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Ti 110 thy 


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' NOV 19 1929, 





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NOV 1 9 ,93 






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IHATB attempted to make a Greek Onunmar in vhkih the beta 
and prindplee of Qie language ahall be stated in as condae a form 
(18 is consistent with dearness and precision, ^le {dan haa been to 
exclade all detail which bektngs to a book of reference, and to admit 
whatever wilt ud a pupil in mastering the great pnnciplea of Greek 
CTrsmniar. The statement of the fonna in Part Second haa been con- 
densed praportionallj moro than the Sjntaz. This haa been done 
from a conviction that the chief piinoiples of Sjnlax are a more 
profitable study for a pupil in the earlier years of hia olaasical coons 
than the detuls of Towel-changes and exceptional fonna which are 
often Ihon^t to be mora seasonable. The study of Greek Syntax, 
when it is viewed as an ud to reading and not as an nltimat« mtd, 
gives t^ pupil an innght into the proceasea of thought of a hi^ily 
cultivated people ; and while it stimulates hia own powera of thought, 
it teaches him habita of more caraM expres»on, by making him 
familiar with many forma of statement more preciae than those to 
which he has been accustomed. The Greek Syntax, as it was de- 
veloped and refined by the Athenians, is an important chapter in the 
history of thought, and even those whose classical studies are con- 
fined to the rudiments cannot afibrd to omit this entirely. Nothing, 
in my opinion, does greater injustice to the pupil, and nothing does 
more to bring classical scholarship into discredit^ than a syatera of 
teaching which employs only the memory and discourages all exercise 
of thought. 

Teachers must decide how far the experiment of separating tho 
principles of Grammar from the equ^y necessary Grammar of ref- 
erence is a successful one. It oertainly wiH not be successful, unless 
it v understood that aD who oontinut their oboiical atudies beyond 

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the school, and especM; dl olasucal teBchers, must nae larger irorks 
than the present for refbreace. I need not mention the man; gram- 
mstocal works, both in English and in German, which are accesuble 
to scholars. The modem science of OomparatlTe Philology haa 
given new value and dignity to the departments of Etymology and 
Inflection, which now stand for the,£rst time on a anre historic basis; 
but their detsils are proper study for adranced students, not for be- 

In prepanng this work, I have availed myself &eely of the labora . 
of my predecessors. Host of the work of collecting facts haa been 
done so often and so well, that originahty is now impos^ble except 
in combining and condensing. I am especially indebted to the gram- 
mars of Hadley and Sophocles, and to the Qerman works of Eriiger 
and Uadvig. The best examples to illustrate the Syntax have gen- 
erally been used by others, and I have not hesitated to use them ^aJn. 
In this, BE in other matters of detail, it is impossible to give credit in 
an elementary work. The division of verbs into nine classes (in § 108) 
is that of G. Curtius, as improved by Hadley and pabliahed in his 
Greek Grammar in 1860. Here, and in many other cases, I am 
greatly indebted to the kindness of Professor Hadley for permission 
to use his valuable material. The sections on the Syntax of the 
Verb are generally condensed from my larger work, " Syntax of the 
Hoods and Tenses of the Greek Yerb," to which I must refer more 
advanced students, and especially teachers, for a (uller exposition of 
many matters which are here merely hinted at. I have not hedtated 
to introduce here (for the first time in an elementary book) a brief 
Statement of the new classification of conditional sentences, with its 
apphcatjon to relative sentences, which is contained in my larger 
work. I cannot help hoping- that the new statement of this and 
similar sulgects may do something to remove the traditional obscnrily 
which surrounds this department of Syntax. More space is given to 
examples here than elsewhere, from the nature of the subject 

The Catalogue oflrregnlar Verbs professes to give only the strictly 
{Home forms. In deciding on the admission of each form, I hav« 
relied chiefly on Teitch's "Greek Verba Irregular and Defective," 
which gives the authorities for the use of each tense. This work of 
616 pages, published in the Oxford " Clarendon Press Series," is a 
lexicon in itself and of the greatest value to the clasiical sclu^. 

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TcKhen who ose this GmmnaT ar« advified to make their pnpils 
first familiar with the lu^^est type, including the paradignu; then to 
omtB the first and second tjpea ; and finally, the first, second, and 
third. A. very few notes in still smaller type (Bee pp. 2, 26, 81, 86} 
are intended lather as aoggeetions to the teacher than as lessons for 
the pupiL I am strongly of the opinion that a pupil should begin to 
trwalate easy sentences as soon as be has finished the paradigm of 
the verb in Q, the few principleB of syntax which he will need being 
explained by the teacher. While I have no faith in classical learning 
which is not based on a ^vtematio study of grammar, I think that 
traoalation, both from Greek into English and from English into 
Oeek, can hardly begin too soon. I fear that the opposite coursa 
may often do more to stifle enthusiasm than to encourage aystematio 

In introducing matters which are connected with Comparative Fhi~ 
Iol<^y, especially in the prominence given to roots and stems in Part 
Second, I have been guided by the opinion of many scholars who are 
aathorities in these matters. I am happy to be confirmed in my own 
opinion that it is inexpedient to designate Q-reek nouns and verbs by 
(heir stems (aa is done in Sanskrit) rather than in the osual way. 
Compvative Fhilol<^ is a progressive science, and its views are 
apt to change ; for example, I cannot think it advisable to teach boys 
to call the noun usnaUy called ihrlt by the strange name AmJt-, as 
long as the leading scholars of Europe are not even agreed whether 
the sl«m is really i\md- or Ahv-. 

I have not thought that the subject of Pronunciation, in its only 
practical form, belongs property to Grammar. The important question 
of the ancient sounds of the letters requires loo much learned discussion 
for begimiera, and the subject is too extensive to be treated in a work 
like this. I refer all who are interested in it to the works of Pro- 
fessor Sophocles, especially his "History of the Greek Alphabet." 
His learning enables him to speak with the highest authority on the 
subject. A very different question, it seems to me, is the practical 
one, How are bo3^ to be taught to pronounce Greek in our schools ? 
Even if vre had a complete ancient account of Greek pronunciation, — 
which we are vetj f^ fiwn having, — it would be a much harder task 
to teach boys of the present day to follow it than it would be to 
teach them to pnmonnca Gennan or French 1^ rulea without th« 

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help of the Tolce. The two most Important coariderations in regard 
to practical Qreek pronunciation are simplicity and unifonnitj. It is 
more than a quarter of & century since anj system could claim notjco 
in this country on the gronnd of uniformity. Even that mcnsti'osity, 
the so-called " English system," 'Which saddled the Oreek at once with 
English Towel-eounds and Latin accents, is now unintdhgible to the 
majority of our scholars ; and it is not likely that a system which 
requires the use of a foreign ^stem of accentnaticn will ever b« 
generally adopted. The American Philological ABSociation, in meet- 
ings at which scholars from every part of the country were present, 
has twice recommended almost (or quite) unanimously that American 
scholars should unite on a system of pronouncing Greek with the 
written accents and the "continental" sound of the vowels. This 
recommendation seems more likely to result in some approadi to 
uniformity than any other that has been made. The teim "conti- 
nental " seems to be used here to denote the sounds of a, e, and i 
which prevail on the Continent of Europe, as opposed to the En^i^ 
sounds of these letters. To those who wish for a more spedal 
recommendation, I would suggest the following ^^tem, which I follow 
chiefly from its simplicity and because it is adopted by many leading 
scholars in different parts of this country : — 

a as a ia father, i) as e in flte,r as e in ni«n, ■ asiin maekiw, « aao 
in liQte, u as French u; short vowels merely akarter than the loi^ 
vowels; — at as ai'in aiiU, n as ei in height, at as oi in oQ, vi as ut in 
quit orwiin with, au flsou in house, rvtaea iafettd, ovas oa influw*; 
^ H, y, like a, i), v ; — the consonants as in Engli^, except that y 
before c, y, or x has the somid of n, but elsewhere is hard ; that t is 
always like th in thin ; and that x is always bard, tike Oennsn cA. 

In conclusion I must express my obligations to the proprietors of 
the tJniversity Press, who have placed frve fonts of Poison type at 
my disposal in printing this work. 

"W. "W. aOODWDT. 
Hasvaas Collcqe, Oetober S, 1879, 

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SINCE thft publicatioa of the first edidon, many misprintfl and 
other accidental eirore htve been corrected, indexes have been 
added, and many alight additions to Hie text and changes in espres- 
Bon hare been made. The only change which affects references to 
the first edition has been made by adding g 138, Kote 8, which 
includes what was contained in § 136, Note 2, 

I am much indebted to Ifae kindness of many fiiends who have 
mibnued me of misi^ints or other errors In the eariier editions. 
Much of the accnracy which the work has now attained is due to 
their efficient help, which I trust will be continued in future years. 
I must express my special obligations to Professor H. W. Humphreys^ 
of Lexington, Tirginia, by whose SQggeations I have been greatly 
aided in revisiDg the work. , 

Many scholMS who most warmly welcome a " small Qreetc Gram- 
mar " seem to forget that smallness can bo attained only by conden- 
sation and omission. One principle which I have fallowed in omis- 
sions needs, perhaps, to be explained. I have generally omitted all 
matter that belongs to lexicc^aphy rather tlum to grammar; fbi 
example, the meuiings of the prepositions, of merely connective con- 
jonctJong, and of other particles which are not closely related to the 
construction, are given in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon in such detail, 
that it is useless to repeat the statements in a grammar like this ; and 
it is assumed that every teacher will direct his pupils to the proper 
sources of information. On the other hand, the uses of relative and 
temporal particles, of the negatives, and of words like tt, Sr, Srt, in, 
&inoi, tfo, tic, are expluned in the Syntax vrith the constructions to 
which they belong. 

In revising the work in 1873,1 am greatiy indebted to the courtefy 
of Mr. S. E. Winchdl, of Ann Arbor, for corrections and excellent 
sa^estions. The most important change made in this edition is in 

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tite atetement of the Clssuficatioa of OoocUtionsl SentenceB (S SSO), 
which haa been made to coofona to that which will be found in tiie 
fifth edition (dow about to be published) of my Qreek Moods and 

w. w. a. 

Haxvabd CwAMiE, Septembci, IBTS. 

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iMTSOOiroTiOK.'— ^Dm Gntk laugoMgfi and Ditlect* ... xix 


S 1. Tlie AIpHnlxt 1 

SS 2, S. Towela uid Diphthongs 2 

S i. BrefttUngs 2, 3 

H 5-7.' CoiuotianU and Uieir DiTudons S 

S 8. Col^^nof Toweli. — Hbtna 4 

S 9. Contraotion of Vowels i, 5 

S 10. Sjnizeai 5 

i 11. Crams G, e 

9 12. Eluion 6 

9 IS. Hovable Copsoosuts 6 

9 H. Hetatheus and Syccopa 7 

S9 lG-17. Euphony of CoDMnants 7-9 

S IS. Syllables anil their Dividon 9 

9S 19, 20.' Quantity of Syllables 10 

99 21-23. Qeueral Principles of Accent 10,11 

j 24. Accent of Conttacted Syllables 13 

9 25. Accent of Xouna IS, 13 

9 28. Accent of Verbs . ' 18, 14 

99 27, 28. EholiticB . . " , ' 14, IS 

9 29. Proclitica 15 

9 SO. Dialectic Changes in Letters 10, IS 

9 SI. Punctuation-Marks . . IS 


9 S4. Three Declen^oni of ITonns 18 

99 SS, SS. stems and Terminations of First Declension . . .18, 19 
1 87. Aisdigms i)f Tiitlt Declension 1&> 2Q 

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S S8. Contract Noime of First DeclensioD SO 

g 39. Dialects of First Declenaion SI 

IS 40, 41. Stems and Terminations of Second Declemnon . . 21 

$ 43. Paradigms of Second Declension 21, 23 

§ 43. Contract Nouns of Seoond Declension 23 

{ 44, Dialects of Second Declension 23 

I 45. Stems and Case-Endings of Third Declenuon ... 24 
{ 46. NominatiTe Singular of Third Declension , . . 24, 26 

{ 47. AccnsatiTe Singular of Third Declension . , . . 2G, 26 

g 13. TocativB Singular of Third Declension 28 

S it. Datite Plilral of Third Declenuon 27 

S GO. Paradigms of uucontnwted Nouns of Third Declensioa . 27-29 
gS61-G<I. Pandigms of contract Nouns of Thiid DacUiuioii . . 29-34 
G 57. Syncopated Nouns of Third Declension , . . . 84, 36 

5 S8. Qendet of Thiid Declension 3S 

S GB. Dialects of Third Dedeuaiou 36 

S BO. Insular Nouns 86, 37 

j 61. Local Endings, -ffi, -etr, •!<, ke 88 


;j 62-64. A^ectrves of First and*SecondD«cleiidoiu . . . 88, S> 
j 66. Contract of Firat and Secsnd Declension . ■ ■ . 40, 11 

S 66. AdjecUTBs of Third Declenaon 41, 12 

! 67. FinK; and Third DecIeosioDs combined , . . . 42, 18 

S 68. Pwticiplefl in -w, -«, -(.i, -«,-■.« 48-45 

! 09. Contract Partieiplas in -aar, -ran, tof . . . . 45, 1« 
J 70. Declension of iiiyat, reXii, and rpSot 46, 47 

{ 71. ComparisMi by -npot, .Ta-nn 47, 48 

S 72, Cbmpatisonliy -i^, -u^t ..,,,,, 48 
g 78. Irregular ComiMuison 49, 60 


S 74. AdTerb* formed from AJjeotiTea GO 

S 76. ComporisoD of Advoito 60, 61 

j 76. Cardinal and Ordinal lumbers, and Numeral AdTertx . . 61, 62 
j 77. Dedenaion of Cardinal Numlinn ... . . . 62, 68 

S 7S. DecknsiMi orj,4,Ti 68,U 




{ It. Pw iii rt i»i htBwiy; ftwnw H, U 

I 80, BefleziTQ Pnmoiiiia Sfi, H 

I 81. Ba^ijtcil pianoiui H 

I 63. PoveMtTD Froponm H 

I 88. DonowtntJTe PronoDpi fiC 67 

n 84, 8S. InterroptiTe aad ImUiiiite Fiwwoju .... 68 

S 86. BslitiVe Ptomiuu H 

I 87. Propomiwd A^ectija avd AdvailM 4^ SI 

SI 8S-B1. Toioei, Uoodi, Tmuu, Penooa . . . . 91, 03 

S 92. Friudpal Fmrta Ot k Gntelc T«rb 43 

9 9S. Teib* ia v and Teibi in ^ 83 

Ct^Jogatisn d( TNta !■ «. 

S M. Pan, Hate, tJtd Liquid Ver^ 03 

I 35. 1. SfnopDi of the Begolu Vecli in w OS 

2. Uesidng of tlie Fomu of the Tarb 04 

{ 90. Fuadigm of the Begnlu- Verb ia w 61-72 

S 97. Future and Aoriit Active and Uiddle «f liquid Verb . . 73, 71 
g 98. Peripbraatio Forma in certain Tenseg .... 71-76 

S 99. SjQabic and Temporal Augment defined .... 76 
S 100. SyllaUc Augment of Imperfect and Acciit . . , .77 
1 101. BedoiOkBtkn in Peifeet and Plnperfeet .... 77 

i 103. Tempmal Angmeitt 77| 78 

S lOS. SyQaUc Aigment prefixed to s Towel .... 7S 

i 104. Attie Bediq>Ueation 78 

S lOS. Aupn^ of Componnd Verba 78, 79 

i lOB. Lengthening tbe AdbI Yawtl of tbe St«m Ed Fvrt Ytfb* . . 79 

1 107. Simple Stem 70, SO 

Sloe. FonnatianofPreaait from Simple Stem. — Nine ClaMeiitf 

Verba 80-83 

S 109. Hodifieation of Simple Stem in eertaiDTeavea . . 83,83 

f 110. CataractariaiicB of the TcosM 88 

f 111. ^>edal Teue-Stema 88, 81 

JUS. Penonal Endings of the Indicative 81,88 

I 118. Formation of Perfect, Pluperfect, and Aonst — PaasiTe.'-. 

EndisBi odded dvectlj t9 the Tenae.Stem . . . 8^ 8< 

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gil4 1. Connecting Towels of the TndicatiTe .... 88, S7 
3. Persmal Endinge of lodicstiTB witlx Connectitig Yowd . 6T,'88. 

1 116. TenninatLOHs of the SHlyanctive 88 

(■lie. Tenniiubiona af the-OpiltiTe 88,89 

{117. Teimiaatioaa of tlie ImperallTe , , , , . E0, 90 

S 118. Termui»tion» ef the InMitive 90 

§ 119. StetDS-and Endings of Participles and Terbtla ... 90 
3J120, 121. PeaulisKfMDuof FntoreandAorist. — liquid Teibi 91 

3 123. Dialectic fixms of Terbs in d ' . 91, 93 

Ooattut TnlM. 
f 128. Pandigm of Pna. and Imperf. of Verbs in -ow, tu, -bh . 98-96 
S 121. Dialectio forms of Contract Verbs 98 

y«it« in |u. 
i 126. Qeneral cbancter of Terbs in ^ . . , . . . 97 
S 128. 1. Synopms of Verbs in -iifu, -ufu, -lyu . . . . 97, 98 

8. PaiadigniB of pecnliar Tenses 98-101 

S 127. FeciiliaritieB in certain Tenses 105 

S 128. Dialectic forms oT Verbs in ;u 103 

J12B. IiT^uW Terbs in /u 108-110 

S 180. Second Perfect and Pluperfect (J /u-form , , , 110, 111 


S 131. Fotmataon of Compounds 112 

S133. Inseparable Prefixes 112 

' . ' . ' PART ni. — SYNTAX 
; 188. Subject, Predicate, Object 118 

JlSl. 1. SnbjectNominatiTe (of finite Terbs) .... 113 

2. Subject Accnaatiye (of infinitive) .... 113, Hi 

Notes. Subject omitted. — Imprasonal Terbs . . IH 

S 136. Subject Nominative and Verb 114, 116 

S 138.. Predicate in same case as Subject 116 

S137. Appodtiop 116,118 


S 136. A4jeotiTes agreeing with Nonns 118, 117 

i 139. Adjective nsed as a Noun ' 118 


1 140. Homeric ase of the Article (as Pronoun) .... 118 
fi 141. Attic me of the Article (as deauit« Article) . . . 119, 120 

J 142. Position of tlie Article 120-123 

K 143. Pronominal' Article in Attic (j/^. ..AW, Ac.) . . 122,128 

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H 144, 146. Fenonal and Intenmm Fnnunnu . . 121, 1S4 

S 140. BafleiiTa Fronoiuu 124 

S 147. Foeaeaara Ftoqouiu 124, 12S 

S 14S. BeiQonatratlTe Pronoona 125 

% 14S. Intern^tire Pronoan 126, 12S 

S 16D. Indefinite FroiuNm 12S 

5 161. Bektive Prpooiin tgreeiiig with Antecedent . . 12S, 12? 
g 152. Belftdve Pronoun irith omitted Antec«dent .... 127 

3$IG3,1G4. EeistiTeFrononn — AssimiUtianutdAttiMtun 127,128 
{[ 166. BelatiTB Pnmaan in EicUm&tionB ...... 12S 

S 160. BektiTe FroDoan not repeated in ■ nev CUB . . 128,129 
L HomlnAtiTe and Tseattn. 
5 157. 1. NominatiTe, m Subject or Predicate .... 

2. TdcatiTA naed in addrasdng 

IL AOCMtttTl. 

§ 1G8. Accas&tiTe of Direct O^ect 

S I6B. Cognate AccogatiTe 

t 160. I. AccusatiTe ot Specification (SjaeEdodie) . 

2. AdTerbiol Acnuatire 

S ISl. Aecnaative of extent of time or apace .... 

9 102. Terminal Accosative (Poetic) 

g 103. AcduatLve after Ni} and Hd 

Tim Aacvaatim* taith Vett§ agnijj/mff 
§101. 7\> a^, teach, dtiie, conceal, d^trivtiiv, .... 
g 166. To do onytAing to OT m/ onifA^ i^a perwrn . 

S 1S6. To name, appoint, eontUer, $■£ 

in. OniUn. 
giS7. Oenitire after Noam (Adnomiual) .... 

S 188. Partitire GenitiTe (speciaUy) 

g 169. Qeoitive after Verbs dgnifying to b», bacama, idmg, ke. 
g 170. Partitive OenitiTe after Verba ..... 
g 171. QemtiVe after Verba dgnifying 

1. To taJfX lnJdof, toudi, daim, Ml, lugiH, ftc 

2. To latla, amdi, hear, rmiaitber, than, apart, A^m, ftc . 
8, To rule or eonanand 

g 172. 1. GenitiTB after Verbs ofjiinem and want 

2. AcciUatire and Genitive after Terba signifyuig ttjB 
I ITS. Causal Genitive, — 

1. After Verbs expreuillg pniue, pit/, tatger, emijf, fee. 

2. After Verba of aceaaing, ceneiduig, eoKdenmiiig, Jtc. . 
S. In Excbmationa 

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(174. amt(iM(M.lUatii)s.— Q«utiTeof Stparation . 189,140 

S 17fi. 1. " " GenitiTe alUr ComponitirB . . .140 

2. "■ "■ Oenitive with V«rb» of t ar p atii u g ^ &«. 140 

J17B. 1. ■" ■" GenJtivB of Sourwi , .140 

2. "' "' 'Oenitive (poetic) (^Ageatorl&Btnuneiit 140 

5 177. OenitiTe-aAer'ConiiKnuid Terba 141 

8178. Oeniiiveof'PriceorVslae; 141 

Sots. Genitive after dfiot ani ifiiat 141 

S 179. 1. Genitive of Time within uAtdt 141 

2. Geni^ve of Place vi'tAin BAtei (po«tie) .... 141 

S ISO. Otfjectire Geiiitive with Verhal A4JectiTea .... 142 
jl81. Poaaesaive Genitire' witlt A^eetirea dawting jia w uwi" a«. Ice. . Hi 

g laa. Genitive witli Adverbi Hi 

S 183. Genitive Absolute (see also S 27S, 1) 148 

IT. DatiW, 
Rkiaxkb. ^Tarioos fonctiDnB of the Dadva .... lit 
j 184. Dative ezpreaaiiig (a ar^ : — 

1. Dative of Indirect Object . . ... , . .144 
i. Dative after certaiii intniDsitive Terba .... 144 

8. Dative of Adcaatoge or IHaadvaitiage 149 

IToTE S.' EtMcal Dative 144 

4. Dative of Pmieasiaii (with tl/d, to;.) . . . ; .146 

5. Dtctive denoting that uM raped to lotidt, fee . . 14S 
(185. Dativeatfter Adjectives kindred to pracediiig Verba. . . 145 
S 18S. Dative of Sesembknce and Uiii<Hi .... 14fl, 147 

NoTsl. JiU. e&et Yf^tiffufyias to ditamfe 01 eoalmd with H7 

{ 187. Dative after Compotind Terbs 147 

J 188. 1. Dadve of Cam^ Mamie; Sfeaiu, and fntfrununt 147, HB 

Note 2. Dative after jcp^aiau, (o nae 14S 

5. Dativeof dHfriMo/'ifitrenflcs (withcompsntives) . . 146 
8. Dative of Agent (with pnf. uid plnp. pass.) . . .148 
4. Dative of Agent (with Tsitel in -ri^ or -Wm<) . . 14« 

6. Dative of Accompaniment (Mmetims) irilb «(rAi) . 1^ 

fia. Dative^ riMa Itf 

S 190. l>ative af Place (poetic) 149 

fioTE. Occasional nse in pniee (itunst of Attic doaw) . 159 

(S 191, 192. Frcpositiona irith Genitive, Dative, and Accneative ICOj 161 

|19S. PrepMitknu in CampoBition taking thrown cues. . ISl 


}IS4. Adverbs qualifying Teib^ Adjectives, and Adverbs . . ISl 

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GOMTXffiM. Xlil 


j.195. AotiTo.Voicp 1S3 

l lae. Pas^ve yoice , 162 

J 197. .Agent ^er Paast^e Vefbi {irwi uid Qenitive) .... 1G2 

If^OTE f. PuGiYeooTistniction when ActiTshutw) CUM 1C2, 1E3 

) Id8. Qogiu^ Accusative made subject of PasaiTe .... 158 

£ 199.. Middle Yidoe (.three us«i> 168, lU 

lanMi of the IndlsktiTB. 

S 200. Tenses of the IndicatiTe {time of each) .... 161-1611 
S 201. Primaiy and Sectmdar; Tenses of Indicative . . . 166 

T«nfw of Dejwadsnt Xoodi. 

i SD2. Net m Indirv* Daamne (chieflj Present ud Aoiat) . . ISA 

1, Distinetion between Present and AoriiA in this mat 160, 167 

2. Perfect sot in IndiKCt Disconne (seldoin naed) . . . 167 
8. Fut^ira Infinitive not in ludir. Disc, (exceptional) . 167, 168 
i. Fntnre Optative (aever osed eicept in Ind. Disc.) . . 163 

( 203. Optative and Infinitive t'n Indirect Diacoart . 16S, 169 
HoTB 1, Present Infinitive and Optative includes Imperfect 169 
Note 2. Infinitive ailer T«rba of /toping, pnmiiatg, &«. (tiro 
. constructions allowed) 1S9 

{ 204. Tenses of the Participle 1G9, 160 

Qnomle and IterfttlTe Tbmw. 

I 206. 1. Qnomic Present, expressing habit or gemnd tratk . . . ISO 

2. Gnomic Aorist " " " " . . llJO 

8. Gnomic Perfect " " " " . . . 161 

J 206. Iterative Imperfect and Aorist with Ir . . . ■ 161 

Thi Pabticle 'ir. 
% a07. Tiro hhs of the Adnrb'Ar Ul, 163 

■ aOS. 'Ar witii the Indicative. 

1. Never with Present or Perfect 162 

2. With Fntnre <cbidly Haoeric) 162 

8. With Secondary Tenses (j 222) 162 

S 209. 'Jw with the Subjunctive 162 

9 210. 'A* with the Optative {always in apodosis) . . . .162 
9 211. "Ar with the. Infinitive and Participle (in apodosis) . 162, 163 
9 212. Position of dr.— *A)r repeated, or nsed in eUipaif . . .163 

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1 318. I. yariona nsea of Indicative lU 

2^ Varioui iBes of Sabjnnctire IM 

8. Variotu nses of Optatdve 104, 166 

4. The Jmp«ratiTe 16G 

G. The Infinid'TG US 

1 814. Clasaificatioii of OotutracUona of Hoods ISS 

I. nml ud Otjwt amiuM •ftra tra, At, fam, (i^. 

{ 216. Three classes of theM cknees 16G 

HoTB 1. N^atire particle in these claiues . . . ISS 
9 216. Findl ClabieB C^fter ail the Final Particles) — 

i; With SuttjunctiTe and OptatiTe 16S 

2. With Snbjunctiye after secondary tenses , . . ISS, 167 

3. With Secoadary tenses of Indicative .... 167 
g 217. Olgect Clauses with trot after Verhs of Striving, fcc . .167 

Note 4. 'Oruj or Smi fii) with Fnt. Ind. (elUptically) . 168 

g 218. Ot^ect Clanses with /n} after Verbs of Ftariry, to. . . . igg 

Note 2. Mi} or twm ^4 nsed elliptically , 16B, ISS 

Note 3. Hit with present or past tenses of IndioatiTS . 1S0 

IT. Conditional BentMIOAl* 

{ SIB. 1. Definition of proCoiu sad apodaai . . , . , IS9 

2. Use of ir (Horn, .tf) in protasis and apodods . . . ISQ 

3. Negative, particles in protasis and apodods . . . 16B 
S 220. ClassiScation of Conditional Sentences . . . .169-172 

Fourjbrms of Ordinary Prataiii. 

§ 221. Present and past Conditions with simple Indicative . . 172 
Note. Future sometimes nsed in these conditions . . 172 

§ 222, Present and jnst conditions with secondary tenses of Indica- 
tive (a, in apbdosis) 172, 173 

NoTB 1. 'Ac soiaetimes omitted in tie apodods , . 178 
Note 2. 'Biet, ix/^r, fee. with Infin. in apodosis {without Iv) 178 

S 223. Fntnre conditions -; Snbjanctive with liir . , . 173,174 
Note 1. Future Indie, with tl in protssis ... 174 
Nate 2. Bi .(without a* or W) in protasiB {Homeric) . .174 

S 224. Future, couditioiia — Optative in protade and apodods . . 174 
Note. .'A* yery rarely omitted here 174 

Praeitl and PaM Graerai Sappoailloat. 
5 225. Snbjunctive and Optative in protasis .... 174, 176 
Note 1. Indicative with tl (occadonally) .... 17S 

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PeeiJiar Fonu a/" Cotiditioital Santenea. 
S 926. 1. Protssii contained in Partiaiple or other word . 175, 17S 

S. Frotaau omitted — Indie, or Opt. with In alone . . 178 

8. Infin. or Paitio. in apodoais — aometimea with i» . , 1T6 

S 227. 1. Protaaia and Apodoaia of different dsBsee . . . .177 
2. At introducing itn apodoaia 177 

S 228. El after Terba of tamdaing (^auMMi ^ ^77 

HL BalatiTe ud Timpani BaataneM. 
G 229. Dffinita and IitJifbdU Anteced^t explained 177, 17S 

{ 230. BeUdre viUi Definite Antecedent 178 

S 231. BeUlire with Indefinite Antecedent — Conditional BelatiTe 178 
g 232. Foot fonna of Conditional Relative aentence (canesponding 

to thoae of ordinary protauaSf 221 -224) . . 178, 179 

S 28S. Conditional Belatire Mnteucea in general nippOBitions (m in 

pTDtasia, S 22S) 179, 180 

NoTB 1. Indicatire with Sirrtt for Snbj. with 3* Ar . . 180 
f 231. Fecnhar rorma in Conditional Belative sentenoea . , . 180 
S 235. AiBriwiilfttinn in Conditional Belative Kntencea . 180, 181 

9 230. Belative clanaea ezpraaaing Purjxme (with Fnt. Ind.) . . 181 

NoTX 1. Sahj. and Opt. in thia constmction (Homaric) . 181 

Note 2. 'S^ $ or i<^ ifrc with Future Indicative . . 181 

g 237. "Qan (aometimes ilx) with Indicative ISl 

\ 23S. Cadsil Belative Sentences ISl, 1S2 

Tmpond Partkkt ttgrt^yug Until. Be/ar* that 

S 239. Omatmetiona after fwi, fm, ixfi ^'> ""tH • 182 

§210. IV with the finite moods 182,183 

Sara. Bfi^ ^ Tpbrtpw ^|, rpiaStr 4, uaed like rplr . 1S3 

IT. biilirwrt DifOooTM. 
I HI, Direct and Indiieot Qnotadone and Qneationa .... 18S 
NoTS. Meaning of ezpreasion Indirect JXicaune , 183 

5 2<2. Goiend principles of Indirect Diaconrae. — Use of Ar. — 

Kegative particles 184 

Sin^ Senteaca in IntSmt Ditcomne. 

{ 248. Indlc. and Opt. alter 3ri or i^, and in Indirect Qneationa 184, IBS 

NOTK 1. Free. Opt. occasionally represents IiQperfect . 185 

J 214. Snhj. or Opt in Indir. Qneations repreeentiiig Inteirog. Snhj. 183 

{ 24G. Indie or Opt. with in (unchanged) ISS 

S 246. Infinitive and Participle in Indirect Quotations . . 186, 187 
NoTX. When Infinities stands if^ i«dirtft divurtf . . 187 

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ImSnct QiMatim i>f Campvad Sadtiieti. 

1 317. finle for dipatAhl ClansM In Indirect Quotation . . iiT, lU 

Note I. Ona nrb chuieMl to Optftttve, wliih uotlier b 

tinclMi^ed ISS 

NoTK 2. Wbnt d^pcndM Am. lu^C can b« chim^ to Opt. ISS 
1 248. Single dependent clnuee in iu<Unct diMOnne, independcnU; 

of thenst of UiftBsntence— roordAssM . IfiS'-lW 

|24B. 1. 'Orutusedforihiu Indiniot Qaotati(Hi(»n). . . IW 

2. Homeric Die of < Cw tfn (nuc) IW 

1 2G0. Csnwl Sentence* witli Indicative 190 

Kon. OptaliTe sometimes osed (on ^riud^le of { SIS) ISO 

1 261. 1. Otilatlve f& Wlflhes (wfth or Without t»(, in.) . . . 191 

2. Indiofttive in Wlalie* (with eOt, kc.) .... 191 

NiXTC 1. 1I^\M' with Infinitive in WUha . . .191 

N0TB2. Origin (tf the fonuB of Wiahea .... 191 

Tn. I^intiVi taS iaIflBMfin IB 
J '252. IidperatiTe in CommandB, Exhortations, &c. . 
) 2S3. First penon of Snty'unctive in Exhortations 
j 2G4. Pieaent Imper. oi Aor. Snbj. in Prohibit&nu . 

f 2C>E. Homme ok t€ the Subjunctive as lam^Jidurt . . I9S, 19S 
( 2G6. InterrogatiTe Snijunctive (QueetltmB d donht) . . .193 
$257. SnbjonctiTeuid Future Indicative with of fi^ . . . 19S 

The iNFiBinvK. 

S 268. Infinitive as Verbal Noun 193 

I 269. Infinitive as Subject (Nom. or Accns.) or Pvadiods (SiM.) 108^ IB* 
I 3S0. Infinitive «a Ot^ <tf a Verb : — 

1. Not in Indirect Diaconise (chief)]' preseot and aolirt) 194 

2. In Indirect Disconrae (with time of tenna preaorvwl) 194, IBS 
! 261. Infinitive with Adjectives and Adverbs .... 195, IBS 
) 262. 1. Infinitive (sAA Ua artiele) after a Preposition . . .196 

2. InfinitiTB(»i(irte(irtiWe) us Genitive or Dative , . . 196 
S S6&. 1. Infinitive (with or without toC and /i?y) alter Terba ct Un- 

Atmce, fcc. — Four forms 196,167 

Note. Double NegHtive fiii oi with thia Infinitive , , 197 
2. Infinitive with ri /i^ (or rb uli of) after Verbs of negaMve 

meaning 197 

I 364. Infinitive wilh adjuncts and the Article, as Noon . . . 197 



{ 366. InfinitiTB expt w rin g ft Psipoae .... 
H S66, S67. InfinitiTe after dm (lii), uid if' $ n V ^ 
I S68. Absolute Iit£tiit)Te (generalt; with (in or Sow) . 
NoTK. 'Bcite (bw, miffu^, ri vb ibw, Aw, 

{ S6S. InfinitiTe u Imperative 

I 270. Infinitive ezprating a wish, like Optetive . . 
I 271. loSnitiTe in l^ws, Traatiei, Pioclanutioiu, ka. . 
S 272. Infinitive (wiUl or witboat ri) expnadng mvprim . 
I 27S. InfinitiTe in NarratiDn {witli verb ondentood) . 
g 274. Infinitive with vfU (see alw { 240) .... 

Tki Pabtioipu. 
{ 275. Putidple u Tei)»I A^jectiTB — three nae* 
I 270. 1. Partidple irith s Noon (exprcaaing nmple sttribote) . 

2. FartidplB with Article =^htwlu with a Terh . 
S 277. Participle defining the dmnutoncM ot an action ; — 

1-6. Vaiiona relations denoted by this futiciple . 
Notes. Tariona Adverba used with thia p«iticiid« . 
{278. 1. Oeoitive Absolute <seaal«a$ 188) 

2. AccnsatiTe Abaolnte (of Imperaonil Terbl) . 
S 279. Paitidplt with Terbe (like Infinitive) : — 

1. WiQi Verba ugni^iing btgin, eaat, t>idurt,JM, ka. 
S. With XatOitu, TVfxin*, and ^d>u 

S. With rtpupdtf and t^tpiu, ovaUak, &0. 
I 280. Participle (like Infin.) in Indirect Discourse ({ 246) . 
Note 1. LfjKot or ^artpU il/u vnth Forticipk 
Note 2. ^inuSa nd virtyefniaKit with a Participla L 

Noin. or Dat 

TxxBAii AiMEOnvsB in -Wet and -Wov. 
S SSI. 1. Penonal conatmction of Yerbal in -riot 

2. Impenonal Verbal in -riot (or -^ia) 

I 282. 1. Direct and Indirect Interrogativea 

2. Direct InterrogatiTee — ^H, ^o, oi, it-^ pJir . 
8. 'AXXoT, <; oraXXoTt; 

4. Indirect Qneetioni with el (Homerio 4 or 44 . 

5. AltcmatiTe Qnestioiu — Ttinpor , . . ^, Ice. , 

I 2SS. 1,3. 00 or Hi vrith Indie, Snl^., Opt., and Imper. 

S. N^ative with Infinitive 

4, 6. Negative with Participle and Actjeetive 
e. M4 with Infin. after Verbs with mgatiea idea (j 26S) . 
T. Ml) oi with Infinitive (after negative leading verb) 
%. Two or more n^ativea in one elauaa . 

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S 381. Nunes and nBtare of Feet SOS 

(286. Namee of Veraea — Catalixu 20S 

{ 2S6. Beaolution and Contracdon — &/Baba artapt . . . 210 
(287. Arsisoad Hiesu'—IctuB ^dependent of Accent) . . . 319 

9 288. BaaU and Anacnuis 210 

{ 389. awmra of the foot— Caesura of the rene . , . 210, 211 

{{ 290, 291, t'rachaic Yenea 211 

gS 292, 29S. Iambic Yersea Sll ~ 213 

SS 29J, 396. Daclylio Teisra 218, 811 

SI see, 297. Auapaeatii: Tenet 214, 21S 

g 298. Anapaestic Syatema. — lamMc and Tiocluie STstemi . . 81& 

gg 399, SOO. Chariambic YeiMS 216, 316 

1 801. liO^oedic Teraes 21S 



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THE Greek langoE^ is the Lmguage spoken by the Greek 
race. In the hietorio period, the people of thia race called 
themselTeB hy the name SelUnet, and their language Hellenic 
We call them Greeks, from the Boman name Graeci. They ^ere 
divided into Aeohans, Dorians, and lonians. The Aeohans in- 
habited Aeolis (in Asia), Lesbos, Boeotia, and Tbesealy; the 
Dorians inhabited Peloponnesus, Doris, Crete, some cities of 
Caria with the neighboring islands, Southern Italy, and a large 
part of Sicily ; the lonians inhabited Ionia (in Asia), Attica, 
many islands in the A^ean Sea, and some other places. 

In the early times of which the Homeric poems are a record, 
there was no such division of the whole Greek race into Aeoli- 
ans, Dorians, and lonians as that which was recognized in 
historic times ; nor was there any common mune of the whole 
race, like the later name of Hellenes. The Homeric Hellenes 
are a small tribe in Southeastern Thessaly. 

The dialects of the Aeolians and the Dorians are known as the 
Aeolic and Doric dialects. In the language of the lonians we 
must distingoish the Old lonie, the Nevi Ionic, and the Attie 
dialects. The Old Ionic or Epic is the language of the Homeric 
poems, the oldest Chreek literature. The New Ionic was the 
langoi^ of Ionia in the fifth century R C, as it appears in 
Herodotus and Hippocrates. The Attic was the language of 
Athens during her period of literary eminence.* 

* Th« Hams lonie indudea bath the Old and the New Ionic, bat not ths 
Attic. When the Old and the New Ionic ate to be distinguished in the 
present work, Ep. (for Epic) or Horn, (for Homeric) is used for thft former, 
and Hdt. (Herodotus) for the Gutter. 

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The Attio dialect is the most oultivated form of the Greek 
language. It is therefore made the basis of Greek Grat&mar, 
aod the other dialects are unially treated, tot oonvenience, as 
if their forms vere merely variations of the Attio. This is a 
position, howeTer, to vhich the Attio has no olaim on the ground 
of age or primitive forms, in respect to which it holds a rank 
below the other dialects. 

The literary and political importance of Athens caused her 
dialect gradually to supplant the others wherever Greek was 
spoken; but, in this very extension, the Attio dialect itself 
was not a little modified. This nniversal Greek language, 
beginning with the Alexandrian period (283 R C.), is oalled the 
Common Dialect. The name ffdlenitUc is given to that form 
of the Common Dialect which was used by tiie Jews of Alexan- 
dria who made the Septuagint version of the Old Testament 
(283 - 13S ^ C), and to the writers of the New Testament ; 
all of whom were BeUmitt* (I b. Jews who spoke Greek). The 
language which has been spoken by the Greeks during the last 
seven centuries is oalled Modem Greek, or R<ymaie. 

The Greek is descended from the same original language 
with the Indian (i. e. Sanskrit), Persian, Germim, Slavonic, 
Celtic, and Italian languages. It is most closely oonneoted 
with the Italian languages (including Latin), to which it bears 
a relation similar to the still closer relation between French and 
Spanish. This relation accounts for the striking analogies be- 
tween Latin and Greek, which appear in both roots and tormi- 
natiims ; and also for the less obvious analogies between Greek 
and the Gennan element in Knglish, which we seen in 4 &w 
words like me, it, know, im. 

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SL The Greek Alphabet has 

twenty-four letters : — 




A a 




B ff 




r y 




A « 



E t 




z t 




H , 




e «9 




I t 




K « 




A X 




H ^ 




N > 




8 e 








D <r 




P /> 




s ,, 




T T 




r . 




• * 




X X 




r + 




a m 




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Note 1. At the end of a word the. form c is used, elsewhere the 
form a : thus, c 

Note 2. Two oljeoUte letters — Van or Digamma {r or r), equivalent 
to F OT W, and Koppa { 9 ), equivalent to Q — and also the nhsrncter San 
(f^i), a form of Sigma, are used bs numeraJa (3 70). The first of these was 
not entiiely oat of use when Uie Homeric poems were composed, and tlie 
metre (£ many vetsea in these Is expired only by admitting its presmce. 


§ 2. The vowels are a, e, ij, i, o, to, and v. Of these, 

e and o are always short ; ij and a are always long ; a, t, 

and V are sometimes short and sometimes long, whence 

they are called doubtful vowels. 

Note. A, f, ■;, o, sad a are called open vowels; 1 and v are called 
dose vowels. 

§ 3. There are seven diphthongs which begin with a 
short vowel, at, ei, at, in, av, ev, ov; and six which begin 
with a long vowel, 9, ij, tp, dv, rjv, av (Ionic). 

In p, 0, f , the 1 is written below the first vowel, and is called iota 
eubgcript But in capitals it is written in the line; as in THI 
EaHOIAIAI, rg Kav^>?i 1^^^ i" "OtxTo, ^x*"*- '^'^ * ^^ written 
as a regular letter as long as it was pronounced, that is, until the first 
century B. 0. 

§ 4. 1. Every vowel or diphthong at the beginning of 
a word has either the rough breathing (') or the smooth 
breathing ('). The rough breathing shows that the vowel 
is preceded by the sound of h ; the smooth breathing, that 
the vowel has its simple sound. Thus 6pm, seeing, is pro- 
nounced JiSroii; but opm, of mountaijis, is pronounced 
■ dron. 

Note. A diphthong takes the breathing {like the accent) upon 
its $tcond vowel. But a, ^, and ^ take it upon the first TOWel, even 
when the 1 is written in the line. Thus eij^rnu, (f^putw, Jufmr; but 
^X"^ 0T'tUx*n,4^ or'Aidoi, ffftn* or*H(&«K 

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2. The consonant p is generally ■written p at the begin- 
ning of a word. In the middle of a word pp is often 
written fjp. Thus p^ojp (rhetor), orator; appitroii, unspeaJc- 
abU; Ilvppoi, I'yrrhus (pp = rrh). 

I 5. !• The consouanta aie divided into 
lahkUf, IT, j3, ^ fi, 
palaialt, k, y, x, 
kiiffuali, T, ft, 9, C ir,\,», p. 

3. The dmtbU coneenants are f , ^, f . S is c<»iipoeed of k and 
n; ^, of «■ and v. Z is not composed of two consonants, but it 
has the effect of two in lengthening a preceding vowel (§ 19, 3). 

§ 6> B; another daasification, the consonants are divided into 
temtixneeU and mvia. 

1. The semivowels are X, ^ r, p, and ir; of which the first 
ibur are called liquidt, and a is called a titnlant. U and j> are 
also called nasaU; to which must be added y before k, y, Xi oV 
{, where it has the sound of r, as in Ayxupa (ancora), luieAor, 

2, The mntes are of three (o-der» : — 

tmooth mutes, «■, k, t, 

middle mutes, fi,y, d, 

rough mutes, ^, x> ^■ 
These again correspond in the following cfcuMi ; — 

labial mutes, «, t9, ^, 

palatal mutes, *, y, x< 

UngueU mutes, r, i, 0. 
Non. Mutes of the same order ore called co-ordinate i those of 
the sune eUus &re called cognate. The smooth sod rough mutes, with 
a, f, and '^, are called turd (hushed sounds); the other coDSonaats 
and the vowels are called sonant 

§ 7. The only consonants which can stand at the end of a 
Greek word are v, p, and r. 

X and ^ (mr and ntr) are no exceptions; and h and oCr (o£x) 
are varied forms of <{ and m. 

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§ 8> A BucceBsion of two vowol Boimda, Dot forming a dipti' 
thoi^, vas generally diBpleaaing to the Athenians. In the 
middle of a word this was avoided by eontraction (§ 9). Be- 
tween two words — where it Ib ctdled hiatut and was especially 
ofTcnsive — it was avoided by craw (§ U), by tlitioa (§ 12), or 
by adding a moisdile mwonant (§ 13) to the former word. 


§ d. Two successive vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, are 
often united by contraction in a single long vowel or a diph- 
thong ', as iftAiit, 0iA«t ; ipi'kti, ^Xn ; r^un, rifuu 

Contraction takes place especially in Attic Greek, but seldom 
unless the first vowel is <^ii (§ 2, Note). It follows these gen- 
eral rules : — 

1. Two vowels which can form a diphthong simply unite in 
one syllable ; as rrlx't, ^*lx" i T'C"'' VW ! patarot, p^arot. 

2. If one of the vowels is o or «, tbey are contracted into w. 
But €0, oe, and or give m. Thus 9i]Xdijrr. A^Xun ; i^iucn, ipAmrt ; 
rifuO/ic, Tifiw/in'; nitaaiur, nitiiur; Srik6ai, Sijki; — but yiwtot, 
yirovt ', sXifcic, s'Xoiif ; i>tfc, rov. 

KoTE. In contracts of die firstand second declensions, o is dropped 
before a, and before any long vowel or s dipbthoDg. (See § 43 and 

3. If the two vowels are a and t (or ij), the first vowel Bound 
prevails, and we have d ori]. As gives d, and *? or ijt gives ij ; 
but « gives n. TbuB, irlfiat, Irliia ; Tt/iatjrt, nixart ; rrix'a, "/x^j 
Itiida, /iva ; ^iXi'ttt, ijuX^i ; nyiiimis, ri/i^imt ; itpiXtc, itplXit. 

Note. In the first and second declensions, ta becomes a in the dual 
and plural and after a vowel or p ; also in the third declenaioa after 
a vowel. In the dual of the third declenaioa « becomes t). (g 43, 
§ 65, S 52, 2, N. 2, § 53, 3, N. 3. See also § 51, 2.) 

4. If a simple vowel is followed by a diphthong, it is con- 
iracted with the first vowel of the diphthong, and the second 
vowel is dropped unless it can be retained as iota subscript (§ 3). 
But a, (, and o ^o dropped before at ; and * and o before ot. 

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Thus, rifuwi, ripf ; rtiiag, rifi^ ; n^ufoi, ti;i^ ; ripdov, n^ ; ipAiit, 

flqXibni, 9i)Xau ; — but firaai, /imi j ^Aioi. ^iX« ; STJkioi, 07X01. 

Note. In verbs in 6», except in the inHnidre, mi and 017 give w; 
»s SqX^t, a^Xoin 81X01), JtqXai; — but BifXi™-, aijXovv (reguiarly). 
Infinitives in -attv drop i in cootraction ; oa n/iatiw, Tifiar. 

In the second person singular of the passive and middle, fm gives 
(•aaweUasg; as Xwoi, Xu^, or Xufi. (SeeglU,2.) 

fi. The close vowels (1 and v) are contracted with a following 
vowel in some forms of nouns in ir and m of the third dedenekm. 
(See § 52.) 

§ 10. Two sncoeswve vowels, not forming a diphthong, are 
Bometimes united in pronunciation. This is called syntzetU. 
Thus, Aoi may make one pliable in poetry ; trr^Sta or xptvtf 
may make two. 


§ 11. 1. "&. Towel or diphthong at the end of a wotd is oflen 
contracted with one at the beginning of the following word. 
This is called cra«u (Kpaa-ic, mixture). The first of the two 
words is geuendly an article, a relative pronoun, or not. 

Crams geuendly follows the laws of contraction (§ 9), but 
with these modifications : — 

(a.) A diphthong at the end of the first word drops its lest 
vowel before crasis takes place. 

(6.) The article drops its final vowel or diphthong in crasis 
before a. The particle roi drops « before a; and xal drops at 
before av, m, m, and the words (I, ttt, ol, al. 

2. The following are examples of cmsia : — 

Ti Smfui, roBno/itt ; rd iyaOa, rAyaOa ; ri /nuri'ov, nvyarrleir ; 6 ix, 
ovk; i (in, oitri; i Sir. 3r; icai or. car; mil ('tu, k^to; — dv^p, iir^p; 
ol AitXipol, Allt\(fKd ; r^ avipl, ravipi; t6 atrrj, rauri; roi/ aurau, rau- 
Tttii ; — TM ar, tS* (jiima or, pfin-ar) ; m apa, rSpa ; — ml auros, Kuvris ', 
ml avT^ X"^^ (^ 1^1 l)i "^ '^< "'< ""' "'> X"^'- '"^ "^ X"'- ^ 'V'^ 
otia, ly^ia ; £ arCptm, ArOpittrt ; rg iirof^, rqiropg ; npoijfav, npoBx""- 
So irou I'oTu", iroutTTu'. 

NoTK 1. The rough breathin^f of the article or relative is retained 
on tl\e contracted sjQable, taking tlia place of the usual eorsRU ('). 


Note 2. In craais, frtpot Ukea the form dn/wt, — whence fionpotf, 

NoTB 3. Craais maj be lell to pronunciation (S 10). Thus, fi^ oi 
mEikes one syllable in poetry; so fiq ciAfMu, tVtl ov. 

g 12. A short final vowel may be dropped when the next 
word begins with a vowel. This is oalled diwm. An apoUrvpht 
(') marks the omiasicm. £. g. 

&i' (fiov for Jk^ ^;iav ; ^' iulyrtt for ^1 imbnjt ; Xijoiii' Sw for X/- 
yotfu nv ; liXX' riA/r Ibr dXXd fv6vt ; <V' avtffXMry for url ov^pury. So 
J^' rT^/>f ; wuxff Shpr for mmtu £Xip> (g 17, 1 ; 16,'I). 

Note 1. The poets sometimes elide at in the verbal endings fiat, 
aat, mi, and aOai. So ot in o^uk, and rarely in /lot. 

Note 2. The prepositions vi/h and wp6, the coajnnction ^ and 
datives in t of the third declension, are not elided in Attic Greek. 
The form 8r* stands for irt, when. 

Note 3. The poets sometimes out off a short vowel even before a 
consonant. Thus in Homer we 6nd Sp, iv, xar, and trip, for Spa, iiiA, 
Kiad, and impA. Kir assimilates its r to a following g^nsonanl, and 
drops it before two consonants; as Koffffakt and xAktom for ntrt')3aX< 
'<§15,1). ' 


§ 13. 1. Moet words ending in n, and all verbs of the third 
person ending in t, add v when the next wtsd begins with a 
voweL This is called n mavoMe. E. g. 

IIa<n dtdaxri ToCra; but iram- fSoHco' (kiuib. So iiiuai /uh; but 

Note I. 'Eirri takes » movable, like third persons In m. The 
Epic jti (for 3r) adds p before a vowcL The enclitic w has an Epic 
form IV. Many adverbs in -^ (as tpdaSn) have poetic foims in -&. 

Note 2. N movable is generally added at the end of a sentence or 
of a line of poetry. It may be added even before a consonant in 
, poetry, to make position (| 19, 2). 

2. Ournt, ii (Iki), and some otiier words, drop t before a orai- 
sonant ; as euro* 8D«^ Ik iro^nts ; — but oSnn ix^h 'f Svma. 

Ov, not, becomes ovic before a smooth vowel, and mix before a 
tough vowel. Hq inserts ■ in fLtix-in (like aSiK-in), 




§ 14> !■ ifeUUhetu is the traniposition of two letters in a 
'Vord ; as in Kpiiot aud Kaftrat, itraigth / idpmt and Spaaot, 

2. Syncope is the omission of a yowel from the middle of a 
word ; aa in waripoi, raTp6t. (See § 57.) 


§ 15. !• A rough consonant (§ 6, 2) is never doubled ; but 

s^, Kx, and tS am always written for ^<^ ^X' ^^^ ^- Thu* 

Zm^u, Bacjtoc. nnAi>uv, UOt lalfufm, Bd}(xot, aiBdaptur (§ 12, N. 3). 

So in Latin, Sappho, Bacckut. 

2. Initial p is doubled when a vowel precedes it in forming 
a compound word. After a diphthoug it is unchanged. Thus, 
arapptFt-a (of ara and parru), but (Spoof (of rS &aA piot). So after 
the syllabic augment ; as tpparroii (imperfect of ^«t»). 

§ 16. The following rules apply chiefly to eupbonio changes 
made in the linid consonant of a stem in adding the endings, 
eapedally in forming and inflecting the tenses of verbs : — 

1. Before a lingual mute (t, 8, 0), a labia) or palatal mute 
must be of the same order (§ 6, N'ote), and another lingual 
mute must be changed to a. E. g. 

TiTpnrrm (for r»rpy3 tbi). !«B*«roi (for itttx-rai), ir\<x^>'<'i flbr 
wXtKr^tjuai), i\fhf>6tir (for (Xfur-ftjn), ypd^t^ (for yjwi^dqi'l. IltVtiiTTat 
(wnmi-TBi), iwtiaBipr (nr«tf-Ajc), jarai (58-nu), forf (iB-t<)- 

NoTE. No combinations of different mutes, except those here in- 
cluded and those mentioned in § 15, 1, are allowed in Greek. Whea 
aaj such arise, the first mute is dropped; aa iutrrmuui (TortrtTrtiS-Ka). 

2. No mute oan stand before v except r and k (imfr and £). 
Here fi and tft become n- ; y and ^ become k ; the other mutes 
are dropped. E. g. 

Tpl^^ (for TfuS-irtti), ypa^a (for ypaift-aiti), Xffa (for Xtyirai), irfurv 
(for KtiS-aia), fl(TCi> (for fb-aai), (rairuiri (for iTi»fiaT^<n), iXwiai (tor 
Aaiiin.). So ^\t^ (for ^Xt/S-cJ, (Xrt'i (for Airij-i), n$ (for nwr-i). 
See examples undcf g 46, 2. 

3. Before fi, a labial mute (v, ft 4>) beooioes >>; a palatal 

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mate (k, x) becomes y ; and a lingiud mute (r, i, 8) becomes r. 

AiXdfifHu (for XAe«r-ftai), rirpntiua (for rtrpiff-itai), yiypofifua (Jot 
ytypa<j>-iiat}, ffcirX<y/uii (for irnrXiK-fuu). nrnryiiiai (for rnnij^fuii}, 
g^/uu (for jd-fui), wartur-iuu (for vnnitf-fuu). 

4. In pas^ve tuid middle endings, cr is dropped between two 
consonants. K. g. 

Ai\v<p6t (for XAwoA, § 16, 1), yfypa<p9w (for 
ycpya^ftu (for ycypa^-crAu), mifxirSai (for ir(0ar-<rAu). 

Note. In the verbal ending^ vtu (ind m, ir is often dropped afler a 
Towel; as in Xwcrat, Xwoi, Xvq, or Xun (§ 9, 4, Note). Stems in ra- 
of the tliird declension also drop <r before a vowel or Hiother tr. (See 
g 52, 1, Note.) 

6. Before a labial mute {«■, A ^), » becomes ft ; before a pal- 
atal mute (k, y, x) >t becomes y (§ 6, 1). 

Before another liquid, » is changed to that liquid ; before o-, 
it is generally dropped and the preceding vowel is lengthened 
(« to «, o to ou). K g. 

"Eiarhmi (for ir-«am>), mn^aiim (for trvr-ffaaa), iiapta^r (for 
fr-^OHfc)- ^vyxit) (for aui'-;if(«), m/yyn'qt (for tnv-ytvrjt). 'EXXc/iria 
(for (v-Xcnrs), t'^finw (for h-fitni), wppia (for wv-pn»). UcXdr (for 
p«Xi»-r), A (for iv-s) Xt-'oum (for Xuo-w., § 112, Nole). 

Note 1. The combinations yr, vS, p0, are often dropped together 
before o- (g 16, 2 and 5), and the preceding vowel is lengltened, as 
above (g 16, 5); aa wotri (for iraw-in). Xioiwi (for Xioit-ot), n^iin 
(dat plur. for nfloT-o'i), tAu (for riSar-t), Bow (for Scurr^t), amian 
(for fffffi-S-ott). 

Note 2. Before m of the dative plural, v alone is dropped without 
Jengthening the vowel; as haiiioai (for Bufuv-o-i). Compare tratrt 
(for scDT-n), Note 1, 

So vr Id adjeclivei ia nt, bnt never in participles ; as XV''" (^'^^ 
Xaptttrr-n) ; but ridtlri, as given above. 

Note 3. The preposition iv is not changed before <r, p, or f. IvV 
becomes <nia- before ir and a voioel, but tm- before tr and a conao- 
nant or before f. Thus, r ipfjajmo, o-uo'O'irot, oTjfuyot. 

For f retained before <r or changed to a before p, in the perfect 
passive and middle of verbs in iw, see § 113, N. 2. 

§ 17* 1- A smooth mute standing before a roug^ vowel 

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(either by elision or in fonning a compound word) it itaelf made 
rough. Kg. 

'A<^'i;fu (for air-iij/u), laiBaipim (for mr-alpfw), &p £r (for mi tr), 
rixff ^1' (lor nlcTu SX,,v, ^ 12, g IG, 1). 

tJo in crasLs, where the rough breathing maj evcD Affect a conso- 
nant not immediately preceding it (See g 11, 2.) 

Note. The Ionic dialect does not observe this principle; but uses. 
for example, aw' nS, mrofiu. 

2. In reduplications (§ 101), an iaiti&l roug^ mate is always 
made smooth. E. g. 

niipvBi (for tftfifniMa), perfect of ^ijiii; mj^n (for x'XT^) P^^ ■'^ 
X'la'Ku; n'^Xa (for A6tj)ui), perf. of fiaXXv. 

Note. A similar change takes place in gome other words; as in 
TpitJM (for 6pt^), Tfi-xa (for flpfjjw), Tfuxot (for dpij^-of) from fl/ii|; 
•rd^i- (for (flQ^-JiB) from AJin-iii; raxit (for flaxut)- So in ii-uftjir 
(for tBaBrjr) from 4mi, and iWAjv (for iBtBrjti) from riSruu. 

3. The ending 4i of the aorist imperative passive becomes n 
after Aj-, the regular characteristic of that tense (§ 110, 3)j as 
\i&>tn (for \v8ii-&). 


§ 18. 1. A Greek 'word has as many syllables as it has 
separate voweU or diphthongs. The syllable next to the 
last is called the penult (pen-ultima, almost last) ; the one 
before the penult is called the antepenult. 

2. A pure syllable ia one whose vowel or diphthong 
immediately followa another vowel or diphthong; as the 
last syllable of ^tX^, oucia, j^vaeov. 

Note. In most editions of \he Qreek authors, the following rules 
are observed in dividing syllables at the end of a line; — 

1. Single consonants, combinations of consonants which can begin 
a word (which can be seen from the Lexicon), and mutes followed by 
H or *, are placed at the beginning of a syllable. Other combinations 
of consonants are divided. Tliiis, ?-x», '-y^, i-inri-pQ, ti-KTop, d-uft^, 
ii-iTii6i, la-Kpay, epa-yiia-roc, lepdir-iTia, A-iric, tv-tiv. 

2. Compound words arc divided into their original parts; but 
when elision has taken place, they are divided like simple words. 
TbuB( irpoa-A-^, but va-pci'jnt. 

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§ 19. !■ A syllable is long by nature when it has a 
h)ng vowel ot a diphthong ; as in tI/i^, icrelvu. 

2. A syllable is long by position when its vowel is fol- 
lowed by two consonants or a double consonant; as in 

3. When a vowel short by nature is followed by a mute 
and a liquid, the syllable ia common (L e. either long or 
short) ; aa in rticvov, tirvov, vfipK, But in Attic poetry 
such a eyllable is generally short, in other poetiy it is 
generally long. 

Note. A middle route (fi, y, If) before X, ft, or >>, lengitheos iht 
preceding vowel, as in iyriit, $^lev, iiryfia. 

% 30. The quantity of moet syllables can be Been at onoe. 
Tbua tf and « and all diphtbongB are long by nature; c and o 
are short by nature. (See § 2.) 

When a, I, and v are not long by position, their quantity must 
generally be learned by observation. But it is to be remem- 
bered that 

1. Every vowel artaii^ from contraction or orasis (not &om 
elision) is long ; as a in Smv for dtVuv. 

2. The endings ar and m are loi^ when n or vr has been 
dropped before o- (§ 16, 5, and N. 1). 

3. The accent often shows the quantity of a vowel. (Sea 
§21,1; §23.) 

The quanUty of the terminations of nouns and verbs will be stated 
below in the proper places. 

§21. 1. There are three accents, the ocirfe ('), the jr(M» 
Q), and the mrcumfteso ("). The acute can stand only on 
one of the last three syllables of a word, the circumflex 
only on one of the last two, and the grave only on the 
last The circumflex can stand only on a syllable long 
by nature, 


KoTE 2. The accent (like the breathing) standa on the second 
Towel of & diphihoDg. (See g 4, 1, Note.) 

2. A word is called oxyttme when it has the acute on the last 
syllable ; paroxytont, when it has the acute on the peoult ; pro- 
j)aro^yt<me, when it has the acuta on the antepenult 

A word ia called peritpomenmt when it has the circumflex on 
the last syllable ; properispomewm, when it has the circuniflex 
on the penult 

A word is called haryUme when its last syllable has no accent 

§ 22. 1. The antepenult cannot be accented if the last 
syllable is long (either by nature or by position). If ac- 
cented, it takes the acute ; as -irdKeioK, S»9pa>wov. 

2. The penult, if accented, takes the circumflex if it is 
long by nature and at the same (ivie the lost syllable is 
short by nature ; as firjXov, vrjaiK, ^^^• Otherwise, if 
accented, it takes the acute. 

Note 1. Final oi and « are considered short in determining the 
accent; as Sv^ptmm, i^aoi. Except in the optative mood, and in the 
adverb ouou, at home ; as Tifiqmu. iroiqircH (not n'fiqinu or noirfaoi). 

Note 2. Genitives in tmt and tm> from nouns in ie and uc of the 
third declension (5 93, 1, K. 2), all cases of nouns and adjecLives in 
at and tw of the Attic (second) declension (§ 42, 2), and the Ionic 
genitive in ta of the first (g 39), allow the acute on the antepenult; 
as arirytaiv, uStntas, T^pta (T^ptjs). For Sunitp, o'it, &6., Bee % 28, N. S. 

§ 23, 1- An oxytone changes its acute to the grave 
before other words in the same sentence ; as tovs ■jrowjpow 
aiidpmrov<t (for tows voinjpoC^ apBpaiirow). 

Note. This chanfre is not made before enclitkt (§ 28) nor in the 
interrogative rlt, ri (§ 84). It ia generally made before a comma, 
but not before a colon. 

2. When a dissyllabic preposition follows its case, or a verb 
to which it belnngs, it throws its accent back to the penult ; as 
Twrojv nipt, oXiVoc Aro (Homeric). (Except owi, iid, a^^i'i om.) 
So also when a preposition stauds for itself compounded with 
iariri as ird^ for waptarw. This is called ana^rophe. 


Accent of Cootnctod BrUabln. 

§ 24< !■ A coutractcd syllablu is ncceuted if either of the 
original nllableB bad an accent If it is a peuulc or antepenult, 
tbo accent is r^ular (§ 22). If it is a final syllable, it is cir- 
Gumflezed ; but if the original word had the acute on the last 
pliable, this is retained. E. g. 

Ti^^tfvac from rifunf^ivE, ^(Xnrc from ^iXt'cn, Tm& from nfuia> ; 
but /3(j3uc from )3e|8fuor. 

Note. If neither of the original syllables had an accent, the accent 
is not affected by contraction ; as n'/ia for rinat. 

Some exceptions to the rule of § 24, 1, will be noticed under the 
declensions. (See § 43, Note ; § 65.) 

2. In crasis, the accent of the first word is lost and that of 
the second remaina ; as rayaBd for ri ayafia, lyfia for lyu oi3a, 
n^m for Koi (fro. 

3. la elision, coytone prepoeitionB and conjunctions lose 
their accent with the elided Towel ; other oxytones throw the 
accent back to the penult. E. g. 

'En'* aiiTf for iVl ibjt^, oXX' tlum for dXU rinfv, ^f ' tyi for ^ij/il 
cyv, kok' imi for loui imj. 

Acoevt of Kouni. 

§ 36. I. The place of the accent in the nominative singular 
mtist generally be learned by observation. In the other cases, 
the accent remfuas on the mme tyllabU as in the nominative, if 
the last syllable permits (§ 22) ; otherwise it ia placed on the 
following syllable. E g. 

Gakairira, 6a\aatnit, Ai^uinmf, OaXaaaai, BaXaomm; KOpa^, tdpaicot, 
KipoKiijKOpaxioii; Kpayfia, irpayiiaror, frpayiioriMi ; iioiis, iSinot, utorrap, 

The hind of accent is determined as usual (§ 22) ; as v^tret, v^aou, 
HTJaaii vqiriH, nfimif. 

2. The last syllable of the genitive and dative of oxytones of 
the first and second declensions is circumflexed. On of the 
genitive plural is regularly circumflexed in all nouns of the 
Jirii declension (even in barytones), and in all adjectives and 
participles of the first declension except those in at. K g. 

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Ti/i^c, n^s, nfuuv, n/iwF, rifuur; Stov, 6if, ^iv, Auv, ^ii; also 
iutSir, Oo^ir (from Si'ic^, dii£a), but o^W, Xiya/u'vuF (fem. gen. plur. of 
S$iot, XrydiuroO. See § 3S, Note. 

Note. Genitives in » of the second declension (J 42) are ox- 

3. Most moDOGyllableB of the third declension accent the last 
syllable in the getiitiv« and dative of all numbers; and ar and 
ci» are circumfloxed. K g. 

O^fi tenant^ Bifrit, S^, Srp-aiv, drfrSir, Bifiii. 

Note. HaTc, ch'dd, tpin, Trojan, and a, few others, violate the last 
rule ill the genitive dual and plural ; so nas, all, in both genitive and 
dative plural; as n-air, waiS6s, iroiAi, n-awi, but waiSap; vat, rayr6s, 
irarrt, irorrogr, wan. 

The interrogative tit, nvot, rifi, &o. always accents the first syllable. 
So do all monosyllabic participles; as if, SiTot, Spti, Snmv, oSca 

Some further exceptions occur in irregular noun^ and others will 
be noticed under the different declensions. 

§ 26. Yerba throw the accent as far bock as the last sylla- 
ble permits; as ffovKiva, ^vXnjo^v, ^vXtiouvw; itapix», miptx*! 
mroS^lt»iu, tariiort. 

Note 1. This applies to compound as well as simple verbs; but 
in compound verba the accent cannot precede the augment. Thus, 
itaptlxor (not waprtxor)- 9o when the verb besrins with a long vowel 
or diphthong not augmented; as i^ivpor (not t^vpor). 

Note 2. Participles in their inJUctinn are accented as nouns, not 
as verbs. Thus, PavXrinr has in the neuter jSouXcvo* (not poCktvmr) ; 
ipiXiav, ^£v, has <ftAtoi' (not tpikrow), ipAmir. 

Note 3. The chief exceptions to the principle just stated (§26) 

(I.) The following forms accent the penult: the first aorist active 
infinitive, the second aorist middle infinitive, the perfect passive infini- 
tive and participle, and all infinitives in mi or /uv (except those in 

>incu). Thus, /SnvXfOfriu, yriaOai. "KikvirGai. XiXv/ii'rac, IcrTovtu, lhi6iiQtt 
XAuKtroL, iSltrr and JId/unu (both EpiC for SobKu). 

Add the compounds of Ht, ii, Oii, and o-jyir; as mriios. 

^.) The following fonas have the acute on the last eyllsblei the 

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Mcond aorist active participle, partjciples in tit, ovt, vc. and m, and 
present participles in nr from verbs in /u. Thus, X»r^ Xv6iit, iitoitt 
ituavt, "KtkvK&s, limit (b-Jt Xvinir and orqavf). 

Add the imperatives tSi, tan, i\6i, tupi, and \affi. 

(3.) The roUovring circumJUx tlie last syllable: the second aorist 
active infinitive, and the second person singular of the second aoriat 
middle imperative (except when the latter is compounded with a 
diayliable preposition). Thus, Xmu^ Aorov, npolou, a0aC (but utra- 

NoTR 4. Some other ezceptiona occur, especiaUj ia irregular verbs 
(tike (Ifi/ and ^fci). Some will be noticed hereafter uader verbs in ^ 

§ 27. As enclitic is a word which losee its own aooent, and 
is prouoonced as if it were part of the preceding word ; as 
SiiBpaitoi re (like h6min(ique iu Latin). The enclitics are 

1. The personal pronouns ftov, /mi, iu; bov, aoi, <ri', o£, oi, i, 

Oij^irt (with iTIpl, inpir, (r0t, ir^oH, ir^iv, a^av, inptai, irffmt, tr^'o, 

t$tv, fiiv, via, § 79, 1), except when they are reflexive (§ 144, 2). 

2. The indefinite pronoun rlr, tI, in all its forms ; also the 
indefinite adverbs tni, m6i, >ij, irof, tmeiv, van, tri, irw. (These 
must be distiuguiahed from the intem^tivea rlt, kov, irj, &a.) 

3. The present indicative of rlni, to be, and of ^/if, to say, 
except the forms ri and rpgs. * 

4. The particles yl, ri, toI, xip, fun (not mr) ; and the Epic 
■i (or hV), 6!jv, and pa. Also the inseparable -ft* in oftt, raiHrit, 
kc. (not 3>, bvt) ; and •St and -x} in «dc and raljfi. 

§ 28. The word hefore an enclitic retains its own accent, 
and never changes a final acute to the grave (§ 23, 1), 

1. If its last syllable is accented, the accent of the enclitic is 
merely dropped ; as ninai rt, njimv rt, iio<j>6s ns, «nXui ifnimr, 

2. If its last syllable is unaccented and it has not the acute 
on the penult, it receives from the enclitic tux acute on the last 
syllable as au additional accent, while the enclitic loses its ac- 
cent ; as Sii6pajr6s tk, Si i£Jv fioi, jraiilr rtvn, oSrit Jcrnv, <" nt. 

3. If it bos' the acute on the penult, it receives no second 
accent. A raonosyllabic enclitic here drops its accent ; a dis- 
syllabic enclitic retains it. Thus, tovtov yt, wdmt nc, ipiptt rt*tf 
(but irwStr ravt), ovrm i^alu (but offrdt ^vw),' 



Note 1. Eoclitica retain their accent, — (1) when thej b^n & 
sentence, (2) when the preceding syllable is elided, (3) when they 
are emphatic. The permnal pronouns generally retain their accent 
alter prepositions (except in vp6t fit). 'Ecrrt at the beginning of a 
sentence, and when It signifies exiilenM or poisibilitg, becomes iart; 
so alter ev, fi^, ei, itt, nai, oXX' (for dAXa), and rvur' (for rovro). 

KoTB 3. When several enclitics occur in successiwi, each takes an 
acute from the following, the last remaining without accent; aa tl 
Ti's Tl aol ^trur. 

Note 3, When an enclitic forma the laat part of a compound word, 
the compound ia accented aa if the enclitic were a separate word. 
Thus, oSiwof, fTtn, hmiMti', Jhnnp, &^c, otSf, TsvtrAr, are only ap- 
parent exceptions to g 22, 

§ 29. A proeUtie is a word which has no accent, and is pro- 
nounced as if it were part of the following word. The proclitics 
are the articles ^ ij, oi, al, and the particles ft, m, oO {oCk, eix), 
.Ir (^0- ti («). '" (•'')■ 

KoTE. Oi takes the acute at the end of a sentence; aa w&tyip oH ; 
for vjky nott 'Qt and »'j take the acute when (in poetry) they follow 
their noun; as KOKUf «f, from evils; Otis as, eu a God. 'Or is ac- 
cented also when it means that; as hi- tivtr, ihia he »poke. When 6 
is used for (he relative St, it is accented ; aud many editors accent all 
articles when they are demonstrative (as in II. L 9). 

§ 30. 1. The Tonic dialect is marked by the use of 7 where 
the Attic has a ; and the Doric by the use of S where the Attio 
has t). Thus, Ionic yw^ for yivti, Ifiao/tai for Idtro/un (from 
liopai, § 106) ; Doric n/iSai. for n^Ti<ro (from ti/iob). But an 
Attic a caused by contraction (as in t/^o f™™ ri^, or an Attio 
7 lengthened from • (as in 0tXij(ru from ipMa>, § 106), is neTer 
thus changed. 

2. The Ionic often has »i, <m, for Attic «, o; and 17I for Attic 
« in nouns and adjectives in tios, «io»" ; as £«iiipt for $irof, pmrOiqlo* 
for ffatrSktuH. 

3. The Ionic does not avoid BucccBsiTe vowels, like the Attic ; 
and it therefore very often omits contraction (§ 9). ' It con- 

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tracts to and too into lu (eapecially in Herodotua) ; as «ouufur, 

SMftJiT'i (from troudfur, vmiovtri), for Attic in)i(iu;in>, nouXiat. He- 

rodotus docs'nut use » movable (§ 13, 1). See also g 17, 1, Xota 


§ 31. The Greek uses the comma ( , ) and the period ( . ) like 

the English. It has also a colon,, a point above the line ('), - 

which is equivalent to the English colon and seinicoloiL Its 

mark, of interrogation {,-) is the same aa the EnglUdi semicolon. 
Ttie mark of exclamation (1) is aometimes used. Other marka 
ore the same as in English. 

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§ 82. 1. Inflection is a change in the form of a word, 
made to express its relation to other words. It inclndes 
declermon of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, conjugation 
of verbs, and comparison of adjectives and adverbs. 

2. Every inflected word has a fundamental part, which 
is called the stem. To this are appended various syllables, 
called endings, to form cases, tenses, persons, numbers, &c. 

Note. Most words contain a still more primitive element than the 
stem, which is called the root. Thus, the stem of rtiiAa is niia-, that of 
rfrui is Ttr-, that of rfm is run-, that of -riiMUt is riiuo-, that of rliaiiia 
(TifiiifuTDt) is Ti^ijfiar. ; but all these stems are developed from one root, 
T1-, which is seen pure in the verb riu, to honor. In tIu, therefore, the 
stem and the root are the same. 

The st«m itself may be modified and assume various forms in different 
parts of a noun or verb. Tins, the same verhal stem may in different 
tenses appear as \nr-, \ciir-, and X«t- ; and the same nominal stem may 
appear as ripa- and timi- ; but these changes are entirely distinct from 
those proiluced by inflection. The stem, therefore, may be defined as the 
port whiuh is not changed by inJUction. 

% 33. 1. There are three nunJ>ers; the singular, the 
dual, and the pluraL The sii^ular denotes one object, the 
plural more than ona The dual is sometimes used to de- 
note two objects, but even here the plural is more common. 

2, There are three geriders ; the masculine, tlie feminine, 
and the neuter. 

