 



100 COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVEa 

196. Translate into English. 

1. MaruB est altas ; tnrris est altior; collis autem est altb- 
simuB. 

2. ludex doctior est quam Titns. 

3. Multi indicgB doctiores sunt quam agricolae. 

4. Non-ne doctns ifldex est sapientior quam rex? ludex 
est rege sapientior. 

5. RCmaiii fugrunt fortiSrSs quam Graeci. 

6. Graeci docti5res fuerunt quam Roman!. 

7. Socrates fuit sapiens. 

8. Quis sapientior fuit quam Socrates? Nemo fuit sapien- 
tior. Socratgs omnium Grae- 

corum fuit sapientissimua. 

9. Nostri railites hostibus for- 
tiorea sunt. 

10. Est-ne turris altior quam mu- 
rus? Turris est altior muro. 

11. £at-ne Marcus sapientior 
quam Titus? Tito sapien- 
tior est. 

12. Quid est pretioaius quam au- 

rum? Virtus eat auro pre- socrat^ the Athenian 

^ philosopher. * 

tidsior. 

13. Ndn-ne ItbertSs civibus caraest? Est cariesima omni- 
bus cTvibus. 

14. Non-ne Vergilius fuit pogta clarus? Fuit cUrisaimns 
poetarum Rouianorum. 

15. Omnium Italiae urbium clarissima est R6ma. 

16. Milites noatri magnum et difficile opua nunc faciunt. 

17. Ingens fuit praeda Graecfirum in pugna Maratboni^. 

18. Tempora praesentia sunt fgltcia. 

19. Solon, vir sapigns, ingentes Croeai diviti3,s non laudat. 

1 HocratM wu one of tbe most remarkable men of ble age, (amom alike tor 
hte ugly pbjiBlogiiHHD;, big great orlgliiality, bis Inullectual power, and hie up- 
rtfititlUe. 



IRREGULAR COMPARISON.— ADVERBS. Id 

197. Translate into Latin, 

1. Is the hill higher than the tower? It is higher than 
the lofty tower. 

2. Who is more learned than the king? Many men are 
more learned than the king. 

3. The Gauls were brave, but the Bomans were braver 
than the Gauls. 

4. Soldiers are sometimes braver than their generals. 

5. Cicero was more learned than Caesar, but Caesar was 
braver than Cicero. 

6. Was not Eome a beautiful city ? It was a very beautiful 
city. It was the most beautiful of all the cities of Italy. 

7. There were very beautiful cities in Greece. The cities, 
Athens and Corinth, were very beautiful. 

8. There are very high mountains in Europe. 

9. Where are the highest mountains? The highest mount- 
ains are in Asia and America. 

10. Who was the most famous of Eoman orators? Cicero 
was the most famous of all the Roman orators. 

11. Our citizens are doing a difficult work. 

12. Your work, boys, is easy and agreeable. 

13. Who was Solon? He was an Athenian, a good and 
wise man. 

LESSON XLI. 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.^ADVERBS. 

198. Most adverbs are derived from adjectives, and are 
dependent upon them for their comparison. 

1. The Positive is formed — 

1) From adjectives of the first and second declension by 

changing the stem ending o into 3 : 

earns, dear, stem e&ro ; care, dearly.* 

latns, wide, stem lato ; late, widely. 

* ■^^^i^l ■-■■—■! ■ ■■■■■■ ■■ ■■■»■ ■■■■■■■....I-— — ■ ■ ■■■ M^ 

> Here u of the stem cdro is changed into 6. 



102 



COMPARISON. 



2) From adjectives of the third declension by adding 

ter to the stem : 

felix, happy, stem felici ; felTci-ter, happily.' 

prfidens, prudent, stem prudent; prnden-ter, prudently.' 

2. The Comparative is the accusative neuter singular 
of the adjective : * 

latior, latins, wider ; latins, more widely. 

feiicior, felicins, happier ; felicins, more happily. 

3. The Superlative is formed from the superlative of 
the adjective by changing the stem ending o into 5 : 

Ifitissimns, widest ; IfitissimS, most widely. 

felicissimns, most happy ; felieissime, most happily. 

4. Examine the foUowinsr illustrations : 



altus, 


altior, 


altissimus. 


lofty- 


alt«. 


altins 


altissim^. 


loftily. 


pulcher, 


pulchrior, 


pulcherrimus, 


beautiful. 


pulchr^, 


pulchrinui, 


pulcherrim*, 


beautifully. 


fortis, 


fortior, 


fortissimus, 


brave. 


fortiter, 


fortlnui, 


fortissimo. 


bravely. 


prudens, 


prudentior, 


prudentissimus. 


prudent. 


prudenter, 


prudentinui, 


prudentissimO, 


prudently. 



Note« — The superlative of adverbs, like the superlative of ac^ectives, is 
Bometimes best rendered by very: /ortissimiy ^most bravely' or ^vEsr 
bravely.* 

199. Vocabulary. 

bene, melins, optime, well, better, best. 

libere, freely. 

stndiosS, eagerly, studiously. 

• 

acriter, sharply, vigorously. 

andacter boldly, desperately. 

breviter, briefly. 

diligeiiter, diligently, industriously. 

sapienter, wisely. 



» Here ter is added to the stem fSllci. « For prUdent-ter. 

* Thus the neuter singular of the comparative may be used either as an 
adjective or as an adverb. 



ADJECTIVES AND ADVEEBa 

taonestns, a, am, honorable. 

fllbil, nom. and aec. eing. nothing. 

parrns, a, am, small. 

8oI, solts, m. sun. 

qne, eonj',, enclitic,' and. 
Mote.— £% and jut bath mean and. £X 'a ^« ordii 

thia BSDBe, Bee 05 ; qtu ooimecta vorda that sra closelj related in thought 

BOO. Translate into English. 

1. N&n-ne pax est melior quttm bellum ? Pax honesta eat 
bells melior. 

2. Quid est melius qaam aurum? Sapientia aaro melior 
est. 

3. Quid melius est quam virtus? Nihil est virtute melius. 



A Bornan ttwiu,* 

4. Est-ne maior terra quam sdl ? Terra minor est qnam 
sol. 

5. Bomaiuit urbs maxima et pulcherrima. 

' That ig. It is always appended to some other wool ; tiirHl»-(tae,'aiid rtrlue.' 
■ Notice the rolls of paprrua, tablets, BtUiu or pea, receptacle ror rolla. book- 
caaa, table, chair, lamp, etc. 



104 COMPARISON. 

6. Americani optimas leges habent. 

7. Nostri mllites pro patria fortiter pugnant 

8. Bom&ni fortius quam Gall! semper pugnant. 

9. Multi milites pro patriS, f ortissime acerrime-que ^ pug- 
nant. 

10. Homines docti de libris optimis sapienter dicunt. ' 

11. Pueri epistulas studiose diligenter-que legunt. 

12. Epistulae ab omnibus pueris diligentissime leguntur. 

13. Mult! discipuli d§ oratoribus Graee!s et Bdman!s op- 
time scribunt. 

14. Omnes m!lite8 de ducibus audacter libere-que d!cunt, 

201. Translate into Latin. 

1. The judge is a better man than his brother.* 

2. Is war better than peace? War is never better than an 
honorable peace. 

3. Were the Gauls better soldiers than the Eomans? The 
Romans were always better soldiers than the Gauls. 

4. Is Europe larger than America? It is smaller than 
America. 

5. Are the ships of the enemy very large? The enemy 
have many very large ships. 

6. Was not the city of Athens' very large? It was very 
large and very beautiful. 

7. What is Charles now reading? He is very industriously 
reading the works of the best poets. 

8. The poems of Homer and Vergil are most eagerly read 
by our best poets. 

9. The general speaks very briefly about the battle of the 
cavalry. 

10. The pupils write briefly about the works of Caesar. 

> Notice the use of the cod junction que, meaning andL, appended as an en> 
clitic to deerrim€y the superlative of the adverb, dcriter ; see 109, note. 

* Translate (1) with quam and (2) without quam. 

* Latin idiom, the city AtJiena^ not the city o/ Athena ; see 45 and 61 with 
BulelL 



THE FARMER AND HIS CHILDREN. 



105 



LESSON XLII. 

THE FARMER AND HIS CHILDREN. 

202. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Sex filii cSnsulI sunt. The consul has six sons,^ 

2. Multae naves hostibus sunt. The enemy have many ships} 

In these examples observe that the Possessor, cOnsulX, hostibus, 
is in the Dative. This construction is sometimes used in Latin when 
the English idiom would lead us to expect habet, habent, with the 
Nominative of the Possessor, In these and similar instances, the 
Latin admits of two constructions, the English of only one. Thus : 



Latin Idiom. 

1. Sex fllii cQnBulX sunt. 

2. consul sex fllios habet. 



English Idiom. 

The consul ha^ six sons} 
The consul Jias six sons. 



Note* — The Dative, when used as in these examples, is called the Dativb 
OF THE Possessor. It is onlj a modification of the Indibeot Object, with 
which the learner is already familiar. 



203, Vocabulary. 



arma, armomm, n. plur. 

benignas, a, am, 

liberi, liberSram, m. plur. 

panel, paacae, panca, plur. 

qaattaor, 

qainqne, 

quotf 

sex, 

et— et, 



arms, weapons, armor. 

kind, obliging. 

children. 

few. 

four. 

five. 

how many f 

six. 

both — and. 



arms, 
benignant, 

pauci'ty. 



six. 



VERBS. 

n&rrat, (he) tells, relates ; narratnr, (it) is told, 

related. 

narrant, (they) tell, relate ; narrantur, (they) are told, 

related. 



narrate. 



* Literally, six sons are to the conavl ; many ships are to the enemy. 



106 COMPARISON. 

S04. Translate into English. 

1. Agri fertiles Tito i ' 

2. Multl agricolae agi 

3. Equi magnl mnl- 
ti3 agricolis sunt. 

4. Equi pulchem- 
mi multia regibua 
Bunt. 

5. Multi rSgCa eqnOa 
pulcherrim58 ha- 

'[jgjjj^_ Agricuittimt iinpl«inenft.' 

G, Quot filii sunt iudici P ludex quinque filios habet. 

7. Quot libri aunt praeeeptori Teetro? Praeceptor noster 
multos librSs habet. 

8. UOmanis fuerunt luges multae et util&s. 

306. Translate into Latin. 

1. Our States have excellent laws.* 

2. Hov many daughters has the queen? She has four 

daughters.* 

3. How many sons has the fanner? He has ax sons.* 

4. Has your friend great wealth ? He has not. Few men 
have great wealth.^ 

5. How many books have the boys? The boys have few books. 
G. The learned judge has a great number of books. 

7. Our soldiers have beautiful arms. 

8. Hannibal had a large number of elephants in Italy. 

S06. The Fakher and his Children. 
Marcus est agricola. Homo bonus est et civis ggregius. 
Sunt MSrcO duo libeii. Gains et lulia. Liberi patri snd 
cfirissimi sunt. Guius est poijta et agricola; agrSs srat et 

■ Notice the four ImptemeaU comblited <n Chin group, the plow, the roUer, 
ttie hoe, and the tfckle. Notice also the three principal parts of the plow, the 
plowsh^^ the beam, and tlie wheel. < Use Dative of PoHSesaor. 

ie both constructions ; see SM, 



NOUNS. 107 

carmina Vergilii studiose legit Fabulas poetarum Grae- 
corum patrT sue narrat, nam lingua Graeca Marco agricolae 
non est nota. Carmina Homeri Gaium valde delectant. 

Pauci agricolae sunt docti; pauci sunt poetae. Boni 
poetae saepe sunt mail agricolae. Gains autem et doctus 
poeta et industrius agricola est. 

lulia, filia agricolae, pulcherrima est. Patrem suum 
amat. Marcus suam filiam semper laudat. Puellae pul- 
chrae non sunt semper benignae. Puellae benlgnae non 
semper sunt pulchrae. lulia autem et benlgna et pulcbra est. 

207. Translate thejollowing questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Quis est Gains? 2. Quis luliam semper laudat? 3. 
Num multi agricolae sunt poetae docti? 4. Num multi 
agricolae carminibus HomSri delectantur? 5. Quis car- 
minibus Homeri valde delectatur? 6. Est-ne lulia puella 
pulcherrima? 

LESSON XLIII. 

NOUNS,— FOURTH DECLENSION, 

Fourth DECLENsioiq^ : XT Nouns. 

208. Nouns of the fourth declension end in 

us — masculme; fl — neuter. 

They are declined as follows : 
Fructus, fruit. Cornti, horn. 





SINGUT^AB. 


CASE-BNDINaS. 


Norn. 


fructus 


comft 


us ft 


Gen. 


fructlUi 


comfts 


tkm lUi 


Vat. 


fructnl, fti 


comft 


nl, fti VL 


Ace. 


fructnm 


comft 


nm ft 


Voe. 


fructus 


coruft 


us ft 


Abl. 


fruettt 


comft 


ft ft 



1 Thus ul Is contracted into fl ; frUctul^ frHctH, 



108 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 



PLURAL. 

Nom. fructfts comna 

Gen, fructnnm 

Dat, fructibns 

Ace, fructfts 

Voc, fructlUi 

Abl, fructibns 



As 



cornnniii 

cornibns 

comna 

cornua 

comibns 



CASE-BNDINOS. 

na 

nmn 

Ibns (nbns) ^ ibns (nbiui) 
As na 

ft» na 



ibns (nbns) ibus (nbnoi) 

1. The Stem in nouns of the fourth declension ends in u : fructu, 
eomu, 

2, The Case-Endings here given contain the characteristic a, 
weakened to i in ibiis, but retained in iU>u8. 

209. Second and Foueth T)eclensions.— Some nouns are partly 
of the fourth declension and partly of the second. 

Domus, F., house, has a Locative form domX, at home, and is other- 
wise declined as follows : 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 




Nom, domns 




domfts 




Gen, domfts 




domnnm, domOmm 


Dat, domni (domO) domibus 




Ace, domnm 




domOs, domfts 




Voc, domns 




domfts 




Abl. domft (domft] 


1 domibns 






210. Vocabulary. 




adyentas» ns, m. 




approach, arrival. 


advent. 


cantns, ns, m. 




singing, song. 


chant. 


eonspectas, as, m. 




sight. 




domns, us, /. 




house, home. 


dow-icile. 


exercitas, ns, m. 




army. 




lacas, US, m, . 




lake, pond. 


lake. 


manas, us, /. 




hand, band, company. 


manvrfiX, 


portas, US, m. 




harbor. 


port. . 


progrressiis, us, m. 




progress. 


progress. 


senatns, us, m. 




senate. 


senate. 


usus, us, m. 




use, experience. 


use. 


dulcls, e, 




sweet, pleasant. 


dulce-t. 


fere, adv. 




almost, nearly. 




studlnm, IT, n. 


^ 


desire, pursuit, study. 


study. 


I The ind 


DSHfl f 


^ndinc^ onniir In a f aw wnrHn 





Soman houae.' 

Sll. Translate into English. 

1. Exercitus Romftnas a Gallis timetur, 

2. Hostes nostrum exercituni, miLximuni et fortisaimmn, 
raids timent. 

3. In exercitii Caesaris fuerunt multi militSa fortisaiml. 

4. Adventus Ca^saris eiercitni semper fuit iucundus. 

5. Quia est optimus magister? tTsus est optimus mag- 
ister. 

6. Discjpuli in suis studiia progressus faciunt. 

7. Progresaua diacipulorum praeceptores delectant. 

8. In portu AthSnicnsium fuerunt multae naves longae. 

9. Ub! est tua domus, Marce? In cOnepectii urbis domas 
est mea. 

10. Henricns, frater mens, domum magn&m pulcbram-que 
in urbe aediUcat. 



> Bailorstloa of tbe interior of tbe bouse ot pDDBa at Pompeii. Tbe various 
rooms ot an ordlaary Komao house were Biranged around two oourtB or halla, 
partial]]' open to tbe iky. The front court, called atrium, formB the fore^n^uDCl 
of our picture and is also represented in S15. From the atrium a smaller room 
or ball led to the second court, called prriitflum, peristole, which fomu the 
background of our plcuirs and ia also rcpreaonled In 310. 



110 FOURTH DECLENSION. 

11. Ubi habitat fr&ter Titi? In urbe habitat Est-ne 
doml? Est doml. 

12. Eel epiatnUm ad iudicem rnana sna scribiL 

13. Aves dulci cantu homi- 
nes dclectant. 

14. In Italiae montibiia 
malti sunt lacns. 

213. Translate into 
Latin. 
1. la not the hoose of the 
consul beautiful ? It is 
yery beautiful. There 
are many beautiful 
housea in oar city. 
3. The leadera of our army 
were very brave. 

3. There were many very 
brave soldiers in our 
great army. 

4. The use of elephants »"«(*»& »/» b™, fc™«. 
in battle was known to the ancient Romans. 

5. The Bomana are expecting the arrival of the enemy. 

6. Is not the teacher delighted with the progress of his 
pnpils? He is greatly delighted. All teachers are 
delighted with the progresa of their pupila. 

7. All our generals have very large experience. 

8. Are there maay harbors in Europe? There la a large 
number of excellent harbors in Europe. 

9. In the large harbors of Europe there are always many 
ships of war. 

10. Nearly all men are pleased with the sin^ng of birds. 

11. In the Roman aenate were many wiae men. 

12. Charlea, where are your brothers P They are at home 
to-day. 



NOUNS. 



Ill 



LESSON XUV. 

NOUNS,— FIFTff DECLENSION. 

Fifth Declension: E Nouns. 

213« Nouns of the fifth declension end in ^b— feminine^ 
and are declined as follows : 





Dies, day.^ 


Res, thing. 






SINGULAR. 




CASB-BNDINOS. 


Nom, 


di«9 


rSs 


Ss 


Gen. 


di^I or (lis 


rel or rS 


SI,S 


Dot, 


diSI or di4ft 


rel or rS 


SI, s 


Ace, 


diem 


rem 


em 


Voe. 


diss 


rSs 


Ss 


AM. 


die 

PLURAL. 


rS 


s 


Nam. 


diss 


rSs 


Ss 


Gen, 


diSmm 


rSmm 


Smm 


Dai, 


diSbns 


rS1»iis 


Sbns 


Ace. 


diss 


rSs 


Ss 


Voe. 


diss 


rSs 


Ss 


AM. 


diS1»iis 


rSbns 


Sbns 



1. The Stem of nouns of the fifth declension ends in 5 : dti^ rS, 

2. The Case-Endikqs here given contain the characteristic S.* 





214, Vocabulary. 




acies, aciei, /. 


line of battle. 




res, rei, /. 


thing, affair, matter. 




res mnitaris,* 


militAry affairs, military system. 




res pablica,^ 


public affairs, republic. 


repMic 


spes, spel, /. 


hope. 




cottidie. 


daily, every day. 




diYinns, a, nm, 


divine. 


divine. 


hnmanas, a, nm. 


human. 


human. 


porta, ae, /. 


gate. 


portaA. 



* By ezoeption, dUs is usually masculine in the singular, and always in the 
pluraL 

* It is shortened (1) generally in the ending Ix when preceded by a consonant, 
and (2) regularly in the ending em. 

* Literally, a military thing or affair. * Literally, a public thing or affair. 



112 FIFTH DECLENSION, 

upientli, M,/. wiadoni. 



Bclentla.ae,/. 


«eience, knowledge. 




VERBS 


Haeit, 


(he) leads onr. 


Hteont, 


(the<^) lead out. 


iMtniit 


(he) draws np, drranges. 


InBtmnnt, 


(they) draw up, arrange. 


portat, 


(be) carries, bears. 


porUnt. 


(they) carry, bear. 



21B. Translate into English. 
1. Res piiblica nostra magnd in periculS erat. 
a. In virtiite civium spes noatrae erant omnes. 

3. Non-ne Caesar aciem saepe instruit? Acies in cdn- 
apectu hostium cottidiS 

instruitur. 

4. Imperiltor hostium om- 
ngs c opt as pedestres in 
aciem educit. 

6. Hoates spem salutis om- 
nem in pugnil nunc ba- 
bent. 

6. Milites nostri semper 
pro r5 publica fortisai- 

me pugnant. ■^''^™ "" -^™"' ""■' "^ » ■'''"""^ 

7. Quia magnum in re mill- 

taii usum habet? Omnes milites noatri magnum in 
r§ militari usum babent. 

8. Quia maximum in re militari iisum habet? Caesar 
habet. Quid habet Caesar? Maximum in r5 militai^ 
usum babet. 

0. OmnSs cives de libera rS publica noatra m^xlmam 
spem babent. 

10. Viris doetis multae res notae sunt. 

11. Quid est sapientia? Sapientia est r5rum diTinamm et 
humanftrum acientia. 



NOUNS. 113 

12. Viri docti rem militarem Eomanoram UndaDi 

13. In re publicA Atheniensium fuerunt mult! viri claris- 
simi.^ 

14. RSa publica K&m&n5rum maximo in perlculo erat. 
Hannibal erat ad* portSs. 

15. NilTes noetrae multos milituB portent. 

216. Translate into Latin. 
1. Who praises the military ayatem of the Ilomans? The 

military system of the Romans is often praised by very 

learned men. 
%. The general is leading out his army into tine of battle. 



Peritljile of a Raman AouM at PomptU In ruitu. 

3. Do not our Boldiera fear the enemy's line of battle? 
Our brave soldiers are never terrified by the enemy's 
line of battle. 

4. Our hopes of safety are in the remarkable bravery of 
our soldiers. 

'5. The ships of the enemy often carry brave soldiers. 



lU 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 



6. Our soldiers always fight bravely for the safety of the 
republic. 

7. All Americans have the best hopes of (concerning) the 
republic. 

8. The republic of the Athenians was in the greatest peril. 
The Persians were at ^ the gates of the city. 

9. The teachers all have great hopes of (concerning) their 
pupils. 

10. Was not the king's house beautiful? It was very beau- 
tiful. Many kings have beautiful houses. 





LESSON XLV. 






A DIALOGUE. 




• 


217. Vocabulary. 




cnrsns, us, m. 


course, running. 


course» 


facies, faciei, /. 


form, look, face. 


face. 


fortasse. 


perchance, perhaps. 




lenis, e. 


smooth, soft, gentle. 


lenient. 


mdtns, us, m. 


motion, movement. 




pnppis, is, /. 


stem. 




stipendinm, ii, n. 


salary, pay. 


stipend. 


stipendia merere, 


to serve in the army, be a soldier.' 




Yelnm, i, n. 


sail. 




meret, 


(he) deserves, earns. 


merit. 


merent, 


(they) deserve, earn. 




salfitat. 


(he) greets, welcomes, salutes. 


salute. 


salntant, 


(they) greet, welcome, salute. 




agn5se5. 


I recognize. 




approplnqnat, 


(he, she, it) approaches, draws near. 




appellnnt, 


(they) bring to land. 




delectabit, 


(he, she, it) will please. 




transit. 


(he) crosses. 




video, 


I see. 




vides. 


you see. 


■ 


> See 167. 


* LiteraUy, to earn pay. 


1 



A DIALOGUE. 115 

218. Colloquium. 

Duo puerT, Albertus et HenrIcus. 

Albertus. — Vidcs-ne navem in lacu ? 

llenricus. — Video. Partem exercitus nostri portat ; nam 

magnam militum multitudinem video. 
A. — Cives adventum exercitus nostri exspectant. Non-ne 

Carol! f rater in exercitu est ? 
II. — Fredericus, Caroll frater, in exercitu stipendia meret. 

Carolus adventum fratris sui cottidie exspectat. 
A. — Fortasse in navi est. 
H. — Adventus Frederic! Carolum valde delectabit; nam 

Fredericus f ratri su5 vita * carior est. 
A. — lam navis in portu est. Lenissimo motu* appropin- 

quat. 
H. — Faciem ducis agnosco. Altior et pulchrior est quam 

Fredericus. 
A. — Vides-ne Fredericum. 
H. — ^Video. Fredericus est in puppi. 
A. — Prudentissimo usu velorum navem appellunt. 
H. — Carolus celerrimo cursu ' pontem transit. 
A. — lam fratrem in puppi videt et manii salutat. 

219. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Quid vident Albertus et HenrTcus? 2. Quern ex- 
spectat Carolus? 3. Quis Carolo carior est quam vita? 4. 
Quid portat navis? 5. Non-ne multds milites videt Henri- 
cus? 6. Ubi sunt milites? 7. Qxiis pontem transit et 
Fredericum salutat ? 

1 What changre of case would be necessary if quam were here used ? See 198. 

* Lenissimo motii, with a very gentle motion. Observe the use of the Abla- 
tive denoting the manner of the action. The Ablative, thus used, is called the 
Ablative of Manner. It is used with cum or is modified by an adjective. See 
279, Rule XXIV. 

* OelerrimO cursu ; why in the Ablative ? 



116 



THE VERB SUM. 



LESSON XLVI. 



TBS VERB 



220. Sam, / am. 








Indicative Mood. 






Present Tense * 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


sum,* 


jTom, 


snniiis, 


loe are. 


es, 


thou art* 


estls, 


you are. 


est, 


he is ; 


suit, 

Imperfect.^ 


they are. 


eram,* 


ItoaSf 


er&mns, 


we were. 


eras. 


thou ufost* 


eratls. 


you were. 


erat. 


Tie was; 


erant, 

Future.» 


they were. 


erO,» 


I shall be,^ 


erlmns, 


we ehaU be. 


eris. 


thou wilt he. 


erltis, 


you will he. 


ertt. 


he will be ; 


enuit. 


they will be. 


• 


221 


. Vocabulary. 




eras, adv. 




to-morrow. 




crfis mane, 




to-morrow morning. 




herf, adv. 




yesterday. 




heri mane, 




yesterday morning. 




hic, adv. 




here, in this place. 




hodie mane. 




this morning. 




mane, adv. 




in the morning, early. 




bene mane, 




very early. 




postea. 




afterward. 




Yehem§ns, yehementls, 


strong, violent, furious. 


vehement. 


Tentus, 1, m. 




wind. 


fcnWlate. 



> Observe that we have Id this table three different tenses : the I^rksent, de- 
noting present time, the Impbrtect, pcLst time, and the Futurb, future time. 

* Observe that in each tense there are two numbers, 9ingular and plural, 
and three persons, firsts seamd, and third. Thus, sum and sumus are in the 
first person, es and es^ in the second, and est and sunt in the third. 

s Or, Present, you are^ Imperfect, you were. Future, you toill he ; thou is 
confined mostly to solemn discourse. « Or / voiU be. 



THE VERB SUM. 117 

2S3. Translate into English. 
1. Hodie beatuB sum, Gurole, beat! samus, beatna est pater, 

beati Bnnt fratres. 
3. Ubi heri eras, eratis? Doml heri eram, eramua. 

3. TJbi eras eris, eritis? Cras in schola er3, erimus. 

4. Hodie, M&rce, diligens es. Hodie, pueri, diligentes 
estis. 

5. Ubi, Carole, Fredericus eras erit? Crae Fredericus et 
Titus in urbe enint. 

6. Heri pater meus dom! erat. Erant-ne domi tui fratrgsf 
Dotnl erant. 

7. Ubi hodie mane eras, Henrice? In hortQ eram cum 
Frederico. 

8. Her! er&mus in urbe, bodiS sumus in hortis avi ; Bed 
ubi crfis erimua? Crae, pueri, in 8chol4 eritis. 

9. Fabulae poetarum puerls 
et puellis semper erunt 
ijicundae. 

10. Opera tua, Caesar, bomini- 
bus semper erunt utilia. 

11. Libertas patriae civibus 
omnibus semper erit eara. 

IS. R5manis fabulae pogt&rum 
GraecSrum erant n5tae. 

13. Venti heri mane erant ve- 
hementes, sed hodie Tehe- 
mentiOrCa aunt. 

14. In exercita Hannibalis <>«»/««"*«f'«'^'*"-' 
multi fuerunt elephant!. FuSmnt-ne utiles? Ad hel- 
ium elephant! iitilissimi fuerunt. 

2S3. Translate into Latin. 
1. Where are you, Charles? Here I am, in the grove with 

Henry. 
■ Pitrtlsllr protected by a coat of molt a>>d bearjop a tower filled with soldiers. 



118 THE VERB SUM, 

2. Boys, where were you this morning? Very early this 
morning we were at home.* Afterward we were in school. 

3. Where shall you be to-morrow morning ? To-morrow 
we shall be at (in) grandfather's house.* 

4. Where are you now, boys? We are in the garden, 
father. The flowers are most beautiful. 

5. Henry, shall you be at home to-morrow? I shall not 
be at home to-morrow ; I shall be at my brother's house. 

6. There were many brave soldiers in the army of Caesar. 

7. There will always be brave soldiers in our army. 

8. Were you, judge, in the city yesterday? I was not in 
the city yesterday, but I shall be in the city to-morrow. 

9. You, judges, will always be faithful guardians of the laws. 

10. The games of boys will always be interesting to teachers. 

11. Our games are always interesting to the teachers. 

12. Hannibal's elephants were very useful. 

LESSON XLVII. 

THE VERB 



224. Sum, / am. — Stems, es^ fu. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 



SINGUTiAB. 


PLURAL. 


sum,' 


lam, 


smniiB, 


we are. 


es, 


thou art* 


estls, 


you are. 


est, 


he is; 


suit, 

Imperfect. 


they are. 


eram,* 


I was. 


erftmns, 


we were, 


eras, 


thou wast,* 


eratis, 


you were, 


erat, 


he was ; 


erant, 


they were. 



1 At home is doml ; at or in the Jiouse (of any one) is in domO ; at grand- 
father'' showte^ in a^l don: 6. 

> Sum is for esum^ eram for esam^ <>rd for esd. The pupil will observe that 
the endings which are added to the stems es and fu are distinguished by the type. 

' Or you are^ and in the Imperfect, you mere ; tJiou is confined mostly to 
iKtlemn discourse. 



THE VERB SUM. 



119 



SINGULAR. 


erO,» 


lakallhef 


eris, 


thou wilt he. 


erit, 


he will be ; 


ful. 


I have been,* 


fuisti. 


thou hctst been. 


fuit, 


he has been ; 



Future. 



PLURAL. 

eriimiis, we shall be. 



you will be, 
they wiU be, 

we have been, 
you have been, 

[ they have been. 



eritls, 
eriuftt, 

Perfect. 

fuimiis, 

fuistis, 

Pluperfect. 

f uerftmns, we had been, 
fuerfttis, you had been, 
fuerant, they had been. 

Future Perfect. 

/ shall have been, fuerimns, we shall have been, 

thou wilt have been, fuerttis, you will have been, 

he will have been ; fuertnt, they will have been. 

Imperative. 



f ueram, / had been, 

f uerfts, thou hadst been, 

f uerat, he had been ; 



fuerts, 
fuerit, 



Pres, es, be thou, 

Fut, estO, thou shall be* 
est9. Tie shall be ; ' 

Infinitive. 

Pres, esse, to be, 
Perf, f uisse, to have been, 
Fut, f utikni» esse,* to be ahotU 
to he. 



este, be ye, 

estOte, ye shall be,* 
siintO, th^y shall be,* 

Participle. 



Put, futftrus,* about to be. 



226. Examine the following sentences : 



Gaul is free, 
Gaul ought to be free. 
Quintus is Judge, 
Quintus ought to he judge. 

in the second example agrees 



1. Gallia libera est 

2. Gallia IXbem esse debet. 

3. Quintus iudex est. 

4. Quintus ifidez esse debet. 

Note»— Observe that the adjective 
with its noun GeJlia», just as it does in the first ; see 14, Rule XXXIV ; and 
that the noun ittdex in the fourth example aip^es in case with Qubitiis, 
just as it does in the third ; see 68, Rule I. 

> See foot-note 2 on page 118. * Or, Future, Itvill oe ; Perfect, I teas. 

*0r be ttufu ; let him be. *Or beffe: let them be. 

* FutUrus is declined like bonua. So in the InflnitlTe : futHnu^ a, urn, esae. 



120 


THE VERB SUM. 

LESSON XLVlll. 
THE VERB BUM. 

226. Vocabulary. 




«Btei. 


before, previously. 




cnrrns, ns, m. 


ch&riot. 




gloria, aB,/. 


glory, honor. 


ghrv. 


inrtPB, a, nm, 


just. 


y-«t 


labor, oris. m. 


labor, toil, exertion. 


tabor. 


praecllrtu, a, am, 






Salamintns, a, urn, 


of Salamis. 




gemp[t«rnDs, a, am, 


everlasting, perpetual. 




nnqaam, 


ever, at any time. 
227. Synonyms. 




Aaqniu, iutiu ; fair, equitable, juat. 




I. Aeqnns; f*ib, equitable, isifaktial. 




2. IflBtns; JUST, cpuwai, biqhtbous. 





228. Translate into English. 
1. tTbi heri fuisti, f uiatis ? In silvis fui, f uimus. 
a. Non-ne in Italia fuisti ? Saepe fui in Italia- 

3. Num in Graecia fuistis? 
Nunquam in Graecia fui- 

- mus. 

4. Ubi, Carole, hodie fuisti ? 
Hodie mane in foro eram. 
Nunquam antea f ueram in 
{or5. In foro hodie sunt 
multi militda. 

5. Heri mane in monte altis- 
simo eramus. Num anteS 
unquam in monte altissimo 

fuerfitia ? Nunquam antea " '"'"""' '^'*"- 

fuerfimua in monte altiasimo, sed saepe antea in colli- 
bus altissimis. 



THE VERB SUM. 121 

6. Diligens fuisti, Carole. Tui fuerunt labores, tuum erit 
praemium.* 

7. In pugna Salaminia naves Graecorum celeres fuerunt. 

8. Gloria vestra, Graeci, magna fuit, nam victores Persa- 
rum fuistis. 

9. Praeclarae fuerunt victoriae tuae, Caesar ; egregia sunt 
opera tua ; sempiterna erit gloria tua. 

10. In sehola, ml fill, es diligens. Magister pueros dili- 
gentes semper laudat. 

11. Non-ne index est iustus? Est iustus. ludices debent 
esse iusti. 

12. Frater tuus diligens esse debet. 

13. Este diligentcs, pueri. Omnes pueri diligentcs esse 
debent. 

14. Currus imperatoris erat pulcherrimus. 

229. Translate into Latin. 

1. Where have you been to-day, boys? We have been in 
grandfather's grounds. The flowers were very beautiful. 

2. Where was your teacher yesterday? He was at home; 
he was ill. Is he often ill? He had never been ill 
before. 

3. Soldiers, yon have always been brave. Be brave to-day. 

4. All soldiers ought to be brave. 

5. The learned judge was in the forum yesterday? Had 
he ever before been in the forum ? He had never be- 
fore been in our city. 

6. Your father was not at home yesterday ; will he be at 
home to-morrow? He is at home to-day, but he will 

be in the city to-morrow. 

7. You, judge, have always been the faithful guardian of 
the laws. 

* Translate this sentence in the Latin order and observe that tul and futtm 
are predicate adjectives, agreeing the former with lab6r^ the latter with proe* 
mmm ; see S8. 



122 ABLATIVE OP TIME. 

8. The games of pupils have always been interesting to 
teachers. 

9. Your games, boys, ought to be interesting to your 
teachers. 

10. Was not the king's chariot beautiful? It was very 
beautiful. Many kings have beautiful chariots. 

LESSON XLIX. 

ABLATIVE OF TIME, 

230. Examine the following sentences : 

1. S5 tempore domi fui. At that time / was at home, 

2. Posters diS in urbe f ul. On the following dat 1 teas in 

the city. 

Observe that e5 tempore, at that time, and posters diS, on the 
follomng day, answer the question when! and that they are both in 
the Ablative without a preposition, although in the corresponding 
English the prepositions at, on, are used. This Latin usage is ex- 
pressed in the following rule : 

RULE XXXL— Time. 

The Time of an Action is denoted by the Ablative.^ 

231. Vocabulary. 

aestas, aestStls, /. summer. 



brevis, e, 
hiems, hiemls, /. 
mensis, is, m, 
prOxlmns, a, nm, 
qnand5 1 


short, brief, 
winter, 
month, 
nearest, next, 
when! 


brief. 
Ap-proximale, 


Augustas, 1, m. 


PROPER NAMES. 

Augustus, first Roman 





emperor. 
Carthago, Carthaginis, /. Carthage, city in Africa. 
Florida, ae, /. Florida. florid. 

Pericles, is, m. Pericles, famous Athenian. 

1 That is, by the Ablative without a preposition^ though in is sometimes used 
with the Ablative to denote the time in or within which anything is done. 



ABLATIVE OP TIME. 123 

December, DecembrU, Decembre,' oC December. December, 

Pebrnirtns, a, rnn,' of February, February. 

ISunirlns, a, du,' of January. January. 

333. Translate into English. 
1. Qitandd, Frederice, in Florida fuiati? Mense Februil- 

rid in FlSrida fui. 
3. Quando,amici, in Virginia 

fuistis? Mense DecembrI 

in Virginia fuimns. 

3. Fuistia-ne in Italia? Nun- 
qnam in Italia f uimus, sed 
proximo anno in Graecia 
erimus. 

4. Xlbi, Carole, prfiximS annS 
ens? In Fl6rid»ero mense 
lanuario. 

5. Temporibus'Anguati Roma 

erat caput orbis terrfirnm. Avgatttit Caetar, the Botthhi 

C. Temporibus Periclis in re emperor, 

piiblica AtheniGnsium erant mnltl et cUri cives. 

7. AntlqulB temporibus multao naves longae in portu 

• Atheniensium erant. 

8. Antiquis temporibus magna erat auctSritas CicerdnU 
in senatii Bomand. 

9. Ilieme di^s brevSs, aeslate lougi sunt. 

10. Carthago tempore ' Hannibalis nrbs clarisaima fuit. 

11. Corinthus antiquis temporibus urbe pulcherrima fuit. 

233* Translate into Latin. 
1. Julia, when will you be in Italy ? I shall be in Italy 
next year. 

1 Obserre that these worCts are adjerllvefi. and In deslKnatlDg mooUis supply 
miml: Thus the IdCin tor the ^'^c""'' word Heceiubcr is mititit Dectmber ; 
for Jan-aarB Es niAufi Jdnv4riuii, 

* Teittporibua nay be reitdered in the iimea, in the time, or in the age. The 
" ' the plural Hbere we prefer ttte ^u^lar. 



121 A DlAl/MVE, 

2. Where shall you be neit winter? Kext winter we ahall 
be ia Europe. 

3. Where shall you be in February? In February we shall 
be in Sicily, ^tna ia in Sicily. 

i. When waa your father in Flori- 
da? He was in Florida in 
January. 

6. Have you ever been in Europe 
in the winter? We have often 
been in Greece in the winter. 

6. lu Greece are the days short in 
winter? They are very short 
in December. 

7. In the time * of Pericles Athens 
was a most beautiful city. 

8. In the time of Caesar the Ger- 
mans were very brave. 

9. In ancient times there were 

many beantiful temples in Ferida, the AiheiHa* 
Greece and Italy. tau^n. 

10. The republic of the Athenians was very famous in the 
time ' of Pericles. 



LESSON L 




A DIALOG HF. 




834. VOCABt-LAEY. 




«ediflcium, Ii. n. building, edifice. 


edifi^ 


circus, 1, m. circus. 


Hreti*. 


ciir, adv. whyt for what reasont 




Srnatns, a, nm, equipped, adorned. 


ornate. 


pnblicuB. B, nm, public. 


public 




speelaeh. 


"U»erttherllw»iti,ularorlheplu™L Beafoot-ooteoDim. Sand 10. 



A DIALOGUE. 125 

236. Colloquium. 

Carolus et Fbedericus, condiscipulI. 

Carolus. — Ubi hodie f uisti, Frederice ? Ubi f uit avus tuus ? 
Fredericus. — In oppido fui cam avo meo. Oppidum est 

pulchmm ; aedificia publica sunt magnifica. 
C. — Fuistis-ne in ford oppidi ? 
F. — Fuimus in f oro et in circ5. 
C. — Erant-ne multi viri ifl f oro ? 
F. — Multi milites, pulchris armis ornati, in foro erant. 

Spectaculum erat pulchmm. 
C. — Fueras-ne iam antea in oppido ? 
F. — Fueram in oppido cum amic5 nostro. Sed tu cur 

hodie in oppido non f uisti ? 
C. — t^ui cum Marco, amico tu5, in pulchris hortis avi mei. 

Marcus avum meum amat et hortis delectatur. 
F. — Habet-ne avus tuus multds flores? 
C. — Habet multos et pulchros flores in suTs hortis. 

236. Translate thefolloiving questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Ubi hodie fuit avus FrederTci? 2. Num Carolus 

hodie in oppido fuit? 3. Ubi Carolus hodie fuit? 4 Ubi 

milites hodie fuerunt? 5. Quis est Marcus? 6. Quis 
habet multds flores in suis hortis ? 



LESSON LI. 

A DIALOGUE, 

237. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Ssse domX iucundum est. To be at home is pleasant. 

It is pleasant to be at home. 

2. N5n fuisse. in BohoH moles- Not to have been in school is 

turn est. a/nnoying. 

It is annoying not to have been 
IN school. 



126 



A DIALOGUE. 



You have already learned that esse, to be, and fiiisse, to have heeti^ 
are infinitives. In the examples observe that these infinitives with 
their accompanying words, domX and n5n in schola, are the subjects 
of the sentences. Infinitives and clauses are sometimes thus used as 
SUBJECTS. They are then treated as nouns in the neuter gender. 
Thus in the examples the subjects, esse domi, to be at home, and nSn 
fdisse in soholS, not to have been in school, are used as neuter nouns ; 
and the adjectives, iuctmdum and molestum, are accordingly neiUer. 



239. Colloquium. 

Albbrtus et HenrIcus, condiscipuli. 

Albertus. — ^Fuisti-ne heri in circo ? 

Henricus. — Fui in circo cum patre raeo. 

A. — Pater-ne tuus tali spectaculo delectatur ? 

H. — Saepe delectatur, Heri valde contentus fuit; nam 

ferae in circo erant pulcherrimae. Pulchriores ferae 

nunquam in oppido fuerunt. 
A. — ^Erant-ne mult! in circo spectatores? 
H. — Multitiido ingens erat in circo. 
A. — Ero hac nocte ^ in circo. 

1 Hd4i nocte ; litenUly, this nighty i- e., to-night, or this evening. Ablative of 
Time ; see 230, Rule XXXI. Hoc is in the ablative singular, feminine, and agrees 
with nocte. 





238 


, Vocabulary. 


— O-j 


contentns, a, nin, 




satisfied, pleased. 


contented. 


ecce, 




behold 1 look! 




fera, ae, /. 




wild beast, wild animal. 




hac, abl. sing, fern. 




this. 




molestns, a, nm, 




troublesome, annoying. 


molest. 


nox, noctis, /. 




night. 


«oc- tumal. 


0, 




01 ohi 


■ 


pompa, ae, /. 




procession. 


pomp. 


qnam, 




how. 




satius, 




belter, preferable. 




spectatid, spectatidnis, /. 


exhibition, sight, show. 




spectator, spectatoris, m. 


looker-on, spectator. 


spectator. 


talis, tale, 




such. 




relinqnnnt, 




(they) leave. 


relinquish 



A DIALOGUK 127 

H. — Spectatid in oirco hac noete nulla erit ; nam hominfis 
et equi et ferae nrbetn hodie relinquunt Ecce, mul- 
titud5 eat in Tia publica. Eat pompa hominum et 
animalium. Multi sunt currus in pompa cnm equla 
puleherrimis: XIrbem relinquunt, 

A. — 0, quam moleBtum est non fuisse in circfi. Nnnquani 
in circo fui. 

H. — Nfln fuisse in circo eatius est quam non fuisse in 
Bchola. 

A. — In schola autem semper sum. 



Chttriot anil horaei, the famotu Blga of tAc Valiean.^ 

240, Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Ubi Albertus heri fuit? 3. Erant-ne in pompa mnlti 
et pulcherrimi equI ? 3. Non-ne spectft tores in circo spec- 
taculo dglectantur? 4. N5n-ne her! in oppido fuistis? 5. 
Est-ne molestum nun fuisse in schoU? 6. Eritis-ne in 
oppido hac nocteP 

Is richly decorated in rrller vttb rosetles. toll- 



128 VERBS. 

LESSON Lll. 

VERBS.— FIRST CONJUGATION. 

241. Regular verbs are conjugated in four different 
ways, and are accordingly divided into Four Conjugations. 

242. Four forms are called from their importance the 
Principal Parts of the verb. These forms in the verb amG, 
I love, are as follows : 

ajn6, amSre, amflvf, amfltum. 

Note*— Am5, / lov4^ is' the Prksekt Indicative ; amftre, to lov^, the 
Pbesent Infinitive ; amftvl, / have lovedy the Perfect Indicative ; and 
amfttmn, to love or loved, may be either the Supine, a kind of verbal noun, 
or the Pebfect-Passive Pabticiplb Neuteb. 

243. The Entire CoNJUGATipN of any regular verb 
may be readily formed from the Principal Parts by means 
of the proper endings.* 

FIRST CONJUGATION: A VERBS. 

244. active voice.— Amo, / love. Present Stem, amd.* 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


am 5,' 


/ love,* 


amftmns, 


we lov^ 


amfts, 


you love,^ 


am litis. 


you love. 


amat, 


he loves; 


amant. 
Imperfect. 


they love. 


amftliaJii, 


I wets loving* 


amftbUmns, 


we were loving. 


amftbfts, 


you were loving, 


amilbfttis, 


you loere loving. 


amftbat, 


he was loving; 


amilbant, 

Future. 


they were loving. 


amftb5, 


I shall love,^ 


amftbimns, 


we shall love. 


amftUs, 


you wiU love. 


amftbitis, 


you will love. 


am libit, 


he will love ; 


amftbimt, 


they yyill love. 



1 In the Paradigms of regular verbs, the endings which distinguish the vari- 
ous forms are separately indicated, and should be carefully noticed. 
> The final d of the stem disappears in am6. 

* Or J am loving, I do love. Imperfect, 7 loved. Twos loving, I did love. 

* Or thou lovest. So in the other tenses, thou wast lovhtg, thou wilt love, etc 
» Or / wiU love. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



129 



Imperative. 

SINGULAR. 

JFVes. am ft, Uve thou ; 

Fat amftt5) thau ehcdt love^ 
amfttO) he shall love ; 



Infinitive. 

Pres,' araftre, to love. 



PLURAL. 

amftte, love ye, 

amfttOte, ye shall love,^ 

amantO, tJiey shall love. 



Participle. 

Pres. amftns,' loving. 



LESSON Llll. 



VER£S,-'FIRST CONJUGATION. 



245. Vocabulary. 



accuso, accnsare,' 


to accuse, censure. 


accuse. 


ambnlo, ambnlare, 


to walk, take a walk. 




amo, amSre) 


to love. 


am-iable. 


exspeeto, exspectare, 


to expect, await, wait for. 


expect. 


habito, habitare, 


to live, dwell, inhabit. 




lando, landare, 


to praise, laud, extol. 


laud. 


naxigo, narigare, 


to sail, cruise. 


naviga-W 


pfigrno, pngnare, 


to fight. 


pugnorcions. 


renovo, renoTare, 


to repair, restore, renew. 


renew. 


eo,* 


that. 




eo tempore,* 


at that time. 




frnstra, adv. 


in vain. 


frustra-ie. 



246« Trarislate into English 

1. Quid exspectas, exspectatis? Epistulas exspecto, ex- 
spectamus. 

1 The Future may be rendered also like the Present in the second person ; as, 
love thou^ love ye^ and by let In the third person ; as, let Mfn love^ let them Un^. 
> For declension, see 182. 

• For the present the vocabularies will give the pressnt indicative, as accUsd^ 
and the present inflnitive, as accUsdre. From these two forms the learner will 
readily obtain in any verb of this conjugation any and all of the forms given in 
S44 for the verb am6. 

* Ed is B, demonstrative pronoun in the ablative singular neuter, agreeing 
with tempore ; see 800. 





130 VERBS. 

2. Quid laudas, laudatis ? Virtu tern laudo, laudamus. 

3. Quid exspectat, exspectant ? Praemia semper exspeetat^ 
exspectant. 

4. Quern amas, amabas, amabisf Patrem meum amo, 
amabam, amabo. 

5. Quid amatis, amabatis, amabitis? Patriam amamus, 
amabamus, amabimus. 

6. Queui accusat, accusabat, accusabit? Nautam omnes 
cives accusant, acctisabant, accusabunt. 

7. Quern laudatis, laudabatis, laudabitis? lustissimum 
iudicem laudamus, laudabamus, laudabimus. 

8. Quem laudare debet? Iudicem omnes cives laudare 
debent. 

9. Fortem militem lauda, Carole, laudate, discipuli om- 
nes. 

10. !N'autae audaces in mar! navigantes magno in periculd 
sunt. 

11. Epistulam tuam, carissime amice, heri exspectabam et 
frustra exspectabam. 

12. Hieme iucundum est in urbe habitare. 

13. Non-ne Homerum laudatis ? Homerum, poetam claris- 
simum, laudamus et semper laudabimus. 

14. Caesar ambulans epistulam scribit. 

15. Multi homines in domibus pulchris habitant. 

16. Hostes bellum renovabant. 

17. Eo tempore milites nostri adventum Caesaris frustra 
exspectabant. 

247« Tra7i8late into Lathu 

1. Charles, where do you live in winter? In winter I live 
in the city. 

2. My friends, where are you living now ? We are living 
in Virginia. 

3. Julia, where are your brothers living? In winter my 
brothers live in Florida. 



A DIALOGUE. 



131 



4. Frederick, whom were yon praising yegterday? I was 
praising my teacher; I always love and praise my 
teachers. 

5. Where were yon, Jnlia, this morning? I was taking a 
walk with my Bister. 

6. Boys, for whom are you waiting? We are waiting for 
father. Where is your father ? He is in the garden. 

7. Charles, do you ever sail on the lake ? I shall sail on 
the lake to-morrow. It is delightful to sail on the lake 
in summer. 

8. The Athenians were fighting hravely on the plain of 
Marathon. 

9. Soldiers, fight hravely for your oonntry. 

10. Our soldiers, fighting bravely for their country, are in 
great danger. 





LESSON LIV. 






A PTALOGUE. 






248. VoCABrULEY. 




4§leeto, dilaetire, 


to delight, please. 


ddigfd. 


miito, mttire, 


to change, alter. 


m-u^flh-ble. 


BpeetS, speetare, 


to look at, view, watch. 


«^Mc^o-cla 


e?o, 


I. 




to. 


thou, yotL 




ampins, a, nm, 


great, Bpacious, hrood. 


wnpU, 


eommednm, i, m. 


convenience, advantage. 




etiam, itdv. 


even, ako. 




nnper, ach. 


recently, lately. 




ocnlns, 1, m. 


eye. 


IMTuT-ist 


per, jprep. wiih ace. 


through, during. 




ptnu, a, vm, 


clean, pure. 


puire. 


TIV1IB, 1, m. 


stream, brook. 




nstieiifi, a, ma, 


of the country, rural, rustic. 


rustic. 


fleBtadia,ae,/. 


opinion, idea. 




v]Bilira,ae,/. 


shade. 


«f»5r«ella. 


mMnvB, a, ma, 


of the city. 


ea\Hurban, 



132 A DIALOGUE. 

249. Examine the following sentences! 
I. E^ reginain lands. I psaisb the queen. 

S. TO re^nam landSa. You pkaise the queen, 

3. Rex t«^nam landat. The king pbaisbs the quetn. 

4. Cives re^nam Uudant, The cHiitn» peuse the queen. 

In these sentences observe that the verbs are all in the same huK' 
BEB anrl PBBKOS as their subjects. Thus lattdO is in the first person 
sinpiJar like it» subject ego; litiidaa, In the secontl person singular 
tike tu; laudat, in the third person singular like rex; and landaot, 
in the third person plural like clufe. This Laiin usage is expressod 
in the following rule; 

BmUB 3UUCVI.— Agrocwiciit of Verb wttb Snlijseb 

A finite verb agrees with its sub- ,..- 



a dialogue. 133 

250. Colloquium. 

Carolus et FbederIcus. 

Carolua, — Multi hominea vitam nautilrum landaiit. Avus 

tuns vitam rusticam laudat. 

Quid tii laudus? 
Fredericus. — Avus meus est agri- 
cola et ego agricola ero. Lau- 

damus agrus, nmbram eilvfi- 

rum, aqnam piiram rivortim, 
C— Nuper laudabas oppidum et 

commoda vitae urbauae. Cur 

sententiam tuam mutaa? 
F. — Nuper laudabam oppidum et 

etiam nunc laudo. Senten- 
tiam meam nOn mutu. Multa 

sunt commoda vitae urbiinae, 

sed vita agricolarum me valde 

dglectat. Ego vitam rusttcam 

Bemper landilbQ. Non-ne tfi 

et tuus f rater vitam urbanam 

semper laudabitis ? ' 
C — Vitam urbiiiiam semper lau- 

dabimus; in urbe semper ha- i 

bitabimus, per vias amplfis 

ambulablmus, acdificia pulchra spectabimus ; statuae 

egregiae oculos nostros deloctabunt 

251, Translate the followimj ijuextions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Habitfltis-ne, pnerT, in urbe? 2. Quia in urbe habi- 
tabit? 3. Niim laudJls vitam nautiirum? 4. Num laudfi- 
tis vitam nautarum? 5. Amiis-ne patriam nostram ? 

■ Obaerre tbal laTidabitia. ogreeiiig conjointly with ttie two subjecu hi and 
f.ater, is (11 Id the plural cumber and (2> In the jlrti persoa. This la the geiural 
iua|!«. With BUbjei-ta diHeriiiE in persoD, the vtrb Ukes the first person il one 
Of the wibjecis 1b of that peraoD, oUienrlBe u (akts the KCi/nii. 



134 



THE PARMER AND THE SAILOR. 



THE 



exclamS, are,' 
inyito, are, 
mSnstro, are, 

Agrippa, ae, m, 
amieitia, ae, /. 
ayide, adv, 
feriae, arum, /. 
flrmns, a, nm, 
gaudinm, IT, n. 
indastria, ae, /. 
interea, adv, 
itaque, conj, 
iter, itineris, n. 
mains, I, /. 
pirns, T, /. 
postridie, 



LESSON LV. 
farmer and the sailor, 
262. Vocabulary. 

to call out, cry aloud. 

to invite. 

to show, point out. 

Agrippa, a Roman name. 

friendship. 

eageriy, greedily. 

holidays. 

strong, steady, steadfast, true. 

joy. 

diligence, industry. 

meanwhile. 

therefore, accordingly. 

journey, road, march. 

apple-tree. 

pear-tree. 

on the next day. 



exclaim, 

invite, 

de-mon^/ra-tei 

ami-ty. 

firm, 
industry,, 



pear. 



263. The Farmer and the Sailor. 

Marcus est agricola. Augustus est nauta. Augustus 
nauta est ffdus amicus Marci agricolae. Agrippa est Au- 
gust! filius. Agrippa non est nauta, sed mare amat et 
laudat. Magna pueri diligentia patrem delectat. Itaque 
Augustus exclamat : " Mi fill, diligentia tua me valde delec- 
tat. Ecce praemium diligentiae tuae et industriae. Feriae 
tibi erunt.* Marcus agricola nos^ ad se* invitat. Vita 
rustica te delectabit." 

Postridie nauta et filius iter faciunt. Marcus amicos 
suds avidissime ^ exspectat. Magnum est gaudium amico- 

^ The ending dre is the ending of the infinitive : exddmd^ exddmdre. 

s 3^ erunt, literally, will be to you^ i. e., you tvill have. Tibt is the dative 
of tH ; see 265. It is also the Dativb of the Possessor ; see 202. 

* N68^ * us/ accusative plural of ego ; see 265. 

^ Ad aSy literally, to himself^ i. e., to hi» house ; «#, accusative singular ; 
265. * Superlative of the adverb avidi ; see 198, 3. 



THE FARMER AND THE SAILOR. 



135 



rum, nam amicitia August! et Marci est firma. Interea 
Agrippa cum lulia, pulchra Marci filia, ambulat. lulia 
Agrippae multas piros et malos monstrat. In horto sunt 
multae aves et flores pulchri. Agrippa hortum, piros, avSs, 
flores laudat. Beatissimus est ; vita rustica delectatur. 

254. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Quis fuit filius August! nautae? 2. Quis fuit pater 
luliae ? 3. Quis fuit pater puer! Agrippae ? 4. Laudat-ne 
Augustus d!ligentiam Agrippae ? 5. Non-ne Augustus suum 
amicum agricolam amat? 6. Ubi sunt flores pulchr! ? 





LESSON LVI. 




THE FARMER AND THE SAILOR- CONTINUED. 




255. Vocabulary. 




interro^5, fire, 


to ask, question. 


t»/crro^a-te. 


iiec5, fire, 


to kill, slay. 




sedent, 


(they) sit. 




amoenas, a, nm. 


pleasant, charming. 




aper, aprl. m. 


wild boar. 




canis, is, m. and /. 


dog. 


canine. 


cerras, I, m. 


stag, deer. 




domieilinm, ii, n. 


home, abode. 


domicile. 


ffigrus, i, P 


beech-tree. 




feras, a, am, 


wild, savage. 




mora, ae, /. 


delay. 




pinns, us and i, /.* 


pine-tree. 


pine. 


pr5eeras, a, am, 


high, tall. 




rlpa, ae, /. 


bank (of a river). 




sine, prep, mth Abl. 


without. 




sabitS, adv. 


suddenlv. 





> Notice the gendw of fdgu» and plnvs in this lesson, and of mAltu and 
pirtia in 268. The names of trees are feminine ; see 87, n, 8. 

> Pinus is partly of the Second Declension and partly of the Fourth, but we 
he») use only those of the Second. 



136 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

256. The Farmer and the Sailor— Coniinued. ^ 

Postridie Agrippa cum Marcl filio ambulat. Gaius hor- 
tum, agros, equos, canes amlco monstrat. Agrippa, filius 
nautae, equls et canibus valde delectatur. Postea in mag- 
nam silvam ambulant Sunt in silva pini procerae, et fagi 
altae ; sunt etiam ferae in silva, nam silva est domicilium 
cervorum et aprorum. Est in silva rivus. Eipae rivi sunt 
amoenae umbra pinorum altarum. Tum pueri sub umbra 
fagi altae sedent. Agrippa amicum suum interrogat : 
" Ferae- ne sunt in silva?" Subito magnum et ferum 
aprum vident. Tum Gains exclamat : " Ecce aper." Agrippa 
aprum non timet, sed sine mora gladio bestiam necat. 

257. Translate the following questmis and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Quid monstrat Gains Agrippae? 2. Quis cum Marel 
f Ilio in silvam ambulat ? 3. Ubi sunt pini altae ? 4. Ubi 
sunt cervi et apri ? 5. Quid vident in silva Gaius et Agrip- 
pa? 6. Non-ne filius nautae aprum timet? 

LESSON LVII. 

SECOND C0NJUGAT10N.-PRE8ENT, IMPERFECT AND 

FUTURE TENSES, 

SECOND CONJUGATION: S VERBS. 
268. ACTIVE VOICE.— Moneo, /a^mse. Present Stem, mon«. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
/ advise, 

SINGULAR. v,u>u^a^, PLURAL. 

moneO, I advise,^ moniSiiiiis, we advise^ 

moniSs, you advise,^ monStis, you advise^ 

inonet, he advises ; monent, they advise, 

1 Or J am advising^ I tio advise. So in the Imperfect, / advi9ed^ I was aii- 
viriiig^ I did advise. 

» Or thmt advisest. Bo in the other tenses : thou toast culvising^ thou wUt 
advise^ etc. 



