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Full text of "An encyclopædia of trees and shrubs; being the Arboretum et fruticetum Britannieum abridged: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically described: with their propagation, culture, and uses in the arts. Abridged from the large edition in eight volumes, and adapted for the use of nurserymen, gardeners, and foresters"

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SB 



ENCYCLOPiEDIA 



\^5ci 



or 



TREES AND SHRUBS; 



BKIHO TUB 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICTIM 

ABRIDGED : 



« • 



. • • • 
COXTAININO • 

THE HAKDY TREES AND SHRUBS OF BRITAIN 

NATIVE AND FOBEION, 

SCIENTIPICALLT AND POPULARLY DESCRIBED; 

WITH THBIR PROPAGATION, CULTURE, AND USB8 IN THE ARTSt 

▲ND 

WITH ENGRAVINGS OF NEARLY ALL THE SPECIES. 

ABBIDOED FBOM THB LABOE EDITION IN EIGHT YOLUlfES, AND 

ADAPTED FOB THE USE OF 

^utstTsmm, Gartiemrs, anil Jporesuts. 



\ ■» 

^ 



BY J.^C> LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. &c. 

CONDUCTOB OF THB OABDBNEB*8 MAGAZINE, ETC. 



LONDON: 
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS 

1863. 



• t 

• * • 

» . 

i 



London: 

Spottiswoodm and Shaw, 
New-street- Sqimre. 



PREFACE. 

Tbis Abridgement of the Arboretum et FruHcettnn Briiannicum contains: — 

1. Characters and short Popular Descriptions of all the species and 
varieties of hardy trees and shrubs now in jBritish gardens, with directions 
for their culture; including the soil most suitable for them, their pro- 
pagation, and thdr uses in the arts, &c. 

2. Engravings of all the species which are described, with the exception of 
half a dozen. The whole arranged according to the Natural System ; all the 
engravin|s being to the scale of two inches to a foot, or one sixth of the 
natural size. 

3. The Scientific Names and Scientific Synonymes of all the species ; and 
their Popular Names in the languages of tne different countries where they 
are indigenous or cultivated. 

4. An Alphabetical Index to all the species and varieties, with their 
^non^mes. 

5. A Tabular Analysis of the Leaves, by which the name of any species 
of tree or shrub described in the work may, in general, be discovered, from 
a small portion of a shoot with the leaves on. 

6. Specific Characters, Descriptions, and Figures of some species, more 
particulariy of pines, firs, and oaks, which were not in the country in 1838, 
when the large work was completed. 

In a word, though thid Abridgement does not include all the interesting 
and useful information on the natural history of trees which will be found in 
the larger work, or any of the portraits of entire trees which constitute so 
distinguished a feature in it, yet it contains all that is necessary to enable the 
reader to discover the names of the different spedes, and to ascertain their 
culture, propagation, and uses in Britain ; in snort, all that is essential for 
the nurseryman, gardener, and forester. 

The most remarkable circumstance connected with this Abridgement is, 
that the Author has been able to obtain figures of nearly all the species. 
For the drawings or specimens from which these additional figures were 
taken, he is indebted to the kind assistance of various Public Institutions, 
and of several of the most eminent botanists and possessors of herbariums 
and living collections in Europe and North America. 

The Institutions to which he is under obligations are, the Linnean and 
Horticultural Societies of London, the British Museum, tlie Museum of 
Natural History of Paris, and that of Berlin : and the Botanists who have 
kindiv lent him drawings or specimens include the late A. B. Lambert, Esq. ; 
Sir W. J. HooKBR ; Dr. Lindley ; the late Professor Don ; George Don, 
Esq., who prepared the dharacters of the Orders and of the Genera; 
Messrs. Loddigbs ; the late Professor DbCandollb ; M. Alphonse Db 
Candolle ; W. BoRRER, Esq. ; P. B. Webb, Esq. ; Baron Db Lbssert ; 
M. MicHAux; Signor G. Manetti ; M. Otto; M. Charles Rauch; M. 
Francis Rauch, who made most of the drawings; and Drs. Torrby 
and Gray : to all of whom ; to the Curators of most of our Botanic and 
Horticultural Gardens, and those of many foreign ones ; and to all Nurnery- 
men and Gardeners, both at home and abroad, who may have rendered him 
assistance, he begs to return his most sincere thanks. 

To the Council of the Horticultural Society of London he is under especial 
obli^tions, for their permission to make drawings from the cones and other 
specmiens sent home by their collectors, Douglas and Hartweo, and for 
authorising him to procure information from their intelligent and experienced 
•uperintendent of tne arboricultural department of the Garden, Mr. George 
Gordon, A.L.S. ; and to Mr. Gordon he is indebted for the ready and 
obliging manner in which, at all times, he rendered bis assistance. 

Bayiwater, April, 1842. J. C. L. 

A 2 






IV 



CONTENTS. 



Enumeration of the Genera and Species, with their Tarieties and synonysies, In the order 
In which they are described In the work ,'_, , " ^ , ' . Tu . .t ' 

An Analysis of the commoner Trees and Shrubs of Britain, with reference to their Uses 
In useful and ornamental Plantations - , „^ -^ ^ ".^ ^ , '^. »w_7j 

An Analysis of the Genera of the Trees and Shrubs described in this Abridgement, 
according to their Leaves -...,." ^ " 

Explanation of Abbreviations, Accentuation, Indications, ttc ... 

The Species described In detail -.----- 



EXO'GEN£. 

DiCULAMT'DBA. 



J?anuncullkces 

ClematfdecB - 

'Wlnterdcetr - 

PwoniAcfte - 

Magnolr^£« - 

Anondceaf 

HenispermioesB 

Berbcrdceee - 

AurantUcesB - 

Cruciilcese 

Cistftcec 

JtfalT&cese 

TilUcess 

Ternstromfd«e<9 

iifyperlcicese - 

AcvAcem 

Capparidicese 

>Escul&ce«B - 

SapindicesB - 

fitices 

XanthoxyUces 

CoriAcesB 



Staphyle^cese 

Celastriicese - 

^quifoliiceae 

ithamnicecB - 

Homaliniceae 

Anacardi^ese 

Leguminitoeae 

itos&ccB 

Calycanthftcee 

Granatkcese - 

TismaridlcesB 

PhiladelphlUMSB 

Nitrarttu^a - 

Grossulikcese - 

Kscallontdctftf 

Hydr^gese - 

UmbellaceK - 

Hamamelid^ces 

Araliicec - 

Comiceae 

Loranthiicec 

GaprifbUAces 



CoBtmts. 
Page y. Wii. 
T. IvU. 
▼1. Ivii. 
▼I. 

Ti. iTil. 

yi. 

yi. 

yi. Ivii. 
Ivll. 
yii. 

vii. 

vil. 

yii. 
vlii. 

viU. Ivll. 

vUl. IvU. 

Ivili. 

iz. Iviii. 

Ix. 

Ix. IviU. 

ix. 
z. 



Caljfcifli^eB. 



X. 
X. 

X. IviiL 
xi. ivUi. 
xii 

xU. Ivili. 
xii. IvUi. 
xvi. IvllL 
xxv. 
xxv. 
xxv. 
xxvl. 
xxvi. 

xxvi. IviU. 
xxviL 
xxvill. 
xxviii. 
xxviil. 
xxviii. Ivili. 
xxviii. IviU. 
xxlx. 
xxxi. 



nil 



1 nil 

2 nil 

20 nil 

17 

21 nil 

38 
89 
41 

ni8 

58 

M 

63 

68 

71 

74 1112 

78 1112 
113 

123 1113 
134 

135 1113 
141 
145 



147 
148 

166 1118 

166 1113 

182 

184 1113 

194 1114 

289 1114 

452 

456 

457 

459 

467 

468 1115 

489 

492 

494 

498 

49>i 1116 

601 1116 

508 

512 



Saxobtcem - 
Lonicdroe - 
.Subi^eie 
Comp6sita» - 
£ricAcefl0 
Stftkceas 
HalesfVlcAr - 
Smoldcett 
EbeniceK 

Jasmln^cesB - 
.i^fpocynicese - 
Aadepiaddcem 
Bignom'^«e« - 
Soian&cea - 
Scrophulariilcec 
Labllces - 
Terbenicese - 



Centanfs. 
xxix. IvilL 
xxix. Ivili. 
xxxi. 
xxxi. 
xxxl. Iviii. 

XXXV. 
XXXV. 

XXXV. 

xxxv. 

XXXV. Iviii. 
xxxvii. 
xxxvil. 
xxxvii. IviU. 
xxxvii. 
xxxvU. Ivili. 
xxxviii. 
xxxvlii. 
xxxviii. 



MONOCBLAMY'DKJB. 



Ghenopodi&cess 

/'olygonices 

ZAuraces 

Tliymel&cess- 

SantaliicetB - 

flseagnkcess - 

ifristolochUicese 

£uphorbfd«a0 

Artocfcrpes - 

C/lmicesB 

Jugland^oesi 

^afldkceae 

2?etuUU;ese - 

CoryUcen - 

Qaxvjdlceie - 

Platanibceae - 

JSalsamteesB 

Afyricicese > 

GnetdeoB 

raxAcesB 

Conlferse 

ilbl6tinsB 

Oipr6sslnaB - 

fmpetriceie- 



xxxviU. 
xxxvUl. Ivili. 
xxxix. 
xxxlx. Ivlli. 
xl. 

xl. Iviii. 
xl. 
xl. 
xl. 

xll. IviU. 
xlii. 
xliii. 

xlvl. Iviii. 
xlvil. Iviii. 
11. 

li. IvUl. 
11. 
U. 
11. 
IL 

11. IviiL 
U. 
Iv. 
Ivi. 



AnIUkeesB 
LUiiteeK 



ENDG'GENf. 

-IvI. 
IviL 



Page T 

liz 

Ixvii 

IZJEii 



Tnct. 
513 1116 
625 1116 
644 
645 

652 1116 
617 
619 
622 
624 

627 1116 
654 
666 

658 1117 
660 

663 1117 
670 
672 
676 



674 

677 1117 
681 

686 1117 
693 

696 1117 
701 
702 
706 

714 1117 
731 
744 

831 1117 
846 1117 
926 

927 1118 
981 
984 
937 
938 

946 1118 
947 
I06r 
1090 



1098 
1088 



Supplementary Figures ... 
Supplementary Species ... 
List of Authorities for Generic and Specific Names 
List of Books referred to - 



- 1106 
. nil 
. 1119 

- 1124 



Glossartal Index 
General Index 



1186 
1142 



••• 



By turning to the pages of the Contents, the whole of the species and varieties, with their 
synonymes, of anv genus or order, may be seen at a glance ; and, by turning to the General Index at 
tne end. any particular species, whether known by its general name or its synonyme, may be found 
at once, both in the Contents and in the body of the work. 



ENUMERATION 



OP THE 



GENERA, SPECIES, AND VARIETIES, WITH THEIR 8TN0NYME8, 

SCIENTIFIC AND POPULAR, 

m THB OBDBB IN WHICH THET ARE DB8CBIBED. 



In tbe fclknrliig TaUe the SynonriiMt are printed in Itellcs. English ipeeiflc nmnet are omitted 
^ben they ar« merely translattona or the identiflc names. French, German, and Italian generic 
names are, with few exoeptlons, not given when they are tbe lame. or nearly the tame, as the acien- 
tl6c ofoee : and tlie tpeciflc names are only giTen in these languages when tney are synonymes, and 
not mere trandatioDS. 

Class I. EXO'GEN^, 

Subdiv. I. DICHLAMY'DEiE. 

SubcL I. THALAMIFLO'RJE. 



8eot» I. 

CmneUoy titU u^ the eo mp c m en t 
Farts <tf co m p oum d CapnUet 
or Fntugf mmmer ou $ ; or ike 
Simmtetu placed oppottte the 
Petali. 

Kanunculdcea. 

Tribe I. CLKUA.n'j>mM, 

I. Clb'matis L, ' 2 
FlrgiH** Bower, Lodt'et' 
Bower: CMmMte^Fr.i WalA- 
rebe^ Ger. ; Ocmatidet Ital. 

§ L Flammmla Dee. 

]. FlammulaXr. - 3 

C. ftmw Gerard, C. mariUma 
Alt. Ped^ C. tmaoioUnM Sal. 
Prod., C. pamtctUdta Thun. : 
8weei^$eemted Virgin** Bower: 
CUmatUeodoramU, Fr.; ScMatfe 
H'aidrebe, Ger. 
2 rotundilolia Dee, 3 



C. frd^rama Ten. 

3 maritmui Dec - S 

4 rubella Dee. - 3 

5 c«spitd«a Dec - 4 
C. caepitUa Scop. 

C. PUnmnmlaBat. 
^ paniculata - - 4 
C. pantctUala Thna 

2. orientalis L. - 4 

C JIdva Moench, C. gtatea 
WiUd., C. ochroieica Hort. : 
peOov^Jlowered K B. 

3. cfain^nsis Retz, - 5 
C. eimhtsis Lour. coch. 

4. Vit4lba Zr. - . 5 

TraTeller*s Joy. — C. Mtera 
Matth., C. Urtia Com., Vtirma 
Ger. ft Loh., Wttsw^o Fuch.: 
Old Mam'9 Beard, BfadwitM, 
Cummuu Y.B^ WQd Climber, 
Great HVd Cliatber : a^matite 
brmlamte. Ft. : Gemeine 9Vald- 
rtbe, Ger. ; Vie biamca, ItaL 

5. viraniana L, - 6 

C. camadtneie MilL Diet. C. 
cord^bUa M omch supn^, C. IH' 
lermita HorL: Broai^lod Ca- 
nada K B, 



8 bractdLto Dec - 6 
C. bractedta Meench. 

6. grata Wall. - 7 
a odorUa Hort., a trUer- 

uila Hort, C. nepaUntU Hort. 

7. Vi6niaZr. - - 7 

C. pmrpkrea ripens Ray: 
Leatkerjffiowered V.B.y Ameri~ 
can Traveller's Joy, Virginian 
Climber, Purple Oimber: CU- 
maUte Viome, Fr.; GlockenMI- 
tkige fValdrebe, Ger. 

2 cordata - - 7 

C. eordita Sims B. M. 
C. SbnM Swt H. B. 

8. cylfndrica ^mt - 8 
C. criepa Lam., C. ViSma 

Bot. BeiK, C. dioaricita Jacq. : 
Long-fiowered V. B.: CUmattte 
i bmgua Fleurs, Fr. 

9. reticulata Walt. - 9 

a rdsea Abbott, C. Shnsii 
Hook. 

10. HendersoDti Chan. 9 

§ iL VUicina Dec. 

11. fl6rida Tkun. - 10 

AbrSgene indica Desf, Aird- 
gene J&rida Pera. : CIdmatiU 3 
graiMfas Fleurs, Fr. ; GrossUU- 
Mge Waldrebe^ Ger. 

2 ilore pleno Hart - 10 

3 fl. pi. violaceo - 10 
C./ SidMOA D. Don. 

C. SMMtfll Pajr<. 
C. bioohr HorU 

12. csrulea Zrtnd/. - 1 1 
C aaHtrea grtmdiffbra Si^., 

CL grandif^a Hort. 

13. Viticellalr. - 11 

riUcOla deltoidea Moroch: 
Red-Jlowered Ladies' Bower, 
Oeraids Jialieniseke Waldrebe, 
Ger. 

1 ceriilea - - 12 
S purpikrea - - 12 

3 multiplex G. Don 12 
C.p«<cA^/laPers. 

4 tenuifolia Dec. - 12 
C. ten. lauitdmica Toum. 

A 3 



5 baecata i>ec. - 12 
C. campanlfibra Hort. 

14. campanifldra ^ro<. 12 

C. vAwwdMo Scfarader, C. 
parvifibra Dec 

2 parviBora Fie Got. 12 

15. crispa L. - - 13 
C. fibre critpo DUL Elth. 

§ lit CheirSpii9 Dec. 

16. cirrh6sa /«. - ••IS 

Alrdgeme cirrkisa Pers. : 7Va- 
veller's Joy q^ Candia, and 5jmu 
ntfiA Traveller's Joy, Gerard: 
Spanish H'ild amtber, Parkins. ; 
Ewergreen Clematis : CUmatite 
d Vrales, Fr. ; BittfachUattrige 
Waktrebe. Ger. 

2 pedteelUto Dec . 14 
C. pediceliata 8wU H. B. 
C. baledriea Pers. 

C. drrhdsa Sims B. M. 

3 angustifolia - -14 
C. balearioa Rich. B. M. 
C. ca^rina Ait. 

C. po^fm&rpha Hort. 
CUmatite de Mahon, Fr. 

§ !▼. ANenumt/fdro, 

17. mont^na Ham. - 15 

C. aMemon\fibra D. Don. 

OM^ Species. — C. holoserfccM 
Pursh, ilgusticlfdUa Nuttall, 
DrummOudiY Tor. A Gray, 
nanriflbra NnttalL laslftntha 
Nutt^ linearlloba Dec, Pitch- 
er^ Tor. A Gray, pubesceni, 
eitilblia, Bncban/diui - 15 

II. i^TRA^GBNB Z^. - 16 
CUmatis Lam. A Dec : Jtra^ 
gene, Fr. and Ger. 

1. alp!na L, » - 16 
CUmatis aer^lea Bauh.^ Cle- 
matis a:phia Mill Diet. A Dec, 
A. austriaca Scop. A B. M., A. 
clematides Crants : Alragene 
des Alpes, Ft. i Alpen Atrageme, 
Ger. 

2 White flws. Dec. 16 

3 sibirica ? - .16 
A. sibirica L. 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



2. sibfricaZ,. . - 17 

A. afyfina Gmel. St PalU CIS- 
mati$ sibtrica MllL Diet, ft Dec. 
2 Blue flws. B.M. 17 
A. ochottmis Pallas ? 
A. alpina L. ? 

3. americkna iSSfnu - 17 

ClJmatiM verttdUaHM Dec. 
2 obllqua Don, MS, 17 

0/A<rr Spedet and Varietiet.^ 
A. ochutftiub /><!/<.( A. Mibtrica 
▼ar. ?), il. columbliina Nutt. 
{CUmatiM cohimbidna Tor. ft 
Grayi. p. 11.) . .17 

Tribe II. PjEOviA^cxjK. 
I. Pmo'hia L. - 18 

The Tmonjr—Petn^f.Piony : 
GidUterrote^ Ger. ) itota del 
Monie, Span. ^ Peonta, Ital. 

I. Afoulan Sims - 18 

Tree Paeony. — P. arbbren Dn. 
P. nt^Hf/icdM B. Rep. : Pivoine 
Motttan, Fr. ; BaunuurligeGidU- 
terrottt Ger. ; Hoa-Ouang, and 
Pe-Leang-Ktn. (Chinese. 

1 /wpaveracea ^.22. 18 

2 Biaxksii B R. . 19 

II. Xanthorhi^zaZt. 19 

The Yellow-Root. 

I. flpiifblia VHM. - 20 
XaiUMorisei PemOetdePeniL 
Fr. ; SeUerie-NatMgeGelbumrz, 
Ger. 

JVinteriicege, 
I. Illi'^cium X. - 20 

Aniseed Tree : Badfane, Anii 
tUriUt Fr. ; Stenumis, Ger. r 
Badiano, ItaL 

I. floridknum .S^ 20 

Florida lUieium, Red-Jlotoered 
Anue-teed Tree Mor. HUt.: Bo- 
diane de la Ploride, Fr. ; Vn- 
achter Stemanis, Ger. 

L Magno^/.< L. -21 

The Magnolia. — MagnoHe, 
Fr.. Ger., ft Ital.; Bieberinnim, 
Hart 

§ i. MoffnoTiiiBtrum, 
1. grandiflora Zr. - 22 

Laurel Bm, Big luntrel. Large 
MagnoHa^ Laurter tulipier, Fr. ; 
Groubhtmiger Magnoiie, or 
Bieberbatun^ Ger. ; Magnolia 
TtUipanOt Ital. 

2 obovita AiL . S2 

3 exoni^nsis Hort, - 23 
M. g. laneeoidsa Ait 

M. g. ttricta Hort 
M. g.fermginea Hort 

4 angiutifolia Hort. 28 

5 pras'coz Andry, - 23 

Ortffr Vars. — M. g. vdra, 
M. g. UtiAlla, M. g. ezoni- 
ensls Tar.. M. g. niblglndaa, 
M. g. rotundifblU Swt., M.g. 
elliptica ifiY., M. g. kmgUblla 
uuduUta, M. g. exonicntu i 



fleurdeml-double, M. g. cana- 
licul£, M. g. florlbunda, M.g. 
fbliig.Tar1eg&tia, M. g. mogor- 
d^oais - - - S3 

2. glauca Zr. - - 25 

si. frdgrane Sallsb. : Swamp 
Sassqflrat, Beaver-wood, fVkHe 
Biiif, Small Magnolia, Swamp 
Magnolia: Maputlie glanque, 
Fr. ; AOero de uutora, Ital. 

2 sempervirens Hort. 25 

3 Thomsontdna Thp. 25 
M.gL par. m^for B. M. 

OlAer Fare. — M. gl. Gordo- 
nidna. M. gl. BurchellufiM, 
M. gl. longifblU Purtk, M. 

{1. Cardbn^ ( Jf. Cordon J. 
Lnight) . '26 

3. trirctala Z. - 27 

M. umbrella Lam., M. fron- 
ddta Sallcb. : Umbrella Tree, 
Umbrella MagnoU€i, Elkwood: 
MagnoUe Paraeoi Fr. 

4. macroph/lla Mjp. 28 

M. MickatAi HorL : Large, 
leaved Umbrella Tree, Amer. 

5. acuminata L. - 29 

M. Hutica, M.pemut/lvanica, 
Bine Magnolia, Cueumber Tree, 

US 

'2'Cand611t Savi . 29 
3 m&xima Lodd, - 29 

Other Fars — M.ttriita. M. 
latUbUa . . 89 

6. cordata Mx. - 30 

7. auricul^ta Lam. . 31 

M, PrdteA Walt,, M. attncu- 
Idria Sallsb.: Indian PJ^ue, 
N. Amer. 

2 pyraniidiita . 31 
M. mframiddta Bartr. 
M.Frd»et\ p^amidiUa Nt 

§ ii. GwiUinaA Rett. 

8. conspicua Satith, 33 
Yulan Magnolia. — M. pricia 

Correa. M. Yulan Detf.: Yu 
Lan, Chinese : LiUf.Jlwd M. : 
MaenoUer Yu/ant, Fr. ; Yulans 
BiMerbanm, Ger.; if. dai Pi- 
oridiGigUo, Ital. 

2 Soulangecina - 33 
M. SonlangehMAn H. P. 
M.SonlangeinaSwt.B.F.a. 

Other Varieties, or Hubrida. 
— M. c. S. speciosa, M. c. S. 
Alexandrloa • - 83 

9. purpikrea Shns . 35 
M. obovdla Thun., M. disco- 

tor Vent, AT. denuddta Lam. : 
Obovate-Jvd M.: Magnotier diS' 
colors, Bon Jard., MagnoUe bi- 
colors Dun., Fr. ; R»& Bieber- 
barnn, Ger. 

2 gracilis - - 35 
M. Kbbus Dee, 
M. tomenibsa Than. 

Other rarieaes M. p. de. 

nud&U Low.. M. p. discolor 
Vent., M. p. illilibra Lam., 
a dwarf ?ar. (jif. obovdtap^- 
nwZa of CassorettI) . 35 

II. Liriodb'ndron Z. 36 
The Tulip Tree. 



1. Tulipifera L. - 36 

The Poplar, JVhite Wood and 
Canoe Wood, Amer.; Ftrginian 
Poplar, Tulw^bearingLiluTree, 
and Satfdle Tree, Eng.: T\ilipier 
de Firginie, Fr. ; Firginischer 
TidMeerbaum, Ger. ; TuUpiere, 

2 obtusfloba Afx.- 36 

L,intfgrifbiia Hort 
Yellow Wood. 
Yellow Poptar, 
Other Fars. — Ij. T. acuU- 
(bite Mm., L. T. flira Hort. 36 

Anonaceae. 

1. Asi'MlNA Adanson 38 

Kdrjmm 
K Pers., t/vd- 



Anndna L., Orchidocdf 
ria Tor. ft Gray: Ctutard 



Mx., PoreHUe 



Apple: Asiminier, Fr.; Fto- 
I ckenbanm, Ger. 

1. Crfloba Dun. - 38 
Annbna triloba t,., Porci/ln 
triloba Pers., Orehidocdrpmn 
earietinmn Mx., Uvhria triloba 
Tor. ft Gray: Papau, Amer.; 
Asiminier de Firginie Fr.} An- 
nana, Ital. 

Other Species^.- A. panrifldra, A. 
grandifldra - - 89 

Menispermhcece. 
I. Menispe'rmum L. 39 

The Moonsoed.— ilf<M]f7»rryii^, 
Fr. ; Mondsaame, Ger. 

1. canadense Zr. . 40 

M. eanad/nse tmr, a Lamark, 
M. anguldtum Moench. 

2 fob^tum Dee. . 40 
M. virginicum L. 

3 «railicinum - 40 
M. smUdeimtm Dee. 

2. dai^ricum Dec. - 40 

Trilophns Ampeltsdgrfa Fis^ 
M.eanadhuefi Lam. 

If. Co'ccuLus ^/?f<A. 40 

The Cocculus. — Menispir- 
mum L., WendldndisL WtUd., 
Andr6phila» Wendl. 

1. caroHnus Z) c. - 41 

Menisp. caroOnum L., Wend- 
IdndU popn^fbtia Willd., An. 
drdphHax scandens Wendl., 
BaumgdrtUi scdndens Moench : 
Cocoola, Ital. 

Berberaceas. 

I. BE'EBERlslt. - 42 
The Berberry. — P/MMT^r 
Bush : Eyine vinette, Fr.; Ber- 
beriize, Ger.; Berbero, Ital. 

1. sibirica PaU. - 42 
B aUAica Pal. 

2. vulgaris Zr. - 42 

B. eetaUnsis PresI, B. fwacro. 
Mf97Niof some: PipperidgeTrce, 
Dr. Turner: B'pine vinette Fr.; 
€7«m«riipi« Berberitxe, Ger. 

2 liktea - - 43 

3 iUba . -43 

4 riolicea - 43 

5 purpurea - 43 
B. inmomindia Kalm. 



CONTENTS. 



VU 



6 nSgn - • 43 

7 d^eia - - 43 

8 asp^rma - - 43 

9 longifolia - - 43 

10 glaSca - - 43 
B. glaUoa Booth. 

11 m)txs - - 43 

12 provlnciAlia - 43 

3. emai^in4ta WUid, 44 

4. cretica L. ^ 44 

B. c. bunlfdfia Toivn. 

5. cratse'ginaJDnr. - 45 

6. ib^ica Stev, - 45 
B. «^r. f V. Afrfea Dec, B» 

7. canadensis JIttf. 45 
B. tmtgirit Mx., B. v. c aw fl 

itfiuft llart. MilL 

8. sinensis Det^ - 46 
B. vmlgiris Thoab. 

9. dCJaa D. Don - 47 

10. 6uxifdlia Xam. - 47 

1 1 . actinadintha MartAl 

] 2. heteropb y IJa Jut, 48 
B. UictraAb Font, B. trtem- 
fiddia Sm. 

13. ^mpetrifolia Ijam, 48 

14. dealbata Lindl, - 48 

B.gittUca Hoit. 

15. asiadca J2ar&. - 49 
ne Ljfdum qf DiotcoHdn: 

B. tineiibria Leca. : lAr AoMa 
Berberrg. 

16. aristata i>c. - 49 

B.ChUrla BacA.. B. angiuti- 
fbliu Roxb^ B. titUfui* Deif. 

Other Specie* nf BMwrte. — B. 
C6rUrla JSm/^, chinfosii &iZr., 
nucUdlia Iaoh^ cor7inb6M 
Hook, ef Am.^ gtomer«ta 
Jtook. el Am., Gteriil^dna 
GUI. 

II. Mauo'via Nutt. 50 

The Mahoaia, or Askbenv.^ 
B^berU qf AmOmn, OdoUetmm 
Baf. 

1. fascicul^ris Dec, 50 

B6rberiB pitmdta Lag., B£r- 
berit/oscfctf/dr^ Pen. Cjc 

2. i^quifdlium .Yu//. 51 
B^rberis AquffMimm Ph. 

2 DutkAoa Dee. 

3. nervosa A^u//. - 52 

BtTbeTUnerv6$aFh', M.glU' 
miteea Dec, B^Tberto ghamdeea 
Pen. C>c. 

4. repens G, Don • 52 

B^rberis Aqt^fblimn Lindl., 
BerberU r^pm* Pen. Cyc, B. 
A4M(f. ''^^p^'w Tor. ft Gref. 

2 r. nucicularis - 53 

Olker Spedes qf Ifoikdnia. — M. 
tenoifblla. M. nepalfoiii, M. 
acaathifi>Ua, M. fraaacantbtf- 
Ides, H earagamttSiiti - 68 



CarpeOa soU'tnru^ or connate i 
fiaoenta parietal {that Part 



qftMe CapnOe utkiA Ike Seeds 
are attacked to adkermg to 
tkeSideeorWaliMo tkeOvarp 
or Germem\ attacked to tke 
WaUt or Ceils qftke Ovary. 

CrucidcecB. 
I. Fb'lla - - 53 

TheVeUa 
1. Pseudo-Cytisus Zr. 54 

Creu- Rocket V. mtegrU 

JdUa Sal. : Faux-Cvtise^ Fr. ; 
Strauekartigf Velle^ Ger. 

Cistace<B* 
I. Ci'sTus /«. > - 54 

The Cicttu, or Rock Rose.— 
HoUifRou,GvnxA ; Gum Cislus: 
C&<e, Fr.; Cisten Rose, Ger.; 
Osfty, Ital. 

1. purpiireas Lam, 55 

C. era/ems Hort. Kev. 

2. inc^us L. - * 55 

a dlUdtu Hort., C. cyfm^rw 
Dee. 

3. corbari^nsis Pour, 55 
C. tahit^fUUus fi Dec. C. po- 

puMJUmt minor of some none- 
riet, C. kgbridus Poarr. 

4. />opuIifbliu8 L, - 56 

5. /aurif^lius L, - 56 

6. ladaniferus L, - 57 

Ladano, ItaL 
1 albifldrus Dee, - 57 

C. hidon Cltu. HUt. 
8 maculiitus Dec - 57 
3 plenifolius Ait, - 57 

7. c^prius Lam, - 57 

C. ladaniferus Bot Mag., C. 
stenopkgUus lA., C. saUcifb- 
Uusotwomib, 

Otker Species qf Cistus.-— C. be. 
teropnf Ilui, C. criticuf , C, 
crlspus, C, Capanl^iM. C, 
hirstitus, C.Uxus, C.^iUbnu, 
C. oblonglf&Iius, C. undula* 
Utiit, C.ralTiKfbUus, C. longi- 
(blioi, C. psUoeepalua - 75 

11. Helia'nthemtjm 58 

The Helhrnthemuni, or Swn 
Rose.^dstisp. L.:Hetiantkemie, 
Vr.i Sonnen Gmrtel, Ger.; EU. 
antemo, Ital. 

1. vulg^ Gteri, - 58 
Cistus Hettdntkemum L. 4v. 

Varieties. — Pale yellow 
double-flowered, Lee*s new 
double yellow. 

2. surrejiinuin JMRll, 58 
Cuter surr^iunts L. 

3. ferpyilif&lium MiU,59 
Cistus serpyllifblms L 

4. ffrandifionim Dec, 59 
cSttus grand{fi6rtu Scop. 

5. taiuncum Fitch, - 59 

6. apenninum Dec, - 59 

Cif<«« apenaiaau L., CI«/m« 
ljLani.;£fte tetfon- 



7. macr&nthuin jSW. 60 
S m^tiplez Swt, - 60 

8. canteens Swt, - 60 

9. Ayssopifblium 7>R. 60 

1 crocatum SsoL . 61 

2 ciipreum Swt, • 61 

3 m^tiplex Swt, .61 

10. scabrosum Pert, 61 



kispidusB 
dnat Ital. 



A 4 



OvarAoM soUtarus Placenta 
central. ( Tke Columm in tke 
P^ruat to wkiek tke Seeds are 
attacked centrals and not ad^ 
keringtotke8ideasinSeet.ll.) 

^alvdcecB. 
I. ^iBi'scus L, - 62 

The Hibiacus.— JMMfe, Fr., 
£ibisek,Gvr. ; Ibiseo, Ital. 

1. syriacus L, - 62 

Atiktea PHUeg: Ketmie des 
Jardins. Fr.; Syriscker Eibisck, 
Ger. 

2 foliis variegitis - 63 

3 fldre varieffAto - 62 

4 flore purpureo - 62 

5 fl. purp. pleno - 62 

6 flore r&bro - -62 

7 flore tibo - - 62 

8 flore iUbo pUno - 62 

L Ti'LiA L, - 63 

The Lime Tree.— £Am TVrr, 
Gerard : XtM, Analo-Sax. ; 
Tilleul, Fr. ; SastkoUx, Ger. ; 
Linde.Gm, and Dutch ; Tiglia, 
Ital.; TOO, Bpan. ; LZ/w, Rum. 

1. europs'a L, - 63 
T. intermedia Dec, T. ouU 
giris Hayne, T. «. koreklis 
wahl. 

1 panrifdlia - - 64 
T. micropk^UaVeat., ftc. 
T. e. var. y L. 

T. ulmifbtia Seop. 
T. syMstris Detf. 
T. parmfldia, Ehrh. 
T. confdta MiU. 

2 grandifdlia - 64 
T. platwkpUa Scop. 

T. cordifiMa Beu. 
T. ««ro/Mr a Detf. 
T. grandifbUa Sm. 

3 interm^ia - - 65 
T. intermidia Hayne. 

T. fkUvpkfUa minor H. 

4 laciniata - - 65 
T.pla^pk. ladnidta Hor. 
T. sspUmiffblia nina Hori. 

5 riibra - '66 
T. corMAioca Bote. 

T. cordlUna Hort. Kew. 
T. r. fi ritbra Sibthorp. 
T. e. y Sm. Fl. Brit 
T. grandj/bUafi Sm.E. Fl. 

6 parvifolia aiirea 6S 

7 grandifdlia aiirea 66 

Otker Varieties With va- 
riegated leaTet. T, eitifbUa.eo- 



VUl 



CONTENTS. 



rylifdlia, grandimia Sm^ oo- 
rilXiah i»jn. eurofke^a Hook. 
Lond.). muUbills, Mte brac> 
tedta, prie^coz,pyrami<Ulis^- 
termddia, tenulfMiii, obllqua, 
europae^a, 9m., panrif!>lla Sm.^ 
arg6Dtea (syn. diba W. & K.) 

2. (eur.) &lba fT. 4- iT. 67 

T. americdna Du Roi, T. or- 
ehuea Detf., T. rotimdifMia 
vent., T.tommtl^aMoeiadx. 

3. americana L. - 68 

T. glabra Vent.. T. caroli- 
fuanoWMiffenh., T. ca>uMf<iw/« 
Mx., T. glabra Dec. : SmooM- 
lorf, or Atodt. I./fiic 2V«r, amd 
Ban Wood^ Amer. 

2 heterophflla - 69 
T. keierojM0L Vent., ftc. 

3 alba - - 69 
T. dOta Mx., Ac. 

T. laxifibra Funh. 

4 pulM^flioens - 69 
T. jmAJJceiM Ait., ftc. 

0<*«r iffN«rtcai»I,MRe.»7.P. 
leptoi^^Ua VemL • • 71 

T<?mfiframiaceae. 

I. Malachode'ndron 

Ca». 71 

The Malachodendron.— A«- 
drtla L* Hirit., SteufdrAa. L. 

I. ovfitum Cav. - 71 
Sftfirda peniaggnia L*H§rit., 

StetodrHaiMalackodfnd. Miller : 
Stewartia d cinq Styles, Fr. 

II. STUA'RT/ii Cav. 72 
The Stuartla. 

1. virffinica Cav. - 72 

StetoSrA^Maladutdindrtm L., 
5fifdrfia fnart/6n<ireaBot.Rep.: 
Stetoarlia d un Style, Fr.; £Ai- 
griffUcke Siuartie, Ger. 

III. GordoVj^ EUis 73 

The Gordonla. 

1. Lasianthus L, - 73 

LobloUy Bay. — Hyp^cvfit 
Ltui&ntkus L.: Gordonia i 
FeutUes glabret, Fr^iLangstie- 
lige Qordouiet Ger. 

2. pubeacens VHer, 73 

LacatheaflMda SaX.^Frank. 
Ilnta atnericdna Marsh.: <A« 
Fronklinia, Amer. ; BekaarU 
Qordomie, Ger. 

I. ^ype'ricum Zr. 74 

The St. John's Wort.— 
Fuga DtBTmrnmn : MiUe Per- 
tHUt Fr.i Jokamuskraut.t Ger.; 
Iperico, Ital. 

§ i. Ascyreia Cho». 

A. Styles commonly 8. 

1. eiatum AU, - 75 

2. hirciDum L, > 75 

Tr4invm Clus., Andros^^- 
mum fafUdum Bauh. : MiUe 
Pertuis d Odeur de Bovc, Ft. 
2 obtuuf^lium i>ec. 75 



S minus i>A;. 



- 75 



B. Styles commonly 5. 

3. Ksdmidnum L. - 75 
H. Bartrdmlxim MiU,x Vir. 

ginia St. John's Wort 

4. Urdlum Ham. - 76 

5. calycinum Zr. - 76 

Androsa^mum Constantino- 
p^tdnsun fi, wmLt., Wheeler's 
Journey: the large-Mwd St. 
John's Wort, the large'flwg 
Tmtsan, the Terrestrial Sfm, 
Aaron's Beard: MiUe PerttUs 
dgrandes Fleurs, Fr.; Gross- 
blumiger JohannishranttQer.i 
Jseiro, Ital. 

§ ii. Berfordria Chois. 
A. Sepals enUre, 

6. proHiicum L, - 77 

'a.fi>UbMun Jacq., H. KalnA- 
inum Dm Roi. 

B. Sepals toothed, nsuaUy ioith 
the Teeth glandular. 

7. ^mpetrifolium W. 77 

Other Species qf TUfpMcnm — 
H. nepsl^Qse Royle, H. ad- 
prfosum Bartr.,U. rosmari- 
nlfblium Lean., H. ^allOldes 
Lam.t H. fiudcuUt Lasn. 77 

II. i^NDROSJ^'MUM C%.77 
The Androscmum ,or Tutsan. 
— Hyptrieum L.: Androsime, 
Fr.; Johanniskraut, Ger.; An- 
droseme, Ital. 

1. officiDkle AlSord 78 
CommonTutsan. — Ct0menon 
Italbrum L'Obel, liypdricum 
Androsa^mumL..:ParkLeaves: 
Androvhne qffleinate,Fr.;Breit- 
blattriges Johonmskraut, Ger.; 
CidUana, Ital. 

Acerdce<e. 
I. ACF.K L. ' - 79 

The Mu>le, and The Syca^ 
more. — Errahle, Fr. ; Ahom, 
Ger.; Acero, Ital. ; ilrce, 5pan. 

A. Leaves simple, or only 
slightly or occasionally lobed. 

1. obl6iieum WaU, 79 
A. lauriPUium D. Don ; A. 

BiulmpAla Hamilt. 

2. tat&ricum X. - 80 
Zarxa-modon, orLocust-iree, 

Russ. 

B. Leaves Z-Jobed. or trifldj 
rarefy b.looed. 

3. spiclttum Lam. - 80 
A. montdnum Ait, A. penn- 

sylvdnicum Du Rof, A. par- 
viflbrum Ehrh.: Mountain Ma- 
ple: S'rable de Montague, Fr.; 
Berg Ahom, Ger.; Acero di 
Montagna, Ital. 

4. Striatum L. - 81 

A. pennsylv&nicum Lin. Sp., 
A. canadinse Marsh. : Snake- 
barked Maple, Moose Wood, 
Dog Wood: S'rable jaspi, Fr. 

C. Leaves f>-iobed. 

5. macrophyUum Ph. 82 



6. platanoidesXr. - 83 
NorwayMaple: E^rabteptane, 

or E'rable de Norvige, Fr.; 
Spitu Ahom, or Spitxhiattriger 
Ahom, Ger.; Acero ricdo, Ital. 

2 Lobelii - - 83 
A. LobiKL Tenore. 

A. platanoid. Don's MIU. 

3 Tarleg^tttm Hort. 83 
albo^variegdlum Hayne. 

4 a{ireo-Tar. Hort 83 

5 lacini^tum Dee. 83 
A. p. erispum Lauth. 
Eagle's Claw Maple. 
Hawk's Fbot Maple. 

7. sacch&rinuin L, 85 

Sugar Maple, Hard Maple, 
Bir^s-eyf Maple Amer. ; Acero 
da Canadd, Ital. 

2 nigrum - -85 

A. s. fi nigrum Tor. ft G. 
A. nigrum Mx. 
Xaek Sugar Tree, or 
Bock Maple, Mx. 

8. Pseilldo-Platanus Zr.86 

ne^cemutre, or Great Ma- 
ple, Plane Tree, Scotch ; E'ra- 
ble Sycamore, Fr. ; Ehrenbaum, 
Ger. ; Acero Fieo, ItaL 

2opulifdlm - - 86 
A. omdnfdMMW Hort. 
A. tHlobdtum Hort. 
A. barbdtum Hort. 
Slongifolia - - 86 
A. lofvt/a^tm Booth. 

4 flavo- variegata - 86 
A. B. luUscens Hort 
Corstorphine Plane. 

5 ilbo-variegAu - 86 

6 purpiirea Hort. - 86 

OAerVarieties^VLodaWM't 
Seedling, Hort. Soc. ; Leslie's 
Seedling, Hort. Soc. : A. P. 
sten6ptera Hayne Dend. ; if. 
P. macr<'>ptera Hayne Dend. ; 
A. Pseud, mlcrfiptera Ht^/ne 
Dend. - - 86 

9. obtusatum Kit, - 88 

A. neapoUtdnam Tenore ; A. 
hpbridmm Hort. Soc. Gard. : the 
NeapoUUm Maple. 

2 coriaceum - 88 
A. coridcet/an Bosc. 

3 ib^ricum - - 88 
A. ibtrieum Biebu 

4 lob^tum - - 89 
A. ^oMltcm Fiscfa. 

D. Leaves 6- rar^ 7-lobed. 

10. OVlus >4t/. - 89 
The Italian Maple. — A. ro- 

tund(fblium Lara.; A. italum 
Lauth. ; A. vHibsum PresI ; 
r E'raNe Opale, Fr. ; Loppo, 
Ital. 

11. circinatum Pur«A 89 

12. palmatum Thunb. 90 

13. erioc&rpum Mx. 90 

The White Maple. —A. dasy- 
e&rpum Wtlld. ; A. tomenibstan 
Hort. Par.; A.j^toitcfaiiMarsh.; 
A. virghu'dnum Duh. ; A. rA- 
brum Wangenh. ; SUver-lvd, or 
son. Maple. U. S. ; Sir Charles 
Wager's Maple i E'raNe d 
I Fruits ootamteue, Fr. ; Bauher 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Ahom, Gcr. ; Aeero eoUmoso. 
Ital. 

FarietieB. — A, coecfneum. A, 
macroc&rpum, A. fldridum, A. 
PiTio, &c^ qf the Nur. 
teritM - . . go 

14. nibrum L, - 91 

A. 9irgiHidiuim Henn.; A. 
coc cin e um Ait.; A. glaSea 
Bfanh. ; A.earoUm'^manWan.; 
A. Manjninemm Snacb : Sqft 
Mig^, Swrni^ Ma/Me. 

8 intennedJuin Lodd. 92 

1 5. mon8pe8suI^numZr.92 

A. trUotmn Mcencb ; A. tri- 
JIbUmm Dub.s A. tnlobiimn 
Lam : F^aiaSfuektr Akom^ 
Gcr. ; Aeero mtmore^ Ital. 

16. camp^treZr. - 93 

XZeAKT .ilAorm. Ger.; Go^ 
l««r, or /HbfqM, Ital. 

2 foUiB Tanegjktis - 93 

3 hebee&rpum Dec, 93 
A. campisire Wallr. 
A. nrtf/2^ Opts. 

4 ooliinum WaUr, . 93 
A. iiffmet and 
A. MocnwsiSf'jMiOT Opis. 

5 austrkcum 2Vitf/. 93 
Oiker Farieliei. -^A, e.lm. 

TlgAtam £odtf.. A, c ninom 
Xtfdtf., >f. tatiricam, and A. 
hjttdaxan - • 98 

17. cr^ticumlr. - 94 

A. ketenpkjfUmn WOU.; A. 
fempenrirem L. Mant.; A. 
obtmifbUmm Sibtborp. 

Oiker Specie* qf A'crr. — A. 
barbitum Jlx., A. opallfblluni, 
A. granatcnie Bm., il. par- 
▼ilbliiiin Taaaclk. ^. glibram 
Tbrr., il. tripartltum ifnU. 
1/55., itf. graDdidentltam 
Nmtt.M8S. . . 94 



II. NEGVNDoMicn. 128 

The Negondo. or Bnr Elder ^~. 
AoerL.; Keg6iidiuin Rqfl». 

1 Tivxintfolium Nutt. 1 22 

A^enr Negtindo L. 
N. aeCTn6Mlf« Moeoch. 
Nes. ameriednmm Baiio. 

J5'ra6lr a Gteitf re* IlUnof t 
^crro anMrfiana, Ital. 

2 crispum G. Z>ojft 122 

3 oidaceum Booth 122 

OUer Speett$.-^N. cali/SnUcum 
Tor, 4- Gny. 

I. ./E'SCULUS Zr. - 124 

Tbe Horiecbeitnut.— HAmo- 

Mtl a nmm Toorn.: Marronier 

^Jmde, Fr. ; EouAaUaide, Ger. 

1. HippodbtanumZr. 124 

yfppocAsUmmm rulgdre Tra. : 
MtfrrvHrirr cfifldrTTr. t Ge- 
«M«M Bonkatumie, Gcr. ; Afar. 
jwitf <fJmdm^ or Ippoeetutma, 

2 flore pl^o - 124 

3 a6reo-Taiiegitum 1 24 

4 argeotco-varicg. 124 



5 inclBum ^oofA. 124 
X, agplentfdlia Hort. 

Ol»<rr Far«. — ^. H. crfs- 
pom, olgrum, pra'coz, ttrik- 
tmn, tortu^um, &c. . 134 

2. (H.") ohio^nsis Af*. 1 25 

JS. okiohuiM Lfndl., ? JE. pdl. 
Uda WUld., £. eekhUUa Muhl., 
iE. j^li^ff Tor. * Gray, Pdvla 
MoM$ Mx., Pa«rUi ^2dAf« 
SpKh: OAib Budteye, Fetid 
BiKkeffe, Amer. 

3. (H.) rubic{indaZ^.126 

JR. e&mea Hort., JE. rd««a 
Hort, JB,. eoccmea Hort., JE. 
«. twr. fwMcifndMn Schubert, 
£. froilMmUna Spaeh: Whit- 
leg** Fine Scarlet. 

2 rosea - . 127 

iE. rdsea Hort. 

New Scarlet, ^. H. amerl- 
cftna - - - .187 

4. glibra WiOd. - 127 

5. (g.)p&mdafri^. 127 

II. PAVwBoerh. - 128 

The PaTia.— AKabye. 511100M. 
fi^uted BorseckestmU Tree. 

1. rubra l/om. - 128 

S/$eubu Pdiria X,., £. pavia 

« rd6ra Hayne, Pdaia parol- 

flora Hort.: 5maff Buckeye. 

Amer.: Marronier Pavie.Tr. \ 

Marrone di Pan, ItaL 

2 argiito G».Don - 129 

3 sublaciniilta ^^'ote. 1 29 
iE. P. terrdta Hort 

4 hil^inilis - - 129 
P.AdJVtOifO.Doii. 
iE. kUmm* Lodd. 



2. fliva Dec. . 130 

JE'seukuJIAoa Alt, iE. /Jk/ea 
Wangh., PiHa Mi^a Poir. r cAr 
5tMe< Buckeye, the Big Buck, 
eve, Amer.; the Yellow Horse- 
chestnut. 

3. (f.) negl^cta G.Dn.lSl 

JE'seuku negtecta LIndl. 

4. macrodurpa Hort. 132 
S-'sc p. macrocdrjM Lodd. 

5. discolor Swt, - 133 
^'fCMlHt discolor Ph., JE. P. 

/8 discolor Tor. A Gray. 

6. macrostachya Xoir . 133 

£r«cKte« parviftbra Walt, 
£,macrostdehua Mx., P. a/6a 
Pair., P. «dii& Poit, Araerv>. 
th^sus discolor Spach. 

Other Kinds qf Pdrla^P. call- 
fttmica Tor. % Gray (iE'tev- 
Im colifdmica Natt.), Lydn/i 
Hort Soc. Gard. . . 134 

SapindhcecE, 
I. Kolreute'r/^ Lx. 1 34 

The Kolreuterla. — Sapindus 
tp. L. fil. ; Colreuieria, ItaL 

1. panicuUta Laxm. 135 

SopifMfM chiminsis L. fiL. K. 



I. TiVis Zf. - - 136 

The Grape Vine Gintf, CeN 

Uc; Wd. Span.; Tfewr, Fr. ; 
Vite, Ital. ; 1»Wi., Ger. 

1. vinifera L. - 136 

f <gNf, Fr. iGemeiner Wein- 
stock, Ger. ; Vite da Fmo, Ital. 
2 foUis inc^nis -137 
Jiftf/«r'« Grape, or Miller's 
I BbMir duster Grape. 

I ^ fol. nibesc^Dtibus 137 
The Claret Grme. 
4apufdl. laciiiidsaZ.137 
Ciotat,¥r. 
Vite d*^hitto, JUL 

2. Zabrusca L, - 137 

The Fox Grape.— V. taurina 
Walt.: Fibber Weim, Ger.; 
Abrostine, lul. 

foHetfef. — The laabella, 
SchuylUU or Alexander's, 
Catawba, and Bland's - 137 

3. sstiv^lis Mx. . 137 
The Grape Vine — V. vinifera 

americdna Marsh., V. inter- 
media Muhl., V.palmdta Vahl. 

4. cordifi^lia Mx. - 138 

The ChlclLenGrape.— V. inOsa 
Jacq., y.oulphia L. spec. : the 
Winter Grape, the Frost Grape. 

5. rip^ria Mr. - 138 
The sweet-scented Vine. —V. 

odoraiUsima Donn : Figne de 
Battures, Amer. 

6. vnlpina Z. - - 138 

The BuUet Grape. —V. rotun- 
difdlia Mx. : Muscadine Grape. 

II. Ampelo^psis Mx. 139 

losside, Ital. '^ 

1. Aederacea Afr. - 139 

FlTe-leared I vy.~H<drra o«^ 
qutifblia Lin. spec, V)/& ^aim. 



«to quinau^fbUa HooIl: Fteie 

Fierge,Jr. ; Jungfern ReSen, 

Ger. ; file d!ff/ C^nuida, ItaL 

2 hirsi^ta T. Sf Gr. 140 

if- hirHUa Donn 

Cbnw hfder. /9 hirs^ia Ph. 

2. bipinnata ilfx. • 140 

VttM orMrM Wflld., V. W- 
pinndta Tor. & Gr., CI^mw fidiif 
Pers.: File dltr/ CkiroMui, Ital. 
Other Species <tf Ampel^uis. — 

A. IncJsaf VW* AkIm Nutt.) ; 

conUta Mm. {Cissus An^id^ 

WiUd.) ; capreolikU G. Don 
Ofltis capreoldta D. Don). 
A. b6trya Dec. - . 140 

III. Ci'ssus L. . 141 

The Gissus .—Ampeldpsis and 
vltis in part. 

1. orientalis Zom. - 141 

The Joy Fine. 

XanthoxylcUxa. 
I. Xantho'^xylum L.142 

Toothache Tree.^Aam/N 






ZaiuUigbimTamgb 



fVflV. Fr.j Esttrii-baiiTitri 

ZatmatUoii, Gar. j FFtuSmo 

•piimi. lul . { I'rlci^Jili.ltmir. 

S Tirginicum - 143 

X. Mivfitiicm Lodd. C4t. 

fX' if.) triedrpKm, 

2.(/)tridirpum JWi.lM 

Gr%y-^ Fagin lyormj^/^ Lam, 




IL PrK\.BjL L. J. 1*3 : tf^i 



1. uifoIEta £. 

Sttmarti d tnA etmOa, Fr. , 

dn^tmaTiti f ii[ii fliiiiij, oer. 

S pcDt&pbjUB Afwi. 144 

S pub^aceiu AinA 144 

OUirT Sptctti Iff Tiilia. — P. 



. glanduldsB Dcif. 14<5 
i-traetra SiL, lUii AfjiK- 



»«■ Sffcki g 



Subd. IL CALVCIFLO'ILS. 



RIadtet.Nul Tm il^»f. 



Slapllfloifh^rai 
Raj : StapVIier i rrmiurt tHiga 
fr.igmfiitf Pimpenwa^OcT^i 

/alto, lUL 7 Jo^'9 Ttart. 

Celaatr&cea:. 
1. Euo'ntkus 7Vn. 149 

Sptndli TrH—Auam. B«. 

^llcFrllrr.iirBolliLanMrf. 
I^ SpiaOtlhinim, Gw. ; B«. 



1. 



opa'ua £, - 149 

berudi loins' Bmi, 
li OalurMgr Trti: 



a luifCliia Lod.Cai.l50 

3 (ol.iiriegiliiX. C. l.fO 

4 rnietu filbo i. C. 150 

5 niniu LoAZ. CW. 150 



Fr. 1 WflntKT 
G«.l FumrSHT 
3. latifulius C 



t^-M^SovrRi 




alUmMliut Mmch: 

^ Aiul, SirairkTTv Tree, 

2 anguitifSliua - 152 

? B. nfiitiJifUAu Ponh. 

3 mrmentoaus !VaU. 152 

4 obotStus Mi«. - 153 
E. ototiHu Dec. Prad. 

7. HaniilConianiuWI.153 



£. lantalcui n>«t. 

ciu fUUi TirisgMIt, lorciiuii- 

IblJut Ru4^gT6uui WbU,. 

Inmrllnu lAii.. Indiciu 
JTryiH, ilguu JfaU., lublrl- 
tUtai BUaxx, Thuaberiidiiu 
Blunu^ pCndului Ifall., Mgl- 

[L CBLA'sTRCa i. 154 



OlArr Sprcia of CcU«nu. — C 



III. Nbhopa'nthes 154 
I. canadensia ilfc. 155 

M^Uini Raaa.^y/r/dntcA^ 

Olier Spcria nf CtlaitrAcae 

Hifinmi chllfculi Die. lu 

AguifoHdcete. 
L Mvqi'nd^ Jaeq. 156 
1. myrtifolia Null. 156 



A. Z.ci>wt J|>M|r.fi»UcA 

1. .^quifolium L. - 157 



L rarltllri dri^Kiutifhlm Ot 

S hMerophflluin fft.ISS 

3 anguitifSlium Ht. 153 

4 latifuliutn fforf. 158 
Waur Hulln. 

5 dUcler^nsa Hnrt. 158 

6 nurginitum Hrt. I5S 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



7 liurifolium HorL 158 

8 ciliatum Hart, - 158 

9 ciliatum minus HU 158 

10 reciirvum HorL 158 

11 serratifoUum Hrt, 158 

12 cnspum Hort, - 158 
IS ferox Hort. - 158 

Hedgehog HoUg, 
Bbus-Airiasou^ Fr. 

14 craasifolium JSort. 159 

15 senescens SvL - 159 

h, Farteifet det^puUed fivm ike 
Cokntre qfike Lettf. 

16 ilbo-marginitum 159 

17 aiireo-marginatuml59 

18 ilbo-pictum BorL 159 

19 a6reo-pietum Ht, 159 
90 ferox arg^nteum 159 

21 ierox aureum HU 159 

c. VarieUeedeeig^aied from the 
CoUmr <tf the Fruit. 

22 fructu luteo HH. )59 

23 fhictu Hho HorL 159 

24 fructu njgro Hort, 159 

2. (.^.) balduica D. 160 

The Bfinorca Holly.— L hqui- 
fhUum 9ar. i I«am. Diet., I. 
mM/erinsit WiUdL Eninn. 

3. opaca ^i/. - 160 

American Hcllj.—Agr&bUmm 
vuigdre CUyt. Fl. VTrgfn., I. 
AfuifiUmm Gronor. : dunkel- 
blattrige Steckpalme, Ger. ; 
AgnfoUo a Fogiie di Qmercia, 
Ital. 

2 laxiflora • - 161 
1. lax(fiira Lam. 

I. op£ra vor. Nutt. 

3 magelliinica - 161 

B. Leavct toothed^ §erratedf or 
crenate, bmi not *pi»g. 

4. Perddo Aiu - 161 
I. madertiut* Lam. 

5. CoMnae k\\, - 161 
Broad-leaTod Daboon Hollj.— 

KqmifMum CurtdMnu Catesix, 
I. earoUmdtta Mill. Diet, 1. 
caadnSidr* Lk. En. : tke Ca$- 
eena qf the Amerietm IndimUt 
Rafin. 

6. angufltifolia Wilid. 162 

I. tojfrtitdUa Walt Ac, I. 
ToemarmffbUa Lam. 111. 

7. vomitdria ^i^. •162 
South Sea Tree. ~ I. Casilne 

v^a Walt, I. UgOMirina Jacq., 
Cnsslne Perigna Jf/il. /com, I. 
Casatna Mx., I. religj^ia Bart., 
1. ^yriddna Lam. 111. : Aotu 
^jMlooMie, Fr. ; 7V«tf Oucite, 
C^e$inA, Florida; fJk^ Yapon^ 
Virginia; ike evergreen Ctu- 
eena, or Ctukioberry Su$k, 
Eng. 

C. LeoKM qmUe entire, or 
nearly so, 

8« VaAoon Wall. - 162 
L Cacflne fVUld, 



Other Specie* qfTlex 



163 



IIL PriNos L, . 163 

winter Berrr Agirid Adan- 

•on: Apalanehe, Ft, ; Winter' 
Aeere, Ger. 

§1 PnnoideMBec. 
I. decfduus Dec, - 164 

rtex prHMde* Ait. Hort. 
r^x ded 



Kew 
Car. 



decitfaMi Walt. FL 



2. ambSguus ilfr. - 164 

Canine cmroUnidna Walt FL 
Car. 

§ ii. Aghia Dec. 

3. verticill&tus Zr. • 164 

V.padifblifu Willd. Enum.. 
P. Grondvtl Afa., P. ooiMrtu* 
MoBDch, P. pr«a(fdA«w Lodd. 
Cat. 

4. Isevig^tus Pursh 165 

5. lanceolitus PtfrM 165 
P. camadhuie Ljon, P. thd- 

dui Hort 

§ iiL WhUh-Ha Manch. 

6. gibber Zr. - 166 
b& Serrjf^ Amer. 

7. coriaceus Pursh 166 
P. f 2dfer Wats. 

Varieaee — Learei broader 
than thote of the spedaa, 
oboTate^lanceolate and 
acuminate: and leaves 
narrower* baceolate, and 
acute - - . i(i6 

Other Specie* ef Trhm. — P, 
ddbliu G. Don, P. atomirius 
Nutt, . - . .186 

Wuitmtdcea, 
I. Zi'zYPHUS TVwint. 167 

The Jo}utm.-^ftfubier, Fr. ; 
Judendom, Ger.; GiuggiolOy 

I. Tulg^ Lam. - 167 
JLhSmmii ZlaMphme Lin. 

Spec; Z. «aA»a Detf., not of 
Gaert. ; Z. JiUuba MUL Diet,, 
not of Lam. : Jt^jubier cuUioi, 
Fr. ; Bmelheeren, Ger. ; GA«- 
gtfolo, ItaL 

OlA«r Speeits qf Zt3»ifphm.~^Z. 
sin£naia Lam., Z.splna Chrte- 
U, Z. flexudaa, Z. inctfrra 168 

II. Paliu'rus L, 168 
Christ's lliom. ^PaUmre^ 

Port-chapeau, Fr. : Judendonu 
Ger. ; Paliwro, Ital. 

1 . acule4tu8 Xom. 168 

p. pitanu Dmn. Cours., P. 
tnutrdUt Gsnrt., P. nUgiris D. 
Don, RA6nmMs VaUitrtu Lin. 
Spec, Zli^fpAw VaUkmt WHhL 
Spec. : C*rM*s TAons, or Ram 
t^ Libya, Uerard: E'pine de 
Christ, Areolon,Porte'Chapeau, 
Fr- ; jtdlligeUer Jndendom, 
Ger. ; G$uggiolo salvatieo, Ital. ; 
Xite, in the herb-shops of Con- 
stantinople. 

2. (a.) virgiitus JDcm 169 



III. Bbrcbb'm/^N. 169 

(EndpUa Uedw. F. Gen. and 
Schult Syst. 

1. TolJl^bilis Dec, - 170 
Rh&mmis oo^bOis Lin. fli. 
Suppl.. Jacq. Ic Bar. ; Zttpphus 
ooO&iUs Willd. Spec ; C^i^Ua 
voOMlis Schult. Syst. : Snppte 
Jack, Virginian. 

IV. /?ha'mnos Lam. 170 
The Backthom.— A^fpnm, 

Fr.; fVegdom, Ger. i Rammo, 
ItaL ; theRamt or Hart's, T^hom, 
Gerard ; Bos J%om, 

§ L Aforcori^ Neck. 

A. AlatdrmuTovavL.— Rowers 
racemose, b.cl0. Svergreen 
Shrubs, 

1. -4lat^rnus I,. - 171 

AJa/fmus VhOUrea MilL 
Diet. : Aiatema, ItaL 

2 bale&rica^. Par. 171 
R. ro<umi(/d/iiii« Dum. 

3 hisp&nicai/. Par, 171 

4 angustifdlia .171 
R . CHMl Wittd. 

5 foHis maculatis 171 

6 foliis adreis . I7I 

7 foiiis arg^nteis - 1 72 

2. hfbridus U Merit, 172 

R. Atir^iMOacM Hort. Par., 
R. sempertitreru Hortulan. 

B. RAdmnsu Dec. — FToiMTs 4. 

e^fit in Fascicles 

a. BramcUets termtnaUng in a 

TaofHb 

3. cath&rticus L. 172 

The White Thorn of the mo- 
dem Greeks. 

4. ^vkCtbnusWaldtt, 173 

R. cardiospirmns WiUd. 
Herb. 

5. infectorius Zr. - 173 

Avignon Berry. — R. l^Hum 
Scop. Cam. ; Dteatf, orpeltoto- 
berried. Buckthorn: Nerprun 
des Tehtturters, Grained Avig- 
non^ Nerprun teignant, Fr. ; 
farbender Wegdoruj Ger. ; 
Cervinopin, Ital. 

6. sax&tilis L. - 173 
„R. longifbUus MIU. Diet.: 

7. ^uxifl^lius Poir. - 173 
^ ? R. b»uifbUy* Brot. Fl. Lus., 
Lfctem bcfcr(fd/«Mm Bauh. 

8. fycioldes Zr. - 174 

9. Erythr6xyIon P. 174 
2 angustlssimum Dec, 

R. ^wtfSldet Fall. n. Ross. 

b. Branchlets not terminated by 

Spines, 

10. dahi^cus Pa//. 174 

11. flinlfSlius Zr'^^. 175 
2 franguloMes Dec 175 

^J^anguloldes Mx. 

12. alpinus JD. - 175 
2 grandifi&lius -176 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 



13. pumilus L. - 176 

R. rupUtrit Scop. Cam.: 
Rtnmo tpaccoMoui, lUl. 

$ iL Fr&ngula Toum. 

14. caroiiniknusH^a/^.176 

15. Fr&ngulaZr. - 177 

Berry-bearing Aider: Her- 
prun JSourgSne, Aune mm", Fr. ; 
giatier Wegdahiy Ger.; Almo 
fterot Ital. 

2 angustifdlia ITorC 177 

16. \€itmiusL*Her. 177 

Otker Speeiet of ^Rk&nrnm,— 
a. peraldfZ)4ius Bert, B. 
amygdUlnoi X>nf., B. pru- 
DlR>Uuf Sm., B. SlbChoip- 
Mmw Schalt. (syn. R. pmbtu 
cent Sibth. Fl. Gnec.), A. 
FuraUamtf Dec. (lyn. R. 
atet/a^M Punh, not of L' 
HferiUer). A. oleifbUiu Hook.^ 
B. umbelUtut Cav. Ictm,, B, 
ifturlfbUut NuU.. B. crdceiu 
Nntt.^ B. lanceoliltiu Pur$k, 
B. parTlf&Uiu Tor. ^ Grtui, 

B, terruglneui NutL, B. call- 
fttrnlcut Esck.t B. texfosti 
Tor. 4r Gray, A. pubescent 
F/. Gr^te. • - -178 

V. CoLLB'TZ-i Com. 178 

BM&m$mt in part 

1. h6rrida Lindl. - 179 

a/iroie cm. et Hook. 

0<ik«r Spedet qf CoUi&M. —C 
•pindsa. C. vlldna, C. f'phe- 
dra Vent. CMx (syn. VJi&m- 
mu E'phedra Domb., Retap 
niUa E*pkedra Brong.) - 179 

VI. C^anoVhos L. 180 

Red Root.— RJkaiMNtf nanW 
L.: Ceanotke, Fr. ; SaAeb- 
baum, Ger. ; Ceanoto, ItaL 

1. americanus Xf. - 180 
Bed Boot, New Jertey Tea, 

2 Pitchert Tor. & Gray. 

S herbcU;eu8T.&G. 180 
C. perinniM PorUi. 
C. ovitui Desf. 

4 intermddius T.G, ISO 
C. inlermidiui Punh. 

2. azureus Desf, - 180 

C. eter^lems Lag. Gen. et 
Spec., C. btcolor WUld. in Schlt 
Syit. 

2 intermddius - 181 
C. tniermidhu Hort. 

3. thyrsiflorus .ExcA. 181 

G. ovdtnt cpdnens Booth, 
Baumann, &c. 

4. velutlnus Doug, 181 

5. collinus Doug, 182 

Other Spedee of Cemid/Aia.— 
C. ovUlt, C. Mnguineus, C 
oregiknot, - - -182 

Homalindcc€e. 

I. ARISTOTEY/il H. 182 

1. Macqui L*H^riL 182 
A, glandtiidta R. & P., A. 

Mlcqui in Dec Prod. 
2 foliis variegitis 183 



Otker Speeie$Qf AriiMiOM.— 
kAra dent^U B t P., Asdra 
Integrifblia - . . 184 

Anacardidcete. 

I. PlSTA^IA L, - 184 
The PUtachla..~T«rcMiiM«M 
JuM. 

1. veraZr. - - 185 

V.iMcindrum Hort. Kew. : 
PiatadUer, Fr. ; Pislaxien- 
bamn, Ger. ; PistaoMo, ItaL 

2 triidlia JLm. ;^pec. 185 

3 nBxhoD6naB B,M, 185 
P. retiemldta WiUd. 

2. T^rebinthus Zr. 185 

Venetian, or Chian,Turpentine 
Tree. — Terebtntkmt vtUgdrit 
Toum., P. vira BfiU. Diet: 
PistacMer Teribinthe, Fr. ; 
Terpeniin Pittadet Ger. ; Tere- 
Mn«9, Ital. 

2 spbaeroc&rpa Zlec. 185 

3. Zentlscus Xr. - 186 
TtkeMatUe 7Ve»: C!i>mocnpra, 

Ital. 

2 angustifolia Dec. 186 
P. nuutiUtntU Hill. Diet. 
P. <m|r. ma*sUi6n. Toum. 

3 chUN.DuHam. 186 
P. dUa Detf. Cat. H. Par. 

Otker Specie* qf Ffstdeia..^P. 
BOknUaiDetf. - - 186 

II. Rbv'sL, - 186 

IThe Sumach. — Sumac, Fr. ; 
Snmack, Ger. } Aft, ItaL 

§ i« C^/»nitf Toum. 

1. C6tinu8 L. - 187 

Venetian Sumach. — Cdtimu 
CogUgria Scop. Cam., Mo»nch 
M^n Cbtimu ooridcea Duh. 
Arb : Venu» Sumack, Venice 
Sumack^ Wild OUve : Sumaek 
Pustet.or Arbre au* P6mfues, 
Fr. ; PerUcken Sumaek, Ger. ; 
SootanOt ItaL 

$ ii. Siimach Dec 

2. typhlna L, - 187 

Stag^ Horn Sumach.— R. vir' 
ginidna Bauh. Pin.: Virginian 
Sumaek : Somaeco peloae^ ItaL 

1 arbor6iceii8 - 188 

2 frut^soens - 188 

3 viridifldra - 188 
R. viridiflbra Poir. 

3. glabra L. - 188 

1 hermaphrodita 188 
R. g^d&ra WlUd. Spec. 

2 dioica - - 188 
?S ooccinea - - 188 

R. caroUnidnmrn MHL D. 
R. ilegam Ait., Lodd. Cat. 

4. venenata Dec, - 189 
Poison Wood, or Swamp, Su- 
mach. — R. vimix Lin. Sp., Big. 
Med. Bot ; Toxicodindron pin- 
niium Mill. Diet : Poimm Su- 
maek, Poiton Elder. 

5. CoriariaZr. - 189 
7^ Elm4eaved Sumaek: 5tf- 



mae de$ Corropeur*JFT,% Gerber 
Sumaek, Ger. \ Somaeco Bki, 
Ital. 

6. copalllna L, - 190 

Maettck-tree-leawd Sumaek. 
2 leuc&n tha /oc^. 190 

7. Toxicodendron L, 190 

R. Toxioodindron, and R. ro- 
dieauM L., Dec., Don's Bfill.,&c. 

1 ^ercifolium T.^G,190 

R. T.fi quercifblium Mx. 

2 radleans T, ^ G. 191 
R. r. m vulgdre Mz. 

R. T. fi ratOeam Tor. 

3 microdurpon 7. j- (r. 191 

R. r. y MJerocdfpDN Mx. 

§ iii. Labitdium Dec 

8. arom&ticuin Ait. 191 

R. raov^Tlnu Ait, R. tr^i- 
dla Lodd. Cat, R. eanadlntix 
Marsh., LoAddhon oroiN&i^ntm 
Raf., TWptfitia iZoA, fidbn^/kia 
DfW., Hyr\ca trffolidta Hort. 
ToridMtfmirm ermdAMM Mill. 
Diet 

Otker Specie* of RA^. — iZ. ptt- 
mila Afjr., it. dlTersiloba Tor. 
a Gr<iy (R. lobdta Hook.), 
B. trilob&ta NuU., B. laArlna 
NuU. ' - 19S 

III. DuYAU'.! Kth. 192 

ScAhitit *p. Andr., Amyri* *p. 
Car, 

1. dep^dens Dec, 192 

kmyri* po^gatna Car. Ic. 
ScAliMM depint&n* Ort. Decad., 
i>«MMilia (l^miCTu « Hook. 
Bot. Misc. 

2. ovata LmS, - 193 

3. latifoUa GUI. - 193 

D. dephidena y Hook. Bot 
Misc. : Huingkam, ChUi. 

OlA^ Specie* of Duvolia D. 

dentlta Dee. (ScAiisM denidia 
Bot. Rep.), D sinuiUa LAidt. 

JLegumindceie. 

Sect I. SoPBdnKJL 
I, SoPHO"BA'R,Br. 195 

Sopbbr» jpAT. Lin. Gen. : &>- 
pkore, Fr. and Ger. 

1. jap6nicaZr. - 196 

S. anica Roder Joum. Phys. 

2 Tariegata ITort. 196 

3 p^dula Sort. - 196 

2. heptaphjUa L, - 197 

II. Virgi'lw L. . 197 

1. liktea Mx. - 198 

Yellow Wood. 

III. PiPTA'NTHUS S, 198 

1. nepal6nsis Stot, - 199 

77k«rm<l!PffV labumifblia D. 
Don, knag^i* indtea WalL 
MS., Baptiwt nepat6n*i* Hook. 
Exot Fl. 

Sect. II. Xio'tba. 

IV. U\ex L. - 199 

The TMXt».—Akmc, Fr ; Oec*- 
Monir, Ger. ; Ulice, Ital. 



CONTENTS. 



XIU 



1. europe^a L. - 800 

Gadata $pfm^$a L'Obel, U. 
£ramd^drarour., U. vemdUt 
Tbore: H^Un^Gorse, Prickly 
Bnome: 4f^mc wmmiM , Jone 
marin, Jomarim, QenSl 6pi. 
r,Fr. 



2. (e.) nana Font. - 201 

U. mimor Roth Cat., U. eu- 
raptif^m fi Un. Spec 

3. (e.) provincialis Xf. 201 

U. au$tr3U$ ClomenL 

4. (e.) Htxict&Mackm/ 201 

Irish Fttne.— U. kiSimica 
I>on*i MU., U. fcuHgidta Hort. 

Otker Species qfV^Ug.~~U. go. 
ntrtSUet BroL (U. mUii 
Hort., StamracautkuM apMi- 
tecLk.) . - -908 

V. jSpa^rtium Dec. 202 

SpanlahBroom .. — ^Mtrtiantkui 
lA. Enum., Getdtta »p. Lam. 
and Moench: Spanhf ItaL 

1. funceum Xf. - - 202 
G«iti«te Jtfmen Lam. and Da 
Ham., G. odordta Mcench, 
Sparmntkmt I4mceu$ Moench : 
Gem£t ^Eapagme, Fr. ; Bin$en- 
artU^e Pfriimtn^ Ger.j Oinestra 
di Spagtuij Ital. 

2 odoratissixnum 202 
& odora^Hm. D. Don. 
8. and^lfam Lindl. 

3 fldre pldno - 203 

yi. Geni'sta Loir. 203 
Getdtla ef Sp&rtium spec. 
Lin.: OeaA, Fjr. } Gituier, Ger. ; 
Ginettra. Ital. 

§ i. Unarmed. Leaves aU, 
orjbrthe most part^ tri- 
Jbtiolaie. 

1. parvifl6ra jDec. - 203 
SpArtimm parvifi&rnm Vent. 

2. cdndicans L. - 204 



Cgtism c&ndieant Lia Sp^ C. 
|Mde«c»w MofDch. 

3. patens Dec. - 204 
Sjufifltem ^dXeiu Gar. Ic. 

4. triquetra ill/. - 204 
G. Ir^rw^/ra Lam. ? 

5. umbeil^ta Potr. 204 

SpArHmm tmbOldhmt De«f., 
L'Herit ; BoUna in Andalusia. 

8 capiUta - - 205 
Sp^rMMM etf9)Ad«iHis Car. 

§ ii. Spinote. Leaoet aU^ 
CTtome tfthem^rifoi&oiUae. 

6. lusitanica X. - 205 

7. (L) radilita iScep. 205 

Qp^MfHm rmdidiwn lin. sp., 
MIU. Ic., Sims Bot. Bfag., G. H- 
9hui$ Dalecb. 

2 umbelUta .£05 

G. umbeUdta Poir. 
9ipdrt. MmbeUdtmm Desf . 



8. fphedroides i>er. 205 

9. triacdnthos ^ro^ 206 
G. rottrdta Poir. Sappl. 

2 interriSpta Dec. 306 
^pdrUwn AUnrtifiAMiCaT. 

10. h6rrida2><rc. - 206 

Sp&riimn k6rridum Vahl 
Symb., O. erindeea Gilib. Bot. 
Prat. 

§ iiL <S]pmoaf . Leaves all 
simple, 

ll.sylv^tris Scop. 206 

G. iispauiea Jacq. Icon. Rar. 

12. 5'c6rpiu8 Dec. 206 

S^rfmm Sctfrptet Lin. Sp., 
G. spimiftdra Lam. IMct. : Scot- 
pAm Airw, Gerard. 

13. hispknic&L. - 207 

^OMirJl Fkrze, Hort. 

14. dnglicaZr. - - 207 
Petty Whin.~G. m«ior Lam. 

FLFr. 

15. gennanica L. - 207 

Scorpiut tpindsus Momch 
UttiL.ydglen spinbsa Fl. Wet.: 
Btdimacola dH Bosco, Ital. 

3 in^rmis Dec - 208 

§ lY. Unarmed. Leaves all 
single. 

16. p6rgans L. - 208 
flSp^rtftim plSfytffftLln.Sys^ 

17. sericea Wvlf. . 206 

18. aph^lIaDerc. -208 
Spdrtium apkCUmm Lin. fll. 

Siq>pl., G. virgata Lam. Diet. 

19. monosp^rma L. 208 

SparHmm momo ^r t nmm Lin. 
Sp^.Cart. Bot. Mag., G.RsB'tam 
IhrsA. 

20. sphseroc^a L. 209 

SpartnHn ifiJbtfroc^ryois Lin. 

21. sthn^nsis Dec. 209 

Sp^rtfHm 4ttninse Bir. St. 
Sic. Mant., Raflneso. Speech., 
Sims Bot. Hag.; Spartittm tri- 
^irmum 8m. in Rees's C^cl. 

22. anxantica Ten. 209 
G. am$6iiitca Tenore. 

2 scariosa - - 210 
G. scarGMt Vin. 

23. tinctdriaX. - 210 

G. itaUea Lodd. Cat. : Base 
Broom, Green Weed, Green 
Wood, Dpef*s Weed, Wood- 
waxen: Genet des Teinimriers, 
GenSt de Sibfrie, Fr. zF&rben' 
der Ginster, Ger. ; BacelUna, 
Ital. 

2 6dre pldno - 210 
S latifoUa Dec, - 210 

4 hira^ta Dec. - 210 

5 prat^nsi-s Poff. 210 



24. (t.) sibfnca Zr. 210 

Genist&des eldia Mo»nch 
Metb., G. tinddria var, N. 
Du Ham. 

25.(L)oyata Wald. 211 
G. nervdta Kit. in Litt. 

26. triangul^s PViUd.2 1 1 

6. frtonr/ya Waldst et Kit. 
Hung., but not of Ait. 

27. saffittlilis L. - 211 
G. ke^dcea Lam. Fl. Fr., 

GenisKUa raeemdsa Moench 
Meth., SaUtsoediaM. saeittdlis 
FI.Wett 

2 minor Dee. - 211 
28.diifiisa WiUd. 212 

G. hnmif^a Wolf., Sp&rttum 
proeOmbens Jacq. Ic. Rar., not 
of Alt. 

29. prostrata Lam. 212 

G. peduneuldta L'Herit. 
Stlrp., G. decdmbens Dur. 
Bourg., Q.HSUeri Repn. Mem. 

30. procumbens fT. 212 

31. pilosaZr. - - 212 

G. ripens Lam. Fl. Fr., Ge- 
mtstSides tukercntdta Mcench 
Aieth. 

Other Species qf Genista.^G. 
spindsa . . 81S 

VII. Ct'tisus Dec. 213 

Cptisus and SpSrtinm sp. L., 
Lam., ate.: Cytise^ Fr.j Boh- 
nenbamn, Ger. ; dtiso, Ital. 

$ i. ADmrnoides Dec 

1. kWiUsLk. - - 213 
Portugal Broom. — Qenisia 

alba Lam. Diet., Spdrttmn 
6lbmn J}est.,Sp6rtrmn mul- 
tifibmm Ait. Hort.Rew., Sp^r- 
itttm tUspfrmnm Meench Bleth., 
Genista muU(iUHra M. Dub. : 
SpartHan d FUurs blanches, 
Fr. i Weisse lyiriemen, Ger. 

2 incaitiatus - - 214 

§ ii. Jxib^mvm X>ec. 

2. LMimumL. - 214 
The Common Laburnum.— C 

ahihnts Lam. Fl. Fr.: Bean- 
TrtfoUe Tree, Peascod Tree, 
Crenrd ; Pea Tree, Scotch ; 
Golden chain : FAubours, Faux 
E'bfnier, Jrbois, Are Bois, 
Fr. ; Gemetne Sohnenbaum, 
Ger. ; Abomiello, Ital. 

2 pendulum Hort. 215 

3 ^ercifollura H, 215 

C. L. 8 mdfwm. 

4 foiiit varieg&tis 315 

5 fragrans Hort. 815 

3. (I..)alp}nasAfttf.215 

Scotch Laoumum. — C. Lo- 
bdrmum fi Ait., Lamb., Dec., 
Fl. Fr. : C^tisus ongust^Uns 
Mflmch Ifeth., C. L. ear. latf- 
fbUnm Pers. and Du Mont. : 
Cytiu des Alpes, PAubours, 
Mm^ Bohnenbaum^ Ger. ; 
Maggto Ciandolo, Ital. 



ZIV 



CONTENTS. 



2 p^ndulus - -216 

3 purpurdscens H. 216 
C. L. nurj^reum Hort. 
C. Adhmi Poir. 
C.LxooeineumBuam.Cat. 
The purple Laburnmm* 

4 fragrans Hort, 217 

4. WeldfeniiVis. - 217 

5. nigricans L. - 218 

6. sessilifoHus L, - 218 

7. tnfidnis L'HerU. 219 
C. vOidsus Pour. Act. TooL 

8. pktens L, - - 219 

C. penduanMU Jjin. fll. Sapp.; 
C ^andifibrtu Dec. Prod.; Ge- 
fiiUa tomentbsa Poir. Supp. ; 
SpdrUum pitens Lin. Syst, 
Brot. Fl. Liu., not of Cay. ; 
SpdrthuH rrandifldrum Brot. 
Fl. Liu.; SarotMntnug pdient 
Webb Iter Hispan. 

9. «copariu8 Lk, - 219 

Common Broom.— S»^(ftn(m 
•copdrium Lin. Sp. Smith Eng. 
Bot., Genista Mcopiria Lam. 
Diet., not or Vlli. ; G. hirtiUa 
Momcli Meth. : Qenit d Balaii^ 
OenSt eommunj Fr.; gemeine 
Pfiriement Ger. 

2 ilbus HorL - 320 

3 flore pleao Hort. 220 

§ ill CalycStome Lk. 

10. spinosus Zr^m. 220 
Sfwr^mjM i;p^df urn Lin. Sp. 

1 1 . tribracteolatus tV. 22 1 

12. lanfgerus Dec, 221 
SpdrUum lanigerum Deaf. 

F\. Atl., CtUi/cStometnllbsa Lk. 
Biium., S/^^rti'ujM viUdmrnBrot 
Fl. Lui. and Pblr. Voy. 

2 rigidus Dec, . 221 

§ iv. Tubocyiitua Dec. 
A. Flowen tokUe or wkitak, 

13. leucanthus - 221 

B. Flowers purple, 

14. purpureus^cqp. 222 

2 flore klbo Hort - 222 

3 flore roseo - 222 

C. Flowers yeUow. 
J 5. elongatus W,^K, 222 

16. multiflorus ZrtW. 222 
C. eloHgitns Hort. not of K it. ; 
C. eUmgdins fi muUiJKhrus Dec. 
Prod. 

17.falc4tUKr*^.4-ir. 223 
Varieties. -^C. trifl6rot Ld., 
C, ruth^nicuf Lad., C. de- 
ctimbena Lod. 

18. austriacus L, - 223 
2 nova hod, . 223 

19. supinus J(i7r0. • 2:?3 
C. loldlttef Pour. Act. Toul. 



20. hirsutus L. - 224 

C. Mntoiu Bertol. PI. G«n., 
not of Lin. ; C. trifiOrus Lam. 
Diet, notof L*Herit ; C. TVwr- 
fKfon&nus LoU, in ^. Dm H. 

21. capit^tus Jacq, 224 
a MrsiUms Lam Diet, C. 

fiipJma Lin. Sp. 

Farieties or ^nom/mes. -* Cf- 
tiaus auitrlacua 2«Mf., C ca- 
n^toens ^bdb. ({^ Got.^ a ura- 
IfofisZod., a calydnus JLod., 
C. parrlR^liut Lod., C. hlnii- 
tuf Zotf., C. luplnuf Lod. S94 

22. cilifitus ^oAAffi^. 224 

23. polytrichus Bieb, 224 

§ V. Ijoioidea Dec. 

24. argenteus L, - 235 

LdiM arg^t. Brot Fl. Lut. 

25. calyclnus Bieb, 225 
C. jsoaicCfKdnw WUld. ip. 

26. nanus IVilld. - 225 

§ vi. Chrondnthu$ Dec 

27. orientalis Xotr. 226 
C. orientdlis,^. Genml & 

Vatl. Herb. 

Other Species qf Cjftisus. — C. 
aeolicui 6«m., C. racembsui 
Mamoek. 



VIII. Adbnoca'rpus2>. 

1. hispanicus Dec. 227 

CptisHs hispdnieus Lam. 
Diet., C. aMg^Hia L*H£rit. 
Stirp., N. Da Ham. 

2. Boissi^' Webb 227 

A. decSrticans Bolt. Not. sur 
TAbie* Plnsapo: Baca vieia. 
Span. 

3. intermedius Dec, 228 

C^tinu oompUcdim Br. Fl. L. 

4. parvifblius Dec, - 228 

CStisus parvi/dlius N. Du 
Ham., Lam. Diet, excltuire of 
the ijna. ; C^tisus divaricdims 
L'H^rit. SUrp^ COtisus com- 
jDtfcdfttf Dec. Fl. Fr.; Spar- 
//•Ml compliciUum Lois. Fl. 
Gall. 

5. telonensis Dec, 228 
CCtisus tehmSnsis Loia. Fl. 

Gall., N. Du Ham. ; Sportium 
compliedtum Gouan Hort. 
Monsp., ezcluilve of the syn. 

IX. Ono>iis L, - 229 

The Rettharrow. » A»dfi/« 
et vatHx Mcench Meth. : 
Arrtte-bentf, Bugrame, Fr.i 
Hattkeehely Ger. 

1 . frutic6sa L. - 229 
2 microph^lla Dec, 229 

2. rotundifbtia L. . 229 

O. tat^pOia Also Srn., Lin. 
Mant. ; "SiUrix nOmmdUblia 
Mtnich. 

Othfr Species of Ondii^. _ O. 
tribractedta Dec. - - SS9 

X. Amo'rpha L, - 230 

Baatard loOlgo. ^ Bome^kUa 



Neck. Rlwrn. : Fama Indigo, 
Fr. ; U^form, Ger. j Amoi^a, 
Ital. 

1. fruticdsa L, - 230 

Wild indigo, Amer. ; Fans 
Indigo, Fr. i Indaeo Basiardo, 
Ital. 

2 angusdfdlia Purs. 2S0 

3 emarginata Pursh 230 

4 Letrisst Ld- Cat. 230 

5 caeriklea Ld. Cat. 230 



J. rf.) glabra Desf. 230 
L (f.) nai 



2. 

3. (f.)nana iV^t///. - 231 

A. micropk^Ua Purih Fl. Am. 
Sep. 

4. (f.) fragrans Swt, 231 

A. ndna STma Bot. Mag., not 
of others. 

5. (f.) cr6ceo-lanata 231 

Tawn§ Bastard Indigo. 

6. (f.) canteens Nt. 232 
f if. pubiseens Pursh. 

XI. Eysbnha^rdt/^ H. 

/)alWr^ Spreng. SysL App. 

I. amorphoides H. 232 

DaOJf^ omorpkoides Spr. 

XII, RoBi^N/^ L. 233 

The Locust Treo. — Pseud' 
aedda Toum. Inst., Mceoch 
Meth. : Bobinier, Fr. ; BobiniS, 
Ger. 

1. P8eud-.^cacia L. 233 

False Acada — JEsckunSmene 
Pseudacdeia Roxb., Pseudacd- 
da odordta Moench Meth.: 
Locust TVee^ Amer. ; Bastard 
Acada, Bobmier/aux Acacia, 
Acada bUmc, Carouge des Ami- 
rieains, Fr. j gemetne Acade, 
Ger. ; Faha Acada, Ital. 

2 flore lilkteo Dvm. 234 

3 in^rmis Dec. - 234 

4 crlspa 2>ec. • 234 

5 umbracul(feraZ>c.2S4 
A. iM^rm/s Dum. Cours. 

6 tortuoaa /)ec. - 234 

7 aopAor<Ffdlia £,. C. 234 

8 amorphsfdiia 2^ 234 

9 atricta Lk. - 234 

10 procera Lodd.Cat. 2.'H 

11 p^ndula Oh. Dec. 234 

12 monstrosa L. C. 234 
IS macrophf lla JL C 234 

14 microph^lla X. C. 234 
iZ. <nvr>Mf^^a Hort. 

15 spect&bilis Dum. 234 
Acada agOQanle of the 

French Nurseries. 

16 latisillqua Pr, 0^.234 

2. TiHcdsa Fent. - 235 

B. ghaindsa Bot. Mag., B. 
mont&ta Bartram : Bose-ftow' 
ering Locust. 

3. diibia Fouc. - 236 

B. hpbrida Audib., R. am- 
bigua Poir. Suppl.. f B. ecki- 



3 dIiui Dr. - • !3T 
9 riaa Pmi • S3T 

4 maeraphflU Z>«. SST 

KgrmillfirBHan. 



I. arbor^eiu Xon. 237 
W. DmHam., ftU. K. JUu. ; 
J€a3i 4t SMHtTBet^ *c 






3.(«.)niicroph(lla2).838 

iisMi inlenplAtalUI. Fl. 

4. (B.)ReddwsUD.S38 

S pra'col Fiteh. - 239 

£.(a.)BreiiiTiajDDim !39 

6. fmt^KeDS Dec. 839 

AoHiilK JVvtfKau Liu. Sv., 
t>^. Fl. Bnu.l C dMAa 
I.BD. Did. 

1 Utilolia . . £39 
3 aoguitifolu - 339 

7. fr.) mdUis B«m. 839 

BMnh^ mtaii BMl fl 
Tub. Soppl., JtstMi AiHfli- 
Ah Fteli.'avl. Oon^. Ck- 
r^n* A«Bnf tar. milUI 

8. pTgms'a i)rc. - 840 
JMSii Mfwo^ Lin. Sp., 

FlU. Fl. Boh.. Amm. Ruth. 

3 areniriB FucA. - 340 
B. nindea iJft. - 840 

JMhili iriHtta LiD. Madt.. 
JbiUidk ;eFH Pill. Fl. Rou., 

MciT. Aa.FM!.C«iiStauiJW 
10. tra^cantboldes 840 



18. gTBndiBAra Ber. 841 
AoAola frnXtlOn Bl(ti. Fl. 

13. CXan^i^ Lam. 841 



CONTENTS. 



CkoDHiga L'BMl. attrf., S. 



Due. lUm. Iiwd, ta 



■*Dii argtmai Lui. Id FtIL 
I Tulgire Dee. Pr, S4S 
9 bnehjgjnui J}.P. S43 
3 Sievfrn'f - . S43 

8. (a.) gubvir^Bcens 843 

SdMiiIi BtUni L-H«i1C 
SHrii. Not, tf. arttiuefm B 
niMrtmu Dec. Pmd. 

XV. CALo'pnAci F. 843 
1. wolgdHca .nicA. 843 

CflbiH ■farnbm Pall. ICIn. j 
C^tefp*wi(w Pill. Fl. Hot. 1 

Cflami loolgMnii Lin. F11. 
SiupL, N. Oh Hun. i CcMfta 

mQfiutM Spnog. SfN. 

XVI. CbLD"TBA R. Br. 




\. T^nmckat.ha L. 846 

bmlniiiu am. Cat., duuL 
Uf»l( IdM. a A. Tr^ocfa- 



Seet. III. ffUTix'HiA. 

XVIIh CoBONl'LLi W; 



r.l.. E.Blwir HIIL Ic. t-in. 
M, C.^iH^lUra Lam, Fl. Pr. 

B juncea L. - . 848 

Sect. IV. PuAauiLu. 
XIX-WisTi-HMN. 848 

Oljctmeip. L. nwnfiiujbiii 
QUnl. Irotialla aL^ 

1. frut^cens J)ec. - 249 



8. chinfniis Dec. - 849 
CM#c«K cUntmit BM, Hag.. 
O.lmfniiM Ba. K«., K-.Cm. 
KfHJiul iMldM Aa M. B. 

Sect V. (7asbii\s. 
XX. Q-r.Di'TscnlA 849 

Acdria B. Pluk. ; rivler. 
Fr. : GltiOtcUt, Gar. I Cfadtt- 
fla.IlaU 
1. triac&nthos L. - 850 

tun. HUI. : G. SHi^&i^'ilt.i 



3 in inula D«. - S.ffi 

O. Im'tit Hon. 
3 bnudiycirpa . S50 

O. braeAf^rpa Punh. 

G- trwacnuJioi rar, p Mx. 
8. (t.) monoHp^rms S51 



mthuO Lam, DIcL, 
Uca M arib, O. lr<iic^ 
Fratt, 

3. tin^sU Zoin. - 



a mijoT /Tori. - 353 
a.Urridam^jor'Loi.CU. 

4 nina J/brt. . . 353 
a. Urrila ndiu H. Soc. 

5 p^irp^Lrea Hort. - S53 

— C. dilufaiiu (PMK). 
4. (».)inacrac4ntha 854 

5. (s.) ferox Dei/. ■ 854 
O. ortnOili, Bote : f<lF<cr 

6. cispica Deif. - 254 
3 ■ubviriaceDi.ffDrf. 354 



XVI 



CONTENTS. 



Oiker Sort9<d GM&t$dAA. — G. 
mlcracSntha /fort Soe.Gard., 
G. Bdwi Hort. Soc. Oard., 
O. pTKcox Hort. Soc. Gard., 
G. aqu&tlca Lodd. (6. motto, 
tp/rma), O. orlentalif Lodd. 
(^.jSrog). 

XXL Oyhno'cladus Zr. 

1. canadensis Lam. 255 
Kentucky Coflbe Tree — Gm/- 
lamdinAdiaiea Lin. Sp.; Hyper- 
amihera dioiea Vahl Svmlx, 
Doh. Arb. : Nicker Tree^ Stwnp 
Tree, United State* : Bondw: 
Chiquier, Fr.j Ckicoty Canadian} 
CaiuuUtckerSchtuMerbaum,Oer. 

XXII. Ce'rcis L. 256 

The Judas Tree. — Siliqudt- 
trum Tbum. Intt., Mcench 
Meth. : Gamier, Fr. ; Judas, 
bavm, Ger. ; Atbero de Giuda, 
ItaL 

1. iSfiliquistrumlr. 257 

SiUmiAslrum orbictilitmm 
Mcench Meth. : Love TVer; 
Gainier commtm, Arbre de 
Juiie, Fr. ; Arbol €Amor^ 
Span. ; JiMtoabaaim, Ger. 

2 parviflorum Dec, 237 
S flore 61bido - 257 

4 rosea - • 257 

2. canadensis L. 258 

SW«fa«/rMm oorddtum 

Moencn Meth. : Bed Bird Tree, 
Amer. ; GaMer de Canada, 
Bouton rotige, Fr. 

2 pub68oeii8 PA. - 259 

Kos&cea* 

SecLL ^MTGDA^LKJI Jkt. 

I. ^mt'gdalus T, 261 

The Almond Tree.->JiN|ivAi- 
IdpMora Neck. : AmatuUerjFr. ; 
Mamddbaum, Ger, ; Mandorlo, 
Ital. 

1. nlina L. - - 262 
PfiteM iNtfrmilr Gmel., A. 

m^na var., A. vuUirit Dec. : 
Amandier nain, Fr. ; Z«r^- 
ckemandel, Ger. } Peeehbto delta 
China, \lai, 

2 ge6rffica i>ec. - 262 
A. georgiea Desf. Arb. 

5 campdstris Ser, 262 
A. campfytra Beaser B- 

num., Hort. Fl. Aust.* 
Lodd. Cat. 
A. BetteriiLM SekoU. in 
Cat. Hort. Vindob., 
1818, and Lodd. Cat. 

4 dbirica Lod, Cat, 262 

2. incana Pall. - 263 
A 11^0 var* incdna Gulden- 

8tad and Arb. Brit., A. tomen' 
tSsula Lodd. Cat. 

3* commillnisZr. - 263 
1 amAra Dee. - 263 
The bitter Almond. 
Amandier amer, Fr 
GemeineMandelbamnGm. 



2 dulcis Dee. - 264 
The sweet Almond. 
Amandier d petits Fruiie, 

Amande douce, Fr. 
Sutse Mandel, Ger. 

3 fl. pldno Baton. C. 264 

4 fol. varieg. j&. C. 264 

5 frigWlB Ser. - 264 
A./rSgitii Hell. 
Amandier des Damet, N. 

Du Hara., Noli. J. F. 
Coque moUe, Amandier d 

Coque tendre, Fr. 
Abeltan, ProTenoe. 

6 macroduTDa Ser. 264 
Amandier a gros Fruiti, 

N. Du Ham., Noisette 
Jard. Fruit. 
Amandier Suliane, Aman- 
dier de* Damet, Aman- 
dier Pistacke, Vr. 

7 /lersicoMes Ser. 265 
Amandier-PSeher, N. Du 

Ham., Noisette Jard 

Other Farietiet - .265 

4 orient^Iis Ait. - 265 
A. argfniea Lam. Diet.* N. 
Du Ham. 

IL Pe'rsica Tottm. 265 

The FMch Tree.~Aiii^ffdtfM 
tp. of L. & Juss., Trwuear- 
pm Neck. Elem.: Picher.Fr.; 
PJlrtehenbaum, Ger. ; PesoOt 
Ital. 

1. vulgaris MUL 266 

Amjfedahu TSrtica L. Sp. : 
Piehe auveteuse, Fr. ; PJIrsche, 
Ger. 

1 The free-stone common 

Feech - 266 

PA:^.Fr. 

2 The cling-stone com> 

mon Peach 266 
Pavie, Fr. 

3 flore pUno Hort. 266 

4 &Iba LindL 266 

5 foliisvariegatis^. 266 

6 oompr^ssa Hort 266 
TheJIai Peach qf China. 

2. (v.) lajVis Z)<rc. 267 
The Nectarine Tree. — Am^e- 

dahu Venica XMca. Diet.. A. 
PirHca Neetarhta Ait. Hort. 
Kew. : Peche line, Bmgnon, 
Fr. ; Pesco nooe, Ital. 

1 Hie free-stone Nec- 

tarine - 267 

Piehe Usee, Fr. 

2 Hie cling-stone Nec- 

tarine - 267 

Brugnon, Fr. 

III. .^RlIENrACA T. 267 
The Apricot. — Frkntu $p. of 
Lin.and others: AbrieoOer, Fr.; 
Aprikotenbanm, Get. ; JAi^ 
cocco, ItaL 

1. vulgkris XfOm. 267 
Vritnns Armeniaca L<n.Sp.: 
AUricoooo amerieano, Ital. 

] ovalifolia iSb*. 268 
Abricot Angoumois, A. 
prfcoce, A. None, Fr. 



2 cordiiolia Ser. - 268 

3 foliis variegatis 77.268 

4 fldre pldno Hort. 268 

2. dasyc&rpa P^«. 268 
A. atropurpUrea Lois, in N. 

Du Ham., Frkmu da$ycSrpa 
Ehrh. Beltr., P. Armeniaca 
fOgra Desf. Cat.: the black 
Apricot. 

2 jDcrsicifolia Lois. 269 
A. persicif^z Don'sMill. 
Abricot noir i FeuiUes de 
Picker, Fr. 

3. (v.) sibirica Pert. 269 
PrdMM tibirica Lin. Sp. 

4. (v.) brigandaca P. 270 

Pr^tM frr£g<inilaa> Vill. 
Dauph., Dec. Fl. Fr., Lois, in 
N. Du Ham. 

Other Species qf Armeniaca. ^ 
A. peduncuUta Led. - S70 

IV. FruVus Toum. 270 
The Plum. — PmnSphora 
Neck. Elem., Vritmu sp. of 
L. and others : PrmUer, Fr. ; 
PJIanme, Ger. ; Prtmo, Ital. 

J. spinosaZr. - 271 

Common Sloe Iliora. — P. «y^ 
•istris Fuch. Hist, Bay Syn. : 
Blackthorn : Prunier Jptneux, 
PmneOier, E*pine noire, or 
Mere-du^Sois, Fr. ; Schlect- 
dom, or Sehlen PJlaum, Ger. ; 
Pntgno or PruneUo, Ital. 

1 vulgaris Ser. - 271 
P. spindsa Lois. 

2 fohis varieg. Ser. 271 

3 microc&rpa Wlallr. 271 

4 macrocirpa Wattr. 271 

5 ov^ta .Ser. -271 

6 flore pldno - 271 

2. insidtia L. - 272 

The Bullace Plum P. syl- 

vistris prte^oox iUior Toum., 
P.ssfMstrisnM^'Ra^y: Pru- 
nier semoage^r. ; Aljfatous in 
Dauphiny; Kirschen PJtaume, 
Ger. 

1 fHictu nlgro Hrt 272 

2 f. liiteo-tibo Hrt 272 

3 fr^ctu riibro Hrt. 273 

4 fldre pldno Detc. STIS 

3. dom^tica L. - 273 

P. sativa Fuchs ft Ray : Pru- 
nier domestiqne, Fr. ; genuine 
PJUnnne, Ger. ; Sionio domes- 
Oco^ Ital. 

2 flore pUno Hort. 273 

3 foIiis yarieg&tis ^.273 

4 ormenibldes filer. 273 

4. (d.)myrob&lanaZr.274 

P. Mvrobdian Du Ham., P. 
mvrobMana Lois., P. ceraSifera 
Ehrh. Beitr. : VtrjginianCherry, 
Early Scarlet P&m : Prunier 
M^robalan, or CeriseOe, Fr.; 
Ktrschpflaume, Ger. 

2 foliis var. iV: DuH. 274 

5. candicans .ffa/6. 275 



CONTENTS. 



XVU 



€. CocamUla Tenore 275 
7. maHdma IVangen. 275 



?P. 



Mx.Fl.Bor. 



8. pobescens Pcir, 276 

9. divaricata i!>tf. 276 

V. CVrascs Jiuff . 276 

The Cherry. — Le m roetrtma 
Toom., Prvmi* ip. L. : C«- 
r£t^^, Fr. ; Kineke, Ger. ; Of- 

§ L Cmu^^tftora Dec 
The Cherry-bearing Kiodi. 

Fruit. 
1. Bylvestris Bauh. 277 

Sffmom§tma amd Qardm, 
Kaims. — C. d»imm Msench, 
K. Da Ham., Don's HUl. ; C 
nitgra Hin. Diet., noc of Ait 
YrkmmM dvftoM Lin. Sp.; P 
^TfiMn vor. «4-/3WU]d. Baom. 
P. ^vAiM ffsr. 4 ^^ Bng. Flor. 
P. mgricam and P. v^na Bhrh^ 
Boitr.: Gmn, iUnfrr«Mi, Co- 
rome^ Coroon, Anatt Btack. 
Blaek HerifordaJUre, Black 
Htart, Black Masxard, Ike 
Merrf TVee of the Cheihlre 
jw»aMnN ; Uie Merriet in Sof- 
ialk: MSrl$itr^ Mcrue gro$$e 



r, Gmlgnicr,Bigarreamliert 
Hcmmmler, Fr. ; 8S$$e Kineke, 
Gcr. ; CirtgMo, Ital. 

1 M6riBiers or Merries 

277 

S Ouignien or Gesna 

(C.JmliibttkJ>ee,)271 

3 Heaumiersy the hel- 

met-shaped Cherries 
(C. Jmti^kmtL rar. 
heaumiana Dc) 278 

Far. 0^ Ormamemt. 
C s. dur^eina S fldre 
jUno HctL - 278 

or MMaier Bmmaeu- 
Uar,TT. 

4 Bigarreautien^ the 

Bigarreaiu^ or hard- 
fleshed Cherries (C. 
dmrieina Dec) 378 

2. ndgkris Mm. - 278 

Sfma mi /tma amd Garden 
Kiametm — Cer. tfwmn n OBnch { 
Prtew Cfraim Lin. Sp. ; C. 
Monfm$i» Pert. Syn. ; C, capro- 
nUna Dw. Prod^Dom*s MiU. ; 
P. cMMirra and P. Sdda Bbr. 
Beftr. ; P. draemM war, m Eng. 
Flor.: Ckerrg, Kemtiekor Flem- 




mt ParUy s^€rve a rrmaa rvnov. 
Cfritier dm Nord, Certtier^ and 
eHoUier fai tome prorfaieea, 
Tr.\ Samre Ktrtdte, Germ.; 
Maratea, or COiegio^ luL 



Of nat memiai VarietUe. 
S fldresemipUno J7.279 

3 flore pl^o HorL 279 

4 persiciflora Hori. 279 

5 foliis Tariegitis J?: 279 

A«A.AMfA«g rairi«tie$. 

SelecHon egempl(^9mg tke 
diffhrent Jormt wkkk tke 
varietiei qf tke cmlHvaied 
ferric* aetume^ slamdard 
treee. — The Bigarreau,But- 
ner'a Yellow, the Kentish 
Cherry, the May Duke, tlie 
Mozello, D'OMheim - S79 

6 Mar6$cha - - 280 
PHkmtff Marischa Jacg. 

B. Specfes or VarieHee emiti. 
9Med at omamemUd or au 
riout. 

3. (v.) semperfldrens 281 

Pr to i Mf eempetfldretu Ehrli. 
Beltr., P. seroima Roth CataL: 
tke Weegimg Cherry^ ike AlU 
tainit Ckerrp : Cerise de la 
TbuMOMi/, Cerise de St. MmrtMt 
Cerise tardive, Fr. 

4. semii^ C;. i>(m 281 

"Pribms serruldta, Lindl. 
HorC. Trans. : tke double Cki- 
nets Ckerry: Yung. 7b, Chinese. 

6. Psei^do-C^rasus 282 

PHbws Psekdo^C^ratus 
LindL Hort. Trans.; T.paui- 
culdta Ker Bot. RagM hot not 
of Thanh. ; Yung- To, Ckmese. 

6. dumuecerasus L. 282 

Siberian Cherry — C. ^Mer- 
medla Polr. Diet. ; T.firuUcdsa 
Pan., according to Besser ; CS- 
rasus pknUla C. Bauh., aooord- 
h)g to PaU. Fl. Ross. ; CAommv- 
dratusfrutiedsa Pers. Syn. 

7. prostrata Ser. - 282 

vrkmusprostr^al^ort. Kem. 
and Lab. PI. Syr. Dec, P. As- 
cima Stephen in VLkm. Soc. 
Mosq. 

8.jE>er5icif51ia LaU, 283 
PrfeMif ^erski^fbUa Deaf JLrb. 

9. borealis Mtdix. - 283 
Prtem boredUa Polr. Diet. : 

tke Nortkem Ckoke Ckeny, 
Amer. 

10. pumila Michx. - 283 

PrOisM pkmila tin. Mant., 
Porsh Fl. Amer. Sept.: Ctf- 
ratus gla^ca Munich Meth. : 
XaifotMUfitcv', VegOy iteuel du 
CmadatFr, 

11. (p.) depr^ssaPA. 284 

C. pkmila Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., not Prhnua plkmila L. 
P. SuiquekiimB Willd Enum. 
ed. 8. : Sand Ckerrp, Amer. 

12. pygmee^a Lois. 284 

Tr^mupugmafa Wttld. Sp., 
Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 

13. nigi'a Lw. - 284 
Pr ftmi i niSgra Ait. HortKev., 

Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., P. 
iuuitii^a Darlington in Amer. 
LfcN.H.ofNew York. 



14. hyemklis Mhhx. 285 

PrteM kgem^Hs Micbx. FL 
Bor. Amer., Pursh Fl. Amer. 
Sept, Elliot Carol. : tke blaek 
Ckoke Ckerrgt Amer. 

15. chicasa Ji^Bchx. - 285 

Pr^MS ckieasa Pursh Fl. 
Amer. Sept., P. imsUUia Walt. 
Carol.: CMckasato Plum in 
Carolina. 

16. pubdscens Ser. - 285 
PreiMt pubfsoens Ph. Fl. 

Amer. 8^. and Lodd. Cat. 4 
P. spk^rocSrpa BOchx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., not of Swaits. 

17. pennsylvdnica Xr. 286 

Pn Ut M p e mmn do 6Hlca L. fll. 
Suppl., Pursh Ft Amer. Sept, 
Willd. Baom. ; P. lauceolita 
WUld. Abb. 

18. jap6nica Zrotf. - 286 

¥ramu Jmdniea Thunb. Fl. 
Jap. and lindl. in Bot. Reg^ 
P sinhuis Pers. Bnch. 

2 miiltiplex Ser. - 286 

Ampgdalua pkmila' Lin. 
Mttt 

19. sio^nsifl G. Don 287 

20. saiicma G. Don 287 

Fritnus BoUcHuB Lindl. in 
Hort. Trans. : Ckimg-Cko-Lee, 
or Tustg' Ckok'Lee, Chinese. 

Species bebmgingio Ike preced- 
ing Subdhnson (B.), mot met 
imlrodmeed.^C. Pk6skia Ha- 
milt., Prdmis cerasoidea D. 
Don, Cirasus Pdddum ilot*., 
C. glandolJVsa, C.ltfpera. C. 
indsa Lois., C.hhmilis Mor. 

$iL P^'t^'Ser. 

The true Bbrd-Cberry Kinds of 
C^rasus. 

A. Species qf Bird^Cketrm Trees 
alreadp As CuUitaUon in 
Britain. 

21. Mahaleb Mill. - 288 
PHtoNit Mah&lebL. Sp.i Bois 

de Sainte Lude, or Prmnier odo- 
rami, Fr. ; Makalebs-kirseke, 
Ger.; Ctliegio canino, Ital. 

2 friictu fl^vo Hori. 288 

3 latifoUum Hort. 288 

22. Pikdus Dec, - 289 
Prteict fddms Lin. Sp., 

Hook. Brit. Flora, Smith'e 
EngL Flora : Burd-Ckerry, 
Fowl Ckerrif, Hag-berrv Swt. : 
Cerasier d Grappes, Merisier 
d GrappeSf LamrierJhMer or 
Puliet,/au» Bois de Ste. Lucie, 
Fr. ; Sag-biert Swedish ; Trau- 
beden Kirseke, Ger. ; CtUegio 
ramutsa, Ital. 

1 Tulgiris Ser. - 289 
C PdAif Dec., N. Du Hm. 

2 parviflora Ser. - 289 
S rikbra Sir. . 290 

C. Fddus J^4ctm rkbro 

Dee. ft Lois. 
FHbssif rkbra W., accord, 
ing to Ait H. K. 9d ed. 

4 bracteosa Ser. - 290 
PdAis racembsa Hort, 



xvm 



CONTENTS. 



23. virginuina Mx, 291 

PHbMM T^thra Alt Hrt. Kew. 
Itt ed., Willd. Abb. ; P. orfftte 
Blgelow in Litt : Ceritier de 
Virginie, Fr. ; VirglniBehe 
Klrtcke^ Ger. s Wild Cheny 
Tree, Amer. 

24. (v.) serotina Lt, 291 
American Blrd-Cherrv Tree. 

—PrftmuwrtfimaWllld. Abi, 
P. virgmidna Mill. Diet. 
2 retiisa Ser, - 29S 

25. m6llis Doug, - 292 

26. Cap6llm Dec. - 292 
PntettM virginiitna Flor. 

Mexic. Ic. and MSS., P. cana- 
dhuis Moc. et Sesac PI. Mex. 
Ic. inod.. Hem. Mex. 

27. nepalensis Ser. 293 
PHIittM glaucifdlia Wall. 

MSS. 

B. SpeeieiqfBird-Ckerrif TVees 
which have not vei tent m- 
traduced, or xtfumieh we have 
not seen Plants. — C. acumi- 
lAta fVaU., C. emarginiita 
Dong., C caprlclda 6. Don 
(P. et^fridda Wall, P. im- 
duldta Hamilt. in D. Don'a 
Prod. Nepal., G. undulita 
Dec.), C. canad6nsl8 Lois., 
C. etllptica Lois., C. panicu. 
Uta Lois. ... 893-4 

§ iii. Lauroc^ran. 
The Laurel .Cherry Treat. 

28. lusit&nica Lois^ 294 

Common Portugal Laurel. — 
"PriHMS tusitdniea Lin. Sp. : 
the Cherry Bay : Ceritier Lau- 
rier du Portngai^ Fr. ; Axarei- 
ro, Portugiiete. 

2 mxa Ser. - 294 

PrdiMw Hixa Broussonet. 
P. multiglandmiisa Gar. 
G. HixsLfV.etS.BistC. 

29. Lauroc6rasu8 Zr. 295 

Corrtmon Lourel . — Vritnus 
La u ro e 6rasus Lin. Sp. : Cherry 
Bay, Cherry Lamrei : LattHer 
au Laity Lenirier Cerisier, Lens- 
Tier Amandier, Fr.; Kirsche 
harbeer, Ger. ; Lemfo di Tre- 
bisonda, Ital. 

2 variegita Hbrt, 295 
S anguatifdlia Hori. 295 

30. carolinilina Mx, 296 

PrftMM earoHttidna Ait Hrt. 
Kew., P. sempershreiu WUld. 
Bnum., Vd^mearoUnidssa Mill 
Diet.: Wiid Orange, kxim. 

Sect. II. i^EjBB^a 

VI. Pu'rsh/^ Deo. 297 
TIgairea PA. Fl. Amer. Sept., 

not of Airt>let. 

1. trident^ Dee, - 297 

Tigirea tridentdta Ph. Fl. 
■ Amer. Sept., not of Aublet 

VII. Ke'kbta Dec. 298 
nUBus L., C^rchonu Thonb., 

Sp^rw^a CambL 



I, jmdmcA Dec, - 298 

Rd6tM Jap6nicms Lin. Mant., 
C^cAorw Japdniems Thunb. 
FL Jap., SMir0s^a Jap6nica 
Camb. Ann. Sci. Nat. : Spir€e 
du Japon, Fr. 

2 flora pUuo - 298 

VIII. tS^iRJB'A L. - 299 

Spiral sp, Cambeaaedei 
Mon. Spin in Ann. Sci. Nat. : 
Spirie, rr. ; ^tierstaude, Ger. 

$ i. Phyiocarpot Camb. 

1. opulifl^liaZr. - 299 

VtrgMan GneUer Bote, 
Nine Barh, Amer.; Evonimo 
del Canad^lttl. 

2 toment^Ua Ser. - SOO 
S mon6gyna - .300 

S. moni^yna Torrey. 

2. capitata Pk, - 300 
S. opulifblia var. Hook. 

§ ii. Chama'dryom Ser. 

3. chamsedrifdlia Z. 300 

S. tfemtontfiwtf Lour. 

1 vulgaris CSa(m.Afo». 300 

2 m^dia Ph. Ft Am. 
SepL, Camb, Mon. 900 

S oblongifdlia C. Af. 301 
S. obltmgif^a Waldst et 
Kit. Fl. Hung. 

4 subracemosa /Set. 301 

5 inclaa Horf. - 901 
S. chamtedrC lat^Wm Ht. 

4. (c.)«lmifdliaiS^.30i 

S. chanuedrifdUa Jacq. Hort 
Yindob. 

2 phylUhtha 5er. 301 

5. (c.) flexuosa 1^. 301 

S. alpina Hort Par. accord- 
ing to Camb. ft Fiach. In Litt, 

5. sibhica Hort. 

Varieties or Synonifmes. — S. 
flexuAaa latlfbUa BorU, 8. 
datirica Bori., S. vkw(fblia, 
S. carpinifblia, S. tetuliefblia, 
in Metut. Laddies'* CoUec 
Hots • - ■ . 8QS 

6. (c.) cratsgif6liaL.302 

7. (c.) 5etukef;^ia P. 302 

? S. cMymMtea Baf. in Dear. 
Joum., 1* S. cmtegj^Mfie Lk. 
Bnum. 

8. c^na Waldii, et K, 302 

9. trilobata L, - 303 
S. triloba Don's MIIL 

10. alpina Pall. - 303 

11. Aypericif51iajDc. 303 

Hypfrieum ftriUee Hort. : 
Haban Mag. 

1 ural^nais iSer. - 303 
S. crendta Lin., Flach. in 

Litt, and Don'a Mill. 
S. hjmerieifbUa Camb. M. 

2 Plukenett^na Sr. 304 
S. hyperieifbUa Lin. Sp., 

Ph., Don'a Mill. 
& b. Mr. /9 Dec. Fl. Fr. 



9 acikta Ser, . - S04 
S. actUifbUa WlUd. Bnm., 
Camb. Mon., and D. M. 
8. sibirica Hort Par., ac- 
cording to Camb. Mon. 
S. ambi^ PaU. 

4 crenata Ser. > 304 
8. obovlUa Waldat. et Kit, 

? in WUld. Bn., Camb. 

Monog., Barr. Ic. Bar. 
S. hyperieifbUa y Dec. Fl. 
S. erendta Lin. Sp., Cam. 

Mon., Don'a MiL,La C. 

5 flaTT&aica Ser, - 304 
S. saer&nica Beaaer in 

Litt., Don'a MilL 
8. ereniUa PaU. Fl. Roaa. 
S. hypericUbUa var. 6 km- 

^Wa'LeA.n.Vi.k.m, 

6 Beswruina Sor. 904 
S. erendta in Litt. 

S. savrdniea fi Besseribati 
Don's MiU. 

Other Varieties or Stpionymes^ 

— 5. infl^xa {Hort. Soc. 
Gard.). S. oborAta fVendland 
(Hort Soc. Oard.), S, ar- 
g6ntea (Lodd. Collection), 8. 
cune&ta (do.), S.ninu. (do.), 
S. alpina {do.), 8. acutifbUa 
{do.), S. deciSmbena {do.) 301 

12. {h.) /halictroides 305 
8. atfwili^jrdA'a Pali. Itin., 8. 

hypertctfdlta var.JIdva, asxi Sk 
alpina lat^fbHa. 

13. cuneifoya Wall, 305 

8. cantseens Don. Prod., Dec 
Prod., Don'a MiU. ; 8. argtntem 
Hoct. 

14. pikowiensis Bes, 305 

15. ceanothif51ia Hn, 305 

16. corymbdsa Raf, 306 
2 aofforia • - 306 

8. sordria Pen. in Ht. Br. 

17. vacciniif6HaZ).Z^.306 
8. adiantifbUa Hort. 

18. laxifldra lAndl, 306 

19. b^lla S»ns, - 306 

§ ill. Sordria Ser. 

20. ralicifolia L. - 307 

%pir€B^afr^tes Hort. : Bride- 
wort, QtKfn'a Neodiiework. 

1 dtfnea ^i/. Ht K. 307 

2 alpestris PaL FL 307 
8. ahaSstris Don'a MiU. 

3 paniculata FftZEd S^., 

Ait. H. K. - 307 
8. iiifta Ehrh. Beltr. 

4 latifdlia r«;/(C % 307 
S. obovdta Rafw in Litt., 

not of Walldat et Kit. 
according to WiUd. En. 
8. carpinmia WiUd. En., 
Don'a Mill. 

5 grandifl6ra - 308 
S. grandifibra hod. Bt. C. 

6 tallica - - 308 
S. taHrico Hort. 

Other Varieties or Synonymes. 

— 5. canadtosia, S. airlicB- 
fblia, 8. lacintita, 5. cham«. 



CONTENTS* 



XIX 



4iUblia, 8. UneeolHa, 5. 
cwplniftUA, & re0tea, S. In. 



SI. Menziem Hook. 308 
22. tomentosa Zf. - 308 



23. Isv^ta L. - 309 

S. aitatSm$it Lu. Nov. Act 

PMrop., S. alUica PaU. Fl. 



2^. ansMGA SmUk 309 

§ IT. SmhiLria Ser. 

25. «orbif5lia Zr. - 309 

8. jiAwiifa Mceoch MeOi. 
Salpbia jRitFlA. 309 

8. groNdifBra Swt. H. Br. 

8. JPafUsU X)aM*9 AfO. 

26. LiiidleyaiMiWal.310 

4Seie€tiom^apeek9 -810 



Sect III. "Pvrmm'Us 



IX. J7u'b(M 2^ -311 
Tlw BramMcL— JZMMT, Urom- 
ioisier, Fr. ; iWmAenv, Ain»i 
fmrtfroMft, Ger. ; JiMo, ItaL 

$ i. Leaves pinnate^ ^3—7 

1. suberectus Ander, 31 1 

R. »e$$iiui$ HalU R- pUcitm 
W. & N., not of 3appL to Eng. 
Botn which U a nnauler fona of 
B afflnU »^. $ N. ; R. eerpU- 
/d^/M Wahlenberg. The whole 
eccordlng to IdBdU. Sjm, of tbo 
Brit. Fl. 

2. afflnis W,^ N,- 312 

K eoOhmt Dec. ; R. iiMiM 
Smith in Eng. Fl., LlndL In 
Syn. Br. Fl. ed. 1. j R. pliediue 
Borrer in Eng. Bot. 8uppL 

S braeteofiu Ser. - 312 

R. a. y A » W. & N. RoM 
Gem. 

3. micfdntfaus 2>. Dr. 312 

R. paucifibrua LumL ia Bot. 
Reg., Hort. Brit. 

4. occident^lis £. - 313 

R. e/f V HI iu&MW nott.( R. 
^tftf'M Aicfti Mterp Dill. : tke 
Amerieam Sr tum Sl e , 

5. idae^us Z. - - 313 
The oomnHni Raspberrj^^A. 

Ji^ambeetidmu Lmu. Fl. Fr. : 
Framboiaier, Fr ; gemeine 
Brambeertj Germ. ; JVonte, 
Ital. ; JZao*, F^aiattete, 
Hinde-berr^^ Johns. Ger. 

2 mieroph^llus fFo/. SIS 

Oarden Van. — Redkflrvdted, 
Tellow-frutted. White-fhiit- 
ed, and one which bears twice 
In the year. 

$ ii. Leaote digUate, af 
3 — SUajUU, 

6. lacinilitus W, - 314 



7. cae^sius L. - 314 

The Dewberry* 
2 anr^Dsis WdL Sch, Sl5 
R. ptekdiheti'thu Wdhe. 
S grandiflorus Ser, SI 5 

4 ftanriSbUva WhL 315 

5 fol. yarieg. HorL 315 

& conrlifi^lios Smith 315 

R. mdgirit W. A N., R. 
fMfNordfMt Hwne. 

2 cinus mxt 315 

3 glaadulosus Wi 315 
R. gtoiwfir/&fiii SpreBB. 

to Dr. LAMffay/Me 



ABawing 3n'tM UnOg qf 
BMbutmatt beasaoetatedwitk 
B, oorylffUku Smith, «tiAer 
«» roMM specteSt or at vo- 
r£f«i'«» «■ — A. maorapta^Uus 
IF.-* K., n. earplnilbUus W. 
AN.,R. r&MO-ftter W, f N^ 
it. Koliler/ W. & N.(R.jb^ 
Itfw W. ft N.K JR. gtendu. 
UMUf Smttk, B. rOdia IF.^ N. 
(R. rcMMdAtf Llndl. Syn. ed. 
1., Hort. Brit), B. direnl- 
Idllui LmdLSgn. ed.l.,(R. 
dUvertifdlha Weihe, Hort. 
Brit.) - . - 816 

9. speet&ilis Ph, 316 
R. ribUMtet WUU. Hert>. 

10. fniticoBUB L. - 316 

TheeQDnMU Bladkbarnr.-^R* 
rfiscotor * a a*f#lM« hi Llndl. 
Syn. of Brit Fl.ed. 1. : Bonee 
commmte^ Fr.; Bamlttmde Hhn- 
beere^ Ger.: iioao MmUamo, 
ital. 

2 eomp^'tM Ser. 316 
R./rHlMdM(t ) W. ft M. 

3 ta(iriciis HorfL 317 

4 fl^re roseo-pldno 
£a«m. Orf. - 317 

5 foliis variegitis 317 

6 leucoc^rpus ^ar. 317 

11. hfspidiuZr. . 317 

R. MwiAU* Micfax. Ft. Bor. 
▲mer., ILproatmbem Miihl., 
R.>l^^rf<MWUkl. 

§ ilL Leaeet lobed, notpim^ 
note or digitate, 

12. odoratus X. 317 

'ELoeeidenliUis Hort., but not 
of Lin. : tke FirginiaH Botp- 
terrpt tke/Uwerhtjf Bmnberrv: 
Bonee odorfuUe, fr, ; Boeo del 
Ctmadi, Ital. 

13. Dutkiknus A£oc, 318 
R. odertUmt Hort, not Lin. 

Spee(e§ amd VoHeUet ef Ri^- 
bme best demreimg qf CmUiva- 
HoninBriU*hGQrdem,aaomtu 
mental Skrubt - 188 

Other SoriM qf SkrtMmBvXmeee, 
—it. macrop^talus JDoHg . MS. 
in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., B. 
delicfdtus Torreif in Ann. 
Lye, B. flUiceut SwUh in 
Reef*! Cycl. (R. eordtfblme 
D. Don) - • 319 

X. Potenti'lla L.319 

The Shrubby CinquefoU.— 
a 2 



PotentiUet Fr.; Kng e rbrau t, 

1. fhiticdsa X. - 319 

2 dahiirica Ser. - 320 

P. 4amnca Nest Pot. 
P. fhaicbia fi LefantPat. 

3 tenuiloba &r. - 320 

P./nUtcb$a fi KeatLPot., 

Lehm. Pot 88. var. >i, 
P.JtoribAnOa Airah Fl. 

Amer. Sept, Wataon 

Dead. Brtt^ 
P. tenmffbtia Schteclend. 

Beri. Mag. 

2. glabra Lodd. - 320 

p. frutiobM £^ Batch. 

3. Saleso^' 8teph. 320 

Co'marvm paliistre X*. 

320 

PatentiHa Otmanem Scop. 

XI. CowaV/^ D. Don. 
1. plicskta Z). Don 321 

Sect. IV. i^o's&B Dec 
XILi^o^sA Toum, 321 

The Rose Tree. — JUcNtf- 
liAoraNeck. Elem.: RoHer. Fr.; 
Botenttockf Ger. ; Aooxf Apom, 
Dutch ; BotqfOt Ital. ; Botal, 
Span. ; Boeiera, Portuguese. 

$ i. />ndoe« Lind. Monog. 

1. ferox Z#aurr. - 322 

R. kanUadtatica Red. Ros.« 
R. kamttcbdtica fi/eroe Ser. la 
Dec Prod., R. eokindta Du- 
pent. 

2 nltens LindL in Bot 
Reg., iSler. in Dec. 
Prod. - . 323 

2. (f.) kamtscliitica 322 

$ ii. BraeteiUt, 

3. bracteata FK^mfZ. 323 
Lord Maeartnep^t Bote. 

2 acabricaiilia JC»mt32S 

3 flore pldno HoH, 323 

4 MariaLeonidaJST. 323 

4. inicroph^Ilai?ar5. 323 
Roi-temg-Jumgn Chineae. 

5. involuci^ta /?ojrA. 324 

R. UnOiey^a, Tratt. Hot.. R. 
pal4t$tri$ Bucfaaa. <Ham.) MS. 

§ ill. CinHamdmeee LindL 
A. Specie* Nativet qf North 

iMMCf IMle 

6. mcida J?ArA. - 324 
R. r^Ubra Uuida Roulg. Ros., 

R. /dctrfa Jaoq. Fragro. : Bote 
Twmept : BoUer d FeuiUe$ dt 
F^ntne, Fr. 

7. nftida W. - - .325 

R. BedMeK rttfi»een$ Thory 
in Red. Rob. : the dwtnf La- 
brador Bote. 



XX 



CONTENTS. 



8. R^ Sosc - 325 

R.t4rgida Pen. Bnch., R. 
iraxini/blMa Dumont in Coun. 
Bot. Cult. 

9. par^iflora Ekrh, 325 

l^e PeonsylTanUn Rose. — R. 
hkmili* Manh Arb., R. earoU~ 
niitna Mlcfa. Fl. Bor. Amer., R 
oaroltua yeti Alt. Hort. Kew. 

2 florepl^o RetL R. 326 
lO./raxiniiolia Rork. 326 

R. virginiina MUl. Diet., R. 
Mfin^ m Soi. MS^ Jaoq. Fra«., 
R. 0O9y«nM«aBoM.Dlct.d' Agr., 
R. o^rtiMi /9 Ait. Hort. Kew., 
R. alphui ia'vit Red. Rot., 
Lawr. Rot. 

Other North American Spea'es. 
—a. Wo6dsJt Llndl., R. ca- 
ronna Lin., A. lindldyr 
Sprang. 

B. Specie* Natha qf Nepal, 

1 1 . macropb/IIa L . 326 

G. Specie* NaHna qf Continental 
Europe, 

12.^nnam6mea^f«/. 326 

R. fDecttwR**ima Munch. 
HausT., R. fnqfiiit HemLDiss. 

Other European Specie* not 

Native* of Britain R. fru- 

tetdrum Beu.^ A.ta<iricaJSi'«6. 
and R. dabiuica PaU. 8S7 

D. Specie* Native* <{f Britain. 

13. (c.) majMis Retz, 327 
R. miUica Fl. Dan., R. jpT- 

no*i**ima Oorter. Ingr., R. col' 
linoola Ebrb. Beitr., R. ciiMa- 
mdmea Bog. Bot. 

14. Bicksontana L. 327 

$ IT. PimpineUiJdluB Lindl. 
A. Specie* Native* qf Eurt^, 

15. alpinaX. - - 328 

R. rupfttri* Grants. Auftr., 
R. montpeOaea Gouan Honsp., 
R. inirmi* Mill. Diet., R. h^ 
brida VIU. Dauph., R. lage- 
niHa Vill., R. hifil>ra Krok. 
FL Sib. 

2 lae^yis ^Ser. not Desv. 

or Red. - 328 
"&. Sangui*6rha mt^fitrU, 

^c.t l)iU. Blth. 
R. tupina glabra Deav. 
R a. vuigiri* Red. Roi. 

3 speciosa Hort. 328 
DmmmoiMf *« TAotn^m. 

OM«r Farietie*. . 828 

16. su^vis Willd. - 328 

17. sulphdrea AU. 329 

R. hemlephhica Henn.Disa., 
R. glauoopk^Ua Ebrh. Beitr., 
Bdf a meaf&re piino Ral Hist., 
R. ihtea Brot. Fi. Lua. : the 
4oubie yeiUno Ro*e, 

18. sanguisorbifolJD. 329 

R. *9inoti**ima var. *tmguim 
§orb(folia Lindl. Rot., R. ^>mo*. 
var, macropk$Ua Ser. in Dec. 
Prod. 



B. Specie* Native* qf Siberia, 

19. grandifldra lAndL 329 

R. pimpinellifdlia Bieb. Fl. 
Taur. 

C. Specie* Native* qf North 

America and Siberia. 

20. lut^scens I^unh 329 
R. kUpida Gurt. Bot. Mag. 

2 1 . tnyriac^ ntha Dec, 330 

R. parvtROia PaU. Rott. ?, 
"R.provincuUi* Bieb. FLTaur. ?, 
R. *pino*i**ima var. i) fi^yn'a- 
confAa Ser. in Dec. Prod. 

22. reversa W. <J- K. 330 

D. ^teeie* Native* qf Britain. 

23. spinosf ssima L. 330 

Tbe Scotcb Rote. 
Farietie* . . .330 

24. rubella Smith - 331 

25. hib^rnica Smiih 331 

26. Wflsoni Borr. - 331 

27. invoiata SviUh - 331 
R nrim^ Donn Hort. Cant. 

28. Sabini Woods - 332 
Far. — R. S. grftcilii H. S, 

29. Donioita Woods 332 

R. Sabinl fi Lindl. Ro*. 

$▼. CeniifblU* lAndX. 

30. damascena MUl. 332 

Tbe Damask Rose. — R. b(l- 
gica Mill. Diet. ; R. calend^rum 
Moncb. HausY. ex Bork. Hols., 
Rottlg. Rot. ( R. iMfera Polr. 
Suppl., Red. Rot. : Ro*e d 
quatre Saiaon*. 

Farietie* .... 388 

31. centifolia L. - 333 
Hie Provence, or Cabbage, 

Rote — R. provineidli* Mill. 

Diet., R. poly&ntho* Rottig. 

Rot., R. carifopM^ea Poir. 

Suppl., R. futgwUcnldta Detf. 

Cat., R. vdrian* Pobl. Bobem. 
1 provinci^is MUL 333 
Tke Provence, or Cabbage, 
Ro*e*i among whlcb are, 
tbe royal and cabbage bluth, 
tbe carmine, tbe clutter, tbe 
Ducbeste d'Angoul^me, tbe 
ProTence (of wbicb tbere 
are upwards of 20 tubvan.), 
tbe prolific, tbe striped nose, 
gay, and the Versaillet. 
2 muscosa MilL • 334 
T%e Mo** Ro*e*j among 
wbicb are, the common 
tingle, tbe common double, 
tbe blutb, tbe dark, tbe 
striped, tbe white, the 
crested mott, and many 
otbert. 

Spompdnia Dec - 334 
Tke Ponmone Rote* N. 
Du Ham., R. pomptela Red. 
Ro*. ; among which are, tbe 
Rote de Meaux, tbe rootty 
de Meaux, tbe dwarf, and 
small Prorence, tbe Rose 
de Rbeimt, and tbe com- 
mon and proMferout pom. 
pone. 



32. g&nica L. . 334 

R centifjMa Mill. Diet, R, 
*ylv&tica Gater. Mont, R. rfr- 
bra Lam. FL Fr., R. koUne- 
ricea Rotsig. Ros., R bilgica 
Brot. Fl. Lus., R. blanda Brot. : 
Rp*e de Provin*, FJr.; E**ig 
Rote, Ger, 

Farietie* - . .884 

§ ▼!. VmdtiB, 

A. Nativet <tf Middle Ewrope, 
ttot (^ Britain, 

33. turbintita Ait, - 335 
The Frankfort Rose.— R mm. 

pamUdta Ebrb. Beitr» Kfnm^ 
cqfortidna Munch. HansT., R. 
ftram;furthuit Rotsig. Roe. 

1 franeofurt^oa Ser, 335 

2 orbessina Ser, - 335 

34. &lba L. ' -336 
R. ntitatittima Gat MonUuk 

B. Nativet qf Europe and 
Britain. 

35. villdsa L, « 336 

R mSUi* Sm. In Eng. Bot., 
R. tomentdta B Lindl. Rot., R. 
keteropAjflia Woods, R. pomi- 
fera Herm. Diss. 

Farietie* . . -836 

36. toment6sa Sm. - 336 
R vOldta Ebrb. Arb., Da 

Roi Harbk., Fl. Dan.; R. mol- 
li**ima B5rk. Hols. ; R. ditbia 
Wlbel Wirtb.; R. villd*a B 
Hods. 

§ vii. Rubigtnbta Lindl. 

A. Specie* Native* qf Britain. 

37. rubiginosa L. - 337 

The Sweetbrlar. or Eglan- 
tine — R. ntav^plia Llghtf. 
Scot., Fl. Dan.) R. Eglantteia 
MiU. Diet., Lin. Sp. ed. ].; 
R. agr(*ti» Savl Fl. Pit.: R. 
rti6/gnid«0 parv0dra Rau. 
Enum. 

Farietie* - . .837 

38. micr4ntha Sm, - 337 

R. rubigind*a B micrantha 
Lindl. Rot., with emmeout 
tynonymet. 

39. s^pium T%uU, - 337 

IL.helvitica and R. vawrtifdlia 
Hall., R. can}na Dec. Fl. Fr. 
ed. 3., R agrftti* Savi Fl. Pit. 
R. bitcrrdta Mer. Fl. Par. ex 
Dety. 

40. inoddra - - 338 

R. dumetbrum Eng. Bot. ; 
R. B6rref\ Sm. Eng. Fl., Don** 
Mill. : R rub^in^a var, ino- 
dbra Lindl. Rot. 

B. Spedea Native* qf Middle 

Europe, 

41. liitea D. Don « 338 

R. Efflantdrla Lin. Sp.,Red. 
Ro*. ; R. fafUda Herm. Dits. ; 
R. ckloropkpUa Ebrb. Beftr. ; 
R cerea Rossig. Ros. 

2 subrikbra Red, R. 338 

3 punlcea Und. R. 3.S8 
R. pumcea Mill. Diet, 

Rossig. Ros. 



K. aiMiJi M. R. FVOar. 

H. ligf. pmmcia Bed. Roa| 
R. Bgl. iicoAtr Dc. Fl.Pr. 

4 fl5re pleno . 336 

5 Iloggij D. Don 339 
SctHoK R. MiScM »m. It. 



4£. csnlna £. 



Sisn Uort. C*nl. ed. S.: R. 
S ncipbjlla UiulL 339 

43. F6rsteri 8m. - 339 
X. oJOu j9 ft r WmK fn 

Ui.TnH. 

44. dumet^iini7:iu/.340 

BM. In Due. n. [^ R. (^m 



47. rubrifolia Titf. . 
B. mmU^/Ora Bwn. Act. 



40. fndic« Z.. . . 3 

R. daJts Lbl. Sflt., B. M 
vn^Omw cfinm Roulg. B 

rmtLaUtpiM R«d. Hoa.; 



9 NoiwUiaiu Ser. 349 
purpurea Red. 319 
iiWts , - 349 

Smithii ■ - 343 



4 iongii&lila itiuK. 349 
R.liii^iftUaWllld.r 
H-Jf wii i jj WrHM M 
DuHun. 



S cruiutuJUd. and Dai 

ma. . . 31 

9 FraKridna Hort. 349 

1 rilga LindL B. R. 343 

1 1 ochrolcilCT B. R. 343 
19 flaTtscena - 



i^< Hatiwa if^iia, ami 
mltiflora Tiuni. 34S 



IS BUirii D. Don 
30. semperflorens C. 343 

RjMerimUa Venl. Cell. ~ 
itnfaUnili Pari. Bucb., 

51. Lawrence^na S. 343 

B. wnnnjUreiu mtutt 

52.BerfceaI«tiJ/. - 344 

$ ii. S^ttyla LindL 
A. Sprriri NaUtri of BrtU 
ami otiitT Ftrtt f/ Europe. 

53. (Jstyla Bat. - 34 

t. nrffiu D«T. Journ.Boi 
1. trtttiatla Dsc n. Fr. Siq 
I. indcau Dk.. B. l^lWte 



h. BeUi.jBi 



B, jUm Donn, R. ^MI 

Polr. Suppl.. H. *#»« Hoib. 

9 Greiillei Hort - 34fi 

ILplalfpl3Li Red. Roi. 

Bourmlilti Hort 347 

57. Branonii Lindl. 347 

f/. 347 



4 dep*l4iuU Zri'iuB. 34S 
Otkrr Fart. — The (HhikL 
PriiKUMo de Nuuu, and 

D. Spfcia Kaiipti tf }/ort* 
59. rubif&lia R. Br. 346 
J I. Banluiilia LimdL 



aAii. 



- 34» 



6). B^nkaiVeR. Br. 349 

8 litte* UhS ~ fl49 
ez.microc&Tpe lAndl. 350 

63, hf BtrUi Zmrf/. - 350 



XIII. ta-VRA Lindl. 35S 
Bdu •;>. PiU. * Undl. In 
B«.llaiK>g. 
I. berberXoya. lAndl. 358 

R. (nnliMeai Sal. Hort. 
Allert.: R. bmba\fbUa Pall. 
Lindl. Roi. Modo«. FreDcti 

Snt, fdJIrotti Koaog. 
Fanaia - - - »59 

Sect V. Po'xiA LiiufL 



§ i. Coctfnia. 

. coccinea L. - -353 

C. auMli, Booth i lUqiOu 
«f<>M( W>U. FL Cu. i H. 



xxn 

coednea MU1., N. Du Ham. : 
Thomlets Ameriean Anarole: 
Kifiier (cariate, Fr.j Sckar- 
iachrothe Mitpel, Ger. ; L«»e- 
mojo roMO, Ital. 

2 cor411iiia * * ^^ 
C. cor&Uina Lodd. Cat. 
C. pyripirmit, and C. 
pectinata, of some col. 
S indentita - - 354 
C.fndemdta Lodd. Cat. 
C. gedrgiea Doug. 
4 mknimA Lod.Cat, 354 
C c. <pAadM Godefroy. 
C. BcerifWaHoTt, 
C. fflabeUata Hort. 
5neapolit&na fforf. 354 
Uhpilui comttmdinopoit' 
tdna Godefroy. 

1&. glandulosa W. - 354 

? C. Mmgmnea PaU. FL Ro«., 
?M^jpt'te« n>/«iMfi>Wra Ehrh. 
B , Vyftu jianduBtta Moencb 
CX rottautifSua Booth. 

2 succul^nta FiaeA. 354 

Mt$ptliu$ueeulinia B. 
S subvilldsa - - 355 
C. svbvOS^sa Fiscb. 

$ ii. JVncidto. 

3. punctata AU. - 355 

C.Cnii'gSUi Du RoL M&- 
•i&M etmcy^ia Ehrh. Beitr., 
V. ptmetata Lk. Enum. M. 
tori^fWa Lam. Eim^c* 

2 rikbra IVraA - 856 

C. ediOti Ronalds. 
S riibra strScta ffmi,356 
C.p. Mtrida Ronalda. 

4 adrea Punk - 356 
C. p.fidwt Hort. 
C.rf&n'aRonaldi. 
C.tdfttoLodd. Gat. 
C. penlSMnaJliM Godef. 

5 breviapToa Doty. 356 

4. oyrif6lia i<i/. - 356 

CJeueqMB'09 {.whiU-htwket) 
Mcench Wetok, C, rodMfa I^ 
Gat. 1836, C. tomentUa Da Bol 
Harbk., C. iat;^fbUa Fen., 
Uispihu latifWa Jjam. Enc, 
M. calpodindron Ehrh. Beitr., 
M. pyriTd/ui Link Enum., M. 
tmSfUta Polr.. C. lat(fiUia Bo- 
nalds, C. com^fdtia Booth: 
XmautroOoiitfrmo, Ital. 

5. macracanthalxMi. 357 

C. gUmdtUdm ^ fnacrSntka 
Lindl., C. tpina longUtima 
Hammersmith Nrnvtry, C. p|r. 
riJtUia Torrey. 

2 minor • - 358 

$ iv. CriU-ffSSi, 

6. Cds-g&lU L. - 358 
C. liu:ida Wans. Am.. MIU. 

Diet.; G. cttmeifblw Lodd. Cat.; 

Utnibu lidda Ehrh. Beitr., 

M. Crit-giUi Polr. $ M. Aye 

miltg Walt.; M. eumeifbUm 

Mosnch : Ai^«r P/mI dff Cog, 

Fr. ; GBinxende MinH, Ger. ; 

l,4uautroUonimuOt Ital. 

2 spl^dens Dee, - 359 

Cartef^UaandCiSP n- 

rfdM Lodd. Cat. 



CONTBNT8- 

3 oyTacanthif.DM. - 359 
C. vvraeanikifbNa Lodd. 

UespOMiM ttu^idA Dam. 
Cours. Bot. CoH. 

4 «aUci{dlia Dec. •» 360 
C. uific(/dto. 

5 UneirU Dec. - 360 

U6$paMt UmedrU Desf. 

Arb. 
C. UneStrU Lodd. Gat. 

6 nikna l>ee. iVod 360 
VLitpilw n^na Dam. Sa|». 

7. (c.)ovalifdliaflbni.360 

C. eUiptiea Lodd. Cat, C. 
Cr^-«^ ovat^fiOia Bot Beg. 

8.(c)«iraiiif61iaJ?ofc 361 

UtspOus vr^mifhlia Polr. 
Diet., C. eanlintana Lodd. 
Gkt. : LaaaeruoUHO^ ItaL 

§ V. Nigra. 

9. nigra >r. 4- JT. - 362 

Hl«|)//«s nifra Willd. Enum., 
C. carpaUc* Lodd* Cat. 
? C fliflca Jiicg, - 362 

10. purpiirea Bote 363 

C. sangmnea Hort 
2 altaica - - 363 
C. altdica Lodd. Cat. 

H.Douglasfi Lindl. 364 
$ vii. FlatHZ. 

12. Mva ili«. - 364 

C. glaaduldta Ms. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., not of WalU i Uft- 
pikis MickaUM Pen. %i». ; C. 
caroUnidna Polr. Diet.; C. 
JhmiMima Hort.; C. ?turU- 
niUa Pursh. 

13. (f.)lobatB.&c«c 365 
VLUpihu hbita Poir. Suppl., 

C. auea Poir. 

14. (f.) triloWta L. 366 
C $pinogissima Lee. 

§ Yiii. ApiifbluB. 

15. opiiioUa Mx. - 366 

C. OMoeSntka Walt. Ca- 
roU C. apiifdka mi^ Lodd. 
Cat. 

2 minor - - 366 
C. BpiifiOia Lodd. Cat. 



§ is. m^eroe&rptB, 

16. cord^ta MiU. - 367 

VUtpOut PkanSptgrum L., 

M. conltUa Mill., C. vSP^Ui- 

fdlia Walt. Car. and Pursh 

Sept., M. BcerifbUa Poir. Diet. 

17. spathulilta Elliot 367 
C. microeSfyta Lindl. Bot. 

Beg., C.fi6rida Godefroy. 
2 georffica - - 368 
C. g etrg te a Lod. 

§ z. Axardli. 

18. Azarolui L. - 368 
PuriM Asardlos Sow. Com., 

J. AwJb. fl/fl. ; UUpUms Au^ 






r6lui iA. Petf., N. Du Ram. ; 

NiffUer A%artae, Niftier de 

NmOet, E'pfne d'Etpagnf, 

Pommettea d dewt Clous, Fr. , 

Azorol Mitpel^ Ger.; Axu- 

rwDfo. Ital. _ „ 

Van.^la. tbe^. Du Ham, 

are enumerated: — 1. Jtf^s- 

plhis Jrdnia, with the leaves 

hairy beneath ; & Aaarole, 

with large deep-red fruit : 8. 

Asarole, with yellowish white 

fruit; 4. Asarole, with long 

fruit of a whitish yellow ; 5. 

Asarole, with double fowers $ 

6. The White Asarole of 

Italy. ... -869 

19. (A,) maroccana 369 

? C. maiira Lin. fil. Sup. ac- 
cording to Dec. : Sarrour, 
Arabic. 

20. i^ronia Bote - 370 

M^r^MArdfi^aWilld.Enum, 
SuppL and N. Du Ham., C. 
Asarblus fi WUld. sp., C./issa 
Lodd. Cat. 

21. orientalis Bote 371 
Uispihu oriattdtts Tourn. 

and Polr. Suppl., C. odonift*. 
sima Bot. Kep. and Lod. Cat, 
C. tmuuetifdlia var. fi ta6Hea 
Dec. Prod. 

2 sanguinea - 371 

C. MHWtttnra Schrad. Ind. 
Sem. H. Ac. Got. 1834. 
C. orfentaUB Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. 

22. tanacetiftlia P. 372 

UhpOta ianaceKfiMa Poir. 
Diet, and N. Du Ham.. M. 
pinndta Dum. Cours., ? Me»- 
pUta CeMkna Dum. Cours. 
Suppl. aoeonUng to Dec.: 
LoBotermolo twrcot Ital. 

2 gUbra Lodd, - 372 

3 Leeana - - 372 
C. Ascita Lee. 

lAtr$ Seedling, Hoct. 

$ si. HeterophyUa. 

23. heterophylla F. 374 

$ xii. Oxyae&nthte, 

24. Oxyadintha L. 375 

■Rie common Hawthorn.— IV- 
raeSMtha of the Greeks ; Mm- 
piius Oxvacdntka Gaertn. and 
N. Du Ham. : B'pfne Nanehe, 
noble S'pine, Sole de Mm, 
Scuetteir Avbipine, Niftier Amb- 
(pine, Fr. ; Hagedom gemei- 
nerWeiudom^GeT, ; Hagetoan, 
Dan. ; Hagetom, Swed. ; A- 
eanta da Stepe, Avtarolo saftjo- 
tico, and Bianco Spina, Ital. ; 
^pino bUmoo, Svan.: White 
rSorny MaifbuMh, Qmiek, (Mek- 
$et, Maif. 

A. Varietiei d^fMng Jhm the 
Specif in Ae generai Form 
and Mode qf Orowtk. 

2 strlcta Lod, Cat, 375 
C. O. rigida Ronalds. 

3 p^ndula Lod, Cat, 376 

4 reginae Hort. - 376 
Queen Marw*s 7*om. 

5 Ceiaidna Hort. 37" 



6 c^IbU Sm. Ayr 37T 

7 SeiuoH Sm. Ayr 3TT 

B-plmicT Uamm, Fr. 
9 puDieea LoACat. 3TT 



10 m61tiplei Horf. 3TT 

C. O.jartjJ/ao Hott. 

Upunieead. pJ^no37T 

ISmonfinDB - 377 

C. iiHiiiSaiBa Jacq. 

13 aptttim Lod.Cat.S17 
O. FtrMta «fftrimt tm Ot 

TnmitFfiwtnilt- 

14 pn'eox ir«rf. - 877 
Tb* GbnoDkarj Tkani. 

15 ribriicB - • 377 



17 meluMcitpi - 

C.b.itetaUBkLi 
C.nlw&^LlDiU 

18 OtuimllM - - 



90 Burutiua Buedt 379 

91 kucoc^rpa - 379 
F. yaritlia iH^rhitiiikm^ 

38 erioditpa LinJL 379 
C. <r<KJ>7a Lodd. Ch. 

fiS obtmitmAi. i>. 379 
HlmauM Olftl^mam M- 

n. B«. Etf. I>«. Fl! 
C. OjTJiiirt. Fl. Da. 
TV F^eUt AiwMiin. 

34 fuerdtalu fi. 360 

35 laeinUta - - 380 
C. lactam* UxM. CU. 

Sfiytaridiniia - 361 
C. rortfUte Lad. OU- 
37 airpfajlla Miiiw. 361 
H. Ftrtala iUMmt «• (4e 
OKMr VOc Ltata. 
as f^tuagreii £.. C.381 



£5. jMrrUdUa AH. - 3S3 
KfifUmaiaiHi Pwi.Sn, i 
H.taM^ P<i4r. Diet.; H. 
gmt l ko e Armot Ua. U. Sdppl. : 
H. ^vviMta Wan. ijMd. 
Brtt.; Ctw'j— ff^ M Un. 
Sp., TVn Ehi. ; C. imfera 



CONTENTS. 

Du Bui ; C. tmriimita Vanh 
C. ttrUli, oMliirfi, hMnftfMla 
jUrlifii. Umririi Lodd. CU. 
I Csnuirrry-lMvnl JV™, isn 

3 fl6rida - - 38E 
CJUrtJaljoU.Ca. 

a groHulariiddtia 383 

C. Omira Irixld. Ci 

S6. v'agimoi Lodd. 384 



87. iDexicaiiR JIfbc. SSi 
C. •Upuliaa Lodd. Cu.. - 

$ XT. Vyrat&ntha. 

88. FjTac6nthttPm.385 
l«ip^ Vyndrntlta L. 



'fWfJdCaiWiill.Cit 
XVL Photi'nm Z,. 403 

I. semilHtai^irA 404 

Oridm'galwaira Tfannh. Fl. 
lip., Bol. Hv., Lodd. But. 



Uifaiia Z«kU. 404 



3. int^rifolia Ziiii;. 405 
D. Don FrotT Fl. Nop. 

4. dikbin Z.»>i£2. - 405 

MtMpHml icivBlfiHb Boib., 
M. MwiMa O. Dob Prod. 
Fl. Nn.. CroM'nu ShlcUi 
JVm. JVSS. 

XVII. Cotonea'ster. 



tf^ 



1 erytbrocArpk Ltd. 406 
S Tnelanociipa i>rf. 406 

llgw»i> CDtawiXcr Fill . 

M. mrtiMrify nKb. 

S (leprfm fWa JVm. 

Aw., Dtc. Prod. 

2. (v.) tomentdia £.406 



Sp.. IDt L 

iSc. n. Fl 



4. denticulits - - 407 

$ ii. Sub^wnfrea or rlaci- 
drntu. Thll SSnduorlomi 
Tna. 

5. frtgida Wall - 407 
Pj>rw iJtiuU Htm. in PnA 



7. Bcuminata Zdiuffi, 400 

^S- ■"--" — ■ 

e. Dummulim Lmdl,409 

a fOlfUa Hon., griatA. 

irya Mflfca Una., tiiiwOm 

CuUo Ben.. fC. W*bb 



iadiurs. Lok ,SHnibi, 
wiApro&tratt Bnauka i 
TraHert, but ittjt pro. 
ptrly Cmptn. 
0. rotundifolia WaU. 410 

C. mieroMII* fi irnt*rli 
Uodl. Doc Uh., C. V,a.trii 
Uorl. : tAe &«rifrTv.Luntf 
«■(»«( Cb- 

10. ( 



.)iuxi 



iicrophflla411 
ixifoliafP.411 



XVIII. AMELjfNCaiER. 
MiBiliH L, Pjnu w., 
Ar»i^Fen. 

ll^j^ MmrA 418 



$ L Lenru 
I. vulMris Lindl. 



tUimltv km, 

'£ __ 

ft, KMrr' i FcitiOtl r. 
; FAnMnu, Ga. ; 



TdtmiltfUliL. ^— . 

Jtf^gmi rotHmJffdiia Uam- 



3. (v.) Banguinca - 4J3 



l.(V) Bar 



XXIV 



CONTENTS. 



tit y roimidffbUa Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

4. (v.) ovalis Dec. 413 

CroteVw apiciUa Lftm. 
Diet. ?, mtpilm AmeUnchler 
WaU. Car,, A. parvifldra 
Doug. MSS.; M. canadhuit 
var. m oviOis Michx. Am., P^. 
rut ovdkt WiUd. Spw. Arbtua 
ovSlit Pen. Syn. : Amettm- 
eUer du Camada. JUtter a Syi, 
Fr. ; nmdUSUrtgt Bime, Ger. 

2 subcorittta Dec 414 
Arinia tubcorddia Raf. 
M^M m/crocinMi Rof. 

3 semi-integrifolia 414 

5. (v.)fl6ridai;m(//. 414 
Sparvifolia - .414 

A. parvifblia Hort. Soe. 

XIX. AfB'SPILUS Zr.414 
Tlie Medlar.^M^«pAw «». 
of Lin. and others, Metpiui- 
•P^f^ra to. of Neck. ; N^JUer^ 
Tr. ; Mitpa, Ger. ; Netpolo, 
Ital. 

1. germ&nica L. - 415 
1 sylv^stris Aft7. Z>ic. 41 6 
^ tlt6etBL Dec AiL 416 
8 diffiln 2>ee. Ait, 416 

CmUhmted Varktiet. — 1 . 
EUke's large-fruited Medlar : 
& Dutch Medlar; a Nottlag. 
ham, or common. Medlar; 
4. Stoneleu Medlar. 

2. Sinltbtt Dec. - 416 

M. gremd^ftbra Smith Bxot. 
Bot ; M. lobito Poir., Hook. 
InBot. Mag. 

XX. i^^us Lindl. 417 
The Pear Tree._P^rM 
Md/iu and S6rbmt Toum., 
P^rtM and SorftMf L., Pffr6- 
pkorum and Ap^r^pkontm 

$ i. I^frfyhontm Dee. 
1. commJUiis L. • 417 

P. A^ckrat Gerto. Fruct, 
P. tvMttrit Dod. Pempt, 
Pffr&sier Ray Syn.: PoMer, 
Fr. ; gemefne Bfrne, or 5/n«^ 
Aawm, Ger.; Pero domestieo, 
Ital. : Pero, Span. ; Qrutckka, 
Rustlaa. 

1 ^chras WaOr. - 417 

2 Pyr^ter Wattr. 418 
d i^liis variegatiB 4 1 8 

4 fraetu Yariegito 418 

5 sangniool^nta - 418 

6 fldre pUno - - 418 
Poire deFArmhUe B. Jard 

7 jaspida - » 418 
J9on Chretien i Soit Jatpf 

Bou Jard. 

8 8ativa2>ec. - - 418 
Subeart. — Beurr^ Dlel, 

Beurrfi de Bans, Besi de la 
Motte, Gloat Morceau, Na- 
poison, Swan*s Egg: and 
the JbUowing Scotdk Peart 
recommended hy Mr. Gorrie, 
M forms adapted for land, 
icape scenery, . the Benrle, 



the Golden Knap, the Elcho, 
the Basked I^ady, and the 
Fow Meg . . .419 

2. (c.)sabnf6\i2LDec. 421 
Aurelian, br Orteant Pear g 

Poirier Sauger, D'Oorch In 
BiM. Phys. EcoD. Mai, 1817, 
p. 299. 

3. (c) nivalis LtR.^.42] 

4. (c) 8inMca7%o«m421 

p. Smii Desf. Arb., N. Du 
Ham. ; P. ptrtica Pers. Syn. : 
the Mount Sinai Medlar. 

5. (c.) raliciiBlia Z. 422 

P. elragnifbiia PaU., P. 
orientdlit Horn. SuppL, P. 
(c.) eUufgnifdlia Arb. Brit. 
Isted. 

6. (c.)amygdalif<SnniB422 

P. ttflvittrit^ Magnot Bot, 
P. tal&ifdiia LolsTNot. 

7. sinensis lAndl, 422 

p. comminit Lois. Cochin, 
P. dnica Royle HI. : Bi ^uigo 
Nat, Japanese s the Samdif 
Peart Snow Pear, Sand 
Pear : Ska Lee, Chinese. 

8. boUwylieri^na - 423 

p. hoOwtflUridna J. Bauh. 
Hist., P. PoUvitia, Lin. Mant., 
p. auriculdrit Knoop Pomol. 

9. varioldsa WaU. 424 

P. P&shia Ham. ex Herb. 
Lin. Soe. 

10. Micha{ixii Bosc 425 

11. Indica Colebr, - 425 

12. ^falus L. - 425 
P. MaAtfm2ft>WalIr.8ched., 

Md/aw commknit Dec. Fl. Fr. ; 
Pommter eonumtn, Fr. ; ge- 
meine Apfelbaum, Ger. ; Pero 
Melo and Melo Porno, ItaL 

13. (M,) ac^ba D. 426 

T^mt MUmt auttira Wallr. 
Sched., lAdhu ae6rba Merat 
Fl. Par., M. eommihUt t^Mt- 
irit Dedl, P. Mihit tyhittrit 
n. Dan., P. UiOut Smith 
Eng. Bot. : Pommier $au»a- 
^on, Fr. ; Hobumfiflbamn, 
Ger.; Melo salvatioo,lttiL 

14. (M,) prunifolia 426 

The Siberian Crab ; P. Md- 
lutB h^brida Ait. Hort. Kew., 
? Ma/M Aj^brida Desf. Arb. 

15. (/lf.)bacc^taX.427 

Md^ia baccdta Desf. Arb. 

16. (AT.) dioica W. 427 

P. ap6tala Munch. HauYS., 
Mdlut dioUa Audlb. Cat. 

17. (M.) astrac&nica 427 

Mdiut attracanica Dum. 
Cours. : Trannaarent de Mot- 
eovie, Glace de Zilamde : tke 
trantparent Crab of EngUdi 
Nurseries. 

Selection qf Fart. — The 
Red Astrachan ; the White 
Astrachan ; the Black Crab ; 



the Coart pendu plat : the 
Lincolnshire Holland Pippini 
the TuUp Apple ; the Violet 
Apple ; the Cherry Crab, or 
Cherry Apple ; the Supreme 
Crab ; Blgg*s Everlasting 
Crab • - - - 4K 

18. coronkria L. - 429 

Mdlmteorondria MiU. : Crab 
Apple, tke tweet-^eenUd Crab, 
Amer. 

19. (c.) angustifolia 430 

p. eorondrta Wang. Amer., 
Md/itt tempervhrent Desf. 
Arb., P. pkmila Hort. 

20. spectdbilis Ait. 431 

The Chinese Crab Tree. — 
Mdint tpeetdbiUt Desf. Arb., 
N. Da Ham. ; Mites tinintit 
Dum. Cours. 

Spectet of ttkick there are onl^ 

vertf young Planit ns ArMM 

Gardetu. 

P. Sies^knii Led. Fl. Alt. . 432 

P. no». tp. Sierers in Pall. 

Nord. Beitr. 
P. Sch6tt«Y Ledeb. • .433 
P. stipuUcea Hort. - - 432 

§ iil. A^ria Dec 

21. A^a Ehrh. - 432 
Cratofjgut iCria var. tt Lin. 

Sp., MitpOut AVia Scop. ; 
SSrbut A'rta Crantz Au^. i 
AVa Tkeopkratti VObel : 
wkite wild Pear, wkiie Leaf 
Tree, red Ckest-Apple, Sea 
Outer, Cumberland Hawtkom, 
Gerard : Aliiier AUonckier, 
Alitier blanc, Fr. ; MehXbeer- 
baum^ or Meklbamm, Ger. ; 
Aria, or Sorba montana, Ital. ; 
Mottaoo, Span. ; Axelbeer,I>Bn.t 
Oxitbeer, Swed. 

1 obtusifolia Dec 433 
P. A. ovilit Hort. 

2 acutifolia Dec 433 
Cratmjgut longifblia N. 

Du Ham. 
? P^rwt alpma WiUd. En. 

3 unduUta Lindi 433 

4 angustifolia LindL4SS 
P. A. UmgifbUa Hort. 

5 rugosa LindL - 433 

6 cr^ica UndL - 433 
P. A rotundifblia Hort. ; 
P. gra[\a Hort. 

P. A. edblit Hort 
Cratte^gutgra^ca Hort. 

7 bttlUta LindL - 433 
P. A. acuminiHa Hort. 

22. {A.) intermedia 434 

Cratai'gut A^rto B Lin. Sp., 
C. tcandiea Wahlenb., C. 
tuicica Ait. : Alitier de Fan- 
tainebteau, Fr. ; Sckweditcker 
Meklbaum, Ger. 

1 latifolia - . 434 
CraUtTgut lati/blia Poir. 

Diet., Du Ham. 
Sbrbus latifblia Pers. 
Cratte'^gu^ dentiUa Thuil. 