Note 1. The gramTnalieal gander in Greek ia genemlly difierent 
from the natural gender, especially in names of things. A Greek 
noun is called masculine, feminine, or neuter, when it requires an ad- 
jective or article to take the form adapted to either of these Renders. 
The gender is of1:cn indicated by prefixing the article; as (6) inip, 
man; {!j) yia^, iceman; (ri) wpayiia, thing. (See S 78.) 


18 INFLECTION. [j 84. 

Note 2. Noons 'which may be either masculine or feminine are 
eaid to be of the common gender ; as (6, q) 8tis, Ood or Goddtst, 
Names of animals which include both sexes, but have but one gram- 
matical gcuder, are called epicene ((iriKouvf) ; as 6 atrot, the eai/U; 
^ dkiomj^, the fox, 

NoTB 3. The gender must often be learned by observation. But 
namea of males si^ generally masculine, and names of females femi- 
nine. Further, most names oi riven, v^nda, and nwnliif are masculine; 
and most names of ouiUriej, toums, trtcs, and idands are feminine. 
Other rules are given under the decletisiona. 

3. There are five cases; the nominative, genitive, dative, 
accusative, and vocative. 

The nominative and vocative plural are always alike. 
In neuters, the nominative, accusative, and vocative are 
alike in all numlsers ; and in the plural these cases end in a. 
The nominative, accusative, and voeative dual are always 
alike ; and the genitive and dative dual are always alika 

Note 1. The cases have in general the game meaning as the cor- 
responding cases in Latin ; as Nom. a man (as subject), Gen. of a 
man, Dat. to or for a man, Accus. a man (as object), Voc. O man. The 
chief functions of the Latin ablative are divided between the Greek 
genitive and dative. 

Note 2. All the cases except the nominative and vocative are 
called oUi^ cases. 


% 34. There are three declensions of noims, in which 
also all adjectives are included. 

Note. The name noun (JIkvui), according to ancient usage, includes both 
substantives and ailjectives. But by modern custom nOTin is often used as 
aynonymous with substantive, and it is bo used in the present work. 


§ 35. Stems of the first declension end originally in o, 
which is often modified into ij in the singular. The nomi- 
native singular of feminines ends in a or i; ; tiiat of mas- 
culines ends in (w or i}«. 

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§ 36. Tbe following table sbowB ibe tfnnhiatinu in all tiie 
cases of tiiis decieesion. These consist of the tinal a or 7 of tlie 
stem united witli the casa^ndiitgi (§ 32, 2). 

«or„ », 




G. D. m> 



Bote. Here, as in most case*, the reLttion of tlte stem to the termina- 
tions cannot be perfectly understood without referenca to the earlier forma 
of the langua^. Thus, uf of the genitive plural ia coatraoted from the 
Homeric diu* {% SB) ; and ov of the genitive eingnlar comBH front the Ho- 
meric oo (through a form to) by eontractdou. The forms iu a and ij have 

§ 37. 1. The noons (Ji) t*^^, TiotiOT, (^) MoSi<Ta, Muse, 
(^) oma, house, (o) TroTuVq;, citia^, {o^ ra/iUK, steward, 
are thus declined : — 






























G. D. 




































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20 mrLECTiON. [5 3B. 

2. Nonos ending in a jmre (§ 18, 2), pa, and a, few others, 
are declined like oUt'o. Other nouns in a are declined like 
Movaa ; as QaKaatra, BoKatra^, BaKtltrtr^, dtiXaaaav, &C. 

(See 6 25, 1.) . 

Note 1. The nouns m ije which have 3 in the vocntive singular 
(like jroKiTTis) are chieSy those in n^c, natiocal appellations (like 
Oxfiarft, a I'erdan, voc nip<ra}, and compaimd verbals in ijc (like 
ytioiuTpi^s, a geometer, voc. ytaiUrpa). Most other noumi in iji hare 
the V. 

Note 2. The termination a of the nominative singular is always 
short when the genitive has ijc, and generally long when the genitive 
has oc. Exceptions are generally Been by the accent (§ 22). 

Av of the accusative singular and a of the vocative singular agree 
in quantity witli a of the nominative. The quaatitj of all other 
vowels may t>e seen from the table in § 36. 

Oontrmct Moniu ot the FInt Dseleniiaii. 

§ 38. Most nouns in aa, ea, and ea? are contracted (§ 9). 
Muda, fwa, mina, wKta, irvic^, f^-tree, and 'EpfUaf, 'Epfi^, 
Eermea {MereuTy), are thus declined : — 


S. fwda pxa mxia ovkti '%ppiat 'iLpii^t 

G. fivaa; firoc trvnias iniii7E 'Epnimi 'Epfiov 

D. foiaf liv^ miua avKJ 'Bpiiif 'Ep/i,S 

.A. fivoiur fdav <Tvieiav miK^r 'Epfuar 'Rp/iqr 

V. fipaa /ma ini*ia itvk^ 'Eppia 'Epp^ 

N. A. V. ftroa pM avKta trvna 'Eppia 'Eppa 

G. D. piniaw piMUM avniaui evttuii 'Eppiaai 'Bppait 

pvaat prat witiai amau 'Epplat 'Eppai 

pra&r prar miuwr inw»> Epfuur EppB* 

firaatc pHxit mitiais miKoll 'Eppiait 'Eppatt 

proas fuur mniat <rvKat 'Zppias 'Eppas 

pnaai ptnu mwfai irvnH 'EppMot 'Eppai 

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For adjectives of this class, see g 65. For pecdilar oontraction in 
the dual and plural, see § !>, 3, Note, and 3 9, 4. 

§ 39< Ionic 7, qr, g, ip, in the singular, for a, or. 9, or. Doric fi, 
at, 9, ai-, For t), &c. in the same cases. (See § 30.) The Ionic gener- 
ally uses the uncontracted forms. 

Norn. Sing. Horn, sometimes S for tft; as brwira for hnronft, hone- 
tnan, (Compare Latin poeta ^ itoitt^cO 

Gen. Sing. For ov, Horn, ao, ta; as 'ATptHao, 'Arpftdm: Hdt. ttt 
(sometimes in old Attic proper names) : Doric a (rarelj in Attic). 

Gen. Ptur. Horn. don>, iay (whence, by contractioa, Attic or, 
Doric an) : Hdt. tar. 

Dot. I'lar. Poetic aun, Ionic gai, ^s ; as rifiouri, Hovvgin or Jiot/trgt 
(for Houirair). 

§ 40. The nominative singular of most nouns of the 
second declension ends in o; or ov (gen. ov). Those in 
OS are masculine, rarely feminine ; those io ov are neuter. 

IToTK. The stem of nouns of this declension ends in d ; which is 
sometimes lengtliened to ■, and becomes « in the TocatiTe angular, 
and a in the nomiaatiTe, accusative, and vocative plural of Dealers. 

§ 41. The following table shows the termmationa in this 
declension, that is, the final of the stem (with its modifica- 
tions) tinited with the case-endings : — 

Maac <t Fein. NtuUr. 

Mate., Fern., ■£ ITaiter. 

G, D. 

Mate. <£ Fern. 

N. M 

§ 42. 1. The nouns (o) \oyoij, word, (^) prjffo^, idand, 
(», ^) avdpatiro^, yuan 01 human being, (to) i^poy, gift, are 
thus declined : — 

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G. D. 


























2. A few masculine and fenunine nouns of this declea- 
sion end in ok (gen. «), and a few neuters in av {gen. to). 
This is often called the Altie declension. The nouns 
(o) vea^, temple, and (to) avayeav, hall, are thus de- 
clined: — 



N. A.V. 
G. D. 

N. A.V. 
G. D. 


The accent of thefie nouns is irregular 
2, Note. See also 8 53, 1, N, 2.) 

NoTB. Some masculioea aad feminincB of this class may drop v of 


the accttsatiTe Angular ; as XnyMr, accus. Xnyaf or Xoyv. So 'Affm, 
TOv'AStivor'AOio: Kut, t^v Kuv or Ku; and KtucTt'se, Mimm. '£«r, 
dawn, haa regularly r^ip 'Eoi. 

!■ of Uie SMxind I>«cleiuliiu> 

§ 43. Many nouns in et>?, 009, eon, and oov are con- 
tracted. NJos, vovs, mind, and oo-teoi', otrrovv, ioTU, are 
thus declined : — 

N. A.y. »!<» yj> 
U. D. nfou' vou' 

V. * 

For the fcmifl i 
see §65. 

N.A.V. £(rT«u AttA 
G. D. iarimr ivroa 

N.A.V. ^trrVo At™ 
. wiriav itrrStv 

geaer&Uy adjectiTes, 

NoTK. The accent of these contract fbnns is irregular in several 

1. The nominative, accusative, and vocaUve dnal contract «■ and 
iu, into & (not A). See § ^, 1. 

2. Adjectives in tot circumflex tlie laat syllable of all contract 
forms ; as jfpiKrtat, jipvaimt (not )(puaovt, % 24, 1). So niwav, nanavv, 
lasttt. Except w in the dual, just mentioned. 

3. The contracted forms of compounds in oot follow the accent 
of the contracted nominative singular; as dirtirvoaf, ovrlwimK, gen. 
amiryimi, aprlirmo (not oiTunml), &c. 

§ 44, Gen. Sing. For ov, Epic 010, Doric « (for 00); as Aoio, 

Gen. and Dal. Dual, Epic our for ««. 
Ito. Plur. Ionic and poetic o«ri for o«. ■ 
.^ee. Plur. Doric as or <w for m« 

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§ 45. 1. This declension includes all nouns not l)elong- 
ing to either the first or the second. Its geuitive singular 
ends in o; (sometimes tot). 

2. The stem of a noun of the third declension cannot always 
be detenniued by the nominative singular ; but it is generally 
found hy dropping at (or «r) of the genitive. The casea are 
formed by adding to the stem the followii^ eudinfft (which here 
ai-e not united with any letter of the stem) : — 


Mate, ii Fern. JVeuter. 

I N«M (runlj i) 

ifat,, Hm., Neu. 

G. D. 


Mate, i: Ftm. H'eut. 

Nominative S. 

§ 46. The forms of the nominative singular of this declen- 
sion are numerous, and must be learned partly by practice. 
The following are the general principles on which the nomina- 
tive is formed Irom the stem. 

1. lu neuters, the nominative singular is generally the some 
as the stem. Stems ending in r (including rr) regularly drop 
the T (5 7). E. g. 

Xufia, oaiurr-ot; luXar (neiiler of pi\Ss), ^('Xav-oc; Xtvar (neuter 
ofXiJonO. XucraiT-ot; irai'. iniiT-(!r ; TiBir, Ti5«iT-ot; )(af>itv, xopwiT-orJ 
iiior, BiSovT~oc; \iyor, \tyepT-at', ittarvf (C). StiKviiin'-oi. For the 
ntancaline nominatives of tliese adjectives and participles, see below, 
§ 4G, 2, 3, and Note 1. 

Some neuter litems in or Torm the nominative in at, and a few in 
op ; as Tipat, Tipar-ot ', ^<tp, /ficar-ot- 

2. Masctdine and feminine stems (except those included un- 
der 3 and 4) form the nominative singular by adding t and 
naakiiig the needful euphonic tliauKe^ (5 16). E. g. 

^Aa(, tfiiXoK-os; yir^, ywr-dr; tfAiijf, ip\i^-6t (J l.C, 2); AniV, 
(Xvi'd-w (S 16, 2; cf. § 47, Note); x°f"^> X'P^^"'**'' tW*' ^t^'^ti 

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rv(, >VKr-& ; iiaoTti, itartvy-os ; crdXmyf, irdXirfyyof ■ So Auc. Auvr-of 
(§ 16, 5, N. I) ; Xvoac, XiirairT-ot ', irat> warr-ic ; nStit, rtOtrr-ot 
(§ IQ, 5); ;i[api((c, ;i[ap(iT.»r; ituarus (u), 3cucrtiin--ac. (The nealers 
of the last five worda, Xwrov, a-ov, rt^cv, x"!^"' '^^^ ifucif, are given 
under g 4G, 1.) 

3. Utkscnline and feminine sterna in * and p lengthen the last 
Towel if it ia short, but are otherwise unchanged ia the nomina- 
tive. K g. 

Aiaat, (uuv-oi ; ialfUBt, ituiiev-ot ; ^i/'4*i Xi^V-oi ; 6^p, Sijp-it i ilip, 

Exceptions are fiiXar, fii\ar-et, hlaek; niXsf, nDuw-oi, wrttehtd; 
(Tr, Ir-is, one; Knit, imv-is, conA; pit, piv-oE, nose; wbicit add t. 

i. Masculine stems in arr generally drop r, and form the 
nominative like stems in v (§ 46, 3). E. g. 

Af uv, \(oi-roc I Xiym \iyorr~ai i Sr, Sirr-os, 

'Sots 1. Masculine participles from verbs in upt change orr to oor 
(5 46, 2); as Mcit, SMyr-os (§ 16, 5, N. 1). So a few nouns in 
ovr ; as iioit, tooii, 6d6rT-ot. Neuter* in o»r-are regular (§ 46, 1). 

Note. 2. The perfect active participle (§ 68), with a stem in or, 
forms it« nominative in at (mosc) and oc (aeut) ; as XAvnui, X(Xvi«!r, 
gen. XAvnlr^;. 

Note 3. For nominatives in i;c (tt) and or, gen. tat, see § 52, 1, 
Note. A few other peculiar formations in contract nouns will b« 
noticed below, |g 54-66. 

§ 47. !• Most masculines and feminlnes fbrm the accuaa- 
tive singular by adding a to the stem ; as ^Xa£ (^uXok-), ^vXau; 
Xi'aw (X«m^), Xfovro. 

2. Nouns in ir, vt, ovr, and om, if the stem ends in a vowel or 
diphthong, change t of the nominative to » ; as mSXic , iriSXir ; Ix^vc, 
ix/K* i fit, raw i poit, fiovp. 

But if the stem ouds in a consonant, harytona of these classes 
have two forms, one in a and one in v, while others have only 
the form in a ; as Ipts, iptv or eptSa ; Spnt, Spnv or Sp'183 ; tStXvit, 
tCtXin* or (vcXn-ida (while tkicit has only JXirUn) ; wait (n-wl-), 

When there are two foims, that in a is not common in Attic prose. 

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26 INFLECnOH. [1 48. 

NOTB. Till anoBuImu «eoautive in ir of noims in i^ geu. irot, iSes, <« 
lAit, ma; be explained by mipposiug the origittal Btom of ail oouits in i> to 
end in t, and tlie lingual to be a euphonic in^rtiou in certain cases. This 
would also explain the vocative in c, and render the formation of the nomi' 
native dngolar and the dative plural simpler. 

For accusativee in « from nouns in j/t and tvt, aee g S% 1, Note, and 
i6a,S, Note 1. 

§ 48. !■ The Yocative singular of masculinfls and femi- 
uinea is generally the same as the nominatlTe. 

2. But in the foUowiDg coses it is the same as the stem : — 
(a). In harytonet with stems ending in a liquid; as daffiw 

(joifior-), VOC. iaxiUM ; ^qrap (fiijnp-), VOC fi^reft. 

But if Ihe last syllable is accented, the vocative is the same as the 
nominative; as Xi^v (Xi/ur-), voc Xifuji-; al$^p (oidifi-), voc. ai^p. 

(b.) In noiins and a^jectivee whose stems end in it, final r 
of the 8t«m being dropped (§ 7) ; as ylyot (ytymr-), voc yt/av, 
X>«i' (XcoiT-), voc. Xror ; xafMit (j(apwvT-), VOC ](iipU*. 

But aU partKipUt of the tliird declension have the vocative uid 
nominative alike. (Compare Xumv, looting, voc Xutar, with XiW, Hon, 
voc X»r.) 

(c.) In nouns and adjectives in u, vt, cvr, and am. These 
drop E of the nominative to form the vocative ; as ihrU (A«iA-), 
voc Anf (§ 7) ; Ixfii^, 1x61, ; ^iriXfw, /SotnAn (§ 63, 3, N. 1) ; 
ypavi, ypaS (§ 54, Ifote) ; voir (for ira&), vat (for trot)- So in 
compounds of »oia,/oot. 

(d.) In nouns and adjectives in gc, gen. tot (out). Theee form 
the vocative in ft (§ 52) ; as Smcpanft, voc Hnpaxtt ; rptqpqc, 
voc TptJipu; &ii6rfit VOC aXi}<9w. For the accent, see § 52, 2, 
Mote 1. 

NoTR. The vocatives 'AroXXoi', Tl6attio*, and vamp (from stems in 
<»■ and i)p) shorten the last vowel and throw back the accent For 
the vocative of syncopated nouns, see % 57. 'Aydiafipor and some 
other compound proper names throw back their accent (Se« g 52, 
2, Note 1. 

3. Nouns in A, gen. oSc (§ 55), form the vocative in ot So a 
few in in, gen. oCt (§ 65, N. 2) ; as a^lH*, voc iqiai. 

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DitaanrEAOTED sovss. 

§ 49. The dfttiTe plural ii formed 1^ adding m to the 
Btem. K g. 

^uXof (^uXar-), tfniKtt(t\ fifirmp (ptfrop-), pffropvii (Xm'i (And-^ 
tkituri ; vout («o^), «iMri ; Xt'atv (Xtoit-), Xtovcri ; iaiiiii' (to^ur-)) 

(IcrmFT-), loTOffi ; Stiaiut (iruannrr^), ttitrvm ', /SmnXtiJt (/SmnXni-), 
^ariXniin; ^avc (^nv), ^miirf ; ypaiit (ypau-), ypmivl Q 54). For the 

eupboDiQ changes, see § 16, 2 and 5, with Notes. 
For dumgea ia epxo^ptied nouns, see % 57. 

§ 60. The following are examples of the most common 
forms of uncontracted nouns of the third dedension. 

For the formation of the cases of these nouns, see {§ 46-49. 
For euphonic changes in nearly all, see § 16, S, and § 46. For 
spedal ohai^B in \imr and ylyat, see § 16, S. For contract forms 
of nouns in or, ante, see § 56, 2. 

I. UASOUuma akd Taamsa. 




< (X«»T-) 













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IHrLECmON. [§50. 













4(.l— ) 




















H. iV. 



H. A.T. 



cosTRACT Homra. 

n. HxomuL 
6ody. prodiffj/. 


I 6L 1. Most nouDS of the third dedension in vMch 
8 vowel of the stem precedes a vowel is the case-ending 
are contracted in some of their cases. 

2. The contracted nominative and aceuaative plural 
have the same form. (See, however, § 53, 3, N. 3.) 

§ 62. 1, Nouns in tjs («) and o?, gen. m?, are con- 
tracted whenever « of the stem precedes a voweL 

NoTK. A comparison of kindred langtuifes shows that the original stem 
ct Hum noons ended in tr, in which r is dropped before a rowel or another 
ff in the ease^ending (J IS, i, Kote). The geiiitiTa tir—t, therefore, stands 
for Ml original form yata-oi, which, however, ii never found in Oreek. 
(See S 56, 1, Note.) The proper substantive stems change (t to ot in the 
nominative singutar (ea in yim, rcixoi) ; the wljective stems lengthen <t 
to ^ in the Diasculine ijid feminine, and retain ct in the neuter. (Sea 
I 6d.) A few adjectives in ■iptfi are used sahstantively, as rpiiW {Iripli/ 
^tted, sc. nSi), trireme. 

2. The nouns (^) Tpn^i, U-ireme, and (to) yuiQi, race, 
are thus declined : — 

;,. Google 



















N. V. 



G. rpuipiitw Tpt^puB ytritf yomf 

A> Tpiifptas Tpt^it yirta yiwg 

NoTB 1. Baiytonea in ift throw bock 1^ accent as far as possible 

in tU fomis; u vec Zuj^xmr, A^/iSaBnrc, fnHii StwcpanjE, iuiiiotrfiinit, 

declined like rpaiptji in Uie lingular. 
IToTi! 2. Wten the termination «• is preceded by a vowel, it is 

generally contracted into 1; as vyuit, htatihg, sccus. sing, vyiia, iyta 

{aometimea uyiq) ; xP''^' ''**'» ^- -*- ^- P'"""* XP*"- ^ **>* ^'"'i •• " 

irregularly contracted into i). 

Note 3. Proper names in Aajr are doubly contracted in the d»< 

tire, Bometimes in tbe aocuafttiTe. HtpuOut/s, Ptridtt, a thus de> 

dined (see alro § 69, 4) : — 

N. TttpucKitit ntpuA^f 

O. IlfpuAftM TltpucXioof 

D. II(/M)cXf(( DtpuXtn n«puAt( 

A. IlfputXtca ntpicXta IlcputX^ 

V. ntpucXfH n<ptKX«r 

§ 63. Nouns in K emd i (stems in t), v? and v {stems 
in v), contract only the dative singular, and the nomina- 
tive, accusative, and vocative plural Nouns in eu? gener- 
ally contract only the dative sinf^ular and the nominative 
and vcreative plural 

1. Most stems in t, with a few in v, change their final i 
or V to < in all cases except the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative singular. 

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The Doniu (^) 9-0X49, cH^, (stem m\i-), ir^xy^, eubit, 
(Btem inixf~)> '^'^ otfTv, city (stem aoTf-}, are thus de- 
clined: — 












wOm w^x*' 




















«^MH «^X<K 












"A™ "ix™ 




For the Ionic fbmu of nouns in u, see § 59, 2. 

NoTK 1. Nouns 

in ( ftre declined like AfTv ; as M) ff .'Mm 



. The genitiTOS in mr nnd t» 

> of nouns 


js accent 

2. Most nouns in vsret^nvacd are i^ular; aB(o)i^dv«, 
/«A, wliich is thus declined; — 






N.V. ix«.. ftHi 



N-A-V. Ixti, 

O. Ij«^ 


ixea tf:^ 

G. D. Ix'iw 

D. l,M,n 



A. Ix6iia IxKs 



Note I. The contracted nomiiiatiTe plural in vt is not common. 
The oonlracted datire in «« ia Homeric 

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It St. 

IToTB 3. Adjectires ia w ue decUned in die masctdine like w^xv'i 
and in the neuter like Strru. But the masculine genitive ends iu (0« 
(like the neuter); and tet and ta are not contracted. (See § 67.) 
'AtFTv is the principal noun in v ; its genitive Stmitt is poetic 

3. Nouns in ev^ retain ei> in the nominative and vocative 
singular and dative plural; as (o) fiaaiKeik, hing (stem 
^turikev), which is tllns declined : — 






K.T. iSamXJn ^wOwu 



ir.A.T. »»Jli. 

0. /3a^<UN> 


/9a<rAA ^OTiXtl 

D. ffamXiw 


A. ««raji< 


Note 1. The stem of nouns in tvt ended originally in ir (^ 1, 

Note 2), in ivhich r was dropped before a vowel and was elsewhere 
changed to v. Tbe cases of these nouns are therefore perfecllj regu- 
lar, except in at of the genitive (onl; Attic, see § 59, 3), and long a 
and w in the accusative. (See § 5*.) 

KoTB 2. The older Attic writers (as Thucydides) contract «« in the 
nominative plural of nouns in nir into qi; as Imrqc, jSoo-iX^f, for JravTi, 
ffairiktK. The form in ^r is rarely found also in the accusative plural ; 
but here (ac usually remains uncontractcd. 

Note 3. When a vowel precedea, tat of the genitive singular may 
be contracted into iir, and ia of the accusative singnlar into a ; rarely 
('or of the accusative plural into at, and ««» rf the genitive plural 
into wv. Thus, Hitpauit, Peiraeui; gen. Utipauvt, Hiipamt; accus. 
□f ipoico, n<i/xua ; [x^til " itind of meamre ; ;|Wwc, x""' i X"'"' X"^ > 
;i[o*'at, x<*°'' i Aopuur, Vorian ; gen. plur. dttpMov, AsfxttF. 

§ 64. The nouns (d, $) jSoCt, o 
i VKmtan (stem ypav>), and (4) > 
their declension. 

' or eotu (etem /Sov), ($) y/xivf, 
w, aA^ (stem Mm-), are pecu- 

Tho stems of these noun* were cniginally /Snr-, ypor-, and vof (com- 
pare the Latin Jmim* and nai;-u), which dropped f before a vowel 
and changed it to u elsewhere, (See § 53, 3, S. 1.) For dialectic 
forms of nnt, in which it is much more regular than in Attic, see 
the Lexicon. In Attic, it changes m- to •*- befbre « and m, and ta 
nj- before c and t. They are thus declined; — 

;.. Google 



cmmnot SOUKS. 


G.D. B^ 






§ SS. Some ramiiimn in < ™ta^ • i JT 
irregulariv in -e in.- j . . ""^ '^ vocative iiimmlar 
— --—"u. ««•(»;, «4(^ IB thus declined; 



>f.A.T. ,^ 

O.D. j;^ 

N.T. *^ 

A- S^ 

Nouns fn aw iceB — , I™ it 

N^OTB 3. 3V u 
ire not hb' 

■""fracted forms of these noon- .■_, - . 

;,. Google 

§ 56. 1- XeuteiB in nt, gsn. not, are contracted when the 
a of the stem is followed by a vowel ; as (rd) yipat, prue, which 
Ib thus declined : — 



G. yipaot yipnt 

V. yipoF 

G. D. ytpaaw ytpf^ 


a. ypoa yipa 

G. ytpiua^ ytpAv 

D. yipam 

A. r'P"' Y*/*" 

KoTE. The origiiud stem of these nouns in at, gen. am, is eappoeed to 
have ended in oir, as tbst of nouns in tfl and m, gen. (*t, ia sappoeed to 
have ended in ta {g i>2, 1, Note). HeM or dropped «- iDefDn a vowel 
or <r, bat rataiued it in the uonunative. Neaten iu a>, am, which 
drt^ T (8 B8, 2) woold he said, according to this view, to have one 
stem in or, and another in a(<r), the litter appearing in the nominative 
amgnlar. According to this view, noons In at form, theii nominative 
iegnlul7 (g U, 1). 

2. A few neuters in a$, gen. arm, drop r and are conthtcted 
like yipat ; as (ri) cfpor, Aora, gen. Kfparos, npooc, infxar ; dat. 
Ktpan, Kipau, Kipf i pllir. Kipara, Ktpaa, Ktpa ; Ktpanm, updav, upuv; 

KoTX. 'AiniXXaj' and Uixrtiiar (noa-nSaw) contoact the acciuative 
into 'AjtAXv and nao-tiSu, after dropping y. 

For a similar contraction of om into a, andof oiwrand orac intOovr, 
see the deden^on of comparaUvee, § 72, 2. 

§ 67. Some nouns in i)p (stem (p), gen. tpot, are syncopated 
(§ 14, 2) by dropping ( in the genitive and dative singular. In 

the dative plural they change «p to pa before m. The accent is 
irregular, the tyncopated genitive and dative being accented on 
the last syllable (except in Aij/i^TTjp). The vocative irreguliu" 
throws the accent as far hack as possible ; it also ends in tp, as 
in barytones (§ 48, 3, a). 

1 . IliiT^p (S), father, and Svyanfp ($), daughter, are thus de- 
clined ; — 

;,. Google 










G. D. traripoir Ovyaripov 


N. T. anrffm ffvytirtpn 

G. nuripMi 6vyaripmit 

D. trarptun ffiryarpaai 

A. Koripat dvyaripat 

NoTi 1. Mi}ti)p (q), motAer, tjid yaarfip (q), fie%, are declined and 
accented like irar^p. Thus, pifrifp hu lujripot, lajvpit, and pifripL, 
ffffi i plur- lujTtptt, lUfTtptw, &c 

'Acrr^p (d), star, has ^orpdai in the dative plural, but is otlienvise 
regular (without syncope). 

NoTX 2. The uncontracted forms of all these nouna are often used 
bj tlie poela, wlio also syncopate other cases of Ovyar^p. 

2. 'Ar^p (i), man, drops r whenever a vowel follows rp, and 
inaerts A in its place. It is thus declined : — 

Sinfftdar. Dual FluroL 

JS. ir^p N. T. aviptt SrSptr 

Q. aripot i»ip6t K. A. V. (Ewpr Sript G. aripctw otJjiw 

IX ^pt Mpl G. D. aWpMT Jbtpoa D. ii-iprnv 

A. airiptt Srdpa A. i»^>at bdpat 

T. a«p 

3. The proper name Aijii^p syncopates all the oblique cases, 
and then accents the firtt Billable. Thus, gen. Aiuijrtpos, 
AgiufTpot I dat. A^ft^/M, A^pp-fK ; aocUB. Aifji^rtpa, A^injrpa ; TOC. 

;,. Google 

Ooidar of tliB Third I>Bolaiul<iBa 

§ 68. The gendH- of many nouns in this dedension mnait 
be learned hy obserration. A few general rules, however, may 
be giren. 

1. The following are mascitline : substantivea ending in ov, 
tpi, tvt, most of thoae in i)p and up, and all that have mvc in the 
genitive. Except (^) ipp^r, mind. 

2. The following are feminine : those in out, tjji (gen. r^nt), 
at (gen. allot), w or Ar (gen. otic), and most of tbme in u. 

3. The folloving are neut«r : those in a, ij, i, v, op, ep, et, and 
Of (gen. nroc or sot). 

§ 59. 1. Gtn. mrf Dot. Dual. Homeric auv tor ov. 
Dal. Ptur. Homeric taai, cm, avi, for au 

2. Tbe original i of the Btem of nouns in u (Attic gen. (we) if re- 
ttuned in the Doric and Ionic. Thus, infXic, sdXiot, (nSku) iriSXr. toXui, 
n&t; Dual, vAm, wAimr; Plur. irAur, roUvv, mfluiri, iroXwc (Hdt. 
froXir). Homer generally has the Attic iroXn (wIlU takti) uid ri^n 

. in tlie dative. There are also Epic Ibrms ituXijm, ffoXi)!, wakr/n, wSX^cn. 
The Attic poets hare atiXfoi. 

3. In nouns in nt, Doric and Ionic pairAiot for ^omXrat; Epic 
slfiO (SmnX^DT, ^oiTiX^!, ^triX^; {SacriX^, jSoiriXqcii'; j3a(riXq((,jSii<T(Xqui>, 
jSnmXiinro'i, ffatrik^t- Doric jSoO'tXq for /SaotXia, sometimea used bj 
Attic poets. 

4. KounB in liXitis (aometimefi others io itjt) drop the < in Herodo- 
tDs; as 'HpniAf^r, 'HpacX^i. They are then declined like nouns in 
ij»; 'HpaiAiot, 'HpaiAii, "WpaiAia, 'HpaAtt. In Homer, n is con- 
tracted into i; (as 'HpaAijat, 'Hpodqi, 'HpcwX^) ; but Hometimes into 
ti (as jviA«i)c. JvcXttcii, contracted imAtiat). KXnw, fivry, contracts 
«A('fa into Aia in Homer. 


§ 60. I- N^ouna vhich belong to more than one declension 

are called heleroclitee. Thus axint, darhtet*, is nanally declined 

like \irfot (§ 41), but sometimes like ymt (§ 52, 2). So Oidfiravf, 

Oedipttt, has genitive OlSi'iroaof or olSiami, dative oUi'iraSi, aoousa- 

tive Ol3iiTo3a or Oi8i:rauv. 

Especially, proper names in ijt (gen. roc) of the third decleu> 

;,. Google 


Bion (except those in Atrit) have also an accusative in ip/ like 
those of tlie firat ; as A^imvOtuqt, ocvua. Ainma^irt}* or AiffiovA'tq. 
So nouna in as (geiL wtoc or omw) have poetiu forms like tiie 
first decleuaiou; as iiaktiSiifui^ voo. noXv&tfM (Horn.); Uot, 
'accua. Ainh 

2. Nouns vhoM aingular uid fdantl are of difibrent genden 
are called ktttnpattoiu; U (6) airot, com, plur. (td) ffifa. 

3. D^tetiM nouua hare ontj certain casM ; aa Srof, dream, 
S^Xoc, nw (onlj iMm. aod accua.) ; (rijp) U^ now (onlj accus.). 

4. IiuUcliiiabU nouns have one form fur all casaa. These are 
chiefly foreign words, aa 'A)d^ 'lir/Nif 1 ; and names of letter^ 
'AX^BfTv, && 

6. T&xaj of the moit itnfiortant irreguUritiM in doclensioa 
will be aeea by ooosulting the Lexicon under the following 
words: — 

'AiSt*, Haiti. papTvt. ^pnpoc, vritneti, 

awj^, SsKXTot, kittff. Mvr, low (Attic vi«().<At)>(§ 54). 

dfrot (gen.), lamA. Bh (A), Cm (eiit), theep. 

yaka, yoXsnTM, milk. Snipiw, intlparot, dreaM, 

yiro, yiroTot or y*»ril, hut. Sprtt, ipiMot, bird, 

ytir^, yvrauAt, viife. intn (dual), cyM. . ^ % . 

iipo, Upartt or iapat, tfpeoi'. o?», ^rA, «ar. ' •-' . 

lop Cip), fapot or ipoi, yxing. nrCi. nwmfc, P«yjt 

4liUtp, iInoNic or 4luvr, imaye. wpirfim, old man, and amftoM^- 
Z«vt. AiJt, ^«ii& (^ / compare ttptrnfiir^ and 

^puf, ^ptm, Afro. wvp,wvfit,Jire. 

^. rptxit, hair ($ 1 7, 2, Note). ptSAov, n»e. 

niXitt, (Am, ooi^ air*st or mrtut, cafe, 

mipti (ipit), Kfiant at upartt, Stup, SStmt, vxUer. 

head, vlit, uJov Or vtiot, litet, (0» 

KktU (cXf e), AnUe or dk^Ur, jp^ X'V*i< hand. 

ttf. xiot (x«vf ), a Mseuwra . 

lAwi, Kurtt, dog. X^ (X°i^)< ^ (RMMdl 

Xsac (Xof), Xaor or Xdaw, itonc. XF^ (^)t d^L 

Xlwm,/al, oil. jifAt, )(f0Tit, tktM. 




§ 61> These endings may be added to nouns to donota 
place: — * 

-Si, denoting where; aa AXotfi, elteiehere; o!ipta60t, im heaven, 

'Srr, denoting vrhenet; as ilUo$tr,from, home. 

-it (-£( or •««)( denoting whither; as ouoAt, homeward. 

Note 1. In Homer, tLe forma in Si and -fitu are governed by a 
preposition as genitives; as 'IXiotfi wpi, before Jlium; <£ &66n, fiom 

Note 2. Sometimes a relic of an original locative case is fonnd, 
Willi tlie ending i in the singular and n in tlie plural) as 'Iv^^iot, at 
Ihe lithmut; 'Afiipnim, at Athens. Ttiese forms (and indeed those of 
% 61) are commonly classed among adverhs. 

Note 3. The Epic ending ^ or ^ forms a genitive or dative in 
both UDgolar and pluraL It is sometimes locative, as tOuwai^ in Ihe 
tent; and sometimes has otfier meanings of the genitive or dative, as 
jSuj^ wUh violence. So alW prepositions ; as vapi rmipt, bj/ Ihe S^i. 


§ 62. 1. Moat adjectivea in 09 have three endit^, o?, 
ij, oc. The mascaline and neuter are of the second declen- 
sion, and the feminine is of the fiist; as o-o^m, tro^^, 
trotfmv, wise. 

2. If a vowel or p precedes 09, the feminine ends in B ; 
as a^ioi, a^ui, a^top, worthy. But adjectives in 005 have 
m} in the feminine, except those in pooit ; as dwXooi, airXtfi}, 

Sotfiof, wise, and 0^10$, worthy, are thus declined : — 

va^St (re0q <ra^di- S^iot of/a 3(u» 

tro^MV <n^!jt owpov i(lini d£uit dfi'oii 

(TO^ iml^ <ro(j)^ a£ltf dfC^ dfi'^ 

ffo^i> troipijv trtufior i^uiw tt£lar afiop 

aiMpi cro^^ impor &itt d(ia S^ia9 



N.A.T. <...♦* iK^ m*l 

G. D. <r>^ w^ou. m^lK 



N.Y. ...*..• m*J ..*i 
Q. <ro^ .To^i' <ro^>' 
D. <ro^i <r<.^alf <w^"r 

A. H»M <™^ (TO^ 



So iicxpit, luufi, pH^ fonj; gen. 
f«»W *««Pft /™W Ac.. liJie ^«- 
All participles in oe are declined like 



§ 63. Some adjectives in ot, eEpecially componndB, have 
011I7 two endings, or and w, the feminine being the same u the 
masculine. The^ are declined like ov^, omitting the feminine; 
as (EXojiDf, dXoyor; gcn. aXaymt; dat, iiXo)ffi, &0. 

KoTE. Some adjeotiveg maj be declined with either two or three 

§ 64> A few adjeotirea of the lecond deolension end in m 
and mr, and are declined like iwit and oiwyiwr. Effjwac, fvrtUe, 
and irfifpitt, free from old age, are thus declined : — 


N. V. tityfta Hlytmv Ayripiat ^P^ 

G. ttyta tCytm ^P* 'T^P" 















G. D. 





N. T. 




















For the eccent of rfy. 

rw, MO S 32, Hote 5 


§ 65. Many adjectives in Mr lind not are contracted. Xfio- 

nac, goideii, dpyvpiot, of tUver, and iliiXJor, ^imfU, are thus 
deuliued : — 


6. x?""*"" XP'"^"'' XP""'"' XP'"'V' XP"'^*"" Xt'"^"'^ 

D. xP^^f XP"^ Xf"**'? XP'"fB XP'"''t Xf^^V 

A. ;[pinrfiw XP""'"^'' XF""*"* XP*"^' XP'""'"' XP"""^' 

Xpvata XP"^ 
Xpvaiaai xP"""* 

Xpvyitt XP""''* 
Xpufiov XP^'^^ 

Xpwm XP""* XP""""' 

Xpvoiter xP""^ XP""'" 

Xpvrioit XP^"'^ xP^ata. 

Xpvaiavt xi"""^* XP"'^*'" 

Xpwrm XP*""" XP^"'* 

Xpvovr XP""'''" XP""^ 

IT. dpyipvn ipyupevt 

G, ipyvptou apyvpav 

D. apyvpiif dpytip^ 

A. afrj'ifnOi' apyvpmir 

ipyupiu ifyvpA 
ipyvpioa ioyiptSf 

ipyvpim ifr/vpSnr 
Affjvpim dpyupmr 
iftyvpioiit ipyvpout 


apyvpia ipyvpS 

apyvpiat Apyvpas 

apyvpiif ipyvp^ 

apyvpttar ipytipar 

ttpyvpia ipytipa 
ipyvpimtr dpyuptur 


afryvprai Apyvpiu 
ipyvpiitr apytipUr 
apyupimt apyvpaic 
apyvpiai apyvfot 

apfuptor apyvpoSr 

ipyupiov apybpoS 

Apyvpitf dpyv'p^ 

dpyvpiQy ipyvpovr 

Apyupta ipyvptt 
ttpyvpiow apyvpoir 

ipyipta apyvpa 
ifrpipiar ^ryvpup 
apyvpioit apyvpoiK 
Jipyipm ojiyvpa 

;,. Google 



TS. AieK&H Airh>vt i*X6^ ir'k^ 

Q, 671X6011 dn-Xou iv\.6i)t (biX^t 

D. dirAof ibrX^ AttMa AwXg 

A. daXdo* dirXov* diMrjii (hrX^ 

N. 4irX<« ibXw brXia thrXa 

O. (farXAio ArXow AuXiaif AitXam 

N. dvXtlN (brXoi (lsX<t« iftrXoT 

G. ^Xh!* dvXuv fbrXdAiv dn'Xio* 

D. drXcSoic ihrXoii dirXoaic ^Xaw 

A. ifarXoout ivXovf 6*\iav dirXat 

For the accent, see § 48, Note. For irteguUr 
i, Note; and | 9, 3, Note. No distinct v 

ijr\6or AitXeir 

ihrXudu Ait\ov 

ArUf (lirXf 

(farXJov dnXoiv 

inrXia &wXa 

AwKoaiv ibrXup 

^XcKHF (hrXcMr 

inXia ivXa 


§ 66. Adjectivea ■belonging only to the third declension 
lutve two endings. Most of these end in ij^ and e;, or in tav 
and ov. 'A\r]9T)if true, and n-nrtov, ripe, are thus declined : — 





Aijtur dxiitft; 


JX,«. dx^i 





H. A. T. A^'. ihiSj 


ak,AW dvAA 



&«),» »,».;. 




dX,AW , 






AqA'a. A,0.:t 




42 IMFLECnOH. [I *^ 

Note 1. One ai^'ective in mr, 4kAp, ixouva, lt£r, idUmg, hM time 

endings, and ia declined like particif^es in w (§ 68). So iU com- 
pound, SiKiar (atKar), ummUmg. 

KoTE 2. *l3fMr, ISpt, knounng, gen. li^pioi, dat ISpT (for ISjw), accos. 
tSfMi', !Sf», Toc id/M, is regular. See the Lexicon. 

Note 3. Adjectives compounded of nouns and a prefix aro gen- 
erally declined like those nouns; as tBtktra, hopeful, gen. twXnJtac,' 
tUxaptt, grace/id, gen. lijfdpmt (§ 50). But compounds of mzr^p and 
li^p end in ap (gen. opot), and those of rdXie in u (gen. lAoi). 

Note 4. Soroe a<\jectives of the third declension have only one 
ending, which is both masculine and feminine; as ^vydt, ^vyMet, 
fugitive; Sirait, Swtuiot, ehUdleu; iytmt, ayySrrot, unknoien; iboXuf, 
^»dXj»dot, weak. The oblique cases occasionally occur as neuter. 

A very few adjectives of oile termination are of the first declension, 
ending in oi or gc ; as ytmdiat, noble, gen. ytrr^w- 


§ 67. 1. Most adjectives of this class end in m, eta, v, 
or in a?, ea^a, ej>. 

Three end in at, — ira?, n'oo'a, vav, all, declined like 
KrTa9 (§ 68), ^e\af, fUKcuva, (tiKav, black, and ratUK, 
ToKaaia, Ta\ai>, wretched. 

2. rXvKik, sioeet, yapUn, graceful, and /itKa^, black, are 
thus dedined : — 












,x™i , 












0. D. 




K. T. 

^.Xuu'ti ykviuU yXmuiai 











yXunot y\vKt 

. yX^Ua 



Xapitrrot x'V*''""!* x'M"'"'^ fiVXnrot ptXalitft fukovof 
Xfipitm x<V^^^ X"^"^ fU'kan fuXab]} ptXaPf 



I x^V^"*^ liSXartt nSXainu piXm/a 

IS. xofu'fFnr xV^^* 

Q, xPP***^"* X'f""'^ 

S- x^f^*^* ^[(^NMnnuc ;(iipt«n fuXocn fMXafKut fiiXoo'i 

A. ;[(ipJfl>Rit jpipUvatit x'V'"'™ fuXoMif fuXoiMu fifXawa 

V> xa/Nnm ;i[a(»rv(ra( ;i[iip((vra fiAom fuAoini ^mXoM 

Pot the feminine ofyXwtv* and ftAof, see § 108, 4, Note. 

Note 1. The Ionic feminine of adjectivea in vs ends in to or tij. 
For the dative plural of adjectives in tw, see $ 1(^ 5, Note 2. 

NoTK 2. Adjectives in ^ta, ^fO-ira, ijn^ contract tliese endings to 
gr, tjtrva, ^r; and thoEo in 6ta, 6nTira, otr, contract these endings to 
dvr, oinrira, oSr; as i-i^iir, n/i^nru'ii, ^l^qtl^ — rifigr, rifi^mra, rifi^ — ' 
calvaUe; gen. rifi^rwrm, Ti/iq»Vinfr, — n^^vrot, n/tijtraif;, &c. So 
wXuKont, n-XaxdnrEra, vXacitti', — trXomuc, irX(iin>Gir<nr, nXiuanir, — jlo'; 
gen. n'XtudtiTot, vXcuaiimip, — vXmjcaipTot, wXuntoMririrc- 

Note 3. Ono adjective in ijv, — ripupr, ripttm, riptr, tender (Latin 
Uner), gen. rfptwt, nptiin^t, ripnot, &c, — is declined after tlie anal- 
ogy of jAtXat. So Sporpi (or i(ppi]v}, apatr, ntaie, gen. ^pmiwt, wliich 
has no feminine form. 

§ 68. To this class belong all active and all aorist pas- 
sive participles. Avav, loosing, trrdi, crecthuf, riffek, 
placing, iuKvCi, sJumituf, — present active participles of 
\vta, UTTiffUf riO^fu, and hfucwfu, — and XcXuwcuf, Itav- 
iny loosed, — perfect active participle of \vo>, — are thus 
declined: — 

;,. Google 

N. Xvtf yiaatra Xw laris larSoa iaTi* 

G, Xuorroc Xumin)r kvorrot limuTDt laraa^t lararrot 

D. Xvovn Xuouajf Xuoiti Itmivn iorairg Imwrt 

A. Xvorra Xiiotra'av Xvw la-nura joToiriu' IimiF 

V. Xvtir Xuoim Xmw Itrror IvroiTa lordr 


TS. A.y. Xvotvt Xmov«4 Xmitc loTJrrr Indira loToiirr 

O. D. X)i6t*v Xw^trau X wrf >ra w Jaravraw Inwoui lordnw* 

N. T> Ximmt Xvowrai Xvonti Ivnirm IvrSirai lonbttt 

G> XvAtimi XiwiNrwv Xvdfmv Urrirrm* Imxta&i' I<mu-r«H> 

D. XiMttwi Xv(iv<nut Xvovn I<rTi3<n Itmnroir laratn 

A. Xiowrat Xvafvo* Xuom lordrrar fvniffvr ItfTwra 

N. ftfunJc SturCira fttutruv nA/f nArios rttfi'v 

G. itttvvmt tttxritnit itinriwnt Ti6i»Tot nStiir^t ^lOirrat 

D> ittanim itixmv^ ituanmn riSirrt riBtiaig Tittm 

A. ttuvwra imcwvaar ituarvv rMrra TtSnraf n0ir 

V. Sauovc l«icni«a SfurW* riAfr nOtiaa rMr ■ 


17. A. V. JtucniiTf SfutrMTO ^uo^m rifitrf riOtitra Ti$im' 

G. D. Attu'MTou' dfiKiMniiv dfuruTwi' TiA'iToui ruhuraif ndJrtM* 

N. V. ittiatvmt iiuavaai ituunirra Ti6!mt riBtlirai TiStrm 

G. ttuaruvTti* ttMYoirixr Sruu-ivniF TiBiimtr TiStufit nStrrmr 

D. tnoMrt Aiurwnuf drucrSn nd(un riAi'traK rdhun 

A> itiDvn'Bt SiucnJO'u diticnWa riBivrat riStinw ndura 

;,. Google 



































Note. All ptirticipleti in ■■■ nre declined like Xuoc. ParricipleR in 
Oft are declined like Xuhp, except in the nominative and vocnlive snn- 
gular; aa thSoit, Moiira, diSdv, gimnff': gen, diS^rrot, dtdov)n)r,' dftt 
2tIWi>n, iiSoviru, &c. AoriitC active participles in ai are declined like 
•crrdr; as Xij<rat, Xurami, Xijmii', Anuin^ loosed; gen. Xvmnrat, Xvmiinit; 
dat. XvnDTi, Xvffmj), &c Aorist passive participles in nt are deeliiied 
like ndn'i; ax Xu0rit, XvAuni, XviltF, loMtd; gen. Xvdi'mw, Xvfc.'ir^; 
dat. XtiA'iTi, XvBtioTi, &c. When the accent differs from that df the 
paradigm, it ioUowa the general principle (g 25, I). See S 119, Note. 

§ 69. Participles in auK, e'eii', and owv are contracted. 

T(/uu*v, Tt^v, honarins, and ^X^v, ^(\wv, loving, are 
-declined as follows : — 


N. tifulm' nfifii> nitaowra ri^iwra npfov ri/iuf 

G. nitde/ynt r^iMrrat TifumwriTC n/twir^t nfioorrae n^vror 

D. nfuioin n^iwri nftnauir,') niiivg Tifiaorri n^uun 

A. nfuotra rifiwra ri^uiavoii' n^Mimni Tifiooi' rt^MW 

V. n^uuni nitmw Ti/taotura n/iiva ri/iaor tifiini 

N. niioom TtiiArr* T^iaoiva Tiitiaa rifiaorrt ri/iHirr 

G. nfmiimir nfiMTot)' rijuaiiraa' nfUMniu> rt^iacirrciw nfiwrrotf 

;,. Google 



[I 70. 


N. nfkaorrrs nfmvns ri/iaDvcnu ri/iuiTai n/uiijiTa nfimirra 

Qt. npujmuv Ti/iuiTCiU' Ti^ouo'igi' nfuxrui' rtfiodiTCw ripi>vniii> 

D. rt^uoi/o't Ti^iutrt TifcaDt!a''UE rtfiaioait nfiaautri rtf/^tri 

A. ri/iooprof TifuiiVTat r^taoi^as rtpuirar n^ujoiTa rt/itGvm 

T. npionvc ri^i^cr nfiaavaat nftaxna rtjtaoyTa r^iarta 



































<^» - 






















<^iX«Jm»i' <^oi;>T.p 



















Tho present participles of verba in (fu (contracted ■) are de- 
clined in their contracted form like ^iXun, the contiscted form 
of ^tXtuf. Thus dqXwp, aijXovira, jijXaiiv, mam/ettiiuf ; gen- AiXoui" 
T0(, dqWtnrc ; dat, d^XoviTi, d^Xoixrg, &Q. The uucontracted form 
of verbs in iu is not used. 

Non. A few second perfect participles in our and tat have uni ia 
the feminine, and retoin a in the oblique cases ; bs rtdnuf, nBrtiiaa, 
TtBtt6t, dead; gen. Tf^wror, rr^wnjc, &c. Those in aas art: con- 
tracted in Attic ; as cfrrauc, ItrraSKra, imaot, cnntr. (ittue, jcrrucra, 
i(rT6s (irregular for jonar) ; gen. iaratros, imumit, &c. (See $ 130.) 

§ 70. The most important irregular adjectives are i^eym^ 
great, and xoXv9, miich, which are thus declined : — 

;,. Google 



N. fyt /"Y^l f^y wAit wnXX^ mXtS 

Q. furdXdv fMydX^E fKydXau traXXou roXX^c jroXXov 

D. fr^ f*7^ff f'O^T "™W^ «AXj wvXXf 

A. ^■'T'''' fuyoX^v fiiya wokvr voXAqv voXu j 

N.A.V. luyAu iiryAa itwyAu WantiiW. 

G. D. fifyAiM* fuyaXni* pryAaiv ^** 

IT. y, fMyoXot luyAtti fuyaXa *oXXoj iroXW ivXU 

O. firyoXttr fMyaXwi /wyoXui' roUw ffoXX&r mUUiv 

I). fuyifXH* fuyoXiut /ayaXoit raXXiMt VDUtur mUMt 

A. iuya\ovt firy^jit fityAa voXXovt avXXdr voU^ 

Uost of the forms of these adjectives are derived from stems in o, 
lieyaXa- and iriAhp. IIoXXiSc, $, <{>■, is found in Homer and Herodotus, 
declined regularly throughoot. In Homer, mkit has forms iroXt'ori 
inkitt, ffoXiuf, &c., which must not be confounded with Epic fonns 
of frfXie (S 59). 

NoTK. Upaat (or wpfor), miU, forma its femiiUDe like an a(|jectiTfl 
io vt; as wptuM, vparitu, npoffp, &c The masculine and neuter 
plural have fonuiS in tU, 4a, Sci., like those of yKvtit, as well as t^ 
regular forms in cm, &a. 


I. CaBiv*rtaon by -npoc ^mn§, 

S 71. Most adjectives add Tepov to tbe stem to fonu the 
compaiative, and toto; to form the superlative. Stems 
in o with a short penult change o to a before repof and 

TflTO?, K g, 

Kov^oE (xoif^o-), Ii^Afi KWifiiTiptt, ligiter, imv^iATaTm, ligkltlL 

So^iJE (<r<K^), unie, tro^mTtpat, ifi'jer, (RxfuiTaroc, b»h(> 

Zffivifr (ir(fu<i>-), au^ufl, otiipSnpaT, m^uvnmt- 

IIupdE (fnicpa-), friUer, mcjnfrtpoc, irufMtninw. 

*0^( (o£>^)> 'harp, ifunpot, i(uTimt. 

M(Xac (/uXor-), Unci', fifXam^wc, ^(Xommir. 

'iX^t (JXt^at^), tru«, Ai^A'oTtpat, A^'tmirat. (j 62, 1.) 

48 KPLEcnoS. B 7J. 

NoTi 1. Sterns in o do not lengthen o to « if the penultimate 
vowel ia followed by a mute kcd & liquid (10, 3). See vtKp6t, above. 

NoTi! 2. Mt'irot. middle, and a few others drop ot and add lunpoi 
and oirarot ; as lutrot, fuirairtpoti lamurawtx \ tSwr, (fluurffxA, iduu- 

NotE 3. Adjectives in out drop or and add iarrpot and (Vrcrrof, 
iirhiuh are contracted with a to oinTtpat and oKrrarM ; as rCvoot, uxlt- 
duiposed, luroiirrtpot, §&vai<rraTt>t. 

Norrs 4. Adjectives in aw add itmpiK and (0tiEin>r to. the stem ; b> . 
aii^fiat [amftpoy-^, pnuient, tria^fWMOTtpor, vw^pon'imniit. 

Note 5. Adjectives in «t change Gnal twr- of the stem to iir-, and 
add rtpot and totxh ; aa jcapUit (x^P*"^}' ff^Kt/id, xaptiartpos, x'f^' 

§ 72. !■ Some adjectives in 1/9 and poe aie compared 
by chftnging iheae endings to uov and lo-ros. K g. 

'Hdur, ra>e«f, $9ivr, qAnrmt. 

'ni;[M, *aij^, rax'^p (commonly 6davMf), rdxiarot. 

Aurj(pi!r, bate, aiax^mr, alax^irros. 

'Ex^pit, kattUt, ix^imi, IjiOiOTor. 

KvJtprft, glorieiu, Kviiw, Kviurrow. 

Some adjectivea have both uw, urrot, and rrpor, raros. 

2. Comparatives in Zuv, neuter 

ioi', are thus declined : — 



H. i»4. j*- 

G. l/lkm 

N.A.V. «»». 

D. ii8t<»t 

G. D. 49i^ww 

A. i!.Wj!i. ,-»»» 


N. T. iM-. i!! 

„ itu^^ 





A. 4»orar tfiimt ifilon i/Um 

The terminations -on, -om, and -owit drop v, and are contracted 
into ■« and -mt. (See § CG, 2, Note.) Tlie Tocative singular of these 
comparatives seems not to occur. 

The irregular ooiqpatativei in af are declined like ifiimr. 




m, IftbbdImt OompttrilOBi 

§ 73. 1- The foUowtng are the moet important Cftses of 
inr^ular compamon : — 
1. ayaOot, good, ifu'ipta. 

X..W, Xf»^ 


^TO»» or ^TWrt 108, <.■.). 



oX^f, iMuttTu^, KoXXfar, 


W<«. in-««'. *"•'&» (Hdt. /w'fw-), 



Ai^m^ or A4ITWV 


fttwTst (Poetic). 




v«^T, poor, vtwiortpaa. 



mkit, iDHcA, rMw or *]tJ^ 



P98iM,«My, ^, 




i)Ou>s,dear, (ptXnpot, 


aioTfpit. Ayrw^, Jpirnf, ^i^foti Sxaptt, piMt, f^ai, IfytAm, ytpiuit, 
yXvKiic, nriAqo'^i', ivijfapit, i}inj;(ot, ftaicap. iuucp6t< ftimtt, »iot, iXtyot, 
WoXouK, waxis, Wsw, iriuv, arX^ioF, trpia0vt, vpoBpyou, imwSatorr 

2. Some comparativeB and Buperlstivee bare no poutive, but 
their stem generally appears in an adverb or preposition. E. g. 

'AyvTtpet, fppf, Avinms, uppermost, from ifra, vp; vportpot, for- 
*Mr, KpaT»s or vpaTumt, fint, (hmi wpi, before/ naranpot, l»iKr, 
tanirromt, Imeeit, ftom Mmwy downward. 

;,. Google 

50 INFLECTION. [S 74. 

See also in tlie Lexicon if/xirtpot, ai^Apnpot, xtpilitr, iaitkinpat, 
vpeaampas, ^yau (neuter), tntiprtpat, vartpot, irfrUiy, ^aafrtpat, with 
their regular superlatives; also taxamt and KTjiimvs. 

3, ComparativeB and superlatives may be formed from nouns, 
and even from, pronouns. £. g. 

BomXcvr, long, pairiKtvnpot, a grtater ting, Samkrvnmx, thegreaUit 
ting, Atmji, fhief, KXnrrlfmpot, Kktwriarant ; nW, dog, wAmpot, 
more impudent, kuftotoi, moit impttdent. So oMt, lelf, ovrdninct 
Ait iiery »d/, ipsissimus. 

§ 74. 1. Adverbs are regularly formed fioin ac^ectiTes. 
Their form (induding the accent) is found by changing v 
of the genitive plural masculine to ;. E. g. 

«(X«c, dearly, from tjtOiOt; Sumtur, juttig, from iUatot; <n>0wE, 
toiMtiy, from ira^s ; r/iitu, iwetdy, from qdvc (gen. plur. Ttcwv) ; 
jX^T^wt, tndg, from dXiT^f (gO' p'u^> oXt&W, Aijdw) ; n^w (Ionic 
<ra(^<'«r), .pfaiinfjr, from ffol^t (gen. plur. awpiiw, mupHi'); wamn, 
v^utUg, from mar (gen. plur. woiraM-). 

2. The neuter accnaative of an adjective (either singular 
or plural) may be used as an adverb. K g. 

ncAv And mtXa, natek, from mKvt \ piya or fwyAa, greadg, from 
fuyat (also ;w>aX«c, § 74, 1) ; fi^Kw, onfy, from fuSmt, aZon«. 

Note. Other forms of adverbs witJi various terminations will bo 
learned by practice. 

§ 76. The neuter accusative tinfftdar of the comparative 
of an adjective forms the comparative of the corresponding 
adverb ; and the neuter accusative plural of the superlative 
forms the superlative of the adverb. £. g. 

Zo0£c (from vo^ik), vritelg; vo^impur, tMre toiiely; owpJnvtv, mott 
loitdg. '\XtiOit (from aXifOiit), truly ; akTi6iimpor,aXii6ioTtem. 'HM»r 
(from qSvc), twetUy, qSwr, i^Surro. XapUrmr (from xofx'fiOi gmceJuUg; 
jie^impoi', jiapUaTara. 2tKppiiivt(STQmav^piir), prudently ; amlipoifi- 
OTtpoy, ffu^fioMWam. 

Nont 1. Other adverbs generally form a comparative in rtptt, Hid 
ft nperlative in rarm; as Srtt, abOM; iftrtiput i^ mf Ji tm. 

;.. Google 

j 76.] NUUEBAL6. 51 

A few comparatives end in ripot ; os $t0aaripvt, monJoTidy, from 

!KoTE 2. Some ftdverbs are irregular in their comparison ; aa paXu, 
mucA, wr^, fiaXXov (for piXtw), more, rad«r, piXurrii, moti, ttpteiaily. 

§ 76. The most important nuiaerals are the cardinal 
and orditiai numeral adjectives, and the numeral adverba. 
These are here given : — 

Sign. Cardinal. Ordinal. Adverb. 

2 p ftuo, hoo ifvrtpot, tecond. Sit, twice 

3 y tpns, rpta rptrot rpit 

4 V nmrapit, Ttmtapa rimpnt TtrpoMit 
































trtvTtKmieKaTa r 














rrc 9ol (&«n 




















;,. Google 


T/ROKiJinw, a 

t, 01, o ocnzicoifuMrTOi 

000 I^' ^raicdiriiH, at, a tratoiruKTTos 

)000 /■ JtAioi, at, a x^^""^^ jtAidnt 

2000 ,0 Burxtf^iot, 01, a &urxi>.io<rTot 

3000 ,y TpKr;(iXii», oi, n rpKrjitiXuHrrde 

10000 ,1 fiu^Hot, (u, a itvpunrros /ivpiaiar 

Note. Tho dialects haTe the following peculiar forma : — 

1 -4. See g 77, 1, Note 1. Epic TplToros, -rirparot. 
12. Doric and Ionic SuruSiJia', Poetic Suoniidtm. 
20. Epic (tucoirt; Boric (ucin-i. 

30, 80, 2O0i 300. Ionic Tpi^xtwra, ^BaimnTo, fli^Kotrtof, rpijitanot. 
40. Herod. nirfffpqKoini. 

§ 77. 1. The cardinal nnmbeis 6??, one, Sw>, (wo, Tpe«, 
^ree, and TeVo-opw (or reTTapes), /owr, are thus de- 
clined: — 

A pi. 


.'«Il ,uSr 


N. A. Wo 

f« ^$ 


G. D. Juoir 

wn fifav 


Tp,« rpfa 




T^« rpta 

riavapas riaaapa 

NoTB 1, Homer has fem. % i^t, &a, for ula ; and uf for /«', 
Homer has Suu for Jwj, and forms ioUi, 8oioi (declined regularly). 
For bvSty, ivdixn, and other forms, see the Leicicoa. Avo is sometimes 
indeclioable. Herodotus haa riaatptc, and the poeU have rerpam. 

Note 2. The compounds obSfi't and ixtfitlt, no one, none, are 
declined like tXt- Thus, abitls, oittula, ahiir ; gen. otihtvot, olitftiat ; 
dat. o^Aov, oudc/u^ ; &c. Plural forms sometimes occur j as outtttt, 
oMliftui, oMitn, ovSt'nf , /ufii^t, Sk. When oM or fufi* is separated 

;.. Google. 




from tU (by a preposition or by Sv), the negative ia more emphatic; 
as f£ oiitiiSs, from no one; ovS" «'£ iint,/rom not even one. 

KiiTE 3. Bol\ is expressed by S/xipit, ambo, ofttjioiri and by iji^ti- 
rtpot, generally plural, diupAripoi, ai, a, 

2. The cardinal uumbera from 5 to 100 are indeclinable. 
The higher numbers in ku and aD the ordinals are declined 
regularly like other adjectives in oc. 

HoTE 1. When rptU ral Hko and Tftraaptt Ktu Stiat are used for 13 
and 14, tlie first part is declined. In ordiuals yfe may say rpirot col 

Note 2. In compound expressions like 21, 22, &c., 31, 32, &c., 
121, 122, &c., the numbers can be connected by coi in either order; 
but if Eoi is omitted, the larger precedes. Thus, ilt mi tucmri, one and 
IwtniT/, or tuioirt kiu ru, twenty and one ; but (without xat) only tUoat 
tts, laxnly-one, 

'StrtE 3. Vliptot means ten thousand, wliile fivpiot means innumera- 
ble. We find even fivpiot, counlks*. 

Note 4. Numbers are usually expressed by letters; tbe two obso- 
lete letters, Vau and Koppa, and the character Son, denoting 6, 90, 
and 000. (See § 1, Nol« 2.) The last letter in a numerical expression 
has an accent above. Thousands begin anew wilh a, witli a stroke 
below. Thus, fm^, 18G8; fix", 2C2o; ,a(H',4025; ';3y', 2003; ^', 
540; py, 104 ' 

The letters of the ordinary Greek alphabet are used to number Uio 
books of the Hiad and Odyssey, each poem having twenty-four. 


§ 78. The definite article o, the (stem to-), is thus de- 
clined: — 

G. D. T 

rlfv T& \ 

E 1, The Greek has no indefinite article; but often tlie indefi- 
E (§ 84) may be translated by a or an; as S^piottit m, acer- 
m, often simply a man. 

;.. Google 


NoTi 2. The feminine dual rd is rare, and ri is generally used 
for all genders, (g 138, Note 5.) The regular nominaliveB Toi and 
nil are Epic and Doric; and the article has the usuid dialectic forms 
of the first and second declensions, as row, rouv, raav, rourt, rjai, Tgc. 


S 79. 1. The personal pronouns are. eyd, I, trv, thou, 
and oS (genitive), of him, qf her, of it. Avroif himself, &c. 
is used as a personal pionoim for him, her, it, in the 
obUqne cases, but never in the nominative. They are thus 
declined: — 


0> ifn^i f^ tfoS oS aimi ofr^r ainv 

D. iitol, fiol oei at ovry a^ miry 

A. ifU) fii at I aimm tdnrp ahri 

N. A. mI o^ ('^<**) "^^ ovT^ o^ru 

G. D. 1^ ''^V* ((r0tti!i') aiiTotv aheSv airoti' 

N. W"<* Vfittt ir^it (v^'a) oCrof oimf ofra 

G. ^u* v/Mi' o^&v suTM' aiT£i> airMi' 

D. ^f"" ^^ c^l<n a&rou auroir ovroif 

A. 4fia; GfiSt ir^ar (ff^'i) otrnwr lArat a!iTa 

SiPmS, ir^a»&, and the neuter vifna are not used in Attic prose. 

Note 1. Avntc in the aominBtive of all numbers, and u an adjec- 
tive pronoun in the oblique cases, is intentive, tike ipte (g 145, 1); ex- 
cept in 6 aurit, Ae same (§ 79, 2). For the uses of oJ, aee § 144, 2, 

Note 2. The following is the Ionic declension of iyi, ov, and o2> 
The forms in () are not used by Herodotus. 

Sing. N. hii ih'^) '6 ("H) 

O. 'f iJ. fH, from iiUe Ha, v<S (h) tt 

D. i/tot, lal vol, id (rtb) ol (J«') 


Flur. N. iituTi (iftutt) 0;«r» {Om"t) 

A. 4fiiai (^w«) M«» («««) '**" (r**?"'). '*^ 

Herodotus has also a^'is and cr^a in tiie plural of the third per- 
son, which are not found in Homer. 

Z^' is used u both singul&r and plural, him, Kbt, it, tbtm, \>j the 

The tragedians use the Doric accusative rtv as a personal pronoun 
in sU genders, and in both singular and plural. The Ionic form fup 
is u«ed in all genders, lH)t onlj in the singolar. 

The poets sametimes shorten the finid syllable of jfiir, ^fiat, v(u*, 
ifiSi, and atpat. changing the circumflex to the acute; and sometimes 
accenting IJiur, ijpat, dec. 

Herodotus bas mirito' in the feminine (not in the masculine or the 
neuter) for tArmw {§ 39). See § 83, N. 3. The Ionic contracts i mtis 
into mMc or ttMt, and ri oM into raiTi (§ 3). 

2. AvTos preceded by the article means th^ sams; as 
o auT09 amjpy the same man ; tov omtov woKe/tov, the same 
war. (See ^42, 4, Note 2.) 

Note. Airift m often contracted with the article ; aa raurou for tov 
ntrou ; mvrf for ry atrr^ ; rairr^ for rg otij (not lo be confounded 
witli Tuurg from ovroc). In the contract form the neuter singular hag 
Tavri or mvnfii- 

Baflwdn Pmunuu. 

§ 80< The reflexive pronouDS aie eftavroO, e/u»rr^, 
of mjfeel/, atavTov, vtavrifi, of thyself, and davrov, eavrrji, 
of himself, herself, itself. They are thus declined : — 




Masc. Ft^n,. 




vttroToZ or inivrou nnvrqi or imrr^t 




Ofiairr^ Or irauT^ trtavT^ or iravT^ 








(ifiwv aCrm' 


W'" '^°" 


v^io- aimnt V" "*"»« 


illias aUois 


{'fuf nurour vfur oinit 


Singular. Plural 

Gr. itiVTOV tavT^s 4avT0v iavra^ 

D. loirr^ iavTJ Jaur^ jmnrue iaiirdit lairrdis 

A. iavTOH iavT^r lavro iovpdM iavras Saord 

contracted into 

G. ainmi avr^t auTOv aWatv 

D. avT^ airr^ airr^ ouroTs auralt aineU 

A. avTiSv auT^r aurS ai/rovt mrrdt aiira 

The contracted forms of iavraO must not be conrounded with aimS, 
&c, from atnjc. 
, Note. The reflexives are compounded oLthe personal pronouns 
and auToi. These appear separately in the plural of the first and 
second persons, and in Homer in alt persons aad numbers. Herod- 
otus has tjitavnti, aioinoi, tuirroE. 

§ 81. The reciprocal pronoun is dWtpMv, of one an- 
other, used only in tlie dual and pluraL It is thus de- 
clined : — 

Dwil. Plural 

G. dXXflXoiw dXX^Xoii' dXX^XoiB oXX^Xnw ^XqXov dXX^Xa>i> 
D. oXX^Xoiv oXXqXou' oXXqXaii' oXX^Xoir aXX^Xoit (iXX^Xotf 
A. oXXqXw oXX^Xa dXXijXu oXX^Xovi oXX^Xac ilXXqXa 

§ 82. The possessive pronouns are e/wv, my, <rdv, thy, w, 
his; jjnerepo^, our, vfierepoi, your, aiperepo^^ their. They 
are declined like adjectives in 05. 

Note. Homer has dual possessives vatrtpot, o/vs ftco, ir<j>euTtpof, 
of you two; also rtos fljoric) for (nit, i6t for St, dpJt and d/tos (a) for 
^/ttTtpos (in Attic poetry for ip6s), v/ide for vfitrtpos. vifiis for vtpirtpot. 
'Ot is not used in Attic prose. 

DemonstmUve Pmnoans. 

§ 83. The denwnstrative pronouns are ouro? and oSe, 
this, and eKclpoi, that. They are thus decHned : — 









Am Toimt Tovrti 




oSroi aSrat 







ravmir rairait 







Ixumt iKilinf (Kfivo 
ialpou btivqt <«v(iv 
««iv^ inivjl iuatf 
imliicar ittlnfi/ mivo 



N. A. /« 
G. D. f'« 


NoTB 1. 'Ejic&ot is regular except in the neuter inaio. 'Ofc is 
merely the article i with the inseparable particle -it added. For 
its aocent, see g 28, N. 3. 

Other demonstratives will be found among the pronominal adjec- 
tives {§ 87, 1). 

WoTE 2. Tlie demonslratives, including some adverbs (§ 87, 2), 
may be emphasized by the addition of Jong i, before ivliicli a short 
vowel is dropped. Thus, ovroai, aimji, touti'; 6tl, rjit, roflt; tobtoui', 

Note 3. P«rodotua has Tovrimw in the feminine (not in the mascu- 
line or tbp neuter) for Toirai: (For aurc'uv, see g 79, 1.) Homer has 
'ritri^ivi or ■roltrittri for nutrSc. The poeta have laivog for Jutvas. 



InMrroBKtiTB end IndeAulte Pivnooiuh 

§ 84. The interrogative pronoun t«, ti, who t which t 
what ? always takes the acute on the first syllable. 

The iruhJiniU pronoun tW» t*, any one, some one, is en- 
clitic, and its proper accent belongs on the last syllalie. 

These pronouns are tiiua declined : — 

Interrogativa Indefinite. 



A. That rim Ttiidt run 

!Fot the indefinite plural nva there is a fonn irra (Ionic Saw). 

NoiB 1. Ofrtr and /^nt, poetic for oibtU and ptjitit, no one, are 
declined like rh. 

Note 2. The acute accent of rw fe never changed to the grave 
(§ 23, 1, Note). The indefinites rl» and rl seldom occur with an 
accent, as they are enclitic (S 27). The Ionic has t<o aod nS for roC, 
r(f for r^ Ti<B3> for rftwi', and rtoun foe riirt ; also the same forms as 
enclitics for rou, ry, Sec 

§ 85. The indefinite Sewo, s^^cA a <me, is aometimes in- 
declinable, and is sometimes declined as follows : — 
















§ 86. The relative proDouns aie of, ^, o, who, and ovtk, 
^K, o Tt, tohoever. They axe thua declined : — 


? 5 





i. .5 

N.A. < 2 



&» b 



t 4 


D. o& a& 



o& ar» 



i. 1 


oi^ s. 







oSnrof, Srou 





N. A. 




G. D. 








hmKav, 5Ta,v 


SivTtraH', oTiav 





olmai, JroKT 

Non 1. 'Ovnc is compounded of the relative St and the indefiaite 
tW, and is called the indefinite relative. Each part is declined sepa- 
rately. (See g 28, N. 3.) It hoa a form £mi (Ionic Siraa) for *-.wi 
in the plural, corresponding to rtrra for two (^ 84). *0 n is thus 
■written (sometiraea o, n) to distinpiish it from Sn, that. 

E 2. Homer has i 
peculiar Homeric forms o: 

Herodotua hu Srtv, Sr^f, Srruv, Mota-i, and Jovo. 




§ 87. I- There are maay pronominal adjectivee wliicb cor- 
reepoud to each other in form and meaniog. The following aro 
the moat important : — 

Ijiierrogaiive. Indefinile. DemimslTative, Eclalive. 

riffor; AmomwA; raris, of a eer- (riaot), roirbuU, Be-oi, diiijoi, a* 
quantos I tain quantitg. ToffoCrot, so nMdt,asiiiav.y, 

imieh, tantus. quiuitus. 
irwgi ; of mliat rmM, of a ter- (tdhu), ToiArik, oTos, offoTos, of 
kistdt quails f tain kind. rMoIrroi, mck, which, kind, 

talis. [soch] aa, qua- 

xyjKlKat; liowiildt njUicot, of a eer- (rijXfini!), tijXi- ^Xi«u, injWjraj, 
howlargtt tain age otaae. K6ir!c, t^Xuiou- ofwhickageor 

Tos, so old orso fuc, [asoldjof, 
large. [as large] Ov. 

rtripot; tohieh of riripm {or Tin-c- frtpm, the tme at mr6rtpas, which- 
th^twot p6^), one of two Ok other [of ever of the tteo. 

(rare). (^0). 

The pronoous t(i, t1;, &c., form a corresponding series : — 
Tl%,tDho1 tU, any one. BSe, oBrot, thit,. ts, hrit, who, 

this one. which. 

Note. TSirot and toioe Keldom occur in Attic prose, n^XiVor never, 
TofrttuBf, roi6a-bt, and TijXinArBe arc declined like rdtroc and roior; as 
To<r6(TSi, Too^Bf, To<rdi'S(, &c., ^ToidcrBt, ToidSt (a), roidiiBe. (See § 28, 
N. 3.) Toffovroc, ToiouTot, and TijXu;oiTor are declined like oStoc 
(omitting the first r in tovtov, toCto, &c.), except that the neuter sin- 
gular has or w; as i-oioOt-oi, toiowtj, Toioimi or rotoi/roi'; gen. roiou- 
rou, Toidunjr, && 

2. Certain pron<ym,inal adverbs correapond like the adjeotivea 
given above. Such are the following : — 

Iniemtgative. Indi^finite. DenumMralive. Eelatiix. 

ToO.- whertt To6, tomewhere. frBa, <Wau0a, im, oG, Svw, toHer*. 

^ ; which way f irg, «wne way, (th), rjie, Tottri), j, Arn, icAfcA 
Amor Mm« hmo. Ihia way, Ihvt. toay, at. 

;,. Google 

roi; KAtttrt-/ 


htTat. aWur. tl, Swm, wkilher. 

w6etr: mhmal 

rM,, from «n.« 

(ritf»), Mir, c«i. Ww, ^ifcr. 


ft-, Oaiee. itfi^iKt. 

tst; now; 

w,it, tn tome was. 

&,<»(, «0rwt,<A»4. f, Stq, in u'AirA 


tony, aa. 

riri/ tohent tonus lime. 

Tire, Oai. Srt, iwhrt, wften. 

NoTB. The indefinile adverbs are all enclitic <g 27). 


§ 88. 1- The Greek v«rb has three voices, the active, 
middle, and passive. 

The middle voice generally signifies that the subject perfonuB 
an action vpoa himself or/uj- Am own IfneSU (See § 199.) 

2. Deponent verbs are those which liave no active voice, 
but are used in the middle or passive forma with an active 

§ 89. There are five moods, the indicative, subjunctive, 
optative, imperative, and infinitive To these are added, 
in the conjugation of the verb, participles of all the prin- 
cipal tenses. 

The first four mooda, aa opposed to the infinitive, are called 
.Jiiiite moods. 