PRESENT IMPERFECT AND FUTURE TENSES. 137 



Imperfect. 
/ was advising, or I advised, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

mon4S1>am, / was advising^ monl^bftiiiiis, we were advising, 

inonl^1>fts, yon were advising, monSbfttis, you were advising, 
mon^bat, he was advising ; moniSbajit, they were advising. 

Future. 
/ shall or loill advise. 
monSbO, I shall advise,^ monl^bimiis. we shall advise, 

moniSbis, ydu will advise, inonSbitis, you will advise, 

moniSbit, hs will advise ; moniSbiuit, they will advise. 



Imperative. 

Pres, monS, advise thoti ; nioniSte, 

Fut, moniStO, thou shall advise, monStOte, 
mon£t5, lie shall advise ; moneiitO, 



advise ye. 

ye shall advise,^ 

they shrill advise. 



Infinitive. 

Pres, monSrc, to advise. 



Participle. 

Pres, mouiSns, advising. 



259. Examine the following sentences: 



1. Reginam laud5. 

2. Sgo reginam laudd. 

3. Reginam laudamus. 

4. N58 reginam laudamus. 

5. Regem laudas. 

6. TfL regem laudas. 

7. Regem laudStis. 

8. V58 regem laud£tis. 



J praise the queen, 
I praise the queen. 
We praise the queen. 
We praise the queen. 
You praise the kitig.* 
You praise the king. 
You praise the kithg. 
You praise the king. 



9. N5s reginam laudamus, sed tOs We jora^^e the queen, but you praise 
regem laudatis. the king. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That in the Latin the pronominal subjects meaning 1, you, %oe, 
are omitted in the first, third, fifth; and seventh examples, because 
they are implied in the endings of the verbs. This is the usual con- 
struction when the subjects are not emphatic. 

> Or I will advise^ you shall advise, etc. * See foot-note 1« page 129. 

* Observe that the English sentence, ''''You praise the king^^* corresponds to 
four different Latin sentences, here numbered 6, 6, 7, and 8. This arises from 
the fact that the English word you may be either singular or plural, and either 
with emphasis or without it. 



138 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



2) That the pronominal subjects are expressed in the second, fourth, 
sixth, eighty, and ninth examples, because they are emphatic. 

Note !• — ^Tn meaning the second sentence differe from the first merely in 
the fact that it emphasizes the subject. 

Note 8«— In the ninth sentence the contrast between the two clauses 
makes both subjects emphatic ; accordingly nOt and vOs are both expressed. 

Note 8* — The only pronominal subjects of the first and second persons 
ever used in Latin are the four here given, viz. : 

SINOULAB. PLURAL. 

First person, ego, I ; nOs, we. 

Second person. tO, thou or you ; tOb, you. 



LESSON LVIII. 

SECOND CONJUGATION,— PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND 

FUTURE TENSES, 



260. 

debeo, debSre, 
debet, 
debetar, 
exeree5, exercCre, 

fl5re5, florSre, 

habed, habere, 
mered, merere, 
timed, timere, 
Taleo, Talere, 
bene, melius yalCre, 
optime TalSre, 
Yito, yI tare, 

eiyieus, a, am, 
g^ratia, ae, /. 
hesternns, a, nm, 
hesternas dies, 
memoria, ae, /. 
nondnm, adv. 

optime, superlative of bene t 
pargns, parentis, m. and f. 



Vocabulary. 

to owe, be in debt, ought. debt, 

(he) owes, ought. 

(it) is due. 

to exercise, practice, culti- 
vate, exereu», 

to bloom, flourish, be in 
bloom. 

to have, possess, regard. 

to deserve, merit, earn. mer-iu 

to fear, be afraid of. Hm-id, 

to be strong, be well. val-id, 

to be very well, to be better. 

to be perfectly well. 

to avoid, shun. 

of citizens, civic, civil, civic, 

gratitude, thanks. grace, 

of yesterday. 

yesterday. 

memory, recollection. memory. 

not yet. 

most excellently, best. 

parent. parent. 



PRESENT IMPERFECT AND FUTURE TENSEa 1S9 

261. Translate into English. 

1. Nftn-ne val^s, carisaime amice? Heatemfl die nSn bene 
valebam, sed hodiS 

optime valeo. Vales- 
ne ? Semper valed. 

2. Magnam laudem 
merGtis, discipnli, 
uam diligeDtSs fuisti 

3. Ufiximam laudem me: 
le, nam diligentissim 

1. Habes-ne multos libi 
le? Multos et pulch 
babefi. 

5. NOn-ne praeceptOrib 
nam gratiam debes, 
Praeceptoribns omnil 
nam gratiam dgbed, 
et semper debebo, dc 

6. Parentibiia vestris, pu 
nam gratiam semper < 

7. Militibua nostris mag 
tiam semper debebim 

8. Memoriam, diaeipuli, cottiaie ^. „ „ , , , . .. 

' '■ The Vatican, itatue of Auguitua. 

exercSre debetis. Cottldie ex- 

ercgmus memoriam ; herl memoriam exercebSmus, hodie 

esercemus, eras exercebimus. 

9. Num bostes timgtis, milites? Nou timSmna. UoatSs 
nunquam timebimus. 

10. Res publica Ciceroni civicam coronam debebat.' 

11. Temporibus Augusti artfia omnfia florebant, Angaatus 
urbem Romam aedificiis pulchris semper dmftbat. 

12. Temporibus PericUa urbea Corinthua et Atbeaae flore- 
bant. 

13. Mnltt hominSs pericula timeot et vitaat 



140 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

14. NOn-ne pericula tirnebatia et vitabatis? Mflxima perl- 
cula timgbamns ct vltabAmus. 

15. Maxima periciila semper timebimns et vlt&bimns. 

262. Translate into Latin. 

1. Julia, are the apple-trees in bloom in your garden? They 
are not yet in bloom ; they will bloom next month. 

2. All arts were flourishing in the time of Pericles. 

3. Many learned men were flouriBhing in Italy in the time 
of Cicero, the famous orator. 



4. Boys, you were not in school yesterday. Were you not 
well? We were not very well yesterday, but we are 
better to-day. 

5. Learned men always cultivate the memory. 

6. Frederick, you ought to cultivate your memory. In 
school I am always cultivating my memory. 



A VERBS AND E VERBS. 



141 



7. Judge, you deserve the greatest praise, for you have 
always been a faithful guardian of the laws. 

8. Brave soldiers, you will always deserve the greatest 
praise, for you have been the faithful guardians of our 
liberty. 

9. You ought to live in Florida in winter. In winter we 
always live in the city. 



LESSON LIX. 



▲ VERBS AND E VERBS.-^PRONOUNS,— PERSONAL, REFLEX- 
IVE, AND POSSESSIVE. 

263. Comparative View of A Verbs and E Verbs.^ 



.» 


Indicative Mood. 




SINGULAE. 


Present Tense. «.„^., 

PLURAL. 


A Verbs. 


B Verbs. 


A Verbs. 


B Verbs. 


amO 


mone5 


am&iiius 


raonl^mus 


amft0 


monies 


amfttis 


moiiiStls 


ainat 


monet 


amant 
Imperfect. 


monent 


ainftbani 


monSbam amftbftmuii 


moDAbftmnii 


amft1>ft8 


mon^bfts 


amftbfttis 


moniSbfttis 


afnft1>at 


mon^bat 


amftbant 


mon^bant 






Future. 




amftbO 


raonAb4l 


amftbimnii 


monSbimus 


araftbi0 


monSbis 


amftbitis 


moniSbitis 


amftbit 


inonSbit 


araftbunt 

Imperative. 


monCbnnt 


Pres, am ft 


motiA 


auiftte 


moD4Bte 


Fut. amftM 


monM5 


amftt5te 


mon4BtOte 


amfttO 


monStO 


ainantO 


moDemt5 


Infinitive. 


Participle. 


Pres, amftre 


raonSre 


amftnii 


monSnfl 



> Compare the forms of these two conjugations with each other and note 
carefully the resemblances and the differences. 



142 PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNa 

Personal and Reflexive Pronouns. 
264. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns ^ are : 
Ego, /. Tu, thou. Sui, of himself etc.* 

266. XSgO and til are declined as follows : 

SEKGULAR. 



Nom. 


ego, 


I. 


tu, 


thou, you. 


Oen. 


mei, 


of me, myself. 


tui, 


of you, yourself. 


Dat. 


mihi, 


to, for ms, myself. 


tibi, 


to, for you, yourself. 


Ace. 


me, 


me, myself. 


te. 


thee, you, yourself. 


Voc. 






to. 


thou, you. 




Abl. 


me, 


me, myself.* 


te, 


thee, you, yourself,* 






PLUBAL. 




Nom. 


nos, 


we. 


vos. 


ye, you. 


Gen.- 


nostrum, 
nostrf. 


[ of us, of ourselves. 


Testrum, 
vestri, 


y of you, of yourselves. 


Dat. 


nobis, 


to, for us; to, for 
ourselves. 


vobis. 


to, for you; to, for 
yourselves. 


Ace. 


nos, 


us, ourselves. 


vos, 


you, yourselves. 


Voc. 






v6s, 


»IO A//M/ 




ye, yi/Tft, 


Abl. 


nobis. 


im, ourselves.* 


vobis. 


you, yourselves.* 



Note* — Cum, when used with the ablative of a Personal or Reflexive Pro- 
noun, is appended to it : mlcum^ tioum. 

266. SuI, sibi, sd, the Reflexive Pronoun of the third 
person, refers to the subject of the clause in which it 
stands, and has no nominative or vocative. It has the same 
form in both numbers, and is declined as follows : 

SINGULAR AND PLURAL. 

Oen. sul, of himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

Dat. sibt, to, for himself, herself, itself, themselves. 
Ace. se, himself, herself, itself, themselves. 



Abl. se, himself, herself, itself, themselves.^ 

' Also called Substantive Protumn»^ because they are always used «u6* 
atantively. * Of himself ^ herself, itself. The Nominative is not used. 

* The ablative of Personal and Reflexive Pronouns, like the ablative of Per^ 
sons, is almost always used with prepositions : & mS, by or from me ; a nobis, by 
or fr&m ut; & vSbIS, by or from you ; tecum, with thee ; ndblscum, with u«. 

* For the ablative with cum, see 965, note. 



A VERBS AND E VERBS. 



143 



Possessive Pronoun^s. 
267. From Personal pronouns are formed the Possess- 



%ves : 



. 1 



meus, a, um, my ; 
tuus, a, um, thy, your ; 
suus, a, um, his, hers, its ; 



noster, tra, trum, owr ; 
Tester, tra, trum, yoivr ; 
suus, a, um, thtir. 



LESSON LX. 

A VERBS AND E VERBS,--PR0N0UNS,-PER80NAL, REFLEX- 
IVE, AND POSSESSIVE. 



deleS, dSlere, 
fronded, ft*ondere, 

moyeo, morere, 
praebe5, praebere, 
Tire5, rirere, 



268. Vocabulary. 

to destroy. 

to put forth leaves, 

be in leaf, 
to move, excite, inspire, 
to offer, furnish, give, 
to be green. 



admlratio, admlrationls, /. 
arbor, arboris, /. 
commiiiiis, commtlne, 
incendium, ii, n. 
ruina, ae, /. 
rninae, plur, 
theatrnm, I, n« 



admiration, wonder. 

tree. 

common. 

fire, conflagration. 

fall, ruin. 

ruins.* 

theatre. 



fnove. 



admiratiOTi, 

arbor. 

common, 

incendi'&rv. 

ruin, 

theatre. 



269. Synonyms. 

FlOred, frondeS, vireO ; to bloom, to put forth leaves, to be green, 

1. Floreo; to bloom, flourish. 

2. Frondeo; to put forth leaves, be in leaf. 

3. Yireo; to be green, vigorous. 



1 Posflessives are declined as adjectives of the flrat and second declensions ; 
but mens has In the Vocative Singular Masculine generally mi. 
3 As o/ a building, city, etc. 



A VERBS AND E VEEBa 



Raia» of the temple of Saluia lu Rome.' 

270. Translate into English. 
1. Quid merebas, quid exspeetabas? 
%. Kihil mergbam ; nihil exspectabam. 

3. Quia regicam non amat? quia rSgem ii5ii timet? 

4. Omcea elves reginam amant, regeiii timent. 

5. Non-ne pericula timebitia et vitabitia ? 

6. Nos pericula nunqnam timebiraus, nunquam vltabimtiB- 

■ Tbe ruioB here represented stand near tl 
ronun. See view at Ihe Fobox on page 94. 



PRONOUN& 145 

7. Quid, pueri, hodie exspectatis etmeretis? 

8. Nqs maximas laudes exspectamus et meremus. 

9. Te delectat vita rustica, me vita urbana. 

10. Tu vitam rusticam semper laudas, ego vitam urbanam 
interdum lando. 

11. Vos, pueri, me accusare non debetis. Te, Carole non 
accusamus. 

12. Patria est communis parens omnium nostrum. 

13. Homo doctus in se semper divitias habet 

14. Caesar multos milites secum in Gallia habebat. 

15. Multi homines so vitae rusticae dant. 

16. Nunc agri virent; arbores frondent. Nobis arbores 
umbram gratam praebebunt. 

17. Galli oppidum incendio delebant 

18. Buinas theatri spectabamus, 

271. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who expects praise ? Who deserves praise ? 

2. I expect great praise ; I deserve great praise. 

3. Do you (pi.) not expect praise ? Do you not deserve 
praise? 

4. We always expect great praise ; we always deserve great 
praise. 

5. You are always praising me and I am always praising 
you. 

6. Soldiers, you love war; we love peace. 

7. Many men are always fearing and shunning danger. 

8. You, soldiers, ought not to fear the enemy. 

9. Many men are always praising themselves. 

10. We, boys, ought not to praise ourselves. 

11. Your books, pupils, will always be useful to you. 

12. Marcus has many friends with him (with himself) in 
Italy. 

13. Yesterday we were looking at the ruins of the beautiful 
temple. 

10 



146 



LETTER TO A FSIEND IN TOWN. 



LESSON LXI. 



LETTER TO A FRIEND m TOWN. 





272. Vocabulary. 






propero, 5re, 


to hasten, hnrry. 






arced, ere. 


to keep off, baoish. 






iaceo, ire, 


to lie, lie low, lie on the ground, lie 






dead, be prostrate. 






splendeS, ere. 


to shine. 




«p^em^id 


amltor, oris, m. 


lover. 






anram, I, n. 


cultivated land, field. 






caelum, I, n. 


sky, heaven. 




ee/-estial. 


cQra,ae,/. 


care, trouble. 




eare. 


din, adv. 


a long time, long. 






I5nii08ii8, a, nm. 


beautiful, handsome. 






bnc, 


hither, to this place. 






modo, 


just now, now. 






modo— modo, 


now— now; sometimes— 


-sometimes. 




pratnm, T, n. 


meadow. 






qnam din f 


how long f 






serenns, a, iini, 


bright, clear. 




serene. 


Tiridis, e, 


green. 







273. A Letter to a Friend ik Towk. 

Si vales, bene est; ego valeo. Te saliito. Yitam nrba- 
nam semper laudas. Vitae rnsticae amator sum. Kunc 
. frondent silvae, nunc est formosissimum anni tempus. 
Omnia prata, omnes agri virent. Modo ambulamus per 
agros et arva ; modo iacemus in gramine yiridi, arcemus a 
nobis omnes curas. lucundum est in gramine iacere ; dulee 
est curas molestas arcere. Heri eram in hortis avi. Sol 
splendebat in caelo sereno, arbores altae umbram praebe- 
bant. 

Quam diu, Fi-ederice, vltam urbanam laudabis? Hue 
propera, magnum gaudium habebis; silvae, prata, arva, 



A DIALOGUE. 



147 



omnia ^ te dclectabunt. Arce igitur omnes curas et hue 
propera. Mi carissime amice, vale. 

. 274. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin* 

1. Quid landat Fredericus? 2. Quid landat amicus 
Frederici? 3. Num silvae semper frondent? 4. Non-ne 
iucundum est per silvas ambulare? 5. Laudant-ne omnes 
agricolae Yitam rusticam ? 6. Non-ne vita nrbana ab amico 
Frederici laudatur? 





LESSON LXII. 






A DIALOGUE. 






275. Vocabulary. 




adrentS, are, 


to approach, go near. 


(idverU. 


sedo, are, 


to settle, quiet, check. 


«e<2a-te. 


serro, are. 


to save, preserve. 


pre-^erve. 


Ardeo, ere, 


to burn, blaze, be on fire. 


ardent 


an{^eo, Sre, 


to increase, extend. 


aii^-ment 


elaceo, ere, 


to shine forth or out 




placed, ere. 


to please, be pleasing to. 


please. 


ad-sam, ad-esse, 


to be present 




deficit, 


(he, she, it) fails, is wanting. 


deficit. 


enm, 


when. 




fenestra, ae, /. 


window. 




flamma, ae, /. 


flame, fire. 


flame. 


Qnilielmns, T, m. 


William. 




paries, parietis, m. 


wall, as of a house. 




pecnnia, ae, /. 


money, property. 


pecimichTj, 


8l, 


if. 




tectam, f , n. 


roof, house. 




^ Omnia, *ftU things, 


' 'ererythlns,^ the neuter plural used substantively; 



148 A DIALOGUE. 

'276. COLLOQOIDM. 

Duo AKld, QaiUEhuus bt HenbIovb. 

Gailielmus. — Mdnstra mihi et Garolo nostro, si tibi placet,* 

TDin&s theatri restri. 
Heuricus. — Vdbis niinaa mOngtrabd. Theatrnm magnnm 

et pnlchnim erat. 
G. — lam video ruinas. 

H. — Vuper theatrnm nostrum admiratidnem hominuin 
iuoTebat,iiUQC iacent parietes et semper iacgbunt 



Ptjmpeg'i theatre in Botm.' 

Q. — NOn-ne civea vestii theatrum renovabutit ? 
H. — N6n renovabnnt, nam deficit pecunia. 
G. — Adfaiati-ne cum theiltrum vestnim ardebat? 
H. — Adfui. Gum adventabam, iam tectum theatri firdebat 
et flammae ex omnibus fere fenestris Slucebant. 

1 Bi tibl placet ; UtenUly, if it pEcoMt ym or li pleatiitg to fOK ; raider if 
IKHiplaue. Tlbl la Indirect Direct of placet, 

■ Erected bj Pompe; the Qreat. It wai tba first theatre of stone butlt In 
Borne. ImpOBfDgr games made lu InausurBUon memorable. Fort; UionaBiid 
■pectatorB ue laid Ui hkTe been preeent, and flra hundred Uodb are «aid to bave 



THIED CONJUGATION. 14» 

G. — ^N^on-ne homines tentabant incendinin Bedare? 

H. — IiVastra tentabant theatmm seTrare. DifficOe fnit 

aedificia proxima fiefnrare, nam Tentus TehernfffitiHRrmni 

peiicnlnm angebat 

277. Translate the following questions and answer tJiem 
in Latin* 

L Qois Garolo rmnas theatn monstrat? 2. Qnis est 
CarolnB? 3. Non-ne tbeatnun pnlchntm erat? 4. Sunt- 
ne omnia tbeatra pnlcbra? 5. Knm bamines aedificia 
proxima servare tentabant? 6. Qnid fnit difficile? 7. Est- 
ne tbeatnun in nrbe Testra? 8. Ifon-ne theiiamm Testrnm 
est novum et pnlchmm? 



LESSON LXlll. 

TSIEIP CONJUGATION, 

THIBD CK)lirJUGA'IIOK: OONSOKASTT TE3BBA. 
278. ACnVE VOICE.— Eeg6,/rttZe. Peesekt Stem, «^j^ 

IiTDicATiTE Mood. 

FkESEKT T£K6E. 



leg* 

regi* TB^tHm 

regiA leguC 

Imfeskj^ct. 

I was ruling^ or I ruled. 

regg%Bt le^ 

lakaM or tm77 ru2e. 
regauBi tb] 

regCfi regSiifli 



150 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

Imperative. 

Pres, rege, rule thou ; reglte, rtde ye, 

IhU, regttll, Mof I ahalt rule^ regit Ate, ye shall rule, 

Tegkt^, he ehaU rule ; regvMtll, tliey shall rule,^ 

In^finitive. Participle. 

iVie<. regere, to rule. Free, reg^ns, ruling, 

279. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Omn cfirS sciibit. Be writes with care. 

2. MSgnft own cnrfi scribit. He writes with great care. 

8. iQdicem mSgn5 lilentiS audi- They hear the judge with or in 
unt. great silence. 

In these examples observe — 

1) That omn curS, ujith care, mSgnfi cum curS, unth great care, 
and magn5 silentid, in or toith great silence, all denote the manner 
of the action. 

2) That the nouns curft and 8ilenti5 are in the Ablative. 

8) That in the first and second examples the Ablative takes the 
preposition onm, in the first without an adjective modifier and in the 
second with such modifier : mSgnS cum cura. 

4) That in the third example the Ablative takes an adjective modi- 
fier without cum : mSgn5 8ilenti5. 

From these and similar examples we derive the following rule : 

BUIJE: XXIV.— Ablative of Manner. 

The Ablative may be used to denote Manner. It 
then takes either, (1) the preposition cum, with or with- 
out an adjective modifier; or (2) an adjective modifier 
without cum. 

LESSON LXIV. 

TBIBD CONJUGATION, 

280. Vocabulary. 

cingo, ere, to surround, inclose. 

diieo, ere, to lead. 

gero, ere, to do, wage, carry on, administer. 

Ieg5, ere, to read. %-ible. 



1 For other meanings of the Imperative Future, see 844 (page lJi9), f oot-iiote 1. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 151 



ludo, ere. 


to play. 


scribo, ere, 


to write. acrihe. 


eontra, prep, with Aee, 


against, contrary to. eorUrorXj, 


Graece, adv. 


in the Greek language, in Greek. 


Latine, adv. 


in the Latin langiULge, in Latin« 


pila, ae, /. 


ball. 


Bomnlns, i, m. 


Romulus, reputed fonnderof Rome. 


septem, 


seven. seven. 


trigrinta, 


thirty. 


trig^inta septem, 


thirty-seven. 



ToluptaSjToluptatifi,/. pleasure, delight 

281. Translate into English. 

1. Nam, Carole, cum ciira scribis? Magna cum ctira sem- 
per scribo. 

2. Non-ne, pueri, cum ciira scribitis? Maxima cum cura 
scribimus. 

3. Ad patres vestros semper maxima cum cura scribite. 

4. Non-ne semper cum cura scribere debemus? Semper 
magna cum cura scribere debetis. 

5. Quid scribebas, scribis, scribes ? Epistulam ad patrem 
scrlbebam, ad matrem scribo, ad fratrem scribam. 

6. Quid legebatis, legitis, legetis? Libros Gaesaris lege- 
bamus, legimus, legemus. 

7. Libr5s Gaesaris maxima ciira legere debetis. Libros 
Gaesaris magno labore et maxima yoluptate legimus. 

8. Brevi tempore, pueri, carmina Vergilii maxima cum 
voluptate legetis. 

9. Discipuli mei orationes Giceronis magna cum dlligentia 
legunt. 

10. Gaesar bellum in Gallia magna cum gloria gerebat. 

11. Eo tempore Gicero librum magna cum cura scribebat. 

12. Bomulus eo tempore urbem miiro cingebat. 

13. Urbem vestram miiro altissimo cingetis? Urbem nos- 
tram miiro nunquam cingemus. 

14. Hannibal eo tempore exercitum magnum in Italiam 
ducebat. 



153 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

15. N&D-ne Hannibal elepliantda in Italiam ducSbatf Tii- 
giutil septem elephantos ducebat. 

16. Num ad patrem tanm Latme BcribisP Non LatinS 
scnbO ; nam difficile est Latins Bciibere. 

17. Quia nunc Graecfi scribit P PraeceptdriJs docti interdmn 
Oraec6 scribnnt. 

18. Hannibal m&gnnm bellum contril R<im&iiOB gerebat. 

19. Non-ne ptterl pil& Ifidunt?* Fila l&dunt. 

282. Translate into Latin. 

1. Boys, do yon often play ball ? * We play ball every day ; 
it is delightful to play ball. 

8. The Roman boys were al- 
ways playing balL 

8. Henry, will you play ball 
to-day? I will play to- 
morrow. All the boys will 
play to-morrow. 

4. Who will write to the queen? 
I sh^l write to the queen 
to-morrow. 1 shall write 
with great care. 

5. Do not kings and qneens 
sometimes write books ? 
They sometimes write in- 
teresting books about them- 
selves and their friends. 

6. Who reads American books? 
All men read American 
books. 

7. Charles, you onght to write 

a long letter to your father. Augw,tw, f» the toga. 

> FOa, ablatire of Heans, or Instnimeiit, with (he ball, filct lOifURt, render 
thev plag ball. 

> Id what MM «Dl you put the Latin word fm- tall r &ee ESI, 19, with foot^ 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OP CONJUGATIONS. 153 

8. Boys, what were you reading yesterday ? We were read- 
ing a book about great men. We always read good 
books with care. 

9. It is always pleasant to read books about famous men. 

10. Cicero was at that time administering the republic with 
great glory. 

11. In a short time we shall be reading the orations of Cicero 
with pleasure. 

12. Vergil was often praising his illustrious friend, Augustus 
Caesar. 

LESSON LXV. 

A VERBS, E VERBS, JMD COMONANT VERBS. 



283. Comparative view of conjugations 


• 




Indicative Mood. 






Present Tense. 




ConJ.L 


Conj. n. 


Conj. TTT. 


am4l 


monell 


reg» 


am&0 


mon^s 


regis 


amat 


monet 


regit 


amftmns 


mon^mns 


regintns 


amfttls 


mon^tis 


regitis 


amant 


monent 
Imperfect. 


regnnt 


amttbam 


monl^bam 


regl^bam 


amft1»ft« 


mpnl^bfts 


regl^bas 


amftlMftt 


monl^bat 


regl^bat 


amftlNliiiiis 


mon^bftmns 


regl^bftmns 


amftbftti* 


monl^bfttis 


reg«bUi8 


amftlMuit 


monl^baat 
FutuHb, 


regl^bant 


aroWM 


monl^bO 


r&gam 


amAMs 


monl^bis 


reg«» 


amftUt 


monl^blt 


reget 


amftblmvs 


mon^bimns 


reg^mns 


amftMtis 


monl^bitis 


regl^tis 


amAbiut 


mon^biut 


regeat 



154 



COMPARISON OP CONJUGATIONS. 





Imperative. 




ConJ. I. 


ConJ. IL 


ConJ. m. 


amft 


monl^ 


rcge 


amate 


nion^te 


regite 


ainfttA 


mou£t5 


regftA 


amfttll 


inonl^tA 


regitA 


amatAte 


inonl^tAte 


regitAte 


amantO 


inonenM 

Infinitive. 


rcgmit^^ 


ainftre 


Participle. 


regere 


aroftns 


monl^iis 

284. Vocabulary. 


reg«m« 


dlco, ere. 


to speak, talk, say. 


dic-tion. 


iiitelleg5, ere, 


to know, understand. 


iniellig-enL 


pars, are, 


to prepare, make ready. 


pro-pare. 


peto, ere, 


to seek, desire, ask for. 


pet'ition. 


pono, ere. 


to place. 




trinmpho, are, 


to triumph, celebrate a 


irictory. triumph. 


triumphare de. 


to triumph over. 




Tideo, ere. 


to see, behold. 




certns, a, nm. 


certain, fixed, permanent. certain. 


imperitns, a, nm, 


unskillful, ignorant, inexperi- 



enced. 
Lydi, Lydomm, m.plur, the Lydians, people of Lydia. 
mcdicina, ae, /. medicine, the healing art. 

morbus, i, m. disease, sickness. 

remedinm, f i, n. cure, remedy. 

SelpiO Afrieanna, Scipio Africanus, conqueror 

8cipi$nis AfrieinI, m. of Hannibal' 
telnm, i, n. weapon. 

Tlmon, TIm5iii8, m. Timon. 
vSnatio, yenationis, /. hunting, chase, 
venfitor, yenatSris, m. hunter, huntsman. 

mnltnm, adv, much, greatly, often. 



Lydia, 
medicine, 
mor6-id. 
remedy. 



1 This wag PubUuR Oornelius Skdpfo Africanus, the Elder, who oonquerad 
Hannibal in the celebrated battle of Zama, 800 b. c. 




COMPARISON OP CONJUGATIONS. 155 

286. Translate into English. 

1. Quid legis, Carole? quid in manibus habes? Nihil 
nunc lego ; opera Caesaris in manibus habeo. 

2. Num libros, pueri, semper in manibus habetis? Libros 
in manibus semper habemus, non 
semper legimus. 

3. Num eras pila* ludes, Carole? 
Cras pila non ludam, sed ludos 
videbo. 

4. Ubi hesterno die eratis, pueri? 
Domi eramus, Epistulas ex- 
spectabamus et scribebamus. 

5. Num ad amieos saepe scribitis 
et epistulas saepe exspectatis? 

Epistulas semper exspeetamus scipioA/ncanus^the Eider. 
et ad amieos semper scribimus. 

6. In vestra virtute, milites, omnem spem salutis poni- 
mus. 

7. Rex spem victoriae in virtute mllitum ponebat. 

8. Milites magnum in re militari usum habebant. 

9. Magnam laudem, milites, meretis ; nam pro patrifi f orti- 
ter ptignatis. 

10. Antiquissimis temporibus homines certa domicilia n5n 
habebant, sed in silvis habitabant. 

11. Croesus, rex Lydorumi ingentes divitias habebat. 

VZ. Solon, vir sapiens, ingentes Croesi divitias non lau- 
dabat. 

13. Ad me, f rater carissime, saepe seribere debes. Semper 
iticundum est tuas epistulas legere. 

14. Scipio de Hannibale triumphavit.* 

15. Hostes fuga ^ salutem petebant. 

> Remember that pild^ literally, with a boll, is an ablative of Means or In- 
strument. See foot-note 1, page 152. 

s That is, he celebrated his victory over Hannibal with a triumphal pro- 
cession. 

* Fugd is also an ablative of Means. 



156 COMPARISON OP CONJUGATIONa 

16. Medicus noster remedia morborum intellegit. 

17. Medici imperiti interdum medicinam exercent. 

18. Magna cum cur a, milites, tela parare debetis. 

19. Timon venator multum erat in venationibus,* . 

286* Translate into Latin. 

1. Dear brother, when shall you write to me ? Write often. 
I shall write to you daily. X shall write about the books 
to-morrow morning. 

2. Were you not yesterday speaking of (in regard to) 
Croesus, the king of the Lydians? I was speaking of 
the immense riches of the king. 

3. The Romans were at that time waging war against the 
Carthaginians. 

4. Where was Hannibal, the leader of the Carthaginians ? 
He was already in Italy with a large army. * 

5. Pupils, do you write often to your fathers? We write 
daily. 

6. Do your fathers often write to you? They write often, 
but not daily. 

7. Shall you expect letters to-morrow? We are expecting 
letters to-day. 

8. How many books of Caesar ought we to read? You 
ought to read four books. 

9. Who will read the works of Vergil ? I shall read all the 
poems of the great poet. 

10. Where was Caesar at that time ? Was he not in Gaul ? 
He was waging war in Gaul. 

11. Ignorant physicians ought not to practice medicine. 

12. Learned physicians always practice medicine with the 
greatest care. 

13. Who was Scipio Africanus? He was a Roman citizen 
and a great commander. 

1 Multum . . . TSii&ti5nibu8, literally, teas much in hunting expeditions ; 
render, was often engaged in the chase. 



JOKES ON THE DOCTORS. 



isr 



LESSON LXVI. 



JOKSa ON TBE POOTOBS. 



287. Vocabulary. 




committo, ere, 


to join, commit, intrust. 


commit. 


excedo, ere, 


to go away, depart. 




occido, ere, 


to strike down, cut down, kill. 




OGcnrro, ere, 


to hasten toward, meet. 


occur. 


repeto, ere, 


to seek again, return to. , 


repeat. 


responded, ere, 


to answer, respond, reply. 


respond. 


saper-sam, snper-esse, 


to remain, survive. 




at, conj. 


but, on the other hand. 




dam, conj. 


while. 




e or ex, prep, with dbh 


from, out of, of. 




ex his,^ 


out of these, of these. 




fessns, a, am, 


wearied, tired, exhausted. 




f ortnna, ae, /• 


fortune, success. 


fortune. 


ita, adv. 


thus, so. 




itaqae, conj. 


and so, accordingly. 




nee, conj. 


and not, nor. 




nec—nec. 


neither— nor. 




otiam, IT, n. 


rest, leisure. 




praeterea, adv. 


besides. 




qaondam, adv. 


formerly, once, on one occasion. 




saltem, adv. 


at least 




saperbas, a, nm, 


proud. 


superb. 


Tilla, ae, /. 


villa, country-house. 


viUa. 



288. Jokes on the Doctors. 

1. The Young Doctor. 

Medicns clams quondam, fessus longd labdre, petebat 
breve otium apud rusticam amic! TiUam. Interea filio 
curam aegrorum' committebat. Superbus iuvenis faceto 
comiti de fortune bona ita narrat. "Pater mihi aegros 

> Hl9 is a demonstratiTe pronoun in the ablattve plural ; see 890. 

s Literally, of the tick ; render of his patients, AegrHrum ia an adjective 
used Bubstantivelif. Adjectives in Latin as in Rnglish are often thus used; 
see 323. 



168 FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

committit." "At," respondet amicus, "ubi pater nrbem 
repetit, ex his omnibus quot super-erunt?" 

2. The Sporting Doctor. 

Timon erat medicus, sed imperitus. Nee causas nee 
remedia morborum intellegebat. Itaque aegri plerumque 
e vita excgdebant Praeterea Timon medicus erat venator. 
Habebat multos canes et equos, et multum erat in yena- 
tidnibus. Quondam, dum parat tela, occurrit amicus et 
dicit : " medice, hodie saltem occides nihiL" 

289. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Lati7i, 

1. Quis fuit Timon? 2. Num medicinam exercebat? 

3. Non-ne medicus causas morborum intellegere debet? 

4. Num medici causas morborum omnium intellegunt? 5. 
Quis apud yillam amici breve otium petebat? 6. Sunt-ne 
venatores plerumque medici optimi ? 7. Debent-ne medici 
imperiti medicinam exercere? 

LESSON LXVII. 
FOURTH coAViraATioy. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION : 1 VERBS. 

290. ACTIVE VOICE.^Audio, / hear» Present Stbm, audk 

Indicative Mood. 

P&fiSENT Tense. 

SINOULAR. **• PLURAL. 

audi6 audlmntf 

audl« audlti« 

audit audlnMt 

Imperfect. 

I woe T^ctrinfff or I heard» 

andl^baiit audi€bAiiiv« 

audl«1»&« audi€1»Ati« 

audiebat audi^bamt 



COMPARATIVE VIEW OP CONJUGATIONS. 



159 





Future. 




I shall or tciU hear. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


audiam 


audidnit» 


audiCfii 


audi«tt0 


audiet 


audient 



Imperative!. 

iVe^. andl, hear ih>ou ; andite, hear ye. 

Fut. audltO, ihau shalt hear, 
audlfO, he shall hea/r; 



audltote, ye shall hear^ 
audinmtO, they shall hear. 



Ikfinitive. 

JPres. aiidire, to hear. 



Participle. 

Pres. andi^n», hearing. 



291. Comparative view of the fonr conjagations. 

Ikdicative Mood. 





Present 


Tense. 




CJonj.L- 


Conj. IL 


Ck>nj. IIL 


Conj. IV. 


am» 


mone» 


reg» 


audi» 


amft0 


mon^fii 


regi» 


audl« 


amat 


monet 


regit 


audit 


amftnm» 


inondnu0 


reginitt» 


audlntn» 


amftti0 


moneti0 


regiti» 


auditi» 


ammit 


monent 


regitnt 


audinnt 




Imperfect. 




amftltam 


mon^bam 


reg^bam 


audi^bajn ^ 


amftbft» 


mon^bft» 


reg4Sbft» 


audifibft» 


amftbat 


mon^bat 


regCbat 


audi4Sbat 


amftbftniiis 


mon^bftmas 


regl^bamvA 


audiebftmntf 


amftbftti» 


mon^bfttl» 


reg4Sb&ti« 


audi«b&ti« 


amftbant 


mon^bant 


regl^bant 


audiftbant 




Future. 




amftbO 


monftbO 


regain 


audiam 


amftbis 


mon^bi» 


reg«» 


audits 


amftbit 


monCbit 


TQget 


audiet 


amftbima« 


moD^bimvs 


reg^mvs 


audiCmn» 


amfkbttis 


mon^bttl» 


reg^tis 


audita» 


amftbaiit 


monObaiit 


regent 


audient 



160 



COMPARISON OP CONJUGATIONS. 





Imperative. 


1 
1 


OonJ. I. 


Ck>nJ. n. 


Oonj. m. 


Conj. IV. 


Pres, amft 


monl^ 


rege 


audi 


amftte 


mon^te 


regite 


audlte 


Fut. aniftt» 


moncto 


regitO 


audit» 


arofttO 


monMO 


regitO 


audit» 


amfttOte 


monCtOte 


regitOte 


audltOte 


ammitO 


monentO 


reguntO 


audiimt» 



I^rea. amftre 



iV6«. amftn» 



Infinitive. 

monOre regere 

Participle. 

nionOiui reg»n» 



audire 



audi»]i0 



LESSON LXVIII. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION.—COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE 

FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 



cnstodio, ire, 
dormio, ire, 
munio, ire, 
nescio, ire, 
scio, ire, 
Araeee scio. 



292. Vocabulary. 

to guard, defend. 

to sleep. 

to fortify. 

not to know, be ignorant 

to know. 

to know Greek. 



arte, 

brevi, 

castra, ornm, n. 

flir, furls, m. 

libenter, 

Pompeins, IT, m. 

testis, testis, m. and/.^ 

tuba, ae, /. 

tnrpis, e, 

yallam, i, n. 



euslodry, 

dorvTi-ant. 

am-muni-tion. 



firmly, soundly. 

in a short time, soon. 

camp. 

thief. 

willingly, gladly. 

Pompey, Gnaeus Pompey. 

witness, 

trumpet. 

shameful, dishonorable, base. 

wall, rampart, fortification. 



brief, 
fur-tire* 

tedi-iy, 

^urp»-tude. 
wall. 



> Decline UstU like hoatiBy see 14SL 



COMPARISON OF CONJUGATIONS. 161 

293. Tratislate into English, 

1. Quis, puerT, Graece scit? Pater Graeco scit. 

2. Num, pueri, Graece scitis? Graece non scimus, sed 
Latlne brevi sciemus. 

3. lucundum et utile est Lating scire. 

4. Est-ne turpe Graece nescire? Non est turpe Graece 
nescire, sed praeclarum est optime Graece scire. 

5. Num Cicero consul Graece sciebat? Optime Graced 
sciebat. 

6. Non-ne oratorem clarum hodie audietis ? Audiemus ; 
nam semper iucundum et utile est oratores clarissimos 
audlre. 

7. Auditis-ne, milites, cantum tubarum ? Libenter audi- 
mus. 

8. Gives Ciceronem oratorem clarissi- 
mum libenter audiebant. 

9. In pugnis cantum tubarum saepe 
audietis. 

10. Qais urbem custodiebat ? Consules 
salutem civium omnium custodie- 
bant^ 

11. Milites castra vallo fossa-que munie- 
bant. 

12. Non-ne castra munietis ? Castra Onaeua Pompey the 
semper miiniemus et custodiemus. *'*'* * 

13. Num audieba^, Carole, cLamores militum? Non audie- 
bam ; arte dormiebam. 

14. Verba testis nunc audiemus. 

15. Scitis-ne nomen furis? Nomen fiiris scimus. 

16. Quis f uit Pompeius ? Fuit civis Romanus, vir fortissi- 
mus, imperator magnus. 

294. Translate into Latin, 

1. Charles, do you not hear the shouts of the boys? I hear 

the shouts. They are playing ball. 
11 




162 



A DIALOGUE. 



2. Does your teacher know Latin ? lie knows Latin and 
Greek. 

3. Do all teachers know Latin? Many teachers do not 
know Latin. 

4. Is it not an honor (honorable) to know Latin ? It is 
an honor to know Latin well. 

5. Judges, will you hear the words of the witness? 

G. What does your witness know? What ought he to 
know ? He knows the name of the thief. 

7. Who will guard our city? Brave soldiers will always 
guard the city. 

8. They were fortifying the city with a high wall. 

9. Boys, hear the words of your father. 

10. Men always gladly hear famous orators. 

11. Pompey waged war with great glory. 

12. Cicero, the famous orator, often praises Pompey, the 
great commander. 



LESSON LXIX. 



A DIALOG UF. 



admitto, ere, 
ago, ere, 
cano, ere, 
eonfligo, ere, 
cnpio, cnpere, 
descendo, ere, 
edo, ere, 
inmo, ere, 
yenio, ire, 

exereitatio, 5nis,/. 
proeliuin, ii, n. 
sTgnniu, i, n. 
simnlaeram, T, n. 



295« Vocabulary. 

to receive, admit, 
to lead, do. 
to sing, sound, play, 
to contend» fight, 
to desire, long for. 
to go down, descend, 
to give forth, 
to rush into, 
to come. 

practice, exercise, drill, 
battle, conflict, 
sign, signal, standard, 
likeness, image, imitation. 



admit, 

chant, 
cmiflict, 
c«pi-dity. 
descend. 



escereiae, 
sign. 



A DIALOGUE. 163 

Tanrl flnmen, flaminis, n. Bull Run.^ 

tentdrium, ii, n. tent. tent, 

Yeras, a, um, true, real, actual. 

298. Colloquium. 

Maoistek et Discipulus. 

Discipulas. — Andis-ne cantum tubarum ? 

Magister. — Audio. Tubae canunt in castris militum nos- 

trorum. 
D. — Quid agunt milites in castris ? 
M. — Exercent simulacrum pugnae. 
D. — Cur canunt tubae ? 
M. — Signa edunt. Milites in verTs pugnis saepe cantum 

audiunt. 
D. — Valde cupio militum exercitationes videre. 
M. — VenT mecum.* In castra descendemus. 
D. — Non-ne milites castra custodiunt ? 
M. — Castra semper custodiunt, sed admittunt omnes cives. 
D. — Adfuisti-ne unquam in vera piigna? 
M. — Adfui cum milites nostri in proelio ad Tauri flumen 

cum hostibus confiigebant. 
D. — Eras-ne miles in exercitu ? 
M. — N5n miles eram, sed pater mens partem exercitus 

ducebat. Eo tempore puer eram. Dormiebam in 

patris tentorio cum hostes in castra inrucbant. 

297. Translate the following qnestions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Adf uistis-ne in proelio ad Tauri flumen ? 2. Adfuit- 
ne pater tuus unquam in vera pugna ? 3. Non-ne eo tem- 
pore castra custodiebatis ? 4. Quis castra custodiet? 5. 
Quid puereo tempore in castris agebat? 6. Non-ne milites 
nostri urbem custodient? 

> Literally, the stream or run of the bull, 
s See S65, note. 



164 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



LESSON LXX. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



FIRST CONJUGATION: A VERBS. 

298. ACTIVE VOICE.— Amo, / love. Peksknt Stem, ama? 

Principal Parts. 
amO amftre amft^l amfttnm 



Indicative Mood. 



SINGULAR. 

am©,* / love^^ 

arnfts, you love,* 

amat, he loves ; 



Present Tensk. 



PLURAL. 

we love, 
you love, 
they love. 



amftbam, 1 was loving, 
am abas, you were loving, 
amabat, he was loving ; 



ami 

amatis, 

amant, 

Imperfect. 

amabamvs, 
amabatis, 

amabamt, 

Future. . 

amabimvs, 

amabitls, 
amabunt, 

Perfect. 

amayimas, 

amavtstts, 

amavCrant, Cre, they have loved. 

Pluperfect. 

amaveram, 7 had lotted, araaveramas, we had loved', 

amaveras, you had loved, amaveratis, you had loved, 

amaverat, he had loved ; amaverant, they had loved, 

> The final d of the stem disappears in amd. 

9 Or / am loving, I do love. So in the Imi)erfect, I loved, Iwa» loving, I did 
love. 

* Or tJum loveat. So in the other tenses, thou wast loving, thou wilt 
love, etc. 

* Or J wUl love. So in the Future Perfect, I shall have loved or ItoiU have 
loved. • Or / loved. 



amab4(, 

amabis, 

amabtt, 



amavl, 

amavisti, 

amavit, 



I shall love,* 
you will love, 
he will love ; 



I have loved,^ 
you have loved, 
he Jias loved ; 



we were loving, 
you were loving, 
they were loving, 

we shall love, 
you will love, 
they wiU love. 

we have loved, 
you have loved. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



165 



Future Perfect. 

SINGULAR. X uxwifcn. xr.n,rr.v.i. pLyj^^^ 

amaverO, I shall have loved^ amaverlmnfi, we shall have loved, 
amavertfi, you mill have loved, amayerttis, you will have loved, 
am&verit, he will have loved ; amaverint, they mil have loved. 

Imperative. 

I^es, amft, love thou; amftte, love ye, 

Fuf, amfttO, thou shall love, amfttOte, ye shall love, 
amfttO, he shall love ; amantO, they shall love. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, am Are, to love» Pres, amftns,* loving, 

Perf, amavlsse, to have loved, 

Fui, amatlkims ' esse, to be Fut, amatlkims,' ahmit to love, 
about to love. 



Gerund.* 

Gen, amandl, of loving, 
Dat, ammiclO, for hiring. 
Ace, amandnm, loving, 
Abl, amancU^, by loving. 



Supine.^ 



Ace, amatum, to love, 

Abl, amStlL, to lovCy to be loved. 



LESSON LXXI. 
first conjugation.^hannibal's speech, 

299. Vocabulary. 

aediflco, are, Sti, itnm,* to build, erect. 

celebro, are, a?!, atam, to honor, celebrate. 

creo, are, avi, atam, to make, choose, elect. 

delTbero, are, avi, atam, to deliberate. 

fago, are, a?!, atam, to rout, put to flight. 



celebrate, 
create, 
deliberate, 
/w^-itive. 



' See page 164. foot-note 4. > Deciine like bonuSy 101. 

* For declension, see 182. 

* Observe that the (Gerund and Supine are rerbal nouns, nsed in certain 
cases— the Gerund in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular ; the 
Supine in the accusative and ablative singular. 

* Observe that all these verbs form the Principal Parts like amd, with the 
endings d, dre, <lin, dtum. They are inflected throughout like am6. The same 
is also true of the other verbs of this conjugation used in the last eighteen lesscxis. 



166 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



Iiberd, are, aTi, fitum, 
sapero, are, aTl, &tnm, 



to free, liberate, set free, 
to surmount, conquer, pass, 
surpass. 



liberate. 



rasto, fire, avi. atnm, 


to lay waste. 


waste. 


centam, indeclinable adj\ 


hundred. 


cc7?i-ennial. 


contio, 5iiis, /. 


meeting, assembly. 




facile, adv. 


easily. 




festas, a, am. 


festive, festal. 


fest'&\. 


magistratns, us, m. 


magistrate, public officer. 


magistrate. 


natalis, natale. 


of birth, natal. 


natal. 


dies natalis. 


birthday. 




opalentas, a, am, 


rich, wealthy. 


opulent. 


palcliritado, palclirita- 


beauty. 




diais, /. 






Themistocles, is or i,> m. 


Themistocles, Grecian general. 


timer, oris, m. 


fear. 





300. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Hostes ab urbe arcent. They keep the enemy from the 

CITY. 

2. Gives metfi liberant. They free the citizens from fear. 

3. Consulem omnI honSre prl- They deprive the consul of all 

vant. HONOR. 

In these examples observe that ab urbe, from the city, metu, from 
fear, and honSre, of honor, all involve the idea of separation. The 
Ablative thus used is called the Ablative of Separation. Observe 
that in the first example the Ablative takes the preposition ab, and 
that in the other examples it is used without the preposition. Hence 
we have the following rule : 

RULE XXH.— Ablative of Seiiaratioii. 

Separation is denoted by the Ablative with or withotct 
a preposition. 

301. Translate into English. 

1. Homerus, clarissimus poeta, laudes principum Graeco- 
rum celebravit. 

> The { is an irregular Qenitive endincf sometimes found in words derived 
from the Greek. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 107 

2. Multi poStae gloriam laudem-que popnil Roman! cele- 
bray 6 runt. 

3. Tnfta laudes, vir clariasime, celebrftmus, nam hoates 
fugilvisti et patriam perlculo milgnfl ' llber&visti. 

4. Cicero cSnsul patriam perlculo 
magno liberiivit. 

5. Est-ne magna laus patriam perl- 
culo liberAviese ? Hoates f ugavisse 
et patriam perlculo liberavisse eat 
maxima laus. 

6. Quis Graeciam perTculo iTberare- 
rat? ThemistocleB Persaa fuga- 
verat et patriam perlculo magnO 
liberSverat.' 

7. Milites nostr! fortiter pro patria ti«,^mo<u,, th^ f«m^ 

pugnaverunt. AthtnUm general and 

8. Num elasaem iam aedificavera- «'oienaan. 
tisf Classem centum navium aedificfiver&mus. 

9. Fortiter piignate, militea ; brevi patriam pericul5 libe- 
ra veritia. 

10, Bonos puerorum mfirea heri mane laudavT. 

11. N5n-ne pneroa antea aaepe laudaviatl ? Bonos diecipu- 
lornm morea aaepe laudaveram. 

13. HoBtemo diti civea de rG publica in contione dulibera- 
bant. 

13 NoTos magistratiis eras creabimns. 

14. Carolua diem natalem eras celebrabit. 

15. Dies featoa semper celebrSmua. 

16. &f ilitea noatri labore et pfignando * fessT erant. 
17- Ars piignandi * Graecis et Komaula erat nota. 

' Perlcuifl mdffTia, ABLiTiTi at SmPAlUTloN. 

■ ThemlnocleB, Che Atbenlan Keneral. conquered Uie Feralaiu In Clie tomous 
bMtle ot Salomls, 4S0 b. c. 

* POgnaiidli Ig a Gerund in the Ablative, and. like loMrc, li an Abl^tivi or 
UuHS 1 see 114 and »6. wllh root-note 4, page 161». 

* The senltlve pignandX depends upon an, accordlne to Bl, Rule XVI. 



168 • FIRST CONJUGATION. 

302. Hannibal's Speech on entering Italy. 

Monies altissimos, mllites fortissimi, super avistis. lam 
videtis Italiam, domicilium hostium nostrorum. Brevi 
tempore urbem Romam videbitis. Romani, hostes nostri, 
in maximo timore sunt. Non fortiter pugnabunt. Vos 
semper fuistis fortissimi, semper fortissimi eritis. Fortiter 
semper ptignavistis, fortiter semper pugnabitis. Galli fortes 
iam sunt amici nostri ; Roman os facile superabitis. Multae 
urbes opulentae erunt praeda vestra. 

303. Translate into Latin. 

1. Poets have often celebrated the praises of kings. 

2. Who has celebrated the praises of Caesar? Many ora- 
tors and poets have celebrated the praises of Caesar. 

3. The Romans celebrated many festal days. 

4. Henry, when will you celebrate your birthday ? I cele- 
brated my birthday yesterday. 

6. Did not the Greeks conquer the Persians? They con- 
quered the Persians in (by) a great battle.^ 

6. Had not the Persians already conquered a large part of 
Asia? They had already conquered a very large part 
of Asia. 

7. Girls, have not flowers often delighted you ? They have 
often delighted us with their beauty. 

8. Our citizens have always honored good and wise men. 

9. It is always pleasant to honor good and wise men. 

10. We ought not to lay waste the fields of the enemy. 

11. They have never laid waste our fields. 

12. Soldiers, you have always fought bravely for your 
country. 

13. To have fought bravely for one's country is great praise. 

14. Citizens, in a short time we shall have liberated you 
from great danger. 

* Use the Ablative of Means, 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



169 



LESSON LXXII. 

SECOJVD CONJUaATlON. 

SECOND CONJUGATION: E VERBS. 

304. ACTIVE VOICE. — Moneo, 7 ac?fis«. Present Stem, mo7ie. 

Principal Parts. 
moneO inonSre monvl monltiun 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
/ advise* 



SINGULAR. 

moneO 
mon^s 
monet 



PLURAL. 

mondnn 
monent 



Imperfect, 
I was adviaifig, or I advised. 



monChiun. 

mon^l^fts 

mon^l^fit 



moneihikxnwLm 

mond»atIs 

monCl^aiftt 
Future. 

/ shall or vnll advise, 

mon^blmns 

mon^Mtis 

monelmnt 
Perfect^ 

/ have advised^ or 2 advised, 

monutinits 

monuistis 

monu^rvnt, or £re 
Pluperfect. 

J had advised, 

monuerftmui» 

monuerfttis 
monuerant 
Future Perfect. 
/ shall or will have advised, 
monuerO monuerfmus 

monueris monueritis 

monueril; monuerlnl; 



mon^bO 

mon^bis 

mon^bit 



monul 

monulsti 

monult 



monueram 

monuerfts 

monuerat 



170 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



Imperative. 

SINGULAR. 

Pres. raon*, advise thou ; 

Fut mon£t4(, thou shcUi advise^ 
mon^t^^ he shall advise. 



PLURAL. 

mon^te, advise ye, 

monMOte, ye shall advise,"* 
monentO, they shaM advise. 



Infinitive. 

Pres, mon^re, to advise, 
Perf, monulsse» to have advised, 
Fut, monitftrus esse, to he 
about to advise. 



Participle. 

Pres, mon^ns, advising, 

Fut, monitlkim», ahout to advise. 

Supine. 



Gerund. 

Oen. monendl, of advising, 
Dat, monencU^, for advising. 

Ace, monendninL, advising. Ace, monituin, to advise, 

Abl, monendO, by advising, Abl, monitik, to advise, to he ad- 
vised. 



305. Vocabulary. 



defeiido, ere, 
dis-pliceo, ere, ni, itniii,^ 
floreo, ere, ni, 
lacto, are, §?!, atam, 
parco, ere, uT, itnm,' 

per5ro, are, a?!, atnm, 

placeo, ere, ni, itnm,* 
plando, ere, 

postnlo, are, avl, atam, 
tentd, are, avT, atam, 
timeo, ere, ai,^ 

aaditor, oris, m. 
faber, fabri, m, 
lapis, lapidis, m, 
merces, mercedis, /. 



to ward off, defend, protect. 

to displease, be displeasing. 

to flourish, bloom. 

to throw, hurl. 

to obey, be obedient, be 

subject, 
to speak at length, close, 

finish, 
to please, be pleasing, 
to applaud, give applause, 
to demand, ask. 
to try, attempt, 
to fear, dread, be afraid of. 

hearer, listener. 

workman, smith, carpenter. 

stone. 

reward, pay, wages. 



defend, 

displease, 

^or-id. 



please, 
»p-plaud, 

tenta-tive. 



auditor, 
fabr-ic, 

fwcrce-nary. 



» These verbs govern the Dative, i. e., take an Indirect Object. 
* Timed has only three ot the regular Principal Parts in use, and is accord- 
ingly here repeated, though already defined in 200. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 171 

Give the Principal Parts of d5be5, exeroeO, habeO, and mereS, 
defined in 260,^ like moneo, monSre, montd, monitum. 

306. Synonyms. 

Places, delects ; io please, delight 

1. Placeo, ere, ni, itam, with dative ; to please, satisfy. 

2. Delecto, are, ivi, atam, with accusative; to delight, charm, 

PLEASE. 

307. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Liber mifal placet. The book pleases me. 

2. Rex ISgibuB paret. The kitig obeys the laws. 

3. ReX publioae serrit. He serves the republic. 

In these examples observe that the Object is in the Dative, not in 
the AcctLsative» Thus in general many verbs signifying to please or 
displease, command or obey, serve or resist, and the like, take the 
Dative of the Indirect Object, not the Accusative of the Direct 
Object See 59, Rule XII. 

308« Translate into English, 

1. Quis omnibus hominibus unquam placuit? Omnibus 
hominibus nemo unquam placuit, nemo unquam pla- 
cebit. 

2. DTligentia vestra, pueri, praeceptoribus valde placuit. 

3. Num, Carole, tibi semper placuisti ? Mihi non semper 
placuT. 

4. Non-ne amlcis saepe placui? Amicis semper glacuisti 
et iiicundum est amicis placere. 

5. Epistulae vestrae, pueri, patri tuo valde placuerunt. 

6. Iiicundum est patri et matri placuisse. 

7. Num leges vobis displicent? Nobis placent. 

8. Severae Draconis leges Atheniensibus displicuerunt. 

9. Cicero multos libros Graecos habuisse dicitur. 

10. Non-ne legibus semper paruimus? Legibus^ bonis 
semper paruistis. 

' It is not deemed neoeasary to repeat these and other regular verha already 
defined, even though only two of the Principal Parts have been given as they are 
inflected throughout, like amU, if of the first conjugation, and like mone6, if of 
the second. 



173 SKCONU CONJUGATION. 

11. XTb! Bunt fabri nostri, Henrlce? In contione sunt. 
MAiurem mercSdem a nObls postulant. 

12. Brevi tempore, milites, magnum in ru militari usum 
habuerltis. 

13. Homani multla in terris templa magnifica aedificave- 
runt. 

14. Gall! oppida Bua defendere tent&venint. 

15. Lapides iactare, pueri, non debetis. 
IC. Omnes artes apud Oraecos flOmerunt. 

17. Orator peroravit. Nunc plaudite, audttores. 



Rvman temple at Nimety in FVance. 

309. Translate into Latin. 

1. I have often praised joa, boys, for yoa have often de- 
served praise. 

3. Frederick, we have never praised your brother, for he 
has never deserved great praise. 

3. Judge, your son has greatly pleased all his teachers. 

+. My son, have you always obeyed your teacher? I have 
sometimes obeyed my teachers. 

5. All citizens ought to obey the laws. 



A DIALOGUE. 



173 



6. Have you often advised my son ? I have often advised 
your son, and he has always obeyed my words. 

7. Have you ever had many books? I have never had 
many Latin books. 

8. You will soon read Latin and have Latin books. 

9. You, brave soldiers, have never feared danger 

10. Had you never before exercised your memory? I have 
always exercised ray memory. 

11. The Romans in ancient times were subject to (obeyed) 
kings. 

LESSON LXXIII. 



A DIALOGUE, 



810. V 

deeedo, ere, 

Impetro, are, avi, atnni, 
intro, are, avi, atnm, 
narro, are, avT, atnm, 
oeenpo, are, avi, atum, 
propero, are, avi, atum, 
terreo, ere, terrni, territnm, 
video, ere, vidi, visnm. 

consilium, ii, n. 



OCABULARY. 

to go away, depart 

to get, obtain. 

to go into, enter. 

to tell, narrate, relate. na/rrate* 

to seize, take possession of, occupy, 

to hasten, go quickly. 

to terrify, frighten. terri-iy, 

to see, perceive. 

plan, counsel, council, 
assembly. counsel. 



minime, adv„ superlative. 


least of all, not at all. 




qaldam, indefinite pronoun,^ 


a certain, a certain one. 




operarius, ii, m. 


laborer, workman. 




pnsillns, a, am. 


yery small, insignificant. 




sibilns, 1, m. 


hissing. 




statura, ae, /. 


height, size. 


stature. 


su^estns, ns, m. 


platform, stage. 




tnmnltns, us, m. 


disturbance, noise. 


tumult. 


nnde, adv. 


whence, from what place f 




vero, adv. 


in truth, indeed, but. 




yIx, adv. 


hardly, scarcely. 