2 angustifolia - - 435 
P. edUii WiUd. Enum. 

23. vestlta WaU, - 435 

P^nci nepalSntit Hort. ; 
*ut vetUta Lodd. Cat. 



P^# 
S^t 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



1S36 s P. ereu^ia D. Don Proi. 
Fl. Nep. 

S iv. Torminaria Dec. 

24. torminalis Ehrh, 436 

CroteVw tormfmiiit Lin. 
Sp., Smith Bag. Bot ; Sdrbm 
torminiUg Cnuti Anatr. : Oe 
Maple. leaved Serwiee TYee: 
AliMier de BoU, Fr.; Ebtbeer^ 
bamm, Qer. ; aawardeUo, or 
MamgiareUo, Ital. 

25. rivullbris Dough 437 
Pow^ld, the name of the 

fruit in the language of the 
Cfaenook tribe of Indiiuu. 

§ ▼. EriSkbut Dec. 

26. trilobata Dec. - 437 

^CraU^fn trOMia LabllL, 
Polr. Soppl. 

§ tL S6yim$ Dec. 

27. aoriculita Dec, 438 

86rbm amrienldta Pen. Syn. 

28. pinnadiida Ehrh, 438 
Salter Ai^ftricia Lin., Dec ; 

P.yrKs h^riUa Smith FL Brit.* 
not of WUld. : Ike Bastard Ser- 
vice Tree, 

S lanugindsa - - 438 

3 p^idula - - 439 
S. h^frida phtdmla Lod. 

4 arbiiscula Dec. - 439 

29. aucup^a Gtertn, 439 

The Mountain Ash _ Sdrbm 
auet^ria Lin. Sp. ; VUa^Uu 
aucMria AIL : IhUcken Tree, 
Qmick Beam, wild Ask, wild 
Service^ fVicken Tree, Rowan 
Tree^ Rowne Tree, Roan Tree, 
Roddam, RotUrp, Movntaiu &r. 
9fee, Witcken, wild Sorb, 
frktebett, Wkitiem, Wiggen 
Tree: Sorbier de$ Oiseleurs, or 
Sorbierdes Oiselaus, Fr. ; Fogel 
Beerbaum, Ger. ; Sorbo saha- 
tieo, Ital. 

Sfructuluteo - - 439 

3 foliis Tarieg^tiB - 439 

4 ftstigiiLU - - 439 

30. americana lyec, 440 

SMms ameriedma Ph. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., Willd. Etaum. ; 
S. americdna var. fi Mlchz. II. 
Amer. ; P. camut6mis Hort. 

31. microcarpa Z^c. 441 

Sdrbus aueapdria m Ms. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., S. nUcr&nika Dum. 
Coun^ S.microcirpa Ph. Fl. 
Amer. Sept. 

32. iS6rbu8 GcbHu. - 442 
The True Senrice SSrbas 

-omtsUea Lin. Sp. ; Pi 
mi6sHea Smith in Eni 



domUtiea Lin. Sp. ; Vbrus do- 
»^*iiea Smith ib EnJ. Bot., 
Wallr. Ann. Bot.. Don^f Hill. : 
tke WktUp Pear Tree: Cor- 
mier, or Sorbier csdiM, Fr. ; 
^ew^rlin^tbamm, or Sperber- 
bamm, G«r.; Sorbo domestieo, 
jtu. 

2 maUformis Lodd. 443 
La Corme-Tomme, Fr. 

S P7rif6nnis Lodd. 442 
La Corme-Potrt, Fr. 



S3. Ianugin6sa i^r. 443 

P. hSht^ lammgimbsa Hort., 
adrbms Unuu(inbia KiC hi Utt., 
and Lodd. Cat 

34. spi^ria2>rr. - - 444 
P. h^bHda Moench Wei«s. 

96rbms spiiria Per*. Syn., His- 
pOms torb{fdUa Boic. ft Watc., 
Dend. Brit, not of Smith ; P. 
MombtKifbUa Cham, and Don's 

2 p^ndula Sort. - 445 
8. kpbrida ptmdmla Lod. 
P- MkHa %ambacifbUa 
Hon. Brit. 

35. folioldsa WaU, - 445 

other Spedes^P, hhrdna Watt, 
Cat, • . ,445 

§ Tii. Aden6rack{a Dec 

36. mimtifbliaX.jf/. 446 

Crat^e^gus pffr(fblia Lam. 
Diet., ArdmVi pyrifblia Pers. 
Syn., JCrattB^gmsserrdtaPiAT. 
Suppl., VUspOus arbutffblia 
Schmidt Arb., Mill. Diet. 

2 intermedia LindL 446 

3 8er6tina LindL - 446 

4 pi^mila - - 446 
M£spilus phnda Lodd. 

37. (a.) melanoc&rpa 447 

P. vbatifdUa fi WiOd. Sp., 

Ardnia TbutifbUa Pers. Srn., 

Mispilui capltdta Lodd., M. 

Aorib6nda Lodd., M. pbbens 

Lodd. Cat. 

2 subpub^scens L, 447 



38. (a.)ilorib6ndai:r. 447 

39. (a.) depr^saaX. 448 

40. (a.) pi^bens L, - 448 

41. (a) gi^ndifdllaZr. 448 

§ viii. ChamamitpUus Dec 

42. Chamaem^spilus 449 
Cratte'gms CkanmmUpiku 

Jacq. Austr.,M^i7w Ckama- 
mfspihiM Lin. Sp., S6rbus Cha- 
nutmfspilus Crants Austr.: tke 
Bastard Qrnnee ; niedriger Mis. 
pelbaum, Ger. ; Camemsspolo, 

Other Species </ T^rus-.-P. 
alnifblia Lnuf/., P.tomeutbsa 
Dec. Prod,, "Mdlus tomentdta 
Dum. Cours., P. rubictlnda 
Htfffhuuts. 

XXI. Cydo'NIa T, - 450 

The Quince Tree. .- Partes 
SB. Lin., Coigmusier, n>. ; 
Quittenbaum, Ger.; Colagno, 

l,yu[glLnuPers, -450 
T^rm CMfdiua Lin. Sp., Jaoq. 
Austr.;; u. europte^a Sar. 

1 pyrif6rmM /Torf. 450 

2 maliformis Hort, 450 

3 littitanica 2>u H. 451 

2. sinensis T^oum - 451 
P^TM shttnsis Polr. SuppL 

3. japonica P^«. - 452 
TPirMS jap&nica Thunb. Fl. 



Jap. and BoC. Mw., Cktemo- 
miles Japbnica Lin£. Lin. Tr. 

2 flore iUbo - . 452 

3 fl. ■^mi-pldno - 452 

Calycantfidce<B. 
I. Caltca^nthcs L, 452 

American Allspice. — Calg- 
efntki sn, Lln^ Lam., Wilid.; 
^tfftn^ria DmHom^ not of Lin.: 
^urririM, Mkrei Piet, s Bas* 
wHa Adans, Fam,: Pompa- 
Mru Buekox i Calgcdntke, 
Fr. ; GewSrxstrauek (spice 
fbnib), Keick Blume, Ger.; 
Calieanto, Ital. 

I. fl6riduB L, " ^ 453 

The CaroUna AUspice. — C. 
sUrili»^f^aXl. Car.: $weehaeented 
skrub, in CaroUna ; common 
American AUspiee : Cafycantke 
<fe^ C<mvMK,Fr. ; Caroliniscke 
KHek BInme, Ger. ; Pompadur 

1 oblongus Dee, - 453 

2 oviitiifl /)«?. - - 453 

3 ospIcnifdliusZ. C. 453 

4 figroz Xodct C^. 453 

5 glaiicus /.odL Cof. 453 

6 inoddru8/.od. Cat, 453 

7 longifolius/xMiL C. 453 

8 varieg4tmXod. C. 453 

2. (f. ) gla6cii8 Wmd, 454 

C. .^»^A:s Walt. Car.. Undl. 
Bot. Reg., Guimp. Abb. Hols., 
Don's Mill. : tkefertile-Jlowered 
American Attsmee, 

2 oblongifeliusiVtcf. 454 
a obUmgifblims Hort 

3. (f.) laeyijktufi W, 454 

C. /eras Ifichaux Fl. Bor. 
Amer., C.pennsjflvSnicus Lod. 
Cat 

II. Chimona'nthus L. 

The Winter Flower. ~J#«- 
rititiNees Act.8oe.Nat.Bomn, 
Cafycdntkisp. Linn. 

1. fr&grans Lindl, - 455 

CalucHntkMupro'^cos Lin. Sp., 
Alt. Hort. Kew., Curt Bot 
Mag., Lam. III. ; Merdll» frd- 

Sans Nees Act Soc. Nat. 
mn. ; (Tbai, or Rbbai Kannpf. 
Amer.: ike Winter Flower i 
CalffcanU de Japon, Fr. ; Ja- 
paniseke Keiek Btume, Ger. 

2 grandiflorus Ztmf.455 

3 Idtetui HoH. - 455 

4 parviflorus Hort. 455 

GranatdcLce. 

I. PoViiCA Tottm. 456 
The Pomegranate Tree.— 
Tke Cartkaginian Apple : Gre- 
nadier, Fr. ; Granate, Ger. ; 
Melograno, Ital.} Granados, 
Span. 

1. (rraniitum L, - 456 
1 Ti:kbruinI>ee./Voc2.456 

5 riib.fl.pl. TVew • 457 
3alb^feeiisI>ec.lV. 457 



XXVI 



CONTENTS. 



4 alb^soens fl.pl^o 457 

5 flAvmn Hort, - 457 
2. (G.) niUia L. - 457 

F. amerieina ndna Toum., 
P. Grandtmm nikntm Pars. 

TamaricdcetB, 

I. Ta'harix Det9. 468 

The Ttaaaxix^Tke tpedes qf 
Tdntarix qf author* thai haw 
4-0 stamens: Tamaris, Fr.*, 
Tamariska^ Ger.; romoricr, 
Ital. 

l.gdUica L. -458 

T. narhoninsis Lob. Ic, 
Tamariseus gdttieus All., Ta- 
OTurMCM pentandrus Lam. FI. 
Fr., not of Pall. : MMeey Ital. 

Varieties - - - 488 

II. Myrica'riaDm. 459 

7^0 species qf T&marix qf 
authors that havemoaaddphous 
stamens. 

1. germanica Detv, 459 

TamariJt germhnica Lin. 
Sp., Tamansens dec6ftdrus 
Lam. Fl. Fr., Tamusiz dee&n- 
dra Moencb, Tamariseus ger- 
manieus Lob. Ic: Tamaris 
tTAHemagnet Fr. ; Deutschen 
Tamarislke*t Ger. \ Tamarigia 
piccola^ Ital. 

2 dahikrica 2>ee. - 459 
T^OTari^c dcMrica WUld. 
Act. Berol. 

VkiladelpJidcecs. 

I. PHILADB'LPHU8Zf.460 
The MockOrange. — Syringa 
7otim. Insi*, not of Lin. : Phi- 
ladelphus^ Fr. ; P/eifenstraueh 
(pipeshrub)^ G&.\JMadelpk9, 
Ual. ; P^ Pri«e<, Gerard; 
the Sgringa of the gardaai. 

§ L Stems stiff and airaiffht. 
Flowers in Racemes. 

1. coronarius L, - 460 

Syrlnga suaviolens Moench 
BCeth.: wohlriechender P/eff- 
enstrauAt Ger.; Fior angioio, 
Ital. 

1 Tulg^m Sch,Han.46} 

2 n^nus MiO. Diet. 461 
S flore pldno L. Cat.^61 
4 varieg^tus L. Cat. 461 



2. (c.) iaoddnis Xf. 461 




Ital. 

3.(c.) ZethenSch.461 

4. verrucdsus Schrad.4S2 

¥. graadifibrus LindL Bot 
Reg., Lodd. Cat. 1836, 

5. (v.) latiCblius 8ch.A/^% 

p. pubiscems Cell. Hort., 
Lois. Herb. Amat. 

6. (v.)ilorib&iicUi8 S. 463 



7. speadsus St^ad. 463 

p. ffoiMlMdna of German 
gardeners, r . grandiflbrus lax- 
us of other gardeners. 

8. Oordomanttf Lin. 4-63 

§ U. SUm» more slender, 
rambling, twiggy, and 
looee. Flowers solitary, 
or 2 or 3 together. 

9. l&xus Sckrad. - 464 
V.himais Hort.. T.puUs- 

sens Lodd. Cat. 1836. 

10. (!•) grendifl^rus 464 

p. inodhrus Hort., P. l&sus 
Lodd. Cat. 1836 

11. hirsutus J^tt^. - 464 

p. HUbsus Ix>dd. Cat., P. 
gr&cOis Lodd. Cat. 

12. tomentdsus Wali.i65 

p. nepalSnsis Lodd. Cat. 
1886, ?f.trifldrus Boyle. 

Other Species qfPhiiadtlphus.— 
P. mexicinus Sch. - 465 

IL Deu tzIA Thun. 465 

VhiladtlphtUt In part; Lep- 
tosptrmum, in part. - 

1. scabra - - 466 

2. (s.) cor3nnb68a 466 

D.eaniscens Sieboldt, PM- 
ladilphus oorymbdstu Wall. 

Other Species of Deiixisu — D. 
staminea R. Br.{yhilad£lphus 
slan^ne^u W.), D. Brunon/a 
YfaU. _(Lq»to^rmum scd^ 
brum w.) - • - 466 

IIL Decuma'riaX. 466 

Fors^lMsL Walt., not of Vahl. 
l.b&rbaral/. - - 467 

D. nuBcans Mcench Meth., 
D. Forspthia Michx. FL Bor. 
Amer., D. prosirdta Lodd. 
Cat. 

2 sannentosa Dec. 467 
D.sarmenidsa Bosc. 
ForspthAz scdndens Walt. 

Nitraridcea* 

I. Nitra'ria L. - 468 
1. 6ch6beri L. - 468 

1 aiblrica - 468 
N. sOnrica Pall. Fl. Rom. 

2 c4spica - - 468 
N. c&spiea PaU. Fl. Ross. 

Other Specks of NOrhria. — N. 
trldeotitaDe^f. • - 468. 

Grosstdctcea* 
I. Rinses L. - - 468 

Grossuldria Toum. ; Chry* 
sob6tryat CaiobStrya^ CoreSsma, 
and Bebes Sp€uh : Oroseiller; 
Fr. ; Johannisbeeret Ger. ; 
Kruisbes, Dutch; Uva Bpina^ 
Ital. ; Qrossettat Span. 

§ L GV«M«2dri€B Atih. 
Gooseberries. 

GrosdUer d Ma^ttereau, Fr. ; 



Stachetbeere S/rasKhy Ger. ; 
Kruisbes, Dutch : Uva Spiita, 
Ital. J Groselia, Span. 



A. Flowers greenish white. 

1. oxyacanthoides Xf.469 

2. setdsum Undl. 470 

3. trifldrum W. - 470 

R. dam i ne um Horn. Enum. 
Hort. Hafb.; R. t. mdjus 
Hort. 

4. (t) nWeum lAndl.MO 

5. (t.) Cyn68bati L. 471 

R. f tri/lorum var. 

1 frdctuglabro - 471 

2 firdctu aculeato - 471 

6. (t.)divaricatiimD.471 

R. ftrifibrum var.^ R. 
f Grossuldria var. triflbra 
SMibsar. 

7. (t.} irriguum Doti. 472 

R. ftrifibrum var. 

8. hirtellum Afic4r. 472 

9. gr&cile Miduc. 472 

10. aciculare Stmih. 472 
R. Vva-crispa Sievers in 

Pall. Nord. Beytr., ? Pall. Fl. 
Ross. 

11. Grossularial'. 473 

R. IPva critpa (£d. Fl. 
Dan., Grossuldria hirshta^ 
Mill. Diet., R. ITva-crispa 
var. 6. saOva Dec. FI. Fr. : 
Ftaberry, Cheshire and the 
North of England ; Feabes, 
Norfolk; Groxert, in Scot- 
land : Groseitier d Maquereau, 
Fr. ; GHseUcy in Piedmont; 
gemeine Stachelbeere, Ger. ; 
uvaSoina, Ital. 

2 ITva-crispa Smith 473 
R. ir«a-oi«|Mi Lin. Sp. 
IPva-crispa Fuch. Hist. 
CTvo-jiplna Iftath. Valgr. 
R. IPva crispa var. I syl' 

vistris Berlandier. 

3 spinosissixiia BerL 473 

4 reclinata J9er?. - 473 
R. redindtum Ltn. Sp. 
Grossuldria redindta Mil. 

Diet. 

5 Bessert^na Berl. 473 
R. h^bridum Besser. 

6 subiD^rmis BerL 473 

7 macrocArpa i>ec. 473 

8 bractdlta Berl - 473 

9 himalayana - 473 
R. himakqfdnum Boyle. 

Other Vartettes^The Red 
Champagne, or Ironmon- 
ger, ' Horseman's Greeo- 
Gage, the Red. 

B. Flowers red. 

12. spcciosuraPi/rM 474 
VLstmiineum Smith inRees's 

Cyd., Dec. Prod. ; ? R./««**- 
U)1des Fl. Mejt. ic. ined. ; R. 
triac&nthum If encies. 



CONTENTS. 



XXVll 



)3. MenzieanPh. - 475 

tLJUrox Smith in Bees*s Cyd. 

Other Specie$, —■ R. mlcrophf 1- 
lam H, S. et Kmmth. 

§ u. Botrifcarpmik Dee. 

14. orientide Pocr. - 475 

15. sax&tile PaU. - 475 
? R. atphmm Sieren in Pall. 

Nord* B6jtr> 

16. Diacantha L./U, 475 

17. lacustre Potr. - 476 

? R. 02ydMniA6VevMichx.FI. 
Bor. Ajner. 

2 ediini^tuni - - 476 
R. eehimdtum Doofl.MS. 
R. 0rm^im Hort. 



§ uL Ribdsla D, 
CornmU. 
RXbM specie* of Limurai md 
others ; CahOoinfa^ Cort6tma 
and RMb Spach: Groaeaia 
en Grappa, or GroitiUier 
comnnmJYr. ; Jokamnisbeere^ 
Gcr. ; .wiiriiiftoawi, Dutch t 
ilA«f , Ital. 

A. Flowengreemisk^orgreemUk 
ftUow^ or reddish ; omf A«if , 
nBawatf&afe,re«f. 

18. rubrum L. - 477 

R. vtJgitre N. Da Ham.; 
OrMeOUer commwi, Fr. : f^e- 

Jalbe$$en Boom, Dutch ; lUbci 
ro$to, Ital. 

1 ajK^re Dec. Pr. 477 
S faort^nse Dec. - 477 
R. rubrum Loll. Mout. 
Diet. 

3 durneum ^er/L Af. 477 
R. rfi6mm donfttiewM 

SMeeNT c^Smedr Wallr. 
Sched. 

4 variegitum Dec 477 

5 iUbimi Dee/. Gi^ 477 

6 foliis luteo varieg&tis 

Dmh. - . 477 

7 i51iis ilbo varieg^ktis 

Duh. - - 477 

8 sibiricum OldaJur 477 



24. (r). ftlbin^nmm 479 

25. acaminktum H^. 479 

26. (r.)trf6diim J£r. 479 



. (r.) alpinam L. 477 

I. d/aicttm Hasten. 



19. 
R. 

1 at^rile WaOr, SehecL 477 
R. cMncMt Memch MeCfa. 

2 bandfenim WaUr. 478 
S piimilum XlmSL - 478 
4 Iftlik VBri«g4tis • 478 

20. (r. ) petr»\nn W. 478 

R. fl /j p l i M wi i Delarh. Anyergn.: 
SAe$corailhto ItaL : thewoMM- 
temed CmrraU Ihe rod MarA- 



21. (r.) spid^tum R. 478 

ThoTreeCurraiU, 

22. (r.) carp6thicum 479 
R. a Utfimmm Rodifll ex R. 

eC Scboltei. 

23. (r.) maltifidnim 479 

R. spAsdlMis Scfattltei <£8tr. 
F1. ed. 1., R. TAtrMteM Hort. 



grt emt A peUoto, 

I toith the Tips of the 

Sepali amd Petals red. ttmU 
black, 

27. nigrum L. - - 480 

R. tfUAMiMcenchMeth.: Capis 
and Poiorier, Fr. ; sehwartxe 
JoAofMafteere, Ger.; Bibesne- 
ro,Ital. 

2 b6oeafl4vidaD<»i.48] 

Sb^ccaTiridi^ori. 481 

4 ^liia yariegjltis F. 48 1 

SeleeOon qf Garden Va- 
rieties. — Black Kaplee, 
large Black. 

28.(n.)iHatePai/.-481 
R. aUdicmm Lodd. Cat. 

29. (n.) fl6ridum - 481 

R.wtojMWi S Lin. Sp., R. 
pemu^wmcum Lam. Diet., 
R.fvc«rvdlwm Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., BibMiim ■toraa i, Ac, 
DiU. Elth. 

2 mndiflonim J5roff.482 
B^r^ens Mx. Fl. Bor. 

5 paryifloram Dbrt 482 

B^mneriedmmmmiU 
R. penmsyloameitm Ceis. 
R. caiw/ M im i ttl i t i ii Hort. 

30. (n.) prociiinbens 482 

R. po^airpon Gmd. Syet. 
Veg. 

31. (D.)pro8tratuin 482 

R. glamdulbntm Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ed 1., R. conoiilMeeLod. 

2 laziflonim - - 482 
R. t^Tne DquoI. KSS. 
R. loMifibnim Parsh Amer. 
Sept. 

32. (n.) resmdsumP. 482 
R. orfoi/afe Catrge, R.redf- 

Hort. 



e 



33. (n.) punct^tuiD 482 

R. gUmiMdemm R. ft P. Fl. 
Per., not of Alt., Don's MiU. 

34. (o.) heter6tricbum 

Meyer - - 483 

35. (n.) bractedsum 483 

36. (n.) viscoslssuQum 

JPunh - - 484 
Core&ema oisoosissima Spaeh. 
Ann. des Sden. Nat. 1886. 

37. (n.) hudsoniiknain 

Bickardion - 484 
B^pet^fOre Doogl. Hort Tr. 

38. gladMe WaU, - 484 

39. Wbriaiis Zmii; 485 

40. cereuiD Dough • 485 



G. Flowers 



» deaa 
black. 



red. PhOl 



41. sangulneum P. -486 

R.mal»8egww Smith in Rees's 



. Cycl., Catobdtrffa samgainea 
I Spach. 



- 486 
Benth. 
Hort. Trans. 
R. oa^tum Dougl. MS. 

3 malvaceum - - 486 
R. maJr^cnim Benth. 

4 fltro-riibeiis Hort, 486 

42. atro-purpilreuin 487 

1 Flowers deep purple. 
Leaves ratber pu- 
bescent beneath, but 
smooth and glabrous 
abov^ as well as the 
branches. 

2 X<eaves rather pu- 
bescent beneath, but 
hispid from bristles 
above, as well as the 
petioles and stems. 

3 Flowers paler. Leaves 
pubescent above, but 
most pubescent below. 
Branches smooth. 

$ iv. SympkHmt^x I>ec 

43. a^reum PuTfA -487 

R.palOTdfii{fi Desr.Cat. Hort. 
Perls, Chr^sobCtnfa reool^ta 
Spach. 

1 prse'^coz lAndL - 487 
R. Jirigrtms Lodd. Bot. 

Cahk 

2 villdsum Dee. Pr. 488 
R. longifidrum Fraser 

Catal. 

3 8er6tinum LnuU, 488 

44. (a.) tenuiflorum 488 

R. a^reum Colla Hort. Rip. 
Append., R. iUvsim Berl. in 
Dec. Prod., B. missouriSnsis 
Hort., ChrpoobStrifaLtmdlepinsi 
Spach. 

1 firiictu nigro - - 488 

2 fr6ctu liiteo - 488 

45. (a.) flavum CoU, 488 

R. a6reym 8 sangmhteum 
Lindl. hi Hort. Trans., R. 
patmdtum Desf. Hort. Par., R. 
a^reum Ker Bot. Reg., not of 
Pursh ; ChrifSob6tr$a inter' 
midia Spach. 

EscaUom^eB^ 
1. Ptba i. - - 489 

Cedrila Iiour. ; Vicon&ngia 
Mlcbx. 

1. virginica Z*. • 490 

H. E8CALLO'N/ilM.490 
Stere6gybm R. * P. Fl. Per. 
Prod. 

1. riibra Pert, - 490 
StereSevbm rlibrvm K & P. 

1 glabri^scula ffpok, ei 

Am, - - 490 

2 albifldra Hk. et A, 491 
B. glamdulbsa Boi. Cab. 

3 puMboens H, ttAL^Ql 



xxviii 



CONTENTS. 



2. montevid^nsis 2>. 49 1 

B.JIoriMinda var. fi montevi- 
d6n*i9 Schlecht. In Llniupa; 
E. bifida Unk et Otto AbbUd. 

S floribiinda - - 491 
E, Jlorib6nda H. B. et K. 

3. illinita Presl - 4'91 

OtMer Specie* qf E9adU»n\K, 
>-B. redndM Pert. (Stere- 
6*yUm re»M>ntm Ruii et 
Pavon), E. pulTeru] tota Pert. 
{Stere6subm pmlveruUninm 
Ruis et Paron) - - 491 

Saxifrdg€de» 

IVibe Htd&a'nokjb. 
I. Htdra'ngea jL. 492 

Hffdrdngea and HorthuHtL 
Juss. : Idrtmgea, Ital. 

A. Species Kaiives qf North 
Antericti. 

1. arbor^cens L. - 492 

H. vwdMdrtM Michx. FI. Bor. 
Amer., H, firtOUeem Moench 
Hethi 

2 discolor Ser. - 493 

2. (a.)cordataP«rM 493 
2 ffe6rgica - - 493 

H. g^giea Lodd. C^at. 

3. nivea Michx, - 493 
H. radiata Wal. Fl. Car., not 

ofSm. 

2 glabella &r. . 493 

4.j^uercif61ia Bartr. 493 
H radidta Smith loon. Plct. 
12., but not of Walt. 

B. Specie* Native* qf Asieu 

5. heteroro&lla Don 494 

6. altfssima fFd/. . 494 

Otker Specie* of Hudrdngea.-^ 
H. HortfosM Sleb. (^. Aor. 
<^fim Smith), H. vestlta 
Watt 494 

Umbelldcede. 

I. .SUFLBU'RUM T, 495 

The Hare*8 Ear. — Ten^ria, 
and BuprfsW* Spreng. Syst. : 
Jfupliore, or Orriile de Uevre^ 
Ft. ; HatenSArUen, Ger. 

1. fruticdsum Zr. - 495 
7(mdria /WiXfcdM Spreng. in 
Schultes Syit.; hupristi* fru- 
ticd*a Spreng. Mag. ; 8(seli 
ietAiSpicumBkah. ria.i S6*eli 
/HOtx Mor. Umb. 

Otker Specie* qf BtmleUrum.— 
B. ft-ut§scens L., B. glbralUU 
rlca Lam. (B. arbord*cen* 
Jaoq.IcR.) - - - 495 



jlralidcece. 
I. Arabia Zf. * 496 

The Angelica Tree — ArdUa 
*p. Lin., ArdUm vent Blam. 

K spindsa Xr. - - 496 
Araiiet Fr. and Ger..; Angelica 



*mMO*a, ItaLs Spikenard, N. 
Amer. 

2. jap6nica 7%unb. 497 

II. /Te^dera Swartz 497 
The Xry — ArAb'aeeet, Gym- 
HOjOarwH Blum. BUdr., lUdera 
and AriUa ». Lin. : Lierre^ 
Fr.; £/rA«ii, Ger. t fclrra, Ital. 

J. /Telix i. . - 497 

1 vulg&ris Dee, - 498 

2 canari^nsis Dec. 498 
H. canarOnti* WiUd. 
rA« /r^A, or G/mK, /ey. 

? 3 chrysocdrpa 2>ee. 498 
H. poitica C. Bauh. 
H. chry*ocSrpo* Daledi. 
H. Di<m0*ia* J. Bauh. 
R H^Z/x Wall. 

4 fol. arg^nteis L. C. 498 

5 foliis adreis X. C. 498 

6 digitiu I.<NiL Ozf. 498 

7 arbor^scens Z. C. 498 

HamamelidctcetB* 
I. ZTahameYis Zf. 499 

The Wych Haiel. — TriBhm* 
Mith. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. & 
App. : Hamamelidet ItaL 

1. virgfnicaX. - 499 

HamameUe de Firginie^ Fr. ; 
Virginiecke Zauhemmu, G^r. ; 
Pi*tacckio nera detta Virginia, 
Ital. 

2 parvifdiia Nult. - 499 

3 macroph^Ua - 499 
H. tnacropk^Ila Purih. 

II. Fothergi'll^ L. 
1. alnif51ia L. . 500 

P. Gdrdeni Micks. Fl Bor. 
Amer., Hamati^U* monoica 
Lin. ex Smith in Rees*s Cyd. 

1 obtiisa Sim* B. M. 500 
P. mdjor Bot. Cab. 
P. alnifdiia Lin. fll. Sup. 

2 acikta Stmt - . /KX) 
P. GSrdenl Jacg. Ic. Bar, 

3 major Sinu B. M. 500 

Conidceie. 

I. Co^RNUs L, - 501 
The Dogwood — ComouiUer, 
Fr. ; Hartrieget, Ger. ; Cor- 
niolo, lUl. 

§ L Nttdifibra Dec. 

A. Leave* aUemate. 

1. alternif5lia L, - 501 
C. <Ut6ma Manh. 

B. Leave* oppotUe. 

2. sangufnea Zr. - 502 

C. foB*mina Rai. Syn., Virga 
*anpunea Matth. Valgr. : Fe- 
male Cornel, Dogberry Tree, 
Hotmd Tree, £fou9kr*-ierry 
Tree, Priekwood, Gaten, or 
Gatien Tree, Gater or Gatter 



Tree, Catteridge Tree, wild 
Cornel: ComauiOer *auvage, 
eanguin, or femelle, Puine, or 
Boi* punai*, Fr. ; rotker Hart' 
riegel, Ger. ; SanguineUo, ItaL 

2 Piirshtt Don's M. 502 
C. *angtdnea Purth. 

3 foliis variegatis - 502 

3. dlba £. - - 503 

C. *toion\^a Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., C tatdriea Mill. Icon. 

2 circinata Don*a M. 503 
C. circinita Cham, et S. 

3 sibirica Lodd. Cat. 503 

4. (a.) strlcta L, - 503 

C. /attigiata Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. ; C. *a9ununea Walt., 
but not of Lin. ; C. eyanocdrpo* 
Gmel. Syst. Veg., C. cana- 
dhui* Hort. Par., C. aeritiea 
Meerb. Icon., but not of Lam. 

2 asperifolia . 504 
C. a^ter(fblia Lodd. Cat. 

3 sempervirens - 504 
C. *emperviren* Lod. Cat. 

5. (a.) paniculata H. 504 

C. raoembsa Lam. Diet. ; C. 
fce*mina Mill. Diet. ; C. Cf#ri. 
yatfa Hort. Par. 

2&lbida£ArA. - 504 
3 radi^ta Purah - 504 

6. (a.) serlcea i^'/Z 504 

C. lanttjinbta Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. ; C. dU>a Walt. Fl. Car., 
but not of Lin. : C. cteriUea 
Lam. Diet. ; C. Amdmufn Du 
Roi Harbk. ; C. rubiginbsa 
Bhrh. Beitr. ; C. ferrugiMra 
Hort. Par. ; C. eandidissima 
Mill. ; C. cyaaocdrpo* Moench, 
but not of Gmel. 

2 oblongifolia Dec. 504 
C. oUongifbU'a Rafln. 

7. (a.) circinata L'ZT. 505 

C. toment!y*a Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., C. rugbta Lam. Diet., 
C. vA-gAu'dna Hort Par. 

8. obi6nga Wali. - 505 

C. panicHldta Hamilt. ex D. 
Don Prod. Fl. Nep. 

§ ii. Invotuerdta Dec. 



9. m48 L. ' ' 505 
The Cornel, or Cornelian 

Cherry Tree — C. masenia 
L'U^rit. Com., Loii|g Cherry 
Tree : Cornelia, ComouiUer 
mSle^ Come*, ComeiUe*, Fr. ; 
Komel Kincke, Hartriegei, 
Oer. ; Corgnolo. Ital. 

2 iructu cerae col oris 

N. Du Ham. 506 

3 variegfltus • 506 

10. fidridaZr. - 507 

Firginiam Dogwood. 

Otker Specie* qf Q6mu*. — C. 
gr4ndis Scklect., C. offlcinklls 

M7 

11. Bentha'm/^ L. 507 

C6mm* *p. Wall.. Dec, and 
G. Don. 



CONTENTS. 



XXIX 



1. fragffera Xrntf/. - 508 

C6mM$ tnpitaia WaU. in 
Roxb. Fl. Ind., Don's MiU.: 
Cktmg-wa, In Nepal ; itttf- 
mowro, in Serampore. 
Otk^ Spea'a qf BenthdmiM.— 

&Jap6nJca • - -MS 

LdranthdcecB. 
I. Ki'scuM L. - 508 

The Ml<tleCo& ^ MituUtne, 
Gmi, or G«y, Fr. ; MisU, or 
Jtf/wl, Ger. ; Vi$co, or FiwAio, 
leal. ; Legamadagih Span. 

I. Alburn Ir. - - 509 

II. Lora'nthus L. 510 
1. europs^u L, - 511 

III. AVCUSA Thunb. 5 1 1 

Adcuba Kttmf^. Anun., Ei* 
bast* Salisb. Prod. 

1. jap6iiica Thun6. - 51 1 

Ekbatis diekSiomtu SaiUb. 
Prod. : apoUed-leaved Laurel^ 
Japan LamreU 

CaprifolihcecB. 

Sect. I. AkMBU^CSJB. 

X ^AMBU^cus Toum.5\3 
The Elder— FAw«rihiMi Loar. 
Coch., but not of LIa. 

A. Lea»e$ pimmate. Flowen 

t^mote, or eorpmtbo$e. 

1. nigra X. - -513 

Bourirg, or J9Smr TVer, if m- 
Itr^, Scotch J Swreau, Fr. ; 
HoUoMdeTy uer. ; Somftiieo, 
Ital. ; 5«wo, and SambmeOy 
Span. ; Fhudtr, Swed. ; /^ildkr. 
Dan. 

2 Tir^scens Dec. - 514 
S. virheeru Detf. Arb. Fr. 

3 leucocirpa - - 514 

4 laciniata - - 514 
S. taeimiitalim. Diet. 

5 rotundi folia - 514 

6 monstrosa - - 514 
S. mon*trd»a Hort. 

7 fdltis arg^nteis - 514 

8 foliis mteis - 514 

2. canadensis L, - 515 

B. Leatet pinnate. Fbnoera 

pamcied. 

3. racemosa 2^. -515 

S. mimtina Cam. Eplt. ; S. 
cervM Tabem. : SamAuco man- 
iana^ Ital. 

2 laciniata Koch - 515 

3. (r.) pubens Mx, - 516 

S.raeemiia Hook. FL Bor. 
Am., not of Lin.; S. pubieeem 
Ixxid. Cat. 

2 beptaph^lla ITooA. 516 



11. riBU^RNUM £. - 515 
0';»ite«, ytbimum, and 7I- 
MKf, Toom. Inst ; Wib A mum 
and CKpitliM Moench Meth. : 
Fiome, Fr. ; SekneebaU, Ger. ; 
Viimmo, Ital. 

§ L Tiaiw Tourn. 

1. Tlnus X. - - 516 
The Laurattlnus. — V. lawff- 

>!$n»tf Lam. Fl. Fr., Thaiw 
Tourn. Inst., Thutu lanrifhtia 
Borkh. in Roem. Arch. : the 
Lammstine, wild Bate Tree^ 
Gerard : Viomet Lawrier TYa, 
Ital. ; Lorbeer a riiger Seknee- 
baU, or ScktnalkenttramcktGer. ; 
Lagro salvatieo, and Laura 
Tmot Ital. 

2 hlita Ait H. Kew. 51 7 
V. Tmas Mill Diet. 

V. IdcMauM MUL, Pars., 
Schultes. 

3 likcida^t7. - - 517 

4 Tirgflta ^t7. -517 

5 stiicta .fibrtf. - 517 

§ IL Vt&dmtan Tourn. 

2. LentlLgo Z. - - 517 

Tree Viburnum. Canada Vi- 
bumwn : Viome misantet Fr. ; 
Bim-bldUr^ SokneebaU^ Ca- 
naditche SckwalJtenbeerstrauek, 
SckwaUemirauck, Ger. 

3. (L.)j9mnifoliuin£. 518 

V. Lentdgo Du Hot. 

4. (L.)j5yrifoliuTnP.518 

5. (L.)ni^dum X. - 519 

V. n/rifblium Polr. 
2 squamatum - 519 
V. squam^ium Wllld. En. 

6. cassinoides L. - 519 
V. pu n etitmn Rafln. 

7. (c.)lsyigatum H^. 519 

V. cassinol£« Du Rof Harbk., 
V.^aiK«o<dtem Hill,Hort.Ke«.. 
V. caroimiihMtm Hort., Caa- 
•Ine paragua Lin. Mant, C. eo- 
fymodfa Mill. Icon. : TA^ ame- 
rfcono, Ital. 

8. Lant^na L. - - 520 

The Wayfaring Tree V. to- 

mentbeum Lam. Fl. Fr. : wild 
Guelder RosCt pUani-brancked 
Mealy Tree: Viome coton- 
neu$€y CamarOf Viome com- 
mune, Coudre-^noineinne, Man- 
ciennCy Fr. ; SeUingetrauek, 
woUiger Sckneeball, or Sekwal- 
tenstraucky Ger.; Itcniaggine, 
ItaL 

2 grandifolia AU. - 520 
V. L. latffNia Lodd. Cat. 

3 foliis variegatis - 520 

9. (L.) lantanoldes - 520 
American Wayfaring Tree.— 

V. Lantdna fi grandtfblia Ait. 
Hort. Kew., ed. 1. ; v. grandi- 
/bUum Smith in Rees'i Cycl. ; 
V. Lantdna canadhuit rers. 
Ench. : Hobble Bueky Amer. 

10 (L.)dahi^ricuni -521 

JLomcenk mong6lica Pall. Ft. 
Ro«., CdriMW daitirica Laxm. 



ll.(?L.}cotinifbUum52I 

V. MnllUia Bam. in D. Don 
Prod. Fl. Nep. 

12. dentatum X. - 521 

V. denidtum Ikeidum Ait. 
Hort. Kew., V. dentiUum gla- 
bilium Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer.: 
ArroW'Vwod : Viome dentte* 
Ft. 

VarieHee.-' V. d. pubftcent, 
V. d. (bUl* varlegiktiB, V. 
acuminituro.F. longifbUum 
and V. moutinum are in 
Meacrs. Loddiget** collec- 
tion • - - 529 

13. (d.) pub^cens- 522 

y.dentdium S pub6aeen* Ait. 
Hort. Kew., Y.denidiumeemi' 
iomenlbeum Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., V. tomenibsum Rafin. 
Med. Rep., V. villbeum Rafin. 
in Desf. Joum., V. Raflmesqu^ 
dnnm ScAulte$ Syst, 

14. nitidum AU. - 522 

§ iii« O'pulua Tourn. 

15. O^pulus L. - - 522 
The Guelder Rose Y.A>- 

bdium Lam. Fl. Fr., O'pulue 

flanduldtus Moench HeUi., 
Ypuiua Rail Syn., Bambkcue 
agu&tica Bauh. Pin.: Martk 
Elder y Rose Elder, Water Elder: 
Viomt-Obiert TObier d^ Europe^ 
Fr. ; Sehtpalkenbeertiratuhy 
WauerkoldertSektteeballeyGm. ; 
Maggiy Ital. 

2 st^rilis Dec. Prod. 523 
V. O. rdteum Roem. et S. 
TJke Snone-ball Tree, or 

OueUer Rose. 
Base de Gueldres, Peloiie 

deNeige, Boule deNc^e, 

Poire moUe, Fr. 
Sdmeeballe, Ger 

3 fdliis variegitis - 523 

4 nina Hort, - 523 

16.(0.)flrcerifdliuin 523 
17.(0.)orientaleP.524 

(fpulue orientdUi /Wo am- 
pUewlmo tridentdio Tourn. Cor. 

18. (O.) OxYc6cco8 524 

V. ofMi/d')tf<'« Mohl. Cat» V. 
trUobum Manh. Arb., V. O'pu. 
hu ameriedrta Alt. Hort. Kew. 

2 subintegrifolius^. 524 

3 m6Ilis - - 524 
V. m6Ue Mx. Fl.Bor.Am. 

19. (O.) ediile P. - 524 
V. 0*pulu» ediUii Michx. Fl. 

Bor. Amer. 

Sect. II. Lokick'^ras. 

III. DiERVi'LLilTou. 525 
LonieerA ep. L. ; WeueUu. 
Thunb. FL Jap., WeigeOa, Per*. 
Enck. 

1. canadensis W, - 525 

Lonicerti IHervU/a Lin. Mai. 
Mcd.,D. Toum^/6rtll Michx. 
FL Bor. Amer., D. hkmiU* 
Pen. Ench-, D. UUea Pur»h 
Sept, D. ir\fida Morach Meth.« 
D. acadiintu Du Ham. Arb. 



XXX 



CONTENTS. 



IV. LoNi'cER^Desf. 526 

The Hon^ytackleM— Lonleera 
ap. Lin. and manj sutbon; 
CapriflMum and XjflAsUum 
Juas. Gen., Xyltf«lMmi Capri' 
Jblittmt CkanuBcSnums, reri' 
d^manan Tourn. Intt.z Co. 
prifbUmm and Lonieer% Betm. 
et Schult, Sgsl., Lomieem and 
Xul6»teum Torrey Fl. U. &: 
dhivr^fiemae, Fr. : QtiaMSUt, 
UoneigNtime, and Lonloffre, 
Ger. 

§ i. Capnf&Hum Dec. 

Ca^r{/<Mrum Juis. Gen., L(h 
tticera Torr. FL Un. St., but 
not of Schttlt. 

A. Flowers rtngenL-^dgtri- 
fbUmm Tourn. Init. 

1. Peiicl/menuniL. 527 
The Woodbine.— PerM,^me- 

nnm Ger. Em.. Veric^menum 
Mrmdnieum Rir. Mon. Irr., P. 
horthue Gesn. 1c. Pict, Capri- 
JbOum Pericifimenmm Roem. 
et Schult^ Capr^bUum tylvdU- 
auH Lam. Fl. Fr., Caprifb' 
Ihtm Rail Syn. : IVoodbmd: 
ChivrtfeuiUe det Soi$, Fr.; 
Wildes gemeines Geiubldtt, 
Ger. : gewoone Kamperfiielle. 
Dutch; MadreSelva, Ital. and 
Span. 

2 serotlnum Ait - 5S7 
Teriel^. gemkMeum MUl. 

3 b^lgicum - - 537 
Peridp.germanieum MUL 

4 ^uercifoliuni Ait. 528 

2. Caprif5lium Ir. - 528 

Feriet^memtm pei^btidtum 
Ger. Emac. : CkivrefeufUe det 
Jarditu, Pr. ; DyrekwiKhaetKt 
Ger. ; Ct^rifidto Ital, 

3. (C. etrusca) &m. 528 

L, etriuca Hort. Fl. Anitr., 
Caprifdlium etrHseum K«m. et 
Schult. Sytt, FerMpmemim 
Gouan Hort., CapriftOium Hi. 
ticum perfolidium prof^cog 
Tourn. Intt. : the Italian Ho- 
neysuMe : Mamorinot ItaL 

4. implexa AU, - 529 
The Minorca Honeyiuckle.— 

CmrifliUum implfxum Roem. 
et Schult SjtLi Vfadboseosai^ 
preverde, Ital. 

2 bale&rica Vlv. - 529 
Cemrifdlium baledri.'Dum. 
L, oaleariea Dec 
L, QaprifbUmm Deif. 

5. fltlva «Smu - 529 

CaprifdUum Jl&vum £11. 
Sk^ch., Capri/wium FrAterl 
PurakSept, 

6. (f.) pub^cens jSL 529 

Caprifblium pubfscent Goldie 
in Phil. Joum., L. MrvMa Ba- 
ton Man. Bot., L. Q6tdH 
Spreng. Sysi. 

7. parviflora Lam. 530 

Camifblium parviflbntm 
Punn 8q;it., Iomega dioiea 
Lin. Srtt Veg., L. mSdia 
Murr. Not. Comm. Gtftt., Ca- 
prifdlium bractdB^tum Michx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer., C. dicic¥m 



Rcem. et Sdiiilt. Sy»t., G.gloA' 

" ■ - i^ 



tudOe : CkevrefemUle diotatte, 
~^eergrMue$ GeMCkt, 
Ger.; MitUelboore 



cum Moench: glamcotu Honey 
suckle: Ckevrtfem"'- ----- 

Fr. ; Meergrlhws 
Ger. 
foelie, Dutch. 

8. (p.) Douglasn D. 530 

CaprMUum DougtisU Umdl. 
Hori. Trans, 

9. hispfdttla JDotuf. 531 
CapHfWsmkispidSmm Lin. 

Bot. Hag. 

10. ffktBiAit, - - 531 
CttprifMum griUum Purth 

Sept., L. virjriniina Marih 
Arb., ? TericQmenum ameri- 
edmun MiU. Diet., Capri/blio 
sempreverde, Ital. 

B. Limb qfCoroUanearly equal. 
— 'Perielpmenmn Tourn. 

11. sempervirens ^t^.531 

CapriQUum u mp erw he ns 
MIchi;. Fl. Bor. Amer., Teri- 
clCmemum s e tn p ers l rens Mill. 
Diet., AJUatmus s emp e rvi rens 
Koehl. ex Stead.; TeridJhne- 
num Hrginiaeum Rir. Mon. : 
Madre Seha de Virginia^ Ital. 

2 mi^or AvL^ Curt. 532 

3 mUior Ait,^ Sim§ 532 
L. eomutta Meerb. 

4 Br6wxm Gordon 532 

12. dlidsa Poir. - 532 
Capr^bUmm eHidsmm Pnrsh 

Fl. Amer. Sept., L, dU'dta 
Dletr. Lex. Suppl. 

13. occidentAlis H. 532 

Caprffbl. ooddentdle Lindl. 
Bot. Reg.. Capr^bUum dUd. 
sum Dougl. MSS. 

Otker Species L. p»6sa W., 

Dee. Prod. {CaprmUum trfl. 
Ibsum H. B. et Kunth Nov. 
Gen. Amer.) - • 533 

§ iL XylSsteuM Dec. 

XjrZtftlAMi Jum. Gen., Xtml- 
cerK JUem. et Schuli. SgU., 
Xyldsteon and Ckanuecfrasus 
Toum. Inst., J^ldsteum and 
Islka Adam. Fam^ Cobee^SL 
Neck. Stem. : the FUf Honey- 
suckle: Backenkirselie^ Ger.; 
Hondsbesem or Houdskarsen, 
Dutch. 

A. Ovaries and Berries alto- 
geiker distinct. Stems twin- 
ing. Flowers irreguhur.— 
Nmtoda Dec. Prod. 

14. confiisa Dec. - 533 

Nintoba confiisa Swt. Hort. 
Brit, Lonieersi JapSnica Andr. 
Bot. Rep.; Nintoo, Slntoo, 
Kamnf. Anum.f CaprffbUum 
JapSmeum Loud. Hort. Brit. 
1st ed. 

15. XongiRdn Dec. 534 
Caprffman longmrumStt^ 

bine, Nintoda lonsMdra Swt. 
Hort Brit ed L, Cmri^ium 

Frod. Fl. 

nepalhue 




16. jap6DSca Thunb.53^ 

Nintoda famin/ca Swt. Hort. 
Brited.3., X.dUninsts Hort. 
Kew., L.jle9udsa Lod. Bot 
Cab., L.glabriUa Roxb., Ca- 
prifbUum ckininse Loud. Hort 
Brit, CJIeaubsum Hort. 

Otker Species. — Ij. longifblia 
Hort. - . - . 335 

B. Berries disUnctt or usually 
connate together tU the Base, 
and diverging at the Tip. 
Corolla hardly gibbous at the 
Base^ or eouoT Erect ded' 
duous Shrub s .' . Ch am ^ e c^ras* 
Dec. 

17. tat&ricaX. - 535 
Xyl6steum corddium Mcanch 

Math., X. iataricum Dum. 
Court. 

3 albifldra Dec. - 535 

L.pyrenaicaVffM. 

3 rubriflora Dec. 535 
L. grandifibrum Lodd. 
L. sibiriea Hort. ex Pert. 

Ench. 

4 liktea Lodd, Cat. 535 

5 latifoUa Lodd. Cat. 535 

18. (t.) nigra L. - 535 

Caqtrffblium rbseum Lam. Fl. 
Fr., CAafN^o^iWMf njmi De- 
larb. Fl. Aut. : CiUegfa salva- 
tica^ Ital. 

2 campaniflora - 536 
Xyl6steum campan^.Lod. 

19. (t.)cili^tailfttA. 536 

XylSsteum eiUdtum Purth 
Sept., L. tatdrica Michx. Fl. 
Amer., but not of Lin. : L. 
canadtnsis Roem. et Schult 

20. pyrenaica L. - 536 

Caprifhlium pyreniieum 
Lam. Fl Fr., XylOsteum py. 
rendieum Toum. Intt 

21. pimfcea Sints - 536 
SymphorieSrpos pumeeusam t. 

22. Xyl6steuin L, 537 

Caprifblium dumetdrum 
Lam. Fl. Fr. ; Xyldsteum du- 
metbfum Moench Moth. : Oisi- 
tosUOy Ital. 

2 )eueoc4rpum Dec, 537 

3 xanthocirpum D. 537 

4 melanoc&rpum D. 537 

23. hispida Pal/. - 537 

24. flexuosa TViunb. 537 
L. nigra Thunb. Fl. Jap., 

but not of Lin. ; L. brach$poda 
Dec. Prod. 

C. Berries dther dittind or 
Joined together. Cordla very 

fibbous at the Base. Erect 
ushy shrubs. — Cuph6nth€B 
Dec. 

25. involucrata^an. 538 
XylSsteum invduerdium 

Ricfaardt in Frank. Flrttloum. 

26. Ledeboikni Each. 538 

D. Berries two on each Pe~ 
dunde. Joined ^ether in one. 



CONTENTS. 



XXXI 



wua is ht-mmbOieaie oiike 
Apex. Erect, huahy^ deeUu- 
Skrtib§.^U\km Adau$. 



27. alpigena H. - 539 

Capii/^lium eiphmtm Lam. 
Fl/Fr., CsprifiUtm tilpigemum 
GcrtD. FracL, laUm abigena 
Borck., IilkJi Ikdda Mccnch, 
Xf4^«ftnan alpigemmm liodd. 
Cat.: CAamMdranu oMmena 
DeUrb. : Ckerrp Woodbine : 
HedtenUracAe, Oer. ; Ckanut- 
cerMOf Ital. 

S fiibirica Z^ec. /VodL539 
L. nbiriea Vest in Baem. 
ct Sdnilt. Sjst. 

28. (a,) microphyila 539 

' I.. aJjp4l«M Sleren, L.mom- 
litma and L. mexicdma Hort. 

29. obloiigif51]&Booit539 

Goldie in Edin. PliiL Journ. 

SO. caerulea L. - 540 

L. vOOta Mllhl. Cat., Zff 
UeUom vOOnm Mich. FL Bor. 
Anier.. X. So/imU Eaton Han. 
BoC, L. fv/atiM Dec Prod.. 
L. oAaiiw Pall. F1. Roas., 7[g- 
i6$temn emiUettm canadhue 
Lam. Diet., X. eamadhue Da 
Ham. Arb., CeiprffUiwm or- 
riJemm Lam. Fl. Fr., CAmm. 
efrana aeriUea Delartx FLAn., 
L. puremtiea PalL Fl. Boat., 
L. PaiidM Led, FL Bm$. AU. 
IB. : aUegfm m^ima, ItaL 

31. orientalis Lam, 540 
L.' c— cdiicn Pall. Fl. Rom., 

L. c»rftlM Gold. Itin., CA«- 
vMtetrauu oriaddUs \amrifWa 
Toom. Cor. 

32. ib^rica Bieb. . 540 
lC9l6$teom JbMcmm Biebu 

Cent. PI. Bar. ex Siqipl.,Lodd. 
Cat. 1836. 

V. Symphorica'rpos 
DiU. - - 541 

Th« St. Peter's Wort.-~^yfl»- 
pkarieirp' Neck. Blem., %»i- 
pkdria Pen. Ench., J»ifd«i- 
fA«« Willd. Bel., LomicertiMp. 

1. vulgaris Alkkx, - 541 

£o«l«rai8SyaM>*nr»iifyn»ifiin. 
Sp^, 5. parvifi&ra Dear. Cat, 
^mpkbria con^omerdtm Pan. 
Encb., J^raapMrAi g hmerila 
Pnnh SepC 

S fbliis Twiegdtis 54S 
S. gUmierdta fbUSe vaHe- 
f d/M Lodd. Cat. 

2. montinus Humh, 542 
SjnN|iA«r&i moHlAiM Sprras. 



Sytt., S, 
MUl. 



3. racemoflus illioftf.542 

The Sii owb er r f .— JSywip to r i a 
rocntdM Pnnh Sept., fs. ehm- 
fdia and 8, keieronkgila Preal 
fai Herb. Hmike. S. imooeairfa 
HoR. 

4. occidenUUis iZtcft. 542 
Wo^-kerrwt Amer. 



VI. LBYCB8TB^/il 543 

1. fonndsa Wall. - 544 
giwrtla warn Piwrvi 
M88. 

I. CbpralaS'thus 544 

The Bottoo-wood — pgP*'^ 
tettte, Fr. ; l &M|tf l a i u w, Ger. ; 
CrfoknUo, Ital. 

1. occident^lis X. - 544 
C.«f)390R'<(fMA(f Moencfa Meth.: 
Svfomp Globe Flower, Amer. 
2 bracb^podus i>ec. 545 

Comp6sit<B. 

L STJEHEU^Nif L. 546 

Sttekeline, French and Ger. 

I. diibia L. - - 546 

5. rotmartnifbUa Caai., ac 
cording to Leas. Syn. Gen. 
Comp. 

II. I^a'ccharis Br. 546 

PUm^iian*$Spikenard: Bat- 
ckmUe^r. ; Bacekarftt Ger. 

1. AalimifoUa X*. - 547 
Groundsel Tree. -- Semieto 

arborUoent Hort. Rew. 

2. (A.) angustifolia - 547 



. 548 

- 548 



III. rvA L. - 

1. fhitescens i!/. 

Agjhraio i^f^is 
fr^ueeme Fluk. Aim. : 
JenuU* Bark Tret, 



IV. Santoli^na T, 548 

The Lavender Cotton.^.^San- 
taUme^ Fr. ; Bt 
Ger. ; SmMUma^ II 

1. Chaxnaecyparf 88118 549 

Common Larender Cotton.— 
Feiit Cgnrttt Fr. ; AbroUmo 
/<Mim*i<i,itaL; Cgpretsemkramit 
Ger. 

Other 9peek9^ & aouarrbsalF., 
8. Tlridis FFn and S. roam»- 
rlnifbUa L. - - • M9 

V. jRTRMi'sii Cas. 549 
1. ilbr6tanum L. - 550 

Soottiemwood. —AbrSl am w u m 
m6a Dod. Pempt : Old Man : 
Anmiae Aurome, Amrone dee 
Jardint, la dtroneUe, la Garde, 
robe, TT.\Eberromie^WerwMik, 
Stabvmrt*, Oer.; AbroUmo Ital., 
Span., and Port. 

2 hikmile HarL - 550 

3 tobolskiinum Jf. 550 
A. A>M>AridM Lodd. Cat; 

OOer Speeiet qf Afttarisia.— 
^. arborHoens L., il. procAra 
ir.,il. Sant6nlcalN -560 

VI. 5iBNE'cio Le$. - 550 

dnerdria Less. Syn. Gen. 



Onop.: Srntfpnt, Fr. i JTf 
Arad, Ger. 

1. Cinerikria Dec, - 551 

Sea Ragwort.- Gnerdria ma- 
riifnm Linn. Spec., Jacoba!% 
marUhna Bonn. : Sidttam Bag- 
wort: Cindraire, Fr.; Meer- 
UrandM Asdkengifiamxe, Ger-s 
Cef^ertna, Ital. 

VIL UvTi^stA Cav. 551 

1. ktifolia 2>. Don 552 

Otker Spedes^U. AidAUa,M. 
faill^xjL M. IbiewUblla, M. 
mncinati, and M. subspindaa 
Book. Bol. MUc. ; M. arach- 
sSUea Mart. - - - 552 

'EricdcetB. 

Sect I. BKi'cMM. 

$ L "EarieeeenamuUes, 

I. ^RfcA 2>. IXwi -555 

The Heath.— jBftoiiip . Lto. 
and othen : Brnpere, Fr. i 
BeOe, Ger. ; Mrtea, ItaL 

1. T^tralix Ir. . -555 

B. Mvlfiftfrmu 8aL in Lin. 
Soc. Trans., E. barbariea Ratt 
Syn- R. pimila Park. Tbeatr. ; 
E. TttraUx rbbra Hoit. Erie. 
Wobum. : tke eroee-ieaaed 
Heath: Stanpf Beide, Ger.; 
Scopa di Fior rosea, Ital. 

1 riibra Hort, Eric Wo- 

hum, - - 556 

2 c&mea Zoacti ZT. A 556 

3 iUba Sort Erie. Wo- 

bum. - - 556 

4 MackauUia - 556 
E. JAwieaiana Jfa6. A. 

mb. 

2. cm^rea L. - - 556 

R. mutSbtUe 8aHri>. in Lin. 
Trans., E. MmlUs Neck. GaU., 
E. temiifbHa, Ger., E. eimirea 
ribra Hort Erie. Wolram.: 
5o0pia, ItaL 

2 Atropurpikrea Lodd. 

BoL Cab, - - 556 

3 &Iba Lodd, Cat ^ 556 

4 pallida Lodd. BoL 

Cab. - - - SSIS 

5 carn^scensZ^. CEif.556 

6 proliferaXod: GaL 556 
1 strfeU Xodtf. Got. 556 

3. australis L. - - 556 
B. ptstOdris SaL in Lin. 

Trans. 

4. ciliarb L. - - 557 
II. Gtpsoca'llis S. 557 

The Moor Heatlu — Erfcrc 
jp. of other authon. 

I. vagans Sal, ^ - 557 

Cornish Moor Heath.— B. ad- 

gans Lin. Mant, E. pdga Sal. 

m Un. Trans., B. maUifldra 

Hods. Fl. Angl., B. df^Mui 

Stokes In l^hering's Bot. 



xxxu 



CONTENTS* 



Amng., ¥».fmrpurd$eem'Lun. 
Diet. 

2 p61Uda - . .557 

3 rubescens Bree - 557 

4 purpur&sceoB B. - 558 

5 41b« - - 558 
6teii^lla . . 558 

2. multiflorai). Don 558 
Erha multifidra Lin. Sp., E. 

iuniper^biia^ ^^ Garidal Aiz ; 
£. muUifldra longipedteeUdta 
Wendl. Erk., ^, p«4uneml&rii 
Fresl : Scooa grande rouo. 
Ital. 

3. c&mea 2>. Don - 558 

E. c&mea Lin. Sp., B. Jlrr- 
Ihcea Lfn. Dfs.,B.M«dMU;r Sal. 
in Lin Trans. 

4. inediteiTaneaX>J7.558 

E. nuiiterrinea Lin. liant., 
E. /^M^fir Sal. in Lin..Trans. 

IIL Callu^na Sal, 559 

Erica jp. Lin and othen. 
1. vulgaris SaL - - 559 



\AxkZtOrUeathtr — Erica vul- 

5drit Lin. Sp. : laBruyire, Fr.; 
ietde^ Ger. ; LyNy?, Dan. ; 



Lfung, Swod. ; BrenioU, Cee- 
chiOy or 5copa, Ital. ; Breno^ 
Span.; l/rz^. Port.; Were$k, 
Ruu. 

1 purpiirea - 559 

2 spikria - • 559 
S decumbens • 559 

4 tomentosa • 559 

5 6XbA - - 559 

6 flore pldno • 559 

7 fdliis ▼ari^pltis • 559 

8 aiirea - - 559 

9 coccinea - - 559 

10 spicata - - 559 

11 [atro-rikbens] - 559 

12 [8er6tina] • 559 

$ iL Andromedem, 
I V. Andro'm EDif L. 560 

Polifdtia Buxbanm Gent., 
Andr&medtL sp. L. 

1. oolif&lia L. - 560 

moorwort. — BJktdikihuiroH 
^oiifbUum Scop. Cam.: wild 
Jioteman/^ Folw MowUam. 
Marsh Cishts, Marsh Hofy 
Base : Amiromedey Fr. and Ger. 

1 angustifolia Bot* 560 

2 ericbldes - - 560 

3 grandiflora Lod» 560 

4 latif&lia Lod. - 561 

5 minima - - 561 

6 revoldta Lod, - 561 

7 acotica - - 561 

8 stricta - . 561 

2. rosmarinifblia P. 561 

A. volifbUa MIchx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. 

Other Species of At»dr6medSL. — 
Andromedtf Dnunmdndf'i 
Hook. . - - Kl 



V. CAssrop^Don 561 

Amdr&medSL ip. Lin., Pall. 

1. hjpnoides D. n. 561 

Jndr6medA h)fp»oUles Lin. 
Sp. 

2. tetragdDa2>.2>(m562 

i<fMlrtfi*wdb leiraglHut Lin. 
Sp. 

3. lycopodio)des D, 562 

ifwrfrtfwg rfa fyeopodibkdes 
Pall. Fl. Ross. 

4. mcdides JD. 2>ofi 562 

Andromeda ericSides PalL 
Rou. 

OiAcr Species of C^fioae. — C. 
ftstlgUU DMorn, C,Red6inki 
G.Don. - - - AGS 

VI. Cassa'ndr^ D. 562 

Andr6medti sp. Lin. and 
other*. 

1. calyculata D. 2>. 563 

AndrinudM. catgcutdta Lin. 
Sp. 

1 ▼entricoaa Shut 563 

2 latifolia Lod, - 563 

3 nktui Sims - 563 

2. (c.) angustifdlia 563 

AndrdmedA etUffCuldta ft on. 
gustifdiia Alt. Hort. Kew., A. 
aitgmst^fdlia Purtfa Fl. Amer. 
Sept., A* crispa Dest et Link, 

VII. Zeno'bm Don 563 

AndT6medSL sp. Micfaaux. 

] . speciosa D. Don 564 

Andr6medSk specidsa Mlcbx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer. 

2 nitida - - 564 
J. s. nitida Pursb. 

A. cauine^Ma Vent 

3 pulverufenta • 564 
A. s. puherttUmta Purth. 
A. pulverulhUa Bertram. 
A. csMXn^Uia ft Vent. 

A. speabsa y gtaiteaWttB. 
A. dealbdta Lbidl. 
A. ovdta Soland. 

VIII. Lyo'n/^ N. 564 

Andrdmedm sp. Lin. andTa- 
rious authon . 

A. Leaves evergreesi. 

1. ferragfnea NuU, 565 

Andr6medsifermgl»em Walt. 
Fl., A. firrmgittra ft JhtHc^sa 
Mlchx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 

2. rigida Nutt. - 565 
AndrdmedA/errughiea Willd. 

Sp., A. femtginea arborfscens 
Hichx. Fl. Bor. Amer., A. ri- 
gida Forth FL Amer. Sept. 

3. marginata Don 565 

Andrdmed* margindta Du 
Ham.: A. eortdcraWiUd. Spec., 
Ait Hort Kew. ; A. lieida 
Lam. Encyc.; A. maridna Jaoq. 
Icon. Bar. 

2 rilbra Lod - S66 

B. Leaves deddsitms. 

4. maridna D, Don 566 

Andr&medA maridna JAa. Sp. 
2 obl6nga Swt, - 566 



5. racemdsa 2>. D. 566 

Andr&medsi racemi>sa Lin. 
Sp.. L'H#rit. Sdrp. { A. pani- 
culdta Walt Car., Gronor. 
Virg. 

6. arbdrea i). Don. 566 

ilNtfrtffnnfti arbdrea Lin. Sp. 

7. paniculata Nuit. 567 

ifiMfr^Mexfa fNm<cii/AAi Lin. 
Sp. '^ 

8. falicif^lia ^o^. 567 

9. (p.) frondosa AT. 567 
Andr&medA Jrondisa Purtb 

Fl. Amer. Sept. 

10. (p,) multifl6ra 567 

11. (p. ) capreaefolia 568 

IX. LEucoTHOfD. 568 

AmdrdmedSL sp, of previous 
authon. 

1. axillaris D, Don 568 
Andr6meda.aMiUiris Solander 

in Hort Kew., A. Catesht^ 
Watt. Car. 
2 longifdlla - . 569 

AndrSmed^ UmgifbUa Pur. 

A. W&Ueri wm. 

2. spinuldsa G. Don 569 
Andr&med^ spinuldsa Punh 

Sept ; ? A. Catesbsti WaU. Fl. 
Car. 

3. acuminiLta G. D. 569 

Andrimedi^ actanindta Alt. 
Hort. Kew., A. licida Jacq. 
Icon. Rar., A. ftoput^fbUa Lam. 
Encyl., A. reticutdta Walt. Fl. 
Car., A. Jbrmosiuima Bartr., 
A. \a4rina Michx. Fl. Amer. : 
P^f^stem-woodt Amer. 

4. floribunda D. D, 569 

Andr&mfedSk Jlorib6nda Lyon 
Herb. Sept 

5. spicata G. Don 569 

AndrdmedM. spitita Wat*. 
Dend. Brit. 

X, Pi'eris D.Don 570 

AndrdmedsL sp. Wallich. 

1. ovalifolia D.Don 570 

AndrSmiedk ovali/bUa Asiat. 
Bef.,i<. MpricklaHunnt MSS. 

XL Phyllo'doci? 570 

Andr&medm sp. L., Men~ 
sj^jia ap. Swarts, Smith. 

1. toxifolia Sal. - 571 
MemciislA aeridea Swt. In 

Lin. Tram., Andr&medA or- 
riUea Lin. Sp., A. taxifblia 
PaU. Fl. RoUn ^rica asrUea 
WiUd. Sp. 

2. empetrifcSnnis D. 571 

Menstiisih empeirif6rmis 
Smith in Lin. Trans. 

XII. Brta'nthus 571 

AndrSmedh sp. Lin., Mem. 
x^«ia Steorfs, Fwrsh\ Brkw 
sp. Tbonb. 



CONTENTS* 



XXXIU 



1. Gmelini IX Don 571 

Jfemfefla hry&mika Swarts 
in LIB. Tran*. Amir6m»edh 
bry&mikm lAn. Mant, Brioa 
brp&iUka Thonb. IMm^ Ay- 

rteeo Gmd. 81b. 

2. Stelleri D.Don 572 

A»dr6medA SlOUriixuk FalL 
n. Rot$. ! Memsletia. empetri- 
JtrnUt Porab Fl. Amar. Sept., 
iMitoot of others. 

XIII. Dab(e'c/>i D. 572 

Eriea ». lia, AmdrdmedBk 
^ Lin., j|if«ioiMla4». Jius. 

\. pohfbWsk D. Don 572 

Andr&mudh Dabe^^ti Lin, 
Sutt^t V.r)ca Dabe^eim Lht. 
A., JtfhKfiJjla DMd^Dee. 
fim GiMm^ Ertai MOvnwQSt^c. 
Rati HUt S Safspl., VcNattria 
pplC^a JttM. Aan.MQi., Vac- 
cinimm eantibriemm Hodt. Fl. 
Aug. : Irak WkorU, CamiaMam 
Heath, St. Dabeoet Beaik. 

S flore albo SwL BriL 

FL Card. - 572 

XIV. irf'RBUTUS C. 573 

The Strawberry Tree.— A»- 
driekme Chu., ArA«ta« jp. 
lin. Gen.: Arbonsier, Fr.: &»■»■ 
Atfrv, Ger.; Abbatro, Itai. 

1. (Tnedo L. - 573 

L'Arbotaidr uommmu , Arbou- 
Mier da PgHmteS t or FraMer 
fn Arbre, Fr.; Srdbeereart^ 
Staulbecre, Ger.; JConod, Moo. 
Greek. 

1 ilbus i4>f. ^. £1 573 

2 ruber >tfil. fT. IT. 573 

3 plenus Ait, H. K. 573 

4 schisop^talus 574 

5 integrifdlius iSimM 574 

6 crispus - • 574 

7 jalicifoliuft - 574 

2. h/brida Ker - 574 

A. amdraekmSUa Llak Enum. 
2 Milleri Mayes - 575 

3. ^ndr&chne L. 575 

A. ini^r^blfa Lam., A«- 
drdekme fieopbr^sA Clm. Hitt., 
Andrdebmt Park. Theatr., An» 
dradtme Theophrastiu : Adra- 
cbUit Modem GredL 

2 serratif&lia - 575 

A.ferratomia Nob. 

4. proc^ Dougl, 576 

5. tomentosa Punh 576 

Af«ftM<4p^(|(fa' AMWitCdMi Lk 
Bot. Reg. 

2 n6dai9boft.e<^m. 576 
eAeasoAbnJI.BM K. 576 

OiACT- Sprcte iff A'rbutm^-A. 
ipeddtaDftdbow, GondT. Ma;g. 
IMO; A.nepeiixuAtBatfle, 

XV. jIrctosta'fbylos 

Adam, • 677 
The Bearbennr. — tPwa-fhrH 



Dod., Toiim.; A'rtalu* «p. 
Lin. 

1 . IJVa-{irsi Sprens, 511 

A'rbmim iTm rn 4 rti Un. Sp.. 
A^rbutui bmg^Ua Stoket Bot. ; 
Vmt-iini bMffMUa Sal.teGr^s 
Arran.: Bearberriet, and Bear* 
u^ortUberriet, Bng.: Bormf- 
rtmbe^ or B artmbeert t Ger. ; 
Beeratdmiii^t Dutch ; Is Satu- 
role, Fr.; l/ea d'OnOt ltaX.\U9a 
de 6ie, Span.; l/Sm <fe On(ki 
Port; and £/«a l/in/, hi the 
works of most old botaolats. 

2aii8trUica Lodd, 577 

2. ^liatoA Spreng, - 578 
A^rbutus alfbma Lin. Sp. 

Other SpeciavfAreloit&phif' 
to*. — A. pangeos H.B.etK. 678 

XVI. PBRNB'TTYi< 579 

1. mucroD^ta Gaud. 578 
A'rbmHu mmanmiUa Lin. ftl 

Suppl. 

2 Cummingn - 579 
P, Ommmim^LoM, 

2. pilosa G. Don 579 
KrbuhupObta Graban. 

Other Spedee qfPemttiYh^ P. 
micrt^MUa Qmmd. (AVtehw 
niicrophgUa Forst^ A. ser- 
pvU^bUa Lam.)« P. pikmila 
Qamdich, {Arbmhu pkuUla 
Font.) . . n9 

XVII. GAULTHE'R/i< L. 

1. procQmbcns L, - 579 

Partridge Berry, Mountain 
Tern, Spnng Winter-Green of 
Smith's HUt. of Nora Scotia. 

2. SlMon Pursh - 580 

XVIII. Epiga'a L, 580 

)(eifium Mteh.Gen.: Afay 
\ Nova ScoUa. 

1. repens L, - 580 

2 rubiciiiida ^w«. 581 

XIX. Phaleroca''rpu8 

G. Don - 581 

Waednimn Lin., CFmiM^ia 

i*wr<A, Oiyoficcfcs Nutt.tA'fw 



1 . ferpylli£51. G. Don 5S 1 

Vaednium hiipidmlum Lin. 

Sp.. aowttUfia •erpyUt/oUa 

Fianh Sept., A'rbutnt fiU- 

firmit Lam. Diet., 0*yc6ccut 

Uipidmlut Pen, 

XX. CtB'THRA L. 581 

Cuell jlria Jtw'x «« Pot. dfys/. 

1. alnir6HaX>. - 582 

C. aln^dUa var. a demtdata 
Ait. Hort. Kew. 

2. (a.) tomentosa L. 582 

C. abtifbUa fi jmbHeem Ait. 
Hort. Kew., C incitna Pen. 
Bneh. 

3. (a.) panicuUtailif. 582 

b 



4. (ff.)acuniinatail/. 582 

C. moiUAna Bartr. Cat. 

5. (a.) Bckbra Pert, 583 

Sect. IL Ahooo^akjb. 
XXI. J2hododb'ndron 

Rose Bay.— Jsalatf jp. of 
authon, vLhodbra Lin., Cha- 
meerhododindro 9 Toura. Inst. : 
Rhododendron, Fr., Ital., and 
Spaa.; Aipbaltam, Ger. 

$ i. A^'ciMi D. Don. 

1. p6nticum Z. - 584 
2obtii8uni WaU, 584 

3 myrtifdUum Lodd,SS4 

4 Smithn SwtBrit.584 

5 Lowtt Gard.M4g.584 

6 azalebides - - 564 
R. axaleSlde$ Dest 

R. 0. fi snbdeciduumiliufr. 

7 frwans Chandler 585 
Nurtety Farietiet • - 585 

2. m&ximum L, - 585 

American Rote Bay. 

2 dlbum HorL • 585 

3 hybridum Hook, 5^5 
R. ftrigrana Hort. 

R. A^MaoM Lodd. Cat. 

3. (m.^ purpureum 586 

R. fNMftmiM V piin»ftnrum 
Pursh Fl. Am. Sept., R. pd>c 
IfctdH macroph^fiUmm Led. Cnf . 

4. PurshnG.Don 5J^r> 

R. mdxAmiffi /3 4l5tim Puri»li 
FL Amer. Sept. 

5. catawbi^nse Mz, 586 

2 Ruflseiltiatim 587 

3 tigrlnum Hort. •587 

6. chryalinthuin L. 587 
R. (jfdndU Salisb. 

7. caac^cum Pa//. 587 

2 stramineuin Hook* 5^7 

3 pulcb^rrimum Xr. 587 

4 Noblednum Hort. 588 

8. punct^tum Andr, 588 
R./errv gin et$m vtnr. mhuu 

Pen. Bnch., R. asjmw Mx FL 
Bor. Amer., R. pfoutdtmn 
var. MbMw Wats. Dend. Brit. 
2 mi^us Ker - 588 

9. femigineum L, - 588 
2 ilbum Lodd, Cat. 588 

10. (? r.) hirst^tunLL. 588 
2 variegitum - 589 

1 1. 8et68um D. Don 589 

0<A«r SiPOCiiM — R* macrophfl. 
lumX>./)<»i. - - 569 

$ ii. Bodram. 

12. campanul^tum 589 

Other 9peetet,-^B, arMreum 
Smith, R, a. TcnlSstum D. 
JDoM - - - - NO 



XXXIV 



CONTENTS. 



§ iii. BogcnAnthum. 

13. anthopdgon Don 590 
R. aromdh'cum Wall. Cat. 

§ It. L^(jAerton D. Don. 

14. Iapp6nicum WahL590 

Axdtea lappSntca Lin. Fl. 
Suec., A.fnritgiHea Hort. 

15. daikricun) L. - 591 
2 atrovirens Ker - 591 

R. lepiddtum WaU. 

§ V. ChamadtHu D. Don. 

16. camt8ch4ticuniP. 591 

17. Chamsclstus L, 592 

§ vi. l^nfunM^ D. Don. 
A*dtea L. 

18. flavumG. Don 592 

AzUea pdntiea Lin. 8p., 
AxlUta arobrea Lin. Sp. 
Varietie* and Hybrids • fi98 



19.nudifl6rum 7\)rr. 592 

AzAUa nmd(fldra Lin. Sp., 
AxdUa perie^fmenoideM Mx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. : the America* Ho- 
nevsttckle, Majf Flowers, and 
wld, or upright, H<meytuckU, 
Amor. 

1. oocclneum Z>. D, 593 
Axdlea m. cocdM«a Sims 

2 riktilans i>. Don - 593 
il. ». Hto'toM Ait. H. K. 
A.^rieiymenb'ides riUiUms. 

3 carneum Z>. i>. - 593 
A. n. camea Ait. 

il. p. camea Purth. 

4 Ubum 2>. 2>on - 593 
if. «. 4/6a Ait 

i(. p. alba Pursb. 

5 paptlionaceum • 593 
if. p. pajfilio$»deea Purth. 

6 partitum D. D. 593 
A. p. partita Pursh. 

7 polyindrum Z>. - 593 
il. p. pofySndra Pursh. 

8 Govenidnum D. - 593 

9 rdbrum Lod B. C. 594 

10 eximium D. D. 594 

1 1 thyrsiflorum B. R, 594 

12 aointiUauB B. B, 594 

13 Seymourt B. R. 594 
Varieties and Hybrids aa- 

•igned to A. nudlil6ra in 
Lodd. Cat,, 1836 - 594 

20. (n.) bf color D, - 594 

Azalea bkolor Pursh Sept, 
Atdlea nudi/lbra vat. UetOor 
Ait Hort Kaw. 



21. (n.) calenduliLceum 

Ton - - 595 
Azilea caienduldcea Hichx. 
Ft. Bor. Amer., A. mMfidra 
ffor. coodnea Alt. Hort. Kew. 

2 Mortdrtt Swt. - 595 

3 (Kklgidum Hook. - 595 
^.c./fj;^<<<^Hort 

4 Upidiun Bot, R. • 595 



22. can^scens G.Dofi 595 

AiiJea eanSscens Mlchx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., Ph. Sept. 

23. viscdsum Torr. - 595 
Azilea viscbsa Lin. Sp. 

2 ornatum Swt. - 596 

Varieties and Hybrids of A. 

Tiscdsa in Lod C. 1836 696 

24. (v.) gla6cura D. 596 

A^uUea ftotica Pursh Sept, 
A.vtsehsa var. Jlorib6nda Alt 
Hort. Kew. 

25. (v.)hispidum7'.597 

Ax^a Itisjuda Pursh Sept., 
Axdiea visc&sa var. glaixa Ait. 
Hort. Kew. 

26. (v.) nttidiim 71 597 
if za^ nitida Pursh VI. Amer. 

Sept 

27. speciosum Don 597 
AiMea <pfc^aWilld.£num., 

if. oocanea Lodd. Bot Cab. 

28. arbor^scens T» 598 
Az^a arboriscens Pursh Fl. 

Amer. Sept., A. arbbrea Bart. 
Cat. 



§ vii. Vihoddra D. Don. 

29. l?hod6ra G.Don 598 
RAodora canad6nsis Lin. Sp. 

XXII. KA^LM/if L. 598 

Jm^tWin IsOureL 

1. latifolia L. - - 599 

Mountain Laurel, Calico 
Bushy Calico Flower, Amer. 



2. angustifdlia L. - 599 

5A«rp Laurel^ Amer. 
2 ovata PkcrsA - 599 

3. gla^ca Ait. - - 599 
K. jaolifblia Wangh. Act 

Soc. Berol. 

2 rosmarlnifoliaP. 600 

4. cuneata Mickaux 600 

5. hirsiita Walt. - 600 

K. dUeUa Bartr. Itbi. 

XXTIL MENZiB^s/if 600 

1. femiginea ^mt^ 601 
M.urceoldris SaL Par.Lond. 

2. globularis Sali^. 601 
AT 5M((AUlfx. Fl.Bor.Amer., 

Axdiea pilbsa Lam. 111. Jf.pi. 
Uaa Pers. Ench. 

XXIV. AZA^LKAi). 6)1 
AxiOea proewnhens Lin. and 
many authors, LoiseleiriaDe /., 
C/l4im<r/M0tt LiniL Bnum. 

1. proc6mben8 Zr. - 601 



XXV.Leiophy'llum P. 

Atnm^sine Pursh Sf>pt., 
Fffdkrra Swartx, hedum bauri- 
fdlinm Berg. Ait 

1. Ayniifolium Per#. 602 
L^tfftm biw^i>/A<m Bergius, 

Ledum ikymijblium Lam. Diet., 
Udum terpyliifiOium h^Herit. 
Stirp., Amm^sine buxi/bb'a 
Pursh Sep. : Sand Myrtle, liew 
Jersey. 

Other Species tif Leioph^Uum — 
L. prostr4tum (Amm^rsine 
prostrdta Swt., Loud. Hort. 
Isrit ; if ■ L^onl Swt. H.B.yfiOi 

XXVI. Le'dvu L. 602 
L palustre Ir- - 603 

L. silesiacum Clus. Pan^Ko<- 
marlnuiM sylvistre Cam. Epit 
2 deciimbens AU. 603 

2. latifoHum .<4i^. - 603 

l,.greenI6ndicum Reti.Obs., 
L. pal^re Mx. Fl. Bor.Amer.: 
Labrador Tea, Amer. 

3. canad6nse I/mU. 603 
Sect III. rxcciwiE^jK. 

XXVII. Facci'nium L. 

The Whortleberry. — VUis 
iddr^aToum. Intt.: 2ir<l{f,Fr.; 
Heidelbeere, Ger. 

A. i>ai*0« drcAftHMif. 

a. Pedicels l'Jlowered,usuaUy 
solitary, rarely twin,or/asacu- 
laU. 

1. JWyrtillus L, - 604- 
rA^ common Bilberry, or 

2 b^cis Albis £ ootA 604 



2. ubgindsuRi L, - 605 

MyrtiUus grandis Bauh. Hist.: 
the great Baberry, 

3. angustifolium ./4t7. 60r« 

V. myrtaioides Mx. ,FL Bor. 
Amer. 

4. csespitdsum Mx, 605 
b. Flowers in sessile Titfis. 

5. galezans Michx. 606 

V. gsi\f6srm{s Sn. M Rees's 
Cycl. 

6. ten^llum Ait. - 606 
V.0e»itJ!ytodNicttfnLam.Dict. 

Fori^y - - 606 

7. ^ustiinum Jliio&;r. 606 
c. Flowers disposed in Bacevfes. 

8. p&Uidum AU. - 606 

9. arboreum Marsh 607 
V. di^'ttnim Ait. Hort. Kew. 

10. stamfneum - 607 

V. SUbum Pursh Sept., V. 
elevdtum Banks Herb.: Deer 



diamarledonproeimbensUnk 'S^l^ 
Enum.. I^isaeurt^ procimbcns | '^i^^^^'ff^ q. ei K. 607 



CONTENTS. 



XXXV 



II. dumdeum Ati, - 607 

V. fromOUmm Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., V. kirtHimm Ait. Uort. 



2 hikmileWats.D.B, 608 

12. corymbosum L. 608 

' •<wntf wMM Ait. Hort. Ksw*. 
V. 4i$om6rphmm Mx. FL Bor. 
An«r., V. eiew^um Hort, V. 
Hbmm "Ltm. Diet. 

2 Tirgatum.^ft. i?. £606 

3 fusc^tum^tl.iT'. £608 
V./brMdniM And. Bot. R. 
V. ^irgitum Wats. D«od. 

Brit., bot DOC of Alt 

4 angustifolium - 609 
V. virfdttttn mw. iotgutti' 

Jbtium Wats, Dead. Br. 

13. albifldnioi Hook. 609 
V. Album Lam. ? 

14. marianum ^aif. 609 

V. man/Umdiemm Lodd. Cat. 
ed. 1836. 

15. graadifldram W, 609 

16. rg.)eloi]gkuiii^.609 

1 7. (ff.) minutifldnim 6 10 

18. dabnun fl^o^. - 610 

19. fronddsum L. - 610 

V. gtaOeum Mx. FI. Bor. 
Amer. : BIme Tangle$, Am». 

Sveniistuai ^it 611 

V. from^Mtm 9ar. lam- 

oeoUtmm Parsh Fl. Am. 

20. resindsam AU, - 611 

AadrSmeiai bmcciUa Waa^. 
Amer. 

2 rub^scens Pmnk 61 1 

3 lut£sceDs Purth 61 1 
V. jMrvC^Xannit And. B. B. 

21. ifrctoat&phjIosL.ei 1 
22.(.^^.);iadifoUum61l 

V. Arc<of<a|MMM Andr. Bot 
Ra|>.,V. ma d trti u e Lk. Bourn., 
V. eauciticmn Hort^ V. padtf- 
^bHmm caueasieum Hort Soc. 
Cat of Fruited. 1«& 

B* LMIVtM €9Cfgt'€tm» 

a. Flowen racemote. 

23. caracasanum - 612 

24. ritis ida'a L. - 612 

VifA idfar'a rMra Cam. Spit : 
<*0 Bed WhorUederrp, or dw- 

25.(r.)&iixifblium 613 

V. hrselkfoerwm Mx. Fl. Bor. 

26. (?r.)i»yrtifdlmm613 

27. nSddum Andr. - 614 

28. craasifoliuiB An. 614 

29. ovkuin Purtk - 614 

30. canad^Dse Rich. 614 

b. fUwen ditpoted in sca^ 
nffUt nearl§ §e$MiU, 

31. Afyrsinites Jix. 615 

2 kmoeoUtus PurU 615 

3 obtibus Pur9h 615 

32. hui]i]fu8umGraA.615 



XXVIII. OxTCo'cccs 

The Cranbarry. — Faedm- 
um 9p. of Ud. and otliers. 

1. paliiatris Pert, « 616 
O.wlgitHs Porsb Sept., 0. 

««ro}Me*tw KuU. Gen. Amer., 
\aednium Oxycdccui Lin. 8p, 
vaedm'iMi Ox^c6cetu tur. « 
omali/blius Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 
Vace>ma|Mi{i«<HirOer. Bmac. ; 
Oiyo^onuM Cord. Hist : Mou~ 
berries, Moorberries, Fenber- 
riee, Marskwortt or Wborsle- 
berriu^ Cormberrie$ : AireUe 
eamneberge, Fr. ; gemeime 
Mdoeebceret Ger. 

2. macroc&rpus Pur. 616 

Vaecinium macrocA rp wam 
Ait Hort. Kew., \acanium 
lUtptdum Wangh. Amer., Va«- 

Urns Mx. FL Bor. Amer/^ 

2 131 lis variegatis 617 
Vaednimm maeroeSrpmm 

/ol. var. Lodd. Cat 

3 erfetus Pkrilb - 617 

piuw Mx. Fl. Bor. Am. 

I. iS^-y'rax X. - -618 

_ The Storax.-^'SocjIer.Fr.: 
Storojit Oer. 

1. officinMe L, - 618 

LagomfUa, Modem Greek ; 
Sturtu ludamHSMt Ancient 
Greeli. 

2. (o,) grandifbllum 618 

S. qgicindde Walt. Fl. Carol., 
S. frandifibrum Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

3. (o.) IsFigatum il. 619 

& octimdnun L'H^rit Stirp. 
Nov., ^^^dhrum Car. Diss., 
S. bB\e Walt Fl. Carol., S. 
ameriednum Lam. Diet 

4. (o .) pulverul^eum6 1 9 

S. knigfiium Bot. Mag. 

HolesiBceBs, 

L Hale's/.< Ellis 620 
The Snowdrop Tree. — Ba- 
U$ie^ Fr. and Ger 

1. tetr&ptera L. - 620 
The Snowdrop Tree.->A/o«r 

BM Tree, Amer. 

2. (t.) parvifldra AT. 621 

3. dlpteraX. - - 621 

Sapotaceee. 

I. ArgXuia Bjctm, 622 

Sider6ruUm epinbeum L. ; 
rArgan, Fr. ; Eitenbobt, Ger. 

1. Sidcr6xylon iZ(Fm.622 
Sider&tyUm ipiHbnim Lin. 
Sp , EUeodtndnm A'rgan Hetx. 
b 2 



Oftt., RA^amsv pmtMkpUuM 
Jace. et Boccooe, RJUmntM 
cicw2aw Lin. Syst. 

II. i?UME'LiA SwarU 623 
A'ckrat tp. Lin., Pdr. ; Si- 
djrnAcyilMi ap. Lam. and others ; 
Ofphpk^kmm tp. Aubl. and 
others : £bcik«CaMin, Ger. 

1. /ycioides Gcnin, 623 

JAfer&rnCm ludSidee Du 
Ham. Arb., 5. &Nw Walt. FL 

2. reclinka Tm/. - 623 

aiderdxubm reeOmdtmm Mich. 
Fl. Bor. Amer. 

3. tenax WiUd. . 624 

B. chrwopkifimdea Pursh Fl. 
Amer. Sept., SiderS^lon le*. 
MM- Un. Mant.. 5. sericemm 
Walt. Fl. Carol., 5. ckrvto- 
pb^USidet Mlchx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., Cbrytopb^Umm caroU- 
tfiue Jacq. Obs., C. gldbrmm 
Joss. 

4. lanugindsa Purth 624 

Michx. PL Bor. Amer., & 
«Am# Walt Fl. Oar. 

5. oblongifdtia iSTtctt. 624 

EAendceiV. 
I. Diospt'ros L. - 625 

The Date Plum^E'Amiis 
Gonm., Goalacina Towrw.: 
Plaquemimier, Fr. ; Dattel- 
g/Uiune^ Ger. 

1. Z^tus L. - • 625 

Pseudotbtue Matth.. Guaia- 
cina jMCavtea Toum. : Italian 
JJgnmn VUtt^ Wood of Life, 
Pockwood, Bastard Men^n- 
wood, Gerard } Date qf Tre- 
bisondei Piaqneminier, fana 
LoHer, Fr.; ItaUamscbe Dat- 
teipfiakmu, Gw* 

2. virffini^na L. - 626 
The Persimon. — Goalacina 

Causb. Car. 

3. (v.) pub^eos p. 627 

D.^rgimdma Mr, . MIcbz. 
Arb. For. 

Other Kinds <^ Mar^ Dios. 
p^rot - - ' . 6V 

Oleicece. 

Sect. I. Oia\vm. 

I. LiGu'sTRUM Ton. 628 
The Priret— 7Vx»2W, Fr. « 
Batmoeidet Ger. 

1. vulg^ 7W. . 628 
L. y gi iMdj ifeww Bauh. Hist. ; 
PHmt orPrimHtrini: Tro8nr, 
Puine btanc, Fr.; genuine 
Bainweide, Ger. ; Lignstnt 
OUveOa, Ital. 

2 leucoc&rpum - 629 

3 xanthodbpum - 6S9 

4 chlorocirpum - 61^9 



XXXVl 



CONTENTS. 



5 sempenrWens - 629 

L. itdUeum MiU. 
ItaUtm^ore v er g teentPrivet 

6 variegatum - 629 

7 aDgustifoUum - 629 

2. spicatuin Hamiit, 630 
L. nepalhue Wall, in Roxb. 

Fl. Ind., L. lanceoldimm Herb. 
Lriunb. 

2 glibrum ^ooft. 630 

3. lucidum Aii. - 630 
Tke Wat Tree. 

2 floribiindum Dtmald's 
Cat, - - 630 



SpecteM nS UgHttrmm.— 
ilcif bllum, L. j«p6nicum 



Otier Si 

L.taA , . 

Tktinb. (L. UUifbUmm Vltm.), 
L. nepaifeie - - - 631 



11. Philly'rea r. 631 
Pilaria, Ft. ; SteinUnde, Ger. 

1. media L, " - 638 
p. latifblia 9ar. • media La- 

peyr. Fl. Pjrr., P. Uputrirdlia 
Mill. Diet., P. Uf'vit Tenore 
Syll. i P. iai&blia ftar. a Ugtu- 
«r»/Mia Poll. PL Ver. 

2 virgata AiL B. K. 632 
ShnxxmSAA. J5r.£632 

2. (m.) angu8tif6liaL.632 
p. obRqua Ten. SyU., P. 

midia Tenore Fl. Neap. 
2 lanceoliU A. H. K, 632 
8 rosmarinifolia ^tl. 632 
4 hiBcYakXAAiU H. K.6S% 

3. (m.) /igii8trif51ia J.632 

p. vireUta WiUd. Bninn» P. 
midia wr. a Willd. Sp., PAfl- 
/^rmi iU. Cliu Hist. 

4. (m.) p^ndula AA. 632 

P.meVfto9^WUld.8p. 

5. (m.) olesfblia Aii. 633 

p. m^'a d Ait. Hort. Kew., 
P. raeemdia link Jahrbb 

6. (m.) latifoUa L. - 633 

P. latifWa a $errdta PoU. Fl. 
Ver., P. lattfbUae Ten. Fl. 
Neap., P. »pin^$a Ten. Syll., P. 
latifdlia fi tpindta Seg. Ver. 

7. (m.) Ia\i8 AU. - 633 

p. kMRMo var. a WiUd. Sp., 
P. UdifiSUa Mm. Diet. 

8. (m.) obllqua Jit. 633 
p. Inti/dtfar WUld. Sp., P. 

JbUdeea Link Jahrb., VktU^ea 
iL CliM. Hist 

9. (m.) spinosa HSU. 633 

p. Wc^Wa Willd. Enom., P. 
latffdUa fispindMa Willd. Sp., P. 
taUfblia lomgijdiia L&ak Jahrb., 
VMU^rea i. ^lu. Hkt. 



III. Chiona'nthus 634 

The Snow- Flower, or the 
Fringe Tree.— Ck MmtnUhe^ Fr. ; 
Sckne^ume, Ger. 

1. virgfnica L. • 634 
AioiMirvTVeff, Amer. ; Arhre 



de Neige, Fr.; SeMtseblMme, 
Ger 

2 latifdlia Cat. Car. 634 

C V. momtdma Purth Sept. 

S anguatifolia Ait. 634 

C. frMtfa Moeoch. 
4 mantima iHtr»A - 634 
CmoritilmaLodd. C. 18a& 

O^EA ainerickna L, 635 

TAr DewO-uHtodf Amer. 

Sect II. Srsfirasjs. 

IV. STRfNQA L. - 635 
The Lilac. — I^ac, Toum. 
Inst. : !.//««, Fr. ; Flieder,Ger. ; 
LOoeo, Ital. 

I. vulgaris i. - - 636 
Lllae vulgirit Gort. : P^ 
PHitf/, or Pipe Tree: IMa* 
comtMflM, Fr.; gemeiner Fiie- 
der, Ger. } LiUa, or XtZoc teroo, 
Ital. 

1 cceriklea Chu. Hi9L636 

2 vio\kce&Curt.B.M.6S6 
T%e Sool^ Lilac. 

3 4lba - - - 636 

4 Alba major Xo(2. C. 636 

5 Alba pldna - - 636 
S.piena Lodd. Cat. 

6 rtibra Lodd. Cat. 636 

7 riibra mi^or Z. C. 636 
L/Au <far Afar^y of the 

French gardeners. 



Other VarieUet 



686 



2. Josikae'a Jacq. - 637 

3. persica i. - - 637 

Lilac minor Mcench. Lilac 
piriiea Lam.: Lilatde Peru, 
Fr. ; Lilac di Persia, ItaL 

2 ilba Z^odci Cot - 637 

3 ladniata Lodd. C. 637 
S. capildta Gmel. Itin. 
Lilafd PeuiUeM de Perta, 

Fr. 

4 lalvifolia I^kU. C. 637 

4. rothomag^nsis - 637 

S. diAia Pers. Ench. ; LiU- 
ceum rotkomaghue Renault Fl. 
de I'Ome, S. media Dum. 
Cours., Lilas Variu N, Du 
Ham., S. ckininsis WiUd. Sp., 

5. sibiriea Hort. : ike Siberian 
LOae, Hort. 

2 Lilas Royal Bon 7.638 

3 sangulnea Jlort. 638 
Lr/M «a«f #, Fr. 

OtMer Species cf Syrtoga. —S. 
fmddTWalL Cat.Don^s MUl.. 
Royle IHuit. • • - 638 

V. Fontanb's/-i Lab. 638 
l.phillyreoldes 1.06. 639 

Sect. III. J^AXiMia^JB. 

VI. P^a'xinus Tou. 639 

The Ash Pr^me^ Fr. ; Uscke, 

Ger. ; ProMtiiio^ ItaL 



A. Let^fiett broad, tmootk^ or 
shining on the upper stufaee. 
Natioes (ff Emrcpe. 

1. excelsior L. - 639 

F. apitala Lam. IIL. F. ros- 
trdta Giiss. FL Bar., F. Kymm 
Scop. Gam., F. erbsa Pers^F. 
iriMa Boac: If iVi^Mtf, Fr. i 
ilescAr, or Bsehe, Ger. wad 
Dutch ; Ask, Dan. and Swed. ; 
F!rM«AM», ItaL ; Ftemo, Span. 5 
l>«<ro, Port; J«, Josrm or 
Jassen, Russ. ; .<£m. Sax. 

2 p^ndulay^tf. H. K. 640 
Pr*ir Parasol, Fr. 

3 aiirea FFt/U. En, 640 
F. atfrni Pers. Eoeh., 

Lodd. Cat. 1836. 

4 aiirea p^ndula - 641 

5 criapa - - 641 
F. crispa Base. 
F. airoiArens Desf. Arb. 

6ja8pidea mUd. 641 

7 purpurifloena 2>. 641 
F. purpitrea Hort. 

8 arg^ntea Z^eff* ^^ 

9 liltea - - 641 

10 erdsa Per$.Eneh. 641 

1 1 horizontJtlis 2}et/.641 

12 ▼errucosa Desf. 641 

13 ▼emic. p^ndula 641 

14 nana - - 641 

15 fungdaa Lodd. C. 641 

16 TertieiUiU L. C. 641 

1 7 yillosa nova De$, 641 
Other Varieties • - 641 

2. (e.) beterophyila 642 

F/ simplicifbUa WilkL Sp., 
F. monqph^la Desf. Arb., F. 
simpUeiJUia Hort., F. eedUtor 
var. t Iwn. Diet., F. esdlsiar 
fi heteroph6tta Dec., F. iniegrU 
ftUa and diversifblia Hort. 
2 varieg^ - - 643 

3. (e.) angusdfolia B. 643 

F. taUciftUa Hort 

B. Leajlets smalL smooth, or 
thining above. Natives iff the 
South nf Europe, the North qf 
4fHca, or the West qf Asia, 

4. parvif6lia Willd. - 643 

5. (p.) arg^ntealvow.643 

6. (p.) oxycarpa W. 644 

r.otyphliUa Bleb. Fl. Taur., 
F. O'riwaPall. Wn. Taur. 

7. p&llida Bote - 645 

8. /entiscifolia Desf. 645 
F. tamarist^bUaVtihi Bnum., 

Don's Mill. ; F. parvifbUaLsan. 
Diet., F. alepphuis Pluk. 
Phys. 
2 p^ndula - - 645 



C. Leaves and Leaflets large, 

5laueouSt and downy beneath. 
Natives exclusively <tf North 
America i and in Britain 
chi^ to be considered as or- 
namental Trees. 

9. americ4na Willd. 646 

F. aeumindta Lam., Don's 
MiU., Pursh Sept. ; F. discokfr 



jchx V. Am. Sjl.; 

ar4 JMk, Mae* Adi, Asw. 
8 loDgifSIU WWd. 617 



S crfspa LatkL Cat. 647 
IS, (a.) qaadrangulAtB 

Mi. - - - 648 
F. (KraltlHI Oh n Dual. 



Mart/era Scop. Cun., F. fcXTf- 
e^ Hor. Pntlud, F. mmd- 

'. (e.) rotundifolia 052 

FrAnW nXmidmiOa Alt. 
Ion. Kbw.. F , iM— l/tra Hott. 



13. («.; 



■)/u«lani 



ijaiuMs 



2 »ul»iiiteg*iTiiM 649 
F. jivJoa^UrUni niKr- 
F. carstfuMu VlDg. Am. 

F. mM-.<-wii^ UKJ F. 

anUiMiHMUL DIO. 
14^ (a.) carotiniiiui 6M 

P.BH&Air W«W. Fl. C«r., 
F. KTTMMUa lIktn.fll.Arb.. 
F. i-M i a n ftjlUi.: StMv 
.JM,A»r. 

15. {a.)eplptera Fa*/ 650 
F. MMAnir GBta. Fract, 
F.MmbBok. 
19. (a.)plBtfcArpar.6dO 



V. of Ibe old nlkon^b 



4. flDrib6ridaC.iJ. 653 
-riiimmt JbriMnO* D. Don 



I. Jjism'NUiiRjn*. 664 

1. fritticans L. - 654 
lat. truropiiOm^ HsDcb, 

2. humile L. - 655 

3. beterophilluin J2. 655 

jr.arWrcwa'Hunflt. HSS. : 
CaifM ind JnaM In Nsp^. 

4. re»oliituni ICer - 655 

J. cbnJiXAcmn HoUl Fl. 
tmLi ill Xips/ rcUov Ju- 

5. (rO pubSgenin) D. 656 
Aqi. ; CUiutf.tBa. NspilaH. 

6. offidnMe L, - 656 
S foliia ■Tginteu £ 656 
SfSliisafireuLC. 656 
4 B6ribiu plinu fil 656 

Kpocyndcex, 



S wic^ta ifort. - GST 
8. minor L. - 957 

Fmhua mtaor Sop. Cbb., 



Asclcpiad aceie. 

t. pBRrPLOCA Z>. . 65 



8. angustifdlia LoA. 659 



I. BtaN0^r.4Tou. ' 660 
- TmapM FlowtT_Bl(. 






afaiiuarg^tcisZ.. 

S foliis alireij I.ad: 6JB 

4 &&n ilto i.od. a 658 

5 Bin fliao Lad. 658 

6 adre puotceo i~ 658 
T acutifldn Serf. 658 

b 3 



capreoUta Zi. 
II. Tk'coma JuBg 
I . radlcans J 



IitcarwiSttgraZi^a Spmf! 
SjlC; rv^-mmja, ChlHH. 

IIL Cat^Lfa Jum. 668 

othn-i; BifKnu Caiaifo. Fr. j 
(nnnM rran^xmUiPHi Ger. 
1 , lyTineiEfBliB Sinn 688 

CUtbi* Mnwidnd;!! Iran. R. 
Sr". S. mnhWiVi Nult. G«l. 
ABIEr. : AUI S*K«iiii>, Cstedu 
tfr rdtairiaut, Pr. [ Tnmf€* 



I. S'OLA'NtlM 7\)unt. 663 

Ttaa NI(liUb>d«. — itiloit. 

liiSm V<D[. Jird. kdm., 
jMtrMi Jm. .*"wt. -• MonBe, 
Ft. I A'oelUuUanh G«. 1 Sk 
lama. JUL 
1. Dulnunira L. - 664 



aiaira Trig.,GlvctiilcrBi itw 
rulLiHlrtrri B*uB. HUl.i M 



XXXVlll 



CONTENTS. 



MoreMe grw^fonte, Begnault 
Bot. Icon. 

1 oiolioea H, Eytt. 664 

2 ilba Lin. FL Suec 664 

3 durnea Oels. Ups. 664 

4 plena Townu Itut. 664 

5 variegata Mvnt. 664 

6 hinikta Dm's MiIL664 
S. liltordie Hort. 

7 rup^stris Sehmidt 664 

2. cHspum R.4r S. 664 
IL Ly'civu L. . 665 

The Box Thorn.— Joffnt- 
noidet NIm. in Act. OaU. : Ma. 
irimaiU0 Fine^ Amer.; Lffcten, 
Fr.; Rocksdomt Ger. ; Lido, 
lUl. 

1. europfleHim L. - 665 

L. taUc(fbUum Mill. Diet., 
Jatmn^Ues aadedium Mich. : 
^'«o MMto, 5;>iMo dV O-Ma, 

VarieUet. — Fhrft yellow. 
Fruit roundish • . 666 

2. (e.) b&rbarum L, 666 

L. hAMnjraMtm Mili. Diet., 
L. Mr6«nim « vtiigdre Ait. 
Hort. Kew. : the DiSke qf Ar- 
atr» Tea lYee. 

3. (e.) chiD^nse Af. 666 

li. barbarwn fi dUiiime Ait. 
Hort. Kew., L. bdrbantm 
Lour. Cocb.?, U ovdtum M. 
DuHam. 



667 



4. (e.^ Trewianum 

L. bdrbamm Lam. Diet., L. 
aMiliwe N. Da Ham. 



5. (e.) ruth^oicum 667 

L. tatdrtcum Fall. Fl. Boss. : 
Lffden de la Ruuie^ Tt. 
2 c^apiottin PaU. 667 

6. (e.) laoceolatum 668 

Lb europai^ttm fi Doc. Fl. Fr. 

7. (?e.) turbinktum 668 

L. haUmifilhim BUll. DtcL?, 
L. M r ft t sii w /8 Dae. Fl. Fr. 

8. ^irum £. - . 668 
2 rlgidum - . 668 

L. rigAlKm BooOi. 

OiA«- Species qf L,pcium L. 

OT^tum, L. spatulfttum, and 
Lt. oboWUum - • 669 

III. CtLABO'wSKIA Schl. 

1. hoetbatLVugfoUa S. 669 

L^Mm boerkMnlmnUvaa 
Lin. SnpoL, JSMr^iU hotfmt. 
jptfa L^rit. Stlrp.. L^i^m 
httenpk^lktm Murr. Comm. 
G&tt, Jatminoide* tpinbnm 

mcmK, Fr. » ,«- 

ScrqpkularidcecB. 

I. Bu'DRLBil L. - 670 

I. globdsa L. " - 670 
Jwddlea globmra N. Du 

Ham. ; A. capitdta Jaoq. Col.. 
Icon. Bar. ; Fdlauin, Feuillte 
It.: Buddkiagbbfdeux, Fr. ; 
Xopftragende AuU^, Ger. 

II. PAULoVN/i< Sieb. 



eartnUoi Spremg. Sjftt. : J&rW, 
Japanese ; 2W, Hak^ioo, Chin. 

1. imperi^lk iSSird. . 671 

BtoihmiB, tomentdea Thunb. 
Fl. Jap., Willd. a^ PL. Pers. 
Syn. I iMtrwUtf. toment&sa 
Spreng. Syst Veg. : Kirri, 
Japanese, Kcmpf . Amflsn. 

Zjobidcea* 
PtaLo'Mis fruticdsa 672 

Jerusalem Sage. 

J^osmari'mus officinalis 
i. . . . 672 

Xava^ndula jSjpka 672 

Hie cranmon LaTcnder. 

iS^A'LYiA officinalis L. 673 

Verbendceie. 
L FiVex i. - . 673 

The Chaste Tree. — GatOier, 
Fr. ; Ji:«McMaiim, Ger. : yOiee, 

1. il'gnus disttis I.. 673 

^Bon., A'gnw cSuus Blackw., 
Viper offrttti* Gerard: Arbre 

di Monaei. Ital. 

2 latifdlia MUL - 674 

2. (il.) inclsa Lam, 674 
V. Negdndo Bot. Mag. 

3. arborea J^cur. - 674 



Subdiv. IL MONOCHLAMY'DEiE: 



Chenopodicicece. 
I. Chbnopo^iuh Ir.675 

The Goosefoot.— SaUhia ip. 
Lin.: AtueHne, Fr.; Gause 
FWm, Ger. ; CkenopoOlo, Ital. 

1. frutie6sum Schrad,675 
Stonecrop Tree- — Satsdla 

fruticdsa Lin. Sp. PL: The 
skruU^ Oi a u w ort : Soude en 
Arbre^ Fr. ; UrauekartigeM 
Salstkrastt, Ger. ; Sopramrivolo 
iegnoso, Ital. 

2. pairifdlium R4 S, 675 

C. firuitcbsum Bleb. In Fl. 
TRur'Cauc, C. microphSttum 
Bieb in SuppL to Fl. Taur.- 
Cauc. SaMUa flmticdta Bieb. 
Casu., Siaida mkrophjfUa 
Pall. must. 

II. il'TRIPLBX L, - 676 
The Orache.— i4iTocJ|«, Fr. ; 
Melde, Ger. ; AtripUee, Ital. 

1. /Talimus L. . 676 
The Tree Purslane. ^ H£tf. 



OTMS l«MfdliH« Jive Jnaicd$us 
Bauh. Pin. ; H^AmM i. Clus. 
Hist.: ike broad-leaved Sea 
Purslane Tree ; Arrocke, Fr. ; 
strauchartMge Melde, Ger. 

2. flK>rtulacoide8 L, 676 

The Sea Purslane Ho/Amis 

s«c<ijMfacf Clus. Hist., H. vul- 
garis Ger. Emac.. Hdlimus 
seu Porluldca marina Bauh. 
Pin. K'triplex maritima, Vii- 
UmusetVortuldco marina dicta 
angust(fblia Rail Syn.: ike 
narrow-leawd &a Pursiatke 
Tree. 

III. Dio^is Schreh, 677 
Ceratoides Toum., .f'jwrft 
Lin., Ceratosp ermum Pers. 

I. CcratoMes JT. - 677 

A'turU Ceratifides Lin. Sp. 
PL, C^rotasp^rmicm Mppdntm 
Pers., J^syr<f fi^utf^Mri^ 
Am >2araMra Aswilw Gmel. 
Sib., Ack^Sntkes pappdsa 

I^-^^f^'* ^rasekenSmi. 
Weia Guldenst In Act.PMrop.. 
Vrtica JbUis lantrolitis fiemi. 



If^s^^^"*^' *oy- Lugdb.5 

Cerat&ides ar^utdUs J^-uOcdsa 
Elmagni fblio Toum. Cor. : 
Orienimlisckes Doppeiokr, Ger. 

Pob/gondceiff. 

I. Traoopy'^uh Bieb. 
The Goat.Wheat^Pa/^00. 
-- Lin. Hort. Ups. 



1. laneeoUtum^if^. 678 

Po(^«0MMN/N(/<«OflW Willd. 

oPv Plj. etrauckartiger JCad^ 

tertgf Ger. 

2. 6uxi[51ium j&«ei. 678 

„,^oi^tonmm crismUum var. a 
SlmsBot Mag. ; P.amcastcum 
Uoflm. 

3. pol/gamum Spr. 679 

^ , ■^*??"** Poi^gamvmVmL 
CeU., P. parvifhUum Nutt. 
(Sen. 

I . marltlma . . 67i> 



CONTENTS. 



xxxj:s 



II. Atbafua'xis L. 679 

AUHplex Tourn.: ArmcA- 
rnddSt Ger. 

1. spinosa L, - 680 

aemiedtmstjidr* |»iUcAro,Toum. 
Cor. 

2. undulata L. - 680 

in. CALLI^GONUHlL.dSO 
FaUdiia. L., Fterocdecut 
2>aU. 

1. P&UiisM L'H^t. 680 

Pleroc6ceu$ mkfihu Fall. 
Vov., Caagamak^foif^omSUta 
P«fl. Itin., Po&ixia ofamfca 
Lin fll. SuppL. PaiUMa Fte- 
^aU. fil. 



roo6eeu$ Pall. fil. Ro«. : Cas- 
pJMdter Haekenknof^, Ger. 

I. Zau'rus j^. - 681 

The Laurel, or Bau Tree 

S&snfras ontf Beumn C. G. 
Km BMenbeck : Di^An^, Greek; 
Laurier, Fr. ; Lorbeer, Ger. 

1. D6biiLB i^. - - 681 

The Sweet Bav.— Lotfrttf 
Canier.,Tour.,Doa(DO.,Ra7 ; L. 
m^dr£f Baoh. Pin. : Lamrier 
comtmm, LanKner frame. Lau- 
rier d'JpoUomJLauriertfSamce, 
Fr.; gemehte Lorbeert Ger.; 
JUoroy Itel. 

2 undulata Aftff. - 682 

3 ralicifolia Swt. . 682 
L. n. angut^fbliti Lod. 

4 Tariegita Ac^. - 682 
L. n.fU. 9ar. Lodd. Cat. 

5 lati£oiU lft/7. . 682 

6 eiispa Z.orf(e^ Cat, 682 

7 flore pidoo - 682 

2. caroiineiuus Co/ei. 683 

The Red Baj. — L. JbrMnIa 
Xm. &»., L. axUUri* Lam., 
JbrMNla jp. Plum. Gen.. Tir- 
sea Borb&iAa. Spreog. : the 
broad - leaved Carolina Sap : 
XoirHifrroMjgr, Lamrier Bour- 
bon, Lamrier de CaroUne, Fr. ; 
Carolini$cker Lorbeer, rotker 
Lorbeer, Ger. 

2 glabra Pursh - 683 

3 pubescens Purth 683 

4 obCiLsa iW«& - 683 

3. Catesbiaiia Mx. 683 
L.4eMtiodlit Lin. Spec, L. 

M^rvi* MiU. Bict.. UEmd*' 
wnu iUtiwdUM Nutt. Gen.: 
Pond Busk, Amer.; &»»»«■ 
Lorbeer, Ger. 

B. Leaves deciduous. 

4. Sditafrat L. - 683 

Ar(iUo, margme plenOt Sassa- 
fras dicta. Pluk. Aim.; 5m- 
st^firas arbor, ex Ptorida, fieuU 
meo faUo, Bauh. Pin.; SAwaflrai 
sp. C G. Mees Von Eaenbeck, 



PIrcM SAtfafrai ^|pr«w. : Last' 
Her Basutfiras, Fr. ; Sassafras 
Lorbeor, Ger. ; Sassi^asso, 
ItaL 

5. Benzoin L. - - 685 
The Bei^amhiTree.— if V6or 

«lr|>M^diMi eitre^B vei limonH 
folio, benaoinum fundens, 
Conun. Hort. ; I^aiirus msti- 
otUis Wangh. Amer., Idttrus 
PMe^do-Beazhin Miehaus PL 
Bar, Amer.t Su6sntus Bensbls 
Nuit. Gen., Benxbin sp. C. 
G. Meet Von E«enbeck : ^'ee 
Bush, Spice Wood, or wild 
Allspice, Amet. ; Laurierfaus 
BetaoiHf Fr. ; Benxoin Lorbeer, 
Ger: 

6. (j9.) i>io8p^ni8P. 685 
L. £fli^«mtcs iitospdrus Mutt. 

Gen., L. diosnu^des Mx. FL 
Bor. Amer., > L. meiisss^fbUa 
Walt. Car. 

7. geniculata Mjt, 685 

L. Eu6smus geniculdla Nutt. 
Gen.» L. eesUtdlis Willd. 8p. 
PL 

^hymeldcea. 
I. 2>A'P|iMB L. - 686 

TkymeUe^a Tonm. Inst., 
Gsrtn. : Dajdtne, Ft.j SeideU 
bast, Ger. ; Dqfite, ItaL 

A. Leaves deddsnus. 

1. Mezereum L. - 687 
The common Meaereon. — 

&pirge OUve, Spurge Flax, 
Plowering Spurge, Parkinson ; 
Dwarf &if, Gerard: Laur6ole 
finselle, Bois gentU, Mentreon, 
Botsjeii, Fr. ; gemeiner Seidel- 
bast, or Keuerbalz, Ger. ; Pe- 
peraektige Dapkne, Dutch ; 
Laureola fenuna, Biondella, 
Cornelia, Ital. ; Laureola Mem- 
bra, Spui. 

2 fldre &lbo - ■ 687 

3 autuxnnale - 687 

2. altMca Pail. - 687 

Dapkme aUaique, LaurMe 
de Tartarie, Fr.; SUtiriseker 
Seidelbast, Ger. 

3. alpina L. - - 688 

Tie Alpine Chamdea Marsh. 
Plant: DapknddesAlpes, Ft. i 
A^ten Seidelbast, Ger. ; OUveila, 
Ital. 

B. Sreet. Leaves persistent. 
Flowers lateral. 

4. Laiur^olaX. - 688 

The Spurge Laurel. — DmM^ 
noides virum vel Laureola 
Gesn. : Lauriola RaU Sjn., 
Ger. Em. ; TksfmeWa Lau- 
reola Scop. Ca^. : the ever- 
green Daphne : LaurMe male, 
LaurMe des Anglais, Fr. : An- 
mergrltner SeideUxut, Ger. ; 
CaMo di Lupo, Ital. 

5. p6ntica L. - 688 
TM^melit^a pSntiea, a'irei 

foliis, Tourn. Kin.: LaurMe 
b 4 



dm Levant, Fr. ; PonOtcker Set' 
detbmst, Oer. 

2 rikbra Sort, - 689 

3 foliis variegatis L. 689 

6. Thymels'a Vahl. 689 

TkymeUe^a foliis polygalm 
glabris Bauh. Pin. ; T. afylna 
gldbra, JloscuUs suUuteis ad 
foliorum ortumsessilibus. Pluk. 
Aim. ; Sanam6nda wridis vel 
gldbra Bauh. Prod.; Sana- 
mAndo gldbra Bauh. Hist. ; 
Passerina ThtfmeUe^a Dee. ; 
the wad Olive : la Tkymelie, 
Fr. ; astloser Seidelbast, Ger. 

7. Tdrton^aira L - 689 
Tkpmelee'a foliis eandieanti- 

bus et series Instar mollikus 
Bauh. Pin. ; TarUm-Raire 
OaUo-provineim MonspdieU' 
slum Lob. Ic, Sanamimda or- 

feniita laiifbUa Barr. Ic, 
*asserina Tirton-raira5e*rri..* 
the oval4eaved Dapkne : Lou- 
rfole blanche, Fr.; SOberbtot- 
triger Seidelbast, Qer. 

8. (? T.) pub^scens 689 

TAymdlre^a itdUca, Tartom- 
raire Golio-mrovincim similis, 
sed per omusa m^for, Michell: 
Behaarter Seidelbast, Ger. 

9. (? T,) toxnentdsa 690 

Passerina villbsa Lin. ; Lou- 
riole cotonneuse Lam. Encyc. 

0. Erect. Leaves persisteni. 
Flowers temunoL 

10. coUina SnM 690 

The Neapolitan Mezereon 

D. eoBUsa m Bot. Reg. : ? D. 
buxifblia Vahl Symb. ; Da- 
phni des CoU/nes, Lauriole i 
FeuHles de Santt, Fr. ; Stumaf- 
bOitriger Seidelbast, Ger. 

2 neapolitAna L, . 690 
D. net^tolitdna Lod. Bot. 

11. (c.)oie6idefl - 690 
Chamadapknoides crttica 

Alpin. Exot., TkMehe*a erf. 
tica oleafMo uirmsque glabra 
Tourn. Cor. ; D6phne uilici- 
^fbHa Lam. Encyd.: Laurfole 
d PeuiUes iTOHvier, Fr ; OeU 
baumbliittriger Seidelbast, Ger. 

12. (c,)8erice&Fahl69l 
Tkymeia^'a ertUoa olem foUo 

subtus vUlosa Tourn. Cor., 
Ddpkne ola^fWa Lam. Encyc. : 
Seidenartiger Seidelbast, Ger. 

13. Striata TYat. - 691 

D. Erect. Leaves persistent. 
Flowers in Racemes. 

14. Goidium L. - 691 

tkifmelara foliis Uni Bauh. 
Pin.: Spurge Flax, Mountain 
Widow Wayle : Daphnf Gni- 
dium, LaurMe d Panicute, 
Fr. ; BispenbTdtiriger Seidel- 
bast, Ger.; Camelea, Ital. 

E. Prostrate. Leaves persist- 
ent. Flowers terminal, ag- 
gregate. 

15. Cneorum L. - 691 
Cmbrum Matth. Hist, Clus. 



xl 



CONTEHM. 



HUt. : nifm£l6eie» Alpeit Fr.; 

WokhrieckewUr SeOMast, Ger. 
8 fdliis variegatis 698 
S flore iXbo - 698 

II. Di'RCA L. - 6d2 

Leather-wood. ^ TAymcte^a 
Gron. Vlrg. 

I. palustris L. - 692 
Moor-wood: Bolt de Cmir^ 
Boit de Plombt Fr. ; Sum^f Le- 
derkobi, Ger. 

Santalaceae. 
I. Nt'ss^ L. - 693 

The Tup^ Tree. 

1. bifldra Mickx. - 693 
N. ami6liea Lin. Sp. PI. ; 

N. earoUiddna L.. N. HttegH- 
Jblia Alt. Hort. Kew., N. pe- 
dSneutiM wtifldr^ Gron. Vlrg . : 
Mountaim Twpelo Mart MlU. : 
Qum TreCt Sour Qum TVcr, 
Peperidgtt Amer. 

2. (b.) vUlosa Mz. 694 

N. nlvMea MIcfax. K. Amor. 
Syl., N. muU(fldra Wangenh. 
Amer.» N, montdna Hort., N, 
pedincuUi un^flbrit Gron. Vlrg.: 
Sow Gum Tree, Blaek Own, 
Yelhta Gum, Amer. ; Hoarder 
Tu^lobmimt Ger. 

3. (b.) c&ndicans ili'.694 

The Ogecfaee Lime Tree. -* 
N. eapitaia Walt., Alt., Uichx. ; 
2f. eoednea Bartram r Sour 
Tufelo Tree, Wild Lime : weiu- 
ticker TmipeMaumt Ger. 

4. (b.) grandidentita 694 
The Large Tupelo Tree.— 

N. UmuniMa ana N. ONgwIi- 
xane Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer., N. 
dentieuldta Alt. Hort. Kew., N. 
Mguldsa Polr., N. uniddra 
Wangenh. Amer.: WUd 0U9e, 
Amer. J Vininiam Water Tu- 
pelo, mut. fiUI. 

II. OsY^is L. - 695 
The Poet'i CaMia.— C^«mi 
Camer., Lob., Alpin., Geta. 

].&lba£. - - 695 

O. JdUit UueirHmt aeluie 
Lcell. It., O. jhrutttoent hoc- 
t^era Banh. rln., Cdtto po- 
tttea MontpeUtnsium Cam. 
Epit, Cdeia Latinitrum Alp. 
Kxot., Qiaia MonepelH dicta 
Gem. Bpit. : u>ei$*e Oeifrit, 
Ger. 

I. ^lsa'gnus Toter. 696 

The Oleaster, or Wild OUoe 
Tree. — Ckal^ Fr. ; WUde Oel- 
bmuH, Ger. ; Eiwgiio, ItaL 

I. hort^nsis Bieh, • 696 

B. mtguttifdUa L., Wflld. Sp. 
PI.; E. eongiriea Fladi., B. 
i$»(rmi$ MlU. Diet., B. argfu' 
teuM Momch Heth.. B orientdlie 
Deliile, ? E. arghUea Wat*. 
Dend. Brit.: Jeru$alem Wil- 
low : Olivier de Bokime, Ckalef 
i) FeuiUes itroitcs, Fr. ; schniat. 



Nattrlger Oleaeter, Ger. ; JL 
hero dtPmrmdtBO, Ital. 

1 angustifdlia ^m5. 697 
B. anguttp^Ua L. 

2 dactylifonms - 697 

3 orientilifl • • 697 
JLorietUdUa'L, 

4 spinott - - 697 
B.ipAidML. 

2. arg^ntea Ph, - 697 
Mittouri SOoer TVoe, U. S. 
of North AnMrlca. 

Other Species qfEUtSgum,^ 
E. raUcifMia ?D,l>om, E. 
conftrta Hort, - - 697 

II. .ETiPPo'pHAB Xr. 698 

The Sea Backthom, or Sal- 
louibom.'^RJUmm^det Tomr. : 
Argouuier, Fr. ; Hqffdom, or 
Sanddom, Ger. ; Ippqjfae^ ItaL { 
E^uo amarOlo, Span. 

1. RhamnoMes L, - 698 

RAam»Side» fioryjera tSlidi 
fdlid Toum. Cor., BMamnSidee 
frue^era Rail Syn. : Argam- 
tier faux Nerprum, Fr. ; Wei- 
den&attriger Sanddom, Ger.; 
if rve, or Sdule ipineux, in the 
Alps of Switzeiund. 

8 angustifdlia LodL 698 

5 ribirica - - 699 
H. tOMea Lodd. Cat. 

2. falicifolia 2>. Don 699 
H. eonftrta Wall, ia MSS. of 

the Catal. of the Linn. Soc 
Indian Herb., Boyle's Uluat. 

III. SHEPHB^BD/if NuU. 

1. arg^itea NuU. - 700 

lHipp6pkae arginiea Porsh 
Sept: Miaoomri Silver Leqf, 
and Btfffblo Berry Tree, Amer. ; 
Ralihtt Berry, and Bie^ Suet 
Tree, Amer. Indians ; Oraiee 
de Bi^gHe, or BtiffaU>Fat^¥readi 
traders. 

2. canadensis Nutt, 700 

lUppUpkae caneMnHs Lla. 
Sp. PL. Willd. Sp. Pin Porsh 

Sept. 

hristolochidcea* 
I. ./Iristolo^chia Xi.701 

The Birthwort—i<WMoftidl«, 
Fr. ; Oslerian^, Ger. 

1. s}pho V Merit. - 701 
X.maeropkfiOa Lam. Bncyc. : 
Aristolodie Syphom, Fr. ; grou- 
UaUrige Osteriuzey, Ger. ; Phte 
fimejOtBirtkwort, Amer. ; 5^ 
and Ptpa, Ital. 

2 (s.) tomentosa S. 702 

I. STiLLi'NOLfOard. 702 

I. Ag68trina fVilld. - 702 

II. Bv'xvi L. - 703 

The Box Tree. — Buit, Fr. ; 



Bugbmm^, Bu cktbautu, Get. % 
Bo»$olo, Ital. 

1. sempervirens L. 703 

B4nM Bail Syn. : Bui$ eom- 

mun, Boit hiui, Fr.: Buckt' 

bmuMf Ger. ; JXosaoio, ital. 

1 arbor^soens MiU. 705 

Butt mrboreteent. Ft, 

Ho c kt ^m m i ge Buekt- 

bmuu, Gor. 
Subpart. — arg6neea Hort., 
afirea Iforf., morglnita 
Hort, - - -701 

8 angustifolia MUL 703 
AiMrar.— rariegita J7. 703 

3 suffiruticosa MilL 704 
B. ktmilit Dod. Pempt. 
B. t, nd$ta N. Du Ham. 
BuA uaiu,Buit d Bor- 

duret, Buit d'Artoit, 
Bm't tTHoUaude, petit 
Buit, Fr. 
Zuierek Buehtbttum, Ger. 

4 myrtifolia Lam, 704 

2. baldirica Wi/&1. - 704 

B. t. par. gfgantea N. Du 
Ram. : Minorca Bo* : Buit de 
Mimorque, Buit de Makou, Fr. ; 
BaleariMer Bueksbaumt Ger. ; 
Bottolo gpniile, ItaL 

Artocdrpees. 

I. Afo^us Toum, - 705 
The Mulberry Tree. —Mi- 
rier, Fr. ; Maulbeere, G«r. $ 
Moro, Ital. 

1. nigra Potr. - - 706 

The common Mulberry — 
Mdrw Dod. Pempt., M./ractu 
nigro Baoh. Pin, 

8laciniitaA£fff. D, 706 

2. Wba L. . - 707 

M. e&udida Dod. Pempt.. 
M. /Hietu dibo Bauh. Pin. ^ M. 
Sibttfruetumhutrt aXbo iuitUto 
Du Ham. Arb. 

2 multica^lis Per, 707 
M. loldHica DesC 

M. bull^Ua Balbls. 
Cftm«<« ^ack Mulberry, 
Perrottet Mulberry, 
Many-ttaiked Mulberry, 
MArler PerrotUt, Mfl- 
rier it Tiget ttom- 
breutet, Mttrier des 
PkiUppinet, Fr. 
MorodeUe AHniAif.ltal. 

3 Moretti^na Hor. 707 
DoflMfofo'^ Mulberry. 

4 macrophf lla X. 707 
M. « latifblia HoH. 

M. UtpMca Hort. 
If irier d* ApofH^, 
FeuOle d'Etpagne, Fr. 

5 roooAna Xodl C. 707 
If. «. oval&bUa. 
MArier romain, F^. 

6 neryosa £<Nf. C. 707 
M. iwrvdta Bon Jard. 
M. tubdiba nerpdsa Hor. 

7 itiUica ITorf. - 708 
M. itdlica I<od. Cat. 1836. 

8 rosea Bort - - 708 
Small white Mulberry. 
Mirier rote, PeuiUe rot^ 

Fr. 



CONTENTS. 



xli 



9 ooinmbiastL JL - 706 
Colmmba,rr. 

10 membraniUseaJL. 708 
MtHer i FeuUU de Par- 

cAnRte,Fr. 

1 1 sin^nab Sort - 706 
M. WMm^ Hort. 

M. dldi6ua LodL Gat 
TkeChime$eMuaerrw. 

ISptknulAiVbtt.?. 708 

M. «.iiaiMBort.Brit. 
Otker VmieUea - - 706 

3. (a.) tatirica PaU, 709 

4. rubra L. ' - 709 

H. 9irgiMiea Fluk. Alm^ H. 
"-^-^-T NoU. Arb. Fruit. 




Sscabra - - 710 
M.fe4ftraWmd.,Nutt. 
M. cammifntlt Poir. 

II. BaoussoNE'T/iiVent. 

Mdrttt Sfte K/emff., Lim. ; 
Tapiirm Encye, Bot., Lam. lU. 

(fera r^n/. -710 

^„ MulbenT.— Md- 
ntf papprtfera Un. Sp* PI. 
S cucuIUte - - 710 
B. euemOAia Bon Jard. 
B, tpmtiMta Hort. Brit. 
^. mwUmtirit Lodd. Cat. 
3fr6ctu&lbo - 711 

III.MACHj'B^Nutt.711 

T6jiplem Raflneaque in 1837. 

l.aurantiacaNutt. 711 

The Oaafe Oranae. -* Anv- 
tmwd, Ydiowood, N. Amer. 

IV. FC'CVB Tourn. - 712 

Tlie Fig Tree. -.JKncfcr, Fr.; 
Peigenbamt, Ger. ; Pirn, Ital. 

1. aricaL. . .712 

F.MMmiiiA Bauh. Pin., F. 
MMOb and F. tpitUiris Tourn. 
Inst.: P^uier commmn, Fr.j 
fVMe«M A^cateMN, Ger. 

Varietk» - • - • 71S 

V. Bo'rt^ W. -713 

AdUki Mlchx. FLBor. Am., 



1. rjgustrina W. - 713 

il«<fa \ig69hina Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Am.. BffelMa Hf«f<riM 
Smith In iteet'i Cyclop. Add. 

2. (?A) acnminita - 714 

AdiUu aemmimUa Mx. Fl. 
Bor. Anier..liteWdrla aemmlmUa 
Smith hi Beer* Cyclop. Add. 

3. (/.) ponilosa FT. - 714 

JdtUa ponObta Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer.. SfgOMM, yormUfm 
Smith ha Rces*s Cyclop. Add. 
? B.tmita Lodd. Cat. 1836. 

VbndcecB 



I. U*LMV9 L. - 715 
The Btan. ^-Orme, Fr.; Ulm , 
or BItsUr, 0«r. ; OIno. Ital. 



I. campestris L. - 715 

VImm Aibua Pliny Nat. 
Hlrt.; U. miNor,JblA> ai%ptt<o 
BcabrOf Oer. Emac: Obmffp- 
rmmidttlet Fr. 
VarieUef. 

A. Timber Hrect. 
1 mlg&ris - - 716 

U. campittrtM Hort.Diir. 
3 latifoUaJBbrf. -716 

3 61ba MdMtert - 716 

4 acuUfolia MaOerg 716 

5 stHcta^off. Dur, 716 

6Tlreii8^oK. 2>«r. 716 
The Kidbnok Ebn. 

7 oomubi^nsis Hort. 716 
U. etricta, Lindl., Lod. 
2%tf Contiih Elm, 

8 samidnsis • 716 
U. aamihuU Lodd. Cat. 
TkeJeretp Elm, 

9 tortudsa - - 716 
U. tortub$a Lod. Cat. 

r Orme tortOlard, Fr, 
vnetedElm, 

B. Ornamental or curiam, 

10 foliis Tariegitis - 716 

11 (etuliefolia - 717 
U. iKliUaJWia Lod. Cat. 

IS TiminiLlis H, 2>. - 717 
U. 9immdUt Lodd. Cat. 

13 paiTiBiia - 717 
V, paraifblia Jac, Schon. 
U. mieropk^fOa Pen. ^ 
U. piam'la var.B {tranOat- 

etUhuis) PaU. Rom. 
U. oJdnila Wllld. Sp. PI. 
U. pkmita JWi* p&rvie, 

U. k^mOU Enum. Stlrp. 
Rttth. 

14 planiiolia - 717 
U. pUmifdUa Hort. 

15 chin^nsis - 717 
U. ekinSmiM Ten, 
TMdeFAbbi GaUoi$ i 

Orme nafn^ ¥r. 

16 cucuUita Hort. 717 

17 coneavaefoUa ff, 717 

18 fc^liU aiireis ZToit. 717 

19 nana HorL - 717 
Otker FarSeUe$ - - 717 

2. (c.) suberdsa M. 718 

U. eaavtstris Woodr. Mod. 
Bot. ; U. eampitris ■»! 7»«- 
pkrSsA Du Ham, Arb., U. vuL 
gaAuima,f9Uo lata icabroGer. 
Emac. ; V.montima Cam.Bpit.: 
common Elm Tree, Himter's 
EToLSyL: rOrwe Li^ge^rOrme 
/mmgeue^Fr,^ 

1 vulgaris - - 718 
U. ember^ta Hort. Dnr. 
The Dutdk cork-barked 

Etm, 

2 rdliiavariegitii 718 
U. tuberb$a voriegila Ht. 

Dur. 
3iaba - -719 

U. tuberb$a Uba Maaten. 

4 electa Lodd, Cat. 712 

5 The broad-lvd Hert- 
fordfl.£lxn, iroo(/719 



6 Hie narrow .lyd Heit- 
fi>rd8.£liii. Wood 719 

3. (cAnaioT Smilh 719 

U. koOdndiea MIU. Diet, i U. 
m4/or kolUhtdiea, Ac., Pluk. 
Ahn.: U. m^/k^r, mapUore folio, 
ftc., Du Ham. Art).; Tf/t'a m4« 
Matth. Valgr., U'ltrntf /ffft^dMi 
Hkhx. N. Amer. Syl. 

4. effi^sa WUld. - 719 

U. a'Oaia Bhrh. Artk, V.pe- 
dmteuUtta Lam. Diet, U. oo- 
timdra Schk. Bot. Handb.; U. 
/dfib latitsimo, 9[C., Buxb. Hal.; 
U. ik^9& PaL Rom. : FOrme 
ptdoneuli, Fr. 

5. montina Bauh. • 720 

The Scotch <irWychElm.—U. 
gldbra Hods.. U. <^a Slbth., 
U. «caftra MilL Diet., U nbda 
Ehrh.,U. em>^irt*yrind. Sp. 
PI., U. campfMtrii laiifbUa Hort 
Far.: WpckHazel of old autlwrt. 

Pariettee, 

A. Tltoifer 2V0e>. 

1 TiilgJiriA - - 720 

2 nigoaa Matters 720 
U. n«dia Lodd. Cat 

3 major Maeters - 720 

4 minor Afostera - 720 

5 cebemi^nsis J9brf. 720 
T%e Ce^efma Elm. 

6 nigra - - 720 
U. nigra Lodd. Cat 
ThebliEeklriBkBIm, 

7 australis ^orf. - 720 
B. Ornamental or emrioue. 

8 pendula - - 721 
V.pendula Lodd. Cat. 
V.itdbra deeHmbemHon, 

Dur. 
U. kortxontili$ Hort. 
U. ribra Hort. Soc. Card. 

9 ftstigUta Hori, 721 
U.fSftra rejrffcaia Hort. 

Dor. 
V.PArdABon, 
V. ettoniimU Hort 
Exeter Elm, Pord^sElm. 

lOcrispa - - 721 

?U. eritpa WUld. 
The emrled-leaeed Ebm. 

Other PariOieB - - 7S1 

6. (m.) gi^ra Aftll. 722 

U. montibia fi Fl. Br.. U. 
JbUo glibro Ger. Emac., U. 
cMm&fWt «ar. 3. With.; the 
/caused Elm. 

VarietSei, 

A. Timber Trees* 

1 TulgfirU - 723 
The common t$nootk4eaved 

Skn. 

2 Wgeta - - 723 
V. mo$tidna 94geta Hort. 

Soc Card. 

U. ameriedna Masters. 

TleAMA^wAm Elm, the 
Chiche9terElm,the Ame- 
rican Elm, and perbapt 
the Scamptton Elm. 

3 var. - - 723 
3V Seampston Elm, 



xlii 



CONTENTS, 



4 mj^or • - 723 

U. gUtbrm mi^or Hort. 

Dur. 
The Ctmierbmrv SeedUug. 
6 glandulosa ZAndL 723 

6 latifoUa LirnO. - 723 

7 microphylla Hort, 723 
V,g.par9(fbUa. 

B. OmamenkU or euriouM. 

8 p^dula - - 723 
U. campi$trispin, Hort. 
The Doumion Ebn. 

9 variegita Hort. 723 
10 ramulosa Booth 723 

7. dlba KU. - . 723 

8. americkna Z. - 723 

TTbtf wkiU Elm, Amer. : Or 
(Umadiam S/a^ M« American 
whUe Elm. 

1 riibra ^i/. JST. K. 724 

2 41ba ^ir. Hort. K. 724 
? U. mollifdUa R, ft S. 

3 p^dula i^t& S. 724 

4 inciaa ^orf. * 724 

5 foliis variegatifl H. 724 

9. (a.) flil?a JWiofcr. 724 
The slippery Elm^— U. r^bra 

Mx. Arlx : Ormegratt Fr. : red 
Elm, red-woodea Elm, Mooee 
Elm, 

10 al^ta Me. - - 725 
U. pitmOa Walt. Fl. Carol. : 
the Wakoo of the North Ame. 
rican Indiana. 

II. Pla'ner^ Gmel. 723 

fUkSmmu Pall., Gttldeiut.; 
V'ltmme Tarioua aathon, as to 
tho Pltmem RJekArdl. 

1. Rich&rds Mx. - 726 

The Zelkoua Tree. — P. ere- 
nila Mx. Mtm. sar le Zelkoua, 
P. carphii/bUa Wate. Dend. 
Brit., P. crendta 'DnX.^yLk&m- 
nua carpinifblnu Pall. FI. Ross., 
R. ulmoidet Guldens. It., U'/- 
muM creneUa Hort. Par., U. 
parvifdlia WlUd. Baum., U. 
camMttrit Walt. Fl. Car., U. 
pot^gama Richard Act. Paris, 
U. nemordlie Alt. Hort. Kew. ; 
U. /dlUs crematit bd$i tequM- 
btUt frudu opSldeo mm cam- 

EreMMo, Poiret Encyc. Heth.: 
r Zelkoua, or Orme de SibeHe, 
Fr. ; RichariTs Palnere, Ger. 

2. Oindlini Mx. - 726 
P. vhnifbUa Mx. Arb. Amer.. 

P. aqudUea Willd. Sp. PL, 
Aninifwntt aquatieue arbor, &c 
Walt. Carol/ 

III. Cb'ltis Toum, 121 
The NetUe Tree. — iMus of 

Lobel and other authors : MU 
eoamlier, Fr. ; ZHmgelbaum, 
Ger. ; Cello, Ital. 

I. austr^lis Xr. - - 727 

Ubtma drbor Lob. Ic, Ldtes 
sine CiUi$ Cam. Eplt. : Lote 
Tree: Micacotdier auairnl, MU 
cocouUtr de Provence, Fabre- 
amtier, FabrecomUer des Pro- 



venpmu (N. Da Ham.), Fr.; 
Areidiavolo, Ital. 

Fan'et^ - - - - 7» 

2. (a.) caucasica W. 728 

3. Touraef6rtti Lam. 728 

C. orientdltM minor, foUte mi- 
noribmM et oraetloribue, frmctu 
JUt90, Toum. Cor. ; C. orien^ 
tdli* Mill. Diet., but, according 
to N. Du Ham., not of Lin. : 
Micocoulier du Levant, MieO' 
coulter dCOriemi, Fr. ; JIuff r»- 
finditcker ZUngeibaum, Ger. 

4. (T.) sinensis Pers.no 

5. Willdenovuirux 8. 729 
G. »in6n$i* WlUd. Bnu. Sup., 

Wllld. Baum. 

6. occidentlllis L. - 729 
The North American Nettle 

Tree. — C. friictu ob$cihro pur- 
pmra$cente Touni. Inst., C. 
obOqua Morach: Nettle Tree, 
Sugar Berry. Amer. ; Bote in~ 
c omm , Illinois ; Mioocoulier de 
Flrginie, Fr. 

2 cordata WtOd. • 729 

3 acabriiiscula WiiitL 729 
C. amtrdlit Wllld. Arb. 
C. fo.fi tenuifolia Pers. 
C dspera Lodd. Cat. 

C. onentiUii Hort. 

7. crassifolia Lam. •> 730 

The Hackberry. — C. cordi- 

Jblia L'H6rlt Hort. Par., C. 

oorddta Desfont. : Ha^erry, or 

Hoop A$h, Amer. ; MicoeouUer 

d Feuitlet en Cemr, Fr. 

8. Isvidita Willd. - 730 

9. piimila Ph. - - 731 

Otker SpecicM qf CUtH.—C. ori. 
entalis L. ' - 731 



Jtigland&cea. 

I. Ju^GLANS L. - 732 

The Walnut Tree. — ^oyrr, 

Fr. ; ^otesis*, Ger. ; Noee, TtaL 

1. reg^a L. - - 732 

N£r Jitglani Dod. Pempt. ; 
N&r JdfiMM, ecu regia vtagd- 
rit, Bauh. Pin. : Noyer com- 
mvM, Fr. : Notegmer, rrorence; 
gemeine tValnuu, Oer. 

2 maxima - - 733 
"SHx Sdgkuu fHtetu md*- 

imo Bauh. Flu. 
Ifoix de Jauge, Bon Jard. 
Clawniut in Kent ; Am- 

nmt in Warwickshire. 

3 t^era - - 733 
N£r Jiiglansfi^etu Unero 

et Jraetle putSmfne 
Bauh. Pin. 

Nauer d Coque tendre, 
"Soyer MStange Bon 
Jard. I. e ; Mwer de 
Mare in Dauphlne. 

Tke tAm-skelled, or 7Y/- 
mam§e, lValn%U. 

4 8er6tina Duf. - 733 
NiLr ibglam fr^ctm $er6' 

tino Bauh. Pin. 
Newer tard(f, Noyer de la 
Saint Jean, Bon Jard. 
1896, Noyer de Mai In 
Dauphin^. 



5 laciniita • - 733 
NiLr 3kglan9 Jbttie tad- 

n/^M Heneaulm. 
Jbglam keterophjflla Ht. 
J^ilieifdUa Lodd. Cat. 
Tke Fem4ea»eA Wainmt 

Tree. 

Otker Fariettu . . 7S3 

2. nigra L. - 734 

TkeblM* Wahmt, ike black 
Htdiory Nut, N. Amer. ; Noyer 
noir, Fr. ; Noee nera, lul. 

Farietiee - . -785 

3. cinerea Xr. - - 735 

The Butter-nut. — J. catkdr. 
tiea N. Amer. Syl., J. obl6nga 
Mill. Diet. : Oa-nmt, Wkite WaU 
nut, Amer. ; Noyer eendrt, 
Fr. ; graue Walnues, Ger. 

II. Ca^rya Nutt. - 735 

The Hickory Tree.>-Jftrlra« 
«p. Lin., WUld., Michx. ; Hic6. 
rlus R^ineeque : Hickory 
Amer. 

1. olivsef^rrois NuU. 736 

The Pacane-nut Hickory 

Jbgtant rbbra Gsrtn. Sem. ; 
J. eylindriea Lam. Bncjrci., N. 
Du Ham. ; J. P^can Muklemb. ; 
J.anguet^bUoAit. Hort. Kew.; 
J. oavoifiirmii Mx. *F1. Bor. 
Amer. : Pecan-nut, Illinois- 
nut, Amer. ; Phonier, Pacanut, 
Noyer Picanier, Fr. 

2. am^ Nutt. - 737 

Jiglane tundra Mx. Arb.: 
Bitter-nut, Wkite Hickory, 
Swamp Hickory, Amer. 

8. aquadca NuU. - 737 
The Water Bitter-nut Hick- 
ory. — ibgkme aqu tica Mx. 

4. tomentdsa Nutl. 738 

The Mocker-nut Hickory. 
— Jkglant &lba Lin. Sp. PI., J. 
Alba Mtti. Diet., J. tomentbta 
Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer.: WAtte- 
keart Hickory, commonHickory, 
Amer. ; Noyer dur, Illinois. 

2 nULxima Nutt. - 739 

5. filba Nutt. - 739 
The ShelUbark Hickory. _ 

Jkglam 6lba Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., J. 6lba ovdta Marsh. 
Arb., J. squamdsa Mx. Arb., 
J. eomprisia Gssrtn. Sem.: 
Skag-bark Hickory, Scaly-bark 
Hiekory, Kisky fkomas Nut, 
Amer. ; Noyer tendre, lilinoia. 

6. sulcata Nutt. - 739 

Jil^ans laeinib$a Mx. Arb., 
J. mucron^a Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., J. eulcdta Willd. Arb. : 
tkick SkelUbark Hickory, 
Snringfleld Nut^ Gloucester 
Nut, Amer. 

7. porcina Nutt. - 740 

Jbgtans pordna n oboorddta 

Mx. Arb. ; J. porcina var. vitk 

fruit round, and somevfkat 

rougk, Mx. H. Amer. Sylv. ; J. 

obcorddta MUhlenb. : Pig.nut, 

Hog-nut, Broom Hickory. 

2 glabra - - 741 

ibglans porcina fi Uci- 

Mrmis MX. Arb. 
J. glabra Miihl. 



CONTENTS. 



xliii 



8. myrisricsefdnniay. 74- 1 

The Nutmeg Hickory.— Jft- 
gtaw fnyHMfto^/S^rmw Michx. 
Arfa. 

9. microc&rpa Nuit, 748 

otter apecie$ qf C^H^.t ^• 
aiaUsaa (Jltflonu onu^cvm* 
Mj^, C. publiceM Z^M, C. 
rtgkii (J. ricMte Lodd. Cat.), 
C. tntegriAHiu 5prnw., Hl- 
edrius hUqprif^imt Ralb. 497 

IILPtbroca^rya JTtiniA 

3igUm» jjp. Lin. 

1. caudiiaffa KwUh 743 
Jl^toM Piencdrpa Michx. 
FL Bor. Amer., fiej. Yen. 
Pflana. Cauc. ; ILM« otecirvM 
Btflix Fl. Taor. Cane. ; J. frav- 
nsifafia Lamood MS. N. Du 
Ham. i Fr&KnMtfla»vdto Uoit. 



I. 5a^ix i. - .744 

TtM WUlow — Harabj Ha- 
bra* ; Ilea, Gr. ; SaUxy Latin ; 
Aml^, Ft. ; Weide and JV^ter, 
Gar. ; SaUeiOt Ital. ; 5k>ta<, 
Span.; Widey Swed.; IF%«, 
Flam.; WitlUg, Anfl^Sax. ; 
irUfov, maei^. Soitoiir, Otier, 
EngUah } Samj^y Scotch. 

Group L PuTf^rt^ Koch. 

Oilar wmows, with one Stamen 
in a Flower. 

1. purptbvaXr. -746 

8. pwrpftrea Koch. Comm. 
Farfetfef . - -747 

8. h^lix Xr. . - 747 

TlM Rote WQIow.— S. pur- 
pkrea var. Koch Camm.» ? S. 
oppotltifdlia Hoat Sal. Aaatr. 

3. LambertJomi Sm. 747 

The Boyton Wniow. — S. 
pmrpikrem /SlLoch Comm. 

4. Woolgaru^ Bor. 747 

S. momandra Sal. Wob. No. 
4., S. momSmdra nor. HolRn. 
Ulat. SaL 

5. Forbyona Smith 748 
The fine Basket Otier. — 

5. fuut Lin. Soc. Truu., not 
of Hoff (AmAA.) ; 8. ri^a fi 
Koch Comm. 

6. rikbstk Hudt. - 746 

8. Miedrte Walker's Baiays. 

Gnrap iL JieutifiUm Bor. 
(%». Fndndsae £oc*.) 

W fllow> with dark Bark» co- 
vered with a fine Bloom. 

7. acatifblia Wm. - 748 

8. vMldoM Andr. Bot. Rep., 
hot not of Wnid., nor the S. 
ca*piea Hort ( FFOU.) 

8. </aphndMe8 VUlart 749 
S._prtt*co* Hoppe in Sturm 

D. Fl., S. bi^Swimii HoAn. 
Germ., S. chUrea Hott Sal. 
Austr. 



9. pomeranica Willd, 749 

8. AapkmSidet Villan, var. 
wiih narrtwtr Uames, amd more 
slender caiUtu, Koch Comm. 

Group, iii Tri6Mebrm Bor. 
(%». ><m7gd&lin« JCoc*.) 

10. undulata ITocA 749 

S. UmeeoUita Smith. 

8 unduUta Forbes 751 

3 lanceoUto iSn. 7^1 

4 Tar. having catkins 
androgynous - 751 

1 1. AippophaefoliaT. 751 

12. tnfrncka L. - 751 
S. aw^sg^d^no, pari ^, Kooh 

Comm. 

5 gilllca - - 752 

3 Hoppe^na - - 752 
S. wadr6gyna Hoppe. 

4 S. triiuidra unduUta 
Mertens, ined. — Ap- 
proaches to S. amj/ff' 

13. Hoffmaanidna S.752 
S. triindra Hoff., and ?ar 

German botanists in general. 

14. amygd&iina L, 752 
8. awfg dtf ff w fl , h^partt Koch 

Comm. 

15. ViUar8iaRaFlUe.752 

S. triandra Vlllars Delph., 
S. aa^gdiUna var, Koch Com. 

Group IT. Pent&ndrtB Bor. 

Trees having Flowers with 
8--5 Stamens. 

16. pentandra Z. - 754 

S. peuiindra, pari of^ Koch 
Comm. : the Sweet WiUMO, ike 
Baif4ea9ed WiUow. 

% hermaphroditica 754 

17. MeyerionaWiUd. 754 

S. euipid&ta Scbults, S. Hoc- 
Ibria Smith, S. pentandra 8 
Linn., 8. heztmdra Ehrh., S. 
EhrMarmaa^SmUh, S,tetrandra 
Willd. 

18. liicida MuMetA. 754 

8. ForAeiii Swt. Bort. Brit, 
ed.1830. 

Group. ▼. FrSigUM Borrer. 

Trees with their Twigs brittle 
at the Joints. 

19. babyMnica - 757 
Th» Weeplog Willow. ^ S. 

rpindetu Bering. Sal. Hal., 
oriaUdUit |«., Tourn. ; S. 
arMieay %e., C. Bauh. : SamU 
pUmremrt FaravU dm grand 
Seigneur, Fr. ; Trauer Weide, 
Tktranen Weide, Ger. 

1 vulgjiris ftam. H. 758 

2 Napoleona Hort 758 

3 crispa Hart, - 758 
S. MMwIilritForb. to 8.W. 
The ring-ieaved WHtow. 



20. decipieaa Hofm. 758 
The white Welsh, or var- 
nished. Willow — 8. anurina 
Walk. Essays on Nat. Hist., 
S./ragUett part qA Koch Com. 

21. montana i^or6tf« 759 

22. fHigilis Xr. - • 759 
The Crack Willow. — S. M- 

giiiat in pari, Koch Comm. 

23. moospeli^sis F. 760 

24. Rusaeilii^fui Sm. 760 
The Duke of Bedford's WU- 

low. -.?S. JrdgUie Woodv.x 
tke DieUqf., or Leiee$ter$Mire, 
Willow } in some counties, tke 
Huntingdon WOtow: 8. p^n- 
dula Ser ., 8. virMr> Files, S. 
riAem Schrank. 

25. Purahidna Bor. 761 

Group Ti. A^lba Borrer. 

Trees of the largest Sise, with 
the Foliage whitUh. 

26. 41ba/^. - - 761 

S. diba^paridf, Koch Com.; 
tke HuwIungdMt or Swatlow- 
tailed, WiOom. 

2 caeriklea - - 761 
S. iSba var. Smith, Fl. B. 
8. aeriUea Smith Eng.B. 
Tke upland, or red-tinged, 

WUlow, Pontey 
The Leic^ter Willow, 

Davy's Agric. Chem. 
Blue Willow, Smith. 

3 crispa ifort. - 761 

4 r^SBBL iMULCat, 761 

27. vitelllna L. - 763 

The Golden Osier.— 8. 6iba 
Koch Comm. 

Group vii* Niffreg. 

Bxtra-EuropeanKinds allied to 
the Kinds of one.or all of the 
the three preceding Groups. 

28. nigra MiUU. - 768 

The &rk.branched American 
Willow.— S.caniA'fifaiMMx. Fl. 
Bor, Amer., 8. pent&ndra 
Walt. FL Car., S. vulgdrU 
CUyt FL Vlrg. 

29. Humboldttdna - 764 

30. Bonplandi^na 764 

Group viii. VrinSidu B. 

ShndM, mostlT Natives of N. 
Aroei^lca, ana used In Basket- 
making. 

31. rigida Muhl - 764 

32. prinbides Pursh 764 

33. discolor ilfuA/. 764 

34. angU8tataPtir<A 764 

35. coof6rmisFor5ef 764 

Group iz. GrUeai Borrer. 

Chieiy Shrubs, Natives of N. 
America. 

36. vir^ens Forbce 765 
I S. Yuppopha^ia Lodd. 



xliv 



CONTENTS. 



37. reflexa Forbe» 765 

38. virgfita Forbes 765 

39. Lyontt ? Schl. 765 

40. Uoustoniafia P. 765 
8. iri9Ut Lodd. Cat. 18S6. 

41.&ldLtaPt(rM - 765 

42. grf sea WiUd. - 765 

43. petiolaris Srmih 765 
8. MrheaVnm. mat. fimb- 

^abrata Koch Comm. 

44. pennsylv&nica J^.766 

45. Miihlenbergtofia 766 

46. trfstis Ait. - 766 

47. cordatailfttA/^n&.766 

Gr. X. RotmaritU/dUm Bor. 
Low Shrubs, with narrow- 



46. rosmarinifolia L.766 

Sal, Totmariiti/iUa, partitft 
Koch Conun. 

49. angustifolia Borr,lQ6 

8. arSuBCula Sm. Fl. Br., S. 
To$marinifblia AKoch Comm. 

50. dec6inbensjPor^«766 

51. fuscata Purth - 766 

Group xi. Fiucm Borrer. 
Hoitly procombent Shrabs. 

52. flisca L, - 767 
8. ripm» Hook. Fl. Scot. ; S. 

repent Koch, part qf, Koch 
Comm. 

1 vulgaris - - 767 
8. /. Mr. « Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. iV«ea Sm. Bog. Bot., 

Forbos in Sal. Wob. 
S. repent Koch,^ Koch 
Comm. 

2 repens - - 767 
8./. var, fi Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. ripens Lin. Spec FL, 

Forbes in SaL Wob. 
S prostrita - 767 

S./. var, >> Hook. Br. Fl. 
8. prottrdta Sm. Eng. 

Bot.. Forbes in S.Wob 

4 foB'uda - - 767 
8./. var. 9 Hook. Br. Fl. 
S.Ja'Uda Sm. Eng. FL 

5 incubacea - 767 
8. /. 6 Hook. Br. Fl 

a Hteubdcea Un. Sp. PI. 
Forbes In Sal. Wob. 
6arg6ntea - - 767 
8. /. 6 Hook. Br. Fl. 
8. argintea Sm. Eng.Bot. 
Forbes in Sal. Wob. 

53. Dontana Smith 768 
ne mttv-iranched WiUow. 

Group xiL AfMgiM Bor. 
Shrubs. 

54. ambigua Ekrh. 768 
8. amitigua Koch, part of, 

Koch Com. 

1 vulgaris - - 768 
8. a. « Borrer in Eng. Bot. 
Suppl. 



S mi^or - - 768 
8. a, fi m4fo^ Borrer in 

Bug. Bot. Suppl. 
? S. amMpia fi Hook. 
S. perwffbba Sering. 
Samlet de la Smste. 
S spathulite - 768 

8. a. ytpatknUUa Borrer 

in Eng. Bot. Suppl. 
8. ambtgua y Hook. Br. 

Fl. 
8. spaaaiMAiWiUd.Sp.Fl. 

4 undulAta - 769 

8. a. 8 undmldtm Borr. in 

Eng.Bot 
8. ^MtkmUUa Willd. Mr. 

SMMfKldto Mortens. 

55. finm&rchica IV, 769 

56. versicolor F. - 769 

57. alatemoides F. 769 

58. protcisfolia Sch. 769 
Erroneously referred to 8. 

amUgua in Hook. Brit. Flor. 
ed. a. (Borrer MSS.) 

Gr. xiiu Retietddta Bor. 

Leaves retkmlated and coria- 
ceous. 

59. reticulata L, - 769 

Group xiv. Glauea Bor. 

Small, upright, with soft silky 
Leaves. 

60. elsMLgnoidea Sch. 770 

61. glaucaXr. - 770 
S. appendieuldia Fl. Dan.» 

WUld. Sp. PL 

62. sericea Villars 770 
S. glaiica Koch Comm. 

63. Lapponum L, 770 
8. arenitria Fl. Dan. 

64. obtii8if51ia»^t//i.77l 

65. areDaria L. - 771 

66. oboyata Pursh 771 

67. can^ceDS Wil/d, 771 

68. Stuartisna Sm. 771 

69. Dvren^ica Gou. 771 

70. Wald8teintfl»MiW.771 

Gr. XT. FimtW/es Bor. 



ly 

Trees or large Shrubs, witn 
pliant Branches, used 



long pi 
for3asl 



Willows and Osiers. — Mostl 

or large Shi 

tllant Branc 

iket-maUng. 

71. subalpbai^. - 771 

72. c&ndida WUld. 771 

73. inckoa Schr. - 771 
8. HpdHa WiUd. Sp. PL, & 

lavanautt^ia Lapeyr. Abi, 8. 
angutitfbSd Polr. in Du Ham. 
Aro., 8. ro» marit »ifJUia Gouan 
Hort, 8. vkninittt VilL Delph. 

74. linens Forbes 772 
? 8. KMcdiM Mr. Unedrit Bor- 
rer in a Letter. 

75. viminalis L. - 772 
The common Osier.— S. km- 

gifbUa Lam. Fl. Vr. 



76. Btipulkris SntUh 772 
The aurlcled-leaved Osier. 

77. SmithtflfuiWind. 772 

78. moUissima £Ar. 772 

79. holoserfcea Hk. 772 

80. MicheUonaForb. 772 

81. femi^nea And. 773 

82. acuminata Sm. 773 
The large-leaved Sallow. — 

8. lanceolMa Seringe. 

Group xvL Cindre4B Bor. 

Sallows. — Trees and Shrubs, 
with roundish shaggy Leaves, 
and thick Catkins. 

83. p4mda Forbes 773 
44. WUldenoWana 773 

85. Ponteder^na W. 773 
8. pimila a^iina f^rieant, 

foUo aleagfno terrato Pouted. 
Camp. : S. Pontedhm BeUardi 
App. ad Fl. Fed. 

86. macrostipul^cea 773 

87. incandscens ¥Sc. 773 

88. psxindsR Forbes 773 

89. mut&biWa Forbes 776 

90. cin^ea L. - 776 
The grey Sallow.— S. dnerea 

var. Koch Comm. 

91. aquatica Smith 776 

92. oleifblia SmUh • 776 

93. geminataFor6. - 776 

94. crlspa Forbes - 776 

95. aurita L. - 776 

96. latifolia Forbes 776 

97. caprea jL. - - 776 

Tike great routtd-leaved Sal' 
low, common Slack Sallote, 
Saygk In Yorkshire, Grejf 
Witkp. 

98. sphacelata Sm. 777 

Gr. XV ii. Nigric&ntet B. 

Shrubs with long Branches, or 
small Trees. Mostly Sallows. 

99. austrMis Forbes 778 

100. vaud^nsis For. 778 

101. grisophJUa F. 778 

102. lacustris FoH>, 778 
lOa crassifdlia Frb. 778 

104. <x>tinif6na Sm. 778 

The Quince-IeaTod Sallow. 
— 8. tpadicea VUlars Dauph., 
S. ^hffUeifbUavar. Koch Comm. 

105. hfrta SnuA - 778 
8. pfcfa Schleicher is the fem. 

of 8. Aires (Forbes in SaL Wob.) 

106. rivularis Forb. 778 

107. atropurpikrea 778 

108. coriacea Forb. 778 

109. nigricans SmUh 778 
S.^&ifbliafiUix.Sp Fl. 

110. kTiAevBouiam 779 
Tho Green Mountain Sallow. 



CONTENTS. 



xlT 



_9. fk^UeffVUt Mr. 
Cofmn. 

UK daxnasc^a F. 779 

S. daffuueem^Ua Andenoo's 
MSS., S. ^k^ieifblia Un. 

112. AnsonuhiaP, 779 

1 13. helT^tica Forb, 779 

114. finna Forbes 779 

115. carpinif5tia&:A.779 

116. rotundata Frb. 779 

117. dura For*« 779 

118. ForstenaiiaSiii.779 

ptofKynnfl vor. Iwocii 



119. rop^strisDoim 781 

120. tenuifblia /^. 781 
S. tffMJodkf Wahlenix, twr. 

Koch Comin.. S. temmtftUa of 
Eng. Bot. b S. ticoior Hook. 
Brit. FL 

121. propkiquaPor. 781 

Tie MUeoMd uprig^ 
MotaOaim WOow, 

122. petne'a Ander. 781 

123. AiDinaniiiana 782 

124. atrovirensJFV*. 782 

125. str^pida Forb, 782 

126. aordida Forbes 782 

127. Schleicheruraa 782 

128. grisonensis F. 782 

Gr. xTiii. BuxibreM Bor. 

Biutay Btarubt, with ' Leaves 
men above and glaaeons 
beneath. 

129. teaidoT Borrer 782 

130. \2LjjA6f9i Borrer 782 

131. ikiirina SmOh 783 
The thiains dark-green Wil- 
low.— S. hUour Sm. Eng. Bot., 
S. aHf6aeula Wahleob., war. 
Koch Connn. 