■X § 90, 1. There are seven tenses, the present, imperfect, 
perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future, and future perfect. The 
imperfect and pluperfect are foinid only in the indicative. 
Tlie future and future perfect are wanting in the subjimc- 
tive and imperative. The future perfect belongs regularly 
to the passive voice. 

2. The present, perfect, future, and future perfect indic- 
ative are called primary tenses ; die imperfect, pluperfect, 
and aorist indicative are called seeondai-y {or htstoi-icat) 

NoTB. Many verbs have tenses known as Uie recond aorist (in bH 
voices'^, the second perfect and piuperfeet (active}, and the aeeond 

62 IHFLECTION. tS 91. 

future (psissive). Very Tew verbs have both these and the first (or 
the ordinary) aorist, perfect, fic; and in sucli cases the two forms 
usually diOer m meaning. 

§ 91. There are three persons, the first, second, and 
third ; and tliree numbers (as in nouns), the singular, dual, 
and plural 

§ 92. The principal parts of a Greek verb are the preaent, 
future, aorist, and perfect indicative active, and the perfent and 
aorist passive ; as Xia, to loose, Xua-u, (Xucro, XcXuko, XiXu/uu, iKCSijp. 

In deponent verba they are the present, future, perfect, and 
aorist indicative ; as |9oiJXupii, to tmsk, /SovXtjiro/uii, ffi^ikqiuu, 

j/3ai>XqA]v ; yiyvD/tai, to become, ytvqaofiai, ytyiviifuxt, iytrijfipi. So 
ipXOfuu, to go, Q^iaOfuu, iX^Xuda, jjkSov. 

KoTE. These parts arc chosen because they show all the important 
tense-formations, even in an irregular verb. It will be seen from the 
indicative of Xuu (§ 96), that there ia one stem Xv- belonging to the 
present and imperfect, which appears (with tlie prefix Xc-) as XtXv- 
in the perfect passive and middle; that there is a second form Xwr- 
belonging to the future active and middle, which appears (with a 
prefix <-) as ikvtr- in the aorist active and middle ; thnt there is a third 
form XeXuK- belonging to the perfect and pluperfect active; and that 
there is a fourth form \v6tf-, which appears in the aorist passive as 
(AvSi]- and in the future passive as Xvftjir-. These are the four prin- 
cipal leme^ems, of which a complete table is given in § 111. 

§ 93. There are two principal classes of Greek verbs, 
verbs in tof and verbs in fu. 

Note. _ As most verbs end in a, many rules are given under verbs 
in u which apply equally well to those in >u. 

§ 94. Tlie principal stem of a verb in a ia found by 

dropping m of the present indicative activa Those whose 
stem ends in a vowel are called pure verbs ; those wliose 
stem ends in a mute are called mute verbs; those whose 
stem ends in a liquid are called liquid verbs. Thus, iptKe^, 

Note. It often happens, especially in mute and liquid verbs, th&t 



Bome of the tenses are formed from a stem different ttom that of the 
present. Thus, in the examples below (§ 9fl), the stem of Xn'irv 
(X>nr-} Bppe&[3 in its two other forms Xht- and Xonr-, and thai of 
imXAu {.n-fXX-) in its two forms <mX- and (rraX-. (See |J 108, 109.) 
§ 95, 1. The following synopsis coutains all the tenses 
of Xvto, to loose, with tJie second aorist active and middle 
and the second perfect and pluperfect active of XfiVu, to 
leave, and the second aorist and second future passive of 
<ttc\Xm, to send. Ko single verb has all these tenses. 
Active Voice, 

IndkaUn. SatdoneUn' OpUtin. Impstdn. InlnlCln. PiitMpl*. 

PiM. Mm XvH Xvi>L|u XtH Xiuv Xiav 

Imp. (Xvov 

Vat. Xivw Xi<rai|u ^in>v Xiaw 

Xar. [Xim Xiow XW<u^ XSvOT XOru kirm 

FerL X&uKa XtXiwa X«XiKM|u XiXwM XAnt^vu XAwoii 
Plop. AAiKav 

SAor. (Xlvov Xfvw X{ni|u XCin Xivltv Xiwtii' 

2 Perf XlXuvn X(Xat*a XA»li(«i|U X4XoMn XAoi'vfru XAour^ 

3 Plop. OtXatvav 

Fna. Xiofiai Xiafioi XvoC|n)v Xiov Xiicvtu Xvd|ui«( 

Imp. iXvdpii)v 

rut. X-wroiJAi Xv<r«t|Hp> X&nrfcu Xm^p^vot 

Aor. iXvFd|u)v X^in|iai Xv«U|ii|v XSotu X£a-a«4cu Xvo^fuvoi 

Pnf. X&v|Mu XiXutiJrat X4Xv|Uvot XA.UVV XAWeai X(Xv|jivot 

Ptnp. IXAVt*' 

SAdt. lXiTdpi]v Unwfiu XMr»C|n|v XhtoO Xiirfafai Xurdimot 

Paitive Voice. / 

P«- 1 Sa/nus aa U 

Imp. I mii^U 

Fat. Xv^n|uu XvOi|vvC|H|T XvA^nv^Bi X4i|ff4fUiw« 

Aor. IXMiiv X«K X«Mi|v tMtyn XnWtwu XvMt 

r. Fv. XiXW«tuM XA«Tot(n|v XAte«v«u XAwrfiMrat 

3Fut. orSX^jqTDluu «ToXi]fffl£|njl' vroXl^na^ai rraXi] W|UTa« 

3A«. IvT&Xip' «-i«Xm oToXdiiv irrAi)fcmX4vw n«X4f« 

;.. Google 


2. The following table shows the meaning of each tense of 
\ia in the indicative, imperative, infinitive, anil pnrticiple of the 
active voice : — 




Loose Ikou. 

To loose otto be 


Imp. I was loosing. 
Flit. IshaUloaae. 

To loose (fat.). 

About to loose. 

Aor. I loosed. 

Loose thoii. 

To loose oi to 
have loosed. 

Saving looscit 

Perf. I have loosed. 


To hate loosed. 

Having loosed. 

Plup. /Aarftowwi. 

Tlic meaning of each toiiso of the middle can be 
the wbiils for wijtelf, for lliijse!/, &c., to Ihe meaniii 

seen bj adding 
ig of the coire- 

sponding active fomi. 

In (lie passive tlie tenses are changed merely to suit lliat voice ; as 
/ «Tin. loosed, I wits loosed, I shall be loosed, I havt been looked, &c< 
The future perfect pa.'sive means I shall haee been loosed (1. c. before 
some future event referred te). 

Note. The meaning of the various forms of the subjunctivi 
optative canaot be fully understood until tlio constructions nr 
plained in the Syntax. But tlie following examples will make 
clearer than a nicro translation of the forms: — 

v (or XuiTufuv) auTor, let tt.s loose him; pii XCirj)t atrror, do not 
'Eav^Cia (or Xitm) avTOn. x'"p>l<'f*' \f ^ (shali) loose him, Ae 

'. 'Ep;(0/tot, tea avrov \iai (or Xiio-ui), / am coming that I tiint/ 
EWt Xuoi/ii (or Xvuav") auror, that I may Iiim. Ei 
Xiaaiiti) avrlai, x^'P*" ^' '/ ^ should loose him, lie iriiafil 

iXAn- ilia 'airif Xioipi (or \itrmpi), J came that I might binv. 

m on airriv Xiot/u, I said thai I wat looting him : ttnor iti 

:ifii, / iottt that I had loosed him ; thor ati airov XCaoiiii, I 
KO'dd loose him. ■ For the difference between the present 
sec g 202, 1 ; for tlie perfect, see § 202, 2. 

The regular verb \vto, and the tenses of XetJna 
.Xw winch are included in the synopsis, are thus 

;,. Google 


I. Avm, io loose. 
Indicative Aaive. 







Imperf. ■ 




f Xui» 

Future. ■ 





Aorist ■ 





Perfect. ■ 






Pluperf - 






K Adive. 

















;,. Google 


Optative Active. 




Ptenent. -^ 2. 










Futim. { 2. 










Aorist. < 2. 

XmrnK, Xucreur 



1 3. 

Xl^t, XwTfW 


Xvirawv, XvovuD' 




Perfect, i 2. 
























Infinitive Active. 
Present Xmiv Aorist. XCoiu 

Future. Xvcnu' Perfect. XiXvcnm 

ParticipU Active. 
Ptesent. Xinr, Xvoumi, Xvov 
Future, Xv^rw, Xi^micra, XCow 
Aorist. Xvaoi, Xiiaaaa, XCtrs* 

Perfect XvXvk^, XrXvmui, X(Xi«^ 

;,. Google 





Indicative MiddU. 





























S-a^^wietivt Middle. 







XfXv/uVoi & XfXf^'vDt Z/m 

XcXv^urac jt XtXufinw $rai> XtXvftirm ^ 

;.. Google 



Optative Middle. 


























AotibL •{ 2. 

j" I. XtXv^troc (ojn XfXufitHM ((7;ui> 

Perfect. \ 2. XtXvitiirot tir/t XfXufif'tw tigriw XcXufitKH <(i;r« 

\ 3. X(Xvfi(>w (II) X<Xv/um> (tqni>' X(Xu^(HU t^cra* 

Imperative Middle. 








or Xu.ViJ». 








or XiKiwftw 







InfinitiM Middle. 

PreBent. XitaSai 



Future. XvataSat 



Participle Middle. 
Present. Xv^uror, -7, •oc Aoriat. Xwofumc, -^g -<w 

Future. Xu^^crot, -i), •(« Perfect. XcXu/itrar, -i^ -«•■ 




Present, Inaperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect PasaiTe, a 
in Middle. 
Indicative Passive. 

1 ■ Xv^TVOfiai 

3. \vSriarrai 

1. iXiSfiP 

2. AiS^s 

3. AiSti 

Future fi- J^^.' 

Perfect. K- ^*Xv*3,XA.«. 








St^unctive Passive. 

{ 1. XvAjlTOIfU])' 

Future, -j 2. Xvdqcrn 


O^fottw Passive. 


orist. < 2. 



( 1. XtXtr<rDi'fi>I>' 
^ 2. XiXijiraio 



Xv6titiTow, Xu&iror XiiStiTTf, Xufliir* 
Xvdiiqrijv, Xud>(Ti7r \v6ilr)(7cai, \o6iitv 

XtXucraurdol- XtXuTaiiTl9( 

XlXtKTOiadl)* XfXuO^HITO 

Imperative Passive. 

Aorist \ 

Xvftjn }lv6i}tov XvflijTf 

Xf^TTU Xu^^TDII' Xv^TT-Biirap 

or Xv5<wTi.K 
Infinitive Passive. 
Future. Xv^ucvAii Aorist. Xud^roi Fut. Ferf. Xt>,im<r6ai 

Participle Pastive. 
Fut. XvAjirotifi'Dc Aor. \v6tls (§ 68) Fut. Perf. XtXvotlfMi'st 

II. jletVto, to leave. 

Indicative Active. 










2 Perfect. 














ve Adive. 














2 Perfaot 





ve Active. 







2 Perfeof. 





;,. Google 


Infinitive Active, 
2 Aoriat. Xmir 2 Perfect, \t\oanrm 

Particle Active. 
2 Aoritrt. Xurii'i ^tmnva, XnrAi 
2 Perfect. XtXmwtK, XiKaiwma, XiXmtA 

jriit. \ 2. 

yoBt, < 2. 


3nBt ■< 2. 


Indieative MtddU. 

IX^rcTD AnrtvAj* 

SutgvHdive Middle. 






Imperative Middle, 



or Xirt'trA** 

2 Aoriet XnrtirAu 


;,. Google 

III. JreXXa), to send. 
Indicative Patsive. 

. iTTiiXijcrafuu <r 

2 Fut. ■^ 2. aroKifag, imiXiJim ardki^atiiSor 
. (M'aXijtrrrai ' (rraXijQ'f(rl9op 


1. (CTToXl)!- 

2. /(TTaXqc 

3. COToXlJ 






Svhjunctive Pattive. 




3. OTaXgiTMro 
f 1 . oraXfii)!' 


Optative Passive. 

trTaXrjtraiaSow uToKljtroiuS^ 

OToXijcroiVftji' ornX^o'OuTO 

<xToX(i'7^«i', imXet/MW 

(TTaXfiifrm', aniX(rroi> oraXci'qTC, aTaXiirf 

(rTaX(i7Ti}P, (7TaX((Tiii> cmiXiurmiF, otoXcmv 

Imperative Passive. 
n 1 f 2. oTiiXijfli irniXTTOv ordXiji* 

I 3. (rroXiTni OTaX^Togp oTaX^rm 

Infinitive Pamve. 
2 Future. oroX^irnrflai 2 Aoriet crroX^rat 

Participle Passive. 
2 Futuro. utoXtitiJ^cwic, -i;, -oi' 2 Aorist. irraXr&, -<i(ni, ff 



5 97. The future and aorisfc active and middle of tftaiva* 
(ifiae-), to sJiow, exhibits tlie peciiUar formation of these 
tenses in liquid verbs (^ 94). 

The ftiturcB are contracted like the present of ^iXiai (§ 123) ; 
thus, ifmytw, tpayai; ^(vtyiai, ^arotfioi. See §§ 120, 121. 

Indicative Active. 

;,. Google 



Indieativt ^utdU. 












■ 2. 



■ 2. 






Infinitive Middle. 
Future. ^OMi^ot Aoriat. ^vaadal 

ParUeipU UidfOe. 
Future, ^niDUfumt, -i), -or Aorist. ^^ntficmt, -ij, -or 

§ 88. 1. All verl)S whose stems end in a consonant form 
the third person plural of the perfect aiid pluperfect indic- 
ative passive and middle by the perfect participle and elal 
and t^av, the present and impeifect of ofU^ tohei^ 129). 

;.. Google 


These tenses of rptfiio (stem rpi^-), to rvh, n-XcxiB 
firXe«-), to weave, ireidto (wet^J, to persuade, and trrcWw 
(o-TeXX-, (TTcV, o-TflX-), to send, are thus inflected: — 

i'w/fd Isdieativ^ 

f 1. rirptiipai 
\ 2. rir|,.+.. 
I 3. 7iTp,:m.. 






( 1. «w^«. 

( 3. ,„,,,,««. 


Perfect Sufjjtai^ve and Optative. 


Perfeet Imperative. 


e ( 2. Ttrpt+o 

p (2. rir,..^, 

13. TtTpl<t,6«,' 

viir->.wx6ov vinittrSor 


p / 2. rirpi^ niv^ix^ itiit<iae< tirrdkSt 

or rnpitpfimi' or imrX(;^d«w or irnrtHrADi' or ^imiXAii* 

Perfect Infinitive. 


Perfid Participle. 


vtJtKtytiivot stittioilimt 




Plup:rfect huHcative. 


fjrintiiTTO fffraXTO 


firiitfiuBtiv to 


( 1. lT,Tpi!.^.6a 



ittnfiiriifvot f<n 

NoTK. The retr^'^r tliiril person plural in these tenses { 
variations from tlie corresponding forms of Xiio) arise fi'oir 

The otlier 

eupbonlo changps, Tvliich are all explained in ^ 10, 1, 2, 3, and 4. 
The regular endings (§ 112, g 117, 1, § 118) are added to Uie root of 
the tense (^ 113) with the necessriry clianges. 

2. The pP)-fGct subjunctive and optative of the passive and 
middle voices ia farmed by the perfect participle and & ov ta/v, 
the suhjunctii'e and optative of tl/il. Similar forms are some- 
times tised in the active voice, instead of the forms in cb and eiiu. 

iNoTE. Even the perlect and phiperfect indicative are sometimes 
expressed by tlie participle and ttiu. A similar periphrasis for the 
future perfect active is often ncccsrary, as this tense is found in very 
Jew verbs ; as tovto iyvBuamt i<r6pi6a, tit akatl have Uamed tkis. 

3. A periphi-astic future is sometimes formed by fitXXa mid 
tha present or future (seldom the aorist) infinitive ; as ji/ Wono- 
Touro mittv (or acn^iruv), we are about to do this. (See § 202, 3, 


§ 99. 1. In the secondary tenses of the indicative, and 
in the perfect and future perfect of all the moods and the 
participle, the stem of the verb receives an aiiffment (L e. 
increase) at the heginning, 

2. Augment is either s^/Uabic or temporal. The ayllaljic 
augment prefixes a syllable to verbs beginning with a coji~ 
sonant. Tlie temporal augment lengthens the firet syllable 
of verbs beginning with a vowel. 

;.. Google 

S102.] ADOUEKT. 77 

BrUmlilo ADEment. 

§ 100. Most verbs beginning with a consonant aug- 
ment the imperfect aud aorist by prefixing «. R g. 

Avu, (XtK»% fXuira; -ffoxpit, rypaijtoinir, (ypoifrd^* ; pinTu, lfifHirTt»>. 

Spptyim (15, 2). 

§ 101. 1. Most verbs beginnii^ with a consonant ang- 
uient the perfect and future perfect by prefixing that con- 
sonant followed by e. This is called reduplication. E. g. 

Av«, X<'-Xw:a, X(-Xvp», Ai-Xiiic*kii, "kt-Xvuat, Xi-Xv/u'm ; ypa^fxa, yt- 

yptupa, yt-ypdj>6ai. So 6ua, rt'-ftata (S ll, 2); ^oipoi (tjnu^), vi- 
^Huifua (§ 113, N. 2) ; j^oi'vu, ki-xi""- 

2. The pluperfect of these verba is av^jmented by pre- 
fixing e to the reduplication ; as xiXvivo, eKeKvKeif. 

Note 1. A few verb< take <i instead of the redupIicaLiou ; as 
tiX^tpOf fiXij^a (from Xo^i^Saiu, Xoyj^anu). 

Note 2. Tlie pluperfect may omit the additional augment; as 

XcXiwn, plup. )u\iKtur. 

?>. Verbs beginning with ttco consonants (except a mute 
and a liquid), witli a double cousonant (f, f, i^), or with p, 
have the simple augment e in the perfect, future perfect, 
and pluperfect. E. g. 

SrtXXoi, (otuXjui, fWoXmr ; iifTta, i^ljTitKa ; iltvSa, T^vtr/uu, i'ftv- 
«/it'Mi; ^'nrai, tppijifua, ippitp6ai (for pji see § 15, 2), 

Note. Verba beginning ivitli yy, and some others bejrinning with 
a mute and ft liquid, take t instead of tlie redn plication ; ny yvapi{<a, 
tyvaptai; yiyntatM (yw). tyvaai; but kKi'uo, ■(cXtiKa (rL'gularly). 

T«miwral Ailment. 

§ 102. 1. Verbs beginning with a sliort vowel are aug- 
mented in all tenses by lengthening that vowel. If the 
initial vowel is long, it remaiiis ao; but a and a are both 
changed to t;. E. g. 

'A-j™, ^yo*, r,xa. ^fii", fl'x^"; 'Xai!™, ^auKii'; owi8rfai, iHiSifoi- ; 
l^piiio (u), ii^piaffiiv (u) ; diioXaiX^cui, ^iK>>iobd;i<ra, ^iiaXouA;ica, ^icoXov^ 
MMD, i]KoXovA]icuc; ipOoa, &p6a<nt, SpOa/uu; daraa (a), ^i(a. 

;,. Google 

78 INFLECTION. [g 10». 

Note, BoiXofioi, to teish, Buwi/ioi, la be abU, and fuXXu, to trtUnd, 
may add the temporal augment to the syllabic; as iSmAofup or 
llSou\6ii^r ; (j3oii\qA]v or ^ovXqA;!' ; (duvd^qv or qStnvi/iqv | ific XXoi' or 

2. Verba beginning with a diphilumg receive the tem- 
poral augment on the first vowel of the diphtlioi^. K g. 

AiTt'u, grqira ; oiiiici, ^xiftra, ^uj^ttVoc ; tCx"!"'^ t^X"!"!"- 

Note. Ou ia never augmented, and n very seldom. 

§ 103, Somo verbs begtnning with a vowel take the syl- 
labic aiigmeut as if they began with a consonant. When « 
follows the augment, rr is contracted into «. E. g. 

'OOtu (stem aO-), to push, faira. taaitai, tuoBtp'; SyrvfU (stem iy-), 
to break, ?q|<., 2 Perf. laya ; .'fl.'fai. In occuslom, i'i6,tra, tWa^a (from 
ifBtaa, &c.), c'du, to permit, ndira, tuiKa; i/iSb}, to da, 2 Perf. lopyo. 

'Opaa, to see, takes the temporal augment al\er the syllabic; as iiiptBr, 
lapaita (or I6paxa), iapaiuu. So myn, to open. 

Note. Most of these verbs originally (at least in their primitive 
roots) began vith the consonant f (digarama), m that their augment 
is really regular. Thus ?afa is for JFofa, from root ray; topya ia for 
ihopya, from root rtpy-, nliich appears in English ipork (werk). 

AtUe B«dapllcatl«ii. 
§ 104. Some verba beginning with a, e, or o augment 
the perfect by prefixing their first two letters to the com- 
mon temporal augment This is called the Attic redupli- 
cation. E. g. 

'Anoia (oKO-), ii^Koa; iyLia, ijirnitKa; ikty^tt, AqXcy/uu; tXaiivu 
(Aa-), AqXimai A^Xofuii. 
Note. Tlie pluperfect of these verbs rarely takes an additional 

AuKDMnt of Conwonnd TeHii. 
§ 105. 1. Wlien the first part of a compound verb is a 
preposition, the augment follows the preposition. Prepo- 
sitions (except ■jrepi and irpo) drop a final vowel before 
the augment e. K g. 

Tlpo^rypattta, irpotrtypatpov, nporrytypatjya \ f ifriryu, ffo-^yop (^ 26, N. 1) ', 
^■/Si^iu, ('(('^oXXop (^ U, 2) ; (Tii/iirXicu, avMnXiKoi' H IG, 5) ; awo- 
iSaUm, drnfi^XoK ; ~ but iTfpit^aXXov and irffaAfyor. 


S 107.] VERBAL STEMS. 79 

NoTB 1. Hpi may be contracted witli the Mgment; as s/raCXFyiu- 
and ttpoSffatror, fur irpoiXtyo* and trpoi^atror. 

Note 2. Some verba uoi themselves compounds, but derived from 
nouns or adjectives compounded witli prepositions, are augmented 
alter the prepofiition; as imoimua (from viroimK), to tiapeol, vnu- 
wTfuof, as if the verb were fi-om vni and ^imvu- So ■oTTyopiai (Irom 
Korlffopot), to accuse, garqyopovr (not iKov^pow). 

NoTR 3. A few verbs take the augment before the prepoi^ition, 
and others have both augments; as Anlyte, ^myof, drixu, ifiittj(6iapi, 
^rtajiA^r (or jjraxim*)- 

See in the Lexicon atLt^a^Tttt, iiamria, dtatToai, iyyvaa, Toparo/ua), 
as examples of these irregularities aad those of Note 2. 

2, Compouuds of dtxr-, Ul, and occasionally those of tS, tpell, 
are augmented after the adverb, if the verb itself begins with 
a vowel E. g. 

AmmptarJi, llv<nipi<rnjKa ; tCapturia, <itipi<m)ra- 

Note. Id other esses, compounds of Smr- are augmented regu- 
larly, and those of tS omit the augment. 


§ 106. Pure verbs {§ 94) lengthen the final vowel ol 

the stem, if it is short, in nil tenses except the present and 

imperfect. A and « become ij, and o becomes w ; but when 

a follows e, *, or p, it becomes d. E. g. 

T^uui (rt/ii-), n^-ffa, (rifiif-o-a, TfTif«)-«o, rtriiiit-lUH, «rifiq-ft(it, 
4(A(s (^iXt-), ^uX^a, itftAriaa, vtiptK^Ka, jrt0Ai(>iai, ('^iX^ftTi". AijXiin 
(flijXo-), Siikmrat, &B. So Tt'oi, rltra (i) ; Saiepia, iatpiirti (S). But 
(ooi, (diroi (a) ; Idapai, Idiro/iai (a) ; Spou, ipd(ni (a), fSfMun, jif A/i&ca. 

Auu hns V in the present in Attic poetry (generally v in Homer) ; 
but generally E in otlier tenses except the future and aorisL 

74'oTE 1. 'AKpodoiiai, to hear, has oKpaAaeiuu, (d), ilic. Xpcm, to give 
oracles, has xPW^i ^e. 

Note 2. Some pure verbs retain the short vowel of the stem 
contrary to the general rule ; as loAta, jqiXiW, inoKta-a ; yt\dii, ye- 
Uira (a), ryiXcnrii; apuiia, ipKimt] r«X(a>, rcXiVa. (Sec § 120, 2.) 

§ 107. Many mwie and liquid verbs form part of their 
tenses from a simpler stem tlian that which appears in tho 
present and imperfect £ g. 

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80 INFLECTION. [S 103. 

npairmB and firpa<raor are from the stem trpairir-; but irpa^u 

(jrpayaa) and tjTpa$a are from the simple stem jrpay-. t/lav6dnt aod 
iiiorSamv are from the stem luaSav-; but tiui$ov and iia$!jiroiuu are 
from jiofl-. 

Note 1. The imple item must often be learned by obserTation; 
but the following rules (g 108) for forming tlie stem of the present 
from the simple stem include the greater part of the cases that occur. 

Note 2, A verb which has more than one stem is commonly 
called irregidar (or anomalous), altliough many of the irregularities 
may be brought uader general rules. 

FormMfon of the Pnasnt from tbe Simple Btem. 

§ 108< Verbs have been divided ioto nijie clastet, ^ith ref- 
erence to the formation of the present from the simple stem. 

1. First Class. {Stem undianged.) Here the present is 
formed directly &om tbe simplo stem ; as in Xvw, Xejw, irXtnu, 

2. Second Cl&bb. (Lengthened MvU Stemt.) Mute stems 
of this class lengthen short a, i, or v into tj, <i, or cu, to form tho 
stem of tbe present ; as Tq«B [tSk-), Xitatt (Xi>r-), ^i^u (^^•)- 

Tlie simple stem here is found chiefly in second aorists and kindred 
forms; as hdiciir, IXmov, tifnryov. For (i changed to pi in tbe second 
perfect, see g lUD, 2. 

3. Third Class. (Verbs in htm, or T Clots.) Simple labial 
(ir, ft 1^) stems generally add r, and thus form the present m 
iiT« (§ 16, 1) ; as nijrTti (Kim'}, flXiiTr™ (flXo^-), ^Wu (^.<f-). 

Here the simplo stem cannot be determined from the present. 
Thus, in the examples above given, the stem is to be found in the 
second aorists Kifmjf, ifSka^v, and ippii^ipi; and in noXwrrM (jmXiIjS-), 
lo cover, it is seen in jcoXujS-^, hut. 

4. Fourth Class. I, { Verbs in aira and fa>.) Presents in 
auie (ttu) generally come from palatal (c, y, ;{) stems ; as irpdirira 
{vpay-), fut. icpi^a ; juAaana (piXa«-, HCCn in /loXowSc), fut. luAa^m ; 
Topairau (rapax-. Been in Topoj;^), fut, rapa^. 

Presents in fu tnny come from stems in 8 or from stems in y 

(or yy) ; as ^pdfui (^pn8-), fut. ^paata, 2 nor. (Epic) jr(0pa8ra> ; 
Koiu^ia (mfitd-, Seen in koiiiS!)), fut. mfiiiru ; ^i^u (pty-), fut. pt'fo i 
sXdfv {lAayy-, compu:e clango), fut, xXdy^M. 

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A few presents in tw» came Irom Kngual stems; as ipiavie, to row 
(Tiom iptT-, seen iu tpintt, raiptr). One in (a and one in irira come 
from labial stems; ri£'u(vi^}, ioicasA, &Lvi^; and Www (ncir-), to 
aiot, Cat. ni'fra. 

IL (Leuffthejud Liquid SUms.) Simple sterna in X form pree- 
eats ill XXv ; those in ir, Sp, <», or rp form presents in auw, aipw, 
ttBa, or Hfiu ; those in ii', vk, or ijp form presents in tm, Cra, or 

Cpai. Thus, iTTtXAu (oTfX-), dyytXAu (oyyiX-) ; tfiairw (i^li-), aiou 
(V')> T*!"" {«»■«»"). imfipit (mrtp-) ; uplmi (t^t"-), d/iu™ (o/»'''")i i^P-> 
(^Cp). (See § lua, K. 1.} 

'Oifiiiku (o^fX-). fo te obliged, to owe, follows the analogy of stems 
iii<y, tu avoid eou fusion with llie re;Tularu^tXX«, rt iscreaw; but in 
llomer it has its regular form o^iWa. 

NoTZ. The trhole fourth clns9 is called the Tola Class, as all these 
changes arc cipWiied by supposing an i to have been added to Ihe simple 
st«m ^Ith thu consequent enphonii; changes. By these changes, palatals 
("^ Ti x) Bnil rarelj other mutes with i fonn aa ; i (sotnetitucs Y) ^vith ( 
forms j" ; \ with i forms X\ ; r and p with i uniieigo vtetai^csis (§14, 1 i, 
and 1 is then contracted with the preceding vowel (it and ui becoming i and 
ir). Ou the same principle are explained apparently im^ilnr comparatives 
hkc naww for /laXiw [§ 75, N. 2), e>.iri!oir for Aax-'""- IS 73, 1), /li^wr 
and fuiiUt for iiry-uer, eiiraur for Tax-vnr (stem 60%-, S 17, 2, Note), 
4iTiru7 for iiK-uni (ef ^'^'K"''") ! so also fejuinines like pi>aaia. for iitkaf-iu 
(S 67), irJn-fipa for ourep-io, 7Xui[(io for -cXuke-ui. For feminine liarticiples 
in oiwo, aifH, and (htb, sec § 119, 1, Note. 

5. Fifth Class. (N Clant.) Many simple stems are length- 
ened in the present by adding <ui ; as ipapTdK-a (from ifiapr-), 
aloSdroitai (aiir^). If the last vowel of the simple stem is short, 
a. nasal (», ft, or y, according to the following consonant, 5 IC, 5) 
is inserted after the Towel ; as, Xofi^up w (from X33-, \affttv-), 

funSay-a (from paS , paear-), Xayx^va (from Xo^-, Xaj;av-). 

Some stems add simply v ; ns ^Suk* (0Sa-), Kapvu {<d;»-). 

Others add *r ; as tnio^ot (U). 

Others add m (after a vowel m) ; as, itixm-iti (d(»-), a^ivm pt 
(w^c-). These verbs end in u;ii. 

e. Sixth Class, {rerbn m itko..) Theso add <7< or .o-i to tho 
Eimplo stem to form the stem of the present ; as yipaaKa (yipa-), 
tipiirta (tip-). 

7. Sevextii Class, (e Clusn.) A few simple roots add « to 
fonn the stem of the present ; as lotiia (Aw-), fiit. SJ^u ; &6i» 
{&&■), fut. &^u> {5 IC, 2). 

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82 mFLEcnoN. [3 io9. 

Most verbs in tt> have stems in f, and belong to the first class ; aa 
Rmiu (iroM-), fut aot^aea. 

8. Eighth Class. {EeduplieaUd Verhi.) A few simple 
Btems are reduplicated in the present by prefixing their first 
consonant with an t ; as nrpav (rpa-), to bore ; mTrrai (irrr-) for 
m-im-a) ; yiym^Hit (yfi") for yi-ytyonat. Most Terbs of this class end 
in ^; as, tWij/u (S*-), tiSieni (*>-), 'vrijfii (ora-) for ai-UTarfu. So 
iliu (i-) for I-J-p^ See § 125, 2. 

9. Ninth Class. (Mixed CIom.) This class includes those 
verba in which different parta are derived from easentially dif- 
ferent sterna; as ^p<», to bear, oura, ?wy™, i'-n'-oxa, li^i^nat, 
inx6t)v. Here we have three stems (oi-, Iwu-, intyif) all entirely 
independent of the present stem ifHp-. 

Note. A verb may belong to more than one class at the same 
time. Thus, jSniiw (^-), to go, adds v to its stem (class 5), and then 
lengthens ^iiv- to ^oii^ (class 4, II.), like ^myn (^ov-)- So yiyyiurica 
iyyo-y belongs both to class 6 and to class 8. 

n of Uie Blmpls Btam. 

§ 109> The vowel of the simple stem may be variously 

modi6ed in the tenses formed from it. 

1. The Kcond perfect regularly changes * of the simple stem 
to D, and lengthens a to ij (after p, to S). E. g. 

Iripya (irrtpy-'), foropya; ylyiioiiai (ytv-), ytyovo; riicrai (««-), r*'- 
roica; (^ivw (ipSr-}, nitfi^ra; Kpa^u (cpiiy-), UKpdya. 

2. Verba of the second cl<m (§ 108, 2) form the second perfect 
from the lengthened stem ; but » lengthened irom i becomes ou 
E. g. 

tivyo i'j'vy-), fn<p*vya ; Ti/Ka (tSk-^, rtnjica ; Xiiim (Xor-), XfXooro. 

3. When ■« in a monosyllabic simple stem either precedes or 
follows a liquid, it is generally changed to a in all tenses formed 
from the simple stem, except the future and aorist active and 
middle ; except also the second perfect (§ 109, 1), E. g. 

£riAXai (orrX-), (iTTnXica, foraXpii, iWoXijv; rpin'a, j-iT/jofi^iai, irpA- 
^Stv (Ion.), tTpajTOv, irpamjv, •rpoTrii/iiji' ; Tpii^a (6pi<p-), TiSpajtpaXt 
tVpo^v, jVpo^ov; mrripa {mtp-'), ianappat, iincapTjv. 

Note 1. Four verbs in w omit r of tjie stem before tttnunationa 

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beginning with a consonant; Kpbm (itpai), to teparate, Kfupiiia, KiKptpm, 
itplBf*; kXi'mb (nXiv). to inclint, KiKhita, ucXifuu, iKkiOqn; nXivn 
(irXt«-), to waih, ninXSnat, inXiOqr; rt'ono (jf»-), lo lUreteb, TtTOKo, 
Tiropu, (nJAj* (§ lUD, 3). 

When t> is not thus dropped, it regularly becomes y before m (§ 16, 
S), and irregularly becomes a before fim (§ 113, N. 2) ; as ipaira 
(tpav-^t ni<P<tyKaj jritpairfiaij iiftd^rfr- 

NoTB 2.^ For the peculiar modification of the stem in the Ritan 
and aorist active and middle of liquid verbs, see g§ 120, 121. 

§ 110. The letters which are added to the stem of a verb 
to form the tpeeial etftn, of any tense are called the charaeUriitu! 
of that tenee. Such are the foltowiug : — 

1. Z in the future and aoriet active and middle, and in the 
future perfect. But in liquid verbs the future active and mid- 
dle adds ( to the simple stem, and the aoriat merely lengthens 
the last voi7el of the stem (a to t,, i to n). See §§ 120, 121. 

2. S in the perfect and pluperfect active. But stems ending 
in n- or A k or y, merely aspirate those letters, those in ip and x 
remaining unchanged. 

3. Bf in the aorist passive ; ij in the ifcmd aorist passive. 
But 6t and t in the subjunctive, optative, and participle. 

i. Gij<r in the future passive ; ijor in the second future passive. 

Note. The present and iraperfcct, the second perfect and pluper- 
fect, the second aorist active and middle, and the perfect and plu- 
perfect passive and middle, have no characteristic. In these tenses 
the stem undergoes only the modiScations already described. 

§ 111. The stem of a verb with the proper characteristics 
gives the stem of each tense, Tbus, hia (Xu-), rpiffa (t/»j3-), and 
oTiUu (iTTfX-) have the following special tense^stems : — 

(n.) Pra. i Imp. of all teitta \ (a.) artW- 

*• (h.) Pf. £ Plup. ptu$. & mid. 1 *"" ^'^ (6.) rrSX- <S 109, 8) 
(a.) Future tutive /md middU -i (a.) irrcXc (J 120, 1) 

II. (b.) Aorist actix and middU [ \air- TpKfi- (i.) oriiX- (§ 121) 

(e.) Suture Ptr/ect. 1 \c.) 

III. Per/, attd Plap. adivt \vic- rpt^ ffroXc 

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84 INFLECTION. [9 112- 

(a.) Falun patsijx Xuftjir- rpi^flij*- 

{b.) Scamd Future paative arakri^- 

(n.) AoTist passive >.i*i|.{\u9e.) Tpi^Ci)-(Tpi#flt-) 

' {b.) SixoiiU Aoriil paifive ^^■aX)I•^aTa^(-} 

By adding the terminations and connecting vowels (§§ 112, 114- 
119) to these tense-sterna, and prefixing the augment when neccs- 
Barj, any tense of a regular verb can be fonued. , 


§ 112. The endingH which are peculiar to the different per- 
Km* of the verb are called personal endinys. These have one 
form for the active voice, and another for the passive and mid- 
dle ; but the aorist passive haa the eudiugs of the active. 

The personal endings of the indicative are as follows: — 

Active. Patsive and Middle. 

ftimnTi liimr). Secaivlary Tnaa. Primarn Hum. Stcom/ary Tnisa 

Plur. I. p«, 0«.) p™ (f« 

2. T. r. 

3. vtri (iTi) y or ira 

Note. The forms enclosed in ( ) are primitive forms, not Attic, 
but found in other dialects, Tiie active endings pi and tri in tliu first 
and third person singular are not used in tlie indicative except in 
Tcrbs in pi, verbs in u having no endings in these persona. Tlie 
original ending n of the second person singular is found only in tho 
Epic /a-<rl, Ihou art. In the tliird person singular n is Doric, as 
riftj-n for n'ftjffi; and it occurs in Attic in ftrr/, he is. In the tliird 
person pUiral wi always drops f and lengthens the preceding vowel, 
as ill \voviTt for \vo-vai (§ IC, 5) ; the original fonn m is Doi-ic, as 
^fovn for ipipoum (IaX./eiiint). The perfect iadiuativo of all verbt^ 

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and the preKcnt indicative of verba in /u (§ 125, 1, N. 2), liave &n 
(fbr torn) ill the third person plural.* 

1 113. In the perfect and pluperfect paBsivo and middle, 
end iu the aorist passive, the terini nations are tidded directly 
to the stem of the tense ; as Xi'Xv-firu, X(Xu-(rai,XAti-riii; AiXv-fiiv, 
AAu-™; t-kie^y, AtW^-i, iXiW, (§ 111). 

Note 1. Many pure verbs insert a- before all terminations not be- 
ginning milh 0-, in tlie perrect, piiiperfeet, and aoriat passive. Tliis is 
eapecittUy common in verbs which retain the short vowel of the stem 
(I 106, N, 2). Thns, rcXc'v, T*T<X«o--fiai (for TtrAr-ittu), (r.Xt'irftjj', 
TtXtae^yai. (See Note 4.) 

Note 2. Verbs in m generally change r to a before ft in the per- 
fect and pluperfect passive and middle, the y remaining unchanged 
befoi-e other letters. Thus, ^xnva (root tpSr-), ni^aa-fLoi, m^arrai, 
irttpdvSai, ttpavBrir. (See Note 4.) The regular change of k to /t 
(g IG, 5) is very rare in verbs in va. 

For four verbs wliich drop r in all tenses before consonants, see 
§ 100, 3, N. L 

* Among the original active endings, inheriliiil troni the pai'cnt languaga 
of the Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Gorman, ki:., w«re/u, «i, Ti,tn the eingulai', 
and m in tlie third person plural. In this jBist tunsca, these were first 
shortened by dropping i, and became /x, i, t, and rr, in which fomi they 
appear in Latin. In ^i, <ri, and ri, and in the original ^et in the lirst per- 
son plural (compare Latin mun), ire see the roota of the personal j^ironoiius, 
J, ehou, he, and we {compare /li, at, rir, and the Epic iix-/tts), which were 
originally appended to the verba! root, instead ot being prefiscd as in Eng- 
lish. These forms therefore really include the pronoun, which ia common- 
ly said to be omitted. 

A comjinriBon of the varioua forms of the present indicative of the verb 
lo bt (whose original stem ia as-, in Creek and Latin ei-), as it appears in 
Sanskrit, the older Greek, Latin, Old Slavic, and Lithuanian (the most 
primitive modem hinguagc, siUl spoken, on the Baltic), will illustrate the 
Greek verbal endinga. 

BuukiU. Otnk. lAtta. Old SltTio. 







JiHiC (for *r-|u) (eja-um 
i<r-ir( es 
*r-T( es-t 










Ur-vi» (Dor. A^) ■-Ti-mTW 
*ff-W es-tia 
*.»t( (Doric) M-nt 







[8 lU. 

Note 3. Such combiaations as yyfi, iipii, ppfi, drop the middle let- 
ter ; as Aiyx") AijXfy^im (for AijXryjj-pu, (XtfXfyy-pu) ; uijMra), 
Kixait-iuu (for it«taf«r-pu, witn^/i-fuii) ; TtpTm, TiTtp-juu (for Tirtpn-imt, 
TtTtpn-iau)- See § 16, 3. 

Note 4. It will be seen that the endings before which a ia in- 
serted (as in Note 1) ate the same as those before which a final 
lingual (t, A, 6) in tlie stem is changed to <r (§ 16, 1 and 3), and those 
before which no tr is inserted (those beginning with o-) are those 
before which a lingual ia dropped (g 16, 2). These classes of Terbs 
therefore inflect these tenses alike as regards tr, the terminations re- 
maining unchanged. On the other hand, the a- before fi in n-i^oir/uu 
. and tTTi^dfffuji' (Note 2) is an irregular substitute for v of the stem; 
wliich f reappears before all other letters, causing tr to be dropped in 
aSov and trOr (§ 16, 4). In the following comparison of Che perfect 
passive of rtXia (nXi-) with that of ntiSa (mi0-) and Oiat of <j)auia 
(<Pav-), the distinction is shown by the hyphens. 


Plural, j 2. 





g 114. 1- In all the tenses of verba in u not included ia 
§ 113, a vowel (or diphthong) called the anateeting voteel stands 
Iietween the Btem and the ending. 

This vowel is added to the stem even when there is no per- 
sonal ending (§ 112, Note). 

Tbo following are the connecting vowels of the indicative, in 
the present, future, and imperfect of all voices, .and in the sec- 
ond aorist active and middle : — 

Active. Pas3. & Mid. 

Frimsry. Sicotutary. AUtenui. J«co!E»^(n 


The connecting vowel is a in all persons of the aorist middle i 
and in the perfect and aorist active except the third penoa Btn- 

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gnlar, vhere it is «. In the pluperfect active it is u ; but in the 
third pereon plural it is ti or i, generally •. 

Further, the aorist active and middle retain a in the dependent 
moods and the parljciple, except in the second person Eingular of tha 
imperative active and in the subjunctive. 

2. The personal endingB of the indicative united with the 
connecting Towels are aa followB : — 

Sing, i 2. 

nw irm irrp 



o/ifl. iprv 



€Tr «r. 



mxri iai &> 



II. PoMive and Middle. 

Pn«.,Tnt.,«ia top- p™. » Kja. 


fntPBt »aA«. Middle 




a or « (for nu) 















Flnr. ^ 2. 

( 3. otToi euro mTo 

By adding these terminations to the different tense-stems (§ 111), 
an the tenses of the indicative, except those included in § 113, may 
be formed. 

For forms of the pluperfect in ^ for lu-, and mv for «, see S 122. 

Note 1. The endings <rai and <ro in the second person singular of 
the pasuTO and middle always drop a alter a connectitig Towel 

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[5 115. 

{§ 1(5, 4, N".), nnd are then contracted with the connecting vowel. 
ThnH, Xiji7 or Xiit ia lor Xitaai, Xutoi ; tkioo is for ikitaa, Avio ; ikuoia 

(aor. iniddli-) is for ACfraira. Awroo. (See § 122, 2.) 
NotE 2. A first person dual in fitSoy is found very rarely in poetry. 


§ 115. The Subjiinctive has the primary endings of tie ia- 

dicative, with long connecting vowels, tt, ij, and g, for a (or o), », 


i'oHttVe ant/ Middlt. 

Slog. Dul. 
St ipm 


^. (for 



DmL PloraL 
tfuBov ijoflt 

For the perfect subjuncti 


ve and middle, 

sec § 98, 2. 

Note. The aorist passive 
(ns given nhove), which tire c 
teriatic : as Xvtft'w, \v6ii, &c. 


§ 116. The Optative has the secondary terminations of the 
indicative, but usually has /u for » in the first person singtilar. 
The connecting vowel is regularly o ; but in the aorist activo 
and middle it is. a. To this the optative adds the vowel i, mak- 
ing <K and (u, la the third person plural active, i is inserted 
hefore c. 

Aorist Active. 

Pamve and Middle. 

Bins, Di^- Plunl- 

<ii/i7« oiin0a 

Ota oareov oi'jft 

Aorist Middle. 

For the perfect optative passive and middle, see g 98, 2. 


5 nr.] 


Note 1, The Attic generally naea tlie Aeotic terminations «iai,o«, 
and titw, for air, at, aur, in the oorist active. S^'e Xvu (piige C(iJ. 

Note 2. In certain cases t!ie optative uses the resuliir secondftry 
ending v in the first person singular, and oaf in the third person plu- 
ral, . The endinjiR are then ahvava preceded hy iij, Tliis takes place 

(a.) in the nnrist and second aorist passive, where the characteristio 
tfe or ( {§ 111), 3) is contracted with ii; into fl«ij or tuj; as in Xu^-u;^, 
Xv6taiv\ (FTaX(-<if-v, cTaXtlijr. See the paradigm, where contriicted 
forms of the dual and plural are given. 

(b.) in the present and second aorist active of verbs in ij/u and ufu. 
See § 12T, 3. 

(c.) in tlie present of contiact verba. Here the regular connecting 
vowel is contracted with uj into ouj, to which the endinga v, &c., 
are added; tlien the fonn unciergoc.i the regular contractiun with the 
final vowel of the stem. Thus, ^uXc-oiifr, ^xXro.'ijv, i^iXoi^v; rifta- 
o-uj-v, n/taoiifii, niufijv. (See § 123.) 

A ll'^v verbs havu otiiv m the second perfect optative; as ir><iiioya, 
nttptvyoiT/i; So oxoi'ii'i 2 aor. opt. of I'jjb. 

§ 117> !• The personal endiugs of the imperative are as 
follows : — 

Paiaive and Middle, 

irSa trOav trSatrar or o^uc 

2. The regular connecting vowel of the imperative is r ; but 
before •■ it is o, and in the ftoriat dctive and middle it is a. The 
Becond pci'son Bingular in the aorist active ends in oc, and in the 
aorist middle in at. The endings united with the connecting 
Towela are as follows : — 


Pattive and Middle. 

■. Softl. Plu: 

90 INFLECTION. [I lis. 

3. et in the aecond person singular active is found only when 
no counecting vowel ia used. It is retained in verbs in /u, and 
in the aorist passive (g 113). The aorist passive adds the ordi- 
nary active terminations (dt, ru, &c.) directly to the character- 
istic ftj {§ 110, 3), after which ft becomes rt {§ 17, 3); as Auftj-r<, 

The second aorist passive adds the some terminations to tlie 
characteristic 7 ; aa irrakifSi, vmXT-nt, &c. 

Both aorists have (>tbm> in the third person pluraL 

§ 118. The terminations of the infinitive (including the 
connecting vowels) are as follows : — 

Present and Future Active tt-p 

Second Aorist Active <((-» (contr. -tw) 

Perfect Active t-ttu 

Aorist Active oi 

Aorist Passive (no connecting vowel) ki 

Perf. Pass, and Mid. (no connecting vowel) trBat 

Aorist Middle a-tr8<a 

Other tenses, Passive and Middle t-<r6at 

Fartldplei and TartwU- 

§ 119. !• The stem of the active participle ends in >t (r in 
the perfect), which is joined to the stem of the tense by tiie 
connecting vowel (a in the aorist). 

The passive and middle participle ends in /urm, preceded by 
the counecting vowel o (a in the aonst middle). The aorist pas- 
sive participle takes the active form (rr) without a connecting 
vowel ; as, Xntff, Xirf.-rr- (nom. Xirff.'r, § 46, 2). 

KotB. Participial sterna in vt odd aa to form the stem of the femi- 
nine, where most adjectives add ui {§ 108, 4, Note) ; as, \mvT-ira, \v- 
tmra; brrarr-aa, IirrStni; XvOttrr-aa, \v6iiaa (§ 16, 5, N. 1). 

2. The stem of the verbal adjectives in roc and Tfor is formed 
by adding to- or no- to the stem of the verb, which has the 
same form here as in the aorist passive ; as XurJc, Xun'or (stems 
Xv-ro-, Xu^rro-) ; rpnrrof, niwriot (stems rpur-rc-, vtia-rto-). For 
the meaning, see Syntax. 



§ 120. 1. Liquid verba form the future active by adding 
im, contracted <v, to the Bimple stem ; and the future middle by 
adding «V<«, contracted ot^wi. See tho eiamplea, § 07. 

2. Some firtm-es iu toa from verbs in <» (§ 106, N. 2) drop a 
and contract €ti to u; as, KaXiot, fut. KoKioa, Kohiu, kqXw; nXiM, 
^t. TtKiaa, TiXiffi, tcXh. These futures have the aame form as the 

Some futures in Saa from verba in afu are contracted in the 
ssmc way ; as p^di<a, fut. fftBoaw, ffi^a, gijSw. So Anuiw (iXa-), 
fut. iXaaa, ikda, i\a. So in the middle, Fidj^o^uu (fiaxf'), fut. fia- 
xiaofuu, liaxioiau, fiajicv/tai. 

3. Putures in io-oj and roofuu from verba in t{a regularly drop 
ff and insert i ; then ua and HOfuu are contracted into iw and 

tovfiai ; as ED/iifB), fut. KOiiim}, KOfuiia, nofuai (KOfUtii, iio^ci, &c) ; 

KOfUCnVUl 'H'fllOI'fHIt ((OfllfT, KOIUtlTtU, &C.). 

The forms dracribed in § 120, 2 and 3, are called Atlie 

Note. A few verbs have a fiiture perfect aetine, generally formed 
by adding oa> to the etem of tho perfect ; as, Ar^irKai (riOntpai), TtSr^^a ; 
iimuu (iimtKa), itrni^, 

§ 121. Liquid verbs form the aorist active and middle by 
adding a, a/iriv, to tho augmented simple stem and lengthening 
the preceding vowel (a to ij, and * to «i) ; as ayyiXka (dyyiX-) ijy- 
y€Oui; ipaiva (0o»"), f0«|wi, lip^raiapr. 

Note 1, Some verbs in aum (espccidlly tlioso in innwo nnd poi™>) 
change at to a (not q) in the aodst ; 03 iriafna, iirtw/a ; tripalra, Ac/jiaya ; 
MpAtuvw, tidpiana. 

Note 2. Tliree verbs, St'Soi/ii, uj/u, nnd rldtjiu, form the aorist in 
m; — TiaiKa, ifica, itf^ita. These foi*ms are seldom used eicept in the 
indicative ; and diey arc most common in tlie singular, 'where the sec- 
ond aorbts iSav, ^v, and fftjv are not in use. (See g 126, 2, and § 129.) 
Even ^Kofajy and iSj)KaiiJiv occur, the latter not in Attic Gr«elc. 

SlKleetlo Vaima of Verb* In IL 

§ 122. 1. Augment. Tlie temporal augment is otlen omitted 

by Herodotus, and both syllabic and temporal augment by the Epic 
and Lyric poets. 
Id Homer, a liquid (especially X) may be doubled, like p, ai\er the 

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92 INFLKCTIOS. [§122. 

aiigmcn t ■ ; as i\\a)(mi for tXaxov. So somctinm ir ; as iaatiorro 
from irtut. 

Tlie RLiiond aorist aeUve anil middio in nil the forms swmelimcs !iaa 
a rtiliiplicalioii in IloinC'i'; as ^po^oi, to tell, ri^paiti icanpie, to luhor, 
eubj. KtKOfM; xtXafuu, 'o order, k<*X6iuiii (Ibi' tiuXofiifi'). The indica- 
tive liRrii may prvll.f lliu syllabic auginc/iit to tlio rudupllcaCioa; as 
((«Aufup>, htijlvov (IVoni tptr), iiri<j>paSoir. 

2. Tkhvtsations. Doric n«[ ri)r fUM. to^ for niv, fiar for pjp, oi^i for 
otMTi, ain for oo-t. Horn, tou lor nji", (rfloi' lur <rftjii, in tko dual roulio 
luaOa liir /icAi. 

(/adiealii'e.) Wlion a is dropped in trai and o-o of the second per- 
son (^ 114, 2, N. 1), the Ionic oltcn keeps the uni.-ontntcted I'ornis coi, 
rjai, ao, to ; but to may become cv. In Hoiti. ma and tro sometimes 
drop o- even iu the perf, and plupei'C ; as iiiiutim for iUiat}<rai, tairvo 
for tovwro. 

Tlie loiiio has ileralive endinj^ trxov and uKoiiriP in the imperfect, 
end in both aorists autive and midiUf. They aro added to the tense- 
Stem, with r (o in (ii-st aorisl) inserted aller a preceding consonant; 
BP-t^mttejt t<rKov\ ir^Xtofiait ffuXc-irKfro ; ipvv, tpCva^Kf' These foiins 
denote mpetilioii, nud uiiiit the augment. 

The Ionic lias onu and aro for yrm and pro in the third pe:^oa 
plural of the perfect and pluperfect, and ore for vro in llie optative. 
Hdt has oral and aro also in tlie present and imperfect of verbs in fu 
(g 128). Before these endinjrs, tt, (3. k, and y ai'o aspirat»1 (<j>, x) ; as 
Kfiiimo (Kfn^-), Ktupiiptrraf, X<>u. XrW^-arai, X(X(';(-aTO. These forms 
occm- occiijiioiinlly in .\.ltic ^\'hen tliey ai'e used, the periphrastic 
forms (^ 03, 1) are of coni-se nnnocessary. 

The Ionic has «n, rat, tt(v), for tiv, tu. <i, iii the pluperfect; wheiica 
conic Atti; fonns in ij, ijt (for m, tat), and «iv (for «»■). 

Tliu Ionic hns the uiicontracled Ibrnts of the futui-e of liquid verbs 
(in *a and tofuii), and of the aoiist subjunctive passive (in «ai) ; as 
/uMa. \v6ia (Attic ptrai, Xv$S>). So in the aorist subj. net. of verbs 
in in, tlie Homeric Ibrnis of wiiich belong also to the ordinary aorist 
subj. passive. (See g 128.) 

The Doric hns (rem, aiojiai ((.'ontracted ai>, aovpta or mvfiai) for <7«, 
irofioi in the future. The Attie hns aoZitai in the fulnro middle of a 
few verbs; as n-Xt'oi, lo sad, jrXiCiroiiai or nX(uc™ii/im: Trit'ai, lo lircailie, 
mniaofuu or tmvaaviua] iptvya, to Jiee, ipti^i^iat or ^v£ou/Hu; iriirrai, 
{rt<r-). only «^forp.i. 

In Homi':'. ir i-^ iillen doubled in the futui'o and aomt after a liori 
vowel ; ns ycXiiu, la luuij'i, eyikaaaa lor iyiXmra. 

In Uciiiicr, qtrof in the aor. i> tuiUc. olleii becomes <>•; asupp)^ 
fur iipiuj6i]aiai. So iu Lliu aor. active of verbs iu fu (§ 128J. 

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In Homer, the Kecond norist midiile sometimes omits the ci 
ing vowel ; as in iXro, Skutvtis (lor iIXito, ^c.)i ''"*"'' i!XXo/un (oX-), lo 

(Suiij. and OpI.) In Homer, Oio subjunctive often has tlie sliort 
1s of tlie indiLMtLvo (e tiiid o for i) mid u) ; an iofitv, 
■ ■ " ■ , Horn, ollen 

niayiai (lor iaiuv, pitryijai)- In the subji 
Las u/u, jiirSa, fltri, li)i- w, ijt, fl. Foe tlic ai 
Tlie Acolic lorina of tlio aoriKt optative act 
tlic regular funua in oU diulects; tlie Aeolic 

(Itifin.) Homer hns iiifoi rin 
r onov,'ntv Tor d^uvcii' ; 

sa. subj. see 

las, tit, and €iay, nit 

also lirst persons it 

the infinitive 

r ikdi^n Tor ('Xdiiv The 

Ionic has the uiicontrncted second aorist infinitive in itur for « 


' § 123. Verljs in am, ea>, and oea are contracted in the 
present and imperfect Tliese tenses of -rifiua (n/ia-), 
to honor, ^iXetu (iptXe-), to love, and, SrjXdta (Si;Xo-), to 
■manifest, are thus inflected in the contracted forms : — 

Present Inilicative. 

Present Subjunctive. 

j2. TW^ 

( 3. n^ 





j 2. Tt/iaTor 0(X(in> 
y 3. TiFiaTov ipiXfiTO 

V B,Xotro. 





c 1. Tifmixiv ipiKovu 
( 3. rtfimcrt ^iXovtr 

1. B,x«;f.« 





Present Optative. 

( 1- T'/'^f". 

( 3. T,M¥. 

AiKo't, 0iXor'7 




J 2. TtU^rOI', Tlfl^^TOl- 
} 3. Tl/i^iy, Ti/ttfllT^V 

I^lXoiTTJl-, cflXoi^TIJI' 


( 3. T.M¥.^ 

^iXnl/uf, <P 
tplXoiTt, <p 































or T.J«iv7«W 


or 87X0^ 








































Patsive and Middle. 

Present IndicsUve. 








^.Xj, ^,: 


























































Fnsent Optative. 







Preaent ImperatiTB. 






or r.fuJO'A^ 


Present Infimtive and Partioiple. 







J 2. 







■ The nncontracted fonna of these tenses are never used in Attio 
Greek. Those of verbs in odd flometimes occur in Homer ; those of 
Terbs in na are common in Homer and Herodotus ; but those of verbs 
in ow are never used. See, however, § 124. 

NoTK 1. Dissyllabic verba in tu contract only u and *ft. Thus 
«Xt'o>, lo tail, has pres. frXta>, trXfic, nXiI, irktiray, irX«'ofuir, trXdre, 
wXimn; imperf. TirXtov, frXtu, ArXn, ilo.; bfio. vXtw; partic. wUmw. 

96 IKFLECTIOIf. [3 121. 

Ai'u, to hind, is tho only exception, anrl is contracted in most forma; 

BS Savin, dupfui, dovrrai, iioi/r, pavtic. S<Zv, doCv. 

NoTK 2. A fuw verbB in aa liave ij Tor a in the contracled fornis; 
RS Ityf/aoi, ii^. In tluni, Si^.^r, dt^jrj, di^qrr; impcrr. (Bi^nii', t&i^s, 
iii-^ij ; iiiliii. ti^^r. So fodi, lo 'iir, ntuwa, (o Aunjjer, ;(paiii with 
XpoMfuii, and u l(!W others. 

Note 3. 'Piyoa>, fo thiver, has iofinitive piyuv (For ptyoZt), and other 
similar forms in o>. 'id/xSw, fn Dii^nt, ha^ Ihpiiiat. lipt^i, lipum, &o. 

NoTK 4. Tlie tliird person singular of the imperfect nctive does 
not take r movable in tho contrncted form ; tliuR itpAfi or (0i'X(t>', 
but I'^aei (never i^tKttv]. Except rxp^y or xp'!' ('or 'XP°"> spo 
Note '^), and a very iew jioctio forms. . 

IMalsctlo Pormi of Contraot Terb*. 

§ 134> 1. ( Verba in aa.) Verbs in am are generally contracted 
regularly in Homer and Herodotus, except in the following cases : — 

In Homer, a contracted u is often pTolracled into oa> or aa, and b 
contracted a into SS or no ; as ojtSai for ipu. np6anri for o^juo-i, ipdi^iu 
forop^/ii: fitriHVoMi Cor invoiva, ^S^aura Cov l)&a<ra ; opaairSt toT opairBt, 
opal} Ibr opa, aln6ao (or airt^ (opt. of alriaopiu). Tile long vowel 
(oi or a) is prefixed chiefly when the preceding vowel is long, to suit 
tlic metre. Sometiraes u is protracted into au, as in i}&aan<t for 
i^amt; and soiuutimes ^ becomes uoi, as^^iooifii for ^0^fu. 

Homer sometimes has tor for aov in the imperfect. Herodotus 
changes a to « before cd, ou, and o\ as 6pt^ opto^Vj optryvin, Stptor. 

2. ( Keri» in e<u). Verbs in la generally remain uncontractcd in 
botli Homer and Herodotus. But sometimes *o or an becomes cu; 
and in Homer, sometimes « or (fi becomes ti. 

Tlie Ionic often drops the connecting vowel t in the second person 
singular of the passive and middle, thu.i changing ttai, «o, into /m, 
to; »s fivBiai for pv6tiai (from pv6iopiu), i^o0im and <jio^io (Ci-om 
ipo^iopai), tfvytd (from i(riyioiiai). Besides tiius omitting e, llio 
forms ('(at and iio are often in Homer contracted into (toi and iu> ; as 

livBttai, atitiat, al&rut. 

In Homer, Ilnal t of the stem is often lengthened into n; as nuiia, 
imt'u, for ptucia, jniu. So in mXrl-rro from rw\ta, n\tia. A similar 
change takes place in ta of the norist passive subjuiictife, &e. (? 128), 

3. ( Verla in o».) Verbs in dm are always contracted ; but Herod- 
otus sometimes has to for ov, as in iiiKaliw, a^ui/uSa. In Homer, 
protracted forma occur, which woidd naturally come from verlis in 
oai; as dp6mn (from ap6ai. to plough'), formed as if from ipati, like 
6pitmi, aboTS ; so Otfiimrro (from tifiiai). 

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f 126.] TEBBS IH HI. 87 

§ 125. 1. Some pare verbs omit the connecting vowels 
in nioat forms of the present and imperfect, and of tlie 
second aorist active and middle. Tke terminations (§ 112) 
are added directly to the stem ; the final vowel of which ia 
lengthened in the singular of the present and imperfect in- 
dicative, and throughout the second aorist indicative, impera- 
ti^'e, and infinitive, in the active voice. See § 127, N. 1. 

Note 1. As the original tenninations fu and iri are relnined in the 
present indicative of these verbs, they are called verbs in /u. (See 
§ 93.) The forma of the second aorist here mentioned very olYen do 
not belonj: to presents in /ii, but ave irregular tenses of verbs in a>. 
Such arc I^ijv, tyvar, iwrdjiT)V, from ffalyo, yiyvaaKa, tri'ropu. Such 

tenses are called ju- forma. (See g 130.) 

These forms generally retain the original am and ao in the second 
pereon passive and middle. But in the second aorist and in the sub- 
junetive and optative, a is omitted and contraction takes place ; aa 
in Sou for 6i<to, tSov for i6iao. This sometimes takes place in other 
forma. The secondary tenses have iray in Uie third person plural. 

Note 2, The third person plural has a connecting vowel a before 
im making awi, which is contracted witli a precedini^ a; as Imam for 
lara-a-yat, riBi-airi, Mo-Zlm, tiuevu-atri. Forms in (iirt, own, and utri, 
from stems iu c, o, and u, are rare in Attic, but regular in Ionic. 

2. Many verbs in /u prefix a reduplication to the stem 
in the present and imperfect. (§ 108, 8.) Tiiis consists 
of the iirat consonant of the stem with t; but sterna be- 
ginning with two consonants prefix l. Thus, riBij/u (stem 
Ce-), SiSafU (So-), lOTfjfU ((tto-). 

§ 126. 1. The following is a synopsis of ttmjftt, to set 
(stem trro-), rl9tffu, to put (stem 0e-), BlSafU, to give 
(stem So-), ajid Belicwfu, to show (stem SeiKwu-). 

As tuniiu wants the second aorist middle, (Vfjid^ifv, / l/oiigJil (from 
a stem n-pio- whicli has no present), b added ; and as Stlianriu wnnts 
the second aorist active, iSSr, I entered (from Bums, formed an if from 
ttrpi), is added. Tlio optative Sitiv (contracted for tvlrfr) is tbund in 
Homer. Ordiniuy verbs in v/a have no second aomt widiHt, 












Sfio^Ku Siuyi!* 

Ptutive and MiddU. 

f tffrXiiaL IffT^fsm ImLffiijr IrrSa^ tma^at IffrAfiewot 

\ riei/iai riflOfUU ri^cf^^ rffcirD riet«9eu TtBi/imi 

) Sflofiai AiS^i tiitl/nf Ninrs JfSoirdai tiii^wm 

' tdtiViimt ttuaiiitiMt t€tam>lit'^ Sebrun jtkrwftu Soxni/uni 

f /irpuf^ii^ rplufiw rpiaiiaft r-pla vptoirftH rpiifu'ol 
S Aor. ) 4el^tr^ ea/Mi W*nj» Sov SMu eiium 

^^ 1 r)j^i)r B^Mi Sof^itp iou tiffftit Si/inof 

^OTB. The principal parts (g 92) of To>nj;i(, ri'Aip, diSa/a, and 
fitunvfu are as follows ; — 
'im^fu, ar^att, tanjtni, Iim)Ka, cora^uu, iariSijr. 
TlBrjiu, e^ira, tftjwi (§ 121, N. 2), re'ftuni, Tt6ii,ua, iriitpi. 
Ai'Saiui, Sumi, fScDna. dt'deiKa, Btfta^oi, iS6ff!pi. 

2. The peculiar forms of these verbs, which aie in- 
chidfld in the synopsis, ore thus inflected : — 

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Indicative Active. 








Plur.-J 2. 
1 3. 



Sag. I 2. 

I (^ 2. urrorop 

I 3. loTOT^V 


n. to 
r.-( 3, M 

iimurati tTiStirar 


Sing, -i 2. ?<TTi)c 

Second AQTist. 


(. 3. ((rr^njc 

Flur. <L 2. ?0TiiT« 




t$i<rav litB, fa«raii(S 137,(1.1) 

3,. Google 




Sv^uTKtive Ad 



1. InA 



Sing. < 2. I,ni, 




(3. i„i 









( 1. I^,.- 



Hm-. -^ 2. 1,„^ 




(S. Unim 

Second Aorirt. 






Sing. ■< 2. ffTff. 




(3. ,7Ti 



13. antral 





(1. OTi^ 



Hur. .^ 2. oT^ 



' (3. aTM7l 



Optative Active. 


*I. hral^ 




Sing. -< 2. limifiTf 




( 3. .■„«, 




j,^ (2. ..W^ 
< 0. iuroirpTjv 








PIUT. - 2. lirraltjTt 






Or tima contracted 


(3. IlTTolnjv 





j"!. loroi^tl' 



Plur. < 2. .Wa?r« 



( 3. Ic-Taifi, 




(1. ™j,. 

Smg. j 2. mV 
(3. <Frab, 



Second AoiiBt. 
A!/i,t Soi',r 

K^ (Epic) 

Dual i I' "^'f« 
(3. arai^ 



1 1. .nW,M.i. 
Plur. -j 2. <mi.'7rf 





Or thuB contracted: — 


. 1. OTO^ 

Plur. ■ 2. <milr« 













or JimiiTav or nfiiVuF 

or 8iBJf™» 



Second Aorut. 

(2. CTT^A 


< 2. 0T7« A'r» B<!t« 


InfinUivt Active. 
<rr5wi fl«o«K BoOiTO 


2 Aor. 



IndiaUive Pauive mid MiddU. 

1 1. 

Sing. -j 2. 






























or (ViAw 

or Wt'Sm 














PlurX 2! 






Second AoriBt Middle. 















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Si^unelitie Pauive and Middle. 

firru/uu TiBuiim diSu^uu 

IffTJ Tlflj jlS^ 

iirr^iii m^igrat 9ijanu 








Second Aorist Middla. 





BpiqaSt Siftrdt iair0t 

A 2. 


Oplative Pattive and Middle. 

brralfoip nBiifUjw diSoifi^ 

laraio riBtia 9tSo?a 

Iimiint riStiTo iiSoiTo 


I 3. tuTaiaStfw 



n9tiir6t iiiotirfft 

TiAirro Maim 


;,. Google 

Second Juaixt Middle. 









































or Stto 

or WAn- 


1 3. 

















Second Aorist Mddle. 

2. ii}i£ii M ieS 

3. vpidtrAa BivBa ti<r$m 

2. vplairBov 6ia6ov t6a6iai 

3. nyiidcrdiuv BeuBtar i6ir6ar 
6irr6t S6<r6t 
SiaStoatai 66a6aiaay 

, j 2, irplatrSt 
t 3. ir/iuio'Sii 



2 A.M. 

r jrpiav&Qiy or QftrQi^v 

hijinitive Passive 

Participle Positive and Middle. 

imafitvos TtSi^vav tiit6firvos 

wpidiuroc ffififtot M/UMt 


8127.] VERBS IN MI. 10» 

Reuare. The following remarks apply only to the tenses whidi 
ftre mentioned in § 125, 1. In other tenaes verbs in /u follow tlie 
general rules for verbs In at (§ 93, Note). 

§ 127. 1- Most verba in /u may be inflected in eome of 
their parts like verbs in at>, ta, oai, and tiQ>. Especially, verbs in 
v/u form their present subjunctive and optative liltc verba in uu. 
The forma iriSas, hWa (as if from nSiu), and iiiioxm, tilSout, iilios 
(as if irom ShjUm) are much more common than the reguliu* forms. 
(See the paradigms.) 

2. The suhjunctivQ of verbs in ijiu and n/a baa the regular 
connecting vowels u and q, which are contracted with the finnl 
vowel of the stem ; as ndu, 6£>, n^pu, for -nSia Biu, riSitiiai ; itiii 
for SMa. Verbs in fu from stems in a have », ^, g in the sub- 
junctive, as if from «», tijt, nj (see umfpt and § 128, 2) ; those 
from stems in o have m, ^c, ^ (§ 9, 2 & 4), not dit, w (§ 9, i, N.). 

3. The optative active of verbs in iipt and u/u is formed like 
the aorist optative passive of verbs in u, by adding to the 
stem the secondary endings (| 112) preceded by t? ; as iara-l^v, 
Tt6i-it]-r, Mo^'i)-!-. (See g 116, K. 3.) The optative passive and 
middle adds to the stem the regular endings preceded by ■ ; as 
hrra-liofp, nSi-l-ntf, 6tio-l-iuj¥. The contraction here appears in 
the accent, IiTToio, ntfrio, ifec. 

4. The present imperative active commonly omits A in the 
second person singular, and lengthens the final vowel of the 
stem (o, f, o, u) to ij, «, oil, ii. The second aorist retains 6i, ex- 
cept in 6ic, Sdc, and it, also in irxit (from ?)(")• 

5. The infinitive active adds wai to the tens&«tem ; the in- 
finitive passive and middle adds o-^oi. Thus, itrrd-niii, urra-irdia; 
oT^vm, Ai-vni, dob-pai (§ 125, 1) ; 6i-v8ta, Sa-a^at. 

6. The stem of the participle active is formed by adding vr- 
to the tense-stem ; that of the participle passive (ind middle by 
adding ^wo- (See § 119, 1, and § 46.) 

NoTB 1. The second aorist active of two verbs, riOtfia and 8i8»|iit, 
lengthens the vowel of the slem only in the infinitive; the fonns 
Jft(F, -TT, -5, (Saw, -on, -«, not being in use in the singular of the in- 
dicative. Tliese verbs (as inflocled in § 126, 2) are therefore irregu- 
lar in the indicative and imperoUve of this tense; the regular form 
being seen in tyimv (stem yi«-), which has 2 aor. act indie ff»*m. 


106 DirLECTIOH. [S 12S. 

•ms, ■•, ■^^^o«^ irr^, -Vfuv, -im, -tvar; subj. yw (like Jfi), opt. yiiolrp' 
Qika ddf'ifr)} i]nj>erAF. yyaSi, yyart^y yvirroVj yiwnwt ywrc, yi'urd<rai' j 

For ttiree aorisU in m, see g 121, Note 2. 

Note 2. A few deponent verba accent the subjunctive and opta- 
tive oa if tiiere were no contraction. Such are hivajiai, ftrioTafxai, 
Kpiimiuu, ivpta/npi (§ 126, 2) ; as SiW/uu, biraiTO (not 3iiiw/jiu, dvMU- 
td); and sometimes other verbs in fu. The infinitive irptoirdai (§ 126) 
is accented like a present (See § 20, N. 3.) 

DlBlectle Fornu of Teilia In ML 

§ 128. 1. Indkalme. Doric n, vn, for m, vm. Epic somelimee 
v6a for f in 2 ■pexs. sing. For 3 pers. plur. in tlm, oOn, wn, see § 125^ 
N. 2. Epic v lor irar in 3 pers. plur., with precuding vowel short; is 
iarir for ?iitij<toi', itv for woay r — in aor. pass, tv for tfiraii ; as iKotriu/- 
Btn for (Koaiirfitfirav. The Ionic ffcof and <rKOfU)i' (^ 122, 2) have no 
connecting vowel in verbs in /u; as urm-VKor. Herod, often has ana 
and oro (§ 122. 2) for rroi and iro in tlif pres. and imperf., changing a 
preceding a tot; as Tidf-orot, auM-nrai (dirva-), VSvn'-oTD. (See§I2S,2.) 

2. Sxibj. The Ionic sometimes leaves cu uncontracted in t!io subj. 
of verbs in ^/ii; as in Biaiitv for Oa/uv, iioBiarrai for fiuriUfnu. It 
forms the subj. in lu and tetfiai even from stems in a; iis ortafirv for 
OTu^irr (aranoiup), iiritrriaimu for (iriWairrai (fjrurni-BiTiii, 8 127, N, 2). 

In Homer, wiien the 2 nor. act subj, is uncontracted, the vowel of 
the stem ia generally lengthened (r to « or ij, and o to w) ; in which 
case the sliort connecting vowels o and t are used in the dual and 
plural, except before m (for ytn). TIius, in place of Attic 6a, &c. and 
<rTB, &c., we Rnd Otla, ^(i)ir, Ai^i Otiofuif. aiijTjs, •rr^'i' <TTtloiav, nap- 
tn-qftnv, vtpi-iTTTjaKTL- Also Oi'iofou for Oufini. Ro, for fiu, &c., wo 
have iiag (also Sunjo-i and bam), Utojuv, b&»<n. The name forms nre 
found in the aor. pass. subj. (g 115, N.) ; as iacm (for Sou) from indie. 
iiajiv, iantiffs and ianfm (for iaitis and Sn/i^} f''om iSaiitiw, pty^lg (for 
/uy5) from f/uyiji-. 

3. Itijin. and Pariic. Homer has fterai and fiti/ for km ; as i(rrd- 
fitpoi or lora ptp, sometimes with lenj^lhrncd vowel, as rtS^-fwrai. So 
in aor. pass. 6iioia6!j-Mtinu for S/tosaSij-iim (from itfioidei, lo liXen'). 

The participle passive and middle sometimes has q/uvoc fur o^iioc 
or qicvof in Homer; as nd^iuvoi. 

IxTHKolAT Tarbi In MI. 

§ 129, The verbs el/il, to ic, el/u, to go, frj/*t} io send, 
^(tlf to say, and jce^uu, to lie, are thus inflected. 


L El/ii, to &e (stem ev, latin, esse). 

InAutlTB. Sn^nDelln. OpUdTS. ImpsntlTB. 

Sing. -^2. *r jj( rf7» lirA 

iJ fof ftrrn 


JPresent Infinitioe. cZrai /V«(. Panic &v, <^ira, Sr 


Imperfect. Fvt. Iiidieative. 


(1. j.orj 
(3. i. 

Iirnii (po6t. Imrat) 

I 3, Ijonji' O 


r 1. ffiitr I<r6in0a 

PlilT. ^ 2. ijr. or ((FT. foftrA 

\ 3. ^aa» Ivtarrtu 

FvL Opt. iavliiJir, Jtroto, taotro, Ac. regular. 
Fut. Infin. Z<n</6at Fvt, PaHie. htipnet 

A. middle fonn ^pji't ^ 'oo*, ntrelj' occurs in the imperfeoL 
Note. Dialbcts. Pret. In/lie. Aeolic i/i^i, the moat primitiTB 
form, nearest to ta-iu (see foot-note on p. 85). Ionic ils, Horn, iairi 
(for tl); Ionic clfiic (for iiritir); Ionia fairi, Doric ivrt (for tliri). 
Imperf. Horn, ija, Ja, toir (in 1 pars, sing.) ; Iij<rfti (2 pers,) ; ^rr, fiji", 
^ifi' (3 pere.) ; loar (for iScrai-). Hdt ?o, ?at, Tare. Ionic (iterative) 
l&Koy. Future. Horn, iamiua, &c., with tVa-ctrtu. 