1 See 892. 





174 A DIALOGUE. 

311. Colloquium. 

Cabolus et Fredebicus. 

Carolos. — ^Unde venis, Frederice ? 

Fredericus. — ^Venio ex theatro, ubi contio fuit. 

C. — Num populus novos magistratus creavit ? 

F. — Contio fuit fabrorum. Maiorem mercedem a magistris 
suis postulant. 

C. — Num maiorem mercedem in contione impetraverunt ? 

F. — Minirae. Deliberabant in contione. 

C. — Narra mihi de fabrorum consiliis. 

¥.^ — Cum intravi theatrum, in suggestu erat faber quidam, 
ingentis staturae homo. Auditores plaudebant magno 
cum tumultu. Vix peroraverat faber, cum homo pusil- 
lus suggestum occupavit. Contio hominem sibills et 
clamoribus salutavit. Multi fabri lapides iactaverunt 
et hominem pusillum terruerunt. Tumultus erat mag- 
nus. Multi operaril hominem armis defendere tenta- 
verunt. Itaque omnes pugnam parabant. Ego vero 
ex theatro decedere properavi. 

C. — Nunquam-ne contionem videras ? 

F. — Talem contionem nunquam videram. 

C. — Non debuisti esse ^ in tali contione. 

F. — Scio, sed Ricardus me in contionem invitavit. 

312. — Translate the following questions and answer 
them in Latin, 

1. Quis Fredericum in contionem invitavit? 2. Ubi 
fuit conti5 ? 3. Quid agebant fabri in contione ? 4. Vi- 
disti-ne unquam contionem? 5. Non-ne homo pusillus 
fabros timuit? 6, Quid postulabant fabri ? 

> D&mistl esse, ' you ought to have been.' Observe the difference of idiom 
between the Latin and the English in the use of tenses. In Latin the leading 
verb, debuisti, is in the Perfect tense, while Uie infinitive is in the Present ; but 
in English the leading verb is in the Present, oughts while the infinitive, to have 
been, is in the Perfect. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



175 



LESSON LXXIV. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 

THIRD CONJUGATION: CONSONANT VERBS. 

813. ACTIVE VOICE.— Rego, / rM/€. Present Stem, re^c. 

Pkincipal Parts. 
reg4^ regere rexl* rectum' 

Indicative Mood. 

Pkesent Tense. 
I rule. 





8TKOUT.AR. 


PLURAL. 




reg* 


regimns 




regi» 


regitis 




regit 


regant 
Imperfect. 

/ IDCL8 nUing, or / ruled. 




reg^bam 


reg^^bftmns 




reg^b&s 


reg«b&tis 




reg4^bat 


reg^^bamt 

Flture. , 

/ shall or will rule. 




regam 


regCinns 




reg«» 


regCtis 




reget 


regeat 
Perfect. 

I have ruled, or / nded. 




rexl 


rexlmus 




rexisti 


rexlstis 




rexit 


rex4^mmt, or ©re 

Pluperfect. 

/ had nded. 




rexeram 


rexer&mus 




rexer&s 


rexer&tis 




rexerat 


rexeramt 

Future Perfect. 
I shall or toill have ruled. 




rexerO 


rexertmnfi 




rexerfs 


rexerttis 




rexerlt 


rexeplmt 



* For reg-9iy reg-tum. 



176 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Imperative. 



SINGULAR. 

Pi'es, rege, nUe thou ; 

FuL regltO, i?iou ahalt rule, 
regiM, ?ie shall rule. 



PLURAL. 

regite, rule ye, 

regitote. ye ahcUl rule, 
reguiitO, they shall rule. 



Participle. 

Pres, reg4&iis, ruling. 



Infinitive. 

Pres, regere, to rule, 
Perf. rexlsse, to have ruled, 

Fut, rcctfUrus esse, to he about Fut, rectftms, aI}out to rule, 
to rule. 



Gerund. 

Oen. regemdl, of ruling. 
Dat, regemdO, for ruling. 
Ace, regemdum, ruling, 
Abl, regemdO, by ruling. 



Supine. 



Ace, rectum, to rule. 

Abl, rectfk, to rule, to be ruled. 



314. Vocabulary. 

cingo, ere, ciiixi, cinctam, to surround, inclose. 

dico, ere, dixi, dictum, . to speak, say, tell, 

talk. 
diied, ere, dnxi, dnctnm, to lead. 

de-dfieo, ere, dednxT, dednctnm, to lead off or away. 
e-diico, ere, ednxl, ednctam, to lead out or from. 
in niatrimoninm dneere, 
lego, legere, legi, lectum, 
seribo, ere, scrips!, scrTptniii, 
tribno, ere, tribal, tribntnm. 



to marry, 
to read, 
to write, 
to grant, bestow, 
render, award. 



deduct. 



Ze^r-ible. 
scribe, 

tribute. 



beneflcinm, if, n. 
gratia, ae, /. 
hiberna, dram, n., plur, 
matrimoniam, ii, n, 
nondam, adv, 

Cinna. ae, m, 
Terentia, ae, /. 



favor, service, benefit, benefici-al, 
gratitude, thanks. ^a^i-tude. 
winter quarters. 

marriage, matrimony, matrimony, 
not yet. 

Cinna, a family name.* 
Terentia, Roman name. 



1 Lucitis Comeliua Cinna^ the father-in-law of Caesar and an adherent of 
Marius in the civil war, is here meant. 



THIKD CONJUGATION. I77 

316. Tratislate into English. 
1. NOn-ne Rumulus urbem mum cinxit? Urbem muro 

ciuxisse dicitur. 
% Non-ne Hannibal exercitum in Italiam duxit? M&g- 

num exercitum in Italiam duxit. 

3. Quot elephantos in Italiam duxit Hannibal? Triginta 
septem elephantos in Italiam djixisee dicitur. 

4. Caesar equites ex castris in aciem Gduxerat. 

5. Imper&tor exercitum in hiberna nundum deduxerat 



6. Quot libroB Bcrtpait CicerSf MultOa librSa optimg 
Latin B ecripsit. 

7. NOn-ne Gicerd de amicitia scnpsit? Optimum libnim 
de amicitia ecripsit. 



178 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

8. Fratres mel de incendio maximo ad me scripserunt. 

9. Multos libros utiles, pueri, iam legistis. 

10. Epistulam tuam pater meus legit et laudavit. 

11. Multa beneficia, cives, mihi tribuistis; vobis magnam 
gratiam debeo. 

12. Nobis, consul sapientissime, multa beneficia tribuisti; 
tibi magnam gratiam debemus. 

13. lucundum est beneficia amicis tribuere. 

14. Artem dicendl cottidie exercemus. 

15. Artem scribendi cottidie exercere debetis. 

16. Cicero Terentiam in matrimonium duxit. 

17. Caesar Corneliam, f Iliam Cinnae, in matrimonium duxit. 

316. Translate into Latin, 

1. How many books, boys, have you read ? We have read 
many very good books. 

2. Have you read many Latin books ? We are now reading 
a Latin book, and we shall soon be reading the works 
of Caesar. 

3. What did Caesar write? He wrote seven books about 
the Gallic War. 

4. Did Caesar write Greek well ? He did not write Greek, 
but he wrote Latin exceedingly well. 

5. Charles, what have you read recently? I have been 
reading the works of Vergil, the famous poet 

6. What had you previously read ? I had read the books 
of Caesar, but I had never read the orations of Cicero. 

7. You ought to read the orations of Cicero. He was the 
most famous of Roman orators. 

8. Did not Cicero bestow many favors upon his friends ? 
He is said to have bestowed many favors upon all his 
friends. 

9. Had not the Romans bestowed great honor upon Cice- 
ro? They had already bestowed great honor upon the 
consuL 



THE GAULS ENTER ROME, 



179 



LESSON LXXV. 

THE GAULS ENTER ROME. 

317. Vocabulary. 

aseendo, ere, scendl, scensnm, to go up, mount, ascend. 

clando, ere, clansT, clausnm, to shut, close. 

eyado, ere, eTasT, Syasam, 

Incendo, ere, cendT, censum, 

trncido, are, ayi, atnm, 

yerto, ere, T, yersum, 

yinco, ere, yici, yictum, 



to go out) escape, 
to set on fire, bum. 
to slaughter, massacre, 
to turn, 
to conquer. 



ascend, 

close, 

evade. 



di-vert. 



ant, 

ant — aut, 
A Ilia, ae, /. 
Brennns, I, m, 
Capitolinm, ii, n. 
cnria, ae, /. 
milia, inm, n. plur,^ 
senator, oris, m. 



or.. 

either — or. 

Allia, river near Rome. 
Brennus, leader of the Gauls. 
Capitol, citadel of Rome, 
senate, senate-house, 
thousand, thousands, 
senator. 



senator. 



318. The Gauls under Brennus enter Rome, 390 b.c. 

Brennus, dux Gallorum, exercitum Romanum ad AUiam 
vicerat. Galli multa milia Romanorum trucidaverant ; 
multi Roman! terga verterant ; pauci e manibus hostium 
evaserant. Brennus exercitum suum iam ad urbem duce- 
bat. Turn elves aut fugae se mandaverunt aut in Capito- 
linm ascenderunt. Senatores in foro adventum Gallorum 
exspectabant. Portas urbis non clauserant. Itaque Galli 
per portas in urbem intraverunt et ad curiam se verterunt. 
Postea omnes senatores trucidaverunt et urbem incenderunt. 

319. Translate the following questions and answer tliein 
in Latin. 

1. Quis Romanos ad AUiam vicit? 2. Ubi erat flumen 
Allia? 3. Quot R6m3,nos trucidaverant Galli? 4. Ubi 



> See Numerals, 384. 



180 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



senatores Gallos exspectaverunt ? 5. Dtixit-ne Brennus 
exercitum suum in nrbem? 6. Quot Eomani e manibus 
hostium evaserunt? 7. Non-ne adventus Gallorum cives 
yalde terruit? 8. Timebat-ne dux Gallorum milites Ro- 
manos ? 



LESSON LXXVI. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION: I VERBS. 

320. ACTIVE VOICE.— Audio, / hear, Peesext Stem, audi, 

Pkincipal Parts. 
audl4^ audire audlTl audltnm 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense, 
I Tiear. 



8INOX7LAB. 

audi4^ 
audi» 
audit 



audt^1»i 

audlftbfts 

au(llei»at 



audi 

audits 

audiet 



audivl 

audivlsti 

audivlt 



audiveram 

audiverfts 

audiverat 



PLURAL. 

audlmiui 

audltis 

audimit 

Imperfect. 

I ufos hea/ring^ or / heard, 

audl^MUni 

audi«bfttis 

audiAbaat 

Future. 

/ shall or will hear, 

audiftntiis 

audlfttis 

audlemt 

Perfect. 

/ have heard, or i heard, 

audivinms 

audiYistis 

audlv^miit, or «re 

Pluperfect. 

/ hcui heard, 

audiverftmiis 

audiyer&tis 

audiverant 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 181 

FuTUEE Perfect. 
I shall or will have heard, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

audiverO audiverimiis 

audiverfs audlverftls 

audiverlt audiverimt 

Imperative. 

Prea, audi, hear thou ; audlte, hear ye. I 

JTuL audltO, thou sha^t hear^ audltOte, ye shaXl hsar, 
audltO, he shall hear ; audinntO, they shall hear. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. audire, to hear, Pres, audi^ns, hearing, 

Perf, audlvlsse, to have heard. 

Put, auditftnts esse, to be Put, audltAms, ahotU to hear, 
about to hear. 

Gerund. Supine. 

Gen, audlemdl, of hearing, 

Dat, audiemdO, for Jiearing, 

Ace, audiemdimi, hearing, Ace, auditnm, to hear, 

Abl, audlemdO, by hearing, AM, audltft, to hear, to be heard, 

321« Examine the following sentences: 

1. SapientSs saepe laudantur. The wise are of ten praised, 

2. BonX sunt beati. The good are happy, 

. 3. Mnlta scltis. You know many things. 

4. Nemo omnia scit. No one knows all things. 

In these examples observe — 

1) That sapientes and bonX are used substantively, like the Eng- 
lish the wise, the good. Adjectives are often thus used in the ma^scu- 
line plural, 

2) That multa and omnia are also used substantively, many 
things, all things, everything. Adjectives are often thus used in the 
neuter plural, 

822. Vocabulary. 

argentnm, i, n, silver, silver money. 

Alpes, iniii, /. Alps. 

Hortensias, ii, m, Hortensius, the Roman 

orator.' 

1 The orator was Quintus Hortensius. 



Ig2 FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

LaeedaemonlT, Srnm, m. p^ur. Lacedacmnnian», Spartans. 
Utr5, Utronls, m. robber, brigand, 

nitfira, ae, /. nature. nature. 

pondaa, ponderls, n. weight, mass, amount. poTider-oaa. 

serrlo, Ire, Tyi, itnm,' to serve, devote one's 

self to. urve. 

833. Translate into English. 

1. Quem, Frederice, in senStfl audivisti ? Miiltos sena- 
tortis honestissimos audivi. 

2. Num senatores unquam antea audiverjls? Seiiatfirem 
nunquaTn antea audiveram. 

3. Caesar Ciceronem oratorem saepe andivit. 

4. Num civea Roman! Ciceronem unquam audiverunt? 
Ciceronem Baepe in foro Romano audiverunt. 

5. Quid, pueri, a patre vestro audiviatia? Nihil jl patre 
hodie audivimus. 

6. Quid de sapientibus Graeciae audivisti? Multa audivi. 

7. Sapientea Graeeiae fneruut clarissimi. 

8. Num sapientes Graeeiae omnia 
Bciebant ? Ndn omnia sciebant. 
NemS unquam omnia scivit. 

9. Pauci mnita bene sciverunt. 

10. Boni semper rel piiblicae aervi- 
vgrunt. 

11. Lacedaemonii urbem snam non ^ 
miiniverunt. ^ 

18. Galli oppida ingentibua muris 
miiniverant. 

13. Nfttura Italiam Alpibus mu- g„,„^ sorttnH^u* 
nivit. 

14. Patriae servite, cives ; iucnndum est patriae serrire. 

15. De latrOnibua audiri. 

16. Quid audivisti? Quid postulant latronCa? Mftgnum 
argent! pondue postulant. 



A DIALOGUE. 183 

17. Audivisti-ne de Ilortensio oratore? De Quinto Hor- 
tensio saepe audivi. Fuit orator clarissimus. 

324. Translate into Latifi, 

1. What have you heard to-day in school ? I have heard 
many things about Rome. 

2. It is always pleasant to hear about Rome. 

3. Boys, you have heard many stories about Rome. 

4. Did the Romans fortify their city? They fortified 
Rome with a high wall. 

5. Soldiers, have you fortified the camp ? We have already 
fortified our camp. 

6. The Romans always fortified their camp. 

7. What did the wise men of Greece know? They knew 
Greek. 

8. What do the wise now know ? They know many things, 
but not all things. 

9. Did not Cicero devote himself to (serve) the republic? 
He devoted himself to the safety of the republic. 

10. Boys, you ought to hear the singing of the birds. 



LESSON LXXVII. 

a dialog ctk 

325« Vocabulary. 

Note*— It IB deemed advisable that the learner should now begin to 
make regular use of the general yocabolary at the end ot this volume. Ac- 
cordingly, the special vocabularies prefixed to Dialogues and toother passages 
of connected discourse wiU contain only verbs. For other words the learner 
will be referred to the general vocabulary. 

ab-dnco, ere, dnxi, dnctam, to lead away, carry away 

or off. abduct, 

con-diico, ere, dnxT, dnctam, to hire. 
di-mitto, ere, mlsT, mlgsam, to send away, release, dismiss. 



184 A DIALOQUK 

in-cldit, ere, oWi, , to happen, meet, fall in 

with. ineidtrU. 

InbeS, Sre, InssT, laBBnni, to order. 

mltto, ere, migl, mlsBum, to send. mtM-ive. 

op-prim9, ere, prewl, pressum, to take by surprise, over- 
power, opprtas. 

re^fleS, ere, dftsi, dnctnm, to ]ead back, bring back. redtUe. 

tri-dfi, ere, dldi, ditam, to hand over, deliver, tradt-tiaa. 

326. Colloquium. 

FkederIcus et Seevvs CabolL 
Note. — The servant eoten in a state of great excitement lod delivers a 
letter to Frederick. 

Servus. — Audivistl-ne de latronibua, domine? 
Frederiens. — NSn aadlvl. Quid est? 
S. — Dominus mens inssit mg epiatulam tibi tradere.* Lege. 
F. — " ManiiB latronum 

GraecOnim ex insi- 

diis me in campo 

Marathonio oppres- 

sit et captTvum* ab- 

duxit Itaque in 

po testate sum la- 

troniim. Postulant 

mftgnum argentl -*" 

pond us pro vita mea 

et libertate. Mfignd sum in periculo. Nisi peeuniftm 

miseris, latrones lak necabnnt." 
F. — Pecuniam mittam. Ubf aunt latrones? 
S. — In montibus sunt. 
F. — Adfnistr-ne cum latronce Carolum, amicum meum, 

oppresserunt ? 

■ hisait me trOdert, ' ordered me to deliver.' Obaerre ttiet tbe Latin Idiom 
is the same aa [be EngliA. In eacli tbe verb tabes the Direct Objtct with the 

iNFtHlTIVI, 

• Copdcum aMflirit, ' carried awar captive.' 

■ An Athenian teCradrachm. Notice the bead or (be godden Athena and the 
OT>l, the srmbol of wtsdoni. 



A DIALOGUR. 185 

S. — Adfui. Carolu3 condGxerat me AtheniB.' In maniis 

latronum una cum Carolo incidl, sed dimiserunt me 

cum epiatula. Neeesse 

nOn erit pecuniam mit- 

tere latronibus. 
P. — Cur non erit neeesse 

pecuniam mittere 1a- 

tronibus ? 

S. — Ineidi forte in agmen ■* Roman copper coin of the iWnJ 

militum. DucJ narravi «n ury . . 

de latronibus. la extemplo milites buos in latebrils 
latronum deduxit. 
F. — Milites certe Carolum llbei-abunt et reducent, 

327. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

1. Non-ne dg latronibus saepe andiviatis? 8. UbI inci- 
dit Carolus in manna latronum? 3. Qois servnm epistulam 
Frederico tradere iuseit ? i, Num Frederlcus pecuniam 
latronibus misit? 5. Audiviatia-ne unquam, pueri, d6 
campo Marathonio? 6. Quia Carolum liberavit? 

LESSON LXXVlil. 

VEBSS.-PASSIVE VOICE. 

■ PIR8T CONJUGATION : A VERB& 

3S8. PASSIVE VOICE.— AiDor,/ am Itwed. Fkesbst Stkh, offld. 

Frincifil Parts. 

amor amftrt amAtm» «lun* 

■ AthinU, ' at Attaeofl.' a Locative: Bee 40, 4, and 393. 

■ Ttae BomoD da, the staadard ot tbe national currency ; originally a pound 
oT copper, but BubBeqoently iwluced In value. The piece here reppesenled 
velgbed about four ounces. Notice the double head of llie god Janus, the prow, 
the wreath, the flgut^ I, and the lascrlptloQ Roma. 

■The Principal ParU In the FaKive Voice are the Fbiuiiit Ihdicititi, 
amor.tlie Pkehent iNnBirivi:, amdrl, and the pEBFicr Indtcatiti, oniiUiu 
nu», though the Principal ParU given In the Active may aerie for both voices. 



186 PASSIVE VOICE. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
«,„^«^« » » ^ <*"* loved, __ „_ , _ 

SIXGULAR. PLURAL. 

amor amftmitr 

am&ris, or re am&ntliii 

am&tnr amaatiir 

Imperfect. 

1 W€U loved. 
am&1»ar amftbftmitr 

am&bftris, or re am&bftmliil 

am&batitr am&lMUititr 

Future. 

/ shall or will be loved, 
am&1»or am&bliiiiir 

am&berls, or re aro&1»i]iiiiil 

am&bititr am&1»itiitiir 

Perfect. 

I have been loved or / was loved, 
amatns ' sum amftti snmiis 

am&tns es amati estls 

amatns est amati sunt 

Pluperfect. 

/ had been loved, 
amatns erant amati erftmas 

amatns erfts amati erfttis 

amatus erat amati erant 

Future Perfect. 

I shcUl or will have been loved, 
amfitns erO amati erimiui 

amatas eris amati crltis 

amatns erit amfiti 



Imperative. 

Pre^ am&re, be thou loved ; amftntini, be ye loved, 

Fut, amfttor, thou ehait be loved, 

amfttor, Ae shall be loved ; amantor, they shaU he loved, 

> Decline like bonii«, 101. In the compound forms, amdtvM «vm, amdtua 
eram, etc., tHe i>articiple amdtus takes the getider and number of the tubjeci. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 187 

Infinitive. Pabticiplb. 

Pres. amftrl, to be loved, 

Ferf, amatiui ^ esse, to have been Perf. ainatus,^ Tiaving been loved, 
loved, 

Fut. amatam Irl, to be about to OerJ^ amandiis,^ to be loved, de- 
be loved, serving to be loved. 



LESSON LXXIX. 

passive voice,— first conjugation,— present imper- 
fect, and future, 

329. Vocabulary. 

dcbeo, ere, ul, itam, to owe, be under obligation. 

debet, (he) owes, ought. 

honoro, are, ayl, atam, to honor, respect. iMmor, 

op-pngno, are, avi, atum, to attack, assail, storm. 

fermm, i, ». iron, weapon, sword. 

Ignis, is, m. fire. t^n»-te. 

monile, is, n. necklace, collar. 

noctu, adv, by night, at night. nocZ-urnal. 

ornamentnin, T, n, adornment, jewel, trinket. ornament, 

330. Translate into English, 

1. Magister magnam dlligenti^m discipulorum laudabafc. 

2. Magna discipulorum diligehtia a magistro laudabatur. 

3. GermanT agros hostium ferro igiii-que vastabant. 

4. Hostium agri ferro igni-que a Germanis vastabantur. 

5. Roman! oppidum noctii oppugnabant. 

(). Oppidum a RomanTs noctu oppugnabatur. 

7. A magistris, puerT, laudabimini, nam diligentes fuistis. 

8. Discipuli diligentes a magistris laudari debent. 

9. Tu, Carole, equls delectaris, nos librTs delectamur. 

> See foot-note 1, page 186. 

• Qer s Oeruiidive, the name given ito one of the PcuHve ParticipUs. It is 
also called the Future Passive Participle. 



188 PASSIVE VOICE. 

10. Frater meds te eras ad ludum in hortum ^ invitabit. 

11. A fratre meo eras ad ludum in hortum invitaberis. 

12. lueundum est ab amicis amari, a magistris laudari. 

13. Non-ne filia tua monlli pulchro deleetatur? Valde 
delectatur. Puellae ornamentis pulehris semper de- 
lectantur. 

14. Honoras omnes bonos et ab omnibus bonis honoraris. 





Jewelry found at JPotnpeii.* 

15. Omnes bonos semper honorabis et semper honorfiberis 
ab omnibus bonis. 

16. ArmTs delectabantur Roman!, Graeci ludis. 

17. A sapientibus viris laudari est vera laus. 

331. Translate into Latin. 

1. You, my brother, were always praising me. 

2. I, my brother, was always praised by you. 

3. You will always be praised by me, for you ought to be 
praised. 

4. I am often praised by my friends. 

5. You will always love and honor your father. 

6. My father will always be loved and honored by me, for 
he ought to be loved and honored. 

7. You, Julia, are pleased with the poems of Vergil ; I am 
pleased with the orations of Cicero. 

> Notice the difference between the I^tin and the English idiom : 
English Idiom. Latin Idiom. 

To a game in the garden. To a game into the garden, 

s A bracelet and a ring. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



189 



8. Do not your instructors often praise the poems of 
Vergil? The poems of Ver- 
gil are praised by all our 
teachers. 

9. Were not the Romans con- 
quering the Gauls? The 
Gauls were (being) con- 
quered by the Romans. 

10. Good men will always be 
honored by the good. 

11. Among the Romans brave 
men were honored by all. 

12. Socrates, the wisest of all 
the Greeks, was loved and ^ ^^'»°~ ^'•^"'".^ ""f ^""^ ""* «^'^ 

' coins, 

honored by many friends. 

13. The Roman women were (being) delighted with beau- 
tiful ornaments. 




LESSON LXXX. 

PASSIVE VOICE,— FIBST CONJUGATION,— THE OAULS CAPT- 
URE ROME. 



332. Vocabulary. 

ex-eit5, fire, avi, atnm, to arouse, awaken. 
ex-pngno, are, avi, atam, to take by storm, capture. 
5riio, are, §vl, atnm, to adorn, decorate, furnish, 

supply, equip. 
yitnpero, are, avi, atam, to find fault with, blame. 



excite. 



ad-om. 



anser, eris, m. 


goose. 




eena, ae, /. 


feast, dinner. 




elfimor, clamoris, m. 


noise, cry, cackling. 




Inno, Ifinonis, /. 


Juno, Roman goddess. 




pTctiis, a, urn, 


painted. 




spolium, il, n. 


booty, spoil. 


spoil. 


tabula, ae, /. 


tablet. 


tabl-et. 



^ 



190 PASSIVE VOICK 

333. Translate into English. 

1. MagiBtri voa saepe laudavenint. 

2. VSs, puerJ, i. magiatrls aaepe laudatl estis. 

3. Tu, Carole, equls semirer delectatos es, iios librls semper 
delectati sum us. 

4. Galli agrOs hoatium ferro Igiii-que viistaverunt. 

5. Hostiiim agri ferro ignl-que a Gallls vastatT aunt 

6. Multi Roman! villas pulchemmaa aedificaverunt. 

7. Villac pulcherrimae n Kdniilais aedificatae sunt. 

8. Multae vlllae statuia et tabulis pictia Ornatae aunt. 



A Ronuin /eatt. 

9. R6minl forum apoliis hostinm omaverunt. 

10. Forum Romanum spoliis hostium est ornatum. 

11. Tu seroper laiidatua es, ego saepe vituperatua aum. 

VZ. Kon-ne urba Roma a Romulo aedi6cAtaeat? Rdma A 
Bomnlo aediGc&ta esse dicitur. 

13. Cras ad cenam iuTitaberis. 

14. Fratres tuos ad cenam iam invftavl. 

384. More about the Gauls in Italy.* 

G^lT, popnlus bellicosiia, Alpes montes alt6a superaverant 

et Italiam ferrS Igni-qne viiataverant. Dux GallOrum erat 

Brennus, vir fortis et audax. Romflnl ad AlUam flumen 

& Brenn5 proeliS auper&ti et fngati aunt; urbs expfignata 

1 For Che meuilD^ of all wordfl except verbs, see ^oeral Tocabularf. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 191 

et vastata est. Galli Capitolium, arcem Romanam, noctu 
oppugnaverunt, sed anseres lunonis Romanos dormientes 
clamore excitaverunt. Postea Brenni copiae a Camillo 
dictatore fugatae sunt.^ 

336. Translate into Latin. 

1. You have always loved and honored your father. 

2. Your father has always been loved and honored by you. 

3. You have often been praised by your 
father. 

4. Had not the Carthaginians laid waste 
a large part of Italy ? A large part 
of Italy had already been laid waste 
by the Carthaginians. 

5. Was not the Roman citadel captured 
by the Gauls ? It was not captured ; 
for the sacred geese aroused the sleep- 
ing soldiers. 

6. Where were the geese? They were J'^'^w, queen of the 
in the temple of Juno. 

7. I have been invited to a feast by your friend Mar- 
cus. 

8. Brave soldiers, you have often been praised by your 

commander. 

9. Did not the Romans capture many cities ? Many cities 
were captured by the Romans. 

10. Who captured Carthage? Carthage was captured by 
Scipio Africanus.* 

11. Who saved the Roman Republic? The Roman Repub- 
lic is said to have been saved by Cicero. 




> In times of great peril a dictator was sometimes appointed and clothed 
with almost unlimited power. 

* This was Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanos, the Younger, the grandson 
bj adoption of Scipio Africanus, the Elder. He was a wise statesman and an 
able general. He brought the third Punic war to a close by the capture and 
destruction of Carthage. 



193 A DIALOOUB. 

LESSON LXXXI. 

A MALOaUB. 

336. VOCABULAET. 

dS-fciidS, ere, fendl, fStunm, to defend, guatd, protect defend. 

domo, ire, nl, ftnm, to tAme, subdue. 

Ikcerfi, kre, ItT. Stnin, to mangle, wound. lacerate, 

■511, imperative, be unwilling.' 

B5li iiitrire, do not enter.* 

Teals, ire, tSdI, Tentnin, 




Ampluthtatn at NtauM, otns o/ Ou interior. 



337. COLLOQITIUM. 

Duo roTBNES, Adlus ET LCCiUS.* 

Aulus. — Adfuist!-ne hodie in circo cum homd a leOne 
necatuB est? 

1 Ndit la the second person dngultu' of tbe imperative ot the verb n6l6 ; 
see Wt. • Ut^ally. be iinicfJIing to enter, do mt wiih to enter. 

■ Under the Roman Empire the sinidilUieatrs was often the scene of gladl- 
atorial eitilbltioDs and of the combats at wild beasts. The amphltbeatre at 
Nimes, here represented. Is one of the best preserved of all Roman amphltbeAtrea. 

* The leamer »[H remember that for alt words eicept verba he la lelerred to 
(he general Tocabularr, Bee 325, note. 



A DIALOGUE. 193 

Lucius. — Lacer&tuB eat homo moreibua bestiae, sed ndn est 
necatus. Fortasse homiuis vita servabitur. 

A. — Multae-ne bSstiae monstrantur in circo? 

L. — Magna est feranim muUitudo. Leoues, tigros, ele- 
phant! ab omnibus laudantur. 

A. — Veni mScum in circum. In caveam leouis intrftbO. 

L. — Necaberia igitnr a leOne. Noli in caveam lefinis in- 
trara 

A. — NOn timed lednem. 

L. — Quomodo te defendea. 

A. — Omnes bestiae firmo oculomm aapectu domantnr. 

L. — Sed nSn domantur ab omuibue. 



Ampkilheatrt at Ntmti, viea o/ (he txtariar. 

A. — Non-ne admlr^tio hominum excitabitur, si leouem 

domuerS f ^ 
L. — Immd, temeritas tua ab omnibus vituperabitur. 
A. — Si ita eat, consilium meum mutabd. 
L. — Ab omnibus amicis tula igitnr laudaberis. 

■ NoUoe llie loture perfect wbere In Engllgh we may use the fulure. 



194 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



338. Translate thefollowhtg questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Vidisti-ne unquam leonem? 2. Non-ne leones efc 
tigres et elephantos saepe vidistis? 3. Intravit-ne Aulus 
in caveam leonis? 4. Num homines saepe in caveas leo- 
num intrant? 5. JTon-ne Aulus leones timuit? 6. Non- 
ne homines interdum a leonibus neeantur? 7. Non-ne 
multae fabulae de lepnibus narrantur? 8. Audivistis-ne 
fabulas de leonibus? 



LESSON LXXXII. 



PASSIVE VOICE.— SECOND CONJUGATION. 

SECOND CONJUGATION: B VERBS. 

339. PASSIVE VOICE.— Moneor, / am advised. Present 
Stem, moni. 

Principal Parts. 

monCrl monitiui siuii 



moneor 



SINGULAR. 

moneor 
monCris, or 
monCtur 



Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
I am admsed. 



re 



Imperfect. 
/ was admsed. 



mond»ar 
mond»aris, or re 
mond»atiir 



PLURAL. 

monCiiiiir 

monCininl 

monentnr 



monebamnr 

inond»lliiiiiiI 

mon£1»antur 



mon«1»or 

monCberis, 

mon€1»itiir 



Future. 

I shall or mil be advised. 

monCblmnr 
or re monebimliil 

monUbmitiir 



SECOND CONJUGATION. I95 

Perfect. 
/ have been advised^ 1 teas advised, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

monitns sum monitl sniiius 

monitii8 es monitl estis 

monitft8 est monitl sunt 

Pluperfect. 

I had been advised, 
monitvs eram monitl erftmns 

monitvs erfts monitl erfttis 

monitns erat monitl erant 

Future Perfect. 

/ shall or will have been advised. 

monitns erO monitl erlmns 

monitns erls monitl erltls 

monitns erit monitl ernnt 

Imperative. 

Pres, monCre, be thou advised ; monCminl, be ye advised. 

Fat, monitor, thou shall be ad- 
vised^ 
monitor, he shall be ad- monentor, they shall be advised, 
vised; 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, monCrl, to be advised, 

Perf, monitns esse, to have been Perf, monitns, having been ad- 
advised, vised, 

Fut, monitnm Irl, to be about Oer, monendns, to be advised, 

to be advised, deserving to be advised. 



LESSON LXXXIII. 

PASSIVE VOICE,— SECOND CONJUGATION, 

340. Vocabulary. 

eon-tineo, ere, ni, tentnm, to bound, surround, re- 
strain, contain, 
deleo, ere, evi, etam, to destroy. 
doceo, ere, nl, doetum, ' to teach, instruct. doc-W^ 
ob-sided, ere, sedi, sessum, to besiege, blockade. 



196 



PASSIVE VOICE. 



sns-tined, ere, ul, 


tentnni, 


to sustain, withstand. 


sustain. 


teneo, ere, ni, tentnm, 


to hold, possess. 


re-tain. 


falsus, a, urn, 




false, unfounded. 


faH&e. 


impetas, us, m. 




attack, charge. 


impetuous. 


Labienns, I, m. 




Labienus.' 




le^io, onis, /. 




a body of soldiers, legion. 


' legion. 


rumor, oris, m. 




report, rumor. 


rumor. 


Sclpio, onis, m. 




Scipio.* 





341. Translate into English. 

1. Non-ne amici vestri vos monent? Ab amicis cottidie 
monemur. 

2. Non-ne amici tui te monebunt? Ab amicis semper 
monebor. 

3. Quis vos monebat ? Eo tempore a multis amicis mone- 
bamur. 

4. Quis montem tenebat? Mons a Labieno tenebatur. 

6. Quis oppidum tenebit? • Oppidum a militibus nostris 
tenebitur. 

6. Terremini, milites, .multittidine hostium. Non terre- 
mur, nunquam terremur; nunquam multitudine hos- 
tium terrebimur. 

7. Milites mortis periculo terreri non debent. 

8. Hostes adventu nostri exercitus terrebuntur. 

9. Non-ne homines interdum rumoribus terrentur ? Multi 
homines falsis rumoribus terrentur. 

10. Quis Carthaginem delevit? Carthago a Scipione de- 
le ta est. 

11. Multae urbes a Eomanis del6tae sunt. 

12. Magna pars oppidi incendio deleta est. 

13. A praeceptoribus, pueri, bene docti estis. 

14. Oppidum ab hostibus obsidebitur. 

15. Non-ne altissimi montes oppidum continent? Oppi- 
dum altissimis montibus continetur. 



> Labienus was one of Caesar^s lieutenants. 

* Publius Cornelius Scipio Af ricanus, the Younger, is meant. 



A DIALOGUE. 



197 



16. Impetus hostium a militibus nostris fortiter sustine- 
bantur. 

342. Translate into Latin. 

1. Who will advise you ? I shall be advised by my father. 

2. Parents always advise their children. 

3. Children are always advised by their parents. 

4. Children ought to be often advised by their parents. 

5. Did not the Romans destroy many cities? 

6. Many cities are said to have been destroyed by the 
Romans. 

7. Who had destroyed Carthage ? Carthage had already 
been destroyed by Scipio. 

8. Did not the Gauls destroy the town by fire ? The town 
was destroyed by fire. 

9. Will not our legions destroy the camp of the enemy ? 
The camp of the enemy will soon be destroyed by our 
legions. 

10. Were not the Germans at that- time besieging the town ? 
The town had already been besieged by the Germans. 

11. Have you ever been terrified by false rumors? We are 
never terrified by rumors. 

12. It is better to be loved than to be feared. 



LESSON LXXXIV. 

a dialogue. 

343. Vocabulary. 

a-moveo, ere, movi, motam, to take away, remove. 



eom-prehendo, ere, di, sum, 


to seize, catch. 


comprehend. 


perpetro, are, ivi, atam, 


to complete, commit. 


perpetrate. 


studeo, ere, ni, 


to be eager, desire. 


study. 


toUo, ere, 


to take up, remove, 
destroy. 




Tided, ere. vidT, visnm. 


. to see. 


virion. 


Tideor, Sri, visas sam, 


to seeo^, 





198 ^ dialoode. 

344. Colloquium. 

GUILIELHUS, CAKDLUa, HeNKICUS. 

GnilielmuB. — Vides-ne multitudinem in tTco MadisoniS? 
Henricns. — Ingentem hominum catervam video. 
G. — Domas in angulo vici a multitudine obsidSri videtur. 
H. — Domum intr&re student, sed ab administris publicTe 

continentur. 
G. — Video Carolam nostrum. N&rrabit nobis caueam ta- 

mult^s. 
H. — M! Carole, ciir dotnus in angul6 vicl ft multitudine 

obsidetur ? 



The ntlUdnuH, or the UamerUnf. Priton, in fionw.- 

G. — Atrficissima caedes in domfi perpetrftta est. FercnsBor 
vestigia Bceleris sui incendio toilers tentavit. Onmis 
fere supellex domus igni deleta est. 

G. — Quae fuit causa caedia? 

C. — Avaritia canaa f uisse videtur ; nam omne argentum et 
aunim e domo &mdtum est 

' This WAfi the fltaCe prison of ondeDl: Komo. Tt b & dark. Bubtermneui dun- 
IteoD DMT the oenter or tbe cttj. Accordlne to Uvy, it <B a relic of tbe IdDglr 
period. niaiiDdoubtedlTOiieoCthemoatucIentitnioIunsiDBtHiie. OuriUu» 
RMiOD clTea a tertlcal uotlOD Hi tlila gioiHn; ivIkid. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



199 



G. — Num percussor in vinculis tenetur ? 

C. — Tenebatur in carcere ; sed e manibus custodum evasit. 

H. — TJbi nunc est? Non-ne facile erit hominem compre- 

hendere? 
C. — Nescio. Fortasse iam in manibus custodum est. 

34B. Translate the following questions and answer theni 
in Latin. 

1. Fuisti-ne unquam in vico Madisonio ? 2. VTdisti-ne 
ingentem hominum caterVam in vico Madisonio ? 3. Num 
omnes domus a multitudine obsidebantur ? 4. Quis domum 
igni delere tentavit? 5. Non-ne domus saepe igni delen- 
tur? 6. Quis in vinculis tenebatur? 



LESSON LXXXV. 

PASSIVE VOICE,— THIRD CONJUGATION. 

346. PASSIVE VOICE.— Regor, / am rw/erf. Present Stem, re^e. 

Principal Parts. 
regor regl rectus «nm 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
I am ruled. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


regor 


reglmur 


regerls, or re 


reglmiiil 


regitnr 


regMiitnr 


Imperfect. 




/ was ruled. 




regebar 


regCbftmitr 


regChAri», or re 


regCbftminl 


reg^bfttnr 


regebantnr 


Future. 




lahcUl or toill be ruled. 


regar 


reglmur 


regCris, or re 


rGgdninl 


regCtur 


regentnr 



900 PASSIVE VOICE. 



/ have been nded, or Iwa» rtUed, 

nctmm •«■& recti 

rectv» mm recti catUi 

r§ct«« est recti tniMt 

Plupexfect. 
I had been ruUtL 

rectws CTMHa recti 

rectvs erft« recti 

rectws crmt recti 

FUTUKE PkBFECT. 

/ shall or «riZf have been ruled, 
rectms er9 recti 

rectas cris recti erf tis 

rectas eriS rectt eraMt 



Impebative. 

/Ves. r^ere, fte /ftim ruled; regiitel, fte ye ru/«<iL 

/^tf/. reg^^r, thou ahaU be ruledy 

regltor, %« «fta^ ^ ruled; TegwKmtmrj they shall be ruled^ 

IXFIXITIYE. PaRTICIPLK 

Pres, regl, to be ruled. 

Perf, ixxXm» e«ie, to have been Perf, rect««, having been ruled, 

ruled, 
Fut, rect«BA Irl, to be about to Get, regeaAws, to be ruUdy d^ 

be ruled, serving to be ruled. 



LESSON LXXXVI. 

PASSIVE VOICE.—TEIRD CONJUGATION, 

347. Vocabulary. 

amor, amoris, m, love. 

Carthigrinienses, iam, m. plur, the Carthagmians.^ 

hollas, or honor, oris, m. honor, glory. honor, 

. 1 The Carthaginians ear^ became a famous maritime power, and before 
their conflict with the Bomans th^ held the supremacy of the Mediterranean 

Sea» 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 201 

348. Translate into English. 

1. Quid de ludis dicunt pueri ? Ludi iucundl f uisse di- 
cuntur. 

2. Quid de ludo pilae dictum est ? Ludo pilae pueri omnes 
delectati sunt 

3. Quid in sehola de lingua Latina dicitur. Multa^ de 
lingua Latina cottidie dicuntur. 

4. Quid hodie in sehola Latine dictum est ? Multa a prae- 
ceptoribus Latine dicta sunt. 

6. Quid, pueri, hodie Latine dixistis? Non multa- hodie 
a nobis Latine dicta sunt. 

6. Non-ne in consilio sententiam dixisti ? Sententia a mg 
breviter dicta est. 

7. Num multae sententiae dictae sunt? Multae et variae 
sententiae in consilio dictae sunt. 

8. Multa de virtute militum a Caesare dicta erant. 

9. XJbi sunt captivi ? In carcerem ducti sunt. 

10. Quis Carthaginienses in Italiam duxit? Magnus Car- 
thaginiensium numerus in Italiam ab Hannibale duc- 
tus est. 

11. Magnus exercitus contra hostes diicebatur. 

12. Multi homines gl5ria et laude ducuntur. 

13. Vos, milites, gloria et amore patriae ducemini. 

14. Res publica Romana a consulibus regebatur. 

15. Homeri carmina ab omnibus Graecis legebantur. 

16. Carmina Vergilii ab omnibus pueris legi debent. 

17. Vobis, milites fortes, magni honores tribuentur. 

349« Translate into Latin, 

1. Boys, what have you read to-day in school ? We have 
been reading an interesting oration. 

2. Who' wrote the oration? It was written by Cicero, the 
orator. 

3. Many interesting orations were written by Cicero. 

> Obsenre that muUa is here used wubatantivel-y^ *maiijr things* ; see 2BSL 



202 



A DIALOGUE. 



4. Were not the orations of Cicero written in Latin ? They 

were written in Latin. 
6. Were the poems of Homer written in Latin? They 

were written in Greek. 

6. You, soldiers, will soon be led against the enemy. 

7. We have often been led against the enemy. 

8. The Romans awarded great honors to brave soldiers. 

9. Great honors were awarded by the Romans to brave 
soldiers. , 

10. Prizes will be awarded to diligent pupils. 

11. Prizes have often been awarded to diligent pupils. 

12. Great honors ought to be awarded to you, brave sol- 
diers, for you have freed your <5ountry from great 
danger. 

13. What will the witnesses say ? Many things will be said 
by the witnesses in regard to ^ the theft. 

14. Where is the thief? He has been taken to prison. 



LESSON LXXXVII, 



A 


DIALOGUE, 




360. 


Vocabulary. 




arcSsso, ere, sTvT, sTtnm, 


to call, send for, summon, 


i 


cado, er^, cecidi, easnm, 


to fall. 




ex-stingnS, ere, stinxi, 


to put out, quench, - 




stinctam, 


destroy. 


exiinguA^, 


interrogo, lire, SvT, £tiim, 


to ask, question. 


interrogate. 


ob-rno, ere, rni, mtniii, 


to overwhelm, cover. 




red-do, ere, didi, ditnm, 


to give back, return. 




re-stita5, ere, ni, ntnm. 


to replace, restore. 


reetitu-Vixm. 


slgniflco, ire, &vi, atnin. 


to show, mPAn. 


signify. 


8o1y$, ere, solvi, solatam, 


to release, end, pay. 


solve. 


8iib-iiierg5, ere, sT, sum. 


to sink, submerge. 


submerge. 


trah5, ere, traxi, tractam. 


to draw, drag. 





1 Remember that the words in regard to are to be rendered by a single Latin 
preposition. 



A DIALOGUE. , 203 

361. Colloquium. 

Albertus, Marcus, Carolus, HenrIcus. 

A. — Quid significat tumultus in vico ? 

H. — Puer in fluvium cecidit et aqua obrutus est.* 

A. — Mortuus-ne est puer ? 

H. — Nescio, sed inteiTogabo. Fortasse responsum nobis 
reddetur. Heus, amici, mortuus-ne est puer qui in 
aquam cecidit? 

M. — Ita dicitur, sed arcessiti sunt medici. Fortasse puer in 
Yitam restituetur. 

H. — Quis est puer? 

M. — Filius iudicis esse dicitur. 

A. — Veni mecum, Henrice, ad fluvium. 

H. — Non est necesse ; nam hie est Carolus noster qui rem 
omnem scire videtur. 

C. — Puer qui in fluvium cecidit est filius nostri amici iudi- 
cis: Submersus erat' aqua, sed a nautis ex fluvio 
tractus est. Vita exstincta non erat. Puer in patris 
domum ductus est. 

A. — Non-ne praemium tribuetur nautis? 

H. — Fortasse tribuetur; sed debitum praemid non solve- 
tur. 

362. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. TJbi fuit tumultus ? 2. Quid fuit causa tumultus ? 3. 
Non-ne responsum HenricS redditum est? 4. Num pueri 
a nautis ex fluvio saepe trahuntur? 6. Num praemium 
magnum nautis a patre pueri tributum est? 6. Non-ne 
debita semper solvuntur ? 

> Aqua obrutus est, literally, was overwhelmed by the water ; render, aatik in 
the water. 

s Submersus erat aqua, literally, he had been submerged in (by) the water ; 
render, he had sunk. 



204 PASSIVE VOICE. 

LESSON LXXXVIII. 

PASSIVE VOICE,— FOURTH CONJUGATION, 

FOURTH CONJUGATION: I VERBS. 

363. PASSIVE VOICE.— Audior, lam heard. Present Stem, 

audi, 

Peincipal Parts. 

audior audlrl audltiis mwam 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
SINGULAR. **'* neara, plural. 



audior audlmi 

audlri», or re audlminf 

auditor audiiuttiir 

Imperfect. 

I was heard. 
audi^lMir audi£1»ftiiiiir 

audi£1»ftri«, or re audi^l^ftmiml 

audi^l^fttnr audi^lMuiti 

Future. 

I shall or %DiU he heard, 

audiar audi^i 

audi^riji, or re audi^minl 

audietvr audientor 

Perfect. 

I have been heard, or I was heard. 

auditvLS 0iim auditi siuMiiui 

anditiui es auditl emtkm 

auditiui est auditl siutt 

Pluperfect. 

/ had been heard. 
auditvs eram audltl erftmvui 

auditVLS erfts auditl erfttUi 

auditiui erat auditl eramt 

Future Perfect. 

I shall or will have been heard. 

audita» er4l auditl erimns 

audita* eri» auditl eritis 

audita» erit auditl erant 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 206 

Imperative. 

Pres, audire, he thou heard; audlminl, he ye hea/rd, 

Fut, auditor, thou ahalt he heard, 

auditor, he shall he heard; audtiuttor, they shcUl he heard,. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, andin, to he heard. 

Per/, auditns esse, to have heen Perf, audltvis, having heen heard. 

heard. 
Fut. audltum in, to he ahout to Oer. audlendns, to he heard, 

he heard. deserving to he heard. 

Relative Pronouns. 

364. The Relative qu% ' who,' so called because it re- 
lates to some noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, 
called its antecedent, is declined as follows : 







SINGULAR. 


1 




PLURAL. 






MABO, 


rEM. 


KExrr. 


MARC 


FBM. 


NKUT. 


Norn. 


qui 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cQius 


cilius 


cuius 


quorum 


quilrum 


qu5rum 


Dai. 


cul 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Aee. 


quern 


quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


qiuie 


Ahl, 


qud 


quS 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



Note* — Own, when used with the Ablative of the relative, is generally 
appended to it : quibttseum, 

366« Examine the following examples : 

1. Rex qnem laudant. The king whom they praise, 

2. Reglna quam laudant. The queen whom they praise, 

3. EgoquXdico. I wbo speak, 

4. Tti qui dicis. You who speak. 

In these examples observe — 

1) That the relative qnem refers to rix, called its antecedent, 
quam to reglna, and qui to ego and tu, 

2) That the relative in each instance is in the same gender, number, 
and person as its antecedent.* 

* Thus, quern is in the masculine singular because rix is in that gender and 
number ; qwim„ in the feminine singular because r^lna is ; qul^ in the mascu- 
line singular because ego and tH are here so used. Moreover, quern and quam 
are of the third person like rix and riglna ; while qu\ in the third example is of 
the first person like ego, and in the fourth example of Uic second person like M. 



206 PASSIVE VOICE. 

8) That the ecue of the relative is not determined by the case of 
the antecedent, but bj the construction of the clause in which it 
stands.' 

This agreement of pronouns with their antecedents applies not 
only to relatives but to all pronouns when used as subatarUiveaf and 
is expressed in the following rule : 

BUIiE jLajL V ,— Agrooment of Pronomis. 

A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gendeb, 

NUMBER, and PERSON. 



LESSON LXXXIX. 

PASSIVE VOICE,^FOUBTH CONJUGATION,— RELATIVE PBO- 

N0UN8. 

366. Vocabulary. 

SrndiS, Ire, IyI, Itnm, to educate, instruct, teach. erudite» 
finio, Ire, ItI, Itnm, to end, put an end to, finish, 

bring to a close. ^n-ish. 

impedi5, Ire, IvI, Itnm, to hinder, detain, check. impede, 

Sgregie, adv, excellently, remarkably. 

gero, ere, gessi, gestnm, to carry on, wage, do, administer. 

367. Translate into English. 

1. Bellum quod gerimus brevi tempore finiemus. 

2. Bellum quod gerimus brevi tempore finietur. 

3. Omnes qui aderant orationem laudavgrunt. 

4. Omnes qui orationem audiebant delectabantur. 

5. Omnes a quibus 5rati5 audita est delectati sunt. 

6. Vos, pueri, a praeceptoribus doetis erudimini. 

7. Vos, qui a praeceptoribus doetis nunc erudimini, brevi 
tempore docti eritis. 

1 Thua while all the antecedents are in the nominative, the relatives quern 
and qwxm are in tiie accusatiTe because tiiey are the objects of laudanU and qui 
is in the nominative because it is the subject of dxc6 or did». 

* Pronouns when used as adjectives agree like other adjectives with the 
nouns to which they belong, according to Rule XXXIV ; see 74. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 207 

8. Mllites qui patriam nostram custodiunt semper lau- 
damus. 

9. Mllites a quibus patria nostra custodltur semper lau- 
dabuntur. 

10. Hostes urbem de qua scrips! vallo fossa-que muniebant. 

11. Urbs de qua scrips! ab hostibus vallo fossa-que munie- 
batur. 

12. Iter agminis nostr! multis rebus impediebatur. 

13. Oppidum egregie natura mun!tum est. 

14. Multae urbes mur!s et turribus mun!tae sunt. 

15. Multae urbes mur!s et turribus mun!tae a Caesare 
expugnatae sunt. 

16. Omnes c!ves urbem nostram magna cum cura custo- 
diunt. 

17. Urbs nostra ab omnibus civibus magna cum cura custo- 
dietur. 

368. Translate into Latin. 

1. The soldiers who ^ are guarding the city are very brave. 

2. The soldiers by whom^ the city is guarded are very 
brave. 

3. Shall you fortify the city which you are now building? 
The city which we are now building will not be fortified. 

4. The war which we were then waging has been brought 
to a close. 

5. The war which you are now waging ought to be brought 
to a close. 

6. I heard the oration of which (about which) * you speak. 

7. I was at that time reading an interesting book of which 
I had often heard. 

8. The teachers who instructed you were learned men. 

9. The teachers by whom you will be instructed are learned 
men. 

1 What g&^d^Vy number ^ and caae will you use In the Latin ? See 356. 
' What preposition will you use ? 



308 VERBS IN 10 OP THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 

10. The commander was fortifying the citadel with high 
walls. 

11. The citadel has been fortified with very high walls. 

12. Many Roman boys were instructed by Greek teachers. 



LESSON XC. 

VERBS IN lO OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 

369, A few verbs of the Third Conjugation form the 
Present Indicative in iO, tor, like verbs of the Fourth Con- 
jugation. They are inflected with the endings of the Fourth, 
wherever those endings have two successive vowels. 

360. ACTIVE VOICE.— CapiS, / take. Present Stem, cape. 

Peincipal Parts. 
capM capere cepi captam 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 



SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 


capi4l 




capimas 


capis 




capitis 


capit 


Imperfect. 


capiunt 


capi£1»ain 




capid»ftma0 


cvipt£1»fts 




capiMfttis 


capi£1»at. 


Future. 


capid»ant 


captam 




capi^mns 


capias 




capiat!» 


captet 


Perfect. 


capient 


cepI 




cepimns 


cepisti 




cepistis 


cepH 


Pluperfect. 


cep^mnt, or ^re 


ceperam 




ceperftmn» 


cepera» 




ceperfttts 


ceperat 




ceperaat 



VERBS IN 10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 209 



SINGULAR. 

ceperO 

ceperts 

ceperit 



Pre8, cape 

FuU. capita 
capital 

Infinitive. 

Pres, capere 
Perf, cepisse 
Fut. captftms 

Gebund. 

Gen, caplendl 

Dat, capieiftd4l 

Ace, capiendnm 

Ahl, capiendo 



Future Perfect. 

PLURAL. 

ceperfmni» 

ceperttis 

ceperimt 

Imperative. 

capite 

capitote 
capiuitto 

Participle. 

Prea, captoms 



Fut, capt 

Supine. 



Ace, capt 
Ahl, captft 



361. PASSIVE VOICE.— Capior, lam taken. Present Stem, cape. 

Principal Parts. 
capior capl captw» 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

SINGULAR. plural. 

capior capimi 

caperis, or re 

capiti 



capi^l»] 
capl^'baris, or ro 
capi«1»ati 



Imperfect. 



capimini 

capiuitti 



capii 
capi^ri», or re 
capi^ti 



Future. 



capi^'bftmnr 

capid^iUiiiml 

capi£1»aittiir 



capt 
capt 
oaptns est 
14 



Perfect. 



capita 
capi^minl 

capientnr 



capti 
capti estis 
captI mMUkt 



210 VERBS IN 10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 



SINGULAR. 

captns 
captni» erfts 
captnii erat 

captns erU 
captus erls 
captiui erit 

Pre8, capere 

Fui, capitor 
capitor 

Infinitive. 

Pres, capl 

Perf, captns esse 

Fut captuniL Irl 



Pluperfect. 

PLURAL. 

capti 

capti eratis 

captI erant 

Future Perfect. 

capti erimns 
capti eritis 
capti enint 

Imperative. 

capimiml 
capiuntor 

Participle. 



Perf, capti 

Ger, capiemdns 



LESSON XCI. 

VI^RBS IN lO OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION.— TWO AC- 
CUSATIVES OF THE SAME PERSON OR THING. 

362. Examine the following sentences : 



1. Hamilcarem imperatdrem fe- 

cerant. 

2. Ancum rigem populus creavit. 

3. Summum consilium appellave- 

runt senatum. 



Th&y made Hamllcar commander. 

The people elected Ancus kiko. 
They called their highest cwnwil 
senate. 
4. Hamilcar imperator'factus est. Hamilcar was made commander. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That in the first three the verbs f§c5runt» crefivit, and appel- 
UEvSrunt take each two accusatives. 

2) That the two accusatives in each instance denote the same per- 
son or THING. Thus Hamilcarem and imperatdrem denote the same 
person; so also Ancmn and regem; cSnsilium and senStmn the 
same thing. 

3) That in the Passive construction in the fourth sentence the verb 
has both a Subject Nominative and a Predicate Nominative ; see 63. 



VERBS IN 10 OP THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 211 

Hence we have the following rule : 

BUIiE VI.— Two AociisatiTes— Same Persoii* 

Verbs of making, choosing, calling, regaeding, show- 
ing, and the like, admit — 

I. In the Active Yoice two Accusatives of the same 

PERSON or THING. 

II. In the Passive Voice a Subject Nominative and 
a Predicate Nominative. 

363. Vocabulary. 

accipio, ere, cepi, ceptnm, to take, receive, derive. accept, 
eapio, ere, cepI, captiim, to take, capture. capture. 

faeio, ere, feci, factam,' to do, make. fctct, 

iter faeere, to make a journey, to 

travel. 

appell5, are, avi, atam, to call, name. appellariioxu 

disco, ere, didicT, to learn. 

ii5miii5, are, avi, atnm, to name. 

Aednl, drum, m. plur. Aeduans, a people of Gaul. 

Herodotus, i, m. Herodotus. 

heres, heredis, m, and /. heir, heiress. heir, 

historia, ae, /. history. history, 

praetor, Oris, m, praetor. Roman magistrate. 

testamentnm, T, m, testament, will. testament, 

Toinptas, atis, /. pleasure, enjoyment. 

364. Synonyms. 

AppellO, nOminS ; to eally name, 

1. Appello, are, arl, atnin ; to call, to name — especially to call by 

the right name. 

2. NominQ, are, arl, atnm ; to name, to give a name. 

366. Translate into English. 

1. Quern populiis Romanus consulem eo tempore fecit? 
Caesarem consulem fecit. 

> In the Passive the Present, Imperfect, and Future tenses are supplied by 
fid ; the other tenses are regular. 



212 VERBS IN 10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 

2. Non-ne populus S5manas Ciceronem consulem antea 
f gcerat ? Cicero antea consul f actus erat. 

3. Quis Ciceronem praetorem fecit? Cicero a populo 
Somano praetor factus est. 

4. Quern iudex testamento heredem f aciet ? Testamento 
filium heredem faciet. 

5. Quern Caesar heredem testamento fecerat? Populum 
Somanum heredem testamento fecisse dicitur. 

6. Non-ne cives Roman! Ciceronem patrem patriae eo 
tempore appellabant ? Eo tempore 
Cicero pater patriae a civibus Ro- 
manis appellabatur. 

7. Senatus Romanus Aeduos fratres 
appellavit. 

8. Non-ne Herodotum patrem histo- 
riae appellatis? Herodotus saepe 
appellatus est pater historiae. 

9. Romulus urbem e sud nomine Ro- 
mam nominavit. 

10. Caesar in Gallia multas UrbeS Ce- Herodotus, the Greek 

^•i historian, 

pit. 

11. Non-ne Galli antea urbem Romam ceperant? Urbs 
Roma a Gallis antea capta erat. 

12. Voluptatem magnam, pueri, ex discendo capietis. 

13. Quot epistulas hodie accepisti? Decem epistulas ac- 
cepi. 

366. Translate into Latin, 

1. Did not the Roman people make Pompey consul? He 
was made consul by the Roman people. 

2. Did not the Romans make Pompey commander? Pom- 
pey was often made commander by the Romans. 

3. They named the city Rome. The city i» called Rome. 

4. Will you not call us brothers? We always call you 
brothers. 




A DIALOGUE. 218 

6. Did not the consul name his son Marcus? Cicero the 

consul named his son Marcus. 
G. Did not the Bomans make Caesar consul ? They made 

Caesar consul. 
1, Where have you 

been, Charles? I 

have been travel- 
ing (making a 

j oumey ) through 

Virginia. 