132. pktens Forbes 783 

133. radicans Snulh 783 
8. |i*flfe<fUia Lin. FL Lapp. 

134. BorrenafiaSm.783 
Tke 4ark vprighi Wmom, 

135. DaTalliofia Sin. 783 

136. t^trapla Simih 783 

137. ramifusca/br6.783 

138. Forbestona - 783 

139. Weigeliona Bor. 783 

8. irM{r<ntAna amitk Eng. FL 

140. nitens Anders, 784 

141. Cro weona Smith784 

8. arMUeula Wahlenb., nor. 
Koch Comm.; 8. kkmOU SchL 
is cited in Sal.Wob. ai the fern. 
of S. CrvweiDA SmOk t ?S.Ar- 
teropk^Ua Hon. 

142. bfcolor Ehrh. 784 

8. UmmifdUa 8niith Eng. Bot. 
w to the ilgaro 8 ^ ~ ^~'~ 
Forb. 



143. ohiUyreifdlia B. 784 

144. Dick80ii«miiSm.785 

Gr. xiz. Vaectim/3K0Bor. 

Small and generallj procum- 
bent Shroba. 

145. vacciniifolia W. 785 

8. prwiifWM, part qf, Koch 
Comm. 

146. carin&ta AikC& 785 
147./>runif61iaiSr}ni^ 785 

148. yenulosa Smiih 785 

149. cs'sia Ft^Zorx 785 
8. mgrHUSida W111d.8p. Pi., 

^.prokrdia Ehrh. Fl. Select. 

Gr. zx. ikfyf<aZoi<fes B. 

Small Bilberry-tike ihruba, not 
natlvet of Britain. 

150. myrtilloides L, 786 

TheBilberry-leaTedWlllow.— 
8.^g«u BenerEn. Vol. 

151. pedicell^ris Ph, 786 

152. planif6lia Ph. 786 

Gr. xxL Myrftii2<M Borrer. 
Small boshy Shrub*. 

153. Afyrsinkes i. 787 

8. MyrfMtPt B Smith Eng. 
II.; 8. •rbmt^olM WUld. Sp. 
PI., probably S. IfacnoMikna 
MacgtOhrag in Jawteam'iSdim. 
PkiLJonm. 

154. 6etulif51ia For6.787 

1 55. proc6mben8 JFbr.787 
8. £e*vA Hook. Br. Fl.. 8. 

re^ta Wither. Bot. Arr. ed. 4. 

156. retiiaa L, - 787 

8. aerp^a&Uba Jacq. Austr. 

157.Kitaibelifl»MiW.787 

158. ITva-firai PmtM 787 

159. MrpyilifdHaiSbo.787 

8. mftM Koch, y Koch 
Comm. 

160. cordif5liaP«rM 788 

Gr. xxit JTerhheetB Borr. 

Very lowShrabt, tcaroely rUlng 
an inch aliore tlie ground. 

161. herbicea i. - 788 
162.poUbri8 Wahletd>.7BS 

Gr. xxiu. Hastdta Borr. 

Low Shrubs, with terr broad 
leaves, and exceedingly sliag- 
gy and sllkj catkins. 

163. hastkta Z. • 788 
2 MrrulfLta - 789 

8. ka$id^ Wflld. Sp. PI. 
S maiifolia - 789 

miU(fdlia Sm. Eng. Bot. 
4 arbijscula - 789 

8. arMbenIa Wahl. Fl. 

8. orbtaemin fi L. Fl. So. 

8. arb6$Gula y Lin.Sp.Pl. 



164. lan^ta L, - 789 

Gr. xxiv. WsedHn^m A. 

Kinds of Silix described in So/. 
Wob.^ and not included in any 
of the preceding Groups. 

165. Bgvptiaca L, 789 

166. alplnaPWrAffj 789 
167.6ei^mfd]iaPa//.790 

168. tetraip^rma R. 790 

169. idmifdlia Forbes 790 

1 70. villosa Forbes 790 

Gr. XXT. Mi»cdUlM€tB B. 

Kinds of SUlx Introduced, 
and of many of which there 
are Plants at Messrs. Lod- 
diges',but which we liave not 
been able to refer to any of 
the preceding Groups - 79Q 

Appendix. 

Kinds of 5kllx described or 
recorded In Botanical Works, 
but not introduced into Bri- 
tain, or not known by theso 
names in British Gardens 790 

II. Po'puLUs Toum, 819 

The Poplar. — Pm p lif r, Fr. ; 
Pappel, Oer.i Pkmpo, lUl. ; 
Popiier^ Dutch ; Al k m ot Span. 

1. &lba L. - - 819 

The Abele Tree.—P. SOa ta* 
tifbUa Lob. Ic.MP. mi^or Mill. 
Diet., P. iifera Willd. Arb., P. 
6tba nhtea Mart. MUl. } LrvM, 
Dioscorides: tke great wkite 
Poplar^ great Aspen, Dmtek 
Beech .'Penplier bkmc, Yprtam, 
Bkme 4e HoUandty Franc Pi* 
card, Fr.; AubOy or Aombero, in 
some provinces ; weisu Pap* 
pely Saber Pappel, weiue Atpe, 
Wei$$alber bamn, Ger.; Abeti- 
boom. Dutch. 

Shfbrida^iefr. - 890 

P. rfOaBiebiLc. 
? P. hUermidaa Mortens. 
P. a. crassifbUa Mortens. 
P.grfsAiLodd. GaL 

3 aoerifdlia - - 890 
P. woeripaia Lodd. Cat 
P. qnereifbUa Hort. 

P. pabnata Hort. 

P. arembirwica, Lod.Cat. 

P. bitftca Lodd. Cat. 

4 dbidicans - - 820 
P. c&ndicane Lodd. Cat. 
P. nAvea Lodd. Cat. 

P. Utmcf^iaa of the Ha- 
wick Nursery. 

Tbekoarp Pojotar of the 
Edinburgh Nurseries. 

5 cgjptiaca HorU 890 
P. a. pAXUdn Hort. 
Egyptian wM/e Poplar. 

6 {MTndula - 8SO 
P. «. var.jgrSicaie rdmit 

pendtntibiu Mortens. 

2.(a.) canescens Sm, 820 

The common white Poplar.— 

p. 6lba Mill.Dict.,P. dibo/bMM 

nUndrOme BaU Syn., P. Atba 

jiUo minbre Bauh. Hist. : Peu^ 

pUer griioilU^Tr. 



xlvi 



CONTENTS. 



3. tremula Ir. - - 821 

The Aspen. —P. Rbyca Rail 
Syn., P. kSbrida Dod. Pempt., 
P. ftigra Trag. HIit., P. p6K- 
(talsDuRol: Atpe^ leTremMe^ 
Fr. \ la Tremolat AtberaUa^Al' 
beretto, lul. } ZiUer-Pappcl^ 
Ktptt Oer. 

Sp^ndula - - 822 
P. pfnOula Lodd. Cat. 
P. MpiiM Lodd. Cat 
3 lamg^ta - - 822 
P. Itnigita AitHort.Rew. 

4. (t.) trepida fVUld. 822 

The American Acpen. — P. 
iremuloides HIchx. N. Amcrt 
SyW., N. Du Ham. 

5. (t.} grandi(lent^823 

The K . American largeAipen . 
2 p^ndula Michx, - 823 

6. grae'ca Jit, - - 823 

The Athenian Poplar. 

7. nigra L. - - 824 
The common Uack Poplar. — 

P. 6lba Trag. Hist., P. viminea 
Du Ham. Arb., P. viUtMrnit 
Hort., P. poUniea Hort. : At- 
geiros, Greek ; Kabakf. Modem 
Greek: the oU EngUth Poptatt 
Suffolk : ike Wittow Poplar, 
Cambridgeshire ; Water Pop- 
lar i the fem. of P. nigra is 
called the Cotton Tree at Bury 
St. Edmunds : PetgpUer noir, 
Peuplier Hard, Otier BtamCtFr,, 
edtwarxe Pappel^ Ger. 

2 Tiridis UndL - 824 
P. viridU Lodd. Cat. 

8. (? n.) canadensis 824 

P. UBvUiUa WiUd. Sp. PL, 
Punh, Spreng., but not of 
Hort. Kew.; P. momti^a Hort 
Par. : Cotton-woo4% Michz. : 
Pemplier de Camada, Fr. 

9. (? n.) detulifolia - 825 

p. nkera Hlchx. FI. Bor. 
Am. ; r.kud»6nica Mich. Arb., 
N. Amer. SyL ; P. kudeom'dna 
Rose ft Lodd.: Anierietm black 
Poplar, Amer. : Pemptierde la 
Bale d'Hwbou, Fr. 

10. (?n.)inoniHfen 825 

The black Italian Poplar. — 
P. virginidna Lin. Ac, P. 
gkmd$Udsa Momch Meth., P. 
caroUntntts Momch Weissenst., 
P. nigra itdUea Lodd. Cat. 1886, 
P.Mil^a ameriedna Ibid., P. 
adadhca Lindl. inEncyc. of PI., 
? P. marpl&ndica Bosct Fir- 
gMan Poplar, Suriee Pumtar, 
Canadian or Berry-bearingPop- 
Mar, Mill. : PeupUer Snttee^ Peu» 
pUer tripkOon, Pemplier de 
yirgbtie, I>ttmoDt. 

2 Lindley^na Booth 826 
lite new waved-leaped Pop- 
lar, Hort. 

3 iolilfi variegitis > 826 
ll.fastigika2><r{/: - 827 

The Lombardy Poplar.— P. 
dilatdia AH. Hort. Kew., P. 
nigra OSUoa Du Ro( Harbk., 
P. ildUca Mcmch Welssenst., 
P. llSUea dOatdta Wiild., P. 
p^amidikta Hort., P. pamUi' 
n/ca Jacq., P. italiea var. ea- 



ra2AilFfwA>- Burgsdorf: C§preu 
Poplar, TwrinPoplart Po Pop- 
lar: PenpUer d" Itatie, PemUer 
puramidM, Fr. ; Lombanuscke 
Pappel, Italianieeke Papoel, 
Ger. i Pioppo Cypreteo, Itiu. 

12. angulkta Ait, - 828 
The Carolina Poplar. — P. 

angnlbta Michx. FI.Bor. Amer., 
T.keteropkfOa Du Roi Harbk., 
P. maeropkOla Lodd. Cot. 1886, 
P. baliam^era Mill. Diet : Mis- 
tiesippi Cotton Tree, Amer. 

2 nova Audib, - - 828 
S Mediisa Booth - 828 

13. heterophylla L. 829 

p. m6gnajbiat SmpUi, &c. , 
Gron. Virg., r.cord(fbUa Burgs- 
dorf, Lod. Cat.l836 ; P. ari^ntea 
MIchx. N. Amer. SyL : Cotton 
Tree, Midix. N. Amer. Syi. 

14. balsamffera L, - 830 
The Tacamahac Tree. ~ P. 

Tacamahic MiU, Diet.: the 
Taeamakac, Amer. ; le Bern- 
mier, Fr. \ PewpUer Hard, and 
also Taca ma ka e , In Canada; 
Baliom Papnei, Oer. 

2 yiminalis - - 830 

P. vHnindllt Lodd. Cat. 

P. uMe^bUa Hort. 

P. kmgV^Ua Fischer, PaU. 
S latifolia Hort, - 830 

4 intermedia Hort, 830 

5 suavdolens - 830 
P. stMv^o/inwFlscher, Lod. 

6 foUis variegitis - 830 

15. cdndicans AU. - 831 
The Ontario Poplar. — P. 

maerapkfilla Ltndl. In Bncyc. 
of PI., P. /o^iaAfomchMeib., 
P. ontaHtnsis DesC Hort Par., 
P. eorddta Lodd. Cat 1886, P. 
canadhuis Mcencfa Welssenst., 
but not of Michx., which is P. 
IsBTigkta WiUd.: Balm <tf Gi- 
If ad Tree, Boston, N. Amer. ; 
Penpiter Uard, Canada; Pewt- 
pUer d PeutUet vemi$$te$, Fr. 

'BettUdcea. 

I. i^^LNUS Toum, - 832 
Th« Alder,— B^lMi^ $pec^ 
Lin. : Avne, Fr. ; Erie, Ger.j 
Ontano, Itsl. ; Atito, Span. 

1. glutinosa Gartn, 832 
fStulus Aflnme Lin., B. emar- 
gindta Ehrh. Arbi : A'teiM Rail 
Syn. : Aime, Fr. ; gefneine Else, 
or Eleer, or sekwarit Erie, Ger.; 
Eltenboom, Dutch; Alno, or 
Ontano, Ital. ; Alieo^ or Alatm 
nigra. Spaa. 

2 emargimLta WHkL 832 

3 laciniAta Ait. - 832 
A. g. iftcUa Hort. 

4 ^uerciiolia WiM, 832 

5 ozyacanthaefldlia - 832 
A. oaifocaittkatfblia "Lodd. 

6 macrocirpa • 833 
A. ntaeroc&rpa Lod. Cat. 

7 ^liis varieg&tis H 833 

Other Varietiee . 



2. oblongata WiUd. - 834 




A.Jbl. I 
Diet. : I 

2folii8eUipticisl/tfsY. 834 

A. pitnOa Lodd. Cat. 

3. iDC^na WiUd. - 834 

B. A'/mts war. incdna Lin. 

Sp. PL. B. incdna Lin. Suppl., 

B. 9ir£ue Vm. Dauph. : w!rU$e 

Erle,grame Else, or weiaeeEUer, 

Ger 

2'lac!niiUa Lod, C, 834 

3 gladca - - 834 
A,gla6oa Mx. N. Amer. S. 
B.J$udna var, gtoAca Ait. 
Black Alder, Amer. 

4 angulAta Ait, - 834 

Other Varieties - - 834 

4. serrulata WUUL - 835 

B^/Hto sermldta Ait Hort. 
Kew., B. rtigbsa Ehrh. Beitr., 
? A. americSna Lod. Cat 1836, 
?A. canaddnsis Lodd. Cat.1836.: 
common Aider, Amer.i Hatet- 
leaved Alder. 

5. undulata WiUd. - 835 
Bfttda crispa Ait Hort. 

Kew., B. k'huts var. crispa 
Mx. FI. Bor. Amer. ; A. crispa 
Pursh FI. Amer. Sept., N. Du 
Ham. 

6. cordifolia Lodd. - 835 
A. eorddta Tenore Prod., 

Hayne Dend. 

7. vfiidis Dec. - - 836 

A. ovdta Lodd. Bot. Cab., A. 
flmtiebsa Schmidt, Btiula oodta 
Sohrank Sal., B. A'too-B^fwte 
Ehrh. Beytr., B. viridia Hort 

Other Species <tf A'lntts. — A. 
barbita Meper. {A.obinst- 
Jblia Royle), A. subcordAta 
Meyer, ^4. jorrullfosls, A. 
acuminkta H. A B., A, cm- 
taneifdUa ifir^. - -837 

II. Bvfvm.A Toum. 837 

The Birch. — Bouleau, Fr. ; 
Betula, Ital.; Abedut, Span.; 
BetUlta, Port ; Birke, Ger.; 
Berk, Dutch ; Birk, Danish 
and Scotch ; Biork, or Bork, 
Swedish ; Beresa, Russian ; 
Brxoxa, Polish. 

Leaves smatt, NaHvea dd^ 
f^ Europe. 

1. &lba If. - - 838 

B. pmbtscens Ehrh. Arbi, B^- 
itUa Rail Syn., B. itininsis 
Rafln. : Bomleau eommunt Fr. ; 
gemeine Birke, Ger. ; BedoUo, 
itaL 

2 p^ndula Smith - 838 

B. ptndsda Roth G«rm. 
B. verrucbsa Ehrh. Arb. 
B. pfy»dulis9irg!ulis Loes. 

3 puMScens -^ - 838 
B.pub6soens Ehrh. Beitr. 

4p6ntica - - 838 
B. p6nttca Led. Cat 

5 tcrticifolia - - 839 
B. urttcifblia I<od. Cat 

6 daledurlicaX. Svp, 839 

7 macrocdrpa ffiUd. 839 



B ISlia nri^tis 
OrAtry-mtia 

2. (?a.) ilaiirica Pall. B40 

Btla.: Bamlram gA^tit, Fr*°^' 
S {arrirolia Bayiu B40 

3. (F bO fru ticosa Full. S40 

4.(?a)ptoili) £. - 640 
6. nina I,. - - 840 

VM.(iMi.,B. galttlTUptmOa. 

4e.cui.Ati.s>;<ic: 

S uricU Ledd. Cat. 811 
6.(?ii.)gl<uidulAMJl/: 641 

Ltatalarte. NoHraqfKMt 



CONTENTS. 



L Rdbur. Briiiih OalU. 






lUfdlia jftf. - 841 



3 pfndulm - . 811 
B.p/x^MlaLoid. CM. 

8.j)apyrBce« Ait. - 848 

_ B. faiy/iYtraUlcbx. Fl.Bor. 



pinrWrrdUklii. 
T^ B. lamcnivia i 

J LodJ. Cat.. B 



3 fiiKm . . MS 

3 iriehdcU^i ^srt S48 

4 pUljph^Ua flbrt. 849 
B. nigra L. - - 643 

B. rm i ram Hlchx. n. Bor. 
B. aru^ Lodd. Cu. DOfl'! 
Cmoi/^. """ " 

10. exc&sa 11. Kcvj. 843 

ll.l^nta £, - . B44 

B. a^rd Du Hal Hirti', urnic't 
bMh tbna nnti. ud iOk thmi 
or B. (tea In I.o>l<l. CoUnXlim ^ 
««* flfrOl, Mer™ Sfrel. C^ 
M<a Krol. AwH .K^ tf«m- 
tai» tta^tmv. Ainer. ; Bau- 

yirginia, lu], 
Sp^UlifaHlila mA^rlintro- 

*li£amliiiuBS(.,J.nntdfc 
A cjUndriMkcbTi - Ml 

CoryJacete, or Cupu- 

llfera. 
I. QoB'mcua L. - 84« 

Tk* OA_rjMT«ini., 8Mrr 



»( K'npijv Alt. 
Q. uUCtfUa UoK. 



6 filiii lariegitU - B5I 

7 puipllm . . 851 
Q. fmrrtna Lodd. Cu. 

nitrr Varlaia . . ail 

3. semilifldra db>A - 8A1 

Uiw W1IW.1 Q. R. w. 

Din. Fl. Run.ia.i«H>M 




I. pyrenkics WiUd. 853 
Thoe Chlu.. Q. Tim Jtiijc, 



xlvii 

I Q. MsJnrfArra LBnr.. Q. 111. 
conimt; aUm.lmitm, Ft.' 

4. £'bcu[iu £. . R53 

The lUlUs Oak. — PUrw 
PkWb. luaft ArKDllKh, 

5. (E.) apenninaL. B54 
Q. ow'Dmrrdfa PcrL : C*^«e 

i it C^TTifc Wouy-n^fMd; 

or TWtey, Ooli. 
a. Cinia L. - - Bit 

nn., q. HnOiUii-oi iMu. lii 

Hon. Pu-., 0. imrmitduiai, 

K., Bauh. PlD. 1 U. Cltrfi 
.inll, ac, i^. fc, Bod. 



«ftM CrrWi. CW« dtwte. 
CtAw dc Awsnc, Fr. : Bar- 
C»dw*c ££l(. Ctrr.ticAe, 



1 TuJg&ru - - B55 
4. Ctrrii AxodSM Via 

Q crMte ur. I Lua. 
Q. TBtmunna wuu. 

TourD.CM. " 

SC^nir OIIt. Vot. 
HoJtaU^Vu BOK. 

2 pjndufa JVotf . 856 

3 lacini^ta - ■ 856 

4 ToriegAta Lad. G 856 



- flSG 



a Rigatl - 
a SigmalL. 



Ilu Dmmtkirr Sak, lA 



xlviii 



CONTENTS. 



••• FoUage evergreen, or 
very nearly $a. Letnee 
varying Jrvm dentate to 
tmaate, Onpe of Ike 
AcomebritUy. 

13 L. crispa - 859 

Q. L. crispa Hort. 
New Lneombe Oak. 

13 L. suberdsa - 859 
Q. L. tmberdia Hort. 

14 L. incisa - 859 
Q. L. indea Hort. 

15 L. dentita - 859 
Q. L. dentdta Hort. 

16 heterophflla - 859 
Q. L, hetenpkjfUa Hort. 

7. -^gilops L, - 860 
The ValonU Ode— Q. or^n- 

ttUie^Bp., Toorn. Cor.; X'gilppi 
tine Cimu mas C. Bauhm, 
SeooDdat; Veliknl TowntVoy.f 
GIAns Cirri Dalech. Hiit. : the 
great prickkf-cnpped Oak : 
ikine VekuZ Fr. ; Chine Ve- 
lanide Bote; Knonper Eicke^ 
Oer. ; VaUonea, Ital. 

2 p^nduk Hort, - 860 

3 Utifolia Hort. - 860 

B. Natives qfNortk Ameriea, 

§ iii. A'lbat. WhUa jinuH- 
ccM Oaks. 

8. alba L, - - 862 

Q. klba vhrghtidna Fark. 
Theat. Bot, Q. a. ptnnat{fida 
Walt. Carol., Q. J^^f^ 
Marsh : CMSne blane de VAmi- 
rique, Fr. ; tpeisse Eicket Ger. 

1 plnnatifida Mx. 862 
Q. Alba Ban. Cat. Stirp. 
Q. HrgMina Cateib. Car. 
Q. a. paUMris Marsh. 

2 rep^nda Mxchx. 862 

9. (a.) olivaefdrmis 864 
The mossy-capped Oak^ Amer. 

10. macrocirpa W, 864? 
Tke oser-enp wkUe Oak, Bur 

Oak, Amer. ; Ckgne i gros 
Otans, Ckene Jrisi, Fr. ; gross- 
fmditige Eicke, Ger. 

11. obtusUoba Mr. 865 
The Post Oak.— Q. steOdta 

Wind. Sp. PI. : Iron Oaky Bos 
white Oak, American Turkey 
Oak, UpUmd wkite Oak, Amer. 

12. lyrata WaU, - 865 
The Swamp Post Oak, Water 

white Oak, Amer. 

§ iv. Frinus, Chestnui 
Oaks* 

13. Prinus L. - 866 
The Chestnut-leared Oak. 

1 paliistris Mx. - 866 

Q. P. pal4stris Mx. 

Q. Prhms Lin. Sp. Fl. 

Q. castanet^bUis, Ac, Pk. 

The Swamp Chestttut Oak, 

tke Ckestnnt wkite Oak, 

Amer. ; Me wkite Oah, 

near Philadelphia. 

8 montlcola Mx. - 866 

Q. P. monKMla Mich. fll. 



Q. fNOM^na WlUd. Sp. PI. 
Q. Vrhuts Smith In Abb. 
The Rock Ckestnut Oak. 

3 acuminilta Mx. - 867 
Q. P. aemniniUrt Mx. flL 
Q. Cattinea Willd. Sp. PI. 
Theyeilow Oak. 

4 piimila Mx. - 867 
Q. P. ChlnqiU4>tn Ma. 
Q. Chinquapin Pursk Fl. 
Q. princes Willd. Sp. PI. 
The ChinqnMin, or Dwoif 

CkestmUOak. 

5 tomentosa Mx. - 868 
Q. P. discolor Mx. 

Q. bicolor WUld. Sp. Pi. 
Q. IfidbotixU JtTiiM. 
TAtf Swamp white Oak. 

§ ▼. /Zd6r<e. Red Ameri-^ 
eon Oaks. 

14. riibra L. - - 868 
The Champion Oak. — Q. 

B'feiitf disiskra, ftc. Pluk. 

Phyt. 
Varieties, H. rObra latifblia 
and Q. rj^bra montina are 
mentioned by Alton tn the 
9d ed. of Hoft. Kew. 

15. cocdnea WiUd. 869 
Q. rMra^ Alt. 

16. ambfgua WUld, 870 

The Grey Oak. — Q. boredlis 
Mlchx. N. Amer. Syl. 

17. fidckta Michx. 870 

The Spanish Oak. >- Q. dis- 
color Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. i.; Q. 
ekmgdta WUld. Sp. PI. ; Q. ly- 
rdta Lodd. Cat. 1836 ; Q. ch- 
MeaAi Wang. ; Q. triloba WUld., 
Michx. Qoer. : thedowt^^ased 
Oak. 

\S.^clbntLWm.' 871 

The Quercitron. — Q. vir- 
ginidna,_kc., Pluk. Phyt. ; Q. 
Stjcofor Willd. Arb. : tke black 
Oak, Amer. ; Ckine des Tein- 
tsariers, Fr. 

1 anguldsa Michx. 871 
Q. americdna Pluk. Aim. 
Q. a/tafifia Lam. Diet. 
Q. tinetbria Bart. Trar. 

2 nnuosa McAx. - 872 

19. paKistris^tAtf.- 872 

The Pin Oak. — Q. montdna 
Lodd. Cat. 1BS6, Q .SoMitltfH 
Lodd. Cat 1836. 

20. CatesbdfN Willd. 673 

The Barren Scrub Oak. — Q. 
rkbra fi Abb. & Smith Ina, Q. 
E'scali divis^ra, ^., Cat Car. 

$ Ti. Nigres. Black 
American Oaks* 

21. nigra L. - - 874 

The Black Jack Oak. — Q. 
matrylAndica, fc. Rail ; Q^Ar- 
nvraett Michx. M. Amer. Syl. ; 
Q. aqndtica Lodd. Cat. IflW : 
Barren Oak, Amer. 

22. aqii4tica Soland. 875 

Q. jiliis csmeifirmibm, ^., 
Gron. Virg. \ Q. /iVA» non ser- 
rdto, tc Cat. Carol ; Q. «4rni 



Willd. Sp. PL, Q. MltfvMStf 
Wangh. Amer. 

2 n4na ... 875 
Q. a^uAtica Sm. ft Abb. 
Q. a. elongkta Ait H. K. 
Q. denidta Bart. TraT. 
Q. suliM WiUd. Sp. Pi. 
7%tf lywasf Jagged Oak. 

3 maritima Michx. 875 
Q. hemisphafrica Willd. 

0<A«r Varieties - - 875 

23. (a.) tlicifolia ^. 876 

The Bear Oak. — Q. Hkmit- 
IfH Miehg., ? Q. oosi^tfca Abb. 
ft Sm. Ins. ! Black Scrmb Oak, 
Dwarf red Oak, Amw. 

$vii. PA^/Zm. WUhw 
Oaks, 

24. Ph^llos L. - 876 

Q. virginidna, ^^ Flol^* 
Aim. ; Q. rif« marylindica 
Rail Hist. PI. 

1 sylviticus J/icAx. 877 

2 latifdlius Lodci. C. 877 

3 hiimilis Pursh - 877 

4 seiiceus • - 877 
Q. VhiUos Sm. ft Abb. Ins. 
Q. P. pftmflitf Michx. 

Q. hamilior s&licis /blio 

brev^re Cat. Car. 
Q. ««ric«a WUld. Sp. PI. 
Q. pkmila Mx. N. Am. SyL 
T%e Highland WiUow Oak. 
The rmmning Oak, 

5 cinereus - - 877 
Q. P. y. Lh». Sp. PI. _ 
Q. P. icinbreus Alt. H. K. 
Q. kkmiUs Walt. Carol. 
Q.cAs^AiWilld. Sp.PL 
Tke upland WiUow Oak. 

6 maritirous Michx. 878 
Q. mantima Willd. Sp. PI. 

25. (P.)/aurif6lia>r.878 
The Laurel Oak, Swamp WO- 

low Oak. 

2 h^brida Mx. Qwer. 878 
Q. L 2. oUusdta Alt H. K. 

26. imbricata WiUd. 879 

Q. latifiUa Hort: Lamrei 
Oak, FUed-cup Oak, Jack Oak, 
Black Jack Oak, Amer. ; CkSns 
k Lattes, Fr. 

27. heterophylla M. 879 

Bartram*s Oak. 

Otker Species qf ThiUos. — Q. 
agrifblU JVaid. (? Q. coc- 
^era) - - - - 879 

B. Leaves evergreen. 
A. Natives of Europe. 

§ viii. I7e*. Hcim, or 
Holfy, Oaks. 

28. /^lex i. - - 880 
The common erergreen Oak. 

~~ Vies arb&rea Bauh. Hist. : 
FYeuse, or CkSne vert, Fr. j 
Stein Eiche, Oer. ; fiUcr, ItaL ; 
Sndna, Span. 

lintegrifoIiaLocL 0.880 

2 8erratifoliaL<M£.C.880 



COKTENTS. 



xHx 



dyagifolialAULasSO 
PkOiodrgM Matth. Valgr. 
Via No. S. Du Ham. Arb. 

4cHspai:.od: CaU 880 

5 latilolU Lod, Cat. 880 
Q. I. tMAngm Hort. 

6 longifolia Lod. C. 880 
Q. I. lUSe^hUa Hort. 

7 variegiu HorU • 880 

29. (/.) Balldta Des. 882 
?r/M m4^ Clus, Hist.: 

Okime A Gtoadk domx. Chine 
JBaUote^¥v. 

30. (/.^.)gramuotia882 

fVta fUUM rolmmMfibu*, 
Ac, Magn. Moosp. : Ckeme de 
Gtammomt, Fr. ; WeUewbOU, 
irige Eieke, Ger. ; Emdmadmlee^ 
and Gtfuella, Span. 

2 Co6ktt . ^ 883 
Q. aidMI ifrft. Artf. Ittad. 

31. coccifera L, - 883 

The Kermcs Oak. — Vieg eoc- 
t^rra Cam. Bpte.» 1. acmltdta 
eoeeif^amdiftra Garid. Aix., I. 
eoeagrra Ger. Bmac: <3keii« 
tfitf JCfrawf , Fr. ; Kermes 
Eidke, Ger. ; Qtwnv dW J&r- 
r, lUl. 



32. psei^do-coccifera 883 

Ckeue d Jawi Kermes, Fr. ; 
Sieekermte Sieke, Ger. 

33. iSQber L.- - 884 

SMer Cam. Spit., 8. Prhnu 
Mattb. Valar., S. laii/Mum, 
^e^ Do Ham. Arb.: Ckime 
Liege, Fr. ; Kork Bieke, Ger. ; 
Awero, Ital. ; Aleomofue, 8p. 

2 latif5Uum - - 884 
Skber latifdUum, 4c., Ban. 

3 angnstiroliuin - 884 
StiA. amgmst(fdlium Banh. 

^ dendttum - - 884 
Q. Fteido-Skber Hort. 

34. P&eddo-5Kkber D. 885 

Ckene fami Liege, Cktne de 
Gihralier, Ft. ; VmSdUe Kork- 
Bicke, Ger.: Q. TVnwrl DImc, 
ftom a leaf recdTed by Um 
from Kew, not of WUUL 
2 Fontandsn - - 885 
Q. FomtmaeM Gum. 

35. Tiirnen Wilid. 885 
Q. k^krUa Hort. : C3M«r d^ 

Ttanier, Fr. ; IWncndkef ^dkr. 



36. hybndan^a - 886 
Q.k^krida Lodd. Cat. 1886; 

Q. *« a kifkiid kettPeen Q. m- 
Ammtite and Q. rir« in Hort. 
8oc Gard.*' ; Q. Mmr/f« Hort., 
Q.MdiMHort. 

B. NMMsqfNortk Ameriem, 

$iz. VhrinieM, LivOaki, 

37. WreoB AU. - 886 
The Uve Oak — Q. Pktikte 

Lin. Sp. PL, Q. temperament 
BanicCcr, Q. ftrmrtajlir^rfea Br. 
BotGard. 

38. myrtifdtia WiUd. 887 



c. NaUeet qf Neped. 

§ X. Lauatm. WooUy or 
downy-leaved OaJu, 

39. lanata SwM - 888 
Q. lam«AidM D. Don Prod., 
FL Nep. ; ? Q. B4qia Ham. 
MSS., ? Q. okiong^ D. Don, 
L c. ; ?Q. AicdfM Rojie Uliut 



40. annulata Sndih 888 

Q. PhulliiU Ham. M88., D. 
Don Prod. PI. Nep. ; ? Q. Kam- 
rodpil D. Don, /. c. ; 7 Q. ^/otfoi 
Thunb.. ? Q. acnmindta Hort. 

A pp. L European Kindt 
of Oakt not yet intro- 
duced. 



Q. glalSca Thnnk*, Q. cun»i. 
dAta Tkunk., Q. dentiUia 
Thunk., Q. cfbovktA Bunge, 
and Q. chinfosls Bunge, are 
deicribed in our 1st ed. • 



Q.ikgfnea Lam. 

Q. mgilMtifdUa Wnid. 
Q. irsUopiAlia Pert. Syn. 889 

Q. kispdniea fi Lam. 
Q. JBIr^a Bosc . -889 

CkSne Brotte at Nantes; 
CMm^ iM/»,BoBamL 
Q. ▼iminilis Bote - .889 

Chine Sauie. Ckgne Otter. 
Ckinede Hoi, Fr. 
Q. 4spera Bo$e • - 889 

Chine dpre, Fr. 
Cbtae L^sermien, Bote - 889 
Ch6ne CasUUan, Bote - • 



Other Spedet — Q. lusitfnica 
lAtm., Q. vrftsina Pert., Q. 
calyiAna Pair., Q. ezpinsa 
Poir.. Q. rotundifbUa Lam. 
and 0. hOmilia ~ 



App. iL Oaht of Africa^ 
Aeia Minor, and BertiOf 
onfy partiaBy introduced. 

Q. obt^cta Poir. Diet. . 890 

Q. infect5ria 0/nr. Foy. - 890 

Q.cari/ntit WlUd.: Ckene 

a Gallet,Fr. ; Parker Eicke, 

Gpr 

Q. Libini OMf.. Q. rfgida^OU., 

Q. ib6rica Slev., Q. eastanei- 

IMia C. A. Meyer, and Q. 

mon^dUca Fitch., are de- 

scribed in oor 1st edit. - 890 

Q. mannifera Lindl.Bot. B. 890 

Q. rdgia Lindl. Boi. Beg. 891 

Q. Brkota Lindl. BotBeg. 881 

App. ill. Himalayan Oakt 
only parHaUy introduced. 

a. ttiidauk Smith inBeet*tC. 891 
Q. tquamata Box. Hort. 

Beng. 

Q. A'rcola Ham. MSS. 

Q. obtusifblia D. Don, Q. gran- 

dlfblia D. Don, and Q. velo- 

tlna Lindl., are described in 

our 1st ed. - - 89S 

a. lameUdsa Smith - . 892 

Q. imkricata Ham. MSS., 

D. Don Prod. Kl. Nep. 

Q. semecarpifdlia AnM. 



App. iv. Oakt of Japan, 
Coddn' China, ^ China, 
mott of which have not 
yet been introduced. 

Q. gUbra Thunk. - - 89g 
Q. oooe^ntrica Lour., Q. acbta 
T%unk., Q. serriKa Thunk., 
e 



App. V. Oakt of Java, Su^ 
matra, and Ae kMueca 
blet, not yet introduced. 

Q. sundiica BItime Ft. Joe. 891 

The Sunda Oak. 
Q. pruinbsa Blume Ft. Joe. 894 

71b« firotlyQak, 

Q. ansustiU mume PL Ja». 894 

Q. pinida Blume FI.Ja9. - 895 

Q. cost^U Blume Fl. Joe. 89ft 

Q. rotundau Blume PI. Joe. 895 

Q. ^lagans Blume FL Jae. 896 

Q. placentilrlaB(frfRffF9f.Jav.809 

Q. glab£rrima£tem«F/. Jffv. 896 

Q. platyc&rpaiS'Acme Ft. Jav. 896 

Q. dKphniSSAeaLBlumeFl.Jae.9Sfl 

Q. racemdaa Hook, in Cuihp. 

B. Mag., Q. gemelliflbra 

Blume Fi. Joe., Q. icdiita 

Blume Ft. Jav., Q. urceo- 

Ihrit Hook., and Q. Pseildo. 

moHScca Blume Fk Joe., are 

described in our 1st ed. - 898 

Q. moldoca Bume Ft. Jae. 898 

Q,. torUnita Blume Ft. Joe. 898 

d. lineiUa Blume Fl. Joe. - 898 

App. tL Mexican Oakt 
onlypartiaUy introduced, 

Q. xalap«nsis Humk. 4 Bon. 896 

Q. glvacHcentHumkJhBon. 889 

H obtus&U Humk. f Bon. 8li9 

Q. pandttraia Humk. 4 Bon. 899 

Q. repAnda Humk. 4r Bon. 900 

Q. tedrina Humk. A Bonpl. 900 

Q. tUerdxjltL Humk. ^ Bon. 900 

Q. mezicftna Humk. A Bon. 901 

Q. criMipes Humk. i Bon. 901 

Q. crissipes angustlfotia H. 901 

Q. lanceoliu humk. &Bon. 901 

Q. reticulata Humk. 4 Bon. 909 

Q. chrysophf lia Hum. ^ S. 90S 

Q. pulch^Ua Humk. ABon. 903 

Q. spldita Humk. A Bon. 90S 

Q.. stlpuiaris Huaeb. ^ Bon. 90S 

Q.. crasslfdlia Humb.if Bon. 901 

Q,. depr^ssa Humb. A Bon. '906 

Q. Boibfgua Humb. ^ Bon. 906 

Q. confertUbUa Hum. A Bon. 904 

Q. trldens Humb. A Son. 904 

a. acutUbUa WiUd.JI. gfB. 904 

Q. elliptlca Willd., Q. mucro. 

niLU WiUd., Q. tomentbsa 

JVilkL, Q. circln&U H'iUd., 

Q. splfodens IViUd., Q. ra- 

gbsa mUd., Q. macrophtHa 

fFUId., Q. diveraif;ilU mUd., 

Q. cindicans H'iUd, Q. ml- 

croph^Da ITtUd.. Q. lobJkU 

Willd., Q. magoolui^fklia 

WlUd, a. Ititea VKilld., and 

Q. lallclfblia fViUd., are de- 

scribed in our 1st ed. - 904 

Q. lanctfMia Ckam. ft Scklee. 904 

Q. petioUrisiXm^A. . .904 

Q. dysoptayila Benth. Planl. 

Hartweg., Q,. A*lamo Ibid., 

Q. barbmfarls Ikid., Q. gla- 

br^scena JOrid., 0. Hartw^ 

Ibid., and some others, have 

been discovered by Hartweg, 

who has sent homeapedmens 

of all, and acorns ofsorile, to 

the Hort. Soc. . - 904 

II. jPa'gusZ/. - - 905 
The Beech. ^AitfM of the 



CONTENTS. 



ItoOMLns Aoeordlnff to Bauhtn ; 
OnM of tho Gredu ; Gwl^bwa 
Tourn. : HStre^ Ft. i Sueke^ 
Oer.; Beuke^ Dutch; Bog, 
Dan. ; Bokt Sw«d. t Bmk, Ron. 
and Pol. ; Fii^xjIOt Ital. ; Haya^ 
Span ; Ft^fo^ ort. 

A. CupmU mmricmte, ammU- 
Jbrm. Ovariet tnauded. 

Young leaves pticate. 

a. Spedeg in Cultivaikm im Iki- 

tiik Oardetu. 

I. 8>'lv&tica L. - 005 

Ctutinea Fdgut Scop. Carn., 
Tdgia Bauh. nn., F. tyHittra 
Mich. N. AmoTM Oxyo» Greek, 
Fi^utt Lat. : Jf ^<rv commtM^ 
¥t, i gemetne BudUt Oer. \ 
Eoodbenke, Dutch. 

2 puipiirea AU, - 905 
F. s. 2. a/rv-rftftcM Du R. 
HHrenoir, Ft. 

3 cikprea Z.odrf. Cat, 905 

4 foliis vari^atb - 905 

5 heteroph^Ua - 906 
F.«. laemtdia Lodd.CaL 
F. $, •apUtMdiia L. Gat. 
F. ». incUa Hort. 

F. «. MiMfWa Hort. 

Fr. 

6 cristfkta Zodi. Cbf.906 
F. M. crispa Hort 
J»irr OA* rff Cofl-, Fr. 

7 p6Ddu\& Lod, Cat. 906 
//^<re Parasol, Fr. 

8 americAna - 907 
F. iykfHlrit M Ichx. 
ITAAir BMci, Amor. 

3. femigfnea i4t^. - 909 

F. americdma kO^blia Du Bol 
Harbk. : red Beech, Amer. 
2 carolimAna • - 909 

F. earoMmdMa Lod. Cat. 
Slatifdiia - - 909 
F. lai^fMa of IiOe*» Mart. 

b. l^pMfet not f/et inirodmced, 

3. obliqua Mirb. - 910 

B. Cupule hufolucri/brm ; Seg' 
ments narrow, laaniaie. OvC' 
riet lateraUy imerted, 

a. SpecHt introduced fnto 
Britain. 

4. (etuloides Mirb, 9)0 
The evergreen Beech. — B^- 

imla ant6rctiea Font, in Com. 
Goeu., WiUd. dp. PI. 

5. antarctica .FWf ^. 910 

b. Speete»noityetinirodueed4»to 

BrUiA Gardena, 

6. Dombeyi Mirb. - 91 1 

The Myrtte-leaTod Beech. 

7. dubia 3ftr&. - 911 

III. CastVnea 71-911 

The Chei tnnt — FajfUt IJn. 
andoChtfrv: ChAtaignier, Fr ; 
Ka$tanie, Ger. ; Ca»tagna,\til.\ 
Castano, Span.; CattanAeirOf 
Port. ; Castanietnet Swed. nd 
Dan. ; KackUm, Bnu, 



1. v^sca G<grtn. - 912 
TheSweet, orSpanUh,Che»t* 
nut — Figu$ Castanea Lin. 
Hort. Cliff., Cattdnea $ativa 
Mill. Diet., C. vuigdrig Lam. 
Bncyc. Eng. Bot. 
Fartetteg 

A. Botanical Fariettet. 

2 osplenifolia Lodd. 912 
Cketeroph^Ua Hort. 

C. lacinthta Hort. 
C. talieifhUa Hort 

3 cochldLtaXotf. Ca<. 912 

4 glabra Lodd, Cat, 912 
C. v./d/i/« au:idi$ Hort. 

5glaiica /fort. - 912 
C gtaitea Hort. 

6 vaiiegata Hort, - 91 2 
C. v.Mlifs arrets Lodd. 

7 americ^na - - 912 
C. ^*ea Michx. 

B. Fruit'bearing Vart. 913 

2.j>iimila WiUd. - 914 

The ChinGjqpin.-.F4gtM pii- 
mHa Lin. Sp. PI., CoMiduea 
pkmUa virginidna, tfc. Pluk. 
Aim.: Ckataigner Ouneapin, 
Ft. ; xteerch KaUamCi or Oat^' 
tai^, Ger. 

j^p^ef qf Cattdnea not pet in- 
trodueed into European Oar- 



C. indicA Ror. Hort. Beng. 914 

C. RoxbdrghfY LIndi. - 915 

Qm^cw castaniedrpa Rox. 

Hort. Beng., Spreng. Sytt. 

C. ■phaerodtrpa LAk//. • 015 

(jfiUreut armdta Rox. MSS. 
a #ribul61dei Lindl. - - 915 
Qu6reuM tributoUlet Smith in 
Rees's CyclM_D. Don In 
Prod. Nep., wall, in Litt. ; 
Q.Catdngea Ham. MSS. ; 
Q.f^rtur Rox. Hort. Beng. 
J7. martab£nica VFaO. Pi. A%. 915 
C. TVci^mtf Bluroe BJdr. 915 
Tun^Krrui, or T\nigerrdk, of' 
the Natives. 
C.ATgtfnteti Biume Fl.Jav. 915 
C. javtnica I^me Fl. Jan. 915 
a montina - - . 915 
C. numtdna Blame BJdr. 
8 ftio^wens ... 916 
C. in^rmis LinM. in WaU. - 916 
C. chln6nsis Spreng. - - 916 

IV. Ca'rpinus X. - 916 

The Hornbeam Came, 

Ckarme, Fr. ; Bagntuche, or 
Hainbucket Ger. ; Carpino, 
Ital. 

K P^ulus L. ' . 917 
CS rpinm Matth. Valgr., 
(y&trya Banh. Pin., Crmu 
Trag.Hitt., F^gw Baoh. Hkt., 
B#f«lMLob.Ic.: Came,Charme, 
FT.igemeine Haynbuehe, Oer. ; 
Carpifno bianco, Ital. : fiem- 
beam, Yolce Elm, and In tome 
placet Wifck Nauel. 

2 inciaA Lodd, Cat, 917 
C. B. querc(fSlia Deaf. 

C. B. ketertmkpUa Hort. 

3 vwKgkUiLod. Cat, 91 7 

2. (^.) ameridina - 918 

C. virginidma Michx. Arb. 



S. (B,) orjentjilis /;. 918 

Spea'es or Farietiet of Cdr. 
pinut not if et introduced into 
European Oardent. 

C. B. Carpimtxa Hort. .919 
C. Timfnea Lindl., WalL . 919 
C. (agteea Lmdl., Wall. . 919 

V. O'STRYA WilU, 919 

1. vulgaris WUid, - 920 

Cdrpmus <ystrua Hort. Cliff., 
Cyttrya carphiifoh'aScop.CKm., 
(ystrua Bauh. Pin., O. itdlica, 
9rc., Michx. Gen. : Carpino nero, 
Ital. 

2. (?v.)virginicaFF. 920 

C^rpiMtw itirginidna Abb. 
Ins., C^rpAsiM (XMryA w'rgi. 
nidna Michx. FI. Bor. Amer., 
C. O'sfrffa Bfflch. N.Amer, Syl., 
not the fig., which is O. rtil- 
girls : Iron Wood, Lever Wood, 
Amer. ; Boit dur, lUinois. 

VI. Co'RYLUS L. • 921 
The Haael. — Coudrier, Fr. ; 

Hatelnu**, Gm.xNoeeiolo, Ital. 

1. i^vdlana L. - 921 

Coudrier Noitetier^ Fr. ; Aa- 
aeUrauck, Nustbamn, Ger. ; 
AoelUmo, Nocdoto, Ital. i Avei- 
lano. Span. 

Farktiet. 

A. Boianleal Varietiet. 

1 sylvdstris ^tV. - 922 
C. AveUdna Svensk., 

C. syMetris Banh. Fin. 

2 pikinila - - 922 
C. pknula Lodd. Cat 

3 heterophylla - 922 
C. keteropk^Ua Lodd. Cat. 
C. tadnidta Hort. 

C. urticifdUa Hort. 

4 purpurea - - 922 
C. purpurea Lodd. Cat. 
C. atro- purpurea Hort.* 

B. Farietie* cultivated for 
their Ftmit, 

5 tubulosa - - 922 
C. tubuUea Wllld. Abbild. 
C.mStima Mill. Diet. 

C. taOva Bauh. 

C. s. rbbra Alt. 

Jtetf FjU5«rf,Hort^8oc. Cat. 

Lamgbartnmtt, or JLom- 

berfnutt, Ger. 
l^Toi'Mlier /nmc <j FrwU 

rouge, Poit. et Turp. 

6 tubttldaa ilba - 922 
C. sa^a alba Ait. 
C.A.al6aLodd.Cat. 
WMUFiUtert, Hort. S. Cat. 
FK«te« Xai^{torfMif«,Ger. 

7 crispa Ene. of PL 923 
Fr*MaaedFabert,FM, 

8 t^uia Lodd, CaL 923 
Thin-shelled, or Cosford, 

Nut, Pom. Mag., H.S. 

9 barcelon^nsis - - 923 
C. joriva gr&ndit 'RwaSa. 
C. A.grdndis Lodd. Cat. 

/(tma JViff , the Doumton 
large Nut, Hort. S. C. 

2. Colurna L. - - 923 

C. AyxanAiMHerm. Lugdb., 
AveUdud peregrhna kSunilit 



CONTENTS. 



li 



Oma CIiu. Hist., C. aridrea 
Bort.: leNabeHer^e ~ 

2 interiDddU - - 929 
Cmierm^im Lodd. C«U 

3 Mrbor^acensFMcft. 934 



8. rcMtrata ML -925 

TiM Oaekold Haael.— C^/- 

4.aiiieridtaa iMidLr. 925 
C. mmurMmm HHmOU Wang. 



Abmt.: i)iMKf ClwstoM Umiy 
wMdFUberiyAmat. 

Otker Smetiet. — C, f^rox WtH 

I. GA'RRTif DoiuL 926 

1. eUfptka Dou^ - 026 

2. Aiurifbtia iTar/icr. 926 




O. aaorephfila, 

■.and O. OTiU,«re 

ia Benthwn't Plan. 

• 917 



L Pla'tanos i. - 927 

The PUne Tiree.~PlalaMr, 
Fr.; Fiaimmu Ger.| 



1. oiientalis Xr. - - 928 

•FUtamm a r i emtiUt vim 
Park.Theatr., Do Bam. Art. : 
Platme *e rOriemi, Vr.; Mar- 
fmOtmiiaektr P lst m mu Oct.; 
BooA, AnMc : CkSmar, PeniaD. 

2 oeerifolM ^ti - 998 
P. 0. A'cerU^lio Toor.C. 
p. meerffMia WUId. Sp. PL 
P. imitnitidia Bort. 
Jfgalf Ifmed Fbme Tree, 

3 fa]fl»4nica - - 927 
pTAte^aAxi Lodd. Cat. 
P. MUKToip^^ilto Crae. 

4 enndUa - - 929 
p. 0. mmdiMia Alt. R K. 
P. 1— fifa WWd. 8p. PL 

2. ocddentMis L. 931 

p. oeeidaUiUt tern whgbtiht-. 
$k Park. TbaaCr., Du Ham. 
Arb.: Aifl9f»-iM«d; ITaftr JSmcA, 
ag€mm &rt ^ CoUam TVwf, Ainar.} 
Arffliw de FirgMe, Fr. 

L Liai^IDA'KBAIt L. 932 



1. Styracifliia L. - 932 

lAqmMSmbm' Arbor Plok. 
Ataa, Mrw Ktert»jmo RaU 
BUC: rifwriif— itT rMMiu , 
CbMfcig ^ rAmtriame, Liqui- 
Hemhtir Copai, TT.iTUeuemder 
Aimbarhmmh 0«r*l MaroM H* 
Virirla,llal. 

2. hnbMe IFtf/rf. - 938 

X,. ariMfdito Min . Dfe., ? IM- 



oriemtiUie Poeocfc lclaer.» 
L. hmkerbia SmUh In Rees*s 
Cyc 

(MA«r 4wcfef. — L. Alttngfa 
Blttme BJdr. (iUMiwIa exctf/- 
«a Noraoha in Batav. Ver- 
band^ Pan. Sjrn., Sprenf. 
Syt. L a mbarfi Geaus Ataut ; 
Z.%wi MHuteMN Runph. 
Uartiar. Aaibogm.) - 993 

lAyricdcea, 
L AfYRrci L. - 934 

The CaodleberTy Hrrtle.^ 
OiUd, Fr.; Wadksttramch, G«r.: 
JfA'iM.ItaL 

1. Gale L. - - 934 
Sveet Gale, Sweet Willow, or 
DwtchWiUow.— 041e Rati S^., 
BMJMMfCard. Hi»U,M^hu 
Wub£mtica Ger. Bmac, KAd« 
xt^rtifUia bilgiea Bauh. Pin., 
R. tgMatrU &itera Dalech. 
Ulat., B. ^vistri* Park.Theat, 
BfWrkw paUUirii Ijm. : GaU, 
PJmetUo rogml, Fr., geaieime 
-MM*, Ger. 



2. €erf fera L, - 935 

The American Candleberrj 



L cer^era m^tutiJS- 
Urn Att. Hort. KewJliArtu$ 
ArwddsMeo, Jv , Plui. Aim. : 
drier de la £i9MAMn«,Fr.; ifH 
hero deUa cera. Ital. 

2 latilolU Ait ' - 935 
Bl c; midia Mlchx. 
H cmroUmhuU WilkL, 
IC. pemmeifloSmtea Lam. 
IL c. fciNfwrvJmw Hort. 
Mfrtm brabimtiem Gates. 

OMrr dePemmnhMmietYx. 
Uraok$- 
Ger. 



MIer Apeefef — M. apathulAu 



IL CoMPTo'N/if 8ol.936 

Liumtddmbar Lin. flp., l^yri- 
M Ltn. Hort.01Ur., Gdle Petn. 
Mm,: Compiom€tVt,\Comptoidet 
Ger. 

1. mplenii^lia Solan. 936 
UqmUuaAar malen^fbUum 
Un Spw, L, peregrimmm Lin. 
Syat., Myrku Linn. Hort CUft, 
Gdle flMHdMa PeUv. Hui.,1^. 
tmt brabdmtiue qff'htii Fluk. 
Phjpt. : Vte sweet Pern Bteft, 
Amer. 

Gnet&ceee. 

L .fi'PHBDRA L. - 987 
l.dbt^MJiyalr. -937 

The Gaaat rtonMy HflMetaO. 



or den Orope, — Bwaedra 
fdrb Rich. Mto. Conif., 1 
aonvw fiMrlMMi Tabem*, ir. 
UMntftfNAHN. fe., Baoh. Pin. ; 



"ifi: 



Ephedra tiutritbm* mJijar Tm. 
Inst. : iMMi dr M«r, Epbidre 
mmltifiortt Fr. : ZiMyoAr^cr 
Ger. 



taU. — B. p(%siMdM^ Pall. 
Rosa. : Eakedre mtmem-e, Epkc. 
dr€de SibMe, Fr. 

TaxdcetB. 
1. Ta^xus Xr. - - 939 

The Tew. 

1. baccata L. - - 939 

T6gfi$ No. 16C3., HalL Hbt.: 
ff, Fr.; Jfe m bam BHy Iienbaum» 
or £dkemoamm, Ger. ; Toms 
Ital.; Tero. Spaa. 

2 fiutiinikta - * 939 
T./mtMdta Lindl. 

T. Ubfrnica Hook., Lodd. 

Tke Irieh Yew. 

3 prociimbens - 940 
T,proedmbetu Lodd. Cat. 

4 er«cta - - 940 

5 narsifolia /Torf. 940 

6 roliia Tarie^. Lod, 940 

7 fr6ctu luteo - 940 

2. (b. ) canad ensis W. 942 

Ttie Morth American Yew.— . 
T. b, wUmor Michx. Bor. Amer. 

3. Harringtonia Kn. 942 
? T4rtw macropkfiUa Thunb., 

tPodoc&rpmi macn^^lHu S w. , 
Lamb. Sd ed., Arb. Brit. Ut ed. 

Other Speefei qf Taxu*. ~ T. 
Bfacfc^a Pin. Wob., T. hm- 
k^ Knight's Oat.. T. glo- 
~ " " - -94S 



2. moooBtdchym L. 938 

The flnaU WtaxUbg " 
c 2 



II. ToBRB^^ Am. 943 

Tiimt tp. iiTutt. 
1. fexifolia Am, - 944 

T&sms mmtdna Nutt., not of 
Wind. : SUmJth^ Cedar, Florida. 

IIL SalisbuW^ S. 944 

Gimigo ef Kcmprer, Lin- 
DCtts, and others 

1. adiantif51ia Smith 945 
The Ginkgo Tree — Ginkgo^ 
Q i m OH, or It^, Kmmft, Am. ; 
Ginkgo biloba Lin. Hant. : 
Naper du J«poik, Jrbre auM 
qtutramte JS'emM, Ft. j Jtbero 
odiaafo, Ital. 

Coniferaf or P/wa- 

Tkibe I. ABufmiM* 
L PI'nus i. - - 950 

The Pine. — Le Pi$t. Fr. s 
Acito, PyytAoiMi, or ki^er, 
Ger. ; /*mAo0«s, Dutch ; Phto, 
Ital. and Span. : Prnw, Anglo- 
Sax. ; Piaaaa, wdih ; PeigiUt 
Brse. 

nifly 2 i»a ohmtk. 
A. VatHtee itf Ewrope, 

L syW^tris X. - 951 

The Sooteh Pine, er Scotch 

Fir. — P. rMra Mil. Diet.. P. 

MtaMrdr q— i aftnit Alt. Hort 

I Kaar., ? P. Btcmrdam. RUao : 



Hi 



CONTENTS. 



Ml uumage. Pin d'Eootte. Fr. $ 

5emeint Fbhre., gemeine FkdUe, 
CA/er, Tonne, and IVB other 
names, which are given in 
Hoffne Abbad.,Gw \Pynboom^ 
Dutch; Phto tyhaUoo, Ital.j 
Pino jylvtfgfre. Span. ; Fin[re, 
Dan. and Swed. ; Anno, Tol., 
Boh., and Rust. 

VarietieM. 

a. Tiwtber JVeet. 

1 Tulgilris - - 952 

2 horizontalis - 952 
P. korixontaUs Don of For. 
P. «y/. 9ar. montdna Sang. 
Tike Speytide Pine, Grig. 
The red'toooded Sootch 

Pine, Sang. 
7P.rd6raMUl.Dict. 

3 uncinata - - 952 
MarForeU Wild Pime H.S. 

4 hagueneiisK - 953 
Pin dc Haguenau, Fr. 

5 rig^nsis - - 953 
Pin de Riga, Desf. Hist. 
Pin de Rutsie, Pin de Md^ 

ture, Fr. 

Other Timber Tree Fare. 953 

^' Fariellei enrioms or omO' 
mental, 

6 geoev^nus - - 953 
Pin de Tartare, Fr. 

7 monopb^lla Hbdg.95S 

8 scarioaa - - 953 
P. eearibta Lodd. Cat. 

? P. tfwnndta Bosc Nour. 

9 intermedia - 953 

10 altiica Ledehour 953 

1 1 tortudsa Don ofF, 954 

2. (s.) pumflio Heen, 955 
The Mountain Pine. — P. 
qulvistrit monldna y Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ; P. «. hUmOit v Neal ; P 
hUmilit, ^., Toum . Inst., Linli 
Abhand. : Pin nain, French ; 
KrumholM, Ger. 

2rubr»fdlia- - 955 

3 Fischert Booth - 955 

4 MiighHS - - 955 
P. t. Mtigho hfalt. Cam. 
P. montdna Baum. Cat. 
P. Mikgho Jacq., Pair, 

5 M. nana - - 956 
The Knee Pineqfthe Sty- 

rian Alp*. 

Other VarieHe* - . - 996 

3 LaHcio Potr. - 956 
The Corsican Pine. — P. ^- 
visirie • maritima Ait. Hort. 
Kew., V.maritima ed. 3. : Pi- 
naetro, Pino dUappino, Ital. 

1 conicina - - 957 
Larieio de File de Coree, 

Delamarre. 

2 subviridisiV. Du ff. 957 

3 caram&niea - 957 
P. caramdniea Boec. 
FxaramaiUiniisBoaJtad. 
Larido de Caramante, ou 

de PA*ia Minemre, Dela- 
marre. 
fT.romdna Lond. H. S. 
Card. 

4 calilbrica - - 957 
Larieio de Mont S3a en 

Caiabrct Delamarre. 



5 austriaea - - 958 
P. anttriaea Hfiss. 
Larieio d'Antriehe, on de 
la Hongrie, Delamarre. 

Other Farietiee - - 958 

4h (L.) austrhcAHou 958 

The b\Mck Pine. — P. nigri- 
cans Hort., P. nigrfseeusKott. : 
Schwartz Pohre, Ger. 

5. (L ) Pallaseana L.959 
The Tartarian Pine. — P. 

ta6riea Hort. ; P. UUdrica In 
the Hammersmith Nniserj In 
1797, P. maritima PaU. Ind. 
Taur. : Ttaam in the Tartar 
language. 

Farietiei. 

Cones straight and 

short - - 960 
Cones long and 

erooked - 960 

6. (L.) pyi^n&icaZr. 961 

V.hispdnica Cook*t SIcetches 
in Spain, Tinaeter JUtpSnica 
Roxas dl San Clemente; P. 
peniciihu Lap.Hist dee PI. des 
Pyrenees ; P. halcpinsis mdfor 
Ann. d'Hort. de Paris: Pin 
Naxaron, Pin pinceau, Fr. 

7. Pinaster i4t^. - 961 

The Cluster PIna» P. ly/- 
vtstrit y I An. Syst. Reich., P. 
maritima iUera Du Ham. Arb., 
P. maritima N. Du Ham. ; P. 
s6rtica Thore Prom, sur iea 
C6tes de Gascogne, P. Mat- 
Mmiiina Lamb. ed. S. : Pin de 
Bordeaux, Pin des Landes, Fr. ; 
Pinastro, Ital. 

2 Aberdonuv G. M. 963 
P. P. EscarinmArb.Brit. 

3 LemontinMs . 963 
P. l>moMi4na Senih. 9G3 

4 minor . . 963 
T. maritima nOn. N.D.H. 
Pin Pinsot, Pin de Mans, 

J'ind Trocket,Tv. 

5 foliis variegatis - 963 

6 maHtimus - 963 
Other Farieties . - 963 

8. i^nea Z. - . 965 

The Stone Pine P. saliva, 

P. saOva Bauh. Pin. ; P. do- 
mistica Matth. Comm. : Pin 
Pignon, Pin bon. Pin euMvt, 
Pm Pinter, Fr. ; Geneissbrre 
Ffchte, Ger. ; Pino daPinocchf, 
Ital. 

2 fr^lis AT. Du H, 965 

3 erotica Hort. . 965 

9. halep^nsis AU, - 967 
P. hierosolymitdna Du Ham. 

Arb. ; P. maritima prhna Mat- 
thloltts: Pin de Jirusalime, 
Fr. ; Pino d' Aleppo, Ital. 

2 minor - - 967 

3 maritima - - 968 
P. maritima Lamb. Pin. 

4genu^Ofiis - - 968 
P. genm6nsis Cook. 

10. bruttia Ten. - 968 
The Calabrian Pine P.eois- 

glomerdta Grseflbr PI. Ezdcc : 
JMabrische Kiefer, Ger. 



B. NmtbiesiifN. AmerUm, 

11. Banksiaita L. 969 
The Labrador Pine P. «y«- 

vistris diitaricdta Alt. Hort. 
Kew.. P. rupfstris Mx. K. 
Amer. Syl., P. hud»6niea Lam. 
Encyc. : Scmb Pine, Hndson*9 
BoffPinei Ypres, CkmOm. 

12. loops Ait, • 970 
The Jersey Pine. ~ P. vitgi- 

ntdna Du Roi Harbk. ed Pott. : 
Pin chetif, Fr. 

13. pungens Michx. 971 

The TM Mosmtain Pine, 

14. resindsa Aii, - 972 

The red Fine.— P. r^bra 
Itflchx. N. Amer. Syl.: Nor- 
trt^ Pine, Canada; Yellow 
Pine, Nova Scotia ; /« P^ rouge 
de Canada, Fr. 

15. mitis Michr, - 974 

The yellow Pine.— P. vari» 
SbiUs Pursh Fi. Amer. Sept. : 
? P. echtnuta Mill. Diet. : New 
York Pine, Spruce Pine, 
Short-leaved Pine, Yellow Pine, 
Amer. 

16. cont6rta Doi^. 975 

17. turbinata Bosc 975 

$iL TemdttB, — Leaves 3 in 
a Sheath, 

A. NtUives (^ N. Americm, 

18. Tlae^da L, - 976 
The Loblolly Pine.— T.JblUs 

tSrms Gron. Yirg., P. virgi- 
nidna tenuifdb'a tHpUeis Pluk. 
Akn. : White Pine, at Peters- 
burg and Richmond, in Vir- 
ginia. 

2 alopecuroidea Ait. 976 

19. rigidaJfiiZ. -977 
The Pitch Pine.— P. Tte'da 

• Potr. Diet.: f Tkree-teaved 
Virginian Pine, Sap Pine. 
Black Pine : Pin hSfiss6, Pin 
rude, Fr. 

20. (r,) Frasen L. 979 



L(r.) 



21. (r.) serdtinailiir.979 
The Pond Pine.—? P. Tte'da 

tUopecur&dea Ait. Hort. Kew. 
ed.9. 

P. rariiblUs Lamb. Pin. • 980 

22. ponder6sa7>oti^. 981 

23. SabininnaDoug. 982 
THe great pruMif-coned Pine. 

24. (8.) Co61teriD.985 

The great hooked Pine.—? P. 
S'ofttei&na var. Hort. ; 7 P. ma- 
crocdrpa Lindl. MSS. 

2Yera - - 985 

25. australis Mr. 987 
P. paHstris WiUd. Sp. PI., 

Pursh Sept., Lamb. Pin. ed. 1. ; 
P. amencdna paiOstris, Stc, 
Hort. Angl. Du Ham. Arb., 
P. serdlina Hort. : in America, 
Long-leaved Pine, Ydlow Pine, 
Pitch Pine, and Broom Pine, 
in the southern states; South- 
ern Pine and Red Pine, in the 



86. iintenis Doug. 986 
ST. caliToniiana Z. 989 
t. Utma BOK ; Pirn ^ uJ^ 

£8. nrnricatB U.Don 987 



38. pitulm f. 4- D. 992 

33. LlaveoM Scb. 993 
F. OBbrAMrf Zuot Flon: 

Ac Vuim Ctnitra, FIOIIT 
CJc. ^ 

C. XoMn tf Mr (tew**, />- 
di^ Ftrtil, CUM, aM ^w. 

34. canari^iMS Sm. 994 

3£. longifolia Rod>. 996 

36. OemriliQiui W. 998 

The tbnrl-ICHed NupU Plug. 
r (.'McUh ElphlnitoiM ; 1*< 

37. BJneiuU Lamb. 999 

p. 7 Kntfi BiW'f, P. rv- 
fmilntU Hln. Wii£„ P. i^. 

38. timori&BU - 1000 
5 " 






I. Nallfi^ltakB. 



KoBIh In Himb. cc Buep). 
Not. G«. MSfL Pl^Dnpa^ 

S Liodliji . I0O4 

43. niiicropli;f11aZ,. 1006 
44 P«eiido-&r6buB 1006 

45. filifaiia Ltnf/. lOOH 



4-7. oikiipa Sbii 1018 
? oocarpoides BcTdh. 1013 
46. apulc^ras Ldl. 1014 
" -■- - - Doo in 



50. Cemimi L. . II 

P. /Mi£l fsMl. Ac, C 
SJl>.j p. loflH jlnim, Rl 
P. liMUTlt, Ac., Buih. F 



The WsTHKiuUi' Pine, — P. 
JUAt fBMi. fc.. Cr«. Vlrr. l 
F. cmmadfn^ fwifuHUMl ba 



£ ilbs /Tort • 1018 

3 breTilulia Horf. 1018 

4 compi jsu fiiwM 1018 



«. (Sir.) 
Doug. - . 1019 

53. (&) moDtlcola 1021 

KtUmi, qfStnl amdtlnla. 

54. (5.) ezcelsa IT. 1088 

Tba BboUn PId*. — P. 1Mq|. 



55. Ayaca/n^ Ehr. 1083 



IL A-wKs a. Don )08fi 

LIB. ud (Kbin, iti'jmrti Pkh 
Unk In AWmi. Kbnif. Akld. 



S L LcatttttB 



I. eicflsa i^. • I 

The WwwMT SpniM F 
HIU. DM., 'pi«a '\-tie, 
ifiirbk.' eA, PoU., P, « 

/nu ^irn. ' fulcra. 






Scurp&in. . 1097 
A. carpauca Hut. 

4 p&idula - . 1037 

5 fili'u TsriegAtu lOST 

6 Clanbrniliaiu lOET 

7 Clanbr. Mricta 10S7 
8p)rgnis'«- - 1027 



urronita Hort, 1027 



3. obovaca Z>. Z>on 1089 



liv 



CONTENTS. 



P. leua Bhrh. BelCr., P. 

dtmia Du Roi Harbk., A. ew- 
ftifdUa Hort. : timgU apmee^ 
Amer. ; EpineUe Sameke, Cft- 
■ada ; Sapinette bkmcke, Fr. 
2 nina Dickson - 1030 

Oiker rarieUea • • 1080 

5. nigra Poh. - 1031 

Phmf nigra Ait. H. K., P. 
maridna Ehr. Beyt., A'M^ 
imA'^dfM Wangh. B«yt. : 4tnMe 
Spmee i noire BphuUet Bpi' 
neUe d la BUrey Canada. 

VarieUea - • - lOU 

6. (n.) rt^bra Poir. 1032 

The Newfoundland Red Pine. 
—P. tnnericdna rUbra Wangh. 
Bert., FliMM ri^a Lamb. PTd., 
Ponh Sept. ; A^Mef ptalMia 
Lam. 

Scnriklea - > 1033 
A. ovrMea Booth. 

C. NdHvet qf Nepal. 

7. KhiUrow - - 1032 
A. 5mif*iina Arb. Brit 1st 

ed., Pimtf Khtttro So^le IIL» 
? FiiMW 5fiM<Alkna WaU, PI. At. 
Bar., A^bie* Sm/<Ai&na Lindl. 
Pen. Cyd., A. Morinda Hort. : 
Baga, or Raggoe, in the Parbo- 
tee language. 

VarieHew - - lOSS 

$ ii. Leanetflat, genenUfy 
glaucotu beneath, impcT' 
fectijf 2'rowetL 

D. Natives iff North America, 

8. Dougliisti Lindl. 1033 

The trldent-bracted Spruce 
Fir. —P. taxffbUa Lamb. Pin., 
Purth FI. Amer. Sept. : A. 
eal(/6mia Hort. ; Vhnu Don- 
gld»\\ Sabine iiSS., Lmmb.Pin. : 
tke Nootka Fir, Smith in Rees's 
CycL 

3 tfaxifolia - - 1033 

9. Menzidsii Doug. 1034 
The warted^branched Spmoe 

Fir PlMW MemOeOL Lamb. 

Fin, 

10. canadensis Mx, 1035 

The Heaaloch Spruce Fir. — 
P. eanadtnsit Lin. Sp. PI., P. 
americdna Du Ral Harbk., 
Smith in Rees*s CtcI. ; A^Me» 
americdna Marih. Arb. Amer. t 
Penute bf the French In Ca- 
nada ; Sapin du Canada, Fr. ; 
SckierUnga Pickte, Oer. 

E. Native qf Nepal, 

11. dumosa - 1036 

PliMtf dumbsa Lamb. Pin., 
Kbiet BrummibsuL Lindl. In 
Pen. Cycl., P. deddma Wall. 
MSS,.P. Br^moaiinM WalLPL 
At. Bar, 

Other Spedea cf A^biet. — A. 
MertensfdiM Bong., A. sltch- 
§n8lt Borur.^ A. trlg6na, A. 
hetcrophflTa, A. arom4t1ca, 
A. microph^Ila, A. oUlquftta, 
and A, fticata, A. hirt6lla 
nntnboldt et Kunth, A. 
Knrnpfdrw Thunb., if.Thun. 
b^rg^/Tbunb., ^.AMm^Sicb.. 



A, rordnoSieb., A, ArmM 
Sieb. • - - low 

III. Pi'c^A D.Don 1036 
The Silver Fhr. — PbMif Lin. 
in parti Plnm aecL Fdlcv D. 
Don in Lamb. Pin.; A'd»ef Lk., 
Nee» Ton Btenbeck, and Lede- 
bour ; AMn Du Rol, in part : 
Sapin^ Tr. \ Tannen, (3er. 

A. Natives qf Surape, Siberia, 
and the North-west ef Asia, 

1. pecttnlita - • 1037 

Kbies<A Pliny, Plmtf PUxa 
Lin. Sp. PL, P. A^Mm Du Rol 
Harbk., A'6ir«£<&a HlILDict., 
A. TSxiJblio Tourn. Intt., A. 
vntgdris Poir. Diet., A. pecti- 
ndta Dec Fl. Fr., A. Uut^lia 
Hort. Par., A. Pleea Llnd. in 
Penn. Qfc., A. exdlsa Link 
Abhand. Ac. : StoanishFfr: Sa^ 
pin commun, Sapin d FeuOles 
d^^,Sapin Mane, SapinairgenU, 
St^rin en Peigne, Sapin de Nor- 
mandie, Fr. CfVeiss Tonne Bdet- 
tonne, Ger. \ Abets argenAto, 
Ital. 

3 tortudsa Sooih 1037 

3 loliis TariegatiB 1087 

4 cindrea - - 1037 
Plnitf Plcea dnerea B. C. 



2. 



(p.) cephalf^nica 1030 

Aoiet cephalbmca Arh. "BriL 
I ed., A. tajtifdlia Hort.,A. Iau- 
eombdatA Hort. ; Kou k onm a ria 
and Elaios in Cephaloniai 
Mount Enos Fir, 

3. (p.) Pinsiipo - 1041 
£b»e$ PinM^poiMwAr in Bfbl. 
UnlT.de Genere: Mount Atlas 
Cedar, Dec. M SS. 

4.(p.)Nordmannkma 1 042 
"Anus Nordnumn\%n% Stem. 

5. (p.) Pichta . . 1043 

Pb»w Pichta Lodd. Cat.1836 ; 
P. tibiriea Hort.; A bies sibiri- 
ca Ledebour Icon. PI. Fl Ron., 
Lind. in Penn J Ore.; A. PtdUa 
Fischer : Pichta, Must. 

B. Natives qfN. Awurioa, 

6. balsamea - - 1044 

The Balm of Gilead, or Amc' 
rican^ SlWer Fir.— Plnw bat- 
sdmea Lin. Sp. PI.. P. Xbies 
baltdmea Marsh. Arb. Amer., 
Abies Thxi /dlio. ^., Hort. 
Angl., A. baUanUnea N. Du 
Ham., A. balsam^fera MIchx. 
N. Amer.SyL : Balsam Fir : le 
Bourne de GiKad,leSapin Ban- 
mier de OiUad, Fr.; Balsam 
Fichte. Balsam, Tamtte, Ger. ; 
Pino balsamifero, ItaL 

2 longfolia Boo^ 1044 

7. (b.) Fr^iseri - 1044 

The doubleBalsamSHTerFlr. — 
P)»vs Frdserl Pursh F7. Amer. 
Sept., Lamb. Pin.s A'bOs Frd- 
seri Lind, in Penn. Cye, 

C. Natives qf (kdifomfa. 

8. grindis - - 1045 

PifMcs er6ndis Dougl. MSS 
Lamb. Pin.; Kbtes grdndn 
Lindl. in Penny Gvcl.: the great 
Catibrnion Fir. 



9. am&lnlis - - 1046 

Vtnsu amdbOis Doug. MSS. 

10. n6bili8 '- - 1047 
TheUrp-bracted SihrerFfar.-. 

PiisMt nSbOis Doug-M&, Lamb. 
Pte., A. wMBs UndLin PennT 
Cjcl. ' 

11. bractei^ta - 1048 

Piniis frnKfr^a.D.DonlnLin. 
Tk-ans..Lamb. Pfai.: P. twntfsla 
Doug. In Oomp. to Bot. Mag. 

D.2teMwt<|fl6sHto. 

12. religj6sa . 1040 

PbMSS religSbsa Homb. et 
Kunth Not. Gen. et Sp. PI., 
Schiede et Deppe in Schleebt. 
Linnssa; Kbies ret^fitsaUakSL 
in Penny Cyd. 

13. hirt^la - - 1050 
A Met himaa LfndL In Fumy 

Cyd.. Pbistf MrtiUa Humb. et 
iCunth. 

^. Natives <tfN^aL 

14. Webbitnui - 1051 

Pbssts WebtMoAWalLHsLltt., 
Lamb. Pin. ed. 9.; V.speetdbiUs 
Lam. MonoK; Abies WebUintL 
LindL in Penny Cyc, Royle 
IBust.: CM&rmr, and thePonum, 
or Purpte-coned Fir, hi the Hi- 
malayaa. 

15. Flndrow - 1052 
TbeTooth-leaTedSilTerFlr. — 

PiMuPlndffOw iibMfe IU.JLamb. 
Pin. ; TtUus LambertkhnnlVall 
Cat. I Pindrow, and sometimet 
Mofiuda, in the HImalayat. 

16. n&phtha Hort. 1053 

IV. IrA^Riz Tourn. 1053 
The Larch^-Phms Lin. and 
others ; Kbies Rich. ; MeUxe, 
Fr. ; Lers hen b am n, Ger.: Let- 
rice, ItaL 

1. enrapfle^a Dee. 1053 

Vhsus JArig Ltai. Sp. Ft.; 
AMar Un. Hort. CUE ; Ldris 
deddua MUL Diet. ; 'LdriaJbUo 
dedduo, Ac, Bauh. Hist ; hdria 
Bauh. Pin. : Abies Larix Lam. 
niust; Metize eotmoune, Fr.; 



LSrdke, Loreher-Ftehte, gemd- 
ner Lerchenbaum, TSrrfcnMi. 
baum,Eunnfaisehe<;eder, weiss- 
er Lerchenbaum, Qer, 

1 commiknisX^iM. 1054 

2 Uza Lrnss. - 1054 

3 eompieta Laufs. 1054 

4 p^duU Laws. 1054 

GodsallffG.M. - 1094 
rdpens Imws. - 1054 

5 flore ri^bro^. T.1054 

6 ildre &lbo - - 1054 

7 sibfriea - . 1054 
L. sibfriea Flacfa. 

? L. archatigtUea Laws. 
I* rdssica Lab. in Hort. 

SocGard. 
PiMM l^dria sMrlea Lod. 
7%e Btusian Lareh. 

8 dahikrica - - 1055 
L. dahkrica Laws. Mao. 



CONTENTS. 



9 intennddia • 1065 
JL rfmii wWii Lawt. Bton. 
PlMHf imienmediaLoi. Ct. 

(MAcr F«rtfriiet - - 1066 

2. ammri^nft Mx. 1056 

PteM lor^caM Du Roi HwUl 
«d. Pot., P. mierooirpa WUld. 
Baon. ; ^Mo iiMBftPMiTaPolr.^ 
Hmekmiatack^ Aner.rramarac*, 
by the Dutoi In New Jeney ; 
KpmeUe rouge to Canada. 
1 r&bn • . 1056 
L. mieroeArfa Laws. 
PlMwmaeftwaypa Punh 
S'^ateeMr rM«r, Canada. 

Sp6Ddula - - 1056 
L. ptndula Lawi. Man. 
Vhtmpemdmia Ait Hort. 
P. mttnmidtia Du Rot Hk. 
P. UkHt nigra Manh. 
Arties ptmdulm Polr. Dtot. 



L. froi^ara Malcolm. 
y. 6^^RD8 ^orr. 1057 

The Cedar. — Phmt Un. A» 
fMr<,- A^£m> Poir. msarf. La- 
rur Toitni.«|Mif/; Cedre^ Fr. ; 
Cedirr, Ger.; Cedro^ Ital. 

1. Lib^ni Barr. - 1057 

PiMu CMncf Lto. Sp. Fl. ; 
v. tUUt faadeui^iy Ac, Du 
Rof Harhk. ed. Pott.: Un> 
Cednu MiU. Diet. ; L^rtr ori- 
Ai/dlif Toorn. lQ0t.{ Qidrut 
m&f^na Dod. Pempt.; C. co- 
mjtra Baoh. Phi. : C. nAomlcni 
Reneafan Sp.; mnit Bell. 
It. I A'Msf C^d^w Polr Dkt. 
Bncjrc. 

2 fdliis arg&iteis 1058 
S nana - • 1059 

2. Deoddra Roxb. 1059 
The Indian Cadar. — PImm 

Deodira Lamb, Pin., A'AiVi 
Deodira LhuU. tn Penny Cyc. : 
Hevadarot or AtNtaro, Hln- 
dostanee; Me taererf Mdiam 
Fir. 

' 10S9 



VL Arauca'^iaJ. 1061 

B%u6$ta Sal., Cofymbia Sal., 
Domb^ Lamb., C«pr£inw 
Forat. » !«« AwMent i»fiie. 

1. imbridkta Pav, 1062 

The Chill Pine A. Domb^ 

Rick. Mim. mr In Con(f., Tt- 
muAramodria Mol. Sag. nilla 
Stor. Nat del Chill, Colmnbea 
madrifbria Sallrt>. hi Un. 
Trans., DomMva ekUhuit 
Lam. Bncyc. : Pino de Cbiti, 
Span. ; Pegktiem fai the Andes ; 
Sir JoUph SamJWs Pime. 



Other Spedes ef AramcMa 

A. brasWAna Rich., A. ex- 
c£lsa Ait.^ and A. Cunning. 
Uhnrif Ait., are hatf-bardy 
species which are figured and 
oiMcrlbed to first edition. 

VIL Conningra'm/^. 

PtoM Lamb., BiUa Salisb. 

1. sinensis i2tcA. • 1065 

The 6rood-leaTed Chtoese 

Fir — Biiie Wcmt&bUa Salisb 



to 

lila Lamb. Mom 
AdmU ttmeftddki R. Br., 
edrim Uinfrotdim Hort, 

D^MMAJU orientilis 
Lamb. • • 1066 

Tribe II. CvnMfmtMM. 

VIII. TbvjaL. 1068 
The Arbor Yltm^-^Tkaga, or 

Arbre de Fir, Fr. ; Lebetu- 
bamm, Oer. ; 7V«i ml- 

S i. TJU>v verc 

1. occidentalis L, 1068 

The American Arbor Vltc. 
-TM|/a Tkeopkraea Bomb. 
Pin., A'rbor Hue Clus. Hist. : 
tebUe Cedar. Amer., Cidre 
amirieain, Cedre bUme, Arbre 
de Vie, Fr. ; gemeiner LebenS' 
baum, Ger.; Atbero de ytta, 
Ital. 

a Tari^ta Monk. 1069 
T. cfilne mriegdtie Lod. 

2. (o.) plic^ta Dmm 1069 
Nee'e Arbor FIfav. 

3. chil^nsis ZoiTi^. 1070 

Cmprieems tMfoida Pavon 
MSS. 

iH Bidta. 

4. orientiilis Ir. • 1070 

The Chinese Arbor Film. 

2 stricta Hort, - 1070 
T. p^amiddUt Baum. 

3 tat^rica - - 1070 
T. tatArica Lod. Cat. 

T. WarebiM Sooth Cai, 

§ iii. CjfpaHs9a. 

Tender Speeiee. — T. cunras- 
sfildesZT., r. pfosUls L. 1071 

5. p^ndula I#am6. 1071 
? T. flli/6rmis Lodd., ? Jii. 

nlpermJlageU(f6rmis Hort. 

Ot*«r Sfvri'et. — T. filirSrmls 
Lodd. (? T. ptndnia Lamb.), 
r. dolabrdta L. - . 1071 

IX. Ca'llitris v. 1072 

T^IMa, part qf, Lin. ; Avsn^- 
Oa MSbelMhn. biui. 

1. quadrivilvisFipn. 1072 

T/k^fa articuldta Desf. All. 
Arb. et Arbriss., Cmpriuuior' 
Ueutdia Pin. Wob. 

Other Speeiee qf CiOitris — C. 
Fothergllli (? Cuprietm Fo. 
thergila), C. triquetra (Cm. 
prttnu triquetra Lodd. Cat. 
1886), C cupressifdnnisrcn/., 
C. maerostachya Hort. 1072 

X. Cuprb'ssus L, 1073 

The Cypress.— CjKpr^'i Fr. ; 
Cupretee, Ger. ; Cipreuo, Ital. ; 
aproite. Port; ^fproe, Hun- 
gulan. 

1. sempenrlrens 2^. 1073 

The common Cypress. — C. 
puramiddUe Hort., ? C. /a$^ 
deidta Hort. ft Pfo. Wob.: 
(^rie pyramided, Cffprie or- 
dinaire, rr. ; getneine Cgpree. 
c 4 



Gmr.: A^/telteiCJr- 



1 strfetalliS. i>tet 1073 

C^« male, Fr. 
8 horizontalisMI/. 1073 

C. horHumidlte N. Du U. 

C. eapinea Hort. Par. 

CiqMiesfojQnNAie, ital. 

2. <h)Foides Z.. - 1074 
The White Cedar. — TA^ 

ephderciddUg Rich. Hbm. ear 

Conif. : CgprisUnut Tkttfa, Fr. 

8 ioHis vanegitia 1075 

S nAoa JETort. - 1075 

3. lusitiunica 7\Mini.l075 

The Cedar of Goa.-.C. gim^en 
Brot. Fl. Lus.. C. pindula 
L*H6rH. Stirp. Nov.: Cedar ^ 
Bmsacoj C.ptnduia Thunb., 
Lamb. Pin., Is supposed to be a 
dlifcrent plant. 

4. tonilosa Lamb. 1076 

The Bhokm Cgpreu, 

5. p^ndula Thunb, 1076 
Fi-moro, Ksnnpf. Amma. 

Other Kind$qfCupr(seut,*ome 
^ which have been introduced, 

but qf which Utile it known 

C horisontiUs Audibert, C, 
thvrUera H. B. et K., C. 
TournefOrttf Audlbert, C. 
baccif«rmts WiUd., C. aus. 
trills Pert,, C. fabinSldes 
H. B. et K., a Coultdrtf Pto. 
Wob. (? C. thurt^ra H. B. 
et K.), C. futigiita Hort.Pin, 
Wob.,Gard. Mag. {Jtmiperue 
fottigldta Hort) . . 1077 

XL Taxo^icm R, 1077 

The deciduous Cypress.— 
Ctv^r^stM L., SchubbrhnMirb,, 
CondgloeArput Salisb. 

1. distichum Bich, 1078 
CiwrtsflMf dRtHcha Lin. Sp. 
PI., Pursh Flor. Amer. Sept , 
C. amenedna Cat. Carol., C. 
virgiMdna Comm. Hort., 
Sdl«6#r(ia Sttieha Mirb. : baid 
ClfPrett, Cjfpreu, Amer.; CJpr- 
pret ehauve, Fr. ; Zwejpieil^ 
Cuprette, Oer. j CIpretto g€ig- 
gia, Ital. 

1 p4tens AiLffort, 1078 

2niitaDaAit. - 1078 

T. d o6ndula Loud. H. B. 

S exc^Isum Booth 1078 

4 sindnse - - 1078 
7*. tiufnte Noisette. 

5 pendulum - 1078 

T. t&iSn$ep(ndulumBoirt. 

Other Speeiee qf Taebdium, — 
T. semperTlrms Lamb. 1060 

XII. JUNI'PBRUSZ. 1080 
The Juniper. — SnUnaBauh.; 
CMfms Toum. : Oeniwrier, 
Fr. ; IVachhoUer, Ger. ; Glue- 
pro, Ital. 

§ i. Oxycedri. — Leaves 
epreading in tka adult 
BanU. D. Don. 

A. Nativet qf Europe, 

1. commiknisX. • 1081 
J. vuigdrie, Ac., Rail Syn. ; 



Ui 



CONTENTS. 



J. minor Fuchs HIct. : OenSv' 
Tier commun, Fr. ; gemeimer 
fVaekho/der, Oer. ; Ginepro 
mero, Itai. 

1 vul^rU i^rik. r. 1081 
J. v.fruticdM Baub.Pin. 
J. c ericti* Purth Flor. 

Amer. Sept. 

2 su^cica Ait.Hori. 1081 
? J. e. fattigiitta Dec Mou. 

Itn's Cat. dec PUntesde 

la Dordogne. 
J. ttrieta Hort. 
J. $tiia'ea MllL Diet. 
J. vtUgdrit Arbor Baoh. 
The Tree Juniper, 

3 n&na WiM, Sp, 1081 
J. oomm^i* ^ Fl. Br. 

J. c. tag&tilii Pall. Rom. 

J. aUma Rail Sjn. 

J. a^na minor Ger. 

J. minor monidnat ^» 
Bauh. Pin. 

J. nina Smith Engl. Flor. 

J. tMriea Hort. 

J. dSAr^ea Hort. & Booth. 

J. c. wumtdiut Alt. Hort. 
Kew. 
4obl6nga - - 108S 

J. oU^a Hort. 
5 p^dula - - 1082 
6canad^nau - 1082 

J. eanadtnsii Lodd. Cat. 
7 depr^tssa Pwr»h 1082 
0<*er Varietiei • - 106S 

2. Ox^cedrus i. - 1083 

The brown-berried Juniper. 
— J. m^or Cam. Spit. ; J. m. 
monapeliiruium Iiob. Ic. t J. 
phceniceat Sfc, J. Bauh. Hlit. ; 
J. m4for, ^c, C. Bauh. « C^- 
drtu pkcnucea^ Matth. Valgr.t 
Ox^oedrui Clus. Hlft.; O. 
pkamtcea Dod. Pempt. : tke 
Prickly Cedar : ie Cade, FT. ; 
SjBom'Mche IVackholder, Ger.; 
Cedro Fenieio, Ital. 

2 Udrioai Hort. - 1083 

3. macrocirpa S, 1083 

? J. OM^eedrtu var. ; J. me^for, 
baccd atrmled, Toum. Inat. 

B. Native qf Asia. 

4. drupkcea Lab, 1084< 
The larffo-frulted Jonlper.— 

J.m4for BellonOba. 



C. Native qfN. America. 

5. yirginiana L. - 1084 
The Red Cedar.— J. m^or 
ameHciina Rail HUt. ; J. 
m&ithna, ^., Sloan ; Ginepro 
di Virg^Ua. 

2 hiimUis XmU. C. 1084 

3 caroliniAna - 1084 
J. earoUnidtna Du Roi 

Mill. Diet. 
Other Varietiei - - lOM 



and J. n 



palfensifl Kor<. (Cflwr^ntf ne- 
paUneit Hort.) are described ht 
our first edition. 

$ it SaUiue. — LeaoeM of 
the adult Plant imbri- 
cated, D. Don. 

A. Nativet qfSmnpe, 

6. SMns, - - 1085 
The oommon Sarin.— £aArii»«, 

Fr. ; ttMcender fVadiholder, 
Ger. ; Planta damnata and 
Cipreg$o des Ma^hi^ Ital. 

1 cupressifolia i4t<.^.£^ 
J. lutilSn/ca Hill. Diet. 
SaMMa Dod. Pempt. 

La Sabine mfU, Fr. 

2 /amariflclfolia ^tf. 
J. Sa»faui Mill. Diet. 
La Sabine ,femeUe. 

S fdliis variegitis Mart, 

4pro8trita - 1086 

J. prostrdta Mz.; 
J. repent Nutt. 
J.AiMffdiM«aLodd.Cat. 

5 alplna - - 1086 

J. alphta Lodd. C«t. 

7. phoenicea L. - 1087 

Cidrtu phcenieea media Lob. 
leoun OtiieedrMt Ipda Dod. 
Pempt.: GenivrierdePhSnicie, 
Fr. ; dichtnadliger Wachholder, 
Ger. ; CWfro iiefo, Ital. 

8. (p.) 1/cia L. - 1087 

J. p. ^ £^d)a K. Du Ham. : 
Cipre$9m Waehholder, Oer. 

9. thuHfera X. - 1088 
SpcnUh Juniper. — J. hitpd' 



nien Milt. Diet. ; (^Sdrm hitpd- 
nica^ ^.f Toum. Intt. 

B. Nativet </ Atta. 

10. excelsa Willd. 1088 
J. SoftiiM var. PalL Boat. ; 

Himaiaifa Cedar-vrood, 

11. squamiita Don, 1088 

The creeping Cedar.— J. 
tquam&$a Wall. 

12. rec6rva .ETom. 1089 

13. chin^nsis L. - 1089 

? J. c. SmAAU ilrft. IMT. ed, 1 . 

14. uviferaD. Zhn 1089 

OlA«r Species cf ivmiperut, qf 
recent Introduction^ but qT 
whteh little it known. — J. 
tetrag&na H. B. et K., J. 
fl^ccfila Schiede, J.dealbiU 
Hort., J.flagellifihrmis Aort , J. 
KOMainthinea Hort., J. Bed- 
tordf dfiAHort., J. Hadsoo/dmi 
Pin.Wob., J. barbad^nsis L., 
J. hemisplM^rica Pral . 1069 

'Eanpetrdcea. 
L^mpet&umX. • 1091 

The Crowberry. 

1. nigrum L, - 1091 

The Crakeberrj. — fLrica coe- 
Mlera proeSmbent Ger. Emac, 
E. Cdrit JdUo mndetfma Cius. 
Hist. 

2 8c6ticum Hook, - 1091 

2. rJibruiD Ir. - 1091 

Cranberrtf <^ Staten Ittand 

3. Conrada Torrcy 1092 

II. Corb'm A 2>J>(m 1092 
B'fMpflfmm, inpmrtf L 

l.&Iba 2>.2>on - 1092 

U'mpe t m m Mmn Lin. Sp.; 
S.te«Miitfctpn,^c.,Tonr. Inst.; 
Erica erictitt ^., Bauh. Pin. ; 
the whiU.berried Heath, Por- 
tmgal Crakeherr^. 

III. Cerati\>la - 1092 
l.mcoMes . . 1093 



Class II. ENDO'GENiE. 



^mildcea. 
I. SuiuiTi L. - 1093 

Smilae Fr. and Oer: SmOace, 
Ital. 

^ 1. Stems priekfy and an- 
gtdar, 

1. 4spera Xr. - - 1094 
Rough Bindweed. — Ro)go 
acerbone, Ital. 

2 auricuUta Ait, - 1094 

3 mauritinica • 1094 
S. mamritanica Poir. 



2. excelsa Ir. - - 1094 

S. orientdlit, 4c.,Toum.Cor.» 
Bux. Cent. ; 8. dtpera Alp. 
^gypt. ed. 9. 

3 rubens JVats. - 1094 

4. SartaparUta L. - 1095 
S. pemviitna SarsaparlllaG^r. 

Emaci S. glaica Mx.Walt., Fl. 
Car. : the glancout^ieaved SnU- 
ioji: Saltapariglia, Ital. 

5. hastlita fViOd, - 1095 
S.BdiiaHsar Mx. Fl. Amer. 

5. htpera var. Lam. En^e. 

6. Watsont Swt. - 1095 
S. longifMa WaU. Den. Brit, 



S. h. 3 laneeoUUa Axb. Brit. 
ed.1. 

7. Walteni Pursh 1095 

S. aOna Walt. FL Car. 

8. maculata Roxb. 1096 

§ ii. Stem$ priekfy, round, 

9. China L. - - 1096 

C^hta rdduf Bauh. Pin.; 
SmUoMStperaminorTXvaxi. Ie.; 
SaiiUra vufgo Quaguara, *e., 
Ksempf. Amoen. Ex. : Cena 
genMa, Ital. 

10. rotundifolia L. 1096 



CONTENTS. 



Ivii 



U.laimmmL. - 1096 

S. altera, fc. Flam. Ic, ; S. 
ItfvA,^.. Catesb. Car. 

12. temndides L. - 1096 
8. "Brpdmue i^gnv, ^c. Cat. 

Car. 

13. cadikca Zr. - 1097 

14. glauca iSbu - 1097 

$ iu. Stenu unarmedt 4- 
anffled, 

15. PdnnrD^x Zr. 1097 

Tlie dliated-leared Stnllax. 
« S. Sspera Fmdim oeddaUdUt 
Bauh. Pin., 8. wariegita Wall. 

16. latifolia i2. ^r. 1097 

17. quadraogul^s 1097 

la lanceoUta Zr. - 109& 

8.mm-tpiiti$a,^e.^ Cat. Car. 

19. yirainiana Jfi//. 1098 

20. pabera Ffi^. - 1098 

S.j>ftwitfaWalt.Car. 

KhtdtqfSmUax which are eHker 
molH»trodmeed,orvf which we 
htn/enotieenthe PiamU.'- S, 
orita Pmr$h Fl. Amer. Sept., 
8, ilba PwrrA, & panduriu 
iPiinA, 5. nigra W., S. caUM- 
nica Poir.^ 8. hdrrlda Do/l, 
5. ymSadda Ham. (S. hm- 
croph^Ua Roxb.), S. alplna 
IT. .... l098 

I. Au'sctis Z. - 1099 
ThA Biitchar't Broon.— A'o. 






Fr. ; JfiifliMEKdni, Oer. ; 
■WD, Ital. 

1. aculeatus L, - 1099 

R. mprtipOius aeuledltu Tour. 
Inst. : Bo* BoUm^ Knee HoU^, 
tnUMwrtie, pr*chl^ Peitfgree : 
Bout FireUm, petit HouXy Bwis 
piquan t , Fragon SpHteug, Pra- 
gtm piquantj, Fr.; Steehender 
liautedom. Get. ; BuecOt Ital. 

3 rotuodifoliiu - 1099 
R. 9ul,JU.amptiifre Dill. 

3 l&sus Smiih - 1099 
R. /OMU Lodd. Cat. 

2. hypophyllum L. 1 100 

The broadf-leared Butcher's 
Broom. — R. laijfblru$, ^c, 
Toum. lost. ; Laum$ eiexam- 
drhuk Lob. Adv.: Fragon »an» 
FbUole, Fr. : breiAiSittriger 
aaueedom. Get, % BotmtfatxiOt 
Ital. 

StrifolUtum - 1100 
R. trifbuatus MIU. Diet. 

3. (h.) //ypoglossum 1 100 

The double-IeaTed Butcher's 
Broom. — R. angu»t(fbliu$^ 4pc., 
Toum. Inst. ; HupoMlSuum 
Lob. Adv., UvuiHrta Brunf. : 
Fragon A FoUoUt Fr. ; Zungen 
Mausedom, Ger. ; Lingua pa* 
gaua, Ital. 



4. racemdsus Zr. - 1101 

The Alexandria Laurel. — R. 
angustiftUue^ frictu e tmmit 
rdmuUs, hfc, Toum. Inst. : 
^agon d urappes, Fr. ; lyau- 
ben MSueedom, Oer.; Lauro 
AIM, Ital. 

IL YlfCCAL. - 1101 
The Adam's Needle. 



l.glondsa L, - 1101 

Y. eanadetta Aid. Hort. Par. i 
Y. indiea, ^c.. Barr. Rar. ; Y. 
peruana Ger. Emac. ; Y. ndea 
gtoriosot ^c. Lob. Adv. : the 
euperb Yueea : Yucca nain, 
Yaeca d Feuitles entiiree^ Fr. ; 
pr'dchtiger. Yueca^ Ger. 

2 idliis varieg. LotL 1 102 

2. (g.) Bup^rba - 1 102 
Y. gktribea Andr. Bot. Rep. 

3. aloTfolia L. - 1 102 

Y. arboritceniy Ae., Dill. 
Elth. I Y. cauUeeem Mx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

2 p6iiduUi Cat, Hrt, 1 102 

4. dracdnis Z/. -1103 
The drooplng-leaTed Adam's 

Needle. — Uraconi irbori, tc . 
Bauh. Fin. 

5. stricta^bw - 1103 
Lpon*s narro w te t ned Adam*9 

Needle, 

6. recurvifdlia SaSg. 1 103 
Y. recArwa Hort. 

7. filamentosa - 1 103 

The threadr Adam's Needle. 
« Y. jiUiie fliamenidtie Bforls. 
Hist ; Y. nirgintdna, %e., Pluk. 
Aim. 

8. (f.) angustif^^lia 1104 

9. fl^cida Haw, -1104 

10. glauc^scens H, 1 104 



SUPPLEMENTARY SPECIES AND VARIETIES, 

AND SYN0NYME8. 



KanunculdceiB. 

Clbxati'dxjb. 

Cle^matis. 
calif<SniicaG.Jf.llll 

ilTRA'GBNE. 

macropetala Led. 1111 

Illi^cium. 
rel'igi68uiniSSur6.?llll 

SMM; Japan. 

MagnaHacem. 

Maono\./j. 
gnindifldra var. H6r- 
wicus Hort. - 1 1 1 1 
piir)[>iirea tur. hybrida 

- nil 



Berberaceae. 

BsfBBBBIS, 

yulg&ris fol. purpikreis 
Hori. . - 1111 

p&llida - - 1111 

B&rberls pdOMs Hartw. 

gracilis - - 1111 
B. grieiUs Haxtw. 

trifoli&ta - - 1111 

B. trifiOitUa Hartw. 

lanceolAtum - 1112 

B. kmceoUttum Benth. 



lunmrea v 
Hori. . 



angUBtifdlia - 1112 
B. aiig«il(^da^ Hartw. 

Hartwegti - 1112 

B. Hartw^ Benth. 



Aurantihcem. 

LlMO^NIA. 

\jBmhQ\2L WaU. 1112 

lis^periciUieiB* 

ZTypb'ricum. 
rosmarinifolium 1 1 12 

Iseviktum Wall. 1112 
c61cnicum Hrtwit, 1112 
c61chicuin var. rikbrum 
Booth . . 1112 
carap^tre ri^bris 1 1 12 
c. heterocdrpum 1 1 12 
glabram 7^.4-6^.1 112 
tripartitum NuU. 1112 
grandidentktum 1112 



Inii 



CONTENTS. 



JEsad&cea. 

J^SCULUS. 

(H.) nibic6nda 1113 

CappariddcecB. 

Iso'mbris. 
arbdrea ^t(<r. - 1113 

Vitdce<E, 

Eannt&liBL Rovle 1113 
eteroph^lla5.?lll3 

Aquifblidcea, 

ilquif. pendulum 1 1 13 

Iatif61ia ^or^. - 1113 
? I. hntr^NIa Hart. 

TUiamnck:ede. 

a. 2 interu^ius 1113 

IZha^mnus. 
Wicklius Joe?. 1113 
jprunifblius Booth 11 13 

Anacardtdcece. 

longifdlia Hor/. 1113 
Legumindsa, 

[? japonica] graodifldra 

Hort. - - 1114 

jap. pub^Bcens ^. 1 1 14 

(rBNl'STA. 

thyrsifl6ra i^ooM 1114 

Indioo'fera. 

Depalensis Hort* 1 1 14 

Caraga'na, 

Gerardidna Royl. 1114 
Tartaric Pmne. 

ilSTRA^GALUS. 

fruticdsus Dec. 1 1 14 
lomfneus J9tf'<r. - 1114 

Rosdce^. 
Pallastt Ledeb. 1 1 14 

a. pedanaOita FidlM. 

MumeSiOu - 1114 

L». oar. c6Icbica 1 1 14 
L.tMir.£mm/&'(?)l]l4 
^pira'a. 

fissnIAndl. - 1114 
lanceoUUa Poir. 1114 

S. A^vmULiu fibrt. 

rotundifdIiaX«uf. 1114 

tiVTTA'VLTA. 

cenwifdrmis Tor, 1 1 Id 



lasioc&rpua i2<ny/. 1115 
trflobuB Dec, - 1115 

CratjeHius. 

Oxvac. oxyph^lla 1115 

O. nructucocciDeoll 15 

Pyracfr.&Ib. ^.1115 

rivuIiUia r. <^ 6. 1115 

coccfnea vMiidiB 1115 

c. var.jDopulif61ia 11 15 

c. var, oliff&ndra 1115 

c. var, mollis - 1115 

arbordscens 7br. 1115 

aestivMis T, etO. II 15 
C. opdea Hook. 

&T6mf61ia 7\iit. 1 1 15 

Cotonea'ster. 
hacmnBWaU. 1115 

Amkla'nchieb, 

(y.) ovalis 2 subcor- 
data - - 1115 

FetramHetovdliiiuboonUUa 
Jacquln. 

PY^fJB, 

heterophylla i?. 1115 

Philadelp/idcece. 
Philade'lphus. 
mexidlnus BeiUh. 1115 

Grossuldcea. 
Risers, 
tauricum Jacqum 1110 

AralidcecB^ 
He'devla, 

HeUiL var. taurica 1110 

Car7idce4B. 
Co'rnus. 
gHindis BeM. - 1116 
macroph^naFFa//.1116 

SambiicecB* 
Tibu'rnum. 
Awaf uki Sieb.? 1110 

?V.j^pdiw'cMmHoit. 

ain6n8e Zeyh. • 1116 

MuUahaUBm. 1116 
V. sleOmldium Wall. 

pygms^ Royle 1116 

Lonicerees. 

LONI'CBR^. 

cilidsa Poir. - 1116 

ilRCTOST a'PHT LOS. 

p6ngens H.ei i^. 1116 
niUdA Benih. .1116 

PERNBtTTi*. 

angustiiblia lind/.! 1 16 
i>. fJ^a^re^ffWa Hort. 



^lOUlSTRUM. 

Dflpal^Dse - 1116 

L. veHttwm Wall. 

SYRfNOA. 

Embdi • - 1117 
8.iiMMMiWaa. 

Volygondcecs. 
Polt'oonum. 
volc&nicum J^^n. 1117 

Afc/epjodaceae. 

MoRRB>l/il. 

odorata X^mi;. - 1117 
Solani^ea^ 

imbriditai?.tf<P.1117 
Thymditceai. 

i>A'PHNB. 

Audd&ndttLindLlin 

^EUeagnhceie. 
Elma^gkvb, 
parvmitLRoyle 1117 

Vlm&cea. 
Spo^ia. 
can^scens jET.^ i^.l 1 17 

cutis emU$oen$ H. et B. 
^'LNUS. 

denticulkta2i|fM.1117 
BWtvi*a. 
mdllis lind/. - 1117 

Corylhcea. 
Qub'rcus. 
riexBaOdta - 1117 
lan^ta - - 1117 

Q. mqtaUfufs. 

Skfnneri Benth. 1117 

pyren^ca- - 1118 
pann6nica ^ooM 1118 
riibn, - - 1118 
r. feraxaciftlia ^.1118 
Parous. 
syMtka - - 1118 
8. 9oochlektai7. 1118 

Platandcea, 
Platanus. 
[occidentiUiB] hetero- 
phyila Hort. 1 1 18 

Conifiara. 

Pianos. 
oocarpoldes « 1118 

Taxo^oium, 
distich, nucifenim 1118 

Tdnu mm^erm Hoit. 



AN ANALYSIS 



COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS OF BRITAIN, 

REFERENCE TO THEIR USES IN PLANTATIONS. 



l._^Ksldi tUppottitniiB, IM. Cinhn Maim, SI*. On* Oba, n*. 
>UiMttK«>ll. FUatttt-ta^got. MllMB«c«IAir, at. J^SaTrtrim, 
', PUmns Bld4rd/. fU. /UUdib orinUUta, F. iwifH.wilfa. an. f^tuSS 

t, r.aamitBt, F.aia. F. a ai Ua at. r.nooatian, P.ltiiUM*, iBiT^ 

niHu,«n. fiutRU prfni eo Wtt. fl. ■■ilHlllnm, fl. (Vnlt. Q-rtEn. O. cootea, 
Hd Q. pildMil*. MS. TuMIn dlnkliun. lOTT. rate oinna'a, M. PtBiii c» 
piUrU, [r.iKmaiiMTt«Mk.*DdsUHrnrlMI«Drip*dHii(I%iii.TI». 
p. I,uldo. p. Piltuidu, ukL P- Piakuet. 9A0. 
MUdlii-dinl tlster t»«. 

i>«M.— ^'cFT^iuuSUt*. A. ertDdrpum, ud ^. r«br^,n. A'^am floUatH, ^. Id. 
idna. ud J. eordirbLU, sn. BttiiUfmpjTiBim,sn. Ctnvii (flTMrta. uid C.mlcirU, 
ns. VitiTi lolctita. 9I». rOiHil'iibiauinjIen.SIS. ftnn miniflBli. tad fTtof. 
mhiUU. 4tT. OoCnni B-Kulla, RM. RaWD^ ftBii-Actiit, «l. 

— /lax ^ilullttlltDB, IH. Jaatfm ftmlaUu, ion. PfaM 




Cftltm, til. Urj^ lou. Qntiau. M 



Mt.-A-blm. wU ttw ipndH. KM. oAmt, JlMT. nam ION' nim, mo. IPtam, 

and. In iboR, SHHt tnm. TIS. 

- - .l^KoTi^ iM. ^rpiaiii, lie. nru. MJT MUi, Td: 



'DrtiU^-.(niM>,ai. SU1.IM. MpohB,!!*. .f Huln*, IM. UriodlDdjnii, te, 

j^KM.'—jfea-.TV. ^iUbIu. IW. fii(iite,S)T. OkpfamiilM. Clrr>,T«>. Outloai 
111. aWt, TSa. Mfiu, sot. AtllaOL CN, OlsdttKfais, tb. AgluL W 
0^rT«.*l>. rMHra.m. /tUuiu, BIT. Sulh^lM. BeUaU, m. flnmi.Tll. 



ix ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS, 

Very hard, compact, and durable woods. 

Z)0eitf.— Cvratus. 176. Ck-atc'giu, ass. CfUsus Labdmum, S13. Aateymns, 149. Pr^niu, 

870. i>j^ritt,417. Robinui, S33. 
£v.— inixut,703. Cupr^Miu, 1073. Tlex, 166. Junfperas, 1080. PhillfTaa,681. 
rbiaja,I068. 
lletioous irooda. 

Z)ecid— Llrix, 1063. 

E9 il'biet. 1036. CMnu,1067. Picea, 1036. Pfauu, 950. 

Seiectedjbr ike ekaraeter qftke Head. 
For its general bulk. 

Dectd. -> if'cer PseHdo-PULtanua, and A, obtusitum, 79. JB'tcului HimooAitanani, 194. 
Ciri>lnof^£taIus,916. .FIgus < jIviUea, 906. Liriz europs'a, 1058. Pteului, mott of 
the species, 819. ^fircua C%rris, 846. 5Mlx, sereral species, 744. Tilia eui opnVi, 
63. V'lmus, most of the species, 7 1 5. 
Bv. — PInus sylTistrls, P. Larf do, P. Pin4ster, and P. Pallssrttiff, 960. 
For iU upright habit. 

Deeid.~-.J'lBva glutlndsa ladoUta. 839. P6pulus ftstlglkta, and P.monlUfetm, 819. 

Qujrcus C6rrls» 846. l/lmus camp^trls strtcta, 716. 
S9. ^ J 'blea, 1096. Pfoea, 1086. PInus, 960. 
For Its spreadlDff habit. 

Deeid &stiDeaT6sca,911. Agus sjrlT&ttca, 906. Aixinui excfisior, 689. Hulrcus 

pedunculkta, 846. I7'lmus montina, 716. 

Sciected toilk a view to ike prodttetion qf Sketter. 
For general purposes. 

Deeid if*cer Psehdo-Plitanus. 79. Cirptnos Mtulus, 916. PIgus sylv&tica, 906. 

X^rix europa'a, 1063. Pdpulus iOba, 619. P^rut ^*i1a, 417. C7*lmui monttoa, 715. 
Plnus sylv^stris, 960. 
For draaring up voung plantations. 

Deeid.— E^vla, 41ba, 837. lArix europa'a, 1063. Pl^rus aocupiria, 417. Pdpulus 

balsamifera, and P. cAndlcans, 819. 
£tr.— y| bies exc^isa, 103& Plnus sylvterls, 960. 
For protection from the sea broete. 

J}ecid if'cer Pseiulo-Plitanus. 79. /#ipp4phae Rhamn^Hdes, 098. P6pulus ilba, 

P^rus itf'ria, 417. Aunbticus nigra, 613. 

Seleetedjbr the produetion qf Shade, 
For shade in summer only. 

Most deciduous species. 
For shade in summer and winter. 
Most evergreen species. 

Selected a* adapted for particular Sad. 
For dry poor soils. 

Deeid Aiiantm glandulbsa. 146. JSiftula 41ba, 887. CKrpfaius Bitulus, 916. Cfirasos 

Tulgaris. and C. sylvfistrls, 876. Agus sylritica, 906. Gledftschni trlacinthos, 949. 
Alppdphae Rhamnoktes. G98. Lirix europse^a, 1068. P^rus J^tiM, and P. aucupilrla, 
417. Roblnia.Psehdo AAci^ 983. 

Ev Pinos sylT6strls, P. Plnister, and P. austrlaca, 96a 

For moist soils. 

Deeid >l*cer eriocftrpum, and A. r&brum, 79. Jinui glutlndaa, 838. PlitanttS ood* 

dent&lis, 997. P6pulus, 819. fi;ilix,744. 
l?v. — il'bles commhnis, 1036. 
For peaty toils. 

Deeid 2%tula 41ba, 837. Pdpulus trtoula, and P. balsamffera, 819. AUx ciprea, 744. 

Ev. ~- il *bies commhnis, 1086. 
For good deep soil. 

Deeid ifi'sculus HIppoc&stanum, 184. Cirya 41ba, 785. OutineaT£sea,91l. J&glans 

rigla, 789. Pdpulus, most of the species, 819. Quircus, most spedea, 846. Silix, 744. 
£/amus» 716. 

Selected at adapted for partiemiar Situatiomt. 
On elevated surfaces. 

Deeid. — BHaU £lba, 837. Pl^ms if 'ria, and P. aoeupiila, 417. 5ambluns nigra, 513. 
Ev. — Phius sylT6stris, and P. Ctmbrat 960. 
Sheltered by houses. 

I>MtfA — yf'cerPsehdo-Plitanus, 79. Plitanus, 937. Pftpulus CutlgiAta, 819. TVUa 
europie^a, 63. l/'lmus camp^stris, 716. 
Exposed to the sea breese. 

Deeid — if 'cer Psehdo-P14tanus, 79. filppdphaS RhamifGldes, 696. Pdpuloa Alba, 819. 
Pj^rus if'ria, 417. Sunbhcus nigra, 618. 

Seeded for being grotm for eaea'al Purposes. 

For produdng an Immemate screen, so dense as to Interrupt the rfew. 

Dead if oer Pse<ldo-P14tanus, 79. .^sculus Hippocistanum, 194. Cirptnos Btta^ 

lus, 916. PigM sylTitlca, 906. Tllla europa»'a, 68. C7'lmus camp£stris and U, 
montdna, 716. 
J?e.— if^bies exc6Isa, 1096. Plnus sylristris, P. Lartdo, and P. Plnister, 960. 
Partially to interrupt the view. 

2>«eM:—3ttuIa ilba, 887. CSIrasus syWfistris, 876. AAxinus excelsior, 689. GleditscUki 
trlacinthos, 949. P6pulus tr^mula and P. grs^ ca, 819. RobfnAi Pseud-^cAda, 888. 
For producing timber In hedgerows. 

Dtfefd^-if ^cer Fseado-/*litanus, 79. Aildntus glanduldsa, 145. Cirya ilba, 786l CSu- 
tiUiea visea, 911. P^rus oomm&nis, 417. Qu£rcus pedunculita. Q. sessUillbra, 
Q. Cirris, Q. hibra, Q. ooodnea, and Q. paldstrls, 84& f/lroos campietris, 715. 
For forming aTenues. 

J>«eML— if 'cer Psehdo-Plitanus, 79. iB'sculus Hippocistanum, 194. Cirpinus Ji§tulus 
916. Oirya ilba, 736. OutineaTesca,911. C6rasus sylr^stris, and C. TulgAris, 876. 
FSIgus sytvitlca, 906. Ji^glans rl»U, 738. Lirix eurooi^ 1068. Plitanos orientiUs, 
and P. occidentalis, 987. Pdpulus, most of the suecMS, 819. P^rus commhnis, and 
P. Afklus, 417. Qu^rcos, many of the spedet, 846 iSobinIa Psehd-ilcdda. 888. Vbmu, 
most of the species, 716. 



WITH REPERENCB TO THEIR USE8 IN PLANTATIONS. Ixl 

*'*^^"^*?*^ ^****' ^**™« LIbtol, 1067. i>lcMi pecUiAta, 1036. Plnos ttV- 
Tfetrtt. P. I^rfcks P, PalUs/diM. P. i>lniscer. Ac. OMTnxns bocctu, 998. 
For fonning lofty hedget. 

X>ecM#. -. J^oer aunp^stre, 79. ^tola Alba, 837. Cirpbiiu i»talui,916. fhguatjU 
Tit 0^906. /Arfz mvopa'a. 10UL O'stija Tulgiris, 9191 P6pulM» tuUg^tA, 819. 

£tr.— ifblet exc^Ua, 1025. riex ^quifMium. 1A& Jimlpenu TlnliiUaia, 1080. ncM 
peccteita, 1086. Ou£rcus /W, 846. Tkxm baoAta, 939. 
For betag periodloaiT cot down at coppice-wood, but not in the shade of other treei. 

Deeid. — ^cula ilba, 887. Cutinea T^aca, 91 1. A&xJnot ezciUior, 639. Oninma 
peduncuUU and sesaUUldra, 846. 
For bcfag perkMllcallr cut down at copptoe-wood. In the shade of other trees. 

^e.— Cfaaaua Laoroc^raaua, 276. BAxn» lemperTlrens, 706. Tlex ifqalfbUinn. Wk 
Jonlperus, 1080. Qu6rcus riex, 846. 74xaa baocita, 999 
8eleeie4 h$ part for ikeir produce m Prwttt or Seeds. 
Used In rarioiu arta and manafkcturei. 
,, , .i>«<'- — -^'■calua, 194. /lgui,905. Qo^rcoa, 846. 
Uied In houaehold economy. 

^^^ ■"^''3^ ''*• <*»**ne^ 91 1, dferaaua nrW^atrU. and C. TolaMa, «7«. «^1aiia. 
. , ^T>»._il«*pllaa, 416. lArua, 706. PrUmu^ho, Pfr^AYT. •'»««a»^ 

Aa food for sfaigf ng.Urda. game, or wild animals. 

DecM. — Ckat»*gas, 862. Ptnu aucap&rla, 417. Tlex ilquUbUum, 106. 
Seleeted te part for their produce in Bark, 
rot the tanner. 

Dedd^B^txAa &Iba, 837. CkstiDeaT^aca,911. L4rfix eiirop«X 1061. Pfroa anco. 
_ ^. lArfa* 417. Ou^rcoa pedimculikta, and Q. aeaallifl6ra. 846. SAUx, varloua apeclea, 744. 
For other arts. 

So. — / lex il<ruifbUam, lfi6. rUla ettropK'a, 691 
Seleettdiu part for ike mu qf their JMtvee, 
Aa aulwtitates for spent tan In gardens. 

Becftf... Qu^rcus. 846, aMt&nea,911. 
Aa prododng, Iqr decompodtlon, leaf-mould. 

All trees, especially the broad-leaved kinds. 
Aa winter food for cattle. 

^^••"i?*^^Jff"^''*-'^">°»»®'* P>nia,417. Robinte,28S. 5UU.744. 
nUa,68. C^'lmaa,71A. 

Tuia oaowN cbixtlt fo» ORMAimrrAi Poapoaaa. 

Seheled with refertaee to their Bulk, 
Large-slsed ornamental trees. 

Dedd. — il' oer fdatanfildes. A, erlocirpnm, and A, rAbrum, 79 ^sculus Hlppodb- 
tanam, 194. Aitamiue glandnlbaa, 145. iflnua glutlndsa laclnlku. A. Indna, and 
A. cordtfblla. 88S. Jttula vopuUfUla. and B. nigra, 837. Celtto austr&Us, ri7. 
figos sylvAtka purpiirea, 905. /H^xlnus ameridkna, 639. Lirlodendron Tuliplfera, 
36. O^strja ▼ulgftris, 919. i^Ataoua orlenUlls, 937. ^6rcus C^rrls Ailhamteaia, 
and Q. C. LacombedMO, 846. Robim'a Psead-ifcAda, 883. Taxbdium dlstichum, 
1077. 
Ev — jnriea,108&. CMrua, 1067. Picea, 1086. i>lnos,950. 
MIHdlft sttiwl on>a mft i »y^ trees. 

DecHL-^Jtcm, 79. C^rylua, 921. Gledltschia. 249. Llquldimbar. 982. HagnblAs 
acnmhiita, 21. ATbrus ilba, 705. Neeihulo, 122. O'mus, 651. O'strya, 919. 
Fkria, 128. PApulua, 8i9. Pyrus, 417. Robfnui, 233. SaUabHriki, 944. SAIix. 744. 
rtHa,68. 
Ar.— iTbiea, 1096. Ctipr€asua, 1078. Junfperua, 1060. Ptcaa, 1086. Ptnua, 960. 
QnCrcua, 846. TKxua, 939, ftc. 
Small-^lsed ornamental treea. 

DeoU.— j^'cer, 79. ilmfgdalua, 261. ilrmenlaca, 267- .Broosaonte'a.jriO. CatShM, 

696. 

PilTte, 128. P^rslea. 265. PrOnos, 27a \»nu. 417. Qtt*rcua,646. iOiAmnua, 170. 
Robfniii, 283. J»ltx,744. VlrgUla, 197. Xiinth6xylum, 143. 
Sw — Ct^aaoa Inatt&nlca, 276. Ctaprteus, 1073. /^lex.lML Ja^pems, 1060. Lafiroa, 
681. iVcea,1006. PUitta,9ea Chi^rcna, 846. Tlixoa, 989. Tti^a. 1068. 

S riede d wAA r^fertace to their Fonum 

Wltli upngfat OUong or globose heada. 

l>«cHf.— iTcer obtouitum, 79. ^scttlos Hlppocastanum, 124. if 'lAut, 882. CSrasoa, 
876. Agna,906. Pteuloa, 819. P:^ruaif*rla,andP.aiicapirla,417. 4hi6reua Ctrrla, 
846. £^miia,716. 
With apreadlng heada. 

Aw^-.i<rmenla(ea,8e7. Ctatse'gua CrtSa-gUU, 862. i>loaptroa, 626. Mispilna, 414. 
Pfersica, 266. 
Wkh eoolcal heada. 

Dedd IAriz,1068. TaxMinm, 1077. 

So — if Idea, IMfii CMrua, 1057. Oiprtsaoa acaspernmia, 1078. Jimfpema, 1080. 
/>icea,1086. PlDiia,9«0. Tbi^a, 1068. 
With niry heada. 

IKctf.— {>atae'gnaOsyacintbaBtrlcta,8B8L iP6palna faiHgUfa, 8ia Qu^reua pedun- 

eoUU Ihatlglita, 846. 
So.— Tkxm bMxAU Ihatigttta, 989. 

Seleeted with r^fereaee to their Mode ^ Growth. 
With pendent shoots snd branoies. 

IVcM— Mtula fiba pfodola, 887. (Xrasas semperflbrens, 976k Cntm^goM Oxyacftntha 
reglnae, 858. Cytlaua Labdmum pfodulom, 818. ^8g«a fyiritlca pfodula, 906. 




Ixii ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS, 

mbcliiM VKtMdar p^ndida, uid P. /eodielAlla ptedate, <BB. LMn 6anm»> pfoduU, 

lOM. Fkwta rfebn p^ndttla, 118. i^6pulat titmula pteduU, 019. Quferciu pedun. 

cuUU, 846. SUix tMl^l^nica, 7i4. Taxbdiam dl<tichiim pendulum, lOH. U'lauu 

noDtmna p^ndula, 716 
B9 — Cdprewiu ptoduU, 197S. /^lez ifquUbUom, T. ptadulum (both rare), 186. Ju- 

nfpenM rectinra, 1080. 
With TWttaal aboou and brancbM. 

Hectf.— Cliiplnua JMCulua, 916. PhgOB twhrStiok, 90S. OjinnMadaa canadteait, S55. 

Ptrui A^rUi, and P. aucnpAria, 417. U'hnuM mooUna ftatlfiita, 71i ; and tha other 

fltfdgfaite or fptay-haaded treea eoumarated aboTeu 
With horisontal shoott and branches. 

JDmM.— il'laat jiutlndaa lafdnikta, 839. Oata'gua Crtii'g&lll. 8B1. Dfoaptroi L^ua, 

6». Rohinj'a Pw^d-ilcdcla, R. ambracolfTera, 9S8. TasMhim dfatlehiun, 1077. Ul- 

nua montina ptedula, 716. 
£v.— il'biea, 1026. Cddnu, 1067. Ploaa, lOW. i*lnoi,960. 

Sdeeled witk rtfermee to their FbUagt. 
Duration. 

Doddnoos ornamental traai. 
Dofvloped eariv In nrfns. 

DecUt, — il'oer Ptebdo-Ptttanui, and A. tatirienin, 79. Oata^got nign, 
and C. Oxjac&ntha pra'toz, 869. P6pQluB balsamlfera, 819. lanibCleai 
nigra, 613. nUa europa^a, 63. I^'lnuu canipiatria, 716l 
DoTelqpetTlate. 

DecU il//(CnlM glandulbu, 146. Car7a,786. Catf4M, 669. ^Mxinua, 

«8B. Giadftich^ 949. Gjrmiidcladua, 966. J^tglana, 732. i>^rua if "ria. 
and P. Teatlta, 417. Ontows TadkAi, 846. VlrgflUi Itetea, 197. 
Dropping earij. 

Deetf. — if 'oar PaeM»^P14tuua, 79. jB'aeuioi Hippoc&atanma, 194. 
#V4xinua excflaior, 688. PItm, 19Bb i'dpulua, 819. Roblnis, 983. 
nUa,63. 
Dropping late. 

DmAI. — if *cer eampHtre, and A, crficleum, 79. Cfcrpinna i^^liii, 916. 
Oat«*gai Crtit-gftlU, 369. Ague cylTAtlca, 90& LiqiiidAmbar tmb6rbe, 
932. P14nera Rfchfird/, 796. Qu^rcua, 8tt. 
FenUtanfc, often remaining on in a withered state till sprfang. 

JDeetf. — OLrpbus A§tuliu, 91& ^Sgua tTlTiitka. 906. liquidimbar im- 

b^rbe, 932. Quferaia C^rrU, and Q. Taixii^ 846. 

BTorgrean ornamental treea. _ 

Jlvlet, 1088. CMro*, 1057. Caracas lusitlnica, 976. Oiprteos, 1073. 
riez ifquUMlom, 166. JUnlpenia, 1080. Ladnis n4bIIU,681. MasnbUi 
grandifldra, 21. Pioea, 1086. Plnus,960. Quircua Tlex, 846. 2mxua, 
M9. ThiUa, 1068. 
Suberergreen ornamental treea. 

ClratK^gut Crda-atflH, and C. maxldtaia, 369. MagndUa Thompaon/dita, 91 . 
i^rvi ooronMa, 417. 42ii(rGus Olnris ftilhamteaU, Q. Cnria Luooro-' 
bedM, Q. hfbrida nina and Q. Tdroeri; 846. 
Vom and character. 
Simple learea. 
Large. 

iVcil— if 'oar macrophf llnm, 79. awtineaTfisca,911. Cald^pa 9mrim§m» 
Iblia, 669. BCagnblto macrophf lla, M. trip€tala« and H. acuminata, 91. 
Pl&tanut, 997. P6pulusheteropb7Ua,8I9. /tn» ▼•■ttta, 417. Ouircua 
ieiallillftra, and Q. nigra, 846. V'imna montana, 716. 
£v.— MagnftUs grandifldra, 91. 
Snail. 

Dec/d.— if^cer crMcnm, 79. Oratc^gua OxyacfUith^ 869. JEtatejmoa ea- 
ropaHn, 149. Prtnua splndaa, 970. I^'tanns chinoiala, 716. 
Linear, or needlo-Ukc. 

/)ccid— JUUix, 1051 Taxbdlum, 1077. 

Ar. — if ^Uee, 1096. CMma, 1067. Onr^etut, 1073. Jhnipenia, 1080. 
JPIon,108& i>lnus,960. nzua,089. Thi^ 1068. 
Oompoond learei. 
Large. 

D€cid.—A(Uham», 1146. drja. T3& OlediUcU^ 949. Gjmnddadua, 
966. J^Iani,739. KtflTeutM, 134. Adxinat,68a Vlrgflitf, 197. 



i»reM. — i8'icutai,191 €#tia«a,9l3. O'moa,66l. Mvtfnda, 199. FtTte, 
19& i*t^lea,148. 
Colour. 

In daridoooi trees in early sommer. 
U^ittOryellovlsh, green. 

Deeid.'—jTon Pieildo-/*l£tanus lut6icens, and ^. plataa£ldes, 79. Co- 
tatpa »yring«e(iA\ai,e6%. Kblreutdrta. 134. Blafll^a,711. A^vtedo, 122. 
ittpulat balumifora, 819. 
£v. -^ Qu^rcos pedunculita, and Q. sessiHil6ra, 846. £iliz,744. 7Ilia,63. 
Virgllitf. 197. 

tSU^Anam^ 639. Gtestinea. 911. («Itia,797. AidBjrmna, 149. LI* 

quidimbar, 932. Pi<rla, 198. i>rtaas,970. 
Purple. 

Xteeii.— ifVarPseMo-PUUanuspurpttrtscens, 79. Figua sjrlTttlca pur- 

ptirea, 906. Quircus peduncuuta poipordeens, 846. 
Vaifegated. 

2>eetf.— if'oer platanfildes TariegAtum, and if. Pseddo-PMtanus Tarlegita, 

86. CbitAnea Tteca Tariegiita, 912. JVixInns heterophflU vailMita, 

688. Ou6rcuspedunculdtaTartagMaandQ.C£rrlsvari«i^tta,846. fTimua 

canp^stris Taiiogita, 715. 



WITH REFBaSNCE TO THBIR USBS IN PLANTATION, IxHl 



bidecldnoat tveet teaolQiiiii before MUngoff. 
Bed orjmrale. 

JMeii.-^jtoeac r^brum.TS. Liquidimbar, 9SS. MagnM/a anricoBta, SI. 
<2u£rau rtUira, Q.iOi^ Q. tinct5ria, and Q. peltlttrit, 846. 



DeekL—A^ew rt atanfl Me t, and A. saochirinom, 79. B^tula ilba, 837. 

ASxInm excdaior, 689. Kbireiitdria, 184. IJrix, 109& Liriodindroo, 

K. MadHra, 711. Negimto, 1»L PApaka nigra, and P. canadfiniia, 819. 

Ptttea CrlfoUAta, 148. P^nu rerttta, 417. SiSsb&ria, 844. VirgUia, 197. 

Green, or without chan^ng ooloar. 

J>edU.^^'lnua,83a. C61tl«,7S7. Chit«'gat CrIlMillL and (7. mezkina. 
3S1 Dloap^roa, 625. P^nu corooiLria, 417. 
Brovn, orwithoat Dright colour. 

DeeM. — A^xr Pteitda.P]4tanui, 79. Am»hu, 145. CSrTa, 785. JOglani. 

_ 1080. Pdpnkugrs'ca, P.trte»ila,aadP.faals8m]fera,819 

in evergieens. 

Light green. 

OUms DeoddrtL 1067. OipiCuoa Ayoldei, and C Insltfaica, 1078. Jtanl^ 
_ penis, 1080. MagnbUi grandlll&ra, U. ThiUa, 1068. 

Dark green. 

if^biea ezcOta nigra, 10S5. Cinunu ItuMbilca, S78L CaprHtoB, 1078. 
nex,lB6. Jkimperui, 1080. Lal&nu ndbllis,081. Plcca. 1086. PInui. 
980. Qufrcus riezr846w 7%nu» 989. 
Variegated. 

iflilet excfilia rarlegita, 1025. Capr^uoM AjSldet Tarleglta, 1078. riex 
AqiaiMlwBa TarlMttun, 156. Plnua Pln^ter rarl^tta, 961. Qu^rcua 
ilex Tariegftta, 846. Tuof ImoAUl Tariegkta, 980. 
Fragmnlleafes. 

Dedd. -. .Bftula, 837. Jftglans, 782. Llgiddimbar. 98S. mix pentindra, 744. 
£».~irbiet,1025. Jonlpenu, 1080. Zatiritt, 681. Plcca, 1086. Plniis, 950. 
ThiUailOfiS. 

Sekelei»ilkrarre»cetoikeirHowen. 
Fradnoed in spring. 
Red or purple. 

l>ee3tf.~if*oerrilbram,79. ^m^gdala^961. Crata' gus Orraieinftfaa rdaea, and 
a 0. ponlcea, 860. Vkfia rikbra, 188. Pftrtica, 965. 
Tellow. 

ilecAI.— iflDerpIatanffldee,andif.monq>ewnlAnnm,79. Cftlras X«biimum, and 

C.alpi&na,818. iS!llix,744. Xanthtejrlam, 143. 

WUte. 

Deeid, — Anneptaca, 887. C6Faiui,176. (>afe«*giii, 888. llagndUe oonsplcua, 81 
Prtoui.87a Ptnu,417. Sfeaphylte, 147. 



In 



IVeAf.— JB^iculiu, 194. PtrAi, 138. Ptmt Jlflaos, P.ooroQlila, and P. apecta- 
bllla,417. Roblni!a?isc6ia,883. 



Bed or purple. 

DecML—BoUate bbplda, 888. 
TeDow or orange. 

DeicM.-. KOlreiitte&^ 184. Virgllia Ittea, 197. 
White or whltlah. 

i)ec^-.CYat«'gna conlita, and C. aaexicina, 889. Haldafa tetr^itera, 680. 
Lirlodtedron,86. JflacnbUb,91. M«fpatts,414. Bobfnte Paeikd-ilcAeia, 388. 



HeeU. Catdlpa, 668. 

SiUetgdwitkr^fierence 10 their FiruH or Seed, 
Large and showy. 

DecU, — ifrmentaca rulgirls. 367. Cyd&nla rulgkrls, 480. MaclJira anranttaca, 71 1. 
Pftrsica Tulgftrls, 365. Prunus domistiea, 870. P^rus commitnls, P. IfUus, and 
P. M, astradLnlca, 417. 
Small, but conspleaoos flrom colour and quantity. 

i)ecM.-.C£llis. 787. CSfiranis, 376. CratiB^gus, 853. flippdphae, 698. P^rus Afalus 
flTunifblfa, P. M, beodlta, P. itf^'ria, P. IntermMla, P. tomln&Iis, P. auricuUta, 
P. ancnpdria, and P. ameridUia, 417. iZhinuius cathirticoa, and R. frfingula, 170. 
JS^. — Plex ^quUbHum, 166. Juniperas, 1060. Ladrus, 681. 
Siogular in fbrm or character. 

Ileetf.— AidDymus, 149. Liquldimbar, 98S. MagnUM,8I. PUtaattS,937. <2u£rcna 
Cfirris, and Q. Ji^giIops,84A 



SHRUBS. 
SawTH swwM oannr voe obpuk Puwoaaa. 



Seleded at adaptedjbr Coppiee^Woode, 

DeetdT—C&nnm — ^giti— , and C. filba, 801. Odylut ifveiliaa, 991. LigfSitrum vulglLre, 
688. aiUz cjkprea7744. 

Seeled ma adapted ftfr nrodmeii^ Skater Jbr Oame. 

Dcctf.— Genista, 308. iOkt. 46& Aplne'a,390. SymphoricCrnoa, 641. nbdmun. 616. 
£9. « .Mxus, 708. Ganlthlrte, 679. IFrp^ricum, 74. Junfperus, 1088. Mahdnlki, 6a 
JKhododtedron, 688. CTlex, 199. Fiscclidum, 604. 

Seeded at adaptedlbr Hedget. 

2)eckU'^Btrbera,4i. Cf tiras scopiilna. 318. iapp6phai5, 666. Ligdstnnn, 638. Pallhnis, 

168. ilbsa, 881. Jlyifaitii. 686. 
M9 jmbciia,7Q8. Pier, 166. Jlm^terua, 1080. PhiIVrea,68l. cncs,199. 



\lLiv ANALYSIS OF TH1£ COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS, 

Shhvbs oeowm cBnn.Y voe oimambntai. Pusmmv. 

Selected wUk rrference to their Bulk. 
Large-sized shrubs. 

J>«rMl_/»ccharU, 546. B4rberi9t ^'i- Bdryu, 713. BAddleo, 670. Caragitma^ &f. 

Coldtea, 944. C6mu8, Ml. Cotoneiater, 405. £u6nymus, 149. Fontanesto, 638. 

Halimoddndron, 342. Munamtils. 499. /Hp^phae, 698. I.fgdstniin, 638. Palittrus, 

168. Phllad^lphus, 460. PipUnthus. 198. Rhtu, 1H6. Sides, 468. Sambteui, 613. 

Shepb6rdia, 700. 5pfirtiuin, 208. Sprtnga^ GlOi, nbdmum, 516. 
£v. — if 'rbotus, 678. JTAxua, 703. riez, 186. Juniperua, lOSa XaAroa, 681. 

iniiU^rea, 631. 
lliddle-iized shndM. 

Deeid. — Ain6rpba, 330. Btrberis^ 42. Caldphaca. 243. Calfcfinthus. 462. OeanMiua, 

180. Ceptaaltatbiu, 644. Chlmoninthiu, 464. Cldthra, 581. Cyd6aia»460. Deiitste, 

465. irfbfsciu, 62. Leyoestdrto, 643. Poteatflla, 319. ilhodod^Ddron, 683. AhAs, 

186. Ai6ef, 468. ilbsa, 321. fjiirv'^a, 299. Staphjl^ 147. Symphoricirpoa, 641. 

j^rhva, 636. 
Ev. — Aictiba, 611. l^upledrum, 495. GirrvA, 926. Jimfperus, 108a Mahdnlis, 60. 

Prlnos, 163. iihododendron, 668. ITlex, 199. fibtfmum Tlnus, 616. 
Small shrubs. 

Dedtf.— .JmfgdalusDkna,261. Jndrosse^mum, 77. ilrtemfsfo. 649. if traph&xis, 679. 

JSNula nina, 837. Ctstus, 64. Compt&n/o, 936. Corilria, 14& Ck>roDflla, 947. 

D&phne. 686l Dfrca, 692. Fotherg(lla« 600. CTcnlsU, 803. Hydringea, 492. 

Hypericum, 74. /'tea, 489. Jutnlnum, 654. Hfyrlca, 934. NitriUia, 467. Ondnis, 

m Pmbaia^ 18. Potentflla, 819. Ahodod^ndron, 683. Bibe$, 468. Splrtt'a, 299. 

FacclDlum, 604. Teila. 63. Xanthorblza, 19. 
E9. Andr6med4i, 660. AipleQnim, 495. Cassindra, 662. CoUmeister mlcroph^Ia, 

405. Dfiphne, 686. fphddra, 937. K&lnu'a, 698. /.Mom, 602. Leiophf Hum, 602. 

Leuc6thoe, 668. Ly&nto, 564. Mah^nta, 6a Pem€ttya, 678. JZhododfodron, 683w 

raccfnium, 604. YUcca, 1 1 01 . Zen&bio, 568. 
Under-shnibs. 

Htfcul.'-ilrctocULphyloaalplna, 677. ifrtemfsila, 549. On6nls, 229. Pbalerocfirpui, 681. 
Ew. — if rctost&pbylos U>a drsi, 577. AcUea proclimbens, 601. Galltina, 569. Cortoia, 

1092. DaboeW 672. Epigie'a, 580. frlca. 666. GaulthftrAi, 679. Oypsocftllis, 

567. Lddum, 602. Leiophfllum, 602. Ozyc6ccus, 616. Pemettya, 678. Phyil6- 

dooff, 570. iZtiscus. 1099. SantoUna, 648. 

Selected vith reference to their Form a$ Bushes. 
With compact roundish heads. 

D^tf. — ifrtemfsi'a, 549. Bfrberit sinensis, 42. .B6tula nina, 837 Calyetnthoi, 4601 
Cephal&Qthus, 644. Coronllla, 247. C^tlsus, 213. JMiphxie MexSreum, 686. Genista, 
203. Ayp£rieum. 74. LigtlBtrum, 628. Potentilla, 319. iZhododfoidron, 583. Bibes, 
468. Spfrie^a, 299. Sympborlc&rpos, 541. Sj/Hngay Gi6. 
Ev. — Aiieuba, 511. Aipletrum, 495. iMxus, 701 Dfcphne, 686l Hypiricnm Kal- 
mta'»«M», 74. Mabbnib, 50. Phlll^rea, 631. iZfaododendroo, 683. fTlex, 199. 
fibtirnum Tlnus, 604. 
With open, rather irregular, heads. 

Decid. — Am6rpha. 23a jMccharls, 516. Bdddleo, 670. Cbliitea, 244. Cotone&ster, 
405. Fhiladflphus, 460. Plpt^nthus, 196. Bh^ 186. 
With conical or pointed heads. 

Ev. — Capressus, 1073. Tlex, 1&6L Juniperut, 108a ITlex ttrtcta, 199. 

Selected with reference to their Mode of Growth. 
Buabes inth upright shoots and brancbea. 

Dedd. — Coragdnot 237. C6rnus (&) strtcta. 601. IRblacus, 62. Jasmlnum IHktlcant, 
664. K6mVi, 298. Leycestir/o, 643. Philad€lphus, 460. 5p&rtium, 202. Arfrse'a, 
299. TYmarlx, 468. Myridlria, 459. 

Sv Jiiniperus c. suteica, 1061. UHex e. ttilcta, 199. Tl&zus b. stilcta, 939. IliCUa 

o. Btrlcta, 1068. 
Boshec with pendent shoots and brandies. 
Climbers. 

By tendrils, or grasping fibrils. 

Drc»dL — Arapelopsis, 139. iftr&gene, 16. Clematis, 2. JShds radlcana, 

186. ncoma, 661. Fltis, 13& 
Ev. .^ Bign&niki, 660. JEftdera, 497. Anllax, 1093. 
By twining stems. 

Dorid. — if ristolbchia, 701. BerchtaiAi, 169. CSel&strus, 164. Lonlcero, 

626. J)fenltp6rmum, 39. Perfploca, 658. Wistarto, 248. 
Ev. — Lonioera, 636. 
By elongated slender stems. 

Decid. — Jasmlnum ofl9cinMe, 654. I.fcium europn^um, 665. Jl^sa, 

numerous sorts, 331. iZiibus, 311. Solanum DulcamAra, 663. 
£tr.— iZdsa, several sorts, 381. 
Trailers ; the branches prostrate, but not generally rooting. 

D«dtf. — if rctoetaphylos alplna, 677. Decamkria birbara, 466. JD6ev pr». 

strktum, 468. Jliibus, 31 1 . 
£«. — if rctostiphylos U>a iSrsi, 577. Axilea prodbnbens. 601. Cotoaefcster 
microph^lla, 406. Gaulthdr/0, 519. JunfpenisSablnaproatrita, 1080. nnca,6S7. 
Creepers ; the branches prostrate and rooting. 
Decid. ~ J7hds, i 8^. iZhbus, 81 1. 
E». — Eplgft'a rdpens, 58a BCahbnus rdpens, 50. Oxyo6ccus, 616l 

Seleeied with r^erence to their Foliage. 
Duration. 

Deddooos. 

Derelfvped early in spring. 

Decid — Oatse\nis, 352. £u6nymui,14& Hypericum, 74. ZlgtSstrum, 698. 
Bibes,4m. ^sa, 321. Stanbacus, 518. ^IrsB'a, 299. S^ri»ga,€a&. 
Dereloped late. 

Decid — Arftlia.496. Cklye&nthus, 452. Cephalinthus, 544. fllblscus,62. 
Palidrus, 168. TYooma, 661. 



WITH BEFERKHCZ TO THEIK USES IH PLAMTATIOMS. Ixv 



^■lIBtlll, m. AnUMtfkjtat, (77. Jltcaim, 111. All- 
rti. M AUiu. T<a, CiUOiM, H». CmiBtea. HI. C(- 
au, ion. CoWii m r. MsTlMn'Mi, »n. ilUw, (M. 



Ouloirl*. H>. OnaocilUi, NT. iminsinB, H. TMo. lU. Jaatrtnt, 
UM). iUlDiAh AW- /Mn, to*. UlSiallium, tU. LancMw. Hi. Lr- 

Priiva, lia. AhlBau, in ithadowadnB. Bat. JibM, tn. Jlodurliiu, 

«;!. ihiKa. ■<«. JMitoiiM. AUL niu. ne. noK mm mu, iw. 

nMcliiKai,«M. >lMniiini,Ut. ncan UUTSMiiUMa. 
Sf flrfmn, fra tiw aoloor fltf lh« ibbotft. 

0m[|. — CdlMIM. m CfUm tcmkiUm. at. P^*dn.MT. GnMi, M. 
'"-■ -"~ cAdnlla. «M. tjtnlaai, an. ITIei, A. 

^^ AslSilto. in. JMfr<laiUtla,(3. CMulM Cf Unii Urtanu, ud C cul- 




JT MiiXImiIii. nim AiU«,ail. CallhBLUS. f^irtmi, ion Dk- 
l»'c<i,tn. Z^Mrms, I0»i. Srlci,Ut. draKiiaUi, MT. Jtanlnww, 

•."HiT'iti^yuii.Tiir^ 



tjphhi/ '«! «*«, Ml . 



— GalOpkiOfM. ConvaHiBT. ComaU. MT, CfUnu, 111. 
iiu, 9» HmltmodfaidKn, ML AbdIbuii), SM Ontsli, Hi. Po- 

ii>,iul ZmiUioaik^ is. 



^''il^£l!^^Sr^«Z«'>R. CfUBU, Ul. Dim. «n. Oolrta. ■». Bj~ 



n,*BdX.DiltiTiaiiBlnaD,«ra. Hmtnttni, HM. Sliq>taM(ii 



Xk_ nigai. IIM. ZmMila pohinltan, Mt. 

^«M:--CSrylH^TilUMpiirpbn*,ni. XA4irb Tnlgliiu porpttna, 41. 

iKrtrf — ■A'fatntttfj, IHL i7IUiciUt6& Jwmlatnn^ CU Zlfttittad, fiH. 
IVI^Hftiiu, *ea. XUniiSH. auoMcB. mi. &l»aoi« Dulc™i«ni, 

ji^j<c«t«. 111. Bi.tm.nt. man^ «i. ri«. iM, xbodo- 

<(iiilnll. nm jnAnniu Jlitini», ira niu,m. rIMniiim TtDoi, 

MS. niK>,wT. ra»(iiwnuni*i(i>tii,iiBi. 

teota is ntuui biftin laiilHg oA. 

"**■ As* — AMM14I-U, IM. BMmii, «. ConKojei. Xntanniu. 14S. 
PkotUilL, 4Ear^^iil.k*, (K ITboioUviiTnn. MS AhAf Iniilna, ISfi. 



Ixvi ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS^ 

Oreen. or without changing ooloiur. 

j>«eAf.— AipIeHmm, 4d5. Hydringea, 491 I>igiiitnnn TOlgira Mmper' 
r\noM,e». itUMU.SlI. Ijplirtiam, 903. CTlex, 1901 
Brown, or withoot bright oolonn. 

^«d».— PaBteAi,18. PoteotUU, S19. JNriMia,ni. SfimXm, 
Fragnmt learot. 

J)ee(d.'—ArteiBUiat649. AypCricnm, 74. Junlpenu, 1080. lfyitea,9M. 
JthiSs aromidca, 186. lUbei nigra, 468. JIdw ruUglnbM, S81. JioinniH 
rlnus,672. Aunbtieas, 618. 5antolIna,548. &»linum, 661. 
X9. — Junlpomt, 1080. Xatirus, 681. 

Sdected vrUk rderemct io Iketr Fkwen, 
Prodooed hi onrly ipring. 
Redf blue, or purple. 

J>«eftf.~ilmfgdalnfnin«,961. Cyddnia Jap6nlca, 450. Dtplma Jfa i ^rw MH , 696. 

JKhododtedron dStirlcom. 663. ititet aangulneum, 468. 
£v. — GjpMdOUa, 6£7 JIhododtndran dlturlcum atrorlreni, 669. 
YoUow or orange. 

Dtdd^—'Caragdma^VSt. Chimoolnthuf, 454. O&mos mCa, 601. Kfrria japteica, 

S96. JMn afireom, 66Si 
£v. — IMLphne Mahhoto, 60. l^^lex ovrop«X 199. 
White or whitlcb. 

i>A:tf.«Cotonetater,406. MagndUs oontplcua, 91. mbn oteaum, 468w 8t»- 



r-..,^'*^ "^- 



iDecU: — Andrfimedflflolifblia, 860. Diphno irex^mon, 686. Pabnte Uo6»m^ 
18. JUtet,468. 
Prodnopd late hi spring, or the beginning of ivnuner. 
Bed, blue, or purple. 

Bedd Am«ipha.9a0. CIstua, 64. Cftlsut,913. Halimodfodron, 949. HeU- 

fotheniain,66. Ottbnit,9S9L Jlhododtodron,668. JU6ef,468. JZbaa,l91. 9^m^ 
999. SsfnntMy 636. 
jffv.-.£rtca,686. KilBiAs898. Ahododtednm, 868. Jlbia,891. 
Yellow or orann. 

I>ee«.--2l^r6er£v,49. BilddlMi, 670. Calfohaea, 943. CbM^;AM,987. Clatof, 
64. Cftisos,9I8u IMrca,699. Oenlita, 908. Heliinthemum, 68. ihrp^rlcnm, 
74. Jatmlnum, 654. Piptinthos, 198. JZhododgndion, 688. JOtea, 466. ilbn, 
891. «p&rtlum, 909. 
Jia. — JTrp^ricum, 74. Mahdntot 60. JUiododCndron, 688. 
White or whitUfa. 



J>ec«f.— Andr6meda,660. BbiTa,7l8. C6vaaa,60I. Cotoneftater,408. DehtaAi, 
465. Jasmlnum, 654. Ligaatmm, 698. /niUadilphua, 460. Photlnla, 408. 
JUftet, 468. iSdia, 891. Sambtieua, 518. ^raX SSa S^nrngOt 685. Hbtir- 



num, 516. 

Sv Caaslndni, 669. Girryo, 996. Leucfltho^, 668. L]rbnMi,564. PhiUfroa, 

681. 
Varlanted. 

J)eeU. — iftraph&zis, 679. Cittoi, 54. Cblhtea, 944. Goronllla, »<7. Onbnis, 999. 

JVhododfodron, 668. 
JEv — AsUea,601. Diphne,686. £rlca, 566. G jpfodOlii, 667. K&]mAi,69a 
Produced In autumn. 

Red, blue, or purple. 

2>€«M. — Ceanbthus, 180. Atphne MaiSremm autunmile, 68& flDrfieua, 69. 
BbtM, 891. E9, — Eiia, 665. 
Yellow or orange. 

JDecMf. — ChlmonJnthus,454. JTamamdUi, 499. Fyp^ricom, 74. Adlilnu, 168. 
itbfa,891. 5k>irtium, 909. JTv. — l^Mex ntna. 
White or whldih. 

Deeid. — filMicns, 69. iSbia, 891 . aambheoa caaadfoBla, 818. SoUnom Dvlea- 

mdra Uba, 668. 5^1100X999. 
J^. — if'rbntus, 678. Qtarja, 99& Flbdnnmi Tinas, 516. YificM, 110! . 
Variegated. 

Deeid. — Am6rpha, 980. Aristotftlte, 161L OUacas, 69. LejteatMa, 60. Abaa, 

891. 
S9 — if 'rbotos, 678. GypaociUis, 557. 
Fragrant flowers. 

i>ee«..Cal7dbithuB,469. CSrasna iraMfa6b 976L Chlmoninthna, 454. CItoatIs 
FUmmula, 9. Cf dsui Zabikmum frigrani. 918. Diphne Mairmm, 686. JSV- 
ptrlcum. 74. Jasmhaum, 654. Lonioera. 596L PhUadflphus, 460. iSbaa, 891. 
Bunbticus, 6iaw AvHbMa,685. FltU, 186. 
fflciiiire,r " 



E9, — Jasmlnum offlcinile, 654. Abaa semperrtrens, 891 . ilosmartnut, 679. 

Selected with r^erwmee to tkeir Fi'ma or Seed. 
Large and showr. 

DecM.— Cydbnla^eo. Alto GrossuUMa. 468. ilbM,891. J{bbua,811. 
Ev. — ^'rbutus, 678. 
Small, but conspicuous ttam obkrar and quantity. 

Deeid. -^Bfrberie, 47. Cbmus,601. Cotoneister, 405. Cratse^gus, 859. Diphne, 686. 
f'ofoymus, 149. fllppdphaS, 668. Ligtistrum. 698 Lonicero, 696. Zfcium, 666. 
lfyrlca,934. Perlpfoca, 668. Ahds, 186. Riie$,4$6. Ambbcus. 618. Sheph^rdAs 
700. SoUnum, 6G8. Symphorlcfirpus, 641. raccinlum, 604. F1bdmum,516. ritis, 
186. 
Ev — CotoneAster, 406. CVata'gos, 889. Oaulthtrlo, 579. &Mera,497. riex, 166. 
J^utperus, 1080. BlahbnAi, 60. JMscus, lOOSL faodnlum, 604. ribdmum, 516. 
Singular in form or character. 

Deeid — Bdddlea. 670. Caldphaca, 948. Calycinthus, 459. Cephalinthus, 644. Chl- 
monfinthos, 454. Oolbtea, 944. £u6nymus, 149. Magnbito, 91. Pailbms. 168. 
Physiintbus, 669. SUphyl^a, 147. 
Ev. — MagnbUa grandiflbra, 91 . 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA DESCRIBED, 
ACCORDDia TO THEIR LEAVES. 




LKAVBB SIHTLB 



. .MuBchu. 

TbmlobMt. ftiUlluli^td 

.(iMpHi, nddbli - 

■diiti, mub 
DgJucadbNk 



CsrdUg (ina TiiMr lidllllll*) 
Lotwt or ;*d>IUBl 

Ormte or cord^tei ^oerredt wllb iplnn Ld 



iJuon'iaiioH Fm* W 

CKlHOH'RTMn '. 4M 

»nui'wu4 - • 701 



Ixviii 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA 



Lanceolate, condupUcite when yoong 

OTtte, eoQvoli9to whfP young • 

Orate, condupUcate . - - 

Roundish, downy when young - 
Lanceolate, often nearly entire - 
OUone, usually unequal at the base, harsh 

touch 
Oblong, unequal at the base, rough abore 
Lanoeoiata or orate . . - 

Lobed, with ^ands in the serratoret 
Deeply cut or lobed, Ikn-norTed 
Entire or serrated. 

Ovate, tomentose beneath 
Orate, the disk oblate, and the pettole coi 
Orate, glabrous, aromatic in odour 
Orate, sonaetimee cut . • - 

Oblong-hUMseolate . • • 

Orate, rough abore ... 

Roundish, rough ... 

Dentate^ notdied, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Orate, rariontly lobed 
Denticulate, S-nerred • 

Lobed, angaUr. or toothed - * 

Lobed, or deq>iy cut . - - 

Orate or oborate, with soft starry down - 
Fslmate and subtrllobate 
Fklmate, linuated ... 

Bntire, serrate or dentate, or otherwise cut at the 
Rough on the qpper surilMe 
Brergreen. 

Entire. 

ronofpellndddoCi . - • 

SefffftA, 

Wedge-shaped, plnnatlM 
Lanceolate, glaucous beneath - 

Bntire or serrated. 

Shining .... 

Deciduous, erer g reen, or suberergrMii. 

Bntire. 

Large, aromatic when bruised - 
Linear, small, seml-cyUndrieal 
Oral or oraie • . - 

Serrated. 

Cooduplicate when young 

Lobed or sJnnated, fometmea lanceolate 

Besprinkled with reeinoai doti 

Entire or serrated. 

Orate or lanceolate - . - 

Orate or elliptle ... 



~ I Pb'bsica 

'IJ^nu*Mos 
. Ka'aju^ 
• Amela'schibm 

. IfB'SPUUUS 

to the j £7»iMTJa 

. Cl'LTIS 

. Liquida'mbab 

• SaLISBU^BXil - 



. Cmo^mA 

. Po'PULUB 
. J^ft^TULA 

. CAaTA^ItBA 

r CA'apiNua 
• I O'STTaa 

» Co'KYhVB 

m ABi'soua • • 

. Cbatji'oub 

- Rt^BEa ' 

- FoTHaROl'U.4 

. Fl^CVB . 

JPla'tamui 



edges. 



Deciduous. 
BntiM^ 

Oblong, articulated with the i 

Peltate or cordate ... 

Gordate, orate, or lobed • • 

Orate, serrated at the apes • 

I«anceolate, soon drofmtng off - 

Deeply cut and dlrlded, ^iparentij pompoond 

Merabranoos, heath>llke 

Oblong, coriaceous, shining • 

Cordate, orate, or lanceolate 

Fasdoled, lanceolate 



lilnear-lanceolate, hoary 

lUnute. caducous, erergreen bark 

Lanceolate, corlaoeous, pala green 

Oblong or lanceolate ... 

Lanceolate, beset with scales or stars of halrt 

Linear-lanceolate, acalr and sUreiy 

Cordate, downy beneath 

Orate, shining « . . 

Linear, in alternate Ihsdclei 

Linear, 8-ranked, flat . . • 



Orate, acominated ... 
Ori^ acute • . , 

Oral, moeronate ... 
Oborate, cuneated, sem^ed at the tip* •• 
Oborate or oral, glabrous on both awfucm 
Cordate or lobed, apd rough 
Lobed raoously, sgmetimes entire, hairy 
Entire or serrated. 

Oblong-lanoeolate, or linear 
Orate, obprate, or oral-lanceolate 
Qvate*acupilnate ... 



. if'ufua 



- iLu'cnw 

. OOWA^MM 

m Pboti'nia 



tiAOWflJA 

CnsMord diiw 



CVnAsm 

QcB'aoin 
JTYafoA 

JlaA'BiMin 

CkANtfTBUS 



AsfmniA 
Mamsn'aMtTM 

Co'CCULUS 

Nbmopa'nthss 
APA'anuM 
Awr^m'MiA • 
HiNziB^ar^ - 
i>iospT aos . 

SYRtKOA 

JLy'cium • 

CKABO'waK14 • 
DidTU - 

Calu'ooncm 

Di'MA 

Sumx'GmjB * 
Afpo'phai - 

ilaiSTOLO^CBlA 

Maolu^bji 

X.A^BIX - 

Tazo'piom - 

SlALACBOm'MDBON 

SruA'ar/if 

EBBCBB^IU^ • 
O^VBjI 
CLl^TBBA 

ATo^Bva 
BBOUisoMBH'j:^ 

i^A'CCBABia - 

^nr^BAX 
HAU'ax^ 



. 267 

. S70 

. 898 

. 411 

. 414 

. 715 

• 787 

. 744 

• 938 

• 944 

- 490 
. 819 

- 887 
. 906 

- 911 

- 816 

- 919 

- 981 

- 82 

- 167 
. 358 
. 468 
. 600 

- 718 
. 987 

. 838 



- 881 



408 



681 
678 



876 
846 
984 

170 
188 



38 
89 
40 
154 
803 
649 
609 
685 
635 
666 
669 

688 



. 696 



701 

711 

1063 

1077 
71 
78 
169 
368 
681 
705 
710 

646 
618 
690 



ACCOSDIN6 TO THEIR LEAVES. 



IxU 



Dentifta* notched, or otherwiM cut at the edges. 

Luoeolate, afcnte .... jTtba - 

Oral, mucroDate .... Zkmo'bm 

FiniMrtiMl y dentate, downy, wtth nOaom pvtkUm Coum'HiA - 



Lobed or peltate, corlaceona, fhlnj 
Linear, chafiy, nnaU, whorled - 
AceroM, wborled, glabrooi 
Aoeroie, trigonal, imbricate in 4 rowi 
linear-lanceolate, mocrooalate 
Acaroae, Tery tmall, imbricate • 
AeeroM, on chort pe(lolea 
Oral, ooriaoeooa 
Linear, spreading, beath-Uke • 
Aceroae, etUptlc, fiat, downy beneath 
Cordate-OTAte - ^ 

Vertldllately temate, bods n«ked 
Oral, cooTex, glalirocu, small - 
linear or orate, margins revohite, 
toneolose Iwnffl tth 

IfaiTow or linear, crowded «• 

Unear, sheathed, needle-like - 
Linear, scattered, needleJIke • 
Linear, 8-rowed, needleJike 
Linear, In alternate fascicles 
Aoerose, imbricate 
Linear, tongue-shi^ted, ^ytoae • 

Lhiear, needle-shaped, spreading 



AUke green on both snrfiues, usually floriferous 
Bnslform, p<rinted, alike oo both sunhoes 

Serrated. 

Linear, small, crowded, spreading 
Boundish.oval, small ... 

Bnttre or serrated. 

Terminating in a tendril, cordate, oblong 
(M>lang.lanoeolate, coriaceous, shining - 
Linear, solitary, more or less 9-ranked * 

DeotMs, notdied, or otherwise cot at the edges. 
Orate-oral, coriaceous, often pridily 
Oblong or orate, small, odour of torpentlne 
linear, hoary or silky beneath • 
Linear, small, rowed, tomentose 
PinnatUd, tomentose, white and mealy beneath 
Mnolose, coriaceous ... 
Ovate, small, approximate, stSli; shining - 
Ovnfee. suboordste, dUateb corteQeoas, glabroas, or 



Hb'oiba 
BnVcA . • 

Gypsoca'lus . 
Callu^na 
Amdro'mbo^ • 

CASSroPJS 

Cassa'mo«4 • 

Pl*UU8 

Pbyllo'dog# 
Dabcs'cm 
BnoA^A 
Km'imia 
LnoraT'LLUM 
coriaceous J ^,^„^ 

rPHLO^MIS 
. 1 JZoaMAII^NUS . 

1 Lata'modla • 

C^A'LTIA 

Pi^nvB - 
J'bibs - 

^'CBA - 
Ck^DBDS 
ASAOOA^BIA - 

S'mvaruxm • 
f Ckkati^ola . 

I COBB^MA 

Bv'acvB 

YWCCA 



Bbya'mtbus - 

PRAUHtOCA'BniS 

MoTi'syr^ 

if'BBUTOS 
CUNNINOIU^III^ 

T^X - 
DUYAD'^ 
STJIHBLrN^ - 
SANTOLrMA • 

Adib^cio 

I^uoo'mojs 

Fbbnb'tty^ 



M9 
fi68 

986 



- 497 

• 555 

- 597 

- 509 

- OGO 
. 561 

- 66S 

- 57q 

• 670 

- 57S 

- 600 
. 698 

- 60S 

- 609 

- 679 

- 679 

- 679 

- 67a 

- 980 
. 1096 

- 1096 

- 1057 
. 1069 

- 1091 

- 1099 

- 1009 

- 1099 

- 1101 

- 671 

- 561 

- 661 

- 67S 

- 1066 

- 166 

• 199 
. 546 

- 548 

- 550 

- 568 
678 



Deddnous 
Bntire. 



j Gaultbi'bi^ - -679 



Linear, broader A the base, sessile, small 
Oblong, coriaceous, sessile, glaucous 
Oborate or oral, coriaceous, crowded, gUrimms 
Terminated by a sphacelate (witherod) apex, 

ydlow gland 
Orate or elUptle, smooth, small, with rerolote 



or 



Lanceolate, bInntiA . 
Broad, hnceolate, glabrous 
Lan c eolate, smooth on both sides 
Orate-eordate or hastate • 

Spathulate. with a frosty hue - 
Oblang-pomted, sometimes lobed 
Linear-lanceolate, small 



Oblong, coriaceous, smooth, dosniy beneath 

- BntIre or semted. 