£ufi/. Ionic b, Ac, 7airi: Horn, also cm. Ionic low, foe Jmpdr. 
Bom. l9-<ra (lbs regular form). 7r>/I». Horn, f/i^ioai, l/wNUf Jfin^ 
Porftc. lonio iAw, (mov, <A^ 

;,. Google 


n. Etfu, to go (stem »^ Latin, i-re). 

( 1. <9U III Io/t)i- (Ibifu) 

h. ,! ^ w 

\ 3. tin ^ UH 

( 2. Itxui &7ror SiHrof 

t 3. 'n» Ufra* Imti)> 

f& (fflaM 

fl. -^ 

r. < 2. & 

ta. IS 

Zno-t 2du» {racniv or t6m» 

Pretent Infinitive, hmu Partie. li»», Imaa, idv 

She. DibL nonl. 

1. Jtw or no S*i'*' <"" &•*»' 

2. ^lE or ^tfflJa if«TOi' or §Tm S"" •"■ if" 

3. ^i or ^iv S'^'T'*' ^^ S^' S""*" 
The future tiroiuu and the aorist tliTifa]v are Homeric 

Note. Dialects. Ptm. Ind. Horn. I'lrAi for «!. Imptrf. Horn. 
^, ilToi' (in 1 pers. sing.) ; Ipt n*, u (in 3 pers.) ; 'rrji' (in dua!) ; jjoimr, 
^tnu (Saia), uray, jpov (in plural). Hdt. Ipa, flir, ijlaaa. 

Subj. Horn, i^trAi, (jjui. Opt. Hom. {(iij (for 1«). Injin, Horn. 
[■fMMt 01 1-firv (for l-inu). 

III. "Ii;/*!, to send (stem e). 
(Fut. ftni, Aor. fyta, Perf. itiu, Perf. PasB. and Ifid. «^ 
Aor. Pass. tt%.) 

/ntftc ojiu, m&ecUd like rti^fu; but lotn in third peison 

Swlif. lu, ^, 1^ ; ice Opt. Ubjii, Ulrfs, Itlii ; &c 

, Imper. In, Ura ; &c. /n;fn. tirai. Fartic Ult. 

;,. Google 

§121t.] VERBS IS MI. 109 

api, o]t, T7, &a.; like inBifv : sometimes mip, Uw, ul 

Second Aoriat. 
Indie. No singular : Dual, tXTor, »riiv : Plur. tlftn, tin, iltm^. 

Stibj. &,S^, §; ^rov, 5«w ; k/ttr, Ijn, &vf. 

Opt. «ip, ti^t, tiij i ti^Tor, (Jijnjr ; Afittii or tJiur, t'tti or ttrt, 
■upnw or tltv, 

Jmper. «, cnn ; Irw, &•» ; «■», triMnai or «tow<. 
Jj^Jt. tlrm. Partic tis, ma, t¥. 

Passive and Middle. 
Indie. Zcfuu, Svbj. l&fuu, Opt. j(ifii)v, Ivtper, Uitq or too, It^n. 
UaSat, Fartic. Uiunot. (All regular like riStiuu, &c.) 

Iiia)i>, inflected regularly like /ndtpi^v. 

Second Aorist Middle, 

Indie, t'laji'. itiro, tiro ; flaOnP, tlaBiv ; tliuSa, fhrSt, (lvT«. 

SidlJ. Siiuu, S, ^Tat ; ^a-6ov ; Z/ieia, Jju^t, Siyrai. 

Opt. ttttqv, tio, tiTO ; ttoSoy, tiirSifv ; i2fu0a, ttfSi, ttiTO. 

Imper. oZ, laSa ; iaBov, itrffav ; iirSt, taBairay or tirAu>>. 

Injiii. taSiu. Partic Ifumr. 

Such forms as di^'otre aod aifilour, n-odoirs and irp<Saun9c (tilso ac- 
cented irpoolra, itpooi<7S«), for di^(«6)T(, jrpmiTo, &C., sometiuies occur, 

Note, (Dialects.) Horn. Uiv for irju; t/tfr for fiwii; laar, iiapi, 
ivTo, &c., by omission of augment, for tlaav, tifJi*, cXvro, &<;. in iudic; 
in ivlj^tt, fut. ayiaa, aor. Svtim. 

IV. $)7/:t^ to *ny (atem ^). 

Indie. tptiU, ^t, ^<rl ; ^firrfv, t^riji', ^ofijp, ^ttr<, ^An. 
:SW>7'. 0«, ^r, <f^, &C. Opt. ^ii]v, ^I'ljf, ito. 
Imper. ^61 or 0adl, i^araj ; ^nw, iparw, &c. 
Infin. ^Mnai, Partie. ^at, tpSira, <f>mi (not Attic). 

X^v, i^aSa or ?f ■;[, f^ ; t^Tou, l^rrpi ; tipajiai, t^an, fi^raM 

Note. Homer has some middle forms of ^7^11; prcs- imperal, ifido, 

^aaAt,ipia6i; inJin.ifiaaAu; pai'lic. iftafumt; iiiijter/ecl iif>afuiv,i<l>aro 
or ^aro. These all have aa active sense. 

V. Keifuity to lie (stem xei-, m-). 

Pres. Indie uiiua, ulmu, nlrat ; KtiaOov, xtiaSmt ; Kti/uda, 

KtiaBt, Ktirnu. Imperf. iniiirir, tKtiaa, (ciiro; Itturior, tttlaOrfri 

tialiuSa, iKtuiB*, tKtivTo. PrM. Sviij. and Opt. These forms oc- 
cur ; jrcijnii, jEeaavTaif tttwrHj WouTo. Iiliper. Micro, KtltrSa ; kmujQoVj 
Kiia6av ; utiaBt, KtiaBioaia or MiaSMt. Infill. «i<tAu> Parlie. 

Future. miirapH, regular. 

Note. Homer has n'ordi, Kt'iarai, and iciovTiu, for muthi ; Ktaro and 
Ktioro for liwiVTo ; subj. ji^toi. Hdt. has often cnnu, ma0ai, and 
iititTo, for MtToi, &0.i and always Kiartu and ciwiira for «iiTai and 

^^ ■ ' Deuuitd Perfect and Flaperfeot of tlw IC-fomi. 

§ 130. 1- A few second perfects and pluperfects drop the 
connecting vowel, and are inflected like the present of verba in 
/u. But they are not used in the singular of the indicative, and 
they form the participle in it. They are formed from stems in a. 

The principal verbs which have tiiese forms are (9atiw, to go, 

2 perf. infin. jSrjSavm; Bvlitrn^, to die, rtSiidvai; and lOTij/u, to get, 
iirrdrat. All these have ordinary perfects, pl0j]Ka, nBriKa, timjua, 
which are used in the singular of the indicative. The second 
perfect and pluperfect of Krnjfu (trra-) are thus inflected : — 

Seamd Perfect. 

Indladn. SBtttanctln. Optttln. ImperMlra. 
ioTJr lirrtUrit imaSi 

inT^Tov iaratrfTov o 

ftFTQi^Tiji' or •otnji' ioTortni 

U, i, 

ttrTapiv iarHim lirTalriiuf or -o 
{(TTiJTt itrraiTiTr OV -a 

iaT&<ri ivraitfvtv or -( 


g 130.] T£BBS OF THE MI-FORM. Ill 

InfinitiTc. Jaraim Participle, irmat, iar^ (§ C9, Note) 

Seeoad Pluptr/eet. 

Dual. JirroTW, Sirrdnpi 

Plural, lirratifv, tmart, taravaf 

"SmK 1. HomoT has 3 fomi in -aact in the third person plnral, as 
0t0aairi ; also a participle yryaais and some other forms of a second 
pcrtect of yiyvoiuu (if this class. 

INoTE 2. The Epic bti&ai or di'u, (o/ear, hoa a second perfect iiSta 
(Epic StiSia) wilL mau; forma of this class. See the Lexicon. 

2. The Becond perfect oldo, / know, and its pluperfect ^n^ 
/ knew, are thus inflected : — 

Sing. < 2. 

Seemd Perfect. 

SuldDnctiTB. Opttflia. Impotttn 

Siug. ■( 2. oU6a tligt (Iftn'71 lirA 

•tSl ct3g «d(ii; itmu 

Jim>¥ 4c. &c. &TaP 

Ijtoc regular regular Janav 




InfinitlTa dSf'iw Participle. (ISut {§ 68) 

Second Plwpeifeei. 

Slug. Doil. Plunl. 

1. JBiu' or if!7 ^Sttfui' or ^v/m 

2. Stturfia or jjS^aSa UStiTm or jjcmw sAmm or gwrf 

3. pB€i(i') or ijflij i)8(iTi)(< or Jonji' gdtoav or ^inn' 

NoTX> The Ionic occasionally has the regular forms oiSat, aSSafuv, 
oiSinn; and very often i3/h* for lo-fin'. Hdt, has future dS^irw; Houi. 
tiaofuu, rnrcly tlSq<n». Horn, lia.^ iSuta for tliuia in the participle. 

Ionic jjSta, gSti, gitart, — Horn. ^*idi|[, ^(iBi), and urar, — in plu- 
perfect. The Attic poets hare Jflf/to- and S^trt (lilte girirar). 

Horn. tH^uv, &C. for tldu^Mi' in subj.; i^mmu and EJfwi' in inGn. 

;.. Google 


§ 131. 1. When the first part of a compound word is a 
noun or adjective, only its Btem appears in the compound. Tha 
final vowel of a stem ia dropped before another voweL Before 
a consonant, stems of the firat declension change a to o, and 
stems of the third declension add o. E. g, 

UpOTO^SKos, 6a\aaao-KpaTmp. wai&a-rpldTjs, MU-jioJU'o; X''P'TI^'< l""' 

Note. The exceptions to tliis rule are very numerous, the noun 
Bometioies appearing in one of its eases as if it were a distinct word; 
OK Ftutr-oiRoi, ship-hotife ; vavcri-nopos, Irauersed by ships. 

2. When the first part of a compound ia a verb, its stem 
generally appears without change before a vowel, and with «, i, 
o, or <ri (sometimes tir, at, or ao) added before a consonant. 
Such compounds are chiefly poetic. R g. 

I!tl6-apj(oc, dpx-i-TiicTiar, /uiriJ-yuior, fttp^-paxot, Ttp<fri-voot (r«p»r-), 

Xu-ffl'-JTOyot, OTpf^iSiKOt (uTp*!^-). 

3. When the first part of a compound is a preposition, its 
final vowel (except in wrpi and irp6) is dropped before a vowol ; 

as df-ayti, dw-fxi» ; but irtputya, irpoaya, 

np6 may be contracted with & following t, as in irpoCxa for trpoix^ 
(See g 105, 1, N. 1.) 

§ 132, The follawing inaeparcAU particles are used only as 
profiles : — 

1. a- {as- before a vowel), called alpha privative, prefi.ted to 
nouns and adjectives, rarely to verbs, with a negative force, like 
English jiM-, Latin in-; as S-mat, cJiiidleas, S-ypa(pat, unuirittm, 
S-6tia, godUis, &r-tkii6fpDi, unfree, ai~iudqc, shameless, avopoiot, 

2. Ihiu; ill (opposed to tS, well), denoting difficulty or trouble ; 
as iia-nopot, hard to pass; ivtr-rvx^'t vnfortwiate {opposed to 

3. w)- (Ifitin ne), a negative prefix ; as »^-iroiM>i, nnavenijed; 
^-pfpTTit, unerring. 

Note 1. A few other intensive prefixes are sometimes used, — 
ipt-, tpi-, ia-, ^n-, Xo-; as apl-yrarria, well known; Aa-^omii, bloody. 

Note 2. The prefix a- is rarely intensioe, as in a-nnji, siretehed; 
or eopvlaliee (denoting union), as in S-Xoxos, hed/ellow (from X^oi). 




§ 133. 1. Every aentence must contain two parts, a 
subject and a predicate. The subject is that of which 
something ia stated. The predicate is that which is stated 
of the subject Thus in the sentence ^apeloi ^affiKevet, 
Darias is king, ^apeim is the subject and ^oaiKeuei is the 

Note 1. When any part of *i/u, to be, connects the subject with 
» following noun or adjective, the verb is called Che coptda, and what 
follows is caDed the predicate; as &apti6t iari ^otr^rvf, Darius ia 
king, where iarl is the copula. 

Note 2. The simple subject and predicate may each be modified 
by additional words or clauses; as KGpac, dianiiTat A tiirev, tltr^0iv tls 
rfiy tnAtf, Oyrua, on hearing mhat he said, loent into the ciVy, where 
KSpas, oHiucrar i ttTTtv, is the modified subject, and the rest is the 
modified predicate. 

2. That upon which the tiction of a verb is exerted is 
called tlie oJ^ect, which may be either direct or indirect 
Thus, in eStDKe ra -xprifMra r^ dvBpi, he gave the money to 
the man, j(prifiaTa is the direct object, and avBpi is the 
indirect (or remote) object. 


§ 134. 1, The subject of a finite verb is in the nomi- 
native ; as o dvijp JjKdev, the man came. 

A verb in t>. finite mood is called a finite verb (g 89). 

2. Tlie subject of the infinitive mood ia in the accusa- 
tive ; as Xe'yowri join avSpai atrekOelv, they lay tliat the 
men toent away. 

114 8TNTAX. [§135. 

But the subject is generally omitted, when it ia the sume ns the 
subject or the object o;' the iesdinp verb; (is ^iXcrai &nt\6tiv, he 
Kishes to go awaij; nnpafjoifitii iroi /iirtm, vx A icist you lo remain. 

Note 1. The subject nominative of the first or second person ia 
omitted, except when special emphasis is required. (See foot-note, 
page 85.) 

The nominative of the third person is omitted, — 

(n.) When it is expressed or implied in the context; 

(b.) When it is a general word for persons, as \iyavat, they aay, U 

(c) When it is indefinite, as^c ^v, it teat lale, taXwt tx^i, it is axil; 
and in passives like iraptaKtvairTai px, / am prepared (^preparation iaa 
been made hi/ me, like ven(ujn est in Latin) ; ulso in the impersonal 
construction with (he verbal in riov, as in vfurriov («W1) t^ »i/iy, ice 
must obey the iaio. 

{d.) Wlien tlie verb implies its own subject, as laipiavti, the herald 
(■rqjjvl) proclaims, iaaKniy^t, the trtimpeler sounded ike trwnpel, kuXmi, 
a hindrance occurs. 

(e.) With verbs like J«, it rains, d(rTpinTti, it lightens, atlri, there is 
on eartA^uote (it shates), where, however, some subject like Ztit or 
6t6! was originally supplied. 

NoTB 2. Many verbs in the third person singular have an infini- 
tive or a sentence as tlieir subject. These are called impersonal verbs. 
Such are itl and ^ph- ^ '* required, one ought, nptnti and vpoa^Kti, it 
is proper, tpiim and t^ari, it is possUAe, Bmcri, it seems good, aofiBaim, 
it happens, and tiie like ; as Set q^v dntXBtin, tee must go away (i. c. 
that we go away is required). 

The name impersonal is applied witJi still greater propriety (though 
less frequently) to tlie verbs included iu (c) and (d) of Note 1. 

Bnl>]eet Nomtiwtlvc utd TsFb> 

§ 135. 1. A verb agrees with its subject nominative in 
number and person; as (^y^) \eyta, I say, oStos Xe^*, 
ikia man says, oi avZpfi \eyovaiv, liic me7i say. 

2. But a nominative in the nciiler plural regularly takes 
a singular verb ; as -raura iyepero, these things happerud, 
ra olicri/iaTa eirevev, tlie buildiitgs fell. So dSuvard iort 
(or dSuvaTov e<m), it is impossible. 

3. A singular collective noun may take a plural verb ; as 
TO n-X^fo; e<\ri}i^itravTO irokefu'iv^themajorUy voted for war, 



NoTK 1. When several sulgects ste connected bj and, thtj f^en- 
erally have a plural verb. But tlie verb often agrees with one of the 
subjects (generally the nearest) and ia understood with the rest, 
■which rreneratly liappena when t!iey are connecttil l>y «r or nor. E. g. 

SoiufKtmOiMV iyii mi u^iic, / anil j/nu tii/ree ; ooi^ ryu mi iri/ <$/•», 
/ ant! i/au leere lowe ," koi trii koi oi dSfX^oi inip^rTT*. bo'k gou and your 
hrolhen mere present. 'Ejm oJt* miijwt ...oJJr' (Xnit otkt tpo^ oUt 

Note 2. If the subjects arc of different persons, the verb ia in the 
first person rather than the sei:oni], and in lite second ratbw thao the 
third. (See examples under Note 1.) 

Note 3. A verb in tlie dual may fc4Iow two subjects in the sin- 
gular, or even a plural subject, denoting two persons or things. But 
even a subject in the du^ may have a verb in the plural (See B. 
IV. 453 i T. 10, 275 ; XVI. 218.) 

Note 4. Sometimes a verb agrees with the predicate nominative; 
as ai j^oprpftai hairir whiatfiariat irjj/xcUv itfTtv, the paymeniz fi^ 
ckanats are a tufficient sign of pronperity. 


§ 136. After verbs signifying to ie, to hecrnne, to appear, 
to he called, chosen, considered, and the like, a noun in the 
predicate is in tlie same case as the subject, both denoting 
the same person or thing. R g. 

OutJc (irri {3airtX(u[, Ihu man is hinij; 'AXi^anipoi &ibs aUHfftACtTa, 
Alexander irna nained a Gud; t^piOi] arparriyot, he teas chonEn i/en~ 
eral ; !) wiiXie rfipoipiov miWimj, (he rily became a fortress ; \Syovat 
TOuTor ytviaSat ^ag-iXia, they saij that thu man teal ntade kiiti). 

Tliis applies also to the case of a predicate adjective (J 133). See, 
however, g 138, Note 8. 

§ 137. A noun annexed to another noun to describe it 

^rees with it in casa This is called apposition. E. g. 

Aaprioc 6 ^atnXcvE, Dariu3 tie kinff. 'A^>«(, ptyaktf noXtc. Aiken; a 
greaC cily. "Y/ut rove tropin, you, the wise ones. 'Hfiwv twp 'ABifralay, 
of iM, the Athenians. QifnurroiAijs ijiaa (sc Jyu), I Themislucles aia 
come. tiXfiriot jtol Aiimit ol "Axotoi, PhUesiun and Lycon the Ackaeana. 

Note 1. Possessive pronouns and adjectives may have a genitive 
in appofiitioD with a genitdve which they imply; as 6 ifiis rou mXoi- 

116 SVNTAX. [S 138. 

varpov plot, lie life of me, HMtraUe one ; 'hBrtvtuos &v, irdAfoi r^c f^ffl' 
artft, being (a cttizen) of Athens, the greatest city. So ra ipiripa avr&i' 
(for ri in&v ain&ii), your own. 

Note 2. A noun which would regularly stand in the parHliva 
genitive (g 163) Bometimes takes the case of the words denoting its 
parts ; as oficiai al fiiv iroXAui irtTrruKtcrai', SKiyai Si ntpi^trap, tnost of 
the houses had fallen, but a few remained (where we should expect rSiv 
ouotDv). This is cailed patiiiive apposition. 

NotE 3. A noun may be in apposition with & whole sentence, 
generally being in the nominative or accusative, according to tlie case 
of the principal word of the sentence; as 'eXcVijv KTavaiitv, HfWXcf 
'kOiniv TitKpan, let vs kM Heltn, (which a^ be) a bitter grief to Menelaua. 

Note 4. A noun is often in apposition with the subject or the 
object of a sentence, where we use o^ or a like word ; as htttoi ifyoiTU 
tfu/iora Trp 'HXi'^, harses toere brought as offerings to the Sun (in 
active, anrovt Aytiv Su/tara, to bring horsex as offerings). So rlvot 
SiSaircaXw ijixTt, o* teochert of lohal are you come f Many cases in- 
cluded under g 136 ore really cases of apposition. See § 166, N. 1, 


§ 138. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, 
number, and case. This rule applies also to the article; 
and to adjective pronouns and participles. E. g. 

'O ow^ot iviip, the loLie man; tov aorpoO ai'tp6s, t^ ito^ auSpi, riv 
<ro(fitir avdpa, Tiov votpoiif dv&paVy &c. Offror o dinip, tfiis man ; rovroif 
roO av&po!, TouTiiii" Tav avbpar. Ai Spurrai Somiiiiiai t'yai (piatit, the 
aatures seeming to be best. 

Remark. The adjective may be either attributive or predicate. An 
attributive adjective simply qualifies the noun without the interven- 
tion of a verb (like all the adjectives above except Spurrai). The 
predicate adjective is connected with its noun by a copula (§ 133, 1, 
Note 1) expressed or implied, or by one of the verbs included in 
§ I3G, as a avifp oyaBas itrrtv, the rnan ts good; (oXcinii &ya$&s, he it 
called good; vouhi tovs M^Soui daSfvtU, to make the Medet (to be) 
toeai. See the examples under § 142, 3. 

NoiB 1. (a.) An altrilmliee adjective belonging to several nouns 
generally agrees with the nearest or the most prominent one, and is 
understood with tlie rest ; m rir dya$iv avSpa ml yvvalna, the good 
man and woman ; imyri aa Xiyif cai fitx"'^! ^S ^very loord and derive. 

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I 133.] ADJECTIVES. 117 

(6.) But such an adjectire is occasionally plural if it belongs to 
several singalai- nouns, or dual if it belongs to two ; as trw^piWii 
cWt mi aiidplis koI yuvauor ovrru wouiv, ii ia (he part of prudent (per- 
tons) boA men and women thus to do. 

Note 2. (a.) Apredicale adjective is regularly plural if it belongs 
to BBTeral singular nouns, or dual if it belongs to two. If the nouns 
are of different genders, the adjective is commonly masculine if one 
of the nouns denotes a male person, and commoniy neuter if all de- 
note things. 

(6.) But it sometimes follows both the gender and number of the 
nearest or most prominent noun, 

(c.) A predicate adjective is sometimes neuter, being used like a 
noun (§ 139), when its noun is masculine or feminine; as koXoi' if 
A^dtia, a beautiful thing u truth. 

Note 3. A collective noun in the singular may fake a plural parti- 
ciple; as Tpoimi AdiTfr 'Apytioji' irrrfXof, the Argities' army Iiaoing taken 

Note 4. An adjective may conform to the real rather tlian the 
grammatical gender of a noun denoting a person; as ^iXc riiaoii, dear 

NoTB 5. The masculine form of the dual is very often used for the 
feminine in adjective pronouns and the article. Especially rare are 
llie feminiaes ri, ravro. 

Note 6. Auo, two, is often used ivith a plural noun. 'Omrt, the 
eyes, and iovpt, two spears, in Homur, may have plural adjectives. 

Note 7. An adjective, especially a numeral, is often used where 
■we should use an adverb ; as oSroi vrrnpoi A^iKoyro, these came 
later; inivTws pi.6or, they eame leiilingly. 

Note 8. When the subject of an infinitive ia not expressed (§ 134, 2), 
adjective words referring to the omitted subject are put in the in 
which that subject last occurred (either expressed or understood) ; as 
iwarfip ffoiXtTiu rJinu (ro(j>6t, the father wishet to be wise ; (but^oiiXmii 
rbv vlir tirai a-o<p6ii, he wishes that his »onmaybe wise, or ^oCXtrai tav- 
rhy (7uai (T-n^rJi-). II/w'ir« avr^ itvai irpoWjiy, it becomes Mm to be 
eager; aix ojioXoyijo-u nnXrjrot iJkhi', / chail not admit thai 1 am come 
vniriBile'l; oixfipTi uvt&c, dXX' iKtlvor trrpaT^yftii, he said that mt (he) 
himself, bat he (Nicias) was general (aMs is adjective, g 145). 

The same principle applies to predicate nouns ; as iroXXoi nuv tipoir- 
woofiraiUimntvai iro^ia-Tav, many of those who pretended lo be sophists. 

The accusative, however, sometimea occurs in aentencffl like these. 

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118 BTNTAX. [| 189. 

AdJ«oU*e uMd aa a Vmat, 

§ 139. 1. An adjective or participle may be used aa a naan ; 
as 0iADc, a friend; naiai, a base vioman. ; al Kotoi, tlie bad; rote 
dyaflnit, to the good ; rmu KparoinTiMi, of titose in poiaer ; Ktwd, evils ; 
TB 6iir{ra,itiortaltkiitga ; ^iroXXa tliin, he who knows muck (^11 Q, 2). 

2. Tlie neuter singular of an adjective with the article is 
often used as an abstract noun ; as t^ koXot, beauty (== coXXm), 
rh Sixmov, justice (^ &Ki>io(7ii>oj). 

Note. The participle, wliidi is a vertiftl directive, may be thus 
used for the infinitive, which is & verbal noun; as ri dcSuJt, fear 
(= T^ AfSitKu) ; cv T^ ^4 iMXtrSan, in tie not practising (=ivT^ ft^ 


HoDwrle Cae of tlis Artlel*. 

§ 140. In the oldest Greek (as in Homer) the article 
appears generally as a demonstrative or personal pronoun, 
sometimes as a relative. E. g. 

Tijc 8' iyii cA Xiitra, bat I will not free her ; nv Si xkit *oi3ot 
'AmSXXwi', and Phoebus Apollo heard hin ; 6 yiip ^X0t 6eAs iiti vijat 
'Axat»', for he came, &o. As relative, irvpa wiAXa ri itai«To, mant/ 
fires lohich were burning ; SSipa tq idminij', gifls which thei/ gave. 

Note 1, Even in Homer, the article is used with adjectives and 
participles as in Attic Greek ; as ol yop Spurrot ir npKria mora*, fur the 
braresl sil in the ships: oc SXXot, the others; td r' t6yra rd t ririfima, 
both things that are and things that are to be. 

Note 2. When the article is used with nouns ia Homer, it is Ren- 
erally a pronoun, witli whidi the noun is in apposition ; as o 5' t^pax* 
XaKntot 'Aptif, and he — bra:en Ares — roared; f ff iiicava' Spa roivi 
yvv^ kUii, and she — the moman — toent with them unwitting. 

Nearer the Attic use of the article arc examples like tliese ; avrap & 
Totiriyipar oBii' ^pSirtmir, blithe — the old mnn — showed them the imnj ; 
•rill 6' olav itarip ttpoo, and he found him — the father — alone. 

Hardly, if at ail, to be distinjruished fmm the Attic article is that 
found in examples like these : art 8^ t^k r^aov q'^i'ttro, vhen nnie he 
came to the inland ; ri rt irStBos 'Qpittvot, and the might of Orion ; al ii 
yuwuxf iardptvat BaCpa^ov, and the women standing wondered. 

It ia therefore oilen difficult to decide tlie exact force of an article 
in early Gre«Jt. The above examples show a (p-adual transition, evea 
in Homer, &om the original pronoun to the true deiinite arUclb 

8 HI.] 


Note 3. The last enamplea in Note 2 are eieeptionrf, and in such 
caeca the nouns nsually stand witliont the article in Homer, as in 
Latin. Thus 8«i'i7 Si icXayy7 yi'irr' apyvpioio $i6io would in Attic 
Greek require ^ uXoyy^ and toO (SwiJ. 

Note 4. Hei'odotus generally uses the forms of the article begin- 
nin" with t in the place of the ordinary relative, — of which he uses 
only the forms ot, 7, 01, and at, except after prepositions. Thus Spnt 
fpos, ry oSroita *oTwg, a sacred bird, whose name is Phoenix. In Other 
respects he uses tlie article as it is used in Attic prose. 

The Lyric poets follow the Homeric usage more closely with re- 
spect to tlie article ; and the Attic poets, especially in the chorus, 
admit Homeric uses. 

Attic Cu of tlie Avtlcle. 

§ 141. In Attic Greek the article generally conesponds 
to the English definite article the; as 6 dv^p, t?ie man; 
rSiv woKeoiv, of the cities ; tok " EfOi,7}<nv, to tke Greeks. 

Note 1. The Greek uses the article in certain cases in which the 
English omits it Such are Ihe following : — 

(a.) Proper names may take the article ; as 6 Zawpanjc, SocraUn. 

(b.) Abstract nouns generally take the article; as ^ ofur^, virtue, 
i iiKOioo-vvr), Justice (also iutaiaaiini). 

(c.) Nouns qualified by a demonstrative or possessive pronoun 
regularly take the article; as oErof 6 avfip, this man; 6 inos mirrip, my 
father; mpi TTJf imrripia mftiut, about our stale. (See g 142, 4.) 

(rf.) The article may precede roioDrof, TotroSror, rouJirff, and 77X1- 
Kovnit; as riv toioCtm' Sutpa, such a man. It always precedes 81™, 
such a one. 

Note 2. The article ia sometimeB used where wo use a possessire 
pronoun ; as tpxtrat Wav^nj njAt -riiv naripa. Mundane comes to her 
father (lit. to the father). 

Note 3. An adverb, a preposition with its case, or any similar 
expression, may be used with tlie article to qualify a noun, like an 
attributive ai^ective; as ol nfn tMptmoi. the nwn of that time; rod 
iraXat KdU/iDu, of ancient Cadmus ; ol iv S<rrti 'Aftfwiioi, the Athenians 
in the city. 

Here a noun denotintt men or thinr/s is often omitted : !is ol tv Sani, 
thone in Ihe city ; tois rirt, to thone of that lime ; ol afiipl UXdrara, Ihoet 
aboKl Plato (generally Plato and his school, or simply Plato). 

Nont 4. The nouns y?, land, irpiyiiaTa, things or affair*, vUt, fot^ 


120 SYNTAX. tS 1«- , 

and sometimes other nouns easilj understood, may be omitted after 
the article, when a qualifying adjective or genitive is added ; »a tit 
■rt/it iavT&v (sc. yTc), to their own land; ix T^t »f<piowi3ot, from the 
neighboring country; iq t^e nSktas-. the affairs of the slate; Utpixk^s 6 
Sap6lmiint (so. vi6i), Pericles, the son of Xanthippus. Expressions like 
ri T^t Tux^ti ™ T^r opyijc, sometimes do not differ from Tvxii Forlime, 
EUid opy^j icritih, 

NoTS 5. Instead of repeating a noun with adjuncts in the same 
sentence, it is sufficient to repeat its article ; as ol r&v iroXirSf vaidrs 
wu dJ Toic SXXaii, the children of the citixeni and those of the others. 

Note 6. The infinitive, like anj other verbal noun, may take a 
neuter article ; as t& tliivai, the knowing; iroi t^ /if i^iy^ma \omiif ^r, 
it remained for you not to be silent. 

In like manner a neuter article may precede a whole clause consid- 
ered as a noun ; aa t6 yvS>6i travrbv jrayraxOB 'on xPWf^i ^ 
laying "fcwio thyself" is everywhere useful 

^^ Foaitlon of the ArUde. 

§ 143. 1. An attributive adjective or other expiesiuoii 

qualifyii^ a noun (except a partitive genitive) commonly 
stands between the article and the noun. E. g. 

'O <ro(j)6T arjjp, the wise man; ol iv Strrti o»flponroi, the men in the city ; 
OL'dcU TBI' TiSre 'EXXtwux, none of the Greeks of that time ; tls rf i- inlvM 
vokiv, into their city ; oi rvv Bji^Lav arpan/yrii, the generals of tlie Tke~ 
bans. (See below, Not* 2.) 

Two or even three articles may thus come together; as rout r4 rijt 
itSX^ait txorrat, those who have the control of the state. 

2. The article together with any of these expressions 
may follow the noun for the sake of emphasis, in which 

case the noun itself may have another article before it. 

'A^ijp 6 ow^c, or 6 dvtip 6 cnH/nit, the vnse man (not, however, 6 i^p 
o-o^t, see g 142, 3) ; al wokns al ftj/iotrpaTui/HXu, the stales which are 
unJer a democracy; SvSpaTroi ol Tcfn, the men of that time; npita8aiim 
riiv nKparov, tailh regard to pure injustice. 

Note I. The article may be separated from its noun by jm'c, it, ri, 
yt, yap, tsi), and sometimes hy other words. 

Note 2. The partilive genitive {% 168) rarely stands in either of 
the positions here mentioned, but either precedes or follows the gov- 

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I li2.] THE ABTICLE. 121 

eniing nonn and 7ta article ; as ol uucoi rii- traXtrav, rte fiod among the 
eitheta (rarely o! t»v woXtrSt- Kami). Even the other formB of the 
adiLoniinal genitive occ^oiihIIj have tliis position, as tuv iruXiuwv q 
^xkoinxpia, the philosophy of Ihe ancienti. 

Note 3. "AXXm with the article generally means rte rett ; aa rj 
3)i.\tj TraXxr, the reft of the stale (but JXXij iroXic, another itale). 

Dokvs with the article generally means the ijreaier pari, especially 
in Ol iroXXot, the mullitude, the majoriti/, and rb iroki, the greater part. 
So in the comparative, ol itXcuiwe, Ihe majorily, rd nation, the greater 

Note 4. When a noun lias two or more qualifying words, each of 
them may take an article and stand in either of tlie above positJoiiE 
(1 or 2), or ali may stand between one article and its noun ; ns 

17 *Attm^ 7 yra^tiik 0up^, the ancitnl AUic speech; ra Tti\rf ra iavrui' 
ri itaitpd, their omn long malli ; imiarov tls ris SXXat 'AptaSuiat noKiis, 
they tent to the other ArcaiHan cities: 5 va 'Afttr^c 'HpoicXfOfc waiitv- 
oiT, the iiulmclion of Hercules by Virtue. 

Note 5. The Greeks commonly swd the Euphrates river, riv Ei- 
^poTtpi vornfuCi', &c., rather than the river Euphrates. So soraetimea 
with names of cities and mountains (rarely islands). 

3, When an adjective either precedes the article, or 
follows the noim without taking au article, it forms a pred- 
icate, some part of elfti, to le, being understood or implied. 

'O air^p tro^r or trw^c A arfip (sc. iirrlv), the man is wise, or wise 
is Ihe man. IlaXXoi oi irarovpyoi, many are the evU doers. 'E<pt)fupovs 
yf rat Tv;[nF KfrrJuuBa, toe pOSStSS our fortunes for a day (sc. oSaac). 

The predicate force of such adjectives can often be expressed by a 
periphrasis ; as toU \Ayoii Bpaxirripois 'XW^ *** words which he used 
were shorter, lit, he used the words {they being) shorter; ^virro alrrovo- 
fiur Tan ^v/ifrnxay, they presvled over their allies (they being) indepen^ 
dent, i. e. tlie allies orer whom they presided were independent. 80 irrfirov 
ir/ei TO mpatrvpa ; how great it the army which he is bringing t 

4. A demonstrative pronoun either precedes the arti- 
cle and its noun, or follows the noun like a predicate ad- 
jective (3). The article cannot be omitted here in Attic 
prose. K g. 

OvTos 6 ivrip, this man, or i Sa^p oEroc (never 6 o&rot ifrjp)- Hrpl 
Touray rut* iriAtoH', about these cities. If an adjective or otiier qualify- 

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122 SYNTAX. [3 1*3. 

ing word is added, the demonstrotiTe may Btend between this and its 
noun, contrary to the role; as ^ trrtfr) aSni oBm, (iw narrow road; rp 
a<fnKoiuvtf TObTf) $tnp, to thU Sranger who has come. 

This vu!e applies also to (inirror, itartptic, S/ixfua, and d/i^orcfMr. 
Biit witli (MOTot tlie article may be omitted. See also § 141^ N. 1. 

Note 1. Tlat and cru/orai, all, and oXoc, lehele, Reilerally have the 
same position as a demonstrative; as vims ol Sripn or oi arSptt 
ndmt, alt the men ; SXi/ ^ n&u or ^ noXtc 0X7, all the eily. But they 
can also be used like attributive adjectives, preceded by tlie article; 
as q Rwra SuwXui, the wlioU of SUilg, ri oXor yirot, the enlire race. 

The liistinotioa here was probably not greater tlian that between 
alt the cilg and Ihe m'-.ole cilg in English. We find even ol n-avriE 
VoXtrot, ihe whole body ofckiieni. 

Note 2. Afinft as an inten.'^ive pronoun, ip»e, has the position of a 
demonstrative ; as qlt^e & avrip, the mart himself. But 6 airos arrip, the 
same man. See § IdS, 1, and g 79, 2. 

Note 3. The genitive of the personal pronoun (whether partitive 
or not) eitlier precedes tbc article or follows the noun, while tho 
genitive of other pronouns (unless it is partitive) follows the article ; 
as 7^uv q n£Kit or q nSkic ^jiiov, our city (not 7 qfiur (roXtc)! 
ficTorcj^ifniTa 'AffrwJyqt rjv iavrov Sxrftnipa koI roi' woiBo air^s, 
Ailyogen sent for hi$ oicn daughter and her fon. 

Note 4, The a^ectives Sxpm, fuaoi, and •la^aros, when they are 
in the predicate position (3), mean the top (cr extremity), the middle, 
the last, oF the tiling whicli their nouns denote; as fu'in] q ayopa, the 
middle of the maiiet (wliile ^ lUor) ayopa would mean the middle mar- 
tel) ; S*pa ij x<'/», 'he exlremilg of the hand. 

The article here may be omitted entirely. 

ProBomliul Artlda In Attic Oreeb. 

§ 143. 1. In Attic prose the article retains its original 
demonstrative force chiefly in the expression fiev .... 
o Btj ihe (me . . . .the other. K g. 

'O jitr ovSir, 6 it iroXX^ Kipialirti, one vian gains nothing, another 
gains much. At? Toii /liv t'nu ivarvxt't, tovs 8' «i'Tij;<rt, some must be 
unfortuaale, and others fortunate, Ttuw irS\tar ai fiiv TvparroHmu, al 
6c IhiiioicpaTovmu, of stales, eoaie are governed by tyrants, others by de- 

■ NoTG 1. The neuter rb ptv . . . ri di may be used adverbially, 
partly . . . partly. For roOro (uv ■ ■ ■ tdvto ti in this aeUGe, see g 14^ 
Note 4. 

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S 145.] FROMOmiS. 123 

IfoTB 2, 'O U, &C., sometimes menna and le, hit he, &c., even 
when no i ftiv precedes ; u 'iHipaf 'AAfvuunw imfyiytro ■ ol dj . . . 
IjkBov, Jnaros cahed in Atheniani ; and ikey came. 

2. A few other relics of the demonatrative meaning of 
the article are found in Attic, chiefly the following : — ■ 

thv KOI Tov, tkin man and that; r6 col t6, this and that; ri ml nf, 
these and those; as liti yap tA mi t£ iru^cnu, ul ro n^ jroi^irat, for 
vre ought to have done this thing and that, and not to have done the olher^ 

IIp6 ToC (or irporou), before this, Jbrmerly. 

Kal nSc or jml r^w, before an infinitive; as koI tw Kt\rvirai SoSpiu 
(sc XiytToi), and (it ia taid) he commanded him logiw it. Cyr. I. 3, CI. 

So occasionally ry, therefore, which is conunoD in Homer. 


§ 144. 1. The nominative of the peisoDal pronoane is 
seldom used, except for emphasis. (See § 134, N. 1.) 

Note. The forms iium, ifioi, and */m' are more emphatic than the 
enclitics /lov, fioi, /m; hence the latter eeldom oucur after prepositions, 
except in irpds fu, 

2. The pronoims of the third person, ov, ol, ?, &c. are 

generally personal pronouns in Ionic (Ireek, hut sometimes 
reflexives. In Attic prose these pronouns are genemlly 
iiidircct reflexives, — that is, in a dependent clause, referring 
to the subject of the leading clause ; as ifto^ovirrai (it) oi 
A&rp/atoi tr^ltrtv hrekOcatTip, they fear that the Athenians 
may attack them ; ehdovro iiftStv fi^ <r^as ireptopav tftSeti- 
pofievovi, they legged you not to see them destroyed. 

Note. The forms ofi and f are chiefly Epic The orators seldom 
use these pronouDa; and the tragedians use chiefly <r^ and oipi. 

§ 145. 1. AvTOi in all ita cases may be an inteti- 
sive adjective pronoun, himself, herself, itself, themselves, 
like ipse. This is always its force in the nominative 
of all numbers, except when it is preceded by the article 
(§79,2). E.g. 


124 8Y1ITAX. B 1*B. 

Avrit i arpanff6s, the general himself; hr airoit roiE atyuAoif, on 
Ihe very coa»t»; imirrriia) ovr^, hntndedge itself . (See § 142, 4, N. 2.) 

A pronoun with which airos agrees is often omitted ; aa ravra eirot- 
«r« airal (sc. iifuis), yoa did this yourselves; iXfuoraH' tU Tournt au- 
Tot; ip^amv (sc. u/iiv), jvu tniul «ai(, emdoritfii^ on ri«Ee yowselves (tn 
person). So aurdr F^i? (ipso disit), himself {the master') said it. 

2. Tbe oblique eases of aurw are the ordinary personal 
pronouns of the third person. E g, 

SrpoT^v airiy 6iri8n^, he de^gnttied him aa generoL See four 
Other examples id Xen. Anab. 1. 1, 2 and 3. 

For luif, n'v, uid o^, eee § 79, 1, Note 2. 


§ 146. The reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of 
the clause in which they stand. Sometimes, in a depend- 
ent clause, they refer to the subject of the leading verb, — 
i. e. they are indirect reflexives, E. g. 

Vr&6t a-avriji, knoio thyself ; ifcia^a^ iauT6r,he slew hiitudf; 
tii &purm ^miKeitir6t i^iv aiiraX't, take the best counsel for your- 
leli>es, 'o Tvpainros i«fu'f«t rois jraXirot Im^ptrtai iavr^, the tyrant 
thinks that the citizens are servants to himself. 

Note 1. Occasionally a reflexive rercrs to some emphatic word 
■which is not the subject; as mri o-aurou cyA at Beifai, IvtUI shote 
you from your own case {from younelf). In fact, these pronouns cor- 
respond almost exactly in their use to Uie English myself, thyself, 
himself, &c. 

Note 2. The third person of the reflexive is sometimes used for 
the &:st or second ^ Bsitt^liasa^pivOaiiavTovt, toe mast ast our- 

NoTK 3. Tlie reflexiTO is sometimes used for the reciprocal (g 81) ; 
6uArf6iit6a ^ftlf avToit, tee discourse mith one another (i. e, among 

; PH0N0UN3. 

§.147. The possessive pronouns are generally equiva- 
lent to the possessive genitive of the personal pronouns. 
Thus o rj/ierepo-i irarrip =x: o -Trarrip ■rjfi.Sn', our father. 
The possessive is regularly preceded by the article. 

See § 167, 1 ; § 141, N. 1 (c). For iiouus and adjoolives agreeing 
with the genitive imphed in a possessive, sec § 137, U. 1. 

g 149.] Itn'ERROGATiyE PSONODH. 125 

KoTi 1. The possessive is occasionally equivalent to the objeetive 
genitive of the personal pronoun ; as f t/tij tSpom, which commoolj 
means Kg good-tuUl (toward* othtrt), rare); means good-wiU (sAewn) 

Note 2. In Attic prose, mfirrtpot, thtir, is always reSexive, and 
Sf, hit, her, ill, is not used at all. (See g 144, 2.) 


§ 148. OSrof and SBe, ^is, generally lefer to what is 

near or present; ixeivtK, t^utt, refeis to what is more 

Note 1. The distinction between ohos and Sit, both of which 
correspond to our this, must be learned by practice. In the histo- 
rians, ofires (with toiovttje, TturoOrot, and ovrwt) regularly refers to a 
speech just made, while Sdr (witk rouStrSt, rorivit, and £dc) refers to 
one about to be mode ; as riir ttmti, he spoke as foUotoa, but Tsura 
tartr. Ant he ip<Ae (said alter the speech). 

Note 2. QZrtn is sometimes an exclamation; as oSnc, W nvtm; 
ybu Ihert! vihat are you doing t 

Note 3. The Greek has no word exactly corresponding to the 
nnemphatic demoastrative often used in English as the antecedent of 
a relative, as I latp Ihote who were present. Here a participle with llie 
article is generally used ; as c&tw roue waporrar ; if a demonstrative is 
Dsed (ciSoi' rovTDvt ol wapjawi, 1 taw lAete men uAo were pretent), it 
has special emphasis. A relative with omitted antecedent Rometimes 
expresses tlie sense required ; as fi3ar o£i IXa^ir, I taw (Ihoie) tehora 
he took (5 152). 

Note 4. TDCrofMV . . . nmro it, Jtrst . . . secondly, partly . ...partly, 
is used nearly in the sense of t^ fu'o . . . ri d( (§ 143, 1, N. 1), espe- 
«ally by Herodotus. 

For ovToul, m, •'uiKNn, oOrairt, iM, &c, see g 83, N. 2. 


§ 149. 1. The interrc^ative t« ; who ? what ? may be 
either substantive or adjective ; aa t(Ws elBop; whom did I 
Bee ? or rica; avSpat etSov ; ichut men did I see? 

2. Tk may be used both in direct and in indirect ques- 
tions ; as T( ffoCXerai ; what does he want ? — epwTf t» 
0ov\ea0(, he asks what you want. 


126 STITTAS- [9 mo. 

la indirect qnestirat?, baweTw, the relfttire Sant is more common ; 
BE iptTf 5 n ffovKtatt- 

NoTK. The same principleB t^>pl7 to the adjectiTea wimit, &e. 
(S 87, 1). 


§ 150. The indefinite tk generally means svme, any, 
and may be either sabstantive or adjective ; as rovro \iyei 
T«, soToe one says this ; avBpairv! t«, some man. It is 
eometimes nearly equivalent to Ute English a or an; as 
eZSov avSponrov Tiva, I saw a certain man, or / saw a man. 

Note. OccosionaUy rU means every one, like iroi nf, as r^/uii Tie 
i6pB 6ii$da6u, let erery one tharpen taell his >pear. Hom. 


5 161. A relative agrees vitb its antecedent in gender 
and number ; but its case depends on the const^otion of 
the clause in which it stands. E. g. 

EIScv tow Svipar oi Sartpor J5XAi», / saa ihe men mho came afier- 
warda ; ai Sviptc otc tldfs itr^Sov, lie men whvm you taa tneat laoay. 

Note 1. The relative follows the person of the antecedent; as 
ifuu o'l toDto troKiTf, yov who do this; /yi tr toOto iVoiijcra, 
/ who did ihii. 

Note 2, A relative referring to several anleoedents followB the 
rule given for predicate adjectives (§ 138, N. 2). It may be plural 
if it refers to a collective noun f § 138, N, 3) ; as ri B\!j6ot oanp 
butaaaiKriv, the tnuUUude toho mill judge. , 

Note 3. In Homer the forms of the relative are sometimes used 
as demonstrative pronouns, like the article (§ 140) ; as noi Jr Srvmrar 
iJX^t, aruf he came second , i yap yipat itni SanJyTtny, for Ihie M the 
right of the dead. 

A few similar eirpressions occur in Attic proao, especially the Pin- 
tonic ^ If St, naid he (where $ in imperfect of ^fu, to »ay). So koi it, 
and he, mil ot, and they, and (in Ilerod.) tt mi St, Ihit man and thai. 
(Compare rii- ml t6v, % 143, 2.) So also tt /Uv . . . ts ii, in the 
oblique cases, may be used for 6 /u'v . . . 6 Si. 

Note 4. Iii the Epic and Lyric poebi, the enclitic r* is often 
appended to relative words without affecting: tbcir meaning; aa oh 
ittttS ri ^(Ti, dolt Ouni not perceive what hetagaT 


Bat atit TV in Attic Greek metuis aUe, eapabie, like Stvordr, being 
really elliptical for TouDrai olbr, tuck as, and rl having do apparent 

. OmUaloa of tlie AnMMdant. 

§ 153. The antecedent of a relative may be omitted 
'when it can easily be supplied from the context K g. 

'EXo^ i c^Skrro, he loot mhai ho wi^od; imtStv iwivoat iiivara, 
he pertuadetl as mang as ht could (for Totrourow itr6<n>vt). 'Eyii mi 
ftv iyii Kpari ptrevitai «i^ ooi, I and Ihoee ahom I command toill 
remain leiA you. 

Note 1. Most relative adverbs regularly omit the antecedent; as 
^KSty Srt ToOra t&rr, ke eome when he tav this (for then, when). 

fiOTB 2. The following expreesionB beloDg here: — forir at 
(sometimes rlolv oT), aunt qui, Ihere are {those) who, L e. some;— 
trtoi (fromm, = fw(mor Jmhti, andoi) some; — iutort ((Hand 
Sn), iontetiraes; — tvnr ot, somewhere; — larip g, tn smite way; 
— fo-riv Situs, tomehou. 

§ 168. "When a relative would naturally "be in i^e 
accusative as the object of a verb, it is generally assimi- 
lated to the case of its antecedent if this is a genitive 
or dative. E g. 

'Ex T&v n&itar & v ?x"> fitym the cities which ke holdx (for is Jj^i) ; 
rotf ityoAHt oit txph*") ""'^ '^ good things which we have (for il 
IxaiLar). This ia ollen called attraction. 

Note 1. When the antecedent would be a demonstrative pronoun, 
it is generally omitted ; as td^Xuiri touto o ft firporrt, he shotaed this 
bg what he did (i. e. Jahoa S); <rvr oft Ixa ri &*pa Kanikir^ofiai, 
I wiU seize the h^hte with these whom I have (I e. rvv ■ntSmis oh lx<*) ; 
oMiiv by ;3auX«ff^ n^xifcrc, you will do none of the things which you 
wish (for ('nt'rav $. See S 148, N. 3. 

Note 2. A relative is very seldom assimilated Jivm any other 
construction than that of the object accusative, or into any other case 
thao the genitive or dative. Tet exceptions occur; as ir TjnivTti 
iroXXovr, many of those whom he distrusted (for iKtirmi tit). Even the 
nominative may be assimilated ; us ^anrtadm a(fi' S> r ^fiiv waptainv' 
(urrau, lo be injured bjf what has been prepared by us (for mr' ittanw A> 


128 SYNTAX. [S 154. 

Note 3. A like assimilation takea place in relative adverbs; as 
duKo^fbt-ro riOit SOtp irtrr^Otrro traiiai Kai ytiwumi, they immedi- 
ately brought over their chUdren and women from the place in which theg 
had placed them for safety (where S$ty, from wMeh, stands for ixtlOni 
ol, from the place ahiiher'). Thuo. 

Note 4. The antecedent occaaionall; is assimilated to the case of 
the relative, vhen this immediately follows; as tXryov Sn travrutr 
£ V Sfamu mvpayins cfcv, they said that they had done all things which 
they needed (where mbnav £v is very irregularly used for varra hv). 

This inverted asiimilalion t&kes place in oiit'ir ottie of, every- 
hody, in which ouSci'c follows the case of the relative ; as ovUvt Srip 
ouK anoKpivenu, (for oiittt iim or^}, he replies to everybody. 

Note 5. A peculiar assimilation occurs in certain ezpressiona with 
oJut; as xop'C*^"" "'¥ ">' ^pl> to please a man like gou (forrotov- 

§ 154. The antecedent ia often attracted into the rela- 
tive clause, and agrees with the relative. E. g. 

H^ itftiXrjtrSt £/wv avruv tfv KtunfoSt b6^av axkrpi, do not take 
from yourselves the good reputation vihick you have gained (for nju 
ii^av laikTjv i) n K('im)<rA). 'Ef ij ( ri v^irw tir-jft ywoiKit, from the 
wife which he had at first. 

Note. This attraction may be joined with assimilation {§ 153); as 
ilfiaSitrnrroi itrrt Sm iyii oI3a 'eXX^hbc, you are the most ignorant of the 
Greeks whom I know ; aiiv § tlx* flvMifui, with the force which he had 
(for ow t5 iwdiiti ^r tlxtf). So oTxmu iPtvyav ir jjyte piftnipa, the 
wilneii whom you brought (for 6 paprvs ty Jjyit), Ac. 

§ 165. Oibs, Sffo<i, and an are used in ezclamationa ; t 
Saa irpar/fuira ej(eK, how much trouble you have ! 
For the relative in indirect questions, see g 149, 2. 

§ 156. A relative is seldom repeated in. a new case iu the 
same Bentence, but a personal or demonstrative pronoun oom~ 
monly takes Its place. E. g. 

'Emfivot mlmv, ois oix ij^api^offf ol XFyoirtr ouS' {(piXmir avToit 
&<nnp ipat oSrot vv>^ those men, then, whom the orators did not try to 


3 158.] ACCUSATIVE. 129 

gratify, atid tdum they did not lave ai Oit$e now love you 0it nor did 
they love then as, &c.). Dem. Here avraiJr is used to avoid repeating 
the relative in a new case, out. 

Note. Sometimee, however, a new case of tlie relative is under- 
stood in the latter part of a sentence ; as 'Aptaim Si, tv ^^(Tr qdcXo/ui' 
ffaaAta iraAaTanu, nit (duHifw uu Aaffofuii r-utto, and Ariaeus, Khom 
tre tcished to make Icing, and (lo uAoni) we gone and (Jrom aham) uie 
received pledget, &o. Xea. 


Rnuuc. The Qreek is descended from a language wluch had ei$U 
cases, — an oUofKie, t> localive, and an imtneitetilal, besides the five 
found in Greek. 


§ 157. 1. The nominative is chiefly used as the subject 
of a finite verb (§ 134, 1), or in the predicate after verbs 
Bignifying to he, &c. (§ 136). 

2. The vocative, with or without eS, is used in addresa- 
iog a person or thing; as <S avBpe<i 'Afffpnuot, "men of 
A tkens ! — airow*?, Alaxivij ; dosi thou Jiear, AescMnea f 

NoTB. The nominative ia sometimes used in exclamationa, and 
even in other expressions, where the vocative is more common; as 
apM Jyit ibJuff, Krttched mel So q Upiaai Itfiavt, Procae, come 


§ 168. The direct object of a transitive verb is put in 
the accusative; as tovto tra^u tjfMi;, tJiis preserves vs; 
ravra iroiovfiev, loe do these ihvngs. 

Note 1. Many vertw which uro simply transitiva in Ei^Hsh, and 
govern the objective case, take either a genitive or a dative in Ckeek. 
(See § 171, § 184, 2, and § 188, 1, N. 2.) 

Note 2. Many verbs which are transitive in Greek are intransi- 
tive in English ; as o^iovpu rovf Btous, I viH iieear by the Oadt ; vinrat 
jXo^v, he etcaped the Mtiix «/ aM. 

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130 STNTAX [1 159. 

"Son 3. Terbal adjectives and even Terbal nonns occadonany 
take an object accusative instead of the regular objeetire genitive 
(g 167, 3, g 180); as ivurr^iuipte ^uav t& wpotr^Kowra, they vxre 
aeqvainted wiih what wot prt^>er. Xen. So ri pcriapa ^poFrumTr, 
one mhopondert on the Ihmga i^iove (like ^povrifwv). Plat 

§ 159. Any verb whose meaning permits it may take 
an accusative of kindred significatioa This accusative 
repeats the idea already contained in the verb, and may 
foHow intransitive as well as transitive verbs. K g. 

*HSo/uu lis fuylatat ^ S o * if £ , / enjoy ihe greatest pleamret. Evrv- 
Xoviri TovTO ri furvxTM". '^^S enjoy this good fortune. So namw 
jiimiiia, to fail ofdU, ntmu' Mxrcir or v6afi» d(rBtrtir or ti6iTor taiutw, to 
tvffer under a duease ; ifiApnuia iiu^traftiv, to commit an error (to sin 
a sin) ; BouXfioji bo<i\eii\w, to be subject to stavery; Ayasa ayaplCtirdtu, 
to undergo a contest; ypatpf/ii ■Ypd<jlta6ai, to bring an indictment; ypaijn)^ 
Siunti', to prosecute an indictment ; viierpi vnaiv, to gain a victory ; iiAxrpr 
viKor, to gain a victory; iroforilv ni/t-irtir, to fbrm or conduct a procession ; 
vtctyiiv rawrti^, to Strike a bloiD. 

It will be seen that this construction is much more extensiTe in 
Greek than in English. The cognate accusative generally has an 
adjective or other quahtying word, as in the first two examples, 

NoTB 1. The cognate accusotive may follow adjectives or even 
nouDs; as aiK&t naaav Kaxiav, bad toith all badness; (iyaMf minat 
iptT^v, good with ail goodness. 

"Sots 2. A neuter adjective sometimes representB a cognate accu- 
sative, its noun being implied in Uie verb; as /irydAo itiapraiKat 
(sc. ifiaprruiaTa), to commit great fautls , raurtk Xvirovfuu luH ra i/ri 
Xotpi-h I Aoue the same griefs and the same joys. 

Note 3. Here belongs the accusative of effect, which may follow 
even iutranutive verbs; as ir/M(r(9njovin r^ tlp^vijv, they negotiate 
Hie peace (as ambassadors, itptafftn). Colnparo the Engli^ breaking 
a hole, as opposed to breaking a stick. 

So after verbs of looting (in poetry) ; as 'A pij ttiopiciiiat, to look 
tear; ^ /SovX^ iffhr^ yatrv, the Senate looked mustard. 

Note 4. A transitive verb may have a direct and a cognate accu- 
sative at the same time; as ypA^rrrOai riva rtir ypaiftijii ravr^i to 
bring this indictment against any one ; ijliu^irafitr touto* oMv, we did 
this Toan no wrong ; ravra hiiatrKt /m, teach me Ma. 

For the cognate accusative after passive verbs, see § 198. 


§ 160. 1. The accusative of ^>eci/tcation may be joined 
with a verb, adjective, or even a whole aeutenoe, to deDote 
that in respect to which the expression is used ; as tu0Xo; 
rd ofifuiTa, blind in his eyes; KOfivto Trpi xe^aX-^V) I have a 
pain in my head; icakoi to cISo;, beautiful inform. 

Thia is Eometimes called the Etccusative by tyaeodoche, or Ihe Ibnit- 
btg accusative. 

2. An accusative of this natuie often has the force of an 

adverb. E. g. 

Toi/TBv riv rpdiror, tn this vtay, Una; iTpi m^^umjv (sc. d&jf), in the 
qtiicteit way; t^* lipxiii', at fint (with negative, not at all); rfXot, 
JtaaUy; rpaiai, a) a giji, gratia; x"'^' fi"' '^^ '"^^ "fi i'^nK '" '*• 
manner of; tA irporon, atjiret; ri \oimv, for the rest; roXXo, in other 
respects; oiiiv, in nothing, not at all; tI; in what, tohyJ ri, in any re- 
tpeel, at ail; roiini, in reject to tia, therefore. So roDro fiiv . . . rovn 
« (§ 148, N. 4). 

AMnuatlTe of Extent* 
§ 161. The accusative may denote eietent of time or 
space. K g. 

AI mntSai iriavT&v ftroiTiu, the truce is to he for a year; I/kim 
rptU ^iitpas, he 'remained three dat/f; dvfxti I? ^TD^nuarav Or) ffair 
vraiiovs jjSdofi^Mvro, and PUUaea is seventy slades diettmt from 

Note. This accusatjve with aa ordinal number denotes hoot lonij 
nnce; rplrnip Ijiri iniipar iwiit6^ii^Ktr,thia is the third day that he 
ias been tn toton. 

A peculiar idiom is foutid in expressions like Jt»» rmirX rftlrmr (IhU 
the third year), i. e. two years ago. 

il Aeciuatim (Foetle}> 

§ 163. In poetry, the accusative may denote the place 
whither. E. g. 

Vt VTjiTTTi pa t ii^Um, she came to the suitors. OdjBB. ^Jiriff<i i^tyop 
oipavAf OvXuFin-iil' n. II. Ti koiXov 'Apyot pii ^fuyde, going 

0$ an exHe to the ioUoie Argos. Soph. 

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132 STNTAX. [1 163- 

A«<»MtlTa ann H^ md Hi. 

§ 163. The accusative follows the adverbs of Bwearmg, 
tnj and fid, hy. 

Aa oath introduced by t^ is affimuttive ; oae introduced by 
fid IB negative ; aa t^ riv A/o, jrel, 6y ^om ; fid riv Oui, no, by Zevs. 

Note. Wten fuf is preceded by i<(u, y«, the oath is affirmative; as 
vol, fiA O^ ^, iji ZeM. 

Md is sometimes omitted when a negative precedes; as ov, ti-rS 
'CAvfuriN', fio, h^ this Olympus. 

Two A«ca«iitlvei wUh one Verb. 

§ 164. Verba signifying to aih, to demand; to teach, to 
clothe or unclothe, to conceal, to deprive, and some others, 
take two accusatives, one of a person and the other of a 
thing. £. g. 

McXXn-r rout Stois atrtir ayaOa, J/au are about to art UessinifS of (he 
Gods; Tovs n-uidor t^v fioviriicjiv SiSaaxii, he teaches the hotjt music; 
tiAvn tfii T^v iaStjra, lie strips me of my dress ; ftri fxi ipt^c toZto, do 
not conceal this from me ; t^v 6t!ii/ roin artipaiiovt ai<rvk-qKaaui, they 
have robbed the Goddess of her erowna. 

Note 1. Tiiutpioiua, to punish, eometiiDes takes two accusatives, 
TtMi n, instead of an accusative and a genitive. 8ee tlie Lesicon. 

NoTB 2. Verbs of depriving talte also an accusatire and a geni- 
tjve. ThuB atpmptlaAii ntv n, rtnJt n (sometimes md rivot). ^ee 
tlie Lesicon. W> 

§ 165. Verbs sonifying, to do anything to a person, or 
to say anything of a person, take two accusatives. E. g. 

Towi ftt troiovow, Iheg do these things to me ; r! ft ilpyaira ; vihal didst 
Ihou do to met ToiTi aii roXfi^s ijfiai \tyiwi dost thou dare to say these 
Aings ofast Oil ^povrurriov & ri tpovvw ol n-oAXol ^fit, me must not 
consider what the multitude uiill say of iu. 

NoTK 1. Tliese verbs often take ri or icaX&t, well, or micut, iH, 
instead of the accusative of a thing; rwrnnit tZ aaifi, he does them 
good ; ufioi xanat woiti, he does you harm ; aucat ^/tas Xtvci, he speak* 

Tlie passive form of these espressiops is not tZ (or mcmc) noiturBia, 
ti (op KOKtit) XiytirBai, to be done well by, to be spoken tieW of, Ac., hut 
ri (or EoKffir) iriirxru', to experience good (or evil), and rf (or kokiw) 
&aiCrai, bene (malo) audire, lo hear one's self called. 

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g 1S7.] GENITIVE. 133 

Tftm 2. Upaatrti, to do, very seldom takes two accusatives in this 
construction, votitt being generally used. Ej and koiZs npdmFTB aro 
intransitive, meaning to be tcell off, to be badly off. 

Note 3. Verbs signifying to do may take the dative of a person; 
BB ayaffir n iroiovtn rg ndXti, they do aome good to Ike ifale, 

§ 166. Verbs signifying to najne, to make, to appoint, to 
consider, and the like, take two accusatives, both denoting 
the same person or thii^. K g. 

Ti Tijir irdXii- TTpoaayoptita ; uAal do you eaU the slate f — so naktmri 
fit TovTo TO Sro/ia, they coil me by t&u name. STpaniyay our™ mrtiti(t, 
he appointed him generoi. 

NoTK 1. Verbs signifying- to diuidt may take two accuaatives on 
the same principie ; aa rb aTpaTrv/ta mnvti/u iiidtKa liipi), he divided 
tie army into twelve parts (i. e. he made twelve parti of Ae army). 

NoTK 2, Many other transitive verbs may take a predicate accusa- 
tive to explain the object accusative; as t\a^ touto iapov, he look 
tkit ae a gifi; ancooc aytw Olfiara r^ ^Xf^ to bring horses aa offer- 
ings to the Sun. Especially an interrogative pronoun may be so used; 
as rivas Tmirms bpa; who are these vhon I see? (§ 142, 3.) 

In the passive, when the object accusative becomes the subject 
nominative, the predicate accusative (of every kind) becomes & predi- 
cate nominative. See g 136 and § 137, N. i 

GenltlTa mfter Hmuu (Adnotnliikl Geidtlve]. 
§ 167. A noun in the genitive may depend on another 
noun, to express the relations denoted by the English of. 
The most important of these relations are the following : — 

1. Possession: as 5 toC trarpis olida, the father's hovse; 
$ri£i> i itarpU, our country. So tf mi Aitfr, the daughter of 
2eiu; tA tS>v B,iv. the ihingi of the Goth (§ 141, Note 4). 
The PoBsesBive Genitive. 

2. The Subject of an action or feeling : as 7 nE Sq^ou tCrma, 
the good-will of the people (L e. which the people feel). The 
Sobjeotive Oenitive. 

3. The Object of an action or feeling : as &d t^ Ilava-avfo* 
/Oavt, owing to the hatred ^(L a, felt agauut) Fautaniat; al roS 

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IM STKTAX. [| 1«8. 

Xti/imvot Kapnptitmt, the atdvranix of thewitUer. So rdv 6t&w 
SpKot, oatht (ftwm) tn tht rtame of the Godi (u we say 0ujit 
ifinmi, § 15», N. 2). Ths OttJeoare Oeuitive. 

4. MATEitiAL, iDcludiDg that of which enything consiHts : as 
JSowi' oytXi}, a herd of cattle; SXaot iuiipuir Uripar, a grove of 
CuUivfUed treei; ifiqvq ^or Siamt, a tpring of fresh water ; iio 
Xpinxtt AXt^lrmt, two quarta of meed. Gtenitive of MateriaL 

5. Mbasitre, of apace, time, or value : aa rpwr ^ftipAv Udf, 
a j&amey of three days ; ttn^ trradiitr nixpt, t wail of eight 
ttades (tn length) ; rpuLmrra raXdvratr otntia, an atate of thirty 
talents, iiau itoKXur raXawrttv, lauimtiU of (i. e. involvtng) many 
talent). QenitiTe of Ueaeure. 

6. The Whole, after hquqb denoting a part : as mXXot tw 
piir6pa», many of the orators; ^in)p rur iXtvSipiav, a man 
(i. e. one) of the freemen. Tlie PartltiTe GenitlTe. (See also 
§ 168.) 

The geajtire depending on a noun is called odnomina!. 

Note. ExEimplea like 'KOtpr&r inJXu, (he city of A&ena, Tpobit 
itraKUdpoir, the city of Troy, in which the genitive is used instead of 
apposition, are poetia 

§ 168. The partitive genitive (§ 167, 6) may follow all 
nouns, adjectives (especially superlatives), participles with 
the article, pronouns, ami adverbs, which denote a part. 

Ol ayaSol Tuv ivdpiminv, Ike good among the men; 6 ffiurttrov 
dpi6iiov, Ike half of the number ; Svipa oUa roi dijfiov, / knotoa 
man of ike people; roit SpoflTOa rav ravrap, lo the vpper beriehes 
of Ike saihm ; ou8*it ray iraiSav, no one of the chililren ; uarrap 
fuv p7fT6piav itaiToTo^, the most eloquent of alt the oratnn ; 6 ffov\6- 
[iivos T&p 'Adji^atav, any one who pleases of the Athenians ; Sia 
yui-aiKay, dirine among women (Horn,); iroC t^s y^t; "bi terra- 
rum ? trhere on the earth T n't rar ir □ X i r £ f ; who of the citizens T 3i[ 
rqf fjp-ipas, twice a day; tti roDro dvolar, lo this pitch of folly; 
trrouTif itapaiTKtv^t, in this stale of preparation ; i piv diwKti toU 
i^ijipltrpaTos ToSr iartr, these ore the parts of the decree arhick he 
prosecutes (lit, what parts of the decree he prosecutes, &c.). So op66' 
rara ivBp&var 'kiytu, thou speakesl as the most correct of men {most 
correctly of men); Sn btivAtarot o-avrov rnvrafoAi, uihen you men, 
at the height of your power in these matters, 


S 10»-] GENITIVE. 135 

Not* 1, An w^ti^B *»" participle generally agrees in gender 
with a following partitive genitive. But aomelimea, esqwcially when 
it 19 singular, it ia neuter, agreeing with iiipot, pari, understood; as 
rav soXt^W tA vo\i (Ibr oJ atAXn), lAe greater part of the enemy f 
«ri wo\v Tq[ x"P"*i overmuch of the country. 

Note 2. A partitive genitive Bometimes depends on t!t or ptpot 
understood; as ii^aaay tJTifityvivai aiftiiw Tt wp6t futlvovr Hal ittlrmv 
wpbt iavToit, they said that some of their own men had mixed wUh them, 
and some of them mth their own men {rudt being understood with 
otftmi and ^Meinai'). See also § 169, 2 ; § 170, 2. 

Note 3. Similar to such phrases as wcvy!jt; th romv amias, &c. 
is the use of Ij^a and an adverb with tlie genitive; as nAt ty'U 
ioi^ti in what state of ^nioa are you* ouna rp6wov ixttt, thiaia 
your characler (lit in this state of character) ; in *7)(t rdj^onr, as 
fast as he could (lit. m the condition of speed tn which he teas) ; so &t 

OcmltlTe af Mt Tnba. 

§ 169. 1. Verbs signifying to be, to hectrme, to belong, 
and the like, take a genitive which is equivalent to the 
possessive or the partitive genitive. K g. 

'O r6iios ovTO! &paitavT6t iarw, lAis lam M Draco's, Jltriar 
^ptiv oi vavr6t, aXX' avbphs o-of^oC, to hear poverty is nnf the 
part of every one, bat thai of a mse man. Aaptiov yiyrovrai Sua 
miSti, two sons are Imm {belonging) to Itariui. Tovrw yrrm 
fioi, become (one) of these for me. 

2. Verbs signifying to name, to make, to appoint, to conr 
aider, and the like, which generally take two accusatives 
(§ 166), may take a partitive genitive in place of the 
second accusative. The genitive really depends on aa 
accusative like rtm, &Oj or ^tpo^, understood E. g. 

'Efii dis Tail wevtiiriittiay, put me doten as (one) of those toho Ore 
persuaded. Totra r^c ^fitrtpat ainXtlat Sttk Stlii Suaiat, any one 
might justly consider this to belong to our neglect. 

Note. When these verbs become passive, they gtill retain the 
genitive; as ZSKiaw t&v hrrh <ro<ptoTAv iiA^Sri, Solon was called 
{one) of the Seven Sages. 

3. The genitive after verbB eometimee expresses other rela^ 
tiims of the ttduoiniiial genitive. E. g. 


136 BTMTAI. [* 1?0- 

Tintxot rrailmw (» Acrti, rt< «wH toas (out) of eight gtadei (in 
Unglk); itrtMririr S ^is Tpimorra, mhen One ii (itriy yean old; — 
Genitive of Measure. Oi ari^arei fi6iar (mu-, cAe croatra were 
{made)ofr<Ma; ri «;xm ««rot 7™ XlOov, the waU is built of stone ; 
— Genitive of MaleriaL Oi tAv tanoipynr oocros (sc. iarlr), 
there i* no pits for *** *^ doen; — Objective Genitive. 

§ 170. 1. Any verb may take a genitive if its action 
afi'ects the object only in part. E. g. 

nt'/imt Tw Avdar, he xndi name of the Lydiani (but irtumi raiit 
taitois, lie lends the Lydians). Hi'm toS a'vov, he driake of the 
mint. T^s y^s htiior, they ravaged (some) of the land. 

2. This principle applies especially to verbs signifying 
to share (L e. to give or take a part), to claim, to enjoy. K g. 

WtTtixov T^c XciBi, Ihey shared in Ae booty; r^r a-vvtatat 
lurtmoioirrai, they tag claim to (a share of) sagacity; amAaiojuv tu* 
aya$uv, ice enjoy the blessings (i, e. our share of them) ; oIiTajr Svaio • 
r OUT a V, thus may St thou enjoy these. So ov irpoirqctt fiot rqt apxijtt 
1 have no concern in the goeernmenl (g 184, 2, N, 1). 

Note. Many of these verbs also take an accusative. Mmj^o* and 
similar verbs regularly take an accusative like /tf'poi, pari; as la-or 
ftrrix" imurrot Tov irXoumu fiipos, each has an equal share of the 
ineallh (where fiipovt would mean that each has only a part of a 
share). This use of fUpot shows the nature of the genitive after 
these verbs, 

§ 171. 1. The genitive follows verbs signifying to take 
hold of, to touch, to claim, to aim at, to kit, to attain, to miss, 
to make trial of, to begin. E. g. 

'EXo^fTo j^r x^'f^t uuToC, he tool his hand; avrt irupdr olht 
tparps iicaiv atrrofuii, I willingly touch neither fire nor time; rqr 
{uficTfiDc fttTmioioSvnu, Ihey lay claim to sagacity; mnxa^firOat twb 
avOptajrav, to aim at the men; t^s dptr^v itptniaSoi, to attain to 
virtue; irvx' i^i 8<ici)e, he met with justice; mipatrSat roi t e I x o v t , 
tomate an attempt on the uxiU; oi, „o\i^ov Spxoi^, «« do not begin 

..^^^ Tr''' "^ "^"^ ^"''^ ""-^J- ^""^ «° obJ«* ""^usative, .vith a 
genitive of the part taken hold of 

2. The genitive follows verbs signifying to tasU. to snuU. 


S in.] OENITIVE. 137 

to hear, to perceive, to understand, to rememher, to forget, to 
desire, to care for, to spare, to neglect, to admire, to despise. 

'EXcvdtpt'^E yniaaiitvoi.'bavmg tasred of freedom i^Al.); ^avTft 
&Koinv, (0 hear a voice; altrSoMaSai, ntiiyi)a0ai, or tnAavBautirSai 
Toiriay, to perceive, remember, or forget these things; inwttifudXX^- 
Xatv, to understand one another; rmv liaSrjuaTtef tirtdu/uS, / long 
forleaming; xpll'-^roiv tptidruffm, lo be sparing of money; dofijf 
atUKtlv, lo neglect opinion; ayo/iai r^r aprrqr, -^ admire virtue; 
Karatfipoiifiv tou Kipfivvou, to despise danger (§ 173, 2, Note). 

Note 1. Verbs of hearing and tiie like may take an accusative of 
the thing heard, and a genitive of the person heard from; as tovt^v 
TOioirovt pxoia Xtiyout, Iliear such sayingi from these men ; midfaSai 
Ttmro Ifiav, lo Uam this from you. The genitive here belong under 
§ 170, 1, A sentence may take the place of the accusative ; as tov™!- 
Scout ri XtTovour, hear from tlieae what they say. See alfio avoSixoiiot, 
.to accept (a statement) from, in the Lexicon. 

Note 2. The impersonals fie'Xci and /icro^t'Xci take the geni- 
tive of a thing with the dative of a person (§ 184, 2, N. 1) ; as jit'Xfi 
lUH TovTOv, I care for this ; fiern^'Xci irm tovtov, thou repentest of this, 
UpoaljKti, it concerns, has the same construction, but the genitive 
belongs under § 170, 2. 

Note 3. Causative verba of this class take tlie accusative of a 
person and the genitive of a thing; as ^^ ft avafiviiirns Koicay, do 
not remind me of evUs (i. e. cause me to reniember them) ; toue traidat 
ror, «w must make the children taste blood. 

Rehabe. Most of the verbs of § 171 take also the accusative. See 
tiie Lexicon. 'Ofa, to emit smell, may take two genitives; as rqs 
Kf0aX^r Sfo) fiipov, I emit a smell of perfume (170, 1) from my head. 

3. The genitive follows verl:B signifying to rule or to 
command. R g. 

'Epat rar 6imr fiairiktitt, Love is king of the Gnils. noXincpaT^c 
Sditov irupamtt, Polycratea was tyrant of Samos. 'On-XiTuv Ktil 
• wwiuv ttrrparrfYit, he teas general of infantry and cavalry; ^tirai 
trafror xai tpyov xai \6yov, he directs everything, both deed and 

Tms construction is sometimes connected with that of § 175, 2. 
But the genitive seems rather to depend on the idea of tiny or ruler 
implied m the verb. 