8. Is it not always 
pleasant to travel ? 
It is often useful 
and sometimes 
pleaaant to travel. 

9, Have yon not re- 
ceived a letter 
from my brother? 
I have to-day re- 
ceived a long let- 
ter from vour 

, , ■' Clio, «fte Mwie o/ Hittory. 

10. You, boys, ought to derive great pleasure from learning. 



LESSON XCII. 

367. Colloquium.' 

Carolus kt FredebIcvs. 
Carolus. — Salve, mi Frederice. Ubi terrarnm fuistiP* 
Fredericus, — Iter longura feci per civitiites nostras. 
C. — Fuisti-ne apnd Indianos? 

1 In this sDd the subsequent Colloquis tbe leuner la reten«d to the geoeml 
Tocabulaij for the meaning of all the words, 

> Ubi ten-Orum t literally, where of landi ; render, akere in. the world, Vlhen 
indeed t TerrOrwn Is a FartiUie Genitive depending on uM ; >ee IM. 



214 DEPOXENT VERBS. 

F. — Fui in regionlbus quae ab Indianis incoluntur. 

C. — Ndn-ne periculum est belli cum Indianis? Audivi de 
multis rapinis quae ab Indianis suscipiuntur? 

F. — Ego adfui in proelio quod ab Indianis contra colonos 
pugnatum est 

C. — Quae erat cansa proelii ? 

F.— Indian! agros colonorum diripuerant et magnum nu- 
merum pecoris abegerant. Colon! anna ceperunt et 
fugientes intercipere constituerunt. Mox castra In- 
dianorum conspiciunt et ilico impetum faciunt. In- 
dian! lapides et sagittas in adversarfds coiciunt ; sed a 
coloms superantur. Mult! Indian! interficiuntur ; c6- 
ter! fugiunt et omnem praedam in manibus colonorum 
relinquunt. 

368. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Ubi terramm fuerat Freder!cus? 2. Num unquam 
antea multos Indianos v!derat? 3. Num vos, pueri, iter 
per c!Yitates nostras unquam f ecistis ? 4. Num apud In- 
dianos unquam fuistis? 5. Non-ne Fredericus urbes et 
oppida et v!c6s in itinere conspexit? 



LESSON XCIII. 

DEPONENT VERBS. 

369. Deponent Verbs have in general the forms of the 
Passive Voice with the signification of the Active. But — 

1. They have also in the Active, the future infinitive, the partici- 
ples, gerund, and supine. 

2. The gerundive has the passive signification: hortandus, to be 
exhorted. 

8. The Future Infinitive takes the Active form. 

Note* — ^The following examples, one Ax>m the First Coigugation and one 
from the Third, will sufllciently iliuBtrate the peculiarities of Deponent Verbs. 



DEPONENT VERBa 215 

370. Hortor, / exhort^ and Sequor, / follow. 

Principal Parts. 
Hortor, hortftrt, hortfttufs snin. Sequor, sequi, secutui» »11111. 

Indicative Mood. 

Pre^, hortor,* I exhort, sequor, I follow. 

Imp, hortabar, I tocbs exhorting, sequ^bar, Jwasfollotmng, 

Fut, hortai»or, I shall exhort, sequar, I shall follow, 

Perf, hortatas sant, / have exhorted, secutas naai, I have followed, 
Plup, hortatas eraai, I had exhorted, secutas eraai, Ihad followed. 
F, P, hortatns erO, / ehaU have ex- secutas erO, I shall have foU 

' horted, hived. 

Imperative. 

Pres. hortftre, exhort thou, sequere, follow thou, 

Fut, hortfttor, t?wu shalt exhort, sequitor, th>ou shalt follow. 

Infinitive. 

Pres, hort ftrl, to exhort, sequi, to follow. 

Perf, hortatas esse, to have exhorted, secutas esse, to have followed, 
Fut, hortatlkras esse, to he about to secutHras esse, to he about to 

exhort, follow. 

Participles. 

Pres, hortftas, exhorting, sequins, following, 

Fut, hortatftras, about to exhort, secutftras, about to follow, 

Perf hort&tas, having exhorted, secutas, having followed, 

Oer, hortaadas, deserving to be sequendas, deserving to be 

exhorted, followed. 

Gerund. 

hortaadi, etc. of exhorting, sequeadi, of following. 

Supine. 

hortatam, to, to exhort, secutam, til, to follow, ' 

Write out for the following rerbs the parts just given for hortor 

and sequor: 

Tereor, ver^rl, Veritas sam, to fear, 

partior, partlrl, partitas saai, to share, 

> The tenses are inflected regularly throughout : hortor, hortdria, or hortdrt^ 
hortdtur ; hortdmur, hortdminl, hortantur. 



216 



DEPONENT VERBS. 



371. Examine the following sentences: 



1. Multfs rSbui fniimur et utimur. 

2. Officid functus est. 

8. Magna praedfi est potltus. 
4. Laote et came yescebantur. 



We enjoy and use many thikos. 
He TuM per formed his duty. 
He obtained great booty.. 
They lived on milk and flesh. 

In these sentences observe that the nouns rSbuB, officio, praedS, 
laote, and came are all in the Ablative. From these and similar 
examples we derive the following rule : 

RULE XXVI.— Ablative in Speeial Ckmstmctioiis. 

The Ablative is used with fltor, fruor, fnngor, 
potior, vescor, and their compounds. 



LESSON XCIV. 



i^eponent verbs, 
372. Vocabulary. 

admirer, art, atns sum, to admire, wonder at. 



admire. 



Conor, firl, atas sum, 


to try, attempt, undertake. 




fruor, T, friictas sum, 


to enjoy. 




fnngor, i, functus sum, 


to perform, do. 


/wnc-tion. 


loqnor, I, locntns snm. 


to speak, talk, say. 


^^acious. 


potior, iri, potitns snm, 


to acquire, obtain, secure. 




utor, 1, nsns snm, 


to use, make use of. 


uae^ 


animns, f , m. 


soul, spirit. 




Alexander, drl, m. 


Alexander the Great, King ( 
Macedon. 


of 


dens, f , m. 


god. 




Inx, Incis, /. 


light, daylight. 




ui&gnitudo, in is,/. 


greatness. 


ma{fnitiide. 


nnmero, are, ari, atnm. 


to count, enumerate. 


e-numer€Ue* 


offieinm, ii, n. 


service, duty. 


office. 


trinmphns, f, m. 


triumph, victory. 


triumph. 


Yictoria, ae, /. 


victory. 


victory. 



Note*— Dem, slightly irregular, is thus declined: Sing, deus, dei^ deHy 
deum^ d9U9^ de6; Plur. N. and V. dei^ dl; G. deSrum^ d^im; D. and A. 
d^^ dU; Ace de&s. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 217 

373. Translate into English. 

1. Cicero Pompeii '^ virtiitem et animi ni&gnitutliuem ad- 
mirabatur. 

2. Cicero Pompeii bello, victorias, triumphSs admirana' 
numeravit. 

3. Multi viri doeti Bapientiam Socratis admiratl sunt. 

4. Sapientiam et virtutem semper admirarl debemua. 

5. Quid, pueri, agere conamiiii? Opera Caesaria legere 
conamur. 

6. Masimam laudem, Carole, meruiati, nam ofBciS' dia- 
cipuli boni fiinctua ea. 

1. Quis Alexandri bella et victdrias non admiratns est? 

8. Alexander, Magnus appellatus, 
orbem terrarum vTciase dicitur. 

9. Cicero mflgna cum gldri^ ofQctQ 
conaulis fiinctua est. 

10. Cicero, qui magna cum glori& 
ofiicid cdnaulia fiinctua erat, 
pater patriae appeilabatur. 

11. Omnibua in vita commodia* 
semper f riicti eatis. 

12. Memoria noatrae amicitiae aem- 
per f ruar. 

13. Commoda, quibus ' utimur, a 
DeO nobis dantur. 

14. Liix, qua fruimur, a Deo nobis '"«<"'*^ ">« Oreat, Sing 

, ' of MacedoHla. 

datur. 

15. Num, Carole, Latine loqueris? Lating loqui nunquam 
con&tus sum. 

16. Cicero Latine locutua eat. Ndn-ne Graece lociitus est? 
Graece interdum locfltus ease dicitur. 

' Pompeii limits DoC only virtSlem but also animi mOgnitildinem, 

■ Admirdna^ liter&lly adtairing ; render, with admiration. 

■ Notice (hat tlia LMIn here usra the Ablative, though In Eagllsb we un a 
Direct Object. This AblotlTe ta readily explained as the Ablative of m«in« : 
thoB, d(or, 'I use,' ■ 1 aerri myee]! by meam o/.^ 



218 A DIALOGUE. 

374. Translate into Latin. 

1. All learned men admire the poems of Homer. 

2. Vergil made a good use of (used well) the poems of 
Homer. 

3. You ought to use good books. We have always used 
good books. 

4. Diligent pupils always enjoy their studies and their 
games. 

5. Boys, do you not enjoy your games ? We always enjoy 
our games. All boys enjoy games. 

6. Pupils, you have performed your duties well ; you will 
now enjoy the holidays. 

7. In Gaul Caesar acquired many large towns. 

8. Did he not sometimes acquire great booty ? He often 
acquired very great booty. 

9. Caesar performed with great glory the duties of a great 
commander. 

10. Many men wonder at the victories of Alexander, who 
conquered the world. 

11. Many Romans wondered at the victories and triumphs 
of Caesar. 

12. Henry, does your brother speak Greek ? He does not 
speak Greek, but he sometimes tries to speak Latin. 

LESSON XCV. 

A DlALOOtTE, 

375. Colloquium. 

Carolus et FrederIcusJ 

Carolus. — Vides-ne multitudinem hominum in fine plateae? 
1^'redericus. — Video. Agmen est militum qui ex castris 

revertuntur. 
C. — Quid egerunt in castris ? 

> For the meaninf; of words, see the General Vocabulary. 



ADJECTIVES WITH GENITIVES IX lUS. 219 

F. — Milites, cum in castris versantur, in omnl re militari 
exercentur. 

C. — Semper admimtus sum cives nostros qui ultro militum 
labores tolerant, qui aestum et frigus perpetiuntur et 
arduae disciplinae ee eubiciunt. 

F. — Bene narras. Summam laudem merentur ciTes qui 
pro patriae salute laborant. Unquam-ne adfuisti cum 
milites nostri in castris exercebantur ? 

C. — Nunquam adful. 

F. — Adfui, cum milites, qui nunc in platea progrediuntur, 
simulacrum pugnae egerunt. NonnuUi manipuli par- 
tes hostium agebant^ et adversarios adorti sunt, qui 
in fugam vertebantur. Victores victos persecuti sunt. 
Nihil tali spectaculo pulchrius est. 

376, Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Quid significat platea? 2. Num unquam antea ver- 
bum plateae vidistis ? 3. Quid significant verba, " in castris 
versantur " ? 4 Num unquam simulacrum pugnae specta- 
vistis? 5. Unquam-ne milites fuistis? 6. Num in re mili- 
tari exerciti estis? 7. Num simulacrum pugnae saepe 
egistis ? 

LESSON XCVI. 

ADJECTIVES WITH GENITIVE IN TOB,— NUMERALS. 

377« The following nine adjectives have in the singular 
lUS in the Genitive and I in the Dative : 

alius, alia, aliud, another, totus, tota, totum, whole, all, 

nullus, nulla, nullum, no one, no, ullus, ulla, ullum, any, 
solus, sola, solum, alone, unus^ Una, unum, one, 

alter, altera, alterum, the one, the other (of two). 

uter, utra, utrum, which (of two) 1 

neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither. 



' Partfa ag^bant^ * acted the part,' 



220 



ADJECTIVES WITH GENITIVES IX lUS. 



378. The following examples will sufficiently illustrate 
the declension of these adjectives : 



Alius, another. 




Solus, alone. 








SINGULAR. 




MASO. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


HASC. FEM. 


NEUT. 


Nom, alius 


alia 


aliud 


solus sola 


solum 


Oen, alius 


alius 


alius 


sdllus sollus 


sollus 


Dat alii 


alii 


alii 


soli soli 


soil 


Ace, alimn 


aliam 


aliud 


solum solam 


solum 


Voc. 






sole sola 


solum 


Abl alio 


ali& 


alio 


solo solA 


solo 



PLURAL. 

iVbm.aliI aliae alia soli solae sola 

Oen, aliOrum aliftrum aliOrum solOrum sollbruin solO; 

Dat alils alils alils soils soils soils 

Aee, alios alias alia solOs solas sola 

Voc, soli solae sola 

AM, alils alils alils soils soils soils 

379. Numeral adjectives comprise three principal classes: 

1. Cardinal Numbers : ^ unus^ one ; duo^ two. 

2. Ordinal Numbers :^ primus, first; secundus, second. 

3. Distributives;* singulis one by one; iiniy two by 
two. 

380. Partial Table of Cardinals and Ordinals : 



CARDINALS. 

1. unus, una, unum, one 

2. duo, duae, duo, two 

3. tres, tria, three 

4. quattuor, four 

5. quinque, five 

6. sex, six 

7. septem, seven 

8. octo, eight 

9. novem, nine 
10. (lecem, ten 



ORDINALS. 

primus, first 
secundus, second 
tertius, third 
quartus, fourth 
qulntus, fifth 
sextus, sixth 
Septimus, seventh 
octavus, eighth 
nonus, ninth 
decimus, tenth 



> Cardinals denote simply the number of objects. Ordinals denote the 
place of an object in a aeries, ZHstribuiives denote the number of objects taken 
at atinie. 



NUMERALS. 



221 



Declension of Numeral Adjectives. 

381. Ifnus^ DuOy and Tres are declined as follows : 

tJnus, one, 

PLURAL. 

unl linae una 

un5ni]ii unftnmi unOntm 

unl0 unis unls 

unOs una» una 
tinl unae una 

unis tinls unis 







SINGULAR. 




Nom 


.unu0 


una 


unnm 


Gen. 


unlns 


unlus 


unlus 


DaU 


unl 


unl 


unl 


Ace, 


unum 


unam 


unum 


Voc, 


une 


una 


unnm 


Ahl, 


unO 


unft 


un6 



Duo, two. 



Tres, three. 



i^om.duo duae duo iT^n^m,andf, 

Gen, duOmm du&rnm duOmm trinm 

Dat, duObns duftbns du6bus tribns 

Ace, duO0,duodu&9 duo trCs, trlsi 

Voc, duo duae duo trCs 

Ahl, duObns du&bus duObns tribnsi 



tria, n. 

trinm 

tribns 

tria 

tria 

tribns 



Note !• — The plural of imus in the sense of alone may be used with any 
noun : uni Ubii^ the Ubii alone ; but, in the sense of one, it is used only with 
nouns plural in form, but singular in sense: una castra, one camp; unae 
liUerae^ one letter. 

382. The Cardinals from quattuor^ 'four,' to centum^ 
*one hundred/ are indeclinable. Hundreds are declined 
like the plural of bonus ; ducenti, ae^ a, ' two hundred.' 

383. Ordinals are declined like honus^ and distributives 
like the plural of hoiius, 

384. Mille, one thousand^ is sometimes an adjective 
and sometimes a noun. 

1. BSille, as an Adjective, is used only in the plural and is inde- 
clinable : mHle hominSs, a thousand men ; minus mllle hominibtui, 
lesB than a thousand men, 

2. BSille, as a Noun, is generally followed by the Genitive of the 
objects enumerated. In the singular it is indeclinable : mUle homi- 
DTim, one thousand men, literally, one thousand of Tnen, In the plural 
it has the forms milia, milium, mllibus, i. e., it is declined like the 
plural of cubUej 146 : duo mUia hominum, tioo thousand men, liter- 
ally, tuH) thousands of men. 



222 ADJECTIVES WITH lUS IN THE GENITIVE. 

386. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Triginta annOs vixit. He lived thirty tears. 

2. Caecus annOs multos fuit. He was blind many years. 

3. Nix erat quattuor pedSs alta. The snow was four feet deep. 

In these examples observe that annos, * years,' and pedes, • feet,' are 
in the Accusative, This Latin idiom * is expressed in the following- 
rule : 

BUIiE IX«— AceosatiTe of Time and Spaee. 

Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed 
hy the Accusative. 



LESSON XCVII. 

ADJECTIVES WITH lUS IN THE GENITIVE^—NtTMEBALS. 

386. Vocabulary. 

caelo, are, ayi, atam, to carve, engrave. 

con-seqaor, seqai, seciitas to obtain, get. 

sam, 

impero, are. avi, atam, to command, to govern, 

to be emperor. tmpero-tive. 

minao, ere, ai, atam, to lessen, reduce. di-mtn-ish. 

morior, i, mortaas sam, to die. 

r^ao, are, avl, atam, to be king, rule, reign, reign, 

Cfras, 1, r». Cyrus, king of the Per- 

sians. 

legatas, i, m, ambassador, lieutenant, legate, 

magnifice, adv, splendidly, richly. nMignificent-\j, 

mille passaam, a thousand paces, a 

mile. 

qalnqaagintfi, fifty. 

Seqaanas, a, am, of the Sequanians. 

SIC, adv. thus, so, in this manner. 

vas, vasis, n. vessel, vase. va^, 

Yiginti, see 382. twenty. 

* The English uses the Objective case in the same way. 



NUMERALS. 328 

- 887. Traiislate into English. 

1. Ager Sequanua erat optimna totius Galliae.^ 

2. Rex Germanorum tertiam partem agri SequanT occa- 
piivit. 

3. Qiiot annos regnavit CJrus? Triginta aonds regnavit. 

4. Rfimulua trigiiita aeptem regnavit annos. 

5. Quot milia passuum,* Henrice, liodie ambnl&vist! ? 
Hodie quinque mllia passunm ambulavl. 

6. N^um unfi die decern milia 
passuum unqnam ambu- 
lAvisti ? Viginti milia 
passuum uno die ambu- 
14vl. 

7. Themistoclea die uno to- 
tam Grace iam liber&vit. 
Sie unius viri sapientiA et 
virtu te tota Graecia liber- 
ata est 

8. Athenienses duabns vietd- 
rils, Marathonia ct Sala- 
minia, magnam gloriam 
BUDt coDsecuti. 

9. Legati ad imperatorem ex 
tdta Gallia missi sunt. 

10. Cicero et multi alii officid 

cSuaulis mi^acum gloria ''■^ -^"""^ *" "« ;'»''"'™ "/ 
functi sunt. 

11. BOmani vasibus pulcherrimis domoa et hortos saepe 
Srnaverunt. 

13. Cicero de vasibua magniflce caeiatis scribit. 

13. Hab6s-ne aliOa librOa? Alios libros habeo nullos, 

' Qailiae, ParOtlTe Genitive depending on opWmwi ; see IM. 

* P(W«uum depBDds on mllia. 

■ SolltiM, tJie Latda hEstoriau, acquired great wealth whilp goTeraor of Nn- 
midls. He pnaessed In the suburbs of Rome a magniflceDt villa, ■uiroanded by 
pleasure grouikda, afterward known aa "tlie gardens of SaUiut." 



224 ADJECTIVES WITH lUS IN THE GENITIVE. 

388. T1TU8 AntOnIkus P1U8, THE Bomjln Euperor.* 
Post Hadri&num imperavit Titus Antdnmus, Pius ndmi- 
nfttus, yir bonus et benlgnna. Fuit 
ditissimus,* sed dlvitias buos llber- 
alit&te minuit. Pius propter c\h- 
mentiam iidminatus est. Mortuus 
est apud Ylllam suam, vitae aun5 
septuagesimo tertio, imperii vice- 
eimo tertio. 

389. Translate into Latin. 

1. Our soldiers fought ten hours 
Tery bravely. 

2. Boys, what have you been doing 
to-day ? We have been reading 
the poemB of Vergil the whole 
day. 

3. How many years did Romulus 
reign? He is said to have 
reigned thirty-seven years, 

4. Caesar alone performed the duty Antoninia Fiat, the Eoman 

of a good consul. What was emperor. 

the other consul doing the whole year? He was doing 
nothing. 

5. Ambassadors came to Caesar from all Oaul. 

6. Which of you, Charles and Henry, has my book? 
Neither of us has your book. 

7. To-morrow, Julia, you shall see my beautiful vases. 

8. What are you now reading, Julia? I am reading the 
sixth book of Caesar. I have read five books. 

9. How many books did Caesar write? He wrote seven 
books about the Gallic war. 



PRONOUNS. 22S 

10. Did he not write about another war? He wrote three 
books about the civil war. 

11. In the fifth year of the Gallic war Caeear had fifty thou- 
sand soldiers in Qaul. 



LESSON XCVIII. 



Note.— B«TieiT PersonM and Foeaewive Pronouiu, S84 to 267^ and Kela- 
tdTO PronouDi, 3M. 

Demohstratite Pronouns. 

390. Demonstrative Pronouns, so called because they 
specify the objects to which they refer, are declined as fol- 
lows; 

I. Hic, this, this one, he. 

SINGULA a. PLURAL. 

Ifom. hic haec hdc hi hae huec 

Oen. hiiius' hulus buiua h6rum banini hdrum 

Dot. huic hajo huio his hb hia 

Aee. huno hanc hoc' hos has haec 

Abl. hoc h3o hoc his h!a his 

■ Three pieces of tb« fkinous Ullda^helm BlLver recentlf dtscorered ODd now 
in the museum at Berlin, pronounced by Dr. LQbke " 9ne spedmena ot Uie noble 
lichneSB and highl)' ImaKinatlTe artlBt[c decorations of Tessela In metsi." 

* ObBerve thaC i Is here b consonant with tbe sound o( v la t/et. 

■ The VocatlTs la wanting In Demonatratlve, Selatlfe, Interrogative, and 



in 



226 




PRONOUNS. 






11. Iste, 


^Art/, that of yours^ 


that one^ 


he. 






SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




MASC. 


nfiic. 


KKUT. 


MASC. 


FUM. 


KEtJT. 


Nom, iste 


ista 


istud 


isti 


istae 


ista 


Gen, istttis 


istTus 


istfus 


istorum 


istiirurn 


istorum 


Dai, istI 


istI 


istI 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ace, istum 


istam 


istud 


istos 


istas 


ista . 


Abl, isto 


ista 


isto 


istis 


istis 


istis 



III. Ille, that^ that one^ he^ is declined like iste, 

IV, Is, he, this, that. 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 






UASC. FEM. 


NKCT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


OTSCT. 


Nom, 


is ea 


id 


ei, ii 


eae 


ea 


Gen, 


eius * eius 


eius 


eorum 


earum 


eorum 


Dat, 


el e! 


e! 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


Ace, 


eum earn 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Ahl, 


eo ea 


eo 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


V 


. Ipse, self, he, 

SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 






MASC. PEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 




NEUT. 


Nom, 
Gen, 


ipse ipsa 
ipsius ipsina 


ipsum 
ipsius 


ipsi 
ipsonim 


ipsae 
ipsarum 


ip.sa 
ipsonirn 


Dat, 


ipsi ipsi 


ipsi 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsis 


Ace, 
Ahl, 


ipsura ipsam 
ipso ipsa 


ipsum 
ipso 


ipsos 
ipds 


ipsas 
ipsis 


ipsa 
ipsis 


VI. Idem, the same.^ 










SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




Nom. 


MASC. FRM. 

idem eadem 


NKUT. 

idem 


MASC. 

j eidem 
i iidem 


FEM. 

eaedem 


NEUT. 

eadem 


Gen. 


eiusdein* eiusdem eiusdem 


eorundem earundem eorundem 


Dat, 


eidem eidem 


eidem 


( eisdem 
( iisdem 


eisdem 
iisdem 


eisdem 
iisdem 


Ace, 


eundem eandem 


idem 


eosdem 


pAsdem 


eadem 


Abl, 


eodem eadem 


eodem 


( eisdem 
i iisdem 


eisdem 
ilsdem 


eisdem 
ilsdem 



» See foot-note 1, page 226. 

» Idem, compounded of is and dem, is declined like t«, but shortens iadem to 
Idem, and iddem to idem, and changes m to n before the ending dem. 



PRONOUNS. 227 

Interrogative Pronouns. 

391. The Interrogative Pronouns quis and qul^ with 
their compounds, are used in asking questions. They are 
declined as follows : 

• I. Quis, who^ which, what ? 





SINGULAR. 






PLUEAL. 


^ 




MASC. FBM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FBM. 


N*Err. 


Norn, 


quis quae 


quid 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen, 


cuius* cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dot, 


cui cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace, 


quern quam 


quid 


quos 


quiifl 


quae 


AbL 


quo qua 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



11. Qui, which, what 9 is declined like the relative qui. 

1. Quis is generally used substantively, and Qui, adjectively. The 
forms quis and qitem are sometimes feminine. 

2. Qui, howf in what way? is a Locative or Ablative of the inter- 
rogative quis, 

3. Compounds of quis and qui are declined like the simple pro- 
nouns. 

Indefinite Pronouns. 

392. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to any definite 
persons or things. The most important are quis and qui, 
with their compounds. 

Quis, * any one,' and qui, ' any one,' ' any,' are the same 
in form and declension as the interrogatives quis and 
qui. But — 

1. After «t, nisi, ne, and num, the Feminine Singular and Neuter 
Plural have quae or qua : si quae, si qua. 

2. From quis and qui are formed — 

aliquis, aliqua, aliquid or aliquod, some, some one, 

quidam, quaedam, quiddam or quoddain,* certain, certain one, 

quisque, quaeque, quidque or quodque, every, every one, 

qui vis, quaevis, quid vis or quod vis, any one you please ^ 

> See foot-note 1, page 225. 

> Quidam changes v\ to n before d : quondam for qv^mdam,, etc. 



228 PRONOUNS. 

LESSON XCIX. 

PRONOUNS.— THE PLACE IN WHICH. 

393. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Is in Italifi fuit. He was in Italy. 

2. Is in Dostris castzls fuit. He was in our gamp. 

3. Is RSmae fuit. Be was in Rome. 

4. Is OorinthX fuit. He was in Corinth. 

5. Is OarthSgine fuit. He was in Carthage. 

6. Is AthenXs fuit. He was in Athens. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That in Italia, in castxis, R5mae, CorinthX, CartliSgine, and 
Athenis all denote Place. 

2) That in the first and second examples the Ablative with in 
is used. This is the usual construction for the place in which. 

3) That in all the other examples the Locative is used: R9mae, 
at or in Rome ; Oorinthl, at or in Corinth ; Oarth&gine, at or in Car- 
thage; AthSnis, at or in Athens; see 40, 4; 90, 3; and 156, note. 
Observe that all these words are names of towns. 

From these and similar examples we derive the foUowing rule : 

BtTIiE XXZ»--Place in which. 

The Place in which is denoted — 

I. Generally by the Ahlative^ with the prepositlon \xl. 

II. In Names of Towns by the Locative, 

394. Vocabulary. 

arcns, us, m. a bow, arch. artK 

Bostonia, ae, /. Boston. 

Constantfuns, i, w. Constantine, a Roman emperor. 

monamentnm, i, w. monument, memorial. monument 

Philadelphia, ae,/. Philadelphia. 

quoque, con/. also, too. 

1 In force and use this Ablative is really a Locative. Thus the place in 
WHICH is regularly denoted by the Locative^ in the names of toume^ without the 
preposition m, and in the names of other places with the preposition.. The Loca- 
tive WITHOUT THK PREPOSITION was the Original construction. 



THE PLACE IN WHICH. 229 

395. Translate into English. 

1. QuishunclibrumBcripsit? Caesar ilium librum scrlpsit. 

2. Legiati-ne hos libros, Henrice ? Eoa Roniae ISgi. 

3. Qu6 tempore Eomae eras? Mense DecembrT Romae 
eram. 

4. TJbi ta e5 tempore fuisti? lUo tempore Athenis fuT. 



The drcli of Titus.' 

5. Qu& in urbe habitAvit Gioerfi ? ROmae habitavit 

6. Ub( habiUlTit Socrates, vir sapiSne? In GraeciS habi- 
t&vit. 



230 PRONOUNS. 

7. Miilti viri sapientes Athenis habitilvemnt. 

8. Hi fortes milites patriam servavorunt. 

9. Huic puero nihil iacundius est quam Indus. 

10. Sapientes homines sc ipsi ^ non laudabunt. 

11. Quid Romae vidisti ? Urbem totam monnmentis* or- 
natam vidT. 

12. Non-ne TitT arcum, illud monumentum victoriae, vidis- 
ti? Eum vTdi. Illud alterum monumentum victoriae 
quoque, arcum Constantini, vidi. 

396. M1LITA.RY Honors.^ 

Roman! militum animos donis militaribus accendebant. 
Torques aurei, arma Insignia, coronae erant virtutis decora. 
El qui primus mfirum hostium ascenderat coronam mura- 
lem* tribuebant; ei qui navem primus ascenderat, coronam 
navalem; ei qui civem defenderat et servaverat, coronam 
civicara.* Imperator qui bellum bene gesserat triumphabat. 
Currum triumphantis * quattuor equi albi trahebant; ipse 
toga picta indutus lauro-que 5matus erat*; ante currum 
praeda vehebatur et captlvl ducebantur. 

397. Translate into Latin, 

1. In what city do you live, boys? We live in Boston. 

2. Charles, where are your brothers now living? They 
are living in Virginia. 

3. Did you see my friend Marcus in Philadelphia ? I saw 
him often. 

4. Who has read this book ? I have read it. All the boys 
have read that book. I have been delighted with it. 

5. In what month were you at Corinth? We were at 
Corinth in December. 



* Observe that ipal agrees with the subject, though in rendering we connect 
it with the object. * Monumentls, Ablative of Means, toith monwments, 

* For meaning of words, see general vocabulary. * See 83, 36, and 30. 
Triumphantis, literally, of him triumphing ; render, cu tie triumphed* 

* Erat belongs with indUtus as well as with omdtua. 



THE PLACE IN WHICH. 231 

6. What did jou see at Corinth ? We saw the ruins of a 
munificent temple. 

7. In Athena we saw the beautiful temple of Minerva. 

8. Did not Cicero write this book? He wrote it. 

9. Who wrote the book which you are now reading? 
Caesar, who conquered the Qauls, wrote that book. 

10. Did not some one write about friendship? Cicero, the 
orator, wrote a book about friendship. 



The AtcA ii/ Contlant 



A DULO0J7E. 



898. colloquiuu. 

Carolus et Prede^cus. 

(ContiDued fivia 8TG.) 

Carolos. — VSrae pngnae apectacnlum multft miht praesttl- 

biliua vidStur. Son-ne tibi * colonSrum proelinm ad- 

1 ThtB ta a trtumphtti ardi erected to earn 



232 A DIALOGUE. 

Yersiis Indianos, de qua nuper mihi narraTisti,^ magis 

placnit qnam simulacnim pugnae ? 
Fredeiicus. — ^Mihi quidem nullias pngnae spectacnlnm 

placet, in qua homines ynlnera accipinnt et ab aliis 

interficiantnr. 
C. — Qaisqnam-ne colondmm Yitam amisit? 
F. — Duo colon! lapidibas icti sunt. Utriusque ynlnera 

f ncrnnt levia. Alterins vnlnns in ore, alterias ' in tergo 

fait. 
C. — Qnot Indian! cecidemnt ' in pugna ? 
F. — Decern ex barbarorum namero glandibns colonomm 

occ!s!,^ et tres gladiis transfix! sunt. 
C. — ^Magnus-ne fuit numerus Indianorum et colonorum 

qu! in proelio erant ? 
F. — ^Totum barbarorum exercitum ad qumquaginta * aesti- 

mayi, colonorum autem numerum ad duodecim. 
G. — Kon-ne yeriti sunt colon! tantam barbardrum multitu- 

dinem aggred! ? 
F. — Cives nostr! deum yerentur, sed praeterea neminem.* 

399. Translate the follmoing questions and answer them 
in Latin. 

' 1. Quid Carolo magis placet quam simulacrum pugnae ? 
2. Cui placuit yerae pugnae spectacnlnm ? 3. Num, pueri, 
simulacrum pugnae unquam spectayistis ? 4. Num unquam 
iter f ecistis per regiones quae ab Indian!s incoluntur ? 5. 
Qnot colon! in hoc proelio interf ect! sunt ? 6. Quot bar- 
bar! in hoc proelio erant? 7. Num qu!nquaginta colon! 
tantam barbarorum multitudinem y!cernnt ? 



> The learner is recommended to review the dialogues contained in 867 and 
375, as this dialogue is a continuation of one of them, and is in subject closely 
connected with the other. 

• Alteriua . . . alteritu^ * of the one . . . of the oth«r/ 

• From caM. * Supply sunt from trdnsfxxi sunt 
» Ad qulnqudgintd, * about fifty.' 

• Neminenht Direct Object of verentur ; see 185, foot-note 8. . 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF DESIRE. 



233 



LESSON CI. 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF DESIRE.— SUBJUNCTIVE OF FIB8T CON- 
JUGATION. 

400. Learn the Subjunctive mood of the Verb Sum, 
469, and of the verb Ain5 in the Active voice, 470. 

401. Examine the following sentences: 



1. Amemns patriam. 

2. Ne agros hostium vastemiui. 

8. Cives sint beat!. 

4. TTtinam cives sint beSt!. 

5. Utinam cives essent beat!. 

6. TTtinam cives fuissent beat!. 



Let us love our country. 

Let us not lay waste the fields 

of the enemy. 
May our citizens be happy. 
that our citizens may be happy. 
Would that our citizens were 

happy. 
Would that our citizens had 

been happy. 

In these sentences observe that the verbs am§mu8, vfistdmiis, sint, 
eflwent, and fuissent all express a desire or wish on the part of the 
speaker, and that they are all in the Subjunctive mood. This Latin 
usage is expressed in the following rule : 

BUIiE XX2L V jjl.— SubJimctiTe of Desire» Command, 

The Subjunctive is used to represent the action not as 

ItEAL, but AS DESIBED. 

1. The Suhjmhctive of Desire is often accompanied by utinam, as 
in the fourth, fifth, and sixth examples. 

2. In this Subjunctive the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses imply 
that the wish can not be fulfilled. 



hora, ae, /. 
ne, adv, and conj, 
modestns, a, nm, 
otiosns, a, nni, 
secnndns, a, nm, 



402. Vocabulary. 

hour. 

not, that not, lest.' 
moderate, modest, temperate, 
unemployed, idle, 
second, successful, prosperous, 
fortunate. 



hour, 
modest, 

secofid. 



» With the Subjunctive of Desire n« mean» not^ 401, 2 ; but with the Svb- 
Junctive of Purpose it means that nof , in order that noty lest, 406, 8. 



234 SUBJUNCTIVE OF DESIRE. 

r§s secnndae, prosperity. 

snperbia, ae, /. pride, haughtiness. 

Bnspicio, Snis, /. distrust, suspicion. suspieioji. 

ntinam, eonj. that, would that. 

403. Translate into E7iglish. 

1. Gives omnes patriam nostram ament. 

2. ludicem iustum honoremus et laudemus. 

3. Tres horas Latine locuti sumus, pueri ; nunc per agros 
ambulemus. 

4. Agros, hortos, flores, arbores spectemus. 

5. Nobis iucundum est tecum ^ ambulare, Tite, sed nos 
urbem amamus; per amplas urbis vias ambulemus et 
aedificia pulchra spectemus. 

6. Laudes virorum bonorum et sapientium semper cele- 
bremus. 

7. Laudem Ciceronis consulis celebremus, nam patriam 
suam periculo* magno Itberavit. 

8. In rebus secundTs omnes homines modesti sint. 

9. Ornamus corpora ; ornemus etiam animos. 

10. Omnes homines pericula vitae otiosae vitent. 

11. Utinam cives nostrl in rebus secundis superbiam vita- 
rent. 

12. Utinam, mei amici, in rebus secundis sapientes fuis- 
semus. 

404. Translate into Latin, 

1. Let all soldiers avoid the suspicion of fear. Let them 
be brave in danger, and let them fight bravely for their 
country. 

2. Let us all praise the illustrious general who freed the 
republic from the greatest dangers. 

3. Let the Romans adorn with garlands the statues of 
Scipio, for he triumphed over Hannibal. 

> See 265, note. 

> Ablative of Separation ; see 8U0. 



SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE. 235 

4. Let us walk through the forum and look at the beauti- 
ful temples. 
6. Let us wait for Marcus, for he will .walk with us. 

6. Let us adorn with the most beautiful garlands the statues 
of good and wise men. 

7. Let us celebrate the praises of poets and orators. 

8. Let soldiers celebrate the praises of Caesar, but let us 
honor the consul Cicero, who is sometimes called the 
father of his country. 

9. Would that our citizens would love peace and avoid war. 
10. Would that we had always loved peace and avoided war. 



LESSON CM. 

SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE,— FIRST AND SECOND CONJU- 

GA TIONS. 

406. Learn the Subjunctive mood of the verb Am5 in 
the Passive voice, 471, and of the verb Mone5 in both 
voices, 472 and 473. 

406. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Domi remanent ut periculum They remain at home to avoid 

vltent. danger, 

2. Domi remanebant ut pericuhim They remained at home to avoid 

▼ItSrent. danger, 

3. Caesarem Srabant n§ oppidum They besought Caesar not to at- 

suum oppflgoaret. tack their town, 

4. Legati missi sunt qui auxilium Embassadors were sent to implorb 

impl5rSrent. (who should implore) aid. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That ut vltent, to avoid, literally, that they may avoid ; ut 
vXtflrent, to avoid, literally, that they should avoid ; ne oppugnfiret, 
910^ to attack, literally, that he would not attach ; and qui impl5r5rent, 
to implore, literally, who shmdd implore, all denote the purpose of the 
action expressed by the leading verb, remanent, etc. : they remain at 
home IN order that they may avoid danger. 



236 SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE. 

2) That the verbs which here express purpose are all in the Sitb- 
junetive, and are introduced by ut, n§, or the relative quL 
Hence we have the following rule : 

BUUEi XUL— PurpcMBie. 

The Subjunctive is used to denote Purpose with ut, 
nd, and the relative qui. 

Ncyte* — In clauses denoting Purpose^ the Pbeseitt Subjukctivb is used 
after a Bresent or Future tense, as in the firj»t example ; while the Iicfbbfeot 
is used atler an Imperfect^ Perfect^ or Pluperfect^ as in the second, third, and 
fourth examples. 

407. Vocabulary. 
de-eerno, ere, crevi, cretam, to resolve, vote, decree. 
eqnitatns, ns, m. cavalry. 

impero, &re, avi, atnm, to command, order. imperai-iYo, 

metns, ns, m. fear. 

oro, are, avT, atnm, to ask, beg, beseech. 

seryitiis, utis, /. servitude, slavery. 

nt, conj, that, in order that, to. 

408. Translate into English. 

1. Caesar milites hortatur ut pro patria fortiter pugnent. 

2. Caesar milites hortatus est ut pro patria fortiter pugna- 
rent. 

3. Gain orabant ut patria servaretur. 

4. Patria ab omnibus ametur et laudetur. 

5. Oramus ut haec communis nostrum omnium patria 
ametur et laudetur. 

6. Milites orabant ut adventus Caesaris exspectaretur. 

7. Vos, puerl, monemus ut memoriam cottldie exerceatis. 

8. Praeceptores nos saepe monent ut memoriam exerce- 
amus. 

9. Gain Caesarem oraverunt n6 agros fertiles vastftret. 

10. Legum servi sumus ut liberi simus. 

11. Milites nostri impetum hostium sustineant. 

12. Caesar militibus imperavit ut impetum hostium fortiter 
sustinerent. 

13. Impetus hostium sustineatur. 



SUBJUNCTIVE OP PURPOSE. 237 

14. Ne periculis terreamur. 

15. Imperator equitatum, qui hostium impetum sustineret, 
misit. 

16. Labienus qui collem occuparet missus est. 

17. Senatus Bomanus decrevit ut consul rem publicam 
servaret. 

409. Translate into Latin. 

1. Will you not sail to Greece that you may see Athens ? 
We shall sail to Greece that we may see Athens and 
Corinth. 

2. We made the journey through Europe that we might 
see Rome. 

3. Marcus, let us ask our friend the poet to sail to Europe 
with us. 

4. Whom shall we send to invite him ? Send youi brother 
to invite him. 

5. Ask him to wait for us in Boston. 

6. The Gauls besought Caesar not to destroy their towns. 

7. The senate decreed that the illustrious general should 
be honored with a golden crown. 

8. The Gauls bravely attacked the camp, of Caesar, that 
they might be freed from the fear of servitude. 

9. The general exhorted the soldiers not to fear the enemy. 

10. Caesar commanded the Gauls not to move their camp. 

11. The consul besought the citizens to fight bravely in 
behalf of themselves and their children. 



LESSON cm. 

SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS.SECOND AND 

THIRD CONJUGATIONS. 

410. Learn the Subjunctive Mood of the verb Regd 
in both voices, 474 and 475. 



238 SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS, 

411. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Quid facisf What are you doing 9 

2. Nescit quid facias. He knows.iwt what you are doiko. 

3. Quid faciebas f What were you doifhg f 

4. Ncscivit quid DeioerSs. He did iiot hiow what you were 

DOING. 

5. Quid f ecisti f What have you done f 

0. Nescit quid fecerls. He does not know what you have 

DONE. 

7. Quid feceras ¥ What had you done f 

8. Nesclvit quid fScissSs. He did not know what you bad 

DONE. 

In these examples observe that the direct questions contained in 
the first, third, fifth, and seventh examples, when made dependent 
upon nescit or nSsdvit, as in the other examples, simply change the 
verb from the Indicative to the Subjunctive. Hence we have the 
following rule : 

BUIiE LV.— Moodfl in Indirect Questions* 

The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Questions. 

412. Vocabulary. 

Alexandria* ae, /. Alexandria, a city in Egjrpt 

ardeo, ere, arsi, arsnm, to bum, be burned. 

bibliotheca, ae, /. library. 
eognosco, ere, cognoyT, 

cognitam, to inquire, ascertain, find out. 

explorator, 6ris, m. scout, spy. explorer. 

incertas, a, nm, doubtful, uncertain. uncefiain, 

qnadringenti, ae, a, four hundred. 

qnotus, a, nm, which, what (of number). 

Seneca, ae, m. Seneca, a Roman author. 

413. Translate into E^nglish. 

1. Quid scribit tuus f rater? Nescio quid meus f rater 
scribat. 

2. Quid heri scripsit ? Nescio quid heri scripserit. 

3. Quis hunc librum legit ? Nescio quis ilium librum legat. 

4. Scitis-ne, puerT, quis has orationes scripserit? Scimus 
quis eas scripserit. 



SUBJUNCTIVE IN ISDIBECT QUESTIONS. 239 

6. Her! ncBcicbam qnam orationem pueri legerent. 

6. NSsciSbamus ubl pueri lusiseent 

7. Non-ne aciSbatis ubt eo tempore luderent ? Neacieba- 
mus ubi eo tempore luderent. 

8. Caesar mllitgs hortatus est ng falds rumoribus terrg- 
rentur. 



9. Quibas rumSribus territl aunt? Quibua rumoribua ter- 

riti eint incertmn est. 
10. Ildra quota est? Neacio, Bed patrem interrogabfi quota 

hora ait. 
H. Quid hoatSs agSbant? NSn-ne Caesar sciebat quid 

hostes agereut? Per exploratores quid hostes agerent 

cognovit. 

1 Tak?>i b)- penniSBlOQ trom LaucUinl'a Ancient Rome. ■'The touDclurBot 
CSulstJan Ubrariee In Rome," sfly» Prof. LanctonI, •■ foUowod faltMuUy the cImbIc 
prototypes, the arraogeiueat of the Vatican Library lo-day b«iDg precisely that 
nf the ancienta" 



240 SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 

12. Quam multae bibliothecae Bomae fuerunt? Qiiam 
multae bibliothecae Romae f aerint incertum est. 

13. Alexandriae fuit bibliotheca clarissima. Haec biblio- 
theca arsit. Seneca scribit: " Quadringenta milia li- 
brorum Alexandriae arserunt." 

414. Translate into Latin. 

1. What did Charles say? I do not know what he said. 

2. Where is he to-day ? No one knows where he is. 

3. Do you know, boys, how many books Cicero wrote ? We 
do not know ; we have never heard how many books he 
wrote. 

4. By whom was this town destroyed ? I do not know by 
whom it was destroyed. 

6. How many towns were destroyed ? It is uncertain how 
many towns were destroyed. 

6. Where are the boys playing? Let us ascertain where 
they are playing. 

7. Are the soldiers in the camp to-day ? I do not know 
where they are. 

8. Many boys do not know who conquered Hannibal. 

9. Let all the boys ascertain by whom this great com- 
mander was conquered. 

10. How many temples were there in Italy? I have never 
heard how many temples there were in Italy. 

11. How many villas did Cicero have? It is diflBcult to 
ascertain how many villas he had. 



LESSON CIV. 

STJBJUNCTIVE.^TBmD AND FOURTH CONJUaATIONS.— 
INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCWATIVE. 

416. Learn the Subjunctive Mood of the verb Audi6 
in both voices, 476 and 477. 



INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE. 241 

416. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Mons ab hostibus tenetur. The mountain is held by the enemy, 

2. Dicunt montem ab hostibus They say that the mountain is 

texii§rL HELD by the enemy, 

3. Hostes non timet. He does not fear the enemy, 

4 Dicit 8§ host§s non timere. He says that he does not feab 

the enemy, 

5. HostSs non timeo. I do not fear the enemy, 

6. Dico m§ hostes non tim§rd. / say that I do not feab the 

enemy. 
In these sentences observe — 

1) That when the first sentence is made dependent upon dictint in 
the second, the subject inSui is changed to the accusative montem 
and the verb tenitur to the infinitive teneiL 

2) That in the fourth and sixth sentences, where a similar change 
has taken place, the accusatives 8§ and me are expressed, although 
the corresponding nominatives are omitted in timet and timeG. 

The Latin usage illustrated in these examples is expressed in the 
following rules : 

BUIiE LYIL— Infinitive with Sut^ect Aociisative. 

Many transitive verbs admit an Infinitive with a 
Subject Accusative. 

BUIiE LVIII.— Suliject of Infinitive. 

The Infinitive sometimes takes an Accusative as its 
Subject. 

417. Vocabulary. 

Inppiter, IoyIs, m, Jupiter, supreme god of the 

Romans. 

legiS, dnis, /. a body of soldiers, legion. legion, 

M ercnrins, ii, m. Mercury, messenger of the gods. 

nnntius, IT, m, messenger, message. 

primas, a, nm, first. 

re-maneo, ere, mfinsi, to remain, stay. remain, 

418. Translate into English. 

1. Oratorem cl3,rum hodie audiamus. 

2. Senat5res Hdmae remanebant ut Ciceronem, oratorem 

clarissimnm, audirent. 
16 



242 INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE. 

3. A quo scripta est haec oratio? Incertam est a qn& 
scnpta sit. 

4. Qoam multi militGs ab HanDibale in Ttaliam duct! nnt 
ugtno unquam eciet. 

6. Caesar go tempore unam 
legionem sOcum in Gallia 
habuit. 

6. Dicnnt Caesarem eo tem- 
pore unam legifinem in 
Gallic habuisse. 

7- TG magnum amicorum 
numerum habere andifi. 

8. Dicitis vdB magnum ami- 
corum numerum babitu- 
ros esse. 

9. Marcus dixit ae mfi,gnum 
librorum numerum ha- 
bere. 

10. Pueri dicunt ae primum 
Oaesaris librum legisse. 

11. Nh faisis rumoribus ter- 

reamur. 

12. Caesar dixit milites falsia JiVtUer, the npremt god of the 

rumoribus saepe terreri. Bomant. 

13. Caesar mlUtibus imperavit ut castra ciistodirent. 

14. TJtinam castra nostra vallo fossil-que miinita essent. 

419. The Gods of the Romans. 
Apud RomfinSs luppiter fuit deOrum et hominum pater. 
liind, uxor lovis, rggina fnit caeli. Minerva, filia lovis, 
dea fuit sapientiae. Apollinem appellaverunt deum sfilis, 
Di&nam deam lunae, Gererem deam frumenti. Merenrius 
deorum nflntins fuisse dicitnr. In Graeci& et in Italia di- 
cnnt multa templa fuisse lovis, lunonis, Apollinis, Cereris, 
Miner vae. 



INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE. 243 

420* Translate into Latin. 

1. Boys, let us now hear the story. 

2. Would that I had heard the story yesterday. 

3. Whom did you hear in the senate yesterday? I do not 
know whom I heard. 

1. Let brave soldiers and good men guard our city. 

5. Which legion fortified the camp? I shall ascertain by 
which legion the camp was — 
fortified. 

6. Charles says that the fifth 
legion fortified the camp. 

1. Did the Gaula fortify their 
towns? Caesar says that 
the Gauls fortified their 
towns with hnge walls. 

8. What is Henry reading? 
He says that he is reading 
the orations of Cicero. 

9. Did you not say that you 
were reading the works of 
Caesar ? I said that I was 
reading the poems of Ver- 

gii- 

10. My brother says that he is 
delighted with the poems 
of Vergil. 

11. The Roman poets say that '^*' *** ""^^ "^ agru^tun. 
Jupiter is the father of gods and men, and that Mer- 
cury is the messenger of the gods. 

LESSON CV. 

SUBJUJfCTIVE OF THE VERS CASlA,—A DIALOGUE. 

421. Learn the Subjanctive Mood of the verb CaplO 
in both voices, 478 and 479. 



244 A DIALOGUE. 

422. COLLOQUIt'H. 

Qulsrns, Sextus, Tirus. 
Qulotus. — Quid indicas de Fulvio et Sempruniu, qui ope- 

rfirioa contrft dominos instigant? 
Sextna. — ScelerfitI sunt qui rem publicum nefjlris distur- 

bant Saepe qnaeslvi cur haa contentiSnes incitftve- 

rinb 
Q. — Has contend uoes incitant ut ex miseria aliomm ipu 

lucrum faciant. Operarii ad 

banc hdram in foram convo- 

c&ti sunt. 
S. — Proced&mus in forum, ut cog- 

Doscamus quid ibi agatnr. 
Q. — Vides-ne multitudinem in re- 

gione fori ? 
S. — Operarii esse videntur qui ei 

contione reTertuatar- In pom- 
pa ingrediuntur mflre mili- 

tum * cum vexillis. 
Q. — Faciunt boc ut oeuli civinm 

in s5 eonvertantur. 
S. — QnaerSmns ex spectatoribus 

qnid Actum sit in contione. 
T. — Sunt lignarii, qui ab operibuB 

cessare coiiatitnerunt. 
Q. — Qnaeest huiua consilii causa? 
T. — Hoc faciunt ut maiores a 

dominis SUiS mercSdca eStJir- ifemtry, Ot menengn- o/ 1;^ 

queant "^ 

Q. — Non-ne domini mercedes eorum augubnnt? 
T. — Quid domini faciant neacio. 
S. — Domini postulata operariorum sine dubio denega- 

bunt. 

' M5re niiUtum, " in the mauoer ot soldierB," i. e., like goldfer». 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 



245 



423. Translate the following questions and answer them 
in Latin, 

1. Quid iudicas de hoc coUoquio ? 2. Qui has conten- 
tiones incitaverunt ? 3. Scitis-ne, pueri, cur operarii omnes 
in forum convocati sint ? 4. Num unquam forum Eomanum 
vidistis ? 5. Est-ne forum in urbe vestra ? 6. Non-ne iTg- 
narii maiores mercedes accipere debent? 7. Non-ne multi 
domini mercedes operariorum interdum augent ? 



LESSON CVL 



INDIRECT DISCOURSE, 

424. Examine the following sentences and review those 
in 416 : 



1. Caesar duas legiones in Italia 

conscripsit. 

2. Caesar dicit 8§ duas legiones in 

Italia cSnsorlpsisse. 

3. Legio quam Caesar semper lau- 

dat est decima. 

4. Dicunt legiSnem quam Caesar 

semper landet esse decimam. 

5. Milites duarum legionum quas 

Caesar in Italia conscripsit 
fortes sunt. 

6. Dicunt mllitSs duarum legio- 

num quas Caesar in Italia 
cSnsorlpserit fortes esse. 



Caesar enrolled ttvo legions in 

Italy, 
Caesar says that he enrolled 

two legions in Italy, 
The legion which Caesar is always 

praising is the tenth. 
They say that the legion which 

Caesar is always praising is 

the tenth. 
The soldiers of the two legions 

which Caesar enrolled in Italy 

are brave. 
They say that the soldiers of 

the two legions which Caesar 

enrolled in Italy are brave. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That the first, third, and fifth examples are said to be in the 
Direct Discourse ; while the same sentences when made dependent 
upon dIcit or diotint in the second, fourth, and sixth examples, are 
said to be in the Indirect Discourse. 

2) That in the third example, Isgio est decima is called the Prin- 
cipal Clause, and quam Caesar semper laudat, the Subordinate 



246 INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 

Clause. In the fifth example, mllites dudrum legionum fortis sunt is 
the Principal Clause, and quds Caesar in Italia conscfipsit the 
Subordinate Clause. 

8) That in the Principal Clause in the Indirect Discourse the 
verb is in the Infinitive and the subject in the Accusative, while in 
the Subordinate Clause the verb is in the Subjunctive. 

From these and similar examples we derive the following rule : 

BUUB UrL— Moods In Prlndiial danses. 

The principal clauses of the Direct Discourse on 
becoming Indirect take the Infi/aitim with a Subject 
Accusative} 

BUIiE IJV.— Moodfl in Subordinate CUuues. 

The subordinate clauses of the Direct Discourse on 
becoming Indirect take the Suijunctive. 

425. Vocabulary. 

commemoro, are, avi, atam, to mention, relate. commemorate. 

Considins, if, m. Considius, an officer in 

Caesar's army. 
per-terreo, ere, qT, itam, to frighten thoroughly, 

terrify greatly. 
Salla, ae, m, Sulla, a Roman general. 

428. Translate i?ito English, 

1. Erater mens librls delectatur. 

2. Frater mens scribit se libris delectari. 

3. Frater mens libris quos legit delectatur. 

4. Frater mens scribit se libris quos legat delectari.* 

5. £i qui non magnum in re militari usum habent saepe 
terrentur. 

6. Caesar dicit eos qui non magnum in re militari usum 
habeant saepe terreri.* 

1 This provides for all principal clauses in Indirect Discourse except ques- 
tions and commands. 

* Note carefully tlie changes which take place when a sentence is introduced 
in the Indirect Discovbsb. Here the verbs dilectdtur and terrentur are changed 
to deiectdrl and terrirl ; the subject of dilectdrl Is the reflexive »«, because it 
refers to frdter, the subject of the leading verb serfhU. 



PlatelV. 




4iNBI>Tt)KB.2.jDNO. I.JUPITBR, 3.^STA. 

5.M'u<cirRY,6LApOLi.o, T.Geres, aMMBSVA,S.D[ANA, lOynLOAR, 
ItVENua, 1Z.BAOOII17S. laSATDBW. MMuia . 



INDIRECT DISCOURSK 247 

7. Caesar dixit eos qui non magnum in re militari usum 
haberent falsis rumoribus saepe terreri. 

8. Titus libro quern de amicitia Cicero scripsit delecta- 
tur. 

9i Titus dicit se libro quern de amicitia Cicero scripserit 
delectari. 

10. Saepe legimus Hannibalem magnum exercitum in 
Italiam duxisse. 

11. Saepe legimus Hannibalem, qui magnum exercitum in 
Italiam duxisset, a Scipione victum esse. 

12. Caesar narrat Considium, qui fuisset in exercitu Sullae, 
timore perterritura esse. 

13. Caesar respondit se eas res, quas legati commemoravis- 
sent, memoria tenere. 

427. Translate into Latin. 

1. Great honors have always been awarded to brave sol- 
diers. 

2. We know that great honors have always been awarded 
to brave soldiers. 

3. We ought to award honors to these soldiers who have 
freed our country from danger. 

4. You say that we ought to award honors to the soldiers 
who have freed our country from danger. 

6. All who heard the orator were delighted. 

6. They say that all who heard the orator were delighted. 

7. The poems of Homer, which boys now read in school, 
were read in ancient times by all the Greeks. 

8. Our teacher says that the poems of Homer, which boys 
now read in school, were read in ancient times by all 
the Greeks. 

9. The soldiers who were terrified did not have large ex- 
perience in military affairs. 

10. Caesar writes that the soldiers who were terrified did 
not have large experience in military affairs. 



24:8 ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

LESSON evil. 

POSSUM AND TEBJb,— ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

428. Learn in full the Paradigms of the irregular verbs 
Fossuin and Ferd, 481, 482, 483. 

429. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Solon Sends rfignante viguit Solon flourished is the reign of 

Seryius {Servlua reigning), 

2. RSgiboB ezSotiB, consules ere- After the banishment of the 

at! sunt. kings (the kings having been 

banished), consuls were elected, 

3. OSnanmptO fromentO, consul- As their grain was exhausted 

tabant. {their grain having been ex- 

hausted), tJiey took counsel to- 
gether, 

4. Bquitfitfl praemiasS, subseque- Haying sent forward his cay- 

batur. ALRT (his cavalry having been 

sent forward), he followed. 
In these sentences obsenre that each contains a noun and a parti- 
ciple in the Ablatiye, denoting the time, cause, or some other 
attendant circumstance of the action. Hence we derive the follow- 
ing rule : 

BUIjE XXXI i.— AMative Absolute.^ 

A noun and a participle may be put in the Ablative to 
add to the predicate an attendant circumstance. 

Note*— This Ablative is generaUy best rendered — (1) by a noun with a 
preposition — in, during, qfter, by, Ufith, through, etc. ; (2) by an active parti- 
c.'ple with its object ; or (8) by a clauee with when, while, because, if, though, 
etc. Thus : 

1) SerriO rOpuuite ; literally, Servius reigning; render, in the reign 
of Servius, or while Servitis was reigning, 

2) Rfig^tmJEl ezftctis; literally, the kings having been banished; ren- 
der, qfter the banishment of the kings, or qfter the kings were banished. 

8) COnsninptO ftilmeiit5 ; literally, their grain having been exhaust- 
ed ; render, as their grain was exhausted. 

4) Equitfttfl iiraemissO ; literally, his cavalry having been sent for- 
ward ; render, having sent forward his cavalry. 

1 This Ablative is called absolute, because it is not necessarily dependent for 
its construction upon any other word in the sentence ; yet in many instance it 
can be readily explained as an Ablative of Time^ Cause, Means, etc. 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



249 



430. 
af-fero, ferre, attnll, 

allatnm, 
Antiochns, T, m. 
ArioTistns, i, m. 
candelabrnm, I, n. 
fero, ferre, tnlT, latnin, 

gemma, ae, /. 
Liscns, 1, m. 

Incema, ae, f. 

per-flcio, ere, feci, fectnm, 

possnm, posse, potni, , 

qnam, adv, 

reperio, ire, repperi, 

repertnm, 
Seryins, ii, m. 
taceo, ere, m, itnm, 
Tarqninins, ii, m. 



Vocabulary. 

to bring, introduce. 

Antiochus, King of Syria. 