Oral or lanceolate 

Oborate or oblong, Aill of resinous glands, smeolh 
Obovate, coriaceous, f ^yHB* g • ■ 

Membranous, oftenMset with resinous dots 

- Bettsnlatcd, alike on both sides 
Bvoi'greeB or auberergreen. 

Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Coriaceous, in tufts at the axils 
OlMyrate, glaucous ... 



TA'MABn 

Mtbica^bia - 
jbcplbo^bum - 
Lyo^mij 

> Abododb'mdbom 

oxtoo'coos - 
Amoa^nla 

jnJMB'LIA 

fontamb^siij - 

Tbaoopy*buh 

Lau'bos - 

OSY^BU 



. 00BI>0*|l'<4 



458 
,450 
*496 

564 



. 616 



. 638 



Pbi^wos 

BaOAIXO^MM - 
ifBCTOSTA'PBYLOS 

Facci'mum . 
Sm^x 



Bb'rbsius 

rWVLA 



Deciduous. 



At the apex obeoneate 
^^ Ovate, unequal at the bese, rough, dark green 

Deddnous, evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Bntlie. 

Oenarally. woolly beneath 



Tv'UBJA 

Pla'mbb^ 



COIOMXA'STBB 



678 
681 
606 

7S 

168 
490 
677 
604 
lOOS 



49 

58 



297 
796 



406 



txx 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA 



f^fpetlUt tHpmimie, 
Deddooos. 

Entire. 

Bfliiate, CBdoeoiu, bark evargreen 
OnJ-elllptlc . . . . 

Whorlod, otbI . . . . 

DlsitBle,7-5.1olMd • . - . 

Serrate. 

OrateiAcmnliuite . . - . 

Dedduoiu, evergreen, or raberergreen. 

Entire, connate - • • . . 

Serrate or dentate, petiolate, and ihlnlng 

Serrate or entire, petiolate, shining • • • 

OppotUtt atttlpuUUe. 
Deddnoui. 

Entire. 

Ovate-lanceolate, Sjrlbbed 
Lanceolate, ^abrous. large • . . 

Orate or lanceolate, anining . . • 

Cordate, large . « . . 

Lanceolate, retlculately veined 
Cordate, undivided or 3-Iobed, large 
Lanceolate or ovate, beaet witit silvery scales 
Lanceolate, with very short petioles 

Serrate. 

Ovate or cordate, sometimes lobed 

Lanceolate, rough, with dots . * . 

Serrated or entire 

OvaLacuminate, scatoxNU 

Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 

Variously lobed (one variety deeply ladnaite) 
Dentate or enure. 

Glabrous, entire, or toothed at the apex . 
Entire. 

Ovate4anoediate, evergreen, pale green with yellow 
spots - - - - - 

Elliptic, glabrous, small • . . 

Lance<riate, shining . . . > 

Ovate, dilate, shining . . - . 

Roundish, coriaceous, smooth, shining • 
Serrate. 

Oblong, with revdute edges, small 
Serrate or entire. 

Wavy, leathery, dark green, shinfaig 
Deciduous evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Undivided, sessHe, or sub-sessOe, dotted - 

Lanceolate, downy . . - . 

Ovate-lanceolate, membranous, glaucous 
Lanceolate, glabrous . - - ■ 

Linear and scBle-Uke, caducous, bark evergreen • 
Serrate. 

Ovate-lanceolate, sometimes linear, mostly ded- 
duous - - - - - 

Dentate or entire^ 

Petioles embradng the stems . • . 

^>ppotae or aliemaUtiU/mlate. 
Evergreen. 
Entire. 

Rhomb-shaped, bearing a mealy powder 
Oppotfte or aUemaUt extt^pmiate. 
Deciduous. 
Entire. 

Lanceolate, sometimes whorled - - * 

Oblong, small-fludcled • 

Deddnous, evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Smooth, oval-lanoeolate - - 

Rigid, pale green on both sides « • • 

Glabrous, shining, sometimes small • 

Linear, more or less S-rowed « ^ 

Scale-like, dosely imbricated, compressed 
Scales situated under the Joints of the branches • 
Linear, adpressedly imbricate - 
Scale-shaped, minute, sometimes linear - 
OppotUe or eUiemaie, stipulate or exgtipulate. 
Subevergreen. 
Entire. 

8-nerved or feather-nerved, hoary or pilose 

LEAVES COMPOUND. 
jUtemate, MtipukOe, 
Deciduous. 
Entire. 

Bitemate or bipinoate, stroog.smeiled • 
Pinnate. 8--^fcdlolate . - • 

Trlfoliolate, pilose, or pubescent 



• COUB^I^ 

' Sympborioa'spctb 


• 
• 


178 
Ml 
644 
678 


• DiBBVi'LLiI - 


- 


616 


> LoMi'oBmj 

• AristotbH./^ - 

> f^BU'BNUH 


• 


866 
188 
616 


' OOBIA^A - 

Cbiona'mtbub 
Pbri'ploca 

• Cat a' LP A 

• BO'ODLB 

• Padlo^wn/j - 

• Sbbpbb'bdij - 


• 
• 

• 


146 
684 
668 

670 
660 

671 
700 
718 


> Hydba'bgba • 

rvA 


m 


498 

648 


f PmLAnafLmUM 
'iDtv^ntA 


m 
m 


460 
406 


, A^om 


m 


79 


Jdbcdma^bia . 


- 


406 


^AtfCUBA 


* 


611 


' ACA^LBA 

. Fi'noa 


m 
m 
m 


601 
681 
657 
706 


• Mtoi'mix4 


- 


186 


• Ga'bbt^ • 


• 


996 


'lAHOMMM^mSU 

. Bbntba^mm • 

. LBTCBSTB'BIiC 
> LlOU'STBOM - 
. fPHBDBA 


• 
• 
m 


74 
77 
607 
648 
696 
987 


[i J?D0'NYMU8 - 


m 


149 


Ci'wn% • • 


m 


64 


• ^'TBIFLIX • 


m 


676 


. P0*IIICA - 

• NrrBA'BiA 


m 
• 


456 
467 


> (Vbhub • 
■ Vt'wavu - 

• Da'pbnb • 
€TK'xon - - 

'^TOBBB'Til 
> T^U^XA - 
. CA'LUTBIf 

. Cdpbb'ssub - 

• Jdmi'pbbus • 


• 


501 

606 

686 

999 

948 

1066 

1078 

1078 

1060 



- HiLU'imniuii 



. FMO^ntA 

% i>TB'L8A 

- Adbmooa'bpus 



16 

1« 

817 



ACCORDING TO TBEIR LEATE8. 



Ixxi 



bnpwi-pliiiuito • • •• - 

Impurl-mnnsta^ beMt with gisndt 
Abrnpdy pinnate, leafleU mucronato 
AbnipClj pinnafw, leaflott 9 jwtrt 
InqMrl-pinnate, leaflet! orblcalar 
Impari-plii&ato, atlpolm small • 
Pmnate, petlolea permanent 
AhnpOj pbmate, and bipinnat*, or simple 
Blpmnate, 4—7 pinn» • • 



Amt/mnA 
BTaBnu'aDT/it 



Ptamate, S— IS^roUolate 

Inpari-phmato, doublj and tralilj Mrrate^ very 
large 
Dentate, n otched, or otbenriie cot at the edges. 

Impari-plnnate, with orate leaflets 
Dentate or serrate. 

Trlfotiolate, stipules connate • • 

Deddnoas, evergreen, or soberergreen. 
Bntune* 

Trifoliolate, leaflets elUpdcal-oblong 

Tiiibliolate, often pubescent 

Imparlrptainate, i^abrona 



i 



Impari-pinnate, stipoies attached to the petiole • 
Dentate or serrate. 

Digitate, pimato or lobed, rough 



Dedduoos. 
Entire. 

Imparl-pimiate, with 11— IS leaflete 
Impari-plnnate, with 9—11 leaflete 
b^arl-pinuate, leaflets petiolato 
Impari-plnnate, leaflete oral, pointed 



Trifolloiau or Uptnnate, leaflete orate - 
impari-plnnate, 6— 19 leaflets . . . 

Impari-pinnate, ft— 15 leaflete . • . 

Impari-plnnate, 17 leaflets, sessile 
Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Palmate, pinnate, or biplnnate 
ImparUpinnate, teeth glandnlons on the under side 



Dentate or serrate. 

Pinnate, oorlaceous, dark green 
Deddnoas, evei given, or suberergreen. 
e. 

bnpari-pinnate, reddish green 
Conjugate, triibUate, teiiflriled 

Deddiioas. 
Serrate* 

Pbmate, with compoond and partial stipoies 
Dentate, notched, or otherwise cot at the edges. 

Pinnate, the ptamse often M-giandnlar at the base 
Dentete or serrate. 

Pinnatd|7 dlrlded, leaflete Irregular 



Dedduous. 



BItcvnate. leaflete oblong lanceolate 
Impari-plnnate. leaflete nearlj sosrile, bods bladl 
(One Tariete has dmple leaves, p. Ma.) j 

Impari-pinnal(B, bods ash-coloured 
Impari-pinnate, leaflete 7—6, petioles margtnate - 
Dentate, notebed, or otherwise cut at the edges. ■ 

bnpari-irfnnate, S—ft leaflete . . • 

Palmate, leaflete rou^ ... 

Palmate, leaflete smooth . . • 

Deddnoas, eieigieen, or saberergreea* 



Pinnate, in decossatlng palxa 
JUemaUor o ppotUe , iUpmUHe* 
Sobevcrgreen. 



PImiately cat, bdry 

LEAVES SIMPLE OR COMPOUND. 



Serrate or entire. 

Simple, or aneqoally pinnate • 

Simple, but sometimes pinnatdj dirided 
Dentate or serrate. 

Usmdly simple, bot sometimes pinnatdjr cut 
Deddnoas, erergreen, or sabet oi gieen. 
Entire. 

I^anceotate, linear, or trifoUdate 

Trifoliolate or pinnate 



CAMLdQJfNA - 
HAUMOnB'NDaON 
CAIX/raAOA - 

CoLO^'nA 
JvrmA'OALOu - 
Glidi'tscbj:^ • 

GYMRO'CI.AnUS 


m 


m 

MS 

M6 
M« 
940 
9U 


XAsrnu/mxm 


m 


141 


AlA*UA - 


- 


4M 


KSluutb^rli 


• 


1S4 


Oiro'ma . 


* 


1» 


PiPTA'MTHUa • 

Ct'tisos - 
CoaoNi'Li^ • 


• 


196 
91S 
M7 


A>*BA • 


m 


321 


ilU^BUS • 


- 


Sll 


8</PB<MA 

Yinai'UA 
tton'niA 

WlWTA^miA 


m 

m 


19ft 
197 
9SS 

918 


Ci'nxM 

Jv*OLAȤ 

Ca'sta 

PTBaoCA^ETA 


m 


HI 

7S9 
7S6 
7« 


Ammm'psis . 

JtiLA'MTUS - 


m 


ISO 
140 



MaboVi^ 



O'mNva 

T^COMA 

NMOtntDO 
Ta^ia 



- CU'MA'm 



Poraim'LLA • 



- i»T*RU8 

• Sntm'^A 



Gun'sTA 
JasmtVvm 



60 



PISTA^CIA 

Biono'mi^ 


m 
m 


184 
660 


Stapbtu^a - 


« 


147 


SAinu^ooi • 


• 


61S 


XAJmOBHI^SA 


• 


19 



18 



861 
861 

199 
194 
198 



S19 



168 
417 




EXPLANATION OF SIGNS, An. 

Undflrthetltlefor the orden are glren dgn;, fatondM to fhowat a glaaoe the general habit of 
the treei or shraba doMarlbed In each order. Theae ilcni. represent larse, small, and mlddle-sixed 
plants, and we as follows ; the first sign In ead» row finHcatlng a dedduotts tree or shrub, the next 



evergreen, and so on alternately : — 




i 



Efflffii 





□□□□□□ 




□□□□□□ 

lJ 




1. EoBBd^hMiaiJil trMi ; such as the oak, 
ash, elm, beech, chestnut, Ac. De- 



9. * S. Splry-topped or conical trees ; 
such as the spmce fir, sttTer fir, larch, 
pine, dedduous c jp fesi, ftc. Dedduoos 
and erergrean. 



4, FlMtigialetnes; iwh as the Lombardy 
poplar, evergreen ii|fiass, pyramidal 
oas, Jko. Deddnotia and e ie tgi een. 



5- Droopbig trees ; such at the iMepIng 
willow, weeping elm, fto* 



& Shnlbs of the largest sin. and also 
middle-slsed shrubs. Dedduoos and 
but eKchufre of twiners, 



7. Under-shmbt, or dimbs of the smallest 
dse. Dedduoos and evergreen, but ex- 
dodve of twiners, drdlers, Jte. 



a. Twining shrubs; such as Uie honey- 
suckle, aristoloclila, kc Daddooos and 



9. Climbing shrubs \ such aa the dematis. 
mpdopda, vin^ *c. Dedduous and 



10. Trailing drnlbt, the branches of which 
lie prostrate on the gromd, but dp mt 
root into it; such as maqy spedes of 
willow, C^tisus, &G. 

11. Creepfaig shrubs, or sudi as send up 
shoots from thdr creeping rooU; aa 

of5|pir»'a,*c 



The signs put before each Individual species and varied are the 
GardauT^t Magmime^ and in the Hortm$ BHimmUmt^ via. 
*i Dedduous tree. «l Evergreen under-shrob. 



as those used in the 



Dedduous tree. 

Evergreen tree. 
— Deciduous shrub. 
tk Ever g reen shruU 
,tt Dedduous under-shrub. 



_^ uous twiner. 



% Evergreen twiner. 
J Deciduous dlmber. 
i_ Evergreen climber. 



Jk Dedduoos trdler. 
)U Evergreen trailer. 
41 Dedcboos creeper. 
%, Evergreen creeper. 



AccmrruATioMS and Indioatiow. 
Alt the botanic names throughout the Work ax« accented, and have thdr origin indicated, as in 
the Horhu BHUmnieHi and the Gariener'i Mmgtaine. The vowds which are sounded short art 
marked with an acute accent, thus (0. » A'ceras ; and those which are sounded hmg are market 
with a grave accent, thus C), u AM>rus. The origin of each name b indicated tfavs : If the name 
has been applied to a pUat by the andenu, the first letter is in Italic, as Ptnus; if » is commoi 
raoratlve of some individual, the letters additional to the name era in ItaMc, as Banksta, Lam- 
bert/<d«a, DoogUs//; and if an aboriginal name has been adopted, or If the name U of uncertaa 
BwordisInItallcas,J//0«A(9,CS0raydiMi,Ac. Where the name would otherwise 



derivation, the whole word 

be in Italic, as in the case of synonymes, headings to paragraphs, ftc, tliese distincUonsare, oi 
course, reversed, as Vmtu, BdfUiki, Ail4nlus. All the other sdentifle names, generic or spedflc. are 
composed from the Greek or Latin, except a very few whidi an taken from places : as Araucirla, 
fkom the country of the Araocanlans ; Qu^rcus gramfintia, from the estate of Grammont, «c. 

TbB mORAVBO FlOURBS 

Are all to the same scale of 2 in. to 1 ft., or one sixth of the natural sise : with the exception of 
details, which, when given, are generally of the natural sUe, and indicated by a cross, thus, +. 



ABRIDGED 

ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM 

BRITANNICUM. 



T'rbbs and shnibs, in common with all other flowering plants, are arranged 
bv botanists in two grand divisions ; viz. the Exogenous, or Dicotyledonous, 
jrlants, the stems of which increase from without, and the leaves of which 
have reticulated veins ; and the Endogenous, or Monocotyledonous, Plants, 
the stems of which increase from within, and the leaves of which have parallel 
v^ns. The first class includes all the hardy trees and shrubs in Britam, with 
the exception of shrubs of the genera Yucca, ^milax, i2uscus, and one or two 
others, which belong to the second class. We shaU arrange the genera and 
species under the same subdivisions, subclasses, sections, orders, and tribes, 
as we have adopted from DeCandolle in our Hortut Britanmcus^ 



Class L EXaGENJE. 

Stems increakngfrom without : Leaves with reOcidated Feins, 

Subdivision I. DICHLAMYDEiE. 

Caiyjf and Corolla distinct^ by wkuA they are distinguished from Svhdkmon II., 

m v^Ach the flowers have only a calyx. 

It is inconsequence of this high developement of the floral envelopes, that 
the greater part of handsome-flowering trees and shrubs are found in Dichla- 
ro^dese, it rarely happening that those with a single floral envelope have any 
bnlliant colouring. 

Subclass I. THALAMIFLO^RJE. 

Flowers with Petals and Stamens inserted in the Receptacle 

This subclass contains all the Polyandrous plants of Linnaeus ; as the sub- 
class Galydfldrae, in which the stamens are seated on the calyx, contains all 
the plants of the Ijnnawin class Icos&ndria. 

Section I. 

CarpeQa, that is, the component Parts <f compound Capsules or Fruits, numerous; 

or the Stamens placed opposite the Petals. 

Order I. iZANUNCULA^CEiE. 

Ttix DiagnosHe, or JDistinctioe, Character, or, as we shall term it, the Ordinal 
Character, of this order, is thus given by Dr. Lindley : — - Polypetahus, 

B 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

with hypogynous stamens [that is, stamens under the pistil! ; arUhcrs bursting 
by iongUudinal slits ; several distinct simple carpella [fruits] ; exstipulate 
ieares, sheathing at their base ; solid albumen ; and seeds without axillus." 
{Nat, Si/st,, p. 6.) — Climbing shrubs scarcely woody, and low suffniticose 
bushes. Natives of Europe, Asia, and North America. 

Leaves generally alternate, but sometimes opposite, generally exstipulate; 
deciduous, or evergreen ; much divided, especially in Clematis, in which the 
leaves are not articulate with the stem. The petioles often serve as tendrils ; 
and are dilated at the base, fonnine a sheath half-clasping the stem. Hairs 
if any, simple. Inflorescence small in Xanthorhiza, and some species of 
Clematis, and large in Pxonia. Seeds small and pointed, except in P^onia. 

The species in British gardens are included in two tribes, Clematldeae 

and Pesonidceee, which contain the genera Cldmatis, -4tr6gene, Paeoniat 
and Xanthorhiza.' 



Tribe I. Clemati'de^. 

Tribal Character. Climbers, characterised by having the aestivation of the 
calyx valvate or indupUcate ; with no petals, or with the petals flat ; the 
anther opening outwards ; the carpels, or seed-vessels, not opening, one- 
seeded, terminated by a tail, which is the indurated style. Seed pendulous. 
Leaves opposite. Deciduous and evergreen climbers. — The genera are two. 
Clematis and iltragene, which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Cle'matis i. Petals none. -4tra'gene L. Petals several. 



Genus I. 



QSHSfflH 



CT*E'MATIS L, The Clematis, or Virgin^s Bower. Lin. Syst. Poly- 

indria Polygynia. 

Ident^leation. The word Klematii was, ai well as Atragene, used by Theophractas, to d^lgoate 
the Cleinatts Vitfiba of LbniKUi. Clematis was used hj Matthiolus, and also bjr Cluaius, who 
applied It to C. Vltlc611a L. and C. cirrhdsa L. 

SunonjfmtM. Ladles' Bower Gerard; Clfanatite, Fr, ; Waldrebe, Ger. ; C1ematide« Itai. 

iSerivtUion, The word Clematis, or Klematis, is deriTed from the Greek word klima, a small 
branch of a Tine ; and it is applied to this genus, because most of the plants composing it (limb 
like a vine. The English name of Ladies' Bower was probably adopted from its suitableness for 
covering bowers ; and, as the first kind of clematis brought to England (C. Vitic^lla) was intro- 
duced in l&GB, during the rdgn of Elisabeth, the name of Virgin's Bower might be intended to 
couTey a compliment to that sorereign, who, as it is well known, liked to be called the Virgin 
Queen. Walarebe is compounded of tcaU, a wood, and rebe, the branch of a vine. 

Generic Character. Involucre none, or situated under the flower, in the form 
of a calyx. Calyx of from four to eight coloured sepals. Petals none. Car^ 
pels numerous, aggregate, terminated by a long, ana mostly feathery, tail. — 
Climbing shrubs, with variously cut opposite leaves. The recent herb of all 
the species is acrid, and, when applied to the skin, it occasions blisters. 
(Dons MiU.) The seed is pendulous, and the carpels are one seeded ; 
each is terminated by a persistent style, and does not open until ruptured 
by the germination of the seed. 

Leaves compound, opposite in decussating pairs, without stipules, deci- 
duous or evergreen ; the petiole possessed of a clasping power for attaching 
the plant to contiguous bushes, or similar objects ; in all the species, more 
or less persistent after they are decayed. Flowers in axillary ramose panicles; 
small and white in some, and in others larger and highly coloured. Seed 



I. j(anuncula"ce« : cle'matis. 3 

small, ■ddomteeDdirestedoT its envelope, as that never bunU till ofterit ta 

committGd to the soil. — The species are included in four sections ; rii. 

FUmmula, Vitic^llB, Cheir^pais, and ><iieaonifi6ra. 

Root strong ; the fibres rather straight, and not vcrj' much branched ; ex- 
tended in the soil rather horizontally than peruendicularl;. Stem ligneous, 
not ligid enough to stand erect. Branches the same, and slender. Well 
adapted for coverine bowera, or for oraanteating verandas or trelliawork. The 
fftater number of^the species ripen thrir se^s in EDgland, and ore esaily 
prop^ated bj them, or by layers. The seeds retain their ritelilj for several 
jrean; thej are of slow v^etation, and ou^t to be so»n u soon as gathered, 
m which case they will generally come up the following spring; though, some- 
timea, not till the second spring. All the species require support by props of 
tome kind ; and all, with one or two exceptions, grow freely in any soil that 
if ttderably dry, but niore especially in one that is calcareous. From the 
Bcriditv of^tbeae plants, they are Dot rerr liable to be attacked by insects ; 
nerertadeia, studb and dt^ are occasionally found eating their young herbage. 

§ i. F/dmmula Dec. 



Q00 



Saiioiial CiaracUr. Involucre wanting. Tail of the carpel* long, bearded 
and feathery. Cotyledons di«t)DCt (Siat is, slightly lepar^ed) in the seed. 
(Doi^t ABJL, i. p. 3.) Deciduous. 

1 I. CIe'matis Fla'mmulaX. The inflammatory^uieed Qematis, or 
tweet-tcented Vtrgin'i Bouier, 
Utnl&^altem. Un. S^., TfiS. ; Die Fnd., I. p. I. 



H Ulitii^itiiiHIha of tha ipecta. 
ir M ii fi. nrlLTbau., p.]ei.t.t).iu>dDurJ^. I. 
Spta_ficCliaraeUr and abridged Deamption. 
Lnrea pinnate, smooth j with orbicular, 
oral, otuow, or Knear, entire or three- 
' lobed, acutub leaflets. iDon'i Mill.) A 
deradoous clinker. South of Europe; 
in hedges and waste bushy places, not 
&r bom the sea, and in sous more or ^ 
less calcareous. Height lOfl. to 15 ft. 
Introduced in 1590. Flowera white, 
sweet-scented ; July to October. Fruit 
white; r^ in October. Leaves deep 
green, often remarning on the plants tiU 
mid-winter, and dying off black. 
VaritSei and their Synonymei. The most 
distinct is C. F. marluma ; the rest are 
of tittle importance. 
C. F. 2 red 
Tenerv.- 

anlima Dec. — Leaflets 



1 a P. 1, ruAiOa Dec — Leaflets 

owal, nmally enowgjnUe. S^mIs four, reddish oi 



4 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

i C. F. 5 ae^U&ia Dec. C. aetpitOM Scop., C. FUmmiUa Beriol. — 

Leaflets minute, entire or cut. 
1 C. F.6 paniadala. C, paniculiUL Th«n. — Tlowera irhh the peduDcles 

A Tigorotu-growin^ plant, the items o[ which rapidly attain the length of 
fVom 15 ft. to 30 ft. in a »tate of culture. The lesTCs ere sulyect to much 
variation, from toil, situation, and climate. The peduncles of the flowers are 
sometimes simple, end sometimes branched. Tlie cobur of the sepsis is 
white, slightly pubescent on their exterior margins. The whole plant has a 
dark green hue; end in autumn it is abundantly covered with flowers, the 
odour of which is of a honied sweetness, exceedingly disagreeable to some 
persons when near, though at a distance it is not unlike the fragrance of the 
common hawthorn. From the rapidilv of its growth, it will in four or fire 
years cover a very large apuce of wall, roof, or bower. Its herbage is con- 
sidered less acrid than that of Hny other of the European ^ecies, notwith- 
le of Flimi ' 

L. The Oriental Clematis. 




leaflets smooth, wedg&ahaped, 
with three toothed pointed 

lobes. (Oon'iJIfuV.) Adeddu- 
ous climber. Levant and Cau- 



greenish yellow slightly tint- ' 

ed with russet, sweet-scented; 

July, August. Fruit white ; 

ripe in October. Leaves 

somewhat glaucous, dying ofT 

blflck or dark-brown. 
yarietiet, C. glaiica WillJ. and 

C. ochroteica Hort, are, by 

some, alleged to be varieties 

of C. orientiklis; but we do 

not consider them sufficiently 

distinct for varieties, and have, 

therefore, included these 

names in our synonymea. 

The general magnitude of this 
species resembles that of C. 
Flfimmula, from which it diflers 
in its ulterior branches being 
more persistently ligneous, 
though the main stern in old 
plantii is seldom seen so thick as 
that of C. Flimmula. It is also 
distinguished from the latter 
species by throwing up suckers 
freely, which the other docs 
not. Its leaflets ere glaucous, 
flat, lane as compM^ with 

those of C. Flimmulai and it '■ "*n»ii. imuu. 

docs not produce flowers so profusely as that species. The flowers are yel- 



I. MMtVUCVUi'CEX: CLE'MATIS. 



■1 3. C CBiNi'itita Sell. The Chineae Clenwm. 

UrwH/tcmlim. BttI.OI>>.,l.r-l*'; DK-SrK., Ip-IIT.; Dw^ HI, 1. p. t. 
». -a^ « M. C. dnAiril Lor. Diet. 1. p. 4n. 
£ mtn i , m g. Oat At*- 

^iec.Ciar,,ic, LeaTes pinnate ( leaflets tiT3te4BDceolate, quite entire. Peduit' 
cles fcw-flovered, longer than the leares. Ovaries unisjiy Tour, with almost 
naked tail*. (Don'i MUL) A deciduous climber. China, in the island railed 
Danes. Height 10ft to J5ft. Introduced in 1 8S0. Flowers ?. Leavespur- 
pliah green, retained till rendered black by frost. 
A plant in the Hor- 

ticultunl Sodet/s 

Garden, ^Qwa Tigor* 

ousir ^auut a wall, 

proancoK thoota as 

long and stroi^ as 

thoM of C. FUmmu- 

la; aitd retaining ita 

leave* til) tfaej are 

blackened bv Atwt. 

It baa nerer flowered; 

but, in ita leave* and 

its general appear- 

lemble C. orientkiia, 
except that the leaves 
are of a datlc pui' 
plish green, instead of 
beiiig glaucous. 

.1 4. C. Viti'lbi L. The White- Vine Clematis, or TtomIUt'i Joi/. 
U f MU km im. Ii&Bp..TM.i tXc iVDd.. I , n l. j Siiillk-iEat.Fl.,l.p.».; Dod'i If HI, I . | 

* n. Atbtifnt ntimt ; nam lylTtsrfi Mh. i C. iMimii HO jErfnaa Bar ; C. til 

1 C. ItMU Camk i Vi6fU Qtr. iDd Ut. , FlUi DUn fW*. i Vldlhii Dot. ; Un 

* ■ ■■-'-"'■ "" —~m VIrIii-i Bower, Uw vUd dfaabcr, Uk (n« IrDd Clnnl 

liltm, ■■HottB •ni Ca«u. U Vionw dt* PuTrai, Fr. ; 





X^rmt i mf. Jan. And 
S*. B<K.,«ll.;iala<i 
Spec. Ckar.,4v. Leaves [annate ; leaflets ovat&Aaaceolate, acunimated, cordeie 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 



hedeei and copses, nlwayB indicBting a adcareoua Boil. Hcielit 15 ft. to 
80 ft. ; ID rich Boil, and in k ■beltered BJtuadoD, 50 ft. to 100 ft. Flowers 
white ; Augutt, September. Fruit white ; ripe from October to Febniary. 
Leavei long retained, and dying off black or dark brown. 

The sterna ere woody, more ao 
than ihoie of an; other species, an- 
gular, climUng to the height of SO 
or 30 feet, or upwards, and hanging 
down from rocky cliffs, ruins, or the 
branches of trees; or being supported 
by, and forming tutis on, the upper 
surface of other shrubs or low trees, 
which they often so completely 
cover as to have the appearance of 
bushes at a Hiffnni-^ The footstalks 
of the leaves are twined about what- 
ever object they approach, and aAer- 
wards become hard and persistent, 
like the tendrils of a vine. The leaflets are either quite entire, or unequally cut ; 



hey have a sweet elmond-like scent. The seeds (^. 5.) have 
long, wavy, feathery, and silky talis, forming beautiful tufts, most conspicuous 
in wet weatfaer. The French gardeners use the twigs instead of withs, for tying 
up their planta ; and moke very neat baskets of them when peeled, and also bee- 
hives. The tw'^ are in the best state for making these articles in winter: and 
their flexibility is increased by holding them to the fire before using them. In 
gardens and plantations the plant is valuable for the rapidity with which it may 
be made to cover naked walls, unsightly roofs of sheds, or low buildings and 
arbours; and for a variety of dmilar purposes. 

1 5. C. vikginia'na L. The Virginian Clematis. 



«!<> Vne*. Jm. ImT; C. triierotU Hon. ; thg broai-ittni Cuud* Virftn'l 
iKiwvri viBm^ltflde VlwlnJe, ft-.: Vlrffnlicbfl Wddnbe, G^- 
EntrtwimgM. Den. Brit. {Ob malt ptut), t. T4. i and ourj%. a. 

Spec. Char. r^c. Flowers pauicled, ditscious. Leaves 
ternate; leaflets cordate, acute, grossly toothed, 
or lobed. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous climber, 
Canada to Florida, in hedges and near rivers. 
H^ht loft, to 15ft. Introduced in 1767. 
Flowers white ; August, September. Fruit white- 
Decaying foli^ brown or black, 

J C. 0. S hrartedta Dec. C. bracteita Mcendt. 
— Leaflets ovate-lanceolate, entire. 
The general ^ipearance of this plant u like that 
of C. Vitilba; but it is less robust in ^1 its 
parts, and leas ligneous in its stems and branches ; 
and it is also somewhat more tender. Panices c iuomu thiiuiih- 

trichotomously divided, with small leaves at the divisions. Sepals 4, white, 
obovate, exceeding the stamens. Flowers often dicecious or polynunous. (7W. 
and Gray.) Miller states that it seldom ripens seeds in En^ana; but, as it ia 
dicecious, it is possible that be possessed only the male plant. 



J. ilANUNCULA'CE,«: CLE'mATIS. 
■1 6. C. oraVa Wall. The gratcful-nvnM Clcniati^. 



IrrniUHlirfj Ctmtihit^'HBrt. 
Emrrawin^. WllLAllU., l.C. M-i ud 

Spec, dor., ^e. Flowers axil- 
lary, panicled g leavn Eubbi- 
tennate, TiUoua ; leaflets cor- 
date, acuminated, senated, 
3-k>bed ; «epa1s obtuse. (C 
Don,') A deciduoiis cliinber, 
Nepal, OD niounlains. Height 
lOfttoieft Introducedin 
1831. Fknrers white. 
Closely resembling C. vir- 
ginidoa, but rather more hoary; 
and equally hardy, though it 
hu not yet flow^ed freely in 
the open air. A shoot intro. 
duted into the inside of h stove 
in the Chelsea Botanic Oar- 
den, from a plant on the out- 
side, flowered there in 1B33. 



nep< 






The road-omamenting Clematia, d 

Vir^'l Bower. 



. L(MlHC-na-«ml VIrtln'i Bower ntm 
I MVKp*"i."i"«'«™>J^i^*'»BlBnLl^ IwlUPowend woodvliw. 
li>ixliMr.^.S. 

^>ee. Our,, ^, Peduncles 1-flowered. Sepals connivent, thieic, acuminated, 
redexed at the apex. Leaves smooth, pinnate; leaflets entire, 3-lobed, alter- 
nate, ovate, acute, floral ones entire. (Don'i MUl.) A deciduous climber. 
Penoaylvania to Oeotgia. Height 6 ft. to 1211. Introduced in 1730. Flowers 
purple without, wbitish within ; June to Ausuat. Fruit white ; ripe in 8^ 
tember. Decayii^ leaves retained long, and dying. 
off black. * 

Vorielif. C. V. t corddta. C. cordate Shnt Bol.Mag. 
t. 1816., and our J!g. 9. from that plate; Oim. 
Eimaii Sweefs Hort. Bnt. 

This Bpeciea is striking in the disnmilarity of its 
flowers to those of most other species. It is of vigor- 
ous growth, end, exclusive of its Sowers, assimilates 
to C, Vitic^Ua; but its stems and branches are less 
decidedly ligneous. The items are numerous, slender, 
and round; the peduncles of the flower are long, 
deflexed towards the tip, rendering the flowers pen- 
dulous ; the se^ls never open, except at their ex- 
treme ends, which are bent back, ^ving the whole 
flower a bdl shape, but with the mouth of the bell 
narrower than toe bodv. The sepals are of a greenish purple or reddish 
lilac on the outside, and of a very 'pale green within. The Ktamens scarcely 
emerge from the sefuls. The carpels are broad and flati an they ripen, the 
(ail becotnes bent in and plumose^ and of a brownish green colour. It 




ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM IIBITANNICUM. 



finme. As its branches 
RK not TBTj decidedly 
ligneoui or penitien^ 
but consist mostly of 
annual shoots from a ' 
Bufiruticose base, and 
are not much branched, 
the plant does not ex- 
hibit a bushy head. It 
tbriTes beet in bog 
earth, kept some what 
moist, in which cir* 
cunistance it differs 
from most of the 
wood; species of tti- 
matis. It nuij be 
increased by layers, 
thou^ not so readilv 
ns from seeds, which 
it produces in abund- . 
ance. This »pccies, C. 
c^lindricB, tnd C. re- 
ticulata, being neither 
very woodr, nor very 
luxuriant m growth, 
may all be treated as 
berbaceouB plants, to 
be supported during 
the flowering season 
^ temporaiy props. 
Few border plants, in- 
deed, will be found 



.1 8. C. CTLi'NDKlCi Shia. The cylbdrical-jTonrreJ Clemati*. 
ItaiHIIcaUim. SIibi,IdBo(.1Iiib.. 1-im.t DK.Pwoi.,1. f.l.; DoD'iUlll., I. p.S.1 ToT.nd 

Grmr,l.p.ll). 
IriKWHO. C. erlKa tm., but not of Linn, i C. VlAnu 'a*-. \a Bm. Bip.i C. dliulcku Jacf-i 

Itw Jong-flowved VlTStn'lHavsF: GLinutltalkfl^un FlflUTI, A-. 
EiVnAwl. Hot. NIC', (- 1160. 1 Bo(. Bop, t. Tl. ; mi outjV- 10. 

:. Char., 3rc. Peduncles 1-flowered. Sepab thin, acuminated, reHexed 



nt the apex, i 
ovBte or oblong, i 
floral ones entire. (Dor'j Miit^ A deciduous 
climber. North Carolina and Florida. Height 
3ft.to5ft. Introduced in 1802. Flowers la^e, 
puiplish blue, nodding ; June, August. Fruit 
white ; ripe in September. 
DeCandolle describes this species as related 
(o C. y'iiiTnn, reticulata, and crlspa, and dis- 
criminated it from these. C. cyllndrica, he says, 
(iilfcrs from C. Vidma, in the segments of its 
leaves being entire and not trifid ; in the flowers-^ 
being blue, not reddish lilac and pale within, and 
twice the size of those of C. Vioma ; m the sepals 



I. aanuncula'ce^ : cle matib. 9 

being not iadterj, but lonicwhat of the coiuistence 
of paper, with the marpn waved : the ovaries 
12-lS, not 25-30. 6'. c^lindrica differs Itdid C. 
retici^tain its leaves being in con«stence papery, 
not leatheiT i scarcely veined, not reticulalely 
vdned ; and in other points. C. cylindrica closelj 
resembles C. erln^n in habit end mode of flower- 
ing ; but differ* from it in its sepals being waved 
in the margin, not rolled backwards, in its larger 
Bowen, and espedallyin its carpeb hanag long . 

bearded toils, and not naked ones. C. Vi6ma u^. Fr>Hi(afaiH>ni>>diia. 
and C. cylindrica, seen together in a tivine state, 

are very dissimilar in q>pearance. C. Vidma has vigorous long brandies and 
reddish flowos, which are acomJlke in figure, except that they Dave n qnvad- 
ing mouth ; there u also obvious dissimilarity in tne foliage and shoots, C. 
cylindrica being almost herbaceous, 

1 9, C. rbtjcui-a'ta Wall. The net-veined-fcaeni Clematis. 

iL FL Cut.. IM. I I>«c FlwL, I. p. T. I 

,,_^„. H^U^; a simi<f' &0C*.; tb* utMd 

VItiId'i Banni Uh rntcnUlHl ClmiUlt. 

Ei^miat: T^tti- BrfL. >.n. ; ukdotu/f. 11. 

Spec. Oar., ^c. Peduncles l-flowered. Sepal 
coonivent. Leaves coriaceous> netted with 
nerves, smooth, pinoale ; leaflets stalked, 3- 
lobed or entire, ovate. (Don'i MiU.) A de- 
ciduous climber. S. Carolina and Georgia. 
Height 6 ft. to B ft. Introduced in 181S. Flow- 
ers pole puiptiah red ; June to August. Fruit 
white; ripe in September, 
Leaflets aU petiolulate, 1 b. to 1} in. long, <^IHL 

undivided or variously lobed, the lowest pair 

3-parted, eometimea rtther acute and mucmnate. 

Peduncles longer dian the leaves. Flowers 

as laive as in C. crfsfia. Sepals dull purple, 

ovate-unceolate, velvety externally. Tails of the 

carpels long. (Tor. and Grot/.) In C. Vidma 

the s£pals do not divaricate, except in their 

recurved tips; while in C. reticulata the sepals 

expand in the mode of those of C. Viticflla, 

A side view of a flower less expanded resembles 

more the flower of C. cylindrica, but the cyliii' 

drical portion is shorter. The flowers (sepals) tu cu— nixucsiiu. 

of the two are difierent in colour. The leaves of C. reticulata are veined, 

as is implied in the q>ecific name. The stems are scarcely ligneous. 
1 10. C. HKKDRBso'vrr Chandler. Henderson's Clentatii. 

Satriatmfi. OurA*' H- ■Dd 11- 

i^c. CAoT., ifc. Peduncles l-flowered, much longer than the petioles of the 
leaves. Sepals long, wrinkled, reflexed. Leaves bipinnate, leaflets ovate- 
acuminate. A deciduous climber. Hybrid. Hd^t 8ft. to 10ft Cult. 
1B35. Flowers bluish purple ; June to September. Fruit white. 
The stems and foliage bear a general resemblance to those of C. Vitic^lla, 
«4iile the flowers, in magnitude and colour, and the leaflets in shape and 
veining, resemble those of C. int^rif&lia ; but the sepals expand much 
wider, in the manner of those of C. Vitic^lla. This plant is apparently a 
hybrid between C. Vitic^Ua and C. int(^rif51ia, having the flowers of the latter, 
anil the leaves and stems of the former. It was nuscd by Mr. Henderson, 



aucouetum et fruticetum britai 



nuTSCTfrnnn, of Rn&«p[)le Place, and fint 
flowered in the nursery oC Mr. Chandler, 
by whom it was nained. It may fairly be 
deMiibed ai ooe of the moat omamentil 



species of this section, from the largeneta 
of its flowers, their lonft footstallcB, which 
make them stand out distinctly from the 



} iL VitieeUa Dec 



QHffl 



Seel. Char. Involucre wanting. Tail of the pericarp (that is, of the carpel) 
short, beardless. Leaves temate, or decompound. Stems climlnng. {uoKt 
Mill., i. p. 9.) Deciduous. 

1 T^iin. The florid, or Aowy-flowered, Clematit. 

t gnmlH Finn, Pr, i 

If-H. 

Spec.Char.,^c. Peduncles l-flowered,lon^r than the leaves. Leaves temetely 
decompound ; leaflets ovate, acute, quite entire. Sepals oval-lanceolaie, 
much pointed. (Don'i Mtli.) A deciduous climber. Japan. Height 
10 ft. to IS ft. Introduced in 1776. Flowers white; June to September. 
Fniit f. 

1 C. /. 8. fi^eplhio Hort. has the stamens changed into floral leaves, 
which may be denominated petals. It is very handsome, but the 
petals have frequently a tinge of green, which renders it less orna- 
mental than the single species, in which the centre of the flower is 
comparatively inconspicuous, while ihe sepals are large, and of a pure 

1 C./. Zfdre plena violaoeo; C.(. Sieb61du D. Don in Swref* Bnt. 
F/ow.'Gard. id ser. p. 396. ; C. Siebdldti Paxton's M^. Bot. 



I. BxuvscuLA'ctJi : ^.e'matis. 



II 



p. 147. ; C. bfcolor Hurt. ; and our J%. 14. : 

u in all respects tbe same as the Uit, except 

that the petals, or centre of the flower, are 

of ■ rich violet colour, iq>proBching to purple. 

It was sent from J^ian to Europe by Dr. 

Sieboldt ; and iotriKluced into En^and in 

1836. It is a most ornamental plant, and as 

hardy and esnly ^>rapBgated a* the other tk- 

rietjor tbe tptoa. 

Tbe atem is slender € 
and striated ; climbing 

I to the hei^t of 15 ft. _^_ 

or upwards when it is "' •=■•■•*■■ i^'"*™*- 
trained to a wall with a favouiaUe eipoaurc, 
though never becoming Td^wood^. The Bowers 
are farge Euid handsome, either m a single or 
double state i and these, with the neatness of itt 
foliage, and the slendemesa of its stems and 
branches, give it such an air of ele^ce, that no 

I lover of plants should be without it, who has a 
garden in which it will thrive. North of London 
It requires a wall ; and in Scotland, as wdl as 
in France and Qermany, it b generall; kqit in 
the green-bouse. A mode of pruning plants of 
this ^>eciea, by cutting them down to the ground 
■a. ni n miii annually, tboi^ not generally practised, b said 

o produce vigorous shoots and fine flowers. This spedea aertx rqiens seeds 
a En^and, and is therefore only propagated by layers. 

1 13. C. cfiRu'LBA Laidl. The blue, or vhlH-fiowered, Clematis. 

Undl., ta BoL B<a.. I 



imff^( C gxBMBtn Han. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves spreading, baitr, teroate. 

Segments ovate-acute, entire. Peduncles 1- 

flowered. Sepals 6 to 8, oblong, lanceolate, 

scute, monhranaceous. Harpn distended. 

(Lindi.) A dedduous climber. Japan. Hdght 

10ft.tolSft. Introdncedin IS36. Flowen 

blue i June and Jul;. Fruit 7. 

A frcMrowing and profuse-bloooiing plant, 

with the nabit of C. oorida. Flowers large, 

violet-coloured, with deep purple stamens. It 

liiftra from C, fldrida in the colour, delicacy, 

and transparency of its blossoms, and also in 

its leaves being only once tentate, and m tbe 

se|p«la not touching and overlapping each other 

at tbe edges. Culture and propagation as in 



i 13. C. Viticb'lla L. The Vioe-Boi 

. UB.Sn,»6».: l>ec, Prod.pl. P.9.: Don'iMlll.,1- P-S. 
Vltleflli dclibldH Mnek-, Uw ni-Oawcrad I.iili'i Bawtr, Gtnrii lulltaUch* 

FIor.CrK.,LSIE.; Bot.Mmg.,t.lSi.:uiioai/lt.n. 

Sprc. Ckar., ^e. Peduncles ]-Bowered, longer than the leaves. Leaves 

lemmtely decompound, lobes or leaflets entire. Sepals obovate, ^reading. 

(ftm'i Mm.) A decidnooa climber. South of Europe, in hedges, on 

calcareous soil. Hrig^it 10 ft. to 15 ft. Introduced ii "' ■" 




IT Clematis. 



a 1569. Flowers blue 



12 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

or puiple; July to September. Fruit white; ripe in October. Decaying 
foliage black or brown. 
rarietki. 

^ C. r. 1 eoTuJca. — Flowen blue. 
■i C. V, 2 purpirea. — Flowers purple. 

1 C. r. 3 nMipbjr O. Don. C. pulch^lla Peri. — Flowen double, blue. 
Iliia Toriety produces more robust, more extended, and fewer shootK, 
thM die ungle-floweted blue or purple varieties. 
i C. r. 4 lem^SUa Dec., C. teniuBlii luBitimca TVmni. ; and 
J C. F. 5 baeeiia Dec, C, campuiifldra HoH. ; are varietiei which we 
have not Men. 
C. ViticJlla, end all its varieties, are 
tolerably robutt and vigorous in their 
growth, and decidedly ligneous; though 
plants, individually, do not endure many 
years. They are, [>erhiipB, the most beau- 
tifiil and moat estimable of all the kinds 
of clematis, for the purposes of fioral de* 
coration. For the mere covering of bowers 
and other objects, they arc, however, lessfi 
suited than C. Vitdlba and C. Flimmula; as" 
these grow faster, extend fiuther, and each 
yields a greater aggregate of herbage, and 
so covers better :^ut Done of them can 
vie with C. Vitic^lls and its varieties in 

beauty ; more especially with the single - itb^iii, 

purple and the single blue. 

J U. C. cuipaniflo'ra Jroi. The bell-flowered Clematis. 

liewl^caUan. Brot, Flor. Lui^ 1. p. SM. i I>«. Prod,, 1. p.9. ; Don'iHIII,, I. p.». 
aiw i itwi a . C. TiomMilH, naind it tbe CIuIhii BoUdIc Ovdn bj Ihli iuisc, IWni Iha Berlin 

Ns.SSTH. i C. piTTiatnbn., iccordJiu to'SwHt.'' 
£fvra>f>w>. IJid. B«. <Mt- 
S?.; K», Br. Fl.-C.nl.. M 

^c. Cliar., ^c. Pedun- 
cles l-flowered, some- 
what loTwer than the 
leaves. Leaves biter- 
nately decompound ; 
leaflets entire, or 3- 
lobed. Septh half- 
spreading, dilated at 
the apex.wavy. (Don't 
Mm.) A deciduous 
suffrutesceot climber 
of vigorous erowth. 
Portugal, in hedges. 
Height lift, to 15 a. 
Introd.1810. Flowers f 
white, sli^tly tinged 
with purple; Julyand 
August. Fruit white. 
Decaying fohage dark 

Vtaielir. 

1 C.C.2 parmfidra. C. parviflora Fiidi. of G'ultingen, — Flowers ratlivr 
smaller than in the species, sepals crisped at the edges. H. S. 



1. HANUNCULA^CEJE : CLE'mATIS. 13 

The habit of growth of this plant is that of C Vitic^Ua, to which it also 
comes nearest, in affinity, but, though less woody, its shoots are much more 
robust; the much smaller and white flowers, and pointed sepals connivent (that 
is, lying close tosether^ below, will readily distinguish it It seldom ripens 
wood in England, but is readily propagated by layers. 

4 15. C. CRi'sPA L. The cuvXeA^epaled aematis. 

M nH fi emik m. IJn. S^, 7$5^.Dee. ProdL. I. P.9t ; Don'* MIU., 1. p. 9. 
Sm u mi fmg. C.II6re crltpo IMS. i?tt*. *^ 

JSugravingt. Dill, mth., 1. 1 78. llg. 84. ; Bot. Uag.. 
1969: ; and our J%. 19. " 

Spec, Char,f 4^c, Peduncles l-flowered, 
shorter than the leaves. Leaves entire, 
3-lobed, or temate, very acute. Sepals 
connivent at the base, but reflexed, and 
spreading at the apex. (D<m*t MUl.) A 
deciduous climber. Virginia to Florida. 
Height 3 ft. to 5 ft Introduced in 1726. 
Flowers pm^Ie ; July to September. Fruit 
brownish ; ripe in October. 

Leaves glabrous, or sli^tlyhainr. Flowers 
one third smaller than m C, Yioma, bright 
purple. Tail of the carpels thick and rigid, 
about half an inch long. (Tor. and Gray.') 
The flowers of this species are j^retty, but 
perhaps never product in sufficient quan« 
titv to render it highly decorative. The se- 
pals have their tips reflexed, and waved with 
transverse wrinkles. The stems are weak, and i'- oiauUicrfiv*. 

do not generally rise hiaher than 3 or 4 feet. The plants frequently die down 
to the ground, so Uiat this species requires to be treated more as herbaceous 
than ligneous. It ripens seeds plentifully. 

§ iii. Cheirdpsis Dec. 





Deriwalkm. From dtetr, the hand, and opns, memblanoe ; hi aUiulon to the form of the bractoaf . 

SecL Char, Involucre in the form of a calyx, from two joined bracteas situated 
at the top of the peduncle just under the flower. Tails of pericarps 
bearded. Climbing or rambling shrubs, with simple or temate leaves. Tne 
old petioles persbtent, and the new leaves and the peduncles produced in 
clusters from the axils of these. {Dec. Sytt,, L 162.) Evergreen. 

L 16. C. ciRRHO^SA L, The tendriled-f^f^M Clematis. 

Tdenti/kaHim. Lla Sp., 766. \ Dee. Prod, L p. 9. : Don*a IfilL. 1. p. 9. 

gyaiyiwff. jftriMM drrhdia Pen, S^, % p. 9^ TVaTeUer^i Joy of Candla, and Spanish Tra- 
Teller*! Jof, Jomuom*$ Gerard \ Spanish wild Climber, PorMuon; the efOf g reen Clematis: 
CI£matHe A VriUei, Clteiattte toiUourt rerte {Bom Jmrd.), Ft, ; efaiftchbiattrlge (ilmple-leaTed) 
WaUrebe, Oer, 

Dernatkm, The word drrhbaa, which meant drrhoae, or tmdrlled. Is applied to this species 
tmm the 'pecnUarty grasping and tendril-like actton of iu petiolea, which retain their hold even 
ailer the leaSett have iUIra. The French word Vrillet sigiiUles tendrils | and the German word 
einlhdi alludes to its eomparatlTely simple leaTet. 

Bmgr«t9tmg$, See the Varieties. 

Spec, Char,, ^e. Peduncle 1-flowered, with an involucre. Leaves simple, or 
variously divided ; evergreen. An evergreen climber. Spain and the 
Balearic Isles. Hei^t in British gardens, in the climate of London, in a 
warm situation, a^amst a wall, 5ft to 10 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers 
greenish or vellowish white ; March and April. Fruit f • Foliage of the 
broad-leaved varieties forming a fine dark green mass. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BBITANNICUM. 



L C c. 2 pedicelldta Dec ; C. pedicell^ Sioeel' 
HorU Bril. p. fi., and Am't MilL i. p. " ' 
bale4ricB Fen.; >.. i;u- 
rhdoa Shiu 3. Mag. 
t. 1070.; and our fig. 
SO. ; has the pedicel be- 
tween the involucre and 
the flover considerably 
longer than in the 

C. c. 3 anguitifiSa. C. bale- 
iricft Rich. Bol, Mag. 
t. 959., and ourj^. 
C. calyclna Ail. ; 

polymdrpha Hort. Cl£madte de Hahon, Fr. 
— The leaves of this variety vary exceedingly, train those shown in 
fig. 83. of the nBturnl size, taken from a plant in the HorticultiiTal 
£>cicty*s Garden, to those shown in fig. SS., reduced from Smith's 
Flora Grieca. Introduced into England by M. Ihouin, in 1T83. 





The T 






years, very thick bushy plants. 




The leaves vary liroa) simple to temate ; and from bang entire to being 
deeply cut. The flowers unpear at the end of December, or the beginning 
of January, and continue tiU the middle or end of April. They are pendulous 
and bcU-sbi^ied, the mouth being of the breadth of a shilling, or more. Their 
colour is greenish white, with some purple on the inude. The sepals are 
downy without, and smooth within. In its native country it is said to climb 
up and overwhelm the trees ; but in England it is a weak plant, not very 
readily k^t. In nurseries it is generally cultivated in pots, and kept in a 
green-bouse, or in a cold-irame. The principal beauties of this species con- 
sist in its bright evergreen verdure, and in the earliness of its flowering in 
spring ; and these properties may be best obtained by training it against a wall 
with a southern aspect. Layers and cuttings. 



1. aanuncula'c 



§ iv. Axemonifidra, 



iZ] 



sate, not bearing an inTO- 

iduoLU. 

± 17. C. ■onta'na Ham. The UoiintaiD Clematis. 

UtiU4llati^m. C.maaOJiMHtm. MSS.: DtK.VTiA..t.D.t. iHojlt. a.6\. 
ariM^nM. C. aaftaoaWin D, Dim Pni. Fl. Nf/mL r- 19*.. jWi Vifl.l. p.e. 
^S^i^lS' Kmt'™"'"'^'*"''" "■• HgtL S«, Gintoo, lod Jl|. M-'trgmmipB^DD <rf 

^we. Giar., ^e. Peduncles I-flowered, not bracteated, several together. 
Leaves ternately parted, the itgiacDta ovale-obloDg, acuminate, toothed, the 
teeth in the mode of incisions. Sepals etliptic-oblong, mucronulate, sprmd- 
ing. (2>. Don.') A deciduous cliinber. Bima]a_van Mountains at 5000 It 
to 7000 ft. elevation. Height 10 ft. to 15 ft., or ia sheltered situations 
3D ft. to 50 ft. Introduced in 1831. Fowera white; April in Nepal, 
May in England. Fniit white ; ripe in August JDecaying foliage brown, 
and droppmg more freelj' than in moat of the other kbda. 



ciduous. Leaves numerous, pale green. Flowers 

numerous, about the size 

and form of those of Auo- 

mone sylT&tKs L., borne 

several together, each upon 

a separate, upright, slender 
^ peduncle, about 3 in. long. 

Sepals 4, I in. long, pure 

white, faintly etiuned with ^ 
, pink outside at the base. 1 

Styles clothed with long ] 

white silky hairs ; from 
_^^ which it may be inierred 

*■ 'i^'* ■"""■ (])^t [his speciea will hare 

its fruits terminated with feslheiy tans, in a state of 
maturity. In the climate of England it proves to be 
quite hardy, and seems to flourish as well as od its 
native mountains. It grows with great vigour in a 
loamy soil, flowers profusely early in the season, and ». oMuk^uuu. 
is readily increased by layers. A very desirable speciea. 

OUer &Kdei of Cltmatu. — There are several other spedes of Clematis 
described in books, some of them as introduced, and others as not yet in 
cultivation in Britain j but we have reftained from describing any speciea of 
which we have not seen living plants. In Torrey and Oray's Flora of North 
America, C. Aolomricea Pursh, C. Uguitidfd&i NutL, C. bmmmSnda Tor. i 
Gr^t C. pamijidra Nutt., C. laMtitha Nutt., C. Htieariloba Dec., and C. 
Fftoieri 3V. ^ Gray, are described as woody species, none of which, even 
by name, are yet in British gardens. Cpubetccnt, vi^alia, BuehamintL, and 
some others, mentioned bj Drs. Wallicb and Royle, are yet to introduce 
irom the Himalayas ; and there are several names in DeCandoUe's Pmdromut 
of wUdi tiving plants are not in our gardens. 



ARBOHETUH ET FUUTICETUM DRtTAHNtCUM. 



QHE 



^TRA'GENE L. The Atraobns. Im. 8i/it. Polytuidru Poljg/nii 

M(M((hMm. LlDGm, p.SlS,; D«'illiU,l.|i.ll). 
ammimifima. CliiDUli Lam. ind Drt. I Alngm. fy. (od Oct. 

JlrrfHAm. Tb( ninK o[ ^irtftaa fftm u 1m uka Itam tm Orttk wotdi i utnu, ]n 
uHlinBi.blnb; •Uudlng.u ltlinippaMd,ta iba 



bj a bearded tatL Colyledom ^proximate in the seed. CDon't Mill.) 
Leava compound, t^posite, generally eistipulate, deciduoua ; leafleta 

Tanoualj cut. Floweri axillary, pedunculate ; purple, blue, or wbite. 

CtiinlMig ihmbt, natives of Europe and Korth America. 

The stragenes differ from the clematises b producing leaTca and one flower 
ftoni the same bud contemporaneous! v; wbereas in most clematiies the 
flowers are produced upon wood dereloped previously to their appearance 
fuid during ttie same season. Hence the winter buds of ^tHigene are larger 
than those of Clematis, from their including the flower as well as the leaves 
of the £iicce«dbKfear. In atragenes the leaves are leas divided than in many 
of the species of Climata, and they are always divided teraately. All the 
species of ^cri^ene described in this work have petioles, which not only clasp 
olyecta, like those of Cl^muit, but maintain the hold for more than the 
season, like the vine. All extremely interesting from the beauty of their 
blomoma. The culture is the same as in 61eniatis, and the propagation 
generally by layers. 

1 1. ^tra'qbnb alpi'n* L. The Alpine Atragene. 

■vtOIh SmI- 1 JtrAffov imtrlia Seep. vtA Sol. ttag. : AtriMaaa rfem^ 

iidptauwa. blcl.>K>.9.i C. ilplu 0«. mx. I. p. lo. ; AttMtwdM 

/ntrawmgi. Bot. iiep., I. IM. 1 Bat.U>c..I.ua.i mdomjlt W. 

Spec. Char., ^. Peduncles 1-flowered, longer than the leaves. Leaves 

biteruate ; leaflets ovate-Uneeolate, acuminated, serrate. Petals somewhat 

■pathulate, blunt. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous climber. South of Europe, 

— ..; — ;_ — 1~. . =n;i. Height 9 ft. Introduced in 1792. 



Varietie: DeCandolle mentions \ta varying with 
white flowers; and i<. siblrica Lm., described 
below as a species with yellowish white flowers, 
luipears to us nothing more than a variety of 

The Blems are numerous, branchbg, weak, 
forming knots at the joints where the leaves and ^ 
flowers arc protruded. One flower, on a longish , 
scape, springs from between the leaves. Tlie sepals 
are twice the lenjrth of the petals, and are blue , 
on both sides. I^e petals are small, of a dirty • 
white, and in general IE in number. Very oma- 
meutal. layers. 



r. JiANUNCULA\:fc£: .^Ra'gENE, 
± 2. A. (a.) sibi'rica L. The Siberian Atrtgene. 

UtnOL^im. Shm, Bot. Hag., L 19U. : DoD'l Mill,, 1. p. 10. 
tfmomfma. Artgme (Iplu Qmet. SA. t. p. IM, PilL tiar. But. 3. p. M. ; Clfc 
'un/^ ni« wn ij., and D«i. fraif. 1. f, 10- 



;^DM. C%ar„ ^c. Peduncles l-flowered, alnioBt equal in length with the 
leaTes. Learea bitemate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acuminated, terrated. 
Petali aoarginate at the apex. (Don't MiUJ) A deciduous climber. 
Sibaia, on mountainE. Height 6 ft. to IS ft. Introduced b 1753. Flowera 

white; June and July. Fruit white ; ripe in August, r 

Decajing leave* broinuih. 
Farieiy. A blue-flowered varietj of this speciea U men- S 
tioned in Bol. Mag^ 1. 1591, which is probubly theB 
A. ocbot^nais of PbIIbb, or possibly nothing more than *,■ 
A. alploa ' 

There is a considerable rimilarily in this to the last, / 
in foliage and habit of growth ; but it is leas robusi ~~ ' 
lest branchy ; its branches are more lign«ou»-lookin{ 
the segmeats of the leaves long^. The calyxes a _,^^ „ 

flower are white, longer, and with the tips rather con- Lki!4^£j] 
nivcnt than spr^ing. The bark and foliage are of a ^Ox^^^ 
lighter colour, and the Sowers longer than those of A. „ _J^?2 
alploa ; and the latter are perhaps 1^ numerous. ^'*°* 

.1 3. A, aiibkica'ha Simt. The American ^cmgene. 



Spec. Char., ^c. Peduncles I-flowered ; leaves whorled, in fours, temate ; 
leaflets stalked, cordate lanceolate, acuminated, entire or somewhat lobcd 
or seriated. Petals acute. (Don't ATiii.) A deciduous climber. Ver- 
mont to Carolina, on mountains and rocky places. Height lOft. to 15 ft. 
Introduced in 1797. Flowers purplish blue; May to July. Fruit white; 
ripe P. Decayii^ leaves dork brown, 
FoTiely. 

A A. a. 8 ebSqua Dou. MS.— Leaflets bluntly serrated. 
This gpedes is distinguishable from all Che other Clema- 
tldete described in this work, by the peculiarity of itx leaves 
being disposed, not oppositely in alternately decusxating 
pairs, but in whorls of four. This is an anomalous cha- 
racteristic, which DeCandolle has expressed by his specific 
epithet verliciU^ris. The flowers are very large, ana cam- 
panulate. Sqials oblong-lanceolate, bri^l purplish blue. 
(1\ir, and Gray.') I^ayers. 

OlhcT Specie! and VarieUei of Atr6gene. — A. ochothati Pall, we consider as a 
variety of^.4. dbirica L. A. eobtoMdna Nutt, C. columbi^na Tor. if Gro^, i. 
p. 11., has teniBte leaves, and pale blue flowers smaller than those of .iJ. ameri- 
cdaa. It is B native of the Rocky Hountuns, but has not yet been introduced. 



Tribe II, Pjeovia'cSjB Dec. 

Hyib. Char. At once distinguishable from tiematidece, by the character of 
the anthers opemm to admit the escape of the pollen on the side next 
the ovaries. Id Uematldete. the anthers open on the mde outward to the 
ovaries. The sttivation is ijso imbricate, and the corpek from one-seeded 



18 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

to mBiif-seetled. Suffi'uticosc deciduoui shrubs, of low growth, natives of 
temperate climates. 

Leavet compound, alternate or opposite, stipulate, dedduous, but with- 
out posseasing a claspinK power. Floweri very large in Psconia, very small 
in Xanthorbize ; and tbc following are the diBliDctiTe charactcmticB c^ 
these genera : — 

Pmo'^HU L. Sepals persistent. Petab orbicular, sesule. 

XiNTaoRHf ZA L. Sepals deciduous. Petals S>lobed, unguiculate. 

Genus I. 



a 



Thb Psovv. Ljn. Syil. Polyindria Dt-Pentag^la. 
I TVodU wu irpUed bj tha Omki la theH pluU, whlrh hars conlLmuid 
Bj i Hiolna, fV.i OlcbCtHTOH, loi Pinnla, Ofl-.g Boh dil Hoatt, Span-i 



Gen. Char, C(dyx of £ leafy, unequal, permanent sepals. Pei^ from 5 to IP, 
somewhat orbicutar. Stamem numerous. IMc fleshy, girding the ovaries. 
CarpeU follicular, from S to 5, laive, many-aeeded, terminated with thick 
bJlamellate stigmas. Seedi rather globose, shining. 

Leacei compound, alternate, bitematc or bipinnate. FloiBert large, rosy, 

or rosy and white, usually with a strong disa^eeable smell. A suffhiticosc 

shrub. Height from 3 ft. to 10 tt. Native ot China and Japan. 

There is but one ligneous sDecies, P. Moilan ; but there are several 

varieties ; all undershrubs, which never attain a great height, and the wood 

of which always retains a herbaceous character, with a large pith. The roots 

ere ramose rather than tuberous. The whole plant is narcotic and poisonous. 

The varieties are all beautiful, and hardy in most parts of Great Britain ; 

though, from vegetating early, they commonly suffer from spiing frosts. 

I I. P. Mou'tan Sims. The Moutau, or Tree, PsBony. 

- - " ~ - t.l.J>.Sa,; Don'.HnL,l.p.6i 

F*, tuAoticaH BM. Rip. I rlioliK Moutau. hkI 



t. Prod.. I 



» A'ri;r^ Ft. liiiunirtlgi GyiltarrMiij^G^. j Hm Ouimg'. lilS P* 



IE ilgDliy Um Uw ud tht lub-dirublif p«dt. Tha Ccnun 

.. . — „—- , .-». The Chtnwe MiiiB HoM-Oa«ng ifgiia™ ihe king o( Sow. 

en, illi^lDB to Uie bwi» S the plut i and Pi.L»Dg-Kln, e buiidnd ouncei of (Did, In illiiikm 
to Om high pKn irbkb Kme of l£a Tirietlei bau- In Cblni. 
Spec. Char., IfC. S^mcnts of leaves oval^oblong, glaucous underneath. Car- 

Sis 5, villose. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous suShitescent bush. China, 
eight 3fl. toeft. Introduced in 1787, Flowers jnnk; May. Fruit 
brownish green ; ripe in September. 
Decaying leaves brown or buck, 
Parielkt. 

■ P. M. 1 papaveracea Andrews. 
Bot. R^., t. 4G3. ; Lod. Bot. 
Cab.,647.; Bot.Mag.,8173.i 
and our &. S9.— Petals from 
6 to 13, white, with a purple 
spot at the base of each. 
Capsules altogether enclosed 
in the urceolus, or disk. In- 
troduced in leOA. Professor 
t>Qn remarks (Sv. Br. Fi^ b. >■»..«.....,.,.«».. 



t. RAtlVllCVh\\:EX : XAMTROBHf ZA. 



the nonnal fonn of the Hpecies, aa the lata Mr. Oeorge Anderaon 
susgested in bis papa on tne Butyect in the Imnaan TraniacHani, 

■ P.M. 8 Badaa Andrem. Bot. Rep., t. 4U 
Bot. B^., 379. i Bot. Mag., t. 1154.1 ai 
o\afy. 30.— Flowera double. Petak sligbl 
tinged with blush, becoming Dearly vhi 
at the edges, loarked u the base with pi 
plish red. In the centre of the flower a 
some elongated petals, which sometiin 
appear to nse from amongst the germei 
Cultivated in 17BT. 



coDtinuall; mcreaung, in consequence of cross fe- "^ ''*^ ■•*■ b*"**- 

cundatioQ with one another, and with the herbaceous specica. They are all 

-raj beautiful, and well deserring of cultivation. 

The P^Toa Moutan, m ft sheltered situation, will attain the height of from 
6 ft. to 10 ft. in ten yem i and no plant caa be a more eorgeoua ornament 
of the garden than such a bush, abounding as it does in tcsTcs striking from 
their branched character and Dumerous laments, and in very magnificent 
flowers of extraordinan size ; both leaves and flowers being [iroduced early 
in the soring. On its first importation, this plant was ^wn in sandv peet ; 
but it nai since been found to thrive best in dee^ rich loamy soil. An 
open situation is preferable, both on account of maturing the wood and leaves, 
and for displaying tbe flowers to advantage ; but the plant must be sheltered 
from the cold spring winds, unless it is intended to cover it, when it is in 
flower, with a movable glass or canvass case. The protection civen to this 
plant b necessary, not so much to prevent it from bong ii^ured during winter 
(For it will bear the winters of Pans without any protection, if the wood has 
b««n properly ripened), as to protect the tender leaves and flowers when they 
first appear, m April and Mav, from bdng blackened by the frost. Seeds are 
frequenity produced from nnich new varieties are raised, and any variety 
may be increased by division of the root ; by mfting on the tubers of herba- 
ceous pseonies, any lime from the middle of September to the middle of 
March ; by budding, a mode said to be practised by the Chinese ; by layers, 
which is the most general mode ; bv ringing a branch beneath each bud, and 
then peg^ng down the branch, and covering it with soil ; and by cutting. 



u 



Gen. Oar. Cs/ju of 5 deciduous sepals. Pclaii 5, of two rouodtsh lobes 
raised on a [Kdicet. Slameia 5-10. Ovariei 5-10. Carpel* 2— 3-Eeeded, 
but usually solitary fium abortion. {Don't AtUl., L p. 65.) — There is only 
one species known. 

Leavti compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous; pinnately divided, 
toothed, and serTated, Floteen in racemes, axillary, compound, appearing 
with tbe leaves. 



20 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICBTUM BRITANNICUM. 



J* 1. X« ^iiFo^LiA VHerit. The Parsley-leaYed Yellow*Root. 

J^mti^ation. L'H6r. Sfcfrp. nov., p. 79. t. 88. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 68. ; Don't Mill., 1. p. 65. ; Tor. 

and Gray, L p. 4a 
Sfnon§fmei. Sjmtliorfalxa opilfdlla j Zanthorlte k FeoUles de PersU, Pr. i SeUerle4>lattiige Gelb- 

wun, Ger. 
DfHwaiion, From the Greek words tianihot^ yellow, and rhtxa^ a root ; applied ttom the depp 

yellow coloor of the rooti. The French name needs no explanation ; and the German is a literal 

translation of the English one. 
Engravings. Lam. 111., t. 854. ; Bot. Mag., 1736. ; and our^. 81. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Flowers minute, dark purple, often by abortion polygamous. 
A lowy sufirutescent, deciduous shrub. Flowers dark purple; May. 
Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Pennsylvania. Introduced in ] 776. Decaying leaves 
yellowish or brown, dropping in September. 

A small shrub with yellow creeping roots, which 
attain a large sizei and throw up numerous suckers; 
with irreguuurly pinnate leaves, branched racemes, and 
small purplish m>wers (which are usuaUy unisexual 
from abortion) rising from the scaly buds. The flowers 
appear early in May, and continue a month or upwards 
before they drop off. We have never heard of its 
ripening seeds in Europe ; nevertheless, this may have 
occurred, and been overlooked, from the inoonspi- 
cuousness of the shrub, and the smaliness of its fruit. 
Suckers, or division of the root. "• x«iiKrt»«apiiriua. 




Ordee II. WINTER^^Cfi^ 

Ordinal Charactbh. Calyx of 2^-6 deciduous sepals, and 2 to many petals ; 
the sepals and petals, when more than two, disposed ternately. CarpeU 
whorl^, very rarely solitary from abortion. — Evergreen shrubs, or low 
trees, chiefly natives of warm climates. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, evergreen ; full of pellucid dots, and 
coriaceous. Properties aromatic and stimu&nt. IlUdum is the only genus of 
this order which contains species that will stand out in the open air in 
Britain. 

Genus I. 



ILLITIUM L, Thb Illicium, or Aniseed Tebe. Lm. Syst, Poly&ndria 

Polyg^nia, 

Identifteatkm. Lin. Gen., 611. ; Tor. and Ority, 1. p. 42. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 77. ; Don's Mill., 
1. p. 78. 

^vncmymef . Badiane, or Anis-4toil£, Fr. ; Stemanls, Qjr. 

Zferipotion. The goierlc name Illldam is formed from the Latin word iUidOt to allure, on 
account of the agraeable aromatic smell of all the species. It Is called the Aniseed Tree, from iu 
smdl bearing a strong resemblance to that of aniseed. Badiane uppeaxt to be an aboriginal French 
word ; Anis-^toil£, and Stemanls, signify literally the starry anise, and may allude to the starry 
dispositicm of the parts of the flower and of the capsules. 

Gen, Char, Cafyx of 3-6 petal-like sepals. Carpels stellately disposed, cap- 
sular, opening on the upper side, l-seeded. (Don*s Mill,, i. p. 79.) 

« 1. Illi'cium florid a'num EUis, The Florida Illiciimi. 

MentifieMihn. Lin. Blant., 896. ; Doc. Prod., 1. p. 77. ; Don's MilL. 1. p. 79. 

Synmwmet, The Florida Aniseed Tree, rcd-ilowered Anise-seed Tree, Mor. Hiti, ; Badiane de la 

Floride, Fr. iunachter (spurious) Stemanls, Oer. 
Engraving*. Bot. Mag., 489. ; Lod. Bot. Cab., t. 909. \ and our>l^. S2. 

Spec, C/iar,, Sfc, Petals 27 — 30, dark purple, outer ones oblong, inner 
ones lanceolate. {DorCs Mi/i.) An evergreen glabrous shrub. West 



II. ■WIVTERA'CBJ! : ILLI'CIUM. 

Floritia to Louisiaiia, in swamps. Height 
4 ft. to 6 (I. iDtroduced in 1766. Flowers 
dark reddish purple,inth the odour or anise 1 
April to June. Fruit none in En^and. 
Decaying leaves reddisli brown, dropping in 

A compftct, manf-stemmed, busby, erer- 
green, Blow-growins shrub, attuning, in the 
ndghbourhoad of London, the hei^t of 6 or 
8 feet or upwards, and flowering eterj year. 
The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, quit« entire, 
pointed at both eitremities, smooth, shining, 
and, in common with the whide plant, have a 
ritdi leddish hue. The flowers are numerous, 
solitary, and terminal ; and bear some general 
resemblance to those of Calyc6nthus fl6ridus. 
The manner in which the plaot is propagated 
in the London nurseries is, generally, by fertn- 
ing stools of it in a cold^it, and laying down 
the shoots, which require two years to root 
sufficiently to admit of their being separated 

from the parent plant; but it '" '^ 

propagated by cuttings both of tl _ 
of the old wood. This very handsome 
green shrub is sufficiently hardy to have re- 
sisted the winter of 1837-8, in several situations 
in the climate of London. 



;s both of the young and 



OrdsrIII. MAGNOL/^CE.^ 

Obd. Cbab. Catsx of 3 deciduous sepals. Cero/la of 3 — 18 petals, dis- 
posed in threes. Attikeri adnate, eloiwated. Carpdt numerous, disposed 
along a spiked axis. Lcaoet destitute ofpellucid dots, stipulate when young. 
,St(pi^ convolute, and enclosing the uneipanded leaves. — Evergreen and 
dcdduous trees and shrubs, chiSy natives of warm climates. 

Lauxt simple, altemste, stipulate, evergreen or deciduous; oblong, not 
dotted, more or less coriaceous, articulated distinctly with the stem, and, 
when expanding, rolled together like those of i^cus. Floweri large, mostly 
white or yelloinsh. Setdi roundish, large, red or brown, — The species 
hardy in British gardens are mcluded under the genera Msgndlin and 
Liriodendron, the diSerentiai characters of which are as follows : — 

1A\ano>UA L. Carpel dehiscent; that is, opening to admit the esc^e of the 

Liriodb'itoron L. Carpel iodehiscenti that is, not opening to admit the 
esct^ of Ae seed. 

Genus I. 



iSSQ 



MAONO'Lr^ L. The Maonolu. Lm. St/tl. Foly&ndria Polygf nil 
UnutlcsUss. tin. Hoi., SKI., Dec. Prod.. ]. p.T>.| Don't Uil!., I. 
Jb»>ii>Ma, HltulliS fr- uxl B*'- \ BMxrbuiii Hurl,, mi Munr 
DtrirMm. Th« unw VifMta WH |4ini to UlU tniui bj LlSDEUI 
due tad prefect of tho boUnlo gi 



m. bnTET wood, li ^Uod genaiaUt 



M s*DHk*llj> br Hiutvn in 
U ifTlM nnlj io M. (UlcL 



■■ iirdtn u HontMlIn'. Thi 
lfi>R>« in Uit fiSnw Carlir 



22 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETDM BRITANNICUM. 

Gen, Char. Calyx of 3 deciduous sepals, that resemble petals. CoroUa of 
from 6—9 petals. Stamens numerous. Pistilt numerous. Carpelt disposed 
compactly m spikes, opening by the external angle, 1 — ^2-Beeded, permanent. 
Seeds baccate, somewhat corc&te, pendulous, lumging out beyond the car- 
pels by a very long umbilical white thread. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; entire, large, 
oblong or oval, stipulate. Flowers terminal, solitary, large, odoriferous. 
Seed large, roundish, produced in conical strobiles. Trees and shrubs, 
natives of North America and Asia. 

One of the species is a lofty evergreen tree ; but the others are decidu- 
ous, and partly trees and partly shrubs. The seeds are mostly of a scarlet 
colour. The roots are branched, and yet but sparingly supplied with 
fibres. Magnolias may be cultivated in most parts of Britain, and of the 
middle and southern states of Europe ; but, north of London and Paris, some 
of the species require protection during winter, or to be kept in the green- 
house. A deep sandy soil, and a situation sheltered from the north and east, 
will suit most of the species ; though some, as M. ^laiica, for example, thrive 
best in a moist * peaty soil. Few of the species npen seeds in England, but 
most of them do so in France. From these seeds, or from such as are im- 
ported, all the American species, except M. grandiildra, are most frecjuently 
raised ; but the species from Asia are increased by layers, as are occasionally 
some of the more rare of the American species. In no case whatever would 
we recommend purchasing any species of magnolia not grown in a pot ; 
because plants so grown may be sent to anv distance without injury to the 
roots, which are few and succulent, and easily damaged by exposure to the 
air and light. The hardv species of this genus are included in two sections, 
Magnolioi/rum and Gwilumttf. 

§ i. Maffnoliastrum. 




m 



Derhathm. MagnU^ ; and a#htim, ftom ad (nstatt an affixed particle, signifying Hken«u. 

Sect. Char. American species, with one spathe-like bractea enclosing the 
flower-bud ; ovaries approximate ; anthers bursting outwards. (Don^s 
Mill., i. p. 83.) 

f 1. Magno^l/uI GRANDiFLoHiA L. The large-flowered Magnolia. 

IdeniiftcaHom. Lla Sp., 766.; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 80. ; Don't Mill., 1. p. 8S. ; Tor. and Gray, 
1. p. Ai. 

Synonymea. Laurel-Ieared Magnolia, the large-flowered evergreen Magnolia, the Laurel Bar, big 
Latirel, the large Magnolia ; Laurler tulipier, Fr. In Louittana ; Hagnolie it grandes Fleun, 
/v.; grostblumiger Magnolie, or Bleberbaum (Beaver-wood Tree), Qcr, 

Engravingi. Mill. Ic., 9. 1. 178. ; the plate In vol. t. of Arb. Brit. Itt edit. ; and oxafig. 34. 

Spec. ChaT.y Sfc. Evergreen. Leaves oval-oblong, coriaceous, upper surface 
shining, under surfiice rusty. Flowers erect, 9 — 12 petals, expanding. {DwCs 
MilL) A large evei^green tree. North Carolina. Height m North 
America 60 ft. to 70 ft. ; in England 20 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1737. 
Flowers white, fragrant ; June to September. Strobile brown, with scarlet 
seeds ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow and orange^ dropping in 
June. Young wood green. 

Variet9es. 

2 M. g, 2 oboviUa Ait. — Leaves obovate-oblong. Flowers expanded. 
(^Juort, Kew.y iii. p. 329.) This seems to be the only variety found 
in a wild state. In British gardens it is a magnificent plant, the 
broad ends of its leaves forming a conspicuous feature, and distin- 
guishing it readilv from the original species, the leaves of which are 
pointed ; but it does not flower freely. 



111. ttKOKOLIA'CE^ : HAONOY/^. 23 

t M. g. 3 eximhuu Hart. M. g. lanceoUta Aii. ; M. g. stricta Hoii. ; 
H. g. femiglneB Hurt. The Exmouth MagKoSa. (Bat. Mtw., t. 
1958.; Bou'Oab., t. 1B14.; the plate in Arb. Brit., lat editioD, toI. v.; 
Midourj^.33.) — The leavts are oUoog-elliptical, genenily rusty 



underneatl). Flowers somewhat contracted. This is the moBt 
diitinct of all the varieties of the species, and, on account of its 
flowering early and freely, the one best deserving of general culture. 
It forms a tail, fastigiaCe, elegant bush, oi tree, and has attained 
the height of 30 1^., as a standard, at rarious places in the South of 
England. 
t JH. g, 4 angmlifolia Hort, — Leaves lanceolate, pointed ot both extre- 
mities, wavy. A very distinct variety, introduced from Paris about 
1885, which has not yet flowered in England. 
1 ATc. S^rte'cwr Andry. — Leaves oval-oblong. Flowers fully expanded. 
This IS an early variety, introduced from I*aris about 1630. The 
flowers are as large as those of any of the varieties, and they ate 
produced from the end of May till the approach of winter. 
OtAer VanelKi. In consetjuence of the great demand for this species in 
the nurseries, many slight vanacions have been noticed by cultivators, and 
named as distinct. In the ^rden of the London Horticultural Society, 
in 1834, there were plants with the following names : — ^- g- vera, M.g. 

lah/olia, M,g. exomenai var., and M, g. ruHgmdia. In the London n 

re — M. g.rotundi/olia Svt., M. g. e!"-"-- "' ~' — ' ■" "' 



r. g. rotundifoUa Swt., M-g- eUipUca Ait., and various others, 
in tne nursery of M. ifoy, at Angers, are 18 varieties, among which ere 
included M. g. longijiitia tmdalala, M. g. exonieruti d fifVF demi-doubtc, M. 
g. canalictili, M. g. Jlorii&rula, M. B. fitii' variegdtii. Sec. At Desio, near 
Monia, there is a variety called M-g. rnagordeiuu. 

Selection of Varietiei. M. g. oboBola deserves the preference for the mag- 
nificence of its foliage ; and M. g. exomeruU, because it flowers early and 
freely ; and because, from the fastigiate form of the tree, it is leas liable 
to be injured by h heavy fall of snow ; it seems also to grow &£ter then 
any of the other varieties. Where the tree is to be tmined agunst a wall, 
M. g. pree'cex deserves the preference, on account of the largeness of its 
flowers, and because the^ ^pear early, and continue during the whole 
nunmcr. Jlf. g. ongtofj/abi deserves culture on account of its foliage, which 



24 ARBORETITH ET FRUTICETUH BRITANMICUM. 

is qiihe distinct from ihU of all the other varieties. The species sold in 
the nurseries as the coiiinion brosd-leBred Magnolia grandifldra is fre- 
qiienllj' raised from American, French, or Italian seeds ; and, hence, the 
plants, thou^ they grow freely, do not flower for SO or 30 years after being 

Slanted out. For this reason, wlien it is desired to have plants of the 
[agnAlin srandifldra which will ilower early, those plants which have been 
raised bv layers from flowering trees ought to have the preference i or the 
Exmouth, or some other varietv, should be made choice of, because the 
varieties are always raised fronj layers. 

In its native country, M, grandifldra is a tree varying from 60 ft. U> 
100 ft., or upwards, in neighti but in Europe, excrat in some situat' 
Spnin and Italy, and a few in the South of Engbod, it is chiefly 
considered a* a wall tre& 



A deep sandy loam, dry at bottom, and enriched with vegetable mouM or 
heath soil, seems to suit all the varieties of this species. When these are 
to be trained against a wall, any aspect may be chosen, except, perhaps, the 
north-east. To display the flowers to the greatest advantage, to a spectator 
walking in a direction nearly parallel to the wall, the ground plan of the 
latter should be curvilinear, by which means a direct or front view of a 
considerable portion' would be brought before him. In the London nur- 
series, propagation is generally eflected by forming stools either in warm 
aitiiations m the ojien air, to be protectnl durii^ winter, or in cold-pits. 
Tbe shoots are lajd down in autumn, and require two yean to become 
auffidently rooted for separation ; they are then potted, and kept in pits 
or under glass during winter, and set in the open air, in a shady place, 
during summer, till wanted for final planting. M. grandifldra is also occa- 
sion^y raised from American seeds. In planting, the ball should be care- 
fully broken by the hand, and the roots spread out in eveiy direction, and 
covered with heath mould, or a mixture of leaf mould and nody loam. The 



III. KAQKOLJA^CEjE : MAOSO^LIJ. 25 

soil ought to be maile firm to the fibroua roots, not by treading, but by 
abundant watering, and, if the plant be large, by filing with water; that is, 
while the earth is being careTulIy put about the roots by one man, another 
diould pour water from a pot held 6 fl. or 8 ft. above it, so that the weight 
of the water maj' wash the soil into eierj crevice formed by the roots, 
and consolidate it there. Shading will be advisable for some weeks after 
planttng. If the Exmouth variety be chosen, layers will produce Sowers in a 
year or two after bong separated fivm the parent plant, if kept in pots; but, 
when they are planted out, and grow freely, so as to make shoots of 3 or 3 
feet every season, they will probably not flower for three or four years. 
Whether the tree be against a wall or trelh's, or treated as a standard, all the 
pruning it will require, after it has b^un to grow freely, will be, to cut out 
the stump* from whicb the Sowers or the strobiles have dropped off, and 
any dead or decaying wood, and any branches which cross and rub on each 
other. Magnolias against a wall require very little protection, even when 
youn^; and this can easily be gjven by mulching the ground at the roots, and 
covering thdr blanches with a mat, or with the fronds of the spruce fir, 

t 2. M. OLAu'c* L. The glaucous-Jnitwd Magnolia. 
Uemtl/kmliom. lin. Sp., 1. p. tU. i Tor. udGrij, ]. p.«. | Dk. Prod., I, |I.10.| Om'i ICIU 

S^itufma. M. (Mnaii SoUiS. ; Bmup Buufrmi, Bsnr-vood. wblla B*7. null HifnolU. 

Sviwi HuBolU I UifuoUe glBuqiK Ann ^~ '^'*'^ "' ■ —«—"»-» — • "— 

Drrirallom. It li nviwd Snmp Suiftu ^ - 



VfAonba. Itll nuwl Smmp Suuftu on account or lU STOwllif In txlHT Pix**. ■Bd mnnbllng 
Id qmlltlE* Lba LAdnu SifRdVai (■DdBHVBC-ivood.bKuiH lbs root LiaBlcnM«ST«stdalatybr 
lb* teHtn, uid Umh uilauji u* aubt if bmsu of II. It *!» (towi tn tba ivuupL vUck thn 
Inlullllt ud Miduaildku that It fifUladtiv than lijr coucniKlBS IfaoiT dm ud houHt,lB 

prcftTHia WsnTgUHTtn*, iwucsuiitc'"- — ' '■' -■ 

EwnvAWI. Lo^. BoC at, t. lit. : Slj 
Bitt., Ittolll.Tel.T. ) •BdoatA.SS. 



prdkmia WsnTgUHTtn*, iwucsuiitorUMH. 

" • — ■ --'" -- "-' ■ — - ""— "-' " •^^ plat* of Ihl* ipcdu Id Alb. 



jaiU.) A shrub, or low tree, somedmea sub-evergreen. Massachusetts to 
bCssouh in swamps. Height in America 3 ft. to 10 ft.; 6 ft. to SO ft. in 
England. Introduced in 1688, Flowers white, S in. to 3 in. broad, very 
fragrant; June and September. Strobile brownish. Seeds deep scarlet; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow, brown, or black. Naked your^ 
wood green. 




T M. glauca 2 i«mpervireni Hort. — Sub-evergreen, and with smajter 
leaves than those of the aext varien. 

1 M. glaiayi 3 'nomjuoraina TTioBip. i/t.g\aiu:ajar. amajar Bol.Jtfag., 
new edition, p. 36. The phite of this in the Arb. Brit., first ediuoj), 
vol. v.; and our j^. 36. — It was noticed about 1880, in a pot of seed* 
lings, by Hr. Thompson, in his nursery at BCle^end ; and by him kcpl 
distinct, BDd propagated under the above iiam& 



ARBORETUM ET ERUTICETUH BRITANNICUU. 




OUKr FaneHei, M. gfa&ca (TorJoniina and M. glaica Burch^l&ae, are 
names found to nuraerymea'B catalogues, of varieties said to iiave double or 
semi-double flowers. JVf, g, longijma Pursh js supposed to be an abori- 
ginal Tariety, and aub-evergreen ; but we think it probably the same variety 
as M. g. Tnampsoiuana, wbich may have come up wild in America, as well 
as in Mr. Thompson's nursery, if. g, Carddnii, M. CftrdoD J. Knight, is a 
variety imported from Belgium, where it was found by Mr. Knight of 
the Exotic Nunery, in the nursery of M. Cardon, after whom he has 
named iL 

A low tree, nearly evei^reen in moist soils, with a slender stem, covered 
with a smooth whitish l^ik. The wood is white and spongy; the young 
shoots of a fine green. The leaves are smooth, of a bluish green on their 
upper surfiice, and whitish or glaucous and a little hairy underncBth. The 
flowers are produced in Hay or June, at the extremity of the last year's shoots. 
They have six concave white petaJs, and have an agreeable odour. The 
spike or strobile of fruits is an inch or more in length, conical, an inch In 
diameter in the widest part, and of a reddish brown colour when ripe. When 
the plant is in a soil supplied with moisture during the summer, it continues 
to produce flowers till the autumn, and retains part of its leaves all the winter : 
in dry situations the leaves drop off. Seeds are frequently ripened in Eng- 
land : they are of a bright scarlet, and they hang down by slender white 
threads, as in ell the other American spe<nes. The young shoots are from I (t. 
to 18 in. in len^h, and the plant, in ordinary circumstances, will attain the 
height of 18 ft. m ten years. Plants are generally raised from seeds imported 
from America, which should be sown in pots of bog earth about the begin- 
ning of March, atid placed in gentle heat under glass. In a year they will be 
fit to transplant into small pots ; and every year they should be shifttd into 
others of s larger size, till wanted for final planting out, H. glaiica Thomp- 
Bonia'iu, and the other varieties, are propagated by layers, wUch require two 
years to root properly. 



III. UAOItOI^IA CEJS 1 maono'l/^. 27 

1 3. Maoho^lm tripb'tala L. The threc^tetaled Magnolia. 

I. 8p., S. p. 7t6. ; Michl., S. tk 30. 

nbrfllm l.am., Nam. Dith., Da. Froi., Dni'i lliU., Ttr. k Grot i U. aonaftu 
smao. 1 UH uiabnlU Tnei UmtH'slU HuRDlLa -, Elkmiod ; HKaolle Fuuo], uil Artan 
Puuol fy. ; dnrbliitDlnr fflibn-liwiiii, dr^bUnrlga Mignolla, litr. 
DfTtraiiam^ Thb ipecdM laall«dtta« Umbralli Tnv, Hcwdlng to Ukhiux, Iweuiu lu l«wap 

■ lD.faniail,u* uRn dlipoHd tai rni U the «lnail» of rlfoooi ibootai ud tScu dtaptar* 
■BTfKaorilft bdlMUrter.fatlwteBiarmuDbnUii. Tbatew li oUid Blkmod Id the now- 
Mhii of Vliikili, prstntilr mm tha hhbiIiIuks whldi lb* pobiu at tbe ihoau bur to tiM honu 
of tha dk. Th* FnDch nuHi nunlj ilfstiy uubnlli Rk. ud tlw Gruwi odh the thm- 
pauled bum Irte, or nuinoIlL 
£a(r»^(. WEhi. AHi.;i. 1. ». ( Lodd. Dot. Cdi., t. 41S, ; tbs puie ta ihli ip*elM In Arii. BHI. 

Spec.Ckar^^. Dedduous. Leaves lanceolate, spreading, adult ones smootb, 
younger onea pubescent underneath. Petals 9 — IS, exterior ones pendent. 
{Dot?! MUl., L p. 83.) A deciduous tree of the middle size. Pennsyl- 
vania to Oeorgia, in moist soil. Height 20 ft. to 40 ft. in America ; 15 ft. 
to 30 ft. in England. Introduced in 1758. Flowers uhite, 7 in. to 6 in. 
in diameter, with an unpleasant odour ; May to July. Strobile* rose* 
coloured, 4 in. to 5 in. long ; ripe in. October. Decaying leaves dark brown 
or black, Naked joimg wood of a fine maliogany brown. 



\ 



This tree, both in America and Europe, is remarkable for the largeness 
of its leaves and its flovera. The wood is spongy, brittle, with a lai^ pith, 
soft, porous, and of very little use. The b(ul upon the trunk is grev, 
smooth, and polinhed ; and, if cut while green, it exhales a disagreeable 
odour. In Britain the tree sends up various shoots from the root, to replace 
the stems, which are seldom of long duration ; so that a plant that has stood 
thirty or (brtj years in one spot has had its stems several tunes renewed during 
that period. The leaves are 18 or SO inches lone, and Tor 8 inches broad. 
The flowers are 7 or 8 inches in diameter, with large white flaccid petals; thejr are 
borne on the extremities of the last year's shoots, have a languid luxurious 
appeaiance, aod a sweet but heavy odour. The fruit, which is conical, is 5or 



28 AKBORETUH ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

C inches long, and ttbout 2 in. In diameter i it ia of a beauttful rote colour, and 
containa usuiillj Trom 50 to 60 seeds. Hiis species is >ery tiardy, and can 
withEtand the most ligorous winters, when the summer has been sufficiently 
hot to ripen the wood thoroughly. As it is a short-lived tree, and conte- 

Suently flowen early, there is not the same abjection to reisiiw plants of it 
'om aeed, as there is to ruaing plants in that manner of M. grandifldra, 
which ia along-lived species. The soil should be a deep, rich, sand; loam, and 
the situation sheltereii and shaded. Exposure to the sun is injurious ; and, 
trained gainst a south wall, the plant suflers extremely. A sheltered glade 
in a shrubbery or wood, where the tree is sufficiently distant from others not to 
be injured by theirroots, is the most desirable rite. In the nurseries it is 
nluioBt alwaya propagated by seeds, which should be sown immediatdy after 
ihey are gathered, aa when they are left exposed they become nuicid and loae 
their vital qualitiea ; though, if enveloped In moist moss or earth, they mtty be 
preserved for several months. The plants should be kept in pots until 
required for final transplanting. 

A Mr. The iong-leaved Magnolia. 



MunoUn b«Diiu<«, Fr.; sT«Ht>IKaij» BlgbwnuiB, G 
SHtramgi. BoL Ua(.,9LB9. i Ihs ]>IU* Id Arb. Oit., IM sdll. nil. t. ; udoor/f.lS. 

Spec. CioT.i^c. Deciduous. LeavesTerylargcoblong-obovate, somewhat pandit- 
riform. cordate at the base, under surface whitish, glaucous. Petals 6 — 9, 
ovate. {Don't MiU.) A dedduous tree of the middle aiie. North Caro- 
lina and Georgia. Height SOft. to 40ft. in America ; ]5ft. to 30ft. in 
England. Introduced in 1800. Flowers white, with a purple spot near 
the base of each petal; Sin. to lOin. in diameter, fragrantj June and 
July. Strobile rosc'coloured ; ripe in October. Decaying leavei yellow, 
brown, or black. Naked young wood of a whitiah brown. 



III. MAQVOUA^CE^: MAONO^L/^. 29 

The general appearance of this tree sreatlv resembles that of Magadlia 
trip^tala. The terminal arrangement of the leaves is the same, and it is 
remarkable that in America the two trees are almost always found together. 
In point of size, it exceeds the M. tripetala, both in its leaves and general 
heignt ; but it is seldom found higher than 35 ft., which exceeds the height 
of the other by a sixth part only. The body of the tree is covered with 
a smooth and veiy white bark, by which, in the winter, when stripped ot 
its leaves, it is reatulv distinguished from M. trip^tala. At this season, also, it 
mav be distinguished by its buds, which are compressed, and covered with a 
soft and silvery down ; whereas in M. trip^tala they are prominent and rounded 
at the end. The leaves, in its native country, are 35 in. long, and 9 or 10 
inches broad ; and in vigorous plants, in England, they sometimes even exceed 
these dimensions. They are borne on petioles short in comparison with the 
size of the leaves, and are of an oblong oval shape, pointed at the extremity, 
and cordiform at the base ; their colour is light green above, and glaucous 
beneath* The fruit is about*4 in. lone, nearly cylindrical, and of a vivid rose- 
colour when arrived at maturity. Young plants of this species grow very 
slowly till they are thoroughly established, which will require, in general, 
two years. The year's shoots mav then be from 1 ft. to 2 ft. ; so that in ten 
years a plant may attain the heicht of 12 or 15 feet. It may be considered 
a short-lived tree, and, like all suoi, it comes into flower when young. It has 
rarely, if ever, been propagated in this country by inarching or layers, and 
yer^ seldom from seeds ;^ and, hence, the plant is very spann^ly distributed. 
Soil, propagation, &c., as in M. trip^tala. Seeds are ripened m France, and 
young plants imported from that country, or from North America. 

1 5. M. ACUtfiNA^TA L, The pointed^leaved Magnolia. 

IdemiigeaUon, Lin. 8p., 756.; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 80.; Don's Hill., I. pi 88.; Tor. and Gray, 1. 

Sgmomffmes, M. rAftlc^ and M. pennsfWinlca, of some ; the Una Magnolia, Sng. ; the Cucumber 

Treo, U» S, % Magnolwr acnmin^, Magnollar k Feuillet poinUea, JV. ; lugefpUxer Btebertwum^ 

Oer, 
DerHmtkm. This ipeclet It called tte Cucumber Tree, in America, flrom Iti fruit reaembllng a 

•mall cucumber. The other namca are tranalatkms of the botanic one. 
Emtrawktgs. Mich. Arb., 8. p. 88. t.8. ; BoL Mag., M27. ; and the plate faa Arb. Brit., 1st edit. 

Tol. ▼. ; and onr^. 88. 

Spec, Char,^ fc, I>eciduous. Leaves oval, acuminate, under surface pubescent. 
Flowers 6 — 9-petaled. (Don's Mill.) A deciduous tree of Urge size. New 
York to Geoigia. Height in America 60 ft. to 80 ft., wiui the trunk 
4 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter at the base ; in Encland 30 ft. to 50 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1736. Flowers yellowish within, glaucous without, slightly fra- 
grant; May to July.^ Strobile cylindrical, brownish red, 3 in. lone; ripe 
m October. Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Wood of a manogany 
brown, 

Vmieiiei, 

1 M,a,2Cand6UiSavL — Leaves ovate oblong, acute. Flowers greenish. 

Figured in Savins Bibl. Ital,, p. 224. 
1^ M. a. 3 mdxima Lodd. — Leaves much larger than those of the original 
species. Introduced by Messrs. Loddiges, and cultivated in different 
nurseries. 
Olhtr Varieiiet, The Bla^dlia acuminata beine fre«]uently raised from 
seed, and the seedlings varviog much in the size of their leaves, and in the 
presence or absence of puoescence, both on the leaves and wood, it would 
be easy to select several^ varieties apparently as distinct as those above 
mentioned, such as M. striata, latif6lia, &c. In the Gold worth Nursery, 
Woking, Surrey, are some which appear remarkably distinct. 

Trunk straight, branches numerous, shoots regularly distributed. The 
leaves are fix>ni 6 in. to 7 in. long, and ftom 3 in. to 4 in. broad, upoL old 
trees, but double that size upon young vigorous-growing plants. Michaux 
describes them as oval, entire, and verv acuminate; but, in the seedlings 
raised in British nurseries, they are found sometimes ovate, nearly orbicuUte, 



30 ARBORGTUH ET FRUTICETUM BR IT AN KI CUM. 



and cordate acuminate. The flowera are 4 or 5 inches in diameter, bluish, 
and sometimes white, with a tint of jrellow. They hare but a feeble odour, 
and the petals ore never fully expanded, though, as they are lar^ and 
numeroufl, they have a fine eflbct in the midst of the superb loliagc. 
Plants raised from seeds do not usually produce fiowers till they are 
eight or ten years old, when the tree will probably be from 15 ft. to SO ft. 
in height; but plants raised from layers produce flowers in two or three 
years. The fruit is about 3 in. long, and nearly 1 in. in diameter. It is 
nearly cylindrical, and often a little larger at the summit than at the base : it 
is convex on one side, and concave on the other ; and, when green, it nearly 
resembles a young cucumber: it becomes roso-coloured when ripe; and, as 
in the case of the other species, the seeds, before they drop, remain sus- 
pended for some time by long white threads. The wood of this tree is of a 
fine grain, and of an orange colour. A tree, deep, aud rather moist soil answers 
best for tilts n>ecies ; but, as it is much hardier than any of the others in thia 
section, it will grow in almost any soil that is moderately free, and not over- 
charged with moisture. It is generally propagated in the London nurseries 



by layers, the plants so produced flowering much sooner than seedlings ; but 
the latter, as they make far more durable plants, should always be preferred 
when this species is used as a stock to grah or inarch others on. It is so used 



enerally, not only for M, auriculata and cordiita, but for 

- ■ . in pot . 

they are not checked by transplanting, and at least a year is gained 



vc7gi ,, . 

and Soukngeona. The plants are, in some nursenes, grown in the free aoil ; 

but it is always preferable to rear them in pots ; because, in that ease. 



X 6. M. (a.) cOBDi.'TA 3/f. The heart-leaved Alagnolia. 
Ht^aalum. Ukh.'Bn. Aiur., I. t>->M.j Dm. Frgd., i. p. so. i Don'i UUI.,1, p. I 



HI. MAGKOLIJ^CRS : MA0S0\IjI. 31 

F<mtfit*. B« lfaC',t-na'lBM.CitL, (T4.1 UnplXelnAm. Brb^lileiUt toI. t. ; uid our 

Spec. Char^ J^e. DedduouB. Leaves broad)]' orate, subcordate, acute, 
ander aur&ce tomentoae, upper surface smooth. Petals 6 — 9, oblong. 
{Zfcm'i Mm.') A deciduous tree of the middle size. Carolina to Georgia, 
OD mountains. Height 80 ft. to 40 ft. and 50 ft. in America, and 80 ft. to 
30 ft. in England. Introduced in 1800. Flowers yellow slightly streaked 
irith red, with a diiacreeable odour, seldom expanding fully ; June and 
July. Strobile tike that of M. acuminata, but smaller ; ripe in October. 
Decaying leaves dark brown or black. N^ed young wood Doary brown. 



le. mitiitui BHu. 
ThiB tree, m it* native country, has a trunk \2 or 15 inches in diameter, 
Btrufht, and covered with a rough and deeply furrowed bark. Its leaves 
are from 4 in. to 6 in. in length, and from 3 in. to 5 in. wide, smooth and 
entire. The flowers are ftom 3 in. to 4 in, in diamet^, and are succeeded by 
fruit about-3in. long, and nearly 1 in. in thickness, of a similar form to those 
of the preceding species. The soil, situation, propasation, &c., may be con- 
sidered the same as for M. acuminata ; but, as H. (a.) cordita seems, in its 
native country, to inhabit higher and drier localities than M. acuminata, it 
uiRj probably be placed in still more exposed situations than that spedes in 

T 7. H. avbicdla'ta Lam. The waritAtA-Uaved Kbgnolia. 

HaUlfleatlim. WDId. Bp.,1. p. imS.i D«. Trod, l.p. N.; Dm'lUU!., l.aU. 

Symii^ma. M. FTkHrrndiT.Tor.* Gn^ ; M. uiricuUili Solbt. i Indlu Fbjilc. nd lDiit-l«Ted 
encumber Tree, Awitr. I HagDoUer HirWuli, Fr. ; geSbTiv (eared) Blabeiliuuii, CfT. 

BmgnriK£i. Bot. Mi«.,t9DG.i the plaU In Arti. Bril., lit edit. lal. T. ; aadaorjV-*^ 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Dedduous. Leaves smooth, under aurfiue somewhat 
glaucous, spathulately obovate, cordate at the base, with blunt approximate 
auricles. Sepals 3, spreading. Petals 9, oblong, attenuate at tlie txue. 
(IXm't 3SU.') A smooth deciduous tree of the middle size. Carolina to 
Florida, and on the Alleghany Mountains. Height 30 ft. to 40 ft. in Americn, 
and SO ft. to 30 ft. in England. IntroducM in 1786. Flowers white ; April 
and Hay, Strobileoval oblong, rose-coloured; ripe in October. Decaying 
leaves of a rich yellowish brown. Naked young wood smooth, and of a 
purplish mahogany colour, with small white dots. 

M. a. 2 pyramidita. H. pynunidata Sartr.; H. Friscri pyramid^ta 
yiUI., iir. ^ Gray. The plate in Arb. Brit. 1st edit vol v.; and 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM DRITANHICUM. 




oarjlg, il. — Leaves shorter thaniboBeofthe species, and the plant 
altogether weaker. It is Tound in the western porta of Carolina and 
Georgia, but only in tvo or three localities. Propagated by in- 
arching on M. auricul&ta, but it requirea two years to adhere, and 
seldom niabes a vigorous plant. 
litis tree has a straight trunk 18 or 15 inches in diameter, often without 
branches (or half its height; the branches spread videly, and raoiifj but 
sparingly; and this circumstance, Michaui observes, gives the tree a very 
peculiar «r, so that it may readily be known at a distance, even in winter. 



The leaves are of a light green colour, of a fine texture, 6 or IS inches long, 
and from 4 in. to 6 in. broad : on youiw and vigorous trees they^ are often one 
third, or even one half, larger. The flowers are 3 or 4 inches in diameter, of 
a miJky white, and of an tvreeable odour, and ore situated at the extremity of 
the young shoots. The iniit is oval, 3 or 4 inches long, and, like thai of 



tn. kaovouacSjB : magnol/^. 33 

Hasn6lia trip^tala, of b besuttliil rose colour when ripe ; it differi Troni iliose 
itftnc other speciei by a little inreriority of sue, and by a amall appendage 
which tenDinates the carpela. Each carpel contains one or two seeds. The 
wood is soft, spongy, very light, end unfit for use. The barli is grey, and 
always smooth, even on the oldest trees. When the epidermis is removed, 
the cellular int^ment, by contact with the air, instantly changes Irom white 
to yellow. In England, annual shoots of young plants are from 1 ft. to £ ft. or 
more in length ; and the b«ght which the tree usually attains in 10 vears h 
from 10ft. to 15ft. The soil for this s^wdes ought to be free and deq>; 
and the atuation low, sheltered, and moist, rather than dry. As sMds ore 
not very e*nly procured, the common mode of propagatioa is by layers, or 
by inarchii^ on H. acuminiUa. Two yean ire required before the plants 
can be tepmted iiom tbe parent stock. 

§ ii. GvnUimm Sott. in Dec. Syel. 



Seel. Char. Amatic species, geuerally with two opposite spalbe-like bracteas 
enclosing the flow^^ud. Anthers bursdng inwards. Ovaries somewhat 
distant. {Don't iOil.) Trees or shnilM ; natives of Asia. 

A Sabb. The Tuian, or conspicuoutjfrav/'rd Magnolia. 



&>ec. Giar^ ^c. Dedduous. Leaves obovate, abruptly ainiininBted ; younger 
ones pubciicent, expanding after the flowers. Flowers erect, 6 — ^petaled. 
Styles erect. (^Don't Mitl?) A deciduous tree of the middle size. China. 
Bdght in China 40 ft to SO FL ; in England 80 ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 
1789. Flowers white, fragrant ; February and April. Strolules brownish i 
ripe in September. Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Naked yonng 
wood aslMroloured or p'eyisB brown. 
Ptoietia, or Hybridt. 

I M.c. 9 Soaiaiigeiatt, M. Soulangedna An. 

Hort. 8oc. Par.; Magnolier de Soulange, 

Fr. (M. Soulangeona Swt. Brit. Fl.- 

Oard., t. S60. i and our j^. 43.) -~ The 

leaves, wood, and general habit of this 

tree bear a close resemblance to those of 

H. coni^lcuB. The flowers retemble in 

form those of M. purpitrea var. gracilis 

or of H. purpArea, and the peuls arc 

■ligfatly tinged with purple. It was raised 

at Froinont, near PeziL from ihe seeds 

of a plant of M. conspicua, which stood 

near one of M. purpilreB, in front of tbe 

diitean of H. Soulaoge-Bodin ; the 

flowers of tbe former of which had been acddentally fecundated by 

the pollen of the latter. 



OlIuT Variefiet, rr Hvbridt, M. congpfcita has ripened seeds in vi 
ilaees ; and, as it fertiUsei readilv vrith H. purpurea and H. gr&cilis, 
new varieties may be expected wlieo the attention of cultivator* is 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

«ially directed to the subject. M. c, S, tpeciAnt and M. c. S. Alexan- 
B nre in British gardeoi, but they are not worth keeping distinct from 
:. Soulungeitna. 




This is B very showy tree, distingiushaUe from all the other magnolias 
or both sections, by ita flowers expanding before any of tlie leaves. The 
tree assumes a regular conical shape, with a grey baric and numerous 
branches and twi^s, which generally have a rertical, rather than a horizontal, 
direction. The young shoots are from 1 ft, to 18 in. in length, and the tree, 
in ten years, will attain the beuht of from 10 ft. to IS ft., flowering the second 
or third year after grafting. It is nearly as hardy as the American species; 
flowering freely every year, as a standard, in the neighbourhood of London, 
when the wood has been properly ripened during the preceding summer. A 
rich sandy loam seems to suit Ibis species best; but it will erow in any de^ 
free soil, properly drained, and moderately enriched. The situation, when it 
in to be treated as a standard, ought to be sufficiently open to admit of ripening 
the wood in autumn, and yet not so warm as to urge forward the flower-buds 
prematurely in spring, as they are very liable to be ii^jured by frost; from 
wbicb, however, they may be protected by a very slight covering (during nights 
and frosty days) of^gauze or bunting, stretched over the tree horizontally, 
and sii^^rted by posts. Asmnst a wall, the tree shows itself in its greatest 
beauty; and there it can casd^ be protected, by a projecting coung, from the 
severest weather ever ezpenenceu in the neighbourhood of London. In 
warm situations, sloping to the south or south-east, the tree has a fine effect 
planted in front of a bank of evergreens; and, indeed, wherever it is planted, 
evergreens should be placed near it, and, if possible, so as to form a back- 
ground, on account of (he flowers expanding before the tree is furnished with 
any leaves. The ntedet and all the varietiee are propagated by layers, or 
by inarching on H, purpitrea or on M. acuminate. When inarched on M. 
purpurea, the tree is comparatively dwarfed, by which it is rendered very con- 
venient for use as a shrub, or for growing in pots, and fordng ; but, when it b 
intended to form a tree, it should either be inarched on M. acuminata, or raised 
from layers or seeds. It generally requires two years before the plants can 
uwed from the parent stock. Some plants of this species have been 
from seed ripened in Europe ; and we have no doubt that, when this 
masnificent tree becomes better known nod more generally in demand, it 
will be raised in this way estenaively in France and Italy, and supplied to 
the British nurseries from these countries. 



be separati 



III. HAQKOLIJ CEjE : MAONO L/^. 

a 9. M. pobpu'rba Shot. The piap\o-^fiownvd Magnolia. 



Spec.CAar.,^c. Deciduous. Leaves obovate, acute, reCiculately teined ; almoEt 
smooth. Flowera erect, of 3 Bepalsand 6 obovate petals; stjles very short. 
(Don'i MilL) A deciduous shrub, with large darl green tolisge. Japan. 
Hd^t3ft.to5ft. Introduced in 1T0O. Flonen purple outside, white 
within; March to Ma;. Strobile brownish ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leBvei black. Naked yoiii^ wood greenish broira. 

A M.p.i grddSt. M. Kohtu Dec. and G, Don i M. tomentdia T^un. in 
Zin. TVaru. Kiempr. Icon., t. 42. i Par. Lon., t. B7. — The two main 
points of difference between it and M, purpurea are, the paler green, 
and somewhat narrower shape, of the leaves ; and the longer and 
more slender form of the flower, the points of the petals of which 
are slightly turned back ; while the flower of M. purpurea is more 
cup^haped, and the petals at the points are rather turned inwards. 
The petals of H. gr^ilia are on [he exterior entirely of a dark purple, 
whereas tliose of H. purpurea melt off* into white at their upper 
extremities. A number of plants of this variety, which stood in the 
Hammersmith Nursery as border shrubs, and flowered freely every 
year, were killed down to the ground in the winter of 1837-8, 
Other Farieliei. In DeCandolle's Prodromiu, and in Don's Atiilgr, three 
varieties arc described : M. p. denuddla Lam., distinguished by the flower- 
ing branches being without leaves ; M. p. dUcnior Vent, which ' 



rather more tenda than the spedes; and M.p_. hUflara Lam., the petals of 

which are white on both atdes. These varieties were ori^netly described 

by Kranpfer ; bnt, as &r as we know, none of them are in British cardens. 

Several plants of tlus species having been rused from seed ripened in this 

country, the plants may exhibit slight shades of ditlerence, as has been the 

case with certun seedlmgs raised in the Brentford Nursery; but, as far as 

we have observed, none of these are worth keeping distinct The only 

variety which we consider truly distbct is M. p. grddiii, considered as a 

speciea by Salisbury and other Ifotanists, but 

which, we are convinced, b nothing more than } 

m nee, or a variety. At Desio, a variety has 

been raited which grows only l^ft, high, and i 

which Signor Cassoretti, the garden director 

there, caUs Jf. obovdta pinila. 

A deciduous shrub, attaining, in the gardens 

about London, the heixbt of from 4 ft. to 8 ft. in 

■a many years, and seldom growing much higher 

as a bush. The stems are numerous, but not 

much branched ; the leaves are large, of a very 

dark green ; and the plant prodnces a profurioo 

of flowers, which do not expand Itilly till a day 

or two before they drop off; and which, unless 

the weather is warm, do not expand at all, but 

wilber on the plant, and disfigure it. The 

flowers are large, more or lesji purple (according 

to the season, but never wholly dark purple) 

without, and always while within. The bark, 

when btijised, has an aromatic odour. ' " """"' '"~ 



mtsl apcdes, wbich no garden ought to be without. This species is 
generally considered as requiring a mixture of heath soil, or sandy peat, with 
loam i but in many gardens about London it succeeds perfectly both in sand 



36 ARBORETUaM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

and clay ; the latter soil being rendered free by sand, leaf mould, or manure, 
and drainage. The situation, when the plant is treated as a bush, ousht to be 
open, in order that the wood may be ripened; and the plant should be 
detached, in order that it may be covered with foliage and blossoms on every 
side. North of London, in most situations, it requires a wall, and few plants 
are more deserving of one. Against a wall, it will reach the height of 15 fb. 
or 80 ft. In the London nurseries, it is generally propagated by layers ; but 
it will also strike by cutting, both of the ripened and the herbaceous wood. 
The stools are generally iormed in pits ; or, if in the open ground, they 
are covered with mats during winter. Seeds have been ripened both in Eng- 
land and France ; and from these plants have been raisea in some few nur- 
series. The plants, whether raised from lavers, cuttings, or seed, should 
always be kept in pots till wanted for final planting. This species often 
serves as a stock for grafting the other kinds on, which belong to this section. 

Genus II. 




LIRIODE'NDRON L. The Tulip Tree. 

Gen, Char, Carpels 1 — 2-seeded, disposed in spikes, indehiscent, deciduous, 
drawn out into a wing at the apex. Calyx ot 3 deciduous sepals. Corolla 
of 6 petals, conniving into a bell-shaped flower. (DorCt Jlfi//., i. p. 86.) ; 

— There is only one species ; a deaduous tree of the first rank, native 
of North America. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 3-lobed, the terminal lobe 
emarginately truncate, the lateral ones with two sinuses. Stipules flat. 
Flowers terminal, solitary, greenish vellow, orange within. ^- The only spe- 
cies in British gardens is the Liriodendron Tulipifera. I 

IE 1. Lirioob'ndron Tulipi^pera L, The Tulip-bearing Liriodendron, or . 

Tulip Tree. 

Identi/Uation. Lin. Sn., 7S6. ; Dec. Prod., I. p. 8S. ; Don*s Mill., 1. p. 86. 

Synontftnet, The Poplar. White Wood, Canoe Wood, the Tulip Tree, Amer. ; Virvfnian Poplar, 

TuUp-boarlng Lilj Tree, Saddle Tree, Eitg. ; Tullpier de Virginia, FT. \ Virginltdier Tullpeer- 

baum, Ger. 
Deripolhm, This tree is called Liriodendron, from leirkm, a lily, and demdrom, a tree ; tmm the • 

fiowen resembling those of a lily, though more oorrecUy those or a tulip, as the specific name im. 

plies. It is called Pcplar, from Its general resemblauce to trees of that genus ; white Wood, flx>m 

the colour of its timber i Canoe Wood, from the use to wliich it is applied by the native Indians : 

Tulip Tree, from its tulip-like flowersz and Saddle Tree, from the form of its leaves. The French 

and German names are literal translations of the words Virginian tulip tree. 
EngrawinMt. Bot Mag., 87S. ; Duh., torn. 3. t. 18. ; the phtte in Arb. Brit., let edit, vol ▼. ; and 

our^. 46. 

Spec, Char,, 8^c, Leaves smooth, truncate at the top ; 4-lobed, resembling a 
saddle in shape. Flowers large, solitary, terminal ; variegated with green, 
yellow, and orance colour ; furnished with two deciduous bracteas under 
flowers. {DorCs Mill,) A smooth deciduous tree of large size. Canada ' 

to Florida. Height 70 ft. to 140 ft., and trunk 8 ft. to 9 ft. in diameter, 
in America ; 50 ft. to 90 ft. in England. Introduced in 1688. Flowers 
greenish yellow without, orange within ; June and July. Strobile brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves rich yellow and brown. Naked young 
wood smooth, and of a mahogany brown. 

Vaneltf, 

t L, T. 2 obtusiloha Michx., integrifolia .ffor*.. Yellow Wood, or Yellow 
Poplar, has the leaves with blunter lobes than the species, but is in 
no other respect difierent from it. 
Olher Farieties, L, T, acuHfoSa Michx. has never, we believe, been intro- 
duced. L, T. Jidva Hort. has yellow flowers. As the tulip tree is almost 
always raised from seeds, it is probable that the flowers of seedlings will 



III. MAosoLlJ^CE^: libiode'ndbon. 



ntj in tli«r shades of colour, and any deairalilc varialitm may be perpc- 
tuuted bjr propagating the pluot possessing it by layers or hiiirchicg. 




In the developeiiient of its lesTes, the tulip tree differs from most other 
treea. The iraf-buds, in general, are composed c^ scales closely imbricated, 
which, in the spring, are distended by the growth ofthe minute bundleof leaves 
that they enclose, till they finally fcil off. The flowers, which are large, bril- 
liant, and on detached trees very numerous, are validated with different 
colours, among which yellow predouiinates ; they hare an agreeable odour, and, 
surrounded by tbe luxuriant Ibllage, they produce a fine effect. The fruit ii 
composed of a great number of thin narrow scales, attached to a common axis, 
and forming a conic^ spike 2 or 3 inches in length. Each fruit contains 60 or 
70 carpels; of which never more than a third, and, in some seasons, not more 
Ibon seven or eight in the whole number, are matured. It is also ol>8crved, 
that, dnring ten years after it begins to yield fruit, almost all the seeds are un- 
productive ; and that, on large trees, the seeds fivm the highest branches arc 
tbe best. The heart, or perfect, wood ofthe tulip tree isvellow, approaching 
to a lemon colour; and Its sap, or albumum, U white. The annual shoots of 
}t>ung plants, in the neighbourhood of London, are from IS in. to Sft. in 
tengto ; and tbe tree will, in favourable circumstances, attain the height of 
from 15 ft. to SO ft. in ten years ; seldom, however, fiowering till it is upwards 
of twenty years old. Tbe bei^t, in England, freijuently exceeds 70 ft. ; ard 
it has ripened seeds here, occaitionally, from which young plants have been 
raised. It ripens its fruit very generally in France ; inougfa it is observed, in 
the Ncaveau Du Havat, that these seeds do not vegetate so freely as those 
whtd) are imparted from America. Deep, kamy, good soil best suits the 
tulip tree; anil the situation most favourable isone which, while it is sheltered 
from high winds, is, at the same time, sufficiently exposed to the light and air 
to adnrit of the maturation of its leaves on every side, and the perfect ripening 
of ita wood, without which it can neither retnst the severe frosts of winter, 
nor fi>rm bloMom buds. The species is seldom, if ever, propagated othemtse 
than by seeds, which come up best in heath soil, very fine mould, or sandy 
loam, m a shady situation, kept rather moist ; but the varieties are multiplied 
by layers or inarching. When the seeds are sown in autumn, ihcy gcnemily 
come up the following spring ; but, sown in spring or tbe banning of summer, 
the^ geoerally remain a year in the ground. The tulip tree, like the magnolias, 
havii^ roots fiimbhed with but few fibres, does not transplant readily ; and, 
therefore, the plants ou^t either to be k^t in pots, or, if in the free ground, 
trannilanted in the nursery ever^ year; or, if neither of these modes be prac- 
ticable, removed to their final situation, when not more than two, or at most 
three, ^ean old. The tree is, like the magnolias, not very patient of the knife, 
other in * young or in an old state; and, from tbe bitter qualities of the 



38 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

leaves, it does not seem to be much attacked by insects. As tulip trees raised 
from seed seldom flower before they are twenty or thirty years old, it is much 
to be wished, that nurserymen would propagate them by grafting or inarching 
from flowering trees, in consequence or which the plants would probably 
flower the second or third year. 



Order IV. ANONA^CEJE. 



Ord, Cham, The distinctive characteristics of this order from that of Magno- 
MhcetB are : Anthen with an enlarged four-cornered connectivuro, which is 
sometimes nectariferous ; albumen pierced by the substance of the seed-coat ; 
leavei without stipules, conduplicate in the bud; properties aromatic. 
— Trees or shrubs mostly natives of warm climates 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; distinctly articulated with 
the stem, entire ; leaves and branches pubescent when young, the leaves 
commonly minutely punctate, with pelludd dots. Flowers axillary. — The 
hardy species, in British gardens, are included in the genus AsinuTia Adans., 
formerly Anona L., and are natives of North America. 

Genus I. 



□ 



1 



ASI'MINA Adans. The Asihina. Lin, St/sL Polyandria Polygfnia. 

IiietUifleaiiom. Adans. Fam., 3. p. 866. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 87. ; Don's Mill.. 1. p. 91. 

SgnoHumet. Anndna L. ; Orchidocirpum Mx. ; Porcdlte sp. Fen. ; Uvirla Tor. ^ Grap ; Custard 
Apple ; Asiininier, and Anone, fV.; rlascbenbaam, Ger. 

Dertvattom, Ashnma Is Latinised from a word of Canadian origin, the meaning of which Is not 
known. Orchidocfcrpum was, it is probable, Intended to express a likeness between the figure of 
the fhiit, and that of some species of O'rchls. Porcil/a Is a name giren hy Ruiz, in honour of 
Antonio Poreet, a Spanish promoter of botany. Andna is a South American word that signifies a 
mess, or dish of food, to be eaten with a spoon. Uirkria is from tiva, a grspe, to which, however, 
the fruit has little resemblance. The German name, Flaschenbaum, iaak tree, is given from 
the shape of the fhiit 

Gen, Char, Calyx 3-parted. Petals 6, spreading, ovate-oblong, inner ones 
smallest. Anthers numerous, nearly sessile. Ovaries many, but for the 
most part onlv 3, ovate or oblong. Carpels the same number as the ovaries, 
baccate, sessile. Seeds many, disposed in a single or double row. (Don^s 
Mill.) — Low trees or shrubs, deciduous, with white or purplish flowers, 
and fhiit about the size of small plums. Rather tender, and di£Eicult of 
culture. Only one species is truly hardy in the climate of London. 

^ \, A. TRi^LOBA Dun, The three-lobed-co/yr^^ Asimina. 

Identificatton. Don. Monog. : Dec. Prod., 1. p. 87. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 91 . 

Sj/ntmfftnet. Anntma triloba I*., and li*. in Arb, ; Porcdlio triloba Pen. \ Ordiidodbpuro arietl* 
num Mx. Bar. Am. ; Uvilria triloba Tor. i; Gnw ; the Fapaw, Amer.\ Asiminler de Virglnle, 
and Annone i trols Lobes, Fr. ; dreylappiger (tnree-lobed) Flaschenbaum, Oer. 

Engra9ing$. Mill. Icon., 1 . t. 85. ; Tor. and Grajr> L P* 46. ; Mx. Arb., 3. t. 9. ; and onr^.47. 

Spec, Char,y S^c, Leaves oblong-cuneated, acuminated, and, as well as the 
branches, sinoothish. Flowers on short peduncles ; outer petals roundish- 
ovate, four times longer than the calyx. (Don*s Mill,) A low deciduous 
tree. Middle, southern, and western states of North America. Height 
15 ft. to 20 ft. in North America ; 7 ft. to 10 ft. in England. Introduced 
in 1736. Flowers dark purple and yellow. Fruit yellowish, esculent ; 
ripe in August in America, rarely seen in England. Decaying leaves rich 
yellowish brown. Naked young wood dark brown. 

A small tree, densely clothed with long leaves, lying over one another in 
such a manner as to give a peculiarly imbricated appearance to the entire 
plant. The flowers are campanulate and drooping, and appear before the 



IT. ANONACBJE. V. MEN 18 PERM A ^CES. 39 

leava ; the outer petals are purple, and vary in colour in drfferent plants ; in 
some being voy dark, and in others light, inclining to yellow. All parts of 
the tree have a rank, if not a fetid, amell ; 
said the fruit ia relished by few persons ex- 
cept the ne(?^>ea, who call it papaw. The 
&uit ripens in Ainerica in the b^inning of 
Aurust, and is about 3 in. lone and 1^ in. ' 
thick, oval, irregular, and swelling into in- ^ 
equalities. In British gardeni, the plant is 
always raised from American seeda ; and, to 
thrive, it requires to he planted in sandy peat 
or deep sand, and kept moist. In England 
it may be considered as a curious, slow-crow- 
ing deciduous shrub, or low tree, well de- 
Bcrring a place in gardens, but which ought 
always to be isolated, end at some distance 
from rapid-growing plants- Relatively to 

growth, itmay bei^acednearDlrcapBlliBtris, t-_ Aumi^ttnctt. 

some <^ the dapbnea, or llUcium. 

Olier Speciei 0/° Asimina. — A. partijldra and A. graiidiflom are North 
American shrubs, seldom p'owing bigber in their native habitats than I fl. to 
8ft.,BDdi«ther too lender for the climate of London. 



Ohder v. MENISPERMA'CE/E. 

Obd. Cb/IS, Flomeri umscxual. Sepalt aailpetalt rimilar. Stamcnt mona- 
delpboui, or rarely free. OBorki somewha connected at the base ; with 
one or many it^ % many-eelled. Fhal, in most, baccate or drupaceous, 
one-seeded or many-seeded, oblique or Innulate, compressed, with the leeiU 
of the same form. Bmbiyo curved or periphedc. Aliimen none, or very 
qraring and fleshy. (Bon'i M^dl.) — Climlnng or twining flexible abrubs, 
natives of N'orth America and Ana. 

Zieavet simple, alternate, eistipulate, deciduous ; stalked, usually cordate 
or pdtate, palmately veiiwd. and Bl»a}-s with the middle nerve terminating 
in an awn or point. Flouitri in axillary racemes in most species, small. 
— The (pecie* in Briluh gardeus are included in the genera Menispfrmmn 
and CiSccoliu, which are Uiub contradistinguished : — 

MBNiflPs'itMUN L. Sepals and petab quaternary. Male flowers with 15 — 



Co'ccuLva Baui. Sepals and petals temary. Matcflowcrs with 6sr 



m 



HENISPB'RHUH L. Trb Moonbebd. Uh. SyU. Ditc'cta Dode- 



G«i>. Oiar. Stpalt and pelaU disposed in a quaternary order, in two or three 
series. MaU fioieen with 16 to 80 stamens ; femiJe fioaxn with 2 to 4 
ovariea. Dntpe baccate, round ish-kidne^-shi^ed, l-seeded. — Climbing 
shrubs natives of North America and Dauruu 




40 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANHICUH. 

Leava simple, alternate, peltate or cordate, entire, emooth. Pedimdei 
axillary, or Euprft-aiillary. Male and female peduncles rather dianmilM'. 
Flowert small, greenish white. — The apedea are all of the eaaieat culture in 
common soil, and are propagated b; dividing the root, or bj cuttings. 

The Canadian Moonaeed. 

, ... , l.i Doil'iMni.,l.p.ll».: To[.iodCr«.l.n.«. 

Sgae^fma, M. cuHdfnH tu. • Lammnil ; M. unguUDmi Mom* ; MenIlIMnie du Cuudk, Bam. 

spec, char., ^c. Leaves peltate, imoothish, somewhat cordate, roundisb- 

angulari angles bluntish, terminal one atffuptW awned, mucronate. Rft> 

cemes solitary, compound. Petals 8. (lion'i MiU.) A 

, deciduous, suShiticose, long, slender twiner. Canada to 

' Carolina. Height Bft. to 12 ft. Introduced in 1713. 

' Flowers small, greenish yellow ; June and July. Berrr 

black ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves greenisn 

Varielia, 

A M.e.2 lobdlum Dee. M, )? 
virginicum L. (Dill. ' 
Eltfa.,t.l78.&g.S19.) 
— This variety is dis- 
tinguished by the angles of the leaves being 
acutish,and the flowers of a greenish white. 
J Jtf. e. 3 maiidnam. M. imil&cinum Dec, 
(Jac. Icon., t. 869.J end our fig. 49) — 
Leaves smoother, and racemee more simple 
than in the species. 
Roots thick and woody, with numerous very slender shoots, which, though 
somewhat ligneous, never attain any considerable diameter, and are not of 
many years' duration. The stem twines in a direction contrary to the tun's 
apparent motion, and is smooth and even, 
having more the appearance of a herbaceous 
plant, than of a shrub. 

JL 8. Mbnispe'ricum dau'vicuh Dec. 
The Daiirian Moonseed. 
,..,..n.iD«i'i uni.,). p.iii. 

r. Trflopliiu AmpglUilgrtii nic*. ; S.amAtcat 
con., 1. 1. ICO.; nod our ft. 60. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves peltate, smooth, cor- 
date, angular; angles acute, terminal one 
acuminated hardly mucronate. Racemes in 
pairs, capitulate. (Don'* MUL) A twining, 
deciduous, sufTruticose shrub. Dauria, on 
rocky hills, near the river Chilca. Height 
5a.taiOft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers 
yellowish ; June and July. Berries black ; 




Resembles the preceding species, and probably only a variety of it 



E 



V, HENISPERHA^CEX. VI. BERBERA'CEM. 

Gen. dor. Sepali and peti^i dispoBed in a ternary order, in 2, very rarely in 
'e». MaUfiovifTt with 6 free staraens oppottte the petab ; female one* 
elt. Dnipet baccate, I to 6, usually "' ' '' 

I, 1-aeeded. Cotyledont distant. (Don 
heave* ^m^c, alternate, czatipulate, deciduous ; cordate or ovate, entire 
or lobed. Floaert naall. — The only hard; species is C. carolbus, a native 
of Carolina, of the same culture as Heninp^nmim. 



NU3 Dec. The Carolina Coccului 




Si^ntty- l>u- HUi., 
(b..l.t.ie.;uid«ir. 

Spec. Char., ic. Leaves cordate or ovate, 
entire, obtuse, and somewhat 3-lobed ; 
under turiace velvetf pubescent Hale 
racemes BoriTeroua from the base, female 
ones 3-flowered. (I^'' J^^-) A twin- 
ing, deciduous, sufihiticoBe shrub. North 
Carolina and Georgia. Height 6 fl. to 
10 ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers { 
small, greenish ; June and July- Fruit 
red i ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves yellowish or brownish. 
Leaves exticnielv variable in form, S in. 

to 1 in. long, often quite entire, tnit 

usually with several rinuated.obtuse lobes. 

Drupe red, u large as a small pea. 



Order VI. BERBERA'CEM^ 

Obd. Csak. Sepal* usually 6, b two whorls, deciduous, and furnished with 
petel-hke scales on the outside. The pelaU arc equal in number with the 
sepals, and the tiametu equal in number with the petals, and opposite to 
tbem. The anlhen " open by reflexcd valves ; that is to say, the fece of 
each cell of the anther peels off except at the point, where it adheres as if 
it were hin^ there ;" astructure so remarkable. Dr. Lindley observes, as to 
be " found m no European plants except Berberdcea and the laurel tribe." 
(Penny Cyc., vol. iv. p. 2SB.) — Bushy shrubs, which throw up numerous 
suckers ; natives of the temperate cUmates of Europe, Asia, and North 

Leaeei umple or compound, alternate, generally exstipulate, deciduous 
or pertittent; shoots generallv furnished with pnckles; the sap, and the 
colour of the leaves and bark, more or lees fellow. Flowen generally 
yellow. — The genera containing species hardy m British gardens are two, 
Btrherii and Hahdnia, which are thus contradistinguished : — 

B^RBUila L. Petals with 8 glands on the inude of each. Stamens tooth, 
less. Leaves undivided. 

Habo^k/.^ Nntt. Petals without glands. Stamens furnished with a tooth on 
each side. Leaves ptunaie. 



ARBORETUM ET FDUT 



BRITANNICUU. 



EQQ 



BB'RBEBIS L. Thb Bbrrbbry. Ln. Syt. Hexindria Monogynia. 

lOHUi/laaim. Lln.GeD„ 443.1 Dec. Prod., 1 . p. IK.; Don'iMill^ I.p. 111. 

AnuwyiMi. FtmnMcs Biuh ; K'phw Ttutu, Tt-. \ BaAariu*. Oa-. 

ilcriniHn. StHnyi; it Uw AraUc mrd uhJ Idt Itali ^ut br ATsntuw ud other vrilcn « 
mgdldiM ; but ksh pstmm darin tha aiBiK fran tbt Gntk word berberl. tlfolMu ■ iML ftm 
■ha1aKiafltateaiBm«i|i«dHli>TlBs« ballownirAc*. Bochut hj> tku the word Wrtrrfi la 
dcrlHd hom Uia Flmaldaa word barm, wblck il^Mt lUnlug Ilka ■ ilidl, ItoB IMr iklniiif 
laataa. Oanrd un that Iha word B«tiai7 It ■ cginiBtlaii of j j wai fciA t tbo ahb« given to tb« 
(JutbTATlMiuia. DuHloHlun thai Wr»<r«iid>rl>cdrion an Indian word ilril^hvinother 
oTprarl. Ptppertdfabuih.orplptagfllre^ Gerard aap, li Dr. TbTner'e name Ibr Ibe pTaDt.aiid 
It 1i ulU itran to kin CunbridsaUn. B'ldue rloetta alfnllat the add. or taml, Itaotn, hon 

Gen. Char. Sepalt 6, guarded OD the outside by 3 scales. Pgtali 6, with 9 
glands on the iiuide oF each. Slamau toothleu. Serrin i — 3-Beeded. 
Secdt 2, rarely 3, laterally inserted at the base of the berries, erect, oblong, 

coat and fleshy albumen. Colyledoiu ieafy, elliptical. 



with I 



- , ., eaiy, —^ 

Radidc long, cBpitellate at the tip. (Don'i MUIJ) B. heterophjlla Jtui. has 
toothed stamens. 

LeaBci simple, alternate, eiatipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; toothed 
or serrated, coriaceous, with numerous snwH leaves produced at the anils 
of the larger ones, often abortive in the form of prickles. Flmeeri yellow. 
Frml red, in some kinds black, purple or white in others. — Shrubs natives 
of Europe, North America, and Asia ; characterised in a general view by 
being crowded with suckers, and having axillary tufts of leaves and spines. 
The spedes are all readily prooagated by seeds which most of ihem ripen 

in England ; and also by aiiie suckers and root suckers, which almost all of 

them throw up in abundance. 

A. Leavei thin, dedduma. Flouien tolUary, 
M 1. B. sibi'rica Pall. The Siberian Beiberry. 
lilriUi/laaiim. fM.¥\.Bou.,t.f.tt.i Dec. Prod,, 1 . p. lOS. i Don'i U[l 

le SIbMo. Vr. 

nd odT Jig. SS. aHar ItafDe, and 

J^c. CTar,, ^e. Spines 
3 — 7-parted, Leaves 
Ian ceol ate-obo vate. ci - 
liatelv serrated. Pe- 
duncles 1 -flowered, 
shorterthan theleaves. 
(Don't MiUer.) An 
erect deciduous shruU. 
Siberia, on hills and 
the lower mountains. 
Height Sfl. to 3 ft. 
Introduced in 1T90. 
Flowers yellow; May 
and June. Berry red ; 
ripe in September. 

a, mottly deciduotu. Fiow^t ■« Racemet. 
The common Berberry, 

1 Inili/lrallim. Lin, Sp.. 471. i Doe, Pnid,. I, " "» ■ IVm'i Mill.. 1. n. 11*. 
JfnTJWHVT, B. Htntntlj Prett \ B- macroci 

•Inette. Fr. ilemelne BerlKrilie. GtT. 
Eivnn'iweM- Euif, Bot-. I, 40- 1 WIIM, Bdua, 

dower, 5 a ipcclinon In fruit, e a ftower of II 





VI. BEBBESA'cEJB : BtfRBERIS. 43 

^pM. dor., j^. Sjunea 3-part«d. Leaves somewhat 

oboTBte,ciU«tel}' serrated. Racemes many-flowered, 

pendulous. Petiils enlire. (Zkn'j MUi.) A Epread* 

ing, manj-rtenuned, deciduous shrub. Europe, asd 

Britaia in hedges and copses, and naturalised in many 

MTts of Asia and America. H«^t Btl. to 10 ft. 

Flowers yellow ; May and June. Befries red ; ripe 

in September. Decaying leaves reddish yellow. 

Naked wood yellowish white. 
rarietiei. 

A B. ». S luieo. — Fruit yellow, sometimes stone- 
less. 

* B, c. 3 iiba. — Fruit white. > 

* B. r. iyioldcea. — Fruit violaceous. 

A B. V. 5 puTvurea. SAanotniaiCaXi'lni, — Fruit 
purple; fesTes narrow, hardly ciliated. 

* B. e. 6 nigra. — Fruit black; leaves oblong, ci- 

liately serrated, serratures few. Tile fruit of 
this plant ia said by Toumetbrt, who fbuud 
it on the banks of the Euphrates, to be of 
delicious flaTour. 

■ B. D. T duldi. — Fruit red, somewhat less add 
than that of the common berberry. Leaves of 
A bright shining green. Native of Austria, 

where it was first considered to be a distinct species, till the fruit 
of plants raised from its seed was found to be as acid as that of 
the common berberry. It is now, however, propagated by layers; 
the leaves and &uil are considerably larger than those of the species, 
and the fruit is found perfedty sweet and agreeable to est. In 
short, this variety is to the common berberry, what the apple is to 
the crab. 

» B. V. 8 aiperma. Tie leedUu Berbem/. — Fruit destitnte of seeds. 
Miller, and also Du Hamel, both say that suckers taken from this 
variety conunouly produce fruit with seeds; that, as the tree grows 
older, the seeds become fewer, and that it is the age of the plant 
that at last causes the fruit to he seedless; in that case this plant 
must be considered more a variation than a rariety. B. v. aspinna 
is said by Du Heiuel to i>roduce the best fruit for preserving; and 
it is from it that the delicious Conjituret d'S'pme vmette, for which 
Houen is so celebrated, are made. {Noun. Dull., iv. p. 13.) 

« B. c. E> longifoSa Booth. — Leaves longer than those of the spedes. 

* B.C. 10 g&&ca. B. gbilica Booth. — Leaves glaucous. Mr. Gordon 

considers this plant as related to B. sibirica ; but, as it has not yet 
flowered in the Horticultural Society's Garden this point cannot he 
determined. (See Gard. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 2.) 
A B. f>. 11 jintit. — Shoots without spines. Leaves glaucous, rather 

* B, V, l2proandaSi Schrad. — Young shoots brown. Leaves and fruit 

as in the common berberry. 
All these varieties are in the London Horticultural Society's Garden. 
OlAgr FarielKi. In the Horticultmal Society's Garden a number of 
alleged species of berberries have been raised from seed, which have all 
proved varieties oi B, vulgilris, and most of them so Blight,as to be scarcely 
worth keeping distinct. (See Gard, Mag,, vol- xvi. p, 2.) 
Hie common berberry will live for two or three centuries, without increasing 
much in size. The wood is hard and brittle, of a yellow colour, and but 
little used except for dyeing. The rate of growth, when the plant is young, 
is rapid 1 and, in consequence, in (ive or six years it will attain the boght of 



44 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

7 or 6 feet j but it grows slowly afterwards, unleas the suckers are removed 
from it as theji are produced. It is seldom seen above 10 ft. high ; but there 
are examples of trees of it 30 ft. high, probably of 30 years' growth. The 
inner bark, both of the stems and roots, aSbrds a yellovr dye. The leaves are 
agreeably add, and, according to Gerard, were used in his time " to season 
meat with, and instead of a salad, like sorrel." ' The berries are so acid, that 
lords seldom touch them. They are not eaten raw, but are excellent when 
preserved with sugar in syrup, or candied. They are also made into jelly and 
rob, both of which are not onl;^ delicious to the taste, but extremely whole- 
aonie ; and they are pickled in vinegar, when green, as a substitute for capers. 
The plant is cultivated in gardens as a fruit tree or fruit shrub ; and the 
variety, or rather variation, in which the seeds are said to be wanting, and 
that in which the fruit is sweet, are recommended in preference. The plant 
makes an excellent hedge i but there exists a prejudice against it among agri- 
culturists, from its supposed influence in producing blight, or mildew, on the 
com adjoining it. Tbis opinion is of unknown antiquity; but it is now ge- 
nerally conridered to be an erroneous prq'udice. 

» 3. S. (v.) km«rgii4aV& Willd. The emargloat&^toi^f Berberry. 

IilnilillaUim. Wind. Bnnm., I. p. ■9^ ; Ok. Prod., I. p. 109. ; DoD'I Mill, 1. p. IIS, 
Anteiianiu. Aatgtruiiftt tieTnt«dJ Berberlue. Ger. 
EngnnlBfr. nijna AbUld., 1. 61. i u>d oal^i. U. ud S6. 

^>ec. dor., ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves lanceolate-obovate, cillately serrated. 
Racemes scarcely pendulous, Sorter 
than the leaves ; petals emareinate. 
(DotCi MiU.) A 
deciduous shrub. 
u Siberia. Hdght 
» 5 ft. to 7 ft. Intro-"' 

Flowers yellov 
May and J 
Benies redj 
in September. De- 
caying leaves yel- 
low. Naked young 
wood whitish yel- B*irtim~Minu». 

Closely resemblmg B. vulg&ris, of 
which it is, doubtless, only a variety ; but it is one half smaller in all its part*, 
and has the petals emai^nate, and the leaves decidedly glaucous. 

L. The Cretan Berberry. 




yellow I / 
I June. I 




Spec.CAar.,^r. 

3 — S^mrted. Leaves 
oval-oblong, entire, * 
or somewhat serrat-^ 
ed. Kaccmes 3 — S- 
Bowrd., rather short- 
er than the leaves. 



VI. BERBERA^CEM : BE'llBERlS. 45 

(Don'i Mill.) A deciduous abrub, crowded with shoots. Crete, Candia, 
and, peHliuM, Japan. Hdgfit 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers 
yellow 1 May and June. Berriea orate, black; nne in September. De- 
caying leaves whitish yelloK. Naked young wood also whitiah. 
The leaves are produced without any obvious order ; tbcj are small, and in 
their shape they resemble those of the narrow- leaved variety of the common 
box. Tne berrie* are ovate, black, 8-aeeded, laon aatringent than acid; 
stigmn on a vei; Bbort style. 

• S. B. (v.) CKjL.TX'aiHi Dec. The Cratsgus-lifae Berberry. 

UauMadte. Dm. Sjtt.,t. p. 9.) Hod'i 

AwtaAw. Dnr jlr. W. froD ■ ipecbiKii 
in tbcHat. Soc. Gudan. 

^xc. Char., ^c. Spines nmple. 

Leaves oblong, reticulated, 

hardly serrated. Racemes 

many-dowered, crowded, 

R>reading, scarcely longer 

than the leaves. (Am'i MilL) 

A deoduouB ofauicouE-leaved 

shrub. Asia Minor. Height 

4 ft to e ft. Introduced in 

1893. Flowers fdlow ; May^ 

and June. Betnes red ; ripe 

in Sqitember. 

Distinguished from all the 
other species, by the leaves being 
long, flaccid, entirely glaucous, 

or whitt^. Young shoots brown. »■ ■»n«t™u.tf».Mi.ii» 

A plant beaiW this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden is 5 ft. 
high, with the teaves much longer than those of B. vulgbis g serrated, as in 
that spedes, and decidedly glaucous. In other respects we can see no 



■ 6. £. ibb'bica SUv, The IberiaD Beiterry. 
MnuekaUm. Don't HD^ I. p. lit.; and LlndL, Fm. Ctc.,<. B.SI. 
AiKK^rirH. a. Tul^rli ? T. Ibttlci Dm. S^U. t. p. 8. i A llatnita ma. 
St^rmtrmtl. Doid. Bitt, t. te., u B. iliieiuli ) ind mr^. ED. 

^>ec. Otar., ^c. Spines simple, and 3-parted ; leaves obovate- 
oblong, quite entire. Raceme* many-flowered ; petals entire. 
(Dan't Mm.') A deciduous shrub. Iberia. Hra^t 3 ft. to " 
Aft. Introduced in 1790. Flowers yellow; May and June. 
Berries dark purple ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves yel- 
lowish red. Naked young wood reddish yellow. 
Readily distinguished from the common berberry by its smaller 

and smoother leaves, its red shoots, and its almost upright racemes ; 

and from B, sinensis by the leaves being comparatively entire. 

ft 7, 3. canadb'nsis Mill. The Canadian Berberry. 

J»— run. A. T^tfirla J/i. F1. Bur. AmeT..\- p. 30B.; B. rulgirli tit. caaaiiwAxltattf'i 

J>>UriB«v>. 'll^u AM>IU..I.a.t xsdnorA'Gl.iRwtlutiatbei. 

^xc. Char,,^c. Branches verrucose, dotted, with short triple spines ; leaves 
spatulate, oblong, remotely serrate, with Bomewhnt bristly teeth ; racemes 
sub-conmbose, lew-Sowered ; petals emarginale ; berries aubdobose, or 
oval. (Tor. and Gray,) A deciduous shrub. Canada to Oeoma. Height 
2ft. to 3ft., in England 5ft. Introduced in 1759. Floi^ri yellow; 



46 ARBORETUM ET FnUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Ma^ and June. Berriea red ; ripe in September. De- 
caying leavei yellowish green and reddith. Naked young 
wood whitish yelloir. , 

Leaves much Hualler and oarrower than in B. Tulgiris, 
attenuate at the base, but nearly sessile; the mar^s serru- 
late, with 8-8 distant often inconspicuous, mucrouate teeth. 
Jtaceme 5-8-tlowered, nodding ; flowers smaller dian in B. 
vulgiiru i fruit smaller and much shorter. Stem and roots i 
velloiTi ihe former rarely exceeding 3 ft. in height. Found 
m the Allt^hany Mountains, Virginia and Carolina, Tenessee, 
and Georgia. {Tor. and Gray.) Introduced into England in 
1759, but probably lost, as we have seen no plant answering t\, a. 
this description in British gardens. 

« B. B. BtHs'NSis Daf. The Chinese BertMry. 
MaUficaHBm. Duf. CWil. Hort. p., 110. 1 
Dee. Prod,, 1. p. IDS.; Doa'i HU1..I. p. nt. 
&Mi^«H. ATDMiunw*. Jiw.l. P-l«6. 
Atgi-niit^. OurJ^. tX ud e>. rtoin > ipv 

dmad Id the Hort. Soc. OuiUd. 
^lec. Char., ^c. Spines 3-parted. 
Leaves oblong, obtuse, entire, or 
the lower ones a little toothed. 
Kacemes many-flowered, nodding. 
(Don't AGU.) A deciduous shrub 
with slender shoots. China. * 
HeightSft. to 5ft, Introduced 
in 1800. Flowers yellow ; May 
and June. Berries oval, dark red ( 
ripe in September. Leaves 
smooth, eharply serrated. Decay- 
ing leaves of a fine vellowiib red. 
Naked young wood reddish yei- 

Tlte plant at the Horticultural 
Society's Uarden, and at Messrs. 
I-oddiges's, has smooth leaves, red 
shoots, and closely resembles Birberit 



VI. BERBERA'CEJE: BEfRBBRlS. 



47 



C. Lemti kaUtery, everptoi, or ni-etergreen. Ftowen lolUary, or in Clialcn, 
m 9. a. du'lcm D. Dm. The smeelfrailed Berbeny. 

UatUaHm. SM. Brtt. FI.-Gud.i UndLFn. Crc_4.p.asi. 
SmifS^l7 8vt.Bi1LFLCinl.,3ilHr..l.lM.jlBiiwA'M- 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Spinea long, ilender, dmple, or 3- 

pBTted. LesTes obomte obtuse, with or wiAout a 

urittl; point, quite entire, shuicoiu on the under side. 

Floireni solitarj, on sleoder stalks, twice as long as 

the leavea. {jJoM., Pen, Cj/c.,) An erergreen ahrub, 

with ihining leavet. Straits of Hagdlan to Vsldrria. 

Hoght S ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1830. Flowers 

fdlow ; March to June. Berries round, black, about 

the size of a black currant; ri^ in August. Decay- 
ing leaves bright yellow ; dropping in May and June. 

An dqnnt evergreen baab, which, in some places, hat I 
attuned tne bewht of fi ft. The Sowers are large, of a " 
line bright yellow, more expanded than thev are in 
many species, and, ftom their long slender sta&B, Aey 
hang down in a very gncetul manner. In its native country, the fruit is 
used, both green and ru>e, as we use gooed>erries, for making pica and tarts 
and preserves, Ibr which it is most excellent. It is quite hardv and evei^green. 

J- 10. B. Bv\\To''i.\k Lam. The Boi-leaved Berberry. 




twisud sub-«veTKreen shrub. Kative of the Strait) 
of Magellan. Hmght 8 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced ?. 
Flovers vellow. December to March, Beniea blu' 
ish purple, 4-seeded, 

6^ to be nearly allied to B. dblds. A very valuable 
addition to our hardy evergreens ; though, at present, ran 



X'?»- 



j- 11. B. 



arnidScliiilUa.T.p.lLj H«gk. 

Spec. Char„ *e. 8pii . . 

diviuons. Leaves ovate elliptic, rigid, 
coriaceous, toothed, mucronate. Pe- 
duncles 4- — S, sub-umbellate, shorter 
than the leaves. An evergreen shrub, 
with numerous spreading tranches, and 
lo^ white tpioea, graierally in threes, 
but (ometimea more numerous. Straits 
of Magellan. Hd^t 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced ? 1830. Flowers den> yellow, 
a little larger than tboK of B, vul- 
girii i Hay and June. Fruit ?. 
A very desirable species, nearly allied 
to B. heteroph^lla. Our engravuig is of 
a specimen taken from a verv handsome 
plant in the rich collection of evergreens 
It ^vatton Castle. Dr. Hooker n 



A Mart. The ray-^ined Beiberry. 




I variety with smaller Waves than 
the q)ecies, but it does not appear to be introduced. Quite hardy. 



48 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




jB 12. B, ubtrrophy'lla Jus, The various-leaved Berberry* 

IdaMkatiom, Jiui. in Polr. Diet., 8. p. G99. \ Dec. Prod.. 1. p. 108. ; Don't 

Mill., 1. p. 117.; Lindl., Pen. Cyc. 4. p. 961. 
^nonymet. B. flidrblia F&rtt.x B. triicuplfULU SmiA* 
EngravHtgs. Hook. Exot. FL, 1 . 1. 14. ; and oar Jig. 67. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
glabrous, some of them entire, others furnished with 3 
pungent teeth. Pedicels solitary, 1-flowered, hardlv longer 
than the leaves. Filaments toothed. (DorCs Mill,) An 
evergreen shrub. Straits of Magellan. Height 3 ft. to 
4 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowers orange yellow ; May 
and June. Berries red ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves greenish yellow ; June and July. 

Much branched, and the older branches covered with dark 
wrinkled bark. The leaves clustered, and of two kinds ; the 
old ones terminated with a sharp spinose point, and having ^^^ 
a lateral spinule on each side above the middle, and the e7rB.b4 
younser ones being pale green, unarmed, and having their 
margins entire and softish. The old leaves are also quite rigid, dark green, 
and shining. 

jt 13. B, £MPBTRiFo^LiA Lam, The Empetrum-Ieaved Berberr}\ 

Idmtffieatitm. Lam. lU., t. i68. ; Dee. Prod.^. p. 107.; Dod*s Mill., 1. p. 117. ; Pen. Cyc., 4. p. 96K 
Xngro9imgi, Lam. lU., t.958. flg.4.; Sw.Brlt.Fl.-Gar., 2. a. L 860.; and oarJtgJBi. ^ 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves linear, quite entire, 
with revolute margins. Pedicels I—- 2, 1-flowered. (Don^s 
Mill.) An elegant, decumbent, evergreen bush. Cordillenis 
of Chili in subalpine woods. Height 1ft. to 2 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1830. Flowers yellow ; iSscember to March. Ber- 
ries ? yellow ; ripe in July. Wood reddish brown. 

Branches slender, twi^y, angular, covered with a chestnut- 
coloured bark. Leaves nsdculate, linear, mucronate, revolute, 
and entire at the maxgins, claucous ; about half an inch long, 
and nearly a line in breadth. Flowers laige, spreading. A 
very curious and pretty plant, in general aspect much more like 
a heath than a berberry. It is perfectly nardy, and deserves ^ ^' 
a place in every collection^ It is readily increased by layers, in heath soil. 

D. Leaves leathery, evergreen or stilh-evergreen. Flowers 

in Racemes, 

A 14. B. DEALBA^TA LvuU, The whiteaed-leaved 

Berberry. 

LUnt^fieaUom. Bot. Reft., 1. 1760. ; Pen. Cyc., 4. p. 261 . 

Summtfrne. B. gladca uort. 

Engrwdmg: Bot Reg., 1. 1760. ; and our j^. 09. 

Spec, Char,, 4rc, Spines scarcely any. Leaves roundish, 
coarsely toothed, rather g^cous, white beneath. Ra- 
cemes very short and compact, {lendulous. {Pen, Cyc.) 
An upright evergreen bush, with white or glaucous 
leaves. Mexico. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced 
in 1830. Flowers yellow, sweet-scented ; December 
to March. Berries yellowish purple ; ripe in August. 

A tall, slender, evergreen bush, with deep brown 
branches, and scarcely any spines. The leaves are some- 
times wedge-shaped and S-toothed, but more frequently 
nearly round, with two or three spiny teeth on every side. 
A curious and beautiftil species, well deserring of cul- 
tivation. It is quite hardy, and readily increased by 
layers, which root the same season that they are made. ^, bm,h» AttOMm, 





VI, BERBERA CE£ : IIERBERIS. 



■ 15. B. asia'tic 

litmlifaiUai. Rmb-ln Dm. Srtt.,l.fi. 

Sfmrnima^ The LTdum at DIOKorldai. Ra^ to 

am KMliln BvriHiTT. Pm. Ore. 
fiVraA^i. DelHi. Icon. hJ.,!. I. l.i ind our A. 




Ao.r6. 'Die Asiatic Berberry. 

9.|Dac. I>rad.,l.p. IDT.i Don't HUl.. 1. p. l]6i P«. 
/.An, 7VaM..itll, p.U.; S tiDctarti Z^c*. ( 

^>fc. Char., ^c. Spines trilid, or umple. Leaves oval, cuncBted or eltin- 
tical, mucroDDte, smooch, under surrace glaucous, entire or spinulosely 
toothed. Racemes short, 
niHny-floiTered, corymbose, 
shorter than the leaves. 
Pedicels elongated, one- 
flowo^. B^es oval. 
(Doa't SSil.) A vigorous- 
ly growiug sub-evergreen 
siuiib, crowded with nume- 
rous luxuriant suckers. Ne- 
pal, on mountwns. Hdght 
6 ft. to 8 (t. Introduced in 
IBSO. Flowers yellovr; 
Hay and June. Berries 
purplish, with a dne bloon ; 
ripe in July. Decaying 
leaves yellow and red. 
Leaves somewhat resem- 
bling lho«e olS. hetcrophyila, 
but not glaucous. The plant 
is easily distinguished from 
that species by the very short 
racemes of its flowers, by tbeir bdng produced much earlier, and by the 
smoothness of its shoots. On JiUy SO. 1S37, a fine plant of B. esiacica, 
in the grounds M Syon, was covered with fruit, while one of Ji. arisUia, 
BtantUng dose beude it, was covered with its beautiful rich yellow btossom», 
many of which were not fully expanded. The fruit is oblong, pinkish or 
lish, wrinkled, and covered with a fine thick bloom like that of the 
aisliM. The plants in 5 or 6 year* attain the height of 6 or 6 feet. 

• 16. B. akutaVa Dec. The biistled-lool/i-leaved Berberry. 

. Dtc.Prod., t.p. IM.; Dm'iHm.,[. p.lll. 

~" ~ - .; B.IBsaEtiaaillott.i B.l\aiai\i Dnf. 
n-., t. 98. i BO. Heg., [. T». ; mi ear Jig. Il 

c. CAott i^c. Lower spines 3-parted, simple ; 
naves obovate-acute, tapering much to the 
base, ending in a mucro (prickly point) at the 
apex, membranous, smood) on both sides, ser- 
rated, with 4 or 5 Imstly teeth. Raceme* : 
nodding, many-flowered, longer thm the J 
leaves. Berries oblong. (Ihn't Miil.) A 
vworous-growing sub-evergreen shrub, crowd- 
ed with suckers which sometimes grow 8 IV. 
to 9 ft. long in a season. Nepal, on mountains 
5000ft. to 8000 ft. of elevation. Height eiV. 
to to ft. Introduced in 1S20. Flowers yel- 
low ; June and July, Berries purplish, with 
a fine bloom; ripe in September. Decaying 

leaves yellow andscarlel. Naked young wood j, ctrtniivimv^ 

yellowish brown. 

Very distinct from any of the preceding species or varieties, growing with 
mraordiiiaiy vigour, and ci^le of being formed into a very handsome small 



k; 



50 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM DRITANNICUM. 

tree. The root and wood are of a dark yellow colour, and form the yellow 
wood of Persian authors ; they are used as a dye, and, being bitter and a 
little astringent, they, as well as the bark, are employed in medicine. (Royle's 
JHIumL, p. 63.) In Nepal, the fruit of this species is dried, like grapes for 
forming raisins, in the sun. A most desirable plant, calculated to produce a 
splendid effect, both when in flower and when in fruit, upon an open lawn. 
As a rapid grower, it ought not to be planted near slow-growing shrubs oi 
trees. 

Other Species of B^rberis. — B. Coridria Royle, a species having the same 
general appearance as B. aristata, has been raised in the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, and there are (plants 3 ft. hi^h, but they have not yet flow- 
ered. Plants have been raised in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and 
in some nurseries, from seeds received from Mexico and Nepal ; but, though 
these have new names, it is not certain that they will all prove new species, 
and therefore we consider it better not to record them till they have flow- 
ered. In Hook. Bot. Mit. vol. iii., B. chUentii Gill., B. rtucifotia Lam., B. 
corymbom Hook, et Arn., B. glomerdta Hook, et Am., and B. GrevUlekvtA Gill., 
are described, or mentioned, as having been , found in South America, and 
Dr. Hooker has specimens of them in his herbarium. Numerous varieties 
of Berberit vulgaris are raised in the London gardens, under continental names, 
as if they were si)ecies, but very few of them are worth keeping distinct. 
See in Gard, Mag. for 1840, p. 1., Mr. Gordon's Report on those raised 
in the Horticultural Society's Garden in 1839. 

Genus II. 



Edua 



MAHO^N/yl Nutt. Tix^^\knomK,or Ash Berberry. lAn.St^st. Hexandria 

Monog/nia. 

Tdeniification. Kutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. S07. ; Dec. Prod., I. p. 108. ; Don's Mill., p. 117. 
Spumymeg. Bdrberis of authon ; Odogttoion Rttf, ; Ash Berberry Pnt. Cffd, 
Derivation. Named by Nuttall in honour of Bernard M*Mahon, a seedsman at Philadelphia, the 
author of the American Gardener^t Calendar t and an ardent lOTer of botanical science. 

Gen. Char. Sepals 6, guarded on the outside by three scales. Petals 6, with- 
out glands on the inside. Stametu furnished with a tooth on each side at 
top of the filament. Berries 3— 9-seeded. (DorCs Mill.) 

Leaves compound, pinnate, alternate, exstipulate, evergreen ; the leaflets 
coriaceous, with the margins toothed or serrated. Flowers yellow. FrvU 
mostly black. — Natives of the north-west coast of America, and also of 
Nepal, and perhaps Japan. 

Though some botanists think that the characters ascribed to this genus, and 
those ascribed to Berberis, as exhibited in p. 41., are not sufficient to keep 
them separate as genera ; yet the habits of the species of one, as to the mode 
of growth, foliage, and inflorescence, are so distinct from those of the other, 
as to induce us to adopt the genus Mahonta. The species in British gardens 
are all of comparatively slow ^owth, and admit but of slow multiplication by 
layers, which require to remain on two years, and scarcely at all by cuttings. 
Some of them, however, seed freely, and are readily propagated in this way. 
The seeds of all the species of Mahornta, and also of those of Berberis, if 
sown immediately aflcr they are ripe, and protected through the winter from 
frost, will come up the following spring. 

* ]. M. FASCicuLA^Ris Dec. The croYfded-racemed Mahonia, or Ash Berberry. 

Identificaiion. Dec. Prod., 1. p. 108. ; Don's Mill., 1. p US. 

