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1886. J«&. 91, 

Gift off 

The BaiM off a <K Vlllom 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by 

in ihe Clerk's Office of the District Court of MassachnsettB. 

aliibn, mobbill and wabdwell, fbintbbb. 




Baphael EiJHNEB, the author of the following Grammar, wafl 
bom at Gotha, in 1802. Among his early classical teachers were 
Döring, Rost, and Wüstemann. At the University of Göttingen, 
he CBJoyed the instructions of Mitscherlich, Dissen, and Ottfried 
Müller, men of great distinction in classical philology. For more 
than twenty years, he has been a teacher in the Lyceum at Hano- 
ver, one of the principal German gymnasia, and has consequently 
had the most favorable opportunities, as a practical teacher, to un- 
derstand the wants of students and to be able to meet them. 

In addition to several other important works, Dr. Kühner has 
published three Greek Grammars : 

1. A Copious Greek Grammar, containing 1150 octavo pages, 

which has been translated by W. £. Jelf, M. A., of the 
University of Oxford. 

2. A School Greek Grammar, which has been translated and 

published in this country. 
S. An Elementary Greek Grammar, the original of the present 
work, from the second edition of which a very faithful trans- 
lation was made by John H. Millard, St. John's College, 
Cambridge, the Greek and English exercises and the accom- 
panying Vocabularies, however, having been omitted. 
The grammatical principles of the present work, so far as they 
extend, are the same as those contained in the Larger Granmiar 
already published in this country, the latter being designed to carry 
forward the student in the same course which he had commenced in 
the former. The work enjoys tlie highest reputation among classi- 
cal scholars both in Europe and America. It is based on a thor- 


ough acquaintance with the laws and usages of the language. The 
author has evidently studied the genius of the Greek, and has thus 
prepared himself to exhibit its forms and changes, and general phe- 
nomena, in an easy and natural manner. His rules and statements 
are comprehensive, embracing under one general principle a variety 
of details. The analysis of the forms can hardly be improved. The 
prefixes and suffixes, the strengthening and euphonic letters, are 
readily distinguished from the root of the word. The explanation 
of the Verb in particular, is so clear and satisfactoty, thaty after a 
little practice, the student can take the root of any verb, and put it 
into any given form, or take any given form and resolve it into iti 
elements. The rules of Syntax, too, are illustrated by so full a col<* 
lection of examples, that the attentive student cannot fail to under- 
stand their application. 

The work is designed to be sufficiently simple for beginners, and 
also to embrace all the more general principles of the language« 
The plan is admirably adapted to carry the student forward under- 
standingly, step by step, in the acquisition of grammatical knowl- 
edge. As soon as the letters and a few introductory principles, Uh 
gether with one or two forms of the verb, have been learned (the 
sections marked with a [f] being omitted), the student begins to 
translate the simple Grreek sentences into English, and the English 
into Greek. As he advances to new forms or grammatical princi- 
ples, he finds exercises appropriate to them, so that whatever he 
commits, whether forms or rules, is put in immediate practice. The 
advantage of this mode of study is evident The practical applica- 
tion of what is learned is at once understood ; the knowledge ac- 
quired is made definite ; the forms and rules are permanently fixed 
in the mind, and there is a facility in the use of them whenever 
they may be needed. The student, who attempts to commit any 
considerable portion of the Grammar without illustrative examples, 


finds it difficult to retain in his memory what he has learned. There 
is a confusion and indistinctness about it. One form often runs into 
another, and one rule is confounded with another. But if each suc- 
cessive principle is carefully studied, and then immediately put in 


practice, in translating, the Greek and English exercises, and is af« 
terwards freqaentlj reviewed, there wiU, in the end, be an immense 
saving of time, the student will be prepared to advance with plear 
tore from the less to the more difficult princif^es, and in the subse- 
quent part of his course, he will experience no difficulty in regard 
to grammatietd forms and rules. One of the most serious hin- 
drances to the rapid and profitable advancement in the Greek and 
Latin Jjanguages, is a want of an intimate acquaintance with their 
elementary principles. 

The plan of the author proposes that the vocabularies accompa- 
Djing the exercises, be committed to memory. In doing this, the 
student should be made to understand the value of the ear, as well 
as of the eye, the advantage to be derived from the former being 
'altogether too much neglected in the acquisition of a foreign lan- 
guage. When the student first sees, a new word, let him fix the 
form distinedy in his mind, and associate with it its meaning, so 
that the meaning may afterwards readily recall the word, or the 
word the meaning. Then, too, let him pronounce the word, and 
associate its meaning with its sound, so that when the word is again 
heard, the meaning may at once suggest itself. The child acquires 
its knowledge of language ^most wholly by the ear ; and if the 
student in his efibrts to learn a new language, would imitate the 
ehild in this respect, his progress would undoubtedly be much more 
rapid. This method would require that the words be often pro- 
nounced, their definitions being at the same time carefully associa- 
ted with them. This will in no way be so successfully accomplished 
as by requiring the vocabularies to be committed to memory. If 
the student knows that, when the Greek words are pronounced by 
his teacher, he must give the definition, or that, when the definition 
is given him, the corresponding Greek will be required, his atten- 
tion will be more carefully and perse veringly directed to the forms 

and sounds of the words in his exercises ; he will soon have at his 


command an extensive vocabulary of the viorda in more common 
use, and will save much time, which is so often lost in turning 
again and again to the same word in the lexicon. Such a process, 

too, will be of great service in cultivating the habit of fixed aad 
dose attention. In addition to the exercises contained in the 
book, it will awaken new interest in the dass, if the teacher give 
exercises of his own, either in Greek or English, and require these 
to be translated at once bj the members of the class. It will be 
prodtable, also, for anj one of the class to propose exercises for the 
others to translate. Chi this subject generallj, however, the expe^ 
rienced teacher wiU be able to point out the best course to his pupils. 

In preparing the present work, it has been the aim of the tnms» 
later to adapt it to the wants of students in this country. He has 
occasionally, therefore, made slight changes in the original, where it 
seemed desirable. Occasionally, too, he has given explanations of 
his own in the body of the book, where he supposed the wants of 
the younger pupils might require them. But all the priadples of 
Üke Grammar and nearly all the arrangement are retained as they 
were ^ven by the author. The translator has endeavored to make 
such a book as the author himself would have done, under similar 

The English exerdses in the Etymological Part of the Grammar, 
were taken from the Greek Delectus of the late Dr. Alexander Al* 
lea, London, as they had been translated by him from the Elemea«» 
tary Grammar of Kühner. The exercises in the Syntax were trans- 
lated by Mr. John N. Putnam, of the Theobgical Seminary, An- 

In conclusion, the translator would acknowledge his special ol^- 
gations to Mr. B. D. C. Bdbbing, Librarian, Theological Seminary, 
Andover, and to Mr. A. J. Phipps, Instructor in Phillips Academy, 
for the highly valuable assistance they have rendered in correcting 
the proofs. 

Andovbb. Mat 1. 1846. 



CHAP. I. — The Lettees and their Sounds. 

1. Alphabet . . . Page 1 

2. Pronunciation of particular Let- 

ters .... 2 
8. Division of the Vowels. — Diph- 
thongs ... 2 
4. Division of the Consonants 3 

§ 5. Breathings . . Page 4 

6. Marks of Crasis and Elision 5 

7. Movable Consonants at the end 

of a word ... 5 

8. Change of Consonants in Inflec- 

tion and Derivation . 6 

CHAP, n.— Syllables. 

9. Quantity of Syllables . 9 

10. Accentuation ... 9 

11. Change and Kemoval of the Ac- 

cent by Inflection and Con- 
traction ... 10 

12. Change and Kemoval of the Ac- 

cent in connected Discourse 12 

13. Atonies or Proclitics 

14. Enclitics 

15. Inclination of the Accent 

16. Enclitics accented 

17. Division of Syllables 

18. Punctuation-marks . 


CHAP. in. — 19. Some General Views of the Verb, Page 15. 

CHAP. IV. — Substantive and Adjective. 

20. Nature and Division of the Sub- 

stantive . . .17 

21. Grender of Substantives . 17 

22. Number, Case and Declension 18 

23. Nature and Gender of the Adjec- 

tive .... 19 

24. General View of the Preposi- 

tions .... 19 

25. First Declension . . 20 

25. Endings of the first Declension W 

26. Feminine Nouns of the first De- 

clension ... 20 

27. Masculine Nouns of the first De- 

clension ... 24 

28. Second Declension . . 25 

29. Contraction of the second De- 

clension ... 28 

30. Attic second Declension . 30 

31. Third Declension . . 32 

32. Remarks on the Case-endings of 

the third Declension . 32 

33. Gender, Quantity and Accentna- 

tion of the third Declension 33 

A. Words which in the Genitive 
HAVE A Consonant before the 
ENDING -Of, i. e. Words wnaoss 
Stem ends in a Consonant. 


4 34. I. The NominatiTe exhibits the 
pure Stem ... 34 

35. n. The Nominatiye lengthens the 

short final Towel of the Stem 35 

36. Syncopated nonns, e. g. trarrip, 

etc .... 37 

37. The Nominative appends a to 

the Stem ... 38 

38. The Stem ends in a Tan-mate 39 

39. Neuters ending in r and kt 40 

40. The Stem ends in v or vr 42 

B. Words which is thb Genitite 
HAVE ▲ Vowel be^^bb the ekd- 
INO -Of .... 43 

41. I. Substantives in -ev^t -^Hi 

-(Wf .... 48 

\ 43. II. Words in -w, -ef . 45 

43. Words in 'uc (Gen. -6H)c), and in 

-etc and 'U (Gen. -ooc) 46 

44. Words in -ac (Gen. -aoc), and in 

-Of (Gen. -eof) . 47 

45. in. Words in -ig, -vg . 49 

46. Words in -Ig, -i, -vf, -v 49 

47. Irregular Nouns of Üie third De- 

clension ... 61 

48. Irregular Adjectives 52 

49. Comparison of Adjectives 54 

50. A. First form of Companion 54 

51. B. Second form of Comparison 58 

52. Anomalous forms of Compari- 

son 59 

53i Nature, Division and Formation 
of the Adverb . . 60 

CHAP, v.— Abtebb. 

54. Comparison of Adverbs 



55. Nature and Division of Pro- 
nouns .... 62 

56. Personal Pronouns 

57. Hefiexive Pronouns 

58. Bodprocal Pronoun 

59. Possessive Pronouns 


60. Demonstrative Pronouns . 66 

61. Relative Plronouns . . 66 

62. Indefinite and Interrogative Pix>- 

nouns . . .67 

63. Correlative Pronouns . 68 

64. Lengthening of Pronouns 69 

CHAP. Vn.— Numerals. 

65. Nature and Division of the Nu- 

merals .... 69 

66. Numeral Signs . 70 

67. Summary of the Cardinals and 

Ordinals ... 70 

68. Declension of the first four Nu- 

merals .... 72 

69. Numeral Adverbs 73 

CHAP. Vm.— The Vbbb. 

70. Nature of the Verb . 

. 73 

71. Classes of Verbs 

. 73 

72. Tenses 

. 74 

73. Modes 

. 74 

74. Participials. — Infinitive and Par- 

ticiple .... 75 

75. Numbers and Persons of the 

Verb .... 75 

76. Conjugation of the Verb . 75 

77. Stem, Augment and Beduplica- 

tion. — Verb-characteristic 75 
^8. Inflection-endings 76 

79. (a) Tense-characteristic and 
Tense-endings . 76 

79. (b) Personal-endings and Mode- 
vowels .... 77 



f 80. Remarks on the Personftl-endings 
and Mode-vowelfl 77 

81. Conjugation of the regular Y^b 

in -<■> . . . .79 

82. Remarks on the Paradigm 84 

83. Remarks on the Formation of the 

Attic Future . . 84 

84. Accentuation of the Verb 85 

85. More particular view of the Aug- 

ment and Reduplication 91 

85. Syllabic Augment . . 91 

86. Temporal Augment . 92 

87. Remarks on the Augment 92 

88. Reduplication ... 93 

89. Attic Reduplication . 94 

90. Augment and Reduplication in 

Compound Words . 95 

91. Remarks On Augment and Redu- 

plication ... 96 

92. Division of Verbs in -« according 

to the Characteristic, together 
with Remarks on the Forma- 
tion of the Tenses . 96 
9S. Formation of the Tenses of Pure 
Verbs .... 97 

94. Verbs which retain the short 

Characteristic Vowel in Form- 
ing the Tenses . . 98 

95. Formation of the Aor. and Fat 

Pass, and Perf. and Plup. Mid. 
or Pass, with c . . 99 

96. Contract Pure Verbs . 100 

97. Remarks on the Conjugation of 

Contract Verbs . . 104 

98. Contract Verbs which retain the 

short Characteristic-vowel in 

Forming the Tenses . 1 10 


Paradigms of the above 110 


Impure Verbs . .114 


Strengthening of the Stem 114 


Change or Variation of the 

Stem-vowel . .115 


Remarks on the Secondary 

Tenses .116 

A. MüTB Veabs 
104. Introduction to Mute Verbs 117 

4 105. Remarks on the CharacteriBtic 


106. Formation of the Tenses of 

Mute Verbs . 118 

Pabadigms of Mute Verbs. 

107. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Pi-mute .119 

107. Pure Characteristic /?> tt, 119 

108. Impure Characteristic, n-r in 

Pres, and Impf. . .120 

109. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Kappa-mute < . 121 

110. Verbs whose Characteristic is a 

Tau-mute . . .121 

B. LiQirn> Vbbba. 

111. Formation of the Tenses 124 

112. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs 126 

113. Shorter Paradigms arranged ac- 

cording to the Stem-vowel of 
the Future . *128 

113. With a in the Future . 128 

114. With e in the Future . 129 

115. With I and v in the Future 129 

116. Special Peculiarities in the For- 

mation of Single Verbs, both 
Pure and Impure 132 

117. Syncope and Metathesis . 134 

118. Verbs in -w with the Stem of 

the Pres, strengthened 134 

119. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthed in the Pres, and 
Impf, by inserting v before the 
ending 134 

120. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf, by inserting ve before 
the ending . . 135 

121. Verbs whose Pure Stem is 

strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf, by inserting av, more 
rarely acv^ before the end- 
ing .... 137 

121. (a) av or aiv is inserted without 
any change 137 

121. (b) uv is inserted before the 
Tense-ending and v is inser- 


ted before the Characteristic- 
consonant of the Pare Stem 

§122. Verbs whose Pare Stem is 
strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf. by annexing the two 
Consonants ok or the syllable 
UTK . , . . 139 
138. Verbs whose Pare Stem is 
strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf. by prefixing the Bedn- 
plication . 141 

124. Verbs to whose Pore Stem e is 

added in the Pres, and Impf. 


125. Verbs whose Stem is Pore in 

the Pres, and Impf., bat which 
in other Tenses assume a Stem 
with the Characteristic e 143 

126. Verbs whose Tenses are formed 

from different Boots, and 
which are classed together only 
in respect to signification 146 

Vbsbs in -fit. 

127. Conjugation of Verbs in -fu 148 

128. Division of Verbs in -fii 148 

129. Mode-Yowels . . 149 

130. Personal-endings . 149 


^ 131. First Chiss of Verbs in -fu 151 

132. Second Class of Verbs in -fu 153 

133. Paradigms of Verbs in -^£ 153 

134. Remarks on the Paradigms 156 


135. Verbs in -fii which annex the 

Personal-endings to the Stem- 
\owel .... 163 

135. Verbs in -a . . .163 

136. Verbs in -e . 166 

137. Elfiij to be, and elfit, to go 166 

138. Verbs in -fii which annex the 

syllable wt or vD to the Stem- 
vowel and append to this the 
Personal-endings . . 169 

139. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Vowel and assumes wt 170 

140. Verbs whose Stem ends in a 

Consonant and assumes voni 

141. JjxAeciion of Kelfiai hnd ^ficu 172 

142. Verbs in -<■> which follow the 

analogy of Verbs in -fii, in 
forming the second Aor. Act. 
and Mid. . 173 

143. OMa, I know . .176 

144. Deponents, and Active Verbs 

whose Futhas a Mid. form 176 


CHAP. L — Elements of ▲ Sihplb Sentence. 

145. Nature of a Sentence.— Subject. 

—Predicate . .179 

146. Agreement . . .180 

147. Exceptions to the General Bules 

of Agreement . .182 
147b. Agreement when there are seve- 
ral Subjects • .184 

148. The Article . . .185 

149. Classes of Verbs . .193 

150. Bemarks on the Classes of 

Verbs .... 193 

151. Tenses and Modes . 198 

152. More Particular View of the 

Tenses . . . 198 

153. More Particular View of the 

Modes . . 203 

153. Bemarks on the Modal Adverb 

av . . . . 205 

CHAP, n.— 154. Attkibutiyes, Page 207. 

CHAP. in. — 155. The Objective Constbuction, Page 209. 



(156. Genitive ... 209 

157. Local Belation. — Genitive of 

Separation . . 209 

158. Causal Relation of the Genitive 


158. Active Genitive . 210 

158. Genitive as the eitpression of 

Canse . .215 

158. Genitive denoting certain Mu- 

tual Relations .217 

159. Accusative 220 
159. Accusative of Effect . 220 

159. Accusative of the Object on 

which the action is perform- 
ed .... 221 

160. Double Accusative . 224 

161. Dative .... 226 

162. Prepositions . . . 230 

A. Pbepositions with oxb Case. 

163. Prepositions with the Gen. only, 

qvTi, irpo,, and, kx^ Ivexa 231 

164. Prepositions with the Dat only, 

iVf ffvv . . . 233 

165. Prepositions with the Ace. only, 

&väy ek, c^ . . 233 

§ 166. Prepositions with the Gen. and 
Ace, öiäf Korä^/imip , 235 

167. Prepositions with the G«n., Dat 

and Ace., äfi<piy irepi, km, fu- 
rät rrapä, rrpog, imo . 237 

168. Remarks on the Construction of 

Verbal Adjectives in -rioc, 
-Tea, -reov, and on the Con- 
struction of the Comparative 


169. Remarks on the Use of Pro- 
. nouns . . 244 

170. The Infinitive . 248 

171. Infinitive without the Article 249 

172. Nom., Gen., Dat. and Ace. with 

the Infinitive . 249 

173. Infinitive witii the Article 251 

174. The Partidple . 252 

175. The Participle as thie Comple>- 

ment of the Verb . 253 

176. The Participle used to express 

Adverbial Relations and Sub- 
ordinate Explanatory Circum- 
stances . 257 

177. The Adverb . .259 

Stittax of Compound Sentbkcbs. 
CHAP. I.— -178. CoÖBDiHATiON, Page 263. 

CHAP. n. — Subordination. 

179. Principal and Subordinate 

Clause . .265 

180. Substantive-Sentences . 266 

181. Final Substantive-Sentences in- 

troduced by u>g, Ivcif etc 268 

182. Adjective-Sentences . 270 

183. Adverbial Sentences . 275 
183. Adverbial Sentences of Place 

and Time . . 275 

184. Causal Adverbial Sentences 278 

185. Conditional Adverbial Senten- 

ces ... . 278 

186. Adverbial Sentences denoting 

Consequence or Effect 281 

187. Interrogative Sentences . 283 

188. ObliqueorIndirectDi800urse285 





§ 189. Eemarks on the Hexameter 287 

190. Quantity . . .289 

191. Hiatns . .290 

192. The Homeric Dialect . 290 

193. Digamma . . .291 

194. Contraction. — Diaeresis. — Cra- 

sis. — Synizesis. — Apocope 291 

195. Change of Consonants . 292 


196. Suffix 0<(v) ... 293 

197. First Declension . . 293 

198. Second Declension . 294 

199. Third DecleBsioB . . 294 

200. Anomalous Words . 296 

201. Adjective^ . . .297 

202. Comparison . . . 297 

203. Pronouns . . . 297 

204. HanenOs . . .298 

The Vekb. 

^205. Augment. — Bediiplication 

206. Personal-endings and Afode- 

Towels . 299 

207. Contraction and Besolutioa in 

Verbs . . 800 

208. Formation of the Tenses 801 

209. Conjugation in-fu , . 302 

210. Elfii, tobe . .802 

211. £Z/ii» to go . . . 308 


AoB. Act. ▲»> Mii>., in the Pebf. 
AND Plup. Act., and Pbbs. and 


Verbs in -fii. 

212. Second Aor. Act. and Mid. 303 

213. Perf. and Plup. Act. . 304 

214. Pres, and Impf. . 304 





fl. Alp%ahe1. 
The Qgeck langnap htm tmmtf4emlemm, tfa. 












































































*0 ftbifSif 















































BaMATiK.. Sigma (<r) takes the ibnn c at the end of a word; e. g. aeurftSc. 
Thifl ima]l r may be used -also in the middle of componnd woida, when the 
flnt ]»art (tf the compound ends with Sigma; e. g. irpo^^pa, &vgyev^» 

S2. Proi»«n«ta<iOii* of particular Letters. 

a haa the sound of a in fan, when it is followed hj a consonant in the same 
syllable, e. g. ;to^'c6f ; the sound of a in fate^ when it stands befoi« a sisgle 
eonsonant which is followed by two vowels, the first of which is e or «, e. g. ävo' 
oraaeoc, arparuiynfc ; also when it forms a syllable by itself, or ends a syllable 
not final, e. g. äy-a-d-ät ko-to ; it has the sound of a ia father, when it is followed 
by a single p, if in the same syllable, and also when it ends a word, except when 
the word is a monosyllable, in which case it has the soond of a in fiUe, e. g. 
'BafhßorpoQj yäpf &ya&ä, rä, 

y before y, «, x aad ^ has the sound of n^ in angle, e. g. ayyeAoc, ang-gtkUy 
'kyxiong, AncMaea, avyicoinj, ^ncope, ^-äpvy^, kartfnx; y before Towds always has 
the hard sound, like ^ in ^ 

ff has the sound of short « in mtt^ witen ft is a ooniMant in the 
same syllaUe, e. g. ftey-of, ner-^ ; the sound of long e in me, when it ends a 
word, or a syllable followed by another Towd, or when it forms a syllable by it- 
self e. g. ye, •&$-», wpo^k-^Kt. 

tf has the sound of « in me, e. g. ftov^. 

t has Hbe sound of i in mme, when it ends a word or syllaUe, e. g. hXirUoij Sri ; 
llie sound «f t in pin, when it is followed by a omtonant in the same syllable, 
e. g. 9rp«v, KiV'^wo^. 

^ in the middle of a word has the sound of x, e. g. irpa^ig ; at the beginning 
of a word, the sound of C» e. g. f evof . 

o has the sound of short o in not, when it is followed by a consonant in the 
same syllaldle, e. g. ^y-or, Kv-poc ; the sound of long o in ^, when it ends a 
word, or a syflahle followed by another vowel, e. g. to, iiro, i^of. 

a has the ahavp sound of s in son; except it stands before fi, in the middle of 
a word, or at the end of a word after v or o, Yrhi^n it has die sounds of ^ e. g. 
aiapfi, vofuafJUL, y^, Koku^. 

r followed by t never has the sound of sA, as in Latin, e. g. FaAariass^klatia, 
not Galashia. 

ti has the sound of« in tviip, e. g. r{)xfi. 

X has tile haxd sound of eft in t^asm, e. g. taxv^. 

u has the sonmd of long o in note, e. g. äya. 

§3. Division of the Vowels. — Diphthongs. 

s and «re alwajs short yowels ; i^ and &t always long; «, i and 
V either long or short 

7?he short vowels are indicated hy ("), the long hy ("), e.g. 
Of a. The mark ( ^ ) shows that the vowel may be eitiier long et 
short, e.g. a. 

* For rules on the division of syllables, see f 17. 





ai proBOoaeed 

like m in om^«, e. g. 4xi| 

a « 

<< ei ^< «fe^ito, « deW^ 

Oi " 

" Ot " ^ " X(HI«Off 

M <^ 

<« whi '' iitAm»«, <« »f<(«r 


av " 

" au <* 2atfd^ « rmg 

iJV and f^ 

^* #u "/«mW, « hfkmma. 


ov and <ov ^* 

" OM " soundy* " ov^a«^^, 


idso a, i; and q>, i. e. a, ^ and cj with an Iota subscript. These 
three diphthongs, which are called improper diphthongs, we pro- 
Boance like a, r^ and (o without an Iota subscript 

Rem. 1. The following examples will show how the Romans sounded tiies^ 
diphthongs, and how they are represented in Engli^ ; oi is esqnwssed by the 
^phihong oe, e< by i and f . v by y, ot by oe, ov by «, e. g. 

^aldpoc, Fhaedms, Evpof , Enrus, Op^e^, Thraoes, 

riaßKo^, Qlaocns, Boeoirta, Boeotia, Op^^ra, Thressa, 

HelXo^, NKlns, Movoo, Mi^ rpay|^M$0s>, tngoedoe. 

AvKelov, Lyeenm, M^ei^ta, Ililliyia, 

Bjsk . 2. With the capital letters, the Iota subscript oi ^y and ^ is placed in 

a line with the vowel; e. g. Ai—^ Hi=y, Qt=<f). 

Rem. 3. When two vowels, which regularly form a diphthong, are to be pro- 
nonnced separately, it is indicated by two points called diaerms^ placed over the 
second vowel (<) v) j e. g. ei, ol', av. 

§4. Division of the Oonsonants. 

1. The consonants are divided, first, a<:cording to the organs bj 
which they are formed, into : 

Palatals, y a % 
Linguals, d t d^ v X q c 
Labials, ß n q) [a. 

Exercise for Reading* ye* y^. hol ^t, jf€i-^-fc. dm. dff. t«. r«. 
TO. T«>, f^. TotF. rav. t^. ß[i. &ei: X(», yaXa, im. t«». re»r. mj* fe», 
^. ge$, Qew. <fa*> aov. cevm.-^-ßov. ßovr, ßi^ra, ßttkijm, m. «rov. 
am. flap. qpi. cpeQ(o, qtev. qivyij. jmv. ^. fMOi^ 

2. Consonants are divided again, according to the greater or less 
ftoffnetice of the organs of speech in their fomiati<m, into : 

(a) Semi-vowels, viz. X fi p q, which are called Liquids, and the 
sibilant ff ; 

(b) Mutes, viz. ßydn%r(p%^. These nine mutes are divided . 

I - ■ ' I I I I I . I I I - I ■ I I.I I I I I I 11 ^1 1—1 «I ■! I » ■■ ■ H I» 1^^»^^ 

* By some, however, pronounCied like au in gnvp, . 



(ft) Aoeozdiog to the ovjgMi of apdeob, into three Paktalsy three 
unguals and tlaee Tithitrfo ; 

(b) According to their names, into three Kappa-mutesi thcee Tan« 
mates, and three Pi-mirtes ; 

(c) According to the stress of artieolation, into three smooth Mutes, 
three medial Mutes, and three rough Mutes. 





• n 














3. From the coalesoenoe of the Mutes with the sibilant cr, three 
doable consonants originate,— 

If) from na ß<f (pa 
i from %tt ya ffl 
2^ from der. 

ßxere%9efoT Beading, Xafjißdci, Xafißavt». fiv, fuXog. fimht. fv. 
rvHteg. wcam. gevais, Quttm. ciyfAa. csvcd. xoatna, xau^a, xoiyor. 
ycsQ. YQOV. X'&m9, — rof. ttj^. tow. tBfiuwin tQOVfia, deltOL dHwow^* 
&ea,^fjra. S'ovfui. &cafficufut, — navtcu nqnata. nouo, navofnw, 
ß^a. ßcup<Oy ßaHto. ßhunofui^^ ^ev^at. g^oMw». fatdo^uu. — ipi. 
t^at/flo. xpaXkm. ^aXtiiQ. i^t^i;. ^i. iixog. ^ard'og, lotfo». £^a* 

§ 5. Breathings, 

1. Every vowel is pronounced with a Breathing ; this is either a 
smooth or rough Breathing. The smooth is indicated bj the mark 
(' ), the rough bj (' )• One of these marks is ^aced over eveiy 
vowel which b^;in8 a word ; e. g. oW, ItnoQicu The rough breath- 
ing correspcmds to the English and Latin A. The smooth breathing 
is connected with everj vowel, which has not the rough. 

2* In diphthongs, the mark of the breathing is placed over the 
second vowel ; e. g. viogf evdv^^ aituuL. But when the improper 
diphthongs ^ t7» V> ^® capital letters, the breathing is placed over 
the first vowel ; e. g. 'Aidtig^ pronounced like ^di^^, Hades, 

8. Tlie Uquid ^ is pronounced with the rough breathii^, and 
henoe has the mark of the breathing at the beginning of the word ; 
e. g. ^ttßdog. When two ^'s occur in the middle of a word, the first 


is prcmoiin<!6d witb ihe smoodi brenthing» the last with Üie longli. 
The first has the mark of the smooth, the last that of the rough 
e. g. IIv^Qog, 

Exercise for Reading. ak(fa, aH^avaa. ald'^q. atna, ifxov. /xoot . 
elta, eifia, evqet, evQiaxm. oXiyov, otvov. olov, oiov. rjxa, tiv^W'» 
^nnov, loora, tva, Innoi, vno. vioi. Iodktj. adm. 'Siidri, 

§6. Mark of Crasis and Elision (Coronis — 


1. The mark of Crasis and Elision is the same as the smooth 

2. When two words come together, the one ending, and the other 
beginning, with a Towel, these two vowels frequently coalesce and 
form one long syllable. This coalescence is called Orasisy and the 
mark by which it is indicated, Coronis. The Coronis is placed 
over the syllable formed by Crasis, and when this, syllable is a diph- 
thong, over the second vowel. But the Coronis is omitted, whe^.a 
word begins with a vowd or diphthong formed by crasis ; e. g. ro 
OM/ta «-* tüvrefMüf si iffog >« toinegj tä ayad^A -« tiyu^Oy i oZro; 

Rair. In Crasis the Iota subscript (§ 3) is written only when the i belongs to 
|he last of the coalescing Towels } e. g. koX dra^^Kfra ; hnt KOt hretra'^K&irttTm. 

8. EUiion is to be distingui^ed from Crasis. It consists in the 
oeaission of a voitel before a word beginning with a vowel. The 
mark by which Elision is indicated, is called Apostrophe ; e. g. mo 
ofxov a« an omov. The Apostrophe is omitted in compound words ; 
e. g. dmq)eQov from ano-iqitQov. 

t § 7. Movable Consonants at the end of »a word, 

1. Anoüier means of avoiding the coneurrence of two vowels in' 
two successive words, is by appending a 9 (called p i^ehivatutipf 
suffixed) to certain final syllables, viz. 

(a) to the Dat. PL in <r^, to the two adverbs, ni^wsiy lA« lasi $/eary 
narroftaaif umversallp, and all adverbs of ^ace in 01 ; e. g. 
näüit He^a ; ^ ITkatiuäöiv ^Sfiopia ; 
(ß) to ihe third Fers. Sing, and PL in at; e. g. tvtnavcit ifu^ 

ti^rjaip h rj r^a^raJi?; so also to fort'; 
(^y) to the third Pers. Sing, in 8 ; e. g. hvTnrsv ii$i; 
(d) to the numeral sixouiy although even before vowels the 9 Is 
often omitted; e. g. thoatv apdqeg and hkoci apd^eg; 


BuL la Attic prose, v k^^jcvaruthf n^^ofeily itends at Üie end of oompiett 
afletioag, «sd ioiii«tameB before the longer pimctiuition-iiuu'ks, where no rowel 

2. The word ovt(o$ (thus) always retains its full form before a 
Towel, but drops its final a before another consonant; e. g. ovro»^ 
inolipBv, but ovtfo now. So also &XQi^ and fiixQf^» 

d. In like manner the Prep. aS (ex) retains its fuü form before 
vowels and at the end of a sentence, but before consonants takes the 
form ex ; e. g. €$ eiQipnjg, BiQ^mjg £^, but in j^g eiQi^pfig ; so also in 
composition ; e. g. i^eXavvsiv, but ixteXelv. 

4. So the negative ovx (not) becomes ov before a consonant ; e. g. 
ovH cuffiQog, bat w aaXag ; and before a rough breathing it becomes 
^X * ^* & ^^X V^^^ > 7^^ ^^^ before the aspirate q; e. g. ov Qinxm, 

t8 8. Change of Consonants in Inflection and 


1. A Taa-mnte (r i 0) before another Tau-mute is changed 
faito<T^ e.g. 

hfet'&^'&ipr fW>m mi'&o becomes hreicr&tfv 
WM'&'Teot " ircfA* " ireiOTeoc 

ipeiS-'&fjv " lpeid<j " ifpeUr^v, 

2. A Pi-mute (» |} g)) before /& is changed into ft, 
a Ki4[>pa-mute (x 7 j) ^ M ^' '' ^> 
aTaa-mafte (t i '&) ^ [i ** << a;e.g* 

(a) J^OMite^: A^^i9r-/iai from XelirQ beoomei XiXeiftfuu 

TSTpiß-fiai " Tptßu " Terpififjuu 

yiypa^fUtt «• 7pa^ " y(ypafi(iai 

(^) ^^pMDaate:«r^i^iE^Kai " irAiicu " neTfXeyfttu 

XiXey-fULt " Xeyw remains A^Aey/uai 

ßeßpex'iuuu " /9/>e;t^ becomes ßeßptyfiai 

(y) Taa-mnte: fpivr-iuu " diHlh-cj " ^a/<at 

ipeid^fiai ** ipeiSu " ^peiüfMU 

Tfeirei^-fioi " ireii^u " irhrcur/iai 

9* A Pinnate (^ /} g)) with a is chwiged into 1^, 
a Kappa-mute (x y x) ^^ ^ ^ changed into if 
a Taa-mute (t & '&) disi^ppears before <r ; e. g. 

(u) Pf^mntB: Xactrao ttam Xeimt becomes Xeiifnt 

TpißffQ " Tptßu " rpir^ 

ypa<^u " ypa<^ " ypa^w 

(/S)Xappa>]nate:7rX^K(M( ** n-A^/cw " irAefcj 

Aiy<M) ^ Hyo «< X^^ 

ßpeX^ü " /'p^^ " i^^lö 

(x) Taa-mate: Mt<po ** AvivQ ** Mou 

ipeidot) ** ipeidit ** ipeiou 

'SxHAXlL 1. The Prep, etc t)6fore (7 is an exception ; e. g. ixau^Uj not k^Q. 

4. A^ before a Pi-mute (n ^ up \^) is changed into ft, 

N before a Kappa-mute (x y x Ö is changed into y, 

A^ before a Tau-mute (r d d) is not changed ; e. g. 

iv-ireipia becomes kfiireipia ffw-zco^ew becomea ovy/ca^w 

kv-ßäXXu " kfißaXXa ovv-yiyvuaKCi " avyytyvuoKu 

hh'^pu» ** ifM^pw avv-xpoyof ** evyxpovog 

kvTj/txoc " ifTilrDxoc avv'ieo» " avy^etj ; 

but awreivOf avvdeu, cnjv^eu. 

IRbm. 2. The enclitics form an exception ; e. g. Övwepj rovyCy not 3^cp, royye 

5. A^ before a Liquid is changed into the same Liquid ; e. g. 

aw-Xoyil^o becomes (wX?Myi^ij avv-fierpia becomes (rufifterpia 
kv-fieva " hfifievii ovv-ptTrrw ** üvPßiTrru. 

Bem . 3. The preposition h befoire p is an exception ; e. g. hplvrru^y not ^^ 

6. A^ is dropped before a and C > the preceding vowel, short bj 
nfttare, reiaains short after the omission of v before <r ; e*g. 

gw-^vyia becomes ov^vyia, daiftov^i beoooMS öaiftMi. 

Buk. 4. Exceptions : 'E v, e. g. ivimeipijf kv^e^ywfii ; ira^.tVy e. g. ffoXli^. 
tf^KiOf ; some fonns of inflection and derhration in -oat and 'ffi^ ; e. g. iri^avatu 
Acmi f«^vU) aad some few subetant&ve« in -£vf and ^vf . The v of crvv in com- 
posUion, is changed into a before another a followed b j a yowel \ e. g. avpüd^f^^ 
instead of awa6(^<^ ; bat when a is followed by a consonant, v is dropped j e.g. 
ainf-oTfifta becomes avarfjfjia. 

7. But when p is joined with a Tau-mute, both mutes disappear 
bef(H*e <r, and, as a con^nsation, the short vowel is lengthened be- 
fore (T, namely, e into eiy o into ov, a, i, v into ä, i, v ; e. g. 

Tv^evr-aL becomes ru^elai "keovr-ai becomes T^eovaL 

irävT'ffi ♦* irä« det«vwr-<r* " deucvvm 

8. A Pi-mute (« /? qp) or a Kappa-mute (x y x) before a Tau- 
mute, must be of the same order as the Tau-mute, i. e. smooth, mid- 
dle or rough. Hence only a smooth Mute {n x) can stand before 
the smooth Mute r ; only a medial (ß y) before the medial d ; only 
an aspirate (9 ^ before the aspirate d^ ; consequently, nr and xr ; 
^d and y^ ; 9^ and X'^ * e- g* 

/3 before t becomes ir as : from rpt/?« Terpiß-Toi = rerpcirtai 

^ ♦* r ** fl* " " ypaifuj yeypcup-rai = yeypairrat 

y « T " * " " ^o XeAey-Tiu « WixKtai 

;t " T " ic « " i8pe;t« ßeßpex-rai « ßeßpeKrai 

fr •* ^ «* /8 " " «vTTTi» ÄVff-da = Kt;/3(fa 

^ « d •* /9 ** " ypätJHfi ypa<^6rpf =« ypaß^ifv 

« " d " y ** ** irXe«« wXi/c-df/v « nXkydnv 


X before <5 becomes y as: from /9p^^ü ßifhc-^ «** ßpfy^ 
TT " 1^ " ^ ** «* irifiTvu iirifiir-dffv = ine/ju^^ijv 
^ " ^ " ^ " " rpi/?« irpiß-'&rfv « irpiip^ 

Bbm. 5. The preposition ^k does not imdeigo this diange ; e. g. ^ic<5o«v«M, Is» 
^eivaiy etc., not kyöovvcut ix^elvcu. 

9. The smooth mutes (« x t) before a rough breathing, afe chan- 
ged into the cognate aspirates (qp x ^)> ^^^ ^^^J ^^ inflection and 
derivation, but also in two sepai^te words. The medials (ß y S)^ 
however, are thus changed only in the inflection of the verb ; in 
other cases they remain unchanged ; hence : 

d'Tr' ov = a0' ov, kir^fiepoc (from ^tt«, ifuepa) = k^fupo^ 
km^alvij (from kiriy iijtaivu) = kfv^vu, rervTr-ä «= rirv^a 
o{)K dffiijg = abx 6ai(o^j deK^ftepoc (from dcico, ^fiepa) = dex^fiepoc 
&VT' d>v = dvi^* (^ (from avr^), avre^u (from avn, IXic6)) s dv^eA«» 
s^A^y-d =el^x^y but Xe/ irepav^ not Ac;^:' hepav 
Terpiß'ä = Thpi^a, but rpt)3* oUrwf, not Tp?^' oiJrüf . 

Beh. 6. This change also takes place in Oasis ; e. g. ^arepa from rd irepa 
(f 6. 2). When two smooth mutes precede an aspirate, they must both be chan- 
ged into aspirates (No. 8) ; e. g. kf^fiepog, instead (tf iirr^fupoc (from hrrä, 
^fiepa), vifx^ 6Xiyv, instead ofvvKr* iiktiv, 

10. If, in the redupUectHon of vei^, whose stem begins with an 

aspirate, this aspirate is to be repeated, then the first aspirate is 

changed into the corresponding smooth Mute ; thus, 

^e-^ihiKa from ^iXea is changed into ne^ikriKa 
Xe'X*^Ka " x^ " KexvKa 

^i-d^Tjfu stem GE " ri'&rifii. 

JThe two verbs, dveiVy to sctcrificej and ri&svou (stem 0£), to place, 
also follow this rule, in the passive endings which begin with '^ ; e. g* 

krt-'&riVj TV'^fTOfiai, hc'^fiv^ Te-^ffOfzaif instead of t&v^dipf, ii^c-i9iyv. 

11. In words whose stem begins with r and ends with an aspirate,* 
the aspiration is transferred to the smootji r, when the aspirate be- 
fore the final syllables beginning with c, r and ^, must be changed 
into an unaspirated consonant (according to No. 8. 8. 2.) ; by this 
transfer, r is changed into the aspirate &. Thus : 

Tpe^ti is changed into (^peTT-atj) '^pE^a, d^pew-r^pf {^peirfia) d^pSfifta 
ratffij TA$-6> into i^d^«, i^dir-r«, {Tei^ait-ficu) ri^afifuu 
Tpv^t TPY*-w into i^pv^w, "^pwr-Tu {Te&pviT'fiai) re^pvfifuu 

— 11. J - - . II .J. I I m. J ri ^^~ 

* Some other Grammarians regard the words to which this principle appliea, 
•8 having two aspirates in the root ; but as it is not euphonic for two sucoesstre 
syllables to begin with an aspirated letter, the first must be smooth, as long as 
the second remains, and when the second disappears, the first becOTies rough 
again ; hence ix^ (properly la:<^), but Fut H*i. — ^Tb. 

SI 9, 10.] qVAJSltlPtTX OJ anLABX£8.-^AOG|E]rrVATIOK. f 

rphi^ into i^pix'in^) ^pk^oftai 'v-^psX'^ into ^(» t9pt^. 
raxH has väffaov in the Comparaüve, (Bat rev|u from revxOf rpv^» 
from tpvx(^i remain unchanged). 

Bbx. 7. Where the passive endings of 1^ above vert», rfti^ ^inrrn (stem 

TA«), i^pvirrw (stem TPY«), begin with i^, the aspiration of the two 9^aX tfx^ 

■Quants ^, ehanges r, ibe isitial eonaonant of the stem) into i^; €. g. 

Rbm. 8. In the imperative-ending of the first Aor. Pass., where boih syllables 
would begin with t^, viz. -i^i^/, not the first, but the last aspirate is changed into 
the corresponding smooth mnte, thus : -^ri ; e. g. rv<^'^Ti^ not Tv^&q^i. ' 

12. P is doubled, — (a) when the augment is prefixed ; e. g. li^- 
Qiw ; (b) in composition, when q is preceded by a short vowel ; e. g. 
a^^flxtoSf ßad^vQQOog; but ev-^taatos (from ev and QdfWfu). 


§9. Quantity of Syllahles* % 

1. A syllable is short by natiire, when its vowel is short, viz. ^ 
9, a, i» v, and when a vowel or single consonant follows a short vow- 
el ; e. g. 'sviiiiaa^ '«^riJ'^aro. 

2. A syllable is long by nature, when the vowel is a simple, long 
vowel, viz. ijf 09, äf c, v, (»r a diphthong ; e. g. '^iJQcögy nQivfä yyiqmqa^ 
hxvQwg^ ftaid&i^s; hence contracted syllables are always long; 
e. g. "axGir (from aexoat»), ßorqvg (from ßotqvag), 

3. A syllable with a short vowel is made long by position, whea 

two or more consonants or a double consonant (^ $ \p) follow the 

short vowel ; e. g. 'ixareiUo», vi^pävt^g^ xo^äS {iiOQQiHog)^ tQani^a, 

Bbkark. Bat when a short vowel stands before a mute and liquid, it regu- 
larly remains short ; e. g. äriKvoct ä'jriirh}^^ ^aKfifi^ ßtrpfvcy 6i6paxfio^. In two 
eases, however, a short vowel before a mute and liquid is made long,*— (a) in 
eoii4)09ition ; t. g. 'iKviftu ; (b) whgn c«e of the medials {ß y 6) stands before 
one of the three liquids, ^ fiv; e. g. ßtß^i ei^öiftoc, vthr?£yfuU. 

§ 10. Accentuation* 

1. The accentnaüon of a word of two or more syllables, consists 
in pronouncing one syllable with a stronger* or clearer tone than 

* In our pronunciation of the Greek, however, we do not observe the written 
accent; but the Greeks undoubtedly distinguished Üxe syllable on which the 
mitten accent stands, by a greater stress of voice.— Tb. 

10 CHAivaB or accknt bt mvLMßvmh sxQ« [i IL 

tbe other ; e. g. dtorueljifa, trnmoHoL A moooiyMabic word 1^40^ 

must be accented, so as to form, in connected discourse» an indepen* 
dent sound. The Greek lan|^iage has the following marka of ae- 

(a) The-acute (' )» to d^iote the sharp tone ; e* g. ilo^o^ ; 

(b) The circumflex (*), to denote tbe protmeted tone; e. g. 

(c) The grave (^ ), to denote a softened acute on the final sylla- 
bles of words in connected discourse (§ 12, 1.). The grave 
is also used instead of the acute to distinguish certain word» ; 
e. g. rlsy any one, and r«V» vfho f 

Kbm. 1. The accent stands upod the second vowel of diplithongs ; and, at the 
beginning of words commencing with a vowel, the acnte and grave stand after 
the breathing, but the circumflex over it ; e. g. utto^, axf?,eioct uv elrr^Ci ^p<Ki alfta. 
But with capital letters, the accent is placed after the breathing, over the first vowel 
of the diphdiongs (t, ^, v' ; e. g. 'kiirig. With the diaeresis (^ 3. Rem. 3.), the 
acute stands between, and the circumflex over, the points } e. g. «Ud^f , kktfid^. 

2. The acute stands on one of the last three syllables, whether 
this is long or short ; e. g. vuxXog, av^qfonov^ noJiefwg ; jet upon the 
antepenult, only when the last is short, and is not long by position ; 
e. g. aP'&QODftog, but dv&gmnov. 

d. The circumflex stands only on one of the last two syllables^ 
but that syllable must always be long by nature ; e. g. tw, ciSfia ; 
it stands upon the penult, however, only when the ultimate is shorty 
or long by position only ; e. g. Ter;^o^, XQVH'^ ^^l^> avXa^ (Gren. 
'ditog), xaXavQotpy xar^h^f, /tr^iJuSpai, 

Rem. 2. According to the accentuation of the last syllable, words have the 
following names: 

(a) Oxytones, when the ultimate has the acute; e. g. rerv^uf, kokSci ^Pi 

(b) Parox3rtones, when the penult has tbe acute ; a g. r^irra ; 

(c) Froparoxytones, when the antepenult has the acute ; e. g. äv^pamc, rv- 
irrofievo^, äv&püi'Kot, rvitrofuvot ; 

(d) Fenspom^na, when the ultimate has the circumflex; e. g. Kwt&i ; 

(e) Fjroperispomena, when the penult has the drcmnflex; e/g. npayfta, ^ 
Xovaa ; 

(f ) Barytones, when the ultimate is unaccented ; e. g. irp&y/iaTo, wpayfttL 

till* Change and Removal of the Accent hy tn- 

flection and Contraction. 

1. When a word is changed by inflection, either in the quantity 
of its final syllable or in the number of its syllables, then, according 

f 1 1;] CHAKOB or «B Acawxrs VT mvLzmtoxff sro. 11 

«to^ftfae p re c d B ug roiei^ thete is geaerallj ito a ekaoige or removsl 
of the accent. 

(a) Bj l^ng^ieasBg the Itoal sjttahle^ 

(«) A Proparoxytone, as mUfjaog, becomes a Paroxytone ; 

e. g. thkifMv; 
(^ A Properispomenon, as tMi^XP^j a Paroxytone ; e. g. rei- 

(;^) An Oxytone, as ^e^, a Pmspomenoa ; e. g. ^eov. Tet 
this change is lifidted to pailictilar instances. See § 26» 
5, (a). 

(b) By shortening the final syUable, 

(a) A dissyllabic Paroxytone with long penult, as (jßevyWf 

becomes a Properispomenon; e. g. (peSyBy but tdttaf 

(ß) A polysyllabic Paroxytone, whether the penult is long 

or short, becomes a Proparoxytone ; e. g. ßovXeviOy ^ov- 


(c) By the accession of a syllable or syllables at the beginning of 

a word, the accent is commonly removed towards the beginning of 

the word ; e. g. (pevyaoy 8g}8vyop, By the accession of syllables at 

the end of a word, on the contrary, the accent is removed towards 

the end of the word ; e. g. rvntta, rwitofAs&a, rvgi'dTjaofiS'&a, 

Bbx. 1. The particular cases of the chan^ of accent by inflection, and the 
«xoepUcms to the general roleft here stated, will be se^i below under tibe aocem 
toation of the sereral parts of speech* 

2. In respect to contraction, the following principles apply : 

(1) When neither of two syllables to be contracted is accented, 
the contracted syllable also is unaccented, and the syllable which, 
previous to contraction, had the accent, retams it also after the con* 
traction; e. g. gitXs« «« giiXec, but (piXiet '^ qnXsT, yivti^^yivsh y^' 

(2) But when one of the two syllables to be contracted is accent- 
ed, the contracted syllable also is accented : 

(a) The contracted syllable when composed of the antepenult and 
pennlt, takes the accent which the general rules require ; e. g. 

äyairaoftai as Ayairtöfiai ^iXeo/ievo^ sx i^iXovfievoc 

ioTCMToc = tcTiyro^ bp&oovoi = bp&ovai 

(b) The contracted syllable, when it is the ultimate, takes : 

(a) The acute, when the last of the syllables to be contracted 
has the acute ; e. g, iaraoig » iatoig ; 

It CHAirf« mp juxmv.^-A«aBnQs. [H 1% tiL 

tractedy is aoc^ited ; e. g. *fix6i >» ^ot 

Rbm. 3. The exoeptions to «lie firindpleB «tioed, >m|I1 h% a*m ImIow tmAer tiw 
ooDätracted dodeosions «od coiynytfioiw. 

t§12, Oian^e 4ind JRemo^fal efihs Ape^ni in 

connected Discourse. 

1. In eoanected Aeoime, the OxylbsM ncelve Ihe niieiSc of flie grare, i. e. 
by the close cc^Dyectioii of the irords with each other, Übe «htop tone is weaken- 
ed or depressed ; e. g. EZ ^ firirpvi^ freptxak^^ üepißoia ft». But the acnt« 
must stand before every punctuatioB-^nwk, by which an actnal division ii mad» 
in the thought ; e. g. 'O fiiv Kvpo^ kizepaae rdv iroraficVf ol di irdXifuot aire- 

Excepdom. The interrogatives fid rtf qmsf qmdf always remain oxytoned. 

2. In Crasis (§ 6. 2), the accent of the first word is omitted, and the word formed 
ffdim tbe two, Irns Hie accent of the second word } e. g. rä üyadiä ^ räya&ä, rov 
d^ptOfoif as Toiipavod, ry ^ftip^ » ^fup^ rb Svofsa n rohfOfta ; yet, according 
to the general rale (§ 10. 3), the long vowel formed by Crasis takes the circmn- 
Hex instead of the acnte, when the iteoond word was a dissyllable paioxytone, 
with a short final syllable ; e. g. rd kiro^ =s roiiro^ rä äXXa s räX^ rd ipyoy 
a= Tohpyov, TÄ bit'ka = i^cjTrXa. 

3. In Elifflon (4 6, 3), the accent of the elided vowel goes back as an acute npon 
die preceding syllable ; yet, when the word, from which a vowel has been elided, 
IS a preposition or one of the particles, aXKa, oitde, fujSe, or one of the «nclitics, 
Tiva and irore, the accent of llie elided vowel wholly disappears, and also when 
Ih« accented vowel ci monosyllaMe words is elided ; e. g. 

rroXXä imx&ov ss noX?,* iura&ov irapä kfiov s= irap* i/tov 

deivä ipuT§g &= ddv* kpar^ &irö kavrev «s &f iavrov 

fijfütyu ^^n'tyci iXkäkyu ^&U; kyü 

alffxpä i?x^ac = ctl<fXf^ I5le^a? oiöi ky6 = oi<J' kyo 

hrrä iaav « im* ^aav rivä Üieye «« tii^ iktye. 

tSlS- Aitynics or Pro^iiiies, 

Some small words are termed Atonies or Proditics, which, in 
connected discourse, are so closely united to the foUowing word» 
that thej, as it were, coalesce with it, and lose Üieir accent. They 

(a) the forms of the article, o, ^, o/, al ; 

(b) the prepositions, if, in, eig (ig), into, ix (IQ, ex, w, ad; 

(c) the conjunctions, <ig, as, that, so that, when, d, if; 

(d) oA (ovx, oix), not; but at the end d^ a sentence and widiihe 
meaning JVo, it has the accent ; e. g. ov (ovk). 

II.P. 8.(T0Ci 

in. p. S. oi DuaL G(^tv PI. (T^i<Ti{v) 

Enclitics are certain words of one or two syllables, which, in 
connected discourse, are so ctoselj joined, in certain cases, to the 
{ureceding word, that they either lose their tone, or throw it bfick 
upon the preeodi&g wond ; e. g. isf^iküg ««$, ttolBfiog ti^. T^ej ar»>; 

(a) The verbs elfiiy to he, and (ffVftit io say, in the Pires. Indic^ except die 
second Pers. Sing, el, tftoet art^ and ^f* ^^^ sayest^ 

(b) The following forms of the three personal pronouns : 

L P. S. fiov 

(c) The mdefinite pronotm, rig, rl, through all the cases and nnmbeis, to- 
gether with the abridged forms tov and r^, and the indefinite advert» iruc, 
irw, TT^, TTOV, vo&i, rro^ev, not, irore ; the corresponding interrogative words, 
on the contrary, are always accented j e, g. rig, ri, nog, etc. ; 

(d) The particles, re, rot, yl, vw, nip, i^, and the inseparable particle, di, 
t)oth when it expresses the direction uMher-, e. g. 'Epeßogße, to Erebus, and also 
when it serves to strengthen a word ; e. g. roüogSe. 

t § 15. Inclination of the Accent. 

1. An Ozytone so unites with the following ^cHtiG, that the ac- 
cent, which is commonly grave in the middfe of a s^i^nce (S 13* 1), 
again becomes acute ; e. g. 

^np ^tf for 1^^ rig ^ Kokog kartv fat Ka^Jerlv 

Kai TLveg " Koi rivig icoTOftbg ye " norofi^ yk 

Kxt^ re ** KoMg re nortlfioi riveg " imrfifiol rtvig. 

2. A Perispomenon unites with Üie feflowing enclitic without 
forther change of the accent; e. g. 

^ijg ri for ^Ctg rl ^iTcel rig ibr 0«Ae? rig 

i^ug itrrtv ** ipög karlv koXov rtvof ** «oXov rivog. 

Rbmaek. Long ^Eables ia entities $g» eomdSlered in inspect to-thc aooeii- 
toation as short ; hence olvrivoiv, ovrivmt are vbwed as sepaniie er oot^pooaf 
words, like Kokuv rivu», 

8. A Paroxytone unites with the following monosyllabic enditie 
without further change of tlie accent ; but there is no inclination 
when the enclitic is a dissyllable ; e, g. 

^^f fiov for ^L^og fiov, but <^iXog kartv, ^t?Mi ^Kiffiv, 
ÄAAoc nog " äXTiog nag, " ä^Xog irore, oXKun? rivUv. 

4. A Froparoxytone and a Properispomenon unite with the fol* 
lowi^ enelitie, and take an acute accent on the last syllable. 

äv&pairog rig jUbr &v&pcinog rig aufm ri fosr aCtfia rl 

dv^pcjiroi riveg " air^poyiroi rtveg odfta kartv *' ai^fia karip, 


14 ENCLITICS ACCßKTßD. — ^DlTlBIOW Ot STLlABLEft. [§§ 16, 17, 

Bbmask. When sevterü enclitics occnr together, each throws hadt its aoeeiit 
on the precedmg; e. g. el vip tIc oi ftoi <^oi rrore. 

t § 16. Enclities Accented, 

1. The enclitics at the beghming of a sentence, retain their accent; e. g. ^n- 
fil iyä To^o. — Tivi^ Xiyovaiv.'-''Elai ^toL^-^hat instead of iarHv) at the be- 
gfaming of a sentence, the fonn i<fTi{v) is used ; also, if it stand» in comiectioB 
with an Inf. for e^eaTi{v)f and aft^ the particles uXX, elj ovk, ß^ uc> ^ct^i /<£«t 
Art, nov, also after the pronoun tovt* ; e. g. 'Eari i^eof . — 'Eari aoiftdc uvijp.^^ 
^EüTiv oUrug. — 'E(mv Wetv, idelv iariVf licet videre. — El lariVy ohK Jtariv^ tovt* 

2. ^fu and the other persons of the Ind., retain the accent, if they are sepa- 
rated firom the preceding word by a punctuation-mark ; e. g. 'Eariv av^p ayOf 

3. The enclitic personal pronouns, oov^ aoif air ol, a^iai{v)y retain their ac* 

(a) When on accented Prep, precedes \ e. g. ^apä aov, fterä ai^ rrpbc mi. hk 
this case, instead of the encUtic forms of the Fron, of the first Pers., tho 
longer, regularly accented forms are chosen ; e. g. 

trap* ifiov not irapa ftov, Trpdf ifioi not "Trpoc fioif 

Kar' kfie " Kara fie, irepX kfiov " nepi ftav. 

Kkmabk. The unaccented prepositions are united to the enclitic forms j e. g. 
Ik ftovt hf ftoij ig ae, ig /Uf ix ffov, iv troi. 

{h) After eopolative or £4q^<^^® conjunctions j e. g. ifii koI ae, ifä f^ ai, 
as g^ieraUy, when the pronouns are emphatic, e. g. in antitheses. 

(c) The forms o^, ol, i, are accented only when they are used as reflexivo 

4. There is no inclination, when the accent of the word on which the en- 
ditic rests, disappears by Elision; e,:g, xaXbg & hrlv, but kcl^ de i<rrtv^^ 
woXXol (T ehiv, but iro^^l 6e elaw. 

t § 17. Division of Syllables» 

"BtasuMixAXT BaEXAiftKi The diTinon of syllf^les» according to our mode of 
pronouncing Gredc, depends in part upon the place of iSbß aceenf* 

The accent (stress) is on the penult in dissyllables, and on the antepenult in 
polysyllables, when the penult is short The accent on the penult or antepenult 
is called the primaiy accent If two syUables precede the primaiy accent, there 
is a secondary accent on the first syllable of the word. 

1. In dissyllables, a smgle consonant following a or £ in the penult, is joined 
to the final syllable ; e. g. ä-y&>, 7ra-pd, fia-Xa, Uva, Urog, Ux^- 

5. In dissyllables, a single consonant following e or o, is joined to the first 
«yllable; e. g. Xoy-ogf reX^. 

* The term accent and accented, throughout these rules, is used with reference 
to our pronunciation of the Greek, and not to the written accent on the Greek 

I§ Id, 19.1 ppK^TUAXioi^iuJUMf^— yjBwa qv thb yxbb. is 

3. TUq double ^fmsaaam ^smAiftae joioed to üie roirel preceding thoni 

e. g. rd^-w, (5ii/;-of, npu^-i^, uvTLTa^-ufievog. But C is joined to the vowel fol- 
lowing it, except when it stands after e or o, or after an accented vowel in the an- 
tepenult, — ^in which case it is joined with these vowel? ; e. g. vo/zt-^w, vofii-^e, 
Afmu-^cj ; but rpaire^-aj o^-o^t vofiK^-ofitv, äpwü^-ofiev. 

4. A six^le oonsofnant (exc&pt in the penult) befom oir after the vomis amcl 

I baving the accent, and also a single consonant h^ore or after e and o having 

the aflo^ait, is jcnned to these vowels ; e^ g. aywai^of» votpoftd^^ ßa^i^^4a, ihmo^ 

oßunff S-TTOT-epo^, rv&'Ofiev. 

Exception. A single consonant after an accented syllable, and followed by two 
vowels, the first of which is e or i, is Joined to the vowel after it j e. g. arpa-Tia^ 

5. A single coosooant after a long vowel or v is joined to Üxe vowel follow«* 

iiag J e. g. <f>o>-v^f xp^-l^^i ^-*w» ^fü-htc, 6na-66g ; &pyv-pos, fiv-piag, a&v-iua^ 

fv-yovregj ^t-yofiev. 

Exception. A single consonant following long a or t in the antepenult, and 
having the accent, is joined with the vowel preceding j e. g. airoKptv-aro^ kori* 

6. Two single consonants coming together in the middle of a word, are sepa* 
rated ; e. g. »roA-Zd, la-ravat, Te&-vr}Ka, ^a/!hfidke<JCi KXvTorix-i^C' 

Excej^ion. A mute and liquid are sometimes joined to the following vowdf 

e^ g. ktL-TpCUGKOV. 

7. When three consonants come together in the middle of a word, the last 
two, if a mute and liquid, are joined to the following vowel, if not, the last onlj| 
6b g. äv-d^pcjirog, äv-dpia, but irepi^^ijv. 

8. Compounds are divided into their constituent parts, when the first part 
ends with a consonant ; but if the first part ends with a vowel followed by a 
short syllable, the eompotmd is divided, l&e a simple word ; e. g. kK-ßaivtjf ow- 
eK-^6vriaigf T^po^-emg^ aväß-acngy but iS^TTo-^T^f, not vico^p^Tfig » sor vapthßalvi»* 

t§ 18. Punctuation-marhs, 

The colon and semicolon are indicated by a period at the top of the line ; 
e. g. ei iXe^a^ • Travreg yap ufioXoyi^aav. The interrogation-point is like our 
semicolon ; e. g. rig ravra iTtoirjcev ; The period, comma and exclamation- 
point are Uke ouxs. 


§19. Some general views of the Verb, 

1. The verb expresses action; e. g. to Uoom, to strike. In 
Greek there are three classes of verbs, viz. active, passive and mid- 
dle. The middle has a refleodve signification, i. e. it expresses an 
aetion which proceeds froln the subject and again returns to it, i. e. 
an action which the subject performs on itself; e. g. rvntogiai^ I 




4lrii« msüe^ ßwhsvoficu, laddu myutfy dfjtivoncu, Ideßnd mif$df. 
In most of die tenses, the middle and passive forms are the same ; 
e. g. tvn70(uuy I strike m^td/Bsid Jam struch, 

2. At present onlj those forms of the verb are given which are 
neeessary f<Hr translating the exerases that ocour before the entire 
verb is pvesented. 


b«r and 

Preeent Active. 

ber and 

Preeent Middle or Passive. 






S. 1. 



P. 1. 


S. S. 
P. 2. 

ßovXsiy^, I advise. 

ßovXei-eiCf thou ad- 

ßov^^eiy he, she, or 
it advises. 

ßovXethOfieVf we ad- 

ßovXev-ere, ye advise. 

ßovXev-ovai{v)t they 

ßoOXev-e, advise fhoa. 

ßovMheret advise ye. 

ßovXeiheiVf to adviäe. 













ßovXev-oficuj I advise my- 
self, or am advised. 

ßov^^Pf thoa advisest thy- 
self, or art advised. 

ßovJiev-eTaiyhß advises him- 
selfl or is advised 

ßcv'kev'6fae&(L, we advise 
ourselves, or are advised. 

ßov7ieih-e<r^efye advise your- 
selves, or are advised. 

ßovXev-ovTaif they advise 
themselves, or are advised 

ßovMhovy advise thyself, 
or he advised 

jSovAev-eode, advise your- 
selves, or he advised. 

ßovXeiheff^ai, to advise one- 
self, or be advised _ 

Rbkabk. On the v ki^^xvariKov in ßovXevovatVf see f 7, 1. (b). 
8. Also the following forms of the irregidar verb UfUy 
foe learned: 

iffTi{v)f he, she, or it is 

elai{v)j they are 

IfT&i, be, iirriif let him, her, or it be 

nVf he, she, or it 
ffoavy they were 
lore, be ye. 

I. Vocahdar^ and Mcerciies far 

*KeU always. e/, if. 

ukfi^cvuy to speak the iirofuu, w. dat. to fc^ow, 

truth. [ly. accompany. 

avSpeiuc, manfully, brave- k<r&Ui, w. gen. and ace. to 
apurrevUf to be the best, eat, corrode. 


ßtoretWf to live. 

ßWtuceiw, to be lazy. 

ypa^i to write, enact 

dujictf , to pursue, strive af- 

ix^iy it has itself^ it is. 

^deijf» pleaaantly, cfaeei^ 
fully, with pleasure. 

•^avft&^u, to wonder, ad- 

fierputCt inoderately. 


Koi, and, even. 

KOKuci badly, cowardly. 

Ka?Mgt well. 

icoXoxevw, to flatty. 

fiaxofMit w. dot. to fig^^ 

/tfl^, not, always placed 60- 
fon (he Imperative and 

Mvpofiaif to moinfn, la- 

* AH the vocabularies are designed to be committed to memory before trans- 
lating the exercises. 

§$ 20, 21.] ai»nur3»Ys Am» 4i>»eTivj£«--Haffin>£B. 13 

iraiöevuy to bring up» edu- airevdo, to hftsten, export rgoice at, or .oyejf, d»- 

ira£C'u,toplay,joke,playat oneself. light in. 

?r£vij(f),«?.5r€»,andacc.,to ^cvyw, to flee, flee from, ^iyoj to blame, 

drink. shun. 

BuLE OF Syntax. The verb agrees with its subject-nominativey 
Id number and person. In Greek, as in Latin, the subject of the 
first and second person of the verb, need not be expressed except 
for emphasis^ it being sufficiently indicated by the ending of the verb. 

' ^Ael ä^^eve. Xaipe. 'Eirov. M^ dSvpea^e. 'Hdeuf ßiorevo. KtiXQ^ 
vatdevofuu. Kakuc ypdt^eic. Ei xoMÜg yp&^Ei^j i^^TV- ^^ KoXtuceveit.üiuc äktf- 
^evei. "El Kolaxeveiy oh iriüreverai. ^eiyofiev. El fevyofieVf Situcofte^a. 
Xcucijg ^evyere. El ßXoKeveTe, rlfiyea^e. El avipeioc fi^xeff^e, ^av/ät^£<r^e. 
El KoXoKeifovuiVf ohK itKijr^evoveiv. Oh koKüc ^X^< ^evyetv. fLaXCt^ ix^i uv- 
ipektg fioxea^ai. El öwK-^f ft^ ^evye. 'AvSpeuag fuixoV' El ßXaneimüiy yjßi- 
yovrai. El uXri^evei^j nurrevy. *Ael upurrevere. Mer/MUf ia^u «al irtw 

I speak the truth. If I speak the truth, lam helicved. 'Rejok^lpL). Ilwxm 
Ipbou not Thou livest pleasantly. He writes welL It is (has itself) weU, to 
speak the truth. Always speak (/)/.) the truth. Follow {pi.). He is well brought 
ftp. Flatter thou not If thou flatterest, thou art not believed. To be beUeved, 
IB (has itself) well. If we are lazy, we are blamed. If ye speak the truth, ye 
iie believed. If they fight hi»Tdly,.liiQy an» acbmrecl If they flee; ihey are 
pursued. Be thou always the best 


§20. Nature and division of the Substantive. 

A substantive is used to express a thing or object There are 
two classes of substantives: (a) the names of persons, as many 
woman ; (b) the names of things, as earthy gardtn. 

§21. Gender of Substantives. 

The gend|f of substaatiTes, which is three-fold, as in Latin, is 
determined partly by their signification, and partly by their ending. 
The last mode of determining the gender will be treated under the 
several declensions. With respect to the significationy the follow- 

IS HiniBBS, Oirffft AMD vmehVKBtds* [f 2%m 

1. Names of males, of nations, winds, months, monntains, and 
most rivers, are mascoline. 

2. Names of females, of countries, islands, most cities, most trees, 
and plants, are feminine. 

3. The names of the letters and fruits, infinitives, diminutives in 
'OVy except the proper names of females, e. g. ^ ABovnovy all indecli- 
nable words, and finallj, every word used as the mere symbol of a 
sound, e. g. to fi^ttjQ, the word mother, are neuter. 

4. The names of persons, which have only one form for the 
Masc. and Fern., are of common gender ; e. g. o ^ ^Bog, god and 

§22. Numheff Case and Declension. 

1. The Greek has three numbers, Üie Singular, the Plural, 
and the Dual, which denotes fti^o. 

2. It has five Cases, namely : 

(1) Nominative, the case of the subject; 

(2) Genitive, the whence-case ;* 

(3) Dative, die where-oase ; 

(4) Aocusative, the whither-ease ; 

(5) Voeative, t^e ease of dniecl addresa. 

Bem. 1. The Nom. and Yoc. are called direct caaesj the others, oUique oases. 
Sabetantiyes and adjectives of the Neuter gender have the same form in the 
Kom., AcG. and Voc of the three nomben. The Dual has only two toanB for 
cases, one for the Nom., Ace and Voc^ the other for the Gen. and Dat 

8. There are in Gbreek diree different ways of inflecting sub- 
stantives and adjectives, distinguished as the First, Second and 
Third Declensions. 

[. 2. In pacing a substantive, the beginner may accustom himself to 
9wer the foUowing questions: tc^ casef what number f what dedensienf what 
gender f from what nominative j e. g. is uv&piimotg ? 


What case t Dative case; 

Whatmanbert Plmal number; 

What detention f Second dedensum ; 

What gender? MaacuUne sfender ; 

From what nominative f From the Ifom, äv^pairoc ; 
e. g. oufiarog is the Gen. Sing, of the third declension, nenter gender, from UM 
nominative (Tu//a, bodjf. 

* See a fbller statement under the Cases m the Syntax, f IMseq.^Tm. 

§f 2%i 24.] ADjrSOTrrB.*^PRBPO8rFrOK0. 19 

§ 23. Nature and Gender of the Adjective. 

1. The adjective expresses a qaality, which is considered either 
as already belongii^ to an object, e. g. the red rose, or one which 
is merely attribated to an object, e. g. the rose is red. In both in- 
stances, in Greek, as in Latin, the adjective agrees with its sub- 
stantive in Grender, Namber and Case ; %,^.6 dywd'og avd-Qcoaog, 
bonus homo, d avd'qmnog ay ad' 6s icuv, homo bonus est ; ^ xaX^ 
MovaOf pttlekra Musa, i/ Movaa naXi^ ianVf Musa ptdchra est ; 
to xaXop iuQ, puldhrum ver, to iuQ KaXov iativ, yer piäckrum 

2. Hence the adjective, like the. substantive, has three genders. 
Yet aM a^eetivM do not have aeparate fonns for the three genders; 
teany have 'but two s^arate endings, vis. one for the masculine and 
feminine gender, the other for the neuter ; e. g. d ^avxog dp^Q, a 
ifuiet man, ii ^avxog yvrq^ a quiet woman, to ^cv^ov texpop, a 
^tdet child; several, indeed, have only one ending, which conuaonly 
Indicates oifly the masculine and feminine genders, seldom the neuter 
gefid^; e. g. d ipvfdg di^, an exikd mw^^ ^vyug /vf^, an 
exiled woman* 

3. The declension of adjectives» with few exceptions, is like that 
of substantives. 

§ 24 General view of the Prepositions. 

PttsuuxNABT BfiMABK. Before proceeding to the declensions, a general 
Tiew of the {depositions will he given, as a knowledge of these is indispensable 
in translating. 

I. PrepoaUions toiäi <me case, aitv, cum, with^ and the adverb 

(a) With the Genitive : «c^a, together with, 

iivrl, ante, hefore^for^ instead of, (c) With the Accusative : 

Trpo, pro, hefare^for, dva, cn^ upon, up, trough, 

tiro, ab,y»wn, by, e/f, Lat mi with Ace, tnto, to, 

hK [ki; before a vowel), tx^ovtof from, c!)f , to, ad. 
(veKGy ßnr ^ MdlBe qf, on account <f. 

Here belong several adverbs which, II. Prepositiom with Genkive and 

like prepositions, govern the Gen., viz. AccusoBtive. 

wpwr^ev and J^fiirpoiT&eVy before, iia, through, ly; with Ace. (^n, on ac 

iirurd'ev, behind, count of, 

&i/ev and x^pk\ without, Kara, de, chum, with Ace. ofl«n, through, 

frA^v, except. imkp, super, over, above ; with Gen. often, 

(b) With the Dative : ßr. 


FIRST DsoLBKSiON.— vmnrm Komi«* [§§ 25, M. 

in. PrqMitimu with Gen^ Dat. and 


afjufti and nepij around^ about ; yn\h Gen. 

often, ^, 
kni, upon, at ; with Ace. often, towards^ 

againsty . 
ueräy with; with Ace. often, afler^ 

napäf 6y, near; with Qen. from (pro* 
perly frran being near some one); 
with Ace. to (properly into the pres- 
ence of flone one), 

npocj hefbre; with Aoc. often, t», 

inOf snb, under. 

§25. First Declension^ 

The first declension has four endings, a, ^ (or cc), dg and tjg; a 
and ti are feminine, dg and i^^ masculine gender. 








or V 

äs or VC 














^ V 







äv l/V 







a 97, a. 



§26. I. Feminine Nouns. 

1. (a) The Nom. ends in -d or -a, and the a remains in all the 
cases, if it is preceded by q, bot i (a pure) ; e. g. x^qoty land, tdeit, 
form, cotpia, wisdom, XQEia, vtility, evvoia, good-^lL These make 
the Gen. in *dg. Dat. in -a. Here belong also some substantiVes 
in -a ; e. g. akaXa, and some proper names ; e. g. JlpdQOfudd, 
Aifidy 0iXo[i^Xd, Gen. -dg, Dat -d. 

(b) The Nom. ends in -a, which remains only in the Ace and 
Yoc. ; in the Gen. and Dat., the -a is changed into -17, if it is pre* 
ceded by X, XX, <j, aa (tt), f, 5> V'- 

(c) In other instances, the Nom. ends in -^, which remaiss through 
all the cases of the Smg. 

2. When -a is preceded by e or (t, in some words 'ia is con- 
tracted into 'ij, and -da into -a. Then the final syllable remains 
drcumflezed in all the cases. 





a. V Ümmjh aU the oases. 





Sing. Nom. 





























Hnr. Nom. 






























DualN. A. V. 1 






G. and D. 






b. a Ikrous^ aU the cases. 


d G. 17?. 



■ D. 



(a) long a. 

Shadow. Country. 

^ OKi-d x^^ 
Tfjg ffKi-ac x^P^C 
Tf ffKl-^ x^P9 
T^ axi-äv x^P^^ 
u <r/c^•<S x^^ 






(b) short a. 

. Muse. Lioness. 

Movffa Xeaiva 
Movaijg ?.ecuvffc 
' Mowfy 2,ecuvy 
Movffäv ^acväv 
Movo« Xiaivä 





ffKi^ai x^P^ 

OKl-UV x^P^ 
oKL-aig X^P<^^^ 










"hLovaöv TiStuvQv 
Mowrcug ^.etuvaig 
Mowöf Xccuvdf 
tiovaai Xiaivtu 



OKlrd x<^ 



Moifvaiv "keaivaiv: \ 

Bbma&k. The feminine of all adjectives of three endings, is like the declen- 
sion of the abore paradigms \ e. g. ^ « aX^ rifjajy the ^mim» honor; if XP^^V 
(contracted from xp^^^^y m ovk^ from avKea) (ttoX^, the golden robe^ rrfg XP^" 
ff^f oTOMjg'f if St Kai a yvufiij, the just opinion^ rfjc ötKaiag yv6fi7jg; If 

8. Tlie qnaatity of the endings is given in ^ 25. The feminine ending -a, is 
tStWAjn long in adjeetives ; e. g. kXe^epog kXev&epa kXev&epov, free. 
4. With regard to &e accentnation, it is to be observed that : 

(a) The plnnd ending -a t, is considered short in respect to the accent; bene« 
Xiaivai {not Jieaivai), Movtrai (not Movacu) ; 

(b) The accent remains on the accented syllable of the Nom., as long as the 
laws of accentoation permit. 

EaxiepHons. (a) The vocative Si air or a from deanoTrig, lord ; 

(ß) In adjectives in -og, -fj (-a), -ov, the feminine is accented on the same syl- 
lable as the mascnline, through all the cases, where the nature of the final syUa- 
ble penails. Hence the nominative plural feminine iji ßißatog, iXev^epogf &v- 


^pumvoCi is accented on the antepenult, tu. ßißaioif ßeßaiai, kXev&^if 
iXev^epacy äv&piJTnvoLy uv^puirivait although the feminine Sing.,, on acr 
count of the long ending -v and -d, is a paroxjtone, viz. ßeßaiä, kXev&epä, dv- 
^pctmvij ; 

(7) In the Gen. PL of the first Dec, the final syllable -uv is drcninfiezed ; e. g, 
Juaivüv from ^aiva, veavidv from veaviag. But to this tiiere are the following^ 
exceptions: (1) Feminine adjectives and participles in -of, -17 (-d), -ov, are ac- 
cented like the Gen. of masculines ; e. g. tuw KaXTiiaruv 'M.ova&Vf from KäTi^ia" 
Toc, KaXkioTTi^ Kakh-oTov ; but other feminine adjectives and participles, are cir- 
oomflexed in the Gen. PI. ; e. g. /3apvf , ßapela, ßapv. Gen. PI. ßapeuv, ßapeiüvi 
•—(2) The substantives XP^^'''VCi usurer, a^t^, anchovy, krijaiat., numaoona, and ;^Xou- 
vjyc, wild-boar, which in the Gen. PL remain Paroxytones, thus ;ifp^ffT«Jv, &<^unf. 

5. The accent of the Nom. is phanged according to the quantity of the final 
syllable, as follows : 

(a) 0:tytottes become Perispomena, in the Gen. and Dai of all three numbers 
e. g. TifdfCt -Vi ~^> '^^^f ~^^ * this is true also of the second declension. 

(b) Paroxytones with a short penult, remain paroxytones through all the 
eases, except the Gen. PL, which is always drcnmflexed on the final syllable ; 
<m the oontnury, paroxytones with a long penult, become properispomena, when 
liie ultimate is sAorf, which is the case in the Nom. PL \ e. g. yvufiii, yvuficUf but 
yvufiov ; *Arpe^<5j7f , 'ArpeUat, but *A.Tpeiöüv ; on the contrary, <Jt/c^, dlKcu^ hut 
diKuv ; 

(c) Properigpomena become paroxytones, if tiie uhjniate beoomea long; e. g. 

(d) Propanxoflonea become paroxytones, if the ultimate becomes long; e. g. 

TL Vocabulary, 

'jLdiKia, Gen. -of, ^, injus- l^oyylAAo/tatjto promise, wevia, -of, If, poverty. 

tice. • kirayu, to bring on. izXeovs^ia, -ag, 17, avarice» 

ißoXtaxia, -of, ^, loqua- ^(Jov^, -^f, ^, pleasure. rroXXoKig, often. 

dousness, prating. i^epaTreua), to esteem, hon- avvij^eia, -of, 17, inter- 

aXri^lvri, '7jg, vera, true. or, worship. course, society. 

AirexofKU, w. gen., to ab- Kcucia, -ag, ^, vice. Tstpo, tero, to wear outj 

stain firom, keep oneself icapdta, -oc, ^, the heart weaken, tire, league. 

from. KaTai^vyif, -fig, ij, a refuge, n/crcii, to beget 

äper^, -VC* ^, virtue. ^^f^Vt -9f , ^, disgrace. rpv^, -vf, ^, excess, Inz»- 

ßi^h -«C» ^» violence. ktvfj, -tie, if, sorrow. nous indulgence, effboi^ 

ßoi&eia, -Of, if, help. 2.tpa, -of , ^, a lyre. inacy. 

ytyvo^i, to become, arise, ^Ivw, to loose, free, dispel, ^U£a, .or, 17, friendshipw 

^- violate (a treaty)^ abol- xo^^f -VCt mctaos bww 

diaßoXi, -VC, if, calumny. ish. densome, tronbleflome, 

<Käj7, -tfCy ^, justice, fäptfiva, -tfc, if, care. oppressive. 

light, a judicial sen- iwvtya, -ffg, if, a muse. xp^ia, -oq, if, need, inter- 

tence. 6, if, to, the. course. 
«1x6), vo. dat., to give way nei'&ofiai, w. dai^ to be- (if, as. 

to, to yield to. lieve, trust, obey. 

i 26.] VOM Bl^LEKSrOK.— ^ElOKIKE K0T7KS. 28 

Rules op Syntax. 1. Transißve verba govern the Accusative. 
2. Verbs and adjectives expressing the relation of to or for m 
English, govern the Dative« 

EZ«e Tf ßUf, H Xi>pa räc fiepipvac ^"^ei. 'Airexov r^r kokIoc.^ 'H ^tXUi 
hrcryyeXkerai xmra^vy^ Koi ßoff&tuv». 'Ajre^fov rßv ijSovuv, *H fUptftva tj)i* 
Kapdiav k<r&iei. Oepaireitere räc VLovaac. M^ neii^ov diaßoXaX^.* *H 6iKri 
ToXXantg ry aSiKi^ elKei. HoXXaKig x^^''^V "^^^ reipofie^a. T-r^ df^oXeo*- 
Xtav f^evyere. 'H Koxia Xvinfv inayec. Tpvijn^ &6LKiav koI irTieove^iav riKTei. 
^evye Tijv t/w^^ dc Ati^iyv. At* äper^c i^ol avvtj^eiag nal ;tpetaf äTiTf&tv^ ^iXia 

Abstain ye from violence. Hee thou from vice. Cares corrode the heart 
^ee thou from pleasures. Trust ye not to calumny. The Muses are honored. 
Bo not give way {fi.) to pleasure. Virtne begets true friendship. The heart 
18 corroded by cares (dot). Sorrow is brought on by vice. 

HL Voealndairy, 

'A/w, to lead, bring, con- do^ay -ffg, ^, report, fame, 7ro<ra, -j/f , every, all. 

duct reputation. Triin-Qf to falL 

&irX% -^r, simple. ^ot^A^, -9f, good, noble, iroXX^, -^c, much, man^. 

Jipyvpia, äpyvpä, -oc» ctrgen" splendid. irofHpvfiSa, irop^pd, -a^, 

tea, silver (ck(/.). e^t^wo, to make straight, purple (adj.). 

itarpairi, -fjc, If, lightning. rectify. ß^tiic* easily. 

ärZfiia, -aCt ^t dishonor. ebKÖhüc, quickly. (TKoXiäf -df, crooked, per^ 

ßäcriXeta, -ac, i, a queen, eiwofda, -ag, if, good ad- verted. 

ßuaiXeia, -of, i, king- ministratiiMi. (rroXi, -^f , ^, a robe. 

dom. ^;t«>to have, hold, contain, rtxtft -Vd ^» fortune, pL 

ßXaßrf, -tfCt ij injury. «are;^«^, to hold back, re- {generally) misfortunes. 

ßpovT^, -nCi it thunder. strain. [liant ^epw, fero^ to bear, bring. 

7XwTro,-J7f,^, the tongue, ^/»7rpa,-df, splendid, bril- xp^oid, xp^<'Vi -nCt ourea^ 

a language. [life. fuyaXn, -vc, magaa^ gro&t golden. 
6iaiTa, -lyf , ^j a mode of fteraßoX^ -^f, ^, change. 

Tf KOKig^ waaa &Tifua hrerai. "VaSiii^ ^ipe r^v ireviav. Bpovr^ kx Xajir 
npaiQ äüTpair^c yiyverat. *H äperif ka^X^ do^av ^et. 'Eirvofua eirHvei diKoc 
imaXia^. Atici/ Mkiiv rUret, Koi ßXaßif ßXaßifv, 'AttA^v dimrav äye. Karexe 
.rifp yXSnrav. 'H rvxfl ifoXXäc ftetixßoXäg ix^i, Heviav ^epert. Al Xofiirpdt 
rvx<u ebKoXug iriirrowfiv. *epe räc Hfxac- "H äpeiif ohK eUei rale rvxaic. 
'Air^tt'ffi^e ;(faA«7r£)v ftepifivuv. *H ßaaiXeia fteyakipf ßaaiXeiav ix^i, H aro^ 
hm TTOp^pa. Xfvcac Koi äpyvpä^ üToXäc ^x^^fiev. 

Flee from cares. Vice begets dishonor. Grood reputation follows virtue. 

The perverted sentence is rectified by good administration. The lightning is 

brilliant. Good reputation arises from virtue. Yield not to misfortunes. From 
splendid fortunes often arise splendid cares. 

» 4 157. • § 161, 2. (a), (d). » § 161, 3. 


FIBST DB0LBlf(U€äf.^HHA»017U]IS 190UN8. 


§27. n. Masculine Nouns. 

The Gren. of masculine nouns ends in -ov ; those in -a^ retain the 
a in the Dat., Ace. and Yoc, and those in -rig retain the 17 in 
the Ace and Dat Sing. The Yoc of nouns in -17^ ends in «, 

(1) all in -trig ; e. g. ro^orrjg, Voc. to^ora, ftQocpi^g, Voc. 7tQoq>^tä ; 

(2) all substantives in -tjg composed of a substantive and a verb ; 

e. g. yfiOfietQtjg, Voc. YeonfietQa, fWQonoiXi^g, a salve-seller, Yoc. fiu- 

Qoaoild ; (8) national names in «^^ ; e» g. IleQat^gf a Persian^ Yoc^ 

Ilegaä. — ^All other nouns in -f^g have the Yoc in 'ij ; e. g. Uiqcrig^ 

PerseSi Yoc. lUgafi. — The plural of masculine nouns doea not differ 

from that of faooinine. 

Rex. 1. Several masculine nonns in -df have the Doric G«n* in 0, namelj, 
varpaXoiaCj fiijTpah)iact patricide^ matricide, bpvv^o^pa^ fmder; also sevend 
proper names ; e. g. *Awißac, -a, XvXXac, -ä ; finally, contracts in -af ; e. g. 
ßofi^f from ßopiac- 




















Hur. N. 






















Bbm. 2. Adjeetivefl of one ending in -nc and -of , are dedined in Ute same 
manner; e. g. i^eXovrilc woMrffCt a wiUinff ciiiiuny i^eXovrov iroJUrov, 
i'&eXovTal iroXiTai; /loviag veaviaQ, a lond^ youth, fioviov veaviov, fio- 
vi^ veavig.. 

'AdoXiaxvCi -<Wt b, a pra- 

äxoOOf to hear. 

uicpoär^Cf -ov, by an audi- 

ÖAaTfTw, w. acc^ to injure. 

deanoTTfCi -ov, 6, a master. 

ebnoofda, -a^, 17, good or- 
der, decomm. 

iavxia, -oc, Vf qoiet, stQl- 

lY. Vocehitlary* 

ness ; witii äyeiv, to be 

^äkarra, -i;f , ^, the sea. 
i^ffdT^f, -o«, 6, a spectator. 
ftav^ävQj to learn, study. 
fiiXeiy w. dat. of the person 

and gen. of the thing, it 

wai)ri7f, .(w, 6, nauta, a 


bpiyofiai, w. gen., to Strive 
after. ^ 

vpheet, w. dat., it is be* 
coming, it becomes. 

irpoaTjKei, w. dat., it is be- 
coming, it becomes. 

aoiftia, -ac, if, wisdom. 

rexvn, -w , ^, art 

rpv<p7fT7fs,'Ov, b, luxurious 
riotoua, volnptoous. 

Rule of Syntax, One substantive goyerns another in tlie Oeni* 
five, when the latter signifies a different thing from the former. 
The substantive in the Gen. defines or explains more particularly 
the one by which it is governed. 

Mav^ave, iJ veavia, r^v ao^iav. HoTunif Trpinei eiKoafua. Neaviov tro^Un 
^avfid^oi. *ei)ye, p TroÄtra, r^v adiKiav. Tr^v bpvv&of&iipa rixvfiv ^av/iu^ofiev. 
'AKpoaraig Kal i^earaig irpo^Ksi ^cvxiav äyetv. ^evyere, u vadraiy ßofffiäv, 
'Bof>l^ vaifToc TToXXoKig ß^mei. 'Opeyc^e, ^ ffoAirat, r^f äper^^-^ 2v^a- 
piTat Tfv^ral if<rav. Navraig fWXei, Tfjg ^aTi^rr^g.* *eiJyc, 6 liipatf. Sfrop» 
TiäT€U fieyäXtfv 66iav ixovatp. ^evyo vsaviav Tp/üftiTiiv. *AdoXeax*iv &wixw. 
"AKOVBf d Seavora. 

Learn, youthsi wisdom I Good order becomes dtazens. We admire the 
wisdom of youths. Shun, O citizens, injustice 1 To the Spartans there was 
great fame (t. e. they had great fame). Keep yourself from roluptiious youths. 
!Flee from praters. Keep yourself from a prater. It becomes an auditor and a 
spectator to observe {&y(^) stillness. Flee from a voluptuous youth. 

AtKaioavvfjf -rfg^ fj, justioeC «X«rr^f , -ov, 6, a thief. orpaTiuTtfCf -ov, 6, a sol 

iirifiiXo/iai, w.gen^ to care icpir^c, -ov, 6, a judge. dier, a warrior, 

for, take care of, taJke i^ovä/ta, -oc, ^, shipwreck. rexvlrffCf *ov, d, an a£ 

care. olKcrijCy -ov, 6, a servant tist 

ipaoTTfCt -ov, 6, a lover, a Trurrevoy w. dat.^ to trust, rp^di, to nourish, support,, 

friend. rdy upon. keep, bring up. 

i&qvftaoTTf, -$f , admircmdOj Tnarevofiaif to be trasted, f^tdarrig, -ov, d, a liar. 

■ V7(»kderfril. be. believed. 

H TÜv ^napTiarov äper^ ^av/iatrHf kariv. ♦cvye, c5 Tlepaa. Kpiratc Trpe-- 
'jret 6cK<uo(Tvvij. 'Effr« tqv crrpaTUiTdi^ tcepit töv ito^t&v fiaxeir^cu. ^eirye 
^evarag. 'Eort deairoTOv inifiiXead^at^ rwv oUeröv. M^ iriareve ^evory^. 
TexvtTTjv rpetftet ^ rixvV' *-E« fpevarüv yiyvovTcu «Tiirra*. ^irapriarat do^g 
Kol TifUfg kpaxn-aX ff<rav. *£« ßofffiä voXTutKig yiyverai vavayia* Q<BVßaJ^oßev 
•Hjv *Bpfiov rexvfjv. 

The Persians flee. Justice becomes the judge. It is the duty of a soldier to 
jBght for the citizens. Plee frt>m a liar. Trust not liars. Art supports artists. 
We admire Hermes. Soldiers fight Liajos are not believed. 

§28. Second Declension. 

The second declension has two endings, -og and -ov ; nouns in -o^ 
are mostly masculine^ but often feminine ; nouns in -op are neater. 
Feminine diminutive proper names in -op are an exception ; e. g« 
^ rkvHtQWv* 

> S 158, 8. (b). ' S 158, 6. 1, (b). ' hni vrith the Gen., it is the duty of ai^ 
one, see S l^^) 2- ^ § 1^8, 6. L (b). 









Of ov 


















oc and e ov. 








6 ayyeAog 



6 Xoy-oc 

il v^aoc 

6 ^eog 

rd ovKffif 


Tov Xoy-w 


TOV ^eov 




T^ Xoy-iit 

T§ VTjfff^ 

T^ ^9 


T(fi aVK(f) 


TOP Xoy-ov 

T^ VTJaov 

rdv i^eov 




& X6y-e 

& v^ae 

d i^eof 


6 e^Kov 


ol Xoyof' 

al vffüoi 

ol ^eoi 


Tä avKa 


rOv ^y-wv 


rOv ^€&v 


Tüv üiKinß 


Tolc Xa^-oig 

TiUg vfimug 

Tolg ^eoic 


roig awcoit 


rot)f Xoy-ovg 

rdf vrjaovg 

Toi>g -Beoig 


Tä <JVKa 

V. 1 

& TJoy-oi 

6 vri<foi 

d ^eoL 


& avKa 


T^ X6y-u 

rä v^aa 

TO ^e6 


r&> avKu 

roXv Tioy-oiv 


Toiv "^eolv 


ToZv (tOkoiv. 

Bbm. 1. The Yoc. of w<»rd8 in -og commonly ends in e, though often in -og ; 
e. gi. 6 #Ae and u fiXog ; alvays ü ^*og. 

Bbx. 2. On the accentuation, the following observations are to be noted : The 
aooent remains on the tone-syllable of the Nom. as long as the quantity of the 
final syllable permits ; the Voc d d e X ^ e from dd^eA^of , brother^ is an exception. 
-^The plural ending -ot, like -at in the first declension [§ 26, 4. (a)], with re- 
spect to the accent, is considered short The change of the accent is the some 
as in the first declension (§ 26, 5.), except in the Gren. PI., where the accent re- 
tains the place, which it has in thetNominatiye. See the paradigms. 

Rbm. 3. Adjectives in -og, -if (ä), -ov, in the masculine and neuter, and those 
ef two endings in -og (Masc. and Pem.), -ov (Neut), are dedined like the pre- 
ceding paradigms ; e.g.iya'^og, dyoi^^, d/ai^ov, good, 6 äya^dg ^^oyog, 
a good speech, rd &ya'&bv riitvov, a fpod Md, nkynaXog, Trdy/caAoi/, 
very beauttful, 6 väyKcXog ^yog, a very hetxatifii epeedi, ^ vayxaXog ftop- 
^, a very beautifvl firm, rd icayKaXo-v tUvov, a very beauHfid chad, Adjeo- 
tives of two endings in -og, -ov are almost all compounds. Adjectives of three 
endings in -oc preceded by ?, t or p, and those in 'oog preceded by p, like nouns 
of the first dedension^ in -a pure and -joo,. have the Nom. Fem. In -a ; e. g. xp^ 
9og, xfiw^a, xp^ü-eent^ hc^pogr -a, -ov, &uip6og, -do, -dw. 

Bxii. 4. It wUl be seen by the following paradigms, that, in acyectives in -or, 
~9 (-a)« -oVf the masculine and neater are declined like the second declension, 
wd the fcnnoiine Kke the first 



Paradigms of Adjectives. 


dyaT^'Og äyaS-rj äya&'bv^ good 
aya&^o^ Aya^-vg uyai&'Ov 
uya^-ifi uya&'y aya^-^ 
aya^'OV aya&'tiv aya^-ov 
aya^-e äya^-rj uyc'&'Ov 

^iT^L-og ^iXi-a ' ^tXi-ov, lovely 
ipiM-ov i^iXi'üc ipiXi'OV 
(pi?U'(t^ ^t^t-a ^eA«-^ 
^iXi-ov (^Oü-öv i^Xi-ou 

^Vki-e ijuXi-d <l>i?n,-QV 




. A. 


äya&-oi uya&-ai aya^-a 
ayai^-Cnf äya^-Cw uya'&'Civ 
aya^'Olg aya^-alc uya&-oic 
äya&'Ovg äya&-äc äya&-a 
äya&'Oi aya&-ai uya&'ä 

(pili'Oi ^iXt-at <j>ih,-a 

iplXi-DV <^t?U-UV (pl?U-iJV 

(pLXi'OLg ij^iXi-aic ^«Xt-otf 
<f>iXi-oi ^i^t^ai ^iXo'a 


äya&'d äya&'ä uya-&-6 
uyad-oiv äya^-aiv äya^olv. 

(^iXirw ^iki'ä <l>iXi-o 

VI. Vocabulary. 

*Aya&bvj -oiJ, to, a good ^x'^P^y "<**» ^> a-i* enemy, olvo^f -ov, 6, wine. 

thing, an advantage. ^eo^y -ov^ 6, God, a god. irapex(^j to grant, affbrd, 

öyytho^y -ovy 6, a mes- icaicdf, ^, -6v, bad, wicked. offer. 

jwager. kcucov^ -ov, roy an eviL Treerrof , -^, -6v, faithfb}, 

cbn^pfiMTOf , -ov, by a man. Ku^y *fiy -6vy beaatifiü, tmstwortihy. 
iiöacKäXoCf "ou, by a te»* good ; rd icaAov, good- irolCXoiy -at, -d, many. 

cfaer. nes8,beauty,or the bean- ^1^, -ov, 6, a friend, ^t- 

^Aof, -ovy by a slave. tifiil. Aoc, -^7» -ov, dear, 

^pyov, -ov, ro, an aetioB} luvdvvoc, -ov» d, danger, ^pevri^fiy w. gen,y to eare 

a wovk, a Iwiaiaefls. Xbyof, -ov, 6, a word, a 
loi^Aoc, -17, -6vy good, no- rq)ort, reason. 

ble, splendid. fierex*^, 10, gen.y to take 
kraipogy -ov, 6, a compon- part in. 

ion, a friend. ' [tune, fiiaycjy misceo, w. dat^ to 
elrvxki, -of , ^, good for- mix. 

for, trouble oneself a- 
bout ; w, aoe., to veflect 
on, think about 
X<upQt to rejoftoe. 

KuLE OF Syntax. A subject in the neuter plural usuaUj takes 
a singular verb. 

AiiMcs KoXä (pyck Ilti^ttv rotcrov StSacrKa^xyv Myoig.* Hap* l<n^Aöv k(r^^ 
ftav^aveig. Ilto-röf iraipog top aya'&Cw Kal rwv KaxCtv fierix^i} 01 ^eot t&v 
üv&pcjTrciv (ffpovTi^ovcriv.^ 01 5,v&p(tyiroi ro^g i^eoiif '&epanevovGev. HoX^if ip- 
yetc S^ercu Kiv&&vog. Mioycrot* ktr&Xä KOKolg. 'O Koxbg role ^eotc Kal role 
ay&puiroif kx^poc itrrtv. 01 äv^putrot roi^ i(r&'kole ;to^P<«'<^"'.* Uapexey d 
tSiedf, ro4f ^iXoig ebrvxiav, *epe, & (JwAe, rhv olvov t^ vea»i^. *0 olvof Ave* 
TÄf fiepif^vac. XoAeTT^ ifyy^ S6^a ifrerai. 

Follow the words of your (the) teachers. God cares iTor men. Men worship 
Gtod. Dangers accompany many actions. Grant, O God, happiness to my (die) 
friend ! Keep yourself from the bad man. I rejoice over the noble youth. 
IVu^ not the word of a liar, my (O) dear young man. 

» 4 161, a. (a), (<J). 
* i 161, 2. (a^ (a). 

• 4 158, 3. (b). 

• i 161, 2. (c). 

» 4 158, 6. 1, (b). 



veoc, -fl, •'OV, young, 6 viog^ 
-ovjihe youth, the youss 

voao^y -OV, ^, a disease, aiL 

ohx (before an aspirate in- 
stead of oi)K)^ not 

ir6vo£f -OV, 6, trouble, tout 

(flyil, -^f, ^, silence. 

Vn. Vocahvlafy. 

'A^ioc, 'ia, 'Ujv, 10. geiUf ^Stväroc, -ov, 6, death. 

worthy, worth. t^eZov, -ov, ro, the Deily. 

^erro-Xvo, w. oca, of the per- ^fioc, -ov, 6 die mind, 

MR and gen. of the tking^ conrage. 

to fiee from, release. Mpa, -af , ^, a door. 

nkpyvpo^, -ov, 6, silver. KkeUif to shut, fasten, 

^cof, -ov, 6, life, a liveli- fia&JiT^Ci -ov, 6, a pnpil, a 

hood. learner. 

ßofvXfi, -^y if, ooonsel, ad> /lirpov, -ov, to, a measure, 

vice. [rel. moderation. 

^;ifoordoxo, -Of, ^, a qnar- fiox^Ci -ov, 6, a bolt, a xp^^Cf -ov, 6, time. 
eit^paivu, to rejoice, glad- lever. [ble. xp^^og, -ov, 6, gold. 

den, cheer. fii>pioc,'iä, -iov, innnmera- 

Td KoXov koTL fdrpov rov ßiov, ohx ^ XP^^- '^ ^varog Toi>c din^p<iirovf 
inroMei irovav^ kcU kcmuv. *0 olvog eixjtpcuvei Toi>c rüv iofi&pomiJV i^fiovf . 
2t)v fivpioi£ irovotg rä KaXä -yiyvercu. Td ^eiov Toi>c KaKoi>( &yet npbc t^ 6U 
Kifv. Uurröc ^/Aof xp'^ifov Koi oftyvpov u^tof^ kuriv iv x^"^'"^ äixooraaigi. IIoX- 
JuU v6<K>i tv äv&pciTrotc elaiv. BovA^ eig äyce&dv äyeu Si/j^ vitfi ri/n^ ^epei. 
'H ^vpa liox^lf K)^itT(u. 'H rixyii Toi>c av^pCtmrvg rpe^u. ^0 ^iXoi fioSii' 
reu,, T^ GOi^iag koH t^c 4per^f bpiyeod^e.^ 

By death (dat.) men are freed from troubles and evils. By (imo, w. gen.) the 
DtaJtij the bad man k bronght to justice. The boh fiistens the door. Art snp* 
ports the man. My (O) dear pnpil, strive alter wisdom and virtue. Diseases 
weaken men. My friends, follow the words of the judges. 

§29. Oontraciion of the Second Declension, 

1. A small namber of substanÜTes, where o or 6 precedes the 
ease-ending, are contracted in the Attic dialect. 




Bone. 1 


b iz7J)og TrXovf 

6 flrepiTrAoof 


rh bcreov 



n'Kbov ifT^v 






TT^atft irX^ 






fcXoov irh)vv 






irXoe irXov 






9rA6o£ n^l 






irXoiJv ttAov 






trXootf nXoic 






frXoovg TrAovf 






ttXooi irXol 






nXbiD irXu 





irXooiv vXoiv 





» § 157. 

" ♦ IW. 7. (y). 

• § 161, 8. 

* i 158, 3, (b). 

§i9.]«« OF xa» wooMo wusMsaas. 

Rkmabk. Here belong, (a) MultipUcatiTe adjectives in -6 o c (-oi^r), -hn (-#), 
-6 Of (-ovv) ; e. g. airhwCf -^, -ovv, si'mp^s,'— (b) Adjectiyes of two endings in 
-o o f (-«wf ) Masc. and Fem., and -oov {-ow) Kent ; e. g. ä ^ £^5iw;f , rd c(h'o>i;v, 
toej/ di^xaedf ivliidi diffbr from the declension of sabstantives, only in not con- 
tracting the neuter plural in -oo ; e, g. tä e^^voa rinva ; — (c) Adjectiyes in 
-eof (-bvf), -^fl (-^), -eov (-ovv), which denote a material; e. g. xp^^^^c 
XpvaoH^, Xpvaeä XP^^t ;tpv(reov ;fpvffotH', golden. When a vowel or p precedes 
äie feminine ending -id, -£d is not contracted into -^, but into -ä, (^26, 1) ; 
e. g. 

ipi-eoc iptovct ipe-id ipeäf ipe-eop kpeovv, woollen. 

äpyvp^öc äpyvpoü^f äpyvp-eä äpyvpä, äpyvp-eov äpyvpovv, silver. 




.S. N. 












. G. 





















. V. 







F, N. 














































Airh>iv. \ 

Accentvaiion. The following are to be noticed as exceptions to the mles iE 
§11,2: (a) irkou = ttAw, baretj = dorw, instead of trXCty 6<rrcj ; (b) compounds 
and poljsyltal^c proper names, which retain the accent on the penult, even 
when as a ciwnmfiex, it should be removed upon the contracted syHable ; e. g. 
9rep£4rA«ov a TrapiirXev, instead ofmpiirXov ; eivö^ » eijv^, instead oSehv^ ; (c) 
rd Kovecv » Kavovv, instead of icavovv, ftocibef , and also adjectives in -eec, So^ 
-eov; e.g. ;tP*^ffcof '=;rpvffo*r»AfP*'<^^ö=« Xpv<^iXP^<'^ov=^ xP^^ovv, 
instead of XP^<^^^^i ;tP^aovv ; finally, substantives in -eof = -oOf ; e. g. ädeTiJ^c- 
4e6c s= d^eA^t^ovf, instead of äde^i6ov^<, nephew. 

'AdffMCf -ovt uncertain, 

iL^^elaJ -Of) ^, truth. 
ivoo^ = -oBf »-oov — -ow, 

imprudent, irrational. 
^pyifpeoc = -oof, -ia =-d, 

-eov =s ow, sSveTi t. «. 

made of silver. 
ipfroCf -oil, ^, toflod i 

YUL VocaMary. 

kK-^akimruy to disclose. 

im^Kov^i^o, to aHeviate. 

£pt^(U, to. dat., to contend 

Hh^oof = -ovcoov =-ovv, 
well-wishing, well-dis- 
posed, kind. 

^epafraivOy-fiCy ^, a female 

Ktu^--~iuU, both— and. 
«caveov = -ot)v,-^ot; = -ov^ 

TO, a basket. [ror« 

Karoitrpov, -ov, t6, a mir-» 
Kvrce7Ju)v,rcv, to, a goblet« 
2,iyoi, to say, call or name^ 
v6or = vofif, "oov = -ovf. 

6, the understanding, 

the mind. 




bMyotf *9if 'tty few. a^M^t *vü, 6f fititi th6 ^f^l^'i^) '^o^f ^t ft bridle. 

^/»X>7> '^Cf V> ftnger. Qominoa people, [to. ;tu^eof » .ovf, .ea » "7, 

'OpeoT^Cf -<>Vi ^, Orestes, irpoc-^po^toheax or bnng -eov = -ovv, brazen. 
bareov = -ouv, -cov = oO, OTTvof, -ov, 6, sleep, slum- V^XV» "Wi ^> the souL 
TO, a bone. ber. 

Rule of Syntax. One substaDtiye following another to explain 
it, and referring to the same person or thing, is put in the same 
42ase. This construction is called Apposition. 

•O TMyo^ harl to tov vov Karoirrpov. Tdv vovv Jtxovcriv ol ätr^puiroi didaa- 

iKoKov. Tdv eiwovv ^ikov ^epaireve. *OMyoi niarbv vovv l;tov(ru'. *0 itXov^ 

ioTiv äSr/Xo^. 2t)v v^ tov ßiov aye. *0 6x^ oiK Jtx^i vovv. Mi^ Jtpi^e toZ^ 

civotf.* 0/ ciya&ol Tolg aya^oic eivot* elatv. *Opeyov ^iXuv eirvov. Tä rov 

"OpeoTov bora kv Tryi^ ifv. Ai i^epanaivcu h xavoig tov &pTov irpoc^ipovtnv. 

'Ol "^eol KoX KoAdv Kol «axdv irXovv toic vavTat^ irapexovoiv. 'tvxVC ;t<*^"'^ 

dn^pCmou* 6 vov^ koTiv. TLoXXokic bpy^ äv&p6iruv vow kKKa2,vnTei. ^AirXovg 

koTiv 6 r9f ähi^eiac Xoyo^. A^oyoc eivovc hriKov^ei ^vmfv. Td KVireXXjov 

kartv äpryvpovv. 'O i^avorof XiyeTcu xo^ko^C <^of 

The understanding is a teacher to men. The well-disposed fiiend is honored. 
%/6ep yourself from the irrationaL Striye after a well-disposed friend. Bring 
1>read in a basket Honor, O yoong man, a simple mind 1 flee from impm- 
dent youths. Trust, O friend, well-disposed men I Young men are often im* 
lirudent The goblet is golden. 

§30. The Attic Second Declension, 

Several words (substantives and adjectives) have the endings -w^y 
'(Masc. and Fern.) and -mv (Neut), instead of -os and -op, and re- 
tain the -co through all the cases instead of the common vowels and 
diphthongs of the second Dec., and place under the -to an Iota sub- 
script, where the regular form has -<p or -oi ; thus, -ov and -a be- 
come -flo ; -0^, -or and -ovg become -lo^, 'Odp and -09^ ; -01, 'Ots and 
•^otp become -^, '<pg and -qw ; — 00, -q» and -ow remain unchanged. 
The Yoc is the same as the Nominative. 






Sing. N. 

6 Xe-oc 

6 /ca^dif 

6 Xay-CiQ 

rd ävCrye-uv 





















Plur. N. 

























D. N. A. V. 





4>. and D. 




avuy€-(f)v . 

• f 161, J 

^ (»), (y). 

• S 161, 

6.. (a). 

» \ 161, 5. 








6 7j VkeL>^i TO IXeuv 

ol al tX€(f), rä IXeu 

rd rä TU ?A£ü 


Tov Tijg Tov rXcw 

TQV IXeuv 

Tolv Talv Toiv tke<ftv 


r^ ry r^'IAec^ 

Tolg Talc roif Ue^r 

Tolv Tolv Toiv IXei^ 


TÖV ri^v TO Ued^v 

Toi>c rag lXectg,Tä IXeu 

T^ Tä TG) Ueu 


IXewc, Ue<jv 

tXeif), tXea 


Rem. 1. Some words of the Masc. and Fern, gender reject the v in the Ace 
Sing., namely, 6 hiyucj the hare, Tbv Xayuv and Xayuy and commonly ^ iud the 
dawtiy ^ &Xug, a threshing-floor, if Kea»f , if Kiig, 6 'A^c^g, if Tevg, and tlie adje^ 
lives äyifßLig, not old, MirXetocfuU, imkpxp^^* ffuäty, 

Bem. 2. Accentuation. Proparoxytoncs retain the acute on the antepennlt in 
all the cases of aU numbers, the two syllables -eug and -euv, etc. being considered, 
as it were, but one ; yet those with a long penult, as äyijpug, are paro^ytones 
in the Bat. Sing, and Fl., and also in the Gen. and Dat Dual ; e. g. ayifpifi, aytf^ 
PVCy äyrjptfiv, Oxytones in -Ctg, retain this accent even in the Gen. ; e. g. Acw 
instead of "ked. 

*Ay^pog, -i^, not getting 
old, unfading. 

*üer6gy -ov, &, an eagle- 

alxft/oXurrog, -ov, captured. 

i^tfdpsiog, -a, -ov, manly, 

iofuyecgv, <i, to, a haU, a 

kKayu, to lead away. 

ßaivcj, to walk, go, pro- 


kve6pe(Ki, iff, dat., to lie in 
wait ft>r. 

knaivog, -oVy 6, praise. 

eijxofiai, to pray, beg. 

^jfpevT^g, -ov, of a hunts- 
man, a sportsman. 

•&7fp€Vü, to hunt, catch. 

tke(^, -6)v, merciful. 

Koh^, -G), b, a rope. 

KTi^u, to found, build. 

hiycig, '6, 6, a hare. 

Xafißävo, to take, receive, 

veug, -6>, 6, a temj^, 
trXeloTog, -rf, -ov, nu>st. 
ß^^iog, 4a, 'lov, easy, 
aeßofMi, to honor, rever- 

Tuugy -6, 6, a peacock. 
viog, -od, 6, a son. 
Cttmep, as, jnst as. 

Tolg i^eoif * -ve^ kti^ovtcu. Oi fi^Siov koTtv knl KaXov ßaivuv. Atuxofiev 
Toi)g hiy6>g. *AvSp6y€og ijv 6 tov "M-lvcj vlog. 01 ^ay^ ^ijpeifovTai imb twv 
^flpevrCnf. Bvxov T(f) IXec,) -^eip. 01 aeTol Tolg ^ay^ hedpeifovaiv. ^eßecr^a 
roi)f IXetjg ^eovg. 01 avdpeloi ayrfpov inaivov 2,afißävov(nv. E^;^ot; Tdv ^ebv 
tXeu JtxsLv. 01 ^eol Tolg uya'&olg^ VXet^ eloiv. Al ifdoval airayovai tov tt^iotov 
Xedv ögirep alxf^ahiTOv. Ol '^afiiot t^ lip^^ Kahnig radg Tpe^ovoLv. 

"We build beautiful temples to the gods. To walk on a rope is not easy. 
The huntsmen hunt hares. God is merciful. Worship the merciful God. By 
the Samians beautiful peacocks are kept in honor of Hera (say, to Hera). Keep 
yourselves, citizens, from the irrational nmltitude ! Get out of the way of 
(tlicci, w. gen.) the irrational multitude. The huntsman strives after (pursues) 

X. Voccihulary.^ 

'Airayopevcj, to call. apeTTf, -ijg, if, bravely, vir- ßufft2>eia, -ov, tu, a royal 

dpifjKD, w. cht., to please. tue. palace. 

* 4 l«i, 5. 

• § 161, 5. (a). 



[H 31, 8S. 

y^^r^j -^, ^, airtfe. «»f, -«, ^, the dawit ww^fi^, »*, A, apoet 

(J«t;i6f,-«7»-^»tiinid, worth- "^rifHov, -ov, to, a inld <Modd«rv^f, -ov, ro«f- 

less, had. heast, an aoimai fingered. 

hK'<l>epOy to briag forth^ 7e^r, -a, -ov, to. ffen^ sa- (rr^A^, -VT» ^9 a pillar. 

produce. [ons. cred to. 
kiriKivöi>voct -Qv, danger- 

Oi Tcu^ T^c "Hpof Zepo^ Jffäv. OavfioCof^ev MeveXecjv ^tt? rf dpery. Oi irai^- 
roi ri^ "Ew ßoöodoKTvXov äfrayopevovtriv. *H oX^i^eia 7roA^«tf o*« apiaitei 
T^ Aev- 'E^^v^ i^ 17 MeveAew yofur^. *H Ba/ivAcwta ^it^pet iroXXodf 7«^. 
*Ev Tolg Tuw ^eCw ve(f>c iroXXal trHj^M ^trav. 01 Wayt^ detAd ^pia ekrh. *0 
irepl rdv 'AOw rcXovc k» knucivSevoc. Tä ßaaiXeio. icaXä dvwyeo ix^i. 

Menelaus is admired for his hraveiy. In the royal palace are splendid rooms. 
Huntsmen catch peacocks. Peacocks are beautiful Trust not the speech of. 
the people, citizens 1 The huntsman lies in wait for peacocks. Good citi- 
zens flee from the irrational multitude. Youths Ue in wait for haxes. The pil- 
lars of the temples are beautifiiL 

§31* Third Declen^ian* 
The third ded^ension has the following Case-endings : 




, Norn. 



V and ä 

mostly as 

the Nbm.;- 

Neat — 

Neut — 
Neut — 

ef ; Neat a 


df; — d 

er; —0. 






These endings are appended to the imchanged stem of the word j e. g. 6 ^^pi 
an animal, Gen. i^p-6f. 

§32. Bemarks on the Oaie^endtngs. 

1. The pure stem is frequently changed in the Nom. of masculines and femi- 
nines. But this is found again by omitting the genitire ending -of ; e. g. 6 ic6- 
pc^y a raven, Gen. KopaK -oc* 

2. Neuters exhibit the pure stem in the Nominative. Yet the euphony of the 

Greek language does not permit a word to end with r. Hence, in this case, r 

is either wholly rejected or is changed into its cognate c; e. g. 

ireirepl ( rb ^ewepl ( neTrepi'Oc or e-of 

aeTioc S J to ere^ac a 1 {&iXa(f-og) aeXa-oc 

aafiar 3 ^ rb {fföfiar) a&jna o 1 ^^w/wor-of 
^ TepaT [ rb {repaT) repac [ lipar-og 

3. The Accnsative singular has the form in v with maacnlines and femiaiius 
in 'iCi 'V^y -avg and -ovf , whose stem ends ift -h -v, -ov and -ov ; e. g. 

Stem iroXi Nom. troXic Ace iroXiv Stem ßorpv Nom. ßorpvc Ace. ßorpw, 
vav vavc vavv ßov ßovc ßovv. 

But the Ace. has the form in -a, when the stem ends in a consonant ; e. g. f^ß. 


Tet barytoned substantives in -cc and ^r, of two or more syUftbkfl, irh&H 
steals end with a Taa-mnte, in pime, have only the form in *v ; e. g. 

Stem ^piS Horn, ipi^ Ace. ipiv 
6pvi& dpvic 6(jvt» 

KOpV^ Kopv^ Kopw 

X^iT x^C x^ptv. 

4. The Voc. is either like the Norn, or the stem. See the Paradigms. 

5. On V if^e^KvoTiKcv, see $ 7, 1, (a). 

§33. Gender, Quantity and Accentuation of th^ 

Third Declension, 

I. ijfender. The gender of the third declension will he best learned by obser- 
Tation. The following mles, however, may be observed : 

(a) Mascdine; (a) Substantives in -av, -w, -of (Gen. -avog, -avTog)^ -evf, -^, 
'tip (except Ti x^H^i hand)^ -vp (except rd vvp, fire), -ovf (except rd o^f, eaar) ^-^ 
{ß) those in -wv, -vpy -^Pt -VQ (Gen. 'riTQg)^ -og (Gen. -urog), -^, with sevo»! 

' (b) Femmim; (a) Substantives in -ag (Gen. -aSog), -avg, -ivf, -wf, -^ and 
•«C (Gen. -ovg) ; -orifc, -vttic ; -etc (except 6 Kreig, comb) j — (ß) those in -«f, -w, 
^usy-tiv (Gen. -oyor), with several exceptions. Those in -^ vary between ths 
Mase. and Eem. gend^. 

(c) Neuter; All sabstandves in -a, -n* -op, -f^Py -of, -i, -op, (except 6 ^^^ # 
^ltarUng\ -oq (Gen. -arof, -hoc, except d Ad^, a «Ame), and contracts in -fip. 

n. Qiumtity, Words whose Nom. ends in -fl^, -tf , -vf , -«V» "*V'» ■W'» "*f •'id 
<«£', have the pennlt of the Cases which increase, either short or long, according 
as the vowel of the above endings is short or long by nature ; e. g. 6 ^apa^^ 
ceat ofmaä, -äxog, if ßltlf, reedy plirog, if äKttg, ray, -IvoCf but if /?(jAd^, c&xf, -a/co^, 
if kXtrtc, hope, 4doc. 

m. Accentuation, (a) The accent remains, through the several Cases, on the 
accented syllable of fiie Nom., as long as the laws of accentuation permit *, e. g. 
rd npayfia, deed, irpdyfiaroc, but wpayfiäruVf rd HvofiOy name, bvoftaroq, but dvo- 
paTuv, b if x^^^Cnf, suxdhu), ;j^«^£d6vof , Bevo<f>€Wf -üvrog, -wvref, -wvrwv. The 
particular exceptions will be noticed in the paradigms, (b) Words of one syl- 
lable are accented, in the Gen. and Dat of all Numbers, on the final syllable, 
the short syllables -of , -i and -ai, taking the acute, and the long syllables -wv 
and OLV, the circumflex ; e. g. 6 fi^v, firfvog, fiifvi, fjofvolv, firfv€w fjLffai(v). 

Exceptions. The fcdlowing monosyllabic substantives are paroxytoned in the 
Gen. PL and in the Gen. and Dat. Dual : if d^g, torch, ö 6fi6g, slave, 6 if i^ug, 
jackal, TO ovg, Gen. cjtoc, ear, 6 if fratg, child, 6 aifg, moth, 6 if Tp6g, Trojan, i 
^(fig, Gen. ^v^of, a burning, rd ^g. Gen. ^ordf, light j e. g. dgduv, d^doiv, ^uhjv, 
6ro>v, &T01V, rcaidunf, vaiioiv, treijv, Tpcjuv, ^i^uv, ^ruv. Moreover, notice 
ehould also be taken of irag, aä, every. Gen. navrog, Dat iravri, but iravruVf 
fcäm{v), b UaVf Geo. Ua»6gj but roig Uaai{v). 





§ 34. L The Nominative exhibits the pure »tern. 

The case endings are appended to the undianged Nominative. 
Stems which end in "Vt (Sei^oqtwfr) and -gt (^ ddfiagr), must drop 
the r according to § 32, 2 ; hence SBVotpwf^ 6en. -oarr-off, difAOQ, 
Geo. -o^-off. 

öj Paean. 

6, Age. 

6, Xenophon. 

6, Month. 

TOj Nectar. 

























. V. 


















1 D. 

muö-<7i(v)* ai€h^i{vY^ 










" V. 

















Rbk. 1. The three tTords in -op, Gen. -uvoc, tiz. 'Airo^Xovy Uoaeidav, 
S^Mv, threshing-floor^ can be contracted m the Ace. Sing, after dropping v, thus, 
'A^rdA^, Hoüetdüy Utka. The three snbstantivefl, 'KvoXkuvy Jloauduv and att^ 
rffp, preserver^ contrary to the mle [$ 33, tQ. (a)], hare in the Voc & 'AttoXXov, 
Bo^eitW, viifrtp. 

Rbm. 2. The nenters belonging to this cUss all end in -p (-op, -op, -up, -vp) ; 
rd frOp (Gea irvfhog^fire^ has v long, contrary to S ^^i 2* 

XL VocoMaty. 

"jj-do, to sing, celebrate in i^aXXw, to bloom, be rer- nvp, TriJpof, ro, fire. 

song. dant. (nrovda£Of,-am,-a£ov, zeal- 

äva-yiyvofjKQy \o resA. ^p, t^^pof, 6, ainldbeast ons, diligent, earnest, 

aluv^ -Cwocj 6, oemim, an Kl^apä^ -of , i^, a lyre. serious. 

age, a space of time, Kparijpy -fipo^y 6, a mixing TEpirOy to delight 

time, lifetime. bowl, goblet. repirofiait wjdat.yto delight 

ßtßXiov, -ov, t6, a book. XetfiCw -üvocidf a meadow. in, or be delighted at 

yiyvuHTKUy to know, think, viirruy to wash. x^^P* X^^P^* Vi the hand. 

Jndge, try, perceive. Tratdv, -ävog, 6, a war- x^P^i "*>*» ^i * dance. 

^äXta, -Of, i, a feast song, a song of victory. V^jyv, fvvoc, 6, a wasp. 

^evye rode ^^pof. Xelp x^H^ viirrei. 'A«^otf y«9 ^N»^» ^^ Xeiftfimt 
^aXkovaiv. 01 arpaTiorat, ^dowri vcuäva. '£v irvp^ Tcpoa^ Kot apyvpw ytj» 

* Instead of irmäwn, aluveri, Bevo^rai, fafvai^ f S, 6 and 7. 

^^M«] tmskB d&c— «nocfi- iMumTmofWö w «bb ^rov. 


if^Kofttv. TloXXot irapk npat^ yiyvovtm fi^i irmlpot. Ol iMporrot rip- 
mmfTxtt Kt&op^^ mU ^M^ ttal x^P^ "^ itaUioiv. Oi ^EXhjvec rdv 'Afr6XXü 
Ktol rbv TLoeuiü aißovrai, Ol cicovdäioi fux&titiU rä rod Uevof&vroc ßißJUa 
^det^ ävayiyvQiTKovaiv. 

Mee fiüm the wild beast Wash jour (the) hands. Keep jonrself tnm. 
wasps. ' The meadow is yerdant Soldiers delight in war-songs. War-songs 
ace rang by {iiro, w. gm.) the soldiers. We delight in beautiful meadowB. 
Flee fram ^ile (kok^) wasps. Many an fiietda of tibe bowL Foebi pray to 

$35. n. The Nominative lengthens the short final 
vowel of the stem^ s or o into y. 

According to § 32, 2. stems in vt most drop t in the Kom. ; e. g. 
XcW, instead of IsWr. 


6j Shepherd. 

6, A Divinity. 




6, lion. 


bf Air. 






6, Orator. 





























Rbx. 1. Oxytoned substantives of this class retain in the Toe. the long vowel 
(9, a) \ thus, & iroif£^. The Vbc. Öäep from Satfp, brothar-in'lawj is an excep- 
tion; its accent also difTers from the fundamental rule [^ 33, IIL (a)]. This 
difference occurs also in the Toe. of 'Afm^iuv, -iovöCt ^Kyafuiivtiv, -ovog, viz. 
'Aft^iov, *Ayaftefivov. Comp, i 34, Kem. 1. 

Bbm. 2. *H x'H^s J^ond, Gen. x^^^t ^* i>M i& ^ ^^ 3PL and Dual x^P- 
ai{v) and ;t^po£v. 

Bbm. 3. The following in -ci>v, Gext -ovocf reject the i» in partfcnhir Cases^ 
and suffer contraction : ^ eUCw, image, Gen. tlKovoc and ekodc, Dat ukwi, Aoc. 
eUova and iUd, Ace. PI. eU6vag and etxovf ,— 4he inegolar accentuation of eUv 
and elnovg should be noted ; h i-vodv^ mgktmgaU, Gen. ätfäSvoc and di/dovf, Dat 
äfldol ; if ;teX((56v, «toofioM^, Gen* x^^^<>^t I^ai. ;t^A«do<. 

Rem. 4. Here belong: (a) the two adjectives 6 ii äir&TQpf to äiraropf father' 
fess, and d^r6>/>, afiTfTopy motherleas^ Gen. -opog ; — (b) the adjective 6 v clAA^» 
rd ^/^ev, i?ia2e, Gen. afipevoc ; — (c) adjectives in -wv (Masc and Fem.), -ov 
(Heot) ; e. g. 6 ^ ebdaifnuv, to Mcuftov, fortunate, and comparatives in -aw, -ov, 
tx 'ttiVf 'lov. These comparatives, after dropping v admit contraction in the 

' § 161, 8. (c). * I^istead of iroiftivaif daifievfft, Tix&vrai, see ^ 8, 6 and 7. 

%amDjmo.''''wnmBiM9^n!Bmomm'mMfm^ [§8& 

Aec Suig^aad in tfie Nom., Ace. «od Vec FL In Uw Vo& the aooent duets 
from the rnle [i dd, UL (a)]. But componnds in •'^ow foUow the rule; e. g* 
Kparepo^puvt Yoc. Kparepo^ftov. 



MaifUiv evdcufuw 


MaifMva Maifiov 


More hostile. 
iX^Uiv ix^lov 


tx9w»a and 
ix^w ix^iov 


fieiCav fiei^ov 


fiei^wa and 
fieiii^ juH^ 





Maifiovec Maiftova 



Maifiovaf eifSatfiOva 

like the Nominative. 

kx^iovec ix^iova 
kx&eov^ kX^io 


ix^iovac ix^tpva 
kx&iov^ kx&iQ 
luce the Nominative. 

fieiCoves fiei^ova 
fui^avc ftdCo 


fUi^ovac fieiJ^cva 
(jieiiovc fiEi^ ■ 
like the Nominative. 





'AyäVf too much, too. 
6ye2,rjf'Tfgy^tA herd, a flock. 
ddZicofi 'Ov, unjust 
al&ip, -ipoc, 6, if aäher^ 

the heavens. 
yipuVf -ovToct 6, an old 

man. [nity. 

daifunff -ovog, 6, 17, a divi- 
69iiJLogy -ov, b, the people, 

the mob. 
rf, well, ev irpaTTiij w.aoCj 

to do well to. 

Xn. VocaMary. 

^efiuv, 'OvoCi 6, a leader. 

«o^oT^f, 70V, 6, a ptm- 

2,ifjL^, -evo^y 6, a harbour. 

v€U(jf to dwell. 

ödoc, -ov, iff a way ; with 
elKo, to retire from the 

öXßiogf -id, 'loVf and 5A- 
ßioc, -ov, happy. 

troLfifiv, -evof, 6, a herds- 
man, a shepherd. 

nftoTTiij to do, act; td. ad»^ 
to fare. 

aCx^pitv, -ov, aound-mind- 
ed, wise, sensible. 

iirep^ptJVf -ov, high-mind- 
ed, haughty. 

0^, -ev6f, if, pi. ^pevec, 
the understanding, the 
mind or spirit 

fvXaTTu, to guard, look 
after, defend. 

Tdv yipovra rf frparre. ^ißov rodg öaifiovctC' Ol notfdvec rdf AyeXac ^ 
XaTTOvotv. X^i^ Kcucbv ^evye, 6c Kcucbv Xifieva. 'Avev daiftovog 6 &ir^p(jiroc 
061c bXßioc koTtv. *0 ^edf iv al&ept vaiei, *Atl ;faXCTra? ftept/ivcu rsipovai räc 
tGv äv^pCnrav ^pevac- "Etrov üya^olc ^ye/idtnv. "Ehe, 6 veavia, roTg yipovn 
rvc WoO. TloXXaiuc ^ftog ^efi6va ix^i &6ikov voiiv. *0 ^edc KoXatrryc ^ori 
ruv uyav imep^p&pov. 1B;j;e voCv ad^pova. *0 ' Salfiov, wapexe toTc yipov<n 
fteyaXffv einvxiav. 01 ^pevrtU role ^£ov<ttv iveSpevovmv 

Bo well (/>/.) to old men. Beverence (pi.) the Deity. The flocks are guard- 
ed by the shepherd. Follow a good leader. Go, youth, out of the old man*» 
way. The mob often follows bad leaders. The spirit {pi.) of man is worn out 
by {dot.) oppressive cares. Keep yourself from the bad man, as jfrom a bad 
harbour. The flocks follow the shepherds. Ye (0) gods, guard the good old 




§ S6» The*feMowing subBtaeitiTes ia -^ belong to the preceding 
paradigms, viz. o narriq, father, ^ fJtfjtfjQy mother, ^ '^vydtriQ, dattgh' 
ter, jj yaaxriQ, hdly, ^ Jr^fi^rr^Q, Demeter (Ceres) and o dvrjg, many 
which differ from those of the above paradigms only in rejecting a 
in the Gen. and Dat. Sing., and in the Dat P}., and in inserting an 
a in the Dat PL before the ending -a«, so as to soften the pronun» 
eiation. The word dv^Q (stem dvsQ), rejects « in all Cases aacl 
Nombersy except the Yoc. Sing., but inserts a d, to soft^ the pro- 

6, Father. 

% Mother. 

if, Daughter. 

d, Man. 

Sing. N. 

























Plnr. N. 






























G. and D. 




Remabk. Also the word b äarfip, 'tpoc, a star, which has no syncopated 
form, belongs to this dass on account of the form of the Dat PL atrrpcurc. The 
word^ ArjfiiiTfip has a yarying accent, viz. A^uijTpoc. A^tfiyTpt, Voc. Av- 
ft^Tcpf bat Ace. Atififfripa. 

XnL Vocabulary. 

^A^2>oVf -ov, TO, a prize, a slaye to» serre, woik aripyu, to loye, to be oon- 

rewaid. for. tented with. 

yaoT^Pf *Tp6^f i, the hellj. kx^aipu^ to hate. x*H*^^^/*^i ^- ^i to com- 

i<nf2,evOf to. dat^ to be a ao^j -^, -ov, wise. plj with, oblige, gratify. 

^repyere rdv narepa not r^ firirepa. MJ) dohXeve ytunpi} Xaipe, & fiJix 
veavia, t^ äya&i^ izarpl^ kclI ry äya&y ftfirpL Ifi) Ktuc^ a^ &v6pl ßovkeiwv. 
Ty A^fiffTpi* noXXol Ktd ko^I ve^ ^aav. *H äya&if •Ovyarrfp ifdktg itei^rrat, 
ry ^ikg fu^pi.* 01 äya&ol ävdpec ^avfta^ovTcu. HoX^Ki^ 6^ äya&ov irarpdf 
yiyvercu icaucdf vlo^. '"Bx^aipo rdv «a/cdv avdpa, ToTc äya^oic äpdpaat fiey6f 
Xif d6^a fvrrcu. *H r^g Afffirirpog ^vy&rrfp ipf JXepoe^ovff. ^Q ^fj dvyorep, 
eripye r^ ftnrepa. H äper^ icaXdv &&\av kariv intdpl^ ao^. 01 &ya&ol vloil 
räc ftiff^poc (rripyovffiv. Ol 'EXX^ec Afffflfipa ffeßovrat. Jlee&ea^ej d ^tXot 
9tapi4Uj Tolc irarpwrt koI ralg fiifrpcunv. Xopi^ov, <& irarepf ry ^yarpi. 

» S 161, 2. (a), (<J). 
* § 161, 2. (a), (iJ). 

* § 161, 8. (c). 
» § 161, 5. 

» i 161, 2. (d). 




liOye; youths, jour (the) fathers and motlien! Consnlt not with bad 
men. €kx)d daughters cheerfiillj follow their (the) mothers. We admire a 
good man. Obey, my dear youth, your (the) father and mother. Gratify, dear 
fitther, thy (the) good son. Fray to Demeter. Strive, O son, after the reputa- 
tion of thy (the) father. The prize of wise men is virtue. 

§37. The Nominative appends a to the stem. 

(a) Thtb stem eni^ in a Fi or Kappa^mute — §, 9tf ap; jff ffy x, i. 
On the coalesoence of these with <r so as to f<»rm t/; and %y see $ 8, d. 

^, Storm. 

6, Bayen. 

6, Throat 

Sing. N. 



"kapvy^ \ 

















Hur. N. 








D. . 








V^ 1 








G. ai»d D. 




Rbicabk. Here belong adjectiyes in -f (Gen. -yoct -Koct 
-irof) I e,g.6 if &pnäi, Gen. -ayoc, lapax, 6 if t^/Uf , Gen. - 
fUivvi, Gen. -v^^of, one-homed; 6 if alyiXb^, Gen. -ZTrof, Mgh. 

-X^) and -V» (Qea. 
iKogf aequalis, 6 ^ 

XIV. VocoibuIaTy. 

'Ayi6v, -uvofy 6, a contest, xopa^, -üKoct d, a X3t>w, a 2prv^, -vyoc, ^, a quail, 
olf , -ySCf 6j iff a goat. raven. bpxn^fM^^ -ovy ^i a dance. 

'&XeKTpvuVt -$voc, 6t ff, ji Kp&^f to croiik. 

^, dirof, iff the voice. 

/uum^y 'lyoCf iff a scourge, iroXvirovoc, -w, laborious. 

a whip. ffvpiy^j -tyyoci iff a flute. 

luv—Skf truly— but; on retri^^ -lyo^y 6, a grass- 

the one hand, — on the h<^per. [tor. 

other : used in antiihe^ ^eva^, -ükoc, 6, an impos- 

ses ; fiev, seldom to be i^op/uy^, -f-T/^Ct ^» a hacp. 

translated. dr^, &ir6gy ^, the counte- 

MoXai, -aicoc, 6, a flatterer, ftvpfiif^t -V^og, 6, an ant. nance. 

Ot KdpOKec Hp6^mmiv. Toi>g KoXoxac ^evy«. *Ave^^ roH ^ivOKoc.^ Ol äv- 

'Spornt ripiwvTai ^puyyi* icai bpxn^fi^ neit iftdp. 01 liriroi fiaffri^cv kXavvcnh- 

rtU, Al ^^6puvyyeg robe t&» Ap^p&mMf '&vfjtoi>c ripTrowrtv. Terri^ fit» rirriyt 

^tXoc yrriy fi^pßffKt d^ fivpfiif^' 01 TTOtfUvef vpöc rtc ovpvyyoc (idotMRv. liapä 

■ noTf ^A'&ffvatoic *fl^ öprvytav xal AXexTpvovciv äyüvec ifffccv. 01 wottäve^ -nöf 


dotd^, ■^, ^, a song. 
U, but 

kXavvo, to drive. 
Z^nrof, -rov, d, a hocse. 
K(u-''-*aiy both— and, as 
well as. 

4 157. 

■ S 161, 2. (c). 




7ro?.v7T0i'6c ecTLV. TLoX/iol uyaü^v fiev wttc, kqk^v 6e ona Jtj^ovaiv, 

The raven croaks, jflee fro^i th« flattorer. Keep, jouzs^vei finom impos- 
tpjs. Mea are delighted by the harp. The horn is driven with the whip. The 
shepherd sings to the flute. The life of the ant and of the qnail is laborious. 
The shepherd guards the goats. Plntes delight sh^herds. 

§ S8. (b) The stem ends to a Taa-mute^-^d, tj xr, n^", t^. On 
the Ace Si^g. in -<t aod «t^» see § 32^ db 

7], Torch. rj 

, Helmet. 

of 7, BiixL 

by King. if, 


' S.N. 
























. V. 














































Bem. 1. The word b if Tratf, chikty Gen. *ro«<56f, has irai in the Vocativ«, 
Rem. 2. Here belong adjeetives in »tg and •«, €ren. 'idog, 't,Toc ; e.f^.b if el» 
X^ptCi Tb etuxaptf Gren. -irog, pleasing ; those in -af , Gen. -adof ; e. g. 6 ^ ^7«f » 
Gen. -adQj-, exiled; those in -^f, Gren. •^og; e.g.b ^ äpyjjg, Gen. -vrog, white; 
those in -wf , Gen. -drog ; e. g. 6 ^ uyv^g. Gen. -örof, unlcn€wn ; those in -«rr 
Gen. 'idog ; e. g. 6 ^ ävakKig, G«n. -«dof, ««o^, ^ narptg, Gen. -tdof, noft't« ZoiKf ; 
ijjose in -vf, Gen. -wJof ; e. g. b ^ vitfTivg, Gen. -v(5of , latdif come. 

ATraTiXuTTOy w. gen. of the 
thing^ to set free from. 

uTTüffa, 'ffg, every. 

yiXcjg -cjTogy by laughter. 

iyeipUy to awaken, excite. 

i^ficvgy 'tv^og, ^, a worm. 

kTiTTigy -idog, ijy hope. 

Jtpigy -löogy if, contentipn, 

fpwf , -cjTog, 6, lovß. 

KanoTjfg, -TfTog, if, wicked* 
ness, ^ice. 

XV. Vocabulary. 

KaTa-KpvTTTUy to conceal irhrfg, -rfrog, b, if, poor. 

KoXa^u, to punish. ir^oifaiogy -la, -lovy rich. 

Kov(f>ogy 'fjy -ovy light, vain. nXovrog, b, riches, wealth. 

fMKapi^Ujto esteem happy. (jfpovTig, 4dog, if, cute, con- 
veoTffg, -TfTog, if, youth. cem. 

vv^, WKTog, ify night, w«- 4^i^oxpVfttmmvi-^C, ifi atE- 

Tog, by night, in the rice. 

night ;top<i'>-<^r>i^}1b^or,kind- 
bfwioTtfg, 'fiTogy ^y uQec- nes8,gralitiide,«legaiioe. 

niBss* xf^n^ftotfwtii -Yc, )^9 need- 
vaZg, Traiibf, d> 9^ a efafld, inesB, poverty. 


* Instead of ^finäög, 
etc., see § 8, 3. 

ÄOpv^f , bpvt'&g, (tvcmrg, tXfuv&g ; Dat PL Aa^ird^c, 




CM ipvl^ef ^dcwfftv. Xupic ;t^v riKret, ipic iptv. lioKapi^ofuv Hfv veo- 
l^ra. XfifVftoavvtf rUrei ipidac- Tlkownot iro^Xtluuc r^ KOKOTjjra wXavrfft 
KaraKfiCirravtFw. ^Q KaXe irai, ei vparre Toi>g Av^ptJirov^. H ^ih}Xpflftoavvff 
fi^Tifp MM&nfToc äiritmfc ioriv. 01 fchnre^ iroT^Kt^ eUrlv MaifioveC' 'H ffo- 
^ia tv roff Tuv äv^pOTTUv "dv/iolc '^avfiaoToi>c rov koXHiv iporac kveyeipei. *0 
i^avaroc roi^ iar^puirovc ^povriSuv airaXXuTTei. H fiXia di' 6fioi6nifToc yiy- 
verai. Olvog tyeipei yiXara. 'Ev voktI ßov^ role owpoic yiyvrrtu. 01 oo- 
fo2 «oAoCovac li^ KOtLÖrifra. Ol äv^pumi woXXukic «cov^cuf kXiriai repirovrat. 

The bird fings. IVom faTCH* arises fiivor ; from oonteiition, contention. By 
(dot) wiadom a womderfnl love (fd.) of Üue beantiftil is awakened in the minds 
of men. By {dat.) the song of birds we are delighted. Wine diipels the eares 
of men. Flee, my (O) boy, from Tioe. From (doL) likeness arises friendship. 
We delight in biiiis {dat.). 

f 39. The sterna of neuters belonging to this dassy end in t and 
ST. But as the laws of euphony admit neither r nor kt at the end 
of a word, t and also xr, are either omitted, or r is changed into <r. 
Comp. § 33, 2. In the words, to yow, knee, and to doQVy spear^ 
from the stems yavat and dogar^ a, the final vowel of the stem, is 
changed into v, in the Nominative. 

rd, Body. 

rb, Knee. 


rd, Wonder. 


S. N. 
























P. N. 



































*Aft&prfffia, 'ärocy ro^ an 

error, an ofibnce. 
awrofjuu^ w. geti^ to attach 

oneself to, tonch. 
ßaara^Oy to cany. 
So^fBif/tOf «drof , vSf help. 
yoXo, -oxroC) roj milk. 
ye6ofMi, w. gen.^ to taste, 

yvfiifa^a, to exercise. 
diofi^ofioif to exchange. 

XYI. Voeahuktry, 

dSpüf ßoparo^y ro, a spear. 

k&i^ay to accustom. 

^epäweia, *af , i^, care, ser- 

Mpuf, -Grof , 6, sweat 

luerifff -ov, 6, a suppliant. 

/iltcpo^r, -a, -öv, smalL 

fiv^oc, 'OÜ, 6j a speech, a 
word, an aoeonnt. 

vouciXoct 'Vt -o^t Tarions, 

irpayfia, -orof , to, an ac- 
tion, a business, a thing, 
an exploit 

pTjfM, -orof , rOt a wwd. 

(nrevSiif to poor libations, 
ponr out 

ravroXoyiaf -of, i}, tan- 
tology, a repetition of 
what has been said be- 

^dwAof, -ff, 'Ov, bad. 

* Instead <r6ftarci, ywarm, yoAoxrcrt, etc., see f 8, 3. t Instead of «c- 


THOU» I>SaLIil«U»r.— XKVTSB». 


19^. property, money, good, brave. tion. 


'Ev ;ifaA«ro?f irp&yfiaffiv 6J,iyoi tralpoi rciffrot eltriv. T^f äper^c irXofirov ob 
dia/ieißofiedtl TOi^ xp^f**^^^' Gi Iketüi töv yovarov^ äirrovrai. *G ^avar6^ 
ioTi x^pf'^ftb^ TVC i^f^XVC "Cö^ Tov (TUfiaro^. *0 irhniToc irapix^i rote av&pCmoL^ 
wouuka ßoi/^fiaTtt. Mi) rrel^ov kokqv iv^pu»ruv j^fuunv.^ M^ dcvXeve, & 
nuii rf Tov €%»futToc ^epaire^t. 01 "EAA^ver fok Mft^ai^ Kpar^pa^ yaXaicrof 
avMov0W' 'JB^iC« iuU yvfiva(ie rd cAfia aihf ir6votc icdl IdpHn. 01 ädoXiaxai 
reipovtn rä dra Toi^ ravTo^^yku^,^ itvx^v k&tC», ö iral, vpöt vii x^^iark Kpaj" 
ttara. Oi ^ofiXoi fAv^oi tüv Hyruv obx ä^rrovrai. Tolg Lah^ axovofiev. Mi) 
ix&cupe ^lTm» fUKpov äftapT^ftaroc IveKa. Fe^ov, & irai, tov yakoKTog} Oi 
arparioTa^ dopara ßaarä^ovoiv. 

In a difficult business there are few faithful friends. Exercise, youthS) 
}«oar (the) body with labor and sweat ! Strive, O boy, after noble actions, 
liany me» delight in money. From a noble action arises reputation. We ad« 
pire noble actions. Boys taste milk with pleasure. Soldiers fight with speora» 

Brmakx. The word rd repoc usually admits oontracticm in the pkral, aftef 
f is, dropped, e. g. repä^ TBpüv'y to yepag^ reward of honor ^ rd yvpag^ oldage^ rj 
fpea^fßesh, and rd Kcpagy horn, reject the r in all numbers, and then suffer con* 
traction in the Gen. and Dat Sing., and throughout the Dual and PL, except 
jhe'Dat H.; besides these forms, however, Kepag has also the regular form^ 
teith r. 

Sing. N. 

^ G. 



rd Kepof 

Kepar-oc and («Ipa-of) «cp«f 
KepoT-i and {Kepa-i) Kip^ 


rd Kpiag 

(Kpea-oc) «pcof 
{Kpioi) Mpe^ 

Rut. N. 

KiptiT-a and (Kipa-a) Kipd 

Kzpar-uv and (KepO'Wf) Ktpüv 


Kipar-a and (Kipa-a) Kepü 

Upia^) Kpia 
{Kpe6^(>nf) uptCiv 
{Kpia-a) KpSa 

D. N. A. V. 
O. and I>. 

Kipar-e and (Kepa-e) Kepd 
KepuT'Otv and (Kepa-oiv) Kep^ 

(/cpea-e) Kpia 
(Kpea-oiv) Kpelfv. 

ÄvSpittf -Of jj, bravery. 

yepacy to, a reward, a gift 
of honor. 

yvpcVi ^0, old age. 

itarpoi^, -7jg, it, nourish- 

ivoKoXo^y -Of, difficult, 

Vm^, 'Ov, d, i), a stag. 

XVn. Vocabulary. 

eve^iOf good condition. 

^e/ieXiov, -ovy ro, a foun- 

K^pQ/g, TO, a horn. 

Äp^of, -eaog = -^wf, r6, 
flesh, meat. 

veftmjj to send. 

irpoßäToVf 'OVf to, a sheep. 

irpo-rpiirot to turn to, im* 
pel. [pet 

cdAiw/^, 'iyyoc<, ii, a tram* 

aifftaivot to give a sign, 
or signal 

iirapx», to be at hand, or 
to be had, be. 

^pfMKovy'OVyTo^ remedy* 

» § 158, 3. (b). « § 161, 5. » i 161, 8. (a), (d). * \ 161, 8. • S «»i «, (a). 



THIBD DSCLSKUOH.— STXVft a f 0n »t. 


Ol ^eoi rote dv^p^fTMf ripa irifiinvotv, Töv, tv jnp^ kokGv ^Apfuamv 6 
^avaroc kanv. Td yipa To\>e arpaTuyraf elf avdpeiav nporpiirei, *E^ cdyyv 
Koi vpoß(iTinf yäXa kcU Kpia irpbg dtarpo^ ifwapxei. Kepcuri^ tcai eaXmy^iv 
•I orpaTiMTOL offiotvovatv, Houci^Atv xpeöv' yevofie^a, KoAov yiipc^ ^efti^ 
%ioi> kv iraioiv lariv ^ tw aoftarog eie§ia. Al iXcuf^oi Kepa txovffiv. AvfXoAoc. 
kffTiv 6 kv y^pgt ßioc. 

By {inrSf w. gen.) the gods, prodigies »re sent to men. Death ftboliflhes the 
6vik of, old age. By {dot.) rewards, soldiers ore impelled to bnvferj. Bejoiee, 
O youth, at the reward. We admire the beantlfol horns of the stag. Many 
evils accompany old age. Bear the tixmhles «€ old age. 

§ 40. (c) 

The stem ends in v or vt. 


if, Nose. 

6, Dolphin. 

6, Giant 

6, Tooth. 

Sing. N. 

























Plur. N. 






























G. and D. 





Bem. 1. Here belong: (a) the two adjectives in -of, 'cuvaf -av, viz. fiiXaCt 
-aiva, -av, blacky and raXaCy -aiva, -av, teretdtedj — (b) Traf» väaoy 
wav, ally every y and its compounds; e. g. ärcO^j äirüffUf firav ;-^c) iKov^ 
'0V<ra,^6Vf wiOxngy -ovrog, -o^JoT/f, -ovrof , and äauv, ÜKovffa, axov, vmwüUngf'-* 
(d) adjectives in -eig, -efffra, -ev, which are peculiar, inasmuch as the Dat 
PL, masculine and neuter, ends in - e ff t instead of - e t ff £ ; e. g. 




Sing. N. 



































Plw. N. 










































G. and D. 







« i 161, 3. • ^ 158, 5. (a). 

* Instead of fitvc, öe^A^tvgy yiyavrg, bdbvrg, Ptvai, etc., see § 8, 6 and 7. 

§ 41.] THXSB BBCtintHcm. — ffTBMs mmmo IN iL yowsz.. 4S 


Singular. Graceful Plural. 
Xäpieig* ;^ap£effer« x^^^ ^- X^P^^^^^C X^P*-^^^^ ;t^*^'ro 
XapievTog ;|^apte(y<n7f ;|rapiev'rof G. ;fa/>tevr6>v ;(;opte«rffwv ;i;apievr6)v 
XapievTi x^P''^^^ ;top'^^* l^- X^^^^''('^) X^''^^^^^ ;t<^ptc<T«(v) 
Xapievra ;|^ap{e(rffav x^^ A. x^*-^"*^^^^ ;fa(p«^<wtfr x^'f^^^f*^ 
Xctptev x^^^^^ A^Opiev V. x^^^'^'^C X^^^^°^ x<H^^^VTa 

Dnal N. A. V, 
G. and B. 

Xapievre ;j;apte(y<Td ;i;ap£evre 
XapLevToiv ;^;apteff<Tatv x^'-^^'^^^^- 

Bbx. 2. AdjectiTes compounded with 6^ovr, are declined like 6dovc ; e. g. d 
f fiovödovc, rd fiopodovj <me4oalhed. Gen. fiovodovroc ; adjectiYes in -ar, Gen 
-avrof, like /tTOf ; e. g. 6 9 afta^oc, tm^inn^, Gen. -avro^. 


'4k6)v -ov(ra, -ov, unwill- 

Jhrdf, -dffa, «-äv, aU to« 
gether« eveiy. 

^iutrig^ -Ivoc, jj, a beam, a ^/ccw, -oücto, -dv , willing. 6(fovf, Svtoc, 6, a tooih. 

^Ae0df, -ai^rof, 6, an ele- öa^paivofMtj to smell. 

phant, ivory. Trof , Träera, ttov, every, alL 

eviropof,-ov,t&.^en.,abound- ttotc, once, sometimes. 

ingin. ßk, ßivo^f ^j the nostril, 
f^Xtüg, 'OVf of the sun. the nose. 

abrogt -Tf, -6, ipse, 6 airoct Ä«TUof,-J7,-ov,loquacious. raXöf ,-awa,-av, wretched, 

the same. Xeaivuy to make smooth, <^t?iav&pQirog, -ov, man- 

ßpufiüf -äro^j TO, food, vie- grind. loving, philanthropic. 

toak. ^a;f^» -VCt ^» a battle. X^^^^C -camera, -ev, grace- 

^yäf, 'Ovrof, 6, a giant. fiiXac, 'aiva, -av, black, fol. 
deA^lf, -?voc, Ö9 a dolphin. dark. 

CM> iFoffiv &v&pL>iroic ^ abrbg vovc karw. Tolg hdovai} rb, ßpufiara 2.eatvofiev. 
Oi 6eX(f>lvec ^iXavd^porroi elaiv. 'Etrnv hvdpb^ äya&ov iravra Kcucä ^epeiv, 
JLoHXal Aißvijc X^P^^ e{fwo(M>i elmv kXe(f>avToc. Uavrec kutlXov äv^puirov ix' 
^(upovaLV. To?f yiyHcr? irore ^v fiaxv 'rpdf Toi)c "^eovg. Talg tov ijXiov uktC' 
ai ;ta^po/E^ev. "VivCiv Jtpyov itnlv ba^paive(r&ai. 

The teeth grind the food. We smell with the nose (dot,). The gods once 
had a battle with the giants (To the gods there was once a battle against the 
giants). We admire the beautiful ivory. Trust not all men. The business of 
the teeth is, to grind the food. It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) every man to wor- 
ship the Deity. 

B. Words which in the Genitive hate a vowel before 

THE ending -og, 

§41. I. Substantives in -evg, -avff, •ovg. 

The stem of substantives in -evg, -avg, -ovg ends in v. The v 
remains at the end of a word and before consonants, but is omitted 

* The dropping the v before ff lengthens ^ into ei. 
M 161,3. «il58 2. »§161,2. (d). 

§ 161, 2. (c). 

44 TmBDl>iaClJSK8WW.^™»MTOÄ<iIMATOWl*. [§41. 

in the middle between vowels. Those in -evg hare -id in the Aec» 
Sing« and -sag in the Ace. PL ; in the Gen. Sing., they take the 
Attic Geni -eioo^ instead of -iog, and in the Dat. Sing, and Norn. 
PL, admit contraction, which is not usual in the Ace. PluraL Those 
in -avg and -ovg admit contraction only in the Ace PluraL 

i ^, King. 

bi, A measure. 

6, Q, Ox. ^, An old woman. 




ßovg, bös for bovs ypavg 




ßo-6c ypa^ 




ßo4 ypa-t 




ßtm ypavv 




ßov ypav 




/3o-cf ypä-ec 




ßo-Cw ypCk-üv 




ßov^i{v) y(tavai(v) 




Ißo-ac} /Öoöf {ypä-äg) ypav£ 




ßo-eg yport^ 




ßo-e ypä^e 



ßo-olv ypä-oTv. 

Kema&k. Among the older Attic writers, the Nom. and Yoc H. of those in 
-cvf , end also in -^f ; e. g. ßaaiMiq, instead of ßaaCKet^, 

XIX. Vocahulary. 
'Apxiif w. gen^ to begin, to tlKo^Uj to, deU^ to liken, bijr^a^fiQC, -oi), 6, im ^ye. 

TTo^v^oCcOv^ loquacious. 

npOj w. gen^ before. 

ri — Koi^ih — and, as well 

^eva, to murder, kill. 

command, rule. compare. 

ärlfia^Uf not to honor, de- imfie^ia^ -ac, i, care. 

spise. ^v(f>t to sacrifice. 

Ä;taptoTOf , -ov, nnthank- lepevcj -ewf , 6, a priest 

ful, ungratefuL ^vpo^y -ovj 6, loquacity. 