Ariovistus, King of the Suevi. 

candlestick, candelabrum. 

to bear, endure, carry, pro- 
pose (a law). 

jewel, precious stone, gem. 

Liscus, a leader of the 
Aeduans. 

lamp. 

to finish, perfect, make. 

to be able ; possnm, 1 am 
able, I can. 

as ; qnam din, as long as. 

to find. 

Servius, a Roman king, 
to be silent, keep still. 
Tarquin, a Roman king. 



gem. 



perfect 
po8si-b\e. 




Roman lamps. 

431. Translate into English. 

1. Aedui se defendere n5n poterant. 

2. N"um imperator Italiam metu liberare potest? Dicit se 
Italiam metu liberare posse. 

3. Galli nostrorum militum impetum sustinere non po- 
tuerunt. 



250 



ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



4. Graeci quidam, Tarquinio regnante, in Italiam vene- 
runt. 

5. Labienus, monte occupato, nostros exspectabat. 

6. Munitis castris, Caesar legiones in castra reduxit. 

7. Hoc oppidum, paucis defendentibus, expugnare non 
potuit. 

8. Liscus dicit se quam diu potuerit tacuisse. 

9. Homines liberi servittitem ferre non possunt. 

10. Homines liberi servittitem nunquam ferent. 

11. In exercitu Caesaris erant multi qui arma in Italia 
tulerant. 

12. Hie homo arma nunquam feret. 

13. Quis banc legem tulit? A patre 
meo haec lex utilis lata est. 

14. Multae leges optimae a civibus Ro- 
manis latae sunt. 

15. Leges optimae a vobis ferantur. 

16. Audio te Romae fuisse. Romae et 
Pompeiis fuimus. 

17. Dicunt multas lucemas Romanas 
Pompeiis repertas esse. 

18. Cicero narrat Antiochura candela- 
brum e gemmis auro-que perfectum 
in Italiam attulisse. 

432. Translate into Latin, 

1. The temple of Diana is said to have 
been built in Rome in the reign of 
Servius.^ 

2. After many had been wounded, Ario- Roman candelabrum 
vistus led back his forces into camp. ^^*" candlestick. 

3. My brothers are already able to read the works of 
Caesar. 

4. You will soon be able to read the poems of Vergil. 




> In Latin, how do you say in the reign of Servius ? See 429 and 431, 4. 



A DIALOGUE. 251 

6. It will be delightful to be able to read the poems of 
Vergil. 

6. Our commander, having taken possession of the hill,^ 
made an attack upon the enemy. 

7. Our soldiers, having made an attack upon the enemy,* 
fought bravely. 

8. This man is not able to bear arms. 

9. Has he never borne arms? He says that he has never 
borne arms, and that he has never been able to bear 
arms. 

10. The Gauls, having fortified the town, awaited the ap- 
proach of our army. 

11. Caesar, having heard the words of the ambassador, led 
back his army into camp. 

LESSON CVIII. 

THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLO, NOliO, AND VLMjO.—A 

DIALOGUE. 

433. Learn in full the Paradigms of the irregular verbs 
Void, Ndld, and M^Ud, 484 

434. Vocabulary. 

dnbito, are, avT, atnm, to doubt, hesitate. 

inal5, malle, malni, to choose rather, prefer. 

nolo, nolle, n51nl, not to wish, to be unwilling. 

recte, adv, rightly, well. 

vol5, velle, voluT, to wish, desire, like. 

436. Translate into English. 

1. Num belli fortunam tentare vultis? Patriam defenders 
volumus. 

2. Nolite dubitare libertatem defenders 

> Remember that English word» are not always to be rendered by correspond- 
ing Latin toorda. Consider by what Latin construction the thought may be best 
expressed. Here the Ablative AbgoltUe should be used, 



252 A DIALOGUE. 

3. Multi homines volunt quidem recte facere, sed non recte 
faciunt. 

4. Galli eo tempore belli fortunam tentare n5lebant. 

5. Socrates esse bonus volebat. 

6. Hi Gives viderl boni volunt, sed Socrates esse quam 
videri bonus malebat. 

7. Caesar montem a Labieno occupari voluit. 

8. Considius timore perterritus dicit montem, quem Caesar 
a Labieno occupari voluerit, ab hostibus teneri. 

436. Colloquium. 

QUINTUS ET SeXTUS. 

Quintus. — Quid tibi vis ? 

Sextus. — Tecum ambulare velim.^ 

Q. — Ego hodie mane ambulare nolo ; domi manere malo. 

S. — Cur mavis ? 

Q. — Ego et frater vesper! cum patre ambulare malumus. 

S. — Cur mecum per silvas vagari non vultis ? 

Q. — Quod vesperi amoenitate frui malumus quam solis 

ardore. 
S. — At iam saepe mecum ambulare noluisti. 
Q. — Non recte dicis ; non est causa, cur tecum ambulare 

nolim.^ At cum hortus avi satis amplus sit * et lacum 

silvam-que contineat,* ibi malumus ludere ; si vis, no- 

biscum veni. 
S. — Cur nolim? Vobiscum ludere malo quam solus vagari. 
Q. — Vesperi igitur veni. 
S. — Veniam. 

437. Translate into Latin. 

1. Boys, what would you like to do ? We should like to 
play ball. 

2. Henry, would you like to take a walk with me through 

> Notice the force of the Subjunctive : velim, ' I should like ' ; cQr noZt'm, 
*why I should be unwilling/ 

» Render by the English Indicative. The Subjunctive is often so rendered. 



ACCrSATITE OF LIMIT. 253 

the woods ? I should like to take a walk with you, but 
I ought to wi-ite to my father. 

3. Charles says that he would like to take a walk with you. 

4. Do not the boys wish to speak Latin ? They say that 
it is difficult to speak Latin. 

5. We all wish to know Latin. We should like to read 
the poems of Vergil. 

6. I should like to know Greek also, for I should like to 
read the poems of Homer. 

7. All soldiers wish to seem brave, but Frederick chooses 
to be brave rather than to seem brave. 

8. Would you, Albert, like to take a walk with us this 
morning ? I should like to take a walk with you, but I 
prefer to walk in the evening. 

9. The consul was unwilling to try the fortune of war. 

10. He said that he was unwilling to try the fortune of war. 

LESSON CIX. 

TEE lEREGULAB VERBS TEA AND 'EO.—ACCUBATIVE OF 

LIMIT,— PLACE FROM WEIGH, 

488. Learn the Paradigms in full of the irregular verbs 
ZU and Sd, 485, 486. 

489. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Caesar ad fiSmen exercitum Caesar led his army to the kiveil 

duzit. 

2, In Amawi redit. Ee returns into Asia. 

8. Caesar Bfimam redit. Caesar returns to Koue. 

4. Plato T arwiitum venit. Plato came to Tarentum. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That ad finmeii, in Amain, Bnmain, and T aieuliu n all desig- 
nate the place in which the motion ends, the place to which. 

2) That in the first and second examples the Accusatiye with ad 
or in is used. This is the general constmction. 

8) That in the third and fourth examples the AccnsATiyE is used 
without any preposition, and that the places are kahes of towkb. 



254 ACCUSATIVE OP LIMIT. 

Hence we have the following rule : 

BUIjE Z.— Acciiflative of Unlit. 

The PLACE TO WHICH is designated by the Accusative : 

I. Generally with a preposition — ad or in. 

II. In names of towns without a preposition. 

440. Examine the following sentences : 

1. Ab urbe proficiscitur. He seta out from the citt. 

3. Sz AsUL venit. He came from Asia. 

8. Plat5 AthSnXs venit. Plato came from Athens. 

4. BrondifliS profecti sumus. We set out from Brundisium. 

In these sentences observe — 

1) That ab urbe, ez Asia, Athfinis, and BrundisiS all designate 
the PLACE from which. 

2) That in the first and second examples the Ablative with a 
preposition is used. This is the general construction. 

8) That in the third and fourth examples the Ablative is used 
without any preposition, and that the places are names of towns. 
Hence we have the following rule : 

BUIjE XXI.— Place fiKMon which. 

The place fbom which is designated by the Ablative : 

I. Generally with a preposition — a, ab, dS, or ex. 

II. In Names of Towns witlwut a preposition. 

441. Vocabulary. 

05. Ire, IyT or IT, itiim, to go. 

red-eo, ire, iri or if, itnm, to go back, return. 
fio, fieri, faetns snm (pass. 

of faei5), to be made, be done, happen. 

Capna, ae, /. Capua, a city of Italy. 

de-dic5, are, avi, atum, to dedicate, consecrate. dedicate, 

feliciter, adv. successfully, prosperously. 

fSliciter narigd, &re, &yi, 

atnm, to have a prosperous voyage. 

Florentia, ae, /. Florence, a city of Italy. 

Panthenm, i, n. Pantheon, a temple at Rome 

dedicated to all the gods. 
proflciscor, i, fectns sum, to start, set out, march. 



ACCUSATIVE OP LIMIT. 255 

442, Translate into English. 

1. Roma epistulas hodie mine accfipi, 

2. Ubi sunt amici nostri ? Romae aunt. 

3. Ab America ad Europam fellciter navigfivCrnnt. 

4. Iter per Europam feceruut et multfis nrbea TidSnint. 
Nuper Romam ivgrunt. 

5. Quid BSmae Tideront? Scribunt de forfl et templis et 
etatuis. 



. Quid dS Panthefi scrlbuntl' Scribant Panthenm esse 
templum pulchen-imum. Dicunt RfimAni^a antiquis 
temporibua hoc templum deia omnibna d5dic&viase. 

. Non-ne Athenas ibunt? MSnse Decembri Athenfia 
ibunt. 

■ Built bj Agrlppa la Uw Cine ol AuguMue. 



256 ACCUSATIVE OF LIMIT. 

8. Bostoniam eras ibo ? Velis-ne mecum ire ? Bostoniam 
tecum ire velim. Ibis-ne? Ibo. 

9. Temporibus Periclis multi sapientes Athenas ibant. 

10. Saepe legimus viros doctos Athenis temporibus August! 
Romam venisse. 

11. Hannibal exercitum in hiberna Capuam^ misit. 

12. Caesar magnum exercitum in Galliam duxit. 

13. Id quod vultis, pueri, fieri non potest. 

14. Nolite id velle quod fieri non potest. 

15. Haec omnia contra legem facta sunt. 

16. Fit equestre proelium; hostes fugae se mandant; fit 
magna caedes. 

443« Translate into Latin. 

1. We shall start for the mountains ^ to-morrow. 

2. Our friend Marcus sailed for Europe * yesterday. 

3. From what city did he sail ? He sailed from Boston. 

4. Will he go into Italy ? He wishes to go to Florence 
and Rome. 

6. Your friend the senator is now in Rome ; he has lately 
come from Florence. 

6. The senator will remain in Rome three months. From 
Rome he will go to Athens. 

7. I hear that your friends have returned from Europe. 
Did they have a prosperous voyage? They say that 
they had a very prosperous voyage from Europe to 
America. 

8. We often wish that which can not be done. 

9. That which I now wish has often been done. 

10. Nothing ought to be done contrary to law. 

11. Caesar started with five legions from Italy for Gaul. 

> Notice the difFerence here between the Latin idiom and the English. Latin 
IDIOM, into winter-quarters to Capita or to Capua into tointer-quarters ; Eng- 
lish IDIOM, into winter-quarters at Capua. 

* Observe that after verbs implying motion the English word for is often 
used to denote the end of the motion, or the Place in which, and may accord- 
ingly be rendered into Latin by acU 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 257 



UTIN SELECTIONS. 

Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh.^ 

444. Elisabetha, regina Britannorum, semper gerebat 
vestes splendidas et pretiosas. Forte cum magna caterva 
comitum ambulabat per vicos urbis. Subito videt ante pedes 
multum lutum. Regina stat incerta,^ quod timet lubricam 
viam. At iuvenis exsilit ex turbji ; umerTs ^ detrahit novum 
pallium et vestimento * tegit locum ; tum iterum recurrit ad 
socios. Regina laeta super pallium ambulat nee maculat 
pedem. Statim grata® adscribit iuvenem in numerum'* 
amic5rum. 

Too Clever by Half. 

446. Roscius, praeclarus iuris consultus,^ publicos ludos 
quondam spectabat. Subito vir rusticus occurrit. "Da® 
mihi," inquit,' " resp5nsum, praeclare Rosci ; ^^ canis divitis 
vicini meum agrum intra vit, necavit-que tres puUos. Quan- 
tam tu multam domino canis " imponis ? " " Quattuor 
asses," ^ respondit Roscius. " Da mihi igitur asses," vir in- 

1. Sir Walter Raletgh was 7. IQris eSnsnltus — e5ii- 

a man of ^eat versatilltj of talent, saltus, a counselor ; itiris, o/ law 

He won the favor of the queen, ao- -—like our terms, counselor- ai-law, or 

cording to tradition, by the act of gal- aUorney-ixt-law. 

lantry here described. 8. Da ; notice that the verb dd 

2. Inoerta is a Predicate Ac^eo- has a short vowel in the stem. 

tive agreeing with r9gina, 9. Inqnit, like our expression 

8. Umeiis detrahit : he takes ** sot/s he,^^ or '•'• said A«," is preceded 

from his shotdders, "By a difference in the sentence by one or more words, 

of idiom the Latin here employs the InquU is a defective verb. 

Indirect Object. ' 10. ROsd ; notice the contracted 

4. VestfrnentS is Ablative of form ; see 90, 2. 

Means; see 114. 11. Canis is in the Genitive 

5. Grftta agrees with the omitted Case. 

subject of adscribit, 12. AflsSs is the Accusative, the 

6. In nnmenmi, literally, into object of impend to be supplied. See 
th£ number \ render, in the number, illustration, page 185. 

17 



258 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

quit, " tuus enim canis erat reus." *' Res aequa est," iterum 
respondit Roscius, " et libenter tibl quattuor asses dabo. At 
m^ primum numera mihi quTnque asses, nunquam enim 
iuris consulti sine mercede dant responsa." 



Spartan Brevity. 

446. Samil Spartam* venerunt, ut opem a Lacedae- 
moriiis peterent.* Introducti* ad magistratus, soUicitis 
animis * multa verba faciebant. 111! autem, primo • consti- 
tuto concilio,^ Samiis responderunt se® ea, quae prima* 
dixissent," oblitos esse ; ^^ ea, quae secuta essent, non intelle- 
gere.® Posthac iterum admissi Samii, dum saceum offerunt, 
nihil aliud dicunt nisi haec verba " Saccus farina indiget."'^ 
Quibus ^^ Spartan! responderunt eos vocabulum " saccus " ^* 
omittere potuisse. Nee tamen Samiis auxilium praestare 
noluerunt, sed magnum apparatum navalem mittere de- 
creverunt.^* 

1. Til ; why is this pronoun ex- 10. Dlztsseiit ; the dependent 
pressed here ! See 259, 2. verb in indireot discourse is put in 

2. Spartam ; notice the Accuser the Subjunctive ; see 424. 

tive Case without a preposition ; see 11. OblitOs esse is Ax>m obli- 

439. ffUcor, The principal verb in indirect 

8. Peterent is Subjunctive of discourse is here put in the Infinitive ; 

Purpose ; see 406. see 424. 

4. IntrOduett agrees with the 12. '^Saociis . . . indig^" 
omitted subject of /acuifani, is direct discourse, in apposition with 

5. SolUcitls ainiiniB is Abla- haee verba. Farina is Ablative Case 
tive of Cause ; see 508. with indigd. Verbs meaning to need, 

6. PnmO is an adverb. be without, take the Ablative. 

7. Coii8titat5 oonciliO is Ab- 18. Qvi^baJEl, referring to Samii, 
lative Absolute ; see 429. is Indirect Object of re^ndirunt; 

8. S6 . . . intelleg^ere is In- see 59. 

direct Discourse ; see 424. S6 is the 14. Saocas is here quoted mere- 
Subject and ea is the Object of ob- ly as a word without reference to its 
Uios €886. Ss is also the Subject of meaning, and is therefore indeclina- 
intellegere. ble ; here it is in the Accusative Case, 

9. Pi*!iiia is an Adjective, and in apposition with vooabvluni, 
agrees with quae. Translate by an 15. P6cr6v6ri m t is the Perfect 
adverb. Indicative of dicernO. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 259 

Witticism of Cicero. 

447. Cicero cum Dolabellam, generum suum, exigua 
statura ^ hominem, longo gladio ^ accinctum videret : ^ " Quia 
generum meum," inquit, "ad gladium alligavit?" 

SciPio Nasica* and the Poet Ennius.^ 

448. Nasica, cum ad poetam Ennium venisset • eique ^ 
ab ostio quaerenti ® Ennium ancilla dixisset • domi non esse,^® 
sensit illam " domini iussu ^^ dixisse et ilium ^^ intus esse. 
Paucis post diebus^* cum ad Nasicam venisset^* Ennius et 
eum a ianua quaereret, exclamat Nasica, se^*^ domi non 
esse. Tum Ennius, " Quid ? ^^ ego non cognosce," inquit, 
"vocem tuam?" Ilic^* Nasica, "Homo" es impudens. 
Ego cum te quaererem, ancillae ^ tuae credidi te domi non 
esse, tii mihi non credis ipsi ? " *^ 

1. Esd^fuA statlira is Ablative 12. Iiissil is Ablative of Cause, 
of Characteristic, describing homi- in accordance wUh the order \ see 
nem ; see 605, IL 508. 

2. 61aidi5 is Ablative of Means 18. Hliiin ; to whom does ilium 
with acHnctum ; see 114, 2. refer? 

8. Vidfiret is Subjunctive with 14. PaodS pcMBt diCbiis. Dii- 

cum ; see 525. his is is the Ablative, denoting the 

4. Seipio Nasiea belonged to Measure of Difference ; see 509. JPmA 
one of the most distin^isKed families is here an adverb. Literally, after- 
in ancient Rome. The name had al- ward^ hy a few days ; render, cfter a 
ready been made illustrious by Seipio few days. 

Airicanus, the Elder, who conquered 15. VSnisset ; see note 6. 

Hannibal. 16. S6. Observe that this is the 

5. "Ewtitw^ was an intimate friend Beflexive Pronoun, and that it refers 
of Seipio. He was regarded as the to the Subject of the principal verb, 
father of Latin poetry. 17. Q'^'^d ^ adverbial Accusative. 

6. VSnisset ; see note 3 above. 18. Hlc is here an adverb ; ren- 

7. EX refers to NdMca^ and is tlie der, hereupon.. 

Indirect Object of dixisset. 19. Hom5 is Predicate Nomina- 

8. Quaerenti agrees with ei. tive. 

9. JXbdaaet is Subjunctive with 20. Ancillae is Indirect Object 
cum. of crididi. 

10. Homi n6n esse is in Indi' 21. IpSI agrees with mdht, and 
rect Discourse. is made more emphatio by its posi- 

11. Illam refers to anciUa. tion. 



260 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

The Guards outwitted. 

449. Henricus, rex Britannorum, qui cum civibus tur- 
bulentis bellum gerebat, f ilium suum equitatui praefecerat. 
Hic tamen, iuvenis acer, quod* equitibus hostium effusis 
audacius * Tnstiterat,* tandem captus est ab hostibus. Vic- 
torgs autem qui captivo * volebant indulgere, eum sinebant 
cottidie cum paucis custodibus in equo vehL* Aliquando 
custodes iussu • principis inter se cursu equorum ^ contende- 
bant. Tandem postquam equi omnium cursu et labore con- 
fecti sunt, princeps, qui a certamine de industria abstinebat, 
exclamavit, "En vobis novum certamen propono." Cum 
his verbis equum integrum incitavit, celeriterque e con- 
spectu hostium fessorum ad amicos vectus est. 

Augustus Caesar. 

460. Post Actiacam victoriam * Caesari Octaviano * tri- 
umphant! occurrit inter gratulantes* quidam corvum te- 
nens, quem mstituerat, ut diceret:*® "Ave Caesar victor 
imperator!" Miratus Caesar avem magnO pretio** emit. 
Idem miratus in pica banc quo^fue emit. Haec exempla 
sutorem pauperem commoverunt, ut corvum mstitueret 

1. Quod is here a coDJunction, he reooived the title of Au^rostuB, by 
meaning beeauM, which he is commonly known in his- 

2. Andftcliui \b the comparative tory. The name of Augnstus was 
of auddcter ; render, too boldly. originally Gains Octavius, but on his 

8. Institerat is from insistd. adoption into the Julian family by his 

4. CaptlvO is Indirect Object of illustrious uncle, Julius Caesar, the 
ifidulgire ; see 59 and 807. name Octavius, in accordance with 

5. In eqaO vehl, literally, to be Roman usage, was changed to Octavi- 
carried on a horse ; render, ride. anus, and Gains Octavius became 

6. Imril is Ablative of Cause ; Gains Octavianus Caesar, subsequent- 
sec 508. ly Giuus Octavianus Caesar Augustus. 

7. Cnrsll eqaOnun. Oursu is 9. GrfttnlantOi is a present 
Ablative of Means ; render, in racing, participle, used substantively, just as 

8. OctaTiamui, in the year 81 adjectives are sometimes used. 

B. 0., gained a complete victory over 10. Ut dioeret, to say. Sub- 

Antontus and Cleopatra at the battle junctive of Purpose ; see 406. 

of Actium, which made him m&^ter of 11. AfftpiO pretiO is Ablative 

the Roman world. In the year 27 b. o. of Price ; see 608. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 261 

ad parem salutationem.^ Saepe aiitem fatigatus labore ad 
avem dlcere solebat: "Oleum et operam perdidi." Ali- 
quando tamen corvus salutationem dicere coepit. Turn 
Octaviano obtulit avem. Qui cum * audivisset corvi saluta- 
tionem : " lam satis," inquit, " salutatorum ^ talium habeo." 
Tum corvus subito addidit : " Oleum et operam perdidi ! '^ 
Kisit Caesar emitque avem. 

King James of Scotland in Disguise. 

451. lacobus, rex Scotorum, vir gloriae * militaris avi- 
dus, saepe sine ullo comite errabat, veste * suae f ortunae • 
dissimili indutus. Olim dum per quandam silvam iter facit, 
de improviso ^ a tribus latronibus oppressus, in maximum 
capitis periculum ® adductus est. At rusticus quidam, qui 
clangore armorum audito* occurrerat, securi^® armatus, 
regi ^^ vulneribus et labore paene confecto ^^ auxilium attulit, 
f ugavitque latrones. Tum ubi rusticus pro tanto beneficio 
praemium accipere noluit; rex "Saltem," inquit, "redP^ 
mecum^* ad urbem, qua^' te accipiam digno hospitio,^® 
quod^^ ipse^* apud regem habito." 

1. Ut . . • saintatiOiieiii is a 8. Capitis periculum, literal- 
clause denoting Besult ; see 521. ly, peril of his /lead ; render, peril qf 

2. Qui cum; notice the differ- his l\fe, 

ence between the Latin and the En- 9. dang^lre andXtO is Abla- 

glish idiom : Latin idiom, who when ; tive Absolute ; see 429. 

English idiom, when he, 10. SecGrl is Ablative of Means; 

8. Salf&tfttOrum is a Partitive see 114. 
Genitive depending upon satis. 11. BSg^ is Indirect Object of 

4. Gl5riae is a Genitive de- attulit, 

pending ui>on avidits ; see 500. 12. C5nftectG agrees with rlgi, . 

5. Veste is Ablative of Means ; 18. Red! is from redeO, 
see 114. 14. MScum ; see 265, note. 

6. FortOnae is Dative depend- 16. Qu& is an adverb of place, 
ing upon cUssimiU ; see 498. 16. HospitiO is Ablative of Man- 

7. D^ imprOrlsO ; the adjeo- ner ; see 279. 

tive imprOvisus, used substantively, 17. Quod is a conjunction, 

forms with the preposition ds an ad- 18. Ipse ; the demonstrative ipssy 

verbial expression, meaning on a sud- meaning self^ emphasizes the subject 

den^ unexpectedly, of the verb hohUo : Imyse\f dwell. 



262 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

Which is the King? 

462. Rusticus, qui regem videre valde cupiebat, laetns ^ 
cum hospite ignoto ad regiam iter fecit. Post cenam, rex 
"Si vis,"* inquit, "mecum in alteram partem aedium^ ire, 
et regem et nobiles complures tibi ostendam." " Maxime," 
respondit rusticus, " sed quomodo regem cognoscere potero." 
" Facile," respondit ille, " nam ceteri sunt capite nudato,* 
rex autem solus capite operto manet." Inde splendidum 
ineunt atrium, ubi adstant viri complures, ostro insignes 
et auro. Frustra rusticus oculis regem per totum coetum 
exquirit. Tandem ad comitem versus ;^ "Ex nobis," ^ in- 
quit, "alter rex necessario est, nam soli ex tanto coetu 
capite sumus operto.* 



r^ 55 



Androclus and the Lion in the Arena. 

453. Populo Romano quondam a Caesare amplissimum 
spectaculum dabatur. Multae enim ferae ex omnibus terris 
aderant, praeterque ceteras leo terribili fremitu oculos om- 
nium in se convertit. Introdticebatur ad pugnam bestia- 
rum servus viri nobilis. Ei servo "^ Androclus nomen f uit. 
Hunc^ ille leo ubi vidit procul,® repente quasi admirans 
restitit, deinde sensim atque placide accessit. Tum caudam 
more * adulantium canum movet et manus hominis prope 
iam exanimati ^® metu lingua ^^ leniter demulcet. Androclus 

1. liaeins; translate ^^ai^y. The 7. EI servO is Dative of Fos- 
Latin idiom very often demands an sessor ; see 202. 

adjective where the English idiom ' 8. Hunc . . . procnl; notice 

requires an adverb. tbe difference between this order and 

2. Yla is from itold, the order of tbe English translation. 
8. Aedlmn, o/ the howe or pal- The English order would be, ubi ille 

ac€. Aedia in the dngular means leO vidit huncprocuL 

tempU, 9. MGre, qfter the manner, 

4. Capite nadatO is Ablative 10. Ezanim&tl agrees with 
of Charactcristio ; see 505, II. hominis, 

5. Venreui, turning ; literally, 11. Metfl is Ablative of Means ; 
having turned, connect with exanimati. lJngu& 

6. Ez nObli^ literally, out of us; is Ablative of Means ; connect with 
render, qf us, dimuloet. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 263 

inter haec tarn atrocis bcstiae blandimenta amisBum ani- 
mnm recuperat et paulatim ocuIob ad leortem convertit. 
Turn, quasi inter ae ' cognoscerent,' laeti adstiicrant et homo 
et leo. Qua rg tam admirabili' maximi* populi clainoreB 
cum excitati essent, arccasitus a Caesare Androclus rem 
miram narrat. 



The Flavian am-phitheatTt or the COIosseum* 

The Stort op Androclus, 
464. " Cum proviDciam," inqait, " Afrieam dominua 
metis obtineret, ego ibi inlquia eiaa verberibus' ad fugara 

1. Inter ae, literally roeaiis bi- aofoant of to remarlbablt an i^air. 
(wem themtilTa ; render, ont an- iiS is Ablative of CanBe. 

elhiT. 4. Mai»lml agrees vith cldm>>- 

2. CBgnOscerent is Subjuno- rii. ■ 
I la AblalJTe of 



261 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

sum coactus ^ et in arenarum solitudines me contulL* Ibi 
specum quendam nactus sum.* Neque multo post ad eun- 
dem specum venit hic leo cruento pede* gemittis edens. 
Primo conspectu eius vehementer territus sum. Postquam 
vero leo me vidit, accessit ac sublatum ^ pedem mihi opem 
petens porrexit. Ibi cum spinam magnam in vestigio pedis 
eius haerentem revellissem, ille tune mea opera levatus re- 
cubuit et quievit. Atque ex eo die triennium * totum ego 
et leo in eodem specii eodemque victu viximus. Nam 
earum, quas venabatur, ferarum membra pinguissima ad 
specum mihi congerebat, quae ego sole meridiano tosta^ 
edebam.^ Sed cum aliquando specum reliquissem, a milit- 
ibus visus comprehensusque sum* et ex Africa hue ad 
dominum deductus. Is me statim ad bestias dedit. lam 
vides, quomodo hic leo mihi pro beneficio et medicina 
gratiam rettulerit." ^^ Haec dixit Androclus. Tum vero 
magno cum populi gaudio dimissus et poena" solutus est, 
leoque ei donatus est. Postea Androclus et leo lord tenui 
revinctus per multos annos in urbe ambulabant. 

SciPio Africanus Impeached : His Answer. 

455. Marcus Naevius tribunus plebis accusavit Scipi- 
onem ad populum, dixitque eum accepisse a rege Antiocho 
pecuniam, ut condicionibus ^* moUibus pax cum eo ^^ populi 

1. Sum GOftctus is tho Perfect 8. EdCbain ; notice the differ- 
Passive of cdgd. ence between ed5 and ido, 

2. ContuU is from e&n-ferd. 9. Sum belongs to viaua as weU 

3. Nactus sum is ttom. nand- as to camprehhutus. 

SCOT, 10. Gr&ttamrettalerlt means 

4. Pede is Ablative of Cause ; to make return^ to repay, Rettule- 
see 603. Connect with idkM, rit is Subjunctive in Indirect Ques- 

5. SublAtmii is used as the per- tion ; see 411. 

feet passive of tollb, 11. Poen& is Ablative of Separa- 

6. Trienniam is Accusative de- tion ; see 300. 

noting Duration of Time ; see 494. 12. CSondiotOnilms is Ablative 

7. Tosta is the perfect passive of Means; see 114. 

of torra, 18. £0 refers to Scipio. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 265 

Komani nomine ^ fieret, et quaedam item alia indlgna tali 
viro * addidit. Tum Scipio pauca praef atus, quae ' dignitas 
vitae suae atque gloria postulabat, "Memoria,"* inquit, 
"Quirites, repeto, diem esse hodiernum, quo Hannibalem 
Poenum, imperio vestro inimicissimum, magno proelio in 
Africa vici, pacemque et vietoriam vobis peperi * praecla- 
ram.' Non igitur simus^ adversum deos ingrati, relin- 
quamus hunc nebulonem, eamus bine protinus lovi optimo 
maximo gratulatum." ® Id cum dixisset, avertit et ire ad 
Capitolium coepit. Tum contio tiniversa, quae ad senten- 
tiam de Scipione ferendam* convenerat, relicto tribuno 
Scipionem in Capitolium comitata, atque inde ad aedes ^° 
eius cum laetitia et gratulatione soUemni prosecuta est. 

The Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the Year 79. 

456. In Italia Vesuvius mons est; postquam diu quie- 
vit, subito ignem et lapides et pulverem et cinerem evomit. 
Tunc regio tota tremit, fumus totum montem occulit; 
flammae interdiu cernuntur. Anno post Christum natum ^^ 
LXXIX tota Campania terrae motu vebementissimo con- 
cussa est,*^ simulque Vesuvii eruptione loca ilia vastata sunt. 
Cognovimus autem banc eruptionem ex Plinii epistulis, 
qui ipse vidit. Tota regio tenebris densis occulta, longe 
lateque cineribus et lapidibus constrata f uit ; mons tremuit, 
flammas et ignium rivos evomuit ; tres urbes florentissimae, 
Pompeii et Herculaneum et Stabiae, obrutae deletaeque 

1. NOmine is Ablative of Cause; 8. Grfttalatmii is the Supine 
see 508. Id «t», used after verbs of motion to 

2. Toll vli*5 is Ablative after express Purpose ; see 588. 
indigna; seem. 9. Ferendam, literally, /or 

8. Quae is Aocusative. Judgment to be rendered ; translate, 

4. MemorlA is Ablative of to render judgment. 
Means. 10. AedSs ; see 452, note 8. 

6. Peperi is from pari&, ii. Post . . . natum, literally, 

6. PnMClaram ; note the posi- after Christ hom\ render, after the 
tion. Urth of Chriat, 

7. Blmnii is Subjunctive of De- 12. ConooBSa est is from eon- 
sire; see 401. euUO, 



266 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

sunt. In Plinit ' epiBtula acriptum est his fert^ vorbls : " S 
Veauvio raonte piaribus m IocIb altae flammae relucebant, 
qaorum falgor tenebris noctis excitabatur. Crebrls vas- 
tisque tremoribua tecta nut&bant et quasi emoveri sedibus 
SDis videbantur.' 



Flinji't viita at Lattrtntum, 

Lettee of Cicbeo to his Wife Terentia, 
467. Si Tales, bene est, ego valefi.* Valetudinem tuam 
velim' cures* dlligentiBSime ; nam mihi et scriptum et 

1. Plinil. Tta jounger Flinj, dicioua arrangement of toohib, loob- 

nlio jA^ea us the aooouDt of the re- ing oM Upon the sea or the mount- 

mu-kable eruption of Mount Venn- ains, w1ier« Hunnbine is found in the 

vlus, belon(ted b^ rank ood fortune to autumn, caelneas In tho Bummer, and 

the highest Roiusn sodetf, end was a at all times oalm and peace." 

frequent guest at the palace. He pi»- 2. SI . . . vaJeS ; ttds is a 

Msscd great wealth, end had numcr- formula often uoed In beginDing let- 

oita country houses in different ports tore. 

ofltaly. Our iUustration represents 3. Telim is Potential Subjima- 

his famous villa at Laurentum, on the tWe ; see 519, A polite way of ei- 

sea-coast, of which he has lell U9 a pressing a wish, correspondinir to the 

minute desciiptjon. "It oontaiDed English idiom, /fAonU tcM, /Ao^. 

every appliance for oomfort, but noth. i. COrSa is Bubjunotivo of Pur- 

ing for luiory. He deecribea theju- pose, wlthontu*. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 267 

nuntiatum est te in febrim subito incidisse. Quod celeriter 
me fecisti de Caesaris litteris certiorem,^ fecisti mihi gra- 
tum.* Item posthac, si quid * opus erit, si quid accident 
novi,* facies, ut sciam.* Cura, ut valeas, Vale. 

Letter of Balbus to Cicero. 

468. Caesar nobis litteras perbreyes misit, quarum ex- 
emplum subscripsi. Brevitate • epistulae scire poteris eum 
valde esse distentum, qui ^ tanta de re tarn breviter scripse- 
rit.® Si quid praeterea novi fuerit,* statim tibi scribam. 
"Ante diem VII Idus Martias^® Brundisium" veni, ad mu- 
rum castra posui. Pompeius est Brundisii : ^* misit ad me 
Numerium Magium de pace ; quae *^ visa sunt, respondi. Hoc 
v5s statim scire volui ; cum in spem vener5 de compositione 
aliquid me conficere,^* statim vos certiores faciam." 

The Battle of Marathon, 490 b. c. 

459, Dareus, hortantibus amicis,^* ut Graeciam redigeret 
in suam potestatem, classem quingentarum navium com- 
paravit, eique^® Datim praefecit et Artaphernem; bisque 
ducenta peditum, decem milia equitum dedit. Hi celeriter 
Eretriam ceperunt, omnesque cives in Asiam ad regem 

1. CertlQrem agrees with na, be rendered by the Future in Eng- 

2. Grfttnin is here a noun. I^b. 

8. Quid is the Indefinite Pro- 10. Ante . . . MftrtiAs, an id- 

QQ^Q^ iomatic expression meaning on the 

4. Novl is Partitive Genitive, de- seventh day before the Ides of March ; 
pending upon quid. LiteraUy, t/ the 9th of March. 

anything of nmo, H. Brundtadum, Accusative of 

5. Faci60 . . . aelaiii» lit., you Limit of Motion ; see 495. 

wOL mahe that I may hnouf ; render 12. Bmndisdl, Locative ; see 

you will let me hnow. 898, II. 

6. Brevitate is Ablative of 18. Quae ; the Antecedent is the 
Cause ; see 608. omitted Object of respondi. 

7. Qui, equivalent in meaning to 14. M 6 cOnflcere depends upon 
the two words emu Is, since he. in spem vinerd. 

8. Scr l peerit is Subjunctive of 15. Hortantlbiui amSOtih Ab- 
Cause with qui ; see 524. lative Absolute ; see 429. 

9. Fneiit is Future Perfect ; may 16. Q refers to cldssem. 



268 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 



miserunt. Inde ad Atticam accesserunt, ac suas copias in 
campum Marathona^ dedtixerunt. Is* abest ab oppido 
circiter milia passuum decern. Hoc tumultu Athenienses 
tam propinquo tamque magno permoti auxilium a Lacedae- 
moniis petiverunt, Phidippumque La- 
cedaemonem miserunt, ut nuntiaret, 
quam* celeri opus esset* auxilio.* 
Domi autem creant decern praetores, 
qui exercitui praeessent,* in eis Miltia- 
dem. Hoc in tempore nulla civitas 
Atheniensibus auxilio^ fuit praeter 
Plataeenses. Ea mille misit militum. 
Itaque horum adventu decem milia 
armatdrum completa sunt: quae ma- 
nus® mirabilT flagrabat pugnandi cu- 
piditate. Miltiadis auctoritate im- 
pulse Athenienses copias ex urbe eduxerunt, locoque 
idoneo castra fecerunt. Deinde postero die sub mentis 
radicibus, acie instrticta, proelium commiserunt. Datis, 
etsi non aequum locum videbat suis," tamen, fretus nume- 
ro ^* copiarum suarum, confiigere cupiebat. Itaque in aciem 
peditum centum, equitum decem milia produxit, proelium- 
que commisit. In quo tanto pltis*^ virtu te valuerunt Athe- 




Miltiades^ tJie victor at 
Marathon. 



10 



1. MarathOna is in Apposition 
with campum ; see 61. 

2. Is refers to campum. 

8. Quajn is here an Interrogative 
Adverb modifying celeri, 

4. Esset is Indirect Question; 
see 411. 

5. AuxillO is Ablative after o^t<«. 
Optis, meaning need, takes the Abla- 
tive of Separation ; see 300. 

6. Qnlezercitaliiraeessent 
is a Clause of Purpose. 

7. Atheni&udbiui and auxilio 
are both in the Dative with /tiit; 
AthinUneilms is the Dative to which, 



and auxUid the Dative for which ; see 
497. 

8. Quae maiwiii, literally, which 
force ; render, thds/orce. The Latin 
often uses the relative where we use 
tlie demonstrative. 

9. Impulsl is from impeUd. 

10. LocO, denoting Place, does 
not require the preposition in. 

11. SuIs, /or his men^ is Dative 
depending upon aequum ; see 104. 

12. NomerO is Ablative depend- 
ing upon /rStus, involving the idea of 
Means. 

13. Tanto plISs, 80 much more. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 269 

nienses, ufc decemplicem numerum hostium profllgarint ; * 
adeoque perterruerunt, nt Persae non caatra, sed naves 
petierint. Qua ptigna * nihil adhtic est nobilius ; nulla 
enim umquam tarn exigua manus tantas opes prostravit^ 

GAIUS lULIUS CAESAR. 

Caesab's Early Life. 

460. Gains lulius Caesar annum agens sextum et deci- 
mum patrem amisit. Corneliam, Cinnae filiam, in matri- 
monium duxit. Mortuo Sulla,* Rhodum ^ secedere statuit, 
ut per otium Apollonio, tunc clarissimo dicendi magistro, 
operam daret. Hue dum traicit,® a praedonibus captus est 
mansitque apud eos prope quadraginta dies. Comites in- 
terim servosque ad expediendas pecunias,' quibus redimere- 
tur, dimisit. Viginti talenta piratae postulaverant : ille 
quinquaginta daturum se spopondit.® Quibus numeratis* 
cum expositus essefc in litore, confestim Miletum properavit 
ibique contracta classe invectus ^° in eum locum, in qu5 ipsi 
praedones erant, aliquot naves cepit piratasque ^^ in potesta- 
tem redactos cruci suffixit. 

Caesar's Public Career. 

461, Caesar aedilis forum et Capitolium ornavit porti- 
cibus. Venationes autem ludosque edidit. His autem 
rebus patrimonium effudit tantumque conflavit aes alienum, 

1. PrOfllg^ftriiit ifl a contract- while, generally takes the Present 
ed form Hot prOfligdverint, and ir Sub- Tense. 

jiinctlve of Result ; see 521. 7. Ad . . . pecOnifts ; pecUnids 

2. Qi2& pttgnft is Ablative depends upon ad ; expediendda is Ge- 
after ndbiUtts ; see 193. rundive agreeing with pecimide. 

8. PrSstrftvit from prdsternd, 8. Spopondit is from spondeO, 

4. MortuO Sulla is Ablative 9. Qoibiui nmnerfttls, Abla- 
Absolute denoting time ; see 429. tive Absolute. 

5. Rhodmn, Accusative of Limit 10. Invectus is from in-vehd. 
of Motion; see 489. 11. FfrfttOa, Direct Object of 

6. Dum trftidt, dum meaning suffiacU, 



270 LATIN SELECTIONS. 

ut ipse dJceret,* sibi * opus esse milies sestertium, nt habe- 
ret 'nihil. Consul * deinde creatus societatem cum Gnaeo 
Pompeio et Marco Crasso iunxit. 

462. Functus consulatti*^ Caesar Galliam provinciam 
accepit. Gallos vicit; Germanos, qui trans Rhenum in- 
colunt, aggressus maximis affecit cladibus. Aggressus 
est Britannos, ignotos antea, superatisque * pecunias et 
obsides imperavit. Hie cum ' multa Eomanorum militum 
insignia narrantur, tum^ illud egregium ipsius Caesaris, 
quod^ aquiliferum fugientem faucibus comprehensum * in 
contrariam partem detraxit dextramque ad hostem tendens : 
" Quorsum tu," inquit, " abis ? lUic sunt,^'* cum quibus di- 
micamus." Qua adhortatione omnium legionum trepida- 
tionem correxit. 

463. Caesar, cum adhuc in Gallia detineretur, postu- 
lavit ut sibi liceret, quamvis absent!, secundum consulatum 
petere ; quod ei a senatu est negatum. Ea re commotus, 
in Italiam rediit plurimisque urbibus occupatis Brundisium 
contendit, quo ^* Pompeius consulesque conf ugerant. Deinde 
Thessaliam petiit, ubi Pompeium Pharsalico proelio fudit. 

464. Bellis civilibus confectis, Caesar, dictator in per- 
petuum creatus, agere insolentius coepit. Cum ^ Antonius, 
Caesaris in omnibus expeditionibus comes, et tunc in con- 
sulatu coUega, ei ^^ in sella aurea sedenti pro rostris, dia- 

1. DIceret, Subjunctive of Be- 7. Cum . . . tnm, not only . . . 
suit ; see 521. but dUo. 

2. Sibi, Dative of Possessor ; see 8. Q^od, namely, that. 

202. 9« Comprehensiim dStraz- 

3. Haberet, Subjunctive of Pur- it, literally, he forced him seized \ 
pose. render, he seized and forced. 

4. C5nsiil, Predicate Nomina- 10. Sunt ; the Subject is the 
tive after creatus ; see 68. omitted antecedent of quHms. 

6. CGnsiiiattl, Ablative depend- 11. Q^O, whither or to which. 

ing upon Fungor ; see 371. 12. Cnin ; connect with impd- 

6. Superfttta a^rrees with the neret. 

Dative of the Pronoun understood 18. Ei, with which sedenti agrees, 

which refers to Britann^, and is the is the Indirect Object of impQMnt. 
Indirect Object of imperavit. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 



271 



dema, insigne regium, iinponeret, non visus est eo facto 
offensus. Quare coniuratum est * in eum a sexaginta viris, 
Cassio et Bruto ducibus* conspirationis. 
Cum igitur Caesar Idibus Martiis'^ in 
senatum venisset, tribus et viginti pla- 
gis confossas est. 




MarciLa Junius Brutv^., 
one of the leaders of 
the conspiracy against 
Caesar. 



Caesar's Appearance and Char- 
acter. 

465. Fuisse traditnr excelsa statu- 
ra,* ore paulo pleniore,^ nigris vegetis- 
que oculis, capite ealvo; quam calvitii 
deformitatem, quod saepe obtrectato- 
rum iocis ^ obnoxia erat, aegre f erebat. 
Ideo ex omnibus decretis ' sibi a sena- 
tu populoque honoribus non alium aut recepit aut usurpa- 
vit libentius quam ius laureae perpetuo gestandae.® Vini • 
parcissimum eum fuisse ne inimici quidem*® negaverunt. 
Verbum Catonis est, unum ex omnibus *^ Caesarem ad ever- 
tendam rem publicam sobrium ** accessisse.^^ Armorum et 
equitandi^* peritissimus, laboris ultra fidem patiens; in 

1. Ckndfbrfttiim est, Uterallj, der, of wearing the lavrd, i. e., the 
it was eonspind ; render, a eonspirae/f laurel crown. 

was formed. 9. yinl, Genitiye depending upon 

2. CaiMriO et Bruto dndlnis, pareissimum ; see 500. 
Ablative Absolate ; see 429. lo. N6 • . . qnidem takes the 

8. XdibiU BCfirtils, the lt5th of emphatic word or words between the 

two parts. 



March. 

4. Ti»eelilii statGrft and the 

following ablatives are Ablativcii of 
Characteristic ; see 505, II. 

5. Ore paulo iil6iiiOFe, teith 
a face somewhat full, 

6. Iocis, Dative depending upon 
obnoxia ; see 104. 

7. DOcrOllB is a Participle agree- 
ing with hon&ribus. 



8. 



lit- 



11. tTnum ez oamibiui, alone 
ofaU. 

12. SObrium agrees with Caesa- 
rem, 

IS. Ad . . . rem pAUicam 
aeoesBlflse. Consnlt the vocabulary 
under aedddo. 

14. Eqnitaadl, Genitive of the 
Gerund depending upon perUissimus ; 
see 500. 



entUy, of the laurel to be worn ; ren- 



273 LATIN SELECTIONa 

ftgmine ndnnunqnam oquo, aaepiiis pedibuB anteibat, capite 
d^t^ctfi,' seu Bol, seu imber erat. Longiesimils vi&a iucre- 
dibil! celeritat« conficiebat. 

war with the helveth. 
Caesar prepares for a General Engagement. 

466. C'uesar cOpias suae in pruiiimuin collem Bubduxit, 
cquitaCumquc, quisuslinuret'hostium impetum, misit. Ipse 
interim in colle medio' triplicem aciem jnstriixit legionnm 
qiiattuor vcCerauiirum ; sed in Bummo iago duas legiongs, 
qiiaa in Gallia citeriore cOnBcripaerat, et omnia auiiiia collo- 
c&rl iussit. HclvL-ti!, cum omnibus suis carriB eecuti, im- 
pedimenla in unum locum contulerunt; ipsi confertissimfi 
ocie/ sub primam uoatram aciem BuccessGrunL 

The Helvetii are defeated and put to Flight, 

467. Caesar cobortatus suos proelium commisit. Mili- 
tus, e loco giiperiore pilia missis, facile hostium phalangem 
perfregerunt. Ea* disiecta, gladiis deatrietis in eOs' impB- 



^omnn standards. 

1. Capita dfiteetO, Ablative Ih* AiU; render, midviag tip 

Absolute. Ml. 

3. Qui matiiiSret, a cUuse or i. CfintertfaatmA ael6, 

Purpoee. latlve of Manner; see 279. 

8, Id eolle medtS, means not 6. Ea leferti to phcUangtm. 

Uu middle hilt, but the middle o/ 6. EOa refets to hoMUvm. 



LATIN SELECTIONS. 278 

tnm fgcSrunt. Diu atqne acriter pugnatum est.^ 'Sam 
hoc toto proelio, cum ab hora septima* ad vesperum pug- 
natum esset, aversum' hostem videre nemo potuit. Ad 
multam noctem^ etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est, 
propterea quod pro valid carros obiecerant, et e loco supe- 
riore in nostrds venientes tela coiciebant, et nonnulli inter 
carros rotasque mataras ac tr&gulfts subiciebant, nostrosque 
Yulnerabant. Diu cum esset pugnatum, impedimentis' 
castrisque nostri potiti sunt. Ex eo proelio circiter milia 
hominum centum et triginta superfuerunt, eaque tota nocte 
continenter ierunt; nuUam partem* noctis itinere inter- 
misso, in fines Lingonum die quarto pervenerunt, cum,^ 
et propter yulnera militum et propter sepulturam occiso- 
rum® nostri triduum morati, eos sequi non potuissent.^ 
Caesar ad Lingones litteras nuntiosque misit, ne eos fru- 
mento neve alia rg iuvarent. Ipse, triduo intermisso, cum 
omnibus copiis eos sequi coepit. 

The Helvetii betuen to their Country. 

468, Helvetii, omnium rerum inopi& adducti, legat5s 
de deditione ad eum misfirunt. Caesar e6s in fines su6s, 
unde erant prefect!, reverti iussit, et Allobrogibus imperS- 
vit, ut iis frumenti copiam facerent.* 

1. PHgnatnm est, literiLlIy, U 6. ImpedlmentlB depends up- 
wat/oftghi ; render, ikeyfougU. on patUi surU ; see 871. 

2. Ab hArft septtnUL As the 6. Faitem, Aocusatave of Dura- 
Romans divided the day, fix>m sun- tion of Time ; see 885. 

rise to sunset, into twelve hours, the 7. Cmn . . . potnlwiiont, Sub- 

ievtrUh hour began at noon. Junotive of Cause ; see 624. 

8. ATersum, literally, turned 8. Oeolalinim is used substan- 

aiDay\ render, retreating or in re- tively; render, c/ the slain, 
treat. 9. Ut llMereiit, a Clanso of 

4. Ad miilUun noeteni, itrM Purpose. 
laie at night» 



18 



274 



TABLES OP VERBS. 



400* Sam, I am, — Stems, es^ fu. 



Pbdicipal Pabts. 



fm 



est, 



nVOULAB. 

* /am, 
thou cuiif 
hei$; 



Ikdicative Mood. 

Present Tekse. 



esiim, 
siutt, 



PLURAL. 

I, we are f 

you are f 
they are. 



eram 
eimt, 



erU, 

eritf, 

erlt, 



ful, 

flilStl, 

fuit, 



I was, 
thou waei* 
hetpoa; 



I shall be, 
thou wilt be, 
he wiU be ; 



I have bee^i,* 
thou hast been, 

hehasboen: 



Imperfect. 



erfttis, 
erant, 



Future. 



eritis, 
enuit, 

Perfect. 

fuimas, 

fulstis, 

fnCrimt, 

fuCre, 



toe «xertf, 
they were» 



we shall be, 
you will be, 
they mil be. 



we have been, 
you have been, 

V they ha/oe been. 



Pluperfect. 

f uorftmiui, we had been, 
f uerfttfts, you had been, 
f uenutt, they had been. 



fuoram, 1 had been, 
f uer A0, thou hadst been, 
fuorat, hehadbeen; 

Future Perfect. 

f uerA, / shall have been, fuertmas, we shall have been, 

f uorls, thou wilt have been, fuertti», you wiU have been, 

f uorit, he will have been ; f ueriat, they wiU have been, 

* Stem is for e«ttm, fram for etam. The fMipIl will obsenre that the endings 
whioh are «dded to the roots ea and fu are distinguished by the type. 

• Or ytm are, and in the Imperfect» yow tpere ; ikou is '^«»«"«'1 mostly to 
•olemn discourm. 

•Or/wot. 



THE VERB SUM. 275 

Subjunctive. 



Peesent. 

8IN0ULAB. J.»««*x.*. pj^^ju^i^ 



may I he} simiui, hi U8 he, 

8i0, mayst thou he} sitis, he ye, may you he, 

sit, Ut him he, may he he ; sint, lei them be. 

Imperfect. 

essem, / ehmild be} esm^wnuMt *ee should be, 

ess4«, tJum toouldst he, essMUi, you would he, 

esset, hewouldbe; essent, they would he. 

Perfect. 

fu«rim, i f?ta^ /hat« 56en,> f uerfmms, we may have been, 

fuerXs, thou mayet have been, fuerltis, you may have been, 
fuerit, he may have been; fuerint, they may have been. 

Pluperfect. 

tnUmeok, I should have been, f utsslBiiiws, we should have been, 
f uimiCs, tJum wouldst have been, futosCtto, you wotdd have been, 
Xul»«et, he would have been; fulssent, they uxndd have been. 

Impebativb. 

iVe«. es, he tTum, este, he ye. 

FtU. estO, thou shcUt be} estate, ye shall he, 

est6, heshaUbe;* fimitO, they shall be. 

Il^^FIKITIVB. PABTICIPLE. 

Pres. es«e, to he. 
Perf. fnimne, to have been. 

Fut. tixttam» esse/ to he Fut. twtnmm} about to he. 
about to be. 

1. In the Paradigm all the forms beginning with e or « are from 
the stem es; all others from the stem fu. 

1 On the translation of the Subjunctive, see Lessons d, CO, and Om, and 
remember that it is sometimes best rendered by the Indicative. Thus, Hm may 
sometimes be rendered / am, and /uerim, I have been, 

* Or may you he. 

* Tlie Future may also be rendered like the Present, or with let : he thou ; 
Ut him he. 

« FutHrus is declined like honus. So in the Infinitive : /tiifin», a, um, eeae. 



876 



TABLES OP VEHB& 



ilBST CONJUOATIOK: A YERBa 
470. ACnyS YOICK— Amo, / /bw. 



YxBB SnM AMU Febskbt 9nM, 



SI 



Ihdicatits Mood. 



ftmfttfy you Icvef 

keloveg; 



tanmiMm, 



FLUKAL. 

yaulom^ 



ftini 

ftlDftbO, 

ftinftbi», 
amAbit, 

amSvi, 

am&vtsti, 

amftTlty 

amftveriMii, 

amflverA*, 

amftverat, 

amftverU, 

amftverls, 

amftyerit, 



I was loving, 
you were loving, 
he «foa loving ; 



vewere loving, 
you were loving, 
ihey were loving» 

wesluUllove, 
youwiUlove, 
they wiU lave, 

we Tiave loved, 
you have loved, 
amavliraiit, lire, tliey have loved. 

Plupebfkct. 

amftyerftmns, we had loved, 
amfiyerftti*, you had loved, 
amftyeraiit, tJiey had loved. 

FxTTUBB Perfect, 

lehdU have loved, amftyerimiui, we shaU have loved, 
you wiU have loved, amfiyerttis, you will have loved, 
he will have loved ; amayerint, they wiU have loved. 



I shaUlove, 
you will love, 
hewiUlove; 

I have loved, ^ 
you have loved, 
he has loved; 



I had loved, 
you had loved, 
he had loved; 



ami 

amftbfttis, 

amftbaait, 

amftbiaa«% 
amAMtUi, 

amAbiuit, 

Pebfect, 

amflyliiiMSy 
amayt«tUi, 



* The flnM <l of the item diatppean in certain forms. 

*Ot I am loving^ I do love. So in the Imperfect, J loved, Jimu loving, /did 



lotfi. 



■ Or ihcu tovetf . So in the other tenses, fhou wut lovinj, fkou wiU love, eta 
«Or /loved. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



27T 



snrouLAii. 



Subjunctive. 

Present. 



PLURAIn 

aml&inws, let ua love. 



amAi, 
amet, 

am&rem, 
amftret, 



may youlove^ 
let him love; 

I should lave, 
you would love, 
hewouldlove; 



may you love, 
lei them love. 



toe should love, 
you would love, 
they would love. 



amMi», 
ament, 

Imperfect. 

amArOn 

amAr6ti0, 

amftrent, 

Perfect. 

amayerim, / may have loved,* amaYertiii««,toe may have loved, 
amftYerfs, you m^y have loved, amayerttis, you may have loved, 
amfiyerit, he may have laved ; amfiyerlmt, they may haveloved. 

Pluperfect. 

2kmMbBmenk,Iehovld have loved, amftyts«l&m««» we should have 

loved, 
amfiyi«060, you would htwehved, 9JBa&v%Mm9itlm,youwouldhaA}eloved, 
amayteset, he would have loved; s,mS,Ylmmewkt,theyu)ouldhaveloved. 



Imperative. 

iVie&ainft, love thou; amftte, 

Fut, amU6, thou ^uUt love, amUMe, 

amU6, he shaU love ; amanM, 



love ye. 

ye shall love, 
they shall love. 



Infinitivb. 

Pres. amiire, tolov6m 
Ferf. amayi00e, to have loved, 
F%U. amatlk]m0 > esse, to he 
about to love. 

Gerund. 

Oen, amandl, of loving. 
Dot, amandO, for loving, 
Ace, amimd«iM, loving, 
Abl, amimdO, by loving. 



Participle. 

IS-es, amftms,^ loving, 
ISU, amatlliras,* about to love. 

Supine, 



Aee, am&tnBi, to love, 

Abl, amatn, to love, to be loved. 



> On the translation of the Subjunctiye, see pa^e 375, foot-note 1. 

s Often best rendered I have loved. So in the Pluperfect, / had lovetU 

* Decline like bontu, 101. « For declension, see IflB. 



278 



TABLES OF VERBa 



PraST CONJUGATION: A VERBS. 

471, PASSIVE VOICE.— Amor, / aw» /oved. 

Verb Stem and Fbesekt Stem, atnd, 

Pbihcifal Parts. 
amftrl amfttns 



amor 



SINGULAR. 

amor 

amftris, or re 
amfttnr 



Ikdicative Mood. 

Present Tenss. 
lam Uwed, 



Imperfect. 
J wu loved. 



FLTTRAL. 

amftmwr 

amftnainl 

amantnr 



amftbftmi 
amft1i»ftiiii]il 

amftlNUit 



amftl^ar 
amft1»ftri0, or re 

amAbfttnr 

Future, 
IshM or wiU be loved, 
amAlNnr amftbiimir 

amftlperlo, or re amftl>iiiiliil 

amftMtwr amftlmittiir 

Perfect. 
/ Tuwe been loved or I teas loved. 



am&tnm 
amat«« en 
am&tvui est 

amatvs eram^ 
amatw* erft» 
amatit* erst 



amatl 

amatt estis 

amfttl 

Pluperfect. 

I Jictd been loved, 

amatl 

amatl erfttUi 

amfitl erant 

Future Perfect. 

I shall or wUl have been loved. 



amatws erU^ 
amat«0 oris 
amfttu» erit 



amatl 
amStI eritis 
amatl eraitt 



> Fa%^ fuistl^ etc., are sometimes used for «ttm, e», etc. ; amdhufuX for amd- 
fiM «um. So fueram^ fuerdSf etc., for erantf etc.: atoo fuer6, etc., for ertf, etc 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 279 

Subjunctive. 

Present. 
May I be loved, let Mm he laved} 

SIKOULAB. PLUKAL. 

amei* am^nrar 

am^ris, or re amdninl 

aml^tiur amemfvr 

Imperfect. 

laJtould he lovfid, he would he loved} 

amftrei* amftrCmiu* 

amftr^ris, or re amftr^mlnl 

amftrStnr amftremtur 

Perfect. 

I may have heen loved, ox I have heen loved} 

amat«8 uiaMt* am&tl sliii«« 

amatws «Is* amati mitim 

amatiM 0U amatl simt 

Pluperfect. 

I should have heen loved, he would have heen loved} 

amatw* essem* amatl eum^bntmrn 

amat«« e««l&s amatl ess^tis 

amStws esset amatl 



Imperative. 

Pre8, amftre, he thou loved; amftBotm, he ye loved. 

ISU, BmBtikr, thou 8?uUt he loved, 

amfttor, Ae shctU be loved ; amaator, they shaU be loved* 

Infinitive. Pabticiple. 

t PreA, amftrl, to he loved, 
Perf, am&tv« esse,* to have been JPerf, amatiui, having been loved, 

loved, 
Fut, amatmn in, to be about to Qer} amamdvs, to be loved, do^ 
be loved, serving to be loved, 

1 But on the translation of the Sabjunctiye, see page S75, foot-note 1. 

* Fwrim^ /ueris, etc., are Bometlmes used for «im, «{«, etc.>-So atoo/uiMeiiH 
fui8t9s^ etc., for esaem^ e$ti8, etc.: rarely fuit99 for e^te. 