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KoTB. For other cases sfUr mKaj of these verbs, u the datire 
aller ^ofiot and Aiivvta, see the Lexicon. 

§ 172. 1. Verbs signifying fviiiess and mint take the 
genitive. E. g. 

XfiijfidriBv rvKopti, he hen abundance of money ; el rupunm^iral- 
rov ol^nvr* ainaiiCrTt, you tyrarUi never Aave a ecareily 0/ praae. 

2. Verbs sonifying to Jill take the accusative and the 
genitive. E. g. 

'Ydarot T^v KuXiKd n-Xijpow, to fill the eup wilh leaUr. 

KoTE 1. Ai'o/iai, 7 tcanf, besides the ordiDSjj constructioii (as 
Tovraw ibforro, thry icere in want 0/ theie), may take a genitive of the 
person with a cognate accuaative of the thing ; as dci}<rwiat v/uiir 
ItrrpUar Htfaai, I wUi mate of you a moderale requeiL 

Note 2. dd may take a dative (sometimes in poetry an accusa- 
tive) of the person besides the genitive; as ■)« fioi rovrou, I need 
(hit ; o£ iroXXoS irdpou /i ( dtt, / Anve no need o/much Udior. 

Besides the common phrases iroWoi fltl, it ti far frvm H, 
iXiyov df(, il wants Utile of U, we have in Demosthenes eirit 
iroXXoS d(i (likenoirdi iti), it imnEs everything of it (lit. if diiej not 
even toant fRucA). For JXtyov and yuKpou almost,aee the Lexicon. 

CbiubI OenlUve. 

§ 173. 1. The genitive often denotes a cause, especially 
after verbs expressing praj'se ot dispraise, pity, anger, envy, 
or revenge. E, g. 

Tovnms r^t riSXpiji Oaufia^tur, lo admire these for tlieir courage 
riflai;io«'fo> at Toii rpciirou, / congratulate you on your character 
TovTovs olKTiipui t^f v6<rov, I pity these on account of their siclness 
rav aiiKTHiaTou 6pyiC«r6ai oiroit, to he angry viith them for their 
offences; fijXowrre Tq» irdXii' r^e MapaBan ndx^'i envying the city 
for the battle at Marathon ; t v r o f aoi ou t^vijoa, I shall not grudga 
you this; rovrom r^t dpjtaytjt TipaptiaaaBat, to take vengeance on 
these for the robbery. Uoat of these verbs take alsii an object accusative. 

The genitive sometimes denotes s. purpose or motive (where tvtxa is 
generally expressed) ; as r^t riiii 'eXX^wcb f\tvOtpias,for the liberty of 
the Greeks. Dem. Cor. § 100. (See § 262, 2.) 

KoTE. Verbs of disputing take a causal genitive ; as dyrirmtia^ai 
ru ^iTiXfi T^c apx^itt to dispute with the king about his dominion; 
ECiuiKiros ^/j^o-^injo-d' 'EptxOti Tijt iriSX«»(, Eumi^pus disputed 
leiik Ereehtieus cAout the city (i. e. disputed its possession with Aim). 

! J7A] QESmVK. 189 

2. Verbs signifying to aetuse, to prosecute, to eonmet, to 
ac^it, and to eojidemn take a causal genitive denoting the 
crime. E. g. 

Ainu/iot avrdv ToS ^iyov, I acctue him of Oie murder; typw^earo 
nir^ n-apavdfiuv, he intlicted himjbran Ulegal proposition i auicet 
ft* d&pnr, he proMeulet me for bribery {for gifif); KXtttva Upair 
iX6vT*t Koi jcXoir^t, having eonvieied Clean of bribery and thefi ; 
7(}itvyt vpoimriat, he inas brought to trialjor treachery, but airi<f>vyt 
trpolkxriat, he wax acjailled of treachery; roXXni' ol wariptt q/iuv 
fiT^inTiiov dofortB' jnirryKMnn>, our fathers condemned many to death 
for favoring the Persians (for ■mtAXAi aad Bavarof see Not*). 

NoTB. Compouiidsofjtora of this class commonly take a genilive 
of tlie person, which depends on the nira. They tufiy also take v-a 
object accusative denoting- the crime or punishment E. g. 

OiSfU avrht avTov Konty^i't wanrort, no man ever himself aectued 
Miruelf; nmi^SmTYif ftov fiFydXa, they tell great falsehood* agaiml 
me; *oi0od oiuJov mmfyopfui, to charge injustice upon Phoebus; 
iwlmr hrtunar vfiai OKpinu/ iavaror arrwinf^aaatat, they per- 
tuaded you to past (sentence of) death upon tone wiiikout a trial. 

Verbs of condemning may take three cases, as in the la&t example 
andeT % 173, 2. 

3. The causEtl genitive is sometimes nsed in exclama- 
tioTis. E. g. 

*a rUfffidor, r^i Ttx"!*^ ^ Pmeidon, vAat a trade! *0 Zrv 
pairiKtv, t^ XcvriSrifTOf rm» tppnup ! O King Zeutt what tubllelif 
of mind.' 

§ 174. The genitive may denote Uiat from which any- 
thing is separated or distinifuished. 

On this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to 
remove, to restrain, to release, to abandon, to deprive, and the 
Eke. E. g. 

tH vqiTM oil iroXii iu-)(ti rqi ifvilpov, the islarvl is not far dislnnt 
from the mainland ; tTnoT^fi^ jfapt^ofiim) dptTrjt. hkotdeih/e nepnrated 
from virtue ; \vv6v /it bttrp-iiy, release me from chains ; iviaxov t^s 
Tr(;[q i7(iui, they renned from building the wall; irdtrwr chrturV- 
pt)ir8tt of how much have you been deprieedt tjrawnnr avrof Ttjt 
iTTpaTtjyiat, they deposed him from his command; ov miitrSf t^ 
fiox^tfii'tt yu do net etate Jivm your rateality. Suffiror (o^rfi) 

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140 SYNTAX. [S 176. 

Tov K^pvKot foi \t(iita$ai, they told him not to be left behind the herald 
(i. e. to foUoiD close upon him); 7 nrurroX^, ffv oZtos typtvfrni oiroXo- 
0d(i[ rjfi&v, the letter lekich iMi roan icrote toiMouf our Lnoioledge (lit. 
geparaled from «t). 

For the accusative after verbs of depriving-, see g 164. 

§ 175. 1. The comparative degree takes the genitive 
■when i], than, is omitted E. g. 

KptiTTaf <trr\ Toirav, he is belter than those. N^oic t& tnyar 
Kptirriv icri tov XoX<(v, far youth silence u belter than prating. 
Hovtfpla ffarrop Baydrov rptxct, wickedness runs faster than dealk. 

Note I. All adjectives and adverbs whicb imply a comparison 
maj take a genitive; aa trtpoi tovtimi, others than these; vartpoiTjjt 
IMXISi loo late for (later than') the battle; r^ iiirrifiala rift pix')'> <"* the 
day after ike baUle. So TpwrXdo-ioi- tjitiav, thrice as much aa toe. 

Note 2. After irXt'ov (jrXtic), more, or EXatrtrov, less, ij ia occasion- 
al; omitted without affecting tbe case; as irt/i^ tSpvTr «V abr&y, 
itXtlv i^aKoalovi rhv aptiBiiov, I teiil send birdi against him, more 
than six hundred in number. Arist. 

2. The genitive follows verhs signifying (0 surpass, to he 
inferior, and all others which imply comparison. E. g. 

'KvGpamOi ^yvtati inrtpi}(tt ruv AW tap, man surpasses the others in 
sagacity ; tou irX^ flou f Trtptyiymadat, to be superior to ike midlilude; 
vuTtpl^tw Tmi' Kaip&v. In be too late for tke opportunities. So r&y ix6p^ 
vaaaBai (or T)iriraa6ai), to he overcome by on^s enemies; but these two 
verbs take also the jtenitive with iwrf, and the dative. So Kpanat tS>p 
ixOpim, to preoail oner one's enemies, and TTJt flaXdcriTijt Kpariiii, to be 
master of Ike sea; which belong equally well under § 171, 3. 

§ 17G. 1. The genitive sometimes denotes the source. E. g. 
ToCra irvx^" irav, I obtianed this from you ; touto tfiaStv ufiw v, As 
learned this from you. Add the exaraplea under § 171, 2, N. I. 

2. In poetry, the genitive occasionally denotes the agent after 
passive verba, or is used Jiko the insirvmenial dative (§ 188). 

'Ev'Aii^ ill Ktiirai, ir as aXS^ov oiftayiis AlylirOov rt, tkou lieit 
now m Hades, slain by thy wife and Aegisthis. Eur. 

np^inu irvpis SijtaiD diptrpa, to bum the gates toUk destrvclioe 
f,.. u. 

These constructions would not be allowed in prose. 

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g 179.J GENITIVE. 141 

§ 177. The genitive often depends on a preposition 
included in a compound verb, E. g, 

n/idnmut^c 'ArriK^f Spi) fwy&a, higAmounlaini lie before Attiea ; 
T&v iiptripay SiKalav irpotirraaSai, to stand in defence of your rights; 
initpt<j>cai7iaa)' Toi/ \6<j>ov, they appeared above the hillf outuc iinav 
vtctpakya, 1 grieee BO for you ; fTci^amt Tov rti-j^ovt, having mounted 
the wail; amrrptnu fu tovtbv, il turns me from Ihit. 

For the genitive after certain compounds of xari, see g 173, 2, N, 
See also § 193. 

GenltlTe of Price or Talne. 

§ 178. The genitive denotes the price or value of a 
thing. E. g. 

&d^ Xprmimy ofiit itip^ (9C. itrriv), giory is not to he bought with 
money: n6&ou BiSoo-kh; for what price does he teach f fiiaOov 
v6iLovs ttaifiipii, he proposes laws for a bribe ; 6 BoIXot nivrt itvar n- 
fionu, the slave i» valued at five minas. So nuatai i' oSv /uu □ avi/p 
Sararev, so the man estimates my punishment at death (i, e. proposes 
death as my punishment). Plat. So also S^ojI/kov inr^yov 6ardTatii 
they impeached Sphodrias on a capital c/iarge. 

Note. The genitive may depend on S^s, viorih, worthy, and its 
compounds, or on d^uiu, to think worthy; as S£idt iirri Bavanm, he is 
toorthy of death; ^^trrcwXca ruv iityLaTay ^^iuiray, they thought 
Themistoeles worthy of tke highest honors. So sometimes A^iot and 

^ OmiltlTe ot Time and PIm*. 

§ 179. 1, The genitive may denote the time vnthin 
which anything takes place. E. g. 

Tlipaat oi'x ij^(n iixa iruv, the Persians inill not come within 
ten years. Tqt vucrit tymro, it happened vAthin the night (but t^i> 
fmcm means during the whole night). So dpaxp^y iXdfi^art rt/s iitiipat, 
he received a drachma a day. 

2. A Biniilar genitive of the place vnthin which ia fonnd in 
poetry. R g. 

*H oix'Apytot ^tg 'Axo'oovt '"" ^^ ""' '" A^chaeon Argoif 
Odyss. So in tlie Homeric jr « 8 1 o i o Oitw, to run on the plain (i. e, 
xnlAm Us limits'), and similar expressions. So Apurrtp^i x'V^'t "" '^ 
left hand, even in Hdt 

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§ 180. The dfgective genitive follows many verbal ad- 

1. These adjectives -are chiefly kindred (in meaning or 
derivation) to verbs which take the genitiva E g, 

Mirox'"' ('■"^'"ti po-rtoHng of wisdom (g 170, 2). 'En^SoXoc hriar^ 
fit]s, having allained lo tnowUilge ; timtipat KoitSai, experienced in eviU; 
roS iploTOv oroxairnKSt, aiming at the beat (§ 171, 1). Kariitooe rfi* 
yovian', obedient (El hearkening') to hi) parents ; ■Vicrr^fuoi' ro«' StKoigtr, 
tituierslanding.his rights ; iitiittkiit 6yadSiv, iJ/hX^c aamr, caring for the 
good, negUclful of the bad ; i^iiduXoi xpqitarav, sparing of money 
(§ 171, 2). 'EyKpar^s iavrov, being master of himself i opj^utir avSpav, 
jit to rule men (g 171, 3). Mtorir kokoii, /uH of evUs; t/njim tni^iia- 
X'^Oy destitute of allies ; i) "^xh yi'l"'! '■"'' nafurrot, the sold stript of tha 
body; Kaeapittt)6ycv. free from the stain of murder (g 172, I). 'Eroxot 
kAlat, chargeable viith cowardice (§ 173, 2). iunpopot rir tlXXiui^ 
distinguished from the others (§ 174). 

2, Some aie kindred to verba which take the accii8ft> 
tive. E. g. 

ndXnur ayarptwnitis, subversive of th* state; irpaKTUiis rm' itiiX«ir, 
capable of doing noble deeds ; ipikoiiaOtit iramjs dXtjBtiat, fond of learn- 
ing all truth. 

Note 1. Especiallj, adjectivea compounded witt alpha privatint 
(g 132, 1} take tLe genitive; as SytvtrTos kokSv, urilhout a taste of 
evils; afi*fiynas rav Kiviimav, forgetfid of the dangers; a^aS^s 
kokAv, tcilbout suffering His; aKparfit yXwtnr^c, taithout poiner over 
his tongue. 

Sotnetimca these adjectives take a genitive of kindred meaning, 
which depends on the idea of separation implied in them; aa Siraig 
ipptmiv iraiSav, childlexs {in respect) of male ehiidren; Sriitot waoiig 
rifiqf , dettUute of oil honor ; AimpAraTOi xPtP^""' "U)^ fi'ee from 
taidng bribes. 

For the genitive of price after 3^ios, see § 178, Note. 

§ 181. The possessive genitive sometimes follows adjec- 
tives denoting possession or tlie opposite. K g. 

OiWa rav 0fiaAtv6vTav, belonging to the kings; Itpis 6 x"pot 'nje 
'Afirifalht. the place is sacred to Artemis ; naailiv ifardtnec, common to 
ail; fiqiuiKpariat dXXiirpui, things foreign to democracy. 

For the dative ailer such adjectives, which ie more common tliaa 
tlkp genitive, se« § 185. 


Note. Some a^ectivea of place, like iKorrlot, opposite, mty take 
the genitive instead of lie regular dative (§ 185), but chiefly in 
poetiy; aa irarriot l<mur 'Axai&y, Ihey ilood opposite At Achaeatu. 

CtanltlTe wUb Advaiba. 

§ 182. 1. The genitive follows adverbs derived from 
adjectives which take the genitive. R g. 

01 iitittipat avTov cxoi^fc, those wAo are acquainted mlh him; 
dva|iur TJis irdXfciw, in a manner unworthj/ of the ttate; /fidj^nro 
of /« r >.6rfmi, Ihey fovgkt in a manner tcorihy of mention. 

2. The genitive follows many adverbs oi place. E. g. 

"Elaia niu ipiiurrat, leUhm the/ortresM ; i^n rou rtljiovv, ovUidt of 
thewaU; IktIh Ttayopav, wilioul the boundaries; ;);ci>pi[ rov aiiiia- 
TM, apart from Ike hodij; fitra^v cro^iar mil apiA'ac, bcliceen wisdom 
and ignorance ; icipav mi norapoC, beyond the river, npiaBtv rov 
OTpnnnrf'Smr, in front of the camp ; afi,^0Tipa6t¥ r^t itaii, on both 
sides of the road ; tiOii rijt ta<Tii\iS<ts, straight to Phaselis. 

Such adverbs, beaides those given above, are chiefly Ardt, within; 
Hx'h apart from; ^yytr, Sy^i, nt\at, and irXijcrtov^ near; iripptt {irpAirtc}, 
far frvm; SmoStv and JomJiro', behind; and a few others of Bimilar 
meaning. The genitive after most of them can be e:tpluned ae a 
partitive genitive or as a genitive of teparalion ; that after riOC resem- 
bles that after verbs of aiming at (§ ITl, 1). 

Ad$pf and Kpiipa, loithoiit tie knowledge of , someUmes take tits 

Note. nXqi', except, S)(pt and ftixp^i until, Siytv and Srrp, 
toithoui, rrrxa (oSmjoi), on account of, take the genitive like prepo- 
sitions. For these and ordinary prepositions with the genitive, eee 
§ 191, 1. 

GwiMlTe Ab»lBte. 

§ 183. A noun and a participle not connected with the 
main construction of the sentence often stand by them- 
selves in the genitive. This is called the genitive absolute. 

Tovr* iwpaxO'i Kifvajvat arparjjyovnTos, this was done wheTi 
Conon wan general. ^lafiediniTos ^87 nipinXtovc, ijyyf\9ii 
avT^ oTt, tc, when Pericles had already crossed over, news was brought 
to him that, &c 

For the relations denoted by the genitive absolute, and for peon- 
liaritieB in its use, see § 278. . / 

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Keh.iric. The primary use of the daiiee caae is to denote that to 
or/or which anything is or is done. It also denotes that by which or 
with which, and the time (sometimes the place) in which, anything 
ti^es place, — i. e. it is not merely a dative, but also an inslruniental 
and a locaHne case. (See Remark before § 157.) The object of mo- 
tion after to is not regularly expressed by the Greek dative, but by 
e with a preposition. (See § 162.) 

§ 184. The dative is used to denote that to or for -wbidh 
anything is or is done. This includes 

1. The dative of the indirect object after transitive verba, 
wliieh i^ generally introduced in English by to. K g. 

iiAowi iturSov T^ oTpaTiv/tan, he gives pay lo (he army; Smi- 
ax""'"'* f^"' S'Ka Takarra, he promises ten lalenis to you (or he promises 
you ten tale nl!') ; ^i/Biiar trtp^fitir toTs irv/i/iojjoii, we v<ili send 
aid to our ailiM ; iXtyo^ ry jSatrtXci rh ytyfirrjiiiva, they told the Icing 
v)hat had happened. 

2. The dative after certaia intransitive verbs, many of 
■which ill English take a direct object without to. E, g. 

ECxofK" 'TO'f 6foit, I pray (to) the God/; dmuoirun) XuirirtXn r^ 
txovTt, justice w advantageous to (or prowls) the one having it; rote 
► d/ioit ntiffiTai, he in obedient to the lotos (he obep the taui»); Po^Btl 
roTc 0iXdii, he assists his friends; apiaxrf ToTf irnXiTatt, it is 
pleasing to (or il pleases') the citizens; tic; a'aygj), yield lo neces- 
sity; o6 vuTTritt ToiE i^iXoci, he does not trust kis friends; rdit 
Qt)Paioit 6vtiSi(oviriv, they reproach the Thehans ; ri ^mXni qfitv; 
uihat have you to blame us for* ebtiptaiovaai dXXl;Xoii, Ihey revde 
one another; ipyl^toBt roit aSiiccEiriii, you are angry tnilh the of- 
fenders. So ffjjiVfi 1*01 Xf'ytHP, it is becoming me lo speak; npoa^Ktt 
/lot, it belongs lo me ; donti fie i, it see?ns to me ; Ioku /loi, methinis. 

The verba of this clasB which are not translated with to in 
English are chiefly those signifying to benefit, serve, otey, defend, 
assist, please, trust, satisfy, advise, exhort, or any of their oppo- 
sites ; also those exfreeaing frieTidliTiess, hostUity, dbtise, reproack, 
envy, anger, or threats. 

Note 1. The impersonala dii, fitTco-n, ^c X(t, and npon^icn 
tdce the oative of a person with the genitive of a thing; u 'A\ fm 

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S 184.] DATIVE. 145 

Tovnm, liaoe need of Aa; lurtar! iiot toutov, I have a share in thii; 
ficXd fun Ttmrov, I am inlereaUd in thi); irfwo^Ht poi mvrou, / am con- 
cerned in Ihw. (For the gen., see § 170, 2, g 172, N. 2.) So ^wrofiiXd. 

A(i aiid ;(pij take the accusative (very rarely the dative) when an 
infinitive follows. For dtl (in poetry) with the accusative and the 
genitive, see § 172, Note 2. 

IfoTE 2. Some verbs of this class may take an object accusative. 
Others (as main, to Ao/e) take only the accusative. KEXtuu, to eontr 
maTtd, hu only the accusative -with the infinitive. \ot&opi<i>, lo revile, 
in the active takes the accusative, and in the middle (XuSo^nfuu) the 

3. The dative of advantage oi disadvantage, which is 
generally introduced in English 'by/or. K g. 

nSi dvqp avT^ 5ro«i, euery man labors for himself; SdXuv 'Aflij- 
roiott vanovs t6tfKt, Solon made laiot for the Athenians; ol taipol 
rpotirrai tj iriJXii, the opportunities have been sacrificed for the state 
(^for its disadvantage^; (XirtSa 'xn atarTjpiac t^ v6X*i, he has hope 
of safety for the stale. 

Note 1. A pecuhar use of this dative is found in statements of 
time: as r^ ^iij dio ytBtdi itpBioTo, lino generations had already passed 
away for him (i. e. he had seen them pass away). Horn, 'Hiupat ^aav 
1% VlvTi\fjvji iakarulif fWo, for MUylene captured (i. c. Since itt 
capture) there had been seuen days. 'H/tipa ^r in'/iirn; firurXf'avo'i toti 
'Affrjvalois, it was the ffih day for the Alheniara sailing on (I e. it 
was the fifth day of their voyage). 

Note 2. Here belong such Homeric expressions as Toiatv ivftmj, 
he rose up for them (i. e. lo address them) ; roiin itC8»r ^PX"' ^' began 
to speak before them. 

Note 3. In Homer, verbs signifying to ward off take an accusa- 
tive of the thing and a dative of the person; as Aavaoia-i XoiyAv 
Siimav, ward off destruction from the Danai (lit. for the Danai). Here 
tlie accusative may be omitted, so that ^ai/aolai dfiiviiv means lo de- 
fend the Danai. For other constructions of d/ium, see the Lexicon. 

Ac'xo/'ai. to receioe, takes a dative by a similar idiom; as bt^ari 
o I aiajirrpov, he took his sceptre from him (lit. for him). 

Note 4. Sometimes this dative has nearly the same force as a 
possessive genitive; as ol Iinroi airoi? SiStymt, their horses are tied 
(lit. lie horses are tied for them) ; Sia ri imrdpSai air^ ri trrpdm- 
fia, because his army has been scattered ; ^p^ov tov vavrtKoi toU Svpa- 
Kocloit, they commanded the navy for the Hyraeusans (i. e. file Syraca- 
lanj* navy). 

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146 STMTAX. [§ 185. 

Note 5. Here belongs the so-called eiiieal dalae, ia which the 
personal proDoaua have the force of /or mi/ sate, &c., aad sometimea 
cannot easily be translated ; as ri o- o i piflqfropu ; tohaC ami la learn 
for you f nut $ /• i r ix'^ ' ^"^ "■" V^ C"*^ '""'^ '" 'tnoic) f 

iFToTE 6. The participles flov'KS^iwQs, ^dd^cfori rpavSv- 
X^l^t'oi, dx^ifitvot, and a few others, maj agree with a dative, 
the phrase bemg equivaleot to the verb of the participle^ a& aur^ 
/SovXn/ii'vy (aTu<, it it to him toitking it (i. e. he uiithei it). 

4 The dative of possemon, after elfti, ylyvo/taif 
and aiiiiilar verbs. K g. 

IloXXai ftoi ^(Xm cio-ir, I have manyfriendi; narra o-oi yrp^o-cnu, 
all things will belong toyoa; itrnv dvBpawip Xoyitr^i, man has rea- 
son ; 'I ir ff 1 9 f^'f 1^ a3<X^v smStr iyinaiTo, to Hippiat alone of 

the brotkeri there were children bom. 

5. The dative denotii^ that with res^Kct to which a 
atatement is made, — often belonging to the whole aen- 
tence rather than to any special ■word. E. g. 

'Amivra t^ ^offovfiir^ '^o^i, everything toaiuh to one tcho ia 
afraid; tnpft /liw ivn\^ &iir tx" t«W, (u regard* gtm too, Ike 
order of Z eta it JvUg obeged. 

So in such expreBHions as these: (V ftc^ ivw^tom, on the 
right at ym sailitt (uiith respect to one sailing in); <ruv(X<ti>T(, or 
<uf <Tvrt\6rTi ihcilr, concisely, or lo Speak coneiselg Qit. Jbr one 
having made Ike mailer concise). So ht if^ ''> ^9 optnton. 

§ 185. The dative follows many adjectives and adverbs 
of kindred meaning with the verba included in § 184, and 
some verbal nouns. E. g. 

^v<rp.«vrft rots 0(X(Mr, hostile to his JrisndSf viroj^os nit piftoiB$ 
subject to the lauis; tiriKivivvov tj vSkii, dangerous to the- stale; 
fi\affipiv rp v&iian, hurtful lo the body; cro^it iavr^, wise for 
himself; ivavrlas alrr^, opposed to hitn. (For the genilivo afW 
ivarriot, see § 181, Note.) So JcaradouXucrtc tAv 'EXX^rov mr 'AAf- 
vaioit, subjugation of the Greets lo the Athenians. Xv/i^tpdrrMc 
air^profliibtg lo himtelf; ^fivoSuf ipol, in my way. 

§ 186. The dative is used with all words implying 
resemblance, union, or approach. This includes verbs, ad- 
jectives, adverbs, and nouna. E. g. 


i 188.] DAnVE. 147 

ZribTc touains, Wie tkadom; iiUkintn roit xaKois, they omo- 
date with the had; tove ^tiyorms avrols fui^XXofo', he reconciled 
tie exiles toitk them ; ofioXcryaucru' d X X ^ X □ t r , they agree wUh one an- 
other; ita^tyarrai ravrDir, they converse with these; t-duc nnrotiB 
ift6<tnn? rkrimd^tir, to bring the hones near to noiat:). 'O/ioioi roTc 
tv^XdTi, like the blind; Kviutra ha ipttrai*, waves lite rnotinlaim 
(Horn.); Toir ovtoTi Kiipf StrXott mrXurfUrei, armed loilh the same 
arms asCyrus. ''Eyyiit 66^, near a roocf (also tbegeaitive, g 182, 2); 
Sfia rs Ti}iipif, as loon as (it uKu) day; 6iunr rf «rqXf, together 
with the mud; rk rovrotr fipt^s, what cornea next to Iheie. 

770TK 1. To ^lia dasa belong not merely such verba as IhaKiyOfMt, 
to discourse with, but also naxoitai, noXtfita, and others signi- 
fying to contend uiilh, to quarrel vrilk; es paxiadai roit Oijfialote, 
to Jight with the Thebana ; no\t(iovat¥ ij/itv, theg are at war with us; 
ipii/mouf dXXqXoti, (key 'contend with each other; iunptpiaSai rait 
wovifpoU, to be at variance with the base. So is x^P"^ i\Stlv nvi, or 
it Xdyouc AAtv riH, to come to a conflict (or uortZs) mlh any one. 

Note 2. After adjectives of likeiKtt, an abridged form of expres- 
siou may be used; as K6itai Xapirttrtrir itpiliu, hair lite (that of) 
the Gromf (Horn.) ; t^ tmu irX^t iiioi, the aamenvmber of bloat 
viih me. 

HmOv* after Convmmd Tarbs. 

§ 187. The dative follows many verbs compounded 
TFith ev, ffvVf 6r eirl; and some componnded with irpm^ 
wapiij irepl, and vird. E g. 

Toil vdftoif ipfiirar, tAiding by the laiot ; al ^rai imar^it^ 
oUtnlar V"'XP eformoviTiV, pleasvre* produce no knowledrje in the tool ; 
/riKtaiTo T^ UfpticXii, rtey pressed hard on Periclea; ijiavr^ 
awiitar aiAif rmirraiUjnf, I was conscious to myself that I knew noth- 
ing (lit. with myself} ; fSij mrri a o i iinjkStr ; did it ever occur to you T 
nfiDrSaXXtiv T^ T»ix''o-/iari, to attack the fortification ; adtk^t 
n » 8 p 1 Trapt'o}, let a Invther stand by a man (i. e. Ut a man's brother 
stand by Mm); nU xaKOit jrtparlrrroaow, they are involved in eviia; 
imiKtam -rb triHior T^ Itp^, the plain lies betoto the temple. 

The dative here sometimes depends on the preposition (§ 193), and 
sometimes may be esplaiued by the meaning of the compoand verb. 

§ 188. 1. The dative is iised to denote the c. 
ner, means, or iTietrament. £. g. 

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Causb: 'AKoSrnirrti v6^tf, he dui o/ditvue; wtXkam iyroi^ 
iaparanofuv, vte often err through iffrtoranee. ' Manner; &pAiief iprtir- 
lywro, tiey preaed /orvmrd on a run; a-oUg xpavys nriovk 'A«y 
advance with a had ibovl; r^ ^Xi^An?, in truth; tif Sun, in reality; 
fil^ forc^y; toutji, in thit manner, ikiK, Ubahb or I)j3tbituemt : 
'Opifitr rmt Ai^BaXiAalt, vx Me wi& ovr tyta; iyvitrO^mu' Tg 
■VKtoi Twv Swhar, they mere reeogniitd by the foMon of their anm; 
MOKaXt lairBai wuai, to cure emia by evUt; outHt hramat qdorai* 
iterifiran, no ont gain* praiie by pletuurti. 

Note 1. The datire of respect is it form of the dative of nuumer; 
M 9r*arD« r^ vifiart, ttrong m hitbotfy; aAit, Bd^nnw ivAftart, 
a ctty, nuqxacm by name. 

NoTS 2. Xpdoiiai, fouM (to Mme one's ie^i2r)i takes the tnttrti- 
menlal dative; ta xpavnu dpyupiy, (Aey um money. A neuter 
pronoun (rt, t\ or S n) may be added as an adverbial accusative 
(S 160, 2); as ri nwrew jfp^mpan wftnf ahali I do vilh theaeT (lit 
tn toAaf mty shall I use these f). 'So/iiiu has aomeljmes the same 
tneBning and oonatnictioii aa jfpao/uu. 

2. Tl>e datire of mamter is used witii companttaroa to 
denote the degree of diffvrmce. E. g. 

noXXf i^rrrdu ivra, it i* mucA htUer (btlter ftjr Tnack) ; rg 
■ t^aXg fulCair (or (XoTTaw], a head taller (prthorter); rovvvTy 
^bav [a, I live so much the more kappUy; r«;(i«j i^ofi Aa6tvt<rTipit 
^axp^, art is aeaier than necessity by far. 

8o sometimes with superlatives, and eren with other erpreesious 
which imply comparison,- as ^amp^ KaMUimi rt nil Sptmt, by far 
ihe most beauti/iii and the best; )wa Irivt wpi r^t i» SoXo^um 
waup^lat, ten years before tie baltU at Satamit. 

3. The dative Bometimes denotes the offml with passive 
verbs, especially with the perfect and pLuperfect. E. g. 

Tavni ifft] IT o 1 wttrpoKTOi, this has naut been done by you ; nviA^ 
■i^iHricnHiimi toTi KopiyOiatr, tnhen preparation had been made by 
the Corinthians. 

With other tenses, the agent is regnlarly expressed by v«A &o. and 
the genitive {% 197, 1) ; rarely by the dative, except in poetry. 

4. With the v^bal a^ective in -raoc the agent ia ex- 
pressed by the dative^ but sometimes by the accusative. 
See § 281. 

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I IBO.] D&TIVS. 149 

5. The dative u used to denote that "bj which my per- 
aon or thing is accompanied. E. g. 

*HXAor oi Bipam rofiirXif^I trriJXf, ft« Portuitw cante with an 
anrtg tn /uU fvne; qfMit «ai («-«-• 1 1 imr Avmiwr^rMi nU avh^Avt 
vopnwfu^ 'e' <i< moTvk uAA f Ae tlrorigt$t kortet aitd vith nun ; ol 

ml ma vano-d', (A< Laeedaamonuttu oBaektd iht ¥ia& hoA KnltlMr 
ioncf ormjr aitd tnA liar lAipi. 

This dative ia used chieflj in reference to military forces, and is 
Ori^nally coonected witih llie datife of meant or irutrumenl. The last 
example migbt be placed equally well under % 188, 1. 

KoTB. This dative sometimes takes the dative of oMt for empha- 
sis; as fuBW (jma) ahro'it dwipatri* ttkar, they took ona (_'Mp), 
men and oiL 

§ 189. The dative often denotes time wAen. This is 
confined chiefly to nouns denoting day, ni^hi, monik, or 
year, and to names oifeetivala. E. g. 

ol irXcimH m/jiTjtcSinjo-ai', (Se moJi of the Hermae teere muiilated in one 
night; tA £a^o> i^rtioKiopa^aar ivirtf pr)rl, the Samiata were 
taken by liege in the ninth taonik; rfraprif trti (m^mui, they 
came to termi in the fourth year; innrtpci Btvp.o^a plait i^orcv- 
ofMr, we fiat at if it were on tAe Thetmophoria, So rg vTTtpai^ 
(bo. ipiip^), on thefiUowing day, and Snrnp^ Tpirg, on tie tecond, third, 
&0., in giving the day of the month. 

Nort Even the worde toentioiied, except names of festivals, gen- 
«rally take tr when no o^ective word is joined with them. Thus 
tr nm-i, at ni^ (rarely in poetiy nxcrQ, but fuf rmai, in one ni^. 

A few expressions occor like i/aripif xP^ti *** "fi*'' (■"^i xn/*****"* 
&pf, in the winter teaton ; pouptpilf (new-moon day), on lie _firit of tit 
pionih; and otbers in poetry. > 

I>Ulv« of PUm (P«tl<^ 

S 190. In poetry, the dative often denotes the place 
where. E. g. 

'EXXdSt nuw>>, dwelling in Bellas; alBi pi vtdav, dwelling in 
heaoen; oBptiri, on lie motinlaint ; t6^ apeiotr tx^'i ^i"'"? '^ 
iev on Aw ahmlder*; ^ipi/n iyp^, A* remaint m tieeotmlry, Horn. 

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150 STHTAX. [i m. 

'Htrdu Mftou, to tit at home. Aesch. Nvv Aypolirt Tvy^^dm, novhe 
happeta to be m the country. Soph. 

NoTB. In prose, the dative of place is chiefly confined .to the 
names of Attic demes; asi} VLapaBuwi iiax^, ih« bailie at Marathon j 
but oulj iw 'K6i}¥a^t' Still Bome exceptions occ\a. 

8ome adverbe of place are really local dativeg ; ss rairr]], rp3«, hert; 
aUoi, at iamt ■ xixXif, in a cirele, ott aromtd. See g 61, N. 2. 


§ 191. 1. The following prepositions take tlie geni- 
tive: — 

'Aitipt, arri, an6, Sui, ^K {t(), tvl, Kurd, /urd, wapa, mpi, irp6, wp6t, 
iiwip, uniJ, — i. e. all the prepoBitions except «i» (it), *c, air, ipd. 
Also Sm, Snp, Sxpt, /uxfii JHM, and irXqv, which are sometimes 
called improper prepoeitiam. 

'Note. Even and takes the genitive in tlie Homeric (ir& v^c fiaam, 
logo on board of a ikip. 

2. The foUowing prepositions take the dative : — 

'AlMpl, ird, if, iwi, iutA, itapd, wtpt, itp6t, air (£»»), vatf. 

3. The following take the accusative : — 

'AfV^f, OHJ, im, tU (or it), ivi, koto, /«rd, jropo, wrpf, irpA, vwip, 
ltr6, — i. e. all except it^l, itti, U, iv, %p£, aim. 'Qr, to, ia Bome- 
times used for wp<fc with words denoting persons. 

Non I. The meaning and nee of the prepositjons most be learned 
by practice and from the Lexicon. It will be noticed how the pecu- 
liar meaning of each case often modifies the origins] force of a prepo- 
sition. Thua impd means near, atongside of; and we have irapk to u 
^a(^(X(l•c, Jrom the nsighborhood of the Unij, — itapA rf PaaiXti, 
imthe neighborhood of the king, — irapi rdir jSatriXia, into the neigh- 
borhood of the king. 

NoTR 2, The prepoiitiona were originally adverbs; and as such 
they are aometomes used without a noun, especially in the older 
Greek, — seldom in Attic prose. Thua irtpi, roundai>ovt or exceed- 
inglff, in Homor; jrpii ii or xol vpit, and besides, in Herodotus. 

KoTK 3. The preposition of a compound verb may also stand sep- 
arately, in which case its adTerbial force plunly appears ^ as iwl 

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1 194.] ADTEBBS. 151 

avenue i$X0( (forKM^t hnjKOt), darknem canu on; ^/uv itti Xatyiv 
&liirrat (for iiraininu), to aard off deitruetion fivm ut. 

This is called tmesis, and ia found chiefly in Homer. 

NoTB 4. A preposition sometimes follows its case, or & verb to 
trhith it belongs; as mmv 3«-o, jnuBiF vipi; SKitras am (for atroXc- 
(tik). For tbe accent^ see § 23, 2. 

Note 5. A few prepositions are used adTerbially with a verb un- 
derstix>d ; as irapa for naptan, ttri and fiSra (in Homer) for 
hcttm and fiirvm. So fri for ivttni, and avo, up/ for iifiirta 
(oKiiTT^A). For the accent, see g 23, 2. , 

Note 6. Sometimes tU with the accusative stands, bj a peculiar 
mixtare of constructions, for iv witli the dative; as al ^vviAoi it ri 
Itpiy iyiyvmrnr, the tynods icere hdd in the temple (lit. in/o lAe temple, 
involving the idea of going info the temple to hold the synods). So 
ArS witb the genitive for iv with the dative; aa iiTipmurro ma airk 
rd dir& Tuv olxi&f ^Xa, even lie very timbers in the houses (lit. 
from the houses') had been stolen. 

§ 182. 1- Four prepositions take the geKUive only: iyrl, 
isri, ix (t(), and vpi, —-with Srtv, Srtp, ixph l"XPh ''^iti, and irXiiv. 

2. Two take the dative only: iv and ^v (fw). 

3. Two take the accusaCive mUy : tU {h) and l>t. 

i. Three take the genitive and aceusative : liii, Kara, and Wp. 

6. One, &ti, takes the dative and accusative, veiy rarely the 
genitive (§ 191, 1, Note). The dative ia only Epic and Lyric. 

6. Seven take the genitive, dative, and aecTuative: i/t^ hrl, 
fUTO, irapa, vipl, 7ip6t, and inri. 

§ 193. A preposition is often followed hy its own t^ase 
when it is part of a compound verb. E g. 

HaptKofuffivTo T^v 'ItoXJov, they sailed along the coast of Italy; 
iaifkOi fM, il occurred to me; ^ l"ir^p Twrnpamv aiiT^ raOra, 
Us mother assisted km in tkii (i. e. jirparrr aip ovr^). For the geni~ 
tive; see g 177 ; fer the dative, see § 187. 


S 194. Adverlas qualify verbs, adjectives, and other 
adveiba. E. g. 

OSrett tlW, Aiu he spoke; &s dim^uu, as I am able; irp&row 
iaiTikStihe first totnt away; t6 dXij^uf kokA; thai whickistnilytvit; 
j*aX\or vptwivTttt iiii^utriiin], more hecomingly dretttd. 

Tor mBct^Tw used in tiie eesse of Adrwbs, bm g 138, 17. 7. ?w 
adverbfl preceded bj tlie srticla And qnaUfying a noun, aeo § IH, N. 3L 
For negative adTsiba, see g 283. 


§ 195. ]Ji the active voice the subject is represeoted as 
acting or being ; as rpera tow «J^aX^us, / iwm my eyes; 
irar^ ^\Gt tov irtu&i, ^father lovea tAe chdld; ovtw 
e^Tt <ro^V, ^is man w mse. 

Note. The active voice includeamoatintrui^tive verbs; asrpixia, 
lo run ; ({;u', (a be. Some tr angilJTe verbs liave certain iutronsicive 
tenses; ss tanfua, I stand, iunpi, I slood,iromXtm]iu, lo place. Such 
tenses are said to have a, tniddlt or a pasfivt meaning. 

The same verb may be both traositLve and intransitive ; as Aaivet, 
to drioe or to march. lu the second case wa jaa,j supply iiiourin, 
nyttlf. Oompare Uto English verbs dritx, turn, move, &c. 

S 139. In the passive voice the aubjact is lejanaented 
as acted v^pon; as d iroM vko too mvr/io? ^Aeirai, tJt* 
ebdld is lovtd ly tiie fathar. 

S 197. 1. The oly'ect of the active becomes the subject 
of the passive. T^ie av^ect of the active, the agent, is gen- 
erally expressed by iSirrf and the genitive in the passive 

KoTE 1. Oth^ prepoutions than £vd vrith Ibe genitive of tha 
agent) though used in poetry, are not common in Attio prose. Such 
are vapA, »p6s, f£, and mr6. 

Note 2. When the active is followed by two aceusatives, or by 
an accusative and a dative, the case denoting a person is generally 
made the subjeot of t^ passive, and the other ease remains un~ 
changed. E. g. 

Oibir SiWo iibatrntnu ivSpmios, tRe man m laugit nofUi^ Ae 
(io tlje. aatiTO ^dv cEUo dtUniDvn tit S»0pmu»). 'AXlo rt 

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1198.} THE VMB. — ^TOICBS. 153 

ftttCor iirtni}(6^a^F^, yoa uiU Aone tamk e&er greater command »»■ 
paaed on jfou (act. SOut n ^ifiw v^ iimi^mnKr, tkey uiiU impost 
wiM other greater command on you). OI nnnrpafi/i(>w r^v ^vJiaKiir< 
tAoM (o ieA«m llie guard has been entrusted (acL onrpiirftr t^* ^vAojc^v 
nwnxc). Aitjtffifiaw ivt)iifiiiiot, clad in a kalli^rn jerkin (act, iwa.- 
STtm rl OM, to fit a thing on one). So iijiAwT^ir$ai. Tir otpAAfi^ir, to 
ktaie a* ege eat ovt, and oson/iMoAu n^ Ki^oXqr^ to have hia head cM 
off, Inc., ihim possible active construe tioua fnummir ri nx, and 
^TDf-friHi* W TIM (§ 184, 3, S. i). Thia conftruction has nothing to 
do with that of § 160. 

See aim § 169, 2, Note^ for a genttiv« reUined wittttlie ptaan. 

2. The perfect and pluperfect pasBive geoerall; tflke the 
dative of the agent (§ 186, 3). 

The Terinl ia -nor or tmt takes the. dative (aometimes tlio 
mooaaatixe) ot the agent (§ 188, 4), 

§ 188. Even the cognate accusative (§ 159) can be nmde 
the subject of the paeBiv& Thus even intransitive verba can 
have a passive voice. R g. 

'Artptirai oiSir, no oet of impiety it mmmifted (act iat^m 
ntidiw). This occurs chieflj in sucli piirticipiaL expressions as ri t/trt- 
PijlUrm, Ae inpioiu aett whiek have been eornmOed; rk Kirivreu- 
ffirra, the ristt which wera ran; r^ ^/laprmiirat lieerronKkKh 
iaee beta made, &c. 

§ 199. In the middle voice the subject is reptesented 

1. Afl acting on. himself; as erpairovTo vprn XjoreMw, 
ihey iuTjtsd themselves to piracy. 

2. As acting for himself; as o S^/uk rSerai v6/u»k, 
ffie people moke laws for themselves, whereaa riBtja-t fo/iovs 
would properly be aaid of a lawgivec 

3. Ab acting on an oliject 'which beloTigs to himself; aa 
^KBt 'KuaonaiQv Ovyarpa, he came to ransom hia (pvm) 
daughter. Horn. 

Note 1. The last two uses maj be united in one verb, as in the 
last example. Often the middle exprecses do more than is implied in 
the active; thus rpinamr ivraaOat, to raite a trophy for ikmueioea, 
generally adds nollting to what ia implied in Tpittaioii lar&w-at, U 

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raite a trophy; and either form can be used. The middle aometimea 
does not differ at all from the active; as Hie poetic tittr^ai, to see, 
and liiir. 

Note 2. The middle sometimea has a cmuadve meaning; as iii- 
iaiifi^w at, Ihadyou taught. ^ 

Thia gives rise to some special uses of the middle; as in floMffi*, (o 
lend, ioFtiCBiuit, to borrow (cause tomebody to lend to one'» lelf). So 
Iuit66», to lei, iuaS6oiiat, to hire (eatue to be let to on^t >^f)' 

Note 3. The middle of certain verba is peculiar in 
Thus, dnAiSMfu, to gine back, awoilSofuu, to tell; ypaipn, to loritt oi 
propose a vole, ypdrjmimi, to indict; riiiapa rin, I avenge a perton, 
n/iapoiiud two, / avenge myself on a person or / punish a perton; 
jnrs), to fasten, Sucropoi, to cling to (so ?x» and txopa). 

The passive of some of these verbs is used as e. passive to both 
active and middle; thus ypa^q»>at can mean either to be written or 
to be indicted. 

Note 4. The fiiture middle of some verbs has a passive sense ; 
as ^diciiti to wrong, Huatm^M, IshaS be wronged. 


§ 300. The tenses of the indicative expresa action as 
follows : — 

Present, continued present action ; ypaifM, I am writing, 

luFEBFEor, continued past action ; Sypa^v, I was writing. 

Febfeot, action finished in present time; yiypa^ I have 

Pluperfect, action finished in past time ; iyiypafmr, I had 

AoRiST, simple past action ; Jypo^o, / wrote. 
Future, simple f^iture action ; ypa^, I ihalt wife. 
Future pBRPEt?r, action to bo finished in future time ; yrypi- 
^tnu, it wilt have been written. 

Note 1. In narration, the present is sometimea used vividly for 
the aorist; as iropeutrai npht ^aaCKia ^ Hiram rajyumi, Ae goe* 
(K«nl) to the king as /att at ht could. 

ri» Ibe pieaeat expressing a general truth, see § 206, 1. 

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g MO.] TENSE& 155 

IToTE 2. The present and especially the imperfect oflen express 
as allempted action ; aa ntiSova-t iftat, they are trying to pmuade 
you,' 'fAirrnuov ihLhov, he offered (tried to give) JIalonnesia; A 
itcpavatTo oIk ryirrro, tohat was attempted did tu>t happen. 

JToTB 3. The presents ^xa, I am cmae, and olxofioi, I am gone, 
have the force of perfects ; the imperfects havhig tiie force of pluper- 

The present tlfu, I am going, has a fnture sense. 

Note 4. The present with miXat or other ezpression of past time 
has the force of a present and perfect combined; asraXat vm rovro 
Xiya, I have Itmg been telling you this (oAich I tuna tell). 

Nars 6. The aoritt taJces its name (aiptarot, unlimited, ungualt- 
fied) from its denoting a simple past occurrence, with none of the 
limitations (ipoi) as to completion, continuance, &c,, which belong to 
the other past tenses. It corresponds exactly to the so-called imper- 
fect in English, whereas the Greek imperfect corresponds to the forms 
/ toot doing, &c. Thus, iwoiei roi^o is he v>aa doing this or he did 
tkii habitually ; iit«oir]Kt roitram he has already done iMs; tirdrotq- 
Ktt Ttnrm is he hod already (at some past time) done this; but itralriir* 
rovro la simply he did this, without qualification of any kind. 

The aorist of verbs which denote a state or condition gpnerally 
expresses the entrance into that state or condition ; as trXovria, to be 
rich ; (VXdutoui', / vxti rich ; (VXounjmi, / became rich. So i^aaiktoa*, 
he became king ; ^p$t, he obtained office. 

The distinction between the imperfect and aorist was sometimes 
n^iected, especially in the earlier Greek, See fiaacif and |8ij in IL 
I. 437 and 439 ; ^<ax.n> and ^tro in IL II. 43 and 45 ; iXiwtv and 
Xftirc, B. n. lOG and 107. 

Note 6. Some perfects have a present meaning; as Oir^aKtw, to 
die, T*6rj}Kivai, to be dead; ylyvttrSat, to become, ytyovivat, to 
be; lufurriaiaiv, to remind, iiiiiv^iifiai, to remember; *a\tir, to call, 
K^KX^aSat, to be called.- So alia, I know, novi This U usually 
explained by the meaning of the verb. 

In such verbs the pluperfect has the force of an imperfect; as 
SStiv, I knew (S 130, 2). 

Note 7. The perfect sometimes refers vividly to the fiiture; as 
«I pt aloStiirrrm, SXaXa, if he shall perceive me, I am ruined (peril). 
So sometimes the present; as aTrSkXviuu, I periih .' (for I shaU perish). 

Note 8. The second person of the future may express a permis- 
rion, or even a conmand; as wf&^tit oW &• $ik^, you mag act at 

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156 STWTAX ■ ^201. 

jfettpltttu; miwmt ti nun tpAattt, and bg aQ mtOM do thk (yim 
tiatt do Ait). So in imprecations; aa ar(A<ia0(, to deitruction wiA 
yw / (lit. you ihaU perith). See £ 2S7. 

Non 9. The future perfect is sometimes merely an emphatiD 
future, denoting that a fiiture act will be imraediale or deeuUx ; aa 
4l>ai* ecu vtupa^trai, ip«ok, and it ihaii be (no laoner laid than) 

§ 30L The division of the tenses of the indicatlTe into 
primary and iteondary (or hUfyxriooI) is explained in § 90, 2. 

In dependent clauses, when the construction allows both 
subjunctive aud optative, or both indicative and optative, 
tiie subjiwctive or indicative r^olarly follows primary 
tenses, and the optative follows secondary tenses. £. g^ 

npdrrovirt)' it Sr ^ouXoirot, Aey do whatever they please; 
lirpaTTov & ^ovXoivro, they did mhcUever they pleated. Atyav- 
ffir on rovTo /SouXovrai, liey say thai they teish for this; ?\(£av 
in roun $oiXoitiTo, they said that they unshed/or this. 

These oonatructiona will be explained hereafter (J 233 and §243). 

The gnomic aorist is a primary tense, as it refers to present time 
(S 205, 2) ; aud the historic present is secondary, as it refers to past 
time (§ 200, N. 1). 

Now 1. The only exception to this principle occurs in indirect 
discourse, where the form of the direct discourse can always be r&- 
tuned, even after secondary tenses. See g 242. 

Non 2. The distinction into primary and aecondaiy tenaes ex- 
tfinda to the dependent mooda only where the tenaes keep the sama 
distinction of time which they have in the indicative. It is. impor- 
tant cfaieSy in the infinitive in indirect discourse (§ 203). 

A. Not IB IndlMat DlManraoi 

§ 302> In the subjunctive and imperative, and also in the 
optative and infinitive when they are not in indirect (JMcourte 
{§ 203), the tenses chiefly used are the present and aoriat. 

1. These tenses here differ only in this, that the present 
denotes a amtiKoed or repeated action, while the aoriat denote 
a simple occurrence of the action, the time of both being precisely 
the same. E. g. 

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S »a.] TEHSE& 157 

*£&» ffAiJ mSntr^hethalldothu (ht5i(uaOy), f jb ira(4a-D raCro, 
(simply) if he ihall do thU; n a-oioiq tovtd, i/ /le i/iould do IhU 
(htUnivallg), tt iroi^iTcK roirro, (simply) i/he ihotdd do this: nolti 
nfin, do thit (JiabitwtUy), iroiiiiraw toZto, (simply) do this. ofn# 
P(Kf ratfit r' iyli mt ro/iifoi^ifr ao^s, oa this conditum may 
Igmn the vielory (aor.) and be eoruidered (pres.) lotse. BouXcrcu rouro 
voKiVt he withes to do this (habilvaily), ffo^rrm tovto irot^irat, 
(mmply) he ioiihe$ l» do thU. 

This is a diatinction entirely unknown to the Latin, which has (for 
example) only one fonc, si j^tot!, corresponding to tl tcoialij and 
cl rotqo-df p.. Even the Greek does not always regard it; and in 
many cases it is mdifferent which tense is used. 

2. The perfect, when it occurs in these constructions, rep- 
reseats an action OAjinithed, at the time at which the present 
would represent it as going on. E. g. 

AiAobuifiq Xt^v trtroi^Kg, I fear lest ii viay prone to haee caused 
ftrgetfidnas (fi^ m^ would mean lest il may caitte). KtqbtrX ffo^at 
it 6r ^4 wprfnpoE fJi^oir^irE^i iiup I, Co help no one toho shidl not 
preeunaly have helped you (&s Ar /li] . . . . ffot/dg would mean who 
ihall rM previously help yoit). Oujc ir Ji4 Tovrd y tlty oiK cutUt 
dcivK^Tct, Ihey viould not (on inquiry) prove to have failed to pay 
on thill account (witb SiSa'ifr thia would mcaii Iheij would not fail to 
pay). Ob ^ouXd^fodai m wpa, aXXh fit^ovt-iitrffai, it is no 
longer time la be deliberalinij, but (it is time) to liave finished del3ieraling. 

Note 1. The perfect imperative generally expresses a command 
that something shall be dedHve s.nd. permanent ; as ravra ttpti<j$i», 
let this have been said (i. c. let what has been said be final), or lei this 
(ujhicli filtomf) be said once for all; fuyjn rouSc itpiafim fijiur $ 
Ppaivriit, aC this point let the limit of your sluggishness be fixed. This 
is confined to the third person singular paesive; the rare second per- 
son singular middle being merely emphatic The active is used oolf 
when the perfect hns a present meaning (§ 200, N. 6). 

Note 2. The perfept infinilioe is sometimes used like the impera- 
tive (Note 1), ahd sometimes it is merely emphatic; as ttmor njr 
flu/wv KtKXtioSai, (hey ordered the gale to be shut (and kept so); 
^avyt» tVi Tois M»h»c, Surr ixtlrnvt iKirtnXtJx^ai ical TpfX*f 
•VI rd 5ii\a, so that tliey leere (once for all) thoroughly frightened and 
ran lo arms (the perfect here is merely more emphatic than the pres- 
ent). The regular meaning of this tense, when it is not in indirect 
discourse, is that giren in g 202, 2. 

3. The iiiture infinitire is regnlarly oaed onlj in indirect 
HMCoune (§ 203). 

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158 STNTAX, [S 208. 

It occurs occaaionally in other constructionfi, in place of the 
regular present or oorist, to make more emphatic the future 
idea which the infinitive receives from the conteit, K g. 

'ESt^ftjo'OJ' TUB Mryap*aii' kiud-1 <r^ac £vfijrpo7r*/ii('*tr, tiejf 
(ukal the Megariara to escort than with ships; ovk diroicaiXucr«iii 
SuKiTol Syrtt, not being able to prevent. So rarely after &7tv, and to 
express s purpose. In all these constructions the iiiture is tlriclly 
exceptionai, the only regular forms of the infinitive out of indirect 
discourse beicg the present and aorist, except in the few cases in 
which the perfect is used (§ 202, 2) and in the case mentjoued in the 
following Note. See also § 203, N. 2. 

Note. Oae regular exception to the principle just stated is found 
in the periphraetlc future (§ 98, 3), where the present and ftiture in- 
finitives with fu'Ua are equally common, but the aorist is very rare. 

4. The future optative is uaed only in indirect discourse 
{§203, N. 3). Even here the future indJoatJTe geneniDy takes its 
place. See also g 217, and § 248, Note. 

B. In Indirect Dlaconrw. 

Bemabk. The term indirect discourse includes all clauses depending 
on a verb of laying or thinUng which contain the thoughts or words 
of any person stated indirecdy, i. e. incorporated into the general 
structure of the sentence. It indndes of course all indirect quota- 
tions and questions. 

§ 203. When the optative and infinitive stand in indirect 
discourse, each tense represents the mrre^Kmding tease of a 
verb in the direct discourse. E. g. 

''EXiytv Sti ypd<f>oi, he said that he was writing (he said ypa(pai, I 
am wriiiTtg) ; iXrytv Sri ypa-r^oi, he said that he would write (he B&id 
ypdyffa, I wiU write'); tXrytv on ypa^tny, he said that he had writ- 
ten (he said fypa'jfa); i\tytv on ytypa(pi>t t^i, Ae said that he 
had already written (he said ytypa'\>a). "Hprro ti rts (/wu (iq <ro(fi&- 
Ttpos, he asked ichether any one teas wiser than I (ho asked tori nc;). 

^(rl ypA<p€iv, he says that he is writing (he so,ys ypa^); tpr/al 
yptt<^ttv, he says that he wilt write (ypd^u) ', ^ijirl ypdi^ai, he says 
that he wrole ijypa^a) ; <^7<ri ytypai^ivai, he says that he has writ- 
ten (yiypalpdj. 

ETttei' ori Si^pa Syat tv tip(ai 4 (' o i , he Said that he inas bringing 
a man w}iom it was necessary to confine (he said Svdpa Syn tr (^foi 
d*t)t 'EAvyif'oi'n) uc, tt ft) ftdji^oiiTa, dnxTT^troivra oJ v6- 

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Xnr, tbey eotuidtred Hat, if they thotUd not Jight, lAe dtiet atndd revolt 
(they thought i^ fi^ /xaxAiitSa, awovT^aowrai, if ve da tut 
figld, fhey wtU remiC). 

These conBtructione will be eiplained in § 243 ; g 246 ; and g 247, 1, 
They are given here mere]; to show the diflerent force of the (eiuw 
in indirect discouTBe and in olher conatnictJong. Compare especially 
the difference between ^ijo-l ypai^iiv and ^o\ ypa-^ai under 
§ 203 with that between /Sou^mu troiTiv and ^Xwrai wD^^lTat 
under g 202. Notice also the same distincUoa in respect to the pres- 
ent and aorist optative. 

Non 1. The present infinitive represents the imptrfeet aa well as 
the present indicative; aa rima rix^ uroXi^i^av*^ rBxf<r6in tAv 
9i\imrov St tinrtritvi tchot prayers ilo you iuppoae PhiUp made ichen 
Ae vxu pounug ttbatioiuT {L e. riW tfix^ra;). The perfect infinitiy© 
likewise represeata both perfect and pluperfect 

So rarely the present optative represents the imperfect indicative. 
See g 243, Note 1. 

Note 2. Verbs of ioping, expecting, promising, &c, fonn an inter- 
mediate class between verbs which taJte the infinitive in indirect 
discourse and those which do not (see Rem. before g 203) ; and they 
allow either the future infinitive (as in g 203) or the present and 
aorist (as in g 202). E. g. 

'WXmCop iiAx^ iir<v6ai, (key expected (hat iherevxnddhe ahattU 
(Thuc); but A oOron 1f\inatv vaBtiw, toitK h» never expected to 
suffer (Smt.). "TmaxcTi fiM pav'KtiaatrSat, and iritrxrnt pij- 
X"^ wapi(rir (both in Xea.) 

The construction of indirect discouree (the future) is the more 
common here. In English we can say / hope {expect or promise} to 
do Hub (lik« vouip or mi^ai), or / hope I ihali do this (like wMt/irta'), 

NoTK 3. The future optative is never used except as the repre- 
sentative of the fiiture indicative, either in indirect discourse (as ia 
the examples nnder g 203), or in the construction <rf § 217 (which is 
governed by the principles of indirect discourse). 


§ 204. The tenses of the participle express generally 

the same time as those of the indicative ; but tfaey are 

present, past, or future relatively to the time of the verb 

with vhich they are connected. E. g. 

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160 STITIAZ. [l»S. 

'Afiaprdpti mCra votAr, ht art in dmag Um; ^fidpravt rovra 
nouSi', he trred indoiag Ikis; A^pr^ircroi rovni miai', he wiU err-m 

doing Iki). (Here ninar ia first present, then paal, then fiitwe, abso- 
lutely ; but alwaja present to the verb of the geutence.) Taum 
tlir6vtts oir^XAir, Itaaing laid tiix, they departed. Ou nuXXal ^mi- 
rormt §vrt\66vTftt not many i^ipear to koiie joined the expedition, 
'EirgHcnpi rove ilp^cifrat, rA«y praised those leho had (already) 
spoken. ToOro ir a 1 7 it u v ffij^mu, Ae ia coming la do this ; tovn 
woiifavy ti^Svi, he came to do this. 

Note 1. The present here represents also lie imperfect; as oUa 
KOieccHt (rad) no vD Crr tfi ToTf Sodieparct 7vi'7<rTi|if, / know that they 
both were continent at long as theif associated with Socrates (L e, 

Sort 2. The aoriat participle in certun constructions does nob 
denote time past with reference to the leading verb, but expresses a 
simple occurrence without regard to time (like the aorlst infinitive in 
g 202). This is so in the following eiamplear — 

"Emx"' t\6av, he happened to come; tXoBtv iXiatv, he came 
teeretly; !<pe^ «Xdi», he came Jirst. (See § 279, 2.) ntpuSth- ri/w 
y^v Tiii)0tlirav, to allow the land to be raoaged (to see il ravaged), 
(See § 279, 3.) Eij y iicairiaat avaiiriitrar lUi you did wdl tn re- 
minding me, and elsewhere when the participle denotes that in whiob 
Iha action of the verb consists. (See g 277.) 

§ 205. 1. The present is the tense commonly used in 

Greek, as in English, to denote a general truth or an habit- 
ual action ; aa ^Xolov eli ArjXov 'Ad->]viuoi Tr^ji-irovaiv, 
the Athenians send a ship to Delos {annuaibj). 

2. In animated language, the aoriat is used in this sense. 
This ia called the gnovtic aoriat, and is generally translated 
by the English present E g. 

'Hr T« Toiraiv n vapaffaivit, itfua* a&roU i-ridtirav, i. e. they 
impose apenalty on all toho tranegresa. Mi' ii^tpa t^ /uy iiatf((Xci> 
ir<^66rr, ran 4* ^p' &i<o, one dag (oflen) brings down one man fiom a • 
height and raises, another high. 

Note I. Here one distinct case tn past time is vividly used to 
represent all possible cases. Examples containing auch adverbs as 
woXXcuic, often, fBij, already, oCrru, never yet, illustrate the construc- 
tion; aa affv/ioi/vrrs Si/ipit oCbrai rpinauai Itrr^iraw, 
■wn never yet raised a trophy. 

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i na.Ji THE PABTK!^ 'AN. 161 

NoTB 3> Ap sorist reeembling the |;n(»m<; is faund in Homerio 
suniles; as fptir* S* 4« 3h nt.fiput ^pivci', oiuf he /tU, aa when 
MOW ooJ: ,^1^ (lib 04 toA«n an ooJ: nnca fdl)- 

Not* 3. The gnomio aorut occurs ia the inSnitire and participle. 

3. The perfect sometimes has a gnomio sense, like the aoriBt. 

'Eaniar ra wop i/iaS pi^, iir fiiy ffaukifrax, iiirii8i8aiic<>> t 
iy& nparrofuu aprfipiar, vihen any one ha» been my pitpU, if htpUatei, 
he payi the turn of money ahkh I atk. 

The gnomic perfect may be used in the infinitire. 

§ 206> The imperfect and aoriat are Bometimea used 
vritli the adverb av to denote a cudomary action. £. g. 

^mpiiTttw if airroit ri 'Kiyouv, liaed loodt them (J woiM ojlea 
tak Iheni) tohat they said. HoyXaat riKov<raft€v Av iitas, we tued 
ijlan to hear you. 

This construction must be corefollj distinguished from the ordi- 
nary apodosia with &y (g 222), It is equiralent to our phrase he 
vxnUd qfUn do thit for he vted to do this. 

Note. The lonio has iterative forms in -(tkdp and -trxaiiifr in 
both imperfect and aorist. (See £ 122, 2.) Herodotus uses these 
also with 3v, as above. 


S 207. The advert av (Epic ice) has two distinct uses. 

1. It is joined to all the secondary tenses of the indica- 
tive (in Homer also to the future indicative), and to the 
optative, inlinitive, or paiticiple, to denote that the action 
of the verb is dependent on some t»ndiUon, expressed or 
implied. Here it belongs to the verb. 

2. It is joined regularly to €i, if, and to all relative and 
temporal words (and occasionally to the final particles i?, 
Sirat^, and wf>pa), when these are followed by the subjunc- 
tiva Here it belongs entirely to the particle or relative, 
with which it often forma one word, as in edv, Srav, hreiBdv. 

There is no English word which csn translate Sr. In its Srat use 
it ia expressed in the loou/if or ahotud of the verb (^ouXoito Sp, he 
vmiU mth ; iKaiitj^ 3w, I Aeuid choose). In its second use it has no 
force which can be made apparent in English, 


162 BTNTAX. [1 20S. 

The above statement (§ 207) includes ftll r^ulu nsea of S» except 
the Epic ooiiBtruction explained in g 265, and the iterative construc- 
tion of 8 206. The foUowing aeclions (§§ 208-211) enumerate the 
various uses of S», with reference to -the sectiona in which they are 
explained in full. 

§ 208> 1- The pretent and perfect indicative never take S^ 

2. The future iudicative often takes ib (or u) in the early 

poets, especially in Homer ; very rarely in Attio Greek. K g. 

Hal «' ni iilf iptii, and perhape some one teUl Ihui tpeak ; SJim, 
o* Kt fu niiiimmm, othert leho vM Aonor nw (if occaiUm offers). The 
future with 3y seems to have been an intermediate form between the 
simple future, wrill honor, and the optative with Sr, would honor. One 
of the few examples found in Attic prose is in Flat: Apol. p. 29 C. 

3. The most common use of Sr with the indicative is when it 
fbrms an apodosis with the teamdary tenses. It here denotes 
that the condition upon which the action of the verb depends 

it nat oT vxu not fulfilled. See § 222. 

For the itenUive construction of &, see § 206. 

§ 209. 1. In Attio Greek the subjunctive is used with ib 
only in the construction mentioned in § 207, 3, where &> belongs 
to the introductory word. See § 223, § 225, g 232, 3, § 233 ; 
also g 216, 1, N. 2. 

2. In Epic poetry, where the subjunctive is often nsed 
nearly or quite in the sense of the future indicative (g S55), it 
may, like the future (§ 208, 2), take a» or k^. K g. 

£( St K( fi) d(i>0H7iv, iyb 5( Ktv avrit (Xafmi, and }f Ikey do not 
give her up, / inili late her myself. 

§ 210. The optative with Sr forms an apodoeis, with which 
a condition must be either expressed or implied. It denotes 
what vmtld happen if the condition should be fulfilled (§ 224). 

The future optative is never used with Sr. See g 203, N. 3. 

§ 211, The present and aorist {rarely the perfect) infinitive 
and participle are used with &• to form an apodosis. Each 
tense is here equivalent to the corresponding tense of the indica- 
tive or optative with Sis — the present representing also the 
imperfect, and the perfect also the pluperfect. 

Thus the present infinitive or particii^e with b may repra- 

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g 212.] THE rABTia.E *AN- 163 

sent either an impa^eet indieative or a pretenl optative with &■; 
the aorist, either on oOTist vu2i«a^iw or aa oomt o^ito^iiw with 
A» ; the perfect, either a pluperfect mdieaiive <x » p^Jed (^Jtative 
frith Sn, £. g. 

4i;<rli' nfirvdc AnSwpmir ir tlrat, tt roCra iirpa(ap, be sayi 
litof fAe^ icojiid (now) be Jree (^<rat> &), 4/ they had done this; ^tjiAr 
avTovt iktoOtpovs &v tlvai, tl tovto tcpA^tiav, he says that Ihey 
mould (kereajler) be free ((Z(v &>), if they should do this. oVia ourovr 
iXniSt'pout iv Svrat,.il toCto itrpa^av, I know that Ikey vxmld 
(now) be free (join- b), if Iheg had done tits ; oUa aurotif ikrvSipous 
to' Srrat, (i ravra irpa(tiaii, I knoiB that they would (hereafter) be 
free (fwv i*), if they should do lhi». 

4wrl>' airrin i\6tiv ir (or olSa atrrir i\86vTa itv), tl rovrv 
iyivtro, Ihey tay (or / know) that he would hare come {^XOtv 3ir), 
if this had happened: i^iaaiv airir JXdcTr iv (or otBa ahiir i\- 
ffipra ir), tl rovro yiroiro, they sag (or / know) that he would 
eome (JX$oi 3^), if this should happen. 

The context must decide in each case whether we have the equiva- 
lent of the iadicative or the optative with 3pl In the examples 
pven, the form of the protasis eettles the question. 

Note. As the early poela who nse the iiiture indicatJTe with Sw 
(§ 208, 2) do not use this construction, the Jutxtre infiaitive and 
participle with S» are verj rarelj found. 

§ 212. 1< WbeD &• is used with the subjunctive (as in 
§ 207, 2), it can be separated from the introductory word only 
by such particles as ^uV, Si, n, ydp, ico. 

2. In a long apodosis 3y may he used twice or even three 
times with the same verb; as avx &r i^/tiaff a&rip k&w isiSpa- 
^tlp, do you not tkiak that he vxmld even have naked thither t 
In Thuoydidea, II. 41, iv is used three times with wapix<ir6ai. 

3. *Av may be used ellipticaUy with a verb understood ; as 
ol oiKrrat piyaxmrw liXX* oiiK &r jtfA tdS (bc ip/xyinir), the slaves are 
snoring ; but they would iCt have done so onee. 

4. When an apodosis consists of several co-ordinal verbs, & 
is generally used only with the first 

Note, The adverb rd^^ in the sense of perhaps, is often prefixed 
to &, in which case rix an is neartj equivalent to Irur, perhaps. 
The or here always forms an apodosis, as usual, with the vwb of the 

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§ 213. 1. Tbe indicative is used in simple, absolute 
assertions; as ypaifiei, he writes; eypa^u, he wrote; 
f^p(v\^ay he will write ; y^pa^ev, he has wrUten. 

It also expresses certain other lelations which the fol- 
lowing examples will illustrate : — 

EX roura dXifdir iart, ■xaipnh if l^" •* 'rtK, / r«}oice; d typa- 
^tr, iJXdav OP, if hd iod wriUen, I thould Itave eome; rl ypd^ti, ■ 
yraaofim, if he tkail lorite (or if he writes), I shali ibioio (§ 220), 
'En-i/uXtiToi ojraii rovro ytv^fftrai, he takes care thai I/iis shaUh^ 
pen. (£217.) Eu9( pa iicrcivar, m pfprart tDvto iaoiijva, O 
that thou hadst kiUed mn, thai I m^hi never have done thii ! (§ 261, 2, 
§ 216, 3.) £i& TQVTv ak^Oit $v, O&atthie were tnie! (§ 251, 2.) 

These constructJooa are esplaiued in the seotions referred to. Their 
Tarietj shows tbe impossibihty.of ^vii^ any- precise definition, which 
will be of practical Ttttue, including all the uses eren. of the indica- 
tive. With the snbjunclive and optative it is equally impossible 

2. The various uses of the subjunctive are shown by 
the following examples : — 

*Epxtr<u uu roimi Hg, he is coming Aat he may see this; tfiofftina 
fif roCro ytrtjTai, he fears lest this may happen. (§ 216; §218.) 
'Eiai il\6ji, toGt-o nat^ira, if he shall ci/rae (or if he comes), I shall do 
this; ian nt tkS^, toOto nota, if any one (ever) comes, I (alvxiys') 
do this. (§ 220.) 'Otob ?X 6g , TOVTO mu^irm, urhen he shall come (or 
when he comes), I shall do this; Srav rir tXOji, rouro iroui, vihen any 
one comes, I {always) do this, (g 232, 3 ; g 233.) 

'luptv, let us go. {§ 253.) Mi) Bavpimjrt, do not wonder. 
(§254.) Titan);whatBh4^Isasf (§266.) Oi pt) rouro yivijrai, 
this (surely) lall not happen. (§ 257.) 

3. The various uses of the optative are shown by tha 
following examples : — 

*HXAv iMi nivTo iioi, he came that he m^ht tee this : J<l>offrm p^ 
toSto yc'voiro, he feared lest this should happen, (g 216; § 21&) 
E( IXSoi, ToDr' iv n-oi^a-aipi, if he shovld Come, I should do this ; 
el T« 1X601, ToiJT tvoitniv. if any one (eaer) came, I alaays did this. 
(§ 220.) 'On IXBot, tdEt' in vot^a-aipi, loheneveT he shovld 
come {at any lime tahen he should come), I should do this; Srt nt 
IXOot, tovt' atmomi, whenever any one came, I {abnays) did liUf. 


S 2U.] TBI HOODS. • 165 

(§ 232, 4; § 233.) ESm' 2n Tinh-ri wmott/ (n-oi^o-at or ffotr}- 
tf < I c), A« laid that A« uxu dai'iu) (mmld do or to/ ^ne) tkis. (g 243.) 
'EX0OI &, hemight go(ifkethouldm»hlo). £!6t /tii ar6\ott'ro, 
tint thes mag not periih} (§261,1.) 

4. The impenative is used to express commands and 
prohibitions; as towto wolei, do Hm; ft^ ^fevyere, do not 


5. The mfimtive is a verbal noon, which expresses the 
simple idea of a verb without restriction of person or 

§ 214. The following sections (§§ 216-257) treat of all 
constructions which require any other form of the finite v^rb 
than the indicative in simple assertions (§ 213, 1). The infin- 
itive and participle are included here only so lar aa they are 
naed in indirect disoourae or in protasis and apodosis. These 
constmctionB are divided as follows r — 

I. Final and Object clauses after Im, &t, Sjrut, and fi$. 11. 
Conditional sentences. III. Eelative and Temporal aentenoei 
IV. Indirect Discourse. V. Causal sentenoes. VL Wishes. 
VIL Conunands, Exhortations, and Frohibitioas. YIII. Ho- 
merio Subjunctive (like Future Indicative), — Interrogative 
Subjunctive. — oC fu} with SutQunctive or Future Indicative. 

§ 216. The clauses which depend on the final particles 
tva, <B9, Svaif that, in ord^r that, and /t^, lest, that not, may 
be divided into three classes : — 

A. iHnal clauses, expressing the purpose or iruiHve ; as 
SpyeTM Xva tovto *Sp, ht is coming that he may set this. 
Here all the final particles may be used. 

B. Object clauses with Stra>^ after verbs signifying to 
strive for, to care for, &c. ; as a-Konei ottm? tovto ytimjaerat, 
see to it that this is dotie. 

C. Object clauses with /mJ after verbs of /ear or caution ; 
es ^fftmu M TOVTO y^/^TcUj he /ears led t/ut rrut^ kappeiu 


166 • SYNTAX. [8 210. 

Rouse. The first two classes are to be distinguiahed witb sped&l 
care. The object clauses in B are the direct object of tiie leadiDg 
verb, and can even etand in appOEition to an object accusative like 
raOra; as infirrti tovto, Sttus fi^ irt STfrtrai, see to tbii, namelj/, 
that he does not see you. But a liual clause could stand in appositioa 
onlj to TovTm trtna, for the sake of tldi, or iia tovto, to this end; aa 
ipxmu Toirov tvtKo, ira tutag iJtg, be i» corning for this purpose, 
namdy, that he mat/ see us. 

!N[>TE 1, The negative adverb in all these clauses is ^; except 
after /17, lest, vfhere 06 is used. 

Note 2. '(Xppa, that, is used as a final particle in Epic and LttIo 

§ 216. 1. Final ckuses take the suliijunctive after pri- 
mary tenaea, and the optative after secondary tenses. E. g. 

Auivoeirai rljtr yit(>vpaii Xvcroi, ur fit} Siaff^Tt, he thinks of break- 
ing up the bridge, that you may not oeer. AwriTtkti tatrm hi ry 
vapim, fiq Kol roOroi' n'oXifUov rrpooSaiiirOa, ii is expedient to 
alloie it for a time, lest vie may add him to the number of our enemies. 
IlapaieaXtU tarpoit. Sitae filj aitoBavji, you call l» physicians, that 
he may not die, 4iXoi (^auXcro *iWi roit liiyiara ivraiuvon, iPa 
^tutav /t^ 3iio/7 ilKijr, he arished to be a friend to the most poaxp- 
fid, Ihat he might do wrong and not he punished. Tovrou tptica ipCXom 
f m BfiirAu, on irvripyovs fx"*' ^ t?u>ught he needed friends for 
this purpose, namely, that he might have helpers. 

Note 1. The future indicative occasionally takes the place of the 
subjunctive in final clauses after oirac and 30pa, rarely after jiij. This 
ia almost entirely confined to poetry. See Odysa. I. 56, IV. X63; II. 
XVI. 242, XX. 301. 