*A;f tXXevf , Achilles, [ing. vofievci -^<^C* ^» pastor^ a x^^Ci X^t ^» * measure 
ßouXofiaif to wish, be will- herdsman, a shepherd. for liquids, a pouring- 

yovevCi -eof , 6, a parent, vofi^, -^f, ^, pasture. vessel. 

pi. parents. 

Ol ßamXetc i'rrtft^Xeiav lf;fot;<y« r&v iroXiruv. *H 6y6Xrf r^ vofiel ftfercw* 
*0 *E«rüp inrd tov 'A;^^t^Ä^üf ^ovcvetot. Ol Upel^rol^ ^tot^ ßo^ "^ovüiv, 
Kvpo^ TTolg ^ uyc^Qv yoveov. 01 axapiaroi Toi>£ yoveac äTifM^ovcnv. lief- 
^ov, ü treu, Tolg yovevfjiv} TrjXifiaxoc vv *0&oauetiQ vlog. BovXov rodf yoviac 
irpb iravrbc h nfiatc ^x^iv. 01 tuv ypoäv X^pot, rä Ära reipcvaiv, KaXug 
Äp^fc^r» " ßcujlXev. AI ypäeg izohiTJiyoi elalv. Ol vofiel^ 'Hjv ßoöv ayehjv eif 
vofi^ &yovaiv. 'Ofitjpog rot>f T^f "Hpcf 64^aXfioi>c rolc töv ßowf eUä^et 
ndr/)o«Aof 0tAof ^ 'An;<AX^wf . Kv/sov, rdv tqv Uepaov ßaoiMa, hei rt r^ 
äpery Kai ry ao^iq, ^avfia^ofiev. 

The king cares for the citizens. The herds follow the herdsman. Oxen an 
sacrificed by {vno, w. gen.) the priests to the gods. The old women by (their) 

» S 161, 2. (a), (<J). 

• § 161, 6. 

pjniliAg (dta.) plagne cnv (tli«) ottra. Te rale weH, O kiogt ! O priests, sacri« 
ftoe an (»c to Äe god ! It is proper for (it is, w. gen.) a good herdsman Ui take 
care of the oxen. Children lore their (the) parents. 

§ 42. IL Words in -rig, -eg; -tog (Gen, -mog) and -ooff and -w {Gen^ 
-oog) ; -oig (Gen, -aog), -og (Gen, -sog). 

1. The stem of words of this class ends in a. In respect to the 
remaining or omission of a, the same rule is observed, as in regard 
to V in the preceding class of substantives, viz. the a remains at the 
end of a word and before consonants, but is omitted in the middle 
between vowels. In the Dat. PL a <t is omitted; e. g. 6 '^a>^, 
jacked^ tolg '&ixh^i(v), 

(1) Words in -rjc and -cf . 

2. The endings -tjg, -€?, belong only to adjectives (the ending -^g 
being masculine and feminine, and -eg neuter), and to proper names 
in 'q)dvrjg, -fMvijgt -yivt^gj -xQaTtig, -fi^dtjg, 'Ttei&fjgf -a&irqg and 
(^vHJrig) -nX^gy having the termination of adjectives. The neuter 
exhibits the pure stem. 

3. The words of this d^ss suffer contraction, after the omission 
of (F, in all Cases, except the Nom. and Yoc Sing, and the Dat. PL ; 
and those in -nXir^g, which are ah^eadj contracted in the Nom. Sing, 
into -xXijgy suffer a double contraction in the Dat. Singular. 





Singular. PluraL 

ffcu^^j cleai*. ffa<l>eg fda^e-cf) üa(f^tc (cra^e-a) cro^ 

IaaJ^'l) aaipei aa^e'Oi{v) 

aa^eg <ja^kg (cfat^k-eg) aai^elg (ora^e-a) aa^ 

Bnal N. A. V. ] ora^e-c ffaijnj 

G. and D. aai^e-oiv caipolv. 

Sinp^nlar. Flnral. Dnal. 

^ Tpt^Cf tnreme. {rp^pe-ec) rpi^peig {rpi^pe-e) rpi^prr 
(rpi^pe-og) Tpiijpovc rpiripi-ov and rpt^ptüv {Tpufpi-iHv) Tpifipäiv 

ITpifipe-'i) rpirtpei rpiTipe-<Tt(v) 
Tpirfpe-a rpi^prf {rpiffpe-ac) Tpt^peic 
Tpiffpec {rpt^pe-ec) rpi^peic 

N. liiKparrj^ {TiepLKMrig) UepiK^^c 
6. ScMcparovf (UepucXie-oc) JlepixXeovc 
D. Zdixparet (JlepiKXie-i) {IleptKXeei) ILepiK^eZ 
A. ^uKpanj (IlepucAee-a) UepiKXeCt 
V. 2d>icpqrgg (Xlepfx^cf) ILepUcXeis. 

Bbx. 1. The contraction in the Dual, viz. Tpujpee « rpitfpri is worthy of no- 
tice, since here -«e is contracted into -^, and not as elsewhere, into -ei. 
RuL 2. In. a^jwtlres in -^, -ec» preceded by a vowel, -ea is commonly not 




cpatractad into -9 (m in üo^a » aa^)^ bat into -A (as is HepucXie-a s -Aeä) ; 
e ^ a/cXe^C) wUhoutfamey Hasc and Fern. Aoc. Sing^ and Neat Nom. Ace. and 
Voc PI. aKXeea = a«Xcä, iy^iyf, heakhy, iytia =* ^yia. 

Rbm. 3. Proper names with the above endings, and also 'ApfjCj form the Aoc. 
Sing, both according tp the first and third declensions^ and are therefore caUed- 
ffeterodites ; e- g XuKparea == ZuKparri, and ^(JKpaTtjv according to the first 
declension. Yet with those in -/cA^r the Ace. in -k?l^ is not nsual in good At- 
tic prose. 

Rem. 4. The Voc of paioxytones differs, m its aQcentuation, from the role 
in ^ 3d, III. (a). In the contracted Gen. PL, rpinpfKt a^rop/c^^, oontented^ and 
compounds of ^oCi are paroxytones, contrary to the rule [§ 11, 2. (2) (b) (/})], 

noTufwc, -ov, of a river. 

ao^ior^Ci -0V1 *» a teacher 
of eloquence, a sophist. 

aciTfipia, -aCi ^, safety, 

r^TTof, -ov, 6, a place. 

TpäytiiSia, -oEf) v> Oi trag- 

XX. Vocabularff, 

Aio;;tp6f,-a,-o)/,disgraceful. SovXetaj -of, ^, slavery. 
äKpär^y 'Sgy immoderate, i^^cupoj to pity>i 

incontinent, intemp^r- i^xjorfg^ -ec» marshy. 

ate, wanting in self- *lvdiKp, 7, India. 

eM&mand. Kokäfiog, -ov, 6, a reed. 

43^#^C» -«f » tcae. ^«» to say. 

drv;^C) -^f? nnfojctoiia^. M^vdavi?, Masdane. 
'Aorvayi^c, Astyages. hfiikin, -oc, i^> «7. c/o^., 

d^dj^^C» -^C» nnknown, ob- intercourse (with any 

Bcure. one). 

kl To^ 'Zo^kMovc Tpay(,)6uu KoKai tlaiy. Tdv HzpiKktO. knl t$ HQ^Uf ^coh- 
ftii^öfiev. T0 ^Kpäret* iroiXkol fia^ifral }jaav. *H Iv^lk^ irapa re ro^g ttoto^ 
/toi^c *«^ »^ KMeif rorwf ^ipn xaXaftovc 7ro7,Xovf . A^yc dc? rä ä^ij^^. 
'Avüiayopa^y S ao^urrff^^ diSSuncaXoc Ifv roü HepiKXiov^. *0 Upa/cAeff , rote 
krvxtfsi ffoTtfpiav wäpexf. ^vafifivwScig »rarpdf* tfv iu^avov^. 'EXiaipe rbv 
ärvxv äv&puirov. Mavdai^ ^ 'Bvyanify *A<rrväy<fv^, roü M^dow ßcurtXkiC' 
'Opeyeo^Cj d veavim, äXrr^ö» Xoywv. 01 iiKparelc aurxpäp dovXeicn^ dovMfov^ 
aiv. M^ öfuXiav ^e iutpartl hv^pCmtp.^ 

Pericles had great wisdom (to Pericles ihere ywE gteiait wisdom). Pity un- 
ft^rtunate men. Many young men were pupils of Socrates. The intemperate 
(man) serves a disgraceful slav^. We admire Sophodes for his (the) splen- 
*d tragedies. True words are believed. We pity the life of unfortunate men. 
Bo not have jnteroourBo with intemperate men. 

$48. (2) Word» in -ug (Gen, '<oogy,4md in -mg and -oa (Gen. ^oog). 

(a) -wf , Qen. -wof . 

S. N. 6, ^ dwf, Jackal PI. i»ö-ef 

G. t^6>.0f "l^(5-Ci>V 

A. ^iha i^Choc 

p. HAY, i^ö-e, G. and D. ^£hoiv. 

S. 6 ^pwf, Hero. PI. ^po-ef 
Ijpci-og ffpd-CiV 

HjpuhL iipvt'a^{y) 

^po-a and $pu 4p«»-ar and #yM)f 

P. ^piJ-c, iipQ-oiv. 

MW,2. (d). M 153,1. »HW,a 

M KX, a (a) (a>. 

i'üJ] TH]]U»-.B«SQliSlfliOif.-«-*WOSI>S m «OD^» HD»^ AND -Og. 47 

(b) -Of and -o, Gen. -oof s== -ovf . 
SubBtanti'^es of these endings are always lemininte. The ending 
-0»^ is retained in &e common langqage only in the substantive «d- 
dm» The Dual and PL are formed like sabstantaves in -og of the 
second declension, thus, oudoi, ^^oiy etc. 

Sing. N. 

11 al66c (stem alöo^)^ Shame. 

il ilX^ (stem 

ijXoi), Echo. 


laldo-og) aUov^ 




(alSo'i) aldot 




tatdo-a) cdÖQ 




lald6.'i) aidoi. 

hxo-t) , 


'Ayai^df , -^, -ov, good. . 
aldiiQy Tii shame, modes^, 

d^c^, diJMoq, 6, a slaye. 

XXL Vocabulary. 
Xtinfpoc, -o, -ov, sad, tnm- flpo<r''|3^i«r6}, to lobk at 

wp6a-e§fUt adsum, to be 
))reseBt, be jdned to. 

etßa^j TOf {onlif in Norn, 
cmd Asco) respect, es- 


XvplKoCf -^, -ov, lyric. 
gheardy -oo^ = -ovg, if, 6^tf, -cof, ^, the counte- 

weUobeing, prosperity. &Biioe,'flte Tisage. 
laropto^pa^iKtCf -ov, 6, «a varpt^f -iiiof, d> an «ude ifevduj to belie, deeeltB; 

hktoriao. (by tihe father's nde). Mi. to 1m. 

ft^TTOf , -ov, 6, a garden. freti^o, -oof » -ovf , j^, per- 


'OfHlpoc #^M ttoX^^ ^pcMVT* 'T^ räv 'ifp6ov äpertfp &a»ftl&^ofie9. 01 SfiQtc 
ßiov Xwifpdv &yovmv. 'O rov varpoog «^frof KaXof kartv* 'Op^^ov, & vai, 

^avfta^ofttv. T^ aidoc vp6ge<m rd trißas. Mi) ^pogßXene li^ Topyovg l^tv, 
^Q 'H^oi, if/evSuc iro?.Xatug rot^f iof^p&ivotfc. ILavrec dpiyevtM eifeüToOc. Hpi' 
irei vBOvi^ aldo ix^tv. KZei^ KtU ^Eparö Müvoai eloiv. Ti)v fiev KXeUi ^^tpa- 
mvovmv oi IcTepuypa^iy r^v 6k 'Eparä ol 2/üptKol mn^fäi. 

Homer celebrates iSbe hero Achilles in song. The bravery of the heip is 
wondeifnL Slaves lead (to slaves there is} a troublesome life. Hie imde has 
(to the nncle there is) a beautifnl garden. All delight in jHpsperity. Ateire, 
O young man, with reverence, the actions of good men 1 We admire the p€i- 
suasiveness and elegance of Lysias. We are ofteaa. deceived l^ £cho. . 

§44. (B) Wardsm ^ug (Glmi. -aog), emdin •>«£ (Gen. -iog). 

(a) -a^f Gen. -aof . 

Only the neut^fs to aikag, lighty and to Sikag, goUet, belong to 
this class. 

rh aiXag, Kg^t PI. üeka^a and ü€K& Dual. (teJm-c 

aiXa^ ceXk-txif tfeXct-otv. 

aeXa'i and aiJi^ aeXa^i{v) 

okTuojQ <rlÄa-a and fttka, 


SBiBD vmeumuoK.—woma» nr -«c; 


(b) -Of, Gea. -eof = -ovf. 
Sabstantives of this class are likewise neater. In the Norn., 
«, the stem-Yowel of the last sjUable, is changed into o. 

Sing. N. 

TO yevog for yevegf genus, 
(yevc-of) yhfw^ 
(yeve-i) yevei 


rb Kkeoz for icXeef , glory, 
(/c^c-of) kMovq 


Fliir. N. 

(yeve-a) yev^y 
yeve-uv and yevcih; 

(yoȣ-a) yevjy 










Bbmabk. On the contraction in the Dual of -e« into -n instead of -et, see § 42, 
Bern. 1 i -earn, the ploral preceded bj a vowel, is contracted into -a* not into -v \ 
e. g. «Aeea s: «Aed. Comp. IlepiicXetf (f 42, Bern. 2). 

XXTL FocaMof^. 

'AAAd» Md^ bat. «Mof, -eof a -ovc, ro, the «p^vu, oerM, to separate, 

ävefwCt -€», 4, the wind. figure, the form. judge, discern, choose. 

iv&oCt -^oc =s -ovf, TO, a Ifirof, -eof « -wf, to, a fi^f^oCy -eof =» -ovf, t6, 

flower. [safe. word. length. 

äa^XnCj -k^ finn» «eenre, ^rifua, -of , #, iigmy, pan- novtfpoc, -a» -^> didionest, 

yevog,'eoc » *ovf , to, race, ishment, loss. wicked. 

descent ^aXvoct -eof » -ovf, t6, o;£^, -oof, t^, s{dendor. 

79* T^r» ^» the earth. heat inpo^^-eoc^ -ovr,r6,height, 

dei/lof, -9, -ov, cowardly, i^v^rö; , ^, -6v, mortal. elevation. 

worthless. KcpdoCf -eof » -wf, to, ^f^^^i ^ ^* hrass, 

iaplv6f,-i^,-ov, spring, LC. gain. iffevdoCf -eor » -dvf , Tifi; 

belonging to the spring, kXco^, -eeof =» -^ovf , to, a lie. [cold. 

(fap) vernal. fame, pZfamous actions. i^vx^Ct -eog = ^ovCf to, 

*H yv Avdrmv kaptvolc ^aXXei: Töv kokuv deiXä imj ^povatv aveftot. M^ 
ävix<^ i^^ov^ lio^ ^akvovc. Td xaAdv o^ /fi7«cei XP^'*'^ npivouevy dXA^ dprr^. 
O^« iuN^aXec hrt irdv ^of iv "^vfiT^ yhet, M^ -^eviJ»; >iye. 'Atr^ov »rov^- 
piin; KtpdCnf. Kip^Ti wovtfpä ^rifuav &cl ^ipei.^ KäToirrpov elSovc x^"-^^ icrtv, 
clvoc 6h vov. 01 &v0ptiiKoi tXiovg dpiyovTat. Ol Avoptf Mei xo^P^'^^'f- Gi 
ävdpeloi KXeuv bpeyovrai. Qav/xa^ofiev rä röv ävdpuv itXia. ■ 

Abstain from dishonest gain. We delight in spring flowers. Keep not 
yourself, O youth, from cold (pi,) and heat! (pi.). Ilee from dishonest gains. 
Punishment follows the lie. We admire the Hellenes for (km, w. dat.) their 
(the) fiunous actions. Soldiers are impelled to noble actions by (dot) the love 
for (gmi.) fame. The famous actions of soldieis are admired. 

^ See rule of Syntax, p. 27. 

SI 45» 46.] THiBD sfeOLBiratoii»«— WOBM m '4gj -v^, -i, -v. M 

§ 45. nL Fbrdv in -ig^ «i^, -i» -v. 

(1) Words in -ff, -«f . 

Sing. K. 

6 KiCi oom-wonn. 

5, ^ avCi a boar, a sow. 

6 /;t^f , fish. 



' tiihoc 














Hnr. N, 














d)-ac and oUc 

Ix^aCt «rer /^^ 









G. and B. 





v^KOf, -«Of, 6, a oorpw, a 
dead body. 


'AyKurrpov^-ov^ ro, a hook, ßärpaxoc, -w, 6, a frog. 

äypevo, to catch. ßorp^^, «vor, ^i ft dnater 
ä/i9reXof , -ov, 4, a vine. of grapes, 

dvo-icvfrru , to peep np or looc, -9, -ov, like, eqnal. 

out, emerge. ^vf , -wf , 6, mQSj mOris, a «rra;t*r, -«of , 6, an ear 
ßaatKein^, w, gau, to be mowse. aicarsL 

king, mle. 

0/ hc^^ ^'^ ^^ 9rora;uov dva«virrov<rev. O/ 'dffpevrdl räc tria^ Aypevoveiv. 
Ilovref IffOf vcÄvef • 'tpvxwf dh d^ebg ßoüiXeiei.^ Ti afiittXo^ ^epei ßorpvf. H 
yij ^pei tnäxvac Kot ßoTpvac. Ol fii)e^ nayiciv itypevovrai. 01 ^vpot ffeßov- 
Tcu Todc ItC^C ^ ^€OVf. Tote fVül^ fiäxff irori ^v irpöc Todf ßarpäxovc. 'Ay- 
KioTpoic heSpe^fiev rotg Ix^fftv. 

We catch fishes with hooks. The hnntsman lies in wait for the boars. The 
clusters (of grapes) and ears (of com) are beantifnl. The vine is abonnding 
(eihropof, w, gen.) in dusters of grapes. The frogs once had a batde with the 
mioe (To the frogs was «mce a battle against the mice). 

S 46. (2) Wards in -i^, < , vg, tf. 

The stem-vowels i and v remain onlj in the Ace. and Yoe. Sing. ; 
in the other Gases they are changed into e. In the Gen. Sing, and 
PI., masculine or feminine substantives end in -co^ and -oor, — in 
which case m has no influence on the place of the accent Comp. 
f 30, Rem. 2. 

f 158, 7. (a). 

4 161, 2. (d). 


x&n» f > mnMMMm .-^ wimM or h«, -< hw , ■:«. 


Siiur* N* 

1^ iro^Zf, city. 

^ )(%tY> cubit rd irivain, mnstard. 

rb äxrrVf dty. 





















Plur. N. ^ 


































Bbic 1. Here belong adjectiyes in ict -^^a, -ty the declension of which does 
not differ trom that of substantives, except that the Gen. of the mascnline sin- 
gtilar has the common form -ioc ()iot -e»f ), and that the neuter ploral is always 
unoontracted. Thus : 

Bingolar. Sweet FluraL | 


yXvKVf yXvKeia yXvicO 


yXvKtlc yXvKeZai yXvKea 


yXvKi-^ y?.VKeUic yXvki-^s 


yXiMchnf yXuxeiüv yXvxeiMf 


yXvKcl yXvKfiß yXwceZ 


yXvKBOi{v) yXvKeiaig yXvK$(n{vy 


yXvicov yXvKeiav yXvKV 


yXvKeic yXpKeidf yXvxia 


yXwc^ yXvKtla yXvicv 


yXvKett yXvKdtu yXvicta 

Dual N. A. V. 

yXvKte yXvKeia yXvKee 

G. imd D. 

^XvKhiP yXvKeiaiv yXvxeoiv. 

Here also bdbng adjectives in -vf, -i^, Qnu -eof, which are dedined like 
yXvK^, -V, except that the neuter plural in -ea is contracted into -n (aa äanj) ; 
9. g. 6 ^ iiirgxv^, rd SimixVf ^*oo aibUs lonfff rä Siir^xtf' 

Hbx. 2. Some substantives in -^c, and also adjectives in -cc> -h e. g. ISptf, 
ISfH, skäki in, haye a regular io^ectaon; 90 also Qnd word i iyx'^vct ee2, in the 

Sing. N. 






6, i wopTic, calf. 

i iyxeXv^, ed. 










6f ff olcf sheep. 


mpri-uv fyx^^'f^ 

fr6fyn-m{v) iyxeXe-ai{v) 

nopTi-ef TcoffTlf tyxeXeic 


olact rarer o2f 




XSXV. Vocabulary. 

'A^>-9r»4fab^ginBuig, trates, authorities, of- MXyBtOt-^ici, 
oommMd} pi magis- fices of command. ßißaioc,^'wfixmßoeiae. 


ßpoTo^, -^f -ovj mortal. t^ovHt -9* -ov» al(me. ^^Q<v -^^y ^» * tcMraft 

ßpCxFV, -ewf , 7» eating. vo^of, -ov, ö, a law. anioH^^ -£^ 4, ^^edioow» 

4iä^opocy -w, different Äv^wf , -cof , ^, advantage. want 

4opov, -ovy TOy a gift. ^x^^, -euf, 6, the elbow, aräeic, -eo^, i, a ficbction, 

Meia, -Of, 1^, want a cubit sedition. 

kirv&vfua^ -flf , J7, desire. tröXe^f, -ov, 6, war. ovvea^y -ewf, ij, nnder- 

KOfmoCi 'Oi, 6, fruit iroA^f, -ewf, j>, a town, a standing. 

MOfiog, 'Ov, 6y an oma- state, a city. ^ßp^Ct -8<^t i» iasolenoei 

ment, order, the world, fropnct -«oCi ^t if a heifer. haaghtEncss. 

nrfifia^ -^.Tosy t6, a pos^ voai^y -eoct it diinkiag, ^Xa|, -xof, 6, a goai^, a 

session. [session. drink. guardian. 

Kfrjai^j -füf, ^j gain, pos- w/^alif, -ewf , jj, an action. ^?ffif, -ewf , i, nature. 

'AfflXyem rlicTe« {i/9j9<v. *Ev voau Kot ßp&oet ^oXKoi ehiv h-atpoi, kv 91 
enrovdaitfi irpayfiari oXiyoi. '0 v^ovro^ aitdveo^^ koX Meiac rodf av^putnovc 
Avff. 'EfTov r^ ^vaei.* At and rov (fufuiTo^ ivi'&vfätu iroXifiovf (tai arcufH^ 
Kolfiaxac irapexovciv. '£v Td^£ ir^Xeotv al &pxo^ v6/fuv ^Xcucig elaiv. 'Am- 
Xea^e^ (5 iroTuTai^ ardaeuv} ^Opeyttr^e Kaiküv wpa^ßtiv.* Aia^opot elaiv al 
rov ßpoTÜv iftvaeic* '^^ ^ßpeuc ^oAM Koxä yiyvercn. KaKov avSpbs du^pa 
^vfjaiv oiiK ix^i. Ao|a Koi nXovroc avev avviff&os oinc äai^^ KT^fLarä elaiv. 
Ol Kapnql yXvKeic elciv. *ApeTVC ßeßcuai elaiv al KT^ffeic fi9V(u. IloJUd äarri^ 
reixff ix^i. 01 tov i^ffreog nvpyoc Kohii elffiv, 01 iHfpyoi r^ dtrrei* mftog elaiv, 

Bichefl fine ftom neec&iess «ad want In Ao state the magistratea are the 
gvardians of the laws. Strhne, O joung man, after a noble aotion f The pos» 
seasioa of virtue is alone secure. Good laws bring order to states; Sdidiers 
fight for the safety of cities. Mee, O eitkens, fipon» factum» I 

I 47. IrTeg%l€^it Nouns o^fthe Third Dselemion. 

1. Jfi^^, see § 86 ; ydXa, yow, doQv, ovg, § 89 ; xß^Q^ § 85, Bern. 2. 

2. Pvvr^ (]^, icaman). Gen. yvpoux-og^ Dat yvvcuK'iy Ace. yv- 
poht-a, VoG. yvvat ; PI. yvvcuxegf yvpcuxmf, yvpcu^in), yvmhtag, 

8. Zeis, Gea .^fco^, Dat Ja, Aec. Jia^ Voc. Zw. 

4. 0^/5 (jj, Aa»V), Gen. tgix-oSy Dat PL ^Qt^i(p)y see 88> H- 

5. KXeig('^, key), Gen. xXeiS-ogy Dat xXeid-i, Ace. xXetd-a 
aiaid (commonly) aXeivi PL Norn, and Aco. xiUij?, also xXudeg, 

6. Kvmv (o, 17, «fo^), Gen* xvp-igf Dat »vriy Aea. xvta. Yog. 
%4ov ; PL xvve^^» xvvmVf xv<r/(i'), xvro^. 

1. Aug (o, ^ton«), O^i. Aak»^, Dat Jt£^ Aeo. X&Vy seldom X&a ; 
P|. XSiBg, Xim> XguBam(ii)* 

8. Maqtvg (oy 17, tet'^»««»), Cren. (M^tv(fogy Dat /tio^rti^, Aoc. 
lAM^TVQCL^ more seldom fiaQtvi^; Dat PL fiaQiikTi{wy 

9. Navg (^, navis), Gen. yso»^, Dat i^i» Ace. i^ai^; Dual: 

» § lfi7. • ♦ 161, 2. (a) (rf). * f 168, 3. (b). * h IW, 5. 




Oen. and Dat ptoif (Nom. and Ace. are not in me) ; FL p^bq, 
pB<SPf pa»ai(p)f pavg. Comp. jQovgj § 41. 
10. ''Tdmq (roj water). Gen. idaroSy etc. 

'A'&nvaioCf'Wfd, an Athe- l^tyo, to set right, guide. ftaprvpiafiiCiit testimony. 

nian. laro^, -ov, 6, a loom. 

'4^t -^t ^1 Hades, tiie xefaXfff -^Ci ^» the head. 

god of the lower worid luonf, -ik» ^t ft chest, a 

(Fhito). coffbr. 

Aviotocj 'CVt un&ithful, KoiXaivaf to hollow put 

incredible. [treaty. KOfu^Uy to bring. 

ditiaic, -ecjf, ^^ an en- icre£c, -evof , 6, a comb. 

dixofjuu, to receive. 
^lucXffaia, -ac> ^i an as- 
^pi§, Tptx6c9 iff the hair. 

oliCMK, -ac, 1^, a house. 
•iKo^f -ov, 6, a house. 
irepidpofio^, -ov, mnning 

round, gad-about 
irerpa, -of, 17, a rock. 
arayCwt -ovof, i^, a drop, 

or dropping. 
ao^Oy to save, preserve. 
ouT^Pt -vpo^t 0, a saver, 

a preserver. 
d^eXeiOf-ag, if, advantage^ 

KTeviCUf to comb. 
Kvßoc, -ov, 6, a die. 
KvßepvrfrnCf-ov,6, a steers 
man, a pilot 

Ai ywoiKe^ r^ KoajLUft ;|^a£pot;fftv. O^ "EXX^ef aeßovrai ^ia. Tcu^ ywcu^v 
i (üddc irphrei. 01 Kiive^ rdv ohtov ^TJirTOvaiv. '0 Kvßepv^Ttfc tt^v vavv 
Id^et. Al aray^vcc rov liSaroc itirpav KoiXaivovaiv. 'Ex^tiipu yovaXKa ne- 
fdSpoftov. T^f Twoiicdf* koTi rdv oIkov fv^arreiv. TwtuKbc^ itr^X^^ ktrn 00- 
^eiv oUiaif, 'AeI ei mnrovtriv ol Aidf Kvßoi. Ol Kvvec toI^ uv^puirotc c^e- 
Xeuiv Kot ^Sovijv frapixowriv. Al top fiapripitv ftaprvpiai iroXkaxic äirioToi 
elaiv, *laTol yupaiKüv Ipya, mX oix ktucXiftriat. Kofu^e, & 9ra<, Hfv lifc tcie- 
Tt/c «AeA». *0 Z<v, dtxov rifv rov äTvx<n^ dhiaiv. KSarrup Kot iLoXifSe^Kpc 
TÖV veuv troT^pec fivav. Twauu* vaay tcoaftov if aiyi^ ^ipet. Ol yipovrec 
hXiyac rpixac ^ Ty Ke^aXy Ix"^*''^' *^ yvvoh f^^e rifv oltuav, T9 Krevl? rdc 
rpixoi KTePi^o/iev. *0 Aioxdf rof rov "^dov xXeig ^Xarrei. 

CThe woman delights in ornament It is the duty (it is, w. p«n.) of women to 
look after the house. Bring, O boy, the key of the house 1 Women delight in 
beautiful hair. The Athenians had (To the Athenians were) many ships. 
Trust not all witnesses. It is the business (it is, w. yen.) of dogs to guard tfie 
house. Zeus had ( To Zens were) many temples. The fishes peep up from tlie 
water. The steersmen guide the ships. Modesty beocmies a woman. 

§ 48. Irregular Adjectives, 









npaoVf mild. 




frpaoi BXkdrrpaelf 


npaotc nxidvpai9i{v) 

npaovf and npaeic 

irpaoi and TTpaeif 






wpaia . 

O. and D. 






* f 161, 5. 

* S 161, S. 




Sing. N. 

no^vg TToXA^ tt o X i), much. 
TToXvv itoXXtjv iroXi) 

Plur. N. 

etc regular. 

fiiyac iityalri fieya, great. 
/if^aXov fieyakiig fuyuXov 
fttya^ fuyiikif firvah^ 
fieyav fieyuXtfv fteya 
fieya fieyd^tf fiiya 


fieyaXai fuyuka 
fieyähüv fieyaXuv 
etc regular. 


Declension of Participles. 











































Xlttovgcu , 






































'tiaa -evTt 
-eiffcuv -evTOtv. 





















Bemark. All participles in -oc are declined like 9t&c, and all pieient, second 
Aor. and first Fut. participles in -cav, like 2.iir6vj and first and second Aor. pas- 
Bive participles, like ^et^t^e/f , and all second Fut Act participles, like ayyeXüv, 

XXVI. Vocabulary. 

AlyvTnoCf -ov, 17, Egypt kokuv 'lAiaf, fi mvlti- ita^oc, -eof =» -owf, t6, 

äXyoc, -eog = -ovf , rOf tude of evils. suffering, a passion. 

pain. Ma«f(Jwv, -ovof, 6, Mace- 7roXvf,7roAX7,iroXi},mucI^ 

af^ovia, -Of, ^, absence donian. many, great 

of envy, abundance. . fi^a, greatly. irpaoci 'rrpaeta, irpäov, sofl^ 

i'&oc, -eof = -owf , TO, eus- 6^yof, -jy, -op, little, small. mild. 

torn, manner. 6^e^^, to nourish, in- irpotr-ayopevu, to ci^ 

'U^dc, -ados, i» the Iliad, crease. name. 

^t COUfäMBOM OW AIMTBCITITSB. [§§ 49, 50. 

wpio'oioc, -ov, ^, «n ap- aZrof, -ov, 6, com. be connected or atfeead- 

proach, an income, rev- ^oßo^t -ov, 6, fear ; 0ö/?ov ed with fear. 
eouoß^reditM, Ix^iv, to have fear, to 

TLoXiiv olvov wiveiv kcucov kartv. 01 ßaaikel^ fteyäTM^ npogodov^ Ijl^ovfftv. 
'Ef AlywrT<fi rro^i^ airoy af^ovla ifv. *H tfrdXarro jUeyaAi; itrr/v. Meya ira- 
"^OC vpocayopeiofiev *lXtäda KaKüv. Kpoia<f)^ ijv 9roXt)f n^joHro^. HoXkiiKt^ k^ 
tiJdyiK ^<5ov^f fiiya yiyverai akyog. Upaiai {npaoig) Xoyoig ^öeug elKOfiev. 
Tä fuyaXa Sijpa r^g tvxv^ ^X^t ^oßov. IIoXAwv äv&pCmuv i^i^ iarl irpaia. 
Uovog aperitif fiiya 6^e/lAet. 01 iralöeg Toi>c itpaelg (Trpaovf ) narepag Koi rag 
fepaeiag firirepag aripyovani. ^Ofit^av Ix^ ^®^f ^paecr^v (Trpaoig) uir^puvoig* 
Ai ywaiKeg irpaetai ehiv. *AXe^avdpoVf rbv tCw lAaKeSovuv ß<iai?Ja, fieyav 

Abstain fnnn much wine. Kings have (to kings are) great revenues. Egypt 
has (in Egypt is) great abundance of com. Croesus has (to Croesus are) 
great riches. Strive after mild manners. Women have (to women is) a mild 
nature (^aig), Alexander, king of the Macedonians, is called the Great 

§ 49. Comparison of Adjectives. 

The Greek language has two forms to indicate the two degrees 
rf oomparison (Comparative and Superlative); much the most 
common form is - r c ^ o ^, -teqay -nqov^ fw the Comparative, 
and -ratoSy -rdrijj -tat or, for the Superlative; a much 
more rare form is - e co ^, - f b f , or - oo f , - o f', for the Compara- 
tire, and -ictogy -id tri, -tatov, for the Superlative. 

Risx. 1. The Superlative expresses a quality in the highest degree, or .only 
ill a very high degree. 

BsM. 2. Instead of the simple forms of the Comparative and Superlative, the 
Greek, like the Latin, can prefix fiaXXov (magis) and nakiara (maxime) to the 

§60. A. First Form of Oomparison. 

Comparative, -t egos^ • tiq ä, -tiQor. 
Superlative, -raroff, -rariy, ^tatov. 
The following adjectives annex these forms in the following man- 

L Adjectives in -0^, -9/ (-ä), -01". 

(a) Most adjectives of this class, after dropping a, annex the 
above endings to the pure stem, and retaip the o, when a syllable 
long by nature or by position, § 9, 3, precedes, (a mute and liquid 
always make the syllable long here) ; but, in order to prevent the 

' f 161, 2. (d • § 161, 2. (a), (a). 

§ 00.] AI>JB0TXVSS.*^liai8T ITOBM OP €OMPABI802f. 55 

ooBcanreace of too many short syllables, o is lengthened into o}, when 
a diort vowel precedes ; e. g. 

«o»f^, light, 


. KOVf^o-repoc 

Sup. «ov^-6-rarof, -i/, -ov, 

IffX^p-Sct strong. 



** laxffp^Taroc, 

AeTTT-of , iMfiy 



" AcTrr-o-Tarof 

tr^df>-6ci vehememt^ 



" ff^odp-o-rorof, 

irtKp-oCi bitteTj 



" niKp-o-TaTo^f 

üü^oc, unsey 



" <TO(l>-6-TaToc, 




" kxvp'Ch-TaTogj 

ä&roc, worthy y 



" dft-c*-rflTOf. 

(b) Contracts in -«off »s -ovff and -oog = -ovff, suffer contraction 
in the Comparative and Superlative also, since e of the former is ab- 
sorbed by 0», but the latter, after dropping off, insert the syllable £ff, 
which is coD:tracted with the preceding o ; e. g. 

irop^vp-eof =» frop^p-ovc airX-doc «= äir^oüc 

iropipvp'ecin'BfHi^ s» rrop^p-chrepoc äirTio-io-repo^ » airX-ovc-repoc 
^ofH^p-eCyraro^ = irop(^p-6-TaTo^ &irXo-ecf-TaToc = ä^'k-ovo-Taro^. 

Here belong also contracts of two endings in - o v c and - o v v ; e. g. Hb^ooc 
s= e^-ovf , Neni c^-oov = eh^-ow, Com. tövo-ia-repoc = tirv-ova-repo^, Sup. 

(c) The following adjectives in - a ( o ff, viz. yeqaio^y old, n a- 
it a e ff, ancient^ n e^aXo^yOnthe other side^ (r;^oilaiOff, fl^ fe»- 
MHV, dsop -Off and append -raqos and -raroff to the root; e. g. 

yepai'OCj Com. yepai^repoc, Snp. yepai-TaroCt 

(d) The following adjectives in -off, viz. € j; d « o ff, cofm, ijöV' 
Xog, quiet, idiog, own, la o ff, equal, (a ia o g,'mtddle, oQ'O'Qiog, 
etxrly, otp log, late, and tigoiiogf in the morning, after dropping 
-Off, insert the syllable ai, so that the Comparative and Superlative 
of these adjectives are like the preceding in -cuog ; e. g. 

fda-og, Com. fieff-aUrepo^, Sup. (jiBa-ai-Taro^, 
löi-og " Idi-ai-repog, *' Idi-cu-Taro^. 

Bbm. 1. a2,oc, beloved, dear, has three different forms: ^i^Mvepoc, ^OJit' 
raroq ; ^tXrepof, (jtlKratot ; ^ihurepos, ^tXcuTarog. 

(e) Two adjectives in -off, viz. i^qmfiivog, strong, and 
a X ^ a r ff, tcnmo^e^^ aftar dropping -off, insert the syllable cff ; e. g. 
i^^fA89'i(j-tBQog, i^^mfMif-iff-tarog, axQar-etj-teoog, axQwr-ia-tarog. 
So also atdolog, modest, has aidoisaratog in the Superlative. 

(f) The following adjectives in -off, viz. XdXog, talkativCf 
liovocpdyog, eating alone, oiftoqxiyog, dainty, and nzoaxogf 
poor, after dropping off, insert the syllable tff ; e. g. laX-og, Com*. 
XaX-ia't8Qog, Sup. Xal-ia-tarog. 

56 ADJECTITEfl. — StRST VOKIf Of eOSPiAISCMt [$ 50. 

n. Adjecstives in -^?, Gen. -ov, and ip^Afi?, -Ä, /<*«, G«ö- 
-eW» shorten the ending 'tjg into -igi e. g. jc^«ff *^tf , Gen« -at^ tkuv- 
ithy Com. xXsnt'ic-tBQog, Sup. xXc^r-itf-rar^ ; %pBv9unBifOQf V'ev- 

XXVn. Vaeabukny. 

'AyaXXuy to adom; Mid. I^of, -eof « -ovf, to, » irrü;t^, -^, -w, bagging, 
10. dat., to pride oneself nation, a people. Tcry poor, 

in, be proud of, delight Acuce^ai/iovtoct -ov, 6, a üumri, -^^ i, silenoe. 
in. Lacedaemonian. HfUQc, -ü, "W, honiMvd, 

alperoc, -17, -6v, choice, vofu^tjf to think, deem. esteemed, TaLnoble. 

eligible ; Comparative^ oiSeic, oidefita, no one j ^eXiduVy -ovog, 4, a g|jwal- 
preferable to. o{>iev, nothing. low. 

ßiato^, -d, -ov, violent miTpic> -t^t i, native ;fp^<Tt^of, -^, -ov, nsefb!, 

dixaiof, -a, «ov, .äi^ d£- coimtay. advantageous. 

KotoCf "OVf just 

Bttlb of Stntax. The expression denoting comparison^ which 
in English is subjoined to the Comparative by ihauj is subjoined 
in Greek, by ^, than (quam), or, what is more usual, by the Geiu 
without 17, when that expression must have stood in the Kom. or 
Ajsc after ^ if expressed. Hence the rule : The Comparative gov* 
ems the Gen. when $ is omitted. 

'Apiareidric irruxoraToc ^, dXAd OLKOLOTaToq. 01 KmhjKeg ßcoioraroi ^aa». 
KaXXiac irXovaiufraTOc ^ 'X^rfiHuwv. Oifdhv mair^^ tori xpV^^f^^'^^pov, 24/7 
iror* iarlv alperuripa X0701;. Oi« iori ao^iag TifUQtepov. 2o(^ia t^Tuovtov 
KT^fia Tifuürepov ksriv. 'H AaKedaiftoviov dtatra Ifv ^Xover&r^. 01 yepai- 
repQi rcuc ruiv vewf riftaZg^ äyaXXovreu. Oifd^v TrarpHoc roic Av^pitrroi^ ^iX- 
repov. 01 *lv6ot iraXcuTaTov It^of* vofuCovrcu. ^Q veaviaif lor^ ^avxturaroi, 
01 "SirapTianKol veaviai kfißufievearepQi ^aav tuv *A^ijvaiuv. HoX^l tuv x^ 
XtdovQV eUri ^xt^itrrepot. Oi dov2^L ito^^mkic flfevSiaraToi Kot K^enriaraToi 

The father is wiser than the son. The most valuable possession is that of 
virtae. The liife of Socrates was very simple. No one of the Athenians was 
more just than Aristides. The eldest are not always the wisest Men are 
qnicter than bo3rs. The Lacedaemonians were veiy strong. Old wom^ are 
often very loquacious. The raven is very thievish. 

m. Adjectives of ihe thbd Dedenmn : 

Those in -vg, -«T«, -v,— -lyff, -eff (Gen.-« 0^),-^ -««,-«•'> 
and the word iia%aQyhapp^^ append -tsQog and 'tatog im^ 
mediatdy to the pure stem, which appears in the Neater form ; a g« 

yXvKv^f Neat -v — y^vKv-repoc yXvKv-TaTO^ 

aXtt&v^i Neut -cf — aXij^ea-Tepog oXrfih'TaTOQ 

M161,2. (c). Ǥ161,5. (a). Ȥ146^2. 


irevtfCi N«ut *cf — irevea'Tepoc TrevÄr-Tarof 

/ueAof , Neut -av — fie^M^v-repoc fieTMV'Taroc 

TaXaCj Kent -av — ra^av-repof ToAav-rarof 

fAOKop^ Keut -op — ftoKap-Tepoc fUUCufhTaroc. 

Rbk. 2. The adjectives ii^vCi raxvg and ironic are compared in •^t^v 
and 'uv. See f 51, 1, and § 52, 9. 

lY. -^BQog aod -r a r o ^ are appended to the pure stem, after 
the insertion of a single letter or of a whole syllable : 

(a) Compounds of ;f oe ^ c ? insert oo ; e. g. 

intxapig, -«, Gen. itrtxapiT-ogy pleasant^ 

Com. tjrixaptT'U-Tepoc, Sup. hnxapiT'6'TaTOc. 

(b) Adjectives in -w p, -o i» (Gen. -of^o^), insert c ff ; e. g. 

MdLfiuVf Neat Maiftov, happy, 

Com. Mai/tov-e<r-Teoo^f Maifiov-iü-raro^. 

. (c) Adjectives in -$ sometimes insert 6^, sometimes i ^ ; e. g. 

d^Ai^y Gen. d^Aiic-of, growing old, äpna^. Gen. Ap7ray*of , rapax, 
Com. ä^hjc-ea-repog, Com. äpnay-io-Tepoc, 

Sup. d^j^AiK-cff-Tarof, Sup. äfmay-io-raTo^. 

y. Adjectives in -e e ^, -fi v^ insert (F, the i' of the stem being 

dropped, § 8, 6 ; e. g. 

XapUiCj Kent x^^^t pleouant, 

Com. ;tap^e-<"**pof » Sup. pfopie-tfrcTOf. 

Äl&Unlf, -ovo^, 6, ta^ JEr ynpoQ, -aof, ro, old age. dp^iy, % , ^, impnlse, iMl, 

thiopian. t/Kpar^g, -ec, oontinenti desire, ruahing. 

AItvij, -tfCi ^i iBtna. abstinent, moderate. oiSe, and not, neither, not 

oi^o, quickly. eiaeß^c, -id pious. even. 

äpna^f -ayo^f rapacious, eix<^>tCi 'iTo^i attractave. irapairX^oiogf -a, -ov, and 

rapax. [weak, ^ßtft -VCt hi youth. irapatr'krimog, -ov, liki9. 

iKT&evfig, -cf , powerless, fteaortfg, 'TijTog, ht me- 'Kopepx'f^uaiy to pass by. 

irvxiOf -ac, iff misfortune. diocrity, moderation. irpiaßvg, -eta, -v, and 

ßa&vg, -ela, -v, deep, pro- v6^fjia,-aToc,T6, a thought, frpeaßvg, -vof , and -euc, 

found. a conception. old. 

ßapvg, -eta, -it, heavy, bur- bp^oc, -ri, -ov, straight, <&k^, -elo, -v, quick. 

densome. correct, upright 

AZy>a, «f vofifUL, rrapSpxiToi hßVi o^^ Ifrirtjv bpfi^ ylyverai &KVTepa. Tb y^- 
pof ßapvrepov kariv klrvriQ. 'O i^dvarof r^ ßa&VTart^ üttv^* TrapaTrX^o'tOf iff- 
nv. Oi vio£ Toig tQv irpeoßvripuv hfoivoi^ ;t<>^povtnv. ^ikiag diKoiag Kr^eig 
kcTiv aafaXearaTrf. *H fiea&rtig iv väaiv &«f^akearipa kariv, 01 yepovreg dff- 
^eviarepoi elai riJv veov, BovX^ bp^g ovdev iariv äoi^d^arepov, Ol Kopa» 
«cf fie^MVTaroi elaiv. H 'A^poöiTtj ipf «i;tap*rwTttn7. 0/ eiacßeararoi Mau 
fioviaraToi elaiv. XuKparvc kyKparearaTog ^ koI ao^povearaTog. 'Ev roZf 
ärvxUu^ iroXXoKig ol av^puwoi au^povearepoi elaiVf fj iv ralg ehrvxuuf, Kpi- 
riac iv Apirayiararog. H *A^podiTtf ipf ;rapi£ardr9 frooüv iJeöv. 

■' I ■' " ' ■■■ ■III». .11 II H I 11 I If— ^^^^ 

^ i 161, 2. (b). * S 161, 2. (c). 

M AS>rmanvm.'*-^B&coTm irosx ov oompabisok. [§ 51. 

Age \b rery bozdeiiaome. Koihmg is quicker thsn bought ModeratioTi is 
Uie safest No bird is (there is not a bird) blacker than the raven. The 
JEthiopians are very dark. NoÜiing is more attractive than youth. No one ot 
the Athenians was more moderate or more sensiUe than Socrates. No- one was 
more rapacious than Critias. Nothing is more graceful than a beautiful flower. 

§51. B. Second Form of Comparison. 

Comparative, -* od Vy Neut. -* o r, or -co f, Neut -o v. 
Superlative, 'ictog, -iartit Hatov, 
KsM. 1. On the declension of the Comparattve, see § 85, Bern. 4. 
This form of comparison includes, 

L Some adjectives in -v g, which drop -vg and append -iW, etc ; 
this usually applies only to^dv gf sweet, and taxvgt smfL Ta- 
XV g has in the Comparative '&<i0ee9P (Att '^arrco^, § 8, 11), Neut 
^aa^oif {&ätt(w). Thus : 

^d-i}Ci Com. v^'tcjVf Neut ffd-loVf Sup. ^(J-torof , -j;, -OV; 

rax-v^i " ^äüffcjVf Att . i^arrwv, Neut. ^aaaoVf Att -^arToVf Sup. Taxtaroc. 

Kem. 2. The others in -vf, as ßa^vg^ deep, /9«pi)f, heavy, ß paSvg, dowy 
ßpaxvCf short, yXvKvg, sweet, dactvg, thick, eipvg, wide, ^fvf, sharp, 
vpeaßvg, old, <5 k ü f, swiß, have the form in -vrepoc, -»rorof, \ 50, IIL 

IL The following adjectives in -gog, viz. alcs^Qog^hase^ ix" 
d'Qog, hostile, ^vdqog, honoraUe, and o 1% tqog, wretched (but 
always in the Comparative, oüttQote^g)^ the ^[iding -Qog here alaa 
being dropped; e. g. alax^gy ^^* at^X'teiM^i Neut aiöX'ioi^i Sc^. 

XXIX. Vocabulary, 

'AXkog, '71, '0, cdius, -a, ud, Kaipog, -oO, 6, the right olitrpog, -a, -6v, pitiaUe, 

another, rd aXTia =* time, an opportomtjr; miserable. 

roAXa, the rest, every- time (in general). ^<yf*nt -9f » Vt a smell. 

thing else. [imicol. h>tfr6g, -^, -6v, remaining 6^, -euct ^t -Vi a snak«. 

*;t^pof> -a, -ov, hostile, in- /wcra-^epw, to remove, ffape;fo^o(, to afford, briflg 

Cuov, -ov, TO, a living be« duuigo. forth. 

ing, an animal. 

'O ßa&vraTog *7rvof ^Sunog kariv. TLoXXä äv&ri ^diarnv bcfts^ irapexeTcu, 
O^v 'därrov i<m tw jj^^j/j- . Tj^ alaxiartiv dovXeiav^ ol cucparelg d(nf?ie<fovüiv. 
UavTtJV iidioTov kariv ^ ^i^a, Ohdkv altrxiov kariv, 17 a^Mt fuv h v^ ix^iv, 
ÜXXa d€ leyeiv, 01 6^ic rolg T^molg C^^iot^ ix^i9Toi siaiv. *0 rw ir/toven^m 
ßioc noXkoKig oUrporepoc tariVy ^ 6 rCtv imv^tuv. Täx^arc^ & luupöc furai^epei 
rä irpayfiara. 

' Nothing is more pleaeant than a very deep sleep. Nothing is more disgrace« 
fill than slavery. The horses are very qnkk. Theie is nothing more inimkal 

than bad advice. The old mas baa f^r {dat.) the old man the most pleasant 

■ ■ ■ ■'■ ' ' " -- ■■ - " , . .. - - — .. . . 

» ♦ 159, a. • f 161, 5. (a). » Adwbially. 

§ 52.] AI>fSetTV9a*^'^4M9iUübQeB FOSHi «7 C01»i»iS0K. W 

•peech» äie boy fyr the boy» The po<Mr Itam aUvag« « vexy ndflenfcle Üb. 
Nothiaig is more xniseiable than poverty. 

§52. >lnomafott9 Forms of Oo 

1. aya&ogy goody 

S. KOKoc, body 

4. ii^yetvoc, painfid^ äXyeivorepos 


äfieivuv, Neut. afisivov 

KpeiofftJVf Att Koeirrav 


fiaoavy Att ^TTüv (öl/efwr) 

5. /«a/cp6f , &n^, 

6. fUKpoc, smmt 

7. liUyog^faOy 

8. fieyof , ^mtf, 

9. TTO^vf , mticA, 

10. ß4^ioCf easy^ 

11. ircir«*v, npe, 

12. ITMVfjßa, 



iXäffffiaVf Att kXarruv 


irMiw or nXeov 








fiaKpÖTaroc and fjn^Kiarof 








fiaXoKocy -Vi 'Ov, soft. 
w6?^fi0Cy -oVf 6, war. 
OKCmrQy to joke, jest (Eng. 

XXX. Vocahiiary. 

*A.vayKaioc,'äj'OVitakd'&V' ifn^oc, -ov, implanted. 

ayKdloct -ov, aecessary. kviore sometimes. 

&payKrff -j/f, j^, necessity, hn^fää, j«^, i, del^ire. 

eompulsion. eirvx^Ct -^f» fortunate. 

iivapxi<h -Of, ^» want of ^, or; ^— ^, eithei^-or, «rre/oyw, to love, to be sat- 
govemment, anarchy. cad — oitf. isiied, contented widi. 

ßXaßigj -9f, ^finjvtj. 'IßnptOy '<Ht ^t Spain. avfußovXofy -ov, ^, an ad- 

yeiTuvt -ovoc, 6, i^, a hx^i to be strong or viser. 
neighbor. able, have power, avail, at^f^poavvri, -rjc^ i, sonnd- 

yvafufy opinion, view. «fXevw, to order, bid. mindedness, modesty, 

i^xO&epo^f -öi -ovy and Ko^xeia, -af, ^, flattery. "wis^dom, chastity. 

iXeff&epoCt -ov, free- KpoKodeiXoc, -ov, 6, a croc- 
bom, fipoe. odile. 

B0LE ov StVTAX. tig with the Sctperlaüre strengthens it, as 
qtiam in Lat ; e. g. oi^ td^MtOy quam ceterrimey as quick, a^ possiih. 

OiX ^ fJMKporaTo^ ßioc äpurroc kariv, &12.ä 6 crTrovöaioraToc- "M-irpov knl 
Träffiv äpiüTov. Vvufiai röv yspairepav äfietvovc elcrtv. Ivfißov'kog ohdeig kort. 
ßB^*0p xp^'t'olf. "H Ä^e (HyjfC KpetTToi>ay if aiy^v ^x^. *Ael KpariffTov iari 
TÖ äfn^aXeoTOTov. SKUTrretf, Ä X^re. 'He^X&v Kaxiovc kviore ebrox^OTtpoi 
ehiv. OiK kari Ximri^ x^^P^ äv&^pwttf^ /etuc6v. KoXaKeia rCnf äXXuv äTravruv 
KOKjuv x^ip^f^ov kornv. 'Avffp fxaXaicbf r^ i^vxiv^ ktm koX^ ;jff)^^aTüV ^ftruv.^ 

> \ 161, 6. ' Hie Aee. means, m regard to, see 4 1^} ?• 

^i&Sk slare (o »eaey. 


60 AX>yicRB. — vJOPüBXf vmtaox aitd voshation. [{ 58« 

TaZc ywat^^ 4f aufpoaOvif KoXkimJf hprrri iartp. O^x itrrt K-H^pta- K&kAimf 
^iXw. *H dovXeia t^ 'iXev&6p<i) ä^ytartf kariv. *H Wdf fiffKurrrf kariv. *0 
KpoKÖdeiXoc if kXaxUrrov yiyvemi fieytaroc^ 11 yy Morroi; hrl tov ii^ov. 
Xrepye /ca2* rä /uia. *OMyiaToi &v^p6nroi Maiftoveg elaiv, Oide^ vofto^ la» 
xOei ftei^ov rijc äväyKij^. Mixpä nSpdij froXXaKi^ fiei^ovac ßXaßag ^epei. 'Avop- 
Xiag fuK^ov oi)K Jtari kokov. *0 KoXefw^ rcXelara Kcucä tftepei. "E/z^vrof ktrri 
TOtf av^ponoig ^ tov nXeiovoc hn&vfiia. Tw^ i<r^^ nXelara ayai^ä t^ oliUfi 
^pei. Tä avayKola tov ßUn^t^epe ug ft^ara. Td KcXeveiv f>^ov k<m rov Trpdr- 
retv. 01 KopKol ireircuTaToi eloiv. 'Ev r^ tov irarpbc k^it(() ol ß&rpveg treirai' 
repot elaiv, ^ h r^ tov yeirovoc. 'Ißrjpia Tpeipei rrioTaTa irpößaTa. 

There is nothing better than a yery diligent life. The opinion of the old is 
the best. The best adviser is time. Nothing is better than that which is 'most 
safe (than the safest). The worst (persons) are often veiy fortunate. Sadness 
is the worst evil to man. Nothing is worse than flattery. The immoderate 
man is a slave to pleasures. In women nothing is better than modesty. To a 
free man nothing is more painful than slavery. The crocodile is very long. 
The son is smaller than the father. The good often have more property than 
the bad. The poor are often in greater honor than the rich. Avarice is a very 
great evil Nothing brings more evils than war. To order is very easy. It is 
esstar to bear poverty than sadness. We taste the ripest fruits with great plea- 
sure.* The sheep of the &ther are fiitter than those of the neighbor. 



§53. NatuvBy Division and Formation of the 


1. Adverbs are indeclinable words, denotmg a relation of place^ 
time or manner; e. g. mr, therej vvv^ now, xoXooi^, heauHfuUy^ in a 
heautiftä manner, 

2. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by assuming the 
ending -mg. This ending is annexed to the pure stem of the 
adjective ; and since the stem of adjectives of the thir4 declension 
appears in the genitive, and adjectives in the Gen. PL af^ accented 
like adverbs, the following rule may be given for the formation of 
adverbs from adjectives : viz. -mif the ending of the adjective in 
the Gen. PL, is changedinto -co^; e. g. 

^«X-of , Ärorfy, Gen. Pi ^'iX-ov Adv. ^tJUwf 

Koipi-oc, Umehf, " KOtpUuv Mupi-<jc 

M 161,5. '8180. 'M58,3. *Nenterpltt»lofthesuperiativeof#%. 

iräQf all, iravTOCi 


tnxjipuVt prudent. 


XOfdtiQy pkammt^ 


Taxii^, toK^fi, 



awTJ^Tf^f aamstomedf 


^irA(a-oc)odf, mmfk^ Gen. PL AirX{6^mt)üv Adr. än^6-vf)^ 

evv{o^of)ovc, benevolent^ " (ew6-wv) e^wv j(evv6-wf) e^Ciif 

trävT-QV * 7rdvr-üf 

Taxi-^v Taxe'i»K 

fieyäX-uv fieyaX-i^ 

(awff'&e-uv) aw^f^tiv (owi/^e-«f ) ovi^uf. 

Rem. 1. On the aooentnation of compounds in -ri^a^ and of the oomponnd 
airräpKu^t comp. \ 42, Rem. 4; also on the acoentnation of eib^up, instead of eih 
v&^j \ 29, p. 29. 

Rem. 2. By appending the three endings --^tv, -^i and -de (-ae), to snhstan- 
tives, pronouns and adverhs, adverhs are formed to denote Üie three relations of 
place, whence {-^ev}y where {-^t) and whithet (Se or -<re) ; e. g. oipavo-^evtfiom 
ffeaven, oipav6-^i, in Heaven^ ohpavov-oty into or to Heaven. 

Rem. S. iThe ending -de is commonly appended to the Ace. of substaatiTes 
only. To pronouns and prim^itive adverbs, -at is ^){ienjded inHead of -äc ; e. g. 
ixci-ffe, thilhery dXAo-cre, to (mother place, Xn plnral substaintiyea in -Of) -ade In- 
comes -C^ ; e. g. 'Ai^^oCf , ft) Athens. 

3. Besides adverbs with the eodiag -m* Ihere «ce ouwiy wbiob 
evidentlj have a case-ioflectioii ; e. g. Sianiv^, mddenfyy mitoi, 
tkere, etc. The Aoc Sing, and Fl. of adljectives is veiy Ikeqpieii^ 
u^ advei^lHallj ; e* g. fc^V« jcJUmcm'» $9 weep mufL 

§54* Oomparison of Adverbs. 

1. Adverbs derived from adjectives, hiive oommonlj no indepen- 
dent adverbial ending for the düerent fofttui cf ODttitMOisDn, bot, in 
the Comparative, nse the üeoter mngtilitf, add in the Saperffttivey 
the neutw plaral «f Ihe ccMresponding adjeoliftvei e. g. 

cro^äf finom ao^ Com. eo^repov Sup. do0tf rata 
a«^^ ^* i^'i^ 9a^<rT$po» mtfitnara 

Xapi^fiK " X^^^^ X^H^^^^pov xapUßrara 

eiiaiftopuc ** eifihifiLtv eMcuftoveaTepov eitdaifißve^niTa 

o^XP^ ** cdaxpoc alaxlov alaxtora 

^eu^ " i^dvf $d;ov ^diora 

2. All primitive adverbs in -o), e. g. af^oo, xarcn, l|a), jor«), ete», 
retain this ending regularlj in the Cocapanitivey and for the most 
pert in the Superlative ; e. g. 

innat above Oom. avtiripu Sup. avurato 

KaTu>, behw^ . KOtwripQ KaruraTu, 

In ^e manner, most other primitive adverbs have (be ending -<d in 
the Comparative and Superlative ; e« g. 




[§ 55, 5& 

iyyv^, fwor, 

Com. äyxoript^ 

Sup. iiyxotaro 
Sup. wantang 

iyyvrärci and 



§ 55. Nature and Division of Pronouns. 

Pronouns do not, like substantives, express the idea of an object, 
but onlj the rdation of an object to the speaker, since they show 
whether the object is the speaker himself (the first person), or the 
person or thing addressed (the second person), or the person or 
thing spoken of (the third person) ; e. g. / (the teacher) give to you 
(the scholar) it (the book). Pronouns are divided into fc^^ princi- 
pal classes, viz. personal, demonstrative, relative, indefinite and 
interrogative pronouns. 

§ 56. I. Personal Pronouns. 

A* Substantive personal pronouns, 
(a) The simple a/oi, egoy trv, tu, ov, sui. 


fiov (/tov), k/ioVf of me 
ftoi ifioi), kfioif to tM 
fU (fu), ifU, me 

vOf v» bothj m both 

VV^t of ttt both, to U8 


if/utCf we 
ilfiüVt of%a 
Vfuv, to us 

iffUiCr ye («) 
ifiuvy ofyoa (0) 
ifilVy to you (d) 
iffiäCy you (0) 


(TV, &M 

aov (oov), of thee 
aoi {aoi,)f to thee 
oi {ae)f thee 

0^6, you both 
ffjb^v, of you both, 



a^elCf Neat o^ici, ihey 
a^p&v, of them 
o<l>iai(v) {a<^iffi)y to them 
oipac, Neut oi^ea (g^gg), thenL 

oif (ob), ofhimadf etc. 
ol {ol)f to himsAf, etc 
i (i), himself etc. 

a^tv ((T^otv), of them 
both, to them boA 

Rem. 1. The forms susoeptible of inclination are put in a parenthesis, with- 
out any mark of accentuation. Comp. § 14, (b). On the signification and use 
of the third penon of the pronoun, see § 169, Bern. 2. 


XXXL Vocalmlairy, 

B^i^ru, to look at, see. dtor^ipUt w. geih, to be awovdaioCi asealonsly, dill* 

•yap, for. different from, differ gently. 

ypafifjMy -arof, t6^ that from. ffvyxatpUf w. dat., to re- 

which is written» an al- dia-ifr^eipo, to destroy, lay joice with. 

phabetical letter, 292. let- wafite. ;t<^ptevr6>f, graoefdlly. 

ters, literature. 

*Eyd fihf ypwfn^, ai) de irai^eiC' 'SißofKu «re, & fieya Zev. ^Q irai, atcovi^ 
fwv. 'O Tvarrip fioi i^iXraToc koTiv. *0 i^edf aei ce ßXhrei. EI fte ßTtÄTrreic, 
oIk ix^pCw* dwj^eptig. 'Ey6> k/^/kjfieviarepoc elfii crov. Udeof irev^ofiai aoi^* 
6 irdrep. 'Hfisi^ ifilv avyxcupofiev. H Xvpa ifiac eii^paivei. *0 "^edg ^fiiv 
^oX?Ä aya'&ä irapix^t" *0 irar^p ifiac orepyei. *Avöpeiuc jiaxea^e, & arpO' 
Tt&rai ' ifftCiv* yap kari rf/v itbXiv fuXarreLv * el yap i/ieic 0et;yerc, iraaa ^ nO'' 
Atf duKjr^eiperai. ^fiöv* kariv, u naldeg, Tä ypufifjMra trnoydcuoc fictv^aveiv. 
*H. fiilTfip vd arepyei. N^ ^ «a«^ voao^. 2^ Itxere <^ikov niaTOTarov. 
20^v 6 TTOT^p x^Hi^^sfai • or^t) yap GTrovöaiug ra ypafifiara fiav&avert. 

Etile of Syntax« The Norn.' of personal pronouns is expressed» 
only when they are emphatic, particularly, therefore, in antitheses« 

Rem. 2. In the following examples, the italicized pronouns most be express- 
ed in Greek. 

We write, but you play. We both are writing, but you both are playing. I 
reference you, O gods I O boy, hear us ! Grod sees you always. If you injure 
us, you do not differ from enemies. We are stronger tbim yon. You r^oioe 
with us. I obey you cheerfully, O parents. Our (the) fathw loves me and 
thee. Our (the) mother loves us both. It is my duty (it is of me) to guard the 
house ; for I am the guardian of the house. It is thy duty, O boy, to learn dili- 
gently ; for thou art a pupil. The lyre affords (to) me and thee pleasure. Both 
of you had (to you both, wa^) a very bad illness. Both of you have (to you 
both is) a very faithful friend. Our (the) father gratifies both of us (us both) 
cheerfully ; for both of us study literature diligently. 

§ 57. (b) The reflexive pronouns iftavrov, (Tsavrov, iavrw. 

1. The reflexive pronouns of the first and second person decline 
separately, in the plural, both pronouns of which they are composed ; 
e. g. jjjiico*' avtdSv ; that of the third person is either simply iavrmVf 

«VTcwy, etc., or (T(prov avtSv, etc 

. . . .1. 1 .III- ■ I. ■■ II - »I 1 .1.1 I II I 

1 4 158, 5. (b). • § 157. 3 ^ 161, 2. (a), (6). * ^ 158, 2. 







kfiavT(l>j -ff, to 

kfiavfoVf -17V, 

ilftSrv a^TÜVf of 

iffuv a^olc, "OiCf 

ffpof avTovg, -of, 


aeaVTOVf -r/c. or 
(Tovrov, -j?f, o/* thysdf 
oeaivT^f -^, or 
ffavr^, -^, to thfself 
aeavTOVy -^v, or 
(ravtoir, -lyv, thyself 

i>/iiv airotc, -^if» to 

i/<«? airovc, -cf , yoar- 


lövrot;, -^f, or [8fl[/! 

a^Tov, -^, c^bimsdf of her- 
iavT^y -9, or [to itoejf 

avr^, -9, to himself to henit 
iavToVf -^v, -6, or [tteey 
airrov, -^v, -6, Asnu^ Aerae^ 

kavT&v or air^, or 
ff^c^ avT&Vj o/themsdves 
iavTolc -aiCi or airolc -(äCiOT 
a<fuaiv abroi^ -mg^ tkaksehs» 
kavTovg, -Of, -«, or aitroig^t 

-of, -a, or 
(70af airovg^ -af, «r^ca ai- 

ra, themsdves. 

§ 58. (c) The reciprocal pronoun. 
The reciprocal pronoun expresses a mutual action of several 
persons to each olSier. 

Flur. 6. I äXA^A,(jv, of one cmother, 
A. 1 d^XiyXovf , -ttf, -o 

Dual. aXXijXoiVf -aiVf 'Oiv 

iXk^MV, -€MV, -oiv 

dAA^Aci), -Ay -6). 

teg, mieiivioas. 
ßhaßepSgy-^r&v, f^jvakixa. 
KOMöfjyoc, "OVf injtuioiis, 
' wi^ed. [doer. 

KUmlvpyog, "Ov, by an evil- 
«iiT^ t&. on;., according to. 

ftSkkoVj { » nakUf» com" 
parative offiAXa) more, 
rather, sooner. 

fiovoPj adv.j only, aione. 

OipaviÖM, -UV, ol, the in- 
habitants of Onranofi, 
the gods. 

•vflfto, -Oft j^', h^g ; pro- 
perty, possession. 
wepi-^ptaf to carty about 
irXeoveKTijCf -ov, avari- 
cions. [rich. 

irhwri^Uj to eniich, make 
<^^t/iof, 'Ov, nsefuL 

•O ßiog vroXXä Xxmtfpä h iavT<l> {a'bT(j^) ^ipei. TiyvuoKe aeövröv (aavrov). 
Boi}Xov äpioKetv irdfft,* fi^ oavr^ fiovov. 'O ao<f»bc kv iavrtp irepi^epei ri^v ob~ 
alav. ^iKav hraivov fjiaXhtv ^ acatrov Xiye. 'Aper^ koO' kavrrpf iari xaX^. 
01 irXeoveKTCU kavToi)^ fihf irXovrH^ovuiv, uXkovg 6e ßXarrTovoiv. Oix ol iucpa' 
TSitt rote fihf äXXoic ßTMßepoiy iavrolg {atftioiv airotc) de d^ekifioi elotv, äXXä 
KOMOVpeyot fthf r&v d^^v, iavrCiv (er^uv abt&v) 6k ^oXi> KOKOvpyorepoi. Hfulc 
iiyiv^ aifroig fi^una xapiJ^iie:^a, 'AfSovot Oifpavideu Koi h iX^Xoi^ elciv. 
Oi komH aXX^XovQ ßXä'irrovaiv. 

The wise carrj about their (the) possessions with them. The avaricious man 
make» himself rich, but he injures others. Ye please yourselves^ The immode- 
nte man is not injurious to others and useful to himself, but he is an evil-doer 
to oäiers and much more injurious to himself Good children love one another. 

» § 161, 2. (c). 


S 59. B. A^eotive personal pronoans, or posseodye pronouns« 

Possessive pronouns are formed fn»n the genitive of substantive 
personal pronouns : 

ifioc, -n, -ov, meua, -«, -urn, from ifiov} ifftirepoc, -ripa, -repov^ noster^ -tra^ 

-truniy from ^fiüv ; 
<rdf, -^, -6v, ^uttf, ^ -Km, from ow ; vfurspo^y ^repa, 'Tepov, veatar, •*«, -*tim, 

frt>m ifiiJv ; 
5f, ^, övf SUMS, from ov, instead of which, however, the Attic writers use the 

Gen. iavToVj -^r, -wv, in the reflexive signification, and avrov, -^f, -dw,. 

in Üie signification of the personal pronoun of the third person j e. g. Turret 

TOP iavTov vlov or top vlbv rbv iavTov^ he sirikes his own son^ Tvrrrei airrov 

TÖv vlov or Tdv vldv airrod, he strikes his s(9>, (i e, the son of lum, ^'us). The 

position of the Greek article should he observed. 

XXXTTT. VoecAuiafy. 

"M-e&^fjiav, -oVf negligent, fieraxecpi^Ofiaif to uphold, ffö/^a, •aroCf to, the body, 
dilatory. lead. tekvov, -ov, roy a child. 

BuLE OF Syntax« The possessive pronouns are expressed in 
Greek, only when they are particularly emphatic, especially, there- 
fore, in antitheses. When not emphatic, they are omitted, and their 
place is supplied by the article, which stands before the substantive $ 
e. g. i; (*^iiQ atsQysi zijp .S'vyateQaj the mother loves heb dcm^^ier. 
Instead of the adjective personal pronouns ifwg, aog, etc., the Greek 
tees, with the same signification, the Gen. of substantive personal 
pronouns, both the simple forms (in the singular the enclitics fcov, 
<Jov) and the reflexives (ifiavtov). The position of the article may 
be learned from the following examples. 

'O kfib^ iroT^p aya&og htniv or 6 irar^p fiav or /lov d irar^p &ya^6g hortv ; 
or 6 kfiavTov rrar^p or 6 iraH^p 6 kfiavrov ayce&og kariv. 01 ifierepoi icdidec 
awovdalug rä ypäfifiara fiav^ävovaiv. Ol izaXdeg ifiQv KaXot slciv, *T^öv ol 
iraldeg anovöaloc elaiv. Tä iip£nf airCw renva or rä reKva rä ^(lüv airüv "^c- 
yofisv. 'O aeavTov ^'ikog or 6 ^iTiog ö aeavrov Tnarog kariVy 6 kftavTOv ^iXog or 
6 (plTiog 6 kfiavTov äircffrog koTtv. '0 ffdf vovg rh abv aufm fieraxeipi^eraL 'O 
fiev kfibg nälg airovöalog iariv, ö de abg fie^^fiuv. 

Thy father is good. My slave is bad. Our children leam diligently. Many 
(persons) love the children of others, but not tAet'r own. He admires Ua own 
actions, but not those of the others. 




9 60. n. 3efH9n9iraiive Pronouns. 


Me ^de rode 
Toi>ie lifc^e TovSe 

oirof airti tovtq 
TovTOV Tavnje tovtov 

self, or he, she, it 
airo^ ai)Tfi a^o 
aifTov airr^c avrov 


T^e TySe T(f)de 
v6vde rvvtfe- rode 

TovT<fi ravry rovrt^ 
To^TQv Tovrtrv rovro 

aiyriji airr^ airri^ 
abrov abr^ airro 

Plural. | 


oUe Me rode 

OvToi avT€u ravra 

airroi airm ain-a 


Tuvde TQvde ruvde 


airuv avrunf airuv 


Tolgde ToXgde rolgde 
Tovfde TiBjÄ« räde 

TovToig ravTacf Tovrotg 
roiyrovc ravrac Tavra 

avToic airaic airoic 
alTovcaiiTog avra 


M.A. T*»de TuSe rude 

TOVTO ravra tovto aivQ abrct airro 

G. D. TolvSe Tolvde rolvde 

TovToiv ravratv tovtoiv airrotv aitralv a^roiv. 

like oirrof are decKned rocovroc, r&aavrtft rooo&ro{v)y ftmfiu, -a, -tim, roiovrocy 
rotaimi, Toiovro{v)f itiisy "^^ nßuaovrog, r^A^avr^, Tfi^KovTo(v), so great, so 
oU; it is to be noted» (a) that the Neater Sing^ besides the form in o, has 
also the common form in ov ; (b) that in all forms of oin-oc, which begin 
with r, the r is dropped. 

Jßkß oAtoc aM declined kxtHvoc^ IxecM;, kxetvo^ Ae, sAe, d, dA.Aoc, äXhi, &AXo, 
oitMi, 0^, qIM, The aiticia 6, i^, ro is declined like bde^ the de being omit- 



Singnlar. FloraL 



rfHpavTff roatOroiv) 




ToaavTiis ToaovTov 

Toaain-uv roaovTuv 




roaavTy Toaovrift 

TO<Tovroig roaavraig 




Toaavrriv ToaovTo{v) 

TOüovrovg TocravToc 




Tooovrci Toaavra tooovtq 


roaovTOiv roaavraiv tooovtoiv. 

TLmMtkitw The i»onoia aitToc^-Vi-Ot signifies eitlier self, ipse^ ipsa, ipsum^ 
or is nsed for the 4jblique Cases of the personal prononn of the third person, htf 
shSiü; tf, «a, m2. With tbe article, viz. 6 airoCt ^ air^, to airo, it sig- 
nifies ths same (idem, eadem, idem). The article nsnallj coalesces by Oasis (f 6, 
2) with aifTOf and forms one woid^ viz. airro^t instead of 6 airog^ aibrrjt rainot 
nsnaUy rairroVf raifrov, rain-ili, ralrry^ etc 

§ 61. HL Relative Pronoun. 


Äf , qni f» qnae 

L \v 

b, qnod 





al ä 

&V ÜV 

ale olc 
&C ä 





& & 
alv ah 
alv olv 



§ 62. TV. Indefinite and Interrogative Pronouns* 

The indefinite a&d interrogatiTe pronouns hare the same form, 
but are disüngttiahed bj the accei^t and position, the indefinite be- 
ing enclitic [§ 14, (e)], and placed after some word or words» whusl 
the interrogative is accented and pkoed before. 

Hem. 1. When the interrogätiye prononns stand in an indirect question, thej 
place before their stem the relathre 6, "which, howeyer, (except in the case of 
ÖQTig) is not inflected j e. g. diroloCf ÖTroaof , öirörepoct etc. 

Declensioa of rZf , r^r aad 5f r^C« 

. Sw N. 

Tig, s&me one 

K. rlf acnnß thing 

rig; quis? n; quid? 


TlVOg or TOV 

Tcvog or TOV 


Tivi or ry 

TtVl or T<ft 




Tiva Tl 

Pltir. N. 


N. riva 9SA &TTa 

Ttveg Tiva 







- A. 


N. Ttvä and ärra 

Tivag Tiva 

Dual. N. A. 



G. and D. 




&^iCi whoever vri^ 


'■ ■ -——7—r— ■■ ' ' ■ ' . ■ ■ - . -■ ■ i — 

oltiveg alrcveg anva or &Tta 


oirivo^ or 5tov rjgrivo^ 

dvTtviJV {rarer 6tov) [Titrt{v) 
olgTi<TL{v) (rarer broig) algrioilv) olg^ 


ifrivt or ÖT<^ fTLvi 


HvTiva fjfVTiva 

Ö Tl 

oUgrivcig ägrivag ätiva or ärra 

Dual. N. A uTivEj ärivCf G. D. olvrivotVy alvTivoiv. \ 

Rem. 2. The negathne compounds of rif , viz. o^ig, oifTt, fivTi^, ßifTi, t» em, 
npuung, ate inflected like the simple rtg ; e. g. oihivog, o^cveg, etc. 

BoffiAevf, 'eov* 4 king. 
ikaoTog, -ij, -ov, each. 
kicelvog, -71, -Of that. 
hfLoif -at,, -fl, some. 
t^era^y to exaBUBft. 

XXXIV. Vocabulary. 

nfUpa, -Of, ^t a day. rT^^t/covrof , -avTij, -^vto^ 

olog, "a, -oVf qwüis. so large, so old. 

baog, -r/f -ov, quantus. Totog, -Ä, -ov, tedis, 

hang, rjTig, 6 Tt, whoever, Toffog, -if, -ov, iaaOas, 

whatever. Tpowog, -ov, 6, a way, or 

hruTToX^, -Tig, v, epistoh^ l>66ov, -ov, to, a rose, manner, the mode of 

a letter. ar/Mrn7y6f,-ot»,6,a general life, th» character. 

'0 dv^ ovTog or ovTog 6 ävtlp äya96g koTiv. 'H yvQfiT) o^ttj or airrrf if yvd- 
107 diKoia koTiv. 'H yvvri 9i6e or ^de if yvvif koTJi kariv, 'O äv^p kKelvog or 
kKelvog 6 ^vp ßaaiTtevg koTiv. *0 ßaoCkei^ airrog or obTbg 6 ßaoiKei>g trrpaTtj- 
yog koTiv. ^eps, ^ Ttau, ai)Tf^ Hfv kXcIv. 'Evioi irept tuv airiiv T^g airng 
iffikpag oh Tuirrh ytyvooKovuiv. TO Aeyctw mü to vparreiv oh Tuirrov kariv, 
'iavTa Tä fwSa, d ^äX2.ei kv r^ ic^Tr^, KaXa kariv. So^ov ti TiP^fia 6 äv^ponog 
hmv. Ei ^iXiav tov {rivög) dioKsig, ahrov töv Tp&irov HiraCe. Tig ypafet 
T^ hmoToXiiv ; 'Ov* ^X^ig, tovtuv^ ä?i2,oig napixov. 'OTißtog, ^ vraZdeg (jtiXoe 

^ By attraction for a, see Syntax, § 182, 6. 

« ^ 158, 3. (b). 




ehiv. *EKeivo^ hkßiQTaTo^, 5r^ (^rivt) iitiShf kokov itrriv. Ti ^povri^eic; 
Ot& Xiyia, 6 Ti fpöVTi^. Olov rd 6^os Hätrrov, rolof d ßioC' Mye ftoif firic 
karlv kneivif ^ yw^. 

These men are good. These opinions are just The children of these women 
are heautiful. That rose is beoatifal. The father himself is writing the letter. 
His {ejus) son is good. Her (ejus) daughter is beautiful. I admire the beauti- 
fill rose ; bring it to me. The children of the same parents often differ. That 
rose which blooms in the garden is beautiful. Virtue is something beautiful 
What are you thinking about? I am thinking what (fem.) friendship is. 
What is more beautiful than virtue ? 

§63. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under correlative pronouns are included all those which express a mutual 
relation (correlation) to each other, and represent this relation by a conespond- 
log form. 

(a) Adjective Correlatives. 




Belat. and De- 
pend. Interrof^ 

how greats. how 
much ? quan- 

trooo^f -57, -ov, 
of a certain sizBy 
or numheTy ali- 

r6<T0f, -% -ov, 80 greatj so 
mucL tantus 
Toao^oey Toa^Se, roaovde 
ToaovToc, -avTTiy ■■ovto(v) 

Äorof , -ff, -ov and 
imoao^y -11, -ov, 

as great fßUmtAy 


nolo^y 'äy -ox»; 
of what kind? 
qualis ? 

noio^f -a, -ov, 

Tolocj -Ö, -ov, of suck a 
hindy taliff 
ToiocSey TOLadSj Toiovde, 

TOlOVTOSf -aVT1J^-0VT0{v) 

olo^y -d, -ov and 
btzolo^y -a, -ov, 

of what hmd, 


•ir^AiKOf, 'ffy -ov; 
howgrecUf how 

TtfTuKoc, "Ov^sogrealtSodd 
TrfXiKogdey -rjde, -Me 


OTTiyAf KOf , 'ff, -ov, 
as fpreaty as old 

(b) Adverbial Correlatives. 



Demonstrative. 1 Relative. 




TToi^ev; whence? 

TTol ; whither ? 


TTOV, somewhere^ 

iro&ivyfrom some 

pkuxy alicunde 
noiy to some place, 


wanting (hie, 

wanting (hinc, 

wanting (eo) 

oi, where, 


ol, whüher, 



Sttoi, idd- 

ther, quo 

TTore ; when ? 
quando ? 

irtivuca ; quo 
temporis pun- 
cto ? quota, ho- 

TTore, some time, 


Tore, then, tum 






Ore, when, 

ffvina, when, 
quo ipso 


v^ien, quo 
ipso tem- 

n&c\ how? 
31^ ; whither ? 

iract some how 
ITT}, to some place, 
ihilher, in some vxiy 

(^jT(j{^) ude, so 
rySe { hither 
ravrg \ orhere 

oiCi kow 
jt where, 

&irng, how 
H'JTij, where, 


RRffAiiir. The forms which are wanting in the Common language to denote 
here^ there (Ate, t&t), are e^cpressed by kvTov^a, and those to denote hence (Atnc, 
tmfe), by hrd-evSe, kvrev^ev. 

§64. Lengthening of the Pronouns. 

1. The enclitic ye is joined to the personal pronouns of the first and second 
person, in order to make the person emphatic. The pronoun ly6 then draws 
back its accent in the Nom. and Dat. ; e. g. 1 7 ca 7 e, kfiovye, It fioiye, kfieye ; 
-ffvye. Moreorer yS can be joined with any other word, and also with any other 
pronoun, but does not form one word with it j e. g. ovrog ye. 

3. The particles 6 Vt most commonly ^iroret and v v, are appended to rela- 
tives compounded of interrogatives or indefinites, as well as to daof, in order to 
make the rehttiye relation general, i. e. to extend it to everything embraced in 
the object denoted by the pronoun ; e. g. 6f nf cJ^, 6fr^f<J77^ore, dfrtf ow, ^rtfow, 
driovVi quicunque (Gen. oirivogovv or 6rovot)v, iJfrivofoDv, Dat. ^tvtovv or 
6T(povVt etc.) ; — biroooQdfjy (moao^ovv, daogd^noref quantuacunque j— ^m/Xixofovv, 
however great, how old soever. 

3. The suffix (5 e is appended to some demonstratives for the purpose of 
stl^ngthening their demonstrative relation ; e. g. 5<Je, ^Se, rode ; rotxt^de ; ro^ 
&6^e ; rffXiKocSCf from rolocj tBuoc, njMKoc, which change their accent after 
6e ia a]^pended 

4. The enditic Trep is appended to all relatives, in order to make the rda- 
tive relation still more emphatic; hence it denotes, even who, which; e. g. 6^ep, 
^epf 5vep (Gen. oimep, etc.); dao^ep, olo^ep (Qt&x. liaovirep, olovirepf etc.); 
6&iirepf ö^evjrep. 

5. The inseparable demonstrative f, is appended to demonstrative pronouns 
and some demonstrative adverbs, always giving them a stronger demonstrative 
sense. It takes the acute accent and absorbs every short vowel immediately 
preceding it, and also shortens the long vowels and diphthongs : * 

oi)Toai, tJds here (hicce, celui-ci), abTfji, rovrt, 

Gen. TovToijfy Tavnjaf, Dat tovrißt, ravryU PI- oirolt, ahreSl^ ravrt ; 
66t, fjötf Todt from We ; '<i>6t from o6e ; oiruat fixjm oUra^ ; 
tvrev^evt from hrev^ev ; Maat frt>m hr^äde ; vwt from vvv ; dsvpi from 



§ 65. Nature and Division of the Numerals, 
The numeraU express the relation of number and quantitj« 
Thej are divided iato the foUowing dasses, according to thdr aig^ 

70 NT7MSRAL SIQJfS.— VÜMJBBALB. [§ 66j €7» 

(a) CanUnahy which answer the quefltioii, *^Bow nianyf^ The fintÜMir na- 
merals and the round numbers from 200 (dioKoaioi) to 10,000 (fivpioi), as well 
as the compounds of ftvpioif are declined; all the others are indeclinable. The 
thousands are expressed by adverbial numerals ; e. g. Tpisx'i^tx>tf 8000. 

(b) Ordinals, which answer the question, " Which one in the series f* Thej all 
have the three endings of adjectives -of, -v, -ov, except devrepog, which has -of, 

-Ö, 'OV. 

(c) MuUipliixitiveSy which answer the question, ""How many fold?" They are 
all compounded of tt^ovc , and are adjectives of three endings, «ovf , -^, -ovv. 
For the declension of these, see 4 29. Numeral adjectives in -oictf , answer the 
question, ^^How many times f " 

(d) Proportionalst which answer the question, "'How many times more f* They 
«re all compounds of 'irTi&aioc, 'iä, -lov ; e. g. SinXaatoct two-fold, dovhU, 

(e) Substantive-numerals, which express the abstract idea of the number; e. g. 
^ dv^, -ado^, duality. 

§ 66. Numeral Signs. 

1. The numeral signs are the twenty-four letters of the Greek alphabet, to 
which three obsolete letters are added, viz. after e, Bat) or the digamma F or 
2rt, fft as the sign for 6 ; — Komra, 5, as the sign for 90 i-^XafiTriyOf^, as the 
ogn for 900. 

2. The first eight letters, i. e. from a to i^ with the Bav or ItI, denote the 
imits ; the following eight, i. e. from iton with the Kottttc, the tens ; the last 
^ht, i e. from p to <o with the 'Lafiirt, the hundreds. 

3. Up to 999, the letters, as numeral signs, are distinguished by a mark 
placed over them, and when two or more letters stand together, as numeral signs, 
only the last has this mark. With 1000, the alphabet begins again, but the let- 
ters are distinguished by a mark placed under them, thus, a'» l^a ~ 1000, t's 
10, / = 10,000, / V^i^= 5742, ^aufiß'^ 1842, p'=: 100, j) = 100,000. 

§67. Summary of the Cardinals and Ordinals, 

Cardinals. Ordinals. 

1 0' elcy fua, BVf one wpCrrod -9, -ov, primus, -a, -nm 

2 ß' ^vo or &ütj, two 6evrepoc, -A, -ov, secundus, -a, "Joa 
■3 / Tpelc, Tpia, three rpiroc, -1?, -ov, tertins, -a, -mn 

4 d' rirrape^y -a, or riaaiapec rerapro^, -if, -ov 

5 e' vivTe Trifurroc, -fft -<w 
^ ^ H licrof , -jy, -ov 

7 f kirra ißöoftoc, 'tf* -ov 

8 If' hKTu dyiooct -9, -ov 

9 1^ kwia kvaroCf 'if, -ov 

10 i" deKa diKaT0£, -ij, -ov 

11 w' Mexa ivdeKaro^, -17, -ov 

12 tß' SoScKa duSeKatoc, -17, -ov . 

18 </ TptcKoideKa rptcKaiSiKOTOc, -ff, -ov 

14 id' reTTape^naideKa or reüffapecKoiSeKa TtmipaKaidiKaTog, -9, -ov 




15 a' wevreKoiSeKa 

16 iff' 6KK€udeKa 

17 «r hncucaiSeKa 

18 itf'^ bxTOKoiieKa 

19 ii^ hveoKoideKa 

20 ic' e!Ko<T((v) 

21 «ca' etico<rcv, e/fy /uo, Iv 
30 V Tpi&Kovra 

40 ^' TCTTopoKovra or recffopäKOvra 

50 y' TTcvr^ÄOVTa 

60 ^' i^Kovra 

70 0^ ißSofi^KOvra 

80 71^ dy^oi^Kovra 

90 6' h'n;i7«ovro 

100 p' iicardv 

200 o^ SidKOfftot, -aif -a 

300 r' TptOKoatoi, -ac» -a 

400 v' TCTpaicoowi, -at» -a 

500 ^' 9revra«6<7toi, -ai, -a 

600 ;t' i^OKOffioi, -Oi, -a 

700 ^' hrroKoaioif -a<, -a 

800 6)' bKTcucoffioif 'CU, -a 

900 nyi' twoKOffioi, -<Uy -a 

1000 ^o x'^^^h -fl*i -Ö 

2000 ^ Sicxi^oij -at, -a 

3000 ^y Tpicxi^toiy -at, -a 

4000 ^d TerpaKicxt^toif -ai, -o 

5000 ^e irevTOKicxi^^h -<**> -^i^ 

6000 ,c i^oKi^iXioi, -ai, -a 

7000 ^C hrroKicx^Xioif -a«, -a 

8000 ^17 6Kraxtf;if<XM>c, -izi, -a 

9000 ,t9^ ivvaietc;);iX(Of , -Oi, -a 

10,000 / fivpiot, -at, -a 

20,000 ^K Sicfivpioty -at, -a 

100)000 ^ SeKäKicfivpiot, -at, -a. 

frevrexaufiKaroc, -jy, -ov 
iKKaidikaro^f -ff, -ov 
hrTCUcaideKaTOc, -^, -ov 
6icr<jicaidiicarof, -^, -ov 
IweoucaiJeicaroc, -^, -ov 
elKooTo^f -9, -dv 
e/icoordf, -i), -dv, Trpwrof, -9, -ov 

TpiäKOOTOCi -i, -ov 

vevrtfKoaroCf -v, -6v 
i^K0<rT6ct -fit -ov 
ißSofirfKOOTo^f -fly -ov 
öydoTiKOOTOCf 'i, -ov 
tvevTiKoaToc, -Vy -w 
^«caroffr6f, -^, -ov 
<5Mlico<Tto(rr6f , -^, -ov 
TpiäKoatoaToCf -7» «^ 
TiTpOKOaiOÜTOCf -^y -dv 
Trevroxootocrrdf , -9, -dv 
i^aKOffiooTÖCt -9) -dv 
hrraKoatooToCt -fi, -dv 
dicraicoffAoordf, -$, -dv 
hvoKoaiwrroCi 'tf, -dv 
Xi^ooToc, -Vt -ov 
dij^iAiOffrdf, -17, -dv 
Tpi^iXioaToCi -Vt -ov 
rfrpa«fj;;f*Xio(rrof, -jj, -dv 
ircvraiKf;ifiX40crTdf, -^, -dv 
^foxtct'^oordf, -^, -dv 
^7rTa«t{;;^;tA<o<7Tdf, -17, -dv 
dxracicttXiOffrdf, -7, -dv 
hvoKicxf'^otTTo^f -17, -dv 
fivptooTOCf -V, -dv 
6icfivpio<rT6c, -7, -dv 
deKCUCiCftvpiOffrSfy -9, -dv. 

Rkwark. in oompoiind niixnenils, the smaller nmnber with x« is vsnaUjr 
placed before the lai^ger, often also the laiger without koi is placed first, som^ 
times with km ; e. g. 

25 : irevre koZ elicoai, or dKoat vevre, 
345 : vevre icat TerrapaKOvra xäl rpuutoatoiy or rputK. rtrr. nevre. 

The same hc^ds of the ordinals; e. g, 

irifiirro^ KtU eUoffroc, or elKoarbc irifimoc. 




§68. Daelention of the first four Mumerah. 

















dvo and dva 

ivolVf Attic also ^ehf 

dvolVj more rarely ^i>*<<v) 


ISkmi. rpuc 





Nent rpia 
Neut rpia 

Terrapei ot rtowp«? Kent retrapa 



TeTTopar NentÜ rerrapa. 


Rbm. 1. Th* Gen- and Dnt of pa, yiz. fua^, fu^t hate llie aocentnatUm of 
monosyllabic »«bttantives of the third declension. See § 33, lU. (b). Like elc 
are also declined oMeiQ and fMf^eict no one, which hate ihe same irregular ac- 
centuation, thus : 

oMei^f Mefita, <ybSep, Oen. oiSev6c, ohdeiuag, Dat oidevt, o^Sefit^i etc., but 
in PI. ov6hef {fitfdevt^) -Aȟv, -e<rt, -evof . 

lUx. 2. ÄUO 18 often used indedinably for all the Cases, tlie nutiieral A/ei^, 
bath, like ^ ha» -otv in the Gen. and Dat {afi^iv) ; t}i8 Ao6. h like the Norn. 
Uke dvo, it Is also sometimes nsed indeclinaUy. 

'A/t^<, about 

XXXV. VocaMaiy. 

bearing, furnished with nX^^oCf -eo^ «== -««f» i*©» 

äva-ßaai^, -cwf, #, a go- scythes, 
ing up, an expedition kviavrogt -ov, 6, a year, 
(from the sea inland), eipo^, -eog = -ovf, to. 

&pv&liog, -o^, b, number, 

extent, length. 
&pfM, -aroc, TO, a chariot 
iurvveroc, -ov, senseless, 

ßapfliipoc-ov, 6j barbarian, 

a multitude, esleni. 
novc, noSoCf 6, a foot, 

pes, pedis, 
ara&fioQ, -ov, 6, a station, a 

day's journey, a march. 


Karä'ßatTig, -euf , ^, a go- 
ing down (from inland ffTpurevfio, -arog, t6, 
to the sea), retreat army, An armament 

ÖK^Irtic, -ov, 6, a heavy-r avyypa^, conicribo, to en- 

list, to describe. 

av^wüc, -oaa, -dv^ aU to- 
gether, in a body, whole. 

(Tvvrrcf, -9, -6y, iensihlff, 

armed man. 
(every one not a Greek), napetfu, to be present 
ßVfM, -orof , TO, a step, a ireXraor^f ,-ot),6, a shields- 
pace, man. 
dpefrapfj^opoc, -ov, scythe- 

JEiif^paTiff TToraftog hnt rh eüpog Tetrapov ffTaSiuv. Tb de OTaSiov i^C^i irh- 
Tt KOi elKoüi Ktsl iKUTbv ß^fjuLTa fj irhnt Kot elKoai Kot i^oKoaiovg irodac. Kvpu 
ir€Lpffoav cd iK Ilehyrrowrjoov v^eg TpiuKovra trivn-e. Tov lapov KiXiKiac iroTOr 
fioi) TO evpoc fjv Tpia rrXe^pa. To SI ir?£&pov ix^i T^TTopag Kcä ixaTbv irodof. 
Kifdvoc KikiKlac ifoth^C eip6c hrri dim (dvelv) irXt^puv. ToO M<uavdpov 
^pvyiac noTOftov Tb e^pog iariv elKoai .nevre irodGv. *0 napoffayyifc, lieptriKÜif 
fiirpov, ix^i TpioKovTa (nädia ^ vrepr^Kovra ical hrrwcooiovg tctd bicrcuiicx^^^S 
kclI fivpiovc nodag. 'Api^&fibg avfiTraarfi^ r^f ddov r^f ävaßäaeag koI KaToßäaeu^ 
^ iirb ^evo^&vTog ovyypa^eToi, ara^fiol dieucoaioi. dexa itevte, napaaayyai x^ 
Xtoi ixaTbv irevr^KOvra vivre, arädia Tpigpvpia TeTpoKi^iXia k^tucoaia irevTff- 
KovTa, xp^vov frX^i^of r^f ävaßaaeoc ^«^ Karaßäceuc iviavrbc KdH Tpetc ft^ec- 

§§ ßd— 71.] 



*Evd; fiXia aweroif ttpeimjv iarhf &avvir0V äimvTuv. To9 K^fpov (npare^ 
ftaroc ^ &pc&ftbc rav fthf %XX7fViiv dirXiTcu fivpioi xal rerpOKOffiüc ireXraar^ 
d^ dtcx*-^oi Kcit fcevTOKoaioij rCw ^ furä Kvpov ßapßäpav dexa fivpiäde^ kcU 
äpftara ipeirav^^opa äft^ rä elKoaiv. 

It is better to have one sensible friend, than all senseless ones. Seventy 
years afford abont 25,555 days. The extent (number) of the way from the bat- 
tle at [hf) Babylon to (etc) Cotyora on the retreat {ffen.) which is described by 
Xenophon, amounts to fis) 122 days' jonmeys, 620 parasangs, 18,600 stadia; 
die length (midtitade) of the time eight months. The number of the armameilt 
is 12,689,850. The generals of &e armament are four, each t>f 300,000 {ffm.^» 
In the bfltüe were present 96,650 soldiers and 150 scythe^bearing chariots. 

§ 69. ITum 

1 äira^y once 

2 Sig, twice 
S rpig 

4 Tcrpdicif 

5 vevrSuctc 

6 kioKic 

7 iWTOXtf 

9 iwecuuct hnfcuuf 

10 öeKcuuc 

11 MeKaKig 

12 SoSeKOKig 

13 TfU/iKOideKOKtc 

14 rerrflpecKOiJeicaicif or reaaap, 
1^ irevTencudeKcuus 

16 inKWÖeKOKic 

17 hcTOKtudeKäKic 

erat Adverbs, 


18 ÖKTt^KCudeKOKii; 

19 hvecuccuSeKOKif 

20 ebcoaaKig 
30 TpiaKOvraKig 

40 TeTTopaKovraKic or Tewap. 
50 irevTfiKWT&Ktc 

60 i^KOVTOKlf 

70 ^ßSofUfKovroKic 
80 bydofiKovTaKig 
90 kvevijKOVTäKtc 
100 iKarovräKic 
200 dieucoaiaKic 
^ 300 rpioKoat&kic 

1000 ;t'^««'f 

2000 (kpf^Xtdxff 
10,000 fivpuiKig 
20,000 öicfivpuucic 



§ 70. Nature of the Verb. 

The Terb expresses an notion wliieh is affirmed of a sabjeet ; e. g. 
^foAer WT^m^ ^ rose Uooms^ Üie hoy eteeps^ God is loved. 

§71. Classes of Verbs. 

Verbs are diyided» in relation to their meaning and hoBf iato the 
ibUowing classes : 

74 CLASSES 0£* YIGEUM. — THE TBlfSfS Al^P MODES. [f^72, 7& 

1. Active Twbs, i e. B«eh as expvess aa «etioo, that tlie fittl^m»! 
itself perfbrms or manifests ; e. g. 7^90», I write j ß'oüjo, I Uo^mi 

2. Middle or Beüexive verbs, i. e. such as express an action, 
that proceeds from the subject and again returns to it, i. e. an ac- 
tion which the subject perfonns on itself ; e. g. ßovTisvofiaif I ctd» 
vise myself y I deliberate; 

3. Passive verbs, L e. such as express m action that the subject 
Deceives from anotl»^ subject; e. g. rvntofuu ini wpoSy lam smd^ 
ten hf settle one. 

§72. The Tenses. 

1. The Greek language has the following Tenses : 
L (1) Present, ßwXeicn, I advise, 

(2) Perfect, ßeßovlevxa, J have advised; 
IL (3) Imperfect, ißofoXevov^ I was advising, 

(4) Pluperfect, ißsßovXevxsip, I had advieed, 

(5) Aonst, ißovXewM, I advised, (indefinite) $ 
UL (6) Future, ßovlsvaw, I shall or will advise, 

(7) Future Perfect (only in the Middle form), ßeßitvlevaofuu, 
I shall have advised myself, or / shidl have ^been advis&d. 

2. All the Tenses may be divided into, 

a. Principal tenses» viz. Present, Perfect and Future s 

b. Historical tenses, viz. Imperfect, Pluperfect and Aodst. 

Rbmark. The Greek language has two forms fbr the Tetf, and Ffupeif. Aet, 
two for tibe simple Fat. Pass., and two each for the Act, Bass, and Mid. Aon. j 
these two forms may be distinguished as Primary and Seeondary tenses. 
Still, few verbs have botk forms ; most verbs oonstmct the above tenses widi 
one or the other form. No verb has all the tenses. Pnre verbs form, with very 
few exceptions, only the primaiy tenses. Mute and Uqnid verbs may form both 
the primary and secondly tenses. The Fut Peif., which is found in bat few 
verbs, is almost entirely wanting in liquid verbs. 

§73, The Modes. 

The Greek has the following Modes : 

L The Ittdicalive^whieh expresses a pfaenomenon or realitj ; e.g. 
tiie noae Uoems, Ibamed, willMiHmu 

n. Tte Sühyniictive, whioh deneies merely a vepMseaMoii 4r 
conception of the mind. The Subjunctive of the historical tenses, 
IS called the Optative ;, camp, y^ac^oiju, with soriherem. 

BiflteiBS:. flow the Aor. en have both ioaaaa of 1^ Sabjonethre (4. e. Subj. 
and Opt), and the Futore an Optative, will be seen in the S^tax (4 16S^. 

fS V4— 77,] yiÄBS.— FABTICIMALS, ITC. 75 


nL The Impeni^ve, wMcfa denotes a Arect expression of one's 
wiM; e. g. ßwiXeve, admse, 

§74. Par tic%p% als. •'^Infinitive and Participle, 

In addition to the modes, the verb has two forms, which, from 
iheir partaking both of the nature of the verb, and also of that of 
the substantive and adjective, are called Participials, namely, 

(a) The Infinitive, which is the substantive-partidpial ; e. g. 
i&el(o ßovXev8i9f I vdeh to admse, and to ßovXevBiVy the 

(b) The Participle, which is the adjective-participial ; e. g. j3 o v- 
Xevmr c^Q, an admeing man, i. e. a counsellor. 

Remark. These two participials may be called verbum infinitum; the re- 
maining forms of the verb, verbum finitum. 

%16. Numbers and Persons of the Verb. 

The personal-endings of the verb show whether the subject of 
the verb be the speaker himself {I, first person) ; or a person or 
thing addressed (^Aot«, second pjerson) ; or a person or thing spoken 
of {he, she, it, third person). They also show the relation of num- 
ber, viz. Singular, Dual and Plural ; e. g. ßovXevto, I, the speaker, 
advise; ßovXevetg, thou, the person addressed, advisest; ßovlevu, he, 
ike, it, the person or thing spoken of, advises ; ßwXsietov, ye two, 
the persons addressed, advise; ßovXsvovat, ihey, the persons spoken 
of, advise. 

Bemabk. There is no separate form for the first Pers. Dual in the actire 
Voice, tod in Ihß Pass. Aarists ; henoe it is expressed hy the fonn of the first Pers. 

§76. The Conjugation of the Verb, 

The Greek has two forms for conjugation, that in -<o, which in- 
cludes much the larger number of verbs, e. g. ßov}^-o!), to advise, 
and the older conjugation in -fu, e. g. iGrt^'fu, to staiion, 

1 77. Siem, Augment and Reduplication. — F«fd- 


1. Every verb is divided into the stem, which contains the ground- 
form of the verb, and into the syllable of formation, by which the 
relations of the action expressed by the verb, are denoted. See 
}$ 71 — ^75. The stem is found in most verbs in -w by cutting off 
the ending of the first Pers. Ind. Pres. ; e. g. ßovXsv-m, Xey-m, TQiß*ia. 

76 YEBBS. — INFL£CTI0N-£NI>IN&8,-»S]SN&jB^BNI>mOS. f {§ 78, 79. 

2. The syllables of formatioa are either annexed as endings to 
the stem, and are then called inflection-endings, e. g. ßovXei-f», ßüv^ 
Xsi-am, ßwlsv-aoficu ; or are prefixed to the stem, and are then 
called Augment and Beduplication^ e. g. i'ßoilmw, ' I was advis- 
ing^ ßs-ßovlevxa, I have advised. 

B. The Augment, which belongs to the Indicative of all the hi&* 
torical tenses, i. e. the Imperfect, the Aonst and the Pluperlecty la 
£ prefixed to the stem of verbs which begin with a consonant ; e. g. 
i'ßovXsvaaf I advised; but in verbs, which begin with a vowel, it 
consists in lengthening the first stem-vowel, a and e being changed 
into tj (and in some cases e into ei), « and v into c and v, and o into oo. 

4. Reduplication, which belongs to the Perfect» Pluperfect and 
Future Perfect, consists in repeating the first stem-consonant to« 
gether with e, in those verbs whose stem begins with a consonant; 
but in verbs whose stem begins with a vowel, it is the same as the 
Augment ; e. g. ßs'ßovXsvxoy I have advised^ 'iotitevxaj I have sup^ 
plicatedy from 'ix€7ei!-co. For a more full definition of the Aug- 
ment and Reduplication, see § 85. 

5. The last letter of the stem, after the ending -co is cut off, is 
called the verb-characteristic^ or merely the characteristic, because 
according to this, verbs in -oo are divided into different classes ; ac- 
cording as the chara<;teristic is a vowel, or a mute, or a liquid, verbs 
are divided into pure^ mvJte and liquid verbs ; e. g. ^ovlev-o», to ad^ 
vise, nfid'On, to honor, t^iß-G), to rub, qjcuv-ca, to show, 

§ 78. Inflection^endings» 
In the inflection-endings, so far as they denote the relation ot 
tense, mode and person, there are three different elements, namely, 
the tense-characteristic, the mode-vowel, and the personal-ending; 
e. g. ßovXev-a-O'ficu. According to the three classes of verbs, they 
are divided into the Active, Middle and Passive endings. 

§79. (a) TensC'-characteristic and Tense-endings. 
1. The tense-characteristic is that consonant which stands next 
after the stem of the verb, and is the characteristic mark of the 
tense. In pure verbs, x is the tense-characteristic of the Perf. and 
Plup. Ihd. Act. ; e. g. 

ße-ßovXev-K-a k'ße-ßovXev-K-eiv ; 

that of the Fut. and first Aor. Act and Mid. and the Fut Perf. is 
a; e. g. 

SS 79, 80.] yEBB8.*^PB&soKAt<'ffiEn>nro8 A2n> mode-towsls. 77 

k-ßovkev-^-a k'ßov^.eV'a-Q/iifv ; 

that of the first Aor. Pass, is -^ ; in addition to the tense-character- 
istic 6j the first Fttt Pass, has the ending -^ of the first Aor. 
Pass., thus, 

k-ßavXev-^'7jv ßovXev-'&Tfa-oiMU. 

The primary tenses only, see § 72, Rem., have a tense-character 

2. The tense-characteristic, together with the ending foUowing, 
is called the tense-ending. Thus, e. g. in the form ßovX&icoDj c is 
the tense-characteristic of the Fut, and the syllable (Too, the tense- 
ending of the Future. The stem of the verb, together with the 
tense-diaracteristic and the augment or reduplication, is called the 
t&fue'^tem. Thus, e. g. in ißavXeüCf-a, ißovXsva is the tense-^stem of 
the first Aor. Active. 

§ 79 (b) Personal' en dings and Mode-vowels* 

The personal-ending takes a different form according to the dif- 
ferent persons and numbers ; and the mode-vowel takes a different 
form according to the different modes ; e. g. 

1 Pers. Sing. Ind. Pres. M. ßovXeiho-fMi Subj. ßovlev-t^fuu 

3 »' « « Fut " ßovXev-fj-t-Ttu Opt ßovXev-a-oi'To 

1 « PL « Pres. " ßovJiev-^fie^a Subj. ^wA«»-ü-/tt«^a 

2 " « « « i« ßovXeif-e-a^e " ßovXev-ft'O^e 

1 ** Sing. " A L " kßov2^V'<T-ärfijiv " ßovXeiha-o-fuu 

3 " " " " " kßovXev-a-OrTO Opt ßovXev-a-ai'To. 

Bbhabk. In the abo^ forms, ßovXev is the yerb-^tem, and ßovXeVf ßcvXev^ 
and kßovXevff are the tense-stemfi, namely, of the Pres., Fat and first Aor. MM. ; 
the endings -fiaij -raij etc., are the personal-endings, and the vowels o, o, e, ox, 
9, a, at, are the mode-Yowels. 

§ 80. Remarks on the Personal-endings and Mode- 

vowels . 

1. The personal-endings are appended directly to the mode-vowel, 
and are often so closely united with it, that the two do not appear 
as separate parts, but are united in one ; e. g. ßovXsv6'i^g^ instead of 
ßovXßva-TjHSf ßovlev-n, instead of ßovXev'B-at, — the 6 and a coalescing 
and forming tj, and i being subscribed. 

2. The difference between the principal and historical tenses is 
here important The principal tenses, viz. Pres., Ferfl and Fat, 
form the second and third person Dual with the same ending, -ov; 
e. g. ßovlev-e-Tor ßwlev-e-tof, ßovXei-s-a^w ßcvXtV'B'G&av \ but 


n TEBBS. — r^MBAOVAlrW»mQ$ AXD JtODS-VOWSLfi. [§ 80. 

the historical tenses form the tecond person Dual wkh the «iding -o Pp 
the third with the ending -ijv; e. g. 

kßov'kev-e-rov kßovXeV'i-T ij Vf kßov'kev-e-a ■& o v ißov^.ev-i-a'&ijv. 

3. The principal tenses form the third person plural (tcHve with 
the ending -a i (v) [arising from -pt i, -v <r c], the third person plu« 
ral middle with -vxaij the historical active with -y, and the mid- 
dle with - y r ; e. g. 

ßovXev-o-vai = ßov2,ev-ovaL{v) ißov},€v-o-v 
ßovXev-o-vTcu k-ßovXev-o-vTO. 

4. The principal tenses in the singular middle end in ^ficu^ -<rai, 
-Tou ; the historical, in -fifjp, -co, -ro ; e. g. 

ßovXeV'O-fi a l kßovXeV'6- fitfv 

ßovXev-e-a a * = ßovXev-y kßovXev-e-a o ==■ kßovXev-ov 

ßcvXethe-T a < kßovXev-e-r o. 

5. The personal endings of the subjunctive of the principal tenses, 
are the same aa those of the indicative of the same tenses ; and the 
endings of the optative are the same as those of the indicative of 
the historical tenses ; e. g. 

2 and 3 Du. Ind. Pr. ßovXeve-r o v Snbj. ßovXevjj-T o v 

ßovXeve-a ^ov " ßovXeif^-a "dov 

3 PL " " ßovXevov-<yi{v) " ßovXevi^a i (v) 

ßovXeio'V Tai " ßovXevu-v rat 

1 S. " " ßovXeixhfi a i " ßovXevu-fjiai 

2 « »« »* ßovXeihy " ßovXev^ 

3 " " " ßovXeve-rai " ßovXevtj-rai 

2 and 3 Du. " Impf. kßovXsve-r o v, -i-r fi v Opt ßovXevoi-r o v, -oi-r jy v 

kßovXeve-ff^oVf'i-a^tiv *' ßovXevoi-<r^ov,'<K-<y'&ifp 

3PL " " ißovXevo-v " ßwXevoi-ev 

kßovXevo-v TO " ßovXeifoi-v% o 

1 S. " " kßovXevo-fi Tfv " ßovXevoi-fi rj v 

2" « « (hßovXeve-ao) kßovXeihov ^* {ßavXevoi-a o) ßovXevot-o 

3 « « « kßovXeve-TO " ßovXdoi'T o. 

Kbhjlbk. On V k(^eXKV(TTLK6v, see ^ 7, 1. (b). 

6. The mode-vowel of the subjunctive of the historical tenses dif- 
fers from that of the indicative, merely in being lengthened, viz. o 
into 00, £ and a into i], and ei into i; ; e. g. ' 

Ind. ßovXetho-fiev Subj. ßovXev-tj-fiev ; Ind. ßovXev-e-<r^e Subj. ßovXev-tf-cr^e. 
Ind. ßovXev-eic Sabj. ßovXev-yg. 

7. The mode-vowel of the optative is i in connection with the 
preceding mode-vowel of the first person singular indicative. (The 
pluperfect is an exception, the optative of this taking the mode- 
vowel of the present). Thus : 

1. Sing. Ind. Lnperf. Act o Opt oi kßovXeV'O-v ' ßovXev-oi-fu 
" Flur. "^ Aor. L Act a ** ai ißovXetMT-a-fiev ßovXeia-ai-fiev 

S ^1.] 0OlUl}«AnOK OF TBB BBOtJLAB VSBB Uf -es. 79 

§81. Conjugation of the Regular Verb in -w, ex* 
hihited in the Pure Verb {§77, 5) ßovXav on. 

FsBLiM INABT Hemarkb. As pore verbs do not form the secondary tensefl 
(4 i2, Rem.), these tenses are supplied in the Paradigm from two mute verbs 
and a liquid verb {rpiß'V, ^tfr-6), stem AIH, ^a£v-&), stem $AN), so as to ex* 
hibit a foil conjugation. 

in learning' the table of conjugation, it is to be noted : 

(1) That the meaning in English is opposite the Greek forms. All the par- 
ticular shades of meaning, however, which belong to the different Modes and 
Tenses in connected discourse, cannot be given in the table. 

(2) That the Greek forms may always be resolved into their oonstitnent 
parts, viz. (a) Personal-ending, (b) Mode-vowel, (c) Tense-characteristic, (d) 
Tense-stem, (e) Verb-stem, (f ) Augment or Reduplication. 

(8) The spaced forms, e. g. ßovXev-e rov, ßovXev-ij rovj 3d Pers. Du. Ind. 
and Subj. Pres., may call the attention of the learner to the difference between 
the historical tenses in the Ind. and Opt and the principal tenses. 

(4) Similar forms, as well as those that differ only in accentuation, are dis- 
tinguished by a star (■*). The kam^ should search these out and compan 
fliem together; e. g. ßovXewrOy 1. S. Ind. Fnt Act or 1. S. Subj. Aor. I. Act; 
ßovXevaaif 2. S. Imp. Aor. J. Mid., ßovXevaaCf 8. S. Opt Aor. I Act, ßw^ed- 
muy Inf. Aor. I. Act 

(5) The accentuation should be learned with the form. The following gene- 
ral rule will suffice'for beginners : The accent of the verb is as ßwfixnn the aid as 
thejinal syllable toiä permit. Those forms, whose accentuation deviates from this 
nde, are indicated by a cross (t). 

(6) When the following paradigm has been thoroughly learned in this way, 
ibe pupil may first resolve the verbs occurring in the Greek exercises into their 
elements, L e. into the personal -ending, mode-vowel, etc., observing the follow- 
ing order, viz. ßovXevau, is (1) of the first Pers., (2) Sing., (3) Ind., (4) Put, 
(5) Act, (6) from the verb ßov'kevo, to advise; then he may so translate into 
Greek the verbs in the English exercises, as to exhibit the elements of which 
the form of the Greek verb must be composed \ these elements may be arranged 
in the following order: (I) Verb-stem, (2) Augment or Reduplication, (3) 
Tense-charaeteristic, (4) Tense-stem, (5) Mode-vowel, (6) Tense-stem with 
Mode- vowel, (7) Personal-ending, (8) Tense-stem with Mode-vowel and Perso^ 
nal-ending. E. g. What would be the form in Greek of the phrase, he advised 
himself^ using the Aor. of the Pres., ßovXev-u, to advise 9 Answer : The verb- 
stem is ßovXev-y augment i, thus ißovXev ; the tense-characteristic of the first 
Aor. Mid. is a, thus tense-stem is k-ßovTiev-a ; the mode- vowel of the first Aor. 
Ind. Mid. is a, thus 6'ßov?.ev-a-a ; the personal-ending of the third Pers. Sing. 
of an historical tense of the Mid. is roy thus k-ßov'kev-a-a-ro. 

(7) In order that the memory of the pupil may not be tasked by too many 
forms at once, it is best to commit the verb in parts, and in the order in which 
the exercises in § 84 follow each other. He may at the same time translate the 
exercises from Greek into English, and from English into Greek. After all the 
forms have been thoroughly committed in this way, he may turn back to the 
tables and repeat all the forms together. 









Perfect L 




Perf. n. 
Plpf II 


d •■ © 













S. 1. 












Aor. H. 






S. 1. 




ßovXev-a* ladtnsA 
ßovXev-eiCi thou adviaest^ 
ßovXexheif he^ she, it advises^ 
ßovXev-erov, ye two advise^ 
ßovT^v-e TOP, ihey two advise, 
ßov'kev-ofieVy we advise, 
ßov^sv-tre,* you advise, 
ßoüXeV'O V a i (v), they advi», 

ßovXev-o,* I may advise, 
ßovWeihff, thou moyeat adoise, 
ßovXeif'y* he, sihe, it may adv. 
ßovXeihtj Tov,ye two may ad. 
ßovXev-ij Tov, ihey two may a, 
ßovXev-(jfiev, we may admse, 
ßovXeihffre, you may advise, 
ßovXe<fH4ai{vj, th^ may adv. 

k-ßovXev-ov,* I was advieuw, 
kßovXev-e^, thou wast advising, 
k-ßovXev-e{v)i he, she, it was ad. 
h-ßov'kev-erov, ye two were adv. 
k-ßovXev-e tijv, they two were a. 
k-ßovTiev-oftev, we V)ere advising, 
k-ßovXev^ere, you were advising, 
k'ßov!AeV'Ov,*ihey were advising. 

ße-ßovXev-K'O, I have advised, 
ße'ßovXeV'K'Og, thou hast adv'd, 
ße-ßoi}\sV'K'€(v)*h^ihe^ has a 
ße-ßovXev-K-aToVyye two have a. 
ße-ßovXev-K-a T V , they two 

have advised, 
ße-ßovXev-K-ofieVf we have adv. 
ße-ßovXev-K'aTBjyou have adv. 
ße-ßovXev-K-ä a i {v)^heyh(U)e a 

'£iv, I had adv'd, 


i-ße-ßovXeV'K'e irriv, Aey two 


eire, you had ad. 
e a av, they had a. 

7ri-<prfv-a,^ I appear, 
i-ire-t^-etv,* I appeared, 

k-ßoif^^ev-a-a, I advised, (indef.) 
k'ßov7i£v-a-a^, thou advisedst, 
k-ßovXev~(7-e{v), he, she, it adv. 
i-ßovlev-a-arov, ye two adv'd, 
k'ßovXev-a-ä tijv, they tvx> ad. 
k-ßov7ieV'(j-aiiev, we advised, 
k-ßovXetha-are, you advised, 
i-ßovXev-a-a v, they advised^ 

i'Tuir-ov, ließ, 

k'XiTT-eg, etc., declined like 
Impf. Ind. 

of the Principal tajuea. 

ße-ßovXev^^Of I may have ad, 
ße-ßovXeV'K-w, thou mayest 

have advised, etc., declined 

like the Snbj. Trw. 

ir£-^7V-», I may appear. 

ßovXev-O'Uy* I may advise, 
ßovXev-a-y^, thou mavest ad- 
vise, etc., declined like the 
Snbj. Pres, 

XiTr-a, etc., declined like the 
Subj. Pres. 

ßovXev-a-ü* I shaü advise, 
declined like the Indie. Pres. 
^ The declension of the ad Perf. in all the Mode» an^ Participle«, is like thrtoftfielst Peiil 



cofovQAXias or tbs aMSOLjpi txbb ih •»> 



1. e. Subj. of Historical tenseff. 





ßovXev-Ej advise thouy ßovXev 
ßovXev-ETUi let him a. eiv, 
ßovKev-ETOVj ye two a. to 
ßovXev-eruv^ let them advise^ 

both advise^ 
ßovkeV'CTe* do ye ad. 

fiovTiev-otfu, I might advise^ 
ßovXev-oiCy thou miphtest adviaSf 
ßov'^^'Oit he, 8he, it might adv. 
ßovXethOiToVf ye two might ad, 
ßovXev'O irijv, they two mig.a. 
ßov'keV'OiiieVf we might adoiae, 
ßovXe^hoiTCf you might advise, 
ßovXev-o lev, they mightadviae. 

ße-ßovXeihK-^ifU, I mg, have cu 
ße-ßovXeiMC'Ot^, thou mightest 

have adviaed, etc., declined 

like the Opt Lnpf. 

ire-df^v-oifa, I might appear, 

ßovXeif'ü'atm, I might adviae^ 
ßov^^V'ü'Oii or -eiac 
ßov^ev-a-ai*^ or -eAe(v) 
ßovTiev-a-a irijv 
ßovXev-a-aiev or 'ttav 

Xiir-ocfiif etc., declined üke the 
Opt. Impf. 

fiovXeij-a-oifii, IwoM adviae^ 
declined like the Opt Impf. 




G. ßov7i£V-OVT0g 


ßov}^V'eTUGav,u3uaL\lyßovXev-6vTuv*, let them a 

[ße-ßovXeV'K'C,*] etc.! 
declined like the 
Imp. Pres. ; yet 
only a few Per- 
fects, and such as 
have the meaning 
of the Pres., form 
an Imperative. 

TTC-^v-e, appear thou. 

ßovXev^'Ov, adviae, 


ßovXev-a'ärairav, nsnally -aävTuif 


to have 









G. -K-OTOC, •«• 

viaCf hxvvng 





having adviaed. 

Xtk-e, etc., declined 
like the Imp. Pres. 


etc., like Pr. Pt 

's The declension of the 2d Pluperf. ia like that of the 1st Plaperf., both in the Ind. and Opt 


Xnr-ow, ovaa, 6v\ 
G. ovTog, ovaij^, 

M «»HitlOAmOir or -ra« MGDIAB TBE8 IS -m. [S* 

















ßovX^i-uitai, I «lag 
ßmXii^ \dJiUraU, 


a I. 







i-ßottXevSit^i; I vxxi däif»- 
t-ßovXiUv [rating, 















ße-ßoiXm^ai [rated, 








ßi^ovXn-iiivBf C, I 









i^..ßo»X^.^„v, IhMlde- 
i4i-ß«iX^-c« [libiratid. 











k-ßovXev-e-afl „v.I ddSim- 





t ßovXn-g-hac^a 




etc, declined like 
Fna. Subj. 


«d Ukfl iBd. Imperf! 




ßmi-tv^a-^i/iai. I ,haä delibi- 
ratt, declined like Pre«. Ind. 



ßi-ßo^Xti-a-^pai, IdaUflM- 




ie.Saiy. of ttis Htot. teiMP. 






ßavXev-ia^aaav, luvally ßevXaf ea^w* 

j3ovXev-o ififfVj I might 
]ßovXe{hoio [deliberaiey 
ßovXev'O IT o 







ße'ßovXev'ao4eaberate Ü^ 


ße-ßovXev-fUvo^ elijv, I 

ßovXeV'O'^ ififf Vyfmtft 
ßovXev-ff-a i o [ddibe- 
ßovXeihefHt ito \rote, 


ßovXev-a-a io'&riv 
ßcvXev-ü-a ivro 

have de- 

vov,t having 

ße-ßaüTieiho^oaVy Qsvall j ße->ßovXev^<Mf 






hxaim dM- 

Xm-oifiriVtlmig't rmainy 
like Opt Impf. 

ß<yuXeV'a'ä(r^uffav, nsnally ßovXev-O'äa^uv 

k TT 7~~K 5 V jT^ ^~Q. — T~x ~ 

ßovXeV'(T'otfiijv^Im. have 

jaMmOB^Ske Opt Impf. 

Ät7r-ov,t -etr^uiy declined 
like Pres. Imp. 



fieviff -ofievov 



voc, 'Vi "Ov 


84 BBMABKS OK THE PASABIOM. — ^A.1?nC FtTTUBE. [§§ 82, 88. 



Aorist L 


Future I. 



a * S 












k'ßovXev-i^-rfVf I tau admsed, 
k-ßov^v-^-^ TfJV 
k-'ßovXeV'^-ij cav 

ßovT^ev-'&^'a-Ofiaiyl shaü he adv. 
ßovXev-^-a'yt etc., declined 
like the Ind. F^es. Mid. 

k-rpiß-riVy I was rubbed^ 
irpiß'Tfc, etc., declined like the 
first Aor. Ind. Pass. 

Tpiß'T^tT'OficUj I shall be rubbed^ 
Tpiß-^-a-Tft etc., declined like 
the first Fat. Ind. Pass. 


of the Principal tenses. 

ßovXeV'^-ö, I might have 
ßw^ev-i^-yg [been adviaed, 

ßovXev-'&-v fov 
ßovXeV'^'ü a i (v) 

Tpiß'öf Imay kavp been rubd, 
rp£j9-^f ,etc.,declined like the 
first Aor. Suoj. Pass. 

Verbal Acjiectives : ßovXtv-Togf -y, -6v, advised^ 

§82. Remarhs on the Paradigm, 

1. In the first person Sing. Plnp. Act, Attic writers n^e besides the form in 
-««V, a form in -37 ; e. g. ißeßovXevK-ijt instead of -K-eiv. The mode-vowel ei 
in the third Pers. PI. is commonly shortened into e ; ideBavXev-K-e-aav, instead 
of ißeßovXev-K'Ct-aav. 

2. In the second Pers. Sing. Pres, and Eat. Mid. and Pass., the Attic writcts 
besides the fonn in -9, ase another in -ei ; e. g. ßovXeihy and ßovXev-eif /?ov- 
XexMT-y and -et, ßeßov7ieva-y and -et, ßavXevi^a'y and -et, rpiß^a-^ and -»fi. 
This last form in -et is exclnsively ased in the following forms of the three 
yerbs, yiz. 

ßovXofjuUj I wish^ ßovXeif thou toishest (bat Snbj. j9ov^) 

olofuUf I thifJc, oletf thou thinks (bnt Snbj. et^) 

b^ofiotj I shall see; 5^ e t, thou unit see. 

3. The abbreyiated forms of the third Pers. PI. Imp. Act haye in aU tenses 
except the Perf., the same form as the Gen. PI. of participles of the respeetiye 
"tenses. The papil should seek out these forms. 

§83. Remarks on the Formation oftheAtiie Future. 

I. When in the Fat Act and Mid. of yerbs in -<7o, -ffoftai, from stems of two 
or more syllables, the short yowels a, e, l, precede 0*, certain yerbs, instead of 
the regular form, haye another, which, after dropping a, takes the circomflexed 
ending -ü, -ovfiaij and becaase it was frequently ased by the Attic writers, it is 
called the Auic Future; e. g. kXau (nsnally kXa^jvu)^ to drive, Ma-a-u, Fat Att 
kXd^ -^f, -^, -orov, -u/tev, -are, 'Wn(v) ; re^Ci>, to finish^ reXe-«;-«, Put Att 




Modes. | 



L e. SabJ. of the Hurt tenses. 




ßovXeV'^-eiijv, J might be 
ßovXev-'&-eific [adin&ed^ 
ßovXev-^-e tiirtiv 
ßfniXev-^-eififuv and >e2/iev 
ßov')iev-'&-eifiTe and -eire 
ßovXev-i&-e lev 

ß(A)7^V''&-fiTiy be thou ad- 
ßovXev-'&-riTu [vised, 



Genitive : 


having bem 

ßcvXev--&jj-'<r-oifiijv, I should 
be advised, etc, declined 
like the Impf. Opt Mid. 


fievoc, -V» -<w 

rptß-einv, Imight be rvbbed, 

Tpiß-eiijCt etc., declined like 

the first Aor. Opt. Pass. 

like first Aor.Impl*a8S. 



Tpiß-ekyi etc., 

rpiß-v-tr-ocfiriv, I should be 
rvbbed, etc., declined like 
the first Fat. Opt Pass. 



ßovKev-TEogj -Tea, -reov, to be advised. | 

reAuy -elCf -et, 'eirov, -ov/iev, -elre, 'Ovm{v) ; te7>e-'(T'0ftai {Te^^Ofuu)^ rehjvftai^ 
-eh 'eiTCU, etc. ; KOfu^Q, io carry, Fat KOfäau, Fat Att KOfiiöf -lelg, -lei, 'lelrw, 
'WVfuv, -lelre, 'iovüi(v) ; KOfuovfiai, -ulf 'leirai, 'lovfie^ov, etc. 

2. This form of ihe Fat is foand only in the Ind., Inf. and Part, never in the 
Opt, thas re^, reXelv, reX&v ; bat TeXetroifit. The verbs which have this 
fann. are the following : (a.) iXau {iXavvu), io drive, reXiu, toßnish, xaKiu, 
to call, and, thoogfa seldom, äXio, to grinds — (b) all polysyllables in -i^o ;^- 
(c) ft few verbs in -aC«, very generally ßißä^o ; — (d) of verbs in -fu, all in 
-^vvOfii and äfiipievvefti, to dothe {äfM^ieaa, äft^iu, -telCt etc.). Excep* 
tions to this form of the Fat are foand bnt seldom in the Attic dialect. 

^SL Accentuation of the Verb* 

1. Pbimabt UlW. The accent is drawn back from the end cf the toord toward» 
the begimnng, as far as the nature of the final syjUatHe pemuts ; e. g. ßovXeve, ßov^ 
Jievouai, Trove, rvTrre, ßovkevaov, ^rai^oov, Twjrov, bat ßovXeveig, ßovT^ehew, 

Bbm. 1. The diphthong -at at the end of a word, is considered short in re- 
spect to accent ; e. g. ßov'kevofiat. The Opt ending -at, however, is considered 
long ; e. g. ßovXevaai, third Pers. Sing. Opt first Aor. Active. The Opt end- 
ii^ '01 is also long ; e. g. U^^iiroi. 

% The same law holds good in composition, yet with this limitation, thest As 
accent cannot go back beyond that syllable of the word prefixed, which before compon- 
tion had the accent; nor beyond the first two words forming the compound, neither be- 
yond an existing augment; e. g. 

i^epe iTpoQ^epe Xetire äiroXeiire S&fiev hSufiev 

^evye l/c^evye oida cvvoida ^fiat Ko.'&Jiftat; 



bat wpo^eixov like clj^ov, trapecrxov like ^o:^*"'» k^yov like ^yov, irpo^Ktw like 
fxov, dTreZjoyoi; like elpyov {not TrpogetxoVf 'jräpeaxoVf etc.), but Imp. uneipye. 

ExcepHons to the Primary Law. 

8. l%e accent is on the Mmate in the following fonns : 

(a) In the Inf. second Aor. Act. as circnmflex, and in the Masc. and Nent 
Sing of the Part, of the same tense as acate ; e. g. ^.nrelv^ TiinuVf -6v, and in 
the second Pers. Sing. Imp. second Aor. Act of the five verbs, eiire, ^Xi^e, dpi, 
Xc^k and Idk (bat in composition, ävei^e, diToAa/?e, äire^-^e, el^ide). 

(b) Also in the Imp. second Aor. Mid. as circumflex ; e- g. ^ßov, ^ov, from 

Bbm. 2. In compounds, the Imp. (not Participials) of the second Aor. Act. 
draws back Uie accent in all verbs according to the primary law ; e. g. ^KßaXe, 
i^eX^Bf kKÖo^f iKÖOTCf äirodoc, änoSore, fierädo^, fierädore (but not äirodog, fie- 
Todoc, see No. 2), but Ußa^elv, hKßoLkuv, kK^melv, k§eW6v\ etc. But in the 
Imp. Sing, second Aor.. Mid. of verbs in -<•>, the circumflex remains on the ulti- 
mate in compounds also ; e. g. kxßdXoVf atfuKov, kK^iTrov, hriXa'&oVf atpeXov, 
IveveyKov ; so in verbs in -^t, when the verb is compounded with a monosylla- 
bic preposition ; e. g. npoSov, kvd-ov, d^ ; yet the accent is drawn back, when 
the verb is compounded with a dissyllabic preposition ; e. g. uirodov, Kara&ov, 
äir6&ov ; but in the i>nal and PI. of the second Aor. Mid., the accent is in adi 
cases drawn back ; e. g. kKßaXeü^Cf a^oXaßetr&ef frpodoa&e, hr^etr^e, ä^ea&e, 

(c) The acute stands on the ultimate in all participles in -r (Gen. -Tog\ con- 
sequently in all active participles of verbs in -fii, as well as in thof?e of the first 
and second Perf Act. and first and second Aor. Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. ßeßov- 
7ievKci>c, Gen. -drog, irefrjvdg. Gen. -oto^, ßovXev^etci Gen. -evroc, rvnei^j Gren. 
'hfToc, Ifrra^, Gen. -avroCf ri^eict Gen. -evTogj didovg^ Gen. -ovtoc, SeiKvvCy Gen. 
"(wToc, öiatrräc, kK'&ei^y irpodov^^ Gen. dtaffravToc, kK^evroc, irpodovro^. 

Bem. 3. The first Aor. Act. Part., which is always paroxytone, is an excep- 
tion ; e. g. iraideifffäSt Gen. iraidevaavrog. 

(d) In the Sing, of the first and second Aor. Subj. Pass, as circumflex \ e. g. 
ßovXev^ü, rpißü. 

4. The accent is on the penult in the following forms : 

(a) In the Inf. Perf. Mid. or Pass., first Aor. Act and second Aor. Mid. ; also 
in all infinitives in -v<u, hence in all active infinitives of verbs in -fu, as well «s 
in the Inf. of first and second Aor. Pass, and of the Perf. Act. of all verbs ; e. g. 
revw^aij ßeßovXswr&ai, Terift^fr&ai, irei^iX^o^tUf ftefHü&CxT^ai ; — t^XaSfu, 
ßovXei/fJcUf Tifirjaai, ^i^üaiy nttr&ücai \-^Xini(r&<u, kK^ia^ai, dtadoa^ai ;— 4ff- 
rävcti, Tt^€V€Uj didovai, SeiKvtvaif (Treaty kKor^ai, '^elvtu, ktc&elvai, öwvcu^ 
fieraSoihfai ;-~ßovXevd^vat, Tpiß^vai;—ßeßovXevKevai, XeTioiirevai. 

(b) In all Optatives in -o i and -a i, see Rem. 1. 

Bem. 4. The three similar forms, viz. the Inf. first Aor. Act, Imp. first Aor. 
Mid. and the third Pers. Sing. Opt. first Aor. Act., when they consist of thiee 
or more syllables, whose penult is long by nature, are distinguished from one 
another by the accent, in the following manner : 


Inf. first Aor. Act ßovXevüoif Imp. first Aor. Mid. ßoiXevüoi, 

voiffffai iroiijaai 

Opt fint Aor. Act ßovXevacu 

Bat when the pennlt is short by nature or long only by position, the Inf. first 
Aor. Act oonesponds with the third Pers. Sing. Opt first Aor. Act ; e. g. ^ 
Xo^oi ; bat Imp. first Aor. Mid. ^vhi^ai. 

(c) In the Fart Perf. Mid. or Past. ; e. g. deßovXevfievod 'fiev^t -ft^ov, -re- 
Ttfuifiivo^, ire^iXfffiivoc. 

XXXVI. Voeabukay. 

(a) Present and Imperfect Active. 

'A/opevu, to say. Srepoct -ö, -ov, aUer, the Are, when. 

aireipog, -ov, {adv. äirtU other (of two), opposite, of>Ti^,(bef.cxms»o(tTUj)so^ 

pi^)i IT. fferUf nnac- different thns. 

qaainted with, nnskill- Iva, in order that waideiaj -oc, i^, education, 

ed in. KaXht^y -eof = -ovf , roy instruction. 

äiro-Tpeiro, to turn away, beauty. ir2.ri(riä^ii, to approach, 

avert (cev^u, to conceal. irpovoia, -ac, rj, fiDresight, 

ävo-^evya, to flee away. fzovcriK^ {rixyii understood) precaution. 

äpoTpoVf -ov, TOy a plough. -^f, ;^, every art under irpoc-mirruj (in third pars. 

yewatoCt nobly, bravely. the patronage of the sing.)^ it falls out, it oc- 

6eiv6c, 'iji -cVi fearful, ter- Muses,e8pecially music. curs, it presents itself. 

rible, dangerous; rd /Jrav, to. eu6;., when, when- araffia^Qf to live at va- 

SeivSvf the danger. ever. rianoe with. 

Avo ddol irpdc ri^ vohv aytrw» Boe rh äporpov äyerov. Xaipofiev, d ircu'- 
6et. *Qc V^ «dXAof , drav kxv ^^^^ ecj^fxwa, 01 noTuTcu Toi>c vofiovs ^XoT" 
TovTuv. 'Eraipog iraipov (j^povriCero. TLar^p re koI fi^Ttip irpovoiav kxertav 
T7f rwv riicvuv Kaideiac. *0 ypafifiarav äireipoc oh ßXevrei ßXeirov. Tdf npof^ 
irtrrrovaof tvxoc yewai(^ (jtepe. 'O iraig r^ itarpl ^oöov ^peif Iva X<^^H^' 'O 
vaXc ry irarpl f>6dov i^epev, Iva x^^f" Swicpdr^f ^girep kyiyvooKev, ohrt^ 
iXeyev. 'Ore ol 'EXX^ec iizXijola^oVf ol ßäpßapoi äns<^tvyov. QefuaroKX^g 
Kol *Api(rreiS^c ''^oT'e iaroffia^eTTiv. AcuceöaLfiovLOi fiovüiKyc äireipug dxov. 
'Airarpetroiref Ct ^eoi, rd deivöv d^' fifMV. M^ irepov Keir&oig Kopdiq. vovvy 
äXXa äyupevav. 

Two horses drawing (driving) the chariot, hasten. Two women sing. Let 
OS flee from vice. The boys study literature diligently, that their parents may 
rqoioe. The boys studied literature very diligently, that their parents might 
r^ce. Let the citizen defend the laws. Let friends care for ^ends. Two 
horses, drawing the chariot hastened. Two women sang. Those who are un- 
acquainted with literature do not see, when they see. Bear nobly the danger 
which presents itself (part.), O citizens ! You speak (so) as you think. We 
wore unacquainted with music. May the gods avert the danger from ua ! 

86 QOHfJVQJLTlO^Sf OF TH£ TSRB. [§ 84 

XXXVIL VocahUary, 

(b) First Perfect and Pluperfect Actire. 

Twiwceloct -Ö, -ov, be- Kara-TivUf to loosen, de- about to do, delay; rd 

longing to women, wo- stroy, dissolve, fieXXovj the future, 

manly. xvptevuy w. gm^ to be or noXefuoCi -ä, -ov, hostile, 6 

kv-dvuj to go into, put on. become master of, con- noXe/uoCj the enemy. 

iirtSiuKU), to pursue. quer, obtain. irpw^rireva^ to prophesy. 

icora-($vG), to dip, go down, fiavTig, -ewf, 6, a seö*, a ^v«, to bring forth. Perf, 

set, conceal oneself. prophet to have become, be. 

fieX^f to intend or be 

0/ iro^fiioi ixardv iroXirag itt^ovevKCLaiv. ifepeK^Sijg lAeyc, firjSevl ^e^ re- 

Äöf ireirpwIt^TevKev. Tä reicva ei neTraidevKog. JAjideia rä tekvü ne^ovevfcvia 
§Xtupev. Oi AoKeSaifiovioi TLlaTaLäg Kare^^XvKeaav. 'SapdaväTräh)^ oroX^ 
ywaiKeiav hededvKei. 'Ore !^Xiog KarededvKetf ol iro^^fuoL kfrXijaia^ov. *AAe- 
(avdpog hriSiuKuv LcLpelov, rhv tuv Uepcuv ßaat^ay iroXXuv ;j;pj?/^arwv iKcxv' 

The sun has gone down (is set). The Lacedaemonians have destroyed Pia- 
taea. We admired the wommi, who had put on (having put on) a purple robe. 
Diodorus (^dodupog) says that Alexander (occ. w. inf.), pursuing Darius, ob" 
tained many treasures. The enemies had killed 400 soldiers. Thy fiiend 
bad brought up his (the) children well. 

XXXVm. Vocafmlary. 

(e) First Future and Aorist Actire. 

^Aß^ßeut, -Of, ^f inno- ^Kyovoc, -ov, descendant, klv^vvcvo, to incur dan- 

oenoe. descended from. ger, run a risk. 

äft^, both, ambo. i^-vri^Lt, to hope, expect ftera, w.gen., with ; w. aee^ 

M)u, to complete, finish. hrayyekh»t, to announce. after. 

d6xpi;ov, -ov, to, a tear. iTn-ßovlevQ, w. dat., to fojvitj, w. dat., to be angry 

dta-^ixj, to dissolve, sepa- plot against with. 

rate. ^crxaToc, -v> -w (superL of Art, that because. 

^Kä^u, to judge. i^), outermost, utmost, irplv uv, w. subj., before, 

diKoarrig, -ov, b, a judge, last ere, until. 

a magistrate. UtTtvu, to ask, suppli- ^revo, to plant 
Mtf IP. opt.^ that cate, entreat 

0/ OTpaTiürai r^v v6Xiv &irb tCw voXefuuv airoXvacvalv. *0 ;tP99rdf Av^ 
^powoc «oi* TOtc iicyovotf fortvaeti ^'E^kirV^ofiev Tzavra ei avwreiv. 'O äyye- 
Xoc kn^yyeXXe toI^ voXiraiCt 6ti ol iroKefiuu r^ ürparevfMTi iirißovXeveotev. 
'Ax*^^^ 'kyoftenvwi kftriviaev. Oi 'EXXtfvec ävdpei^ iroX^ Urxvirav. 'O £«»- 
Kpärtfc obx Utirevat roiig diKOffräc f^^^ tmk'kSiv dcucpvi^v, dAXd Tnarewra^ rf 
iaoTov äßXaßei^ iKivdvvewre rbv iax^"^*^ Kivdwov. Tdf rw 0avyU»v awiT^eeof 

' alsa 

184.3 o^miuak'nom o» im tub. W 

daifMvtoi nXaroi^ tcari^vaav. Tic ^v iriarevoai {irterreifaeie) -^eiHrry ; £Zi^e 
«ravra Kdkü% itvbaaifti. ^AM/oimaif (^oiaei^) /lov,^ <ir ^S^. 'O ^^^eAoc lin/y- 
^cXA^v, bri, ol voXifuoi ry orpari^ kirißovXeifoaiev {ivißwXevceiav). "Akov* 
cov fwVf u ^iXe. 'EroTpof kralfH^ iriffrewraTu. T^ iroXiv Xeyovai fiiyav klv- 
iwov KivSwewrai. 

Rule of Syntax. The pftrtade if denote» a conditieQ either 
expressed or to be supplied. 

Toa -will free the town from the enemies. Qoodmen Mrill plant also for 
their deaeeodants. He said, that the town woold incur great danger. Achil- 
les and Agamemnon were angry with (dual) one «lother. We entreated the 
magistrates with many tears. Achilles killed Hector {'EKTopf 'Opog), Judge 
not (pi.) before yon have heard the account of both. Thou canst not trust (opt. 
«7. av) a liar. May we complete (mardy the (^.) eyerything well. that you 
would hear me, friends 1 May the soldiers free us from the enemies. Hear 
me, O friends ! IViends should trust {imp.) friends. To command {aor.) is 
easier than to do. Medea rejoiced in having murdered {aor. part.) her children. 

it^ TTX!. Voeähdary. 
(d) Present and Imperfect Middle or Fagsive. 
' A/deA^, -ov, 6, a brother, kpya^ofioiy to work* irivoftaif to be poor. 

imhSexofioi, to receive, ipxoftai, to go, come. fTparru, to do, to act ; w, 

admit, approve of. ^ov)[0Ci qniet, quj!el3y. adv^ to faxe. 

abXoc, -ov, 6f a iut». Aoi^avw, w. aoc^ to be or/xzre^u, toiaake an ex» 

kav = ijv, or av, if, w, subj, concealed from, escape pedition ; Mid. to make 
tyx^pf^i -ov, and iyx^ the notice of ; 2afeo, Mc?., war, march (in a hos- 

ptoci -a, -ov, native, of to forget [die. tile manner). 

the country. fieaoc, middle, in the mid- ^Mo/juu, to lie. 

Avo avSpe fiaxetr^ov. Tewaioc fMxC)f*e^a* rrtpl rrjc fcarpidoc. *kvayKaZov 
ksri rdv vZdv itei&etr&ai r^ irarpi. HoXh)! äya'&ol irevovrcu. Noftoic role iy- 
Xopiotg iirea^ai koKov kartv. Wl anodixov rov fiXuv Toi>c irp^C Tä i^avXu ooi 
XapiCo/iivovg. 'Ekogtoc ^avxog fiearjv ri^ 6ddv ipx^a^. 01 iroTurai role 
v6fibtc iree&ea&Qv. T«^ iide?,^ ftoi ftrwn^v. El ßov'kei m)Jbc ^parretVy 
ipyi^ov. 'EÄV ßovXy Ka?£>c TrparretVf kpya^ov. irev66fi€voc o-bdelc ^v&a^ 
mi woXdp xpovov. CM Aaice^aifiSviot fwt' a^Aöv htrparevovro. E!t^e iravrec 
&vev Spyvc ßovXeOotvro. Avo koXö Imro elc ri^ iroXiv rfXawia^v. *Edv 
irjv^, 6Xiyüt ^tXoi. 

The magistrate should consult without anger. He who goes {part.) the mid- 
dle path, goe» safest Two besntifril hones ax« driven to th& town. If (lav) 
wttrriofB fight courageously, they are admifed. We wOl not lie, but alwayi 
•peak the truth. Sons ^uld obey their frkthers. With God and fate {<äoa} 
il it terrible to contend. Two men contended. The soldieis fought oonrageb 
Msly. O that every one would eoosidt without anger I O that thou woiddst 
■bnya wonfaip the Duty I 

1 § 158, 5. (b). • § 183, (a), (1). 


90 c.(CNi7ü0Ano]i or zbx tmmb. [§ 84» 

XL. Vocabulary. 
(e) Perfect and Plnperfeet Middle or PassiTe. 

'Axpo, -oc, 4, a summit, kft^^tyreio, to implant Xeyofiai^ dioor, to be Bald. 

a castle. Mpvci, to baud, fonnd. ^^or^c» -ov, 6, a robber. 

al»TWO/iMi,-aC)^) freedom, Karo-x^iw, to shut, lock aw^Kriy -rig, ii^ a treaty, 

independentlegislatfon. up; 

Oi X^araX ire^ewrai. Aim &öe}^ii iirb rov airrov SiSaaKaXov neiraideV' 
a&ov. 'H ßamXeia iirb to9 d^fuv XeXvrai. Totf ^eolc irrd rOv ^ k&fivaiuf» 
voXMt ve0 tdpvvToi. H i^pa KEKXeUr^a. Upb toü ipyov eö ßeßovXevao. 
Uäatv 6v&pCmoig ifiire^evfievjj iarlv hrvdvfua r^f airovofuac- 01 X^trrat 
ire^eva^uv. Ol imXifUoi etc r^ äxpcof KaTaKeickel<r&<u Xt/wrai. Sevo^öu- 
TVf vicj, VpvXKog not Atodwpof , bictnaidevfrditv kv ZTrapr^. Ai iJW^MU im6 
TÖV ßapßäpov kXiXwTo. 

The robber has been murdered. The children cf the friend have been weQ 
tffougfat up. The doon are said to have been shut Before the work, yon have 
deliberated weU. Good and bad desires hare been implanted in men. The 
treaties are said to have been yiolated by the barbarians. The two children 
have been brought up by the same teadier. The royal anthority had been abol- 
ished by Ihe people. 

XLL Vocabulary, 
if) Puture and first Aor. Mid., and Fnt. Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

'Avo-iravw, to cause to kiriTfiSevoy to manage, vopevu, to lead forward; 

restj Mid, to rest, re- transact with diligence, Mid, to go, march, set 

cover oneself. practise. out (w. pass, aorist), 

ytind (riva rivog), to give iroXireta, -of, tf, the state, irvXtj^ -ijg, ^, a gate (usm- 

any one a taste of any- the administration. ally in the plural). 

thhig ; mid. w. gen.^ to 

taste, eiuoy. 

01 mXifitoi hrl r^ ^jterepav voTuv arpaTevaovrai. TLepl t^c tc^ noXiTuv 
auniplac ßovXevaofie^a. '0 vartip /mi iXeyev, Sri iropeinroiTO. 01 'EAA^vcf 
iirl rode Tlipaac korpartvoavro. 'kvanavadfu^Oj^ u ^Aot. Ilpd rov ipyav 
ei ßoi)kev<fai. Ildvref rif/^^ yevmur&cu ßovTuovrai. 'O rcar^p ävairawräftevoc 
vopeOaerai. Al vrvXat, r^f wkt6^ KeKXeiaovrai. 'Edv toioHtoc äv^p r^v iro- 
Xireiav ^ir^de^, aiyri^ ei ßeßovXevaercu. 

To« will dettberate about the safety of the dtiaens. The messenger an- 
nonaoed (^Tro/yeAA«), that the enemies would march against our town. The 
general enjoyed a great honor. Jf (iav, w. subj.) the enemies shall hare been 
led {mipeiwf snAj. aor.) against us, the gates of the town will remain (hare been) 
dosed. Before the work, deliberate well {pL). Jnih) such a danger it is not 
easy to deliberate (aor.). If you have deliberated, (aar. parUäp.) begin the woriiL 

> i ISa, (a), (1). *§158,5. (a). * ^58, 4. 


XLIL Vocabulary, 
(g) Pirtt Aorist «&d first Pnture Passive. 

AifftOKpaTioj -Of, ]^, the /c^ after Terbs cf fear, w. in ne, to be translatod 

mle of the people, de- sutfj^ if a pres., peif. or by * that * or ^ IbsV 

mocracy. fat goes before; to. opi.y xo^fuo^y -d, -ov, hostils, 

hri-(^epu, to bring npon ; if an historical tense of the enemy. 

voXefwp Ttvi, beBum in- goes before; as the Lat- rvpavvoc -ov» ^t a sove- 

^eTo. feign, a tyrant. 

'O "E/crci^p iirb rov *kxi^'^^ k^ovtv^. Tc^ ^deX^c^ irch tov oItov didcujKo- 
Xov iv€u6ev^T^v. TloXXai di^Kpartcu imb tov rvpawwf KareXiy^aav, Me- 
yas ^oßoc Toi>c tcoXLtci^ kxei^ ^ at amr^Kai imb tw iroXefucyfi Xv&CHnv. EX^f 
fravrec veaviai KaXü^ iraLdev^elev, ^weir^ri, Ct Kcucoifyye. 01 arpariÜTai 
elg rifv iroXefiictv yfjv icopev&rivai ^^ovrai. 01 iroXifuoif t&v ovin^^cdv Ät^. 

Ton were both educated by the same teacher. We were freed {äiroXma) from 
a great danger. I fear mnch (a great fear holds me), that the friend, who set 
off {pcatidp,) fiU days ago, has been murdered by robbers. I feared much, that 
yon had been mnidered by robbers. The two robbers are said to be UUed. 
The yonth is sdd to be well brought np. The treaties are said to have beea 
violated by the enemies. Well brought np youths are esteemed by alL The 
robbers will be killed. 

§85. A more particular view of the Augment and 


After the general view of the Augment and Reduplication (§ 77, 
B and 4), it is necessary to treat them more particularly. 

As has been already seen, all the historical tenses, viz. the Lnpf., 
Plup. and Aor., take the augment, but retain it only in the Indica- 
tive. There are two augments, the syllabic and temporal, 

(a) Syllabic Augment. 

1. The eyllabic augment belongs to those verbs whose stem be- 
gins with a consonant, and consists in prefixing e to the stem, in the 
Impf, and Aorists, but to the reduplication, in the Pluperfect. In 
this way, the verb is increased by one syllable ; e. g. ßwXeiw^ Impf. 
'i-ßovXsvoVf Aor. i-ßovXsvffa, Plup. i-ßs-ßovXevxBiP. 

2. If the stem begins with q, this letter is doubled when the aug- 
ment is prefixed (§ 8, 12) ; e. g. QiTtta), to throw, Lnpf. BQQiTttoPf 
Aor, i^xffa. 

^ Gen. absolute, like the Abl. absolute in Latin. 

e ■ 





































































9fi vteM^^-^TXMVOftAx. Aironnnv [§§ 86, ^^ 

Rbm. 1. The three Terbt ßoitXofiak^ t» teiUy dvvaftait to he aUe^ and 
fieX^Uytobe about to do, among the Attic writers take 7, instead of e» for th« 
augment; stIU this is found moro with ttie later Atfic wriln«, than with the 
earlier i e. g. Aor. ißov^ij&ffv and IfßovX^^v ; Impf, liwäfirfv and i/dwäfmjVf 
Aor. kivvii^ftv and i^lw^i^i^v (but always ^vaoi^i^v); ImpE l/ecXXov and 
ifieXhw (the Aor. is very seldom iifUTJiriaa). 

Rbm. 2. Among the Attic writefB the augment e is often omitted in the Plup^ 
of compounds, for example, when the preposition ends with a vowel ; in sim- 
ples, when a yowel which is not to be elided, precedes \ e. g. ävaßeß^Keif Koror 

§86. (b) Temporal Augment. 

The temporal augment belongs to verbs, whose stem begins 
with a vowel, and consists in lengthening the first stem-vowel ; in 
this way the quantity of the syllable is increased ; 

a becomes 97, e. 9. 'äyot Impf, ^yov Pei£^;^ft Pliq». ^eiv. 




Bbiulbk. Verbs which begin with rj, ly t, 6), ov and ec, do not admit the aug- 
ment je.g.TiTTäofiaLjtobe overcome, Impf ^rrufiTiVy Pei£ fjmffMiy Plnp. ijmy- 
fiirfv ; *lir6ufto pren^ Aor. 'inuoa ; '€ ttv 60, tokdlto aleep, Aor. 'i>7rvu<ftt ; <!^ ^ c"- 
XiUf to benefit, Impf. uxf^iXow ; ohräC^^y to wound, Impt oira^ov ; elico, to 
yjM, Impf eIkov, Aor/ el^a ; eiKa^i^,to liken, is an exception, which among 
the Attic writers, though seldom, is aogmented ,* e. g. elKo^ov, seldom jxaCov, 
ehaaa, seldom JKotra, eUofffMU, seldom •^itaofiai. Also those Yerbs whose steal 
begins with ev, usually take no augment; e. g. eü'jtoy^^ ^ sv^p/pUoate, e^xofoiVy 
more rarely yjix^f^fl^t hut Peif. tivyftai, not eiyficu ; eipujKu, to find, in good 
prose, always omits the augment 

§87. Remarks on the Augment. 