• Oer, m aeruBdlTa. 



280 



TABLES OF VERBS. 



SECOND CONJUGATION: E VERBS. 

472. ACTIVE VOICE.— Moneo, Jiwivwe. 

Verb Stem, mon^ moni; Present Stem, mqn&* 

Principal Parts. 
moneO mon^re monid moniti 





Indicative Mood. 




Present Tense, 




/ adtn«e^ 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


moned 


monCma» 


mon«« 


moniti» 


monet 


monent 




Imperfect. 




I was advising^ or / advised. 


mon^bam 


mon^bftmaft 


monl&bfts 


mon6bftti0 


mon^bat 


monl&bant 




Future. 




/ shaU or ufiU advise. 


monAIHI 


monl&blmv* 


moiiAM* 


monl&Mti* 


monl&Mt 


mon^baat 




Perfect. 




I have advised^ or / advised. 


monul 


monuintas 


monoistx 


moniii«tt0 


monuit 


monu^raat, or 




Pluperfect. 




/ had advised. 


monueram monnerftam* 


monuerft* 


monnerfttlA 


monuerat 


monneraat 




Future Perfect. 




I shall or ufiU Aave advised. 


monuerO 


monuerimns 


monueri* 


monuerftis 


monuerit 


monueria4 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 281 

Subjunctive, 

Present. 
May ladvUe^ let him advise,^ 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

moneam moneftmns 

moneA» monefttis 

moneat monemit 

Ihperfect. 

I should adiMey hs wouid advise. 

monl&reiii mon6r6mii0 

monCrCs mon«r€tis 

mon6ret mon^remt 

Perfect. 

Imaiy have advised, or 1 have advised} 

monuerim monuertmiup 

monuerl* monuerttto 

monuerit monuerlmt 

Pluperfect. 

I should have advised, he toould Tuive advised* 

monui0»eiit monuiss6mit« 

monui0»6« monuiss^ti» 

monuisset monuissent 

Impsbatite. 

iVes. monli, advise (Turn; monMe, advise ye, 

Fut, monMH, thou shall advise, monAtOte, ye shaM advise, 

mon^tH, he shall advise* monenM, they shaU advise. 

Infinitive. Paeticiple. 

/Vm. monl&re, to advise, Pres. mon6iui, advising, 

Berf, moniLUise, to have advised, 

Fut, monitttriui esse, to be Fut, monitllimi, about to advise, 
about to advise. 

Gerund. Supine. 

Gefu moneadl, of advising, 
Dat, moneaMk, for advising. 

Ace, monemdiiBi, advising, Ace, monitnai, /o advise, 
Abl, monendU, by advising, Abl, monitft, to advise, to be ad^ 

vised, 

* But on the translation of the SubjunctlTef nee page 875, foot-note 1. 

• The Plttperfiect, like the Ferfeot, ia ofteii rendered by the IndioatlTe : / had 
CkiviMd, you had advised, etc. 



47S. FAaSPTE TOSCE^Mamm^Imm 




IxDicAnrm Moonu 






mon^rte, cr m 




iw r0 mood 

FCTUBJE. 

i ^taU or tmS 6e oifvuedL 
mcm^ihmm mon^Mannr 

mon^b erto , or v<e mon^l^iaUBl 

siu>ii#Mt«r moiiAlbvmtwr 

PsErBCT. 

/ Tiave been advised, I wets advised, 
monitm* uwmt monitl «miivui 

monitum em monitl emtim 

monitiM e»t monitl liiuit 

Plupebfegt. 

I had been advised. 
moniims enmi monitl erftmus 

monitm* erft* monitl erfttUi 

monitms erat monitl eraiit 

FtmTBE Peefect. 
IshaU or will have been advised, 
monita* erd monitl erimv* 

monitns mr%m monitl eritUi 

monitiM erit monitl ervmE 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 283 

Subjunctive 

Present. 
May I he advised, let him be advised. 

8IN6ULAB. PLURAL. 

monear moneftmwi» 

moneftrl», or re moneftminl 

moneAtitr moneantnr 

Imperfect. 

I should he advised, he would be advised 

mon^rer monerCiiiiu* 

mon^rCri», or re mon^rCmiitl 

mon^rMar monCrentwr 

Perfect. 

Ima/y Juwe been advised, or I have been advised, 

monitiis »1111 moniti slmitii 

monitws 01» moniti sitis 

monit«8 sit moniti mtat 

Pluperfect. 

/ should have been advised, he vmUd have been advised} 

monitw* essem moniti ess^mws 

monitits ess^s moniti ess^tis 

monitws esset moniti emsent 

Imperative. 

Pres, mon^re, be thou advised; mon^mliil, be ye advised, 

FtU, monl&tor, thou shaU be ad' 
vised, 
monitor, he shaU be ad- monentor, they shaU be advised, 
vised; 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. mon^n, to be advised, 

Perf, monitvui esse, to ham been Perf, monitws, having been ad- 
advised, vised, 
ISU, monitnm irl, to be about Ger, monendas, to be advised^ 

to be advised, deserving to be advised, 

- - -'■ — .— — — — — >-^— „— -» . . ■ 

X Or Ihad been advUtd^^ you had been advi§ed, etc. 



284 



TABLES OF YEBBa 



THIRD CONJUGATION: CONSONANT VERBS. 

474. ACTIVE VOICE.— Rego,/rttfo. 

Verb Steic, reg; Present Stem, rege. 





Principal Parts. 


reg* 


regere rexl ^ rectvat * 




Indicative Mood. 


« 


Present Tense. 


SnVGULAB. 


PLURAL, 


regO 


reglmv* 


regis 


regitis 


regit 


regnnt 
Imperfect. 




IwM ruling^ or IrtUed. 


reg^bam 


regebftmws 


regAlpfts 


regAlpfttts 


regAlMftt 


regftVast 
Future. 




IshaU or will rule. 


regam 


regl&mnif 


reg«p 


regetis 


reget 


regent 




Perfect. 




I have ruled^ or Inded. 


rexl 


rexiiaw* 


rezlstl 


rexlstUi 


rexit 


rexArant, or ^v<e 




Pluperfect, 




/ftocirtiM. 


rexeram 


rexerftmas 


rexerfts 


rexerftti* 


rSzerat 


rexeraat 




Future Perfect. 




lehaU or wiU have ruleeL 


rex«ni 


rexerimvs 


rSxeriii 


r§x«rftUi 


rexerit 


rSxeriat 



' SAzI is for regH; rBotum for rectum. 



THIRD COKJUGATION. 285 

SUBJFNCTIVK 

Present. 

Jfo^ Irvhy let him rule, 

8I90ULAB. PLURAL. 



regfts regfttis 

regat regsat 

iHPERnCT. 

lehmUd Tuky he would rule, 
regerem regerftmiui 

reger€« reger«tl» 

regeret r^erent 

Perfect. 
I may have rvHedy or / have ruled. 



lexeris rezerttis 

r^xerit rexerlmt 

Pluperfect. 
I should have rtdedy he icould have ruled, 
lexlstnem rexifli06m«« 

r&dmm^m rexissCtis 

rexlstnet rSxisseitt 

Imperative. 

Free, rege, rule thou; legite, ruZsye. 

Fwt, reglM, thou ahalt rvie^ regitOte, ye shall ruU^ 

regiM, he shall rule, regnntO, they shall ruU* 

Ikfinitivb. Participle. 

Pres, regere, to ride, Pres, reg^n», rviing, 
Perf, rexl»0e, to have ruled, 

Fut. rectllras es«e, to he about Fut, rectHina*, about to ruts, 
to rule, 

Geruitd. Supine. 

Oen, regendl, of ruling, 

Dat, regendO, for ruling. 

Ace, regendwm, ruling. Ace, rectnai, toru2e, 

Abl, regendO, by ruling, Abl, rectft, to rule, to be ruled. 



286 



TABLES OP VERBS. 



THIRD CONJUGATION: CONSONANT VERBS. 

476. PASSIVE VOICE.— Itegor,/ai»rM^. 

VsEB Stem, reg; Present Steic, rege. 

Principal Parts. 
regop regl recti 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
I am ruled. 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


regor 

regeri», or re 
regitMr. 


reglaiar 
regiatlal 

regaatar 

Imperfect. 


reg^bar 
regebftris, or : 
reg«bftt«r 


Itoasruled, 

reg«bAaaar 

re reg^bftaUal 

reg«baatar 

Future, 


I shall or toiU he ruled. 


regaj* 

regl^rl*, or re 
regetmr 


reglaiar 
reg^aiial 
regeatar 

Perfect. 


I have been ruled, or /«^as ru2e(2. 


rSctiui 9mmt 
rectnii es 
rectvui est 


r€ctl saaias 
recti estis 
recti saat 




Pluperfect. 


rectms eram 
rSctns erft» 
rectus erat 


I h€td been pUed. 

rgcti erftBia 
rSctl erfttis 
recti eraat 




Future Perfect. 


lehall or wiU have been ruled. 


recta» eWI 
recta» eris 
reetas erit 


recti ertatai 
recti eritis 
KiectI eraat 



THIED CONJUGATION. 287 

SUBJUNCTIVB. 

* Present. 
Ma/y I he ruled, let him be ruled, 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

regar regftmitr 

regftrls, or re regamtnl 

legatitr regttntitr 

Imperfect. 

I should he ruled, he vmM he ruled, 

legerer reger^mitr 

regerCris, or re regerCiiiiflil 

reger€t«r regerraitmr 

Perfect. 
/ may have been ruled, or / have been ruled. 



reotw* sim recti 

r§ct«0 «Is recti sltls 

rectvui flit recti simt 

Pluperfect. 

1 should have been ruled, he ufould Tiave been ruled, 

r§ct«s essem recti ess6m«« 

rectus essCs recti enuetim 

rectvui estnet recti essent 

Imperativb. 

Pres, regere, be thou ruled; regliiilial, be ye ruled, 

Fut, regitor, thou ahalt be ruled, 

regitor, he shall be ruled; regmnUnr, they shall he ruled. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, regl, to be ruled, 

Perf, rectiui esse, to have been Perf, rSctws, ruHed, 

ruled, 
*Fut, rectum irl, to be about to Oer, regendns, to be ruled, ds' 

be ruled, serving to be ruled. 



288 



TABLES OF VERfia 



FOURTH CONJUGATION: I VERBS. 

476. ACTIVE VOICE.— Audio, J Aaar. 

Verb Stem and Present Stem, audi. 



Principal Parts. 
aadi^ audire audlTl 



aaditmn 





Indicative Mood. 




Present Tense. 


SINGULAR. 


IJhear. plural 


audio 


audlnaas 


audi» 


auditi» 


audit 


audiiUit 




Imperfect. 




I was heaHng, or Ihsard. . 


audiCbam 


audi61»ftinas 


audieibfts 


aud)ei»«ti« 


audi«1»at 


audi«1»aiit 




Future. 




I shoM or mil hear. 


audiam 


audi^mws 


audie» 


audi«tis 


audiet 


audient 




Perfect. 




I have heard, or I heard. 


audivl 


audlviinvs 


audivisti 


audivistis 


audivit 


audivCniMt, or 




Pluperfect. 


audiverana 


Ihadhea/rd. 

audlYerftmits 


audiverfts 


audiyerfttis 


aadiverat 


audiyeraat 




Future Perfect. 




lahall or wili have heard. 


audiyerU 


audiyei*fiii«« 


aadiyerfs 


audiyerttis 


widiyerit 


audiyerlnt 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 289 





Subjunctive. 




Present. 




May I hear^ let him hear. 


SINOULAB. 


FLURAL. 


audiam 


audiftmw* 


audl&s 


audi&tis 


audlat 


aadiiftnt 



Imperfect. 

/ should heoTy he wouid ?iear, 
audlrem aadlrCmws 

audlr^s audlr^tUi 

audlret audlrent 

Perfect. 

I may Juwe heard^ or I have heard, 
audlyertm audiverinra* 

audiveris audiverltis 

audiverit audlveriflit 

Pluperfect. 

I ahotdd have heard, he icotUd have heard, 
audiyissem andiyis«4&m«8 

aadlviss6» audiYts«4&tiB 

aadivi00et aadlvtstieiit 

Impebatiye. 

iVM. audi, hear thou; audlte, hear ye, 

Fui, audltO, thou ahalt hear, andlMte, ye shall hear^ 
audiM, heshaUhear; audinMtH, fhey shall hea/r. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, audire, to hear. /Vm» audi^ns, hearing. 

Barf, audivistie, to have heaird, 

Fut, aaditlkims esse, to be Fui. auctitftrus, ctbout to Tiear, 
about to hear. 

Gerund. Supine. 

Oen, andieitdl, of hearing, 
Dat. aiidieitdO, for hearing, 

Aee. audieadwm, hearing, Ace, audltwn, to hear, 

Abl, andieM^O, by hearing. Abl, audltft, to hear, to be heard, 

19 



290 TABLES OP VERBS. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION: I VERBS. 

477. PASSIVE YOlCE.^Au6dor, I am heard. 

Verb Stem and P&esent Stem, aud^. 

Pbincipal Parts. 
audi^r audlrl audltns nwmik 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
a.«T^«T* &» I (vm heard, «,„«>., 

SINOULAS. PLURAL. 

audlor audlmvr 

audlris, or re audlmim 

auditor audiimtiir 

Imperfect. 

I wcui heard, 
audi^bar audl^bilmiir 

audl^baris, or re audi^bllmlnl 

audi^batnr audtobamti 

Future. 

lehaU or %oiU he heard, 
audiar audi^mur 

audi^ris, or re audi^mlitl 

audlMnr audientor 

Perfect. 

/ have been heard, or I wets hea/rd, 
audltns sum auditl 

auditus es auditl esiis 

auditns e«t auditl simt 

Pluperfect. 

I had been heard, 
auditns erant audit! erftmas 

audita» eras auditl eratis 

audita» erat auditl eraat 

Future Perfect. 

lehaU or wiU have been hea/rd, 
audita» erO auditl erlma» 

audita» eri» auditl ertti» 

audita» erit auditl eraat 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 291 

Subjunctive. 

Presekt. 
May I he heard, let him he Tieard, 

8INGULAB. PLURAL. 

audiitr audlAnivr 

audiftris, or re audiftmiitl 

audi&tur audiaittiur 

Imperfect. 

I should he heard. Tie vwdd he heard» 

audlrer audlrfimiur 

audirCris, or re audlrOmlMl 

audlr^tnr audlrentur 

Perfect. 

I may have heen heard, or I have heen heard» 

audltus film auditi fnmiui 

auditus «Is auditi sitis 

audltiis sit auditi slMt 

Pluperfect. 

I ehoidd have heen heard, he would have heen heard, 

andltus essem auditi essOmiui 

auditus ^mmibm auditi emuMlfi 

audltiis esfiet auditi eswent 

Impbbativb. 

Pres, ikudlre, he thou heard; audUBlm, he ye heard. 

Fut, eMd\toiP,thou8hdltheheard, 

auditor, he shall he heard; audiimtor, they shall he heard^ 

Infinitive. Paeticiple. 

Pres, audin, to he heard. 

Perf, audltns esse, to have heen Perf, audltus, having heen heard, 

heard, 
Fut, audltMm Irl, to he dhout to Oer, audtendus, to he heard^ 

he heard, deserving to he heard. 



292 



TABLES OF VERBS. 



478. ACTIVE VOICE,— Capio, 1 take. 

Vkrb Stem, cap; Pkesent Stex» eape. 



caplA 



• Fbivcipal Fabts. 
capere cepi 



capti 



Ikdicativb Mood. 

Pbxseict Teksk. 



SIHCnTLAB. 




PLUBAL. 


capil^ 




capiinus 


cap!» 




capitis 


capit 


• 


capiiuit 




IXPEBFECT. 




Gapil^bam 




capi«1»ilmia« 


capiSbas 




capiSblltis 


oapiAbat. 


FUTUES. 


capil^bant 


capiam 




capi^mwi 


capto» 




capiStis 


capiet 


* 

Pebfect. 


capient 


cepI 





ceptmns 


cepisti 




cepistis 


cepit 


Plupebfect, 


cepArvAt, or 


cSperam 




ceperftmus 


ceperfts 




ceperatls 


ceperat 




ceperaat 




FuTUBE Pebfect 


1 
• 


ceperl^ 




ceperimiui 


cSperi* 




cepertttls 


oiperit 




oeperint 



THE VEKB CAJPKk 



293 





SUBJUJSrCTIVB, 


\ 




Pbesent. 




SINGULAR. 




PLURAU 


capiam 




capiftmiu 


capias 




capifttis 


capiat 


Ihpb&fxct. 


oapiant 


caperem 




caperl^miu 


caper^s 




caperStis 


caperet 


Perfxct. 


caperent 


ceperim 




ceperiML«0 


ceperis 




ceperitis 


ceperlt 


Plttperfect. 


ceperint 


cepissem 




cepiss^mus 


cepissSs 




cepissStis 


cepisset 




cepimneBt 




Impbbativb. 




iVe<. cape 




capite 


F\d, capita 




capitate 


capiM 




capiutO 


Ikfikitivb. 




Paetiotplk 


iVfM. capere 




Ftes, capi^Bji 


i%r/. cepisse 






Frd. captllnis es«e 


FvL captlknui 


Gbbuis^d. 




Supine. 


Qen. capiendl 






D(xt, capiendo 


• 




Aec, capiendMm 


» 


Act* captnm 


Abl, capiendo 




Ahk oaptik 



294 



TABLES OF YEKB& 



479. PASSIVE YOICE.-C»pior, I am iaim. 

PuirciPAi. Pakts. 
«{A 



IxDicATiTB Mood. 

PRCSKHT TkSSE. 



SIKGITLAK. 

cmpmriMf or 



C8pfc¥ar 
csplebftrls, or 
capisbati 



capfar 

capf Srf», or re 

capll^ti 



Imfkkfect. 



FunrsK. 



FLVRAI» 



capii 



capMT 

capici»aiiiif 

capl6l»Aat«r 



capf4 
capiSiMimI 

capIeMtvr 



cspt 
captns e« 
captns e«^ 



capti 
capti 
captus erwLt 



capt 
capi 
capt 



eri« 
erlt 



Plupeefkct. 



capti 
capti 
capfrl 



capti 

capti eratf » 

capti 



Future Vekfect. 



capti 

capti erltts 

capti erwu^t 



THE VEEB CAPIO. 295 



SUBJUNGTIVB, 
Pbesent. 

8IN0ULAR, PLURAL. 

capiar capiAmitr 

capiaris, or re capUkminl 

capiatmr caplaati 



Imperfect. 

caperer caperOinvr 

caperOrls, or re caper«iMiml 

caper^tvr caperentiir 



Perfect. 

oaptiui slnt captl 

captns 0l0 captl «Iti« 

captus sit captl slmt 

Pluperfect. 

captus essem captl essSmiui 

captus ess^s captl esn^tUi 

captiis ennet captl essent 



Imperative. 

Prea, capere capintinl 

F%kU capltor 

capitor capfuittor 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres. capl 

Jfer/. captu» esiie PiRrf. captu» 

FuL captMm Irl Oer, capiendits 



296 TABLBS OF VERBS. 



IRREGULAR VERBS, 

480. A few verbs which have special irregularities are 
called, by way of pre-eminence, Irregular or Anomalous 
Verbs. 

481. Possum,^ posse, potui, to be able. 

INDICATIVE. «,„«., 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

iVe«. possum, potes, potest ; possumus, potestis, possimt. 

Imp, poteram;* poteramus. 

Ihit potero ; poterimus. 

Berf, potuI; potuimus. 

Plup, potueram ; potueramus. 

F. P. potuero ; potuerfmus. 

SUBJUNCTIVE, 

JVm. possim, possis, possit ; possimus, possitis, possint. 

Imp. possem; possemus. 

Perf, potuerim; potuenmus. 

Plup, potuissem ; potuissemus. 

INFINITIVE. PAETICIPLE. 

Pres, posse. iVe«. potens (aa an adfective). 

Perf, potuisse. 

482« Fero, ferre, tuli, latum, to bear. 

Active Voice, 
indicative. 

SINGULAR. PLURAU 

Pres, fero, fers, f ert : ferimus, fertis,* ferunt. 

Imp. fergbam;* ferebamus. 

Pid. feram ; feremus. 

Perf. tuli; tulimus. 

Plup, tuleram ; tuleramus. 

F. P. tulero ; tulenmus. 

" Possum is compounded of potiSy * able,' and «tm, * I am.' 
» Inflected regularly through the different persons: poteram^poterds,potenMi^ 
etc. ; feribam, feritds^ etc. * See p. 297, foot-note. 



IBREGULAB V£BBa 



297 



SINGULAR. 

JFVe«, feram; 
Imp. ferrem; 
Per/, tulerim; 
Hup, tulissem ; 

Pre8, f er ; * 

JW. fert(>, 

fertd, 

Il^FMflTIVB, 

Prea, ferre.* 
Berf, tulisse. 
Fui, laturus esse* 

GERUND. 

Qen, ferendi, 

Dot, ferendo, 

Ace, ferendum, 

AhU ferendo. 



483. Peror, 



8INGX7LAB. 

Pres, f eror, f erris, f ertur ; 
Imp, ferSbar; 
FuL ferar; 
Ftrf, Ifitus sum ; 
Plvp, ifttos eram ; 
F. P, Ifttus er5 ; 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

PLURAL. 

feramus. 
ferremus.' 
tulenmus. 
tulissemus. 

IMPEBATIVB. 

ferte. 

fertSte, 

feranto. 

PARTICIPLE, 
Prt8, f erens. 

Fut, laturus. 
SUPINE. 



Aec, latum, 
Abl, latti. 

Passive Voice. 
ferri, latus sum, 

INDICATIVE. 



to he borne. 



PLURAL. 

ferimur, ferimini, feruntur. 

ferebamur. 

feremur. 

lat! sumus. 

lati eramus. 

IfitI erimus. 



iVea. ferar; 
Imp, ferrer; 
Psrf, latus sim ; 
Plup, l&tQs essem ; 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

ferSmur. 
ferremur. 
lati simus. 
1st! essemus. 



» F^er-9^ ftr-U ftr-U»^ for /eri«, /ertt, feriU» ; fer for /«re, ferre for ferere^ 
fetrem for fertr€fn. 



898 



TABLES OF VERBS. 





IMPEBATIVE. 




BUrOULAS. 


PLURAU 


i^M. ferre; 


feriminL 




JW, fertor, 
fertor; 






feruntor. 




INFINITIVE. 


PARTICIPLE. 


JPres, tern. 




M 


Perf, Ifitus esse. 


Ferf. latus. 




Fut. latum iri. 


Ger. ferendus. 




484. Volo, 


velle, volui, 


to be willing. 


Nolo,* 


nolle, nolui, 


to be unwilling. 


Malo,i 


Tnalle, malm, 

INDICATIVE. 


to prefer. 


iVe». volo, 


nolo. 


malo. 


vis, 


non vis, 


m&vis. 


vult; 


non vult ; 


mfivult ; 


volumus, 


nolumus. 


malumns. 


vultis. 


non vultis, 


mavultis. 


volunt 


nolunt. 


malunt. 


Imp, volebam,' 


nolebam. 


malebam. 


Fut. volam. 


nolam. 


malam. 


F^f. volui. 


nolui. 


malui. 


lUip. volueram. 


nolueram. 


malueram. 


F, P. voluero. 


noluero. 


maluero. 




SUBJUNCTIVE. 




i¥w. velim.» 


nolim. 


m&lim. 


Imp, vellem.* 


nollem. 


mallem* 


Perf. voluerim. 


noluerim. 


maluerim. 


Flup. voluissem. 


noluissem. 

IMPERATIVE. 

Free, noli, nolite. 
FtU. nolita, nolitote, 
nolito, nolunto. 


maluissenu 



1 N5l5 is compounded of n^ or nOn and void ; mXlo, of magis and vol5. 
'Inflect the several tenses in full. 
* Velim is inflected like gim^ and vellem like essem, 

*VeUem and velle are i^yncopated forms for velerem^ velere. So ndUem and 
ndUe, for nolerem and nolere ; mdUem and md/Ie, for mdlerem and mdlere. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



299 





IIS^PINITIVB. 




I¥e8, velle. 


nolle. 


mSlle. 


iV/. Toluisse. 


noluisse. 
PABTICIPLB. 


malnisse. 


Prea, voleos. 


nolens. 





486. Flo, fieri, 

SINGULAB. 

Ih'ea, GOf Gs, fit ; 
Imp, fiebam;' 
Fut, flam ; 
J^r/. factns sum ; 
JPtup. factus eram ; 
F.P. factus er5; 



iVc«. flam; 
Imp, fierem; 
jR?r/. factus Sim; 
IHup, factus essem ; 

/Vm. fi; 

INFINITIVE. 

Prea, fieri. 
Perf. factus esse. 
Put, factum IrL 



factus sum, io become, be made} 

INDICATIVE. 

PLUBAL. 

fimns, fitis, fiunt. 
fiebamus. 
fiemns. 
fact! sumus. 
fact! eramus. 
fact! erimua 

BUBJUNCnVE. 

flamus. 
fieremns. 
fact! simus. 
fact! essemuSr 

IMPERATIVE, 
fite. 

PABTICIPLB. 

Perf, factus. 
Ger, faciendus.. 



486. Eo, ire, ivi, or ii^ itum, to go. 



Prea. eo, is, it ; 

Imp, ibam;» 

Put ibo; 

Perf, ivi, or ii ; 

Plup, iveram, or ieram ; 

F, P, ivero, or iero ; 



INDICATIVE. 

imus, itis, eunt. 

ihSmus. 

ibimus. 

ivimus, or limus. 

iveramus, or ieramus. 

Irenmus, or ienmus. 



1 This Terb snppnes the PteisfTe of /act'd, * to make/ * do.* 
* Inflect the aeveral tenses in fulL 



TAKIJR OF TEBBfiL 



'9 



« 



• 



'» 



lYA I; 
rat US, 
US; 

LXFUkiTiVK. 

JVec fre^ 
Ptrf» Ituk^ or 



OEBUKD. StrFDTB. 

0^ eandi, 

DaJL eandd, 

ui^. eondum, ^«e. itam, 

ML eundai. .dML ita. 




GENERAL RULES OP SYNTAX. 301 

GENEBAL RULES OP SYNTAX. 
Agreement of Nouns. 



I.>— Fvedleate Nouiuk 
487. A noun predicated of another noun denoting the 
same person or thing agrees with it in case ; see 63.^ 



BUXJES n.— Aiiposltli 

488. An appositive agrees in case with the noun or 
pronoun which it qualifies ; see 51. 

Nominative. — Vocative. 

BUI£ IXX.— Sidbdeet NomlnaH.Te> 

489. The Subject of a Finite verb is put in the Nomi- 
native ; see 37. 

BJJUm IT«— €m» of Adilro— ■ 

490. The Name of the person or thing addressed is put 
in the Vocative ; see 85. 

Accusative. 

BUIiE v.— Direct Ol^eet. 

491. The DiBECT Object of an action is put in the 
Accusative ; see 37. 



BUI£ ▼!•— Two AooiuatlTes— Same Peraoiu 

492. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, begabd- 
ING, SHOWING, and the like, admit — 

L In the Active Voice two Accusatives of the sax e fbbson or 
THING ; see 862. 

n. In the Passive Voice a Subject Nominative and a Predicate 
Nominative ; see 362. 

* The Boman numeral in each ingtance designates the namber of the role as 
it stands in the anthor''B Latin Grammar ; the Arabic numeral refers to the artl- 
elo in this work where the rule is ittastrated. 



803 GENERAL RULES OF S7NTAX. 



▼XL— Two AoeiwatlTiM— PerflOB ai|d Tbingm 

493. Some verbs of asking, demanding, teaching, 
and CONCEALING admit two AccosatiTes — one of the person 
and the other of the thing : 

Me ftententiiun rogftvit, he oAid me mjf opimian, 

BUI£ XX.— ▲oensatUra of Tlnie and Spaee» 

494. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are 
expressed by the Accusative ; see 385. 

BUIJB X.— AoeuMtlTa of XJmii. 

496. The Place to which is designated by the Ac- 
cusative : 

L Generally with a preposition — ad or in ; see 439. 
IL In names of towns without a preposition ; see 489. 

Dative. 

BUXiE ZXX«— DatlTa with Verba. 

496. The Indibect Object of an action is put in the 
Dative ; see 59. 

RULE XXXX.— Two IHbtlTes— To which and fbr wfaiefa. 

497. Two Datives — ^the object to which and the ob- 
ject or END FOR WHICH — occur with a few verbs : 

MalO est hominibus av&iitia, avarice is {for) an evil to men, 
B17I£ ZIV.— IHbtiTa with A^JectlTM. 

498. Many adjectives take an Indirect Object in the 
Dative ; see 104. 

Genitive. 

BUXiE ZVI.— GenitiTa with Nooim. 

499. Any noun, not an Appositive, qualifying the mean- 
ing of another noun, is put in the Genitive ; see 51. 

RUX«E XVXI.— GenitiTO with A4JecUTe«. 

600. Many adjectives take a Genitive to complete their 
meaning : 

Avidus laudis, deairoue qfpraiee. 



GENERAL RULES OF SYNTAX. g03 



BtJIiE XZ.— Aeenaaittv» and GenitlTe. 

601. The Accusative of the Person and the Geni- 
•tivb of the Thing are used with a few transitive verbs : 

I. With verbs of reminding, admonishing : 

Td amIcltiM oommone&cit, %$ r0ininds you offHtndMp, 

IL With verbs of cteettsing, convicting, acquitting : 
YiiOs floeleris argois, you aeottse men of cHme, 

Ablative Pboper. 

BUIiE ZZI.— Plaoe from whlelu 

602. The Place pboh which is denoted by the Abla- 
tive: : 

L G^nerallj with a preposition^-SL, ab, di, or ez ; see 440. 
IL In Names of Towns without a preposition', see 440. 



603. Separation, Source, and Cause are denoted by the 
Ablative tvith or without a preposition \ see 300. 



BUXJEi XXill.— Case with ComparaAtves. 

604. I. Comparatives witli quaxn are followed by the 
case of the corresponding noun before them ; see 193. 

II. Comparatives without qiiam are followed by the 
Ablative ; see 193. 

Instrumental Ablative. 

BUI£ XXTW- Ablattva of id rmrmpanlmfmt , 
606. The Ablative is used — 

L To denote Accompaniment. It then takes the preposition oum : 
VlTit oum BalbO, %€ Uv«t with BaXbus, 

II. To denote Characteristic or Quality. It is then modified bj 
an Adjective or by a Genitive : 

Siimmft virtlite adulescens, a youth ofihs highest virtue, 

III. To denote Manner. It then takes either (1) the preposition 
oum, with or without an adjective modifier, or (2) an adjective modifier 
without oum ; see 379. 



804 OBNBRAL RULES OP SYNTAX. 



606. I. The Agent of an action is denoted by the Ab- 
lative with fi or ab ; Bee 114. * 

II. The Instrument and Means are denoted by the 
Ablative without the preposition ; see 114. 

BUI£ Xy-VJU— AUatlTa In Special ConstmctloBS. 

607. The Ablative is used — 

I. With lltor, frnor, fangor, potter, Tescor ; see 871. 

II. With dlgnTis, indlgniui, and oontentoB: 
DigDl sunt amicitiA, ih€^ are worthy ^ffritndth'^. 

BUIiE XZVn.— .AblAtlTa of Priee. 

608. Price is generally denoted by the Ablative : 

Yfindidit aurO patriam, he »M hie counirjf/or gold, 

BUIiE XJLVlii.— -AMatlTa of DUEBreiiee. 

609. The Measure of Difference is denoted by the 
Ablative : 

'O'dO did longidrem mensem fSaciunt, they make the tnotUh one day longer, 

BUI£ XXDC-Speeiflcation. 
'610. A noun, adjective, or verb may take an Ablative 
to define its application : 

Nomine, nOn potestfite, iiiit rfiz, he wot hing in name, not in^ower. 

Locative Ablative: 

BJTLE XXZ.— Plaoe In wblcii* 

611. The Place in which is denoted — 

I. Generally by the AblcUive mth the preposition in; see 803. 

II. In Names of Towns by the Locative ; see 893. 

BUI£ XJUU.— Time. 

612. l^he Time of an action is denoted by the Abla- 
tive ; see 230. 

BUI^ ZXZZI.*-Ablatlire Abaoliftte. 

613. A noun and a participle may be put in the Abla- 
tive to add to the predicate an attendant circumstance; 
see 429. 



GENERAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 806 

Cases with Prepositions. 



614. The Accusative and Ablative maybe used with 
prepositions ; see 166. 

Agreement of Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs. 

BUIiE XXXIV.— Apeement of AdIjeetiTes. 
616. An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, 
NUMBER, and CASE ; see 74. 

BUIiE XSXV.— Ag^reemeiit <if ^rwaoaxm» 

616» A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, 
NUMBER, and PERSON ; see 355. 

BUIJS XXXVl.— Apeement of Verb with Snbjeet. 
517. A finite verb agrees with its subject in number 
and person ; see 249. 

Moods in Principal Clauses. 

BUIiE XXXVIH.— Sali{|iiii0tiTO of Dodro, OommaiuL 
618. The Subjunctive is used to represent the action 

NOT AS REAL, but AS DESIRfiD ; SeC 401. 

BUI^ XXZnc^Poleiitlal Sulisiiiiictlire. 
B19. The Subjunctive is used to represent the action 

NOT AS REAL, but AS POSSIBLE : 

Hlo quaerat quispiam, here sotm one may inqtnr€* 

Moods in Subordinate Clauses. 

BUIiE XUL— Purpofle. 

520. The Subjunctive is used to denote Purpose — 

I. With the relative qui, and with relative adverbs ; see 406, 
U. With ut, nS, qn5, qnSmintui ; see 406. 

BUIiE XOII.— Besnlt. 
621. The Subjunctive is used to denote Eesult: 
I. With the relative qui, and with relative adverbs : 

N6n is sum qui (= ut ego) his tltar, I am Mi $uch a one at to me then 
tkdnge, 

20 



806 GBNERAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 

IL With «I, vt aao, qnln: 

Ite Tlxit «t AthdniAnribns esMt oAriesimi», ke u liv€d thai hs was very 
49at to ike Atkeniane, 

BDX£ XUV.— Goaditloiial SentenoM witli tf, nidt m, aObu 

622. Conditional sentences with si, nisi, nl, s&i, take— 

I. The Indicatiye in both clauses to assume the supposed case: 
8l Bplritum dacit, vivit, ^ he brecUhee, he ie alive. 

II. The Present or Perfect Subjunctite m both clauses to 
represent the supposed case eta possible : 

IHte defldat, si relim cansam defender», ihe day would faU me, if I should 
wish to dtfend ihe cause, 

ni. The Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjitnctite in both clauses 
to represent the supposed case as contrary to fact : 

PIflribiis yerbis ad te scrlberem, si res verba desIdcT&ret, lehould write to 
you fnore/uUy (with more words), if ihe case required words, 

BULX: ZLY«— Goodittoiial ClaiMqi with dmii» fte tf» ete. 
623« Conditional clauses take the Snbjnnctiye — 

I. With dum, mode, dummodo, **if onlj," '^prorided that"; dam 
ai, mode nS, dummodo nfi, " if only not," ^' provided that not " : 

Manent ingenia, mode permaneat indaatria, menial powers remain^ if only 
industry remains. 

II. With 8o il, ut Bl, qnam il, quasi, tanqnam, tanquam si, 
▼eint, velut si, "as if," '*than if," inyolving an ellipsis of the real 
conclusion : 

Perinde habeb6, fto si sctlpsisses, / shaU regard U Jusi a» if{\, e., as I 
should if) you had written, 

BUUS XLVIIIi ' rnwwal CIa«sea with cam and qui. 
624« Causal clauses with omiL and qui generally take 
the Subjunctive in writers of the best period : 

Gum vita mettls pUna sit, since life is full of /ear, 

BUIiE LII.— Tentpoml dMnmsm with earn. 

626. In temporal clauses with cum — 

I. Any tense except the Imperfect and the Pluperfect is put in the 
Indicative : 

Cum quiescant, probant, while they are silent, they approve. 



GEXSRAL ItULSS OF SYNTAX. 807 

II. The Imperfect and the Plaperfect are pnt-^ 

1. In the Indicative, when the temporal clause asserts ah his- 
torical fact: 

Pftruit cum neoesse erat, hs obeyed when U was neeeesary. 

2. In the Subjunctive, when the temporal clause simply defines 
THE time of the principal action : 

Com epistulam complic&rem, whiU 1 wot folding the Utter, 

BXnJB UZI»— Moodfl la Principal ClaiBWi 

626. The principal clauses of the Direct Discourse, 
except questions and commands^ on becoming Ikdirect 
take the Ikfikitive with a Subject Accusative ; see 424. 

BUIiE Unr.— Moodfl la SulMfrdinate ClaiBWi 
527. The subordinate clauses of the Direct Discourse, 
on becoming Indirect, take the Subjunctive ; see 424. 

RULE IfY.— Ifoodfl In Indireet ClaiBW. 

628. The Subjunctive is used in Indirect Questions ; 

see 411. 

Infinitive. 

BUIiE IfYI»— InllBltlve. 

629. Many verbs admit an Infinitive to complete or 
qualify their meaning : 

Haeo vlt&re cupimus, we deeire to avoid theee things. 

BUIiE IiTHr— AoeuflattTO and InllnitiTe. 
630« Many transitive verbs admit an Infinitive with A 
Subject Accusative ; see 416. 

RULE IfYXn»— Sufedeet of Inllnittve. 

631. The Infinitive sometimes takes an Accusative as 
its subject ; see 416 : 

FlatOnem Tarentum vCnisse reperiO, I find that Plato eame to Tarentum. 

Supine. 

BUIaB XiQL— Safiine In Unu 

632. The Supine in urn is used with verbs of motion to 
express purpose: 

LCgfttl vtoirunt r^ repetltum, deputies came to demand restitution. 



808 GBNKBAL BULBS OF SYNTAX. 



SDXX UC«— flNqrfa» In Ik 

633« The Sapine in II is generally used as an Ablative 
of Specification : 

Quid est tam jficondum audltfl, lokai it to agrteabU to Juar (in hearing) f 

Adysrbs. 

RULE liXI.— Use <if AdverlM. 

634« Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other 

ADVERBS : 

Sapieotte ftllciter TlTont, iht wm Uot ktqfpUf. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



A. «r ab, prep, with AU. ; from, 
by. 

ab-dAc5, ere, J&ei, duetum; to 
lead away, oany away, carry off. 

ab>e6, ire, ivi, or U, itum\ to go 
away, go off. 

ab--ig6, «r», dgi, &etvm ; to driye 
away, carry off. 

absSns, abaenUMX away, abaent. 

abs-tine6, Ir^, tinui, UfUum\ to 
hold back, refrain. 

ab>sam, eiM, /«{ ; to be away, be 
abaent, be distant. 

ac, conj. ; and ; see atqtte, 

ac-cSd6,«f«,eMt{,eetttfm; to go to 
or toward, approaoh ; actHderB ad, to 
undertake; iid HerUndam rem jp^li' 
earn aeeikUre, to undertake the over- 
throw of the republic. 

ac-oeiid6, ere, eetuU, tUneum; to 
kindle, inflame, arouse, encourage. 

ao-cidA, «nf, eitU ; to happen, take 
place. 

ac-ciiig5, ere, eituBi, einetvm; to 
put on, gild on, equip. 

ao-cipi5, ere, e^ eepium ; to 
take, receive, derive. 

accfisant; (they) aocnae. 

accfisantBr ; (they) are accused. 

accftsat ; (he) aocuaes. 

accfisfttar ; (he) is accused. 

ftccftsft, dre, dvt, dium ; to aoooae, 
bring to trial. 

&oer, Aerie^ dere ; active, apirited, 
fierce. 



aciSs, H, t ; line of battle. 

ftcriter, adv. ; sharply, vigorously. 

Actiacns, a, um ; of Actium, re- 
lating to Actium. 

ad, prep, with Aoc; to, toward, 
near, at ; (with numbers) about. 

ad-d6, ere, did€, ditum ; to give in 
addition, add. 

ad'^ficd, ere, duad, dueHtm; to 
lead toward, carry, move, influence. 

ad-e6, ire, fvi or ii, Uum ; to go 
to or toward, approach. 

adhort&ti6, Me, f. ; encourage- 
ment. 

adhfic, adv. ; as yet, still, up to 
this time. 

administer, tri, m.; attendant, 
officer. 

admlr&biUt, e; wonderful, re- 
markable. 

admlrfttlA, toif, 1; admiration, 
wonder. 

ad-mlror, dri, dtve eum ; to won- 
der at, admire. 

ad-mittft, ere, miei, nUeeum; to 
receive, admit. 

ad-orior, l^{, ariue eum; to at- 
tack. 

ad-«crfbA, ere, eonpH, eeripium; 
to enroll, class. 

ad-stft, dre, eUH ; to stand by, or 
near. 

ad-sam, een, /mI ; to be at hand, 
be present. 

Vidfklor, dri, dtveemn; to fawn. 

advents, dre, ; to approach, 

go near. 



SIO 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



adventiis, fi«, m.; approach, ar- 
rivaL 

adversftrias, »{, m. ; opponent, 
«nemy. 

adTenmn or adTersns, prep, 
with Aoo. ; agamst, opposite, toward. 

aedfis, if, f. { temple ; plur,, dwell- 
ing, house. 

aedificant; (they) build. 

aedificat ; (he) builds. 

aedificinm, f{, n. ; building, edi- 
floe. 

aedific5, dre^ d«{, dtvm ; to build, 
erect. 

aedllis, w, m.; aedile, oommis- 
aioner of buildings. 

Aedal, drum, m. plnr. ; Aeduans, 
a people of GauL 

aeger, aeffra, aegrum ; sick, ill. 

aegrS, adv. ; with grief, unwilling- 
ly; a€|^/«iT^ to bear with difficulty, 
ftel grieved at» 

aeqaas, a, um ; fiur, imi>Brtial, eq- 
uitable, just, favorable. 

aes, aerie, n. ; copper, money ; aet 
aUinum, debt. 

aestfis, diU, f. ; summer. 

aestimd, dre, dvi, divm ; to esti- 
mate, value, esteem. 

aestas, &, m. ; heat, passion. 

Aetna, <m, f. ; Aetna, Mt. Aetna. 

af-fer6, /«T«, at-ivk, al-^ldtwn; 
to bring, carry, introduce. 

aS-fLeib^ere^/My/ectum; to treat, 
affect ; tuppUeid afficere, to punish. 

AlHca, <M, f. ; AMca. 

ager, offri, m. ; field, farm, terri- 
tory. 

ag-gredior, I, fftutu» sum ; to ap- 
proach, attaok. 

ftgrnen, dgmini», n. ; an army (on 
the march). 

&-gn68Cd, «Ttf, d^niM, dgnUwm \ to 
recognixe. 

ag5, «re, «p^, dOtum ; to lead, do, 
act, spend, pass.- 

agrieola, «m, m. ; fiurmer, hus- 
bandman. 



Agrippa, m, m. ; Agrippa, a Bo- 
man name. 

Albertns, $, m. ; Albert. 

albns, a, wm ; white. 

Alexander, (fn, m. ; Alexander 
the Qreat, King of Macedon. 

Alexandria, «w, t ; Alexandria, 
a city in Egypt. 

alibi, adv. ; elsewhere, in other 
places. 

aliSnns, a, im»; belonging to an- 
other, anothei^s ; ae» aUinum, anoth- 
er's money, debt. 

aliqnandft, adv. ; once, at one 
time, upon one occasion. 

aliqnis, tUiqua, aliquid*, some 
one, something, any one, anything. 

aliqnot, indieUnabU ; several, 
some. 

wtlinn, alia, aUud; other, another, 
else ; for declension see 878. 

AUia, <M, f. ; Allia, river near 
Bome. 

allig5, dre, dH, dkim, to hind to, 
tie to. 

AllobrogSs, iM», m. plur. ; Alio- 
broges, a people of Gaul. 

AlpiSs, ium, f. plur. ; Alps. 

alter, altera, alierum; one, tho 
one, the other (of two). 

altiiad6, dini$, f.; height, alti- 
tude. 

allns, a, iim\ high, lofty, tall, 
deep. 

araant; (they) love. 

amantnr ; (they) are loved. 

amal ; (he) loves. 

amAtor, 9rit, m. ; lover. 

am&tnr ; (he) is loved. 

am&irit ; (he) loved, hss loved. 

ambulant ; (they) walk. 

ambnlat ; (he) walks. 

ambnl5, dfv, dvi, dhim ; to walk, 
take a walk. 

Amelia, as, t, ; Amelia. 

America, ae, f. ; America. 

Ameitcftnl, ^irum, m. plur. ; 
Americans. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



811 



Ametlc&iias, a, vm ; American. 

amlcltio, a&, f. ; friendabip. 

amlcns, I, m. ; friend. 

ft-iniU6, ere, nUH, mistum; to lose. 

aiii6, dre, dpi, atwm ; to love. 

amoenit&s, dUa^ f. ; pleasantness. 

amoeniis, a, vm ; pleasant. 

amor, otm, m. ; love. 

fi-mo¥e6, ere^ m^vi^ mSiumx to 
take away, remove. 

ampins, a, um; great, spacionB, 
broad, magnificent. 

ancilla. ae, f. ; maid • servant, 
maid. 

Aliens, I, m.; Ancus, a Boman 
name. 

Aliens M&rlins, Anei JidrUi, 
m. ; Ancus Martins, reputed King of 
Borne. 

Androclns, i, m. ; Androclus. 

angnlns, I, m. ; angle, corner, se- 
cret place. 

animal, dUa^ n. ; animal. 

animns, l, m. ; mind, soul, spirit, 
ooorage. 

annns, i, m. ; year. 

ftnser, eri$, m. ; goose. 

ante, prep, with Aoo. ; before, in 
front of. 

anteft, adv. ; before, pievionsly. 

ante-e6, ire, ivi, or «i ; to go be- 
fore, precede. 

Antioehns, I, m.; Antiochus, 
King of Syria. 

antlqnns, a, um ; ancient, old. 

Antftnlnns, {, m. ; Antoninus, a 
Boman emperor. 

Ant6nins, 41, m. ; Antonins, a 
Boman fiunily name. 

aper, apri, m, ; wUd boar. 

Apoll6, ApoiUtUe, m. ; Apollo, 
the sun-god. 

ApoUftnins, A, m«; Apollonins, 
a Greek rhetorician. 

apparfttns, 4U, m. ; preparation, 
implements, supplies, expedition. 

appell6, dre, dH, d^vm ; to call, 
name. 



ap-pellnni ; (they) bring to land. 

ap-proplnqnani ; (they) ap- 
proach, draw near. 

ap-proplnqnat ; (he) approaches, 
draws near. 

apnd, prep, with Ace ; before, in 
presence of, among, at the house of, 
with. 

aqna, ae, f, ; water. 

aqnila, ae, f. ; eagle. 

aqnilifer, eri, m. ; eagle-bearer, 
standard-bearer. 

arant ; (they) plow. 

arat ; (be) plows. 

arbor, om, f. ; tree. 

arce5, 9re, ui; to keep off, ban- 
ish. 

areCssft, ire, Uti, Uwn; to call, 
send for, summon. 

arena, i, m. : bow, arch. 

firde6, ire, drei, drsum ; to bom. 

ftrdor, drie, m. ; heat. 

ardnns, a, um ; high, lofty, diffi- 
cult, hard. 

arSna, ae, f. ; sand ; plur,, desert. 

argentnm, i, n. ; silver, silver 
money. 

Ariovistns, I, m. ; Ariovistus, 
king of the Suevl. 

arma, drum, n. plur.; arms, weap- 
ons, armor. 

armftlns, a, vm ; armed, equipped 
with arms. 

arm6, dre, dvi^ divm; to arm, 
equip with arms. 

ar5, dre, dvi, dtum ; to plow. 

ars, artit, f. ; skill, art 

ArtaphemSs, it, m. ; Artapher- 
nes, a Persian generaL 

arts, adv. ; firmly, soundly'. 

anrnm, i, n. ; cultivated land, 
field. 

arz, arete, f. ; citadeL 

&8, assie, m. ; as, a Boman coin ; 
see 826. 

aseendd, ere, eeendi, edimum; to 
go up, mount, ascend. 

Asia, ae, f. ; Asia. 



812 



LATIN-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



atpectut, ««f m.; Kifi^t, vi«w, 

glance, look* 

asper, atpera^ a9p§rum\ rough, 
hard, harsh. 

at, ooi\j. ; but, yet, on the other 

hand. 

Alhfinae, drum, f. plur. ; Athens. 

Atlieniensis, if, in. ; an Athe- 
nian. 

atqne, ac, coig. ; and. 

fttrinm, «i, n. ; ftont court, hall ; 
see 210 and 215. 

atr6z, dcU ; savage, fierce, cruel. 

Attica, <w, f. ; Attica, a state in 
Greece. 

anct5rit&8, aUt, f. ; authori^, in- 
fluence. 

andacter, adv. ; desperately, 
holdly ; comparaUvt^ auddcius, 

aad&x, dels ; bold, daring. 

audid, irtf, ivi, or fi, Uum; to 
hear, listen. 

auditor, dm, m.; hearer, list- 
ener. 

anged, tr«, auxi. audum; to in- 
crease, extend. 

Aagnstns, i, m. ; Augustus, first 
Roman emperor. 

Aulas, I, m. ; Aulus, a Soman 

name. 
aarens, a, «m; golden, of gold. 
aarnm, i, n. ; gold. 
ant, coiy . ; or ; aid . . . ««<, either 

• • . or. 

antem,oonj. ; but, moreover, how- 
ever. 

anxiliam,ti,n.; help, aid; plur,, 

auxiUa, auxiliaries. 

avaritia, ae, f. ; greed, avarice. 

ave5, 9re, , ; to be well, 

fare well, be happy ; imperaUve, avi, 

haill 
a-vertd, «re, ^, 9um ; to turn, turn 

away. 
aride, adv. ; eagerly, greedily. 
aTidns, a, um ; desirous, eager. 
avis, M, f. ; bird. 
avas, I, m.; grandfather. 



B 

barbams, a, «m; foreign, stiango, 
barbarous ; as noun, 6ar6arS, barba- 
rians, savages. 

be&tas, a, wn ; happy. 

bellicdsus, a, vm; warlike. 

belinm, «, n. ; war. 

bene, adv. ; well. 

beneficinm, t», n. ; favor, service, 
benefit. 

benlgnS, adv. ; kindly. 

benlgnns, a, um ; land, obliging. 

b<(8tia, oe, f. ; beast, animal. 

biblioth^ca, ae, f. ; library. 

Bibnint, i, m. ; Bibulus, coUeagne 
of Caesar. 

blandimenta, drtM», n. plur. ; 

caresses. 

bonus, a, vm ; good. 

Bostonia, ae, f. ; Bostoiu 

Brennns, f , m. ; BrenmiSy leader 
of the Gbiuls. 

brevl, adv. ; in a short time, soon. 

brevis, e ; short, brief. 

brevit&s, dtisy f. ; shortness, brev* 

itj*. 

breviter, adv. ; briefly. 

BritannI, Orum^, m. plur. ; the 
Britons, inhabitants of Great Britain. 

Brundisinni,M, n. ; Brundiuum, 
a town of Italy. 

Brflrtus, «, m. ; Brutus, one of the 
conspirators agunst Caesar. 

C. 

cad5, ere^ eecidi, cdmm; to fiill. 

caedSs, is, f. ; slaughter. 

caelo, are, dvi, dium ; to engrave, 
carve. 

caelum, i, n. ; sky, heaven. 

Caesar, aw, m. ; Caesar. 

calcar, oris, n. ; spur. 

calvitium, »1, n. ; baldness. 

cairns, a, um ; bald. 

Camillns, I, m. ; Camillus, a Bo- 
man general. 

Camp&nia, <m, f. ; Campaniai a 
province of Italy. 



LATm-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



313 



Canipftnas, a, am ; of Campania. 

Campus, i, m. ; Campus Martius 
at Borne. 

campus, I, m. ; plain. 

«sandfil&brum, I, n. ; candle- 
Btiok, candelabrum. 

canis, m, m. and f. ; dog. 

can5, erey cecini^ catUum ; to sing, 
soond, play. 

cantant ; (they) sing. 

cantat ; (he) sings. 

cantus, us, m. ; ranging, song. 

capi5, «TV, 0^, captum ; to take, 
capture. 

CapitAlium, f i, n. ; Capitol, cita- 
del of Borne. 

captivut, {, m. ; prisoner, cap- 
Uve. 

Capua, 0«, f. ; Capua, a city of 
Italy. 

caput, eapUis, n. ; head, capital. 

career, «ris, m. ; prison, jaiL 

carmen, eamUndt, n. ; song, verse, 
poem. 

Carolus, i, m. ; Charles. 

carrus, i, m. ; wagon. 

CarthaginlSnstey ium, m. plur. ; 
the Carthaginians. 

Carth&gd, CaHhdffima^ f. ; Car- 
thage. 

carus, a, vm ; dear, predons. 

Cassias, ti, ul ; Cassius, one of the 
conspirators against Caesar. 

casira, drum, n. plur. ; camp. 

catena, (m, f. ; chain, bond. 

caterva, <m, f. ; crowd, throng, 
company. 

Cat5, 9nii, m, ; Cato, a noted Bo- 
man. 

cauda, ae, f. ; tail. 

causa, ae, f. ; cause, reason. 

cavea, <m, f. ; cage, den. 

celeber, &m, hre ; fjreqjiented, 
populous, celebrated. 

eelebrd, drs^ dvi, dCum ; to honor, 
celebrate. 

oeler, ederitj ctlere ; quick, swift, 
fast, speedy. 



celerit&s, eUis, f. ; swiftness, 
quickness, speed. 

celeriter, ady. ; quickly, swiftly, 
fast. 

cSna, 0«, f. ; feast, dinner. 

centum, inded. ; hundred. 

Ceres, em, f. ; Ceres, goddess of 
agriculture. 

cem6, «r«, er^i, crUum ; to dis- 
tinguish, see, perceive. 

certamen, nUnis^ n. ; struggle, 
contest, race. 

cert^, adv. ; certainly, surely. 

certus, a, um ; certain, fixed, per- 
manent ; eartiOrem facere^ to make 
more certain, inform. 

cervus, i, m. ; stag, deer. 

cesso, dr0, dviy dtum\ to cease, 
stop. 

cSterl, (M, a. ; the rest, remaining, 
others. 

Christus, I, m. ; Christ. 

Cicerft, dnw, m. ; Cicero, the 
&mous orator. 

cinis, eineris, m. ; ashes. 

cingd, ere, m/me», einctum ; to sur- 
round, inclose. 

Cinna, <m, m. ; Cinna, a family 
name. 

eirciter, adv. ; about. 

circumdant ; (they) surround, col- 
lect about. 

circus, I, m. ; circus. 

citeiior, ius ; nearer, hither. 

clvicus, a, um ; of citizens, civic, 
civil. 

civliis, e ; of citizens, civic, civil. 

clvis, if, m. and f. ; citizen. 

ciYit&s, d^, f. ; state. 

d&dCs, 49, f. ; disaster, defeat. 

cl&mor, dria, m. ; shout, shouting, 
ciy, noise. 

clangor, A*m, m. ; sound, clang, 
noise. 

cl&rus, a, um ; illustrious, famous. 

cl&ssis, 48, f. ; class, fleet, navy. 

claud5, «rVf daual, clausum', to 
shut, close. 



814 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



ciemenlla, (m, f. ; kiadness, 
mercy. 

coepi, iue ; to hegau 

coetiis, HSj m. ; assembla^, com- 
pany. 

Cdi^n5sc5, «r«, ndvt^ fiUum ; to 
know, recognise, ascertain. 

c5g6, «r0, eoigi, ooaetum ; to force, 
compel, drive. 

co«liorlor, dK, dtiu sum ; to en- 
courage, exhort 

ci^iei6^ ere, iiei^ tectum; to throw, 
hurL 

collSga, <M, m. ; associate, col- 
league. 

collis, if, m. ; hiU. 

colloc5, dre, dv€, dtum ; to place, 
station. 

colloqaiam, ti, n. ; dialogue, 
eonversation. 

coI6nii8, {, m. ; founder, colonist, 
settler. 

eolor, dm, m. ; color. 

comet, UU, m. and f. ; compan- 
ion, associate. 

GomitOT, drl^ dtui eum; to at- 
tend, follow. 

conimemorft, dre, d/vi, dium ; to 
mention, relate. 

GOm-iiiitt5, «*«, f»M, mimum ; to 
join, commit, intrust. 

commodam, t, n. ; oonvenienoe, 
advantage. 

coiii-move5, 2r«, nUM, fiMum; 
to move, arouse, influence. 

commflnis, e ; common. 

com-par6, drv, dvi, dtum; to 
prepare, make ready, fit out 

com-pell6, «re, puU^ pukum ; to 
drive, force, compel. 

o6m-pled, ^ pUH^ pUtum\ to 
fill, make full, complete. 

complflrSt, a, or «a; several, 
many. 

coinpo8iti5, ^am, f. ; arrange- 
ment, agreement, compact. 

oom-prehendA, «v, <ft, turn ; to 
snatch, sdze, cateh, arrest. 



conciliam, •(, n.; meeting, as- 
sembly, coundl. 

Goncutid, ere, etuH, etuaum; to 
shake, disturb. 

Gondicid, dnie, t ; agreement, 
tenns, condition. 

Gondiacipalat, i, m. ; school- 
mate. 

eoii-duc6, ere, d&xi, duetum\ to , 
hire. 

c6ii-fer5, /erre, tuU, eoUdtum ; to 
gather, collect ; «8 eon/erre, to betake 
one's sislf. 

c6iilertQ8, a, wn ; crowded, dose, 
compact 

cOnfestim, adv. ; at once, imme« 
diately. 

c5n-ficid, ere, /id, /ectum; to 
accomplish, finish, weaken, wear 
out. 

c5ii-flig5, ere, Jltxi, flkivmx to 
contend, fight. 

e6ii-fl6, dre, dvi, dtum\ toaoqmre, 
contract 

Gdii-fodi5, ere, fddi, /ouum ; to 
stob, pierce. 

c6n-fagi6, ere, fibgl ; to flee, take 
refuge. 

coii-ger6, ere^ geet^, gedum; to 
bring together, collect, bring. 

coniAr&tas, f, m. ; conspirator. 

con-iflrd, dre, dH, dtum ; to form 
a conspiracy, to conspire. 

c5nor, 6/ri, dius turn ; to try, at- 
tempt, undertake. 

con-scrlbd, ere, teripei, scripium ; 
to enroll, enlist 

c6n-8eqnor, i, eeefUue turn; to 
fi>llow, pursue, obtain. 