Note 2. The adverb Sv («') ia sometimes joined with it, Siraw, 
and Stppa before the subjunctive in final clauses; as &t ir fiAdgt, 
ivranovaov, hear the other side, that you may learn. It adds nothing to 
the sense that can be made perceptible in Enghsh. In Homer and 
Herodotus it is occasionaily used in the same way even before an 

2. As final clauses express the purpose or motive of some 
person, they admit the double construction of indirect discourse 
{§ 242). Hence, instead of the optative after secondaiy tenses, 
va con have the mood and tense which would be used vken a 

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Sai7.] THE HOODS. , 167 

pOTBon oonoeived the purpoBa in hia own mind ; that is, we can 
Bay either fXAr ira tSoi, he came thai he might lee (g 216, 1), 
or iSXAp uu Itg, because the peison himBelf would have said 
fyxa/uttttiaU*, I come that I may tee. (See § 246, Not«.) 

On this princijJe the subjunctive in final clauses after sec- 
ondary tenses is nearly as common as the more rc^lar opta- 
tive. K g. 

nXoia KariKooaai aa f4 Kupw StajSg, A« burned the veeielt, that 
Cyrtu might not past over. 

3. The secondary tenses of the indicative are used in final 
clauses with Xna, sometimes with Ar or Anw, to denote thai the 
end or object is dependent on some unfulfilled condition, and 
therefore it not or vnu not aUaiiied. K. g. 

Ti /I ov Xaffitv txTtuias ludui, uc 78 (4 (a iiTprorti &e., why did you 
nol take lae and kiU me at once, that I might never have akmaa J ikc 
4tC, ^v, li fi^ r<b npayfiar arSpianroK Ix"" ^car^r, u>' ^trav p)3<v 

ol d(uvl XjyM, Ala*! alai! that Ihe/actM haee no voice for mea, w that 
toordt of eloquence might be at nothing. 

B. OI^Mt Ctoo— ■ wllb 8*«i Bttar TeilM of StrlvlnKi *o. 

§ 217. Otject clauses depending on verbs sigmfying 
to strive for, to care for, to effect, r^ularly take the fviure 
indieative after both primaiy and secondary tenses. 

The future optative may be used after secondary tenses, as 
the correlative of the future indicative, but commonly the in- 
dicative is retained on the principle explained in § 216, 2. 
(See § 202, 4.) E. g. 

♦pAnf Arui /"fii* a*a(ui* i^r n/iqt Toinfc irpi^tit, take heed 
that you do nothing unworthy of this honor, 'EiaixainiiuSa Stntt itifita 
....yvuff-oiro, we were planning that nobody ahatdd know it (here 
ynsfffnu would be more common). 'JLwpairotai oicat rtt po^Btia 
^|t(, thty were trying to effect (thii), that some attistance thould come. 

Note 1. Sometimes the present or aorist eabjunctive or optative 
is used after these verbs, as in fm&I clauses. Here aUo &s may be 
used. 'Oirmt 3r or &g 3p may bo used before die aubjuDctive, never 
befbre the regular future indicative. Hq is someljmea used for Str»t 
fi^, generally with the subjunctive. 

fion 2. The fiiture indicative with Sw^t aometimet follows verba 

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163 iTHTJfcX. 1 216. 

of exherting, enlnaimg, commanding, vaA fifrbUU^ag, which commonly 
take m inGni^Teofthe object; ae AwnXcHHrrw ants rt^up^ircrai 
mamu rmiB ■moOrm/r, tkey exhort iim to take vengeance on aU tach. 

Note 3. Th« cooBtractioa of g 217 is not found in Homer ; bnt 
such vei^Ni as are mentioned in Note 2, and verbs signiffing to eon- 
tider, to try, tnd the like, Ijtke Arat or it wiHi the EubjunctiTe and 
optatjve, as in final clauees. E. g. 

Aivtrrv^ it fiai oMc imts witfiapn* rtrji, and intplore kim fAjc- 
tel^ to ipeak the tmth ; 'iuaatro S old *H^aH>Tol> Amntpyiv mthc 
XvETf icp'Apnfa, he implored him to HberaU Ares. So tftpdinrtrat &t 
KM yijjTai; ^oSKaioy Sain S)^ Spam yivotro. 

Note 4. Both Sittae and Sims n^ are often nsed with the future 
indicative in exhortaliong or prohibitions, eome imperative like vcArn 
or tTKomm, late care, being understood. B. g. 

'Oirwt oBk iaeoOt 3(an r^t ikrvOcpim, {see^iat you) prove ytnrr- 
selves teorthg o/Jreedom. "Oirtts im pj/ iptis in Ian ti iMtta 
8ic (£, we that yott do not t^ me that twelve is twice six. For a similar 
ellipsis of a verb oT fearing, see g 218, N. 2, 

0. 01))eet daiuM with |i''| attar T«tlM ol FearlBCi 'M. 

§ 218. After verbs denoting fear, caution, or danger, 
(iri, lest or (kai, takes the subjunctive after primaiy tenses, 
and the optative after secondary tenses. 

The Hubjunctive may also follow eeooudtay tenses, to retun 
the mood in which the fear loi^ally ooouired to 1^ mind. 

*ofloOpB iJ) ToCro yini^rai (vereor ne accidat), I fear that thii 
may happen; ^to^ovitai iiij oi rovtv ytr^roi (vereor vt acoidat), / 
fear that this may not happen (g 215, N. 1). tporriCa pf) ttparunof 
i fiot aiyar, I am anxious lest it may he best for me lobe silent. Ouidn 
imrlBtm), htitirts p^ awoT,n)6titfaav, they no longer made at- 
tack*, fearing iest they should be cut off. 'E^>oj8auiTa fu; n ttaB-jj, 
they feared kst he should suffer anything (§ 21C, 2). 

NoiB 1. The future indicative is very rarely used after p; in this 
construction. Sut Sitae fi^ is sometimea used here, as in the ol^ect 
clauses of § 217, with both future indicative and subjunctive. 

Note 2. H^ with the sufajnncliTe, or Sirat n^ with the fature 
indicative, may be used eUiptically, a verb of f^ar or caution being 
tmderatood. E.^ 

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1 320.] THE UOCtDS. 169 

H4 iypoK&npof S Ti dXirdfc ttm'a-, (I fear thai) lie truth may i< 
loo rii'le a thing to tag. 'AXXA pi « tout 5 x***"^! ^ i^ fi'"' 
that) thit may not be Ihe difficuU thing. See § 217, N- 4. 

Non 3. Verbs o^ feariag may refer to objecta of fear which are 
pnsatt or pati. Here ft^ takea the present and past tenses of the 
indicSitive. £. g. 

A«3oua fu) sX7y«» dt'd, 1 Jear that you need biotas. *o^iu6a 
fi^ dfi^mripur dpi ^iiapr-^Kaittv, we fear that we have mUied both 
at once. Afi'Bu ^i; it) irowa fltd injittpria flrt¥, I fear that ofl 
which the Goddeu laid raw true. (Horn.) 'Opa p.^ nalC^v tXtytv, 
beware lett he mu tpeakiag in jeit. 


§ 319. 1. In conditional senteoces the clause contaiu- 
ing the condition is called the piotasia, and that containing 
the condnsion is called the apodosis. The protasis is 
introduced hy el, if. 

The Doric al for tl is sometimes used in Homer. 

2. The adTerb av (Epic x/) is i^ulaily joined to el in 
the frotasU when the verh is in the subjunctive; ei 
'with Of formii^ iav, Sv (a), oi tfv. (See ^ 207, 2.) The 
simple c( is used with the indicative and optative 

The same adverb 5v is used in the apodosia with the 
optative, and with the secondary tenses of the indicative 
in the construction of § 222. 

3. The n^ative adverb of the protasis is r^ularly ^jj, 
that of the apodosis is ou. 

When m stands in s protaaip, it always belongs to some particular 
word (as in in vtAXol, feie, at t^/u, to deny), and not to the prot- 
asis as a whole; as iar n iru cul 'Awroc ou ^^Ti ion n tfnjrt, boA 
if you and Anytui deny it and if you admit xL 

Classification or Conditional Skntencib. 

§ 220. The supposition contaiaed ia a protoBls may be 

either partietdar or general. A particular supposition refwe to 

a definite act or a definite series of acts ;&iifhe (now) has thi», 

be will give it ; if he liad it, he gave if ; if he shall receive it (or 

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170 SYNTAX. [8 22ft. 

^ he receives it), he mil give it ; if he th>uld receive it, he laould 
give it. A general Huppositiou refers to any one of a Beriea or 
class of acts, which may occur (or may have occurred) oti any 
one of a series of possible oceasions; as if ever he receives any- 
thing, he (always) gives it; if ever he received anything, he (alvays) 
gave it ; if ever any one shall (or should) with to go, he tnll (or 
would) always be permitted. 

In present and past coDditions, except those implying con-fulSlinent 
(S 222), Uie Greek makes an important distinction in constructiott be- 
tween these Iwo classes; injvture conditions it makes no distinction. 

Excluding the post and present general suppositions which 
have a peculiar construction, we have four forms of crdinary 
conditional aentencea. The protafiis may refer (a) to the present 
or past, or (b) to the future. 

(a.) 1. We may simply state a present or past condition, im- 
plying nothing as to its fulfihneat ; ea if he is {now) doing this, 
(I rmro nfyatrirti; — if hc was doing it, rl iirpaaa*; — if lie did 
it, tl iirpa^t',~-if he has (already) done it, tt irirpax*- The 
apodosis here expresses simply what m (was or will be) the re- 
sult of the fulfilment of the condition. Thus we may say : — 

El vpiaati tovto, ailtat txft, if he ii doing lAti, it is well; tl 
trpdaatt loi™, ^pdpTTftMV, if he is doing this, he hat erred i tl irpdw- 
<j- ( 1 ToiTo, jtaXut <f«, if he is doing this, il toiil be well. EZ lirpait 
TOVTO, JToXir l';((i ('^X"' ^"X"' '"' 'f")i '/ ^' ^*^ '^^i ** " (■"" ■"■ 

wUI be) teelL So witii tlie other tenses of the indicative. (See g 221.) , 

So in Latin; Sihoefacit, bene est; Si hoc fecit, bene erit. 

(a.) 2. We may state a present or past coadition so as to 
imply that it is not or was not fulfilled ; a& if he were (now) 
doing this, tl roCro Ivpamti^if he had done (Am, tl rovn 
iirpa(t (both implying the opposite). The apodosis here 
expresses what would be (or would have been) the result, if the 
condition were (or had been) fulfilled. The adverb Sr in the 
apodosis distinguishes these forms from otherwise similar ibnns 
under (a) 1. Thus we may say : — 

Ei ticpaiTOt rmm, wakac hn iXx", if he were (nom) doing thi»,it 
would be weU ; tl Jnpa(t tovto, koXue Sv t^xfi if he had done this, 
it uxnild have been well. (See § 222.) 

In Latin: Si hoc faceret, bene essel ; SihoeJieitsel,bentftasieL 


S330.] THE HOODS. 171 

(b.) We may state a fiiture condition in Greek (aa !u English) 
iu either of two ways. 

1, We may Bay if he *&aU do thu, iiv trpira^ (or irpijfg) 
rovTo (or, still more vividly, d irpd^ii rovro), making a distinct 
eupposttion of a future case. The apodosis expreeeeB what mil 
he the result if the condition ahall be fulfilled. Thus we may 
Bay: — 

'E^ rpiaiTii (or itpi^j,) roCro, jcnXwr i^i, I/he «AaU do thii, il mil 
be well (sometimes dirpdf.irDSro). (Bee § 223.) In Latin: St Joe 
faeiel (or ti hoe ficerW), bene eril; sometimes Si hoc facial. 

(6.) 2. We may also say tf A* «AOTi/rf do (Aw, d n-^airo-Dt (or 
wpd^tit) roOro, Btill supposing a case in the future, but lees 
distinctly and vividly than before. The apodoeis corresponds 
in form, and espressas what would he the result if the condi- 
tion should be fulfilled. Thus we can say : — 

El wpivirot (or wpi^tit) touto, koXbc in Ix°^ \f ^ should da 
Ait, it would be teeil. (See S 224.) Ja Likiiii: Si hoe facial, bene liL 

In general suppoBitiona two classes are distinguished in con- 
atmction, — one (a) referring to indefinite time represeuted in 
English AS preaent, the other (6) to the ptat ; — 

(a.) We may refer indefinitely to any one of a class of acta 
liable to occur at the present time ; as if (ever) any one OeaU, 
iAf rir (Xf'irri;; — if (ever) any one doet euch a thing, tar tit 
wpaaaj] rouSro* ri (not if any one i» now ttealtng or naui doing). 
The apodosis here must contain a verb of present time, express- 
ing a customary or repeated action. Thus we may say : — 

'E6v rw kXc'itt);, KoKACtrm, if any one xleali, he ii {alwayt) pvn- 
Uhed; f6y ns vpatrirg (or irpdfj) nnoOrrfv n, xaXnnuKifui' nur^ 
if ever any oru doe$ tuch a thing, roe are {alaayt) angry wiXh him. 
(See g 225.) 

{b.) We may refer in the same way to any one tX a class of 
acts in the past; as if {ever) any one Hole, A nt KXirrix; — if 
(ev^r) any one did mtch a thing, 4 nt rpiirtroi (or irpdgfw 
Toimitvr n. The apodosis oxpresseB a customaiy or repeated 
action in past timo. Thus we may say : — 

El TIE K X ■' n- r o I , f KoXuffTo, if (eeer) any one ilole, he wa» (almiys) 
punished ; (I TIE IT pilairoi (ur wpA(*it) TtHoOnb' ri, ajf^oXfiFa/nifuv 


ovr^, if (etvr) any on* did tuch a thing, lot were (tdmatft) angrg mih 
Mm. (See g 225.) 

Althoogh the Latis Bometimea agi««3 viUi tlie Gr«^ in distu^niBhlag 
gaitral conditions irom ordinary presoDt and post conditions, uatog ai 
/aciai and ri facent like lir iepiv<rg and tt rpdrjM above, it jet com- 
maalj agrees witb the thigliBh in not i«cogmnDg the iSatinction, and usm 
t^ inctioitiTe alike in both cloaaes. 


(a.) Pivaeiit and Part CoadlUona. 

S 221. When tlie protasis simply states a present or 

past condition, implying nothing as to its fulfilment, it 

takes the indicative with et. Any form of the verb may 

stand in the apodosis. £. g. 

El Aof n 6piai» alvxp^ o^ (Ivl' 6tin, if the Godi do any&iag 
dvigraeefid, there are no Gods. Eur. Et iyh ^tuSpoii ayfaw, koI 
iltavroi nriXiAigirfiiu ■ aiXi yap ovbiripi <0T( Tovrmi, if I do not know 
Phaedna, I have forgotten myself; but neither of iheie i> so. Ei 6ttm 
^r, ouK J/v alirxpotitpdjit, if he mat the $on of a God, ht mat not avari- 
eioia. 'aXX' il ioxti ooi, vkimjuii, but ^itpUattt you, let iu tail. 
KoKiaT iitoKoiinjv, Sto^itar tl /ii; ^iXm, may I die most wretehiedl^ 
if I do not love Xanlhias. 

!N'oT£. Even the future indicative can stand in a protasis of thia 
class if it expresses merely apresent intention or necessity that some- 
thing shall be done; m dipt jrX^nrpw, d fiax^'i raise your spur, if 
yoJt are going to fght. Arist. Here « fu'XXiii pa\tirB<u would be 
the more common expression in prose. It is important to notice that 
a future of this kind could not be changed to tbe sabjunctive, like 
the ordinary future in protasis (§ 223, N. 1). 

§ 222. "When the protasis states a present or past con- 
dition, implying that it is not or was not fulfilled, the sec- 
ondary tenses of the indicative are used in both protasis 
and apodosis. The apodosis takes the adverb av. 

The imperfect here refers to present time or to a cortf 
Unv£d or repeated action in past time, the aorist to an 
action simply occurring in past time, and the (rare) plu- 
perfect to an RctSow frnvHied m past or present time. R g. 

TaCro oSn hv iiinanTO wouiv, tl /tl/ Suurri furpif «x/>uvro. 

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I S23.] THE lKKa)8. 173 

tief tanJd not bt ofib n do Au (as Aeg do), if they did not lead an 
abilendout life, EJ ^o-ac irbptt aya6ol, ur av tjigr, ofc Sr iror( 
TBuFU 7ira<rj;i>v, if they bad been good men, aa yoasay, Aey would 
never have tvffered the»e Ihinfft (referring to several cases). Kol liruf 
1j> atcidavor, el ^ ^ dp;(i^ Kar«jlv0if, and perhapi J tbouid have 
perished, if the goveminent had not been put doioa, Tovro iJ dwtKpi- 
pn, Imrur tm ^ ifLe/taS^Kii (§ 122, 2), t/'jiwu had answered lAii, 
I ahouid tdread]/ Aane learned enough (which noto I hone not done'). 
£l fi^ iipeu fX0(r<, Jirop(uit>i<da i» M riv ^mriXia. if you 
had not come (Aot.), tw ihould now be on our way (Imp.) lo the King. 

'Sots 1. Sometimes Sn is omitted in the apodoaif^ aa in English 
\re may saj it had been for it uould baoe been, or in Latin aequiia 
fueral for aeqaius fuiaiet; as KaX^v f * ovry, t\ oix iytniiBrpi A 
Sripmmt tKUtiet, it had been good for that man, if he had not been 
bom. N, T. 

Non 2. The imperfects fbti, xP'i' '^^ ^XPV"! ^iv't ^^^ °^- 
ers denottng neee$iity, propriety, obiigalion, pouibiiily, and tlie like, are 
ollea used with the infinitive to form an apodosis implying the noa- 
fulAhnent of » condition. 'Ar is not used here, as these phrases sim- 
ply express in other words what is usually expressed by the indicative 
with &. Thus fSci vt TOVTOV ^iXctv, you ought to love kim (but 
do not), or you ought to have loved him (but did not), is equivalent to 
you wouid love hin, or toovld have loped him {itpiXin 6r roOrov), if you 
did yoar duty (rk Siom). So t(fjr trot TtnJro iroi^o-ai, you might 
haee done (hit ; cucAc ^r m rovro aoirja at, you tcouid properly have 
done this. The real apodosis is here always in the infinitive. 

"When the present infinitive is used, the construction refers to the 
present or to continued or repeated action in the past; when the 
aorist is used, it relers to the past 

NoTB 3. In Homer flie imperfect indicative in this class of sen- 
tences (g 222) always refers to the pasL We occasionally find a 
present optative in Homer in the sense in which Attic writers use 
the imperfect; and in a fbw passages even the aorist optative with m 
in the place of the aorist indicative (see IL V. 311 and 388). 

§ 223. When a supposed future case is stated distinctly 
and vividly (as in English, if I shall go, ot if I go), the 
protaais takes the subjunctive with edv (Epic et kc). The 
apodosis takes the future indicative or some other- futurs 
fono. E. g. 


174 STMTAX t8«*- 

Ei wV u» KtpiXaow 'AXi$<afy>t KarBwi^^S' <** Sw«f 'B^f- 

a;™ Aom HeUn and aU lie goodg kinud/. IL 'A» r» irflnrr^rai, 

fry to orerconw Awn. 'EAr oJv Iijt «*^ "*• '«• •*«*'• •/ """tP^ 
jRiw go noK>, tcAcn viS you be at hmne f 

The older English forms ifht «*oa go and »/fci JW eiprwa the force 
of the Greek aabjimctiTe exacUy; but the ordinary modem En^ish 
usea if Ae goei t,rea when the time is clearly future. 

NoTK 1. The Aiture iniUcative with tt is very often used for the 
subjunctive in conditions of this class, as a still more vivid form of 
eipression; as (I ^ Ka6i$*it ykSMnran, tmm im laua, ifyoa do 
not (ikaa not) reitrain your tongue, you teiU Aape IroiMe. This com- 
mon use of the future, in which it is merely a more vivid form than 
the subjunctive, must not be confounded with 'that of § 221, Hote. 

KoTB 2. In Homer ,1 (without ^ or «) is often used with the 
subjunctive, apparently in the samo sense as *I m or ^ The same 
use of <I for Jar is occasionally fonnd even in Attic poetary. 

Pot the Homeric Bubjonctive with m' in apodosis, see § 265, Note. 

§ 224. When a supposed future case is stated iaa,les8 
distinct and vivid form (aa in English, tf I should go), the 
protasis takes the opUitive with el, and the apodosis taJtes 
, the optative with av. K g. 

Er.,1 tpap^rit oiK &F, (I npaaaoif laAm, yo« VMidd not he en- 
durable, if yoa should be in protperily. Oii voXK!) &r dXoyia ei^, " 
^□^0 iTo riv Bararor i Toiovrar; viauid U not be great lenseUssnets, 
if such a man should /ear deatht Ohiat 8" airris, « ^dayyriy Xa^oi, 
<ra^<iTTOT-' &pXt$ttty, hut the house Usd/.if it should jind a voice, 
uxndd speak most plainly. 

The future optative cannot be used in protasis or apodosifi (§202, 4). 

iN'oTE. 'Av is very rarely omitted in aa apodosis of this kind, and 
moat examples occur in Homer. But 3p is sometimes omitted in the 
Attic poets after such expressions as ovk fir6' Svus and oiiK 
r<TT.K SffT.E (see Aesch. Prom. 292, Eur. .die. 52). 

Phebbnt and Past Generai. Suffobitioits. 
§ 225. In general suppositions, the protasis refers indef- 
initely to any one of a series or class of acts, and the apodosis 
expresses a customary or rt^eated action or a general truth. 

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I 226.] THS HOODS. 175 

Here the protasis has the subjunctive with tav after tenses 
of present time, and the optative with el after tenses of past 
time. The apodosis has the present or imperfect indica- 
tive or some other form which implies repetition. K g. 

'Hv iyyit f^^o Aiwroi, ovddc |3ovX(rat dvftnuu-, if detiih coma 
near, no one is (tver) wiUing lo die. 'Airof \6yos, &» dir^ ra lepAyiia- 
TO, /lamuSf Ti ifiaivtTat ml Ktydv, ail speech, if deeds are wanting, 
appears a vain and empty thing. Ei nvai BopuSaaiUvous aXoBairo, 
Karaa^rrrvwtu, n)v rapa)(ifr iicttparo, if he aato any making a dis- 
turbance (or whenever he latn, &c.), he (tdaiags) tried to quell the disor- 
der. Et ni arrrlnoi, ftiBbt TtOfrjKti, if any one refuted, he was 
immediaiely put lo death. 

The gnomic aorist (g 206, 2), which is a primacy teose (g 201), can 
•IwajTB be used in the apodosis wit^ the BubjiutctiTe depending on it; 
as ^ nc rapaffai»g, inp^ avroif ini6taa», if any one trata- 
greaet, they impose a penalty on him. 

Here, as in ardinuj protABia (§ 223, N. 2), fl is Bometimes UBed 
with the subjunctive for iim or tl «. 

IToTB I. The indicative is occBaioDally used in the place of the 
subjunotiTe or optative in general suppositions, that is, theae sen- 
tences follow the construction of ordinary present and past supposi- 
tions (§ 221), SB in Latin and English; as ei ru Ho i) ul trXtouf 
nr ijiupia Xoyi^trat, fumudt imai, if any one comtis on ttoo or 
even more days, he is a fool. See § 233, N. 1. 

Note 2. General suppositions referring to the future BlTS not dtfr- 
tjpgnished from particular, and are included under g 223 and § 224. 

EUlpda mud SnUMttntloB. 

§ 236. !• The protasiB sometimeB is not expressed in its 
regular form with d or t6», but is oontained in a participle or in 
some other part of the sentence. When a paitioiple represents 
the protasis, its tente is always that in which the verb itself 
would have stood in the indicative, subjunctive, or optative. 
The present (as usual) includes the imperfect E. g. 

iii 9f K\iia» tltnt rAxa, hut you tniU soon know, if you listen 
(= iiv jAuDf). TMOtiT^ rfiv ytiwu^t viivvaiuy txoit, ntcA Ihingl 
toouid you haee to endure if you should dwell among women (L e. tl ovr- 
mInc). 'Uwiofiiarw b tk AKoiaat, any <mt vkmM havt diMivni 


176 STUTAZ. [t 228. 

lueh a thing if h« had heard U (i. e. tl ^owrrr). 'AxoXavfioi fn} /i a - 
f)« V, / ihail be ruined unten I learn (iiv /iq fuUtt). So with all the 
other forma of protasis. 

Aid y* ^/xat air oil r nakoi 3f airoka\itT*, if it had depended an 
yourselves, you would long ago haee been ruined. Otrio yip oitin 
TOO Xotirov siiop[Mfm- in laaati for in that eate we ghouid no longer 
euffer eviL 

2. The protasis is often altogether omitted, leaving the opta- 
tive or indicative with Sv alone as an apodoBia. Here some 
indefinite protaeis is implied, like if he pleated, if he thould try, 
^he could, &C. E. g. 

*I<7<uc Sv rir iirirtn^irri* nit Flpij/u'voir, perhapi lome one might 
(ifke vrished) find fault teilh what has been said. 'HSi'ur If ir fy^^ 
ipolinjr Aarrtytji', and I would gladly ask Leptines (if I could). Oi 
yip ^r S Tt &y f iroirirt, for there was nothing which you could hoBe 
done (if you had tried). So jSofXoip)* 3v (velim), / should wish (in 
some future cage) ; iffovK6fupi 3v (Tellem), / shoidd now wish (on some 
condition not fiilfilled). 

The optative with Sv, used in this waj, maj express a mild com~ 
maud, and is Bometimea a mere future; as ;(upotE iv (Ttrt>, you 
may gain; xXiioit &v ^ij, hearnow; oix iv ptStlitifv lov Bpinv, 
lusiil not give up the throne (lit. / loould not give it up on any con' 

3. The apodo^B may be expressed by an infinitive or .par- 
ticiple whenever the construction of the sentence requires it, 
each tense representing its own tenses of the indicative or 
optative. (See g 203, with Note 1.) If the finite verb in the 
apodoBis would have taken S», this particle is used with the 
infinitive or participle. E. g. 

'Hyou^uu, tl Toi)To wottlrt, ndi^a noXioE ex***'' ^'eftera thai, if you 
are doing this, all is well; TyoCpii, tay t-oOt-o b-m^. jrdrra jmXmt 
?|f ii>, Tbelieve thai, if you shall do this, (dl will be well. For ejtam- 
ples of the infinitive and participle with Sr, see § 211. 

IfoTE. Sometimes the apodosis is merely implied in the context, 
and in such cases tl or iav is oflen to be translated supposing thai or 
in case that, as SKovtrtm Koi ipmi, far iroi ravra ioKJj, hear me rdso, 
in case the tame shall please you (i. e. that then you may assent to it); ol 
if farfipov, (1 ilXuiroivro, and others pitted Ihem, in case they should 
be captured (i. e. thinUng what they would suffer if they thoiM he cap- 
tured). See S248. So wpit t^v vdXw, « tn-t/3oi}^oi<r, ix'V""^ 

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1 329.] THE HOODS. 177 

Aey marched lotnardg the city, in cue Ihty (the eilUetu) thinJd rwh out 
(l e. to tntel ihrnn if theg lAouU nuA out). On tliia principle we muet 
ezplaJD «; juV n» fioCkmu, IL I. 66; «[ c' *eiX^i6a, Oi. UL 92; 
and ^milar poasageii. 

MlT«d CMUtnuttODi. — AJ 1> Apodotf*. 

§ 227. 1- The protasis and apodosia sometimes belong to 
different forma. This happens especially wbea an indicatiTe 
with (t in the protaBis is followed by an optative with 3f (§ 326) 
in the apodosis, the latter having another protasis implied. E. g. 

Et oCnx ipd&t iniimjvaii, iiutt in ov JCP*'"' apx"'^'' ^ 
these had a right to secede, you could not poiuibli/ hold yowr pouier rigkl- 
fully. El viy yt dforuj^ou^tv, vas rairavT" iv vpammt oil 
Oa(oiiit6' Svi if we are now unjartuaale, how coidd we help being 
tOBcd by doing the oppoiiie t 

IfoTE. Sometimes a protasis contains the adverb Sr, belonging not 
to tt, but to the verb. Here tie verb is also an apodosis at tlio satno 
time; asdfi^irat^trair' iw rolka, if(itia trve thai) yau tooald not 
do this (i. e. if it thauhl be neceuary), whi<ji differs entirely from tl /i^ 
woi^aaiTt TooTo, if you gboiild not do this. 

2. The apodosis is sometunes introduced by the oonjanotioD 
Be, which cannot bo translated in English. E. g. 

Ei 9( M p.i SaMa-ai, iyii ti Ktv airir iXu/uk, but if they do not 
giiie her up, then I will take her myself. 

El ann TvHM of WonderlBV, *o> 

§ 228> Some verbs expressing wonder, ooTttetOment, dUap- 
pointment, indiffTMtioTi, Ac. take a {a^>taatB with d where a 
causal sentence would seem more natural. E. g. 

emifui^u a' lyayt tl /ujSclr Ifiair /iff' trSapflrai fi^' opyiCtrat, and 
I ironder thai no one of you is either concerned or angry (lit, if no one 
of yon it, &c, I winder). See aUo ? 248. 

Such verba are especinJly ^nvfuifiii, alaj^ropai, ajwRou, snd tlyaaa- 
Kn'» They Bometimes take on, because, and a causal sentence (| 2C0). 

§ 229. Eelative sentences include all temporal clauses, 
except those introduced by irpiv and other words meaning 
twifii (See §§ 239, 24a) 

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178 sntTix. [1 230. 

The antecedent of a relative is either d^m.ite or indefi- 
nUe. It is definite when the relative refers to a definite 
person or thing, or to some definite time, place, or manner ; 
it is indefinite when no such definite person, thing, time, 
place, or manner is referred ta Both definite and indefi- 
nite antecedents may be either e^ressed or nnderstocd. 
E.g- ■ 

(Dejimle.') ToSra A Zx» 6p^, j/ott see thete thitigt which I iave ; or 
A Ix" opi'- '^' t^oSlif"> ^\6ty, (once) tehen be wished, he came, 

(IndeJiniCe.} Uarra i ir /SouXumu t^vao', theg uUl have M^r^ 
thing which they may vxxrd ,' or 1 &>■ ^ouXuimu (£initru>, Ihey lail have 
tehaUver they may wanL 'Onw ViBg, tovto irpa^ia, lofien he shall come 
(or !D*«n he conies'), I taiU do this. 'On (SoiXwro, toOto Inpaavtr, 
wftoMver he wished, he (alioays) did (hit. 

§ 230. A relative with a d^^tte antecedent has no 
effect on the mood of the following verb ; it therefore takes 
the indicative (with ov for its negative), nnlesa the general 
sense requires some other construction. E. g. 

Tit tcff i x^P°^ B^' '>" 4 fff^itaiur; i. e, the place bt tcAtcft, &c 
"Eat iarl naipit, amkd^oBt tAv irpayiiinm, (now) toiUb there it an 
opportunity, &c. 

§ SSL A relative clause with an indefinite antecedent 
has a conditional force, and is often called a protasis, the 
antecedent clause being called the apodosis. Such a rela- 
tive is called a conditional relative. The negative parti- 
cle is /j.^ 

Note. BelRtive words (like ri, jO t»lt8 ** before the sabjunctiTe. 
(See g 207, 2.) With Srt, 6n6Tt, Art/, and AniSij. ar forms Sra^ 
AnJim", irrai' or nr^r (Ionic twrco'), and hrtMai. la Homer we gen- 
erally find Srt KM, &C 

§ 232. The conditional relative sentence has /our tartar 
(two of present and pott, and two of fiiiure conditiona) 
which correspond to the four forms of ordinary protasis 


tSSl.] THE MOODS. 179 

1. Pteeent or past condition simply stated (§ 221). E. g; 
'O Ti ^ouXiTOi iatro, I will give hita uhauver he (nom) inishet 

(like (I Ti jSobXmit, Sucriu, if he (noio) viisAe) anylhiniji I mill give it. 
*A fiq oiSa, ouSa e'ofiai tlitnu, inhal I do not know, I do not Men 
think I know (like ft riva fii} oiSo, if there are any ikingt uhich I do 
not know), 

2. Present or past condition stated so bs to implj thst 
the condition u not or waa not fulfilled {mppoaiiioa eon- 
tra/fy to fact, § 222). K g. 

*A p.>i iPovXfTo iaCvai, o£k Jtv tSmar, he would not havt ffiven 
a^at he had not wished to give (like tt rtva nl) ^^ouXiro SoOrat, ott ir 
fduKCF, if he had not tnished to give certain things, he woidd not have 
given tkeni) . Oin ir irrtxttpoOittv Ttpan-tu/ i ft^ ^iriirrdfi(dii, toe 
should not (then) be undertaking to do {as we now are) things inhich we 
did not understand (like <* tiki /117 tprurrd/irSa, if there mere an^ things 
which we did not know, the whole belonging to a suppositiOB not res- 
ized). So Sr yijpas triTiitw, Odjsg. I. 217. 

This caee occurs less frequently fhnn the others. 

3. Future condition in the more vivid form (§ 223). E. g. 
*0 Tt ir jSovXqrat, Soitru, / wUl give him tubalever he may wish 

(like iiv n /3ovXi;nu, daaa, if he shall wish anything, I will giiie il). 
'Oraf fij aS4vta, imraiiaoiua, when I (shaW) have no more strength, 
I shall ceaie. 'lA.6x'nn tal rijicta Ttitva a^iUB it rr]tirmii, ijrijp 
VTo)iU6pov itiupitv, we will carry them as soon as we shall take Iht 
dig. Horn. 

The future indicative canDot generally be Eubstituted for the sub- 
junctjve here, as it can in common protasis {g 223, N. 1). 

4. Future condition in the less vivid form (§ 224). E. g. 
*0 rt ffoiXoiTo, Soti)r 3r, I should give him whalever he might 

taish (like tl rt jSovXdito, ioapi Sv, if he should wish anything, I should 
give it), ntiv&t' ^layoi &v 6v6ti ^ovXdito, if he were hungry, ha 
imuld eat whenever he might wish (like tl iron ^d^Xoito, if lie should 
ever wish), 

§ 233. The conditional relative Bentence has the same 
forms as other conditional sentences (§ 225) in present and 
past general suppositions, taking the subjunctive after pres- 
ent tenses, and the optative after past tenses. E. g. 

*0 Tl 3f PoiXijrai tSiiaju, I {always) give him whatever he wants 
0ike id» n ^oChp-ai, if he ever wants anything), 'o ri jSouXoiro 


180 STHTAZ. [i 2Si. 

iStdom, I (aboays) gave him whatever he mmltd (like rt n (SofXwm), 
Svlifiax'^ roi'Totf iOfXimaiv Straync, olt if ipSiai napta-Ktvairiu- 

mvs, ail with to be allies of those icJiom they see prepared. 'Hftii' hv 
oIkm yivavTat, bpSimv o!ik dvairxrra, when Ihey get hoToe, they do 
things unbearable. Ots itiv liot (Muitius Uvrat, rivts rt iitr ^para, 
ul iirtX iriSoiTO iir^vn, he (^alwaysy asked those whom he taro (at 
any Itme) marching in good order, who Ihey were ; and tohea he learned, 
he praited them. ''Eictibij bi dvoix&fit! eitr^tiiur jrapi rir 2a- 
Kpirtf, and (each morning') when the prison was opened, we went in to 

Note 1. The iadicative sometjmea takes the place of the subjunc- 
tive or optative here, as in the general suppositions of common prot- 
asis (see § 225, N. 1). This occurs especially in poetry aflcr the 
indefinite relative Strris-, which itself expresses tJie same idea of 
indefiniteness which or with the subjunctiTe or optative usually ex- 

(UfU Sdjui, whoever does not cling to the best counsels, seems to be most 
ba-ie. Soph. Aniig. 178. (Here Si ir /i^ &m7nu would be the com- 
mon expression.) Such examples belong under § 232, 1, 

Nore 2. Homeric similes sometimes have (ac, &t rt, uc ht, &t 
St (seldom &s «, &c.), with the subjunctive, where we should expect 
the present indicative, which is sometimes used; aa &t yov^ cXoi- 
^tri, . . . . &s '0Sv<rtvs, ice, at a wife weept, to did Ulystet, &c. 
Odyss. Tni. 523. See Odyss. T. 328; IL X. 5; XI. 67. 

§ 234. Conditional relative eentences have most of the 
peculiarities and irregularities of common protasis. Thus, the 
protasiB and apodosis may have different forms {§ 227, 1) ; the 
flimple relative is sometimes found in poetry with tte subjunc- 
tive (like W for Hv or ri «, g 223, N. 2) ; the relative clause 
may depend on an infinitive, participle, or other construction 
(I 226, 3) ; and the conjunction bi may connect the relative 
clause to a following antecedent clause (§ 227, 2). 

ABtfmllattoii la Oouditlaiud B«latlv« Clniuei. 

§ 235. When a conditional relative clause referring to the 

future depends on a subjunctive or optative referring to the 

future, it regularly takes by astimilatum, the same mood with 

its leading verb. E. g. 

"Ear riHE oi hr iivavTai rovro ffotiotri, raXuc ?{<(, if any vio 
Aall be able do thit, it will be toeU; Ci ruwc ot Jtuvatvro rvSra 


SS3B.] THE HOODS. 181 

roiaitv, oAm ir ?x^ '/on? wto ihotdd bt aUe lAouU rfo this, it 
would be todL S!Bt nJvnt at JIvFoirro rsCra raioTcv, (? lAol oA 
wio tnap be able leoiUd do Ihit. (Here the optative nwaUv, % 251, I, 
makes ot imam preferable to ol Jiv iimrriu, which would express 
the eame idea). 

KoTB. A secondary tense of tha iadicative maj assimilttta a de- 
pendent conditional relative claose in the same way. 

BelatlTC Glsnasa expieialac F mp o^a, Baralti wr OaoMi 

% 336. The relative is used with the future iudicative 
to express a. purpose or oliject. R g. 

Uptafftlaf n/in-cii' ^ T i r ravr' tpri «al trapiarai rott irpiyiiamf, 
to send an etid>assi/ lo tay this, and lobe present at the Iranaactiom. Ov 
yap cvTi fioi j^pljfiara, 6x66111 (uTirm, fir J have no money to pag 
tie Jine tcilh. 

The antecedent here may be definite or Indefinite ; but the nega- 
tive particle is always ^ as in Snal clauses. 

WoTK 1. In Homer, the subjunctive (with xi joined to the rela- 
tive) is commonly Touad in this construction afler primary tenses, and 
the optative (without «') after secondary tenses. The optative is 
sometimes found even in Attic prose, usually depending on another 

Note 2. "E^* ^ or iift' ^t«, on condition that, which commonly 
takes the infinitive (§ 267), sometimes takes the future indicative; as 
^1 ravn^ viri^iorapu, i ^' ^n ur' oiStvis liiiav Sp^ojiai, I tmih- 
draie on thit condition, that I shall be mhd by none of you. Hdt 

!NoTB 3. In this construction the Future indicative generaUy re- 
mains unchanged, even after past tenses. 

§ 237. 'iltrre (sometimes t»t), so that, which generally 
takes the infinitive (§ 266), is sometimes followed by the 
indicative. E. g. 

OuTioe iypaitiytts fx*^'' ^o^* iXiriC'Tt aira xpt"^ ytviimvffiu! 
are you so senseless that you expect Ihem to become goodt 

Note. A simple relative sentence with St or Amr sometimes de- 
notes a result, where &<m would be expected; as tic ovrat ti^O^t 
tarir, Snrit (iypoii ; &c., viho is so simj^ as not lo knowt &c. 

§ 238. The relative is sometimes equivalent to Sri, be- 
caute, and a personal or demonstrative. The verb is in the 
indicative^ as in (vdiuary causal sentences (g 250). E. g. 

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Qaofiaariir muis, tt ^fur ovdjc di'Swc, you do a ttrange Sung u» 
^inng im nothing (like an irv oiSir iliat}- &6(as oftaHjt ttvai It 
• ■ , . iKtXtvt, haviTig Itemed tirdeamecl, btcatiM ie commanded, &0. 

§ 239. 1. When &a9f nrre, ^XP^ f'^XPh ^^^ ^^P'h 
tmtil, refer to a definite point of past time, tbey take the 
indicative. £. g. 

t^'tX"' vAiv, iett /ffqXtfov (Ii vorattA*, I swam on again, wUUI 
came into a rioer. Horn. TaSra hnumv, t^ixp* iritirot iyirrro, 
thia theg did until darkneu came on. 

2. These particles follow the construction of conditional 
relative in the last three forms corresponding to ordinary 
protasis and in general suppositions. E. g, 

'Eiri'ir^ct, iSirr dii cal ti XoorA ir/ioirfia^gs, tcoit urOUyoa (siofi) 
learn the rest besides (@ 232, 3). Eiiroifi' dv .... tut rapurc/vat;!! 
roOroi*, / teotitd teU Aim, &o., until T put him to the tortare (g 232, 4). 
'H8»i»t jjn TovTf Iri iuKr/iiaiv, tat ojny .... avfiata, I should 
(in that case') gladly ftave continued to talk teilh him until I had given 
him back, &c. (§ 232, 2). *A fl* &> atriirraKTa p, Snyio) rnOra del 
irpdynara »rop«';((iw, tat flr x^P"" ^°Plt' "'hatever things are in dis- 
order, these mtist alicays make trouble until they are put in order (§ 233). 
Otpuntirojitv i/tdoTOTt, tat Jpoi;i[d(it} t& Stafuor^piov, tee waited each 
dag until the prison was opened (§ 233). 

Note. The omission of Sr aCtier these particlea and vplv, when 
the verb is in the subjunctive, is more conunon than it is after iI or 
ordinary relatives (§ 223, N. 2), occurring eometiioes in Atlic prose; 
as fifxpt nXoSs yirrfroi, Thuc. I. 137. 

§ 240. 1. When vpb, before, he/ore that, until, ia not 
followed by the infinitive, it takes the indicative, subjunc- 
tive, or optative, like &#« (§ 239), E. g. 

OiiK ^v akt^ii oidiv, npiv y tyti aifuiiui I9(i£a, &c,, Ifiere mat 
no relief, until I ihoioed them, &,a. Oi j^q ju iv6ivtt owthBibi, ipai 
8v fi^ iiiaiv, I mu^ not leave this place until he is punished. Ovk i» 
((SfiifE Tspiv irdpi) d(ii] c, you would nof knoin until you had (should 
have) lasted it. 'Expv" f4 trpdrtpop irviiffoiAtifw, trpw ^/lat iti' 
9a(ar, &c., they ought not to have given advice unlU Ihey had in- 
sfrucled m, &o, 'Opin nvc wptirpvnpout o6 wp6aStv iwiirrat, nplr 

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|«1.] THE HOWS. 183 

2r d^avtr el 3pj(Hmt, Aey tet tlud tie riifen never go ovoy vnfA 
lie au(Aori(>et dwmitt tkeat. OvioftiOtf iipltmii, vp\w wapa6tiip 
ovrvu SpioTow, the) dumiutd (ton Jivm no place be/ere liey had ttt a 
smdbtfore Ihem. 

2. Upai regularly takes tlie subjunctiTB and optative (when 
they are allowed) only if the leading verb is neffatire or iDter- 
rogative with a negative implied; very eeldom it that ia affirm- 
ative. It takes the indicative after both negative aod affirqa- 
ative sentences, bat chiefly after negatives. 

Otherwise wpir takes the iofinitive (§ 274). In Homer, the 
infinitive is the fonn regularly uaed after vpin, witboat rq;azd 
to the leading sentencea. 

Note, nplv if, wpirtpor if (prtuigaoTn), and rpivStf f 
may be used in the same constntctions as rpi» itselH 


Genebal PBiNOiPLn. 

§ 341. 1. A direct quotation gives the exact words of 
the original speaker or writer. In an indirect quotation 
the original words conform to the construction of the sen- 
tence in which they are quoted. 

Thus the vords ravra PoiXofiat maybe quoted either (firvcfljv 
Xifn Tw "ravra poiXoiiat"; or mdveclly, "Ktytt ru in roSra 
i3ovX(T(u or XeyH tw rmrra 'fitnAtaOai, mme one eayt that he vaKet 

'Ore, that, occasionally precedes even direct quotations; as in Atu^ 

2. Indirect quotations may be introduced by Sri or ws, 
that, or by the infinitive (as in the example given above) ; 
sometimes also by the participle, 

3, Indirect questions follow the same rule as indirect 
quotations, in regard to their moods and tenses. 

IToir The term indirect discoune applies to all clauses (even sin- 
gle clauses in a sentence of different construction) which indirectly 
express the words or thought of any person, even post thoughts of 
the speaker himselC 

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184 STHTAZ. [f 2U. 

§ 342. 1. Indirect quotations after Sri and ok and 
indirect questions follow this general rule: — 

After primary tenses, eacli verb retains both the tnood and 
the tense of the direct discourse. After secondaiy tenses, 
each indicative or subjunctive of the direct discourse may 
be either changed to the same UTise of the optative or 
retained in its original mood and tense. But all secondary 
ttnses of the indicative implying non-fulfilment of a con- 
dition (§ 222) and all optatives are retained unchanged. 

The imperfect and pluperfect, having no tenses in the optative, 
remain unchanged in all kinds of sentences. The aorist indicative 
likewise remans unchanged when it belongs to a ttepciuienl clause of 
the direct discourse (§ 247), but otherwise it is chained like the 
primary tenses (g 243), 

2. When the quotation depends on a verb which takea 
the infinitive or participle, its leading verb is changed to 
the corresponding tense of the infinitive or participle {at> 
being retained when there is one), and the dependent 
verbs follow the preceding rule. 

3. Ai> is never omitted with the indicative or optative 
in indirect discourse, if it was used in the direct form ; but 
(U> belonging to a relative word or particle in the direct 
form is regularly dropped when the subjunctive is changed 
to the optative in indirect discourse. 

'Av is never added in tie indirect disconrso when it was not used 
in tlie direct fonn. 

4 The negative particle of the direct discourse is reg- 
ularly retained in the indirect fonn. But the infinitive 
and participle occasionally have /*^ where ov would be 
used in direct discourse. 

Simple Sektencbs in indirect Discourse. 

IndlcaUv* and Opt«tiv« after fin and M, md In Indlnct Qoeatloni. 

§ 243. When the direct form is an indicative (without 

Sj>), the principle of ^ 242 gives the following rule for iu^ 


J 31S.] THE HOODS. 185 

direct quotations after Sn or w and for indirect ques- 
tions : — 

After primary tenses the verb retains both its mood and 
tense. After secondary tenses it is either changed to the 
same tense of the optative or retained in the original mood 
and tense. R g. 

/uytiSn ypd^ti, he taysihatheistmiting; Xtyn ori typa^ty, 
he toys that he teas writing; Xr/ci &ri iypa^iv, he says that he 
wrote; Xt'^tt on yiypatptv, he will say that he has written. 'Epar^ 
ri /SduXovrai, he askt what Ihey want; ayyou ri jroi^travviy, I 
da not know what they wUi do. 

Eartv an ypdt^ai or on ypat^ti, he said thai he wOi Writing 
(he said ypiifiio). Emiv Sn ypaifroi or Sn ypa<jrti, he said Chat 
he would write (he said ypat^a). YJwtr Sn ypatlrtitv or ori typa- 
^^tv, he said that he had written (he said fypa^Ki, / wrote'), Eiirtf Sn 
y*ypa^lit <(ij or Sn yiypa^tw, he said thai he had written (lis 
said yiypa<l>a, J have torillen). 

(Opt.) 'EiTHpm/uji' nvry itucvwHU, Sn oiotro piv iirai awpis, t'l} 
V oC, I tried to shoie Mm that he betxeced himself to be wise, but was not 
so (]. e. oimu piv .... fm ff oC). 'Ximiriiv Sri avrii rani jrpQ|oi, 
^;^<TO, hinting thai he teould himtelf attend to things there, he departed 
(be said m^At tiucl npdfioy '¥^i(ay Sn wip^^tlir ir(j>at A 'irSau 
^niriXci/r, Kt^twav tpearav <^ Srov 6 ir6h^pos (tifi they said that the 
king of the Indians had sent them, commanding them to ask on whal 
account there was the war (they eaid laip'fmi ^pas, and the question 
W3S <K tIvoc iarlir 6 ttiXtpoc;'). 'Hfxro tX nt ipoo tti) <rotj>ainpoc, 
he asked whether there was any one wiser than I (i. e. hn tie iroifia- 

(Indio.) *EX*yoi> Sn iXiri'f'ovirt tri ml r^ir inftiv i(tui px x^P""' 

they eaid that they hoped you and the state would be grateful to me. 'Bur 

8* AyyiWor m as 'EXorria jrarci'XijTrrai. tome one «mi come with 
a report that Eiatea had been taken (liere the perf opL might have 
been used). 'AnoKpivdprvoi ori wi p^oviri jrpio'8"!' fi'StiS dnijX- 
Xolav, having replied that they would send amliasfadors, they dismissed 
them at once. 'Ylir6poov ri iron Xtyti, 1 wasuncerlain what he meant 
(ri jTOTt Xiyti;). 'E^ovktiofTO rlii aiirov (coraX(ii("nnrui, they 
were considering the question, whom they should leaee here. 

KoTE 1. The imperfect and pluperfect regularly remain unchanged 
in thia construction afler secondary tenses (g 242, 1). But occa- 
sionally the present optative represents the imperfect here; as ditiKpl- 
vtvTo on oiitis pdpnit vaptit), they replted thai there had beeti f» 

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186 SYHTAX. (S «*■ 

mlrtof prutnt (o^ic vof^), where the context makes it deu" tliftt 
naptu} does not stand for mptari. See § 203, K. 1. 

Note 2. In a few casea the Greek changes a present indicative to 
tte imperfect in this conBtruclion, instead of retaining it or changing 
it to the optative ; as if airapi'^ ^iraii, imooiiityiA 3n tjri rtut ffaaiXi- 
M( 6vpait Ijaav, the]/ were in despair, considering that they toere at the 
King's gales. This is also the English usage. 

BuldniiBtlTe or OptaUve i«p>«*enttitt tlie Int«m>BsUT« SiiliJiUMtlW' 

§ 344. In indirect questions, after a primaiy tense, an 
interrogative subjunctive (§ 256) retains its mood and tense ; 
after a secondaiy tense, it may either lie changed to the 
same tense of the optative or retained in the subjunctive. 

BovXnjofuu Sims trt diroSpm, / am trying to think tuxe I ihidl es- 
cape you (irat V AnSpi}). OiiK oSf tl XpiKrairTf Tovry S£, / do 
not hioie whether I shall give them to this ChrytinUas. Ok ix* "' 
(Itrcs, / do not kneurvihat I lAoU toy (rf tam;), Non habeo quid 
dicam. 'EwijfNnTo d mipaioitf njv inAiv, theg atked tohether they 
tiould give up the eilg {ympaiSifur n)i- nftiv) shall vie give up the 
cityf). 'Htnjpn o n j^pifiraiTo r^ rpay/um, he teas at a lou hoio to 
deal with the nailer (ri ]^>^»iua;). '^ouXmtra nn KaroKovvw 
trir tTr* n SkKo xPV'''"'"'*' ^^V "'^'^ deliberating ahethtr ihey 
aki^tld turn tkem or dispose of them tn some other way. 

In tliese cases d (never imi) is used for vhether, before the Bubjunc- 
tive as well as ^e optative. 

Indlomttva or Optative with Av. 

§ 346. An indicfttive or optative with ir rafauni its mood 
aod tenae unchanged in indirect discourse. £. g. 

Aryn (or IXtyrr) Sn rmro &* iyivtra, he says or (said) that thit 
would haw happened; fkrftr Bn otros SuuiMir <b> Sdrot, he mad 
that this man tootdd juttly die. 

InflBltlve and F>Hl<d|>I« 1> lBdli«et Qnotiatlaiu. 

§ 346. "When the infinitive or participle is used in 
indirect discourse, its tense represents the tense of the 
finite verb in the direct form to which it corresponds, the 
present and perfect including the imperfect and pluper- 
fect Each tense with ov can represent the correspotidivg 
tenses of either indicative or optative with av. R g. 

S 217.] TBE HOODS. 187 

'Appwrtif wpaipaai{rjTU, ht prettnda iiof A* u iU; i^ifiMnm 
ippaiTTtiy TOUTQK, he took an oalh thai thU man aai iil. Kara- 
(Tx^'v /jiqa-i rovraut, ht «qy( Uiat he detained ihem. 'E^ xphf^ 
iavT^ mis BqiSaimw iwtKtKtfpv)(trai, h« laid thai the ThAaia had 
offered a reward far him. 'Enr^'XXinu tA iixaia vntqviiv, ha 
promiseii to do tohat u righi. Sec uxampleB under £ 203, Ba:J N. 1. 
*Hyy«Xr Tovrovt tpxoitiyovi, he annonneed thai that aert com~ 
tnj (o5ro* ipxavrai) \ oyytXiti ravrow «X^(i>-Tar, he announce £Aa( 
fAese eome; icffiiXn rmrrit ytvija-dfiivov) A« annotincM ihiot lAw 
uriK be done; ^yytikt miiTa y (vi)<r<ifirvoi', A« announced thai thi» 
iBcmld be done; ^yyiiXi tovto ytytvinityoy, he announced that thia 
had been dont (toUto yrjvv^nu). 

See ez^mplee of iy with infinitive and portioiple nodw § 211. 

None. The infinilJTe is aaid to stand in mdireet diaeoarae and !t3 
tonaea ciMTeepond to those (^ the flnite moods, 'when it depends on a 
verb implying thought or the expresaon of thought, and when aUo the 
thought, a» originaUjf eonceived, wo\Ud haye been ez^seaaed by some 
tense of the indicative (with or whbout Jv) or (^tative (^th Sy), 
vhich can be transferred without change c^ tense to the inOnitive. 
Thus in ^miiUnu iXBity, he miheatogo, iXfinv repreaenia nofona 
of either oorist indicative or aorist (^tative, but is merelj the ordi- 
nary infinitive (§ 202) not in mdirect discourse^ But in ^it/iriy AAw, 
Ic »ags that he uwnl, AAiv repregeuts ^XSov of the direct discourea 


§ 247. "When 8 compoimd seDtence is indirectly quoted, 
ita leading verb follows the rules foi simple sentences 
(4§ 243-246). 

After primary tenses the dependent verbs retain the 
same mood and teusa After secondary tenses, all primary 
tenses of the indicative and idl subjunctives may either be 
changed to the same t&tise of the optative or retain the 
mood and tense of the direct form. But dependent seeond- 
ary tenses of &e indicative are kept oncbaoged in all 
cases. K g. 

Av £fuic \ifi\rt, vati\any (i^i;o'i) 3 pi{f our/(ivtfr ptfr oSo^uai 
■£rf ipiprt, if yea Aall >at/ to, he lags he vill do whatever does not 
bring Aame or diteredil to hm. (Here no diaoge is made, except in 
WMinus S 246.) 

'Am^pfmiTa Sn iia»0&p»tty A oCk cvJrraora, ht r^pUet^ 

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188 STHTAX. H 248. 

fhal Ous learned vihat &tg did ttot tmdentand (he said iua66roiiaiv H 
o£k nriimu-Tai, whicli might have been retained). Ei nra ^tOyovra 
Xtf^oiTo, npoTjy6pfvtv on at iroXtjuoi xP^troiro, he announced, 
thai if he ihoM catch any one running autay, he should treat him as an 
enemy (he said, « riva X^^/ini, j(p^<raiiai, ^ 223, N. IJ, 'EwJ/ufi, 
Sira T^[ vSktas vpo\a0oi, irivra rairra ^ffaias t^ttv, he believed 
that he ikouid hold all thofe places securely which he should take front the 
cily beforehand (wr' in npoXa^, t^y. 'E&Skm fun raiir^ niipairOai 
irwtf^HK, iii6viuyiiitivif in, ia» /liy \d0ti, <ro6>i(roitai, it Seemed 
best to me to try to gain safety in tliia vxiy, Ihinting that if I should 
escape notice, I should be saired (here we might have had tl \dSotiu, 
irajflrjiroifHii'). 'E^xurav Toit SrSpas dnoKTfrrlv ofts «;i(oiitri ^aii- 
tas, they said that they should kill the men tchom they had lining (ciro- 
KTtmviuv ett txoiur, which might have been changed to diroitTcvciv 
o6t ixatf*)- npibikov ^v (rovro) ia6fi.tvov, tl fi^ KaXitrtrt, it 
iDa.1 plain thai this would be so unless you should prevent (toCto itmu tl 
firi KoAwrtr*, for wbicli we might have had ti /i^ noiXwoiTt). 'HXwifiM' 
rovrc SunXobt ravrg, otic fUTtnt n^^av, mrayr^trtaSai, they ?iaped the 
Sikels whom they had sent for mould meet them here. 

Note 1, One verb may be changed to the optative while another 
is retained; as dqXtbcrar on mifim (iiri itayttrSat, (trir i^ipxotTo, 
having shown that they were reatly to fight if any one shovid come forth 
(JiroifiBi rim, ian ns S^ip-}(ifrai). This Bometimea causes a great va- 
riety of constructions in the same sentence. 

Note 2. The aorist indicative is not changed to the optative ia 
dependent clauses, to avoid confusion with the aorist subjunctive, 
■which is regularly so changed. In dependent clauses in whioh con- 
fiision would be impossible (as in caused sentences), which never have 
B subjunctive), even an aorist indicative ma; become optative. 

NoTK 3. A dependent optative of course remans unchanged ia 
all indirect discourse. 

§ 348. The principles of § 247 apply also to imy de- 
pendent daiise (in a sentence of any kind) which expresses 
indirectly the past thoughts of any person, even of the 
speaker himself. 

This applies especially to the following constructions : — 
1. Clauses depending on an infinitive after verbs of uuAtn^, 
commanding, adidnng, &o. ; as these verbs imply thought, or the 
expresnoa of thought, although the infinitive after them ia not in 
indirect discourso (§ 246, Note). 

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3 218.] THE MOODS. 189 

2. Clauses contaming a protasis vitli the apodosis implied ia 

the context (§ 236, Note), or with the apodoeis eipreBsed in a 
verb like &ai^{a {§ 228). 

3. Temporal claiues expressing a past inUiUion, especially 
those introduced by iat or vpir after past tenseB. 

i. Even ordinary relative sentences, which would regularly 
take the indicative. 

This affects the construction of couflse only after past tenses. 

(1.) 'EPoiTtorro ASrlv, tl rovra y/voiro, thty tciahed to go if thU 
mKbiM happen. (Here i^ii\ovTo t'Xfffiv tar toPto ■y«i'i)Tot might be 
used, expressing the foi*m, if (Ais ihall happen, in which the wisli 
trould be conceived.) 'EnAtvtrtv S rt tvifaivTo Xa^rrat firtaita- 
jHtv, he commanded them to take what they could and pursue (he said 
i n &v iirtjirSi, uihat you can, and therefore we might have had o n 
in tlvruiTai). Bpotirrov aiims /i^ viiuiiaj(r'ir KopivSins, fv ft^ iirl 
KipKupap nXiaia-i mu ptWaatr ano$alvtai, they inslrucleri them 
not to engage in a »ea fight with Corinlhions, anleia these ihould be sail- 
ing ag(dnat Coreyra and should be on the point of landing. (Here the 
direct forms are retained, for which d fiij irXionv xtu liiWeup 
might have been used.) 

(2.) 'OucrtipoK, rl iX&trotrro, they pitied them, in ease they should 
he captured (the thought being tl AXwaovTui, which might have 
been retained). ^niXaxat iraimiitini, utnts (piiXarroitv airiv, koI «I 
TBI' iypiny n <Pav*ij} Btjpiaiv, he sends (sent) guards, to guard him 
and {to be ready) in case any of the savage beasts should appear (tlie 
thought being iar n <fiavji). TaXXa, ^v tri wavpaxt'i' ol 'Aftjwitoi 
roX/dJo-ao't, naptmtvaCovTo, they made the other preparations (lobe 
reailij) in case the Athenians should fliU venture a navid battle. 'E^mpov 
ayoKuv tint iaaai, J rejoiced, being content if any one Tcould lei it 
pass (the thought was ofana ti tie idati). 'E6avpaCt ti m ajryv- 
ptor rpaTToiro, he wondered that any one demanded money; but in 
the same book (Xen. Mem. I.) we find iSaifiaCt S' tl fi^ <l>mtpiw 
aimU iariv, he loondered that il was not platn. 

(3.) Ttrotiar Jwoi^irarTti tac avayytXBtii) rh XixBirra th AoKt- 
Ikttiutra, they made a truce, (to conlirtue) until what had been saiil should 
be reported at Sparta (their thought wbb t<et arrayyiXS^, which 
might have been retaiued). Ov yip 8^ ff^tat Airltt 6 Bi6r Trjt dirot- 
Kltic, irplv 8^ dvUnrTat it aM)r AiflV, i. e. until they should 
come, <tc. (where dn-icoii-T-o might have been used). HdL 

(4.) KbI xini ffi/m i8t'rAu, i m ^ al yaiiffpoSo vapa npoimia 


190 STBTAZ. [t %a. 

^ipoirc, Ae viilud to >ee Ihe taken, tohiek he uai bringing (at he . 

taid) from Proetus. ^anrfiptoy riir Myunfriav ri irdroi^EoiCF 

irpoi6yr€i rl/p 'EKKnia, they accused the Aegiaetant for what {at they 
laid) they had done in betraying Greece. 

For &e same principle in causal sentences, see § 250, Note. 

Note. On this principle, final and object clauses with uo, Strett, 
a>r, foi, &c., admit the double construction of indirect discourse, and 
allow either the subjunctive or future indicative (as the case may be) 
to stand unchanged after SKondarj tenses. (See § 216, 2.) The 
same principle extends to all conditional and conditional relative sen- 
tences depending on Goal or object clauses, as these too belong to tbe 
indirect discourse. 

'Omte AND *0 IN Indireci Quotationb. 

§ 249. !• In & fev cases Arm is used for it or ^ in indi- 
rect quotations, chiefly in poetry. E. g. 

Tsvrofi^ imt <t>P^C> 3<r«F o£k tt Koidt, <io not teU me lAit, thiti yoa 
are twl bate. Soph. 

2. Homer rareljr imes S (neuter of is) for in. Kg. 

hticom yAp rd yt nayrttj &' fun ytpat fpjffnu SXXjj, far jrou oQ 
tee lAu, that my prize goes another uxiy. riypae-K^r S ol aMt imipejp 
Xe'ipas 'AvoXXav, knomng that Apolio Mmtelfkdd vetr Am hit haiidt, 


§ 250. Causal sentences express a tavse or rmson, and 
axe introduced by or*, <w, because, ivei, lir&Br}, ore, owoVe, 
since, and by other particles of similar meaning; They 
take the indicative after both primary and secondary tenses. 
The negative particle is oii, R g. 

K^tTO yip Oanami, Sn pa firrjtnaarat SpSro, for he pitied the 
Danai, because he taw them dying. 'Ore joiff ovrmt ?x**i «p<w4<(«i 
iic, since this is so, it is becoming, &ii. 

Note. On the principle of indirect discourse (g 248), the optative 
may be used in a causal sentence after a past t«use, to imply that the 
cause is asmgned on the authority of some other person than Iha 
speaker; as ri* HfpuiXia iicwaCor, 5ti mpirnjy!is Ar ovk in-t^ayot, 
they abuttd Pericles, because (as they said) being general he did not lead 
them out. Tbuc. (This assigns the reason why the Athenian* abuMd 
him, and does not abow th« historian's opinion.) 

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S Ul.] TEE I100D6. 191 


§ 251, 1. 'When a wish refers to the fatnre, it is ex- 
pressed by the optative, either with or without ^6e or e! yap, 
that, if. The nc^tive is /t^ which can stand alone 
with the optativa K g. 

Ti nin vim tovth vpiiavoit r&mp iv x^pfrhr tx'^'f'*'' (^ jvwwnt 
nay yon continue to do these things tnhieh you kavt noto in hand. Hdt. 
EIA <l>ikot ii/Xf y I V o I D , O that yott may become our friend. Mijun 
i4l' ^y^' ""'3 ^ "" ^"9^ '■"'■ TfSfaiiiii, art fu» pTxtn ToOra 
fUXot, may 1 die vihen I thall no longer care for these things (J 235). 

Por the diatinction between the preseat and aorifit, uid an example 
mnstnting it, see § 202, I. 

2. When a wish refers to the present or the past, and it 
is implied that its object is lutt or was not attained, it is 
expressed by a secondajy tense of the indicative with e'^e 
or el ydpy which here cannot be omitted. The imperfect 
and aorist are distinguished here afi in protasis (§ 222). 

"0$^ nOn iirolti, O that he were doing thu, oi tirU he had done 
(Au, Eiifc Tovn> inoiiitrtr, that he had done thie; tl yip pl^ 
iyiwtro roCro, that lAit had not happened. 

Eld* 'ix*' (ScXrbin tppJum, that thou hadit a letter undemand- 
ing. Ei yip Tomarnif iMJM>fu>' ttxor, O that I had so great power. 
SXOt mt riJri iru»ty»»6iniv, that I had then met with you. 

Note 1. The aorist StjuXav of &^fXa, dAeo, and in Homer some- 
times tie imperfect S^cXXor, are nsed with the infinitive in wishes, 
with the same meaning as the secondary tenses of the indicative; as 
Aif>r\r rovni voitiy, would thai he were doing thi» (\\t he ought to be 
doing this), or would that he had done iMi (habUuaUy) ; Aptkt nvro 
trat^o-at, would that he had done this. 

'QtjttJaiv is nepatived by /i^ (not oi), and it may eren be preceded 
by tWt or «I ytip; as fi^ tror i<l>t\of Ximir r^ Snipor, thai I 
had never left Scyroi ; tl yip S(pt\ov oEain tirai, that they were 
abU, &a. As this is really an apodows, like ?B«, Ac, with the infini- 
tive (§ 222, N. 1), the use of (TA, tl y6p, and p^ with it is an 

Hots 2. The two fonns of wishes (% 251) ne elliptical forma of 
protacds, as is seen hy tl in tWt and W yip (sometiniea in poetrj 1^ 
■iiiiple (I), and by tba forca of t^s difiarent tenses. 


192: STHTAX. [fZSS. 


§ 263. The imperative egresses a command, exhor- 
tation, ot entreaty; as Xeye, sp^ak thou; <l>evye, lionet 
eKBeria, let him. come; ytupovrav, let thtm, r^oiee. 

NoTi. A siogulsr combination of a command and ti qaeBtion la 
found in such piiraaes as oJtrS' t apavof; <io-—doal (Sou know 

§ 253. The first person of the subjunctive (generally 

pltiral) is used in exhortations. Its negative is firj. E g. 

'lupcp, let v» go; liantr, Ut w *et; pi) rmrn iroiafXi', let 

SoTE. Both HubjunctiTC and imperative may be preceded bj 4y» 
(t/m), ^ipt, or Idi, cornel These words are used without re~ 
gard to the number or person of the verb which follows; as &y* 

§ 254. In prohibitions, in the second and third persons, 
the ■present imperative or the aorist sui^wactive is used with 
/tif and its compounds. E. g. 

M7 iro/ri TovTo, do not do (his (hahituoBy), or do nitt go on doing 
thin; /xii TTOi^o-jr roOro, (simply) do not do this. Hi) xari ravs 
v6itovt IftKdoijTf /a) Poif dijtrijTf r^ ntmmfiirt braia- /lii tiiap- 
Kt%Tt, do not jadge according lo the lawi ; do not help him who hot 
suffered outraget; do not abide bg your oaths. 

The two forma have merely the usual distinction between the pre*- 
ent and aartU (g 202, 1). 

Note. The third person of the aorist imperative sometimes ocoms 
in prohibitions; very rarely tlie sedond person. 




§ 256. In Homer, the subjunctive sometimes has tha 
force of a future indicative in independent sentences. E. g. 

of y&p WW ro/ovT ISor Aripas, avbi TSw/iot, for I never yet icat 

nor »KaU I ever see tueh men. "Sal nor* nt t'n^ aiv, and tome one 
taSl (or mag) say. 

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1259.] THE DIFINITITS. 193 

NoTi. This subjunctive may, like the future indicative, take Sit or 
Kc to form an apodoBia. See g 209, 2. 

§ 256. The first person of the subjunctive, and some' 
times the third, may be used in questions of doubt, where 
s person asks himself or another ivhat he is to do. It ia 
negatived by p.-^. It is often introduced hy fio6ka or 
^ov\eo-$e (in poetry 6e\€K or deKere). E g. 

Eivu ravraf ihall I *ay iMsl or &ai\ti t'ana ravra,- do you with 
Ihai I ihould say Ihut Hoi rpairufiai,- iroi jroptvOa; wAitker 
tiuiU I tvml ahkher dtaU I got Uav Sq 0avX« Kodt^d/icviH avayya- 
fttv; uAer« now teitt thou Aat we sit down and readl Ti nt ftmt 
rovro ^g ; wkal shall any one (i. o. 7) tay this ia t 

So in ri jrd6a; what will become of met u>hai harm will it do met 
(lit. what shall I undergo f), 

§ 257. The subjunctive and future indicative are used 
with the double negative ov /i^ in the sense of the future 
indicative with ov, but with more emphasis. E. g. 

Ou fi^ Ti'flijroi, A« will not obey. OiI« yip ylyvrrai, aSrt yiyavrv, 
ovB« oup fiq yt'vjjTai, for there is not, nor has there been, nnr will 
there ecer be, &C. OC jtot' (f Ifuiv yt htj trdSgs rd8(, you never 
shall suffer this at my hands. OS rot foprore ai . . . . oKovri tit S$it, 
no one shall ever take you against your wilt, &c. 

The double negative here aeems to have merely the force of em- 
phasis, and the suhjunctive is a relic of the old usage (§ 255), The 
aoriit subjunctive is generally used in these expressions. 

Note. This construction in the second person sometimes expresses 
a strong fffohibition ; as ou /i^ KaTa^i^an, do not come doom (Ut. 
you shall not come down). The future indicative and the aorist sub- 
junctive are both allowed in this sense. The imperative force is to 
he explained as in § 200, N. a - 


§ 258. The infinitive has the force of a neater verbal 
noun, and may take the neuter article in aU its cases. It 
may at the same time, like a verb, have a subject or ob- 
ject; and it is qualified by adverbs, not by adjectives. 

§ 259. The infinitive as nominative may be the suV 

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194 BTIRAX. aWk 

ject of a finite verb, especially of an impersonal verli 
(J 134, N. 2) or of ott/; or it may be a predicate (§ 136). 
As accusative it may be the subject of another infinitive. 

ZvMJSq lArif tXdttr, ilhappened to him to go; i^ /lirtip, it 
wot pouS)U to remain; bti aurhv iiirtif, he must remain ; qSu ttoX- 
XovT ixOpoue txtir; ii U pleatatit to haiie many enemietf ^cri Stir 
TDVFD roiTJaai, he (oyi it is aeceuary lo do Ihi* (nx^mu is subject 
of itir}. Ti yrarai imarijiafv \a^ti» imr, to team it to acquire 
hnoviUdge. Tourd im rd HMtir, (hit is to Commit injmliee. Th yAp 
AiwiTor Sf dii'Qi ciiir SAo iarh' ^ Sojciir aolpiir tX»al /a) Srra, 
for to/ear death ia nothing elte than to item to be vile tdthoul being to. 

KoTE. These iofinitives usually stand without the article ; but 
whenever it is desired to emphasize the infinitive, or to make the 
subject more prominent than tiie predicate (see the last examples), 
the article can be added. 

§ 260. lbs infinitive vri&ovi the ariid* may be the 
object of a verh It generally haa the force of an object 
accusative, sometimes that of a cognate accnsatave, and 

sometimes that of an object genitiva 

1. The object infinitive not in indirect ^bcourse may foQow 
any verb whose action implies another action as its object. Such 
verbs are in general the same in Greek as in English, and others 
must be learned by practica K. g. 

BouXmu i\6ttti, he wiehes to go; ffoChtrat mbt fraXimr inAtflutoit 
(Tfat, he mihet the eiiizeni to be varUke; irapainnifur aoi ixivttr, 
«w adwie yoK to remidn; KpatCKtro iroXffi^irat, he preferred to maka 
war; Ktkrin m p^ dr»\6ilp, he commands you not to depart; 
^tavmr Spx'"t '^^S claim the right to rule; a^totrai Oavilr, he it 
thought to deaeme to die; diopu iifiSir truyyvuiofr )u>i tj^iiv, I atk 
jau to have eoruideration Jbr me. So mtkuti irt ^aSifiiv, he pre- 
tenia you from marchijig ; ov wttfHiKi SouXivcir, he ii not bom 
to be a slave; mx^aykena rouro tronlr, he postpones doing this; 
Mp8v>vvn dafftv, he is in danger of death. 

The tenses here used are chiefly the present and aorist, and these 
do not differ in thrir time (§ 202, 1, 2, and 3). In this construction 
the infinitive hss no more reference to time than any other verbal 
noun would have. Its negative is iifi (§ 283, 3). 

2. The object infinitive in indirect diaoouzse foUowa a verb 

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IS61.] THE nmumvE. 195 

implying thowght or the exprettion of thought or some equivalent 
phrase. Here each tense of the infinitive corresponds in time 
to the same tense of some finite mood. See § 246, with the 
examples and Note. 

Note 1. Of the three common verbs meaning to say, tfnjfil rega- 
larly takes the infinitive in indirect discourse, thiov takes on or Ac 
witli the indicative or optative, and Xiyu allows either construction. 

!NoTE 2. A relative clause depending on an infinitive in indirect 
discourse BOmetimes takes the infinitive b; sssimilation ; as iimdh di 
yiviirdai Art tJ oIu^ CW <i«¥)7«^"' MiraXoWSawii' t^x tipav, 
and when Ihey came to Che howe, &a- Berodotus allows this even 
after rl, if, and di6Ti, becawe. 

§ 261. 1. The infinitive without the article limita the 
meaning of many adjectives and nouns. E. g. 

AvrorAt n-otfip raOro, able to do tkU; itaiAs Xiytir, daUed in 
tpetiking; S(ios tovto \afftir, uiorthi/ lo receive thii; irp66vpot Xi- 
yiiv, eager to speak; luAaroi xaprcptiv, (too) effeminate to en- 
dwe; nrurr^/uii' Xiyttit rt ml irtyav, hnoming kom both lo speak 
and to he siieni. 

'Aniynj iari wavras aif\6tlv, there is a necetaUy that all should 
mthdraw; xivdumt i}v air^ tradtiv n, he was in danger of suffering 
»omething ; &pa airitrai, linte to go aioay ; Airi'dnc Ij^ti roim iroi^- 
ir o 1 . he has hopes of doing this, 

KirTE. Adjectives of tiiis doss are especially those denoting tdiHitg, 
filneis, desert, readiness, and their opposites; and, in general, those 
corresponding in meaning to verbs which take the infinitive (g 260, 1), 
Nouns of this class are snch as form with a verb (generally fl/ii) an 
expressioD equivalent to a-verb which takes the infinitive. Most 
nouns take the infinitive imiA the article as an adnomical genitive 
(§ 262, 2). 

2, Any adjective or adverb may take the infinitive 
without the article as an accusative of specifUaiioti (§ 160, 
1). E.g. 

Qiaiia al<TJcpif Spay, a sight disgraceful to behold ; Xiyoi i/iiii xpt" 
atfiuraroi dxovirai, tcords most MsefiA far yoix to hear; ra ;ifaXnrD~ 
rom (upriv, the things hardest (o find; noKirtia ;^Xnr4 "vC^v, a 
gooerTonenl hard to live under. KaXXurra litlv, in a manner most 
ddighlfUl to behold. 

This infinitive is usually active rather than passive; as trpSyfta 

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1Q6 8i;in:4X. [i am 

jf/Ami^'o***'! ■tHi'igiaritod^niherfhtBt^fAaim fatrtmia^ 
kard lo be done. 

Sort, Noons sod even reriM m&f take the infinitiTe no this prio- 
dple; as Ari^w liivOat, a wonder to behold. 'Apiarmmn /to.- 
^foOat, be «KU Ihtfatt infighting (like f^'Xi')- Hem. 