1. Verbs beginning with a followed by a vowel, have ä instead of 17 ; but 
those beginning with ä, av and 01 followed by a vowel, do not admit the aug- 
ment; e. g. VHo), to perceive (poetic), Impf 'öSop; *&ff6i^oftai, to be dim 
gutted with. Impf. 'ät/f'iCo^^v ; ai)aivijy to dry, Impt a^kuvov ; olaKiCt^t to 
äeer, JmpL oIoki^ov ; also äväXioKiiy to-dutrojf, although no vowel follows a, has 
äväTMüa, uvähjKa, as well as atnjhjaa, ävifkuKa. But oZo/uu, to believe, always 
takes the augment ; e. g. (^fitjv. 

2. Some verbs, also, beginning with 01 followed by a consonant, do not take 
the augment ; e.g. olKovpeu, to guard the house, Aor. ohcovprftra. 

3. The eleven following verbs, beginning with e, have ei instead of 9> for th« 
augment, viz. käu, to permit. Impf eiov, Aor. eleura ; k^iCu,to aecuatom, (to 
which belongs also eliir^a, to be accustomed) ; elaa/iifv, Aor. (stem *£A), leo» 

S 88*3 TXSB8.-^BSDÜ7LICATI0IK* 98 

UdOHudj fcmded; k^iüün, to wind; iXtcQ, to draw; Aor. elXxvaa (staoi 
*EAKT); elXovj to takeyAat, (stem *SA) of aipeu ; (frofiai, tofiäow; kp- 
ya^oftai, to work; ipicttj ipvv^w, to creep,to ^; itmau, to eatortam; 
ix**f to have» 

4. The foUowxng Torbc take the syllabic, instead of the temporal, augment : 
iiyvtfiif to break, Aor. 2a|a, etc 
dXiaicofiaty oaphry'Peif. WuMcatad^XwciL 
&^eoj topvak, ka&owy etc. 
üveofiaiyto h^, hoft kavovfoiVf Vert itinni/im» 

5. The Terb kopra^otyto cdixraU a feoMt^ takes the augment in the second 
•yllablie, Impt iQpra^ov. The same is true of the following forms of the Plu- 

EIKO, second Pexf. hiKo^ lam like^ Plup. I V^ x e i v. 
. iXirofuUf to hopej second Perf. hTiTra^ I hope, Plnp. iu2,ireiv. 
£Pri2, to doy second Perf. iop-ya, Plup. iupyeiv. 

6. The three following verbs take the temporal and syllabic augment at the 
I nme time : 

j öpäoftome, Impf. ItapaVf Test kdpoKO, iupafuu, 

! iLvoiyUfto open, Impfl ävetfiyov, Aor. &v&p^a (Inf. &voi(ai), etc. 

dkioKOftai, to be taken, Aor. käXcnf (Inf. dXüvai, ä) and fi^Mv, 

§88. Reduplication, 

!• Beduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with s. It denotes a completed action, and hence is prefixed 
to the Perf., e. g. Xe-^vxa, / hoeoe loosed; to the Fut Perf., e. g« 
ne-^tocfi^aoficUf I shall he adorned^ from xoafAsi» ; and to the Flap., 
which as a historical tense, takes also the augment e before the re* 
duplication ; e. g. i-ße-ßovJ^xuv. It remains in all the modes, as 
well as in the Inf. and Part 

2. Those verbs onlj admit the reduplication, whose stem begins 
with a single consonant or with a mute and liquid ; verbs beginning 
with Q, yv, fX^ ßX,* (except ßsßlaipa, ßsßXafifMU from ßXanrm^ to 
injure^ ßsßXaGq)iqfM.fpta from ßXaaqnfiiUto^ to Uasphemej ßeßXdarfiHa 
and ißXd<n^xa from ßXoundifco, to sprout^) are exceptions, inasmuch 
flfl thej take only the simfde augment; e. g. 

"kvii, to looee, Perf. /U-Av«a Plup. h-^^-^.VKeiv 

Mo, to aacrißoe, " ri-^Ka (| B, 10.) 

^vrevu, toj^ant, *' we-fvrevKa (§ 8, 10.) 

Xopevo, to dance, " Ke^xopevxa (f 8, 10.) 

ypa^, to write, ** yi-ypa^ 

kTuvq, to bend, '* Ki'kXiKa 

Kpivu, to judge, ** xi'icpuca 







* Such yerbs are excepted on acooont of the difficulty of repeating theat 


irviUf to breathe, Perf. iri-fcvevKa Hup. k-ire-irveiKeiv 


fuvTiay to throw, *^ ipfn^ 

yvQpiiut to make known, " i-yvCypiKa 
.ßhuceixjj to be slothßd, ** k-ß^MKevKa 


yTJj^y to carve, " l-yXv^a 

3. The reduplication is not used (the above cases of verbs begin- 
ning with Q, yvt ßl, yXy excepted), when the stem of the verb begins 
with a doable consonant or two single consonantsy which are not a 
mute and liquid ; e. g. 

Cv^ou, to emulate, Perf. k-^XoKa Plnp. k-l^tjlCiKeiv 

^evouj to entertain, " k-^hmKa " k-^evuxeiv 

iffoX^, to sing, ** B-^aXxa " k-iffäXKetv 

aneipu, to sow, " l-ffTTop/ia " i-airapKeiv 

KTl^U, to build, ** S-KTlKa " k-KTlKEtV 

irrvaau, to fold, " i-irrvxa " i-irrvxeiv. 

Bem. 1. The two yerbs fiifiv^aKa (stem MNA), to remind, and Kraofia^ 
to acquire, take the reduplicatba, aläioiigh their stem begins witii two conso- 
nants, which aie not a mats and a liquid : fti-inntftau, K^-K-rriitaif k-fu-fiv^fuiv, 

4. Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat this letter» 
but take ei for the augment : 

Xofißävü, to take, Perf. elXti'^ Plnp. elX^eiv 

Xayxftvo, to obtain, " elXrixO' ** dXrixeiv 

Xiyo, avXXiyu, to ooBect^ " oweiXoxn *' aweOubxetv 

TEQ, to my, " elpnua ** etpffKtLv 

fteipofiai, to dbtam^ '^ elfiaprai (with rongh BreaHiihg), it isfatedi 

Bem. 2. ^laXiyofiai, to converse, has Perf. dieiXeyfiau, though the 
simple Xeyd) in the sense of to say, always takes the regular reduplication, AiAey- 
[tat, dictus gum (Perf. Act wanting). 

§89. Attic Re dupli cation. 

Several verbs, beginning with ft,, e or ay I'epeat, in the Perf«r 
and Plup. before the temporal augment, the first two letters of the 
stem. This augmentation ia called the Attic Reduplication. The 
Plup. then very rarely takes an additional aug^ait ; ^Hijmew haa 
the regular Attic reduplication. 

(a) Verbs whose second stemnsyMable is short by nature : 

lipWii, •(!>, to plough, kXoQ {kXavvQ), to drive,, 

äfhvpoxa äp-^poftat kMfkana k^Xofuu 

i^ffpoKeiv äp-ffpo/uiv kX-ifXaneiv iX-iiXdftijv 

kkeyxo^i to eommux, ipvrro, to dig, 

iX^eyxa kX4fXtyfUU bft-opnx^ ip-CtpiiryfutL 

iX-iliXeyxeiv ^^Xryfoiv bp-^S^v^eiv bp^ctpvyftsjv 

(b) Verbs which in the second stem-syllable have a vowel long 

i 90.] TSKB8.«*-AU0iiaSNT AKD BXBJ3^ldCA.TlQ», 95 

bj nature, and shorten Urn after preftadag the fediiy^oation (except 
i^eidfo, toprop^ BQ^QtUM^ ((piQWTfMu) : 

6Xei^, to cmoüA^ iuiova^ t9 hear, 

aX^^eiv &X^Xifi/t^ IfK'iiKbei» ifKUvvfjofV 

ayeipu, to ooBec^ fy^iftttt to awahtn, 

äy^ytpKü äy-^epftat ky-rjyepKa ky-riyepfiai 

Ay^yipKetv (ky-ifyipfifiv ty^yipKetv iy-ffyipfiffv, 

Bkm ABK. The verb äyo, to lead, fbnns the second Aor. Act and Mid., and 
fepti, to carry, fonnfl til the Aorists with thii reduplication, with this difference, 
howerer, that the Towel of the reduplication takes the temporal augment only 
in the Ind., and the Towel of the stem remains pore : 

&yu,to lead, Aor. II. ijy-tfyov, lof. äytiyMiv, Aor. If. Mid« IfyayS/jUfv. 

^ipu, to carry (stem HSPK), Aor. 11. ^e^xov, Inf. kv-eyKelv, Aor. L^ 
«7x0, Lsf. hf-iyiuUf Jl», Baas. ifif^X^nv, Int iv-ex^^at» 

§90. Äuffmtnt and Reduplication in Compound 


1. First role. Verbs c(xa^)oanded with prepositions take the avg- 
ment and redaplioation between the proposition and the verb ; then 
pveposttions which end with a vow^ exc^t m^/ and x^, suffer 
Elision (§ 6, 3) ; ttQO freqnentlj combines with the augment bj 
means of Crasis (§ 6, 2), and becomes 9iqov, and iv and avv resume 
tiieir 9 which had been assimilated, or diepped, or changed ; e. g. 

ävo-ßä3iXa, to throw fiwH, InLäir-eßaXXov 'PtairO'ßeßXriKa Fip.&ir-eßeßXtfKeiv 

irept-ßäXTMftoÜmnüamuHd, «r<pe*8/3<uUov irapt'ßißXijita nepi-eßeß^ntv 

-frpo-ßäXXu, teitbrow befiirß, npo^ßaXXov wpo-ßeßXnita npo-eßeß^Keip 

npoißaXKov irpoißeß^Keiv 

kftrßaXXMf to threw in, iv-eßoKXop IfjtrßißXriKa tv-eßeßTJjKew 

iy-yiyvofJUUj tobein, kv^tyv6uif» ky^yiywa kv-eyeyweiv 

ov-eKeva^a, to pads up, trw^eoKevolOo» aw-eansvoKa aw^eaKevoKeiv 

ev^pinruy to tnrow together, aw^ift/kirrav aw-Sfilktpa cw^efifiii^tv 

avX-Xeyu, to eoOeet together, trw^iXeyov aw-e'Ouoxa miv-eiXoxeiv 

2. Second rule. Verbs compounded with dvg take the augment 
and redaplication, (a) at the beginning, when the stem of the sim- 
ple vei*b begins with a consonant or a voiwel wtfaich does hot admit 
the temporsd augment ; (b) but in the middle, when the stem of the 
simple verb begins with a vowel which admits the temporal aug- 
ment ; e. g. 

dv^'Tvxea, to he wtfiniunate, ^Sv^rv^ovv de-6v(TvxVKa iSc'dvpvx^KetP 

dv^'wiu, to make adorned, k-&ociiy!row 

itlf-apem-eu, to l»di8fleaeed, dvc-rfpiarow dvc^TfpearfjKa. 

Verbs compounded with w maj take the augment and reduplica- 
tion at the beginniug or in the middle, yet they conunonly omit 
them at the beginning, and BVBQystem usually in the middle ; e. g. 

YBBBS.— -AUOMSirr AHB BEDÜPLIOATiOir. [§§ 91^ 9S. 

tihTvxeUj to hefntttnalej n^Hx<j^f oommoiOy ei-^wp 
ei-uxeofiai, tojkut well, eihux<^M^ 

eif-epyereuy to do good, eihi^pyerovv, Perf. eihffpyerffKa, commonly «f- 

epyeroWf eb-epyenfKO. 

8. Third rule. All other compounds take the augment and re- 
duplication at the he^nning ; e. g. 

fiw^oXoye«, to rdate, kfot^oXoyaifp /UfHO^XoyifKa 

olKodofäuy to hwldy ^Kodofwvv t^odo/inKQ. 

§ 91. Semarks. 

1. The six following words oompoanded with prepositions, take the angment 
in both places, yiz. at the beginning of the simple verb and befi)re the preposi- 

üfinixpnai, to daÜiA onendf, Lnpfl 1ffiwetx6ftinf or äfmeix. Aor. iffnnaxofifpß 
^vexofiai, to endure, " ifveixof/^ " Ifvecxofinv 

äfA^yvoeUi to be tmoertotn, " ^fi^eyvoow and ^fi^yv. 
hfop&ou^ to raiae up^ ^ fvupr&ow Peif. nvup&oKa " 1fvop&owi 

ivox^i't, to moleat, " ifv6x^^»fv " iv6x^Ka " ifvox^V^f^ 

iTiipoiveuj to riot, ** kirapi^ow " ireirap^vffKa ** iir<ip(^5vffffa. 

2. The analogy of these yerbs is followed by three others, which are not com- 
poonded with prepositions, but are derired from other eompomid words, vife. 

dtairaa (from diatraj food), (a) tofied, {b) to be a judge, Impf. iSvfrov anfl 

difnw, Ferf. SediyTTfKa. 
dioKoveu, to serve {ftom. dioKovog, servcent), Lnpf. idiffKÖvow and dttjKovow, 

Perf öedirjKovifKa. 
äfn^toßffreQ {from AM4I2BHTH2, to diupMCe), Iinp£ ^fi/ptoß^romv ud 4p 


8. Exceptions to the first mle (§ 90, 1). There are seyeral yerbs compound- 
ed with prepositions, which take the augment before Ihe preposition, since they 
haye nearly the same signification as the simple* yerbs -, e. g. 

iiftfiyvoeti (vokt), to be imosrtam, Imp! Iffi^yvoow or iin^eyvoow (No. 1) 

äftj6iewvfu, to dothe, Aor. ifi^UtM, Perf. ifi^Uafuu 

hnoTCLfKu, to know. Impf. Tfiriaräfiffv 

Kct&iCo», to cause to sä, " kKo&t^, Perf. KeKo&uca 

Ko&eCofioi, to sii, ** ^«on^eCo^^v and cai^eC (without Aog.) 

Kä&ijfjuu, to sit, " iKfs&^/irfv and Kct&^firjv (without Aug.) 

Ka^evSi^, to deep, ^ kKa^tvdov, seldom Kfx&rivdov. 

4. Those yeibs form an apparent exception to the first rule (4 90, 1), which 
are not formed by the composition of a simple yerb with a preposition, but by 
deriyation from a word already compounded (Comp. No. 2) ; e. g. 

havTiovfuu, to cppoee onetdf to, from havrioc Impf. IfvavTiovfUfp 

ävTidiKeu, to defend at law, *' inn-idiKO^ ** IpnidiKOW 

iftmdoQ, to ettAUth, '< ifuredoc • '* ^fofedow. 

1 92. JDivtsion of Verbs in -<o according to the Oharacteristicy to^ 
gether with Semarha on the Formation of the Tenses. 

Yerbs in -co are divided into two principal classes, according to 
the dififerent nature of the characteristic (§ 77, 5) : 


L Fdre Terbfl, whose cbttracteristic is a vowel ; these sfe ttgun 
divided into two classes : 

A. Uncontracted verbs, whose characteristic is a vowel^ except! 
Oy e, ; e« g. ncudvi-fOf to educate^ Xv-m, to loose ; 

B. Contract verbs, whose characteristic is either a, e or o ; e. g.. 
Tifia-<o, to honor, qpcile-<o, to hve, (tw^o^m, to let. 

n. Impure verbs, whose characteristic is a consonant ; these are 
again divided into two classes : 

A. Mute verbs, whose characteristic is one of the nine mutes s 
e. g. XeiTt'oa, to leave^ nXea-fOf to twine, neid'-m, to perstuxde ; 

B. Liquid verbs, whose characteristic is one of the four Kquids, 
Xy I*, 9, q; e. g. dyyilk-m, to cmnounce, pifi-m, to divide^ 
fpaiihio, to »how, qi^eig-io, to destroy. 

'Rmtkuw . According to the accentuation of the first Fen. "Pte^. Ind. Act, ail 
vetl» are divided into, 

(a) Barytones, whose flnal syllable in the firs« Pers. Pres. Ind. Act is not act 
t«Dted ; e. g. Avh^ frA^K-w» etc. ; 

(b) Perispomena, whose final syllable is drcumflexed in the first Burs. ; ttM# 
aie consequently contract yerbs \ e. g. nfi&t ^iXo, fuv^Q. 

|M. L Formation of the Tenses of Pure Verbs, 

1. In pure verbs, both Barytones and Perispomena, the tense- 
«idings are commonly appended to the unchanged characteristic; 
e. g. ßovXev'öm, ßsßovXev^xa. Pure verbs do not form the Second- 
ary tenses, but only the Prinuuy tenses ; the Perf. with x (aca), the 
Fttt. and Aor. with <r (<Tfl9, 6a). Pure verbs» however, are subject 
to the following regular change in the stem : 

2. The short characteristic-vowel of the Pres, and Lnpf., both in 
Barytones and Perispomena, is lengthened in the other tenses. The 
Barytones will first be considered, thus : 

Z into I, e. g. fiffv-tuy firivt-auy k-fiTJvi-aa, etc. ; 
V into Oy e. g. KuX^Uf KuX^^rUf Ke^KÄXt-fttu. 

KiiUuy to kinchr. ACTIVE. 

Ind. «coXtl-ci Snlj. KoX^a Imp. KuXv^e Inf. K^iX^eiv Part Mtlt'Ov 
Ind. k'KuXv-ov Opt KoKv^ifu 




Ind. Ke'KutXi>'Ka Inf. ite'iwXihiuvai Part ne-ttaXe-Kiuf 
Ind. t-Ke-KuX^Kciv 

Ind. Kukt'Ou Opt KiiXA-aoLfu Inf. KuXt^uv Part KuXi^aav 
Ind. h-Ku>Xa~ffa Subj. KuXi^-ot^ Opt KuX^acuui 

Imp. KoXe-ffov Inf. KuXv-ffai Part KoXv-aaC' 






In<L K(j\1^ofi<u Subj. KaXt'UftM Imp. KuXt-ov Inf. KtjXi-e<r&ai 

Part xuAv-ojtievof 
Ind. i'KuXv-oftipf Opt KuXv-oifii^ 










Ind. Ke-KufXv'fiai 






Ke-KuAD-fievog u 

Ke-KijXv'Cr&iMTOv or /cc-zcwXv-ot^wv] 

S. 1. k-M'Koikt-iiiiv D. k-K^KfuXt-fie^w P. k'Ke-KCiXt-ijLt&a Opt ice- 
2. ^-JCf'icwAü-ao i-ice-ic(<)Xv-<n^ov ^-ice-xu^v-tr^e [/ccjXv-^ 

8. e-icc-/cüXt)-ro ^-«c-icoAv-otI^^ ^-ice-xcSAv-vro [vof e?i7v 


Ind. KijXt-aofuu Opt KuXlxroifirfv Inf. xuX^-aeoi^at Part. icuXd- 

Ind. k-KiSkO-aofiffv Snbj. xtf^^-cru/uiu Opt KoXo-oMfiijv Imp. 
ic6Af>-<rai Inf. «cwXi>-<rcun^ai Part /cCi)A{)-<Ta/i€vof . 



A ffT - SdTTlääXS^^iJv Snbj. ««Xo-i^w Opt ftci>^^i^ett7v 

Imp. «üXiJ-i^i/Ti Inf. KuX'D'&^cu Part «tjylö-T^ctf 

Fnt Ind. ic<i)Ai>-i^oo^( Opt icci>Xi>-i^<ro</ii^ Inf. KCiXi)-'&^ffecr^€u 
Part ic<jAo-ii^7<T6/ug»of . 

S 94. Verit whieh, contrary to the rvJkj retain the short Oharaeter' 

Mc'Vawel in farming the Tenses. 

I. Several pore verbs, contrary to the rule (§ 93, 2), retain the short charac- 
leristiovowel, either in all the tenses, or at least in some tenses. Most of these 
Terbs take a ff in the Perf Mid. oir Pass, and in the first Aor. Pass. This is 
InAcated by liie phrase, Ptus. with tr (see § 95). Thns : 
X pi lit to prick^ Put arp^ow, Aor. hCP^<^f^f Inf. xp'^<u- I*a89- with ü ; (but AT P ^ «t 

to anoint^ Pat a^P^ffo», Aor. hcp^^^ ^^- XP^^^^i Aor. Mid. k^ptoofiifv ; Peif. 

ICd. or Pass, «^tfffcai, Kexpiff^at ; Aor. Pass. kxfAo^nv). 
'kvtiijto complete^ Fat avian ; Aor. fyvwra. Pass, with a. 
apt Of to draw wader ^ Fat äptcu ; Aor. ^pvaa. Pass, with tr. 
lit a, to obse, e. g. the eyes, Fat /ui^u, Aor. iftvua ; bat Perf. lUfiUKO, I am läuty 

wrtUfto spit, Pat rrrtao ; Aor. hnifaa. Pass, with c. 
2 ^p 4^6), to cause to «^ Fnt Mpi^ff»; Aor. Idpoca (later ISp^o, Idpvoa)'^ Aor. 
Pass. Idptf^riv. 

S. The foUowing dissyllables in -$» lengthen the short ehanicteristio*vowel 
in the Fat and Aor. Act and Mid., and dvu also in the Perf. and Plnp. Act, 
tmt they resame the short vowel in the Perf and Plnp. Act (except dvu), also 
in the Ifid. or Pass., and in the Aor. and Fat Pass. : 

6 to, to wrap iq>, Fnt S^ffo Aor. i&Oaa Perf dedHKa diSv/taif Aor. Pass. kSMffv 
^toftosacrifix, " iW<tw " i^aa " TP&vKa re^vfioi " " krti&nv 
Xto^toUfOKt ^ Xttro « hXoaa « UXvKaUX^ftai « «« kXtfdiiP, 




EwMAi^y When the yowel in the Fat Act is long, and short in the Perf. 
Bud. or Pass., the Put Peif. resumes the long vowel, both in nnoontracted yeihg 
and in contract pore verbs } e. g. ^vu, XeX^ofjuu, 

§ 95. Ibrmation of the Aor, and Fut, Pass^ and Perf, and Php, 

Mid. or Pose, with a. 

1. Pore verbs which retain the short characteristic-vowel of the stem in fonn- 
ing the tenses, insert a (Comp. § 94) before the tense-ending -t^i^v, -^i, etc. in 
the Aor. and Fat Pass., and in the Peif. and Plap. Mid. or Pass. \ this a cot^ 
sects the endings to the tense-stem ; e. g. 

2. Besides these verbs, several others also, whidi either have a long character- 
istic-vowel in the stem, or lengthen it in forming the tenses, take the same forma- 
tion f e. g. aKovu, to hear, Aor. 9KOv><7-t^i7v, Fat äxav^a-i^aofiaif Peif. ^«oiMf- 
fuUf Plnp« ^Kov^'fitfv; kvaixa, to kindle f KtXevUf to command; «vAlu, to raff; 
Aevci), to stone; ^w, to scrape; ifrpio, to saw; treUi, to shake; XP^^t toanomt (§ 94); 
fjfaifUf to touchy etc. 

KeAevu, to command. 


Pres. Ke^^-o Perf. Ke-xiXev-Ka 
Impt 6'KeXeV'Ov Plap. i'Ke'KeXeV'Kciv 

Fat KsXeinio 
Aor. i-KiXev-aa. 



Perf. S. I. 


















Impf. i'KeXsv'Ofi'^v 









Kc-KeXev-ff^fievot elai 





Ke-KeXev-crd-aaav or Ke'KeTiev-tr&uv] 

■ Infinitive 


Ke-KeXev-a-pevog J) 

k'Ke-KeXev-<T-fiijv D. k-Ke- 
k-KE'KeXev-co k-Ke 

i-K€'KeXev-a-T0 k-Ke- 

KcXev-a-ne^ov P. k-Ke-KcXeif-u-ue^a 
KiXeV'(r&ov k-KS-KeXev-ave 

KeXev-<r^tfv Ke-KeXeV'O'fievot ffffav 

K£-KeXev-a-fzevog eiijv 

KeXewTo/iai Fnt Perf. Ke-KeXev-aofiai Aor. k-KeXev-ffa/iTiv. 


Aorist I k'KeXev-a-&ijv Fntnre KeXto<'ü''&r](yofiaL 

Rem. 1. Some vary between the regular formation and that with a. 

•&pa6o},to break in pieces, ri^pavcrftai and ri'&pavfjtaty i-&pav(r&riv 
KXeia, to shut^ K^XeiOftcu and Att. KinXi^ftai ; Aor. kKXeitr&rfv. 
Kpovo,to strike upon, KeKpovfiai and KeKpovcficu ; Aor. iKpovtr&ifv. 

Kem. 2. Some contrary to the rule, do not take (t, although they retain the 
short characteristic-vowel ; thus, e. g. ^o, -^a^ Xvo, mentioned § 94, 2. 




Xl/in. Vocabulary. 

AMävofioijW. gen. or aoc^j SpSftoCt -ov, 6, a course, Kara-fraiay to put a stop 

to perceiye, observe. 
ionic, -iSoc, ^, a shielcL 
drtvcH*, tenibly, violently, 


runmng. to. 

dvvafuc, -euc, ^t strength, x/sov», to knock, beat 

power, might aeuifi&gy •ov, 6, an earth- 

^pavct, to break, shatter, quake. 

crash. aekt, to shake. 

O^ (TTpaTi&Tai npdf rode noXeftiovc nopei>e<r&tu iKcXeva&ijüOtf, ^ifapfnf mrri 
^mb aetofiov detva^ toeia&ii. *H rCw Ilefyauv dirvafuc ifirb rw 'E^^vwv r^- 
pavoTCU. 01 iroXifuoi elg ri^v cucpav KattkXBiü^üav. "Ore ol ßapßiipoi ruv 
cumidijv TCf^ rd dopara iwö tuv 'ISiXX^uv KeKpovafievov ijtr&ävmrro, dpofi^ 
ifevyov. 'O troXefioc xareirava^. 

The soldiers are ordered to march against the enemies. Our town has been 
violentlj shaken by an earthquake. The might of the Persians was crowed by 
the Hellenes. The enemies have been shnt np in (into) the castle. The shields 
were beaten- by the enemies against their spears. The war is ended, i. e. has 
been put a stop to. 

§96. Contract Pure Verbs, 

1. Contract pure verbs, as has been seen § 92, are such as haviB 
for their characteristic a, e or o, which are oontracted with the mode- 
vowel following. Contraction takes place only in the Pres, and 
Impf. Act and Mid. or Pass., because, in these two tenses onlj, is 
the characteristio-vowel followed by another vowel. 

2. The following are the contractions which occur here : 

a - 

- etx 



e - 

e - 

- e 

= et 



- e =s 0Ü 






e - 


= V 


- y B ot 





€ - 


= ov 


- sa* OW 


- o 



e - 

- !•) 

=s {J 


-6» == « 


- « 



e - 

- et 

— et 


- et = ot (ov in 


a - 

- 01 



e - 

- Ol 

= Ol 


- Ot =^ 01 


- ov 



e - 


= ov 


- ov = ov. 

8. The tenses of contract verbs, as has been seen § 93, are form- 
ed like those of uncontracted pure verbs, L e. the short characteris- 
tio-vowel is usually lengthened, in forming the tenses, vis. 

fi into tjy e. g. q)iXe-m, to love, q)iXij-CM, ns-qtiXtj-xaf etc 
into (0, e. g. (uod-6-<a, to let out, fitod'm'aio, fie-fuC'&iO'Haf eta 
a into tj, e. g. rifiä-m, to honor, rifAf^'dm, tS'tifi^-Ka, etc 
a into d, e. g. iu-m, to permit, Fut ca-eri». This lengthening 
into d occurs, when €, e or q precedes (Comp. § 26, 1) ; e. g. 

ia-io, ia-ai» ; fisidtä-m, to tough, futdti-ijofieu ; (prnQa-os, to catek 


a thief y fptoQa-am (but iyyvi-to^ to give <u a pledge^ iyyv^tm ; 
ßoi-^j to cry ouiy ßo^-cofmif like oydoti)* To these Terbs be- 
long the foUowing: 

aloa-tOj to threghy oXoa-cro», 
OMQoi'Ofim, to hear^ dx^A-aofJUU. 

Rbmartt. The verbs xp^**i togweanorade^xp^^f^f^^t touw^and riTp^am, 
ft^-AorVy-ftltiievgh a p preoedee, lengthen ä into <r ; e. g. xpiff^/^f^* rpfiüti. Tlie 
ilo nde No. a. iriU be stftted in § 96. 





Pabadiohs of 




Ä ft« 


Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic 0. 


S. 1. 







Tifi{ä-ij)ii, to honor, 







0tX(e-(.))cj, to love^ 


(piX e-e)ei'Te 

fu<r^{6-ij)(jy to let, 



fuff&{6-ov )oV'Ci{v) 













Tlfl{ä-1J ä'TOV 











P. 2. 


i;wä-e ärTov 
Ttfila-i d-ruv 
Tifila-e ä-re 
Tifila-e ä-Toerav or 

<^iXle-e ei-TO 
0t^{e-c ei'Tov 
i^iX{ e-e)ec-r6»(rav or 





orfuov{ o^)oV'VTuv 






























kfutr^ o-e)ov 











Cbtaetenadc e. 

ChBiBcteristic D. 

r, - -■ 























r^i*)ÖV«« 1 



rv(^)9 E 



ri^ä^iö-™ 1 

^a ^.,}^™ 


Ttii(aÄi)ii-iit&in> 1 

t,i E-il)i.^OV 


fa j.,)^M, 





rv(i.,)*^. ? 



ri/i(>wj)ü-vTa( J 

















Tifi(a-i)a-<riij)!av or 

^Ä(E-E)eMTtf umiv or 

fllrf (o-OuinnJuCTOT OT 





















Imptr/tot. 1 






























^'— ^"- 





























mil, JTvia, to brtatit, 

i97, Stmarht on the Conjugation 

1. Verbs m -iu with a monosyllabic slem, e. g. irlfu, t 
*™, (D ran, are ranWactcd only in « (arising from hi » 
other forms, Ibej are unrontracUd ; e. g. 

Imp. lelel. ' Inf. irärf». P^. irJ^iv, irX*oi 

Opt w\i'>tiii,nXioti,eic 
2Cd.Pr.Ilkd. «\iouai,irXe^, iri^iroi, irXt6fieSov,TT^iii7^v,tt 

IqT. itXti-rSat. Part irAcö/ievoc- Impf. ^ t Jl e ö ^ i? v. 
S. The va^ Siu, to biad, is commonly contmcted in all tbe fonoB, pa 
iLftrly in compounds^ e. g. rd Jovv, roi' Aoiivro^, ÖmSov/iaij xariSomr. 
3. SeTeral vecbe dctiate from the general roles of controction ; e. g. 
(a) -at and -a« ai« contracted int« -i; and -p, instead of mto -aand-f ; 



Imperfect. 1 

Ctuneteriate 0. 












ftJUl-Tio;, -rta. -THW, ^<r*ü-rmr, -rio, -r™.. 

<'(4-u)fi, to Kci^ {'^, -^t -inv,-^, InC f^, Imp.^, In^. I^wv, -iit, 
■Vt -^Toc, -^Ti7t>, -TT«; — grEivfö-uJü, to hiagtr, Id£ irc»^, bM;}-^ 
d(i^{ö-w)ü, to ttoil, diV^, el<x,rnf. Jcf 7v ; — Kvfd-u )ü, to «crap«, 
Inf. «Ffu ; — o ^ ( ä - u ) Ü, (o «meor, Inf. njijv ; — ^ ( o - u ) cj, to ™fi, Iftf, 

toiawowi^ tooiii«,ijroj:pS(nSai;— ^TTÄipij (abridged from liimxpv), 
it nijfüxs, Ll£ iicoxpiv, ImpE iirixPV '• — JTP ( d - u ) i, tu pi« on orode, to 

(b) -M and -Of me matncted inlo -u, iiutead of ioto -ov, and -of) into -y> in- 

atead of into -d2, in piy{6-u)Ci,lo fieeze, ^bil. fityiM and ^lyoüi', Part 

Gen. ^yüvTot and (aijiovf rof, Snbj. ^ij-^, Opt ^lyi^, etc 

4. The foDowing things are to be noted on the use of the Attic hnas of the 

Opt in -n", namelj, in Ihe Sing, of verbi in -ia and -6u, iLc form in -ottrv is 

mncb more in nse than tho common fona, and in verb» in -du it is nsed almott 

ezcInsiTely ; bnt in the Daal and Pt. of all three, the common fonn is more in 

nae i in the thiid person FL, the Attic form is alnaje Ihe same as Ihe common 

km; «.g.Ti/ivtir. 

106 CONTRACT PCBE TESBfl. [§ 97, 

9. l%e Twb Xovo, to wtuh, thoogh properly not a oontoet, admito oontrao^ 
tion in all the forms of the Impf. Act and of the Pres, and Impf. Mid., in the 
ending of which there is -e or -o ; e. g. 1^^ instead of kXovey khmfuv instead 
«f iXovofuVf Mid. Xovftaif {XSeL,) Aovrai, etc., Imp. ^v» InH Aovai^ot, Impf. 
IA0V/19V, kXovj kXovTO, etc, as if from the stem AO£Q. 

•RiEifAng. On the change of the accent in contraction, see ^11, 2 . 

XLIV. Vocahulary» 
(a) Contract Yerhs in -ao in the Pres, and Impf. Act. 

'AyoKcui, to love. ^aa, to live. irptv, w. inf.^ before. 

Ai^avarof, -ov, immortal 1^Xi/cMl,-af,^,age,es29ecla^ vCi^\ how? 
k^Juu^i miserably, unfor- ly youth or manhood, auiirao, to be silent 

tnnately. i^o^/^oAeci^, boldly, cdnr- qvyKVKou, to move to- 
^/«7)*^>i)a point, height, ageonsly. gether, bring into oon- 

fall power, bloom. M^o, -of, 1^, an appear- fusion, confound, 
ierrpanrci), to lighten. ance, an outward figure, avjifiaxo^, -ov, fighting 

ßpovTcuj, to thunder. vcxdo, to conquer, over- with j sub^j a feUow- 
dt^fou, to thirst, or be come. combatant, or ally. 

thirsty. 6Xo^V|()o/Eicu,t9.aoe.,topity. reXevrdw, to finish, {ßiov 

dpaOf to do, act 6paa, to lee. understood) to die. 

ki^anaTcui, to completely bpfiau^ to rush, advance. roXfiauy to dare, venture, 

deceive, or mislead. wetvau, to hunger, or be prevail upon oneself. 
kpaOf w. gen^ to love (ar- hungry. 


HoXKoKi^ yvoftffv i^awaTuoiv Ideal. M^ ee vucaro Kipdo^. *Ep& 7% ape- 
r9f . noX^xif viK^ Koi KOKÖc dvdpa äya&ov. Ol äya^ol ipCkri röv koXuv. 
TLoXkol av^punoi iv r^ r^f rfXiKiac cucfiy reXevT&aiv. "H atCnra, ^ T^e äfiaU 
vwa, 'kvayKfi iarl rravroQ äir^povovc reXevr^v. Not);* 6pg. Koi vevf äKoOei, 
BapfiakittCf & urpariurai, Spftüfuv knl rodf iroXe/aovf. Uplv fiev v€tvfv, iro^ 
Xol ia^iowrif nplv di di^yVf irivovffiv. OIk iari rolg ^ 6pü<n avfiftaxoc roxfl. 
TlepixXvi ^arpairrev, ißpovra^ oweKwca t^ 'EAXd^a. El^e vavres Tratdec 
roi)f yoveac ayairi^ev. Hue äv roXfu^ rhf ^ikov ßTMnretv. Tb fthf adfjia 
fcoTilkUiug KcU ireivy koI di^y * if dh ^x^ ^^ ^^ ^ du^^ ^ iteivt^ ; "ivx^ d^d- 
varo^ Kol äyijpi^ Cy ^'d Travrof. Kpetrrov to fi^ ^yv hüTiv fj ^yv a^Xia^. 'OAo- 
fupofted^a rbv iv ry r^f iXiKiae oKfiy reXevruvTa. 

Children love their (the) parents. Either be silent (pi.) or speak better. 
With the mind (dat.) we see and hear. Youths should be silent (imp.). We 
will love virtue. All citizens fear (fear holds all citizens) that (ft^t v>' sulif.) the 
enemies will advance against the town. It is well to love our parents. We 
pity those who die {part.) in the bloom of youth (ifXiKia). The soldiers ad- 
vanced courageously against the town. The army is often hungry and thirsty. 
All the citizens feared, that the enemies would rush against the town. May 
yon always, boy, love your parents ! 


XLY. Vocabulary» 

(b) Contract Verbs in -eo in the Pres, and Impf. Act. 

^A&vfieUf to be dispirited, ^eXu and k^eXuf to will, well to, to confer a fa- 
despair, wish, be willing. vor on. 

AfuXeUf w. yen., to neg^ xav, w. subj. » kcu and ttov^m, labOro^ to take tron- 

lect, not to care for. the modal adverb uv, or ble, work, toil. 

6v (instead of iav), to. k<U kdvy even if, al- irpocrdoKao), to expect, pre- 

tuhj^ if. thongh \ or Koi and thie snme. 

itnofipeitt to flow «way, or particle äv. fiif, (unocy 6, i^, a reed. 

hom» Kpareo), w.gtn.^ to be mas- oiyaa, to be silent 

iuriUity to practise, adorn. ter of, have power over, av^^fißävo), w. dat^ to 

6kit w. yen., to want ; Sei, command. take in common with, 

tibere is need, it is ne- ^X^o, to talk, prate. help, assist 

cessarj, one mnst ; to. 'ftaXiara, {superlative of ovfiiroveUf w. dat.^ to woik 

ace, and inf. fmXa, very) most, es- with, help, assist 

ävfjTvxeo, to be mifortn- pedally. reX^6),to accomplish, fiilfll. 

nate. [praise. /teXty -irog, to, honey. inrspj w, yen., instead or in 

hroLVEOj to approve of, ii-fire — ^^re, neithei^^nor. behalf of, on aoconnt 

tinvxif^y to be fortunate, o/hdenorey never. of; w, o/oc., above, be- 

happy. TrXeu, to sail. yond. 

<^» -VCi ^f a request, a noieu^ to make, do j e^ ^ovew, to think ; fäya 

prayer. iroielv, to, acc^ to do ^poveiv, to be hanghty. 

'Av^p wovffpb^ dvcTVxeif Käv eirvxv- B/of Kpariarog, äv ^fiov^ Kpar^. 2<* 
ygtv ftaXKov, fj XdXeiv irphret,. 'O ti, fiv iroi^rc, vofuCere 6p^v •&eov. ^tXof 
^iKffi avfjLirovüv airrif^ irovet. 01 äv^ponoi '&v7}t61 fi^ t^povovvrov iffcp i^eovf. 
'O ftaXtara eiroxüv fi^ fiiya ^poveiru, OMenoi* u&vneiv rbv kokö^ vparrcvra 
Set, rä ßeXruj 6h npog^K^v aei. T^ irovovvn ^edf ovXXt^ißävei, AiKOtoaV' 
vifv iuTKetre koI Ipyi^ kcH Xoft^. *A7rd r^f "^iaropog yXümi^y &cirep /leXty 6 Ao- 
yof imipfiet. *0 ^ciKpaTijc tov aufiaroc ohn ^fiiXei, Toi>c Sh afieXovvrac o(nc 
iirfvei. EZ^e, & ^eoc, reXoiifc {reXolc) ftot t^ e*f7V. EWe einvxolre {einv» 
XpiiiTe), a ^iXot. Oeoi) '&iXovTOCt^ xäv {xai äv) M ßtvö^ irXeot^. 

Bad men are nnfortonate, even if they are fortunate. If Qod were willing, 
we could sail even on a reed. Whatever thou doest, believe, God sees it 
IFriends, who work with friends, work for themselves. Practise justice in word 
and deed. The Greeks neglected neither the body nor the mind. that ye, 
O gods, would fulfil my desire! that thou wert happy, my (O) friend t 
FHends should work with friends I It is well to practise virtue. 

XL VI. Vocabukay, 

(c) Contract Verbs in -ou in the Pres, and Impf. Act. 

*Afiavp6u, to darken, de- äfiiXeta, -of, 17, careless- avd^ptiinvoct -Vt -^i hit* 
stroy, weaken, blunt ness. man. 


1 f 158, 7. (a). * 4 161, 5. * Genitive Abeolate. 

t08 cosrxi^cx puw ^WW»« [197« 

&nop^, -nCt ^t ft flowing OlTeu, to seek, itriye. ^e^^C» -e^» 4f ft striTiiig 

off, ft source. Mt -VCt Vt lifo. ^Rer, a desire. 

doAoc), to ootnit, trick, ^elocy -<2, -ov, godlike, 6(r^6u^ to mo^Le stmlght, 

deceiye. divine. erect, raise np. 

dovXoo, to enslave, sab- Iva, in order that, that, o>6Te^'-c()Tef neither-*-nor. 

jngate. (after a principal tense dcnrep, vnep, 6nepf who- 

kXev&epoci, to set free, to with the subj. \ after a ever, whatever. 

free. historical tense with the aw-e^-ofioi6ctf to make e- 

i^io6iiy to make equal. opt). qnal. 

(n^M>^ to strive after, imi- Koivovia, -ac, if, commu- tw^Xoo, to make blind; to 

täte, value, think hap- nion, intercourse. bHnd. 

py, admire. Xifiod -oU, 6, hunger. ;i;a^e7röf, with düBcnItj. 

Td äXif^^s KoXkoCt fiirep kx ^eiag Kotvavias ^X^i r^ änojiPQ^v, ovre irovo^ ^ 
Xtfidc ^ afie},eia ri^j odre 6 wo^'öc Xpov<*C afMvpoi» Al i^Xim rd t^ ^rovai 
9W£^Oftoiovv. XjoXevu^ äv rat^ tC>v aya&Civ äperaig i^iaotriS {H^ois) zo^ 
hraivovc. 'Evvofua Qfiavpol Ißpiv. Taßa», o iral, Toi>g k<r^Xoi>c Koi aCxftpovac 
ivdpa^. IIoAAot)f KOK&f irpaTTovToq bp&ol tvxV' TlXv^Of kok^v r^ avd^pt^ 
vivftv ^(M^ äfMVpol. Ai irepi ri a^oSpaX bpe^eig rvf^Mfacv elg räX^^ r^ y^v- 
^fffiL T^ äpeii^v Kai ri)v ao^iav ^tfXcjfiev, Xpvcof iarw b dovXöv ^^vijtöv 
^ipeva/Q, Ol Tco^ifiioi to orpaTsvfM rifiütv kdoTMv». 01 veavicu n^ ao^iav (t^ 
Xoliev. 01 iroXifuoi hrXff<Ti<t^ov, Iva toi>c alxfiaXorovg kXerr&ep0iev. 

The yioleat striving after anjihing makes the soul Uind for oveiything elsa 
The enemies approach, in order that they may free the prisoners. Imitate, O 
youths, noble and wise men I It is not easy to make praise equal to the ▼ii'- 
tues of the good. We love youths who strive {pcartidp.) after wisdom. The 
enemies freed the prisoners. May violent desire not ma|:e your soul blind for 
everything else. Youths should strive after virtue. 

XLvil. Vocabulary. 
(d) Contract Verbs in-awin the Pres.and Impf. Mid.orPaftfl. 

'Adwareu, to be unable. set ray mind or heart finxo^vaofMi, mäthinor, Xq 
iuKfK, -eg, unseemly, dis* upon, desire. contrive. 

graceful. ebepyereu, vj. ace^ to do bf^oto^, in like maimer, 

6,Kpoäo/iai,w.gen^to hear, well to, benefit alike. 

listen to. ^ojuiait vj. pass, oar. and 7reipaofii^,.tiKpam,aort^ to 

äiibiü ( Tivä rtvoc), to think fiu^ to rejoice. try. 

deserving, consider wor- iffupodpofwg, -ov, b, (run- TipaQ, to esteem» honor* 

thy, desire, wish. ning through the day,) imbdfjfiaj-aTo^, to, (bound 

yap, for. a courier. under) a sandal, a shoe. 

tire — elre, sive — sive ; laofuu, to heal. xp^f*^* »• dat., to use ; 

whether — or. fWKopioc, -a, -ov, blessed, . tOor, 

im^fiecj, w. gen. or inf., to happy. ufjteXeo, w. ace., to benefit 

*Ofioiof Afi^lv axpoatr^cu del. 'Orav äöwar^ rip tt^uti^ xPV^^i ^^ ^' 

' By Crasis instead of rä aXXa. 


i^ipeic TW invtfToc ; E^ovf X6yoc Ximiiv laroi. TifiC^ftewu fr^rtf l^dovr« 
ßpoToi. Ol av&pwroi iroA^ foixovuvrai, lAcutäpio^^ &c o^tov ftol vow hc^t' 
XpnTtu yap etc a^ del koX&C' 'O äya&b^ iird iravruv riftaTtu, T^MTtiff trupA 
Kparttv. HepiK^^c ^^ tCw *k&fivaiuv ijyairäro koI krifiäro. Ol if/upodpofuu 
able kxpüvTO ivoSfffioatv h rale 66otc. OiK äeiKe^j kuv rig W kx^pov k^airth 
rorat. E!i^e Trdvref yoveif iirb rCw tekvov dyoTryvro. 0/ ityct&ol ^ird ttoi^- 
Tit» &yawaa^av . KZre ivd ^iXuv h^eXeic uyairu<r&ai, Toi>c ^ihjv^ eifepyirttf 
elre irco Ttvoc TroAewf kiri^vfielc Tifiätr^ai, t^v iroXiv «a^eAec, elre iird T^f 'E^ 
TloSoc vätTTic ä^tolg in* apery i^avfjia^ecr^atf r^v 'EXXada iretpü ei iroieiv. 

Listen to both, in like manner, O judge ! It is not disgraoeful if we are de- 
Ottved by enemies. Kind words heal sorrow. Man rejoices in being (part,) 
honored by others. We wish to be loved by onr friends and honored by the 
citizens. Among {irapaj w, dot.) the Lacedaemonians old men were extraordi- 
narily honored. Let the good man always be loved and honored by alL The 
judge should hear both. 

XLVm. VoeoMarff. 

(e) Contract Verbs in -eü in the Pres, and Impf. Mid. or Pass. 

'Adaceu, w. ace., to do iroc, -eof » -ovf , to, a tW. ßiL^ afber rerbs of 

wrong to, injure, do in- year. . care. 

justice. laxi>poc, -Of -ov, strong, trAj^fftof, -d, -ov, nearj ol 

aldeoftai, w, acc^ to be powerful. irXtfcrtov, those near, 

adiamedbeforeanyone, Karor^povio, to, gm^ to neighbors, fellow-men. 

reverence, esteem, wor- despise ; paas^ Kara^po- froXiopKeu, to besiege. 

ship. veofuu, to be despised. vpoc-Troiio, to add ; müL, 

äirioTEUt w. daty to disbe- "kotdopeuy to scold, abuse. to acquire, claim, or 

lieve \ paes,^ äirtareofuu, fOaiuj to hate. make for oneself. 

to be disbelieved. 5^ur, how; in order that; ^^ew, to frighten; mid. 

&ir6-Xwnc, -ea>c, ^, dehv- w. subj^ after a princi- w. paw. oor., tobe ftjght- 

eranoe, liberation. pal tense ; to. opt., after ened, fear. 

dioftcUf w. pass. aor. and an historical tense; w. 

gen., to want, need. 

AlSov ^eov. Tbv &ya'&bv avSpa ttoioi) hraXpov. ^ikovvTe^ dihiOvToi, fu- 
aovvre^ [ua&vvrai. Tbv Iffxvpbv Sei irpaov* elvcu, 6wa^ ol w^^ijaiov cdSuvToi 
/laTCXoVj ^ ^ßüvrai. AlSelcr&ai del ^i^^oug. *Afn(7Toi)vTai ol ^htiy k&v bXii- 
^evuetv. 01 Tlepacu imd röv 'EAJl^wv kfuaovvTO Kot Kare^povovvro. *0 ftij' 
Shf &dtK&v oMevbc Selrcu^ vofiov. Tpoia dexa inj iirb tQv IRXX^uv kiroXiop- 
Kelro. Ol iroXiTai k^ßovvTO, fi^ ^ noXtc iroXiofMcolro. Aoidopovfievog ^ipe * 6 
yap XoiSopöVy häv 6 Xoidopovfievog p^ vpoprot^rait XoiSopelrai ^idop&v. M9- 
dele ^ßei(r&ii ^ävarov, &7r6h)aiv Kcucibv. 

Worship {pit.) God. One who loves {part.) is loved, one who hates (part) 
is hated. Those who do no (not) injustice (part.) need no law. The king d 

the Persians was hated and despised by the Hellenes. The citizens fear, tliat 

■ — - - - — - 

* Instead of eifraera,eic 3. 'See 4 48. *{I58,8.(a). 



110 emiTKAOT PUBS TSSB8« [§ 98* 

IJhe town will be besieged by the enemieB. Maj you make (pi.) good men your 
ftkndi. Fuents delight to be honored {part.) by their children. It is not 
flJUprifirfhl to be hated by the bed. 

XLIX. Vocabulary. 
(f) ContraetVerbs in -ou in the Pres, and Impf. Mid.'orPas0. 

A^7» -VCt it strength. k^-afiavpoUf äfiavpou» ftepi^u, to part, divide. 

yavpoOf to make proud ; strengthened by k^t (fäp^t -pi^oct Vi flesh. 

mid. 101 pß88. aor.f to be page 107. rairfivou, to Ining low, 

prond, pride oneself in. ^vf^tioui to punish. humble. 

iilX6oj to make known or ^^» -eof =z .ovf, ro, cxm- inreprj<^voCf -ov, haughty, 

erident, show. tom, manner, the char* proud. 

havTtSo/iaif w, dat^ ad- acter. x^H>^f^*'f to worst, sub* 

venor, to oppose, resist, urjTe^-faiTe^ neitheiv— nor. due, subjugate. 


LcfvXovfu&a Ty ffoptä^ k<ü roif va&eaiv. Tvb r^r avayKijc iranna dovAo$- 
T€LL raxv. H <^iXia etc 7roXXoi>^ fiepi^ofUvti k^afiavpovrcu. Toi>c ^i^-ovc i2.ev- 
^ep&fieVf Toi>g de kx^poi>c x^^p^f^^^- M^ yavpov troipi^j* fifjT^ öXk^^ ft^re ttXov- 
ty. Td j^f^of ftäXt4TTa hi ruv ipyuv ^Xovrai. *0 inrep^^avo^ rawetvotTO, Oi 
wakov koTi, ry <ro^ yavpov<r&tu. 01 role äya^olc ivavnovftevoi ä^ioi ehi C17- 
tuovff^ai. Oi OTpoTtuTai inrd tuv ßcLf^äpiiv MoAoüvro. IXavrej: Koiui ^^• 

The immoderate are enslaved to the flesh and the passions. Be (pi.) not 
pnmd of your wisdom {dat.). May the haughty be brought low. It is dis- 
graoefhl to thwart the good. The citizens fear, that they may be subjugated by 
(^ir^ w. gm.) the enemies. Cowardly (bad) soldiers are punished by &e gene- 
nL One who prides himself in (peart.) his (the) wisdom {dat.) is not wise. 

(98. OonHtxct Verbs which, comJbrary to ihe ndcy retain the short 
Oharacteristie-^vofuel informing the Tenses. 

1. As in several nncontracted pure verbs, the short characteristic-vowel is re- 
tained (^ 94) contrary to the rule in forming the tenses ; so also in several con- 
tract verbs. Most of these verbs take a a in the Feif. Mid. or Pass, and in the 
first Aor. Pass., and the tenses derived from both of these forms. This is indi- 
cated by the phrase, Paas. with a (^ 96). They are the following: 

(a) -d». 
yeX&o,1o laugh f Fnt yeX&aoficu ; Aor. kyiXaoa. Pass, with a. 
kXaa (usually kXaiivu), to drive. Put kX&aw (Att £Att» f 83), etc 
1^ Aa u, to 6nit«e, •&'k&au, etc Pass, with a. 
c Aau, to dneaib, jcA^g), etc Pass, with a. 
XaXai^tto looten, x^^^^^y ®tc Pass, with o. 

^ S 161, % (a), (d). * \ 161, 8. 

§ 98»] connuoT pvbb tshm. Ill 

6afiä§i (nmially doftaC»)^ te «uMtM» Aor. iSoftaau. Paai. with <r. 

ir«ptt</, to fraM|x»t, to m0, Fat irep&vw ; Aor. ivipäaa ; Per£ irnr^paxa; bat 

irepdu, to /xus over (Intran8.)i Put vepaau ; Aor. iir^gdoo. (ThiBM «am 

yerbs have a liquid before the characteristio-Towel a). 
air a », to draWf av&ao, etc. Pass, with tr. 
cxtitOfto hose, to open, 0x^00, etc. 

(b) -iu. 
Axiofiaiyto heal, äKeaopuu, ^Keaäfinv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. i^Jceo/Mu ; Aor. Ptas. 

AX i et, to grind, to beat, Put dXcj (§ 83) ; Perf. BTid. or Pass, ä^le^;flal (§ 89). 

äpKiu,to mffioe, etc. Pass, with (r (also to &e «u^Eoott). 

kfieo, to iwnMt, Fat i/<«r6», etc. ; Perf. Act ift^fiexa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, kft^ 

fuvfuu (f 89). 
^ia,to boa, osoailj intrans., and C^vwfti, osoally trans. Pass, with a. 
I e «, to «crape. Pass, with o. — t eXeo,to accomplish, Fat reX<j (( 83). Pass. 

Tpka,to tnniiiUi--x ^^jto poaar. 

Tt»iiA»ir . The following have m some tenses flie long, in others, tiie short 

alveo,to pram. Fat alvian ; Aor. fveoa ; Perf. fvexa ; Aor. Pass. ^ei9^ ; 

bat P^. Mid. or Pass, i^fuu, 
alpio,to take, Aor. Pass, ^fpe&ifv ; also 17 ; e. g. alp^eu, ipfixa, ifptf/iai. 
yaftio, to many, Fat ya^uil) (^ 83) j Aor. tytifM ; Perf. yeya/ufKa ; Aor. Plui. 

iyaiiTi&rtv {Twos Iahen to tm/e). 
Siy, to bind, d^au, idifaa, kd^aäfijfv; bat dedeKO, didefiai, kdi^^; Fat PerC 

de^fjuofiai, which takes the place of the Fat Pass, de^aoftai not used bf 

the Attic writers. 
KaXe(j,to caB, Fat koXö (^ 83) ; Aor. Uäleaa ; Perf Act «exX^ica ; Perf. Mid. 

or Pass. KtKhiftai, lam called; Fat Perf KCKTJiaoiiaA, I shall be called; Aor. 

Pass. UX^tiv ; Fat Pass. KXtr&^aofjuu ; Fat IdQd. KoXovfiai ; Aor. Mid. 

no'&eu, to desire, old Attic Fat iro^eaofiai ; Aor. ^^roi^effa ; elsewhere iro^au, 

kno&ijaa ; Perf. Act ireiro^Ko ; ireiro^ijfiat ; Aor. Pass, ino&eo'ß^. 
irovea, laböro. Fat irov^ijw, etc. (to loorfe) ; iroveao (to 6e in pain) ; Perf. fre?r6- 

v}7«a in both senses. 

(c) -6a. 

iL poo, to plough. Fat hpoau, Aor. »/poca : Perf. Mid. or. Pass, äp^popm ((89); 
Aor. Pass, ijpb^riv. 




§ 99. Para 



Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Cbaracteruitic o. 







air{u-u)Uy to draw^ 

re^(f-(i>)w, to cuxom- 

kTei,{e-ov)ow [plish, 





äp{6-(j)cjj toptou^ 








\ kffirä-a-'&Tfv \ kTeXe-a'{^rjv \ rjpo^ijv 

Verbal adjectives : ana-a reo^^ -ria, -reov 

Rbm. 1. On the formation of the Perf. and Aor. with cr, see § 95 ; and on the 
Attic redapUcaiion in &fhvpofuu, § 89, (a). — The farther inflection of kana-o- 
fuu, kaira-<r-fiijv, TeriXe-a-ficUf krereXe-a-fi^v is like that of KEKeXe^a-ftaij ixe* 
iLeXe(ha-fifjv (f 95). 

Rem. 2. On the Attic Fat {reXiffQ =» reXuf reXelCt etc., reXiaofMi ^ reXov- 
fuu, reXetf etc.), see ^ 83. 

Rem. S. Two contract yerbs assume e in the Pass , although thej lengthen 
the characteristic-Yowel in forming the tenses, viz. ;t o <i), to heap, Fat x^^^» 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. Kexf^fffiat, Aor. Pass, ^^(ti^^v, and xp^^i ^ give an orade, 
Fut XP^^^i Ved. Mid. or Pass. ice;fp70)uaf, Aor. kxpfi<r&iiv.'^Xpaoiiai, to use, 
Fat xph^^f^^f ^^ Ü1 the Perf. KkxpVl*o^i hut in the Aor. ixP^^W' On the 
contrary, i^Mo, cUviit, alpin, diu» and äpoo, do not assume a, although the char* 
acteristio-yowel in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, and in the Aor. Pass., remains short 
Comp, f 98. 

L. Vbcaibulary, 
Formation of the Tenses of Contract Verbs. 

*Ayp6c, -ov, d, a^, a field, iao, to let, allow, permit, KToofnu, to acquire, gain ; 

4tda7ifiuv, 'OV, inexpe- leave. perf., to possess, have. 

rienced, ignorant iXKo^, -eoc = -ovc* t-o» td- Xoyi^ofitu, to think, con- 

^utiofuu, to heal. cus, a sore, an ulcer. sider, reflect 

iutoXonr&kij, w. dat., to fol- larpo^, -ov, b, a phTsician. TMytog, -d, -ov, eloqaent| 

low, go behind, imitate. Kaipioc, -a, -ov, and Kai- , intelligent. 

iveXev^epia, -af , ^, illibe- pio^, -ov, at the right fajSeiroTe, w, imp. or a/bf, 

ralitas, disgraceful ava- time, opportune, fitting. in an imp. sense, never. 

rice. KtipTToofMi, to enjoj the oUeo, to dwell, inhabit 

irvxi», to be unhappy. fruits of. olxodo/uot, to build a 

49^» -9> -ov, evident KOufUo, to adorn. house, build. 






Characteristic a. 

Characteristic e. 

Characteristic o. 





kTeX{e'6)ov-fjipv . 







!Fature \ a'ira-(T-'&v<fofi:ai \ TeXt-a'-^^tTOfiai \ äpo^a<^uu 
Te2.€-(T-TE0ij -ea, -eov äpo^reo^f -ia, -eov. 

vevixpoct -a» -dv, poor. cunrffXdc, -7» -ov, mUteot ^^ffS», to defVBAe. 
wXovriu, to be or hecome a^XkUf to shake, make XfP^f to depnvei rob, 
ripfa. &I1, decelye v bereave. 

Oi nept rdv AfCiii'tifap rpiOKoüioi^ yewaiof ftaxo/ievoi treXe^Ttfaav. Nuof" 
at» bpy^ r^ XoyU^e<r&iu* «aAuc* Maxapeof , 6rrif ehrixfiirev elc rficva. IIoA^ 
Aoi)f icflucwc "KpaTrovTaQ Cipf&aae rvxv- 2^A>l£i ^icetvovf, oDf &v i^uay rvxV' 
T^dia vdvra -öe^ rtXeaai. MtjOenore Kpiveiv äda^fiövac ävdpac iäay^. *Ev 
olc äv Tonoiq TIC uTvxv^t TovToig irXijaia^cjv oix ^ierai. *0 veavtag axohtv- 
■'drfcaru ry ao^i^.* *0 iroaitiic ^v "koyiiirarov 'Odvaaea aiQirri'koTaTov ireirotij- 
K£u. Oi äya&ol narpida Koofi^üovaiv. TloXXoKtc wevixp^C &vffp (d^a fiaX* 
hrXovTfiffev, Ho2^l KCKTfjfievoi fikv YroXA4 oh xp^^ff^f- ^^ ^f-* äveXetr^epietv. 
A6vavipoct 6 Y/irapnarriCj ftryäXav rifiGn^ ii^t^r^. Oi iffiepo6p6ftot oik ixp^ 
<ravro imodif^taaiv^ bv rate 66oig, *H iroXic voXXuv &v6püv^ kxvp^V- Oi la-- 
Tpol rä SXkij uKeaovTai. 'H yXurra oiyi^ Kaipiav KexnifjtivTj Koi yipovri ica2 
vi^ Tifi^ ^epei. OiSelc i-rraivov ijdovdig kKT^aaro. Oire r^ Kokcic äypbv ^- 
TEVoafiivif) djjXovi b^rig KapnCiaerai, ovre t^ KaXug oIkiov olKodofiifoafievi^ d^ 

The good will love (dyaTra«) and honor the good. Koble youths "wfll follow 
Tirtae. The citizens will think the brave warriors deserving of great honor. 
Alexander, king of tiie Macedonians (6 Maxed^^y, -ovo^)^ conquered Darius 
king of the Persians. Leonidos and his 300 warriors adorned their country by 
their bravery. The citizens thought the brave warriors deserving of great honors. 
Fulfil (a&r.) for me, O Zeus, my prayer ! The soldiers have conquered the ene- 
mies. The war has robbed the town of many citizens. The enemies were coih 
quered. The brave warriors will be thought by the citizens deserving of great 
honors. The physicians healed Ae ulcer. No one will gain praise by pleasures. 
The town has been robbed of many citizens. It has all [piur.) been well fulfilled. 

^ i. e. Leonidas and his 800 warriors. ' ^61, 3. ' § 161, 2. (a), (6). 
* § 158, 7. (y). • 4 158, 9. (a). 



§100. 2. Impure Verbs, 

Pure and Impnre Stem. — Theme. 

1. Impure verbs, i. e. those whose characteristic is a consonant 
{§ 92), undergo several changes in the stem, a part of which take 
place in the formation of the tenses ; these changes in the stem are 
as follows : 

(a) There is either a strengthening consonant added ; e. g. tv^-t-«», 
stem 2T/I; x^af-oo, stem KP Ar-, 

(b) or the stem-vowel is lengthened; e. g. (psvy-o}, stem ^TF; 
iL^i^-w, stem AAQ; tjJx-co, stem TAK; 

(c) or there is a change of the stem-vowel in the tenses ; this 
change may be called variation, and the vowel subject to the change, 
the variable vowel; e. g. xXeWr-oo, e-xX^nr-^, x£-xXogp-a; Comp. 
English ^^,^/W,^/2tnim, — «»n^, sangy sung. 

2. In verbs, whose stem is thus changed in the formation of the 
tenses, the two different stems must be distinguished, viz. the origi- 
nal, simple one, and the full, strengthened one ; the former is called 
the pure, the latter the impure, stem. The Pres, and Impf, of these 
verbs contain the impure stem, the secondary tenses (when such are 
formed), and especially the second Aor., the pure stem ; but the 
other tenses either the pure or impure ; e. g. 

Fres. Tvir-r-«, to s/bnike^ Aor. II. Pass, k-rtv-riv FuL rv^« (ri;7r-<yw) 
Aei7r-(j, to Uave^ Aor. IL Act I-XZtt-ov A«^ö (XetTr-aw) 

3. For every form of a verb which cannot be derived from the 
Pres, tense in use, another Pres, is assumed, mostly for the mere 
purpose of formation ; this may be called the Theme (S-sfia), and is 
printed La capitals, so as to distinguish it from the form of the Pres, 
in actual use ; thus, e. g. qi&iym is the Pres, form in use, ^TFSl is 
the assumed Pres, form, or the Theme, in order to oonsUruct the se- 
cond Aor., i-cpvy-or. 

§ 101. Strengthening of the Stem, 

1. The strengthening of the stem by consonants consists in mere- 
ly strengthening the simple characteristic consonant of the stem by 
means of another consonant ; e. g. 

rvTTTw, to strike, Aor. II. Pass, k-rtw-^v 
rarruj to arran^, " " k-r&y-ijv 

Kpu^u, to cry out, " Act i-Kpäy-ov. 

2. Yet the stem, strengthened in this way, is found only in the 

m 9 



changed into v in mute verbs, e. g 
" ai " liquid " " 

« gl « it tt u 



e* " mute " ** 


I " " and liquid verbs, " 

^ U tt It U « « 



CI»" mute verbs, " 

t lOS*] ynM.r-MC«A]fos of thb stem-yowsl* 11$ 

Pres, and Impf. ; in the other tenses the strengthening letters are 

omitted and the simple stem appears ; e. g. 
Pres. Tvirroi Impf. irviTTov Aor. II. Pass. Minjv Put. rvtpQ {rvirau), 
TL^igAitg. The characteristic of the pure stem, e. g. tt in TTII-Q, is called the 

pure characteristic ; that of the impure stem, e. g. nr in rvvT-Uf the impure 


8. The short stem-vowel of many verbs is lengthened in the Pres, 
and Impf. ; this short vowel reappears in the second Aor., and in 
the Fut of liquid verbs. Thus ; 

(jiäv'ij) if>aiva 

(pd^ep^o) ^eipa 

i'Tpiß-ffv) Tptßu 
k-ijtpiy-fjv) ^ptyt^ 
l'<^vy-ov) ^evyu. 

§102. Change or Variation of the Stem-vowel, - 

1. The change or variation of the stem-vowel, § 100, 1. (c), oc- 
curs only in the Secondary tenses, except in a few first Perfects. 

2. Most mute, as well as liquid, verbs, with a monosyllabic stem 
and with e as a stem-vowel, take the variable vowel, namely, short 
a in the second Aor. instead of € ; e. g. 

Tpiir-Of to turn, Aor. II. Act l-rparc-ov 

TpeifhUf to nourish, " Pass, k-rpatp^riv 

aTekl-a, to send, " " k-aräX-riv 

^eipH», to destroy, " " k-^'&ap^riv. 

But not polysyllables ; e. g. üyyiXktii, to announce, Aor. II. Pass. fiyykXriv, 

Bbh. 1. This change of the stem-vowel does not occur in the second Aor. 
Pass, of some verbs of this class (the second Aor. Act not being used), because 
the second Aor. Pass, cannot be mistaken for the Impf., see 4 103, Rem. 2; e> g* 
ßXenUfto see, Impf. i'ß^sir-ov, second Aor. Pass. i-ßXeir-^. 

B. Liquid verbs with monosyllabic stems and with the stem-vowel 
e, take the variable ä, not only in the second Aor., but also in the 
first Perf and first Plup. Act. and the Perf. and Plup. Mid. or 
Pass, and the first Aor. Pass. ; e. g. 

areXTM, to send, Put trreX-cJ Perf. e-ora^-Ka Jt-arak-fiaL Aor. k-aTaX--driv. 
But not polysyllables j e. g. i^yyehia, ijyye'k'&riv from äyyeXXu. Comp. No. 2. 

4. Those mute and liquid verbs, which have e in the final stem- 
syllable of the Pres., take the variable o in the second Perf. ; but 
those which have ei in the final stem-syllable, take oi ; liquid-verbS} 
which have e or u in this syllable, take o ; e. g. 

114 BEMiUatg OK TOB SBCOiniABT jtxmB. [§ 108. 

Tpiifto, to mmritk, rirpo^ dipu, toßcttf^ Sidopa 

Xeimj, to leave, XeXotira (nreipu, to sow, ioiropa. 

5, The following take the variable o, in the first Ferf., contrary 
to the role in No. 1. 

Mnriij to steal, first Perf. KeK2,o<J>af but Peif. Hid. or Pass. KeKXe/tftai (x^- 

Kkafiiiai rery rare and only poetic). 
XeyOfto collect,üxst Perf. ^vveiXoxa, k^ei%oxO'\ but Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

fcifjmu, to smd, first Perf. ir e tt o /< ^ a ; bat Perf. Mid. or Pass. irtirefiiiaL. 
TphrUf to turn, first Perf. rerpo^a, (in form like the second Perf. of Tpe<^, to 


6. The following mute verbs with a monosyllabic stem and with 

the stem-vowel 6, like liquid verbs (No. 3), take the variable a in 

the Perf. Mid. or Pass. ; still the a is not found in the first Aor. 

Pass., as is the case in liquid verbs ; e. g. 

urpii^u, to titm, Peif. Mid. or Pass, larpafifiat, \mk first Aor. Pass, karpe^i^nv 
TpeTTCi, to turn, " rerpafifiac, " « iTpe6i^ffv 

Tpi^, to nourish, " ri-^pafifiai " " e^pet^^Qiiv, 

§103. Remarks on the Secondary Tenses, 

The Secondary tenses differ from the Primary, partly in wanting 
the tense-characteristic, and consequently in appending the personal- 
endings, 'OVy 'OfAfpf, -jyy, -i^aofiai, -a and -siv, to the pure character- 
istic of the verb; e. g. second Aor. i-Xln-ovy but first Aor. i-noudev- 
a-a ; partly in being formed throughout from the unchanged pure 
verb-stem, e. g. Xeinm s-X i ti-ov, (pevyca S-cp v y-ov ; and partly in 
having the variable vowel, e. g. <stqi(pfa, i'(jtQä<p'fiP, (ytQä(p'i^cofiai ; 
but i'CTQsqi'S^, 

Rem. 1. The second Perf. does not always retain the short stem-vowel, bot it 
ddier lengthens it in many verbs, viz. ä into Vi and after p and vowels into d ; 

Kpa^u, to cry out. second Aor. l-Kpay^ov second Petf. xi-Kpäy-a 
^pitrati, to ämdder, stem : 4>PIK(i) " 7re-<f>plK-a 

^aXkij, to bloom. Put. M2^& " ri-^Ti^a ; 

so, irhpT)va, Xelrr&a from *AN-o, AAÖ-w ; or it retains Ae long vowel or diph- 
thong of the Pres. ; e. g. ire(f>evya from <f>evyu, but second Aor. Act i<j>vyov, re- 
njKa from r^/cw, but second Aor. Pass. huKfjv. 

Rem. 2. Those verbs whose second Aor. Act would not be distinguished fit)m 
the Impf, at least, only by the quantity of the stem-vowel, have no second Aor. 
Act and Mid., but only the second Aor. Pass., because this has a different end- 
ing from the Impf ; e. g. 

ypd(^ Imfi. typtufwv Aor. H. Act wanting Aor, IL Fobs, typ6i^. 

§§ 104» 105.] XUTS TXBB8.— CHAXAOTBBItna 117 

A. MuTB Yebbs. 

§ 104. Introduction, 

Mute verbs are divided, like mute letters, into three classes ; in 
each of these classes, verbs with a pure characteristic in the Pres, 
and Impf, are distinguished from those with an impure characteris- 
tic (§ 100, 2). 

1. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Pi-mute (ß, «r, q> pure ohar- 
acteristic ; nt impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, TrsfiTt-w, to Btfndy rgiß-m, to rub, YQatp-oHy 
to write ; 

(b) impure characteristic, n/^rr-oo, to strike, (pure characteristic ft, 
pure stem TTIT), ßXoart'Oi, to in^'ure, (ß, BAAB), ^eWr-oo, 
to hurl, (9, 'P/4>). 

2. Verbs, whose characteristic is a Kappa-mute (x, /, x P^^>^ 
characteristic ; ca or Attic tr, impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, nXex-o), to weave, ay-to, to had, revj^-oo, to 

(b) impure characteristic, q)Qt<ja'<o, Att q)Qirt-io, to shudder, (pure 
characteristic x, pure stem 0P1K), "tdaa-co, Att. rdtt-m, to 
arrange, (y, TAP), ßi^aa-m, Att ^i^tt-m, to cough, (x, BHX). 

3* Verbs, whose characteristic is a Tau-mute (r, d, d' pure char- 
acteristic ; ^ impure characteristic) ; e. g. 

(a) pure characteristic, a»ir»m, to complete, ^d-m, to sing, ftsi'&'CD, 
to persuade ; 

(b) impure characteristic, qiqaC-fo, to say, (pure characteristic d, 
pure stem ^PAJ). 

§ 105. Remarks on the Oharacteristie. 

1. Some Torbs in -affu, -ttu, have a Tau-mnte-— not a Kappa-mnte--fiMr 
the pure characteristic: äpfioTTo {äpfio^ct)^ to Jit, 'Fut 'oaa -y--^ p i a a Of to 
rowy Fat -eaa ;— tt aaaUfto fcaüer. Fat -aüw ; — tt "katjüi^, to firm, Fat 'Ooa ; 
^4r riff a it, to pound, Fat -mtcj. 

The verb vaacu, to press together, varies between the two formations, Fnt 
vaiii, etc., Perf. Mid. or Pass, vevaofjuu, verbal adjective vaaro^. 

2. The following verbs in -^^i which for the most part express a call or Bowndy 
have for their pore characteristic not a Taa bat a Kappa-mute, nsually y, viz. 
alalia, to grooEn,'Ent ala^w, ä%aXa(^u, to shout; Kot^o, to squeak, to grunt 
(like a swine); Kpa^u, to scream; Kpu^o, to caw; fiaori^o, to whip; bd&- 
Ct^ftobUe; olfiu^u, to lament, "Fnt olfw^ofuu; 6XoXv^ii,tohowl; {ivori^ 
(a, todragto ondfro; ara^a and aTa?.ä^w, to tridde; areva^o^ tomj^; 


üTnpiC»i^niaJlo»ßrm; ariC*^, to prick; avpi^Uftowhi$äe; ü^ä^u {Ait 
o^TTtj)^ tohü; a^v (u, to throb; rpiC^jto eUrp {rirpl-ya) ; ^Xv^u,to bMle, 

3. The following verbs in -C<i> vary between the two modes of formatUm: 
ßaarä C«, to bear^ Put -aauj etc., Aor. kßaorax^vv ;— v votq. C«, to nod^ to 
deepf Fat -äa» and -a^u ; — ir at ^ a, to sporty Fat irat^ovfuu (§116, 3) and iroi- 
^o^ai, Aor. inaiaa, Perf. Mid. or Pass, irhrtuofiat,. 

4. The following verbs in -C<^ have for a pure characteristic 77 : kXq^u, 
to soundy to dang^ Perf. Kt-Kkayy-a^ Fut KXdy^a^ Aor. l/cAay^a; — ttXcCwi to 
oeniM to wander y Fat TrXa/^Ci), etc, Aor. Pass. k'nTMyx^riv ;— <raX7r£^6), to 62oi0 
a trw/qntj Fat -ix^o». 

§106. Formation of the Tenses of Mute Verbs. 

Mute verbs form the Fat and the first Aor. Act and Mid. with 
the tense-characteristic a, and the first Perf. and first Plup. Act 
with the aspirated endings -a and -elv, when the characteristic is a 
Pi or Kappa-mute ; but with the endings -xa, -X6tr, when it is a Tan« 
mute. The Tau-mute, however, is omitted before x, and before fiy 
and r in the Perf. Mid. or Pass, is changed into a ; but this a is 
omitted before a of the personal-endings ; e. g. neid'CDy to persuctde^ 
n&ieuTficUt 'Otou ; qiqa^oDy to speak, mgigofffiaiy -erat ; still, the se^ 
cond Pers. is Ttimi-aai, The vowels a, 1^ v in the verbs which 
have a Tau-mute as a cha^teristic, are short before endings with 
the tense-characteristic a and x (-xa, -ytuv) ; e. g. (pqa^o), q^Qaamf 
iqiQatJOj tnq}QaHa; nkaaao), to form, nXäco)*, vo(u^a>, to think, ho* 
luca ; yXv^to, to wash, xXdcoa, etc 

Rbm. 1. On the changes which the Mutes undergo by the addition of the end* 
mgs beginning with a, 1^, fi or r, and before the aspirated endings -a, -elv, and 
also on the lengthening of e into ei before a of verbs in -ivdij or "hr^o, e g* 
(T7revd-6), to make a libation^ Fat {anivd-ffo) orreiaQy see f 8. 

Rem. 2. When fi precedes a Pi-mate, which serves as a characteristic, e. g. 
in frifiir-Uy the ^ is rejected in the Perf Mid. or Pass, before endings beginning 
with fi ; thus ttc^tt-o, to aend^ ire-frefi-fiai (instead c^ iri-ireftrr-ftat, iri'nefif^rfuu)^ 
Kafiirr-<^f to bend, Kt-KOfi-fiai (instead of Ke-Kafiir-ftat, Ke-KOftft-ftm), So also 
when two y's stand before fij one of them is omitted ; e. g. a^yy-u, to bind^ 
h^iy-fuu, (mstead of i-a^iyy-fiai), 

Bem. 3. Verbs whose characteristic is a Tan-mate, do not fbnn the second 
Aor*t in the Common Langoage. 

Brm. 4. Endings beginning with 0^ drop the a after a mate, and the mots 
it changed into an aspirate on account of the ^ following ; e. g. K&tpvf&ai in- 
stead of KCKpinff^ai, wenXex^i instead of ireir?,e^ai. 

Rem. 5. The third person PI. Perf. and Plup. Mid. or Pass., whidb, in pure 
verbs, properly ends in -vra* and -vto, in impure verbs both mate and liquid, 
Qiuinot have these endings, on account of the accumulation of so many eonso- 
nants. Hence this person is osnally expressed by a pöriphnsis consisting of 



tiie phinl of liie Pcif. Pturt, and flie third person Fl. Pres, and Impf, of elvaiy to 
b$; ■ometimes however the v is dropped, and its place supplied by an a, which is 
ai^iraled befive a Kappa and Fi-mnte, but before a Tan-mute is nnaspirated; 

rpiß-a, to rvby Te-rptfi-fiai third Pers. PI. rerpi^rai (instead of Terpißvrai) 

Plup. kreTpi^ÜTo 
wXeK-o, to twittf ne-vXey'fiai third Pers. Plfrefr^e;^ara£ (instead of irenXeKvrai) 
TOTTHi^ to orrof^ re^Tay-ftm " TeräxaTot (instead of rerayvrat) 

OKeväC-Ui to prqparey i-OKevaa-fiat ** koKeväSarcu (instead of loKevaövrcu) 
Xop*C-tit to aeparaU^ Kt-x^ipto-iuu ** Kex('tpi^Tai{in8i6ad of Kexoiptovrai). 

Pabadiohs of Mutb Vbbbs. 
107. A. Verbif whose Characteristic is a Pi-mute 

(a) Pare Characteristic, ß^ ir,^ (Fat -^). 

Tptß-Uf to ruft. 



Aor. I. 

Ind. rptß-o Subj. rpfß-u 1mp.Tpiß-e lof. Tptß-eiv Part rplß-wf 

Ind. S'Tpiß-ov Opt rptß^ifu 

Ind. (re-Tpiß-ii) re-rpil^a Subj. re-Tpt<j>-u Imp. not osed In£ re- 

rpi^tvai Part re-Tpl^Ctg 
Ind. (h-Tt-Tptß-elv) k-re-rpti^eiv Opt re-Tplt^ifii 
Ind. [rpiß'au) rpi-^ij Opt rpUffoifu Inf. rpirffeiv Part Tphj/uv 
Ind. i-rpifffa Subj. rpiij/u Opt Tpi^cufu Imp. Tplij/ov Inf. rplilfcu 

Part TpUjfoc- 


Ind. rplß-oficu Subj. Tptß-ufuu Imp. rpW-ov Inf rplß-ea^ai 

Part Tplß-ofievog 
Ind k'Tpiß-ofiffv Opt Tpiß^iftifv 



S. 1. 








re-Tpifi-fievoi el(Ti(v) 
or TB'TpiiP'äTai 






or TE'Tpilp-'&UV 




Te-Tpifi-fiivoif 'fff "Ov 

re-Tpifi'fuvo^ ^ 

i-re-Tpift-firfv D. i-re-Tpi/i-fie^ov P. k-re-rpifi-fied^a 
i'Ti'Tpi'^o k'Tk-Tpt(p''&(nf i'Te'Tpi<f>-'&e 

k-re-TpiiT'To k-Tt'Tpii^'^riv re-Tpifi-fävoi fftrenf. 

TE-rpifi-fievoc elfiv 




Aor. I. 


Ind. TpirffOfiai Opt rpiif/oipiTfv Inf. rphlfea&tu Part rpi-^ofuvo^ 
Ind. i-rpi-^äfirfv Subj. Tpi'^ufKu Opt rpi'tf/aifiipf Imp. TpLtJHU Inf 

rpirj^aü^ai Part rpi^ltäfievoc 
Ind. T€-TpitlfOfKU Opt TB-rpi'ipoifiijv Inf re-rpirpea^aL Part re-rpt- 





Aor. L 

Ind. {k'Tpl0-T^vv) k-Tpi^-^ffv Subj. rpi^^d Opt rpi^i^einv Inf. 

Tpi^&vvai Imp. Tpii^^riTi Part rpn^^etg 
Ind. Tpi<^&rf(To/tai Opt TpK^^v^oifivv Inf. Tpi^d^aetr&ai Part. 

Ind. i-rpiß-nv Snbj. rp2/!?-u Opt rplß-eiffv Imp. rpiß-f/^i Inf. 

Tfüß^ai Part rplß-eic 
Ind. Tplß-riaofjuu Opt Tplß-fiaoifiriv Inf rpiß-^aetr&ai Part. rptjS- 

Verbal adjective: (rptjS-rof) Tpin-roct -y, -ov, Tpin-TJog^ -ea, -cov. 

5108. (b) Impure Oharacteristic, nt in Pres, and 

Impf. (Fut. -ipoii), 

KOfTTii, to cut. 




Perf. I. 
Plup. I. 
Perf. n. 

Plup. n. 

Aor. L 
Fut Pf 


(xl-iCOTr-d) KB'KO^a 

Ki'Kon-a (Horn.) 
(icoir-ffd)) «cd^ci) 


Ke-Kou'iiai, like Te-rpififuu 
k-Ke-K0fifi7iVf like k-Te-Tpi/ifitpf 



Ax>T. I. i-«6^i^v 
Fut L Ko^'&iiffOfiai 
Aor. IL h-Kow-rjv 
Fut n. Koir-fjffOfiat 

Verbal adjective : «oir-rof , -^, -ov, Koiz-riog, -rta, 'viov. 

Inflection of the 
KafiV'T-o to bend {KeKOja-fiai 

Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

for KeKOjifirftai § 106, Rem. 2). 












KCKafifievoi elffi{v) 





KeKOfifiho^f -fl, »w 

KeKCLfifuvo^ Hi 

KeKäfii^ctmxv or KeKafx^cjv] 

Verbal adjective : KOfiirroc^ -17, -6v, Ka/urrTeoCf -TeOf -t6ov. 

Alvp, 'ÖVOC, 6t aamm^ da- 
ration of time, time, 

6Xii^t to anoint 

ävorTpiiTQf to turn np, 
overturn, destroy. 

ßioToCi -ov, 6f life, liveli- 
hood, food. 

LI. Vocabulari/. 

ßvüoo^ev (fr. 6 ßv&öct the 
deep), from the depth, 
or the bottom. 

yvfivScf -n* -oVi naked. 

ki-aXet^f to wipe or rub 
off, obliterate. 

d'ämot to bury. 

KaXvfTTu, to conceal 

KCLfiTTTo, to bend. 

KaTo-XeivUf to leave be- 
hind, desert 

KexpfffUvoc, (perf. part of 
XpaofuUy tOoTy) wanting, 
w. gen. 

KXenrOf to steaL 

KomUf to cat, strike. 


mm TSBsa. 


ttffhwTWt %o Ittde, cgbomL wpeüßevr^Ct -o^, 6, on am- ra^tc» *cuc» if Older» |i 

fii^, -eof = -ot^f , TO, a 
song, a melody. 

fti>x*^''^i "Vf '^t inmost, 

vavfULxia, -Of, ^, 


a aea- 

bassador,p{.oJ TTpeo/Jeti*. rank. 
frpo-^etTTo, to forsake, de- rp^w, to rub. [pl^J- 

sert rpoTraiovt -ov, to, a >t|t>- 

/StTrru, to throw, throw out ^atvb), to showj niiif. »tf^ 
o-jcA9p6c-,-d,-6v,drj, rough, appear, 
hard. ^ovo^f -ov, i, e^Ty. 

irepi'Tpfiru, to turn round, (rw^t^aTmu, to bury to- ^6p, -upoct 6, a thief, 
overtnm. gether with. x^P^^t to dance. 

'O wttif T^ iTTftrro^i^ kytypa^i. 01 troXefUoi Trpiaßeig elg li^ ir6},iviireft- 
rffov. Olvoc K<ü^ rä KCKpvftfieva ^vei ßvcao^^ev. IIuv fhjtoc k» '&VffT^ yiv$i 
irepterpeijfev* i^ XP^*Kt i ^ovoc. Täc tüv avovSaiuv ^tXunQ cM dw 6 ir#c «^ 
i^aXeitl}euv. Zo^kXijc f^crä r^v tv 'Za^xifuvi vavfiaxiav vepl rp6naiov yvfofdc 
iiX^Xififuvo{* kxopevaev. HvpftffKe^ y^f fivxarov^ oIkov^ TrpoXeXoiirore^ ^PX^"^ 
rät ßi&rov Ktxpflfi^i' HoDikoKiQ bpy^ avOpumiv vovv k^cKaXtnffev. T9 '£fr4»- 
fueir^vdev 96/ian owe&a^e lifv dvvofuv röv Bifßaiitv 6 xatpof, T^ äp^t^ 
rbv irXoüTov oi 6iafuiiff6fie^a rol^ xp^f^^^''^- ^iptvidrff h ^oKeSovi^ r^oir- 
roi. 6edc roZf iiv^poirotc fd fWXhiv KtKoXv^tv. 01 AoKeSatftovtot h'pa^ff<n» 
kv ffKXrfpoic ff^taiv. 'Axovtrac «aXdv fiih)^ rep^eitfc av. *P^fia irapä KUiplöv 
fa^hf iverpeyjfe noX^Kig ßiov. Ol ^Ctptc ^v rä xp^fiara KetcXo^offiv.* Ol 
voKifUoi Tijv ndXiv avartrpo^aoiv.^ Ol orpaTLÜTtu rdf rä^et^ KariXiirav* 

The letter is (t. e. has been) written by the boy. Ambassadors were sent (aor.) 
by enemies into the town. Wine often discovers what the man has concealed 
{part sing,) in his heart With the body of Epaminondas the power of the The- 
bans was buried {aar, 2). The future has been concealed by Qod from men. 
The Lacedaemonians brought up {aar.) their children in rough mannen. A 
beautiful song delights {aar.) us. Many treasures haye been stolen by the 
thieves. The enemies destroyed {aor,) (oyertumed) the town. By the soldiers 
the ranks were deserted 

§109. K Verhif whoie Churactertstic %$ a Kappa- 

mute (7, X, ;f). 

(a) Pure Charaeteristic, 7, k, x- (b) Impure Characteristic in the Plres. and 

Impf., (Tff, Att TT, rarer C 

itMiC'Q, to toeave. Fat -^o. '^ r&aao, Att tÜtto, to arrange. 





























{wXiMraiQ) 9rXif(^ 

(räy^ki) rä^i^ 










' Sren. ' The Aor. expresses a cnstoni. 


»f89. * 4 102, 5. •llOl.a. 



[§ 10^. 


Aor. I. 

(k'lrkeK-'&'qv) k-ir^^ix-^vv 

{k'Tay-^jjv) i'TaX'-'^ffv 

Fat I 




i'lr^MC'tjv and i'lrXiK-i^v 





Verbal adjective : itXcktoc, -7, -6v ; ttAc «-rcof, -reay -teov ; tükto^^ raKTsag. 

Inflection of the Ferf . Mid. or Pass. 

T&ffact, to arrange^ and oi0tyy(j(§ 106, Rem. 2), to Und. 

Ind. S. 1. 



Imperative. | 

































TSTayfiivoi elffi{v) 

tai^iyfievoi ehi{v) 



or Teräxärai 

or rerax^uv 

or ha^yx^uf» 

Inf. rtrax^tu ka^iyx^ai Part, rerayfievoc kü^iyfuvog. \ 

Ln. Voccämtary. 

^kfiapria, -ac, ij, an of- i^Ayo), to charm, soften, irapct-ir^a^u, to lead from 

fence, a fault soothe. the right waj, mislead. 

av-e^iritTToCi -ov, unex- KaTa-itTJjTTUf to strike Trn^rev«, to be poor. 

pected. down, astonish, alarm. vepL-ayu, to lead roond. 

&vopvTT(j, to dig up again. icara-^T^eyci), to bum down, 'rrXeKUf to knit, weave. 

&7ro-KijpvTT<jj to cause to or totally consume. öw-rarrw, to order, ar- 

be proclaimed, disin- Kkomfiog^ -rj, -ov, thievish, range systematically. 

herit [ness. stolen. a<l>iyyOf to squeeze, or 

iur&eveui, -ag, if weak- «Ac^, "OiroCt ^» ft ^ef. draw together. 

äareyoc, -ov, without a icpa^o (^ 103, Bern. 1), to Toparro, to throw into 

loof, houseless. cry, ery out oonfission, distuib, lea- 

ä^puv, 'OV, foolish, brain- Xiav, very, violenÜy,over- der uneasy. 

less. [range. much. T<ipaxij -^f, 1^, confinsion, 

dM-Toaacif to order, ar- li^aTükaTTu, to change. disturbance. 

dixofjiif^oci -ov, double- fevof , -ov, 6, a stranger, roff<Tü, to arrange, order. 

speaking, false. a guest [out. rvfißoct -ov, 6, a tomb. 

el-TOKTog, -ov, well-or- dpfya, to stretch the hand fttXarrofMUy w. «cc., to 

dered. irap<i&iKTfy -ijCi fjy depon- guard oneself from, be 

^loct -ov, and ^inoct -^ <um, that which is laid on one's guard against, 

-ov, mild. down by any one. take care. 

HoXXoKic ffiriog fivi^oc ital &<l>pova avSpa ^eAfev. M^ rvfißov re^afifievw 
dvd/od^f.^ kl ^evüv rapaxat irapeirXay§av koI ao^ov. '0 irAovrof TroAAaxtf 
irepiriyayev* elc ätr&eveiav. OefUfrroKXeay rdv 'At^^voiov, 6 frari^p äwcK^pv^e 
iiä räc kv T^ veoTftTt ä/tapriac. 8edf iravra h rff ipvffet &pi<rra Stareraxtv. 
nXovrov ix^^ ^'^ X^^P^ nevtfTevovaiv 6pe^ov. 'Edv f;);<j/uev xp^f*ft^^t f^oftn^ 

^ 4 153, Bern. 2. ' See § 89, Bern. ' ix^^ has the rough breathing in the Fat 

s no.] 



fiXovf, 01 mXifUQi elf li^v noTuv tre^dyaüiv. Hivov aiy^v Kpelrrov, ^ «e- 
upaytvat, 'EAn-x^^ nfiuv^ rodf yoviac irpä^eiv koX^. Aiav ^iXuv^ aeavr^ 
dfx H^^ ^tXov. ^Qv 6 rp6icoi kcrlv evrcutroct rovrotf koI 6 ßioc avvTh'aKT<u. 
01 voXefUoi kduix^tioav. IloTiKii /ihv äveXnKrra rrpaTTeTai, TroAAd dh viirpoK' 
TtUy icoXXä 6h npax^^aereu, E/ iroXifMv koI npayfJuruv i^povriCeiCt ^ ß^os ccv 
Tapax&Tfcerai. Ile^Aa^o TOt)c äv^pilmovCi ol yXörrav dLxofiv&ov kx<^^^V' 
"Xareyov eif oIkov di^cu. ifupov fzi^ 6e^ Kkomfiriv ävSpCw napadtiKfjv • d/i06- 
repoi KXoneff koI 6 de§äfievof koI 6 KXhhac- TLovov fieraXhix^evToc* ol ttovoi 
yXifxeiQ. 'H noXig iirb tüv iroXefuwv Karei^Xeytf» 01 ßäpßapoi KaravXayivTeg 

The barbarians, pursued by the Hellenes, fled into the town. Their chanie- 
ter is well-ordered, who haye also their life weU-ordered. The enemies bnnt 
down (aor.) the town. The barbarians alarmed the citizens. If thou tronblest 
thyself abont war and exploits, thoa wilt render thy life uneasy. Many and 
splendid exploits have been achieved {irpärTu) by the Greeks. I will be on my 
gnaid against men who have a double-speaking tongue. The women, alarmed 
by the enemies, cried out 

SllO. C Verbsy whose Charaeteristic it a TaU' 

mute {dy tf &). 

(a) Pure Characteristic, S, r, ^. (b) Impure Characteristic in the Pres, and 

Impf., C» rarer aa. — Fnt -erw. 










































Aor. I. 




i'ijtpa-aäfiTjv , 





Aor. I. 

(k^evS-^) k'fevü'^nv 1 (^^pad-^v) k-^paa-'&nv \ 


•^tvü^&ifaofiat \ 

(jtpcuT'Vrfffo/iat \ 

Verbal adjective : (V'«^<5-reof ) xf^eva-reogy -ria^ -reov ; 

t^paO'TeoCf 'TeOf -reov. \ 

Inflection of Perf. Mid. or Pass. | 

tiid. S. 1. 












hfj €WT- fieS^ov 





k-^evo-ft&vo^^ -17, HW 










i'tfjevfT'fievoc Ä. 


hpeva-fiivoi eleTi{v) 

hl)eV'<r^o)(Tav or hpev-ffd^uv] | 

> $ 176, 1. 

' Qcn. absolute. 


'AfiapravOf to err, be mis- fiereireiray afterwards. to trust to, rely upon. 

taken, oomtnit a fault 6?.ßoct -ov, 6, riches, pros- ir^vyVy -^C» 9> a blow, a 

äpita^cif to plunder. peiity. wound. 

«Wtf, again. [thirst ättoC"» to let follow, be- (uyo^i -eoc=-ovf, TOy cold. 

Slipoif -eoc =» -ovf, rOf stow. (7Kr(5(i^(j, to scatter, diss!- 

iykufiiov, -ov, r5, cnlogy, 6p£C<<), to fix, appoint pate. 

enoomimn. travQf to cause to cease ; airavt^o, to be in want 

Ire, still, besides. riva nvof , to free a trrpk^j to turn. 

c^fpcKK^, -i/f , ^, niirth. person from anything \ <rw-a(a/<6(iW) to fit togeth- 

ififßoCf -ov, 6, a youth. md. to cease, w. part, er, adjust, arrange. 

4d9) already. ttcii^w, 10. ooc^, to persuade; (^pa^Uf to tell, expressj 

ftaJUuU^Uj to soften, ren* per/. 2, frnrott^a, t&. <2ti<., pronounce. 

der effeminate. 

Tiav&av fu, & ^cAc, novmVf CKEÖaaov Sk fupifiva/g, trTperjfov (T axr^ig elc ei^pO" 
(rOvof. ÜTravtovaiv^ ot toic ;^/>^/<a0'<v o^ XP^'^*'''" ^t^ptiar^c 'A.aiav ij/prroKev. 
Aiyiaai irpd ipyov. 01 ^eol role ^vtfTolc 6Xßov imaaav. 'O ^ebq airavra 
<nnf^pfi»Kev. "Hv 0^ mk&c Sucao^Ct ^^ ^ebc furhcetra diKooet. Toi)f trovtrtAc 
änf nc veiffeu r^;t<ffra ei Xiytnr.* 'Er roif Apoxovrof vofioic fua aizaatv öpuf' 
TO ToiQ äftaprävwai ^tffuay ^avaTo^. IIAovr^ Treirot i^i^f* ddcica /i^ 9r«</>a irofef i\ 
Tir^p ffeovroi) ^ f^paayc kyicufita. 01 tCjv *WCkrp>iiv Jt^ßoi MUr^aai^ ^e- 
|»eiv %iit6v re koI di^og koI fiiyo^f in de nXrjyäc koI irovovg £X^vc. £i «roAe- 
/MM^ ^pfkvneic,^ 6 ßtoc <rov retpax^^üercu. Oi 'k^vdibi del diavfaur^aovTM. 
HAoor^ TToXkol ^jdtj kftakaiuxr&TiufXV. 

CaMs are dissipated through (d«a, w, (xcc) thee. He will be in want who does 
Bot use his money. Success is bestowed on mortals by the gods. Eyerything 
is arranged by God. The sensible can {&v, w. opt.) quickly be persuaded {aor, 
I jMus.). Draco fixed (oor.) for aH ofi^nders one punishment, death. Wealtli 
had already rendered (oor.) aU effeminate. We shall always admire the Atlie* 
Bians. The Athenians accustomed their youths to bear all hardships. Socratet 
waa admired for {M, to. dot.) his wisdom. It is not well to rely upon lichea. 
The song has dissipated the cares. 

B. Liquid Vbrbs. 

§111. formation of the Tenses, 

1. Liquid verbs, i. e. verbs whose characteristic is one of the li« 
qnids X, f«, p^ ^, form the Fut Act and Mid. and the first Aor. Act 
and Mid. without the tense-characteristic cr, hut the Perf. Act. with 
the tense-characteristic x ; e. g. 

a^XXo (stem £^AA), Put o^aX-u, first Aor. l-<r^X-a, Perf. i-fffftaX-Ka. 
Rbm. 1. The future-endings of liquid rerbs, riz. -ü and -ovuai (arising from 

M 83. • § 176, 1. 'On the Augment, see § 87. S. 

« f 158, 6. 1, (b). » § 161, 3. 


-iaot -eaofiai), aie inflected like the Pres. Act and Mid. of oontracto in •io ; 
e. g. (^iX-u, i^iX-ovfiai. The Fat Perf. is wanting in liquid verbs. 

2. The Present tense of these verbs — ^with the exception of a few 
whose stem-vowel is s — is strengthened, either by doubling the 
characteristic >t, or by insertitig the liquid v after the characteristic, 
or by either lengthening the short stem-vowel, as is the case with all 
verbs in -h<a, vv(o, iQ(o, or by changing it into a diphthong; e. g. 
aqiaX'X'Oif tifi-p-oo, x^if-w, dfAVp-oo, iiteiv-o}, qicup-m, (stems H^PAA^ 
TEM, KP1N(J), 'AMTN{v), KTEN, ^AN) ; but ftA-w, i^e/i*-« 
with a pure stem. 

3. AJl the tenses are formed from the pure stem, yet the vowel 
in the final syllable of the stem in the first Aor. Act. and Mid., is 
lengthened; e. g. a (pa XX -to {Z<PAA)y Fut. a^paX-my second 
Aor. Pass. i-aqidX-riff first Perf. Act. i-aqiaX-xOf first Aor. Act. 
i'atftjX-at first Aor. Mid. i-a(priX-diifjv. 

4. Liquid verbs are divided into four classes, according as the 
stem-vowd of the Fut is a, s, i* or v before the ending -o?. In the 
first Aor. Act. and Mid., a is lengthened into 17, a into si, T into 1 , 
tf into V. Thus : 

I. Class with ä in the Future. 
Pre«. Fat Aor. 

Kofat-o^ to labor, - Kafi-ovftm wanting 

reKfuup-ci, to plaee a Undt^ rcKfiäp-ü i-reKftifp^ 

faiv-ii, to shoWf ^av-u i-^v-a. 

XL Class with e in the Future. 

jiiv-^, to remain^ fiev-o i-fuiv-a 

ÄyyeXX-w, to announce^ ayyeX-u ^yyeiX-a 

rifttMjf to cutj refi-Q wanting 

ve/*-4iy to divide, vefi^ k-yetfi^a 

. Ifuip-Q, to desire, Ifiep-ö Ifutp-a, 

UL Class with I in the Future. 

rcAA^tf , to pltiek, tIX-u h-TlX<i 

Kptv'U, to eepcurate, Kplv-u i'Kplv-a, 

lY. Class with v in the Future. 

a^p-w, to draw, avp-o i-atp-^ 

AfidvHj, to d^M, äftüv-ö ijfi1>v-a. 

Bem. 2. The following verbs in -aivtj of the first cUtss, take d in the Aor. in- 
stead oi 9, namely, IoxVoavu, to make emaciated, {laxyava, laxvävai), KepdaivD, 
to gain, {kKepSäva, KepSuvat), KoiXaivu, to hollow out, {kKoiXova, KoiXavtu), A«v- 
Koivu, to whiten, bpyaivu, to enrage, veicaivu, to ripen; also all Teihs in "pcuvo, 
e. g. irepaiva, to accomplish, Fut irepava, Aw. inepüva. Inf. irepavai (except 
rerpaiva, to bore, irirprfva, rerp^vat), and all in -taiva, e. g. irtaiva, to make fit, 
. iiridva, iriavai (except ßtatvo, to stain, fu^ai, rarely fuävcu). 




[§ 112. 

5. The first Perf. Act. of verbs with the characteristic y, ac- 
cording to § 8, 4, would end in -yxa, e. g. jiefitay-xa (from fuouvm 
instead of /jus-fuav-xa), neqiayxa (from q)aiv<a), itaqm^vyxa (from 
stdQtal^vm, to excite). But this form is found only am#ng latet wri- 
ters. The best writers endeavor to avoid it, sometimes by drop- 
ping the V, e. g. xsxsgdäxa (from xegdaiva), or also, as in xteivb^y 
by using the form of the second Perf., e. g. Ixrova, in the sense of 
the first Perf., or, as in the case of verbs in -«Vw, by not forming 
any Perf., or, as e. g. in fceVo), by forming it frbm a new theme, as 
fUfUi^xa (from MENESi). 

6. The three following verbs drop the characteristic y, not only 
in the Perf. and Plup. Act, but also in the Perf. and Plup. Mid. 
or Pass, and in the ^t Aor. Pass. : 

Kpivuy to sqxiratef 




kXIvu, to bendy 




frXvv0, to waaky 




7. On the formation of the Perf« Mid. or Pass, the followii^ 
fhiBgs should be neteds 

(a) When a'& follows a liquid, the cr is omitted (§ t06, Ben. 4) ; 
e. g. fiYyikd^oLi (instead of ^yy«l-<r#a«), n^q^dof^ai» 

(b) Verbs in -aeW and -vyo»^ usually drop the v before the end- 
ings beginniag with fc, and insert 9 to strengthen the syllable, e* g« 
gpaiV-co, rt8q)a'a'i*aiy ne-tpä-a-fUd^a; but some verbs of this kind 
assimilate the i' to the following fc, e. g. noQo^vvm, to excite, TtaQoi- 
fyfÄfiai; alaxvp'€ij io ihame^ ^ffxvfJtfJiatf Inf. '^axiv'&ai. The Perf. 

of T«iVa> is ttltäficu, 

8. In the second Perf., which, however, is formed only by a few 

verbs, the short stem-vowel before the ending -a, is lengthened, as 
in the first Aor. Act, except in verbs with e in the Fut, which take 
the variable 0, § 102, 4 ; e. g. (paiv-'tOy first Aor. i-qupf-a, second 
Perf. ni'ffpf-a ; but onBiq-co, Fut. aTiSQ-ä, second Perf. l-crvro^a. 

§112. Paradigms of Liquid Verbs. 

iyyeXXu, to announce. 


Lnpf. ' 

Ind. ayyiXX-u Subj. ayyeXXu Imp. ayyeXTie Inf. ayyeTkkeiv 

Part. ayyiXXtjv 
Ind. IryyeXX-ov Opt ayyeXXotfu 

Pino. I. 



Ind. ^7yeA-«ö Subj. ^yy6?iKo Imp. not in use Inf. IjyyeXKevai 

Part. ^yyeA/ttjf 
Ind. i^yyeX-Ksiv Opt iiyyek-Koifu 

6-<fr»op-a, perdidi, from f^eip-u, perdo; Plup. II. i-^op-eiv 












Inf. äyyeMlv 


Opt. dyy£h)iju 







Part äyye^uVf 















AoF, L 
Aor. IL 

lad. 7fyyei?i^a Subi ayyeiXo Opt uyyei^ifu Imp. ayyeiXov 

Inf. äyyelhii Part äyyeiXac 
Ind. 7/yye^-^v Subj. äyyeXi,) Opt ayyeXoifii Imp. uyyc^fi 

Inf. gyycAetv Part ayycAtJv, -ovoay -ov. 



Ind. äyyeX?i-ofMi Sab}. d/yeX/lo^i 

ye^lAeff^at Part. ayyeJiXofiEvoc 
Ind. ^77^^A-6^^7l» Opt äyyeX2.oifiriv 

Imp. dyyA^ov Inf. dy- 
















iiyyeX-fievot e2<r£(v) 





ijryyiX'&ueav or i^yycÄ-i?6)v] 


iiyyeX-ftBVog <j 

Plp. Ind. I ffyyiX-firjVf -ao, -roj 'fiF&ov, -i^ov, -i^, -fte'&a^ -de, ^yyeX/tivo« ^«rav 

Fat Ind. 

S. 1. 








1 3. 


ayyeX-y or -et 








Opt &yye?i-oifi7fv 



Ind. ^yyeiTi-afiT^v Subj. äyyeiTi-ufMi Opt äyyeiTi-alfiijv Imp. 

äyyeLk-ai Inf. dyytiX-atn^at Part. ayyei2,-äfievoc 
Ind. ^yye/l-6^i7v Subj. äyyeX^cjfiai Opt dyye/l-ofc^JTV Imp. 

dyyeX-oO Inf. ayyeX-ecTT^ai Part. dyycX-o^cvof. 

Aor. I. 
Aor. n. 


Aor. I. 
Aor. II. 

Ind. iiyyek'-&riv Subj. äyyeX--&ij Opt. äyyeX-'&eLriv Imp. dy- 
yeX-^ijTi Inf. uyyeX-d^ai Part. dyyeX-i^e/f 

Ind. uyytk--&r)coii(u Opt äyyeX-^ijaoi/ifjv Inf. dyyeX-i^ffeo"- 
l^at Part äyyeX-'&ijffOfievog 

Ind. ^yyeAr-jyv Subj. dyye^-ü Opt ayyeX-eiijv Imp. dyye^-Ti^t 
Inf. dyyc^vof Part dyyeX-etf 

Ind. dyyeX-Tjoofiaty etc., like the first Put Pass. 


Verbal adjective : dyycA-reof, -rt'a, -Tfov. 



[§ 113. 

}lld. Shorter Paradigms, arranged according to 
the Stem'Vowel of the Future^ 

(a) with d in the Future, o-^aAA», to deceive; ^aivo, to «Aow, 

Mid. to appear. 




















Plup. I. 






ire-ipTfv-a, I appear, \ 

Plup. II. 

k'ire-if>^'eiVt I 



a^u^äf elc, el 




Aor. L 






Aor. I. 


k-^üv-'&riv, lappearedf \ 




Aor. II. 


i-^ov-i/v, I appeared, 1 



(^av-ffoofiai, I vM appear. \ 

Verbal adjective : a^h-reo^^ -rea, -teov^ ^av-rko^. \ 

Inflection of the Perf. Mid. or PaBS. of 

^aiv'Q, to show, ^ffpaiv-o, to dry, and reiv- 

Q , to stretch. 

Ind. S. 1. 
























P. 1. 









Tre-^aa-fiivoi ei<n{v) 

k'^rjpafi-fievot el(Ti{v) 


Imp. S. 2. 















P. 2. 





Trg'ifKiv-i^uüav or 

k-^pav-'&Qüav or 

Te-Ta-aT^uaav on 












f$ 114, 115.] 



4114. (b) with e in the Future, 'ifieip-u (Ion. and Poet.), 

to desire^ and areXXu^ to send» 


Perf. I. 
Plup. I. 
Perf. IL 
Plup. IL 
Aor. I. 














i'^op-a fr. f&eip-LiJhave peritM^ 

k-^op-ELVy Ihadperithed^ 

areX'CJ | oreT^-ovfiai 

l-oreiX^a | i-areiTi-äfjLijv 





Aor. 1. 
Fut L 



Aor. II. i-aruX-riv 
Fut n. araX^aofiai 

Verbal adjective : Ifiep-rog, -^, -6v, ifiep-TeoCy -ria^ -reoVf OT-oA-rof , irraX'Teof, 
RgMAHK. The inflection of the Perf. Mid, or Paas. ifl like ^yye^/uu. 

4 115. (c) with I and v in the Future, 
(a) TikX-Oy to phtdcy avpa, to draw^ pok^-o^ to deßh. 






























A. LP. 




'F.I: P. 




Aor. n. and Fut II. P. k^p^iiv, avp^oofuu 

Verbal adjectiye ; rtX-toc, ri^reoCi ffvp-roc, ovp-rcof , 

fivXw-ToCy pvkw'iioc. 

Rmc. I. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. 

ri'TiX-fiaij Gi-uvp-moL, 

is like ^yye^fuu, and pe-uoXvu-fioi like 9r^aor-/uai 

^ and iaxvfi'pMy from 

cdaxpV'Of to shame, like k'^ripaft-paL. 

(/?) xXiv-Of to bendj ttX^v-^j, to wash, with v dropped (§ 111, 6). 
















Aor. 1. 
Aor. iL 

k-KXi-^v Fut. I. KKt-'&riGofiat 1 k-i^Xt'-^riv irXv-i^aofiat 1 
i'KXlv'ffv Fut n. KXtv-fiaofjuu \ * \ 

Verbal adjective : «Ai-rof , -^, -6v, «Xf-reof , -Tea, -reoVf ?rXv-r6f , ^Xv-r^of . 

Rem. 2. The inflection of the Perf. Mid. or Pass. Ke-KXl-fMi and vi- 
irXv-fiai is like ri-rä-fiai, and (Corresponds with that of pure verbs. 

ISO lOgVIP TSBBfl* [§ 11& 

LIY. Vocabviairy. 

^KyyOJkUf to announoe. hfei, when, since. Ttediov, -ov, to, a plain. 

MvvaTOc, -ov, impossible. Ifteipto, to desire. ireiraiva, to make ripe^ 

ä/t6va, to keep off, repel ; Ka^aipUf to purify, dear. mitigate, 

mitf., to revenge oneself. Kafivu, to labor, be weary. ire^MrreX^, to clothe^ 

Airo'KTeivo, to kiU. KepScuvOf to gain, get ad- decorate. 

iivo-ariX^f to send, de- vantage. nX6vQ, to wash, 

»patch. xA/vci), to bend. [secret tnreipu, to sow. 

äffufuiToCf 'OV, bodiless, «pu7rT6f,-^,-6v, concealed, ariXXUf to send.^ 

incorporeal fievo, to remain. fftpa, to draw. 

a^^mc, -etJCf ^i increase. fiera-ßä^Xo, to alter, reivo, to stretch. 

yvoy 'VCt ^1 a field. change. rsKftalpci, to limit 

doüx^polviiy to. doL, to be fiiaivo, to pollute. rifiva, to cat, lay waste, 

displeased with. vavd/of , -ov, naufrägw, riX^, to pull, pluck. 

ic-^vu, to show forth, ship-wrecked. f&eipu, to lay waste, de- 
make known, express. vUrf, -tfc, ff, victory. stroy. 

k^-0Ke2.2Mf to drive (pro- voSa, to think. ;tA£v<^ftii<l^^^'^^)toyawn; 

perly a ship) away from ^paivo, to dry. perf, 2, KexvvOf to gape, 

the right course, mis- olKTeipu, w. ace, to pity. wait with open mouth, 

lead. TTopado^uf, unexpectedly. Usten. 

Kplvat ^f^ovf oi j^diov. *H äSoXeffxta noXXoiic v^ Siii^eipev. 'O rrXovraf 
woXXoKic k^6Kei2.e rdv KeKTij/iivov elg irepov Ji^of . 'O ä'yyeh)^ iiHjyyBtXe t^ 
vUffv. 01 iro^fjuoi rifv x^P^"*^ die<^£ipav. Navayot)f ol/cretpov, kvel ir/tovr 
iüTtv dAjAof. *Hv AiroKTeivy^ hc^P^v <ww, ;t«?/>a fitavetc. S?repö yuof • 6 dl^ 
^eöc a{>f^(Ttv irapi^ei. Tä Kpvirrä fi^ Uift^vyc 0tÄov. ^vffcv wovffpäv luraßa- 
Xe£v oi> P^jiiiov. *H 'H);^'? ^oAAaicif rot)f /tiya ippovovvrac napo/öo^dtc Iff^^Aev« 
O/ TUpatu vo'hXäg vavc e^c 'E^^^a dTreora^eaav. Behv phf votjücu,, ;(aAenvy, 
^paaai 61, aSifvarov * rd /dp daufUiTov ü6fiaTi atf/t^cu, h&wanxv. Ti)v ^X^ 
kiümIq voiiftofTi irepiffTeiXov. *0 k^oc K(ih>ic Pbdois ri^Xev.^ Ti xixtfvaCf ^ 
vol ; 0/ im^^fiioi rä iredia 6t<upi&epovatv. 01 aot^iurdt kK t^c (fo^iof mlk^ 
Mpd&vav. '^Ko&fipe Ofjaeiif tuv Ktucovpyov r^ 66dv r^ etc *A^&ifvac kK Tpot- 
^of. KcXov iar^ t^v bpy^ nenavcu. Mi) jSvcx^pavyg role äy<x&oi^. 

The way to Athens from Troezen was cleared of evil-doers by Hiesens. By 
the Persians many slups bad been sent to Hellas. The boys gaped. Ahwadgr 
many haughty persons had been greatly shaken (aor. 2 pass.) by fortune. By 
prating many have already been mined. The victory was announced by the 
messengevi. The country was laid waste (aor.) by the enemies. The good 
(man) will pity the poor. The good will choose the good for friends {ace). 
Thou hast derived great gain (hast gained many things) from wisdom. On 
friend (a friend) will not make known the secrets of another (of a friend). Tfab 
citizens sowed (aor.) the fields, but the enemies laid them waste (aor.). Yioe 
will soon' show itself The fields will soon be laid waste by the enemies {ftO. 
2 pass.). 

> ri^Xa has a present signification. ' quickly. 

fll5.] LIQinD TEBBS. 181 

LY* Vocabulary. 

'A^Xijn^f , -otl, 6f a wnst- Koivo^y -4$ -ov, common, noktopKiOt -ac, Vy a siege. 

ler. pnblic, general airovöä^cjj to be in ear- 

alpctf to raise. fuucpuv {sc. ddcv), far, at nest, zealous, actire. 

alaxirvQt to shame ; mid. w, a distance. aradiov, -ov, t6j the length 

pass, aor., be ashamed. dfuMOf w. dat^ to asso- of one hundred and 

&iro-^aivOf to show ; mid^ date or have inter- twenty-five paces, a sta- 

show of oneself, ex- course with. dium, a race course. 

press, declare. 6pätriCi -eufi ^» sight ravpog, -ov, <5, a bull. 

ßoffitaivut faai^f»^ to he- o(;-?rore>, not once, never, räxa^ quickly, soon. 

witch. naidiov, -w, to (diminu' riXoCi -eof = -ovf, rot an 

dtOfOneipo, disaemiao^ to five of Tratf), a little end;(5tdrf>.ovr,through- 

•catter, spread. child. out, continually, to the 

kunrvuy to spit into or on. vapa'Ttivu^ to stretch out last 

h-HJiXoj -ofuUf to com- vrapo^Uf to encourage, rv^vtrt ^d ^t a nurse. 

mifisioi^ order, enjoin vepaivof to complete, ac- ro^evfta, -aroc, roy an ar- 

npon. compUsh. row. 

irroj -ifCi ^1 a defeat irX^rra, to strike, wound. 

0/ ffrparioTCU imb tov arpari^yo^ c/f r^v f^XVV i^apto^vv^aav. ^iXmiroc 
iv ry TToXiopiu^ r^g 'iir^uvnc eig rdv oi^dXfjidv irXtfyelc To^tOfiari öief&äpif^ 
ri^ bfKUfiv. ^o^iac 6 KCLpnbc oijwore ^^apfjaerai. klaxyv^eiriv 2v, el ^veiffv 
paXXov fpovTiCeiv t^c kftavrov do^tfCt ^ t^C koiv^c oarrfpicLg. Wikuvy 6 kx Kpo- 
ntvoc di^A^riyf, ravpov itpaptevo^ it^pe Stä tov ma&iov fieaov. E^ r^ vokiv 
ititrwapTO 6 ^-oyo^, rodf froXefuov^ vutf^dfivai. 01 woXitcu Toi>c TroXefuovc vepi 
rifc I^^'^IC äfWVOVVTOi. Ei owwda^Te, rcävTa Taxa irepav^üeTai. Eißoia 
fiOKpdv vapaTtTaTOi. Kcucä ipya eif tcXo^ i^etjtavff.* *0 OTpaTriyb^ toZc (rrpo- 
rti&T<uc kvereiXaro hd to^ wokeftiov^ bpfj^aai. Al Ti^^ai kfiirrvovai toic nat^ 
diOtCt ^ f*^ ßaaKOv^wnv. Ol iroXifiioi dieairäpifaav. 'OXw^pat rot)f Tr^rof . 
K) icpir^r r^ yv6/tiiv imt^ijvaTo. ^kya&otg äv^poirotc bfuk&v fiaXurr* äv e^ 

The general encouraged (aor.) the soldiers to the battle. Battles will never 
destroy the fruit of wisdom. The enemies have spread the report, that our ar- * 
my has been conquered. The citizens revenged themselves on the enemies for 
the defeat If yon are zealous, you will accomplish everything quickly. The 
scattered enemies appeared {plup. 2) again. If thou hast intercourse (part.) 
with good men, thou wilt be much delighted. The good citizen will never a,p- 
pear (as such), who cares (peart.) more for his own reputation than for the gene- 
ral welfare. If thou hast had pity {aor. mid. part.) on the unfortunate, thou also 
wilt be pitied in misfortune (being unfortunate). All the citizens were rejoiced 
hy the victory. The town has been destroyed by the enemies. 

' Lost % The Aor. here denotes a custom. 


S 116. Special Peculiarities' in the Formation of 
single Verhs^ both Pure and Impure. 

1. The Future of very manj Active verbs is in the Middle form ; 
e» g. axovm, to hear, Fut axovaofuu, J shall hear, Aor. ^xovaa, I 
heard; anavtiao, to meet, Fut. dnavti^aofiai, I shcdl meet, Aor. 
anfjpTijffa ; dnoXavw, to enjoy, Fut. anoXavaofiaif Aor. anikavaa^ 
etc. Comp. § 144, c. 

2. The two following verbs in -aco or -aioi, have av'* in the Fut 
and Aor. : 

KatQy Att K&w (without contraction), to hum^ Fat ituvüi>\ Aor. hcavfTa\ 
* Perf. KcKovKa ; Peif. Mid. or Pass, kekov/uu ; Aor. Pass. kKttir^ ; Ihat 
Pass. Kov^ffofiai ; yerbal adjective, icoworeof, «av^r^f , «ovroc ; 
« X a I u, Att. kXoo (without contraction), to weep. See No. 8. 

S. The five following verbs in -em, viz. S^Bm, vbod, nXm, nvico and 
^£00, have ev* in the Fut, and Aor. Besides the common Fut. ia 
^aofMu, the first four have abo one in -uovfiai. This circumflexed 
Fut is called the Doric Future. Besides the four above-named» 
ihe verbs Hkouoo, nai^w, mntco and qtevym, have the same Fut. form« 

^iQfio run, Fut ^evaofioi or ^evaovfuu. 

via, to awimy Fat vevaoiuu or vevaovfuuy No* 3 ; Aor. hev^a, 

vXiOfto aaä, Fat irXevaofuUf osually nXevaovfiai ; Aor. inXexHra ; Peif. ir|p 

vXevKa ; Peif. Mid. or Pass. irevXevufuu i Aor. Pass. iirXeva^v ; verbal 

adjective, nXevarioc. 
wviuyio bhiOy to bmOhe, Fat trvevaoftai or mtevaovfuu ; Aor. hntevca ; Aov. 

Pass. hfvtva&nV' 
pi Of kiflow. Fat fuvaofuu ; Aor. ifipevaa ; instead of these forms the Attics 

ose, Fat fnniaofuu ; Aor. i^Avi/v» and Perf. iftßwfKa. 
XiOfto pour out, differs from the preceding. Fat x^f^ » Aor. ix^a ; Perf. /c^- 

;tv«ca ; Fat Mid. x^ofieu ; Aor. Mid. kx^apaiv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. Kexi>puu ; 

Aor. Pass, kx'ö&ffv. 
KXaiiif Att. K^do (without contraction), to weep, Fut KXavrrovfiai and KX«füi> 

<n>^{ ; Aor. ixXavea ; verbal adjective, KXavmeo^ and icXav(rr6r. Comp. 

S 125, 14. 
^eiycty to ßee, Fut <^ev^ovfiai and ^ei^ofiai ; Aor. I^yov ; Perf w^wy«. 
nai^Df to sport, Fat nat^ovfiai and irai^ofuai ; Aor. itrataa; Perf Mid. or 

Pass, trinaifffiai. Comp. § 105, 8. 
ir«irrw, to/iÄ (stem IIET), Fut ireaovfiai. See ^ 128. 

* The V in the Fut of these verbs, is occasioned by the reappearance of the 
Digamma (F), softened into the vowel v. The Digamma would regularly stand 
in the Pres, before the personal-ending -u, but is omitted where it would come 
between two vowels. But it can appear in the Fut, as it there stands before the 
eonsonant a. — Tb. 


LVI. Vbcctbulary. 

'kfuiy at the same time. Kiipoct -ov, h^ wax. irrepov, -ov, to, a «ing;. 

ÄvapfToCu), to ' seize, catch /c^£o), to weep, mourn orpaTia, -0$*, i/, an army. 

up quickly. for, deplore. o^yx^^ to pour togedier, 

^Itiravrau, to meet. «coXttoc, -ov, 6, a bosom, a confundo; confuse, con* 

iLiroXam^ to enjoy. gulf found, distufb. 

n/bpiovy tO'monrow. vvv, nunc, now. affrnpa^ -oc» ^t a <ba&. 

iK-1^6», eaäiOf to swim oat dTrA^i^, -ov, ro, a weapon, rs^xc^, to melt aaytitiog; 

iX'irJixu, to 8^ out irihiyoCf -eog ^^ -02^^, to, mid. w, 2 aar. and 2fi$^ 

kfimnTcj/', to fieill into *, w, the sea. pasß.^ to melt (intrans^. 

dot, or elg and ace. TrepLf>f>eu^ to flow round \ Ti/icjptaf -af , tfg puxUsh- 

kvavTLo^, -a, -ov, opposite. to fall down or away. ment 

i^eo/£(u, (ftico, to lead, con- tr<<n-<f, -ewf, ^, heUef, ;t*^wv,;^fi^w6?,^,theeai1ll, 

sider. trust, confideoee. Öie.gnMmd, theBoiL 
KaTO^Kaiitf to bum dowiL irvic^ to brftathe, blow. 

li mpanä aOfuov kKfr^^evverai {iKvXevmirai). "kpefiog BoP^ HftUftiof rf 
irrpang, hrvevaep. '£v ry vavfiaxig rf ih KoT^fo^ KpiffaUp ol TLeXoKOwrfowi &iß* 
ApoiQ TÜV *A&iivaiav ättiicTeivm^y 6001 ^ i^evevwiv aitruv. *Or0v ^l ito^fuot 
Ty voXei^ nhpTiuaoaiVf ol uvpariuixu ivapfmaavTe^ rä 0frAa ^eiwovrai #pdf 
rdc frvXof. HoXXolc koI ao^ic ävdpaai* KeKhivirrai T&v&p6Tnva, Tifutpiaw 
iywftgvotf tlvai rdv ßiov. Tic ov« äv KMf^eie rdv ^iXoff;i^ ; 01 tto^irai 
i^Xniaav T<n>g iroXefUovg ^€V^el<r&(u. Ql iraidsc tr^lpav nai^ovvTai. Dcaxpo» 
TT7f TTO^aictc iiraiaev äfia ffirovöä^i^v. 'LvyKcxvKe wv t^ m<mv 6 Ka^ i/*&C 
(Kof .• 0/ TToMfitoi rdf tCw 'E^A^vwv ra^eig awexcav. 01 vofiot ötä rdt» iroXe* 
uov avyKexvfuvoi elffiv. 'iKopoc, 6 tov AatSaXov v/6f, roiceyrof to9 /ci^/mD svt 
TÖv mepuv mptßfivevTuv, elc rd TreAayof kvenitcrtv. Ol no^fuoi t^ k«!^ 
JtareKavaav. Jd iv Avdig. Zapdetf iitb ruv *WüJiv^v Jtareioßv&ijcrav* 

The army sailed away. The north wind will blow Bfainst the anngr, iPh^ 
soldiers hoped to swim (inf.fut.) through the river. The soldiers were going to 
run to the gates (ir^.fid.). Tou will mourn for the unfortunate. The enemiqß 
will flee. The children were playing at ball If thou hast intercourse with 
children (part.^ having intercourse with children), thou wilt play. The enenues 
wül disturb the ranks of the soldiers. Four {aor.) boy, the water on (e/c) the 
^ound ! The wax will melt, and the wings will fall away. The town is burnt 
down by the enemies. The citizens expected that the enemies would bui^i 
down the town (ace. w, inf.). 

4. The following pure verbs, and impure ones, but which by a^ 
«luning an « as tbeir characteristic, are analogous to pure verbsi fosnn 
the Perf. Subj. ipd Flxip. Opt. Mid. or Pass« without the aid of an 
auxiliary verb : 

KTa-ofiaiy to obtamj Peif. KeKrqfUUy I /Mssess, Subj. KeKrC^ML, -7, "^t^', 
■ Plup. kKCKT^rfv, I poeaessedy Opt KCKryfiTjVf kbkt^, KCKvyro or KeKT</ifafp, 

M l<^li 2- (a), (i9). 'Dat instead of ^6 wiA Gen. *6icai9'i^mari9Mf,o«r 


184 BTHCOPE AND METATHESIS. — ^VERBS IN -W. [§§ 117 — 119; 

fitfiv^aKQ (MNAQ), to remind. See § 122, 12. 

it a 2. eo, to name, Perf. KeK^ijfiatf lam named; Pliip. UeKX^fuiv, Opt KeK^ 

Uipff -|fO, -^0. 

§ 117. Syncope and Metathesis. 

1. In certain forms, some few verbs omit the stem- vowel» which 
stands between two consonants. This omission of the vowel is catt" 
ed Syncope. Thus, iyetQo», to atoaken, Aor. regularly ij^ttQA ; first 
Perf. iyi^egxa ; second Perf. iyQtiyoQa,! awake ; second Plup, 
iygtiyogeiv, I awoke ; Aor. Mid. ^ygofitiv, I awoke ; TtirofACUy 
iofi^t Fut n%ii<so[iai\ Aor. imofi.riVyTttia'^ai, 

2. Metathesis is the transposition of a vowel and a liquid. Thus : 

ßiMu, to threw, Fat. ßa^ü; Aor. l^ßüTiov; BAA, Perf. ßeßXvica; Perf. 

Mid. ov 'Pass, ßeß^nftai; Aor.'Fass.ißX^-d'ffv. 
dofAw, nsnally dafM^a, to tame, Put doftuaa ; Aor. köäfiaaa ; AMA, Perf. de 6- 

ftf^Ka; Peif. Mid. or Pass, ded^i^^at; Aor. Pass, ^d/u 91^171;, k&äfi'qu. 

KaXiit, to call, Perf. « e x X 9 k a (4 98, Rem.). — On KufivQ, see 4 1 19* 
axiXXctf OKE^o), to make dry, Perf. ioKXijKa', Fat. OK^^aofiai. 

5 118. Verbs in -m with the Stem of the Present 


It has been already seen (§ 101), that the Present tense of many 
▼erbs is strengthened ; but this strengthening remains only in the 
Pres, and Impf. Besides the modes of strengthening mentioned in 
§ 101, by r and a and by lengthening the stem-vowel, there are 
still others which will be specified in the following list. 

Bemabk. All the forms assumed for the purpose of constrnctihg the tenses 
in use, are indicated by capitals (§100, 3). — The abbreviation. Mid., denotes 
that the verb has its Fut and Aor. in the middle form. — "D. M. (i. e. Deponent 
Mid.) and D. P. (Deponent Pass.) signify that a verb wants the active form; 
such a verb is called deponent middle, vrhen its Aor. has a middle form, and deponent 
passive, when its Aor. has a passive form. — The fii in parenthesis shows that the 
form standing before it, is analogous to the conjugation in -fit, which wiU be 
treated more at large below. 

5 119. L Verhsj whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres, and 

Jmpf. hy inserting 9 before the ending. 

P&XLIMINABT Rbmabk. 'Qoivu has lengthened the stem-vowel a into €U ; 
iXaifVQ, a into av ; dih;<j and irtvu, v and I into i> and I. 

1. ßaipm, to go, {BA-), Fut. ß^aofiai; Perf. ßdß^xa; second 
Aor. Ißiif (fu, §142); Pass, in aunpounds, e. g. noQoßißäiuui 
Aor* noQißä&r^. 


2. iXavwif to drive, Fat iläcm^ Att iX£f -«sff, -fi, Ii^. i^«', f 88 ; 
Aor. ^aaa ; Perf. e^U^itaxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. iJJjXäfuu ; Inf. 
£li;^/la(T^ai ; Apr. Pass. tjXä'&tjr, — On a in the tense-fonnation, see 
f 98, (a).— Mid. 

8. mp(Of to drinky Fut niofmi ; Aor. SnuiP, Inf. frccir, Part mtop^ 
Imp. m^i (fAi^ § 142), poet nie; (nO-) Perfi macuHai Perf. Mid. 
«r Pass. ninofMU ; Aor. Pass, imd^v, 

4. «tf«), to est^We, to satisfy, Fat ti (Too ; Aor. hiaa ; Perf. Act 
«i^cxa; Peril Mid. osf Pass, tirurficu; Aor. Pass. iric'&rjV', Midi 
tivofiai, to avenge oneself, to punish, rtaoficu, itiadfjirjp, 

5. cpd^avao, to anticipate, Fut qi&i^aofiai, more rarely qy&dacsi 
first Aor. s(p^äaa ; second Aor. iqyO^t^ and iq)d'dfiiijp Qu, § 142) ; 
Per£ Iqt&axa* 

Here belong also three verbs, whose pare st«n ends with a con- 

duKPrn, to lite, Aor. edaxot' ; Fut. b^i^Ofiai; Perf. Act dsdrjj^ai 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, didtjyfiai ; Aor. Pass. iS^x^^' 

xofivta, laböro, to exert oneself, to weary oneself, to le weary, Aor« 
Sh&hov; Fut xofioviMu; Perf. nexfii^xa (§ 117, 2). 

tifWfOf to cut, Fut f£JM»; Aor. hsfMp; Perf. thfiu^a; Pei£ 
Mid. or Pass, tdtfje^ftcu; Aor. Pass, hfi^^tpfi Ft^ Perf. Tcr/cj^o»» 
ftof. — ^Mid. 

§ 120. n. Verhs^ whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres, and 
Impf hy inserting the syllahle ps before the ending, 

.1. ßv-PS'Gi, to slop up, Jill up, Fut ßvooo; Aor. eßvaa; Perf. 
Mid. or Pass. ßdßvafAui ; Aor. Pass, ißvo'&rjp (§ 95). 

2. atpm-pi-oiMU, to come, Fut d<pi^ofiai; Aor. dqiiHOfii^p; Infi 
a<pix€<j'&ai; Perf. dcpTyfiai; Inf. «(jpr;^^«*; Plup. dq)tyiitjPf dcptxro. 

3. vmaX'vd'Oiiai, to promise, Aor. vTzeax-of^V^y Imp. vnoafw \ but 
vaoax^(yoiJicu ; Perf. vniaxruKU, So dfAmaxvovfiai or dfindxofAai, to 
put on, to wear, (from dfjatexco, to put round, Fut dppq)i^<o ; Aor. 
Ilfitaaxov, dimiaxsif) ; Fut dfiq)s^OfJiai ; Aor. fjftnicxofitjp and i^p 
nsüxofiijp (§ 91, 1). 

*AKpoc, '&y 'Ov highest, at a^ra^, once. [exclude. 7e( enclitic), a strengthen- 

the* point ; rd uKpovy dTreXawo), to drive away, ing particle, atleast/serte. 

the top, the point diro-nvu, to compensate, dd#c?/(j, to bite. 

ttfiKKTxvovfiai or afifrixf' pay ; mtd:, to panish, kK-ßaivu, to walk or g;o 

/tot, to pat on, wear. avenge oneself. oat, turn out, evado. 


H-^hu, «0 ditek out» «r p^irahtv^ -oti, r6, « club. one is aAtidftated j gen- 

Up. [<mt mfftßaivo^ to go with ; enüly it inaj be tMas- 

H't^wa, expelh, to dri^e avfißaipti, it happenB, lated by an adireib, « 

tifdaifioviu, to be happy, oocu». &e/bre, or sotner t/um^ 

or fortunate. avfinivUf to drink with. and the part may be 

i^iKvioficUf w. geruy to ar- ra^^apoc, -ov, 6, a little expressed by the finite 

- itve at, attain to, reflch. basket verb, as ol itoXtrai roi>c 

ifthrtoPf -ov, TO, a robe, a livoy to expiate, pay. iroXefuo»^ f^iftomiv «1^ 

gtomait roi (enclitic), a strengtfi« r^ nv^o' ' ^otrer, 

l^e^vQ, todrink/iii^ (on- ening particle, certain* ^'the dtiaens aatloi^ 

mixed wine) ; hence to ly, indeed. ted the enemies in hav- 

be dmnk. ^i^avo, to come before, an- ing fled into the city ,*** 

vi^, -aroct rSy spinning ticipate, te;. the ace. ofih» that is, " the citizens 

tfaread, yam. penon who is anticipa- fled into the dty soon- 

nvAvre^ux, -of , ii, oostU- ted, and the part of the er than Ae enemlee.*' 

Bass» sfdendor, snmp- Terb which expresMs ^opkt, to cany. 

taoosnefls. the action in which any 

Toft ffrpanoraic iv r§ arparig. iroXXä KOKä aweßeß^Kei. 2o^7f Sptt^jäv 
Mat abrdf ixß^ay ao^c* AvKOVpyoc iroXureXeiav i^Xcure t^( IvapTiff. He/S- 
i/Qv oMelc änek^^arai, vofi^^ TLfjtCn^ koI apx^* lLo^h}l frvfiiriovreg &ir(i^ yiy- 
povrai ^iXoi. *0 fie^vav SovXoc kari rot) frcTTuicevai. OiK kKmofuu rhv olvov. 
•O olvo^ imb tQv arpariwrCfv i^eir&&rf. Todf KOKOvfyyovc ot ^eol äirorioctivro. 
Öl »röAJtai rob^ no^fuovc Bip&aaav e/f ri^ n6^v fvy6vTe^, Kiof^ i^^ertu rbv 
imcirra, *0 hiy<>^ iird roO itwdc k&^x^- Oix 4h» /tci^ KOfudp Maifiowniff, 
Of KeKfitfKOTic üTpariurai äveiravaavro. 'Arrixj) iird tuv Hepaisp Ir/U9i99. 
*0 'HpoK^^c f^ PoiraXov, h k^opei, aird^ irefuv ix l^efiia^. 'O raXapoc vrjuaroc 
ßißvtrTCu. Ol irpeaßeic ^k ti)v ir6h.v ä^iKovro. Oi) roi y* k<pi^i rdv äxptjv 
Auev ir6vov. *0 ^ih)c iiriax^To fioi ä^i^ea&ai. kl ywcuKeg ifiiteaxovro «aXft 


The enemiefl will proeeed into oar eonntry. The enemies were driTen out 
df the town by the dthsens. The law will exclude (drire away) no citizen from 
Honor and offices of command. Lycnigus has driven sumptaousness ont of 
Sparta. The wine has been drunk up by the soldiers. The laws will punish 
evil-doers. The citizens will flee into the town sooner than the enenues. The 
dog has bitten the hare. The hare is (i. e. has been) bitten by the dog. If you 
will work ipart)^ yon will be happy. The enemies have laid waste the land- 
The country is (i. e. has been) laid waste by enemies. The enemies will lay 
waste the land. The woman filled (aor.) the basket with yam* The fadier ii 
oome. The friend will promise me, to come {ftä.) to-morrow. The boy has 
promised the teacher to learn diligently. The women will put on beaatifal 

M 161,8. «4157. •M7,6. *430. 

S 121.] yJBRB8.:~PlIBS 0TX1C STSIBNaTHSN]«)» 197 

§ 121. m. Verbsy whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres, and 
Jm^f. hy inserting the sjfUaUe avj more rarely aw^ before the 

(a) av or atv is inserted without any change. 
All verba of this kind form their tenses from a three-fold stem, 
^. the Pres, and Impf, from the strengthened stem, the seconi 
Aor« from the pure stem, the Fat* and Ferf. from a third stem, oon- 
slsting of a pure stem and an annexed 8, whieh is changed in the 
inflection into 17. — The a in the ending -dvo} is short. 

1. aiad'-av-ofjiaiy to perceivSy Aor. 'QC&'Ofifjv, aia^ic^ai ; Pert 
^^^uai; Fut. auS'd'tjcofjuiU' 

2. ofiMffitaim^ to miss^ Aor, ^fi4JiQfror ; Fut äfioQtffaoiJUUi Perf« 
^fuiqtfjHa ; Perf. Pass, i/jua^i^fuu. 

3. dnex^dvofiai, to be hated or odiottSj Aor. dm^X'^ofitip ; Fat. 
ansx^^<yofjim ; Perf. dnrjx^t]fAcUy lam hated, 

4. av^dvoo (and av^m)^ to cause to increase, to increase, Fut. av- 
^aa ; Aor. tfil^riaa ; Perf. ijv^tjxa ; Mid. and Pass, to grow, Per£ 
tfi^f](Acu ; Fut. av^^ifOfiai ; Aor. tiv^^i]v, 

5. ßkaatdiw^ to sprout, spring, Aor. ißXaatop; Fut. ßXaati^m; 
Perf. ißlddtt^xa and ßeßXdatrjKa (§ 88, 2). 

6. doQ^dfm, to sleep, Aor. Idaqd'ov; Fut doQ&i^iSOfjiai; Pibrf. 

7. o^ta^ai'Oi), to «^t2>, to glide, Aor. (uXecr^o)'; Fut 6Xiadiq<j<o; 
Perf. dXic&tpta. 

8. ooq^QouvofMUt to smell, Aor. toisupQonf^i Fut 6<Tq>Qi^coiiai. 

9. oqpWxafOd, to ^ /ta&^ to a fine, to incur punishment, to otre,— * 
the double strengthening eax and at^ is to be noted — Aor. ooig)loi' ; 
Fut 6q>Xi^aoD ; Perf. (aq)Xtjxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. äq)Xfj[i€u. 

(b) av is inserted before the Tense-ending, and v is insert' 
ed before the Characteristic-consonant of the 

Pure Stem. 

The short vowel in the middle of the pure stem, is changed into 
a long one, in inflection. The r before a Pi-mute is changed into 
[A, before a Kappa-mute, into y. 

10. ^lyydvoD, to touch. Aor. a&lyov ; Fut ß-i^Ofuu. 

11. kayxdvm, to obtain by lot, to acquire, Aor. sXaxof; Fut X^- 
iofiat ; Perf. cf^a ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. BiXriy^ai (§ 88, 4) ; Aor. 
Pass, ikrix&riv. * 

12. Xaitßdvm, to take, Aor. Skaßov, Imp. Xaßii Fat X^^o^tmi 


Perf. stltjq)a; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eOu^ftfuu (iSB, 4); Aor. Mid. 
iXaßofitji^; Aor. Pass. Hi^cp^rp^. 

18. iai^^dvtoy (seldom XjJ^«), to be conceaMy Aor. iSUe^or; Fat 
XiJiToo; Perf. xdrfia^ I am concealed^ Mid. toforget^ FuU lijffo^; 
Perf. XA^ofAcu ; Aor. iXct&ofitp^. 

14. (Aav&opio, to kam, Aor. ifia'&op ; Fut fia^öofiM; PetP. /4£- 
fMii^ipca. — The « teaiidiis short, and the Fut. and Perf. are fann««L 
hoax the stem MAQEy according to No« a. 

16. nvpd^iifofmh to inqmre^ to atkj to learn hy oMngy Aor» imh 
6'oiJiT^ ; Perf. mtiVüficUf mnvaah etc. ; Fat. nsvaofMu ; verbal adr 
jeotive, ntvctog, nevaveog, 

16. rvyxix-vo'^9 '^ AiV, to ha^ftpen^ to obtain (with Gen.), Aor. itv%üPi 
JPut v«v£of44M (r^rX-) ; Perf. wn/x^jca (rTXJB- acoording to 
No. a). 

LVm. rocöÄM&iry. 

Vki}7e^ -oc» 4i a in«s- ^kt ^ twice. «ara-da^av6>, to fall a- 

sage, newB. 6oKe<t)f to think, appear, sleep, sleep. 

Äyt, o^/ come now. seem. ^vypoCt -«i -w, sad. 

^a-arpi^u, to torn round f^Trojuat , to hope. btriaoy behind, back. 

{trana, €md inbrans.)» if-ö/zoprdvw, äftapravu Äpo<T-^««v, -i^Kowra, -^w, 

^v^eftov, -ov, r6, a flower, itzengthened bj ^$. fittings betenuQg. 

A bloMom. (^ 121, 2). irw («nditic), jet 

fiobXevfUL, -aroc, to, ad- hrapKU), w. dot, to help, avft^pay -ac, ^, an eTenl, 

vice, a dedsion, a reso- iirißovXij, -$c, i^, a plot. espedcdly a mbfortune. 

Kiäon. kni-opKeUf to swear false- xp^aiov^ -ov, to (dimbm' 

ßpaxvc, -eta, -v, short ly ; w. ace., to any one. tive ofxpv<r6c), gold. 

yewaioc, hI, -op, of noble eifp/nrm, -ac, ^, a favor, <^, as j <^ r6;ti0ra, as 

birdi, ooble, bray^. beneficence. soon as. 
^po, hither. xa^^Xog, -ov, 6, ^, a carael» 

Atftreiv dtä Tihwc ftj^ doKeiT^ 6 itovrjpog. Kepdog novijphv fitf ?.ßßelv 
fiofOXov iroTi. AUaui dpaaaq avfifiaxov Tev^y ^eov.^ Vpa^ara fia^elv 
6ü Koi fia^ovTa vovv ix^iv. Aaße irpovoutv tov itpo^KovToc ßiov, S^ 
vqcg knapKuv* rwv law/ Tev§y ttotL *0 ßaaiXeig T^g irpdc iflvrdv hrißov?^ 
'CifK ja-^CTO. 01 Uepaai toI^ 'EXXijaiv* o.ittix'^ovto. UTinTtro^ aiyrbg 
iiirei^iveTo 6iä xpvffiov uaAAov, ^ 6iä tuv ÖttXuv iji ^tfK ivai r^ ISißv ßfUJi- 
Aemv. 0/ OTpaTtüTtu ßpaxpv xpovov KaTeiap^ov. *Q^ ita^povTO to^ 
;f «dra töv KOfiriXw^ oi linroi, fmiaw uvsoTpe^. M^ ^ « / 7 f tov «wof .• "Aye 
6eifpo, Iva wv^y tt^c ^.vypäc äyyeXiac.^ Oedv hnopK&v /lif doKei ^.eA^i^evai. 
'Apx^ TtTvxvit^C lo^t Tavntg ä^iQs.^ KaXdv,fiff6evelc^Xovc&ftapT$iv. 
WUucäpioc, ÖSTtQ irvxe yewaiov ^'ilov. Kä^e ^epeiv Hfv avfi^pdv. Oih 
^tf nu ^(vov i^airaT^aag ä^avuTovg iXad^ev. *An* ia^XtÜv itr^Xä fia^^af. 

*4158»3. (b). «^176, 1. »nSS»». (b). 

« i 161, SL (c). * 4 156, 5. (a). • i 158, 8. (b). 

1 132.] r&BBS^^PtTB« frrftK sissir^KrsimsB. l$ß 

Xif^afiev iüpa, OifXi'kii'&cv, octac &6iKa kpya npaTTei, El ^ebv ävrjp rtQ 
VLfctrai Xa^eiVi ^Lfiofiräyei. Alg i^afiaprelv rairbv^ oIk ävdpibg ao<pov^ 
*Ef ayai&if^ X^ovo^ kßXaar e xaAd avi^e/<a, kK (f 6fy&üv ^evöv ßovXevfuir* 
ic&TM. T^f evepyetria^ oiirore X^aofiat. 

The king will not peroeive the plots against him. If thou drinkest (drink- 
ing), talk not much (/>/.) ; for thou wilt err. What man has not once erred? 
iThe bad (man) is hated by the good. Philip increased (aor.) his royal aii- 
Aiority more by motiey than by arms. Ihrom a correct nndecstanding will el* 
trays spring {ßXacrävtj) excellent resolutions. I have slept only a short tiuM« 
I friU not toaeh the dog. Perieles has acquired gisat £une. The badirill 
sever moquiro tme fame. We shall take precaution for a becoming life {gen,)» 
The town was taken (aor.) by the enemy. The ungrateful (person) has for- 
gotten the favor. The boy has studied literature well. Hast thou heard the 
sad news? 

§ 122. lY. VerhSf who$t Pure Stem %$ strengthened in the Pres, and 
Imp/* hy annexing the two consonants ax or the syllable tcx. 

£x is annexed, when the stem-characteristic is a vowel, and Knt, 
when it is a consonant Most verbs, whose pure stem ends with a 
consonant, form the Future, etc. according to the analogy of pure 
verbs, e. g. sv^mtxo) (from ^ETPE-). Some of these verbs, in the 
Pres, and Impf., take a reduplication also, which eonnsts in re* 
peating the first consonant of the stem with i. 

1. dX-i(7H-Ofiou, ft> be taken, to be conquered. Impf. ^Xtaxofjtr^i 
(AAO") Fut dhoffofiai ; second Aor. ^Xmv, and idXcap (fu, § 142, 
9), Itpos taken; Ferf. {jX<axec, and edXtoHa, I have been taken (Aug^ 
i 87, 6). The Act is supplied by oIq^ (§ 126, 1), signifying, U 
take captive, to conquer. 

2. dfaXinxoi, to spend, to consume, Itnpf. dpi^XttJucv ; Fut dvd- 
Xeices; Aor. dpi^XoDoa and dvdXtxtaa, ^catfjvdXoixTa; Perf. «yifXoim« 
and dvaXtoxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. dvi^Xtafjiat and draXfafkai ; Aor. 
Pass. dvaXtod-vjif, 

3. dgianm, to please, Fut dgeata; Aor. iJQBffa; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass. ^Q8<j^i ; Aor. Pass. ^Qacß^t^p. — Mid. 

4. yrigdiswa or yr^gdm, to grow old, Fut yt^^ffofiiu ; Aor. i^qd- 
aa ; Inf. yfjQdcfai ; Perf. yeytjqaxa, 

5. yiyvoi<yx&>, to know, (/W0-) Fut yvfaaofJiai; second Aor. ly« 
f aw (fu, § 142) ; Perf. lyvmaa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eyvenafMu (§ 95) ; 
verbal adjective, yvcaczos, yi^toatsos. 

^ § 60, Bem. On the Sing yerb, see p. 27. 

140 TBBBS. — ^PUBB 8TSH STli^Bllf^THfiKBD« [§ 122. 

6. dtdQwnim^ to run awap (mue^lj com{>ottttded, e. g. cmo9^ 
txd., diad.)y Fut OQaaoficui Perf. ded^ua; second Aor, id^äw 

(lu, § 142, !)• r ' * , 

7. evQiGHO), to ßndy second Aor. evgovi Imp. evgi; (ETPE-) 
Ftit. evQi^aoo; Ferf. sSg^xa; Perf. Mid. or Pass. svQtjfKu; Aor. 
Pass. evQsd^fjv; Aor. Mid. evQOfitjv; verbal adjective, evQsrvg. 

8. ' ^ßdaxoDy to come to one's strengthy to come to the state of man/* 
hood, Aor. ^ß^aa (^^aoo, to he young, lout arqßd&i, to become yoimß 

9. '&pfj(JHoii, commonly anod'if^axmy to die, {QAN-) Aor. Jusd^d" 
y(w; Fut. dno&avovficu; Perf. ts&vrpia, etc.; Fut. Perf. rc^nJS«* 
old Att., and ts&vi^^ofiou, I shall be dead, 

10. IXdaxofiou, to propititxte,. Fut iXaaofiai ; Aor. tXaadfiiiv. 

11.' lufivi^axio, to remind, {MNA-) Fut. fct^crco; Aor. ifiv^a; 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. fASfiyi^fiai, I remember, I am mindful (Bedup., 
§ 88, Rem. 1), Subj. fiSfirc^fAcu, -^, »ijrai (§116, 4), Imp. fii(ivrfio% 
Flap, ifiefjin^fjitiv, I remendtered. Opt. fisfjtviQiiriv, -^o, -^o, or fisfjivip* 
fi$^, .^0, -^ro (§ 116, 4) ; Fut. Perf. fUfiv^aofAou, I shall be mindful; 
Aor. ifivfitsd^rjf, I remembered ; Fut. fMfi^<^i^ao(i(u, I shall remember. 

12. na^xoi (arising from nd.'&aum, by transferring the aspiration 
ctf the ^ to x), to experience a sensation, to suffer, Aor. inä'&wi 
(TIENQ) Fut. miaofKu (§ 8, 7) ; Perf. nditov^u. Verbal adjecliv«, 

13. nmiatvQ, to give to drink, Fut. meto ; Aor. trnca. 

14. ninQaaum, to sell (Fut. and Aor. in the Common language 
expressed by aTtodoiaofiou, aTtedofiTpf) ; Perf. aenQäna ; Perf. Mid, 
or Pass, fimgäfiai (inf. nsTiQaad'cu) ; Aor. ifiQd&t^i, Fut. Perf. 
ttrnqdaofMu in the sense of the simple Fut. rtQu^^aofiai (not used). 

15. atsQiaHio (seldom ateQioo), to deprive of, Fut <neQi^a(o ; Aor. 
ictsQf^aa ; Perf. iate^f^xa ; Mid. and Pass. fftsQiiSHOfiai, ctSQWiMU, 
Fut ctBQtiaoiiou', Perf. iaregi^fiai; Aor. ictCQi^'d'ijv, 

16. rer^(»(Txai, to wound, Fut T^coaoo; Aor. hgoiKSd; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass. tstQ<a(icu; Aor» itqoid^i^v ; Fut tQnod'^aoficu and TQoiao- 


17. g}a<rxo}, to think, to sag, to afßrm, assert (Ind. not used), Lnpf. 
lq)affxov ; Fut. g)j/(T€i) ; Aor. eq)rjGa. 

18. ;^a<TX(ö, to (^ajoö, {XAN-) Aor. sxdvov; Fxxtxäfovucu; Perf. 
nixfiva, I stand open. 

Rrmabk. AidavKo, to Uack, retains the x in forming the tenses : Fat dtSa^ ; 
Aor. idida^a ; Fei£ deöiSaKa ; Aor. Pass, kdidäx&rjv. — ^Mid. 

1 123.] VSRB9. — ^Ftmfi 8TS1C STRENOTHENKD. 141 

LIX« Vocabulaty^ 

'AA«9rof,-ov,wiihonttroa- knava^po^ to bring t>ack, iraXiuoc, -d, -ov, old, aged, 

bk, free from sonow, re/Iro, to refer, impute. of old time. 

ifiv^ftovicjy w. gen,j to be eiryev^^y -cf , well-bom, of iräaxcj, to feel, suffer ; 

forgetful of. High birth, noble. with e^, receive a favor, 

StKocj -ado^f ^, a decad, fioZpoy -ac , ^, a share, a be well treated. 

the nnmber ten. lot, fate. irevd'iUf to grieve, moaxn 

kl^piaKibiy to find, out fiopaifMc, -ovf fiited. for. 

'OAiyovf ei)p^fj6ig avdpag kralpov^ Triaroiig tv ;f aXeirotf irpdyfiaoiv. Ho* 
^119 hr^päfifODC ftopotftov küTiv äno^avelv, Htv^ovftti^To^ rc^vffitoTa^, 
'B.dkta^ rw naXoLüv irpa^ew>^ fiefiv^vrai ol äv&porcoi, Oi« av elpoif 
äv^pciirov irävTa* b^ßturarov. "H KoXjiJ^ *yvi' ^ KaTUj^ re^vijKevai 6 ei- 
ycv^f ßov^erai. Ei deivä dC ifieripav KaKorTjra rreTrov^aref pj] tl* ^eolf 
TovTuv fjLOlpav kTravcuftepere. Tä aXXa Kal iroXepog koI {letaßoX^ tvxvc A v ö- 
Xqubv'^ il T^Xyi ^^ oCt^at. HavT* lariv k^evpelVy iäv fj^ r&u k&vov 
fevyy rif. El tic ytjpaaac ^ffv eix^^^h ä^tog kari yripaaKeiv «roAAdf eif krü» 
dtmöa/Q, tiifiVffaOf dri '^vtfrdc ifnapxet^. Ttq^ Tsxi^tpf eipifKa^f ob 
rix^V TVXV- ^"^ ^^^ ß**"^ ti^ptiv ahnvov oitdevi,^ 'A;|^afuarof, öcrif cd 
ira^dv äfjivfffiovei. AiKaiov ev nparrovra /iefivtja^ai tüv arvxf^- 

The town has been taken by the enemies. The citizens expected, that the 
town would be taken bj the enemies. By the war {dat.) the whole wealth of 
the town has been consumed. Seek to please {aor.) the good. The fame of 
virtue will never grow old. The bad (man) will never perceive tfie beauty of 
tirtue. The slaves have nm away in the night They say that {ace. w. inf.) 
letters were invented {inf. txor.) by the Phoenicians. The brave warriors wiO 
willingly die for their country. To mortals it is not permitted {ovk iarL, to. datf 
to say, This I will not suffer. The prisoners were sold {aor.) by the enemies. 
The soldiers robbed (aor.) the citizens of their property. Many soldiers were 
wounded in the battle. Alexander was instructed (aior.) by Aristotle. 