Cdnsidias, ti, m. ; Considius, an 
officer in Caesar's army. 

cAnsilimn, ii, n. ; plan, counsel, 
council, assembly. 

cAnspectas, He, m. ; sight, view. 

c6B-spicid, ere, eptai, epeelum ; to 
get sight of, notice. 

c6nsplrati6, Anif, f. ; plot, con- 
spiracy. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



315 



C5ii8taiitiiin8, {, m. ; Constan- 
tine, ft Boman emperor. 

c5ii-8terii5, «*«, ^dvi, Mtratum ; 
to strew, cover. 

c5ii-8titn5, en^ «I, ^Btum\ to ar- 
range, decide, determine, appoint. 

cdnstratus, a, um ; strewed, cov- 
ered. 

cftnsal, if, m; consul, a chief 
magistrate of the Boman Republic. 

consnl&tns, Hty m. ; office of con- 
sul, consulship. 

cdnsnllas, {, m. ; counselor. 

Gon-tendd, «r^, dl^ turn ; to strug- 
gle, strive, hasten. 

contentio, ^aw, f.; strife, quarrel. 

contenlns, a, um ; satbfied, 
pleased. 

continenter, adv.; continuously, 
without interruption. 

con-tineft, 8r«, i<{, ienium ; to 
hound, surround, restrain. 

cdntio, 6m8^ f. ; meeting, assem- 
bly. 

contrfi, prep, with Ace. ; against, 
contrary to. 

coii-trah5, «rv, ^r«e{, trtuiwm ; to 
draw together, collect. 

contraiius, a, um ; opposite, con- 
trary. 

coii-Teiii5, if«, «dni, vwium^ to 
oome together, asseinble. 

con-vertd, ere^ U^ aum\ to turn, 
turn round. 

COII-VOC6, Sre^ doi, dtum ; to call 
together, summon. 

c6pia, 0«, f.; abundance, plenty; 
plur,y e6p%ae^ forces, troops. 

Corinthns, i, f. ; Ck>rmth. 

CornSlia, m, f. ; Cornelia, a Bo» 
man name. 

cordna, <m, f. ; wreath, garland, 
erown. 

corpus, eorporit, n. ; body. 

cor-iig5, «*«, rexi, rieium ; to im- 
prove, correct, set right. 

corvnn, I, m. ; raven. 

cottldiS, adv.; daily, every day. 



cr&s, adv. ; to-morrow; erdamoMj 
to-morrow morning. 

Crassas, <, m.; Crassus, a family 
name. 

creber, erdfrisj erAr6\ frequent, 
numerous, repeated. 

crSdd, <r<, dUU^ dUum ; to believe, 
trust. 

cre5, dre^ dvl, dium\ to make, 
choose, elect. 

Croesns, I, m. ; Croesus, King of 
Lydio. 

cmenlns, a, um ; bloody. 

crax, eruds, f. ; gallows, cross. 

cam, coi^. ; when, while, since, 
although. 

cum, prep, with Abl. ; with, in 
company with. 

capidit&s, o^, f. ; desire, eager- 
ness. 

cupi5, ere, ivi or »{, Uum ; to de- 
sire, long for. 

cflr, adv. ; why! for what reason ! 

cfira, od, f. ; care, trouble. 

cflria, ae, f. ; senate, senate-house. 

cflr5, are, dH, dlvm; to care, take 
care, be careM. 

cnrras, Hs, m. ; chariot. 

carsas, us, m. ; course, running. 

cfl8l5did^ ire, ivi or ii, Uum ; to 
guard, defend. 

cflstAs, iidie, m. ; l^eeper, guard, 
guardian. 

Cyras, i, m. ; Cyrus, King of Per- 
sia. 

D 

dabaat; (they) will give. 

daal ; (they) ^ve. 

dantar ; (tiiey) are given. 

DarSas, H, m. ; Darius, king of 
the Persians. 

dat ; (he) gives. 

Datis, it, m. ; Datis, a Persian 
general. 

datar; (he)is|^ven. 

de, prep, with Abl. ; in regard to^ 
concerning, about, from. 

dea, ae, f. ; goddess. 



816 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY, 



dSbent ; (they) owe, ought. 

dSbed, ar», «f, Uum\ to ow«, be 
under obligation. 

dSbet; (he) owes, ouglit. 

d^bfltnr ; (it) is owed, is due. 

d^bitam, i, n. ; debt. 

de-cM6, «re, ceaHj ce$tum ; to go 
awaj, deparL 

decern, indeel. ; ten. 

December, 6rM, bre; of Decem- 
ber; nOntii Deeemhtr^ December. 

decemplex, |»2»(^ ; tenfold. 

d&4^m6, «Tf, erivi, erUum ; to de- 
cide, determine, resolve. 

decinms, a, vm ; tenth. 

dScrfitmn, <, n. ; decree, vote, re- 
solve. 

decns, deeorit^ n. ; honor, glorj, 
adornment. 

d£-dic5, dre^ dvi, dtum\ to dedi- 
cate, consecrate. 

d£dili5, 6n,U^ f. ; surrender. 

d£-dac5, erti duxi, duetum\ to 
lead off or away. 

dfr-fendft, «r<, ftndl^ finwrn ; to 
defend, guard, protect. 

deficit ; (it) fails, is wanting. 

dSldmiit&s, <Uw, f. ; defed;, ugli- 
ness. 

deinde, adv. ; then, next. 

dSlect&bit; (it) will please, de- 
light. 

dSleclant ; (they) please, delight. 

dSlectantar; (they) are pleased, 
delighted. 

dSlectat ; (he) pleases, delightB. 

dSlectfttnr; (he) is pleased, de- 
lighted. 

dSlect5, dr«, dpi, iUfum ; to please, 
delight. 

dSieo, ar», ^ Hum\ to destroy. 

dellber6, di^, dpi, aJtwn^\ to de- 
liberate. 

dSUctam, I, n. ; fault, offense. 

dd-miilce6, ^ muUHy fMiiawm\ 
to stroke, liok. 

de-negA, dr«, tfvl, (ttnum ; to deny, 
refine. 



dSnsvs, 0, vm ; thidc, dense. 

dS-scendd, «r», tcend^ «cSfiMim; 
to go down, descend. 

d€-8triBg6, «r«, drtnea, ttrietum ; 
to unsheathe, draw. 

dd-tegd, «re, <iaB{, <a«^iM»; to un- 
cover, expose. 

d€-tiiie6, drv, «S, ientum ; to keep 
back, detain. 

dS-trah6, «re, Iroasi, traetum; to 
pull off, take away. 

dens, I, m. ; god; see 872, note. 

diadfima, dtisj n. ; royal crown, 
diadem. 

Diana, a«, f. ; Diana, goddesa of 
the moon. 

dicit ; ( he) speaks, talks, says, tells. 

died, ere, disa, didum] to speak, 
talk, say, tell. 

dictator, dm, m. ; dictator, a Bo- 
man magistrate. 

dicant; (they) speak, talk, say, 
teU. 

dies, H, f.; day; din ndtdiia^ 
birthday. 

difficilis, 4; difficult 

difficalt&s, dUs, f. ; difficulty. 

dlgnitds, dUs, f. ; worth, merit, 
reputation, dignity. 

dlgnns, a, ym; worthy, suitable, 
proper. 

dlligCns, Us; diligent, industrious. 

dlligenter, adv.; diligently, in- 
dustriously. 

dlligentia, m, f.; diligence, in- 
ddstiy. 

dlmicd, are^ del, diwn ; to fight, 
contend. 

dl-mitt<V, eriy mitf, tniaum; to 
send away, send off, release. 

dl-ripid,er», ripui^ reptum; to lay 
waste, spoil, plunder. 

dis-cMd, tfp«, mm{, emum; to 
leave, go away, depart 

disciplliia, <m, f. ; tndning, disd- 
pline. 

diseipnlas, I, m. ; learner, pupil, 
scholar. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



317 



discIV, 0r$y didic% ; to learn. 

discitmen, ditctfminds, n. ; dis- 
tBnoe, interral. 

disicid, «rf, idci, ieetum ; to scat- 
ter, rout. 

displiced, ire, «{, itwn\ to dia- 
please, be displeasing. 

dissimilis, s ; unlike, different, 
unsuitedto. 

distentns, a, vm ; engaged, ooon- 
pied, busy. 

dislarbA, dre, dvij dtvm ; to dis- 
turb. 

ditissimas ; superlatiTe of tUves, 

dill, adv. ; a long time, long. 

dlTes, «^, rich, wealthy. 

di¥id6, ere, viti, vteitm ; to divide, 
distribute. 

dlTlnns, a, um ; divine. 

diYiliae, drum, f. plur. ; riches, 
wealth. 

dd, dare, dedi, datum ; to give. 

doce5, ire, «I, doetum; to teach, 
instruct. 

docilis, e ; docile, teachable. 

doctiis, a, vm ; learned. 

Dolabella, <u, m. ; Dolabella, 
son-in-law of Cicero. 

domicilinm, «i, n. ; home, abode. 

domimis, {, m. ; master, owner. 

AoiWBkb,dr€,ii^,Uum\ to tame, sub- 
due. 

domas, fi«, f. ; house, home ; for 
declension, see 209. . 

d5iiA, are, avl, dtum ; to give as a 
present, present. 

d5niim, i, n. ; gift, present. 

dormid, ire, ivi or ii, Uum; to 
sleep. 

Drac5, dnie^ m. ; Draco, Athenian 
lawgiver. 

dnae, f. plur. ; two. 

dnbiUV, are av%, atum ; to doubt, 
hesitate. 

dnbinm, ti, n. ; doubt. 

dnbins, a, um ; uncertain, doubt- 
fhl. 

dncentl, ae, a ; two hundred. 



dflc5, ere, dtiad, duetum ; to lead ; 
in mdtrimihiium dueere, to lead into 
marriage, to marry. 

dnlcis, e; sweet, pleasant. 

dnm, co^j. ; while. 

dno, ae, o ; two ; see 381. 

daodecim; twelve. 

dux, <^«CM, m. ; leader, commander. 

E 

£ or ex ; from, out of, of; ex hla, 
out of these, of these. 

ecce, adv. ; behold 1 look I 

C-do, ere, didi, dUum ; to give 
forth, announce, perform, exhibit. 

edd, ere or esee. Hi, Hum ; to eat. 

C-dAcit ; (he) leads out. 

S-dac5, ere, dUxl, dvetum ; to lead 
out or from. 

S-dQcant ; (they) lead out. 

efficid, ere,/iei,/ecium ; to cause, 
accomplish. 

effdndd, ere,/udi,/iieum ; to pour 
out, scatter, squander, waste. 

ego ; I ; see 265. 

SgregiS, adv. ; remarkably, excel- 
lently. 

Cgregins, a, um ; remarkable, ex- 
cellent. 

elephantus, i, m. ; elephant. 

Elisabetha, ae, f. ; Elizabeth, 
Queen of England. 

S-lAce6, ire, ^&ci, ; to shine 

forth or out. 

emd, ere, iml, impium ; to buy. 

S-moved, ire, m9vi, mBtum; to 
move out or away, remove. 

en, inteijection ; look I see ! 

enim, coxj. ; for. 

Ennias, U, m. ; Ennius, a Boman 
poet. 

e5, ire, ivi or ii, Uum ; to go. 

ed ; that ; ed tempore, at that 
time. 

ed, adv. ; there, in that place. 

Ephesius, a, um; of Ephesus, 
Ephesian. 

epistnla, ae \ letter, epistle. 



818 



LATIN-KNaLISH VOCABULARY. 



eqiies, equUis, m. ; honenuui, 
trooper, knight ; plur,, eguttUf horse- 
men, cavalry, knights. 

eq neater, <m, tr4\ of cavalry, 
equestrian. 

eqaitant ; (they) ride. 

equitat ; (he) rides. 

eqnit&tns, ika, m. ; cavalry. 

equild, dre, dvi, dium ; to ride. 

eqnas, i, m. ; horse. 

erant ; (they) were. 

erut ; (he) was. 

Eretria, ae, f. ; Eretria, a <aty on 
the Island Euboea. 

err6, dre^ dvi, dtum; to wander, 
roam about. 

Srudid, ir^, ivi or tf, Uum\ to 
educate, instruct, teach. 

Srapti5, dnis, f. ; breaking out, 
bursting forth, erupUon. 

est; (he) is. 

et, coig. ; and, atso ; ei — e^, both — 
-and. 

etiam, coig. ; even, also. 

etsi, oonj. ; although. 

IBardpa, ae, f. ; Europe. 

e- vadd, ere, vdH, vdsum ; to go out, 
escape. 

e-vertd, «r<, <f, «w»; to overthrow, 
destroy. 

S-voni5, ere, ul, Uvm; to belch 
forth, throw out. 

ex, prep, with Abl. ; from, out of, 
of; ex hie, out of these, of these. 

exanimd, dre, dvi, dtum ; to weak- 
en, terrify; exanimdtw, breathless, 
lifeless. 

ex-ced6, ere, eeeai, eeseum; to go 
away, depart 

excelsns, a, vm ; high, tall. 

ex-cipio, ere, cUpi, ceptum ; to re- 
ceive. 

ex-citd, dre, dvi, dtum\ to call 
forth, arouse, awaken, increase. 

ex-Glftmd, dre, dvi, dtum ; to call 
.out, cry aloud. 

exemplnm, f, n. ; example, ind- 
dent. 



ex-eo, ire, ivi or i^, Uum ; to go 
forth or out. 

exerced, ire, ui, Uum ; to exercise^ 
practice, cultivate. 

exercitfttiS, ^ia, f. ; practice, ez'- 
erdse, drilL 

exercitas, ate, m. ; anny. 

exigaas, a, um ; small, short. 

expedi5, ire, fv» or t», Uum; to 
release, procure. 

expedltid, dnie, f. ; espeditioiif 
campaign. . . 

expl5T&tor, drit, m. ; scout, spy. 

ex-p0n6, ere, poeui, poeUum; to 
set forth, set on shore, land. 

ex-pagn5, dre, dvi, dtumx to 
take by storm, capture. 

exqalrd, ere, quitivi, quieitum; 
to search out, look for. 

ex8ili5, ire, eikti, eultum; to 
sprmg out, leap up, start up. 

exspectant; (they) expect, wait 
for. 

exspectantnr ; (they) ore ex- 
pected. 

exspectat; (he) expects, waits 
for. 

exspect&tnr; (he) is expected. 

ex-spect5, dre, dvi, idtum ; to ex- 
pect, wait for, await. 

ex-8tingQ5, ere, eUnxi, eUtushan ; 
to put out, quench, destroy. 

extempl5, adv. ; at once, inunedi- 
ately. 

ex-torqaeS, %re, iorH, Uniwm ; to 
wrest from, extort. 



faber,/a^, m. ; workman, smithf 
carpenter. 

fabricd, dre, dvi, dtum ; to make, 
build. 

f fibala, ae, f. ; stoiy, talc, fable. 

facStas, a, um ; fine, witty, face- 
tious. 

faciSs, di, f. ; form, look, face. 

facile, adv. ; easily, readily, 

facilis, e ; easy. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



319 



faci5, «r«, fk^ factum \ to do, 
make, perform, celebrate ; Uerfaoere^ 
to make a joumey, travel ; eertiOrem 
facere^ to make more certain, inform. 

facit ; (he) does, makes, pertbrms, 
celebrates. 

facinnt ; (they) do, make, perform, 
oelebrate. 

faclam, i, n. ; deed, act 

l&gns, i, f. ; beech-tree. 

faUas, a, um ; false, aofonnded. 

familia, a^, f. ; family. 

fariaa, <m, f. ; flom*, meal. 

fotlg5, ar«, a/vi^ dtwn ; to weaiy, 
tire. 

faacSs, «Iff», f. plur. ; jaws, throat. 

febris, w, f. ; feyer. 

F^bm&rins, a, um ; of February. 

i^liciter, ady. ; aacoessfnlly, pros- 
perously ; fiUciier ndvigdre,, to have 
a prosperous yoyage. 

i^lix, icia ; happy, fortunate. 

fenestra, 00, f. ; window. 

fera, ae, f. ; wild beast, wild animal. 

ferS, adv. ; almost, nearly. 

i^riae, drum^ f. plur. ; holidays. 

Ier5, /WT0, tvlh Idium ; to bear, 
carry, endure, cast (a vote), propose (a 
law) ; aef^ /errej to bear with diffi- 
culty, be grieved at. 

ferram, I, n. ; iron, weapon, 
sword. 

fbrtilfs, 4 ; fertile. 

ferns, a, vm ; wild, savage. 

fessns, a, vm.; wearied, tired, ex- 
hausted. 

ISstns, a, vm ; festive, festal. 

fidSs, e{, f. ; trust, belief. 

fldns, a, tim; faithful, trust- 
worthy. 

f ilia, 04, f. ; daughter. 

fllins, »{, m. ; son. 

fiui5, ire, ivl or U, Uum ; to end, 
put an end to, finish, bring to a dose. 

finis, M, m.; end, boundary, limit ; 
plur,, finis, territory, district, land. 

fi6, fieri, foetus sum; to be made, 
become, take place. 



firmns, a, «m; strong, steady, 
steadfast, true. 

flagr5, are, dvi, dtum; to flame, 
bum, blaze, be excited. 

flamma, ae, f. ; flame, fire. 

fldre5, ire, ui, ; to flourish, 

bloom, be in bloom. 

lldrSns, enUe ; flourishing, bloom- 
ing, prosperous. 

F15rentia, ae, f. ; Florence, a dty 
of Italy. 

FJdrida, ae, f. ; Florida. 

M»,flihH», m. ; flower. 

1l1km.en,flumini8,ji,; river, stream; 
Tauri JUimen, Bull Kun. 

flnvins, H, m. ; stream. 

l5n8,/ofi^, m. ; fountain. 

Idrma, ae, f. ; figure, form, nature. 

ftrrndsus, a, um ; beautiiiil, hand- 
some. 

fortasse, adv. ; perchance, per- 
haps. 

forte, adv. ; by chance, accident- 
ally. 

fortis, e ; brave, valiant. 

fortiter, adv. ; bravely, valiantly. 

fortflna, ae, f. ; chance, fortune, 
success. 

fornm, i, n. ; forum, market-place. 

fossa, ae, f. ; ditch, trench. 

fr&ter,/r<Um, m. ; brother. 

Frederlcns, i, m. ; Frederick. 

fremitus, €ks, m. ; loud noise, roar. 

frStus, a, um ; trusting, relying. 

frigidns, a, um ; cold. 

frlgns, oris, n. ; cold. 

fronded, ire, ui, ; to put forth 

leaves, be in leaf. 

frflmentum, I, n. ; com, grain. 

fmor, i,fr€tetu8 sum ; to eigoy. 

frflstrfi, adv. ; in vain. 

fnSrnnt ; (they) wore. 

fnga, ae, t ; flight. 

fugid, ere,fitgi. Hum ; to flee, fly. 

fagd, dre, d^, dium ; to rout, put 
to flight. 

fuit ; (he) was. 

fnlgor, &ris, m. ; brightness, gleam. 



820 



liATlN-ENaLISH VOCABIILARY. 



FnlrinB, ii, m. ; Fnlvius, a Soman 
name. 

Hkmas, I, m. ; smoke. 

fundd, «w, /«<», f^tsum ; to pour, 
rout, put to flight. 

fnndas, i, m. ; farm, estate. 

fungor, I, funetue sum \ to per- 
foim, do, administer. 

fllr,/firM, m. ; thief. 

UkrtiiiD, i, n. ; theft. ' 

G 

Gfiins, U^ m.; Gains, a Soman 
name. 

Gain, ^?«m, m. plar. ; the Ganls, 
the inhabitants of Ganl. 

Gallia, cm, f. ; Gau!, the province 
of GanU 

Gallicus, a, vm ; Gallic, belong- 
ing to GauL 

g^ndium, f{, n. ; joy. 

gemitus, ito, m. ; groan. 

gemma, ae, f. ; jewel, preclons 
stone, gem. 

gener, gmeri^ m. ; son-!n-la\r. 

genns, generis^ n. ; race, kind, 
class. 

Gerraaal, Crum^ m. plor. ; the 
Germans. 

GermAnia, ae^ f. ; Germany. 

ger6, ere^ ^«sfi, gegtum\ to cany 
on, wage, do, administer, wear. 

gest5, are^ doi, dtum\ to carry, 
have, wear. 

glgnd, «re, gemtiy genUum ; to give 
birth to, bear. 

gladins, is, m. ; sword. 

glftns, glandity f. ; acorn, aoom- 
shaped ball, missile, bullet. 

gl6ria, oe, f. ; glory, honor, fame. 

GnaenSf t, m. ; Gnaeus, a Boman 
name. 

GraecS, adv. ; in the Greek lan- 
guage, in Greek. 

Graeel, drum, m. plur. ; the 
Greeks. 

Graeeia, <w, f. ; Greece. 

Graecus, a, um ; Greek, Grecian. 



grftmieii, grdnUnw, n. ; gnun. 

grfttia, (M, f. ; gratitude, thanks. 

grfttnlAtid, ihUa, f. ; joy, r^oio- 
ing, oongratulaldon. 

grfitnlor, drl, atus 8tim\ to re- 
joice, congratulate, give thanks. 

grfttnm, i, n. ; favor. 

gr&tas, a, vm ; acceptable, wel- 
come, gratefiil. 

gravis, e ; heavy, weighty, severe. 

Gailielmus, {, m. ; William. 



habent ; (they) have, hold. 

habed, tre^ «i. Hum ; to have, pos- 
sess, regard. 

habet ; (he) has, holds. 

habitant ; (they) dwell, live. 

habitat ; (he) dwells, lives. 

habitd, dre, dvt, d^tfm;^to live, 
dwell, inhabit. 

habnit ; (he) had. 

Hadrifinas, t, m.; Hadrian, a 
Boman emperor. 

haere6, er«, haeH^ haetum*^ to 
stick, stick fast, be fixed. 

Hannibal, alis^ m. ; Hannibal, a 
Carthaginian general. 

HelvStii, drum^ m. plur. ; Helve- 
tians, a people of Gaul. 

Henilcns, I, m. ; Henry. 

Hercnlanenm, {, n. ; «Hercul*- 
neum, a town in Italy. 
- herCs, ^iSy m. and f. ; heir, heiress. 

herl, adv. ; yesterday ; heri mdne^ 
yesterday morning. 

HSrodotns, i, m. ; Herodotus, a 
Greek historian. 

hSstemns, a, wn ; of yesterday ; 
J^isUmite diia, yesterday. 

hens, inteijcc. ; ho I holloa ! 

Mberna, Orum^ n. plur.; winter- 
quarters. 

Mc, haee, hdc\ this ; see S90. 

hie, adv. ; here, In this place. 

hiems, hiemis^ f. ; winter. 

hinc, adv. ; fh>m this place, hence» 

histoiia, ae, f. ; history. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



321 



hodifi; to-day; JkodH mdns^ tbU 
moming. 

hodlemiiB, a, urn; of this day ; 
diis hodiemu$^ to-day. 

Hom^rns, I, m. ; Homer, the fa- 
mous Greek poet. 

homd, hominU^ m. ; man, a human 
being. 

honestus, a, vm ; honorable. 

honor or honda, A*m, m. ; honor, 
glory. 

hondr A, dr«, dvi, Si^m ; to honor, 
respect. 

hAra, m, i. ; hour. 

Hortenaisa, ii, m.; Hortenaiua, 
a Roman orator. 

hortor, or», aivt ntm ; to urge, 
encourage, exhort. 

hortus, i, m. ; garden, ground. 

hospes, hoipUu^ m. and f. ; guest, 
visitor. 

hospitiam, ii, n. ; hospitality. 

hoslis, w, m. and f. ; enemy. 

hf&c, adT. ; hither, to this plaoe. 
• Mni&nns, a, um ; human. 



iaceA, 2r0, «f, Uum% to lie, lie 
low, lie on the ground, lie dead, be 
prostrate. 

facet ; (he) is lying, Ilea. 

lacAbus, I, m. ; James. 

iactd, dr€y dH, dium ; to throw, 
hurl. 

iam, ady. ; already, now, 

iftnua, CM, f. ; door, house-door. 

IftnnArias, a, vm ; of Jannaiy. 

illt, adv. ; there, in that plaoe. 

left, «r», M, ictwn ; to strike, hit. 

Idem, Mdem^ idem ; the same ; see 
890. 

ideA, adv. ; for that reason, there- 
fore. 

idAnens, a, vm ; fit, smtable. 

Idfla, idwim^ f. ; the ides, middle 
of the month. 

iffitar, ooig. ; therelbre, aooord- 
ingly. 

21 



IfB&vaa, a, «m; indolent, idle, 
lazy. 

Ignia, if, m. ; Are. 

IgnOtus, a, um ; unknown. 

llicO, adv. ; immediately, at onoe. 

ille, tUa, iUud\ that, that one, he ; 
see 890. 

illic, adv. ; there, in that place. 

imber, M»*^m, m. ; nun, storm. 

imnid, adv. ; nay, on the eon- 
trary. 

impedimeata, Aim», n. plnr. ; 
baggage. 

impedift, ir^, i«l or ti, Uum ; to 
hinder, detidn, cheek. 

impellS, tr*^ jmU, ptUium; to 
drive, move, urge. 

imperator, dm, m. ; commander, 
general, emperor. 

imperfectas, a, vm ; nniiniahed ; 
incomplete. 

imperltas, a, um ; unskillful, ig- 
norant, inexperienced. 

imperiam, ti, n. ; command, em- 
pire, reign. 

ImperA, dr«, dvi, dium; to com- 
mand, order, levy. 

impetrd, dr«, del, dium\ to get, 
obtain. 

impetae, li«, m. ; attaek, charge. 

impftaA, «r«, poiui, potUum; to 
set, place upon, impose. 

improbas, a, um; wicked, un- 
just. 

imprdvlsas, a, um; unforeseen; 
di impr(M$6j unexpectedly, sudden- 
ly. 

impadtaa, §iUi9 ; shameless, im- 
pudent, saucy. 

ia, prep, with Ace., Abl. ; (1) with 
Aee,, into, to ; (S) wUh Abl,^ in, with- 
in, on. 

iaceadiaai, ii, n. ; fire, oonfla- 
gration. 

ia-eeadO, «re, cendi, emntm ; to 
set on fire, bum. 

iacertas, a, tim; hesitating, un- 
decided, dottbtAU. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



iAcMA, 4fw, cidi ; tohappciif meet, 
fUl into, fall in with. 

ia-citd, drt, 4H, dium; to uige 
on, epur. 

incola, o^ m. ; inhAbitant 

in-colo, «r«, eoluij euitvm; to 
dwell in, live. 

iBcrMibilis, «; incredible, eztrar 
ordinary. 

iMde,«dv. ; from that plaoe, then. 

India, CM, f. ; India. 

Indi&nl, A*imi, m. plnr. ; Indiann. 

indigeA, 9r4, ui; with Abl., to 
need, want. 

indlffnns, a, «m ; unworthy. 

indnlgeO, ir§, dulH^ duUtim; to 
indulge, be indulgent. 

indad, er«, tii, atvm ; to dothe, 
dretti, dock. 

. indastria, cm, f.; ^i|;enee, in- 
dustry ; di indudrid, on purpose. 

industiius, a, «m; diligent, in- 
dustrious. 

in-e6, jir«, ivi or «i, iltim : to go 
into, enter. 

InfSlIx, ieifj unhappy, unfortu- 
nate. 

in-fl5, dfw, avi, dtum ; to blow, in- 
flate. 

iagfins, tiUit ; great, huge, vast 

iiigrAtas, a, tim ; ungratefiil. 

in-gredior, i, ^rtitus sum ; to ad- 
Tance, march. 

inimlcaa, a, tim ; unfHendly, hos- 
tile. 

ialqana, a, im» ; nnjost. 

inif&ria, <m, f. ; wrong, injury. 

in-a1tor, 1^ ntau§ $um; to lean 
upon, support one's self on. 

inopia, <m, f. ; want, lack. 

inqnitt present and perfect; he 
says or says he ; he said or said he. 

in-ni6, ere^ ui ; to rush into. 

Insidiae, drum^ f. plur. ; plot, 
•atratagem ; ex inMiU^ by stratagem, 
by artifice. 

Inslgae, ^, n. ; bodge, emblem ; 
ifwi^TM fifi^ym, emblem of royalty. 



InsIgBis, e ; distinguished, 
markable,.flne. 

insolenter, adv. ; haughtily, in- 
solentiy. 

iBStat ; (he) is at hand, pursues. 

Instlgd, are, dvi, dlum\ to goad, 
stir up. 

InstitaO, ere, «I, «^um ; to teaoh. 

in-8t0, iEr«, eUU, etatum; to pur- 
sue, press upon. 

Instruit ; (he) draws up, arranges. 

lB-8tra5, «r«, «Ki, Hekim ; to draw 
up, arrange. 

Instraunt; (they) draw up, ar- 
range. 

insala, cm, f. ; island. 

integer, ^ra, f^um ; sound, fresh, 
whole. 

inteiiegd, ere, feci, ictvm ; to know, 
understand. 

inter, prep, with Aoc. ; between, 
among. 

inter-cipid, ere, api, eepUim\ to 
cut oif, intercept. 

interdifl, adv. ; in the day-^time, 
by day. 

interdnm, adv. ; sometimes. 

inlereA, adv. ; meanwhile. 

inter-ficid, ere, feeH, fectum ; to 
kill. 

interim, adv. ; meanwhile. 

inter-mittO, ere, miei, miMtm»; 
to omit, interrupt, pass, elapse. 

inter-rogA, are, avi, dtum; to 
ask, question. 

intra! ; (he) enters. 

inIrA, dre, dvi, dtum ; to go into, 
enter. 

intrd-df&cd, ere^ duxi, duetum ; to 
bring in, admit, conduct within. 

intus, adv. ; within, inside. 

in-veM, ere, «ici, tOoium ; to 
carry. 

invltd, dre, dvi. Mum ; to invite. 

iocns, {, m,~^lttr,,ioca, ^um^ n. ; 
jest, joke. 

ipse, ipea, ipaum\ self, himself 
etc ; see 890. 



IiATIN-BNGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



823 



is, ea, id\ lie, tbU one, tluit one, 
that ; see 890. 

ita, adv. ; thus, so. 

Italia, (M, t ; Italy. 

itaqne, oonj. ; and so, aooordinglj. 

item, adv. ; likewise, besides. 

iter, Uineris^ n. ; journey, road, 
march ; iUr /acere^ to make a jour* 
ney, traveL 

iterum, adv.; again, a aeoond 
time. 

in bed, dr^, «uMi, iusttimi to order. 

if&candns, a, urn; pleasing, agree- 
able, delightful, interesting. 

index, i&dieiA, m. ; judge. 

illdicd, df^ dHf tUum; to judge, 
think. 

iuf^nm, «, n. ; yoke, ridge. 

Ifliia, <M, t ; Julia. 

lulius, *l, m. ; Julius, a fkmilj 
name. 

iungd, «Ttf, iHiaa, i4Ltuium\ to 
join. 

Iflnd, (itaM, f. ; Juno, queen of the 
gods. 

Inppiter, lovU^ m. ; Jupiter, Icing 
of the gods. 

ins, «firif, n. ; right, justice, law; 
•fim cdnauUua^ eounSelor-at-law. 

iaasflf ahL sing., m. ; by the com- 
mand. 

if&stitia, (M, t ; justice. 

if&stus, a, «m ; just 

iuYenis, if, m. ; young man, 
youth. 

iavd, d»v, titoi, iUum ; to help, aid. 



liablfinas, I, m. ; Latnenns, one 
of Caesar's lieutenants. 

labor, ATM, m. ; labor, toil, exer- 
tion. 

Iab6r5, Srtj dH, dtom; to toil, 
labor, work. 

Laeedaemdn, onia^ f.«; Laoedae- 
mon, Sparta. 

Lacedaemonil, drum^ m. plnr. ; 
Lacedaemonians, Spartans. 



lacer6,ar«,doi,^ifm; to mangle, 
wound. 

lacDs, 6«, m. ; lake, pond. 

laet^, adv. ; joyfully, gladly. 

laetitia, a», f. ; joy, gladness. 

laetus, a, um ; joyful, glad. 

lapis, lapitUs^ m. ; stone. 

iatebra, CM, f. ; hiding-place, Imk- 
ing-place, retreat ; often plural. 

liatine, adv.; in the Latin hin- 
guage, in Latin. 

liatinnsi, a, um ; Latin. 

Iatr6, 9nis^ m. ; robber, brigand. 

l&tns, a, tM» ; broad, wide. 

landant ; (they) praise. 

landantnr ; (they) are praised. 

laadal; (he) praises. 

laadfitur ; (he) ia praised. 

laod6, dre, d9i, d^um; to praise, 
laud, eztoL 

lanrea, CM, f. ; lanrel, laurel crown, 
laurel wreath. 

laarna, i, f. ; lanrel-tree, lanreL 

lans, laudiA, f. ; praise, commen- 
dation. 

layantur; (they) are bathing. 

L&vlnia, ae, f. ; Lavinia, a Boman 
name. 

ISgfitas, {, m. ; ambassador, lien- 
tenant. 

Iegi6, OnU, t : a body of soldiers^ 
legion. 

legit; (he) reads. 

lector; (it) is read. 

Ieg5, «r«, ligl, tkium ; to read. 

legant; (they) read. 

legantur ; (they) are read. 

iSnis, «; smooth, so^ gentle. 

leniter, adv. ; softly, gently. 

leo, dnU^ m. ; lion. 

levis, e ; light, slight, trivial. 

levd, dr«, av», dtttm; to lighten, 
relieve, ease. 

ISx, ligis^ f. ; law. 

libeater, adv.; willingly, glad- 

liber, libera^ Uberum ; free. 
liber, librij m. ; book. 



891 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



nberalitAa, dHi, f.; libenaity, 
generosity. 

nberat ; (he) liberates, frees. 

libera, adv. ; freely. 

Kbeil, Orntm^ m. plur. ; children. 

nberA, dre^ <lvl, dtrim\ to tree, 
liberate, set tree. 

llbertfta, aiis, f. ; freedom, liberty. 

licet, er», Ueuit^ and UeUum ea^, 
impersonal ; it is allowed, permitted, 
is lawfbl. 

ll^nftrius, •(, m. ; oaipenter. 

LiBgonfis, «IT», m. plur.; Lin- 
gones, a people of QtmiL 

lingaa, cm, f. ; tongue, language. 

Lisciis, I, m. ; Liscus, a leader of 
the Aeduans. 

littera, ae, f. ; letter (of the alpha- 
bet) ; plw,, letter, epistle. 

litus, oris^ n. ; sea-shore, beaoh. 

locus, i, m.—plur,y loea, dmmj n. ; 
place. 

loagS, adv. ; at a distance, fiur. 

longns, a, nm ; long. 

loquor, i, locutui ium ; to speak, 
talk, say. 

lArum, I, n. ; reins, stnp. 

Iflbricus, a, vm ; slippery. 

Ivcema, a«, f. ; lamp. 

Lflcins, t», m. ; Ludus, a Roman 
name. 

lucrum, i, n. ; profit, gain. 

If&eus, i, m. ; grove, sacred grove. 

Ifld6, ere, «f, eum ; to play. 

Ifldns, {, m. ; game, play. 

If&na, CM, f. ; moon. 

tntum, I, n. ; mud. 

Iflx, <fi«<ff, f. ; light, daylight. 

Lf dl, (frvm^ m. plur. ; the Lydians, 
people of Lydia. 

M 

macnld, dre, ^vl, divm ; to spot, 
soil. 

MadisAuins, a, uf» ; of Madison, 
MadiBon. 

magis, adv.; more, in a higher 
degree, rather. 



maffister, tH, m. ; master, teadiw. 

magistr&tns, HSy m. ; magistrate, 
public officer. 

Maf^ius, 4i^ m. ; Magius. 

mAgitiiicS, adv. ; mognifieently, 
splendidly. 

m&srnificns, a, um; magnificent, 
splendid. 

m&i^itfldd, Utdini», f. ; greatness. 

m&srnns, a, um ; great, large. 

maior, om, compar. of tndffniu ; 
greater, lai^ger. 

mftld, mdlUj fndht^; to choose 
rather, prefer. 

mfilnm, «, n. ; apple. 

mftlus, {, f. ; apple>tree. 

maius, a, vm ; bad, vidous. 

mandal ; (he) commits, intrusts. 

mandO, are, dH, dium ; to com- 
mit, intrust. 

mane, adv. ; in the morning, early ; 
bene mane, very early. 

maneO, ire, mdnH, mdnetun'; to 
stay, remain. 

manipulus, i, m. ; handftil, com-' 
pany, mample. 

manus. He, f. ; hand, band, com- 
pany, force. 

MarathAn, dnia, f. ; Marathon, a 
plain and a town in Greece. 

MarathOnins, a, itm; of Mara- 
thon. 

Marcus, {, m. ; Marcus, a Soman 
name. 

mare, maris, n. ; sea. 

M&rtins, a, ttm ; v^f March. 

matara, ae, f. ; a javelin, lance. 

mAter, mdtris, f. : mother. 

matrimdnium, ti, n. ; marriage ; 
in mdirimdnium dueere, to many. 

mftximS, adv. ; exceedingly, rery 
much. 

maximns, a, ttm; superl. ofmdg^ 
nu8 ; greatest, largest, most important» 

mfi. Ace. of ego; me. 

mediclna, ae, f. ; medicine. 

medicus, I, m. ; pfajrsicion. 

medius, a, wn ; middle. 



LATIN-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



325 



melior, drw, oompar. of bonw; 
better. 

melius, adv., compar. of bene; 
better. 

membram, I, n. ; part, portion. 

memoria, ae^ f. ; mcmoiy, recol- 
lection. 

n&fiiisis, «9, m. ; month. 

mercalor, Ai», m. ; morohant, 
trader. 

mercSs, adisy f. ; reward, pay, 
wafi^B. 

Mercurias, ti, m. ; Mercury, 
messenger of the gods. 

merent ; (they) deserve, earn. 

mered, ire^ ui, Uum; to deserve, 
merit, cam. 

mereor, dri, meritue sum^ de- 
ponent; to deserve, merit. 

meret ; (he) deserves, earns. 

mergd, ere, merH, meraum; to 
sink. 

merididJiBS, a, um ; of mid-day, 
of noon. 

metus, 6#, m. ; fear. 

mens, a, nm; my, mine; voc 
sing, m., mi, 

miles, mUUie, m. ; soldier. 

MilCtiis, «, f. ; Miletus, a dty of 
Asia Minor. 

mllia, turn, n. plor. ; tbonsaadB. 

milifis ; a thousand times. 

mllit&ris, «, military ; r98 miU- 
tdrit^ military affiiirs, military sys- 
tem, military service. 

mllie, indecl.; thousand; mUle 
paeauum, a thousand paces, a mile. 

Jlliltiad«8, if, m. ; Miltiades, a 
Oredan general. 

Minerva, ae, f. ; Minerva, god- 
dess of wisdom. 

minime, adv. ; least of all, not at 
all. 

minor, art*, compar. of parvue ; 
less. 

minor, dri, dims8t4m ; to threaten. 
minud, «v, «i, iOum; to lessen, 
diminish. 



mlHkbilis, e ; wonderful, remark* 
able. 

mlror, or», d^tie aum; to wonder 
at, admire. 

mlms, a, um ; strange, wonderful. 

miser, mieera^ mdeerum ; wretched, 
unhappy. 

miseria, ae, f. ; wretchedness, 
misery. 

milt6, ere, miei, mieeum ; to send. 

modestus, a, um ; moderate, mod- 
est, gentle. 

modo, adv. ; just now, now ; 
mx>do . . . modo, now . . . now, some- 
times . . • sometimes. 

molestus, a, um; troublesome, 
annoying. 

mollis, e ; soft, mild, easy. 

mone5, ire, ui^ Uum ; to advise. 

monlle, is, n. ; necklace, collar. 

m5ns, m4>ntia, m. ; mountain. 

mdnstrant; (they) show, point 
out. 

mdnstrantnr ; (they) are shown^ 
pointed out. 

mdnstrat ; (he) shows, points out. 

mdnstrfttnr ; (he) is shown, point- 
ed out. 

mdnstrd, dre, dvi, &um ; to show, 
point out. 

monamentum, i, n. ; monu- 
ment, memoriaL 

mora, ae, f. ; delay. 

morbas, f , m. ; disease, dokness. 

morior, I, mortmte eum ; to die. 

moror, dri, dtua tum\ to delay, 
tarry. 

mors, m<nii», f. ; death. 

morsns, in, m. ; bite. 

mortuns, a, um ; dead. 

mAs, mUria, ni. ; custom; plur., 
mSrie, customs, manners, character. 

m6tU8, ik$, m. ; motion, move- 
ment. 

moTeO, h'e, m&vi, mMum ; to move. 

mox, adv. ; presently, soon. 

mulier, muluris, f. : woman. 

multa, ae, f. ; -pantHtj, fine. 



/ 



826 



LATIN-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



mmltitnd6,UUUnitj f. ; mnltitnde, 
great Dumber. 

mnUd, adr. ; mnoh, by muoh. 

nmllimi, adv. ; much. 

mnltas, a, um ; muoh, many. 

■iflnift, 1»^ «M or «i, Uvm\ to 
fortify. 

mfirftlis, « ; of a wall, moraL 

mf&ms, i, m. ; wall. 

mflt5, df^j dvi^ dium ; to change, 
alter. 

N 

HaeYins, *l, m. ; Naeviua, a ftmily 
name. 

nam, oobj. ; for. 

aanclflcor, {, ncteku turn ; to ob- 
tain, find. 

narraat ; (they) tell, relate. 

a&rrantar; (they) are told, re- 
lated. 

narrat ; (he) tells, relates. 

B&rrfitnr ; (it) is told, narmted. 

narrd, dre^ dvi, atum ; to tell, nar- 
rate, relate. 

n&scor, i, ndtue mm ; to be bcm. 

Pf ft^ca, «M, m. ; Nasiea, a Soman 
name, 

natalis, e; of birth, natal; diiB 
ndtdUs, birthday. 

natant ; (they) swim. 

natat; (he) swims. 

nat5, dre, dvi^ dhtm; to swim, 
float. 

nAtf&ra, <u, f. ; nature. 

nanta, a«, m. ; sailor. 

nftvalis, s ; pertaining to a sliip, 
naval. . 

n&Yig5, dre^ dvi, dhim ; to sail, 
cruise ; fUicUer nd/tttgdri^ to havQ a 
prosperous voyage. 

nAvlB, if, f. ; ship ; ndvU longa, 
long ship, ship of war. 

nfi, adv. and conj. with subj. ; not, 
that not, lent. 

ne, 0MUUo ; see 95. 

nebalA, dwi», m. ^ idler, scamp. 

nee, coiy. ;. nor, and not; n4c . . , 
4M0, neither '. . . nor. 



necess&riA, adv.; unavoidably, 
necessarily. 

necesse, neut. a^j. ; necessary. 

need, are dvi^ dtum ; to kill, put 
to death. 

nefarie, adv. ; abominably, wick- 
edly. 

negant ; (they) deny, refuse. 

negat ; (he) denies, reftxses. 

nego, ar«, dvi, dtum ; to deny, re- 
fuse. « 

nSmo, flSmt'nl, «Cmnem, m. and 
1 ; no one, nobody. 

nepos, dtU^ m. ; grandson. 

neqne, conj. ; nor, and not. 

n^seid, ifv, ivi or ti; not to 
know, to be ignorant. 

nSve, coig. ; and not, nor. 

niger, nigra^ nigrum ; black, dark. 

nihil, inded. ; nothing. 

nisi, coiy. ; if not, unless, except. 

no, ndre^ ndvl ; to swim, float. 

Bdbilis, «; higb-bom, noble, fa- 
mous ; plur., ndbilia, the nobles. 

noetQ, adv. ; by night, at night. 

noli; be unwilling; ndU inirdre^ 
do not enter. 

ndlo, ndlU^ n6lu€ ; not to wish, to 
be tmwilling. 

ndmen, nOmtnit^ n. ; name. 

nominA, dre, dvi, dtum ; to name, 
give a name, 

n An, adv. ; not. 

nAndam; adv. ; not yet. 

nAn-ne; not! See 95. 

nAn-nflllas, a, um ; some, several. 

nAn-nnnqnam, adv. ; sometimes. 

noster, nodra, norirum ; our. 

nAtns, a, vm ; known, well known. 

novem ; nine ; see 882. 

noTus, a, itm ; new. 

nox, noetie^ f. ; night. 

nflbAs, w, f. ; cloud. 

nfldA, dre, dioi^ dtum ; to lay bare, 
expose, uncover. 

nflUa, f. sing. ; not any, no. 

iiflllus, a, um ; not any, no. See 
878. 



LATDr-KNGLISH VOCABULAET. 



327 



tnterrog. pKrdele ; see 98. 
H «BMi PoMpilivs, IfumoB Pony- 
piluy HL ; Nnmft PompUos, a Somaa 

HwMeetefl,*!; Nuniflrias. 

BWBeiA, «re, avi, d^mn ; to orant, 
onminerate, ooimt ont, pay. 

mmm/Brm^ Sm.; namben 

■«B€^ adv. ; sow. 

mmm^^mmmLf adw. ; never. 

mftBtift, or», ooi, ^im»; to npert, 
UHKnuiee, make fcoowii. 

mftmtiafl, t£, m. ; meBscnger, mea- 

mftper, adv. ; leoently, lately. 
■fttAfOns, 092, a^iff»; toned, shake. 



O, intcijeotian ; O I ob I 

•li-icid, «rs, M0i, iaetm» ; to tinvw 
bcfioze, tbrow np. 

obliTiBiMNr, t, l&rue sum; to far- 
get. 

•bBAxivB, a, vfl»; fiaUa, sobjeet 
to. 

•knio, ere, iti, «^icm; to ovap- 
iribcira, eover. 

mimehj.idia, m, and £. ; lioetage. 

«re,aii2i, — uui ; to ke- 
blockade. 

arv, ifi, ttttham:; to ao- 
qnire, obknn. 

•bCrvsctflljOff, 0rH, bl , tfadnoar, 
alandfirer, enemy. 

ooKiAd, «TB, ebft, flina»; to etrSce 
down, out down, kilL 

•cciCTg, a, wa, paiiae.; aiMn; 
pher,y eooifli, tbe slain. 

•ecalft, ens, «i, ^am * toliii 
oeaL 

•ecH^aat; (they) 
d^adae. 

•ocvpat; (he) takes posBesBifni 

oocsapo, ore, dtfi, Stum; to take 
ponnnnciBn of, soIsol, oooupy. 
- oooBiToi, ^r% emrr% e wrm m ; to 



OcstftvlftaBs, {, m.; 

afterward Emjwor Aagnatna. 

ac«hia, i, m. ; eye. 

•dcHT, dru, VL ; odor. 

•Meadd, «rv, Jeni^ ftntmm; to 
ofiBsod, vex, displease. 

to bring before, to offer. 
oficiBM, M, n. ; servioe, doty. 
•taut, i, n. ; oil. 
5iuK, adv. ; formerly, onee npen a 



o-flftitto, ert, mm, fntMiMn.; to 
leave ont, omit. 

€muB, e; all, every. 

«Hiiis, oneris, n. ; burden, load. 

•pera, oe, f. ; work, service, 
aid. 

•perftrnn, •£, m.; labeanr, woik- 



operio, ^v, tci, <;per^tH» ; to oover ; 
opmtug, covered. 

•ppidBfl^ %j n. ; town, city. 

0p-|iriBra, ATfi, jwant, praanMn*^ to 
take by snzprise, press bard, oppress, 
e^erwbflihB. 

op-pAgAd, are, dsi, oNim ; to at- 
tacJk, asfinTl stosan. 

(ops), opM, f. ; bdp, aid. 

•ptiiiig, aupBrl. of bme; XBOSt ex- 
oelleiitly, 'best 

<»ptaauia, ai^ieri. ofboMu; best. 

«pnleatefi, a, im» ; liob, wealtfaj. 

•p«B, cperU, n. ; irark, need. 



dimtie, 9nU, £ ; oration, bj^oosAl 

teator, drM, m. ; «ator. 

•rMa, M, m. ; ring, oizde, eirent ; 
ofUff ^flrronan, eirde of l2ie kmda, As 
world. 

ftraaBBeaiaa^ ^ ii^*? adonnmat, 
jewel, trinlraiL 

inuat; (they) adorn, deeegate, 
fimuali. 

araaatar; (they) are adamad, 
daoofitBd, fnrnidiad. 

ftraat ; (he) 
fimudieB. 



828 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULABY. 



6niAt«r; (he) Is adomed, d«eo- 
zmted, ftuniriied. 

ftmAtiis, 0, nm ; equipped, 
ftdomed. 

drm^ dr€, Jvi, dtum ; to adorn, 
deoorato, fUrnish. 

Arft, 4r«, dvi, d^ufl» ; to ask, beg, 
beseeoh. 

5s, lirii^ iu ; month, ftoe. 

ostendd, «ri, «^ ton» ; to show. 

datinn, «{, n. ; door. 

ostmiii, i, n. ; pnrple, purple 
dress. 

dlidsiia, a, um ; unoocapiod, idle. 

dliam, is, n« ; rest, leisurs. 



paene, adv. ; almost, nearly. 

IMilliiiBi, «{, n. ; doak. 

Panthenm, i, n. ; Pantheon, a 
tomplc at Bome. 

par, parii ; equal, like. 

parens, a, ttm ; sparing. 

parens, par^nUa^ m. and f. ; par- 
ent. 

pftred, 2r0, «i, ; to obey, be 

obedient, be subject. 

paries, parted J m. ; wall (as of a 
house). 

pari A, ere^pfpeti^patium ; to bring 
forth, prodnoe, gain. 

paiiter, adv. ; equally, alike. 

parA, dr^ dvi^ 4ium ; to prepare, 
make ready. 

pars, partU^ f. ; part, party, di- 
rection. 

parTns, a, im» ; small, little. 

passer, />MMr»t, m. ; sparrow* 
* paaans, ito, m. ; pace; fniUe pa»" 
«vf<m, a thousand paces, a mile. 

pftstor, ^TM, m. ; shepherd. 

pater, patria, m. ; fitther. 

pattens, miie ; enduring, patient. 

patria, a«, f. ; one's country, na- 
tive land. 

patrimAninm, #{, n. ; patomal 
estatot inheritanee, property left by 
ono*8 father. 



panel, m, s. ; few. 

panlatim, adv.; little by little» 
gradually. 

panIA, adv. ; a little, somewhaL 

panlna, a, tw» ; little, small. 

panper, pauperis ; poor. 

pftz, pdeie^ f. ; peace. 

peeflnia, a#, f. ; money, property. 

pecns, orisj n. ; cattle. 

pedes, pedUis^ m. ; ibo&«oldier; 
pedttit^ foot- soldiers, infimtry. 

pedester, ira, trum; of in&ntry, 
pedestrian. 

per, prep, with aoc. ; through, by, 
during. 

perbreTis, «; very short, very 
brief. 

percnssor, ^tm, m. ; murderer, 
assassin. 

per-dd, er&, didi^ dUum ; to lose. 

per-fici5, ere^/^j/eetum; to fin- 
ish, perfeot. 

per-fring6, ere, /«^* /rdctum^ 
to break through. 

PericISa, m, m.; Pericles, a famous 
Athenian. 

peilcnlAsns, a, «m; dangerona, 
perilous. 

peilcninni, f, n. ; danger, peril. 

perltns, a, urn ; praotieed, skiHfnL 

per-moTeA, 2r«, m&viy miHum\ to 
move deeply, rouse, influence. 

per-5rA, dr», dei, dtum; to apeak 
at length, dose, finish. 

per-petior, i^pemu sum ; to bear, 
suffer, be patient. 

perpetr A, dr», AH, dium ; to com- 
plete, commit. 

perpetnA, adv. ; constantly, for- 
ever. 

perpetnna, a, «m; entire, per- 
petual; inperpetvum, perpetual, for- 
ever. 

Persae, drum, m. plur. ; the Per- 

peraaepe, adv. ; very often* 
per-seqaor, i, sseMus sum'y t6 
follow, pursue, persecute. 



LATIN-BNGLISH VOCABULARY. 



829 



per>terre(V, dr«, «l, Hum ; to ter- 
rify greatly. 

pertnrli&tiA, Ants, f. ; eonAuion, 
dietarboiice. 

per-Teni(V, Ir^, v9ni, veiUnm*^ to 
arrive, reach. 

pS8,jMtMf, m.^ foot. 

petA, «TV, pdlvi or peii^^ petUum ; 
to seek, desire, ask for. 

petiimt ; (they) seek. 

phalanx, langU, f. ; battalion, 
phalanx. 

PhanftUcna, a, «m ; of PharMi- 
Ins, Pharsalian. 

Phldippas, {, m. ; Fhidippus. 

Philadelphia, <m, f.; Philadel- 
phia. 

pica, a^ f. ; magpie. 

pictnB, a, um ; painted. 

pila, M, f. ; halL 

pllnia, i, n. ; javelin. 

pingrais, e ; fat, rich. 

pinna, €tt and i, f. ; pine-tree. 

plrAta, CM, m. ; sea-robber, pirate. 

pimm, i, n. ; pear. 

pirns, f, f. ; peaivtree. 

pi§ei8, M, m. ; fisK 

Pins, fi, m. ; Pins, a title of the 
Emperor Titus Antoninus. 

placed, ^0, tff, t^um ; to please, be 
pleasing. 

placide, adr. ; gently, quietly. 

plAga, <M,£ ; blow, out, wound. 

Plataetarts, nmi, m. plw. ; the 
Plataeans. 

platea, cm, t ; street, avenue. 

plandA, «r«, «f, mm; to applaud, 
give applause. 

pl6b8,/»2lMf, f. ; the common peo- 
ple. 

plfinns, a, urn ; full, plump. 

plSmmqne, adv. ; generally. 

Plinins, if, m. ; PHny, a Boman 
writer, 

plflitmns, c^ tim, superl. of muU 
te«; very many. 

plfls, plQriBy oompar. of mulUis ; 
m<Mre, many, several* 



plAs, adv. ; more. 

poena, as, f. ; satisfaction, punish* 
ment, penalty ; potnam dat^ (he) suf- 
fers punishment. 

Poenns, I, m. ; a Carthaginian. 

pofita, otf, m. ; poet. 

pompa, <M, f. ; procession. 

PompAil, drum, m. plur. ; Pom- 
peii, andent city in Italy. 

PompAins, i», m. ; Pompey, 
Qnaeus Pompey. 

Pompiiins, ti, m.; Pompilius, 
Numa Pompilius, a Boman king. 

pondns, ponderis^ n. ; weight, 
mass, amount. 

pdn6, ere, poeul, potUum ; to place. 

pAns, porUiB, m. ; bridge. 

populns, I, m. ; people, tribe, na- 
tion. 

porrigd, ere, rftcf, nctum\ to 
stretch out, hold forth. 

porta, (M, f. ; gate, door. 

portani; (they) carry. 

portat ; (he) carries. 

porticns, Ite, m. ; gallery, portaoo. 

portA, drej dvi^ dtwn ; to cany. 

portns, ^, m. ; harbor, port 

"possank^poBtejpotvi; to be able; 
possum, I can. 

post, prep, with Aoc. ; after, be- 
hind. 

post, adv. ; after, afterward. 

postefi, adv. ; afterword. 

posterns, a, um\ following, next. 

posthAc ; after this, benoeforth. 

postqnam, conj. ; after. 

postildiA, adv. ; on the following 
day. 

postnlant ; (they) ask, demand. 

postnlat ; (he) asks, demands. 

postnlfitnm, i, n. ; demand. 

postnlA, dre^ dei^ d^um; to de- 
mand, ask. 

potest&s, diis, f. ; power. 

potior, iri^ Uus sum ; to acquire, 
obtain, secure. ' 

praebeA, Sr», «^ Hum; to ofliDr, 
Aunish, give. 



880 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULABY. 



praeceptor, HHb, m. ; imtanofeor, 
pi«oeptor. 

praeclAms, a, um; very re- 
nowned, very famous. 

praedai <m, f. ; booty, plunder. 

praedO, dnw, m. ; plunderer, rob- 
ber. 

praeficid, er0,/9ei,/eetum\ to set 
over, place in oommand. 

(prae-for), pra^-fdH^ jprat'/diua 
#«m; to say beforehand, preface. 

praeiaium, tf, n. ; reward, pre- 
numn, prize. 

praes^ns, teniie ; preeent, at hand. 

praest&bilis, 4 ; excellent ; pra&- 
iUtbiUor, preferable. 

prae-8t5, orv, diUf OUum ; to fiir- 
niafa, pive. 

prae-snm, tne^ful ; to be in com- 
mand, be over. 

praeter, prep, with Aoc. ; except, 
besides. 

praetere&f adv. ; besides, in ad- 
dition. 

praetor, drU^ m. ; pruetor, a Bo- 
man magistrate. 

prae-venid, ire, «8f»{, v€tUum\ to 
precede, outstrip. 

pratam, I, n. ; meadow. 

pretiAsQS, a, tim\ valuable, pre- 
cious, costly. 

pretiam, ii, n. ; price, value. 

pifmd, adv. ; at irst. 

pilmam, adv. ; first. 

ptlmas!, a, um ; first. 

princepa, eipi»^ m. ; chieftain, 
loader, prince. 

pr5, prep, with Abl. ; for, in be- 
half of. 

pr5-Gdd5, 0r#, eMti, eeaaum ; to go 
forth, advance. 

proc^ras, a, um ; high, tall. 

procal, adv. ; at a distance, f4.r off. 

prd-dAcA, er», «JOopi, tkuiwm'^ to 
lead forth. 

proelinm, a, n. ; batde, oonfliot 

proficlscor, c, fectut 9um\ to set 
out, march. 



prd-fligd, d/v, dviy dium ; to over- 
come, conquer, cru^h. 

pr5'*9redior, I, grtttua «tm»; to 
go forth, advance. 

prl^gressas, ^, m. ; advance, 
progress; qf ten plural. 

prdmiscae, adv.; oonfbsedly, in 
oonltision. 

prope, adv. ; almost, about. 

properd, dre, 4«i, dimm; to hasten, 
huny. 

proplnqans, a, um ; near. 

prd-pAn6, ere, po^ti^i poeiium; 
to propose, ofier. 

propter, prep, with Aoc ; on ac- 
count of. 

proptereft qnod ; because. 

prd-aeqvor, f, eedttue #»«»; to 
follow. 

prd-8tem5, ere, drd/H^ drdivm\ 
to cast down, destroy, overthrow. 

prdtians, adv. ; at once. 

prftviacia, 00, f. ; province. 

pr4^xini6, adv. ; nearest, next. 

prdzimus, a, «m ; nearest, next. 

prfldSns, mUm ; prudent. 

pAblicBS, a, um ; public ; ra» ^6- 
hUMy republic, commonwealth. 

paella, oe, f. ; girL 

pner, jmmH, m. ; boy. 

pflgna, CM, f. ; battle, fight. 

pfkgnaat ; (they) fight. 

pftgnal; (he) fights. 

pftgnA, dare, «ioi, dium ; to fight. 

palcher, t^rcL, ehrvm ; beautiiiiL 

palchriifldd, dinU^ f. ; beauty. 

pnllas, f , m. ; chicken. 

pnlvis, jpv^«m,m. ; dust. 

pappia, «f, m. ; stem. 

pflms, a, um ; dean, pure. 

pasillnff, a, vm\ very small, in* 
significant. 

qna, adv. ; where, in which place. 
qnadrAginta, indecl. ; forty. 
qnadringenil, ae, a\ four buiw 
dred. 
quae, f. sing. ; which, what! • • 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABITLABr. 