S 262. 1. The infinitive may depend wt a prepositaon, 
in wMch case the article rov, t^ or to most be pre- 
fixed. E. g. 

Hpi TvS. Toit Zpmvt iwoiovxai, before UAingtht oalJa; wp&s ry 
fo^v /k r^f vptv0tlat \aprir, beade* receiving notiing bg Ike em- 
Uuty; hh r& (fW tlrai oht Ar oln oducip^Ku, you Mnt goft vould 
not be toronged on account of yeyar bang a ilranger. 

2. The genitive and dative of the infinitive, tai^ the 
article, can stand in most of the constructions bEdonging 
to those caaea ; as in that of the adaominal genitive, the 
genitive after a comparative or after verbs and adjectives, 
the dative of vfaaaier, vteavs, &c, the dative a&e^ veirbs 
and adjectives, and sometimes in iSiat of the genitive of 
cawse aipwrpose (§ 173, 1). E g, 

TpB srif III iriBviiSa, a detire lo drink; xpiimfi roC XaX<(*, httter 
ihan prating; iniirj^opev ToS iaxpvtiy, loB ceased our weeping 
(§ 263); ^Bttt roi Karaxoiiiv ny6t iWa, they are unused to 
gbeging any ont. T^ 0<ivt^ ,I,ai twoGto if, by kari^ it evident 
that he mis tuch a man; r^ xoiriiiat C^v wiarritir, to tntst in an 
orderly life; Irav rf wpotrTtnir, equtd to lamentiag befarebond. 
Hi'nf ri ^Bsrru^ m^fpn, «rv rot irpooddpui ,mKKm ii'vat air^ 
Mino* put down piracy, that his revenues ta^ com m more o6t«»- 
dmily. Thnc. 

§ 263. 1. Verbs and eipreseiona d^oting ktndranee or 
freedom from anything allow either the infinitive with toS 
(S 262, 2) or the Bimplo infinitive (§ 260, 1). Ab the inSmtive 
after Buch verbs can take the negative ^ without affecting th^ 
sense {§ 283, 6), we have a tUrd and fourth fcma, atill with 
the same meaning. {See Note, and § 263, 2.) K g. 

Elpyii m TOUTO jroitly, tl/^i d-f roB Tovro jroitlv, ttpyti v* 
ft4 roCro iroitly, fipyti irt rou fit) rovro naitli', all meaninR he 
prevent! you from doing this, fhv *A«nro» mpikOtlv oix ihlwama 
tuAMrot, tbty cmM not hinder Philip /rum pasting throu^. ToB ii 

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g3M.] THE mVUUTlVK 197 

tpawtTritif inifiymitn, Ihq/ ralrain lAem from ntrmitig awof. 
'Omp fox* f"i ^^ n*XoirAwi(ow vapStiv, vthich prevented (htni) 
fimn ravaging Pdopomte»ui. 'Ef«i olmnK toO p^ xaraivrai, it 
otQ ibeep (Aem ,/r(«i linking. 

NoTB. When the leading verb is negatived (or interrogative im-^ 
plying a neg&tive), tixe double negative /iq ov is generallj used rather 
tban the eimple pq fvith the infinitive (§ 283, 7), so that we can say 
ovK tipytt <rv fi4 "^ Touro iroKir, ^ doe« no( prevent you from 
dmng (Am. ToC ftij ou tokiv is rarely (if ever) used. 

2. The infinitiTe with rA ;i^ is Bometimea us^ after ezprea- 
uona denoting hwdrmtee, and also after all vhioh even imply 
prevention, omitnon, or denial. This infinitiTe with j6 is lesB 
closely connected with the leading verb than axe the forma 
just mentioned (1), and it may often be oonaidered an acQufia- 
tive of tpeeificfUum (§ 160, 1), and eometimes (as after verbs of 
denial) an olgeot accusatiTe. Sometimes it expresses merely a 
retuU. K g. 

T^w SpiXov cipyor ri ftq ri iyyiii r^r irdXctw KaKovpyfiy, Otey 
pretienUd tJte croind from injuring the neighboring parts of the city, 
(This adds a ffrk form tipyfi m ri pij rouro iroirTv to the. four 
already given in § 263, 1, as equivalents of the English he prevent! 
SOU fivm doing this). Kf/uora mtpi rptis ^ilaav •^ff^moc rh p^ 
fian&nf (t)piAirai, they allowed Ctmon by three votei to ueape Oie 
pmiiskmetU of death; liL &ey let km off (so ox) not toptausk him viith 

Here, as above (1, Note), pli oi is used when the leading verb is 
negatived; as ooSiir yip aiirf rau^ iwapxiatt rh pti oi wtirrly, 
Jar lAw toifi not at all luffiee to prevent him from ftMing. 

§ 264. The mfinifive with its subject, object, or other ad- 
juncts (sometimes including dependent clauses) may be pre- 
ceded by the article, the whole standing as a single noun in 
any ordinary construction. & g. 

T ^ ^ pijT^ jmXiu TDvro irwir opStvai^ jrftpfjvtrat Tt rtva yjl^v 
WppOj^iap TouTmi arrippoirov, hr ^oiAiiptffa jfp^irAu, r^r vap iKtinur 
titoUa ntpyinfp Ar lyxrf* 6ti^r, but the fact that im have not suffered 
this long ago, and that an alliance has appeared to us to balance lAeM, 
- ifu>e shall wish to use it, — this I shoald ascribe as a benefaction to their 
good-will, DenL (Here the whole sentence ri . . . . ;g>^aAu is tha 
olgaet of Oilijr.) 

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198 BTHTAX. [1 265. 

§ 266. The infinitive without the arldde may express. 
A purpose. £. g. 

OI 5fijitaint, att t^XtaSi Spj(tiw piu, like ruien, mkom you dime to 
rule me. Tq» n-Au ^vXamiv atmit vaptSiaKai; they ddirered Ihe 
ekyto them to guard. AI yimiZnc n-ttic ipipoiiaai, tke women bring' 
ing that (tonieihing) to drink. 

Note. In Homer, where iart is Beldam osed in its sense of m 
a*, the simple infinitiTe maj express a result; as tit v^at £wc^ 
p<f;(((rtf at, teho hrougM them tnlo conflict, so at tn contend f 

Such expres^oos as fMitot- Q ^ipnv, too great to bear, are U> be 
expl^ned on the same principle. 

§ 26e. 1. The infinitive after Sxrrt, so that, so os, ex- 
preseea a resiUt. E g, 

*Hi> vtmuku^'roe oSnw, Avrt irdnr ppSfw fx"" iW»*™t *« 
Add 6een «o educated as very easily to haee enough. Si ii cj(iAaCat, 
ivr* 0a ti fid f ( 1 jr i)U, and you delay, so that I teonder. . 

2. The infinitive after atrre sometimes expresses a con- 
dUion, like that after ei^' p oi c^' ^re ; and sometimes a 

pw^ose, like a final clause. E. g. 

''E^ai droit rar Xonruv Spx"' 'EU>I>™>i &irr' mrrmii vwaKoittv- 
ffairiktl, il being in iheir power lo rule the rest of ike Greeks, on condi- 
tion that they should themselves obey the King. Har jrotoOirui £irr«. 
SIkijv h^ 8 1 S li !■ a I , Ihey do everything, ao that they may not suffer pun~ 
iskment (Jua fiii biSatn might have been used). 

Note 1. 'Qc sometimes takes the iaGnitire like &m, generallj to 
express a reiull, seldom to express a purpose. 

Note 2. 'Oan may also take the indicatlTe to express a result 
(§ 237). •0<r« in Homer usually means as, like &T«p. (See § 265, 

§ 267. The infinitive follows €<f>' p or e^' pre, on con- 
dition that, for the purpose of. E. g. 

'Alfiltiiig irr. Art Tovrtf fiivrot, Afi' frt foinin ipiXoootfit^v, ioe 

release yrtu, but on this condition, that you shall no longer be a philoso- 
pher. AlptBirrtr i<^ ^rt ^vyypd^ai i^piUF, choeen for the purpose. 
of compiling laws. 
For the futm-e indicative after these words, see § 236, N. 2. 

§ 268. The infinitive may stand absolutely in paten- 
thetical phrases, generally with m oi Strov. E. g. 


I27S.3 THE mFonrvE. 199 

Tecendy, to to speak, made its i^ptarance. So uc iwof tlwtXv, lo to 
speak; aii irwrapai (or trvvtXdiTt, § 184, 5) tlntiv, lo speak coaciaely; 
tA (;uiata\> tlTrttv, on the whole ; uc a ir c i ■ d tr a i , lo judge (i. e. ai 
far a* we can judge); Saor yi ft tliivaif as far as I know; at 
J/uA SoKtiv, or iiuA toxtir, as it teems to me; mi iroXX^ Myf 

'wtlv, not to mote a long aiory, m ihorL So £\iyou dflp, lo want 

tU, i. 0. ahnoat; in which. ii» coa be omitted. 

IfoTx. In certun cases rtwu seems to be superfluous; eapectallj 

JjcAv tt^ai, wiiling or urUlinglg, which generally stands in » 

negative sentence. So rd roe (fvai, at present; ri nnupov tXrai, 

to^ay; ri> lie' ialvoit ilvai, ta far as depend* on liem, and some 

other phrases. 

§ 268. The infinitive is Bometimea Tised like the im- 
perative, eapeciaUy in Homer. E. g. 

Hij irorf jcol ai ywaud Ktp ^wuK ilvat, he thou never indulgent ta 
thg wife. The subject is here in the nominatiTe; but in the three- 
next oonstrnctions it is in the accusative. 

§ 270. The infinitive aometimes exjn^sses a wish, like the 
optative. This oooutb chiefly in poetry. £. g. 

Znr nirwp, 4 Alum Xax<>>' 4 TvJI<o* "l^i FoAer Zetu, may lAe 
lot fall either on Ajat or on the ion of Tgdeue, Horn. 

§ 27ll In laws, treatiea, and prodamatimu, the infinitive 
often depends on ?8i>{« or fit'Soicrai, he it enacted, or xXti!*- 
rai, it it commanded; vhioh may be expressed in a previona 
sentence or understood. E. g. 

Aiadfdi' B( r^* hi 'Apfi^ vayif ^&nu, &c., and (fta it enacted) 
that the Senate on tie Areopagus shtdl have jurisdiction in cases of 
murder, tic. 'Enj fli tlvai rit mmviit imT^KoiTa, and that the 
treats '^'^ continue fifty years. 

§ ^2. The infinitive, with or without r6, may be used to 
expreBB surprise or indignation. R g. 

T^( futplaf tA Ala rafil^tiv, Srra n^XuEovravt, ahatfoUgt to be- 
lieee m Zeus when you are lo big! So in IaUs : Mene incepto desi- 
itere victam! 

§ 273, In narration, the infinitive often seems to stand 
for the indicative, when it depends on some word lika 
XeytTiu, it is said, in a preceding sentence. E. g. 

200 SYNTAX [8 274 

'AmnfMwnw Si' tt rii'Apyos, tliart&ttr^at fAf ^Sprop, ttnd com- 
ing to Argot, they were (i( it taid) setting ota their cargo far tale 
(aun-fAirAu is an imperfect infinitive, § 203. N. I). Hdt 1 1. See 
HdL I. 2i, and Xen. Cyr. I. 3, 5: 

§ 274. ^piv, before, be/are that, wUit, "besi^ taking 
the indicative, subjunctive, and optative (§ 240), also takes 
the infinitive. . This happens in Attic Greek chiefly rfter 
a^rmatim sentences, but in Homer withont r^ard to&e 
leading verb. E. g. 

'Anoirtiarovmf oMv lepW iKo'vtrat, they tend kirn away before he 
hear*. Mt<rtr^yijp ciXofMr trpbr nipaat Xafitiv rtfr ^iunXiuu-, im tool: 
Meteene before the Persiant obtained their hmgdom. 

See tlie rules Cbr npiV with the finite moods, §-240. 

INoTB. TlpXr 1j, Trpirwpov f, vpiaOtr f, before flat, temtv 
flan, and eren vartpov ^, later than, may take llie infinitiTe lika 
wpif aktne. See § 240, Nol«. 


§ 275, The pdfticiple is & vetbal a^jeotim, and has tiiree 
QBes. FiTHt, it may expreas a simple aOHbMe, like ao codinftiy 
a4jective ; secondly, it may define the envumebtaeet nadee vidoh 
■aa action takes place ; thirdly, it may form part of tbe fn^edi^ 
cate with certuu verbs, ottea having a force resembling Hiat 
of the infinitive. 

§ 278. 1. The participle, like any other adjective, may 
qualify a noun. Here it must often be tninslatdd by s 
relative and a finite Verb, especially when it is preceded 
by the articled E. g; 

ndXt; KoXXn iiaipipovtra, a city excdling in beauty; aii^p uXw 
«(iraiB« v;if vof, a man vAo hai been uieft educated (or a todl-edit- 
eated man) ; ol lepitrBtu ol vir6 fcXi'vmni irrit<^6ipTts, the omiiu- 
tadora ako vxre aent by Philip ; 3vSpts ol Tin>ra notr/trowrts, men 
who are to do Ihi*. 

2. The participle preceded by the article may be used 
substantively, like any other adjective. It is then equiva- 
lent to he who or those who with a finite verb. E. g. 

ol iTfYf to-fitvoi, ibote who have been convinced; wapi row ipt- 

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tSSh] THE PABTraPlA. 201 

VTMf SoKovirii' clnn, apumg fkaae «ho teeH t&hebM; S' T}ir y»ipf* 
rouT^F tlwAr, Oteoneicho gave Ais opinion ; rob 'A/xtdAM* tr^rr^/iair 
o^iri $<ififiij(ms wpotaror,- tb^ jproclaimed lo Ikue toio were &eir allia 
anoag the Areaduuu. 

§ 277. The participle may define the dtwrnsiaitces of 
an action. It expresses the following relations : — 

1. Tiae ; tlie tanseB deooting varioua points of time, which 
is relative to that <^ the verb of the smtence (§ 204). £. g. 

TiriJra iwpam «-rfariiyAf, he did tkit miOe he was general; 
rmiTawpitti vrfar^ymn, ktieiM do tkiMvkHeieii gtneral; rwpar- 
rtiirat ii fnr rpla 'inwr <XBf>a ^s ^y*u», and when ie had been 
tyrant three years, he tniihdreio to Sigeum. 

2. Came, naiuur, vumu, utd ahnilar rdatiooB, indnduis 
MtUMMT fif employMoU, E. g. 

AJym d) rovtw fWtta, fiOvXifnyot Stiat oat Swrp iitol, and / 
tpeat/or [hit reaton, beeauM I loith that (• teem good to you uAieh, &a. 
BpotDxn fioXXiv mr KSpur iitiiipttP AaiiOavta 4 a-apavofiuv 
^v, be preferred to die (Aiding hf tie lotos ratler than M Uve trantgrett- 
ing them; nvra {tolrfm "ka^Aw, \e did this aecreUp; mnS^/ia rpof- 
pbpjfir, he was abieta on diay Oi bierardk. ti^t(i^tvoi i&cw,lheg 
See by fltmder. 

3. Purpiue or uOmtim; generally expressed by the future 
participle. £. g. 

'hX* Xno-dfurof Svjarpa, he eama to rantotn hit daugiler. Hozn. 
Tti^ina vpitT^ttt ravra ipoiprat (ml Avamipor «IrqffeFr«t, la 
tend tnnbtmadors to gay this md to atk/or Lyiander. 

4. Condi^im; Gts tenses of the participle repi«en1aig the 
corresponding tenses of the indicative, Bubjanctive, or optative, 
in all classes of protasis. 

See § 226, 1, where examples wiH be fonoA 

8. dppotiiion or UnaHUvtn; where the participle is generally 
to be translated by aWtMtgh and a verb. E. g. 

"OX/yB ivvapevot vpoopar, jroXXi on;[tip«i)/i»i> irp&rmw, aUhyugh 
vje are able tojoreitefea things, we try U do many thingt. 

6. Any cOtendawt raroumstanoe, the parddple being merely 
deteriptive. E. g> 

*^>ta t4» vOm Jx""*^"" *•* eomsi bringing her m*; wapaX^- 

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0ipT*t robt Bounvit iarpAmiami iw\ 9dp<raKo¥, lokmg Ikt Boeoliang 
vilh litm, Otey TBorclUd Offaimt Phanaiiu. 

NoTB 1. The adverbe ^^a, ficrafv, riOit, airUa, and i(ai- 
^■•qt are often oonnected (in position uid in sense) with the tempo- 
ral participle, whUe gnunmaticatl; thej qualify tbe verb of the sen- 
tence; as luia Kara\a&imt upaxtateri o^ as toon o-i Aeg 
overtook tlian they prated hard apon them ; Niic^e fitrafu ipvcFaar 
tvawraro, Neehi ttopped wMie digging (the canal). Hdt. 

The participle denoting oppom(»on is often strengthened bj xalirep 
or Kal, tdOiougk, in the poets also Kaf....««pf as iroutrtlpti ya, 
Kaivtp Svra 8vo7mv4, I pity han, alAough lit it tm enemy. 

NoTB 2. The participles denoting eaute or purpose are often pre- 
ceded by uc. This shows that they eipress ihe idea of the subject 
of the leading verb or that of some other person prominent in the 
sentence, viilhoai imj^ying that it is also the idea of the speaker or 
writer; as r^ lUpuAia iv alrtf[ tlxo" ■>> nioarra m^ot inAtpitui, 
tieg found fault with Pericles, on the ground that Jie hadpertuaded them 
to Ike tear; iyairaKTOvtny iic ^wyaXaii' rtvuv dnraripripr voi, theg 
are indignant, because (as they say) lAey have been deprived of tome 
great Melsings. 

The participle denoting cause is often emphasized by drc, otor, 
or ola, at, inasmuch as; but these particles have no such force as 
uE (above); m Srt irau &v, ^Stro, inasmuch as he wat a child, he 
aas pleased. 

Note 3. *0<rirtp, at, before a eonSiumal participle, generally 
belongs to an impUed apodo^'is, to which the participle forms the 
protasis; as Aairtp i]9q va^t tli6rtt, oix iSikrr diioita; you 
art unwitling to hear, as (you would be) if you already Irneio it well, 
Here &mnp means merely at; the »/' belongs to the pai'ticiple. 
Compare &(nctp tl \tyott, as if you thould tag, 

§ 278. 1. When a participle denoting any of the rela- 
tions included in § 277 beloi^s to a noon which is not 
connected with the main construction of tbe sentence, they 
stand tc^ether in the genitive absohiie. 

See § 183, and the examples there ^ven. All the particles men- 
tioned in the notes to g 277 can be used here. 

3. The participles of impersonal verba stand in the accusative 
absolute, in the neuter singular, when others would be in tbe 
genitive absolute. So with paasive participles and (b> when 
tbey are used impersonally. £1. g. 

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. Ol If oi p o^^ a w i t t, 6i»f, vyuTt lor^XAir; and did Ihote who 
brought no aid ichen il uxu needed escape safe and tound ! So tS it 
irapatrx^"' ""'' ^hea a good opportuniiy offered; oil trpaaiKoy, 
improperly (it being not becoming'); irpoxTTax^tv pat, viken I had 
been commanded ; tlpijitiror, toAen it haa been said; oSuvorof ir, it 
being iinpouS>le ; dnipptrov ir&K (sc. Sir}, lehen il u forbidden by Ihe 

IfoiE. Ths participIeB of personal verbs sometimes stand with 
their nouns in the accusative absolnte, but very seldom unless thej 
are preceded by tu or iinrtp. 

§ 279. The participle may be used to limit tiie mean- 
iikg of certain verbs, in a sense which often resembles that 
of the infinitive (§260, 1). 

1. In this sense the participle is used with verbs signifying 
to b^n, to continue, to endure, to cease (or cawt to cease), to rep- 
resent, to find, and some others. E. g. 

Kp^pai \iyiav, I todl begin to tpeaJcj irovcrai \tyovira, cease 
ipealring; ovi avc£o/uu (av, I sh<M not endure to live; tovto 'X'" 
hiartXti, he continues to have this; TrnroiijiK row «V 'AiBou riv dd 
JCP^*"" riiiapovftrfovt, he hat represented those in Hades as suffer- 
mg continual punishnutU. Eipt Kpmiiitir Srtp ijfiiror ShXun, she 
found the son of Kronos lilting apart from the others. Horn. 

2. With the following verbs the participle contams the lead' 
ing idea of the expression: XavSdra, to escape the notice of; 
Toyxafu, to happen; tpOana, to antieipatr. The aorist parti- 
ciple here does not denote past time, but coincides in time with 
the verb (§ 204, N. 2). E. g. 

A^rrrrc iiat^Oapivrti, yoa mil be corrupted before you tnoie it, 
'Eruxot KaSriinvor irravSa, I happened to be sitting there; irvx' 
Kara tovto toO aupov t\6aiii, he happened to come (not to have come) 
just at that time. 'Eip6i]rrav raur Tlipaat aTtiKoptvoi, they came 
before the Persians. Hdt. Oii' Spa Kipxtiv iXSorrtB iktjSoiuv, nor 
did KM come mlhout Circus knowing it, Hom. See exaniples under 
§ 204, N. 2. 

The perfect participle here has its ordinary force, 

NoTK. The participle with S(ar«X('B, to continue (§ 279, 1), 
o'xopiai, to be gone (§ 27 T, 2), SaixlCu, to be mmt or to be fre- 
quent, and some others, expresses the leading idea; but the aorist 
participle with these has no peculiar force; as ^;^Fnu iptoytiv, he 
has taken flight (g 200, N. 3); oi 6aiuCw Karafialpmr eit rir 
UttpaiS, you don't come down to the Peiraeu* very often, 


2M STHTAX. [S.280. 

9. 'Wth Terbi ngnifying tooverloet ae to aUetf (yftptopia 
and t^opim, with vrpinSov Rud AnIBtv, Bometimes ttSop), the 
partlnple ia ueed in the aeiue of the ot^ect infiflitive (§ 260, 1), 
the preBent and aorist participles difTering merely as the present 
aod Boriet infiiiitiTes would differ m dmilar oonBtruotiona {§ 202, 

n Big. 

H^ wtpJitt/iai ippiirStitrar r^v AouSo^ioki oil Kara^povti~ 
Bt'itray, let lu rM aUoio Laetdaenum to be tnivUed and despiied. 
Mq ft' iBctv BarirO' vr aarmv, not to lee me tilled bg eiiixens. Eur. 
"fk^vai <rt ipAtray, that thou skouldst take courage to do. Soph. 
ntpudni' T^¥ yijr riitjBrlaaif, to allma the land to be ravaged. Thuc. 
n. 18. (But in n. 20, we find »f)uStui rlfit y^» rp^S^rai, referriog 
to the aame thing.) See § 204, K. 2. 

§ 280. With maDy verbs the participle Btande in indi- 
lect discourse, each tense representing the corresponding 
t«nse of tiie indicative oi optativa 

Such verba are chiefly those Bignifying to see, to perceive, to 
know, to hear or learn, to remember, to forget, to tkow, to appear, 
toprove, to achnov)Udge, and iyyiW», to oTtnounce. 

See § 246 and examples ; and § 211 for examples of the par- 
ticiple with Ar representing both indicative and optative with At. 

Note 1. &^\6r tlpt and t^artpSs tlpi take the participle 
in indirect discourse, where we use an impersonal construction ; as 
8^oi ifi- ot6pirot, &c., it una evident that he thought, lie. (UIca 

8^Xoi> ^y in olwro). 

~Scrta 2. With trivoiia or ffvyyiyv^iraa and a dative of 
the reflexive, a participle may be in either the nominative or dalive; 
as irivoiia tpaur^ riiiKtifttrtf (or ^iiKifpivot}, I am conscioui 
to mytelfthat I have been wronged. 

KoTE 3. Most of the verba included in § 280 may t^e a clause 
with on in indirect discouise. 

Most of them are found also with the infinitive. Otfia taken the 
infinitive regularly when it means / know how; as oI8n toO™ jiaBtlr, 
I know horn to learn thU (butoStanwro paBiiy, Iknmaihat t leamtd 

NoTK i. 'Or maybe used before this participle in the sense ex- 
pluned in § 277, N. 2. The genitive absolute with wr is sometimes 
found where we should expect the participle to agree with the object 
of tlie verb; u j>i trdktfum Svrat vap vpAy dmrfyrXui aAoII 1 

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tmn/Ance fiviti y<m Mat (Ken; » worf Qit (utumtnif ttet (ften> u tour, 
AaU I announce i( _^wm ymif), where we might have vdXcfio* tbru 
ArayyAA; witb leu emphaaia. 


§ 28L The verbal in -rem baa botb a persoruU and an 
imperaonal construction. 

1. In the peraontd constmction it is passive in sense, 
and expresses necessity, like the Latin participle in ~dus. 

'Q0(Xi;T(a otM i; *dXic itrrlv, the city muM be benefited by gott. 
'AXXas fKrotrt/iirrcac cinu (l'0ij), he Mtd that other (ehipt) rnu^U 
teni for. *0 Ujw ^ifrior ittrir, lehot I tag nuat be ipoken. 

The Qoun denoting the agent is in the dative (g 188, 4). 

2. In the impersonal construction the verbal is in the 
neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes plural), with 
itrri expressed or understood. It is adive in sense, and is 
equivalent to StS with the infinitive. 

The agent is generally expressed by the dative, some- 
times by Uie accusative. These verbals may have an 
object like their verbs. K g. 

ToCm 7ftir (or ij/iar) iroi^rio* iarlw, we rtmst do litis (equivalent 
to mtlTB 'ifiat Aft im^mii, §184, 2, N. 1). OtirTfOV rdit, me mast 
bear thete things («c f^)- Ti &r air^ Koi^rtor (17,- tnkal waulct 
hebeobliged to dof 'E-^^ltrarro woXi/iiirta taia, Iheif voted that 
tAejr mtu( (70 (o toor (=: 9(iv iroX(ficti'). Toil ^liftaxovi oi n-apaSo- 
ria Tw 'A^pafnr, voe mxaf not abandon our aUi«« to the Athenuint. 

The Latin has this eonatruction (tut seldom with verbs which take 
an object accusative) ; BsEmidimeit t9ti (iTiaritrrl tm), — Moriendum 
est omnibtu, — Bello uiendvm est nobis (r^ mAejn^ ^fpijOTem ctfrlv $/uv). 
Mil! must go to war. (See Madvig'a Latin arommar, g 421.; 


$ 282. 1. All interrogative pronoonfi, pronominal w^eo- 

tives, and adv«Fbs can be used in both direct and indirect 

queBtiouB. The relative iam (sometimes &) and moat other 

relative words may be used in indirect queetions. (See § 149.) 

2. The prinoi|«l dirttA interrogative particles are ( and ipa. 


206 8THTAI. [S 28S. 

These imply uotliing as to the answer expected; but ipa oi 
implies that an afirmative, ipa n^ that a ntgative, answer is 
expected. Ov and iiSj alone ore often iised with the Bame force 
as with ipa. So ftwp (for iat) o2v). K g. 

*H iTxtAii tttTtu; wiU Ihert be leisure t *kp' tlal riMt ofuu; are 
tAere any daeruing onetJ *Ap' ou (or Ou) ^oiXio6t tkBtaii do you 
n/yt iBvih to go (i. e. you wiah, do you not) ? 'Apa /17 ^ovkttrSt fKBtiv ; 
(or M^ povKt(r6t ; or Mw ^ovXicrdc ,■) do you vmA to go (you doa'l toish 
to go, do you) ! This distiiictioD between ov and fiq does not apply to 
the interrogatiTe subjunctiTe (§ 25G), wliich allows onlj n^. 

3, *AXXo T> ^! w It aaythiag else than? or simply iWo n; 
ia sometimes used as a direct intorrogatiTa £. g. 

'AXXo ti 4 dduovfwir,- are we not {are we anything eUe than) m 
the icrongf — AXXo n ipokirftiittr i do we not agree f 

4, Jjidirect questions may be introduced by »i, tohether ; and 
in Homer by fj or ^e. E, g. 

'Wpamfaa tl /SouXotro A^Tv, J asked vihelkgr he inished lo go. 'Oixtra 
itraa6pfrot ^ froii ft-' tojt, fte h«u yone to inquire whether poaaiUy you 
were stiU Hoing. Horn. 

5, AUemative questions (both direct and indirect) may be 
introduced by vArrpa* (trirtpa) . , . ijf, ukelker . . . or. Indirect 
alternative questions can also be introduced by d . . . f , tin . . . 
(iTt, «lTf . . . ^f, whether ... or / and in Homer by y (^«') . . . 
?(W. E.g. 

Uirtpor t^ ^PX'"" 9 SXXov latS'urrris ; do you attorn him to rule, or 
do you appoint another T 'Epovktitro tl wiiarmiw nrac ^ jniiTtc lotfr, 
he wa» ddiberating whether they should lend some or should all go, 


§ 283. The Greek has two negative adverbs, o£ and m- 

What ia said of each of these applies to its compounds, — oiitlt, 

oiii, i^Tt, dec., and fU)3ei», p^ifii, lufTt, &0. 

1. Ou is used with the indicative and optative in all inde- 
pendent sentences (except leiehet, which are really eUiptical 
protases, § 251, Note 2); also in indirect disc<mree after &n 
and ui, and in causal sentences. See Note, below. 

2. M7 is used with the subjunctive and imperative in all 
ooustruotions (except the Homeric subjunctive, § 256, which 


9 us.] NEOATIVES. 207 

has the force of a fvitore indicatiTe). H j is naed in all final aad 
olffeet clauses after wo, fimw, Ac ; txoept after f4> ^> which 
takes ov> It is used in all aonditional sentences, in relative 
sentences vith an ind^nUe anteeedent (§ 231) and the corre- 
sponding temper^ sentences after tas, vpit, &c (§§ 239, 240), ' 
in relative sentencea expressing a pwrpote (§ 236), and in all 
espressioQS of &vnth (§ 251). 

3. H^ is used with the infinitive in all constructions, both 
with and without the article, eioept that of indirtet diicowte. 
In indirect discourse it regularly has oS, to retain the n^atire 
of the direct diBcourse ; but aonte exceptions occur. 

4. When a participle eipresaes a eonditioK (§ 277, 4) it takes 
liii; so when it is equivtilent to a relative with an indefinite 
anteeedeiU (as ol fi^ ^ouXd^HKit, any -uha do not ijngh). Otherwise 
it takes oi. In indirect discourse it sometime^ like the infini- 
tive, takes ^ insularly. 

5. Adjectives follow the same pnnciple with participles, tak- 
ing fi7 only whmi they do not refer to definite persona or things 
(i. e. when they can be expressed by a relative with an indefi- 
nite antecedent) ; as ol /i^ aya6A mKirai, (any) ciitMni wAo are 
not good, but ol o£k aya6o\ xdXitoi means special ciitKtu who are. 
not good. 

6. When verbs which contain a negative idea (as those of 
hindering, forbidding, denying, eoneealing, and dittratting) ax% 
followed by the infinitive, the negative fi^ can be added to the 
infinitive to strengthen the u^atiou. Snoh a negative cannot 
be translated in English, and can always be omitted in Greek. 
For examples see § 263. 

7. When an infinitive would regularly be negatived by pi^ 
either in the ordinary way (3) or to strengthen a preceding 
negation (6), if its leading wrfi has a negative, it generally takes 
the double negative f^ o6. Thos Kauip iim fJ) TovTar Aijmiiat, 
it it jiut not to aeqmt kim, becomes, if we negative the l«idiug 

verb, oi iliuuiw iuTi liii ov rovntr aifnirax, it it not Jutt not lO 
acquit him. So in oix S<n6r trot £■> ft^ oi ffoifStai iuiaiovirg, tince 
(at you taid) it tnas a failure in piety for you no( to attitt juttiee. 
Again, iJpyii at fiij toCto jcmtlv (§ 263, 1), he prevents you froim 
doing tMi, becomes, with ttpyti negatived, o£k tJpyn 9t fi) «( 
tmro %mt», he doet notprevent youfrom doinj/ thi*. 


208 STHTAZ. [I88S. 

Hi} ai is used also -wheiithe leadif^ verb is inteirogdliTB imfrfjii^' 
'a negative; as ri c^ivoSti* iii/ o&][( v/S^Dfi^yout aso6aitir! what 
it Here lo prtvtnt (to) from being intuited and peruhingt 

It is sometinkes used with p^Uciplea, or even nouns, to express an 
exeeptum to a negative statement. 

8. When a negative b followed by a tingle negative (ov or 
fi^) in the same clause, each retains its own force. If they 
belong to the same word or exfo^ssion, they make an afitrma- 
tim; as eiSi tAi- topitUua oS^ ^Pft '""' *•«• A<t ««< *« Phormio 
(i. e. Ae *eet Phormio leell enough). But if they belong to difi^ 
ent words, each is independent of the other j aa ov 3(' i/tmiidar 
yt oi ipqam fx*tr o rt c!iri)r, it w not turdy throvgh inexperiertee 
that you mil tkay lAat you have anything to say; ov fuiiw o4 
vtiOomnr, they not only do not obey; tl fi Hpi^m* ot>x vvfAf- 
jo»To, */ they had not refitted to receive Proxeaiu. 

But when a negative is followed by a compound negative in 
the same clause (or by several), the negation is strengthened ; 
as Smv roifrav o£9(ii tic otiiiw avStvit jl* it/iMli oiiiwort 
yipatro (Efuc, if it teere not for tkii, no one of jnw teould ever 
eome to be of any value fiir anything. This does not apply to 
cases in which ov is merely interrogative (^ 262, 2). 

For the double negative o£ f4> ^^ § ^^T- 

Note. An ereeption to g 283, 1 occurs in indirect questioiia after 
d, vkether, in which f4 (^i^ be used as well as ai. Also in the aecoad 
port of an indirect alternative question (§ 282, 5) both mi and f4q are 
allowed. Thus anoiciiittr tl irpimi ^ oij let im look and see whether 
U a becoming or not; tl Si SKi/Bts ^ >i^, wtipiaoiim iioBiiv, but I'milt 
try lo learn tdhetier it it true or noL 

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§ 284. A VBBBB IB compoMd of portionB called feet. The 
followiDg are the feet of two and three eyUables : — 

docket _ _ Ihdyl AmjAi&raeA _ _ „ 

lambut Anapaat Sacehiai ^ 

Spondee Trii/radi „ ^ „ Antibacckwt ^ 

I'yrrkK „ _ Cretie j. „ — Molomu 

The following are the feet of four syllables : — 

ChoricemJnu „ _ Sitrodue 

Irmxc a majore ^ „ Diiambiu „ _ „ _ 

lomc a mmore „ „ Ditpondee _ 

Froaletiematic „ _ ^ Atttitpati ^ _ _ _ 

To these are to be added 

FomPaeont, _^ , _ — _—, __ — _, __^ j 

And four ^p^trte«s, , ^„ , , ,. 

The Doekmiut faaa five ByllableB, — > 

§ 285. 1. Vcnea are called TnxAaic, Iambic, Dactylic, &o. 
from thoir fbndamental foot. 

2. In most kinds of verse a Tromometer consistB of ohe foot, a 
dimeter of two feet, a. trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, or heaxaneter, 
of three, four, five, or six feet. But in trochaic, iambic, ami 
anapaestic verses, which aro measured by dipodiei (i. e. pain 
of /eel), a monometer consists of one dipody (or two feet), a 
dimeter of four feet, a trimeter of six feet, and a tetrameter of 
eight feet. 

3. A verse which has an unfinished foot at the close is called' 
ealalertie {tarSktjKTot, stopped short). A complete verse is called 

Terses are called cataleclic in lyllabam, in iliiigllabiim, or in tritiyl- 
bbum, according to the ntunher of syllables whidi appear in the un- 

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finished foot. A verse ca(af<e(tc in lyUabam is someUmes said to be 
hi/percaUdectic (or redundant) ; tlius a trimeter catalectic in tyUdbam 
can. be called a dimeler hyperealaleclie. 

§ 286. 1- A loDg syllable is coimdered the metrical equiv- 
alent of two abort ones, and is (^n resolved into these, aa 
when a tribrach .^ „ w standa for a troDhee _ _ or an iambus 
„_. Two short syllables are often contracted into one long 
syllable, as when a spondee stands for a dactyl _ „ „ . 

2. The last syllable of every verse is common {n/ttaba aneepi), 
and may be considered long or short to suit the metre, without 
regard to its usual quantity. But the continuous lyitemt de- 
scribed in § 298 allow this only at the end of the last verse. 

§ 287. I. The aylkble of a foot on which the stress of 
voice iiOui or rhythmical accent) fella is called the arau; tbo 
rest of the foot is called the tJiesi^. The ictiis properly fells on 
a long syllable ; as i„, ^i, i , z., i^_i. 

When a long syllable in the anb is resolved into two short, (g 288, 
1), the ictus properly belongs to the two, but is usually placed on the 
first Thus a tribrach used for a trochee i- ^) is .iww ; a tribrach 
used for an iambus (^i.) is .,i_. So a spondee used for a dactyl 
(-t„„)ia^_| s spondee used for a anapaest {„ .^ ij is L. Like- 
wise a dactyl used for an anapaest is _ .^ ^ . The spondee and tribrach 
have no naturd arsis or thesis; and they are used only as metrical 
equivalents of feet which have these naturally marked by a long 

3. The ictui was entirely independent of the word-accent, 
although we do not know how the two were distinguished or 
reconciled by the Greeks in reciting poetry. 

We usually mark the tcftw by our accent (as the only representa- 
tive of the ancient ictus which we have), and neglect the word-accent 
or make it subordinate to the ictus, 

§ 288. 1. Certain verses have an introductory foot prefixed 
to them, called a bagii, A basis is generally a tnxhu, iawbui, 
or ^>ondee ; sometimes a tribrach, dadt/l, or anapaeit. 

2. A tingle syllable prefixed to a verse of which the first 
syllable has the ictut is called anaenttis (drdtpovait, upward beat), 

§ 289. Cattwra i}. a. catting) of the foot occurs when a, word 

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raids in the middle of a foot. 'Hub becomeB importaiit when it 
coincides with the catna-a of the ver»e<, which is a pause introduced 
into the verse to make it more melodious or to aid in its recital 
In many Terses the place of one or both of these caeeuiaa ia* 
fixed. See § 293, 4 ; § 295, 4 and 5. 

§ 290. Trochaic Torses are measured \fj dipodies (§ 286, 2). 
The trochaic dipody has the latt syllable common, _„_3. 
In trochaic verse, therefore, the tribrach ^ „ „ can stand iu 
any place for the trochee; and the spondee oan stand in all 
the even places, that is, in the tecond part of every dipody. The 
anapaest is sometimes used as the equivalent of the spondee. 
The dactyl is sometimes used iu proper names. 

§ 291. The fi^owisg are the most common troohaio 

veraes: — 

1. The dimeter (acatalectic and catalectio), — 
#^<n)fuF irpii I Tour nTparrfymf. „ 3 |— •-■ -^ 

2. The tetrameter catalectic^ consisting of seven feet and a 
syllable, or of the two preceding verses combined : — 

*tt <ro^(bra|ro( ASml, |[ tkvpo rin wovv \ rp6<rxm. 

Tffll me nlSt in | mofimful nlimbers, [| Iffe is bfit an [ €mpty dr^am. 

3. The Ithyphallio, which is a trochaic tripods/ (>^o^ allowing 
t)ie spondee or its equivalents), — 

Bl^ror iKTaKiiif. ^ _ ^^ _ 3 

For trochiie ti/itemt see § 298. ■> 

§ 292, Iambic verses are measured by dipodies (§ 385, 2). 
The iambio dipody has the jf r*i syllable common, — _ ^ _ . In 
iambic verse, therefore, the tribrach can stand in any place for 
the iambus ; and the spondee can stand in the odd places, that 
ia, in the firtl paxt of every dipody. The dactyl and anapaest 


21ii IKTBBg. ^ 9W. 

are aliened as equlvalentB of the ipcffidee. The comediani^ 
allow an anapaest to atand irregularly in the Beoond part of the 
iambio dipody ; and even t^e tragediana allov this lio«iBe in' 
proper nuoea. 

§ 293< The following are the most common iamUo versee : -=^ 

1. The monometer, — 

Herd Imcpirmis. C (here ) 

2. The dimeter (acatalectic and catalectic), — 

Zrikm at rf c | riPmAtae, ~ | Z. -~ ■-■ — 

Kai rif XAfov | riji i ) rr». ::; | c: — 3 

3. Ttie tetrameter catalectic, ocnaistihg of seven feeit aiu] ft 
syllable, or ttf the two preceding rerees combined, — 

Els-rp riv Mp' \ utrtpfiakti, || mi fiij yt^ttr \ o^X^imc. 

= ___|=_.-||c_.^|;^ = 
A c&ptain bdld | of H£ljfilx, |[ who Hved in colin|try quarters. 

4. The TRiuBTEB AOATiLLEcmo, the most common of all iam- 
bic verses, in wbich most of the dialogue of the Attic drama is 
oamiposed. It never allows any substitution in the last foot. 
With this exception it may have the tribrach in any place. The 
spond^ can stand in the first place of every dipody. The tra- 
ffeduau allow the anapaest only in Uie first place, and ttie dactyl 
only in the first and third. The eomediant allow the dactyl In 
all the odd places, and the anapaest (t^ comic license, § 292) ia 
every place except the last The most common caesura is that 
after the tketit of the third foot. 

The following scheme shows tbe tragic and the oomic iambio 
trimeter comptu«d,-^the forms peculiar to comedy being eo- 
dosed in [ ]. 

— [__ -] 

[— -] 

In general the tragedians' avoid the feet of three syllables, 
even where they are allowed. The following are examples <^ 
both the tragic and the comic form : — 


r>K.] DAOTTLia TBBSE8. 313 

iKiOr/p h orifuw, Sfianr th | ipifitiwr, 
"H^oiffT*, crol I bi Jipf) liiXtw \ trttirnXda 

(CoDlic.) *Q Zcv jSutriXff/- j t6 Xfi^f" TW | rvitTw &n» 
'Aa^Mivtar- o^Mnf 4f^ I y*>^o*Tati 
'AfnOsio Bfr', j A mftifit, wt>X|X«r oCvom. 
And h6pe to m^r|it Hefiven by iiifik|iDg EArth ft H^ 

For iambic lyiUnu see §. 298. 


§ 294. The regnlar substitnte for the daetyl is the Spondea 

Its other equhralent, the anapaest, is not alloved in dactylio 

verse ; although the dact^rl ia aUowed in anapaestic veAe (§ 396). 

§ 286. The following are the most conuaon dactylio 
Tenea: — 

1. The dimeter, — 

HiHTToddjtai Sd/iat- w w ] w C 

Ho^ SiMKti (Adonio). _ .^ „ | _ i: 

2. The trimeter (aeataleotio and catalectio), — > 

'AftvfxX^ mXad^d. w w | — ^ w | ""^ 

llapOiiKK infipo(ft6pot _ ,^ w I I = 

3. The tetrameter (aoatalectic and oataleotic), — 
Oipmioit n Aow iup^iiara- ^ | w | — :=: [ _ _ o 

'EXAt' lirmlrdfiiHi dvrafuc. .^ | | _ , | ~ 

4. The Heboio Hexaheter, the Homeric verse. It always 
haa a spondee in the last place, seldom in the tifth. The most 
common caesura (called heroic) is in the third foot, generally 
after the artit. If it divides the ihe»ig, it is called a feminine 
caesura. The caesoro sometimea occiirs after the arsis of the 
fourth foot. A Terse-caesura at the end of the fourth foot is 
called bueolie, from its freqireat occurrence in bucolio poetiy. 

For examples see the Iliad and Odyssey. 

6. The &1.E0IA0 Distich consists of an heroic hexametw fol- 
lowed by the Elegiac pentatnMer. This pentameter oonuats of 
two dao^lie tzimeterB- cataleotie (2), eaoh oontaining two and a 

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214 HETBEg. 1 390. 

'ha^ feel (x w X » w x), and arose from a lepetitioD of 
the first paUhemm (^five hatf-feet) of the hexameter. A caesQ' 
lal pause always divides the two parts. The last two complete 
feet are always dactjl^ The following is aa Elegiao Distich: — 
Tir M ^or, W ii \ ttpwrir, &\m xfnxnV 'A^lBiTijcj 

NoTB. In the Honierio verse and in Lyric poetry, a long vowel 
or a diphthong is often shortened at the end of a word when the next 
word begitu with a voweL E. g. 

*0 virtu, \ f fuiXa i ft^ /im|^uXni|<nir Aai \ StXttt. 

Xp6<Tt<f (IInI cncq'vTpf, Kol (;XunrfTo | vumt 'A\j(iuavt (§ 10), 

This sometimes occurs in the middle of a word. Sometimes a 
Short final vowel occurs in Homer where » long one is required by 
the verse. This can often be explained by suppo^ng a following 
eemi-vowel to have been doubled in pronunciation. Many anomalies 
in Homeric quantity are explained by the otnisaton of Vau or Digmtt- 
ma (gl, Note 2); as nHov ol ( ) for roulr fd*. 


§ 286. Anapaestic verses are measured by dipodies {§ 285, 
2). The spondee and the dactyl (_ j. and _ i „) may stand 
for the anapaest The proceleusmatio ( i _) ocoura occa- 
sionally in comedy; but generally a succession <^ four short 
syllables was avoided. 

§ 287. The following are the most common aoapawtio ' 
verses ; — 

1. The monometer, — 

TpAirer nlyirnuiv. I 

Kol A>w atrtlv. I _ _ 

iviUJtHUHK 6ltOV, _ _ I , 

2. The dimeter acatalectic, — 

ISiyar h 6«imv \ KkA^omt 'hptf. ^^ _ _ — |— ____ 

Oti^ hatarlait \ SKy%m wa^m: _ | „ _ 

And the (3ive of pedcejl sends its bMlnches abro&d. 

;.. Google 


3. The dimeter cataleotio, or paroemiae, — 

'H/Mtr <rTpoTiS|Ti» aptrfo*. | ~ 

Otlra ffXoiTqlirtTV nmmt. ~|v 3 

The L6rd ia ad vio| Icing. Prepiireyel _j;. i I w _ -t ^ 

4. The tetrameter catalectic, oonaiBting of seven feet and a 
ByUable,''or of the two preceding versos combined. The prin- 
cipal verae-caesura is after the second dipody. 

IIpoiT^rrt rir nmv | Tnit ^araroit \ \ Ifliai, Toit id\iv icSm, 
Toit alBtpiou, ] Twnr ayiiptfs, || rou S<p6tTa /ii7]iofiJH>u7iv. 

§ 308. An afuipcKttio tyttem consistB of a series of anapaes- 
tie dimeters aeatalectie, with occafiionally a monometer, ending 
fdways with the paroemiae (or dimeter ctUaltctic). These are 
very fi*equently employed in both tragedy and comedy. 

Iambic and trochaic systems are sometimes formed, on tlie same 
principle, of iambic or trochaic dimeters acatalectic, with occasionally 
amonometer, ending alwaya with a dimeter catslectic. 


§ 299. The most common equivalent for the choriambus is 
the iambio dipody or diiaTobut, which very often alternates with 
the choriambus. The most oommon forms of catalectie ehori- 
ambic verses are produced by dropping one, two, or three sylla- 
bles of a final iambio dipody. Thus, a choriambic dimeter may 

have the form j„ ;:;. By dropping one syllable 

we have _, | 3, a dimeter catalectie in ampkibrachyn ; 

by dropping tvro syllables we have | ^ = , a dimeter 

catalectie in iamAum ; and by dropping three syllables we have 

— , I — , a dimeter catalectie in lyllabam (or a monometer 

hypereatatectic, % 285, 3). 

§ 300. The following are examples of some of the most 
common choriambic verses : — 

'Y^ifn'ioFlro fiir Sihv, ' ^_ dimeter scat. 

Zrpia r!ipaii\iior Uxop^' 1— — dimeter acat. 

npSrra liiyav [ KucK^aKw- _— Z; dim.CitaL tnamyAiftracft^n. 

Kol rir fteya\(r6tinj Tptal\rrit n^iiav,! 

3 I w— I trimeter acat. 

r^t T€ Ktu iX\iivpat $akair\<r^t iyfUav j ^jikrunpf 

•— I 1 ■— I — lelram. cataL tn amphtbrvohyn. 

;.. Google 



T6w ff tmwowi\fiar, it nrep- — — . 
X^ftVpou mcrilo-iP tarixu 

r^ Xf'ldm^ liiyas h \ Suit 

'£r An^lnMirf n daflftair. 

Of the last four Tereee, the third ia a Glyeomc, & dimeter c&talectic 
M umfrwn, with « bagig (g 288, 1) ; the two precediiig ue variatiaDa 
of the QAjoamo, monometen with double basis; and the last ia « 
Phtreeralk, a dkaeter catalectic in »^labam, with a bade, or a QXj- 
conic shortened by one ^lUble. 


% SOL 1- A verse beginning with dactyls and ending vtth 
trochees ia called loj/aoedie. £. g. 

Jia(^uipf])au ir ovyoW) w || w — 

2. The same name ia ^ven i 

paesta and ending witii iamlu. I 

'Opyis iiM](oTo Kal || lhi<rav\a». 

a verse beginning with anft> 

;,. Google 


ckfAW&Tm m Tm PEiNciPAii BBfieniAK vesbs. 

Hon. Oliii oattdogoe oontnn* gmatfUj onlf the tprma ffl^ch -bis 
found in the ttiiotlr rlmrir Onek beftin AiiatqtU. The tew otfyn taraa 
are m&Aed as laltr, AU toiws wluoli an jiot tued by AOic .writen an 
encloaed in [ \ except occadonall; tiie pieaant indioatire of ^ y«ib-.whV!li 
u Attic in other Unace. Some.pura veths which MtUQ tlie ah^It yoKd. of 
Hut stem (§ 106, N. 3) or which inaeit *■ in tiie perfect and aorist piusive 
tS 118, H. I), bat SM wgolar in other rsi^icts,— for exMUple, t<Uw, — arp 
not inserted. The tin^ Mm {9 107), -yhai tiaa does sot appear in the 
pieeent, is «dded in ( ) ; bnt-vlitu dte aimple .ctem ie jnodifled in oert^ 
-temei -(not 4he preeoDt) by adding 4, b« in olgMtouat, only the ,gi«^er 
form is given. A hyphen prefixed to a word [as t^ka) indicates ^t it 
occora only in campomtion. Th)B ia omittodi hQ^qrer, if t^ tdmple form 
oecnri even in later Qieek. 

Tlie impeifeat la pluperfect is genei^y omitted when the pTeeeut ta^et- 
Jhat is giTcn. Tery &equeDtly also the fature or aodat middle ig omitted 
when the»oriat*cti»Bifl,giTeu; and the Siture pasdTe, when the 
aorist pBsdTe is given. The catalogue, therefore, ^oea not ■ffxileaa to indioate 
verba which are 1&/M1M in d«M tttuof. 

'ATOfut, atbmrt, [Ep. fat. iyiveiuu, lafSi] iyie^, 4 

'A^niAiXa (d-jryeX-), ammma, drV'Xil [dyi^XAni fvTtAa, fr7^<«> tn«^- 

fai, irfrf^Sij^. Second amiats with \ are rare or donhtfoL 
'ATttpw {iytp-}, alkd, a. Ijytipa ; [Ep. pip. p. ArVf^P^'^o i a. p. ffipB^, 

2 a. m. Aytp6iair with part, iffidturot.^ 
'Ayyofi (Fa7-), in conip. also iyria, bnak, dfu, fofa (randy 4f><lt 

2 p. -tiya [Ion, Ivr'i 2 a. p. iiyiir [Ep. 4yit»]. 
'Ay*, Itad, «fu, Mo (™re), ^a (in comp. ), fri^h ixfiw i 2 a. traynF, 

tfyifv, at*^' (<" pw».). ["■ »»■ *fi/»i'.3 

;,. Google 


[f AS-, U«-)i k laUd, stem with ftoi. opt i&irtixr, pf. parL dS^nit. E^c] 
'AMm, Kng, dcfirw and lUkro/uu, ^tura. In Attic prose, fSa, faonai {firw, 

rare), jini, jira'P'- 
'A(£fMt (liv)i 'o'^BU^, f. dtpi^ Afd, a. i|f«>ia, i}^p^i|r; [Horn. pip. p. iapra 

for fefTs.j In Attic prose always «X^ {^)i itp^i '!?<'> ^f^ 4lVi<*'> 

ItfSTir ; ifiaSiiai, igiiiiTp. Poetic 2 a. m. iftb/iiir, 
'Ai|)u (lU-), i'oia, inf. d^rai, d^uxu, pajt. dcii ; imp. ivfi. Mid. Jiytiti, 

imp. i-fa^Tf- Poetic, chiefi; £pic. 
AI8fa|uu, poet. ofSofuu, raptd, aitttaiiat, iStir/Mi, sMt^, ^Sead/ii^. 

[Horn, imperat. alddo, £ 121, 2.] 
Atv^ praitt, aMiru [alr^u], freaa ['jr^raX -fitKa, -^rwuu, iriSTfi. 
Alpiii {^X-), talctftip^iea, iflta, ipV"* [Udt. d^xi^qica, dpaJpij^uu], •gpiB^i 

fut. pf. lip^irivHu (rare) ; 2 a. irXor, fXu, &c. ; (IXJ/up, IXw/uu, && 
,Up"i Attic prose focm of dc^. 
i AivMvo|uu (9ls8-), pmmx, attSiiaaiuu, •gaSruioi, ^Btiiv. Prea. oXaBeiua 

(rare and doubtful). 
['Axax't** i^X-t A«>X')i ^>('t ■''^X^^'i dcdxiira ; p. dcdxwuu, ixixifBat, 

Amxttttrot (or -^^wnt) ; S k. 1}«ixV| lUaxofiy. £pic.] 
['AKOiXH^vot, Aarptmd, Epic perf. part, with no present in use] 
*Ajco<m (did-), iatr, iKodaaiiai, ^couro, 2 p. dit^xM [par. p. dmiunji 4""^ 

ir0^, dicai'0'ffi^/iai. 
'AXdo|w*, wawfa-, p. dXdX^fioi (as pres.), a. dXi)0^. CUeQf poetic. 
"AXBoiv- (dX8-l, ntmrah, [Ep. 2 aor. ifXio™-.] 

'AX^a CdXH-), nmf og; fat. [Ep. dXff^u] dVf4n>/iai or dX^EOfHU ; aw. 

^X^fijo-a (-4X({a, rare), i^Xcfd^ip ; [Ep. S a. dXaXicar for d^-oXuxV.] 
['AXi^iai, amid. Epic ; aor. 4^d/Hp.] 
'AXf4>«, oVCTt, itXeiifru, fXciwo, ^Xcuiifii]*. 
*AU*, ffnW, dXfou (dXa), ^Ximt, dX^wfw or dXi)Xe;iat. 
'AUoncoiuu (dX-, dXo-), k cajilvrtd, dXiimfui, fXwn or ^dXcua, 2 •(«. 

fKuw or /dXarr, dXfl [Epic dXiiu}, dXoJirt, dX&ni, dXp^. AH pu- 

BiTe in meaning. No active dXinru, lint see &v-aXbmi. 
'AXi^fabm (dXir-), «m, 2 aor. ^XItop, [dXirJ/iij*.] Mid. dXtralvOfuu [perf. 

part. dXniifuMi, rriih^}. ChieBy Epio. 
'AiXArvm (dUuiY-), (Aange, dXXdfu, ke. regular ; 3 a. p. iJXXdTiir. 
'AXXofuu (dX-), bap, dXofVioi, 4Xd/»)r ; 2 a. i^X^^ (rare). [Epic 2 a. dXtfo^ 

aXro, dVnof, by syncope. 8 122, 2.] 
'AXfonca (dXiin-), amid, iXi^u and dX^^ioi, ifXufs (rarely -ofH^). 
'AX^dva (dX^), _fiiid, acqmre, [Epic 2 aor. jJA^or.] 
'AfWfrrdvn (d/uif>r-), or, d^ui/>n}aD;ui, i]itipT^iai, ^MpiW^i ^V^C^fiVi 

2 aor. fuapriH' [Ep. ^i^/xmv]. 
*A|ipXtaiut [iupJiu in compos.), nikon;, [df43Xd««^ l*te,] ifri^Xuvin, 

-iI^i^XMra, -ffi^Xufiai, i^i^iitfiir. 

;.. Google 


'Ajftlfi and 4|i^p8a [i/itp-), dgprivt, Ifiupmi, ■fiti^p$i)r. Pa«tic. 

'Af.'w-txm and i^ir-itr\it {d/i^ and 'x<i), iBrup <dioul, clcthe, d/i^fu, 2 «. 

^liwurxor. Mid. iiitixo/iai, iftrtax"!'"' iiariax'^'l"^ ', imp- 4f"OX^ 

/ifp'j 2 a. •/f/triax^/i't'' ftnd iJ/trftT^^d^ip. 
'AtMrXaxCvKit (i/irXaK-), vt, nun, i)^>-XiUwuu ; 2 a. 4f ^hkw, part, i/i- 

r\aiiiir or ilrXiuiir. Poetic. 
['Ainvia, Epic for dnTv/u, tote irvolA, only in «. p. i/irrMif, and a. m. 

d^nvro for iftwtim,] 
'Af^i/ratii, doubt, ^ii,^tyr6ior ani fgi^eyrinr, luupffrbrfVA \ aor. pasa. part. 

ili4iyni^tit. See % 105, 1, Note S. 
'At4v-fryii|ii (see brufu), dmhe, fut [Ep. dfi^i^irw] Att -d^fi ; ■fnufUtra, 

iJfi^eiTfiai, iii^uvd/itir (po«t.). 
'A|i4<^^T^ liupiite, augmented ifi^- and 4fi^<r-. 
'Avofvopoi {4«»-)i i^J^i "op. ■h'aaiiiirir, aor. ^nj^dfHp. 
'AvoXimtB and AvaXda, expend, ieiKtiirw, iriXura and dniXciWU (>3ir- 

-qtttXuwa), ird\am and dn)\ij«i, drdXw^iu and in^Xu/ioi, dwXii^v and 

'AvUva (RiJ-, dS-), p/aiM, dS^iru, [2 p. Epic taSa,] 2 a. ISSar and Uor 

[Epic tBaSor, liraSor]. Ionic and Poetic 
*AWx«, haldup; see lx"> and § 105, 1, Note 3. 
'Ax-oifrvfjk and ivot-YB (see offyv/u), opoi, imp. irdfyvr [Epic tb'vrn'] ; 

diwlfu, d>^t>fa (ifiwfa, rare) [Hdt. awtfa], dv^a, iriifr^iiat, irt^Bjp 

(aabj. d»i>ixSi2, Ac.) ; fut. pf. ittiftaiiat. 
'Af-opWo, <rt uprigit, angm. (U™p- "id ^p-. g 106, 1, Note 3. 
'AtAyn, order, edi€rt, imp. Ijnryor ; iwiju, Ifjwfo ; 2 p. imya (aa prea.], 

with imperat. irux*'. i*^*". *»ux^- Ifn^i'^ ""^ Poetic. 
f A'B'-avpd«), toils a««7, not fonnd in present ; imp. Arjitpur ; a. m. diijit- 

pd/Bjr (t)i aor, part. d»oilpoi, irovpifUKit. Poetic. 
'ATO+ioxa (dxo*-), dMOiee, 2 a. fl»a*or [2 a. m. opt. dTo^oI/iiir]. Poetic. 
■Air(xei»0|MU {^»-). *« *<*^. ilT*%«iiiriV«". dTiSxS'J/io* i 2 »■ irnxSil^V 
'At&ypTi, U Mffice*, impersonal. See xp^> 
'ApofCcncM (dp-), jB, ^paa, ^pBw i 2 p. ipif» i 2 a. ^papw ; 2 a. m. part. 

apfiCToi (as adj.), JiSting. 
'Aphiu* {ipf), pioMe, dpi<r«, iiptra, ^pArfti*. 
•Ap|*il« or ip|i^ [Ion. ifiii-rira], JU, ippi-TU, 1ip/«wa [irw-ipfio^ Pind.1 

'Af^, ;)foujrt, <p«ra, [p. p. Ion. ipijaicp",] iij)**iK- 

'Apn&lja (ij«rB7-), ia«, dprda-u and ipxi£ffO((oc [Ep. d^itfif], ifriiroifo [Jb>' 

Tufa], ijpTMa, Ijpwai^tau, ^pwiire^ [Hdt. ^ixSl*]- 
[•A-rwdMut (driToX-), (OT(i; apr. drfriiXo. Poetic] 

*Afi£dvu or all£iii (aSie-), InereaK, aiHiru, ijOfmra, ijflfii™, lOivP^j JjifiS^W 
■A+-;iiiii,Wjo, imp. d*-li)>'(or#-); ftit. d0- V. io. See g 129. 
■Axfcjwtt (dx9<-), *« ditpUavd, ix^iaaiuu or ix^t<r»^roiuu, feW*^ 


Bolv* (^-J, JO, JS^^VUU lp<*t- except in oomp. ), fii^ica, -fifpliau, -^itftj* 

{rare); 2 a. f(V (like &np); 2 p. (jafpaa) 3«pa, to. {§ 130, 1); 

[ft. to. Ep. ipvAiBti (rare) and ^^i/utv], la active Muse, nniM lo^, 

poet, ^u, t^wa. 
BfUs (^X), lirom, L [fidKhJ] ^a (rarelj ^XV), jS^^m, /94!Xw«» 

[Ep. pe^ivuul ip\i»^ ; 2 n. f^Xw, ipaXt/i.^ ; fat. m. ^oCjiw ; 

fiit. pf. PfPitiirraiuu, [3 s. m. Ep. ;px^»wj».] 
B^lp^na (;9fw-). <"'• P- P^Pp^i, ^tPfx-^"^ [i^piiierfii ; S «. ^puv ; lilt. pC 

firfipiliaoiuu] ; 2 p. part, ^^piit |§ 130, 1). 
Bi^ hve, pui-roiuu, ipluaa |inrc], ^/Slain, (^^u>uu] ^^futtu ; 2 a. ^Cuv 

(like fynar, g 127, Note 1). 
BiAnO|iai, ren'n!, ^^unrd/dj*. 

BX&'m* IpSafi-), mjart, psi'f'ia, ko. legaiai ; S a. p. ffihi^Tir. 
tDtarriint [p\a^-), ^rvut, ptuurrfyiu, fee. ; 2 a. l^haaror. 
B)Un, we, pj^pai [Hdt. -^iA"]. fpX(^ 

BXAniN {/uX-, M*-> ^■>~]> ^' ^XnGfHu, p. iiip^nxa, 2 a. liio\i». Poetio. 
BoAm (^), lAmf, ^D^mifiai, t^iniira. [loD. -fiiiaoiiiu, ipiMa, (jS^^Ufuu) ^ 

BvOoiuu (^vXc-), inU, wuA (angm. <^uX- or i)f^X-)i ^Xi[awfKU, ^/3s^ 
Xiifuu, i^ouXijev' ; 2 p. rpo-pipov\a, pnfir. 

roiUn (-yo^), marry (udd of a man), E -ya/iO [7a/iAj], a. ^^la, p, yeyd- 
UTIKO, Ttyi/tTjIuu ; a. m, iyifiiS^^. Mid., iwuTy {said of a woman). 

r>fvt4> (i™^), Aoia, ttyiM^u, {hfcyiSiTTtaa) yeyunjaat ; 2 p. ytfon, 
ittbj. yryiimi, impel. T^ytiw, [inf. 7e7»w^;te»i part, 7f7uwiJt.] 

PtX&a, lau^, yeXiaaiuu, lyf\aiTa, iyi\deBj)r. 

Vrfiim {yrfi-), rejoice, {ynB^^, iyifiir"'' ;] 2 p. ytyiflt (aa pres.). 

Ty\p6/wa and YT|pd*i, yrDuj oW, yripiciii and y^piffo/uu, iy-fipdaa, yeyiipdtvi 

(qib oU) ; 2 a. {iyhl>^) [^'W Horn,], inf. -yiTpit™!, pt. Tnpiti. 
rC7V<i|uu and 7{wi|uu [yey- % 108, 8), iecww!, ycrliatinai, yeth^/itu, [^ymf- 

flipDor. and Ion.]; 2. a iyaiiia^ [Ep. yirro iar iyhtro] ; 2 p. y^yom, 

am, poet. (y7<w) S 130, 1, Note 1. 
Tv<ffi>m» [yro-), nosco, know, yrwaofiai, [Ion. d^-#T«j>ra,] pyniiica, fyiwriuu, 

iyKice-nr ; 2 ?,. bfvur, perceiitd. §127, Note 1, 
Tpi^ icrttc, tM^v, be. regular ; 2 a. p. ^,]<0i]r (^/id^^is not classic). 

;,. Google 


(&a-), no preKi&t, toocA, learn, [Sa4<r«fiai, leU^m, SiSitaai, 2 p. (I^Soa) 

g ISO, 1; 3 &. Nfaw 01 ISnw,] 3 a. p. /U;|r. Cliiefl; Epic. 
Aa(i>«)Mi {Su-),Jiatt, lairu, lHaMO, (iSaiaS^) SateStii, iSaisi/a/r, Ghis&jr 

Anffum* (3a-),.(£tiH)is, [Ep. Sd^v^uu,] SMar/uu [Ep. SMoi^iwl Miwdififr. 
AaJm {Sa-], tinJe, [Kp. 2 p. Ui<?ii ; 2 a. («ai^i)r) snt^. Uvtol] 
A&icra (Sox-, ivK-}, bilt, Siifotiai, Siinyi"^ H'^^W i 3 a. IStuttr. 
AafAl» {Sofi', S/ia-), taae, lubdue, [Ep. fat. liaji£) {foi la/idviii), lofulimvuu, J 
iSi/uKO, [U^wiw,] /!ivuia'0ii>' and M^^^ ; iiit. pf. ttS/i^/uii ; 2 l p. 

mm-. • 

AapKvM (9(v4-)i '''^ ^ ^ ISapOet, poet. fjpoAv ; p. mra-kSop^Tinif ; 

KaT-tSdfSi^ (later). 
A«(8m (let', 3i-]i ./eiv, iklirofuu, Htiow, S^Ioua [Ep. Atliaum]. From atom 

8i-, 2 p. U&a [Ep. icf&a]. | 130, 1, Note 2. 
ArfKVop (Sew-). 'A'no: BBe g 136. [lou. ■»{«, -fSefo, -UityiMi (Ep. M- 

ary^Hu), -JV!C«i)»]- 
Alpu,flag, S*p&, IStifKi, SiSapiuu ; 2 t. ^&ifnp. 
A(|u> (i/w-), £ta/d^ ISttfia, [S^S/tij^uu], ^9((f«l/iit>'. Chiefly Ionic 
AlpKO|uu (^-), u^ tUpxfitfi ; 2 a- lipoKor, (iSpitiy) Spaxtli ; 2 p. U^m 

(S 109, 1). 
A(Ao|iM (leve-), Epic for Uofwi. See U«, wnt 
^VHttS rosn'm, S^fuu, J^JO'/u' [Horn, l^anu for ItS^anu], iUx6v> 

iStHnif ; fat. pf. StSiiaiuu ; 2 a. to. chiefly Epic (iSiyiiv) iivro, 

imper. Mfo, inf. StxBai, put. S^>urot (Bametimea as pres.). 
Aiia, Mh^ Ii^u, fStja-a, ttStai (rarely iiinKa), S4St/iai, ilU9ijt ; leS^m^uu. 
Aid (S«-), wmt, Jteed, Sf^u, iShfa [Ep. Mijffa,] JeJAjito, SeJAjjuu, iStiffl)^. 

Hid. Mifuu, ai£. From Epic stem fcv- or itue- come [^Je^a (once In 

Ham.), and ieioiuu, SEin^rofuu]. ImperBonal G«t, debet, there it nerd, 

(one) ought, St^it, iSi^re. 
AMimm (SiSax-), taidi, JtSofw, illSaia [^Si&u-nfcra], ScHSaxn, StSUayiuu, 

AiBp&(nui(Jfia-), only in comp., run aaxtg, -Spdao/uu, -NSpdiia ; 2 a. •fSpni' 

[Ion. IV'I*']i -V^> -I^'P'i •IpoKu, -Spdj, 
^Urnft (St-], give, Siivw, /Suta, StSum, &c.; see g 126. [Ep. Sbiiaai at 

iifor for SoDroi, fat. SiJi^u for iilxiti>.'\ 
itUt], SiSia ; Bee StlSa. 
Aotch (Aw-), wen, iKat, Si£u, fSofii, S^Sa7fuu, ^S^x^ (rare). Poetic So- 

icfyiiii, b,c. regular. ImpeiBooal, SoiuC, tt teentf, &c. 
Afda^ di), V<'"'> (i^>''«^ StSfoKO, iiipiiuu (rarely SiSparitai}, {fSpdfffup'i 

;,. Google 


Aiva)uu, be abh, ftagm. iSoT- and Ifiur- ; Svrfyroitoi, ttSirti^iat, ilvrffiip 

(Toieiy iivria8if)t [Ep. iSvniiialtijr.'\ 
Aiv* (Jv~), inter; 2 a. ISur. See § 126. 
Ait, mate to tnler, 9Arw (D), Afira, S^iuio, aMi;>uii, Mlitfirr (S) ; a. m. ^Sucrif- 

H^ir [Ep. ^KaA^i)*, ioflected as 2 aoT.}. 

'EJM [Ep. (U»3, pemit, idaiii, ttSaa [Ep. Amu], ttata, tli/iai, tldBipr ; idvo- 
luu {aa pass. ]. 

'Sjya6m,pniJir,bHnilh,Kagm.'fi^-0Thryv-liyyryv-). §106, 1, Notes 2,8. 

'Hiydptt {fyip), rail, took, iytpQ, ijyiipa, ty^ip/iai, in4pev ; 2 p. iypii- 
yapa, am aaxitr [Horn, fypjjyipftwi, iypfyopet (for -opmri, -opaTc], inf. 
frp-^opdiu or -ipSai] j 2 a. m. ))7pi/ii|i' [Ep. «t,iJ^ij»,] 

"ESo, mt, seeMUo. 

"Etoiuu, st(, see KoMtofuu and l^a. 

'BNXoi and NX* {ifiiXc-). >oi<^, c^cXlfiru, i)«Ai7ini, ■^iX^pitt. 

'EOCtiB, ocdUfom, Mlfui, elVura, tWuca, ttSuriuu, tlBiirBif. 

llBw, be acciutomed, 2 p. (luda [Ion. laffa], as present. 

ZISov (fl-, FiJ), Tid-i, NW, 2 aor., no present ; (ISa, rSot/u, Or at ISf, Onr^ 
liiir, ) Mid. (chiefly poet, ), <IEo|uu, leem, [Ep, (Iira/ii;r i] 2 a, (IJU/<^, 
aoK', — (IfdC, OlSa ( 2 pf. as pres, ), hua, pip. ^v, jbieir, f. etnoiiai ; 
see § 130, 2. 

(EIkb) not used in pres, [U; (h-, <>{«:-), rexmib, appear, imp. (!l:w, f. «Q<* 
(rare), 2 p. foiKa[Ion, dI™] (with taty^iew, [furrw,] eEfoBi, cLc/nu, rfjnii, 
chiefl; poetic); 2 pip, i ^v [with tfin-irv]. npoii^i^ orllitv [and Ep. 
fwTo or fiirro], sometimes Tsferred to ffa™. ImperBonaIioHM,a»eoM,&c. 

(ESXm) not used in pres. (f\-. <t\-), roll up, pntt togaher, [a. IXffo.] [Pass. 
clXa|wi, p. feX»MH, 2 a. faXijF or iXijv.] Epio. 

EI|lC, fie, and Etju, go. See § 129, I, and II. 

Elmr (nr-), *>«', [Ep. fei«-»,] 2 aor., no present ; (rfrai, rfrm/u, riW 
[Ep. imp, fartrt], ftriTr, elriir) ; 1 aor, rfro (opt ttraiiu, imper. (Iww 
or fiirii", inf. elxai, pt. ftraj), [Hdt. d»-«TaAiij».] Other tenses are ap- 
plied by Horn, rf)™ (tp-), and astern^-: tipita, tpS;p.ttpTtKa,(lpWiV, 
a. p. fflulS^, rarely *W^V [Ion, ftp^ftj*] ; fut. pass. /W**"f«« ! fetpf. 
((piiffD/uu. See Mint. 

EIpa|uu (Ion.), (u£, tlp-f/fopM ; em lpa|iu. 

Bljiu {ip-), toy, Epic in present. See ttvov. 

EIpu (fp-), eero, .joi'n, a, -rtpa [Ion. •f/xni], p. -dfuxi, (I^w<x C^- fcpfO'}- 

'EKKX.iHnii{ai, GiU an assembly (ritK\^la) ; augm. '/jkkXij- and FfrjcXT}-. 

'KXafiiw, poet. «Xau (cX-, Aa-}, dnve, nianh,t. tMaa, cXui ; ^XoTO, fki- 
luuco, cX4^<V«>' [loD- (^il late -aviuu, Hran. ^np. AqXMaro^ HkiSrf' 

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'SDJfXft toiffiHt, ty-h^, V'^iih A^e7/u( (g 113, Note S), p^iyxBv- 
"ESuca (late i\ic6ii), pull, fX{« (rarely iijciaiii), tfkruea, cTXcun, (f\i:ia>uu, 

[TEXt^ couw to hi^, 2 p. loXxa, hope. Mid. •'Xto^uu (ii\r-), hope. Epic] 

'E^lvcOmIb, traffic, inroK^a, Itc. regular. Angta. ^r- or irtiiw-. 

'E*a^ (''(V-)t ^ [^P- *■ >!'. '*^P^''^<] 2 '^ Ijnpcr. Poetic. 

'XWn or tfWvM, >qy, toV, [Ep. f. M^u and Jrum^w,] 2 a. Irunrer. Poetic 

'EMrrw {Ep. Mttu], cAidt, [Ep. 2 a. ^>^l«w and -Ijrlrclror.] 

*Evwp (^-, F<-), Tca-tio, cJo<A<, prea. act. only in comp. [f. twu, a. fomi, 

p. fir/uu] or rl/uu ; [foird^i;v.] In camp. -f«'u, -Ira, -isiiai^, Chiefljr 

Epic : ip^i-twiniiu a tlie common form in prose. 
'Eirdiiip^i* and twavpfna (both rai«), ojty. f. ^muinfira/uu, a. Jnfv^d^^ 

2 a. ^i)ii)]i»ii)v [Dor. and Ep. intiper.'] ChieQ; poetic. 
'"Stwimjfai^ vnderttaad, imp. I^uniiiiir, f. hrvrrfyioiiai, a. jptirHfiifr, 

(Not to be confounded vitli fomu of iiplimfiii. ) 
*Sn> (ffnr-), bt after or itugi tnU, imp. Efcaf, f. -IV"< !! a. -tavm (for '-vtt- 

or), [a. p. npi-^^^ Udt.,] — all chiefly IQ cotap. lix^'hn^ai^fiHov, 

hfoiitu ; 2 a. /inri/it)*, rrfiVuu, &c 
*Xp7dto|iai, Ksnfc, (b, angm. (^, ifTfiaaiMi, c^ryoo'/uu, tlftyir^, ttpya- 

*XpSa and %8« (nj>Y-}, nont, do, (piia, fpfo, [Ion. 2 p. ti>p^a\. Ionic and 

poetic. 8m ^o. 
IIP^Sn, pnip, ^pclirbi (later), Ijpnaa, [-^un, i/r/lptienat with '^tip^rai and 

-aro,] i}pelrrdi)r. 
"EfMluB (<p«.), ten-, ttirrt, flpdfa, tpiiptyiuu, 2 a. ^tiroi'. 
■Ilf>ri»w ( V-)' *■'«' '*<™. ipel^u, fl/Mi^ [*p^xa, kmefaOat, ip^fuiituu}, 

flptl^Sipi ; [2 a. lipirer, iiplnir.] 
''Epiirvtt {/pt-), ttrike, rmo, [Ep. aor. ■tpara.] 
"Epofuu. (rare or I) [Ion. «Ipo|iw, Ep, iptm or lp4a|iu], fut. tp^oiuu [Ion. 

tlp^iraiiai], 2 a. i}pVrr- 
"Eppo {ipp€-), go to datnuiim, lpffi<ra, llppvni, -ftyijia. 
'£pvYY(b'B (^piT-). """^i 2 a. Ijpvyor. [Ion. tpt&yo/iai, ipr6(aiiai.] 
'Spdica, AoMbadt, [Ep. f. ^/n5f«,] i^pufo, [Ep. 2 a. ^piaua*.] 
'Epxo>Lcu (iXuff-, iX-"*-). go, ™«. ^XeiiiTWuu, 2 p. iX-iXiiSa [Ep. ftiJXouftt 

and cai)Xau0a], S a. AXSor (poet. ifXu^or). In Attic pnm, tT>u is nsed 

for t\t6irotuu (g 200, Not« 8). 
*E<rflCa, also Iap4a and ISs (0a7-), edo, out, fnt fSo/uu, p. jJitSoica, iHfita/ua 
[Ep. / J^>ia4 iBi<r&qr ; 2 a. flavor ; [Epic pres. inf. tS/imi for iS-efurai ; 
2 perf. part. ^aifSite.] 
'EvTu{ii,>ail, augment tUm- (g 103). 