1 123. V. VerhSi whose Pure Stem is strengthened in the Pres, and 

Impf. ly prefixing the EedupHcaHon. 

This reduplication consists in repeating the first consonant of the 
stem with ». To this class belong : 

yiyvofiai (instead of yiyevofiou), to become, (FEN-) Aor. iyevofjit^; 
Fut. y^v^aofMU ; Perf. yeysvrifAai, I have become, or yiyova with a 
present signification, lam» 

nint^ (instead ofntahoo), to fall. Imp. nimei (JIET-) Fut tu- 
awfMu (§116, 3); Aor. Insaw; Perf. ninttana with irregular 
▼owel of variation. 

Remabk. Several verbs of class IV, § 122, belong here, as yiyvCxTKu. 

* § 158, 5. (b). • in every respect ' $ 97, 3. (a). * pv ri, in no respect 

* The Aor. denotes a custom, 'oi^ic l<m-— oi^devi, uooneean. See^ 177,6. 


§ 124. VI. Verbs, to whose Pure Stem e i$ added in the Pres, coed 


1. yafieta, to marry (of the man), Perf. ysydfjif^ita, but Fat. yafia 
(§ 83) ; Aor. sytjfia, yijuai ; Mid. yaiiovficu (with the Dat.), to marry 
(of the woman, nvho), Fut. yafiovfiai (§ 83) ; Aor. eytifiafitiv ; Pass» 
to he wedded, Aor. iyafitjOrjv, etc. 

2. yt^d'm, usually Perf. yiyrfia (also prose), to rejoice, Fut yy- 

B, doKsm, to seem, videor, to think, Fut. do|(o ; Aor. c^o^ot ; Perf* 
Pass, dedoyfiai, visus sum ; Aor. Pass, ido-md^- 

4. fioQTVQeo), to witness, Fat. [laQtvQjjam, etc. But ^aqrvgofiai, 
Dep. Mid. to coZ/ to witness. 

5. ^v^eico, to «^ve, Mid. ^vj^ofcat ; Aor. i^Qoifit^, but Perf. i^» 

6. d&ecD, to fmsh. Impf. i(i-&(yw ; Fut. «»«reo and oj^ifffoo ; Aor. 
ienea, mtfai ; Perf. looxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, ioioficu ; Aor. Pass. 
iwWiyr (Aug. § 87, 4).— Mid. 

LX. Vocabulary, 

'ATcai^e4)|topiisli,ordriYe ifimnroy to fa31 on or into evfi-irtrm^, to fall with^ 

awaj. something, to meet with. avjimirrei, it happens. 

^T9» -9C* ^f infatnatton, £i'c5o/ct/£e(.), to be or.become av/a-ilfipOj to cany with, 

and consequent unhap- celebrated. conduce, to be of use. 

piness, eviL irpo-voeiOj to think or con- avv'dLa-Tpißuy to spend 
dS'Ui-&soi, to push, or driye sider beforehand. time with, to Hve with. 

in. TTWTTorc, ever. ^vog^ -ov, 6, murder. 

IIoAXaxtf kK KOKov küi^Til^ kyeveroy Kal Kanbv k^ &ya&ov. Xelpa weaovri 
ipe^ov. 'O äyanöv kivSwov ijaireaelTm air^. 01 dv^puTroi irpöc äper^ ye- 
yovaoiv. M^ fioi yevoi'&'* ä ßovXo/juzi^ &X7i* ä avfi^epei. M^ airevde vrXovreiif^ 
ft^ Taxi> irivij^ 7^- HoAXaAtf 6 MoKifieiv iretpu/nevo^, oit Tcpovo^aaq^ el^ jfie- 
yahf» Kal ;i^«Äe7r^ arifv knetrev. 'Orav arvxelv aoi av/iiretfy tl, Kipntidov 
liVf]<r&rjTL • OvK iffTiVf Hgric Travr* avr^p Mai/iovel. Mevidijiioc irpbg rdv kpu^ 
T^aavTOf bI yrjfiai d ffjrov(Ja?of, iXe^ev • *Eyo) yeyafiTiKa. *H rov ^tkov i^yaHjp, 
iwaTTjv fifiepav yeyafifffievri^ ridvjjKev. 'AxcTiXia^ &vfjibc hyeyfy&n <ff6vov 
*A;faiöv hpüvro^. 'Erfofe t^ orpaTfjyii^ iirl Toi>c no^efuovc (TTpaTev<Taff&at. 
'LuKparrii iXe^ev • Txd iravruv fiapTvpffaeTcu pioi, 6ti ky<ü ^iUifaa fikv oMhm 
voKore av^puTToVj oifSe ;ff*p6>' knoirioa^ ßelriov^ 61 ftoulv iweipCtfi^ &eI rwdf 
iftoi awSiaTpißwToc. Aijfiocr^evTfc Hvparo r^v /ce^a^^v. 01 crpaTiÜToi e{f 
riyv nokiv el^eoxr^ijaav. 01 OTpariÖTai aneCxravro Toi>g iroXefiiovg, 

If thou actest so (so acting), thou wilt soon become poor. The soldiers hare 
fUlen upon the enemies (hfimizTciy w. dat.). The daughter of my friend wiH 

* The p^neral determined. * § 35« Bern. 4. 


many the scm of my brother. The citizens wfll rejoice, if they hear (hearing) 
Ifae. defeat (gtu.) of the enemies. It is determined (per/, pass. ofdoKeu) that (occ, 
V. inf.) the soldiers march against the enemies. All will bear testimony to 
thee, that thou hast conferred many favors on the state. The slaves have hud 
their heads shaved. The enemies drove the soldiers into the town. 

§ 125. Verhsy whose Stem is Pure in the Pres, and Imp/., but which 
in the other Tenses assume a Stem with the Characteristic e. 
The e is lengthened into v in inflection. Exceptions : ax^oficu and fiaxofuu, 

1, dXe^m, to ward ojff^ Fat. dXe^i^am ; Mid. to ward off from one' 
tdfy to defend^ Fut a^$]/(70ftai (from ÄAEK-) ; Aor. ^Xal^afur^v, 

2. ax^OficUf to be vexed, displeased, Fut dx^sffonai ; Aor.. ^x^ia- 
&t^ ; Fut. dx'&BO'&iiaofiou having the same signification as dxd^eoofiou. 

8. ßocxo), to feedy Fut ^ocrx^doo ; Aor. ißoaiojaa ; Mid. to feed 

4. ßofilofAüu, to wish, (second Fers. ßovXei, § 82, 2), Fat ßovhj' 
cofuu ; Perf. ßeßovXtjficu ; Aor. ißovXijd^ and ijßovk. (Aug. § 85, 

5. diio,to want, to need, usually Impers. dsi, it is wanting, it is 
necessary, Subj. dey^ Fart dsov. Inf. SeTv; Impf, edei, Opt deoi; 
Fut d^^asi; Aor. idifiae(if); Mid» deofiai, to need, Fut dsi^aofjui^; 
Aat, ids^d-ipf, 

6. i&sXia and d-iXo^, to will, Impf. ^d-eXov and i&ekov ; Fut e^e- 
iliJ<yoo and ^Ek^cio ; Aor. tj'&tXrjaa and id^ihioa ; Perf. only rfiikrina. 

7. eikto, to press, to shut up, Fut eilj^aco ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, et- 
Xsjiuu; Aor. Pass, elki^d^rjv, 

8. ^ElPOMAl, Aor. ^QOfitjy, I inquired, iqio'&ai, sQmfiai, iqoi' 
fttiv, iQOV, igoiMvos ; Fut igi^aofiai. The other tenses are supplied 
by iQcsnav, 

9. S^Qm, to go forth, Fut e^^<T(o; Aor. fj^^ti<ja. 

10. ev^oo, common! J Ha'&evdco, to sleep, Fut xa^evdj^crco (Aug., 

11. BX<o, to have, to hold. Impf, elxov (§ 87, 3) ; Aor. £<tj^oj^, Infc 
aX^hf Imp. <y;f€ff, ;ra^a<r;(£ff (^«, § 142), Subj. <rjf€o, -i?ff, aagdaxfo, 
nftQttffxV^f etc., Opt axolip ({ju}. Part <r;f«y ; Fut fjw and <7;|ri^(r<o ; 
«rf. fo;piyxa ; Aor. Mid. iaxofifjp, Subj. ax^fiai, Opt axoffirjv, Imp. 
tjjfot;, 7ra^a(r;^oi;, Inf. axscS^ai, fruQaax^'a^ai, Part cxofievo^ ; Fut 
cx^<^ofiai ; Perf. Mid. or Pass, fo/ jy^ai ; Aor. Pass, icx^'&ijv ; ver- 
bal adjective, ixro^ and (T;(£ro^. 

12. et/;K>, to dot/, to cool;, Fut hpi^öm ; verbal adjective, iqi^og or 
hpiirog, hptjriog. 

la rtaa^ wmca Jämxmx 9 m tSB JW^M^wamuaamt. [§185« 

13. na^Kmj to teat^ make to nt. Impf, ixoi&i^op, old Attic, mtSt* 
^0¥ ; Fot xa^uo (§ 83) ; Aor. ixa^iüa, old Attic, Ka&i^a ; PeK£ 
HenadJxa ; Mid. I seat myself, Fat xa&i^^aoiJiai ; Aor. ixad-Kjoifjn^f 
I seated for myself, I caused to sit. But xa&e^o^ou, I seat myself ^ 
J sit. Impf, ixad's^oiitjv ; Fut. xad'BÖovficu (Aug. §91, 3). 

14. xlcuiOf to weep, Att xXdm without contraction, Fat xXavao-" 
fMu and x}.avcovfiai (§116, 3), rarer xXoui^god or xlaiqam; Aor. 
ixX,av<Ja ; Perf. xexXavfjuxi and xsxXavffficu ; verbal adjective, xXava- 
JOS and xXavtog, xXavareos, — ^Mid. 

15. (laxofJMi, to fight, Fut fiaxovfiai instead of iiaxBaofiai) ; Aor. 
ifiaxBadfitif ; Perf. fjiefidxrifMU ; verbal adjective, fiaxstBog and /ta- 

16. fiiXXto, to intend, to he aJbonxt to do, hence to delay, Impf. ififX- 
tofsnd ^jEtciUor ; Fat fAeXh^oa ; Aor. ifjLsUjrjffa (Aug., § 85, l^m.). 

17. fiiXei fUH, it is a care, anxiety, intereet to me, curae miki est 
(ffOffAj personal fiiXoo), Fut. fieX^ffei ; Aor. i{iiXrjae(v) ; Perf. (lefiB' 
Jti7xe(t); Mid. fisXofiat, commonly imfiB^Xoficu (and inifuXovfiat) ; 
Fut intfieXi^aofiai (sometimes imfuliid'i^aofuu) ; Aor. inef^X'^riv. 

18. fw^oD, to svekj Fut ^v^j/eroo, etc. 

19. oCco, ft) smdl, Fut oC^<roi; Aor. (o^7/<ra; Perf. odos^a witll 
4he meaning of the Pres. (Att. Kedup., § 89). 

20. otofuu and olfiai, to think, second Pers. oiBi (§ 82, 2), Impf. 
ipofiTit and ^iifjv\ Fut oli^aofjiiu; Aor. ^ff&ipf, oirfirivaA (Aug^ 

21. oix^fitu, to depart, to go, to ha»e gone, Mi, Impf. ^x^H"!^* ^ 
went away; Fut oixii^OfMu; Perf. q^r/fiM, in the Common lim- 
gnage onlj in composition, e. g. noQfpx^fuu. 

22. oqoeilo», to owe, to he under obligation, deheo. Fat 6q)6iX^w ; 
Aor. mqiBlXTjaa ; second Aor. cog)e>loy, -e^, -e(f') (first and second 
Pers. PI. not used) in forms expressing wish, utinam. 

28. niroficu, to fly, YwLnrtiaoiuui Aor. itttofJiTjv, TrtBa&ai (rarer 
Inttjv and mtdfitjp, [u, § 142, 2) ; Perf. nsnotijiiai. — Syncope, 
1 1 17, 1. 

24. x^^Q^y ^ refoiee, Fut ;|rae^]f(ro) ; Aor. ixd^ (fu, § 142, 8) ; 
Perf. xBxd^tjxa, I have rejoiced, and xsxdqrifiai, lam rejoiced. 

Rbmabk. With these verbs several liquid verbs maj be classed; still, tiieie 
form the Fut. and the Aor. regularly ; e. g. fUvuty to remain^ Perf fUfievtfKat reg- 
ular in the other tenses ; vifm, to divide^ to distributee Fut ve/iü and vefiovfuu ; 
Aor. tveifia; Perf. vevifiifKa; Aor. Pass. hefA^i^v (rarer hefie^ijv) *, Perf. 
Mid. or Pass, vevifufftai. — ^Ifid. 

(125.] TBS»IWSI€H A$Bü]fE 8 nf SHS TBKBE-FOJUfATIOlF. 14A 

LXI. Vacahulaiy, 

'jLfißpofflaj -a^y it the food r^öeicg, -a, -ov, fit, re- /«eoroc, -17, -6v, u;.p^.,ft}]Il 

of the gods. quisite ; rä kirir^deiaf /ivpovy -ov, to^ ^qi^te^ 

iva-rhofiaiy to fly up, or provisiotis. salve, perfumery. 

away. ipi^räuj to ask. vefiu, to divide, distrfbnto, 

^vey^u, to boil up. ^fu^eo^, -ov, 6» a demi- dpvi^, -1^0^^ 6y ijy a bird; 
ficuTiXeiQ^y -ov and /3a<rt- god. 6poc, -cof = -owf, to, a 

Aetoc, -a, -ov, royal, ^p6voc, -ov, d, a «eat, a mountain. 

regal. äirone. iraTTTrof, -ov, 6, a grasd- 

f^ia^fievuy to remain. KaTiOKuyai^ia, -oq, ^, reo father, 
e/, if, tn a ^ues^Km, whether. titnde, virtue. Tr^r/v, except, besides. 

IXe7;t6>,to examine,scarch, Xcta, -of , ^, booty, plun- rptTrovf, -odof, 6, three- 

blame, convict der. [part footed, a tripod. ' 

^ArTdcMf, -oy and irr«* ^of, -coc <= .o^, ro, a 

01 WTpwioTai rot)f 4rofU;iceiwr oAf Ivcr^t^r«. U^ kx^eo^t itr^p <^^ ^iyi«(fr 
r^ert iXeyxoftevoi. 'O nw/iii^v o/ywv ri^ ayf^ipi kf» toi^ Upetri ßoffK^ffei. €^ 
ifTfMnuTai M Toiig voKefuovc crparevefffßi kßovXfi^aav, Totf oTfMTUiffUjf 
iv ry nokefiig, yy rCtv iKirijdeiuiv^ de^aei. UXow^ioc koTLv oix ^ »roXAd /^exT^ 
fihog, hXV 6 fitxpov de^ffofievoc. *0 Xlo?iv6evK7jg oidk i^edf rpd^eXtfae fwvo^, aX- 
^ ftu2^4)v fffd-^eo^ ot)v r^ ud^Jt^^) ytps<r&<u. 01 ßapßapoi, imö ruv 'Ü^X^mw 
4ui>;t^evref, eif rdv troTOfibv elX^ijaav. 'Epot) Tdv irarepo, ei r^tf ^cjrrD^i)|f 
yiypat^ev, Oif tf^ci tdv arpar^bv h uiid^yotc^Ktg&evi^ai. OMe2^ w^fitk" 
scinv jf^LU&Tf Toic ^eoic* dfuXeiVf irAi^v 6aoi fiereoxiiteun KtiX^g * IW^ yap 
TovTov iv€Ka äfißpoaia^ fiereaxe koI Tawfiffdijg koI aXXoi riye^. ^^tia J^ 
aova ävt[l)^<Taaa veov izoi^aai 2^yeTai. Ka^iov/iev ae, c5 aTpanjyet c/f i^pf- 
VQV rhv ßatriXeiov. 'O ßaüikei)g knl tov ^povov Kcc&il^fiäerat. Ol 'EXX^vff h 
'ZaXapXvL ^afipakeo^ kftaxiffavro. Kvpoc iyith Mavdavi^g r^f f^ffrp^C ipimf^eic^ 
€l ßovXoiTo fieveiv rrapä r^ iraTnr^, oix ifteJÜijfüev, äX^ Tax(> l^^ev, StA ft^ 
twiv ßov^iTO, Toic äya&ol^ 7% äper^g? f^^ffüßt. lüprioTol viot oi fiipw 
h^^trovmvt* äXXä KoXoKäycr&iag. Ol arpaTiürat olff&etfreg Toi^ moXe^euf äaro^. 
fvyelv ^;j;ovTO.. 'H ^jn/xv uvaKTo/iev^ olx^asTat ä^uyaro^ koI uyriptdQ. Ol jco- 
Kovpyoi fieyuXrjv ^ijucav ^eiT^ijaav* *H bpvtg avaneiroTijTai. Ol iro^Zrqi dc#- 
vCJg e/ce;j;ap^Äe<7av iirl r^ viKy. Ol ^pevTcit iväaav t^v vvktq hf roXg öpeai die- 
ftcfievfJKeaav. T^f Xsiag fiipog imb t&v ffrpartuTCw Ty orparriy^ kvefi^^ (ivt- 
fU^ij). TpiiroSeg rjoav Kpeüv^^ fiearot vevefn^fihuv. 

The soldiers courageously kept off (aor. niicL) the enemies. Many hercUmen 
tended (aor.) the herds of goats on the mountains. The father wiU wish to dft- 
-part to-morrow. A good general take» care, that (that not, övu^y /i^, yp, ipeL/ut.) 
the soldiers may not want provisions. The good will not wjsh to gQ about yqüi 
the bad. I will ask the father, whether he has written the letter. If thou art 
weary (being weary, perf. part.)^ thou wilt sleep comfortably (^dewf). Those 
yrho are held by evil desires are aH slaves. Cowardly soldiers wiH not take 

kavingp^been boiled by Medea, is said to have become 

* i e. ifirep Tovruvy a. • the soldiers will need. ' f I58i 5. (a). 

* S 161, 2. (a), (a). » § IÖ8, 3. (b). • S 161, 5. ' 4 158, 6. 1, (b). 

* y^Biv rivog, to smell of something. ' owed, had to suffer, ^ 4 39» fiflfft. 




young again. The soldiers set their general upon the regal throne. Qoo4 
warriors will fight courageously for their country. I will not delay, but quickly 
ask. The laws will care for the general welfare {gen.). The flowers smell 
iperf.) beautifully. The youths smelt of perfume. The citizens will not think, 
that (ace. w, inf.) the enemies have already fled. I will go. The evil-doers will 
have to suffer (will owe) a great punishment. The bird will fly away. I shall 
rejoice to be honored (being honored) by the good. The soldiers have given 
the general a share of the booty. 

§ 126. Verhsy whose Tenses^ are formed from different Roots^ and 
which are classed together ordy in respect to Signification. 

1. aigm^ to take, to capture, e. g. a city, Fat. aiQi^aia ; Perf. f^i/- 
xa ; Aar. (from 'E^) sllov, iXelp ; Aor. Pass» ^^Qsßijv ; Fnt. Pass. 
ttiQBd^(TOfiat (§ 98, Bern.) ; Mid. to choose, Fat ai^aofim ; Aor. 
tiXofirjv ; verbal adjective, atgetog, 'tiog, — Aug., § 87, 8. 

2. eQxoiiou, to go, to come (the remaining modes and participiab 
are borrowed from sJfit [§ 137] ; thus BQXOfiatf uo, id^i, iivcu, Idv) ; 
Impf. fiQXOfiriv, commonly j^biv or xt^. Opt. toifu ; Fut eliu, I shall 
go (^Jco, / shcdl come) ; — (^EuiETQ-) Perf. ik^Xvd^a ; Aor. t^k'^ov^ 
iX'&oOf iXd'Otfu, iX&B, iXd-eif, iX&iov ; verbal adjective, iXavatior, 

3. iad-ito, to eat. Impf, ijad-iov; Fut. sÖoiiou; Perf. id^doxa; 
(ß^AF-) Aor. i(payov, qiayuv; Perf. Mid. or Pass, idi^deafiai. ; 
Aor. Pass. ^dsaS'tiv ; verbal adjective, idaatog. 

4. OQao), to see, Impf. ioiQc/yy ; Perf. ioi^äxa (Aug., § 87, 6) ; 
(*///-) Aor. eldov, td(o, idotfii, ids, Ideip, i9oiv. On the second Perf. 
Ma, I know, see § 143. (^OU-) Fut o^of^at (second Pers. ot/^ei, 
S 82, 2) ; Mid. or Pass. oQfOficu ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. mQÜiiai or 
WfAfMU, ooxpai, etc. ; Inf. mipd'at ; Aor. Mid. ddoiAtpf, tbia&ai, Idov 
(and with the meaning ecce, ldov)y as a simple, only poetic ; Aor. 
Pass. (Sq}d'fiv, ocpd^i^ai ; Fut oqid'i^aofiai ; verbal adjective, ogarog 
and ontog. 

5. jQex^, to run, (JPEM-) Fut dQafAOVfiai; Aor. iÖQäfWP; 
Ferf. deOQcifiiiHa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. dsÖQoiJii^iJiai. 

6. (pigca, to hear, (OI-) Fut. o'cjw ; — (EFK-) Aor. Ijvsyxop (rarer 
i/r«yxa), Opt. ipeynoifM, 'eie(r), etc (rarer -a//u, etc.) ; Inf. iveyxuv. 
Fart erayHcip, Imp. eveyKS, -dteo, etc.; (ENEK-) Perf. ivyvoxa; 
Ferf. Mid. or Pass, ip^veyfiai, -y^ai, -yxtai or iv^eHrai; Aor. Mid. 
^syTtafitjv, iveyytai, -aa&ai, -dftevog ; Aor. Pass, ^ix^^ 5 ^^^ **'*Jf" 
^crofioi ; verbal adjective, oiatog, olatiog. — ^Mid. 

7. ^riiii (§ 135, 8), to say. Impf, iipipf with the meaning of the 
Aor., also qtavm and t^ag ; (^EIl') first Aor. eZra, ilnag, eiisarB, 


Imp. eixopf MiTtaim, Inf. ilnai ; second Aor. tlnovy ^nvny emoifUt Boti 
(compound a^ems), lineiVj ebtoiv. From the Epic Pres. biq(», come 
Put fQfo ; Perf. EfQtjxa ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. eii^/ACu ; Fut Paf. 
eiQ^GOfiai. From *PE' Aor. Pass. ig^'dijPt Qrjß-^vcu, Q^^tig ; Fut 
Pass. Qi^d^iqaofiai ; verbal adjective, Qt^tog, Q/jteog. — Mid. only in 
compounds, Fut dnegovfiai and first Aor. dneinac'&eu, to deni/, to 

devoir, like aneineip. 


LXII. Vocahulafy, 

^AyavcucTecjy to be dis- ^^-e^TreZv, to speak or say n-apo-rpe;);«», tAOoc^tomtt 

pleased, or indignant. out, utter. [ly. by, or past. 

ava-Kpu^cj, to cry out iß/^fievu^f strongly, firm- irapa-i^pQ, to cany by or 

arpe/cewf, exactly, surely. evßovTio^, -or, one who past 

ßpaSv^f -slay -Vj slow. consults well, clever, Trepof, -aro^y roy the end, 

y^v^, AtHc yXao^, -^of, sagacious. a limit 

^, an owl. hmi^y to distress, [dious. nept-opaOf to overlodk, 

^eulw, to fear; perf, de- fMucpoc, -a, -ov, long, te- neglect 

doiKahasapreaentmean- firJTru, not yet irpo-epxofMiy to go before. 

triff. bpyV^ofiai (w. pan. cuir.)y irraipcty to sneeze, 

du/zo, 'üTogy TO, a house. to be angry. ßevfMf -aroc, roy a stream. 

Mirviov, -ov, ro, a dream, irapaKara&^Ktfy -^f. ^, a c^dpa, very, violently, 

a vision. thing deposited, apledge. very much. 

Kdt ßpaSi>c e^ßovh}^ elXe^ raxi^v üvSpa 6i6kqv. 01 *k'&fivatoi OefiKTTth 
icXea OTparifydv etXevro kv t^ TlepffiK^ iroAlfcy. 'Odixnredf el^ 'ktSov fitya 
dapa ^jXi^ev. "Hv av fißlpav i?>^Ci ravrifv ^epe Mat fi^ dyavaKTei, Avnoih 
fte^\ av irrapy nc av eliry kokoCj dpyt^ofie^ay &v Idy rig hvinnoVy a^odpa 
^ßovfie^a ' UV y?ixii^ ävaKpäyy^ dedoUafiev. M^ mareve Taxioray rcplv urpe- 
Ki<^ iripag btlfei. Herpiij^ ^ a 7 e. Oirde elg 'Ofiijpov elpij Ke fioKpov. 'Of- 
Tig T^yovQy cjf itapaKara&rjKriVy 2aßdv i^elirevy udiKog kariv, ^ uyav iucpaT^g. 
M^ TOVTo ß'kbp'QZi el vf wrepof Xeyu, aXX* el ^povovvrcäv Tobg Woyovg avSp&v 
ipL). Uev^ei p^rpiug rovg aTro^avovTag ^iXovg • ov yap ref&v^KoaiVy äXXä r^ 
aitijv böövy ijv iruaiv kTi^elv lar* dvuyKijy frpoeX^?.v^aaiVi Eivovc 
ntvjfTac fiv T^CLpadpdfirfq 16 6 v. TLora/iog rig koI fievfia ßiatov bariv b 
alov ' ufxa re yap Cxp'&tj xai irapevrjveKTaL Kai LTJXo napatpeperaiy rb Si* 
^vc;fi>>70'eTat. 'EveyKe Ximrfv xai ßXußtjv if>/kjfievtjc. ^ihtv 61* bpy^ 
ev KttKolg fi^ ireptiS^g. M^ttcj fuyav e t tt 9 f , nplp reTievr^ifavr' 16 yg. 

The enemies have tekan the town. Themistocles was chosen general by the 
Athenians. Come, {aor.) O friend, and see (aor.) the unhappy man. If thou 
art hungry (being hungry), thou wilt eat with relish (^dcwf ). The boy has 
eaten. The provisions are (i. e. have been) eaten. I have seen the unhappy 
(man). The enemies were seen (am.). If thou seest thy pocn* friends {part, 
aor.), thou wilt not run past them. The boy has run very fast The grief was 
borne (uor.) by the fatlicr with firmness. What has been said to thee by thy 
friend ? 

Hi II I» I I ■ ill» I I I ■ II. m i I I 11 1 1 I.« ■ I I I I I ■ ■ ■ III . 

* tlic Aor. is translated by in acatalomed. * instead of ü?i^ 6L ' 

148 tERBS IN -fit. — CONJUGATION. — DIVISION. [§§ 127, 128. 

VbRBS in 'ftL. 

§ 127. Conjugation of Verht in -fii. 

1. The pfrincipal peculiarity of verbs in -fu is, that, in the Fred, 
landi Impf., and also in the second AW. Act. and Mid. of several 
verbs, thej take personal-endings different from those in -«o, and 
have no mode-vowel in the Ind. of these tenses. The formation of 
aU the other tenses of these verbs is like that of verbs in -oo, with a 
fcw exceptions. 

2. Several verbs in -/u, which have a monosyllabic stem, in the 
Pr^s. and Impf, take a reduplication (§ 123), which consists in re- 
peating the first consonant of the stem with i, when the stem begins 
with a simple consonant or with a mute and liquid ; but, when the 
Stem begins with <;t, ^rr, or with an aspirated vowel, c with the rough 
Breathing is placed before the stem. There are only a few verba 
«f tfaifl kind; e. g. 

AG- dl-ioi-fiif to ffive, SPA- ni-xpn-fih fo lend^ 

2TA- I'OTfj-fUt to place, *£- l-V'f^h to tetid. 

§ 128, Division of Verbs in -ft«. 

Verbs in -pu are divided into two principal classes : 
L Such as annex the personal-ending to the stem-voweL Ite 
lÜem of verbs of this class ends, 

(a) in a, e f. l-<mf-ßu^ to station^ Stem 2TA- 

(b) " e, " ti-^fi'l^i, to place, ** OE- 

(c) " 0, « Si-duhfu, to ffive, " AO- 

(d) « I, " elfti,togo, " 'I- 

(e) '' <r, *" elfii, inkead of ivfii, to he, "' 'EX- 
IL Such as annex to their stems the syllable ffv or fv, and fheii 

append to this syllable the personal-endings. The stem of verbs of 
this class ends, 

A. In one of the four vowels, ce, s, i, o, and assumes nv. 

(a) in «, e. g. «ncedcMrt^^e, to ioatter, Stem 2KEAA- 

(b) " e, « Kope-wt-fu, to aaiirf^, "^ KOPS- 

(c) ** I, only Ti-vvD-fu, to atone, " TI- 

(d) " 0, e. g. ffTp^-wihfu, to spread md, ** STPO-, 

B. la a ooosonant, and assumes vv. 

(a) in a mate» e. g. deU-vt-fu, to $iufw. Stem AEIK- 

(b) ** Uqnid, "" bpvii-iu, to $wear, «* 'OM-. 

1UyAW¥. Of this leoond clan, only the verb aßi-wthfu, to ^mncI, fron te 
8l«a £BE-, ibrms A second Aor., vis. hrßtfv. 

fS lS9y 130,] VERBS IN -fa. — ^MOBE-TOWELS. — ^BNPIKOS. 149 

§129. Mode-vowels* 

1. The Ind. Pres., Impf, and second Aor. do not take the mode- 
vowel, and hence the personal-endings are annexed to the verb- 
stem ; e. g. 

l-<TTa- fiev h-ri--&e- fiev i-do' fiev 

I'uru'fie^a k-Ti-'^e-fie^a i-do-ftt&a. 

2. The Subj. has the mode-vowels oa and iy, like verbs in -oo, but 
ttese vowels coalesce with the characteristic-vowel ; hence the fol- 
lowing deviations from the verbs in -oo, in respect to contraction, are 
to be noted, namely, 

ai7 and ay coalesce into ii and y (not, as in contracts in 'W, into ä and ^), 
6y coalesces into ^ (not, as in contracts in 'OOf into ot) ; e. g. 

i-(rrd-6) = t'OTu l-crTa-y^ = /-or^f l-<na-ij-Tai = l-ar^rai 

n-i^e-ü = rf-^w Tt-iJe-yf = ri-^^yc Ti-^e-O'fiai s=r ri-^Chftat 

di-dchv» = <yt-dö di-do-yf = d*-d^ 6i-d6^ =ss df-<l^. 

Rbx. 1. This form of the Subj. of l(jniiii and Tv&fiiii is like the Snbj. of the 
two Aorists Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. rv^^w, -^,' -y, etc., rvfl--w, -yf, -J, fiom 
TVir-Tw, <rra-t^ü, -^f, -^, from loTTjfii. 

Bbx. 2. The Subj. of verbs in -vfii is like that of verbs in -vu ; e. g. deucvvOf 
'VyCi etc. 

3. The Impf, and second Aor. Opt have the mode-vowel i, which 
is annexed to the characteristio-vowel, and with it forms a diph- 
thong; e. g. 

Opt Impf. A. l-<TTart-^ « l-arai-riv Aor. U. A arai-rfv Impf. M. l-frrcu-fiffv 
Ti-'&s-i-ijv == Ti-'^et't^v ^ei-fjv rt-^ei-fifiv 

öc-öo'L-ijv = di-öol-riv Soi'ffv dt-Soi-fitfv, 

Bem. 3. The form of the Opt. of verbs in -e {ri&ijfu) is like the Opt. of the 
Aorists Pass, of all verbs ; e. g. (rra^'&et-fjv, rv^^ei-ffv, Tvw'ei'tjv. 

Bem. 4. The Impf. Opt of verbs in -v/uc, like the Subj. Pres., follows the 
form in -<>) ; e. g. deiKvvoifu. 

§ 130. Pi 


ending s. 

1. The personal-endings 
(a) Indicative Present, 

of the Act 


the following : 

Sing. 1. 


Dual 2. 





l-CT1f-/i I 





Pliff. 1. 






[-v(Tt(v)] (properly- 





\l'üTarVTt 7-(rra-v9t(v)] 


The ending of tho third Pen. PI. -v(Tt{v) is changed into *ü9i{v), and tboa k 
oontnusted with the preceding stem-vowei oi the verb. Stilly the Attic dialeel 
«thnits contraction only in ihe stems ending in a, thus : 

from l-ara-vai is formed l-crrdai (i^arurüai) 





Att Ti-^i'&ai 





" it-do-äüi 





" deiK-vv-ütTi. 

Sing. 1. 


Impf. UoTTf-v 







Dual t. 


Aor. II. i-OTTi'Tov 




Plur. 1. 









(b) The personal-endings of the Pres, and second Aor. Sabj. do 
tel differ from those of verbs in -co. 

j(o) The following arie endings of the Impf, and second Aor. Ind. 


'So ihe Ind. of the two Aorists Pass, of all verbs is like the second Aor. kanfv ; 
<e g. Mn-fiVf i-ürä-^^, -^f , -tf, -iitov, -lyriyv, -v.oev, -^rc, -ijaav. 

^d) The persond-^idii^ of the Opt Impf, and second Aor^ 
except in the first Pers. Sing., differ from those of the Opt of the 
hlstorfcal tenses df verbs in -oo, only in being preceded by i;^ ; e. g* 

üToi'fiv l-arai-rfv "^eUifv ri-'^ei-tjv doi-ijv 6i-6oi-ijv. 

^M.'l. In the Dual and PI. linpf. Opt, the 17 is commonly rejected, and the 
'<^hdilig bf the third P^. ^l. -Tfxfav is regularly shortened into -ev ; e. g. 

^n^ei-fffuv = ri^eifiev larai-rfTe = Iffratre 

Tt^et'iiüaif s=s ri'&eie» Stdoifpaav ss itdoiev. 

^e same holds of £he Opt Pass. Aorists of all verbs ; e. g. rv^^eitffievt rv- 
wetifftev s TVi^etfuVt rvirelfiev (wholly like Ti^eitfv). — On the contrary, in iha 
Opt second Aor. Act of laTrjin^ Ti^^ijfUf dldufUt the shortened forms are reiy 
nue, except the third Pers. Plural. 

(e) The endings of the Pres, and second Aor. Imp. are : 

(n-i>e-^t) (dt-do-^t) 

Tt-^£-T(JV dl'SO'TUV 

TL-'^e-re 6i-6o-Te 

Ti'^evTuv Si-dovTijv, 

Bbm . 2. The second Pers. Sing. Pres. Imp. rejects the ending -i^i, and as m 
compensation lengthens the short characteiistic-vowel, namely, a into 17, e ato 
ei, o mU> ov, v into i), 

Uffva-'&t becomes l-arff rU^e-^i becomes Ti-i&ei 

ühA ending -^i m. Uie IVes. is retained only in a very few verbs. In the 

Sing. 2. 






Pnal 2. 






Plnr. 2. 





or /-orävrwv 

$ 131.] T£RBS IN -f«. — 5'ORIOLTIOK' OF THE 7EKBES. 161 

iecond Aor. of rt'&iifu, Ifffu and diStafUt the ending -^i h noittned Itato «c» 'thai 
46 4i becomes ifi^ef , i-'&i « *f , cJo-^* =^ ($6^ ; bot in the second Aor. of l^T^fn, 
the ending -^i is retained, tbu or^-^i, idso in the t^o A-or^tts Pass, of all yerbe ; 
e. g. rviiT^i^c, ncuöeir^Ti (instead of T^aidev&t^-^if ^ 8, Bern. 8). In compound« 
of OT^^ii the ending '^^4. is often shortened into -d ; e. g. irapaara, anoarCL^ 
wpoßäf KOToßä. 

(f ) The ending of the Pres, and second Aor. Inf. is -vai. This 
ending is appended in the Pres, to the short characteristic-vowel ; 
but in the second Aor«, to the lengthened vowel, a being lengthen- 
ed into t^f € into ei, o into ov, thus, 

Pres. l-OTu-vai ri-^e-vai 6i-d6-vac detK-vt-vai 

Second Aor. crr^-vai ^el-vai SoiJvat. 

The Inf. of Pass. Aorists of all veAs is likeöT^t»at ; e. g. rvir^-vai, ßovXeV" 

(g) The endings of the Pres, and second Aor. participle are -ttg, 
"Vraa, -vx, which are joined to the characteristic-vowel according to 
the common rule, thus, 

i-ara-vrg = l-arug, l-trraaa, l-aruv oraf , araaa, ffrav 

6eiK-vv-VT^ s= deiK-vt(y -tJaa, -I5v. 

The participles of the two Pass. Aorists of all verbs are like the Part ri^eic 
<W i^etf ; e. g. rvrr-eict 'Sloa, -ev, ßov'ktvB-ei^j -eiaa, -ev. 

2. The personal-endings of the Mid. are like those of verbs in 
•DO, except that in the second Pers. Sing. Pres, and Impf. Ind., and 
in the Imp., the personal-endings retain their full form, -aai and -cr«, 
almost throughout ; see the Paradigms. 

Kem. 3. The Sing. Lnpf. Act of ri'&^/it and dldufii is generally formed from 
TIGEC and AIAOQ with the common contractions. In verbs in -tfUy the col- 
lateral forms in -tu are usaal for the entire Pres, and Impf., and exolnsively 
In the Pres. Snbj. and Impf. Opt ; e. g. MeiKvvu, öfxvvu, vvfifiiyvvcj, together 
With kvöeiKWfiif bfiwfu, (Tvfifiiywfii. 

Formation of the Tbnsbs. 
§ 131. I. First Class of Verbs in -fii. 

1. In forming the tenses of the entire Act., as well as of the Fut 
and first Aor. Mid., the short characteristio-vowel is lengthened, 
namely, a into 17, e into 17 and (in the Perf. Act. of tid"fjfii and «yfw) 
into ei, and o into a ; but in the remaining tenses of the Mid., and 
throughout the Pass., the short characteristic-vowel is retained, with 
the exception of the Perf. and PIup. Mid. and Pass, of ri&tifU and 



[§ 131. 

t^fUy where the ei of the Perf. Act {rid^BiHa^ ti^eiiuu, tixOf dfAw)^ 
is retained. 

2. The first Aor. Aet and Mid. of tl&iffUy itffu and didmiUf ha» n 
for the characteristic of the tense, not tr, thos : 

The forms of the first Aor. Act i&tjyta, ^xa and Idooxa, are, how- 
ever, used only in the Ind., and, for the most part, only in the Sing. ; 
in the other Persons, as well as in the other Modes and Participials, 
the forms of the second Aor. are regularly used. Also the forms of 
the second Aor. Mid. of tid-tj/iij iijfii and didmfUj are used instead 
of the first Aor. — On the contrary, the Sing, forms of the second 
Aor. Ind. Act. of ri'&t^fu, ti^fu and didtofii, namely, id-i^Vy i^v, IdatPf 
are not in use. 

3. The Ycrb tatijfu forms the first Aor. Act. and 3üd., like verbs 
in -0), with the tense-characteristic a; e. g. i-an^-ts-a, i-ctti-a-aiufp. 
The second Aor. Mid. iardfitjv is not used. This tense is formed^ 
however, by some other verbs ; e. g. inrofitiVf ingidfii^. 

Rkm. 1. The second Aor. Pass, and the second Fat Pass, are wanting in these 
verbs, also the Fat Peif.» except in ianifii, the Fat Perf. of whidi is i<n^§€t 
(old Alt) and iar^^ofitu. 

§133. Paradigms of 



8 i 



ITA' to place. 

BE- to put. 

AO- to give. 



S. 1. 





P. 1. 












AEIK- to show. 





































* And deiKv'ö'U, -eiCt etc., especially 6eiKvtov<n{v). Also Impf. kdeUvvoif, 

§S 132, 133.] VEEBS m -fu, — tenses and fabjldigms. 


Hem. 2. On the meaning of the verb l<rrrifjLi, the following things are to bt 
n€»ted : the Pres., Impf., Fat. and first Aor. Act. have a transitive meaning, to 
jpimce; on the contrary, the second Aor., the Ferf. and PInp. Act, and the Fat 
Perf , have a reflexive or intransitive meaning, to place oru^s sdf^ to standi namely, 
iifTJiVf I placed myself^ or / stood, IcTTiKa, I have placed myself y Istand, stOy iar^- 
KeiVy stabaniy iar^^u, iarff^ofiaiy stato {ä<f>effTti^<jy I shall mthdraw). The Mid. 
denotes either to place for on^s sdf to gtand, consister^^ or to let one^s self be pkLced, 
I, t, to he placed. 

§ 132. IL Second Class of Verbs in -fit. 

There is no difficulty in forming the tenses of verbs of the second 
class (§ 128). All the tenses are formed from the stem, after the re- 
jection of the ending -wvpn or -vv^ii. Verbs in -o, which in the 
Pres, have lengthened the o into co, retain the o» through all the 
tenses ; e. g. arQia-vrv-fHy ^(6-pvV'(jU, ^(o-m?-fa, ^m-vvv-iiiy Fut. (tt^o)- 
a», etc. — But verbs, whose stem ends in a liquid, take, in forming 
0ome of the tenses, a Theme ending in a vowel ; e. g. opyv-fct, Aor. 
ipL'O-aay from ^OMOH. The second Aor. and the second Fut. 
Pass, occur only in a few verbs ; e. g. ^evy-w-fu, second Aor. Pass. 
iliSyfjv ; second Fat Pass. ^vyi^aofAM, 

Verbs in -f*t. 


XTA- to place. 






l-oTu-fjie^a . 


G& to put. 

AO- to give. 

A£IK- to show. 


n-^e-ffoiand ri-^y 





































-vef, •i)e(v), and the Parttdple tifinally deucv^-iaVf -oikTa, -ov, 4 I^i Beta. 8. 








S. 2. 









S. 1. 




P. 1. 



8. 1. 




P. 1. 




S. 1. 


D. 1. 


P. 1. 






D. 1. 



P. 1. 




et l-ardvTuv 


6. ävTo^ 









l-^ny-f [stoody 

l-OTfl 'TOP 

1-<TT1J 'fiev 
i'ffTif -re 


e£- to put. 


et Tl-'&EVTOiV 


G. evTog 




\i-^ri'c) < used 


AO- to give. 


(from öido^i) 


et dt-dövruv 








(l-dw) (forit 







AEIK- to show. 

(from SeUvv^i) 

et deiK'VvvTuv 










See 4 130, Bern. 1. 

The compounds, e. ^. äfrotrr&, kK^ü^ diadCi, hare the same aooentaatioD 

ai the fimples, e. g. airoorwat, iüi^rov, dtodu/iev. 

f 183.] 




rr A- to place. 

BE- to put. 

AO- to givt. 

AETK- to akno. 

l-arä-ao and 

ri-'&e-tto and 

ii-do-ao and 





















l-arä'O&offav and 

Tt-'&e-tr&uffav and 

di-d6-<r&o<Tav and 





and SeiK-vv-a&uv 





l-aT&-/jievogf ly, ov 

n-^i-fievocy 17, ov 

(Ji-(56-^evof, ijf ov 

deut-vi-fjievoCy Vi 


i'Tt-'Q^e'fiijv \^ov 
i-Tt'^e'Co and e-r£- 

k-dL-do'fiTiv \6qv 
k-dUdo-ao and 1-dt- 


l-oTo-ffo and l-aru 




























































(k-ara-fiTiv does 



not occur, but 

l'^ov{from t&eao) 

k'Sov (from idoao) 


















{oTü-fiat does not 



occur, but TTpiu- 



fMly -7f, -tfTOl, 








' On ihe accentuation in kiriaraiOf etc 

., see § 134, 1. * j 

ee § 134, 3. 

• Also in composition, h^üfiai, -y^ -ij 

Taif etc., aKo^/iai, 

-^, -^Tatt etc., iKitö- 

uaif -^, -oral, et 

c, uiroOcjfiaif -(f}f -u 

Tai, etc. 


PABAOieiU OV TE^B» Or •/((.-— ^XXABKS. 







2TA- to /»2aoe. 

OE- to put* 

AC* t0 give. 






S. i. 




P. 1. 




S. 2. 


P. 2. 


















or 71 -i^t' 


arjj -Tov 
or 71 -re 






and i^evrwv 



ordct äaüy av 


Gen. ^ivTog 

h'OTTjoay I 







«Joe (<Joi»0' 




and dovruv 


Gen. 66vTo^ 



Instead of theM forma, the second 
Aor. is used in the Daal and PI. 
Ind. and in the other Modes and 
Participials, $ 131, 2^ 

i-OTTl-Kaf* 8t0 

TE-^ei 'Ka 

k-ar^'KBtv and 

k'Te- ^ e i-xeiv 



de- 6 Q -Ka 

i'de- 6 d -kciv 








Aorist I. I k-oTu-'&vv I *-re-i»J7V* | k-do-^^ | i-deix-^ffv \ 

* See S 130, Rem. 1. 'In composition, ffcpacrriyi^t, frapätyrä ; Airoartf^it 
anooTü, H30, Rem. 2. * In composition, irepi'&eci hr^e^ ; airodoc, iKÖog ; 
Trepi^ere, More^ ^ 84, Rem. 2. ■* See § 134, 3. * h'e^Tfv and Te&^aofuu 

§ 134. Remarks on the Paradigms. 

1. The yerbs dvvafiaiy io he able, itriarafiaij to know, xpifiafiaifl» 
hang^ and irpiao^aty to bfty, hare a different accentuation from lorafiaiy in tbe 
Pres. Subj. and Impf. Opt, namely, Subj. ivvuuat, kniaTufiai, -y, -tfraiy -ifir&ov, 
"Tfff&ej -uvrai ; Opt. dvvaifirfVf imaratfjiTjv, -aio, -aiTO^ -aur&ov^ -aio^e, -aivTO ; 
io also bvaifiTiVf -aio, -euro (§ 135). 

2. The forms of the Opt Impf and second Aor. Mid. with -m, thl rv&otfiTfv^ 
i^oifiTfVj are more common than tiiose with -eij viz. Tf&eiftTfVj -eio, -elrOf <stc, 
&el/i7fVy -eiOf -eiTOf etc. In compounds the accent remains as in simples, thos^ 




2TA- to phce. 

( ffral'fjiffvdoeB not 
occur, but irpiai- 


BE- to pta. 

{(TTa-ffO or 0T6> 

does not occur, 
but TrpicHfo or 

{(TTä-tr&at) irpiaa 

{(TTa-fievo^) TTpia- 






AO- to give. 

A£I£. toiAoKJk 

i^ov {^iaoy 

^e-ü'&oiGav and 







dov {ooaoy 


do-a^aaav and 





^i-fievog, -^, -ov 




do'fjievogf -^, ^ov 



Instead of these forms, the second Aor. Mid. 
IS used by the Attic writers, $ 131, 2. 



re- ^ e I 'fiai 

i-TC' d^el ^firiv 










I Fut. I. I ara^aofiai \ re^^^aofiat^ \ öo-'&rfaofiat | deix-'^fiüofiai ' 

^^Tfn ^f .^^*' *"d ^e^vüOfiaL(S 8, 10). • See § 134, 2. ' In compo«- 
irpoöoa^e ; but h^ov, el<r»ov ; irpoöov, Mov (4 84, Rem. 2) 

Moifj^nv {Meifinv), Molo (Meto), etc The same is true of compounds of 
Ooifinv, e. g. StaSoLfiTfv, diaSoio, etc. 

3. The Perf. and PIup. iarifKa, kar^Keiv (not elffr^Kciv), form the Dual and 
PI. immediately from the stem, viz. Perf. i-crä-Tov, l-ara^fiev, k^a-rt, i-aro. 
ci{v) J Plup. ^(rra-rov, -arnv, i-ara-fiev, i-ara-re, i-ara-aav ; instead of iartf^ 
Kivai, itXT&vai is regularly psed. The Part, is &rr«f, ^üaa, -«f, Gen. -örof, 
-«<n7f, also k<7TrjKL}Q, -via, -of. Gen. -orog, -viag. 

4. The forms of the Impf kr'f&ovv, -«f, -e«, mdow, -ovf, -w, are constructed 
according to the ronjugation in -io and -6«. The other forms, kri&fiv, -ijg, -jy, 
köiduiv, -wf, -w, ai-e not used (§ 130, Rem. 3). 


158 Veubs in -(m, [§ ISC 

LXin. Vocahflaiqf* 

*Ai7p, -ipo^, 6, fit the air. revolt ; mtii., to go or establish, app<Hiit» to 

iivkfTfiftij to set up, raise, stand apart. render, to make, 

«waken ; nud^ to raise diiarnfu, to place apart, yußvn* -^(^ n, a nuwah, a 

oneself, stand up, rise separate, sever. poad, a lake, 

«p. ivioTrffitj to put into; XoißAOCt -ov, d, a phtgne, a 

livTt-rdTra, to set oppo- per/!, to be present pestilence. 

Ate j mid.j to set oneself ki-op^otj^to make straight, ve^^9, -fjg, Vi ft cloud, a 

«giunst, oppose. erect, set np, restore. net for birds. 

^km^naUf to draw away. ffviox<Ki -ov, 6, a rein- ir<ipiaTrifiif to place be- 

dkiro-orpe^ci», to tnm away. holder, guide. side, to help. 

«dogr <^ -ovy ulttic a^, ^aia, -af, i?, a sacrifice, tt^, where? whither? 

-ov, dry, thirsty. lanifUt to place, make to iroXeneUy w. dat^ to carry 

difurrfffit, to pat away, stand. on war. 

tarn off, caose to re- Hxt&iaTnfUi to lay down, irohj<fnXiat -ac, ^, a mal- 
Tolt ; 2 aor^ to fall away, tittide of friends. 

H froAv^iA/a Suarijai Kal veiroairg, Kiü äirocrpeiftei. Et tic ^oiav irpoc^pov 
thnvp vofu^ei Hfv ^edv Ka'&unävaif ^phac Küv^ag J^x^l. (Mik töv üepa ol dv- 
0puiKOt TOf^ ^ffvtüiv eliiv iXev&epoVf iraryidag Kai ve<f>eXac laravreg. ^Xarra», 
fij) TÖ KipSoc oe TTjc diKcuoüvvfic ä^iffry. '£v r^ JleXoirotfvrfcnucift voKsinp elc 
MfPf 6 UepixX^Ct h^Cip^ov r^v iroXiv not itviarfi koI avTerärrero koI r^ Xoii^ 
¥sai 1^ irokkfu^. M^ a^i<mi roi^ veov( r^c ^2 ri^ äper^v 6<Jo{f.V OefiurroK^^ 
Jkiyerai elnelv, (^ Tö MiXriadov rpoiraiov airdv ix töv intvav ävurraitj. Tas^• 
miUf kv Ty Xifsvy aiog eiaTfiKei. Tö fxhf tov xpovov ytywdq^ rd Sk ivecroc 
hrr^t TÖ 6k ^tiXXov. Ol Kopiv^ioi TroAAot)^ avpifmxovc äirecTtjaav äirb töv 'A^- 
paiuv. Ol Nä^wi äirb töv 'A'&ifvaimf änearrfcav. Hapaerrä toic arux^fftv. 
il$ crrö* ; mj ßö* ; Ol 'A^ifvaiei toI^ Na^toig äirooToffw air* oItöv hroXefOf' 
ma», HaptumuiiTe toIc o,Tvx^aiv. Aoyoc i5ie<rjräp&tjt Toi>c avfiftuxovg &itb r^f 
tr6XeidC iLfcwrrfpKU. Uvioxov yvufitjv aT^aetc itpUmtv. 

Sportsmen place snares and nets for the birds. The bad seek to sever the 
friendship of fbe good. The trophies of Mfltiades woke Themistocles from his 
tieq>. Let us not tarn away youths from the way to virtue. Do not sever [pi.) 
tibe friendship of the good. The citizens were afraid, that the enemies would 
make their allies revolt from them. The bad rejoice, if they sever {part.) the 
friendship of the good. Tantalas stands thirsty in the lake. The wise man 
takes care not only for {gen,) the present, but also for the future. The soldiers 
nised (oor.) a trophy over («ans, w.gen.) the enemies. The Naxians sought to 
revolt from the Athenians. Assist (stand by) the unfortunate. Where shall w« 
Msttd ? where shall we go ? Thou shonldst assist the unfortunate. The sol- 
4leis will raise a trophy over the enemies. 

LXIY. Voeahulary, 

^ikKp^noktc^ -ecjf, iff a ci^ iXXbrpioct -a, -ov, anoth- äva-Ttdiffu, to pal iqn^ 
«del er's, foreign. offer. 

» S 157. • i 123. > f 163, 1. b, (a), (3). M H^i 1- and § 142. 

§184] Ysras IN -/a. Ifif 

iipyaXeoc, -A, -ov, heary, i. e. a staff of the Bao- irpo^M-^fu^ to add. 

tnmUeflome, burden- chaates, wound roond wpihTi^fu^ to set befonir 

SQHie. with ivy and ▼ineleavee. lay oat (for view), iel^ 

diaSrifMy -oTof , ro, a head- «trrof, -ot>, 6, ivy, forth. ^trfJ^ 

bond, a diadem. fura-Tli^Jifu, to change, aK^irrpov^ -ov, ro, a soq^ 

^ta^opa, -Of» 1^, a difier> alter, remove. Ti^tffu, to place, arrangi^ 

enoe, a quarrel, enini^. /ii{^eo/iai,tD.aec, to imitate. propose as a prize, g^v^ 

h-Tc&fifu, to put in, instil, vepi-ri^if^y to put or set make ; mid^ place lor 

dvpffof , -ot;, 6, a Thyrsus, rovndr oneself, take. 

T^ KoXQc votovpTt t^edf mXXä ityit&ä ri^atv. *0 IIAovrof iPQXXatuc p^tra^ 
ri&ijm rdv r£>v inr&punnv rp&ircv. TioXXaKic o£ Av^ptairot roic iiöuuc Km/tafc 
aXXoTpia Kpo^i^etuftv. E/c 'rd ßiXTtcut ri^ei to ftiXXov. 'Avriyovoc AtoMWir 
fravra kfttfieiroy nal Kirrdv ftkv ireptri^eic Ty Kefa^ iofrl Siod^fMToc Sftcuceds^ 
vtKOv, "^pffov dk ävrl aK^iTTpov ^epov. Oi (Kx^iaral r^ äperi^ irpoeri^aaw^ 
*EvTi^öfiev rote ^^oic rifc ao^iac iptara, H ritxt iravra Av fitrari'&eiii. Qif 
P4^i)Ov T^ ^infiv fierari'&ivai. UoXXhct^ doxedvref ^^eiv HotLhuf kv^Xiiv- M«w 
fUVy not doKovvree ^oi^Xdv h^eftev kokov. Toe dta^pä^ furadufuv. 'Apiydkkm 
yvpof i^iet ^eof. 'At^^vofoi x^^^^vv woifiaafievQi Xemvav iv irvXai^ r^ 6Kpo* 
voXeof ävi&effav. T^' ii 6y&^o^ ^eivai icaKWi^ ^ lie kokoö ic^Xov. Td it«» 
jcdv oifSelc xpf*'^^ ^' ^rt^. Mrrai^ere rdf dia^opac. AvKovpyov rdv i^ivi« 
Aducedoi/iovcotf vSfunffj ftaXiara ^avfta^fiev. *0 ir6A«/<oc «rdvra fUTare^etMiP. 
Upd rvc itper^e ^fot Idpura Me^ov. 

To those who do well the gods give (« place) many good thhigs. We oHm 
add others* ills to onr own. We often see riches change (changing) the char* 
acter of men. The war has changed everything. God gave (plaoed, tmr.) 1o 
men many good things. The war will change ever3rtfaing. Who would giw 
(place, opt. aor. w. av) laws to foolish men ? It is not easy to change (oor.) na- 
ture. The gods made (= rendered, placed) age burdensome. The bad we 
cannot easily make good {opt. aor. w. av). The general should instil (jwvt. or 
tnr.) courage into the soldiers. May riches never change {pres. or oar.) tfaj 
character ! We will instil {aor.) into the youths a love for virtue {gen.). 

LXV. VoccAulary. 

'Awo-^idofu, to give back, Kevrpov, -ov, to, a sting, irayKaKO^, -ov, thoroughly 

repay ; mid., to sell. a goad. bad. 

didufiif to ^ve, grant fiaxap, -apoc, happy, bless- iraXiv, again, on the con- 

l^fredbf, -w, firm, sure, ed. trary. 

lasting. fuhxTa^ 'fjc, ^» a bee. irpo-diSofiif prodo, to h&' 

hn^Xav^avofuu, to foi^t fieTo-iidufu Tivi rivocy to tray. 

eir&v^ and eiM, imme- give any one a share of xP^^^j vf. gen., to be in 

diately. «nythii^. want 

Oi ^eoi nmrra Sidoöoiv. TwaiKt' äpx^v ob SiSoaiv ^ ^ffif . Xapiv Xaßöt^ 
(UftunaOf* Kal dot)f inihx&ov. AaßCw anoSoc, Kal TJi^ ira2.iv. ^Q fioKopef 
i^eot, SoTe pot hXßov Kot do^av &ya^v ix^iv. 'O TrXotJrof, 5v Av SQai ^eofc 

> See 152, 10. M47, 2. '$121,12. ^^12^1% 

100 YERBd IK -fit. [§ 184« 

ifiweSof ksTtv. "A ^ ^atc S^Sqkc^ ravi* ^x^l fi6va 6 uv^powo^. 'H ^v<r(c tov» 
poic BSuKe xipeiCt^ Kevrpa fieXirrmc. *Ov' aoi i^rdf idmcBf roimav TCP^jt/mai dU 
Sov. 'J&fr^X^ avdpl Kal i(r&\ä didtjtn t^eof. TItuxV sif&i>c didov. Xp^puira 
Saifjittv Kal irayKaK^ uvdpl öiöuoivs üpe-rf/c 6* öXtyotf avdpam ftoip* hrerai. 
6«öf /toi Sotij ^iXovc 'rriOTovC' Tolg TcXovtrioic irpeirei role tzn^olc dovtuu. Oi 
ütpariciTai rifv iroTitv rol^ noXeuiotc npoijSldooav. *0 äya^^öc X^**P^^ ^<^r ^^"^ 
Vfiüi xpVf^f^^ fieradidovc- Aet toü^ iiya&cit^ av6pai yewaluc ^epeiv, 6 ri hv 
6 i^edf 6td^. "Of &v utXky Hjv irarpida irpodidovaij fieyivnj^ C7/<^af a^toc* iff- 
Tiv. 01 ^eoi HOI ävrl küküv äya&ä dtdoiev. ^iXo^ ^iXov ab npodCxret. 

Qod gives eTerything. If ron (pi.) have received {aor, part.) a favor, remem* 
ber H ; and if yoa have granted a fiivor (aor. port.), forget (it). If yon have re- 
eeived (anythiag), give again {aor.). Give me, O God, riehen and reputation 
to possess. The wealth which God has given {aor.) is lasting. The gods have 
given men many good things. Give ye to the poor immediately. May the 
gods give (aor.) me faithful friends ! Thou must bear nobly, what (dc uy, w. 
mitj.) the gods assign (give) thee. Good citizens will never betray their coun- 
tiy. Grod gave men many treasures. The soldiers intended to betray {aor,) 
the town. It is well to give to the poor. Who would betray a friend (opt. w. 
tof) % Hcmor the gods, who give {parL) all good (p^.) to men. 

LXVL Vocahidary* 

'A.'&iaroCt -Wt not to be IfifiivOf w. dat.^ to remain hfivüfiif to swear. 

seen. with, abide by. bpKo^f -ov, b, an oath. 

iofo^eiKvbiu^ to. 2 aoc., to kvrog, w. gen., within. Trdvruf, in every way, 

8how,represent,explain, ^-op«c6(.>, to cause to swear, throughout, wholly. 

declare any one as any- administer an oath to. irapnyyiXXcjf to order. 

thing; m«i., show of my- iniopKov, -oVf to, a false irXaonKij{i.e.T€xv^),mO' 

self, express, declare, oath, perjury. [by. delling art, sculpture. 

display, render. hirojivtiu, w. ace., to swear ftCtvvvfiif to strengthen. 

ßeiKvffßif to show. perpio^t -a, -ov, Attic fie- oiraviog, rarely, seldom. 

dMc<uo)f, justly, fairly. rpioc* -ov, moderate. t^iofia, -aroc, rb^ a de- 

thai, inconsiderately, nn- pfiirore^ never. [tor. cree, a resolution. 

advisedly. fiifiriTfjc, -ovj 6, an imita- 

'OpKov ^eirye, Käv ducaui^ dfivwifg. M^ ri ^eoiic iiriopKov iir6fiv1>. '0 olvoc 
furptoc Xij^^elf* (fcjw^aiv. 01 öiSäffKaXoi roi^ pa&riru^ /niuijTäc kavrCiv &,ita- 
deiKvväoiv. Tlv&ayopa^ irap^yyeiXe rolg fiav&ävovüi, arcaviug fikv bfivvvat^ 
XpffffOfjiivovg Sh Tolg bpKoic navrog kp.fUveiv. 'H izXaüTiK^ SeiKvOffi rä elSij ruv 
^eüVf TÖV ätr^punuv Kol kvibre Kal tüv dijpöv. M^ ä'&eara dei^g r)7u(f). 'AvSpdg 
vovv olvoc Wet^ev. ^pvyeg bpKoig ov ;j;pwvTa« oir* bfivvvreg^ ohr* aXkovg h^op- 
Kowreg. '0^yo*f SeiKVi) ra kvrdc (ftpevuv. 01 xpiral rä iffij^iafiara äiredeiKW- 
aav. Miytrorc ük^ bfivvoire. *0 ßaaikti^g rbv airrov vlbv erparijybv äTrodeöetxev. 

Avoid an oath, even if you swear justly. Bo not swear a false oath. Those 
who swear a false oath, are deserving of the greatest punishment The Fhry- 

* S 39, Bern. ' by attraction instead of d. '4 158, 8. (b). 

M 52, 8. M 158, 7. (y). « f 121, 12. 

S 1S4.1 YESBS IN -fU. 161 

fftaa did not swear. The jndges declare their resolations. May jou nerw 
swear nnadviaedly ! It is not becoming to swear onadYisedly. The Atheniant 
dedared Aldbiades {'AhnßiadijCt -ov) general. 

LXVn. Vocahulary. 

'AfioAo70f,.ov,worthinen- fte^Vi -VC* it drunkenness. öMyapxia, -<ic, i^, the mla 

tioning, noticeable, me- fK^po^y -a, -ov, foolish ; 6 of a few, oligarchy. 

morable. /^^poc» the fool. irpüro^, -ij, -ov, first 

StvrtftoCf -«t -ov, second. vauTiKo^f -^« -6v, belong- aw-icrrifu, to pat togeth- 

d^vo^fu, «7. f»a».aor., to be ing to ships, nautical; er;fiiuil,assemble,ttniia, 

able, can, have power. vavrucii öwofucj naval bring together. 

kniorctftaty w. pass, aor^ to power. 

know, understand. 

*0 irAovrof iro^Xä ovvarai. Tic ov fujpö^ dvvairo hv olvi^ ouiwqv ; *A.v^p 
duuuo^ ioTtVt bcTic aöiKelv dwäfievoc j^ ßovXerai. UpäTre ftifdev üv^ fi^ knia» 
raoai. 'kptarov k<m iravr* hriaraff^ai KoXa. Zu^tev' oix ^ ^eAo^ev, aXX* 
ÜC dwafie^a. Hpö fie^Tic aviaraao. Ti avfu^epei hioic TrAovmv, örav /«) 
ivUrTuvrai r^ x^vr^ xf^^^* » KaroAtnJcvrof roö HeTiOirowi^aiaKov noM- 
fiov bXiyapxttiv kv ToZg nXeiaratc irokeai KO&iffravTO. Ol froXifuoi oix äiroar^ 
eovT€Uf irplv &v iXcjffi* H^ iroT^tv. Mtvoc, 6 devTepoCi irpurog 'K'Kk^ijy vcoh 
Ttxr^ difvaficv ä^ioXoyav üwearfioaro. T»rd AvaavdpoVy tüv 'LnapTiaroVy h 
'A^vo£f tpioKovTa ripawoi KaTtoru'&riüav. ' 

Men have much power through wealth. BIse up {pi.) before intoxicKfeion. 
The enemies could not take (2 acr.) the town. Of what use is it to &ee to be 
rich, if &0U understandest not how to use riches ? What fools could (äv, w. (fpt) 
be silent over wine ? No mortal is able to know everything. There are few 
who understand {part.) how to use riches welL The magistrates who are ap- 
pointed (aor. part, pass.) to rule over the town, must (Set, to. ace of pen.) care 
for its prosperity. 

LXVIII. VocaMary. 

•At^X/of, -d, -ov, trouble- der, manage; w. adv.^ i^tjaavpog, -ov, 6, a trea- 

8ome,pitiable,miserable. put into a disposition, sure. 

äiro-Ti^Tjfiiy to put away; dispose. Kara-Ti^rffu, to lay down, 

nUd.j take away. hin-ri&TiiJLiy to add, put up- lay by; mtVf., lay down 

SiOrTeJ^cjy to complete ; on ; mid.^ put on one- for oneself. 

IT. /xirf., it expresses the self; w. dat.^ &pply to, Kpavoci -eo^^^-oo^y to, a 

continuance of the ac- attack, set upon. helmet, 

tion denoted by the par- kyKpareuij -aCt i, self-con- W0of, -w, 6, a crest 

ticiple, as öcareXü ypä- trol, continence. OTet^avoc, -ov, A, a crown. 

f<ätVf *' I continue to i(lf66ioVi -ov, roy viaticwny (jniviKeocj -^d, -eov, eon- 

write," or '* writing." travelling money. tracted -ovf, -^, -ow, 

iuErri^fti^ to put in or- fjKUy li^Uy I am come. purple. 

' by attraction instead offt^Skp roi>Tuv^ &, ' see § 97, 3. 

' f 161, 3. ^ see § 126, 1. 


1^2 TSBBS IK 'fU, 1% iS4 

01 KeXrißiipec ^fp^ ^^C «e^a^d^ Kpavif ;t; aX«a nepirli&evTai foiviKOtt ffVKi^ 
uha^ Ao^cf. OMiva &fjaavpöv naial Kara^or/ &fieivu^ cddovc. Tic äv *«d» 
^iXop &^va ^oiTO ; Sevo^övri ^vovri ^kc rtc ix Movrcvetoc &Yyeh)c "Xiyan^f 
Tdv vihv abrov rbv VpvXTuov Tt&vavai^ • KUKtlvog äire&ero ftht rbv are^avoVf 
4uriXei 6h &vqv • hrel 6i 6 äyyeXo^ npo^e^ffKe kcu* kKelvOf ort vikuv ri&tfffKe, 
■n&hv 6 Bevo^CiV hre^ero rbv aretftavov. 'A^Kcßiäötfc i^yev elg ^vrapTijv kcU 
Tohc AoKeSaifioviovc frap6§vvev km^eo^ai tol^ *A-9ifvalöi^. T^ fthf rd tröfttfi 
4utn&sifthf<if KWCÖC XP^ia karXv larpoVf r^ öi rffv tpvx^ ^hnt. 'E^dtov elg 
rd y^pac icarari'ihv. 01 'A^ijvalot h ry devreptii tov. JleXoirovvijaiCKüii iroX^ 
/urtf Itet Imd toO Xoi/ioi) a^Xturara dterf^ijcav. Kaicbv oMev fOerai i¥ 6»6pi 
'&eftiXta ^efiiv^ töO ßiov ao^poüwijv Kcd tyKpareiav, Todf maroi^c rii^mr&at 
4Bi iKOtnci» iavT(^. Ol iroXirat ^ßovvT€Uy ftfj ol vroXifuoi r^ iroXei kniTt^&Pttu. 

The citizens attack the enemies. We will take the good as onr friendi. 
The citizens feared that the enemies might attack the town. Lay by trareUing 
iBOnej for old age. Fnt on {aor.) Hit crown. Take care that the enemies do 
Hot attack {wbj. aor.) yon. Croesns deposited many treasures of gold in hs 
lionse. The character of men is often changed by riches. Natnre cannot easily' 
he changed. A golden crown was placed {aor.) by the Athenians on the gate 
nf the Acropolis. Everything has been changed by the war. 

LXIX. VocainUcay, 

'AfiQtßi, -ifCt ^t exchange, Ibe same time ; mid., tnnhvsQ, to spin, wea^B 

noMDpense, return. give oneself up with togeUier with. 

^r^oroCf -«V, 6» an army. others to a thing. 
^emh^ni^&UufUf to gire at 

Xliptf X*^^^ dirodcdonu. T^ ev iroiavvri iroXXouuc Kcucf^ afrodidoToi dfwißif, 
lEffrpfder mJULoKtc 6iä Kipdoc irpoido^tfaav. HoXXä 6&pa di&orai Tolg &v^pu~ 
muc mpä TÜV ^eüv. 'Of /uy^ ''^ fincpov kcriv iv xaipip do^ev. 'Ore «Uc* ri^v 
QffiaUav vokiv *AXeSav6poc, dviioTO rot)c k'kev&epovc iravrac. 'E«i>v aeavrihß 
rf KJiw&of aweniSidov, vapex^v avw^otu, ol^riai^ ttotb npayfiam ßovXiTai. 
H)fioioc altrxpov, &KoOaavTa xPVif^f*ov TJoyw fi^ ftav&ävetVy xal diSojuevov ri 
dya&bv icapä tuv ^iXuv fi^ "kafj^avetv. 01 voXirai ^ßoihrraif fi^ ^ noXi^ ^po- 
dtdoTtu. M^TTore ^Trd tuv ^imjv npoSidolo. *0 arparöc ifir' airov tov arpa- 
riljoiu npovdidoTO. *A.v6dov rd Kvire^JXov. 

Brerything is given by God. The wealth which is given (aor.) by God la 
lasting. The town was betrayed by the soldiers to the enemies. We moat 
bMr nobly^ what is sent (given) by God. The friend will not be betrayed by 
the friend. Alexander is said, when he had taken (aar.) Thebes, to have sold 
{aar,) all the free citizens. The army is said to have been betrayed {aar.) by 
Iha general. The citizens feared, that the town might be betrayed. Letns 

mU {aor.) the goblets. 

— — - ■ - ■ 

' from äaKEUf to adorn. ' see § 52, 1. 

'see 4 122, 9. re&vavai instead of re^vrfKhaij Comp. ) 134, 8. 

• also. • ♦ 159, (7). « § 126, 1. 
' KXu&6, one of the Parcae, or goddesses of Fate. 

* by attnctkm instead of npay/iaaiv, & ßovXerai. 

f 1S5.] eUMBtABT Of TEKBS IK -fU. Itt 

LXX. VocabtUary, 

AA^i^uf, trolj, ia reality, hn-deiievtfti, toshowbrag- no^vreXtfc, 'ici otmdy, 

AfL^t-ewDfu, to put on, ^ngly, make a boastful splendid. 

drew in. display of; mid., show fivf^Pt 'opoCf 6, an orator. 

'iiic6XX^>fu, to ruin ; nUd^ of oneself boastfully. eßivwfu, to quench, 9m- 

he mined or lost, per- Kepäwi>fUf to mix. tinguish. 

iih. iraPfnftriOf -ac, ^t free- aw-airoX^ü/u, to ruin «t 

h^dtiKvlffUf to show ; nud^ dorn in speaking, frank- the same time ; mid^ go 

■howofoneseil ness. to ruin at the same time. 

^tXoi ^iXoic OffvairoXXwrcu Jhcrvxownv. Oidiirore /cXeof ia^Xdv airoXXvrtu. 
'Avdfidc Sixaiov Kcipirdg oix anoXXvTai. kl ywaiKeg ;ta/pov(7cv &fi(ffiEvvvfievai 
KtiXäc kfr^Tog. 01 äXff&wc <fo^l ob cnMovaiv kin6eiKW<rB<u rifv abrap <xo- 
fhv. *0 civo^f käv tdari^ Kepawwftai, rd aofia (iirpwotv. H bpy^ €b$^ 
eßtvpdeiTo. *A.el iv rv> ßUfi äpEiiiv Kai, au^poavvifv MeUwao. Ol II^pow 
mhrreXelc aroXäg AfM^ieuvwro. 'O fi^rup r^ yvufitfv uerä irafiptfffiac ieiredt^ 
iaro. 'A}jußtaSifg inrd tQv 'A.'&ijvaUtv CTpanjyd^ äiredtix^. 

The Persians put on splendid clothes. Always show in your life Tirtue and 
aoundmindedncss. We admire the friends who accompany their unhappy friends 
to min (going to rain together with, etc.). Let us express our (pinion with 
finnkness. The sophists made a boastful display of their wisdom. Women 
put on splendid dotbes. The orator should express (aor.) his opinion with 

Summary of Ybbbs ik -fti. 

L Verbs in -fit which annex th-e Personal-endings to thfl 


§ 135. Verb 9 in - a {I'Hrri'fAiy £TA-) : 

1. M'X^'fu, to lend {XPA-), Inf. mxqivaiy Fut XQV^^f ^*c. ; 
Mid. to borrow, Fut XQ'^f^Ofiai. — Aor. i)[Qf]odfit^v in this sense is not 
used bj the Attic writers. To the same stem belong : 

2. XQV* oportet (stem XPA- and XPE-), Subj. x^j Inf. /^flU, 
Fart, (to) x^eoor; Impf, bx^ ^^ /??*'» ^P** XQ^^^ (from XPE-), 

& dnox^i it sujfficesj mfficit ; there are also formed regularly fraak 
. XPASlf dnoxQioaipf Inf. dnox^v; Impf. dmxQiji Aor. dnix^- 
<re(f), etc. Mid. dno^Q^i^cuj to heuve enough, to ahuey waste, dno' 
XQfj<J'0'cUf inflected like XQ^Ofiat. 

4. ovivriiAi, to benefit (ONA'\ Inf. ovtvavai ; Impf. Act. wanting ; 
Put. ovqatxi ; Aor. (Svtjaa, Mid. ovivaixcu, to have advantage, Fut« 
w^cofiOA ; second Aor. civ^fit^, -j^ao, -tjto, etc., Imp. ovqao. Part 
ori/fcero^, Opt ivaififj^, -cuo, -cuto (§134, 1), Inf. Srac&cu; Aor. 

> S 47, 10. and § 161, S. (a), (a). 



[§ 135. 

Pass. 6)Vfid-rjv instead of coi^/iT^. The remaining forms are sup- 
plied by toipeXeiv. 

5. m-fi'TiXr^'fii, to ßlJ {^TLiA-)^ Inf. mfinXarai; Impf. iTtinnXrjvi 
Fut. nXricaa ; Aor. InXt^aa ; Mid. m^inXaiiai, mfinXaad'ai ; Impf. 
iitifmXdfiriv ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. nenXt^fffiai ; Aor. Pass. inX'^Gd^ipf, 

The // in the reduplication of this and the following verb is nsnnlly omitted 
in composition, when a fi precedes the reduplication *, e. g. ifimir^fiaif bat kve" 

6. nifiTtgrifM^ to hum^ Trans., in all respects like nifinXruu. 

7. TAH'MIy to heaVy endure^ Pres, and Impf, wanting, (instead of 
them vnofiivcoj dpiX0fi€u) ; Aor. itXtjPy (rXco,) rXaiiiv, tXtld-i, rXijfcu, 
tXd^ ; Fut. tX'^aoficu ; Perf. thXt^Ha (on the forms tetXäfiBTf etc, 
comp. § 134, 3). 

8. q)fi'fUy to say (stem 0^4-), has the following formation : 

Present. ACTIVE. Imperf. | 


S. 1. 



S. 1. 







l0>7Ct usually Bftfo^a 













P. 1. 


P. 1. 











0w, ^5f5\ <py, fjt^TOv, ^fiev, ^7- 


^at^v, ^ai^f, ^rij f^tjrov 

re, ^Cj<n{v) 

and 0aZrov, ^ac^rtfv and 


<l>u-&i or <j>u4if ^TOj ^Tov, 

faiTTfVj ^fjfuv and ^- 

<f>uT<üVf ^ure, ^araaav and 

/ttcv, (^ffre and ^Zr^, -cv 








ipuCt 0affa, ^av 

G. 0avrof, <l>a(T7}c 


Perf. Imp. 7re^d<n^G>, let it be said Aor. Part ^ftevo^t affirming. 

Verbal adjective, ^t6c, <j>aTeo^. 

Bbm. 1. In the second person ^yr, both the accentuation and the Iota sub- 
script is contrary to all analogy. On the ineUnadon of this verb in the Ind. 
Ptes. (except ^^r), see § 14. 

Rem. 2. This verb has two significations, (a) to aay in general, (b) to affirm, 
(aiio)y to assert, maintain^ etc. The Put (^r^act, however, has only the latter ag^ 
nification ; the first is expressed by ^^u, kpu. The Impf, i^ with ^vai a^ 
^, is used also afi an Aorist 

* In composition, ävrit^fu, avfi^iffUt ävruf^, <nft^, ävri^üiy ovui^di, etc. ; 
bat Sabj. avrifH^ ävri^, etc. 

I1S5.] SUMMAST or TBBB8 IN -/IC. 165 

The following Deponents also belong here : 

1. ayafiaij to wonder, he astonished, admire, Impf. ^afiTjv ; Aor. 
^ydad^v; Fut. dyaujofiai, 

2. dvvafiai, to be aUe, Subj. dvvcDfiai (§ 134, 1), Imp. Övraco, Inf. 
dvvaa&ai. Part, dwdfievog ; Impf, idvydfxriv and i^dvp. ; second Pers. 
idvvm, Opt. dvvaifiriv, bvvaio (§134, 1) ; Fut. dvv^aofiai ; Aor. 
idw^ijv, ^d. and idvvdad^rjv (§ 85, Rem.) ; Perf. deÖvvrjfAai ; ver- 
bal adjective, dvvatos, cMe and possible, 

3. imatafAai, to know, second Pers. imataaai, etc., Subj. eW<T- 
7(Xifjuu (§ 134, 1), Imp. imatm^ etc. ; Impf. ^niardfiTjv, ^mat(o, etc, 
Opt. miaraifi^riv, inhraio (§ 134, 1) ; Fut. iniatriao^ai ; Aor. i^ur- 
rij^j' (Aug., § 91, 3) ; verbal adjective, iniatr^og, 

4. igafiouy to love (in the Pres, and Impf, iqaoa is used instead of 
it in prose) ; Aor. tiqdtsd'rjv, amavi; Fut. iQaa&riaoiAcu, amaho. 

5. xQSfiafjiaiy to hang, pendeo, Subj. xQSfjuafiai (§134, 1) ; Part 
KQSfAdfMvog ; Impf. ixQSfAdfjttjv, Opt. xgefiaifiriv, -cuo, -aito (§ 134, 1) ; 
Aor. ixqefidad^f^v ; Fut. Mid. xQefi^GOfjiat, pendebo, Ishcdl hang, 

6* n^iaa'&cu, to bug, a defective Aor. Mid., used by the Attic 
writers instead of the Aor. Mid. of tofiofiai, viz. i<oin]adfÄfiv (§ 87, 
4), which is not used bj them, Subj. yggicofAcu (§ 134, 1), Opt tiqicu- 
fLTjPt 'CUOj 'cuto (§ 134, 1), Imp. TtQiaco or jtQm, Part, nqiaiavog, 

LXXI. Vocahularg, 

LaLftovioVf 'Ov, TO, the KUfiijf -^c, ^^ a village. irpo-rrnfiaivLiy to indicate 

\ Deitj. o{Ȁm, no more, no longer. beforehand, reveal. 

kjjtiriiTfyrfftij to Bet on fire, ^oXitiko^^ -7, -dv, relating Trporepov, sooner, before. 

bum up. to the state ; rä noXi- <rvv-eifiif to be with. 

i^KXeia and ebK^eia, -ac, tikq, politics. ccj<l>pov€a, to be of sound 

ii &me. ttbrepogy -«2, -ov ; vter f mind, sensible or pra- 
lle, as long as. which of two ? izorepov, dent [save. 
{o-QC, perhaps. whether. § ^etdofiat, w. gen^ to spare, 

'ZaKpanjg rrpb iravrov ^ero^ x(^'°'^ '''^f AviJ^pcjflrovf aa^pocvvrfv Krrfca(r&€U. 
^Ev kXniai xp^ Toi>^ ao^oi>c ix^tv ßiov. 'Epya koI rrpa^eic äper^^\ ob "koyovi 
^fj'Xjovv ,Ypcwv. 'Icwf eliTOi* rig av, on XP^ ^^'^ ^uKpaTij fi^ irporepov rä iro- 
Airucd dtöaoKetv rode kavr^ owdiaTfHßovrac ^ ao^povelv. Suxcpanyf H^ v6- 
JUv fFO/Ud &vifaev, 01 mXifUot noXXäg Kitftag ivewpffirav. ZoMcpanff rd ^oi- 
Hoviov Jt^ npfxnjfiaiveiv iavri^ rb fi6XXov. Ilovof, 0aortv, eOKXeiac irar^p. (H 
woXiTai rotrf arparujTos rijc ävSpeiag ijyaxr&ttaav.^ *AXKtßiaSijCi ioc ^Qxparu 
awTfv, kdvvff^ Tuv fj^ Kokuv k'Xf&vfiLibv Kparelv. Hpiaifiriv npd navTuv xpfh 
uarov rbv oo^bv ävSpa ^tkov elvai ftoi. IloTiXol xpfif^r*^ Svväßevoi f^eidea&eu, 
frplv kp^Vf hpcur^evreg ohKeri SvvavTai. 

Socrates maintained {aor.)^ that the Beity revealed the future to him. I 

* — ■ ■ ■ ■' ■ ■ — — — " 

' ^ 125, 20. * i 126, 7. ' uy€ur&ai rcva rtvo^f to admire one fir something. 


▼SBM 119 '(U. 

[§f 186, 181. 

maintain, said the general, tiiat (oes. to. in/) jon mvsi attack-fiie «Henuel. 
Yirtiie will always benefit man. Fill {aor.) the goblets with wine. Hie town 
was set on fire (aor.). The moderate (man) will always be able to control e^l 
desires. The wise (man) will always love virtue. Socrates understood (aan) 
iiow to turn the youths to virtue. We cannot purchase a faithful friend for 

§136. Verbsin-e (ri-^iy-p, QE-): 

1. t'tj'iJii (stem 'E'), to send. Many forms of this verb are found 
onlj in composition. 





Ind. tfffUt lij^y lTfüi{v) ; ierov ; lefievj fer«, läm{v') or lei(Ti(v). 
Subi. lOf lyCf l^ ; Ir/Tov ; liifiev, l^re, iü<n{v) ; it^ia, a^iyCt ^^V", 

(a0<7 in Xen.), ete. 
Imp. {lt&i)j leij liruf etc. Inf levai. Part letc, iettra, lev. 

Ind. low (from lEQ), a^iow or ijipiovv (seldom leiv)^ leiCf let ; le-' 
Tov, liniv ; Ufievi lere, letrcof. Opt. ieiipf. 

,Fer£ eUa. — Flup. eUeLv. — Fut. vgq. -^ Aor. I. ^«o (^ r31, 2). 
Aor.n. Ind. Sine, is supplied by Aor. I. (^31, 2); Dual elroVf elrrivi 
iFlur; elfievt Ka&elfiev, elre, avetre, eZotzv, iipelffav. 

Subj. ci, (Ff, &^, a^, etc. 

Opt eljyv, e&7f , eZiy ; elrov^ elrtfv ; elfiev, elre, elev. 

Imp. iCf &^^Ci ^^w ; (toVj iruv ; fre, irutrav and SvTCiv. 

In£ e^vat, d^tvat. — Fart. eZf, eZao, Iff, Gen. Ifvrof, e^viff, d^^c^. 

RgMABK. On the Aug. of ä^nf^i, see ^ 91, S. 




Ind. UfMif Uffaif teraif eto. Subj. iQfiaiy äi^iü/iaif l^, a^<^> etc. 
Imp. leffo or tov. Inf. lea^ai. Fart Ufuvog^ ^rf, -ov. 


ISfiijVf leaOf eto. Opt loifjiriv {leifiriv), lolo^ u^LolOt eto. 


Ind. elfifiv 

eloOf i^elffo 
ÜT0, aipeiTO 
elfie^Gf eto 

Subj. d>fjuuj a^CtjuUj ^, a^% tfTat^ q/^<u 
Opt irpootfiijVf -olOf -oiTO, -oifie&a^ etc. 
Imp. oi, loT^G), ete. 
InL i(r&ai. Fart ifievoct -i/, -ov. 

Perf e/^at, fu^eluaij Inf elord^ai^ fied^eur^ui. — Flup. eZ/i^v, e/ffo, aiftelao, eto. 
— Fut fftrofiai. — Aor. I. ^Käf£ffv only in Ind. and seldom. 


Aor. L di^v, Fart, t&eic. — Fut t&rjaofAai. — Verb. Adj. kro^^ kreoQ (oi^TOf ). 

§137. Eifkl (stem '£2:-), to he, aod Eliii (stem'/-), fa ^A 


Iiid.S. 1. 


elfti^ to be 

Subj. 6 


e^t, to^ 

Subj. Ua 














. ^TOV 



















1 3. 






Imp. S. S. 


Inf. elvtu 


l^lf VpOfi^tf 

inf. ieMU 



Part «*v, obva. 

seldom npocti 

Pftrt iwv, Io0. 






2rW, TTpO^lTU 

ffo, iov 



6. 6vTOCioi<rnc 



Gen. fovTof , 

1 / 

P. 2. 


itrroaaVi seldom iarctv 

P. 2. 





seldom 6vruv) 


iruaav or lovmv \ 










^tv or foj I went 

ioifu or 





^«f , nsly Je«<r*o 









ifOTW ^w) 



^fetrov, nsly ^w 



f/OT7fV (v'Tflv) 



^etrj/v, " fr^v 




elnfjtev {elfiev) 


feifuv, " ^/iev 



IfffTt (^re) 

elnre (elre) 


Jetre, " Jrc 




eln^av and elev 




FoLhjofKu, I shall 

be, iay or Iffet, iaraij etc — Opt kaoijinv. — Infi l^etf- J 

i^ai.*— Part lao^evoc. | 

fisM. 1. On the inclination of the Ind. of elfii, to be (except the second Pen. 
d), see § 14. In oomponnds, the accent is on the preposition, aa far back as Ad 
general roles of accentuation permit ; e. g. irapetfu, wapei, näpe<iTi, etc., Imp. 
vapur&L ; bnt irapfiv on account of the temporal augment, irapeürcii on account 
of the omission of e {napeaerai)^ irapeivai like infinitives with the ending -v«M» 
iropü, -ycy -pt etc., on account of the contraction ; the accentuation of the Pari 
in compound words should be particularly noted ; e. g. irapuv, Gten. ifopdtfroCf 
80 also ir<ipiijVj Qen. ir<ipt6vToc. 

Bbx. 2. The compounds of elfUj to go, foBow the same rules as tiiose of elfä^ 
tobe; hence several forms of these two verbs are the same in compounds ; e. g. 
irapeifu, wapei and frapeuri (third Pers. Sing, of elfu and third Pers. PI. of elfu) ; 
bat Inf. wapievai. Part irapiuv. 

Rbm. 3. The Pres, of elfu, to go, particnlaily the Ind., also the Inf. and Part, 
among the Attic prose-writers, baa almost always a Future signification, / MU 
or 1010 goj or come. Hence the Pres, is supplied by ipxofMi (§ 126, 2). 

'Aaret/u, to be awi^, or 

iiTMtfu, to go sway. 

afudofuu, w. pau. aor^ to 
satisfy oneself! be con- 
tented, to. dat 

ifinfM, to let go, give up, 

0i6o, to live. 
Siw, -ovrof (from Set), to, 

that which ii owed/lnty. 

LXXIL Voeaiulary. 

&n^ev, namely, forsooth, 

eUr^etfti, to go, or come 

ifißpoxi^t to drive into 
the net or snare, en- 

H'infUy to let or send oat ; 
ofriverSf emp^ itself. 

ineiTO, afterwards, then, 

hlnfu^i to send ap to; 
md. w. gen.y send one- 
sdf or one's oughts 
after anytlmig, L e. de- 

Ko&infu, to let down, lay. 

«dff-pof , -ov, 6, a wild boar 

KOfrrepSCi -d, -ov, strong, 

«pw}^, -nc, 4, a cry, a 

168 YERBS IN -fH. [§ 198» 

Tiii^oCf -ov, 6, a stone. vediit -tjCf i^ a fetter. ooc, to rerenge oneself 

fie^itffu, to let go, give irTieovaKiCy ofteaer. on. [known. 

ap, neglect npo^^eifu^ to go to, ap* ^vepog, -a, -ov, evident 

KOfxujKtüä^Uy to prepare ; proach. ;t«wv» -ovof , ^, snow. 

iRM^., to prepare oneself, cro/^aj-arof^ro, the mouth, c^c, Jl/tic for elg {ivUh per- 

frap£i7/££, to let pass, loosen* n/MJpco), to help j nuic?. to. vms), 

01 aya^ol oi 6t,ä rdv virvov fteBiäüi, rä diovra npuTTeiv. 'A^e^f rä 6avepä 
ft^ 6iijK€ rä ä^avfj, TLoXh}l äv&puiroi k^tevrai irTi^rov.^ Heöac Xeyovaiv elf 
rbv 'EXXffgrrovTov KU'&elvai ^ep^v Tifjictpovfievov d^^ev röv 'EAX^fTrovTov. 
OÜT* kK x^^P^ (le&evTa Kaprepdv Tii^ov p^ov^ KaroaxetVi oin-'^äirb yXumfc ^ 
yov. 'HpaKXijg rdv ^Ißpvfiavdunf Kairpov 6i6^ag fierä Kpavyifi elq x^^ iroX?i^ 
^(ipeifievav iveßpoxtaev, 'O NetAof k^tijaiv elc r^ i^dXarrav ifcrä arofiamv. 
•Arra' hrceir' iaratf rot)ra ^eolg fiiXei. El &ifTiTdc c?, ßeXrunet* i&vtfrä k(Ü 
'"^povet. VLiftvTicTo^ veog uv^ 6c yepov iay irore. Atxaiog l(r&*f Iva Kai diKäitjf» 
"tvxvC-* Bwf frapovaijc ovdev laxvei vofioc. EvdaifAov elifv Kai d^eolg ^'iXoc- 
f AAe^avdpof «ZTrev' • El fi^ *AM^av6poc ffv, Auryevfjc &v ifv. Btwffy* äpKovfievof 
roic irapovffif tqv änovrov oi)K i^ie/aevoc. Kail veortjc Kai yvp<^ äfKJxj kü^ 
iarov. Ol av^pcjfroi Maifiovelv övvavraiy k&v irewjreg <mjiv. 'AA^i9eta aai 
trapiffTQ. 'lijfievj u> (j>iXot. ^evye Sixocrraalag koI IpiVj noXefiov irpogiovTO^. 
^irel ^ "Mavdävij irapeuKevä^ero cjf äiriovaa iräTiiv irpbg rbv ävSpa, 6 *A(TTvayijc 
^iXeye irpbg rbv Kvpov * ^0 Trat, ^ fiivrfg -rrap* i/ioif npörov fieVf Örav ßovX^ c£fw 
livai c5f k/iif IttI aoi forai,'® koI x^P^v aoi fiä2,Xov ^fw, 3(t^ Äv irTieovoKic ck^Vt 
<5f e/ie. 'Eneira 6^ IrriroLg Tolg kfiolg xpV<^i *fl^> ^'''av äniyCf lx<^v äirei oi)f äv 
ahrbc t&eXyc Imrovc. 

The good (man) will never omit to do his duty. Many strive after {k<j>ie(r&ac^».} the unknown, while they neglect {part aor.) ike known. Xerxes- laid 
fetters on the Hellespont Let not a man he a friend to me with the tongue 
((to.), hut in reality. Be just, that you may also ohtain justice. The friend 
cares for the friend, even though he is ahsent When the enemies came into 
the town, the citizens fled. Go in, O hoy ! The soldiers should all go away 

from the town. Two anaies came into the town. 

■ ■ ■ ■« I.I.I I ■ I I ■ 

* § 158, 3. (b). * § 52, 10. '§62. ♦ § 52, 1. » $ 122, 12. 

« f 121, 16. ^ § 126, 7. » ^ 142, 10. • § 39, Rem. 

"* elvai km nvi, to be in liie power of any one. 


TBBBS IK -ftt. 


1 188. II. Verh tn -fu which annex the Syllable wv cr vv to the 
Stemrvawel and append to this the Personal-endinge. 

Formfttion of the Tenses of Verbs whose Stem ends with 

ay €f 0, or with a Confionant. 

A. Verbs whose Stem ends with a, « or o. 



a. Stem in a. 

b. Stem in e. 

c. Stem m o {o). 





Att ffKeSü, -^, -^ 




Att Kopu, -etf, -et 
























Verbal Adj. 




B. Verbs whose Stem ends with a Consonant 

Perf. I. 

Perf. n. 
Phip. L 
Plup. n. 
Aor. I. 

dX'XD-fjUt* perdo 

6?i-C)X€-Ka ('OAEä), perdtdi, 

5X-cjA-a, perii 
b^uM'Keiv, perdideram 
dX-uX-sLVi perieram 

CiXe-ca I A. IL dM/iifv 



hfP^I/Mt -el 




A. I. P. ufio-a-^v et ofiof&fjv 
I. F. P. bftO'a-^aofiai. 

BsxASK. '01?,vju comes by assimilation from bX-wfu. For an example of 
a stem-ending with a mute, see deUvvfii above, under the paradigms (§ 188). 
The 'Part. Perf. Mid. or Pass, of bfiwfii is bfiufiovfievoc. The remaining forms 
of the Perf. and Plup. commonly omit the a among tlie Attic writan; ei g. 
^/äa/i&raty bftufioTO, 

' And axeSa-wvUf iaKeda-wvov — Kope-vvvctf k-Kope-vwov — OTpo-wU», 
k-arpQ-wvov (always H). 
* And bXXv-Of &XXv-ov — bfivthOy ufiw-ov (always v). 


170 TBBBS DT '[U. [S 181. 



The Stem ends : 

§139. A. In a Vowel and assumes -ffv. 

(a) YerbB whose Stem ends in a. 

1. %sQa-vvv-iii, to mixy Fut. negicia, Att. %s^; Aor. ixi^tra; 
Perf. xixQÜxa; Ferf. Mid. or Pass. MHQäfuiu; Aor. Pass. ixQud^t 
also ixeqda^fiv, — ^Mid. 

2. xge/jid'pvV'fUf to hanf/, Fut. KQSfASaoDf Att. xQSfici ; Aor. «x^e« 
/jiacra; Mid. or Pass. xqsiidwvfAaij I hang tnyself or am hung (but 
9tQtfuiiiai, to hang^ Intrans., § 135, 5) ; Fut. Pass. xQefjiaa&^ffOfieu; 
Aor. ixQSfida'&TiVf I was huTtg, or I hung, Intrans. 

3. 0reT«-m?-fM, to spread out, expandj open, Fut. nataaaOf Att. 
ivflfio ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. ftmrafMu ; Aor. Pass, instdadi^ (Sjn* 
eope, § 117, 1). 

4» axsdd-ifPv-fUf to scatter, Fut ijxsdaam, Att. axedoJ; Perf. Mid» 
or Pass, iijxidacfiai i Aor. Pass. i<sxsdda'd-ijv. 

(b) Verbs whose Stem ends in e< 

1. B'vvv'iju, to clothe, in prose dficpiJffWfu, Impf, dfixptivfvv willi* 
out Aug. ; Fut. diiq)tB6m, Att. dfi(pm ; Aor. ij(Aq)ü<Ta ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, ^(icpieaiiai, ^fiq)ie6ai, fuiq^iearai, etc, Inf. ^(jKptsad'ai ; Fiit. 
lifid. dfi<pie60fjiai, Att dfjiquovfiai, — ^Aug., § 91, 3. 

2. ^B'VvV'fu, to tml, Trans., Fut ^iaio ; Aor. il^eaa ; Perf. Mid. 
or Pass, i^scficu; Aor. Pass, i^^iad^rjv, — (Ceeo, on the oontraiy, is 
usually intransitive). 

3. xoQi-wv-iu, to satisfy, satiate, Fut xogecto, Att xoQfS ; Aor. 
ixoQSija ; Perf. Mid. or Pass. xtxBQsafuu ; Aor. Pass, cxo^o^i;^.— » 

4. ößi-ffV'fUy to extinguish, Fut (r^/<T(o ; first Aor. saßeca, I eao^ 
tinguished; second Aor. iaßijv, I ceased to htm, went out; Perf. 
iaßtjxa, I have ceased to hum. — ^Mid. aßinnj^iai, to cease to humj 
Perf. Mid. or Pass. Soßecficu; Aor. Pass, hßic'&'qp. No other 
Terb in -n;/M has a second Aorist 

5. (TtoQe-rvV'iu, to spread out, abbreviated form ffto^fu, Fut ero^ 
giaco, Att (rro^oj; Aor. iatOQSGa, The other tenses are formed 
from atQmfWfu, viz. iatQfOfiat, ifftQci&fjv, ctQootog, See § 1^8» 
Af c. 

11^0 TXR98 IK -fl4. Vll 

(c) Verbs in o, with the o lengthened into u. 

1 ^d-vrv-fu, to gird, Fut. l^faat»i Aor. /faxra; Perf. Md. or 
Pass« i^fOijfMU (§ 95). — ^Mid. 

2. ^'VPv-fUf to ^rengthen, Fot. ^cn» ; Aor. l^^txHSa ; Perf. Mid. 
«r Pass. i^QiOficu, Imp. iq^wsoy farewdly Inf. i^g^cd'cu; Aor. Pass. 
i^ü^tif (! 95). 

8. (ttQoi-vifv-fAi, to spread out, Fut (rr^a!<To> ; Aor. iatQaaa, etc 
See orogivvviii and § 138, A, c. 

4. XQ^'^^'t^h ^o color, Fut ^^«roo ;' Aor. ixi^aa ; Perf. Mid* or 
Pass, x^^pat. 

§140. B. In a Consonant and assumes -fv (see 

deix-w-ijiij § 133). 

1. ay-W'fu, to break, Fut a^co ; Aor. ta!^a, Inf. a^eu ; second 
Perf. iaya, I am hrohen ; Aor. Pass, iiyriv (Aug., § 87, 4). — ^Mid. 

2. €t^'pV''fu (or et(9/o>), to «^ in, Fut €i(^$a) ; Aor. tH^et, (But 
si(^fo, c'^l«!, cil^tf, to shut out, ete.). 

3. ^evy-vV'fii, to Join, Fut Cfi^^o" ; -A^or. e^a;|a ; Perf. Mid. or 
Pass, l^svyiiai ; Aor. Pass. H^Evx&r^, more frequently i^yijp. 

4. fuy-vv'fjii, to mix, Fut fM^oo; Aor. Ifu^a, ^»|ai; Perf. fiefuxai 
Perf. Mid. or Pass, fiefuyfjieu ; Aor. Pass. ifux&^, more frequently 
ifily^, Fut Perf. fiffu^oftai. 

5. oiy-w-fu or o'/oi, prose a^olyvviu, avoiyto, to open, Impf, ai^eq»- 
^; Fut ai>oi|a); Aor. avicf/l^a, avot^€u\ first Perf. a^reitpjfi^i Ihaoe 
opened ; second Perf. avic^ya, I stand open. Instead of which Att 
Aficpy^xoa; Aor. Pass. dve<px^^i dvoix^tjvai (Aug., § 87, 6). 

6. ofw^-9V'fii, to wipe off, Fut. o/io^|o} ; Aor. (SfioQ^a. — ^Mid. 

7. oQ'VV'iu, to rouse, Fut iqafio ; Aor. (aqaa ; Mid. oQPVfiai, to 
rouse one^s self^ Fut. ogovficu ; Aor. dqofirjp: 

8. ntiy-vv-fU, to fiat, fasten, Fut nti^to ; Aor. mril^a ; first Perf. 
ninrjxa, I have fastened ; second Perf. nintiya, I stand fast; Mid. 
n^vfuc», Istiekfatt ; Perf. nHn^fAot, I stand fast ; Aor. Pass. ^;rä> 
yjyy.— Mid. 

9. Qfiy-vv-iu, to tear, break, Fut-. ^|ai ; Aor. Iqqtj^u ; second Perf. 
t^^ya, lam hroken^ rent; Aor. SQQiyijv; Fut Pass, q&y^aona** 

LXXm. Vocabulary^ 

'Affd^^t -er» unpleasant, join again ; of an amijf^ un(haßcvv1>fUf to quench, 
disgasdng. set ont again. fidelvyiua, -ag, ^, dislike, 

änfo-Cevyvi'/it, to yoke, or itva^Kaiu, to bum, kindle. disgnst 

itft TKRBS IN 'fii, [i 141. 

Stafifi^yvefu, to break leunAX«^, to cbatter, prat- gether, make ooagnlata, 

asunder, tear in pieces, tie. [ligbt. compose, 

tear away. ^v;tvof, -<w, 6, a lamp, a ^va^/na, -dToCf to, breath. 

kyKoXXQiri^ofiaif to be fta'k.&aKo^^ -9, -dv, soft, ^<i>c, <^t6cj rOf light 

]Hond of, make a dis* rich, tender. X^^i "^1 ^ iU*wiU, an- 

play. ^XX^fu, to destroy. ger. Ijtu9> 

l^-öXXüp, to rain utterly. ervyeUf to hate. ^jtevdoptuov^ 'Ov. ro, per* 

l^ßiyv^fUy to yoke, join. ovfiTr^yvOfu, to join to- ^MopKoc, -ov, perjured. 

Tm/ ßpufmnjv rä ^Jiora,* iav rtf vpoc^ipy, vpiv kvL'^Vfielv, uifd^ ^vero«, 
MtKopeaitevoic 6k xai ßdeXvyfiiav irapixet. T9 ai'r^ ^vfrij/iari to fiev vvp äva- 
KobfTEUXc &Vf rd Sh rov Xvxvov ^c äiroaßiveiac. Ol *A^vaioi fierä irmnjc t^ 
JwKM/ifWf hri nude TLipffO^ &ve(ev^av. M^ daiftovuv ;toAov 6pffyg. ü'^ßptc' 
mXXä ^Sff Tuv air^puiruv anuXetrev ipya. Ei fiif ^Aaf »f fiiKp*f itfroXeic Tä. 
ueiCova. 01 no^fuot ufioaav räc aw&^KOc ^Xa^oi. Seve^av^f iXeye, ri^ 
y^ i^ aipoc Koi irvpög crvfivray^vai. Su/cpan/f, IdCw* ^kvTLcr&ivii to diep^oydc 
Iftariov fiepog ael noioiJvTa ^vepov • Ov izavay^ 1^17, tyKaXkutni^biievoe iffiiv ; 
^MopKov 97vyel t^edf, 6^1^ bfUirai. Ze^ uvSp* i^aXiaecev 'OXv^mof, 6c rihf 

BoQ (oor.) the water, O boy ! The gaiment is torn. The milk is cunHed 
(ev/nr^Xw/u, perf. 2). The doors are open. The wine was mixed {oor,) witk 
water (dbtf.). The goblet is broken to pieces. The Hght is extiqguisked. The 
soldiers wiU again set out against the enemies. Swear (siäij. aor.) not withoi|ft 
reason. Haughtiness will ruin you all. Extinguish (aor.) Üie light The wo- 
men in sorrow (sorrowing) tore {aor. mid.) their garments. 

1141. Inflection of the two forms of the Perfect^ 

xeifiai and ^fAat. 

(a) Keifiai, to lie down, 

Keifuuy properlj, I have laid myself down, I am lain down, heac^ 
I He dovm^ is a Perf. form without reduplication» 

Perf. Ind. Ktlutu^ Kelaai, Keiraij Keifie&üf lukr&et Ketvra^ ; 

Subj. Keufiaiy Kt^j Ketfratf etc. ; 

Imp. KciaOt K€ia^<Jt etc»; Inf. Keier&ai; "PwrL tceifuvoc^ 
Plup* Ind. kKeltaiv, kKuao^ kKtiro, third Fen. PL ixeivro \ 

Opt. Ksoifi^Vf KioLOf KeoiTOf etc 
#W. Ktitrouai. 

OmipoundB, avoKeifuu^ KttruKetfuUf xarAiutüaif etc. ; Iii£ Ktawuiffdm ; hafk, 
KaTOKeiao, tyiteiao. 

(b) ^fiaty 16 sit, 

1« %rfia<, properlj, I have seated myself I have "been seated, hence, 
/ «tif, 18 a Perf. form of the Poet. Aor. Act. elaa, to set, to estaiHsh. 
The stem is 'HJ- (comp, ^a-tai instead of ^d-tai [according to § 8, 
1.] and the Lat sed-^. 

{ ItöJ] TXBBS Ol •« W2TB XXITS«» LIKE TBOftS IN -p. 



Ind. i^M, iaait imtu, fifte^a, vo^s, ^vrai ; 
Imp. ijaoj ^<n>a>, etc. : Inf. iya^a« ; Pari, ^fievoc- 

2. In prose, the compound xa&i^(iai, is commonlj used instead of 
the simple. The inflection of the compound differs from that of 
the simple, in never taking a in the third Pers. Sing. Perf., nor in 
the Plup., except when it has the temporal Augment : 

I etc ; Imp. Ku^trot etc ; Inf. Ka^^tr&ai ; Part Ka^fievoc. 
Phtp. j kKa^Tifiriv and Ko^jfiriVy kKo&rivo and kw^oo^ ixa^riTO and «•- 
I ^ ^ <r r , etc. j Opt. Ka&oiftrjVf ku^oio, ko&oito, etc 

^ Bema&k. The defective forms of V^' ^^'^ »applied by IC^^^u or l^iee^m 
({wo0e i6a^i^e(r&aiy Ko^iCetr^ai). 

f 142. Verbs in -co, which fallow the analogy of Verbs in -fu^ in 
forming the second Aor, Act and Mid. 

1. Several verhs with the characteristic a, e, o, v, form a second 
Aor. Act and Mid., according to the analogy of verbs in -fUf sinoe^ 
ia this tense, they omit the mode-vowel, and hence append the per- 
sonal-ending» to the stem. But all the remaining forms of these 
Terbs are like verbs in -a>. 

2. The formation of this second Aor. Act., through all the modes 
and participials, is like that of the second Aor. Act. of verbs in -fu. 
The characteristic-vowel is in most cases lengthened, as in hrtiPf 
-viz. ä and e into if, o into oo, I and t^ into i and t;. This lengthened 
vowel remains, as in Mtriv, throughout the Ind., Imp. and Inf. 
The Imp. ending -Tj&t in verbs whose characteristic-vowel is a, in 
oomposition is abridged into d; e. g. nQoßä instead of n^ßif&i. 


a. Chamcteris. a 

b. Charactcris. c 

c. Characteris. o 

d. Characv 


BA-Q, ßaiva. 

SBE-Q, aßhwfiL, 

TNÖ-Q, yiyvocT- 


PwBons. . 

to go. 

to extinguish. 

, Ko, to hnow. 

to wrap up. 

Ind. S. 1. 

l-ßri'V, IwtnA 

ioßriv, I ceased 

hyviiVj Iknem 

£<H)v, to go 



iffßffg [to bum 


W«f [til or 





i&o [imder 











P. 1. 















(Poet Ißäv) 

(Poet iyvuv) 
yvw, yv^f, yv^» 


Subj. S. 

/?", ßv^y ßv' 

<fß^i 'VC* -? 







ßüfzev, 'flT€y 

aßüfiev, '^TCf 

yvQfieVf -«re, 






^ Compounds, e. g. ävaßüf &v<ißyg, etc. \ änooßu ; diayvü ; dvo^vw. 


^174 y<«B8 WITH A SBOOlfB AjCOU HKS TBB8S IK «f«. [S liS. 

Opt. S. 1. 















ßairiTov et -alrw 

aßeitjTov 9%-elTov 

yvolijrov et^otrov 


ßai^Tfjv et -aLTrjv 

aßet^Tijv et-eiTtjv 

yvoir)TTiv et-oiTT^v 


ßairjfiiv et -alfiev 

aßeifffiev et -eifiev 

yvoifjfitv et'Ot/jtev 


ßainTe et -atre 

aße'uire et 'tire 

yvoifire et -olre 


)9aicv (seldom 


yvoiev (rarely 

Imp. S. 


üßrf&i^ -7jT(j} 


Sir&i, -vrw» 

D. 1- 

iS^rw, -i^row 

aßnTovj '^Tuv 



P. 2. 






ßtlTuaav and 

aßrfTuaav and 

yvuTuaav and 

SvTuffav et 











ßäc, -äatiy 'äv 

aßeiCi -elffay -ev 

yvovc, -ovtraf -6v 

^df, -V0a,-4)v 

G. ßuVTOC 

G. (xßivroc 

G. yvovTo^ 

G. düVTO^. 

Rbma&k. The Opt form 6vnv, instead of ivifjv, is not foand in the Attic 
dialect, bat in the Epic In the Common language, the second Aor. Mid. is 
formed in only a very few verbs; e. g. nirofiai ($ 125, 23), npicurd^at, to buy 
(4 135, p. 165). 

Summary of Verbs with a second Aor. like Verbs in -/At. 
. Besides the verbs meotioned above, some others have this form : 

1. di^Qaaiteit, to run away (§ 122, 6), Aor. {dPA-) ibqdPj -0$, 
"at "ä^ify 'are, -aaav, Subj. dQ(Oy dQ^^, d()a, dqazw^ S^fiePt dgatB^ 
dQmai(p), Opt dqaü^f Imp. dqä&i, -area, laf. ^qavai^ Fart, dqms^ 

2. ftizofuuy to ßy (§ 125, 23), Aor, {UTA-) inttip, Laf. nt^miy 
. Part mag ; Aor. Mid. inrdfi^, ntdad^tu. 

3. axaXXm or axB^Jm, to dry, make dry, second Aor. (JSKAA-) 
lirxhiPf to wither (Intrans.), Inf. anX^vtu^ Opt cnkuii^ (§ 117, 2)* 

4. q>0d*vm, to come before, anttctpate (§119, 5), seoond A«r. 

5. x««o, to bum. Trans. (§ 116, 2), second Aor. {KAE-) ixdrp^/^ 
I burned, Intrans. ; but first Aor. ixavaa, Trans. 

6. ^«w, toßow (§116, 3), Aor. (PTE-) iQQiStjv,* I flowed. 

7. xoiqao, to rejoice (§ 125, 24), Aor. (XAPE-) ixä^t^.* 

8. dXiffxoiiai, to be taken, Aor. (AAO-) ^Xoov and idXmv (§ 122, 1). 

9. ßtom, to live, second Aor. ißifav, Subj. ßuo, -(pg, -<p, etc., Opt. 
ßifptiif (not ßioifiv, as yvoit^v, to distinguish it from Opt Impf. 
^oitjv), Inf. ßimvoi. Part jJ/ovV; but the Cases of the Part, ßutig 
are supplied by the first Aor. Part ßuacag. Thus, dveßüof, I came 

■ CompoiiindB, e. g. dva/S^i^t, äväßä, itväßffre ; iLirwjßrr&i ; Stäyvu^i ; äva&ir&L, 
• These are strictly ^ass. Aorists, thongh they have an Act Intran«. signi 


rax. nesKOu&Ait rvam eld». 


to lifo (iffmn, from dvapaiaxofiai, — The Pres. And Impf* of ßion 
are but little used by the Attic writers ; instead of these, thej em- 
ploy the corresponding tenses of TcJ, which, on the contrary, boi> 
rows its remaining tenses from ßwoa ; thus, Pres. Jw ; Impf, s^dv 
.(§ 97, 3) ; Fut. ßuiiaofjuu ; Aor. ißimf ; Perf. ßtßiama ; Perf. Pass. 
ßtßmtaiy Part, ß^ßioofiivog. 

10 ipitOy to bring forthy produce^ second Aor. iq^v^ I too* pro- 
duced, bom, I sprung up, arose, lotzs, (pvvat, qjvg, Subj. gwo (Opt. 
wanting in the Attic dialect) ; but the first Aor. ^qpvcra, /produced, 
Fut qwooa, I will produce. The Perf. nscpvaa, also has an intran- 
sitive sense^ and also the Pres. Mid. (pvoiiai, and the Fut. cpvaofim. 

§ 143. Old a (stem 'EU», to see), I know. 


Ind.S. 1. 

oUa Subj. el6ij Imp. 
o2(n9a eidyg lavi 




oldE{v) eld^ laTQ 


D. 2. 3. 

lüTov, loTöv eiS^TOVf -^jTOv IffTOVf larov 

P. 1. 

lofisv elSüfiev 



tare elSifTe l<rre 

elS6^f 'ViOj -Of 


laa(Tt{v) cld&(n{v) Iffrctaav 


^eiv^ Dual 

PL ^eifiev 


^eJe^f and -eitr^a jSeirov 



^f5c*(v) ^öeiTTiv 


Opt Sing. eiSeiijVj -rjc, -V \ T>nnl elSeirfroVf -rjTTiv ; PL etdeitffiev (seldom 

eldelfiev), eiSeiijTej eiSelev (seldom elöeifftTav). 

Fnt elaofiat, I shall know. — Verbtj adjectiye, hreov. 

Iwoiöa, compounded of olöa, I am oon»ciom, Inf. avveiSevai 

t Imp^ avvta^ij 

Subj. aweLÖöf etc. 

Alfia, -^stocj T6y blood. 

oKO^ariiCt with impu- 
nity, extravagantl/f li- 

L7C0'ßaivt>, to go away. 

UTTO-ytyvLiaKui, to reject; 
w. i/iavrov, give oneself 
QPf despair. 

iiFo-SiSpuiTKaf w. ooc, to 
run away from. 

LXXIV. Vocabulary. 

uirO'KpvirTUj to conceal. 
axpVOTQCj -ov, useless* 
ßoTf&iu>j to hasten to help, 

dvcj, to go or sink into, 

put on. 
kK-ireroficUf to fly away. 
kfiTrirvTiiffu tI rivocy to fill. 
vsKpoCi 'äf -&Vt dead; 6 

vEKpocy a corpse. 

Trapct-frirofiaiy to fly away. 

irpo-oiSay to know before- 

npoa^erog, -17, -6v, or 
irpoff^erog, -«7, -ov, add- 
ed (by art), artiflciaL 

frrepv^j -yoct Vt a wing. 

avyyiyvijffKUj w, dat^ to 
pardon. [that 

(5ffre, w. inf. and ind., so 

> First Pers. $<59, second i^a^Oy third jfcl^, are considered as Attic form. 


yxiiBS.-^D]a>oinBirTS hhmdub xost xnt gib. 


^oAeivdv fUTpov. *H ro^tf ^icAvdvveiMrev ^d r<>v noXefduv &\Cwai. ^evye 
Toiic äKoXä(7T(^{ ßUnravTag. ^vyyvuf&i fjtoi, <*> narep, Aifibg fieyurrov äXyo^ 
äv^puKoic l^v- 'O^ela ^dov^ izapaKTuaa i^avtt. 'O dovXo^ IXai^ev* imodpäic 
rdv de<T»rÖTiyv. 0/ orpaTifyoi iyvwrav* rolg noXtrai^ ßoff&eiv. M^ore aeavHlip 
oJToyv^. AaiSaXo^ rroiifffac inipvyac trpoc&eräc i^eirnj fterä tov 'Ixapov. 
ZvAAof hev^fjoe r^v iroXtv <f>6vov xal veKpuvj &QTt rdv Kepofuutdu^ aUfsari fnt^ 
v(U. 01 voXefUOt, TJ^ y^ reftovres* äveßifoav. 'Axpnorov irpoetöevai rä fuX- 
Xopra. 01 aya&ol iravrav fierpov laaaiv (know how) Bxeiv. IIoAAo^ ätr^pawot 

Go away, O boy ! The whole town flowed with blood. The bird flew away. 
The general determined to assist the town. The father pardoned the son. 
Mayest thou not liine lioentioasly ! Men rcgoioe to know {aor. part.) the tntth. 
The town was taken by the enemies. Let us not despair. The slave ran away 
from his master. The boy rejoiced when he saw {aor. part.) the bird fly away 
{aor. part.}. It is well in eyerything to know (how) to observe moderation. 
Kever praise a man, before {irplv äv, to. subj.) thou knowest him well, (o-afwf). 

§144 Deponents (§118|i?em.), and Active Verhi whose 

Future has a Middle form. 

a. List of Deponents Middle most in nse. 

Xußaofuu, to uuuft, 
ftavrevofiai, to prophmf^ 
fiapTvpofiai, to call to war 

jtaxofuu, iofifftd^ 
fiifn^fiaiy to blcane, 
firfxavaofKU, to devtae, 
fufieoftai, to indtatie^ 
fxu^eofjuuj to speaks 
fiv^oh)yeofiai, to rdate, 
fiVKaofjuu, to low^ 
^XeifOfiaif to gadier loood^ 
^M^ofiaiy to gaäier loood^ 
6Svpofiaiy to mourn^ 

*Ayuvi^ofjuUj to contend, öe^Loofiai, to greets 

alKi^ofjtaif to treat inju- SexofuUt to receive, 

riouäy, diüKeXevofiaif to exhort, 

alvLTTOficu, to speak darJdjf, öopeonai, to present, 

aUr^avofiaiy to perceive, iyKeXevojMU, to urge, 

alncuyfiai, to aocuaCj hreXXofiai, to command, 

aKsofiai, to heal, hnxeXevofiai, to urge, 

aKpoaofuu, to hear, kpyäQffuu, to woHt, 

aKpoßoXU^ofUu, to throw evxofiai, toprag, 

fiom afar, to skirmi^ ijyeofiai, to go before, 

iTckoiiuELL, to leap, •^eaofmi, to see, 

ävaßi^oKOfjtai, to restore to Idofiai, to heal, 

life, or to live again, ITiäoKOfiai, to propitiate, 

iofcucoivoofiai, to oommuni- linrSt^ofiai, to ride, 

cate toiA, lax^piCofiait to exert one^s oUnfiCofiai, to take 
äirex^avofiai, to be hated, strength, hg birds, 

AiroXoyiofjuu, to speak in Kavxaofiai, to boast, bXo^pofiai, to kanent, 

Apaofiai, to pray, 
iurrra^ofiai, to wdcome, 
ä^iKveofiai, to come, 
ßia^ofiai, to force, 
ytyvofjtat, to become, 

KoivoXoyiofUUj to consult bpxeofuu, to tkmce, 


KTaofiai, to acquire, 
XijtCofteu, to plunder, 
Xoyt^oficu, to consider, 
^vfiaivofiai, to maltreat. 

ba^poivofiai, to smeil, 
wapairiofMi, to entreat, 
vrapcuceXevoftai, to targe, 
irapafiv^ioftai, to 

f ISl, 13. 

*■ determined. ' a place in Athent. 


(144] BEFOKBIITS PJl98nnB«---^ACT. TBHBS WITH Wa>. PUT. 177 

w^ßftfma^ftai, ilk ipeedb aKhnofuu^ to amnder^ 

freehfj ffTo&fiäofiaif to ettimaU 

werofiaif toßgf, (distance), 

irpayftareiwfMii to be frsMty, oToxa^ofMUy to <z^i at, 
frpooifitaCoftiu, to make a arparevofML, to go to war^ 
ptm anb k , arffaroireSevofuUt to en- 

fCffo^aai^o/mi, to <fffep at camp^ 

an exeuee, reKfiaipofuu, to litnit, 

irw^avofjuu, to tn^utre, reKTcuvofuu, toßtbrioatoi 
cißofjLcUj to reverence, rexväofjUUf to build, 

iniffxviofiaif to prämiier 
'bvoKpivofiaif to 
i^aldofuu, to epane^ 
^eyyofiai, to epeak, 
^iXo^poveofjuHj to 

Xapi^ofiaij toehout 
Xpaofiai, to tue, 
uveofuu, to bujf. 


b. List of Deponents Passive most in nse* 

^AX&oftai, to wanckr, kvavnoofiaij to resist, ^ßofiai, to refoioe, 

hrhtfieofjiat, to reflect, Kpefjta/juii, to hang, 

kwoeofioi, to oonsider weS, fivaarrofiai, to loaäie, 

iirifiiXofiai and -ioficu, to olofiai, to suppose, 

tdhe care, npo&ufieofuu, to desire, 

kirUrrafiaij to know, aeßofiai, to reverence, 

äx^ofuu, to he disptBoaed, 
ßovXofMt, to un^ 
ßpvx^f^h to roar, 
deofuu, to want, 
diavoiofiai, to Hunk, 

dwafiai, to be able (IkiGd. eiXaßiofuu, to be cautious, 
Aor. only Epic), 

Bjemahk. 'Ayafuu, to wonder, aldeofiai, to reverence, &fielßofMi, to exdurngSf 
afuXkaofMi, to contend, anoKpivoficu, to answer, arroXoyeofiai, ^to apologize, äpveo- 
fuu, to deny, avXl^ofiai, to lodge, ^laXeyofjiat, to converse with, kirivoeoficu, to refledt 
v^pon^ Xotdopeofjiai, to reproach, /lifK^fuu, to blame, bpeyofiai, to desire, ireipaofiai, to 
try, TTpovoio/uu, to foresee, ^iXo^poviofiai, to treat kindly, and ^iTiortpeofiai, to be 
ambitious, have both a Mid. and Pass, fonn for their Aorist Of these, ayaftai, 
alSiofmi, äpikTMoiwA, äpveofiai, StaXeyofMt and ^ih>Tifuoficu, are more fieqnently 
in the Pass. Aor. ; on the contrary, äfieißofiai, airoKpivofuu, äiroXoyeofteu, fikp^ 
^ftai and ^ihx^poveofMi, more frequently in Üie Mid. Aor. 

c. List of Active 

»Ayvoiu,* not to know, 
^doyi to sing, 
äicowj,^ to hear, 
aXaXa^u,* to cry out, 
äftapTovQ,^ to ndss^ 
äiravräii,^ to meet, 
dn-oXavcj,t to enjoy, 
dp7ra^a),t to seize, 
ßadi^u, to go. 

Verbs most in use with a Middle Future. 

ßaiva, to go, 
ßioQ, to live, 
ßXeiru,* to see, 
ßoäii,^ to cry out, 
ye\aL»,\ to laugh. 
yripaßKü, to grow old, 
yiyvcjoKu, to know, 
SaKvu, to bite, 
Sap&ävfj, to deep, 

deiacu, to fear, 
ötöpacKu, to run away, 
SiuKo,* to pursue, 
kyKOfuä^<^, to praise, 
elfii, to be, 
iiraivio,* to praise, 
iiriopKiu, to perjure amis 

ia^iu, to eat. 

* Also with Fut Act., in writers of the best period. — Ta. 

t Also with Pat Act, but only in the later write».. Comp. Rost Gr. Grun^ 
\ 82, YL D, c). The forms of the Pat Mid., however, are to be prefenedw-^Tiu 




^avfio^Uf* to wonckr, 
i^i«,* to ruHy 
^pacij T^tfpevctt* to hunt, 
^lyyaviif to touuAy 
^vTfaKt^i to die, 
'&pcMjK(j, to leap, 
KOfivo, to leAor, 
kXaia,^ to weep, 
itkeirrQ, to steal, 
KoXa^Uy* to punish, 
fuifM^(j,* to indulge infes- 

Xayxavtt, to obtesm, 
Xtifißävu, to takSf 
XixfMUy to Uck, 
pav^avu, to.lear», 

vkci^ to swim, 

olda, to know, 

olfiuCu,'^ to lament, 

oXoXv^o,"^ to kowL, 

bupvßiy^ to swecH\ 

bpoQ, to see, 

nail^iit to sport, 

vitaxo, to suffer, 

nfjiaa, to leap, 

Triva, to drink, 

TrifTTU, to fall, 

TrAeci), to sou, 

•Kvki, to bhw (Imt avftr 

7nfiyu,i to strong 
iro^ea,* to desire, 

irpocKwki,^ to reoermeef 
^u, to flow, 
OLyüa, to he säent, 
ou»frcM,f to be silent, 
aiuttrnj, to- sport, 
ffKovSa^ij, to be zeedtms, 
mtplTTo, to pipe, 
TucTtJ,* to produce, 
Tpuya, to gnaw, 
Tvyxavu, to obtain, 
Tui&ä^a, to raä ai, 
i^evya, to flee, 
f^ävu,^ to come hef^ 
Xi^»,* to oonktin. 



ilA5. If at ure of a Sentence, — Subject. — Predicate. 

1. Syntax treats of sentences. A sentence is the expression of 
a thought in words ; e. g. ro Qodov '&dXlBi, the rose blossoms^ 6 up- 
^Qomog d'vi^og ianv, to xalbf q68ov ^dXXei iv t(p rov natqog x^7r(p. 
Every thought must contain two parts or ideas related to each 
other and oomhined into one whole, viz. the idea of an action and 
(^ an object from which the action proceeds. The former is called 
Üke predicate^ the latter, the whject. The suhject, therefore, is that 
of which something is affirmed, the predicate, that which is affirmed 
of the subject ; e. g. in the sentences, to Qodov d'dXTisi, 6 avd'qm- 
m>g d-v^os ictWy — to ^odov and 6 av&Qomog are the subjects, d'dX* 
im and ^mftog c<mr, the predicates. 

2. The Greek language expresses the relation of ideas partly by 
inflection ; e. g. to ^odov ^aXX-e e, o otQaticiitjg fioix'^ tai, oi tnga- 
ttmtcu fiaX'Ovtai; partly by separate words; e. g. the tree ü 
green, 6 av&QOMiog ^vrjtog iativ. In this last example, the notion 
or idea contained in aifd^qomog is connected by iütlv to that con- 
tained in '&ifijt6g. 

3. The subject is either a substantive,^— a substantive-pronoun or 
numeral, — an adjective or participle used as a substantive, — an ad- 
verb which becomes a substantive by prefixing the article, — a pre- 
position with the Case it governs,-^r an infinitive. Lideed, eveiy 
word, letter, syllable or combination of words may be considered as 
a neuter substantive, and hence can become a subject, the neuter 
article being usually prefixed. 

Td pSSov ^äX?.et, the rose Uossoms, 'Eyo) ypwpo, Tpelc I^Ti^ov. *0 
ao^bc eidaifiuv kcrivf the wise man is happ^. Oi rraXai &v6peioi ffaaVf the (m- 
demta uftn amrageous. 01 nepl Hi^riädtiv icaX&f ifißx^*'**^^' Td di- 
^koKstv mX6v kffrt». Td s I owSea/io^ itrrtVy ^ el is a conjunction. 


4. The subject is in the nominative. 

Bbm. I. Tho subject is in liie Ace. in the constraotion of llie Ace. with the 
Inf, see 4 172. In indefinite and distribndye designations of nnmberi the sub- 
ject is expressed by a preposition and the Case it goyerns ; e.g. e^r Terrapac 
^X^ov, about four came; so kcbO* iKutnovg, tingidi, Kara i^&vfff nnffuhe genies. 

Rem. 2. In the following cases, the subject is not expressed bj a separate 


(a) When the subject is a personal pronoun, it is not expressed, vnless it is 
particularly emphatic j e. g. ypä<j>Uy ypa^etf , ypä<l>ei. 

(b) When the idea contained in the predicate is such, that it cannot appro- 
priately belopg to ev^ry snbject, but only to a particular one, the subject being 
in a measure contained in the predicate, or, at least, indicated by it and hence 
readily known ; e. g. irrel ol noXkfitoi äv^'k&ov, kKijpv^e (s& 6 «^pv^, the her- 
aid proclaimed) toi( 'EXkijoi irapaoKeväoaa^ai. So. arf/ioivei ry aahnyyi^ 
koakiny^Bv (sc. b odkinKTri^j the trumpeter gives the signal with the trumpet). So 
also ^eij it nitfiff, vi^ei, it snows, ßpovr^ it thunders^ äorpairretf sc 6 
Zevct it lightens, are to be explained. 

(c) When the subject is easily supplied from the context; tbns, e. g. in snoh 
expressions aa ^aoi, Xeyovoi, etc., the subject uvd^ponoi is regularly omitted. 

Rbm. 3. The indefinite pronouns, one, they, are commonly expressed by r 2 f , 
or by the third Pers. PL Act, e. g. Xeyovm, ^aai, or by the third Pcrs. Sing. 
Pass., e. g. ^.iyerai, or by the personal Pass., e. g. t^iXovftai, ^iXy, they lorn me, 
you, etc., or by the second Pers. Sing., particularly of tiie Opt with a v, e. ^ 
^flQ &v, dicas, you may say, one may, can say, 

5. The predicate is either a yerb, e. g. to ^dov d- dlX sty or tok 
adjective, substantive, numeral or pronoun in connection with shcu. 
In this relation elvai is called a copula^ since it connects -tiie adjec- 
tive or substantive with the subject so as to form one thought; e. g. 
fo Qodop Kalo If iatip. KvQog ^if ßminltvg, £v ^it^u 
narrtov Ttqatog. Oi apd^eg ricav tQ$ig. Toixo to n^w^pti 
iati T d «. Without the copula thfUj these sentences would stand 
TO Qodw — liokif, KvQOS — ßaaiXevg^ etc., and of course would 
express no thought 

Rbm. 4. It is necessary to distinguish the nse of ehai, when it expresses a 
distinct independent idea of itself, that of being, existence, abiding, etc., e. g. iori 
^eoc, there is a God, God is, exists, from the use of the same word as a copula. 
In the former sense it can be connected with an adverb ; e. g. luKpaTtfc iv äel 
oihf Toi^ vioi^ ; KaX&Ct icckqc ^otlv, it is weR, ttt, etc. 

§ 146. Agreement, 
1. The finite verb agrees with its subject-nominative in number 
and person; the predicative* or attributive adjective, participle, 

* When the MQeetiTe belongs to the predicate, and is used in describing what 
is said oi the subject, it is «ailed pivefieafN«; but when it merely 

1 146.J STHTAZ. — ^AOBBSUENT. 19lL 

pronoan or numeral, and the predicative substanttve, or the sub» 
stantive in apposition (when it denotes a person), agree with the 
subject in gender, number and Case (nominative). 

KoTJi kariv, Td irpay^a alaxpov k<niv. Ol 'WJXrive^ noXefUKUTaroi ^aav. 'O* 
«aAdc n-oif , ij oo^ yvviff rd uucpdv tckvov. Kvpoc ffv ßaaikev^ ; here the pr^ 
dinte ßaaikei)^ is mascaUne, because the subject is masculine. Tofivpic h» 
ßaaiXeia ; here the predicate is feminiue, because the subject is feminine. Kv- 
poc, 6 ßiUTiXevCi TSfivpiCf h ßaai^ia, 

2. As eJpiUf when a copula, takes two nominatives, viz. one of 

the subject and one of the predicate, so also the following verbs» 

which do not of themselves express a complete predicative idea, 

take two nominatives : vfiaQXsiVy to he, yiyvead-ai, to become, g)urai, to 

arise, spring from, to he, av^apea'&dU, to grow, f/teveiv, to remain, xa- 

taaiipKu (from na^icTijiJu), to stand, doxeit, ioixivcu and apouvta^iu^ 

to appear, l^lovad'cu, to show one^s self, naXsta'&at, opofid^sa'&cu and 

XiyBO&ou, to he named, axovsw, to hear one*s self called, to he namod 

(like Lat audire), aiQStc&ou, dnodsixfva'&cu and xqirea'&cu, to he 

chosen something, pofu^e^ai^ to he considered something, and other 

verbs of this nature. 

*0 KvpoQ kyevero ßaaikei^ tqv UepauVf Cyna became king of the Peniant, 
Ala TovTuw 6 ^iXiirrco^ iji^^'^r/ fieya^t by these means PhiUp grew gnat. 'A^ 
Kißiädtfc ipk'&ri üTparriyog. *kvTl ^lTmv koI §evuv vvv «oXaicef koI ^eolg 
kx^pol UKOvovoiv {amdiwniY instead of friends^ etc., they (hecar ihemsdves called) 
are oeäled flatterers and enemies of the gods, 

Rbhabk. Instead of the second Nom., several of these verbs are also OOB- 
nected with adverbs; then they express a complete predicative idea; e. g. rd 
rnr^og kqXuc ai^averatf the flower grows beautifully. Thus, the verbs yiy- 
vead^ai and ^vvai particularly, are connected with the adverbs dixa, x^pk» 
iKo^y kyyvc, u^ig; e. g. role ^k'&rjvcuuv aTparTjyol^ iyiyvovro dixa al yvofiai, 
Ute views of ike Athenian commanders were dicided; rä irpayfMTa oUru wefv- 
Kev, the affiadrs were of sufdi a nature, 

LXXY. Exercises for Translation from English into Greek. 

(§§ 145 and 146). 

Piety is the beginning of every virtue. To mortal men Grod is (a) refuge. 
The wise strive after virtue. Learning (to learn) is agreeable both to the youth 
and to the old man. Before the door stood about four thousand soldiers. The 
(maxim), know (aor.) thyself, is everywhere useful. The general commanded 
(oar.) (them) to hold (their) spears upon (elg) the right shoulder, till the trum- 

aoality to the substantive with which it agrees, it is called attrilnaive ; e. ff. in 
le expression h äyop^uc ävrjp [the good man)^ hya&oQ is attributive, but in 6 av^p 
koTi aya^oc {the man is good)y it is predicatiye.~-TB. 


%Si 8TNTAX.— ▲aswacfiNx. [§ 147* 

peter shonld give a signal (with) the tnunpet The herald made (por^i pvodft- 
mation to the soldiers to prepare themselves for (etc) battle. We admire brave 
soldiers. Without self-control we can practise {aor.) nothing good* Semiramia 
was qneen of Assyria. Socrates always passed his time in public. After (^era, 
40. ace,) death, the soul separates from the irrational body. Itia {= has itself) 
diflk^t to understand {aor.) every man thoroughly. The Loves are perhaps 
called archers on this account, because the beautifbl wound even from a dis- 
tance. Tyrtaens, the poet, was given (aor.) by the Athenians to the Spartans 
as a general. The Lacedaemonians were {Karaar^ai) the authors of many Ad- 
Vantages to the Greeks. Minos, who (part.) had ruled very constitutionally and 
had been careful to do justice, was appointed (aar.) judge in (Kara, w.ffen.) 
Hades. Virtue remains ever unchanged. If (Mv, w- subj.) one, chosen (to be) a 
general, has subjected {aor.) an unjust and hostile city, shall we call him unjust ? 

1 147. Hxeeptions to the General Rules of Agree- 


(a) The fonn of the predicate in manj cases does not agree willi 

the aabject grammaticallj, bat in sense only (Oonetructio Kara 

ci9eci9 ix ad intelleetum). 

Td vX^oc hreßo^&tfffaVf the muttUude brought asngtanoe ; the verb would reg- 
ularly be singular here, but is put in the plural, because n-A^of being a collec- 
tive substantive, includes many Individuals. '0 arpardg uneßaivov. Td arpa- 
roiredoi/ ävexC>pow. Td fieipaKiov kari KaXo^^ the boy m beautiful; here the sub- 
stantive is neuter, whUe the adjective is masculine, agreeing with the subject, 
therefore, only in' sense. Td ywalKLov kari ko^. 

(b) When the subject is not to be considered as something defi- 
nite, but as a general idea or statement, the predicative adjectire 
is pat in the neater singular, without any reference to the gender 
and number of the subject In English we sometimes join the 
word thing or something with the adjective, and sometimes translate 
the adjective as if it agreed with the substantive. 

(Hk &ya^dv TToXvKoipavia- elc Koipavo^ kartj^ a pkmUty of rubrt ia 
pot a ffood thingj etß. AI iter aß oXal Xvirrfp 6 v, changes (MreiroiMeaome, H 
fiovapxia Kpar larov. 

Rem. 1. When the predicate is a demonstrative pronoun, it agrees with the 
subject in gender, number and Case, as in Latin ; e. g. Oi;rof ktrnv 6 av^p, this 
is Hie man. kirji lorl injy^ koI apx^ iravruv rüv koküv. Tovto tori rd dv- 
^. Tet the Greeks very often put the demonstrative in the neuter singular, 
both when it is a subject and predicate; e. g. Tovro ioriv ij SiKaioavvfi^ 
^ia is justice, Tovto kari irq-y-^ koI äpx^ yeveaecji. 

(c) Verbal adjectives in -rog and -tiog frequently stand in the 
neater plural instead of the singular, when they are used imperson- 
aUy like the Latin verbal in -dum. 

S 147.] SYNTAX. — JLORSEIffESr. 188 

Ilcffra icTt role ^tXbtf, toe must tnat friends, instead of matw kari. So 
8Ik>, when the subject is eontained in an infinitiTe or in a whole daose, where 
iSOt English ^ nse the pronoan it ; e. g. T^ trenpofievijv fiolpav hditvarh 
koTtv iLTzo^yeZv koX ^e^, it is impossible even for God to escape the destined fsie, 
A^Aa kariv (it is emdent) 6ti del iva ye nva rjfiüv ßtunXia yevea^ai. 

(d) A subject in the neater plural is connected with a verb in the 

Tä C<^a Tpixei. Tä irpäyfiara kori KaXa. Kokov uvdpib^ d&pa 
6vfjaiv oifK l;tet. 

BsH. 2. When the subject in the neater plural denotes persons or living be- 
higs, the verb is often put in the plural, to render the personalitj more promi- 
nent ; e, g.rä ri^fj (ma^Mfracy, magistrates) to^ arpaTiuTag i§eirep%lfav. This 
is also the case, Mlien the idea of individttalify or piaraUty is to be made partieop 
larly prominent ; e. g. ^avepä iiaav imoj^upoivTWf koI Imrctv koI äv^p^unt 
Ixyv froTCka {many trades appeared), 

(e) A dual subject is very often connected with a plural predi* 

Avo avSpe kpaxeeavro. ^AdeXt^d ovo ^cav KaXoi. 

BsM. 3. The dual is not always used, when two objects are spoken of, but 
only when they are of the same kind, either naturally connected, e. g. irode^ 
X^lpe, ^re, tvoo fetl, etc., or such as are considered as standing in a close and 
mutual relation, e. g. d(5e^6>, two brothers. 

Rbm. 4. A feminine substantive in the dual has its attributive in the mascu- 
line dual ; e. g. apcjtcj rd iroXee ; here to (masculine) agrees with noXee (femi- 
nine), and so in the other examples. T d yvvdiKe. 'Aptfui tovto to ijpepa. 
1*0 2 V yevtaiocv. Tovra rö rixya. 

(f ) When the predicate is a superlative, and stands in connection 
with a genitive, the gender of the superlative is commonly like that 
of the subject, as in Latin, more seldom like that of the genitive. 

^-^ovo^ XaXeTT^TuToc kcrrL twv voautv. 'O iqXiog iravruv XapirpO' 
Tarog itrrtv. Sol omnium remm lucidissimus est 

LXXVI. Exercise tm § 147. 

The army of the enemy retired. The people of the Athenians believe that 
(ace. w. inf.) Hipparchus, the tyrant, was killed (aor.) by Harmodius and Aris- 
togiton. Envy is something hateful. Drunkenness is something burdensome 
to men. Inactivity is indeed sweet, but inglorious and base. Beautiful indeed 
is prudence and justice, but difficult and laborious. To learn from (itapa, w. 
gen.) (our) ancestors, is the hest instruction. Together with the power, the pride 
of man also increases. Money procures men friends and honors. Afflictions 
often become lessons to men. The misfortunes of neighbors serve (» become) 
as (elg) a warning to men. The Athenian (of the Athenians) courts of justice, 
misled by a plea, often put to death the innocent (= not doing wrong), while 
{6e) they often acquitted the guilty (—wrong-doers), either moved to sympathy 

184 8TNTAX. — ^AGKSSKiarr WITH BfiTUEKAl SUBJECTS. [§ 147^. 

(sympathizing) by {U) the plea, or because the guilty had spoken {aar.) grace- 
folly. The two long roads lead to (etc) fbe city. The Spartan yonths, in the 
streets, kept their hands within the mantle. The enemy possessed themselves of 
two great and magnificent cities. The eagle is the swiftest of all birds. Yirtne 
is the fairest of all blessings. 

§ 147b. Agreement when there are several suhjectSp 

1. Two or more subjects require the verb or copula to be pluraL 
When the subjects are of like gender, the adjective is of the same 
gender, and in the plural ; but when the subjects are of a different 
gender, then, in case of persons, the masculine takes precedence of 
the feminine and neuter, and the feminine of the neuter; but in 
case of things, the adjective is often in the neuter plural, without 
reference to the gender of the substantives. 

*0 4fi2,iir'n'oc koX 6 'AXe^avdpoc ^oXXd koi ^avuaffrä ipya an eS ei- 
iavTO. 'O ^u>Kpär7f( xal 6 II>larcjv ^uav tro^oL 'H ß^ ri^p xal 
>il ^vyärijp ^aav KaXai. 'H 6py^ koI ri aavveoia el a} «raicat. 
'O äv^p Kai ff ywii äya^oi eiaiv. *H yvv^ xal rä TtKva äya'&ai 
eloiv. 'ÜC c^<^fi iraripa re koI /iijTepa koI äi€2,(poi>c koX t^ kavrov y v~ 
vaiKa alxfiaXCiTovg yeyevijfievov^f kdaKpvaev. *H Lyopä Kai to izpv» 
raveiov Hapici 2.i^<f) ifaKtjfievaiv. Ai^oi re Kal irXtvd'oi Koi ^vXa 
Kol Kepafioc araKTuc kf^ftififiiva oidhf xPV^^^ß^ kariv. 

Rbm. 1. Sometimes the verb and adjective agree, in form, with the nearest 
subject ; this is particularly the case, when the predicate precedes the subjects ; 
e. g. ^ikti ae 6 irar^p Kal ^ fi^TTip and &ya&6c kariv 6 iraii^p koI ^ M'V^P- 
Sometimes where the verb follows different subjects, it agrees with the first, the 
other subjects being thereby made subordinate ; e. g. /3 a a t X e D £■ 6e Kai ol avv 
aifr(f> diuKov elaTrircTet. 

2. When several subjects of diiferent persons are connected, the 
first person takes precedence of the second and third, but the second 
of the third ; and the verb is put in the plural. 

*'Ryö Kal ai> ypa^jiev^ ego et tu acribimus ; eyd koI Uelvoc ypa^fievy egoetiOe 
jcri&tntus ; kyi^ koI <ri> Kal Hslvog ypäi^ftev, ego ei tu et ük acribimut; ot) koX kKet- 
vog ypo^cTEt tu et tue scribitis ; kyd Kai kKelvoi ypa^/ieVf ai> Kai kKelvoi ypa^ertf 
^fieig Kai iKelvoi ypa^fiev, ifwLg Koi kKüvog ypa^ere. 

Rbm. 2. In addition to a subject-nominative which expresses the idea of plu- 
rality, there is often one or more denoting the parts of which the first is com- 
posed (axvfJLoß Ko^ bXov Kal fiepog) ; e. g. ol crrpaTiuTac ol (ilv ^vavTiu- 
^aav Tolg iroXefitoccy ol 6e «Tre^vyov, some of the soldiers vnthstood the enenuf^ 
bat the others fled; here arpaTiörat denoting the whole is in the Nom., instead of 
bdng in the Gen. and governed by its parts ol fdv and ol 6e. 

* A construction by which the whole is named, and a part is put in apposi- 
tion with the whole, instead of die whole being in the Gen. and governed \>y a 
woid denoting a part— «Tb. 

§ 148L] 8TNTJtX.-»<mB A»ici:.B. 185 

LXXVn. JSxercises on § U7K 

Socrates and Plato were rerj wise. Kisas and Bnryalns were frieDcUi (in) 
word and deed. Wisdom and health were always the greatest blessings of man 
(pltar.). The Spartan Cleonymus and Basias (an) Arcadian, two gallant men, 
died in the battle fought against (irpof ) the Cardnchians. Shame and fear are 
innate (in) man. I and my brother love thee. You and your friends have 
done me many favors. The citizens ran in different directions, every one to 
{kiri, w. ace) his own. When (my) friends saw me, they embraced me, one on 
one side, the other on the other.** (Of) the citizens, some rejoiced over {km, w, 
dot,) the victory of Philip, others moomed. 

§148. The Article. 

1. The substantive as a subject, aa weU as in every other relatiooy - 
takes Üie article o, ]^ ro, the^ when the speaker wishes to represent 
an object as a definite one, and to distinguish it from others of the 
same kind. The substantive without the article represents the idea 
in a m^elj general and indefinite manner, without any limitation ; 
e. g. av&^nogi fnan, i. e. an individual or some one of the race of 
men ; but the subetantive with the article makes the object definite^ 
indicating that such was the view taken of it by the speaker ; e. g. 
afd'Qüonogy i. e. the man whom I am consideringy or have in vieiw^ 
and whom Icondder as a different individual from the rest of men. 
So i^iloaofpia, philosophy in general^ y fpiXoaoapla^ philosophy a* a 
particular science^ or a particular branch of philosophy. 

Bev. 1. The article is also used, where one object is to be distinguished from 
or contrasted with, another of a different kind ; e. g. noXefioc oi>K iariv ävtv 
icw6ivviA>, »oar is not mthomt diunger ; but 6 iroXefioc oIk ävev Kiviinmv, ^& 
elpnvfi äiuviwo^ ; here icoXeftos takes the article because it is contrasted with 

Keh. 2. The substantive, as a predicate, usually omits the article, the idea 
conveyed by it being mostly of a general nature ;>^ ij ifuepa tyeverOf 
day became night, kfiiropiov ^ ^v rb x^ptov, and the place was an EXPominc ; 
—but if the predicate denotes something definite, before mentioned or well 
kiiowB, it takes the artide; e. g. ovptßaXkero rdv 'OpioTtfv toUtov elvaif 
he concluded that this was Orestes (U^e ant hefare mentioned). 

2. Hence the article is also used to denote the whole compass of 
the idea, since the speaker considers an object as the representative 
oF all others of the same class, and therefore as expressing a definite 
whole ; e. g. o ard-goonog d'Vfjro^ icnv, man (i. e. all men) is 
mortal; ^ dvögeia naXi^ iativ, i. e. everything which is under- 

* aXXoc aXXo&eVf aUus aUtasde, 

18€ 8IKTA3L— 1!SS AjmChl^ [§ 148. 

•Stood by the term dpdgeia ;— < o yak a iaw ^dfi, mUk is iweeif u e. 
imilk in geneFal, all milk. 

Kbm. 3. When the English indefinite article a or an, denotes merely the cUro 
to which a partacnlar thing belongs, the Greek uses the substantive alone with- 
out the article ; e. g. a man, av&pu'Koc. ' 

Bbm. 4. Common nouns sometimes omit the article, where according to No. 
1, it would be used. Such omission occurs, (a) with appellations denoting kin- 
dred or rdationship, and the like, where the definite relation is obvious without 
the article ; e. g. irarript fiiJTTfp, v/6f , ädeXt^f TraMej", yoveic, avffp (kiuiband), 
ywTJ {vnfe}, etc. ; — (b) when two or more independent substantives are united to 
form one whole ; e. g. rrcudec icdt yvvcuKe^t iroXig koI oUiai ; — (c) when common 
nouns are used as, or instead of, proper nouns ; e. g. ^Xiog, oipav6c, acrrvy used 
<^ Athens, iroXic, qf a particular city, known from the context, yri,of a particular 
eotmtry, ßaoikev^, of a particular king, commonly the king of Persia; — (d) when 
oommon nouns which are usually specific, and would take the article, are used 
in an abstract sense -, e. g. iiy^la^ai ^eovst to bdieve in gods, h^* Iwkov livai, to 
ride horse-bach, M delmfov iXdelv, to come to supper, i. e. (o eat. 

Rem. 5. Abstract nouns, the names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and 
vices, generally omit the article, when they are taken in their abstract sense; 
e. g. aX^eta, aorifpia, au^poavw^, iucaioaivt}, iviarfffiij, evaeßeia, äcißeia, 
KOKia ; but if one class of abstracts is to be distinguished from another, or the 
whole compass of a science, etc. is intended, the article is used. 

8. The article very often takes the place of the possessive pro- 
noun, when it is connected with such substantives as naturallj be- 
long to a particular person mentioned in the sentence. 

Ol yovelg rä riKva arepyovatv, parents love thbib children, KvpSc re Kara' 
vtidfiaoQ ÄTrd tov äpfiaroc rbv '&6paKa hedv Kal avaßä^ hrl rdv In- 
irov rä iraXrä elc rdf x^^P^^ iXaße, C. hamng leaped down fiom his 
chariot, put on his breast-plate, etc. 

Kem. 6. The article is often used in a distributive sense ; the article is here to 
be explained by its giving individuality to the noun with which it is connected; 
e. g. 6 Kvpoc iwiaxveZrai Suaeiv rpia ^fiiSapeiKä tov fiffvbc t^ atpariO' 
ry, C. promises to give three hdf-Darics, A (each) mornäi to bach soldier, 

4. The article, being originallj a demonstrative pronoun, is of- 
ten used where an object, at first stated indefinitely, is named a 
second time ; for the same reason it is used, when the speaker jposnto 
to an object. 

'O Kvpoc diSüHTiv ai)T^ fivpiovc dapeiKovg. '0 <5^ Xaßdv rb ;t/i)vfftov, C. 
gives him ten thousand Darics; but he talcing the (that) mmiey — , where ;|f^<rtov 
has the article, because it refers to the preceding dapeiKovg. ^evtac äyctva i^' 
«e • i^eupei 6h rbv äyöva Kvpoc. TTrep r^f KUfiijc yV^^C ^y fuv <Je In- 
ireuv 6 X6<l>oc heirX^a&ij, where X6<^oc is the same as the preceding ypXo^. 
♦cp€ fioi, Q iral, rb ßißXiov, the (that) book. 

5. Proper names as such, L e. so far as in th^nselves they denote 

§ 148.] STITTAX. — ^TKB ABTZCLX« 191 

individoals, do not take the article ; e. g. ^mttQiitiig Iqnf, 'Enxijaaif 
Ofjßaioi uiamdaifkoviovg. M^ oiea&s firfit KsQCoßX in* 
t^p vneQ Xe^^ovijaov, fji^te fl^iXinnov vnfQ ^fiq>in6' 
Xswg ftoXtfi'^tTBif, otap td<oatv iifiag fitjdevog teip dlXorQioop iqnefM" 
rwg. They, however, take it, when thej have been mentioned and 
are afterwards referred to, or even when they have not been pre- 
viously mentioned, if they are to be represented as well known ; 
e. g. ^m tov 'IXiacov Xsfstcu 6 Boqiag rijp ^Slqei&viap 

Bbm. 7. Proper names, even when an adjective agrees with them, do not com- 
monly have the article ; e. g. cof^og luKpärrfc, the wise Socrates. The article is 
also omitted with a proper name^ when a noon in apposition having the article, 
follows it ; e. g. K p ? ff o f , 6 rwv Avduv ßaatXevg. The names of rivers arc 
usually placed, as adjectives, between the article and the word frorafiog ; e. g. 
6 Hijvetög iroTüfwCf the river Peneus, 

6. When adjectives and participles are used as substantives, they 
regularly (according to No. 2) take the article. The English, in 
8uch a case, either employs an adjective, used substantively, e. g. 
ot aya^oly the good, or a substantive, e. g. to dya&op, the advantagcy 
the good, 6 Xeyoov, the speaker, or resolves the participle, which is 
equivalent to ixeTpog og (is, qid), by he, who, which, etc. In Greek, 
this use of the participle, in all its tenses, is very frequent ; e. g. 
*0 nXaXata mcpeXoSp (3» ixeivog og coqisXet) to xoivov fisyiatdap 
tififop dl^iovtai, he who (whoever) benefits the state most, is worthy of 
the highest honors ; nXetara oiq)eXi^(jag (=^ ixEiPog og dqieXijae) 
TO xoipop fA. 7. jfl^oojaTO ; d nX. dq^eXi^atop r. x. fji. t. aS«»^^- 
aetai. IloXXovg B^ofiep tovg itoi(i(og avvaymn^ofjiivovg. But if 
the adjectives are to express only a part of the whole, the article is 
omitted ; e. g. xaxa xcu aiaxQ^ enga^ev. The infinitive also has 
the article, when it is to be considered as a substantive ; e. g. to 

7. JlXXoi signifies others, oi aXXoiythe others, the rest, i. e. all 
besides those who have been mentioned ; ri alXtj 'EXXdg, the rest of 
Greece. Etegog, alter, takes the article (6 et eg og), to denote 
one of two definitely ; so i st eg 01, the one of two parties. JJoX- 
Xoi signifies many, oi noXXol, the many, the multitude, the mass 
(in distinction from the parts of the whole); 01 nXslovg, the 
greater part (in distinction from the smaller part of the whole) ; 0« 
nXeustoi, the most (of a preponderance in number). 

8. The Greek can change adverbs of place and time, more sel- 
dom of quality, into adjectives or substantives, by prefixing the ar» 

386 8TKTAX. — TBE ARTICLE« * [§149. 

tide. In like manner, a proposition with its Case may be consid- 
ered as an adjeetiye. 