Stfnenifmea. Birberis pinnita Lag.^ Bot. Reg., SoL Mag., and Tor. 4* Gragf ; B, fiiscicnlilTis Pen. 
Oj/e. In the same work it is stated that Mabbn/a diverilfolia is the same as this species ; though 
it is figured and described by Sweet, as a species from Monte Video : sec Swl. Br. Pl.-G€nr., ad 
series, t. 56. 

Engravfngs. Bot. Reg., t. 702. ; Bot. Mag., t. 2396. ; and our>^. 72. 



VI. besbera''ce£ : waho'^sia. 

S}ite. Char.,^. Leaven 
of 3 — 6 paiM with nn 
odd one, the loweat 
pair near the bate of 
the petiole. Leafieta 
oTBte-lBiiceoliite, ra- 
ther distant, one- 
nerved, apiny-toothed, 
with 4 or 5 teeth on 
each side. Racemes 
nesrljr erect, much 
crowded. Filaments 
hiden tale .(Don'iMU. ) 

MexiK 

He^ht 5 ft. to 8 ft. 

Introduced in 1819. 

Flowers j'ellow ; Har. >■ 

to Hay. Berries pur- 
ple ; ripe in September. 

Decaying leaves rich 

yellow; drop in June. 

Very hanilEome. " Per- * 

hapa the most showy of all the bmily." {Hook.') It is readily distinguished, 
even at a distance, from the other mahonias, by the glaucous green and 
subdued tone of colour of its leaves; those of all the others beiag of a 
fiarkcr green, and more or less shining. The plant is rather too tender to 
be treated as a detached bush, unless some slight protection be ^ven to it 
during very severe ftosts ; but it will grow freely against a wall with scarcely 
any protection. Layers and seeds. 
M S. M. Av^tra'T.KM NuU. The Holly-leaved Mahonia, or AA Berberry. 

Engrmbitt. PaiA. Y\. Arner. S()il. 1. 1. 4. | BS(. Vtfi t MSt.) ud aaijlg. Tt. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves of 4 pairs 
of leaflets with an odd one, the 
lower ptur distant from the base 
of the petiole ; leaflets ovate, ap- 
proiimate, cordate at the base, 
one-nerved, spiny- toothed, with 
9 or 6 teeth on each side- Ha- 
cemca erect, and much crowded. 
Filaments bidentate. (D.'iJUUi.) 
A shining evergreen shrub. New 
Albion to Nooua Sound. Hdght 
5 ft. to 7 ft. m its native country, 
probably 10ft. in England. In- 
troduced in 18S3. Flowers yel- 
low ; April and May. Berries 
purple ; ripe in September. 

Varieliei. One variety, M. A. nut- 
kmum Dec., is mentioned by De 

CandoUe ; and another, found at n, Hititeb anjiin'in- 

the junction of the Portage river 

with the Columbia, by O. Don. Torrey and Gray consider Hahonia 
repens and M. pinn^ta Meitxiei as only rarielies of this species ; an inad- 
vertence eicusoole in those who have not seen the plants in a living state. 
B 8 



S2 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICCM. 

One of the hondsomeat of evci^reen shniba, attaining the height of 6 ft. 
in 6 years, quite hardy, producing a profusion of bunches of yellow Sowers 
during April and May. In its native country it srows in rich vegetable 
soil, among rocks, or in wooda, where it forms a diick and riih undergrowth. 
According to Dr. Lindley, it is "perhaps the handsomest hardy evergreen 
we yet possess. Its foliage is of a nch, deep, shining green, becoming 
purple in the winter ; it bears fruit in some abundance, which consists trf' 
clusters of roundish black berries, having their surface covered with a rich 
violet bloom. It most resembles M. fasciculiris, from which its large shining 
leaves at once distinguish it." (iVnnj/ Cyc, iv. p. 202.) Layers and seeds. 

«. 3. M. NERTO'SA Null. The nervedJfOwJ Malionia, or Atk Bcrhtrry, 

lirtU^lealtm. Null. C™. Amer.. 1. >-- 

p.ait.i Don'! Hill., I. p. 118. 
AwMUVI. BiThcrii n«r»»M Pk , 

ttAT<ir.iGfittiUib<snia sliuiA- 

cei Dit.i B&iirU (lumtOH Pni. 

^s" nit. Heg.."t. Hsi i uS'our 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leavea of 
5 — 8 pairs, with an odd 
one, the lower pair distant 
from the petiole; leaflets 
ovate, acuminated, and re- 
motely spiny-toothed^ome- • 
what 3 — 5-nerred, with 12 ^ I 
or 14 teeth on each side. ' 
Racemes elongated. Fila- 
ments bidentate, (DonU i 
Mill.) An everpeen un- . 
dershrub. North-west of ( 
N. America, on the river ^ 
Columbia, in shady pine ci 
woods. Height 8 fL to 3 ft. 

Introd. in 1928. Flowers "■ "■i'^""'-- 

yellow; October to March. Berries roundisli, glaucous purple, or deep 
blue; ripe in July. 
According to Torrey and Gray, the stem is so low, iliat it often scarcely 

rises from the ground, and, indeed, is much shorter than the leaves, whiiTi 

are I ft. to S ft. in length. Racemes spi- 

CBle, often 6 in. to 8m. long. Flowers 

taroer than in M. ,4guifdlium. Thcpe- 

tiotes of the leaves, Dr, Lindley snys, 

I* are Jointed at every pair of leaflets, 

in the manner of a bamboo stem." 

The plant is hardy, and will thrive in 

a shady border of peat soil. One of 

the handsomest of undershrubs. 

k4. M. Kb'fbns G. Don. The 
creeping.n>ofe(t Mahonia, or AiA 
Berberry, 

littUffeciUm. G. Doa. In L«i4. Hon. Brit., 

S ym m tmet , BJrberU AtptllitMx^ LhtdL Bat. 
Reg., t. H7S. ; BirberiM rtjMtu Pat. Ciit. Iv- 
p. Vl. 1 B. .JifiilRilluin .H. ttpani Kt. t 

Eniirn'h^. KM. Rm, t J IK. i unil our j%. 7S. '^ CT 

^c. Char., Jr. Leaflets 2—3 pairs, with an odd one, roundish ovate, opaque. 



VII. CRUCIA^EiE: FE^LLA. 53 

spiny-tootbed, Bacemes diffuse. Root creeping. Filaments bidentate. 
{D(m*i Mill.) An evergreen undersbrub. West coast of N. ADQerica, on 
tbe Rocky Mountains. Height 1 ft. to 2 ft. Introduced in 1822. Flowers 
yellow ; April and May. Berries puqilisb black ; ripe in September. 

Varieti/, 

m M, r. 2 reperu-fatcicularit. — Habit of M. fascicul^ris, with larger and 
more robust foliage, resembling that of M. repens. A sport, or a 
hybrid, produced accidentally in the Sawbridgeworth Nursery. 

The shoots consist chiefly of short unbranched suckers, with the leaves some- 
what glaucous on both sunaces. The racemes of flowers are terminal, nume- 
rous, tascicled, diffuse, rising from scalv buds. The plant, in British gardens, is 
perfectly hardy, and produces a promsion of rich yellow flowers in April 
and May. layers or suckers; but it does not root readily. Seeds are 
sometimes produced. 

Other SpecieM of Mahofua. are no doubt in British gardens ; but as they 
have been only raised lately from Nepal or Mexican seeds, nothing can be 
recorded of them with that degree or certainty and detail which is suit- 
able for this work. MahotdtL lenutfiSa, a Mexican species with pinnate 
leaves, and entire quite smooth leaflets, on very long slender footstalks, has 
been raised in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and may probably be as 
hardy as M. fascicularis ; but this is uncertain. M. nepaUruit, M, Bcanthi' 
foSa, M. tragacanthbides, and M, caraganae/o/S^, are said to be \ery desirable 
species. 



Section II. 

Carpella toRtary, or connate ; Placenta parietal (that Part of the Capsule which 
the Seeds are attached to adhering to the Sides or Walls of the Ovary or Ger^ 
men), attached to the Walls or Cells of the Ovary, 

Order VII. CRUCIA^CEiE. 

Ord. Char, The order Cruciaceae is readily recognised by the cruciform 
arrangement of the petals, which are always four, in conjunction with tetra- 
dynaroous stamens, and ^the fruit a silioue or silicle. — Though there are 
several species which, technically considered, are ligneous plants, such as 
i^lyssum saxitile, 7b^ sempervireus, Cheir&nthus Cheiri, and some others ; 
yet, in a popular point of view, the only shrub included in the order is the 
/el la Pseudo-C^tisus. 

Genus I. 



□ 

FE'LLA L, The Vella. tJn, Syst, Tetradynamia Silicul6sa. 

Derwaium. Thm word FMla to latlnlMd from the word velar^ the Celtic nnae of tbe creu. 
Gen, Char, Stamens the 4 longer in 2 pairs, the 2 of each pair grown together. 
Style ovate, flat, tongue-shaped, at the tip of the silicle. Allele ovate, com- 
pressed, its valves concave. Partition elliptic. Cotyledons folded, tlie embryo 
root disposed in the sinus of the fold. (t)ec, Syst) 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, sub-cvei^reen ; toothed or serrated, 
glaucous. Flowers in axillary spikes, yellow, seldom succeeded by seed pods 
in the climate of London.— Shrub low, sufiruticose, native of Spain. 

E 3 



54 



ARBORETUM KT FUUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



II. 1. Ke'^lla Psbu^do-Cy^tisus If. False-Cytisus, or «Ani6d^, Cress- Rocket. 

JdaUificatitm. Lin. Sp. 805. \ Doc; Prod., I. p.223. : Don's MUl., 1. p. S54. 

^Monymcf . VtXVA IntegrlRklU Sal. ; Faux-cvtise, A*. ; straachartlgo (thrubby) VeUe» Ger. 

Engravings. Car. Ic, 1. 4S. ; and our^t;;. 76. 

;^ec. CAar., (Jr. Petals yellow, with long dark 
purple claws. Larger stamens perfectly con- 
nate by pairs. (^Don^s MUL) A low sub- 
evergreen shrub. Spain, on calcareous hills. 
Height 2 ft to 4 ft. Introcl. in 1759. Flowers 
yellow ; April and May. Silique greenish 
yellow ; ripe in July. Decaying leaves yellow. 

Branches arched, spreading, somewhat decum- 
bent. Leaves glaucous green. Somewhat ten- 
der, but requires no protection in the climate of 
London, when planted on dry soil. It is a 
short-lived plant, like all the suffhiticose Cru- 
ciferse, but it may readily be renewed by cuttings 
or seeds. 




7C. raialSihdo-CyUwc. 



Order VIII. ClSTA^GEiE. 

Obd, Char. Sepals 5, two of them being exterior. Petals 5, very fugitive. 
Stamens numerous. FruU capsular, 3 — 5-valved, 5 — 10-celled, with pari- 
etal placentae. Embryo inverted. Plroperties balsamic. (Lindl,) 

Leaves sunple, opposite or alternate (the lowest leaves always oppo- 
site), stipulate or exstipulate, deciduous or sub-evergreen; generally pubes- 
cent, puoescence simple or stellate. Flowers large, showy, white, red, 
or purple. — Shrubs low, sufirutescent, many subherbaceous ; natives of 
Europe and Africa. 

The Cistaceae have no medical properties ; but the resinous balsamic sub- 
stance called ladanum or labdanum is produced from C. crcticus, C. lada- 
nlferus, C. /aurifolius, and one or two other species. Their use in gardens is 
for ornamenting rockwork, or for keeping in pits during the winter, and planting 
out in flower-borders in spring ; as, from the tenderness of the finer species, 
they are unfit for a permanent place in a shrubbery or arboretum. Most 
of even the laiger-growing kinds require some protection during winter : 
but they will au grow freely in any soil that is dry ; and thev are readily 
propagated by seecb, which, in fine seasons, they produce in abundance, or 
by cuttings ; the plants, in both cases, flowering the second vear. Though 
easily propagated, the Cistaceae do not readily bear transplanting, having 
very few fibres, and these rambling to a great distance from the main root. 
Plants for sale ought, therefore, to be always kept in pots; and, in die 
winter season, they should be protected by some slight covering durins 
severe weather. The hardy ligneous species are included in two genera ; which 
are thus contradistinguished by DeCandolle and O. Don : — 

Ci^sTUs L, Capsule 10 — 5-celled. 

IIelia^nthemum Toum, Capsule 1-celled, 3-valved. 

Genus I. 



□□□□UD 



crSTUS L. The Cistus, or Rock Ross. Lm. Syst Polyandria 

Monog^ia. 

Derivation. From the Greek word kittS, a box or capsule, or Uic Anglo-Saxon, cm/, a hollow 



VIII. CI8TACE£: CISTV8. 

upnlH. Id Hutju'i tlaitr, Uw » 



. H0U7 KsM, Omrdi Oum Ctitiu 1 date, FT. 1 
Cm. Char. Cafyi of 5 sepab. &;p(i/t (tisposeil-in 



1 double M 



unequal, Bomedmes wanting. Petali 5, etiual, somewhat cuneated, 
" - d Troi ' ' 



caducous. Slmnau numeroufl, usually exserted from the glandular disk. 
Style filiform. Stigma capitate. C'l^iuie covered by the calyx, 5- or 
lO-valved, with a Beininir«tniB partition in the tniddle of each Talve, 
therefore 5- or 10.cel]ed. Setdt ovate, angular. Embrya filiform, ipiral. 
Leavet simple, opposite, eistipulate, Hub-evergreen, entire or tootned ; 
the petioles embracing the stem. Flauxrt axillary, or many flowered 
peduncles ; lai^ beautiful, reeeubling a rose, red or white. — Shrubs or 
subshrubs, natives of the South of Europe and North of Africa. Only 
two or three species Ait subspecies, and tueir varieties, are hardy in the 
« of London. 

Lam. The purple^ouvmf Ciatiu, or Rock Rne. 




nected at the base, and sheathingthest. . _._ 

terminal, Ihim ) to 8, on ^ort peduncles. Bmcteas 

sessile, leaf.like, pubescent, broad aud concave at theft 

base, where they are connectetl, anil terminating in \ 

acute po'mta. Pedicels short, and with ihecoJyx hairy. 

Calyx of b sepals. Petals 5 or 6, obovate or wedge- j 

sliBpcd ; very much imbricate, more or less crum- 
pled. Stamens numerous, filamenu smooth. Style 

very short; and stigDtBlai^csf)itate,d'lubed, papil- 
lose. (Saii. Gil.) A sub-evergreen low hush, Levant. 

Height 3 n. to 4 ft. Introduced in 16^9. Flowers 

Iai|^, bright reddish purple, with a yellow spot at the 

base. June and Juljr. Capsule brown ; ri|)e in tjept. Dealing leaves brown. 

Branches Dumerous. erect, and clothed with a brownish pubescence, 
llie flowers are very lai^e and handsome, of a bricfat reddidi purple, wult 
a yellow spot at the base, nbove which is a large dark purple velvet murk, 
surrounded with red, and slishtly branched. Tlie petals are imbricate, and 
much crumpled. It flowers abundantly in June and July ; grows very fust, is 
easily prop^ated by cuttings, and is very ornamental. 

m. 2. C. ikca'ni;s L, The hoary Cistus, or Rod Sou. 
I. Gm., 4M.i Don': Urn., I. 
u Dtc. 1 CLiM coUnnMi. Fr. ; 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Leaves niathulatc, tomentose, wrinkled, 
somewhat ^nerved, sessile, somewhat connate at the base, 
upper ones Darrower. Peduncles 1 — Wtowcred. (DoH't 
A/tU.) A hoary evei^reen shrub. S^aand France. Height 
S ft. to 3 ft Introduced in 1597. Fktwers reddish purple, 
with the petioles ona^nate. June and July. Oipsulc 
brown j npe in September. Decaying leaves brown. 
Quite hardy in dry soiL 





56 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




79. C. eorbarifmis. 



«. 3, C. CORBARiE^Nsis PoutT, The Corbieres CistUB, or Rock Rose, 

IdcniifieaHam. Dec. Prod., 1. p. 966. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 299. 

Synonifmes. C. ralTicfbllat fi Dee. Prod, Ft. Fir., 4. p. 813. ; C. populifdlitii 

minor, in somenunerlet ; C. h^bridoa Pourr., not of Vahi. 
Engravings. Swt. Cist., t. 8. ; and our Jig, 79. 

Spifc, Char. S^c, Leaves stalked, sorac^vhat cordate, ovate, 
acuminated, with fringed margins, wrinkled on both suHac es, 
and very glutinous. Peduncles long, 1 — ^3>flowcred. {Don's 
Mill'^ A sub-ever^en shrub. South of France, on the 
mountains of Corbieres ; and also in Spain. Height 2 ft. to 
.Sft. Introduced in 1656. Flowers white; May and June. 
Capsule brown ; ripe in August. 

A handsome plant, and, according to Sweet, one of the 
hardiest species of the genus, thriving well in common garden 
soil, and m any situation where it is not too moist. It conti- 
nues in bloom for about two months ; and ever^ day during 
that period the plant is covered with a proflision of hand- 
some white flowers, the margins of which are tinged with rose colour. 
The rose-coloured buds are also very pretty before the flowers expand. 

• 4. C, FOPULiFOLius X. Tlie Poplar-leaved Cistus, or Rock Rose, 

Identifleatitm. Lin. Sp- 796. : Don's Mill., 1. p. 300. 

Si/noHi/mes, Cistus Bopullfbli us Cam. Ison.\ Ciste i Feullles de Peuplier, 

Fr. \ Pappel-blJittrlge Cisten Rose, Oft. 
Engraoing*. Swt. Cut. 28. ; and oury^. 80. 

Spec. CAar,f S^c, Leaves stalked, cordate, acuminate, 
wrinkled, smooth. Flowers cymose. Peduncles bracteate. 
Bracteas oblong. Sepals acuminate, clammv. (Don*t Mill,) 
A sub-evergreen shrub of vigorous growth. France and 
Spain. Height 5 ft. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1656. Flowers 
white, with cUstinct petals ; May to July. Capsule brown ; 
ripe in September. 

Leaves dark green, cordate, clammy, with undulate margins. 
One of the most robust species of the genus, and also one of 
the hardiest. A plant 7 ft. high, in the grounds at Syon, 
stood through the winter of 1837-8 uninjured, without the 
slightest protection. so. cittm popaimHiu. 

• 5. C. Laurifo^lius L. The Laurcl-lcaved Cistus, or Rock Rose, 

IdeniifteaUom. Lin. Sp. 736. ; Clus. Hist 1. p. 78. f. I. ; Don's Mill., I. p. 300. 
Syrtonifmes. Ciste k tcuiUes de Laurier, Fr. ; I^orbeer-blattrige Cisten Kose, Ger. 
Engravingt. Cliu. Hist., I. p. 78. £ 1. ; Swt. Cist., t. 52. ; and oMXjig. 81. 

Spec, Char,y ^c. Leaves stalked, ovate- 
lanceolate, 3-nerved, upper surface gla^ 
brous, under surface tomentose. Foot- 
stalks dilated, and connate at the base. 
Capsules 5-celIed. (fiorCs Mill,) A 
sub-evergreen bush. South of Fiance, 
and Spain. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. In- 
troduced in 177 1 . Flowers large, white, 
with light red bracteas ; July and Aug. 
Capsule brown ; ripe in October. 

A very robust species, with large 
green laurel-like leaves. It produces an 
abundance of flowers, which, with their 
light red bracteas, are very ornamental 
before they expand, resembling, at a distance, the bursting buds of roses. It 
requires no protection ; and may be raised from seeds, which it ripens in 
abundance; and also by cuttings, which, however, do not strike so freely as in 
some of the other species. 





•I. Oitut /aurifjtlius. 



VIII. ClSTACES: CI'STUS. 67 

C. tkD.tNi'PBBUB L. The Ladanum-bearing Cimi Oatus, or Jfoct /(oif. 
In. Bp. m. 1 Don'< Mui., I p. am. 

I lAdulRtr. Fr.; LHtaDum Oilm Roie, Oer,! Liduw, 



^^wv. Omr,, ifc. Les*es almcmt lea^ile, connate at the 

bate, linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved, upper aurTace gla- 

brouK, under lurTace tomenlose. Capsule lO-cellcd. 

Petals imbricate. (DoiCt Mill.) A Bub-evei^reen 

shrub. Spain and Portugal, on nilb. Height 4 ft. to 

5 ft. Introduced in 1629. Flowers large, white, 1 in. 

lo 2 In. broad ; June and Julj. Capsule brown ; lipe 

in September. 
ranetiet. C. I. 1 allajldnit Dec. Prod. i. p. SSa., Swt. 

Cist. L 9*. : IA6on, i., Cltu. Hut. i. p. 76. ic; and 

C. ^ 2 maculdlui Dec. Prod. 1. & (Swt. CiiL; and 

our jig. S2.) ; f7. L 3 plenifolius Ait. Hort. Kew. iii. 

p. 305. ; are varietiea of this species, "■ "■ "^^ "™i"<* 

The leavu are lanceolate, and nearly sessile, of a deep green { the flowers 
tenmnatiug the branches, solitary, white, and large. The variety C. ladaniferus 
macuUtus, which otir ^. 8S. reprewnta, ia a plant of very great beauty, and 
no collection should be without it. 

■ 7. C. (t.) CT'pRioa Lam, The Oum Cistus, or Cyprus Rode Rote, 

UnH/ktliem. Lun. tHi:t..9.ii. 16. : Dmi'iHDI., I. p.Ma 

Sr^tmrnma. C. ■•dulfanu Bm. ttMf. 1. 1 IL ; OiUu HtDOiiblllui Ua Smmm. t. p. 74.? i C nlld- 

RiUoioCkbh. 
Erfriwtmgi. Swt. Clit, t. ». i ud aaijlg. SS. 
Spec. Char., Ifc. Leaves stalked, oblong-lanceoIate, 

upper sur&ce glabrouB, under surface clothed with 

hoary tomentum. Peduncles generally many- 
flowered- Petals xpotted. Capsules 5-celled, (Dtm'i 

ifUt.) A spleudid sub-everareen shrub. Island of 

Cvprus. Height 5 ft. to 6 it^ Introduced in 1800. 

Flowers white, 8 in. to 3 in. across, imbricated, each 

petal baniu; a dail rich brownish crimson spot at 

the base; Jium and July. Cepsulc brown; ripe in 



One of the haodsomest impedes of the genus, end so 
closdy resembling C. ladanlferus, as, m our opinion, to 
be nothmg more than a variety of that speries. Young 
cuttii^ Sweet observes, planted under hand-glasses "' """"^f*^ 

in autumn, will strike root; but the beat way is to raise them Irom layers 
or from seed. There was, in 1834, a plant of this species at Minard, in Ar- 
Kyllahirc^ T ft. 9 in. high, with a head lEft.in diameter, which ia clothed with 
flowen every year. 

Other Speciei of Ciitut are described in Sweet's Oatinetg, as nearly emially 
hardy with the above ; but the experience of the winter of 1837-8 has induced 
lu to omit them. Those who intend to treat them as garden plants, and can 
aflbrd them a little protection during winter, will And 36 species, bendea 
varieties, described in the Grst edition of this work, and several of them 
figured. Those who intend only to have a collection of showy species, with- 
out much regard to thdr names, will have recourse to the mode recommended 
in the concluding pamgraph on the Heli^nthemum. (p. 61.) The following 
spedci or nibspeciea were found tolerably hardy in the Canterbury Nursety : 
C. heteroph^llus, C. crfticus, C. crfspus, C. Cupanidmu, C. hirsiltus, C. Uixus, 
C. villAsus, C. obtongifftlius, C. uudulitux, C. ralvizfolius, C. lon^f&Uus, C, 
paitos^tus. 



ARBORETUM ET FRITTICETUH BIIITANNICUH. 



□ □□□ 



HELIA'NTHEMUM. Thb Heliantreiiuii, or Sas Ross, Lin. Sytt. 

Polyfindria Honog^nia. 

IdnHflaaim. Touro. TnK., Ma. (. IW. ; Doc P™J., I. p. Xe. 1 Doll'i HIIL., 1. p. HI. 
SHHuyinn. Cl«i ipj^M "Ilia. ; Hdtanthwiie Sonnm Ourtel, Ofr. 1 ElinBlnuo, llal. 

DrtheiunlntheinornlDg.uidllieiKtaliriilJoCrwMitbeuUliuaCIheiiiiiln^iiinilni. T^ 
Bowert of Kivlltnlhanuni. m volL u or Cittw, onlf Uu for ■ m bcun wbn lb« ub ihlm i mad 

rnaald uneKponded. Should thli cantlnuv for «ef«r4l d«j< tocMlwr, tb«j will deny Id tnabud. 
Gni. Cto-. Calyx of 3 — 5 sepals i.lhe two outer unially Bmall^ than the 
inner ones, rarely larger. PelaJi 5, uiuaily regulariy denticulated at the 
top. Stigma capitate. Slyk aomctimei almoBt wantiDg, •ometimea atraighl, 
eometiiiieH oblique, and sometimes bent at the base. Ovary triquetroua. 
Capiule 3-vbIvcu. Seedi angular, smooth. 

Leavet simple, opposite or alternate, atipulate or eistipulale, sub-ever- 
green ; 3-nerved or feather-nerved. Flowert axillary or terminal. PedicetM 
usually fumialied with bractcaa at the base. — Shrubs or aubahnibs, low, 
prostrate, resembhng herbaceous plants ; natives of Europe ; and of the 
cBsiest culture in any common soil. 

t. 1. H. vtiLGA^BB Gart. The common Helianthemum, or Sua Bote. 
I/kKlificalliiH, CiRt Fractal. P.S71. (.ni.; Dod'i Mill., I. p.m. 

bnflww. Clitiu HellAntliHiiitin Lin. Sp. l.-o.ltt., Sm.£i^. Sal. mi., C»n. Fl. LenA S.t.18. 
EnerawiMgi Eng. But.,!, llll.i iDdourJff'M' 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Stem suffruticose, procumbent, branched, branches elongated. 
Leaves scarcely revolule at the margins ; under sur&ce cinercoualy hoary ; 
upper surface green, pilose, Kome what ciliated. Lower leaves 
somewhat orbicular, middle ones ovate^lliptical, upper ones \ 
obloDg. Stipules oblong-linear, cilialcd, lon^r than the foot- 
Btallts of the leaves. Racemes loose. Pedicels and calyxes ,^ 
pilose. (Zhin't Afitf.) A procumbent sub-evergreen under- 
shrub. Europe and Brittun, in dry and hilly pastures. Height 
6 in. to I ft. Flowers yellow; May to September. 

Viaieliet. There is a very handsome double-flowered variety, 
with pale yellow flowers ; and another, called Lee's new double 
yellow, with dark yellow flowers; both ofwhich ore in general 
cultivation in the nurseries. De Candolle also notices two 
forms of the species: one with tomeqtose pubescent branches, "■ "■" 
and stipules scarcely longer than the footstalks of the leaves ; and another 
with branches glabrous at the base, but pubescent upwards, and the sUpules 
twice or thrice the length of the petioles of the leaves. 
The stamens, if touched during sunshine, spread slowly, and lie down upon 

the petals. (^notA.) "A very variable species," even in a wild state ; and, 

ill gardens, many beautiful varieties, single and double, have been originated 

&om it by cross /ecundation with Continental helianthcmums, and periiaps with 

dstuses. 
t, 8. H. (v.) suBRBjii'Nuii JTfitf. The Sur- , 
rey Helianthemum, or Sun Roie. J 

' atnlHUaUmt. Mill. Diet., No. IG. | SwL Ciri, !.». ; 

S^ntnymf. Cittuttami^ViLim.^^741.,Sin/lk'M Et^. 

Eagrafttg. DHL Ellh.. IT7. 1. lU. f. IT<. : Sol. Clit, 

t.n-iZng. BM.,t.lXi7.iuiiloiirji^.SS. J 

Spcr. Char., ^c. Stem sufFliiticosc, procum- y 

bent. Leaves ovate oblong, rallier pilose. 



Eiicemes many-flowcrcd, terminal. 



VIII. C13TACEM: UELIA HTHEHUM. 59 

tall narrow, bmccolBte, jamed. (Don'i MiU.) A procumbent, Hib-ever< 
green, Eufihiticose, uDderelinib. Britain, in Surrey, near Croydon. Height 
6 in. to 1 ft. Flowera jellow, wiA the p<nals diitinct, and the calyxes [liloBe ; 
July to October. 

.- 3. H. (v.) SERPYLLIF. 

McMldHM. ll1U.Dkt.No.S.; DonlHUM.p.SII, 

Sper.Char„i^c. Stem aufihiticoae. Branches ascend- 
ent, glabroua at the base, and pilose at the apex. 
L^ves oblong^elliptical, with revolute maigins ; under 
nufocc hoary-tomentose ; upper surface intensely 
green, ihbin^, at first rather pilose, afterwards almoat 
smooth. Stipules and bracteas green, ciliated. Ca- 
lyxes conescent, with inconspicuous down, and with 
the nerves Bparingly pilose. (Don'i MilL^ A trailing, u- u- lapiuifoi""' 
■ub-erergrcen, BufiVudcose undershnib. Alps of Styria and Austria, and in 
Britain, ui Somersetshire. Hci^t 6 in. to 1ft. Introduced in 1731 ; dis- 
covered in England in 18S6. Flowers large, yellow, with the pet^ distinct; 
May to Sqitember, 

t- 4. H. (y.) 



ini., nl. 3. t. ». I uhI our A. ST. 
^e. Char., ^c. Stem auffhiticose, ascending. Branches hairy. 
Upper leaves flattiah, oblong, rather pilose ; upper sur&ce 
freen, under surfiice sometimes pale cinereous. Stipules 
ciljated, ralher longer' than the footstalks of the leaves. 
Flowers large. Calyies rather hairy. (Don'i Mill.') A neat, 
little,bushy,BUl>-eTergreen,su0hiticoseundeTshrub, bearing a 
close resemblance to H. vulgire, but larger in all its parts. 
Pyrenees. Undit 6 in. to 1 ft. Introduced in 1800. 
Flosrers targe, pde yellow ; June to August. "■ "■ s™""""""- 

t. 5. H. (v.) tau'ricun Fiich. The Taurian Helianthemum, or Svn Roir. 
Uimtlfcaaim. Fitch. USS.i Doa'i Mill., 1. ilUI. 
Emtrmimt,. Sm. CM, lOS.; ml Dur A. 9B. 

Spec. Char., 4-c. Stem Euflhitjcose, much branched, pro- 
cnmbeuL Branches procumbent, beset with lung hairs. 
' Leaves oblong-lanceolate, with rather revolute margins, 
^ pilose on both sur&ces, green above, and paler beneath. 
' Stipules lanceolate4inear, dilated, longer than the petiole. 
FJowers large. Calyx shining, rather hairy. Petals imbri- 
cate. (Don'i Mill.) A procumbent, sub-evergreen, suffhiti- 
coec undershnib. Tauria. Hei^ 6 in. 
to 1 ft. Introduced in ISSO. Flowers 
large, pale yellow ; May to October, 
a. B.uinianL Resembles U. grandifldrum ; but differs 
from it in the branches spreading flat on the ground, and 
extending to a great distance. 



t- 6. H. (V,) » 



-. Fl. Fr.,<. p. SMjDo 
Eiwrwi^i. Swl.CIU..I,ei.iuidourji^.». 



60 AnSORETUM ET FRUTICETUM 



^tee, Chtir., ^c. Stem sufftiillcose, branched. Branches tpreading, hoary 
tomcntose. Leavei Btalked, oblong linear, with the niarginB scarcely revo- 
lute; under surface tomentose, upper aurtace glaucescent, but at length 
becoming smooth. Stipules awl-chaped, longer than the footstalks of the 
leaves. Calces covered with very short hairs, striated, cincreously glaucous, 
blimtish. (Don't Mill.'i A procumbent, aub-evergreen, suffruticose, under- 
shrub. Germany and Italy, on dry hills and places exposed to the aun. 
Hd^ht 6 in. to 1 ft. Introduced in 1731. Flowers white, with the petals 
distinct, and marked with yellow at thdr base ; May to August. 

t. 7. H. (v.) hacbVntruii Suit. The large-flowered Helianthemum, or Sua 



cut., 1.108.1 •odourj%.90. 
— Spec. Char., gfc. Stem su&uticoac. Branches procum- 

bent, rather tomentose. Leaves flat, ovate oblong, 
acutlah ; smooth above,and densely tomentONc beneath ; 
pale cinereous. Stipules rather piloie ; about equal to, 
or longer than, tbe petioles. Calyx stri- 
ated, pilose. Petals distinct. (Don'i 
Mill.) A procumbent, sub-evergreen, 
suffruticose underahrub. Originated in 
^dena. Height 6 in. to 1 h. Cultivated 
in I8S8. Flowers larger than in any 
other species ; cream-coloured white, 
» H micfbdhmiii. ^jj[j iijg petals distinct, spreadine, and 

very slender at the base, where they are marked with yel- 
low ; May to August. 

«. if.m,8niii/(^M (Swt.Cist.,t.l04-; andour^.ai.)",,. „.„.„i,ti^„. 
is a beautiful plant, not only on account of itx fine 
double Sowerii, but of its habit of growtli. It ought to be in every 



t- a H. (v.) canb'scbns Sw:. The canescent-^ced Helianlhemum, or 
Sun Bete. 

Ilkttltllraliim. StrL CUI., t. SI. ; Don'i MUl.. 1. a. 111. 
EmfTatinni. Svl. Cht., 1. 11.; uid our jl^.H. 

^yfc. Ckar., ^e. Stem suffruticose, branched, diffuse. Branches ascending, 
rather tomentose, canescent. Leaves flat, or hardly revolute at the margins ; 
under sur&ce tomentosely hoary, upper surface greenish glaucous. Lower 
leaves ovate oblon^, obtuse ; upper ones lanceolate, acute. Stipules linear, 
ciliated, somewhat longer than the footstalks. Calyxes smoothiah, but with 
the nerves pubescent. Petals imbricated. (Don't Mill.) A procumbent, 
sub-evergreen, sulH-uticoae undershrub. Originated in gardens. Height 
6 in. to I foot. Cultivated in 1838. Flowers reddish c ' ■- 

August. 
A splendid plant, with reddish crimson flowers ; 

the petals imbricati^, and havinz a small oranse spot 

at the base of each. Sweet considers it as havmg the 

darkest-coloured, if not the handsomest, flowers of 

the genus. The flowers are also, he says, very large 

for the size of the plant. It is nearly reUited to ft. 

rhodSnthum, but is readily distinguished from it by its 

canescent leaves, and stronger habit of growth. 

V 9. H. (v.) ATvssopii'o'i.iLiif TVnore. The llyssop-Ieavcd Helianthen 

l^HR JiolC. 




Till, cista'c&ie: helia'nthemum. 61 



Spec. Char., ^c. Stem suflhiticose, ascending. Branches liairj'-U 

Lower leaves oval ; upper ones oblong-lanceolate, green on both siirbces, 
flat, hairy. Calyxes hsiry. Petala imbricete. (han't Mill.) A sub- 
ewrgreen sufTruticose undernhrub, with tlie branches ascending. Origi- 
nated in gardens. Height 1ft. to l| ft. CultiTated in 1SS7. Flowers 
variable from saffron to red; Hay to August. Capsule brown; ripe in 
September. Varying considerably by culture. 
Carirtirt, 

u H. h. I cnxutuiR (Swt, Gst., t. 92.) has 

Sowers saffron-coloured, with more or less 

of a ferru^neous tint, and may represent 

the species. 

1- if. h. 2 euprnm (Swt. Cist., t. 58.J has 

fkiwers of a reddish copper-colour. 
t. H. h. 3ni^f7ifej'(Swt.0Ut.,t.T2.; andour 
_fig. 93.) has double Dowers, of a reddish 
copper^olour. 
Ml the three forms of this rarie^ are splendid 
plants; they are hardy, of luxuriant growth, flower- 
iDg freely, and of the easiest culture, either in pots 
or on ImuiIu of light sandy soil, covered with flints 
or stones. The flowen of the copper-coloured va- 
rietv, and also the leaves, are larger than those of the two other kinds. The 

double-flowered variety i . . - 

and not quite so robust ai 



Don-iMJU,.) . 
Strntiti. Swl. cut, t. SI . I ud viujig. M. 
Spec, Char., ^e. Erectisb. Branches pilosely to- 

mentose, scabrous, canescent. Leaves sessile, 

tapering to the base, oblong-ovate, acutish, 

Toughish, 3-nerved, with waved revolute margins ; 

upper surface green, under sur&ce clothed with 

grey tomentum. Peduncles terminal, 1 — S-flow- 

ered, shorter than the leaves. Calyx S-sepaled, 

hairy. Petals distinct. {DotCi Mill.) A sub-ever- 
green erect undersfarub. Portugal. Heights ft. 

to 3 ft. Introduced in 1775. Flowers rich yellow; 

June to August. Capsule brown ; ripe in Sept. 

DiflcTB from most other species of Heli4n them urn, 
in growing erect. It forma a very handsome littlebush, i„4__. 

but it requires a sheltered situation, and a dry soil. '*'' 

Many atiixr KimU of tielianihemumi described in Sweet's CitbiKa are, perhaps, 
ashardyas those we haveselected; butit would be of little use giving them here, 
the greater part having been lost during the winter of 1837.%. In the first 
edition of tnis ArimTetutn 99 species are described, besides varieties, Sup- 
ponng a cultivator about to form a collection of Cistlcex, we should attach 
much less importance to his bdog able to procure all the sorts of Ciatus and 
Heliinthemum described in Sweet's Citlineie, than to bis obtaining all the sorts 
easily procurable, whatever names they might pass under, and cross-fecunda- 
ting them ED as to produce new forms. There can be no doubt whatever that 
the sorts of both me genera (fstus and Heliinthemum might, by cross-fe- 
cundation, be increased ad mfinittnn ; and, considering their very great beautjf 
a* border and rot:kwork shrubs, we think they merit the attention of culti- 
vators at least as much as many florist's flowera. 



62 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM, 



Section III. 

Ovarium ioUtary ; Placenta central, (The Column in the Frwt to which the Seeds 
are attached central^ and not adhering to the SSde as in Section IL) 

Order IX. MALVA^CE^. 

Ord. Char. Calyx with a valvate aestivation, mostly with an involucre. Sla- 
Tttcns with the filaments monadelphous, and the anthers 1-celled. PubeS' 
cence starry. (LindL) — Trees or shrubs, deciduous, natives of warm climates. 
Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; more or less divided. 
Hairs stellate, axillary. Flowers on peduncles, large, showy. — The only 
genus containing hardy species is Hibiscus. The genus Lav&tera contains 
some species which have an arborescent appearance, but which are in fact 
only sufBrutescent biennials or triennials. 

Genus I. 



l4J 

HIBrSCUS L. Thb Hibiscus. Lin, Syst, Monad^Iphia Poly&ndria. 

JdentifieaUom. Lin. Gen., 846. ; D«c. Prod., I. p. 446. ; Don'i Mill., I. p. 476. 

Sunongmes. Ketmie, Fr.i Eibbch, Ger, ; Ibltco, HaL 

Derivation. The word Uoiskot U one of the names given bv the Greelu to the mallow. The Albfacus 
of PUny appearg to be an umbelUferous plant ; while that of Vlreil la a plant with pliant branchesp 
which waa made Into baskets. The won! ^RbiscuB is sappoaed bf some to be derived from ibis, a 
stork, which is said to (bed on some of the spedea. Ketaile (A'.) Is derived from Kt^tda, the name 
given to the genus by Toomefort. Eiblsdi is tiie German aboriginal word for the mallow. 

Gen. Char, Calyx encompassed by a many-leaved, rarely by a few-leaved, in- 
volucel, or one with its leaves connate. Petals not auricled. Stigmas 5. 
Ctarpels joined into a d-celled 5-valved capsule, with a dissepiment in the 
middle of each valve on the inside. Cells many-seeded, rarelv 1-seeded. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; variously lobed and 
toothed, generally ovate-wedge-shaped. Flowers pedmiculatey large, showy. 
— The only hardy ligneous species is H, syrtacus. 

A 1. IT. sYRi^AOUS L, The Syrian Hibiscus, or Althcea FnUex. 

Identifieaiion. Lin. Sp., 978. : Dec, Prod.. 1 . p. 448. ; Don's MIU., 1. 478. 
Synonifmes, Ketmie des Jardlns, JV. : Syriscber Eibisch, Ger. 
Derivation. It is called Althaea from toe resembLance of its flowers to thoae 

of the Jltha'a r6sea. 
Engravingt. Cav. Diss., 8. t. 69. f. 1. ; Bot. Mag., t. 83. ; and our Jig. 95. 

Spec, Char,, &c. Stem unarmed, arboreous. Leaves 
ovate, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, toothed. Pedicels hardly 
longer than the leaves. Involucel 6 — ^7-leaved. (DorCs 
Mul,) A deciduous shrub. Syria and Camiola. Height 
6 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers large, single or 
double, white, red, purple, or variegated ; August and 
September. Capsule greenish brown ; ripe in October. 
Decaying leaves yellowish green. Naked wood white 

One of our most ornamental hardy shrubs, of which 
there are the following varieties : — 

A H« 1. 2 filUs variegdOs, — Leaves variegated. 

a H. i, Zflore vartcgato, — Flowers variegated. 

* H. s, Ai flore pwrpwreo, — Flowers purple. 

A H. «. 5 Jlore purpureo plena. — ^Flowers double, purple. 

a H. «. 6fldre rubro, — Flowers red. 

A H. «. 7 Jlore dlbo. — Flowers white. 

A H, *. SJidre dlboplhu}, — Flowers double, white. 




95. HlMtciu tjt\maa. 



IX. MALVA^CEM. X. TlLIAVEiE. 63 

Branches numerous, upright, vhite-barked ; their general character being 
rather fiistigiate than spreading. Leaves variously lol)ed ; flowers axillary, 
large, and bell-shaped. Conspicuously ornamental ; and the more valuable, 
beoiuse it produces its flowers at a time of the year when few shrubs are 
in bloom. It forms beautiiiil garden hedges ; more especially in hen the 
difl^erent sorts are planted in a harmonious order of succession, according to 
their colours ; and when the plants are not clipped, but carefully pruned with 
the knife. In the colder parts of Britain, and m the north of Germany, few 
ornamental shrubs better deserve bein^ planted against a wall. It will grow 
in almost any soil not too wet ; but, like all the Jlialvaces, seems to prefer 
one which is sandy, deep, and rich, rather than poor. An open airy situation^ 
where it will ripen its wood, is essential. The single-flowered varieties are 
propagated by seed, which come up true to their respective colours ; and the 
double-flowered varieties are propagated by layers, by grafting on the common 
sorts, and sometimes by cuttings of the ripened wood, planted in sand in 
autumn, and covered with a hand-glass during the winter. 



Order X. TILIA'CEM. 



Obd. Char. Sepals 4 or 5, with a valvate aestivation, mostly without an invo- 
lucre. Petals 4 or 5, or rarely not any. Stamens hypogj'nous, generally 
numerous, with filaments separate, and anthers 2*celled. Mostly glands 
between the petab and ovarium. Ovary and frwt single, of 4—10 carpels 
grown together ; cells in the fruit, at least m some, not so many as the 
carpels. {Lmdley,) — Trees and shrubs chiefly from warm climates. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; cordate^ Flowers panicled, 
yellowish, flragrant, with an oblong bractea united to the common stalk. 
Capsule downy. — The only genus which is perfectly hardy is T^lia ; native 
of Europe and North America. 

Genus L 




71^1 A If. Thb Limb Tree. Lm, &fst, PolyAndria Monog/nia. 

JdaUificatHm. Lin. Gen., 6G0. ; Dec. Prod^ 1- p. 512. : Don*t Mill., 1. p. 552. 

Synontmes, Line Tree, Gerard ; Lind, Anglo-Sax. ; Tilleol, Fr. ; Bait-holts, Ger. ; Linde. Ger. 
and Dtttek ; TIglia, ItaL ; Tilo, Spam. \ Lipa, Buu. 

DerfpoUon. In London and Wise** Retired Gardener the name of mia is derived from the Greele 
word pitlon^ a feather, fh>m the feathery appearance of the bracteas ; hut others derire it from the 
Greek word MW, light bodies floating In the air like wool or feathers. Ttlleul is from tailler^ either 
because the tree bears pruning well, or the wood may be easily carved. Bast-holts is literally 
hark wood, in allusion to the use of the bark, in forming mats. 

den. Char, Calvx 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, flree, or some- 
what polyadelphous. Ovary globose, villous, 1-styted, 5-celled ; cells 2- 
ovuled. Nut coriaceous, 1 -celled, I — 2-seeded, from abortion. {DorCs 
Mill,, L p. 540.) — Timber trees, with a tough fibrous bark, large deciduous 
leaves, mellifluous flowers, and a remarkable bractea attached to the pe- 
duncle of each of the cymes of flowers. Natives of Europe and North 
America. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; cordate. — The species are 
three, according to some ; and more than twice that number, according to 
others. Our opinion is, that they may be all included under two, T. europseHi 
and T, americana. 

f 1. T. EUROP£^A Z. The European, or common. Lime Tree. 

Identificaiion. Lfn. Sp. 733. j Don's Mill., 1 . p. A62. ; Smith's Eng. Fl., 3. p. 16. 

S^not^meg. T. Intermedia Dec. Prod. 1. 513. ; or T. vulgaris Hayne Dend. ; T. eturopai^ horeilis 



AltBOItETUM ET FIIUTICETUM BltlTANNICL-M. 




^ec. CAor^ ^c. Petals without Ecales. Leaves cordate, acuminated, ser- 
rated, smooth, except a tuft of hair at the origin of the vdna beneath, twice 
the length of the petioles. Cymes tnonj-flovered. Fruit coriaceous, 
downf. {Don't Mill.') A large deciduous tree. Europe, and Britain in 
some sborinoal woods. Height 60 ft. to 90 ft. Flowers yellowish vhite ; 
August ana September. Fruit yellow; ripe in October. Decaying leaves 
yelbw, or ydfowish tu'own. Naked voung wood reddish, or yellowish 

Varietiei. The extensive distribution and long cultivation of this tree in 
Europe have given rise to the following varieties, or races, described by 
most botanists as species: — 

A. VarieUei differirtg m retpect to Foliage. 
1 T. e. 1 parmfoHa. T. microph^B Veat., WUId., Dec, and G. Don ; T. 
e. nr.yL.; T, ulroifSlia Scop. ; T. sylv&tris Dctf. ; T. parvifolia 
Ekrk, Hayne Bend. ; T. cordate Mm. ; Tilleul & petites Peuilles, 
*V. J kleinblaltrige Linde, or Winterlinde, Ger. (Willd. HoUert, 
t. 106. 1 Engl. &t., t. 1705.; and our jfc. 97.) 
— Leaves cordate, roundish, acuntioated, eharply 
serrated ; smooth above, glaucous and bearded 
beneath on the axils of the veins, as well as 
In hiury blotches. Fruit rather globose, hardly 
ribbed, very thin and brittle. Native of Europe, C, 
in EulHnountunous woods ; in England, frequent T 
in Essex and Sussex. This variety is distinguish- p 
able, at fii-st slaht, frooi all the others, by the 
■mallncsB of its leaves, which are only about 2 in. 
broad, and sometimes ecarcely lunger tlian their 
slender footstalks. The flowers are also much ' 
smaller than in any of the other varieties ; they expand later; and 
they are very fragrant, having a scent like those of the honeysuckle 
There was, in 1834, a subvariety of this in the garden of the Hort 
Soc., under the name of T. parvifdlia glafica. 
t1.e.% grandlfoBa. T. platyphjlU Scop.; T. cordifilla Beu. j T 
europt^a Dei£ ; T. cruidifolia Ehrh. and Smith ; broad-leaved 
downy Lime Tree ; Tilleul a grandes Feuilles, or Tilleul do Hoi- 



X. riLIACEX: n'LIA. 



bnde, Fr. ( Venl. Dins., p. 6. C. 1. f. S. ; the plate In Arb. Brit., 1st 
edit., vol. V. ; and our Jig. 96.) — Leaves cordate, roundish, 
acuminated, Bharply Mrrated, down; benea.th ; ori^n of their veins 
woolly. BranchM hairy. Cymes 3-flowered. Fruit woody, downy, 
turbinate, with 5 prominent angles. This tree is readily distinguished 
from T. e. pervil^lia by its much larger and rougher leaves, and, also, 
by its rougher bark and hispid branches. 
T. e. 3 inlennedia. T. interm^a Hayne ; T. platyphyila minor 
Hurt. (The plate of this variety in Arb, Brit, 1st ecfit., vol. v. \ 
and our Jig. 99.) :— Leaves intennettiate between T. e, grandif&lia 



<^S^ 




and T. e. parvifdliB. This variety is the r 

T, e. grandifolia in the South of Europe ; ana i. e. parvitOEia in the 
North of Europe, and especially in Sweden, 
1 T. r. 4 lamtidla. T. platyphyiia laciniata Hort. ; T. asplerifolia ■ 
D6va Hort. (The plate in Arb. Brit., Ist edition, vol. v. ; and our 
Jig, 100.) — Leaves deeply and irregularly cut and twisted, scarcely 
two on the tree being aTike. Apparently a subvariety of 2*. e. par- 
Tifaiia. Height SO or 30 feet. 



ARBORETUM ET FfiUTICETUM BKITANNICUM. 




B. VaricHet liifermg in Ihe Colour of the young ShooU. 
Each of the varielies included in Division A may have subvarieties illH- 
Terinft in the colour of the young irood; but via shaJ) only notice those 
in general cultivation. 

f T. #. 3 ribra. T. corinthloca Bote; T. coliihna Hort. Kew.; T. 
europie^ P rubra SibOorp ; T. europz'a y SmUh't Flor. Bril. 671. ; 
T. grandifaiia^ Smilh'i En^. Flora, 3. 19. —Young shoots of a 
bright red j apparently a variety of T. e. intermedia. 
^ T.e. 6 parm/dHa aurea. (The plate in Arb. firit, Ist. edit. vol. v. ; 
and our j^. 101.)— Young shoots of a rich yellow. Height 15ft. 
to SO ft. 




P 



S T. c. 7 graadifoSa airea. — Twigs of a line yellow. Leaves laiie. 

Tree 60 fl. to 80 ft. 
Other Variclict. There ia a variety with variegated leaves, but it is such a 



X. riLiA^cEiE: n'LiA. (57 

rugged ill-looking plant that we deem it altogether unworthy of culture. 
Host, in his Flora Auslriaca, has the following names, which he considers as 
species : T, ritif61ia ; coryliifolia ; grandifolia Sm. ; corallina, syn. europae^a 
Hook, Ijond. ; mut^bilis ; I^te bracte^ta ; praeVox ; pyramidalis ; inter- 
media ; tenuifolia ; obliqua ; europae^a Sm, ; parvifolia Sm ; argcutea, syn. 
iilba Waldst, et Kit. Icon. t. 3. ( Fl. Aus., vol. li. p. 59—63.) 

The wood of the lime tree is of a pale yellow or white, close-grained, soft, 
light, and smooth, and not attacked by insects. It weighs, per cubic foot, 
when- green, 55 lb. ; half-dry, 45 lb. ; and dry, 37 lb. ; and it loses a third 
part of its weight, and a fourth part of its bulk, by drying. (BaudriU.^ It is 
used by pianoforte-makers for sounding-boards, and by cabinet-makers for a 
variety of purposes. It is carved into toys, and turned into domestic utensils 
of various Kinds, and into small boxes for the apothecaries. The most elegant 
use to which it is applied is for ornamental carving, for which it is superior to 
every other wood. This wood is said to make excellent charcoal for gun- 
powder ; even better than alder, and nearly as good as hazel. Baskets and 
cradles were formerly made from the twigs ; and shoemakers and glovers are 
said to prefer planks of lime tree for cutting the finer kinds of leather upon. 
The leaves of the lime tree, in common with those of the elm and the poplar, 
were used, both in a dried and in a green stiite, for feeding cattle, by the Ro- 
mans ; and they are still collected tor the same purpose in Sweden, Norway, 
Camiola, and Switzerland. One of the most important uses of the lime tree, 
in the North of Europe, is that of supplying material for ropes and bast 
mats ; the latter of which enter extensively into European commerce. The 
Russian peasants weave the bark of the youne shoots for the upper parts of 
their shoes, the outer bark serves for the soles ; and they also make of it, 
tied together with strips of the inner bark, b&skets and boxes for domestic 
purposes. The outer bark of old trees supplies them, like that of the birch, 
with tiles for covering their cottages. Ropes are still made from the bark of 
the tree in Cornwall, and in some parts of Devonshire. The fishermen of 
Sweden make nets for catching fish of the fibres of the inner bark, separated, 
by maceration, so as to form a kind of flax ; and the shepherds of Carniola 
weave a coarse cloth of it, which serves them for their ordinary clothing. The 
sap of the lime tree, drawn off in spring, and evaporated, affords a considerable 
quantity of sugar. The honey produced by the flowers is consider^ superior 
to all other kinds for its delicacy. London and Wise recommended the lime 
tree, as preferable to the elm, for sheltering gardens or orchards ; because the 
roots do not, like those of the elm, spread out and impoverish all around them. 
A deep and rather light soil is recommended ; but the largest trees are ge- 
nerally found in a good loamy soil. In dry situations, the lime never attains 
a large size, and it loses its leaves earlier than any other tree. Being a tree 
of the plains, rather than of the mountains, it docs not appear suitable for ex- 
posed surfiices : but it requires a pure air rather than otherwise ; for, though, 
It is found in towns on the Continent, and sparingly so in Britain, the smoke 
of mineral coal seems more injurious to it than it is to the platanus, the elm 
or some other trees. It is seldom propagated otherwise than by layers, which 
are made in the nurseries in autumn and winter ; and which become rooted, 
so as to admit of being taken off, in a year. The tree in Britain appears sel- 
dom to ripen its seeds. 

1 2. T, (bur.) a^lba Waldit. 4" Kit. The yuKitoUeaved European Lime Tree. 

IdnU^eatum. Waldst. and Kit. Fl. Hang. ; Don'g Mill. 1. p. ftfiS. 

Sffncmuma. T. americAoa Du Roi \ 7. arKentea Detf.y Dee. Cat. Hort. Monsp.t and Dec, Prod. 1. 

p. 513.; T. rotundifblia Veni. and N. Du Ham. ; T. tomentbaa Mccnch. 
Engra»ingt. Waldit. and Kit. PI. Hung., 1. 1 3. ; Watt. Dend., L 71.; the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st 

ecut, v(H. ▼. \ and our Jig. 102. 

Spec. Char., 8fc. Petals each with a scale at the base inside. Leaves cordate, 
somewhat acuminated, and rather unequal at the base, serrated, clothed with 
white down beneath, but smooth above, 4 times longer than the petioles. 
Fruit ovate, with 5 obscure ribs. (BorCt MiU.) Fruit evidently ribbed. 

F 2 



ARBORETUM F.T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



(SicBcn.) Hoat aayt that he has dwava found the calyx 6-sqnled, anj the 
corolla 13-petaled. A large tree. Hungary. Height 30 ft. to 50 El. In- 
troduced in 17G7. Flowern yellowish white, very fragrant ; June to August. 
Fruit yellow ( ripe in October. 

Our own opinion is, that ihis is nothing more than a very distinct race of 
the comiDon lune ; notwithstanding the circumstance of its having scales to its 

etals, which no one of the other varieties of T. europEc's is said to possess. 
ren allowing this stnicturc to be permanent in the Hungtirian lime, the tree 
hears such a general resemblance to 2". europffi'a in all its main features, that 
it sccnis to us impossible to doubt the identity of their origin. We are 
strengthened in this opinion by the circumstance of its being found only in 
isolated stations in the Hungarian forests. We have, however, placed this 
lime by itself, rather than among ihe other varieties ; because, from the white- 
ness of its foliage, it is far more obviously distinct than T. c, grandif^lia or 
T. e. parvit&h'a. The tree is at once distinguishable from all the other species 
and varieties by this white app^rance, even at a considerable distance, and 
by the strikingly snowy hue oi its leaves when they are ruffled by the wind. 
Its wood and shoots resemble those of the common lime ; but it does not 
attain the same height as that tree. 

1 3- T. auerica'na £. The American Lime Tree. 

MnUt/laUiim. Lin. Ep..n3.i HoTt-Kn.; Wllld. SpH.; TDr.udGru. 

^mifma. T. gUitira fml. ; T. CETollnUiu Wai^niii. ; T. onadjnili WfOm- 1 T.Jlibn Drr.. 
Haftu'i Dtndr., und I>m'j MM.t theimoDlh-leaiBil, or black, Lime TrH. and Bau Wood, .(wr. 

£rw7v>Awi. Vent. DUi..!.!; WiU. Dendr. Bril.,I. 1S4. i thipUUIn Arb. Biil.. Ill «]lt., tdI. t. i 
and our Jig. 1(E. 

i^iec. CAar., ^c. Petals each wiih a scale at the base, inside. Leaves pro- 
foundly cordate, abruptly acuminate, sharply serrated, somewhat coriaceous, 
smooth. Petals truncate and crenatc nt the apex, equal in length to the 
style. Fruit ovate, somewhat ribbed. (Don't Miil.) A large tree. Canadn, 
Virginia, and Georgia. Height TO h. to 80 ft. in America ; in England 60 ft. 
to 70ft. Introduced in 1752. Flowers yellowish white ; July and August. 
Fruit the she of a large pea, yellow ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves 
yeUowish brown. Nb)i»1 young wood dark brown. 



VarieHa. ThoKe which we shall give as such ftte describeil in the Flora of 
Torreyand Qray as species; but wJlh the following rtmarli, vhich we think 
fully justifies ub in noL considering them more specifically distinct than tlie 
different alleged species of the EurO[iean lime. " There is great uncenaiiity 
lespectine the synonymcs. Indeed, nearly al! the characters which have 
been employed for distinguishing them are either inconstant, or are common 
lo them all. A careful examination of the flowers in the living plants may 
atfi>rd more certain marks of discrimination." 

T T. o. a heUroph^lUt. T. heteroph^lla Vent., Punk, Dec. Prod, TW, 
i Gray— A tree of 30 it. to 50 ft. high, found on thu banks of the 
Ohio and Mississippi, and introduced in IBI I. Leaves glabrous and 
deep green above, very while aiid velvety lomentose beneath ; the 
veins dark-colourol. and nearly glubrous, with coarse mucronste vcr- 
rature!. Petals obtuse, crenulatc. btaminodia spaCulnte, entire. 
8<yle hairf at the base. (2br. and Gmg, i. p. 240.) Leaver 4 in. 
to 8 in. in diameter, very oblique, and more or less cordate, with a 
Bhort abrupt acumination ; somewhat shining above : the veins on 
the under suriace very conspicuous, in contrast with the white pu- 
bescence. Cyoie few-flowered, loose. Stjlc longer than the petals. 
{IM.) 
t T. a. 3 alba. T. aWia MicAx., Tor.^Grai/t T. loxiflora PuriA. (The 
plate of this tree in Arb.Brit., lat cd., vol. v.; and our^. 103.^ — A 




large tree in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Height 30 1^. to 50 ft. 
Introduced in 1830. Flowers yellowish white, very pale ; June. 
Leaves 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter, with a short abrupt acumination, 
cordate, somewhat unequal at the base ; the under surface rather 
thinly pubescent, very pale, but scarcely while. Staminodia (scales) 
two thirds the length of the petals. Filaments slightly pentadel- 
phous. {Tor. ami Gray, i. p. 840.) We have only seen this tree in 
the H. S., where, 10 years planted, it was about 10 ft. high in 1837. 
T. a. i puiiievTU. T. ^^uhiBcens AU.. Vcnl., Tor. ^ Gray. (The plate 
of this tree in Arb. Bnt, Istcd., vol. v.j and our /^. 104.) — A larfie 
tree Ibund in Carolina and Florida, along the sea coast. Height 
50 ft. to 70 il. Introduced in 1726. Flowers pale yellow ; June. 
Leaves 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter ; the under surface, when young, 
rother paler than the upper, but at length nearly the same colour; 
serratures broad and short. (Tiv, and Gray, i. p. 240.) 



AltBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



/ 




On a general view of the trees, the most obvious external JUfercnlial che- 
TBcterUtics or the European and American limes adpear to ua to be, that 
the fonocr have r^utarly cordate, and the latter obliquely cordate, leaves. 
The other American limes we consider to be nothing more than varieties of 
this species. Layera. These trees only thrive in warm sheltered situations. 
The American lime is readily distinguished from the European limes by the 
largeness of its leaves, which are 3 in, to 4 in. wide, heart-shaped, acutely 



pointed, coarsely and mucronately serrated, deep green and glabrous on their 
upper sides, and pale green beneath. Some of them hnve a tendency to be 
slightly pubescent ; hut they are generally smooth and shining. In winter, 
this species is readily recognised by the robust appearance of the trunk and 
branches, and by the dark-Srown colour of the bark on the young shoots. 
This circumstance alone is a very marked distinction ; and has, no doubt, pro- 
cured for the species the name of the black lime tree. 



XI. TERJ^JSTKOMIA^CEJE : MALACHODE^NDllON. 71 

Other American Lmtet, — T. p, leptoph^Ua Vent, is mentioned by Torrey and 
Gray as having the leaves very thin and papyraceous. There were in 1834 
other varieties in the H. S. G., but the plants had not attained sufficient size to 
enable us to state any thing with certainty respecting them. All the species 
and varieties of American limes are delicate in this country ; they are readily 
injured by spring frosts, but, where they thrive, are readily distinguished from 
other limes by their very large cordate leaves, and rough bark, even on the 
^oung wood. Some of the oldest and largest American limes in England are 
m Gatton Park, Surrey, near the lake ; and at Croome, near Upton upon 
Severn. There is an old tree, also, at Purser's Cross, Fulham ; and a re- 
markably handsome young tree at White Knights. 



Order XL TERNSTR6M//f CjE^. 

Ord. Char. Calyx with an imbricate activation. Stament with filaments 
monadelphous or polyadelphous, and anthers 2-celled to 4-celled. — Trees 
and shrubs of warm climates. 

Leavci simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen; mostly 
coriaceous, now and then with pellucid dots. Flowers axillary, large, 
showy. — The hardy genera in British gardens are Malachodendron, Stu- 
krtia, and Gorddnia ; which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Malagbode'ndron Cav, Calyx unibracteate. Styles free. Carpels capsular, 

5, connected. 
Stua'bt/^ Cav. Sepals connected, bibracteatc. Style 1. Capsule 5-cclled, 

5-valved. Seeds wingless. 
QoKDO^vu Ellis. Sepak distinct. Style 1. Capsule 5-celled, 5-valvcd. 

Seeds winged. 

Genus I. 

( 



LfJA 



MALACHODE^NDRON Cav. The Malachodrndron. Lm. Sysl. 

Monad^lphia Poly&ndria. 

Jdent&leation. Cav. DiM., 5. p. 609. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 538. } Don't Mill., 1. p. 672. 

I^noi^ma. StuArt/a I.*H&1t. : Stewfcrtia L. . „ , . 

DerivaHoH. From maiakot^ soft, and dendrtm, m tree ; in allusion, perhaps, to the quality of the 

timber ; or. possibly, from the flowers resembling those of the mallow, the Greek name for which 

iMfHotaekl, 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5-cleft, furnished with two bracteas at the base. Petals 
5, with a crenulate limb. Ovarv 5-furrowed. Styles 5, unconnected. Stigmas 
capitate. Carpels 5, capsular, connected, 1-seeded. Seeds unknown. 
(Don^s Mill.) — A deciduous shrub or low tree ; native of North America. 
Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous. Flowers axillary, so- 
litary, large, snowy. 

IK A I. Malachode^ndron ovA^TUM CWv. The ovate-Zeflf f (/ Malachodcudron. 

Identifieathn. Cav., 1. c ; IJndl. Bot Reg. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. S72. 

^noi^mes. Stu&rt/a pentag^ia VHMt. \ Stewfirt/a Malachodtedron MiU, ; Stewartla K dnq 

Styles, 1>. 
Emgravmgt. Smith's Ezot. Bot, 1. 101.; N. Du Ham. vol. tL t 44.; Bot. Reg., 1. 1104. ; and our 
^. 106. of a plant in flower, tudjlg. 107. of a shoot fkom a stool. 

Spec, Char., 8fc, Leaves ovate, acuminated. Flowers axillary, solitary, almost 
sessile. Petals waved, cut, of a pale cream-colour. (Don's AfiU.) A de- 
ciduous tree ; in England, a large stirub. North Carolina to Georeia. Height 

F 4 



/2 ARBORETUM ET PRUTICETUM BRITAMKICUH. 

7 ft. to 12 ft. Introduced in 1795. Flowera 
arge, white ; July and AiigusL Capsules 
brownish; ripe in September. Decajii^ 
leaves purpliah brown. Naked young 
wood dark brown. 

The soil in which it is generally grown j 
is a mixture of loam and peat, in which i 
the latter prevails ; but, in the Mile End 
Nursery, it shoots vigorously, and flowers 
freely, in deep saod; loam. The situation 
should be sheltered ; and Bhaded rather 
than otherwise. The usud node of pro- 
i«. M.cniium. pagation ii by layers; and the stools are "n- m 
sometimes protected, during winter, by mats. 

Genus II. 



03 



STUA'RT/'4 Cav. The Stuartia. Lin. Sytt. Monadelphia Pcnt^ndria. 

Idrnliflailion. €••. Dtll. B. p,S93, i Dm. Prod., l.p,»Mj Doo-i MFIL, 1. p. 57i. 

(ten. Char. Calyx permanent, 5-cleft, rarely S-parted, liirnished with two bt'ae- 
teaa at the base. Petalt 5. Ovaru roundish. Style I, filiform, crowned 
by B capitate 5-!obed stigma. Capml; woody, 5-ccllecl, 5-vtdved; cells I — 2- 
seeded. Seedt wingless, ovate, even. (Don'i MUi.) 

Lcatiei simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; ovate, acute. Ftoweri 
axillary, solitary, large. — A deciduous shrub, or low tree, native of North 

ii'mcA Cav, The Virginian Stuartia. 

_,.._, ^:; Ssf^l StuAiUa lUriltiHUca £m. At. 1 Stmnla 

kun Scrli, Fr.\ dngriaichii (one-ltTled) 91uut<>,Ofl-. 
Ewrnnivi. I'll". 1lt,t. NI3.; Jloc.l!(p, t.sHT. j ud aiu JV- IM- «t i pint In >oir«. ud J!f, 



S}>ec. Cliar., f(c. Flowers large, wbite, with purple filaments and blue anthers, 
usually in pairs. Leaves ovate, acute. Petals entire. (ZJonV MilL) A 
deciduous shrub. Virginia to Carolinnl in swamps, Heiglit G ft. to 9 ft. 



XI. TBRNSTHOBtM'tX^: OOBDo'nW. 73 

Introduced in 1748. Flowera large, while ; July to September. Cnpiules 

brownish ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves reddish brown. Nuked joung 

wood dark brown. 

The general appearance of the plant U tlie same as that of the preceding 
genuB; but it forms n smaller bush, and the foliage lias a redder hue. The 
floweni are of the eanie size, white, with criaped petals, purple filaments, and 
blue anthers. Thin plant is not so extensively cultivated as the other, from 
its being more tender, and of somewhat slower growth ; but its beauty, and 
the circumstance of its fioweting from July to September, when but few trees 
or shrubs are in blossom, render it desirable for every collection, ft thrives 
beat in a peat soil, kept moist ; but it will also grow b deep moist sand. 
Layers. 

Genus III. 



EH 



IB 



UORDaN/J Ellis. Thb Gorimnia. Lin. Sytt. Monadelphia 
Polj'&ndria. 

i pwPiwL l'[;"»-l Don'iMill, l.p.n3. 

Gen. Char. CW^of 5 rounded coriaceous sepsis. Fetalt 5, somewhat adnntc 
to the urceolus of the stamens. Stgle crowned by a peltate 5-lobcd stigma. 
Obtain 5.celled, 5-valved ; cells 8 — 4-aeeded. SreAi ending in a teafy 
wing Exed to the central column, filiform, (Doiii Miil.) 



• ■ I. Gobdo'nij Lasia'nthus L. The wooUy-flowered Oordonia, t 

Loblo/li/ Bag. 
Mtiuillcalkm. Lhi. >lut.,nD.; Dm. Prdd..l.p.S*8.| Don'iMaL.l. p. BTl-i Tor. ud Gn 



^FMKFnva. Hfpiwiciaa LuLSnthul Ltn. Sp- IL01.. TjiA 
GaTdfnla k PgulLln )rJ>tiiv. mod Alcfrv d# Ia Florida. F 



^>ec. Char., cj-c. Pedicels axillary, usually shorter than Ibe leaves. Leaves 
oblong, coriaceous, smooth, serrated. Calyx silky. Calisulca conoid, acu- 
minated. {^DoiCt Mill.) A sub-cvergrecn tree) in 
England a shrub, deciduous in dry soils, but retain- ^ 
ing its leaves in warm moist situations. Virginia to 
Florida, in swamps. Height 50 fl. to 80 ft. in Ame- 
rica i 8 fl. to 10 ft in England. Introduced in 17S9. 
Flowers white, 4 in. across, scented; July and August. 
Caimulc oval, brownish ; ripe in September. 
Trunk straigbL This most beautifully flowering plant 

well deserves to have a suitable soil prepared for it, 

and to be treated with more care after it is planted than 

it appears to have hitherto received in England. The 

soil ought to be peat, or leaf-mould and sand ; and it '- 

should be so <nrcumstanced as always to be kept moist. Layers or American 

• 2. G. pubb'sceks Viler. The pubescent Gordonia. 



74 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Spec. Char,y Spc, Flowers almost sessile. Leaves obovate- 
lanceolate, pubescent beneath, somewhat serrated, 
membranaceous. Petals and sepals rather silky on the 
outside. {Don's Mill,) A deciduous tree in America, 
in Britun a shrub. Georgia and Florida. Height in 
America 30 ft. to 50 fl. ; in England 4 ft. to 6 ft. In- 
troduced in 1 774. Flowers large, white, fragrant, 3 in. 
across, with yellow filaments ; lAay to August. Capsule 
globose, brownish ; ripe in October. 

Somewhat hardier than the preceding species, but 
requiring the same general treatment. 




111. Gordtoiu pubcsicns . 



Order XIL flTPERICA^CEiE. 

Ord. Char. Sepals 4 or 5, unequal, with an imbricate aestivation. Stamens, in 
nearly all, numerous, and in 3 or more parcels. Fruit, a capsule or berry of 
many valves and many cells ; the edges of the valves curved inwards. Seeds 
attached to a placenta in the axis, or on the inner edge of the dissepiments. 
Leaves simple, opposite, exsdpulate, deciduous or evergreen ; entire, co- 
piously dotted with immersed, pellucid, resinous glands. Flowers terminal 
or axillary, generally yellow. Stq) yellow, resinous. — Shrubs, natives of 
Europe, North America, and Asia. The genera in British g^ens are two, 
which are thus contradistinguished : — 

^ype'ricum L. Capsule membranous. Stamens polyadelphous. 
i^NDRosiE^MUM Chois. C^sule baccate. Stamens monadelphous. 

Genus I. 



□□ 



if YPE'RICUM L. The St. John's Wort. Lin. Syst. Polyad^lph. Poly4nd. 

IdetUificaUom. Lin. Oen.« 392. ; Joss., 255. : Dec. Prod, 1. p. 543. ; Don't BCiU., l.p. 001. 

Synowynus. Fuga DaBmonum ; MlUe PertuU, fV. ; Johanniikraut, Oer. ; Iperioo, Ital. 

Derivations. The name of i^m6ricam It ac old ai the time of Diotooridet ; out itt oiigln and mean- 
ing are uncertain. Some deme It from the Greek trordt Atq^r, under, and eikoHt an image ; and 
tuppote it to signify that the upper part of the flower roprotentt a flgure. Others state that kuper 
tignlfiet through, and that the name alludet to the pellucid dott In the loam, wiiich form small 
lenset, through which, when held up to the light, images might be teen. The French name of the 
plant. Mllle Pertuls, a thousand pores, is erldently derlTea from the tame touree. The English 
name, St. John*s Wort, and the German one, Johanntskraut, are taken from the country oeople 
formerly, both in England and Germany, being in the habit of gathering this plant on St. John's 
day, to use it to protect themselves from evil siiritt. This plant, with some others, was emploved 
to make what was called John's fire, which was supposed to be a tecivity, for those who kindled it, 
against witchcraft and all attacks of demons. For this reason, alto, the Hypericum received the 
name of Fuga Dsemonum. 

Gen, Char. Capsules membranous. Stamens numerous, free or joined at 
the bases into 3 or 5 bundles. Petals 5. Sepals 5, more or less connected 
at the base, unequal, rarely equal. Stifles 3 to 5, rarely connate in one, 
permanent. CVz/^fu/? 1- or many-celled, manjr-seeded, 3— ^yalved. Int^u- 
ment of seed double. Embryo with the radicle situated at the umbilicus, 
and with semicvlindrical cotyledons. (Don*s Mill.) 

Leaves simple, opposit^ exstipulate, sub-evergreen or deciduous; ovate- 
oblong or lanceolate, sessile or subsessile, usually full of pellucid dots on 
thdr disks, and some dark ones on their edges, lodging an essential oil. 
Flowers terminal, racemose, yellow. — Low sub-evergreen shrubs ; natives 
of Europe, North America, and Asia; of easy culture in common soil; 
and propagated by division, suckers, cuttings, or seeds. 



411. J/YPERICA CEff: : HVPE RICUM. 

5 i. Aseyma Chois. Prod. Hyp. 



JD 



rm a, Dol. uid tiurot, hard ; Uut li to uj, pluitt Koft to III* lou 
Seel. Char. Sepals connected at the base, and unequal. Stamens n 

Styles 3 to 5. Flowers terminal, large, few, Bul>-ci>rynibo)!C. {Dim'i Mill., 
i. p.60l.) 

A. Stylci commonli/ 3. 
■ « 1. H. elaYuh Ait. The tall St. John's Wort. 
JdrmiiflaHim. AH. Hon. K**.. td. I. ml. a. p. IN. ; Don'i MIIL. I. 
p. Wl. i Tor. and Gnj. ]. d. IM 




^cc. Ckar.,3pc, Younger stems reddish. Leaves ovntc- 
oblong, acute, dilated at the bas^ somewhat emar- 
ginBte, with the margins somewhat revolute. Flowers 
corymbose. Peduncles bibractcate. Sqjola ovate- 
oblong. (Dm'* JTfitf.) Asub^vergreenahrjb. North 
Amenca. Height 3ft.to5ft. Introduced in 1768. 
Flowers jellow; July and August, Capsule reddish 
brown; ripe in October. Decaying [eaves yellowish. m. "n*!""*!" 
J. n. 2. ff. hirci'bum L. The Goat-scented St. John's M'ort. 

Um/ificaUim. Lin. Sp..ll<B., Ddii'iMlll.,l.p fioa. 

J(>v ; HJUb Partuii i (Mum da Bmic, Ft. 
'aSoonb nS""'" ^'"^'^ *• •■'"■ '■*'l Wiu. Dmd. Brll., I 
Spec. Char., 4-c. Branches winged. Leaves somewhat . 
cmarginate at the base, dilated, sessile, acute at the p 
apex, ovate-lanceolate, with glandular mareins. Pe- 
duncles bibracteate. Stamens exceeding the corolb in 
length. Seeds 2, appendiculated. (Don't Mill.) A de- 
ciduousorsub-everereenundershrub. Sea coast of Spaii 
HeightSft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers yellow ; - 

July to September. Camule reddish brown t ripe in Oc- "*■ '■ "i"*™- 
tober. Thelenvet of this i^cies, when bruised, have a very disngreenblc 
smell, resembling that of a goat, whence its name. 

J> B. H. ^ 2 obtiwfdiium Dec. — Leaves blunter 
than the spcdes. Found on the mountains of 
Corsica, on humid rocks. 
* ■■ H. A, 3 vihiut Dec. is a smaller plant than the 
others, figured ia Dend, Srit. t. 67. 
B. Sti/lei comraonly 5. 
^ a. H. K.Ai.aiA'^Kaii L. Kabn's St. John's Wort. 
*^(«»lnin. Wllld, 3p., 8. p. US.; Don-1 Mill, l.p.sOB.j Tor. uid 

Ifm^trma. H, Ktniimitim HOI, \ Vlrgtnli st, Jobu'i Wort 
ihfnrtif. OarJtr. [14. 

Spec. Char., ^. Branches tetragonal. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate. Flowers 3 to 7, in a terminal corymb. Se- 
pals lanceolate, bluntiah. (Don't Mill.) A sub-ever- 
green undershrub. Canada to Virginia. Height 11 ft. 
in America ; 8 ft. to 3 ft. in England. Introduced in 
1759. Flowers yellow ; June and July. Copsule red- n- « m i 
disb brown ; ripe in October. ■""' 



76 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




IIA. ITypirlcuin UrUum. 



A neat compact busli, one of the most ornamental of the hardy 8|)ecie8 of 
the genus. The general hue of the entire plant is yellow, and the calyxes 
and die capsule, before they are ripe, particularly so. Flowers very numerous, 
in upright raceme-like corymbs. 

M n. ^, H. Ura^lum Ham. The Urala St. John's Wort. 

IdentifieaHoH. D. Don Prod. Nep., p. 218. ; Don'i Mill., 1. p. 60S. 
Derivation, From lU name, Urala twa^ in the Newar language. 
Engraving. Bot. Mag., t. 9375. ; and wxrfig, 115. 

Spec. ChaT,y S^c, Branches compressed, 2-edged. 
Leaves elliptical, mucronulate, smooth, shining. 
Flowers terminal, somewhat corymbose. Sepak 
oval, very blunt. Petals orbicular. Styles shorter 
than the stamens. {Don*t Mill,) A neat sub-ever- 

freen undershrub. Nepal, on the tops of mountains, 
leight 2 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowers yel- 
low ; July to September. Capsule reddish brown ; 
ripe in October. 

In mild situations, and on a dry soil, it may safely be leil through the winter 
without anv protection j but this should not be the case where the situation 
is cold, and tiie soil tenacious or humid. 

*r 5. //. CALYCi^UM L, The large^^yneA St. John's Wort. 

Identtfleation, Lin. Mant, 106. ; 'WUld., 8. p. 1442. ; Hook. Scot., 221 ; Dec. Prod., 1. p.546. ; 
Smith's Eng. FL, 8. p. 823. { and Don's BfUl.. 1. p. 603. 

S^nom^me$. AodTOUumvan conttanUnopoUtknum ttbre m&ximo, Wkeelfr''s Jommey^ 205. ; the large- 
flowered St. John's Wort; the large-flowering Tutsan : the terrestrial Sun ; Aaron's Beard ; MUIb 
Fertuis Ik grandes Fleurs, Fr, ; grossblumlger Johanniskraut, Ger. \ Asciro Ital. • 

Derivation, This species was called ilndroscSium by the old writers on botany, on account of the 
tinge of red in dUferent places on the stems, and the redness of the anthers, which were supposed 
to give it the i^ipearance of being spotted with blood. It was called Constantinopolitan from its 
having been found near that city, in 1676, by Sir George Wheeler, Bart. The large size of its 
flowers is remarkable, and has given rise to most of its otiier names. The name of the Terrestrial 
Sun isTery appropriate to the large golden flowers, with their long ray-like stamens, lying glittering 
on a bed or dark green shining leares, which spread orer the surface of the ground. The 
number and length of the stamens are, doubtless, also the origin of the name of Aaron's Beard. 

Engravingi, Eng. Bot, t. 29. 1 2017. { Bot. Mag., 1. 14& ; and our>ltg' 116. 

Spec. Char,y ^c. Stem tetragonal, dwarf. Leaves ovate, coriaceous, broad, full 
of pellucid dots. Flowers large, terminal, solitary. Sepals large, obovate, 
spreading; capsule nodding. (DorCt MUl,) A beautiml little ever^een 
undershrub, with dark green shining leaves. Levant, Olympus, Bntain, 
on the western coast of Scotland, and in Ireland near 
Cork, in woods. Height I ft. to I (ft. Flowers of a 
bright golden yellow, with innumerable reddish tre- 
mulous anthers ; June to September. Capsule reddish 
brown ; ripe in October. 




Valuably for covering banks, rockwork, or the surface 
of the fi;round in old shrubberies or picturesque woods, 
especially for the latter purpose, as it thrives perfectly well 
under the drip and shade of trees. The root creeps, and a 
small plant wul soon extend itself in every direction, espe- 
cially if the soil be light, so as to cover a great many ne. jf-djcinum. 
square yards in a very short space of time. It is an excellent shelter for 
game. It may be readily increased to any extent by division. 

J ii, Perforhria Chois. 



□ 



Jdmti/lcatiom. ChoJs. Prod. Hyp., p. 4*. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 64C. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 603. 
Derivation. From perjoraiut^ perforated ; because the leaves are full of pellucid dots, wbicli gives 
them the appearance of being perforated. 



XII. hitpebicaVe-e: ^ndrosk'mum. 77 

Sect. Char. Calyx or 5 equal scpalfl, toothed in some with gloadular teeth, 
but entire in others, connected at the base. Stamciia numerous, free or 
diaposed in 5 seta. Stvles commonly 3. HcTba or undersliruba. Flowers 
axillaTy, or in tenninsl paniclcd corymbs. Leaves rarely tiDear. (Iton'i 
MiU.) UadcrBhruba, from 1 ft. to 3 ft. in height. 
A. Sepali entire, 
jtn. 6. H. fBOLi'FiCUN L. The'proUfic St. John's Wort. 

UHtf)bBliim. Lin. Hut., in. j □«•'( Mill., I. p. SCO. 1 Tk. ud GttJ, 

DTll^Hubk. I 



dota. Corymbs few-Aowered. Sej^Ia ovale-lanceoUle, 
stamens very numerous. Styles usually connected Co- 
gether. (Don'i Mill.) A aul>«Tergreen shrub. New 
Jersey to Florida, in swamps. Height 1 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced in 1758. Flowers yellow ; June to August. 
Capsule reddish brown; ripe in October. iit. B.|«)»iiua. 

Frequent in gardens, and forming a dense leafy bush, covered with flowem 
great part of the summer, and with seed-pods in the autumn. Readily 
distinguished from H. Kalmioniini, by the leaves, bracts, and sepals bdng 
much smoother and shining, 

B. Sepah loolhed, taaallg mlh tht Teeth glandaJar. 
«. 7. H. aupGTRiFo'Liuii Waid. The Empetrum-leaTed 8L John's Wort. 

Unti/kaUtm. wnu. Bpec.. 1. p. IVO. i Don'i HIU., ] . p. SIC. 
Emfrnrbit,. Dm). Brll., I. nl. , md our^. "B. 

S^c. CAar,,^, Stems suShiticose, round, with subulate 
branchlets. Leaves linear, ternary, with revolutc 
maigins. Calyx small, obtuse. Petals without glands. 
(Don't Mill.') A neat little evergreen shrub. South 
of Europe, near the IMediterranean ; and in Greece. 
Height 1ft. to S ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers 
yellow ; Hay to August. 



Other Speae» ^ li^piricvm. — The only truly hardy sbrubby species o( 
Hypericum are, H. elatum, H. hirclnum, H, calyclnum, H. Kalmionuni, and 
If. prollhcum. The other hardy species are of such low growth, that they 
may be considered, for all practical purposes, as herbaceous plants. H. 




lepaletue Royle appeared to be hardy in the Hort. Soc. Garden, but it 
lestroved by the winter of IB37-U. H. arlpriuttm Bartr., H. lotmarii^oUm 
H. gflSoidet Lam., H. fatdcidatma Lam., and aome other shrubby o 



Irutescent Bpecie9,are described by TorreyandGray.but 
their having been yet introduced. 

Genus II. 



u 



.ifNDROS.S'MUM Ckmi^ Thb Androsxmuk, 
Polyad^lphia Poly^ndria. 
MmtiacalAM. Cboii. Pnid.llfp.,3l,i D«.Pro<l..l.p.M3.i Don'iHlll.. 
%iuapni-(. ^pMcuin, L. 1 ADdtMamo. fr. ; lobunlikniil. P— ■ ■--*-' 



78 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




1 1 9< .IndrouB^muju ofRuin^U*. 



Derivation. From mter, atidroit a mftn, and kaimat blood ; ihe capiules. when cnubed between the 
fingers, giving out a blood-coloured Juice. Tutsan is a corruption of totUe sairUt all heal ; and 
it was ^>pUed to the plant formerly from its supposed vulnerary properties. 

Gen. Char. Capsule baccate ; usually 1 -celled. Calt/x 5 -parted, with unequal 
lobes. Peialt 5. Styles 3. Stamens numerous, disposed in 3 sets. (Don^s 
MUl.) 

Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, sub-evergieen. Fhwers terminal. 
The whole plant closely resembling a //ypericum. — Suffiruticose. Indi- 
genous in Britain. 

jtt a. \, A, OFFICINALE AUioni, The officinal Androsacmum, or comtnon T\Usan. 

Identification. AIL Fed., No. U40.; Dec. Prod., 1. p. M3. t Don's 
MIU.. l.p.601. 

Synonifmes. Cl^enon Ital6nim VObel-^ Hypericum ifndrosa^mum 
Lin., fVitld., SmiiM, and Hooker ; Park I^eaves (because it Is fre- 
quently found wild in parks) ; Androsdme officinale, Fr, ; breit- 
blattriges (broad-leaved) Johanniskraut, Ger.i CicUiaaa Itai. 

Etu^avings. Blackw., t. 94. ; £ng. Hot., t. 1S35. ; and owjlg. 119. in 
flower, and Jig. lao. showing the fruit 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves ovate, and somewhat heart- 
shaped, sessile, widely spreading. A. sub-cvei^reen, 
suffruticose shrub, forming a dense bush, with many 
steiiLS. Europe ; and in England in moist shady woods. Height 2 ft. to 
3 f^. Flowers yellow, 1 in. across ; July to September. Capsule brownish 
purple, and lastly, almost black ; ripe in 
October. 

The fruit is an ovate capsule, assuming 
the appearance of a berry : it is at first 
yellowish green, then red or brownish 
{Nirple; and, lastlv, almost black when 
ripe. The iuice of the capsules, and also 
that of the leaves, is claret-coloured. The 
latter, when bruised, have an Aromatic 
scent, and were formerly applied to fresh 
wounds ; and hence the French name of 
la toute same. In gardening, the plant is 
valuable as growing under the drip of 
trees, and thriving and flowering freely 
in almost any soil or situation. It is 
readily propagated by division of the 
root. 

ISO. ArtdroMP^mutB odiclnkl*. 




Order XIII. ^CERA^CEiE. 

Orb. Char. Flowers either unisexual or bisexual. Calyx and corolla equal 
in the number of their parts, with an imbricated cestivation ; the corolla 
sometimes absent. Petals without appendages. Stamens inserted upon a 
disk, which arises from below the pistillum, not agreeing in number with 
the divisions of the calyx and corolla. Pistillum 23obed, each lobe having 
a wing at its back. Style 1. Stigmas 2. jFVio^ formed of two samarse, or 
keys, each containing 1 cell and 1 erect seed. Embryo curved, with leafy 
shriveled cotyledons, and no albumen. (Lindl.) — Deciduous trees or shrubs, 
natives of the temperate climates of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous, rarely evergreen ; variously 
lobed, rarely pinnate. — The species in British gardens are included in the 
genera A'cer and Neglindo, which are thus contradistinguished: — 

^^CER L. Flowers polygamous. Leaves lobed. 
NsQl/sDO Mccnch. Flowers dioecious. Leaves pinnate. 



if CER L. Tbb Uaplb. IM. Sytt. Polygamia Monoe'cia, 

M. Lin. CcD., Ko.lllfi.t Munch Hdh., Ui ; Dee. Prod., I. p.tns.; Doa-i 



xiii. ^cera'cex: ^'ceb. 
Genus I. 

rasa 

Hi. Tb 

aimirmn. B'nbia, yr. ■• Ahora. C<r. i Kaaa. IlaL i ind AnA Sfimia. 
Dfriwaikm- Ftom ffivr, hanl or <hupi dniTnl Arom iv, Celtkc apolnt. The tiMne la wppu wi l to bt 
^ipUed to Uili gmtu bcaaAB tb« wDod ofvoniA ipfldn 1b ntrOMy bird» ud wh Faroiflrir much 
HQ^l After for the puipote oT maUog plks jibd luicn. 
Gea. Char, Sexei heraiaphrodite, or monoedously polygamoua. Flowtrt 
with a calyx and corolla. Caiyx divided inlo 5 parts, or some number be- 
tween 4 and 9. Felalt the same m number. Slamctu 8, or some number 
between 5 and 18. Anlhert 8-lobed. Carpeii 8, very rarely 3, each a 
samara; that is, a Truit which is called in Briton, venule ularly, a key. — 
Deciduous trees, natiTes of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Leavet simple, opposite, exstipulnte, deciduous, rarely evergreen ; va- 
riously lobed, toothed. F/oweri axillary, corymbose. Frtdl n samara. 
Decaying leaves rich yellow in some, and red or brown in others. 
Several of the species produce useful timber; and sugar is one of the con- 
stituent parla of the sap of all of them. They all prefer a utuation shel- 
tered ratner than exposed ; a free, deep, loamy soil, rich rather than sterile. 



and neither very wet, nor very dry. They are propagated by seeds and layers, 
or by grafting. The maturity of the seed may be proved tiy opening the key, 
and observing if the cotyledons are green, succulent, and fresh ; if the green 



colour of the cotyledons is ^vanting, the seeds are good for nothing. The 
seeds of all the species may either be sown in autumn, after they are gathered, 
or in spring : and the latter method ia preferable where moles abound, as they 
are vciy fond of the seeds. Sown in spring, they come up in five or six weeks 
afterwvds ; with the exception of those of the A. campcslre, which never 
come up till tbe second or third year. The aeeds should not be covered with 
more than a quarter to half an inch of soil. The surface of the ground in 
which they arc sown may be advantageously shaded with leaves, fronds of 
ferns, heaui, or straw. 

A, Leavei timple, or only $Ughlli/ or accationaliy lobed, 

t * \. A. oblo'ngu> Wali. The oblong-Zfoned Maple. 

Umliftaam. WBll.lnLItt^ DecPnid^ l.p.lSS. ! Ddd'iHUI,, I. p.«8. 
Sfmo i f ma . A. Anrifdllnii] D. Doa. Pnd. d. Hep. f.iAS.iA. BmimiMa Hunlll. 
Bmgrmttigi. OuiJIgi. Ill, 139., redueed to ouc uiiul Kale i ukL the Sgurei of Ibe Maici, of tlm 
DManl •!>«, U ^Tcn In Ihe plus, p. w. 

spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminated, quite en- 
tire, coriaceous, smooth, rounded 
at the base. Racemes compound ; 
wing9 of fruit parallel, smooth, se- 
parated. (ZX>n'i Mili.) A low, 
deciduous tree; in Britain, a 
rather tender shrub. Nepal. 
Height soft Introduced In 1H84. 
Ill i guoitmc Flowers greenish yellow; February, 

Keys?; ripe?. 
This species is rather tender, and somewhat difficult to keep 
ground, unless when planted against a wall. Though the leaves e 
entire, jw they are sometimes lobed, or show a tendency to become so. 




80 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

¥ 2, A. tat^'riccm L. . The Tartarian Maple. 

UaUf/Ualiam. Un. Sn., 1199. j Doc. Prod., I. p. KO.; Hiijiui DBml..p.ao.i Tiaa'tl 



^ec. Char., ^e. Leaves corJate, undivided, serrated, with obsolete lotics. 
Racemes compounii, crowded, erect; wines of Cruit parallel, young ones 

fuberuloiis. {Don't mil.) A low deciduous tree, native of Tartary. 
(eight 20 R, to 30 ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers pale greeniah yellow, 
aometimes slightly tinged with red ; May and June. Keys brown; ripe in 
August. Decaying leavea reddish yellow, or brown. Nuked young wood 

When raised from seed, the plant will come into flower in 3 or S years ; 
ind. In good soil, it will attain the height of 15 ft. in 10 years. According to 




some, it will thrive in a moister soil than most others. In ornamental phmla- 
ticHis, it ia valuable on account of the early expansion of its leaves, which 
sppeei before those of almost every orfier kind of jl'cer. 

B. Leavet Z-tobed, or irifid ; rartly &-lobed. 
i 3. A. spicaVuii Lam. 




EiifravMgt. Tnl. Arcfa., No. la. ; the pUlfl ot thii tprcia In Arb Biil,, Itt. nllt,» tdL t. ; ciur 

.Vpcc Ciar., ijrc. Leaves cordate, 3- or slightly 5-lobed, acuminated, pubescent 
beneath, unequally and coarsely serrated. Racemes compound, erect. 
Petals UncAr. Fruit smooth, with the wings rather diverging. (Don't 
Mill.) A deciduous shrub, or small tree. Canada to Geor^a. Height 
6 ft. to 10ft. in America; 18ft. to 20ft. in England. Introduced in 1750. 
Flowers small, greenish, raceme many-flowered ; May and June. Keys 
often reddish; ripe in August Decaying leaves yellowish red. Naked young 
wood brown. 



Xlir. ^CERA*CE£: .f'cER. 




Veiy ornamental in autumn, from tu nnall keyi, which are fixed upon 
slender pettdulous spikea, and have their membranous wingi beautifiiJly tinged 
with rrd wlien ripe. Michaux states that this tpedes, gmfled upon tne sjca- 
more, is, like the A^cer striatum, augmented to twice its natural dimensions ; 

' " ' ' ' " n opportunity of seeing verified. 

The nnped'baried Maple. 



a fact which -we have never had ai 
¥ 4. A. n-BiA^UH 



Mnr^tcufM. L«>. I>lct..i.p.9*l.:D«.Pnid.. l.B.Wa.1 DoBlHUI., l.p.M 



82 AHBOnETUM ET FItUTICETUM DRITANNICUM. 

and Z>k*. Ari. I. >.I9. ( Snikn-lurliid Mn|ilB. Hddh Wood, ilrlpfj Mule. Dog Wooli P/ribla 
Jupi. Fr. ; Mlrelft*r Ahom, GiT. : Auro icmlalD, /lol. 
£jVmAv>. MUL.. 1.7.; TrUl. Arch.. No, 11.; Mich. Fel. Arb., 1. 1. IT.; tbe plUe of thil IpnHs 
In Arb. BHt„ l.t edit., toI. .. i our A- IM, I mil A- Uli. of the l«.M, o( Ih. Mlur J^ Hi.. 
(ormlogpaiM. 

Spec. Char^ ^c. Leaves cordate, 3-lobed, scuminated, finely ond acuteW 
serrated. Racemes pendulous, simple. Peials oval. Fruit smooth, wiili 
the winga rather diverging. (Don't MUl^ A deciduous tree, with green 
bark, striped with white. Canada to Georgia. Height Sfl. to 10 ft. in 
America j 10 ft. to 20 ft. in England. Introduced in 1755. Flowers 
yellowixh green, on long peduncleu; May. Keys brown, and remarkable 
for a cavity on one side of the capsules ; ripe in August, Decaying leaves 
yellowish green. Naked young wood green, striped with white and black. 
The buds and leaves, when beginning to unfold, are rose-coloured ; and 

the leaves, when fully expanded, are of a thick texture, and finely serrated. 

From the great beauty of Its baric, this tree deserves a place in every collection. 

It is propagated by seeds, which are received from America ; or by grafting on 

A. PEeimo-flSlanus. 

C. Leavet 5-iobed. 




SprcCi^. ^c. Ufta diptately 5-lobed. with roundish recesses. Lobes 
somewhat S-lobed. repandly toothed, pubescent beneath. Racemes com- 
C,?*^' TT- ■ ,St«n»ens 9, with hairy filaments. Ovaries very hairy. (Don: 

i A deciduous tree of larp; size. North-west coast of Sorth America, 
IVa ^ » i "''^"'- ""S^' **"'■ *° ^ft- Introduced in 

18^8. Flowers yellow, fragrant ; April and May. Keys brown ■ ripe in 
^plember. Decaying Ui.ves yellowish brown. Naked young wood brown. 
t>uds green. 



XIII. ^ceraVe^: ^Ver. 83 

Leavi^s nearly I ft, broad. Carpels soineliines 3. Sbii as abundant as in 
any species, except in A. saccharinum ; the nood soft, irhttiah, but benutirully 
vetued. (^Tor. and Grav.) This species is quite hard)' in the climate of Lon- 
don, and promises to lorm a most valuable addition to our ornamental, and, 
possibly, to our luuber, irces. The tree in the Hort. Soc. Garden is between 
40 ft. and 50 ft. high, after having been ihiricen years planted; and it faas 
flowered, and ripened some seeds. 

I 6. A. n.ATANoi'Des L. The Ptatanus-like, or Nortnay, Maple. 

Mnl^lcatiim. Lin. Sp., H96. ; Dec. Prml.. I. P.W9.! Don't Mill.. 1. p. M9. 
j4l».i liiHl.*. HB.ofthiili«T(a, oftheiuluralriio. ftlrm[ngp.lM, IDS, ' 

^wc. Chat., 4-c. Leaves cordate, smooth, 5-tobed. Lobes acuminated, with u 
few coarse acute teeth. Corymbs stalked, erectish, and, as well as the fniit, 
smooth. Pruit with divaricated wings {Oorit MiU.) A deciduous tree, 
above the middle size. Norway to Switzerland, but not in Britain. Height 
30ft. to 60ft. Introduced in 1683. Flowers rich yeilow; April and 
May. Keys brown ; ripe in September and October, (^ening foliage and 
flowers, in spring, of a bright yellow ; when decaying, also, of a fine yellow. 
Naked young wood smooth, brown. 

Y A. p. 2 LohUa.. A. 

belli Tenore ; A. p 

noides Dm'i Mill 

p. 6+0. (Our _fig. 1 

and _fig. 150. of 

leaves, of the nal 

size, in the plate fori 

p. 106.)— The leave 

very slightly heort-sht 

irregiilarly toothed, 

lob^, with the l< 

more or leas abn: 

pointed. The bod 

the young wood Etri 

somewhat in the ma: 

of that of A. striat 

by which circumsti 

the plant, in b y< 

state, is readily di: 

guished from A, p. 

noides. A large i 

native of tlie kingdoi 

Naples, and found 

mountains. One of 

most beautiful acet 

cultivation ; but 

little known, thoug,. « ,„. ^^f„„„UMiM^ 

was introduced about 

1683. There is a tree of it at Croome, above EOft, hi^, which has 

lipened seeds. 
I A. p. 3 variegalum Hort. A. p. Slbo variegilum Hayne. — Leaves va- 
riegated with white. 
X A. p. 4 aureo varicgdluia Hort. — Leaves variegated with yellow. 
S A. p. 5 tacBoaium Dec, A. p. c ispum LaulA ; Eagle s Claw, or 

Hawk's Foot Maple. (The plate of this variety in Arb. Brit., Ist 

edit., vol. V. ; our j^. 138.; and /g. 151. of Che leaves, of the natural 

Hze, in the plate forming p. 107.) — Leaves deeply and variously cut. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 




It is irequently produced from seed, being ibund by nuraerynien 

Dmong seedlings of the species. 
The tree, in general uipesnnce, at a distance, ia like the common sycamore ; 
but, onanearerimproach, the leaves ere found of aamoother and finer texture. 
The roots eKteod conuderably, both downwards and laterally. The bark is 
green on the young shoots, but it aftenvords becomes of n reddish brown, dotted 
with white points: that of the trunk is brown, and rather cracked. The buds 
are lai^ and red in autumn.becomingof a still darker red in the course of the 
winter : those on the points of the shoots are always the largest. The leaves 




f 



are thin, green on both sides, and shining. When the pctioleis broken, an acrid 
milky sap issues from it, which coagulates witii the air. The leaves are about 
£in. long, and nearly liie same in width. The petioles are longer than the 



Xllt. jfCERACEX : A CEH. 85 

lesTM. About the end of October, the leaver become either of a clear, or a yel- 
lowiBh, red, and then drop off. The flower* appear juat before the leaves, near 
the end of April : thej' forni a short raceme, somewhat f arymbose. The fruits, 
or kejs, have their irings yelloir. It is not till the tree hal attained the age 
of nearl}' 40 jears that it produces fertile seeds, though it will flower many 
ytan before that period. The rate of growth of this species, wheo once es- 
tablished, is from IB in. to 3ft. long every year, till it attains the hdsfatoTSO 
or 30 feet ; which, in favourable situations, it does in ten yean, l^e wood 
we^a, when Atj, 43 lb. 4 oz. per cubic foot ; is easily worked, takes a fine 
poluh, and absorbs and retains all kinds of colours. It may be used for all 

-■ . . r.i. .. ._ 1 _r ...g (.gujQJon Bjcamorc. Sugar is made 

thuania. Se^ls are ripened in England 



Uemtj^Utom. LJn. Sp., ItM. ; Ih 

Sne^ma. Rock HnU, Hum Mnla, Blnl'i^r* Kt^e, Amtr. i Aorg dal CuaU, lui. 

Awronv'' Mtchl. FLAtl], 1. Llt.i IbepUUor tUl IpcdH la Arb. Brit.. lU «lUl,. TDl.I. ; OUT 
MAX.; udjV- IM. at ibe bam, of thduUmliliis In Q^plMletDrmlng p. in, IDS. 

S/ec. CAor., ^c. Leaves cordate, smooth, glaucous beneath, palmatety 
5-lobed i lobes acuminated, aerrately toothed. Corymbs drooping, on short 
peduncles. Pedicels pilose. Fruit smooth, with the winas (liverging. {DviCt 
MUt.y A deciduous tree- Canada to Georgia. Height in America 50 ft. 
to soft.; in England 30ft. to 40ft. Introduced in 1735. Flowers 
amall, yeliowisb, and suspended on long, slender, drooping peduncles ; 
April and May. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves rich 
yellow. Kaked young wood smooth, whitish brown. 




Vanettf. 

1 A. *. 8. mgrum. A. s. (3 nigrum Tor. ^ (J™ ; A. nlerum ARcij. { 
the black Sugar Tree, or Rock Maple, Midi*. Art. 8. 1. 16.— 
Leaves pale green beneath, the vdns of the lower surface and petioles 
minutely vilHius, pubescent i wings of the fruit a little more diverg- 
ing. (Tor. and Gray, i. p. 848.) Michaui, who considered this 
variety a species, says the leaves resemble diosc of the species in 
every respect, except that they areof a darker green, and of a thicker 
texture, and somewhat more bluntly lobed. The tree is indiscri- 
minately mixed with the common sugar maple, through extensive 
ranges of country in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut i 
but is readily distinguished from it hy the smaller die which it at- 
tains, and the darker colour of its leaves. The soil in which it 
flourishes best is a rich, strong, sandy loam ; and there it usually 
grows to the height of 40 or 50 feet. 
Closely resembling A. plataniildes in foliage, except in bung somewhat 



8G ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

glaucous beneath, and in the fruit being much more divergent. Bark of the 
trunk white. Leaves 3 in. to 5 in. in length, generally wider than long. The 
buds have a fine ruddy tint, especially in spring before they expand. The tree 
in England is raUier tender, and never attains a large size ; but in America the 
timber is valuable, and the sap produces sugar. American seeds. 

* 8. A, Psbu^do-Pla'tanus L. The Mock Plane Tree, the Sycamore, or 

Great Maple. 

Idetti^lcation. Lla. Sp., 1489.; Don'i MUl.. I. p.64a . . „ ^ «i . 

SynonvtHa. Plane Tree, Scotch \ E'nUrie Sycamore, E'rable blanc de Montague, basse Platane, 

grand E'rable, Fr. : Ehrenbaura, weiiser Ahom, gemelne Ahom, Ger. ; Aeero Tlco, Jtai. 
Sngravtngg. Duh. Arb., 1. t. 36. ; Schmidt Arb., 1. p. 34. ; the plate of this spedes in Arb. Brit, 

1st edit., Tol. T. ; our /Ig. 132. ; and Jig. Ift3. of the leaves, of the natural site, in the plate form. 

Ingp.ll0,nu 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate, smooth, with 5 acuminated, unequally 
toothed lobes. Racemes pendulous, rather compound ; with the rachis, as 
well as the filaments of stamens, hairy. Fruit smooth, with the wings 
rather diverging. (Don's Miil) A deciduous tree of the first rank. 
Europe and Britain, in woodecf mountainous situations. Height 30 ft. 
to 80 ft. Flowers greenish yellow, mostly hermaphrodite ; May and June. 
Keys reddish brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves brown, with dark 
blotches. Naked young wood reddish brown, buds 
large, green, or tinged with red. 

Varieties, 

'St A. P. 2 opuUfoUa. A, opulifolium Hort. ; A, 

trilob^tum Hort. ; A. barbatum Hort. (Our 

Jig. 132.) — Leaves and fruit smaller than 

in the species, as shown in fig. 155. of the 

leaves, in the plate forming p. 1 14. We have 

no doubt of this being the A. opulifolium 

of Thuillier and Villars, L'E^rable duret,and 

L'E^rable ayart, Fr., which is said by these 

authors to resemble A. Pszudo-Platanus, but 

to be much smaller* It is a native of the 

Alps and Pyrenees. Introduced in 1812. ^\ 

Height 15 ft. to 20 ft. 
If A. P.^lonfffolia.A.\oi\^^X\\xm Booth. — Leaves 

more deeply cut, and the petioles much "*• -^- p- •p«u«»u»'n- 

longer than in the species. Altogether a tree of very remarkable 

aspect. 
i A. P. 4 fidvo variegdta. — A. P. lut^scens Hori. ; the Corstorphine 

Plane. — Leaves variegated with yellow. The original tree stands 

near an old pigeon-house in the grounds of Sir Thomas Dick 

Lauder, Bart., in the parish of Corstorphine, near Edinburgh. Seeds 

of this variety, sown, have produced plants with the character of the 

parent to a certain extent. 

V A. P. 5 d/bo variegdta Hayne. — Of all the variegated varieties of ^^cer, 

it must be acknowledged that this is the most ornamental ; especially 
in spring, when the leaves first expand. 

V A. P. 6 purpurea Hort. — Leaves of a fine purple underneatli. This 

variety was found in a bed of seedlings, in Saunders's Nursery, 
Jersey, about 1828, and is now to be met with in all the principal 
nurseries. The tree hns a very singular effect when the leaves are 
slightly ruffled by the wind, alternately appearing clothed in purple 
and in pale green. In spring, when the leaves first expand, the 
purple bloom is less obvious than when they become matured, at 
which time it is very distinct. 

Other Varieties. In the garden of the Hort. Soc. there is a variety called 
Hodgktns*s Seedling, with yellow-blotched leaves ; and another, called Lcslie*s 




XIII. ^ceha'ce-e: ^'cer. 67 

Stted&ng. In Hajne's Dcndrologiiche Flora there are, also, ihe falloning va- 
rieties : A. P. tlenoptera, A. P. laacroplera, aid A. P. microp/era, which Jifler 
ID tbe proportions of the wings of the Iteys, and do not apiiear worth farther 
notice. In all seed beds ami young plantations some or the plants will bo 
found with the petioles and the buds red, and others with the petioles and 
the buds greenish jrellow : such trees, when of considerable size, are very 
distinct in their general aspect, when in bud, and when they have newly 
come into leaf; but after midBunimer, when the leaves are Ai!ty maturetl, 
and begin to get rust^, the trees are scarcely distinguishable. Uillerent 
plants also diSbr much in the time of their coming into leaf, and of drori- 
ping their leaves i and some of the more remark&le of these it might be 
worth while to pr<^agale by extension. 



The srowth of the common sycamore is verj' rapid compared with that of 
must oUer species of A'ccr, particnlBrly when it is in a deep, free, rich soil, 
and in a mild climate. It arrives at its full growth in 50 or 60 years ; but it 
requires to be 80 or 100 years old before its wood arrives at perfection. In 
marshy soil, or in dry sand, and even on chalk, the tree never attains an)' size. 
It produces fertile seeds at the age of SO years, but flowers severul ^ears 
booner; sometimes even perfecting its seeds sooner also. The longevity of 
the tree is from 140 to 200 years, though it has been known of a much greater 
age. The wood weighs per cubic foot, newly cut, 64 lb. t hatf-drv, 56 lb. ; 
dry, 48 lb. It loses, in drying, about a twemit part of its bulk. When the 
tree is ] oung, it is white ; but, as the tree gets older, the wood becomes a tittle 
yellow, and often brown, especisUy towards the heart. It is compact and 
firm, without being very hard ; of a line Brain, sometimes veined, susceptible 
of a high polish, and easily worked, either on the bench, or in the turning- 
lutbc. It does not warp, and is not likely to be attacked by worms. It is 
used in joinery and turnery, and cabinet-making ; by musical instrument 
makers ; for cider-presaes : and, sometimes, for gun-stocks. Formerly, when 
wooden dishes and spoons were more used than they are at present, it was 
much in demand, especially in Scotland, by the manufacturers of these articles. 
As underwood, the sycamore shoots freely from the stool, to the age of 80 or 
100 years. As a timber tree, it is most advantageously cut down at the age 
of 60 yearn, or from that age to 100. As an ornomenul tree, it produces the 
best effect, cither singly, or in groups of two orthree, placed sufficiently near 
to form a whole, but uot so ns to touch each other ; and in rows or avennes. 
The varieties with variegated leaves arc very ornamental in the beginning ot 



86 ABBORETUH ET FRUTICETUM BRITANMICUM. 

Biunmer ; but their leavei are almost alwava more or less imperfect, especiully 
oil the edges, and &II olTmuch soooer in the autumn than those of die species. 
Thtt leaves of the purple variet; ftre not liable to the Etnie objection as those 
of the variegated sorts. Seeds ; and the varieties by grafUug on the species. 



A, OBTUSA^TUM Kit, The obtiiBo-lobed-Uaved Maple. 



JfelUjflaUlM.Klt. In WIUil. Smc., 1. p M8^Dec^PnKl._. I.^p^n94.j I>Dn'( UW. 



Spee. Char., 4^. Leaves cordate, roundish, 5-lobed ; lobes bluntish (or 
' ited), repandly toothed, velvety beneath. Corymbs pendulous. 



dicela hairy. Fruit rather hairy, with the wings somewhat diverging. (Can'i 
Mill.) A deciduous tree of the first rank, otas rapid growth as A. Pseiido- 
PUtanus. Hungary, Croatia, and many parts of Italy, on hills and mountains. 



Height 40 It. to 60 fl. Introduced in I8S5. Flowers greenish yellow, few in 
a panicle ; May and June. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decayiug leaves 
dark brown. Xakcd young wood smooth and brown. £uds prominent. 



'^.." 



f orwfifj.— In the Neapolitan tenitorv, this tree is probably somewhat dif- 
ferent in its habit an»l aspect from what it is in Hungary ; and hence, the A. 
neapolitanun of Tenore may be comrideisd a variety. The foHowing also 
appear to belong to this species : — 

T A, 0, 2 caiidceum. A. coriikceum Boic. (Don's 
yiill, I. p. 649. i and our j^. 134.) — Leaves co- 
riaceous, the same length as breadth, S-5-lobed, 
denticulated, smooth. Corymbs loose. Wings of 
fruit erectly divergent. Native of ?. (Scm'i 
MilUr.) There are small plants of this ^'cer 
in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges, which ap- 
pear to us to belong to this species, tliough it is 
with considerable doubt that we have placed it 
here. Possibly it may belong to A. platanbides, ' 
as we once thought, or to A. (Xpalug. 
* A. 0. 3 ibericum. A. ib£ricum Bitb. Ft. Taur. 
p. SIT. — Leaves shining, glaucous beneath, 
bluntly diree-lobed ; lob^ furnished with one 
or two teeth ; lalera! ones marked with the 
middle nerve to the insertion of the petiole. 
Petioles a little shorter than the leaves. Tree '"■ '■•■'■■"'~^ 
20 ft. in height. A native of Georgia. (Dou'i Mill., i. p. 649.) As we 
have only seen plants a few inches high, we may be mistaken in 
considermg A. ibericum as a variety of A, obtusiUum. 



XIII. ^CERACEiB: ^'CEB. 89 

1 A. 0. 4. iobdtian, A. lobatum Fiich., has the leaves 7-k>bed, accord- 
ing to Hon'* Miller, but the young plants bearing ihU name in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, which was raised from seeds recdved from Dr. 
Fiacher of Petersburg, appears obviously to belong to A. obtiuatum. 

D. Leavet &-, rarcli/ 1-lobtd. 
J 10. A. (ypALVS Ait. The Opal, or IlaSan, Maple. 

UtmtifitaHiM. AH.H«I.Knr..l.p.Me.) Dr. Prod., l.p. BMi Dori'iHlU.. I. p.GU.; Webb llcr 

ftwawMo. J. rotuniURiUum Lam. Diet. 1. p. W*. ; A. Italum Laiilk At. Ho. 8. i J. tUUhuhi 

PrrS; I'B'nIilc Opdc. B'rKble k ITmlLIci nnda. «( E'nHed'lulle, FT.; Loppo. Ilal. 
Drrlralim. Tbe ipcciflc ippellnllim at O'pilat hm bMn (inn M thlt •p*d». probaliLj trim Uw 



fnllt. «c..td1.e. S.I3.1 [l» pIMsof thla ipsclei Ln Arb, Brit., in adit,, 
i MDi Jig. LU., or Uh MVflt, of the lutun] ili«, Id tbt pUCe bmlDf 

i^wf . C^ar., ij-c. Leaves more or less heart-sh^ed, rouadish, 5-lobed, smooth 
beneath ; the lobes generally obtuse, and coarsely serrated. FUiven in 
drooping corymbs. Keys smooth. (Pen. Cyc.) A low dedduous tiee. 
Corsica. Height 8 ft. to 1 2 ft. Introd. 1758. Flowers whitish ; Hay to 
June. Keys small, brown ; ripe Sept. Decaying leaves yellowish brown, 
A branchy tufted tree, covered with smooth leaves, somewhat coriaceous, 

roundish, indented, with Gve blunt lobes, deep green on the upper surface, and 




), with long red petioles. Its flowers are whitieh, 
..1 short racemes ; and the small ihiits, or keys, which succeed them, are 
almost round. It is found in forests and on mountains in Corsica; in Spain, 
on the Sierra Nevada ; and in Italy, where, from the dens^ness of its shade, 
it is sometimes planted by road sides, and in gardens near houses. The red 
cobur of the petioles of the leaves, of the fruits, and even the red tinge of 
the leaves themselves, more especially in autumn, give it rather a morbid 
appearance. It pushes later in ttie spring than most of the other species. 
5 11. A. ciKCiNA'riiif PuriA. The round-^mvrf Maple. 

Idrmlffitalllm. Punh Fl. ADSr. Sept., I.p.KT. l D«. Prod., 1. p. SSI. i Dml UUI., I, p.6ai. 

£wnTvAv«, Hook. ADwr., 1.80-1 oar Jig. IK.; uhl Jig. 1ST. of IhB learas, or tb* lutDral >1h^ la 
at pUto ronalEii p. IIIL 

^xe. Char., Jfrc. Leaves orbicular, rather cordate at the base, 7-lobed, smooth 
OD both surfaces i lobes acutely toothed j nerves and v«ns faairyat their 
orinn. (Don'i MUL) A deciduous tree of the miildlc size. N. W. coast 
of North America, between lat. 43° and 49°. Height 80 ft. to 40 ft. In- 
trod. 1S26. Flowers with the sepals purple, and the petahi white; April and 
May. Keys purplish brown, with thin strught wings, which are so diva- 
ricate u to form right an^ea with the peduncle ; the lower margin scarcely 



90 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

thickened. (Tar. and Gray). Decaying leaves of o fine reddish yellow. 

Naked young wood reddish brown. 

Brunches slender, pendulous, and crooked i 
often taking root, in the manner of ihoae of 
many species of Ficus. Bark smooth ; green 
when young, white when fully grown. Leaf 
the length of the fiogpr, upon rather a short 
ibotslalk, menibranaceous, heart-shaped, with 
7 — 9 lobes, and ? — 9 nerves ; smooth above, 
except hairs in the aiils of the nerves ; downy 
beneath, and in the axiU of the nerves woolly: 
lobes ovate, acute, and acutely serrated ; the 
sinuses acute : the nerves radiate from the tip 
oF the petiole, and one extends to the tip of 
each lobe. Flowers of a middling size, in 
nodding corymbs, that are on long peduncles. 

(Hoot. Fl. Bar. Anier.) This is a very nmrked "*■ -"^ ti«»»n- 

and beautiful species; distinguishable, at ei^t, by the regular form of its 
leaves, and thiar pale reddish green colour. Though this fine tree has been 
in the country since 1BS6, it seems to have been comparatively n^lected, for 
there is no good specimen that we know of in the neighbourhood of London. 
At High Clere, a thrivine tree has ripened seeds for some years past; so that 
there can be no doubt of its hardiness. 

A 12. A. palma'tum 2HunA. The pataate-ArowJ Maple. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves smooth, palmately divided into 5 — 7 lobes down 
beyond the middle ) lobes acummated, oblong, serrated. Umbels 5—7- 
ftowered. (Don't Afi/A) A low deciduous tree; in England a rather deli- 
cate shrub. Japan. Hdght in Japan, 80 Ct. Introd. in 1820. Flouers 
greenish yellow and purple; May. Keys?. Decaying leaves reddish yellow. 
This species requires the protection of a wall; having been, like A. oblongum, 

killed to the ground in the open air, in the Hort. Soc. Garden, in the winter 

of 1S37-8. 

S 11 A. krioca'bpum MiiAr. The hairy-fruited, or tvliite, Maple. 



Enerar^iin. D«f. Aon. Mul.,T. 1.21.; (ho riale ar Ihll l^dn In Arb, Brit.. Ill edit, TOl. t. : 
ourA.m.i tat Jig- 159.orUieloi.M,otllien«urilil.fciiithepl«la[annlnip. 119. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves truncate at the base, smooth and glaucous beneath, 
palmately S-lobed, with blunt recesses, and unequally and deeply toothed 
lobes. Flowers conglomerate, on short pedicels, apetHlous, pentandroua 
Ovaries downy. (Don t MiU.) A middle-sized tree. North America, from 
lat. 4-3" to Georgia. Height in America 10 ft. to 40 ft. ; in England 30 ft 
to 50ft. Introduced in 1723, Flowers small, pale jellowish purple; 
March and April. Keys brown ; ripe in July. 

Varieliet. There are several names in nurserymen's catalogues, such as A. 
coccfncum. A- macrocirpum, A. fl6ridum, A. Pi\ia which are only very 
alight varieties of A. eriocfirpum. The last-named variety, introduced by 
Messrs. Booth, has received the absurd name of I'Svia, from the upper 
surface of the leaves being Klighlly wrinkled, somewhat in the manner of 
.1. ,-.i._ u I. . I ^g j-jjg species seeds freely, endless 



xiii. ^ceba'ces: ^'CER. 



DiEtiaguished from A. 
rubnim by the leaves 
being more decidedly 5- 
lobed, the l(A>ex deeply cut, 
and the whole leu more 
tomentose. A very desir- 
able species, from the ra- 
pidity or its growth, the 
grnceTul divergent direction 
of its branches, the beauty 
of its leaTes, and the pro- 
fijnon of its early flowers. 
In mild seasons, these flow- 
ers bc^io to burst from 
their buds in the first week 
. in January ; and they are 
often fully expanded by the end of Februarj 




r be^ning of March. It 
requires a deep free soil, and more moisture t^au most of the other species. 
It ripens its seeds, both in America and Britain, by midsummer, or earlier ; 
and, if these are immediately sown, they come up, and produce plants which 
arc 8 or 10 inches high by the succeeding autumn. 



T 14. A. Ru^Ruu L. The Ted-Jtouicrmg, or learlet. Maple. 



J. cocctOEUB dO. t MM. ; A. a»ia Varlk. Arhtut. ; A. ea- 
Sp^ ; Kit H^ile, Swmp H*^ red Hifte t E'rabls rouR*. 

at Ux'teiTai. o^ Uw utunl dn, In the plUc fonAlng 




Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves cordate at the base, glaucous beneath, deeply and 
unequally toothed, palmately 5-1obed, with acute recesses. Flowers con- 
glomerate, 5-pclaleu, penlandrous. Ovaries smooth. (^Doit't Mill-) A 



92 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BIIITANNICUH. 

lurge tree whh numerouB diveraent Blender branches. Canada to FWida. 
Height in America 30 ft. to BO ft. ; in England SO ft. to 60 ft. Introduced 
in 1656. Flovera Bmall, dark red, appeanng a fortnigtit before theleavet; 
March and April. Keys brown ; ripe in S^tember, 

S A. r. 8 hdermedium Lodd. Menu intermediate between thia apeciea 
and A. eriodTpum. 
In Eo^and distinguished at si^t irom A. erioc&rpum by the leaves beiiw 
much less cut, and less white beneath, and by the tree being generally less vi- 
gorous. The red-flowered maple, whether we r^ard the b^uty of its flowers 
and opening leaves in early spring, its red fruits in the banning of summer, 
or its red (oliage in autumn, deserves to be considered one of the most orna- 
mental of hardy trees- Contrary to the general character of the maples, 
thU species is said to thrive best in moist soil, which must, however, at the 
same time, be rich ; and, for the tree to attain a large site, the situation ought 
to be sheltered. In Britain it is chieflv propagated by layers ; but, on the 
Continent, almost always by seeds, wnich ripen before midsumniK, even 
sooner than those of ^. erioc&rpum, and, if sown immediately, come up the 
same season. The seeds, even when mixed with soil, do not keep well ; and, 
in general, but a small proportion of those sent home torn America vegetate 

3 15. A. ■oNBPESBUi.i.'Nuii L. The Montpelier Maple. 

. trUaUluin'j>H. i S'nbia di HnitpeLlar, 



«., H9T. J Dec Pro)., 1.J1.MS, 
m MziK* ; A. trlRHIum I&l. ; 



jt;vc. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate, 3-Iobed \ lobes almost entire, and equal. 
Corymbs few-flowered, pendulous. Pruit smooth, with the wings hardly 
diverging. A low tree. South of Europe. Height 15 H. to 40 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1739 Flowers pole yellow; May. Embrown; August. 




In general aspect the tree resembles A, creticum, which has much shorter 
footstalks, and coriaceous leaves. It also resembles A. camp^atre, which. 



XIII. ^ceracea:: ^ceb. 93 

boirerer, hat the leaves A-lobed, while in A, monipesaulinum they are only 
3-lobed. Bee the figures of leaves in p. ISO. and ISI. The leaves, in mild 
Beasona, remain on through the greater part of the winter. Seeds i which it 
ripens in great abundance. 

t 16. A. camfb'btrb h. The commoyi, or Field, Maple. 
UtmtHlauiai. LId. Spec.. ItST. i Hijie DeDd., p-tll.; Dee. Piod., Lp-BM. ; Don'iMIU.. l.p.M9. 

KSSi'- Bnal. Bot,, l.an.'i WllLd. AbWlcl.,l.»13.i •iaxJlt'.U\.\'tai Jig. isa. of the Ihth, 
or tb« baturmJ iLh. Id Lba pla£l tDrmLig p. 130. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate, with fi toothed lobes. Racemes erect. 
Wings of fruit much divaricated. {Don't MiU.) A low tree or shrub- 
Britain. Height 15 ft. to 30 ft., sometimea 40ft. and upwards. Flowers 
yellowiiih green ; Mav and June. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decey- 
uig leaves yellow. Naked young wood pale brown. 




^ o the variegated-leaved variety of ^. 

PseCido-J^Stantu, this seems the handsomest of all the variegated- 
leaved maples ; the leaves preserving, with their vari^ation, the 
appearance of health, and the blotches and stripes of white, or 
whilUh yellow, bdng distinctlv marked. 

A. c. 3 hehecArjntm Dec. Prod. i. p. 598- A. camp^stre Widlr. in 
Liu. TriU. Arek. L No. 7 j .*. m611e Op«. — Fruit clothed with vel- 



vety p 

1 A. c. 4 coBmum Wallr. in Utt. Dec. Prod. i. p. 594- A. afflne and 
A. macTDcdrpum Opix, — Fruit smooth. Lobes of leaves obtuse. 
Flower smaller. Native of France. 
T A. c. 5 autlriacum TratL Arch, i. No. 6. (The plate of this tree in 
■ Ajb.Brit.,lst.ediL,voI,v.)— Fruitsmooth. Lobes 
of leaves somewhat acuminated. Flowers larger 
than those of the species. Native of Austria, 
Podolia, and Tauria. (Don'i MUi.) This variety \ 
is larger b all its parts than the ori^al species, ' 
and is of much freer growth ; the main stem rises 
erect and straight, and sends out its branches 
regularly on every side, so as to form a sort of 
cone, almost like a fir. A subvariety of this sort, 
with vari^ated leaves, is propagated in the Boll- 
wyller Nursery. 1 

OUkt VtBvrtiei. A. c. LcmgdivTo, leaves very smooth 
aod shining; A. c. Tianum, habit dwarf; and, perhaps, 
some others, are in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges. 
A. lairiaan, leaves larger and less divided than in the 
spedea; and A.hyrcanuni (^.141.) with the leaves vari- 
ously cut, are also in some collections. "'' '' ''i''^"™' 
Differing Irom A. monspessiil&num in having the flowers produced upon 



94 AUUORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

the young uhoots ; as well as in the racemes ofllotTers being erect. The wood 
w^bs 61 tb. 9oz. a cubic foot in a green state, and 51 lb. 15oz. when per- 
fectly dry. It makes excellent fuel, aiid the very best charcoaL It is 
compact, of a fine grain, sometimeB beautifully veined, and taked a 
high polish. It was celebrated among the ancient Ronuina for tables. The 
wooJ of the roots is frequently knotted ; and, when that is the case, it is 
used for the manufacture of snuffboiea, pipes, and other fanciful productions. 
A dry soil suitit this species beat, and an open utuation. Seeds ; which often 
remain eighteen months in the ground before they vegetate, though a few 
come up the first spring. The varieties are propagated by layers. 
The Cretan Maple. 



^lec. Char., ^c. Leaves permanent, cunesited at the hose, acutely 3-lobed at 
the top. Lobes entire, or toothleted ; lateral ones shortest. Corymbs few- 
flowered, erect. Fruit smooth, with the wings hardly diverging, (Don'i 
mm.} A diminutive, alow-srowing, sub-evergreen tree. Candia, and other 
islands in the Grecian Ardiipelago. Height lOf^. to 30ft. Introd. 175S. 
Flowers greenish yellow ; May and June. Keys brown; ripe in September. 
There is a general resemblance be- 
tween ^.criticum, A. monspessulanum, 

and A. cabip&tre ; but the first is 

readily known from both, by its bdng 

evergreen, or sub-evergreen, and by its 

leaves haviiK shorter footstalks, and 

being less deeply lobed. In a young 

state, the leaves are often entire or 

nearly so. It is oftener seen as a shrub 

than as a tree ; and it seems to thrive 

better in the shade than any other 

j^cer. Seeds, layers, or grafting oi * 

Other Specie! o/A'cer. — A. barbatuni 
Michx., given in our first edition, has 
been omitted, because the plant in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden has always appeared 

to us nothing more than j4, plata- ,,i. ^-oBcriucuB. 

■toides, and because Torrey and Gray 

consider ii a doubtful species, and probably described by HGchaux from " speci- 
mens of A, sacch4rinum ; the only species, so far as we know, which bas the 
sepals bearded inside." (Tor. and Gray, i. p. 249.) A. opuliffllium given in our 
fir^t edition as a species, wc have now satisfied ourselves, from having been able 
to exambe larger plants, is nothing more than a variety of A, Pse^do-Pl&tanus 
diminished in all its perls. There are several luunes of species of j^'cer in the 
works of European botanists, the plants of which would require to be pro- 
cured and studied in a living state ; such as A. granathae Bois., a native of 
Spain ; A. parvi/llium Tausch j also some natives of the Himalayas ; and ihe 
following in North America as given by Torrey and Gray ; A. gli/rnan Torr., 
a shrub of the Rocky Mountains; A. IripanUum Nutt. MSS., a shrub of the 
Rocky Mountains aJlied to A. glabnim ; A. grandideaidtum Nutt. MSS., a 
shrub or low tree fi'oni the Rocky Mountains, supposed to be the same as A. 
baib^tum Douglai, mentioned in Hooker's Flor. Bar. Amcr., i. p. 1 18. the 
names of several other species, not yet introduced,' will be found in the first 
edition of this woA. 



XIII. j1CERA>CEM: 



A^cer obldnffum. The ab]ang-leaved Mapio, 
Lnivc of the niitiiraJ size. 



ARBORETUM ET FHUTICETOM J 



The Tartarian, or entire-leaved, Afaple. 
Leaves and fruit of the natural size. 



Xlll. ACERA^CZJE : ^CER. 

A'cer tpieatmn. The spWe-^otoered, or mountain, Maple. 
A. Letives uid fruit of natural eize. .\ 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 



A'mt alridtum. The striped- 
Leaves of 



. jfCERA^CElE: VCER. 



Ituri, or Penruyttxmian, Maple, 
the natural size. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICEIUM BRITANNICUM. 

A~cer macTophyllum. The 



£[[1. ^CERa'CES: a CEIt. 



large-leaved Maple. I'lute I. 
rruic, of the natural size. 



ARBOIIETUU ET FBUTICETUM BBITAMNII 



A-txr macTophyUum. The 
Soialler leftTCi, olwi of the naturol size. 



XIII. <fCERACEX: ^CER. 



lai^'leaved Mople. Plate II. 

to ibow how much thej vary od the same tree. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUH. 



A'oer ptalanoides. The Platanus- 
heavct and Truit of 



XIII. ^CERA^CEiB: ^VeR. 



like, or Norteay, Maple. 
the natural size. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM DRITAMNICUM. 

A^cer (plataniAdet) Lobifii. L'Obel'a Maple. 



XIII. ^cera'cea: ^*cer. 107 

A^cer jtlaiatioida taeiniatum. 
The cut-feoMtf Plataous-like, or Eaglt'a claw. Maple. 



ABBOnEri;M et fruticetum britannicum. 



A'cer siuxhdrinum. 
The leaves and Tniit 



XIII. jfCEHA CE£ : ^ CER. 



1 10 ARBORETUM ET FnUTlCETUM BRtTANNICUM. 

A^cer F$ewlo-Fldlamu. The 



XIII, .^CERACEa:: ^'CER. 



False PlaDc, or Syeamort, Maple, 
oftbe natural size. 



112 ARBORETUM ET FKUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

A^cer oblutatum. The obtuse- 



xui. yfCEUA'cE.*: -J'crn. 
j k-bed-Uaetd, or Neapolitsn, Maple. 



ARBOEETUM ET FBUTICETllM BHITANNICUM. 

A'cer Pseudo'VUlantu opulifalia. 
The Opul us- leaved False Plane, or Sycamore. 



XIII. ^ceba'ce*; ^CER. 
A'cer Cpalus. The Opal, or Italian, Maple. 



AliBOnETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

A'cir eircindlum. The round-leaved Maple. 



XIII. ACETIA^CEJE : ^'C)':il. 

K^eer pulmatutn, Tlic pal mate- /eatW Mu|)li.'. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BKITANNICUM. 

Tile woolly- fruited Maple. 



XIII. ^CEHA CE.E : A CEIl. 



K'eer ribrum. The TeA-fiotcered Mu|>U', 
:hc nuCural aze. 



Leaves ond fruit of j. the nutural a 





AltBOnKTUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNItUM. 

isjiesiuiaiium, and A. eampettre. TIte Montpeltcr Mii|i1e, nnd 
the common, or field, Maple. 
Leaves and fruit of the iiatiinil size. 



XIII. ^CEIIACE*: ^CEU. 

rL-ticuiti. The Cretan, or various-h-aved. Maple. 



ARBORETUM ET FIIUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



^ 



4.:Dk. Prod.. 1 



„ . Dm A^cer Kegtitdo'L. ; but Ihe memnfaig of (hft Uttn 

word li nnkQown, ProbBbty, Jt mwf be mer«1r tbfi Imnals n«iue of UL^iwrei (rrom gigmer, to 

Gen. Char. Sexei dicecious. Fhwcrt without a corolla. Cali/x with 4— 5 
unequal teeth. Male fioaiert upon thread-»heried pedicels, and disposed 
in fascicles ; on/Aeri 4 — 5, linear, sessile. Femi^ Howert diB|Kised in 
racemes. {Dec. Prod.) — Deciduous trees, natives of North Amenca. 

Leavei compound, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous; impari-pinnate. — 
There is onl; one species in British gardens. 

1 1. N. ntAxiNiKoViuii Nail. The Ash-leaved Ne^ndo. 

MmUcaHon. Mutt Gen. Antr., I. p. 
»3. ( Dec. Prod. L. p. 1196.; Don^ 

Stmomfmri. A^cer Kegtimlo T.., Mick. 
ArS:-. iiT.anrndin lianick and IWr. 
4 Graj/ \ A'fjitht^im^ uncrfciBUID 
ICaflm.; the AAK-tflHTcd MApl#, tbe 
Blick Alb 1 ETible k FeoIlkM de 
Fr»M, Fr.\ E'rablB k G1«ufCr«. JIH- 

£i*jrriit4itft. HIcb. Aiti.. s. 

Shn.lrfArti.,l.l.li.i WUt 

1. in.; the nine of (Ml inclM la Arb. 
Brit., llCoidt..nil.T.{ ind our J^. 164. 

.Spec.Oiar.,^c. Leaves of from 
3 to 5 leafieta, the opposite 
ones coarsely and sparingly 
toothed, the odd one oftener 
3-lobed than simple, (Dec. 
Prod.y A deciduous tree, of 
the middle size. Canada to 
Carolina. Height 15 ft. to 
30 fl.; in Endand 30 ft. to 
40 ft. Introduced in I6Be. 
Flowers yeHowish green, ap- 
pearing; with the leaves; 
April. Keys brown ; ripe in 
At^ust. Decaying leaves of a rich yelli 




Nnlied young wood smooth, 
1 iiB tree in the Hort. Soc, Garden is a male j ' 
the collection of W. Borrer, Esq., Hcniidtl. 



hut 



Varlcliet. 

1 N. f. 8 criipum Q. Don. (The plate in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.; and 
owtjig. IG5.)— Leaves variously cut and curled. The plant of this 
variety in the arboretum of the Hort. Soc. is a male ; the inflo- 
rescence consists of pendulous panicles of flowers, that are green, 
with some redness from the colour of the anthers ; and each is 
placed npon a slender peduncle of about 1 in. long. 

1 N. f. 3 vioHiceum Booth. — Young shoots covered wth a violet blooui. 
This appearance is not uncommon in the young shoots of different 
species of 1'cer as well as in Keg&mlo. 



XIII. ^CERA'CE:£. XIV. /FSCUI.A CEJS. 





A rapiJ-growin 
fine pen-green of 
American gecds, ' 



tree ; very ornamental, from its compound leaves, and the 
its young shoots; arriving at maturity in IS — BO years. 
hich ought to be sown ns aoon as poBuble,or layers, in any 



K species ; but neither fruit, n' 



Order XIV. .^SCULA'CE.^. 

lc« Lint i Hippocutinea Dec. 



ampaniilate, 5-1obed. Ovary roundish, trigonal. Seedi 
i albumen wanting. "" ' >...-.■ 



ObD. Chab. Calyx c 

lai^e and globose; albumen wanting. En£yo curved, inverted; 
He^y, thick, gibbous cotyledons, not produced above ground in germination 
Flmnu/e large, 3-leaved. — Deciduous trees, natives of North America and 

Leavei compound, oppoutc, exstipulate, deciduous; leaflets 5 — 7, ser- 
rated. Flouien terminal, in racemes, somewhat paniclcd. — All the known 
plants of this order cross-fecundate freely, and by most botanists they are 
included in one genus ; but so numerous are the garden varieties, that we 
have thought it more convenient to follow those authors who separate the 
species into two genera. These are ..E'sctdus and PJvia, which are thus 
contradistinguished ; — 



124 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BUITANNICUM. 

Genus I. 




m 



yE'SCULUS L, The Horsechestnut. Lin. Sysl, Hept&ndria Monogynia. 

Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 462. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p.&97. ; Don*t Mill., I. p. 568. 

Spnonjftne*. Hlpiioc&stanani Toum. ; Marronier d^Inde, Fr. ; RoMkastanie, Qer. 

Derivation. The word wE'gculus, derived tram etca, nourishment, 1« applied by t'llny to a mmxIcs 
of o«Jc, which had an eatable acorn. The word Hippocistanum, fnym hippns n horse, and cat" 
taneot a chestnut. Is said by some to have been given to this tree ironically, the nuts, though they 
have the appearance of sweet chestnuta. being only fit for horses ; and by others, because it Is said 
the nuts are used in Turkey, for curing horses of pulmonary diseases. 

Gen, Char, Caiyx campanulate. P^fli* 4?— 5, expanded, with an ovate border. 
Stamens with the filaments recurved inwardly. Capsules echinated. Leaflets 
sessile, or almost sessile. {DorCs Mill,) — Deciduous trees, natives of Asia 
and North America. 

Leaves palmately divided, with stalked leaflets, generally rough. Capsule 
rough. Buds generally covered with resin. — Two species and several 
varieties arc in British gardens. 

The common horsechestnut is invariably propagated by the nuts, which are 
sown when newly gathered, or in the following spring ; and in either case they 
will come up the succeeding summer. All the other sorts, as being varieties 
of the species, are propagated by budding or grafting. Soil deep sandy loam. 
Only the first three sorts described below can be considered as true horse- 
chestnuts ; the remainder, to which some other names mi^t be added, we 
consider as hybrids between ^'sculus and some kind of F^vta, most pro- 
bably P. flava. 

S ] . M, HiPPOCA'^STAXUM L, The common Horsechestnut. 

Identification. Lin. Sp., 48S. ; Dec. Prod., I. p. 697. ; and Don's Mill., 1. p. C.52. 

Synonymes. Hippocfistanum vulglUre Toum. ; Marronier d'Inde, Pr. ; gemeine Roukaitanle, Ger.\ 

Marrone d'lndla, ItaL 
Engravings. Woodv. Med. Bot., 1 1S8. ; the plate of this species In the Arb. Brit., 1st edJt., 

vol. V. ; and OMTjig. 166. 

Spec, Char.y ^c. Leaflets 7, obovately cuneated, acute, and toothed. A large 
deciduous tree. Asia and North America. Height 50 ft. to 60 ft. In- 
troduced in 1629. Flowers white, tinged with red ; May. Fruit brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves dark brown. Naked young wood 
brown. Buds long, lai^e, greenish brown, covered with resin. 

Varieties, 

¥ JE, H.Z flbre plena, — Recorded in nurserymen's catalogues, but not 

common. 
t M, H,S a&reth-mriegatum. — The leaves are blotched with yellow, but 
they have a ragged and unhealthy appearance, and are b}' no means 
ornamental. 
t M, H. 4 argcnteo^arieghtuvu — Leaves blotched with white. 
It M, H. 5 incisum Booth. ^, osplenifolia Ilort. — Leaflets cut into 

shreds. 
Other Varieties, In Booth^s Catalogue are the names JE, H. cHspum, 
nigrum, prs'cox, striatum, tortuosum, &c., but none of these, nor any other 
variety which we have seen, is worth culture. 

A tree of the largest size, with an erect trunk, and a pyramidal head. The 
leaves are large, of a deep green colour, and singularly interesting and beau- 
tiful when they are first developed. M^en enfolded in the bud, they are 
covered with pubescence, which falls ofl* as the leaves expand. The growth, 
both of the tree and of the leaves, is very rapid ; both shoots and leaves 
being sometimes perfected in three weeks from the time of foliation. The 
wood weighs, when newly cut, 60 lb. 4? oz. per cubic foot ; and, when dry, 
35 lb. 7 oz. ; losing, by drying, a sixteenth part of its bulk. It is soft, and 



XIV. .^bcula'cEjE: jI^SCVLVS. 




unfit for use where greal strength, and durability in the open air, are required ; 
nevertheless, there are manj purposes for which it is applicable when sawu 
up into boards ; Euch as for flooring, linings to carts, packing-csscs, &c. The 
nuts may be used when burned as a kind of ley, or substitute for soap. The 
nuts, if wanted for seed, should be gathered up an soon as they drop, and 
dther sown or miied with earth ; beoiuse, if they are left exposed to the air, 
they will lose their germinating prc^rties in a month. Some nuraerynicn 
cause the nuts to germinate before sowing them, in order to have an opportu- 
nity of pinching off the extremity of the radicle; bj which means the plants 
are prevented irom forming a taproot ; or, at least, if a taproot be formed, it 
is of a much weaker description than it otherwiae would be, and the number 
of lateral fibres is increased ; all which is favourable for transplanting. When 
the tree is intended to attain the largest size, in the shortest time, the nut 
ought to be sown where the tree is finally to remain ; because the use of the 
taproot is mainly to descend deep into the ioii, to procure a supply of water, 
which, in drv soils and seasons, can nerer be obtained in sufficient quantities 
by the lateral roots, which extend themselves near the surface in search of 
nourishment and air. 

f a. JB. (H.) onioB'Nsis Mkir. The Ohio .£sculu$, or Horsechatnvi. 

IdnUifictlkm. HIch, Arb., a.p.MS. i Dec. Prod., l.f.S9l.: Don'i UlU.. l.p.Cai. 

Srmx^mn. ^. abloiula lAiU.; ?£. pUlldn IfJu. : .E. KbtnUa UtM.; .£. gUlbra IV. 4 

EnfToihiti. Hichi. Arii.,l.t.91.'i Hot. Reg., IMS, LSI. ; uid i>urjt(. I6T. ftom Mkhux. 

Spec. Chttf., ^c. Stamens nearly twice the length of 
the (yellowish white) corolla; petals 4, spreading, a 
little unequal, the claw scarcely the length of the 
campanulate calyx ; thyrsus racemose, loosely flow- 
ered j leaflets 5, oval or oblong, acuminate, fine and 
unequally serrate, glabrous. {Tor. oruJOrny,]. p. SSI.) 
A deciduous tree of the middle size. Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. Height in America 10ft. to 30ft.; in the 
climate of London apparently the same as the com- 
mon horsechestnut. Introduced in ? 1830. Flowers . 
white, yellow, and red; May and June. Fruit brown; 
ripe in October. Bark rough, fetid. Branches of 
the thyrsus of flowers short, 4— 6-flowcrcd ; the 
flowers mostly unilateral, small (not half the size of 
those of the common horsechestnut). Fruit pnckly, 
resembling that of the cultivated horsechestnut. i,-. r uri iiiiii4i.ii 



rc^y half 



but scarcely half the size. (rw. ami Gray,!, p. 851.) 



126 AltBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

According to Michaux, ihe Americnn horserhestnut is commonl; u bush or 
Ion- tree, from 10 tl. to 1211. in hci^lu ; but it is sometimea 30 or 35 feet high, 
trunk 12 or 15 inches in diameter. He found it only on the bunks of the Ohio; 
but ToiTe3' and Gray give as itx habitats the western parts of Pennsjlrania, 
Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky. The tree in the Hort. Soc. Garden is of equally 
vigorous growth with the common hornechestnut ; the leaves are larger, and 
ofa bright green: on the Bupposltion that this is the ^. ohioensisof ^i^j'.nnd 
Tor.4 Gray, we have no doubt in our own mind that it is only a variety of the 
common horsecheatnut. Dr. Lindley, however, is of a different opinion, con- 
sidering it OS a distinct species. (See Bol. Reg., 1838, t, 51.) 
I 3. JE. (H.) RUi 



jv-^m: ■ ■'" ■ ™"' 

Spec. Char., ^c. Petals 4<, with ibe claws shorter than the calyx. The 
flowers are scarlet, end very ornamental ; the leaves of a deeper sreen than 
those of any other sort, and they have a red spot at the base of the petioles 
of the leaflets on the under side. The flowers come out of a dark red, and 
die off still darker. Fruit pridtly. A deciduous tree, below the middle 
size. ? Hybrid from North America, Height SO ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated 
in 1820. Flowers red ; Uaj and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 
It is doubtful whether this tree is a native of North America, or originated 

in British gardens. It passes under different names in diSbrent nurseries, 



ns will be seen by our list of synonymes, and may be considered as differing 
little, if at all, from jE. eftrnea Lind/. It is distinguished from Plvia rubra 
by its larger and rougher leaves ; and from AS. Hippodistanum by the leaves 



XIV. ^scula'cgs: ^sculus. 127 

bang (uDer and more uneven on the surbce, and of a deeper green. The 
tree is also Binaller, and or much less Tigorous growth than the common 
horaecheatnut. It ia, without doubl, the mo«t oraanteiilal sort of the 

X JE. (H.) S r. nued. jS'sculua rdaea Hart. — This Tariety differs from 

j^, (H.) rubiclinda, in having the leaflets without a red spot at the 

base of the petioles. The flowers come out of a pale red, and die 

off about the same shade aa the dowers of jE. (H.) rubic6nda are 

when they first appear. 

Other Farieliei. There are several aames in gardens, and in nurs^> 

men's catait^es, which appear to belong to ^. (H.) rubicdnda, but l>ow 

(m they are worth keeping disdnct, we arc very doubtful. Whiiley't tietir 

icarlet, of which there is an imported tree in the Fulham Nursery, is said 

to have flowers of a darlter scarlet than any of the above-named varieties ; 

and, if so, it may be recorded as ^. (H.) r. 3 Whitleii. M. (H.) ameri- 

aitia of the same nursery belongs also to ^. rulHcOnda. 

1 4. ^. oi^'bha Willd. The smooth-Jmtwd .£sculus, or Horiedtetlnut. 
Mcmttfcalim. WlUd.BinM>..p. tOS. ; D«. Prod.. I. p.MT. i Dua-i Mm.,1. p.SU. 
Eitrarti^. IliTU AbbUd., 1. M. ; Uld OUIJ^. 160, ItO. 

Spec. Char., tic. Claws of the petals of about the length of the calyx. Leaf- 
lets of a pale green, very smooth. Flowers of a greenish yellow. A de- 
ciduous low tree. North America. Height EOft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 
1618. Flowers yellow ; June, Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 
This sort is very distinct ; 

but it is evidently not the J^'s- 

culuB glabra of Torre^ and 

Gray, but probably a variety of 

the ,^'sculus fl&va of these 



niiihors, with rough fruit. The 

whole plant is comparatively 

glabrous, and even the fruit 

partakes of that quality. The 

tree is of less vigorous growth 

than ^. rubicund*; and the ^^^ .rniMiuim. 

shoots take a more upright di- 

rectioa It appears to lose its leaves sooner than most of the other sorts. 

1 S. -X. (o.) pa'llida HWil. The pale^urnvd ,£sculus, or /forffcAnfnu/. 
Uemljjctliim. WiOd. Emus., p.l06. i Ha/H D«d, p. M, i Dec. Prod., I. p. W.; Don't Hia, 1. 

Enfrawimff' Kkyoa AbbUd., c. 3Et ; uiil wi,rjt£. HI. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Petals with the claws shorter than the calyv. Stamens 

twice aa long as the corolla. A deciduous low tree. Ori^nated in gardens. 

Height £0 ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1818, Flowers pale yellow i May 

and June. Fruit brown; ripe in October. 

This sort so closely resembles M. glabra, as to leave no doubt in our mind 
of its being a variety of that species. It is of somewhat more robust growth, 
and the leaves are, perhaps, not quite 90 smooth. 



AnBORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICI'M, 



asan 



PA'VM Boerii. Thb Pati*, Bucreyb, or Smooth.frvitisd HoasBCHEST- 
NUT Tree. Lm. Si/tt. Heptfiiidria Monogynia. 

Mnaificaliim. Dosrh. Lugd,. LMO. ; D«. Frod.. 1. p.IM. ^ Don'i Mill., 1. p. Ul. 

Dttiraliim, In honour gf FrltT Fan, ■ DuKb bauntit. once molVMiit Bl boUnr U L*]ilRI. 

Gen. Char. Ca^x tubular. Pffdilt 4, erect, niuTow. 5^mnu straight. Cap- 
tultt unarmed. {Dorii MUl.) — Middle-Bized dfeiilunus trees or shrubs, 
natives of North America; distinguishable from the horsechestnuts by the 
smoothness of their fruit, and the coni[iarBtive •mallnesB of their flowers, 
which \\B.\e their petals erect and narrower. 

Lracct palmate, «ith 5 — 7 leaflets, smooth. Flauiert small, with eivct 
and narrow petals. Budt blunt, not covered with resin. — There are three 
species, and several varieties or hybrids, in Britixh gardens. 
Distinguished from the common horsechestnuts, hy being Bmailer and 

smoother in ait their ports. There are probably only three aboriginal species ; 

but there are several Dcautiful garden varietiea, or hybrids. Culture the tamo 

as for the common horsechcstnut. 

1 1. P. ru'dr* Lam. The KiX-Jiowcnd Pavia. 

Jdenlfjkalton. Lun. niait. \ n«c. Prod.. 1. p. Wb. i Dan'aMlH., I. p. &■% 

Sinunumn. .S'lcului P4»ib Lin. and Tor. i Gray ; X. PiiVO »u. ■ raiira /Tone Dni. p. t*. : 
P>iu Hininftra Harl. ; imill Buckcie. Anirr. ; Hurgnisr Pailt. or PiYlt I Fleiul roivn. Ft. ( 

£afra>Iiu(. Lun. flluit '[.V73. , Haine Abtrlld., L SI. ; WUi. Dend..t.IW. i Knnis, t. U. i Iho 
plu« DC Ih( tm In ^b, Brll., lit «llt..?oLT, ; uii<niTflf.\Ti. 

Spec. CAoT., ^c. Corolla of 4- petals, that arc longer than the stamens. 
Lealletii 5, elliplic-oblong, tapered to both ends, and smooth, ns is the 
petiole 1 axils of the nerves hairy no the under surface of the leaf. (Dec. 
Prod.) A slender-growing tree. Virginia and Carolina, on mountains. 
Height loft, to 20ft. Introduced in 1711. Flowers brownish scarlet i 
Mav and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leave* brown. 
Naked young wood reddish brown. 



XIV. .fgcuLA^cEA; pa\ia. 129 

t P.r.2 argiUa G. Don, 
(B.R«g.,t.993.;oui 
;%. I780~Ahand. 
•ome small tree, with 
dark bronniBh reA 
flonere,dififerii^lLttl< 
from thoce of P, 
libra. Imroduced k 

i 1B20. 
t P.r.SiabbiciiuittaWats. 

Dend, Brit. t. IBO, 

X. P. serrita /fort, 

— Lealleu aeutelj ' 

■errated : in other re^ 

specta it ditfcra little 

from the ipeaea. 
mP.r.iiumla. P.bii- 

milis G. Z>on; and 

vCacuIua hilmilii 

i««. (Bot. Reg., t. iri. p.rt.«.ta-,«.. 

1018; and ourj^. 

173.^ — A diminutive, weak, Btreralliig fbrm of the ipedes, probably 

.^•„..,^ f™— g sport, and i^ch, on it« own root, ia only a re- 



obtoined & 



curobent bush, from 2 ft. 




hdght 1 but which, when grafted 



130 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRlTANMtCUM. 

on the common horsecheslnut, romu the very beautiful penduloua 
low tree of which there is a plate in the Aii. Brit., 1st eJit^ toI. t. 
In addition to these Tarieties, there are the three forma whiqh are enu- 
merated below. 

In ita native country this Bp«ciea varies in magnitude from a low rambljiu 
shrub to a tree of SO It. or more in height. In England P. rubra is in culti- 
vation in various torms : as a tree, in which character it has, at Byon (see 
our plate in the Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.), attained the height of seft. ; as 
a pendulous tree of IS or 14 feet in hdght («ee our plate in the Arb. Bril., 



Ist edit., vol. v., under the name of P. r. p^ndula) ; and aa a trailing shruh, 
under the name of P. hOmilis, in the London Hort. Soc. Garden, and in the 
arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges. 

The yellow^iwred Pavia. 

^ Hbm. ind Tor. i Onty : . 

Spec. Char., ifc. Petioles pubescent, Ratlish towards the tip. Leafiets 5 — 7« 
pubescent beneath, and above upon the nerves. (Drc. Prod.) A deciduous 
tree of the middle size. Virgmia and Georgia, in fertile valleys. Height 
30 ft. to BO ft. in America i 30 ft. to 40 ft. in England. Introduced in 17G4. 
Flowers yellow ; April and May. Froit brown; ripe in October. Decay- 
ing leaves yellow, tinged with brown. Naked young wood yellowish brown. 
A more vigorous and rigid-growing tree than P. riibrn, with the branches 



. ^SCULA CE« : fa\ia. 



upright 1 whereu in P. rubra they are spreading, slender, find pendulous. 
Leave* paler than in P. riibra. To thrive, it, like all the other ^scul^ceee, 
require* a deep rich soil. Propagated b; budding, becauEe the colour of the 
Bowen is found to vaiy much in plants rmsed froin seed. 

I 3. P. (fJ nbolb'ct* G. Don. The neglected Pavia. 

HnttflkaUn. Loud. Hi>n.Brtt..p. 143.: Don'iMill., I. p,6K.i S>L Ilort. nrll,,|i.n. 
Stmoitmi. .PkuIui nrgWcU Lima. In BM. Ha- 
EneraMmti. BoL Il(|.. L 1009. ; unl oaijlg. lA 



132 AnUORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANHICUU. 

Spec. Ciar,, ^c. Leaflets 5, lanceolate, serrulated, taperine to the base, fla^ 

rather plicate, smoolh beneath, but pilose in the axis of the veins. Calyx 

csmpHnulate, obtusely 5-toothed, about the length of the pedioel. Stamens 

rather longer than the corolla. Superior petal veined. {Don's Mill.) A 

dedduoua tree. North America. Hdght EO fl. to 30 fl. Introduced in 

1823. Flowers yellow and red ; Hay and June, a week earlier than P. 

Bftva. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Leaves with rufous down on the 

vdns an the upper side. Flowers pale yellow, v^ed with red, disposed In 

thyrsoid racemea. Capsules unarmed, but the ovary tomentose. 

A tree resembling Pkvia flitva but smaller. The plant in the Hftrt, 8oc. 

Garden was purchased from M. Catros of Bordeaux, under the name of ^. 

ohio^sis. In the Bol Be^. it is said to be most nearly related to j£, (Ptkvia) 

lliva, but to difler Irom it in the dowen appearing a week or 10 days earlier, 

and in the leaflets being more slabrous, with rufous down on the veuii on the 

upper side, and with haiis in the axils of the veins on the under surftce. 

X 4. P. H aukoca'rpa Hort. The long-fruited Pavia. 

Srmiiifim. X-koIiim VMa mi 
£ivrBAi|t. The pLUa la ' ' 



jS'scnIus and Pavio ? rubra. Hdglit £0 ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in I8S0. 
Flowers pale red and yellow, nearly as large as the common htKiKcheftnut ; 
Hay and June. Fruit brown i ripe m October, 



XIV. ^scvla'ce^e: i 



are spresding and loose; and the whole -r- = i r — 

ftnce, qiute £Sbrent from that compactness of (bim and rigiait; of brancbea 
which belong to mo»t of the tree qtedes and varieties both of ^sculus 
and pBTia. 

■ 5. P. Di'scoLOK Swl. The two-caloured^/fawrrfEf Pam. 

MfUficaUm. 9wt, Hart. BiIL.jlSI.; Dob'i MDl., p. SU. 

^ miiiwi a . SrtcaVa diKolat M ud Am Ba. ^ ^kdIu nrfs g iUkoIdi Tot. $ grog. 

Smftitiiigt Bot Kig,, 1, 110. ; and ear Jig. Vn. 

^xc. Char., Sic Leaflets 5, acuminate at botli ends, tomentoee beneath, un- 
equally Bernileted. Raceme thyrsoid, many-flowered. Corolla of four con- 
nivine petals, with their clawa the length of the cal^. Stamens 7, shorter 
than the corolla. (Don't Milt.') A deciduous tree-like shrub. Virginia and 
Oeorgia, in fertile valleys and on mountains. HdghtSft. to 10 ft. In- 
troduced in 1818. Flowera vari^sled with white, yellow, and purple; 
Hay and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Detxying leaves yellowish 
brown. Naked young wood of a brownidi stone-colour. 
The whole plant, including the young 

wood, is covered with pubescence. 

Hie flowers are large, showy, continu- 
ing a long time expanding, and nume- 
rous though they are but sparingly 

succeeded by fruit. When the plant 

is raised from seed, it is renuirkable 

for its thick, fleshy, carrot-like roots, 

which, in freie soil, penetrate perpendi- 

culariy to Che depth of 8 or 10 feet i 

before they branch. Unleas when 

grafled on j£. Uippocistanum, it is 

seldom seen aboTe 4 or 5 feet in 

height; but it is a very free flowerer, 

and, considered as a shrub, is in May, 

when it is in flower, one of the moat 

ornamental that the British artwretum ,^ p»^4»b*« 

■ B. P. hacbosta'chva Loit. The long-racemed Pavia. 

^nUi«uM>«. LoU. H<>b. Aoul.: Dec. IVad., 1.P.M8.I DoD'tMUl, l.o.SM. 

longi B-pl^ Pi.iH MlB, ft. 1 ImgiliriM RoMkMmta. On-. 
SatTi,wmtE. L<ita.H*rb.Am«L. L114;a;,jBBAM>Ud.7l. W.iKid™rft.ire. 

Spee. Cher., ^c. Stamens much longer i 

than the corolla. Racemes very long. I 

Root stoloniferoui. Plowets while. I 

{Dec. Prod.) A dedduoua shrub, I 

with numerous rvdided shoots. South 

Carolina and Oeorgia. Hdght in Arae- 

nca Bft. to 4>fL; in the climate of 

London lOfl. to 15ft. Introduced in 

1880. Flowers white, with loi^ pro- 
jecting stamens, which give the spike a 

fine fringed appearance; July and 

August. Fruit brown; ripe in October. 

TTie shoots are slender, spreading, and 
rooting at the joints where they happen 

to re»t on the soil, with ascendent extre- " ' 

mitiea. The tree comes into flower about a "*" '*"'■ "'•'™'»^'» 

month or sii weeks Uter than the other .Ssculicea, and continues flowering. 



134 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

in the case of large plants on moist soil, for three months or longer, forming 
one of the greatest noral ornaments of tlie shrubbery, at a season when very 
few trees or shrubs are in flower. The fruit, which is small, seldom ripens 
in England : but in America it is said to be eaten, boiled or roasted ; and 
M. Poiteau, accordingly, has included this species of Pkvia in his list of fruit 
trees. Layers; or seeds, when they can be procured, and which ought to be 
sown as soon as possible after they are ripe. 

Ottter Kinds of Patna. — PcIvIbl, caUJvmica (JS. calif6mica iVu^.) has been 
described by Torrey and Gray, but is not yet introduced. P. Lponii is in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, but has not yet flowered there. We have omitted in this 
edition P. h^brida, described by DeCandolIe as a truly intermediate plant be- 
tween P. rubra and P. flava, with yellow, white, and purple flowers ; because 
the only plant which we have seen bearing this name, that in the Hort. Soc. 
Garden, has the flowers yellow, and appears merely a very slight variety of 
P. flava. In nurserymen*s catalogues there are several names which we 
have not noticed ; for the truth is, that the diflerent kinds of JE'scnhis and 
P^via cross-fecundate so freely, and seedlings vary so much, that there is 
no limit to the number of varieties that might be produced. The great error 
(because it creates so much confusion in the nomenclature} consists in giving 
these varieties to the world as species. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe, that all the most valuable varieties, 
of both ^^sculus and Pavia, are best perpetuated by budding or grafting, and 
that collectors ought always to see that the plants they purchase have been 
worked. Pavia rubra as a tree, P. discolor either as a shrub or grafted standard 
high, and P. macrostachyaas a shrub, ought to be in every collection, whether 
small or large. Pavia numilis, when grained standard high on the common 
horsechestnut, forms an ornament at once singular and beautiful. As the 
horsechestnut is to be found in most plantations, those who are curious in the 
species and varieties might graft them on the upper branches of old trees ; or 
young trees might be headed down, and one kind grafted on each. 



Order XV. SAPINDA^CEiE. 

Ord. Char. Flowers polygamous. — Males with the calyx more or less deeply 
4^5-parted. Petals 4 — 5, or occasionally absent, alternate with the 
sepals. Dii^ fleshy. Stamens S — 10, inserted into the disk. — Hermaphnh' 
dite flowers with the calyx, petals, disk, and stamens as in the males. 
Ovary .3-celled. Cotyledons incumbent. Plumule 2-leaved. (LmdL) — A 
tree, a native of China* 

Leaves compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. Flowers terminal, 
in racemose panicles, small, white or yellow. - — There is only one hardy 
species belonging to this order in British gardens, nassely, Rolreut^ria 
paniculata Laxm, 

Genus I. 




KOLREUTE*R/i< Laxm. The Kolrkutebia. Lin. Syst. Octdndria 

Monog^nia. 

Identiftcnlion, Laxm. Acad. PeCr.,ie. p. 861.; L*H^rit. Sert., 18. t. 19l: Willd. Spec PI., 330. » 
Dec. Prod., I. p. 616. ; Don's Mill.. 1. p. 67S. •— • 

Smonymcs. Saptndtu ip. Lin./U. ; C61reutcria, Ital. 

Jjitrmition. In honour of Ji^n TheopkUus KStreuter^ onco profescor of natural hUtorr at Carls- 
ruhe, and celebrated for hl« reiearcbet on the pollen ofplantt. 



XV. ^scvL&'CEx.. XVI. fita'ce*. liJ5 

Gen. t%ixr., Sfc. Calyx of 5 sepala. Pelalt 4, each with S scales at the base. 
Captule 3-cellcd, inflated. Scedt ovate-globose, the seed-coat penetrating 
mto the seed, and occupjine in the place of an axis the centre of the em- 
bryo, which b spirally convoluted. (Dec, Prod.) 