831 



qnaerdy ervt, quaenivi^ quauUum; 
to ask, inquire. 

qnam, oox^j. ; than. 

qaam, adv. ; how ? as, quam di&^ 
how long? as long as. 

qaamvls, coiij. ; although. 

qaandd, oo^j. ; when? 

qaantas, a, vm ; how mueh, how 
great? 

quArS, adv. ; wherefore, therefore. 

qa&rtas, a, nm ; fourth. 

quasi, conj. ; aa if, aa it were. ■ 

qaattaor, indecl. ; four. 

que, mcUHc; and. 

qaem, ace m. ; whom ? 

qal, qttasj quod, rel. pronoun ; who ; 
Bee o04. 

qnid, Nom. or Aoo. iieut. ; what? 

quidam, quaedamj quoddam, or 
quiddam ; a certiun, a cortain one. 

quidem, adv. ; certainly, at least, 
in &ot ; ta quidem, not even. 

qniSscd, ere, quin^, quiHtim ; to 
rest, be quiet. 

qalBf^enfl, ae, a ; Ave hundred. 

qalnqnagiata, inded. ; fifty. 

qalnqae, inde<fl. ; five. 

qulntus, a, um ; fifth. 

Qnlntns, «, m. ; Quintus, a Bo- 
man name. 

Qnitltes, turn, nL plur. ; Quirites, 
Bomans. 

qnis, quae, quid; who? see 891. 

qais, quae, qwid; any, any <me, 
some one ; see 892. 

qaisquam, quaequam^ qwidquam; 
any one, some one, some. 

quod, conj. ; because, that. 

qvomodo, adv.; in what way! 
how? 

qaondam, adv. ; formerly, onoe, 
on one occasion. 

qvoqne, coij. ; also, too. 

quorsam, adv. ; to what end! for 
what? why? 

qaot, indecl. ; how many ? 

quota ft, «, iM»; which, what (of 
fiumlter)? 



B 

rftdlx, ids, f. ; root, base. 

rapina, ae, f. ; robbeiy, plunder, 
pillage. 

recipi5, ere, ti^pi, eqftum; to re- 
ceive, admit. 

r£cl6, adv. ; rightly, well. 

recamb6, ere, cubui, — *~ ; to lie 
down. 

recaperd, are, dH, dUtm; to re^* 
gain, recover. 

re-cnrrd, ere, ettrri, eureum; to 
hasten back, return. 

red>dd, ere, didi, dUum; to give 
back, return. 

red-ed, ire, iei or tl, Hum ; to go 
back, return. 

red-igo, ere, iqi, actum; to re- 
duce, subdue. 
I red-imd, ere, emi, emptum ; to re^ 
lease, ransom. 

re-dAc5, ere, dUxl, dudum; to 
lead back, bring back. 

re-fer5, re-ferre, ret-tuU, re^lA' 
turn; to bring baek, retnni. 

rggia, ae, f. ; palace. 

r^na, ae, t ; queen. 

regid, Snie, f. ; region, neighbor- 
hood, country. 

rCgins, a, urn; kingly, regal, 
royal. 

rSgnd, are, d«i, dtum ; to rrign, 
be king, govern. 

reg5, ere, rixi, rietvm ; to rule. 

rMciA, ere, iiH, iedum ; to throw 
back, repidse. 

re-linqnd, ere, Uqui, Uetum; to 
leave, abandon. 

relinqaant ; (they) leave. 

re-lflced, ire, Ulxi; to shine out, 
blaze. 

re-maned, 9re, mdnei, ; to 

lemain, stay. 

remedinm, n, n. ; cure, remedy. 

remdtiis, a, um ; separate, apart. 

re-noTA, dre^ &oi, dktm; to le-. 
pair, restore, renew. 

repentA, adv. ; suddenly. 



338 



LATIK-KNaUSH VOCABUIiABT. 



toiod. 

fe-pet4l, «V, fvi or A, Hih»; to 
■eek ■gain, retuni to. 

repa4i5) are^ di9i^ 4tvm\ to le- 
jeet, divofoe. 

nSs, ivl, £ ; thing, aibir, nutter ; 
ftr mil i i dris^ militoiy aflain, mOitaiy 
i^stem, militaxjr Mnrioe ; rdr pUbUeOy 
repuMie, oommonwetltb ; riv mctm^ 
4a^ prosperity. 

re-ri«ld, «Tf, j^t/*; to stop, stand 

atni. 

ie-apoii4e6, dre^ tpotuU, §p9mtmm ; 
to answer, respond, reply. 

reapdBSBBi, i, n. ; reply, answer. 

rt'Stltiid, erv, «i, fi^tim: to le- 
plaoe, restoreu 

reus, I, m.; defendant, aociised, 
culprit. 

re-TellA, er«, i, wdnim ; to pluck 
away, poll out. 

re-Tertor, I, mttm turn ; to toni 
hack, return* 

re-vincid, ire, «inxi, 9inctum\ to 
Und ftst, fasten, lie. 

rSx, re^, m. ; king. 

Rheniis, i, m. ; Bhine, the river 
Bhine. 

Rkodas, i, f. ; Bhodes, the island 
of Bhodes, the city of Bhodes. 

Ricardus, i, m. ; Bichard. 

Ilde6, ire^ #{, gum ; to langh, 
■mile. 

ilpa, ae, f. ; bank (of a river). 

rlvas, i, m. ; stream, brook« 

Rdma, ae, f. ; Bome. 

Rdmftnl, ^um, m. plur. ; Bo- 
mans. 

Rdmftniis, a, vri ; Boman. 

R6malas, i, m. ; Bomulus, re- 
puted founder of Bome. 

RAscias, *i, m. ; Bosdus, proper 
name. 

rdstra, Orwn^ n. plur. ; stage, 
platform. 

rc»ta, <w, f. ; wheeL 

ruber, hra, hrum ; red. 



ruins. 

rfiflior, dritj m. ; report, nuncv. 

rtsticaa, a, nm; of the ooontiy, 
rural, rustic. 



saeena, i, m. ; sack, bi^. 

aaepe, adv. ; often. 

sagitta, ae^t; arrow. 

Salamlaiaa, a, tM» ; of 6alanii&. 

aalteiB, adv. ; at least. 

aalfis, fi^, t ; safiely, welfiuo. 

aalfltat; (he) greets, welcomes, 
salutea. 

aalfltaai; (tkey) greet, welcome, 
salute. 

8alatatid,^ii«», f. ; greeting, aalu- 
tation. 

salatator, dris^ m.; one who 
greets, calkr. 

8alflt5, drtj dvl, dium ; to greet, 
welcome, salute. 

salyfi ; hail. 

Samii, dnmi, m. plur. ; Samians, 
people of Samoa. 

sapifias, «n^; wise. 

sapienter, adv. ; wisely. 

sapieatia, €w, f. ; wisdom. 

satis, adv. ; enough, suffident. 

satins, adv. ; better, preferable. 

scelerfttas, a, um\ widked, vil- 
lainouB. 

scelas, seeieriB, n. ; crime, sin, mis- 
deed. 

schola, 0«, f. ; school. 

scientia, ae, f.\ sdenoe, knowl- 
edge. 

8ci6, fr4^ i«» or «i, Uun^; to know ; 
OraecH tdre^ to know Greek ; Zatini 
§eSrej to know Lstin. 

8c1pi6, d»M, m. ; Scipio. 

8cTpi6 Africftnns, Si^pidnU 
Afriewni ; Sdpio Africanus. 

Scotl, drum, m. plur. ; Scots. 

scrlbit ; (he) writes. 

Bcrlbitar ; (it) is written. 

sell bo, erty BcHpt^ scriptumi to 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



333 



imte; 0raec9tcribere,U>wAteQre»k\ 
Zatini scribere^ to write Latin. 

sctibunt ; (they) write. 

scrlbQntiir ; (tboy) are written. 

scrlptor, Oris,, m. ; writer. 

sC, Aoc; hinuelfy herself, itself, 
themselves. 

sS-cSd6, «rtf, eem, eetsum ; to with- 
draw, retire, secede. 

secniidaB, a, vm; second, favor- 
able, propitious ; ria aecundae ; see rU, 

secfliis, i#, m. ; axe. 

sed, co^j. ; but. 

sedent ; (they) sit 

seded, dre, »idl^ ussum ; to sit, sit 
still. 

sedSs, 4s, f. ; seat, abode, founda- 
tion. 

sSdd, are, dvl, dtttm; to settle, 
quiet, check. 

sella, <M, f. ; seat, chair. 

semper, adv. ; always. 

sempiternus, a, am ; everlasting, 
perpetual. 

SemprAnins, ti, m. ; Sempronins, 
a Boman name. 

■eiiAtor, dris, m. ; senates. 

■en&tus. Us, m. ; senate. 

Seneca, «w, m. ; Seneca, a Boman 
author. 

rtnsim, adv. ; gradually, gentij. 

sententia, as, f. ; opinion, idea, 
sentiment, sentence. 

sentio, ire^ «^nti, simum ; to feel, 
perceive. 

s^paraatar; (they) are separated. 

septem, inded. ; seven. 

•eptimns, a, «m ; seventh. 

septnAgfiaimBS, a, ttm ; seven- 
tieth. 

sepaltfira, a«, f. ; burial. 

S^aanns, a, um ; of the 8eqna- 
nians. 

seqaor, I, seeOius sum ; to follow, 
accompany. 

■erfinns, a, nm ; bright, clear. 

■ennd, ^m, m. ; discourse, con- 
▼ersation. 



serrid, ire^ fvl or ii, Uum; to 
serve, devote one's self to. 

servitas,i2^,f.; slaveryjservitude. 

Servins, ii, m. ; Servius, a Boman 
king. 

senr6, drSy dvi, atum ; to save, 
preserve. 

servns, {, m. ; slave, servant. 

sSstertins, «€, m. ; sesterce ; tUster- 
Hum, with centHna miHa omitted = 
100,000 sesterces, about $5,000 ; mUi9s 
SisterUnm = 1,000 x 100,000 = 100,- 
000,000 sesterces, about $5,000,000. 

sea, oo^j. ; or if; seu . . . seu, 
whether ... or. 

seTfiniB, a, 'um\ severe, strict, 
stem. 

sex, inded. ; six. 

8ex&gint&, indecl. ; sixty. 

sextus, a, urn ; sixth. 

Sextns, i, m. ; Sextus, a Boman 
name. 

si, coi^. ; if, whether. 

sic, adv. ; thus, so. 

sibilas, i, m. ; hissing. 

SiciUa, ae, f. ; Sicily, island of 
Sicily. 

slgnnm, {, n. ; sign, signal, stand- 
ard. 

signified, S/rs, doi, dtum ; to show, 
mean. 

silva, (M, f. ; wood, forest. 

simnl, adv. ; at the same time, at 
once. 

simulAomm, {, n. ; likeness, 
image, imitation; simvlderumpiignaey 
a sham battle, 

simnld, cure, dvl, dtum; to imi- 
tate, copy, feign, oounterfeit. 

sin, co^j. ; if, however, but if. 

sine, prep, with Abl. ; without. 

sind, ere, sivn, situm ; to aUow, 
permit. 

sdbrins, a, um ; sober, temperate, 
sensible, reasonable. 

socer, soeeri, m. ; father-in-law. 

societas, dUs, f. ; union, assoda- 
tion, alllanoe. 



884 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



socias, A, m. ; companion, fellow. 

S5crat€8, it, m. ; Socrates, Athe- 
nian philoeopber. 

851, tdUtf m. ; sun. 

85le5, ire, tUUui turn; to bo ao- 
ensfcomecL 

sOlitadO, dinU, f. ; lonelineBS, 
desert, wilderacss. 

sollemiiiB, t ; solemn, onRtomaiy, 
festive. 

sollieitas, a, um ; disturbed, anx- 
ious. 

Soldn, A»w, m. ; Solon, Athenian 
lawj^ver. 

86I11S, a, um \ alone. 

solTd, ere, eolvi, sollUum ; to ftee, 
release, end, pay. 

8oror, dm, f. ; sister. 

Sparta, ae, f. ; Sparta. 

Spart&nl, &ntm, m» plur. ; Spar- 
tans. 

spatiniD, ii, n. ; space, interval* 

spect&cnlaiii, i, n. ; sight, speo- 
tocle, view. 

spectat ; (he) looks at, watches. 

spect&ti5, dnis, f. ; exhibition, 
sight, show. 

spectfttor, Oris, m. ; lookeiH>n, 
spectator. 

spectd, dre, SH, Mum; to look at, 
view, watch. 

specQS, He, m, ; cave, den, 

spSs, tpei, f. ; hope. 

spina, (M, f. ; thorn. 

spiendidns, a, vm; brilliant, 
splendid, magnificent, goi^geous, fine. 

splended, ire, , ; to shine, 

be bright. 

spoiinm, ii, n. ; booty, spoil. 

sponded, ire, epopotuU, splhtsum ; 
to promise solemnly. 

Stabiae, Orum, f. plur.; Stabiae, 
city of Italy. 

statiin,adv.; at once. Immediately. 

statna, <u, t ; statue. 

stata5, ere, ui, lUvm\ to deter- 
mine, order. 

statflra, a$, t ; height, siita, stature. 



stlpendinm^ €i, n. ; salary, pay^ 
etipendium merire, to serve in the 
army, be a soldier. 

8t0, dre, iteti, ttatum*, to stand, 
stand still. 

stringit ; (he) draws, xmBhcathes. 

8tude6, h^, ui, ; to be eager, 

desire. 

stadinm, ii, n.; desire, zeal, study. 

stndiAsS, adv.; studiously, zeal- 
ously. 

8ub, prep, with Ace and Abl. ; nn- 
der, at the foot of. 

snb-dficd, tte, d&oA, ductum; to 
withdraw. 

8ab-ici6, ere, iid, iedum; to 
ttirow up, make subject, expose. 

sabito, adv. ; sibddenly, immedi- 
ately. 

snbmergitar ; (he) is sinking. 

snb-merg5, ere, merH, m&rwm ; to 
sink, submerge. 

8ab-8crib6, ere, teHpei, aeriptum ; 
to write underneath. 

saccSdd, ere, ciu€, eeuum; to 
come under, advance, march up. 

snf-ficid, ere, /id, /edntm ; to at- 
tach to, make &st to. 

suf-figd, ere, /txi, /ixum ; to at- 
tach, affix, cruci auftgere, to cruoiQr. 

saggestQS, He, m. ; platform, 
stage. 

sul, pronoun ; of himself; for de^ 
cUnaion see 266. 

Sulla, ae, m. ; Sulla, a famous Bo- 
man generaL 

sum, 'e88e,fui\ to be. 

samnans, superi. of auperue; 
greatest, highest, topmost. 

sunt ; (tliey) are. 

supellez, lecUUe, f. ; ftuniture. 

super, prep, with Aoo. and Abl. ; 
above, 

snperanfnr; (they) are over- 
come, conquered. 

•uperbia, ae, f. ; pride, arrogance. 

8uperbuB,a, um\ proud, haughty. 

•uperus, a, vm ; high, upper; 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULABT. 



835 



oomp. tuperioTj siiperl. iupr^tMtSy nim^ 
mus, 

snper5, dr0, dvi, dtnm; to sur- 
mount, conquer, pass, sarpass. 

soper-sam, esae/fni; to remain, 
survive. 

sappUciam, d, n. : punishment, 
pennltj. 

snrgit ; (he) rises. 

sas-cipio, «r«, api, cqftum; to 
undertake. 

saspicid, dnu^ f. ; distrust, sus- 
picion. 

sns-tine5, ire, «{, tenium ; to sus- 
tain, withstand. 

sfltor, dm, m. ; shoemaker. 

sons, a, um ; hit», lier, their. 

Syria, a«, f. ; Syria, a country of 
Asia Minor. 



tabnla, a«, f ; tablet. 

tacent ; (they) are silent. 

tace5, ire^ tii, Uum ; to be silent, 
keep stilL 

Tacitus, I, m. ; Tacitus, a Boman 
historian. 

taientam, {, n. ; talent, about 
$1,100. 

tftiis, e\ such. 

tarn, adv. ; so. 

tamen, adv. ; yet, nevertheless, 
still. 

tandem, adv. ; at length, at last. 

tantd, adv. ; so much, so greatly. 

tantas, a, «a» ; so great, so huge, 
so much. 

Tarqalnias, tf, m. ; Taiquin, 
a Eoman king. 

tannis, i, m. ; bull ; tauriflSbnwn^ 
Bull Bun. 

tS, Ace. sing. ; you, thee. 

tectum, i, n. ; roof, house. 

tegd, «p<, f&Bi, Uetum ; to cover. 

tSlum, f, n. ; weapon, spear, jave- 
lin. 

temeritftN, <Km, f. ; rashness. 

templam, 2, n. ; temple. 



tempns, oris, n. ; time, season ; 
phtr., tempora, the times, times. 

tendo, €r6, teUndij tentnm; to 
stretch out, extend. 

tenebrae, drum, f.; darknesa. 

teneo, ire, «{, terUum; to hold, 
keep. 

tener, era, erum; tender, young, 
delicate. 

tenet ; (he) holds. 

tenent ; (they) hold. 

tentat ; ^he) tries, attempts. 

tentd, are, dvi, dtum ; to tzji at» 
tempt. 

tent5riam, m, n. ; tent. 

tennis, e ; slim, thin, slender. 

Terentia, ae, f. ; Terentia. 

tergum, I, n. ; back ; tergum dai^ 
he turns his back, flees. 

terminat ; (he) bounds, limits. 

terra, ae, f ; land, earth ; orbia 
terrdrum, the circle of the lands, the 
world. 

terrent ; (they) frighten, terrify. 

terrentur; (Uiey) are frightened, 
terrified. 

terred, h^, vi, Uum ; to frighten, 
terrify. 

tenet ; (he) frightens, terrifies. 

terrStur ; (he) is frightened, terri- 
fied. 

terribilis, e ; Mghtftil, terrible. 

terror, dm, m. ; fright, dread, 
fear, terror. 

tertins, a, wn ; third. 

testis, ii, m. and f. ; witness. 

test&mentnm, {, n. ; will, testa- 
ment. 

thefttmm, I, n. ; theatre. 

ThemistociSs, i and it, m. ; Tho- 
mistocles, Athenian general. 

Thessalia, ae, f.; Thessaly, coun- 
try north of Greece. 

timris, Hgridi*, m. ; tiger. 

timent ; (they) fear. 

timentur; (they) are feared. 

timed, dr», iii; to fear, dread, bo 
afraid ot 



886 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULABY. 



timet ; (he) fean. 

timfttar ; (ho) is feared. 

TIni6a, ^ni», m. ; Timon, proper 
name. 

timor, Oria^ m. ; fear. 

Titus, {, m. ; Titua. 

toga, CM, f. ; toga, gown, outer 
garment. 

toler6, dr€, dvi, ahtm ; to endure, 
suffer. 

tolid, trey ntduUy ntbldltim; to 
raise, lift up, take up, remove, destroy. 

torqaia, if, dl and f. ; neoklaoe, 
collar. 

torred, 2yv, lorrui, iottwn^ to 
roast, bake, 

tdtns, a, vm ; all, entire ; for de- 
clension, see 877. 

tra-do, er«, didi^ dUwm ; to hand 
over, deliver, relate, report. 

trftgala, a«, f. ; javelin, dart 

trahd, erty f fosei, traetum ; to draw, 
drag. 

tr&-icid, «r», tdoi, Uebum ; to oross, 
oroflsover. 

trftns, prep, with Aoo. ; aoroes ; 
trSna ShHiumy across the Rhine. 

tr&ns-e5, ire, ini or ti, Uum ; to 
go across, cross. 

tr&asennt ; (they) cross. 

tr&ns-fEg5, «r«, /iosi, /«a»M9»; to 
pierce. 

tr&asit ; (he) crosses. 

tremd, «r«, ul ; to tremble, shake, 
quake. 

tremor, drw, m. ; trembling, shak- 
ing, earthquake. 

trepid&tid, ^w, f. ; confusion, 
disorder. 

trSa, IHa ; three. 

tribtknus, i, m. ; tribune, a Ro- 
man magistrate. 

tribad, «r», «i, iUwn^ to grant, 
bestow, render, award. 

tildaam, f, n. ; three days' time, 
three days. 

trienninm, •{, n.; three years* 
time, three years. 



tif giat&, indeot ; thirty. 

trigint& teptem ; thirty-seven. 

triplex, pUdt ; threefold, triple. 

triamph6, dre^ Aoi, a^m ; to tri^ 
umph, celebrate a victory ; trwmphdre 
di, to triumph over. 

triamphas, I, m.; triumph, vic- 
tory. 

tmeldd, an, aHj dtum ; to slaugh- 
ter, massacre. 

td, pronoim; thou, you; see 265. 

tv ba, a«, f. ; trumpet. 

Tnllia, ae, f. ; TuUia. 

turn, adv. ; at that time, then. 

tamaltiis, i, m. ; disturbanoe, 
noise. 

tune, adv. ; at that time, then. 

tnrba, cm, f. ; throng, band, crowd. 

tarbuientus, a, ttm; disorderly, 
seditious. 

tarpiH, 4 ; shameftil, dishonorable, 
base. 

tarris, if, f. ; tower. 

tans, a, «m; your, yours, thy, 
thine. 

U 

ubt ; when, where ; when ? where i 

Ikllns, a, wn ; any ; see 878. 

flltrfi, prep, with Ace. ; beyond, 
over. 

Illtrd, adv. ; of one's own accord, 
voluntarily. 

umbra, 0«, f. ; shade. 

umerut, i, m. ; shoulder. 

tkna, adv. ; together, together with. 

unde, adv.; whence? tnm what 
placet 

IkniYersas, a, um ; all, whole, en- 
tire. 

unqnam, adv. ; ever, at any time. 

Iknus, a, um ; one, oxily ; 881. 

urb&aus, a, wn ; of the city. 

urbs, vrhit, f. ; city. 

fi8firp5, dre, dvij dhtm\ to use, 
eigoy, assume. 

iksus, Ht, m. ; use, experience. 

ut, co^j. ; that, in order that, in 
order to, to. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



837 



uter, utra^idrum; wfaioh(oftwo); 
for declension see 877. 

nterqne, lUreiquefUirumqtie; each 
(of two), both. 

atinam, adv.; oh, thatl would 
that! 

fitilis, e ; useftd. 

Qtor, I, vtits sum; to use, make 
use of. / 

uxor, dm, f. ; wife. 



va^or, driy diut sum; to wander, 
to roam. 

valdS, adv. ; greatly, veiy, very 
much, exceedingly. 

vale ; be well, farewell, good-by. 

yalent ; (they) are well, are 
strong. 

valed, ire t/i, Uum ; to be well, be 
strong ; bens valire, to be very well ; 
meHw TaUre^ to be better; opUme 
valire, to be perfectly well ; impera- 
Uve^ farewell, good-by. 

yalet ; (he) is well, is strong. 

valetfido, dints, f. ; health, state 
of health. 

vallum, {, n. ; wall, rampart. 

varius, a, vm ; various, different. 

vas, i)d8is, n. ; vessel, vase. 

Yastd, are, dvi, dtum ; to lay waste, 
ravage. 

vastus, a, tim ; vast, immense, 
mighty. 

vegetus, a, wn ; lively, animated. 

veh^mSns, enUs ; strong, violent, 
fiirious. 

vehementer, adv. ; strongly, vio- 
lently, greatly. 

vehd, ere, vixi, tectum; to bear, 
carry ; pass,, to ride. 

vel, conj. ; or ; «0^ . • . vd, either 
... or. 

ySlam, i, n. ; sail. 

vSnStio, dnis, f. ; hunting, chase, 
oombat of wild beasts. 

Venator, oris, m. ; hunter, hunts- 

22 



veneratid, Onis^ f.; respect, rev- 
erence, awe. 

venia, as, f. ; pardon, grace. 

venid, ire, «dni, ventum ; to come. 

v€nor, dr%, atus sum ; to hunt, 
take in hunting. 

ventus, i, m, ; wind. 

verberis, genitive, n. (defective) ; 
whip, whipping, blow. 

verbum, {, n. ; word, verb. 

vereor, irt, veritus sum; to rev- 
erence, fear. 

Vergilius, ii, m. ; Yeigil, a Boman 
poet. 

vSrd, adv. ; in truth, indeed, but. 

versor, dri, dtus sum ; to be, be 
busy, be engaged. 

vertd, ere, H, sum ; to turn. 

vertor, {, versus sum ; to turn. 

vSnis, a, wn ; true, real, actuaL 

vesper, eri, m. ; evening ; ifeq>eri^ 
adv. ; at evening. 

Vesta, ae, f. ; Vesta, goddess of the 
Boman household. 

vester, tra, trum ; your. 

vesti^um, ii, n. ; the bottom of 
the foot, track, trace. 

vestlmentum, %, n. ; clothing, 
cloak. 

vestis, is, f. ; clothes, clothing, 
garment, dress. 

Vesuvios, ii, m. ; Vesuvius, a vol- 
cano in Italy. 

veterftnns, a, um ; old, veteran. 

vSxillam, i, n. ; banner, flag. 

via, ae, f. ; way, road, street. 

vlcSsimns, a, um ; twentieth. 

viclnos, I, m. ; neighbor. 

victor, Gris, m. ; conqueror, victor. 

victdria, ae, f. ; victory. 

VIctdria, ae, f. ; Victoria. 

victas, its, m. ; food, victuals. 

vIcQS, i, m. ; village, ward, quar- 
ter, street. 

vident ; (they) see. 

vided, ire, itidi, visum; to see, 
perceive ; pass, ffidear, to be seen, to 
see, appear. 



838 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Tides; 70a 866. 

Tidet ; (he) sees. 

vlgintl, indecl. ; twenty. 

Tllla; CM, f. ; oountry-houte, Tilla. 

Tiacit ; he binds. 

Tiac6, «r«| vitfS, vietum; to oon- 
qner. 

Tiacnlum, i, n. ; bond, chain. 

Tindic6, drt^ dvi, dtvm; to 
avenue revenge. 

vlanm, i, n. ; wine. 

Tir, virij m. ; man, true man, 
hero ; see 121. 

Tired, 2r« ; to be green. 

Yir^nia, od, f. ; Virginia. 

Tirtfls, fi<W| f. ; virtue, valor, brav- 
ery. 

viridis, e ; green. 

Tlta, a«, f. ; life. 

Titaat ; (they) avoid, ahnn. 



Titaatnr; (they) are avoided.^ 
shunned. 

Titat ; (he) avoids, shnns. 

vltAtnr ; (he) is avoided, shunned. 

v1t5, are, dvi, atym\ to avoid, 
shun. 

Titaperd, drtf, dvl, dtum\ to find 
(kult with, blame. 

Tlv5, €re, «itci, victum ; to live. 

vix, adv. ; hardly, scarcely. 

Toc&balam, I, n. ; name, noun, 
word. 

TolK, wile, volui ; to wish, desire, 
like, be willing. 

volupt&s, dUsy f. ; pleasure, de» 
light 

t5z, «doif, f. ; voice, sound. 

Tulaerfttas est ; (he) is wounded. 

TulaerA, dre, dvi, dtum ; to wound» 

Tulaas, vfUnerie, n. ; wound. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



a; the Latin has no arlSole, see p«9B 
9, fiK)t-note 2. 

able; to be Able, potaum^ po^^i 
fOtuL 

aboat; is, prepu with the AbL 

aeeeiptable ; grdiuB^ a, «m. 

acense; aeciud^ dr4^ avi, Mvm'^ 
(he) aeouaei, aee&aai\ (they) aeooae, 
meeU»afd\ (he) is eeeiued, aetUtatur^ 
thej iifie ftoensed, ac^iaaniitr, 

acquire ; potior^ iri, potUuigttm, 

adaiinUter; gerO^ «r«, gts^ gea- 
ium. 

admire ; adnoiw^ Sri, diut mm, 

adorn; fimJ, are, dvi, alum; (he) 
adome, imat ; (they) adorn, dmani ; 
(he) b Adorned, Arad^ur ; (they) are 
adorned, dmantvr, 

advise ; mones^ %re^ vl, Uum. 

Aetna ; AUna^ at^ f. 

affiaira, miiitary ; see mUiiaty» 

Afrtcanns; ^ridnui^ i, ra. 

after; poti^ prep, with Ado. 

afterward; podeA, adv. 

against; tontrd^ prep. wHh Aeo. 

agreeable ; iUcundua^ a, um» 

Albert; Jihertut, {, m. 

Alexander ; Alexander^ dK, m. 

all ; omnia^ e ; tdtua^ a, ion, 877. 

alone ; edfut, a, «n», 878. 

already; iam, adv. 

also ; quoque, Hiam^ coij. 

always ; umper^ adv. 

ambassador; legSt-ua^ {, m. 

Amelia ; Amelia, a#, t 



America; ^nuHeo, cw, f. 

American ; Am&riednus^ a, im». 

Americans ; Amsricdni^ Orum^ 
nuplur. 

among; inUr^ prep, with Aoo. ; 
€^md^ prep, with Aoo. 

an ; see page 9, foot-note 2. 

ancient; aniiquua^ a, tuo». 

and ; 4t^ qua^ atgtut, 

animal; animal^ dlie, n. 

another ; aliuA, a, ud^ 878. 

Apollo; ApoUd^ ApolUfUa^ m. 

apple ; la^i^m, i, a. 

apple-tree ; fndZt<«, i, £ 

approach ; advmiua^ HSy m. 

are, they are, there are; aunt. 

Ariovistus; Ariaviaiua, i, m. 

arms ; arma, drum, n. plur. 

army ; axercUua, ua, m. 

arouse; sxeUd, are^ dvi, dtum. 

anrival ; advantua, fta^ m. 

art; ara^ arfia^ f. 

ascertain ; cdgnSacd^ ere, vdgniM, 
dOgnitum» 

Asia ; AaUi^ aa, t 

ask ; drd, dra, dvi, dtum. 

associate ; eomea, iti», nu and f. 

at ; ad, prep, with Aec ; some- 
times ezprcesed by Loe. or Abl. 

Athenian ; Athhiiinaia, ia, m. 

Athens; Athenaa, dnmk, f. plur. 

attack ; impatua^ Ha, m. 

attack; oppugno^ do'a^ dfi, aJt»m\ 
adarior^ in, ortua aum, 

Augustus ; Auguatua, f , m. 

author ; acrlptor, &rta, m. 

avoid ; vUi>, dra, dvi, dtum ; (he) 



340 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



avoids, vUai; (tbey) avoid, vUant; 

(he) is avoided, vUdtwr; (tbey) are 

avoided, vUaniur, 
await ; extpeetd^ dre^ dvi, dtum, 
award ; tiibuO^ er«, «i, alum, 

B 

bad ; mahis, a, «m, 192. 

ball ; pila, ae, f. 

battle; piignay a«, f., proeUum, 
t{, ». 

battle, line Gf, aeisi^ aciH^ f . 

be ; 8um, ene^ful» 

bear ; /«nS, ferre^ tuU^ latum. 

beautiful ; pulcher^ chra^ ckrum* 

beauty ; pulehrU&dQy dinia, f. 

before (of time and place) ; anU^ 
prep, -with Aoo. ; (in the presence of), 
apitdy prep, with Ace. 

before ; anted^ adv. 

beseech ; dra, dre, dvi, dtum, 

besiege ; chtiddl^, dr«, <ft^, tessum, 

best ; opiimua^ a, vm, superlative 
of^ontM, 192. 

bestow ; trUyud^ ere^ «I, iUum, 

better ; melioTy ius^ oompanitive of 
hontUy 192. To bis better ; meUu» vch 
Uo^ ire, «{, itum, 

bird ; avw, is, f. 

birthday ; diia ndtdHs, diH ndtA' 
Ui. 

black ; mger^ gra^ grwn, 

bloom, to bloom, to be in blocnn ; 
ffyr^y dre, vi. 

book ; Uber, HbHj m. 

booty ; praeda, ae, f. 

Boston ; Boetonia, ae, f. 

boy ; pu^j pverij m. 

brave ; fortie, e, 

bravely ; /ortiUr, adv. 

bravery ; virtus, tUiSj f. 

bridge ; pOns, pontk, m. 

briefly ; brevUer, adv. 

bring to a close ; /Uiid, ire, fvi, 
or ii, Uum, 

brother ; /rater, /rdiria, m. 

build ; aedijio&^ dre, d/oi, dtwm, 

but ; ied, autem, at. 



by ; d or ab, prep, with Abl., some- 
times denoted by the Abl. 



Caesar; Caesar, arit, m, 

call ; apptlld, are, dvi^ dtum, 

camp ; caetra, drum, n. plur. 

can, to be able; possum, posse, 
potui, 

capture ; expufj^, dre, dvi, dium; 
oopiO, ere, cipi, eaptttm, 

care ; eUra, ae, f. 

carry ; porti>, dre, dtfi, dtum ; (he) 
oaxriea, |70f^; (they) cairj, portant, 

Carthage ; Carthdgd, ginis, f. 

Carthaginians ; CarthdginimsSs, 
ium, m, plur. 

cavalry; equitis, um, m. plur; 
eguitdtus, us, m. ; battle of the caval- 
ry, /K^mi equatris. 

celebrate ; oelebrO, dre, dvi, dtttf», 

celebrated ; edeber, bra, brum, 

chariot ; currus, its, m. 

Charles ; Oarolus, i, m. 

children ; Mberi, drum, m. plur. 

choose, choose rather ; mdU>,m4Z' 
le, malui, 

Cicero ; Oicerd, dnis, m. 

citadel ; arx, areis, f. 

citizen ; cvvis, is, m. and t. 

city ; urhs, urbis, f, 

civil ; eivilis, e, 

cloud ; nikbis, m, f. 

color ; color. Oris, m. 

come ; venid, ire, ftini, ventum» 

command ; imperd, dre, dvi, 
dium, 

commander ; impm'dtor, dria, m. ; 
dux, dueis, m. 

concerning ; di, prep, with Abl. 

conquer ; tuperd, dre, dvi, dtum ; 
vined, ere, ffid, inctum, 

conqueror ; victor, Sris, m. 

consul ; coneul, vlis, m. 

contrary to; conird, prep, with 
Ace. 

conversation ; sermS, dnis, m. 

Corinth; OorintAus, i, f. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



341 



Cornelia ; Chrraliay ae, f. 
country, one^s oountry ; patria, 
<M, f. 
Croesas ; Croesus, i, m. 
cultivate ; exereed, 9re, ui, Uum, 
custom ; mde^ fn&ris^ m. 



daily ; eotitdiij adv. 

danger ; perteulwn, {, n. 

dangerous ; perictUdsiUy a, «m. 

daring ; atiddx, deis, 

daughter ; /Uia^ ae, f. 

day ; dies, diH ; every day, coUidin^ 
adv. ; to-day, hodU, adv. 

dear ; oa/ms, a, wn, 

death ; mort^ mortis, f. 

December ; m^nsis December, 
mUnsis DecemJbris, 

decree; d^eemi^, ere, erivi, er9- 
turn, 

defeat: elddi8,i8,t 

delicate ; tener, era, erum, 

delight; diledd, are, dvi, dtum; 
(bo) delightB, dHeeCat; (they) de- 
light, d9leetant; (he) is delighted, 
eUleeidtur; (they) are delighted, d9- 
lectantur, 

delightful ; iHeundus, a, um, 

derive ; eapid, ere, e^ eaptum ; 
aecipid, ere, cipi, cepium, 

deserve ; mered, ire, ui, Uum, 

destroy ; dileo, 9re, ivi, Hum, 

devote one's self to; sennd, ire, 
ioi or a, Uum, 

Diana ; IHdna, ae, f. 

did ; often a sign of the Imperf. or 
Perfect tenses. 

difficult ; diffleilis, e. 

diligence ; diUgentia, ae, f. 

diligent; dUigins, entis, 

do ; /add, ere,/iel,/aetum ; do and 
does are Bometimes the aigns of the 
Present tense. To be done ; /td, fie- 
ri, foetus sum. 

Draco ; Drac6, onis, m. 

duty ; ojjMum, ii, n. 



eagerly ; studiose, adv. 

early; mane, adv.; vciy early, 
bene mane, 

easy ; /aeiUs, e, 

elephant ; elq>hanfus, I, ra. 

enemy ; hostis, is, m. and f. 

enjoy ; fruar, i,friUstus sum, 

equestrian ; eqtcester, trie, tre, 

estate ; fundus, l, m. 

Europe ; Eurapa, ae, f. 

evening, in the ; vesperi, adv. 

ever ; unquam, adv. ; ever, mean> 
ing always, semper, adv. 

every day ; eottidii, adv. 

exceedingly ; valdi, adv. 

exceedingly well ; optima, adv. 

excellent ; dgregius, a, um^ 

exercise ; exeroeO, ire, ul, itum. 

exhort ; Jiortor, dri, dtus sum, 

expect ; exspectd, are, dvi, dtum ; 
(he) expects, exspectat ; (they) expect, 
exspectant ; (he) is expected, exspectd- 
tur ; (they) are expected, exspectantur, 

experience ; iisus. Us, nu 



fair ; aequus, a, um, 

faithful ; fidus, a, um. 

false ; falsus, a, um. 

fiimous ; ddrus, a, um, 

farm ; fundus, i, m. 

larmer ; agrioola, ae, m, 

fast; eeler, era, erum, 

lather ; pater, patris, m, 

father-in-law ; eocer, soeeri, m. 

favor ; benefioium, tl, n. 

fear ; timer, timiris, m. ; metus, 
Us, m. 

fear; time^, ire, ui, ; (he) 

fears, iim^t ; (they) fear, timunt ; (he) 
is feared, timiitur ; (they) are feared, 
tim^entur, 

feast ; dina, ae, f. 

February ; minsis Febrttdrius^ 
minsis F^brudri^. 

festal ; fistus, a, um, 

few ; pauei, ae, a. 



342 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



field ; ager^ o^, m. 

fifth ; quintuSy a, um, 

fifty ; quinqudffintd, inded. 

fight ; pH^nd^ dre^ dvl, dium ; (he) 
fights, pfignat ; they) fight, pUgnant, 

fire ; ignis, m, m. ; ineendiwn^ Uy n. 

Are ; quinquej indecL 

fieet ; eldeiit, m, f. 

Florence ; FUlrentia, a^, f. 

Florida; Ftoriday ae, f. 

flourish ; ftdre5, irty ui, 

flower ; fl09yfllirify m. 

for, prep. ; jw5, prep, with Abl. ; 
sometimeB expressed by the Dadve. 

for, oo^j. ; namy eorj. 

forces ; tOpiaey drwny f. plor. 

fortify ; mUniOy ire, ini or ti, Uum, 

fortune ; fortHnay a«, f. 

fornm ; fcrwmy I, n. 

Ibnntain ; fdns^fonUsy m. 

four ; quattuoTy indecl. 

Frederick ; li-edericusy iy m. 

free ; liber, eray erum, 

Aree, to free ; llherdy d/re, dv%y diwm^ 

friend ; amicuSy iy m, 

friendship ; amieitiay <u, f. 

from ; » or «6, prep, with Abl. ; d 
or aby prep, with Abl. \ sometime» ex- 
pressed by tlie Abl. 

G 

Gallic ; GallicuSy a, wm» 

game; l&dusyiym. 

garden; hoHWyiyVa, 

garland ; corona, ae, f. 

gate ; porta, (u, f. 

GanI ; QalUay ae, f. 

Gauls ; GalU, drum, m. plur. 

general ; tmpero^or, Grie, m. 

Germans; Oermdniy Srumy m. 
plur. 

gift ; ddnum, f , n. 

girl ; ptueUa, as, f. 

give; dd, are, dedl, datum; (he) 
gives, doe ; (they) give, dant ; (it) ie 
given, €tatur; (they) are giveny<2afli- 
tur. 

gladly ; Ubenter, adv. 



glory ; gldriay cm, t 

go ; eOy tr€y ivi or u, itum, 

god, deusy i, m., 872, note. 

(golden ; aureusy a, um. 

good ; bonuSy a, um, 1?%. 

goose ; oMseTy eria, m. 

grandfather ; avua, i, m. 

grandson ; n^Oiy 6tia, m. 

great ; mdgntUy Cy urn, 192. 

greatest ; mdximusy ay um, superl. 
ofmdgnu9yl9^ 

greatly ; vald^, adv. 

Greece; Orasciayasyf, 

Greeky Grecian ; Graeeuey ay um, 

Greek, in Greek, Graeciy adv. 

Greeks, the Greeks, Graedy Srumy 
m. plur. 

grounds ; iortly Srumy m. plur. 

grove ; licus, i, m. 

j^uard; oUatddiOy ire^ i«{ or ii^. 
Hum, 

guardian ; eOttSBy ddit, m. 

guest ; ho8p€»^ hotpUuy m. and I. 



liady (he) had ; haJb^U, 

Hannibal ; Eanntbaly aUty n. 

happy ; bt&tusy ay um, 

Iiarbor ; portuty &8y m. 

have ; idbe9y ir6y «{, Hum ; (he) 
has, Aabtt ; (they) have, habeni. 

he; iSy iQyid'y often contained in 
tike verb. 

hear ; audid, ire, ivi or tl, itum, 

help ; auxiUum, il, n. 

Henry ; ffenrieus, i, m. 

her ; mw, a, um, ; very often 
omitted in Latin. 

here ; Me, adv. 

high ; aliut, a, um, 

hill ; eolUt, is, m. 

himself; $ui, 266. 

his ; suuSy ay um ; very often omit- 
ted in Latin. 

holidays ; /iriae, drumy f. plur. 

home ; tUfmus, Us, f. ; at home, 
domi, 209. 

Homer ; Bomiruty i, m. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



343 



honor ; hmdi or kanor^ drUy m. ; 
gUria, ae^ f. 

Iionor; kandrdy arty d«i, dtum; 
eeUbrdy dre, dHy atum, 

honorable ; konestuty a, «m. 

hope ; tpiiy tptiy f. 

horse ; equvSy i, m. 

hoar ; Aira, a«, f. 

honae ; domtUy ««, f., S09. 

how; quam; how maay, ^«o<, in- 
docl. 

huge ; inghUy enUi. 



I ; tffOy often impUed in the ending 
of the verb. 

idle ; igndvuty a, um, 

ignorant ; impm-UnSy a, um, 

ill ; €^€ry gray grum. 

illnstrions ; eldruty a, vm, 

immente; ingitUy enUty vdduty 
ay%m. 

impartii|l ; aeqwiUy a, «m. 

in ; Wy prep, with Abl. ; Bometimes 
expressed by Loe, or Ahl. 

in regard to ; <29 ; in behalf of, 
prd, 

indnstrionsly ; dUigmUry adv. 

influence ; auetOrUdSy dtUy f. 

inhabitant ; inoolay oe, m. 

instmet; drwMy ir€y ivi or it, 
i^i» ; doctdy 9r«y tfi, «ioc^Km. 

instmetor ; pratc^ptory dm, m. ; 
magisUry M, m ; see 116. 

interesting ; iHtcunduty a, ««». 

into ; «*», prep, with Aocub. 

invite ; invU6y drty d/oiy dtum» 

is ; (he) is, €d. 

it ; idy neuter of if, m, m< ; often 
contained in the verb. 

Italy; Jb/ia, <m, f. 



January; minaia IdwudritUy «nan- 
tit Idnudrii» 

Journey ; «f«r, Uinerity d. ; to make 
a journey; iUr/aeidy erty /My /ac- 
turn. 




keeper ; cUttdt, ddity m. 

kind ; genuty generity n. 

king ; rese, ngity m. 

know; tddyirtyUfi or Uyitum; to 
know Greek, Ladn, Oratdy Zatifii 
telrt ; not to know, fUteiiy <r«, fol or 
w, Uum, 

known ; ndtuty a, im». 



lake ; tomM, ««, m. 

land, native land ; patriay aty f. 

large ; mdgnuty a, t<m, 192. 

lately ; nuptTy adv. 

Iiatin ; Latinuty a, «m ; in Latin, 
LoMni ; to know, write Latin, Laiua 
tdrtf tcribert, 

Lavinia ; Zdviniay m, f. 

law ; fee, ligity f. 

lay waste ; vdttdy drty dviy dtum. 

lead; dUedy trty dttxHy ductum; lead 
back, r&<Uic9y era, «texi, <2ttc^«» ; 
lead out, i'dOedy ere, ditxiy dactnm'y 
(he) leads out, idueit ; (they) lead out, 
dddcunt. 

leader ; prinetpty dpity m. ; duXy 
dueity m. 

learn ; diteOy erty didiek 

learned ; doHuty a, mm. 

legion ; legidy ^m, t 

let ; expressed by the snljunetive 
or imperative ; see iOl, page 129, foot- 
note 1. 

letter; ^nstuloy m, f. ; UUeraey 
drumy f. plor. 

liberate ; Uberdy drty dviy dtum» 

liberty; libertdty dtity t 

like ; vol6y velUy vohii, 

line of battle ; oMit, », t 

live ; habUi^y drty dvf, dtum ; «if d, 
erty «Ca:i, vkfvf». 



844 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



lofty ; aUuMj a, wn. 

long ; languty a, urn, 

look at ; tpedd^ dre, dvi, dium» 

love ; amd, dre^ dvi, dtum ; (he) 
loyes, amat\ (they) love, amant\ 
(he) is loved, amdtur , they are loved, 
omatdur, 

Iiydians ; I^dl^ 6rum^ m. plur, 

M 

magnificent ; mdffnificug^ a, um. 

make ; /acidf ere, /id, factum ; 
make a jonmey, iter facere ; make 
use of, iUor, i, iiuue sum, 

man ; homd, hominia, m. ; vtr, 
vtri, m., 121. 

many; muUl, a«, a; how many, 
^uot, indecl. 

Marathon, of ; Marath6niu», a, 
mm, 

Marens ; Mdreus, i, m. 

master, owner; danUnuf, i, m. ; 
teacher, fnagieter, tri, m., 87. 

medicine ; mediewia^ a«, f. 

memory ; memoria, ae, f. 

merchant ; fnereStt^r, SrUy m. 

Mercury ; Jfercurivs, «i, m. 

messenger ; nUntius, «i, m. 

military; mUitdria, e; milltaiy 
affidrs, military system, r9t mUUdrii, 
reimUUdria, 

Minerva ; Minerva, ae, f. 

month ; minaie, m, m. 

morning, in tlie; mdne, adv.; 
this morning, hodii mane ; to-morrow 
morning, crde mdne. 

mother ; mdter, mdiria, f. 

monntain ; mSne, montia, m. 

moTe ; moved, ire, m&vl, metOm. 

my ; meue, a, vm, page S67, foot- 
note 1. 

myseli ; ego, mH ; see 265. 

N 
name ; ndmen, ndminie, n. 
name ; n9mind, dre, d^i, alum, 
natiye land, native country; 
patria, oe, f. 



navy ; eldaeie, if, f. 
nearly ; ferl, adv. 
neither; neuter y tra, trum, S77« 
never ; ntinquam, adv. 
new ; novue, a, vm, 
next ; prOxtmus, a, wn, 
no one, nobody; nimd, see 195, 
foot-note 8. 
not, adv. ; ndn ; not to know, «^ 

not! ndn-nei 
not yet ; ndndum, adv. 
nothing ; nihil, indool. 
now ; nunc, adv. 
number ; nvmerus, f, m. 

O 

obey ; pdred, ire, ui, itum, 

of, concerning, about; di, prep, 
with Abl. ; generally ezproased by the 
Genitive. 

often ; ea^, adv. 

on ; in, prep, with Abl. 

one ; unus, a, um, 881 ; some one, 
aliquis, aUqtta, aliquid. 

one's country ; patria, ae, f. 

oration ; OrdtiO, dnia, f. 

orator ; drdtor, 9ria, m. 

ornament ; Cmdmentum, i, n. 

other ; o/ttM, a, ud, 878 ; the other 
(of two), aUer, era, erum, 877. 

ought ; d^>^, ire, «f , itum ; (he) 
ought, dibet ; (they) ought, detent, 

our ; noater, tra, trum, 

over ; see triumph aver. 



parent ; parina, entia, m and f. 
part ; para, partia, f, 
peace ; pdx, pdcia, f. 
pear ; pirum, I, n. 
people ; populua, {, m. 
perform ; fungcr, i, fOnetua 
aum, 
Pericles ; Paridia, ia, m. 
peril ; perieulum, i, n. 
Persians ; I^n-aae^ drum, m, plur. 
Phidippns ; Pkidippua, I, m. 



ENGLISII-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



345 



Philadelphia ; Philadelphia, 
aey f . 

physician ; medicus, i, m. 

plain ; eampnt, i, m. 

play ; ladd, ere, luH, Uuum, 

pleasant ; i&eundue, a, um, 

please ; placed, ere, ui, Hum, with 
Dat.; delecto. Are, dvi, dium; (he) 
pleases, diledal', (they) please, di- 
ledant; (he) is pleased, dilectd^r; 
(they) are pleased, dilectatUur, 

pleasing ; ilieundtu, a, vm, 

pleasare ; voluptde, dtie, f. 

poem ; earmen, cartndnis, n. 

poet ; pc9ia, ae, m. 

point out ; mdnstro^ are, dvi, 
dtum. 

Pompey ; PtwipHiis, ii, m. 

possession of; see tahe poeees- 
eion of, 

practice ; exereeib^ Ire, ul. Hum, 

praise ; laus, laudie, f. 

praise ; laudo, are, dvi, dtum ; (he) 
praises, laudat; (they) praise, lau" 
dant ; (he) is praiseid, lauddlur ; (they) 
are praised, laudanlur, 

preiter ; mdlo, mdlle, mdlui, 

present ; ddnvm, i, n. 

previously ; anted, adv. 

prince ; princes, cipis, m. 

prison ; career, eris, m. 

prize ; praemium, ii, n. 

progress ; prdgreeeus. Ha, m., gen- 
erally used in the plural. 

propose ; /erd,/erre, tuli,ldtum. 

prosperous voyage, to have; 
Alieiter ndvigdre, 

pupil ; diicipulns, i, m. 

Q 
queen ; rigina, ae, f. 

B 

read ; legd, ere, Ugi, Uetum ; (he) 
reads, l^it; (they) read, Ugunt; (it) 
is read, legi^ur\ (they) are read, U- 
gunhtr, 

receive ; aecipid, ere, {fipi, oeptum. 



recently ; nuper, adv. 
red ; ruber, bra, brum. 
reign ; rignd, are, dviy dtum. 
remain ; maned, ire, mdnsi, mdn- 

eum ; re-^na7ied, ire mdnel, . 

rcmarltable ; igregius, a, um. 
republic ; rie pibUca, reipublieae, 
return ; reded, ire, ivi or ii, Hwn, 
reward ; praemium, ii, n. 
Richard ; Rieardue i, m. 
riches ; divitiae, drum, f. plur. 
road ; via, ae, f. 
Roman ; R&mdnua, a, um. 
Romans ; Rdmdni, drum, m. plur. 
Rome ; Bima, ae, f. 
Romulus ; Rdmulus, i, m. 
rough ; a^i>er, era, erum. 
ruins ; ruinae, drum, f. plur. 
rumor ; rumor. Oris, m. 



kh 



ee ; vided, ire, vidi, visum. 
teem ; videor, iri, visus sum, 
«ize ; occupd, dre, dvi, dtum ; (he) 
>o*jEe8, oeeupat ; (they) seize, occupant, 

senate ; eendtue, He, m. 

senator ; aendtor, drie, m. 

send ; mdttd^ ere, misi, mieettm. 

servant ; eervua, i, m. 

serve ; eervid, ire, ivi or U, Uum» 

servitude ; eervUUe, litis, f. 

Servius ; Servius, ii, m. 

seven ; sept&m, inded. 

severe ; sevirus, a, um, 

ship ; ndvis, is, f. ; ship of war, 
ndvis longa, ndvis longae. 



346 



KNGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



short ; ftr#9w, « ; in a short time, 

shont ; eUunor^ Sris^ m. 

than ; vi^^, dra, dvl^ dium. 

Sicily ; SicUia^ <m, f. 

sing ; eaniO^ dre^ dvi^ dtum ; (he) 
sings, eantai ; (they) sing, cantafU. 

singing ; canitUy us, m, 

sister ; toror, dm, f. 

six ; «CB, inded. 

sixth ; Mxtus, a, vm. 

slaughter ; eaedis^ m, f. 

slave ; aervvt, {, m. 

sleep ; dormii>^ irsj ivi or ii, Uum, 

small ; parvus, a, urn, 192. 

Socrates ; Sderatds, is, m. 

soldier ; milesj mUUis, m. 

Solon ; Soldn, dnis, m. 

some one; aUquis, aUqua^ aU- 
quid, 892. 

sometimes ; irUerdum, adv. 

son ; /iUtts, «{, m., voo. «ing./i^. 

son-in-law ; ffenery generi, m. 

song ; cantus, (U, m. ; earmen, 
carminis, n. 

soon ; mox, adv. ; brevi tempore ; 
hrevi, adv. 

spealc; died, ere, dixi, dictum; 
loquor, i, loeutits sum; speak Latin, 
Greok, Latini, Graeci loqui, 

speedy ; celer, era, erum, 

spirited ; deer, deris, dcre, 

spur ; ealear, dris, n. 

start; pro-Jieiscor, i,/eetui sum; 
to start for, projidsei ad, 

state ; civitds, dtis, f. 

statue ; statua, ae, f. 

story ; fdbula, ae, f. 

study ; studium, ii, n. 

sutject, to be; pdred, 9re^ ui, 
Uum. 

summer ; aestds, dtis, f. 

suspicion ; suspieid, dnis, f. 

system ; see military. 



Tacitus ; Taeiius, i, m. 
take; eapid, ere, Ovi, ca^ 



take a walk, ambuld, dre, dvi, dium ; 
take possession of, oceupd, dre^ dvi^ 
dium, 

take, conduct; daoo, ere, dasdj 
duetum, 

talk, dies, ere, diaa, dictum; (he) 
talks, didt; (they) talk, dicuni; 
loquor, {, loe&tus sum, 

teacher ; mtigister, tri, m. ; proe- 
eeptor, &rie, m., 116. 

temple ; templum, I, n. 

ten ; decern, indecl. 

terrify ; terreO, ire, ui, itum; (he) 
terrifies, terret ; (they) terrify, ierrent ; 
(he) is terrified, terrHur ; (Uiey) are 
terrified, terrerUur, 

than ; quam ; often denoted by ths 
ablative. 

that ;is,ea,id ; iUe, iUa, iUud, 

that; coi\j., ut with subjunctive, 
see 406 ; sometimes expressed by in- 
fin. with Ace., see 416. 

the ; see page 9, foot-note 2. 

theft ; /Ortum, I, n. 

their; suus, a, um; very often 
omitted. 

there are ; sunt. 

thief; fitr, Juris, m. 

thing ; r%s, rei, f, ; sometimes de- 
noted by a neuter a4jective. 

thirty ; trigintd ; thirty-seven, 
triffintd septem, 

this ; hie, haee^ h6c ; this morning, 
hodii mane, 

thousand ; mUle, indecl ; then- 
sands, mHia, turn, n. 

three ; trie, tria, 881. 

through ; per, prep, with Ace 

time ; tempus, temporis, n. ; times, 
tempora, um, n. plur. ; at that time, 
eO tempore ; in a short time, brepi tem- 
pore, breei, 

Titus ; Tiius, i, m, 

to ; ad, prep, with Aco. ; often ex- 
pressed by the Bat ; to-day, hodii 
adv. ; to-morrow, eras, adv. ; to- 
morrow morning, eras mdne, 

tower, turris, is, t. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARYi 



347 



town ; tfppidumj I, n. 

travel, make a journey ; iUrfaadj 
erey /Sei , /adutn, 

tree ; arbor, ori$, f, 

triumph ; triumpktUf i, m. 

triumph; trvumphd^ dre, d^, 
dtum; to triumph over, triumpkdre 
de, 

try ; Unio, dre, dtfi, dtum ; e^noTy 
drij dtus sum, 

TuUia; IhaUa,a4,t 

V 

uncertain ; incertuSj a, nm, 

unhappy ; miaer^ era^ tram ; in- 
/H%x, ids, 

unwilling, to be ; ndld, ndllsy n6- 
hii. 

upon; in with AbL ; often ex- 
pressed by Dat. 

Qie ; UsttSy Us, nk. 

nse, make use of; lUarf i, iisus 
mim, 

useful ; aUlds, e. 



valor ; mrius^ tUis, U 

various ; varius, a, wn, 

vase ; vds, vdsis^ n. 

vast ; vdsttiSy a, um ; inf^ns, enUs, 

Vergil ; VerffiU/us, tJ, m. ; 90, 2. 

very ; valdi^ adv. ; oiten expressed 
by the Superlative; very eaiiy, bene 
mdne ; to be very well, bene valedy dre, 
vi, itum, 

victory ; victdria^ «w, I. 

villa ; villa, ae, f. 

Virginia ; Firffinia, ae, f. 

voyage, to have a prospeioi» voy- 
age, j^^»ci^ ndvigdre, 

W 

wage ; ^erd, ere, gessi, ffesfum. 

wait for ; exspectd, dre^ dvi^ dtum ; 
(he) waits for, exspeetai ; (they) wait 
for, exspeciant. 

walk, take a walk; ambuld, dre, 



dvi, dtum; (he) walks, ambulat; 
(they) walk, ambulant. 

wall ; miirus, f, m. ; vaUum, I, n. 

war ; bdlum, «, n. ; ship of war, 
n&vis Uynga, ndvis longae, 

was, (he) was, there was ; era^, 
fuU. 

waste, to lay waste; ndstd, dre, 
dHy dhtm, 

wealth ; divUiae, drum, f. plur. 

welcome ; grdtus, a, «m. 

well ; bene, adv. ; to be well, valed, 
ire, vij itum; to be very well, bene 
val9re, 

were, (they) were, there were; 
erantj/uirunt, 

what ; quid, neuter of gruis, quae, 
quid; sometimes qui, quae^ quod\ 
see who, which, what. 

when ; quandd, adv. 

where ; M, adv. 

which of two ; vter, utra, utrmn, 

who, whieb, what? quis, quae, 
quid; qui, quae, quod, 891. 

who, wUch, that ; qui, quae^ quod, 
864. 

whole ; P^^is, a, wn, Z*l*l, 

whom I quern. Ace. sing, of quis ; 
fuds. Ace. plur. of quis, 

winter ; hiems, hiemis, f. 

wise ; sapiens, entis ; wise men, 
sometime» sapienfesj ium, m, ; see 
822. 

wish ; 901^, ifeUe, volvi, 

with ; cum, prep, with Abl. ; often 
denoted by ablative of means. 

witness ; testis, is, m. and f. 

witty ;/aeS^tM, a, um, 

woman ; mtUier, eris, f. 

wonder at ; m^ror, dri, dtus sum ; 
adjn^ror, dri, dtus sum, 

wood ; silva, ae, f. 

word ; uerbum, i, n. 

work ; opus, operis, n. 

world; orbis terrdrum, orMs ter' 
rdrum, 

would that; utinam; see 401, 
402. 



848 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



wound ; wilnma^ vulneris^ n. 

wound ; wUntrd^ d/rt^ <SH, iUum, 

wreath ; corOna^ cm, f. 

write; «eriM, «iv, isHpA^ «oHjp- 
twm\ (he) writes, ionbU\ (they) 
write, 9eHb%ML To write Oieek, 
6fra«o9 icHb^re ; to write Latin, Zth 
tiniieribm^ 



year; ofnifM, {, m. 

yesterday ; keH, adv. 

you ; t&^ often implied in the end- 
ing of the verb. 

your; tuue^ a, tm», referring to 
one person; «m^, tra^ irum^ refer- 
ring to more than one person. 



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