•H äva iro^iCt the upper city; 6 fiera^ tottoc, the iniervening place ; ol Made 
äv^powot or ol kv&ade ; 6 vvv ßofft^^vd ol waXai ao^l &v6pec, ol tote^ ij a&> 
ptov (sc. ^fi^p€i)j 6 Aeij the ever enduring; ol iraw tQv arparuyrovy the hett of fAe 
tokUers; ^ &yav äfie^M^ the too great cardetamas; & npdc to^ ILipeac iroA^cof« 
the Persian vxar; ij kv Ze^W>3/^a^ rvpawig, 

9. When a substantive having the article has attributive exple- 
tives connected with it, viz. an adjective, adjective pronoun or nu- 
meral, a substantive in the genitive, an adverb, or a prepositien 
with its Case (No. 8), then in respect to the position of the article, 
the two following cases must be distinguished : 

(a) The attributive is connected with its substantive so as to ex- 
press a single idea; e. g. the good man «» the worthy; the wise man 
>n the sagey and denotes an object which is contrasted with others 
of the same kind, by means of the accompanying attributive. In 
this case, the attributive stands either between the article and the 
substandve, or is placed after the substantive with the article re- 

O d/o^dc ävyp or d iv^ 6 äya'^oc {m o|^xxdtioii to the bad man) ; ol nXoih- 
moi troTiLTOA or ol 'KoTurai ol itTlowtioi (in opposition to the poor citizens) ; 6 
tQv *k^ip>ai(äv öfffioc or 6 d^fMc 6 ruv ^k^vaitav (in opposition to another peo- 
ple) j ol vvv äv&poiroi or ol avi^poTrot ol vvv ; 6 vpbg Toi>g llepaac noTi^fio^ or 6 
vai^fto^ Ö ^pdc Toi)g Jleptrac (the Persian in oppositbn to other wars). In all 
these examples the emphasis is on the attributive : the^mxf man, the rith dtiaens, 
the Athenian people, men of Üie^ present time, the Persian war. 

(b) The attributive is not connected with its substantive to ex- 
press a single idea, but is to be considered as the predicate of an 
abridged subordinate clause ; here the attributive is not contrasted 
with anotlier object of the same kind, but with itself, inasmuch as it 
is designed to show that an object is to be considered, in respect to 
a certain property, by itself, without reference to another. THe 
English in this case uses the indefinite article with a singular sab- 
Btantive, but with a plural substantive, omits it entirely. Here tJie 
adjective without the article is placed either £^ter the article and 
substantive, or before the article and substantive. 

'O uvf)p ayai^oc or äya^bc 6 dv^p, a good man = äya^d^ Ijv, the 
who is goody inasmuch as, because^ if he is good. 01 av^panoi fuao^ai rdv avSpa 
KüKov or «cacdv rdv ävöpoj dey hate a had man, l e, th^ hate the man, uaas- 
much flw, because, if he is bad. (On the contrary, rdv koköv avdpa or rbv &v6pa 
rbv KOKov, the bad man, in distinction from the good } hence, Toi>c fihf aya'&od{ 

5 148.] STNTAZ. — ^THK ABTICLB. 189 

Äin^j^w^rovc äyajc&ftev, rode ^^ Koxoi^ fuaovfiev). *0 ßaaiXe^ ifitoc X^'^P*'^*'^ 
Toig TToXiTcug ayai^olct good atizena^ I e. if or because they are good; (on the 
contraiy, rolg aya^olg noXircug or rolg rroXiTaic rol^ uya^clcy good citizens^ in 
distinction from bad citizens). 'O ^edc r^v yfwxvv Kpariarrfv t^ av&pCmi^ 
M^vaev, God hcu implanted in man a wd^ tohieh is the most excellent or perfeaL 
Ol ^d rot> ^Aiov Kara^fiir6fjtevot rä xp^f^ara fuXavrepa ix^^^^^i ^^<U'> ^ blacker 
«b»; the blackness of the skin is the consequence of the KaTaXufinea^ai inr6 
Tov ^Xiov. 

Rem. 8. When a snbstantiye with the article has a genitive connected with it, 
llie position under (a) occurs, only when the substantive with its genitive forms 
a contrast with another object of the same kind ; e. g. i röv 'Ai^va/ov Sijfioc or 

6 d^fio^ 6 TÜV *k&rivaiuv (the Athenians, in contrast with another people) ; dien 
ibe emphasis is on the genitive. On the contrary, the genitive without the arti« 
de of the governing substantive is placed before or after that substantive, when 
this latter substantive expresses a part of what is denoted bj the substantive in 
the genitive, the emphasis then being on the governing substantive ; e. g. 6 d^- 
/w»f TÜV *k.drivaiav or rdv 'A^vaiov 6 d^fiogy the people^ and not the nobility.— 
When the genitive of substantive-pronouns is used instead of the possessive pro- 
nouns, the reflexives iavrxnl, atcnyrov, etc. are placed according to No. 9, (a) ; 
e. g. b kfiOVTov irarrip or 6 irar^p b kfiavrovt etc. ; but the simple personal pro- 
nonns pov^ aov, etc stand without the article, either after or before the substan- 
tive which has the article ; e. g. 6 rcarfip pov or pov b war^Pf b nar^p gov or oo9 
6 irar^p, b nar^p airov (airyg) or airov (avr^g) b narffp, my^ thy^ his {ejus) 
fatheTy b irarifp ffpovy ipuVf airCw or i^pCw, ipuv^ atröv b irarijp, our^ your^ their 
{eorum) father. In the Sing, and Dual, the enclitic forms are always used. 

Bem. 9. The diff^ence between die two cases mentioned is very manliest 
widi the adjectives äxpo^^ piaoc, Itox^'^'^C- When the position mentioned 
under (a) occurs, the substantive with its attribute forms a contrast with other 
objects of the tame kind ; t.g.^ pecti iroXig, the middle dty, in contrast with other 
cities j ff iffxanj v^oo^i the most remote island^ in contrast with other islands. 
When, on the contrary, the position mentioned under (b) occurs, the substantive 
is contrasted with itself, since the attributive defines it more clearly. In this 
last case, we usually translate these adjectives into English by substantives, and 
the substantives witii which they agree as tiiough tiiey were in the genitive ; e. g. 
hd r^ bpei äKp^ or ht* dicp^ r^ bpei, oh the top of the mountain^ properly on the 
moimtain where it is the highest ; iv peaij ry irbXei or h ry irbXet piay^ in the 
middle of the dty; kv kuxdnj ry vfjfft,) or h v^at,) ry hoxargt on the border or edge 
of the island. 

Rem. 10. In like manner, the word povor has the position mentioned nnder 
(a), when it expresses an actual attributive explanation of its substantive ; e. g. 
b fuvoc iroif I the ovlt son ; on the oontnuy, the position mentioned under (b), 
when it is a more definite explanation of the predicate ; e. g. '0 irat^ potfot or 
povoc b vaic irai^ett the boy plays alone {without company) ; whereas b ßbvog iratf 
would mean, the onlt boy plays. 

10« Further; on the use of the article with a snbstantiye which has 
an adjective agreeing with it, the following things are to be noted : 

190 SYNTAX. — ^THB ABf 1»LS» [§ 148. 

(a) The article is used with a substantive whieh has an adjective 
pronoun connected with it, when the object is to be represented as 
a definite one ; the adjective pronoun is then placed between the 
article and the substantive, e. g. o i^g naztiQi on the contrary, 
ifniog dSeXq^ig^ a hrother of mtne (undetermined which), ifwg nals, a 
child ofminey but o iiAg neug^ my chUd, a definite one, or the only 

(b) The article is used with a substantive, with which toiovrog, 
to 10 $06, toaovTos, TTjXiHovtog, agree, when the quality 
or quantity designated by these, is to be considered as belonging to 
a de&iite object, or to a whole class of objects previously named. 
The article commonly stands before the pronoun and substantive ; 
e. g. 6 toiovTog dv^g S-avfiaarog itrnv, ra totavta ngdyiiara xaXi 
ictiv. On the contrary, the article must be omitted, when the ob- 
ject is indefinite, any one of those who are of such a nature, or are 
so great ; e. g. louwto» aydga ovk civ incuvoij^^ you would not praise 
such a man, 

(c) When nag, navtBg belong to a substantive, the foilowing 
cases must be distinguished : 

(a) When the idea expressed by the substantive is considered as 
altogether a general one, the article is not used ; e. g. nag ävß'Q&h 
fsogf every man, i. e. every one to whom the predicate man belongs, 
fiasfteg iv&QemiHt all men. H^re, nag in the singular, generaUy 
signifies each, every. 

(ß) When the substantive to which nag, navtng belong, is to be 
considered as a whole in distinction from its parts, it takes the arti- 
cle^ which is placed according to No. 9, (a) ; e. g. i^ nma y^, the 
whole earth) ol navtsg ndkitm, all the citizens without exception, the 
citizens as a whole or body* This usage is more seldom than that 
under (a). The same construction occurs also with oXog, but it 
is still more rare than with nag. Here the singular nag always has 
the sense of the whole, all, 

(y) When nig is joined with a definite object having the article, 
merely for the purpose of a more full explanation, but without any 
special emphasis, its position is aeeording to No* 9, (b) ; e. g. m 
ctQatmtai elXov to atqatonsboif anav or anav to atqa- 
tonslfov; oi <stQati(atai n apt eg or ndvteg ot fftqa- 
t no tat xahog ifiaxsaavto. This is by far the most frequent use 
of mig, ndvtsg. The word oXog also is usually constructed in the 
same manner, when connected with a substaBtive having the arti* 

148.] »rVTAX^'^^TBA ABTDOLS. 191 

de ; e. g. dMt «^ «roJUr Sh^ or ^ux lA^ t^ nohv, ihrmigh the vihole 
eity, i. e. simplj through the city (not did t^ oXtjv fiohv, which 
would signify through the whole city), 

(d) When BHaarogt each, every, belongs to a substantive, the 
article is omitted, as with nag in the sense of each, every, when the 
idea expressed by the substantive is Qonsidered as altogether gene- 
ral ; e. g. Had-' i^aatriP ruiiqav, every day, on all days ; when, on 
the contrary, the idea contained in the substantive is to be made 
prominent, then the article is joined with it, and is always placed 
according to No. 9, (b) ; e. g. xara ri^f ^/liQav ixiiarriv, or 
usually Had"^ iKaartjif rriv ri^iqaif, every single, indiindual day, 

(e) When in dr eg og, each of two, a fiq) 09 and dfiq)6reQog, 
hath, belong to a substantive, the article is always used, since here 
oaly two known, therefore deßnite objects can be spoken of. The 
article is here placed according to No. 9, (b) ; e.g. im ttaw nls v- 
Qoip iaat BQ(o It or inl ixartgto-p teip nXsvQfSp, ra mttt 
dfiq>6r8gaoT dfiqidrsQa ra tara, dfA<]poiv rolv x^QoTf 
or to IP xeQoXv dfiipoiv. 

(f ) When a cardinal number belongs to a substantive, the article 
is omitted, if the idea expressed by the substantive is indefinite ; e. g. 
t^ig i$fd(^ ^h&op ; the substantive, on the contrary, takes the ar- 
ticle which is placed, — (a) according to No. 9, (a), when the sub- 
stantive with which the numeral agrees, contains the idea of a uni- 
ted whole ; e. g. ot rmv ßaciXitov olvoxooi diSoaai r olg r gicl 
daxtvXoig 6%oviftBg ti^ qndXi^, i. e. with the three fingers (the 
three generally used) ; indeed the artide is very frequently used, 
when a preeeding substantive without the article, but with a cardi- 
nal agreeing with it, is afterwards referred to ; — (^) according to 
Ko. 9, (b), when the numeral is joined with a definite object merely 
to define it more explicitly, without any special emphasis; e. g. 
i^fioamo Of \uxd UeQixXdovg onXitM xihoi or %Ckioi oi fietd U. 

(g) Fürths ; sabstantives to which the demonstrative^ ovtog^ 
ode, inBivog and avtog, ipse, belong, also regularly take the 
article ; but the article has only the position of No. 9, (b) ; e. g. 

ovrog 6 dpr^Q or o dv^g ovtog, not o ovtog drqQf 
^de ^ ypcifitj or jj yvdfAtj ^ds, 
itisipog e dvi^g or o dv^Q ixeipog, 

aitog 6 ßaütXavg or o ßotatXsvg avtog, but o ovtog ßacilevg sig- 
nifies Ae same king. 

192 STKTAZ. — ^TBS ABTICLK. [$ 148. 

Rbk. II. Tho article is omitted, — (a) when the pronoan is the sahject, bat 
the substantive the predicate; e. g. aO-nf karlv avipöf Aper^f thi» is the virtue of 
the man; so there is a difference between rovrtf^ r^ öidcujKah^ XP^"^"^^* ^^ ^^ove 
this teacher^ and rovTif) did. xPi they have this man as or for a teatJierj — (b) when 
the substantive is a proper name ; e. g. ovroct kKelvo^, airdc Suxpdr^f. 

LXXVIII. Exercises on § 148. 

Avarice is (the) root of every vice. Good education is (the) source and root 
of excellence. Wisdom is worthy of all diligence. Man has understanding. 
Strive, young man, after wisdom. A kid, standing upon (ini^ w. gen,) a house, 
reviled, when he saw a wolf passing by, and railed at him. But the wolf said : 
Ho there,* you do not revile mo, but tho place. An honorable war is better 
(more desirable) than a shameful peace. Too great ease is sometimes injurious. 
In the war against (n-pof) the Persians, the Greeks showed themselves yezy 
brave. The Athenians, persuaded by Alcibiades to strive {aor.) for power upon 
{Kara, w. aec.) the sea, lost {aor.) even their dominion upon the land. The 
wealäi <^ Tantalus and the dominion <^ Pelops and the power of Eurystheus 
ore celebrated by the ancient poets. The halcyon, a sea-bird, utters a monmfiil 
cry. Those who were bom of the same parents and have grown up in the same 
house and have been beloved by the same parents, those indeed ((^9) arc of all the 
most intimate. Thy mind directs thy body, as it chooses. I saw thy Mend. 
Through the park in Celaenae flows the river Maeander. On the top of the tree 
sits a bird. On {Karat w. ace.) Caucasus is a rock, that has {part.) a circumference 
of ten stadia. The city lies on {kv) the edge of the island. The words of those, 
who {ol &Vf w, subj.) practise truth, often avail more than the violence of others. 
If {kav, w. subj.) such men promise one anything, they perform nothing less than 
others who immediately give. The earth bears and nourishes everything fair 
and everything good. Among all men it is an established custom, that {ace w. 
inf.) the elder begin every word and work. The generals resolved to put to 
death {aor.) not only those (the) present, but all the Mytilenaeans. Most of the 
cities sent, every year, (as) a memorial of former kindness, the first fruits of 
their grain to the Athenians. Every day, deserters came to Cyrus. Mysns 
came in, holding in each of his two hands a small shield. The peltastae ran 
{aar.) to {kirij w. ace.) each of the two wings. When Darius was sick and ex* 
pecting the end of (his) life, he desired that {ace. w. inf.) both his sons might be 
present before him (sibi). Both the ears of the slave were bored through. Both 
the cities were destroyed by the enemy. These works are very agreeable to me. 
That man is very wise. Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, founded in Sicily a 
city directly {airo^) under the mountain of Aetna, and named it Adranum. Ac- 
cording to these laws the judge decides. This is a sufficient defence. This is 
true justice. Not only the soldiers, but the king himself fought very bravely. 
This they employ (as) a mere pretence. This Charmides recently met me, 
dancing. Cyrus sent to Cilicia the soldiers, that Mcnon had, and Menon, the 
Thessalian, himself The time of maturity for {dot.) woman is twenty years, 
for man, thirty years. The three cities lying on («ropd, «7. ooe.) the sea were 
destroyed by the enemy. 

♦ *0 OVTOt. 

IS 149, 150.] STHTAX. — CLASSES OF TEBBS. 196 

§ 149. Classes of Verbs. 

The predicate or verb, in reference to the subject, can be express- 
ed in different ways. Hence arise different classes of verbs, whieU. 
are indicated bj different forms. 

1. The subject appears as <ictive ; e. g. 6 naig ygaqjeiy to av- 
0og ^akXe t. — The active form, however, has a two-fold signifi- 
cation : 

(a) JVansitive, when the object to which the action is directed,. 

is in the accusative, and therefore receives the action ; e. g. 

TVfttm rbv naiday ygdqxo r^ cirurroX^.-^-TransitiTB vefb. 
(ß) Intrcmsitive, when the action is either confined to the subject^ 

e. g. TO avd'os d-dXX6t, or when the verb has an object in the 

Gen. or Dat., or is constructed with a preposition ; e. g. em- 

Intransitive verb. 

2. Again, the subject performs an acttoA wbiefa i» refi<scei^ on H- 

fldf ; henee the subject is at Che same time the object of Üi^ action, 

i. e. the actor and the receiver of the action are the same ; e. g. tvn- 

TOfiai, I strike mysdf, ßcvX&iofiaif I (xdmse myself, — ^Middle or re- 

fiezive verb. 

RiBM. 1. When the reflexive action is performed by two or mor6 stibjectd oh 
each oUfcer, e. g. rt^Trrovrtft, ihey strike each other, dtaKeXevovrtu^ they enaomoffe 
0iek other, it i» eaUed a reeipfoeal action, and the y^ t roapmad tieHh 

8. Lastly, the subject appears as receiving the action ; e. g. oe 

fftgatuSrai vtto t(Sv noXßfucop idmxd'i^<5av, the soldiers were pursued. 

—Passive verb. 

Bbm* 2. The Act and Mid. have complete forms. "Fxyr the Pass., Ihe Gredk 
has only two tenses, tub. the Fat and Aor. All the other form» are Indicated 
by (he Idid., inasmuch as the paonve action was considered as a reflexive on«. 

§ 150. Remarhs on the Classes of Verbs. 

1. Many active verbs, especially such as express motion, besides 
a transitive signification, have also an intransitive or reflexive sense. 
(Comp, the English expressions, I move [Intrans.] and Imove ^ bock 
[Trans.], the tree breaks [Intrans.] and the tee breaks the trees [Trans.], 
and the Latin vertere, mfutare, declinare) ; thus, e. g. irdyeiVf to draw 
hack, regredi, dtdyeiv, to contintte, perstare, iXavvetp, to ride, ifißdX- 
Xsiv and elgßdXXety, to fsdl into or upon, ixßdXXetv, to spring for^ 
AmatXwBi^f declinare, iqinsiVy like vertere, <jrQB(pBi9, like mukn% 



iXBi9 in connection with adverbs, e. g. ev, xaxoJir f/f/J', bene, maU 
§e haberey ttlxinnv^ to end, to die, and many others. 

2. Several active verbs with a transitive signification, which form 
both Aorists, have in the first Aor. a transitive signification, but in 
the second Aor. an intransitive : 

<W«, to wrap 1^, first Aor. Müaa, / urapptd up, second Aor. Wcv, T went in^ doom, 
toT^fu, topiace, " tarrftra, I placed^ ** iarriv, I stood, 

^o^toprodwx, ■** ifOfja, J produced, " l^w, I was producd, 

ffKeXXu,iofnahedry,^^ (^ffic^Xa, Poet./»ttMfcc/yy), " kaK^Tjv, I withered. 

So several active verbs with a transitive signification, which form 
both Perfects, have in the first Perf. a transitive signification, but 
in the second an intransitive : 

kyeipu, to awake, first Pf. kyriyepKa, Zhave awakened, second Pf. hypfryopa, Tarn awake, 
6XXl>fii, to destroy, " h^XeKa,Iha»edettroyed, *' oXuXa, I have perished, 
frei&a, to persuade, ** ireTreiKo, I have persuaded, ** irinov&a, I trust 

Moreover, some second Perfects of transitive verbs which do not 
form a first Perf., have an intransitive signification ; e. g. aywfu, to 
ireaky second Perf. la/o, lam broken^ n^ywfii, tofasteny ninr^a, I 
om fattened or stand fatty Q^fywfu, to rendy i^^ya^ lam renty a^na, 
to make rotten, aic'qna^ lam rotteny ri^xoo, to tmelty e. g* iron, rittina, 
lam tmdtedy cpoupcD, to shoWy nscptjvay I appear. 

$• On the signification and use of the middle form, the following 
are to be noted : 

(a) The middle denotes first, an action which the subject per- 
forms directly upon itself, where in English we use the active veri) 
and the accusative of the refiexive pronoun ; e. g. tiarofiaiy I strike 
mytAfy irvtpdfi^y I struck myself tvxffOficUy I shall strike myself. 
This use of the middle is rare. Here belong the following verbs 
which are presented in the aorist-form : ansxoy to keep froniy dnoa- 
Xic'&aiy to keep on/it self fromy to abstain from; anay^cu ttvoyto 
strangley to hang some one, dndy^aa&euy to strangle ot hang'one^s se^; 
tvrpaüd'aiy xoxpaC'&ai, to strike one's self; imßaXsad'ai rm, to throw 
or place one's self upon something, to apply one's self to something; 
navaaad'at, to cease (from navta, to cause to cease) ; dsi^ac'&ca, to 
show one's self; particularly verbs which express an action pe^ 
formed by the subject on his own body : Xovacuj&M (0 wash orn't 
9elf)y vhpas'&aty dXsixpao^ai, XQiaaa^&a^ yvfivaa^cu, xahhpac^cu, 
nofffA'^aaad'ai, ivdvaaa'&ai, ixdvaaa'&ai, xsigac'^tu, cteipartäaaöd^ai, 
and the like. With the exception of the above verbs and some 
others, this reflexive relation is commonly expressed by the active 
form with the accusative of the reflexive pronoun ; e. g. inaiȟf 

150,] airNTAX.-^CLAS8£S OF TEBBS. ld$ 

iamip, dva^r^v ifwtiv, to make himsdf dependerU on, cuvox^ir» 
teif iavTOVf i^il^kiv iavrov, na^ixBw iavtop, dnoXvsiv ictvtiy, to free 
hünself, anoaq^atreiv iaviov, dnoKteiveiv iavtop. Then the middle 
form has the signification of the passive,, thus, moupeiaß'cu, outontei- 
PBO'&cUy dnoaq)dtzB0'&ai, Icmdari, interfid^ juffuiari ab alioy and al- 
so hafl a passive form for its Aorist and Future* 

Kem. 1. In all the middle verbs mentioned above, the action is such as does 
not necessarily refer to the subject ; for I can, e. g. as well wash another aa my- 
self. But the action may be such as necessarily refers to the subject, inasmuch 
as the subject which performs the action, must be considered the same as the 
object which receives the action ; then the middle form expresses the simple 
idea of an intransitive action ; this is a frequent use of the middle. Here be- 
long particularly very many verbs which express an act or perception of the 
mind. Only a very few verbs of this kind have their Aor. with a middle form ; 
e. g. (lnj2,d^a<T^aij to guard one^s self^ to beware (^v2,u^ai tivuj to guard any one), 
ßovXevaa(r&aLy to adoise on^s self {ßov7.evaai Tiviy to advise any one)^ yevaatr&aiy 
to taste (Act., to cause to taste) ; on the contrary, most verbs of this kind have 
Üieir Aor. with a passive form, but have the future in the middle form ; e. g. 
ävoftvfja&TJvai, avafiv^aead-aij to remind one^s self, to remember, recordari {ava/iv^- 
aai Tiva^ to remind any one), aiaxwi^tjvai, alaxvvEl(y&aLi to he ashamed (aiaxvvai 
Tiva, to make ashamed), fj^oßrj'&rivaLy (^oß7jG£(rdaL, to fear {(jtoßTJaal riva, to make 
(tfraid, terrere), iropev^Tfvai, nopevaEcr&ai, to go, proficisd (iropEVoai riva, to cause 
one to go, to convey one), irepaiti'^rivai, irepaiuaecr^ai {norafiov), to pass over, {ire- 
paiuaai riva, to cause to pass over, trajicere), 'rc?utyx'^vvat, nkäy^ea^aij to wander 
(sbout, circumvagari {nXay^ai riva, to oauK to uxmder), ävia&fivat, aviäaeff&aif lo 
e^fUet ane^» sdf to be grieved {&viä0(u riva^ to tyßict any one) ; jalso dia'kü^fjvtu, 
iionpe&fivai, to »eparaU one'« edf, discedere, änaXXayrfvai, abire, Koifif}^9^ai^ to 
deep, ^vrjvait apparere, irayyvai, to congeal, knap^^ai, to raiee one^s seif, and 
many others. 

(b) In the second place, the middle form denotes an action which 
the subject performs on an object belonging to itself, on one con- 
nected with itself or standing in an intimate relation with it. In 
Engtish, we commonly u$e here either a possessive pronoun or a 
preposition with a personal pronoun ; e. g. tvnxofiaiy itvxffdfitiy n^ 
xeq)aXr/p, Istrike^ itruck my head (tvnzeiv x., U> itrike the head of 
another), Xovaaa&cu rovg nodag, to wash one*s own feet {}joi)%w r. n,^ 
to tpash the feet of another) y daonQV\ffaG'&ai td iavtov, to conceal 
one's own affairs ; naructQetpet/a^eu piv^ sihi svhjicere terram, to suih 
jugate land for one*s sdf dvaqtricaad'ai tiif&, sili devincire, to make 
dependent on one* 8 self dsioXmaad'ai riva, to loosen for on^s self to 
redeem, no^inaa&ai ti, sihi aliquid comparare, to procure for one's 
se^ (m)Qi^tiy ti Jin, alii (diquid comparare, to procure something 
for another), xv^ea^&eu ti, nofetaHevdccur&eU zif sihi compararey to 

196 gnrvAx.^*cs.AflOES of tekbs. [§ 150. 

aeqmir^ prepare for mu^s Hilf; dfwpwf^m tw4 nokeftirnfg, pr^pul* 
«ore a te ho8tei^ to keep off the enemy from one*s telf, dnciisaC'd'cu 
xeacOf a ee proptdsare Tnala. This use of the middle is much the 
most frequeaU 

Bbx. 2. As the activ» can be med, when the subject does not itself perfomi 
an action, bat causes it to be dove by another, e. g. 'AAe^vdpoc r^ iriXuf «a- 
rea/cff^ev, caused the dhf to be destroyed, so also can the middle be used to expreas 
the same idea, yet with this difference, that with the middle the action always 
refers in some way to the subject ^ t,g. b waTrjp rovg naioac kSiSu^arOy which 
either signifies, the father educated his own children, or, if it is clear from the con- 
text, he caused them to he educated; Keipaa-&ai.y to shave one^s self or to get one^s sdf 
shaved; *Apytlot iavruv eUovac Trotrjaufievoi avt-^eaav elg AeX^ovf . Ila- 
pa-^etr&at rpuTre^av, to set a table before one^s self or have it set before one's self. 

Rem. 3. The middle form is often used to express reciprocal actions (see § 149, 
Bern. 1 ). This is particularly the case with verbs signifying to contend, vie imth^ 
eonoerse with, embrace, salute, to make an agreement or compact ; e. g. fiux€<r&aij to 
ß^ with, &iJLi7ikütr&aL, to contend unth, ayuvi^eai&aty to strive, SiaXeyeoT^ai, to oon- 
verse with, aarcd^ea^aL, to salute^ ravra ovvTi^ecr^ai, mutually to agree on these 
points, airovSug aTrivdea^ai or 7roiEi<r&ai, to make a treaty (anovdag noieiv signi- 
fying to make a libation). So also, where the action is not strictly reciprocaj, bat 
where the idea expressed by the verb necessaiily supposes two persons or two 
parties, as in questions and ajistoers; e. g. nvv&aveo'&ai and ipetr^ai, to inqwre, 
äiroKpivecrStai and uirafietßea&ai, to answer, ovfißovXeveaiB^at, to consult unth one, 
adc Ms advice, and &vaKoivov(r^aL, to consult one (uvaKOLvovv being especially naed 
of consulting oracles). 

4 From the reflezive signification of the middle, th^ pamive is 
derived. Here the subject permits the action to be performed by 
another upon itself. Hence the subject of a passive verb always 
appears as the receiver of an action ; e. g. fMtfftiyovfjtcu, ^i^fuovficu 
(vno nvog)t /receive hlawBj punithment^ I let myself he struekj puH' 
tihed =» I am struck, pumehed (by some one) ; ßkcunofteUf adiMoifuUf 
I suffer injury^ tr^ustiee ; dtda<ncofim, J let myself he inetrwctedy I 
receive tn^ruction^ I learn, hence vno uvog, from some one «« do-' 
eeor ab aUquo; nsi&öfuu, I persttade myself, or I permit mysdf to 
he persuaded, ino tttog, hy some one mm lam persuaded, 

5. For two tenses, however, viz. the Fut and Aor., there are 
* separate forms to express a passive action ; yet the Aor. Pass, (see 
Bem. 2,) of many reflexive and intransitive verbs, is used instead 
of the middle ; all the other tenses are expressed by the middle 
fom^. Hence the rule : ^ Fut, and Aor» Mid, haw a reßexive or 
intransitive signißeation, not passive, inasmuch as there are sepor- 
rate forms for the Fut and Aor. Pass. ; all the o^er tenses of thm 
middle are used at the same time to dewfte the peemive oho. 

S IM.] 8fKTAX.--0]liilA8B8 OF VSBBI. 19T 

Bbh. 4. The cause or andior <tf the passive conditbn or ststo» is ezprasied bf- 
the preposition ^wo with the Gen. *, e. g. 0/ aTpariünu inrö röv wokefiit^v 
kSiOx^TjaaVi the soldiera were ptirsued by the enemy. Instead of imo^ tiV o C with 
the Gen. is used, when at the same time the strong and direct inflnence of a 
person, is to he denoted ; e. g. urifiu^etrdtu, adiKeltr^i vpo^ rtvoc ; also it a pa 
with the Gen. is nsed, when the author is, at the same time, to he represented as 
the person from whose vicinity or neighborhood, or through whose means in- 
tcamal or external the action has come ; hence especially with nifureo^aiy dido- 
o&ai, &ipeXel<r&aCf avXXtyetr^aiy Xiryeff^ai, orifiacve<r&ai, hrideiKwa^ai {demon' 
tirori) ; e. g. 'O äyye^c itrSfti^fj feapä ßofftXiuCi was sent from being necar the' 
kmg, by the king. H fiejiOTTf eirvxta rovrif» Tift ävdpl irapä ^eüv deSorai. UoX- 
Xä xphftof^ Kvpy irapä tüv ^i>U)v avveiXeyfiiva ^. 

6. It is a peculiarity of the Greek, that not merely the active of 

transitive verbs governing an accusative, may be changed into the 

personal passive, but also the active of intransitive verbs governing 

the Dat. or Gen. 

^-^ovovfiai imo rivoc, I am envied by some one, invidetur miM ab aiiquo (from 
^ovelv Tivif invidere alicm). Hiareiofiaiy äiriarovfiai itw6 Tivo^y credit- 
fiir, non creditur miki ab aliquo (from wwrrcvetv, amareiv rivt). Kai ktrtßovXev- 
ovreCi Kol kntßovXevofievoL 6iuiovai navra rbv xpovov (from kinßovWeveiv 
rivi). *AaKeiTai to uel rifiufievoVf afisXeiTai Se rd aTifia^o/ievov (from äfiS' 
Xtiv TLVo^)» So upxofiatf Kparovfiaij Kara^povovftai irco rtvoc 
(from apxeiVf KparelVy naraippovelv r^voc). 

Rbh. 5. Deponents (§ 118, Hem.) are merely verbs, which have only the 
middle form, and a reflexive or intransitive signification. 

LXXIX. Excrcim on §§ U9, 150. 

Cyms, (as he was) riding by, cried out to Clearchus, to lead the army against 
{Kara, w. ace.) the centre of the enemy. The river Acheron, which (part) flows 
through Thesprotia, falls into the Acherusian lake. Cyrus died fighting very 
bravely {aor.). The general commanded the soldiers to go forward, until they 
should engage {opt. aor.) with Cyrus. In the third year of the Peloponnesian 
war, Lesbos revolted from the Athenians. The Athenians say that (occ. w. inf.) 
the first men were bom in (=ont of) Attica. When the soldiers slept, tfie 
general was awake. Nothing among men, neither good nor evil, has a (§ 148, 
9, b) steadfast order. The wicked are pale from anxiety, and lean (s=s dried up) 
in body. Antisthenes prided himself, that {part.) he always showed his garment 
torn. Troy was taken by the Greeks. Some came, after {aor. part.) Äey had 
exercised and anointed themselves, others, after they had bathed. Beware of 
the flatterer. Abstain from intercourse with bad men. The youths had adorn- 
ed themselves with garlands« The Sphinx flung herself from the height Ajax 
killed himself in a fit of madness {aor. part.). Those whom {oi uv^ w. subj.) men 
fear {aor.) very much, they cannot look in the face, even if they encourage 
(them).* Xerxes, after the sea-fight at {nepi, w. ace.) Salamis, departed {aor.) 

* ov^ napafw^üvftivoi^ ävnßkiiretv: 

17* . 

198 * BTJxTAJu^^^nstmuk ^ma modsa» [§§ 151, l(i3. 

iriA » fKtt of üis loBV« fnwEi £iiro{»e. Xb« »oldiers «c|>«iated* Agesikws tm- 
7«Ued (oar.) from Sparta into Asia. Ulysses wandered about (opt.), ten yea». 
Ninns, the king of the Assyrians, collected (aar.) a respectable army, and made 
{hr himself) an allia&oe with {irpost to. aec.) Ariaeas, the king of the Arabians. 
Uie combatants anointed (aor.) their bodies with oil. What thou hast not (fi^) 
laid up {aor, mid), take not. When Alexander took {aor,) the city of the The- 
bans, he «old (oor.) all the freemen. The Plataeans repelled the attacks of the 
Thebans, wherever they met {opt,) (them). Fair is the man, who {part.) has 
adorned his mind with coltore. Beside necessary eriis, men themselyes [»rovide 
themselves yet other«. The soldiers held {aar.) their shields before them. Al- 
ways lay np for thyself travelling-money for {etc) old age. If (part.) thou hast 
acquired reflection, thon wilt neither strive afiter riches, nor reproach povertjr. 
latelUgent parents have their children educated. Darins caused a stone monu- 
ment to be made (part, aor.), and erected it (aor.). If we keep off (part) the 
enemy, we shall possess the city free and little exposed (pres.) to stratagems. 
A government that (part.) has been neglected (aor.) and begun to degenerate 
(taken a transition to [iiri, w. ace] the bad), is hard to restore again. Hate 
flatteren {part) as deceivers (part.) ; for both iiguie those who trust tibem (oor.). 
It is burdensome to be governed by a bad man. 

§151. Tenses and Modes. 

1. Tenses denote the time of the predicate, which is represented 
either as present, future or past; e. g. the rose blooms, will hloom^ 

2. Modes denote the manner of representing the affirmatton con- 
tained in the predicate ; i. e. the relation of the subject to the pre- 
dicate is represented either as an actual fact, as a conception, or as 
a direct expression of the wilL The mode which expresses a fact, 
e. g. the rose blooms, is called the Indicative ; that which denotes a 
conception, e. g. the rose may bloom, the Subjunctive; the mode 
which denotes the direct expression of the will, the Imperative, e. g. 

^162. A, More Particular View of the Tenses* 

1. The tenses may be divided, in accordance with their form and 
meaning, into two classes, namely, (a) into Principal tenses, which, 
both in the Ind. and Subj., always indicate something present or fu- 
ture ;-— *(b) into Historical tenses, which, in the Ind. always denote 
somethitig past, in the Subj. (Optative), sometimes that which is 
past, and sometimes that which is present or future. 

2. The Principal tenses are the following : 

(a) The Present, (a) Indicative, e. g. ypa^pev, scribimm; (ß) Sohjuictivei 

1 153.] yiiMSAx.1 TWtiMe* IM 

fb) 1*0 Perfect, (a) MBmUTe, «. g. yt^i»^«^««», $mpti»m; W) StdguiMlivQ, 

e. g. ytypa^ufuvy aerijmerimm f 
(e) The Fntare, In^ioadTe, e. g. ypafo^sv^ Kribemus, we thaU write; 
<d) The Fatmre Perfect, ladioative, e. g. ߀ßev?iei»rof4)ait I shall have adviaed 

myself^ I shaM c2e/i6erate, / shall be aavimd, 

8. The Historical tenses are the following : 

(a) The Aorist, (a) Indicative, e. g. iypafay I wrote; (/?) Optative, o. g. ypd- 
V'a//(t) / might torke, or / tnif^ have written ; 

(b) The Imperfect, (a) Indicative, e. g. typa^, saribdxm; (ß) Optative, e. g. 
yfio^oitu,^ acriberem ; 

(c) The Pluperfect, (a) Indicative, e. g. kyeypd^siv^ scripseram; (ß) Optative^ 
e. g. yeypac^ifiiy acripsisseni ; 

(d) The Optative of the sinaple Future, e. g. ypw^oifii, I would write^ and of 
the Put Perf., e. g. ßeßovXevooifiJiv, I should hoax deliberated^ or hoa» heat 
adüieed; e. g. 6 ayyeXog lAeyev, on ol TcoXefUQc viK^ooiev, the roecwn- 
germid, that the enemjf weidd eaaquer ; iXeyevt 6ti navra irrd tov arpanj' 
yo^ei ße ßovXevco IT Q, he said that everything woidd be weUpUumedli^ 

4. The present indicative represents the action in the time pre- 
seiit to the speaker. The present is often used in the narration of 
past events, since in a vivid representation, what is past is viewed as 
present This is called the Historical Present 

TaifTTfv r^ ru^p/ov ßaoiXei^^ fteyag noiel ävri ipv/iaroc, hrei^ irvv^a^ 
vera I Kvpov trpo^eXawovra. 'Hv ri^ JlpiafudOv vedrarog TLoXvdapo^^ '£xa« 
/3(7f rraJf, bv kK Tpoiac ^fJtol nari^p iidnai Upiafioc kv dofioi^ rpe^iv. 

Rbm. 1. The present elitt, (to go) with its compounds, has a fixture signifi* 
cation, in the Ind. and Subj., I shall go; the Inf. and present Part have both a 
present and future signiücation ; ^.g.ovK eir&iig äf^rjOLi alrdv oi& ärreifii 
{tibibo)^ aXk* kp^<7 0f$>ai airrbv koI i^eruoa Kol i^ey^u. Comp. § 137, 
B«m. S.^^ixofiai and vku with present forms, are often translated in 
English by perfects, namely, oixofiai, I have departed^ and fjt^<^t I lutve come / 
yet olx-OfJiaij properly means, lam gone^ and f/KCj, I am here {adsum) ; e. g. 
M^ TiViroVj 6ti ^kpaonag olx^Tat eig robg noTiefiiovgj that A. is gone ( = irana- 
fugit) to the enemy. 'Haw veKpCw Kev&fiC>va Kal gkotov nvXag XiTcCtv. 'ICftelg 
ftoTitg a<piKveicr^E, Öttol fjfiElg iraXai ijKOjiev {have come). 

5. The perfect indicative represents a past action in time present 
to the speaker. The action appears as one completed in time pre- 
sent to the speaker. 

Tiypatpa ttjv linoToTiijv, I have written a letter^ the letter is now written^ it being 
immaterial whether it was written just now or a long time ago ; ii iroTiic ektio- 
raj,, the city is now built, now stands there built. 

Rem. 2. Many Greek perfects are translated into English by the present 
tense ; in this case a condition or state occasioned by the completion of the action 
is denoted ; e. g. didefuu {I have been botmd), lam new in a bound atate^ am-boimAf 

2dO 8TNTAX.«-«BNWS6* [{ IM. 

r60vtiKa {Ihaoe dieä)^ lam dead; «r^^Qtw (Z have sAoim nt^f), I appear^ oMm, 
imoi (/ have «een), Iknow^ re^Xa {1 home blomneti), lam bloommsh ifevros&a (I ham 
eonvinced or persuaded nnjfs/df)^ I trusty ßißnxa (I have stepped oui\^ /^, fUpvtffuUj 
memmi {I have reminded ria/self)^ lam windfidy iceKTrffmi {Ihaoe acqmred ßir aiy- 
sdf)^ I possess^ KitcXiffiai (I have been oailkd)^ I am called, and rnanj othen. 
Where the perfect is translated by a present, the Flnp. 13 translated by an Imp. ; 
e. g. iiret^eiVt I appeared. 

6. The future indicative denotes an action as future in relation to 
the present time of the speaker. The Greeks yerj often use the 
Fut. Ind. in subordinate clauses, even after an Historical tense, to 
express that which shotdd, must or may he, where the Latin employs 
the Subj. ; the other forms of the Fut, particularly the Part, are 
also so used. 

Nofiovc inap^ai del roiovrovCt ^i* »v toIc fih äya:&oic ivripof xai kXtv&epoc 
6 ßioc irapaaKcvaa^^aerai {mtght be obtained), role 6i Kaxolc rarreivoc re 
Kiä ä^yeivöc Kai äßioroc b aluv knavaKeiaerat. Hye/iipac i^aßov ol 
orpatiüTcu, oiairofdc A^ovaiv {^ouidlead), Bt^ev i^ovai {mig^obtain) rä 

7. The future perfect indicative represents the action as past 
(completed) in the future, in relation to the present time of the 

Kdl role KaKoic pefii^erai ka^\a, the good shau have been mixed witheoiL 
'H iroTiLveia reXeug KSKOOfiijaeTai, käv 6 roiovro^ aiir^ hriaKoir^ 0vAa^ 6 
TovTuv kirtoT^fiuv. The Fat Ferf. of those verbs whose perfects are translated 
bj the present (see Bern. 2), must then be translated by the simple future ; e. g* 
fupv^aofioi, meminero {1 shall have reminded myself), I shall be mindfid. 

Reu. 3. The Fat. Ferf is used in Greek, only in principal clauses, and la 
subordinate clauses introduced by bri and 6g {that). In all other subordinate 
clauses, the Subj. Aor. (more seldom the Ferf.) in connection with a conjunc- 
tion compounded of av, e. g. käv, knav, kireidäv, brav, irplv äv, ^jr* dv, df av, 
etc, is used instead of the Fut Ferf. j e. g. iäv tovto ^e^y^, si hoc dixeris, if 
you shall have said thus. „ 

8. The aorist indicative expresses past time, in a wholly indefi- 
nite manner, without any additional relation ; e. g. lygarpcc, Iiüroley 
KvQog noXla i&vri tPiKr^aev. It thus stands in contrast with the 
other tenses which express past time ; still, since it indicates past 
time indefinitely, it may be used instead of either of these tenses. 

9. The imperfect indicative represents an action as past, but al- 
ways in relation to another past time. 

'Ev ^ <n> lira I Cef, *yw iypat^ov, while you were playing, I was writing, 
'OrekyyO^ kaav ol ßäpßapot, ol 'EAA^ef ift&xovro, when the boHt a rimn 
r, the G. faught. 'Ore ol ßäpßapot inekiiTMeffw (or hriil^ov), ü 'B^- 

Afvier ift&xovro. Tote <or iv ruirp t§ ftaxv) ^ 'EXAtv«r i9<q^ 
^^^ara ifiaxovro. 

Rbm. 4. The Impf. Ind. is also used to deiiote,--*(a) the heffinmng of an ac* 
tion, e. g. hrel kyyi>c kyevovro k^amvijg, ol fiev airöv kro^evoVy some of them 
hegan to shoot their anvtvs^ — (b) the oon<mMa«cc, e. g.o/ fiH inopevovro, ol 
ff elirovrOf one party continued ihiAr march^ the other continued to pursue ; — (c) 
habit or custom, e. g. airöv olizep irpo^ev irpo^eKvvovVy Kot rbre irpo^eich- 
VQcavy those who were before accustomed to do obeisance to him^ did it then also ; — 
(d) endeavor or attempt^ e. g. TTpdrog K^eapxog roi)f airov ffrpariuTa^ ißia^ero 
levaif Clearchus endeavored to conipd his soldiers to advance. 

10. Hence the Aor. Jnd. is used in historical nurration, in order 
to indicate the principal events, while the Impf, is used to denote 
the accompanying circumstances. The Aor. narrates, the Impf, de* 
icrihes and paints ; the Aor. denotes a single, momentary action, the 
Impf, a continued action. 

Tot)f «rf AraoTof ede^avro ol ßapßapoi kqI ifiäxovTo- ^irel d* kyyi>c 
}iaav ol bi^Tdrmy hrpairovTO- koI ol Treilroorat eirdiiq bIkovto. 'O d^ 

KXeapxog irapax^V «a^ i ^ ß e l t 0, ami C. uKa terrijied {a. amg]»^ momeO' 
taiy act) and feared (continned act). 

RifiM. 5. The Apr. lod. is often used in gejieFal proposiijoiui, which eaqpms» • 
hct borrowed from experience ; the verb is then translated by an £n|^ish Pre«, 
or by Ü uxmt or is accustomed^ with the Inf. ; e. g. KdAAof fj xpo^og avaXQaev,^ 
voaoc ifiäpüvev, either timedesbroys {is wont to degtroy) or diseaae impairs beau(§^ 

11. The pluperfect represents an action as completed befcH« an«- 
o&er past action. 

'£9re^ ol 'ETiXTjvec tir€X^?.v^effav {had eome)^ ol iroTUfiiot aTreire^ev- 
yeaav {had fkd). 'Ore ol avfifwxot knXrjaia^ov, ol *A-&fjvätoi Toi>c Jlepffag ^ 
kveviK^Keaav. 'Eyeypa^eiv ri^ kiriaro^'^ {bc. when the fiiend came), 

Hkh. 6. It is to be noticed, that where the relation of one past time to another 
Is readily seen from the connection, and no special emphasis belongs to it, the 
Giceks commonly use the Aor. instead of the Flup. ; e. g. krretdff ol 'EXXifvec 
knij^'&oVi ol iroXifiiot ätceire^evyeeav. Indeed, the Aor. is often used instead 
of the Perf. even, when the. relation of the past to the present does not require 
to he particularly indicated. 

12. As the Aor. Ind. expresses a past action as independent and 
completedf and as the Irapf. Ind., on the contrary, represents an ao* 
ticm in its duraiien and progresSj (since it always refers to a past ae« 
tkm which is related to another past action, being used in descrip- 
tion and delineation,) so the subordinate modes of the Aor., viz. the 
Subj., Opt. and Imp., together with the Aor. Inf. and Part, are 
used when. the action is represented by itself, as completed; on the 
emitrary, the subordinate modes of the Pres., together with the 

20% g»TAX.-*-ti]U& [1 152. 

Pres. Inf. and Part, and also the Opt. Impf., are used, when Ühb 
speaker would describe an action in its duration and progress. In 
this manner the following forms stand contrasted : 

(a) The Aor. Subj. and the Pres. Subj. ; €,g.<^vyu/iev and ^evyt^iiev, 
let usßy; Xi/w, Iva fia^^^ askd Iva fiav^avyCt that you may learn ; 

(b) The Aor. Imp. and the Pres. Imp. ; e. g. ^vye and ^evye, ßy; 66c 
and didov fioi to ßtßXlovy give ; 

(c) The Aor. Inf. and the Pres. Inf. ; e. g. h^iT^ i^vyelv and ^evyeiVf J 
wish to ßy ; KeT^u as dovvai and 6 id 6 vat ftoi rd ßißXiov ; but the 
Aor. Inf. can also denote a past time and take the place of the Perf. Inf., 
when the relation to the finite rerb does not require to be particnlarly in- 
dicated; e. g. ^y/et^e rode woXefäovg äwo^vyelv and a7rofr£^eti- 
yevai, nuntiamt hastes ßigitae; 

(d) The Aor. Opt and the Impf. Opt; e. g. kXeyov, Iva /läd^oig and Iva 
fiav^ävoi^i t^ ^^ou mayest leanny ut diaoeres; el^e tovto yivoiro 
and yiyvoiTOj that this might happen I The Aor. Opt can also take 
the place of the Plnp. Opt., when the relation to another past action does 
not require to be particnlarlj indicated; e. g. fiyytCktVy hri, hreidj^ ol 
ISXXtfvec ifreX'&oiev {had come)^ ol ßäpßapoi f^dtf ano^vyoiev 
(had already ßed). 

The Aor. Fart, always denotes past tnne, and henee stands in contrast with 
the Perf. Part, since the former describes an action as absolutely past, while 
the latter, at the same time, represents it in relation to the finite rerb ; e. g. ol 
ohrofioTuoi ifyytCko!» Toi>g iroXcfuovc äiro(^vy6vTac and unowei^evyoTaf. 

LXXX. Exercises on § 152. 

After Darins was dead and Artaxerxes had ascended (aoir.) the throne, Tis- 
«aapheme^ traduced Cyrus to (Trpof, w. ace.) his brother, (asserting) that he was 
plotting against him (opt.). The latter (6) credits it (» is persuaded) and ap- 
prehends Cyrus, intending to put him to death (d>f, w./ut pairt) ; but his mother 
by entreaty gains his release (= having begged him off for herself, aar.) and 
sends him again to his government Hector, whither has gone the courage, that 
thou once hadst ? Be not troubled that Araspas has gone over to the enemy. 
In good time* art thou come. Themistocles wrote: (I,) ThcmiaCodea, have 
come to thee. If any one does not know himself, aÄd believes he has come to 
a knowledge of that which he does not truly know, he is a fool The messen- 
gers from Sinope said : We are come to {part.fut.) congratulate you, O war- 
riors, that ye have been delivered, as we have heard, through (Sia^ w. gen.) many 
dangers. Under {km, w. gen.) Cecrops and the first kings, until {etc) Theseus. 
Attica was always inhabited by cities. God has carefully regulated everytfains 
hi the world. The dwellings in Memphis have remained until {pixP^) modem 
times. CEnoe, which lies (= is) on the borders of Attica and Boeotia, had 
been fortified. Zcno scourged a slave for {km, w. dot.) theft; upon his saying 

* elf «oAov; 

153.] STMTAX^— 4(ai»sc. 308 

(gm* «6f.) : *' It was &ted for me to ste^," Zcno said : *" To be iayed too {aar.}.'' 
The world is a stage, life a passage across (that stage) ; thon earnest, thou saw- 
est, then wentest away. Xerxes threw a bridge oyer the Hellespont and dug 
through Alhos. Destiny casts down what {ol av^ w. wbj.) it has exalted (aor.). 
£yen the worst (man) acquires riches easily. Inactivity teaches a great deal of 
Tice. Commanding is easier than doing. Cyms called {peart.) Araspas, a Mede, 
Who had been a comrade of his (»to him) from youth {U nai66^y, and bade 
him guard iix him the wife of Abradatas, the Snsian, and the tent, until he him- 
self should take (them) in charge. The people resolred to choose thirty men, 
who should draw up the laws of the countity, in accordance with which 
(«ara, to. oux.) they should administer the government. Everywhere in Greece 
the usage prevails, that the citizens swear {ace. w. inf.) to be miited {fit.). The 
sokUers hoped to take the city. I believe, that those, who (^ 148, 6) practise 
irisdom, and believe (themselves) to be competent to teach the citizens that 
which is useful, by do means become violent. Say what I must do, and it shall 
be done. It (» this) is very beautiiiilly said and ever will be (» remain) said, 
that the useful is beautiful, the hurtful odious. Tyrants will acquire nothing 
valuable. Noble men we shall ever remember. 

S158. B. More Particular View of the Modes. 

1. The three following modes «re to be distiDguished, vis. tbe 
Indicative, Subjunctive (Optative) and Imperative (§ 151, 2). 

a. Tbe Indicative expresses a fact or phenomenon, asserts some- 
thing directly ; e« g. to ^odoi' '&dXXsi — o natiiQ yiyqaqie tipf 
imoroXi^v — ol noXifuoi aniapvjov — oi noXlrai tovg TtoXefiiovg 

b. The Subjonctive denotes a oonoef^ion. The Subj, of the his* 
torical tenses is called the Optative in Greek (§ 73, II.)- 

(a) The Subj.- of the principal tenses, i. e. of the Pres, and Perf«, 
and also the Subj. Aor., in Greek always represents the conception 
as something future. The Subj. of the principal tenses is used in 
principal clauses : (1) in the first Pers. Sing, and PL to express an 
exhortation or adnumition ; (2) in the second Pers. Sing, and PL 
of the Aor. (not Pres.) with fcff to express a prohibition ; (8) in 
dmbtful questions ; in principal clauses, however, almost exclusivelj 
in the first Pers. Sing, and PL, but in subordinate clauses, it may 
be in any of the different persons. 

'lufov, mamta, ktusgo. M^ lufuvt kt tts not go. M^ ^ßif&yc, ne nutuoi, do 
twtfear. Ti irotüfuv ; uihat ahaä %oedot In subordinate clauses, O^ ix^, 6iroi 
TpkirafuUi non habeo^ quo me veriam, I do not know where to go, Oix kxeiy ^iroi 
rpämfrai, he does not know where to go. 

(ß) The Subj. of the historical tenses, viz. the Opt of the Aor., 

801 mxAx.-Hii«axi. [§ UW* 

Iiapf. and Plapw as well as the Opt of the Fat (| 162, 8, d), lefire- 
sent what id conceived either a» past, present or ftittire. The Opt 
denotes a present or future, only in conditional clauses, and in such 
elliptical clauses as arise from them ; e. g. ef r» e j^ o e ?, doiijg ar, 
if you had antfthingy you would give it. Both the condition ein 
ixoiCf and the coBsequenoe Ö04^g af, are here represented as a 
present, mostly a future uncertainty, an undetermined possibili^, a 
mere supposition, admission or conjecture (Comp. § 18Ö). This 
form of the conditional clause, viz. el with the Opt., may express a 
wish, the concluding clause connected with it, being understood ; e. g. 
ei T0V70 jiifoitol if this should happtn (then I would be happy, 
mv;^^ Sw ew^\ «» that this might htippen / Instead of the sim- 
ple ei, the stronger et&e, ei yaQ, O ^uüy is then commonly nsed ; 
e. g, et^e {ei yaq) ffwi -^tot ttwrrjv t^v ^itapuv naqa'&etev! 
that the gods would give me s:iich power! Very frequently the 
concluding clause is used elliptically, the condition connected with 
it being understood ; e. g. i/dco)^ av duovaaifjii, I would gladly 
hear (if k were possible, e I i^eiff}. Comp. No. 2, c. With the 
exception of the instances here mentionedy the Opt generally refers 
to the past 

RsM. I. When a wish is to be represented as one which the speaker knows 
cannot be realized, the Ind. of the historical tenses is nsed ; e. g. el0e to&to 
kyiyifeToi V»at this might be {ware) done I el^e tovto iyiverol O Aai 
ihiahadbeen done! 

c. The Imp. denotes the immediate expression of one*8 will ; e. g. 
bog and didov fun to ßtßXiop, give ; yqa'ipafw and yqa^iteo 
tf/f tfturroX'^f scriMta, let him write, 

B£M. 2. The difference between the Pres, and Aor. Imp., is, that the Pres. 
generally denotes a continued^ oft-repeated action, while the Aon denotes a single^ 
irutantaneima action ; e.g,vei^ov rote oo^ripot^, obof those wkef than govndf^ 
a direction to be observed at all times ; uvore^i^ar» r^ ;t'^Ni, lA Mm num 
Us handf jd^-^ov el^ Tä 6pjj, look vpon the fRounlatns, siogle, insftantaajeoaa 
acts. So tucovaoVf aKovaare^ Ae^oi«', before. C!omp. f 152, 12, b. — The Perf- 
Imp., which is of rare occurrence, is nsed to indicate that the consequences of 
the action are to remain or be permanent ; e. g. K€K)iei<r&(ü ^ "dvpa^ let the door he 
aha (and r^nam shut). It will be evident, therefore, that neither the Aor. nor 
Perf. Imp., expresses any relation of past time, as the Ind. of thas« tenses does, 
bnt only such modifications of action as are stated ahove. 

Bem. 3. In negative or prohibitive expressions with fi v (ney, the Greek com- 
monly uses only the Pres. Imp., not the Aor. Imp., bat instead of it, the Aor. 
Sttbj. ; e. g. fi^ ypä(pe (but not fi^ ypa^^f ) or fi^ ypaip^Ct do not write (btit not 

1^ rp^f^)- 

Sl5d.] SYNTAX. — ^RIODAL ADVERB ai^. SK)5' 

Rbmakks on thb Modal Advebb av. 

2. The discussion of the modal adverb a v is intimately connected 
with the treatment of the modes. This adverb is used to show tW 
relation of the conditioned expression to the conditiamng one, iiiaiH 
much OS it indicates that the predicate of the sentence to which it' 
belongs, is conditioned by another thought. A complete view of 
the use of &p cannot be presented until conditional sentences sre 
treated of (§ 185) ; for the present, the following remarks Otf It» 
construction will be sufficient It is connected : 

a* With the Ind. of the historical tenses, viz. the Impf., Plop.. 
and Aor., 

(a) To indicate that something could take place under a certain: 
condition, but did not, because the condition was not fulfilled. 

Ei TOVTo tXeyeg, r/fiupravec uv, si hoc diceres^ errares, if ycu said this, you were 
wrong [but now I know you did not say it, consequently you did not do wrong), Ei 
TOVTO e?it^ag, Tjfia^TEQ uVy si hoc dixisses, errass^; at hoc non dicisti, ergo non er- 
rasti (the Aor. here takes the place of the Plup-) ; or without a protasis, e. g. 
ixopijc "V» laetareris or laetatus fuisses (so. « hoc vidisses). 

(ß) To indicate that an action took place (was repeated) ia cisr^ 
tain cases or under certain circumstances. The histcnicftl 
tense of the principal clause is then usually an Imperfect. 

"El Tig Tip XuiKpaTei nept tov avT I'keyo l^ iirl t^ ino^eatv kTraviJY ev 
av iravTa tov Xoyov, if any one contradicted Socrates, he would (he was aoeu^ 
tomed to) carry haxk the whole argwrnent to the original pr(^)osition (i. e. he would do 
this as often as any one coBtradieted). 

Rbh. 3. 'Av is not used with the Ind. of the prindpnl teamss* 

b. With the Subj., in order to represent the conceived future 
event, which is naturally expressed by the Greek Subj^ [No. 1,. b. 
(a)], as conditional, and dependent on circumstances. In the Coi»- 
mon Language, this usage occurs only in subordinate clauses, the 
modal adverb then standing in close connection with the conjunction 
of the subordinate clause, or combining with it and forming one 
word. In this manner originate idv (from el av), orav (from ors 
av)j OTtorav (from otzots av), nqiv av, o-&i av, ov av, onov a», oi av^ 
OWA &v, 'd av, oral av, o^&f av, onod'ev av, eto., og av (qudounqtm or 
si qtds), okg &p, onovog &v, oaeg &v, omaog av, and others. 

c. With the Opt. (very seldom with the Fut. Opt.), to represent* 
a present or future uncertainty, undetermined possibility, a mere 
supposition, admission or conception, as conditional. The Opt with 
av must always be considered as the principal clause of a conditional* 


206 SYNTAX. — ^SfODAI. A^VESB W», \% 153. 

proposition, even if tlft condition belonging to it, is not expre^ed 
[No. 1, b. (^)]. 

E/ rwTQ XeyoLCj äfiapruvoigüv. Without a protasis, e. g. x^'^P^'-C ^''> ^ 
iidglit^ ooiddj would rejoice {if you heard this). Ti-voir' av nuv kv r^ fioKp^ XP^i 
oil mft^, could happen, Aiyoic av, you might speak (sc. si tibi piacuerit)» The 
Opt with av is yeiy frequently used, when tlio apeaker wishes to state a strong 
affirmation modesUy. 

d. With the Inf. and Part {very seldom with the Fat Inf. and 
Part), when the finite verb, used in the place of the Inf. and Part, 
would be connected with av. 

£1 n elxev, Ifif, dovvat uvy if he had anything^ he smd he would give it 
(oratio recta, el ti elxov^ idoKa dv, if I had anything^ I would give it). £I ti ix^i, 
i^f 6ovvai av (oratio recta, el ri ix^tfiij öoitjv uv). Ar/Xog el äftaprävuv 
äVf el TOVTO Xiyotf (sac 6^2.6v kartv^ ötl äfiapTuvQig av, el tovto Xiyoig). 

Bbm. 4. As av represents the predicate as conditional, it onght properly to be 
joined with the predicate, e. g. Xeyoifii av, iXeyov uv ; yet it commonly follows 
that member of a sentence which is to be made emphatic, e. g. xal övk olei d a- 
Xfj fiov hv ^avel<r&ai rh rov ^uKpurovg Trpayfia. Hence it is regnlarly joined 
to snch words as change the idea of the sentence, viz., to negative adverbs and 
interrogative •, e. g. oix av, oi& av, olnor* av, oiSinor' av, etc. — rig av, ri av, 
Ti & av, T* djyr' av, fföf av^, iroc yap av, ap* av, etc.; — ^also to adverbs of place, 
time, modality and other adverbe, which, in various ways modify the expression 
contained in the predicate and define it more exactly *, e. g. evravi9^a av, tot' uv, 
eUoTog &v, laug av, rdx^ av, fjtakiar' uv, ^kktt^ &v, ßgÖlug uv, T^Seotg av, etc. 
Hence it happens that &v is sometimes repeated in the same sentence. 

LXXXI. JSxercise9 on § 153. 

Let na shun the nnse^aly, aind aspire after the beautiful. Let us pray (aot.) 
the Gods to guide the present (enterprise) to the most honorable issue. Let us 
not yield to the enemy. How shall I, who am {part.) mortal, contend with di- 
vine destiny? Tell me, whether-( xörepov) we shall say that Socrates in his 
conv e rsations speaks seriously or jests (» call S. speaking seriously or jesting). 
When Hercules wai at a low, which of two {dnoTepoc, w. gen.) ways to {kiri, v. 
ace.) life he should enter (= turn himself), there appeared two majestic women- 
One, running to him {aor.), spoke thus : I see, O Hercules, thou art at a loss 
(= thee at a loss) which way to life thou shouldst enter. If {iav, to. sitbj.) there- 
fore thou wilt make me a friend (fern.), I will lead thee to the plea^antcst and 
easiest way. O Gods, that ye might avert danger from us. O that the triad 
of the Gi«ces (Hapireg) might ever assist (aor.) me. O that I might ever aaso- 
date with the wise and good, and never have intercourse with (gen.) the bed. 
if I CQuld have lived with you then, when you were still a youth. If I were 
(but) able to make what is done (part.) undone ! Fight bravely, soldiers. Strive 
after virtue, young men. The temple-robber ought to be torn in pieces by 
wild beasts. Historians ought neither to extol anything in order to conciliate 
(ffp^, u>. ace.) fkvor, nor omit (anything), if it is deserving of mention futd re- 


memlmiiioe. Judge {aor.] not oontmrj to (ir«pa,^w. one.) the laws. O iraiv 
rion, despair (aor.) not of yourselves. He who (^ 148, 6) yentues to em- 
ploy force, may need not a few allies ; bat he who con pecsuade, none. Bow 
could those who do base (deeds), become friends to those who hate snch (deeds) ? 
Who withont sclf-oontrol could either learn or properly practise anything good? 
With Ifteray w. ffen,) a wise understanding, one may pass (aor.) life most plom- 
antly. The bad no one can luake (» place, cwr.) xtaetaL 


S 154. Attributives. 

1. Attributives serve to explain more definitelj the idea contained ' 
in the substantive to which they belong ; e» g. to xalov ^dop, o 
fie y as ncug. The attributive may be : 

a. An adjective or participle, ^ naXov qooop, to &r&og 

b. A substantive in the genitive, e. g. oi rot; dapÖQov uagftoi; 
e. A substantive governed by a preposition, e. g. ^ agos tri 9 

noXiv 6^6g\ 

d. An adverb, e. g. oi vvv av^qanftoi ; 

e. A substantive in apposition, e. g. KQouJogy 6 ßaciXevs» 

Bem. 1. The genitive depending on substantives, receives different names ac- 
cording to the relations it expresses : (a) subjective, when it takes the place of 
the subject, e. g. o/ rov devSpov /copTrot (arising from rd divdpov ^epzi 
Kapirovc)i the Jhiits of the tree, i. e. which the tree produces ; rä tov 'Ofofpov frm^ 
fiara, the poems of Horner ^ i. e. which he made ;— (b) objective or causative, when it 
takes the place of the object of an intransitive verb, e. g. ^ rijg ao^iag kvi- 
^vfiioy the desire fir wisdom {kni&vfuJ ttiq ao<f>ia^j the ao<^uig being the cause 
of the iTidvfua) ; e^oia rivoct good^will towards one (evvovc elfii rivi) ; — (c) 
passive, when it takes the place of the object of an active verb, and thus denotes 
the thing affected or caused by the transitive action, e. g.^ r ^ f noXeug kH- 
cic (from KTi^ei T^v iroXtv), the possession of the city (the city being the thing pos- 
sessed) ; 6 rijg kir i<TTO?i^g ypat^evg, the writer of the letter; — (d) of quality 
e. g. rh eipo^ rerrkpciv aTaSiciv; avifp fieyäXijc äper^g i~^(6) of poS' 
session, e. g. rb tov Mevuvoc arpärevfia. 

Rem. 2. When tjie substantive which is to be more fully explained by the 
attributive, contains a general idea or one which can be easily supplied from the 
context) or, by frequent usage in a particular connection, may be supposed to 
be known, then the substantive, as it is subordinate in the idea to be expressed, 
is often omitted, and the adjective or participle commonly with the article, is 
used as a substantive. Such Rubstantivcs are, e. g. uv^punog, uvijp {man, Aws- 
band), yvvfi {wonum, wife), Trar^p, fi^rijp, vlog, naZg, -^vyaTTip, aSeX^g, irpayfta, 
•XP^fMy ipryov, xpovo^f ^f^f^i X^*P^ 7Vt ^oq, olnia, oIko^, and others. 

5tOB BTKTAat. — APPOSITION. [§ 154. 

Oi &vifToi (sc. äir9pLymn)^ morfafea. Tä ^fih-epa (?c. xp^if^^'"''^), res nostrae. 
'H iHrrepiua (sc. ^fiipa). *H voXefua and ^ ^tXia (stc. ;t:t^/)ß), a /w.9f?7c and friend- 
^ land, H oUov^ulv77 (sc 7^), the inhaiAied earth. Trjv raxiüTijv (sc. 6^6v), 
'^wim edenimß. Td «axov, emV. Td KaKti, evüs. 'AT^e^avSpog 6 ^i?,i'rrirov (sc 
viog). 'Ev ({($911 (m. <A4C(f)) elvat. Elf (9e<9a(rjicaXov, e/f Il7iuro>voc ^otr^v. Tä 
lüf Tvx^^ßpetunemidtM vdkieh belongs to it; rä r^c froXetätg, the affairs of the city ; 
rä rov 'rroXiftov, the whole extent of the war. Ol vvv, ol rore^ qI irakai (sc av- 
•^pOTToi). Tä oIkoi (wpayfMTa)^ res domesticae. 01 kct?' ^//äf, ow contemporaries. 
Ol äpufti or frepi riva^ a person with his compamons, foihwers or scholars ; ol dfi^l 
fleuriarparov, Pisistratus and his troops ; ol äfiipl Oa'Ariv, TVudes and his sduooL 

2. When a substantive is put in the same case with another, for 

the sake of a more exact definition, it is aaid to be in apposition 

with that substantive. A word maj be in apposition not merelj 

with a substantive^ but also with a substantive pronoun ; e. g. viiulg, 

oi üoqioi — ixeivoSf 6 ßaaiX&ig, and even with a personal pronoun 

contained in the verb. 

Q epioTOK'Kfii TjKD TTopä aiy J, Themistodes^ have come to you. *0 Ma t o f 
r^f 'ArXavrog SiaKovov fiat airolc (instead of kyi!> 6 Maiac sc. vlog)^ I^ the 
t$H afMtaidy if» dau^Oer efAÜaSy etc. 

8. When a word is in apposition with a possessive pronoun, that 
word is pot in the Gren., because the possessive then takes the place 
of the Gen. of the personal pronoun.' 

*Eubc rov a^Xiov ßio^, the life of me loretched; here ä'&'Kiov is in appositioit 
with hftS^^ which is used instead of kfiov. T&fiä ( =s rä kpä) rov dvar^ov koko, 
the eväs ofwe^ tmhappy one ! 2^ r^f KdXliartjg tbfiop(f>ia, thy gracefulness^ mott 
beaxdifd one I In English, as these examples show, we may often translate the 
Qen. by an exclamation. On the expression 6 Tj/iirepoct ifierepogf a^erepo^ 
u^Tüv war^py see under 4 169, Hem. 2. 

LXXXII. Exercises on § 154. 

In Hades dwell (=s are) all the dead. Men send their children to school (to 
tiie honse of teachers), that they may learn '(/>arf. fut.) the sciences, music and 
the (ra) (exercises) in the gymnasium. Alexander, the son of Philip, achieFod 
many and brilliant actions. Many, who {part.) neglect (aor.) domestic affairs, 
attend to those of the state. Leonidas and the three hundred with him, fought 
hmvely at Thermopylae against (kiri) the Persians. Thales and his school and 
almost all philosophers abstained from political affairs. The character of the 
Deity we must reverence very highly. O fortunate (man), thy life*have the 
Gods adorned with every blessing (Greek : thy life of the fortunate). Unhappj 
men that we are, our (= the) enemies have ruined our native land. The eom* 
panions of Ulysses perished (aor.) by their own crime. Our own dtizens have 
betrayed os. Tour own brother deserts you. 

II 155 — 157.] SYNTAX. — QBKITITB. 909 


§155. The Objective Construction* 

As the attributive construction (§154) serves to define the sub- 
stantive more particularly, so the objective construction serves to de- 
ibe the predicate more particularly. By ohjecty taken in its wider 
sense, is to be understood everything by which the predicate is more 
particularly defined, viz. (a) the Cases, (b) Prepositions with their 
Cases, (c) the Infinitive, (d) the Participle, and (e) the Adverb. 

'ET«i^/itj r^f (TO^iac. Tpa^ tt^ kTCiGToXijv. "Etvxoiiai rotg i^eoZf . 'Eanj 
V€tpa rifi ßaaiXel. *Ein^fiü ypäipetv. VeXciv elirev. Ka^c ifMxiffaro. In 
each of these examples, it is evident that the verb is limited, defined or more 
Iblly explained by the word or words connected with it. 


§156. I. Genitive. 

The Genitive Case primarily denotes the relation tahencej and 
therefore expresses, — (a) in a local relation, the out-goin^ or removal 
and separation from an object, since it designates the object or point 
from which the action of the verb proceeds ; e. g. sJnetv odoS, eedere 
via, to withdraw from the way; — (b) in a causal relation, it ex- 
presses the cause, source, author, in general the object whidi caU» 
forth, produces {gignit), excites and occasions the action of the verb; 
e. g. im&vfu» t^g dgsrijs; here oQsr^g is the object which caUs 
forth, etc. the desire expressed by ini'&vfMS, 

%157, A. Local Eelation. 

Genitive of Separation. 
The Genitive, in a local relation, is used with expressions de- 
noting removal, separation, being distant from, beginning, hosing^ 
abstaining, desisting, ceasing, freeing, missing, deviating from^ dif' 
feting from, depriving. 

Such verbs are napaxutpelv, inox<»>pelVf eIkciv and (firelKeiVf iyiravioraa^ai 
and k^iuTCLO^cUj vocr^i^eLVf x^P^^^^Vy diopi^etv, ufiivai, &^U<r^at, äirix^tv, äiri- 
Xe<r&aty äpxeiVj äpxe<r&aiy inapxeiVy k^upxeiVy vaveiVy navea^ai, X^etv, «w- 
XveiVy elpyeiVy XvetVy kXev&epovVy äiraX^rreiVy orepelv, arcoarepelVy xvpo^t 
iprfftovVf 6ta^epeiVy äfMpräveiVy a^d^ecn^ai, ^evSetr^ai, etc. ', iiexsiv and äiri' 
Xeiv, to be distant f-'the adjectives k2.ev^epoc, ica'^apoCi KevoCt ^f^Kt T^V^v^t 


ftlO 8TVTAX. — GSNITITB« [§ 158. 

hp^voc, ^iXoc, dia^opoif and many componnded with a privative ; — the adverbs 
AveVf x^-^pkt ^^VVf Ho, iKoc, ^lx<^i irepav. 

01 Tuv AoKedaifiovtinf veorepoi rote vrpetrßvTepotc (rvvrvyxavovre^ elKOVffi 
T ^ f 660 V {withdraw from the road). *Avixet röv äpyvpeiuvlii distant 
from the aäver mines) 1^ kyyikrara iroAif TAeyapa xo'kv «rAeiOv t{)V irevraKOffiuv 
CTOÖiuv. U^Tfip fvaiddg elpyei fivlav (keeps Hie fly from her cliild). Uaih 
ov T^g Hßpeug {cease your visolence). *H rroXig r)'kev'& epdßri rüv rv- 
pävvov {was freed from tyrants). 01 iroXifuoi rotg iTo2.irag röv iya'&üv 
äfreareptfaav {deprived the citizens of their goods). T^ v^ ol &vdpcMroi Sta- 
fipovat T&v ä'kXuv 1^ u u v {differ from other (tmmaU). 'Kpx'^^ai Tk- 
vof sigmfies to begin generally, witliont any reference to oüiers ; e. g. o^ roig 
"Beoif apxic^^it XP^ jravrdf ipyov; hntäpxeiVf k^äpxeiv, ivä/h 
X'iv, Karäpxeiv, signify to do sotnething flrtt (i. e. before others), to begin, hence 
also to be the author of, to originate ; e. g. 0/ noXefiioi \]p^av adiKuv ipyuv. 
01 *A^ijvaIoi Kot AoKsdaiiiovLoi in^p^av r^g kTitv&epiag unaay t§ 
'EXXadt, Ubertatis auctoresfuerunt. *E^ei^epog ^oßov, free from fear ; k a- 
^apbc adiKia g, free from injustice; äpfiara xevä ^vi6x<^v, chariots with- 
out drivers; ävaidevrog fiovaiKtig, uneducated in music; X^P^C tUv 
äXXav, apart from the others; itXijv fiiuvog, except Neon; irepav rov 
■n or auo^, beyond theriver; i^u ßeXiiv elyai, tobe b^fond the reach of tJiedartt. 

S 158. B. Caudal Selation of the Genitive, 

The Gren., in the causal relation, signifies also an out^ginngy but 

«oi as in the local relation, a mere external out^oingy but an inters 

^ 4Wil and itetive one, since it expresses the object, bj whose inward 

power, the action of the subject is called forth and produced {gig^ 


a. The Genitive as an expression of Action,* or the Active 


1. In the first place, the active Gen« stands as the Gen. of origin 
or author, and b. connected with verbs denoting to originate from, 
to spring from, arise from, to froduce from, to be produced from^ to 
he bom from: yiyvsc^ai, qwmr, q)vvcu, elrcu. 

*kpioT(,>v ävdpüv äpiara ßovTievfiara y i y v e r a i, the best oounsds otigi' 
nate from the best men. Xlarpdc fiev 6^ Xiyerai 6 Kvpoc yevio^ai Kap- 
ßvffov, Tlepoüv ßamXii^, Cynis is said to heme been the son of {to have (originated 
from) his father Cambyses; 6 6e Kapßvarfg oiroc rov Uepoetd&v yevovg pv, 
hut this Oasnbyses was a descendant of {of the race of) the Persians; pvf pbc d^ 
hftoXeyeirai Mavdavi/c yevea^ai. 

2. In the second place, the active Gen. stands as that object 

* With this Gen. the subject appears as receiving the action denoted by the 

§ 158.] STirTA3C.^-GEinTIVB, 211 

which has acquired another, made it its own and possesses it, — hence 
as Gen. of the owner or possessor. This Gren. stands with the verbs 
ävaiy yevsad^cu ; also with the adjectives tdioSf oixelo^t Ugog, xvgiof, 

T^g ^iftreu^ ueytarov ku^Xoc kariv^ nature possessfis {hicu) the greatett 
beaiity. Tot) ^uKparovg iroXX^ fyi> I'lper^j Socrates had much virtue. Hence 
originates the Gen. of quality^ with which in English we connect the snhstantiYes, 
bueinesSf mcmner, custom^ pecultarify^ duty, mark; e.^.'Avöpoc ivTiv aya^o^ 
e^ ironiv roii^ ^^ovf , t^ is the business^ custom^ peculiarity^ duty, mark of a good 
Wian to benefit his friends ; or it becomes, it bespeaks a good man, a good man is icortf, 
etc Ol /UV Kiv^woi itoXXukic tqv ^yefiovuv liioi, futr^b^ & oIk iariv, 
dangers are oflxn the lot of {peculiar to) commanders. Kvpoc ravrijc fVC Af^P^f 
Ktf p 10 c kyevcTOf Cyrus leas themler of this place, 'lirnoslepdc tov '"RXiov, 
a horse sacred to tJie sun. 

8. In the third place, the active Gen. stands as that object whieh 
includes another or several other objects, as parts belonging to it ; 
the Gen. expresses the whole in relation to its parts, and is com- 
monly called the partitive Genitive, ^ This Gen. is used : 

(a) With the verbs slvat and yiywea&ah which then signify 
to be among, to he numbered or considered amangy to be of ^ num* 
her of , to he a part of to be one of 

*H V Kol 6 l^uKpurrfc tuv ufitftl WlXijtov arparevofievQVf Socrates also 
was ariiong those who carried on war around Miletus ; aTparevofiivov here denotes 
the whole, of which Socrates is a part *H ZeXeta iari r^g *Aaia(, Z.i$a 
part {or a city) of Asia, Tbv ^avarov ijyovvrai vruvreg ol SlXTmi rCtv fieyiO" 
Tuv KttKÜv elvatf is among^ or is one o/, the greatest evils. 

Rem. 1. The partitive Gen., denoting the whole of which a part is taken, is 
very often used as an attributive : — (a) with substantives, e. g. arayovec iiaro^y drops 
of watery (here iSaroc is the whole, parts of which are expressed by arayovect and 
so in the other examples) ; aciftarog fiepo^j a part of the body,' — (b) with 'neuter 
adjectives and pixmouns, e. g. fiiaov {jfiepagj the middle of the day ; kv fteoif) r^c 
66oiJf in the middle of the way; kv towvt^ tov kivSvvov, in such circumstances ^ 
danger; elg tovto bpy^g, to such a degree of anger; nXelcrrov tov OTpaTevfiaroCf 
most of the army; — (c) with substantive-adjectives, particularly superlatives, with 
participles, substantive-pronouns (interrogative and indefinite) and numerals, e. g. 
ol xpVff'ot TUV uv^puTTov, the useful part of {the useful among) men ; ol ei (ppo- 
vovvreg ruv av&pCmav, the wise among men ; TcJv vTro^vyiuv rä uvayKala xal rä 
ivvarCrraTay the necessary and more able of the beasts of burden ; rd Tfyovfievov tov 
üTpaTevfmrog, that part of the army which lead = the van ; ol iiiu^avTcg rCnf lir- 
ireuVt those of the horsemen who pursued; rig tuv orpaTiurCfv, who of the soldiers f 
ol ao^raroi uv^putTLiv^ the wisest of men. — TLoXkoty bTuyoi, rivtg tov av&puirov. 
(On the contrary, ol ^vijtoI uv^punoi, because the property of mortality be- 
longs to the whole class ; no2.M or bXiyoi ävT^putnoiy denotes a whole consistiog 
of many or few, but itoITmI or hTuyoi av^poiruv, represents the many or the few 
as a part of the whole) ; — (d) with adverbs, (a) of place, e. g. Oidafif) AlyvirTov, 
nowhere in Egypt; oIk olöa, bnov y^g lartv, I do not know where on earth he is; 


BTKTAX.«-OiailTIVE. [§ *W« 

nmrraxov rnc >%» «%"« temmm, everytohere t« *te iwW; io also witli ir»t»«', 
»ro/i/iw, 7rp6<w ; (ß) of time, c g. H^ rfjg Vftepa^, r^f ^Amaj-, tov ;tpww, &rfe 
tfi «Ä« day, fate m &/e, etc. ; rpk t^C «j^epfff, tÄnce a day; noXXuKi^ tvc ^f^poc, 
many times a day. 

(b) With words which signify to participate, to share in, to im- 
part, to commnmcate ; — to touch, to take hold of, to he close to, to 
border on ; — to acquire and obtain, or to strive to acquire. 

Here belong the verbs fierexeLv, uireffri fiot, /lera-y diaSidovai, Kotvuvelv, Kot- 


der upon), avr-, 'irepuxe<r^aiy yXix^(r&ai .-^rvyxaveiv {to acquire, to hit), Xayxä' 
veiv, kipiKvelo^aif KTitjpovoßelv, 'Kpw;nKei (ßoi rivog, something belongs to me) ;— 
dpeYea^ah ii^ea^oij avTiirouio^aL, kvrphrta^ai, aroxa^eo^ai ;—the adjectives 
koivoCj ZffOf, öfiowcj övWof, kvavTioc, irapanXifaios (which however commonlj 
take the Dat), kmx^piog^ ^^^-of, aAe^o^, iWifioxoc, also with Bat ;— the adverbs 
Hv^y i0e^J7f , irpoa^ev, Jtßirpoa^evy hmtrBev, ßera^v, eMv, straightforward to, fii- 
Xph up to, avTiov, nXriaiov, etc. 

TLoXkoKi^ ol KOKol äpx<^v «al Tißüv ßerkxovüiv, eüü men often par- 
take of officer and honors. Ba>.irovi ßhv Kai rf^vx^v^ «ai fftrwv «fli tto- 
TÜV Kol {»TTVov äväyKfi Koi Tolg dov2,oic ßeraSiddvai, iro?,efiiKnc ^ 
kirLGT^firig koI fieXirric ab ßeradoreov, it is necessary to share heat and 
cold, etc., toith slaves, but tve are not to share the knowledge of war, etc, 'O ao^ 
rfig üßpeac afiotpog kariv, is fi^ from {does not partake of) insolence, 
'AiTTea'&ai r^f X^^-P^^- ^'•ß'^n 2;t^^fl* (borderson) tov arifiarog iie- 
yahi. 'Epyov kx^^f^e^ fiyl^ »slay hold of, opus aggrediamur. 'O arpanfydc 
rCw ai/TQV Tolc arpariuTaig avvaiperai kivSvvuv, the general shares m 
the same dangers as the soldiers. ^Eneid^ ^vvrov aufiarog irvxeCt ci*a- 
varov 6e fvxvc* neipo r^f fvxvc ä^ävarov fivrifivv KaraXinelv, since you 
have obtained a mortal body, but an immortal spirit, etc. Tvyxavetv, Xayxaveiv^ 
XpVf^äruv, eirvxtag. Tvxeiv reXevTrfC, bvofiaroc. *Opeyea^e or k<^ie(r&e 1%- 
hperfiu strive to obtain virtue, "Oßoioq ^v/^f» bpolog tov Htj^acarov, eir^i) IV- 
^eiov, irlriüLov Brißöv, k^TJc Tl^ovTuvog. 

Rem. 2. Verbs signifying to take hold of, govern the Gen. of the part takea 
hold of; e. g. hTuißovTO rfig C<^C fbv 'Opovr^v, they took Orontes by the girdle; 
Xeipbg k^lv Tivd, to take one by the hand. So any verb may govern the Gen., 
when its action refers not to the whole of an object, but to a part ; e. g. Iro^e 
VXjovv Koi Uiypijra, Xaßovrag tov ßapßapiKOv arparov, he commanded 
G.andP., having taken x part of the army; kdoKei, avyKaXiaavTag Ao;fayot)f koX 
TreArao-röf koI töv önXtrüv, they thought best, having called together the captains, 
targetiers, and A part of the heavy-armed, etc 

4. The active Gren., in the fourth place, denotes the place whercy 
and the time when^ an action occurs. The action or event belongs, 
as it were, to the place and time, and in a degree proceeds from 
them, and is produced by them. 

} l^d.] STlfXAX.'»-«SIIITlTB. 213 

The Qen. of place is nre in frwie. Adreits of place in the form of Ihe 
Qett. Sing, occur very freqventlj; e. g. ov, tifAere, airnot) (ro^rov), tftere, at 
tAfltf jaiace, oifdafMV, nowhere^ and others. 'Avi^i/ ^akXei tov iap^Ct lilutoms 
ffut forth in the spring, the spring being considered as the producer of the blos- 
soms. So i^epovf , in summer, ;|; et/uwvof , in winter, fifjiepag, by day, ri^g airf/g rifie- 
pag^ WKTog. The Gen. too denotes the time tnthin which anything is done ; e. g. 
Btun^ei}^ ah fiaxelrat. 6eKa ^fiepdv, within ten days. 

5. Finally, the active Gen. denotes the material of which any- 
thing is made. This G^. is used : 

(a) With verbs signifying to make or form from something; — 
with expressions denoting fulness and want ; — with verbs signifying 
to eat, to drinkf to taste, cause to taste, to enjoy ; — to smell, and to 
€ndt an odor of something. 

Here belong the verbs ttouIv^ nXfj^eiv, nXripovv^ TrifiirTiavaij yifieiv, (Tärreiv, 
eirropelVf airopelv^ irevecr&aif delcr&ai, 6slf ffnaviCeiv, xpVi ka^ieiv, <j>ayeiVf eiw- 
Xeltr^aCj niveiv, yeveiv, Kopeaaa^ai, äiro^veiv, trvelv, d^eiVf irpocßcMciv, etc.; 
the adjectives ^rXcof , irX^pijCf fiearo^j irXovawg, daavg, rrevT^g, Me^g, etc. j — ad- 
verbs, as aAf^. 

XuXkov iTGnoiijfieva karl rd. äyakiMTa, made of bronze. *1S^ a r p u fi i- 
V ij iarlv b6bg "Ki'&oVi the way is paved with stone. (Hence the attributive rela- 
tion, 'ExTTCj/ua ^vTt^Vya cup [made\ of wocld, Tpiane^a &pyvpiov. 'Zre^avoc 
^aKiv^av). *H vadf usaayfievii ifv äv&puTraVf the skip was loaded 
foithmen, Tä*Ava^€iyQpov ßtß^Miyifiei ao^üv Jioyi^VjOrefyÜofwisemf' 
ings. *£vrath9a i}üav Köfieu troXhü fiearal airov Kai olvoVf there mcm^ 
tnUoffes abounded with food and wine, 'ktropelv, xevea^aif airavi^eiv 
ruv xpVf^^'^^Vftobein loant of means, ^a'^ieiv Kpeüv, to eat offles/u 
'K.opiaaa^ai ^opßrigytoheßlled with food. TliveLV olvoVftodrinkoftvine. 
'AiroXaveiv frävrov t<jv aywd üv,to enjoy aägood things. Teietr^at 
T i ft ^ Ct to taste honor. T eife iv riväri ft ^g, to cause one totaste honor. 'O^eiv 
t o Vf to srneü violets, cvpov irveiVftoemitthesmdlofmyrrh. HpogßäTiXeiv 
/lipov. IlveTv Tpäyov. 'O^eiv Kpofivuv. *Qf t^Sv fioi irpoci" 
nvevae ;^o£pe{Ci)i; KpeöVf so suxet was the smeU ofswine^s ßesh to me. A o- 
oi>g dlv 6 pov, covered with trees; ^tfpiuv irXrf pr]c, fuR of animals. 

Rbx. 3. Verbs of eating and drinking^ govern the Ace., (a) when the substance 
It repr^ented as consumed wholly or in a great measure ; (b) when the sab- 
#tMB«e is to be indieated a^ the common means of nutriment, which each one 
telces} e. g. VLiva rdv oivov, ttoAi^v olvovy I drink the wins, muck wine, Henoe 
iriveiv olvov is said of one whose usual drink is wine, but nivetv olvov is to 
take'a drink of wine, to drink some of the wine. Hence the Gen. with verbs of 
eating and drinking has a partitive sense, like the English expressions, to eat or 
drink of something, 'XtroXavsLv rivog ri, signifies to receive good or evil 
from some one. 

Rem. 4. Aet, as impersonal, may take the Dat of the person, with the Gen. 
of the tfakg or perfon needed ; e. g. £/ fihf ifuv rivoc d^Xov del, if you need any- 
Mtgdse, Ael and ;(pi7 In the senw of fieo6M^<gnMe0^ are ^^»Uowed either 

214 SYNTAX. — GENITIVE. [§ 158. 

Ii)f. alone, or by the Aee. of tlie person wtth the Inf. ; e. g. «Ire ixp^) ^f ravra 
notelv, you must do this, del abo, though more rarel?, takes the Dat of the per- 
son with the Inf. ; e. g. el aoi deoi, SiSätTKeiv^ if it were necesaary for thee to teach. 

(b) With verbs of sensation and perception ; e. g. axoveif , axi^oa- 

ad'cu, Ttvvd'dvecd'ai, aiaß^dvso^tUy oaq^faivead'cuj cvvurcu, to tander^ 

stand; and with verbs of reminding^ remembering and forgeUing; 

e. g. fjUfAi^ffxeiv, fjtvi^fjiovevetp, fiifii^ad^aiy imXav&dvec-d'ai, and the 

corresponding adverbs, e. g. Xdd'Qa, nqyq^ou 

Ka2 Ku^ov ovviijfn, koI oi i^ovovvrhg ukovu, I understand the 
dumb mariy and hear him although he does not speak, 'üq u>o<ftpoyTo Tuxurra 
TiJv KafiriXav ol Introi^ as soon as the horses smdt the camels. Ovk uKpou- 
fiivoi roi ^dovToCi not hearing the singer. 'Ajcoveiv öüctf^f to hear a sua; 
alo'däveo^ai Kpavyfj^^ '^opvßovy kirißovXifCf to perceive a cnf^i»- 
mtift, plot. These verbs often govern the Ace. of the thing ; often also they gov- 
ern the Ace. of the thing in addition to the Gen. of the person ; e. g. 'O 'kpfd- 
vioCi wf tjKOve Tov äyytXov rd tzapb, tov KvpoVf i^eirXuyijf but (xs soon as 
the Armenian heard from the messenger the communication of Cyrus — . Ol uyad^ol 
mU iiirovTiiv TÜV ^iXov fiifivtfVTaif the good remember eoen absent 
friends. M^ iiriXav^avov röv eifepyeaidvj donot forget acts of kind- 
ness. Aa "^ pa TÜV OT par ffyüVf without the knowkdge of the soldiers. 

(c) With expressions of being acqucdnted and unacquainted witk, 
of experience and inexperience^ of knowledge and ignorance^ of 
making trial of something, and with those of ahiUtyj dexterity wA 
skiU in anything. 

Here belong the words ifiireipog, ärreipoct kniOT^fiuVy kiriorufievoCy avevurr^ 
/utVf avyyvcjfiuVf äSaff^y uTraidevroCt ISiunjc, ireipaa^cUf aireipui and fcvüf ItjceiVf 
and adjectives in -iKog (derived from transitive verbs) which express the idea of 

n^fiireipoc or kiriarrifiov elfd r^g rix^VCt I am acquainted witk tie 
art. *AiraidevT0c äper^c» fiovoiK^Ci ignorant of virtue, music ; ovy- 
yvufiav T&v äv^poirivuv irpayfiaruVf pardoning {not knowing) hit- 
man errors. *kireipug l;|^eiv riiv vofiCtVytobe unacquainted withy ignorwU 
of the laws ; äironetpätr^ai yvufirfCi to venture, to try an opinion. Hei- 
pufievog TOV ßä'&ovc, trying {making trial of) the depth; neipu/ievoi 
rairifc t^c ra^eQ^, making trial of this arrangement Kat rrapavKevsh 
eriKÖv Tö\f elg rdv iroXsftov rhv üTpartfydv elvai xp^ *<x^ nopurrtm^v 
T&v iwtrifSeiQv rolg arpartoTaic, it is necessary for the general to he eapeUs 
of providing what pertains to the war, and offwmishing what is necessary/or tke mi- 
diers. AidaoKaXiKÖc t^c oo^iac, skilled in teaching philosophy. 

(d) Finally, with verbs signifying to see, to observe, to jud^e^ to 
examine something, some action, external indication or single cir- 
Qumstance in one {tivog), particularly with verbs signifying to ad- 
mire, to praise and hUxme. — The person in whom one sees» etc 
•omething, is put in the Gen., and that whieh is seen, etc^ in the 

S'lM.] »TSTTAZ. — eSNITITS. 215 • 

Ao&, or in an aceessaiy elanse, or In the Gren. of the Part wMdi 
then agrees with the person. 

Such Terbs are 6p^v, ^eutr&ai, CKOirelVj iirovoelVy iwoelVf yiyvdoKeLV, Iniff- 
Twr^tUf eldivat, kv&vfieXir&aij irvvi^ävea^cu, al(rSäve<r&ai, /lav^uveiVf KpivetVf 
k^era^eiv^ 'keytiv, ÖT/XovVf äyatr&ai, •^avfia^eiv, incuveiv, fiifi^etr^at, il^eyeiv. 

Tlf>uTov fiev avTuv kaKoweL, he first considered m respect to them, '^OT^jyao* 
TWfjtov ßiWf thou hast observed in my way ofUfe. 'Eyvo) kfuiv froiovvTo^f he per- 
caved that I was doituf, Td ßpadi) koI fX£2,XoVt b fiefK^ovrai fialiara tjjjlöv 
(which is the chief complaint they make against us), ptj alGxvvi:c-&e. E/ uyaaai 
rov TTflrpdf, 6oa veirpaxe, if you admire my father for what he has done, 'Eyd) 
koItovto kiraivu *kyri a Li.äov, I praise Agesüaus for this also, Topyiov 
fiaXtara ravra ay a p. a l, I admire these things especially in Gcrgias. 'O i^av- 
pa^o rov kraipoVf rode iariv, what I admire in a companion is this. JloXXä 
*Opffpov kiraivovpev, we praise many thirds in ffomer, 

Rbm. 5. When the above words refer merely to a thing which one admires, 
blames or loves, thej govern the Ace, sometimes also the Ace. of the person 
alone ; e. g.. iircuvelVf iftkyeiv, p£p^€<r&ai riva ; so also, uyaa^aif '&avpa^ei,v 
Ttva, to look with wonder at one^ either at the person Mmseffj or the whole nature of the 

b. The Qenitive as the expression of Cause. 

6. The second division of the causal Gen. includes the Gen. which 
expresses cause ; i. e. the Gren. denotes the object which calls forth 
and occasions the action of the subject This Gen. stands : 

I. With many verbs which denote a state or affection of the mind| 
viz. (a) with verbs signifying to desire, to long for ; — (b) to care for ^ 
to he concerned for ; — (c) to be pained, to be grieved, to pitg; — (d) 
to be angry and indignant ; — (e) with (pd^ovslv, to envy (tin tivog, 
Dat of person and Gen. of thing);— (f) to admire, praise and 
Name (re^a nvog, Ace. of person and Gren. of thing). 

Such verbs are, (a) ivv&vpelv, kpqv, kpurutC^ kxeiv or diOKeia^cu., 6ii^^^ 
ireiv^v; — (b) hnipekeUr&tUf <f>povTi^etVf_K^e(r^aif irepiopaa&cu, irpoop^v, imepo- 
pfVf TcpoatOBiVy piXeif psrofuket, äpe^lv, dXiyupeiv, ^eiSea^ai ; — (c) 6\o^pe- 
0^aii irev^iKög ix^cv^ i2.eetv and oUreipeiv (with Ace. of person and Gen. of 
Ibing) ^— (d) öpyi^etr^at (with Dat of person), ;caXcir«f <}>epeiv ; — (f ) ^avpaCeiv, 
iKfoa^cij ^f^Aow, iviaifiovi(eiv^ iir<uveivj pAp^s<r&(u (all with Aoc. of person and 
Gen. of thiag). 

Oirde^C vorov kiri'^vpeZf dAAd xp^^'f'ov irorov, koI oif atrov, äXXä 
;^pi7<rTov airov frai^ref yap apa rijv äya'&üv kiri^vpoi}aiv,no one 
desires drink^ but wholesome drink, etc; for aü desire u^uxt is good Td uvoftotov 
itvopoiciv kiri'&vpel k(Ü kp^f desires and loves the unlike. Tleivyv rüv 
tflraVi TÜV iroT&Vf rov iiraivoVf to long for food^ drink, praise, 01 v6- 
poiTOV KOivov aya^ov kirtpiXovTaif^ laws care for, have a regard fir 
tUm ptdHit good, Olyoveic vev^iKus elxor rov naiöd^ re^vffKoroSf 

ike patenta grieued for their dead chUd, Hoatiö^ KincXtavoc iice;^QAwrOt 
Nqitttne had been angry with the Cydops, Ol kükoI ^"^ovovat rolg ayai&olc 
rijc oo^iaQj the evil envy the good on account of their vnadom. 'kyafiai ae 
T^C uvdpeia^y I admire you on account of your bravery. Qavfta^ofiev rbv 
T^OKparrj rijg aoipiac, we admire Socrates for his wisdom. 7,ri7^ü ae rov 
irXovToVf I admire you fir your riches, l^vdaifiovi^n ae ruv aya^üVf 
I consider you happy on account of your blessings. Alva oe r^f irpo'&vfiias, 
I praise you for your readiness. 

Rem. 6. The verbs ayan^Vy ^tXetVj arepyeiv, tohve, and iro-^elv^ 
to long for^ do not govern the Gen., but the Ace. — M e X c t, as impersonal, takes 
the Dat. of the person caring, and the Gen. of the person or thing cared for; 
e. g. MeAcf ftoi rivog, 1 care for some one. If the thing cared for is expressed by 
a neuter pronoun, it may stand in the Nom. as the subject of the verb, which 
then becomes personal ; e. g. Tavra -&€<}> peXtfüet, God will take care of these things. 
— The verbs ^avfia^etv and ayaa^^at have the following constructions : 
(a) the Ace. of the person or the Ace. of the thing alone^ when the wonder or 
admiration extends to the whole person or thing, or to the whole natnre of a 
person or thing ; e. g. ^avpa^u {ayafuu) rbv orparriyev — ^avpa^o H^ aofiav ; 
—-(b) the Gen. of the person and the Ace. of the thing, when- we admire some 
action, external manifestation, or single circumstance in a person ; e. g. rovro 
^avfiuCa oov -— '^avpa^o {äyofiai) ffov, diori oiK äpyvpiov xal xp^<ftov vpoeiXov 
difoavpoiic KiKT^ü^iu imTlXov ff oo^iM^. Ccnnp« 5, (d) ; — (c) the Aoe. of the per- 
Bßtk and the Gen. of the thing, when we admire a person on account of some 
quality; e. g. -^avpa^u {äyafiai) rbv J^aKparri rrfc ooijiiac. Comp. 6, 1. Instead 
of the Gen. of the thing, a preposition can be used here, commonly kiri with the 
Dat; e. g. ^avfia^cj rbv ^cjKpartj iirl rf oo^i^. — It virill be seen that the relation 
of t^e Gen. with verbs of praising, admiring and the like, is expressed by^ the 
pf«positionii^r, on account tf. 

II. With verbs which signify to requite^ to rwenge^ to ptmithf to 
accuse and condemn. The Gen. represents the guilt or crime as 
the cause of the requital, revenge, etc 

Here belong the verbs rtfiupelff&ai, rivea^aiy alriäo&aiy krraiTiätr&ai, diu- 
KttVf eli'ayeiVj ifrrayeiVf ypa^ea^aiy npocKoXeia^ai, öiKa^eiv, Kplvetv^ eUpelv, lo 
omwict (all with Ace. of person and Gen. of thing), iire^isvat, iyKaXeiVt hrune^ 
irreo^ai (all with Dat. of person and Gen. of thing), ^dryeiv, to be aoaaedf 6X&* 
WK, to be comncted. 

'OSvoaeic kriaaro Toi>g pviiar^pa^ r^c i'irepßaffiact Ulyssee pmtiakmt 
the suitors for their wickedness. Tiftapetu^ai riva ^ovov^ to punish onA, or 
taHoe vengeance upon one for murder. 'Eirairiäa^ai riva (ftovov, toaecimevim 
of murder. *Ewi<TKffTrTev&(u rivi r&v '^evdofiaprvpiS^v, to proaecutecm 
ßjfr false witness. HtJiTiä&rrv ol kx^pol iSio^av TVpavvidoc t^c ^ Xe^ 
ßuvrfWfi, prosecuted (pursued judicially) AHltiades for his tyranny in 
Tpä<^eo^ai riva irapavofiuiVj to indict or accuse one for unconstitutional 
^evyeiv {to be accused) K^ornj^y ^vov, äoeßeiac. Kptvea^ai {tabs 
Aaeßeiac. AiKuCovaiv oi TLipocu koX iyKX^ftaroc, • • • • äx^tpiffriai^ 
the Persiams coeidemm as a crimey ingratitude^ etc. 'A AcJvat k /loTr^f, to be com- 

1 158.] »TirrAX.^^i5KiTivE. tl7 

vided <^thefL Also the punishment of the gnilt is pot in the Gen., hot this Gen. 
18 to be considered as the Gen. of price, § 158, 7. {y) ; e. g. t^avarov, Kpivetv^ 
Kpive<r&at, to condemn, to be condemned, to death. 

Rem. 7. "^yKoXelv besides the above, has the following constructions : (a) tht 
Dat. of person and Ace of thing, to charge something upon some one i — (b) the Dat. 
of person followed by a clause with otl or by the Inf. ; — (c) the Dat. of person 
alone, ft» cuxuee (§ 161, 2. c) ; — (d) the Ace. of thing alone, to bring cu a chargti 
KarriyopelVy to accuse, is construed, (a) with Gen. of person, sonaeümes with 
Kara and Gen. ;— (b) with Gen. of person and Ace. of thing, to lay_ something to 
cn^s charge ; — (c) with Gen. both of person and of thing, sometimes with irepi 
and Gen. of thing ; — (d) with Ace of tiling alone. — Tifi^Vy rifiwrdai, to fine mr 
pwdsh one with^ take the Dat of person with Gen. of punishment ; e. g. Tift^ 
rivi deKa raXavruiv, rov ^avärov, to fine one ten talents, sentence one to death, 

Rbm. 8. The causal Gen. is used with the adverbs ei, xaXug, fjierpioc 
and some others, connected with the verbs ^;t^^^*7'c^^V) and sometimes elvatp 
to denote the object by which a particular condition is caused j e. g. e^ roi^ 
ßiov ^Keiv, to be vxü off as to the means of living; o^tu rpoirov ^;fe<f, 
you are thus m respect to circumstances = you are in such circumstances; dg ra^ 
Xovg Skootoc elx^v, as quick as each one could. 

tu The Genitive denoting certain Mnfnal Relation r. 

7. The third division of the causal Gen., includes the Gen. bj 
"which certain mutual relations are expressed. In these mutual re- 
lations, one idea (e. g. that of superioritj or inferiority) necessarilj 
supposes the other, and thus in a measure calls it forth and occa*^ 
sions it. Hence the Gen. is used : 

(a) With expressions of ruling^ preeminence^ excelling, prami" 
nence, and the contrarj, viz. those denoting euhfectian, yidding iOf 
and infenoTtiy* 

Here belong the verbs äpxeiv, Kparelv, Searro^etv, rvpawelv, rvpaweveiv^ 
CTparijyeiv, knirpoireveiv, kTriararelv, ßaaiXeveiv, ifyefioveveiv, ^yeia^at, wpoi* 
Xeiv, wepieivai, vepiyiyvea^ai, npocrareiv, imepßäXXeiv, ifirep^ipetv, dia^eWf, 
vpareveiv, irpcaßevetv, irpOKpiveiv, nportft^v, ir^oveKTelv, i^rrooi^ai, iarepeiVf, 
'i^eiv, Xeiirea^ai, avoXeiireaT^ai, kXarrovtr&ai, fieiova^cu, fuioveKreiv, iforepont 
elvaij ffTTova elvoA ; the adjectives uKparric, iyKpar^g. 

^O'hjbyog Tov ipyov iKparei, thereport exceeded the thing itsdfi Täftox^ 
pä äv^ooTTia iroffCw, olfiai^ töv ifri^vfiiüv aKpar^ kariv, depraned mm 
are subject to {not able to control) aä their passions. lioX^^tc Xvfr^ inepßäXXei 
rd aSiKelv rov ädiKelad^at, the doing an, injury ofun exceeds in grief the being 
injured. 01 novtjpol i^TTÖvrai ruv kiri^vfiiüv, uncked men are shoes t» 
{injerior to) their passions. 

Rem. 9. 'Hye/ioveveiv and ^eia^ai in the sense of to go before, with 66cv ex- 
pressed or understood, to show the waifi govern the Dat ; Kpareiv in the sense of 
f0 conquer, regularly governs the Ace., but in the sense of to rule, the Gen. 


tit gTVTAX.-— «BKXTITB« [§ 1^8. 

(ß) With the oomparatire and with adjectives in the positive, 
which have the force of the comparative, e. g. numerals in -amog 
and -nXovgy etc, the object by which the comparison is made, is pat 
in the Gen. 

'Ovlbc fJtei^ov kaTlToi> k a r p 6 c, greater if tan his father. Xpvob^ Kpeirmp 
fivpiov Xoyuv ßporoli;, goid is better for men than a myriad of words. Td 
*EXXijviKbv oTparevfia (ffaiverai iroXTiarrXaaiov Jtaea^ai rov ijfierepov^ 
many Hmes larger than ours. Oidevhq öevrepoc, iarepogy inferiortonoonA 
T(JV apKOVVTOv irepLTTä Kr^acur&ait to acquire mare than enou^ 

(f) With verbs signifying to buy and sell, exchange and barter^ 
and with expressions of valuing (dl^iovv, a^iog), of being worthy or 
unworthy ; and generally, the price of a thing stands in the Gen. 

Sach verbs are tivela^ai,, ayopa^eiv, nptcur&aif KTä(F&<Uy TrapaXaßßäveiv, irw- 
XeiP, airo-y 7r€pidiSo<r&<u, dtdovtu, ok'kaTTtiVy -ea^aif diafieiße<r^ai, Xifeiv^ fH^v^ 
TLftacrBcUy izoiei<T&aA. 

01 QpüKec uvoivrai räc ywalKocirapä tCw yoveuv xptlftarav /ieyaXup^ 
btqf their wives from their parents at a great price. Tdv irovuv vuXovaiv ^fuv 
wavra r&yad' ol i^eoi, the gods seU aU good things to us for toils. 01 &ya&ol oMevdc 
äv KspSovc T7^ rye f^orpiSoc iXev^epiav äv r a'KX a ^aiv Tooths good wetidd 
€3f(^cmgethefinedomoftJieir country for no gain, 'larpdt ^oXX&v uXXuvävra^ 
^loc ioTiv, a physician is worth as much as many others, "^yuye oiih^ uvtaurepop 
vofu^u Tuv kv uv&pCiTroig elvai rov t£)v laov rov re koköv koI aya&bv a ^ t o v» 
e^aif I think there is nothing more unequal among men than that the evü and the good 
dwtdd be honored equally. 'A.^ioc Tifi^^y worthy of honor. Hooov dtdav» 
«e«; frhn-e ft VÜV, for how much does he teach f For ßoeamasf apyv^imw^ 
uia'^ov kpya^ea&cUf to work for money ^ for hire. 

LXXXIII. JExerciset on §§ 157, 158. 

The soiil must be restrained from evil desires. It is monrnfbl and grievou 
to be deprived of the good- will of mei\. The soul, if {kav, w. subj.) it depart 
from the body polluted and impure, is not immediately with God. As the body, 
bereft of the sonl, sinks away ( = falls), so also a state, bereft of laws, will be 
dissolved. He who (^rrir) does not consider the highest good ( = the best), 
bat in {^k) every way seeks to do that which is ( =s the) most agreeable, how 
can (^ 153, 2. c) (he) differ from the irrational bmtes ? The battle has deliver- 
ed us from shameful slaver}'. We esteem the old man happy, because he is 
free from passions. Epaminondas sprang ( » was) from an obscure father. 
From Telamon sprang {yiyveai^ai) Ajax and Teucer, from Peleus, Achilles. 
It is the business of the general to command, but the duty of the soldiers, to 
obey. Stags were sacred to Artemis. Of all friends, the first and truest is a 
brother. Socrates generously proflFered what was his to all. The hired labor- 
ers, who i^grtc) for the sake of a subsistence performed slave-labors and parti- 
cipated in no office, were the poorest of the Athenians. A good king allows the 
cititeiis to enjoy ( » participate in) a juät freedom of speech and action. The 
word takes hold upon the spirit Hold fiist, young men, to instruction, and di^ 

1 158.] 9INTAX. — OBürrivB. 219 

»et yourselves to {frpoct to. aec) that wbich is { « the) more excelleiit {plur,). 
The virtues of good men obtain honor and fiime even with enemies. The jonng 
{eomp.) must {xp^i v;, eux. and iirf.) aspire after the good (piur.) and abstain 
fixmi evil actions. The pains of the sick are more violent at night than by day. 
In winter, men desire summer, but in summer, winter. Hercules cleared («« 
tamed out) Lybia, which was {peat,) full of wild beasts. The good lack not 
praise. Hiose ( « the) natures, that seem {part.) to be the best, most need ed- 
ucation. The earth is full of injustice. Virtue leads us (in) a rugged and 
toUsoBte ( » full of sweat) path. Aetna is filled ^(/e/^ei) with valuable firs and 
pines. We contrive much, whereby (cJt' wv) to ( « we may) enjoy the good 
{pUiar.) and avert the evil. Milo, the Crotonian, ate twenty minae of flesh {plvrJ) 
and as much bread (jD^un), and {de) drank three flagons of wine. Men derive 
many advantages from sheep, horses, cows and the other animals. It is writ- 
ten in the laws, that both the plaintiff and the defendant should be heard alike 
( = to hear alike both, etc.). It is fair and right, to be mindful of the good {plwr,) 
rather than of the evil. It is pleasant to the unhappy to forget, even for a short 
time, present evils. Since {part.) thou art young, be willing to hear thine (==: 
the^ elders. He who is unacquainted with the sciences, though he sees, sees 
not ( 3B the unacquainted — seeing, sees not). Hermes had great experience 
in the medical sdenoe. It is better to die (oor.) than to exercise ( « make trial 
of) violence. Socrates considered with respect to philosophers, — ^whether (izo' 
repa) they devoted ( ==: turned) themselves to {kirif w. ace.) reflection {rb ^pov- 
ri^eiVf w. gen.) upon the celestiid, from the opinion {part, aor.) that they already 
BuiBciently understood {inf. preß.) the human {plur.)^ or (whether they) supposed 
tiuit they did what was befitting in neglecting {aar.) the human and ( ^ but) 
contemplating the «Svine. This we admire in Socrates, that even while banteiv 
ing, he could instruct the young men, who {part.) associated with him. Socmtes 
exhorted young men to aspire after the fairest and choicest virtue, by {dat.) 
which both states and households are wisely ( » well) directed. Pluto, who 
{part.) loved {aor.) Proserpine, stole her away secretly with the cooperation of 
Jupiter. That is a poor president, who (^rrtc) cares for the present time, but 
is not {fi?)) also provident for the future. Do not neglect even absent friends. 
Be sparing of time. The good (man) is more concerned for the common weal^ 
than for his (own) fame. Many care more for the acquisition of money than 
for that of friends. The Athenian state (of the A.) often repented {aor.) of sen- 
tences passed ( = which happened, aor. part.) in (^era, w. gen.) anger and with- 
out ( Ä not [f£^] with) examination. I pity thee for thy mournful iate. Envy 
{aor,) me not the memorial. Demosthenes we admire for his ( » the) 
greatness of nature and self-command in action ( «= practice), and for his dig)* 
nity ( = gravity), promptitude, boldness of speech and firmness. Anax»* 
goras is said to have been condemned {aor.) for impiety, because he called the 
sun a red-hot mass. Melitus accused {aor.) Soci'ates of impiety. Themistocles 
was accused, in his absence {airodTjfjicJv)^ of treason and condemned to death. 
All (things) everywhere are subject to the gods, and the gods rule alike. over 
all. Apollo led the nine Muses, whence he was also called the Muse-leader. 
Why are the educated prominent above the uneducated ? Cadmus of Sidon 
( = the Sidonian) reigned {aor.) over Thebes, but over the whole of Pelopoime- 

STirTAX.-^ACCüaATiTE. [§ 159» 

sm reigned Pdops, the (son) of Tantalns. Many are slaves {r/rrovec) to money. 
Oovem appetite, sleep and anger. The bravery of the Greeks trinniphed over 
(irepiyiyvead^at, aor.) the power of the king of the Persians. Nothing is more 
valuable to men, than the cultivation of the mind. No teacher of hunger, thirst 
and cold is better than necessity. Thou canst (^ 153, 8. c) not purchase virtae 
•ad nobleness of mind for money. Dipbridas took Tigranes vfUh his wife, and 
released them for a laig<e sum ( » much) of money. The Chaldaeans enlisted 
fo pay, because they were very warlike and pow. They only who (§ 148, 6) 
fkractise virtue, are worthy of honor. The benefactors of men are deemed 
(oor.) worthy of immortal honors. 

§159. n. Aeeusative. 

1. The Accusative Case expresses the relation whither, and de- 
notes, (a) in a local relation, the limit or paint to which the action 
of the verb is directed ; in prose, however, a pregosition is reguhurlj 
used here ; e. g. elg actv il'&elp ; — (b) in the causal relation, it de- 
notes the effect, conseqitence, result, of the action of the verb, as well 
as the ohfect on which the action is performed. In this latter rela- 
tion, the object in the Ace. receives the action performed bj the 
subject, ]. e. is ia a passive or suffering condition ; whereas, with 
the Gen., the svhject is represented as receiving the action. Comp. 
$ 158, a. et seq. The Ace also differs from the Dat., in being the 
immediate or direct object of the verb, while the Dat. is the remote 
or indirect object. Comp. § 161, 2. 

(a) Accusative denoting Effect. 

2. The Accusative of effect is used as in other languages ; e. g. 
f^qm iniazoh^p (iniatohqv being the effect of the action of the 
verb). In respect to the Greek, it is to be observed, that a verb 
either transitive or intransitive very frequently governs the Ace of 
a substantive, which is either from the same stem as the verb, or 
has a kindred signification. An attributive adjective or pronoun 
^Bimonlj bdiongs to the Ace. This is commonly called tihe Ace. 
«f a kindred or cognate signification. 

*^nifteXovvTaL itaaav iiri/neXeiav^ they take care wäh aÜ däigeML 
Aiofiai ifiCnf öiKaiav öirjaiVy I cuk of you a just requett. So koMc npa^eit 
wparretVy — kpya^etr^ai ifyyov KaXoVy — upx^tv äpxnVy — öovTieiav dovXeveiv, — iro- 
Xeftov noXefieiv, — voaov voaelv. 'OpKovc dfivvvcu, to swear oaths ; aa^evetv v6- 
0ovt to he sick of a disease ; l^yv ßiov, to Uve a life. 

(b) Accusative of the Object on which the action is 
performed, i. e. the suffering Object. 

3. Onlj those verbs will be mentioned here, which, in Latin, 
teke some other Case than the Ace., or are constructed with prepo- 
sitions. They are : 

(1) The verbs ciq)sXeTPy opivdvou, oviv(M&ai (kvaireXsiv, however, 
with Dat), to be useful; ßXdfiTHP, ddinetv, vßgi^eiv, Xviialvea&cu, 
X&^ßouj&cu; evaeßsivy daeßeip; h^xav, ipeÖQeveiw, imidiari; tifAUh' 
^ia&M; -O-eQcaisveiVt do^ipoQUP, inttgoneveiPy to be a guardian; 
nokoMSvuPy ^(omveiv, ^ain^Hv^ ngogHwup; nei^eip; dfuißec&cUf 
respondere and remunerari; qtvXajjea^aij a/lo^Mr^ot; fU(mff^a$9 

&epäneve Toi>c a^avarov^f served gods, *khitßtadti^ iirgi^e rh 
If %^-&Q^i At persuaded the mviltitude. XlXeiarapxov, töv Aeiividov, Hvra ßa- 
ciXea Kot viov in, iireTpoirevev 6 UavaaviaCy PcnucaUcu was the guardian ^ 
P/utorcAus, etc M^ KoXaKeve roiic ^i^ovc, do not JkUter friends. 'O^c- 
Aet TO He ^tAovCy Kol ftff ßXäiTTe Toi>g kx^pov^, osnA friends^ and do 
not injure enemiee. M^ äSiicet rot)f ^tXovc- Mj) tßpi^e ro^c ^a?- 
4ag. HoXKaiu^ xal doifXoi Tifti^po^vrai roi)f äSiicovf 6einr6raf, 
^kneven domes lake vengeance on (Attr tdi/W maäen. *Afieißea^ai rtva 
f/,v^oigy^yoic, to answer one; ufieißea^ai x^P^^t eiepyeaiav ov aftsU 
ßeo'&ai Tiva X^^'^*'i to return a/avar to one, 

(2) Verbs which signify to do good or evil to any one^ by word 
or deed. Such are eveoyBteiP^ xaxavgyeip, xcutonoutp, eiloyup, x«- 
uoJioyBiPj sVf xaXoog, xaxmg Xeyeip, sIsuIp, daayoQeveip. 

"Ai^pwTrc, ft^ dpa Tot)f re'&vtfKOTac «a«6>f, do not injure the dead. 
Wf KaKoipyei Toi>c ^e^ovf, do not harm your friends. Eitepyir et 
T^v rear pi 9 a^ do good to your country. E^ iroiei roi)f ^iXov^, confir 
favors on your friends. Ei Xeye rdv ei Xeyovra, Kot ei iroiei rbv eÜ 
iroiovvTOy speak well of him who speaks wdl^ and do well to him who does wdL 
Instead of the adverbs ei and «caxäf with iroieiv, etc., the Greek also uses the 
eonrespcmding adjectives : «caXd, «caxd woieiv, Xkyeiv rivS^iodooreay 
good or HI to one. See under doable Accusative (§ 160, 2). 

(3) Verbs of peneveTing, awaiting^ waiting foTy and tiie oon- 
trary; e. g. fitpetp, d^a^eip; qmyup^ dnodidgiaxetiPy dganet^vup, 

M^ ^evye rdv Kivdvvov, do not ßee from danger, Xp^ •&a/ifielv ^6- 
yaroVf it is necessary to meet death bnwdy = not to fear death, *0 doOXoc i&ir^ 
Spa rbv deanoTrfv^ the dove ran away from his master. 01 rüv irpay/tarttv 
KOipol oi fi i V V a I r^v f^fierepav ßpadvT^rafthefavorahleopportttniiiei 
far action do not uxut for our dothfulness, 

(4) Verbs <^ eoncecding and being concealed, viz. Xor^oMi«^, 
HQwnBip {cdare), xQwnead'ai; — also the verbs tfO^dpetp {to 


BTNTAX. — ACCVftAJTf^ [§ 199. 

tieipate)y it e i ^r < i r, iaiXaineiv, to fail ; — verbs of swearing and 
the like. With verbs of swearing, the object sworn bj is put in the 
Ace. Hence also adverbs of swearing are followed bj the Ace ; 
«. g. |«a, ov na^ vou fid, vri, 

Qto^g (Are Xav&dvei^Vy ovTe ßiäacur^ai ßwarbv, it is noi poea&le to bt 
'CPnoealedfiom, to eacape.the notice of the gods, etc. Oi iroXifuoi i^^tjaav rot)( 
'A'&ijvaiovg tu^iKOfievoi elg rd aarvy anticipated the Athemans in amnng into the 
<eity, i. e. reached the city before them. 'EvriXeiirei fie 6 xP^^y ^ Vf^pf^ ^ 
JiMe, ike day fiuU me. 'Oftvvfii iravrac ro^c ^eovc, I swear by all the gods. 
"Sal fiä Aia,ye», by Jupiter! Md roi^ ^eovs* by the gods, 

• (5) Very many verbs denoting a feeling or an affecUon of ik$ 
mind; e.g.q>oßet(j^ai,deuycu; cUaxvpea&m, cuHbuJ'&ou; ax9-eff^(u; 
^jj^e^oiVecf ; ixnl^rtea'd'cut xatanl^zeod'üu ; olxteiQeif, iXu», 
iXwj^Qsa&Mf etc 

Xp^ aldelo'&ai roOf ^eovCt it is necessary to reverence the gods, klv» 
xifvofiai rbv i^eov, lam a^iamed before the god. *02,op{>pov Toi>( vi- 
vffTaCi pity the poor. 

(6) Wit3i vei'bs of motion, the ipaoe or wa^ is pat in the Acc^ 
^1686 being the objects on which the action of the verb is perform- 
ed ; so also the time daring which an action takes place, in answer 
to the question, Bow long f so too measure and weight, in answer to 
ihe question, ffow much f 

BaiveiVf irep^Vj (pireiVf iropevea^ai ödoVt to go a wayy Uke üqm 
rMqnetfutm. Xpovov, rbv xpovov, ahngiimej v^kto, ^pepav, dwT' 
wg the nkßUy day. *H 'Lifßapig ffKftaJ^e rovrov rbv xpovev fioXurra, urn 
ßaurisking during this time. 'Jaxvaav ri koI Off ßaioi rot)f reXevraiovf 
TOVTOval xpovovc furä r^ kv AevxTpoic ftaxnvt during these last times. 
MiXriadifi ävenXei Häpov iroXiopK^a^ H ^^ elxoatv if flip ag^ having besieged P. 
tsoen^f'six days. Td BeißvXunfiov räXavrov oifvarai Eißotda^ ißöofi^Kov- 
TO fiväci^ Babylonian talent is worth. {wei^ as much as^ amounts to) moesiy 
Euboean ndnae. So dvvafiaiy signifying to be worthy regularly takes the Aoc. 

(7) Finally, the Ace. is used with intransitive or passive verbs 
and intransitive adjectives of all kinds, to explain them more fuUj. 
Here, also, the Ace. represents the object tzs aeted upon or suffering, 
«ince it denotes the object to which the intransitive action of the 
^esfo or adjective refers or is directed. This is the Ace of more 
definite limitation, or, as it is often called, the Ace. of synecdoche. 

Käfiveiv Toi>c 6<^i^a?ifiovCt to be pained in or in respect to the eyes ; rä( 
^pivac iyiaiveiVftobesoundinmind; akytlv ro^^ nooaci rä adfiarOy 
to have pain in the Jeet, bo<bf, Auu^ipei ywjf ävSpög rifv t^vaiVy woman differt 
in'{in respect to) hernaturefiom man. *0 äv^pamcrbv öuktvXov aXyei^tk 
has a pain in his finger (is pained in respect to). 'Aya&dc rix^V v fi^^ 

dktingmihed ui «miearf. Auf&apfiivof r^v ifvx^v^ camgoi in qniriL ^«tvnt 
itdl yvbififiv Uavo^, koI rä fcokefiia uhctf^ vv* Phones uxu con^petent M 
€ovnady€md brave in hatüe. 'Avkani ^epav^ac rd aüfia oIk a^c koI j-^v 
fffvxiiv oijK ayieweX avipil koiKog. The English commonly uses prepositions 
to express the force of this Ace., viz. in, in respect to, of; or when it stands with 
an adjective, the English sometimes changes the Aoc of the thing into a perso» 
nal sabstantive and makes the adjectire agree with it ; e. g. Aya^^dc rk^yrfVy a 
good artist, or the prepositions of or with are placed before the substantive denot- 
ing the thing, and the attributive adjective is made to agree wiüi that substan- 
tire ; e. g. veaviac KaXdc f^ "^X^i ^ youth of or with a lovdy spirk. 

Rbva^ik. In this way many adverbial expressions are to be explained, as, 
tifioc, ^ifoc, fteye^og, ßa&oc, fivi^y vX^oc, äpi^/Mv, yevo^, Hvofta, fiepoc ; also 
tl, ToaoifToVf fUya, Trav, iravrOf rd ^MinoVf etc ; e. g. KXeavdpo^ yevoc h^ 4^* 
yake^i an* 'ApKOÖia^j a Phigtdvm by descent. Merd ravra a^iKovro knl rbv 
Zäßarov irorafihv to eipog reTTupuv nXe^pov, four hundred feet in width, 

LXXXIV. Exercises on § 159. 

He who is enslaved (part.) to pleasures, submits to (= serves) the most shame- 
Ail servitude. The laws not oifly punish the wrong-doers,' but also benefit the 
virtaous. If thou wishest to be beloved by fiieudSt benefit (thy) IHends ,* if tfaoa 
desirest to be honored by a state, be useful to and benefit the state. PUches of- 
ten injure botli the body (plvr.) and the mind (plur.). He who (i 148, 6) flatten 
friends, does them much (noTCka) wrong. .Revenge not thyself upon thine ene- 
mies. Those who (part.) injure a benefactor, are punished by God. We wor- 
ship no man as lord, but the gods. Sedentary trades injure the body (plur.) and 
«nfeeble the mind (plwr.). The hunter lays snares for the hares. Endeavor to 
rq>ay benefactors with gratitude. Beware most of all of meetings for (iv) car 
nmsal. Imitate wise men. Prudent men (sing.) take heed to the danger^ from 
which they have once been rescued (aor.). We must (xpedv) emulate works 
and acts, not words of virtue. It is said, that (occ. w. inf.) Xerxes threw down 
(oor.) fetters into the Hellespont in order to revenge (part, /trf.) himself upon 
the Hellespont. A slave, who has run away (aor. part.) from his master, de- 
serves stripes. Shun a pleasure that afterward brings pain. The general must 
(TCP^i ^' o^' and inj.) demean himself kindly towards (^pof, w. ace.) his soldiers, 
that they may have confidence [&aftl>eiv) in him. Tell me, what (birolo^) pun- 
ishment the betrayer of his country will expect after (Juera, w. ace.) death. Con- 
ceal (am. mid.) from me nothing, (my) friend. To deceive (aor.) men is easy j 
bat to remain concealed from God (is) impossible. Provision (ßio^) failed the 
army. I swear to you by all the gods and all the goddesses, that I have never 
injured any one of the citizens (« to have injured no one, etc.). Young men 
must (6el, w. aoc, and inf.) have respect, in (hri, w. gen.) the house, to parents, 
in (h) the ways, to those who meet (part.) them, in solitude (plur,), to themselves. 
The beginning of wisdom is to fear God. Have compassion (aor.) upon me, 
who (part.) am unfortunate beyond desert The Lacedaemonians had not less 
reverence for old men than for (their) fathers. Shrink not from going (inf.) a 
long way to (irpoc, w. ace.) those who (§ 148, 6) profess to teach anything useful. 
fV>r a long time the Lacedaemonians had (aor.) the supremacy of Greece by 

924 BTHTAX^-^OüBLS accüsahve. [i 160. 

{tcixr&y Wi aoe.) Imtd and hj seo. Theophrastns died {etor.) after {part.) bo 
had lived (acr.) eigfaty-Ave jeanu Fhanes was of snffident pmdenoe (» suffi- 
cient m pmdenoe), and brave in batfle. Men seem to be well in body iphr.) 
after {&w6) manj labors. Cyras iras very beantifnl in person, of a hamine 
heart, (and) very fond of learning and rery eager for honor. Larissa was boill 
of (dai.) earthen tfles ; nndomeath was a stone foondation of twenty feet in 

§160. Double Accusative. 

In the following instsnoes the Greek puts two objects in the Aoe. 
with one verb. 

1. In the oonstmction mentioned above, § 159, 2, when the veHli 
has a transitive signification, e. g. (^iXlav qiikm ; then the idea of 
activity consisting of the verb and substantive, with which an ad- 
jective usually agrees, being blended into one, may at the same time 
be extended to a personal object ; e. g. g)iA(o fieyaXtjp qaliaf 
(■« fiiya qitha) tov naida. Hove the hoy with great love (greatly) \ 
uccleice tovto to o f o (A Of I e€dl you this wxme or by this nam9^ 
Here qnXiap and ovofut are Accusatives of cognate significatioii, 
having a sense similar to their respective verbs. 

2. Expressions of doing or saying good or evily which maj contain 

an Ace of the thing said or done, take the object to which the good 

or evil is done in the Ace The Ace here also, denotes the object 

acted upon ; e« g. nouXv^ nqattew^ iiiyd^ead'iu, etc., Xiyewy Mdff 

etc., dya-ädy aaxd tip a, to do good or evil to any one^ to My 
good or evil of any one. 

Tore 6^ 6 OefuoTOKX^C iKelvov re koI Toi>s Kopiv^iovc voKXän 
Kol KCKä iXeyev, Themiatocks aaid much eeU of him and the CbrutfAtlans. 0^ 
SeiruiroTe kira(H)VTO woXXä iifiä^ iroiovvrec Kaicä, never eecued to de 
muchevä tot». 

Bbm. 1. Instead of the Ace. of the object acted npon, the Dat is sometima 
nsed, which is to be considered as the Dat ofadocMtage or disadvantage ; e.g. 
irpocKoneiy ri aoi iroi^aovaiv ol äpxofievoif consider what your stdjects shaü do 
FOB you; bnt with oe, what they will do to you, 

3. Moreover, verbs take two Accusatives,t which signify to mais, 
to choose, to appoint, to nominate, to consider as anything, to ds' 
elare, to represent, to regard, to know, to say, to name, to call; e. %> 
nouXv, ti&evai (to appoint), xa&iardvai, atgeurd^at, vofii^etv, i^euf^ai, 
Xiyeiv, ovojid^siv, xaXelv, etc. — One of these Accusatives is the ob- 
ject acted upon, or the suffering object, the other is the predicato» 
and hence may often be an adjective. 


'O Kvpof r«dc ^lAovf Ivoiifffe ^Xovaiavc, made kk friends 
JlaiSeveiv rivä ao^ov, to educate am wise, L e. make wim by edvoatiau 
Alpe IV Tivä ftiyav, to make one great, No/ii^eiv, ijyela^ai riva 
&v6pa äya^oVf to think, to consider some we a good man. 'Ovofia^eiv nvä 
oo^ioriiVtioccdloneaeophisL A.lpelo'&ai riva oTpaTiiy6v,tochooaeoim 
acommander. Tdv Tußpvav trvvöeiirvov irapeXaßev, hemad§ Oobrya» 
hineompcatwn at supper, UoXeuc nXovrov ^yovfiai avpfiuxovct iria- 
TiVt elvoiav. 

Rbm. 8. In the jMUuriTe constraction, this explanatory Ace. is changed into 
th« Nom. and agrees with the snbje^t ; e. g. ILatdeveiv nvä oo^, bat Pass, rlc 
kmudev^v aofoc; aipei<r&ai riva üTpaTfjyov^ bot Pass, rlc ipe&^ arpo 

4. With verbs, (a) of efUreating^ beseeching, desiring, inquiringf 
Mhing, e. g. altelv^ ngarreiv (to demand), ngaTJScd'cUf igan^Pf 
i^eta^etp, tatoQelv ; (ß) of teaching, e. g. dtdddxsip, natdeisttf ; (y) 
of dividing, cutting in pieces, e. g. biaiqelv, tefipßtP, diavefieip ; (d) 
of depriving, taking awag, e. g. aqtaiQeiad'ai, arsQetv, aftoctegeip, 
ffvlMP, etc ; (fi) of concealing or hiding from, e. g. XQVTnur; (£) of 
putting on and off, e. g. IpUhv, ixdvaiVf dfAqnervvpcu. 

nifirffocl^afiß^faTfC elg AlyvmovK^pvKOy fret 'A/iaaiv ^vyaripa, adked 
Amasisfir his dau^Oer, AiToi>c iKardv raXavra B ir pa ^av, demanded of 
tkem a hundred talents, *Apyvpiov icparreiv r ivä^ to exact moneg from one, 
HoAAd Sidao-Kei pe 6 voXi^c ßioroc, teaches me mang ^t^ Uaideiov' 
01 Toi>c ifaiSac rpia pova, they teach the bogs three things ontg. TX&t- 
rav re T^ 'ArriKi^ Koi rpoirovc Tuv *A.&rfvaU)v iStSaoKov Tot)f nal-- 
6 a Cy th^ taught the bogs the Attic tongue and the Athenian customs. Tpelc poU 
pac ^ kep^VC kdaaaro itavra rhv ire^dv arparov, divided oB the 
land-armg into three divisions, Tiavetv, Siaipelv ri pepij, poipactodi» 
vide anything into parts, *0 Ki)po$> rb arparevpa Kareveipe dudeKa 
peprfy dimded the army into tvfdve parts, Tdv povov poi koZ^iXov iraida 
it^eiXero rj^v ip vxv^i deprived my onhf chad of Ufe. T^v ripi^v Airoa^ 
repel pe, he robs me of honor, Tä ijperepa Ifpac äiroorepel 6 ♦*- 
XtirfTog. Kpvirru ae rd ärvxVf^f^i Iconcealthemisfirttmefromyou, JlaXc 
peyac (repov iralSa piKpbv piyav x^rova i^idvacy Koi rbv xt' 
riJva phf iavroO ixeivov ip^ieacy a large boy stripped another small boy of 
hi» large tunic, and put his own tunic on him, 

Bbx. 8. 'Arroorepelv and ä^aipela&ai, to deprive, to take away, are construed (a) 
with Ace. ofthing alone; — (b) with Ace. of person alone, bat rarely;— (c) with 
Ace both of person and ofthing, very often^d) with Gen. of person and Aoe. 
of thing, less often ;— (e) äiroarepeiv with Ace. of person and Gen. of thing, veiy 
often {\ 157.), &^ipela&ai very seldom, and then means to prevent; arepelv 
js constraed both as in (c) and (e). 

Keh. 4. When the active reibs mentioned ander No. 4, are changed into the 
passi?e, the Aec of the object receiving the action, becomes the Kom., bat the 
Aoe.of thetfaingxem«iiii(«oeenUQgtoHM,4)» a.g.'£p»rö^ai r#9 yvi^ 

fiifv,Imm ashid mßfupiniim. ITacdeio/cai, didätrKOßai fiovetnlfvtl 
amUnigktylleanMmic. Vii Sk tuü öUuf99tf r ä «ird fiipn dtavtftii^^r», 
let the hnd and üi habi ta tiom be divided twto the mmt maAer rf parti. 'A^aipi^ 
i^fjvaiy äwoorepij^vvai ri)v apxv^t to be deprived rfoffioe. Kpivro- 
pai TovTo TO vpäypOf thie thing it concealed from, me. 'Apftivvvfiat 
Xirövoy I am doihed withy cr I put on a ttmie, 

Rbk. 5. Eren some verbs, which in the active «re coat tmeted widi the Dat 
of the person and the Ace of the thing, in the passive chang^e this Dat of the 
person into the Nom^ while the Ace. of the thing remains. The foUofwing are 
regularly so constroiCted : kwiTärreiv, iiciTp^eiv, hnari^^iv rivi rt,to cem- 
mity to entruet aomesthing to tome one, e. g. 'Emrpi^o^MU, hnTärropait hrtars)^^hipM 
T^v ^vXaK^v, lamenirustedunththeguardyOrthegucmiismtnutedtome, 

Bem . 6. The oxvf^a ko^* bXov koZ ftepoQ occurs with the Ace. as well as with 
the Nom. (^ 147b, Rem. 2); e. g. Ol iroXifiioi rot>f iroX/rof rot)f /lev 
iiriKTetvttPt to^c d ^ iSovXooavrot as fir the dtieene, the enemy kUUd aovtf, and 
andaaed others, or the enemy IdUed some of the etfuens, etc. 

LXXXV. Exereim on § 160. 

When Pyrrhns had twice conquered {aor.) in engagements {äv/ißäXXetVt oor. 
jmrt.) with the Romans, having lost {aor.) many of his friends and leaders, he 
■aid : Although (kov^ w* aubf.) we have conquered (aor.) übe Bomaas in battle, 
ire are rained. Critias and AXdbiades occasioned (aor,) veiy many evils to the 
state. The gods have conferred {aor.) many blessings upon human life. Esteem 
labor as the guide to (gen,) a pleasant life. Plato called (aor.) philosophy a 
prepantion for (gen.) death. Misfortune makes men more thou^tfuL Socrates 
did not exact from those who (( 148, 6) had intercourse with him, (any) mon^ 
for (gen,) his conversation. Apollo, who was (yiyveai^aA, aor, part,) the inven- 
tor of the bow, taught men archery. The Greeks, in the Median (wars), took 
(aor^ p€art.) the supremacy from the lücedaemonians and gave it to the Athe- 
nians. The public square of the Persians sanrounding (» around) the gover- 
nor's residence, is divided into four parts j of these, one is for boys, aaotfaer for 
youths, another for adult men, another for those ^o (\ 148, 6) are (yiyvea^ait 
per/.) past (= Qver, beyond) military years. Many, who (port) h&re mesa 
minds, are adorned (» invested) with fine persons and fine lineage (phar.) and 
wealth (plur.). Wisdom was taught to many young men by Socrates. AfWr 
(part,) the power was taken from (aor.) Croesus, he lived with Cyna. The 80t> 
diers, to whom (part.) the guard had been intrusted, had fled. 

§161. m. Daiiw. 

1. The Dative Case expresses the relation where^ and hence 10 
nsed, first, to denote, (a) the place in which an action is performed ; 
in prosei however, prepositions are commonly joined with substan- 
tives expressing this relation, e. g. cV i^ai, in moiite;^-(b) tk$ 
time whm or in %Mch an action is peifonned» e. g. rairfi tji 

S 161.] 0SifT^x.^»ATivs. 227 

^fiBQqiytki$ deaf; ti aiti pvxti^ikemme m^; noXXoXs 
ixBöiVfmtmy fears; tqit(p f/nji^i; r^ ai^r^ (»^a; here also 
the preposition eV is often used ; — (c) the betriff vnih^ casociaimgy 
accompanying^ (a) the Dat. singular of collective nouns, or the Dat 
plural of common nouns, connected with a verb o^ going or coming^ 
e. g. Äd^am riX^ov nXrid'Et ovh oUytp, noXXat^ ravaiv, 
atQat(Pf ctqatimt aig^ etc., came with a large number^ with 
mamy skipsy with an army, with soldiersy etc ; (ß) the Dat connect- 
ed with avrog which agrees with the substantive in the Dat., to 
express the idea, at the same time with, together with, e. g. Oi noXi* 
fuoi ivemfinqaaav triv noXiv avtolg roig isQoig, burnt the city 
together with the sanctuaries. 

2. The Dat. is used, in the second place, to denote an object 
which is indeed aimed at by the action of the subject, but which is 
not, as with the Ace., attained, reached or accomplished, but only 
participates and is interested in it. Hence the Dat. is used : 

(a) With expressions of association and union; here belong (a) 
expressions denoting intercourse, associating with, mixing witkf 
eommumcatian, participation ;'-(ß) verbs and expressions signify- 
ing to go against, to encounter, to meet, to approach, to be near to^ 
and their opposites, e. g. to yield to, to submit; — (y) to fight, to gyar- 
rel, to contend, to vie with ; — (fi) to follow, to serve, to obey, to trust 
and to accomparvy ; — (c) to counsel, to incite, to encourage, 

Hera belong, (a) the rerbs Siöovat, vrapixeiVt öfu^iVf fuyviwu^ -vir&ai, Kot- 
vevVf -oikn^at, Kotvinfelv, <$<•, KaraX^Treiv, '•ea&ait ^evovo^ai, (nrev6e<y&<u at 
enovdäf irauUr^cu, irparreiv, imaxveia&ai, elireiVt Ai/etv, ■SiaXiyea^aif <4k 
Xe<r&€u, KOTopäa^at, also adjectives and adverbfl and even substantives, as «ot- 
voSj awTpo^g, avfi^ovocj <^>7^Ct fttraiTtv^ and others oompoimded witii 0^ 
utAfteräi-^ß) the yerbsimoar^ai, i^iarae^aif avavr^v, imavtgv^ imavrtor 
^civ, irX^fftdCciv, ireXo^ecv, iyyi^eiv^ elKtiVy inreuceiVf x^^^"*^^ ^^ adjectives nXti" 
aioc, tvavriocj the adverbs iyyvf, iriXac ; — (y) the verbs ipiCeiVj /ta^feff^atf iroXe» 
fuiv, ayiivi^eai^aij SiKo^ea^ai, äfi^aßffrelv ;— (<J) the verbs iireüOai, äKohw- 
i^eZv, 6tadexe<r&ai {to succeed)^ iret&eai&aif -imeucoieiVj ctTrec^eiv, tnareveiVt re- 
troii^evoi, the adjectives and adverbs ukoXov&o^^ -6>f, 6iadoxoCt HnCt ^ff^i ;*- 
(e) the verbs vpo^-, ivtrorrtWy vapaivelVf irapoKe^^ar^ai, 

*OfiiXei Toif äya^oic äv^puiroic, atnodate wäk good mm. E^ 
Xee^e role *«otf» prajftothe goda, 'Awavr^v, irXijaiaCei^f *77*- 
(etv Tivi, to meet, approaek, come near to one. Bfi) elxere roli iroXe- 
ftioiCt do not yield to the enemy, 01 "EXXifvef koXuc kfnax^o^vro toI^ 
H i p a a I Ct fought with the Persians. 01 üTpariörai avfiKoioTijoav rotf 
ffTpaTJfyoigf disobegod the commanders, Tlei'^ov roi^ vofioiCf theg the 
huos, T^ äper^ änokov^ et doia, glory foUnws virtue. Tleiroi^(v€U rtvi^ 
tßtnatoM. 'IC dart fufUYfävocrifv fiid^av,hamiig miMdtkB mam wiAwt^ 

228 »TITTAX. — DATIVS. [{ 161. 

(b) With expressions oi^nmilanijf and dimmilantjff of Uhenest 
and unlikenesM, of agreement and differenee. Under those of like- 
ness is included o avrosy signifying the same. 

Such are ioucivaif dfwiow, -owr^tu, iftoto^y -uf, ivoCt -o^f, ift<^ep^ (stmiZar), 
vapanXTfaiog, -ciiC, üfuh itu^pod dia^vo^, and yerjr manj voids oomponnded 
with dfjiov, airVf fiera ; e. g> dfiovoelv, 6fi6y\urT0Cf ov/i^veiVf etc 

0/ nalSei ifi^epearar oi ijaav r^ narpi, the children were very muck 
like their father. 'QnXifffievoi iravre^ ijoav ol nepl rbv Kvpov rol^ airoic '"V 
Kip<(} ^TrXotf , all Oyrrts^ soldiers were provided with the same arms as Cyrus. 

(c) With verbs and expressions signifying, (a) to assent to, to 
agree with, etc. ; — {§) to upbraid, to reproach, to he angry, to emoy; 
— (f) to help, to he useful to, to avert from, and verbs compounded 
with avv, expressing this idea ; — (fi) to he hecoming, to he suitable, 
to he Jit, to please, and with rnnnj others, the personal object is put 
in the Dat. In addition to the Dat. of the person, these verbs fre- 
quently govern the Ace of the thing. The Dat. is also used with 
verbs signifying to rejoice at, to he pleased with, and the like. In 
many cases, however, the Dat with such verbs may be regarded as 
the Dat of cause. Comp. § 161, 8. — In general, the Dat. is used, 
when the action takes place for the benefit or injury of a person or 
thing. This is called the Dat. of advantage or disadvantage, and 
often includes what is termed the limiting Dat, or the Dat express- 
ing the relation of to or for. 

Here belong, (a) bfioXoyelv ; — (/?) fiifi(Pe(r&ai (with Ace. it means to blame)^ 
?Midopeia&aif hnrifi^v, t/KaXelv (^ 158, Rem. 7) and hrtKo^iv (rtvi re), hei' 
vX^rreiv, bveiii^eiv^ ivoxXetv, &vfiovtr&eu, ßptfwvtr&ait x^^^^^veiv, ^^^oveiVf 
ßacncaivetv {to envy) ; — {y) iLpfiyeiv^ Afiijvew, äXe^eiv, rifiupeiv, ßotf&ecv, hrixofh 
peiVy ätro^MyeliT&ai, XvaiTe^xtv^ hrapKeiVf ;t'pae0/<e?v, avft^peiv, avftrrpaTreiv, 
ffwepyeZvt and adjectives of similar signification, e. g. xph^^l^i ^iXo^ ; and those 
of an opposite signification, e. g. ix^poci ßXaßepoct etc. ; — (d) Trpewetv, ApftoT' 
retv, vpocvKeiv (with Inf following), eUo^ kari^ äpeoKeiv, the adrerbs wpeirot^ 
T«f, ÄirpeTTÖ^, elKOTO^, 

Tloüeid&v ü^bdpa kfieviaivev 'Odvcffel^ was very angry with Ulysses, 'E ir (- 
ffX^rretv, bveidl^eiVf kyKaXeiv rivi rif to reproach one fir somethtngi 
to charge something on one. Oi rote upx^tv ßovXofievot^ fiifi^ofiat^ 
aX^ rote imoKoveiv irotfioripotc o if a iv^ I do not reproach those wMng 
to rule^ but those, etc ^HvCtx^^t 6 ^^^mrocToic '^^Vvaioic, I^häipgaüg 
trouble to the Athenians, ^^oveiv rivi, to envy one. 'Afivvü r^ vofLf^ 
I wiä defend (the idea of aiding) the law, etc 'Opeor^f fy^eX/foe ri/iapeiv 
n arp If Orestes unshed to hdp his fithery etc 'A;t^XX^f irt^c^p^ffe TLarpo- 
%X<f> T(f> kraiptp rhv ^dvov, avenged the murder of {for) his friend Pairodm. 
•H dpcr^ äpeoKei rolg &y a^o I Ci virtue pleases the good. EUcorac <yo* 
Xaipovoiv ol AaKtAaifiSvioi, rejoice in, are pleased with you. fldea'&ai 
T IV I, to be pleased uM a thing. 

$161.] SYNTAX. — ^DATIVE. J29 

(d) Finallj, the Dat is used to denote the possessor mth the 
verbs elvat, vnaQX^^^ and yiyvBcd'at, these verbs then be- 
ing translated bj the verb to have, and the Dat as the Nom. ; e. g. 
KvQtp ^p fieyaXtj ßamXBia, Gyrus had a great kingdom ; and itt 
general, the Dat. is used, where an action takes place in respect tOf 
in relation to a person, or an object considered as a person ; e. g» 
J^cDHQati^g toiovTog tap rigi^g a^ios tjt t j noXsi fiaXXovy ^ ß'ap»- 
toVf Socrates being suchj deserved honor in respect to the city raiker 
than death. Hence the Dat is also frequently used with the pas- 
sive» and regularly with verbal adjectives in -rios and -to^, instead 
of vno with the Gen. ; e. g. o?^ fi o e nqitSQOv dtdiqkmtax^ as has 
been before shown by me. Acai^ia iati aoi ^ aqst^, virtue must 
be practised by you. On the construction with the verbal adjective» 
see § 168, 1, 2. 

3. Id the third place, the Dat is used like the Latin AblatiT« 
(Abl. of instrument), to denote the causSy means and inttrumemi 
(hence witli %Q^a^ai), the manner and iray, the meature (by which 
the action is limited, particularly with comparatives and superlap 
tives), conformity {according to, in accordance with), often also^ 
the materiaL 

01 ToXifiioi <^6ß<p &rr^X^oVt went back through, on account of fear (the fear be- 
ing the cause of the action). *AyäXXofiai ry viKy, I exutt on account ofvktonf. 
XripyUf Ityanij role iirapxovaiv aya'&olgy I am pleased with thote icAo 
are good. *0(^'SaXfiolc bpCifiev^ ualv uKovofiev^ we see with our eyes, we heat 
with our ears, 'lorit^etv r^ aufiarif tobe strong in body. 01 crrpaTiCtrai avftf 
^op4 /leyaXij kxpv^f^'>*'''Ot experienced (used) great misfortune. *AXe^avdpoc 
iidaoKaXif) kxpfiaarb * kpiaroreXti. 01 iroXefiioi ßig. eic r^ n6?4v elcieoav^ 
entered the city by force. 01 ^A^fjvaZoi t6v MiXTiäörfv rrevT^Kovra ralavroic 
y^ripii^aav; fined MÜtiadesfißy talents. *H äyopä IIa pit,) Xi^<p iioKtifiivfi ^, 
the Agora was adorned with Parian matUe. HoXXif^, bliyifi fiei^uv, greater by 
much, little (the Bat measnriDg the degree of difference between the things com- 
pared). T^ aXiji^ei^ KpiveiVf to Judge according to truth. 

4. The Dat. of the thing often stands with verbs, substantives 
and adjectives, to denote in what respect their signification is to be 
taken ; e. g. vTtsQßdXleiv toXfiji^to excel in or in respect to boldness ; 
Kvdrog ovo (i an, Gydnus by name ; ta^vg ft o (Tit swift of foot» This 
Dat., however, is often the same as the Dat, of means or instrument 

5. The Dat. stands as the indirect object or complement of veiy 
many verbs, to denote the relation expressed in English by to or 
for ; e. g. didmfu aoi to ßißXiov, I give a book to you ; Kv^ avtq^ 
JftsPf Oyrus said to him ; ov eig qfiXoi n^sipe^opto ^ ft tp, they dU 


280 SYNTAX. — PBCFoamONs. [§ 162. 

nof conduct towards us as friends ; atQazevfia aweleyaro KvQo^^an 
anny wm collected for Cyms, 

5. (a) The Dat. ig also put after adjectives to denote the object to 
which their quality is directed. The relation of this Dat is usually 
repressed hj to or for, e. g. näisi dijXov iyevstOy it became evident 
to aU; avt^ ol dyw&ot evvot i^trav, the good were well disposed to- 
wards Mm ; ix^Qos uvd-Qmnoig, hateful to men, 

RsMASK. The rales 5 and 5, (a) are mainly included in 2, (a), (b), (c), but an 
■tatod here in a more specific form, for the benefit of beginners. 

LXXXVI. Exercises em § 161. 

Cyrus resolved (aor.) on this day to engage with the enemy ; after the battle 
he marched {aor.) the same day twenty stadia. The Athenians made an expe- 
dition (arparevetv) with thirty ships against the islands of Aeolus. When the 
Ftfrsians came (aor.) with (thwr) entire {KaiiwXri^g) force (oroXof), the Athe- 
ttas dared (aor, part.) to enooimter {aar.) them, and conquered them. The 
^^T^jAiia conquered the enemy and took their ships together with the men. 
Associate not with bad men, but cleave ever to the good. Thamyris, who was 
distinguished {aor. part.) for beauty and for (skill in) harp-playing, contended 
{aor.) with the Muses for (the superiority in) (irepi, w.gen.) music. Human nsr 
tore is mingled with a divine energy. Truth discourses with boldness {fiEra^ 
w. gen.)^ and therefore men are displeased with it It is easy to advise {aor.) 
another (frepof). The general exhorted the soldiers to fight bravely. Life is 
like a theatre. Most of the Boman women were accustomed to wear (= to 
have) the same shoes as the men. Actions are not always like words. Homer 
compares the race of men to leaves. The miad ruined by wine is in the same 
case as (= suffers the same as) chariots, that have lost {part, pres.) their 
charioteers. Some object to the laws of Lycurgus, that they are indeed suffi- 
cient to call forth {'trpog, w. ace.) bravery, but are insufiident to maintain (=: 
for) justice. To please the multitude is to displease the wise. Esteem those as 
true friends, who (^ 148, 6) censure faulte. Quails have a pleasant song. Hu- 
man destinies ( = the human, plur.) have been deplored by many wise men, who 
believed {part.) that life is {inf.) a punishment. The gods rejoice in the virtue 
of men. The buU wounds with the horn, the horse irith the hoof, the dog with 
the mouth, the boar with the tusk. The Thessalians practised (xpnff^ai) Uw- 
lessness more than justice. Helen was very (= much) distinguished {aor.)y as 
well by birth as for beauty and fame. Wisdom is far (by much) better than 
riches. One can (= it is possible) neither safely use a horse without bridle, 
nor riches without consideration. 

§ 162. Prepositions, 
1. As the Cases denote the local relations whence^ whither and 
It^lere, so the prepositions denote other local relations, which desig- 

$163.] 8TNTAX. — ^PBEPqsiTioirs. — dni^nQo. Ml 

aate the extension (dimension) of things in spaee, viz. the juaOa* 
position of things (near to, before, by, around, with), and the local 
c^posites, above and hdow^ within and ioithout, before and hekindf 

2. The Case connected with the preposition shows in which of 

the three above-named relations — whence, whither^ where — the local 

rdation expressed by the preposition, must be considered. 

Thus, e. g. the preposition napa denotes merely the local relation of yidsitj, 
the near or by; but in connection with the Gen., e.g.^X'&e napä tov ßaat- 
X e cj f , it denotes the direction whence (he came^m near the king, de chez le rot) ; 
in connection with the Ace, e. g. fei napä rdv ßaaiXeay the directioa 
tMher (he went into the vicinity or presence of the king) ; and in connection with 
lite Dat, e. g. Jtarri irapä r^ ßaai'kelj the where (he stood near the king). 

3. The prepositions are divided according to their construction : 

(a) Into prepositions with the Gen. : avW, iiiio^ kx, irpo, ivexa ; 

(b) Into those with the Dat : h and (tvv ; 

(c) Into those with the Ace. : uvä, ei^ &c ; 

(d) Into those with the Gren. and Ace. : diäf KaT&f inrep ; 

• (e) Into those with the Gen., Dat and Aoc. : äin^i, irepif hriy fierä, irapA, 
ir|E»6f and ino. 