Lraoet impari-piniiate, of tnan; pairs of leaflets, that are oVate and 
coarsely toothed. Plawen yellow, in panicles. — A deciduous tree. 

. K. PANicuLi'TA Laxm, The panicledjfoiwn'i^ Eoh^nterie. 

tr., IE. p. Kl. ; Dae. Prod., ]. p. SIS. i Dan'i UlU, I. f.eit. 

.:. M. I BotrBM-.L m ; md ttis lOUe of tlie (m <n Aft. Brit., 

1 oar A- ISO- 

.^tc. Char., 4c- Leaves impari-innnate, with ovate leaflets, coarsely toothed. 
Flowers polygamous. A deciduous tree of the middle size. Horlh of 
China Height 2011. to 40 ft. in the climate of London. Introduced in 
1T63. Flowers yellow, in terminal, racemose, nireading panicle* ; July 
and August. Fruit a bladdery capsule, whitish brown ; npe in October. 
Decaying leaves deep yellow. Naked young wood brown. 
It is very hardy ; the hermaphrodite plants not unfrequently ripening seeds 

in the nei^boumood of London, It has not only a very fine appearance 




/ 



y 




wnen in flower, but alio in autumn, when the tree is covered with its larse 
bladdery capsules, and the leaves change to a deep yellow, which they do 
before they tsU ofl*. It is of the easiest culture in any common soil, and is 
readily propagated either by seeds or cuttings of the root or branches. In the 
London nurseries it is generally propagated by seed. 



Order XVI. nTA'CE.;E. 

Okd. Coar. Calyx small. Prlah 4- or 5. Slameni equal in number to the 

petals ; filaments distinct, or slightly cohering at the Ikiec. Anthert vcrss- 

tile. Omrnini 9-celled. Fndl a pulpy berry. iScrrfi * or 5, fewer by 



136 ARBORETUM ET FBUTlCETliM BRITANNICUM. 

Hbortion ; embryo erect ; albumen hard. — Climbing ahruba, with tumid 
■(^jarable joints. 

I.Ma>et simple or compound, opposite or alternate, Rtipulole, dedduous ; 
the lower ones oppoaite, the upper alternate. Flowen axillary, recemoee, 
■ometimeB by abortion changing to tendrils, which are generally opposite to 
the leaves ; small, green. — Shrubs, trailing and climbing, deciduous, and 
iticludinR the grape vine, which may be considered as the type of the 
order. The gtnera which contain hardy species ore three, which are thus 
concndistinguiBhed : — 

fiVis. Style wanting. Petals b. 

Ahpbld'psis. Style I. Petals i. 

CVssus. Style 1. Petds4. 

Genus I. 



[Z10Q 



n^TLS L. The Or*pb Vine. Un. Si/tl. Pentandria Mont^nia. 
- -' ■'iLGen.,lSl.', DtcProd., I. p.ai.i Doo'i MUU I . p. GSB. 
1, Cimc; Vjd, Sp«.< VlgDcfV. ; Vlte, ila(.TwMll,(3er. 

Gen. Char. Fluwert hermaphrodite, dicecious or tritEcioui. Caifx commonly 
5-toothed. Peialt 5, cohering at the top, separating at the base, and de- 
ciduous. Slamem 5. ( Dec. ^rod.') — Climbing tendnted shrubs, deciduous ; 
natives of Asia and North America. 

Leaoet simple, alternate, stipulate, lobed or serrated. Floweri in thyr* 
soid raceme*, small, end of a greenish yellow. — There are several speoes in 
British gardens, the principal of which is the grape vine. 

J 1. V. viNt'PKRA L. The wine^bearing Vine. 

UmliJIcaliiKt. Un. Nhc., KH , Dk Prod., I. p. 6SS. I Don'l Hill., I. p. dSt. 
SmmfMo. Vlgiw, ri-. i gamelner Webutock. Orr, i VIK di Vtno, IlaL 
Ei^irawii^t. Duh. Ail). Pr, «. t. IG. ( Jic^. k., l.p.SJ.; ud ovr A- ISI- 

Spcc. Char.yifc. Leaves 

lobed, toothed, si- 

nuated, or serrated, 

naked or downy. 

{Dec. Prod.) A de. 

ciduoua tendril ed 

climber. Syria. Stem 

aoft. toSOft. Cul- 
tivated in I64H, or 

probably from the 

lime of the Romans. 

Flowers greenish 

yellow, scented ; 

June and July. Fruit 

green, red, or black ; i 

ripe in October. 

I>ecaying leaves yel- "'■ i»>t'i«^ 

low or red. Naked young wood ydlowish brown, 
f'arictiet. The grape vine has been in cultivation from the remotest period of 

history, in the warmest parta of the temperate zones of tiie Old World. 

The varieties have been described at length by Du Hamel in France, Don 

lioxas de Clement! in S|iatn, and Sickler in Germany. The varieties of the 

vine as a fruit shrub, and all that rehitcs to their propagation and culture, 

will be found treated of in our Emydoptcdia of Gardcmng ; and we shall 



- ■ -xn. fita'ceA: rC-ni. 137 

hera only notice those which we think deaerriDg of cultivation, aa bmiu 
mental aDd frBerant-flowered cUmben. 

1 V. c 2fiiiuiac<inu. Miller'i Grape, or Miller'B black Cluster Orape. 

— Leaves almoat entire, unall, woolly, and whitish. Fruit rotuid, 

bidbII, in cdmpact bunches, black. This variety i« selected on account 

of the whiteness of its leaves, 
-IV. n. 3 JSOi rvbttcintibta. The Claret f 

Grape ; Tenturier, FY. (N. Du Ham., var, ) 

75., not Cleirette Du Htm., var. IS.) — 

Hie leaves are larger than those of the 

preceding variety, and more lobed and 

notched : in the autumn, before the; die 

off, they change to a deep claret colour, in 

which state they are highly ornamental. 
J V. D. 1 api/olia lacoiid4a L, The Parsley- 
leaved Grape Vine i Ciotat, fV. ; Vite 

d'Bgitto, Ilai. (j%. 182,)— The leaves 

are beautifully lacmiated, middle-dzed, and ,». naKtaOnniiaia. 

the fruit black. A very handsome climbing 

shrub which has been in cultivation for its fruit since IS46. 

-I 2. r. Z,abru'bca L. The wild Vbe, or Fta Crape. 

MnUtbsfiM. Liu. Spec, m. ; Dec. Frod., 1. p. SSL ; Ddd'i MIU,, I. p. 711. i Tor. md Cnr, I< 

Sr-iaivma, r. uurlD* WiOi. \ aii<s«r Wabi, Orr, ; AbivuinE, IUi>. 
ittmlntl. Viinn. Icdp^ t. 1». Bg. 1. ; Jaoq. Scliim., t 4K i ud mrjTg. IS). 

Spec.Oua:,^c. Sexes ditecious or polygamous. Leaves 

heart-shaped, talher 3-lobed, acutely toothed beneath, 

and the peduncles tomentose and rather rusty. {Dec. 

Frod.) Canada to Georgia. Climbiiig stem 10 ft. to 

30 ft. Introduced in 1656. Flowers greenish yellow ; 

June and July. Fruit red or blacli ; ripe in October. 

Decaying leaves brown or black. 
Vaneiie*. Several varieties, with red, white, or black jj 

fruit, are known in the gardens of North Americ^v 

from which wine is made ; such as the Isabella, Schuyl- fl 

kill or Alexander's, the Catawba, and Bland's Grape, 

which have doubtless been produced from seeds of 

this species. (3V. and Gray.) 

Leaves 4 in. to 6 in. or more in diameter, often distinctly 3-lobed, short, 
mucTonate, and densely tomentose bmeath. Berries 6 — 7 Imes in diameter, 
globose, usually very dark purple when ripe, but sometimes amber-coloured or 
greenish white, of a strong musky flavour, and filled with a tough pulp, {Ibid.) 

1 3. F. sstiva'lis JUkhx. The Summer Vine, or Gn^ Fbie. 
MaHtfaHtm. Mich.. Fl. B«. Annr„5. p. s«o.iD«. Prod., 1. p. estj Don'i HUL, t. p. 711.1 

■ttfiMMi™! r. VhlfM iiBericItM tlanli. : V. iDtinnUli JAiU \ hhI Y. pdmlU VaU, 

JafHtfgi. Jk. Hon. Bchcra., 1. *26.i indoury^. IM. 

§>M. CAar., ijc. Sexes ditscious or polygamous. 
Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with from 3 to 3 
lobes; the under surface of the young ones '. 
invested with a cottony down; of the adult 
ones, smooth. Racemes fertile, oblong. Berries 
amall. (Dec. Prod.) A tendriled climber. Con- 
necticut to Florida. Stem SOft. to 30 ft. In- '"■ "'^■-'•k"^ 
troduced in 1656. Flowers greenish yellow i June. Fruit dark blue : ripe 
in October. 
Lcave.1 tin. to 7 in. wide, often deeply lobed, with the amuses rounded; 




138 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM DRITANNICUH. 

the lower iiuface, particularly in the young state, clothed with a reddiih 
cobweb-like pubesceace ; when old, somewhat glabrous. Berries 3 — 1 lines 
in diameter, deep blue, of a pleasant flavour i ripe in October. (7\ir. and 
Grav.) Pa^iaps onlj a variety of the preceding species. F. ^bniscdldes 
MM. is also probably a aynonyme or a Tuiety of that species, 

X i. F. coRDiFo'LiA Mickj. The heart-iAape'-leaTed Vine, or Ckidcen Grape, 
MautfiauHm. Hlchi. F1. Bn. Anw., 1. p. UL i Dk Prod., 1. p. U4. ; Don't MUL, I. p. Til. ; 

Tor. •ndCnj.l.p.Wl. 
SfKm^i. r. bicli* Jacq. Sdum. t. 49T. ; ^. toIiiIu tn. Spa. p. B», tfaU. Her. Or. Mt. ; 

winter Gr^ifl ; Froil Gr^M. 
B^r»Ai(i. Jicq. Scbcen, [.WT. 1 UHlDiitjIj. 18B. 
i^pec. Char., ^c. Sexes diiEcious or poly> s 

ganKtuB. Leaves heart-shaped, acuminate, ' 

tootlied in the mode of indsions, smooth i 

on both surges. Racemes loosely many- 1 

flowered. Berries small, greenish, ripened 

laM. (Bee. Prod.) A tendriled ehmber. 

Canada to Florida, b thickets along rivers. 

Stem 10 ft to soft. Introduced in 1806, 

Flowers greenish yellow i June. Fruit lu. riUKuriiMt. 

greenish j ripe in NovemlKa'. 

Leaves thin, 3 in. to 6 in. in diameter, often slightly 3-lobed, and rarely 
sinuated. Berries nearly black when mature, about a quarter of an inch in di' 
ameter, ripening late in autumn ; acid, but tolerably well flavoured after baving 
been toucned 1^ irost. {Tor. aiidGrai/.) 

i 5. V. BiPA^iA JUkkx. The river-ude, or tuieel.4eenled. Vine. 

.iDuProd., 1. p.SU.|I>oa-i>Iin., 1. p.Tll. 
.1 .-.^ /._. . vftm de B»nun«, ^BKr. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves heart>«haped, shallowly 3- 
cleft, toothed in the mode of indsions and un- . 
equally. Footstalk, and the marein of the nerves, 
pubescent. Racemes loose. Fruit small. {Dec. 
Prod.) A tendriled climber. Canada to Vii^ia. 1 
Stem SO ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1806. Flowers It 

Cnish yellow, with the &ap«nce of mignonette; I^ 

! antf July. Fruit dark purple, or amber ; ripe ) 

in October. 

Leaves 4 in. to 6 in. in diameter, thin ; teeth very 
coarse, acuminate. Berry 3 — 4 lines in diameter. 
dark purple, or amber colour, when ripe. (Tor. and 
Grajf.) ^ . 1- V ,„. „B.H,^ 

1 6. F. ruLPi'N* L. The Fox Grape, or BuUet Grape. 



Sxerat^. Our A. 187. 

Spec. Char,, ij'r. Branches minutely vemicose. Leave* cordate, shining on 

hoth suriaces, somewhat 3-lob«l, coarsely toothed, the teeth not acuminate. 

Racemes composed of numerous capitate nmbels. Berries large. (Tor. 

and Gray.) A tendriled climber. Virginia to Florida. Stem SO ft. to 30 ft. 

Introduced b 1S06. Flowers greenish yellow ; June and July. Fmit deep 

blue ; ripe in October. 

The stem of this species has a smooth bark, and climbs to the summit of 
some of the highest trees. Leaves 2 — 3 in. in diameter ; the lower surface 
more shining than the upper; sinus deep, but rather acute. Fruit 7 — 8 lines 



XVr. riTA'cEfi : ANPELO'PSIS. 



in diameter, covered with a cori»- 
ceoMs inteeiiment, the flower not un- 
pletuBiit. This, according to Torrey 
find Gray, appears to be the original 
V. vulpina of Linnxus. 



0/4«- SjKcia of Vftii, — The 
Amaican species have been consi- 
derably reduced in number by 
He«ar«. Torrey and Qray; but it 
appears to us, that the reduction 
might bare been carried stilt farther. 
Some species are described aa na> 
tives of the Himalayas, and 130 
varieties are noticed by Rafinesque 
in his Monograph of AmeriaiTi Finei 
(see Card. Jl/i^., vol. viii.p.SU.); 
but they are not yet known in this 
country. Indeed, Irom the appeal^ 
ance or the above-described spcciea 
in the Hort. Boc. Garden, we are 
mudi inclined to think they are 
only varieties of the same species. 
They certainly do not differ more 
from each other than the known 
s of the common cultivated 



00 



AHPELOTStS AKchx. Tns Aupblopsis. Ltn. Ht/if. PentAndria 
Honog^nia 



Gen. Char. 
capitate. 
Prod.} 



Calyx almost entire. Felaii 5, tailing off separately. 
Oeary not immersed in a dbk, including 8---4 ovules. 



ipound, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous; palmate, p 
Floicert smalL — Tendriled climbers, natives of NortI 
rica. The npecies in British gardens are two, of the easiest culture 
coininon soil ; and one of them, A. iedericea, is among themoit 
of hardy climbers. 



1 1. A. hsdbiia'cba Michx. The Ivy-like Ampelopus, or Five-leaved Ivy. 

Utnl^lai Hon, Ulcbx. Fl, Bar. Amtr.. 1. p. lEOj^ D«. Fend.. 1. p. OS. I Don'i NUl, 1' p. 6M. 

'' ***. FL Amtr- Srpt. 1. p. 17D. i Cmiib quinquefftllm Hort- Par- \ (^lii *«lerAc«l WiUd. 

. ...a.; Amulfipili QUIiKTUVl^lti //»*. FL Dor. AiitfT- \- 1K-. infl 7W. 4- Gr«|r i 
I Vl«^ Pr. i /uDlfsTD Rcbm, or iHldtr Wrtn, tier.; VIU del CniU, llaL 
mgi. Coniul.Clolui, t 100.1 ■ndourj^f. IBS. 

!^c. Char., rjc. Leaves digitate, of from 3 to 5 leaflets, that are stalked 
oblong, toothed with mucronated teeth. Racemes dichotomously coryio- 
■ ;. (Dec. Prod.) A tendriled climber. Canada to Oeor^a. Stem 30 ft. 



?^%ai 



oaoft.. 



Introduced in 1629. Flowers yellowish green; June 



140 ARBORETUX ET FRUTICEtUm BRITANNICUM. 

and JuIt. Berry black or dark blue ; ripe 
in October. Decaying leaves deep purple 
or red, or yellowisn red. 
Variel^. 

X A. b, i }dnula Tor. & Gray. A. 
biraitta Donn ; CIsbue Aedericea 
fi birsiltB PuriA. — Leaves pubescent 
on both Bides, leaflets ovate. The 
its of this varie 
B do not die oi 
crimson as the species. 
Stem attaching itself to trees and walls by 
expansions of the eitremitieB of the tendrils. 
Panicle many-flowered. Petals at first some- 
what cohering, at length spreading. Berry 
about as large as a small pea, the peduncles 
and pedicels bright crimson ; and the foliage 
in autumn, before it dies off, of e deep crimeoD. 
The most vigorous^rowing and geaerally 
ornamental climber in Europe. It thrives in 
almost every soil and situation from Warsaw 

to N^ilea, and in town, as well as in the ,u tniHiiH'titmrM 

country, 

.1 2. A. bipinha'ta MuAc. The Inpinnate-iintiwi Ampelopsis. 

UmlifyaUtm, Mlchl. Fl. Bur. Amsr., I. p. 160.; Sk. Prod.. 1. n. G>>. i Dm'l HDl., I. p. 8M. 
PtTI. Sgit. 1. B- la. «. Ft. Amrr. Srfa. I. p. ITO. -. Vile dJCuTtllni, Ilal. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves bipinnate, smooth ; leaflets cut in a lobed manner. 
Racemes pedunculate, almost doubly bifid. Berries globose end cream- 
coloured. {^Dcc. Prod.) A tendriled climber. Virginia Co Georgia. Stem 
10 ft. to soft Introduced in ITOO. Fbwers greenish white; June to 
August. Berry black ; 
ripe in October. Decay- 
ing leaves purplish red, 
sometimes yellowish red. 
Stem upright, or some- 
what twining, glabrous. 

Panicle short, spreading, 

and without tendrils. Berry 

globose, d«ires5ed, as large ^ 

as a small pea, blacki^ 

when ripe, Biightly huiry. 

(l^r, and Gnn/-) A very 

handsome chmber, of easy 

culture, and much admired 

for the beauty i>f its foliage. 

Compared with A. Aede- 

racea, it is of slow growth, '»■ Amp.ia^iii|fcBai.. 

the shoots in the climate of London bring seldom more than 18 in. or 8 ft. in 

Olher Spedei of AmpelSptU. — A. incita, Kitis iiiclsa tfull., is described in 
Torrey and Gray's Flora; but we are not aware of its having been introduced. 
J. cordita JVficir. (the Cissus Ampelilpsia of Persoon, and Htia indivJsa of 
Willdenow) IS described in the first edition of this work ; but, as we consider it 
a very doubtful species, we have omitted it in this abridgement, A. capreoli a 
G. Don, nds cBpreolftta D. Don, and A. bdtrya Dec., are also omitlcd, as WX 
having been yet introduced. 



XVI. FfTACEX. XPII. XAMTHOXYLA'CES. 



a 



Ct'SSUS L. Thb CissuB. im. Syil. Tetrindria Monogjnia. 

UtrMcaUm. Lm. Cm., No.HT.i Det Pro*,!. ]>. flsn, j Don'i MUl,,!. p.8w. 

^mmumei. HmftibfUt, ud ntl> In put. . . , . , 

If^ZSm. J!iJ^fftKO(«kIl«I»orU«l.»,wbfcbttw»plMBt. In 10111. niMMrnMinbta. 

Cm. Oar. Ciify» almoU entire, Prtaif 4, fulling off Bepanilelr. Ooan/ 
4-cdled. Brrty 1— 4-TCeded. {Dec. Prod.) 

Leavet compound, alternBte, ezsti- 
puUte, dedduoui ; tnlbtiate. flowm 
axUlarj, amaL, greenub. Fhdt a berry. 



^ 1. C. ORiBNTt1.is. The oriental 

CixmiB, or Imf Viae. 

UnHfaUom. Lu. tU. p-M. I>aDl HDI^ 1. 



&l>ec.Cliar.,^c. LesTes bipiDDate,amooth j 
leaflets ovate, Beirated. (Om', MM.) 
A deoduous climber. Levant. Stem 
5 ft. to 10 ft. Introd. in IB18. Flow- 
ers yellowith green ; June and Juljr. 
Berry,?. 

Wb hare onlv leen the plant bearing 
thii name in tne collection of Mesara. 
Loddiges, from whicb our lipire is taken, 
and which, as it does not agree very well 
with the q>ecific character, is perbuii 
not the true plant. At aU eroita, the 
plant figured ■• handsome, and as rigo- 
roua and hardy as Anipel^)aiE bipinnita. 



Order XVH. XANTHOXYLA'CE^. 

Ojis. Ceab. Ftaaert unisexual, t^ular. Calyx in 3 — 6 dividons. Pelab 

the same number, knger than the calyx ; tettivation generally twiited. 

Slametu equal in numter to the petals ; in the female dowers wantii^ or 

imperfect. Ooary with as many carpelB as there are petali. Fndt either 

berried or membranoua. — Trees or gorubs, chieHy natives of warm climates. 

(LmdL) 

Leoeet compound, •Itenate or opiKWte, without stipules ; abruptly or 

unequally [Hnnatej with pellucid dots. Plowen axillary or terminal; 

grey, green, or pink. — The ipecies in British gardens are compriaed in 

uiree genera, which are thus contradistinguiahed : — 
Xantbo'ztluii Ij. Flowers bisexual. Carpels I — 5, B-valved. Leaves 

abruptly and impari-pinnate. 
^B^EA L. Flowers biaexual. Fruit compreased, % — 3-celledj cells winged. 

Leaves of 3 leaflets, rarely of 5 leafleta. 
AiL^KTUS Detf. Flowers polygamous. Carpels 8 — £, membranous. Leares 

abruptly or tmpiiri.pinnate. 



ABBORETOM F-T FRUTICETUM BBITAKNICUM. 



Hi: 



Ml 

XANTHCyXYLUM L.. and H. B. ei Klh. The Xanthoxtlum, or 
TooTHACBE Tree. Lin. Syil. Dice'da Tri-I'ent4ndria. 

mil. Grr.; SuitauUo. Hal. 

Gen. Char. Cafyi short, 3 — 1-parted. Pelait equal in number to the lobes 
ofthe calyx, but longer, very rarely wanting. — Malefiovieri. Siament equal 
in number with the petals. — Female Jlouiert, Sianumi sometimes wantmg> 
or 7cry short. Otiariet i — I, Bornetimes equal in number to the petals. 
Capntltt 1 — 5, 1 — S-seeded. SceiU glolMse, dark, shining. {Don't MiU.) 
Lrfavei compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; pinnately 3 — 13-folio- 
late, FlovKTt aiiUery, small, greenish or whitish. Injloreioence various, — 
Deciduous low trees or shrubs, natives of North America, with prickles on 
the branches, petioles, and midrib of the leaflets. The species in British 
gardens are of easy culture in any common soil, and are easily propagated 
by seeds, layer*, or cuttings of the roots. 

I • 1. X. Praxi'nbum Wm. The Ash-imiwJ Xanthoxylum, or common 



XVII. XANTHOXYLA^CEiE : PTeYeA. 143 

Mentificatton, WUld. Sp.« 4. p. 757. ; Dec. Prod.. ]. p. 7K. ; Don'i MilL, I. p. 801 

Svnoiwmes. Zanth^zylum ramlll5rum Mick. Fl. B. A. i. p. S36. ; Z. CUra H^rculb var. Lm. Sp. 

1465., Lam. Diet, 8. p. S8.; Z. amerlctoum MUL Did. No. 8., and Tor. AGraif, 1. p. 814. ; 

Z. mlteWiUd, Eumm. ; Z. carllMB^uiii GtBrt, Frnd-^ but not of Lam. ; Z. tricirpum £foo«. not of 

Iflchx. ; ClaTalier k Feuillet do Fr*no, Fr, i Eichen-blattrlgM Zabnwehbols, Ger. ; Prickly 

A«h, Amer. t Frasiino ipinoso, lUU. 
JSt^fraviM, Da Ham. Arb., 1. t. 97. ; the plate of this tpedet in Arb. Brit., lit edit., toI. t. ; and 

Spec, Char.y 8fc, Leaves pinnate, of 4 to 5 pairs of leaflets, and an odd one ; the 
leaflets ovate, obscurelv sawed, e<|ual at the base ; the petiole round, and de- 
void of prickles ; prickles in the situation of stipules. Flowers in tuullary 
umbels, without petals. {I}ec, Prod., i. p. 726, 727.) A low deciduous 
tree or shrub. Canada to Virginia. Height 10ft. to Id ft. Introd. 1740. 
Flowers yellowish, with red anuers ; April and May. Seeds large, bkck ; ripe 
in September. Decaving leaves yellowish green. Naked young wood asn- 
coloured and greenish. 

Variety, 

S A X. f. 3 virgimcum, the X. virg!nicum of Lodd. Cat., of which there is 
a plantin the garden of the London Horticultural Society* and several 
in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, appears to us only a variety 
of X.yraxineum; probably the same as X. (/.) tric4rpum. 

£ A 2. X. (f.) tbica'rpum ilfic^. The three-fruited Xanthoxylum, or Tootk" 

ache TVee, 

IdaUifieaHom. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 8. p. 835. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 786. ; Don*s MilU !• p' 803. 
Sgmmi/ma, Z. caroUnULnum Lam., Ttfr. ^ Grt^, 1. p. 814. ; Pagira /raxlnlfbUa Lam, III. 1. 

t.33i. 
Engraringt, Lam. ni., 1. 1. 884. ; and our^. 199L 

Spec, Char,y ^c. Leaves pinnate ; the leaflets 3 
to 5 pairs, and an odd one, all on short stalks, 
oblong oval, acuminate, finely sawed, oblique at 
the base. Petioles and branches prickly. Pa- 
nicles terminal. Petals 5. (Dec, Prod,) A low 
tree or shrub. North Carolina to Florida. 
Hdght ijOft. tol5ft. Introd. 1806. Flowers 
greenish ; June. Seeds lai^e, black ; ripe Oct. 

Leaves and bark very aromatic and putieent. 
Prickles very sharp. The bark of this and the 
preceding species is imported from New York, 
and sold in Covent Garden Market as a cure for 
the rheumatism. Probably a variety of the pre- 
ceding species. 




19S. Xanthdsjhun trieAipam. 



Other Species of Xanth6xylum,-^X, mite WUld,, treated as a species by 
6ome authors, is made a synonyme of X.yraxineum by Torrey and Gray, and 
it probably bears the same relation to that species that Gleditschta inermis 
does to G. triacanthos. Our opinion is, that ttiere is only one species of the 
genus in British gardens. 

Genus II. 



SQ 



i'TE^LEA L, The Ptelba, or Shrubby Trefoil, lAn, Sysi, Monos'da 

Tetr&-Pentandria. 




Gen, Char, Calyx short, 4—5 parted. PetaU 4—5, longer than the calyx. 
— Male flowert. Stamens 4f— -5, longer than the petals. — Fetnale flowers. 



144 ARBORETtlH ET FRUTICETUH BRITAKNICUM. 

Stonwiu 4—5, Ter; short. Style ahort. FruU compresied, indebicceiit, 
■amBTB-like, turgid, 2 — 3-celled. SeeiU oblong. {Don'i Mill.) 

Leavei compound, alternate, Btipulate. deciduous ; pinnate, A- nrely 5- 
foliolate, with pellucid dott, the Uterol leaflets inequilateral. Flower» 
whitiib, c^oK : cymei corymbed or panicled.— Deciduous shrubs or low 
trees, natives of North America and Asia. There is only one Bpedet in 
British ^rdens, which is of the eaiiest culture, and is propagated by seeds 
and cuttings, put in in autumn, and coTered with a band gfass. 

1 ■ I. F. TfLifOLiATA L. The ikretyUafieUd Ptelea, or Shrubby Trrfiil. 
Idimimaakm. Us. Sp., in. i WUld. 9p. Fl„ i. sm i D«t. Fnid., t. p. Sl i Dm-i KUI., i. p. M& i 

Tor. ud Onr, I. p. il\ 
Syninuima. OnMda Sunart* 1 troll FriUIh, JV. { drnrbliiUrlls Ltnlerblunia. Srr. 
J&irniHiW' IXU. BIUl, I. in, ; SohBUi Aib., L t, ;s. i aMpUUlnjIrti. Bilt„]it. «Ut.,TDl.T.j 

udourA. IM. 

Spec. Char,, Ifc. Leaf of three leaflets that are ovate acute, the middle one 
much tapered towards its base. Flowers in coj^mbs, usually tetrandroui'. 
(Dec. Prod.) A low tree or shrub. Lake Brie to Florid and Teias. 
Height efl.to 10ft. Introd. 1701. Flowers whitish; June and Julyj 
CfU)nilea greenish ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves of a remarkably clear 
rich yellow. Naked young wood dark purplbb brown. 

imp. I. a pentaph^Ua Munchh. has 5 leaflets, H. 8. 
¥ ■ P. (. 3 pubitctiu Purah has the leaflets pubescent. 




^^^::^' 



fcund OS a large shrub, with numerous stems proceeding from the rootstock. 
The shoots and leaves pubescent when young. Orary of the staminate 
flowers abortive. Odour of the flowers disagreeable. Capsules with flattened 
wings, somewhat resembling those of the elm. 

OUur Specie! of Piilea. — P. Baldwliai is described by Torrey and Gray as 
a shrub not more then a foot high, but it has not yet been introduced. 



'CE£. XVIII. COniAVEjE, 

Genus III. 



AlLA'NTVS Deflf. Thb Ailinto. tm. Syil. Pol^mia MontEci 



lulling or tbe iborlglnBL wi 



OirhiUiw. AlUulo <> Ul« ume of ^iJiinHii glindultu Dtif. Id t) 

£^«i. C^or, Maieflmeert. Calyx 5 cleft. Pefub 5, longer than the calyx. 
Stameat 10, the 5 opposite the petals shortest. Ihik central. — Hermajihro. 
dUe, or femalt, fiowert. Calyz, pelaU, and diil as in the male, but with 
fewer staiueiia. Ovaria 3—5, distinct. Samarix 3 — 5, oblong ; l^celled, 
I-seeded. (Don't Miil.) 

i>ac«compound,HlteraBte,eEstipulBte,deciduouE;impari-pinnate. F/oweri 
terminal, small, greenish. — One species, a deciduous tree Irom China. 
3 I. A. olanduld's& Deif. The glandulous-^aivil Ailanto. 

/ifaMAtuMM. Dof. A 



Jit; ArUlB1h» gLuidti 
«.l.,&™d.BaL.L ,_ ___., 

Spec, Char.r^c. Leaves impari-pinnate; the leaflets coarsely toothed at the 
base -, the teeth glandulous on the under aide, (Dec, ProdJ^ A large tree. 
North of China. Hdght 50ft.to60ft. Introd, 1751. Flowers whitish 
green, exhaling a disagreeable odour; August. Capsules like the keys of 
the ash, but smaller ; npe in October. Decaying leaves brownish, but drop- 
ping with the first frost, without any great change of colour. The leaflets 
often leparatiog from the petiole of the leafj and leaving it for some weeks 
attached to the tree. Nwied young wood 
rusty brown, without buds. 
The leaves on vigorous young trees are 

sometimes C h. in length. The rniit, whicli 

has been ripened at White Knights, resembles 

the keys of the ash, but is smaSer. The tree 

grows with great rap' " " 

12 years, produciug si ... ._ 

in length at fint, and attaining the h^ght of | 

15 or 80 feet in 5 or 6 years, in favourable' 

situations. Afterwards its growth is much 

slower. It grows in any soil, though one that! 

is light and somewhat humid, and a sheltered ' 

situation, suit it beat. In France, it is said to 

thrive on chalky soils, and attain a large size 

where scarcely any odier tree will nvw. It 

is reaiUly propagated by cuttings of the roots. 



Section IV. 

FniU gynohaiic ; OsUa, huertcd hlo a JUihy Receptacle, mlh which the Style 

it confinuou;. 

Order XVIII, CORIA'CEiE. 

Okd, CH4R. Floaen either hermaphrodite, monctdous, or dicecloua. Calyx 
campaautate, departed. FelaU 5, Stament 10. Carpeh 5.— Low shruhs 
natives of temperate and warm climates. 



I4(» ARBORETUM ET FKUTICETUM BKITANNICUM. 

Iieavei aimple, opposite or alternate, exstipulate, deciduous j entire. 
Budt tCttXy. Flowen in terminal and axillury racemes. Fruit in some 
poisonous, in others edible. — There :■ only one hardy genus, C^ri&ria ; tbe 
species of which are low shrubs, natives of Europe and A^a. 



□ 



(?0RIA^RIA Nht. Tab Coriakia. Lin. Sytt. Due'cU Dec&sdria. 

UnttifcMoK. NiH, In Act Pit. 1111. L IS, ; D«c tni.. 1. p> TXL g DoD'l H1U.,I.|L SIB. 
Ofnoiv^tet, Bfldoul. Ft. -, Gcrbenlrmiicli, Oer. 

Gen. CAor. FUteert either hermaphrodite, moniEcioug, or dioecious. 
Calyx 5-partecl. Petalt 5, sepaloid, smaller than the lobes of the calyx. 
Slamtru 10, hypogynous, 5 between the lobes of the calyx and the angles of 
the ovarium, 5 between the petals and the tiirrows of the ovarium. Artlhen 
bursting by longitudinal slits. Sl^U none. Stigmai 5, long, awl-aihaped. 
Carpelt 5, Surrounding a fleshy axis ; when ripe, close together, but separate 
not opening, l-seeded, surrounded with glandular lobes. (Lmdl.) 

Lcavei simple, opposite, exatipuUte, deciduous ; 3-nbbed. SrantAet 
equate, opposite. — Low suSruticose shrubs, of easy culture in common 
soU, and propagated by division of the root 

^ 1. C. Wrtifo'lu L. The Myrtle-leaved 

IdeiUHIaill'm. Un. Sp., I4$T. i Dae. Prod., l.p.ns.i Don'i Kill.. I . p. Bl 
afjum^ma. Fuuel du Cornraun. or Reloul k FauUlta da Un<e> rr. 

F.iitr"iiV- ' I-^' ni, t. SSl. I WlU. Dand. Brll., t. IDS. I (od oaifit- 1^- 

Spec. Char., 4^. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
thrce-ncrved, on short footstalks, glabrous. 

Flowers in radier upright 

racemes. (Dec. Prod.) A - 

low, deciduous, sufiruticosc 

shrub, consisting of nume- 
rous suckers. South of 

Europe, and the North of 

Africa. Height 9 ft. to 3 fi. 

Introduced 16S9. Flowers 

greenish ; May to August. lu. CDniniionMu. 

Carpels in the form of a 

berry, black ; ripe in October. Leaves drop off of a 

brownish green. 

Found in hedges and waste places, throwing np nume- 
rous suckers. An ornamental underahrub, chiefly re- 
markable for its myrtle-like leaves, and the handsome 
frond-like tbnn of its branches. Suckers in any com- 

OlieT^ieriet of Conaria.— C. nepalentii Wall. PI. As. 

I Rar. t S89., andour^. 196., from a specimen gathered 

iH. ciMvuMb. '" ^^ Hort. Soc. Oardens, a native of N^al, at heights 

of from 5000 fl. to 7000 ft., appears to be quite hardy, 

and of robust growth. C. larmenldta Forst-, from Hew Z^land, is probably 

hardy also, but has not yet been introduced. 



XIX. staphyleaVe^ : staphyle^a. 147 

Subclass II. CALYCIFLO'RiE. 

Petals separaie, inserted in the Calyx, 

Order XIX. STAPHYLEAXEiE. 

Ord. Char. Sepals 5, connected at the base, coloured, with an imbricated 
aestiyation. Petais 5, alternate. Stamens 5. Disk large. Ovaty 2 — 3-celled. 
Fruit membranous or fleshy. — Shrubs, natives chiefly of warm climates. 
(lAndl.) 

Leaves compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous, ^ifetwr^ terminal. 
Fruit a bladdery capsule. — The only hardy ligneous plants belonging to this 
order are containecl in the genus Staphylea. 

Genus I. 




STAPHYLE^A L, The Staphylea, or Bladjdsr-nut Tree, Lin.Syst- 

Pentandia Di-Trig/nia. 

IdemtifieaiiOH. T in. Oca, Na S74. ; Dec. Prod. S. ]i. 2. ; Don'i Mffl., 2. p. 2. 

IhfmmgmeB. Staphylodtedron Tomm, ; Staphlller, ftuz PUtachier, Fr. ; PlmpeitiuM. Oer. ; Sta- 

DtrwaUom. Abridged fWmi Staphylodtednm, its name before the dm of LIuiueui, dertTed from 
itmkmll, a bunch or duster, and demdrtm, a tree ; the flowers and fruits being di«poeed in clusters, 
and the friant being ligneous. 

Gen. Char. Calyx of 5 coloured sepab, connected at the base, in aestiva- 
tion imbricate. Petals 5, in aestivation imbricate. Stamens 5, perig}'nous, 
alternate with the petals, and opposite the sepals. A large urceolate disk, 
or nectary, within the corolla. Ovarium 2- or 3-celled, superior. Fruit 
membraneous. Seeds with a bony testa, and a large truncate hilum. (LindL) 
Leaves compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous ; pinnate, with both com- 
mon and partial stipules. Flowers in terminal stalked racemes. — Two 
hardy species, low trees or shrubs ; natives of Europe and North America, 
of easy culture in any common soil, and propasated by seeds, which ought 
to be sown as aoon as they are ripe, or by cuttings. 

A 2 1. S. TRiFo^LiA L. The three-leayed Staphylea, or Bladder^ut TVee, 

Jdemt(fleaUoiK Lin. Spi, 386. : Dec Prod., 2. p. 2. ; Don's Mill., 1 p. 2. ; Tor. and Gray, 1. p. 26S. 
Sfmom § fmam Stulillier S FeuiUes temtes, Fr, ; VlrglDische Pimpemosa, Otr. 
Emgranim^, Scnmidt Baum., t. 81. s our>^. 197. in flower, and>^. 19S. in (hdt 

Spec, Char,^ S^c, The leaf of 3 leaflets, which are ovate, acuminate, regularly 
sawed, and, when young, pubescent ; the style smooth; the capsule bindery. 
(^Dec, Prod,) A deciduous shrub or low tree. Canada to South Carolina, 

and west to Arkansas, in moist places. Height 6 ft. 

to 12ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers whitisn; May 

and June. Nuts globose, in a bladdery capsule, white ; 

ripe in October. Decaying leaves 

greenish yellow. 

Branches slender, smooth, and 
dotted. Petioles pubescent above. 
Partial stipules mostly none. ^ 

Petals obovate-spatulate, ciliate at tf 
the base. Stamens rather exserted ; 1| 
filaments hairy below ; anthers ^m. s. Mftua. 

cordate; the lobes somewhat united at the tip. Capsule 2 in. long; the carpels 
(sometimes 4) distinct at the summit, tipped with the persistent styles, and 
opening by the inner suture; seeds smooth and polished, all but one oflen 
abortive. (Torrey and GrayJ) When not trained to a single stem, this shrub 
throws out abundance of snoots resembling suckers from the collar ; but, \i 

L 2 




ttuucry cujisuie, wniie , 



148 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

theaebe removed as tbey are produced, it will form n very hondaome low ircc. 
Sc«d4, BuckerB, lasers, or cuttings, in an; common loil, kept moist. The 
largest plants of this species, in the neighbourhood of Londou, ere at Syon. 
The pmntaed-leaerd Staphylea, or Biadder-nui TWe. 



Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves piaiiate, of 5 — 7 oblong, perfectly glabrous, serrate 
leaflets; the flowers in racemes ; the capsules membranous and bladde^-. 
(Dec. Prod.) Shrub or low tree. South of Europe, and ? England in 
hedges. Height eft. to 18 ft. Flowers whitish ; May and June. Nuta 
globose white, in a bladdery capsule; ripe in October. Decaying leaves 
yellowish green. Naked young wood greenish, with green buds. 
A smooth branching shrub, throwing up 

many side suckers, in gardens often from 

6ft. to lift, high, and exhibiting a much 

more luxutiant growth than the preceding .> 

species. The nuta, in someparts of Europe, 

are strung for beads by the Roman Cathohca. 

The kernels taste like those of the pistada, 

and are eaten in Germany by children. The y 

flowers contain a great deal of honey, and ^ 

are very attractive to bees. In the London 

nurseries, the pian» is generally cultivated by 

aide suckers, Dy cuttings put in during the j^^ 

month of September, or by seeds, which V/ f^ 

are ripened in abundance. The seeds ought Uj 

to be sown as soon us they arc ripe i be- 

cause, as they contain an oil, they very soon "°' *^ — ■ — — 

become rtuicid. They will come up the followtiu Juite, with two large, lance- 
shaped, seotinBl leaves ; though sometimes they £> not come up for two years. 



Q 



Order XX. CFXASTRA'CE^. 

Ono, Char, Sepalt 4 — 6 : aestivation imbricate. Pflalt 4 — G. Slamctij i 6, 

alternate with the petals, onposite the aepala, indistinctly perigynuus. 

Orary superior, free, ^rded with a fleshy diak,with S — * cells. OdhJtj erect, 

rarely pendulous. Fruit capsular, baccate, drupaceous, or samarideous. 

Scedi, m most, attended with an aril. (Lmdl.) 

Jjcavei simple, alternate or opposite, generally stipulate, deciduous, or 

evergreen, Floaeri whitish or greenish, in axillary cymes. — Shrubs or 

low trees, generally deciduous ; natives of bolb hemiapherea. 

The sp^es are 'chiefly remarkable for the form and colours of their fruilsi 
their flowers btang neither large nor showj;, nor their propertiea vJuable in 
medicine, or general economy. All the spedea are readily increased by Uyers, 
by cuttings struck in sand, or by seeds in any common soil. The genera 
containing hardy species are Eudnymaa, CeUatrus, and Nemop&ntbes, which 
are thus contradistinguished: — 
i'uo'NTiius 3^ui7i. Sexes mostlji hermaphrodite. Fruit a dehiscent capsule, 

of 3— 5 cells. Seed with an ani. Leaves mostly opposite, 
Cela'stbus L. Seiea mostly hermaphrodite. Fruit a dehiscent capsule 

of 2 — 3-cell3. Seed with an aril. Leaves alternate. 
Nbnopa'hthes Rafin. Sexea polygamous or dioscioua. Fruit an ir 

berry 



XX. CELASTRACEA: EUo'uVMVS. 



EUO'MYMUS Taum. Thb Evdnvhus, or Spisble Tree. Lin. Si^l. 
Tetra-Hex-^Ddria Monog^nia. 

.; Don-iUlll.l 



GcB, Char. Caiyx 4 — 5-lobed, flat, covered by the peltate dUk at the base. 
Pelalt 4 — 6, spreading, inserted in the disk. Slameiu 4 — 6, inserted above 
the disk in rather prominent glands. CaptaU 3 — 5-celled, 3 — dangled. 
Seedt 1 — 1 in each cell, and wrapped in pulp or ariL (DotCi Mil/J) 

Leavei simple, opposite, serrate. SlipuJa mostly none. Pedundci axil- 
lary, 1 — many-flowered. Infloracence cymose. — Deciduous shnitis or low 
trees ; sometiniei trailing, or climbing by rootlets. 



Spindle Tree. 





Spec. <^ar^i[C. Brenchei smooth. Leaves lanceoIate-OTBte,very finely sawed. 
Flowers about 3 upon one peduncle; the petals obtoog, rather acute. Lobes 
of (he capsule obtuse. {Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub, or low tree. 
Europe and Britain, in hedges and copse woods. Height 6 II. to 12 (t. 
Flowers greenish white; May, Fruit scarlet, produced in great abundance. 



150 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTIC£TUM BRITANNICUM. 



and very showy ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves reddish. Naked young 
wood green or reddish green. 

Varietiet, 

It m^, e.2 la&foUus Lodd. Cat. has rather broader leaves than the species. 
S A E. ff. 3 fouit variegdtit Lodd. Cat. has variegated leaves, but never 

looks healthy. 
1 A E. tf. ^friuctu dlbo Lodd. Cat. has white capsules. 
M R,e, 5 nanus Lodd. Cat. is a dwarf-growing plant. 
Nos. 8. and 4. of these varieties are, in our opmion, alone worth culti* 
vating. 

Roots numerous and whitish, forming a dense mass of network, and not 
extending to a great distance from the stem. The branches are numerous 
and opposite ; and the wood hard and fine-grained. The leaves and bark 
are acnd, poisonous, and fetid when bruised. The capsules are of a fine 
rose colour, except in the white-capsuled variety, and the seeds are each 
invested with an aril of a fine orange colour. In a state of cultivation the 
tree attains the height of 30 ft. or upwards, and, though almost entirely neg- 
lected in pleasure-grounds, it forms a singularly handsome object in autumn, 
when covered with its ripe fiiut. Seeds ; in any common soil not over mobt. 

t m 2, E. VKRRUCO^us Scop, The yfartedrbarked Euonymus, or Spindle 

Tree. 



t DoD'a MIU.p a. pi 4. 






Jdeni^caUom, Soop. Cam., ed. S. No. 968. ; Dec Prod., S. p. 4. 
SynoiiyfMV. E. europa^ui leprdtua Lm. ; Fiualn galeux, ou 

rroqueaz, Fr. ; wanlnr SpindeU»um, Qcr. 

rmnngw. "Soar. Do Ham., 8. t. 8. ; Schmidt Arb., t. 79* ; 
vad aux Jig. 901. 

S^e. Char.^^c. Branches warted with prominent 
lenticular glands. Leaves ovate, slightlv ser- 
rate. Flowers three on a peduncle. Fetals 
ovate. Capsule bluntly 4-comered. (Dec, 
Prod,) A deciduous shrub or low tree. Austria, 
Hungary, and Camioia. Height 6 ft. to 12 ft. 
Introduced in 1763. Flowers purplish brown ; 
May and June. Fruit reddish purple ; ripe 
in September. Decaying leaves reddish green. 
Naked young wood green, with brown and 
white spots. 

A shrub of somewhat fastigiate habit of ^wth, 
with rough warty branches. This species is culti- 
vated in collections chiefly for the singularity of its 
appearance, being among spindle trees what the 
warted ash is among ash trees. It ripens seeds, 
and is readily increased by cuttings. 

t A3, E, LATiFO^Lius C, Bouh, The broad-leaved Euonymus, or Spindle 

Tree. 

Identification. C. Bauh. Pin., 498b ; Dec. Prod.. 9. p. 4. :!>»'• HUL, 9. p. 4. 

Sffmmymn. E. europs^u var. % Lin, ; Fvuuin a largct Feufllet, Fr, ; breitUattriger S pi nd tlb ain n , 

Grr. 
Bngravingt, Jaoq. Fl. Austr., t. 989. ; Bot. liag., 9884. ; the plate of the tpedes in Arb. Brit., lit 

edit., Tol. ▼. ; and our Jig. 909. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Branches smooth. Leaves broad-ovate, toothleted. Pe- 
duncles trichotomous, many-flowered. Petals oval, obtuse. Lobes of capsule 
acutely aqgled, wing-formed. ^Don't MUl^ A deciduous shrub or low tree. 
South of France to Tauria, in groves. Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced 
in 1730. Flowers white, becoming purplish; June and July. Fruit deep 
red, and very showy ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves purplish red. 
Naked voung wood reddish green, with long pointed green bucls, tinged 
with red. 
In Briti:>h gardens, this forms much the handsomest species of the genus. 




tot. Kntfnjmiis 



XX. fJELASTKA'cEJE : EVo'SVMVS. 




from ita brDBd ahining leayea, and its large red pendulous fruiU, with oreoge- 
coloured seeds, which, when tbe capmles open, are auapended from thecelb 
Bomeirhat in the manner that the seedi of the inagnoliaa hang from their 
stroUies. Even the wood of this specie*, during winter, is much handsomer 
than that of any other, the branches being r^ularlv divaricate, with a clean 
bark, of a reddish green, and with loi^ pomted dark brown buds ; by which 
•lone this specie* may be diadnguishea from all the other*. Uafortunately 
fbr this species, it is generally treated as a shrub, and crowded among other 
thrubs or trees ; so that it is never Allowed a chance of attaining either ita 
flill uze or ita proper shape. 

■■ 4% £. Vi^KVa Bieb, The dwarf Euonjraius, or Sfmuile Tree. 
UemlifitaUm. C. Blib. F1. Tior. Suppl.,p. IW; Dec. Prod, K p. 4. i Don'iinu.,l.p. 1. 
eS^SSi. OutJIf. %». from ItHtn. LnUifS'i plmst. 

^ee. Char^ 4^. Branclie* smooth, somewhat herbaceous. Leaves lanceolate, 
entire, nearly opposit& Flower* 4-cleft, from I to 3 on a peduncle. (Dec. 
Prod.) A trailing undefBhrub, with the a*pect of the widow wail (d^edrum 
tricdccum). Nonhem Cau- 
casus. Height 1 n. Intro- 
duced in 1S30. Flowers 
greenish white ; July and Au- ^ 
gust. Fruit?; ripe?. Shoot*"' 
ateoder, recumbent, and with 
the leaves of a deep green. *"■ ■**■"»••'*"» 

A very neat little plant, apparent!)' quite bnrdy, and well adapted for rock- 

¥•£.£. atkopubpu'bbus Jaeq. The dark-purple^^ouvrvd Buonymus, ur 

Spindie Tree. 
UmUfaHtm. ite^r Hurt. Vlad, 1. 1 D«. Prod.,! f.i.; Don'i NtU.. ). p.*.) Tea. udOnr. 
Inmaitmrt. JC. caroUilfiHli Vant. Jrt. Jukt. No. I . ; ud, pnbibly. X. UUftUiu Mmrik. Arl. 
Mwgrtm*^. Acq. Hon. VbZ,! t \k.\ SchBldl Ark., t It. i and ourj^. XM. 
Spec. Char., jr. Branches smooth. Leaves sUUed, lanceolate, scrraleU. 



ARBORETUM £T FUUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Capsules 

angulately furrowed, smonth. (Dec. Prod.) 

A shrub or low tree. Canada to Florida, 

Hdgbt 4 ft. to IB ft. Introduced in 1756, 

Flowers dark purple; June and July. Capiule 

crimBon. Seeds white, with a reel aril ; ripe 

in October. Decaying leaves purplish red. 

Naked young wood purplish green 

Branches slightly l-sided. Leaves 2 in. to 5 in. 
long. Parts of [he flower usually in Fours; petals 
round Lsb obovaie. Capsules smooth, deeply 
lohed. This and the otner American species of 

planted in ni 
sandy soil. 

a m 6. E. AUEHiciVus L. The American Euonymus, or Spindle Tree. 
Ua, Sp., IS6. ; Dec. Frod, % p.*. ; Oon'i MU]., & p. t.( Tor. *od Gnr. 1. p.ns 
•empcirlioii Marik. \ E. ilkmlRilliii ifaiKt i Ihe ButDkng Bu^ Btnirtiairy 



rarely found in a thriving st 




Spec. Char., ^c. Branches smooth. Leaves almoat Bewile, ellipric-lanceolBte, 
sawed. Flowers 1 to 3 on ft peduncle. Petals sub-orbiculate. Capsule 
echinstely warty. (Dec. Prod.) A sub^versrecn recumbent shrub. Canada 
to Florida, among rocks, and in moist woodlands. Height 8 ft. (o 6 ft. In- 
troduced in 1686. Flowers greenish yellow, tin^ with purple; May and 
June. Capsule deep crimson. Seeds white, with a scarlet aril ; ripe in 
October. Decaying leaves and naked shoots green. 



A ■ E. a. g a«gutti/aStit. Var. y3 Tor. ^ Gray. (Our 
Jig. 807. ) — Leaves narrowly elliptical or oblong, 
slightly falcate, the mat^n minutely serrated. Pos- 
sibly the E. angustifolius of Pursh, which Torrey and 
Uray bad only seen in a herbarium. 

m ^n. E.a. 3 larmeninut Nutt. Var. y Tor. S; Gray. — 
Shoots trailing and often rooting ; leaves ovate-lan- 

• • «. E. a. 4 oiovitai Nutt. Var. I Tor. Sf Gmy; E. 
obovatuB Dec. Prod. 2. p. 4., Don'i Mill. 2. p. 5. 
(Our^. 20».) —Trailing and rooting ; leaves obovate, 
or oval-obovote, obtuse or dightly acuminate, acute at tilt base. 




XX. CELASTRa'cE^ : iUO'NYSIUS. . 153 

Erect. Leaves oval or elliptical lanceolate, the uppermost often elighLly tai- 
caEe, mostly acuminate, acute oroL'tuae (rarely aubcordaEe) at the base. {Tar. 
and Gray, var. a.) Branchea slender, green. Leaves 1 in. to S in. long, cori- 
aceous, nearly evergreen in the southern s^tea. Seeds smaller than in E. 
atropurpureiu. The scarlet firuits, rocoRling to Pursh, resemble, at a dis- 
tance, those ofiJ'rbutus IT^nedo. Thej^ forin a great ornament, he says, to 
this almost evergreen shrub, ^nd have ^ven rise, in America, to its common 
name, the bummg bush. Of easy culture in mobt soil, and a shady situation. 
Cuttings or seeds. 

T ■ T, £. HAita.rotiiA''nvs Wall. Hamilton's Buonymus, or ^mtdie Trte. 

UHmkoOm. Wall F1. Ind., a p. MS.; Don'! Mm., I. p. I. 

^mimfmt. E. Umpurpdmu WalL Ft. Ini. X p. VA 

EmgraniKt. Ourjtf. w., nvcn ■ Tlfoioiu pUot Id tlw Ugrl. Sue. Oirdan. 

Spec, Char., S^c, Branches smooth, 

terete. Leaves lanceolate, finely 

serrated. Peduncles dichotoraous, 

S-flowered. Flowers tetrandrous. 

Petals 4, lanceolate cordate. Ovary 

4-lobed, 4<.ceiled, each cell con- 
taining 8 ovules. (Don'i Jtfiff.} A 

low tree or shrub. Nepal, Height 

10 a. to soft. Introduced in 1825. 

Flowers yellowish greeo ; June 

and July. Fruit ? purple ; ripe in 

? October. Decaymg leaves and 

naked young wood green. 

A free^rowing spedes, with an 
erect stem ; the young shoots green ; 
the leaves large j bark of the older 
shoots white. Left to itself^ as a 
standard, it forms a dense fastigiate ' 
bush, with nunierous suckers ; but, 
trained to a ungle stem, it would 
doubtless form a bandsoine small 
tree. A plant against the wall. In 
the Horticultural Society's Oarden, 
flowers freely eveiy year ; but has 

not yet ripened fruit. The plant in •<*- «'»"j«™ h™"-""-— 

the open garden was killed to the ground bj the winter of 1837-8, but siiran^ 
up again with vigour. In the Liverpool Bolaiiic Oarden it 
was not iigured. 

OlhtT Speaei 0/ 'EvSnymut. — E,_/inji}mcui Thunb. ("oUT 
jig. 210.), and F.,jap6mai4jdlil cariegatii, E. ^arciBiaftlius 
Soxb., and some other specien, are in London gardens ; but 
they can only be considered as half-hardy. In the Canter- 
bury Nursery, £. j. f&liis varie^tis has been found hardier 
than the species. In the Horticultural Societ^s Oarden, 
E, jap6nicus, tnuned against a wall, was but bttle injured 
by the winter of IB3T-S. The following species, shortly de- 
scribed in our hrst edition, Mr. Don considers as likely to 
prove " truly hardy ;" some of them are introduced, and arc 
' ui green-houses : E. grdssus Wall., E. micrinthos D. Don, 
E. luciduB n.Don, £. echbkus Wail., E. tfngens WaU., 
E. gibber Roxb., E. hmbriitus WalL, E. fndicus Hci/ne, E. 
vegans Wall., E. subtnfldrus 5/ume, E. Thunbc^itoiM 
"* ■•>'**-■ Blumc, E. p6nduluB Walt., and E. frtgidus Wall. 



154 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Genus II. 



/ 



CEL A'STRUS Ir. Tbe CiLhASTtiVs, or Staff Thee. Lm,l^tt. Pent&ndria 

Monogi/oBU 

Jdent^eation. Lin. Gen., S70. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. A. ; Don't Mill., & p. 6. 
S^nom^mfs. Euonymbldee Maneh^ C^lattr^ Fr. ; CeUiter, Ger. 

Derivation. From keiat, the Utter aeaaon ; the fhilt renuining on the tree all the winter. The 
kekuins of the Greekf U luppoted to be the futeymiu. 

Gen. Char. CaUfx small, 5-lobed. PetaU 5, unguiculate. Ovary Bmall, im- 
mersed in a lO-striped disk. Siigtnas 2 — 3. Capsule 2 — 3 valved. Seetl 1, 
in a large fleshy arfl. (Don't Mi£) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; stipules minute. — One 
hardy species ; a climbing shrub, a native of North America. 

± I.e. sca7>7DENs L. The climbing-^fomm^ Celastrus, or Staff TWe, 

Idmtificatum. Lin. ^ "ttS. ; Dec. Prod., a. pi & ; Don*a Bfill., & p. & ; Tor. and Gray, 1. p. 157. 
^j^mmtftna. Bourreau ^ Arbrea, Fir. ; BaammSrder, Ger. i Bittersweet, Waxwork, Amer, 
Engravingi. Nouy. Da Ham., 1. t. 95. ; and cnrjlg. Ml. 

Spec. Char., ^c, Thomless, climbing, smooth. Leaves oval, acuminate 
serrate. Flowers dioecious. (Dec. Prod,) A deciduous twining shrub. 
Canada to Virginia. Height 5 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced in 1736. Flowers 
small, pale vellowiBh green ; June. Capsules orange ; ripe in September. 
Seed reddish brown, coated with a bright orange aril, changing at last to 
scarlet. 

The stems are woody and flexible, and twist 
themselves round trees and shrubs, or round each 
other, to the height of 12 or 15 feet, or upwards, 
girding trees so closely as, in a few years, to de- 
stroy them ; whence the French and German names, 
which signify '* tree strangler." The leaves are about 
3 in. long, and nearly 2 in. broad, serrated, of a lively 
green alK»ve, but paler on the under side. The plant 
prefers a strong loamy soil, rather moist than dry; and 
IS readily propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings. 

Other Secies of Celdstrtu. — C. buUaiut^ described from a fi^e of Plukenet, 
is, according to Torrey and Gray, a doubtful plant. C. nepalensit and C. pyra- 
canthifoHttt are in Messrs. Loddiges*s collection, but rather tender. 

Genus III. 




u 



NEMOPA^NTHES Rajin. The Nrmopantbbs. Ltn. Sysi. Polygamia 

Dioe^cia. 

Identifleation. Kafin. Joom. Phyi., 1819, pi 96. ; Dec. Prod., 8. p. 17. ; Don's BillL, % p. IS. 

SynoMjftme. IHcMfldea Dum. Comrs. 1. toi. 4. pi S7. 

DerHmtiom. From nemoi, a grore, and amtkof, a flower ; it being generally found in groret. 

Gen. Char. Calyx small, scarcely conspicuous. Petals 5, distinct, oblong, 
linear, deciduous. Stamens 5, alternating with the petals. Ovary hemi« 
spherical, covered with clammy juice. Style wanting. Stigmas 3--4, ses- 
sile ; in the male flowers hardly manifest. Berry globose, 3 — i-celled. 
{Don*s Mill.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, ovate, exstipulate, dedduoiu ; quite entire. — One 
hardy species. 



3tX. CELASTRa'cE*. XXI- ^QUIFOLIA^CM. 

m 1. N. CANiDS-Nsis Dec. The Can*diwi NemopantheB. 

Umif/kfiBn. I>«.lf*m.SiJc.O«n.,l.|>-«l "■'•"■ ■ " 

^pec Choreic. LwiTes ovBte. quite entire, or sCTi«t«d at 
th;wS .n«,th Pedicel. «..*»litfJ.l-«»""»l; 
Sj^™. Flower, .hite. Benie, luje bauoM 

.htob. aiie to CaroUttk on i.oo.,l«mL Heriit ^ 
SttoSft IntrodntxiinlBO!. Ftowet.™.U,.h.tei 
April end May. Berry large, beautiful cnmwn t npo in 
October. Very oroamental. 




Pluita of thi. n»ei» in the Hort. 8oc. Gjrden uid at 

SrT;JrL^Sb?^rof.f "^£"; .._ 

t',^-"SlTeS*rSroXp.ttlMoi.i or eu.ti^ 
"• ''^ rf thi young trood in »nd lader a Bto. 

OMer Spi^ „/ Crfiuiiticeur.— Maytenua cMAim Dee. 
rour )Se. 813.), a hamleonia evergreen branchy ehrub. 
S iSJ, bitcblete. The lio,.r,are in aa.Uar, cl.»- 
m .irthe corolla o( a »Uow»h green colour, not 
showv It is a native of Chile, and itood eight or ten 
winteri atainat a «iuth mil in the Hort. Soe. <l«den, 
S ™ XSt to be tolerably hard,, tait ... M «l to 
£ murSiKre winter of 1837-8, «.d did not .pi^g n, 

P ^^^dard and promiMd to be a valuable addition to our 
,ia .»_— ; ' tardy e^«°*"'* *'' " "" f"""'' '" ■""■■ 

O.OJH XXI. ^QUIFOUA'CE.E. 

jj:*:r»!i"iw«'ss'"'"°"'^' '■''■■"*"■■""■'"' 

,«™,. » ». .. . ">. »-■ "^ j^ leathation. SrW. t-«. 

0/a>. Cm/i. faJcC "i,?TSl totai^ •" many .taacn. InMtted into it 

a™;i. hvpogyr"; ;:* *^T!:»SiSi77 oendtUou. ovule in e«ih 

alternately to it. loiJea., '^".^ 2—8 Itoneih each containing apendu- 

coriaceou. «.»c«V^"* i™"i .„ uL cont»di.tiigui.hed i - 
contammg '"^J-l'^r"' H^,, gtani.n. 4. Fruit I^eiled, l..eeded. 

*:«?{ »Scbo„n,o.u.ly bi-chcd r^™t„„, ,^„. ^,. 
rij. I., tee, bfr'P!"^S^' tr™ *»>•&. »o,tly, coriaceou. 

Fruit including 4 or S ^™^^ P 

1 upon a peduncle. 



156 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Genus I. 



□ 



MYGrNDi4 Jacq. Thb Myginda. Lin. Sytt. Tetr&ndria Monogyuia. 

Identification. Jaca. Ainer.M}. 24. ; Dec Prod., S. p. 12. ; Don't Mill., 2. p. U. 

Sunonymet. Tiex rwrsh ; Ore^pblla Nutt, In Tbr. and Graff. 

Derivation. So named by Jaoqum in honour of Franci$ wm Mygind, a Gennan botanltt. 

Gen, Char, Calyx small, 4-c1eft. CoroUa deeply 4-cleft, subiotate. Stamen* 4, 
alternating with the segments of the corolla^ and shorter than them, and 
inserted in its throat. Ovary roundish. Stigmas 4. Drupe ovate, 1-celled. 
(Don's Mill,) 

Leaves simple, mostly opposite, exstipulate, evergreen ; entire or remotely 
serrulated. Flowers axillary, subsolitaiy, minute. — One species is hardy. 



1. M. ifYRTiPo'LiA NiUi, The Myrtle-leaved Myginda. 

Nutt. G«n., 1. p. 109. ', Don't MUl., S. p. 16. ; Dec. Prod., S 



Ident0calion, 

p. 13. 

Synonffmet, Tlex J^rtinltet PwrOt ; Ore6phlIa myrtiiblla NutL 
Engravings. Hook II. Bor. Amer., 1 41. ; and oaijlg. 214. 

Spec, Char^y^c, Leaves oblong, blunt, serrated, smooth, 
with revolute edges. Peduncles very short, usually soli- 
tary, 1 -flowered. Style short, club-shaped, 44obed at the 
apex. (Don*s Mill,) A low evergreen shrub. N.W. 
coast of North America, and the Rocky Mountains. 
Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers small, 
white ; May to August. Drupe dark purple ; ripe in Oct. 

Plants of this species are in the arboretum of Messrs. 
Loddiges ; where it is increased by cuttings, and grows in 
common soil. 




M. m}TtifblU. 



Genus II. 



If 



'J^ 



[Mi 



/'LEX L, The Holly. Lin. Syst. Tetr&ndria Tetragynia. 

Identification. lin. Gen., No. 172. ; Dec. Prod., 2, p. 13. ; Don*t Mill.. 2. p. 1& 

Sffnonymet. jlqulR>Uuni Toum. InsL t 371., Gmi. FrucL 2. t. 92. ; Uoux, Fr. ; Stechpalme, or 

Hetlse* Ger^ lUce, Ital, 
Derivation. Theophrastut, and other Greek authort, named the holly Agrla ; that it, wild, or of 
the fieldt ; and the Romant formed from thit the word Agrifolium ; and called It, also. Aqai. 
folium, from aeutttm, sharp, and foUmn^ a leaf. C. Bauhin and Loureiro first named it /lex, on 
account of the resemblance of its learet to those of the Qu§rcut i^lex, the true Ilex of Vir^l. 
LInnaus adopted the name of Plex for the genus, and preterred the name of ifquifblium for the 
most anciently known species. The name of Holly is, probably, a corrupUon of the word holy, 
as Turner In his Herbal calls It Holy, and Holy Tree ; probably from its being used to comme- 
morate the holy time of Christmas, not only in houses, but in churches. The German name 
Christdom, the Danish name Chrittom, and the Swedlth name Chrltttom, seem to Justify this 
coi^Jecture. 

Gen, Char. Calyx 4— 5-toothed, permanent. CoroUa 4— 5-cleft, subrotate. 
Stamens 4—5, alternating with the segments of the corolla. Ovary sessile. 
Stigmas 4. Berry containing 4—6 1-seeded puts. (Don's MUl.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, mostly evergreen ; ovate, oval, or 
ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, serrated, toothed, or quite entire. Flowers 
axillary, aggregate, small, generally white. FrvU a drupe, mostly red. — Low 
trees and shrubs, chiefly evergreen, natives of Europe, North America, and 
the Himalayas, generally of slow growth, and of long duration. Loamy 
soil, rather dry than moist. * 



XXI. .^quipolia'ces: /lex. 157 

A. Leave! tjnni/-l<iothed. 
1 1. 7. -iauiPo'Liuw L. The prickly-leaved, or nwnwon. Holly. 

U^-liftMicn, Lin. Sp., IBl. , T\. D.n. MS. ; Dk. Prod. !^ 14. : £"'" l^' J^d*;,^!, ^ 
Ei Hw>:. ft-. ; SIKhpilmft St«hl.ub. flul.., ArUUoro. K«i»dorn^K'-~*""* O" ' 

0«^i^ P.dub! «»K." A^iroIlD, /Mi'; A«Vi. iw". i Awliihii, J^. 
Etratima. BnlUi Eng, Bot. L 49«. : the plsM ofthu ip«lM In Art. Bril. Ill 



I oblong, ehining, wafy, spin y- toothed. P 
early umbellate. A handsome, conical, e 



twice that height, or upwards, in a state of cultivation. Flowers white; 
May. Fruit red ; ripe in September, and remaining on the tree all the 
winter. The lower leaves are very spinous ; while the upper ones, espe- 
cially on old trees, are entire. Decaying leaves yellow, dropping in June 
or July. 
Varie^i, In general the variegation of plants, more especially of trees and 
Bhruhi, is accompanied by a ragged, or otherwise unhealthy, appearance in 
[he leaves ; but the hotly is one of the vety few exceptions to this rule. 
The variesBtions of the holly are chiefly confined to the modification of 
white and yellow in tlie leaves : but there are some sorts in which the 
variation results frotn the state of the leaves with reference to prickles, to 
magnitude, and to form ; and others consist of differences in the colour 
of the fruit, which is red, yellow, or white, and black. These varieties are, 
for the roost part, without names, and those in the following groups ap- 
pear tons to be all that are truly distinct -, but theshadesof difference under 
each name in theM groups are almost inoumerable. 



ARBORETITH ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

, TMdmeu, Stufice, 

t 1. A. 2 hHeroph&lvm Hoct — Lesves TBrioutI; abated. 

1 L A. 3 aagu^pUwrn Hort.— LeaTCB Darraw. 

} I. A. 4 ^^fium Hort. — Leaves brood. Shoots dqil purple. There 

U a fine specunen at Elvatton Caitle, where it is csllea the Water 

Holly, 
t I. A. 3 aUacUrinte Hort. The Hi^ Clere Holly, — Leaves brood, 

thin, and flat. 
t L A, S margfuatam Hort (^. 816.) — Leaves without prickles, 

coriaceous, uesrly as broad asloa^ and withs thickened margin. 



t L A. 7 loio#3fii("» Hort. (jfe. 817.) — Leaves imall, ovsl-Ianceolste 
without prickles, about tSe size and shape of those of ialirus 
ndbilis. , , . „ 

t L A. B (t&^Mn Hort. {fig. 818.) — Leaves oval'OCununate, small; 
tbe prickles along the maipns like hairs. 
A. S dlialtm minu* Hort. — Leave* thinner and smaller than m the 




i. L A. 1 1 trratiJiBM Hwt. (,fig. 220.) — Leaves seiratcd. 
* L A. IS crirotim Hort. — Leaves curled. „ ,, „, v 

t LA.13^Hort. HedgehogHolly;Houx-MriMon,^.(,fe.821.) 
— The disk of the leaf has its edges roUed back ; and a somewhat 



XXI. j<QUIFOLIA'CE£ : /LEX. 

""" cylindrical figure iafacncegiT- 

en to it ; and, a« the Bumce i 

aboundi in promineQcn aad 

pricUei, it has a curiotu ap- 

peaTBDce, not uniqitly com- 
pared to that of B hedgehog. 
t L A. ncraaifolitm Bort. (Jg. 

832.) — Leaves thick and 

fleshj. 
t I, A. 15 teniicen* Sweet — c 

Xesvea qnneleu, thin. 7 
All these varieticB nay be seen V 
in Hessrs, Loddiges'a collection, 
and it ii no imair proof of their 
value for town rardent, that the}' 
thrive in the smdt; atniotphere of 
Tn. i.Anm. that munificent ettabliahment. m. i i „^n 

b. VaritHet deugnatedfrora the Colourt of t&e Leaf. 
Under the general name of variegated hollies, twenty or thirty varietiet; 
aomeof them with, and some of them without, popular namea, are obtainable 
in the principal London nurseries. Having examined and compared the 
different shades of validation in the plants m the very complete collection 
of Meanv. Loddiges, we think they mfty be all included in the following 

f L A. 16 AJbo-marffmatum Hart. — Leaves with white edges. Of this 
variety the subvarieties in Loddigea'a arboretum are maHced 5, 15, 
IB, and 24, which have all long and narrow leaves, with edgings of 
white or pale yellow along tbetrmargiDa; and 4^6,7, 12, 17,22,83, 
and S8, which have larger leaves, and a greater breadth of margin 
variegated ; the white or pale yellow forming in some cases one 
third, or even one half, of the surface of the leaC 
1 1. A. IT airt«-margiii^tim Hort. — Leaves with yellow edges. The 
following subvarieties are in Hessrs. Loddigea'n arboretum, Nos. 19 
and 20 with dark yeUow margins; and Nos. 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 
29, with margins of dark and light yellow. Another subdivision of 
this group connsta of plants with broad leaves, in what may be 
called a transition state from green to variegated, viz., with greenish 

Cw or very pale green blotches or marMns. When such plants 
me old, they are generallv very dialinctW variegated with yellow. 
Examplea in the Hackney artwreOun are Nim. 3, 20, and 21. 
1 L A. 18 iiio-pktHm Hort. — Leaves spotted with white. This variety 
baa a conHoerable portion of the centre of the disk of the leaf white, 
and of a somewhat transparent appearucej the edges of the disk 
of the leaf being green. 
t LA. lOaino^lim Hort. — Leaves spotted with yellow. The fol- 
lowing subvarieties are in Messrs. LodtUges's arboretum. Nos. 11, 
14, 16, 26, 27, and 30. 
1 I. A 20 Jlrai arehilemn Hort. — The hedgehog holly with leaves 

blotched with wnite. 
I L A. il/frar^imm Bort — The hedg<4iog holly vrith leaves blotched 
with yellow. 

c- Farietiei detigiuUed from tie Cobmr of tht Fnat. 
I L A. 22 friicta liUeo Hort. — Fruit yellow. 
* I. A. 23 frictu 6lbo Hort — Fruit white, 
t I. A. 24 fridH ragro Hort — Fruit black. 
The holly makes the most impeneUnble and the most durable of all vege- 



160 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BBITANNICUM. 

table fences ; and it has this great advantage over deciduousJeaved trees and 
ahrubs, that it is seldom liable to be iittocked hyiasects; and, if shorn, tJie 
outer aurface becomes impenetrable even to birds, who cannot build ihcir nests 
in it. The wood is almost es white as ivory, except in the centre of very 
old tnmks, where it is somewhat brown. It is very hard, with a 6ne gnun, 
susceptible of a high degree of polish, and is readily stained with black, green, 
blue, or red. Tt weighs, when dry, at the rate of 471b. 7oz. jier cubic foot. 
The veins of the wood, end its annual layers, are so small ta scarcely to be 
perceptible. It is applied to a greet many purposes, in Joinery, cabinet-making, 
and turnery; in ^giueering, in mathematicBl-instnunent-iDakingi and it is 
even used for wood-eneraving. The bark affords birdlime, which is prepared 
by boiling and evaporation. Theliolly attains the largest size in a rich sandy 
loam ; but it will grow, and even thrive, on almost any soil, provided it is not 
overcharged with moisture. As its seeds, like those of the hawthorn, do not 
come up the first year, to save ground and the expense of weedine, the ber- 
riet are commonly buried in the soil, or kept mixed up in a heap of earth for 
one year; after which, if sown in autumn, they will come up the following 
June. The rariedea are propagated by budding and grafting. These ope- 
rations are performed at the usual times, and in the usual manner ; but it has 
been observed by Tschoudi, that cleft-grafting does not succeed nearly so 
well with the holly as whip-grafting or budding. In England, the stocks 
budded or grained on are generally of four or five years' growth j and the 
grafting is effected in March, and the budding in July. The variegated kinds 
ore atBO propagated - by cuttings, which are made in autumn, of the ripened 
summer shoots. They are planted in sandy soil, in a shady border, and covered 
with hand-glasses ; and they generally put fordi roots the following spring. 
Holly hedges should never be clipped, because, when the leaves are cut 
through the middle, they are rendered unsightly ; and the xhoots should 
thereiore be cut with a knife close to a leaf. The proper season for cutting 
would appear to be just after the leaves have attained maturity ; because 
at that season, in tlie holly, as in the box, the wound is comparatively soon 
obliterated by the healing over produced by the s^l abundant sap. 
t 8. T. (A.) balea'bica Dttf. The Minorca Holly. 

IJciaSiaitlom. D«r. Arb.,l.i>.Kt.: Don'iUUI., >.p. ir. 
S/pumuma- I- ^quMNIum ju. t Lam. Diet- 3. p. 14fi. \ I. iud«- 

rfauU WiM. emn. Si^ifL 8. HCanlirf la Link. 
Smtmrnt- Our M- W(. 
Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves ovate, acute, flat, shining, 

entire or spiny-toothed. IFmbels axillary, few- 
flowered, short. {Don't Mill.) An evergreen low 

tree. Minorca and Madeira. Height 10 it. to SO ft. 

in England ; in Madeira 60 ft. to 60 ft. Introduced 

in 1744. Flowers white; May and June. Drupe 

scarlet ; ripe in December. Decaying leaves yellow, 

dropping in June and July. 

A veiy distinct varietv of the common holly, readily 
distinguished at sight, by its yellowish green leaves, 
which are sharply acuminated, but vet^ slightly waved 
at the edges, and with few prickles. It la propagated by lu. i.m.|ii"1«ia«. 
budding or grafting on the common holly. 

t 3. /, opa'ca Aii. The opaque-/fai>ei/, or American, Holly. 

Sinumrma. ' ^grifbHmn' TalfiTri tiasl.' i'lor. 'rirjtm.) rici A^aODUtaa GrJivi. md WtOI. F>. 

Car. Ml. I dimkelbUurln Slechpulnia, Crr. i Agrirolla a FosUndl Quen^ Ilat. 
Entrningt. ThsplUeaf thiipMlnlii Aib. Brit., lit edit, toI. r,; tBAoarfig.iM. 
Spec, dua-., ^c. Leaves ovate. Hat, coriaceous, acute, toothed in a scalloped 

manner, spiny, and glabrous, but not glossy. Flowers scattered, at the 

base of onlv those branches that are a year old. Teeth of the calyx acute. 

Sexes dicecious. (Dec. Prod.) A beautiAil evei;green low tree. Canada 



XXI. ^quifolia'ces: /^lex. 161 

U> Cuolins. Height in Engluid 10 ft. to 20 ft. j in Carolina 00 ft. to SO ft. 
Introduced in 1744. Flowen white ; May and June. Drupe scarlet ; ripe 
in December, remaining on the treea all the winter. 
Fariety. 

1 I. 0. 2hiifioTa, I. laxifldra Lam., I. op^ var, JViitf., has the flowen 
on lootely branched pedundei, and the drupe yellow. Introduced 
in 181 1, Several other ntfieties are mentioned by Rafineeque. 



In America, Uui ■^ecie* w iqtplied to all the uks whtdi "^ 
the common hoUy ia in Europe. It iormi hedges ; is an 
ornamentHl tree or shrub in gardens; is employed for 

making birdlime; and the wo<xl la used in tiumery and ■ 

caUoetmaking, Propagatbn as in the cooiiiioq holly, ^ 

XUx ma^tUnka [fig. S25.), of which there is a small ' 



Hort. 8oc. Garden, promisCB to be a very T 

and tolerably oardy, as it stood the " »— iitj— 

winter of 1837-8 against a wait '' ""^ 

B, Ltaoet loolhed, lerraltd, or crenate, but nol tpiny, 

• t. I. Perado Ait. The Perado Holly. 



plant in the 
handsome sp 



a^rSrStp. N. Da Hun., t. l'i6.( BbL Cab., L MS., i *aiaar/lf.n». 

spec. 0iat., S/e, Le«vea ovate, with an entire acumen, 
or having very few teeth, shining. Umbels short, ax- 
illary, few^flowered. (Don't Abil.') An evergreen 
shrub. Madeira. H^ht in Eiuland Aft. to 10ft. 
Introduced in 1760. Flowers white or reddish ; May 
and June. Drupe large, red; ripe in October. 
Commonly treated as a green-house plant, but quite 
. hardy In the Hort. 8oc. Garden ; where, and also in se- 
i> reral other places, it etood the winter of I83T-8, without 
.™. ..r,—.. any protection, uninjurej. 

• 5. /. CASSi'tiB Ait. The Cassine-Ziilc, or broad-itaved Dahoon, Holly. 



162 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate-lonccolate, ^arpt; 
serrated, flat ; the midrilis, petioles, and branch- 
leta glabroua. The flotFers upon lateral corym- 
boaely branched peduncles. {^Dcc. Prod.) An 
evergreen shrub. Lover Carolina to Florida, 
in shady awaraps, Hei^t 6 ft. to 10 ft. Intro- ' 
duced in 1700. Flowers white ; August. Drupe i 
red ; ripe in December. 

The fruil is rather smaller than that of the com- 
inon holi^ ; it continues on the trees the must part 
of the winter, untouched by birds ; and, being of n 
bright red, and large in proportion to the leaves, 
which are about the siie of those of the common 
arbutus, the pknt makes a 6ne appearance, both in 
its native country and in Engbnd. Commonly pro- "' '"'" " 

pagated by seeds ; but it will also strike by cuttings, or It may be 
the common holly. 

• 6. /. anoustko'lia WUld. The narrow-leared IlolU 

limtOlatiaa. WlUd. EnuRl.. 1. p. 179. ; Dec. Trod., 9. f. 14. i 
S^mt^ma. '/.nmllfMII Wail. CaroLVl., S. Dalk; Uld Lsdd. 

Spec, Char., if-c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, sawed at 
the tip, rather revolute in the mar^n ; the mid- 
rib, petiole, and branchlets glabrous. Flowers in 
stalked lateral cymes. (_Dec. Prod.) An evergreen 
shrub. H^ght 6 ft. to 10 ft. Virginia to Ueor- 
gia, in swamps. Introduced in 1806. Flowers 
white; June. Drupe globular and red ; ripe in 



D 



A very handsome species, but not very c< 
There arc plants of it at Messrs. Loddiges, and in 
the H. S. Garden, under the name of /. myrtif&lio. „,. ,.„p_i 

1 7. /. TOMITO'RI* AU. The emetic Holly, or South Sea Tea 



Spte. Char., ifc. Leaves oblong or elliptic, 
obtuse at both ends, crenately serrated, and, 
with the branchlets, glabrous. Flowers in 
subaessiie lateral umbels. {lite. Prod.') An 
evergreen low tree. Carolina to Florida, along ' 
the sea coast. Height 10 ft. to 12 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1700. Flower white ; June and July. 
Dru)>e red, like that of the common holly ; 
ripe m December. 
Not very common in British collections : but 

there are plants of it in Loddiges's arboretum, ,^ ,,^, 

and in the garden of the Hnrt. Sue. 

C- Leavet guile entire, or nearhf to. 
1 « 8. /. Oahoo's Wall. The Dahoon Holly. 



^wdViHr. f. CteriofWIIM. Hdr.BhdI. I. 



xxt. ^qiiifolia'ce£ : pri'nos. 163 

EH^nvtap. _W)11d. Hon. Beml., t 51., under tha m™ irf /. Cmhu ; ourjtg. »M. from m plul 

^lec. Char^ ^. Leaves lanceolately ellipdml, nearly entire, almost revolule 
in the margin ; the midrib, pedole, ami brani^lets villauB. Flowers dis- 
posed in corymbose panicles, that are upon Interal and terminal peduncles. 
(Dec, Prod.) A beauttfiil evergreen shrub or low tree. Carolina to Flo- 
rida, in swamps. Height 8ft. to 10ft. Introduced in 1726. Fbwers white; 
May and June. Drupe red ; ripe in December. 
"Die leaves of this species ore very numerous, 

and resemble those ot Z«urus Bori>dtua. The 

plant is rare b British gardens, and seldom ripens 




imonlf liept in green-houses e 
e open au*. in the Mile Ei 
irith a head 30 ft. in diameter i aud which had stood there many years, with- 
out the slightest protection. 

Olier Spedri of Vlcx ore described by authors as natives of North Amenca 
and Nepal, some of which are introduced, and may probably be found hardy, 
but we can state nothing with certainty reapecting them. In this unus, as 
in most others coniaining numerous species whi(£ are not in generid cultira* 
tion, there is a great deal of uncerUinty. I. Caiiine, I. Tomititria and I. 
Da/iooji are probably the same species. 

Genus III. 



aa 



Btritiant. From prAut, uh unec u 
n, fmid prion, ■ i 

Gen. Char. Fhaert 6-cleft, heiandrous ; usually dicecious, or poljgamous 
from abortion. FniU with 6 nuts. In other respects the character is the 
■une as that of Tisx. (Z)™'. MiU.) 

Leavei simple, axillary, eistipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; oval or 
lanceolate, entire or serrated ; dying off* of a greenish yellow. Floweri 
on axillary pedicels, usually single, smell, mostly vrhite.— Shrubs, ever- 
green and deciduous; natives of North America. 



164 



ARBORBTUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



would form neat miniature trees. Propagated by suckers, or by cuttings of 
the young wood in sand under a glass, or by seeds. Common soil, kept moist. 
There is a close general resemblance among all the deciduous species, which 
leads us to doubt whether they are any thing more than varieties. 

§ i. Vrinoldes Dec. 



SecL Char, Flowers usually 4^—5- sometimes 6-cleft. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 16.) 
Leaves deciduous. 

a 1 . P. DEci'ouus Dec, The deciduous Winter Berry* 

Jimt(fleation. Dec. Prod., 3. p. 16. ; DonU lllill., 8. p. 90. 
Synonymet. /'lex srlnbldet AH, Hari. Kew. 8. p. 978. ; /Mex decldtu 
941. 




WaU, Fl, Carol 
Engrapimg. Our J^. 239. flrom a plant In tke Hort. Soc. Garden 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves deciduous, elliptic-lanceolate, 
tapered to the petiole, shallowly serrated; the midrib 
villous beneath. Peduncles axilWy ; those of the male 
flowers several together ; of the female ones, singly. 
Berries red. (Dec, Prod.) A deciduous shrub. Vir- 
ginia to Georgia, on rocky shady banks of rivers. Height 
3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1736. Flowers white ; June 
and July. Berries largje, crimson ; ripe in December. 

Plants of thia species are in Loddiges's nursery, under 
the name of Plex jirinoides. 

m 2. P. AMBi^GUUS MichjT, The ambiguous Winter Berry. 

Idenlifleaikm, Hichx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 9. p. 896. | Dec. Prod, 9. p. 17. ; 

Don's Mill.. 9. p. 90. 
Synomytne, Cas^ne carollniitna Wait. FL Carol, p. 949. 
Engra96»g9, WaU. Dend. Brit., t. 99. ; and our fig, 888. 

Spec, Char.^ ^c. Leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate at both 
ends ; both adult ones and young ones glabrous in every 
part. Peduncles of the male flowers crowded together in 
the lower parts of the branchleta ; of the female ones, 
singly. (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. New Jersey 
to Caroling, in wet sandy woods. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. 
Introduced in 1812. Flowers white; June to August. 
Berries red ; ripe in November. 

The leaves are subirobricate, serrated, acute at the apex, and 
the berries small, round, smooth, and red. There is a hand- 
some plant of thia species in the arboretum of Messrs. Lod- 
diges, which, in 1835, was 5 ft. high. It is of easy culture in any 
free soil ; and is propagated by $eeds, cuttings, or layers. 



Ut. PrtsMi dMtdvm. 




t88. P.uDbfcBW. 



§ ii. Ageria Dec. 



Sect, Char. Flowers usually 6-cleft. Leaves deciduous. (Dec, Prod,, 
ii. p. 17.) 

• 3. P, VBRTXCXLLA^us L, The whorled Winter Berry. 



Itlent^leathn, Lin. 8| 

Synonfpma, P. fiadl 

P.coofMus AfamcA 



Lin. Spec, 471. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. 17^ Don's WM.. S. p. 80. 
. padlf Uiiu Waid. Bnum, p. SM. s P. QmabyU IClchz. Fl. Bor. 
ramcA { P. pnmifMloi LvM, Cat. 



Amor. 8. p. 936. t 



XXI. ^auiFOtu\;E£ : pri'nos. 

I.M.i Dub.Ar 



id A. Ul. Awn III' 
S^m. Char-t l^c. Leares deciduous, othI. 
Date, seriBted, pubescent beneath. Male 
flowers in aiillary umbet-shaped fascicles ; 
the feniBle ones aggrecate, tbe flowen of 
both sexes S-parled. (Dec. Prod.) A de- 
ciduous thnib. Canada to Virginia, in wet 1 
woods. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced 
in 1736. Flowm white ; June to August. 
Berries r«d or crimson, turning purple ; ripe 
in November. 

There are two handsome plania of tills 

- ,-vj-. spedesin Loddiges'a arboretum, 7fl, hid), one 

nMH —i Mum of which u under the name of P, jmmiiolius. 

■ 4. P. utvioAWvi Ftirih. The tmootb-leatied Winter Berry. 

- - FlSeiH-Annr., l.j..MO.i D«.F™i..t p.lT.1 „ 
Ei^^^^)^!'''w£. Daod. Bilt., t. n. I ud OUF A|. IK. ' 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves deciduous, lanceolate, serrated, y 
the teeth directed forwards, acuminate ; glabrous on \ 
both Buriaces, except on the nerves beneath, where ' 
they are slightly pubescent ; upper aurfiice glossy. 
Flowers 6-clcfl ; the male ones scattered ; the female 
ones axillary, solitary, almost sesulc. {Dec. Prod.') A 
deciduous shrub. New York to Virginia, on the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. Htnght 6 ft, to 8 it. Introduced in 
IBIE. Flowers white ; July, Berries large, daA red ; 
ripe ID November. 

Tbc plant of this species in Lod- 

i^s's arboretum was 4 ft. hi^ in 

iB35. Readily distinguished by its 

somewhat coore succulent leaves and 

shoots, the latter, when young, tinged 

with ioA purple. 

m i. P. lancbola'tiis Parii. The lanceolate-Jmnrt' 

Winter Berry. 

IdtmtikaaiM. Punb H. Bqil. Am*r., 1. p. IT., DtcTni., Xt.n.; 

^fmomjfma. p. cvivUewU Zfin ; P. lAddui Korl. 

SivrnAw. Oiir.14. n6. fmni ■ plut In till Don. Soc. Gvd». 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves deciduous, lanceolate, remotely 
and very lightly serrulate, smooth on both suriaces. 
Male flowers aggregate, triandrous ; female ones mostly 
m pairs, peduncTed, and 6-cleft. (Dec. Prod.) A deci- 
duous shrub, Carolina to Oeotpa, in Ion grounds. 
Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1811. Flowers 
white ; June and July. Boriea small, scarlet ; ripe in 
November. 
HI. nwimMiM. Yiig pj^j [„ Loddiges's aitoretiUD is 8ft. high. 

} iii. ffmterlia Mcench, 



□a 



Flowers, for the most part, 6^jeft. Leaves permanent. (Dec. 



166 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




tSS. PrtaatRlkbK. 



ii 6. P. GLA^ER L, The glabroas Winter Berry. 

Identification. Lin. Spec., 471. ; Doc. Prod., 3. p. 17. i Don's Mill., 3. p. 20. 
Synonyme. Ink berry, Amer. 

Engraving. Our fy[' 338. from nature. The figure under this niune in Wats. Dend., t. 27., is that 
of F. corliceus Pursk, 

Spec, Char,^ Sfc, Evergreen. Leaves lanceolate, 
with wedge-shaped bases, coriaceous, glabrous, 
glossy, somewhat toothed at the tip. Flowers 
mostly three on an axiliarv peduncle that is usu- 
ally solitary. Fruit black. {Dec, Prod,) An 
evergreen shrub. Canada to Florida, in shady 
woods. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1759. 
Flowers white ; July and August. Berries black ; 
ripe in November. 

A low but very handsome evei^green shrub, which, 
in its native country, makes a fine show, when 
covered with its black berries. In Loddigjes's arbo- 
retum it has attained the height of 4 ft., with a regu- 
lar ovate shape, densely clothed with shining foliage. 

m 7. P, coriaV^bus Pursh, The coriaceous-Z^av^ Winter Berry. 

Identifleation. Pursh Fl. Sept Amer., I. p. 221. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 21. 
Svnongfme. P. sliber Wats. 

Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 27., and Hot.* Cab., 4M., under the name 
of P. glabor ; and out Jig. 289. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Evergreen. Leaf lanceolate, with a wedge- 
shaped base, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy, entire. Flowers 
in short, sessile, axillary corymbs, many in a corymb. 
{Dec, Prod,) A handsome, tall, evergreen shrub. Georgia, 
in sandy woods near the banks of nvers. Height 8 ft. to 
10ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers white; June and 
July. Berry black ; ripe in November. 

Vaiiet'iet, This species varies, with leaves broader, obovate- 
lanceolate, and acuminate ; and narrower, lanceolate, and 
acute. {Dec, Prod,) The broad-leaved variety appears to 
be that figured in Lod, Bot, Cab,, t. 450. 

The general aspect of* this plant is that of /^lex Dahoon. It is a handsome 
shrub, well deserving a place m collections. 

Other Specie* of Prinos. — P. d^hiut O. Don. and P. atomdriut Nutt. have 
been introduced, and, probably, some others; but we have only noticed 
those of which we have seen living plants, and which we consider to be 
tolerably distinct, though there are probably only three species of Prinos ; 
two of which are deciduous, and the other evergreen. 




t3S. AtiiMM tarihmn. 



Order XXII. iXHAMNA^CEiE. 

Ord, Char, Calyx ^— 5-cleft ; sestivation valvate. Corolla of 4—5 petals ; 
in some absent. Petals cucuUate, or convolute, inserted into the onfice of 
the calyx. Stamens 4* — 5, opposite the petals, perigynous. Ovary supe- 
rior, or half-superior, 2-, 3-, or 4r>celled, surrounded by a fleshv disk. Ovules 
one in a cell, erect, as are the seeds. Fruit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry 
and separating into 3 divisions. — Trees or shrubs, often spiny, and generally 
deciduous. {Lindl,) 

Leaves simple, alternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipules. 



XXII. AHAMNA^CE^E : ZrZYPHUS. 167 

deciduous or evergreen. Flowers axillary or terminal. — Chiefly natives of 
Europe or North America. 

They are ornamental in British ^rdens and shrubberies, chiefly from the va- 
riety of their foliage, and from their berries ; but some of them, as Ceanothus, 
from their flowers. They are all of easy culture ; and they are propagated by 
seeds, cuttings, or layers. The hardy genera in British gardens are six ; which 
are characterised as follows : — 

Zi^ZYPUvs Thtum, Petals 5. Styles 2 — ^3. Fruit an ovoid mucilaginous drupe. 

Nuts 1 — 3-celled. Seed compressed. A deciduous low tree or shrub. 
Paliu^rus Tovm. Petals 6. Styles 3. Fruit dry, indehiscent, girded with 

a broad membranaceous wing, 3-celled. Seed ovate. Spiny shrubs. 
BKRCHB^/i< Necker. "^etals 6. Style 1. Stigmas 2. Fruit an oblong dry 

drupe ; the nut 2-celled. A twining deciduous shrub from Carolina. 
7?iia'mnus Lam. Petals in some absent. Style 2 — 44-cleft. Fruit nearly 

dry, or berried, 2— 4-ceIled. Seed oblong. Shrubs or small trees, deciduous 

or evergreen ; chiefly natives of Europe, but some of N. America and Asia. 
Colle'tia Comm. Corolla none. Style ending in 3 teeth. Fruit a 3-ceIIed 

capsule. Spiny shrubs ; natives of Peru or Chile. 
Cbano^hus X. Petals 5. Styles 2 — 3, united. Fruit a dry berry, 3-celIed, 

rarely 2 — 4p-celied. Seed ovate. Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous, from 

North America. 

Genus I. 




ZrZYPHUS Thum, The Jujube. Lin. Sytt. Pentandria Di-Trigynia. 

Identificaikm. Tourn. Inst., t. 408.: Gaert. Fnxct., l.p. 43; Lam. 111., t. 185. { Dec. Prod., 2. 

p. 19& ; BroDgn. Mtea. RhaniM P- 47. 
Sunfmyme$. Jmubier, Fr. : Judendorn, Ger.i Giugglolo, Ilal. 
Verivation. From »wot|r, the Arabic name of the lotus. 

Gen. Char. Calyx spreading, 5-cleft. Petals 5, obovate, unguiculate, convolute. 
Stamens 5, exseited. Anthers ovate, 2-celled. Dish flat, pentagonal, ex- 
panded, adhering to the tube of the calyx. Ovary 2 — 3-celled, immersed 
m the disk. Styles 2 — 3. Frtat fleshy, containing a 1 — 2-celled nut. 
{Don's ATtlL, 2. p. 23.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 3-nerved. Flowers axil- 
lary. — Only one hardy species. A low tree or shrub from Syria. 

¥ 1. Z. vuLGA^Ris Lam. The common, or cultivated. Jujube. 

Jdent{fieation. Lam. III., 185. f. 1. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 19. ; Don's MiU., 9. p. 23. 

Sifnotwntes. Ahiimnus Zisvphos Liu. Spec. 283., Pall. JZ. Ro»$. 2. t. 99. ; Z. saUva De^f. Arb. 2. 

p. an., N. Dtt Ham. 1. 16., but not of Gert. ; Z. JUuba Mill. Diet. No. 1., but not of Lam. ; 

JiUubler cultlT^, Pr. ; Bnutbeeren, Ger.i Glugglolo, JUU. 
Engravings. Lam. Dl., 185. £ 1. ; N. Du Ham., 3. t. 16. { and omjig. 240. 

Spec. Char.^ ^c. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves ovate, retuse, denticulate, 
glabrous ; or, beneath, pubescent along the nerves. Prickles not any, or 
twin, one of them recurved. Drupe ovate-oblong. (Dec. Prod.) A deci- 
duous tree. The Sou^h of Europe and Syria. Height in the South of 
Europe 20 ft. to 3011. ; and in England 5 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1640. 
Flowers greenish yellow; August and September. Fruit blood-red oi 
safl^on ; rarely seen in England. 

Stem thick, cylindrical, somewhat twisted. The bark is brown, and rather 

chapped. The branches are numerous, pliant, armed with prickles, zigzag in 

their direction ; the prickles at the joints being two of unequal size, of which 

one is almost straight, and the other shorter and quite straight. The leaves 

are alternate and oval-oblong, somewhat hard and coriaceous. The flowers 

are small, axillary, of a pale yellow colour, with short peduncles. The fruit 

af 4 



168 ARBORETUM ET FBtlTICETVM BRITAKHICUH. 

M ovel-oblone, reseoiEtliiiE ihat of theoUve; at 
fint green, aAerwnrdi yellow, anit entirely red 
when ripe. The juice of the fruit is ubcu for 
making the jujube lozenges. The plane i> 
tolerably hardy ; having stood the winter of 
1837-e in the Hort Soc. Oonlen. It ie easily 
increated by cuttings of the roots, whether of 
young or old trees ; or bj suckers, which it 
throws up in the greatest abundance. Seeds 
of it may also be procured from Italy. 



but it is only hatf-hardy; and (he same may 
be said of i. tphta OaiiA, Z. JUxaota, and 
Z. bicirva, which are marked in some cata- 
logues as hardy. 



PALIITRUSI,. Thb PALiuaus, or CssrfT's r»OJtIf. Lm. Sytl. PtntiDdria 
Trig^nia. 
in Prod Fl. Nep,p.lB9.iDM.PTi>d, l.p. M-jDool 



Gen. Char. Co^ spreading, 5-cleil. Felait 5, obovate, convolute. Sbaneia 

5, protruding. ^ntAiTf ovate, 8-celled. ZJuA flat, pentagonal. Ovon 3-celled. 

StgUi 3. Fnat dry, indebiscent, expanding into a membrane round the disk, 

containing a 3-celled nut. (Ihi^x Mill.) 

Leaoei simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; nerved with spuies in the 

axils. FloiMrt axillary, greenish yellow. 

Two species are hardy, and very ornamental from their shining leaves, and 
abundance of rich greenish yellow flowers, which are succeeded by fruit of 
rather a singular form. Propagated by seeds, which they produce in England, 
in abundance. 

T S 1. P. ACtiLEiVus Lam. The prickly Paliurus, or Chriiet Thom. 
UcniMcaUim. Lun. IU.,t.aia.i Fl. Fr..<d.)., N(i.4DSI. I N. Du Him., 1. 1. IT. ; Doa'l MUI.,t. 

Svuiwwl. i*. ptUIOi Dun. Ci>¥n. 6. p. MS.: /■, uutrUll OtITt. Pna. l.t.O. t. S-t P.fUlgMl 
D.l>o» Prod. n. Kep. )m.i jmtmnui />iLiarui LM. Sprc. Ml.: Zdrpkui i^diami iriUd. 
SgrcJ. p. IISJ,, Slmi Bol. Mm. 1. 1993 ; ChlUI'l Thorn, or Run of Llbn, Gtmrt; E'rtn* de 
Chrjit/^on, PDrl^h.p«u:iV. , gHldBdter Jmlcndorn, Otr. j Glunolo uItiUcd. IuI. i XUb, 

]. \V. EM Hun.. I. I, i;. i Bot. Uu, I. ISM. ; tin p£e< of Ml 



ifrrarifuft- LKa. Ill-, i. Bid. i ^. Du Hun.. B. I. IT. : Bot. Mu., t- I'" 
ipcrlaii^otli In 1 young and u oldlUU. In Arb. Brtt., IK (djl.. tA. t. I I 

Sjicc. Char., S[c. Branchleta pubescent. Leaves ovate, serrulated, quite 
smooth, S^ierved, with two spines at the base, one straight, the other re- 
curved. Flowers in axillary crowded umbellules •, few in an umbellule. 
Wing of capsule crenated. {Don't SrJI.') A branching deciduous shrub, or 
low tree. South of Europe, and North and West of Asia. Udght15it.to 
:K)ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. 
Fruit yellow ; ripe in September. 

The fruit is bucklcr-shnped, flat and thin, but coriaceous. From the sin- 
gular B[>pearance of this fruit, which has the footstalk attached to the Duddle, 
which IS raised like the crown of a hatj and the flattened disk, which re> 



Txii. shamsacem: berchem/^. 



aenibtes its britn ; the Frcncb have given this tree the Dame ot porle-chapcau. 
On both shores of the MediterraaeBn, it mwt to about the same heigQt as 
the common hawthorn, on rockj sterile places. In manj parts of Italy the 
hedges are fonoed of this plant, as they are of the hawthorn in Britain ( it is 
also the common hedge plant ia Ams, Any common soil ; seeds, or cuttings 
of there ■ 




(G. Don.) A deciduous shrub. NeptJ, on mountuns. 

Height 10 it to 15 ft. Introduced in ]81». Flowers 

greenish je1low_, in axillary corymbs ; July and August, 

Fruit yellow ; ripe in September. 

The only tree which we have seen of this species is in 
the Chelsm Botanic Garden, where in general aspect it 
bears a close resemblance to P, aculeitus, of which it is in 
hU probability only a variety. 

Genus III. 








BERCHE^M/^ Neck. Tbb BEmcasMU. tm. SyiL Peotindria 
Monog^nia. 

U^ficaUom. Nnk. Elem., 1 p. 111. t Dk. Prod, 1. p. ». i Drongn. Uim. Rhvo,, it, ; Dc 



170 ARBOHETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANS'ICUM. 

Diik BimulBr, rather flat. Ovary half-iniincned b the disk, 2-cel1e(]. Sfyle 
short, bifid at the apex. Fnat dry, inJehiacent, 2-celled. (Don't JUili.) 

Leavet simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; Derred. Flatuert terminal, 
dicedoua by defect ; small, greenish yelloir. — A twining deciduous shrub i 
a native of Carolina ; of easy culture in any common soil, and propagated 
by seeds, or cuttings of the root. 

-I 1. B. voLU^BiLis Dec. The twuiing Berchcmia. 



IdtMj/liallim. Dk. Prod.. 1. n. n. ; Don'i Mill.. 3. p. IT. 

Svmmrma. Ahimuiu Toi!ibU\t LIm. JU. Sk^ 119.. Jocf. lam. liar. t. tStl. i ZlITpblu itaiaUUl 

If'iIJd.Spn. l.p.llOl.i (SBtfMtnSubiliiSeAia.S^il.i.p.iti.: Supple Jl». FirfiWaa. 
EngrtirbigK. Jacq. Icon. Rv., t-AM.; our JIg.iAS. In Aoirer, utd Jig. 2*4. In frulE, lYom rvicUR. 

^lec. Char,, ^c. Branches glabrous, rvthcr tinniDg. Leaves oval, mucronuc, 
somewhat waved. Flowers dicecioua. Drupes oblong. (Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous twining shrub. Ctuflina and Virginia, in deep swamps. Height, 
in America, 20 ft. to 50 il. j in British gardens, H (I. to 10 ft. Introduced in 
1714. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. Fruit violet-coloured; 
ripe in October. 
According to Pursh, thi^ species, in V^inia, ascends the highest trees, and 

is known by tbe name of Supple Jack. The dtans twine round one another. 



or any object which they mav be near. In British gardens, they aro seldom 
seen above 8 or 10 feet hign; probably from little attention being paid to 
place the plant in a deeji sandy or peaty soil, and to supply it with abundance 
of moisture in the growing sea«oii. In fine seasons it npeni fruiL 



HyyULJU 

AHA'MNUS Lam. Tbe Buckthorn. Lm. Syit. Pentindria Mono- 
gjnia. 



Gen. 0UIT. Calyx urceolate, 4 — 5^1eti. Slameni bearing ovate 2-celled an- 
thers. Diit thin, covering the tube of the calyx. Ovary free, 3 — 1-celled. 
Sty/fi 3—*, connected or free. Frail baccate, containing 3 — *indehlscent 
nuts. (Don'i Mill.) 

Learct simplo, alternate, stipubte, deciduous, sub-cvergrecn, or ever- 



XXII. bhamna'ces: aha'hnus. 171 

green ; fcather-nened ; the stipulea never converted into prickles. Flouiert 

axillary, aggregate, often unisexual. .fVuif not eatable, generally block, 

rarely red or yellow. 

Deciduous or evergreen shrubs, with the tips of their branches often bc' 
coming spines. One or tvo species haie the habit of low trees, and some of 
them ere sub.procunibent or procumbent ; all of them, except the latter, being 
distinguiihed by an upright stiff mode of erowth, and niunerous strong thorns 
in thetr wild state; whence the name of ram, or buck, thorn. The flowers 
in alt the species are inconspicuous ; but R. ^lal^nus and its varieties are 
most valuable evei^een shrubs, and several of the other species are orna- 
mental, both from their fohage and their fruit ; the latter of which is also 
usefiil in dyeing. All the species are easily propuated by seeds or layers, and 
roost of them by cuttings i and they will all grow m any soil that is dry. They 
all vary much in magmtude by culture, in common with most plants which, in 
a wild state, grow in arid soils. 

5 i, Marcorelia Neck. 

Sgmmfmri. AUnuiui uid JliUniui or Tonn. 

Sect. Char. Flowers usually dioecious, and 5-cleft. Fruit a berry, whh 3 
seeds, or, from abortion, 2 seeds. Seeds deeply fiirrowed, with the raphe 
in the bottom of the fiirrow. Leaves usually permanent { coriaceons, and 
glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 83.) 

A. ALATB'jtSUs Toum. Floivcn raeemaie, 5-cltft. Evergreen Shn^i. 
'» 1. R. ^LAT^HNus L. The Alalemus. 

Iilcniiacaliim. LlD. Saec.. Ml.; I>«. Prod., 1, T-^^i Don'* 

HUL.1.P.U. 
Snnvwi. jnairamFiiaitnt>em.Dlcl.tla.l.:A\iimM.IIal. 
Dfritai^m- Fnnn aitetiHii, m BoDBric Duae Adopted from DioH 

KngrovinfM. UILl. Diet-, t. 10. f 1.; N. Du HuD., 3. p> 43- t, 14, ; 

amdourjit. Mk 
Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves ovate-elliptical, or lance- 
olate, coriaceous, quite smooth, serrated. Flowers 
duxcious, disposed in short racemes. (Don't Miil.y 
An evei^reen shrub. South of Europe and 
North of Africa, Height 10 ft, to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1629. Flowersgreen, without any corolla; 
April to June. Beny black ; ripe in October. 
Vmietia. •*>■ ■"»=—'>«*-- 

■ R. A. 3 baiedrica Hort, Par, The Shfimnus rotundiftliuj of Du- 
mont. — Leaves roundish , We take this as the finit variety, a 
the species to be what is called R. 
A. latifblia, which is the commonest 
variety in British nurseries. 
** B R. A. 3 ^inica Hort. Par. (Our J^. 
246.) — Leaves ovate, a little toothed, i 
> R. A. 4 anguttifiHa. R. CIUbu Willd. 
(Mill. Icon., t. 16. fig. 2. ; and our 
j^. 247.) Leaves long and narrow. — 
This variety is so <]istinct, that it is by 
man; authors considered as a spedea. 
It IS of remarkably rapid erowth. 
There are two subvarieiies of it, the 
gold-striped, and the silver-striped ; 
bothof remarkably free srowth. ""' "■■'■'* 

■ R. A. 5J61m mocu/ufu.— Leaves blotched with yellov 

■ R. A. S Jolut a&reii. — Leaves edged with yellow- 




172 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



ii R. A. 7 foMt argSjiteis, — This variety, which is very conspicuous from 
the large proportion of the leaves which is white, is more tender than 
some of the others. It generally does best against a wall, and is well 
worth a place there, on account of its splendid appearance, especially 
in winter. 

In British gardens, this shrub is^ particularly valuable for the rapidity of its 
growth in almost any soil and situation, more especially the narrow-leaved 
variety. It is less injured by the smoke of coal than most other evergreens. 
The species, and all the varieties, are readily pro- 
pagate by cuttings, which are taken off in autumn, 
and planted in sandy soil, in a shady border, and 
covered with a hand-glass. As the roots are not 
very productive of fibres, when large plants are 
chosen, they should be such as have been reared in 
pots, in order that they may receive no check from 
removaL 

Skm 2. it. hy'bridus L'HSrU, The hybrid Alaternus. 

Identifleaiiom. L'H^rit. Sert., t. 5. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 28. ; Don's 

MU1.» S. p. 33. 
S^fumffme. B. borgundlaciu Hort. Par. ; B» fempervlrens Hor- 

fulttn. 
Bi^tnifiigt. L*Hirlt. Sort., t. 5. ; and onrjig. 348. 

Spec, Char., S^c, Leaves oblong, acuminated, ser- 
rated, smooth, shining, hardly permanent, rather 
coriaceous. Flowers androgynous. (Don's Mill,) 
A garden hybrid, a sub-evergreen shrub, raised 
fi'om R, alpinus, fecundated by R, i41at^mus, and 
forming a very distinct and desirable kind, which, 
in British gardens, grows to the height of 10 or 
12 feet. The flowers are green, and appear in May 

or June. 14S. Uti&mina hyiiridiu. 

B. 'Rh/mnus Dec. Flowers ifde/i, m Fascicles, 
a. JBranchlets terminating in a Thorn, 
It tk Z, R. catha'rticus L, The purguig Buckthorn. 

IdetU&taaion. Lin. Spea, 8S0. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 34. Don's 

MUl., 3. p. 80. 
SMMmynie. The White Thorn of the modem Greeks. 
JSngravings. Eog. Bot, t. 1G39. ; K. Da Ham., 3. 1. 10. ; the 

plate ortbis tpedes in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., toL t. ; and our 
>l^.349. 

Spec, Char,, 4rc, Erect. Leaves ovate, toothed. 
Flowers in fascicles, polygamo-dioecious. Berries 
4-seeded, rather globose. (Don's Mill,) A deci- 
duous shrub or low tree. Europe and Britain, 
in woods and thickets, on calcareous loamy soil. 
Hei^t 10 ft. to 12 ft.; in cultivation, 12 ft. to 
15ft. Flowers yellowish green, with very narrow 
petals ; May. Ber^ black ; ripe in September. 
Decaying leaves yellowish green. Naked young 
wood whitish. 

The flowers are, for the most part, hermaphro- 
dite, and in a wfld state abundant and clustered ; 
but in a state of cultivation they are fewer, and 
nearly solitary. The juice of the unripe berries 
is of the colour of 8afih)n, and it is used for staining 
maps or paper : they are sold under the name of 
French berries. The juice of the ripe berries, mixed with alum, forms the sap 





149* JUi4iiiin» CBtbirtlcui. 



XXII AHAMNAXE^: iiHA MNUS. 



173 



p. 3 



green of painters ; but, if the berries be fathered late in the autumn, the juice 
IS purple. Plants of this species attain uie height of 9 ft. in 10 years. 

m 4. R. TiNCTo^Rius Waldtt, The Dyer's Buckthorn. 

Waldst. et Kit. Fl. Bar. Bung., 3. p. 869. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 94. ; Don's Mill... 9. 

B. eardiotptemus WiOd. Berb. 
Hayna AbbOd., t. 97. and oar>^. 980.) 

Spec, Chttr.f ^c. Erect. Leaves ovate, crenate-ser- 
rated. Petioles vUlous. Flowers crowded, dioecious. 
Berries obcordate, 3 — 4-seeded. {DotCs ASU.) A de- 
ciduous shrub. Huneary, in hedges. Height 8 ft. 
Introduced in 1820. Flowers greenish yellow ; Bfay 
and June. Berries yellow ; ripe in September. 

A plant of this species, in the garden of the London 
Horticultural Society^ was, in 1834, 3 ft. high, after 
being 7 years planted. 

•* 5. R. iNFECTo^Rius L. The staining Buckthorn, or Avignon Berry, 






-berried, Backihom ; 
fiirbender Wegdom, Qtr. 
Ard. Mfoi., 78. 1. 14. ; N. Uu Ham., Vol. t. t. Tt. ; «id mtfig, 961. 

Spec. Ckar,f Sfc, Leaves ovateJanceolate, serrulated, smoothish. Flowers 
dioecious, bearing petals in both sexes. (DofCs Mill,) A deciduous, sub- 
procumbent shrub. South of Europe, m rocky places ; common about 
Avignon and the Vauduse. Height 2 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1683. Flowers ereenish yellow ; June and ^ Am 
July. Berry SUcelled, blaoc ; ripe m September. 

The root fixes itself so firmlv in the fissures of the 
rodLs, that the plant can scarcely be pulled up. The 
stem divides immediately into branches, that are very 
much subdivided, and form a very close head, the 
shoots having numerous spines, bodi terminating and 
lateral. The berries are used for dveing leather yel- 
low ; and the Turkey leather, or yeUow morocco, is 
generally supposed to be coloured by them. 

j( 6. R, SAXA^TiLis Ir. The Stone Buckthorn. 

Jdent^fieatimk, Lin. Sp., 1671.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 94. ; Don's Mill., 9. p. 81. 
Suwmnmea, S, longiioUos MOL Diet. ; Stein Wegdom, Ger, ; I^do Italiano. ItiO. 
Engrwi$»g$, Jaoq. Aoitr., t. 48. ; Hayne AbbUd, t. 96. ; Schmidt, Z. U 157. ; and our /(f. 959. 

Spec, Char.y S^c Procumbent, or erectish. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrulated, smooth- 
ish. Flowers dioecious, female ones destitute 
of petals. (Don^i MUl.^ A procumbent de- 4^ 
ciduous shrub. South of Europe, among V 
rocks, in Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Greece. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1752. 
Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. 
Berries black, containing three whitish seeds, 
each enclosed in a dry whitish membrane, 
which se()arate8, when ripe, into two parts 
with elastic force ; ripe in September. 




t5«. 



Miaul, R, J9uxiF0^LiC8 Poir, The Box-leaved Buckthorn. 

IdentifleaUon, Polr. Diet., 4. p. 468. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. 94. t Don's Mill., 9l p. 31 . 
Sirnomjfma. ? R, ftuxlfMlus Broi. FL Lm. 1. p. 301. ; L^ciom ftuxilMium Btmh. 
EmgrtnrtHgt, Da Ham., 3. t 3. No. 19. ; and our J^. 953. 

Spec* Char,f 4^. Diffuse. Leaves ovate, quite entire, mucronate, smooth. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETD.M BRITANNICUH. 

coriaceous, green on bodi Bur- 
focet. (Don't Mm.) A But>> 
evergreeu shrub. Spun, Italy, 
and tlie Levant, on hilfs. 
Height S ft. to 4 ft. tntrod. 
in 18S0. Flowers greenish 

r:llow ) June sad July. Berry 
black; ripe P. 
A verj neat shrub, of which 
tha« is a good specimen in the 
Chelsea ^tanic Garden, which 
is quite harJjr. 



icauon. UD. ovAc, m-i Itec 
L, 1 p. U. i Don-i UiU., 1. p. SI. 
i.j«d<=rA.a4. 

Spec, Char., ifc. Erect. Leaves linear, quite entire, 
obtuse, smooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. {Dmit 
MJi.) A dedduous shrub. Spain, on the lime- 
stone bills of Valenda. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced in I75S. Flowers greenish jellow ; Ma; 
and June. Fruit 7. 

Ibe red -wooded 



^>ec. Char,, ^e. Erect. Leaves linear, lanceolate, quite endre or sermted, 
smooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. Berries oblong. (Oon'f Mill.) A de- 
ciduous shrub. Mongolia and Siberia, near rivers. Hraght 6 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1823. Flowers greenish yellow ; July nnd August Berries black 
ripe in September. 

Variety. 

* R. £. S iif^wffninium Dec. Prod. 
2. p. S5., R. lya&Aea PalL Ft. 
Ron. t. 63., and our fig. 256., 
has the leaves narrow, smaller, 
and verv finely serrulated. Na- 
tive of Caucasus. 
Delights in a warm situation ; and 
in cold and humid places, Pallas ob> 
serves, it is never met with. The 
wood, on account of its hardness and 
red colour, is used by the Mongols 
for making their images; and the ber- 
ries, when macerated in water, afford 
them a deep yellow colour. The * * 

tM. ■.ajA.A)!^. plants jn ji^ ^^Id state, is a prickly "^ "■''"™""""°"- 

bush ! bnt, when cultivated, the spines no longer appear. 

b. BnmiAleU net Icnnmated h/ Spinet. 
• 10. R. DABo'Ricni PaU. The Dahurian Buckthorn. 



XXII. JJHAMNACE«: RHA'MNUS. 

Spec. Char., Sgc. Erect. Leaves oblong- 
ovate, Berrated, Bmootb, vein^. Flowers 
dicecioua, female ones with bifid stigmas. 
(^Doa't Miii.) A deciduous ahnib. Da- 
hurja, near the river Ai^aiaua. Height 5 ft. 
Introil. in 1817. Flowers greenish yellow; 
May and June. Berry black ; ripe Sept. 
The general ^pearance of the plant is 

that of S. cathJirticui, but it is without 

(honu. The wood ii red, and is called sandal 

wood by the Russians. 



Leaves obovate or ovale, serrulated, obliquely line- 
Bted with lateral nerves, acuminated or obtuse, smoothiah beneath, except 
■■ -"Tves. Flowers hermaphrodite or diacious. Pedicels l-flowered, ag- 
e. Calyxes acute. Fruit turbinate. (Dan'i MiU.} 
jduou* shrub. Hudson's Bay to Pennsylvania, in 
sphagnouB swamps. Height 
2ft.to4ft. in America! 6ft. 
to B ft. in Ei^land. Introd. 
in 1778. Fkiwers greenish 
yellow ; June and July. 
Berry black, fleshy, 3-seeded; 
ripe in September. 

a a R. a. 2 fiatiguloida 

Dec. «. franguloides K 

ArK:jLr.(N.DuHeni.3. 
Khi™*«.- I- 15.; our/g.S59.)- ^ , ,™,™. 

Leaves oval, serrated, 
pubescent on the nerves beneath. Canada to Virg'nia. Introd. IHIO. 
■ 18. S. ALPt'NUs Lin. The Alpine Buckthorn. 

E-utMmB. N.Duriim-.S.t.U. [ Bol. CXi., tTlon.i SdBiBWi.».t. l«.;UMpUtBoni«treetn 
jfcb. Ml,, tn>dll,n>l.T.|Uiilour 

jbi.m.uidiei. 



Spec. CXar., 4^. Erect, twisted. Leaves oval lanceolate, crenatfejwrrated, 
smooth, Iineated with many parallel nerves. Flowers dicecious, female ones 



176 ARBORETUU ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICDH. 

with 4-cIcftstigmB«.(Uon'iJUi!(.' 
A dedduous ihrub. Alps oi 
Switzerland, Dauphinf, vac 
CamioU. He^t 5ft. to 10ft 
Introd. 1758. Flowers greeDJsh 
May and June. Berries black 
ripe in September. 
Vtmely. 

has much larger leave) 

tbu) the Bpedes. ItformB 

when well growa, a tct] 

striking and liajidsani< 

olgect, from the large ain 

of ita leave! and buds. 
This U a ver; distinct specie* 
and remarkable for its twisted 
leavea. Here are strong plants ol 
both tbe spedei and the varietjr ii] 
the arboretum of Meaer*. Loddiges 
and of the Tftriety in the garden ol 
the Hort. Soc., which, in 10 jear» 
hare attained the height of 6 ft., 
with numerous suberect brandies, 
clothed with a purplish bark. 

-t 13. S. rvulLVS Li«. The dwarf Buckthorn. 

Mnx^oKton. Lin. M»nt.,». [ Don'iMUmji. » 
j wwiy j t. B. niptstrti Scop. Cora. 1. 1, i. ; Riuaa ipinsiud, Ilal. 
£iVaii*vi' Soi)^Cani..I.t.S. iScbmldlAr)i.,S.t.IM.; indonijtf.KI. 
^pec. Char., Sfc. Plant procumbent, much branched. 
Leaves orate, serrated, smooth. Flawcm herniaphro> 
dite. [Don't Miil.) A dedduous procumbent sDruh. 
MouDt Baldo m the Alps, and CamJola, in the fis- 
sures of rocks. Heists ft. Introd. 1732. The flowers 
greenish jellow within and red without, the stamens 
white; June and July. Berries black ; ripe in Sept. 
The plant bearing Ibis name in the London gardens we 
have never seen in such a thriving state as to enable us to 
decide whether or not it is truly distinct. 

$ ii. Fr&Tigula Tour 

HtmHflcttlim. ToDin. Imt., t. Ml.; Dec. Prod., ft 
pTiiri Don'! MUl., II. p. A 

Sect. Char, Fbwers hermaphrodite, rarely , 
dicecious,5-cleft, sometimes 4.cleft. Seeds 
smooth, compressed, with the hilum white 
end exserted, and with the raphe lateral, 
on the sur&ce of the inner testa. Embryo 
flat. Leaves membranous, caducous, 
quite entire, lined with approximate pa- 
rallel nerves, (_Don'i MUl.) 

T • li-R. ciB0UNi*'NU8 Wab. The Ca- 
rolina Buckthorn. 
amtttlraUoL Walt.Ciir.,p.iai.iI>ee.Prod..l.p.ST,, ' 
Don't UUI., S. p. n. 1 Tor. uid Onj, 1. p. 361 




xxn. RiiAMNA^c££: aha'mnus. 177 

spec. Char., ^. Erect. Leavea oval-oblong, olmOBt entire, smooth. Ufflbela 
■talked. Flowers hermaphrodiie. Berries globose. {Don't Miil.) A 
deoduous shrub or tree. North Carolina to Florida, on the banks of 
risers. Heirfit 6 ft. to B fl.. sometimes a tree 30 ft. to 40 ft. Introduced 
in 1819, Flowers greenish i Maj' and June. Berries black; ripe in 
September. 
In America this species, though usually a shrub in North Carolina, is in 

Georgia a considerable tree. Leaves 3 in. to 6 in. long, end 1 in. to 2 in. wide; 

sometimes acuminete, irregulerljr serrated ; sometimes the margin is waved. 

Fruit as large as a small pea, mostly S-aeeded. (Tor. and Gray.) 

m t 15. R. Fka'noula L. The breaking Buckthorn, or Berryiettritig Alder. 

/dn^llcaMM. I-ln. Spec., wa ; Don't Ull,. 1. p. 31. 

SfmrnfUHt. Vtrfrva Bourjino, Ansv noir, Ft. i gUller Wegdom, Brr. ; Also am, tlal. 

Oerititlat. Th> ume of Fnuguli, limking, li ^ipllBl to (bli tptcJH, from the brJlll«uu of 

fiumAw'. Ede- But., t. tM ; (Ed. Fl, Dan., 1. na. I th« plut or tlie ipadei [n Art). Brit, lu 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oval, quite entire, lineated with 10 or 18 lateral 
nerrea, and, aa well as the calyx, emooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. (Ihrt'i 
Mill.) A deciduous shrub, or low tree. Europe and part of Siberia, in 
woods and thickets ; not uncommon in England, but rare in Scotland. 
Height 3 ft. to 6 ft., wild ; Bft. to 10 ft. in British gardens. Flowers whitish, 
with purple anthers j May. Berries dark purple; ripe in September. De- 
caying leaves reddish green. Naked young wood dark 

S 1 R. F. 8 angiaii/pSa Hort. has narrower leaves. 

The plant of this species in the Horticultural 

Society's Garden is very distinct ; and, in 1835, 

was 6 ft. high, after being 10 years planted. 
Branches numerous, alternate, leary, round, smooth, 
and blackish. From a quarter to half an omice of the 
inner bark, bcMled in small beer, is a sharp purge. The 
bark dyes yellow, and, with a prtfnrarioo or iron, black. 
The flowers are particularly grateful to bees. The 
charcoal prepared from the wood is preferred by the 
makers of gunpowder to any other. us. n.Fib<r>ii-' 



EnfToiSgi. L'Htrll. Sert,, C 1. 8. i Dend. nrlt., L 11. : W<11<I. Ab. 
tIid.,I.T<ia; tfaeplilaorthlttnolD Alb. Brit,, IRhUI 'toI. v.: «nd 
our Jig. KE. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leave* elliptical, acuminate, quite 
entire, lineated with 12 or 15 lateral nerres ; younger 
leaves and calyxes villous. Flowers hermaphrodue. 
{Don't Miil.') A deciduous shrub, with tlie habit 
of a low tree. Azores, on the mountains of 8l 
Michael. Height 10ft. to 15ft. Introduced in 1778. 
Flowers greenish ; July. Berries black or red, both j 
colours appearing on the same plant at once ; ripe in \ 
September. 

The leaves ere larger than those of any other species, 
exc^t R. alplnus grandifolius ; and the whole plant 
is remarkable for its robust appearance, and the con- 
spicnous (^iposite nerves which proceed from the middle 
of the leaves. It deserves a place in every collection. 



Fiingula. 



178 ARBORETUM ET rRCTICETUM BRITANMICUH. 

Other &>eciei of RAiiinnui. — There are Tarioua kinds described by autbora, 
several oi which are said to have been introduced, but they are either lost or 
synonymous with kinds already described. Among those which remain to be 
introduced are some which promise to be useful additions to this genus ; such 

■ R. perncifolhu Bert. (Moris. Btiqi. Bard. Eg. S.) — An erect shrub, with 
lanceolate, mmutely crenated leaves, pubesceot on the under side, and on long 
pe^les. Calyx free. Sardinia. Height 10 ft. to ISft. March and April. 

» JL tonygdMmu Desf. Atl. 1. p. 18B. — A native of the North of Africa, in 
the fissures of rocki, where it grows to the hei^tof 3 ft., and produces bernes 
used for dydng yellow, like those of JI. sai&tilis. 

■ R. pnmifobiu Bmith Prod. Fl. Grwc I. p. 157. — A naUve of Crete, on 
the highest mountBins,andprobab1yonlyBVBrietyof one of the preceding sorts. 

■ K. SbtAorpiinaa Schuil. Syil. 6. p. 286. ; R. pub&cens Sitth. Fl. Grac. 
. j^ native of Mount Parnassus, and nearly allied to R. alpinus and B, 

PKTth'Aaiu Dec. Prod. 2. p. 85. S. nlnifolius of Pursh, but not of 

L'Hiritier. (Hook.Flor. 

Bar. Am.l. p. 123. t.43.. 
I and our fig. 867,)— A 

shrub growing to the 
k height of 6 ft., native of 
^ North America, on the 
SbanksoftheKoorkoosky. 
' a R. oleifiUut Hook. 
' FLBor.Am. I. p.lSS.t. 

44., Tor. & Gray, 1. p. 

200., and j^. 868. from 

Hooker, is an eve^reen 

shrub, with coriaceous . 

^ \ leaves, unarmed shoots, 

U and ^e flowers small, in 

(r axillary crowded panidea. 

tCT. lOAtuMFmmm: It is a nativC of the HOTth- ,5, M,iimnMlil\^ 

west coast of California, 
where it forms a handsome shrub from 6ft. to 18 ft. high. 

* R. umAelldliu Cav. Icon. 6. p. Z. t. 504. — A shrub, growing 6 (t. high in 
Mexico ; was raised in IS39 b the Hort. Soc. Oarden, from s«mIb sent tiomo 
by M. Hartw^ ; but it is probably only half-hardy. 

R. Auiritblius Null., R, crdceus Ifuit., R. lanceoUtus Purtk, R. parvifdlius 
Tor. ^ Gray, R. ferrugineus Nutl., R. califdrnicus Eioh., and R. tei^nsis 
Tor. ^ Gray, are described in Tor. and Gray's Flora of North Anvenca ; R. 
pubescent Fl. Grac, and several others, are described in Don's Milter, and 
m the first edition of this work. 

Geniis v. 

□ 

COLLE'TM Com. Thr Collbtia. Lm. Syil. Pent^dria Moaogjnia. 

uolh Nor. Cm. Aratr.. J. p. M. j Doc, Prod,, a.p, H, Dm'. Mill,, s, p,M. 

by (ioDtiiiirloIi, <n tiDDOur of Coliel, hll frlond and conntrynun, vho not* 



Dili short, cup-shaped, adnate to the bottom of the calyx. Ovary free, 
3K:elled- Style simple, elongated. Stigma 3-lobed. Fruit gnardedat the 



XXII. JIHAMNACEf: COLLET/^. 



179 



base bj the permHnent tube of the aiyx, tricoccoua, dehiscent. (Don't 
Mm.) 

Laznei, when present, limple, opposite, stipulate, deciduous ; very minute, 
and quite entire. Kouwrj axillary, fascicled, or racemose; and, when the 

leaves are absent, riaisg &om beneath the base of the spines Much> 

branched shrubt, with divHricating, decussately opposite branches, and spiny 
branchlets. 



Jt 1. C. ho'rrida Lmdl. 

tr« GUI. CI JJout. lo&it. Mil. 1, It 



The bristl]' CoUetia. 



i^Drc. Char., ^c. Spines rigid, simple, or much branched. Peduncles mostly 
in pairs. Calyx ovate-oblong. Stamens sessile. {Lirtdi.) A spiny shrub, 
evergreen, Irom the colour of its branches and branchlets. Chili and 
Mendoza, on mountains. Height 3 fl. to 4 ft, Introduced in IHSS. 
Flowers greenish white, stained with dull purple ; May to July. Berry 
wbidsh, about the size of a small pes ; ripe in Sept. 
The young branches are furnished with " bright 

green sawed scales" as leaves : they are placed oppo 

aite, and at the base of each is a smell stipule. The 

leave* end stipules speedily lall off, " leaving the 

branches to act as leaves, by the lud of their soft par- 
enchyma, with which they are clothed in the form of 

bark." Hence, plants of any size appear one mass of 

naked spiny green branches in winter ; and, 



I spu , „ 
having leaves and flowers all over the points of 
branchlets. It is a most desirable addition to 



evergreen slu-uba ; and, as it escaped the 
1837-8, it may be safely recommendeU as hardy, for cli- 
mates not much colder than that of London. It grows 
ID common gwden soil, in a dry situation, fully exposed 
to the sun. It has not yet been propagated otherwise 
than by Chilian seeds, which are frequently received 
under the name of Retaiulla. We have no doubt, 
however, that it. might be increased by layers, or by 
cuttings in sand under a glass. 




of C. horrida ; though the former has white flowers, and the latter hronder 
leaves than those which we have described. They are considered more [en- 
der than C. hdrrida ; but this may possibly be owing to the plants having been 



lunger. C. 'E/phednt Vent. Choi: 
le RttaUUla fi^edra Brong.) u 



t. I6.(the AhamnusS'phedraiToniA., and 

— r - 0-, Jid to have survived ttio criterion winter 

>t Liverpool. In ^.270., a r«resente C. ulicina; b, C. £'phedra {Rtta- 
nilla f phedra Bnmg.') ; and c, C. spinosa. 



180 



ARBOKETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Genus VI. 

I I 

C^ANO^THUS L. The Cranothus, or Red Root. Ian. Si/tt 

Pentindria Monog^nia. 

IdciUifleaHon, Broogn. M^m. Rham., p. 68. ; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer.« 1. p. 124.; Dec Prod^ 1. p. 81. ; 

Don*! Mill., a. p. 37. 
Svnonyme*. jRh&mnui ipedes L., Jmm., Lam. ; Ctenotbe, Tr. ; Sakebbaum, Ger. 
DeripotioH. From keanotkms. a name employed by Theophrattoa to designate a iplny plant, derlred 

A-om kedt to cleave : the modern genui has, noweTer, nothing to do with the plant of Theophraitui. 

The English name. Red Root, is given to the plant in America, fttnn the red colour of the rootsb 

which are of a large sise in proportion to the brancbeik 

Gen. Char. Calyx with a subbemispherical tube, and 5 connivent sesments. 
Petalt 5, unguiculate, cucullate, deflexed. Siament with ovate 8-ceTled an- 
thers. Ditk spongy, annular. Oway spherical, girded by the disk, 3-ceUed. 
Sfi/iei 3, diverging, terminated by small papilliform stigmas. Fruil tricoc- 
cous, girded by the circumcised tube of the calyx. (DotCm Mill.} 

Leavet simple, alternate, stipulate, persistent or deciduous ; ovate or ellipti- 
cal, serrated or entire. Flowert terminal or axillary, in elongated racemes. 
— Shrubs, natives of North America, very ornamental in British gardens, 
and easily propagated by cuttings of the young wood, planted in sand, and 
covered with a nand-glass. Most of the species produce seeds freely in 
British gardens, and they all grow in any common garden soil. 

1. C. AMBRiCA^NUs L. The American Ceanothus, or Red Rooi; or New 

Jeney Tea. 
JJn. Spec., 981. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. SI. ; Don*! Kill., 2. p. ST. ; Tor. and Gray, 

•nd om Jig. 971. 

Spec. Char.^ S^c. Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrated, pubescent beneath. 
Thyrse elongated, axillary, with a pubescent rachis. (lJon*s Mill.) A de- 
ciduous suffirutescent low shrub. Canada to Florida, in woods and copses. 
Height 1ft. to 3 ft ; in British gardens, 2ft. to 4ft. Introduced in 1713. 
Flowers white ; June to August. Fruit black ; ripe in September. 

Varieties, Torrey and Gray describe three varieties, 

C. a. 2 Pitcheri, C7. a. 3 her- 
b^ceus (C. perennis Punk, C. 
o virtus Desf.)^ and C. a. 4 
interm^ius (C. intermedins 
Purth, Jig. 271.) ; but we 
scarcely think they are worth 
keeping apart in collections. 

Stems shrubby, or suffiruticose. 

Leaves 2 in. to 3 in. long. 

The leaves and stems of the 

plant are pubescent ; and the 

flowers, being produced in great 

numbers together, are very orna- 
mental. They are succeeded bv bluntly trianeular cap- 
sules ; and, about London, in fine seasons, the seeds 
ripen. Any soil that is tolerably dry. Seeds or cuttings. 
Tne leaves of diis plant, dried, were used by the Americans as a substitute 
for Chinese tea, during the war of independence. 

A « 2. C. AZU^RBUS Desf. The azurejiowered Ceanothus, or Red Root, 

Identifleatioit. Desf. Cat., 1815, p. S3S. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 81. ; Don*s Mill., 9. p. 37. 
Smnomume: C. cariOeus Li«. Gm. et Spec, 1816, p. 11 . ; C. bicolor frou. in SchmU, S^ 7. p. 68. 
Sngravimgt. Hot. Reg., t. 991. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., 1. 1 10. » and our >^. 978b 



Idetttificati&m, 

1. p. 964. 
Emgrmitigi. Bot. Mag.. 1. 1497. 




Ca. InMrmMtafc 




xxii. abamna'cejs: ceano'thus. 181 

f^wc. Char., ^c, Lesvea ovate-oblong, obtuse, Bculelv aerrateil, siiKKitb abovp, 
tuMryand downy beneatli. Thyne eloi]guted,axilkry, with a downy rachis. 
PetUceU imooth. (i)on'f Jl^.) A sub-evergreen shrub. Mexico. Height 
6ft. to 10ft. Introduced in 1916, Flowers bright blue; May to Sep- 
tember. Fruit black, enclosing 3 secda ; npe in October. 
ratiels. 

* ■ C. a. 2 iR/crWdiuf, C, intennedius Hort., has the 
lu^it of C. aziireus, with pole flowers, lUie those 
of C. americ&nuB, varying with djflereat shtideit of 
blue. It was raised by Mr. Masters of Canter- 
bury, from seeds of C. az^reus tecundated by C. 



A Tery handsome shrub, proliisely covered with brilliant 
celestial blue flowers in large panicles. In Mexico its bark 
is considered as a febrifuge. It is the most robust-growing 
neciea <rf' the genus, attaining, in 3 or 4 years from seed, 
tne hei^t of 5 or 6 feet, or more, against a wall. It was 
at first treated as a green-house plant, but lately it bas been 
found to be nearly as hardy as the North American species. 
In the winter ot 1837-8 (bese plants were greatly injured, 
hut none of them killed. North of London the plant is 
Leas vigorous. 

a * 3. C. (a.) cbtrsiplo'bus Etch. The ThjTse-flowered Ceanothus. 

/dnudbcUn. Eixh.ia Han. Aad. St, ■PMantmtgfltX) ; Book. Fl. Bor. Am., 1. b. 1». i Dod'i 

MUl., 1. p. i;. I Tst. ud Onj, I. p. »& 
jHHiqiiiK. C OTllni ejtanu Boodk, BamKium, f- 
Smgrmtitit. OarJIi. , la p. 

^ee. CAar., ^. Leaves oval, 3-nerved, serrulated, smooth. Stem many- 
angled j panicle thyrsoid in the axillary branches. (Dtm'i MUL) A sub- 
evergreen shrub, or small tree. Monterey, Upper CHlifoma, and north- 
west coast of North America. Height in America 5 fl. to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in ?1B30. Flowers bright blue; May to November. Fruit black; 
ripe about a month after flowering. 

In its native country, in favourable situations, this species becomes a small 
tree, with a stem sometimes as thick as a man's arm, and strongly angular 
branches. In British gardens it forms a free-flowering highly ornamentui 
ahrub, with taucli of the habit of C. aiilreua ; from which it chiefly differs 
in faaviug the Sowers in r close, instead of in an elongated, thyrse. Nut- 
witbftanding tliis difference, we con^der it as only a variety of that species. 
* a 4. C telutiVl'b Song. The velvtly-ieaved Ceanothus. 

Xngrmwdii!'- Uook.Floi. Bor. Anwr^V. t.4G. ; indour^! Z74. 

^lec. CAar., ^c. Branches somewhat pendulous. 
Leaves oiiiicular, elliptical or elliptical ovate, obtuse, 
subcordnte, glandularis crcnate, serrulate, coria- 
ceous, glabrous, and ehming (as if varnished) above, 
velvety, canescent, and strongly 3-ribhed beneath. 
Panicles axillary, elongated, on rather long pe- 
duncles. (Tor. and tirag.) A shrub, probably 
sul>evei]green. North.west coast of North America, 
on subolpine hills. Height 3 ft. to 8 ft. Not intro- 
duced. Flowers white. Fruit dry, 2 — 3-Eeeded. 
This is apparently a very desirable species ; and, as J 

it is so abundant as to cover the whole declivities of ^ 

hills, fonning thickets very difficult to penetrate, we 

have no doubt that it wilt soon be introduced. '*' '' "^''"'"'' 

firenchcB nearly glabrous. The leaves abound with 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM, 



B Doug, llic Ilill-ude Ceanothus. 



f^ec. Ckar^ ^e. Branches decumbent, round, anil 
■moothish. Leaves orate or elliptic, somewhat 
clammy, glEuidular,BerTHtC[l, upper surface shining, 
tmder surface corered with adpreased bairs, S- 
nerved. Sdpules awl-shaped. Paniclea axillar;. 
(Knowlet atuHVeilcoll.) A hardy.cTei^een, lor, 
decumbent shrub. North America. Height 1 fl. 
Introduced in 1827. Flowers white, produced 
in great abundance ; June and July. Fruit 
brown; ripe in September. 
Layers, which root readily, or seeds. 

Olhffr SpeiMi of CmnoMiu. — C. ovitus and C. 
IntermUius, we have seen, on the authority of 
Torrey and Gray, are only varieties of C. americtknuBi 
and we have no doubt that this will be the cage 
with C. ovftlis, C. sanguineus, C. oreeinua, end 
other species described by authors. In short, there 
appears to us no assignable limits to the sports and 
hybrids that nay be prodneed in this genus. 




Order XXIII. HOMALINA'CE^. 

OjtD. Char. Cafyi funne1-shiq>cd, its tube usually adnate to the ovaiy, its 
limb with 5 — 15 lobes. Pelalt insetted into the calyx, as many as its lobea, 
alternate with them, smaller than they, and deemed by some an inner whorl 
oflobcs of the calyi. G!andi present in front of the segments of the ealyi. 
SlanicHi arising from the base oF the petals, either singly, or in threes or 
sixes. Anlheri S-cfllcd, opening longitudinatly. Ovary 1-celled, with nu- 
merous oTulen. Sh/lei 3 — 5, simple, Fndl berried or capsular. Seedi 
small. {Lindl.) — l^ees or shrubs ; natives of South America, 

Lemei simple, alternate, with deciduous stipules, sub-evergreen ; toothed 
or entire. Flowen axillary, in spikes, racemes, or panicles. — The spedes in 
British gardens belong to the genera Aristotelia and Azara (the latter rather 
tender), which are thus contradisdnguiabed : — 

Aristotb'lm L'H^t. Corolla of 5 petals. Stamens IS — 18, polyadel- 
phous. Fruit a globose, free, 3-eelled berry. Cells 1— 9-seeded. 

Aza'r^ R. et p. Corolla none. Stamens numerous. Fnut a globose N 
celled, 5-seeded berry. 

Genus I. 

y 

ARISTOTE'L/J L'Herit. Thb Aristoteli*. Lm. SyU. Polj'adapllia 
Polyfindria. 

SHatificatlim. L'ltitll. Stirp., p. 31. ; Dk. Prod., 1. p. M. i Don't Mill., 9. p. GS. 
Dtrltalion. Nmned in connianontloii o( ArliuUt. ths nlvbratml philoHipfaer mai ulunllK. 
Gen. Char. Calyjc campanulate, profoundly fi-cleft. PetaU 5, inserted in the 



XXIII. HOMALINACE^: ARISTOTE^L/^. 183 

base of the calyi, anJ Blternatinj with its lobes. Sametu 15 — 18, gene- 
rally 3 or 4 in each bundle, placed m rrouCof the lobes of the calyx. AnlMrri 
opniiDg bj tTo porea at the apex. Ovaiy Tree. Stulei S, somewhat 
conne4^ed at the base. Berry globose, 3-celled. SceJi angular. (Don'i 

FlototTi in axillary racemei, 

■ * 3 t 1. A. M^caui Vnirit. The Macqiii Ariatotelia. 

9tln.,p.ll. 1 Dtt Prod., t. p. ML i Doo'i Mm., 1, p.U. 
«A.rt P. A Per. *«^- ife. J A. MiftU In dec trm!.. ». p. M. 

rol'.'T.iUiJourJlf.WS.' " ■"•"■■ 

^see. dor., j-c. Caljx deeply 5-cleft. Stylet 3, somewhat connected at the 
base. A aub-erergreen ehrub, or low tree. C^ili. Hdght in firitiah gar- 
dens 7 — 18 ft. Introduced in 1733. Flowers small, green, purplifih, and 
yellow ; May and June. Berry very dark purple ; ripe in September. 

» m A. M. S/iHii variegitU. — The variegated-leaved Hacqui Aristotelia. 



In Chili this plant forms an evergreen shrub, with diflViae branches, growins 
to the height of 6 ft. The flowers are not very showy ; but they are succeeded 
bv berries about the uze of a pea, very dark purple, and at length becoming 
black, iriilch are add and eatable. In British gardens, it forms a sub-ever- 



184 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



green slirub or low tree, of very vigorous growth ; so much so, in a young 
state, that, from the shoots not being maturra, they are frequently killed down 
to the ground, and th^ foliage more or less injured. Notwithstanding this, the 
aristotelia frequently flowers, and even ripens fruit ; and, in all probability, 
if the tree were planted in dry and rather poor soil, so as to grow slowly, and 
not make more wood every year than it could ripen properly, it would attain 
a large size, and form a very handsome hardy ever- 
green shrub or tree. The plant grows vigorously in 
any common garden soil, producing shoots 3 ft., 4 ft., 
or 5 ft. in length when young ; and it is readily pro- 
pag^ited by cuttings or by layers. 

Oiher Spedet ofAmtoteHa. — One has been raised 
in the Chelsea Botanic (harden, from South American 
seeds, which Mr. Dillwyn found to stand the winter 
of 1837-8 better than A. Mdcquu 

m Azam dentdta R. & P., Don's Mill. i. p. 257. 
(Bot. Reg. 1. 1788., and our^^. 277.) is an evergreen 
shrub or low tree, growing to the height of 12ft. in 
Chili. It. stood 8 years m the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
against a wall, and, though killed by the winter of 
1837-8, it maj^ yet ultimately prove tolerablj^ hardy. 
A, integrifoliay if a different species, may possibly be found hardy also. 




t.7. Aihra denUte. 



Order XXIV. ANACARDIA^CEJE. 

Jdent^fleaOom, Liiidley, In Introd. to N. S. 

Synonmnes. 2>»rebliitULce«^ tribe I. Anacardida R. Br., and trtbe 8. Sumaekinea Dec. Trod- 
2.66. 

Ord. Char* Flowers generally unisexual. Caij^x usually 5-parted. Petals 
equal in number to the divisions of the calyx, cohering at the base when the 
disk is absent. Stamens same number, or twice that number. IHsk^ wl\en 
present, annual. Ovarium usually solitary. Sfyles 1 — 3, sometimes wanting. 
Fruit indehiscent. (Lindi,) — Low deciduous or evergreen trees, natives of 
Asia and Africa. 

Leaves simple or compound, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; 
without pellucid dots. Flowers terminal or axillarv, in panicles, with bracts. 
— The hardy species belong to the genera /^tacia, i2h(is, and Duvaua, 
which are thus contradistinguished : — 

PisTA^ciA L. Flowers dioecious, apetalous, amentaceous. Stigmas 3. Drupe 

dry, containing a 1-celled, 1-seeded nut. 
i7uu^s L, Flowers polygamous. Styles or stigmas 3. Drupe nearly dry, 

contfuning a L-cell&i, 1 — 3-seeded nut. 
"DvvAV^A Kth. Flowers monoecious or dioecious. Styles 3 — i, short. Drupe 

containing a coriaceous 1 -seeded nut. 

Genus I. 




PISTA^CIA L. The Pistachia Tree. Lm. Syst. DioeVia Pent4ndria. 

Ueniiflcatkm. Lin. Gen^ 1108. } Dec. Prod., 2. p. 64. ; Don*a M1U.» 2. p. 61. and 65. 
SMMM^ymr. TIereblnthiu Juts. 

Jjerivatiom. From the Greek word Pistakia, derived from PtttiaUffm, tbe name of a dty ; or from 
the AraUc word Fomttaqt the Arabian name of Plsticia vira. 

Qeft, Char, Flowers dioecious^ and without petals ; disposed in amentaceous 



TXIV. ANACARDIA'cEX : PISTACIA. 185 

ricenii»,eM:h scale with one Bower. CtdytS — 5-cleft. Slameiu 5,iaaened'mto 
B caljidne dufc, or into the calyx ; wt^ 4-<omered, aliiioBt seuile, anlhen. 
Otaiy I — 3-ceUed. SltgrnaM 3, and tbickish. Fndt a. dry otbEc drupe ; nut 
bony, and uniaUv l-cetFed, with a single seed affixed to the bottom. Co/y> 
ledoBt thick, fleshy, oily, and bent back upon the radicle. — Small treee, 
natiTes of the South of Europe and Asia. 

Leave* compound, inpari-pinnate, deciduous or evergreen ; dying off of 
a beaudlul reddish purple; young shoot* tinged with purple. 

t ]. P. vs'ra L, The true I^Btachia Tree. 
1 Dk. Prod., l.p. «. I Ddd'i Mill.. 1. p. S9. 
m Uni. Krw. i FlitivMw, Fr. ; Pliladmbuini, On-.; FIimccUb. 

Du Hun.,*, t. IT-i mdoarj^. RS. 

^>ee. Char., 4c. Leaves deciduous, impaii-pinnate, of 3 — 5 leaflets, rarely of 
I ; the leaflets ovate, a little tapered at the base, indistinctly tnucraaate at 
the tip. (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous tree. Syria. Height 20 ft. Introduced 
in 1770. Flowers unall, brownish green j April and May. Fruit reddish, 
an inch loug, ovate ; ripe in Syria in September, rarely seen'in England. 

yarieliei. The following are considered by 



trtjotia Lin. 



I P. 0. 3 marionam Bmc. Hub. L U. 603, 

F. reticulata WiUd., has [nnnate 

leaves, the leaflets baving prooiinent 

veins. U. 8. 
Cultivated in the South of France, and in 
Italy, for its Gruit; the nut of which ia some> 
times eaten raw, but more frequently in a dried I 
state, like almonds. Li British gardrais, the tree 1 
is not much planted, from its being generally 
sil^powd to Inquire a wall ; but, m favourable 
situations, it will grow as a standard or a bush '« 

in any common garden soil, and may be propa- 
pted dther by nuts procured from abroad, or by cuttings. 

1 8. P. T^bebi'ntdus Lm. The Turpentine Ustachia, or Venetian or Chian 

Tarpentme Tree. 
UtMi/kallim. Lta. Bfte.. 14U. : Bte. Tiod., 9. p. 64. ; Uon'i MOL, t. p. es. 
Sf m ^ mm T. Tslilrlt Tmrn. Imu. "79. i F. lin ItOi. Did. No. t. : rUucblcr 

TspnUn PtiUda, Orr. i Tcnblnto, lUt 
Emtrattatl. WoadT. Med. BdL. lit, I. lU. ; mod oar Jig, 379. 



Date. (I)ee, Prod.) A deciduous tree. South of 
Europe and North of Africa. Height 30 ft. In- 
troduced in 1 656. Flowers dull yellow and crimson j 
June and July, Fruit dark blu^ hardly bigger than 
alargepea. 

): P. T. 2 tpfua-ocirpa Dec. — Fruit larger and 
rounder than that of the species. 
The general appearance of the tree is that of P. 
?en, but the leaves are larger, and the fruit only a third 
of the nie ; the leaflets are, also, lanceolate, instead of 
beiDB subovate. The red hue of the branches, espe- 
cially wheu yotwg, is very beautiful ; aod the leaves ere 




186 ARBORETUM ET fRUTICETCU BRITANNICUM. 

also more or less tinged with red. The fruit ii round, not succulent, and 
somewhat furrowed ; at first ereen, and afterwards reddish ; but black, or of a 
verj' dark blue, when ripe. The leaves and flowers emit a very resinous odour, 
which spreads to a cooiidersble distance, more especiallj at sunset, when 
the Jew is tolling, after a very wann day. The substance called Venice 
or Chian turpentine is the resin which exudes trom this tree. In British 
gardens, the tree is not verv conunon, though it is generally cansidered as the 
hardiest of the genus; and, with F. vkro, ma; be planted in warm. sheltered 
situations m the open border. 

I 3. P. Lbsti'scvs L. The Mastich Tree. 
UrmtUlaMan. Lin. Spec, IMO. ; Dk Prod., *. p. 6S. ; Don'i IfUl., i. p. 66, 
/•yrmhti. Woodi. Mad. Bot. t. ■«.< ud oorA MO. 

Sptc. Char., ^c. Erergreen. Leaves abruptiy [»nnate ; leaflets 8, lanceolate; 
petiole winged. {I>ee, Prod.) An eTergreeo tree. Southern Europe, 
Northern Africa, and the Levant. Hdght 90 ft. Introduced in 1664. 
Flowers green; April and May. Fruit brownish ; ripe in October. 

1 P. L. S an^uMBSa Dec., P. massili^nsia Mill. IXel., P. anguMifolia 

nassih^u SWn., has leaflets almost linear, and ^e tree seldom 

exceeds 10 tV. in height. 
1 P. L. 3 dtia N. Du Ham. iv. p. 78. ; P. 

chia Da/. Cat. Hort. Par. — A native of 

Scio, where it produces the mastich. 
The species bears a general resemblance to the 
two preceding ones, in summer, when they are , 
clothed with foliage ; but it differs from them in 
being evergreen, and in having the leaves much 
BDiHtler. The leaves have sometimes 5 leaAets on 
each side ; and the petioles are so much winged 
as to ^^>ear like pinna. The tre« in the South 
of Europe, end the North of Africa, is cultivated 
in gardens, as well as found in a wild state ; but 
in British gardens it is not so hardy aa P. To- 
rebfnthus, and north of London should always 
be planted against a wall. », n»tii. bsii>». 

OHurr Spedei of ViUdda. — P. atldatka Desf., a dedduous tree from Mount 
Atlas, is said to have been introduced in 1^790, but it requires the protection 
of a liBme or green-bouse. 



IMJB 



0«ii.,KSj LiM. 111., (.aOT-i RuntbOm. TerA..p.s.i Dec Prod., 1. p.6S. i 

Srmoiiymfi. Sumncb. ly. fend Oer. : Ru. /Ja£ 

&rffeulin>. From rkni, ur rjkw, Gmk. or mm rkmU. or mt, CtHtc nd ; Is (ilwIoB la Iha 
colour of Iho fhilt aod leiTe* o^ korao of tbm Avcia to aotamii. Othsn dfliire Jthdi From th« 
Gmk nrti rAed. 1 run, tnu the habit of too n»ta runnhw and ipreadlng undor fnwjtd to ■ 
eoiuMarfeMa dliUoca tnnD Uie troa. Sumacb li dariied bom Stmtt, th« Arable nima of iba 

Gen. Char. Serei hermaphrodite, diisdaiu, or polygamous. Calyx small, 
A-parted, persistent. Pelalt ovate, and inserted into a calycine disk, or 
into the calyi. Stamem 5, inserted into a calycine disk. Ovary single, 



XXtV. ANACARDIA^CEX: RHt/s. 187 

aubglobular, of 1 cell. Slytet 3, short, or wanting. Sligmiu 3. Fndl an 
almost dry drupe of 1 cell, with a bony nut, which includes a single seed ; 
and, in some instances, 8 — -3 seeds. (liec. Prod.) — Deciduous shrubs. Na- 
tives of Europe. Ama, and North and South America. 

Leavci simple or imequally pinnate, alternate, stipalate, dedduous. 
FlouKTi in terminal racemes, or panicles. — The leaves vary much, both in 
form and magnitude ; and they generally die off, in autumn, of a dark red, 
or a bright scarlet, or yellow, when they are very ornamental. Ho»t of the 
species are poisonous, some highly so ; and they all may be used in tanning, 
and dy^ng yellow or black, Theif are all easily propagated by cuttings of 
the root, and some of them by cuttii^s of the branches. 
Some of the bardy species are rambling climbers, and othen tre&4ike 

bushea. 

§ i. C6tinus Toum. 

Seel. Char. Leaves undivided. Flowers bermephrodite. 

• 1 . A. Co'tinds L. The Cotinus Rhus, or FtneHan SionocA. 

Jlfc<ittl«tiliiii.^Llii-_ayc.,J».; DK.VTai.,l._p.J7._\ Om't UUL,1. gW 



£^. Char., ^c. Leaves obovate. {Dec. PrwL) A de- 
dduous rambling shrub. Spain to Caucasus ; and, accord- 
ing to Torrey and Gray, probably of North America. 
Uraght 4 ft. to 6 It. vrild ; 6 ft. to B ft. in a state of cul- 
ture. Introduced in 1656. Flowers imle purplish, or 
flesh colour i June and Julv. Fruit white; ripe in £ , 
tember. Decaying leaves of a fine reddish yellow. Naked ^ 
young wood smooth brown. K jjj ^ 

The flowers are diqiosed in loose panicles, and are her* . wt^^^ 
maphrodite. The drupe is half-heart-shaped, smooth, and I f | >^sl 
veiny; and its nut is triangular. Many of the flowers are ( « J.TT < 
aboitive; and their pedicels, afler flowering, lengthen, and X^^"^ ' 
become hairy. A highly ornamental shrub, more espedalty m 
when coTO'ed with its large loose pantdea of dongated hury T. 
pedicels. It is easily known from all the other species by 
Its simple, obovate, smooth, stiff, ludd green leaves, rounded 
at the points, and supported by long footstalks, which remain 
on till they are killed by frost, so that the plant is almost a 
sub-evergreen. A dry foam suits it best; and it is propa- 
gated by pegging down the branches flat to the ground, and 
strewing eaitn over them, through which yonng shoots rise up, which root at 
the base, and may be removed in autumn. 

j ii. Silmach Dec. 

Sed. Char. Leaves impari-pianate ; leaflets more than Sin the leaves of each 
of the first 6 species of this section. Flowers in panicles, polygamous, 
diadous, or hermaphrodite. 

■ X 2. S. TTPHiltA L. The Fever Rhus 
Idmilpatiim. Ub. SpH., Mdi D<c. Pnid.,l.|i. S7. ; Din 

St/mfiHifmrs. R. ikninlliu Bmtk. Pin. p. DI7, \ VlrglDlui Sunuch. 

AfTwAV' K. Dii H„ «.t. 47.; Watt. Dgad. Brit..!. IT.uid t. IS.; uxl our j^. Ml., Uia mola. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaf of 8 — 10 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one, that arc 

lanceolate, acuminate, serrated, nairy beneath. Petiole and branches hairy. 





I3d AltBORETtlM ET PIIUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

(Dec. Prod.) A sbrub, with the habit of a low decidiioits tree. Canada 
to Carolina, in rocky dry situations. Height 80 ft. Introduced in 1629, 
Ptowen, female dark purple male greenish yellow and purple ; Julv 
and August. Fruit hairy, purple i ripe in October. Deniying leaves dark 
purple or red, aometiniet mixed with yellow. Naked younj; wood dark 
brown, hairy. DeCandolle has characterised two forms of thb species aa 
follows : — 

T R. /. 1 arboriiceni. — A tree between 10 ft. and 25 ft. high ; leaf slightly 

down J beneath. 
• B. (. 2fruliicent. — Shrubby, between 8ft. and 10ft. high; and iU 

leaf downy and whitish beneath. 
X R. /. 3 arvlifidra. R, TJridiHora ?oir. — Ftowera green. Possibly 
nothing more than the male plant. 
Shda typhina, in British gardens, is either a large shrub, or a low tree with 

a woody stem and a head composed of many irregular branches, generally 

erookea and deformed. The young shoots are covered with a so fl velvet-like 

down, reaembUng that of a young sti^'i horn, both in colour and texture \ 

whence, and probably also 

from the crookedness of the 

branches, the common name. 

The cellular tissue of the wood 

ia of an orange colour, with a 

strong aromatic odour, and a 

copious resinous juice. The 

leaves are S ft. to 3 ft. long, and 

they are very conspicuous in 

autumn, before they drop off, 

when they change to a purphsh 

or yellowish red. The flowers 

are produced in close spikes at i' 

the ends of the branches ; they ' 

are often polygeraous or di- 

(Ecious by abortion, and the *•*■ ■ii»> "ip*!""- 

female ones are followed by seeds enclosed in woolly, simple, succulent coven; 

As the plant is of open irregular growth, and not of long duration, it should 

never be placed where it is intended to act as a screen. Like all objects the 

chief beauty of which consiiits in their singularity, it produces the most striking 

I'Sect when standing alone on a lawn. 

■ S 3. fi. (? T.) G 



eafieca lanceolate- oblong, s 



whitish beneath. Branches glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) 
A deciduous shrub or low tree. Canada to Oeoi^a. 
Height 5 ft. to IB ft. Introduced in 1786. Flowers, 
male greenish yellow, female greenish red, Frait red ; 
ripe in October. DeCandoUe has distinguished three 
((inDS of this species ; namely: — 



maphrodite. greenish, 
a R.^. 2dioica Lam. III. t 807. f. ], — Flowers \ 

dMecious, greenish. .. 

■ B.£. 7 3 eixxhica. R. caroliniinum Mill. Diet. ; \, 

R. ^I^ane Ait., Lodd.Cal., Detid. Bril. U 16. 

— Flowers dkecious, red. This variety is dis- 



XXIV, ANACARDIACE^: I) HUB. 



„ s underoeathi 

and the fruit U of a rich Tclrety crinuon. 
The general appearance of the species is similar to that of S. tjphina ; 
but the leaves and the entire plant are smaller, the branches more apreading 
and smooth, and the leaflets wider, less lerrated, and of a deeper green. 

■ 4. a. tenena'ta Dec, The poisonous Rhus, PoUan Wood, or Swamp SumecA. 
I^mltllaUfim. Dm. Fmd.. 3. p. m. I Don't HUL. & p. TI. i Tor. uid Ot». 1. p. tiB. 
^WHiui. J). T»mU Lfn. ^. 380., Big. Med. Bel. l.p. e«. I. lO.i ToikodtDdne ptuilliiia 
Mm.Di-' "~ ' - '^' — " ■- "-• — ■"-•" 



Sprc. Char,, ^e. Leaf rather glabrous than pubescent, of 5—6 pain of leaflets, 
and the odd one, which are ovate-Ianeeolate, acuminate, ehlire, and beneath 
reticulateiy veined. {Dec. Prvd.) A deciduous shrub. Canada to Georgia, 
and west to Louisiana, in swamps. Height I5tt. to 20ft. bitrod. 1713. 
Flowers green; July. Berrv smooth, greenish white j ripe iD?Oct«bef. 
Decaybig leaves intense red, or purple. 
NbIckI young wood purplish green. 
The leaves are divided like those of S, 

tjphlna and .S. glikbra; but they are quite 

oiSereat fivim those of both kinds, in being 

smooth, shining, and having the leaflets very 

entire, narrow, and pointed, and the veins of 

8 purplish red colour. The whole shrub is 

inahighdegreepoisonous; and the poison is 

communicated ^ touching or smelling any 

part of it In British gardens it is not very 

common ; but it well deserves culture, on 

account of the beauty of its smooth shining 

foliace at all seasons, and of its almost un- 
paralleled splendour in the autumn, from the 

time that the leaves b^in to change colour, 

till they ultimately drop off, of an inteoK 

purple or scarlet, with the first frost, ■•*■ ""• '"i""" 

m t 5. R. Oibia'bia Lin. The hide-tanning Rhus, or the Elm-leaoed Smnadi. 

JdmUificDliim. LId. Sprc.Sn.; Dec Prad.,1. p. «7. t DoD'J MUl-.l. p. TO. 

Si>ttar6ift. V. Du Hud., 3. t. <e. ; Wiu. Doid. Brit., I. IM. i ud oiujlp . Wl. uid ttS. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaf villose, of 5 — 7 
pairs of leaflets, and the odd one ; 
leaflets elliptical, and toothed with 
large and blunt teeth. The petiole 
smooth at the tip. a little margined. 
(Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub or 
low tree. Portu^ to Tauria, on 
rocks in exposed situations. Height 
15ft. to soft. Lilroduced in 1689 
Flowers whitiah 

CI, in large 
: panicles ; 
July ana August. 
Fruit red ; ripe J 
in October, rare 
in England. De- 
ne. iHi cwiMv caving leaves pur- 
plish red. 
The general habit of this plant resembles that of S. typhina ; but it is 




AHBORETUIVI ET FRUTICETUH BUrTANNICUM. 