KiSa (<M«-), dt^, (6H)tu [-fCS7i<ra]. Commonlj in uaA-Mu. 
TStptmat (tip-), find, lip^u, itpjixa, tlpiinat, tipUv ! 2 a. rfpor, dp4fi)^ 

Sometimes augmented '^. 

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"Bx*> («X-)i *"«. imp- «IX<*; '£" "M »X*«i^ t'XViat, ^"XW™. *»x'*v 
(chieay Ion.); 2 a. f«:i:ar (for i-orjc-w), »%», i'X"'l' ("^"ft"). "X''. 
o;(ci>', cxiir, poet. tvxtSar, be. [Hom. p. part. rvf-i>xainitj. Uid. fx^ 
|iai, ciiN^ fo, ffivuu and ox^TOf^ ^"X^f")'- 

"nim (^fv)> <»°'^> ipfiu and J^iiro^oi, ffiiffa, [^^l^fuu, ipH^v-'l 

Zttt, Uve, g 123, Note 2. Impart tioar and l{ip ; f^u, Ac. 
Zt^yniu (tvy- cf- jng-om), jial^ i^<^ 'i'nifd, Itiuriut, t&6x?V i 2 »■ 

*Hp«s ■t' (F^- fi^ou >tem ^-), diieOj in KiB-t^iai ; plnp. (as imp.) ^qr ; 

8 pets. dng. i{irrat and fffro {in comp. also fnu, j^) ; k4B-i^uu, mff- 

oO»^, fffo, ^ofiai (icd6-i)vAu), 4furas. [Ion. cEarot or Ihtoi, daro or 

EnTo, for 4"^ i)rrD. ] See I[b. 
*H|Ui, Mji, cbk^ in impeit ^ i' iyiii, Mtd f, and 4 >' ti^ fotitb (g 161, 

Note 3). [Epic )} (alone), i<*iu/.] 'H/u, / My, calloqaiaL 

CMXXm (0aX-), bZooni, 3 pof. r^>a (aa pteaent). 

(B<ur- or to^), oitonuA, stem with 2 perf. ritTira, am oMoniAtd, and 2 a. 

Ira^cr, also intnnaitive. 
6inw (0a0-)< (i^i tf<iM '^^ rfBatximi, [Ton. iOi^tv, nn ;] S a. p. 

iri^ ; 2 fut. rn^ifffo/au ; fiit. pf. reWfojioi. 
8ifaw ($»-), iNita, Snw, f^tra ; 2 a. (Snoii. 
6Aa, wuA, 8tk^<», teftvuaa. (not in indic. ) ; see WXa. 
Qim (Btv-), run, fut. $t6eviiat. 

eiT^Mi (MO. 'ox^' ^l{<>f<« or riSiio/uu (t), 3 a. Wrr'- 
entinui {Ai»-), (Ke, flamii/ioi, Wflrriiia ; fut. pf. nMf" (B 120, Note) or 

TifriKofut ; 2 a, Ifti™. ; 2 p. (rWiwo) | ISO, 1, part. TtBrtiit [Hom. 

nfrijiAf]. In Attic proee always dn-Avoufuu and ir'/Bamr. 
Bftma (0pu0-}, cruM, -IBfiv<lm, Titpumiai, iBpiKpe^ [£p. 3 a. p. -frp^tir]. 
Bfiiinca {9ap-], Uap, fnt. SofwCfuu, 2 a. fSupw. 
9i« {v}, taaifia, imp. Nuor ; diVu (a), ftwra, t^icb, rMiJ/uu, M«i;>' (ir), 

tetiritiw- See S IT. 3, Note. 
Bim at Mv« (0), rage, ruA. Foetio : claaalc only in proa, and imperfect. 

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•WAm (loX-), mm/, futL -taXQ, [Ep. Mr. triXn,] 

'![■ (li«-)> taU or tit. Hid. HofM and qo)MU (M- for nS-, cf. sed-eo}, sil, 

■ued cbieBj in Ka9-l!tt, which see. Ion. and poet. aor. (lira or lira 

(from stem ij, with tlsinv [•» iatiiiip {iec"-) i fut. inf. t^^ataemi 

Horn.] See i{|UU. 
*Ii|)u («-). •o*'; we § 129, III. g 121, Note 2. Fut. m. -f^iyui, \if- 

iurrai for dr^inmt, Hdt. j 
IkWdiiu (poet hu}, ooMe. [£ojiat, Frfuu ; 2 a. k^ijv. In pnne oaoallj 

A^-itrloiuu, From 1j(u [Ep. imp. U<», 2 &. tier]. 
'IXdnofui [Ep. JXiia>iBi], praptttnte, lUirwtai, IX^u^, l>iur^i)r. 
'IvTOfOS^jr, imperf. Isrd/djr ; see Wt«|iau 

1m]|u (0TU-), «<, /liKie/ we 9 128. Fnt. ■^. t<rr^« (g 120, Note) and 
Perf. Ixrriica, with {hrraa), {trrH, iirralr^, 4c. (g 180, 1), 
; 2 »or. ?«T^, »toixt The 1 aor. firr^im ia tTUuitiTe, jtfocal 

EoKtu, M«, tii, f. xaeiw (for «a9£<ru|, xaeil^ojuu ; ». fiaWiiro, faaOwip^ ; 

li^i;^!. Bee {(uu. 
KolTvpai («ai-), eoas^ p. lAtar^wi [Dor. ««itaJV«3- 
Eo^ra (nw-). ita'. f' «n™. 2 «. *«cn», 2 p. W«o«. 
y«f^ (""-), "f ■'tw, fa"W' KoArw; ajuwe,poet iMa[Ep. ?Jn)o] ; -cinona, 

EoMa (jtX(-l, toU, f. ™Xw (rarely JtaXfaw) ; itiXtn, lUKXtiai, n&X^jmi, 

^nXjiflT^ ; fut. m. JcaXoO^uu ; fut. ^. ufuX^eoiuu. 
KifiiMt («.(.-). 'a*"'. tif^Ciu., (rft/«jMi [Ep. part. «i^B<it] ; 2 a. ira/™. 
(En^), patU, Btem with [Hom. peifc part, wia^^iit]. 
K«8d*rii|U, EpL for amtirruiu, tcOtUr, [ItiUira, itxBdireiy.} 
Ktt^w, Ik, alaopai ; gee g 129, V. 
EiflM* (jwp-), lOiair, f. nrpu, a. fiitipa (poet, rrepirii), rfmiptKU, [(*r#pfl^) ap- 

ftii ; 2 k. p. iHlpv MfioDiMU, a. m. UupittT (w- poet part. 

EOlXu (keX-), ianJ. '''^''i '«^«- Poetic 

]UXo|uu («X<r-), onto-, [Ep. wXiSffo^uu, ^i«X^i;np] ; 2 ■- m. ««XVr "■ 

i«rX6^7ir (1 122, 1). Chieflj Epic 
E^hCwuiu {«?=-), ""I, '!<^yn''o [Ion. ?ivi«i.]. KUpaiuu pon. -wmi], ^Kpifl'T 

[Ion. -ijeijrl and ^rtpdireiji' ; f. pass, upaeifreiaii. 
K^iSbIw («/Air-), jaiB, f. m/AuO [Ion. mpSiuJ and Ktft^iroiiiuj, ftipSam 

pon. -um or -v], KitipSrim. 

K«i9»(<rf-),*'*. "*»".[-'""« :1 SpL«*terf»(a8pres.); [Ep.2a.cWw, 
anl:g. uekMu.] 

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226 APPESDIX. * 

£48* (joia-, ailt-], vei, [jr^tifn), -ir^Sifm ; 2 p. Wnfla]. Hid. w^hiu^ 

Mnap, ixifSiadtt'^, [Ep. fat. pt wtaiS^BfiMi.'] 
Xxxirm {ax-),fi^ inx^<»«*. [Ep. iiaxw^vl l 2 «. !«>:» [and ^X^J 
Klxp^f* (V')! '^i \xf^'" Hdt.^ f?W>i k'xpW" > fXP')''^V- 
KXdt* (iXary-, iXaY-), elim;, KXiiyfu, fcXaYfn j 2 p. *4ii\afja [Ep. JiAAi^ 

7a] ; 2 ft. ttXayim ; fat. pf. nirXiiYfa/iat. 
Tf^nfn and «X<I* (icXov-), •onp, cXailtf'afuu (nrelj jcXaHFaiil^uu, eometimet 

xXu^irw or cXai^), fiXaKra, cfiXav/uu ; fat pf. {impers. ) niXaArmu,' 
TQrin, dill, tXti^a, ixXeura, WiXfi/uu OC n^xXtw/ioi, iic\tia6-[jr. [Ion. pres. 

EXiiS iiXfura, nxXifM"". UXifaByf or ink-^S^.} Older Attic EX^ 

tApirai, ?jc\pira, -ic/jcXdio, K^cXpfuu, -^iXpirS^. 
KU-rra (xX(T-), «tai^ <cX^ (nreljr cX^Vtviiu), .'icXeV«, WicXa^ i/kXc/i^hi, 

(JKXc^ip) j[V^«cft ; 2 ». p. it^Ar-ri. 
SUvo, fienrf, inctuu^ cXwu, fiXin, [c/cXin, Uter,] KtkXl^iiu, WUSi/r [Ep. 

^nUi^i ; 2 a. p. ^nX/np. g 109, Kote 1. 
KXfi^ icor, imp. ^cXmt (as aoT.) ; 2 a. imper. kXC0(, iAOtc [Ep. WicXitfi, 

i^KXurt]. Poetic. 
Kop<n>r)u (m^-)> ■"'''i''. [f. lapiru HdL, npb Horn.,] ^x^iPtra, axtptvpa* 

[lou. -ii/iai], itapirStir ; [Ep. 2 p. pL xcmpiiiit.] 
Epdt* (cpaT-)f cry out, tat ^ mxpHoiuu (tan), 2 pf. KiKpa-ya (imper. irf- 

EpaxBi), 2 a. -tufiayor. 
Kpofvo ((par-), aecomplM, KforH, hpara [Ion. f(p7«3> ffi"^ i p. P- 

3 ring, tttpaimu (cf W^amu, g 113, Note i). Ionic and poetic 

[Epic Kpoiofva, SOT. ^rp^qn, pf. and pip. updamoi and nt^davra.] 
EpJ|ui|KU, iofl^ (intnuiE.), jcpc/(i}0Dfiiu. 
Kp^dmiu {Kptiia-), hang {trans.), iqwfiO (for tptfiiau), inpiiam, iicptiiA- 

Kp4« («/K7-). ««'. •?»«•*, 2 a. (?«puni») 8 ring, ipln ; 2 p. (jrfi:pcyii) ice- 

Kptyirei, tqueaHag, 
'Kflvm.Jin^f.KfHini.kB. See g 109, Note 1. [Ep. a. p. ^kpCfVO 
EpfvTW {npir^; Kpv^), oaneeal, KpAifru, &c regular ; 2 a. p. ixpAp^ (rare). 
KtAojuu, acquire, rr^aoiuu, iienjaifi'^, idmiiiai at leniiiai, pmtai (snbj. 

KtrrQiiai or K/KTUfuu, opt. ikjitj((mj» or ««t^i^), ttr^Orp (as pass. ) ; 

Kerrfyraiiai (rarely ^rr-), thall potaett, 
KnCvw (rrti^, icrar-). Ml, f. jcrrru [Ion. inWw, Ep. also rrariJ], a. Imm, 

2p. Iimini(p. IjtTuyiiOjrare); [Ep. <ymieij»;] 2 a. Imuw (dtrii-poet.); 

2 a. m. poet, irrin^ (as pass. ). 
KTwrf* (n^nr-), HHOi^ OOUM to iMin^ ^KT^it^o, 2 a. tavrtr. 
EvUvSn or mXiyMs (rarely aiXUi), nil, ixiKura, ariXurim, ixMcBw. 
EwJn (n>-), itiii, IciNni. Upov-KvWa is generally regular. 
EipM^ meet, damx, xipva, tnupm. Evpfat is legolai. 

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AaYX<l)^ (Xax-)i obtain iy la, X^fofui [Ton. \i(oiiai], ttX^xfh Ioi>- "I'd P(»^ 

UXi7YXi>i (■'^Tl'/'ai) iAtx^i^i, ^XiJx''^ > ^ B. Aaxcv. 
AofiPibw (^^-)i ^"^1 ^'ifoiuu, tlXttiia, flX^iifiat (poet. XAijii/ui), <Xi(^Air; 

2 &■ t>Jifha, iXa^iffijr. [Ion. Xd/t^o/ioi, XcXii^iiia, XAow'o'i 'Xii^^.] 
AovUrt^ po«t. Xi^W (Xa0-), iie hid, acapt Ae notice of (same one), \ifni, 
* [-^11)03], 2 p. XA^a J 2 a. fXaSor. Mid. >r^, X^d-o/ui, XAixrfiai 

[Horn, -ao-fuil fut. pt XcXiJi'o/"'. 2 &. JXaM^^. 
iuitrtm (XojK-), iptak, Xajr4«'Bfta4, fXiUifra, 2 p. XAdm [Ep. UX^nJ ; 2 a. 

fXoiiw [XeXanffiiiv]. Poetic. 
[A^, XiS, witA, X^, X^, &c.; Infin. X^. g 123, Note 2. Dotic] 
Jii-V», lay, Wt", htfo, XAtT*"' (Ji-elXeT/MOi f^h-^V i fi"t, XexSiko*"", 

Xjfivuu, XcUf D/ioi, all passive. For {€. act (I)9i]ica is used (see (tnw], 
A^Y*! S"'^! '"Ttittgt, count (Attic only in comp.), X^fu, IStia, -cFXaxo, 

cfXFY/uu or XAE7/HU, t^^Btp {tan) i 2 a. p. iX^yijy ; [3 a. m. ffiiynif 

{XixTo, imper. Ufa, inf. X^ftu, pt. X^/invt)]. [The Horn, fonns 

X^fiViai, f^ii/aiv, fXtfo, and A^>ii)r, in the sense put to rat, reri, are 

geuetall; tefened to etem Xrx-> whence X^ot, &c.] 
A*tw (Xtr-), jamw, Xc{|lw, XAti^^isi, i\iUp0Tir ; 2 p, XAotva ; S a. IXmt^ 

AiTifHir. See g SS. 
[AtXnfo|i«n, (JEtuv eagerty. Ep, p. XeXI?i>iiu, XeXiif^t/nt, eo^.] 
ACw«|uu (or Xfrofuu, Tan), tupplioate, [/XM'dfiir>', 2 a. ^Xirj/ujr]. 
[Ao^K, £pio for Xwiu ; XoAtd/uk, /Xicira, Aonrd/iip.] 

Ao^ or Uk, ukuA, r^nlar. In Attic wiiten and Herod, tlie pm. and 
icaperf. generally hnve contracted forms of Xiu, u Aau, ^Xoffiur, Xof^/Mfci. 
A^ feoH, see 33 S6 and 106 ; 2 a. m. i^iifiv (as pass.], X^ and XCrro, 

UaivojiAt (^cor-), is tNod, [f. fiurDDftai Hdt.,] tiofn [Ep. -(i/117*], 2 p. lUittim, 

an nod, 2 a. p. iiiAn/r. 
Mnfniini (pa-), wet, iii-miiai, (/lajtiiair. Chiefly Epic, 
MarOdiw (iiaS-), leant, iiaB^firtiuit, iitiiABi)ica ; 2 a. fiiaOar. 
M<tp|iuu, only in contract form iiHiuu (imper. /uin or iiaao, inf. i/^oBoi, pt. 

;MS>um), t&nre eagtify; 2 p. (/i^fisa) 1 130, 1 [part, lu/taiii (-wr« oc 

-irai), A second p. itifwra (/up-) supplies the singnlar of {utiiaa). 
VUfTtumt, J^ii (Bnbj. fufpufiai, imp. /idppno) ; a. iiiapriuBifr, Poetic. 
Hoovw (fuT-), ineoJ, fidfiii, iu:. regular ; 2 a. p. i/idyiir. 
VUXOfoi. [Ion. fittxto/ui'i .fight, f. fuxoG/uu [Hdt. /taxifopai, Hom. /lax^s- 

*«"' or nax5liro/«"l P- l"l»iXVI^>, »■ <P«Xtir<t/'^ [Ep. also i/iaxifiltwi 

Ep. pres. part. iiaxaii''*oi or ^xnil/uMt]. 

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pUHSopw (^t<-)> '*'»'= <f< P***. i^HfiBiuu (rare). Epic] 

U«S-fi)|u, temf mn^ ,- tike Ii||u. [Hdt. p. pt. iir/itriiiJKU. ] 

Uf(|>0|UU (/up-), oAfoiN, [Ep. 2 p. 3 dog. Iiiiia/ie ;'] inpers. cf/iapui, itit/aUi, 

tlliofiiiini (as tobat.). ^•i'<' 
BUXX* (/uXXf-). ^Uout, angm. ^m- or V- ; pf>-'^^'-', iiti^Aiiira. % 98, 3. 
MIXti {/wX(-), concent, acrtfiir, luKf/sw [Ep. /irX-firD/iai, 2 p. ^ftiyXa] ; f»;i/- 

XTW' [Ep. iliii^Xtrai, /i^/i^ero, for iit/x^iiTai, fit^Tp-o] ; {^ntXiiflijt), 

fi*Xijfl(ii. HJXd, if eoncenii, impers,; jaXiJcti, i/iAitat, iir/U\fiKc. 
Mifovn, derifv, 2 perf. with ua present. Ionic tmd poetic. S«e imLdiuu. 
Mfyit, remain, f. fMn3 [ioiL. /ifr^u], tiuaa, ittithn^na. 
HvH'IPt'^ ponrfer, /wp^iijpifw, t/itpii-^iuia (rarely -tfo), FoetJc. 
lU|8o|Uu, deeue, ^1)00^1, iiajaiitijr. Poetic. 
Ui)K(SaHAi {luit; /it)ic-), Ugof, [2 a. part, /litnir ; 2 p. part. /K^iginSi, fu^- 

■uui ; 2 pip. ^>i^/ii)iniv.] Chiefly Epic. 
Ml^wiu and (ilo-fM (/uy-), mir, ^ilfui, ^^u{a, liimyiiat, ifUx^' ; 2 a. p. l/d' 

fTf ; 2 a. m. tiuxro and /iJiro for iiil-yero ; fut. pf, /u/'IEa^uu, 
HiJiW|<nu> (fva-), TtBttnd, Mid. ronoiiAer ; /u-firu), f/wriirii, li/fir^iiai, rtmem- 

t«r, iiaifysBifr (as mid. ) ; ^u-Tprtfi^ofut, iirfymiuu, ^^vT^o/iai ; ^^u-iprii/itiv 

(poet.). Hf|Mn]|uu (memini) has subj. liiiu^fiat or lu/irGiau, opt. 

Iititrifn'^ or ^(Krgfii)*, imp. /tiiinjiro [Bdt. ^;wa], inf. luiir^aflai, I>t. 

[From Ep, tirAo/uu come inniom, iiraiiarot, fee. { 12i, 1.] 
UvK^t^uu (^E-), fidZfow, 2 p. pJiiiKa ; [Ep. 2 a. fUScoc.] 


N(Ua (ro-), (Awfl, tmraa, hiaBiir, imTir6^ip. Poetic. 

Nttrtm, ittijf^ [A>ii{a,] firturiiat, 

N'p« (n^ie-), £itri5ute, f. k/iu, frfiita, rtviiaixa, rrrifaauu, ire/i^Bijr, 

Hfofuu, po, oojM, or (as future} mil go. Chiefly poetic. 

L NIm (mu-), nnm, -Inoffo, -t4revKa ; t. m. part, ftumiiuret. 

2. Ntit, heap up, frijira, rirti/iai or vinfrficu. 

3. NJ« and v^Sm, (pm, p^rai, liijira, M^ip ; [Ep- a. m. r4a(UT0.] From 

n)^*^ Ion. r^tm, rii^w, &o. 
Hl{ii, later Awra (n^-), loaiA, i^^, tn^ iiinititai, [-M^ip.] 
JTo^M^ btml^ ptroeivt, poiaw, ke., iteular in Attio. [Ion. Irwra, -rtrum. 

fOSo-), he tugry, stem with only [Horn. iMuoJjtip, MiiJiw/uu]. 
•Ot. {«-, tit-), nneU, ii*ru [Ion. JfArtu], fif^jini [Ion. ajwa], 2 p. « 
(late), [pip. MiiSev Horn.] 

;,. Google 


Ofyrvfu knd olyt^ apai, t^, ^ [Ep. also iM^], ■fifypiu, ^ p. part. 

o^x^'i- See iv-ol-yi'viu. 
Ob|uu, (imt, in prose generally olfuu, j^uijr ; ofiiffofw;, ^4^?^- [^P- ^^ 

abg (otilf 1 nng.), often d(u ; jtv«u,'^ii/iiit, il£r9ifr,] 
0txa|uu (ofx'-}, 6e jwi*! oixAfo/iai, o^w™ or feaiica [Ep. ifeijita. Ion. o^?- 

M" Dt ix.W*' <1t>iibtfiil ii> Attic]. 
'OXurMiv, randy UirOilnir (d\ur0-J, (^> [Ion. liiXfrfifra, ^Mrff^ro] ; 2 ■. 

"OUsfu, ruely JXXifw (dX-). ^ff^, Io«, f- JX<^ [dX/<TW, iUu\ SStea, -iXdf 
Xcim 1 2 p. JlXuXa, peruA. Hid. AAv^uu, ptritk, JXaCyut, 2 a. liX^yugr. 
In X'ose generallf dT-iXXv/u. 

'0|inifu and jpirio (ift-, <i>io-), meear, t. dfMjJuai, iilf«H7a, j^u£iu<urB, iii^iu- 
ffwi (with d^^ioraO. liiiiB^ and liiiiff^ ; f^to^^rtyuu. 

'OvCvigp (^n~), tene/Q, j^w, An^a, iii^i}r ; dr^<yuu ; 2 a. m. (!pd^q* 

or lirV'T' {rare) [Horn, imper. Unjiro, pt. J»ij/i€»«], 
P0*o|ui (^, ^to-), mvuU ^nOectedlike BlSnfUt); ii-iinvuu, (Evoffd^qv (E^ 

also liriiiitr), -iMir0irr. Epic prea. ind. 2 pi. oOrtiret. Ionic and pocticj 
'Opda (Ar-X x^ imperf. iiipar [Ion. £pw or Opter, j 121, I]] S|iv^4a4, 

iiipaxm or ibpdta, iiipaiiai or £^<^»>< ^^^ ; 2 p. Svura (Ion. and poet). 

For 2 a. lUw, kc see itBor. [Hom. pna. mid. 2 dog. 8/nrai.] 
"Opfya, ratal, dp/fu, &pt(a, [Ion. Opty/iai Horn., p. p. S ang. dp^j^TU, 

pip. ipupix"''!!,] lS)rfxtf)l»>. 

'Opwiu (^), niiw, rmiM, Jl^tfu, Apaa, i^.Spupa (as mid.}; [Sp. 2»~ Apapar.] 

Mid. rue, nnl, [f. ipoS/iai, p. dfH^ipFfMU,] 2 a. lipV^r [with £yiro, [imper. 

Spva, Ipffta, tpatv, inf. ^pAu,] part Spiitm). Poetic. 
'Opirm or Ifrirm (ipi^'-). ■%• ''/"'f". V*". -ip-ipvxi^ (»«). ipcipuY/aw 

(r*idy<^wv/iiu), dyitfx^: 2f.p. -Jpvxilircvui; [lipufd^ip', oauMJto(%, 

'Ov4p^<'^'>' C'^-)! *"«ti ietppipeiiitt, liir^pMv t"")> 2 a. m. 

Otyim, VBtmd, sM"*. «Mfi|r ; [Ep, 2 a. 3 aing. ebn, iti£ oOri^avt sad 

ofrdficr ; mid. otriiurot as paai,] 
OJirdtn, B(nnrf, a^d<ru, afhiira, oBrwriuu. 

'O^fOtt (i^<tX<-, J^X-J, S 108, 4, II.) [Ep. T%. j^AXu], on^ oi^b, j^i- 

Xi}(ru, (^a^ro, (li^IXtpn t) a. p. pt. A-^Arfitlt ; 2 L ^Xw, used in 

•nafa* (g an, Not« 1), Uiat! 

'(HXwKdbw (t*X-)> ^ S^' ""»* (» penalty), J^X4<ra, A^Xyni (rare), 

A^yn^ fi^vw ; 2 •• (S^^" (u>f- «iiii pt- Bometimes tf^ir, <^Xw). 

Ilalt* (tu-), *p<^, wai^aOpai, hrcura, x/rauni (later), Wtcus/uk. 
Qola^ jfril^ «^iTW (poeL nt4i''<')i ^^auni, -t^touo, ^xoi^qr. 


JUIAm (toX-), brands, frri\ii,xHra>i/iai; [Horn. 2 a, d/imnXc^, as if from 

r^raXor ; xiIXto for irdXtTi),'] 
(Qda|uu, imaginaiy prea.)> ocgui'rc, whence rito/uu {a), rirdfun, iTa(rd- 

laf. Poetic. See inLTfc>uu. 
"Xla^inyim, traaigrtu law, angrn. raprp-, rapaiirr: § 105, 1, Note 2. 
Uo^nijw, »uu^ {at a Jrunjbni man), imp. tmplfniw, Tapar^a, Irapif- 

(Tjffo, trrapiiriiaL, irapfr^i^. 
Hipym {rue-, rere-), tafer, rtiaoiiai (for Titte-voiaj.), 2 p. vVrtwAi [Horn. 

■V»(r0c and TcrS^uZii] ; 2 a. InBw. 
naWo|Uu (VB-)) eo'i Td«'afia( (a), iwcCiriii'^ ; [Ep, pip. rcriiiF/i^.] lonio 

and poetic. See ('rdo|iu). 
n^Ha {nS-X persuade, xflffu, ke. tegukr (S IS) ; 2 p. wfroiBa, Inul, [Ep. 
hiiriBfur, pip. for httwiilBniur ;] poet. 2 a. fritfor and triBttiv [Ep. r^n- 
flw and TFrt9liinfi\. 
IIlX^o (rcXoJ-, *Xa-), reXiu or riKiSii, hring near, come near, t. nXu (for 

ireXii(rii)), Jr^Xaim, r^rXij/uu, ^(XdirSip and ^rXdOi)!' (trag.) } [2 am. 

iT\ilitiir, approKlud,] 
HtXtt and rnXopAi, be, imp. InXon, irM/iv [ayncop. firXe, ArXra (ftrXtu), 

lw\iTO, for ^cXc, &c.i so lri-r\6furat and rcfH-rU/umi]. 
Htpn, lend, rin'f/u, kc, regolar, except peif. rixtii^. 
II{pSa|uu (vopj-), Lat. pedo, -itapSiffatuu, 2 p. winopia, 2 a. -Irv^Sor, 
Hipdn {jtpa-), dettroi/, joct, ripaa, lirtpvci, [£p. 2 a. trpaSor, trpaOiiuir (as 

pass.), with iuf. iVptfoi.] Poetic. 

n^imt or vtrm (rtr-, % 108, 4, I.), coot, ir^u (t), hrtTf/a, rirriiiiai, 

nrrdvwp {rcra-), erptatd, rrrdvv (tetjo), ftrMwo, irArm/Ku («mrfr<W|Uai 

late), irtriaSTp. 
IUto)uu (m-, irm-), ^y, »ti)o-o(«u (poet rtr^niiai), 2 a. m. im-iinp'. 

From Iimi|MU (rare), 2 a. Imir (poet.) and iwrdntir. The forma 

iffi-injfmi and hrvrifiriii (Dor, -ivuu, -d9^) belong to s-ordejiai. 
H^rrwiu {way-), Jix, Jrtexe, iniJu, /ri^fa, ivIixSrpi (rare and poet.); 2 a. p. 

lii&-rqv ; 2 p. x/nTTyo, be fixed ; [Ep. 2 a. m. Kar.^»T;KTo.] 
nC|MrXT])ii (tX«-),^, tXi)o-w, (tXijow, r^rXipto, tAtX^/kh, ^Xijirtfitf ; [Ep. 

2 a. m. hrkiiiapiJ] 
Hilfiwfrn^i, (rpa-), bam, rp/fia, hiniira, r/vpjfpoi and rirptj^fiat, ivpirS^} 

[Ion. flit. pf. rtrp^a/iai.'] Kindred to r/Hfiiii, blow. 
UiV&nca and td-Ctctu (rvu-), ntoib! unw, obieftf Epic ; [T^rnyiai, be visa, 

part. Ttmt/Mtot, nnw.] See wja. 
Hlvtt (*'-, TO- }, drink, fut. irf ivai t r/rura, rtro/iat, l-rliBtjr ; 2 a. 

TlvwpifrKa (rtpa; wpa-), tdl, [Ep. ttpiau, lwlpaaa,'\ wirpdira, Ttrpaiuu 
[Horn. wtrepitiUmt], i-rpiBijy [Ion. -ii/uu, -'^ip''] ; fut. pf. Ttrpdreiiat, 
Th« Attic OSes droSiiije/uK and irtSiiiijr in fdt, and aor. 



ntwTM (tit-, f 108, S), jUf, f. rt^oSiMi [Ion. Tiirioiiat] ; p. rfwrmm, pert. 

wrrr^ [Ep. nrr^i or -tiit] ; 2 a. Iirecrv [Doc. Ixn-w]. 
I!Dui[a (rXiiy)'-), cbiim to vaaikr, Ir^ay^. F&sa. uid Hid. -d-XdjAfuUi, wait- 

der, TtXdyia/Mi, loiU manikr, irXAfx^Wt vandatd. Jouic and poetic. 
HUicii^ p'l'i'i J^'i TUfu, Itc. r^ular ) perf. nirXiixi- or r^Xcx' (l^*'^) i 

2 ». p. -^rXiioif. 
nUa (s-Xcu-), *tu(, vAei^Dfiat oi rXmroi^i, frXtMro, vVrXccica, tAtXiv- 

■Tjioi. § 123, Note 1. [Epis 2 a. ArXur.] 
IDi^om or vX^rra (TXay), arikt, irXi^u, 'irXtffa, s-^XvTfBu. ''^'ix^ 

(nre) ; 2 p. r^Xina (mre) ; 2 lu p. ftrXi^ip' (in comp. triAyifi} ; 

2 f. paaa. irXifrfyio^ai and irXaYiio-ofuu ; fat. pL mr\ii{Dfuu ; [Ep. 2 a, 

■rtwXifiiai (or ArnrX-}, TdXiTyi^Mir.] 
IIW« (tki'-Ii I'^fU', bnalhe, imteafiBi and mnrou/uu, Ihtcikto, -Wrmiio. 

For tA™j/«u see mvinut. 
(nop-), ^<w, aJ'a', Htem wbeii<% 2 a. froptp, p. p. riwpuTtu, U it fated (witb 

Ttwpu/iir^ Fatt). Bee [nfpcuui, 
nptimnt or vptfaru (t^7-), do, irpdfdi, to. jegalai ; tat. pf. rtrpi^/uu ; 

2 p. rirpiya, hamfartd (u«tf Or iff). 
IlTdpw|uu (ira^)-), meeze; 2 aor. frrofiDr [^rofV^l (^irni/np') mpeft. 
IlT^im (TTm-, X7TJ*-), aneer, limjfB, fir7TX"> ^ "■■ -Ittbiiw, [Ep. mro- 

TTJ^rify dual, lu if from Imp ; 2 p. pt. wemjiiij. 
IIavflitM|uu, poet. vtifc|uu (w0-), iair, aqmn, rtiaoiuu [Dot. mvoOftoi], 

v^viTfuu ; 2 a. ^vfijfHjr. 

'PaCm {fiat; ^J-), spn'nUi, ^™, ((vdm [Ep. Ippmraa,], Ippaaiuu [Horn. 

ip^nToi, ip(AiaTo\, {ippiitiir) ^atttlt, Ionic and poetic. 
*P^>T<) (^10-), ititdi, -^|1™> fpfit^'ht tppa/ituu ; 2 a. p. ippi^inr. 
"Piavm or ^ttb (^7-), tAmr dotm, Mfw, tppaia, ippixBtp'. 
Tltw (^-), for ipiu, A, ^f«, Vf" (rarely 'w^E"): [lo"- »■ ?■ ^ff*'* 

Tin (>cv-), JUm, JKiaoiiai, tpptvaa, ippiiia ; 2 a. p. ipp&q' ; ^^c^Mi. 

(Tf-), stem of «Wca, *rj))j/iai, ('iviev (ipp'fl'ji-)- See «l«v. 

'P^iYi^iu (^T-, ^77-, ^-), ftreoi, ^ijfu, ?p^nrfa, [-Vry/"" IMe, 4v4xV 

Tare ;] 2 a. p. ippiyrf ; fivy^ofiai ; 2 p. Ippar/a, he broim. 
'Fvfi* i/ny-), ladder, juy-lfia, IppiyTtsa, 2 p. fppiya (as pica.). 
'Fv^ia, shieer, regular ; inf. ^ur or ^lyoSr, § 123, Note 3. 
'PtiTw i^-), tknm, fittf-u, Ippiifa (poet, fpi^ii), tppya, tpptmmi [poet. ^■ 

piUliai, Hon. pip. ^p^/iiTTo], cppiifiBiir ; 2 a. p. ipfi^i-qt ; pi^6'fyroiUii. 
*PAvni|u (^), tfrDuftAoi, Ippwra, fppaiuu (iniper. Ippiaaa, /artvtd), ip- 

;,. Google 

£(UfK* (oop-), $iot^f aoT. pt. V'^pai ; 2 p. ir^inipa, ffrin, esp. in put. mnDHif. 

[XoiSfli, fane, mu&ru, ^iriitiHni, ^aoi^iiv ; imperf. 3 ung. iriu (for i<ria) as if 

from Aeol. irditvu; imperat. riw (for tiav). Poetic] 
Spivrv^i lofif-), exUaguvA, ir^ai, taptiia, ■IrP'^xa, tafSeaitai, la^iaBtir | 

2 a. hpTiv ; vp-fyto/nu. 
Srin, (AoJbe, o'efvu, fo-curo, sfatiKa, vlatieiuu, i<r<lr$iir [Ep. imp. ^tnnfoiTo]. 
£(ljig (<ru-}, miiDE, ui^, a. laaiva, dirircudu^ ; taavimt, ittiBi^ or iai9iff ; 

2 a. m. tuaiinpi (with iavra, ffifro, iril/Mwt). Poetic 
Sdjirs (iTor-), rnf, (ri}i^ii), 2 p. sis-qn (as prea.), 2 a. p. isi.vqr. 
2>u&(b'inj|ti (?i»!a-), KaUer, f. ifhju (for attSdaa), iatiiSaaa, (iariSaaiuu) 

isaSaa^m, iaaSdaBjir. 
Zk^XXu (siaX-, irarXa-), fJry u/i, [Ep. a. foKJiXa,] fcricXTKa ; 2 a. fcriXijc. 
SitfiTm* (iTJCiiiir-), jeer, Oi(ii^o«i«, timaitf'ii, iatdi^OTir. 
Srtiu, rfraui, oTrioM (a), laraaa, fmaxa, Imraa/icu, iirriaSiir. 
SnrdpM [arip-), tain, mrtpfi, la-riipa, drrap/iai ; 2 a. p. i<rripjir. 
£irjvSia, pwr a Uliation, irrclo-tii, fairci?a, TirirEiir/wi. S li3, 3 and 5. 
Srri^ (uTiiSe-), hwirf, larri^a, ^ffrlJSTtfuii. Poetic 
SrtlxB (t'X')! ?"( -l^iTTEifa, 2 a. fsrtxor. Poetic and Ionic. 
ZtJXXu (t"X-). «"''. OTtXiS [nTfWu], foT«\ii, /a™X«a, IffroVm ; 2 a. p. 

iariKriw ; -rJTa\)}oo;MU. 
ZWpYU, i>i», (TT^fitio, effrepfo ; 2 p. 'ffTopya. 

2Top«iPvujiioro-ripvv|u(irro(»-), rTTopiS(forffTo/i;iri,.), iirripeij-o, piJTOp^irfliji',] 
Zrpi^m, (urn, OTptfia, lirrpafiiuu, itrrpi^e^ rare [Ion. iarp&^Tf'\ ; 2 a. p. 

ETpivyo(ii, same as ffroplwiju ; oTpJuru, Iffrpuffa, tarpaiiai. 

Snr]ffw (irriT.), (freuif, /DnJyijffa [ftmifa], [irTTrfYi^itii,] iimryiSrir ; 2 f. p. 

oTi/yifaopai ; [Ep. 2 a. ((Tryyoi'.] 
Zi^^lUa {<r*o\-), Inp, t&ceue, n^XiJ, fa^Xa, htfuAiuu ; 2 a. p. ia^Xif- 
"SA^m (o-o-, o-w-, ru9-X fuw, nivw, Itruaa, afaui^ rfaurfmi (or -ufioi), Iv^i^. 

(Tay.), seiw, Btem with [Horn. 2 a. pt Terwriii'.] See t?, rSre, tofe, in lex 
Tof dmrca (rupax-), (fubtrfi, Tapdfu, ftc Tegular. [Ep. pf. (r^rptrxo) Tcrpi}- 

Xiit, dittiahedi pip, tttptSx*'.] 
T<iircru (ray.), arronje, Tdfu, &c. regular ; 2 a. p. triyi^r ; T-FrdfofUK. 
T«(v» (tw-), ifrdcA, TtKS, *T(wa, t/tbiii, rtraiuu, iriBipi. g 109, Hote 1. 
Ti|iVB {«/t-, T^-) [Ion. Tii/uiu], cii(, f. Ttittw, Tfr^iijmi, Ttriiyiiuu, irn-^Tir j 

2 a. irtuBP, /reiii/iijv {or ^ro/i-). See tli^iw. 
(Tqi-), Jind, stem with only [Horn, redupl. 2 a. rirnrir or ?ro7«i']. 
TJpww (ropir-, rpar-), amute, Tfpfa, Inpfa, iripiietp- [Ep. tTip<li$^, 2 a, p. 

iripwipi {with subj. Tpair(fu), 2 a. m. (rjerBpri^ti!*]. 
^Jp0V|uu, JwBnM rfrjr, 2 a. p. irtpsrir. Fut. T^p^-w In TheoO.J 



[T«T(t||>at, Hon. pelf.; generatly in part. rerdjuAut, with To-iipJt, both, 

passiTe, dejecttd, troabltd.'] 
[TJT|Uy orlr«T|»«y (HoQi.),_^unJ, for re-ttii-eii. See ("rqi^).] 
TtfiX" ('^X'l '""-)• pttpof*, ittakt, Ttiiw, frtufa, [Ep. rirtvxa as pass.,] 

TtrvyiiM [Ep. Tmvy-'\, irOx^ [lon. iTtixf^r i Ep- 2 a. rtromr, Ttru- 

niftij* ; fnt, pf. Ttreiffofiai]. 
T^ (Tojt-), Bieft, rfA-i, ItiAo, /t^x^ (i"*) ; 2 ». p. friUijr ; 2 p. t^** 

(as mid.). 
Tfh||u (»(-), put; see S 12S. 
T(ktu {t»-), Itgtl, bring Jarih, Ti^ixtu. (poet, also r^fu), frcfn (ntre), M- 

xSl' (rare) ; 2 p. r/™™ ; 2 a, fremii', ^Ttiri/ttji'. 
Tfvv (ti-), poy, rliTu, Irtiro, ririia, -TtriaiiaL, -tTlaBTfr. 
Ttrpua (Tpa-), hort, irpiiaa, rirpiauu. 

TiTpAo-iia (rpo-), tBound, rpiiau, tr/wira, rtrpuiiai, irptiSip: 
TX^ bear, dare, syiicop. far (raXa-ui], pree. not classic ; f. tXiJetd^uu, [Ep. 

a. ^iXoffffo,] p. r^rXijini with (rft-XBa) S ISO, 1 [Ep. part. TjrXipii] ; 

2 a. ItXt^ [Dor. frtdr]. Poetic. 
prii^-ydi (T»ia7-), cut, poet, for riitm ; T^^ (lUre), fr/iirfa, 2 a. *r/ui7iu', 

tT/idy-ip' {Tiiiytr for rfr^TTiroi').] 
Tap^B (Ttyj-J, pienx, [^ropijirtti,] rarely Trropiiffw, [<Ti/j'Ii''a. 2 a. fropoc.] 
T^T*i [Ion. Tpitii], (um, rpi^u, h-pt<^, rirpo^ (rarelj Wrpo^), rtrpafi- 

HOi, h-pd^Siir [Ion. i^pi^Siji'] ; a, m. trpKl/i/i^ ; 2 a. trpiriiii, irpa- 

rif-Tf, [Ep. frfmro)',] § 109, 3. This Tcrb has all the aix aomts. 
T|rf^ {Bptip-, % 17, 2, Note), RouritA, flp^, Wpefa, rfrpo^ TiBpofiiUU, 

i9p4<f>Brp' (rare) ; 2 a. p. trpdipTir, [Ep. 2 a. tTpa^im aa pass.] 
"p^X" (*P<X-> § I?, 2, Note, apa/i-), run, f. i/xvuC^uu l-Spiemu only in' 

comedy], f0p<£a (nn), SeJptt^ijn, -^Spd/iwu ; 2 p. -SiSpoim (poeL), 

2 a. fSpa/ior. 
TpC^it (rpiy-), Bjaeak, (2 p. rirpeya as present.] 
5VX" ('V"'X''-}i ahaiut, [rpd^,] p. p. part. rrrpuxai^iAiOf. 
Tp^Yo (Tpa7-), ^nou?, Tpil^oiiat, [frpa^a,^ -Tirpayiuu ; 2 a. trpayer. 
TvYXiivw (tux-. Ttux-). ^j ffppat, Ttiiaiiai, [Ep. ^nJ^'feH,] T^l^ijiio or 

Tfrtuxa ; 2 a. (Vitjo*. 
TJinw (r™--), Write, rinrriiira, fti/^ (frifirr-jira later), Tfrv/iiuu ; 2 a. *tii- 

Tor (rare), Minir (poet.) ; rvxTijiro^Kn (as pass.). 
Ti^ (01^, g 17, 2, Note), rmie nnoie, tmobf, TiSuiifuu, 2 a. p. -M^ip, 

TfmflTtWoiuii, poet, and Ion. 4ir£oT(pjKu (Btrengthened from i/wixiiMi), 
pnmitt, foriwziiirofHii, Inriax-npat, (inttaxi^'ti') once in ^o^Wqn 
(Plat) i 2 a. m. Irrt^^i)*. 

'Y«k rain, tvu), iffo, fir/uu, Cffdirr. [Hdt. Profuu as pass.] 


Note i), ^<b«)p' ; 2 a. p. i,^ijnf, ; 2 p. tf^np^ ; f. m. ^owl^ut, f. p. 

<f->r^oiuui [Ep. iter. 2 aor. ^<ln<ri», aw*"™/-] See g B7. 
*6m, (Uk (pres. late), [Horn, imperf. 0d€, fiit. pf. wt^i^tTai.] 
♦ttSojiai {*:8.), q«r(, ^i,pw [Horn. x,*ii*ro;«.], ^^wd;n^, [Ham. 2 •. 

(*o^, ♦«-), Ml, sterna whence [Horn. W(«^ «#*ro^; 2il. rednrf. 

»^^«ir or trti^rai, with part. »V^kii»]. 

«P- (o;-. ;«,-, i,r,K.). W. r. „ii,„, a. a^^ p. fr^,, A+ry*--. -.p. 

*«X^ ; 2 a. ^«7™' ; trrxfiiiaoiuu and cirfl^o^iM ; ofo-o^iot {»omB- 
timea aa pass.) ; ifl^Ki^'^. [Ion. ^««o and -w,;,, ^™-, ^rt^tW", 
^ixSl- ; Hdt. d»-^a<, inf. from aor. {Ira ; Horn. sor. imper. oln ft* 
tUsai, pres. imper, ^ijn-e for ^pnr\, 
**V (*iT-). A«. ^6iB^ and ^mfoi^uu, 2 p. Ti<fKir,a. [% 116, Bote 2), 

2 a. f^trya* ; [Horn. p. part. ■ri.fuyiUwo, and x(^t.f^«.] 
♦nil' (*»-)i «9. ♦'iff'", f^iKT" i p, p. imper. ire^dirSftr, part, rt^arfiirot. 

For other fanns and inflection, see g 12B, IV. 
♦Od.™ (^o-), antidpau. i.6isw and ^+ro/i<u. f^Mj-o, I^^fiTta ;] 2 a. act. 

?*S^ Pike fffTTj^), [Ep. 2 a, m. ^ifuroi.] 
♦fc(p« (^p-), COTTwpl, f. ^flepfi [Ion. -^fpA,, Ep. ^/p™], i^itpt, t^ 
eapta, l-pdap/iai ; 2 a. p. fipBiinp- ; 2 p. tt-i^apa ; f. m. i^t/KiSiuu 
[Hdt. ^Bufiiofju]. 
*#tyci [Ep. also *eiu], urute, oiecoj, ^fldrii, /^ura, (i^ffifuu, lipeie^ ; 2 a. m. 
iipei/iiit [autj. ^ujuu, opt. 4i0lnif for ^t-i-ii,rit, imper. S tang. ^eia0ta. 
Inf. ^iffftu], part. **(*M»oi. Chiefly poetic. The preaent is genenllj 
iutnillritlre ; the future and aorigt active are transitiTe. 
4i>iii (^A-), fow, ^lAiJirw, ic. regular. [Ep, a. m. f^iXd^ip; inf. prcs. 

^i\^>«™i, from Aeolic ^tKrt/u, ] 
♦piSlw (0,m9-), UU, i^pdni, 4o, regnlar. [Ep. 2 a. ri^paSar or iri^tar.] 
i-iu, pndtKX, ipiiTa, l^ra, ripiita, U {bg naturt), with 2 p. {ri^va) g 130, 
1 ; Stk. ?0tw, be, be bom ; 2 a. p. i^Ov- 

Xrft" Ix'f-), S^^, retire (pres. Only in Jra-x^^}, [Ep. f. x^'*'"^ «*"■ 

J^u (causative), 2 a. rfraSer (cans.), 2 a- m. HKoSi/iip ;] a. m. 

ixajril^V (Epic, once in Xen. Sta-xiaaaBat). 
'Saifa (xtp-, Xi^'pf'), rejoifx, xavVw, mx^««> mx"**";*"" ""d '^X^PI^h 

2 ft. p. ^lipv, [Ep. 2 ft. m. iwxap*>">*i 2 P- l>t. Kcx'^prfit ; Sat. pf. 

(rexo^u, «ex<V*'o/«iii. 1 
Zai^ttt- (xai-. xn'S-). AaW,[xriffo^^ 2 p. it^a*ia (as pres.), 2 a. IxftSw.I 

ChieSy Epic 

;.. Google 


Xdom^ Inter xoXtw (x"*-}, 9^> (■ X»'i>4'"> ^ P- >:^xva ("^ Ftm-)> ^ >• 

^<o>iw. Poetic. 
JUlf ix^!- ), tat. x«DLv«u (rarely x^mifuu), fx«''<i> ^ P- -t^s&i ; 3 s. fx<- 

(fW (rare) ; p. p. part. KtxtllUroI. 
Xi* (xf , X"^). P^. f. X'" lEp. X'H. »■ 'X" (Ep- ^«™l. «^"/««. *X6- 

0ijr J 2 a. m. ixiix-qt. 
JUtt, btap ip, x<iff"> fx*"". -ic^uira, Kixtneiuu, ^liffP^. 
(Xpat<r]u- snd ^(paur}L-), b-bbI, Mp, atom whence [Ham. j(pairiiirti, ixf^i' 

rui^a ; 2 a, fxpat^^'O']. 
Xpiiojuu, nr^ perbapa mid. of xpda ; jQy^opatj txpV^^P'^f ^^tP^V^'r ^XP^ 

trtrpi. For xpT™' |Hdt. X(«i"]> *'=■■ *** S ^23, Note 2. 
XpduD, givt oraclta, xp'i<">'t 'x;'7<'o> k^X^io (later), K^xf^f* (''W" ^1> 

tXp-ftuBTtr. Mid. ix>Rni& on oru^& g 123, Kote 2. 
Z^ (impera.), irreg. coctr. toixpict, Oien it med, (out) ought, mstf, mbj. 

Xp5, opt. xpdth inf. XPV^ (poet, xpl') ; impeif. xp^' or ixp^ i 

L Xf^f- 'A*^Xp% it mfflca, inf. ^Texfi^i imperf. AwixyVi [ion. 

dtroxpt, droxpor, dirfxP" il iiroxp^ti, irixpv"- Xrfi and xfi (for 

X/xi'ii, XP<'c') "^ nrely used in Uie sense of xj4S^"' XPil^'i "u^i "''■■'^ 
XpCt*, ononf, ifinjr, Xf^'^t ^Xfi"^ titf^ioi (or -wjuu), ixfiaQif. 

{genenlly Utei] i<fi<rrif- 

'Ottu (<^-)i piuA, Affw (poet. iMijo-w], fura [Ion. So-a], tioffiicu [Ion. 

■fid/uii], -^i£ir0i]F ; liirfliio'sfiiu ; a. m. lae^Tjt [Ion. wijii/iip]. 
'OvJopA^ huT/f imp. furo6firp' (^ ijm6fup/ ; t^^i^o/um iilnrnfuUf tartfiijVt 

Claaao writen oae ^pHi^ip (| 120) for latet iayiiiaff (or 6ivi}crd^))r), 

;,. Google 


M. B- Hu flgDIM nl 

Accent, 10-lG; general principlea, 

10 ; of contracted Byll&bles, 12 ; 

in crisis and elieioii, 12 ; of nouns, 

12 ; of YerbB, 13. 
AccnsatLTe cose, 18 ; >s BuU. of infin., 

113-114; »ft«rprepoaitions,lEO- 

■lute, S 

other syntax of, 129 - 133 (see Ta- 
ble of Contents) ; of third decL, 
how formed from stem, 25 - 23. 

Active voice, til, 152 ; used intran- 
sitively, 152. 

At^ectircs, declension of, 38-50 (see 
Table of Contents] ; syntax o^ 
116-117; aUribvtive aai. jrrcdi- 
caU, 119; withseveral nouns, 116- 
117 ; osed as nouna, 118 ; used for 
adverbs, 117 ; case of, when refer- 
rinff to omitted subject of In&n-, 

Adverbs, how formed from a^ectives, 
CO; comparison of, SO -51 ; nume- 
lal, 51-52 ; syntax of, 151 ; geni- 
tive after, 143 ; assimilatioa in rela- 
tive adv., 128. 

Alphabet, 1 ; obsolete letteni in, 2. 

Aoiiat, fll, 83, 154 ; augment of, 77, 
78 ; meaning of name, 155 ; of 
liquid verba, 73, 74, BI ; threu 
aorists in -m, 81 ; aeamd hot., 81. 
Aor. indie, distinguiabed from im- 
perf., 155 ; in final clauses, 167 ; 
lu conditional sentences, 170, 172; 
iterative, 161 ; Ionic iterative foi-m 
in -aimr or -nittiiii, 92, ISl. Aor. 

in dependent moods, 156 - 159 ; 

how oislinguiBlieil from present, 
159, 158, 159 ; aor. infin. referring 
to paat time in indirect disconrae, 
]68,lStt; after verbs of jinnnisi?!^. 
So., for future, 159. Aor. partic, 
169, leo ; sometimes not past in 

time, 190, 203, 201 ; with \a»»d»^ 
rv>x<^u> tSim, kc, 203 ; with 
xipiopiu, be., 204 ; in indirect dis- 
course, 204. Aor. with Sr, W2, 
172, 173, 161. Qnomic aorist^ 

Apodosis, 199, 178 ; ellipsis of, 170. 

Anacrusis, 210. 

Auspaestic verses, 214-216; sys- 

Apposition, IIS ; partitive, 116 ; ap- 
poB. with gen. implied in posses- 
sive, 116 ; with a sentence, IIS. 

Arsis and thesis, 210. 

Article (definite), declension of, fiS, 
54; syntax of, 118-123; as pro- 
noun, in Homer, 118, in Attio 
Greek, 122, 123. SeeJ^ontettts. 

Assimilation of relatives, 127-128; 
inverted, 128 ; in reL adverbs, 

Attic (second) declension, 22 ; Attic 
future, 91 ; dialect, zii. 

Attraction of relatives, 127 ; joined 
with assimilation, 128. 

Augment, 77 - 79 ; syllabic, 77 ; 
temporal, 77 - 78 ; of componnd 
verbs, 78-78; reduplication, 77; 
Attic redupl. 78. 

Barytones, II. 

Ba^ 210. 

Breathings, 2, 3 ; plsce o^ S ; on. 
initial p. 3 ; on /ip, 3. 

Caesura, 210-211. 

CasBB, 18 ; meaning of, 18 ; syntax 
of, 129-160; oblique, 18. 

Causal Sratences, 190. 

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CharacteristioB of tlie tenses, S3. 

Choriambic verses, 216-21S. 

CoUectiTe noun with jilural verb, 
114 i y/iih plniBl participle, 117 ; 
follswe' ' — " — ' —'-*-"— ■'"'• 


Common Dialect, 

Comparative degree, 47 - 48, SO 
gen. after, 140. 

Comparison of adjectivea, 47 - 50 
of adverbs, 50 ; irregular, 49, 50 
61 ; of nouna or pronouns, 50. 

Conditional Sentences, IBS - 177 (se 
Table of Contents) ; classification 
of, 169-172; Greek forms of, com- 
pared with litin, 170-172 ; cond. 
rel. sentences, 178-181. 

Connectii^ vowels, 86. 

Componnd Words,' how formed, 112. 

Consonants, 3 ; double, 3 ; dividoos 
of, 3 ; movable, 8 ; enpliony of, 

Contract nouna, 20, 23, 29-34; ad- 
jectives, 40, 41, 43, 45, 48 ; verbs, 
93-98; accent of contracted syl- 
lables, 12. 

Contnictioii, i ; niles ot, i, &. 

Copula, 113. 

Coronis, fi. 

Ciasis, 6 ; rules o^ G, S. 

Dactylic verees, 213-214. 

Dative case. 16; svntaz of, 144- 
150 <8ee Table of Contents) ; dat, 
plor, of third decl., 27. 

Declensions, 17, 18 : see Contents. 

Deponent vetbe, 61 ; principal parts 
of, 82. 

Dialectic changes, 15, Ifl. 

Dialects, jdx, xx. 

Digamma, see Vau. 

Diphthongs, 2. 

Direct DiacootBe, distinguished from 
Indirect, 183. 

Double Ne^tives, 207, 208. See 
06 nil aud Mi; oi. 

Effect, accua. of, 130. 

Ele^e distiL-h, 213-214. 

Elision, 8 ; before a consonant (i 
poetry), 8. 

Enclitics, 14, 15. 

Endings, 17 ; verbal, and connecting 
voweU, 81 -BO (see Table of Con- 

Euphonic changes, 7-9. 

Eihortations, imper. and snljj. in, 192. 

Feet, 209 ; ictus of, 210 ; arsis and 
thesis, 210. 

Final and object clauses with tita 
arm, lii, lii,, 185-189 (see Table 
of Contents). 

Future, 61, 83, 164 ; of liquid verba, 
73-74, 91; Attic fnt. in £1 and 
-oufMi, 91 ; second fut., 81 ; ei- 
preaajng permission or command, 
155, 156 ; rarely in final clauses, 
166 ; regularly in object clausea 
with Sruit, 167 ; rarely with /»?} 
after verla of fairing, 168 ; in 
protasis, 171, 172, 174; in rel. 
clauses expressine purpose, 181 ; 
with i^' i or i^ ^e, 181 ; with ti 
li'/l, 193 ; with ir (Horn.), 162, 163 ; 
periphrastic form with /tiWu, 78, 
158 ; optative, 158, 169, 167, 185 
(never with dK 162); infin., 157- 
158, 159, 186-187; participle, 
169-160, 186-187, 201, 204. 

Future perfect, 61, 83, 154, 166; 
regularly jjaasive, 61 j generally 
periphrastic in active, 78 ; rarely 
otherwiee, 91. 

Genders, 17 ; natural and grammati- 
cal, 17 ; designated by toe article, 
17 ; common and epicene, 18. 

General and Particular Suppositions 
distinguished, 169-172. 

Genitive ease, 18 ; absolute, 143, 
202 ; other mntai of, 133 - 143 
(see Table of Contents). 

Glyconic verse, 216. 

, (pra 

160-161; sometimes ii 

portic, 161. 
Hellenes, xiz. 
Hellenistic Greek, z 

s, 37. 

Hiatus, 4. 

Hoping, ha., verbs o^ with fnt., 

pres., or aor. infin., 159. 
Iambic veraea, 211-212; systems, 

216 ; tragic and comic trimeter, 





Imperfect, 151 ; augment of, 77, 78 ; 
£stiiigiilshed from aor., 155 ; ex- 
pressing an attempt, 155 i liow ex- 
pressed in infin. and partic., 159, 
160 ; rarely ia opt., 185 ; with Br, 
lei, 162, 172, 173. 

Impersonal verba, 11*, 

Indeclinable nouns, 37. 

Indicative, Bl, S4-SS, 161; fat. in 
final clanses (rare), 1S6, in object 
claoses with 6rut, 167, with ni 
after verbs of /earing, 168 ; paat 
s in final clauses, 167 

; iterative, 161 ; in protams, 170, 
. 172; in general suppositions for 

labj., 175 ; in cond. rel. sentences, 

l 179 ; flit, in reL clauses eipressiag 
parpote, ke., 181 ; with fm, kc, 
182; with rptf, 182-183; in in- 
direct discourse, 185 ; expressing 
a wish (past tenses), 191 ; in cs 
sal sentences, 190 ; future with 
/Hj. 183. See Prexnl, ic. 

Indirect Discunrse, 183 -ISO. See 
Table of Contents. 

Indirect Qaestions, 183, 185. 1S6. 

Infinitive, 61, 90, 193-200 (see Ta- 
ble of Contents) ; tenses of, ISS 
-169; imperfect and plnpfifeot, 

how anmilied, 159 ; with ir, 162 
' -163, 1/6 ; in indirect diaeouree, 

181, 186-187, 194-195; gnomic 

tenses in, 161. 
Inflection, general principles, 17. 
Interro^dve Sentences, 205 - 206. 
Ionic dialect, zix, 9, IS, 16. 
Iota subscript, 2. 
Iterative impeif. and aor. with Sr, 

161 ; Ionic forms in -aictr, -aniii-Wt 

161, 82. 
Koppa, 2, 63. 
Labialfl. 3, 7, 8. 
Linguals, 3, 7, 8. 
Liquids, 3, 8, 
Liquid verbs, peculiar forms of fut. 

and aor., 78-71,91. 
Local endings (-^t, -Btr, -St), 88. 
Locative case, relic of, 38. 
Logaoedic Verses, 216. 
Metatlieds, 7. 
Kiddle Tuoes, 81, 168-151 1 with 

causative lenae, 161 i pedHur 

meaning in certain verbis 151 ; 

fat. mid. in pass, sense, 151. 
Hoods, 61 ; finite, 61 ; syntax o^ 

161 - 200, see Table of CoutentB. 
Movable consonants, 6. 
Mntes, 8 ; co-ordinate and ci^nate^ 


NominatiTe -esse, 18, 129, 113, lit, 
lis ; for vocative, 129 ; of third 
decL, how farmed &om stem, 21 
- 25 ; as subject. 111, 129 ; plural 
nonu with Bing. verb^ III. Predi- 
cate nom., 115. 

Numljers, 17. 

Niuneiala (cardinal, ordinal, and 
num. adverbs), 61-53 ; declension 
of, 52. 

Object, defined, 113. 

Optative, 61, 88-89, 161; tenses o^ 
156-159; future, 158, IBB, 167, 
185, 189 ; in final clauses, 166 ; in 
object clauses with axon, 197 ; with 
/iij after verbs of fearing, 168 ; m 
conditional senteaces, 171-172, 
171-175; in apodosis with 4., 
162, 171. 171, 176, 177 ; in cond. 
rei sentences, 179, 180 ; by assimi- 
lation, 180-181; with tm, kc, 
182 ; with rplr, 182 - 183 ; in in- 
direut discourse, 181, 185, 1S6, 
187-190 ; ■ ■ 


, IBl. 

Otytones, 11. 

Palatals, 3, 7, 8. 

Participle, 61, 90, 200-205 (see Ta- 
ble uf Contents) ; tensea of, 169 
-IBO ; in indirect discoaise (like 
infin.), 186-187, 201; present 
used for impei'f., 161} ; aor. used 
without regud to time, 160, 203, 
201 ; with Ay, 162- 163, 186, 201 ; 
with \wiSirw, Tvyxi-ra, ^eivui, 203 ; 
with SiaTcXiu, olxo/ioi, ^a^iJj^, 203 ; 
with S^Xot and ^aifpSt, 201 ; with 
aOroiSa and irirrysyviinKa, 201 ; in 
gen. absol., 202 ; in accus. absol., 
202 ; denoting titne, cause, kc. , 
purpose, condUioji, opponlion, at- 
tmdaaa draaaOame, 201- 202 i 

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with ibi, 202,204; withl^cAWi, 
ftc, 202; with irt, <iloy, or ob, 
202 ; with OoTtp, 202 ; for prot- 
asis, 175-176. 

Farticulur ajtd General Sappoaitions 
diatinguished, 189 - 172. 

Passive voice, HI, 152 - 1&3 ; cognate 
accoa. after, 152 ; construction 
after, wlien active has two cases 
(accua. retained), 162 - 15S. 

Psrory tones, II. 

Perfect, 61, 77, 78, 83, 154 ; second 
perf., 81 ; of fu-focm, 110 ; peri- 
phrastic form in certain cases, 74 
- 76 ; with meaning of present, 
155 ; as vivid fnture, 156 ; in de- 
pendent moods, 167, 158 ; Rnomic. 
Itil ; perf. infin. inclades plaperf., 


Perispomenit, II. 

Pherecratic verses. 216. 

Place, accuB. of (kcUtU), 131 ; gen. 
of {miAin vihich). 111 ; dat. of; 

Plnperfect, 81, 77, 78, 83, 1S4 ; sk- 
^hd plup., 61 ; periphrastic form 
in 3 pers. plnr. pass, and mid. (f- 
cept in pare verba), 74 - 78. 

Prepositions, with gen., dat., and 
BccuB., 160 - 161 ; as adverbs, 151 ; 
in composJIJon, 151, 147. 

Present, 61, 33, 164 ; expressing at- 
tempt, 156 ; for aor. in narration, 
154 ; of Ijtiii and a^o/uu as perf., 
166 ; of il/u as fnt., 155 ; wit^ 
riXiii, kc., 156 ; in dependent 
moods, 156-169; pros. inmi. and 
partic. Bs imperf., 169, 180 ; gno- 
mic, 160. 

Principal parts of a verb, 62 ; of a 
deponent verb, 62. 

Proclitics, 15. 

Prohibitions with ^ 1S2. 

Promising, kc, verba of, with fnt., 
pres., or aor., infin., 159. 

Pronominal adjectives and adverbs, 
60, 81. 

Pronouna. Personal and intensive, 
54, 65, 123, 124 ; reflerive, 56, 66, 
124 ; reciprocal, 68 ; posaeaaive, 

66, 124, 125; demonstrative, 56, 

67, 126 ; interrogative, 58, 125, 
120 i indefinite, 68, 126 ; reUtive, 

50, 120-120. See Belafaie Sm- 

Protasia^ 189, 178 ; ellipma of, 176- 

Punetoation, 16. 

Questions, 205-206; indirect, 183, 
185, 186 ; alternative, 206 ; dnbi- 
tative (with Sutrj.), 193. 

Reduplication, 9, 77 ; Attic, 78. 

RelativB and Tempoial Sentences, 
177 - 182 (see Table of Contents) ; 
conditional, 178-181, analogy of 
to forms of protasis, 178 ; inS. in 
Tel, clanae by aasimilation, 195 

Root and atem defined, 17. 

San, 2, 53. 

Semivowels, 3. 

Sonants and Soids, 8. 

Specification, accoa. at, 131. 

Stem and root defined, 17. See Ver- 
bal Sletia. 

Sobject and predicate defined, 113. 

Sobjecl, nomin., 113-114; aeeas, 

Sith infin.), 113-114. 
unctive, 61, 88, 184 ; tenaes of, 
.158-167; in final claases, 168, 
after paat tenses, 186- 167 ; in ob- 
ject clauses with Biwi, 187 ; with 
/«} after verbs of fearing, 168 ; in 
conditional sentences, 171, 178- 
174, 175 ; in cond. rel. sentences, 
179, 180 ; in rel. clauses ezpreaa- 
ing puipoaa (not Attic), 181 ; 
with hit, Ac, 182; with rpln, 
182-183; changed to opt. after 
paat tenses in indir. discourse, 
184, 188, 187, 188-189, 190; in 
quastions of doubt, 198 ; with off 
11-^, 193 ; in exhortations, 192 ; in 
[trohibitions with n-ii (aor.), 192 ; 
m Hom. like fut. indie 192, some- 
times with dr or ti, 162, 193. See 

Surds and Sonants, S. 

Syllables, 9, 210 ; pure, 9 ; division 
of, 9 ; quantity ot; 10 ; doabtfiil 
at end d verse, 210. 

Syncope, 7, 84, 36. 

Synizesis, 6. 

Tenses, 61 ; primaiy and secondaiy 
(or hiatorical), 61, 156 ; syntax of, 
154 - 161 (see Table of C^mtonU). 

;,. Google 


Tenae-atema, fl2, 63, SS, SI. 

Time, aceaa. of {exUnt], 131 ; gen. 

of (wtlAtn vihich]. 111 ; daL of, 

Trochaic verses, 211 ; Bystenis, 215. 
Vnu or Dixsmma, 2, 32, 63, 78, 211. 
VcrbBl a^jectiTCS in -r^oi and -rior, 

90 ; persona] and impersonal con- 

Btniction of, 20S i dative of agent 

with, 148. 
Verbal atenia, 79-88; final yowel 

lengthened in pure verbs, '" 

limple stem, 62-S3, 79-8( 

- 88 ; present formed from simplo 
stem (nine classes of verbs), 80 - 82. 

Verbs, conjugation of, 61-111 ; syn- 
tax of, 162-20S. See Table of 

Verses, 209 ; catalectic and acatalec- 


Vocsatlve case, 18, 129 

thild decL, 23. 
Voices, 81, 152 - 161. 
Vowels, 2 1 open and close, 2. 
Wishes, expression of, IBl. 
Wotuitring, verb* of; with el, 177. 


N.B. tb* tgai— nta to pOit*. 

"Aicpoi with 

*AXXa n <i ; or UXo -n ; 

'AXXo* with article, 121. 

"A», adverb, 181-183 (see Table of 
Contenta) ; in protasis, 161, 169, 
178-171, 175 ; in cond. rel. sen- 
tences, 161, 178, 179, 180 ; in apod- 
osJs, 161, 172, 174; omitted in 
protasis, 171, 175 ; in apodoaia. 
178, 171; ISti, xpw, ^c. without 
to, 173 ; with infin, and partic, 
162-163,179,181,186,204; some- 
timea in &nal clauses, fcc, 161, 166, 

"Av (a), 169. See 'Eiir. 

*A^ ai and ipn p,4i, 205 - 206. 

-anil and -aro, Ionic esdinga for 
■mt, -mi, 92 ; sometimea in Attic, 


both intensive and personal, 64, 
121; agreeing with an ondtted pro- 
noun, 124 ; with article flhe lame), 
S5 ; contracted with article, GS. 

'Axpi, ■uniil, 132. 
lodosis, 177. 

OH witn gen. and dat. (rarely accna.), 

Afoiuii with accus. and gen., 133. 

Aia, bind, contraction at, 96. 

AijXJt (Ipi with participle, 204. 

AloUyoiwi with dative, 117. 

Aia-nMN with participle, 203. 

An^idat, contraction of; 96. 

Ave, 51, 62, 117. 

Avi-, augment of componnds of, 79. 

•Edv {il ir), 161, 162, 169, 173-174, 
176 ; tl a in Horn,, 169 ; cl with 
subj., *. or (^ omitted, 174, 175. 
«.. ---,,_ (k;.^ Bithjii. fin. in apod- 

SXpfl», f 

■, 173. 

it y6a in wishes, 191. 
ELfif, U, cDiyugation of, 107 ; accent 

of, 11, 15. 
E^i, go, coitjugation o^ IDS ; pm. 

in future sense, IGG. 

;,. Google 



Zbrev, ^^ ^yt ''o^ distinguislied 
in coostructiQn of indirect dia- 
couTse, 196. 

EEn . . . On. itTt . . . 1j, 20a. 

'Emrrios, with dat, 116; irithgeiL, 

'E£f|v with infin., in tpodous with- 
out 4», 178. See'Ea*!. 

"TEoTt, uniil, 182. 

"Ea-ny ot, ke^ 127. "Earif Srui, 127. 
■EsTB- oD, 127. 

"EirxaTciB with article, 121. 

"Br^to^ ATi<po« in cresis, 6. 

ES, augment of compounds of, 7S. 

EtvoMtv, 132 ■ ■ 



:, 113. 

'E^' i ur U' Art, with i: 

withfut. mdic, 181. 
'£^op^ with porticiiile, 201, ISO. 
'Ewt, lore, be., until, 182. 
Zi», contraction of, 96. 
'Hiw, as perfect, 156. 
"Hv, if, 189. See 'Sir. 
ea|i(ta with partieiple, 203, 
eautiEtC- il, 176, 189. 
'Iijuk eend, co^jogatiou o^ 109, 
Kcu in craeie, 6. 
EcU riv, imd ht, 123. 
KoKM voutr, 132 i nM& rpimo' 

EAloi, 2ie, conjugation of, 110. 
EUvs, A*, perfect of, 83. 

Slvm, ic. perfect of, 83. 
fB, ^|it (Inv, how diBtingniahed 
in construction of indirect '" 
coarse, 199. 

AovMva with participle, 203, 1 

Hdxo|iai with dative, 147. 

AUXn and umiUXs, with gen. and 
dat., 137. 

MJXXtf with infin. as periphraatdc 
fntura, 78, 158. 

MJirot with arHcle, 122. 

Wxps wua, 182. 

U^ lot, in final and object clauses, 

M<i, not, 206 - 208 ; in final and ob- 
ject cUnaea with Im, Swm, &c., 
168 ; in protasis, 169 ; in cond. 
rel. sentences, 17S ; in rel. clauses 
expressii^ porpose, 181.; in indi- 
rect discourse with infin. (irregu- 
lartj], 184 ; in indir. question! 

with <i; 20S ; is wishes, ISl ; with 
subj. and imper. in prohibitions, 
192 ; with eulg. in questions of 
doubt, 193 ; with infin. (eice^t in 
indir, disc.), 207 ; with aidjective^ 
207 ; as interrogative, 208. 
VLtfii, Y-Tiidt, |if|T^ &c., 206. 

Mi|K^ a. 

M^ oA, ^-ith inlin., 207-208, 19S 
-197 ; with participles and nouns, 
208. Hi lot, foUowed by oi, not, 

MupiM and iivpCoi distinguished, GS. 

M»v (^)) dM, 200. 

N movable, 6, 99. 

Ni]-, negative preEi, 112. 

No^^u with dative (like xik^omiu). 

. . t) U, 12% ; i il alone. 


'O |ij* 

'O and Svof (for Sn or cii) in indi- 
rect qnotations (poetic), 190. 

-01 rarely elided in poetry, 6. 

OlSa, inflection of, 111 ; with parti- 
ciple, 204. 

OUt -H, abU, 127. 

Otir4' 8 Spocniv; 192. 

OI^^ouoi, as perfect, 166 j with parti- 

"OXot with article, 122. 

'Ovwt, as linal paiUcipls, 165 ; in 
indirect discourse for Cit {poetic), 
190. See'O. 

'Ovn(, declined, SB J in indirect 
questions, 206. 

'(V for Sn (not Sri). 9- 

*Oti not elided in Attic, fl ; in indi- 
rect ouotationB, 183, 184-186; in 
causal sentences, 190; befoiedirect 
quotations, 183. 

Oi.ftc, pronoun of third peiaan,G4, 

0{,, oIk, o4x 3. 206-208 ; used in 
apodosia (seldom in protasis), 169, 
206 ; in indirect discourse (even 
with infin.), 184 ; in rel. clauses 
with def. antecedent, 178 ; in can- 
sal sentences, 190 ; as interroga- 
tive, 206. 

Oi», ot6<(t, oSn, &c., 206. 

OiSl iroXXoO Ut, 138. 

OiB«l« Svnt o^ tvmyiody, 128. 

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242 OBSEE 

Ol )i4 with mM. ftnd fdt. indie, 19S. 
Ofrot, deuliiied, S7 ; distingniflhed 

from SSa in the historians, 125 ; in 

ezclamations, 12s ; toCtd witli /lA' 

and lU, 125. 
OvTwt and avTH, 6. 
'O^fM, u fiuaJ particle, 16fl ; vaitil, 

SaXu iritli weaent, ISS. 
nu, oU, mQi article, 122. 
Ilipt not eUded, 6, 78, 112. 
H^pMp^ irith participle, 204, 160. 
HXtw, contraction o^ 9S. 
TSXiyu, kc. perfect of; 8S. 
noXqUv with dative, 147. 
noXAofi St^ 139. 
rtptv, with inGn., 182-188, 200; 

with iodic., Ba^., and opt., 182 

nf\irtLmiatw1iwf6nfO¥t (uaed 

like wpl,], 18S. 
JIfi not elided, 6, 78, 113. 
'naiotfn, be. for rpociro, kc, 109. 
'nY'**! contraetian o^ 96. 
Z inserted before tenninatiaiu in p«rf 

r. naas., SG - 

ToM, Ta«Mf , Tafcttfl^ feo., SS. 

Tdx" Av, 163. 

Tifnt, kic. perfect of, 83. 

-rfos or -Wot, Terbal in, M, 206. 

•H», lofc) r tU, any me, 68, 126, 12C. 

To( in crasiB, 6. 

Tfr* tmi riv, 123. 

^TOi^ veibal adjectiTB in, 90. 

"Imivm, with participle, 203, 160. 

Xpilapai, UK, mth dative, 148. 

XfMu^ fat. o^ 79 ; oontnction (^ 

4av<p^ <l|u with participle, 204. 

4t|j^ joy, coAJngation of, 109-110; 
accent o^ 14. 

^rtfd, Akov, Uw how diEtingoiihed 
in construction of indirect dio- 
course, 186. 

4e^M> with participle, 203, ISO. 

'Dm, as final particle, 165-167; & 
Sr, 166, 1S7 ; in indirect qpota- 
tiona, 188,184-186; incamalaen- 
tences, 190; for Sort with infiiL, 
198 ; with indie., IBl ; with parti- 
ciples, 202. 204. 

'ftffi^ wilii ii^io., 181 ; with infin., 

'O+aXov in vishea, 101. 

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