4. The local relation expressed by prepositions is transferred to 
the relations of time and causality (cause, effect, ^^) ; e. g. vno 
t^g yijg eJrai and vno q)6ßov qfsvysiv, to he under the earth, to 
ßee for, on account of, fear; in t^g noXeoog aneX&uv and 
s£ flfiiQag dneXd'eTv, to depart otU of the dty, to depart imme^ 
diatdy after daybreak. 

A. Prepositioi^s with okb Casb. 

§163. I. Prepositions with the Gen, alone. 

1, J/vt i, Lat ante, original signification, over against, before, 
opposite ; then for, instead of in the place of, e. g. arijvai dprt 
r ivog,to stand before one ; dovXog dvti ßaa iX dco g, a slave in- 
stead of king ; dvtl ^ fie gag rv^ iyiveto, instead of day there was 
night ; dvd"' ov, wherefore, because, 

2. 17^ 0, pro, prae, before, for, agrees with drti in all its relar 
tions, but is used in a much greater variety of relations ; e. g. crr^* 

• i^at TiQo TtvXtav, to stand before the gates ; nqo ^fiiqag, before 
day {dvtl is not used of time); fidxBa&ai, dno'&aveip nqo r^g 
nat Qidog, to fight, to die for one^s country ; dovXog nqo deafrotov, 
ß slave instecui of master ; nqo tcavÖB, for these things, therrfors» 

tn fUTTAX.— PRSPOSITI0H9. — MO, ix, l!r«CIX. [§ 1631 

8. J^MOf €^ original signification, yftMft, e. g. airo t^f ni* 
Xims ^il^tr;-— of (ffise: from^ sinee^ after^ e. g. äno detjffot 
ifULxioavto, after the meal ; — dvaiy yiypM&M an 6 tiPog,tohede- 
Mcendedfrom some one ; — 7(p ano rav noXafiimp (poßcp, on ac- 
eauni of fear of (from) the enemy ^ like mettu ab aliquo;"^ the 
MWOfU .* byy *pithy e. g» tQdqteu^ to favTuco«' anro nQogodeof^Ut 
support the ßeet hy revenues ; — a no tipog xcÜLBid'&cUy to be eaüed 
iy something. 

4. 'Eh^ e|, ex, original signification, outofe*g.ix t^g noXemg 
umjX&ev ; — of time immediately following : after, e.g. e | ^ fie gag, 
ex quo dies üluxit, as soon as it was day; in naidoaVf from 
childhood ; i^ a id' q tag re xal vfjvefiiag awtdgafiev i^aniftj^ 
9sq>ii, after the clear weather clouds suddenly collected. — *0 cog na- 
t^Q iv tXi^B t^ fJLia fi^iga «S aq^qovog aoiq)Q(ar yeyivrjja^j your 
father in this one day, from a senseless man has become discreet ; — 
ehon^ yiyvead'ai ex jivog^tobe descended from some one ; — accord- 
ing tOy by virtue of after or for, e. g. i x riig o iff e fag tov oveigov, 
according to the appearance of the dream, — 'Orofia^ea'&eu ix rivog, 
to be named after or for some one. 

5. ''Evsxa (placed before or after the Gen.), on account of for 

the sake of; — by means of 

KFMAyg. Also some adverbs and iubstantiyes are Teiy often used as prepo* 
titions, and are therefore called improper prepositions (see, however, § 157, et 
seq.); e. g. irpoa^ev and ifinpoa^ev, before, öiria^ev, behind, ävev 
and x^P^Ct toithout, ttX^v, except, fitr a ^v^ between^ fiixph tmtü, x^P^^ 
(usnallj placed after the Gen.), gratia, far the aake of. Instead of the Gen. of the 
personal pronouns, ;t<ip<v regularly takes the possessive pronouns agreeing with 
it in gender, number and case ; e. g. ^/i^» o^v ;c^P<i'» <"^i twi gratia. 

LXXXVn. Exereises on § 163. 

No one would (§153, 2. c) take (aw.) a blind leader in place of one wlio ooold 
«ee (= a seeing one). It is beautiful to exchange ioi[»'. mid.) a mortal body &r 
immortal fame. Those who (§ 148, 6) have made proficiency (aor.) in philoso* 
phy, become fi%e instead of slaves ; truly rich instead of poor ; considerate (^- 
tpicmpot) instead of unintelligent and stupid. Before action deliberate. A 
{art,) friend often does for his (art.) friend, that (plvar.) which he did not do (aor.) 
§(jfr himself. Ephesus is distant a three days' journey from Sardis. The Helle- 
spont was named from Helle, who there lost her life (« who died \patt^ in it). 
When (part.) Socrates brought (=^ offered) small offerings from (his) small 
(means), he believed (himself) to be no less meritorious (fieiova^ai) than those 
who (4 148, 6) from (their) many and great (means) bring many and great (of- 
ierings). Socrates lived very contentedly with very little property. Wo may 
soi jndge the best (men) by (» from) (their) exterior, but by (their) morals. It ii 

SS 164, 165.] 8THTAZ«-->FBSP0caTiOK8. — h, cify aifi. in 

to make (» plaee, oor,) eril oat of good, than food o«t of e^iL Tb» 
ofwnuster i^veaU itself especially in (» out of) the action«. iFrom the ftnil 
I know the tree. After the war came peace. Men plot against each oth» 
for the sake of gold, fame {plw.) and pleasures. Semiramis reigned until 
old age over the Assyrians. A beautiful action is not perform^ without 
virtue. The gods bestow upon men nothing good {pivr. gen,) and beauiifiil, 
without labor and care. Terope lies between Olympus and OssiA. ConoMi 
food fortune, lest it excite envy ( a^ on aeeoant of eavy ). 

§164. 2. Prepogittons with the Dat. alone, 

1. *Ev denotes that one thing is in, upon, hy or near another; it 
indicates an actual union or contact of the two objects spoken ot^ 
and hence is the opposite of £x, e,g.iv vrio(p, iv yi, iv Una^ 
ft/; — ^^ onXoiSf iv r 6 ^ 1 s diaYO(iviXe(Td^cu ; iv figofid^oiSf 
If 78 d-eoTg xaJ dv^QcoTioig (among); hence, before, coram ; 
upon,iv oQsatv, iv tnnoig, iv d^govoig; — at, by, near tOj 
80 especially of the names of cities, and particularly in describing 
battles ; e. g. j; iv Mavr ivsia najri, 0ie battle near Mdnt, — Of 
time, iv toit(p T(j>jf^oy(p, iv (p,in or itnthin this time, whilef 
during the time that, iv nevre ^(isgai g, — Of the means and tn- 
strument with the expressions dijXovv, dijXovsJvai, ffijfial" 
V81V iv rivi, to show by something ; e. g. oti ol dsoi as &U(p r8 
aai evfA^etg miinovci, um iv leQoig d^Xov xal iv ovQavi^^ 
oig 6rjfisioig,it is evident both by the victims and the signs Jrotk 
heaven, that, etc. 

Rem. 1. With several verbs of motion, the Greek commonly uses kv with die 
Sat, instead of slg with the Ace. ; e. g. rcd^evcut KaraTv&evcu^ ävaTv&hnu (t» 
öonaeerate) and the like. 

2. 2!vv {^vvj mostly old Attic). The original signification of 

avv corresponds almost entirely with the Latin cum and the English 

with, e. g. ctQutt^og avv t oTg ati^atinotaig ; — of assistaawe 

or help, e. g. <jvv d'e<p, by the help of God; — a vv ra^^h <^^9 

ßianouivri. * 

Rrm. 2. Here belongs a /z a, at the same time witht ivith, one of the adveoibt 
used as improper prepositions. 

§165. 3. Prepositions with the Aec, alon€. 

1. Jlva, Ori^nal signification, up, on, upon. It forms thd 
strongest contrast to xara with the Ace. As %ara is used to de- 
note motion from a higher to a lower place, so dva to denote mouon 
irom a lower to a higher plaoe; e. g. ara tov notafnoPf dtm 


tt4 ftivTAx« — PBBPO«mo]ift. — akf (»^. [§ 165. 

i^oo r nXeMf, to $ailup ihs strmm (the opposite Mng » «r a ir e««* 
yi o I», <2oi£m £A« «^om). It oommotily serves to denote local exten- 
eiion from a lower to a higher place, from bottom to top : throughaui^ 
thrcfugh. ; ava ti^v'EXXdda — dp ä tov noXefAOf tovjotj 
{p^t during). Thus dva naaup rijv ^ fid gar, tkrottgh the 
$0iole idag^ difd nap to itog, during the whole gear; henoe 
without the article, dpa ndoap ^ fie gap, dpa nap itogf 
>0wrg dag, everg gear, dmlg, gearlg, dpa pvxtcl, per noctem, dpa 
XQOPOP, tu course of time ; — ^to denote the manner and wag ; e. g. 
jdpd KQatog, up to the full strength, vigorotislg, dpa fiegog^ 
ig turns ; — in a distributive sense with numerals ; e.g. dpa ndptB 
nagaadyy ag tijg ^ fid gag, five parasangs dailg ; also with 
nameralsj like the English ahovi (Lat. drca) ;e. g. ai'ce diavticia 
arddia, ahovi two hundred stadia. 

2. Elg (ig, old Attic), corresponds almost entirely with the Lat» 
in with the Ace. ; e. g. idpai slg tiip nolip, into the citg ; — ^in a 
hostile sense: contra, e. g. iatgdtsvaap elg r^p Atrix^p, intOy 
against Attica; — ^with numerals: abovi, e. g. pavg elg rag rz- 
tganoaiag, about four hundred ships ; — in a distributive sense 
with numerals ; e. g. £ / ^ ixatop, centeni, by hundreds, each humr 
dred, elg 8vo, bini, two by two, two deep;^^n the presence of, cO' 
ram, yet with the collateral idea of the direction whither; e. g. Xo- 
yovg noietO'&cu elg top d^fiop,to speak to or before the people.-—' 
Of time: until, towards, upon, elg sand gap, towards eventngj 
elg rijp vaTegaiap, upon the follounng dag, elg rgltijp ^fid" 
gap, to or on the third dag. — To denote purpose, object, respect ; e- g. 
ixg^<Taro roig xg^fiaaip elg rr^p noXip, he used the moneg for the 
citg; elg ndgobgri dg^p, to do something for gain ; dtaqidgeiv rtr 
pog elg dget^p,to differ from one in respect to virtue ; elg ndr" 
t a, in everg respect. 

3. 'iQ g, ad, to, is used only with persons, or objects considered as 
persons, to denot« direction towards them; e. g. idpoi, ndfineiv wg 
ßaciXda, ^xeip dg rijp MlXtjrop (to the Milesians). 

LXXXVIIL Exercises on §§ 164, 165. 

(He) is the best (man), who (^rrtc) is nurtured amid the greatest uecesätieB 
,(rd itvayKcuoTara). Said Diogenes : A friend is one soul, that {part.) dwells 
(= lies) in two bodies. My sons, do not deposit (aor.) my body either in gold 
or in silver, but restore it as quickly as possible to the earth. The Grecian ar- 
mament conquered the barbarians at Salamis. With the help of the gods lei 
«• go against the unjust The aoqiusition oi int friends is by no means 

1 166.] BTNTAX. — ^PREPOSITIONS. — dm, xatoL SM 

made bj (— with) Tiolence, bat rather bj beneficence. At daybreak (^ witb 
the day) the soldiers began their march (»= marched ont, off). The Car- 
duchians dwell on the mountains and are warlike. The vessels coald not 
sail up the river. The deeds of Alcibiades were celebrated thronghont all 
Greece. During the whole war the greatest harmony prevailed (= waa) 
among the generali. The three daughters of Fhorcus, having (but) one eye, 
made use <^ it alternately. The enemy pressed into the middle of the city. 
ApoUo was sent (aor.) out of heaven to the earth. Time, revealing everything^ 
l>rings (it) to the light The Athenians performed (==: displayed, aor.) many 
beautiful actions before all men, as well in a private as in a public capacity. 
The Lacedaemonians made an expedition against Attica. Employ the leisure 
of (= in) life in listening {inf.) to beautiful discourses. God brings like fo 
Hke. Agesilaus sent ambassadors to the king of the Persians. 

§166. B. Prepositions with the Gen. and Ace. 

1. /I I a, original signification, through A. With the Gen. through 
and out again^ e. g. S^^Xavve tov aiQarhv diet rijg ©Qaxt^g im 
tijv 'EXXdda, through Thrace; — through, e.g. dia nediov, per 
campum, dia noXsfjiiag nogevaad^ai, to march through a hostile 
country, — Of time to denote extension through a period: through^ 
after, properly, to the end of the period, through and out, e. g. d$* 
itovg, through the year ; dia noXXov, fiaxQOv, oXiyov XQ^ 
fov, after (through) a long, short time ; dia navtbg tov XQO^ 
vov Toiavta ovk iyhezo, throughout the whole time. So also of an 
action repeated at successive intervals, e. g. dea tgitov irovg 
{jvr^eoav, every third year, tertio qu^que anno, always after three 
years ; dia niiiTtrov Srovg, dia nivtB irmv, quinto quoque 
anno; dia rgitr^g tifiiqag, every third day, — To denote the 
means, e. g. di 6q)'d-aXfji^v oq^v, to see with, hy means of, the 
eyes ; — the manner and way, ^. g. dia CTtovd^g, with earnestness, 
earnestly; dia rdxovg, with speed, speedily. — B. With the Ace, 
of time, e. g. did vvata, per noctem ; — to denote the cause, means, 
e. ^. dia rovtOy ravta, therefore, because of this ; did ßovXdg, 
by means of counsels ; did (i^viv. 

2. Katd, original signification, from above down (desuper), 
A. With the Gen., e.g. iqi^intow eavrovg xatd lov tsixovg 
xarcD, threw themselves down from the wcdl; — dovm into, e. g. xata- 
dsdvxdvai xatd r^g ^aXdrti^g, to go down into the sea ; — «n^ 
der, e.g. ytard ytjg. — To denote the cause, atähor: de, concerning, 
e. g. Xeyuv xatd rivog, die ere de aliqna re, especially in a hos- 
tile sense, e. g. Xf'yBiv xazd tivog, against one ; xpBvdaa&ai x a r a 
vov ^cov, to lie against God. — ^B. With the Ace, xarce forms a 


286 SYNTAX. — ^PBEPOsmoira. — vidl^ [S 166. 

strong contrast with dva, in respect to the point where the motion 
of the action begins, but agrees with dvd in denoting the direction 
to an object and the extension over it, the one being doum through, 
the other up through, Tlie use of ivoi in prose is not so frequent 
as that of xata, — To denote local extension from above downwards: 
throughout, through, over, e. g. xad^* *EXXdda, xard itacaf 
•triv Y^v, it often signifies, over against, opposite to, e. g. T^kat^ 
KecpakXqpia xatd ÄxaQvaviav, opposite to Acar. — Of time, to 
denote its extension or duration: during, through, e. g. xat d rof 
ttvtoif XQ^^^^t during, or in the course of the same time; xatk 
tov nQorsQOf noXefiop, — To denote purpose, okjectj e. g. uta^ 
td d'iav ^xeir, spectatum venisse; conformity (secundum), respect, 
reason, e« g. natd vofiov, according to, agreeable to law ; xata 
Xoyov, ad rationem, pro ratione, agreeable to reason ; xara yfd- 
fiijr T^r ifii^v; Hard rovto, hoc respectu, hence propter hoc, 
Kara q)vcir, secundum naturam; xard dvpafnv,to Ute bestof 
one's ability; xard xgdrog, with all one's might; xard fiiU' 
QOP, nearly, by degrees; xar dv&qtanov, according to the maxh 
ner or standard of man; — ^to denote an indeßnite measure, e. g* 
xad"' i^tjxovra Ir.rj, about sixty years; — to denote manner and 
way, e. g, xard rd^og, swiftly, xard avvrvxiap, by chance; 
•^-in a distributive sense, e.g, xard xdfiag, vicatim ; xard fi^- 
r a, monthly, xad-' tuiiQav, daily, xar irog, yearly, xaS"' ifi' 
r d, septeni, by sevens, 

3. ^Tnig, super, over, A. With the Gen., e. g. vniq yijff.— 
To denote the cause : for, for the good of, in behalf of, e. g. f«a- 
XBC&ai VTisQ rijg nargidog, to fight for on^s country, as it were 
to fight standing over it; o vtisq r^g 'EXXddog d^dvarog, death 
in behalf of Greece, — B. With the Ace. : over, beyond, e. g. Qinrsif 
VTieg rov dofior, to throw over the house; vniq 'EXX^gnor- 
rov oixuv, beyond, \, e. on the opposite side of; vniq r^v lJl^ 
xiav, VTisQ dvvafJLip, VTteg d v&g on tz or, beyond the nature oe 
strength of man, V Tt e g rd rsrragdxovra irii, 

LXXXIX. Exireises on § 166. 

There is a middle path that leads neither through domimon nor throng^ sla- 
very, bat through freedom. Socrates conferred the greatest benefits (ra fxiyum 
inpeXetv) upon men, by teaching wisdom to all who ivished (it) (§ 148, 6). 
The river Euphrates flows through the middle of Babylon. The presidents of 
the cities come together every three years. Those who (4 148, 6) learn evay- 
thing by their own efforts (»hy themBelves), are called setf'-tftnght ApoDo 

§ 167.] stnta:^ — ^p&spositioks* — dfMpif ntql. 287 

benefitted the human xace by oracles and other services. He who (§ 148, 6) 
is indolent for the sake of pleasure, may (^ 153, 2. c.) very soon be deprived {aor,] 
of that charm of inactivity, for the sake of which he is indolent Praise not a 
worthless man because of (his) wealth. Some rivers penetrate into the earth 
and flow ( »^ are borne) a long way, concealed nnder the earth. The island At* 
laatis «mk {pari, aor») ander the earth and disappeared (oor.). He who (f 148, 
9) contrives a snare against another, turns (irepiTpineiv) It often against him- 
self. During the period of the holy war, great (=» much) disorder and dissen- 
sion prevailed (= was) over all Greece. Do not impose upon others a greater 
(charge) than their abilities permit (= than according to ability). It is neces- 
sary that {cux. w. inf.) men lire according to laws. The city was in danger rf 
beteg (s to be) taken {aor.) by force. A bad man who (part.) obtains (aor,) 
power, is not wont to bear good fortune as man ought (^ suitably to man). 
The Athenians, annually sent to Crete seven boys and seven maidens (as) food 
for the Minotaur (= to the M. as food). God has given {aor.} us the powers, 
by which we are to bear {/ut.) all the events of destiny. The sun passes over 
the earth. Overhanging ( = over) the city is a hill. Arsamus governed the 
Arabians and Aethiopians dwelling over Egypt Alcestis, the daughter of Fe- 
llas, was desBOus (aor.) to die {aor.) for her husband. It is very dishonorable to 
•hon (aar.) death for (one's) country. Clearchns waged war with the Thnuaam 
dwelling beyond the Hellespont. It is folly to attempt (= to do) something 
above (one's) capadty. Numa Fompilins, the most fortunate of the Boman 
kings, is said to have lived above eighty years. 

fl67« C. Prepositions with the Gen., Dat, and Aeo. 

1. Jlfiqit denotes that one thing is around another {on both sides) f 
near, close to, another. A. With the Gen. seldom used of place, e. g. 
dfjtq)l rrjg noleoig oixeiv, to dwelt around the city, — Of cause : 
ahoutj for, for the sake of e. g. fidxsad-ai cifiipi tipog, to fight 
about, for something, — B. With the Dat., as with the Gen. — C. With 
the Ace., e. g. a^eg)! triv noXi v,—Ho denote time and number 
indefinitely, e. g. afcqpi ioTisQav, cihout evening; dfjiq)} tovg 
fiVQiovg, about ten thousand. 

2. Hegi signifies all around, round, containing the idea of a ciiv 
cuit or circumference, and in this respect differing from dfiq)i, which 
Bignifies properly on both sides. A. With the Gen. — ^In a local re- 
lation it is not used in prose, but the more frequently in a causal 
sense : concerning, for, about, on account of, e. g. (idxBa'&at, dn(h 
'&avB$p neql r^g natQidog,to fight, die for one*s country ; Xs- 
ytiv ftsgi tirog,to speak about something ; qio^ala&ai negl na^ 
TQiSog; — ^to denote t^oZtc«, in the phrases ttsqI noXXoVf ftSQi 
ftXeiovog, Tteql nXsifftov, nsql oXiyov, jzsqI ovdepog 
moteic^ou or ^aiC&ai ti, to value highy higher^ etc — B. With the 

238 gTÄTAX.— PREPOBmoNs. — ini, [§ 167. 

Dat : aroundf on, near, e.g.negi talg He'spaXaXg elxov tiOQag^ 
around^ on their heads ; nEf^\ r^ X^^Q^ XQ^^^^ daxtvhov (ffgeiv ; 
>— in a causal sense: alfouiy for^ on account ofy e. g. Öediivai negi 
711^1, to fear for^ about one. — G. With the Aoc: ahouty near, hy^ 
throughout^ e. g. ^tuwp ^Hnnxeg ttegl näaaiß r^v £i%tXia9 
(about, throughout).^^To denote time and namber indefinitely, e. g. 
neq\ tovrovg rovg jf^ofov?, about these times; nsQi fiv- 
Qiovg atQatKotag, — In a causal sense to denote respect, e. g. 
CfAdpQovm nBQ\ tovg d'sovg, in respect to the gods. 

3. '£ n i signifies primaril j, upon, at, near. A. With the Gven^ 
%. g. to. &x&^ ol liiv ipOQig inl t(Sp usfpaXmp ipo^ovciv, al di 
Yvpaixeg inl rmv cifi<o9,the men carry burdens on their heads, the 
women on ^eir shoulders ; fieveip inl ttjg dgx^g, i^il rrjg ypcS- 
lirig, to remain in; oi in\ tcav ngayfidrav, those intrusted 
with business ; — towards, if the idea is that one is striving to reach 
• placet e« g* fiXtip inl ^df^ov [according to § 158, 3. (b)3« — ^In 
rekttoD to time, to denote the time in or during wiiich somethiBg 
lakes place, e. g. sff I Kvqov ßaaiXev op tog, during, in, under 
the reign of Gyrus. — Tq denote the occasion, the author, e. g. xa- 
Xetd'O'cu inl rtpog, to be named after, for one; conformity, e. g. 
UQipeip ti inl tipog, to judge according to something. — ^B. With 
Ihe Dat : uptm, at, by^ e. g. iml tots doQaai ^otag ^op XQVam^ 
upon the spears; oixsip inl d'ukattxi, by the sea, upon the «eo- 
eocut, — To denote dependence, e. g. inl tipi eJpoi, to be in the 
power of any one; ylyp^a^at inl tip i, to come into the power of 
any one; — condition, purpose, object, motive, e. g. s^t tout qp, hae 
conditüme, on this condition; inl xaxfp dp&Qmnov ald^Qog dpsi- 
Qtitcu, in pemiciem hominis; — cause, occasion, e. g. x^^^ i^i 
tip I, to rejoice at something, — C. With the Ace : upon, on, over^ 
towards (different from «Wwith the Gen., since with the Ace mere- 
ly the direction to a place is denoted), to, e. g. apo^alpeip i g>* i ir- 
nop; in apd-qdnovg {among). — Of time: until, i(p icni^ 
Qap; for, during, per, inl noXXag ^fitQa g, — To denote pur^ 
pose, object, e. g, ini d^i^gap lipai, venatum ire; in a hostile sense: 
{»gainst, e. g. atQareiead'ai inl Uiqaag, to make an 
against the Persians. 

XC. Exercises on § 167, 1, 2, 8. 

The poets have uttered such language (= words) about the gods themsdi 

•8 no one would dare {aor., § 153, 2, c) to utter about (his) enemies. Consider 

•irt, how (**«f) the adviser has managed (oor.) his own(affairB); ibrhewlio 

1^7.1 STKTAX* — ^PBBPOflinOMB. — ftVoL 2S9 

(4 148, 6) has not {fin) reflected (aor.) upon his own (eoacerns), will never de- 
cide well upon another's. Carthage waged war with Borne for Stdly, twenty- 
four years. All men value (their) kindred more than strangers. With reason 
dost thou esteem the soul more highly than the body. Gyges found a corpse 
that had on the hand a golden ring. Some of the Persians had both necklaces 
about the neck, and bracelets about the hands. The motion of the earth around 
Ae sun makes the year {hnavroc}, but the<«otion of the moon around the earth, 
Ibe months. The Spartan boys (» of the S.) as (;xvl) they went round the 
altar of Orthia, were scourged by law. Be {yiyvofMi) soch towards thy parentg, 
as {oloc) thou wouldst () 153, 2, c) wish {aar.) thy children to be (ace. w. inf.) 
towards thee. No human pleasure seems to lie (» elvai) closer at hand (eyyv- 
repOf w. ffen.), than joy on account of honors. The enemy, despairing of {aor.) 
liieir canse, about {äfe^i) nvktnight abandoned the city. There are said to be 
About one hnndied and twenty thousand Penians. Each of the Cyclopa bad 
one eye in the forehead. In Egypt, the men cany burdens on their (» the) 
bead, but the women on their shoulders. The soldiers returned home. After 
the battle Croesus fled to Sardis. Under Cccrops and the first kings until The- 
seus, Attica was inhabited in cities. All the children of the better {sup.) Per- 
sians were educated at the court {al "Bipai) of (the) king. Strive not after that 
which {\ 146, 6) is not {fiv) in thy power. Macedonia was in the power of 
tfie Athenians, and brought tribute. Dost thou consider that which ( rät w. part) 
happens for thy (« the) advantage, as the woik (pUtr.) of chance or of inteUi« 
gence ? For epic poetry we most admire Homer, for tragedy, Sophocles, for 
statuary, Polyclötus, for painting, Zeuxis. We ought {xpv) not to be displeased 
at (the) good fortune of others, but rejoice for the sake of {^la) our (=» the) 
common origin. The Nile flows (=» is borne) from south to north. Xerxes 
oollected {pari, aor.) an innumerable army and marched against Greece. So- 
emtes not only exhorted men to virtue, but also led them onward (rrpoayciv, aor.) 
to it Jupiter pennitted {aor.) Sarpedon, the king of (the) Lydans, to live for 
three generations. 

4. Met a (from fietjog) denotes the being in the midst of some- 
thing. A. With the Gen. to denote association^ connection, and 
participation with ; e.g.fjiet dvd'QtoTtmv elvaiy to he among men. 
Ehai fierd tivog,to he with, on the side of one. 'Tfuv ot nqoyo- 
1^01 tovro to yiqag ixT^ffamo xoti narikinov fist a noXX^v xou 
liEyaXtoni Hip8vv(oy, with many and great dangers ; — ^to denote 
conformity: iista r<av vofjtcov, (lera rov Xoyov, in confor» 
mity with the laws, with reason. — B. With the Dat., only poetic : 
among, e. g. jm«t' a^avarmg. — C. With the Ace, in prose it is used 
almost exclusively to denote that one thing follows another in space, 
time and order ; e. g. mead'ai [A e t d tiva,aft€r; fistd rov ßioPf 
after life ; Tiorafiog fieyiarog fiejd 'IarQOP,the greatest after the 
Ister, and in the phrase fistd x^^Q^S 1%^'^ ^*> '^ ^^ something 
hetween, in the hands* 

240 STHTAX. — ^rsxrosmOKS.'»««^ [1 167. 

5. HaQa »tgnifles the being near sometbtng : hy^ near, hy fft« «tefe 
ef, A. With the Gen. to denote a removal from near, from heside 
a person : from, e. g. iX^elv naqa Tivog,to come from some one* 
— To denote the author, e. g. neiKf^^vai naqa xivog,to he md 
by some one (§ 150, Bern. 4), ayyeXot, tiffsaßstg naqa riroff» «i* 
voy$ from any one; dyyilXHv na^a ripog, tä naqa tifog, 
eammiMsions, commands, etc of any one ;^^fiaif&aifet9 naqi ti9og, 
dnovetv nag a rivog,to learn, to hear from* — ^B. With the Dat to 
denote rest near a place or object, e. g. IffTtj naqa T(p ßaciXsl 
— C. With the Ace to denote direction or motion so as to come 
aear a person or thing, e. g. ag^ixcWai aagd KQolsov,to Gros' 
«ai#;^— direction or motion alony by a place; along near, by, b^/ond, 
t»g>naqa tfi9 BaßvXmv a na^U9M,to goby Baboon* Hence, 
naqd do^av, praeter opinionem; naq iXntda, contrary io 
hope; naqd cpvaiv, nagd to Öixatov, naqd rovg oq- 
%ovg, naqd ovvafiiv, beyond one^s potoer; also, besides, praeter, 
tiaQO, tavta, praeter haec, besides these things ;— 4o denote local 
extension near an object : along, e»g. jsaqa tov Jiamnop, along 
the A. — To denote the extension of time, e. g. nag' yfiSQav, na- 
gd tov TtoXefiov, during the day, the war; nagd r^v noöiv, 
inter potandum, while drinking. So also of particular, important 
points of time, daring which something takes place, e, g. Ttag ai- 
tov tov xivdvvov,in ipso discrimine, in the very moment of dan- 
ger,-^^ln a causal relation to denote a comparison, e. g. ^Xiov ixXsi- 
fpe^g nvKvotsQai rjaav naqd td ix tw nglv XQOvov fAv^fio- 
pevofieva, eclipses of the sun were more frequent compared wiA 
(than) those mentioned informer time, 

XCI. Exercises on § 167, 4, 5. 

Strive (pnrsue) after reputable pleasures. No one deliberates safely la (=* 
with) anger. It is noble to fight with many and brave allies. The good after 
deaüi (— dead) lie not in (« with) oblivion, but ever bloom in memory. The 
Athenians, amid very many hardships and very famous contests, and dangen 
very honorable, liberated Greece, and highly exalted {fieyiffrrfv AnoSeticvvvaii 
aor.) their native country. The judge ought to render judgment conformablj 
to the laws. After life the wicked await their punishment {phr.)^ bot the vi^ 
taous are forever happy (= abide in happiness). After the sea-fight at Sal«^ 
mis, Sophocles, who (part.) was still a boy, having been anointed, danced naked. 
Tly Chians, first of the Greeks after the Thessalians and Lacedaemonians, made 
use of slaves. Of all things {KTjjfxa) in life, after the gods, the soul is most di- 
vine. A messenger came from Cyaxares, who {part.) said that an embassy of 
Jews had arrived ( ^ was present), and brought a very beantÜal dress from liia 

i 167.] &TNTAZ.— FBBPOflinOKS.— «r^. 341 

to Cyrus. Promethetis stole {part, aor.) fire fnnn the gods «id brought (oor.l 
it in a reed to men. The praises of good men are very pleasant The godi. 
rejoice most in honors from the most pioos men. What is not {fiy) manifest to 
men, it is allowable (for them) to ascertain from the gods by divination. It ia- 
said, that {ace, w. inf.) the invention of the sciences was given {aor.) by Jupiter 
to the Muses. In {Kara) the war against the Mesaenians, the Pythia gave as m 
response {xp^* oor.) to the Spartans, that they should ask (»to ask, aar,) a 
general horn, the Athenians. Minos pretended to have learned his ( « the) laws 
from Jupiter himself. The Persian boys (= of the Persians) are educated nol 
with (the) mother but with a ( = the) teacher. The good are honored among gods 
and men. Cyrus sent ambassadors to the «king of the Persians. Osiris is said 
to have travelled from Egjrpt through Arabia to the Bed Sea» The river Sell- 
BUS flows by the temple of Diana in Ephesus. The Amazons dwelt {aor.) on 
the river Thennodon. A word unseasonably (» against season) thrown onl^ 
ofton destroys («= subverts) life. Paris, contrary to all justice (dkaun/, j^.)^ 
carried off (aor.) the wife of his (^^ the) host Menelaus to Troy. The Roman 
lawgiver (= of the Romans) gave {aor.) to {art,) fathers full power over («caro, 
w. gen.) their (= the) sons during their (— the) whole life-time (^ time of life). 
No man (»no one of men) will be fortunate during his f« the) whole life. 
JsL oomparison with {art.) other creatorcs, men live as gods, since {part) by (their^ 
satore, body and mind, they are saporior {KpaTiareva), 

6. TZ^off J^arising from nqo) signifies leföre (t« the presence of)^. 
A. With the Gen. to denote direction or motion from the presence 
of an object, especially in reference to the situation of a place, e. g. 
owEiv TiQog votov avsfjiov, towards the south, like a^ Oriente. 
Sometimes it is to be translated by in the view of, in the eyes of, etc 
(properly before one), e. g. o ri diaatoratov xcu nqog d^ediv xoi 
nqog dvd'QoincDV, rovro nQa^ta, in the eyes of, in the judgment 
of gods and men ; — also,^r the advardage of any one, on the side off 
for some one, e. g. doxeig fioi rov Xoyov nqog ifiov Xiyeiv, to speak 
for me, — To denote the cause, occasion and atUhor, hence with pas- 
sive and intransitive verbs, e. g. dniAa^affd-ai nqog UEiaiatQa^ 
tov,tohe dishonored by Pisistratvs ; — in oaths, e. g. ;r ^ o ^ d^etSPf. 
per deos, hy the gods, properly hefi>re the gods. — B. With the Dat to 
denote local rest before, near or by an object, e.g,7rQ6g r^ nols^, 
before, by the city, gtgog to ig HQitalg, before the judges, shcOf 
yiyveo'&cu regog tivi, to be earnestly engaged in something;, e. g« 
fSQog ftgayfAaai, ngog 7(p Xoyi^, in business, in conversation. 
Then, in addition to, besides, e,g,7rQ6g rovrip, ngog rovtoigf 
praeter ea. — C. With the Ace. to denote the local limit, direction or 
motion before an object, both in a friendly and hostile sense, e. g« 
iX^eiv nqog ri9a, to, ano^Xinsiv ngog tip a, upon, Xiyup nq6$ 
^iPUf tOj avfifiaxiar nouM^ai ngig ripag, with, fidxea'&eUi 


S4S «TIITAX. — FECP6smONS. — Mio. [§1€7« 

Xsftmw nqog riva, against^ ngog fieötjfißQtaTftinffardBjalkw 
ngog avX6v,to sing to theßute, i. e. to the flate*s aocompaniment. 
— To denote indefinite time, e. g. nqog fniiqav, towards dcy- 
Ireak* Also in reference to indefinite number. — In a causal sense 
to denote purpose, e* g. mivtodana svQfjfUpa tcug noXaai ngog 
^vXaa^i^ xac atatfi^iecp, various schemes were devised to guard 
mnd save the cities; — cortfürmitg, eanfomuMe, according to, e. g. 
9tQog triv o^piv tavfqv tov ydfiov tovrov iansvca, (xccording 
to this view. So xgiveiv rinqog ri, to judge according to some- 
thing. AlsOy tiQog ßiaVfhg force, against one*s will, Ttgug avaf- 
ic fi V, necessarily^ fordUy ; — hence, on account of, propter, e.g,iiQ09 
t^avra, properly, in conformitg with these things, hence, on this ae- 
eousU, therefore; — ^hence to denote a comparison, usoallj with the idea 
of superiority (prae) : in relation to, in comparison with, before, e. g. 
IriQog iati ngog Kiptjaiav, he is mere talk, nonsense, compared 
with Oinesias ; — ^in general to denote a respect, e. g. axonsi^p, ßXmur 
0g6g Vi, diaq>eQUV ngog agstiiif, to differ in^ respect to virtm. 
7. *Tir o, sttb, origiiial signification, under, A. With the Gen. to 
denote motion from a depth out : out from under, forth from, e. g. 
ift dni^v^g Xvetp innovg, to loose the horses from th^ chariot; — ^lo 
denote rest under an object, e. g. vno y^g oixeiv. — To denote the 
cnUhor, with passive and intransitive verbs, e. g. xtsifea-d'ai ino 
tivog, daod-aveiv vno tivog, to be put to death by some one ;-^ 
the cofuse, occ<zsion, active influence, e. g. vno xavfMatog, for, on 
account of, because of the heat, in oqyrjg, from, out of anger ; — to 
denote the means and instrument, particularly with reference to the 
accompaniment of musical instruments, e. g. iargatevorto vno golX- 
niyyao v, they marched by the sound of trumpets ; in avXov xo- 
Qsveiv, to dance by the music of the flute. — B. With the Dat^ e. g. 
vno yi^ thai, etc. as with the Gen. — C. With the Ace. to denote 
direction or motion towards and under, e. g. Uvai ino yi^v; extenr 
sion under an object, e. g. vneativ oixi^fiata ino y^v, are under the 
earth, — To denote time ajpproximately, e, g.ino pvxta, sub noe- 
tern, towards night; — to denote extension of time, e. g. ino t^9 
fi^r a, dunng. 

Bbmabk. When the article (alone or with a sabetaatiye) in connection with 
a preposition, expresses a substantive-idea, and the preposition kv ought to be 
nsed, then this preposition is attracted by the verb denoting the direction whence^ 
snd is changed into d TT 6 or kx; e. g. 0/ kK r^c ayopac äv&pwroi ajreffh 
yov, fil« nen belonging to the markd-place ßeäy instead ofo/ Iv ry iiyop^ &>• 

{ 168»] 8TKTAX^-*VS&BAL ADJECTIVES IN ^iog, 248 

XCn. Exercises o» § 167, 6, 7. 

Hhampsmitns, a king of Egypt, trected (= placed, aior,) two statues, of which 
the Egyptians call the (one) standing {perf.) towards (the) north, summer, the 
(one) towards (the) south, winter. Arabia is the most remote of the inhabited 
eountries towards the south. (It is) time for us to deliberate about ourselves, 
tiiat we may not (that not » fxv)^ in the judgment both of gods and of men, ap- 
pear {aita^vea^m) very mean and dishonoraihle. The Persians were deprived 
•iioor.) by the Laocdaemonians of the supremacy of Asia. It is not for the ad- 
Tantage of your reputation, to ein against the public (= common) laws and 
against our (=» the) ancestors. By the gods, abstain &om injustice. Stesicho- 
rus, the poet, was magnificently interred {aor.) in Catana, near the gate eaSed 
from him (the) Stesichorean. Kear the dwelling of the king, a lake affords toi 
abundance of water. Socrates was zealously employed in discourse. Aleifaia- 
des was beautifhl, and more than this, also v^ brave. Aristippus, the Thea- 
talian, comes to Cyrus, and asks of him about two hundred mercenaries. 
The Megareans buried their (= the) dead, turning them towards the east, but 
the Athenians towards the west Nicocles demeaned himself (aor,) towards the 
citizens with (fierä) very great (=much) lenity. The Greeks fought (aor.) 
against the Persians. Towards evening the enemy retreated. Socrates was 
Terymuch hardened (s=yei7 enduring) against winter and summer and ail 
hardships. (All) estimate men have the same disposition towards their (» 
the) inferiors as their (^the) superiors have towards them. The Thradans 
danced to the flute with their (= the) arms. The exercise (plwr.) of the body 
18 useful for the health. Let us not judge happiness by (= according to) money, 
iMt by virtue and wisdom. Socrates despised everything human, in comparison 
with (mi.) counsel from the gods. A very beautiful fbunt^n flows under the 
plane-tree. Hector was slain by AdiSles. Already many masters had been 
violently (» with violence) put to death (ä'xo^vriaKeiVy aor.) by the slaves. Ai- 
diestratus travelled over (aor.) all lands and seas from a love of pleasure. The 
rich often do not enjoy their (= the) prosperity from its (= the) unvarying 
pleasure. The soldiers go to the battle to the sound of trumpets. AH (the) 
gold upon earth and under earth (aoc.) is iK>t equivalent to virtue. Dionysius 
founded a city in Sicily just (avroq) at the foot of mount Aetna, and ealiedat 
Adranum. Towards night the enemy retreated. Towards the end of the war 
there arose a violent famine. 

§ 168. Remarks on the cansiruction of Verbal Adjectives in -rsog, 
^ea, 'tdop, and on the construction of the Oon^mraiive and St^ 

1, Verbal adjectires derived from transitive verbs, i. e. from such 
as govern the Ace, are used either like the Lat. verbal in -c?t/m, 
impersonallif in the neuter, -reW oc ^zia [§ 147, (c)], or personally^ 
Uke the Lat. participle in '■dtis ; but verbal adjectives derived from 
intransitive verbs, can be used only impenomdly. 


2. The verbal adjective vhen used impersonallj takes its object 
in the same Case as the verb from which it is derived. The per- 
son acting stands in the Dat., called the Dat of the agent [§ 161, 

*AaKtjTeov (or -Tea) iari aoi t^v äpe\rjv or (taKtirta kari ooi if aper^f 
jDM mutt pnwtise virtue, or intiue must be practised ly you. 'Eirt'&vfitfTeov kari 
coi T^g aper^Cf you must desire virtue, 'EirixeAptjTeov kari aoi r^ ^py<^ 
jOM must attempt the work. ^oTiaoreov (or -Tea) kari aoi rbv av^puvov or 
•KoXaareo^ kari aoi 6 av^potnoc, you must punidi tAe man. So with d^xmeol 
verbs \ e. g. ^ifiv^tov (or 'Tea) kari aoi Toi>c aya^ovc (from fufuur&ai 
nva) or fUftijTeoi elai aoi ol ayad^oi, you must imitate the good. 

8. When two objects are compared, the one by which the com- 
parison is made, is put either in the Gen. [§ 158, 7, (^)], or is con- 
nected by the conjunction ^ (than) ; e. g. o fiatijQ fm^tov iati tov 
viov ov 6 n, lA, iatlvy ij 6 viog, is grecUer than the son. 

Rbmabk. When two qualities belonging to an object are compared with each 
odier, both are expressed by the comparative adjective and are connected by 17 ; 
Q. g. •^aTTioVy ^ oo^urepo^ kartVy cderior, quam prudentior^ he is more swift thasi 
prudent. So also with adverbs ; e. g. tovto ^ärroVy ^ ao^repov hroiiiaact eek- 
rwf, quam prudentius, you did this with more dtepatdi than prudence. 

XCIIL Exercises (m%l^. 

We mast shun a (»= the) dissolute friend. The citizens mast obey the lawsi 
We must attempt noble actions. We must despise dangers for the sake of vir- 
tue. We must avoid ( = keep ourselves from) him who (part pres.) is goveioad 
by (art.) evil passions. We must put the hand even to difficult undertakingiBL 

§169, Remarks on the use of the Pronouns, 

1. The subject, predicate, attribute and object are expressed by 
inronouns, when the parts of the sentence containing the pronouns, 
are not to represent the ideas of objects or qualities, but when it is 
merely to be shown, that an object or quality refers either to the 
speaker himself or to anotlier (second or third) person or thing (§ 55). 

2. All the rules which have been given on the substantive and 
jidjective, apply also to subsUmtive and adjective pronouns ; still, a 
few remarks are here necessary on the use of the personal pronouns. 

3. The substantive personal pronouns in the Nom., viz. iyti^ av, 
stätoSf -^, -o, ^fisiSf etc., and the adjective (possessive) pronouns as 
attributives, e. g. ifiog nar^Q, are, in Greek, as in Latin, expressed 
only when they are specially emphatic, hence particularly in anti- 
theses; e. g. xiu (TV Tovta iaQCL^ag I tuu dog nat^Q dni&txreif 


iyta (ihf «braiffc, cv da fiift. But where this is not the caae, they 
are omitted, the substantive pronouns being supplied bj the endings 
of the verb, and the adjective pronouns by the article prefixed to 
the substantive; e. g. y^i^p^, 'ygaqteig, yqcupsi — ^ (ii^ttjQ alns fim 
(my mother) — oi ywtXq (stiqyaivGi rä rexra (lave their children). 
See above, § 56 and § 59, also § 148, 3. 

Hem. 1. A ^ r 6 f in the Nom. is not generally used as Üie subject of the verb^ 
bat for the most part as an intensirc pronoun {sdf^ very)^ agreeing with another 
jtmnonn expressed or understood, or with a subfttantiye. In some instances, 
however, it seems to be used as the simple subject of the verb, though even then 
retaining something of its intensive force; e. g. 6 iratiip airdc k^ßrr^-^ «rd 
airb^ hwjßä^ fie; airdc ^^V- It has its intensive force ako, when It agrees 
with a pronoun or substantive in any other Case than the Nom. — The demon- 
strative o^Toc (hie) and dd«, usually refer to what is near, Ae, this man, this 
iking ; the demonstrative kKeivoc {iUe), on the contrary, properly refers to what 
is more remote, Hk person or thing there, that person or thing, but sometimes to what 
immediatdy precedes. Hence when kiteivoc and o^rof are used in oppositioa 
to each other, the latter refers to what is neazer, the former, to what is more re> 
mote, though the reverse is sometimes the case, as with the Lat Aic and iUe, 

Rbm. 2. The difference between the accented and enclitic forms of the perso- 
nal pronouns, e. g. ifiov and ftov, lies in the greater or leas emphasis with which 
they are pronounced in discourse. Thus, the accented forms are always used, 
«. g. in antitheses; e. g. kfiov phf KareyeXsae, al ^ krtfveoev, hedaidedme^ 
hi praised you, — On the use of the Gen. of substantive, instead of adjecdve (jms- 
sessive) pronouns, see § 148, Rem. 8 and 4 ^S* — On the possessive pronouns 
taking the word in apposition, in the Gen., e. g. ifierepoc airuv narijpf see Bern. 
4, below. 

4. The reflexive pronouns always refer to something before 
named, this being opposed to itself as an object (in the Cren., Dat, 
Ace, or in connection with a preposition) or as an attribute. 

'O ao^hc kavTov Kparel, the wise man rules himself. St) oeavr^ apeoKeic, 
you are pleased with yourself. '0 iraXg iavrbv Inatvei, the boy praises himself. 
01 yoveig äyairCxM. roi>c iavröv iraidac. Tvü^t oeavrov. O^rof 6 avifp 
iravra di' iavrov ftefiä^^Kev. 'O erpartf-ydc ^b t6v iavrov arparurrdif 
äve^en/ev, was killed by his own soldiers. 

5. The object before named, to which the reflexive pronouns re- 
fer, is : 

(a) The subject of the sentence, as in the examples of No. 4 ; 

(b) An object of the sentence, e. g. Kvqog dn^veyxe rmv iXXmp 
ßaaiXioov, t^v dgx^S ^i iavtdiv xrriüafiivoo9, O. differed 
from other kings, who acquired sovereignty by themselves* Mi- 
aovfiev rovg dvOgcinovs tovg (p^ovovrtag iavtolg^we hate 


246 8TNTAX. — CaS OF THE FBOSOITirS. [§ 16|. 

men who hear iU-wiU towards themtehee, Jfm üuvtoviyti 

6. In Greek, as io Latin, the reflexive pronoun may be used in 
^e relations above named, with the construction of the Ace and 
Ihe Inf., or of the Fart., and even when it stands in a subordinate 
clause. In this case, the English language often uses the personal 
IHTonouns Mm^ her^ ity instead of the reflexive pronouns. 

'O rvpavvoQ vofu^ei Toi>c ifoXtrac iir^pereiv iavr^j the tyrcad thinks UmA 
ike dtitens are subject to kim. IloXX&v t&vuv ffp^ev 6 Kvpoi o{h^ iavr^ 
6fioyXuTTcnf ovruvy oi)Te aXXifXaiCt Cyrus governed mamy »attortf, not speaking Üi 
Jams language vxth Mm nor with each other. 'O Kartiyopog l^ rbv ^uKpärijv 
Avanei^ovra rot)r veov^t c^c avrbg elij ow^raroc re koZ aA^ovf iKavuraroc irwf- 
.010« ao^ov^f o^ct SiaTi^evai TOt)f airij) awovraCy t^f re fiijSafwv nap' a^rotf 
Todg &X^M}g elvcu npdc kavrov, the accuser said that Socrates, by persuading 
Sm youth thai .he himsdf was the wisest of men, and most capaUe rf makxsg othen 
wise, so inßuencsd the minds of those who associated with him, that others were of m 
4tocount, in comparison with him. 

7. On the contrary, the oblique Cases of the pronoun avrogt 

-^, -0 : viz. avtov, - J ff, avt<^, -J, avtov, -^p, -o, avz^Vy etc, 

or of a demonstrative, are universally used, when an object is not 

opposed to itself, but to another object ; e. g. '0 aat^Q avr<p iöcm 

TO ßißUaVf gave the hook to him (the son), ^tegym avtov (him). 

JinijipiMa avtovj I ahstain from htm. The pronoun avrw, etc. 

is here nothing else than the pronoun of the third person. 

Rem. 3. The personal pronoun oi, 61, etc. has commonly a reflexive sense in 
the Attic writers. Bat in this case, it is regularly employed, only when the le- 
^ezive relation has respect, not to the nearest, hut to the more remote sabject-, 
a g. 'O Tvpawog vofu^ei TOt>g tto^Stoc ii^jperelv o l (but not rvpawoc xafHl^trai 

8. In the instance mentioned under No. 6, the corresponding 
forms of avrog are very frequently used instead of the reflexive 
pronoun ; and this is always the case, where a member of a sen- 
tience or a subordinate clause, is not the expression or sentiment of 
the person to whom the pronoun refers, but the expression of the 
speaker (writer). 

Kvpog kdeiro. tov Xaxa iravrug (njfiaiveiv airi^, bvroTe kyx^oiij elguvot 
irpdc Tbv irannov, O. rogabat Sacam^ ut indioaret sibi, quanch tempestivum esseL 
01 iroXefuoi eir&i>g &<^aovai ri^ Xeiav, kireiSäv Iduai rtvag iif a{)Toi>c i^v- 
vovTOCt the enemy una stop plundering, as soon as they see amf coming against thesi. 
T^ kavTOv yvCifiTjv airei^aiveTo ^oKpartjg irpbg Toi)g 6fjLih)vvTac airi^, Socrates 
expressed his views to those who associated widt him. ^uKpärijg iyvo tov tri ^^ rd 
removal airip KpeiTTov elvai, S. knew that death was better for him than a longer 

1 169.] BYSTAX, — 08B OF THE PBONOUNfl. 247 

9. In the compound reflexiye pronouns, avtog either retains its 
exclusive force or it does not, i. e. it is sometimes emphatic, and 
sometimes not 

(a) duKaiov koTi ij>iXovg fiev irot,el(r&ai T(n>g dfwio^ avTolg re (or o<^lat 
re aijTolg) koI toIs äXXoig ;fp<j^evovf, (^ßela^ai 6e koI öeSievai rot)f Trpdf 
a^uc fikv aiToi>c (w: iavrovg) oUeioTaTa diaKenUvovg^ irpdg de rot)f aA- 
Xovc aX^rpici^j it is proper to make friends of those who treat themselves and others 
tUikey but to fear those who are very friendly to themselves^ lud. hostile to others / here 
the reflexives airolg and a^s* aiToi>gf each being compounded of avrogt arc em- 
phatic =: se ipsis and se ip80S^'^{h) 01 OTpaTidTai irapei^ov iavToi)g (or o ^ d f 
avToi>c) ävdpewTaTovg (se), showed themselves very brave. 01 iroTieftwi rcapedo- 
aav kavToiig (or a ^ag avroiig) rolg 'WiXrjaLv (se), delivered themselves to tks 
Greeks; in these two examples, the airog contained in the rcflexiyes is not em- 

Bbm. 4. The reflexive possessive pronouns are either nsed aUme^ e. g. fieradi' 
dufii ooi TÜV kfidv xpVf^'^<'>Vt I share with yoa my effects; diKaiorepov kart 
rä ^ fie re pa i^fiäg ix^iv ^ rovrovg, it is more just tftat ux should have our O1011 
ihan that ^ley should have it ; ifieig awavreg Toi>g i/neTepoyg iralSag äyanäTe ; 
oliroXiTcu rä öftere pa oo^eiv iireipüvro] or with the addäion of the Oen. 
ofavTog (according to M^? 3) j 01* instead of the possessives, the Gen. of the 
compound substantive-reflexives is employed ; and indeed in the common lan- 
guage, the last form is always used with the singular pronoun, and more fie- 
quently than the possessives with the third Fers. PL, but the Gen. of airog is 
usually employed with the plural of the possessives (except the third persoa). 

S.i ifiavToi) {aeavToVf iavTov) narr/p not o k/ibg (obg, bg) airoO ir. 

r^ kfiavTov (oeavrov^ kavrov) fiijTipa not t^v ifi^ [oijVf rjv) airov fi. 

Tolg kp.avTov (aeavrovj kavrov) Xoyoig not rolg ifLoig{aoigj olg) airovX. 

P. 6 iffjiirepog abrdv irarrjp extremely rare 6 fj(juli>v avrüv if. 

r^ ifierepav airCrv fiTftipa extremely rare r^v ifujv airuv fi. 

rd ^fiirepa avrüv äfiapTJtfiara extremely rare tvl ^pxjv airCjv d. 

b a^erepog ahrCtv Tcarijp more frequent 6 kavrCrv nar^p^ but not 

6 0^6>v airav ir. 

Hsxe also, airbg is sometimes emphatic, sometimes not: (a) '0 iratg ißpi^ei 
rbv iavTov iraripaj suum ipsius patrem, his own father ^ v/ielg i)ßpi^ere roiig 
ifieripovg airüv Trarepag^ vestros ipsorwn patres^ your own parents^ ol Trot- 
6eg ißpi^ouai roiig kavrCtv irarepag^ siws ipsorum patres; (b) J^rparoviKijVf r^ 
kavrov adeX^v^ 616001 ^ev^^j suam sororemj his sister; — ^in the examples un- 
der (a), airog retains its emphatic force, in the one under (b), it does not. 

Rem. 5. hitrog with a reflexive meaning, regularly stands after the substan- 
tive and adjective pronouns ; e. g. ly^öv abrCtv, vfuv airolg^ 6 ifierepog airtjv 
itarript etc. But when the personal pronoun is used with the reflexive sense, 
ihsnuairogt used in its exclusive sense, may precede or follow the personal pro? 
noun; e. g. airov kfiov (fJtov)^ air^ kfioi (fioi), airbv kfie (//e), or kjJLOv airroi), 
ifiol air^^ etc. 

Rbm. 6. For the sake of perspicuity, or rhetorical emphasis, a demonstrative 
pronoun, particularly airog f is frequently put in the same sentence after a pre- 

248 STNTAX.— /THB imTKITITE. [{ VKk 

eeding substantive or pronoan, when a long intennediate danse npuales the 
CaM from the verb whkh governs it This pronoan again resnmes the preced- 
ing sabstantive or pronoun; c. g. K2£apxoc dk ToXfiidtfv *RXeloVyb» 
Myxctvev ix^^ "^^^ kavT(^ K^pvKa &pi<mv tuv totb, tovtov dvewretv &ce- 
Xevo'e, Clearchus commanded Tofmides of Eiis, whom he happened to have wkh Am, 
and wJio was the most distinguished herald of his time^ that he shoM make prodanur 
tion. 'Eyo) fiev oitv ßaai^eüj ^ iroXXä oitruc icrrl rä avfiftaxa, dwep irpodv» 
fielrai ijfiä^ uiroT^.eaai^ oIk ol6a, 6 ti del airdv öftoacu xai ie^täv dovvau 

XCIV. JExercises on % U9. 

The dissolute (man) makes himself the slave of himself. Care for aD, but 
most for thyself. The passions (^dovai)^ implanted in the sonl» do notpersiudB 
it to be considerate, but forthwith to render service both to themselves and to 
the body. I should (§ 153, 2, c) be ashamed (aor.) if I cared more for my i^ 
putation than for the common welfare. (Those) whom {oifg äv, w.8idfj.)yn 
esteem {aor.) as better than ourselves, those we are willing to obey and (that) 
without compulsion. To those who (§ 148, 6) do not (//^) command them- 
selves to do right (== the good), God assigns others (as) masters (£=oommaB* 
ders). The Chaldaeans came and prayed {part.) Cyras to make {aar.) peace 
with them. The Athenians thought they ought {inf.) not to thiuik others {in- 
pog) for {art.) deliverance, but the other Greeks them. In the Peloponnesian 
war, Grecian cities were destroyed {aor.), some by (the) Barbarians, others by 
themselves. Enrich thy (» the) friends ; then thou wilt enrich thyself. Fhrixns; 
as soon as {part.) he learned {aor.) that his £ather was about {fUX^iv, opt.) to 
sacrifice him, took {part, aor.) his sister, and mounting {aor.) a ram with her, 
came {aar.) through the sea into the Fontus Euxinus. The Persians went 
through the whole country of the Eretrinns, binding {aor.) their (« the) hands, 
that they might be able {^x^iv) to tell {aor.) the king, that no one had escaped 

§170. The Infinitive. 

The Infinitive represents the idea of the verb as an abstract sub* 
stantive-idea ; but it differs from the substantive, in retaining so 
much of the nature of the verb, as that, on the one hand, it exhi- 
bits the nature or quality of the action, viz. duration, completioo 
and futurity, e. g. ygdcpeiv, yeyQaq^ivcu, ygoixpai, yQcixpeiVy while on 
the other, it has the same construction as the verb, i. e. it govenis 
the same Cases as the verb ; e. g. yQa<puv iniatoX^v, im&üfua 
TTJg dQStijSf ivavtiova^cu roTg noXefiioig. The attributive 
qualification of the Inf. is an adverb^ and not, as in the case of && 
actual substantive, an adjective ; e.g.xaXmg ano^avBiv (but ntäJk 
^ivatog). The Inf. .will first be considered without the article^ 
and then with it. 

if 171, 172.] 8T1ITAX.— ^IHE IKFINXnTS* 248 

§ 171. A. Infinitive without the Article. 

1. The Inf. without the article is used, in the first place, as the 

Oi Kcucbv ßafftXeveiVftobea king is not evtZ. ^Ael ^ßg. roig yepovaiv t^ 
fia'&elVf the ability to ham always remains young even to the old. Mox^oc fd- 
yurrog y^q irarpiag arepea'&ai. 

2. In the second place, the Inf. is used as the object in the Acc^ 
to express something effected^ unshed, aimed atj the purpose, object 
or resvk, with the following classes of verbs* and adjectives : 

(a) With verbs which denote an act or expression of the will ; 
e. g. to unshy to desire, to long for, to dare, to ask, to command, to 
counsel, to permit, to fear, to delay, to prevent; — (b) with verbs which 
denote the exercise of the intellectual powers or their manifestation ; 
e. g. to think, to intend, to hope, to seem, to learn, to say, to deny ;^ 
(c) with verbs which contain the . idea of being able, effecting^ of 
power or capacity ;**-(d) with many other verbs and adjectives to 
express a purpose or object, a consequence or resuU. 

BovXofiai, niXXu ypa^eiv. 'Eiri^vfiö iropeveaiS at, ToXfiö 
{firofiiveiv Tbv KivSwov. Hapaivo aoi ypa^eiv. Oirog Toi>c ^^iovf 
iweiaev kirt^ia'&at ToigdeoTroTcuC' Ty äXX'g (rrparigi äfM k a p e a k e v &• 
^ero ßoij^elv iit' ainvvg. KuX^q ae ra^ra fcoielv. ^oßov/iai dig- 
Xiyxeiv ae. Hojiii^u äfiaprelv. 'EAtt/^c» eijrvxv^feiv. "H ird- 
Xig kicivdvi>evae iraaa Sia^'&apfivai. "E^jy elvai arparriyog. Ki- 
yu elSivai ravra. yLav^avu lirvreveiv. AidaaKQ ae ypa^eiv, 
Avvafiai iroieiv ravra. Xloio ae yeX^v. 'k^iog kari -^avfta^B- 
a^ai. 'HKOfiev fiav&aveiv. 

Bbmabk. It is a pecnliaritj of the Greek, that with these adjectives, it com- 
monly uses the Inf., Act or Mid., instead of the passiye Inf. Such Infinitives 
may be translated both actively and passively into English -, e. g. KaXog kartv 
Uelv, he is beautifid to see, or to 6e seen, &^i6c kori ^avfiaaai, worthy to he admind, 
%6yoc ^aroc iart naravo^aaif able to be understood 

§172. Nom,y Gen., Dat. and Ace* with the Infinu 


1. Most verbs which take an Inf., have, in addition to this object^ 
also a personal object, which is put in the Case that the principal 

* The verbs which take an Inf. after them, are osoally such as do not express 
a complete idea of themselves, but require an Inf. or some other construction, 
to complete the idea. The Inf. therefore, is the oomplemenl of the verb on 
which it depends. Comp, what is said on the Part as a complement of the verb, 
\ 175.— Tb. 

tM ^ 8T17TAX.— THS INFIHinTE. [§ 172. 

verb requires; e. g. diofiai aov iX&eiif, I heg you to come* 
£vfAßov}.ev(o (T Ol aa^ipQareiPi ladvUe y<m to he discreet. ^Etiih 
tQViffo ae fidxM'&cu; I urge you toßght. KeXevio ae yQeupetp. 

2. Bat when the principal verb is a verhum seniiendt* or deda- 
randif governing the Ace., and the subject ci the principal verb is at 
the same time its object (or in En^ish, when the subject of the 
principal verb is the same as the subject of the dependent dause, 
e. g. I think thai I have erred) y then the Ace. of a personal pronoun 
is not joined with the Inf., as in Latin, but is wholly omitted. 

Olofitu äftaprelv (instead of olofuti kfiavrhv dfiaprelv)^ Itkink thai I hone 
mrtdy credo ms ertaste; olet äfiaprelv (instead oSolei oeavrbv &fiapTeiv)^ yon 
Mik thai you have erred^ credis tb errasse; oUtcu dfiapreiv (instead of olerai 
itvrdv dftaprelv), he tkit^ that he has erred^ credit bb errane. 

3. When adjectives or substantives are joined with the Inf., as 
explanations of the predicate, they are put, bj attraction, in the 
same Case as the object of the principal verb, viz. in the Gren., 
Dat or Ace ; and when the subject of a verhum seniiendi or declc^ 
randi is also its object, i. e. when the subject of the principal verb 
and of the Inf. is the same, the explanatory word is put in the Nom. 
by attraction. 

Nom. with Inf. 'O arpartjybg 1^ irp6^v/ioc dvai hrißotf^ei», tkecetmmB^ 

der aaid thai he was aaodeu» to render md. 
Gen. wiUi Inf. Aeo/fOi ffov IT p«i^v/tfov eZyoi, /umAjioii to fteafloioviL 
Dat with Inf. l&vfißovXevo aoi wpo^ifftf^ elvai, 
Aoc. with Inf. '£7or/>w» ae irpoi^vfiov cZvoi. "Efti ae e^Saifäovm. 


Rbm. 1 . When the subject of the principal yerb and of tiie Inf. is the same, and 

the sabject of the Inf. is to be made emphatic, which is the case partknilarij in 

* antitheses, then the sabject of the Inf. is expivssed in the Ace.; e. g. Kpouror 

hofu^e iavTÖv elvai irdvrvv ^i^iwrarov, Oroesv» thought thai he woe ike weoOi 

happy of all men. 

Rem. 2. Veiy freqnentlj the predicatiye ezphmations whidi are joined with 
the Inf., and refer to the object of the principal Terb, are not pnt in the same 
Case as this object, bat in the Ace. ; this is explained by considering the object 
of the principal verb, at the same time as the subject of the Inf ; a g. deojoac 
itliuv (ifia^) ßoti'&oi>^ yeveo^ai. 'A&ifvaiuv kdetf^aav a^i ßoifi^o^f 
yevia&aiy' they requested the Athenians to assist them; here the word 'A0igvmuw 
Stands in a two-fold relation, first as the object of läe^^oav, in the Gen., and 
second, as the sabject of yevea&ai, in the Ace; Hevt^ fJKeiv irapifyyeiXe Aa- 
ßovra Toi>c avdpoc; ^eari & ifuv, el ßovXeo^e Xaßovra^ öirXa elf 
&W0V k/ißaiveiv. 

» Fer6a«enftefK&' are sach as signify to Mm^ 
tho like ■f^'4)erba dedarandi, sach as signify to «ay, affimij show, announee, ei 

i 173^] smxAX. — ISS iMFiMmyx« ttt 

Bbm. 3. When the Inf* u used as the snbject (f 171, 1 ), and has a snbjeet d 
its own or predicaüre explanations, connected with it, both the subject of the 
Inf. and the predicatiye explanations are put in the Ace. ; e. g. T^rep r^f ira- 
Tpidoc fiaxofiSvovc awo^avelv koXov kariv^ it is hanarabU to die fighting far 
«0* country ; here äiro&avelv which is the snbject of ifrri^ has for its own sub- 
ject the Aee. tw&c or fiiiäQ ondflEstood, and for its pcedicative explaaauoii, ^ 
X^avw^f also in the Ace. 

XCY. Mcereiset <m §§ 171, 172. 

Critias and Aldbiades believed that, if they should associate (aor, opL) with 
(oil) Socrates, they might (§ 153, 2, d.) become very competent both to speak 
«nd to act ( ^ in speaking and in acting). Endeavor to be a lover of labor with 
thy (»the) body, a, lover of wisdom with thy mind, that (Iva, w, gubj\) thoQ 
mayest execute thy (= the) purposes (rd So^avra) with the one, foresee that 
which is for thy advantage ( « the advantageous) with the other. The Persians 
thought they were invincible by {Kara} sea. Thou wilt find many tyrants who« 
{part.) have been destroyed by those who (^ 148, 6) seemed most to be (theur) 
friends. Socrates said, that those who (^ 148, 6) consult an (»the) oiada 
(for that) which the gods have given (aor.) men (the ability) to learn {peat, nor.) 
and to decide, were insane. It becomes every ruler to be discreet. I bdiew 
that men have (art.) riches and {art,) poverty not in their houses (sh^). 
but in their minds. Their (» the) common dangers made the allies kindly, 
disposed towards each other. Some philosophers (s of the philosophers) be- 
lieve (<5o«et, 10. dot) that everything {plw.) is in motion (»moving itself), 
but others that nothing can ever move (4 153, 2, d.), and some, that everything 
IS coming into existence (■■ becoming) and perishing, but others that nothing 
can ever either («= neither) come into being (cmr,) or («=nor) perish {aar.). 
Hen, when they are sick {part), submit (» present) their bodies both to be am« 
pntated {ad.) and cauterised {aet.) amid {fiera) sufferings and pains. Cyms 
ordered the enemy to deliver up {aor.) their arms. It is better to learn late 
tiian to be ignorant 

§173. B. Infinitive with the Article. 

1« The Inf. with the article (to) is treated in all respects as a 
substantive, and is sach, since by means of the article, it can be de- 
clined, and is capable of expressing all those relations, which are 
indicated by the Cases of the sabstantive. On the contrary, it here 
also, as in the Inf. without the article, retains the nature of a verb ; 
e.g. to interoXriv yqiq^uv, to %aX^g YQaqfetp, etc, to naXmg 
ian&p^cxaVf an honorable deaths to vneQ tijg sfatQidog vMo^aifeirf 
death for on^z country. 

2. When the Inf., whether used as a subject or object, has a snb- 
jeet and predicative explanations belonging to it, then both these, 
as in case of the Inf. without the article (§ 172, A.), are put in the 

358 BXITTAX. — THB PABTIC|PLj£ [§174 

Ape. When, however, the subject of the Inf. is the same as Üiat 
of the principal verb, it is not expressed, and the predicative expla- 
nations are put bj attraction in the same Case as the subject of 
the principal verb, i. e. in the Nom. (§ 172, 2 and 3). 

Td äno-^avelv rtva imlp t^C varptAof ismX^ tic rvxflt ihat one timid dit 
for his country ia a , happy lot. Td äfiapräveiv üv^punovc övra^ob' 
divt olfMif i^avfi€UTTov, that those who are men should err^ I tMnk^ is not swprisisg^ 
era is not surprising that^ etc, JLXiapxoc piKpdv i^e^e rov KaraireTpo- 
^^vaif C. barely escaped being stoned to death XuKparijg irapexaXei hrifieht- 
a^ai Tov Ci^ ^povifiurarov elvai xal Ci^eXifioraToVy Socrates ta^ 
korted eadt one to make it his object tobe {to have a care Jar being) as wise and a 
tts^id as possible f here ^povifiurarovy etc. agrees with iKOtrrov nnderstood, wiiidi 
is the subject of the Inf. elvaij while the whole clause is used as a substantiTt 
(Yeiy often rov or rov fi^ with the Inf is used to denote a purpose or object; 
e. g. Lvvaptv 'rrapatTKeva^erai rov fi^ äÖLKela^aifheis preparing a fine m 
'order that he may not be injured). 01 äv^puiroi nävra prjxavcJvTcu hrl t^ eirv- 
XelVf use every expedient in order to be prosperous. 'O Kvpof diä rd ^i^o- 
fia^^C elvat noXXä Toi>c napovrag ävifpura, Koi baa atrdc ifn* äXXuv {se. 
ävffpiJTäTo)^ diä TÖ iLyxf-vovg elvat raxr> hireKpivero, on account of las 
ßmdness for learning^ Cyrus was in the habit of proposing marry questions to ihm * 
eAout him, and whatever he himsdf was asked by others^ he readily answered, en at- 
count of his quickness of perception ; in this sentence, the subject of the Infinities 
being the same as that of the principal yerb, the predicative explanations ^^ 
lux&flC and ayxivovgy are put in the Nom. by attraction, agreeing with the im* 
plied subject -of the Infinitives. So in rovro hroiei he tov x^t^evof dvatt 
this he effected by being sevare. 

XCVI JSxercises an § 178. 

The huntsmen cheerfully toil in hope of game {^fißäveiv, ßä.), 'Pna»- 
iheus was bound in Scjthia, because (Sia) he had stolen fire. The Spartaas 
are proud of (^^rt) showing (= oiTering) themselves submissive and obedient to 
magistrates. Avarice, besides {trpoc) conferring no advantage (= benefiting 
nothing), often deprives even of present possessions. In order that the hares 
may not escape from the nets, the hunters station scouts. So fax fiom {ärri) 
corrupting young men, Socrates incited them, in (kx) every way to practise fi^ 

§174. The Participle. 

1. The Participle is osed, in the first place, as the ewnjplemad of 
verbs and adjectives, e. g. j^ouqoh tot aptkov dqieX^aagf I rejoice M 
I have assisted a friend, where the Part. dcpeXijffag explains or com- 
pletes the idea of the verb, which is imperfectly expressed withoot 
it ; in the second place, the Part serves not merely to denote an 
immediate attributive qualification of a substantive, e. g. ro &al' 

f 175.] SYNTAX. — THE KiLRTfGIPL& Ufri 

it or .j^o^or or r^ ^o/lor vd ^ «St Xo y, ^ Uoaming rotei but it 
also express the adverbial relations of Hmey causaHt^y numHer and' 
iffay, and, in general, etfery explanatory circum^ance, as weU as •» 
taore remote attributive of a substantive. 

2* The Part, represents the idea of the verb as thatof >ap>aij|f—> 
ftW, and is like the adjective both in its form and in its attributive* 
use; but, in the same manner as the Inf. (§ 170),. it exhibits the* 
nature or quality of the action (ygaqxar, yeyQaqnos, ygaxpiKSf yQc^ 
i^Mr), and retains the construction of the verb (^^^a^oor iniist<^ 
X^Vf xaXoig ygoiqiwp). As the Fart, has an attributive ferin 
and signification, it can never be used independently, but always 
depends on a substantive^ agreeing with it in gender, number anä 

§175. The Participle as tTie cömp'lem^nt of the Vef% 

1. As the Part is an attributive, and therefore represents the ac- 
tion as already belonging to an object, only such verbs can have la 
Part, fix their complement, as require for a complement an äßüaiä 
which, in the chai^tw of an attrihute, belcmgs to an object,— «the 
object being in some state of action, or in some condition. Henoa 
the following classes of verbs have a Part for their oomplemeat 
(a) Verba sentiendi, i. e. such as denote a perception by the setisea 
or by the mind, e. g. to hear, to see^ to observe, to know, to perceive^ 
to remember, to forget; — (b) Verba declarandi, e. g. to declare, to 
show, to make manifest, to appear, to be known, to be evident;—^ 
(c) Verba affectuwn, i. e. such as denote an Bffection of the min^ 
e. g. to rejoice, to grieve, to be contented, happy, to be displeased, to 
he asha$ned, to regret; — (d) Verbs signifying topermt, to endwre^i» 
persevere, to continue, to be weary (fteQWQav, imtgemif, Ap^x^cf&oa^ 
HttQreQeTv, xdfipeip, etc. ; but iav always with the Inf.) ; — (e) Verbs 
signifying to begin and cease, to cause to cease, to omit, to be remiss 
in something ; — (f ) Verbs signifying to be fortunate, to distinguish 
one^s sdf, to excel, to be inferior, to do well, to err, to do wrong, to 
snjoy, to befvU of something. 

RsM. \. The Pttrt. used #i^ the preeeding classes of Yerhs, is often eqnhn^ 
tent to a subordinate clApse introdttoed bjr ftrt or ti, and in IBn^^^, miiBt otai 
te I tmala t Mfc by <to.<Mr y, otly tfie J«/ 

2. The construction is here evident. The Part agrees in Case 
with the substantive-object of the principal verb, this object being 
^ the Case whiok the principal verb requires. But when the sqIk 


K4 BTXrTAX.-HnB[B FABTIOiri«S< [1 125« 

jeet of the principal Terb is, at the same time, its object, as elda 
(iyti) ifMXvrop ^vritop optet, then the personal prononn which rep- 
resents the subject as an object, is not expressed, and the Part, b 
put \>j attraction in the same Case as the subject of the principal 
verb, i. e. in the Norn. (comp. § 172, 2). 

*0pcj rbv uv&poTTOv TpixoPTGt I see the man running. OZrJa civ- 
{^punov d'vrjTÖv övra^ 2 know that man is moricd. Old a -^vrirb^ 6», 
I know that I am mortal. 'Akovq airov Xeyovrogf I hecar him say. Oi 
'k^Tjvaloi k^aivovTO iiirepax'^etf^evTec Tp MtX^rov äXuaet, the AjA^ 
mam seemed to hone hem exceedingly grieved at the captwre ofM. T^öiac ^^eyx- 
•dria^ ^evdofievoct you tvill easily be confuted if you falsify. 01 ^eol ;f a i- 
povat T ificj/^evo t iirb tqv uv&po>nuVf the gods rejoice^ if thy are honored^ 
at being honored. Xaipu aoi kX-^ovri^ I rejoice titat you have come. 01 
noXlrai irepieldov t^ y^v ^Trd rwv iroXeftiav Tfitj'&elaaVf the citizens per- 
mitted the country to be laid waste by the enemy. Havu ae adiKovvraj I make 
you cease to do wrong, or doing wrong. Havofiai ae adtKuv, I cease to injwe 
you. 'Apxofiüt ^iyuVf I begin to speak. Ev hrroLTiaag cKfuKOfievoc, 
you have done weU that you have come. 'Afiaprdveic ravra iroiuVf you err m 
doing these things. UX^pnc «W ravra ^eufievoc, I am, satisfied with 
ti^ things. 

Rem. 2. Yet attraction is omitted, and the Ace. of the personal pronoun, 
the object of the principal verb, is expressed, when the snhject as an object is 
emphatic ; e. g. neptetdov a ^ r o t> f /^p(t äöwärovg yevo/ievov^t they penrnt" 
ted themselves to become mfeidAed by old age. 

Rem. 3. With aifvoidaj avyyiyvu>aKo ifiavr^, the Part can either 
refer to the subject contained in the verb, or to the reflexive pronoun which 
stands with the verb ; if it refers to the subject, it is put in the Nom., if to the 
pronoun, in the Dat. ; e. g. avvoida {ovyyiyvuaKo) kfiavr^ ei TroiTJaac or avvoi- 
4a kftavrlp ei vot^aavrLf lam conscious that I have done weü. But whrai the sub- 
jict is not at the same time the otject, but is different frora the object, then the 
^ject with its Part is either put in the Dat, ainfoida ooi ei iroi^oavri, lam cose- 
aäous that you have done well; or (though more seldom) the substantive is pat in 
the Dat, but the Part, in the Ace. ; e. g. iyu aoi avvoida ei not^aavra. 

Rem. 4. Some verbs of the classes above mentioned are also constructed with 
the Inf, yet with a different meaning. 

(a) &KoveiVy with the Part., implies an immediate perception by one's own 
senses ; with the Inf., one not immediate, but obtained by hear-say ; e. g. 
äKo^a aifTov SiaXeyofiivoVj i. e. efus sermones aurüms meit 
pio; but Idelv hrr&vfjiei 6 *AffTväyffcT^ Kvpov, dn fsove (ear alii» 
di^erat) KaXbv xayoe^iiv airdv elvai; 

(b) eldevaif iviaraa^ai, with a Part, to Ä^noto; with l^e In£, to 
how to do something {to be able)] e. g. olöa {iniarajuai) t^eot); acßa- 
fiivoct I know that I reverence the gods^hut creßco^aty 1 knowhowto 
reverence the gods ; 

(c) iiav^avetv, with the Part., to perceive; with the In£, to leam; e. g. 

1*175.3 Sn^TAX-^^^IHB PABSiCOnLS« MS 

ftav^ävu aoi^^i &V9 IpercBtveikßt Iamwiaef9tt^^C elvat, Ikitm 

lofe wise; 

(d) ytyvCxTKeiVf with the Part) to knoWj to perceive ; ynih the Inf., to lear% 
to judge, to condude; e.g.yiyv6aKu äyad^oiic hvra^ rol^ arparU^ 
rai^ Toi>g ayCtvac^ I know thai the prizefights are usefid; bvt äya^o^f 
elvaif Ijudgethatyetß.', 

(e) ficfiv^a^aij with the 'Paxt, to be ndndfid, to remember; with the Isd^U 
conUmplate doing aomeddng, to intend, to endeavor; e. g. fieftvffrai e^ 
iroi^aag Toi)g noTiiraCf he remawbers that he did good to the dtizens; t4^ 
noL^aaif he strives (wishes) to do good; 

(f ) (Itaivea^ai, with the Part., to appear, apparere, to show an/is adf; with 
the Iii£, to seem, videri; e. g. kfaivero K^aiav and KXaieiv; 

(g) ayyeXXeiv, with the Part, denotes the annunciation of actual erents f 
with the Inf, the annunciation of things still uncertain, merely asntmed; e. g. 
d *Aoavpiog elc Ti^ X^P^'^ ifißä^Tiav &yyi2,2,eTaif it is announced 
that the Assyrian has made an irruption into the country {a fixd) ; but kfi- 
ßäX2,eiv äyy^7i2,eTai (whether he has made an actual irruption or 
not, is not certain) ; 

(h) deiKvvvai or äiro^aiveiv, with the Part., to show, to prove; with 
the Inf., to teach; e. g. iöei^ä ae äöiKijoavTa, I proved that you had 
done wrong; but ^ ßov7\.^ Alaxtvrjv Kcit rrpodoTijv elvai Kot KaKo- 
vow ifiiv äiri^aiv'ev (docuit) ; 

(i) iroielv, with the Part, to rq^resent; with the Inf., to cause, to suppose^ 
e. g.froiio ae yeXuvra, I represent you laughing ; but noiii ae ye- 
X^v, Icauseyou to laugh, or I wiU suj^aose that you laugh ; 

(k) alaxvvea^ai and aidela-^aL, with the Part, toheashamed oiiaii> 
count of something which one does ; with the Inf, to he ashamed or afraid to 
do something, to omit sonuihing from shame; e. g. alaxvvoiiat, kokH 
npaTTCJv rdv <f>i?i,ov, I am ashamed of doing evil to a friend; but alcxv- 
vofiai KOKä irpärrecv rdv <^i^av, I am ashamed to do evil to a fiend ; 

(1) Apxso'&ai, with the Tart, to be in the beginning of an action; with the 
Inf., to begin to do something (something intended) 5 e. g. ^p^avro rä 
reixv olKoöofiovvr eg and olKodopetv. 

Rbic. 6. Instead of the impetsonai phrases, d^Aov iart, ^epov kuri, ^iveraiy 
it appears, it is evident, the Greek uses the personal constmction, and makes the 
Part agree with the subject; such phrases, however, are generally rendered in- 
to English as if they were impersonal ; e. g. c^Ao; elfjtt, <j>avep6g slfu, ^voftai 
Ti^ vaToiäa ei irot^ac, ä is evident t/iatlhave done %Mfar my country. 

3. Finally, the Part is used as a complemeiit with the followiag 
verbs : (a) r v /;|f a i' oo, to happen ; (b) Xa^'&a9m,iobe concealedf 
tmobierved; (c) diatslw, dtayiyvöfiat, didyeo, whidi ex- 
press a continuance ; (d) (p^dv <o, to come before, to anticipate ; 
(e) oixofia I, to go away, to depart. With these verbs, the English 
often changes the construction, the verbs being frequently rendered 
by an adverb» and the Fart, connected with them by a finite verb. 


KppitTOf ^onxSa TOO muSbc kXav&uve ßoffKtJV, Oroesta nourished ikt wff' 
40nr efkU 9on ukwittinolt (without knowing it). liiuyuy6i,artXQ^6nir 
Iff^yv Of* a I iraAd iroiüv, I ai^wats, coktiküallt ch what is honoratis, 'fl t- 
X^f^ ^ e i> y€jv, went away QViCKijYjOrßetoawa^jiliXov TO aTroirXeovref, 
$ßiUda$oayiOixofitn ^p e p et v, ederiier absttdi. "Etvxov ÖTrXtrai h rg äyo(4 
Ka^evdovrec ^C frevri^Kovra, about fifty heavy armed soldiers were <Ä«i, jvd 
^Ka^ by dianee^ ti/etping m iht market-place. {TvyxuvQ is always used, where aa 
«went has not taken place by oar intention or design, but by the accidental oo- 
%ienition of external circumstances, or by the natural course of things ; it mBj 
•ometimes be translated hy just j just now, just then, by chance, but ofben cannot be 
mnslated at sAX into English). HaXewbv ffv äXXov ^-d^äffai rovro voi^ 
^avTo, it vfos diffksuU far anaüier to do this before him, or to antidpate him m da- 

XCTU. Exercises on §§ 174, 175. 

I hear (it. gen.) that some are commended, because they are men obsemnit 
•of law. It is pleasant to learn {w. ace. ) that a friend is prosperous. I onoe 
heard Socrates discoursing upon friendship. No one repents (aar.) of hainng 
"been silent {aor.), ve^y many of having talked. Remember that thou art a man. 
(^ey) wHl fight more boldly against the enemy, who [ol av) are conscioiu 
tltat they are well trained. Socrates was well known to be humane* The man 
had been convicted of having deceived (aor.) us. It is evident that the enemy 
'will besiege the city, at the same time, by sea and by land. Industrious pupils 
r^oice to be commended. Xerxes repented of having scourged (aor.) the Helle- 
spont. The citizens repented that they betrayed the city. It is hard to snfiier 
Inends to be ruined. Be not weary (aor., \ 153, Rem. 3) of benefiting a fnend. 
Socrates never ceased both to seek for and to learn the good. The enemy left 
«ff (aor.) besieging the city. Endeavor to surpass thy friends in kindness. I 
iras conscious of having done no wrong (aor.) to my fiiend. The Persians lesni 
betimes, while (part.) they are still children, both to govern and to obey (= to 
lie governed). A kindly-disposed friend understands (how) to alleviate (the) 
grief of a friend. If (part.) thou art rich, remember to do good to the poor. 
Let us not be ashamed that we learn that which is useful from a stranger. The 
I^kcedaemoniaas, believing ^osr.) that war would benefit them, resolved [aor.) to 
render aid to Cyima. Piniip seems to have enlarged his dcoiimon by gold r»i' 
ther than by arms. Death is (the) greatest of all blessings to man. The sol- 
ars were at this very time drawn up (in order of battle). Canst thoa teQ m^ 
what thou thinkest? He whio (^rrtf) fears others (irepo^) is, without knowing 
it, himself a slave. Callizenus, the Athenian, who (part.) had been confined 
<fl0r.) in the prison (ef tbe state), secretly dug thiong^ (oof-) it and escaped to 
li^B enemy. Socrates did good oontiimafly [part). BMie&ctors are always be- 
iQyed' If (HtVyW. subj. aor,) we first kill (aor.) the enemy, no one of us will dia 
After death the body indeed will be dead, bat the sool immortal and never 
grpwing old, will soar swiftly upwajrd (aor.). The prisoners dug through (part, 
4Mr.) the prison and speedily escaped. 

17&] 81HTAJLf-«'XU ^MMXMGMX^M^ 917 

§ 176. B. The Participle used to express Adverbial Relations and 
Subordinate Explanatory Circumstances* 

1. In the second place, the Fart, denotes the adveii>ial relatknis 
(a) of time : when, after, while ^ — (b) ca^ise : since, because, as, inas" 
fnueh as; — (c) conditionality and concession: if, although; — (d) 
manner and way ; — (e) purpose, object: to, in order to, for the pur- 
pose of; — (f ) and, in general, both every explanatory circumstance 
which we translate by who, which, and a more remote attributive of 
'a substantive. 

(a) llv de öfTore koI airoic Tot^ ävaßäai noXXä npayfiara irapeixov ol 
ßäpßapoi iräXiv Karaßaivovffiv, sometimes also after they had ascended^ the 
baa^ricms again annoyed them muck, whüe descending; uKovaaac ravra rotg 
etftOTffyolc rd hMfitifta ;tap(ev idoxei elvaty when the generals heard tkiSf theg 
iheiugkt the device ingenious; — (b) Ifful^ <J* hrl t^c W ßeßvKorec iroXi> Urxv- 
p&repov Tcaiaofievt but tee, inasmuch as we stand upon the ground^ will be able to strike 
a more severe blow; *\epCivvfio^^ irpeaßvraroc Av tCw T^xayuVj i^pxero 2£yeiv, 
because he woe the oldest of the captains; rä inirrideia ix^iev iK rye X^pf^t ''^oX- 
X^ KOt itya^TK oixrTjCi "diey might obtain suppHesfrom the place, because it was ex- 
tensive and fertile; — (c) ^oßoiifievot r^ bdbv bfujc ol noXlol owrfKoXov^Tf- 
aavy although they ftared the journey, yet many ßllowed; roiig ^Xovc eiepye- 
rovvrec kx&poi)^ dwrjoea^e KoXa^eiv, if you confer benefits on friends, you wM 
be afciß to punish your enemies; — (d) ycAwv elirev, he spoke laughing; ri oIk 
hroiijae irpeaßetc ireftnuv, koX irapex^v rä kirirf^deia Ijrc anovSiiv kru- 
Xev, what did he not do, by sending envoys and by furnishing supplies, until he obtain* 
ed a truce ? — (e) tovto ipxofiai ^paaov, I come to {in order to) say this; or par 
Tiäv iroXX^ ayciv ^ ßorj^^auv ßaoikel, leading a large army to assist the long ; 
—(f) ^f«^ roi>^ npb^ kfik Xkyovra^ wf, etc, IwiU mention those who say to me, 

2. Here two different constructions of the Part must be distin- 
guished. The Part, like the attributive Part.,- either agrees with 
its subject (i. e. the word to which it belongs) in gender, number 
and Case ; e. g. 6 Kvgog yeXmv elnev ; toXg ITsQaaig elg r^v yijv 
eigßaXovöiv at "EXlr^veg yvavrioi'&r^öayf etc. ; or the Part and 
its subject are put in the Gen., called the Genitive Absolute ; e. g. 
tov naiiog yeXmvtog, 6 KvQog dnsv^ the child laughing^ O. 

Rem. 1. In English, the explanatory Part is more seldom used, than in 
Gk«ek, the place of it being supplied either by subordinate clauses introduced by 
the conjunctions when, sinoe^ after, because, inasmuch as, if although, etc. j or by a 
substantive with a preposition ; e.g. inoi^avovrog- roH Kvpov, afler the death 
ofC.,(^evyüv, inflight ; or by an adverb, e. g. ravra rroirjoac, thereupon^ then, 
Yerj oitea also, we uae the finite verb, where the Greek uses a Fart. ; e. g. o< 



wMfuoi fvyovret kiwxB^oav^ vuld mud were pmuei. Bvt, when Mvcnl 
•etioiis u« oonÜMMd into one whole, the Gxeek very carafiiUy distinguishes the 
principal action from the accompanying subordinate circumstances, bj express- 
ing the former by means of the finite verb, but the latter by the Fart 

lioAAo^ TÄ xphftara^ äva'kuaavrt^yWf vpoa^ev äweixavro Kepd&v^ ciaxpä 
»^fii^ovrec elvait rwn^ oim ävexovrai, many after haaaing aquandend th» 
«softA, have reoourte to those meam ofgam^ wkkk before they did not resort to^becam 
lAof thought them dishonorable. Tov iapo^ kX'&ovToc, ra avi^jy ^dAXet, «tei 
4he spring comes, the ßotaers blossom, Kril^ofievoi ^Cmiv, rajfta vivmiy Im Ay 
jfhmdering. lioXX^ rexyg xp^f*^^^C toOc woXefUovc hUffaeVj he conquered ik 
emmif ly using much stratagem, Blc ArX^o^ vopeiferat xpVffo/tevoc r^Xf»!- 
üTfipi^, oracuhtm consultitrus. 'Adiwarov iro^Ad rexvufievov ikv^puirw ww^ 
ra KaXüc iroieiv, it is impossibU for a man who devises many things, iodoaäwdL 
The particles fiera^v {during, while), &fia {at the same Hme), sat, xacirep 
^{although), are sometimes joined with the Part to express its force more My. 

8. Instead of the Gen. absolute, the Ace. also is used, bat for the 
most part, only when the Part has no definite subject, consequently, 
where the verb from which the Fart, comes is impersanalf e. g. 
ij^op (from l^ecrrt, it is lawful^ posfiUe)^ or with impersonal phrau^ 
efg» altfXQOv o/f (from omsxqov iatWf it is shameful). The eub- 
j^ is sometimes expressed by a neuter pronoun. 

flapbv aiT(^ ßaaikea yevea^ai, aXhf) irepie^Ke to Kparog^ since it is pot 
Me far him to be a Jang, etc. 'ASehjmKTovoc, oidev Siov {quam fas mm esset, fiai 
mm dAeret), yeyova, I dew my brother, although it ought not to have been done. So, 
66 ^av ravra, ujhen these things had been agreed upon ; 66 ^av aifToiQ {quam v* 
visum sit, esset) when, because they thought best ; 6okovv (quum mdeatur, viderdv) 
&pax<^pelv ; irpog^KOv, quum deceat, deoeret, since, when it is ßt, proper; i^ov, 
.^ptum liceat, liceret, since, when it is in one^s power, when he can. Also passive par- 
tidples: 6eSoy fie vov, quum decretum sit, esset; elpijfiivov, quumdidumaii 
.esset. In the third place, adjectives with iv-, e.g. alaxp^'^ ^v, quum (urpe d, 
esffi^ßiw» it is shamefid ; äd^lov bVteinos{as,when) it is uncertain; ivvarbv 
by^ ädifvarov 6 v. 

Bbm, 2. The particle of con^arison, i^, k joined with <he simple Part, sod 
.also where it stands in the Gen. or Ace. absolute, when the idea expressed by tbe 
Part is to be indicated as something merely supposed, as the subjective view o/Ai 
agent; hence where the view expressed is that of the agent, and not that of tbe 
writer or speaker. In English the force of the Part with i)c can be translated 
b^ a« i/^ OS though, since forsooth, because^ thinking, intending, etc. The particle & rt, 
■on the contrary, is used when a cause or reason is to be represented as an dijs^ 
tive one, i e. reaüy existing, in opposition to what is merely supposed. 

a. Simple Participle. Ol apxovreQ, xäv diroaovovv xpovov äpxpvrec Stayevu»' 
roi, ^avf/MCovrat, uc <'^i re koI eirrvxek yeyevfifievoi, are admired, beisf 
Üifni^ to have been wise and fortunate ^^vofiL^6fievoi ao^i re Koi eirvxds 
yeyev^(r&ai. *ky<svaKTovaiv, a f /uyaXuv nviiv airearepitpevoi (i. e. vyo^ 
fievoi pey. r. äveaTepriai^ai), they are displeased, thinking that they have beett dt 

1 177.] finnirAx.-<-«Hs AvmsmB^ SM 

inda vfkKkä kXaßov^ took many daoes^ beeauae theyßU vpon tiem $uddenhf. 

h. Genitive Absolute» UapTfyyeiTiev airolg irapaffKevu^eoT^ai, it g fuixrig ino- 
liivric (i. e. vo/u^uv fiaxvv iaea^at)^ he ordered them to get in readiness, as (m 
Us opinion), thinking that, there vxndd be a battle. 'Ektipvttov i^iivai iruvrag Qfj- 
ßaiovct ^C fCnß Tvpavvuv re'&ve^rciv, they armounced that (M the TMbana 
AbM ooms oat, becanse {a» they thought) the tyrants were dead, 'Are nvicvov d v« 
r a^f Tov^ &kaovc,, ovx kiipuiv oL hrdg ro^ iKTog, betxum the grast wan ikiek^ Ünm. 
voiäm did not s^ those unthout (a fact). 

Bbx. 3. A peculiar um of the Gen. absolute, in connection with cü g, oecia;»- 

^th the verbs eldiva^i, kirioraa.^ai, voetv, Ix^^^ yv(jfiijv, dia- 
Aela^at r^v yvoifiijv, (jtpovrlCeiv, also sometimes with ^eyeiv, and 
Ike like verbs, where, instead of the Gen. absolute, the Ace. of the substantive 
with a Part or the Aoc. with an Inf, should stand as the object The result of 
tfafrastKHi of thft. Gttn. iscommonly^ denoted by «i^rc» joined to the predicate ; e. g. 
Ag kfiov oiv loyrog^ owv äv teal vfisic oiru tt^v yv6fttiv ix^'^^y ^ 
assured that I voUl go wherever you decide to go ; here Cig kfiov lovrog stand« insteadl 
Off ifi^ that. 

XCVin. JSSwrcwe« on § 176. 

The enemy burned {aw.) the city and immediately sailed to (km) the islands, 
tf the body (ptitr.) i»- rendered effeminate, the mind {pbtr.) also becomes ftr 
wieidcer. If agriculture prospers,, the other arts also flourish. Should we say ol 
flfl unintelligent men that they were insane, we should (§ 153, 2, c.) speak («». 
say) correctly. Be assured (= believe) that you would (§ 153, 2, c) be able to 
live more securely, if there were peace, than if you. were waging war. If thou 
dost not labor (aar.), thou canst not be happy. All things (sing.) may (H53, 
*, c.) happen (oar.), if God (so) disposes. Tyrtaeus, the poet, was given by the 
Athenians to the Spartans «t their request (as) a leader. Alexander killed CK- 
tus while supping, because he had ventured [aofr.) to praise the deeds of Philip. 
The soldiers break up their encampment in order to march against the enemy. 
These seem to be the actions of a man fond of war, who (bgrig) while it is ia 
his power to have peace without injury or (= and) disgrace, prefers to carry on 
war. While it was in his power to become (aor.) king himself, he gave the 
sovereignty to another. Although ft was possible to have taken (oar.) the city, 
the enemy retreated. When tiie generals had resolved (rfo/cet, w. dat., cwr.) to 
fight, the enemy hastily fled. The Athenians sent out colonies to Ionia, be- 
cause Attica was not sufficiently spacious (= sufficient). Socrates enjoined on 
men to endeavor to begin every action with the (approbation of the) gods, since 
the gods controlled all actions« Endeavor so to live as if thou wert to live a 
short as well as a long (=s much) time. 

§177. The Adverb. 

1. The objective relation, finally, is expressed by adverbs. Ad- 
verbs denote the relation of place, timey manner and way of a predi- 

260 BTwrAx. — ras AvremB* [| 177. 

cate or attiibote; e. g. iyyv^^tv ^jl^er, t^^^ oft/j^» xaXw? 

2. Besides adverbs of place, time, manner and way, there are 
still other adverbs, which do not, like those above-named, define the 
predicate more precisely, bat they point oat the relation of the pre- 
£cate to the subject. These are called modal adverbs. They de- 
note certainty or uncertainty, affirmation or neffotian. Only those 
expressing negation will be treated here, viz. o v and fi 17. On S» 
see § 153, 2. 

8. 0^ (as well as its compounds, e. g. ovde, ovtSy ovdelst 
etc.), is used when something is denied absolutely, by itself; fii 
(and its compounds), on the contrary, when something is denied in 
reference to the eaneepti&n <»> will of the speaker or some one else. 
Both are commonly placed before the word wbich is to be made 

4. Hence ov is used in all sentences containing a direct assertion, 
whether these are expressed by the Ind. or Opt,e. g.- v yvptroA, 
ovx iyivBto, ov yen^aetai tovro — ovx av yiyvoiw tavra; also 
in subordinate clauses with oti, ds, that, e. g. o7da, ott tavra 
OVK iydpsto ; in clauses denoting time, with ore, ineidy^ etc., and 
yround or reason, with ori, dvoti, etc, and consequence, with w^i 
and the Ind., e. g. ots ovx rikd^BV — mei tavta ovx iyspsto; 
finally, when the idea of a single word in the sentence is to be ne- 
gatived absolutely, e. g. o ^ 9c dya-&6g, v xatms ; in this last case, 
ov remains even when the relation of the sentence would otherwise 
require jajy, e. g. si v daaasi (recusabtt), 

5. M^, on the Contrary, is used with the Imp. and with the Imp. 
Subj., e. g. fiii yqaqiE, fi ^ yQaxpyg (comp. § 153, Rem. 3) ; with 
wishes and exhortations, e. g. fc^ yqaq^oi^, may you not tor%te; fiti 
yQaqxofiev, let us not write ; in all clauses denoting purpose, with Iva, 
etc. ; in conditioned clauses, with €i, idv, Star, inav. Snog av, etc., 
e. g. Xiyta, Iva fi ^ yQciq)rig — si firj yQacpstg ; in clauses denoting 
effect or consequence, with (Sgts and the Inf., e. g. 01 noXtrou ar- 
^QSiag iiia)^eGavro, (Sgre ft rj rovg rtoXsfiiovg sig ti^v noXiv eigßaXsir, 
so that the enemy did not fall upon the city ; in all relative clauses, 
which imply a condition or purpose, e. g. og fiii dya&og i<m, tov- 
rov ov qjiXovfjiev (i. e. si rig fiij ay. I.), whoever is not good, if ann 
one is not, etc. ; in interrogative clauses, which express anxiety on 
the part of the inquirer, and hence demand a negative answer, e. g. 
]iri voasTg ; oqu fi^ voaeig ; you are not sick, are youf (in other in- 

S 177.]. Bwaa^asL-^-^mm ^»Y^as»* Mb 

terrogatire dautes w h ased^ and an al&tnatiipe answer expected) ; 
usually with tbe Inf. also; and finally vfith parHciples and etdjec' 
tivei, which may be resolved by a conditional clause; e, g, o fi^ 
fitCTWwpy d qms rum credü, if any erne does not beltev» (but 6 ov 
marevccnf aa m, qui non credit, or quia non credit^ he ioho does not 
Mieve (absolute), or because he, etc. 

6. When a negative sentence contains indefinite pronouns or ad- 
verbs, e. g. any one, any how, any where, at any time, ever, etc., 
tibese are all expressed negatively. The negatives must all be of 
the same kind, i. e. all compounded of ovx or ju^ ; e. g. fuxqa q)v<jig 
ovdev fiiya ovdifiozs oidiva oire idioit^ ovre noXiv 
dff^, a mean nature never does anything either for ant private in^ 
dividual or for the State ; ^img ovS' inwoovfiBv ovdiv toiovroHf 
fM do not intend ant swch thing; avsv yag aqxovrmv ovdev av 
ovte naXov, ovre aya^ov yivoizo ovdafiov, for without leaders, 
nothing great or advantageous could ant where he accomplished, 

7. After expressions of fear, timidity, anxiety^ uncertainty, doubt, 
distrust — denying — hindering-^orhidding, prohibiting, the Inf# usUf-. 
aüy follows with /u ^^ instead of ^e Inf. without ju 17. This ia^ iftk 
vxA expressed in English; e. g. xooXvoo ise fji^ tavra noisiv, I 
prevent you from doing this, .^nyoqevov 2xv^aig fi ly inißaivsif 
rc5v iScpereQaov ovQaiv, they forbade the Scythians to pass their bounr 

Ba^uuEE. When «zpxeBsions ofßarj aaxUty^ doubt and the like, ai««ibHovrod} 
bgr fi^ with the Ind. or Subj. (Opt), /u^ must ba considered 113 an intenogative,. 
immne, whether not, and may often be translated' by that; e. g. didoiKOy fii^. ämU 
•^av^y metuOf ne wariatta, I fear whether he will not die = that.he toiä die; iMw^ 
metv, /»^ aizo^avoit metifebam, ne manretur; Öeiouta, fL^ rii^vrfxevt ne mörtum mif 
Ifiar whaher hehoAnat died, tsuatdead'^ I fiar that he hm died, is dead. On 
the contrary, fii^ oif with the Ind« and Snbj. (Opt>, is used after the above ex- 
pnoBSfflons, when it is to be indicated that the thing feared will not take place, or 
has w^ taken place ; e. g. dedoiKa fi^ oitK airo&uvy, ne non moriaiur^ I fear that 
hetoiä n9t die; kSedoituiv ftij oi)K airo&avoi^ ne non moreretttr, I feared that he 
tamdd net die; dedoiKa, fi^ oi) re&wjKev, ne non mortaus sit, that he is not dead. 

8. M^ ov with the Inf. is used instead of the Inf. without nega^ 
tion, with expressions of hindering, denying, ceasing, abstaining^ 
distrusting and the like, when the negative ov, and in generali any. 
negative expression precedes /»^ ov. 

Oidiv KoXuei ae fi^ oIk diroi^avetv, nothing prevents you from dying; oidelf 
äpvelraif r^ äperi^ fi^ o{) KaXi^ elvaiy no one denies that virtue is lovdy; obit 
iireoxof^nv fi^ oh raira Tiiysiv, I did not refrain from saying <Äw.— Also after 
the expressions deivbv elvai, alaxpbvy aiox^viiv elvai, alox^ve- 


ü^ai, wiildi ootttaia a m^gsÜTe kiM, Ü» lat follows inik fiii oi, if)ie& il is to 
be made negative } e. g. ^^ re «roirip alox^^vv eZvai, /ii^ oi»x^ ovoinwddh 
^etv, «> tAof all ware cuhamed kot to be busy. 

9. Ov fii^ with the Subj. or Fut Ind., is eUiptica!, since with 
ovH a verb denoting anxiety or fear, which is sometimes also ex< 
pressed, must be supplied, and fii^ must be referred to this verb. 
Hence ov fi^ is used, when the idea to be expressed is, it is tut 
(pv) to be feared thai (jii^) something will happen; e. g. ov fii} fi- 
mftm tovtOf non vereor^ ne hoefiaty this C£BTAINLY will not happen, 

XCIX. JBxereises on i 177. 

The trnly "wise will never be the slayes of base desires. What ought (^ 153, 
S, c) not happen in a long period ? What evidence did they employ (to prove) 
that Socrates did not believe (in) the gods, (m) which the state belteTed. Ai 
(kirei) the Persians did not hold oat, the Greeks took the city. If (ray, 
w. ttubj.) thon hast not heard {aar.) from thyself, that what is right (== the right) 
IB usd*!!!, then tmst {aor.) not another, who so says. Let ns not flee before the 
enemy* He who {6cris) does not believe a man on his oath (^s tmsts [irsv^t- 
e^at] nothing to one swearing), can {imaraa^ai) easily swear falsely himself. B 
is a great misfortune not to be able to endnre misfortn^e. No one is free, wh» 
{part) does not control himself. Give {aor.) to friends, even if (parL) thejdo 
not ask. The Sophists were not willing {t&e^eiv) to converse with those who 
{\ 148, 6) had no money to give. What is not manifest to men, they endeavor 
to ascertain from the gods by the art of divination. What one neither 
earned (« wrought out) nor saw, nor heard, nor executed for himself, friend 
often furnished {aar.) friend. I might (§153, 2, c.) affirm that no one gains 
{elvaij w, dat.) any cultivation from one who (§ 148, 6) does not pleasa 
You affirm that you need no man for (fif) any puxpose (= thmg). If 
{part,) thou doest {aor.) anything shameful, never hope to mnain concealed 
(/W.). No envy at anything ever arises in («s to) a good (man). What is 
beantifid never anywhere appears to any one as delbnned. The Thirty Ty- 
rants forbade Socrates to converse with the young men. Frexaspes denied (hit 
he kiUed (aor.) Smerdis. Qearchus then scarcely escaped being atoned (— to 
be stoned, aor.). All laws prohibit inscribing (the name of) any liar in the pub- 
lic decrees. I fear that the city is already taken by the enemy. I am doabtfol 
(s ÜMiful) whether it is not best for me to be silent Neither snow-storms 
(stn^.)) nor rain, nor heat, nor darkness (» night) hinder the Persian coarieiB 
from most rapidly accomplishing {aor.) the journey (= course) before (= lyiog 
before) them. No fear shall prevent me from saying what I think. Be of good 
courage; surely nothing unjust will be done (<» happen, aor.)^ if there is justice 
at heart (= if justice is present). The bad you will certainly never make bet- 
ter. If (iav) we conquer {aor.), the Feloponnesians will certainly never enter 
{aor.) the country. Socrates said : As long as {iu^irep dv, w. »dj.) I breathe 
and am able, I surely shall not cease {aor.) to philosophize. 

{ 178.3 «niTAX«— 4}O0BMMXAnOK. 9W 





1. When two or more sentences stand in an intimate connection 
with each other, there is a two-fold relation to he distinguished. 
They are either related to each other in such a manner as to form 
one thought, each, however, heing in a measure independent of 
the other, e* g. SocrcUes wcu very ioise, Plato also was vmy wise; 
or they are wholly united, inasmuch as the one defines and explains 
the other, or appears as the dependent member of the other, e. g. 

When the spring comes, the flowers Uossom. The first kind of con- 
nection is called Coordination, the last, Subordination, and the sen- 
tences, Coordinate and Svhordiruxte. 

I came, I saw, Iconqtuered. — Coordinate. 

When I came, I conquered. — Subordinate. 

2. Coordination consists either in expanding or restricting the 
thought. The former is called copulative coordination, the latter, 
adversative. Copulative coordination is either a simple succession of 
words, or it is an enhancing or strengthening of the thought. 

3. A simple succession of words is made, — (a) by x a i, et, and, 
more seldom in prose by r i (enclitic), que, and, e. g. IlciXQarT^g hou 
TTkarmv ; — (b) by x a * — x a l, et — et, both — and, more seldom, 
xi — re, e. g. xai aya&o\ xae xaxot, both good and bad; — (c) by 
t i — X a/, both — and, as well so — as so, not onlg — but also, e. ^ 
naXog te xce< dyad'og, xqviaroi re xcec itovr^Qot. 

Reu. I. Kai also signifies even, etiam, with which the negfttire oidS, not 
«Mn, ne—-qtddem, corresponds ; e.g.Kalo^ ravra iXe^ac {etiam ftt), wen you ecAd 
£Av«; oi>6h ai> ravra iXe§ag {ne iu quidem), not even you, etc. 

4. The enhancing or strengthening of the idea is expressed by 
the simple xo/, but sHU more definitely by, — (a) ov (aopov — aX- 
Xa Mai {dXX' oid^); — (b) ov^ on (oneog) or fi^ on 
(inrng) [i. e. ein bq», on, fifi Xefs, Sti] — dXXa xai (dkX* 

Mil wmtAM^ I ommBm AiMm [{178. 

ovdi)f nataniy — hut€d$6 (iu^ noC «wi»), when ^htf the Biore im- 
portant member precedes tbe less important, or when two strong^ 
antithetic clauses are opposed to each other. 

laKpaftjc oi> fiovov ffo^bc j^, d^^d ical äya^&^f not ordy met^ hA ah> 
gocd, Ka^ ft^ imepaitof&vrjaKsiv ye fiovoi k^eXovaw ol ipovTeg, oi (lovov 
6ti avdpect &^Xä xal yvvaiKec {»on modo — sed etiam)^ indeed, only loom an 
rwdjf to dkjbr each other, not only men^bvtidso 100^^ Oir;); dn-uf rodf f^oX^ 
fuovc irpe^avTo ol 'EXX^ec, äXXä Kai r^v ;t<^^v abrw kKwu^aVfldota 
mnf that the Greek» » the Qreek» not only put the enemy to flight, but eoen desbnfi 
their country, AlaxiviJC oix ^ "f » r ^Coyw» ^^^f 'A^vaioig elxev, d A Ad (tia^(t- 
ffof iavrdv Kara tovtuvI inoXirevero (nonmodonon — sed etiam). M^ iff'T 
6pxeia&at tv l^fji^f aXV o{r& ifidxrÖa^iau kdvvmrro (non modb mm), t^f were 
not only not able to dcanoe to the fime, hA not even to stand erect. 

6, Adifenatwie coordini(tion consiste in restricting or in entire oW 
ffcUion ; e. %. he is indeed poor, but Irave — he is. not htwcy but c$»- 
ardly; (here the clause hu hrave restricts JÜie one preceding} asd 
iut eowardfy whoHj draies th^ idea of brave^. MestricHon is mort 
igenerally expressed by d if <mtem. With this d 6 'there usually co^ 
responds the connective /twV, «tandiug in the f>receding contiaate^ 
sentence. Miv. primarily signMes, 4n truth, trtdyy indeed, yet oonr 
jnonly its force is so slight that it cannot be translated at all inlo 
English. Mir — d i is particularly used in divisions, e. g. ei fup-^ 
ol di, some — others, <?o fiir — to di^ on this side — on that, jxff^ 
— partly; also where theaemw word is repeated in two different 
sentences, e. g. i'yco ovrstfu iih S'eoZg, ifvretfu d' df^^einotg votf 

6. The following words also are to be noticed, viz. a v, c(Hnmonlj 
in connection with l^i (d* av) mreus, on the contrary ; m a / t o i, aW 
jfeti yet, verum, sed tarnen ; f^ir t o », yeit, houfeeer ; ofim^f akhou^ 
^nevertheless; finally dXXa, btri, which according to the nature of 
the preceding member, denotes either the opposite of that whidi 
is expressed in the first member^ so that the first member is abto- 
galed by the last, and one cannot e^dst at the same time with the 
other, e. g. ovj^ oi nhyvt^oi evdaifwrig slaw, a XX oi ayet-d'oly n/ot ^ 
rich are happy, hut the good; or it merely denotes something differ- 
'eni from what is contained in the first member, so that the first memr 
ber is only abrogated in part, i. e. it is only restricted (stiil, yet, bet)i 
e. g. rewto to ssqay^ fa^Hti^p fu» iatm, aiX «» rnskit^ 

7, The succession of negative sentences is made byovr« — ovfi 
Quits — ii^ts\ nec-^n^, neither — »or, e. g. o6ts &&h, ein 
ii^wtoit neither gods »or me», OilHi ex^resAes ^h^ contra^ 

§ 179.] SSHTAX.— «Q!8^Ri>INA!nOH. 2M 

^jhc^ noi)y or it serves to aimex a new additional claase (<md noi^ 

Bbm. 2. When a negative sentence follows a posiÜTe one, it is ragnlarly 
fiormed in prose hj k at ov or koI fi^; e. g. ^aivofuu ;^a/:)irof rervxvi^^t 
Kai ov fiefi^ELig^ ovdl Ttftupiagy I seem to have nut with favor^ and not Ueom 
nor punishment. 

8. Disjunctive coördioation consists in combining into one whole, 
sentences, the one of which excludes the other, so that the one can 
be considered as existing, onlj when the other does not. This .re- 
lation (disjunction) is expressed by the disjunctive conjunctions, viz. 
ij — ^, aiU — aui or vel — vd, either — or; eite — e it e (with Ind.), 
iavre — iavts or ijvre — ^vts (with Subj.), sive — sive^ whether 
— or, either — or; e. g. ^ 6 nazriQ ij 6 vi6$ cbtid^avev, either the 
father or son died (the first ^ can also be omitted, e. g. o Ttat^Q 
1^ 6 vi6$ art,) ; aire K(uva eire naXaia tavtd iariv, whether these 
are new or old; idp te nar^Q ygärffd, iav te f^'^f^Qt whether 
foiher or mother will write. 

9. iPinallj, those sentences also can be coordinate with each 
other, the last of which denotes either the cause of the preceding 
sentence, or the conclusion^ inference from it The clause denoting 
the cause is expressed bj yot,Qy for, enim, nam, and that denoting 
the conclusion, by ovv, consequently, therefore, aga, then, there^ 
fore, toivvvy then, so then, toiya q, ergo, therefore, toiyaqroi, 
for that very reason and no other, therefore, toiyaqovv, for that 
reason then, wherefore ; e. g. Oavfid^ofUP rov £<oxQdtij * dinjg ydq 
1JV xaXog xal dyad'og. £, dv^q r^v xolo^ xoi dya^og * d^avirn^ofAep 
&Qa avtov. 


§179. Principal and Subordinate Clause. 

1, Wh^i sentences, which together present one united thought, 
«re so related, as to their import, that the one appears as a depen- 
dent and merely completing member of the other, then their oon- 
section may be expressed either by coordinate conjunctions, as xtt«, 
Mi ydg, dga, etc.,-e. g. ro tag ^Xd-e, td de Q6da dv^el, the spring ha» 
emmsy and the rose» blossom; or in soeh a manner that the sentenoe, 



which, as to ite import merely completes the other, is manifestly in 
its outward form, a dependent, or a simply completing member of 
the other ;e.g.ore ro eag ^ Xd" b, tä ^da av&ely f»hm the tpmg 
has came, the roses blossom. This mode of connection is called Stt^ 

2. The clause to which the other as a complementary member 
belongs, is called the principal clause ; but the completing one, the 
Silbordinate clause^ and the two together, a compound sentence ; e. g. 
in the compound sentence, ors ro iaq t^X&e, rä dipÖQa '&akhi, the 
clause tä divdga ^dXXeif is the principal clause, and otb to loQ tßr 
^Sf the subordinate clause. 

3. Subordinate clauses stand in the place of the suhfect, the aän- 

hue, or the ohfect of a whole sentence, and hence must be regarded 

as substantives, adjectives or adverbs expanded into a sentence. 

Accordingly there are three classes of subordinate clauses : stiistcm- 

Hve, adjecHve and adverbial clauses. 

Thus, Q. g. in the sentenoe, " The victory of Cyrus over the enemy was an- 
nounced,'* the subject may be expanded into a subordinate sentence, viz. " 7^ 
Cj^ruB had conquered the enemy j was announced f further, in the sentence, " Sing 
to me, O Muse, the far-wandering man," the attributive ßtr-toanderingf may V» 
expanded into a subordinate sentence, who has wandered far. Comp., " He an- 
nounced the victory of Cyrus over the enemy," with " He announced thai C^ 
had conquered the enemy ,*" " In the spring the roses bloom," with "" tohen the spring 
has oome^ the roses bloom." 

§180. L Substantive' Sentences* 
1* Substantive^sentences are substantives or infinitives expanded 
into a sentence, and» like substantives, constitute the subject, as 
well as the attribute and object of a sentence. 

A. Substantive-Sentences introduced by in or <&{-, thai- 
2. Substantive-sentence» introdqeed by the conjunctions oti 
and 00 g, that, express the object (Ace.) of verba sentiendi and de- 
darandi (p. 250), i. e. of such verbs as express ei^r a sensation or 
perception ; e. g. OQaVy ixwsdf, vos^v, fiav^avswy yiyvfitnc^Wy ete., oi 
such as denote an expression of a sensation and perception ; e. g> 
Uyufy (ktxifviKU, ÄyytXXet.r, 9ijXop slvcuj etc 

8. The predicate of dus substantive-sentence may be expressed, 
(a) in the Ind., (b) inrthe Opt, (o> in the Opt. witii &^ (d) indie 
lod* of hiflloricai teases, witi» «at. 

f 160.] 8¥if?e43iu— »$i7mix4NTxyE<9aiiTSHCjcs. S67 

i. The lad. <^ aU the lenses is used» when what is affirmed is to 
he represented as 2k f cut cr phenomeTwn, something certain or achiaL 
In particular the Ind. is used regularly, when the verb of the prin- 
cipal sentence is a principal tense, viz. the Pres., Perf, or Fut. 

5. The Opt, on the contrary, is used, when what is affirmed, is 
to be represented as a mere ameeptum or »upposiHofif henee, par» 
ticalarly, when what is stated as the sentiment o£ another, is to be 
indicated as such. 

"EAe/oj;, 5Tt äpKTOi iroX^oi>g Ijdif irXij(näa€tvTac die^^eipavj they aaid that 
hears had already dabroyed fmmy. ''Ore 6^ ravra ive&vftov/is^a, ofiro^f iytyvu- 
OKOfUV irepl avrCw, 6 s av^pcmif) neijtVKOTi navruv tqv uXXqv ft^ov elij (^uav 
If dir^piinTuv apxeiv^ token we were reflecting upon these things, we conduded that it 
was easier for man, as he is, to nde all other animals than men. 

6. The Opt* with a f is used, when the affirmation is to be indi- 
cated as a conditional mppositipn, asstimption, conjecture, or as an 
undetermined pombüitf/ (§ 153, 2, c). ' 

AeyUf 6ti, el ravra ^eyatc, dfiaprävoic äv, I sag that if you say these 
things, you would err. VLeiivfiiuu «ucovaac itore aov, 6ri eUorus äv koI irapä 
^Eunf npaKTiKcJTepog el^, d^ep naX napä äv^pCmov, Ö^ri^ fi^ (s= el Ttf fi^), 
öirore h airopoig elij, rore Ko2aKevoi, aX?i,' lire rä apiara irparroi, rore futXiara 
TÖV '^eCnf fiefivipro, I remember once to have heard you remark, that he wodd reason' 
oily be most likely to obtain what he wished from gods, as weä as from men, who 
should, etc 

7. The Ind. of the historical tenses with ar is used, when the 
affirmation is to be represented as conditioned, as one whose eaciet- 
ence or possibility is denied [§ 153, 2, a. (a)] ; e. g. difluov iaiiVy 
on, si ravra SXeyeg, Tjiidgraves av, it is evident that if you said this* 
you erredy but you did not say it, hence you did not err. 

Remabk. Impersonal forms of expression are often changed into those which 
tape personal ; e. g. S^Xoc el fit {<l>apep6c eifii), 6ri ravra ei iirpa^a, U 

is evident that I ; 6^Xoi eiaiv, bri iravra ?Xe^av, it is evident that they 

said this. Comp. § 175» Rem. 5. 

& Exercises on § 180. 

We know, dutt the kings of the Laoedaemoniaiis ara deseendaniB from Her- 
cules. The Athenians fortified the city in a short ( ^ little) time, and it is erexi 
now evident, that the oonstmction was done (s» took plaee, aor.) in (Kara) haste. 
I have often wondered (aor.) hj what (^rr<r) arguments the accusers of Socrates 
convinced (aor.) the Athenians, that he was deserving (&^iav elvat) of death from 
(dot.) the State. Tissaphemes tindaced Cyms to (^rpoe, w. aac.) his brother, 
(saying) that ha was plotting against him. Brasidas not <mly (re) showed him- 
self prudent (» moderate) in other (respects), bat (koI) in his speedies also he 

SM 8TKTAZ. — WtMAls mm8TA]raTK-9BimBlfCE8. [$ 181. 

•HBCfiAtn iwanifcrted tlial he wm Mat iMth to Ubente {part fä.) Grceoe. 
Haay of thote who (f 14«, 6) pretend to phUoiopliise, might (4 lU, S, &) |M^ 
hape saj [aar,) that the just (man) coald never become (oor.) lu^vst, ngr the 
fober-minded arrogant It is evident that we may be delivered (aor.) fieur mon 
■peedily, if (part.) we say (aor.) nothing, than if we defend oarselves pooiij. I 
praj yon to obterre beforehand that, if ipcui.) Aeschines had not bronght fo^ 
mtd {Kantyopeiv, tur.) something foreign to (» besides) the indictment, nother 
«oald I (» I also would not) aay {muia^ai) a tingla (a« any) word. 

f 181. B. Final Sabstantire-Sentences introduced by 

üCf Iva, etc. 

1* The second kind of substantiTe-sentenoes, are the ßnai mm- 
tencei^ i. e. those which denote a purpose^ tatentianj etuL These 
sentences are introduced by the following conjunctions, mg, ofi»s, 
ii^a, mg fi^, oncog fAi^,lva (a^. 

2. The mode used in final sentences is commonly the Subj. or 
Opt When the verb of the principal sentence is a principal tense 
— ^Pres., Perf. or Fut, or an Aor. with the signification of the 
Pres. (§152, 12.) — the final conjunctions are followed by the Subj. 
mode ; but when the verb of the principal sentence is an historical 
tense — Lnpf., Plup. or Aor. — the final conjunctions are followed by 
the Opt (but never by the Opt Fut). 

Tavra ypa^, yeypa^, ypo^f», W I % i^ |y ;, «t mruu, that yon may come ; Xe- 
f ov, 2 v' eldtjf diCf ui taam, aay, that I may Jauno f — ravra iypa^, iyeypa^t 
iypa-fffaf Iv* lAt^oi^, f#t ventres, that you might come, 'Eic t^c 't^ lUpow khv- 
&ep€^ äyopäc KaXovfiivijg rä fikv uvia koI ol uyopatoc äneTiTjXavTaL tl^oK- 
Xov Tonov, Ci^ fi^ fiiyvvfiTac ^ rovrcav Tvpßij ly rijv Treiraidevfievov evuo- 
ofüa, trajfkken and their goods have been removed from the public Jorum of the PeC' 
ilBtifl, that the di$onkr of thme way not mingle with the correct deportment of theeAt 
eated, 'Iva aa^earepov driXu^y irüaa if Ilepoov mXtreia, piKpdv eiravet- 
p t ipauds repetam)y in order that the entire polity of the Persians may be more ekathf 
understood^ I will recapitulate briefly. Kafißvotfc rbv Kvpov äircKaXei, 6vo( 
rä kv Jlipaaic ivix^pia ifrireXoiij. 

Remark. Hence what in Latin is the sequence or dqf)endence of tenses, in Gieek 
is die sequence of modes. For example ; if in Latin die principal verb is in tbe 
PreSn the verb of the tiibordinate danse is generally in the Pres, also; and if 
the principal verb is a past tense, so is the verb of the sabordinate cbmsa 
Bat in Greek, if the principal verb is a Pres., Perf. or Fat, the Safcj. is used ii 
the subordinate clanse; and if the principal verb is a past tense, the Opt is 
ganerallj osed in the subordinate daose ; e. g. ravra ypafo, yiyp a ^a, ei&, 
U^ iX^yCt haec scsribo, scripsi, at venias y'— -ravra kypa^ov, kyeypafetv, 
hf kX^ot^, s(rib«bam,smpseram,tLtvemres.----On the Snbj. after an historical 

8« With the final «onjnnctbas tig aad ottag, abo ip a^ the wkh 

dal advert» av i% sometimes joined, which reiers to a cotidittenal 
sentence, commonly not expressed, bnt to be supplied ; e. g. dia ri^g 
C^S XoiQctS oi^eig ^fidg, Smog av eidxafiep, a re del qiOua xoi 
aoldfAia vofu^eip, you wül lead us through your territory in order thai, 
{when W€ set our foot on it) we may hnowy both what it is necessary 
to reyard as friendly and what hostile, 

4. Verbs of cctre, anxiety^ considering, endeavoring^ striving, ef" 
fitting and admamehmg, e. g. ifttfAekeuf&cu, ^p^optä^ew, qnvkaxxSiPf 
^Moneht ßovleiaad'cu, oq^Pt neuh, n^ttsuf^ curare, fjuixarma^cUf 
ifc^ax«A««r, neiQayYilleir, n^osmtS^, akeiad-cu^ aye, and the like^ 
are followed bj the coiyoncdon onmg {oneog fi^) either with 
the Subj. and Opt. (aocording to No. 2.)» or, what is more asnaly 
with the lad. Fut, not only after a principal tense, but very often 
also after an historical tense ; in the latter case, the accomplishmeni 
it the purpose is ref^eseated as really occwrriog and eonänmng. 

Ol Ueptfutot vofioi knifiiXovrai, öitqc rifv &px^ fi^ roumroi iaovre^t 
el ifoXlraiy alot irovtipov ^ alüxpov Ipyov i^o^at, the Penum lawt take eare^ 
that the citizens shaU by no means be such as to desire ago/ wicked or sharmsfid aetf 
^KOfceia^e tovtOj a avSpeg *A&ijvaioLf oiruQ fiif Tioyov^ kpovai /lovov ol 
irap' iiiiCnf npeaßeic, u^Tiä Kai Ipyov Tt SeiKvveiv i^ovaiv, consider this^ihat 
mar envoys toiU not speak onlyj but they wiä be able, etc 

5. The final conjunctions Iv a and to g (more seldom onmg), are 
followed by the Ind. of the- historical tenses, when b, purpose is to be 
expressed, which has not been accomplished or which cannot be ac> 

*^XPVv oe ÜTfyaaov ^ev^cu irrepov, birw^ k^aivov role '^eoic rpaytxA^ 
repoCf it would be necessary for you to moant your Pegasus, HuA you might afpem 
more majestic to the gods; kßov'Kbfiriv d* 6v, lifuava H^ aibr^ yvufofv iftoH 
ix^tv, Iv' äfi^oripiAv ^fjujv äKovaavreg rä^^^ {t^utg iyvare rä diKma, M 
would that Simon were of the same opinion as lam, that having heard both <fu8,ym 
might easily judge what isjusL 

CL Exercises on % 181. 

Contemplate thine actions as in a mirror, that thon mayest adorn the beanti- 
ftd, hide the nnseemly. The Lacedaemonians were not permitted (vmpers, w. dat.) 
to travel abroad, lest the citizens should be filled with frivolity by (ätn) for» 
eigners. Bemember absent as well as ( » besides, npoc, w, aec,) present fiiends, 
lest it may seem that yon would neglect the latter also in their absence {part}, 
Agesilans took care that the soldiers should be able to endure hardships. The 
president of the city must {xp^li w, ace. and inf.) see to it, that the best (men) 
have the greatest honors. Noble (= honor-lovhig) and high-sonled men (=r of 
men) do everything, that they may leave behind an immortal remenfamiM if 


Sf BimJüK>^Ai>nortrm-mantanemL [§ 182. 

ttMUehrtt. Endttttror to ügM wilh i^l ardor, thot yoa aaay finqmn your fon- 
hJlhsn in renown. Would that {el yap u^eAov) the moltitude (oZ ttoUo«) were 
able to efitict the gratest evils, that they might also be able (to effect) the great- 
«Bt good {plur.) ; then (= and) it would be well («= have itself well, § 153, 2, a.). 
Why (n) didst thoa not seize {part, aor.) and slay me, that I might never show 
(oor.) myself to men ? 

1182. IL Adfective^Sentences. 

!• Adjectire^enteocea are adjectives or participles expaaded in- 
to a sentence, and, like adjectives, define more fully a substantive 
or substantive-pronoun ; e. g. oi noUfuotf oi in t^ fi6lsa}g inif^ 
f9» «« oi nokiiMH inr^Tr, dftofpvyopteg; ta ngayfiata, a.MlS^ 
opd^ itQa^ep'^ta vno ^Xe^dvdgov nqax'&ivt a nQayfuaa. 
These sentences are introduced by the relative pronouns o g, ^, i, 
ogrtg, igfri^» o ti, olo^, etc. 

2. The relative pronoun agrees in gender and number with the 
substantive (standing in the principal sentence) to which it refers, 
in the same manner as the attributive adjective with its substantive; 
but its Case is determined by the predicate standing in the subordi- 
nate sentence ; e. g. o uvtiq o v eldeg — ^ aQerri, ^ g ttdvteg ol aya^w 
ini^/wvaip — oi atQatrntoUf olg fiaxifiiid'ay eta 

Bbm. 1. When a predkative substantive stands in an adjectiTe-sentenoe, verj 
frequently the relative does not agree, in gender and number, with the substan- 
tive to which it refers, but, by means of a kind of attraction, with the predica- 
tive substantive. The verb of the' adjective-sentence is usually a Terb signify- 
ing to be, to name, to call; e. g. 'H 66 dc irpdc iu rpeTrerat, b KC^Zrai TLrihtV' 
9W9 aroim^ihe course turns to the east, which is called the Pdusian mouth; henh 
lakes the gender of the predicative arofta, instead of that of its antecedent ddof. 
"Axpa, at Kahmvrat KXeidec r^f KuTrpov. Hepaucdv ^i^o^, bv aKiva- 
Kiiv KoXovoiv. Aoyoi lef/v eltrtv iv iKoaroic rffuiv, äg iXiriSac ^vofta^o- 

Rem. 2. There is an exception in respect to number in the formula iortv oZ, 
a. g. Xiyovai, sunt, qui tUcant, This formula is treated in all respects as a sab- 
stantive-pronoun, inasmuch as neither the number of the relative has any infin* 
ence on that of the verb iariVf nor is the tense changed, when the discourse re- 
lates to past or future time. 

Nom. §<TTivol {=^ivioi) ani^vyov. 

Gen. iariv dv {= kviav) airiffxero. 

Dat SffTiv olc {:= kvioic) ovx oUrtj^ i6o§ev. 

Ace koTiv oijg (=^v£ovf) äviKreivev. 

8. The person of the verb in the adjective-sentence, is deter- 
mined by the substantive or pronoun (expressed or understood), to 
which the relative refers. 'Eyiiy og yQd<p<o-^(sVf Sg yQaipetg^ 


S 182.] 8nrtiX<«^AIMrBCnT£Ha£KTXNCKS« 271 

o i»^^ or iHsSng^ S $ yfm^Bi, Henoe after a Voeative Case^ the 
second person is commoDlj used ; e.g. av'&gmfte, og ^fiäg toiavra 
xdexa inoitjiTag, man, whe inflicted such evils on us* 

4. The relative is plural, when it refers to two or more objects ; 
and when the gender of the substantives is the same, the relative 
ag^es with these in gender ; often, however, it is neuter, when the 
sabfitantives denote inanimate objects. 

nStV iKeivj Tp ^cav^ re Kal r^) rpoirif) iXeyov, iv ol^vep ire^päfift^» 'Opd 

5. When the substantives are of different gender, the relative, 
when persons are spoken of, agrees with the mascuKne rather than 
the feminine ; but when things are spoken of, it is usually neuter. 

*0 av^p Kot ^ ywifi 1 napä ai ii^^ov. IlKOfiev iKKXijata^ovrec rrepi re 
voXinov Kol eip^vijCt ^ fuyiaTijv ix^i dvvafuv kv r^ tw av^pcjiruv ßi(f>. 

6. When the relative should be in the Ace, and refers to a sub- 
stantive in the Gen. or Dat., it is commonlj put in the same Case 
as its substantive, when the adjective-sentence has nearly the force 
of an attributive adjective or participle. This construction is called 
attraction of the relative. The substantive frequently stands in the 
relative sentence. 

'Apicjv öMpaiißov irpuroc äv&puirav uv ^fielg Ifffiev iirotijuev (in- 
stead of. <n)f la/iev)^ Arion toas the first among men known tous^to invent the dithy- 
rODib. *0 OTpaTTiyhg rjye rj)v arpanäv äird tuv iroXeav (5v (instead of fif ) 
iireiaev (= tuv ireur^etaCw), the general led the army from the cities^ which he 
had persuaded. St)v Toig •^fjaavpol^ olg (instead of ovf) 6 Trar^p KaTeXc- 
ire V (= Tolg ifirb tov Trarpöf KaTaXeKp^elGiv)^ with the treasures which his father 
left, Kvpof Trpof^Xi^e ai)v J elx^ Svväfiec, Cyrus came ivith the force which 
he had. *Ey<j aol imLaxyovfiaty ^v b '&ehg ev didCt, uv^ 6v {= ävrl roifruVf ä) 
äv kfiol SaveioyCf aXKa irXeiovog a§La ehepyerTjaeiv, 

7. The relatives olog, oaog, ogtigovv, fjXlxog, both as 
Accusatives and Nominatives, are attracted, when the verb bIvui 
and a subject formally expressed are in the relative clause ; e. g. 
oiog (TV £?, olog ixeivog or o J^rnxgatt^g ear/. This attraction is 
made in the follovring manner. The demonstrative in the Gen.^ 
Dat. or Aca to which the relative refers, is omitted, but the relative 
is put in the Case of the preceding substantive or of the (omitted) 
substantive demonstrative, and the verb ehai of the adjective-clause 
is also omitted, and the subject of the relative clause is put in the 
Case of the relative. Sudb a blended or attracted adjective-clause, 
has, in all respects, the force of an inflected adjective ; the conneo» 

tkm of the adjeotive-claiise with its safattonäTe is stfll mtm em* 
plete and intimate, when the substantive ie phiced in the adjecdve- 
clause ; e. g. in the full and natural form of the sentence x^xQl^Ofm 
ipd^l toiovttpf olog cif sly by onaitting the demonstrative roimtp» to 
which the relative olog refers, by attracting olog into the Case of the 
preceding substantive JufOQi, and by omitting «7 of the relative sen- 
tence, and attracting the subject av into the Case of the relatiTe^ 
we have the common form x^tQ^ofuu dvdifi or<|> <to«, or by tran^ 
gttion x^Jt^ofiat oup aci avägi. In EngUsh the above relatives may 
be translated by cm or such as. 


kp& olov trov avSpoQ. 
XapiCofUU ol<,> aol avipL 
knaivij olov o^ äv6pa. 
ip€> olov ificJv avdpiiv. 
Xttpi^ofiai oloic iiilv ävSpäaiv. 
krraivö olovg ijiäq avdpag. 

kpö otov ao9. 
X€ipiCofMi olifi aoi. 
kncuvci olov ae. 
kpij oluv iifiCiv. 

XOpiCofKU Oloif iffilV. 

hizaivCi olovg •bp.&q. 

BsM. 3. Attraction also takes place, when olog or oZor r e is nsed instead 
of (^ £* r e with the Inf., signifying lean of such a naturey character that {is sum 910^ 
with the Snbj.), hence, / con; e. g. AieXix^tfv ^tqIk^ toiovt^ ol^ fi^re Xv* 
nelff^aiy piffr' b p y i ^ e o ^ a tj I conversed tPith such a Stoic €u could neither ht 
grieved nor irritated. The demonstraÜTe is commonly omitted ; e. g. Mov^v r^ 
ruv air&pCi'iruyv yXorrav kiroiijaav ol i^eol olav äpi^povv r^ ^av^f the godt 
made the human tongue otdy^ capable of uttering articulate sounds; here the demon- 
stnUive roioiyrjjVf to which olav refers, is omitted. 

Bem. 4. Sometimes an attraction takes place directly the opposite of tbat 
mentioned in the adjective-clause, since the relative does not take the Case of 
its substantive, but the substantive, the Case of the relative which refers to it 
This maybe called mt>ertec/ attraction; e. g. Ti)v oiaiav (instead of ov^^l 
^ V Kare^nre rip vlip^ ov iv'^eiovog a^ia iariv, the property which he left to his son it 
worth no more. This inverted attraction is very conunon with oiföelc ^f^K 
i {no one, who not =s every one), after an omitted iart. 


oidelc 6 eng oi)K Av ravra rcot^euv. 

oiSevdg 6rov oi) KareyiXaaev. 

ovdevl 6r^ oIk äirtKpivaro. 

ovdeva 6vTLva oi KarcKhivaev. 

8. On the use of the modes in adjectivensentences, the fi^owiog 
is to be observed : 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the attrihative qualification (i. e> the 
idea contained in the predicate) is represented as somethiiig octtiai 
or real ; e. g. ri TioXig, ^ xti^srcUf 17 ixric'd'fjf ^ i(tia'&^(FeTcu, The 
Ind. Fut is very frequently used, even after an histcmcaL teosc 
(§ 188, 5), to denote what should he done^ or the purpose (§ 152, 6) ; 
e. g. üTQar^yovg aiQwvrai, oS rtp 0tXüm(p TtoXsfii^aoviTsi^, ith 
should fighty or to fight with P. Also aftor negations the Greek 


fiBes the Ind., where the Latin has the Subj. ; e. g. naq iftoi ov- 
9 Big, ogt ig fiij ixapog icrtv tea nomv ifioi, nemo^ qtfi nan poS' 

(b) The relative with &v, e. g. og av, ^ av, o ar, ogtig av, etc., 
is followed by the Subj., wheii the verb of the principal clause is 
one of the principal tenses (Pi-es., Perf. or Fut.), if the attributive 
qualification is to be represented as merely conceived or assumed. 
Hence it is also used to designate fuxdity and siw indefimtely, and 
also to express indefinite frequency (as often cts). The adjective« 
sentence can commoqly be considered as a conditional sentence» 
and the relative with av can be resolved into the conjunction idp 
with rig or any other pronoun and the Subj. 

Oof av ( = iav riväc) ße^riovc rivec kavruw ffy^ffuvraij tovtoic 'toX- 
XaKic Kot avev uvayKifc k^eXovai neWea^cUy whomsoeoer any persona thüik.{i/any 
persona think any) superior to themselves, these they, etc. 'Av^pairoi iif oidevof 
ftaXXov avviaravrcu, ^ hrl tovtov^, o^s ^v {«= kav riväg) ala^uvrai äp- 
Xeiv aifTüv kTrixeipovvTac, men combine against none more than againat- ihoae uihem 
ihey see endeavoring to nde them, 

(c) The relative (without ar) is used with the Opt, in the first 
place, with the same signification as with the Subj. and av^ but re- 
ferring to an historical tense. Hence, it is used in general and in» 
definite statements; so also in expressing indefinite freqttency^ — la 
which case the verb of the principal sentence is commonly in the 
Impf. Here also the adjective-sentence may be resolved by el with 
the Opt 

0( TtoT^fiLoi T^avTOi i^Cf ^t(^ { s= eZ tlvI) tvTvxoiev, koX i^alia^ koX yv* 
vaiKog Iktcivov, the enemy IdJled all, one after another, both children and women^ 
whomsoever ihey feU in with (~ if they fell in with any), ^ihw^, 6oovi noi^ 
aaiTO Kül evvovg yvoiij bvrag, xal lKavoi)c Kpiveie avvepyoi)s elvac, 6 Ti 
Tvyx^voL ßovTMfievoQ KaTepyä^etr&ai, dfiohiyelTai npdc ttuvtuv Kparunog (Q 
yevia^cu d^epaweietv. 

(d) In the second place, the Opt is used, when a present or fu- 
ture uncertainty, an undetermined possibility, a mere supposition^ 
conjecture, assumption, is to be denoted. The adjective-sentence 
is then considered as an uncertain or douhtfvd condition [§ 153, 1, 
b, (^)3, or forms a part of a sentence expressing a wish. 

Tow airbv Xeyeiv, ä fi^ oa^üg elSeiij, t^eidea^ai Sei, he must avoid saying, 
what he does not fidly know («= if he does not fully know). 'Epdoi rig, rf v iKa- 
xrroc elSeiri ri^yriv, any one can practise the art with which he is acquainted (« 
if he is acquainted with it). 

(e) The Opt with av is used, when the attributive qualificatioii 

274 BTKTAZ.— ▲DJBCTr?E-«EirrEKCES. [§182. 


is to be represented as a eondltiancd guppomUony cof^ecturej amanp* 
tüm^ an trndetennined possibüüy (§ 153, 2, c.)* 

Tode Xafißävovvac rj^r bfiiTuoQ fiia^bv avdpairodiarä^ iavruv &KeKaht Zv* 
Kpanjif diä rd avayKOUov airolg elvai dta^eyea&ait vrap' ^v av Xußoitv 
TÖv fuai^oVf Socrates scad that those who receive a reward for their tmUruäm^ bar- 
tered their cum freedom, because it vxis necessary for them to converse vnth those frm 
whom they might receive a reward. Ovk iariv 6 ri uv ng ftel^ov tovtov KOKbv 
ira^oij there is no evä which any one can experience^ greatei' than this. 

(f ) The Ind. of the historical tenses (Impf., Plup., Aor.) is used 
with iffy when it is indicated that the attributive qualification ooald 
take place only under a certain condition, but did not take place, 
because the condition was not fulfilled [§ 153, 2, a, (a)]; e. g.ij 
nohg, ^v ol noXefuoi ovx av inoQ'&ijaav, ei ol at^atuHtcu i^of 
di^aa/Vy quam hosUs non dindssenty si miUtes maeilio venUwnL 

CIL JSxercisei on § 182. 

. jMaa^ Acte ha^e beeome (the) oecanons of very great advantages, whieh it 
first (» at the beginning), all supposed {aor.) to be calamities {sing.). Who 
would ($153, 2, c.) not praise you {aor.}, who have fought {aor.) boldly fortbB 
fireedom of your native land ? The ungrateful (men) forgot us, who conferrai 
on them great benefits. There are men who (or some) are esteemed happy by 
sQ more than by themselves. Cannot thy brother, O Chaerecmtes, said So- 
«fttofi, pkaae {aor.) any one, or dodi he please some ^«ery highly ? Qeopomp« 
ravaged some (tzacts, neut. plur.) of sea-coaet In the young man there dmfli 
a tear which we call shame. For the acquisition of a friend, which we say is ft 
very great blessing, we see that the multitude care little. There arose confosed 
noises, cries and shoutings, which is (a) common (thing) to all who (§ 148, 6| 
engage in a naval battle. Of the nations with which we are acqnainted in 
Asia, the Persians mle, bat the Syrians, Huygians and Lydians are depen- 
dent (= are ruled). I have never yet esteemed a rich man happy {aor.), who 
{part.) enjoys nothing of that which he possesses. We most remember not oolj 
the death of the departed, but also the virtue, which they have left behind. Many 
mdeed commend fair words, but nevertheless do otherwise f another, neut.) and 
opposite to that which they have commended {atMr.), Do nothing which tfaoa 
dost not understand. A rational man, if (part.) he has lost {aor.) a son or any- 
thing else which he prizes very highly, will bear (it) more easily than othen. 
I have sent {aor.) thee this wine, said Cyrus, and I pray thee to drink it {aor) 
to-day with those whom thou most lovest. The tyrant has given sufficient sat- 
isfaction for what he has done {aor.). The general led {aor.) the army away 
from the cities, which he had subjected {aor.) to hhnself. The Persians woe 
not able to fight {aor.) courageously against men so brave as were the Athe- 
nians and Lacedaemonians. In a man such as thou art, the citizens of the 
State will cheerfully confide. It is no trivial matter to engage in single comUt 
{aor.) with a man like thee. Socrates was one of those who listen only to rcs- 
son (*e was such as to listen, et&). The barbarians had dweOings (so boiit) 

1 183.] snrrAX. — ^▲ptebbial sbntsivcbs. 87f 


1« t» be fitted to sheUer (liieai) botii in winter and in rammer. Hieie warn no 
peril which our forefathers did not undergo for the freedom of their native lan4 
There was no one present ( = of the present) except Socrates, whom Apollodo- 
rus did not move (aor.) by his weeping {part.) and complaining {uyavaKTelv). 
What one does not (/in) possess, he cannot (§ 153, 2, c.) give (aor.) another. 
(It is) not the golden sceptre (that) preserves royal dominion, bnt faithfnl 
friends, that are Üie tmest and snrest sceptre for kings. The Phaeacians gave 
TTlysses treasures, more than he would ever {—so many as he would never) 
have gained (aor.) from Troy, if (el, v). ind. acr.) he had come unharmed to his 
native land. There was then not a Spartan (gen. jAwr.)^ who, if the country 
had been in danger, wonld not have been ready to die for it States are called 
very fortunate, that continue most of the time in peace. It is a great mark of 
a sovereign, if the citizens voluntarily obey him and are ready to abide by (him) 
in dangers. A man is truly great, who can accomplish (axir.) a great (object) 
by mtellect (yvdiiri) rather than by strongth of body. Htg, at sight (part, aor.) 
<^wfaom men are stirred (aor.) and ardor and emniation seize (ifuriirTetv nv^ 
aor. sing.) every one, he I might assert has something of a kingly nature. The 
Assyrians prayed all whom (^«r, sing.) they might meet, that they wonld net 
iee and leave them behind (part aor.), bnt siKcor (aor.) them. We cannoit 
(§ 153, 2, c.) enjoy (aor.) a man, who delights in dainty food and wine more 
than in fiiends. Who could hate (one), whom he knew to be considered noble ? 
Socrates always said, that there was no (oi) better way to a (— the) good repn- 
tatlon, than (that) by which one should become (aor.) versed (=» good) in (ace.) 
that in which he wished to appear so. Those who (^ 148, 6) took pay for their 
instruction, Socmtes called man-sellers of themselves, because (itä ro) they 
ivwe obliged to convene wiäi those frmn whom tiiey oeold receive pay. Hhtm 
WM no {oif) dty there, by which they conld defend themselves. 

§183. in. Adverbial Sentences. 

Adverbial sentences are adverbs, or parddf^ med adverbiiüljr 
(i 176, 1), formed into a sentence, and, like adverbs, denote an ad* 
verbial object, i. e. sacb an object as mereLy defines the predicatei 
but does not, like the object expressed bj the substantive-sentence, 
complete it; e. g. ore to iaq tiX&Sf tä av&ti d'dXXei («» rov 
ioQOS il'&optog), « 

A. Adverbial Sentences of Place anp Time. 
1. Adverbial sentences of place are introduced bj the relative 
adverbs of place, ev, {, N?^^, oWoi/, If^as, tva (uM) ; od'BPf h&e» 
^ymde) ; oT, onoi, {, o^r^ (p^)i and, like adverbs of place, express 
ttie three relations, where, whence, whi^ier. The use of the modes 
in adverbial sentences of place, is in all respects, like that in adjec- 

2. Adverbial sentences of time are introduced bj tin MoinQg 
eonjnnctions : 

a. To denote that one action is contemporary with another, by 6re, 6iröre, uc, 
i^vka, which designate a point of time, and iv ^ &jf, u7Ai2e, which dewgiiatea 
spctoe of time. 

b. To denote that one action is prior to another, by knei, hretdji, postquam^ il 
oif k§ drovy ex quo^ and d^' oij since, 

c. To denote that one action succeeds another, by irpiv, priuaquam^ iuCi ^<^C <'^i 
elc 5i kTe, pexpi ov, fuxP'' ^^ov, [Uxpt- 

3. On the use of the modes, the following is to be observed: 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the statement is to be represented as 
9k fact; hence in mentioning (ictual events or occurrences. 

*0f ^fiipa raxi'OTa kyeyovei, inr^X&ov {^g raxiffrat quum primumfS» 
iDon as it «as <£xy, th^ deparUd). Oö irporepov kirawyavTo, irplv rev re irarq» 
i« Tov oTparoireSov fiere'rrefiiltavTOt kqI tGiv ^i?MV airov to^ p^ aveK' 
T€ivav, Toi^d* kK T^c iroXeuc ^ießaXov, th^ did nU cease, before ihaf ted 
^ iharfiiAerfrmn the camp^ and pud to death some tfhisfiiends and banished oAm. 
'E/taxovTOf pexp* ol 'A.'&ifvaioi avinXevoav. 

(b) The Subj. is used, when the statement of time or the asser- 
tion of the predicate, is represented as something conceived and 
genercH, and refers to a predicate of the principal sentence, the verb 
of which is in one of the principal tenses. The modal adverb h 
is united with the conjunctions ; e. g. otav, oTtatcof, ^ix a», inif 
{irt^), iftsiddv, TtQtp av, img ivy iiixQt av, egr av. Accordinglf, 
the Subj. is used with the above conjunctions from orav to nqh 
a f , when the statement of time is also to be represented as the 
eondition, under which the predicate of the principal sentence will 
take place. But with the conjunctions, which signify tilly the Subj. 
expresses «an object expected and aimed at. In like manner also^ 
the Subj. is used to denote indefinite frequency ; the oonjunctions 
are then translated bj as often as. 

*'Eireiiäv ai) ßovXy SiaX^etrl^aij tic kyd dvvapat hretr^eut Tore troi ^Ur 
Xe^opaty whenever you (if you) wish to discourse so that loanfoUoWj then IwOl dts* 
course with you. Oi irporepov iravaopaij irplv &v iXo re koI nvpaao rdf 
'Ai^flf, I wiä not cease, heßre I take and bam Athens {ttnless I take, etc.). 'Eüf 
bv oa^fj-rai rd OKaipog, rore xp^ i^al vavrriv Kot Kvßepv^njv Trpo&upovg elvat 
{dam servari possit), whüe the ship can be saved, the senior and the paot should he (K- 
the {if the ship, etc.). 'Oirorav arparofredevuvrat ol ßapßapoi ßaeii' 
Xeff , rii^pov trepißakTMVTai einrer&c ^tä t^v voXvxeiptav, as often as the 6affifr 
rian Tangs nudce an expedition, they easily intrench themselves by means of the great 
number oftoorhmen. 

(c) Th,e Opt is used with conjunctions of time,— («) when the 


•tetoment refera to an iÜBtorloAl tense in the primspal cImmv Yihm 
the Opt is used to denote indefinite frequency [as cftem m, tvmf, 
(b) J, the Impf, generally stands in the principal sentence ; {ß) wheü 
the statement of time is to be considered also as a condition of ib^ 
principal sentence, and such a condition as appears as a present or 
ftOure uncertainty, as a mere supposition, conjecture, asswnpHon or- 
undetermined possibility [§ 153, 1, b. (ß)']. With the Opt. the con- 
junctions are used without av, e. g. ore, insi, ete. (nol otttv, iiapf, 

Oi) irporepov kiravaaro, nplv SXx^i re xal ftvpijeiie rof *X&f^ktf. 
X)ir6re {as ofta^ <u, vAeit«vcr, if ever) arpuroirtdevotvTo oi ßäpßmfioi 
ßaeiXelg, rä^pov irepteßä?.Xovro iinevHf diä r^v voXvxeipio». 'Oirore 
rd ^iXoffo^eiv ala^^v ^yfieaififiv elvaiy o^d* kv av^pintnov vofäaai/ii kfusüri^ 
tlvai {ifl bdieoed it ditffraceftd to he a phäoeopher^ I would not think myodfa man). 
So also, bm fi^ with Opt^ nut. 

Kbmabk. In addition tö the constractions already mentioned, the oonjnnc- 
tion vpiv ia constructed with the Tnf^ espedaUy after a fl tr fliiiti ve sfentencül^ 
containing one of the principal tenses, when the action is to he fepMMMSdttB 
tak m&dental or camai dmgnaU&h of tae p«ii»t of tioM. The tiifaiect of th* InC 
IB pat in the Aec.; on attraction, ase) 171,3. A^apetog^ nplv alx^tt^uroltc 
yevEG'&aL Toiig 'EperpieaCi ivelxev tcbrolg ieivdv X^^^n^t before the Ero' 
irians were taken oapiivey Darius cherished litter hatred towards them, 'Haav Aa- 
peiipf irplv ßaaiXevtraif yeyovoreg rpeig naldeg, three children were horn to 
Ikttius hrfore he woe king. So wporepop v and the Epic itäpo^y are fbOowM by 

Cin. Exercises on § 183. 

The sonl is freest when it leaves the body. Agesilaus offered sacrifice aad 
waited until the fugitives had brought (aor.) a sacrifice to Neptune. He Ath^ 
nians did not cease to be angry {iv hpyy ix^^) ^th Perides, until they had 
punished {aor.) lum by a fine. If tnen have robbed (oor.) or stolen, Aej 
are punished. Do not decide [aor.) before thou hast heafd (oor.) both partiie 
(»the plea of both). We must {del, w. ace and ti^.) resolutely perfonn (dvir- 
eiv) the journey, till we have reached {aor,) the goal What does it profit some 
to be rich, who do not (§ 177, 5.) understand how to use riches ? Those who 
\S 148, 6) have received favors (ev itaffxeiv, aar.) We ciffl ungrateful, if (when) 
able to requite (aor,) they do not No one was permitted (»it WM nM 
pennitted) to go {slgkpxtc&at^ oar,) to the geneml, if he was not {{ 177, 
5) at Msttre. The ChalddiaBS gave way (Mtdovmb)^ as often aa the enwliy 
chaiged, and at they fell back (dTro^ci^eZv, jnrt. pres.) the en^my pcesaod 
on and threw javelins. Whenever young men associated with Socrates, 
they made progress in virtue. He who (§ 148, 6) is voluntarily hungiy, can 
(S 153, 2, e) eat {aor.) when he will, and he who is volnntarily thirsty, ean drink 
(aor.) tdien he will ; but he who suffers this by necessity, has not «be powlr 
{HeoTij w. dot,) to cease to hunger and tlurst, when he wÜL Sat nol, 


S78 STNTAX. — CAUSAL APTfiSBIAL ^StT^SSfC&S. [§§ 184, 185. 

irt hmtgrf, and drink not^ before thou art thirsty. That (^ th«) death is 
avithomt pain, which {pttri.) happen« (oor.) ere ^one could) think {donsiv^ aar,) 
of (it). The tradition is, that the island (of) Delos, before Apollo appeared 
(oor.) to men, was concealed by the sea (rb ireXayo^). 