■ 6. R. COPALLi^A Lm. The Oum Copal Bbua, or Matlich-lrt^-leaved 

MaufSeatkm. Llo. Siw^m.j D«.Fn>d^s.p.e8.i D<n>tWI1.,3.p.T9.'. Tgr.ndGrH.I.p.lir. 
Ei^Tftaf. jKq. Htn. Sctiaii.,l. Hl.i Pltik. Alia., p.U.L 1.) mi oaiAf. »! . 

^pec. CAar., ^e. Leaf elBbroua above, a little pilose beneath, of JS — 7 pairs 
of leaflMf, and the odd ooe ; leaflets lanceolate and entire. Petiole winged 
and jointed. Root itoloiiiTerous. Flowers jellow sreen. 8ese« di<£clous. 
(Dec. Pnxl.') A deciduous shrub. Canada to Florida. Height 3 ft. to 8 ft. 
Introduced m 16Be, Flowers yellowish green ; July and August Berries 
red ( ripe in September, Decajing leaves purplish red. 
VttrieUet. Hree forms are giTen by Torre^ and Qray: — a. Leaflets entire, 
usually acuminate, which may be considered as the species : 0, leaflets 
coarsely and -unequally serrate; and y, leaflets (about 21} small, oblong 
acute at the base; obtuse and slightly mucronate at the apex; petiole oar 
rowlj winged. Jacquin has 

^ R. c. i leue&niha Jac, Hort. 

Schon., t.348. — Root not 

■toloniferouB. Panicles more 

contracted than in the 

The leaves and general habit of 
the plant are those of R. typhina, 
but It seldom grows to the height of 
more Ihaa 4 or 5 feet in British 
gardens. The branches are smooth, 
and the leaflets entire with acute ' 
points; they are light green on both 
sides, and in autumn chan^ to a fine 
purple. The petiole, as in R. Cori- 
Ana, is somewbat winged towards its 
tip, which, with other circumstances, 
induces us to think that they may both 
be varieties of the same species. The 

leaves are used as tobacco by the ^. nunpiiiu. 

Indians of the Missouri and the Mississippi. 

■» -I 7.R. Toxicodb'ndiion L- The Poison-Tree Rhus, or Saniach, 

UaOifit^ion, Tor. udOnr, l.p. tIS, 

Sf uai i rm a . A ToileodCBdn». lad A. ndlani L., Dec., Dm.'/ 2iia„ te. 

tttrnlat- Our A- 000. Id p. 000. 

^ec. Char., ^c. Stem erect, decumbent, or climbing by radicles. Leaves 3- 
foliolate, somewhat pubescent t leaflets (membranaceous) broadly oval or 
rhomboid, acuminate, entire or toothed, the lateral ones inequilateral. Pa- 
nicles racemed, axillary, aubsessile. Drupe subgioboae, smooth. ^Torrey and 
Gray.) A low rambling or climbing shrub. Canada to Georgia, in shady 
damp places. Stems 10 ft. to £0 t^, as a climber ; or 3 ft. to 5 ft. high as a 
bush. Introduced in 1640. Flowers greenish, mostly dioecious; June and July. 
Berry pale chestnut ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves purplish red. 
Farkliet. The following forms are given by Torrey and Gray : — 

-* R. T. I quern/Mum Tor. 4 Gray. R. T. B juercifdlium Michi. — Not 
cUrobiiw ; leaves entire, or variously and irregularly sinuatedly 
toothed, or lobed. The R, Toxicodendron of the London gardens, 
readily distinguished from (he two following varieties, by its deeply 
■inuated, or almost pinnatiSd, leaflets. It grows to uie height of 



XXIV. AHACARDIA^CEJE : AHU's. 19 

3 ft. to 4 ft. with several upright ■tems, forming a srtiBll buah, froii 
the base of whichnroceed many prostrate runners. 
JiSR.T.2 rmiicam Tor. & Gray. S. T. a vulgAre Midix. ; R.T.pn 
dloias Tm: (Bot. Hag. t. 1606. end N. Du Ham. 2. t.48., and ou 
Jig: 8B8. and S8Q.) — CliiDbing ; leavea more commonly entire, o 
nearly so. Tbe RUba nidicani 
oT the LoadoD gardens, reaililj 
known from the preceding varietj 
by its trailing or climhing Uem, 
and bj ita entire leafiels. 



^ 1 R. T, 3 TiacToc&Tpon Tor. & Gray R. Toxicodendron y microcarpon 
Mickx. — Leaves oreloblong \ mat smaller. 

These vonetiea, which have been hitherto, for the most part, treated as 
belon^ng to two species, R. radlcans and B. Toiicod^ndron, are com- 
mon in many parts of North America ; sometimes covering the surface of 
the ground to a great extent, and at other times climbing to the lop of the 
highest trees, and penetrating the l«rk with thdr fibrous roots. Tne terri- 
ble effects of their poison are frequent, and well authenticated. 

$ iii. Lobadiuttt Dec. 

Sixt. Char. Leaf of 3 leaflet!, and palmatelj disposed on the tip of the com* 
mon petiole, cut in a serrate manner; the teeth large. Flowers in a dense 
catkin. S^es polygamouB. There are two-tobed glands under the orary, 
alternate with the sCamens. Styles 3, short, distincL Drupe rather com- 
press ed, Tillose. Nut imooth. Aromatic shrubs. (Dec. Prod., ii, p. 72.) 

M B. R. ARoma'tica Jil. The aromatic Rhus, or Sumach. 
UtaHflaMim. AH. Holt. K*w.. I.p. ie7.( D«. Prod.. 1. p TI- ; Don't >U1L. 1. p. ». i Tor.ind 

qr<Hi|^' a' nurtcilaiu AU-i R. trUbUba ItM. Cat.-, 
R. cuadfakfll Hank.; IxitiUlniii ■nnntttcuin SaTI TunUnil' 
BmI ; BcbnAli/g t><«. ; Mjrla OltalUlR Hurt. ) Toiko- 

Kyrmtttgi. Turp, In Aa. da Mu^'fi. p. <4t. t. M. i u^ «ir 

J^ve. C'A*r., ■f'c. Leaves pubescent when young 
(at length coriaceous, and often glabrous) ; leaf- 
lets sessile, rhomboid-ovate, unequally and in- 
cisively toothed, the terminal one narrowed at A 



the base. (Tor. and Gray.) 

shrub. Pennsylvania to Carolina and Georgia. 

Height 1ft. to 4 ft. Introd. in 1772. Flowers 

smel!, yellow ; April and May. Fruit small, 

li^t red ( ripe in September. 

Dnipea the sice of a miall pea, light red, more 



192 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

or less hispid, slightly compressed, agreeably acid. This species varies greatly 
in the degree of pubescence of the leaves. B, suav^lens Ait, only differs in 
having the leaves almost glabrous. H. S. 

Other Species ofBh&s, — Several names are in the London catalogues, which 
are synonymes of kinds which have been lost, or are not distinctly known by 
us. R, piimila Michx, R. diversiloba TV. 4* ^^ C-'^* \0\3kXz, Hook.)^ R, 
trilob&ta Nutt., R. /iaurina NiUt,, are described in Torrey and Gra^s Floras, 
but they have not yet been introduced ; or, if they have, they exist only as 
small plants. Some plants of J?h6s have been raised in the Hort. Soc. Gar- 
den, from seeds sent from the snowy mountains of Nepal, which will doubtless 
prove hardy. 

Genus III. 



DUVAUM Kth. The Duvaua. lAn. SyH. Polyg^mia Monoe'cia. 

Jdeniiflcaticn. Kth. Gen. Tereb., P- 8. : Dec. Prod., 2. p. 74. ; Don*! Hill., 2. p. 76. 

Svnonymet. SchlDUf sp. Andr. \ Amfru wp. Cav. 

Derivation. Called Duvada, after M. Duoau, a French botanist, known as the editor of the 

original edition of Richard's Analffudu FruUi aodforsomeobserratlonson Veronica.** (Undietf, 

inBot. Reg., t IS68.) 

Gen. Chcar, Cafyx persistent, with 4—5 s^;ments. Corolla of 4^— ^5 concave 
petals. Sexes monoeciously poljrgamous. Stamens 8 — 10, inserted under a 
pitcher-shaped calycine disk, which had as man^ sinuses and as many teeth 
as there are stamens : these are opposite the smuses, half of them opposite 
the petals, and half alternate with them. Anthers in the fruit-bearing flowers 
barren. Ovary conical. Sti/les 3 — 4. Stigmas capitate. Fhdt a globose 
drupe, with a leathery nut. — Chilian trees and shrubs, becoming spiny as 
they advance in growth. (Dec. ProdJ) 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipufate, evergreen; generally oblons or 
ovate, toothed, small. Flowers in axillary racemes, greenish yellow. — l^ere 
are four species in cultivation, which are all very handsome evergreen bushes, 
with bright shining foliage. 

The foliage emits, when bruised, a strong but not unpleasant odour, of 
the nature of turpentine. The leaves of D. ovata, and, doubtless, those of 
every species of Duvaua, when thrown upon water, move about in a manner 
which may be compared to a fleet of ships employed in manoeuvring, or to 
persons engaged in dancing. Seeds have been produced plentifully in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden by D. dep^ndens, trained to a south ^all ; and seeds of 
D. latifblia are often imported from Chili. Cuttines of the ripe wood root 
in sand, under a bell-glass, in a gentle heat. D. dep^ndens was but little 
injured at Kew, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the Hort. Soc Garden, 
by the winter of 1837-8 ; and D. ovsLta w&s not injured at all, and may be 
considered as an evei^reen shrub, as hardy in the climate of London as Aris- 
toteUa Mdcqm, 

A 1 I. D. DEPE^NDENs Dec, The drooping-branched Duvaua. 

JdeniiflcaiioH. Dec. Prod., a. p. 74. ; Don*! Mia. 3. p. 76. 

SynoMjfmet. AmfrU pol^gama Cav. loon. S. p. 2a t. 289. ; Echinus dep^ndens Ort. Decad. 8. p. 102.; 

Duvada dep^odens a Hook. Boi. Mi»c, 2. p. 176. 
Engravingt. CaT. Ic., t. 239. ; Bot Reg., t 1578. ; and our ^. 291. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves mostly, especially upon the flower-bearing branches, 
obovate, and very obtuse, or even emarginate, with scarcely any denticu- 
lations. Racemes scarcely exceeding the leaves in length. Stamens mostly 
10. Flowers smaller than those of D. ovata. (lAndl.) An evergreen tree'; 
in British gardens a wall shrub. Chili. Height in England 10 ft. to 18ft. 



XXIV. AMACARDIA^CBf : DUVAU'^. 

Introduced in 1790. Flowers yellowish white i 
June tod July. Berries black ; ripe n Sept. 
There h an old plant in the Botanic Garden 
at Kew, and a tree in the Chebea Botanic Gar- 
den, which a 12 ft. high, with a trunk 7 in. in ' 
circumference. The plant in the Hort. Soc. 
Garden posaed seven winters against a wall with 
a southern exposure, till the winter of 1B37-8, 
when it was killed down to the ground ; but it 
tas sprung up agun vigorously, 

■ S 8. D.oVjLTALtnd^ The o*ate-/«HMij Dimu 



limgi. Dot. Beg, t IK&i 



Spec, Char., $c. Leaves "'■ '^ '"^"' 

^ ovate, toothed, in most acute at the tip, b Bomo 
obtuse. Kacemes a little loncer than the leaves. 
Stameni mostly 9. {Ltndl.') An evergreen tree ; in 
British nrdens a shrub. Chdi, on mountaiiu. Height 
in the cUmate of Lond<»i 6 ft. to 10 ft. agunst a wall, 
r Introduced in 1885. Flowers ydlowish white; June 
and July. Berries black ; ripe in September. 
Probably a variety of the preceding species. It was 
wholly uninjured by the winter of 18J7-8, in the Hor- 
ticultural Society's Gorilcn. 
« 1 3. D.'latifo'lia cm. The broad-leaved Duvaua. 



J^wc. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong, acute, coarsely 

toothed, BO waved as to seem in some measure 

^icate. Racemes denie, the length of cbe leaves. ' 

Stamens 8. (Limit.) An evergreen tree ; in 

Britidi gardens a shrub. Chili, on mountains. 

Hd^t 6ft. to 18 ft. against a wall. Introduced 

in 1886. Flowers greenish white; June and July. 

Berries black ; ripe in October. 

" Whatever," observes Dr. Lindley, " may be 
thought " of the distioctuess, as species, " of D. 
ov&ta and D. de^udens, there can be no doubt 
that D. latifdlia ts a totally distinct species ( for 
not only are the leaves, in their outline, surface, 
and colour, and the whole plant in its habit, very 
different, but we find it maintain all lis peculiarities 
unchanged when raised from seeds." ••'- d.«*. iuuul 

Olier Spedci of nm>a£a.—D. denlala Dec, Schlnus deatita Sol. Sep., was 
introduced in 1795, and is doubtless as hardy as anv of the above kmds ; since 
all of them are safest when planted against a wall, Ihtvaia iinii^ta Lindl. 
appears equally hardy with D, dep^ndens in the Hort. Soc, Garden. It differs 
linDm the others in producing the Bowers before the leaves, and in being deci- 
duous. All the ^>ecies well deserve culture as evergreen bushes, in shrubbvriea 
where the soil is dry and sandy, the situation sheltered, and the surface sloping 
to the south. A concurrence of circiuustances or this kind is not unlrequent 
in country residences, both in England and Scotland j and two examples which 
occur to us at the moment we ore writing are. Bury Hill in Surrey, and Blair 
Drummond in Stirlingshire. 



194 ARBORETUM ET FItUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Order XXV. LEGUMINA^CEiE. 

Ord, Char. Calyx with 5 divisions, either partitions, teeth, or clefts, the odd 
one anterior to the axis of inflorescence. Frvat a legume. Seed with the 
radicle next the hilum. (Lindl.) — Trees and shrubs natives of every climate. 
Leaves alternate, stipulate, generally compound ; deciduous, or sometimes 
evergreen ; petiole tumid at the base. SHpuIcM 2 at the base of the petiole, 
and 2 at the base of each leaflet. Pedicels usually articulated, with 2 bract- 
lets under the flower. 

The name of LesuminsLcese is applied to this extensive and truly natural 
order, on account of the seeds of all the species beine produced in leguminous 
pods, bearing more or less resemblance to those of the common pea or bean ; 
and quite different from the siliquose pods of cruciferous plants. 

The ligneous species are trees and shrubs, for the most part deciduous ; and 
they are disposed through almost every part of the world. The order contains 
some of our finest ornamental shrubs and low trees, such as Robfnto, C^tisus, 
Wistaria, Genista, (Tlex, Am6rpha, Halimod^ndron, ^cikcia, Oledftschta, 
Cercis, and various others. It also contains some considerable trees, which 
belong to the genera Roblnta, Oledltschia, Sophora, &c. The senera con- 
taining hardv ligneous plants are in number twenty-three, which, after De 
Candolle and G. Don, we place in characterised sections, and ascribe to them 
short characters, that are more or less contradistinctive. 

Sect. I. Sopjid'REJB, 

Sect. Char. Corolla, in most, papilionaceous. Stamens iO, with the fila- 
ments distinct. L^ume not jointed. Cotyledons flat, leafy. Embryo 
with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. Leaves simply pin* 
nate, or simple. 

SoPHO^RA R. Br. Legume necklace-shaped, including many seeds. Leaf with 

more than three lei^ets. 
ViHQi'uA Lam. Leeume compressed, including many seeds. Leaf with 

more than three leaflets. 
Pipta^'nthus Su/t. Legume compressed, including 6 seeds. Leaf with its 

leaflets 3. 

Sect. IL Lo^TEJE. 

Sect, Char. Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, the filaments of all con- 
nate, or those of 9 connate, and that of one distinct. Lesume not jointed. 
Embryo with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. The coty- 
ledons flattish ; in germination, converted into leaves furnished with 
stomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 

U\.EX L» Calvx 2-parted, 5-toothed. Legume oval-oblong, tuigid, scarcely 

longer than the calyx, containing but few seeds, though the ovules are 

many. Habit spiny. 
i^a'rtium Dec^ Standard roundish. Keel acuminate. Branches rush-like. 

Leaf simple. 
Geni^sta Lam. Standard oblong-oval. Keel oblong, not wholly including 

the stamens and pistils. Leaves with 3 leaflets, or, in some, simple. 
Cv^Tisus Dec. Standard ovate. Keel very obtuse, including tne stamens 

and pistil. Leaves, in all, with three leaflets. 
Adenoca^'rpus Dec. Stamens with the filaments connate. Legume bearing 

stalked glands all over it. 
Ono'nis L. Calyx with 5 linear segments. Standard striate. Legume con- 
. taining few seeds ; in most, turgid. 
Auo'rpha L, Corolla consisting of the standard only. 
EvsENHA^RDTiA H. ^ B. Corolla with the standard, and 2 keel petals distinct. 
RoBi^N/^ Dec. Legume flat ; that edge to which the seeds are attached 

margined. Leaf impari-pinnate. 



XXV. LEGUMINA^CEJS : SOPHO^RJ, 195 

Cabaoa'^NA IjBm. Legume rather cylindrical. Leaf abruptly pinnate. 

Halimodb'ndbon Fuck, Legume stipitate, inflated, bladdery. Leaf 
abruptly pinnate. 

Calo'puaca Fisch, Stamens with the fikiments of 9 connate, that of one 
distinct. Legume sessile, with concave valves bearing hairs, some soh, 
some rigid and glanded. 

ColuVba B. Br» Legume stipitate, much inflated, glabrous. 

jIstra'galus Dec. Legume with its lower suture so bent in towards the op- 
posite one as to cause the legume to seem, more or less, 2-celled. 

Sect. III. ^EDYSA^RBJE. 

Seci. Ckar. Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens usually with the filaments 
connate in one of three modes; the 10 connate; 9 connate and one 
distinct ; or connate by fives : in a few cases all are distinct. Legume 
dividing transversely into 1 -seeded joints, called loments. Embryo with 
the rafiOcle beside the edges of the cotyledons, which are flattish, and, in 
germination, are converted into leaves furnished with stomata. Leaves 
simply pinnate, or simple. 

CoRONi^LLA Neck, Calyx campanulate, usually shorter than the claws of the 
petals. Carina acute. Stamens diadelphous. Seeds ovate, or cylindrical. 

Sect IV. PHASEO^LBiB. 

Sect, Char. Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens usually with 9 filaments 
connate, and one distinct. Legume not jointed, including many seeds, 
that are separated firom one another with a cellular, transverse, membrane- 
ous partition, that is in some cases not complete. Embryo with the 
radicle beside the edp of the cotyledons, which are thick, and, in ger- 
mination, either remam under ground, or are changed into thick leaves 
that scarcely have stomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 

WisTA^B/i< Nutt* Leaf impari-pinnate. 

Sect. V. Cassib^a. 

Sect, Char, Corolla, in most of the species, of equal petals ; in some sub- 
papilionaceous. Stamens with the filaments distinct Leaves doubly 
or triply pinnate ; in some simple. , 

Olbdi'tschi^ L. Sexes dioeciously polygamous. Corolla of 3 — 5 equal 

petals. Legume in most long and narrow. Seeds compressed. Leaves 

compoundly divided. Bearing prickles in most. 
Gtmno'cladus Lam, Sexes, by defect, dioecious. Corolla of 5 equal petals. 

Legume compressed and broad. Seeds scarcely compressed. Leaves 

compoundly divided. 
C^^RCis L. Sexes hermaphrodite. Corolla sub-papilionaceous, of 5 unequal 

petals the side ones, or wings, longer than the others. Leaves simple. 



Sect I. SOPHO^REJS. 

Genus I. 




SOPHO'RA R. Br. The Sophora. lAn. Si/sL Dec&ndria Monogynia, 

IdemMeatmm. R. Brown in Hort. Ksw., ed. 2. i Dec. Prod., S. p. 95. ; Don'i BfUL. 9. p. ino. 
"^^iWMtf; Sophdne spec Lim, Om. No. 808. " ^"^ 

laiof Com. Altered from topkero, Um AraUc name of a papOfciiMceoat flowerint tree. 

O 2 



l9(t ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BItlTANNlCUM. 



Gen, Char. Calyx &-Uiothed, ctunpanulBte at the base, or s _ 

Bted. Petalt of the keel usually Eoncrete at the apex. Legume gomewhat 
moniliform, wingless, many-seeded. (IJon'i Mill.) 

Leavei impan-pinnate, with 11 — 13 leaflets, generally exttipulate. Ftowen 
yellow, white, or blue, in Bimple racemes, or pRDiclee. — The only hardy 
Bpecies are deciduous trees, natiTes of Japan or China. 

1 I. S. mro'mcA L. The Japan Sophora. 
Urmti/laaai. LlnMuiL. m i Dec. Pial.,1 p.M. ; Don'i MIIUl-p. lOB. 
Amtmj/me. S. ilnlc* Batter JtntrA. Pkyt. 14. p. US., are. Ltgtun. t- 4. f. I. 
£»erariiun. Reil. Id M. Du lUni..£ L3J.: Dof- Ucum., t- 4. T. I-: Ibfl p1mt« of thil Ipflrif* in 

7rb. B^l. I U VUC, ToL T.i iDd our Jig. W4. 
Spec. Char., rf'c. Leaves pinnate, with 11 — 13 leaflets, which are oblong- 
ovate, acute, and smooth ; panicle loose, terminal ; pods smooth. A de- 
ciduous tree of the middle sice. Japan. Height 40 ft. to 50 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1763. - Flowen creani-coloured ; August and September. Pods 
rarely produced in En^and. Decaying leaves yellow and green. Naked 
young wood dark green, like that of ./asminum officinale. 
Variefiei. 

1 8. j. 2 variegata Hort. has the leaves variegated, but is not worth 

cultivating as an ornamental plant. 
T S. j. 3 phutula Hort., and the plate of this tree in our Ist edit, 
vol. v., has pendulous shoots, and is a very remarkable variety. 
Grafted near the ground, the shoots run alon^ the surface, like those 
of a trailing plant, to a very great distance from the main stem ; in 
^ood soil, a ahoot extending itself 6 or t4 feet in one aeason. 
Grafted at the height of lOor £0 feet or upwards, the shoots hang 
down, and form one of the most ornamental of pendulous trees, 
both in eummer and winter. 



I. a«tM>vMi>. 



A round-headed tree, readily distinguished in winter by (he fine, smooth, 
dark green bark of its young wood ana smaller branches ; and, in summer, by 
the curk blue green of its foliage. In deep free soil, it grows with great ra- 
pidity, seedlings attuning the height of 10 or 18 feet in 4or5yearsj and 
m 20 or 30 years, in the neighbourhood of London, 30 or 40 feet. There are 
large specimens in England, which flower freely; but they have never jet 
ripened seeds : indeed, the tree ripens seeds m Prance only in the ytry 
warmest seasons. The wood is very hard and compact, as much so, it is said, 
as thut of the box. The bark exhales a strong odour, which, it is stated in 
the Komxau Du Hamel, produces colic and puiging on those who prune the 



XXV. LEaiTMINACEf: VIBGl'LU. 197 

tree, or otfacrwue work with the wood in a green state. Little appean to 
be luiown of the uses of the tree in China and Japan : but it is said that the 
fruit is employed to dye a fine jellow ; and the flowers for dyeing a yellow of 
CO superior a bue, that it is exclusively reserved for dyong stuffi to be worn 
by the members of the imperial family. None of the arboreous LeguoiinaceK 
are equal to this tree in beauty of foliage and bark. Its flowers, when tbey 
are produced, are also in large terminal compound sptkea, and very con- 
^icuoua, though much smaller than those of the Roblnia viscdsa. One re- 
markable property in the foliage of the sophora is, that the very hottest Mid 
driest seMons do not turn it p^e, or cause it to drop off, as heat does that of 
most of die other pinnated-leaved Leguminacete. The pendulous varie^ is 
well deserving of culture as an object pf singulariw and beauty; and, where 
it is demred to cover a aurbce with intense green foliage during summer, for 
example, a dry hillock, a plant of this variety, placed on the centre, will ac- 
compu^ the purpose effectually. The tree will thrive in any free soil ; but, 
in cold climates, it ought to be placed in one rather poor and dry Lot it may 
be compelled to make shorter snoots ; which, of course, being lein succulent, 
are more easily ripened. It b generally propagated by seeds imported flvm 
Prance ; but, where it is desired to have trees that will toon come into flower, 
seedling plants should be grafted with sdons IVom a flowering tree. It will 
grow by cuttings, more especially of the roots, and also by layers. 

■ 2. S. bbptapht'lx.i L, The 7-leaf- 
leted Sophora. 

JdaOifalloit. Lin. Spw:.. KH. : I>«c. Prod., % 

p. A. 1 Dtm-t Hill., 1 p, 110. 
^wm«v>. Bompii. Am., 4. p. ML 1. 19. i ud ooi 

^ec. (^ar., ^. Leaflets 7, glabrous. 
(Ami's mil.) A deciduous shrub. 
China. Heights ft. Introduced in 
1830. Flowers yellow i October. 



flowered and appear to be quite hardy, 
but as they do not exactly agree with 
Rumphius's figure, especially in the 
number of leaflets, we wish our engrav- 
'~ ~ ' ) be considered as of doubtful 



H 



VIROI'LU L. Tbb ViBoiLiA. Im. Sytl. Dec&ndria Hooogynii 

UnngioMm. Lun. nt 1. MO.; Pen. Bncb., I.|>. lU.i RBroinilnHan. K«w.,Hi.a.Ycil 

I>ecProd..l.p.«S.i I>OD'iNm.,E.p. lit. 
Drritalkm. ^ud »7 LvuRk In bODOur of Urn piHt rtrftf. wbOH GAT(fa> «UUs Um ts 



Gen. Char. Calyx 5-clef^ Felah S, about equal in length. Vexiilvm with 
the edges not reflexed. Stigma beardless. Legume compressed, oblong, 
8-velv^ many-seeded. (Don'i Milt.) 

le hardy species, a deciduous low tree, 



18 ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

1 1. V. luVba lUichx. The yeVow-tcooded Virgilia, or Yelltm Wood. 

II. Fa Arb. AlIwr.,S. p. «. t. X.x D«c Frad., 9. p.H. i Bon'iHIIl., ). p. ] IX. 
n. Hub. Amu.. I. I». I HlHiI. 111. Arb. Amu, 1. f. >M. L 1. , Ifas pllu d 

5^c. Char.,^e, Leaves [unDBte; leafletB 9 — 11; alternate, orate, ptnnted, 

NmcK>th. A deciduous tree. North America. On the mountains of Cuin- 

berland, andthe Miansrippi. Hei^t id America 40 ft.; 10 ft. to SO a. in 

England. Introduced in 1819. Flower* yelloiriah white, in pendulous 

racemes ; June to Auj^at. Poda never produced in England, Decaying 

leave* rich yellow. Naked young wood yellowish brown. 

The leaves, on young trees, are from 1 fL to IJfl.in length, and on oldtreea 

not above half that size. The flowers form white pendulous nicemea, a little 

larger than those of the Robinta Pseitd-'icicia, but not so odoriferous. The 

seeds are like those of the robinia, and, in America, ripen about the middJc 



of August. In Britain, the tree has flowered in the Chelsea Botanic Oar^ 
den, and at Hylands in Essex, but has not yet produced poda. An open ai~ 
situation is desirable, in order that the tree may ripen its wood; and, to i 



rlcon seeds, but it will doubtless grow by cuttings of the roots. 



a 



PIPTA'NTHUS Sal. Thb PiPTAHTaus. Lh. Syit. Decfindria 
Monogjnia. 
UenliftcaUom. SwI. Fl.-Card., 3S4. j Don'i Mm.,3.j>. lit, 
Dtiipotiom' From piploy Xo fku, and nnihv$, ^ no*r?r } Itom the Aowcit IMllns off* vary ioon. 



XXV. leoumiha'cemi (/"lex. 199 

Gen. Char. Oih/x bilabiate ; lower lip trifid, upper lip 8-lobeil ; s^ueota 
soon blling ott. Pelalt deciduous. VexUlum large, obcordate, ru^scent. 
Wmgi cuncfited. Keel cuculUle, accuinbent. Slameai 10 ^ free, deciduoua. 
St^aa niinute. Legame broad-linear, compmBcd, 6-aeeded, stipitate. 
(iJ«.'* MtU.) 

Lcovet compound, trifoliate, stipulate, sub-erergreen i leaflets ellintical- 
oblong, acute, broad. Floviers large, yeUow. — One species only in British 
gardens. 

a * 1. P. nbpalb'hsis Stnf. The Nepal Piplanthus. 
ItaUiflaUiem. Swi. Fl.-Qird, SM.i Dsc. Prod, ; Dnii'iMil1.,8ji. Ill 
atrnmrma. Tbmnipfli laburntlUll D. Om /'nlif. ». J'ep. p. Sft. i ^niicfcjl Indtm WW/. JUS^l 



Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves irifoUolale; leaflets elliptical-obloog, acute, brood. 
Stipules 8, large. A aub-evergreen shrub. Nepal. Hdght 8 ft. to 10 tV. 
Introduced in 1821, Flowers rich yellow i May and June. Pod green, 
turning to brown; ripe in October. Decaying leave* yellow and green. Naked 
young wood dark green. 

The young leaves are Eilky ; and the flowers are of a bright yellow, and are 
much larger than those of the common laburnum, to which they, and also the 
leares and the shoots, bear a general 
resemblance. In British gardens it I 
may be considered as rather tender, J 
and not of many years' duration; M 
nererdieleEs, in fine seasons, it ripens 1 
abundance of seeds. It may be pro- 
pagated by cuttings of the roots, and • 
of the shoots, as well as by seeds or 
7 layers. In most of the counties north 
4 ol London, the safest situation for it 
•r. - "-,---'■■- will be against a wall ; and it well de- , 

serves a place there, on account of .—p.iMiMiii. 

its luxuriant deep green foliage, and la^ bright yellow flowers, ^nagyris 
fndica WaSL, Mr. Gordon considers as diflering a little from the species. 



Sect- II. Lo\r.jE. 



□ 



IPhEX L. TiiK Furze, i^'n. 5jit/. Monad^lphia Bedindria. 

Lam. ni.,t.eil.i DK.PrnL.S. p.lU.i Don't Mill..*, p.ltS. 
oc, Celtic, 1 point; In nJersDce talhg prickly bianchei. 
Gen. Char. Cali/x bibracteate, bipartite, one of the lips 3-toothed, the other 
bidentste. Stament all connected. Legunic oval-oblong, turgid, many- 
ovulate, but few-seeded, hardly longer than the calyx. 

Leavet simple, linear, caducous, often changing into spines. Ftowert 
solitary, yellow. 

Branchy spinous shrubs, evergreen from the colour of the bark, with yellow 
flowera, natives of Europe, which will grow in any tolerably good soil that is 
dry ; and are readily propagated by seeds, or by cuttings planted in s.-md. 



SOO ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

■ 1 . ETuz buropa'a L. The European, or common. Furze, or WIdn. 

Idntifiettiim. Lin. Spec^ l«^n^. ■; Due. Prod., t. p. 144. ; DoE'l Hill., I. p. MS. 

SvwnnKi. G«nliU iplniiu L'Ottl; V. inDiUflBrm Four. \ V. Tcniilk noKi VUo, Con*, 

Prtcllt Bcooma j AJonc conman, Jonc mirlii, Jomiiin, ar GoiM tplnnu, »-. 
Emtraiilmgi. Kiw. BoL, t.741.i udour A'. »»' wdSWI' 

iS/i«c. C'Aitr., ^(^. Leaves lanceolate, linear. BrtmchleU villous. Bractou 
ovate, loose. Calyx pubescent. An erect compact bush, evergreen, from 
the colour of the bark. Miiiille and South of Europe, ongravellf soils; 
and in Britain on hills. Height 2 ft. to 5ft. ; in theltered woods, 10 ft. 
Flowers rich yellow ; February to Ha;, aud itt mild winters Sqitember 
to May. Pod brown j ripe in August, 
Varkliet. 

m U. e. iftore plena has double flowers, and is a spleiuUd plant when 
profusely covered with blossonu, well adapted for small gardens, and 



kept them 



U. promuidli. 
ropte'^ but, as thev may possibly belong to U. nftna, we hi 
distinct, and treated them as botanical species or i 
The common furze, in Caernarvonshire, grows 
to the height of 1500 tt. above the sea, in open, 
airy, warm situations i but in damp shaded valfeys, 
not higher then 60011. 
In the North of Eng- 
land, according to Winch , 
it forms fine fox covers 
at 800 or 900 feet ; and 
grows, in warm sheltered 
situations, at SOOO ft. 
I At Inverness, it ia found 
totlic height of 1150 ft. 
About Tongue, in the 
north-west of Suther- 
m rriii iii.-i land, where it was in- 

troduced, but is now 
■vituralised, it scarcely attains 350 ft. of elevation. The young brenebes, 
bruised, and given to cattle and horses in a green state, are found highly 




ferable, on account of the absence of priekles. Thi 
is chiefly desirable in situatio ' -' ' ■ 
thrive; because the furze is i 
young trees, it is sometimes so 
to be sown, or young trees a 
state is chiefly as fuel for baLe 
lighting fires. In Scotland, it 
■n England, 



for hedges 
where the hawthorn or the holly will not 
a plant of long duration. As a shelter to 
where acorns, beech masts, or chestnuts are 
to be planted. The use of furze in a dead 
ovens, for brick, tile, and lime kilns, and for 
sometimes used in kilns for drying oats, 
weave into the sides of hovels for 



sheltenog cattle, to prevent them (rotn rubbing against them. In gardens, 
the points of the shoots are chopped into pieces of about I in. in length, and 
dropped into the drills in which peas are sown, before the seeds are covered ; 
and, the earth being drawn over them and trod down, they are found effectu- 
nlly CO resist the attacks of mice and small birds. In France, the chopped 
lirunches are mixed with cow-dung, and the mixture afterwards Tormud mto 
bricks, which are dried in the sun, and used as fuel. The seeds, if they could 
be procured in sufficient quantity, would, if ^ound into flower, form a nutri- 
tive food both fur cattle and swine : they retain their vital property for several 
years. In Britany, large heaps are formed of alternate layers of turf and 
dried furze branches; and, the whole being set fire to, the ashes 



XXV. LEGUM1NAGE«: [TLEX. 201 

mile in length aa a hedge. The double-flowered and the fkstigiHte varietiea are 
propagated by cuttings : the latter, when wanted for agricultural ^rpoies, 
may be bedded in, like box, in a aanJy aoil rather moist, in tlie b^nmng of 
Septemtier i and by the folloving spring they wiU be fit to transplant. 

■- 2, U. (b.) na'n* Fonl. The dwarf Furze. 

MmHltaUm. !taltbeDg.FI.,a. p. MS.i Eot. Bol.. t. ;u. ; D«. Prod, l.p. IH. i Don'i UlLI. 
1. T i*»- : Wsbb llFr HilHn.. ll. 

^^iwrmn, U, nliKir AdA Cal, l.p. «a.i V.amfm'vie U*. Spa. lOM. 

Sitgnimltifi. Bug. BoL., t. lU. i tadaar figi-Vil-taiWi. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches end leaves smooth, the latter linear. Calyx gl^ 
broua, with spreading narrow teeth. According to Smith, the esaenlial 
character consists in the more distinct and apreading calyx teeth, and the 
more minute, rounded, close-preBsed, and oflen hardly discernible, brac- 
teas. An evergreen, compact, low, spiny ahrub. Britain and the western 

tarts of France, on poor gravelly soils. Height 2 — 3 fL Flowers rich yel- 
iw; August to December. Pods brown ; npe in December, 
A very distinct sort, though, 
from the very dilFerent and more 
luxuriant h^it which the plant 
has when cultivated in gardens 
on rich soils, we have no doubt of 
its b«ng only a variety of U. eu- 
rops'a. In its native habitats, it 
is eanly distinguished from that 
species by its low growth, seldom 
exceeding 8 ft. in height j by its 
being much smaller in all its parts; 
by its decumbent habit ; and by its 
flowering from the end of August 
till the beginning of December, "'' "■i*-''*"- 

and seldom at any other season. Very neat low hedges and edgings may be 
formed of it. 

» 3, U, (b.) PBOvntcti'Lis Lou. The Provence Fune. 

MnlfpeaUim. Lcdi. NM., IM. , Dee. Prod., 1 p. I*t-! Don'i HIU., 1, p. IW.i 

Wfl* [(« HIipuL, «). 
SraMfiv. ITlei usiitiii Cltmtia. 
JC^froMtfL Loll. Vat., b S. (. 3. i asil oar Jig. 301. 

£^Kc. CAar., ^. Calyx rather pubescent, with lanceolate distant 
teeth. An erect, evei^reen, compact shrub ; intermediate, in 
all its parts and in its babit, between t/. europos^a and U. 
nina. Provence, Andegavany, and Mauritania. Height 2 (t 
to 4 ft. Introduced in ISSO. Flowers rich yellow ; August 
to December. Pod brown; ripe in December. 
Whatever doubts there may be as to I/, n^na being a distinct 

species, ihero can be none as to this sort being only a variety. 

As an evergreen shrub, flowering &eely ; it well deserves a pbce 

in collections. tw- v. ,...__» 

• 4. U. (e.) stri'cta Madeay. The uprigbt^crouvi^, or JriiA, Furze. 
ckij'i Lilt or Irtifa PluU I Hook. Bril. F),, d. SIT. 

. linlca Don't MiU. % p. ItS. i V. blliitU Kirt. 

. Out A. .top. . 

^r. CAar., ^c. Habit erect, narrow, and comnact. Spines few or none ; 
and what there are, weak, branched, lea^, and pubescent. An erect, com- 
pact, evergreen shnib. Ireland. Height 6 ft. to lOft. Introduced in 
1815. Flowers yellow, rarely produced ; August to December, Pod 
brown i ripe in December, 
Discovered in the Marquess of Londonderry's Park, in the county of 




202 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Down, in 1815, or before. It is very upright in its growth, and attains the 
height, in good soils, of from 6 ft. to 10 h, in as many years. Its branches 
are so soft and succulent that sheep and cattle eat them without injuring their 
mouths, and are very fond of them. It forms excellent garden hedges, and, 
in rather moist climates, is a most excellent forage plant, as has been already 
stated under U. europae^. It only rarely flowers, and has very seldom pro- 
duced seeds ; but it is easily propagated by cuttings. 

Other Species of V^'lex. — U. gBmstoidet Brot., U, mitis Hort,, Stauradin* 
thus aph^lus Umkt is a leafless shrub, with the habit of CTlex ; a native of 
Portugal in sandy pine woods ; and diflerin^ from CTlex nlina chiefly in the 
spines branching into two small ones at the sides. It was introduced in 1823 ; 
and grows to the height of 1 ft. to 2 ft. It is rather tender in the climate of 
London, but sometimes stands the winter among rockwork. 

Genus V, 



A. 

i^AHTIUM Dec. The Spartiuh, or Spanish Broom. Lm, Si/si. 

Monad^lphia Dec&ndria. 

Identification. Lin. Sp., 996. ; Dec. Prod.. S. p. US. ; Don's MIU., S. p. 148. 
Sunot^fwtes. SpartllnUias Link Emtm. S. p. w. ; Genlita sp. Lam. and Meenek ; Sparslo, Ilal. 
DtrivaUon, From aparton^ cordage ; in alloilon to Che nae of tlie plant in early agea generally, and 
in Spain, eren to the present day, for making ropes. 

Gen. Char., S^c. Cahfx membranous, spathaceous, cleft above, 6*toothed at 
the a|>ex, somewhat labiate. Corolla with a roundish complicated vexillum, 
and an acuminated keel. Petals a little agglutinated, but partable. Sta- 
meru monadelphous. Legume compressed, many-seeded, glandless. {Don's 

Jjeaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, caducous ; lanceolate. Flowers in 
terminal racemes, large, distant, and yellow. — A shrub, a native of Spain 
and Portugal. 

A I, S. JU^NCBUif L, The Rush-£^tf Spartium, or Spanish Broom. 

Identification. Lin. 8p.. 995. ; Dee. Prod., S. p. Mft. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 148. 

Sifnoi^mes, Genista ^ncea Lam. and Du uam. ; Q. odorkta Maeneh ; SpartUnthus >iknceus 

Mceneh \ GenM d'Espagne, Fr. ; BinsMiartige Pfriemen, Ger, ; Ginestra di Spagna, Ital . 
Sngraoingt. N. Du Ham., S. t. 22. ; Bot. Mag., t. 65. ; and our fig. 805. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Branches upright, round, of a deep green colour, smootli, 
and with but few leaves, which are lanceolate, anci soon drop off*. An up- 
right shrub, evergreen ftom the colour of its numerous shoots. Spain, 
Portugal, and the South of France, in gravelly soils. Height 5 ft. to 8 ft. ; 
in British gardens 8 ft. to 12ft. In- 
troduced in 1548. Flowers dark yel- 
low, large ; July to September. Pods 
brown ; ripe in October. Naked 
young wood smooth and dark green. 

Varieties, 
A S. j. 2 odoratissimum (S. odora- 

tlssimum D. Don Brit. FL 

Gard. 2. St. 390.; S. acutifo- 

lium Lindl. Bot. Reg. ; and our 

fig. 304.) has the flowers sweet- 
scented, and the leaves more 

acute than those of the species. 

Raised from Turkish seeds. 
^ S. j. 3 fibre pleno has double flowers. 




301. Sp&ttininJ&nccumodoratlttlmnRi. 



XXV. leoumina'cej: : ceni'sta. 

In Ital; and the South of France a very good cloth 
is manulsi^tured rrom the fibres of this plant. Both in 
Spain end France, the aboota are used for fonnii^ 
baakets, and for tying up vines and other fruit trees. 
The bees are nid to be vety fbnd of the flowers; and 
the seeds are eaten with great aridity by poultry, pw- 
tridges, Stc. MedidnaUy, the flowers and leaves, in 
infusion, act as an emetic, or, in « lai^^ quantity-, as an 
aperient. In Britmn, the plant is solely regarded as en 
ornamental shrub. Seeds are produced in abundance, 
and tiiej will come up in any soil that ia tolerably dry. 
In the nurseiy, thev oucht to be transplanted every year, 
ai th^ ere apt to ronn long t^roots end very few fibres. 

Genus VI. 



UrllQLjL] 



REKI'STA Lata. Taa Obnist*. i^. Sj/tl. Monad^lphia Dedindm. 

UrmtUcalMt. Lm. Diet, 1. f. GIG. ; lU- 1. GIB. i Dec Prod., *. p. lU. ; Don't Hill- 1. p. !««. 
Syti^i^ma. OvOHm, et Sp*rtIuio, ijwc. Ltm. i GonB. Fr. j Glmter, Qtr. ; Oluaw™, JtaL 
Gen. Char. Cali/x bilabiate, upper lip bipartite, lower one tridentate, or 5- 
1obed,tbe three lower lobes nrariy joined to the apex. FuiUiun oblong-oval. 
Carina (djlong, straight, not always containing the stamens and pistils. Sla- 
metu monade^bous. Legume compressed, many^seeded. (Don't ItfUL) 

Leaeei simple or compound, alternate, rarely opposite, slipiilate, decidu- 
ous or sub-evergreen ; laiiceolate, linear, or trifoliolate. Fhwert terminal OT 
axillary, yellow. 

The hardy species are deciduous or sub-evergreen shrubs, generally with 
trifoUolste leaves and yellow flowers ; there is a great sameness of character 
among them, and, though many are quite distinct, yet it ia highly probable that 
the greater number now recorded as species are only vanetics. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe ; but a few are found in the liorth of Africa. As 
they grow rapidly, and flower &eely, especially on soils not wet at bottom, 
they are desir^te plants for oewiv foroied slirubberies, but In general they 
are not of long duration. A number of the spedes were formerly mcluded 
under the genus AArtium and gome under Cytisus, from which they have 
been separated by Lamarck, whose arrangement, as modified by DeCandolle, 
we have adopted in the following enumeration. 



f 1. Unarmed. Leaeet all, or fir tie mait part, IrifoUolale. 



[.o'ra Dee. The small- 
dowered Genista. 

UaUt/ltatlBm. Dm. Fnd., 1. p. 14& ; Ddq'i UDI.. 
fyvmgme. Spkrtium pvrlObniiu F*mt. Bon. Celt. 
Sagmtatt. Vont Hort Ceti',C.S7,i tJtdoatflg.KS. 
Spee.Chtir.,i^c, Leaf trifoliolate, the petiole 
very short; and the leaflets usuallydeci- 
Ffowers 



dnous, very narrow, 

in lengthened ternunal racemes, l^. 

gumes compressed, 1 — 3-seeded, rather 

pubescent, b«ng covered with minute ^^^ J ^^^^ 

closely pressed down, slightly spread- ^^^ * ''" 

ii^ {Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. 

Levant, near the Qulf of Hundaoia. 




204 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTtCETUM BRITANNICUM. 




807. O. 



Height 6 ft. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1817. Flowers yellow ; 
May to August. L^;ume ?. H. 8. 

Sktk 2. G, CA^NDiCANS L. The whitish Genista. 

JdenijfieaHon, Lin. Amcen. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 145.; Don'i Hill., S. p. 149. ; 

W^b Iter HUpan., M. 
Sunonffmet. Cf tbiu cindiomt Lim, Sp. ; C. paMicens Mmnck, 
EngravimgM. Dend. Brit., t. 80. ; and oar Jig. 807. 

Spec, Char,t ^c. Leaf trifoliolate, petiolate ; leaflets obovate, 
pubescent, with appressed down. Branches angled. 
Flowers in terminal heads, few in a head. Legume hairy. 
(Dec, Prod.) A hofu^ sub-evergreen shrub, of short du- 
ration. Mogador, Italy, and the Levant. Height 4 ft. to 
6 ft. Introduced in 1735. Flowers large, yellow, scent- 
less; April to July. Legume ?. 

The great advantage of this spe^es is, that it grows 
rapidly, and flowers freely. 

A 3. G, PATTENS Dec, The spreading Genista. 

Idaaificathm. Dec. Prod., S. p. 146.; Don*f Mill., S. p. 148.; Webb 

Iter Htoptn., p. iX). 
Synoit^me. 5p«rtium piteni Gov. lam, i. p. 88., exdiuire of the 

synoDyme. 
Engrmmgt, Car. loon., S. p. M. k. 176.; and our Jig. 808. 

Spec, Char,, S^c, Branches striated, twiggy, glabrous. 
Leaves staJked, trifoliolate. Leaflets obovate, pu- 
bescent beneath. Flowers in fours, pedicellate, 
nearly terminal. Legume glabrous, 3--6-seeded. 
(Don's Mill,) A spreading shrub. Spain. On 
mountains near Albayda, and found by P. B. 
Webb on Monte Santo in Catalonia. Introduced 
in ?1830. Height 4 ft. to 8 ft. Flowers yellow ; 
April to July. 

It diflers from Cytisus p&tens, in the upper lip of 
the calyx bein^ acutely bipartite ; lower lip of three 
bristles, not with the lips nearly equal and entire. 

Jt 4. G, TRi^auBTRA Aii. The tnaDga\aT'4temmed Genista. 

IdentifieaHon. Ait. Hort. Kew., 8. p. 14. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 146. ; Don's MHI., S. p. 149. 

&monifme. G. trlqaetra Lam. f 

Engraving: Bot. Mag., t. 814. ; Dend. Brit, t. 79. ; and oar fig. 809. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Branches 3-sided, decumbent, the younger ones villose. 
Leaves trifoliolate, simple about the extremities of the branches ; leaflets 
ovate-lanceolate, villose. Flowers in short terminal ra- 
cemes. (Dec, Prod,) A trailing shrub, evergreen from the 
colour of its shoots. Spain, Italyj and France. Height 
6 in. Introduced in 1748. Flowers yellow; April to 
July. L^ume ?. 

No shrub is more ornamental on rockwork; and, when, 
trained to a stake and allowed to form a head, or grafted 
standard hi^h on a laburnum, it forms a singular object, 
and, when in flower, a most magnificent one. It is also an 
admirable plant for training against a wall, particularly in 
dry situations, where it is exposed to the sun. 





809. O. tslqiMttm. 



M 5. G, uifBBLLA^TA PotT, The umbellate^u^frvc/ Genista. 

Idmtiftcatiom. Poir. Suppl., %. p. 715. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 146. ; Don*f Mill., S. p. 149. ; Webb iter 

Hispan., p. 51. 
Svnon^mes. 5pirtiam umbeltttum Derf. AtL 3. p. 188., VHtrit. Stirp. 188. ; BoUna, Ir Andahuia. 
Engrmring, Omr/lg. . in p. 

Sj>ec, Char., 6^c, Leaf trifoliolate, its petiole short, its leaflets linear-lanceolate. 



XXV. LEOUHIHa'cE£ : CENl'STA. 205 

and rather rnlky. Flowers in t«rmin^ heads. Calyx bury, in a silk; man- 
ner. Corolla and legume silky. Branches glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A low 
shrub. Barbary, on arid bills; and Spain, in Andalusia, on hills, H^ht 
1 ft. to S ft. Introduced in 1779. Flowers yellow } April to June. 
Variely. 

A O. u. S capUala Dec. fp&rtium capitatum Cae. Annal. 1601, p. 63. — 
Branches and leares covered with silky villi. Native of Mogador. 

§ 8. SpiuBK. Leavei all, or tome of them, trijoHolale, 

Jt 6. G. LusiTi'NiCi L. The Portugal Oeniata. 

LlD. Sjh, 999., «KC]iulT« or tli« jjDonjiii» of CIul uid J. Baoh. ; Lam. Diet-, 
cliuire Df tb« lynQDnna \ Dec. Prod., a. p. 146. ; Du'i HUl., 1. p, 4fiO. 
Andr. BM. B^., (.413.; tod uur J%. SIO. 

spec. Char., ^c. Branches spiny, round, becomiiu striate. 

Leaves tnfbliolate, opposite, upon short petioles ; the leaflets , 
linear, folded, somewhat silky. Flowers few, tenninil. 

Calyx very hairy. (Dec. Prod.) A very roiny shrub, ever- ^ 

ETeen from the colour of its young shoots. Portugal, s 

Introduced in 1771. Flowers yellow ; March Jj 

s____ « 

among LegiuninAceee. 
• 7. G. (i..) BADiiVA Scop, The nyed-itroTiched Genista. 
. Scop. Cani.,Mo.8ri. 1 D«c. Frwl,l.p. 116.1 DOS'! UU.. 1. p. IN. 
Sfknhm n^itam Urn. Sp. »e, Um. lim.,slni Bal. Mof. ; a.OttoiiiD. 
au. IcsD.,t.MR. r. I.; BM. liii., I. ns). I Bidaur j^.ni' 
Spec. Char., ^c. Branches angled, grouped, glabrous, 
lieaf triroliolate, almost tetsfle, opposite, die leaflets 
somewhat silky. Flowers in terminal beads, S — 1 in a 
head. Corolla and l^ume silky. The old branches 
show a tendency to become spiny. The legumes are 
oval, short, compressed, pointed with the style, end 
include two seeds. (Dec. Prod.) A low shrub, of short 
duration, evo^reen Irom the colour of its young shoots, 
Italy, Camiola, and the VaUais. Height 3 ft. to 4 fl. 
Introduced in 1758, Flowera yellow; June and July. 
L^ume ?. 

J> O. (f.) r. 8 umbeOata, G. umbeUila F^r., 5^rtium 
mnbellitum De^., appears, from a plant that 
was in the Hort. Soc Garden in 1837, to belong 
to this species. 



lay. Legume 7. 




Dillerins from G. lusitJinics princ^ially in beingwithout 

sfHnes, and having its leaves somewhat longer. Both G. 

radiita and G. lusitinica have a very nngular appearance 

when without their leaves; and, in that point of vi 

be considered as almost as interesting in winter as they are ii 

' 8. G. kpbbdroOdes Dec. The Ephedra.like Genista. 

, Ugnm. Hfaa., «. j Dec Piod., 1. p. 147. \ Dw'i HUl, 1 



Batrmrbui. Dae UgnD Ktm., 6. I. M. i HauDd'i Bounk Gudn. I. 4M. j ■ 
•HaJIgTni. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves some tiifoliolate, aome simple, few w 
rile ; leaflets linear, almost ^abroua. Branches rigid, rour 
becoming striated and spiny. Flowers in spikes, alterna 
yellow. Calyx somewhat pubescent. (Dee. Prod.) A shrt 



206 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



evergreen from the colour of its young slender shoots. Sardinia. Height 
2ft.; in British gardens 4 ft. Introdi^ed in 1832. Ffewers small, yellow ; 
June to September. Legume?. 

The whole plant is glabrous, and resembles in appear- 
ance ^'phedra dist^chya. Cuttings strike readily. 

jk 9. G, TRiACA^NTHos Broi, The three-spined Genista. 

Ident(ficati(m. Brot. Phyt., 150. t. 54. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 147. ; Don*i Mill., 2. 

p. 150. 
SvnoPifme, G. roitrita PiUr. Suppl. 2. p. 719. 
Engravhtgs. Brot. Phyt., t. 64. ; and oar J^. 313. 

Spec, CAar.f ^c. Leaves sessile, trifoliolate and simple, gla- 
brous. Leaflets linear-lanceolate. Branchlets spiny, branch- 
ed. Flowers in terminal racemes, few in a raceme. Cfdyx, 
corolla, and legume glabrous ; legume 1-seeded. The 
spines are simple, trifid, or branched. (Dec, Prod,) A 
deciduous undershrub. Portugal, on mountains and in 
woods. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1821. Flowers 
yellow ; May to July. Legume ?. 

Fariety, 

jtQ,t,2 interr^pta Dec., S^tium interr6ptum Cav, 
Annal,, 1801, voL iv. p. 58., has linear leaflets, and 
branches usually simple, and shorter than those of the species. It 
is found wild about Tangier. 




8U. O. MacinthflB. 



10. G, Ho^RRiDA Dec. The horrid Genista. 



Idi 




814 Gcnitta htfiTida. 



leniiflcation, Dec. FI. Fr., 4. p. 600. : Dec. Prod., 2. p. 146. ; DoD'i 

Mill., 2. p. 149. ; Webb. Iter Htipan., 51. 
Syrumyma. 5pijtluin h6rrldam VaU Sumb. 1. p. 51., ezcloiiveol 

the ftynonyme : G. erinicea GWb, Boi. Frai. 2. p. 2S9. 
Engraves. Gilib. Bot. Prat., 2. p. 239. icon. ; and oar Jig. 314. 

Spec. Char,, S^c. Branches grouped, angled, spiny, 
opposite. Leaves trifoliolate, opposite ; the leaflets 
linear, folded, somewhat silky. Flowers few, 
almost terminal. Calyx pubescent. {Dec. Prod,) 
A native of the Pyrenees. Height 4 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1821. Flowers yellow ; May and June- 
Legume?. 

§ 3. Spinote. Leaves aU simple, 
m\\, G, sylvb'stris Scop, The wood Geubta. 

IdmUflealion. Scop. Cam., No. 875. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 148. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 161. 
SvMOHymr. O. hisMnica Jaeq. lam. Bar. t. 597. 
Engravimgs. Jacq. Icon. Bar., t. 557. ; and oar^l^. S16. 

S^ec, Ckar,^ S^c, Leaves simple, lioear-awl- 
shaped, glabrous above, villose in a closely 
pressed manner beneath. Spines axillary, 
branched, slender. Flowers glabrous, 
disposed in a terminal spiked raceme. 
Teeth of the calyx almost spiny. The 
keel longer than the standard and wings. 
(Dec. Prod,) A deciduous undershrub. 
Camiola and Croatia, on hills. Height 
1 ft. to 2 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers 
yeUow; June and July. Legume?. ,i,.o^^^r*^ 

jk \2, G, ^cq'rpius Dec. The Scorpion Genista. 

^''a^S^' **'"*"" Scdrpiui Un. Sp. 996. ; G. fptnifldra Lam, Diet. 2. p. 621. ; Scorpion Furae, 
Bngraviitft. Dead. Brtt., t. 78. ; and our y|^. 816. 




XXV. leoumina'ces: genisiv 

Spec, (^utr^ ^c. Sjany ; spines branched, spreading, 
Mriated, glabrouB. Leaves simple, very few, oblong, 
somewhat silky. Flowers glabrous, upon short pe- 
dicels, in groups disposed somewhat racemosel; ; the 
keel as long as the standard. Legume coataining 
2—4 veeds. {Dec, Prod.) An upright, dedduous, 
spiny shrub. South of Europe and Baibary, in 
arid places. Hdght Sfl. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1370. 
Flowers yellow ; April and Hay. Legume ?. 





I 13. G. bispa'nica L. Tbe Spanish Ocnbta. 

,.__ Sp^899.: D«.Fra>L.J.p.l«g.i Doa'iHlU.,3.1 

Sauifwu. Spudili Furu. Oin. 

Sngrarn^t. UT. ICOD^ 8. t. Ill- i T^m. UL., t. SIS. f. i-i IDdotir/f. 317. 

^lee. dor,, t[c. Spiny, except in the flower4>eBring 
branches ; spines branched, rigid. Leaves aimple, lanceo- 
late, villose. Flowers in a terminal Bubcapitate raceme. 
Keel villose, the length of tbe glabrous standard. Le- 
gume oval, including S — 4 seeds ; when ripe, rather gla- 
brous, (pec. Prod,) A diminutiTe undertnrub, evergreen 
irom the colour of its shoots. Spain and the South of 
Prance-Heigbt ^ft. tolft. Introduced in 1750. Flowers 
ydlow ; June and July. Legume 7. 

.■ 14^ G. a'nolica L. The English Genista, or Petty H'Am. 

Smtte m nmt. C- inlDDT Lam, Pi, Fr. 3. p. SIIV 

Enrra^hto. Sdc, But, I. 111. ; I.abcl IcoD., 1. p. SI. f. 1, j tni om JIg.nt. 
Spec. Char., fe. Spiny, except in the flower- . 
bearing branches ; spines sunple ; the whole itSi 

Elant glabrous. Leaves simple, ovate-lanceo- ^S a^ 

ite. Flowers in terminal racemes, few in a ^\ 

raceme; the keel longeron tbe standard and VA 

wings. Legume ovately cvlindrical, including I9I 

many seeds. (Dec. Prod.) A prostrate de- ISl 

ciduous ahrub, with woody stems. Native of ff 

the Middle and North 01 Europe ; and &e- • 

quent in Britain, on moist, boggy, heathy com- 
mons. Hei^t 1 ft. Flowers ^low ; May and 
June. Legume brown; ripe m August. 

Cultivated in coIlecUons, where it forms a "■■ """"ta** 

B|Hoy bush about S ft. in hdght. 

ji ]5. G. aetMi'mcA L. The German Genista. 
UmlfficalHm, LiD. Spn K". i D«. Prod.. 3. p. 149. 1 Don'i MDl., I. p. ISI. 
Sfmrnrtt. Sc6rpliu Iptniaiu Kuk* MM. tS4. ; Vdglnw ipfaitiu Fl. tTtO. 1. p. MO. ; BuUnx- 

£iKr«awi- ^ncbi HiU, 19>. iua. | Rmju AUilld., L in. | 

oiitA.^19. 

i^wc. C&itr., ^c. Spiny, except in the flower-bearing 
branches ; spines simple or branched. Leaves 
simple, lanceolate, slightly hairy. Flowers somewhat ' 
villose, in tenninij rucemes. Keel longer than the 
standard and wings. Legume ovate, srightly hain, 
inchiding 8 — 4 se^. '(£>n?. Prod.) A spiny thrub. 
Europe, in woods and on heaths. Height S ft. to 3 fl. 
Introduced in 1773. Flowers yellow ; June to 
August. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 




ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANttlCUH. 



■■ G.g. 3. inermt Dec. is dmost vithout spines. 
f 4. Unarmed. Leavet ali limple, 
• 16. G. Fu'ROANa L. The purging Genista. 

tdemltfiaiUBn. Lin. 8p., 999, ; Bull. Herb., Hi. ; D«. Frnd.. 1. p. 11 
StPHflVDV. SpirtJuizi purgini LM. A/tL 174. 

ZivTornft. Sot. cib., irn.; udDiirj^. an. 



■omewhat silky. Floweri axillary, solitary, scarcely pe- 
diceled. PeUlg equal, glattrous. The young lenume 
adpressedly pubescent. (Dec. Frod.) An upright s 
evergreen from the colour of its shoots. Fnince, on 
Introd. 1766. Height 3 fV. to 6 ft. Floverg yellow ^ June 
aitd July. L^ume broirn ; ripe in Septonber. 

■1 17. G. sBRi'cEA H'ul/. The Eilky Oenista. 

!•■ Wuir. Id luq. Coll., 1 p. ISr.: Dec. Pm)., 3. p. 119. i Ddd*! U 
. Jui), Icad.R>r.,S. t.U«.j udourJV.m. 




Spec, C/iar.,^c, Decumbent, with upright 
rounJ branches. Leaves simple, linear- 
lanceolMe, silky beneath. Flowers ter- 
minal, 3 or 4 together, in a sort of ra- , 
ceme. Petals silky, nearly equoL Lobes ' 
of the caljx oblong-acummate; the floral 
leaves equalling the calyx in length. 
(An:, Prod.) Adecumbent shrub. Height 

6 in. Austria and Croatia, in subalpine o«imi— i 

places near the shore. Introduced in °^ 

1818. Flowers yellow; May and June. Legume brown ; ripe August. 

j« 19. G. apht'lla Dec. The leafless Genista. 

Umlfllctaim. Dac.Fiad., 9. p. 119. i Don'j Hill, 1 p. \sa. 
Sma^ri^. Spfatium •ptafUum Z.ta. FU. Smppl. nS.] C. vlrgUA 

EmfTowltitf. Fail. Ilin. ed. Oill. ADpend., Mo. SH. t. SS. T 1. 1 and 
our flg'm. 

Spec. ChaT.,Sfc. Branched, upright. Leaves niinple, 
very few, linear, very short. Flowers disposed dis- 
tantly, in len^hened terminal racemes. Legumes 
compressed, including 2 seeds ; when young, tomen- 
tose ( when adult, glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) Height 
3 ft, to 4 ft. in British gardens. FoundinSiberia,in de- 
serts, about the Volga. In- 
trod. 1800. Flowers viols c^ 
ous; June and July. Legume sa. omiamm^iii^ 
brown i ripe in September. 

J> 19. G^. MONosPE'itiiALiini. The one.seeded Genista. 

lltrMflaiiim. LUL Sii-C, l.pGlG.j DfE. Prod., 3. p. LMll Don't 

MUl.. J. p. LM. J WBbb Iter tllipM.; 8!. 
Simntimci. Sptrtiun manoiptrmum LAi. Sp. M3., Cmrl. Sol. ttag. 

Engra^M. But Hig., (.ess.! nidcnirjb'SSS. 

Spec.ChoT.t^c. Branched, upright. Leaves simple, very 
' few,lineBr-oblong,adpresfiedlypubeacent. Flowers in 

1 lateral racemes, tew in a raceme. Petals ulky, almost 

2 equal. Legumes ovate, infiated, membranaceous, 
so. r.iri..Tiii.i-iiL.L~ glabrous, including 1—2 seeds. (Dec. Prod) An 

erect shrub, with numerous slender, twiggyt Besile 



xxv. legumina'ce-e : CENi'sTA. 209 

liruDchei. On the Mediterranean shored, where, in many places, it serves 
to retain and coiuolidate the driiUof; sand. Height 2 ft. to 4- ft. Introduced 
ID 1670. Flowers white ; June and Julj, Legume brown ; ripe in September. 
The leaves end young branches are, in these countriea, eaten by sheep and 

goats ; and the twigs are used for tying vines to staLea, or tying up faggotn ; 

and they are also twisted into ropes. 

Ji SO. G. spuaboca'rpa Lam. The round-fniitcd Genista. 



a 



n. Diet.. 3. p.fiie.: D«;. Prod, t. f. 
USD I miij^ r- IM' 1 ^>'>'> '^' "'IIMII'. ">■ 
^vrnih^- Clu. HUL. l.p. lot.r. l-i laimrJIg.tU. 
Spec. Char,, ^c. Twiggy, branched. Leaves simple, 
few, linisir, almost glabrous. Flowers in lateral 
racemes, manyinaraceme. Petals glabrous, equal. 

ing I — 2 seeds. Flowers small, and pale yellow. ^^ 
(Dec. Prod.) A twiggy shrub. Native of the 
South of Europe BDdNorth of Africa. Height Qj 



d SI. G. xthnb'nsis Dec. The Mount Etna Genista. 

Idr^iaicaUim. D«. Prad.,l.p. IW.; Dmi'iHllL, I. p. 161. 

arfrmrmn. Sliiltlulil IKhDHlM St*. Si. Sie. MiaU. *.,Ridla. Sriccli.i.f. \l.,Siml But. tfat. 

Kit. i 5plnluni trtiptnnuiii SmM in flaj'j Oicl. toI. S3. Ho. fi. 
Mufra^i^. Bot.lfM«,,(.m4.i ud OUTJ^.MS. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Upright, very much bfenched. Leave* 
simple, few, linear, silky. Flowers in tcnninal racemes. 
Petals almost glabrous, nearly equal in length. L^umes 
obliquely orate, compressed, containing 2— S seeds i when 
young, pubescent. (Dec. Prod.) An erect twiggy shrub. 
Native of the wooded rc^on of Mount Etna, 3000 R. 
— 6000 ft. elevation ; growmg with ..4'cer monspesiulSinum. 
(Prett, in Curnp. Bol. Mag., vol. i. p. 91.) Height2ft. 
to 1ft. Introduced in 1816. Flowers yellow ; June and ^ 
July. L^unie brown ; ripe in September, '*'- *'•'"' ■'*"'™'' 

Resembles the preceding species, except that the flowers are twice the siie. 
Jt 88. G. anxa'ntic* Tm. The Anxantic Qeoista. 

Uatttcaliin. Tin. n. NMLpmd., p. 41. i Dec. Pcod.,l.p. IMi i Don't MOI, 1 P- HI 

^mgmim t . <3. BDlilltkm Tttiore. . . 

gmtnrlit$, FLMip., t.p. in.LCa.) Svt. n.-Itar.,U wr.LMS. ) indourA'' lM.>nd«i7. 



^lec. CMar., ^e. The whole plant i 
brous. Stems spreading. Bn 
Leaves simple, ovato-elliptical, rather c< 
veiny. Flowers in racemes. Corolla thrice i 




ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



tongas the calyx ; and about SUnulong. Legume containing 6 — lOMedt, 
(Dec. Prod.) A diffuse throb. Tiapht. Ueigbt 3 ft. to 4 ft. iDtroduced in 
181S. Flowera yellow i Juneand July. Legume brown i r^ in September, 

Jt a.a.3 tcari6$a. O. BCBri6sB Hn. (Frag. Ft. It>]. 1. t 8.; md our 
^.328.) — Ad upriebt shrub, closely reiemblingtbe species. Litro- 
duced in 1831, ana flowering in tne HorL Soc. Garden in June 
and July. It deserves a place in collections. 



23. G. 1 






o'ria L. The Pjer's Broom, or Green Weed. 

>i>niMm,s.p.iw. 

■n Wooi, OjM't Weed, txA Wood-w 



Inwrnrt. O. Itdllc* I^Cd. Cat.i Bw DnHnD, unm nu 

Jmil d™ Tefnlurlon. Oci*! de BlbWe, W-.j OrbenderGt , 

Enfrarlitgi. Bag. BoC^ t.u.-, uid aur j^. am. 

i^Mv. CAar., i^c Boot creeping. Stems almost upriglit. Branches round, 
striated, uprieht. Leaves simple, lanceolate, rather glabrous. Flowen gla- 
brous, in spiked racemes. Legume glabrous. (Dee. Prod.) A creeping- 
rooted low tbrub. Common in Europe, in grassy Belds, and in woods and 
copses, particularly in dry gravdly or sandy toils. H^ht I ft. to 3 It. 



I the Epsom Nursery and 



, , ularly tn , „ , 
Flowers yellow ; July. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 
rarietiet. 

^a.t, E ^fidreplmo-^There are plants ii 

the Hort. Soc. Garden. 
ji G. t. 3 laHJoSa Dec. — Leaves broad- 
lanceolate. A native of Auvergne, on 
the Mont d'Or. 
G. '. i hirtula Dec. — Leaves somewhat 
villose. Branches upright. A native of 
sunny meadows. 
.■ O. f . 5 praleruii Poll. — Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, rather hairy. Branches as- 
cending. Inhabits the mountainoua parts 
of Upper Italy. 
It is very common in pastures, in many places, 
both in England and Scotland; but, when cows 
feed on it, it is said by Raj to give a bitter taste 
to their milk. All parts of this phint, and espe- 
cially the branches and leaves, have long been usad by dyers tor producinj 
yellow, especially for dy^ng wool that is afterwanls to be dyed green witi 
woad (Jsiktis tinct^ria I,.). The plant is not 
now in cultivation for this purpose; but, in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, it is still collected in 
quantities from sandy wast«a and commons, 
and sold (o the dyers. 

I L. The Siberian 




11 Vmc* VM. lU. I Oe. ' 



Spec. C/iar.,^c. Stems erect; andlhewhole 
plant more slender and taller tbw G. 
tinctdria, of which it is evidently only a 
variety. An erect shrub, Siberia. Height 
6 ft. Introduced in 1785. Flowers yellow ; 
June to August. Legume brown ; ripe in 



.^CEXl CENl'sTA- 



8i. G. (t.) (iv*T* tValdtl. The 
wiidn. tt Kit. PL Huor. t. I. M. i B4I 



s«.°s 




;!^c. C^^ 4^. Sterna numerous, hairy, 
erecdab, somewhat herbaceomi, aCriateo, 
terete. Leavea oTBte, or ovatooblong, 
and are, aa well as the legumes, hairy. 
Racemea ahort Corolla smooth. (iXm'i 
MUi.') A shrub. Bclavonia and Hun- 

Kry ; and on the hilb of Italy, from 
edmoQt to Ifaplea. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. 
lutroduced in 1819. Flowera yellow; 
June to August. Lepune brovD ; ripe 
in S^tember, 

j> 86. G. TRiANGULABis WH/d. The tn'aogalar-il'fninuif Genista. 

Utmifailttm. Wnid. Sp., t. p. 039, ; Dec. Prod., I. p. IH. ) Dan'i Ull- 1. n. 1U. 
Sfno m ml. O. trlouFtn Watiu.cl Kit. ihu. 1. p. )U. [. IH.,bat 
BM^Stti^' WilJiI.elKU. Hung., t.l. lu:; uiilourjV'*»- 
Spec. Char., ^. Branches smooth, 3- 

angled, and, B8 well as the tlems, osceud- 

■Dg. Leaves lanceolate, and mucroDBtc 

Flowers axiUary Legume compreased, 

and mucronate. (_Dec. Prod.') A ahrub, 

Hungary, on calcareous rocka. Height j 

1 ft. Introd. in 1815^ Flowers yellow ; 

May and June. L^ume hrowo ; ripe 

in August. 

Closely reaembling G. trfquetra, of which, notwithstanding its simple leaves, 
it may possibly be only a variety ; the change not being greater than what 
takea place in Frixinus excelsior simpliciiolia. 




I £7, G. sagitta'i. 

■ P-m. 



Theu 



n-^mnfed Genista. 
mi, % f. IB. 

. 1 Hm/M AbWld, I. 117. UDd our A. sw. 

spec. Char., iic. Stems prostrate. Branches herbaceous, ascending, 8-edged, 
membranous, aomewbat articulated. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Flowers 
disposed in an ovate, tenobal, leafless 
spike. Corolla smooth ; but the keel is 
furnished with a villous line on the back. . 

(Don't JIGU.) A jnstrate shrub. Cod< I 

tiiwntal Europe; in mountain ptstures. 
Bei^tein. Introduced in 1750. Flowen 
yellow; May and June. L^umebrownt yfj-T\ 
ripe in AugtisL ^''^V^ 

rarigtt/. teiit ' 

Jl O. /. S minor Dec. — A small shrub, ^^|K 
having the branches clothed with ^Kl 
adpressed pubescence at the apex, ^R 
as well as the leaves. 4^ 

For practical purposes, this may be con- "^ oiaiMMiiiiub. 

sidered as a herbaceous plant. It is a very disdnct, ornaments), and hardy 
sort i growing and flowering freely. 



Uenti/lalUcn. • 




ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

E8. G. Dii^Pti'sA Wiild. The Stfase (hnusU. 

. Sp., a. p. w), 1 

imutnx/'.luJa 

^ec C^r., 4rc. Bnnchea pro- 
cumbent from the neck, tiique- * 
trotu. Leave* lanceolate, and 
■mooth, B litile cQiated. Pe- 
duncles axillary, erect, and dis- 
posed in interrupted bscicles. 
Corollas and legiunes glabrous. 
(Dec. Prod.) A procumbent 
shrub. Italy and Styritt, in ex- 
posed places. R^bt 6 in. In- 
troduced ID 1815. Flowers 

yellow; May and June. Le- ,»,, («oH.ii«»o«m. 

gume browo ; ripe in August. 

.3: 89. G. pbosthaVa Lara. The prostrate Oenlsta. 
liailtlUiialam. Lud. Diet., 9. p. 61B. ; Dae. Prod., 1. p. 1M. ; JDon'i MIU., 1. p. IBJ. 
Sfnoiipna. O. p«diincullu£'HfrA. ffjVp, 184.; O. dectirabaulhir. .0nr;f. l.p.999.; C Hftlori 

£>vninm>?''l.^, BM. Ob., -m. 1 ud our A'. ass.sM. 

i^Drr. CiW., <f c. Stems diffuse, prostrate. Branches angular, stiiated, rather 



\Mj^ 



hairy. Leares oTate-oblong, somewhat *||5 

hairy beneath. Flowers aitillary, on ^^ o«m.i™u»i. 

long erect pedicels. Corolla glabrous. p™«". 

Lc^mes hairy, 3 — l-4eeded. Q)ec. Prod.) A prostrate shrub. Burgundy, 
and the Alps of Jura, Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1775. Flowers jeltow ; 
May and June. Lt^ne brown; ripe in August. 

Jt 30. G. PI 

UtMMcaHim. Wilib 

Enirm/iip- BoC. Ktf.. L I1S«.( *iid our j^. S 

^lec. Char., ^e. Branches procumbent, 
round, striated, rather downy. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, and, as well as the 
calyxes, downy beneath. Flowers pe- 
dicellate, axillary, in threes. Corolla 
glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A procumbent 
shrub. Hungary and Moravia. Height 

I ft. Introduced in 1816. Flowers — 

yellow j June to August. Legume brown ; ripe ia September. 
Host likely only a vBrietj of the preceding species. 

.» 31. G. PiLo'sA Lm. The hairy Oenista. 

Mrat^aUn' ^'Um^f.X6.\ Smith ■■ Eng.Fl., J — - 

\ GonlilJililH 

1 Hmjiie MUU., t 

^pec. Char., ^e. Stems procumbent, striated, branched, luberculated. Lesvea 
obovate-IanceolHte, obtuse, folded, end having beneath a close-pressed silky 




XXV. L£OUHlNACE£: CV TISU8. 



down. Plowei ■ Bxilhrv, on ihoit pedicels. 
Calyx uid pedkeU silky. L^umes pu- 
besccDt, and 3 — l-seeded. (Dee. Prod.) 
A procumbent shrub. South of France, 
Switzerland, Qamtay, &c. ; and Britun, 
on dry elevated downs or heaths, in 
SuffolL, Cornwall, and North Wales. 
Height 1 ft. Flowers yellow ; W»j and 
June. Legume brown ; ripe id Sept. 



OAer Speciei of OenStla. — Q.ipmote, b the Hart. Soe. Oarden, is a young 
plant with trifoliolate leaves, and the side shoots temuDating in spines. There 
are various other names in collections, and a great many in books ; but the 
whole gaius is in such a state of confusion, that nothing can be determined 
with certainty respecting the species, till they are all coUected together and 
cultivated in the same garden and exammed. 



li 



GiNui VII. 



CY'TISUS Dec. Tub Cttisvs, Un. Sytl, Monadaphia Decindria. 
MnWetaUnL D«e.Frod.,l.B. 1U.1 Ddn'iMlU^l.p.lM. 

Irmmrma. Cftliiu vKl^ii(tIuiillp.Uia.,LBI.&e.; CftiM. A.;Bohlwab«IID,C«-.lC1Uu.If^ 
Iftritaliim. FnmCrd>«u,ouaflb*Cfcb>da^tbaArrto(thaip«leilu1oi>nta*rla|b«a(iHmdUH». 
Gen Char. C^i/f bilabiate. Upper IJp usually entire ; lower one somewhat 
tiideotaie. Vexillmn ovate, large. Carina very obtuse, including the sta- 
mens and pistils. Aoinefu monadelphouB. i>£unic compressed, many-seeded, 
glandlesB. (Don't Mil.) 

Leavei tiifoliotate, alternate, stipulate. Floweri of nearly all the species 
yellow. — Dcciduousorsub-evergreenshrubsof short duration, or low trees; 
natives chiefly of the Middle and South of Europe. 

All the species have trifoliolate leaves, and the flowers are for the most part 
yellow. The shrubs have the habit of Cenlata or of S^rtium, to both which 
geners thev are nearly allied. They are all ornamental, some of them eminently 
so i and those which have their flowers in terminal racemes are decidedly more 
degant than those which have them in close termbal, or in axillary heads. 
The wood of the laburnum is valuable in turnery and cabinet-work. All the 
spedes produce seeds in abundance, by which they are almost exclusively 
propagated. The spedes recorded in books are numerous i but, if they were 
all brought together, and cultivated in the same garden, we queetioii mudi if 
a tithe of them would be found specifically distinct. 

j 1. ASmmoideg Dec 

Br I ^irijH. Frum tli« word sJtsnMH, >lgii1iy[iw the vhlW ImMr Hp-WDOdof tm*; andippUHl 

to IhEi Kcttoi tmn tb* lawen at ibi ipaclH Mni lUU. 
Sect. Char, Calyx campanulate. Pod 1 — l-seeded, i 
suture. Flowers white. Leaves very few. Brai 
Pn>d., n. p. 153.) 

■ 1. C. a'lbus Link. The while Cytisua, or Portugal Brt>om. 
Utidi/lcaliim. Link Bbiiri.,9.|i.MI.i DH.Prad.,a.p. ID 

I n_...-»,._T_ n.,^ . . ™. . Spl,ifom| 

It bUDcba, n-.i irtlM* FtHcmoi, dtr. 



214 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

^lec. Ciar., ^c. Bnuichet terete, twiggy. Leavei iimple, 
and trifojjolale, sessile. Leaflets linear-oblong, and tlSky. 
Flowers in loBcicles, <lispoBed in long racemes. Legume 
8-seeded, very rillous. (Z>Dn'i MiU.) An upright shrub; 
evergreen, from the colour ofits numerous stnuKnt parallel 
young shooti, Portugal and the Levant. HeiEiit S ft. 
to 7 ft. Introduced in I75S. Flowers white; May and 
June. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 
A very handsome shrub, more especially when covered 
with its white flowers in May, and when surrounded by 
hundreJi of bees, butily occupied in extracting the bonn'. I 
In good soil, it is of very rapid growth, attaining the h^^t 
or5 or 6 feet in 3 or 4 years; and, in 6 or Byean, growing 
as high as 15 or even SO feet, if in a sheltered situation. 
Placed by itself on a lawn, it forms a singularly omamentBl 
plant, even when not in Sower, by ihe varied dispositii 
and tufUn^ of its twiggy thr^-like branchet. When 
flower, it is one of the finest omaniaita of the garden. 
Trwned to a single stem, its effect is increased ; and, graf ' ' 
on the laburnum, a common practice about Paris, it foi 
a very remarkable comhination of beauty and singularity. ' 
Plants are easily raised from seeds. 

■ C. a- S meamola4 has flesh-coloured flowen, or flowers very slightly 
tinced with reddish purple. This variety was introduced in 1818; 
and reproduces itself^ from seeds, but it varies much ia tbe quantity 
of colour in the Sowers. 

$ ii. hab&mum Dec. 

Detiralitii. Anui»i|i^ladl>]rraar townwipKkiof f^fnu. 

Sect, Char. Calyx campanulate. Pod many-seeded, not dilated at the upper su- 
ture. Flowers yellow. Branches leafy and unarmed. (i>rc. PhNf.,iLp.153.) 

* 2. C. LjlBv'khum L. The cosaun Laburnum. 



XXV. leouminaVbje : cy'tisus. ' 215 

UailiflcaHim. LlD. Sp., IMI.i I>«, Prod., 1. p. Ilf. ; Don'l MIIU: S- f- IN. 

^H^n, SfUnTl Oslden Chain ii'«i£>un|jlu» VbtdKt, S.iboSt,OI Arc- Boll, »■. i t«iu1» 

~ ~ ' ■■ ^ap nun* of L'Aqtjourt, wbkh U rlvpD to thii Cm Ln DuiphloA 4nd Sirluerluid, Li 

t tut tm bivloi boon iukI by tta« andoit OauLi lo uuka 
^ Is Iba tovaaj people, tn tame jwti 01 the 1Ue«iu»Ii, 

,r._jnelfielrRreBgIh udfluUdUdnrliitloK' uDtu'T- 1'lui 

■e of Fmx E'bWar li •pplM is tbt wsoiLfroDi IbibladuKU ollu beert-vood. The Oenau 
Mma il(iilt*i Been Tree ) ind both It ud the BnglUbudSeatcbiui '~ ~~ '~ 

■nudetto tba ttnglh 

tuptrlifi. Jica. Anel., 1. tSi. 
laArtK^iiL. litidll^Tol. T. ; 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branche* terete, whitish. Leaves petioUte ; leaflets ovatc-4an- 
ceolate, pubescent beneath. Bscemes pendulous, simple. Pedicels and ca- 
lyxes clotbed with closely pressed pubescence. Legume linear, maoj-seeded, 
clothed with closely pressed pubescence. A low deciduous tree. Native of 
Europe, on the lower mountaiusor the South ofQerman}, and of Switzerland. 
Height 80 ft. or upwards. Introduced in 1596. Flowers yellow; Msy and 
June. Legume dark brown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked 
young wood green. 

T C. L. 2 ptndahan Hort. has slender pendulous braoches, 

1 C. L. 3 querdjBhKm Hort., C. L. i inclsum, has siiiuated leaflets, not 

unlike the leaves of the common oak. (See the plate of this variety 

in Ari.Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.; and our j^. 341.) 



1 C. L. 4 fits* ToriegoHi has VBriegated leaves j but it is a plant of no 

beauty, and rarely seen in collections. 

2 C. L, !tfiogram Hort, — Flowers fragrant. Wherever a number of 

lahumuma are found in flower together, whether of this or the other 
species, the scent of the blossoms will be (bund to differ very con- 
siderably, and occanionally one may be found which may be termed 
fragrant j hence the oripn of this variety. 
* 3. C. (Z..) ALPi"MO» Mill. The Alpine, or Scoteh, Laburnum. 



ARBOUETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



JUiU.] 



t'pee. ChaT.,S!i:, Brandies glabroua end terete. Leaves petiolate; leaflets 
e-lan ceo late, rounded at the base. Racemes pendulous. Pedicels and 
xes puberulous. Legumes glabrous, few-seeded, marginete. (DoiCt 
MiU.) A deciduous low tree. Found in Carinihta, in tlie Alps of Jura, 
on Mount Cenls, and on the Apennines. According to some, it is also 
found wild iu Scotland ; but, though it is much cultivated in some partH of 
Fifeshire and Forfarshire, it is fkr from being indigenous there. Height 
SO il. to 30 h., sometimes mucli higher in a state of cuttiratJon. It was 
introduced into Brituin about the same time as the other species, viz. 1596 i 
und WHB, probahly, for a lon^ time confounded with it; for which reason we 
shall treat of the two species, or races, together. Flowers yellow; Maj 
and June. L^ume brown ; ripe in October. 



._^_ ... :e between C. Labdraam and C. (£.) al- 

plnua. This is very obviuus in a fine ap^men of this variety in the 
arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges, as shown in theplate in Arb. 
Sr'U., 1st edit., vol. v. The pendulous variety of C. Xahiiroum b 
a much less robust plant. 
1 C (L.) a. 3 purpiiratccHj HorU, C. L, purpureum Hort., C. Adamt 
Polr., C. L. coccineum Baum. Cat., the pui^lc Laburnum, the scarlet 
Laburnum, is not a hybrid between C. Zfabdnium and C. purpiLreus, 
as was at Eirxt supposed, but a xport from a bud of CytisuB pur- 
pilreus ioaertcd in (,'. atplnus, in 1S25, by D. Adam, a nurseryman at 
Vitrj, near Paris. The flowers are of a reddish purple, slightly 
tingrd with bu^ and are produced in pendent spikes, H \a. or more 
long. A lew years after this sport was originated, it was found that 
it had ■ strong tendency to return to the original kinds ; and that 
Grom one bud or graft, branches were produced of the true CJtisus 
purpureus, of the true XabCimum (either the Alpine or the common. 



XXV. LEGUMINA^CBL£ : Cy'TISUS. 217 

according to which of these may have been chosen as the stock) with 
yellow flowers, and of the purple laburnum. This was soon observed 
both in France and England. (See Gard, Mag,, vol. xii. p. 225., 
ToL XV. p. 122.; and Arb. Brit., 1st edit., p. 590.) It is a veiy vi- 
gorous, and somewhat erect and fastigiate, growing variety, having 
Eroduced shoots from 6 ft. to 9 ft. long in one season ; but, though it 
as been highly spoken of by some cultivators, in point of beauty, it 
cannot be recommended. 
It. C. (L.) a, ^fragrant Hort. — Blossoms fragrant. There are plants 
in the Hackney Arboretum. 

Miller recognised C. Zrabumum and C, alplnus as species; but Linnasus 
did not. Whether they are species or varieties, they are certainly very dis- 
tinct ; as much so, perhaps, as the (^u^us i26bur pedunculatum, and Q. R, 
sessiliflorum, and like these two oaks they come true from seed. Both sorts, 
being highly ornamental, have been extensively propagated and cultivated in 
British gardens and plantations. There are trees at Syon of C. alplnus above 
40 ft. highj and some at Alnwick Castle with trunks 3 ft. in diameter. The 
heart-wood of the laburnum is of a dark colour; and, though of rather a 
coarse j;rain, it is very hard and durable : it will take a polish, and may be 
made to resemble ebony. A cubic foot weighs 52 lb. 1 1 oz. in a dried state. 
The colour and grain of the heart^wood vary much, according to the soil, and 
the age of the tree. It is darkest in the C Zabiirnum, when grown on poor 
calcareous soil ; and lightest in the C (Xr.) alplnus, when erown in deep rich 
soil : in which last case its colour is a sort of J^reenish black. It is in much 
demand among turners and cabinet-makers. The ordinary use of the wood in 
the North of Scotland, is to form alternate staves with the wood of the holly, 
or the spindle tree, in making small noggins, or bickers ; but it is also used 
for the bowls of punch-ladles ; for flutes, and other musical instruments. 
Hares and rabbits being remarkably fond of the bark of the laburnum, it has 
been suggested to sow labumum seeds, in order to produce an undergrowth in 
plantations liable to be infested with these animals; for, though the plants are 
eaten to the ground every winter, vet they will spring up again the next season, 
and thus yield a regular supply of winters food for these kinds of game. As 
an ornamental tree, the labumum has few rivals. The shape of uie head is 
irregular and picturesque ; its foliage is of a smooth, shining, and beautiful 
green ; and, wnat is a great recommendation to every ornamental plant, it is 
not liable to be preyed on by insects. Though the laburnum will grow in a 
very indifferent soil, it requires a deep fertile sandy loam to attain a urge size. 
In regard to situation, as the tree puts out few horizontal roots, and has rather 
a spreading head, when it grows rapidly it is apt to be blown aside by hi^h 
winds ; but, for the same reason, it is less injurious to plants srowing near it, 
than some other ornamental trees. For producing timber, it should be placed 
in masses in a sheltered situation, or in a plantation among other trees, so as 
to be drawn up with a clear straight stem ; and when so circumstanced, in 
good soil, C. (Zr.) alpinus will grow to the height of from 35 ft. to 45 ft. Bk>th 
C. Xabumum and C, (L.^ alpinus are invariably raised from seed, and the 
pendulous and other varieties are propagated by grafting or budding on either 
of the common sorts. The seeds are & to gather in October ; and they may 
be kept in the pod, in a dry airy lof^ till the March following, when they 
should be sown in beds of light poll, at about an inch apart every way, and 
covered about half an inch or three quarters of an inch thick. Half the plants 
vhich come up will be fit for transplanting into nursery lines in the November 
following. 

• 4. C Welde VII Vis. Welden's Cytisus. 

JdeMeattan. VisianI PI. Dalm. Ex. Bot. Zeit.t Jon. ISSO., p. 6«. ; Don*i MllL, 2. p. 166. ; Hort. 

FL Austr., 2. p. 339. ; Bot. Beg., 1839, Month. Reg., No. 1«. 
£mgravitig. Our >^. 343. fh>in a drawing kindly lent us by the Ute Baron Jacquin. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Erect. Leaves temate, petiolate ; leaflets elliptic, entire, cu- 



2IO ARBORETUM ET FEUTICETUH BRITAITNICUM. 

seated St the hue, andobtuw at the apex, smooth. Racemes tenttinel, stalked, 
pjramidaU atrsight; pedkeU 
boary and villous. CHlyies 
can^nnulate, S-lobed ; lobes 
tomentosel J ciliated. Corolla 
^abroua, but tbe carina is 
clothed with silky villi. Le- 
gume glabrous, mucronste 
by the style. (Don'i Mili.) 
An erect woody shrub, re- 
sembling a laburuuQi, Dai- 
matin, in ffooda on moun- 
tains. Hdaht 3 ft. to 3 ft. ; 
6 ft. to 8 ft. in gardens. In- i 
troduced in 1837. Flowers 



Tbe racemes are erect, and 
do not droop even when in 
fruit. The seed* are still more 

1 those of the 

■num, and tbe 
scent of the Rowers causes 

headach. The milk of the "■ ""^w-dto* 

goats which feed upon the flowers. Baron Welden observes, produces the same 
effect, only more severely, upon those who drink it. 

■ a. C. Ni'oRicANS L. Tbe black C^-ttsuB. 

Mttnyieaiim. Ua. Sp., IMl. I Dk. Fnd., I.p. 1B3, i Soa'i HIU , 
EHiwAvi. I*cq, Autr., t. are. 1 BoL Ref ., t. SOt. i uid out 

Spec. Char., ^e. Branches round, twiggy. Leaves 
stalked, and clothed with closely pressed down 
beneatii, as well as the branches, calyxes, and 
pods; leaflets elliptic Racemes elongated, ter- 
minal, erect. Calyxes without bracteas. {Dec. 
Prod,^ A handsome deciduous shrub. Piedmont, 
Vallats, end Bohemia. On hills end along way- 
sides. HdahtSlt. to 6ft. Introduced in 1730. 
Flowers yellow j June and July. Leg;unie black ; 
ripe in October. The whole plant turns blade i 
wnen drymg ; whence the specific name. 
It ripens seed in abundance ; and it may also be 

propi^ted by grafting on C. laburnum, thus form- 

ing a handsome standard. *"' ''"™ *'''"" 

■ 6. C. sbssilifo'lius L. The sessile-leaved Cy^sus. 

MtMOalbil. Lin. Bp., tMl. i Due. Prod., 1. p. IAS. ; Dod'i HUl.. 1 p. tu. 
fofTwAwf, LuB. tll,t.S18.f. t.; Bot.HM.,ClU.; ud due ji|>. NEi uhI S«. 

Spec, char., ^, The whole plant quite smooth. Branches round. Ploral 
leaves almost sessile, and leaSets ovate. Racemes terminal, short, and erect ; 
each calvs having a S-leafeJ bractea under it. {Dec. Prod.) A shrub, with 
upright branches, and smooth shining leaves. Native of France and Pied- 
mont. Heiabt 4 It. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1569. Flowers yellow ; May 
and June. Legume black ; ripe in October. 
In very general cultivation i[| British gardens, generally aH a bush, but some- 



% 



ZXT. leoi;minVce£ : cy'tibus. 

times grafted standard hi^ on the 
labumiun; vhen it foriDs b very 
fomiBl, ■ymmetrical, round-headed, 
^ Bmall tree, which, however, is 
I hbhiy beautiHil when in dower. 
We have ^ven two figures of 
thU species, both drawn to the 
same scale, to show how much it 
vanes in the maf^ude and £en»«l 
sppeHrance of its foliage, accord- 
ing to soil and situation. Plants 
grafted standard high are c< 
in the London n '"— 




7. C. TBtFLO^BVS L'Herit, The three-flowered Cytisua. 

Spec Ciar., ^c. The whole plant hairy. Branches 
round. Leaves petiolatc ; letdlets o¥at&«iIiptic. Flow- 
ers Biillan, pedicellate, terete, and somewhat race- 
mose at the tops of the branches. (Dec. Prod.'^ A 
straggling hairy shrub, closely resembling C. capititus 
and C. hirsiltus. South of France, ItaW, Bicilj, and 
Mauritania. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640. 
Flowers yellow; June and July. Legume hlacfc ; 
ripe in October. 
Frequent in gardens, sometimes grafted standard high ; 

but neither as a standard nor as a dwarf is it of great duration. It should 

be planted in an airy situation. 

■ 8. C. PATTENS L. The spreading Cytisns. 

Umliflallim. Lin. Sjit Vtg. MB., Kcordlnf tD L'Htrlt. Stlrp, IB4. ; Dm. 

Frod., r p. IM. I Din'dllll., I.p. IH. 
Sfmonfm n . C. paadidJniuLAl. IV. Supp. I'V,; C.gniMAbnt Drc.Fr«l.l. 

p. IH. I CenItU lommUlu Polr. Sinv. S. p. 719. ; Sp4n]iuii pttnu Lin, 

ifH. MB.. Bri. Fl. I.mi. S. p. Bl., but Ml of C»i. i SptitluBi snndiUnim 

Am. n. Lai., 3. V. m. ; SunOiimiiul pilElu Wcbi tur Hitpo*. U. 
AifrvpAif . Oniflg. 34S- 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches striated and pubescent, 

trifoliolate, petiolate ; the upper ones simple, and < 

as are the leaflets ; covered with closely pressed 

Flowers auUary, usually in pairs, pedicellate, nodding. 

Pods very hairy. (Dec. Prod.) A spreading shrub. Native 

of PonugaL Height 4 ft. to 6 fl. Introduced in 175£. 

Flowers yellow ; June and July. Legume dark brown, or 

Uack; ripe u October. 

A very handsome shrub, especially when grafted standard 
high, not so common in collections as it ought to he. **■■ w™>f»»i. 

m 9. C, ^oFA^Rius Link. The common Broom. 

UtmMialim. Link Binim.,SL.p. ML; D«. Frod, 9. p. IM. \ DoD-i MUl., I. p. lU. 
Srtcifma. Spinlum icnpicliin Lin. Sp. ms., Smii* Etig. Bat. isas, : c^iiu iccnJirlii Lata. 
ma. l.p. GO., but ikMor VlU.i O.UltUli Uaack UrA. iM. ; Gnitl t Bikli, Oni£t annmUD, 
Ft. i cemelne PfHemni, Oct. 
Emtra^igt. (Ed. Fl. Du., l.sia.; Snilh Engl. But.,!. IHS.; ud our j^. M>. 
^wc. Char., ^e. Branches angled, glabrous. Leaves petioled, trifoliolate ; 
the uppermost simple; these and the leaflets oblong. Flowers axillary, pe- 
diceled, solitary. Legumes pilose at the margins. (Dec. Prod.) A ^rub, 
everEreen from the colour of ita numerous youiw nhoots. Native of dry 
sao^ or gravelly soilB,throughout Europe. Hei^t3ft.ta 12ft. according 



220 



ARBORJSTUM ET FRUtlCETUM BRITAN^ICUM. 



to the soil and situation. Flowers large, yellow ; May and June. Lcgiime 
black ; ripe in September. Naked young wood green. 

Varietiet, 

A C. s. 2 6Ibut Hort has the flowers white, or of a very pale yellow* 
A C. s. SJiorepleno Hort. has flowers slightly double. 

The roots are straight, and penetrate perpendicularly to a great depth. The 
leaves are trifoliolate or simple ; the branches numerous, long, straight, angular, 
dark green, smooth, and tough. The flowers are of a deep golden yellow, 
sometimes • tinged with orange, and occasionall v of a uniform pale lemon 
colour : they are succeeded by pods above an inch long, 
black when ripe, and each containing 15 or 16 seeds. 
The flowers are larger than those of any other species 
of the genus ; and, were the plant not so common in 
a wild state, it would, doubtless, be considered the 
most ornamental. The whole plant is exceedingly tough, 
and bitter to the taste, and nas a strong disagreeable 
smell. Though it is at present comparatively neglected, 
yet in former times it was one of venr great importance 
m rural and domestic economy. The branches are eaten 
by sheep and cattle ; and, on poor gravelly soils, formed, 
"before the eeneral improvement of grass lands which 
has taken place within the last century, the principal 
herba^. One of the principal modern uses of the broom, 
both m Britain and on the Continent, is to form 
brooms, or besoms; for which purpose, as the specific 
name would imply, it appears to have been useci from 
time immemorial. The young shoots were formerly 
used as a substitute for hops in brewing beer ; and the 
flower-buds, just before they become yellow, were pickled 
in the manner of capers. The tops and leaves are purgative and diuretic. 
In the North of Scotland, a decoction of the recent snoots is used by shep- 
herds, for dressing the backs of sheep, instead of tobacco wat^. The broom 
produces abundance of seeds, whicn, according to M. Hartig, retain their 
germinating quality for a very long time : some that he kept 25 years, in a 
room which was occupied, having come up as readily as new seed. 




Cytkut Mopkriofc 



§ iii. Calycotome Link. 

jyerhaUon. From ka^x^ ftcalyx» uui tomit a catting ; in reference to the celyx, the upper part of 
which, after some time, (alli off, in luch a manner aa to give the remainder the ^»pearance of being 
cut round. 

Sect, Char, Calyx campanulate, somewhat bilabiate, at lenp;th becoming trun- 
cate. Pod thickened on the upper suture. Shrubs with spiny branches 
and yellow flowers. {Dec, Prod,) 

A 10. C, spiNO^sus Lam, The spiny Cytisus. 

IdemtifleoHon, Lam. Diet, 2. p. 247. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 154. ; Don*i MQL, 2. p. 165. ; Webb Iter 

Hitpan., 61. 
Sumniifme. fpCrtium spinbeum Liu, Sp, 997. 
engravingt. J. Baoh. Hitti 1. p. S. p. 176., icon. ; LoU Icon., 2. t. 96. ; and our>lSg. 860, 

Spec, Char,, Sfc, Branches angled, spiny. Leaves trifoliolate ; 
leaflets obovate-oblong. Legumes perfectly smooth. {Dec, 
Prod,) An upright spiny shrub. U^on hills and rough places 
from Perpignan to Genoa, in Corsica, and in the Algerine 
country. Height 2 ft, to 10 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers 
yellow ; June and July. Legume black ; ripe in October. 

There are plants in the Hort. Soc. Garden. 350, c. ■pimmi. 





XXV, LEOUHINA'cEf: CY'tISUS. 

11. C. tribkaotbola'tus Webb. The cbree-bracted Cydsiu. 

Spec. Char., ^c, Decnmbent. Branches telra^nal, 
divaricate, rigid, obtuw. Leaves trifoholate, 
Terticillately sub-opposite; leaflets ovate-elliptic, 
slishlly obtuse at the apex, refuse, with ash- 
coToured silky down, petiolulate. Comnion petiole 
none, or cohering witD the branch. Flowers axil- 
lary, clustered, pedunculate. Cain bilabiate, 
bairy; upper lip cut to the middle in narrow 
acute segments ; lower lip louger, narrow, 3- 
tootbed ; middle tooth longest, supported at the 
base by three ovat« closely pressed bracts. 
(Wfbb,O^IStp.') A decumbent shrub, evcr- 
sreen Iromthe colour of its bark. Spain near Medi 

"■'■■" D 3 ft. Introduced 

A IS. C, LAHt'QBRUa Dec. The wool-bearing Cydsns. 

I'l Mill.. 3. tl lU. I W«Ul Il« 

u knlnmni Daf. Fl. Ail %_p. Its. : CalnCtmn 
I. ; ^TtlmB TiuSiam Bnl. n. Ltu. 1. p. M, Bid 

S^|mA^' 'c£^ ***■ ""^ > ipMbUD Id tfaa Bridih HuKOU. 

^)ec. Char., Sfc. Branches furrowed, spiny. Leaves tri- 
fbUobte; leaflets obovate-elliptics]. Legumes ver}- hairy 
■D a woolly manner. {Dec. Prod.) A sjiiny shrub. 
Found wild on hilts and in roo^ places in Cornea, 
Crete, the Archipelago, Mauritania, Gibraltar, and Por> 
tUipiL He^t 8 ft. to 10 A:. Introduced in I8S1. 
Flowert ydlow i June and July. Legume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in October. 

■ C.L2 rigidiuOec. — Spines very strong. 
Not common in collections, and m all probalnlity it is 
Dotfaii^ more than a varied of the preceding ^lecies. „,. c. imitm. 

$iv. Tubtx^ttMiu 'Dec 

DtrtttUm. Fromli>>w,iiute,uid(|rMiw; lD»fsrBe*Mtb>tBbiiluikipgor tfatnlri- 
&ef. Char. Calyx tubular, with the apex toothed-lipped. Thomles« shrubs. 
{DecPrmL, n.p. 156.) 



M 13. C. t.BUCA'NTBUs WoldMt. cl Sit. The white-flowered 
Cytisns. 

HnKHMMM. WiMiL It KIL, 1 p. 111. I Dk. Tnd., 1. p, lu ; DoD'i MUl., 
Bl^r^r^l. Bat.>ll«..t.ia8.; udour^.US. 

Sptc. Char., ^c. Stem erect. Branches round, and, as well 
as the leaves, clothed with closely pressed pubescence. Leaf- 
lets dliptic and Hzute. Flowers at the points of the branches ; 
heads of flowers bracteated by two leaves. (Dec. Prod.) A 
dowDT shrub. Croatia, in woods. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft, 
Introduced in 1S0S. Flowers yellowish white ; June and 
July. Legume black j ripe in October. " 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETVH BftlTANNICUH. 



B, FToiiKTi puTjile, 
k 14. C. pdrpu'reus Scop. The purple^fowcrrJ CTtiau, 

flabrous. Leafleta oblong. Fbwen aiillarj, solitary, aa 
Don'i miL) A procumbent slirub. Native of Camiola in 
Hdght 1 ft. Introduced in 179S. Flowers purple; 
May to August. LegumE black ; ripe in October. 

■* C.p.S fiore di6o HoTt. has the flowers of a pure 

white. 
■* C p. SJlbre riim. — Flowers rose-coloured. Plants 
in the Horticoltural Society's Oarden. 

Of all the different species of Cf- 
daus, when mfted on the laburnum 

(standard hi^, this fbmu the moat 
graceful tree ; and a plant of it covered 
with its purple flowers, placed on a 
hwn, or in a border near a standard of 
, Genista triquetra, covered with its 
golden yellow flowers, will produce a 
wery striking effect. The sin^lar hybrid 
____ or sport fonned between this plant and the laburnum has 
xrt. i.FHruHi 1^^^^ already described, p. 8I<J. 

C. Fioweri yeHow. 

ji 15. C. BLONOA<Tua WaidtL et Kit. The 
elongated Cytisus. 

UntVllatitii. WaUit.at Kit. Hims. l.|i.30a. t.lBt.( D«. 

Prod., 9. p. lU.; l}oa'lllllL,l.|LlU. 
£ivrni^i. Wilditit Kit.lluiig.,L ISS.i wdcmiA.HS. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Stems erect. Branches don- 
gated and round ; youns ones hairy. Leaflets 

obovate, clothed 4>eneaHi with closely pressed 

baira. Flowers lateral, usually in fours, on short 

pedicels. Calyxes hairy. (Dfc. Prod.) An erect 

pubescent shnib. Native of Hungary, in woods. 

Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1804^ Flower* 

yellow ; Hay and June. Legume dark brown, 

or black ; npe in September. 

In H. 8. Garden, and at Meaara, Loddiges's. 

Ji 16. C. 1 




C. BlonHtui HemU., but DM of KJL j C sliinsktui 
■ muioiwnil Da. Prod. t. p. IH. 
Bntntrfivt. UniU. BoCBii,!. 1191.) udoiiTj^.UT. 
£^>ec. Char., S/c. Stems erect. Branches elcHi- 
gated, terete, ytxmger ones villous. Leaflets 
oblong, tapering to the base, villous beneath, 
and of the same colour on both surftcea. •** ftu-u*««j(«. 
Flowers uaiwlly teraarr. Pedicek about equal in length to the petioles. 



XXV. leouuina^ce^g: cy'tisus. 223 

VerillutDemsreinate, undulateJ. {Don't Mill.') A dowD; ihrub. Native or 
Europe. Hei^t S ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1800. Fbwera >el]ow ; May 
and June. L^ume block ; ripe in September. 
It appears to us to be onlj a variety or the preceding apecies. 




17. C. falcaVus Walda. el Kit. tite AM^Me-podded Cytisui. 

ibLat Kit. tIaDi,,a.BMt.; Dst nwL, 1 p. lift. ; Doa't WU., » p. 1M.|Li 
. Bot. Cab., t. Ido. 1 WildM.MKIt.Huii|.,). LOS.; udour j%.iM. 



^>ec. Char., ^. Sterna declinate Brancbee round and twiMy ; the young 
ones, as well as Ibe leaves, clothed with closely pressed hairvdowu. Petioles 

S. Flowers usually in threes, lateral, and on ihmt peduncles. Calyxes 
ed with closely pressed hairs. (Dec. End.') A downy shrub. Native 
of Croatia, the South of Russia, and Oallicia. Hdght 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 
IB16. Flowers yellow ; June to August. L^ume black; ripe in October. 
Varvtiei. C. trifl6rus Lod., C. ruth£nicua Lod., C. decQmbens Lod., are 
apparently all varieties of this species. 

■B le. C. AUsTBi^ACUa L. The Austrian Cytisus. 

UnttifiaiHaiL Un. Sf, IMl I 0«. Prod.. 1. p. IK. ; D«'t IDU, 1. p. lU. 

Entrmraia- XUl. ieao., Ilf, C I.; Pill. itlQ,, td. Oil.. 1. 100. C t.: Jaeo. AwD.. 1. 11, i udaur 

^>ec. Char., 4^. Stems upright. Branches round and twiggy, and, as well as 
the leavea, clothed with closely pressed atrigose pubeseence. Leaflets lan- 
ceolate, attenuated at both ends. Flowers terminal, soniewliBt umbellate. 
Calyxes and legumes isther hairy. {Dec. Prod.) An upright downy shrub. 
Found in womls and rough places in Austria, Upper Itidy, the Ukraine, 
and Siberia. Height 3 ft. lo 4 ft. Introduced in 1T4I. Flowers yellow i 
July to September. Legume black ; ripe in November, 



the (pedes, and seems to be an erect, and very dis- 
tinct variety. 
■* 19. C. supi'nus Jacg. The supine Cytisus. 

MmMtoUn. Jacq. FL Anttr, l.l.iai DtcPnd.,K p, IM.i Doa'illUl.,& 

bSinwDK. C. UMSUaPtar. Ad. TiM. a. t.aia. 

ArroAwj. cm. taM.,p. M., ND.T., tcoo.i Juq. F1. Aiuti., I.t. ao.iud 

^)ec. dor., ^c. Stems branched and decumbent. Branches 
round, and, when young, rather hury ; adult ooea smooth. ^^ 
Leaflets obovate, hairy beneath. Flowers 8 — 4, usually ■«■. 
terminal and pedunculate. Calyxes and pods slightly hairy. 




224 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

(Dec, Prod.) A decumbent hairy shrub. Native of Belgium, Austria, 
Pannonia, Siberia, Turkey, and Dauphin^ both on exposed hills, and in 
sheltered bushy places. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1755. Flowers pale 
yellow, with the standard reddish ; May to August. Legume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in November. 

Jt 20, C. HiRsu^us L. The hairy Cytisus. 

Idtntificaikm. Lin. Sp., 1042. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 166. \ Don** M!!!.. 8. p. 166. 

Svnonymes. C. suplnus Bertot. PI. Gen., but not of Lin. ; C. trifl6rus Lmu. Dtd. 8. p. 26a, but 

not of L*H6rit.i C. TourneforUVimM Loi«el. in N. Du Ham., 6. p. 167. 
Engraving. Ontftg. . in p. 

Spec. ChaT,y8fc. Stems decumbent Branches round and twiggy; when voune 
hairy, but smooth when old. Leaflets ovate, hairy beneathT Flowers lateral 
on y^"^ short pedicels, aggregate. Calyxes and pods hairy. {Dec. Prod.) A 
decumbent hoary shrub. Found in rugged places from Genoa to Hungary. 
Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1739. Flowers yellow ; June to August, Le- 
gume black ; ripe in October. Closely resembling the C. capitatus, and 
C. trifl6rus of Loddiges*8 arboretum. 




j» 21. C. capita'tus Jacq, The headed;fioipered Cytisus. 

Identification. Jaoq. Fl. Auttr.. t. 83. ; Dec. Prod. 2l p. 156. ; Don's HilL, 2l p. 156. 
Sunonifmet. C. liirtCltut Lam. Diet 2. p. 260. ; C. suotnuB Lin. Sp. 1040. 
Engravings. Lodd. Bet Cab., t. 497. ; and our>^. 361. 

Spec. Char,, 4rc. Stems and branches erect, the latter hispid. 
Leaflets ovate-elliptic, hairy. Flowers numerous, and 
forming heads at the points of the branches ; but some- 
times lateral in the autumn. Calyxes and pods covered 
with short hairs. (Dec. Prod.) An upright hoary shrub. 
Found wild on tne edges of woods in Buigund^, Italy, 
and Austria. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1774. 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. Legume dark brown, S6i. c Mftutiu. 
or black ; ripe in October. 

Varieties or Synonymes. Cytisus austriacus Lod., €, can^scens FUch. of Got., 
C. ural^nsis Lod,, C* calycinus Lod., C. parvif^lius Lod.^ C. hirsiitus 
Lod., C. suplnus Lod., appear to be all varieties of C* capitatus, or in 
some cases, perhaps, identical with that species. 

.* 22. C. ciliaVus Wahlenb, The dlisited'^podded Cytisus. 

IdeniifieaHon. Wahlenb. Fl. Carp., 219. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 156. ; Don'i Mill., 2. p. 156. 
Engraving. OnrJIg. . in Jig. . 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stems upright. Branches smooth when old, but when young 
hispid. Leaflets obovate, clothed beneath with closely pressed hairs, Flowers 
approximate in threes, at len^h lateral. Pods glabrous and ciliated. (Dec. 
Prod.) A hispid shrub. Native of the Carpathian Mountains. Hekht 
2ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1817. Flowers yellow; June and July. Le- 
gume black ; ripe in October. « 

M 23. C polt'trighus Bieh. The many-haired Cytisus. 

Ideniifioaaan. Bleb. Fl. Taor. Sappl., 477. ; Dee. Prod, 2. p. 156. ; Don't Mill., 9. p. 156. 
Engraving. Out fig. . In p. « 

Spec, Ckar,^ S^c. Stems declinate. Branches hispid. Leaflets obovate^Uip- 
tic. Flowers lateral, usually in pairs, pedicellate. Calyxes and pods hairy. 
(Dec. Prod.) A recumbent shrub. Found in pine forests, on high moun> 
tains, in Tauria. Height 2 ft. to 4ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers yellow; 
June and July. L^ume black ; ripe m October. DeCandoUe observes of 
it, that it has the hairiness of C. capitatus, the disposition of the flowers of 
C hirsiitus, and the habit of C. supinus. 



XXT. LEaUHINA\:E,G : CY'TISUS. 



i%ie«. dor., 4rc. Tube of the calyx short, obconical ; the upper tip 8-parted. 
the lower 3-tootlied. Corolla hardly longer than the calvx. Muiy-Uemmed 
decumbent ihniba, deciduous, with few flower*, generally capitate and ter< 
D^oal, aod aU yeUow. (Dec. Prod.) 



■^ 84. C. akoe'ntevs L. The aiUery Cytitut. 

Lla.3p..ll)a.i Dm. t'n>d..».^ IM.; Don't UUL, *. p. IM. 
• Mudoqr/r.ML 



Spec. Char., lie. Stems decumbent. Leaves, calyies, corolhui, 
and pods clothed with a closely pressed silky down. Leare« 
petiolate, trifoliolate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate. Flowers 
3—4, produced at the points of the shoots. {liec. Prod.) 
A deounbent shrub. Native of Camiola, the South of 
France, and Mauritania. Height 1 t^. Introduced in 1739. 
Flowera ydlow; Aogust, Legume black; ripe in October. 
A. nlky silvery- looking shrub, from the prevalence of closely 

pressed mlky down over all its parts j noticed in the specific character, and 

whence it derives its spedfic name. 

J. 85. C. ciltci'nub Bieb. The Awge-calyxed CjtJBus. 
/AitfA^tat. Btab. n. Tub., 1. p. IW. ; Dk. FnxL, £ p. in. i Ddd'i 

^■uiJmj. 'C-pueUttnu miM. AlS. p. IIW. 

fivr»«WK Lcidd.Bc>I.C^,t.«»a.;iDd«u'A. Mt. 

Spec. Char., ie. Stems ascending. Leaves, calyxes, and . 
poda somewhat hairy from ^reading down. Leaves 
trifoliolate and petiolate. Leaflets roundish, obovate. 
Flowers terminsl, from S to B together. (Dec. Prod.) 
A prostrate shrub, irith trailing branches, the ends of 
which grow npright. Found in stony places on Mount 
Caucasus. Hd^t 1 ft. Introduced ui 1B20. Flowera 
yellow i August L^ume black ; ripe in October. 

.a 86. C, NA'vVB Willd. The dwarf Cytisus. 

E^rmliitt. Wia.Dmi.^a..iu.i*iiii<mjit.Ki.' 

Spec. Qtar., I^c. Stems cyliodrical. Leaves trifo- 
liolate, obovate, clothed with atrigose pubescence 
beneath, and smooth above. Raceme terminal, 
sectmd, usually 4-flowered. Calyx deeply 3- 
parted ; hairs on the stems and peduncles ad- 

K eased. (Don't Mill.) A procumbent shrub, 
alive of the Levant. Height 1 ft. Introd. in 
1B16. Flowera yellow j June and July. Le- 
gume black ; ripe in October, 
litis is a beautifiil httle shrub for rockwoHc i 
and if planted in dry sandy soil, covered with 
brood fist stones to retun the moisture during 
the hot weather of July, it will continue flowerii^ 




ARBORETUM £T FRUTtCfiTUM BRITANNICL'M. 

j vi. Cknmdnthiu Dec. 

ynm etroKM. ■ r«r. ud amtkot, i Oover j ^ipUal la UiU lecdon becauH Uk peuk 
ichwl lolht uljxn all lbs ymr. 
Seel, Char. Calyx with the upper lip bifid, and the lower one trifid ; lobes 
acute, of the same length aa the tube. Petals permanent. Legume oral, 
much compretsed, 2-seedeJ, (flrc. Prod., ii. p. 157.) 

ji 87, C. ottiENTi'Lis i™. The Oriental CjtiauB. 

UntOcalbnt. Loll. In N. Du tUm.. S. p. IH. i Sdd'i MUI.,1 p. 197. 

^■n^KU. C.ar\BaUii,ic.,acTardtitA ValL Hrrb. 

Atr'ttnfi. FluJi. Flirt.,t. 31. (,3.1 laa oar Jig. net. 

Spee. Char., 4^c. Stemi erect, hairy. LeBTes almost sessile, 
trifoUolate, hairy; leafleta linear, acute. Flowers large and 
yellow, aubtcrminal, on short pedicels, and few. The nowen 
and poda are both glabrous. Calyx hairy, more 5.«Ieft than 
Inlabiate. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.) An erect hairy ahrub. 
Native of the Levant. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
18 IS. Flowers yellow, large and persistent; June and July. 
Legume black; ripe in October. >u..c. subuii. 

Other Spedei of C^ai. — This genus, in British gardens, is in such a stateof 
confiuion, that nothing can be done in it satisfactorily till all the kinds are 
collected together, and cultivated for two or three years till they show their 
flowem and fruit. Perhaps two thirds of the alleged species in the London 
gardens are only varietiea. In the mean time, all that a cultivator can do is to 

Krocure as many kinds as he can ; and in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges 
e will find the greater number of those above described, though some of them 
have been killed by the winter of 1837-8. Among the species probably hardy, 
by lar the handsomest in point of foliage ia the C. aSlicut Ouss. (Bot. Reg. 
l190:j., andourj^. 366.) 
It is a taU, very hoary 
shrub. A native of Strom- 
[ boli. Height 5 ft. to 8 a. 
^ Introd. h) 1835. Flowers 
^ pubescent, yellow, cnm- 

(lanulate, end the young 
egumes glabrous. It has 
k the appearance, Dr, Lind- 

ley observes, of bang an 

intermediate species be- ._ 

tween C. Z^Bb^rnum and 

C.triildrue. (SeeArb.Br., 

1st ed., p. 85S1.) C. ra- 
m cemettu Mamoch (Flor. 

, ^gg__ vol. ii. t. 18.; and ou 

some shrub, of moderately robust habit; a native of the . 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1B35. The Sowers are terminal, in a 
■pike about 6 in. in length, and of a bright yellow. There were plants in the 
Epsom Nursery in 1838. Manj other soecies of l^tisu* ere described by 
authors, for which we refer to Don's MiUer, Wdib's Iter Hitpataerue, Bois- 
sier'a Elenehiu Plaatarum, Duby and DeCandolle's Bolamam GaiUcum, and 
the first edition of this Arboretum. Many genera of ligneous plants require to 
be cultivated t(»ether, in the same garden, in order to settle their nomen- 
ckture: hut whUe some of these, as Qu^rcus, /"Inus, &c., would consume the 
greater part of a lifetime in procuring them from the diSbrent quarters of the 
world, and wdting ull they came into flower, the genera Genista, Cytisus, 
and Adeiioc&rpus are almost exclusively European, SaA might be collected in 
tbc course of one year \ while, in three years after the seeds were sown, the 
plants would in most cases come into flower. It is surprising, therefore, that 
soroe amateur of lebure does not undertake their arrangement. 



\,l 




XXV. leoumina\:k£ ; ademoca'rpus. 



1^ 



Iak. Sytl, Monsd^lphik 
1. p. IBS. ; Ddo^ urn.. 3. iL m. 



Geii. Char. Calt/x obconicat, usually bewt with gUndi, bilabiate ; upper lip bi- 
paitite, lower one longer and trifid. Carina obtuse, enclosing the stamens and 
pistils. Sbrmem monadelpbous- Legume oblong comprened. (Dcn'i Miff.) 
Leaoet compound, triioliolBte, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. Floweri 
yellow in all the species. — Shrubs, straggling, of short duration, somewhat 
erergreen froDi Uie colour of their young shoots ; natives chiefly of Europe. 
Brsnchcs divergent; leaves trifoliolate, with petiolar stipules, and folded 

leaflets, and usual^ grouped j flowers upoo bncteolate pedicels, and di^Msed 

in tenninal racemes. Culture as in C^tiBus, from which 

geoDS most of the spedet have been se^iaraied. 



'L'lfhil. Ot^ iu.. KDb flan 
K<igrwHmg. OIIIJK.MB. 
^c, Ciar,. +c. Calyx g 

tip with three equal segments, that are iMrelylonger 
than the upper lip. Branchlets faair^. Flowers 
grouped. Standard rather glabrous, (Dee. Pr«d.) A 
nairy shrub. Spain and Portugal, in shady and moist 
^es. He^t sa. to 4ft. Introduced in 1816. 
Flowers ydlow; June and July. L^ume dark brown, 
or black; ripe io October. 



• S. A. Boissib'b/ Webb. Boissier's Adenocarpus. 

Bic* Tit)*, Sfait. 



UrtU^taUm . ^ 'Wabb't Iter Ul^, j^ 



Smtrtritfi. OtlaHlii>iiilca,t.4.; mdourj^.sas. 

Spec. Ciar., ^c. Arborescent. Sark scaly. Branches purplish, ash-coloured, 

clothed with soft hairy pubescence, and with nimifrous leaves, Petiolaa 

elongate, terete. Leaves with ad- 

preMed pubescence. Leaflets linear, 

with rerolute morons, somewhat ol^ 

tuse. Calyx villous, the lower hp 

somewhat 'longer than the upper. 

VexiUum pubescent at the apex end 

nuddle. Lt^mes dongate, obtuse, 

whitish, with purple glands. Seed 

greenish black. (We66, Otia ITupan.) 

A large deciduous shrub. Spun, in 

warm vaLeys of the mountains of 

Granada, 4500 ft. to 6000 ft. above 

the sea. Hekht IS ft. to SO ft. ln< 

troduced ?. FIowc^ reddish yellow, 

fragrant i June and July. L^ume 

whitish, covered with numerous pur. 

pie glands ; ripe in August. 

a 8 




tatennMliM. 



^8 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

A most beautiful species when in flower ; but, when out of flower, of a gloomy 
ashy hue. The trunk is disfigured by the old ragged bark, whence the 
vernacular name. It is truly astonishing, Mr. Webb observes, that this splendid 
European plant, of almost arboreous stature, with spikes of flowers sometimes 
a foot in length, should so long have escaped detection. It closely resembles 
A. hispinicus, but, according to Mr. Webb, it is " very entirely distinct.** Plants 
are, or soon will be, in the Milford Nursery. 

A 3. A. iNTBRHB^Dius Dec, The intermediate Adenocarpus. 

Ideni^leation. Dec. Prod.. % p. I6S. ; Don*t Mill., 2. p. 158. 
^noi^me, CftiMoa complidaui Srot. FL Ltu. 9L p. 9l 
Sngravingt. Cliu. Hltt, I. p. 94. 1 1. ; and our Jig. S70L 

Spec, Char,y (fr. Calyx pubescent ; pubescence glandu- 
lated ; the middle of the three segments of the lower 
lip of the calyx longer than the side ones, and than the 
upper lip. Branchlets rather villose. Flowers rather 
distant. Standard rather glabrous. {Dec, Prod,) A 
pubescent shrub. Native of sunny gravelly places in 
Fortuml and Old Castile, and Mount Sender, m Sicily, 
and of Mongiana, in the kingdom of Naples. Height 
4 ft. Year of introduction unknown. Flowers yellow $ 
May to July. Legume black; ripe in September. 

A very handsome species, and one that is much admired 
for its fine terminal spikes of flowers, which, in favour- 
able seasons, and in a dry soil, ripen abundance of seeds. 97a 

A 4. A. PARViFoYius Dec, The small-leaved Adenocarpus 

IdentifieoHom. Dec. L£g. M6m. 6n and Prod. 9L p. 158. ; Don*i Mill.. 2. p. ISa 
Synon^me*. C^tliui parrifbUus N. Du Ham, 6. p. U7., Lam. Dkt 1 p. i4a, 
exclutive of the lynonjmet ; Cf dtus dlraricitiu L'Hirii. Stirp. 184. ; C^titOf 
Gomplicktus Dec PL fV. No. 8821.: Spirtlum compliciUum LoiB. FL GaU. 441 
Engrawh^M. N. Du Ham., &, t 47. L 1. ; and our fj^. 371. 

Spec, Char., 8fc, Calyx somewhat pubescent, with glandulous 
pubescence ; the central segment of the lower lip longer 
than the side segments, and much exceeding the upper lip 
in length. Branches glabrous. Flowers distant. Standard 
pubescent. {Dec, Prod.) An erect shrub, whitish firom the 
down on its branches. Native of sunny heaths in the West 
of France. Height 2 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flow- 
ers yellow ; May to July. Legume black ; ripe in October, sri. A.JLrTfroiiM. 

M 5, A. TELONK^NSis Dec, The Toulon Adenocarpus. 

Idmtifieatkm. Dee. FL Fr. Suppl. 54., Lte. Mfoi. 6., Prod. % p. 158. ; Don't IflU., % p. \fA 
. Sg n on um et. Cytlsai telonfotU LoU. PI. Gall. 446., and in N. Dm Ham. b. p. 1(5. ; SjpirUuiB eom. 
plicfltum Gotum Hort. Mcm$p. 866L, excIusiTe of the tTnonyme. 
Bngravingi, N. Du Ham., & 1 47. f. a. ; and our Jig. 872. 

Spec, Char,, 4rc, Calyx not glandulose, pubescent ; 
the segments on the lower lip nearly equal, ex- 
ceeding a little the upper lip in length. Branches 
almost glabrous. Flowers distant. Standard 
pubescent. (Dec, Prod,) An erect shrub. Na- 
tive of sterile places and heaths in the Pyrenees, 
in Cevennes, in Provence, and in Rome. Height 
2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers yel- 
low; June and Julv. Legume dark brown, or 
blade ; ripe in October. 

It well deserves a place in British gardens; 
where, when judiciously treated, it will, owing to 
the moisture of our climate, attain double the 
height that it does in the South of France. 





XXV. leouhika'ceje : ono'nis. 



□□ 



UNU'NIS Z. The RssTBiRRon'. Lin. S^tl. Honad£lphia Decindiia. 
IJtiuHltiaim. Lin. G«ii.,ti 



Lcginae iuubIIv turg^, aeMile, few-seeded. (Z^'i MUi.) 

Leant* triroliolate, Btipulate, alternate, deciduous. F/owert yellow, pur- 

E'bh and red, or nirelf whit«. — Shrubs, very low, sufihiticose j natives of 
urope. Two species are hardy. 
The peduncle is, in many instances, furDighed with an awn, which is the 
petiole of an abortive floral leaf. The two apccimens here described are well 
adapted for rockworlc or flower-borders, on account of their lively flowers, 
which are red, or reddish purple; colours not frequently met with in the lig- 
neous L^umin&ccB, by mr the greater part of which have yellow Sowers, 
They are readily propagated by seeds or by division, and 
will grow in any soil Uat is tolerably dry. 

^ 1, O. FRUTICO'si 
Mim^tmtiom. Lin. Sp., 1I1K 
sSicaHaf N. DuHhd., I. LM.i NUL Icon., LH-i Hot. >U|.,t. SIT i 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves trifoliolaCe. Leaflets sessile, 
lanceolate, serrated. Stipules connate into one, sheath- 
ing, and 4-BWDed ; and, ui the uppermost parts of the 
plant, occupying the places of leaves which are absent. 
Pedicels 3-tlowered, disposed in a raceme. (Dec. Prod.) 
A low shrub. Alps of Dauphin^, &c. Height 1 ft. to 
4 ft Introduced in 1680. Flowers purplish red ; 
May and June. Legume brown; ripe in September. 
yaritly. 

^ O. /. 2 tmcrophylla Dec, O, fruticdsa Aito. — 
Leaflets sm^l, obovate, and serrated. Native of 
the mountains of Aragon. „^ atnoaim. 

m t. O. kotundifo'lia L, The round-leaved Reacbarrow. 

Hwmr^fai.. Un. 9p. iid.t.j>.T13.,twtnM*d.l.< D«.Pt«L, a. p. IGl.iBiu-i inil.,I.a. Ii 
tfrnaSfma. O.itaiilU AuiiSr^.n.,IJii. Mml.t. ]].t. I.( KMi nbiaiiaxlm HkmcIL 
Agririntt. iKq. Fl. Aulr. App^, t.U,; Bot Ml*., 1. *K. i *nd our j^. in. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves trifbUolale ; leaflets ovate, 
aiul toothed. Peduncles 3-Sowered, and with- 
out bracteas. (Dec. Prod.) A low shrub. Native 
of the Pyrenees, and the Alps. Height I fl. to 
8 R. Introduced in 1570. Flowers purplish red ; 
May to Sept. Lc^me brown ; ripe in October. 

Olier Kindt of Onoiat. — O. trihracUata Dec., a 
suflhiticose plant with pink flowers, supposed to 
be a native of Caiinthia, differs little from O. ro- 
tundHSlia. Several other species are hardy, but 
not sufficiently ligneous for our purpose. 



^ 




ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUU BBITANNICUM. 



a 



AUO^PHA Z.. Tub Amorfba, or Bastard ISDiao. Lin, Syit, Hona- 
d^phia Decindria. 

AlKii)r>M>. Bnnifldil Sie*. iltm. Nn. JIM. i Fun Indigo, 'Pr. ; Unform, Sir. ; AamrU, Ital. 
D art ti t toH. Ftqip 4, prtTAUve. and bw^M, fbm ; lanftnAca lolb«iWnin1l7ortbeconilL*,fridu 

tik« wmE of lbs viDfi ud kaelp 
Gen. Char. Calyx 5-ti>ottaed, obconically campuiulate. Fexiliiaa orate, con- 
cave. Wing! and Keel-vtaning. Stjfle filiform, straight, glabrous. Slameru 
eiBerted, monoddphous at the verj' base. Legume compretBed, l-celleil, 
1— 2.Beeded. (Dim'i Mili.) 

Leavei compound, impan-pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; stipules 
deciduous. Floweri of a blue violet colour, in apicatc racemes. 
Shniba, large, deciduous; natives of North America. Leaves having nuuijr 
purs of leaflets that have transparent dots in their disks, and usually minute 
stipules at their base. The floirers are disposed in racemes, usually grouped 
at the tips of tlic branches. Tie apecies are highly ornamental on account 
of their leaves, and more ewecitd'y of their long spikes of flowers ; vhich, 
thou|^, when taken separately, they are small, ana imperfect in r^ard to 
form, are ;^et rich from their number, and their colours of purple or violet, 
spangled with a golden yellow. The plants are not of long duration ; and are 
liable to be broken by wind ; for which reason they ought always to be 
planted in a sheltered situation. They produce abundance of suckers, from 
which, and from cuttings of the root, they are very readily propagated. 

• t. A. PRUTico'sA Iah. The shrubby Amorpha, or Siulard TH^go. 
MmfttHUm. T.ln. Sp.. lOOS. I Dae. Prod., 1. p. US. ; DoB'tMIU., t. n.SM. 

S#itomfmtr- Wild IwllfD, Aimer- 1 tuu IpfUfo. ft., btmacluitltw UcutKin, Oct. i Indaco baitanlo, 

BarbaiU Clan. /(<■;, 
Sitgrarntgl. Sdituhr Handb., t. lOT. i Bat. Ktf., 41T. 1 mid aiu-jfc. KH. 

^>ec. Char., rjc. Rather arborescent, somewhat 
villose or glabrous. Leaflets elliptic-oblong, 
the lowest distant from the base of the 
petiole. Calyx somewhat villose ; 4 of its 
teeth obtuse, 1 acuminate. The standard 
glandlesa. Legume few-seeded. (Dec. Prod.) 
An erect glabrous shrub. Carolina and 
Florida, on the banks of rivers. Ileicht 
9ft.to12fL Flowers verydarkbluishpurple; 
June and July. Legume brown ; ripe Oct. 
Naked young wood greyish brown. 
Farieliei. 

» A.f. i angoMiUa Pursb has the leaf 

lets linear-elUptic. 
■ ^./ 3 muigtRofaPursh has the leaflets a^^i*.r™iio»-. ^ ' 

notched, and the calyx hoary. "^^ 

• A. f. 1r Lewim Lodd. Cat., 18^, appears to hare rather larger flowers 

and leaves than the species. 

• A, f. i axTulea Lodd. Cat., 1B30, has the flowers of somewhat a paler 

blue. Perhaps only a variation of A. crdceo-lanlta. 

■ 2. A. (p.) ola'bba Daf. The glabrous Amorpha, or Bailard Indigo. 
MtntifleaUiM. I>«f. Cat. Hort Fv.. IK i Dec. Prod., 1. p. MS. ; Don't UU., 1. p. W. 
EKgnatKf. Oar jig. tIA. from a qHciiitB In Dr. Llndlgj') borbarluB. 

i^tec. dor,, 4'c. Rather arborescent, glabrous. Leaflets elliptic-oblong, tbc 



XXV. LEQUHINA^CEX : AHO'RPHa. 231 

lowest dittaot from the base oF the petiole. Calyx glabroug, four of its 
teeth obtuse, one acuminate. Standard elended on tEe outside. L^ume 
contunina few seeds. (Dec. Prod.) A glabrous shrub. North America. 
Height 3tt. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1810. Flowers bluish purple; July 
and August. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 



M 3. A. (r.) Ni'Ni yutl. The dwarf Amorpho, or Battard Indigo. 

■K.lgFTH.C>t.,ISI&i Mot. GtD. Amv., l.p>I.;D«.nH>d.,lp.iM.| Qan-i 

Anwa^Hr A. mlcrophfUi Ptmi R. ^nvr. Sm 3. f. MS. 
^gmiKgt. BaL Mm$., 111^ { and oat A. Xn. 

^ec. Char., ^e. Sljrubb;, dwarT, rather glabrous. Leaflets elliptical, nracro- 
nulate. Calyx glabrous, all its teeth setaceouslv acuminate. Legume 1- 
•eeded. {Dec. iVmf.) A low glabrous shrub. Native of herbage-covered 
hills near the Missouri. Height 1 ft. to £ ft. Introduced 1811. Flowers 
purple, firagrant ; July and August. t<egume brown ; ripe in October. 

■ 4. A. (p.) FRA^BANS SuKel. The fragrant Aniorpha, or Batlard Indigo. 



Spec. Char., ^c. Shrubby, pubescent Leaves with 6 — 8 pairs of elliptic- 
oblong mucronate leaflets, obtuse at both ends, yonng ones pubescent. 
Calyx pubescent, pedicellate; superior teeth obtuse, lower one acute. 
Style hairy. (DoiPt Afili.) A pubescent shrub. North America. Heidit 
7 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers dark purple; June and JiJy. 
L^ume brown; ripe m September. 

■ 5. A. (p.) mo'cEO-LAKA'TA fToU. The 
SaffloD-colou red- woolly Amorfjia, or ta«my 
Sattard Indigo. 
Uoi H IIe ^ hm. fraU. Da)d.BTl<.i Don'iHDL. l.p.lS4. 
Knfmtlf. WlU. Daad. BrlL.L IM. ; miA mn Jig, ITS. 

Spec, Char., ^e. Plant clothed with tawny pu- 
bescence. Racemes branched. Leaves with 
8 — e pairs of oblong-elliptic, mucronulate, 
downy leaSets; the Supper teeth of calyx; 
orate, acute, ^e S lower ones very short, ' 
and rounded. (Don't JUili.) A pubescent ' 
shrub. North America. Height 8 ft. to 5 ft. 

Introd. ISSO. Flowers pur^e or purplish sn- A-ttjotcniBtM. 

blue ; July and August. Legulne dark brown, or brown ; ripe in October. 



f23-2 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



J* 6. A. (f.) canb'scbns Ntttt, The canescent Amorpha, or Battard Indigo. 

Jdent^leatiou. Nutt. In Fraa. C«t^ 1813, and Gen. Amer., 3. p. 9S.; 

Purab Fl. Amer. Sept., 8. P- 467. ; Dec. Prod.» a. p. 266.; Don*« 

Mill.. 2. p. 2M. 
Svnonpnu. ? A. pubescent Pursk S. p. 467. 
JBngraoing. Oar Jig. 380. Arom Purth't tpectanen in the Lambertlan 

herbarium. 

Sprc, Char,, 4rc, Suffiruticose, dwarf, all over wbitely 
tomentose. Leaflets ovate-ellipdc, mucronate, the 
lowest near the base of the petiole. Calyx tomen- 
tose; its teeth ovate, acute, equal. Ovary 2- 
ovuled. Legume 1 -seeded. (Dec Prod,) A low 
tomentose shrub ; Louisiana, on the banks of the 
Missouri and the Mississippi. Height 3 ft. In trod. 
1812. Flowers dark blue ; July and August. Le- 
gume brown ; ripe in October. 




880. A. (f.) 



Genus XL 



r 



^ 



EYSENHA^RDT/i4 H. et B. The Eysenhardtia. Lin. SytL Diad^lphia 

Decandria. 

JdentifleaUoH. H.B. «t Kunth Nor. Oea.tytV' 489.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. S57. ; Dod*i Mill., S. p. S3I. 
Sifnomyme. Dalb^rgia Spreng. Sjrct App. S63. 

Derivatiom. Named In honour of Charles William Effienkardit M.D., a profeMor hi tbe UnirenUj 
of Klhilgaberg, in Prusaia. 

. Gen, Char, Calyx obconically campanulate, 5-toothed ; upper teeth rather 
remote, lower one longest. PeUUs 5, disposed in a papilionaceous manner. 
Vexillum oblong, and the two keel petals distinct. Stamens diadelphous. 
(Don's MUL) 

Leaves compound, impari-pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; beset 
with glands. Flowers in terminal racemes, white. — An unarmed shrub or 
low tree ; native of Mexico. 

A 1. E. AMORPHoi^DEs H,et B, The Amorpha-likc Eysenhardtia. 

Tdent/fleaHon. H. B. et Kunth ; Dec. Prod., and Don'i MIU. ; Bot. Reg. Chron., 1839. No. ib. 
^inonjfwe, DalMhrgia amorphjfldet Spreng. 
Kngravings. H. B. et Kunth, 6. t. 69S. ; and oar Jig. 861 . 

Spec, Char,, Sfc, An unarmed low tree or shrub, with 
impari-pinnate leaves, composed of many pairs 
of stipulate leaflets, and these are, as well as the 
calyxes, beset with dands. Racemes terminal, 
cyhndrical, flowers white. (Don*s Mill,, ii. p. 234.) 
A deciduous shrub or low tree. Mexico, on 
mountains. Height 6 ft. to 10ft; in British gar- 
dens 4 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1837. Flowers 
white. Legume ?. 

This plant was raised in the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
and ha.s proved (juite hardy. The leaves are dis- 
tinctly marked with glandular dotting ; a y&y un- 
usual case among leguminous plants. The twigs 
are short, and so closely set upon the branches 
as to form a dense mass of foliage. Each is termi- 
nated by an erect compact spike, from 2 in. to 
3 in. long, of white or pale vellow flowers, 
which, although not larger tnan those of a spirsea, nevertheless, from their 
abundance, must produce a beautiful appearance. (Bot, Reg, 




S8\. KyMnh&rdtwi amarphOtdat. 



XXV. LEOUMINA^CEiE : KOBl'niA. ^33 

Genus XIL 




m 



UOBWIA LiQ. The Robinia, or Locust T^eb, Lin. Syst. Diad^lphia 

Dedindria. 



IdfMtifieaihn, Dec. M§in. I^., 6. ; Prod., 9L p. 261. ; Don*a Bflll., 3. p. »7, 

^m om^met. pModwAcU T<mm. Jnit. t 417., Memck Heik. 145. ; Robinier, Fr.\ Roblnie, < 

jDrrAwiMN. Named in honoar of Jean Rottn^ a French botanUt, once herbalist to Henry I V. of 



France, author of HiMtoire den Plantes^ ISmo, Paris, 16*20 ; printed with the second edition of 
LoDicer*s HMorjf qf Plantt, His son Vespasian was sub-demonstrator at the Jardln dos Plantes 
in Pturli, and was the first person who cultirated the Robfni^i Pseud*ilduda in Europe. 

Gen, Char, Calyx 5-toothed, lanceolate^ 2 upper ones shorter and approxi- 
mate. CoroUa papilionaceous. FexUiian large. Keel obtuse. Stamens dia- 
delphous, deciduous. Ovaries 16— 20-ovumte. SUy/e bearded in front. 
Legume compressed, almost sessile, many-seeded, with the valves thin and 
flat, margined at the seminiferous suture. (Don*s MUL) 

Leaves compound, unequally pinnate, alternate, deciduous ; leaflets 
generally ovate or obovate, petiolate. Flowers white or rose-coloured, in 
axillary usually nodding racemes. — Trees, deciduous, natives of North Ame- 
rica, where one of the species is highly valued for its timber. 

The species are prized, partly for their use, but chiefly for their beauty. 
They are roulily propagated by seeds, large truncheons of the stem and 
branches, cuttings of the roots, or by grafting ; and they will grow in any soil 
that is not too wet. Their roots are creeping, and their branches very bnttle : 
they grow rapidly, but are generally not of long duration. Their rapid ^wth 
is a property that they have in common with sdl trees and plants the principal 
roots o\ which extend themselves close under the surface ; because there the 
soil is always richest : but the same cause that produces this rapidity at first 
occasions the tree to grow slowly afterwards, unless the roots are allowed 
ample space on every side ; since, as they never penetrate deep, they soon 
exhaust all the soil within their reach. They are, therefore, nishly objec- 
tionable among ornamental shrubs, or in flower borders. For wis reason, 
also, such trees are objectionable as hedgerow trees, or as scattered groups in 
arable lands ; their roots proving a serious impediment to the plough, ana the 
suckers thrown up by them choking the com crops. Roots, on the other 
hand, which penetrate perpendicularly as well as horizontally, belong to more 
slowly, but more steadily, growing trees, which always attain a larger size in 
proportion to the extent of ground they occupy. 

S 1. R. PsEV^D-ifcA^ciA lAn, The common Robinia, or False Acacia. 

Ideniifieatkm, Lin. 8p.. 1043. ; Pec. Prod., 2. p. 261. ; Don's Mill.. 2. p. 237. 

I ^ f uon gm a. iSMhynteiene Pseudadtcla Iloxb. ; Pseudacftcia odorita Meendk Meth, 145. ; Locust 
Tree, Amer. ; the Bastard Acacia ; Roblnier faux Acacia, Acacia blanc, Carouge des AmMcains, 
Fir. ; mmelne Acade, Schotendom, Ger. 

Derimattom, This tree, when first Introduced, was suppoeed to be a spedes of the Egyptian acada, 
(ilcieia rin), from its prickly branches and pinnatea leares, which resembled those of that tree. 
It was named the locust tree by the missionaries, who Canded that It was the tree that supported 
St. John In the wilderness. It Is not, howerer, a native of any other part of the world than North 
America. The name Caronge is the French word for earob bean, the locust tree of Spain ; which, 
being also a native of Syria, is, probably, the true locust of the New Testament, The German 
name of Schot e ndom is composed of aekote^ a pod, or legume, and dom, a thorn. 

M ngr a w im gt . Lam. III., t. 666. ; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 16. ; the plate of this spedes in Arb. Brit., 
1st edit, vol. V. ; and our Jig. 382. 

Spec, Char,^ (f>c. Prickles stipular. Branches twiggy. Racemes of flowers 
loose and pendulous ; and smooth, as are the l^mes. Leaflets ovate. 
The flowers are white and sweet^cented ; the roots creeping, and their 
fibres sometimes bearine tubercles. (^Dec, Prod,) A deciduous tree, above 
the middle size. Nortn America. Canada to Carolina. Height 70 ft. to 
80 ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers white ; May and June. Legume 
compressed, dark purplish brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves 
yellow. Naked young wood purplish brown. 



t234 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICBTUM BRITANNICUM. 

Varieties, The plant Tailing much in its diflferent native localities, and also 
having been long cultivated from seeds in Europe, the varieties are nume- 
rous. Some of those included in the following list appear in our Hortut 
BrUanmcutf and in Don's Miller, as species ; whue some h vbrids, such as R. 
h^brida and R. interm^ia, might also have been considered as varieties, 
but we have preferred keeping them apart. 

1 R. P. 2ft^e luteo Dumont 6. p. 140. has the flowers yellow. 

t R,P.3 inermis Dec. Prod. ii. p.261.y Dec. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 136. — 
Prickles wantuis, or nearly obsolete. Leaflets flat. Plant of free 
growth, in which respect it difiers from R. P. umbracullfera. 

1 R. P, is crUpa Dec. Prod. ii. p. 261. — Prickles wanting. Leaflets all, 
or for the most part, undulately curled. 

1^ R.P. 5 wmbracudfera Dec. Prod. iL p. 261., Cat. HorL Monsp. 157. 
R. indrmis Dum, Court, vi. p. 140. — Prickles wanting. Branches 
much crowded, and smooth. Head orbicular. Leaflets ovate. This 
variety u said to have been raised from the seed of R. Pseikd-ilcacia ; 
and, according to Dumont de Courset, to have yellow flowers. It 
has been common in British gardens since 1820, but has not yet 
flowered in this country. 

Y R,P.6 tortudia Dec. Prod. ii. p. 261. ; and the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st 
edit., vol. V. — Branches mucn crowded, and twisted. Racemes simi- 
lar to those of R. Pseud-ilc^ia, but smaller and fewer-flowered. 

It R,P,7 sophors/o&i Lodd. Cat. 1830 has the leaves large, and some- 
what like those of Sophora jap6nica. 

^ R. P.S anwrpheBfoUa Lk. has leaves somewhat like those of Am<5rpha 
frutic6sa. 

¥ 22. P 9 stricta Lk. has the general tendency of the shoots upright ; 
but still the plant is not so fastigiate as the Lombardy poplar. 

* 12. P. 10 procera Lodd. Cat 1830. — A tall vigorous-growmg variety. 

t R, P, II pendula Ort. Dec. p. 26. — The shoots are somewhat droop- 
ing, but not very decidedly so. 

t R,P.l2 momirota Lodd. Cat. 1830. — The leaves are large, and twisted. 

S R. P, 13 macrophjflla Lodd. Cat. 1830 has the leaves long, and the 
leaflets broad. 

!i R. P, 14 microph^Ua Lodd. Cat. 1830, R. angustiiblia Hort,, has the 
leaves small, and the leaflets narrow. 

It R. P, \5 tpecMUis Dum. has large leaves and is without prickles : it 
produces straight vigorous shoots, which are angular wnen young. 
It was nused from seed by M. Descemet, at St. Denis, and was 
formerly known in the French nurseries by the name of Acacia 
aga9ante (enticing). 

H R, P. 16 latisiliqua, the broad-podded locust, is mentioned m Prince's 
Catalogue for 1829. 

Most of these varieties are tolerably distinct in the foliage when the plants 
are young. Those best worth cultivating, for the shape of the tree, are R. 
P. umbracullfera, the parasol acacia ; K. P. pendula ; R. P. stricta, the 
upright-growing sort ; and R. P. spect&bilis. With regard to the yellow- 
flowered variety, it maj be worth continuing by grafting or suckers ; but, to 
make quite sure of having white flowers, the trees producing them ought to be 
propagated by grafting also ; as plants raised from seed, though for the most 
part they have white flowers, yet occasionally produce yellowish ones. 

The wood, which is commonly of a greenish yellow colour, marked with 
brown veins, is hard, compact, and susceptible of a bright polish : it has a good 
deal of strength, and is very durable ; but it has not much elasticity, and is 
somewhat liable to crack. A cubic foot of locust wood, newly cut, weighs 
63 lb. 3 oz. ; haJf-dry, 56 lb. 4 oz. ; and, when quite drv, only 48 lb. 4 oz. Its 
value for fuel, when compared with that of the beech, is as 12 to 15. For 
duration Hartig places it immediately after the oak, before the larch and the 



XXV. LEOUMIHACEf: ROEVVIjI 




Scotch [nnc According to Barlow, the strength of acacia tiinber, aa compared 
with fiae English oek, it as 1867 to I67g ; the strength of ash being ai 8086; 
beech, 1656; elm, 1013; Kiga fir, 1108 ; Norway tpw (spruce fir), \i-7ii 
and teak. S46i. The treehas one property almost peculiar to it, that or forming 

a to 

this species, and of several <»ri[s TarietieB,in the garifen of tfie Horticultural So- 
ciety, and in the arboretum of McsBri. Loddiges, have attained the height of 30 fl- 
and upwards, in 10 years from the lime they were planted. There is, perhapa, no 
Amencan tree respecting which so much has been said and done, in Europe, as 
the locusL It was one of the first trees that we received from America, and 
it has been more exteiMively propagated than any other, both in France and Eng- 
land. It has been alternately extolled and neglected m both countries ; and even 
at the present time, though the beauty of its foliage and flowers is gencrslly ac- 
knowledged, and though it ha.i, at different periods, been enthusiasticRlly praised 
br diSerent writers, for the valuable properties of its wood, it cannot be con- 
sidered as holding a high rank as a timber tree, or as brang worth planting with 
a vieir to profit. We pass over manv curious and historiral facts respecting the 
tocuM tree, for which we refer to toe Ist edit, of this work, and come to the 
year 16!3, when an extraordinary aensadoD was excited in Britain respecting 
this tree by Cobbett. This writer, white in America, from 1817 to 1819, ** was 
convinced that nothing in the timber way could be so great a benefit as the 
general cultivation of this tree." On his return to England he commenced 
nurseryman, and the name of locust, as applied to this tree, bdng, before 
Cobbett's time, almost forgotten m Enghind, man^ persons, in consequence, 
thought it was a new tree. Hence, while quantitiea of plants of Roblniii 
PseOd-^cacia stood unasked for in the nursoiea, the locust, which every one 
believed could only be had. genuine from Mr. Cobbett, could not be grown by 
hira in sufficient quantities to supply the demand. After creating a [m>digious 
■ensatioa for a few years, the locust mania entirely lubnded, and Uie tree is 
now, as it was before Cobbett's time, planted only, or chiedy, (br ornament. 

5 2. B, visco'sA Venl. The ciannay-iaried Robinia. 

UnUf/UaliiM. VeaL Hon. Call., I. 4. i Dec. Prod., 1. p. MS. i Dm'i KUL. t, p. SM 
S/fium rmm . R. itudnOH Si?l. Mmg. tea I K. moDllu Barlrmm I Um Rsat-JlinHriiif Locotl. 
JBwt«*w. Vent. UoR. Celi.,t.(.i Bo(. Hic., I. MO, u fi. (iwlneH< tbapliiu of (Mi ith in 

Zrt>. b3l, 1m xUt. Till. T. 1 ud our V >•& 
i%ee. Char^ ^c. Branches and legumes gtaudular and clammy. Bacemea 
cToirded, erect. Bracteas concave, deciduous, each ending in a long bristle. 



ARBORETUM ET FBDTICETUM BRITTANICUH. 



The 3 lower teeth of the calyx acuminated. Rooti creeping. (De«. Prod,')' 
A clammy-barked tree. South Caroline and Georgia, near tiy&v. Height 
soft, to 40ft. Introduced in 1797. Flowen scentteu, jMle pink mixed 
with white, varying to pale purple ix violet colour Hccordine to the «oil; 
June to Augu«t. Legume brown ; ripe in October. Naked young wood 
purplish and clammy. 
The bark, particularly that of the ^oung ehoota, which ia of a dull red, ii 

covered with a clammy lubatance, which, when touched, Bticka to the fingen. 

In every other respect, both in natural characten and artificial culture, this 

tree strongly resembles the common R. Pseild-jfc&cia. 

1 3. R. DU'BIA Foac. The doubtful Rolnnia, or Fake Acacia. 

MtnlObMlom. Fauc.lDDHr.Jaani.Bst.,4. p.lM.,lHiliui(arPalr. I I>«.PRid.,l.p. Kl.i Doat 
Biill, 1, p. ma. 

~ bfhMda Aaiib.f R- uablfui Folr. Sappl. i.p.eeo.\ ind, perbui. Il.ecbtiiMa 



i^wc. CXor., 4'". Spinel very short. Branches, petiolea, peduncles, and calyxes 
furnished with a Tew glands, rarely clammy. Leaflets ovate. Racemes loose 
and pendulous. Braeteu concave, caducous, ending each in a long bristle. 
(Don'i Mm.) A deciduous tree, rather under the middle size. Hybrid? 
between R. PseLld-^c&cia and R. viscdss. Originated in 7 1730. Flowers 
sweet-scented, pale rose-coloured ; June to August. Pods brown, thickly 
beset with short prickles ; ripe in October. 

1 ■ 4. : 



«oe hltpida A 

. ( B«. Vlf., 311. i ud ouiA. 3W- 

Spec. Char., ^c. Spines wsntine. Leaflets obovate. 
Branches and l^mes hispid. Racemes loose ; 
the 3 lower teeth of the eslyx acuminated. {Dec. 
Prod.) A shrub, or low tree. Carolina, in pine 
woods. Height 6 ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 
17SS. Flowers large, dark rose-coloureJ ; June 
to October, Legume brown ; ripe in October 
and November. Naked youne wood purplish 
brown, thickly beset with prickles. 



'XXV« LEGUMINA^CEiE : CARAGA NJ. 237 

M R.h. 2 nana Dec. is a plant hardly a foot high, found in pine woods 
in Carolina. 

A i?. A. 3 Tosea Pnrsh has the leaflets for the most part alternate, and 
the branches smoothish. In its native habitats, on the high mountains 
of Virginia and Carolina, it grows, according to Pursn, to a con- 
siderable shrub i whereas the species is a low straggling plant. 

M a, h, 4 macroph^Ua Dec., R. onindifldra Hort,, figured in Arb. Brit., 
Ist edit., Yol. ▼., has the leaflets laree, and ovate-roundish ; and the 
branches and peduncles glabrous, and without prickles. 

The species, and the different varieties, are shrubs or low trees, with tor* 
tuous and very brittle branches, and leaves and flowers nearly twice the size 
of those of Roblnia Pseikd-ildlcia. They form singularly ornamental shrubs 
for rardens ; but, as standards or bushes, they can be onlv pUmted with safety 
in the most sheltered situadons. When grafted standard high, and trained to 
a wire parasol-like frame, supported on a rod or post 6 or 8 feet high, few 
plants are equal to R. b, macrophyila in point of brilliant display. 

^Genus XIIL 



^ 



LilILJ 



CARAGjtNA Lam. Thb Cabagana, or Siberian Pea Tree. 

Lin, Sytt, Diad^lphia Dec&ndria. 

Idemt^leatiim, Lam. Diet, 1. p. 611. } Dec. Prod., 9L pi S68. ; DoD*t Mfll., 9. p. MS. 

Snoivme^ Roblii/0 cp. JL. 

Derf0atiom. Cangtm ti the name of C. arborCMeiu among the Mongol Tartan. 

Gen, Char, Calyx short, tubulous, 5-toothed. CoroUa obtuse, straight ; the 
wings and vcxillum about equal in length. Stamens diadelphous. Sfyle 
glabrous. Stigma terminal, truncate. Legume sesrfle^ young ones com- 
pressed, at length somewhat cylindrical and many-seeded, mucronate by the 
style. Seeds somewhat globose. (Don*s Mill,) 

Leaves compound, f3>ruptihr pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; 
stipules usually spinescent. lowers mostly yellow. 

Trees or shrubs, natives of Siberia and of the East. Leaves with the leaflets 
mucronate, and the petioles either with a bristly or a spiny point ; their flowers 
axillary, each on a distinct pedicel, usually several together, pale yellow, 
except in C, jubikta, in which they are white tinged with red ; their stipules 
usuaUy become spines. They are all ornamental or curious, and of the easiest 
culture in any common soil ; propagated by cuttings of the roots or bv seeds. 
The dwarf and pendulous-growing species, when grafted standard high on C, 
arbor^scens, form very singular trees, 

IE 1. C ARBORE^sCENS Lam, The arborescent Caragana, or Siberian 

Pea Tree. 

IdemUkaUom, Lam. Dtct, 1. p. 61& ; Dec Prod., 9. p. 268. ; Don't MilL, S. p. MS. 

Sifnom^wies. Bobln&i Caragi^ma Lin. Sp. 1044., N. Dn Ham. t. 1. 19., Pall. Fl. Rost. 1.t.4S. ; 

CaragAna sIMrlca Raif : fanue Acade da Slbfirle, Robinie de SIbirle, Arbre aox Poit dee Rutiet, 

Fr. I SIblriache Erbtenfaanm, Qer. ; Gorocholk, Rmtt. 
Sngrtmmn. N.DoHam.,S.t 19i ; PalL FL Hon., 1. 1 43., middle llgare ; the plate pfthll fpedet 

in Arb. Brit., lit edit., roL ▼. ; and oar Jig. 885. 

Spec, Char,f S^c, Leaves with 4^—6 pairs of oval-oblong villous leaflets. 
Petiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicels in fascicles. (J>on*s 
Mi/L^ A low tree. Siberia, m woods, and upon the banks of rivers. 
Height 15ft. to 20ft. Introduced in 1762. Flowers yellow; April and 
May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 



238 A1IBORETUH ET FRUTICE BRITAMNJCl'H. 

i C. a, 2 inirmii Hort. hu the braDches 

without spines, PlanU in the Horti- 

cultural Society's Garden. 
Pallas informs us that upon the banks of rivers 
it sroTs to the hd^t of 18 ft. or more ; but in 
arid places it is only a small shrub ; in the Utter 
state forming, as ve think, the variettes C. (a.) 
AUagana, and C. (a^ microph/lla. C. arbor&cena 
ibrmE an erect stiff tree, with numerous upright- 
growing brancbee. The flowers are axillary, one 
on a pedicel; the pods are oblong-taper, and each 
contains 3 or t seeds. The wood ia hard, com- 
pact, and ver; tough; yellow on the outside; and 
within, waved and striped with red, and with 
reddish brown. 

.■ 8. C. (a.) JlZTAa^'n* Poir. The Altagana 
Caragano, or Siierian Pea Tree. 



anKnwiw*. RoMUb Ai- 
Uf£u TIL Fl Rni, 
^«*M nlerDfiliflli z 



.-Im. .^eufsu teUM nunc af Ik's thnib IP SlbrrU. 

fnfTantefi. ^JT. F], Rou., t. 41., under tht huh of Ito- 
HBla JiHgina, L'Htril. Stttp., L T& j oiLonr A- MG- 

^wc. Char., ^c. Leaves having 6 or 8 pau^ oi 
glabrous, obovate-Toundishiretuse leaflets. Pe- 
tiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicels 
EoUtary. Legumes rather compressed. ^Don'i 
Mia.) A low shrub, Siberia, in arid plains. 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 1789. Flowers 
yellow; April to July. Legume brown; ripe in 



Usually propagated by grafting on C. arbor&cens. 



,1 Cirwihu ,Ut«<«u nr. fair. A^pM. p. 89. 
Fh(. An. Fl. IlaH..i.Sl. 1 1. 1. oBiter tlw HUH 
■InfamlcropbfUiiudourA'MT. 
^>ec Char., rjc. Leaves with 6—7 pairs of 
hoary refuse leaflets. Petioles and stipules J 



ratha* spinescent at the apei. Root creep- 
ing, (Don't MiU.) A low shrub, Sibena, 
in the Desert of Baraba, and in other arid 
places. Height S ft. 
1819, Flowers yell< 
gume brown; ripe it 

■ 4, C. (a.) Redo'w 

lanilfiaaiim. Dae. lAgaia,, >. n.i uuuiukl. i.p. »■. 
Bittratlnt. Dtc. Ugulo,,!. 11. CU., IntbtHndUiitiUM. 
Spec. Cha;, ^c. Leaves with two pairs of ovale, acute, smooth leaflets. 

Stipules apinose. Flowers yellow. (DonU Am.) A low shrub. Siberia. 

Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1880, Flowers yellow ; April and Hay. 

Legume brown ; ripe in August, 



5 laces. Height S ft. to 3 ft. Introduced 
819, Flowers yellow ; April to June. Le- 
gume brown; ripe in August. "'' "^-t^' •''="'•**''' 

- 4, C. (a.) Redo'wsk/ Dec, Redowski's Caragano, or Sberim Pea Tree. 



XXV. LEGUMINa'cEAI: CARAGjtNA. 



239 





SBS C(a.) 



Vaneiy, 

M C. (A.) R, 2 prof^cox Fisch, only difiera from C Red6wiikt in coining 

into flower earUer. The specimen in the Hort. Soc. Garden was in 

full leafy and in flower, on April 30. 1836, when C. fhit^scens and 

C arboi^cens had not a single leaf expanded. 

In gjeneral appearance and habit of growth, it resembles C. AU/tgdna, ot 

which it is probaoly only a variety. H. S. 

M 5. C. (a.) arbnaHiia Donn and Sims, The 

Sand Caragana. 

JdenUfieaUom. Donn Hort. Cant.; Sfant Bot. Mag.^t. 1886. 
BngraHngi, Sims Bot. lfag.,t. 1886. ; mAoMXJIg- SS8. 

Spec, Char., ^c» Leaves with, usually, 4 or 
more piurs of obcordate lei^ets. Pedicels 
usually twin, and shorter than the flowers. 
Stipules subulate. Flowers yellow. (Don's 
MUl,) A low shrub. Siberia. Height 1 ft. to 
2 ft. Introd. 1802. Flowers yellow; April 
and May. Legume dark brown ; npe in August. 

Probably only another variety of C arbor^scens. It ripens seeds in Eng- 
land, but is generally propagated by gniting. 

A 6. C, fbute'scbns Dec. The shrubby Caragana. 

IdemjflcaHim. Dec. Prod.. S. p. US. ; Don*t MUL, 2. p. sa. 

^mmyivKV. BoWnAi firut«Mai> XAi. Spec. 1044.. PaU. H. Bou, t. 43. j C. dlgitikta Lmm, DM. 

1. p. 616. >- 
Ei^aviHgt. 8wt. Fl.-Ctard., t SS7. ; PalL Fl. Rom., t. 48.. as Robinte fkutCaceiw ; and oar Jig. SSB. 

^oec. Char., S^c, Leaves having 2 pairs of leaflets, which 
approximate near the top of the petiole : they are obo- 
vate-cuneated. Stipules membranous. Petiole furnished 
with a short spine at the apex. Pedicels solitary, twice 
the length of the calyx. Flowers yellow, resupinate. 
Leaves with a yellow hue. (Dow^s 2^L) A low shrub. 
Native of Russia, on the banks of the Wolga and other 
rivers. Height in open situations 5 ft. ; in woods and 
gardens 9 ft. to 10 ft, Introduced in 1752. Flowers 
yellow ; May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

Varieties. DeCandoUe mentions two forms : — 

* C. / 1 latifiBoy which has gla- 
brous broadly obovate leaflets, 
and is frequent in gardens; 
there being a subvariety, with 
2-flowered peduncles; and 
A C. /. 2 angusi^oiia, which has glabrous oblong cuneated 
leaflets, and is found near (Messa. 