B. Causal Advbbbial Sektewces. 

§184. a. Adverbial Sentences denoting Cause • 

1. Such as are introduced bj the conjunctions of time, or«, 
OffOtSf ds, ins i, qtumiam, since, insibtij qwmiam, since the 
cause is considered contemporary (pre, onots^ <o^), with the predicate 
of the principid sentence, or prior (inst, instd^) to it. The Ind. 
18 the prevailing mode in these adverbial sentences; e. g. Mri 
fis xrc«/, sTtet ovx 6fioydffrQio$*'ExroQ6g sifAi, qvxmiam — non sum, 
do not slay me, since I am not a brother of Hector. ^Oz s roiwf 
tavd'' ovtcag iy^si, ngog^xei nQO&vfjuag i&Asiv dnoveiv, since these 
things aire so, etc. 

2. Such as are introduced hj the conjunctions o 1 1 and d & o t i, 
because. With these also, the Ind. is the prevailii^ mode ; e. g. 
Aqa to 0610V, on oaiov iati, qiiXeirai vno rSp •^fiooy, t}^ oti 
q)iX8Trai, oaiov iativ, is what is holy, loved hy the gods because 
it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved f 

§ 185. b. Co nditional Adverbial Sentences. 

1. The second kind of causal adverbial sentences, are those which 
express a condition, and are introduced bj the conjunctions € I and 
iav (ijy, av, which must not be confounded with the modal adverb 
äp, see § 153, 2). The principal clause expresses that which is 
conditioned hj the subordinate dause. As the conditioning clause 
precedes the conditioned, the former is called the Protasisy the lat- 
ter, the Apodosis. 

2. The Greek language has four different ways of expressing 
eonditionality : 

(1) The protasis has e / with the Ind., and the apodosis likewise 
the Ind. (sometimes also the Imp.). Then both the oondition and 
that which is subject to the condition, are represented as a recsHiy or 
fact, and hence as certain, 

£i TovTo XeyetCf ^fiapräveiCj if you aay this (admitted or assomed as a 
fiu^), you err. "Kiel tri ßufioi, eiül Kai i^eot, if there are akare (an adnutted &ct>, 
«ftere an aUo gods. EU ion ^eoc, 90^ kariv, £i ravra ireiroti^Kac, 


Tptujfev. l^TavrakicevoiifMeiyilfiapr^Kei. E2rof>ro %^f ecf, ^^af>- 

(2) The protasis has e I with the Ind. of an historical tense, and 
the apodosis also the Ind. of an historical tense with up, Thia 
form is used, whon the reaUty of the oonditioa and of that which is 
subject to the condition, is to be denied. It is asserted that s(Nne» 
thing could take place under a certain condition, but did not take 
^ftce, because the condition was not fulfilled. 

El Ti elxev, kdidov avy si quid haberet^ daret (mmc autem mhU habet; ergo 
tdhü dare potest)^ if he had anything^ he would give it (but he has nothing, coiise> 
qnently he can give nothing). Ei tovto i "Key eg (iXe^ac), vfiapraveg (^/m^ 
ref ) dv, si hoc diceres^ enures. Et tovto hXe^a^y ijfiapTec ov ( Aor. instead 
of the Flap.), n hoc dixissesy errasses, if you had said this^ you vjould have erred (bat 
yon have not said it, consequently you cannot have erred). Ei kireia^tjVj^ 
obK hv ^ftpuarovVf si chedisseniy non aegrotarenu 

(3) The protasis has iav with the Subj., and the apodosis the 
Ind. of a principal tense, commonly the Fnt. (also the Imp.). The 
condition is then represented as a supposition^ the accomplishment 
of which is, however, expected; that which results from the princi- 
pal clause is represented by the Ind. as certain or necessary, 

'Edv (^, äv) TOVTO ^ey-gg^ &/iapT^ayt if you say this (shall say), you wtfl 
err. (Whether yoa will actoally say this I do not jet know ; bat I expect, I as- 
gome, that yoa will say it, and then It is a necessary consequence that yoa err.) 
'E6v Ti ix^f^^'^^t Saaofiev^ if we have anything (which we expect is the case, 
or which depends on circumstances) we unU give. *Eäv tovto 2,e§yc, äfiap- 
T^üiji si hoc disteris, errabis. 

(4) The protasis has £ I with the Opt., and the apodosis the Opt. 
with a V. (The Opt. Fut. is not then used). By this form, both 
tiie condition, and that which is subject to the condition, is repre- 
sented as a present^ mostly a fvture uncertainty^ as an undetermined 
possiMlity, a mere supposition, conjecture, or assumption, without 
any reference to the thing supposed, being real or not real, possible 
or impossible. 

El Ti ixo^Cp^o^VS &v, if you have anything (it neither being assamed nor de- 
nied that you have), you uxm/cf pit«. El tovto XeyoiCy Afiapravoic &v. ^"^ 
dv vireviyitaipiev ovrt rd KOUfM^ olre TÖ^ipü)^^ el i^ofrivffc yiyvotro. El 
ianiyKaicv el if u4uifiv ^ ädtKeia^iy ikoifiifv äv /»äXXov ädiiteUr^ai^ ^ ASucstP, 

BsM. 1. Ei with the Ind. or kav with the Snbj. is freqnenüy^ followed by 
the Opt with äv; e. g. ei tovto 'keyeig^ AfiapTavotc av, if you (really) say this, 
you vxnJd err; iäv tovto ^^f, AfiapTavotc &v, if you say this (as I expect)^ you 
wotdd err ; on the contrary, ei with the Opt is sometimes followed by the Ind. j 
e. g. el To&TO^Xiyoig, äfiapräveic, if you shodd say iMs, you certain^ err. 

MO smTAx*— CAUiAL as^ebsial sentxitgis. [§ 1B5. 

. 2. Ml wilh the Opt is-freqaentlj «sed müteiKl ol a roT^woeHön of Am 
[4 IM, d, (e)] to dsBote indefimlbt fnqmhcy in nfUiAkm to wfaiUi is- past Tlico' 
cl is translated by <m often a$, and the principal clause him tiie ind. of an histofn- 
^ tense, usnally the Impf., with and \fithoat a v ; e. g. El ti^ oOt^ 6oKeiri 
tCiv npbc Tovro rerayfiivuv ß^aKeveiv, iiraiev av, as often as any one of those 
•appointed to Hits vxfrk^ seemed to him to be indoient, he would heat htm. Et tic '^nKpO' 
"991 TSpl vo^ ävrtXiyoif hri r^ im6^e9w kvrav^yev '&v iravra rbv TJryop, 

BsM. 8. With the Ivd. of the hifitoiacal tenses, »vi» commonly etnitted n 
4^ oonclnsion with expresuoas which c^note the ides of mtemifyy duty, /wbImi, 
jMMänlüy^ freedom f indincUiony thus, e. g. witb XP^^ ^^'> Ch^sXov, wif^ varbi^adp 
jectives in -r e o f, irpo^Ke{v)i Kaipb^ ijv, eUdg jyv, xaAdv iyv, aioxpdv ffv, «caXüf 
rf^fef p), k^v, kßovkofiriv ; e. g. Ei alaxpov ti ifie22ov kpyaaaa^ai, -ddvaTov dvr* 
«irov trpoaipereov ^, mors praefirenda erat. What is here expressed ofr* 
mhtbdy by the Greek, is expressed with an implied condition in English, e. g. etxbi 
fi», ijf nmi^c? bejustj aiaxp^v j^v, tV toou/«/ be shameftd. 

Rem. 4. The protasis is oflen omitted, and then the Opt. with &v stands with- 
•oat any conditional clause ; yet the protasis is contained in an ad jeotive-sen> 
fence, or in a participle, or in some word of the sentence which may be expand- 
edr into a conditional protasis, e. g. in the adveipb ohtw^, in a preposition, or it 
]» indicated in what precedes or f<^w6. *Of tovt« A #70« {^ ü nc raöra 
Xeyoi), &f*apTavoi av, whoever {if any one) should sa^ this^ utould err* Tom» 
X^^ac (== cZ oi> Ae^oif), äfiaprävoic &.v. OUtq {=: ei o&r(j> iKOt^euc) 
y* ÄV äpaprävoig. Yery often, however, the protasis is actually wantingi 
particnlariy where it can be easily supplied, e. g. by such phrases as, when one 
wishes, if it is «dkiwed, if I oon, if «trcumstances favor; e. g. ßov'koi^tiv &9 
(«nl. el ^waifiJjv). 

CIV. JBxercües on % 185. 

If we stiive after virtue, we are happy. If thou wilt follow me, 6Md Yixtae 
to Hercules, thou wilt become a good artificer of noble (deeds). K thoxi wish- 
«st the gods to be gracious to thee, thou must honor them. If thou art eager 
t« learn, thon wilt learn much (ivo'kopxi&fi elvai). For all men death is (the) 
Ixmndary of Ufe, even though one shut {aar. part,) himself in a cell and keep 
watch. That which is (=» the) unexpected, if it be good» delights men the aion^ 
but if it be fearful, it terrifies the more. If thou callest to mind the past, thou 
wilt decide better upon the future» If we have money, we shall have ürienda. 
The possession is nothing, if it is not used (= if there is not using there-with). 
If men supposed (aor.) that thou wert ungrateful towaads thy (= the) parents, 
no one would believe that he would be j^sid ( =» reoehre back a &vor), if (jmvI) 
he did thee a fiivor fnor.). The whole time would fail ^aor.) ns, if we should 
«oamefate all the deeds of Hercvles. If we shotdd banish (aior.) (h>ni Hie the 
love of fame, what then would beoome (aor.) of virtue (» iidiat wonM the good 
heoome to us), or who wou)d strive to d0 (aior,) anjthmg illustrious ? If iImhi 
shouldst be ready to take hold (aor,) of philosophy, thou wilt shortly see haw 
much thou wilt be distinguished from others. Wisdom would awaken («» a^ 
ferd) a vehem^t love (filwr.), if it were seen by the eyes. Said Alexan<ler: H 
I were not Alexander» I would be Dictgenes. If Soorates had not Maia^f 

(«m^) reiy twiperKt«, bow w^vld he faav» made (oor«) oHmis lempemte f If 
ever Astjages deraflad^ »uytbing, Cjnis obsenred it first. If eTer aoy one- 
served {aor,} Cyrus, when {part) he had giren a omnmand {npocrurretVf aor.),> 
IB no cafie (»s to no one) did he ever leave (aor,) his readiness nnrewaided. It 
igftalä not be (^ have itself) well^ if the gods delighted more in great offerings, 
than in small If a greater danger were to (fiiX^) threaten («= be to) ns there 
than here^ thim we most perhaps prefer the greatest seoonty (»the most se- 
eqie» fieut.). 

$186. Adverbial Sentences denoting Consequence 

or Effect. 

1. Adverbial sentences of consequence or effect, are introdiiced 
by the conjunction (Sgrs (more seldom cig). On liie use of the 
modes the fc^lowing is to be observed : 

(a) The Ind. is used, when the consequence or effect is to be 
represented as a fact, something actually accomplished; tlie Inf., 
on the contrary, is used, when the conse<p^ce or effect is to be 
represented as merely conceived^ not actually accomplished, but 
merely as possible or aimed at, or as the condition of the affirmatioa 
in the principal clause (on condition that, supposing that). 

'Apyog avdpiiv kxvp^V oUru^f ugre ol öovha airwv kaxov navra rä 
vpayfMTa, Argos ufos left so desUtute of meriy that the slaves had all their effects. 
TtUKpuTTiQ frpög TO fierpiuv öeltr&ai neiraidevfjtevog ipf oUraCf ogre iraw fii- 
Kpä KeKTfffiivog vravv ß^diug ^ ;^ e £ v apKovvra, Socrates was so educated to have 
moderate desires^ that although he possessed very little, he very easily had a sufficieruy 
(here the consequence is not carried into effect, bat is founded onlj on the na- 
ture of Soerates). 

Bbm. 1. If the Inf after c^re has a special subject, different from that of the 
principal sentence, this is put in the Ace, but if the subjects of both sentenoeflT 
are the same, then attraction takes place (^ 172, 3). 

Hbm. 2. Instead of &gre with an Inf., a relative, particularly oloCf öaog, is of- 
ten used in connection with an Inf. j this relative corresponds to a demonstra- 
tire in the preceding clause, though sometimes the demonstrative is to be sup* 
plied; e. g. rotovrog 6 ^Taatirirog f/v, olog fi^ ßovXeai^ai TTO^^^f 
kiroKTivvvvai rijv iroXiröVj Stasippus vxts sucA, as not to desire to put many of the 
citizens to death. 

(b) The Opt with av is used, when the consequence or effect is 
to be represented as a contingent conjecture, supposition or assun^ 
tiün (§ 168, 2, c). 

(c) Finally, the Ind. of the historical tenses with ay, or the Inf. 
with av is used, when it is to be indicated, that the consequence op 
effect would take place only under a certain condition [§ 153, 2, a» 
(a) and d«]. 


.Sit BMwuoL.'^jüDrjamuit mmt »ess. ff IM. 

tTof 4IG^ md UrptK^ icmt funtr*»^ '▲«-«AAmv «vcüpc«, iirf#i)^iMir «ot ipuroc 
ilfaf»W99a«afT0^y ügre xal a^^c "Epuroc &v elif faa&irriff, ApaOo diaoovend 
m dmy^ wtedidne mirf tk§ pn pk a t iü oH, wwcfer Ut^m Min a eAm ^denreamlhBe, m^vA 
A» WOB a dmiflt ofEtm* Ildvref oi in^tat mXiftui^ hitXa ttarmncevaCov, & ^ 
TB n^ irokw dvruc if y if au &v iroA^uov Ip)^(i07i^iov ehai (sc. ei ddef), offfAe 
oliMW wef€ j awp wwy «m^mh» ^ «nr, m then ifou tooM Mik ^lat the ähf ms oo- 
tmtä§ a «iaiMS^SM(9f3r ^ tear. Oi ^eo2 ofirci ^m» iv tqI^ Upel^ hj^ffvav, öf r« 
jco^ löuiTffv &v yvüvai, ÖTi r^f /lovapxt^ mwexea^ai fu dei, w ito «M» a jvi> 
«ote man {if he had been prment) might have p erodoed, 

Bbm. 3. Instead of 6f re with the Inf., sigiufynig ea eondititmej ttf, t>r «to, «t, 
(on the oondiiion that)^ if' ^r e also, either with the Ind. Fat or with the Iii£, is 
used; e. g. *Eirl rovrt^ iirefumifMi -r^f apxnCi if* ^T*e ^ ofdevdf ^/i»v 
fy^Ofiai, I leiB give tq> mä claim te the gmfernnieni €H this eündtHon^ ^tat lahaBbe 
nied Ay no om o^irw. 

Bbm. 4. 'Q c is nsed with the In£ in indep^dent or parenibetic elanses ; «. g» 
&{ elireiv, so speak; 6c ye ftoi do Keiv, as ü seems tome; »eis also often 
omitted in such danses ; e. g. oi iroXX^ Xoy^ elTvelVfto speak briefy. 

d. AdTerbial Sentences denoting Comparison. 

2. Comparative adverbial sentences of manner and tray, are in- 
troduced by the relative adverbs, o) ff, mgre, mgnsQ, ontogyos. 
The use of the modes in these sentences corresponds with that in 
adjective-sentences (§ 182, 8). 

9. Comparative adverbial sentences of quantUy or degree, are in- 
troduced hj the relative oö<p (oaov), and with this the demon- 
strative touov^rq^ (toaovtov) in the prindpal clause oorrea- 
pt^ndft ; these are tamalated so much — - o^ but with a eomparatlYe 
or superlative, bj the — the. 

toee^rov Siafipetv iifi&c Set ruv MXuVy 5üov ol ftev SoU^i uKovrec role 
dtfnr&rwc imfpereifmv, we aught to dijfer so ßar from slaees^ as dav^ tmwSUnghf 
cibeif their masters. 'Ov^ {6ao») voi^orepoc ri^ iari, roaovTif} (roaovrev) 
<y€»<^poveaTep6c i^rtv, the wiser as^ one is, the more discred wiähebe. *0<Ty 
(4oov) ao^&raroc Tig kan, roaovT(^ (toüovtov) ffut^povitrraToC 

CV. Exercises on § 186. 

Cyras had soon killed off (dvaXiaiui) the beasts in the park, so that AsQrages 
ooold no losger eoUeet others ibr him. The Greeks were obliged (de«, to. aoc 
OMd ifffi) to go back so far while fighting, that (daring) the whole day th^ went 
{6iepxe<r&ai) not more than twenty-fire stadia, and {aX^} came into the vJilagea 
in the evening. In process of time {ok wpoijyev & xp^ch Cyras became (so) 
filled with modesty, that he even blushed, if he met his parents. God provided 
for men eyes that they (might) see the visible, and ears that they (might) hear 
the audible. What kiw is fall of so gross injastiee, as to depfive him of reoom- 
pense who (4 148, 6) gives away {aar.) something from his own (store, phr^)» 

§li7.] sTNVAX.*^Z!rrxBRoo49m: ssht^iobs. 2M 

aad äoes iaor.) a htunene deed ? The Athenums were permitted to nik oyev 
ihe rest of the Gre^s, proTided that thej themselTes obeved tiiie Feraian kiq^ 
G^^ras WM very eager for honor, 89 that be «nderweat eyerylhiiig for the uke 
of betng praised* The genenla stood iinn, that the enemy mig^t net throw tfat 
wings into disorder. There are vessels at jonr command, sa that you can uaSX 
<«4iefiever iiitif av) ymi wffl. Th« ^seeüenoe of Nestor is well known to all tb» 
Gveeks, so that, if I should speak oef (kiyetv) it, I should speak to (those) ae- 
Umiwiffll (with it). Tke cnp was so stimg, that it eonld not be broken. The 
kKtumans had invested {aar.) the citj so that die Qieeks eonld not eacape from 
it oaofaserved {Haar^^y^Wy aw,). The initestines «vf the siek biira«d (ic<ue(n^«i) 
so, that they would yexy gladly haye plnnged tbemselyes in eold watei: 

§167. Ini0rro^ntive Sentences* 

1. Questions are either iudependent of a preceding sentence or 
dependent upon it ; e. g. is the friend come f and / do not know 
whether the friend has comCf The first is called a direct qaestioof 
iixelsmiy>sakiftdirefit. Both may ccmsist either oi one aember, ov 
o£ two or more members ; e. g. Is the friend eomSf or is be nei eome 9 
Kncwest thou not %ßhether he is coming, or whether he is not coming 9 
According as the question refers to an obfect (person or thing) or to 
a predicate^ the questions are divided into nominal and into predi" 
ccUive questions ; e. g. who has doTie this f (nominal question), and 
hast thou written the letter f (predicative question). 

2. The nominal questions, i. e. those questions, in which the in-- 
quirer wishes to receive an answer on a single point, are introduced 
by substantive or adjective interrogative pronouns, tig, noiog, noaog^ 
or such interrogative adverbs as noteqas, nrng, n^, nov, Tto&i, nod^sv ; 
e. g. tig ravia inoit^asp i-^ihe predicative questions, i. e. those 
where the inquirer desires only an affirmation or denial of his in- 
quiry, are introduced by adverbial interrogatives, as, aqa ; e. g. a ^ a 
tesvra iTrmtjaag ; 

Kem. .1. Fredioative questions are frequently indicated by the mere tone and 
by the position of the words, the predicate, or that word on which the force of 
the question rests, standing first in the sentence. Thus particularly in the case 
of negatives ; ^.g.oijK t^e^eic levai, do you not wish to go? 

3. On the use of the interrogatives» the followijig is to he ob- 
served : 

(1) 'H, commonly in connection with other particles, implies an osserftbn, a»- 
moeration, since it supposes that that in regard to which the question is asked, 
afitoaily exists, e. g. ^ oifToi 7ro?Jfuoi eloiv, are these enemies? ^ irov, num 
foriA, tndyf indeed? when the inqttirer expects a negative answer; e. g. ^ fro« 
tm^K^ ipyw alvxt^rw Tode^ As» %hton indued dared thi» thing f ii y&p,i$ü 

884 BTVtAX^^anaa^QArKfn scxtbkcbs. [§ lt7. 

ntHo,i$iin&t trust e.g.^^ yap, ü 'litwia, iav ri kpur^ ce ZoKpumc* •^•k^ 

(S) *A p a is properly vied with qvestioiit of dimbi^ unoBrtaudjf and woud&r, but 
often, abo, with a degree of modesty with queetms wholly defimUf e. g. ip 
oltf^u Tiva^f ot dvMf eXeIc ivre^ ü^Xifiov^ 6waimu ^Uovf nouta^at, do j/em 
hmo amf penuu dmtiMe of aä retommmdaUonj wkoanabU 1o aoqme vahabk 
fiimndaf (to which a negative anewer is expected). 

(S) O^ or ^ is joined with dfio, aeeording as the iaqnlrer expects either aa 
t^firmatim or mygJMKißwet] e. g. 'A/i* ei« fonv d<r^et^f ; mum aegtaiatt {he 
ünotmek^iskit) Asm, Atgroiat 'Apa fii^ ianv 6a^tv^; mmmam mgnkäf 
(h§i8notäek,üke9) Ans. Nm aegntaL 

(4) M17 always expresses apprehatnon or ofunety on the part of the inqnirer» 
and hence expects a negative answer; e. g. 'AAAd ^^ äpzirUnj/v ßovXii ytwi- 
o^^ot; OiKO^iytiy,tfii^d9jf(mwjiwi^1»buomeanarMecitbjfmnmmBf 
mud he, 'AAAd /lil yeo/ärpns hci^vfitic l^t yevia^OL üya;^bi\ Oit^h ye*»- 

furpns, ^. «• *»•• ^ 

(5) M u V (arising from tiie interrogative ft^ and 0^), ooiresponds in all re- 
spects with the Lat ntim, and hence always requires a negatir» answer; e. g. 
ft&v rer^kpaiKOig raOra Spofftu, fou ktwe not dared to do füese lAüip«, haue youf 
For the sake of perspicsiQr, the partides o^ and /19— ^6 y oiv^ ftü'V ft ^ u se 
often joined with it ; e.g. ^uv oiv reTÖXfitiKoc — ,^-or fiuv ft^ reT6Xfia$Kaf 
— <; — but when the negative oi is joined with fidv^ the question is affirmative 
(nonne) ; e. g. pSn> oi reToXfiijKO^ — ; norme ccusua es — ? 

(6) O iy non, nonne 9 and oIkovVj non or nonne ergo f with the collateral idea 
of oondnsion from what precedes, always denote affirmative questions ; e. g. o ^ 
KO j; V yiXi^ ^Surroc etc tx^p(n>c ys^v, UünU then the tweetett Umghter to knyk- 
at <m^9 eneadeef 

(7) E Z r a and £ tt e t r a are used in questious expressing indignation^ aaomeh- 
ment and trony, and denote opposition or contrast, and yet, since an unexpected 
conclusion has been drawn from what precedes ; e. g. i ire it* oIk olei ^povrU 
^etv i^eoi>g äv&ponruVi and gel do you not suppose that the gods care for men f 

(8) Direct double questions are introduced: 

a. By woTspov {n 6 t e p a) ^ ^^ utrum — an; t. g. irdrepov oUrot ißpiarai 
eUriv, ij ^M^evoi, are theg insolentf or hospitdiief {worepov in the first member is 
sometimes omitted) ; b. by ^Apa — Vt ne — an; c. by M ^ — ijf, whäher not — or; 
d. by 'AXXo Tt ^ (instead of dAAo ri yhoir' ctv, tj) and äXT^oriy nonne; e. g. 
&7iXo Ti fj TieiireTai rd ivrev^ev ifiol kiv6vv(jv 6 jaeyiaro^, nonne relinqmiur 
mihi — 'i is not the greatest of the dangers left to me^ "AXXori oinf olye ^iXoKsp' 
dele f^cXovoL TO Kepdogj therefore^ do not those fond of gain, love gain f 

(9) Single indirect questions are introduced: 

a* By the interrogative pronouns 5fnf , 6iroiec> ^oao^f ^TPorepoct 6iroc, Hicov, 
bmHf imore, etc. (4 62, Bern. 1.) ; e. g. ovk olSa, 6^ig kariv — oLk olSof bmac t6 
vpayfM inpa^ev. * 

Bem. 2. But often the direct interrogatives r£c» urotocj ir&Cf etc, take the plaee 
of the indhrect question, the indirect question then assuming the character of tbe 
direct ; e. g. oi>K oiSOf ric Tai;Ta Ivpa^ev (instead of /^<cf ). 

li. El, whether^ like % is properly used only in douMe queitkms, and denataa 

$168.] aTKTAx. — ^iNDi&scT msooimtB« 28& 

a wavering between two poMilnlities ; b«t oCWn obIj one member is exfwessedr 
while the other is present in the mind of the speaker. Hence el k used after 
verbs of reflecting^ ddiberatinfff inqmring^ caking, ^^yi^Vi knowing, tayit^: 6p^v, aK,o- 
ireiv, aKoireitr^ai, eldivai, ^ßei<r&<u, etc — ireipua^ai^ einvoelVf ipoT^v — TUyeiv, 
^pa^eiVf etc ; e. g. ffKhfttu, el b '£A.A^uv vofio^ Kä?.Xiov ix^i, consider tchether the 
Cheek cMtmn is not better. Also iav with the Ssbj. is used in sudi qnestions, 
when fhings expected and yet to be proved, are spoices of; e. g. atce^aif kä» 
rSde <fOi fiäXXov äpeeiof, consider whether this would pleßse you btUer, 

c M ^, as in direct questions, whether not, is nsed after expressions of r^ectmfp. 
considering, inqmring, asking, as well as after those of anxiety sji^fear, which als« 
have the idea of reflection. In English, this firi after verbs of fear and anxiety 
is translated by that ; e. g. 6pa, ft^ tovto oimg ^x^i, see, whether this is not so» 
^povTi^u, fi^ KparioTOv ^ fioi <ny^, 1 am consiäering whether it is not best far ms 

(10) An indirect double question is introduced by, (a) Trorepov {norepa) — v i 
e. g. oiK olda, irorepov C$ $ re^jjKep ; (b) e / — 7, the same as Trorepov-—^, jeH 
with this difference, that el — y expresses uncertainty and choice ; (c) e { r e — 
el re, in the same signification as e/ — rj, except that by elre — elre, the cor- 
respon<fifig relation of the two members is denoted, and the indecision of the* 
speaker between two poasibiMties is made move promment; e. g. tuU ^ol^i^ ra« 
;(«, e Z T* «iyew^ ri^KOQ, elr^ io^^&» kok^. 

Rbx. 8. On the use of the modes the following is to be observed : Tke lud» 
i« used in direct and indirect qnestions ; the Sulj. and Opt. are used in d«^hifa^ 
questions, and differ only as they are affected by the tense of the verb in tha 
principal sentence ; e. g. ovtt ix^> ^^^ rpaKOfiai and ovk elxov, ötroi rpairotfirfv 
[) 153, 1, b. (a)]. On the Ind. and Opt of the historical tenses with av, see \ 153, 
2, a. (a) and c 

Rbk. 4. The answer is expressed : 

a. By the repetition of the interrogative word; e. g. 'Opi#f ^, deonroiv*, t^ 
ix*^i rdv d^^tov ; Ans. 'Opö. In a negative answer, a negative is joined with 
the interrogative word; e. g. Olo^' ovv ßpoTolg b^ Ka^eoTijKev vofio^; Am^ 
OitK ol6a. 

b. By <ffvt*h ^VH-' ^y^f iyuye; negative, oi ^»7^**» 0*« iyuye, ov. 
c Very frequently by 7 e, quidem, utique, assuredly, certainly, which denotes 

liiat the answer completes the thought contained in the question, extends it fur- 
ther, continues and stvengthene it, or by an additional olaose, limits and oor^ 
recti it. Aiso by yap, though still stronger, 
d. By vat, v^ rbv Aiot navv, Kapra^ ei ye, and the like. 

§ 188. Oblique or Indirect Discourse, 

1. The words or thoughts of a person, — whether this be a third 
or second person, or the speaker himself — ^maj be repeated again, 
either without change, in precisely the same form as thej were al 
first stated by the person who uttered them,— then the discourse or 
4Q«gbt ^oled is indapeadeni of the repMseotaftioa of the sanmtpiv 


and is* called direct (oratio recta) ; e. g. I thought^ ^ all men are moT" 
talf^^ke announced to me, "peace has been concluded^" — and with- 
out a preceding verb, all men are mortal ;-—ory in the second place, 
the discourse is made to refer to the representation of the speaker 
or some one else, and thus depends on a verb of perception or oom- 
munioation (verhum tewtiendi or dedarandi) in the principal sen- 
tence. The statement is then quoted as the sentiment of the per- 
son spoken of, i. e. of the person bj whom it was originallj uttered. 
This is called indirect or oUique discourse {oratio obliquä) ; e. g- 
he announced^ that peace was concluded, 

I will make peace with the enemy, — Oratio recta. 

Me said that he would make peace with the enemy, — Oratio obllqua. 

2. The principal sentences of direct discourse, and also sentences 
introduced bj the coordinate conjunctions, e. g. yoQj ovr, xctiroi, 
etc, are expressed, in oblique discourse, when thej contain a simple 
affirmation, and denote something which happens, has happened, or 
will happen, (a) either by the Aec with Inf. (§ 172, I), or bj ou 
and eig with the finite verb (§ 180, 2), or by tbe participial oon- 
•traction (§ 175, 1) ; e. g* ifn^yyetXe rov^ noXeiiiovg anoq>V' 
ysXv — on oi noXifuoi dnoqivyoisv or anitpvyov — zoifg 
noXefjiiovg anotfvyorrag — or, (b), when they express a 
command, wish or desire, by the Inf. (§ 171, 2), e. g. Ska^e zotig 
0tQaruit€ug ini'& ic^ai toig nolefAiotg, he commanded the toU 
dien to aUack the enemy; vel oratio recta this would be expressed by 
the Imp. ifii&sc^e. 

liSofjiait Ö K^apxit aKovuv aov <^povlfiovc Xoyov^ (oratio recta), lam plecaed, 
Clearduu, to hecar you make these sensible remarks. Turaa^pvtfc i^^ev, On ^Sotro 
6kowjv KXeapxov ^povi/wvc Xoyov^t Tissafhemes said that he was pleased to hear 
Cteorcftus, etc 

8. The subordinate clauses of direct discourse are not changed in 
indirect discourse, except that, aft^ an historical tense in the prin- 
cipal sentence, they take the Opt,, in the place of the Ind. and Subj., 
when the indirect discourse is to be represented as such, L e. when 
the statement contained in the subordinate clause is to be viewed as 
the opinion or sentiment of the person spoken of. 

Thus, e. g. iav tovto ^iyyc* äfiopTTiuy^ in oratio obliqoa becomes ilie^e <re, 
el TOVTO "kkyoL^^ afiapT^aea^ai, TeJievTÖv Wcyn», Oca uyai^ä Kvpof Tlepfrac 
wenoiijKoi {feasaä), he finally mentioned what advantages C. had conferred am 
As Perstans, Tiaaa^ipvffc lifioaev *Kyrioikaifi, el aweiaaiTO, ?wf I A i^ o c e y, 
pSf vifiifeie irpdc ßaatX6a dtyyc^ovf, dtavpaiee^ai o^y, a^e&^vai airro»6- 
limag rächrtf 'Affi^ ir6Xuc 'EÜ^viOmc, Tissüphenue took an eaA to Ageetlaaa, if 


he would make a treaty^ wäH the measengen^ vhtm, he had sent to the king should re- 
turn, that He wotdd effect that the Grecian eätes in Asia should be independeiU. 

4. Very often, however, in Greek the oblique discourse takes the 
form of the direct, since even after an historical tense in the prin- 
cipal clause, the verb of the subordinate clause is in the Ind. of one 
of the principal tenses, and in the Subj., as in direct discourse. 
Here, although the actions and representations contained in the sub* 
ordinate clauses, belong to the past, they are transferred to the time 
present to the speaker. The use of the Ind. is regular, when the 
statement in the principal sentence, is present to the time of the 
speaker ; e. g. Xsym, oti 6 av&QtoTtog S^viitos iativ, or instead of 
on with the finite verb, the Ace with the Inf. is used ; e. g. Xiyia, 
tov ar&QOOTtav '&vtitov slfai. 

^Ael kirefie^eiTo 6 Kvpoc, önore avaKfivotev, Öwuc ehxapiaroTaroi ^.oyet 
kfiß'kij-^riüovTat.j Cyrus always took carey whenever thy were with him in hig 
totf, that the most pleasant subjects of conversation should be presented. '£ d o ^ e r^ 
i^fUfk TpiotKevra iXia^atf o I rot>f iraTpiovf; vofiovc avyypäfpovoif «cai^ oi)f 
iroXiTe^oovoiVy the people resolved to choose thirty men^ wAo should draw vp 
kaos for the state^ in accordance with which they should administer the gooermnad, 
'OpKioic fzey&Xoic Kareixovro *A&Tivaloiy 6iKa inj xpV^^^^f' vofioig, o^c 
Av a:ÖTol^ Hoh^v ^^rai. Tot)f lirneac iKe2.evae Kvpog ^Tmytsiv to%>^ äyor 
yovTOgf iuc <^v tic Offfi^vy. 

5. The Greek can also use the Ace with the Inf., instead of Ü» 
finite verb, in every kind of subordinate dauses. 

'Lxtf&ac ^offX rpdf vofia&act kreti aörotc Aapeiov elfßakeiv elf ri^ 
X^paVy fterä raßra ftefiovivcu airrihf riaao&ai, they say that the Softkian nomadSf 
t^kr Darius had made an imtptian into their country ^ eagerly desired to take vengeaneo 
on hinL 



§189. Introductory JBemarks on the Hexameter. 

I. The measure of the Homeric Terse is Hexameter ^ which consists of six por- 
tions, called fea. Each of these feet is a Dactyl or Spondee. A dactyl consists 
of one long and two short syllables ( J w v ), a spondee of two long ( -^ - )• 
The first fonr feet of an Hexameter Terse may be ei^er dactyls or spondees; 
the fifth is usually a dactyl, and the sixth a sp<mdee or troehee ( — «'). Tha 
following is the scheme : 


"AvJpa fiOi 

Kel Tpoi 

VC l£ 

pbv ivToXi 

Of fiuTia 
e&pov I 


2. The first syllable of the dactyl and also of tho spondee, is pronounced ^tb 
a stress or elevation oi voice, which is called the Arsis ; the short syllables follow- 
ing the Arsis, or the long one, if the foot be a spondee, are pronounced with a 
'depression of voice, %1ii($h is called ihk Thäi^ The Arsis is mailed in ihe 
^eme by the sign ( -^ ). 

BB)KAitK. The Afth foot Is toimnonty a dactyl, tmt sometim^B a spondee; 
llien the Teifie is called a sponMc verse. A succession tf dactyls indicates a 
quick and lirely motion, while a fiuceesnon of ipondees,. a slow and heavy mO' 

3. In every well constructed Hexdmeter, there is ät least one Cafisnra, w)üäi 
is occasioned by the ending of a word in the middle of a foot. But ai the har- 
mony of the verse requires that the ending of the foot and of the word shoaM 
generally not coincide, several words of an Hexameter verso may end in the mid* 
tflSe of & foot, and hence there may be several caesuras in an Hexameter. 

X(i>6fL€vov I Kara ^vfUtv \ kv^&voio [ ywaiKog. 

In this line the ending of the foot and of the word, coincide <in^ in the woni 
kara. In a dactyl the word may end with a long s^Uable ia tha acsis ( J | '"' Jt 
or with the first short in the thesis ( ^ w | w ). In the former case, the caesna 
is called masculine^ in the latter,yemtmfle. The principal caesuras are the \^ 
lowing: "* 

(a) The most usual and most emphatic caesura is the masculine after llie a^ 
lit of the third foot ; e. g. 

itkk* 6 fikv Al&ieirmg |[ ftereKta^e r7fXo&* iovn^r. 
(h) Ohmk d»o a leM <»[i|)liallc ftmitiine eacsttrtt oc6tars iüi the tbesiB of tbB 

avdpa fioi iweirey Mov(Ta, || TCoXvTpoiroVf of /uaXa ttoXKci. 

(c) A third caesura is the mfisculine alW t^ arsis of the fourth foot; tliisB 
usually preceded by a masculine caesura in the second foot ; e. g. 

f I' 'I' I' I' I' 

-ww|_ -I 1- -I -; ""I- - 

äpvvfievog |{ ^v re ^vxrjv jj k<£1 vogtsv kftipciv. 

4. Beside these principal caesuras there are still other subordinate ones. 

5. Beside the caesura, the I)iaeresis (dimpe^t^) also Is of frequent occuncatf^ 
i. e. a separation of the verse, occasioned by the ending of the word and of the 
foot eoincidiag. The following are Üie priaci|ial £aet€MS: (a) after the tnt 
footj (b) after the second foot; (c) aflter the third footj (d) after tbe foaith 
foot} e.g. 

(a) i^it^iav • I ainap o rol^iv äi^iXero^ vooTtftBe» Tfpnp 

(b) ä\%* ore ^ H9^ I ^Xi^Cj Kepm?>aftev€iv ivieamiv 

(c) kvv%ftap fihf ävä arparhf \ (^eto *^Aa ^«mü 

(d) uvipa /Mi twsne, Movaa, TroXvrpoirov, ) «f imU fMkk 


§190. Quantity (Comp. § 9). 

Fbbliuinabt RjBMAfiK. Only a few general roles will be given here ; the 
quantity of particalar words» not embraced in these rules, may be learned by 
observation. , 

1. A syllable which has the yoweU e or o, followed by another Yowel or » 
fiing^ consonant) is short by nature ; e. g. r^6r, Mtg^ ßwf. 

2. A syllable which has the Towel v or w, or a diphthong, is long by natm«»^ 
80 all contracted and drcumfiexed syllables are long by natore} e. g, ip^* 
olpavoc; üJtuv (instead oiäeKnv), krifta (from irtfiäe)'^ iräCy alrog, inix^t vvv, 

S. A syllable which has a doubtful vowel, a, i, v, followed by another vowel 
or a single consonant, or at the end of a word, is short by position ; e. g. iei- 
iovreCf dcufuvti^^ 0t)^, fi&XVi <fi^Ct äpytpeog. 

4. A syllable which has a short or doubtful vowel followed by two con«>- 
nants or a double consonant, is long by position ; e. g. Uia^aiy kKarofißri, di^O' 

ExcqftionB to No, 3. 

' («) a of nouns of the first Dec, which have the Gen. in -aCt is long in all the 
CaMfi in which it occurs^ e. g. ^fiepa^ ^iXia, -oc, -^, -dv, etc 

(b) a in the D«ial of all noons of the first Dec, is long; e. g. Nom. Sing. 
Xiaiva, Dual ^etuvä. 

(c) a is long in the Gen. Sing, in -<io and Gen. PL in -mw ; e. g. 'Arpeiddo, 

(d) the ending -o^ of the first Dec is long, both in the Nom. and Gen. Sing., 
and in the Aoc Fl. ; e. g. Nom. ra/juäc, Gen. cKiäCi Ace PI. do^df . 

(«) a of masculine and feminine participles in -or is long ; so also other words 
in 'CIS where vt or v have been dropped ; e. g. oKovaOc ((Uovoavrc), dicov- 
aaaOf lards, ßdci yty&C (y*yovrf), fti^^ {fie^vg). 

(f) a in the third Pers. PI. Perf. Ind. Act. ; e. g. Terv^Oai. 

(g) V is long in the Sing, of the Pres, and Impf. Ind. Act of verbs in -v/u, 
also in the masculine and feminine Sing, of the participle*, e. g. deusv^fu, 
kdeUvtv, deiKv^s, deiKvvaa. — Other exceptions may be learned by obser- 

5. In Homer, a mute and liquid comm<mly make a syllable long by position. 

6. The final syUable of a word in verse, is uniformly long by position : (a) 
when it ends with a consonant, and the next word begins with a consonant ^ 
o. g. Kot Ko&t I ffOv Tpo I as ; also (b) when the final syllable ends with a short 
Towd, but the following word begins with a double consonant, or with two sin- 
gle consonants, which are not a mute and liquid ; e. g. adfi^ | njVy fjv \ odirtf 
i I wi» l^vyhv I fiyayw \ &v^p. A mute and liquid, in this case, always makes the 
syllable in the arsis long, while the syllable in the thesis may be either long or 
i^iort, according to the necessities of the verae ; e.g.ft^ ftot \ düp* kpa | ri irpö- 

*^e I pB xpv J ffetfs *A4po | dims ; on the contrary, in the thesis, abräp 6 (d) | w A|>- 
aiov I ioT^ I KCL 
* 7. A long vowel or diphth<»g at the end of a woid, is Qsiudly made short in 



^ HOMEBIO I>IALB09.'->»HXA¥VS. [^ 191, 192. 

Bbmer, before a word beginning with a vowel, bat it remains long when it is in 
llie arsis, or when the following word has the digamma (^ 193) ; e. g. Vf^ \ ^ 
ßev I ^eaatv ; — v/ef, 6 | ^^v Kreä | to«, 6 6* dp' \ HipvTov \ 'Ajtrofu \ wvof ;— 
abräp 6 | tyw»» | iaiv i | v^ ^peüi \ ^uvrf \ aev re Utriv = F^iv). 

8. A long vowel or diphthong in the middle of a word, before a foQowiog 
towifti, is but seldom shortened ; e. g. hret^ ( w w . ), Bfivaioc ( — ^ ^ )} moc (''"'li 

9. The an^ can make a short syllable long, both at the beginmng of aw«i 
•h g. äoviSof I &Kä/ia \ rv» vvp, and also at the end,— in which ease it is gene* 
nXlj followed by a liquid, or a 9 or d, the sonnd of which is easily doabliod is 
IKtmwiciation, or by a word with the digamma; e. g. icai vedi \äiu\ rtwra\ 
-^^vyare \ pä^v («= F^). 

la üot nnfreqnently in Homer, merdiy from the necessities of the vene^t 
■hort vowel in the thesis is measured as long, when it stan^ between two long 
Tiyw^ris ; e. g. ^o | de^i | v- 

§191. Hiatus. 

Hiatns, i. e. a harshness in the pronnneiation, arising from the ooncnmoee 
«f two vowds, one cf whidi ends a word, and the other begins the foiloning 
word, 18 generally avoided by the Greeks, but especially in vene. Ift the Ho* 
miric Hexameter, however, it is admitted in the following eases : 

(a) With long vowels or diphthongs, either in the arsis, e. g. inrrc&e | ^ 'OAr | 
arfl, (»r in the thesis, in wfaidi case the long vowel or diphthong is sltort; 
e. g. oIkoi S I <rav ; 

(b) When the vowel does not admit eUsion, or but sel^m; e. g. irmSt hf»- 

(c) When two words ax« separated by a pmnctiiation-maik ; e. g. oX%' om, « 
ftifiovac ye ; 

(d) In the feminine caesnra {\ 189, 8), after the first diort syllable is the tiiii^ 
foot of the verse ; e. g. xeivif \ ^ rpvt^ \ 2.€ia {{ fi/i* | itwerp | x^V^ *" I 

(e) Tn. the dlaere^ (4 189, 5) after the first and fonrth foot of äie vene; eg. 
Iy;fet | Idofievifoc ; — irefuffcu ^* 'Arpeiiij * Ayofiifivovt ] o^Xov *Ovetpc9\ 

(f ) When the first word has the apostrophe; e. g. Sivdpe* t^aXXev ; 

(g) Words which have the digamma occasion no hiatus ($ 198, 3). 

§192. The Homeric Dialect. 

The language of Homer and his school is the older Ionic ; these poets, ho*- 
«prar, were not satisfied with th^ own dialect merriy, but selected froan all die 
dialects, in accordance with the tme principles of art, those forms which wae 
adapted to the nature of their poetry; the regiüar laws of vecsification, d»^ 
had maoh iafia^ce in forming the language. Tfans th^ piodaoed a pecaliv 
and definite poetic langnage, called the Epic or Homeric 

R 1931, 194] HOMBBxo dxäi«bo7. — DzejüOiA. — ^TOWEz.». 2n 

§ 193. Digamma or Labial Breathing F. 

1. The Greek language had origmall^ a special labial breathing, the aomid 
of which corresponds nearly to the English / From its form F, whidi re- 
•embles one gamma standing npon another^ it is called Digamma (doable 

2. The AeoMans retained this character tiie longest; among tiie other Gk«- 
dan «tribes it disappeared yerj^arlj; its soond, howerer, was in some mstaaces 
changed into the smooth labial /3, e. g. ßia, arising from Ftc (later Ig), vis; in 
«ome instances, it was softened into the vowel v, and after oüier yowels coal- 
esced with these and formed the diphthongs av, ev, i/v, ov, uv, e. g. vodf instead 
iKtvaSct namsy ßoOc (ß^-^ch ^t^i bös^ Gen. bö^visj in others still, it was merely 
dianged into a smooth breathing, which, at the beginning of the word, is indica- 
ted by the Spiritus lenis, bat in the middle of a word and before Pt it was not 
indicated by any character -, e. g. F^f , vis, U i ei^u, volvOy öSigy ovisy FpoSov, /S6- 
dov ; finally, it was also changed, at the beginning of some woids, into a roogfa 
breathing, which was indicated by a Spiritus asper; e. g. itnrepoCf vesperuSy hh 
t4/f e, vetth, 

3. In the Homeric poems, the character denoting the brealhii^ F, no longer 
exists j bat it is very clear that in the tune of Homw, many words were pn>- 
noonoed with the digamnm; e. g; a-yvUfiiy ävdavut itip (ver), the forms of 'EIAfi 
(vKÜeo), htKOt slfUL (vestimentxm.)^ ivvijfu (vestio), elireiVy Ixi/Xoc, ioc and 6g (sous), 
9i (rat), iairepog (uesperus), oiUog {vicus)y olvoc {vinum) ; this is obvioos fit>m 
several facts : (a) words that have the digamma cause no hiatns } e. g. vpd t^ev 
(^ irpd fe^ev) ; (b) henee also a vowel ca|>able of elision, when placed before 
sach a word, cannot be elided ; e. g. Xinev 6e i {=6e Fe), instead of d' I ; (e) 
the V if^hcvoTiKov is wanting before words which have the digamma; e^ g. date 
ol {sss dale Foe), instead of Saiev ol; (d) oi) instead of oi>K is found before the 
digamma; e. g. iwel oi> H'&iv kari xepei<M ( » ov Fei^ev), instead of oix ^^ ; 
(e) in compounds neither elision nor crasis takes place; e. g. dideiirifiep (« 
iuLFeiirefiev)y instead of Sunrkfiev, uay^Cy instead of uSaytfc; (f ) l<mg vowcb 
«re not shortened (\ 190, 3) before words that have the digamma; e. g. «oAAet 
re artkßwf koI el/jtaai {= xat Feifutai). 

§194. Change of Vowels. 

Contraction. — Diaeresis. — Cr as is. — Synize sis. —Apocope. 

1. The Homeric language often varies in the use of contracted and uncpn^ 
traoted forms, according to the necessities of the verse; e. g. ä^Kuv and dieaw. 
The particular instances of contraction will be seen below, under the e<mtraet 
declensions and conjugations. The contraction of on into o takes place in the 
verbs ßo^Vy to cry, and voetv, to think; e. g. ßoaa^y instead of ßo^aacy ayvwrn- 
üKeVy instead of äyvoii^atnttw ; so also, hyd^KOvray instead of hydoifKOura. 

2. Diaeresis is the separation of a diphthong into its vowels. The use of lliif 
is not rare in Homer ; it occurs most frequently in those words whece tte tsm 



vowels are separated by the digamma*, e. g. irai'c, uHrfirjf brea^ (from ö/ü), 
ktiTKUf ivKriftevo^f 6'ic {^StCt ovis), dtoftai (comp, opinor). 

8. The use of crasis is limited to a ibw cases, particnl&rly : Käyu^ r&XXa, o^ 
^r, oliveKOt üpurroff uifT6c, instead of icai ty6f rä ä22a, 6 iftoci 6 äpiaroc^ i 

4. S jmsesis, L e. the eontmction of two vowels into one, which is perceptibte 
only in the pronunciation, bat is not indicated bj the form of the word, is of 
very frequent ocenrrenoe : 

{a) In the middle of words, most freqnently in the following combination of 

vowels : ea, efc, ecu, eof ; eo, eoi, eov ; et», e^ ; e. g. ar^ea, ^/leoc» ^'^ 

XP^>^^ot(t Te&vguTi ; much more seldom in oe, lOj tcu, iij<, ty^ to; e. g. ae^ 

Aevuv, iroXtaCi noXtoc ; oo only in ÖySoov ; vol only in Saupvciai ; i}( in 
&tfioto, &ffiuVf d^MUOi, i/ta ; 

^b) Between two words in the following combination of vowels : 17 a, i; e, 

fj rj. If eif 7f oVf Tf 01 ; ei ov\ u a, u ou ; the first word is one of the follow- 
ing: Vt hf ^i A<7 and iirei, or a word with the inflection-endings 17, 9; 
e»g.v oif, 6)i a^eioraTOCt fi^ aXXoi, eiXamv^ ^e yafioc, aaßian,) otxT vim. 

5. Elision (f 6, 3) occurs very frequently, namely : 

{%) The a in the Neat PL and in the Ace. Sing, of the third Dec; seldom 
in the Aorist-ending -ffa ; e. g. &Xe(^' ^^e ; usually in the particle äpa ; 

(b) The e in the personal pronouns £/ie, //e, (re, etc. ; in the Yoc of the second 
Dec. ; in the Dual of the third Dec. ; in endings of the verb, and in ^ 
tides, e. g. Se, re, rore, etc. (but never in I6e) ; 

^c) The t in the Dat. PL of &e third Dec., much more seldom in the Dit 
Sing., and indeed only when the connection is such, that it could not be 
mistaken for the Ace. ; e. g. x^^ ^^ ^^ 6pvi^ 'Odwrev^ ; in ä/xfu, ifipi 
and a^i ; in adverbs of place in -^i, except those derived from substan- 
tives ; in elKopi ; finally, in all the endings of the verb ; 

(d) The o in airo and ifiro (but never in vp6)y in <Ivo, in Neat pronouns (ex- 
cept to), and in all endings of the verb; 
. (e) at in the endings of the verb, fiai, rai, tr&ai ; 

(f ) 01 in /uo(, to me, and in the particle roi. 

6. Apocope (dTTOKOTT^), i e. the rejection of a short final vowel before a word 
beginning with a consonant, occurs in the prepositions itva, Kara, trapa, seldom 
in &ir6 and ^vo, and in the conjunction upa.— '"Av before ß, n-, ^, ^ is changed 
into u^ (^ 8, 4) ; e. g. &/< ßufwlai, äfi ireXayoc, ä/i ^ov, afifiivu ; Kar assimi- 
latea its r to the following consonant, except that the rough mute is preceded 
}fy the corresponding smooth ; e. g. Käd iwofiiv, xäK Ke^d^Cj '«7 yow, tax 
fäXapa ; examples of äwo and ^iro are o?nr^/u^t, ißßaXXetv, instead of d^i** 
triftilfei, iwoßäX^iv. 

§195« Change of Consonants. 

1. A and ^ remain before ft (contrary to § 8, 2) ; e. g. Idfiev, iceKopv&fthoc, 
of IcfteVf KeKottvufUvo^. 

§( X96^ 197,} BOlUBiaC PUI<£Ctr. — VmST pECliSKSIOV. i9i 

, 2. The metathesis of p wilh a pi^iecednigyowQl^oQCiirsiiotimfireqiientfj; a(^ 
iLpadiijf instead of KctpStct^ hearty Koprepoc and Kparepo^, ßäpdujTo^ (from ßpadifc) i 
also in the second Aor. : Inpa^ov» idpa^ov, iipwtov (from nip^i^, dapi^avo, 

3. In Homer consonants can "be doubled, after short vowels, according to ih.6 
necessities of the verse, in the following cases : 

*(a) The U^nids and a our the addition of the aagment, ;prben there an tbne 
successive short syllahles ; e. g. iXXaßov^ iftftai&w, kuvtw^ iofftvu. ; 

(b) ^ composition, also, the liquids and a are doubled; e. g. veoXXovrot (finon 
veof and ^V6>) \ 

(e) The v in the inflection of the Dat in ai, and ^ the Fnt and Aor. ; e. g; 
veKwraiVf ^patreofitu, Koi^aaa ; . 

(d) The cr in the middle of several words ; e. g. üa^ov, roevov, imioouy «lit 

Of the mutes, ir is doubled in the interrogativeB which hegin with ^ ; e. g. 
6ff?rüf, etc J — K in freXexKov, ne^^KKcui ; — r in örrt, Ärreo, Ärre» ;— rf in l<J- 
detae, ädSee^t addrfv. 

Bbmask. The doubling of p, when the augment is prefixed and in composi- 
tion (§ 8, 12), can be omitted, if the verse requires it; e. g. kpe^ov (from /^iC<u), 
XpvcofiVTOf. For the same reason, though but seldom, one of the consonaiiti, 
which otherwise usually occur doubled, is omitted; e. g. *0^aevc, 'Axi^ev^, ^o- 
fwyof , instead of 'O&uaaeifg, 'A;t'^^**'f > ^apivyyo^. 


§196. Suffix <pi(f). 

In addition tb the marks for the Cases, the Homeric dialect has the evSix. 
^ t (v)^ which expresses the relation of the Dat, and in connection with prepo- 
sitions, that of the Gen. This suffix is always appended to the unchanged stem 
of the word ; e. g. 

I. Dec. only in the Sing. : dycT-jy^*, ättö vcvp^^tv ; 

n. Dec. in Sing, and FL ; all these forms, without respect to the aceentnation 
of tiie Nom., are paroxytones (-6^t) : ^ed^iv (for ^eöv), of Um gödsy dir* 
dffTe6<^iv (for dtrriuv)^ of bones. 
UL Dec. almost exclusively in the H. : 6peüfi{v), upon the mouniedns, U 0rf> 
^eu^i (comp. § 44), vavt^t. 

§ 197. First Declension. 

1. Instead of the long a, 17 is used through all the Cases of the Sing. ; e. g. 
n^vcXoTretjyf , TitjveTMiTeiij from II^veAoTrf ta, ^pqrp^j "BoperjCt Bope^y "Bophfv. 

Exceptions: i^ed, goddess^ -ag, -^, -dv; "NavaiKoäy ^eiä; AlveiäCt XifyeiOft 
*EpfuiaCf and, some other proper names in -a^ pure. The Voc. of v(fp(^ is 

S. Substantives in - e c a and "Oia, derived from adjectives in -vc an4 -ovT» 
and also some other feminines, change abort a of the Attic dialect into 9 * 0» |^ 


i94 HOXKBIC I>IALE0T.<*-8E0Oin> AJH) THIRD ]>BC. [§§ 198, 109. 

ikif^eiffj &vai6eifff einrXoUf^ KvUra^t instead of AA^^eia, Avtäieio, «vrrAoM, 

8. The Norn. Sing, of mascnlinef, in a great nnmber of wcnnds, hare the end- 
ing -ä (like the Lat), instead of -Vfi according to the necessities of the vene; 
e g. inwoTä, alxfiflTtL, fiririera, eipvona. The Yoc retains in aü these the 
ending -d. 

4. The Gen. Bing, of mascaHnes has the fbUowing endings: - öo, -u (ood- 
tracted from -ao) and- e 6); the last ending -eii) is always pronounoed with sym- 
•eais, and in relation to the accent, 6» is considered short (4 30, Bern. 2) *, e. g. 
^Epfteia^i Qen. 'Ep/ieiao and 'Epfieiu ; BopetfCi Gen. Bopeüo and Bopeu ; 'Arpd- 
4iiCt Gen. 'Arpeiido and 'ArpeÜBu. 

6. The Gen. Fi. of mascolines and feminines, has the endings: -auv, -ov 
«ad -6qv {etjv is regnlariy pronounced with syiüaesis) ; e. g. «AMrcaav, KXtmuVf 

6. TheDatPL:-7ff£(i;), -9r, -aiorc, and - a t c (onlj im^eouf and djcratr); 
«. g. icX<«9(7e(v), frerp^f Trpdf fuyaX^i. 

§ 198. Second Declension, 

1. Gen. Sing. : - o v and - o £ o ; e. g. cl^/iov, üfioio from c^/M>f , 6, shoiäder. 
'2. Gen. and Dat Dual : ^otiv (instead of -oiv) ; e. g. 6^o 1 1 v, 

3. Bat. Fl. : -oiai{v) and -ot^; e. g. ^fioiaiVt tJfioic. 

4. Attic Declension. Gen. Sing. : - a) o, instead of - o ; e. g. ni/veXeuo, from 
Il9veXeci»C- In /o^C» sister-in-law^ 'A&uf and K6)f, the -ur produced by coo* 
Iraetbn, is resolved by o ; e. g. yaXotj^f *A&6oCf K6<o^. 

6. Contracted forms of the second Dec., occnr but seldom, viz. vovg, nsuaSj 
»6oc, x^^f^^fi^C <U^<1 X^'-I^^M^^i Hav&ovg^ Havdov^ Tlav&(^. With those is 
-eof , -eov, Homer either lengthens the e into et, or employs synizesis, as the US' 
tore o/^the verse requires ; e. g. xp^^^^- 

§199. Third Declension. 

1. DatFl.: -<t<(v), -<Tcrt(v), -c<t4(v) and -e(xai{v). The endings -eoi 
«nd •»« <r ji, like the other Case-endings, are always appended to the pore stem; 
e. g. Kvv-eaoi (fipom «vwv, Gen. «w-6f ), veKv-eaat (from vc/cvf, v-of ), ;feip-rt'i. 
In neuters, which have a radical a in the Nom. (4 42, 1. and § 44), this ff is 
dropped ; e. g. hrk-toai (instead of ktzea-eaai^ from rd Itto;- , instead of ^£r)i 
de^rd-effcrcv (from rd dcTroc) ; v is dropped in stems ending in av, ev, ov (§41); 
e. g. 06-e(T(Tt (instead of ßoS-toüL, &ot>t&t»), /Tor^-cffat. — The ending -aaiis 
appended almost exclusively to stems, which end in a vowel ; e. g. vecv-ooi 
^fiom v^«vf, v-of). 

2. Gen. and Dat Dual : - o 1 1 v (as in Dec. U.) ; e. g. 'nodouv. 

3. The Ace Sing, of those in -vQy sometimes has the ending -a ; e. g. e^pee 
«rovrov, Ix&vOf vea, instead o( eipvv, Ix&iWf vavv. 

4. The words yeXwf, laughter^ ldp6ct sweat, and ^pof, love, which property )«• 
long to the tlurd Dec., in particular Cases in Homer, are decHned like the Aitie 
second Dec.: yiXa and yeXctv, instead of ye^wra, yiTiXft, instead of yiXun; 
^^pö» Wp9, instead of IdpüTa, löpöri ; Ipy, instead of ipuri. 


5. Tbose in » t r. Gen. - 1 ^oc, mpeoUlj proper nttmes, often Imm« the nilei»' 
tion - < o f , etc., and in the Dat always ; e. g. fivvtoc, Oeriocj Qerl. 

6. ^e neater o^, iiro^^ tar (^ 39), in Horaer has the form oha^, ttiaroc, PL 
oi^ara ; the neuters aiifipjfitL, ov&ap, breatt, and netpap, tmie, have -arof in the 
Gen. : orearagj oi^araf ireipara^ weipaat. In the neuters ripa^, Kepag and xpiof 
l\ 39), the r is dropped; e. g. repaot -aov, -äeffoi ; Dat «cep^, PL «epo, «epoov« 
Kspaeeirc and x^poffc ; PI. «pea, xpeaovt Kpeüv and icpeUiv, Kpemaiv. 

7. In the words mentioned nnder 4 36, Homer can either retain or omit e, Ǥ 
^e Terse may veqnire ; e. g. dv^p, avepoc and dv<^dc, dvepi and avdpif etc. (hol 
only ävSpüVj ävSpatri and dv<$pe(r<rt) ; yaarrfp, 'ipof, -ept and yoOTpöf, ^oorp^ 
yaOTepa, yaaripec ; ^fifi^rtip, •^tirepog and 'ffrpoct AiffUfripa ; ^uyarffp^ ^vyari' 
po^ and ^vyarpoCf etc, ^yaripecüi, hot ßvyarpüv ; irati/p and /«^ngp, -r^pof 
and -rpoc, etc. 

8. The word /;t^» ^^«''(x' qfthe^ods, in the Ace. has i;t^» instead of /;t^P<i, and 
KVKeuVt ^t fnixed drink, in the Ace has KVKeü or KVKeiü. 

9. To$41*helong-ai;r, -eve, -«Vf. Of 7pa€f, there occur in Homer only 
Nom. ypf/v^j ypf^Ci Bat ypj?^ and the Voc. ypffv and ypffit. The word ^oöf 
does not admit contraction, thus : ßoe^y ßoa^ ; Dat PL ßo-eaaiy see No. 1. 

10. 4 41. In common nonns in - e v f and in the proper name 'A;t^AAevf, fi is 
used instead of e, in all the forms in which v (F) of the stem is dropped ; e. g. 
ßaaiXevCt Voc. -ev, Dat PL -cvfft (except äpiürrjeatnv for Apwrrevf ), bnt -ßaai- 
2^0^, -^i, -^a, -^ef, -^oc (a in the Ace.. Sing, and PL is short). Among the 
proper names, the following are to be spedally noticed: 'Odvoirevf, 'Odvow^of 
and ^Odvarjog and 'Odvfftreof, also 'Odvcrcrevf (contracted), '0(h;(n72^ and 'Othwsi, 
*0^(r<n7a and '0<5voiaea, also *Oivafi ; U^Xevc, IIi/Ajyoc and -^, ^c and -i^, -^ \ 
the others, as 'Arpevc, TvSevgf generally retain e, and contract -eoc in Üie Gen. 
by synizesis, and sometimes -ea in the Ace. into -Vi thus : Tvdeoc, •&', -la and 

11. 4 42. - 9 c and - e f, Gen. - e o f. The Gen. Sing, remains nncontraeted j 
the Kom« PL is -eec* and -etc ; the Gen. PL remains nncontracted (except when 
the ending -ewf is preceded by a Towel, in which case contraction takes place; 
e. g. ^axptiwf from ^axpv^f-^v, which is from ^axprivCt impetuous), also the Aoc. 
PL - e a f . 'Apijc is thus declined : 'Apijog and -eog, Dat 'Apiji, 'Apy, "Apejf, Aoc. 
"Apif and 'Apijv ; Voc. 'Apcf and 'Apej-. 

12. 4 42. Proper names in - « X 9 f contract ee into 9 ; e. g. UpoxAe^f, -«)k^or, 
-^i, -9a, Voc Updx^etc; bnt adjectives in -^?r, have both ei and 7; eg. 
dicAe^f, (UAiyetf, dyoicA^of, but ^«^«taf (Ace. PL) from kvKTie^Cf ivßfie^c, Gen. 
Hß^eloc from ivfiftevc- So the forms dvcicAia, imepöea, instead of -eea, occur. 

13. § 43. -Of, Gen. - 6) c- In Homer the contracted forms ^p^ Dat, and 
Mivu Ace., occur. Of the words in -d^ and -q. Gen. -6of , only ;tp<^{' and its 
compounds, are nncontracted : XP^^ XP<>^* XP^^- 

14. i 44. (a) - a f. Gen. -aoc; the Dat Sing, is nncontracted or contracted, 
according to the necessities of the verse j e. g. yvpai and yvp^- But the Nom. 
and Ace. PL, are always contracted ; e. g. ditra. — (b) - f , Gren. -eog; accord- 
ing to the necessities of the verse, both the nncontracted and contracted forms 

* These aumben refer to the sections in the first part of the Grammar. — Tb. 


«• used, (except in the Gen. PI., whkli idways remains nnoontncted, also in 
the Gen. Sing., except in some sabstantiYes, which contract -eoc into -eve \ ^g> 
*Ep€ßevCt ^äpaevcy) Dat ^epei and r^ip«, «oMei' and «caAAei ; Kom. and Aoc 
phtrale in -eo, commonly remain uncontracted, h«( must be pvonomiced wUh 
qrniMsis; e. g. veUeOf ßeXea^^lA tmeoct *^og, Hoq, xp^t ' ^ sometlDi« 
Jengthened into u, scMnetimes into 9i thna : Gen. avuov^, Dat inrfii, Accffveo; 
and airetocr Gen. PL ffnawv, .J>v»l airioai and anyeffai; xpBog and atf^toci 
«^ed and icXeio. 

15. H^* -£(, Gen. -tof ; -€r, Gen. -voc. The Pat Sing, is cootncteii 
6. g. 6l'^vt, ff-A^i^t, v£icv« ; the Ace PL, as the Tose mfty require, is somelima 
«noonteraoted, sometimes, and indeed inore commonly, contracted; e. gJx^i 
instead of lx^<Vf ^f»*c i the Nom* PL never soffen contraction, hot is pio- 
nounoed with eynizesisj e. g. Ix^i^ (dissyllable). The Dftt PL ends in-MVi 
and 'veüüL (dissyllable) \ e. g. Ijc^ooiv and ix&veaüw. 

16. 4 46. -l^BnA'h Gen. -lo^ (Att •£»(); -vf and-v, Gen.-vof (Att. 
•ewf ). (a) Words in - 1 c r^ain the i of the stem Ihroogh all the Cases, ud 
•re always contracted in the Dat. Sing.^ an^ sometimes in the Ace. PL; e.g> 
'Ko^L^t -tof, 'I, PI. -t«f, -twv, -tfft, -AOf and -ff. The Dat Sing, has also the 
endings -ü and -ei ; e. g. fröcrei' and n-oaet, from froaic ; in som» words the ( of 
the stem is changed into e in other Cases also; e. g. kiraX^ti^ (Ace.), hn^ir 
atVf especially in iroXtc, which, moreover, as the verse requires, can leugtihent 
into Vt thus : Gen. TroAtof, voXeoc and woX^o^^ etc^ and in d2|-, ovis, Dat E 
6iEe0v<v, o£eafv, 6e<Tiv. — (b) Words in -vf, which in the Attic Gen. end in -euc, 
have -eof, and in the Dat Sing, both the nnc<Hitracted and contracted fonni; 
«L g. eipeif mfxeif nXarel ; in the other Cases, the uncontracted forms are OOB- 
mooly used, though these are generally to be pronounced with synizesis. 

§200. Anomalous Words (Comp. § 47). 

L T6vv {to, knee) and 66pv (rd, spear) : 

Sing, yowaroc and yttvvo^ Mparog and dovpo^y Soipari and A^ifrf 

PL N. yovvara and yovva Sovpara and Sovpa'f Dual dovpe 

G. yovvov dovpov 

D. yovvaai {-oai) and yoovea^t dovpcuri and Sovpeaai. 

S. Kapa (rd, Aeeu?) . 

Sing. K. ica/CM7 Gen. xapi^rof Kctp^aroc xparoc K^Morof 

Dat KaprjTt Kopfiari Kpari Kpaan 

Ace «dp;/ (/cpdra, Hose, Od. S, 92). 

Plnr. N. Kapa Kop^ara (and icap'i/va) 
G. Kparov { ^ «cop^vMy) 

D. Kpaai 
A. Kpäara ( ** icop^ws); 

3. Navf (^, 8/b]p): 

Sing. N. viyvf l*/ar. v^ef and veef 
G. i^of and veof vij&v and veäv 

D. viyf ^^ vifvaiy v^eoiH, vhtrtn 

A. vija and vea v^of and vic^. 

4. Xeip (^, Aofu/), Dat x^Ph Ace. a:^, Dat PL x^*P^^ vsAje^pmaof- 

fl 201 — 208.] HOHBBIC DIALECT.«-^Al>Jli!CTiyE8.— PRONOUNS. 997 

§ 201. Adjeetivet» 

1. The «djeetiTes ßoHc taad insv^ lunre sometiaies the femiiune form -^a 
cr - e 9 : ßai&iiKf ß^hiv, 6Kea. Some adjootires in -vc are also of commoB 
gender; e. g. "Hpff i^Xvf ^oOtfo, ^^ &^fi^. 

2. AdjectiTes m-9««f» -^eü^a, •» ^ e v often oocor in theoentractedfofm: 
-yCt -^fffffl) -^v; e. g. n/A^r; those in 'oeiCf -oeeaOf -oev contract oe 
into ev ; e. g. «rcdca Aurcvvra. 

8. na%vc(§ 48) ia Am inflected: 

Konk Sing. iroXi^ and irov^vf ; woX^; and iroAAof, froA^ov; Gen. iroX^; 
Aoc. ffoAvv and irov^w;-— Nom. PL voXieg and ironic; Gen. iroA^in»; 
I>ai iroX^i, iroAiofft and iroAeeovt ; Ace. 9roAeaf and noXel^. 

§ 202. Comparison. 

1. The endings "drepoc and -^Taroc are sometimes nsed, although the Towel 
of the preceding syllable is long [comp. § 50, 1, (a)] ; e. g. öi^DpdraToct Kcuco^ei- 
v6Tepog. Adjectives in^-i^r and -poc, have the Comparative in -iuv and -tfffof, 
though sometimes also the regular form ; e. g. /^vx^f , yXvKiuv ; ßa&iii, ßä^ 
^urrog ; olxTpoc oIktiotoc and olKxporarog. 

2. Anomalous forms (f 52). 

d/a^oc, Com. apeiuvy hütcw and Xi^repoc, Sup. KOfmaroc 

KüKoCt Com. KOK&TepoCt ;t^£por£]i>of, ;|^epec<i)v, x^P^^'^^P^t Sup. i^xi<rrof 

5 A i 7 f , Com. AAiCwv ; — j5 iftdioc, Com. I^trepog, Sup. pniarog and fifftTontt 

ßpadvct Com. ßpaaaoVf Sup. ßäpdierog ; — -^ aKpog, Com. ftaaodiv 

^^X^Ct Com. fravovjv. 

§203. Pronouns. 

1. Sing. Nom. 


Baal Nom. 
G. and B. 

Plnr. Nom. 



iyÄ, before a vowel, iywv 

ifioif fioi 


vuj^ and v& 
^fielCi (SffUi 

ilfiiv, ifUv, äfifulv) 
^fiiac, iftaCi &fifte 

aeOy aev [ffev) 
aelo^ ai^eVy reoio 
aoij Toif retv 
at {ae) 

a^ai and o^ 
(f fiele, ififiec 
ifiSav, 'iffieittv 

ifilv, ^fifu{v) 
ifiiac, tufu 

iOf el (ei) 
elo, i^ev 
ioi, öl (oi) 
Hy i {i), fUV 

a^tv (a^citv) 

<y^QV (u^euvifff^oif 

((7^v), ffi^eiuv 
a^iai(v) [<y^i<n{y)]f 

9^a/Q iü^eac)y afäc 

SL The compound forms of the roflezive prononns ifiovroC, üeavroQy ete., 
never ocenr in Homer; instead of them, he uses the personal prononns, and 
tiie pronoun airrog aepoaraidy; e. g. 1^' aMvy kftol airi^ kfteH airr^f, i altr^f 
ol abT§. 

8. Powenive pionotnu : rtScf -n, h6v, inelead of 9^ ; ^6f , -9, -^ and 6c, f » 

6v, «MM, -a, i«i ; dftoc, -v^ -^» instead of if^epoc ; vatrepoCt -d, -ov, qf u» bgcA • 
*f«of, -V» -«"» instead of ifurepoil a^trepog, -Ä, -ov, o^ jfum both; a^, -^, -or, 
instead of a^epo^. 

4. Demonatrativ« prononna : roto and tv<^, instead of roi^ ; rot and rai, in- 
Head of oi and oi ; tmw, instead of r6l^; rotffc, instead of r&ic ; rolffc, r^ 
and r^c» instead of roMf ;— 5de Dat PL rwc^etn and roi^Sewn, instead of rm^, 

6. RelatiTa pronoans: 6, instead of Or; cto, 6ov instead of a^, ivt kistead 
af ^) i^i and jc instead of a2f. 

6. Indefinite and interrogative pronoons: (a) Gen. Tio,Te9, instead of rivor; 
Dat Wv* ^V> instead of rivi ; PI. A<roay instead of rtv6 ; Qen. ri<av, instead of 
riv6v ; Dat rhuTL, instead of rwi ; — (b) Gen. rio, rev, instead of rcvof . 

^c) 6(rif : Sing. Nom. 6r<f , Kent 6ri, ^hrt Plor. Öritfa 

Geo. (rev, 6reo, ^reo, Srrev Areuv 

Dat 5re9», (r^ . dreoun 

Ace (rtva, Neat (n, £rri örivac, ärtva and doe«. 

§ 204. Numerals. 

The collateral form of ^la is la, lijCi iy, Tov, and of hfU the form l^, Ai», 
S6q are indeclinable ; collateral forms of these are Jotw, doioi, doidl^ Sota, tit. 
Iliovpef , -a, instead of riaaapec, -a. Av<^eica and dvoicatdeica and dudau. 
'Eeucoaif instead of eUoai. ^OyduKovra and hnnfKovra, instead of hydo^ 
kvevfiK. ^'EweaxCkoi and Sexaxt^h instead of kwtuct^iXioi and fiiipun. Um 
endings »oKovra and 'Cucoütoi become 'Vf^ovra, ^ffKoaiot. Ordinals : Tpiraro{, 
rirparoct hß^oftarof, br/doarof, ivaToc.taad dvaro^. 

The Yebb. 

§205. Augment. — Reduplication, 

1. The augment is prefixed or omitted, as the verse requires ; e. g. Xv^e, M- 
aavt 6päTo, SKe. In the Peif. the temporal augment is omitted only in sin^ 
words ; e. g. avaya. 

2. Words which have the digamma, always take the syllabic angment; ef. 
hfdavu, iadov; elSofiaij keiadfifiv, and also in the Part keiaäfievoq. Tlee 
seems to be lengthened' on aooonnt of the verse, in eloutvZa and vtaSz {Lfak 
from ävSävu). 

3. The verbs olvoxoea and ävSavOt take the syllabic and temporal angmesK 
at the same time, viz. kifivoxoet^ yet more froqäenüy <^ox; Hivdave and f/vdoM. 

4. The reduplication of p occurs in pepvirufihog trom. fnvnouj to make ßi^ 
On the contrary, the Perfects kßftopa from fieipoftai^ and ioavftnu from otm^ 
are formed according to the analogy of verbs beginning with p. — Kraiopuu maks 
BuTrfpai in the P«f. 

5. The second Aor. Act and Mid. also, frequently takes the redapUcalioa; 
this remains through |jU the mqdes, also in the Inf. and Part The sim|^ «^ 
ment e is but seldom prefixed to this in the Ind. ; thus, e. g. KOftvu, ta btctm 
vecuy, second Aor. Subj. «e«a/ia; 4ceA<i^uu, Uf eammmdy itctn^^aftm^ ; Aoyx^ 

6. The foHowing are examples of the Homeric Peifects mth the Atdc redn- 
pBcation (t 89) ; e. g. ^Xdo^cti, lo wmder^ iiX-ahifuu ; 'AXQ (Ä4ca;i^<(f>>), to grieve^ 
duc-^X^f^^ dx-a;(7/tat ; kpeiiru, to demoli^ kp-iptmo ; ipiC»t to contend, ip^urr 


7. Homeric Aorists with the Attic redaplicalkm (f 89, Bern.) : 61e^w, to ward 
off, ^A-oAkov, ak^tkKelv, dXaXiQCnf ; hhinrn, to cMde, 6p-evlirov ; bfy-Wfu, to «a^ 
dt^ Ctp-^)pe ; and with tiie i^aplication in the middle : I/wkq, to restrain, ip^ 
iBik'Kmff Jnt ipvKOKieiv and ^iirru, ^t-iro-irev. 

$206. Personal^endings arid Mode^vowelB. 

1. First Pers. Sing. Act Sev^^ snbjnnctives have the ending -/m; e.g. 
KTeivufUf instead of Kreivt^, k^ehjfu, Ido/ai, TvxofUf iKUfii, äyäyofu. 

a. Second Pen. Sing. Act The ending -a^a (^ 137 and 148), oocun in 
tfafi second Pers. Pres. Ind. of Terbs in -/tu ; e. g. ri'&iia^a, didoicr^a ; also fin- 
qnendy in the Sabj. of other verbs ; e. g. k^eXycr^a, elnya^Of mote seldom ia 
the Opt ; e. g. KXatoitr^a, ßäXour&a. 

3. Third Pers. Sing. Act The Snbj. sometimes has the ending -(rc(v) j e. g. 
i!&iXgai(v), &yyai, &XaXKyai, S<^<n (instead of d^), fie^iyai ; Üie Opt only in 

4. Personal-endings of the Plop. Actire : 

First Pers. Sing, -ea (so always)} e. g. jcevoii^ea, irt&^nta, jSea, in- 
stead of kneiroi^eiv, etc. 
Second ** " - e a f ; e. g. tre^ireof, instead of kre&ifreic 
Third " " - ^ 9 (v) ; c* g* iyeyovet, jcaraXeAotTree, ißeßpQxeev. 

Bbm. 1. The third Pers. Sing. Plap. Act. in et, and also Ae same Pers. of 
the Lnpf. in et» oceors in Homer before a vowel, with v i^hcvariKov ; ior^ 
muv, ßeßXifKetv, ^oKeiv, Impf, from aaitiij. Comp. 4 143. 

5. The second and third Pers. Dual of the historical tenses, Act and Mid, 
Bie sometimes exchanged for each other : -rov and -a'&o v, instead of -tttv 
fmd 'tr^fiv ', e. g. dioKcrov, -Bapfqaaea^ov, instead of dioKerriv, i^uprjaaiff^rfv. 

6. The second Pers. Sing. Mid. appears either in the uncontracted form, -eoi, 
»fiai, -eo, -00 ; e. g. ?^iireai, XiXaieai, ä^Uijai, kpvaaeai., hraitpfiiai, imtkvaaat 
tyeivao, or in the contracted form -9 (from -eat, -fjai), -ev (irom -eo), -t» 
(from -ao) ; e. g. d^t/c^, in?,ev, ^pxeif, kKpefia. The endings -eeai and -eo are 
also lengthened into -nai and -e 10, or one e is dropped ; e. g. /iv^eiai, velcUt 
ipeio, airelo; — fiv^ecu (instead of fiv^ieat), iruXiai, ixXeo, kwokeo. — ^In the 
Feif. and Plnp. Mid. or Pass., a is sometimes dropped, viz. fiipvai (and /äfivy, 
Ibrmed from fufivt'a-^ii), ßeß'kriai, kaovo. 

7. The first Pers. Bnal and PI. Mid. ends in -/letr^ov and -fu^ov, -fiea^a 
and 'fu^a ; e. g. ^pa^iieo^a and -fiv&a. . 

8. The third Pers. PI. Ind. Perf. and Plop. Mid. or Pftss., and Opt Mid. has 
tiM ending -arai, -aro, instead of -vraL, -vro; 6. g, oKtjxearai, -ire^ß^aro, 
karakaro, Terpafaroi, iptiaaiaTo, yevoiaTo. 


9. The third Pen. PL Aor. Pass, has the ending - e v (instead ni-ifffov) ; eg. 
rpa^evj instead of irpa^riaav. 

10. The long mode-vowels of the Sabj., tiz. u and 9t are fipequently shorten- 
ed into e and o, as the yerse may require \ e. g. Zo/iev, instead of lo^uv, arpi- 
fiToi, instead of arpi^rai. 

11. The Inf. Act has the endings -iftevaif -iftev and -eiv (ebeiogtfae 
mode-Towel and -fievai the ending) ; e. g. rwrrifievaif rwrrtfuv, Tvnreiv ; yerls 
in -€M and -ect hare -vfuvai (the tj arising from the contraction of the mode* 
vowel e and the final vowel of the stem) j e. g. yo^/ievai {yoau}, ^^A^/icvoi (ft- 
Xiu) ; with the ending '^fievai, that of die Pass. Aorists corresponds; e. g. ^^• 
v^fievait instead of rvv^tu. In the Pres, of verbs in -/u, the endings -(um 
and -/<ev are appended immediately to the unchanged stem of the Pres., snd in 
the second Aor. to the pore stem; e. g. rvde-iuvai, ri^e-fiev; larär-ftevai-t ^ 
do'/ievai ; detKvihfievai, ; ^i-fitv, So-fievai ; there is an exception in the case of 
tiie second Aor. Inf. Act of verbs in a and v, whidi, as in the Ind., retain the 
long vowel ; e. g. ar^'fievai, d^fievai. 

12. The Impf, and Aor. Ind. take the endings -ckov, -ec, -e(v)» in die Ifii 
-üKOfUfVt -ov {'CO, -ev), -erOf yrhea a rqteated action is to be denoted; henoe lUi 
Is called the Iterative form ; it regularly omits the augment; e. g. 6ivev-e^m 
ßoffK-e'OKovTo, viKo^KOfieVf KüXe-e-aKtf kXatr-c^aKevy So-ffKe, <)v*o-/ce, arormi. 

Rex. 2. In verbs in -u, the mode-vowel of the Ind. is used before these eodr 
ings ; in those in • a u, -aetrKov is abridged into 'äüKov, which as the vene 
may require, can be lengthened into -aoffKov ; e. g. vcueraaaKov ; those in •{« 
have -ieffKov, seldom 'Cokov (e. g. xa^crxero), also- e(e(T«ro v (e.g.'t*' 
MeteuKw) ; in verbs in -fu the mode-vowel is omitted. 

§207. Contraction and Resolution in Verbs, 

1. A. Verbs in -ao. In these, the nnc<Hitracted form occurs only in angle 
words and forms ; e. g. nepaoVf KareffKiaov ; always in iX&u and those Terbi 
which have a long a for their chaneteristic ; c. g. 6uj;äuvt veiväw, hCP^ (^ 
TCP^f^, to attack). In some verbs, a is changed into e, viz. fiepoiveov, fiom /(^ 
voivaUf ^reovy from ävraOt bfioKXeoVy from 

2. Instead of the uncontracted and contracted forms, there is a resohüioiirf 
the contracted syllable, by a similar vowel, d ((i) being resolved into öA {if) 
or AA (ä(i), and u into 06> or cjw ; e. g. bpaaa^cu (instead of bpatr&tu) ; luvvf 
vd^ (instead o{ fievoiv^)] dpoo (instead of 6pu); dpitwoi (instead ofSpoct). 

Remark. In tbe Dual-forms, irpo^avdffnjv, avX^rtfVf awavr^rrfVf ^tr^rp 
(from verbs in -ao), ae is contracted into^^, and in bimpTfirriv and ävtJjfrp 
(from verbs in -to), ee is contracted into v* instead of into ei. 

3. When vt comes after a contracted syllable, the short vowel may foUof 
such contracted syllable ; e. g. ^ßCtovro^ instead of rißovTay yeXuevres ; in the 
Opt also, the protracted uoiy instead of V' is found in ijßctoifitf instead of i^ 
oifu (= ifß^fit). 

4. B. Verbs in - e cj. Contraction does not take place in all the forms is 
which e is followed by the vowels w, 9, »7, y, ot and ov ; e. g. ^iXioiieVf ^iliomh 
etc. ; yet such forms must commonly be pronounced with synizesis. In others 


i 208.] HOMERIC DIA.LECT. — ^VERBS. 801 

contraction is omitted or takes place, as the verse may require; e. g. ft2^eif 
ipiuj 6rpweov(Ta ; eUpevfitpfy yivev. Sometimes e is lengthened into et ; e. gi 
kre^eieroj fityeiy (instead of fityy, second Aor. Pass.). 

5. C. Verbs in - 6 a. These follow either the common rules of contraction,' 
e. g. yovvovfjuUf or they are not contracted, hut lengthen o into Uf so that the- 
forms of verbs in -ocj resemble those of verbs in -aw ; e. g. ISpcjovraif lSpo)ov<ra, 
imvoovrag (comp, tfßoovra) ; or they become wholly analogous to verbs in -aw,, 
since they resolve -ovai (third Pers. PI. Pres.) into - 6 w c t, -ovvto into -oovtoI 
-olev into -6<f>ev; e. g. [upo-ovai) apovm upouai (comp, öpouai) ; {St^ioovToV 
dfjlovvro dtj'iouvTö (comp, bpoijvro) ; {dti'CooLev) dijXolev Siji6(f)ev (comp. 

$ 208. Formation of the Tenses, 

1. The Attic Fat (i 83) occurs in verbs in -iCu ; e. g. Krepio^ot. hk veite 
in -ia, the ending -eu is often niied instead of ^imt ; e. g. mpieiCf instead of 
itofiiiüei^f ftaxeovTiu, instead v^ fJtax^üovTüi ; in verbs in 'OMy after dropping 9, a 
eotxesponding short vowel is placed before the vowel formed by centractioii ; 
e^ g. 6vribci, kXbuui^ dafta^ ; of verbs in «^t Ip^evirt and rav^wfin occur. 

S. The following liquid verbs form the Fut. and first Aor. with the endli^ 
'CO and -a a: Keipu, to shear off {Kepaai)^ KeTiXoiy to land {KiXoat), tlXu^ to ptem 
{Jfksat)^ Kvpu^ to ßül upon {Kvptru)^ 'APfi {upapioKu}, toßt {äpaai}, bp^i>^fu (^ 
(rw, <^p<7a), to excUey 6iai^^eipaf to destroy {Sia^epaai)^ ^vpo^ to mix {^pata). 

8. The following verbs form the Fat without the t^ise-efaaracteristic <r : ßio- 
/Ml or ßeiofjuu (second Pers. ßey), I shall live, ö^u, I shall findy ksUj or x^w, I 
shall lie down. 

4. The following form the first A<»r. without the tense-characteristic o : x^* 
to pour out, l;tet;a ; trevd», to put m motion, iaoeva ; äTiiofiai atsA it^eHoftai, to 
avoid, ^Xevarot aXevufievoc, aXeaoi^m ; Koio, to bum, Sxria and iKcia. 

5. The endings of the second Aor. are sometimes exchanged with those of 
tihe first Aor. : ßaiw, to go, kß^oero. Imp. ß^aeo ; dvoftai, to plunge into, kdvoero. 
Imp. dvoeo, Part 6va6fievoc; a/v» to lead, äiere, i^ifuv; UviofMU, to come, 
^ov ; k^yfttfv, I laid mysdf down to Üeep, Imp. Ae^o, "Xe^eo ; bpwfu, to incite, 
Imp. bp<no{ev) ; ^pw, to hear, olae, olaifuvai ; aeida, to sing. Imp. &eiaeo. 

6. In the first Aor. Pass, of some verbs, v is prefixed before the ending '•&ffv, 
M llie verse may require, viz. öicucptv^^re, Kpiv&eic, iicXlv^ (^Hi 6), Mpw- 
^v (from Mpvw),. a/imfvv^ (from irveo), 

7. Several second Aorists, in order to mtke a dactyl, are formed by a tnms- 
position (metatheois) of the consonants ; e. g« kdpoiwv, instead of idapieov (flroni 
SepKOftai), kicpa&ov (from rckp&o), Mpa&ov (from dap&&vo), ij/ußporov, insteai 
of fiiMprov (from äftaprävu). In like manner, on account of the metre, a vowel 
of the stem is dropped *, e. g. äypofievog, from ayepofitfv {uyeipo, to assemble) ', tyr 
pero, from iyepofijjv {kyeipii, to awaken) ; iri<j>vov, knefifw ($£NQ, to put to tkath). 

8. Homer forms a first Perf. only from pure verbs, and such impure verbs as 
assume e (§ 124) in forming the tenses, or are subject to metathesis ; e. g. x^'k^ 
KexapfjKa (from XAIPEQ) ; ßä?i2,o ßeßXtfKa (from BAA-). Besides these, he 
fbrms only second Perfects; but even in pure verbs and in the impure verbs 
just mentioned, he rejects the a in single persons and modes, and n^ularly ip 




[§S 209, tlO. 

te Fftrt; thus these fomfi become analogovs to those of the second Pei£; e.g. 
«•«/m^ur, fiom itäftvia ; fce;t<'PV^* from X^P*'^^ ß'ß^^it trom /Soivw (BAQ). 

S 209. Conjugation in -fii, 

1. Eyen in Homer, the forms of -eci) and -ou (§130, Rem. 3) occnr ii the 
■econd and third Fers. Sing. Pres, and Impf. ; e. g. kri^ei, övSolg, d«doi.~Alio 
A reduplicated Fut of diSufit, occurs : dtdijaofiev and diduceiv. 

2. Verbs in -vfu form an Opt. both in the Act and Mid. ; e. g. Ixdv/ifv (in- 
ttead of iKdvififiev)^ from UövUf ^ (instead of fvti?), firom ^ct ; daivvro; so 
also f^iOf ^iTOy Opt of k^ififiv, from, f&ita. 

8. The third Pers. YL Impt and second Aor. in -t-aavt -^-trop, -o-oov, -o-^tat 
'ihoay, is shortened into -ev, -ov, -ov, -vv ; e. g. tn^tv^ instead of hideowß, 
i&Wf instead of H^eaav ; iaruVf iastead of iwrifoüv ; idtdov, ip«v>ft<f of kiiio- 
m¥ ; MoV| instead of Uovav ; £^, instead of i^^av. 

4k la the second Pen. Sing. Imp. Pk«s. and sec(md Aor. liGd^ Homer ngeca 
0, and wee the anoonlmctad foran; e.^. doiwp (instead of ^oiwoo), /to^nwi^ 

ft. Tha short ateas-rowal is kflfthaned before Übe pewonal^endgiga btgnirn^ 
wth # aad v, as the ▼arse «oaj re^aira » a. g. rn^ftetfos, diiovvtu (instead d 

MmmU '«^^ ^^<- 

4. ]b tha sßoond Aer» 6i|lj.y the following fonns fre used, aa the yerse wtj 

lesolyed and lengthened foropia : 

ffrecif areiu 


erkäfuMf areioftew, naraßeioftei 

aTto<n{v)f 7rep<OT^6My«(v) 

*%, ^%» ^«^ 
1^^, 1%, «V177, ^««9 


HaMAmy. Tnstaad of kvnimii» (Aor. I.), the shortened ffxsm. UnHiga» oooA 
and iwtead of lorar« (Peil), the lengthened form itrrsjTe. 

iSÜng. 1. <rrti 

2. trr^ 

3. ary 

"Blmt. 1. üT&ftep 

3. (n'ä(r<(y) 
Sing. 1. t»6> 

Ä. ^ 

3. il^ 
Dual ^vrw 
Pfair. 1. ^cS^ufv 

3. l^Ä(Tt(v) 

8ing. 3. d^ 
Plnr. I. dw^iev 




Imp£ Ind. 

Vnt lad. 

§210. £i>i (EH-), tobe. 

2. lff<K. PI. 1. elfth. 8. Ifd<w(v) 

1. fiereia. 3. I9, l9m(v)t ^<(v)» sl^. PL 3. Itf^tfv) 

2. itfco. Inf. l^<^Mw«u, ij^evoi, l^cv. Part kuv^ iawnu 

1. ^o, ^a, ^ov, l(r«cov. 2. hfcr^a. 3. fi^v, i^ev, 17^79. ]>ual 3. v^K^- 
PL 3. Ifffav, elaro (instead of i^ro, from tjfiftp). — Opt 1 W 
3. iot. PL 2. e2re. 8. ehv. 

U htofMU {ho^ftai)^ ele. 8. ivenu aad ioeirs«. 

§211. ElfAi (7-), fo go. 

% el(r&a. Snbj. 2. lyai^a. Inf. Z^eva^i t^ev. 

1. ^la, t/lov. 2. Ifec- 3. »e, l£(v). PL 1. ^/^ev . 3. ^av, j^ffov, 

^tov, {(Tov. — Opt loiy leiij. 
1. daofiat. Aor. Ind. 3. etcroro and hlaaro. Baal 3. htutwr&fjv. 

Pres. Ind. 
Imp£ Ind. 

S^ iDd. 

YbBBB in -U, which IK THE SECOND AOS. ACT. ANB MlD., IN l^E Fjfettf>. 

> AiTD Plup. Act., and Pass, and Inm^., jpolix>w tbs ANAix>or oi* Ybbbb 

IK -/Mi. 

S 212. (1) Second Aor. Act. and Mid. (Comp. § 142). 

A. The Characteristic is a T^wel: c, «r <» <>» t»- 
^oAA«, to tftftnr, second Aor. Act (BAA-, kßXriv) ^ftßXnrtfVt Inf. ^fißX^fievtu 

(iostead of -tivai) ; second Aor. Mid. {ißXjffo/v) ißXtjrOf ^vftßXnvroy Snlj. 

fvfiß2.riTai, ßTJjtrai, Opt ßT^lo (from BAE-), Inf. ßXfi<r&<u, Part ßTJifievo^, 

Hence the Pat ßX^aopai. 
ynp9tt or yifpaffKv, to grow M, second Aor. Act tl^d Pers. Sing. ^pd(, TiuH, 

KTeivOf to kiäj second Aor. Act Ifxrdf , PI. Urdfiev, third Pers. PI. inrSv, Bfä^i, 
PL KTetAfutf, Inf. KTafuwu, KTofnev^ Pisrt fft^ ; second A(V. Mid. with pas- 
siye sense, äwiKrarOy Krätr^aif Kräfievo^. 

oifTw, to wound, second Aor. Act third Pers. Siitg'. odr», Inf. oMifievto, tfMi' 
fuv ; seeond Aor. Mid. oiro^tevof , wounded» 

ireXcbCi^, to approatk, second Aor. Mid. htXtifOftfj ir>U^o, irX^ro. 

9%ii^tf {vifo^^aifu), ^ßü, second Aor. Mid. hrk^rot Opt irXeifOfV (from ItAS-), 

fTT^oauy to shrink with fear, second Aor. Act tiilrd Pars. Daal «arttrrt^nfM. 

^avctf to anticipate, second Aor. Mid. ^dftevo^. 

Rbhakk. Prom ißfpf come the forms ßtirriv (third Pen. Doal), and imip- 
ßäffav (third Pers. PL), with a short Btem-w>weL 

AAO, Epic stem of 6i6aaKti^, to ieach^ seeond Aor. Act (AAE-*) kSSaptj I hjat^mij 

Snbj. SaeiQ, Inf. datfjuevai. 
^i-vu, to dealrcp and vanish, second Aor. Mid. i^tfo/v, Opt ^tfufv^ f^lrt^ 

Imp. f&i<r9u. Inf. f^ia^ai, Part t^i^ijievo^. 
ßißpöoKu, to eat, second Aor. Act hßpi^v. 
irküH^, to swim, second Aor. Act inXuv, Part n^xjc, Gen. -övrof. 
icAi^u, to hear, second Aor. Act Imp. kXw^i, «Avr«, niaXv^if icitMn* 
Xik», to loose, second Aor. Mid» Xvto^ Xvvto. 
leviv, to breathe^ second Aor. Mid. (IINT-) äfimHh'Oy inBtnd of M wv t rw , It 

took breath, 
eefn», to put in motion, second Aor. Mid. iaovfiffv, Jttme^ iavwoi 0bro. 
X^^i to pour, second Aor. Mid. 7(vvto, xv/uvoc. 

B. The Characteristic is a Consonant. 

äXJbtfUt^j to kap, second Aor. Mid. iXoo, äXro, eiraXftevoc, kmaXfuvo^, Sol^. 

ApapuTKu ('APQ), to Jit, second Aor. Mid. apftevof, ßtted to. 
yhrrOf to mixs, arising from Wiro (from IMv, seocmd Aor. of <üpk»). 

804 HOMIOUq DIAXfiCT. — ^VBBB«. [fj 213» 214. 

Mxoitaif to tahcy second Aor. Mid. HtKTo^ Imp. c'efo, Inf. dex^<u ; die fiist Fen. 

idiyfiTfv and the Part, deyfievo^, like the Peif. Siieyfiai, signify to exped 
kXeXiCot, to whirly second Aor. Mid. iT^i'kLKro. 

'iitvi9f£atf to come, second Aor. Mid. UrOf iK^ievog and iK^evo^^ favotciik. 
Myofiaif to lie domn, select, to coutd aver, second Aor. Mid. k^yfAVv, kWetcn, Aurt. 
/ualvUf to sou, fiiuv^ffv (third Pers. Dual, instead of hfiuiv-ü^iiv), 
ßiyvHfu, to mixy second Aor, Mid. funro. 
ipvvfii, to excite, second Aor. Mid. dpro, Imp* 6pao, 6pceo, In£ 6p^ai^ Fwt. ^ 

ituXkt^ to brandig htaiy second Aor* Mid. n-aXro, he sprang. 
wifi&Ufto (kstrmfj second Aor. Mid. nep^aif instead of nep&-^ai. 
if^yvOfu, to makeßrm, to fix, second Aor. ^d. nffKro, KaThnjKTo. 

§213. (2) Perf. and Plup. Active. 

(a) The Stem ends in a Vowel. 
fiyvopuut to heoome, Perf PI. yiy^iiev, -are, -a<iai{v), Inf. yeyäfievj Port- ycyowf ; 

Plnp. kKyeyärtfv. 
ßaivw, to go, Perf. PL ßißaftev, etc. ; Plnp. ßeßaaav, 
AeUki, to fear, In£ deidifievj instead of öeidieveu. Imp. Selöi'&i, deiSire ; Knp« 

ideidifiev, ideidioav. 
ffiX^tfioi, to come, ei^Xotr^fiev. 
^vtfOKtä, to die, Perf. PL rt^afiep, re^vwrt, Imp. rr9v€t&i, Inf. TE^voftev vA 

re&väfievai, Part re&vifwc, -o>rof, re&veüTt ; I^up. Opt Te&ifctitfv. 
TAAAOi to dare, Perf. PL rcrÄfl^Mv, Imp. rerXa&i, Inf. rerXofiev, Piart TerAjjof. 
MAO, to desire, Perf. PL fäfiarov, -^fiev, '■are, -aOai, Imp. fiefiärtj, Ihtrt. fufuof, 

"wrog and -oroc; Plnp. fiJkiuMO»^ 

(b) The Stem ends in a Consonant. 

PssLiMiKABT BxMARK. The T <^ the inflection-endings when it comes im* 
mdiak'ly after the stem-consoaaat, is changed into ^, in some Perfects. 
hnnAya, to commend, avuyfjtev, Imp. hvQX^i, &v6x^u, äv<ox'^e. 
iyp^pa, I awoke (from kytipa, 1 awaken), Imp. iyp^yop^e, In£ hypnyop^^'i 

hence iyprjyopi^aai, instead of kyprjyopaai. 
fthrov&a, I trust (from irei'&u, to persuade), Plup. hrivißfiev. 
dUa, I know (from '£IAi2, video) , Ufitv, instead of Icftep, Inf Idfievtu. 
ioiKa, 1 am Hke (from HSIKO), second and tiiird Pers. Dnal Uktov ; tiiird Pen. 

Plnp. Dnal Hkttiv ; hence, Perf. Mid. or Pass. Ilkto. 
9hax<^, to Süffer, Vetf. iriiroa^, instead of irenov^are. 

' § 214. (3) Present and Imperfect. 

■MKif to accomplisk, Opt. Impf &vi}To{ä). 

ravvu, to expand, to stretch, raviroi (instead of rav^^roi). 

ifiibij and elpvu, to draw, etpvarcu, instead of elpoyrai. Inf. Ipv<n9a<y eipvedm, 

In the sense of to protect, to guard. 
iSo, to eat, Inf idfievat. 
^ipu, to bear. Imp. ^epre, instead of fepers. 


waicit AXMo 


1^ ntimben 1, 2, 9, after an adjective, denote that it has one, two or three end- 
ingß* — Ottier nmnbers placed After a definition, ctenote the page, where the word 
is more f »Uy defined^— Abbreviations : w. a^ with the AccnsatHe f w. d., w^ 
the Dative; w. g., with the Genitive; Char,, Characteristic-^The nuiaerab aad 
prepositions are not inserted here ; the definitions of these may be fonnd in, tb^ 
lections where thej are treated. 

A* &r)^p,tobrcak[4140,l|. ^tfa^ to iHm^ M 

'AßUmi^ a^insitpporti&le. i)^» ^i mMket^ace^ äei, alwa^ 
itßTMßeio, innocenee, 68. äyopalog, b, traffickor. kHis^, -«^r, wiiBmaAf, I90L 
äfo^^, advantage, 27. »)^ev«t, t»6ay; ixrog, 6, eq^e« 

äya^oi: ^ good. aypevu, to catdi. ^^d 'k^uaplttastantiin, 

hyaXTM, to adorn, 66« (&>pi6c« f», afiekL dafSS^^ofuu, to be fUsgllMSl 

äyoSiftOy TO, giUMiia. iiyx*voy( 2» abrewd« with (4 87, l]i 

jkyoftaif to wondar [^ 135, dyu^tDleadfSS [Aor.,^89, änPt -^pof, 6, itir< 

p^ 165}. Bern.; PerC ^, PotC. ii&av(tftbf % immortaL 

'Aya^uft^mvy '•9Poc^ ^ Mid. or Pass, fryfuu], aAiatcf, not to be M«l. 

Agfimnmnau. d/uv, -wvop, 6, oonttat 'At^^vot, «öw, ai, AtK«ü. 

ft^^ov, too much, 36. äia^ftiaitt *op^ ineacperi- ä^XqrtK, -oIK ^ wntHttll 

kfwaiiTk(äy to be dia- enoed, 112. d#^fOf, «roiMaaoaiei tÜ« 

pleased, 147. ÄdtfA^^, ii, siBter. 4td^iai^, raisttrably, KM» 

d/airow, tolove; w. d.« to inde^^oKTwoc* 6, mtider- &9A<w, r6, pna«, 37. 

ht contented with. er of a brother. ä^fuu, to bo di«|iiHtiai^ 

äyytXia, if^ measage, 133. ddeA^, 6j bioiher. 107^ 

6yyeX^t to amioimce. dd^^ 2» uncertain, 29. 'A'&wcy -«, 6, Atiioa« 
d>7eAof, öy messenger. ^c» -oo^ 6, the hyivor 4i/4Co»f to groan [Chm», 
Jtye, age, eono now. world. 4 ^^^^ ^l* 

d/e^, to Qolleet [Pei£, ddeac«^todowiongto,10di AIomS^j ^, Aencol. 

4 80, (b)]. ddiK^o, ^^ injoBtioa. aldeo/tai^ to iwei eaflOi 16ll 

d/I^V, i^, herd, 36. Mttcof 2^ turnst aMuf, ^ sham«, 47. 

dyevMK') -ki Ignoble. h&okkaxvCt -<w, 6, pinter. A?/v4rro(, i^, Egypt 

äyiipuc* ''*^j Aot growing ddoiletf:;^««, pittthig, 22. Sii^ifp, ^, ether, 36. 

old« 31. Mviparm^ to be ttnable. cU^pia, ^, pnie ahr« 

AyisiüTfioVf T6f hook. ddwarop 2, impoesibb. al/Mt >anir, n6, feioddi 



«iv^ to Mite [f 98, (b), 'AAefav^W, ^Alexander. aftweXoc, n, ^iub. 

p. 111]. oAi^o, to ward off [s 125, ufivexofim^ to pBioo, ISS 

«If, -yöf, «, goat IJ. ft lao, 8]. 

'tUperoc a, choMQ, 56. aXew, to grind [§ 98, (b), afiiwa, to keep off; 130. 

•dpiw, to tak« ft 126, 1]. p. 111]. ufM/^yv9€Ut to be iiiiov> 

•o^« to raiee. dA^t^cia, it, truth. tain [Ang^ f 91, 3). 

-oMuvofuUf to peroeiTe, Aki/^evut to «peak the d/c0i£vvv^i,toclothel^l39, 

100 ft 191, (a), 1]. truth. (b), 1 ; Aug, § 91, 3). 

^iaxP^ 8, diflgraoefuL äXn'^VU -kt true. äfi^ßjirev, to dis^ 

mlffXP^i dtsgraoeftilly. äXir^tvoc 3,. true. [Aug., ^ 91, 2]. 

^iaxvi^* to akame, 181. i^n^uc, truly, 168. 4^u, both ft 68, BenuSj. 

A20WV, -ovof» it Aesou. AA^c, enough. Av, with Snbj., iustead of 

mlriu Ttvu n, to ask. d^axo^oi, to be taken Mv, i£ 

AiTVff, ^, Aetna. [^ 122, 1]. uvaßaivuj to go up. 

nlXM^^Toct captured. uXkv, i^> strength. äväßaaitt a going up, 71 

iihlta, quickly. *A.hußta^f -ov, 6, Alci- dva^iTv^^xd», to read, 

«iwv, 6, age, 84. biädes. dvayica^, to eompeL 

^j(yia^,toheal ft 98, (b)]. ahuftoc 3, strong. dvayicaior, neoessaiy. 

jljcivdK^r, -ov, 6, a Per- dXXd, but dvdyc^, neoesstty, 59. 

lian sword. äX^Xuv, of one another ava^evywfu, to yoke 

Aff^idC«'} to be at the primek ft 58]. again, 171. 

d«/fl7, point, 106. aX^a^tv, ftum another iatwau^ to boni, 171. 

^mXaamf, adv^ with im* place. dMNcpdC», to cry out 

pnnity, 175. dXAoc» -ir, *o> another, dvcucvfrrci), to peepap,49. 

dffA^otf^ew, to follow, 11& o^, 58. dvoAifficw, to ^end ß 10) 

dbco6w, to hear [P£, ^8«, dA^rpMf, another's, 158. 2]. 

(b); Fut äKowiof»iu\ dAAorjfMuc, cm/»., foreign. 'Aväfdy^paf,-ov,^,A]iax* 

Pass, with ff, i 96]. dAoda, to thresh ft 96, S]. agoras. [»i 

d«p«, 1^, summit, 90l AAduc, -Mrf , to, giOTe. dva^ravw, to cause to nst, 

^«^r^Vf , -^1 immodento, dAviror, wUhout trouble, dvasret^a, to peRuade. 

' 46. 141. dyoirero/cio«, to fly op, tf 

iuspAToc^ unmixed. £Xuoric, "«jp, ii, c^)ture. away. 

Asppdflyi«,to hear [^6,8]. äfia, at the same time. dvuTr^u, to sail upon the 

iucpoaryc, 'Ov, 6, auditor, d^oprdvcj, to cnr, 124 high sea; (3) to stil 

iKpoiroXtCf *ewc, ^, dtadeL ft 121, 2]. bade. 

AKfoc 8, highest dftaprfifM, to, enor, 40. dvo^d^», to aeiae, 133- 

iucTic, -£vof, ^f beam, ray. äfiapria, if, offence^ 122. &va(oc"h anarchy. 

diuM',-ovffa,-ov, unwilling. &fittvpau, to darken, 107. ävaüTpi^, to turn ronnd. 

diU^d», to shout [4 105, ^tftßfioaiaf i}, food of the ^vari^fu, to put up, 15& 

2]. gods. ävarpium, to torn up, ISO^ 

dAooD, to make bUnd. d^tccA.««, i^, cardessness. avaxt^pSa, to go back. 

^yeivoc 3, painful d^Aecj, to ni^leet. ävdpanodunifCj -ov, i> 

AXyiu, to feel pain. äfiviffioveu, to be folget* slave^ealer. 

dXyoc, -ovf , rd, pain. fnl of. &v6pavod€v, r6, dave 

dAet^u, to anoint [P£, &fMiß^, exchange, 162. ävdpeia, if, bravery. 

S 89, (b)]. äftotpoc 8, without a dune dvdpecof 3, bimy«, 31. 

dXeitr/wwv, ^«f , d, a oadt in. ävdpeioCf ado^ 

0maxi Aim Bii«i,siH YoeäjiJSLäMt* 901 

'Av4p6ry$QCi -«» ^f Aa* äitoc s^ w. g^ worlliy oC ammnfiifTTu, to cawt to 

drogetts. 28. be proclaimea, 122. 

dveXevi^e/Mfl, diflgraoelid d^Mw, to think wortfay,109. diroc/Mvo/MM, to answer. 

avarioe, 112. dotd^, song* anoKpynri^ to conceal 

ds^XiTiffroc 2, aaexpected. dirayopeOo», to call ^rroKreivu, to kill. 

ivijtfoc, 6^ wind. dira/«!», to lead away. dTroAavu, w. g., to enjoy. 

&vep0TWy to ask. ^«rauJevraf 2, nnedacated. dTroAXv^, to rain, 168. 

Avevy w. g., witfaottt d^roAAdrrci), to set free d^Ava£f,deliTerance, 109. 

imevpiwui to find. from. 'Aitö^Aaiv, -«#vof , d, Apol* 

ia^xofuu^ to endure [4 ^i) d^ravrdci), w. d., to meet lo. 

1]. dffol, onee. aTTQweipaofuUt w. g., to try. 

ivtim, to boil op. dTraC) altogether, 43 [§ 40, dirope», to be in want 

iofifKOvareoy w. d., to be Bern.]. &ro/M)c 2, difficult ^^dtr^ 

disobedient. dirst^, In£ ävüvai^ to be potg elvcUf to be in a 

Av9/a» ^, man [4 86}. absent, 167. strait 

ibr^MfaQVy TOf a flower. Sirei^t, Inf. dviivai, to go diro/^/ieo, to flow from, 

dvi^orv ro, a flower. away. diro/^/So^, a flowing off. 

dvi^p^TTtvoc» hnmaa. hireipoQ 2, w. g., nnao- änoaßiwvfUf to qnench. 

Äin^pMfriey» rd, man. qoainted with, 87. äiroanau, to draw away. 

äv&ponroct 6, man. inreipufj ado^ inexp^- ätroffreX^M, to send, 180. 

&VUIOC 2, oneqaaL enced. äimarepeUf to deprire o£ 

ävianffUt to set up, 1&8. dfre^owos to drive away, äiroarpe^j to torn away. 

dvo£7i»v/u,dvoi)^,toopea 135. dfroni^/u, to pat away, 

[4 140, 5]. imipxofteu, to go away. 161. [135. 

Mftoio^ 2 «ad 3, unlike. ifwex^^vofuUf to be hated äir^rivu, to eompensale, 

dva/toc 2, lawless. [4 121, 3]. änorpeirOf to torn awi^, 

dMM)f>-oov>impnident,29. 4&9Fe;t<V'<'^) ^' Si ^ ^^^^^^^^ ^7. 

iofop^wj^ to mise up [4 91, from j from d^ro^cuvc), to show, 181. 

1]. dfri;);ia, to keep off i (2) to äiro^evyu, w. a., to flae 

diwpvrru, to dig np again. be distant from. away. 

dvroAAdrrG), to exchange, dir^v;;, ^, wagon. &7r6xpii, it suffices [4 135, 

^bnrdfiar 3, w. g., of equal dirt^rew, to disbelieve. 3]. 

worth. dTTtoTof 2, un&ithful, 52. d9r(^^^c,tohaTeeno«gh 

'AvriyovBc, 6, Anttgonns. äitX6ot 3, simple. [4 97, 3, (a)]. 

^TtdtKiti, to deüend at dTrfl^a^vju, to go away. Hfcroftaif to touch, 40. 

law [4 91, 4]. &voßXe7rut, to look upon. äv(j&eu, to push awi^, 

uvTi^u, to contradict d]roy£7v6(r#cu,torcject)175. 142. 

'Ayrioi^ewf Cr -ovC) d, An- d9rode(icin;^£,toshow, 160. dpa; [interrogativ«, 4 187]. 

tisthenes. imo^exofuu, to receive« 89. äpa^ iffitur^ therefore. 

hfTirämjf to set c^^M)- äfrodtjfiii*, to be fr^CHsa dpyaAeof, troublesome,! 59. 

sHe, 158. home. apyifpeoc, made of silver, 

dvvfj, complete [4 94, 1]. d9ro<5(dpd4yicf^,tonuiaway apyvpiav, to, silver, 

dvu, above. from. apyvpog^ 6, silver, 

dv^/ewv, ro, hall. äirodidufUj to give back, dpe(7X6),to please [4 122,3]. 

dvtf^X^f, *^, useless. 159. dper^, ff, virtue. 

d^4dAo^,'worthmentioa- dirdca^o, to call back, dpi^pou), to articulate. 

ing, 161. name. upn^fiogt d« number, 72, 

IM ^namm assi> bk«lii8 fo0MMt0Läam 

*kpurM^, fw, ^, Ali»* ^pcii^/iiltf^exfMtf;,!«! /Mt^Gi, to g»^ Sl in^ >?• 

tide» 'KTTuciit if, Attioa. ßaXku, to thraw [i\\7,%\ 

äptartt^, to be the beet, Arvx^ to be mriMppy. ßaf^apocy baiMii) 71 

16. äTvxnfftt ^Of mislbrtiiiie. ßapvc, -eZOf •*!, heiTj,i7. 

d^K^o», to toAoe; Ifid. W. ärv;):9c> -^f* iiiiA)rl»uit6. /Sooii^j«, ^ qwoi. 

d. [4 96, (b^]. arvxiOf if^ ittitfoctsiie« ßaaiXeia, vy n^el 

Afmro^j 6, ^, tt bear. «i«eM», to diy [A«|f<, itj. 

Ip/Mt, -«roc, r^» efaeriot 4 67, 1]. jScktOcm^ i^ iNkbee^ 

^^i^rrw, to fit If 105, 1]. o^if, agam. ßaat^^tof t, «^ 

ipveoftai, Dep. Faa&j to o^^, ^ fl«t6L j6lKnMr» -^^ ^ 

deny. o^^v»,toiBcieM»[illt, /}afft^e^,tobeakiiitfit. 

dporpoi', tOf a |A<mgb. 4]. ßtuFKoivi», te besteh. 

^, to pkagli [f 96, (e) a«^<r<r, mcreaM. ^DMn^a^,t»cany{fl9li4 

«nd 4 69, (a)]. ««of a, diy, 16ft ß&TfMxoc, *, ftojj. 

dpfraC«, to plnoder. a^piov, to-manaw. ßdeXvyftia, ^4U^<6,l1t 

äfimiyMptudtn». «M^Aef , d, dMedtor. /9e)9aior ^ end 2, fins, St. 

dpfvf, 6) bread. aOrovoftia, ^, freedtOAr^« i^^/^^^^* -«ror* ro» •tep? 7^ 

di»^», to draw water [f 94, aMufoftöc^hte, ßia/^i^ vkktmrn 

I}r a{pröf , self [^ 60}. ßiaCofa/Hf w. a, to do i» 

dpt^^ftbegfiniiikg,6&;rJh' d^/vfojuo«^ m^ rt^ to de- lenoetob 

dpt^, from til» begiio- prive of. ßiatof 9, vielHL 

fifng. 4ffttii9r, -er* etakiuy«^ 46. ^i^S^Umt, M, boolb. 

4y»;t^eiKrA»i^, -ei^» ^» fl^ d^^^ovto, absence of eArjr, jSior» ^> li^ 36. 

diitect 68. ßwrevQ, to til«. 

lj^^/MU,ir.^., to begin, iif&^wx % vmrntUfia, S4, ßiotOf.Urfäba^l» 

^X^t '^' gTi to rale, 44. ^VfUf to let go^ 167. ßioo, to tire [| I4S, 9). 

itffißeia, 17, irapiely. d^My4o^i(M,too(»Be [f 120, ßSiaßtfiSc 8» it^mioi». 

di^tf,w.a^to0inagaii»t 3]. /8%^ ^ "oivf^r. 

^IgiXyeiO, it, exee«. 4^<<7r9/ii,topKtaw»7,I66. ßXaxeUiy to be Uoj. 

ia^heia, if, weak&eM. 'A^^nr, i^, Venus. /BO^Säm*, to nywe (M 

don^n^^, to be weak. d^pc^v, feoü^. f 88^ »]v 

dtf^ev^r, -if, weak. d^r, -i?» wi&oftt «ttn- /iiawfdy«i,t»apfaet[|lllt 

imitkh to praetiee, 107. ral talmt 6]. 

iumU, 'i^j 4» fliiield. 'A;t<»oc, 6, an Aehaian. ßkSmt^ to k>ok at, 63 [ie* 

^^O^ 3» hovseleM, 131. d;r<(p«'^<>> ^» ingratitude, dond Aor. Faas., \ MS| 

dcrrpam^, 1^, ligiitDing. d;t^P<^^^3,iixigratefiilf44. Rem. 1]. 

dffrpdnrcj, to ]%hten. Ikx^ofuUi to be indignant ßo^uh 1^, kelpw 

dffrv, r^, cftf [§ 46]. [f 125, 2]. ß^&ea, w. d^ to help, 17& 

iurweaiuf if, stnpidilj. Ä;t^of, -ovf, t6, burden, ßo^^fta, -aro^t ri, h# 

dtrvreroc 2, etapid. ^ 'A;t<^^^C« '^«'f » ^> Adifi- ßmi^o^j ^, h^MT. 

dtf^A^r, -er, firm, 48. les. l^ßöf, -d, d, Bereia 

dfftfMorof 2, bodiless, 180. d;tPt^ffn)r 2, «ekas. i$6<nia, to leed [f lS5,ai)> 

drdxrci>c, ado., without or- ß^p^* -vof , 6f dmUi d 

der. B. grapes, 

dn/, infatoation, 142. Bo^v^wvui, 1^, Babj^enia. /?ovXt«^ adviee^ 136 

AttfiaCo, to deepise, 44. ^o^oc* -ovf, ra^ dc^tk ^;Utf«>» to adviae; Ifi^ 

Artfua, if, dishonor. ßa&vc^ -üa, -v, deep. to advise 000*6 silC 


ßemXfyf 1^, udTiiM, S84 Tvp^oKc«, rv^ww, «a grow doi/ca and didia ; A«e. 

»a6XafMt^ to wisb, 44 okl[MSa,4]. I($»<ra]. 

' {4 12s, 4]. 7</^» -avroc, 6, giant deuswfu^ show [^ IdS]. 

/Sadf, 6, i^, ox. yiypofuih to become» SS (^eiA^, ii, eyeniDg. 

ßiMik^, -na, -6k flow. [S 1S3]. deiAec, tiinid, 32. 

Apftfvr» *<<«) *v, abort yi^^iaim»» to know, 84 detvöc, fcarfiil, 87. 

ßpovriM, to thnnder. {| 122, 6, and f 142]. detvcjf, terribly, 100. 

ßpomiff 1^, thander. yXav^, -icor, ^, owl. dexar, decad, 141. 

ßpoToc ^ mortal. /Av«^, -Hii, -if, aweet ^eA^tV» -ivog, 6, dolphin. • 

ßpüfta^ -arocy roj ibod. yXürra, 9, tongue, SB, 6ev&pov, ro^ tree. 

ßpQoaCf -Mif, 1^, eating. >v<^i7» i^> opinion. deo^t, w. g., to want 

ßwi», to atop i^>, [i 120, ywevc$ ^t parent [4 12Ö, 5]. 

1}. [120. yopv, -arocf «"«, knee. d^ov, ro, doty. 167. 

fl9Wp6&€Pt fipoaa the diepth, Fo^iw, -o6f > ^1 Goigo. dipicofuu, to see [Pei£ d^ 

^/(6f, 4, altar. yp^f*f'^ ^* letter, 63. dopxo, 4 102, 4]. 

7^i)r,^, old woman [HI], depci, to flay [Perf., 4 102» 

r. yp^^t to write, 16. 4; second Aor. Paaa., 

r^iAo, t6, muk [4 89]. Tp^AAoc, 6, Gryllns. id^pvi"]« 

TO^ierr^, 1^, wife. yvioj 17, field. dioTroiva, if, mistress ol 

7<njfi^, tomany [f 124, 1]. yfff/vn^a, to exerdsa. the honsa. 

yofioc, 6, marriage. yvftvog 3, naked. deairoriff, -«v, d, maaier. 

ronv/ufd^r, -«Of, 6» Qaaj- Twrocffefof , belonging to devpo, hither. 

mode. women, 88. ^hCQfoi^ I>ep. Mid^ to re* 

7»^, for (stands after Aa 7vvai«£ov,ro,little woman. ceive. 

ftnit wnid of the sea- ywi, ^, woman [4 47, 2]. d^w, to want, 107 [\ 125^ 

tence). 5]; (2) to bind [f «8, 

Twrnip, 1^, bdly. A. (b) ; oontrscted, 4 97, 2). 

7aiipd«,tomakepRMid,110. AaidoAor, i, Daedalus. dv^ey,namely,actUoef,167« 

yi, nt least, 136. daiftoviov, to, deity. dvAof 3, evident [llO. 

7etrwv, Hwoc, ^, neigfabor. diu/aM»,-ovor,6,i^,dirin]ty. d^Aow, to make evident» 

yeXouytolaagh {4 98, (a)]. SaiBfuu, to distribate. Aiffitirnp* -rpo^, ii. Demo* 

/lAor, -arof, ^ laughter, doxy», to bite [4 119]. ter or Ceres. [9L 

yifui, w. g., to be fnU. dcucp/vov, to, a tear. drfftoKparia, ij, demoeraeji^ 

fiifeaic, -Mf, if, origin. doHpim, to weep. d^^of , 6, people, 36. 

7«wo2or, of noble birth, SaxHfXiof, 6, ring. tkfffuta^ivffi, -ovc» ^ Do» 

188. d6«rvAet} d, finger. mosthenes. 

yewoiuf, noUy, 87. do^io^, -au, to tarn« d9r4z, certainly. 

/^, rd, reward, 41 [4 39» [4 1 1 7, 2]. Siaßo^, if, calomny. 

Bern.]. dot^etCiu» to lend. dia/iy^o/Mu, to live. 

T^v, -ovrof, d, old num. diopAav«, to sleep [4121,6]. diayo, to carry throogli, 

7«^ to cause to taste, 90l 6i, but (stands after the lire. [tend. 

ftoftirpK, -ov, d, geome- first word of the sen* dtayuvi^ofuu, w.d., to ooo> 

ter. tence). ikad^iuL, t6^ diadem, 159L 

yilf if, the jsarth. ^<fVf -^r> ^» entreaty. Suupio, to divide. 

79i^to,torej(Hce[4124,2]. del, it is necessary, 107 duura, i^» mode of life. 

f%Nir> 70^ old ago [4 39» [4 12S» 6]. dioirou» to feed [Ang^ 

Semw]. dcid«»» to fear [Pai£ dd> 4 91, 2]. 

tlO «RfeBK AHB M01.Ifltt roCABÜLAm 

MiWi/fiii, to be in ft ttate, At^vnWrw, ^, qaarrel. ^rr^f» Mir. 

to be dupoMd. ituftaUf to tbint [oantract- l7r<pi»,to«wf[keii,S9[^M^ 

duucovii^ to terre [Aug., ed, f 97, 3, (a|]. (b)]. 

f 91, 8]. ^{^« -««f, rt6, thIiM. lyKoAAwirtCtiH't to bi 

dcoX^, to dmol^e, 09. Suucuj to panae, If. prand of, 172. 

Swfuiß^futit to exohiBgtt. iftac^ -«mc, 6, skive. tyKhtif^ to, aeensatna 

iiofihrn, to remsiii.' do«#o, totbink, 138 [4 1S4, ^icpar8ia,getf^iitn)l,lSl 

6ta»ißu^ to dislribnto. 9]. l7icpar#f,<-^,eimti]ieiit^7. 

dnMtpörrci», to effect doA^, lo deoeiv«, V9%, kyKUfttov^ rd, tiiltigy. 

Sia^ywfiiy to break ft- do^a, ^, i^pott, SS. I7;if9^r, -tM>f, ^, eel 

iander, 172. ' ddpv, rd^ «pear {4 39}. ir;rup^^f it » pessiUe, il* 

diaeveipuy to Matter, 131. dopvfopaca, w. ft., to atlead lowablei 

diararrv, to order, 199: as ft Ifib-gnard. ^'upiof 2, natiTe, 89l 

dkftrt9lli^tocomplete,l«1. dovXetc, i^, serritadOi M<;U»,tfti*iBhyl07[f]llk 

dcarc^jT^ic, to pat ift or- dovX«w>, to be ft skrve, 37. 6]. 

der, 161. db^ftttf, ^ sUiirb. ^^<u» to ftocostom [Aq|, 

itttrpo^t ^, flodrMiraeiit doiiXo«^ to eoAtim. \ 87, 3]. 

Stoj^epUf to diffbrfirooi, 83. Apcutttw, -mrrof, 4^ DMkXK l^osv -ovr» 'to» iMtfNft,i& 

ifa^ipu^ to de0tro}f , 83. dpamrewj, w. ft«., to rm f^, -ovf , t6, castom^ tt 

dta/^opa, if, difl^MMe, 169. ftwfty. «I, if; ift » nimaiiiH) «ift 

Mfejoer 9, dtffieieiii dpai.>, to do, aet ther. 

wiAwtTOQ 3, tftii|j{te ^jlE tfvifjf ^ii^0j,*,iEN^tftMMnil^ '•Aifv "^Vf, i^ ftns, 48» 

dbdoAuOdr, ^ teaiAMr. ing, 72. 'EIAQ, see Spao, 

itdaaKu, to teach. ^f^i ^ mnnbig, lOOl side, ir. opl^ O thai 

d>^>6otc«, to run ftiwf J^i^o^a, to be able, m sl<eA(by to Ubh [A^^ 

[f 1^9, «1. U i3']* ( 88, Rem.]. 

M io f U f ghw {§ 138]. &wafuc, ^, power, 100. ek^, inconsideFaielf, Mt 

dkfüyti») to oeBSW«, to» dw^rof 8^ poasiMe, po^- sf«^lvrt(y), ift« right 

nake aafaftmed, eofr« erfol. elxorciir, orib , naftanl^* 

Tfneai d(ip«oaof,hardt»pl«asey41. 'BKO^ see ^omm. 

dlMpdyu)9br, ^ BOfig. ^ d6(m^Mir 9, ftiiibrtftnftis. cfinu, lo yidA fle, 92; 

dtfor^/u«, to scannt«, 188. dv{Tv;t^«, to be «nlbitit- *Im6v, '6Poct ^, statftft 

dMfi», to jndge. nate« eOm», mmml^a. 

duciuoc 3, just &oix^poivQ, to* be dlsu elA«, to pivsa,- 143 ff lUi 

dkftSuMtryir, 1^, jnstSoe. pleased wiA. T]. 

diffa^Qf, jasüy, 180. du/tMi, -sttef, r^, li0tttef. elpu,, to be [f 137]. 

SucaarnCt -^, d, jftdge. di^p«», r^ gift* dfu, to go |f WI], 

iUff, 4 JoBtfoe, 99. WSOO, see fir^. 

A<oyi«7rrt -^Ct ^ Diog«' B* e^rw/u,toshiiCi»ffMll 

Bes. '%lr,W.Stil!r).,ilt 9}. 

AsMupor, 6, Diodof». lap, lapoc« i^i spring. ^yt»» w. g., t^ibtfloit 

Afdrsooc, d, Bacdns. üspivdt 9, bekmgmg to IKPOSCAI, to iii#t 

St^tif beeaose; spring. [^ 125, 8]. 

die, ftw, twice. km, to permit, 1T9 [f 98, eloo, to mOMM [Aifi 

dix«, w. g., apart from. 3 ; A«g., ^ 87, 8]. ^ ^, 3). 

dkjti^^or, doiAleHSpecdB' ^iC»,w.d.,teeoiMnear. dgß&Mmi ky ikmw imi^ 

iog,l9^ kryv^9t^,fitmYmr,mt». (9)iiitnni8ntoi 

mm» ^^»9 PH fi^iBP TQO^BWLäXlB- tit 

elrei^ to 8» BllcH U7. Me#0c, ^ ebphaot, 4S. hmt*, to kisdl« [FlMi. 

•if^^M», to.pa9biii»148» iAarcrcii, to wind [Aag^ with cr, ^ 9&]. 

«2rOf then. i &7, 8 ; Ferf. Kid. or Meim, iff want 

4re->-e{r<»wl|otb0r'— on Pms. ^A^Xty/Mtt and «Z* ^<JeMin^, to riiow, 16S. 

«Ziin^a, see ii^^C<u- ^7/*«^ i B9]. ^dtka, to pot on, M. 

Mf y ^. gn £ur« I^Mf^ r4, « fore, 1 IS. hsytifM, to «waken. 

buufTOQy 'Vf "Oif, eaflh. . *£AKTQ and i^Mu, to ^ed^evw, w. a., to lio 1« 

ii^oAM», to go^t» 13^ draw [f Bt £1^« ; Am. wait for. 

i«/3a;U«,tpttrowoot e£Uv0«,4X«i)(r«(; Aor. 'GNfiKO, im ^^. 

V^fv^y ^ i^^dospondant Pass» cU#(«(ji9^ ; Ferfl iy^r«, to have, boU. 

^1(4^» riva Tiy to strip off. Kid. or i^aas. dkave^ hi^ there. 

Hüvoc, -9» -o> that» h«* fMU ; i^lg^ I 87, 8]. iv^ada, hither. 

isM^, lohfumoiik 3;^^, <r«dfr* It HeUae» Iw^ey, whence. 

ktutaXOnrut to düdne^ Qieeoa. hr^v/ii^fmit Dqp.Paia., I» 

icicAyaia, ip, aaecmbly. T&XX^Vy -^Ivqc, A, a Gfeek. oonsidcr. 

tßf^timiGßtf t» hold an a*> 'EAA^vtc, 4^, i^, Qradan. ivtaurocf 6, year. 

■onblj. 'EA^ffinirref , ^ the Hel* f v<4i 8, eome. 

M4#<f (^) 4iUatf»^c]iiMB JMpottt ^v««»; BcnotineB. 

of the son. H^Ht -4vi^«r, ^ iraim. iviar^/Hy to put mto^ 168^ 

Aviu, to awiRA oat i2,iri^u, to hope, 88. tworof 8, aiotfa. 

ktaU^tc^ti to eettd cot i^«c» -«^* i> hope. Iwi^, aee i^^Uvv^fH. 

UKhvfHU^ to % away, (^geoptu^ to hope [PskC, hw;r^^f ▼• d^ to molail 

kmiw, to <hiak iq>, 188. f 87, 5]. [i^., 4 81, 1]. 

^«irAiw» to sau oot 'EAQ, see <ii^. ivravi^a, hero. 

.l«irAi^rr«»,toaaHiBe}M]d. i^<^Cr "«^c» manhj. hfriXXo, -ofMU, to eom- 

Aor., to bo «naaed. iitßäXku^ to throw in ; (8) mission, 181. 

kfiKo^üf -«roc, r«, dnnk* intons^ to All in or ^reih^, henee; fb tfh' 

|qg<«ap> «poB. < T«th9«», thereopoB. 

I«r%, w, g., withoat ^^/oox^^((i»,toeBSBaM,167. ^vni^n^, to put in, I88i 

"Eicrup, -opoc, 6, Qootor. I(Kmi> to vomit [^ 88, (h)]. hnlfio^ 2, honored, 

ic^vtti. Id mabe knowa, ififdimf to reoiaia with, ivrof. w. g^ within. 

180. 160. lvi7Myici-,-ettr,i^,co8mettti 

hu^ipti, to bring fi»rth, 88. ifiiredoCf ftrm, 159. hfvyz't'Mfi w. d., to fidB 

U^eiryu, w« a., to flee ifttretffoc ft, w. g., ea^o- in with. 

from, escape. rieneed in. Mwiov, ro, dream» 

^Kov, 'Ovaoy -dv, willing. kfurimXiifUf to fiU. HaifinKt soddenlj. 

i;U^, li« stog* ifnriitfuifu, to «et on ire^ k^akafOy to wipe off, 118. 

^Aavvfi), to drive [^ 119, 8]. 165. iiaftaprkw^ to err greallj. 

i^jBoipOf w. 4^ to pkj. i/minTUf to £^1 into. I^ofmtp^t^t to obsenre nt- 

M^«», to examine» 148 ^fMrrvu, to spit into or on. terl j. 

{Perf.,488, (a)]. ^f^^C^ *<^rt w. d., simi- A^iirttriui>,todeoeiTeoom- 

M<««.S w. On to pity. lar ta pletdj, 108. 

'EAii^, if, Helen. fyt^revQ, to implant i^airivifCi snddenly. 

lXev^9fiiUh ^ freedom* iff^/oro^ 2, implanted. l^«i/<£, <f eori, Uott^ it is 

i^^Mep^t free, 59. * ^^6», to impUint. lawful, in one's power. 

iXitf^epiti, to make fi^ee. ivavrioqiua4,too]^)ose,110. Iff<^ HUvm, to go oot 

'EAEXeO, see ipxofun. Mm-t^ 8, opposite. I^Mirov(Aor.),totttter,147. 


titXavvUf to driv« o«t; lirtXav^&yo/um, to folget ipcurr^^ ^ lover, S5. 

(2) to lead out itrt/iiXeM, ^, cue. 'WparCtt -odf, 17, £ntio. 

If era^w, to examine. i^t/xe^^/MKi, Mfvfuti, to care ipa<i»,to love [f 185, p. 1 65]. 

ÜevpiffKat to fiad out for, 86 [4 124, 17]. ipyu^üfMeUj toiroik [Aug., 

^ivCt in order. ifftvocca, to think of. S 87, 9}. 

i&vfu* to srad ont, 167. hriopKeuj to ewear fidaelj', ipyfurrnptov, r^, wnfc- 

iiiaoVf to make eqaaL 188. abop. 

i^6XXuj to mislead, 130. hdoptutCy 6, peijored. ipywfu, see elpywfu. 

i§6XXvfu, to rain utterly. Iirm^r«, to fall upon.. l/^xoy« t^^» weik, 27. 

l|opi^,tomakeitrBigH ifriOKonit^f to look npon. 'M^ro, to do [Perf,^87, 

158. [I6O1 hriffTO/Mh to knovr, 161 5]. 

^opKeu, to eaoae to swear, [4 135, p. 1<55]. ipd»» to do. 

lo£ica, to be like [4 87, 5]. hrtariXkuj to command, ipeidu, to prop [Mi 

Isilira, see IAito/mu. knierr^fufj 17, knowledge. 4 ^) C^)]- 

10/370, see 'EPra. iirurHffjtuv 2, w. g;, ao^ Ipt (iw, to eontend widL 

lopraCci), to celebrate ^ qnainted widi. I^tc» -«^> 1^» oonteafioB, 

feast [Ang., 4 87, 5]. hirtffTo^, ^, epistle. 39. 

hrayyeXXu, to annonnoe; hnTärra, to entntsi (0. ISfliBVC» "<>v, d, Henntt; 

Mid. to promise. hnreXii^ to accompfislt Mercury. 

hrayt^ to bring on. kntr^dewcy fit, 145. 'EPOMAI, eee 'EIPOMAL 

liroive», to praise, 107. ^iriri^dcvQ, to manage, 90. ^/mi^iu» ^ptr«, to cmp 

Iwofivor, ^, praise. ln'inT99fM,topntQpon,16I. [Aog., 4 87, 3]. 

htuTMOfKUt to accnse. kmrpeim^ to entmst to j ^A^, to go swaj [S ^ 

T&irafuvCfvdac, -ov, 6, (2) to permit 9]. 

Bpaminondas. . itriTpoirew), w. a., to be kpjkiftivoc, strong. 

kirav (^TT^v), w. snbj., if. gnardian* i^fiiuo^^ strongly. 

kravayu^ to lead bad:. ^i^epca, to bringQpon,9l. ip^fta^ -arof, t6^ defeiH» 

iiravaice</M£, to lie npon. hrixeipeu, w. d., to pat the 'Epv|Mr^<or,£rymaiidntt 

hravtufepOf to bring back, hand to sometbiBg. BpxofuUf to go, oobm 

141. iKi^uptoc 3, of or belongs [4 126, 2]. 

hrapKew^ w. d., to belp. ing to, the conntiy. ipt^y *4*rof, 6, Iopbl 

^91, when, since. (irofuu. Comp. fsru. ^purow, to a^ 

hrecdav, w. sabj., when. knopwfUy to swear by. l0i^k», to eat, 16 [4 lS<i,S]. 

hrecd^, since, because. If«^, -ovf, ro, word. ka^?^ 3, noble, 28. 

fffetro, then, 167. iirorpw», to oige on. ktnrepOf ij, evenn^. 

iirepxofiai, to oome to. Iff«, to be bosilf engaged Ifre, nntfl. 

hnßo^kij w. d., to come in, occurs in prose in ^ffrta6>, to entertain [Aiigi 

to the assistance of. comp, {rrepieirut diiirWf 4 ^7, 3]. 

^9r</3oi;A£vw,toplotagaintt etc. ) [Aug., 4 S7> ^ ; Aor. iaxarogy kst, 88. 

hnßovX^y ijj plot Act. kamv not used in irotpoc, ^, companion, S7. 

^)r(dei/cvv/f£,toshowboa8t* Att prose]; Mid. iirit' iTepocSy^other^EaUryil* 

fully, 163. fiai, to follow [Imp£ Ifr«, bendes, 124. 

iiridtuKUf to porsne. elvofojv ; Fat hjfOftai ; iroZ/iof 3, ready. 

hri^ßiiuy to desire, 108. Aor. itnro^^v, k^etFiro^ frot/uciy, cMfe., r e adily . 

ivi^fuaf j^, desire. ^i^v ; Inf. ario^tu ; Irof, H)Of , ro, year. 

Irtictvdvi'Of 2, dangeroos. Imp. «rirov, ^tt^ottov]. eif well, ed «parr», to do 

hrycQv^u^ to aUeviate. lpo/MU,toloye[4135|p.l66] w<dl to» 


l&^ßotOy 1h Bttboes. e^^Ci attractive. nY^uchf, -ovof » ^ leader. 

eÜ/3«vAof, ooBsnltiiig well, thx^ioTog 2, winning. iiyeofiat, to lead, 133. 

147. e^, ^, request, 107. i^d£6>f,a(/r., pleaeaiitlyylft». 

e^ev9rf of high bnth, 141. evxofmi, w. d., to pray, 31. v^v^ already. 

e(>6atftoveij, to be fortn- i^nßocy b, a youtbw fj^ofioi, to rejoice. 

nate, 13S. i^ivf^h to send ap to, 167. ^dav^, ^, pleasure. 

eifdaifiovi^ij^ to aoooimt ^^cKveo/c(u,to arrive at,136. ^vc, -e?a, 'V, sweet 

happy. k^odiov, to, travelling ^of,-ovf,r6, custom» llOb^ 

eMaifi^vuf^ Ibrtanatoly. noney. [tes. tftuaraf least of alL 

eitiaifaiv, ^-woc, fortunate. E^^par^, -ov, 6, Euphm- ^ku, I am come. 

Mioc 2, serene. ix^atp», w. a.^ to hate. ifXiKia, ii, age, 106. 

eid9«<jui6),tobeeolebiated. kx^avoptai^ see ä^ejo^^ i^^oT 3;» as great as. 

e|d(#, see na&ev^i^. vofuu. ff^iocy 6, sun. 

eie^iUf i^, good conditioB. kx^poc S, hos^e, 27, 58. ^ftai^ to sit [4 141, (b)]. 

eiepywia, ^, beaeficence, irv/ooc« ftrm. V^P^ ^' ^^7- 

138l ix^, to have; w. adv., 16 ; 1n*e(fodp6fioc,6,cx>vaAatJiQ9L, 

e^epysriuy to benefit, 108. w. inf., tobe al4e [-§ 125^ vfic&eoc, 6, demigod. 

eAtOTOt 9, prosperity, 47. 11]. ^ w. siibj., if. 

ei^vv<iStomakettnyght,23 SfOj to boit [^ 125, 1!^]. ^vmo, when. 

ciMf, 4ufo., immediately, luf» as long as. ^hxocj <^» guide» 198» 

cfifcXtui, ^, fiuae. Imc, h», i^, monriag. ^irtoc 3> nilld. 

e^ji6fUi>r, odb., quiekSy. . "HpOf ^> Hera or JonOk. 

«kcos;^a^^,goodorder,24. Z. Hpo^A^f, -^ovr» ^» Ho^ 

£^XaßeofuUj w. a., Bep« Z66>, to live [Con., § 97, coles. 

Pass., to be caations. < 8, (a)]. Comp, ßtot», 9p6»c« -täsc; 6, hero. 

ebf$e»fK^ -er, Well-disposed. C^wvfUj (ia, to betl [^ 182, ifüvxäQit, to be quiet, idBk 

ei/top^<a,9, beauty of form. (b), 2]. ^otrxMi, i^, stillness, 24. 

s^Mj^iia, ^, good adminis- (evyw^i, to yoke, 172 ^x^ % q«et 

tratJon. [^ 140, 3}. iyrra, i^, defeat 

eibfoof 2, well-disposed, 29. Zev^^S [§ 47, 3], Zeus or i^ao/<ai, w. g., to be de^ 

ei^er^^ orfi^ ea^y. Jupiter. feated, inferior to. 

ei^^TOpOT» w. g., abouadkig Ci^Am», to strive irflber, 10& 

in. [de& C^A^^^i ^i injury. 0. 

EipttridiFs, -ovf, 6, Swipi- ^fuwj, to punish. BdXarro, 7, sea. 

eifpiffjuif to'filid [^ 122^ 7]. ^9^^ to seek, 108* &aUa, ^, feast 

HpoCi -ov$>> TO, breadth. Co»^, ff, life. #ailX(j> to bloom, 34. 

eip6^, *elc, ^, broad. ^vuwfiif to gird [| 130, i^a^Troc, -ovf, r6, heat 

ainreßiQ, w. a., to wjver- (c), 1]. i^avarof, 6, death. 

eKoe. {<^? t6, animal, Sa ^otttu, to bury. [108. 

t^oeßffff 'ki pious. -^aß^Xeoc, a«^ b<^y, 

e&roKToc 2, well-ordered. H. ^aftfiet^ to be of good 

e^rv;p^, to be fortunato^ "H, or; ^ — ^, aut-— ant courage; 1^. rtväj to 

107. ^ where. have confidence in; ^< 

^^rvxnCi -kr fortmrntob ffi&fmjy ^ßäa^ to come to n, to endure somethii^ 

eirvzMf ^ good fortune; manhood [4 122, 8]. ^{svfiaCi^ w. g., to wigii' 

0kppaiwt to rejoice, 28. ^, ^r youth. [way. der, 16. 

ehfpoa^f i^ oMl 77e/c<w«^^topoint]oiitthe ^^avpactdc 3, wondirAa» 



^eaöfMif Dep. Mid., to see. ^uvevo and ^L»rrt»y w. a., lax^poc 3, strong. 
^edT^, -ovj by spectator. to flatter. ItrxifUt to be strong, $9. 

^tov, t6, deity. t<T«r» perhaps. 

^e«of 8, godlike. I. 2;rvor» -wf, to, track. 

i^^Xyw, to charm, 122. 'Iao/<a/, Bep. lifid., to heal. Ix^Cf -vof, ^, fish. 

^iXuy to wish, 107 [4 125, larpiioft if, medicine. 'IQ, see et/uc, to go. 

6]. larpoCj 6, physician. 

^efiiXiov, t6j foundation. 'IßripUij i^, Spain. K. 

OefUffTOKX^Ct -eov^f b. Idea, if, appearance, 106. Ka&aipta, to porlfy, 190- 

Themistocles. Zdeof 3, own, peculiar. KO&S^oftat, to sit down 

^eof, 6, God. lAiw^Ci -<w» b, prirate [Aug., § 91,5; Fntw- 
^epairaivoj ^, female ser- man ; (2) layman. ^eSa^fjuu], [I0|. 

Tmnt löpvo, to build, 90 [4 94, 1]. xa^evSu, to sleep [\ 125, 

^epaireia, ^y care. ^<'/'<^) -urof/ 6, sweat. Ko&iiftca, to sit [Aug., 

^epairevcty to honor, 22. lepev^, -iof, d, priest ^ 91, 3]. 

^epairoVf -ovtoc, b, ser* iep6v, ro, victim. xai^tC'', to set [§ 125, 13]. 

rant lepb^ 3, w. g., sacred to* Mt&irifu, to let down, 167. 

^ipO(y -ovf, TO, snnuner. Kq, see Kodi^u. Kai^i<rri7^,toe8tabli9h,lS8. 

^6wy to run [Fnt., f 116, IriiUy to send [§ 136}. ««I, aBd,eTen; ffot— n», 

8 ; Con., S 97, 1]. The /t^vvo, to set r^t, 52. both— and (et— et)yS8. 

oUier tenses from tpi- Ikovoc 3, sufficient, «Me. k<uv6^ 3, new. 

;tu> which see. 'Ixapoc, 6, Icains. Kaiptoc, oppcMtnne, U2. 

^ßat, al, Thebes. iKereva, to supplicate, 83. luupoCi the right time, 5& 

^Pt -oCi ^i wüd beast Uinjc, -ov, 6, suppliant, ieomj, to bum [§116, 2]. 

^pei;r]7r,-«v,6,hantsman. Uveofiai, see i^iieveeftat. KoKia, ^, Tice. 

^peWf to hunt, 31. tkäüKOftat, to propitiate kokovooc 2, ill-disposed 
^piovy TO, wild beast [f 122, 10]. ica«6f 8, bad, wicked. 

^aavpoc, b, treasure. !Xeuf, -Ci»v, miercifid. Kaicön/f,^,widLedne88,3}> 

BtfüevCy -e«f , i, Theseus. 'Utac, -<Jof , ^, the Oiad, 53. KOKovpyiu, w. a., to <b 

0iyyavo, to tonch [§121, Ift&Twv, to, garment evil to one. 

10]. l/ieipa, to desire. KOKovpfyo^, 6, evil-doer. 

^Xaw,tobmi6e[§98, (a)], tva, that; (2) in order m«k6ci>, to treat ill, hut 
^v^oKo, to die [§ 122, 9]. I&at iracuf, ctdv^ badly. 

^vifTOc 3, mortal. 'IvSinn, h, India. [dia. icäAa/eDc, 6, reed. 

Mpvßoc, b, tumult *lvöoi, o£, inhabitants of In- KttXeo, to eall, name [f 9^ 

^pava, to break, 100 W, ro, violet (b) ; Opt Pbip. DiGd. or 

[§ 95, Rem. 1]. ImrevCy -^«c» *» horseman. Pass., § 116, 4]. 

^/wf, Tpixbr, If, hair. /ttttcvo, to ride. KaÄÄtar, -ow, 6, Galliss- 

d'pbvoCf b, throne, 145. ?fr7rof, 6, horse. k&XXoc -ovf, to, benatif. 

^pwTKii, to leap. <(roc 3, equal, 49. KO^Khya&ia, if, rectitad^ 

^vyaTffp, -poc, if, daughter. l(mjfzi,to place,158 [4133]. 145. 

^hfioCt b, mind, 28. Itrtopio Tiva ti, to in- Koko^ 3; beaatiftil, 27. 
^pa, 71, door. quire of. itakvirra, to conceal 

^pooc, b, a liiyrsiis, 159. iaropioypa^, 6,historian. KoX&f, Mh^ weH. 

^wria, ii, sacrifice. Itrrbg, b, loom. KOfiuiXo^, b, if, camel 

^<<>> to sacrifice [§ 94, 2]. Itrxyaiva, to make emada- Koftvo, to labor (inCrus-^ 
^^y ^6r« 6, ^, jackaU. ted [§ 111, Rem. 2]. 130 [§ 119]. 



c«v, even if^ 107. KevTpov, to, sdog, 159. K?Xnlf, -c»9r6f, 6, tliict 

ifavßoVf TO, basket icipeifioc, ^> clay. «vow, to scrape [Contt 

«afrpoct 6, wild boar. Kepawvfii, to mix [§ 139, i 97, 3]. 

Kopdia, ijy heart (a), 1]. xotC<^, to squeak [Chari 

Kopnoofiai, to enjoy the icepdaivut to gain, 130 4 l^^i ^l- 

fruits of. [Mil) Aor. 11; Pexf. Koi^ivu, to boUow oal 

jcapffof, 6. fruit «cex^xkuca]. U ^i Bern. 2]. 

Kopra, very. cepcJof, -ovf, to, gain. «cotvof, common, 131 ; rd 

kofyrepiij, to be patient Kev^fujv, -CtvoQ, 6, lair. koivov, commonwealtli. 

KoprepQi 3, strong, 167. Keir&u, to conceaL icocvwvta, 9, communÜMi, 

KäoTup^ -Qpog, by Castor. «e^oAi?, 1}, head. 108. 

KoräßaaiQ, ^, retreat, 72. Kexpnfävoc, wanting, 120. Koipavoc, 6, ruler. 

KUToye^tM, w. g., to Uugh /c^ttoc, 6, garden. «oXo^w, to punish. 

at [sleep, 138. k^p, mvpoCt ^0, heart KoXoKeia, v, flattery. 

KaraSap^avuy to fall a- ttsfpoCj b, wax. « «oXaJcevcj, w. a., to flatter* 

taraSim, to go down, 88. «9^^, -o«oc, 6, herald. KoXa^i »oicof, ^, flattmer. 

MTOKoiu, to bum down. utipvTTw, to make known icoA<urr^^, -ov, 6, punisber 

ffaracAaurf, to bewail. (by a herald). «coXovo», to curtail [FlBM. 

saroicAciw, to shut, 90. Kv&apa, ^, lyre. with a, i 95]. 

«arflMcpvnru), to hide. Kt^Mcm, 9, CiUcia. icoAtto^ , 6, bosom, 133« 

Kara^Mfiiroy shine upon, «iv^wevu, to incur dan- Kopi^, to bring. 

Mira^tTFCi», to leave be- ger, 88. KoirrUf to cut, 120. 

hind, 120. Kivdtvoc, ö, danger. Kopa^, -<ucof, 6, crow. 

caroAvw, to loosen, 88. ic2c, «(^c, ö, com-wmm. «copewi;/«, to satisfy [§ 139, 

Karavifiu, to distribute. icion?, 1^, chest (b), 3]. 

xaran-avw, to put a stop to. «ir roc, 6, ivy. Kopivi^Mf , ^, Connthin^ 

Mranerpout to stone to isixp^fu^ to lend [4 135, 1]. «opvc, -vt^of, 17, helmet 

death. [122. k^u, to sound [§ 105, 4; Koaftea^ to adorn. 

icaraTrA^rrd), to astonish, FntPerf /ce/c^/^uand Koapo^, 6, ornament, 51. 

«aroaxevoCw, to prepare. -y^opfu]. k9v^ 3, light, 39. 

«carani^^^, to lay down, «cXoiu, toweep,133 [| 125, KpaCu, to cry out, 129 

161. [122. 14]. [4 105, 2 i Fut «ficp«^ 

Kara^Xiyu, to burn down, «Xuw, to break [§ 98, (a)]. iopcu], 

Kara^poveu, to despise. KTieig, 9, key [§ 47, 5]. Kpuvog, «ovf, ro, helmet 

«aro^Ti?, 9, refuge. KAetw, -ovc, ^, Clio. Kpareu, w. g., to have 

Kartpyoi^opaLy to accom- «Aec6), to shut, 28 [Pass. power over, 107. 

pUsh. with <r, ^ 95, Rem. 1]. «par^p, -^pof,mixing bowL 

Korex^^t to restrain, 23. cAeof, -ovf, ro,, fame, 48. Kpuroc^ -ovf, ro, strength. 

Kartiyopo^y 6, accuser. KXhcnjCt -ov, 6, thief. i^pavy^, if, shout, 167. 

«anmrpov, ro, mirror. «Aitrrw, to steal [Fut «cAe* Kpeac, to, flesh, 41 [^39, 

tcaTij, below. ^pai ; second Aor. Rem.]. 

Kovpa, -arof, to, heat Pass. ixXav^ ; Perf., Kpepapai and KpepavwfUf 

Kou, see «Oicj. § 102, 5]. to hang [§ 139, (a), 2]. 

Keifuu, to lie down [^ 141, xAev«), to bend [\ 111, 6]. «pivu, to judge, 48 [f Uli 

(a)]. «cAoTny, ^, theft 6]. [sa. 

«eXevu, to order, bid [i 95]. icXompoft thievish, 1 22. KptffaAop, belonging to Ck^ 

KeMOtfpe^, CeltiUnrians. KAwt^w, -ovc» 9* Clotho. «cpir^c, -ov, 6, judge. 


KptrittCi -CIV, 6, Crittas. AoKedaiftovtoct 6, Lace- >o^, 6, crest. 

Kpotoof, i, Croesus. daemonian. ^^au, w. a., to lie in wait 

KpOKoSeiXof, 6, erocodfle. ^Y^* -^f ^> ^^u^* Xv7/:)6f 3, sad. 

Mp6pvoVt t6j onion. Xal^Miff^ -awocy if, storm. Avdia, 17, Lydia. 

KpoTwVf -iitvoCy öy Crotona. Xa^Uy to talk. 'Avicov/>xdf , o, Lycnigns. 

J^vci), to knock, ItX) [Pass. Xu^ 2, talkative. XufMivofzaij w. a., to abuse, 

with Oy 4 95, Rem. I], htftßävuy to take, 31 maltreat 

Mft^KTog 3, concealed, 130. [\ 121, 12]. ^v/ii?, 17, disgrace, 

«pvirr», to conceal, 121. XofirrpS^ 3, brilliant, 23. XvTeo, to distress. 

tcpCt^tty to croak [^ 105, 2]. ^vi^aw, to be concealed Xvirrj, y, sorrow. 

MT&ofuUy to acquire, 112 from, 89 1$ 121, 13]. }.wrrip6c 3, sad, 47. 

[Bedup., f BSy Rem. 1 ; Xapvy^, -vyyocy 6, throat Xvpa, ^, lyre. 

Snbj. Perf. and Opt Xiaiva, 7, lioness. Xupixoc 3, lyric. 

Plup., f 116, 4]. Xeaivuy to grind, 43. AvvavSpoc, 6, Lysander. 

jrtv2vii),tokiH,usually<&7ro- Xeyu, to say, name ; ^yo- Avtrtaf, -ov, 6, Lysiss. 

«retw [Perf Act, ^111, ^a« [§ 8«, Rem. 2] ; (2) XvmrtXeuy w. d!, to te 

4. lustead of Urauai to collect [^ 88, 4 ; Aor. useftd to. 

and hcTÖi&iiVy ri^vipca Pass. kXex^nv and ^A^ Xvxvo^y ^y lamp, 173. 

and uwe^avBv iivo rtvoQ yffv]^ Xvuy to loose, 22 [^ 94, S|. 

an usval]. Xeta, 17, booty, 145. Xcjßaofuu, w. a^ maltrat 

icrelc, -evöf , 4, eomb. Xetfut», -dvoc, 6, meadow. 

HTwiO^y to comb. Aetfru, to leave, leave be- H. 

MTiffiay -arocy roy posses- hind f Aor. fXeinxf ; Pf Mai^i^r^c-oVjÄjapupfl^SS. 

•ion. ' XeXotTTS, f 102, 4]. Mmavdpof, 6, ^^teander. 

KT^diCt Vi possession, SI. Ae6»vtdaf,-ov,6,Leonidas. futxapy -apo^, happy. 

mrifyty to found, 31. Xttno^ 3, thin. fMucapeCu^to esteem happf. 

KMßep^tfKy by pilot ^evKmvw, towhitettf4 111, fiOKaptoc 3, happy, 108. 

Mibßoc, 6, a die, cube. Rem 2]. MoKedovia, i^, Macedooii 

MSvoCy 6y CSydnus. Aevcj, to stone [Pass, with MaKeSoviK6^, Maoedoniaa 

mXiuy to loU [Pass, with ff, f 95]. Mcuceduv, -^of, 6, a Mace- 

tf, 4 99]. Xiuvy -ovToc, 6, lion. donian. 

MireXXov, ro, goblet Xe6cy 6, people. ptaKpavy far, 131. 

iCtf^fvo, to be master of,88. A^pof, 6, loquacity. ftoKpöc 3, long. 

'^oCi w. g., having pow- X^f<rr^y -ov, 6, robber. ftaXoKl^Oy to render e^ 

er over. [dops. Xiavy very, 122. feminate, 124. 

"KvxXAnfpy "lairo^y 6, Cy- Atßvtfy tjy Lybia. ftaXoKo^ 3, soft. 

KDpoc, 6, Cyrus. X^Of, 6, stone. ^aXi^dwdc 3, soft, 172. 

m6uvy KwScy 6, i^, dog. Xifi^v, -evof, 6, harbor. fioXioTOy especially, 107. 

MtiXvOy to hinder. Xi/ivjf, ^, marsh, 158. fiuXXovy rather, 64. 

a6ftif^ ify village. XiftSc, 6, hunger. Jiavdavtfy 9, Mandane. 

MUTiXXoy to chatter, 172. Xoyi^oftaiy to think, 112. /Mv^avoy to learn, SI 

•tfft^ 3, loquacious X6yioc 3, eloquent, 112. [f 121, 14]. 

«»^ 3, dumb. Xoyo^y A, word, 27. Mavrtveta, i^, MandnCa. 

Aotdofseu, to scold, 109. futvrt^, -eof , 6, prophet, 88> 

A. ^e/iof, 6f pestilence, 158. futpcuvoy to make wither. 

A«y:;tavü,to acquire [^121, Aoeiroc 3, remaining. [5], fioprvpeuy fiaprvpoftai, io 

11]* Aov», to wash [Coat, 497, beartestmiOBy[4iaii4 


fiapTvpUh 4> testimony. ^ra/?ttXAo,tocluuige,130. fUfUoftaif to imitate. 

ßupTvtf 'TvpoCf 6, witq^flfl. fUTaßoX^, i^, chAoge. fiifitir^^t -ov, 6, imitator. 

fuumydu, to Bfioutgd, /«eradidw^t. to give a share Mivd^c (G«ii. Mivwof and 

(taariCiUf to whip [Char^ of, 159. M/vb»), 6, Minos. 

1 105, 2]. [38. fUTaTuiTTOf to change. fUfiv^oKu, to remind 

^taoTl^, -lyoc, i, scouige, fiera^v^ w- g., between. [i 122, 11]. 

/iuxni ^* battle. j^eraTvifLirofioi, to send for. fuayu, w. g., to mix with. 

fia;^o;iat, to fight, 16 [\ 125, lUTari^Tifii^XQ change,159. paew, to hate. 

15]. fUTa^ep(jiy to remo?e, fiiai^og, 6, reward. 

/H^/ac, -aA^, -a, great [§48]. change. fiia^ooy to let ont 

fttye^og^ -ot;c,rö,greatne8S. furaxetpi^ofiai, to take in /iva, -uc, ^, mina [§ 26]. 

^iit9i7, ^, drunkenness. hand, 65. /^i^/^9> ^> memory. 

ßr&ifMJv, -ovQc, negligent, fiereireiTaf afterwards. fiviifiovevut to remember. 

65. fi^ex(»>i to take part in. ftvffürrip, -vpoCt ^t suitor. 

lu^iilfu, to let go, 168. fihpLo^ 3, moderate- /<o^Ci with difficulty. 

utdifu, to be drunk, 136. fieTf}iug, adv., moderately, fiovapxioj 9* monarchy. 

'Sic^QVfi, fi, Methome. fterpov, to, measure, 28. ftovoVf only, 64. 

futpatuwy TO, young boy. fiexph until fiovoi 3, alone. 

fii^ac, -aiva, -ixi', black, fiv, not, 16; after expres- ftoipot 7, fate, 141. 

^e^e/, it concerns, 24 sions of fear, 91. fwpaifioc 2, iated. 

l\ 125, 17]. (iTjoafiov, nowhere J fi, eU Movact, i, a Muse. 

fieAer^, 1^, care. va«, to be of no yalue. /uvaiK^, rj, music, 87. 

fieA4, 'tTog, TO, honey. Wideia, ^, Medea. ^:t^7pof3,misenible,baM. 

fUXiTTO, ij, a bee. f^l^äct -efila, -ev, no one l^x^o^, 6, toil, distresf. 

fuX^M, to be about to, 88 [4 68, Rem. 1]. f^x^f i», bolt, 28. 

[i 125, 16]. fiTfdinoTe, never, 112. ^v^iu, to suck [§ 125, 18]. 

fuXofiOi, to have a care for M^doc, 6, a Mede. fiiy&oc, 6, word, 40. 

[§ 125, 17]. fA^xof) -<wf, TO, length. /^vto, i, fly. 

fuh)^, -ovf, ro, song, 121. ft^v, -vog, b, month. fivpiog 3, innumerable. 

fäfu^ftai, w. a., to blame; fivvis, -log or -tdof, ^, an- ftvpf^^^t -«co^, 6, ant 

w. d., to reproach. ger. [with, fiifpov, to, perfumery, 145. 

fUfttjuCi '£<^, Vt reproach, fiffviu, w. d., to be angry five, -vog, rj, monse. 

lav — dc, truly — but, 38. iirinoTe, never. fivxaTog 3, inmost, 121. 

}l[evi?t,£iJS, -eu, 6, Mene- fiv^u, not yet. fivdi, to dose [formation 

laus. fi^T^ — f^V'f'St neither — of tense, § 94, 1]. 

luvevaivu, w. d., to bear nor. fiMpoi 3, foolish, a fooL 

ill-will towards. /^^VP» -Tpoff 9, mother. 

nhu, to remain ; w. a., to ufjx<iväoftai, Dep. Mid., N. 

await; second Perf. ße- to contrive. N<u, truly. 

/<ova, to desire [§11 1,5]. fuaivo, to pollute [§ lü* v€uo, to dwelL 

fupi^u, to divide. Rem. 2]. Na^iof, 6, Naxian. 

fiipifiv€^ 71, care. fuywfii, to mix [§ 140, 4]. vaaau, to press together 

ft^pof, -ovf, TO, part Mi^ptöuTiis, -ov, b, Mith- [Char., § 105, 1]. 

fiearjfjtßpia, v, mid-day. ridates. vavayia, ii, shipwreck. 

Heaoq 3, middle. fUKpog 3, small [des. vavayoq, 6, shipwrecked. 

fuaoTfig, mediocrity, 57. MtA^rotdijf, -ov, 6, Milti»- vavfiaxta, i, sea-fight 

^etnos 3, w. g., full. MtXwv, -«vof, i, Milo. vavT^g, -ov, 6, sailor. 




^muTUcSc S, nantkml, 161 1 

t6 vavrucw, a fleet. 
meaviact -<w» ^i a jontfa. 
NeJAof , 6f Kile. 
vtKpoc 9, dead, 175. 
W«r<i^, -opof* '''^y necter. 
-pixoci -vof , ^, eoipte, 49. 
Htfiioj if, Nemea. 
vifua, to divide, 145 [Fbt 

ve^ and vefOfout ; Aor. 

iveifia ; Perf. vevifiijKa ; 

Aor. Fmb. iv€fdf{hf9 

and -e^v]. 
-ylof 3, yonng, 28. 
veoTffc, -vroct ^, youth. 
NIffrup, -opoc, 6, Neetor. 
vefiXi/f if, cloud, 158. 
vli^, -iwct fb, doad. 
«fo, to fwfm [4 116, 8]. 
ifi»r, -w, 6, temple. 
*(^, yee, truly. 
v^fio, -aroc, TO, yam, 136. 
vifve/iia, if, a calm. 
vifüoc, if, idand. 
91^, to wash. 
«MOW, to eonqner, 106. 
9tK^, iff victory. 
wtirrvy to wariL 
«ifet, it mowB. 
«nfo, to think. [67. 

v^iffta, -tmc, TO, thought, 
Mfwr» -a<^i ^» ^y nomad, 
ipo^iciir, -iftff, 6, shepherd, 

#0j^, ^y pasture. 
vofiiiCo, to think, 56. 
/Mj^H^ioc 3, onstomaiy. 
v6ftoc, 6, law. 
ifi6Dr> ^) mmd, S9. 
90aio, to he aA. 
irSaoc, ^, disease, 28. 
96f0(, 6, south-wind. 
K^fiftf, if, a Nymph. 
'v^, now. 

i»6f , wKToc, if, night 
ffvoT^fj, to nod [Char., 

4 106, 8]. 

Sevia, ^, hospitality. 
iSvoc, 6, guest, 122. 
Bevo^avff^, -av^, 6, Xeno- 

phanes. [phon. 

Bevo^uv, -uvrof, 6, Xeno- 
Uu, to scrape [fonnation 

oftenscf 98, (b)]. 
ftfpaiva, to dry. 
^140^, -^ivc, TO, sword. 
fi/Xov, TO, wood, 
fv^u and ^popu,tDBhaTe 

[§ 124, 5]. 
^, to scrape [Pass, with 

'OdoC«, to Ute [COiar., 

f 105, 2]. 
Wof , ♦, way. 
6do6f , -dprof, 6, tooth. 
Mvpofuti, to monm, 16. 
'OdwtfWTOf , -^, 6, Ulysses. 
6{a, to smell of [S 125, 19]. 
o&tv, inmence. 
o2, whither. 
oUuci^o, to steer [Aug., 

♦ 87, 11. 
«{da, I know [\ 143]. 
olywfu, olyu, see dveiy. 
oUeloc 8, belonging ks 

own, intimate. 
churffi, -ov, 6, senrant 
oJjciu, to dwell, 112. 
nhofmc, -e»r, )^, dwelling, 
ok^o, ^, house. [l 1 2^ 

oUcodofiSQ, to bnfld a house, 
oIkoc, 6, house. 
obcovpeo, to guard a house 

[S 87, 2]. 
ohcTeipu, w. a, to pity. 
o2/iai, see olo/uu. 
olftuCa, to lament [Char., 
. 4105,2]. 
oixTpog 3, pitiable, 58. 
clvoc, 6f wine. 

aloe, sach<«8; w. iiiC,iD* 
stead of ucrr, so 1I11L 
Xif, A£or, 6, ^, sheep. [%\\ 
tixofiot, to depart [S IS^ 
'OIÖ, see fep». 
6X^Mf 3, happy. 
6X|3oc, 6, tidies, 124. 
^Xijapxia, digarehy, 161. 
6'Xiyoi, few. 
6Xi>oc 8, Utde, 53. 
6>Mr&ävu, to slip [f 121,7]. 

6Xo^C^, to howl (C3isr, 

4 105, 2]. 
6Aof 3, whole. 
liko^vpofioiy to pity. 
'O^pof, 6, Homer. 
6/ttAfw, w. d., to assodiH 

with, 131. 
^l^uXia, ^, interoouse wiflL 
bforvfu, to swear [S 138,B]. 
VvM), to swear. 
dfuryatTTpioc, 6, bfOtiier. 
öftoyXurroc 8, speskisf 

the same language. 
6fUM&r^, -Tirnc, Ukeae» 
6f<o^,in like maaner,106 
hftokoyhi, to agree nühi 

hftSpywfu, to w^ off 

[4 MO, 6]. 
iveipoc, 6, dreaBL 

ivivtf/u, to benefit [f 1^ 

9nfOfia, -aroc, to, nasse. 
bvoftai^, to name. 
6vrCi»C, really. 
6f6c, -eta, -v, shaip, sott 
^a(iu, to bestow, 124. 
6^, whither, wheie. 
bwUm, back, 138. 
^Ai^M, to arm. 
imXiTif^, -ov, 6,heavy-in&* 


birXoPj rSt weapon, v Äfrtf, ^tf, 6 n^ whoever, fRu<l£M;,r^,]iU3ecbSd,191. 

Ibroi, whifher. # 67 [4 ^2]. iraiCu, to pli^, 17 [§ 116, 

liroioc 3, Qrua^», of wliat 6(7^cv«^i,w.g.,tDsnefl 8]. 

■ort. [as. [S 121, 8]. irotf, -<Mr, 6, ii, cIhW, 311 

iirSaoc S, gmfiA», as great ^rav, w. sabj^ wlien, 87. frazu, to strike. 

inwrofovv 3, how great, 5re, when. ituAoi, formerly, long age; 

how long, toerer. drt, that, beoaoee. ol TraAat, the aneieatfi. 

^oravy w. sabj., when. oi), not, 17 ; oi^, where. inü.aUty to wrestle [FM. 

^n&rtt when, since. ovdafi^y nowfio!«. w. <r, according to f 9tt). 

kiKcn-epoi 3, which of twa oide, neiA^j 57. iraAatoc 3, andeat 

%ffovy where. oideig, -efda, -ivy no one iroAti'f agaki, 159. 

'ÖIITÖ, see Spatj. [^ 68, Rem. 1]. iravraxovy everywhei«, i& 

*>rt*f, how, 10». " oWcTTore, nevar. all respects. {kind. 

bpOmg, 'CttCi ^i Sight o^x, not, 16. wsvroöawec 8, <^ every 

6paOy to see [§ 126, 4]. üincirty no longer, 165. iravrt^y wholly, 160. 

hpyaivQy to enrage {^ 111, cbv, therefore. waw, altogetbw, very. 

Bern. 2]. ofmorcy never, 181. nairvo^, 6, grand-fathier. 

^pyVi hi anger. (Xfpavidcuy oi, gods, in- irapayyeX^y. to order. 

hpyi^ofuuy Bep. Bass., to habitants of (Mympns. ica^dUkafUy give over to^ 

be angry. ühpaviog 3, heavenly. commit l^y- 

bptywy to stretch, 122. oict ^6^ to, ear [^ 39]. 9rapad6^a{',cKh;.,nnexpee^ 

6^^<f, a striving after,108. oicrta, possession, 64. vapa^Kij, 17, something 

dpi&6r8,stnugfat,57. [108. ofre— ovre, neither— nor. entrusted, 122. 

bff^noy to make straight, ofr6)(f ), thus, 87 [^ 7]. ira^iveii>, w. d., to adviM^ 

6ff&ptoc 3, eariy. 0^, not, 28. to exhort 

^pt^t^i to fix, Ihnit, 124. bt^eihjy to owe [4 125, 28]. irapoKo^Uy to call to, to 

6pKteVy T6y oath. 60eAAcj, to noorish, 53. exhort [147. 

dpKOCi ^1 oaft. l^aXfioCj 6, eye. «rapoxarcn^i;, 1^, pledge^ 

hpfuujy to rash, 106. 50<c, -eii)^, by. snake. napaXofißavuy to receive. 

%t^, ^, impulse, 57. 6^X10x^0, to owe [4 121, vapavofioc 2, contrary to 

6pvt&o&/ipaCi -«> *» Wrd- 9]. law. 

catcher, 24. bx^itt to bear, endure. vapaniroftaiy to fly away. 

dpviC) -1^0^, by ^y bird. £;t^C» b, theconunoii peo- mpairXm^Uy mislead, 12S. 

bpvtpiy to rouse. pie {fi^Y v€^}anX^ioc 3, Uke. 

Bpo^y 'ov^t rby mountain. 5^, birbct h, voice. i^apaokeva^Uy to prepare, 

bprv^y -yof, 6, quail. 6^i, late. 168. 

bpvTTUy to dig [Fut bpC' bfifftoc 3, late. [47. irap<KTKevaaTiK6gSyW.gBigi^ 

I«) ; Pf. bp&pvxa ; Ff. 5^£r, -eci»c, ^, sight, visage, skilled in preparing. 

Mid. or Pass, bpupvy- bfix^yo^ 2, dainty. impare/via, to stretdi out 

ftaiy \ 89, (a)]. vapari&Tfftiy to place be- 

bpxn^fibc, by dance. H. side, provide. 

btrioc 3, holy. Haytf, -tdo^y 7, trap, 49. Kapatpkxf^, to run by or 

60/<7, ^y smeH. flra^Koxoc, thoroughly bad. past [past 

bco^y as great as, 67. ireb^or, -ovc, suffering, 53. vapa^epciy to carry by or 

bc^epy ^irepy birepj who- Trotav, -dvof ^ 6, war-song. napeifjUy inf.ffo/wlvat, to be 

ever, 108. Tracc^eta, 1^, education, 87. present; 9ra^e0r<(i'), it 

barhv, -ovvy rby bone. fraedevci), to educate, 16. is lawful, in one's poww. 


«ifi^e^M, ia£ wttpiii^at, ft» «^(^t to tend [§ 102, 5]. in? ; wUtbert when! 

go bf , near. ^cv9f » -V^vr, 6, ^, poor, miifit i^, fooataiB. 

wapipxofuu, to go by. «cv^reva, to be fMior. «n^yw^ to fix, make fiia 

wtphp^f to offer, graat|87) irevt^M», to grieve. ß 140, 8]. 

lül, 5& «rcvi^uwc lx«'> w. gn to be irtxvf , -ewe, ^» cabit, M. 

wapin/Uf to left pasa, neg- aad aboat aomething. wucpog S, bitter. 

Iec^l68. [15S. n£Nea,aeeira0:Y«. irteC», to press. 

wßpUrr^fu, to place beaide, irevto, 9, poverty. wi^ir Af /m, to fill [§ 13&, 5]. 

imp9tviot to lioft [Ang., irevi;i;p6f 3, poor* vifi7rprffujU}\mm[\V3lify. 

4 91, 1]. wevofMi, to be poor. v<vw, to drink [§ 119,3]. 

mtpo^wu, to enooorage. ir«fr<uv6),toxiii^ ripe, 130 irin-iaicca, to give to dnnk 

w<#90rMi,7,fraiikiiefla,168. [M 1 li Bern. 2]. [§ 1S2, 13]. 

irdf, eveiy, aU. irevr^w/ievf, 1^, Cette. mvpaaKu^atHXüinjLil 

iraovdi, to acatter [Char., iren»v, -ovoc, ripe. iriimw, to fiül [( 123]. 

4 105, 1]. vepaiv»f to complete, 131 vurreUi, to tnut, 25. 

«ao:;t«. to aoffer, 141 H lll>BeB[L2l. iriorir, -ewf, 9, belief 13S. 

[4 122, 12]. irepatog 3, beyond. vrioroc 3, trastworthy, 8?. 

war^p, -poSf 6, fiuJier. irlpoc, -anof, ro, end, 147. itmw, -woe, &t 

narpiof 2, belonging to irepM», to tnuuport [4 98, vAoC», to oaoae to «aa- 

the conntiy. (a)]. der [Char., 4 105, 4]. 

warpiSf -i^t it naftii« mpiaya, to lead round* nXaavt^ to ioaa. [CSur., 

conntry. irept/3aAAt»,to throw round. 4105,1]. 

IlarpoicAof, 6, Patrodns. vtpidpofioc 2, running frAa(n't«]7,9»8culptiue,l6lk 

irarptff, -cMp, 6, nnde,47. round. [des. XUdrmo, 1^, Flaftaeai 

irotMtf, to cause to cease, TiepiK^Ct -ecvc, 6, Peri- rrXetS^pov, ro, measure of 

124 [Aor. Pass, inmh wepiopao, to oyerlook, 100 ftet 

01^ ; P£ Mid. or Pass. porait, 147. wXeiaroc 3, moat. 

4riirav/MM, to cease; Fut nepiirXoog, -evf» 6, Toyage irAix«», to knit» weaver 

Pei£ newavcoftaif will round. [133. irAeovoicif , oftener. 

cease]. weptfifiiuj to flow round, rAeov^icrvfj-oti^Tariaott. 

ir^, ]^, fetter. irepi(n-e^A6», todothe, 130. irAeove^ui, 1^, EYarioe. 

anedtop, to, s plain. «-e^ni^vp, to put or set frXevpa, i, dde. 

«reii^», to penraade, 124; round. [121. «rXew, to sail [4 116, 3; 

ACid.,22 [Aor.ifreMn^, nepiTpefro, to turn round, Cont, 4 97, 1]. 

I obeyed]. wepiTToc 3, beyond the «rAv/v, it a blow, woand. 

ir»t^w, -ovf, 1^, persuA- usual number, more irA^of, -Otis', ro, rndti* 

siveness. than sufficient tnde, 72. 

freivaot to hunger [Cont, mpi^epti», to carry about irAiyv, w. g., eacoepft, 145. 

4 97, 3]. [try. Uepae^ovij, i^, Proserpine, «r^pvf» -«fi w. g., iiifli 

weipaofMif Dep. Pass., to ILipavCt -ov, ^> a Persian. satisfied with. 

iriXayo^, -oyct to, sea. UeptrucoCt Persian. «-^99x0$»» to appioach. 

JUXoirownffMKoCf Pdo- weravw/u, to expand nXnaiog 3, near, 109. 

ponnesian. [4 139, (a), 3]. ir^rrw, to strike, 131 [K 

UeXoniwiiaoc, if, Pdo- irero/^u, to fly [4 125,28]. ireirXv^^Iha^eslnck', 

ponnesus. irerpa, ^, rock. Aor. Pass, hr^yv^i 

lUXinlf, -oTToc, 6, Pek^». JIETOOMAI, see irvot^o- but in compoeition, i<r- 

ws^ggryct ^1 shiddsman. vofuu. A^7i7v,e.g.i^e9rAa/9y]. 


m^XMoCi ^» brick. woXwre^W^-ef, costly, I««, «lywd^f, -dv, d, betrayef. 

trXotfC » ^^^r> ^} voyage. n^oAv^A^i«, i^, naititfiAe vpoelwav (A^.), to say 

irXovffcof S, rieh. of fHoBds. before, commMid. 

wXovTiuff to be or beoone troXoxeipiaf ^, makitade vpokpxoftaxj to go befoi«. 

rioh. of iittads, of wofkmea. irpo&vfda, if, ^Ungiiesfl. 

«rXovWC»» to ettrioh, 64. irove<j,totoa,107 [^8,<b)]. vpin^tfto^ S, willing. 

n-Aovrof, 6, rk^es, 89. wovtfpo^ 3, wicked, 48. irpoiH/tuCi adv., wüHagly. 

«3l#w», to wash Hill) <$}• ^ovocy 6, toil, 28. [90. r/BoXe^m.»» to forsidce, 121. 

«veo, to breathe, blow wopeva, to lead ferwwd, irpefuixo^t 6, fighting ill 

f 4 1 1 6, 8 ; Oont, ^ 97, 1 J. fnp&ita, to destroy. front, chain{non. 

iefy&€fif ; whence ! mpurriicSg 8, w. g., skSkd irpovoeUj to consider be- 

fro&eu^ to desire [^ 98,(b)]. in procuring. forehand, 142. 

«^leci, to make, do; e^ irsp^peoc (of^r) 8, pttrple. w/9Övma, i^, foresight, 87. 

fn»<e«j, 107. noffeu^d^v, -twoc, ö» Po- iif>6M<9a, to know beAn«* 

mtffTfKf -^t K poet seidon, Keptane. hand. 

ifOtKikog 3. variegf^ed, 40. wa«rtf, -M»f^ ^, drinking,51. npes-ayopevotjtoeall, imnie. 

mifopfy 'ivoCi S, shepherd, iroao^ ; 3, how great % «rpor/i«A^, w. g., to smell 

'moioc J 8, of what kind? iroro^^c'i 6^ river. of something. 

iroAe^eci), w. d., to carry irore, onee, 48. irpocßhitray to look at 

OB war. vorepoc^ whi^ of two, 165. wpo^Kcuü, to expect, 107. 

^mXefuof 8, hostile, 86. worov, ro, drink. irpocetfiij inf. ^pocetvot, to 

woXe/uiGOf 3, warläee. iro^c» fro^» ^, Ibot - be present, 47. 

-wiXefto^j h, war. ' wpayfUL, -ttrog, r«, «a ae- npocetfu, inf. trpo^thfoiy to 

iro^Mpiceca, to besiege. tion, 40. go to, 168. 

«oAiofMcus, 17, aiege. ir^«<riK«f 3, capable of ac- irpoceAavvo», to adyanoB 

«mXtf, -euf, 1^, city, 61. complishing, obtaining. towards. 

ireA«re»a,]^, lheiitate,dTfl irpo^/c, -e&c, ^, an aetton. irpo^epxofiaiy to come to. 

pality, 90. vpooc 3, mild, 63. «rpofi/KM^tiBbeooming^M. 

wo^re^, to goyera I3ie irpimt^ to do, act; wp&r- irpo^KiaVj becoming, 188. 

atato *, Mid., to live as a ra, irparrofuu r«MX ä^ nßoatffttuvu, to reveal, 1-66. 

citizen, to govern the yvpiov, to demand of irpoa^evt before; w. ^ 

state. one; w. adv., 89. [f 24]. 

ifoTuTtfCt -w, Ö, dtiaen. «y»lfF», it is becoamog« S4. fpp&^e^ 8, artificial, 175. 

wbSutik9C 3, relatiag to frpi9ße*ti **U ambassadors. vpo^Kwea^ w. a., to wor- 

the itate, 166. fr/9e(7/9evf^,-o9,6^amba8- sliip, honor. 

woX^oxif, often. sador, 191. irpo^oSoCf ^, approadi, 94. 

woXXafT^Maioc 8, many npeüßv^j "teta, -v, old. frpocmirrwj to fkH npon, 

ti9Mft more. irpiaa^aiy to bay {§ 139, occnr, 87. 

^woXXoit many. [Init. p. 165]. frpof7rvew,to breathe npon. 

noAvdevcf^f^ '•ovc, 6t Pol- irp«v, before; w. inf., 106; frpo^otiu^ to add to; 109. 

moXOKotpavUif i^, the rale vptv kv^ w. snbj., 88. irpocri'^fUy to add. 

of many. irptu, to saw [Pass, w^ icpoc^^epa, to bring to, 80. 

ifoXü2j6yoc 2, loqnadous; <r, ^ 96].' nporepo^ 3, before, sooner. 

«rvAvffwof 2, Ifiborioas. Tcpoaipeo/tatf to prefer. irpori'&fifu, to put before^ 

■t«A.if, much, 68 [f 48]. wp^arov, t6, sheep. 159. 

^t^vti^euif if, oosdiliess, wp6yovoc,'6j ancestor. irporpHo, to turn to, 41. 

136. irpodiSafHf to betray. irpofifte^ to prophesy. 

Wfvr€Hfei€»t T9, €oart of ^cuby, t^, a dab. 9«eAAA>,t#di3r op m4S|9l< 

jtttciee M Athens. ^*f^f*oct ^> rhythm. ütugvrpoPt ro, aoeptro. 

irpuiof 3, early. fiwna^ to diog [Char., mta, i^, shadow. 

l^NM-or 3, first H^»S]. avO^por 3) dry, 121. 

«To^, to soeeae. ^uwvfu, to atrofigthen OKoJUof 3, crooked, 88. 

«TOM», to strike agaiiist [\ 139, (e), %]* aicoiri», -Myvoi, to behoU, 

[Flsss with ff, f 95]. consider, 

irrcpov, ro, wing. 2. «KÖroc,6andro,dailaMii 

wr^v^, -yoc, ^, wta|^ SoA«^, 4vor, if, Salamis, aawirrw, to joke, 59. 

miaau, to pound [Char., aäXfriyi,'iYyog,^,txam:peL v/uujf to smear ICoBt, 

4 105, 1]. oa^tC«, to blow a tnua- 4 97, 3 ; Aor. Fobb. h- 

irruxoct wry pow, 56. pet [CharM ♦ 105, 4j. fi^x^ifv]. 

Uv^ayopof, -uv, 6, Pjrth*- wUtmlt^^, -o€, Ö, tram- vo^ia, 17, wisdom. [44 

puras. IpMt peter. ao^unij^f -ov, 6, sophiil, 

fnfKvog 3, namerons, com- läfuoct 6, Saaian. £o^Ai^f, -love, ^» Sopb- 

wv^, 1^, gate. ZapdavanO^, i, Saida- odes« 

irvvi^ttvo/idu, to inqoire m^^wlas. ao^3,wiBe. 

[4 121, 15]. Xapdetc, -m)v, a/, Sardis. ffirovi^, w. g., to be a 

irvp, irvpof, ro, fire. 2apof, ö, the Sanis. want 

irtip/of , Ö, tower. rap^, trapKoc, k, flesh. ovrdvic, -m»; , 9, need, M. 

irvpow, to bum. crarrA), to load. avuvU^, ado.^ mrely, 16& 

w^ (enclitic), yet 00^» -^) dear. Siroprv, 9, Sparta, 

iru^w, to sdL ov^Y dearly. Z^ropridrff , -ov, 6, Spff' 

ir^^rore, erer. aßevvvfUf to quendi, 163 tan. 

flr6f ; how? £4 139, (b), 4; second InaprtaTuco^, ^Mrtas. 

Aor., 4 142]. ovoci), to draw [4 98, (a)]» 

P. <r^/3ac, ro, respect, 47. tnreipQ^ to aow [Pf. lov»- 

T({diOf 3, easy. eißofuUf to honor, 31. pa; AorJ^assiowä^j. 

fi^i(^, ado , easily. asiCftog^ d, earthquake. owevdu, to pour libatioosi 

fevfio, -arog, to, stream, aeuii, to shake [Pass, with Ifid., to make a tm^. 

Aeu, to flow [4 116, 3]. ffs S d^]« oirevdu, to hasten, 17. 

TEO, see ^fU. ai^, -aog, to, splendor, airovda^u, to hasten, be 

fiiywfUj to tear, break o|fia,r6, sign, monument lealons, 131. 

[\ 140, 9]. a^/taivw, to give a sign, oirovdoioc 3, aoalons, 84 

fi^fia, 'QTogy TO, word. 09/ueZov, ro, sign. avovdau>g,adv^MioakmB\ji 

^rup, -opof , 6, orator. oiyw, to be silent 63. 

fiiyog, -ovf, ro, cold. 9177, i, silence. oiravd^, 1^, zeaL 

fiiyoUf to be cold [Cont, aH^pog, 6, iron. arayuv, -ovoc, i, drop, 9i 

4 97, 3, (b)]. civairi, -eof, ro, mnstard. OTodtoVf to, stadium, 131. 

Pinreu^ to throw. of ro; , 6, corn. OTO&ft&g, 6, a station, 71 

fiwru, to throw. aumatj, to be silent ^dC<u« oroAo^, to triekb 

^C, /(ivof, ^, nose. euiirn, n, silence. [Char., 4 105, 2]. 

^V>, /^iTTOf , if, reed. oto^Ti^^f 3, silent eraaiai^ to rerolt, be at 

PododoKTvXoc 2, rosy-fin- oico^of, -ovf , to, trendt vadanoe, 87. 

gered. OKeSäCu, to scatter, 124. orttO(Ct-«^»^>fiM$tioD,U. 

f6dov, ro, rose. UKedävwfu, to scatter ara;)^,-voc,6,earofooa. 

f>M, ^, pomegranate. [§ 139, (a), 4]. orey«, 1}, roof, hous. 


tff^SUU», to seBd {second r^^, tobeconsdoiis; a, ovveifu, inf. ffvvtevai, w. 

Aor. POis^ ^ 102, 2, and rtvt, to pardon. d., to come or assemble 

4114]. ävyyv6fun>, '9Vf w.g.^'pat'- with. [qnaL 

erevs^tf, to sigh [Char^ doning; (2) agreeing owe^ofwioOi to make e- 

4 109, 2]. with. (Twemöidtifftiy to give up» 

wripya, w. a., to lore ; w. avyypu^y to deseribe, 72. 162. 

d, to be contented with. ovyKVKwa^^xi confound,106 etnfepyo^y 6, help^. 

0fepiv Tiva rt, to deprive ovyxaipQ, to rejoice with, avveai^, -eb^f ^y nnder- 

oneofsonMtyng[§122, ov>xecj, to poor togedier, standing. 

16]. [of. 133. ew^Toc 3, sensible, 72. 

arip9ftmt to be lAeprived ovx^t ^» fig-tree. <n;t>^»a,^,intercoarse,22. 

arepUiKity to deprive of ovkov^ to, fig. üvinMirro, to bury with. 

[4 122, 15]. 0«%aw rtva n, to deprive oin^^K^, ^, treaty. 

eri^avo^y 6, crown. one of something. ffvviarrffttj to put togeHier. 

OT^Xfiy if, pillar. ov^^a^duvu, to take with, ovweoy to spin with, 162. 

0Tnpi^o, to make Arm sehe, 107. o6voiday to know with; 

[Char., § 105, 2]. SvAXaf , -ov, d, Sylla. ifiavrQ, to be conscions. 

«rt^u, to prick [Char., avAAe/«, to collect avvTurra, to arrange, 122. 

4105,2]. cr^XAoT^f, <S, assembly. ovvrpr;i^cj, toranwithone. 

üTok^y ify robe. avußalvnj to go with, 136. awrvyxavu, to meet with, 

trrbiM, -arof, ro, month. ovftßovXevoy to advise. happen. 

OTopevimftiy erropwfUy to av;*j(3o»Xof, 6, adviser. ovpiy^, -^yyo^t J^, flute. 

spread out [4 139, (b), 5]. <7v/u/cca;t<<<, ^, alliance, aid. ffvpi^iu (ffvptrrQ), to wfais- 

orparevfMf -arog, to, ar- ffvfifiaxoCi 6, ally, 106. tie [Char., 4 105, 2]. 

my, 72. trvfiwciCt all together, 72. Svpof, 6, a Syrian. • 

arpareixd, to make an ex- avfurtfyvvfit, to join to- <ri;p<.>, to draw. 

pedition, 81K gether, 172. ^f, <rv6c, 6, 7, boar, sow. 

üTpar^yoCj 6, a general. üVftmva, to drink with. ovaKTfvitj, to tent with, 

orpana, ^, army. <n;/«ir/7rr«,to fell with, 142. eat with, 

(rrpanwnyf, -ov, 6, soldier, ovftirovio, to work with, a^^u, o^tth, to kill 

orparoircdeCro^a^, to en- 107. [142. [Char., 4 105, 2]. 

camp. avfji(j>ip<a, to carry with, o^alpa, ij, ball. 

arparoitedov, to, encamp- ovfL^pa, If, an event, 138.* <r^2Jko, to deceive, 113. 

ment, encamped army, avvayuvt^ofzai, to contend, o^odpa, very, 147. 

oTpatof , b, army. with. a^Spoc 3, violent 

ffrpt/?AÖ6), to torture. avva/po^at, w. g., to. take atpif^u, to throb [Char., 

<n7)e0<i>,totnm [Aor.BEiss. part in. 4 105, 2]. 

iüTpatftrfv, iarpe^iiv ; avvarcoXkvftt, to destroy Gipvpa, ri, hammer. 

Perf. Mid. or Pass., together, 163. [124. (T;^aa>, to loose [) 98, (a)]. 

4 102, 6]. avvapfto^ij, to fit together, <T;foÄaf aj- 3, lazy. 

arpuvvvftt, to spread out avvienrvog, 6, tablc-cora- ffwCw, to save, 52 [Perf. 

[4 139, (c), 3]. panion. Mid. or Pass, aeatjafiai j 

irrvyeu, to hate. ain^eofioc, 6, band ; con- Aor. Pass. kaCt-^riv]. 

2vßaptrrfCt -ov, 6, Syba- junction. [142. li^Kpiirri^, -ovg, 6, So- 

rite. (nvötarpißii, to live with, crates. 

mryyiyvuffKo, to think avveifii, inf. owdvaL, to aofia, -aro^, to, the body. 

with, agreia with ; kfiav- be with. auTtip, -vpoij ^1 preserver. 

SM aBUK ASD wMmäam roQäMü%AWi* 

mar^piat it praienr«taoii. rim^ -I/Qf» ^» giiihnp- MU. -a^K«v ; B«.^p^ 
tu^^pwet^ to he of soiad per. f^v ; irpoiiw, -«foiv, 

mind, 165. rßxvaoftat, Dep^lfid, to ktpamtv ; Ff. Act n- 
ay^poainni^ 9, modesty, 59. oontrive. r^o^ } PI JGd. er fMk 

awf^pwts WIM, 36. r^;pr9, ^, art rirpafAfiaiy s 102, &, «]. 

r«;p^2r«c, -«v, i, «rllit r^^» to nourish, 3d [Fot 

T. r^iccj, to meU, U». ^^r^; Aer. I^9pet|w; 

T«Aoi;rov, rö, Uüenl (» T^A^fd^DCATelemachaek Pf. rerpofa, k^^h 

iroight). rv^ptiro«^ so lei^ 67. Pf. Bfid. or Pen. rei»' 

raXay)QC, 6, little basket niXov, &r. fiOHMi^ ibid., 6; Aer. 

r«Xac,-aiv«,-av, wretched. rt^/M, 17, twhea» Peas, krpi^ (seUbn 

TavraXof, 6» Tantalot ri^nfUt to plaoe, U9 > y»> ^nP«^«^)]. 
ra^iC, -ew(, ^ order, 121. ftovcri^eff^oh to mako rp«;t<<», to run [f 196^ ft], 
rcureivof 3, low, hnmUe. l»w» [i 133]. r|^«, to tnmble [^(^l^ 

rmreivÖMy to hmnble. rt&^, ^, nuse. t^P^«> to mb. 

Tv^rrw» to throw into rUra^ to heget [Fat re- Tfiugpint^^ßovCfiitanm^ 

oonfosion, 122. iofttu •„ Aqil irunv ; rpfC<u, to tkixf [Cflifft 

Topax^, 9, oonfiision, 122» Pezf. reroso]» ^ liOft« 2]. 

TuTTüf to anange» 122. rtfuu^ to honor. r/Mirovf, -odoc, tr^od, 145. 

ravpoct by boll. [40. Tkiti^ ^ honor. Tpoi(rfV9 -9voc» i^> Troe* 

TovroXo/to, j^, teototogj, rifuos 3, honored, 56. asne. 

r&^poc* ^} gnve. Tifiupeu, to help, 168. rpovaiov, to^ troplr^ 

rdj:a» qniekly, 131. r^^owpui, ^, ponisfament Tp^9r9r,^,wa^, manner^?. 

raxi^y quickly. rtviu, to expiatSi pay rfm^^ h luxury, 2S. 
raxfKt -<wf» r6, quickness. [^119,4]. Tpv^r^Ct -^ ^ Im^ 

rouf, roQ, 6^ peacock. rirpuoxA», to wound [fl22, lions, 94^ 
re — Kcu, both«-r and, 44. 16]. rpuyu, to gnaw [Fat. r^ 

Te/ea, 4» Tegea. r^vtu, to beer [4 135, 7]. iofuu ; Aor. irpgftiti» 

Ttivu, to stretch [P£ re- roi, indeed, 136. rv^^^^» to obtain [^Itl} 

riUca ; Pf. Mid. or Pass, roivw, hence, therefore. 16]. 

4 113]. rotof 3, of such a nalure. litfißoQ, 6, tomb, 

reipu, to wear out, tire, 22. rÖMwroc 3, such [\ 60]. r^irro, to strike. 

relxofy -ovf, to, walL roXficua, to dare, 106. rvpavwf,-Moc,7,t]fimy< 

reKfioipu, to limit To^evfM, -arof, ro, arrow, rüyxxyvof, 6, tyrant, 91. 

TeKvoVf TOy child. ro^uc^, 17, ardiery. 'rvpßVf ^* erowd, bustte. 

reXevroZof 3, last. ro^ov, toj bow. rv^^^, to make bund. 

reXevra6>, to end, die. rmrof, 6, place. r6;tV, ^ fortan^ 23. 

reXevTTf, ii, end, death. ToaoHro^ 3, so great [4 60]. 

rsAecj, to accomplish, 107 rore, then. T. 

[4 98, (b)]. Tpayucoc 3, trsgic; Tokiv&oc, 6, hyaoBtk 

rlAor, -^'Vf, TO, end, 131. Tpayoc, 6, goat 4^^efv,w.a.,to behängt 

re/ivca, to cat, divide, 130 Tpay<ftdia, 7f, tragedy. ty towards one, to msl- 

[4119]. r^eCis, 1^, table. treat [5L 

Tepacy -aroc, to, wonder. Tpimj, to turn ; Mid., to ^ßpi^t 't*Kt ^ iasoleiM^ 
ripwo, to delight, 34. torn myself; (2) for ^ßpiarff^, -od, 6, insolait 

Ttrpaiv0, to bore [4 HI, myself, i. e. to put to man. [besMi- 

Bem.2]. flight [Aor. Irpeifa; iryuUvoy to be in 9»^ 


^dopy TO, water [4 47]. ^ assert [§ 122, 17]. ^aCu» to say, tell, 194. 

let, U rains. t^avXoCf bad, evil. ^/t^v, -evof, ^, niin4, d(w 

vißCf d, son. feidofjuuy Dep. Mid., w. g., ^poviu, to think, 107. 

imucoof <v, w. d., to obey. to spare. ^povTi^Of to care for, 97. 

inrofix^^ to be «t hand, to ^iva§y -äKog, by impostor, ^povrlc, -Idoct ^, conemi, 

be, 41. ♦epeirt/iJ^f, -wf, 6, Phe- 39. 

iwefurrn/Jtiy to remove ; recydes. ^pvyla, 1^, Fhrygia. 

Mid., to go or oome ^^,tobear,23[.§ 186,6]. ^pv^y-'^oc^6t&Vhxyffi^ 

ont from. fevytt, to flee, 17 [^ 1 16,3]. fvXax^, 7;, guard, watclk 

iirepa^oi^v^u, w. gen., ^9/tU| to saj [\ 126, 7 ; in- ^vXa^^-nogy o, agnard,fr|l. 

to die for one. flection, ^ 135, 8]. ^Xarrv, to gvard» 34 1 

inrcpdx&ofuuy to be mnch f&hvuj to aatioipate, 136 Mid., w.* a., to gmmA 

grieved. [^119,5]. against sometbing, ISS. 

imtpßaXki^y to thaow b&- ^€ipi*^ to destroy [MUi fvcrifta, -arof, r«, breaA. 

yond, exceed. Pf. Act l^i^opa; Pf. ^va<c >ff«)r, i^, natu«. 

imepßaaia, if, trespcwik Mid. or Pass, if&ap- ^rsva, to plant. 

^9|sei|H^vw2,haagbtgr,lia ftai; Fat. Pass. f9«i^ fvu^ to bring Ibrtb, at 

iftnpopcM, to look over, ffo/uu apd second Aor. ^ 149, 10]. 

4ode8pise. Pass. l^4fHm in lbs ^ve<j, to produce« soviid, 

4«r^p£^v, haughty, 86. sense of to perish]. speak. 

imiperit^, w. d, to «id, ^ovoq, 6, mvy« f*^ ih voice. 

serve. ^laXtf, if, drinkiog'Cnp. fup, ^apoc, 6, ihiipf. 

iintrxv'^^h to promiffs ipiXav^povoc 2, philaa- ^, i^<jro$^ ro, ]|ght. 

[4 im, 8}. thropifi, 43. 

firiMar, 6t sleep. [iag. ^<^^, to love. X. 

imoypapnt ^t pm(» pwitr ^Xia, if, friendship. Xbivo, to yawn, 130. 

int^fif^tfH -ATVc, TO, sauf ^iAiOf 3, friendly^ ;t<x^pWftorq]picekU{4129r 

dal, 108. ^XoKepd^, -ir, fond of 24]. 

ifr6i&eaic, «ewf, i^, hypo- gain. xf^^^*^* to loosen [4 98, 

thesis. ^i>a(Mx&vCf .'ki fond of (a)]. [S9. 

imofävo, w. a., to await, lesermng. x°^''^^ 3| 1n>nblesome» 

endure. fM^evo^ 2, hospitable. x^^^^^y odo., with dtffi- 

iiro^/Ki), to endure. ^tAo(ro^u,to philosophise. culty. 

iyitoxf^pk^, to go baek. ^of , 6, a friend, dear. xaktv6g, 6, bridle. 

iHnepaioc 3, following. ^ikoxpnt'oawrfy if, avarice, x^'^^^y ^y brass, 

i^orepof 3, later, following. 0AvC<u, to babble [Char., ;t^^eof 3, brazen. 

if^va, to weave [Teif. 4 l^i 2]. X'f^^y gnfßUhA. 

i^yKa ; Perf. Mid. or ^/Jeu, to frighten, 109. ;i^aptevr»c, gracefnll^r. 

Pass. HfpatTftai]. ^o/3of, 6, foar. x^'^^l*^^ to gratify, 37. 

*^of, -<wf, TO, height, 48. ^ivUeoc (ovf) 3, purple. A:«P*f> -*™f» 7> favor, 39. 

ii|w«, to eisinita. ^ram, to go to and fra ;i:^<'x<>') to yawn [4 122, 18]. 

^evg, -«i)c, ^, murderer. x^H^^r "^of > ^1 winter 

^. ^vevu, to mwder. ;t^^» -PPf » ^* ^uuul Ü ^1 

4ArO, see e<7^M^. ^ogt b, murder. Bern. 2]. 

^vu, to show, 121. ^opßff, if, pasture, food. x«H>ooftai, to subdue» IMIi 

foM^, erident, 168. ^opio, to cany. TCß^^Vy -^^^y h^MwtSkm, 

^a^fuuiw, TQ, Twaiidy. ^P/^tyS* -tyyoc, fh kaip. x^f ^ poor [4 116» 8]. 



TCnpoQy to deprive of, 113. ;tP^<J, to anoint [Pass. iffewmjCt -ov^ 6, liar. 

X^eCf yesterday. with ff, ^ 94, 1]. V^i V'^vof» *» wa^. 

;i?^cM', -ovof, 1^, the earth, xP^^y ^» time. ^^tofia, -aro^, rb^ de- 

133. ;f/weytov, ro, gold. cree, 160. 

^<r6v, -wof , Ä, coat XP^^i ^» gold. V^T^» ^» the soul 

X^i -ovoci ^1 snow. TCP^ff^oc (<wf ), -^tf {^), -ew V^AT^f» -<wf» i"«! cold, 
yoevf) ;t^ri ^1 measnre,44. (ovv), golden. 

Xoipeioc 3, of swine. XP^^i -arof , ro, skin. O. 

^oXoofuu^ to be angry at. xp^*^^^f^t to color [^ 139, 'Qcdi; (^), ^, song. 

;^Aoc, 6, anger, 172. (c)]. Mh», to push [§ 124, 6]. 

XopevOf to dance. AT*^«» i^» country, region. &KvCf -eta, -^, quick. 

;top6r, 6, dance. ;t<>^p<rt w. g., separately, öfto^t 6, shoulder. 

X6of to heap up [Pass. apart from. ^eo/«a<, to buy [Aug., ^87, 

with <r, § 95]. x^^^M^* ^t separation. 4. Comp, irpiatr&ai]. 

Ypdo^t, to nse [496, Rem.; &vtoc3,for sale; rä&viOj 

Cont-, f 97, 3, (a)]. ^. wares. 

Xpaoy to give an oracle ^ai^u,w.g.,totoach[Pass. i&f,a8,wheii,how,beeaiM; 

[f 96,Bem.; Cont, §97, with <r, 4 95]. ^ r)a;t«^<if u soon as 

S, (ü)]. -^^y tomb [Pass. wither; possible; with indefi- 

;tp<M(, )^, n^ed, 22. [2]. Cont, f 97, 3, (a)]. nite numbers;— that; 

Xpi, it is necessary [f 135, ^eyu, to blame. in order that [4 181]. 

;)^p^(u, w. g., to be in want i^ev^Cf -ki A^lse. ^S^ep» as, just as. 

XP^Ita, -aroc, r6, a thing, fevdopKoc 2, perjured ; r6 fifre, so ämt 

property, 41. fjfevdopKov, perjury. o^eXeiOy ^, adTantnge. 

Xph^f^f^j useful, 56. y^etk^of , -ovf, to, a lie. ^^A^u, w. a., to benefit 

Xp^(TjUo<rvvi;, poverty, 39. ^evdc», to deceive, 47; Ä^Ai^of 2, useftiL 

Xpfl<rroc 3, useful, 41. Mid., 89. 6^, <^^» ^t eye, comtto- 



The numerals after a Greek word, denote the pace where the meaning of tht 
word is more fully giren, or where another word of the same signification may 
be found. For the proper use of the prepositions, the student wül depend piin- 
dpally upon the definitions given in 4§ 163 — 167. 

A. ableftobejdvmx/iae,/«^», abyroad, to trwel, df^oA^ 
Abandon, iKXeiiro, irp^ oloc ff f^f^t ^X**- f^^- 

XetTfo, KaraXeivf^y im- abolish, Av6). absence, in the, &kup. 

XeiirUf ä^cjjfti. abounding^ in, ei^op9c 2. absent, ätrov. 

aWlity, d<fvafuc, -e«f, if. about, irepi, äp^i. absent, to be, &irei/u. 

•bide by, irapofdvQ, kitr- Abradatas, 'AßpaSäraCy abstain from, &irixp^. 

/«ÄH». ^, 6. abondanee, hfe^U, f 

acoompany, ivoftai. adorn, KoafUny äyaXKu^ Alcestis, 'AAx^arif, -lop 

aooomplifib, Hspya^ofuux äoicio, and -w)oc, 17. 

reXfcj, diar.f irepalvu, adorn with (invest), äft^ Aldbiades, 'AXKifiiaS^c^ 

itvvu; to accomplish, as ^levwfu riva n. -ov, 6. 

a joarney, Karavvu i sw Adiunnm, 'Adpavov, to. Alexander, 'AAifavdpof^A. 

to effect, Siairparrofiot. adult, reXeto^ 3. alike, dfioioc. 

according to, in accord- advance, 7rpo/3a£vw,6p/<aa. all, iräf, dTrdf. 

anoe with, «ara. advantage, u^eAeio, 17, dv^ alleviate, hrutov^iCa ; to 

aceoont of, on, did, iir^, i^atc» -£<^t V- alleviate, as grief, i^epa- 

Ivexo, i^rcp. -^ an, uya^ov, to ; ad- nevo. 

accoant, on this, 6iä tovto. vantages, rd äya&ä. alliance, avfjifiaxia, ^. 

aocnse of, ypatpoftai, Kani- , for the, of, irpog. allow, kw. 

yopeUf öiütKu, advantageous, XP^<fif*oc 3, allowable, to be, i^eari, 

accoser, Kar^opoct ^- XPV^'''^ 3» ^e^ifiog. ally, an, avfifMxoc, 6. 

accostom, i^Ku. advice, ßovX^, 9, ßovXev- almost, ax^ioVf hXiyw 

Acheron, *A;fep«v, -ovtoc, fUh fo- ^eiv. 

6. advise, /^ovXevu, avfißoV' tHone, fwvog ; adv^fwvov« 

Acherusian, *Axepovaioc. ^«vw tlvi. already, n^. 

achieve, i^epyaCofuu^ 6uxr adviser, ovfißovh)Ct b, also, koL. 

. TrpaTTo/iai. Aeolus, AZoAof , 6. altar, ßufno^t 6, 

Achilles, 'A;^<^fvf,-icjf, 6. Aeschines,Ai9;t^v^-ov«6. alternately, h ftipet, 

acquainted with, to be, Aetna, AZri^, 9. although, Käv or ttdl ia»f 

olöOf kirlarafuu. Aeson, Alauv, -ovoc, 6, Ktuirip. 

acquire, KTaoftai, trpoc- Aethiopian, an, Al^ioft always, (lei. 

i^oLEUy T^ayxO'Vi^' ■ -ioiroCf ö. am (to be), elfu, yiyvofttu^ 

acquisition, Kv^atf^ -ecaf, ^» affair, npayiia^ to; b oe* imapxu^ ix^ w. adv. 

acquit, lLno\vuv, cupation, npäiiCf 9. Amazon, 'A^a^^w, -ovod 

Acropolis, 'AjtpoiroXi^f affirm, ^/<a. ^. [-ov, 6, 

-eu^f if. affliction, na&oqy «ot^f , to. ambassador, vpetfßetn^f 

across, passage, irapodoct afford^ irapix^^vapixofMU. ambassadors, 9rp^<r^e<c,o2. 

ij. afraid, to be, ^ßeofuu. amid, h. 

act, an, Trpdfi^, -eui^ ^, after, fierä. among, iv, irapa. 

npayfjia, to ; ^ work, afterwards, ^ireiTo, fieri' amputate, ärroTefivo. 

ipyoVf TO. ireiTa. AnaxagoraSj'Ava^a/dpoc, 

act, to, TrpaiTü, dpau. again, aMtf, vaXiv. -ov, 6. [0/. 

action, see act against, üvtU ifpoc» ^i.. ancestors, Trpoye/evi/^c^tHM, 

add, npocvoteOf irpo^i- AgamemnCNu/Aya^vuv, ancient, iraXcuo^ 3. 

t^9^£, iiriTii&Tffu. 'OvoCt b' and, xat. 

administer, dioiKeUf iroXi- age, rfTuKia^ if, 106. anger, ^P77) 1^, Af^^oC» ^< 

ret;(j ; to be an admin- ^ old, yvpof , -ooc, ro. angry, to be, bpyi^ofim, 

istrator, oUetJ ; to ad- Agesilaus, 'AyijaiXdof, h 6py§ ix*^- 

minister the govern- -dov, 6. angry with, to be, d;fÄ>- 

Taent^SLoiK£(j t^v ttoTuv. agreeable, ^Sv^, -ela, -v. ftai, 88. [f6* 

administration, good, e^ agriculture, yeupyta, if. animal, C^ov, to, ^piMß^ 

vofiia, if. aid,to render, /?09^ea),w.d. announce, dyy^AA«, 88. 

admire, ^avfta^cjf ayafiat, Ajax, Alag, -avToCt b. annually, Kaf hiavTÖv, 

108. alarm, to, KaranX^TTo. anoint, aXei^f XP^» 


p, AXAof «tange, diararru, üvv attack, an, irpof/5oÄ#, i 

«nt fivpfirj^t -Viof» ^- rarru, 124, 159. attack, to, ^flriri^e^, 1(1. 

J^atiaihmm^'KPTiwi^evtffy anogaat, ^ßpivr^, -w, asttempt, to, impuo^fiat; 

.«vf, 6. ifnepfpuv. » do, irMec». 

«^ one, rlf' arrow, ro^ntpta^ r6. attend to, ^({^X^^^ 

jmj thing, rl. Arsamiu, 'kpoo^iog^ b. ^povri^u. 

;flB7 where, mw ; ia a son* art, re^tv^, i^. Attica, 'Arriic^, i^. 

teooe with a nagaliv^ ArtazerxCB, 'Aprafip^, attractive, e^aptfi -tree. 

^Moftov. -ovy ^. auditor, iutpodTtK, -ov, i. 

«nxietj, see care. Aitem]0,'Apre/ucC)-2i5or,^. andible, aicovcrrdc 3. 

ApoUOf'AiroAJU^tr^-wwoc,^. artificer, ipywrrtfc^ -ov, 6, author, aZr«>c, 6. [i 

^pear, (^alvoficUf 188. ipyStrtfc^ 'Ov, 6. authority, royal, /SofftXeni, 

iqppetite, ytun^Pf -ipo^t i. aiüst, rext^rffff -ov, 6. ayail, dvva^ot, laxvo. 

i^ypoint, uTnSniafVfu ; « as, »f , ^firep. ararioe, fr^eovrfto, i^, ^ 

^Ipoint soraethiag t» aa long ai, Ibc. ^^xprifoo^j ^' 

one, 6p<C<Ui 124. as much, tooovtoc. aTttricioiis,9rX€<are«n7r,-«ii 

Afwnodoma, 'AsroAXodii»- as soon aa^ <^ räxiara. avert, a^f w, öfxvvu» a«o- 

pof, 6. 1^ well as, km^—koI. rpenu. 

^iprehend, avWXapßavo. ascend the throne,e/r/3acrt- avoid, ^«171». 

approach, to, nXt/via^ Xeiav KaTOffr^vai. await, npocdoca», ^«^ 

wpofeifu. aaeettaiii, iewi^avoftai. v», w. a. 

appmhatioD, domfmoiaif ^. afhamed, to be^ aldeofjuu, awake, to be, kypf/yopim. 

approve of, ivcuvia, 89; aiax^oftai. awaken, tyeipUf ivianifU'^ 

Arabia, *kpaßia, if. Ajy% 'Av/o^ if. »to afford, iropqw^ 

Arabians, 'Apaße^i oi. ask, ipuTau, alreOf 88. öavC«'. 

Araspa«, 'ApaffTToc, -o^t 6. a^nre after, 6^»^70^mm, w.g^ away, to lead, Awayo. 
A iwa d i an , 'Apcoc, -odor, ^ SiMeiP, w. a. 

Aicbegtratas, ^Apxearpa^ assert, fvA«» B. 

'vpy ^- assiftt, ifopttOT^oi, üVftr Babylon, BaßvXuv, -öftf, 

areheiv ro^ortic^ -ow, 4. irov«w, 175 ; -« to de- i>. 

archery, ro^iK^f ij. fend, ^/i^v». back, hiriaid ; go back, 

aidor, airov^, 1^, ^ftoft 6, assign to, Si6ufu. ävaxupeu. 

aignment, Aoyof, A associate with, 6/iiX^^ bad, «ucdf, mvifpoc, f»- 

Axiaeus, *Api€uoc, 6. avveifu. XoCt 82. [tv> 

arise (= to be), yiyvofuu. assured, to be (think), wh bad, the (abstract), Kuoft 

Aristides, *Api<ml67fiy -00, fti^f ^iofuu. ball, o^aipa, if. 

b. Assyria, 'A.<r<rvpiat ^. banish, ixßaXXu. . 

Ari8tippa8,'A/M(rrtflr9rof,A Assyrian, 'Aotrvpeoc, A banter, 9(^C<>>. 

Aristogiton, 'kptaroyti' astonish, KaravXtfTTi^. barixuian, a, ßapßapof, 6, 

ntv, -ovoQ, 6. As(yages,'Afrrva7ff,-ouf, baae, roireivof, Konocy «•• 

Aristotle, 'ApiororeAvf, A vtfpSc. 

"^^t b. at, wapa. Basias, Baaic^, -av, A 

anbatnent, <rT6h>Ct 6. Athenian, 'Ai^alof, 6. basket, icaveov, t6. 

anns( weapons), £7r^ to. Athens, 'Ai^vat, oi. bathe oneself, XovofioL 

«nny, arparia^ ^, orp«- Athos, "Ai^wf , -«, 6. battle, fMxVt h- 

'TÖf, 6. Atlantis, 'ArXavrif, 'M^, be, to» e^, yiyvofUUt iff^ 

ttoond, 9rep£, o^^l. 1^. w. adj. or adv. 


be with, avvtifu. beilegt, eitBpytaia^ i^, x^ lH>lt, fwx^i ^* 

bear ( carry )/^p4), ^op^Of piCt -irocy v ; to confer booty, Acmx, ^. 

ßoarUQu \ »^ endaro, a, eiepyerso w. a. bore through, rpvieou, 

rTJfiii ; a bring forth, bereaye, arepea, uirwrr. börders, fie^opuif rä. 

prodvLOOt ^Wfij* uvafOuj rtva rivoc, a^tpeofioi. homjtol)e,<^aifyiyv(iifuu 

tUtu. beside, npog w. d. both, ä/n^. 

beast (wild), i^ffpiov, ro. besides, in, v'knvy 145. both — and. Kid ^- ludy ri 

beat, «pbvu, 100. besiege, froAtop«^6». — xai. 

beoatiful, «coAoc 3; beaa- best, to be the, apiorevo. bonndaij, iripac, -aroCf 

tifar persons, ol KoXoi. bestow, dt^w/a» ^6i^<u. to, ftei^opta, t&, 

— , the, KoXov, TO. betimes, eirHc. bow, ro^ov^ to. 

beandfnUy, koXuc- betray, irpoötinfu. bowl, mixing, xpori^ 

beauty, tca^^t to, JtdAAocr betrayer, vpodoTti^, -ov, 6. "^po^, d. 

'Ovf, TO. between, /leTo^v. boy, neug, 6. 

becaose, 6ti, öiotl beware of, ^Xarroftai bmcelet, ^e^tov, t6. 

because of, ^la. w. a^ ebXaßeopai ti. BrasidaSjBpaotdof, -ov, 6. 

beooibe, yiyvopeu. beyond, prep.y inrip. brass, a:<>^of, 6. [4h 

becomes, it, vpo^u. beyond desert, irop' algiay. brave, &v6peloct yewaioct 

becoming, npotni^uv. bid, iceXevo v. a. and in£ bravely, ävdpeioc, yev* 

•— ^ it is, npo^tcei. bind, 6ea. vaioC' [^> 

befitting, ;irpocvKW. bird» ^Kt 'I'^og, 6^ ^, bravery, ävdpia, i^, aprny, 

before, irpo. birth, yevof , -ovf, ro. bread, dproc, 6. 

— (eonj,), vpiv, irpore- bite, <Jd«vw. break, (t^wftt^ diap^., kot 

pQv. bhick, fU^ 3. Taywfu, 100. 

beforehand, to obsore, blame, to, iXeyxo, jffiyo. — - up an encampment, 

npovoiu. blessing, a, äyäd-oVf to, äva^eiywfu, dpfiau. 

beg off, iiaiTfopai. evepyeala, ^. ^— in pieces, Siafifi^' 

beget, tUtu. blind, ac(;., tv^Xoc 3. vi^m. 

begin, äpxopai. — — •, to make, rv^AÖ6». breathe, frviuj iftrrvia. 

beginning, apx^, if. blood, oZ/uo, ro. bddge, to throw a, over, 

bdOklf of, in, ivep. bloom, d(ic/ui7, ii. C^vyw/u w. a. 

behind, 6niaü ; to leave bloom, to, ^iMo. bridle, x^^^o^i ^' 

behind, KoraXeiiru. blow, to, irvict. biiBiant, Xapirpo^ 3. 

being, to come into, yiy- blow, a, ttA^/^, if. bring, dycj, ^epci), «co^^u. 

vopai. blush, to, kpv^paivofuu, forward, as a charge, 

believe (trust), mi&oftai ; w. Aor. and Fnt Pass. KaTijyopeo. 

= think, ^yeofuUf vo- boar, Kanpoct 6. —- on, iirdy«. 

^Cci)> t'o«««: w. d. boastful display of, to to, irpoc^epo. . 

believe in gods, i^eot^c vo- make, kirtöeUwfu. ——up (= educate), «rot- 

fti^u. Iftai. body, the, tföfta, to. 6evo, TpS^a. 

bdieved, to be, ir£ffrevo> , in a (» together), brother, ädeA^, 6. 

belly, yatrrffPf 'epoQ^ ^. cvfiKo^. iMtite, ßboKfiftOy to. 

beloved, to be, see to love. Boeotia, Boicjrm, i^. build, Idpna, kti^u, 11^ 

benefiMtor, depyirtjct 'Ov^ boil, to, hffOt ^hfwfu. bull, Tovpoc, h. 

6. boldly, ^afif>aKeQ^. burden, ax^o^, -ovf, to. 

beneficeiiee, eifepyeoia, ^. boldness (of speech), va^- burdensome, ßapOc, x^"^ * 

benefit,to,<^^w,dvlv9/ii. (m^iny 4. ir^, hpyo^o^^ S8. 



hum^K4U>fififiir(nffHfl7\, cause (»aiFaira), «yiay- citizen, fro^r^f, ä. 

Imni down, «car«x«u<i>, «*> futf ro* cHj, iroXic, i^. 

raifXiyt^, kfimwptffii, canteriae, moU^, änoK. ckAr, (o ( » free from wild 

Imiyt dirrrw. oease, iravo/cim, dtoAe^npu. beasts), iitff^poQ; » 

iKriiliiin, l^yyoV} rtl^ frpöy* Cecropa» Keicpvyr, -omif , 6. pHfUy, iMi^aipv. 

fMf TO. Celaenae, KeXaevai, id. Clearchns, KXeapxKt ^• 

iMTt, M, &kXA. celebrate ( » pnüse), iiroi^ clem¥^ to, l;t<)^ w. g. 

bot also, <&XAd «co^ vew. Cleonymtfc^, KXeuvo^,A. 

by^ iiro, dw, irap6, ifp6f. — ^- ia song, ^(^, {>ftv6a. 01eopompiis,KAe69ro^irD(, 

celestial, obpävioc 8. 6. 

0. oeU, oUtSiov, r6. Clitns, K^rrof, 6. 

CSatens^ Kadpte^f 6. censure, ^e/ci», /äfi^fuü close (acQ), ^7>^c. 

calamity, irvxiot iy Kth n, fy#caX^. '— ~i to, «XeMi». 

icov, ro. centre, fJteooc 3, fievonifj dothes, i(rSvc, -vroci ^^ 

callftOyica^lWjdmfoT^epsi»» -irroc, ^. duster (of gmpes), jSi»' 

S^; « nan», ^oj^io^. certaliiljr not, or ne¥«r, oh rpvct 6. 

call to miad, fivtjfiov9(ffi ftij \S 177, 9}. cold, V^«or, r6, /^yof, rj. 

n. CbMiecnites, JSmpeKpih (adj.), V^icf»6r8. 

ChittiseinHyKaAA/^ofyA. nf^, -<wr, 6. collect, ov^eyiii, owior^- 

raJBmny, diaßoX^, ^. Chaldaeans, XoAdaloi, al. fu. 

oas (be sdble), &wafiat. Chaleidiaii, XaXxide^, colony, diroixfo, 9. 

capadty, dvvo^, 1^ ; in -eoCi i- combatant, di^AfTTf, 6. 

^ private, ISi^; ia a chance, r^xffj^' combftt, fMtxVt 9; to fln- 

pnblic, öjfftoai^ diange, to, fieraX^rrt*f gage in single oombst, 

GMiMhiaBa, KupdoüxM» fieraßäXXci, 58, 169. puvoftaxeo w. d. 

oi, a^ 'IOC* dMracter, rpoirof , 6^ i^or, come, ipxofiai, A^ufvh- 

cai«, iin^^ta, ^, ^pw^- -ovf , r6. /uöt ; »I hare oonMi 

TIC, -*<fof, ^f fiiptfom, ^, diaracter of I>dty, TäToi> am present, ^««. 

40» i^eo9. [v». — in or into, ek^PP' 

can^ tot, caiB for, take charge, to take in, A<^a- ftat^ elceifu. 

care for, kirtfähofuu, charge, to (»atfeadc),^«- come into existence, T^/- 

^povTi^, 27. Tid'Eficu w. d. voftai. 

•carefnl, to be (w. ]b£), chariot, dp/ur, ro. —• together, mn'c/^o/iat. 

^pottri^u w. g. charioteer, ijvioxpc, h. — -— to a knowledge 4 

canfally, hrifjuh&C' charm, Teprrov, t6. yiyv6<TKCi. 

■ carousal, irofftf, >«»f, ^. Cihannides, Xa|f^d9f , -ov, command (= office), ^ 

carry, ^«/xj, ßaarä^o, 6. xVi V- 

aboirt, irtpifepv. cheerftfUy, (fSktc- command, to, xeXe^ km- 

— — on war, noMfUa w. d. Chian, XloCf d, rdtTu, vpocr. ; of göi* 

— off, äjräyu. child, fltuf, 6, ff, TiKvov, erals, fl-a/Ba/ycAA«. 

Carthage, K€ipxn^<^> to. [-^. oommflnd, to be at one^ 

-ovoc^ it' choice (adj.), 9roXoreAi7f, napeifu. 

cast dbwn. to, /^(ffrii>. choose, aifM^o/mt ; ass will, commander, hciTOKT^ 

castle, dUftpa, ^. ßovXevofiai, i&iXo, 48. -^pof, 6 ; «= a genenlt 

Gataaa, Karrnnj, if. Cilicia, Kc^kmi, if, OTpaniybcy 6 ; to be ft 

eateh, i^pevci), äypeijia, cifeinnfetenoe,9r£pc^por, commander, dpsr»- 

Oancttsa, Kaiicä#oc, 6. 1^. commend, ^ffvcvl«. 

EirOLIf^H Aia> GREEK rOCABULAftt. dSl 

common, K0£v6f 3. conBtraction (botklin^), courage, apen/^^^^^f, A. 

common origin, avyyevfic^ oUodofiriai^, 'Ct^, if. courageonsly, ^afifictkUtC' 

-^. consult an orflde, /«ivr^i^ coorier, äyyeko^^ 6, i^^r- 

companion, iralpoCf h. oftai. po6p6fiogj 6. 

compare, 6fiot6o rtvl n, consame, avaXterxa. conrse, (^p^/ior, 6 ; e^jovr ' 

e£KdC<» Tev< re. contemplate, "^ttapea, ttHo- ney, 6d6c, ri. 

eeimparison with, in, irapa net». court, ^pai, ai 

w. a. contend (fight), fi&xoftai ; of justice, diKoorff» 

compassion upon, to hare, as in music, Willi des- piov, to. 

KoreXeeti riva. . tiny, etc., bpH^w w. d. cow, /3oiJ?, if. 

competent, Uavo^ 8. contentedly, very, abrap' creature, C<öov, to. 

complete, to, diaTEXio. KtoTora. credit, to, irti^ofuu. 

cemiptilsion, äwtyKtiy if. contention, Ipcf, -Mör, if. Crete, Kp^Ttf^ if, 

eoTtin£^^ iTotpocj 6. contest, fMxn^*h äyav, crime (i=]nsolence),^p<r, 

conceal, diro», KaTOKp^- -üvo^^ 6. 'toCi ^• 

r», Kev&a, 88. continue, dtareXhi^ dtayu. Ohias, KpiTiact -w» d. 

ccneealed, «cpVTrtdc 8. continually, dei, awtx^ ; croak, xpc^u. 

concerns, it, ^Xei. ako by diartXcQi witii crocodile, KpoKodeiXo^^ 6. 

concerned, to be, f^povtU the Part. Croesus, Kpoiffoc, d. 

Co "w. g. contrary to, iropo. Crotonian, Kporovtdftfff 

condemn, Kptva ; to dea(!h, contrive, fjufxavaofuu. -ov, d. 

Äi[i>6roi;. control, Kvpiebo w. g., crown, a, otS^vo^j 6. 

C0nibr blessings, e^ tto^Ic» Kpario w. g. crash, ^paio. 

Ttväy eiyepytTio Ttvk ; conrersation, «JtaXoyOf , 6 ; cry, a, Kpavyff, if. 

great blessings, ftey&ka == in9tmction,-6/ie%oa, ^. cry out, icpa^u, Avaic. ; to 

eirrpy. r£f a. * converse with, SiaXeyofiai cry out to, ßoäo ran. 

confide in, ktriTpiicOy ire- Ttvi. cubit, 7r^;tvf» -'«r. ^• 

frot^epm. convict, to, Me^ct^^» ^^^^* culture (:^education),ifac- 

confidence, to have, in, convince, n-e/i^u w. a. de/a, ^, miSevaLCf if. 

^aftfteu. cooperation, with the, of, cultivation, see culture, 

confine (— shut up), ko- ovvepyoUvTog tivo^. cup, «cvireXAov, to. 

TOKXeitOj Ka^ELpyo. com, fftrof, 6. [6. custom, l^oj-, -ovf, to, 

conformably to, fieTu w. g. ^, ear of, <rr&x^^, -«oj, ^of , -ovf , ro ; it is sn 

confused noises, ^pvßoty corpse, vkico^, -vog, 6, ve* established custom, vo- 

ol. [w. d. Kpo^^ 6. fii^erai. 

congratulate, ow^Softai correct (adj.), 6p&6c 8. Cyaxares, Kva^aprfCf -ovf 

conquer, viKau, 88. correctly, bp^o^. (ace. -^v), 6. [6. 

conscious, (Tvvetdb^c; tobe corrode, ^(n^i6). Cyclops, KvTr^oy^, -cjiroc, 

conscious, 9vvoi6a: corrupt, to, dia^eipu. Cyrus, Kvpof, 6. 

consider, aKoiriot voiUf CotySra, Korvopa, ro. 

138 ; be considered, vo- counsel, ßovXtft ^. D. 

fu^ofiat. country, x<^P<'^ TVy ^; one's dainty food, Ä^ot», to. 

considerate («s moderate), country, irarp/f, -Z<5of, ^. dance, to, Af^pei;», 6p;)fl9- 

ftSrptoc 3. — "» of the, belonging to fuu. 

, to be, (To^povhi. the, ir&Tpioc 3. danger, kivSuvoci 6. 

consideration, ^7£0/<6f, 6. —, native, irarprf, -tdoc, ^, to incur, or be is 

constittttionaily, vofUftoC' ff- danger of, KivdwiCQ. 


dan, To^^tatt, deUgfaliBir^irQyiaitttya^ deserve, ofcoc eliiL 

Darius, aaptloc^ 6. hffioi. deaerving, u^ioc. 

dark (» black), fuXac. deliTer, cuCtff ^iraXAar- *-~, to think, o^mu. 

darknesa, vv^, wicrof, i^. rw ; » to free from, desire, a, hrt^fua,ki ^- 

danghier, ^vyanfp, -rp^, kXevi^epou, §t^, -cwc, ^. 

^. — — <• np, f^afNldA<^tt(. desire, to, kiriiBvfuu\ s 

day, V^P^ ^* delivered, to be (>« to be wUhßovXDfuu^ — pnj> 

daybreak, at, &fM ifiip^. saved), vw^opM. vbxofuu. 
dead,d9rorei^«tff,ve«pof deUvenmoe (» safe^), desirable, aiper6(. 

3f to be dead, re&v^- aitTfipiq, ^ ; » freedom desirous, to be (»wish), 

Khuu. .from, dnoXvottt 9« MiXu. 

deal, a great deal o( «roAvf. Delos, A^Aof, i^. despair, to, anoyiywaiat, 

dear, ^UofS. demand,to(«: ask), aire«. ai^/xeu ; of onesdA 

death, i^avarof, 6. demean oneself to one, äiroyiyv^aKu kftavm. 

, to pat to, dirocreiv». trpoc^poftai rtvi ; kind- despise, ärifia^, «srs> 

deeetve,^fairara«, 47,108, ly to, ^*Xo^pavi^ ix^ fpoveu. 

lis. w. d. despised, to be, sara#o> 

decide, «piy», duxic., dio- Denu^ter (Ceres), A9/19- vioftai. 

yiyvüaKu. rup^ -rpog, ^, destiny, ^<fxi, 1^. 

— — - upon, i^ovXevoyiai. Demosthenes, äfiftoa^i- destroy, fi^e^, <fta^., <•* 

declare, avo^vofuu, aioh V9f , -ovf, 6. roAvu, dAAv/ii ; » 

69Ütvl>fu, deny, apveo/uu. overthrow, avarpn-M. 

decree, a, V^^/<^ ^0* depart, airri/a, dn-oAAar- determine («resolfe), 

deed, npayftOt to, I/d/ov, ro/xoi, ivepxofMu. ytyvuaKu. 

TO. departed {^ dead), diro- determined, it is, doul 

deem, vofu^ta ; to be deem- rei^KUf. devote oneself to ( »torn), 

ed worthy, diiovfuu, dependent, to be ( » be m- rpknofuu. 

deep, /3ai^. led),äp;t<y<^»^'V^^^/«M. Diana, 'Aprefiict -Moc, f- 

defeat, irTa^ 17. deplore, «Aom». die, to, i^v^cicm, atroi^'i 

defence (by speech), ämh deposite, ri^niu \ in some- TeXevrau. 

Xoyia, if. thing, hf rivi. *— — for, ^eparndviant' 

defend, ^^ttu ; to de- deposited, a thing, vapa- differ from, 6ta^epu w. g. 

fend oneself by speak- nara&nKfi, ^. different, dta^opoc 2; to 

ing, airoXoyiofiat; by deprive, arepw^ a^<upio- nm in different dire» 

force, or fortress, ä/iv- fuu, 113. tions, diadidpaoKQ. 

vofiai. derive ( = enjoy, e. g. ad- — from, to be, iutfepu. 

defendantjdTToAoyov/ievof. vantages), änohiva; difficalt, /?apvf, -£i^ -v> 

deformed (s disgraceful), derive gain, KepSalvu. d/voKoXog 2. 

aiaxpoq 3. descendant, iKyovog^ 6, 9. dignity (gravity), ßapoft 

degenerate, to, fxeraßoXi^ descended from, UyovoQ^ -nvc, to. 

hrl TO Konbv ^Mfißävu. 6, ^. dig throng itoftvmt, 

deity, i^eZov, to, daifto- describe, avyypa^. duuTKairrw. 

viov, to, ^eoc, 6. desert, beyond one's, frap' <^i^ig<mc^?^ anov^, 9.' 

delay, to, fiiXhj. a^lav. diligent, airovSaioc 3. 

deliberate, to, /?ovAevo/ut£. desert, to, «aroAeifrw, diro- diligently, oirovdoMif. 

delight, to, ei^paivo, Tip- ^yu. Diodoros, äiodupoCt ^ 

^'^' deserter, ^yac, -ddot, 6. Diogenes,Axayevff,-off,i> 



IMphridas» At^p£i$ac, -a, 6. distinguished for, hrifft^ dwi^ng, •/««a« i, viitatf 

direct, to, l^vu ; =* io- ftof 2. ö, oUfffiOf to. 

wards somethitig, tta- distarb, rapamtj ovyj^u. 

TetrHv» ; ooesel:^ rp»- distntiiaiice, rapaxff, v- B. 

wofULi ; « to BiaiMige, divide, fiepi^Uy y^f^t Mb- Each, fnaüro^. 

oUi». ravifßt^, each other, ä^tfXuv. 

disappeur, d^iCofuUf w. divine, ^elo^ 3. eager to learn, fiXo/up- 

Aor. Pass. divination, ftavnie^, if. t^f, -If. £2. 

disclose, *Jcic«Aw*rr«. do, irpuTTu^ iroUvj ip6i». ^— for honor, ^ikorlfto^ 

diaooBne, ^yoc, h. do good to, einotk* riva, eagle, äerocy 6. 

discourse, to, StdXiyofMi. eiepyeritj rtva ; do ear, o^f , cirof , ro. 

discover (» show), foitfci». wrong, äSucia, koköc earn, to (^^work out), 

discnet, ^p&vtfutg 8, 9W^ votitj. t^epya^ofuu. 

Toc 8* dog, «vow, «cvv6r, 6, 1^. earth, the, yij, ift X^^f 

disease, vooor, ^. domestic, 6 oIkoi. x^ovoc, h- 

disgrace, 'kvp.i^ ^. dominion, äpxn* (ft (ry'l*o- earthen, Kepa.jneio( 3. 

disgraceful, alaxpoc ^* vioj ^. earthquake, aettrfiod 6. 

disgrae^uUj, aiaxpätc. doori iN^ ^, irOA^, if. ease, ifovxia, ^. 

dishonest, novtipbc 8. doable-apeaking, SixpfL^b- easily, /^iijc. 

dishonor, Arifua, if. ^og 8. east, loc» -Ci») i^. 

diflhoDorable, t^doxp^ 3, doubtful, to be («fear- etajy^diocS. 

ÄtfCK^T) -er. ftd), ^ßeoftat. est, ka^tu. 

disoTder, rapaxhi i $ to Draco, ^paxtnf, -oproc, 6. echo, Ifx^t -o^Cy ♦• [4.] 

throw into disetder, to- draw, ovpu. edge, iaxaroc [^ 148, l^m. 

parr». draw up (of an army), educate,ira<(5et;G>, (^idaaxc». 

di^eli ^»». TaTT« ; (laws), ovy- education, iratSeia, ^, h- 

dispirited, to be, Mvftia. Yfi^^- daxTKaVia, if. 

dmjliiyyäwö^vofuujian' dress, tfrv^, if, lfi6nüp, educated, ireiraiSevfievtH:. 

deUcwfu. TO. effect, to (= accomplish), 

displease, Awapitnct» rtvL dMsft in, itfu^nhwiu. i^epya^ofiat. 

displeased with, to be, d;;t- dried up, iffK^ifKu^f -via, effeminate, to render, pta- 

^fuu. -Of. Xtuci^ci. 

dbposo ( «» arrange), rex- ddnk, to, irtiHji. efforts ( = by themselves), 

vaoftat. — -^ out or up, kKtnvti. xad' iavroic. 

disposed, kindly, e^twtf % drive, kXawtj. Bgypt, Alyvirro^, if 

dispositioii ( « feeling), away, äirekai)VQ, Egyptian, Myvirrioc, 6. 

y^üpof, if, ^pive^, al. inrm^ki. \^io. either — or, if — fj. 

ditsentbtt, dixporama, if. — in, el^eXavva, c£fQ- elder, see old. 

dissipate (» scatter), me- out, ^feA(H)ru. elegance (=gracefnlness), 

daCo>. drunkenness^ ^^, if. X^^c, -troc, if. 

dissolute, ^Kpär^, *if. during, Kara, kv. elevate, ii'ou. 

dissolve, «oroXw, ^«oXi;<i». duty, 6eov, r6, 167. eloquent, Xoyio^ 8. 

distance, at a, from, trpS- duty or part of any one, else, everything, <IAAoc, 

0)b>^ev. it is, elfti w. g. 'kotiro^ 3. 
distant, to be, from, <&9rl;tu. dwell, o/xew, vaui^; =to embassy, ^pe<r/7e<a, ^. 
distinguish oneself, be dls^ be, elfti ; «= be in, 9rp^ embrace, aeirasofuu. 

ÜQgwsbBd for, dtofipti, eifii \ » lie, Mlfuu. employ, xp^^V^ w. d. 


employwl in, to be im1- entraat, Uerew. Eaxmna Fdntoi, fiifei- 

oiuly, avwduC*^' entreaty, Setf^tg, -m>c, ^ ; iH>f Ildvrof . 

empty itself (of ft river), to gain release by, i^ even, «u. 

l^oAAu, i^*V/«' reo^t. — if, «a2 iov. 

flmnlation, ^tAori^cta, i(. entrust to^ kntrpina. — — now, ica2 vvv. 

encampment, arparovi'- enumerate, Karapv^fu», t ^-— though, koI. to». 

6av^ TO. onvy» ^ova^^ 6. eTemng, öeikif, if. 

— ^ to break up an, ava- — , to, ^i^wi» ; envy event, ovfi^pa^ ly. 

Cevyvvfii. [w. d. one somethingv or on ever (» always), ^. 

encounter, to, inmrr^ai account of something, every, «-de ; ^^^ qviagmt 
9U0onnge,napaKdXeUfVar ^^ovew rivi r«vof. iKoarog, 

pofiv^eofuu. £paminondäs,'En'a^(V(M/- eveiything, ww. 

end, TeXogt -otif , ro ; end, Sac, -ov, 6. everywhene, iravrd^«^. 

e. g. of war, /caraAvffiC, Ephesus, "E^vof, i^. evident,(5^Ao(-d,^vep6r& 

-ectK*« ^' ^V*^ poetry, woifiatc tG/v evidence, rcKfi^piovy ri. 

end of life, reXevr^ rov lir<M>, or rä iinj, evil, icaxof 3, irovifpoc 3, 

/9«ov. equal, Zoof 3. ^üAof. 

endeavor, to, veipaofuUf -— *-, to make, i^iaou. evü, aa, Kducdv, ro, csno, 

Dep. Pass. equivalent» to be, avra^ ^. 

endure, f ^/Xi^f iyifo^pia^ elfii. evil-do^ , Kcucovpyoc, 6. 

inroftevo. ere, wpiv. . esact from, to, Sirairht 

enduring, very, Koprepi^ erect, to, ipi^^ocj, i^«pi9)d» ; ri rivaf wparru ri ran. 

coc 8. as a statue, ävars&nfUj exalt, wl>6u. 

enemy, noXifuot, 6, kx- &vUmffu. [6. examine, If erä4»,i^fX{u. 

1^/iof, 6. Eretiw, 'Eperpie^^ -M»r, examination, iXeyx^t'n\ 

cnei^, Svvafuct 'eug^ ^. err, äfiaprawa. e« ddiberatioB, «^((i 

enfeeble, reipw, Kuräywfu. escape, to, äiro^evyu w. a. -e«»f , 9. 
engage with (of an anny), especially, ftaktara, exoeUenoe, «oAMrdxe^is» 

avfiiuywfu. establish, ica^iarrffu. ^f ^«ti7, 1^. 
in a naval battle, established custom, it is, excellent, Aya&oc. 

vavfiaxeo ; in single vofuCerai. except, vW^. 

combat, fiovofdaxeta- esteem, to, ri/uut, ^€pa^ excess (» luxury), rpßh 
enjoin upon, hreTiko. irew» ; -» value mudi, fnt ^ i excees in 1117- 

enjoy (==» taste), aTroXavtJ iroiiofuu nepl ttoWXov; thing, aaiXyeiOf ^, 

w. g^ yevofiai w. g.; socmsider, think, vo- exchange, to, /ueroA^r- 

allow one to enjoy (par- fii^a. ru ^ «» to exchangs 

ticipate in) something, •— ^ faappy,/Mucap(C^{9- one thing for another, 

fUTo&idiifii Ttvi Tivog. Xoq. avTiKaraXkaTTOfUu ri 

enlarge, irXarwu. esteemed, Ttfuog 8. rtvoc. 

enlist, (TVT/pa^wjintrans., estimable, 4f tor S. [^- exiAte, kyeipu. 

oTpareiHtfiai,. Euphrates, 'Rh^paTtfiy -ov, exclude, imtXtdnni. 

emidi, fr^oi;nC<i. Europe, Ei^pcjirv, 17. execute (»aecomplish), 

enslave, dovXou. Euryalus, Ei^pvaXof, h. hnreXeUt dcovv». 

enslived, to be, SovXewj. Eurysthenes, Eipvu&hnKt exercise, to, yvftva(<u, ^ 
enter, elcßäXXu ; -= to -ovf , 6. kS» ; = make trial << 

take a course or way, Enrysthen«, Ei/own^ewf, mipäofuu. 

rpinofiat 666v. -iug, d. exerose, Ä«cv«fi -««» ^ 


exhort, irporpfno, vapa- fasten, KXeto. fix (= determine), <5piCw ; 

KaXeu. [yiyvofiat. fat, wiuVy -ovoc. = to make firm, ir^y- 

63d8tenoe, to come into, fkte, fiolpa^ ij ; » fbrtnne, wfii. 

expect (=s hope), *Xfft<w ; rvxri. If. flagon, ;to«^f» * H *U- 

» look for, 4firo7rre(fo, fated, it is, etfiaprai w. d. flatter, xo^icevu. 

irpofdoKou. iadier, Tror^p, -"rpof, d. flatterer, KoXa^y -äKoc, 6. 

expedition, to make an, fiinlt, ä/iapria, i/. flattery, KoXwceia, ^. 

arpartvo. (kvor, x^P^^i -^OT» ^- flay, Sepo. 

experience, iftireipta, if. — — -, a, eiepyeffia, if. flee, ^evyo. 

explmt, wpäyftOj to. .^— on, to confer a, do to, away, dwo^ei/yo w. a. 

exposed to, see Btratagema. el iroiiu w. a., einpye- flesh, «peac, -ewf, ro, «rapf, 
«xpre8s,to,^pa(b,£K^vei>, rioyr. a. [oit^^- -P'tof» ^• 

diro^va, 160. ^, to receiTe a, rf iro- fling, fieirro. 

ttlent, iipt&ftoci 6j irX^ fear, ^/9oc, 6, 54. flock (=»herd), &y6Xif, 4- 

^of , -ovf, ro. — ~) to, ^ßioftatfSidoiKa, flonrish, to, ^aXXu. 

exterior, axftfiaray r&. fbarfiil, de<v6c 9; to be, flow, to, pea. 

extol, e/c ^oc i^tupk». ^ßiofuu. by, irtipa/tfiio. 

CKtrM>rdinari]y,de(V»c,lOO feet, irSSed öl. [xoCy ^« flower, a, av&o^f -ovf, rS, 
eye, b^aXftos, 6, ii^ow-oombatant, avftfuo- äv^efiov, t6. 

fetter, a, irS^, if. Ante, abXoc, 6, o^pty^^ 
F. few, bXiyoiy -«, -«. -*7yof, i^. 

Eaee, npoffcimvy, r6, ific^ field, &7por, 6, yvia, if. flyaway, dvafr^ro^f, ^xir. 

-e<iic, 1^. fight, to, pAx^f^f" foUow, hrofiai w. d., iffo- 

fidl, inXeiirUf wpoA., «a- fill, iriftirXfffjtty kfiMirXrfpu. Xov^ew w. d. 

raX.f hrtX. filled with, fuarbg 3, ir^$- folly (madness), ttavfo, i(. 
feir(=sbeantifiil),KaXdr3. prfc, -ec. fbnd of learning, ^(Xo/io- 
fkithfol, 9rt<rrdf 3. ffaid, eitpiüKo, 141. t^c» -be- 
fell, to, fl-iirr». fine ( =beantifiil ), Kokhc 8. fond of war,^cAoir6Xe;cof S. 
-^-^away,dnro-,irept^/$^. fine, a, tP^^'^'ra) ra, Oz/uto, food, ßpüfjuif rSy ßopSi^ i. 
— - back (■=> retreat), i^; to pnnish by a, C7- fool, /iupoc, 6. 

ävoxopiu. fiioö. fbolish, fi&poc 8. 

•^— upon, kfimimi. flr, mipiaf, if. foot ofl at the, *ir6. [yap. 

-^— into (of a river), eic- fire, irvp, wvp^f , ro. for, irp6, iir^p, fn*« ; (conj.), 

/3dAA<j, iftßäXXti. , to set on, ifiirirrprfftt. forbid, änayopevu. 

felsely, to sweer,^f opx^a. firm,/9e/3a{of 3-, stand firm, fbrce, military, dwa/uc, 
feme, e^KXetOf if, xXhc, iyirofihu. -eotd if- 

-lovf, t6 ; =s report, firmness, Kaprepia, if. — (yiolence), ßia, if. 

Softly if. first, irpöroc 3 ; adr. irp<*- — , to employ, ßiäl^ofjuu, 

femine, XifioCt 6. tov, irpQra, ra. forefathers, irpoyeyevrf/ii" 

Ikmons, eifKXeict '^i ^ first, at, h apxy. voi, ol. 

vepoc 3. fish, a, Ix^j -WT» *• forehead, /zeroirov, to. 

fer (of distance), ftOKpStv, fit (proper), hrcrlfdeioct foreign, äXXorpioc 3. 

nfXoO ; with Com.iro^i;. Uavoc 3. foreign to (= besides), 
far, so far from, Avri. fit, in a, of madness, rrX^v w. g., x^pk w> gt 
fare, to, irparrb), w. adv., fiaivofievoc, daifiovCw. I^u w. g. 

e. g. e^, to fare well. fitted (» of snch a na- foreigner, f^oc, h. 

feM» to hold, ix9f^^ ▼• ?• tore), rfnoixi}^. fbresee, irpoopao. 


forarer, <le< ; to be lb»- gam, to (« acqvire), «r»> ptftj), a^^'i'^t^ ^^ 

ever ( *= abide in), elfth ^M^ ; = get gain, «e^ ^«vu. 

diarpißu. [w. g. <la<Mi; to gain releoae, — tluoagh, ^cc^fljfi«- 

fti(i|^ Xop&avofiai, hrtX. k^aireofuu. »— • romid, irepittfu. 

i9nner(»old),ir<i^aiof S. gaUaat and noble, koXöc goal, r^p^ia, -«rif, to. 

forthwith, ri)v raxt^^^^Pft «o^ äyai^dp ; yewoAef 8. goat, oZf , -yog, ^ i^. 

<if ra;i^iara. g^>^ '^^KVVtf, ISO. goble^ «virsilXMr, m 

fortify, rei;t^tf . garden, «vfror» ^- God, a god, ^Mf» 4. 

fortone, Tv;rv, i^. garland, tni^avog^ 6, goddess, i^ca, «. [ri 

J good, eirrvxia, i- gannen^ Iftarifiv, T9, ^i^ gold, x^eor, ^ ^isniomis 

fodtonate, Maifiuv, r#ver, ^« ^- golden, xp^f^^f -^ ^ 

^'Tvxnc, -^C' gate, ffv^v, i^, ^t)^ i^ gone, to be, clxofim. 

-^, to be, ehrvxßt^i e^ general (comnoii), «ö(- good, Ay^^dog, mX6§ ; ol 

^aiftovii^ vog 9. iya^oiy the good; fi 

forward, to bring as • general, a, crpaniyogt 6. äya&ov, the good (ab- 

chaige, KOTTfYopey. generation of men, 7«- stiact). 

fonnd, to, «r^, M/>vw. vro, 1^. good wiH, eivoia, ^. 

fonndation, «pv^H*» -Ädof, generonslj, d^dvMc. gei^am, depart» w.g^4l^ 

^i metafbor^ ^efteXwv^ get oot of the way o( el»> ;t<' w. g. 

TO. KU Ö60V. government, noXireiOf ^\ 

fountain, fnfyif ^- giant, yiyac, -oyr^ 6. »a goremed |»oyinoe, 

friBbness, ^ro^aifK» 4. gift, dwpoy, ro. 4S[p;c9, ^. 

fxee^ kXeir^epoQ. gire, Sidufu, ri^/u. goTemor^s residenoe» oP" 

— , to, Ww, iXev&epoa. -— « sign or signa], <fv- a:«<w, to. 

— — • from, airoXvu, fiaivu. gracefol, ;t^pie<Ci ^^ 

freedom, ^Aevi^e^i«, ^ ; of — ^ one a share of any- piCt -Iroc. 

the state, airovofua, ^. tiling, fttradtdufd rm gne^xs\ly,x^H^*^*^»^ 

Qpe^nen, k^etr^epoit ol. ->— - a response, xp^ Ocaoes, ;tap<<rer» a^ 

friend, ^i^, 6, hpaar^^ baek, iacoSidij^. graciens, I^uf (f 90]. 

-oi^, 6. — — . way, MiSofU. grain, fftrof , i. 

friendshq), ^iXia, i- gladly, very (^ by. aH grant, to» ü&ufu^ itapijfi* 

frivojity, PadiovpyiOf if. means), 9rdvr<i)c. gMtify, ;i;a^^o/»u. 

frog, ßärpaxoci 6. f^ßeuvUfTFopevofjboUfnpoc- gratitude, eixapurria, ili 

from, ^0, 61c, vapä. eifUj 69. TG^Vi -^fog, ^. 

fruit, KopiroCf 6. ——about, irepißaivu, ifh gravi^, ßapog^ -onf, t«. 

fmits, first, unapx^h ^' 1^' great, iieyag. 

fngitive, ^yaf, -adof, b. back, dvc^iitpei». greatly, fieyaXog^ 6eiviK- 

fulfil, reXiuf. — away, aKeifu, aTrep- great deal, iroXvc- [«• 

full, fiearbg 3, irXijptfg, -eg. X^fuu, äiroßcuvaj olxo- greatness, pjsyt^oCi -^^ 

full power, h^ovaiot ij. fuu. Grecian, 'EXXifvtKoc. 

furnish, kirapKea. down (as the sun), Ckeece, 'EAAdf, -aSoCi i 

future, the, to fieXXov. KaraSifOfiai. Greek, a, 'EXXigv, -vvofi ^• 

— forward, rcpouvai. grief, Xvtt^, ^. 

G. -^— into, elasifu ; as a gnevous, ;t«^«'»'6f 3. 

Gain, KepSog, -ovf, ro, «riy- opntest, etc, hivu. grind, Xfiofvw. [i 

«f» -e«f, ^. , oyer (as to another gEound, the, x^'^* ■•**f» 


gross, /ceyoc. banghtj, ivip^puvt iire- historian, /«rropeoypa^,^. 
growiog old, not, äyvpf^Ci pn^voc 2. hold (have), ix^ ; hold 
' -iäv. have, ix^, KCKTiifKu, fast, ix<*ficu w. g. ; tain 
grow ap, ai/^avofuu, with head, Ke^aX% ^. hold of ^ » touch, eft- 
Pass. Aor. heal, laofuut iuieo/uu, gage in, effect), dsr»- 
guard, the, ^^^0x9, 9. health, ^/ieMi, 9. ^ai w. g. 
guard, to, ^Adrru, dia^. hear,d«ov6),cMcpodo^iW^. hold before, ^rpo^oA^. 
^— , against, to be on heart, Kopdia, if, k^^ «if- hold out (^ sustain te 

one^sguard,^Aarro^£. pof, ro; »feeling or attack), i^froar^mu. 

gniprdian, (f>vXa4i -Kog, 6. disposition, ifvxv* ^- holy, lepog 3. 

guide, a, ^yefiuv, -ovoct 6, heat, i^dXirof, -ovf, ro. home, oZicof, 6. 

nvioxo^i Ö. heaven, oifpavoc^ ^. Homer, 'OfajpoCf 6. 

, to, ii^vviJ, jcaretn^ Hector, 'Eicrwp, -opof, i. honor, to, TifteM. 

VQ, ffyiofuu. . heed, to take, ehXaßeofuu honor, rt^, if. 

guilty (=s wrong doer), rt. honor-lovii^, ^tAor^^ioc Sl 

äMKCnf. height, ^9^t *ovf * to ; as honorable, tido^o^ 8, co- 

Gyges, TiryiKi -ov, d. summit, ^po, ij. 7mq 3, ^vepoc 3. 

IQrmnasium, TroAaiar/Mi, i(. Helen, *£Aev9, 1^. honored, rtfuog 3. 

Bellas, 'EAAdc, -ä(5of, 1^. hoof, 6irAj7, 17. 

H. Helle, '^X^^, 9. hook, ayKiarpov, to. 

Hades, ^<$i7f , -ov, 6. Hellenes, 'E^ifvect ol. hope, k^vig, -idoct if. 

hair, ^pi^, rpixo^, i. Hellespont, 'E^pronroc, hope, to,iJX^C6>, IXmfia», 

halcyon, dhtvuv, -ovog, if. 6. horn, Kipag, to [4 39}. 

hand, ;tc^P> X^^P^* i- ^^^? of, with the, avv, horse, ^Tni^of , 6. 

happens,it,<rv^aiVM,rv/- Hera (Juno), 'Hpo, 9. host, ^ivof, 6. [8. 

;);avei, avfimirrei. herald, x^pv^, -««of, 6. hostile, iroAe^tof 3, ^;i:^/M$c 
happiness, eiSaiftoviOf if. Hercules,'Hpa#cX9f,^ovf,6. house, oZicof , d, oiieui, 4- 
happy, evSaifiuv. har^, dyeX^, ^. household, OMcof, ö. 
^, to be, eidtufioveu, herdsman, vofiev^, 'Sue, d, how ? 9ra>f ; in an indi- 

ei}Tvxi(^- voLfJOfv, -ivocr 6. rect question, 6woc; 

-»—, to esteem, /ua«capi^ci). Hermes (Mercury), '£p^ how much, 6<roc 3. 

harbor, At^^v, -evoc, ö. /e^^c» -ov, d. human, äv^ptnKwoc 3; 

hard (difficult), ;t<^^^ 3- hero, ^pur, -wof, 6. human race, rd yhfof 

hardship, novog, 6. hide, Kpvimü, äirox. [2. äv^pCncuv. 

hare, Xayc^, -w, 6. high-souled, fieyaX6nj;i>xoc humane, ^i^air^ptmoc % 

Harmodins, *Kpftodu}^, 6. highly, very, koI iraw. hunger, Xt^, b. 

harmony, bfiovoia, if. highly, to esteem more, , to, be hungry, wm- 

harp, ^bpfu^i -tyyo^i i- ^ep2 fieiCovoc voteoftai ; vdu. 

harp-playing, ffct^op^d/a,)}. to reverence or prixe hunt, to, ^pew. 

haste, anovSrff if. highly, ntpl iroXAod hunter (huntsman), #ih 

hasten, OTtevdij. rrotiofiai, pevT^Ct ~<^> b. 

hastfly, to flee, olxofuu hill, 77X0^, b. hurtful, ßXaßepbc 3. 

^evycjv [4'175, 3]. hinder, elpyu, [b. husband, dt^p, avdpoc, 4. 

hate, to, fiKTeu, kx^atpa. hired laborer, i^7f, i^rof, 

hated, to be, Ä7re;i;T^dvo^<. Hipparchus, ''l7nrap;tfor, 6. I. 

hateful, fuatfTog 3. lus own (business, posses- If, ei, ^dv, ^, A». 

haughtiness, {'/3p(r,-e<i»r,i^. sions), rd iavrov. ignorant, d^Mn^jTf, -if. 


8M sir«LisH Aim obbbk tooabülabt. 

Snen, votfof, f . imana, to be, fim iv ö/m i, jest, to, irotC«« mcumv. 

flk, coco, rd. Satftopou. journey, ^fUKt ^i d'of « i 

üfawtrkNM, Xoft^pof 9. inscribe, ypdf«». joy, x^V^ ^^ 

ladtKle, fUfthfuu ; » em- instead of, optU inrip. judge, a, «pcrvr, -ov, A, 

«lata, Cf ^M# w. A. inedl, htri^iffu. duutar^, -o», 6. 

inuBediatel J, e^^^, ir^p** iiistnict,mudevti,4fcdd0KO. -, to, «pcM», Amt. 

X^/ta. iBStnldioii, mudeioy ^ d*- jildjpaeat, to render, 6ir 

ilBinodenite, äMpar^Ct -^- SamcXia, ^j S/uXia^ 1^. koJ^u ; in Hie, o( irp6r 

immortal, k&avaro^ % insnAeient, to be, tpdeo^ w. g. 

Impel, irporptntt, h[**- JiqHter, Zevr, 6. 

impiety, ä^ißtui^ 4. inteüeet, yvüfuf, ^. [4- just dumof . 

Implant, kftfvrei». intelligenoe, vweotft -eof, justice, öiKaiomnnf,ff, don;, 

implaated. B/Mtöc % toteOigent, mfPtroc S, ^p^ 17 ; eonrt o^ diictftffi^ 

impose upon (enjoin), vt/ioc ^ ^Moy, ro. 

irpocrkrruJhn'iXXitwA inte mp erate, Axpitr^, -ej*. jß^i Sucaioc- 

iMpMaible, ASvporoc 2. intend to, ^AAm ; aboby 

Impoefer, f^Mrf , -d«or, 6. FuL Fart K. 

Imprudent, 4vo0f [f 99, inter, ^vrro. Keep,^; keep off; ^ 

Rem.]. intanoune wiA, ^^lUls ^/mu, äftvvofuu. 

Impon^ äü Mufno i fli w. d., if, Kooftivia, i. -^ oneself from, air^ 

in, iy. — », to bare, UMl, ^/u- /uu w. g. 

li onler to» by Fut Piopt, %fo w. d. mibch, nfpfo. 

or a final oonjanedon, intestines, rd hrof. key. «Aetf , JcXecddp, f 

as Iva, 4&r. intimate (of friends), ol- kid, IptfoC) d- 

iiactiTity,Äiipay]pio96Mf,4, kHoc. VSI^ amncrHw ; ^mtti' 

iipyiOf If, ßgoTuvtf, ^. Into, elf, der, ^eCa. 

■Mite^ lepoTphru. intoxicaiiott, fä:^, ^. kind, «iWtFf , -aw. 

incmase, to, itbiavofuu. intrust (oommit), hnrpf- kindly, to demean 0^ 

itonr danger, luvSwe^. iru. self, ^iXo^p6v€Jc ixp. 

ladMd, lap ; indeed— but, inrent, ehpimtu, kindly-disposed, c^Mvf» 

fU9 — &k, iuTention, ehpeatc, -eur, 1^. -wp. 

Mdidmebt, ypäi^$ #• inventor, e^peni^, -00, 6. kindness, ehtpytaia^ ^ ; 

indolent, to be, bicph». invest a d^, mputa^«- = &TOT,;r^fMr> -<ror,i 

indnstrioos, owovdoio^ 3. jimm ir6%fv. kindred, o^^tof, ^. 

tofbriois, Twreivdrcpoc, el. Invest with (« dotte), king, ßatnXev^, -ioc, h, 

inglorious, ddofoc 9. AftfUvvvfu nva rt. äva^y -exrof, 6. 

iiÄBbit, öhck». bivindbte, äfnxoc 2. kingly nature, ßamXin^ 

inimical, hc^poc & Ionia, IttvUt, ^. fySioc. 

injure, ica«drfrwi<i>,i3X^- irrational, df^iot^, dvder 9. }aaaw, ytyvuvMt», hrfmv' 

TQ tr. a., Mutitj w. ft. Island, v^üoc, v. ftai, otßa. 

injurious, ßXaßepic 8* issue, reXog, t6, Kor^Xv- know truly, hriarapttt. 

injwjt ß^^^i ^» C9^<>> ^- <r<r> '«•>r» ^- knowledge of, to oome to 

Injustice, ddixio, ^. Inwy, kXe^, -«vrof , 6. a, ytypwnco. 

Iimate, iftfi^oc 2. known, wefl-known, ftat- 

innocent, o(nt iäUc&v, J. p6c S, ^Aof S. 

bmuraemble, Avapi&fah Jsivielln, A«cjv, -ovrof , 6, — ^ to make, diyA^. 

rer 9. iuc6prt&»f to. 


L. leaye oi^ vavoiiat. long, /toic^ ; « mnelia 

Labor, icovo^^ 6. unrewardod, ia» el- noXvf. [rw. 

^, lover of, ^Omkovoq %, v<u axapiOTov. look after (gnard), ^Xdr- 

— ., to, (»work), kpya^ letsnre, oxoXq, ^, look at, ß^-ewu^ i^p9sßM^ 

^o/zoi; with toil, TTovew; ^ to be at» to have, vuyävriß, 

with the aooompaiiyiiig oxo^m^, loqnacioiM, iro^Aoyof J^ 

idea of being weaiy, length, /M^icoct -ovf, ro ; » icuWAofS. 

Käfom. [6, namber,measiire,4|^t^- lord, tcvpiof, 6, dearottKt 

laborer, hired, i^^r, t^roc, /<oc, 6. -ov, d. {ßuXiUii. 

laborious, noXvKovog S. lenity, irpcMTJjc* -vr^» ](• loae, to, äiroXXvfUy iuro- 

Lacedaemonian, AoKedtu- Leonidas, Aewvt<$49C,-ov,d. loss, to be at a, änopitt, 

fiovLog, h, Lesbos, Maßog^ i/. Loves, ip^Ttf, ol. 

lack, airavi^u, öi». lesson, fta&tffiOj -arof, tq. love, IpwCi 'Urog, 6. 

lake, ^^V9, ^. lest, after a word denoting — of pleaanre, ftX^iOf 

land (region), x^^ ii fear,/«?; »that not» by via, if. 

by or upon land, «card Iva, 6nuc or cjf /«q. — — , to, ^cAeu, ar^»)«ws 

X^v ; native, Trarpic, let (permit), iäit, «= ardently, ^pov. 

-tifof , i. letter, an alphabetical, lover, ipaar^c» -ov, ^ 

large sum, iroXvg. ypofifta, -arog, to. — — of labor, ^iXonwof 

Larissa, Aapiaua, i. letters, ypo/^ftaTO, ra. S. [iL 

lasting, £^9re<5oc a. liar, Y^evar^r, -ov, ^. of wisdom, ^sga^ 

late, Hifto^f adv. ^i ; la- liberate, kXev^epau, Lybia, Aißini, 9. 

ter, ^Tßpov. licentioosly, äKO^Marctf. Lydan, Awuog, 

latter, ovrof. lie, a, ^evöog, -ovf, r^. I^curgos, AvKovfxyoc, A 

IftW, v6/<oc, Ö ; by law, Mk ^^, to, rjfevSofta^. Lydian, Avdiof . 

rä vofiov or vofdfMc i — — (be situated), «cf^. lyre, ^p«, ia u^opa, ^ 

observant of, voft^ftog 9. ^— in wait fort iveSpew^. Lysiai, Avatof, -«v, A 
Iawgiver,vo/M)t^eri7f, -ov, 6. life, /3«of , 6, ^, 9. 

lawlessness, ävo/ua, ^. light, 06>Ci ^^of» ro ; » M. 

lay (place), ni^9^; lay a light or lamp, ILmt- Macedonia, MomiSo»!*«, ^ 

by or ap, Kararii^r^u. vof , 6. Macedonian, a, Ma#ceduii^ 

wasteb itoi^^eipu, lightning, äarpair^, i. -ovo^j 6. 

Ttpvii. like, bftoLOi 3, laog 8, ira- mad, to be, fuuvofMU. 

lazy, to be, ß^MKewj. pair^aiog ; « rach aa, madness, in a fit oC fi»h 

lead, to, oi/d»! ^yeo/MU. olog. vofievog, daipovüv. 

away, äiräy». likeness, dfMioTm, -ijrof, mAgistrato,tftiica<Tr9f,-«d,A. 

^—^ roand, vepiayu. 9. magistrates, äpxai, al. 

leader, hy^p^^t -ovog, 6. lineage, yivoct -oof, t6. magnificent, fuyaX»wpe» 

leaf, fvXXov, to. listen to, ÜKpoaofuu w. g. ; «vr» -«(*• 

lean, ^itkA^/cuc . s= to obey, ireii^iyMU, magnificently, woXüTtküQ. 

leam,/zapi^av<i>; ssascer- i7ra«ovw. maiden, «op9, ^. 

tain, eipioKit, mnr&ä- literature, ypappara, Ta. maintain (affirm), fii/tL 

vopai. lltüe, b^iyog 3 } adv. /»uc- majestic, piyag. 

learning, fond of, ^iXopa- pov \ less, peiov. make, voUu \ canse ^ 

i^C> -^f- live, /?c6(j, Cu<>>, ßiOTevif. make or be mad«,ina)Bi 

leave, iK^eiTUjKaraAe/Trcj. with, ovyyiyvofttu for oneself, «rwcc^M»; 

——T behind, KaroAeijFu. w. d., <7vv(IiarfM/3w w.d. make one aometfailg, 


ätroStiKw/u; splftee, ffwrv/t^v*' w.d^irpop» kokov, to, mfft^op&j ^^ 

Ti'&iffu ; » take place, mirru w. d. rvx^, al. 

yiyvofuu. {rvim. meeting, «, ovvovaitL, ii, mislead, irapäyo, vapa^ 

E.e an expedition, crrpo- Megarian, Meyapeifff -ewf , irA^w, i^ofiofrävt*. 

It ose of,;)^ptto/MU rivc. 6. mix, fuyw/u, futryiUf <e- 

ttv^pd^mif, 6, dv9p, Melitns, Me^i^rof, 6. puvwfu. 

&v6p6gf 6. melt, r9«u, 133. mob, ^/noCt d- 

-^—, old, /epwv, -ovrof, ^. memorial, ^oftv^iia, ro, moderate, /itrpioc S; «» 

man«seUer,ttv<5pa]rodiffr9f , fiv^fia, to. abstinent, ^Kpar^c, -ec- 

-ov, 6. memory, foniiui, i. moderation, fterpov^ r6, 

manage, AuwciQ, mX^ Memphis, 3t[^/<^if,-iof and fiefforifc* -Vf^t ^' 

T€V(j; =s arrange, «Sao- -tdor, i^. [6. modem, veof,oomp^eg-o£> 

Ti&iffu. MeneUns, Meve^ewf, -ecj, modesty, o/duf , >ovf, 17, 

manifest, ^avtpo^ 3, d^Aof Menon, Mevcn^, -uvof , b. au>fpo<rwii, i^. 

3, ffo^Cf 'h' menUon,^^of,6,/Ai)i^or,6. money, ;tP9/MtTa, rd. 

•^— , to (show), difXoo. mentioning, worth, i^io^ , tiaTelling^ kfoSuw^ 

manner, rpovoct 6 ; k Xoyo^ 2. ro. 

custom, n^oc, TOf ki^of, mercenaries, ^ivoi, ol. month, /ei^v, funvocy 6. 

ro. merdfnl, Ucuf. monument, fiv^fui, to. 

— — — , in like, 6/ioui{. mere, fiovoc; ady., /covov. moon, ffcA^v^, ^. 

mantle, IftaTtov, to. message, äyyeXla, ^, m<»als, 9^, rd. 

many, n-oXvf. messenger, d/yeAof, 6, if ; more, n-^iov, «r^ov, jbIh«; 

marc&, a, «rraiS/t^, 6. « ambassador, fl'peff- ^XXov, mo^ (caanp. 

— ^-, to, OTpaTevofuUt iro- ßevT^c* 'Ov, ö ; ploral, much). 

pevofuu. vpeaßeic. mortal, ^tjroc 3. 

— ^ to b^gin a, (march Messenian, MeamjvtoCf 6. most, v2^urroc 3. 

off ), Ixarparevo/uu. middle, middle o^/Eceoof 3. most of all (especially), 

mark (evidence), TeKfi^- midnight, fUatu vvxrep. fiuXtara. 

putVf TO. might, ivvofuCf -^^t V- mother, finrtfpf -Tpoc, 9. 

many, yapiu [\ IM, 1]. mild, irpdof, -ceo, -ov, motion, KivffotCf -euc* ^• 

mass, red-hot, dcdirdpof 8. ^irtof . — , to be in, Ktveofiai 

master, Kvptof, 6, deoiro- military yean^ üTpartim- w. Pass. Aor. f w. il 

r^f, -cv, 6. fia ini. monnt, to, ävaßaivij M 

matter (work), ipyov, to. milk, yoAo, -oxrof, r6. mountain or mount, ^pop, 

maturity, d«/i37, i^. MUo, M/Awv, -uvoc, 6. -owf, ro. 

meadow, XeiftMt, -wvoc, o. mina, ^va, 1^. mourn, bdvpofiaij Avfrw- 

mean (base), «flucof 3, a2- mind, vovf, h, ippevec, al. pai. 

9Xp6C' — » to call to, ppffpo- — for, kXoUj, imn^ew. 

means, by no, oifdoft&Cf veinj n. \/uu. mournful, Xvypoc 3, Xo- 

^Ktffra. mindful of, to be, ftifivtf- irnpk 3 ; » plaintiTe, 

Iftede, a, M^dof , 6. mingle with, /uayu, «e- youdifc, -ec 

Medea, H^deto, ^. pawvpi. mouse, ^vr> -^y ^• 

Media, M^dio, i^. Minos, Mtvc^c (Qen. Mt- mouth, ffrofco, -arof, r^ 

if^ift-nj Mi/tfMOf. vciyof and Mtvu ), 6. move, to, Kiveo/uu ; «: 

medical, larptKoc. Minotaur, M/yurov/Mf , 6. affect, «aroicAdo rivd ; 

meet, to, äiravTw ; » mirror, KuTorrTpov, to. moved to pity, to bi^ 

Att in with, ivTvyx&»^ misfortune, a, dTv;t^a, i^, kJi^aipUy oUreipu. 


■mch, ffoXvf . Nestor, Neryrwp, -c^jof, 6. obliged, to be (aecenary), 

multitude, nXi^^, -ovr, net, a, ve^eA,i;, 9. det w. ace and inf., 

rOf ol iroA^. never, ovvore, <»6d^irerr, di^ayicaiof W/y«. 

murder, to, ^evu. f/ai^oTB, fttiiinor^y IIS. obKnon, /l^i^, ;^. 

Mvses, Movaoc, oi. nevertheless, d^<«i)v- obecure, in^ävti^y -if. [3. 

muse-leader, fumovy^Ct news, dx/e^ta, i^. [6. observant of law, vofUfiof 

-ov, 6. Nicocles, NiKon^y -mtif, observe (peroeive),«lai^«^ 

auaic, fiov^ucn, 1^. nigbt, vvi, wktoc, ^. vo/mu w. g. or a. 

jiuist, deZj xp^- Nüe, NeiAof , ^. observe beforehand, irpo- 

Mjsus, Mvffdf , &. [oft 6. Nlsns, NZoof, d. vom». 

Mjtilenaean, MvriX^Mi;- no, no one, none, oidti^^ obtain, hifißavt^ rvy^avw 

fiilieig; hj no means, w.g. 

N. oidafiiJc, ^Kurra; no occi^on (caase), olriof S. 

Naked, yvfivot 3. longer, Qi«cer< (^icm). -— — , to (bring), i,yu. 

nome^ di«(^ ro. noble, i9&^ a, ^e^MOf odious, alaxpoi. 

— , to^ ^yoj^oC», «aA^ 8, eiy«^, -if ; ^ hon- — , to be, d«re;i^«|i«jKai. 

ÄTTO-, irpocayofiwo. . or-loving, <^iX&rlfto{ 2. CEnoe, OZvo^, ^. 

■ation, I^Mf, ^müf, rd. nohlenesfi of mind, yw» offend, d/(«^rfftm. 

na^ve land or eonntrj, vacor^f, -«prof, i. offer (afford), napex» ; as 

irsTj^C) 4dof , ^. nobly, ycvroAWf . [oi. a gift to a divimtjr, Aw- 

liatore, ^tf> -«^, ^; noises, oonfhsed, #«^j^M| rii^7/ui; »oflfer saeti- 

kingly, ßaatXiKdv iAog. north, 4fMrof, i, ^<#0f, fice, ^icii. 

asTal, to engqge in a, hat- -a, 6. offering, to bring an, ^ 

tie, vavfiaxfv. north-wiod, ßfifi/fäs, *äj ^. siav trQiiefuu, [if. 

Naxian, Nd^^^of, 6. nose, ßkt ßtvoct it- office (in the Stale), äfixif 

near, xapm ; adj., irlkn^iof not, ov (ovk, o^) ; «idi often, nakXoKtc. 

a ; adv., ^yyvc. the Imp., fi^ ; not only, often as, as, örav, dmorav 

necessary, avayKtuoc 3. oil ftovov ; not less, 0^ [see 4 183, (b)]. 

— ^, to be, 6elf xp*l ▼• <^^ ifTToe» ; not even, oil, ihuov, to. 

ace and inf. Me (fin^)' old, irpkaßvg^ -tut, -v, >ie- 

necessity, uvayictff ^. nothing, ov<5ev (^«vd^). p<l£6f 8 ; never gierwiag 

neck, difnit fl- nourish, rpt^ old, ayiiputf. 

fieeklace, (irpcirröf , b. Numa, Nov/^f, -a, 4. — age, y^poc, to. [6. 

need, to, dso/MM w. g., number, d^^^c, A. ---^ man, yepuv, -ovrer, 

;KP^(U w. g. nurture, to, r/wi^ ; 5*s Olympus, 'OAvytiiref , 6. 

■eediness, anavig, -eof , ^. educate, Tcaidew. omit, frapa^mcj. 

neglect, to, ufis^u w. g. ; once, äna§ ; » before, 

= to esteem lightly, 0. irporepov ; = at a cer- 

d^yiifiiu ; » overlook, O that, eWe w. opt tain time, irore. 

vepiopau ; » pass by, oath, 6p«coc, ^. one, any one, some «le, 

rrupeifii. [if. , false, imopKo», t6. tIc ; when contrasted 

neighbor, yeiruv^ -ovoc, 6, €»bedient, KarnKoog 2 w. d. witit <ftc oM«*, by sft 

neither, oi>öe ; neither — obey, irei^ofuu w. d«, ifra- fUv or irepos. 

nor, odre — oirt, pufrt Kovuw.ä. one another, of» dA^Acw. 

— /tc9^e. object to f bring as ft charge only, ^vov. 

Neptune (PoMidan), IZo- against), tytiq^Sui ri open, to be, äv^ifja. 

aeidCiv, -d/vof, d. tlvl cqpioioii, an, yv«i^i7» i. 



«Iiinion, to be of, vo^a, parent, yovevf, -inf, 6. PericIeS|IIepucAi^r,-eovr,4 

^jyeofMi, Parif, Uapig^ -tdoc, 6. peril, Kivdevos, 6. 

«-^,fromthe,vo^aavrer. park, napadetaoc^ 6. period (time), ;i:povof, 6. 

opposite, havTioc 8, Ire- part, a, fjiipo^ -ovf , ro. perish, dfroAXv/iot. 

poc 3. -— *) to,^epi(» ; take part permit, iaw, (5i($w^ ; it ii 

oppreMive, x*"^^^^ S* in, t^rixu w. g. permitted, Heart, 

WifSbb, Xf"f^f*^t ^' participate in, furexo. Persian, Uepanc, -ov» 6. 

— , to conaolt an, /iov- parties, both, (i/i^^tv^of. person (appearance), el- 

reifofuu. pass ( « go), nopevofuu, 6o^, -ovf, ro ; ~ bo4^. 

Older, Koafiog, 6 ; &s aline, *— - bj, wapaßalvo, a&ftOf to. 

raf ic, -f«f , ^. — » to (of life), diayo ; persuade, nev&tj w. a. 

order that, in, Iva^ üc. time in public, h r^ persnasiyeness, iret^ 

^ good, eixofffua, if. 0avep^ elvat. -ovf, ^. 

— *, to ( = to arrange), passage across, 9rapodof,i}. perverted, <ntoXi6c S. 

raTTu, Star. ; = com- passion, irat^of , -ovf , to ; Phaeadans, ^«uacect o{> 

•mand, KeXevo w. ace » 6yU desire, lirct^ Phanes, ^dvi^f, -Trof, 6. 

and inf^ ivreAAci. fxioy if, Philip, ^iXtinroCf d. 

origin, common, avyye- past (what is past), irope- philosopher, ^Xoaofoct 6. 

M^r, -^c- X^Xu^oc, 'Via, '6c. philosophize, ^iXoaofitä. 

•ornament, Koofioc, 6. path, 666c, if- philosophy, ^?Miofia, i|. 

Ortfaia, 'Op&Ui, ^. pay, fwr&6c, 6. l6ofu, Phoenicians, #ocvteef, ol; 

Osiris, 'Oaipic, 'l6oc, 6. -~— , to, ävoTlvo, ämtSl- adj., ^oivUetoc. 

Ossa, 'Offffo, i>. peace, elpivrf, Phoicys, ^opKvr, -tiof, ^ 

other, the (» after), Ire- ^ to make, elp^vifif Phryxos, ^p^oc, 6. 

poc 3 ; — aKue, d^Xof . woiioftai. Phrygians, ^pvye^, oL 

otherwise (» another), peacock, toos, -6, 6. physician, larpSc, 6, 

&X^. p&epnporouif&veucifWTQ, pieces, to tear in, Stm^ 

•onght, 6elf xpit ^e^- Polens, UifXevct -eac» 6. pffywfu. 

oat of, I«. Pelops, TLeXofifff -oitoc, 6. piety, ei)üeßda, i^. 

Offer, imep. Peloponnesian, IleAo^ov- pillar, OTrfXrf, if. 

«▼eriianging {over), ^irep. vifffiaK6c. pine, IXdn?, ^. 

oyertxam,&vaTp6nu,irepiT. Peloponneeos, TLeXoirov- pvms, eitreßifc, 'fy* 

owe, hfeiXo. vtfüoCt if. pity, kXeaipOf oUcreipt» ; 

own, l6to( 3 ; his own, rä peltastae, ireXTaaral, ol. to hare, on, KoreXeht 

hvTov. penetrate into, elcirinro Tiva. [&»tL 

ox, ßovci ßooc, 6. elc ti. place, tokoc, 6\ in« o^ 

people, 6^/MCt 6; » na- — ^-, to, Ti&tffu. 

P. tion, t^oCi TO ; ss mul- plague, to, reipu. 

Pain, ÄXyof , -ovf , ro ; = titnde, ir^^of , ro. plaintiff, KaT^opoc, *• 

grie( Avirv, ^ ; s ao> perceiye, altr&ävo/uuy yty^ plane-tree, irAdniifor, i^. 

▼ere, ^«Jvviy, if. vutTKu. plant, to, kfi^evo. 

painting, ^uypa^iOf if. perform, ipya^ofuu, iior Plataean8,nAar(ue^y.^Mr, 

palace, royal, /3aK7i^eta,rd. wpaTTOfitu, ävi>a\ ^ ol. 

palR^ itXP^ 6* display, äiro6eiKw/u ; Plataea, IIAarcua, i^. 

parasang, wapwräyytff, » take place, yiyvofuu. Plato, IIAdrcM^, -«n«or, 6l 

-w> Ä. perfome, ^wpov, t6* play, to, irotC» ; play tl| 

pardon, to, üvyyiyvuüKU. perhaps, Io«<. ircuCu- 


plea, ^oyo^t 6. prating, &So?^<fxi<h ^- does it profit 1 ri troft" 

pleasant, ^r> -(<a> '^' pray« d>xofiai ; « entreat, ^epei. [ficiencj. 

pleasantly, ii6eu^. Uerein». progress, to make, see yvö- 

please, apeaxu w. d. prayer, e^;ri, ^. prohibit, dTrayopcvw, ävet- 

pleasure, ^dov^, ^. precaaiion, irpovota, if. ireiv. 

plot, a, hrißovXff, if. prefer, alpioftai. prominent, to be, above, 

— against, to, hnßov' preparaUon, fuXerrf, if. irpoexu. 

XHiü w. d. prepare oneself, irapaa- promise, to, imoxvhfiaty 

plnnge, ßiimt. Kcvä^oficu ; for some- inayyiXXoftai. [^. 

Plato, liXovTuv, HtvoCf 6. thing, etc n. promptitnde,&^vn7f,-i7roc, 

poet, 7rotJ7r7f, -ov, 6. present, irapoVf hearCCt properly, dfwXoycjf . 

poetry, epic, tro«9ff«f *7röv, -vZa, -wf. Ip^X^' property, A^P^/'*«^«» 'rd, <H^ 

rd hrtf. ■ (submit, afford), na- ffia, if. 

political, iroXiTtKoc 8. , to be, napeifti, ffKo. Proserpine, Ylepae^ovif, ^, 

pollute, fualvo. preserve, adfyi. prosper, to, ei t^ipofitu. 

Polycletus,noX6icXetroc,d. president,7rpofrar9Cro^,6. prosperity, eifTvxioi if* 
Pontns Eoxinns, Ilovrof press into, e/prttrru el^C t"!. prosperous, to be, e^rv- 

"E^eivo^y 6. — on, iyKeifiai. x^^i eidatfioviii. 

poor, wwi/f , -ifToct irevt- pretence, Trpo^daec-ffuf,!^. proud of, to be, «/itriwd- 

Xp6gSj^meB,n^^av2,of. pretend, wpocroieofuu, fuu hri rivij äyäXXofMi 
■ ' ' , to be, irevofiotf ire- ^cutko. km rivt. 

vffrevu. prevail (exist), elfu ; (of provide for, irpogri&rffii. 

poorly (badly), koköC- a usage), Kelfmt. — • for oneself in addi- 

Poseidon (Neptune), IIo- prevent, eZpyu, imex»' tion to, irpo^ofsUJ^ofiat. 

(Teid^v, -övof , 6. pride, ^poviffiara, ra ; = provideiit, to be, npopoio- 

possess, ix^t KeKTTf/iat ; arrogance, ^ßptCt '^(^A' f^^ '^' g- 

oneself of, Kpariu w. g. — oneself, to, yavpoo- provided that, el, kav. 
possession, K-nffiOf rd, «cr^ fuuj &yaXXof£ai km rivi. provisions, kmr^deia, ra. 

aiCf ^y oiffiaf if. priest, lepevct -ewf, 6. prudence, au^poavvrf, if. 

possible, 6warb^ 9^ as prison, detr^r^ptov, 716. prudent, ^povtftoc 3; «a 

quickly as, «c räxt^ra. prisoner, alxftaXaroct 6. moderate, fierpio^ 8. 
— — , to be, k^eüTi. private capacity, Wt^. public, Srfftoato^ 3; «=« 

poverty, ncviay if. prize, di^Xov, to. common, Kolvog 3 ; in 

power, SwafuCi -ewf, ♦ ; — highly, to, iroteofjuu a public capacity, dtf- 

=» influence, ^fovffm, ^ ; irept iroXXov. fioaig, ; to pass timd in 

to be in the, of, yiyvo- proceed, ßatvuj irpoßcuvo. public, kv r^ <ftavep^ 

ftai km Tivi. proclamation, to make, elvai. 

•— — , it is in one's (pos- kK^va. public square, Ayopa, if. 

table), k^eoTi. procure (=*find for), eih punish, ^^^(Oj äirorivo- 

practice, aaKtfm^, if. pioKo. fiai ; to punish by a 

practise, to, fieXeraOf äo- prodigy, ripeic, -ttroc, to. fine, Cvf^ioa. 

«ecj, yvfiva^o ; the last profess, k-irayyeTikofuu. punishment, Ttfiopia, if ; 

two, usually of athletic proffer, napexc*, kirapKea. as a fine, ^Vfua, if. [fuu. 

exercises. proficiency, to make, in, purchase, ävhftai, wpia- 

praise, Snaivoc, 6. irpoKoirru, imSidufii pupil, fjta^ffTtf^, -otJ, 6. 

, to, knaiviu. npog or km ti. purple, rcop^peog 3, ^4- 

prater, indoXkaxifi, -ov» d. profit, to, ^tMo ; what vUeog 3 (see § 29). 


pqipoie, <br «ny, rff n. reed, a, luAaftoc, Ä, ^V» reaolatioii, a (decree),^ 

pwrae, diuxci», ojcoAovt^i». A^irof , i^. Xevfit^ TOt ^^or^ r(. 

pBt the hand to, hnx^*' reflect, dtavoiof/iaif Xoyi- resolve, ytyvuoKQ, dosei 

pio w. d. Cofuu. Tivi. 

pat on, äfi^tiwvfUy äftvi' reflection, Xoyur/tof, 6, respect, o/duf , -ovc, ift ; to 

;|iiYia<. refuge, «aro^TV, 1^. have, for, o/dcopuriMi) 

pot to death, diroxretv» ; regal, ßaaiXeioc. with respect to, irep£. 

» morder, ^eva, regalate {» prepace), «a- respectable, AitoXoyot % 

Pyrrhns, Uv/^fioc, d. raaKtva^u. response, to give ak,j(pm\ 

^^tfaia, Ilvi^io, ^. reign oyer, ßaaiMo. %, XPVCfi^, i- 

rejoice, ara^w.d^^dg/uM. rest, the, dAAof ; rsf^ 

Q. lelease, äiroXvu. gmu^ huv6^ 9. 

Qnail, a, Sprvi, -i^of, 6. rely upon (tnist),ir«rrni!tt. restore, &iro6i6a/u, 

qneen, ßaaiXetu, ^. semain, fuv», ikofi. ; con.- restore, hard to, diisii» 

quick, OMcvf , -eta, -v. [^o. cealed, dioAavt^avv. voff&oroc 2. 

qnidcly, raxiuc, raxOf o^ remember, /Ufoniftai ▼. g. mtnuH, elp/«, öid^. 

-n^r— as possible, (!>f ro- remembraaoe, ftvnt*nt ^- retire, äv^x^ptt», (i 

A:i<Ta. remote, most, lo:;):arQC 3. retreat, a, icarai8a9<c*-«^f 

^ijet (a4j-)i 4<^<T 2. render effeminate, fioXa- -<-*-^ to, dva;^«ip^. 

«tCcD ; service to (be a retpn^i, ivaxupeu. 

R. slave to), dovA«vci>w.d.; Mveal, iiMUiAinrr«i ; itult 

Baoe, yhoc, -ovr» ro ; hor aid to, ßfufOciu w. d. d^^oo^oi. 

man, iordtpCnrov yho£, renown, eüxAe^o, 4, dg^o, revenge oneself oo, or tq^ 

x«Q at, aiUnmi. ^, icAeof , -ovf, to. on, TifWfiiofiat v. «i 

nnn, ^ftßpoc, 6. repay, ävodidof^, itfuir ä/ivvo/ioi w. 9u 

ram, «cptof, 6. ^<yf<w riva nvi i some- revenve, irpdcoSo^, ^. 

nnh, a, r&fic» -evct ^' thing is repaid, tI 4?r4- xevtrence, oldwr, -oer, i 

npadotts, dpTrof, -oyof. Xtiftßävrrai. — ~-, to, oldec^Mu, a^ 

rapidly, raxeuct t&x^. repe], ävir^eQ. /uu ; highly, 9r<p2 «o^ 

rather, ^A.A«v. repent, fterc^uXofuu, or Aav 7o«io/Mu. 

rational, ao^pov, -ovoc. impeis. fierafuX^i nvi revile, Xoidopia w. a. 

lavage, d^o». rivoc. revolt, to oaose to, d^ 

raven, KSpa^, -äKo(, 6. report, a, Xoyoc, 6. rtffu ; lifid., to revnlL 

reach, i^iKvhftat w. g. reproach, to, V^<>>i^^^»* reward, di^ilov, to, yipfifi 

ready, to be (willing), repntable, tido^og 2. -uf, r6. [rof, 6. 

t&i^. reputation, e(nc?^ia, f, Bhampsinitqs, Ta/tc^yi- 

readiness, npo^/iUi, ^. do^a, i^. ridi, irXoixne^ 3, eiirapor 

reality, in, aXti^uc. ^ good, eido^ta, ^. 8; be or become rich, 

reason, X6yoct 6 ; with request, to, alTio, diofuu nXovrio. [ro, n. 

raason, dixcuuc- w. g. [tf>xif ^- riches, irAoüroc» ^ Xflif^ 

receiyej dixofiai^Xafißävo, -^— , a, d6^«f, -e»r, ij, ride by, «ropeAoww. 

recently,, dprt, ivayxoc- requite a fevor, dirodid«- x^t (just), dMotof 3 ; — 

recompense (favor), x^ /uxaptv. dextety d€^i6^ ^ 

pi^i -Itoc, if. rescue, auCu. ring, SaxHtXtof, A. 

record together, ffVTT^o^. residence, gOTemoc's, dp- ripe, irhcuv. 

rectify, eb^irvu. X^^ov, t6. rise up, MffTOfUU, 

Bedeea,'Epvi9pai»aAa7Ta. resolutely, irpoi»<V<^. river, irorä^, ^ 



roftd, 6S6Cf V' Sardis, lapdeic, -euv, al. Semiramif, ^efiipofit^, 

lob, dpiraCot ; » deprire Sarp6don, XapwTjSoVf -idoct rf. 

of, u<ftatpeofjiai. -ovo^t 6. send,n'e/<9r(i),<rrfXA£j,d9ro(T. 

robber, Xyar^Cf -ovy 6. Mtisfaction, SUiff ^ ; to bark, äiroirifjiKu. 

robe, aroX^f Ift I/mtiov, to, give, öidofu. — «. forth or ont,kfcire/tim, 

rock, nerpa, ff. say, ^yo, ^fu, elneiv. senseless, uovveroc 2. 

Romans, 'PofMioi, ol. scarcely, fiucpov ; scarcely sensible, ovvrroc 3 ; to be^ 

ro<mi, avuye<jVf •«», to. escape, iiiKpöv iici^evyo, Oi^^pwku. 

Toot^ßi^üy^. scatter, üKcdä^w, aKcddv- sentence (judicial ),iicpMr<rf 

rope, KoKu^y 'Uy 6. vvfu, duumeipu. -euf, 17, dUf^y if. 

rose, />66ov, to. sceptre, o'lc^Trrpov, to. separate, to, SiiaTrjfu, Kpi- 

roogh, OKkripo^ 3. school, see Thales. via ; (intntns.), 6ixa yiy- 

loyal, ßaaiXeio^ ; royal science, inurr^fifjy if. vofiaiy diaKpivofiai. 

dominion, ßaatkeia, if ; sciences, ypafifMaTa, tu. seriously, to speak, (nrov- 

royal palace, ßturiXeia, scourge, to, fuumyou. 6ä^<j. 

rd. scout, a, ffKonoCt f>. serve (— be a slave), <5otf- 

mgged, Tpaxo^ 3. scythe-bearing, dpeiravii- Xevu w. d. ; — render 

luin, to, anoKkvfu. ^opoQ 2. service, ifinjpeTeu w. d. ; 

— ^ to go to, at the same Scythia, 2«v^<a, 1^. »= become, yiyvofiai. 

time, awarroXXvfii. sea, t^dAarra, if ; by sea, service (benefit), i^epo- 

mle, rule over, to, &px*^f «ard ^aXaTTav. ttmo, ^. 

ßcuriXevu. sea>coast,9rapai^aAarrca,i^. — — , to render, to, Soo^ 

mler, apxov, -ovtoc, 6. sea-bird, ^a^Tna ipvic- Aff^w w. d., ;toptCo/Mii 

run, Tpexo ; run to, vpoc sea-fight, vavfuutia, if. w. d. 

Tpexa- season, against (unsea- servitude, dovXeitty ^. 

-— away,<}x<V)d<rK(i»,d9ro» sonably ), n-apd «cupdv. set (place), ca^tC<u. 

dtöpacKu w. a. secret, KpvnToc 3. set off (of a journey), im^ 

— — — past, iroparpe;);«. secretly,«p6^a,see4l75,S. ptOofuu. \ju, 

•— in different direo- secure, äff^X^Cy -ec; » set upon (place), ^mi9^ 

tions, dittSiöpäffKo, firm, ßißaio^ 3. sever, diUmffii. 

rash, to, dpfioa. securely, aa^X&g. shake, <reiu. 

sedentary trade, ßavttuai- shame, a/<k^, -oOc, ^. 

S. «^ fexvff' [/Ml. shameful, alaxpSc, deuci^r, 

Sacred to, Upoc 3 w. g. see, ßXeirQy dpaa, 6epK<h -ic- 

Mcrifice, i^«o, ^ ; to sac- to it, tncowea. shave, ^vpew. 

rifice or offer, ^va ; to seek, seek for, ^if're(^- sheep, irp6ßäTov, to^ 0^, 

bring, i9vffcav noiioftai. seem, doicew, ^vofuu. oidc, d, i^. 

sadness, Xvm;, ^. seen, not to be, ä'^edToc 2. shelter, <rriyo. 

safie, uff^aX^t 'H' sdze, avXXaftßäv» ; seize shepherd, rroifagVy -htoc, d, 

safely, d^aXäf. quickly, dvupfrd^cj. vofiev^y -ruf, d. 

safety, twTffpioy ^. self, oirdf. [i>. shield, don-tf , -tdof, 4 i 

•ail, vMa. self-command, iyispaTeia, small, vrrArv, 1^. 

^— away, anovXeo. self-control, kyKparetxiy if. shieldsman, irdXraarfffj 

iakeof,forthe,A'Ma,n'ep£. self taught,a^rodidaicror2.^ -ov, d. 

Salamis, laXa/ug, -lyoc, i^. Selinus, 2eA<vovf, -ovv- ship, va€f , ve<^, ^, 

same, the, d aMf. To^y d. • [/«u. shoe, imodtffULy to. 

Bamian, 2d^M0f, d. sell, iriirpwTKSi^ äwodido- short» ßpoj^y -eta, •4^, 


ihortly, h ßpaxeif »locp, wrvof, 6. Sparta, Sirapr^, ^. 

shoulder, <tf/toc, 6. — ^, to, ei^clw, Ko&Mt^ SpartMi, a, Zfl-opri^tiff, 

ifaoQtuig, a (caUing to), öap^ävu. -ov, 6. 

irofiOKeXevuiCt -ewf, ^. tmaU, /u«pof 3, öXt/oc a. speak, Xeru, f&eyyofim ; 

dK>w,lo,<'ei«v«^i/lfrodti«- smell, to, Sa^^palvofiai. speak seriouslj, iri ra» 

w^t, ^(vw, A ffo ^a o w, — - of anything, ^w. (laCu. 

^foftpöv woiivt 6tiX6u ; Smerdis, Z/tepdic, -Sof, 6* spear, 46^, ro [^ 39]. 

s offer, vapix». [m£ aaare, «raT^tfi -t^i ^ ; laj spectator, i^eär^c, -ov, A. 

llnink from, learoavet» w. snares for, htdpevu, speech, X6y<K, 6, ft^oc^ 6 ; 

shun, f ev/<i» w. a» snow, ;t<^» -ovoCt ^' freedom or boldiieaa «( 

■hat «AeM», icaraicAm>. snow-storm, vi^eroct ^. na/^ptftria, if. 

^— <• in or up, «aroicAeM», so, o^ruf ; » this, rovro. speedily, ruxoi ro^euc. 

icat^«i0>«». so far from, aurri. Sphinx, £f(7^» -TT^t #• 

gicUy, ZuceiUo, ift. so that, öcre [4 186]. spirit, vo6r, v«v, 6, ^i|^, 

sick, äff&tv^, -ec. soar upward, ttvaireronyat. -^voc, ^. 

•kk,tobe,v<MFs<i»,ä<n^evaM. sober-minded, oofpupy splendid, Xafiwpoc 8, «»- 

«Ma» by the, of, wapä. --woe. [i* Avre^, -If. [It. 

Sidon, £idwv, -cH^t i> Socrates, Zc^Kparv^i, -o»r, sportsnun, i9ir/>cv'^> -A 

Sidonian, St^wMOf. soldier, a, ffrparcunyCf-oi^ qiread, ^u»nrrc^. 

llghl, at sight «f, Fart of 6. spriog, belonging to thb, 

ipau, solitude, ifitfftki» ^. kapLvos 8. 

%Bal, to give a, ^^Mtutti. some, hfun\ soma one, spring from («»lio, or 

fUent, to be, ^f^ir««» o^ rig ; somotfatng, 'tL originate from), «J^ 

70». sometimes, ^«ore, nisrl. yfyvo/mi. 

■Over, Hpyitfioft 6. «on, v/oc> ^< [^ square, public, äyp^ ^. 

nmpla, ävXoQc, ^ song, f^« ^ i»^3Uc> mnr» stadiitra, «raikowi tL 

«HI, m, 4/^4^01^. soon, raxa. stag, iAo^, 6, 1^. 

fpBCe (because ),^re,^n; sooner, ir^rc^Kw; mmnr stage, w^m^, 1^. 

tea also i 176, 1. ther, fta^^M^. slaiHl, to, ^t^mk, 4rrnn. 

sing, to, ^S». sophist, ^ojiurr^^ -«#, 6. im, iitßfdiHä. 

idngle(sany),inaiM^8%' Sophoc)es,2o^acA47f,-|ssir, state, a, mXiTeia^ i^, «^ 

tiv9 sentence» aii^sf& 6. Aic, -eof, 1^. 

4 177, 6. acwffow, XviTfft i. ^— , relating to the, «»• 

single combat, to engage soul, infts^^ ^. A<r<«cdr 3. 

in, fjtovofiaxiu. sound, to the, «( see slafeien, to, rit9fj^. [^ 

sink into or und^, icor«- § 167, 7. statuary, av^^cavrsirwcta, 

ivij ; sink away (£sll), soaod-aindedneis, ^^ statue, 4v4^<ar, -oirvr» ^• 

irtTrrw. ^poavvn, i&. steadfaät,l9rv«6r,-ul«,-6r* 

Sinope, Sivwir^, i^. source^ ^r^« ^* steal, ff Arirrd» ; steal tkW^ 

sister, dXe^, 9. south, fiem^tßpU^ ^. [6. äpir&Co, 

i|t on, ^Cavu w. a. sovereign, ap;^^^» -ovr^^T» steersman, ««^lytM^rwv 

slare, davJ^f i. sovereignty, ap;c«r» 4* -w» ^• 

I'«-*-, to be a, dovAevu. sow, to, oveipa. Stesichoriaa, ^^rvovy^^Mfi 

slave-labor, SovXüou Bp- spacious, sufficiently («« Stesichorus,Sn7ol;ciV«r»«k 

rw. sufficient), tovof 3. still (yet), h%. 

slavery, 6ovXeta, ^. sparing, to be, ^eiSofuu stillness, n^vxta, ^. 

day, dffosreivw, ^fVM. w. g. stir (move), to, ais^M. 

jmohWk Aim 0teBK to^amitlaxt. 847 

stolen, KXoinfioc 3. summer, ^ifiof, -ovf, ro, teach, dtöuüKu rtvä ti. 

Stone (BMuto of stone), ^ samptnoasness, noXvre- teacher, <5ido<ncdXof, 6. 

i^tvof 3. ^^tOi ^- tear, a, dcucpvovj r6. 

•««-^ tOj «arnirerpda. san, Heof, 6. ttar, to, fnffyviffjti. 

Stranger, ^^of, 4. superiors, ol Kpeirropec. — — in pieces, dutßpffyp^ 

slrati^ms, to be exposed sapping, while. Part of fu. [i. 

to, kn'{ßctvXei&fau. deimfo w. icera^. Telamon, TeXafjujv, -dvof, 

Street, 6<(6c, i^. suppose, (ryeoftat, vo/uCu. tell, Xeyo, ^poC». 

strength, fi^ifiifi ^1 A^f ^ snpremaey, ifyeftopUiy ^. Tempo, Te/uir^, -6»y, tv. 

stripes, 9rX9/<u, aZ. sore, au^^oX^f, -^, f/ieire^ temperate, tyxpar^Ct -U- 

strire (=« endeavor), nei- dof 2. temple, f «if, -e«, 6. 

ffiofioi; »seek,C9T^. smrdj, Ätpec^ci»c; 1)^ «A temp1e-robt>er,/«p690Ao{',4. 

— — fi>r or after, bpeyo- /in (see 4 177, 9). tend ((bed), /9)Mr<ca. 

A'^u w. g^ 6u»iw w. a. surpass, vc«a» riväy imtp^ tent, mifV^, i^. 

strong, l^X^poc 9 ; » firm, ßaX^oftai riva. [pi. terrible, dnvoc 3. 

ßißwoc 3, dtf^aXi^c, -if. snrrounding (around), ire^ terrify, KaravX^Uf Ixif. 

gtttdy, to, fun^&im, Susian, SoiwrfOf, 6. testimony, paprvpta, #. 

stD]^ äawetiK % Terv' swear, öftptfu. Tencer, Tri^Kpof, 6. 

^fiepoc 8. — — fidselj, ^toyMc^. Thales, Ba^^f, 5 (O. 0&* 

subject to, i^oxoc i. sweat, /<Jp«f, -urof^ 6. ^o, I>. -^, A. -i^') ; 

•ttfejeet,to,;t^ipoa|^ w.a.i sweet, i^^, >^v«^f, -efo, Thales and his School, 

iovXou w. ai ; suliject to *^. [H^- ol äfD^X QaX^. 

oneself, KaraaTpe^fiat. swift, ro^, -eta, -i;, «^icvf, Thamyife, O^fOfptc, -tot 

■ftb)ngate, x^H>oofim, dov- swiftly, r^^o. and -Moc, ^. 

Adv. swim, vec». than, i ; also by the feu- 

«ubmissiTe, raireev^ 8. sympathise, iXeaiptf. tion of the Gen. aft6r ft 
submit (present, afibrd), sympathy, be moyed to, comparatiye. 

TTäpixQ' iXeaipa. fhank, to, x^^^ etSivai. 

•*— • to (serre), dovAriiu. Syracuse, ^vp&Kov&ai, al. that, in order, <&Ci ^t^- 

subsistence, rpo^, If. 8yTaca8ian,2vpa«od9(o^,d. theatre, "^iarpov, t6. 

Sttbrert, dvarp^u. Syrian, UptoCf d. Theben, Onßatoc, 6. 

success, eirvxioj If ; ■»> Thebes, Bfjßai^ cd. 

ridies, irAofrrof, 6, 6A^ T. theft, kXoit^, if. 

/9or, b. Take (receive), Xofißaw ; Themistocles, 0e)u<9n>- 

iUocor, to, frapaornvtu, ^ capture, alpiQ. «cA^c, -^ovf , 6. [rof, 6. 

avfiTTovio w. d. ^— > care, hnfdXofMt. Theophrastus, OeS^paa- 

such, roiovrof 3 [^ 60]. -— — from, ä^aipiofuU ri- therefore, oOv. 

such as, ofof [4 182, 7]. vd r«. (n. therewith, /«erd ro{»rotr. 

suffer, iraaxti ; » permit, heed to, eiXaßiofiai Thermodon, Qepfioduvy 

Treptopao w. Part. hold of, äirrofiai w. g. -ovroct 6. 

suffering, irdvoc, i. in charge, Xafißavo. Thermopylae, Qepfiowh» 

sufficient, Ikopoc 3 ; to be, -^— place (be done), y(y- Xat, al. 

Uavüc hc^' vofMi. Thesprotia, Beairporioy ff. 

sufficiently, kovwf . taken, to be, äXioKonai. Thessalian, BerraAdf, 6. 
suitably to (conformably), talk, to, XaAeu, KUTM.a, thief, KXefrnf^t -ov, 6, 

Kara, tame out, k^rifupoo. xXunpf -ottoc, 6. 
ium,laige (mudi),imA6r. taste, to, yevofuu w. g. thioTish, KXairipoc 3. 


tiil]ig,A:^^ro,«r7/M,TV. intensity, äya», or bj ten^aX^eta, if. 

think, i^/eofMU, voftii^ the oomp. dcjg. — ~i to speak the, a^- 

doithd. tooth, 6dovr, -cvto^^ 6. ^twa. 

«— — aboQt,^pavr(C<u w.a. top,ä«pof 3 [^48,Bemi>]. tnni, to, arpe^ (tn]i8.)i 

thint, d«i^, -ovfi TO. tonch, to, atrrofiai w. g,., » devote oneself lo» 

— ^, to, or be thinty, tJiyydvw w. g. rpeno/ioi. [Ttifu. 

6tfau. towards, irpof. away, rphruj a^ 

thirsty, oJof. town, iroA^f , -e«f, ij. to, trporpeiru. 

thorongfaly^tonndentand, trade, a, rex^nt n- tnsk, 6doifg, -ovroc, i. 

duxyiyvCtaKu. tmdttion, ^/or, 6. twice, Si^. 

though, Kol ÖV ; also by a traduce, öiaßakTuu. tyrant, rvfxiwof , 6. 

Piart, see i 176, 1. tragedy, rpaytpiia^ ^, T^nrtaeos, Tv/n-oiof, h. 

thought, ifwufio^ TO, train (exercise), to, iurtuo. 

thoughtful, fpwiftoc 3w transition, /uraßoXiif 9 XT. 

Thracian, 6^, -^op, 6. (see d^;enerate). Ulcer, IXkoc, -wt, i. 

throne, ^pwoc, Ä. travel, to, nopevoftai. Ulysses, 'Odvacrevc^wCi^ 

— , to ascend, elg ßaai- abroad, ävodtffUu. unacquainted with, arei- 

Xeiav KaraaT^at. travelling-money, i^odtov^ po{ 2 w. g. 

through, dia. TO. unadvisedly, ebt^. [t 

throughout, ava^sswhol- treason, tt/nxWui, ^. unchanged, ä^icrä/^Afrof 

ly, navTuf. treasure, i^^aovpof, 6. unde (by tfaefathei'sade), 

throw, l^ivTu. treasures, xp'll^'^o^ ^d. irarpuc, -«of, 6. 

— a bridge over, dwi- treaty, owr^icv, it. under, *ff6. [f^- 

Ceiyw/u. tree, devdpov, t6. undergo, ^wo/ueyu r<, ^ 

— — down, Ko&Uifu. triad, rptdf , -Jlilof, 1^. underneath, to be, £ire</u- 

-— into disorder, ropdr- trial, to make, o^ «reipdo- understand, hcUrra^ 

Tii, fioL w. g. olda. [VUOMI. 

«—out (as words ),/Uin-(i». tribute, ^poi, ol. — , thoroughly, dto/i/- 

thus, ovTii(i). trivial, ^vXo^. [ii. understanding, vovf, ^ 

thwart,* ^vavrwo/MOi w. d. Troezene, Tpoi^y -Tvof, ^pevec, oi. 

Tigranes, Tt/pdi^c» -<W| ^* trophy, Tp&rcaiov, to. undertaking, IpyoVf rh. 

tile, vXitrBo^, 9. trouble, novoc, 6. undone, anpaxTOi 2. 

till, Bf^f f^pf" oneself about^ ^pov- uneasy,to render,rapdiTii. 

thooe, 'Afpovoc, 6 ; right, rt^(u w. g. uneducated, dmu^evrof 1 

Koipog^ 6