A handsome shrub, sometimes grafted standard high on 
C, arbor^scens. 

M 7. C. (p.) HO^LLis Bess. The soft Caragana. 





389. C. huttiemm. 



lUL, 9l p. 
r. Siufpl. 477. ; Bxmnia tomen- 
ima firut^acena Tar. m611is Dee. 



C{r.) 



shrub. 
1818. 



Idemtifleaiiom, B«m. Enum. PL Volh.^. 99.; Don*t MUL, 9l p. 348. 

lUMniamAaiA Bieb. Fi, n 

H4frt. GorenJL 1818; Cora 
IVwf.9Lp.96& 
Bngrtnimg, Our Jig. 390l from a specfanen in Dr. Lindley*a herbarium. 

Spec. Char., i^c. Leaves with 2 pairs of oblong, cuneated, 
approximate leaflets, near the tip of the petiole, clothed 
with soft hair. Petiole ending in a short spine. Pe- 
dicels solitary. Flowera yellow. {Dec. Prod.) A low 
Native of Tauria and Podolia. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
Flowen yellow ; April and May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 



210 ARBORETUM ET FRUTfCETUH BRITANNICDH. 

jt B. C. vtaiLs'K Dec. The pygmjr Caragane. 

rdnlAlfaM™. DK' YtoA., 1 p. see. i Don'i MIU., a p. M» 

^VKnynK RoblnuIpnnui'I Lim. ^. lOtl, PaU, FL Ron. 1. 1. 4S. . :fmni. Hitl*. t. U. 

Jtl^raijrw. Fall. F1. Boa., I. t lit, i Amm. Ruth. (. H., x RoHdAi pjtnut'a ; and our^lji. S)l. 

i^c. C4or., if'C. Leaves with S pain of linear, glabrous, appronimate leaflets 
near the tip of the petiole, which ia yerr short. Stipules and petioles spi- 
nesceat. Pedicels solitary, and nesrly the length of Ine calyx. Calyx nearly 
equal at the base. Leaflets acute, crowded, usually in the axils of tri&d 
spines. Flonen yellow, (pec. Prod.) A low shrub. Native of ihe Altaic 
Mountwni. Height Eft. lo 6 ft. Introduced in 
1T5L Flowers yellow; April and Hay. Le- 
gume brown ; ripe in August. 

ji C.p. Samaria Pisch.has linear-cuneate leaf- 
lets, and pedicels of the flowers generally 
longer than the calyi. 
This fflecies has lajve trifid spines, slender leaves, 
and small Aowen. l^e leaflets are remarkable for 
being b four*, dispo«ed in the form of a star, in the 
axils of the spines. The young shoots are of a fine ^ ^^ 

rellow, very tough, and fit for being used as wilhs. " 

hVhen grafted aa a standard on C. ^bor&cens, it forms a small tree of very 
angular appearance. Increased by suckers or by grafting, 

■M g, C. sFiNo's:i Dec. The spuiy Caragena. 

rilnUj|(cia6n Sec. T>rad., Ip. ass.: LlodL^Bol, Hsg., LMI.i Don't MILU l p. Ml. 

SfnaifTma. BsMnte iplniu Un. V«u. M9. ; HoblDia Rroi Pall. Fl. Xau, 1. 1 44., /lis. t. E. a. 

f s. md a. ; Roblnta niliioiluliu Laim. Kar. Act. PrI. IB. I. SO. I. 4, ; Cimirciaa Itxm LMm. 

Bid. 1. p. tl«. 
£iV«ta((. Fill. Fl. Rod., 1. 1. 44. ; But. B<g., t. IDII. ; wkI oatjlg. tU. 

l^ec. Char.,^c. Leaves with 8— 4 pairs ofcu- 
neate-linoBT glabrous leaflets. Stipules small, 
spinose. Adult petioles permanent, Etrong, 
and spinose, twice the length of the leaflets. 
Flowers solitary, almost sessile, and of a 
bright yellow. L<^me rather compressed. 
(Don'i Mill.) A 



vel 
Wl 




and also said to be | 
plentiful in Chi- 
na, about Pekin, 
where branches 
of it are stuck in 
clay upon the tops of the walls, in order that its 
spines may prevent persons from getting over 
them. (PaU. Fl. Rcti.) Height 3fl.to4ft. In- 
troduced in 1755. Flowers j-ellow ; April and 
Hay. Legume brown ; ripe m August- 
Seeds, cuttings, or aramng. Standard high it 
makes a very singular plant. 

JI 10. C. TRiGiCANTHoi^DBS Pair. Thc Gost's- 

chom-like Caragaan. 
MnltlliiiHw. Polr. Euppl., t. p. Mi Dae. Prod., 1. p^K9.i 



SyKmrma. Bobliifa tngMutbndi* FaIl.Hoii. jS. PrL II. t. T., Aur. 11 

cnctnUw Lett. Cal. 
Emirtrimti. FaU. Mvr. Act. FM, lO.LI.i AMI., 119. t K. i ud (Ktjlf > 




XXV, leoumina'cils: caraga''na, 241 

^tee. ChaT^i[c. LeavM with 2 — 4 pkirt of oblongJenceolalc Bilh; leaflets, 
ending in a little Bpin& Stipule* Bpineuent. Aduli petioles pennanent, 
strong, and spinose, twice the length of the teaAels. Pedicels solitary, short. 
L^me hoary-villouB. {Tkait M^) A low spinj shrub. Native ol' Si. 
berui, among granite rocks. Height 4 in. to I ft. Introduced in 1816. 
Flowers yellow, drooping; April and Hay. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 
When grafted staoderd high, it Ebnii( a very siugular ol^ect. 

M 11. C. JUBA^T* Pint. The crested Caragana. 

MnUAfcaHm. Polr. Suppl., s. p. ea ! Hoc. Piod., l p. m. i Doo-t MIIL. & p. Ml 

amn o mt m: . BaUMa ]uUu PM. tn Atl. PtL 10. t. S., AUT. D. 1 II. t. U- LaM. Bal. Cat. L n). 

A^f^Uv. lU. AO. PM., 10. t.«.; Lgd. B«. Cub., (.Aa.uRobflMaJubdUi nd iiurA. M4. 

^pfc, C7.(ir., 4''^. Iieavea with 4 or 5 pain of oblong-lsnceol&te lanuginously 
ciliated leaiSeta. Stipules setaceous. Petioles somewhat spinose ; adult 
onesdeflexed, filiform, permanent. Pedicels solitary, very short. L^ume 
glabrous. Flowers few and white, sufllised with red. (IW« MiU.) A low 
shrub i native of Siberia near I^e Baikal. 
Height I ft. to 1 ft. 6 in. Introduced in 1796. 
Flowers white, tinged with red; April and . 
Hay. L^ume brown; ripe in August 
T^is species has a curious shaggy appearance, \ 

occasioned by the footstalks of tSe leaves being 

bristly or thorny, and remaining on loi^ after 

the leaflet! have dn^^>ed off. Increased by 

grafting on Qiragdtai artmr^scens, aad as a standard forming a very singular- 

btdung olgecL 

• 18. C. OBiNDiPLO^R* Dec. The great-Aowered Caragana. 



^>ee. Char., 4'c, Leaves with 8 pairs of obtong-cuneated ap- 
prozinlttte leaflets, near the tip of the petiole, which is 
Tery short. Stipides and petioles tpmose. Pwiiee' 

tary, almost the length of the calyx, which is gibbous _. , 

base. Legume terete, acute, brown, glabrous. Flowers 
I in. long, yellow. {Don't AM.) A low shrub j native 
of Georgia, near Teflis. Height S ft. to 4 ft. Introduced 
in 1883. Flowers jeilow, 1 in. long ; June and July. 
L^me brown ; ripe in 8<pteaiber. H. 8. 

M 13. C. CHAMLjCau Lam. The Chamtagu, or Chmete Caragana. 
UmlifltaUa*. Lou. Mct.l.p.Clll.iDac. Prod ,*. 
«Smw. SiMBlmitmS d itm L'HMt. SUip., N. 

£>!.,& I. tl. i ud out JV' »■■ 

Sptc. Char., ^c. Leave* with S pairs of 
distant, oval, or obovate, glabroiu 
leaflets. Stipules spreading, and, as 
well as die petioles, spinose. Pedicels 
soUtary. Flowers pendulous, latg^ 
and yellow, at leozth becommg reddish. 
Root Bnldling like liquorice. (DoiCt . 
Mill.) A diffiise smooth shrub. Native 
of China. Height 8 ft. to 4ft. In- 
troduced in 1773. Flowers yellow, at 
' '*" ' reddiah, Ui^ ; May 

le brown ; ripe August. iw- 




242 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BBITAMNICUM. 



This species has a thick root and branching Mcm, with grey bark. The 
branches are alternate; at first upright, and then decumbent. The whole plant 
has a lineular appearance, more especialJj when juit going out of flower. It 
ia genenuiy propagated bj' separating the offsets, or by seeds, or it maj be 
er^ed on C. arbor^ens. Orafted on this species, e^>eciaUy when the stock 
13 10 or 12 feet high, it forms s singularly picturesque pendulous tree ; l>eau- 
tidil not ooly when it is in leaf or io flower, but from the graceful lines formed 
by Its branches, even in the midst of winter, when they arc completely stripped 
of thdr leaves. 

Genus XiV. 

lUlI 

Thb H 

Uadelphu 

Liium, MtiD., t. : Prad,, I. p. KS. i Don'i Hill,. 1. d. M4. 
■L JkiL In Sot. PMf. Otn. Marcli ISM, bul IHM of FMit 

DtritaUim. From tjIftHM. iputllnni «nJ llim^n n t, m trw l In nftnciMU th* bmUUt orihlttarvbt, 
■h<ch irow Id irj ukail ult kldi, bj the rtrsr Inli, ia Sibgrli. 

Gen, Char. Calux ureeolately campanulste, with 5 short teeth. Keri obtuse, 
straigfatiBh. iVingt very acute, and auricled. Slanunu diodclplioua, about 
equal In length. Slffle filiTorm, glabrous. Stigma terminal. Leguine stipi- 
tate, infUtcd, bladdery, hard, ovate, and few-seeded, depressed at the semi- 
niferous suture. Setdt oval. (Don't Mill.) 

Leavet compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; abruptly pinnate, with 
ii! pairs of leaflets: petioles and stipules spinose. Floiven bluish pink, or 
putplish, in 2 — 3-Bowered peduncles. — Shrubs, deciduous; natives or Europe 

Propagated by seeds, by cuttings of the roots, or by grafting on the common 
1 ibumum, or on the Caragina arbortocns. 

* J. 11, arge'ntbum C^c. The KiXvay-leatied Halimodendron, or 
SaU Tree. 
litMOicatlm. !>«. Prod., i. p. MO. -, Doo'i HIIL, 1 p. Mt. 
Synoxrrm. Hoblnla HalodindrDii Un.JU.Smt.jia.,Fall. Ft. lia,,. (.K.; Can^ina >rK«n(<v 

Lam. In Pall. lifm. rH. Una. App. [[, l«a (. 83. (T I. 
Kngnnimgi. P»ll. F1. Rou.. t. IS. i minor JIf. W7. 
Sjiec. Chnr., Sic. Leaves hoary. Peduncles 2-flowered. 
(Don't Mili.} A shrub, known from the colour of its 
Uraves and bntnches. Native of Siberia in saline 
steppes near the river Irtis. Rdght 
4 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1779. 
Flowers bluish pink, fragrant ; May 
to July. Legume inflated, brovm ; 
ripe in September. 
Vnrieliei. DeCandollc mentions two 
forms of this species : — 

* /f. a. 1 vulaare Dec. Prod. — 
Leaves hoary or silvery. 
Standard the same Icncth as 
„. „„^,„„. the keel. 

A H. a. 2 brarii^emn Dec. Prod. 
(But. Mag., 1016.; and our fig. 398.) — Leaves 
noary or Rilvery. StandaiJ shorter than the . 
wings and keol. Style short. n?. H.^b^d^*™ 



XXV. LE0UM1NAC££: CALO'PHACA. 24.1 

■ if . o. 3 Sincriii, H. Sier^reii Fisch., is a dwarf variety, very bardy, 
named by some as a Epecies. U. S. 
Ao irregular, much-branched, ri^d shrub, with a strigoae grey bark, and 
leaves clotoed with a whitish silky down. The flowerE are numerous, resem- 
bling those of LAthyrus tuberdsus, both in colour and size; and they smell 
Bweet. According to Pallas, it Is much frequented by insects, especially of the 
ccnus Mfloe L., many species of which are peculiar to Siberw, It flowers 
freely from May to July, and, in moist seasons, later ; and, when grafted 
standard high on the common l^umum, it forms one of the moat graceful 
droc^iiig trees that can adorn a lawn. 



• 2.1 

«. Diin-iU<U..l.ii 

•aiHU Stirp. 1 



Uauflleaaim. DoD'i HUI.,1. p. 



BmtrMmlmf. OvM- .1"P. - 

Spec. CAar., ^. Leaves greemsh. The standard of the same length as the 

keel. Pedicels S-flowered. (Don't Mil.) A shrub, like the precedbg one, 

of which it is, without doubt, only a variety. 

Genus XV. 

a . 

CALOTHACA FUcA. Trb Calophaca. Lin. Ss/tl. Diad%hia Decindria. 

UnuOtaUam. Fluh. Incd. ; Dec Prsd., 1. p. 170. 

n_i— £^ D !.!_ U-.UM.I iHl]i*aW, ■ludl; In (UutloD In Ctaa beutT of UupUui, lodtn 



Gen. Cbar. Calyx 5-clell, the lobea acuminated. Seel obtuse. Stametu dia- 
delphous. St^ tUIoub and straight at the base, but glabrous incurved at 
the apex. Sitgma terminal. Legtaae sesule, oblong, somewhat cylindrical, 
mucronate, I-eelled. Yalvet concave, beset with soft hairs, as well as with 
stiff glandular bristles, mixed. (Don'i Mill.} 

£«aii« compound, alternate,atipulate, dedduDus; im pari- pinnate: stipules 
lanceolate; Floweri yellow. — A shrub, native of Siberia. 

A Fach. The Wolga Calophaca. 
a p. SVO.j Doa*» 

I. C*t)nu nlRlniu PtU. Bim. S. p. lei I. C. k- 
. _.. __. OaO. Afrntn d . No. SS8. t. 101. f. 1. ; (>tiuii pln- 
nUni PaU. FL SoMt. 1. L i1, i Cf)[iiu wDlrtrim Lht. 
JU. Si^. »B., K. Dm nam. I. t.U.; C^ntem sulRt- £ 
i\cM I.am-1 Aieaoctiipiuwo\gtoiU Spremg.^gt.i.^. t36- ^ 
Engrmrhitl. Pall. Fl. lU>u.,4.t.<T4 N. Du HuD-.l. t.4B.i ' 

:^>ec Ckar., if c. Leaflets 6 or 7 pairs, orbicular, 

velvety beneath, as well as the calyxes. (Doa'i 

MUl.) Adeciduousshrub. Siberia, in desot ' 

places near the rivers Don and Wolga, in a 

eravelly or sandy soil. Hd^t 2 (I. to » ft. 

Introduced in 1780. Flowers yellow; June. 

Legume reddish ; ripe iu August. ' 

Being somewhat difficult to propf^te exce^ ^ 
by seeds, which, however, iu fine seasons, it 
pToducev in tdrandance, it is not sc 
It ought to be in British gardei 
•ton wd high on the common bbun 



244 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



an object at once sing;ular, picturesque, and beautiful, whether when cevered 
with blossoms, or with its fine reddish pods. 

Genus XVI. 



off 



COLU^TEA R, Br. Thb Colutea, or Bladder Ssnna. Imu Sytl. 

Diad^Iphia Dedindria. 

Identiftcatiom. R. Br. fn Hort Kew., ed. 2., toL 4. p. 325. ; Dec Prod., S. p. VO. ; Don's MIIL, i, 

p. 244. 
Smumipnet. Baguenaudicr, Fr. ; Senna fiilia, Itai. ; Blaienbaum, Gfr. 
Derivatkm. From koiouo, to amouUte. Tho shrubs are said to die If the brandies are lopped 

KoUmtea is also the name of a plant mentioned by Theophrastus. 

Gen. Char. Calyx 5~toothed. VexiUum flat, bicallose, lareer than the keel, 
which is obtuse. Stamens diadelphous. Stiema lateral, Bodced under the 
top of the style. Style bearded longitudiniuly behind. Legume stipitate, 
ovate, boat-formed, inflated, scarious. (Don't JmlL) 

Leiwes compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; irapari-pinnate : stipides 
small. Flowert usually yellow, axillary, the racemes shorter than the leaves, 
and succeeded by bladdery legumes. — Shrubs, deciduous ; natives of the 
Middle and South of Europe, the North of Africa, and Nepal. 

All the kinds that have hitherto been introduced into Europe are probably 
only varieties of one species. They are readily increased by seeds or cuttings 
of the roots on any common soil. 

A 1. C. AftBORB^scBNS Ltfi. The arborescent Colutea, or Bladder Senna. 

Ident(fleatum. Un. Sp. 1046j Dec. Astr., No. 1. ; Dec Prod., 2. p. 270. ; Don's BOIL, 2. pc 24St 

Hynonmne. C. hlnHta. Roth PL Germ. 1. p. SOS. 

Engrawingt. N. Du Ham., 1. 1 22. ; Schmidt Arb., 1 117. ; Bot. lia«., t. 8L ; and cm Jig. 400, 

Spec. Char., <$■<?. Leaflets elliptical, retuse. Pe- 
duncles bearing about 6 yellow flowers. Callosities 
of the standard short. Legumes closed. {Dee, 
Prod.) A rapid-growing shrub. Middle and South 
of Europe, Italy, and on Mount Vesuvius is found 
even on the ascent to the crater, where there are 
scarcely any other plants. Height 12 ft. to 14ft. 
Introduced in 1570. Flowers yellow; June to 
August. Legume bladder-like, reddish ; ripe io 
September. 

The bladders, when pressed, explode with a crack- 
ling noise. On the Continent, the leaves have been 
recommended as a substitute for senna, and they are 
also said to afibrd a grateful food for cattle. The 
seeds, in doses of a drachm or two, are said to excite 
vomiting. In British gardens, the plant is chiefly 
valuable as a bulky fast-growing shrub, of the easiest 
culture, and fit for almost any situation. 

A 2. C. (a.) crub'nta AU, The bloody^u;«-^d Colutea, or Oriental Bladder 

Senna. 

JdentifieaHon. Ait Hort Kew., 3. p. 55. ; Dec. Astr., No. 3. ; Don*s Mill., 2. p 245. 

^nomgmes. C. orientAlls Lam. Dtct. 1. p. 853., lU. 624. f. 3., N. Du Ham. 1. 1. 23. ; C. sangulnca 

Poll ; C. ^tera Schmidt Arb. 1. 119. ; C. hClmilis Seop. 
Engravings. Lam. III., 621. C 8. i N. Da Ham., 1. 1 23. ; Schmidt Arb., t 119. ; Krause, 1 105. ; 

and our Jig. 401. 

Spec, Char.^ S^c, Leaflets^ obovate, emai^inate, glaucous. Peduncles bearing 

.4—5 flowers. Callosities of the standard obtuse, very small. Legumes 

opening at the tip. Corolla, in colour, between red and saffron-coloured, 

with a yellow spot at the base of the standard. {Dec. Prod.) A glaucous 




XXV. LEOUMINA^CEf ! COLV TEA. 



24S 




shrub. ArchipeWo. Georpa, and tlie 
Levant. Height 4 It. to 8 ft. Intrud. 
1731. Plowerareddwh copper-coloured; 
June Bod July. Legume reddiGbj ripe 

Resemblei C. arbor&cenB, but of smnUer 
diDnenHioiu,and with leaflets more gtaucous, 



Spec. Oar., ^. LeaT- 

letB obcordBte,glsu- 

ceacent Peduncles 

uiually 6-flowered. 

L^umes closed at 

the apex. Flowera 

orange-coloured. — 

(Don't Mill.) j 

Aihrubratherlarger than C.(a.) crufuta, and differing ' 
from it chLeflv in haTing orangD-coloured flowen. Per- 
liepi, a hybrid between the two preceding sorts. «^ c. ii\ muit. 

> 4 C (i.) halb'ppica L<m. The Aleppo Colutea, or Bladder Senna. 

UenlUleallan. Lun. Diet, I. p. tM. i III,, l GM. f. 1, i Dec 



• 5. C. mbfalb'nsis Hook. The Nepal Colutea, or Bladder Senna. 

■ ■■m. TIpak. B«. Mi(.,Mn.i I>on'iMni.,3.n.M», 

>. rook. BoL ■>(., L lea. i ud our jif. mi. 



246 ARBORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

^Kc. 0iar., ^e, I.eafleU raundub-etliptic, retuie. Hacemes drooping, few- 
flowered. Callotitica of standard papilliTonn. Legumes rather coriaceous, 
pubescenL {DonU Mill.) A branch; shrub. Nepal. He^ht SAl to 
IGft. Flowers yellow ; August and September. Legume reddi^; ripe in 
October. 
The leaflets are soiall, and, being more imperfectly developed than in any of 

ihe other kinds, gWe it a ringular appearance. 



□ 



nitfr, a fUr, wigMia, milk. 
Gen. Char. Cab/x 6-tootbed. Keel obtuxe. Stameiu diadelphous. Legume 
biloculnr or half-bilocular, from the upper suture being bent in so much. 
(Don'i MiU.) 

Leavei compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; junnate : petioles p«r^ 
mancni. Flaaeri in the only hardy ligneous spedes purplish or white. 
— Shrubs, low ; natives of the South of Europe and Aaia. 

•T Great Geal'i 



. Lin. Sd., 1071. i Wo 



B&.i 



Eitgritliigi. PiUl. Aitr., t.l.f. 1.3.; Diih. ATb.,1. klM-i Woodi. Hed. Bot., 170. t. g«. ; Watt. 
DtDd. BHC. L M. 1 uid our jV- 40*. 

Spec. Char.fSic. Pedkuiclea usually 4-dowered, 
about equal in length to the leaves. Calyxes 
cylindrical, with 5 short blunt teeth. L^ves 
with 9 — II pair* of elliptic hoary leaflets. 
(Don't Mill.) A low prickly glaucous shrub, 
with sub-persistent leaves, aiid persistent pe- 
tioles. M^ireeiUes and Narbonne, in sandy 
flacea, as well as Conies and Bdaurttania. 
[eight 6 in. to 1 ft. Introduced ia 16M). 
Flowers purplish or white ; May to July. 
Legumes tomentose, brown ; ripe in Sep- 
tember. General aspect whitish. 

The flowers are ilis[)osed on axillary pe- ^^ [,iii,.i., tihhImih 

(luncles, so short as to prevent them from '^'^" ' 

being at all conspicuous above the leaves. After the leaflets drop ofl; the 
petioles become mdurated, so as to give the plant the oppcarance of being 
densely covered with spines. Propagated b^ seeds, which it sometimes 
ripens ia England, or by cuttings. It requires a dry soil, and a sunny 
Mtuation ; and is well adapted for rock-work. 

OMcr Sgneoiu Spedet of Aitrigatiu. — A, alloKiu Lodd. Cab.; A. aratatut 
L'Hfrit Stirp. 170., with jelbw flowers, which is figured in Bot. Cab. 
t. 1278., and our^. 406. ; A. brenjolua, with a purplish flower, figured in 
Bot. Cab. t. I38S., and our ^. 407. i and A. nuatiUhait Lam., which is 
probably a variety of A. TVagacanlha with white flowers instead ofpiuplisli 



XXV. LEauHtNACKX: coroni'lla. 



lot, AoitdnnmiH 



Sect. III. Hedysa'iie-e. 
Genus XVIH. 



CORONI'LLA Xcck. The Cobomlu. Lm. Syil. Diadflphla Decandriu. 

Unul/kaUtiL Mick. Ekin.. No. 1319. 1 I-im. Ill,, t. rao. g D«. Prod,. 1, p. 3D9. 

Snwjfmr, CoRmliU ip^ of Lin. and dthfln. 

DrriwtlKm, From (Briiaa. 1 ero*n : In ntema to Iha dlipoilUoii of Ihc flovetl In cnnni, or 

Gen. Chtr. Caigx cMDpanulate, ihort, S-toothed, the two auperior teeth a^ 
proiiinate, and joined together higher up than the reaL Clauii of pet^s 
UBUklly longer than the calyx. Caraia acute. Stameni diadelphoua. Legume 
nearly terete, alender, at length tepaniting into oblong l-seeded joints. Seedt 
ovate or cylindrical. {Don'i MiU.) 

Lcavei compound, sltemate, stipulate, deciduous i impnii-pinnate. Floaeri 
in 8x111017 pi^uncles, bearing at their tops umbela of pedicellate flowers, 
usnally yellow. — Sbniba, deciduous or sub-evergreen ; nativea of the South 
of Europe or Ada. 
They are all highljr '>tnainental, and most of them produce leedi in England, 

by which, or by cuttings, they are easily propagated id common soil. 
■ I, C. E'uBRUs L. The Scorfiion-Senna Coronilla. 

UtmlipcaUBn. Lin. Sp., I04G.I Dec 

_ Prm.. i. p.ws.i Doo^Mui., ». p. n4. 

., iDd B. mlnr. t.«.;"c: 
. Lam. FL Tt. 

Spec Char., Ifc. Grubby, gla- 
brous. Ita leaves are attend- 
ed by minute atipulea, and 
bate S — 7 obovate leeBets. 
Its flowers are yellov, di»- 
poiedSuponapeduncle. The 
claws of the netaU are thrice 
as long aa the calyx. The 
l^ume is rather cylindricnl 
than compressed, and its 




243 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRlTANffTlCUM. 

joints separate slowly and unobviously, but they do separate. (Dec. Prod.) 
A bushy glabrous shrub. Middle and Southern Europe, in thickets and 
hedges. Height 4 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers yellow ; April 
to June. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 

Before the flowers are expanded, the corolla is partly red externally, mostly 
so towards the tips of the petab ; and the mingling q£ the yellow flowers, with 
flower-buds more or less red, and the elegant foliage, produce a fine effect. It 
flourishes most in a sunny sheltered situation, and a dry soiL It bears clipping, 
and would form a beautiful garden hedge. 

j» 2. C. Jv'scBk L, The rushy-^nemc^i^ Coronilla. 

JdetUifieation. Ltn. Sp., 1047. ; Dec. Prod., a. p. 809. ; Don's Mill., S. p. 874. 
Engravmgg. Bot Reg., t. 890. ; BoL Cab., t 335. ; and ouxjig. 400l 

Spec, Char., ^c. Shrubby, gilabrous. Branches rush-like, round, bearing but 
few leaves ; the latter are attended by minute stipules, and 
have 3 — 7 leaflets, that are linear oblong, obtuse, and rather 
fleshy ; the lowest leaflets being rather (ustant from the base 
of the petiole. The flowers are yellow, 5-— 7 in an*umbel. 
The claws of the petals are scarcely longer than the calyx. 
The legume is rather compressed, and its joints separate 
obviously. (Dec. Prod.) An erect glaucous shrub. South 
of France. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1756. Flowers 
bright yellow; June and July. Legume brown; ripe in 
September. 409. cjaoom. 

It deserves a place in collections, on account of the singularity of its nish- 
like slender branches, which, like those of 5j)&rtium junceum, are partly desti- 
tute of leaves. 




Sect. IV. Phaseo^lea. 
Genus XIX- 



WISTA'R/il Nutt. The Wistaria. Lin. Sytt. Diad^Iphia Decdndria. 

Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 2. p. 115j Dec Prod., a. p. 389. ; Don's Mill.,2L p. 848. 

Sunonvmet. Glycine tp. £., ThyrsAnthuf EUiot, Kratinhto Rafin. 

DerHfoHon. Named In honour of Caspar JVistar, late Profetsor of Anatomy in the UniTertity of 

PenntylTanla. iDon*9 Mill., ft. p. 348.) NuttaU flrst characteriaed and named this genu, from the 

American ipedn. which he denominated W. tpecitea ; but which DeCandoUe has changed to W. 

frutfaoens. In DeCandoUe's Prodrotmu, and some other works, WlstibnVi ts erroneously spelled 

WiMthria. 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulate, somewhat bilabiate, upper lip with two short 
teeth, lower one witn 3 subulate teeth. Corolla papilionaceous. VexUlum 
bicallose. Win^s conforming to the keel, which is 2-edged. Stamens diadel- 
phous. Nectariferous tube girdine the stipe of the ovary. Legume standing 
on a short stipe, coriaceous, S-valved, 1-celled, rather tonilose at the seeds. 
(Don't MiU.) 

Leaves compound, opposite, ezstipulate, deciduous; impari-pinnate. 
Flowers bluish purple, in terminal and axillary racemes. — Shrubs, deciduous, 
twinins; natives of North America and China; of vigorous growth, formings 
when m flower, some of the most splendid ornaments of Bntish gardens. 

The species are quite hardy, will grow in any soil, and are generally pro- 
pagated by layers of the young shoots, which will root at every joint if kud 
down during summer as they grow. They may also be propagated by cuttings 
of the roots ; or by seeds. 



XXV. LEQUHINACEX: OLEDI'tSCH/^. 

t. W. pbutb'scbns Dtc. The shrubby Wistaria. 

Priid.,*.p.tga.iD<>n'>MUI..l.p«8. 
■ muitCHU LAt. Sp. lOGT.; i'pl» 
. ^n. Anrf. 9. p. J74. ; Anfiannod 
l Cv. 1H. i Wlitln'a tnd^u Mm, 



i?vi.'Pxfta£^ W^ir 



J^wc. Char., S/c. Wings of the corolla each 

¥nth two aairidea. Ovary elabroiu. Fbw- 

en odorous. (ZVc. Prod.') An elegant 

deciduoui climber, VirginiB, Carolma, ] 

and the Illinois, in boggj places. Stem 

a)ft. to30ft. IntTOdTlVSl. Flowers 

bluiafa purple, sweet-scented, the standard . 

haring a greenish jellow spot at the base; 

July to September. »gume brown ; ripe 

in October. 

It is readily propagated by cuttings of the *'"■ *'"** '"""■" 

root and by layers, and forms a Tery ornamental climber, especially when 
trained agauut a waU. 

A S. W. chinb'nsis Dec. The Chinese Wistaria. 

, I Don't Kill., 1. p. MS. 

I. Mag. t. MSI. I 0. ijnipili Sot. IUg.t.Wt.; Vllutila Cob- 

_ __ ,_ _ _ . ......~u.,'L''ill.('Ki(- Mil . 

L773. 1 uodoarflg. 4U. 

■Spec. Char., 4re. Wings of the corolla each with 
one auricle. Ovary rillose. Flowers large. 
(Dec. Prod.) A vigorous-rrowing deciduous 
twiner. China. Stem 6OTI. to ISO ft. In- 
troduced in IB16. Flowers pale bluish purple; 
Hay aud June, and sometimes produdog a se- 
cond crop of flowers in August. Legume ?. 
The flowers are la^er than those of W. fru- 

t^scens : the^ are disposed in longer and looser 

racemes, and are somewhat paler in colour. On 

established plants they are produced in great ' 

abundance ; but they have not yet been succwded , 

by Iwunes in England. This plant may truly be 

considered the most magnificent of all our hardy , 

deciduous climbers. It will grow wherever the 

common laburnum will flourish; but,as its flowers 

are somewhat more tender than those of that 

tree, they are more liable to be iiyured bj frosts in vi 

in the Hort. Soc. Garden, against a wafl, extends ii 

on each ude of the main stem ; one at Coughton Hall covers 90& superficial 

feet of walling. 

Sect. V. Cassie'^ 
Genus XX. 



OLET>nSCHTA L. Thb Olbditschia. Lin. Si/tl. Polyg^ia 

7dniftf«lkM. I.iB. do.. IIHI. : Lain. in..|>- UT.i D<c. Prod,. I p. m ; Don't Mil 



250 ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Derivation, In honour of Got/Ueb Oiediisdk, oi Leiptlc, once a protafor at Berlin, and defender of 
Linnnusa^inst Siegeibeck ; author of Metkodm Fungorum (1753), Sifitema Pkmtamm a Skumi* 
num situ (1764), andmanj other smaller works. 

Gen, Char. Flowen unisexual from abortion, or hermaphrodite. Calyx of 
3 — 4 — 5 equal sepals, which are connected together at the base into a cu- 
pule. PetaU equal in number to the sepals, rising from the tube of the 
calyx. Stamens equal in number to the sepals. Syle short. SHgma pu» 
bescent above. Legume continuous, furnished with more or less pulp. Seeds 
compressed. (DorCs Mill.) 

Leaves compound, abruptly pinnate, and bipinnate, on the same tree ; or, 
rarely, by the coalition ot the leaflets, almost simple, alternate, stipulate, 
deciduous. Flowers greenish, in spikes. — Trees, deciduous, of the Ist, 2d, 
and 3d ranks ; natives of North America or China. Branchlets suprfr- 
axillary, and often converted into branched spines. Decaying leaves yelk)w. 
Naked young wood purplish or brownish green. 

The species are of easy culture in good firee soil ; and, in Britain, generally 
propagated by imported seeds, or grafting. The species appear to be in a 
state of great confusion in Bridsh g^irdens; and, judging from the trees in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, we should 
conjecture that there are, probably, not more than two species, the American 
and the Chinese. The Chinese species is distinguished by its trunk being 
more 8[)iny than its branches. 

¥1.6. TRiACA^NTHOs lAn. The threo-thomed Gleditschia, or Honey Locust. 

Identifieatkm. Lin. Sp., Ifi09. { Dec. Prod^ a. p. 479. ( Don's BfllL, 8. p. 496, 
Stftumymet. O. triac&nthos Tar. m polvspmna Mart. MiU, ; G. mellloba Wait. ; G. spinftsa Dai 
Ham. \ ilckda triadinthos Hort. ; iloacia americdna Phik. \ FMer d'Amtrique, Fr. ; Fara ame- 
ricana, luU. : Thorny Acacia, Sweet Locust, United States ; Carouge I Bfiel, ikmada. 
Engravhigs. Michz. fu. Arb., Z p. 164. 1. 10.; Wats. Dend. Brit., 1 13& ; the plates of this spedes 
in Arb. Brit, 1st edit, vol. t. ; and WiX^. 41S. 

Spec, Cliar.^ Sfc. Spines simple or trifid ; stout, at the very base compressed, 
in tlie upper part cylindrical, but tapered. Leaflets linear-oblong. Lc^mes 
flattish, rather crooked, many-seeded, and more than ten times as long as 
broad, {pec. Prod,) A laige tree. Carolina and Virginia. Height 50 ft. 
to 80 ft. Introduced in 1700. Flowers greenish; June and July. Legume 
brown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked young wood 
purplish brown. 

9 G.i,2 mermu Dec., G. laeVis Hort. (Dec. Leg. M^m., 2. t. 22. fig. 109. ; 

Catesb. Carol., 1. 1. 43. ; Pluk. Aim., 1. 123. fig. 3. ; and the plates of 

this variety in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.), has the stem and branches 

not spiny, or but very sparingly so. 
S 6. /. 3 bradiycarpa. G. brachydlrpa Pursh^ G. triadinthos var. fi 

Michx. — Leaflets oblong obtuse. Spines thick, short, not rarely 3 

together. Legumes oblong, short. 

The trunk and branches, when the tree is youne, are covered with large 
prickles, which, though they are not ligneous, become nard, and remain on for 
several years, and offer a formidable defence. These prickles are not only 
produced by the young wood, but occasionally protrude themselves from the 
trunk, even when the tree is of considerable bulk and age. In general, the 
trunk presents a twisted appearance, and the branches proceed from it rather 
horizontally than in an upright direction. The pinnated foliage is particularly 
elegant, and of an agreeable light shining green : it appears late in spring, the 
trees in the neighbourhood of London sometimes not being fully cloth«l till 
the middle or end of June ; and it be^s to turn yellow, and drop off, early 
in autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous ; the male flowero being in the 
form of catkin-like racemes of nearly the same colour as the leaves. Some 
trees in the grounds at Syon have ripened seeds, the pods containing which, 
being 1 ft. to 2 fi. in length, and remaining on the trees after the leaves are off, 
have a singular appearance. These crooked pendulous pods are of a reddish 



XXV. leoumina'ces: oledi'tsch/^. 



eubatance, wtuch, for about s month after the ■Dsturity of the e 
verj iweet, but after a few weeks becomea extremely sour. The mte or 
growth of this tree, for the fint 15 or 20 yean, ia generally about the BTerage 
of a foot a year ; but in fevourable situations it will grow at double that rate. 
In the garden of the Hort. Soc, and in the arboretum of the Heasrs. Lod- 
diies, plants 10 years planted were, in 1835, from 30ft. to 25tl. in height. 
The wood of this tree, when dry, weighs at the rate of 53 lb. the cubic foot : 
it is verv hard, and splits with great facility, resembling in this and other re- 
spects ttie wood of the robinia ( but its grain is coarser, and its pores more 
open, bi Britain, this, and all the kinds of the genus, can only be considered 
as omamental trees ; but in that character they hold the first mnk ; then- de- 
licate acada-Uke foliage, and the uugularly varied, graceful, aud picturesque 
forms asniraed b^ the tree, more especially when youn^ or middle-aged, to- 
Eether with the singular feature afforded by its spines, will always recommend 



to ripen the seeds. The spedea is always propagated by seeds imported Irom 
America, or from Fnmcc or Italy. The plants are best tninsplanted to where 
they are finally to remain when quite young ; as they make but few fibrous 
roots, and these take, for the most part, a d^cending direction. The variety 
G. t. inermis can only be insured by grafting on the species. In general, how- 
ever, abundance of plants without apinea may be selected from beds of seed- 
lings of Q. triacjinthos. 

5 2. O. (t.) >■o^ 



XuroiAV' Kill. Icon., B. I ml oi 

^>ec. Ciar., ^c. Spinea slender, not rarely triGd, few. Leaflets ovate-oblong, 
acute. Legume* flattiah. roundish, I-aeedad. (Dec. Frnd.^ A tree of the 
lar^t size. Native of Carolina, Florida, and tKe Illinois, in moist woods. 
Height do ft. to 80 ft. Introduced in 1733. Flowers greenish ; June and 
July. Legume not seen in England. 
Closely resembles the honey locust, from which, in England, where neither 

uf them ripens seeds, it- is almost impoMibte to distinguish it. The bark. 



252 ARBOnETUM ET FRUTtCETUH BRITANNICUK. 

though Binooth when the tree u 
young, yet cracks and scales off when 
tbe tree gronra old, as in O. triacan* 
thoB. The leaves, Michaux sajs, 
ililTer from those of O. triacAothoa, in 
bein^ a little Bmaller in all their pro- 
portions. The branches are armed 
trilh thoma, which are also less nu- 
merous, and aomewhat smaller than 
dioae of G. triadinthoi. The tree is 
treated in all respects like G. tria- a 
cinthos ; of which it has, till lately, 
been conndered only a variety. It t, 

is raised in the nurseries from in- 9 

ported seed ; but whether the plants 

really dim out perfectly distinct, .. 

withrespH3CtIo the forrn of then- fruit, * '' ''™"' "* 

is uncertain ; from thdrnot having yet, as far aa we know, fruited in England. 

i 3. 6. sinb'nsis Lam. The Chinese Oleditechia. 

p7m. I Don'i Hill., 3. p. 4M. 
Sfnonywia. G. li6rrUll Wim. Sf. *. p- 10M> i F^. 

Etirnvbiri. Dec. Lteum. Vim.. 1. 1. 1. : the plaU 
H Mm qncln !□ Jnt>. Brtl., lit edit., tdL t. 

^Kc. Char., S[c. Spinel stout, conicnl; 
those on the branches simple or 
branched ; those on the stem grouped 
and branched. The leaflets ovate- 
elliptical, obtuse. L^mes compressed, 
long. The spines in this species are 
axiQnry, not dutant trom the axil. (Dec. 
Prod.) A middle-sized tree. China. 
Height 30 ft. to 50 ft. Introduced in 
1774. Flowers greenish; June and 
July. L^ume not seen in EngUnd. 
yarielia. 

t G. I. 2 himia N. Du Ham,, G, 
jap6nica Ladd. Cat., Q. jav&nica 
Liim. (see the plate of thb tree 
in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.j 
and our^. 414.), differs from 
Q. sinensis in being without 
spines, of much less vieorous 
growth, and in having the foliage 
ofamuchdeepcrgreen. Icseems 

a very desirable variety for small ,„. ai.a»iu.» ►*■». 

gardens. 
i O.t. 3 maior Hort., G. h6rrida m^or Lodd. Cat., seems scarcelj to 

differ from the species. 

t G. «. 4 nina Hort., G. h. nina in Hort. Soc Gard, (sec the plate of 

this tree in Arh. Brit,, Isl edit., vol. v. ; and our Jig 415.), is a 

tree of somewhat lower growth than the species, but scarcely, m it 

appears to us, worth keeping distinct. 

J G. ». 5 purpurea Hort., O, h. purpurea Ziodd. Cat. (sec the plate in 

Arb. Brit., 1st edit, vol. v. j and our^. 416.), is a small tree of 

compact upright growth, very suitable for gvdens of limited extent. 

Olker Fariclia of G. tiithuit.—1n Loddigea's artwrctum there is a plant 



XXV. LEQUMINACE£: GLEDl'TSrH/vf. 




marked G. ckniiua 
(Potts), which was im- 
ported from Chine bj 
the Hon. Boc. It ia. at 
preKnt, a low bush, 
and may, perhapn, prove 
something diicinct. 
There were also, in 
l839,iDtheHort. Soc. 
Garden, tome plants 
without names, app»> 
renttf Jielonging to this 
■peciesj but, sa we have 
alresdf oburved, the ' 
Kenua ia in great con- 
fusion, and nothing 
perfectly SBtiafactory 
can be stated nspect- 
ingit 

The siHnci, which are 
very strong and bruichy, 
are more abundant on 
the trunk than on the 
branches, and are fr^ 
quently found in bundlea. 



254 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM, 

The leaves are bipinnate, and the leaflets are elliptic obtuse, notched on the 
edges, smooth, sninine, and much larger than those of any other species. 
{Detf, Arb., ii. p. 248.) The pods are rarely above 6 in. long. The tree 
stands the cold better than the noney locust, and has ripened its fruit in Paris, 
in the Jardin des Plantes, and in the nursery of M. Uels. {Diet, det JEatix et 
det Forets, vol. ii. p. 150.) 

f 4. G. (s.) MACRACA^NTHA Desf, The long-spined Gleditschia. 

IdentifieaUKm. Detf. Arbi, 9L p. M6, ; DoQ*t MiU., a. p. 4S8. 
Sunonirmet. G. Arox Bamdr, \ F^Tier I grocaes B'pinet, Fr. 
Engrating, The plate of thl« species in ArU Brit, 1st edit., voL t. 

Spec, Char,^ Sfc, Prickles strong, branchy, numerous. Leaflets lanceolate, 
somewhat rigid, notched, dentated. Pods elongated. {Detf, Arb,) A 
middle-sizod tree, with a prickly trunk. China ?. Height 40 ft. to 50 ft. 
Flowers greenish ; June and July 

The prickles are axillary and large. The leaves are twice winged; the 
leaflets large, coriaceous, dark green, and shining on the upper surface. The 
young shoots are covered with extremely short hairs, and are of a purplish 
brown colour. On the whole, it bears a close resemblance to G. sinensis, of 
which it is, probably, only a variety. It is very hardy ; and Desfontaines says 
that it fruits freely m France. The fruit ripens in the autumn ; and the pods 
are long, pendulous, swelled, and rather cylindrical. They are filled with a 
sharp acria pulp, somewhat resembling that of tamarinds, but the emanations 
from whicS, when inhaled, occasion sneezing. 

t 5, G. (s.) FB^ROX Desf, The ferocious^nc^M Gleditschia. 

Identification, Desf. Arb., 9. p. 847. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 42S. 
Stmonymet. O. orlentUis Botci Finer bdrlssi, Fr. 
Engravings OvatJ^, .in p. 

Spec, Ckar,^ Sfc, Prickles lai^ robust, much compressed, trifid* Leaflets 
lanceolate, notched. {Detf, Arb,) 

A middle-sized branchinff deciduous tree, the trunk of which is thickly beset 
with strong; branchy priddes, and which is supposed to grow from 30 ft. to 
50 ft. in height ; but of which the native country, and year of introduction 
into Britain, are unknown. Judging from the plants in the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
and those in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, we should say it was only 
a variety of G. sm^nsis; though Desfontaines states the foliage and habit of 
growth to be somewhat different. It has not yet flowered in Europe. 

t 6. G. CA^spiCA Deif, The Caspian Gleditschia. 

Idenlifleation, Desf. Arb., 3. p. 847. s Don's MUl., S. p. 428^ 
&unof^fme* O. caspitoa Bote, 
Engraving. Otujig. 417. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Prickles slender, trifid, compressed. 
Leaflets elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse. (Detf, Arb,) A 
middle-sized tree Persia, and found also near the Cas- 
pian Sea. Height30 ft. to 40 ft. Introduced in 1822. 

Nothing is known of its flowers and fruit ; but it 
strongly resembles G. sinensis (of which it is, probably, 
only a variety) in its leaves, general appearance, and 
habit. 

Varieli^, 

i G.c, 2 suboirejeens Hurt., Fevier verdatre, Fr., is mentioned in the 
JSoH Jardtnier for 1836, as a variety of this species. 

OtJier SorU ofGledUtckm,^'Eyery modification of the species of this genus 
is so interesting, both in point of the elegance of its foliage, and the singularity 
of its prickles, that new varieties have been eagerly sought after by cultivators ; 
and the genus seems particularly favourable to this desire, from the tendency 
of seedling plants to sport. Hence there are several names in collections, of 




417. G.cAtplca. 



XXV. LEOUMlNA^CEiB : GYMNO'CLADUS. 255 

which it is difficult to say any tiling satisfactory in the present young and im- 
mature state of the plants. In the Hort. Soc. Garden, there were in 1837 
G. nacracdniha^ G, Boqui, and G, prw^cox ; and in Messrs. Loddiges's arbo- 
retum were plants marked G, aquatica^ which are evidently the same as G. 
monosperma, G, orientdUs, evidently G. firox, G, ckinStuU (ahready mentioned) ; 
and some young plants without names. 

Genus XXI. 




Engrofrimgs, Rdch. liag*B t. 40. ; Doh.' Arb., 1. 108. ; our plates of this tree in Arb. Brit., Ut edit., 



GYMNO'CLADUS Lam, Thb Gtmnocladus. Lin. Syst. Dioecia 

Dec&ndria. 

JdetUifieaHon. Lam. Diet., I. p. 738w i III., t. 823. ; Dec Prod., S. p. 479. 

DerHnUwn, From gmmtot, naked, and kladot, a branch ; from tlie naked appeal ancc of the branches 
daring winter, when they seem, unlets perbjqjw at the points of the shoots, totally devoid of buds. 

Gei^ Char, Flowen dioecious firom abortion. Calyx tubular, 5-cleft. Fetalt 
5, equal, oblong, exserted from the tube. Stamens 10, enclosed. Legume 
oblong, thick, filled with pulp inside. (Don^t Mill,) 

Leaves compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; bipinnate. Flowers 
in terminal racemes, white. -^ A tree^ deciduous, with upright branches and 
inconspicuous buds ; native of North America. 

IE 1. G. canadb'nsis Lam. The Canada Gymnocladus, or Kentucky 

Coffee Tree. 

Jdemtifieaiiom, Ijua. Dict~ 1. p. 73S., and 111., t. 828. ; Hichx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 241. ; Dec. 
Prod., 2. p. 480. ; Don's MUL. 2. p. 429. 

Sifnomymet, Gullandlna dioica Lin, Sp. 646. ; Hyperanthdra dioica Fakl Symb. 1. p. Si., Duh. 
Arb. 1. 1. 108. ; Nicker Tree, Stump Tree, United States-^ Bonduc, Chiquier, Fr.i Chicot, Ca- 
nadian ; Canaalscher Schusserbram, Ger, 
'ngra9ing$, Rdch. T' 
Tol. ▼. ; and our fig 

Spec. Char.f ^c. Branches blunt at the tip, bipinnate leaves, flowers in ra- 
cemes, and whitisb petals. The leaf has 4—7 pinnae ; the lower of which 
consist each o( but a single leaflet, the rest eacn of 6—8 pairs of leaflets. 
(^Dec ProtL) A singular tree. Canada. Hdght 30 ft. to 60 ft. Introduced 
in 1748. rlowers white; May to July. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked 
young wood of a mealy white, without any appearance of buds. 

The branches have almost always an upright direction ; and the appearance 
of the head, in the winter season, is remarKable, from being fastigiate, and from 
the points of the branches being few, and thick and blunt, as compared with 
those of almost every other tree. They are also wholly without the ap- 
pearance of buds ; and this latter circumstance, connected with the former, 
gives the tree, during winter, the appearance of being dead ; and hence the 
Canadian name of chicot, or stump tree. The leaves, on young thriving trees, 
are 3ft. long, and 20 in. wide; but, on trees nearly full grown, they are not 
half that size. The leaflets are of a dull bluish green, and the branches of 
the petioles are somewhat of a violet colour. It is very hardy, and flowers 
freely in the neighbourhood of London, but does not produce pods. The 
wood is hard, compact, strong, tough, and of a fine rose colour. In America, 
it is used both in cabinet-making and carpentry, and, like the wood of the 
robinia, it has the remarkable property of rapidlv converting its sap-wood into 
heart-wood ; so that a trunk 6 in. in diameter has not more than six lines of 
sap-wood, and may, consequently, be almost entirely employed for useful pur- 
poses. The seeds were, at one time, roasted and ground as a substitute for 
coflee in Kentucky and Tennessee; but their use in this way has been lone 
since discontinued. The pods, preserved like those of the tamarind (to which 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANN 



this genua w aearif allied), are laid to be wholeaome, aud ili^tly aperienl. 
In Britain, the onlj use of the tree ii for oraunental purposes ; and, con- 
sidered as an object of curiositj and beauty, no collection ought to be wiihout 
it. A rich, deep, free soil is essential to the thrivii^ of this tree ; and such a 
soil is never met with naturally in exposed situations. The tree is generally 
propagated by imported seeds; but it will grow freely from cuttings of the 
roots, care bei:^ taken in planting to keep that end upwards which is na- 
turelly ao. 

Genus XXII. 



a 



CS'RCIS L. Thb Judai Trbb. Lm. Sjwf. Deeindria Monog^nia. 

/dnUAtcoMm. LIB. Oil, Mo. IIB. i Dsc Pro 



1. p. SI*, i Ddb-s HtU, 1. p, M 



Frm ttrttt, • •hutilMOCk, Ibe una iItbi tit ThnfbuMtat u Ukii m*. 
Gat. Char, Calyx urceolale at the base and gibbous, bluntlj' ^toothed al 



„ ir side petals the largest. Slam^tu 10, free, uneinial. Oi>ary on 
a short stipe. Legume oblong, slender, compressed, l-ceQed, many-seeded, 
somewhat winged on the seminiferous suture. Setdt oborate. (Uoh'i 
Mill.) 



XXT. LEOUMINACK£: CE'RCIS. 257 

Leaoa ninple, alternate, stipulate, deciduoiM ; hean-shaped at the base, 
mauj-nerved, rising after the tiawera have decaved. Flotueri in 1-flowered 
pedicels, rising from the trunk and branches in (esdcles. — Trees, deciduous, 
of the third rank ; natives of Europe, or North America. Decaying leaves 
ydlowish purple. Propagated by leeda or grafting, 

T 1, C, 5iLiqUA'sTRVM L, The cotamon Judas Tree. 

IdtMSIfaim. LiD. 8p..U4.i Dec. Prod, 3. p-SIS, i Don'iMm.. 1. p. ta. 

Sg mi iima. saiatttMram oiUcuUtum Mcmc* MrU. ; Lon Tr» i Calnler eanmun, Arbn d* 

Jud&. Fr. i Arbol d'AiDoc, An. | JiuUiliiuiii. Oct. 
XitrrarMzi. N. Dd Hud., l T. ; Bot. Uig<il- 1128.; tha plilw ot thU tpecln in Arb. Brll., lit 

Spec. Char^ Sfc. Leaves very obtuse, and wholly glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A 
low tree. South of Europe, in Greece, in Asiatic Turkey, and more es* 
pedally in Judea. Height SO ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers 
purpli^ pink ; May, L^ume brown ; ripe in September, Naked young 
wood purplish, with small white spots. 

■ C. S. S partifldrvm Dec — A shrub ; its branches spotted with white, 
its Rowers smaller by half than those of the species. A native of 
Bokham. 

9 C. S. SJldre iAido.— Flowers whidsh. H. S. 

T C. S. 1 ratca. — A seedling, nused ftom foreign seeds, which has 
flowered in the Botanic Garden at Kew; has numerous flowers, 
which are brighter, and a shade darker, than those of the species; 
and they also ap[>ear about a fortni^t later; but it is, perhaps, 
hardly worth noticing as a variety. 



Hie common Judas tree, in the South of Burope, forms a handsome low 
tree, with a Bat spreading head, in the form of a parasol; and it is a singularly 



2&8 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETDH BRITANNICUH. 

beautiful object in spring, especially wben it in eorered with its numerous bright 
purplish pink flowers, which appear before the leaves, and are produced not 
only rrom the foung wood, but Irom wood of 6 or S years growth, and even 
from the trunk. Tne leaves are not liable to be attacked by insects. The 
flowers are succeeded by flat, thin, brown pods, nearly 6 in. in length, whid 
remain on the tree all the year, and give it a very singular iippearance in the 
winter season. The rate of growth is about IB iu. a year, for the first lOyeara. 
The wood is very hard, and agreeably veined, or rather blotched or waved, 
with bkick, green, and yellow spots, on a grey ground. It takes a beautiful 
polish, and wd^hs nearly 48 lb. to the cubic Foot. The flowers, which have 
an agreeable acid taste, are mixed with salads, or fried with batter, as fritters ; 
and the flower-buds are pickled in vin^ar. In British gardens, the tree grows 
about the same height, and flowers about the same time, as the laburnum, the 
Guelder rose, and tbe hawthorn, and enters into beautiful combination with 
these and other trce^ The foliage is hardly leu beautiful and remarkable than 
the flowers ; the leaves being of a pale bluish green on the upper surface ; and 
of a sea-green underneath, and of a cordate reniform shape, apparently cod- 
siating of two leaflets joined together; which circumstance, combined with 
others, brin^ the genus in close ^tiance with that of Bauhiniii. Like most of 
the Legumm&cete, this tree prefers a deep, free, sandy soil, rich rather than 
poor; and it will only thrive, and become a handsome tree, in sheltered utua- 
tions. Tn tbe northern parts of the island, it requires to be planted against a 
wall; and few ornamental trees better deserve such a situation. The speoes 
is propagated by seeds, and the varieties by grafting. The seeds are sown on 
heat early in spring, and come up the same season -, and the plants will produce 
flowers in three or four years. 



The Canada Judas Tree. 



Slllqi^i 
Bouuiii roun, FT- 
Eiwra>»v'' "HI. I( 



xxvi. rosa'ceje. 259 

Spec. Char., ^c» Leaves acuminate, villose beneath at the axils of the veins. 
As compiued with C. jSiliquastrum, its flowers are of a paler rose colour, 
the l^ume is on a longer pedicel, and tipped with a longer style. A low 
tree. Canada toViiginia. {Dec, Prod.) Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. Introd. 1730. 
Flowers red ; May and June. ; Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

Variety. 

? C. c. ptibescens Ph. — Leaves pubescent on the under sur&ce. (Dec.) 

This tree bears a general resemblance to the preceding species ; but it is 
more slender and smaller in all its parts ; and it seldom rises higher than 80 
feet It is at once distinguished from C. 5iliau&strum by its leaves being 
heart^haped and pointed ; they are also jnuch tninner, more veined, and of a 
lighter green ; and the flowers are generally produced in smaller numbers 
thui in the other species. The flowers are used by the French Canadians in 
salads and pickles, and the youne branches to dye wool of a nankeen colour. 
The wood resembles that of the other species. Propagated by imported 
seeds, and considered more tender than C. 5iliquAstrum. 



Order XXVI. iJOSA^CEiE. 

The term Roskcea has been applied to this order, because all the species 
belonging to it agree more or less with the genus Rdsa, in essential cnarac- 
ters. It includes many genera belonging to the Linnaean class Icosindria. 

Ord. Char. Flowers regular. Co/^jr, in most cases, with 5 lobes, the odd one 
posterior to the axis of inflorescence. Petalt and ttamens arising from the 
calyx. Stamens, for the most part, numerous. Ovaries many, several, or 
solitary ; each of one ceU that includes, in most cases, 1 ovule ; in some, 
1 to many ovules. Style lateral or terminal. 

Leaves sunple, or pinnately divided, alternate, in nearly all stipulate. 
Flowers showy, with numerous stamens. Frtdt^ in many of the genera, edible. 
— Trees and shrubs, mostly deciduous; natives of Europe, Asia, and America. 

The ligneous species which constitute this order include the finest flower- 
ing shrub in the world, the rose; and the trees which produce the most 
useful and agreeable fruits of temperate climates, viz. the apple, the pear, the 
plum, the cherry, the apricot, the peach, and the nectarine. The plants are, 
for the most part, decicmous low trees or shrubs, all producing flowers more 
or less showy ; and the greater number fruits which are edible. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe and Ana ; but several of them are also found in 
North America, and some in South America, and the North of Africa. The 
fruit-bearing species, and the rose, have followed man from the earliest period 
of civilisation, and are, perhaps, better known to mankind in general than any 
other ligneous plants. The medical properties of several of the species are 
remarkable, from the circumstance of tneir yielding the prussic acid ; while 
others produce a gum nearly allied to the gum Arabic, which indicates a 
degree of affinity between this order and Legumin^cesc. The bark of some 
species, as of C^rasus viiviniina, is used, in North America, as a febrifuge ; 
and that of others, as uie capoUm cherry (C^rasus CapoUin), for tanning, 
in Mexico. The leaves of Cratae'gus Oxyacdntha, Prunus spindsa, Cerasus 
sylv^tris, and R^ba rubigindsa, have been used as a substitute for tea, or for 
adulterating tea. The leaves and bark of the spirseas are said to be at once 
astringent and emetic. There are two characteristics of this order, with 
reference to its cultivation, which are of great importance to the gardener : 
the first is, the liability of almost all the species to sport, and produce 
varieties diflering, in many cases, more from one another, than they differ 
firom other species ; and the second is, that they are remarkably subject to 

s 2 



260 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

the attacks of insects and diseases. They almost ail require a/ree loamy soil, 
not overcharged with moisture, and rich rather than poor ; and, while ail the 
species are increased by seeds, which, for the most part, are produced freely in 
Britain, or by cuttings of the roots, almost all the varieties are best increased 
by grufHuff or budding ; and not, as in some other orders, with equal ease by 
cuttings of the shoots, or by layers. 

With reference to landscape-gardening, all the rosaceous trees have three 
properties which deserve to be kept constantly in view by the improver of 
grounds : 1st, they never attain a lai^ size ; 2d, they attain their natural size 
and shape in a very few years, in good soil not requiring more than from 
10 to 20 years; and 3il, they sooner take the character of old trees than the 
trees of any other natural order of ligneous plants. A few exceptions may be 
taken from different orders, such as the common fieki maple, the common 
laburnum, &c. ; but we know of no natural order, in which, hke the RoekceaR, 
all the trees are low or middle-sized, and all take the character of age while 
comparatively young. Hence their value in laying out small places, where 
the object is to make a new place appear old, or a small place appear larger 
and at the same time to combine character of form with beautiful blossoms 
in spring, and showy (Cratse^gus, Cotonc&ster, and Ameldnchier) ov useful 
(Pyrus and /^nus) fruit in autumn. 

The genera are included by DeCandolle and G. Don in five tribes ; and the 
following are their names and distinctions : — 

Sect. L i4llYGDA^LE£ JUM, 

Sect, Char, Fruit a drupe ; the nut 2-ovuled, I — ^2-seeded. Style terminal. 
Calyx deciduous. Leaves feather-nerved, undivided, serrate, with the 
lower serratures or the petioles glanded. Stipules not attached to the 
petiole. Kernel containing more or less of nydroc^-anic acid : chieffy 
fruit trees. 

i^uv'GDALUS Toum. Covering of nut not fleshy ; nut even, or perforated 
Young leaves folded flatwise. Flowers almost sessile, solitary or twin, 
protruded before the leaves. 

Pb'rsica Toum, Covering of nut very fleshv ; nut wrinkled. The- charac- 
ters of the other parts described under ^mygdalus are the same in Pteica. 

i^RUENrxcA Towm, Covering of nut fleshy ; nut furrowed at both edges, in 
the other parts even. Young leaves with their edges rolled inwards. 
Flowers almost sessile, solitary or a few together, protruded before the 
leaves. 

PRU^NUS Toum, Covering of nut fleshv ; nut indistinctly furrowed at the 
edges, in the other parts even. Young leaves with the edges rolled inwards. 
Flowers upon pedicels, in groups resembling umbeb, and produced before 
or afler the leaves. 

Cb^rasus JuMt, Nut subglobose, even, its covering fleshy. Young leaves 
folded flatwise. Flowers upon pedicels, either in groups resembling umbels, 
and produced before the leaves, or in racemes terminal to the shoots, pro- 
truded along with them. 

Sect. II. S9iKME>JB, Dec, 

Sect, Char, Fruit of 5, or fewer, capsular carpels, which are distinct from 
the calyx (which is persbtent in S^irae^a, and, perhaps, in the other 
genera), and, in most cases, from each other : each contains 1^^ seeds. 
Style terminal. Low deciduous shrubs. 

Pu'rsh/^ Dec. Stamens about 20. Carpels 1 — 2, ovate-oblong. 
KB^Ril//4 Dec. Stamens about 20. Carpels 5 — 8, distinct. 
Sp\YLa^k L. Stamens 10 — 50. Carpels 1 to several, distinct ; stipitate ; each 
includes 2 — 6 seeds, affixed to the inner suture. 

Sect. III. PoTBNTi^LLRA Juu, (Synou. Dry^deae Veni,) 
Bed, Char, Fruit an aggregation of carpels; their integuments dry or 



XXVI. ilOSA^CEiE : ^my'gdalus. 261 

succulent ; the carpels distinct from one another, and from the calyx, 
which is persistent, and surrounds them, and, in many, is subtencled 
by as many bracteas as it has lobes ; the bracteas alternate with the 
lobes. Style proceeding from a little below the tip of the carpel. Leaves, 
in most cases, pinnately divided. Stipules attached to the petiole. Shrubs 
bearing fruit, or ornamental. 

i^u^BUs L. Int^^ments of carpels juicy. 
PoTBNTi^LLA Nettle Intcguments of carpels dry. 

Sect. lY. i^o^sBJE Dec. 

Sect. Char. Fruit a hip ; that is, with the tube of the calyx fleshy, of a 
pitcher shape, contracted at the mouth ; and including an aggregation of 
carpels attached to its inner face^ 8tyle proceeding from the inner side 
of the carpel. Shrubs eminently ornamental. 

Bci^K Toum, Leaf impari-pinnate. Stipules attached to the petiole. Prickles 

simple. 
LoVSii LindL Leaf simple. Stipules none. Prickles usually compound. 

Sect. V. Po^HBJB Lmdl, 

Sect, Char, Fruit a pome ; that is, with the tube of the calyx become very 
fleshy, and including, and connate with, the carpels. Carpels normally 5, 
with gristly or bony walls, including 1 — 2 seeds ; in C^ddnia, several. 
Habit spiny or not ; leaves, in most cases, undivided, in some pinnate. 
Stipules not connate with the petiole. Otnamental low trees, or large 
shrubs, with showy flowers, in some genera spiny, and in others bearing 
some of our best hardy kitchen and dessert fruits. 

CsLATM^GVS Undl, Carpels 1 — 5 prismatic nuts with bony shells, each in- 
cluding 1 seed. Leaves angled or toothed^ in most cases deciduous. 
Flowers in terminal corymbs. Spiny shrubs or low trees. 

Pboti'^nia Lmdl, Carpels 2. Petals reflexed. Eveigreen. Flowers in ter- 
minal panicles. Leaves simple, leathery, serrated or entire. In P. itategri- 
iolia tne ovaries are 3, and each includes 2 ovules. 

Cotonea'ster Medik. Carpels 2 — 3 ; ovules 2 in each cell. Leaves simple, 
entire, woolly beneath. Flowers in lateral spreading corymbs. 

Amel^nchieb Medik. Ovaries 5, each divided by a partition ; ovules I in 
each cell. Ripe pome including 3 — 5 carpels. Petals lanceolate. Small 
trees. Leaves simple, serrate, deciduous. Flowers in racemes. 

3fE^spiLU8 Undl, Carpels 2 — 5 compressed nuts with bony shells, each in- 
cluding I seed. Leaves lanceolate, serrulate, deciduous. Flowers large, 
subsessile, subsolitarv. 

/^^Rus lAndl. Carpels 5, or 2 — 5. Seeds 2 in each carpel. Leaves simple 
or pinnate, deciduous. Flowers in spreading terminal cymes or corymbs. 

(TiTDO NiA Toum. Carpels 5, each including many seeds. 



SecL I. ^myodaYe^ Juss» 
Genus L 



Ul&J 



, I 



■n 



iiMY'GDALUS Toum, The Almond Tree. Lm, Syst. Icosandria 

Monog^nia. 

IJentifiealkm. Toum. iMt., t. 409. i Dec. Prod., ?. ^ aao. ; Don's Httl., 2. p. 483. 

S 3 



262 ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUAT. 

^noi^fmes, Amygda)6phora Neck. ; Amandler, Fr. ; Manddbaum, Ger. ; Mandorlo, Ital. 
Derivation, From afnussd, to lacerate, in reference to the flsiured shell orthe nut. Martlniiu sua* 

pects that It comes fh>m a Hebrew word which signifies vigilant ; becaosetts early flowers announce 

the return of spring. 

Gen, Char, Drupe clothed with velvety pubescence, having a dry rind, which 
separates irregularly, containing a pitted or smooth mitamen or nut. (DorCs 

Mm,) 

Leaves simple, conduplicate when young, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. 
Flowers nearly sessile, usually pink or rose coloured, rising either singly or 
by pairs firom the scaly buds, earlier than the leaves. — Shrubs or trees of the 
middle size, deciduous. Natives of the North of Africa, and the mountains 
of Asia ; also of Russia, and the Levant. 

The fruit-bearing species are cultivated in the Bliddle and South of Europe 
and the Levant, and are propa^ted chiefly by grafting ; and the others by 
Rafting, layers, suckers, or cuttmgs of the root. The almond was included 
by Linnsus in the si^me genus with the peach and nectarine, of both of which 
it is, doubtless, the parent, as trees have been found with almonds in a 
state of transition to peaches, and with both peaches and nectarines on the 
same branch. 

^ \, A, NA^NA L, The dwar^ or shrubby, Almond. 

IdeiaificaUdn, Lin. Mant., 396. ; Dec. Prod., t. p. 6S0. ; Doo*8 Mill., 3. p. 482. 

^nonymes, Prdnus Inftrmis Gmel, ; A. niUia Tar. « Tulglkris Dee. ; Amandier naln, Fr. ; Zwerche- 

mandel, Oer. ; Feschino della China, Ital. 
Engravingt. Bot Mag., t. 161. ; N. I>u Ham., 4.t. 80. ; and omjigi. 432, 42S. 

Spec. Char,, ^c. Leaves oblong-linear, tapered at the base, serrated, glabrous ; 
Flowers solitary, rose-colour^. Cal^ cylindrically bell-shaped. Fruit of the 
same shape as that of A, commiknis, but much smaller. {Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous low shrub. Calmuc Tartary, very frequent on the banks of the 
Volga, and about Odessa. Heiffht 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1683* 
Flowers rose coloured ; March and April. 

Varieties, 

ji A. n. 2 ge6raca Dec. A. ge6rgica Desf. Arb. 2. p. 221., and Z^odd, 
Cat. — It differs from the species in having the lobes of the calyx 
lanceolate, and as long as its tube ; and the styles only tomentose at 
the base, being scarcely so there, and not protruded. A native of 
Georgia, which has been cultivated in the Geneva Botanic Garden. 

M A. n. 3 campestris Ser. A. camp^stris Besser Enum, p. 46. No. H25., 
Ilort. PI. Attst. 2. p. 2., and Ijodd, Cat, ; A. Besseriona Schott in Cat, 
Hort, Vindob, 1818, and Lodd, CVr/.— L^ves 
broader. Lobes of the calyx as long as the tube. 
Petals narrower, longer, and white. Styles to- 
mentose at the base. The form of the nut, ac- 
cording to Besser, is various. Supposed to be a 
native of the South of Podolia. (Dec, Prod,) This 
variety is in the Hort. Soc. Garden, where it 
was raised from seeds receiv^ from Dr. Fischer 
of Petersburg. 

A A. n. 4 sibhica Lodd. Cat, and Lodd. Bot. Cab. 
1599., and our^. 421., is extant in some British 
botanical collections, where it is an upri^t shrub, 
about 6 ft. high, with wand-like shoots, clothed 
with fine, long, willow-like, glossy, serrate leaves ; 
on accoimt of which, and its upright habit of 
growth, the latter being different from that c^ all 
the other species and varieties of almond, it is va- 
luable in every collection where variety of cha- 
racter is desired. H. S. 

4tl. 4.n.alblnca. 

All the different forms of the dwarf almond are low shrubs, seldom exceedincr 
2 or 3 feet in height. The leaves bear a general resemblance to those of some 




); 




XXVI. JiOSA'CE* ; ^Mll ODALUa. 

of the species of willow, but are of i 
darker and more shining green, at le>u 
in the original species. The stems an 
not of long duration; but the plant J 
throws upabundance of tmvdiing suck- 
ers, by which it is continued naturally, 
and also propagated. It is comtnoil 
tbrou^ all the plains of Russia, from ( 
56° N. lat. to the south of the empire. < 
. la British gardeDs it is valuable on 
J account of Its early flowering, the grace- 
fulness of the slender twigs, on which 
its flowers are produced before the 
leaves appear, and of its easy culture in ^^ 

in. A.^xt. any dry soil. Its fruit resembles that of ,a. .i.oua. 

jf. communis, butismuch smaller, and 
rarely seen in England. The plant, which is usuallj called the dwarf double- 
blossomed almond in British gardens, is Cfrasus janomcs fidre pKno, or, u it 
is fl^uently named in the nurseries, jlm^gdalus pOmila. 

M 8, A. imca'ni Pall. The hoary duwn/ Almond. 

na. Bo«., I. p. IS. 1 BmlA FL GrK., t. W. ; Don't 
IffiL ; Hail. In BoC. R*t., 1019, t. W. 
t, sOat vnr. LhAiu GuUmiiait, sod Art. BrU. lit «tiL 

4TT. j DM. K((., ISn, 

I. aa.; aso out A- 4S4. 

Spa:. Char., S(c, Leaves oboTate sorated, clothed with 
white tomentum beneath. Flower* solitary. Drupe 
compressed, pubescent. (Don'i MiU.) A low decidu- 
ous shrub. Caucasus and the Levant, between Smyrna J 
andBuraa. Hei^t 2ft. to 3ft. Introduced in 1815. f 
Flowers red; Btarcb and April. 
Readilyknown&om^.n^eby its leaves being covered 

with hoariness beneath. Increased by budding on '' ~ 

J 3. A. cohhi^'nis L. The common Almond Tree. 



n. ^^. 
~our"A.^. ' ' ' ' ' " 

^tec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrulate. Flowers solitniy. 
Calyx of a bell-shape. Fiuit compressed, and mther ^g shaped. (ZJec. 
Prod.) A middle-sized deciduous tree. Mauritania, and m the mountain- 
ous parts of Asia. Height soft, to 30ft. Introduced in 1536. Flowers 
white or rose-coloured ; March aud April. Drupe brownish ; ripe in Oc- 
tober. In fine season* the fruit ripens on standards as far north as Derby, 
and OD walla at Edinburgh. 

¥ A. e. 1 amara Dec, T%t bitter Abaoni. Amandieramer, Fr. ; gemeine 
Mandelbaum, Ger. — Flowers large. Petals pale pink, with a tinge 
of rose colour at the base. Styles nearly as long as the stamens, 
and tomentose in the lower part. Seeds bitter. There are two 
forms of the bitter almond ; one with a hard shell, and the other 
with a brittle one. The tree is cultivated in the South of France, 
in Austria, in Italy, in Ureece, &c., for its fruit, which is preferred 
for some purposes in medicine and in domestic economy to that of 
the sweet almond, particularly for givinz a flavour ; and for stocks 
for grafting the other varieties on, and the peach, apricot, and even 
the plum. Bitter almonds arc ^crally mixed with sweet ones, in 
very small proportions, for making blancmange, &c. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANKICUM. 



longer 



t A. c. a dukit Dec, Lam. 111. t. 430. 2Tte ti 

k petits Fruits, Amande douce, Fr.; austi 

171 itnided earlier than 

Fruit c)VBte.compresB«d, s 
. Kernel sweet-flavoured. Cultivated in the same places as tbe 

preceding sort, and generally propagated hy grafting standard bigh on 

the bitter almond, or an^ Btrong-growing seedlii^ almonds, in order 

to make sure of the fruit bang sireeL 
T A.C.3 Jtore plaio Baum. Cat has double flowers. 
7 A. e. 4 fiiiat variegdtit Baum- Cat has veric^ted leaves. 
y A. c. 5fifgUu Ser., Dec Prod. 2. p. 531. A. frigilis Hra. I. p. 500. ; 

Amandier des Dames, -V. Du Ham. 4. p. 11 3., Kouette Jam. Fnat. 

p. 1. ; Coque moUe, Amandier & Coque tendre, J^r. i Abellan, Fro- 

vence. — Flowers protruded at the same time as the leaves, and of a 

sweet-flavoured. Cultivated for its fruit. 
T A. c. 6 macrocarpa Ser., Dec. Prod. 2. p. £31. Amandier i groa 
Fruits, A^.Z>u//(nn, 4.p. IIS., NmiclteJard.Fndi.^.'l.; Amandier 
Sultane, Amandier des Dames, Amandier Hstache, Fr, — Leaves 
broader, acuminate, scarcely grey. Peduncles short, turgid. Flowera 
of a very pale rose colour, large, protruded before the leaves. Petals 
broadly ubcordate, waved. Fruit large, umbilicate at the base, acu> 
minaCe at the tip ; shell hard, lliere are two Kubvarieties, one with 
the fruit rather smaller, called, commonly, in France, Amandier Sul- 
tane; and another, with the fruit atill smgdlcr, called there Amandio' 
Pistache; the kernels of both of which nre considered remarkably 
deHcate, and are preferred for the table. The flowers of this variety 
lire always produced earlier than those of any other; and the kern^ 
of the fruit are alwavs sweet. In British gardens, the A. c. ma«o- 
cirpa has much tlic largest flowera of any of the varieties. It is a 



xxTi. aoBA^CEX : pe'rsica. 2(t5 

Tigoroui lai^e tree, of rapid growtli, Bomewbat more fasligiate than 
the ipedes. 
t A. c. 7 ptriicaidei Ser., Dec. I^txl. 2. p. 531 AmHndier-Pecher, AT. 
Du Ham. 4. p. I]4., N<nietle Jard, FhiU. p 7. — Leaves Bimilar to 
those of the peach tree. Fruit ovate, obtuse ; its busk slightly suc- 
culent ; the BDell of a yellowish dark colour, and the kemei Bweet> 
flavoured. Du Hamel has stated that its fruits vary upoD the same 
branch, from ovate, obtuBe, with the busk rather fleBby, to ovate, 
compreased, acuminate, and the husk dry. Cultivated in France and 
Italy for its fruit, but rarelj found in Bnlish eardcnB. 
Other VarieAa. The almond, considered as a fruit tree, hainven rise to 
some other varieties, which will be found treated of at length in I^ncb works 
on gardening, in tbe Koimeait Du Hamet, and the Notmeau Court ^Agriculture. 
There are severa] varieties of the almond in cultivation on the Continent 
for their fruit ; and two or three in this country, partly for the same purpose, 
but chiefly fur their flowers. The common almond, in a wild state, is found 
sometimes with the kernels bitter, and at other times with them sweet ; in 
the same manner as the Qu6rcus bispinica, which, in Spain, though it gene- 
rally bears sweet and edible scorns, yet sometimes produces only such as are 
tutter. For this reason, in the case of the almond, instead of giving one form 
as the spedes, we have followed DeCandolle, and described both the bitter 
and the sweet almond separately, either of which may be considered as the 
species, and classed them with tbe varieties. 

a 4. A. oribnta'us Ait. The Eastern Almond Tree. 
IilttafMetlilm. Alt. Hoit. Km., id. 1. 1. p. let., td. S. S. p. IW. i Dk. Prcd., 3. p. UO. -, Don't 

Mlirri. p. 4S»- 
S num wtr. A.TttatrtLim>.Dkt.l.p.llU.,N.DtiHam.».-p.lll. 
Emgrar/mp. Lcdd. BM. Cut., t. lltT. ; und our .V' <^ 

^lec. Char,, ^c. Imperfectly evergreen. Branches 

and leaves clothed with a silvery tomentuoi ; 

petiole of the leaf short, the disk lanceolate 

and entire. Flowers rose-coloured, and rather 

longer than those of A. nikna. Calyx cylin 

drically bell-shaped. Fruit tipped with a point. 

{Dec. Prod.) A tall shrub or low tree. Le- 

Tant. Height 8 (I. to 10 ft. ; and, according 

to Bosc, 15 ft. to soft. Introduced in 1756. 

Flowers rose-coloured; March and April. 

Very striking, from the hoan, or rather silvery, 
appearance of its leaves ; and it makes a hand- ^^ ^ t^wiuu. 

some plant when budded Btandanl high on the 

coBunon almond or the plum. It flowers much less freely than the common 
almond ; not with standing which, it well deserves a place in collections, on 
account of its fine silvery foliage. 



PE'RSICA Toum. Tbb Psach Tkbe. ZAn. Sytt. Icosindria Monog^oia. 

nil. Dirt, ipet n. Fr., < 




LD«t,.I. UU. ; Kill. J/ICl. ; l«c. ri. tw.,ni.i uun ■ miij., a. p. vu. 

HI ip. of Lin. ud loM. I Tikboctipiu aVc^ Sltm. Vo. ?1B. I Pteba, fV. i 
JtofISS5J!"Br™iJ'lroniUiopwchl!omlDgorlglnilljrniniiVri/a. . 

Gen, Char. Drupe fleshy, wiib ft glabrous or velvety apicaip, and baring the 
putanien wrinkled from irregular furrows. (Don't Mill.) 

Leaua simple, alternate, Hipulaie, deciduous ; conduplicate when young. 



266 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

Flotoert almoBt Beanie, solitary, or twin, ruing from the scaly budi earlier 
than [lie leaves. — Tree, itedduouB, beneath the middle size, and not of long 
duration. Persia. 



The peach and the nectarine are by some botanists made distinct species; 
but there can be no doubt of thdr bdng only varieties of one kind, which 
kind u itsdf nothing more than an improved or fleshy almond ; the almond 
being to the peach and nectarine what die crab is to the triple, end the sloe to 
the plum. 

1 I. P. TULOi'Ris MUL The common Peach Tree. 
UtntHlaukm. Mill. Diet,, No. 1. ; D«. Prod,. 1 p. Ml. i Dop'i MHL, a._p. Ml 
SvKnw«"- Aiatgiiiia Mnln CAl At. 6TT. : Ftchc duictsuH, Ft. ; PBrKha. Oir. 
Strmhigi. triluHim, I. t-S.ifioli.iird.Fnilt.lcDa.illw|>Utto(IbU tne Id Arb. BrlL. 




. , Cultirated in 1562, or probably long before. 
Flowers rose-coloured ; March and April. Fruit red and yellow ; ripe in 
September. 
Yarietiet, 

I P. D. 1, the fieetlone common Peach, Peche, Ft., has the flesh of the 

fruit parling from the shell ofthe nut (the stone). 
i P. p. 2, the dmgttone mmmon Peach, Pavie, Fr., haa the flesh of the 

fruit adherijig to the shell of the nut. 
S P. 0. SfldrcBUno Hort.— Flowers double. 

■ P. D. 4 atba Lindl. — Flowers white. A r" 

hardy ormunental shrub, with the habit i 
of an almond. Its fruit has little 

S P. c. S/SSit variegatit Hort. — Leaves / 
vari^ated. f\ 

■ P. p. 6 compriutt Hort, the flat Peach 'J 

of China (Hort. Trans, iv.t. 19-! and, 
our^, 438.), is chiefly remarkable for 
the form of its fruit, and for being 
nearly evergreen in its leaves. In the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, against a wall, it 
keeps growing throughout the winter, 
when the weather is not too severe. 




XXVI. ROSA^CEIE: ^RMENI^ACA. 267 

5 2, P. (y,) LifiVis Dec, The smoo^-Mnned Peach, or Nectarine Tree. 

Idemifieation. Dec. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 487. ; Don's Miller, % p. 493. 

^fno^^fmcM. ilra^gdaliu P^raicn Lam, Diet. ; A. P^nica NecUrina AU. Hort. Keto. \ Ptehe Usfo, 

Brugnon, Fr. \ Pesco noce, Ital. 
EngratfhMgM. NoU. Jard. Fruit., t. 90. f. S, S. t. 21. f. 3, 4. 

Spec. Char.y ^c. Fruit smooth. A deciduous tree. Persia. Height 15 ft. 
to 20 ft. Cultivated in 1562. or probably long before. Flowers rose- 
coloured ; March and April. Fruit red and yellow; ripe in September. 

Varietiet. 

5 P. (») ^» It the freestone Nectarine (ynth the fruit parting from the nut). 

Peche lisse, Fr, -^ The Elruge is the best variety. 
2 P. (o.) /. 2, ^ cUnffttone Nectarine (with the flesh adhering to the nut). 

Brugnon, 2^.-^ The Orange is the best variety. 

The different varieties of peach and nectarine, when treated as standard 
trees in the open garden, assume the ^neral form and character of the 
almond ; but, as they are more delicate, in consequence of being farther re- 
moved from their aboriginal state, they are of slower growth, form trees of less 
size, and are of shorter duration. The nectarine, as a standard in the open 
garden, forms a smaller and more delicate tree than the peach ; and the double- 
flowered peach is of less vigorous growth than most of the single-flowered 
varieties, but very ornamental. 

Genus III. 



m 



ilRMENPACA Toum, Thb Apricot. lAn, Sytt, Icoslindria Monogynia. 

IdettiifiaMm. Toom. Ixut., t. 399. ; Jos>. Gen., 841. ; Dec. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 485., Prod. S. p. S81. ; 

Don'iMm.,2. p. 495. 
SifncnymeM. Priknos ip. of Lin. and others ; Abriootler, IV. { AprlkoMnbaam, Ger. ; Albicoooo, 

Ital. 
Dtrivaiion. The genui is named ilnnenlaca, from the apricot being originally from Armenia. The 

popular Bnglishi name was originallv prsecocia, from the Arabic, berkoche ; whence the Tuscan 

bacoche, or alblcocco; and the English, abricot, or apricock, erentually corrupted into apricot. 

Some persons derire tlie name from pr^ecox, from this fruit ripening sooner ttian most others. 

Gen, Char, Drupe ovate ^obose, fleshy, covered with a velvety skin, con- 
taining a nut or stone, which is acute at one end, and blunt at the other, 
with a furrow on both sides ; the rest smooth, not wrinkled. (Don^s Mill.) 
I^eavet simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; when young, convolute. 
Flowers almost sessile, solitary, or few together, rising before the leaves from 
scaly buds. — Trees, low, deciduous, or shrubs; natives of Europe and Asia. 

The common apricot is a fruit tree in general cultivation throughout the 
temperate regions of the globe, distinguished at first si^ht from the almond, 
peach, and nectarine, by its heart-shaped, smooth, shinine leaves, and white 
flowers. There are several wild varieties, bearing flowers of different shades of 
pink, chiefly cultivated as ornamental. The great beauty of both the wild and 
the cultivated sorts of apricot is, that they come into bloom in Britain before 
almost every other tree ; the Siberian apricot flowering a fortnight, or more, 
before the common sloe or almond. 



^ \, A. vuLOA^Ris Lam, The common Apricot Tree. 

Identification. Lam. Diet., 1. p.9. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 532. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 495. 

fymonyme, 2*riknus ilrmenlaca Lin. Sn. 679. ; Albicocco amerlcano, It«U. 

£ngraHng$, N. Du Ham., 1. 1. 49. ; the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. ▼. j and ourji^. 431. 

Spec. Cliar,y ^c. Flowers sessile. Leaves heart-shaped or ovate. (Dec, 
Prod.) A middle-sized tree. Armenia, Caucasus, the Himalayas, China, 
&c. Height 20 ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1548. Flowers pinkish white ; 
February and March. Drupe orange and red ; ripe in August and Sept. 
Decaying leaves reddish yellow. Naked young wood smooth, purplish. 



268 AR]JOR£1-UH ET FKUTICETUU BRITAMHICUM. 

1 A. V. 1 ovaif/olia Ser, Abricot AngoumoiE, A. pr£coce, A. blaoc, FV, 
(N. Du Ham., 5. t. SO. f, 64 



oval; fruit suiall 
S A. 



J^. 4S9.>— Leaves 



I Cordelia Ser. (N. Du A 
I., 5. p. 167. t. 49.; B 
ourj^. 430.)— Leaves V 



heert-ahapec), broad. Fruit 
larger. 
T A. r. 3,/S&ii ntrvgofw Hort. 
— Leaves ?ari^sted. Flow- 
ers double. The Breda n- 
riety is ^erally that which 
has vonegated leaves ia British gardens. 
I A, p. 4>Jlorc pUno Hort. — Grossier says that the 
Chinese bare a great many varieties of double-bloaeomed apricots, 
which they plaot od little mounts. 
Very few trees attain the appearance or maturity so noon as ^e apricot; a 
standard 10 or 12 years planted, in good loamy rich soil, will grow to the 
height of 20 ft., with a head it ft. in diBmeter, presenting ail the fliipearancc 




of a tree of 20 or 30 years' growth, or of* tree arrived at maturity. The beat 
variety for producing fruit, as a standard, is the Breda apricot. It is also a 
very handsome-growing plant, and its blossom buds, before tbey are expauded, 
are of a most b^utiful and brilliant scarleL 

T 2. A. dasvca'kpa Pen. The rougtiitiited Apricot Tree. 

linUtltalim. Vtn. ijn., I. p. M, 1 Dsc Pnd,, 1. p. Ml. i Dan'i Mill., t. n, «T. 

Stmtmma. A. iLrDpurpOn* LbU. >d y.Itm itaLg.p.ln; />Hlaiu duRtnn £*r*. AOr. S. 
p. gftl F.jlTTBtol,aiatrMDtir.au.H.».f.V16.stbtt>lZiATiltM. 

fivmiJiv M.DaHun..ELt.!l. r, 1, 1 hoii. Bet. Cab.,t. llEC.i uid out j%t. 431, 433. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate, acumbate, doubly serrate. Petioles glanded. 
Flowers upon thread-shaped pedicels. In the flowen of a plant in the 
Geneva Botanic Garden, the calyx waa purple, and 6Job«^; the i>etals 
were 6; and the stamens 24-. (Dee. Prod.) A tree with a twisted trunk, 
resembling the common apricot, but smaller. Levant?. Height JO ft. to 
15 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers wbite; April. Drupe purple or 
black ; ripe in Aueuat and September. 



XXVI AOSA^EiG : ^RHEN1^A< 




i A.d.2 ptnicifSSa Lou. A. />erucifo1ia Thm't Mai., ii. p. 408. Abricot 
noir iFeuitlesde richer, Fr. (N. Du Ilam^ 5. p. ITS. t. 52. f. ).; 
and our £?. 434.) — Leaves ovate and short, or lanceolate, with stnaU 
lobes. Flesh of the fruit red, variegated with pale j^ellow. In the 
Noutieau Du Hamel, it is Mated to be a very slight variety, which 
can only be continued by budding. 
The rough-fruited apricot merits cuhivation for its flowers, which are gene- 
rally white, hut which, in this country, from the earliness of their appearance^ 
are not often succeeded by fruit, unless the tree is planted agairtst a wall, where 
it can be protected by netting from the sjning frosts. 




13.^. (T.) sibi'rica Pctm. Hie Siberian Aprieot Tree. 

/«Mf^atfg>i^>m. Sfii., I. B. M. I Dtc. Fnd.. 3. p. (in I Dni'i BUU.,1. p. 4W. 



270 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BttlTANNICUM 



Spec, Char,, S^c. Leaves ovate acuminate, of the form of those of the beech. 
The petioles long and glandless. Fruit small. A native of mountainous 
districts in the most remote parts of Siberia. Persoon has stated that it 
varies with leaves linear-lanceolate. (^Dec, Prod,) A low tree, having the 

feneral appearance of the common apricot, but smaller in all its parts. 
)ahuria, on mountains, crowing upon the (ace of perpendicular rocks ex- 
posed to the sun. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. ; in England 8 ft. to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1788. Flowers rose-coloured ; May. Drupe?. 

This tree, on the mountains of Dahuria, does not attain a greater height 
than that of a man ; but it has a trunk the thickness of the wrist, a rough and 
black bark, and hard wood. It flowers about the same time as the Rhodo- 
dendron dauricum ; growing on the south sides of the mountains, while the 
latter grows on the north sides. When both these plants are in flower, 
Pallas observes, the north sides of the mountains appear of a purple colour, 
and the south of a rose colour. (^FL Rots,, i. p. 13.) In British gardens, the 
Siberian apricot forms a tree of nearly the same height as the common apricot, 
of which it appears to us to be the wild form. 

S 4. A, (v.) BRiOANTiVcA Pers, The Brian9on Apricot Tree. 

Idaitificatkm, Fen. Sfn., iL p. 86. : Dec. Prod., 2. p. S32. ; Don*t Mill.« 2. p. 498. 

Sjfnonyme, Prdnos brigaoUaca ViU, Dmuph, 8. p. 585., Dec. Fi, Fr. No. 878Q., Loii. \n Ji. Dm 

Ham, 6. p. 186. 
Engravings. N. Du Ham., 5. t. 59. ; and our >^. 486. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves nearly heart-shaped, toothed 
with numerous sharp subimbricate teeth. Flowers 
in groups, almost sessile, scarcely protruded before 
the leaves. (Dec, Prod,) A low tree. Dau- 
phin^, in only one locality, and in another in 
Piedmont, where an oil, called huile de marmotte, 
has for a long time been expressed from the 
seeds. Height in British gardens H ft. to 15 ft. 
in 10 or 12 years ; in its native habitats, 6 ft. to 
8 ft. Introduced in 1 8 1 9. Flowers white or pink ; 
March and April. Drupe ?. 

Seringe suggested that this kind may be the same 
as A, sibirica, and we think it not unlikely to be only 
another variety of the common apricot in its wild 
state, with toothed leaves. 43^. ^. (^.j bdgMitu«. 

Other Species of Armemaca, — A, pedunculata Led. has been raised in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, from seeds received under this name from Dr. Ledebour. 




Genus IV. 



L£ 



jt 




PRU^NUS Tbarn. The Plum. lAn, Stfst, Icos&ndria Monog^nia. 

Jdeniifieaiiom. Toura. Inst., t. 858. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. 532. ; Don't MIU., 2. 498. 
Svnonjfmeg. Prun6phora Neek. Elem. No. 719. ; ^runiu tp. of Lin. and others : Pruno, OaL 
DeriwUion. Said to be a word of Astatic origin : tlie wild pUmt. according to Galen, being called 
prommnot in Asia. The Greek name for the plum is promni: it occars in Theophrastus. 

Gen, Char, Dnq)e ovate or oblong, fleshy, quite glabrous, covered with a 

glaucous bloom ; containing a compressecl nut or putamen, which is acute at 

both ends, and a little furrowed on the margin, the rest smooth. (DorCs Mil/,) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; convolute when young. 

Fhtoers usually disposed in umbellate fascicles, solitary on the pedicels, rising 

fenerally before the leaves. — Trees or shrubs ; natives of Europe, Asia, and 
^orth America. 



XXVI. ilOSA^CEA: ^RMENI^ACA. 271 

Many of the species are spiny in a wild state ; most of them bear edible 
fruits ; and all of them have showy blossoms. In British gardens, they are 
chiefly propagated by grafting, but some of them by layers ; and they will grow 
in any soU that is tolerably tree, and not overcharged with moisture, but a cal- 
careous soil is found best. The epidermis of the bark of the plum, as well as 
that of the cherry, and perhaps that of some of the other genera of ifmy^d^es, 
is readily divisible transversely, and may frequently be seen divided m this 
manner mto rings on the tree. 

t }. P, spiNO^SA L, The spiny Plum Tree, or common Sloe Thorn. 

Jdenlification. lis. Sp., 3. 081. ; Dec. ProdL, 9. p. 6S9L ; Dao'i MIU., 2. p. 496. , 

Sgntmyma. P. lyWlstrii /bcA. Httt. p. 404., Xm 5yM. p. 469L : Blackthorn; Prunier £pineux, 
Franellier, E^ptne noire, or M dre>du-Bofai, Fr. ; Scbleadom, or Scblen Pflauin« Qer. i Prugno, or 
Pranello, Itai. 

Engravings. Vahl Fl. DsDm t. 996. : the plate In Arb. Brit., ]*t edU., toI. t. ; and our Jig. 437. 

Dertvalkm. The name of Mdre-du-Boii la applied to the tloe thorn in France, in the neighbourhood 
of Montargis, because it haa been remarked there, that, when U wai establiihed on the margins of 
woods, its underground shoots, and the suckers which iprang up flrom them, had a constant ten- 
dency to extend the wood orer the adjoining fields. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Branches spiny. Leaves obovate, elliptical, or ovate ; downy 
beneath, doubly and sharply toothed. Flowers produced before the leaves 
or with them, white, and solitary. Calyx camoanulate ^ with lobes blunt, 
and longer than the tube. Fruit globose; the nesh austere. {Dec. Prod.) 
A low tree or shrub. Europe from Upsal to Naples, and the West of 
Asia and North of Africa. Hdght 10 fl. to 15 ft. Flowers white; March 
and April. Drupe black ; ripe in October. 

Vtarieties, 

X P. «. 1 vulsctru Ser. P. spindsa Zrotf . (N. Du Ham., 5. p. 185. t. 54. 

f. 1.) — Leaves obovate-elliptical. Fruit dark purple. This may be 

considered as the normal form of the species. 
S P. #. 2 foBU variegatu Ser. — Found wild ; but a plant of no beauty. 
U P. #. 3 miorocdrpa WaUr. (Exs. Cent. l.No. 45.) — Leaves elliptic, 

narrow, bluntish. Fruit smaller than that of the species. 

Y P. «. 4 nmcrocArpa Wallr. (Exs. Cent. 1. No. 45.) — Leaves obovate, 

bluntish. Fruit large, dark purple. This has been found wild in 
Germa^ ; but Seringe doubts whether it be not identical with P. 
domestica JulilUui, or with P. insititia. 
S P. «. 5 ovdta Ser. (Black w. Herb., t. 494.) — Leaves ovate, roundish. 

Y P. s. djiore pletio. — This is a very beautiful variety, said to be in cul- 

tivation, and highly prized, in China and Japan ; and also found wild 
some years ago at Tarascon. The flowers are white, and are pro- 
duced in such abundance as to entirely cover the branches. 

The sloe, or blackthorn, is much more frequentlv seen as a large spiny shrub, 
than as a tree; but, when the suckers are removed from it, and all the strength 
of the plant is allowed to go into one stem, it forms a small scrubby tree of die 
most characteristic kind. The stems of the sloe differ from those of the haw- 
thorn, in growing to the hei^t of 3 or 4 feet before they branch off. The 
bark is blw^k, whence the name of blackthorn ; and the leaves are dark green. 
The roots are creeping, and, in every soil and situation, throw up numerous 
suckers ; so much so, that a single plant, in a favourable soil, would cover an 
acre of ground in a very few years. In hedges, in Britain, it is seldom seen 
above 20 ft. in height ; but in woods and in parks, as single trees, we have seen 
it above 30 ft. high : for example, in Eastwell Park, in Kent. The wood is 
hard, and in colour resembles tnat of the peach, thouch without its beauty : it 
takes a fine polish ; but it is so apt to crack, that little use can be made of it, 
except for handles for tools, teeth for hay-rakes, swindles for flails, and 
walkmg-sticks. The wood weighs, when dry, nearW 52 lb. per cubic foot. 
The branches, from being less spreading than those of the common hawthorn, 
make better dead hedges than those of that species ; and, for the same reason, 
they are particularly well adapted for formmg gaards to the stems of trees 



272 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 






437t PktBoi splntea* 



planted in grass fields or in parks, to protect them from cattle. They are in 
general use for this purpose in France. They are also used as a substitute for 
stones and tiles in draining ; and, formed into faggots, they are sold for heating 
bakers' ovens, and for burning lime or chalk in kilns, &c. The living plant 
cannot be recommended for hedges, on account of the rambling habit of its 
roots, and the numerous suckers they throw i:^ ; and because it is apt to get 
naked below, from the tendency of the shoots to grow upright and without 
branches. These upright shoots make excellent walking-sticks, which, ac- 
cordingly, throughout Europe, are more frequently taken from this tree than 
from any other. Leaves of the sloe, dried, are considered to form the best 
substitute for Chinese tea which has yet been tried in Europe ; and they have 
been extensively used for the adulteration of that article. The juice of the 
ripe fruit is said to enter lamly into the manufacture of the cheaper kinds of 
port wine ; and, when property fermented, it makes a wine strongly resembling 
new port. In planting groups and masses in parks, by the addition of a few 
plants of the sloe, a degree of intricacy may be given sooner and more ef- 
fectively, than by the use of the common thorn ; but, at the same time, the sloe 
produces a degree of wildness from its numerous suckers, and the want of 
control which they indicate, which is not displayed by any of the species of 
Cratce^s, which do not throw up suckers, r or producing wildness and in- 
tricacy, therefore, in park scenery, the sloe is of great value, and its effect is 
much heightened by the addition of the common furze or the broom. The 
sloe prefers a strong calcareous loam. It may be propagated freely by suckers, 
or by seeds : the latter should be gathered in October, when the fruit is dead 
ripe, mixed with sand, and turned over two or three times in the course of the 
wmter ; and, being sown in February, they will come up in the month of May. 

.1* 2. P. insiti'tia L. The engrafted Plum Tree, or BuUace Plum, 

IdaUiftaxUon, Lin. Sp., eSO. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Don's Hill.. 2. p. 498. 

Sifntmifmet, P. tylvCstrl* pneVox iltior Toum, ; P. cylT^itris m^jor Aoy ; Prunier saoTa«e, F^. ; 

Alfatotti, in Dattpkinif ; Klrschen Pflaume« Ger, 
Engravfngt. Bng. Bot., t.841.; Hayne Abbild., 1.65.; the plate in Arb. Brit., lit edit, toI. t. ; 

and our Jig. 438. 

Spec, Char,, j-c. Branches becoming spiny. Flowers in pairs. Leaves ovate 
or lanceolate ; villose beneath, not nat. Fruit roundish. (Dec. Prod.) A 
low tree. England, Germany, and the South of France, and also BartMiry. 
Height 10ft. to 20ft. Flowers white; March and April. Drupe black; 
ripe in October. 

Varieties, 

S P. t. Ijr&ctu mgro Hort. The black-fruited, or common, Bullace. 
« P. i. ^frdctu luteo.4lbo Hort,— Fruit yellowish-white. 



XXVI. rosa'ceje: pHu^nus. 



273 



'i P. I. SjHtdu rubra Hort. — Fruit red. 

S P. t. Afflore plena Descemet in Mem. de la Russie MSridhnale, I, 
p. 63. — Flowers double. 

The fruit, which is globular, and usually black, is sometimes yellowish or 
^raxy, with a red tint, and sometimes red ; it is also so much less austere than 
the sloe, as to make excellent pies and puddings, and a very good preserve. 




^.^: 



\ 







438* PrfaHBi liultSlia> 

The fruit of this plum in Provence is called prune sibarelle, because it is im- 
possible to whistle after having eaten it, from its sourness. The wood, the 
branches, the fruit, and the entve plant are used, throughout France, for the 
same purposes as that of the sloe. 

^ 3. P. DOMB^STiCA L. The domestic cultivated Plum Tree. 

Jieni^ficmiiom, Lin. Sp., 680. : Dec Prod., 2. p. 683. ; Don*i Mill., 9. p. 499. 
^fnoitjfmet. F, sattra Fuelu and Rag \ Prunier domestlque, Fr. \ ge- 

raeine Pflaume, Ger. ; Susino domeatloo, ItaL 
Emgrmnmgs. Wood. Med. BoC., 1 8A. ; E. Bot., t. 178S. ; and oar Jfg. 489. 

Spec. Char,, S^c, Branches spineless. Flowers mostly 
solitary. Leaves lanceolate-ovate, concave on the sur- 
face, not flat. (Dec, Prod,) A low tree. South of 
Europe, on hills; in England, found sometimes in 
hedges, but never truly wild. Heaeht 15ft. to 20 ft. 
Flowers white ; April and May. Drupe various ; ripe 
August to October. 

Varietiet, 

t P. rf, % Jlore plena Hort. — Flowers large, double. 
S P. if . 3 foHu variegdlis Hort. — Leaves varmgated. 
f P. </. 4 Brmenioidet Ser. — Leaves and fruit like 
those of if rmenlaca brigantiaca. 

The cultivated plum resembles the common sloe, but is 
larger in all its parts, and without thorns. There are 
numerous varieties and subvarieties ; but, as they belong <»-''**w»a««<«»»M- 
more to pomology than to arboriculture, we have here only noticed those 
that have some pretensions to distinctness in an ornamental point of view. 

T 




274 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUH. 

The ^ricot-like plum seems intermediBte between the wild plum and tlie 
wild apricot. Hie vnrietieR cultivated fbr their Ihiit have, in general, much 
larger leares, an4 stronger young shoots, than the other sorts ; they flower 
Inter, their blossoms are larger, and thdr fruit, particularlj such sorts u the 
magnum bonum and the diamond plum, several times as lai^; the latter being 
upwards of S^ in. long. Theie fniit-bearinf varieties are in universal culti- 
vation in temperate climates ; and for every thing of interest relating to them, 
as such, we refer to our Eitci/clojKcdia of Gardening, edit. 1835, p. 9£0. The 
use of the fruit in domestic economy, in Britain, for the dessert, and for 
making tarts and puddings, is well known. In France, plums are used prin- 
cipally dried, as an article of commerce, and they are known under the name 
otbngnoles, prunes, and French plums. The ifltrent modes of preserving 
plums in France will be found detailed at length in the 1st edit, of this work, 
and in our Suburban Horlirulluriit, 

* ♦. P. (o.) kvroha'lah* L. The Myrobalan, or Cicrry, Plum. 

T<lrmlillcaU<m. Un. So., CSO. : Dec. Prod., 3. p. M>. | Don'i Hill., 1. p. EM. 

^aoifmn. P . MiuAln Dn Hiam. ; r.mr&bUutt Ltil. ; l>.«ruircri £*rt. AiAr. 4. p. IT. ! 
Vlrtlalu Cberrr I Birif Seulct Plun i Anulsr mrnibalui. or CeriMte, fr.; KlndipStuinc, 




Spfc. Char,, ^c. Scpala narrow. Fruit gloliose, depressed nt the base ; um- 
bilicus depressed; nut with a small point (Dec. Prod.) A low tree. 
Europe, or, according to some, North America. Height 15 ft. to 30 ft. Cul- 
tivateJ in gardens tor nn unknown period. Flowers white; March and 
April. Fruit cordate, red, rarely produced in England. 

Varielif. 

1 P. (d.") m. 2 foHu variegahi N. Du Ham. has variegated leaves. 
Though we consider this nothing more than a variety of the common plum, 

— -. •_ -Q (jistinct, both in the habit of the tree and the colour of the fruit. 



that we think it more convenient to keep it apart. Its Rowers are produced 
as enrly tfi those of the sloe; and, the pl>uit being more tender than that 
species, it seldom produces fi-uit in England, except when the blossoms are 
protected. It forms a good stock for vanetiea intended to be kept dwarf. In 
India the fruit is sold to dje black. 



Wi 



xxTi. bosa'ce«: pru'nus. 



, p. ca'ndic«Nb So/6, 
U.Tnr^ HIS. B, n. i » WilW 
" -■• MJll..i|i.«8. 



^vc. CAor., <^. Enuicliea pubescent. 
Flowers 2 or 3 toeelher, upon short 
pubescent peduncleE. Calyx bell- 
dhaped. Leaves broadly ovate, 
whitiEh beneath. Stipules of the A 
length of the petiole, very narro*, j' 
and cut in a toothed manoer. (Dec. ^ 
Prod.) A low shrub. ?Tauria. 
Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. In trod, in JSaS. "«■ i-.-^wi^u 

Flowers white ; April. 

It is not known of what countiyit is a native. It is quite 
hardy, easily cultivated, &nd so laden with white blossoms in 
«i. p. c i n a c— spring as to appear a miuis of snow, whence the name. 
M 6. p. COCOMj'l.LA Tenore. 
IdnUlfltaUen. Tmara Prod, flupal.. *. p. 
PriSTa. p.5M.. Don'. l(lU„»/p:<M. 

^ee. Char., !fc. Flowers upon short peduncles, in pairs. 

Leaves obovate, crenulate, glabrous on both surfaces ; 

the crenatures glanded. Fruit ovate-oblong, with a small 

point, yellow, ? bitter or f acid. {Dec. Prod!) A low shrub. 

Calabna, in hedges. Height S ft. to 3 ft. Introduced 

in 18S4>. Flowers white; April. Drupe yellow ; ripe in 

August. 

The bark is febrifugal, and, in Calabria, is considered to 
be a specific for the cure of the pestilential fevers common 
in that country. ^^ ^ 

• 7. P, miri'tiha Wangenheim. The sea^idc-iiihabitiitg Fluu 




^D«. Char., ^c. Leaves bnceolate- 
ovate, senate. FIowmb in pairs. 
Fruit small, round, sweet, dark blue. 



276 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM URITANNICUM. 

(Dec, Prod.) A middle-sized shrub. North America, in sandy soils, on the 
sea coast, from New Jersey to Carolina. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced 
in 1818. Flowers white; April and May. Fruit, of the size of a pigeon's 
egg, dark purple, and, according to Pursh, very good to eat ; ripe ?. 

There are plants in British gardens, but they have never yet set fruit. 
jk 8. p. pube'scens Poir, The pubeBcent-leaved Plum Tree. 

li^niifiailfon, Poir. Suppl., 4. p. AS4., not of Pursh ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. 533. ; Don** MUl., 8. p. 499. 
Engraving. Oar Jlg.KRi in p. 1106. 

Spec. Cliar.f S^c. Leaves with short pubescent petioles, and disks that are 
siightlypubescent, ovate, thickish, rounded, or shortly acuminate and un- 
equally toothed. Flowers mostly solitary and nearly sessile. Fruit oval. 
(Dec. Prod.) A shrub. Native country unknown. Cultivated in 1818. 
Height 2 fit. to 3 ft. Flowers white ; May. 

Jt 9. P. DIVARICA^TA Led, The divtancBted-branched Plum Tree. 

Identifleation. Ledeb. Ind. Hort. Dorp. Suppl. 18M, p 6. ; Fl.Alt., 

1. 13. ; Dec. Prod.. 3. p. 684. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 504. 
Engrtningt. Led. Flor. Alt., t. IS. ; and muftg. 446. 

Spec. Char.y S^c. Branches spineless. Leaves with 
glandless petioles, and disks oblong-elliptical, ta^ 
pered to both ends, concave above, serrate, gla- 
brous, with the midrib bearded beneath. Flowers 
solitary, very numerous. Calyx reflexed. Fruit 
elliptical, yellow. (Dec, Prod.) A middle-sized 
shrub. Caucasus. Height 8 ft. to 10ft. Intro- 
duced in 1820. Flowers white ; April. 




446. Prftnu (UvMlckta. 



Olher Species of Vruniu Juss. — In consequence of many species of the 
genus Prunus being removed to Cerasus ; and also because of the close re- 
semblance of one species to another in both genera, there is a good d^ of 
confusion, which cannot be cleared up till the plants are studied in a living 
state. PHinus eifusa was raised in 1838, in the Hort Soc. Garden, from seeds 
presented by Baron Jacquin. 



Genus V. 



5,? 



HLdSUHuB 



CEHASUS Juu, The Cherry. Uju Sytt. Icosandria Monogynia. 

Identification. Just. Gen., S4a ; Dec Fl. Fr. 4. p.479. ; Prod., 2. p. 535. ; Don's Mill., 9. p. 504. 
Synonymft, Leurocfcrasus Toum. ; PrAnus sp. Lin. ; Certsier, Pr, : Kirschc, Get. ; CUiegio, Ital. 
Derivation. From Ceranu^ tbe ancient name of a town of Pontus in Asia, whence ttie cultivated 
cherry was first brought to Rome, by Lucnllus, a Roman General, 68 b.c. 

Gen. Char, Drupe globose, or umbilicate at the base, fleshy, quite glabrous, 
destitute of bloom, containing a smooth, rather globose compressed stone. 
(DorCt Milj.) 

Leave* simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, or evergreen ; when young, 
conduplicate. Flowers white. Pedicels I -flowered, rising before the leaves, in 
fascicled umbels, from scaly buds; but sometimes rising after the evolution of 
the leaves, in racemes, from the tops of the branches. — Trees and shrubs, almost 
all deciduous, with smooth serrated leaves, and white flowers ; and, generally, 
>vith light-coloured bark. Natives of Europe, Asia, and North America. 

Some of them are cultivated for their fruit, and the others as ornamental. 
In British nurseries, the deciduous species are generally propagated by graft- 
ing or budding on the Cerasus sylv^stris, and the evergreens are propagated 



XXVI. jzosa'cea: ce'rasus. 277 

by cuttings or seeds ; they will grow iu any common soil that is tolerably dry. 
There is much confusion in all the species, more particularly as regards 
those which are natives of North Amenca ; and which, as Sir W. J. Hooker 
judiciously observes, can only be *' removed by carefully studying the plants 
in a living state, both during the season of the blossom and that of the fruit.'* 
{Ptor, Bar, Amcr,, i. p. 167.) 

$ 1. Cerasdphof-a Dec. T/ie Cherry- beating Kinds. 

Sect, Char, Flowers produced from buds upon shoots not of the same year ; 
and, in many instances, disposed umbellately. Leaves deciduous. 

A. Species cuitivated Jbr their Frtdt. 

The Cherries cuUioaied in Gardens, according to Linnsus, and almost all 
botanisrs to the time of DeCandolle, have been referred to Piriknus Mum L. 
and Priknus Ci^rasus L. ; the former being the merisier of the French, and 
corresponding with the small wild black bitter cherry of the English (the C. 
sylv^tris of Ray) ; and the latter the cerisier of the French, and correspond- 
ing with the common red sour cherry of the English (the C, vulgaris of Mil- 
ler). To these two species DeCandolle has added two others : Cerasus 
Julian^z, which he considers as including the guigniers ; and Cerasus dur&cina, 
under which he includes the bigarreaus, or hard cherries. Under each of 
these four species, Seringe,- in DeCandoUe*8 Prodromus, has arranged a num- 
ber of varieties, with definitions to each group : but, as neither the species 
nor the groups appear to us distinct, we have adopted the arrangement of the 
author of the article on Cerasus in the Nouveau DuHamel, as much more 
simple and satisfactory ; and have referred all tlie cultivated varieties to the 
same species as Linnasus ; substituting for PTunus ^vium L,, Cerasus sylvestris, 
the synon. of Ray ; and for Pri^nus Cerasus Xr., Cerasus vulsaris, already used 
to designate the same species in Miil, Diet,, and by Loiseleur m the Nouveau Du 
Hameh The arrangement of the varieties, and general culture of the cherry in 
the kitchen-garden and orchard, will be found at length in our Encydopisdta of 
Gardening ; and, in a more condensed form, in our Suburban Horticulturist, 

*St \. C, sTLVB^STRis Bouh. and Ray, The wild black-fruited Cherry Tree. 

Idtntifieation, BmiIl HIiC., 1 . 1. 9. p. 390. ; lUj Hiit. 1&99. ; Pen. Srn., 9. p. 3A. 

Spn&tufma and <kudm Namet. C. avium MeencM, K. Du Ham, 5. p. 10., JDo»*f MOL 9. p. A05. : 
a nigra MOL Diet. No.S., not of Alt. ; PrOnus ItTium Lin. Sp. &0. ; P. 4riuiii tv. • and /S 
tynu. Bamm. ed. 8. p. SOS. ; PrQnus AtIuiu var. fi and v Bng. Ftor, 9. p^ 3S!V. ; P. nigrlcani and 
P. viriM Ekr. Seitr* 7. p. 196, 197. ; Gean, Bigarreau. Corone, Coroon, Small Black, Black Hert- 
foitUhlre, Black Heart, Black Ifazxard, the Merry Tree qf the Ckeikire peasofUt, the Merdei in 
Si^gbiki M6rl*ler, Merlie groue noir^ Gulgnier, Bfgarreantier, Hoaumler, Ft. ; SUise Kirscbe, 
Ger. i Clreglolo, Itai. 

Derivation. Thl« cherrr U called Corone, or Coroon, In tome parts of England, fk-oro coronr, a 
crow. In reference to it« blacknen. Merry Tree and Merries are evidenUy corruptions of the 
word H^riiter ; and Merisier Is said to be derired from the words amire» tritter, and cerite^ a 
cherry. Bigarreau is derired from bfgarrie party^oloured, because the cherries known by tlils 
name are scnerally of two colours, yellow and rod; and Ueaumler is f^om the French word 
keaumt^ a nefanet, fhm the shape of the trvAi. 

Ei^ratingt. Du Ham. Tr. Arb., 1. p. 186. ; Arb. Brit, IsC edit., iroL ▼!. ; and our ;%. 447. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches vigorous and divaricate ; the buds from which the 
fruits are produced oblong-acute. Flowers in umbel-like groups, sessile, 
not numerous. Leaves oval-lanceolate, pointed, serrated, somewhat pen- 
dent, slightly pubescent on the under side, and furnished with two glands at 
the base. (Dec, Prod,^ JV, Du HameL) A middle-sized tree. Europe, in 
woods and hedges. Height, in dry fertile soils, 40 ft. to 50 (I. or upwards. 
Flowers white ; April and May. l)nipe red or black ; ripe in July. De- 
caying leaves of a fine red, or rich yellow and red. 

Varieties, 

1. Merisiers or Merries, with black or yellow fhiit. 

2, Guigniers pr Geans (C, Juliilna Dec), with red or black fruit, early or 
late, and including the tobacco-leaved guignier, or gean, of four to the 
pound (the C. decumana of Delauny). 

T 3 



'8 ARBORSTUH ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

3. Hntumiert, the Hehnet-iht^yed Chariei (C. Juliana vbt. heawniiina Dec), 
Bomewhat reKmbling the bigorreau, but with leu Srm flesh. 

Varietu of Mil ra« tuedfor ornanimial pvrpoiti. 
t C. (. duricma 2 Aore p/'no Hart., the double flowered wild black 
Cbory ; Meriaier !i Fleurs doublea, or M^ner Reiiunculier, Fr. j 



aa the double French wliJte. 
'tgaireautien, the Bigarreaut, orha _ 
with white, flesh-coloured, and black Ehiit, generally heart-shaped. 



4. Sigaireautien, the Bigarreautyor hard-JUAedCherriei (C. dur^inaDrc.) 
" ■ rally he: ■ • 




The colour oT the fruit of the wild apeciefl is a texy deep dark red, or 
black ; the tIeBh is of the same cdour, small in quantity, austere and bitto' 
before it comes to maturity, and indpid when the fruit is perfealy ripe. The 
nut is oval or ovate, like the fruit, firmly adhering to the flesh, and very laree 
in proportion to the size of the fruit. The juice is mostly coloured i and the 
skin does not separate from the flesh, 

X S. C. vuiaa'kis ATiU. The common Cherry Tree. 

Htnli/lciuiw. Hill, Diet., No. i.; N. Dq Hm,, a, p. 18. 
tiiJ^tri. Sjm, i p.M.i ' C. caprotiliiui Dte. P™ 
iuiUriiin<l/>.tddi&lr,&i>.7. p. IS.indiao.; P. Ci 

eiialab CbHTT, HonUo, Mu Dukn ; C 

u rondi, Cnttlgr du Nord, C*r1>ler, ipd 

p oiprtn*, th« bvitboLi iCrnvberTy. prohBhlj tnmi 

Liiv prvTjiicv gi rnocfl irbfin ^ Turivrj U luppoKd ED hAve twen orifliiaisd. OrhMUer liuM 
ta be deritod froiA aigratrt toumut, or ihArposii, mod AppUed Co tbli cfoerrj fnm Uh mcMllj of 

Eagratiriti. Bug. Bot,t,>M.| ArtkBrtt., lttedU.,>(il.Tl.,H C^niiudTlum; ud onr jt^. 44». 

S/Kc. Char., ^c. Tree small, branches spreading. Flow«v in subsessile um- 
bels, not numerous. Leave* oval-lanceolate^ toothed, glabrous. A decidu- 
ous tree. Europe and Britain, in gardens and plantations. Height 30 ft. to 
40 ft. Flowers white ; May. Drupe red ; ripe in July. Decaying leaves 
red and yellow. 

Yarielia. — There arc numerous cultivated varieties, which are classed by 
Loiseleur, m the Nouveau Zht Hamel in three groups, iDcluding in the first 



XXVI, AOSA^CE^: ck'rasus. 



of the«e the four following varietieB, which wc particulurise on accoimt of 
their bdng purely ornamentil : — 

I C. r. e Jiore lenriplrno Hort. — Flowers semidouble. 
1 C. r. 3 Jldre pl^ Hort, — All the stamens of this vmriety are changed 
iota petals ; sod the pUultutn into bii>hU green leaves, which occupy 
the centre of the flower. The flower is smaller and less besutiAu 
than that of the double m^risier; but, at t5e tree does not grow so 
high, and as it can be grown as a shrub, it is suitable for planting in 
situations where the other Cftnnot be introduced. It is commonly 
grafted on the iYi^nus Mahaleb. 
f C. r. 4 ^erntifldra Hort. — The flowers are douUe, and rose-coloured. 
This vttiiety wu known to Bauhin and to Toumefort, but is at pre- 
sent rare in gardens. 
I C. ih 5 Jo6tt vanegdtU Hort. has variegated leave*. 

The fnut-hearmg varielUt are arranged in the Ncmeau Du Hamfl, 
under the following heads : — 
I. Fleah whitish, and more or less odd; including the Montmorency 

S. Fletn whitiBh, and only very sli^tly Bcidi including the Englbh 

duke cherries. 
3. Flesh red, including the griottiers, or morellos. 



T%e Bigarreau is a tree of vigorous growth, with large pale green leaves, 
and stout divergent branche*. 

Builmrr't Yellow is a vigorous-growing tree, like the preceding, but with 
golden- coloured fruit. 

The Ketitiii Cherry ii a round-headed tree, with slender shoots, some- 
what pendulous. 

TV ifay Bate is B middle-Bzed or low tree with an erect fasti^Ie 
head. 

7%: MoreUo is a low tree, witli a spreading head, somewhat pendulous \ 
most prolific in flowers and fruit i the bttn- ripening very late, and, 



280 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

from not being so greedily eaten by the birds as most other sorts, 
hanging on the trees a long time. 
lyOHheim is a dwarf weeping tree, a sretit bearer. 
1^ G. t>. 6 Mar^Bcha^ PrinmiB Mardtcha Jacq., is the variety from the fruit 
of which the liqueur called Maraschino is made. Plants of it hare 
been raised in the Hort. Soc. Garden in 1837. 

The flowers are smaller than those of C. sylvestris. The fruit is round, 
melting, full of a watery sap, more or less flavoured, and almost always sen- 
sibly acid. The skin of the firait is commonly red, but, in the numerous va- 
rieties in cultivationjjiassing into all the shades between that colour and dark 
purple or black. Tne skin of all the varieties of C, vulgaris separates easily 
from the flesh, and the flesh parts readily from the stone; whue, in all the 
varieties of C sylvestris, the skin is more or less adhering to the flesh, and the 
flebh to the stone. {N, DuHam,, v. p. 18.) This species forms a tree of 
less magnitude than that of C. svlv^stris : it is never found in a truly wild 
state in Europe, and the aboriginal form is unknown. 

Remarks referring to both Species, -^ The cherry trees in cultivation, whether 
in woods or gardens, may, in point of general appearance, be included in three 
forms : large trees with stout branches, and shoots proceeding from the main 
stem horizontally^, or slightly inclining upwards, and when voung and without 
their leaves, bearing a distant resemblance to ^gantic candelabra, such as the 
gcans, and many of the heart cherries ; fastigiate trees of a smaller size, such 
as the dukes ; and small trees with weak wood, and branches divergent and 
drooping, such as the Kentish or Flemish cherries, and the morellos. The 
leaves vary so much In the cultivated varieties, that it is impossible to charac- 
terise the sorts by them ; but, in general, those of the lai^e trees are largest, 
and the lightest in colour, and those of the slender-branched trees the smallest, 
and the darkest in colour ; the flowers are also lar^t on the large trees. The 
distinction of two species, or races, is of very httle use, with reference to 
cherries as fruit-bearing plants ; but, as the wild sort, C. sylvestris, ia very 
distinct, when found in its native habitats, from the cherry cultivated in gar- 
dens, it seems worth while to keep them apart, with a view to arboriculture 
and ornamental planting. For this reason, also, we have kept Cinsua sem- 
perflorens, C. Pseudo-Ci^rasus, C, serrulata, and C, diamaecerasus apart, 
though we are convinced that thev are nothing more than varieties. In 
consequence of its rapid growth, tne red fruited variety ought to be pre- 
ferred where the object is timber, or where stocks are to be grown for 
fruit trees of large size. As a coppice-wood tree, the stools push freely and 
rapidly ; and, as a timber tree, it will attain its full size, in ordmary situations, 
in 50 years. Its rate of growth, in the first 10 years, will average, in ordinary 
circumstances, 18 in. a year. There are various trees in the neighbourhood 
of London upwards of 60 fb. high ; one on the Cotswold Hills, on the estate 
of the Earl of Harrowby, is 85 ft. high. The wood of the wild cherry (C\ 
sylvestris) is firm, strong, close-grained, and of a reddish coloiu*. It weigtis, 
when ^een, 611b. 13 oz. per cubic foot ; and when dry, 541b. 15oz. ; audit 
loses m the process of drying about a 16th part of its bulk. The wood is 
soft and easily worked, and it takes a fine polish. It is much sought after by 
cabinetmakers, turners, and musical instrument makers, more particularly in 
France, where mahogany is much less common than in Britain. The miit 
of the cherry is a favourite with almost every body, and especially with 
children. The distillers of liqueurs make great use of ripe cherries : the 
spirit known as kirschewasser is distilled from them after fermentation ; and 
both a wine and a vinegar are made by bruising the fruit and the kernels, and 
allowing the mass to undergo the vinous fermentation. The ratafia of Grenoble 
is a celebrated liqueur, which is made from a large black gean ; from which, also, 
the best kirschewasser is made j and the maraschino from a variety of the tree 
found in Dalmatia. The preparation of these will be found in our first edition. 



XXVI. rosa'ce*: ci'BAsua. 2ttl 

B, S^xeift or Varielia cullwalfd at omamaital or curioui. 
'i 3. C. (v.) SB«PERKLO>BENs Dec. The ever-flowering Cheiry Tree. 



verplni Chtrrgi. ttit AlUdnti Cbtrrr ; 



/ 



^lee. Char., ^c. Bnnches drooping. Leave* ov&Ie, HrrBled. Flowers pro- 
truded Idle in the seMcm, axillary, aolitaiy. Calyx acrrBted. Fnuls globo», 
and red. Its nalive couniry not known. (Dec. Prod.) A low penduloua 
tree. Height 10 ft. to BO It. A garden produc- 
tion. Cultivated in ? 1700. Flowera whites May, 
Drupe red ; July and August. 
An ornamental tree, usually grafted standard high 

on the cominon wild cherry, or gesn ; growing 

rapidly for 8 or 10 years, and forming a round 

head, 8 or 10 fecthigh.and 10 or 12 feet in diameter, 

with ihe eitreinities of the Itranches drooping to 

the ground ; and flowering end fruiUng almoat the 

whole summer. It forma a truly desirable amall sinsle 

tree for a lawn. 

t 4. C. KMULt'TACiXm. Theserruleted-fcoBCTi 

Cherry Tree. 

Ji!"- ^■"■■P-«"i Don"' xi'-s-p-"*- 
•ritoui (RTnllu LHidl. Han. Trami.l. p. »i. ; 



282 



ARBORETUM KT FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Spec, Char.t ^c. Leaves obovate, acuminated, setaceously serrulated, quite 
glabrous. Petioles glandular. Flowers in fascicles. (Don*t Mill,) A low 
erect tree, or rather tree*like shrub. China. Height in China 4 ft. to 6 ft. ; 
in British gardens 6 ft. to 10ft. Introduced in 1822. Flowers double 
white, tinged with red, though not so much so as the double French 
cherry. 

This tree resembles the common cheny tree, but is not of such vigorous 
growth ; and only the double-flowered variety of it has been yet introduced. 
A yery ornamental plant. 

i 5. C. Pseu^o-Ce^rasus Lindl. The False-Cherry Tree. 

IdmlifleaUgn, Hort. Brit., No. 12663. ; Don'i Mill., S. p. 514. 

Sifnonyma. Prdnut Fieddo-Cferasus Lhtdl, Hort. Trtm». 6. p. 90. ; P. panicuUiU Ker BoL Reg. 

800.» but not of Thunbk j Ynng-To, Ckintse. 
Engraving: Bot. Reg., 1. 100. ; and our>^. 451. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves obovate, acuminate, flat, serrated. 
Flowers racemose. Branches and peduncles pubescent. 
Fruit small, pale red, of a pleasant subacid flavour, with 
a small smooth stone. (Don*s Mill,) A low tree. China. 
Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1819. Flowers 
white ; March and April. Fruit pale red ; ripe in June. 

This tree is readily known from the other cherry trees, 
even when without its leaves, by its rough gibbous joints, at 
which it readily strikes root; and is, consequently, very 
easily propagated. It has been tried by Mr. ICnight, as a 
fruit tree ; and he finds that it forces in pots better than 
any other variety. Desirable for small garaens, on account 
of its very early flowering. 




451. C. Partdo*Cfeuai. 



M 6. C, CiiAMJECBfRkSVB Lois. The Ground-Cherry Tree, or Sberian 

Cherry, 

Jdeni^eation. Loit. in N. Du Ham., 5. p. 99. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. S37. ; Don's Mill, 2. p. MS. 
Synonumet. C. intermMia Loit. in N. Du Ham. 5. p. 30. ; PrOout fntonnMia Poir. Diet. 5. 

p. 674. ; P. firuticdia Pall., according to Besser } C§rasu* pQmlla C. Bauk., according to PaU. Fl. 

Rou. ; Cbamaec^ratut ftutlcbsa Pen. Syn. S. p. 34. 
Engra9ing$. N. Da Ham., 5. p. 89. t. 6. f. A ; Ha/ne Abbild., t. 61. ; and o\XTjtg, 452. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves ovate-oblong, glabrous, 
glossy, crenate, bluntish, rather coriaceous, scarcely 
glanded. Flowers in umbels, which are usually 
on peduncles, but short ones. Pedicels of the 
fruit longer than the leaves. Fruit round, reddish 
purple, verv acid. (Dec, Prod ) A neat little shrub. 
Siberia and Germany. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 
in 1587. Flowers white ; May. Drupe reddish 
purple ; ripe in August. 

It forms a neat little narrow-leaved bush, which, 
when grafted standard high, becomes a small round- 
headed tree with drooping branches, at once curious 
and ornamental. It does not grow above a fourth 
part of the size of C, semperfldrens ; and, like it, it 
flowers and fruits during great part of the summer. 

jk 7. C, prostraVa Ser. The prostrate Cherry Tree. 

Idcntifleation. Seringe in Dec. Prod., Z p. 63a ; Don*. Mill. 2. p. 614. 

'^cl^S^i^^rjlS^^^SZ^lT^''^ l»..«mdX«5. Pl.S^ Dcc,U p. 16.; PrCinus 
Engravings. Pall. FI. Rom.. 1. 1 7. ; Bot Reg.. 1. 106. ; and our>^. 463. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Decumbent. Leaves ovate, serrately cut, glandless, tomen- 
tose, and hoary beneath. Flowers mostly solitary, nearly sessile. Calyx 
tubular. Petals ovate, retuse, rose-coloured. Fruit ovate, red ; fle?»h thin. 




4At. C, Chammi-insm. 



XXVI. rosa^ceie: n/RAsus. 



shrub. Natixe of ti 

tUDs of Candia, of MouDt 

Lebanon, and of Siberia. . 

Height 1 ft. to 1 ft. Intro- i 

duced ia 1809. Flowers 

rose-coloured ; April and 

May. Drupe red ; r^e July. 

A ver; desirable spedes for 
grafting standard high on the 
commoii cherry. The r«d co- 
lour of the flowers is rery un- 
conimon in this genus. •»< bnurtDunu. 

t 8. C. PBRSiciFoYijt Lou. The Peach-tree-leaved Cherry Tree. 
nimielaulim. Lob. In K. Dn Hun., «. p. S. i Dsc. Prod., i. p.U7. i Don'i Mm.. 1. p. CIS. 
Entroting. Oat fit- 000. iajif. 000. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, unequally serrate, gla- 
brous, with two glands upon the petiole. Flowers numerous, upon slender 

peduncles, and disposed umbeltately. {Dec, Prod.') A deciduous tree. 

? America. Height 30ft. to 50ft. Introduced iu 181B. Flowers white; 

May. Drupe small, black ; ri|>e in July. 

A rapidly growing tree, attaining the height of the common wild cherry, 
and bearing bo close a resemblance to it in almost every respect, that it is 

Srobablv only a variety of it. There are trfes of this kind of cherry in '*- ~ 
ardin des Plant '^ " " ■ ' - 



lantes at Pans, of a pyramiual form, *ith a reddish brown amc 
bark, flowers about the size of tnose of C, MahhUb, and fruit about the 
of peas. The wood is said to be harder and redder than tlmt of the comi 
wild cherry. It was nused from seeds sent from Ainerica by Miehaux. 

1 9. C. oorba'lis Michx, The Nonh-Jmmcnn Cherry Tree. 

Prod . 1, p.'s3S. -. Dsii't Mfll., V pwi. ' 
SfsmiFiwi. J^aniu bnrdtli Pair. I)ia. ». p. St* ; the Hortheni Chokt Chonr, Amer. 

Spec. Char., ijc. Leaves oval-oblong, 

denticulate and almost in an erode 

common almond iree, but have the 

inflexed, protuberant, and tipped with minute 

glandulous mucros. Flowers on longlsh pe- 
dicels, and disposed nearly in a corymbose 

manner. Fruit nearly ovate, small; its flesh 

red. (Dec, Prod.) A small tree. Northern 

parts of North America. Hdght 80 ft. to 

30 ft., with a trunk 6 in. to Sin. in diameter. 

Introduced in 1882. Flowers white; May. 

Drupe red ; ripe in July. 

Of all the cherries of North America, Mi- 
chuux observes, the C. boreilis is the one tlmt 
has the greatest analogy with the cultivated 
cherry of Europe. Pursh describes it as a 
very handsome small tree, the wood exquisitely 
hard and finegrained ; but the cherries, though 
agreeable to the taste, astringent in the mouth, 
and hence called choke cherries. 




t 10. C. PU-MiLA MicAx. Tlie dwarf Cherry Tree. 

Ileh«.Fl. Bor. Amer., J.p.SSO.i D«c, Pro*.. ». p. .W. 1 Don'i Mill., a. p. Bll 
iniu pamllll LM. Hamt.t3., Purtll Ft. Anrr. SnI. I. p.Ul.i rtraiui gl»UCi 



284 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




ptunlla. 



Engravhigi. Mill. Icon., t. 80. C 2. ; and our Jig, 4M. 

Spec* Cfuir,ySfc. Branches twiggy. Leaves obo- 
vate-oblong, upright, glabroas, indistinctly ser- 
rulated, glaucous beneath. Flowers upon 
p eduncles, disposed rather umbcUatelv. Calyx 
bell-shaped, short. Fruit ovate, black. (Dec, 
Prod.) A low somewhat procumbent snrub. 
North America, in Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
in low grounds and swamps. Height 3 ft, 
to 4 ft. Introduced in 1756. Flowers white; 
May. Drupe black ; ripe in July. 

A curious and rather liandsome tree, when 
grafted standard high ; and a fit companion for 
the other dwarf sorts, when so grafted. Sir W. 
J. Hooker suspects this to be the same as C, 
depressa. It has been compared. Sir W. J. Hooker observes, in its general 
habit, to ifm^gdalus nana ; and such a comparison is equally applicable to C. 
depressa. (-F/. Bar, Amer., i. p, 167.) 

ji 11. C. (p.) DEPRB'^ssA Ph, The depressed, orprottrate, Clierry Tree. 

Identification, Punh Fl. Amer. S«pt., 1. p. 839. ; Dec. Prod., a. p. 688. : Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer.. I. 

p. 168. ; Don*i Mill., 2. p. 814. 
Sjfnonumet, C. piiinlla Michs. Fl, Bor. Amer. 1. p. S86., not />riinu* pdmila L, ; P. Sufqnehioa 

Wtili. Enum. 619., Baunn. ed. S. p. S86. ; Sand Cherry, Amer. 
Engraving, 0}ufig, 466. Arom llTing plant in Loddiget's arboretum. 

Sjtec, Char,y 8fc, Branches angled, depressed, prostrate. Leaves 
cuneate- lanceolate, sparingly serrate, glabrous, glaucous beneath. 
Flowera in grouped sessile umbels, few in an umbel. Fruit 
ovate. (Dec, Prod,) A prostrate shrub. North America, 
from Canada to Virginia, on the sandy shores of rivers and 
lakes. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1805. Flowers white ; 
May. Drupe black, small, and agreeably tasted ; ripe in July. 

In America it is called the sand cherry, and said to be distio- 
gaished at sight from all the other species, not less by its prostrate 
habit, than by its glaucous leaves, which bear some resemblance 
in shape to those of ^m^gdalus n^a ; and, according to Sir W. 
J. Hooker, to those of C, pi^mila. 

fl 12. C, PTOMA^A Lois, The pygmy Cherry Tree. 

IJentiflcaUon, LoU. In N. Du Ham., 8. p. 33. and 31. ; Dec. Prod., % p. 638. ; Don*! Bfill., % p. 813. 
^nonipne. />riinus |iygnue'a WiU± So. 2. p. 993., Punk FL Amer. SepL l^^p. 881. 
Sngrtning, Ova Jig, 457. from a ipecunen In the Lambertlan herbariam. 

Spec, Char,, Sfc, Leaves ovate-elliptical, but tapered to the base, 
and rather acute at the tip, shaiply serrated, glabrous on both 
surfaces, and with 2 glanas at the base. Flowers of the size of 
those of P, spinosa, disposed in sessile umbels, a few in an 
umbel. (Dec, Prod,) A low shrub. Western parts of Pen- 
sylvania and Virginia. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 
1823. Flowera white; May. Drupe black, of the size of a 
large pea, a little succulent, and very indifferent to the taste ; 
ripe in July. 4M. 

fl S 13. C, NroRA Lois, The black Cherry Tree. 

Identificaiion. N. Du Ham., 6. p. 32. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 638. ; Don't Mill., 3. p. 618. 

Synonifmei. Priinus nigra Ait, Hort, Kew. 3d ed. 8. p. 198., Purth Fi, Amer. Sept, 1. p.331. ; P. 

amerlcAna Darlingtonia Amer. Lye. N. H, qfNeto York. 
Sngraningi. Bot Mag., 1. 1 117. ; and our JIge. 468, 469. 

t^c. Char,, ^e. Leaf with 2 elands upon the petiole, and the disk ovate- 
acuminate. Flowera in sessile umbels, few in an umbel. Calyx purple ; 
its lobes obtuse, and their margins glanded. (Dec, Prod,) A tall shrub or 




C(p) 



4M. 




xxTi. bosa'ces: ce'rasus. 2&5 

low tree. Canada and the Alle- 
ghany BfouDtains. Height 6 ft. 
to 10 ft. IntroduL-ed in 1773. 
Flowera white, with purple an- 
thers. Dnipe red i April, May. 
The fruit, which, as far as we 
know, has not been produced in 
England, is described b; Sir W. J. 
Hooker as bdng as large us a mo- 
derate-aUedcherry.and, apparently, 
ens this forms a very handsome small **■ "■ """^ 

^ /en in winter by ihe imoothnesa and dark colour of its 

young wood, and in this respect resembling more a plum than a cherry. 

J 1*. C. HYBHALis JMToix, The Winter CHierry Tree. 
lifrWMco'lm. ^K. Da Hun.. li, p. 194. L DecFiod..!. 

SMvmr: P. hjiaiui UldU. Ft Bor. Amrr. I. 

nTah, Fwik rt. Amrr. HrpL t. u. »1„ eaUl 

Cant. I. p. Ml. ; Ihe black Choke Ctenj. -fiwr. 
£i^nn™». Our «r*e^ J^ » ipKlaien to tbe 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong-oval, or 
oval, abruptly acuminate. Flowers gla- 
brous, disposed umbellatcly. Lobes of 
the calyx lanceolate. Fruit nearly ovate, 
and blackish. (Dec. Prod.) A shmb. 
Western mountains of Virginia and Ca- 
rolina. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced 
m 1805. Flowers white ; May. Drupe 
small, black, and extremely astringent, 
but eatable in winter; ripe in October. 




SpecCiar-A"- Branches glabrous, becoming rather 
s[>iny. Leaves oblone-oval, acute, or acuminate- 
short peduncles, and mostly 
s, its lobes very ihort. 
Fruit nearly globcae, mwll, yellow, (Dec. Prod.) 



n pain. Calyx glabrous, its lobes very ihort. 
Fruit nearly globcae, nnall, yellow, (Dec. Prod.) 
A shrub, t^olina and Virginia. Height 6 ft. 



Introd.1806. Flowerswhile; AprilandMay.Drupe 




small, yellow, and asrei 

ably tasted ; ripe in July. 

Sir W. J. Hooker observes 
that a plant which he received under this name appeared 
to him identical with C. borealis ; the plants in the Lon- 
don gardens are very difterent, resembling much more 
closely the common sloe, as will appear by our figure. 

Jt 16. C. pubb'scbns Ser. The pubescent Cherry Tree. 
MtalnUMtai. ScricBatn Hec. Frod., t p.us., Dod'i Mill.. 1. p. U«. 
Sjfnowj/tiiet. /*riJiiui pubfic^i Ph, Fl. Amrr. Sept- \. p. 381., UH 
Laid. Cat. 1 P. iphBro(*rp» WA*i. Pt. Bor. Amtr. I. p. SM.. not oC 

Eniratiitf- Ourfe 461 from ■ llflng ipcrlm™ In LoMigei'l Mho- 

retum i tnAJIg. lO. (Tom ■ ipctrluen In Uie Lvcbmlo herbuluD. 
Spcc.Char.,^c. Young branches pubescent. Leaves with 



286 ARBORETUM ET FRUTtCETUM BRITANNICUM. 

the disk shortlj otsI, serrulated, and usually ivith 8 gtands at its base. 
Flowers in sessile umbels, few in an umbel ; pedicels and calyxes pubescent. 
Fruit upon a short pedicel, globose, brownish purple, austere, (iice. Prod.) 
A low shrub. Western parts of Pennsylvania, on the borden of lakes. 
Height I (t. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1880. Flowers white ; April and May. 
Drupe brownish purple, very astringent ; ripe in July. 

■ IT. C. PBifNsfLVit'HtCit Lm. The Pennsylvanisn Cherry Tree. 



p. 1 10. ; fT lUECDllta mUif. . 



and glabrous. Flowers disposed in grouped sessile 
umbels, which have something of the character of 
panicles. (Dec. Prod.) A shrub. North America, from 
new England to Virginia, in woods and plantations. 
Hdght 6 ft, to B ft. Introduced in 1773. Flowers 
white ; May. Drupe black, small, but agreeable to 
eat ; tipe in July. 

Sir W. J. Hooker considers this sort as synonymous 
with C. bore&Iis Jlftciii., in which he may probably be 
correct. We have, however, kept tbem dutinct ; not 
only because the whole genus appears in a state of con- 
fusion, but because, though C, pennsylvanica is said to 

have been introduced in 1773, we have never seen the plu.. _, . 

and, consequently, (eel unable to give any decided opinion respecting it. 
^ 18. C. japo'mca Lait. The Japan Cherry Tree. 

Ufntiftatiam, LolL hi N. Da HAm.,£.b.SS. I Dotl'i HLLL, i. p. I 
Strmmrma. i'rtmui iiptfola Tktmi. A. Jap. p. VI.,iidi1 Lti^i. 




KntrnKlnfi. Boc. Rif.. t. 



e. Char., 3^, Leaves o 



shorter than the tube. {Dot.. 
AfUL) A slender shrub, some- 
what tender. China. Height 2 ft. 
to 4 ft. Introd. IBIO. Flowers 
pale blush-coloured, produced in 
profusion on numerous slender 
purpliri) or brownish red twigs ; 
«». c ]■,-■;„, March to May. Drupe ?. Naked 

young wood brownish red. 

■■ C. j. 2 multiplex Ser. .Jmygdslus pitmila Lm. 
Mant. 74., Bot. Mag. t. 8176., and of the 
. Hammersmith and other nurseries. (Our 
I fi^t. i&I, and 468.) — Flowers semidouble, 
pink like those of the species. 

There are two shrubs in British nurseries 
often confounded under the name of A. 
pilmiia. The one is that now described, 
which may be known at any season b^ the 
,. purplish or brownish red colour of the 
bark of its young shoots; and, in summer, 
i gbbrous finely serrated leaves, which have a 




XXVI. aosa'ceje: ce'rasus. 287 

reddith tinge on tiuar margins, and on the midribs. The other, C. si- 
nenus described below, tlie PrilnuE jap^nica of Ker, and of [he Ham- 
merEinith and other nurseries, may be known In the winter seHBon by 
the light green or ereyish colour of the bark of its j'oung shoots ; hj- 
its larser, paler-coloured, and comparatively rugose leaves, doublyor 
coarsdy serrated ; and by its more compact habit of growth. The 
(lowers of this sort Eire also on longer peduncles, resembling those ofa 
cherry ; while the flowers of C. jap. multiplex, the .4m^gdalus piimita 
or double dwarf almond of the nurseries, hare much ihortcr peduncles, 
■nd are sometimes nearly sessile, giving the plant more the appear- 
ance of a Prdnus than that ofa Cerasus. The C japdnica multiplex 
has been in cultivation in Bntisb gardens, under the name of Amf^- 
dalus pikmila, since the days of Bishop Compton ; and, though it is 
stated in books to have been introduced from Africa, there can be 
little doubt of its being of Asiatic origin. The great confusion 
which exists respecting these two plants, in botanical works, has 
induced ua to examine, with particular attention, the plants of them 
that are in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the Hammer 
smith Nursery. In the former garden, there was (June 10. 1837) a 
C^rasu* japiSnicB in its single state, but not in its double state ; the 
plant beitfmg the name of C'.jap6nica fldre pleno being unquestionably 
the C rin^Dsis described below, the Prilnuajap^nica of the nurseries. 
In the Hammersmith Nursery, there were then some dozens of plants 
of C japtSnica m{tltiplex, there called ^m^gdaluspumila.or the double 
dwarf almond, growing in parallel nursery lines, with some dozens 
of plants of C. sinfn«s, there called Primus JBp6nica, or the double 
Chmese almond. Wehave considered it necessary to be thusparticular, 
to justify us f<H- having deviated trom the Sot. Mag. and Sol, Reg. 

A 19. C. sine'nsis G. Don. The Chinese Cherry, 
MaUI/iialiom. DDD'iUlll.,9.p.SI4. 
^wq^. praDuiJ^^lcaJCn-ln Am. Ay. tir, 
Engrniitll. BM. Rcf.. I. 97. i wid aaijlt. (69. 

Sp/x. Char,, ^c. Leaves ovateJanceoIate, doubly serrated, wrinkled from veins 
beneath. Peduncles sub-aggr^aie. (ZJon'i AM.) A highly ornamental 
low sbrub. China. Height 8 fl. to 3 it. Introducetl in 1810. Flowers semi- 
double, red above, and white underneath, produced in great profiiaon on 
the pra:eding year's branches ; April and May. 
There is no single state of this species in 

Britain, but there was in 1836 a plant of the 

double variety agunst a wall in the Hort. Soc. 

Oarden, named C. jap6nica fldre pl^no; and. 

as noticed under the preceding species, there 

were many plants in the Hammersmith Nur- 
sery, under the name of P. jap^nica, or the 

double Chinese almond. The plant is some* 

what more tender than C. j. piultiplex, which 

is well known in gardens as a hardy border 

shrub; and, except in ravoumble situations, 

it requires to be planted againiit a wall, f 

Though C. sinensis and C. japOnica are quite \ 

distinct, there is nothing in that distinctness, 

as it appears to us, to determine that they are 

not vaneties of the same species. ,03, -tm '-<-■'■ 

* 80. C. MLi'ciNA G. Don. The Wiilow-fronrd Cherry Tree. 
Mntlifictlim. Dcm'i Mm., 3.JI.D14. 

Sftvmrmn. PrQnutnlldnA Lrt^L In Hort. Tram. ; ChlDS-Cho-Lee, or Tnnf-C bo h-LM, Ckmae. 
Smgr*^*t- i^.«Ta.rrDiniipsdm«ilnIlKh«1iuliiiiio(1>r,IJiHlliT. 

Spec. Char., 4r. Flowers usually solitary, shorter than the leaves. Leaves 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM DRITANNICUM. 

oboTBte, acumin Eited, gUndiilnriy serrated, glabrous 

Stipules Bubulate, 

glandular, length 

of the petiole. 
W Petiole ^ndlees. 

(Dott'i Miii.) A 
^ shrub. China. 

Height 4 ft. to 6 ft. i 

Introd. in IS2S. 
^ The flowers smntl, | 

and white. Drupe 

about the size of 
111 MiMiaMiana that of the myro- 

balan plum. *"■ £*»»««-* 

i^iewn beloitffKg to the preceding Subdaiiiion (B.), not vet introduced. — C. 
I^dshia HamUt., Frixaaa cerasoldcs D. Don., Cenuus Puddum Roxb. (Wall, 
n. Bar., ii. t. 143.; and our ^. 471.), is a native of Nepal, prod udng fruit 
jibe that of the cotnoion cherry, and wood which is considered valuable as 
limber. The flowers are of a pale rose colour, and the tree pows to tbe 
height of SO or 30 feet. C. glmduidta, C iipera, and C. india Lou., are Japan 
thrubs, with rose-coloured flowers, described by Thunberg; and C. humUU 
Mods., a natire of Sardinia. 

} ii. PMi veri Ser. The true Bird-Ckmy Kindt ofCemsus. 
Sect. Char. Flowers produced upon the shoots of the ume year's growth as 
the flowers ; the latter disposed racemosely. Leaves deciduous. 

A. Speda of Sird-Cheny Trect akeadi/ in Cultivation in Britain, 
I 21. C. Maha'^i^b Mill. The Mahaleb, or perfumed. Cherry Tree. 

Utntiflcalin. Mill. Diet., No, <. ; OtcYni^i.f.iai.: Dnn'i Mm., l. p H4. 

s^aonttna. i^iiiu MaMUb L. Sp. Oi. ; Bob da S4tiita iMcSx, or Pnuhr odomit, Fr.% 

Emrrmtlnrl. N. Du tUn- & 1. 1. i Jncq. F1. Autl., t. m. i Ihe pl4U of Ihla tpgda In Arb.filll. 

i;i«dit!;.oi.T.i ud«irji(. ITS. 

Spec. Char., 4'c. Leaves cordately ovate, denticulate, glanded, curved. 
Flowers in lea^ subcoryntbose racemes. Fruit black, between ovate and 
round. (^Dec. Prod.) A small tree. Middle and South of Europe; coov 
mon in France, especiallj in [he mountainous districts ; very common near 
St. Lucie, whence the French name. Height 10 ft. to SO ft. ; in British 
aardens 2Dft. to 30ft. Introduced in 1714. Flowers white; April and 
May. Drupe black ; ripe in July. 
Varietiet. Besides one with vari^ated leaves, there are ; — 

X C. M. 8 fiactu Jldvo Hart. — Fruit yellow. There is a plant of this 

variety in the garden of the Horticultjral Society. 
S C M. 3 lali/olium*Hon. — Leaves broader than in the species. 
A handsome small tree, with a white bark, and nuniernus branches. The 
leaves somewhat resembling those of the common apricot, but of a paltf 
green. The wood, the leaves, the flowers, and the fruit, are poweriiilly 
scented ; the flowers so much so as not to be supportable in a room. The 
wood is hard, brown, vaned, and susceptible of a high polish. Its smell is 
less powerful, and more agreeable, when it is dn', than wnen the sap is in it 
In a dry state it weighs 59 lb. 4 oi. per cubic foot. In France, it is much 
sought after bjr cabinetmakers, on account of its Irurance, hardness, and the 
fine polish which it rectnvea. In Austria it is used for forming the twisted 
tubes of tobacco pipes. In France the mahaleb is used as a stock on which to 
graft the different kinds of fruit-bearing cherries : for which it baa the advan- 
tagea of growing on ■ very poor soil ; of coming into sap Ii days later than 



XXVI. rosacea: ce hasus. 




I wild cherry (C. 
I. The mahsieb 



the common wild cherry, hy which means the grafUng season ia prolonged; 
and, lastly, of dwarfing tbe plants grnfCcd on it. In British gardens, it is partly 
used for this purpoie, but principally ae an ornamental shrub or low tree. As 
ID the case of other dwarf species of a genus which will unite to s tall 
growing species, the mahaleb, when grafted 
sylTestria), grows to a larger tree than when 

will grow in any poor soil that is dry, even in the most arid sands anil naked 
chalks J end, as it forms a low bushy tree which is capable of resisting the 
wind, it may be planted in an exposed situation. When young |>lanta are to 
be raised from seed, the fruit is sown as soon as ripe, or preserved among sand 
till the following spring, in the same manner as that of the cherry, ijeedliiw 
plants generally grow I ft. in length the first year, and 1 ft. to 18 in. the second. 
Tl>e tree may also be propagated by layers ; by blips from the stool, taken olf 
with s few roots attached ; and by suckert ' ■ - -■ 



ir by cuttings from the roots, 
s Dec. The Bird-Cherry Tree. 






rberiT, Fowl CliMTy ! HU'berrr, Sait. 
. or FbtM, fnii Bali de Sw. Lucis, i 



BtII. F?ira, p. ii 



'Z" 



;. Prod.) A low tree. Indi- 
genous in most pans of Central Europe, and as 
&r north as Lapland. Height 12 ft. to 40 ft. 
Flowers white ; April and May. Drupe black ; 
ripe in July. Decaying leaves greenisD yellow, 
or reddish. Naked young wood purpliiti, with 
white spot!. 
I'ari^iei. 

I a P. 1 mi^am Ser. C. Pkdaa Dec. .V. 
Da Ham. v, t. 1. — This kind has large 
flowers loosely disposed upon long pe- 
dicela, and black fruit. 
S C. P. 2 parvifiira Ser. ((Ed. Fl. Dan., 
t.205.) — This has smaller flowers, upon 
■horter pedicels, which are disposed moi 



T 



: densely ; and black fruit. 



290 



ARBORETUM F.T FKUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 



C. P.3 rubra Ser. (Our &. 473.) — This has red fruit. It is the C. 
Pttdua frllctu rfllu^ of Dec. and of Loiseleur ; and, according to 
Ail. Hart. Kew., ad ed. p . 899., it is the PtiOna rdbra of WWd. Arb., 
237. t. *. f. 2. 
S C. P. 4 bracUota Ser. Pndus racemdsus Hort. — A vere beautiful 
varietj, distinguished by its long racemea of flowers, with their pe- 
dicels furnished with long bracteas at the points of the shoots, by 
which the latter are bent down, both when it] blossom and nhen 
the fruit is ripe, so as to give the whole tree a pendulous appearance. 
A very handsome small tree or large bush. The leaves are finely serrated, 
smooth, and somewhat glaucous ; and their scent, when bruised, resembles 
that of rue. The flowers are of a pure white, in copious, long, terminal 
racemes, making an elegant appearance in spring, but scarcely lasting a fort- 




nigated 



night. The fruit is small, black, auat^e, and bitter, with a large c( 
nut. " Birds of several hinds soon devour this fruit, which is naust 
probably dangerous to mankind; though, perhaps, like that of the cherry 
laurel, not of so deadly a quality as the essential oil or distilled water of the 
leaves." {Ens. Flora, ii. p. 3S4.J The tree grows rapidly when youna, at- 
taining the height of 10 or 18 feet in 5 or 6 years ; and, as it has a loose 
head, and bears pruning, it allows the grass to grow undn it. The wood ia 
hard and yellowish, and, in a green state, it has a disagreeable bitter odour 
and taste ; whence the French name piitiet, from puer. It is much sought 
after in France by the cabinetmakers and turners, who increase the beauty of 
its vdning by sawing out the boards diagonally, that is, obliquely across the 
trunk, instead of parallel with its length. The fruit, though nauseous to the 
taste when eaten tresh from the tree, gives an agreeable flavour to brandy; 
and is some^mes added to home-made wines. In Sweden and Lapland, and 
also in some parts of Russia, the bruised fruit is fermented, and a powerful spirit 
dlstiUed from it. luBritain, the principal use of the C%rasusP&dus is as an orna- 
mental tree ; and few make a finer appearance than it does, either when in flower, 
in April and May; or in Aiuust, when covered with its pendent racemes of 
black fruit. It comes into f^wer a little before the ornamental crab trees, 
and about the same time as the 5drbus aucupiria and the ^'cer platanoldes. 
The bird cherry fH'efers a dry soil; but it will not thrive on such poor ground 
as the perfiuned cherry. It will grow in almost any situation; but, to attain 
a tiniber-like size, it requires the shelter either of a favourable locality, or of 
ai^oining trees. The species is propagated by seeds, which s^iould be treated 



XXVI. aosa'cBjE: c^'rasus. 



'291 



in all respects tike those of C. MeAaki. The red-fruited variety will ge- 
DeniUy come true from seed ; as, doubtless, vill the earty-flowering anil 
late-flowering varieties, whicb may be observed in copse woods where this 
tree abounds. C. P. tnvctedsa Ser., which is a very remarkable variety, end 
one which deserves a place in every collection, boUi on account of its large 
racemes of flowers and its fruit, will be continued with most certainty by grafting 
or budding. The leaves are more infested and ii^ured by the larvn of moths 
tad buttertliea, than those of any other European tree or shrub. 



t 23. C. vikdiniaVi AfuAx. 
UaiUfiia lkm. Mlebi. Fl. Bor. Awr, I. p. » 
Ki^lwbi LItl. I CarMnde VlrgWi 



The Virginian Bird-Cherry Tree. 
U. 1 Dee. IhuL. i.a.sm.-. Don' 
WttfvX,^' ■■■'-• - - 



¥r^?w ..»■«- OUT 
Spec. CKar., if-c. Leaves oblong, acuminate, doubly toothed, smooth i the pe- 
tiole bearing about 4 glands. Racemes straight, petals round. Fruit iwl. 
DiSerent Irom the Prdnus vir^nitkna of Miller, which is C. (v.) serdtioa. 
(Dre. Prmy A tree attaining a large siie. Viiginia, Carolina, and Canada. 
HelEht, in ^land, 30 ft. to 40 a. ; m some partsof North America, 80 ft. to 
100 ft. Introd. 1724k Flowers white ; May. Drupe red ; ripe in July. Leaves 
remaining on hit« m the season, and drapping, green. Naked young wood 
slender, purpUsh, but not spotted with white Tike C. /^us. 
Readily distinguished from t^£rasus i^dui by 
the slender droopinE character of its branches. 
11)6 fhiit is &«iuent]y r^>ened in the neighbour- 
hood of London, and plants in copse woods, 
which have risen from selTsown seeds, are to be 



t, whicb deepens with age. It is comgiact, 
fine-grained, end takes a brilliant polish ; it is 
also not liable to wacp when perfectly seasoned. 
Id America, it is extendvely used by cabinet- 
makers for every species of furniture. In Eu- 
rope, C. virpiu&oa la planted solelv as an orna- 
mental tree ; aod, at such, it w^ deserves a 
place io every collection. It should be pUnted 
in every ahrubbeiy or wood where it is desirable 
to atmct fn^Tvorous singiDg birds. For soil, si- 
tuation, prt^Mgation, culture, &c., see C. Pidus. 




» 24. C. (».) a 



A iMt. The late^uvring. 
Cherry Tree. 



Ameriaai, Bird* 



-, r- , S.f.-*; WiU.D«ul. Brll,, 

t4S.; udoarj^-neitTT. 

Spec. Char., S[e. I.eavc8 ovateJanceolate, rather 
coriaceous, glossy, serrated ; the teeth imbri- 
cate, very numerous, end the lowest ones indis- 
tJncllyglBnded. Midribdownyatitsbase. Flo- 
ral leaves narrowed at the base. Racemes loose. 
Fruitbhuk. (Jiec. Pnd.) A middle-siied tree. 
AnBtiveorNorthAmaica,inCanadaand New- 
foundland. HeigfatlOfl-toSOft. Introd. 1629.' 
Flowers white; Ib^ and June. Drupe black ; 
ripe in August. Leaves retained late, and 
dropping green. Naked young wood slender, 
purplish. 



^^ ^. 



292 ARUOHETUM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICLM. 

Y C. t. 2 reluta Ser. — LwiTeaobovate, rourii, very obtuse, droostretuse, 
sli^tly vUlose beneath j midrib hairj aboTe and below. A nalire 
of South AroericB. 




O. (v.) nerdtina so cIoBcIy resemble* C, virginiina, thtit we have no doubt 
whatever of their being one and the same species. 

J 85, C. Mo'LLis. Ikmg. TTte soft Bird-Cherry Tree. 

Utmlifiouim. D(iufl.H8S.t Book.Fl. B«. Amer.. 1. 1«»; Dw'iUlll., 

E>Mr««W. Ourfc47S..^(im*nMcli]Hdihitb*BrltlibMiu«nD. 

Spec. Char., i^c. Racemes short, pubeicenlly tomentose, 
as wett as the calyxes ; calycine segments refleied ; leaves 
obovate oblong, crenated, pubescent beneath ; fruit oTate. 
(iJoB'jMtf.) A 
tree. America, 
near the mouth 
of the Columbia, 
and on subalpine <:•■ c.moa^ 
hills, near the source of the river. 
Height IS ft. to 84 ft. Introd. 1838. 
Flowers white. Naked young wood 
dark brown and downy, and the 
general habit said to be that of C 
pub^cens. 



sent home by Douglas. 
* i 26. C. Cafo'ujn Doc. The 
CopolHn Bird<CherTy Tree. 

MtmMcaUai. D«e. Frod., 1. p. !». I DUI'l 

atnomrma. n-iliiiu rirvbiUiu nir. Ifnfc. Ak 
•fi^ai. i p. cuudtaijt Moc. ft SttH ei. 



XXVI. aosa'ce/e: ck'basus. 293 

M«. Icon. Ined. ; PL Mo. lean. lixd. ; Hem. Uei. Icon., 91. ; uu) ourA- *K. 

^m. Char^ ^c. Leavea lanceolate, seiTated, and glabrous, resembling in form, 
and neariy in Nze, those of >SHlix fr^lia. RacemeB iatenJ and terminal. 
Fruit globose, reaembling, in form and colour, tbal of C. gj-keHtis. {Dec. 
Prod.) A handsome sub-evergreea low tree or shrub. Mexico, in temperate 
and cold plBcey. Height 6 ft. to 12 ft Introduced in 1830. Flowers white; 
May. Drupe red ; ripe in August. 

The plant bearing this name in the Hort. Soc. Garden bus leaves broader 
than those of Sb&jl frdgilis ; and, taken altogether, it U of more luxuriant 
growth than C. virginiAna. It is, however, less hardy as a plant in the open 
garden, and was kSled to the ground in the winter of 1B37-S. In favourable 
situations, however, it is a very desirable species, being a remarkably C^ee 
6owerer, and ripening abundance of fruit, which have stones as large as those 
of the wild cheny, 

■ ST. r. nbpale'ksis Scr. The Nepal Bird< 

Cherry Tree, 
UmOkaitim. SnlDgs In Dk PmL, l. p. MO. i Don't MIU., 



^>ec. Char., if c. Leave* resembling in form those 
of Salii fVigilis ; long, lanceolate, acuminate, 
sarate, with blunt teeth, glabrous, whitish be- 
neadi; the veins much reticuluted ; and the 
wdlB of the larger of them hairy. Peduncle 
^ort, and, as well as the rachis, slightly viliose. 
Calyx glabrous. (Dec. Prod.') A deciduous 
shrub or low tree. Nenal. Height 6 fL to 
12 ft. Introd. IBSO. Flowers white; May. 
Drupe?. 



t C. anaiaiidla Wall. (PI. Rar. AsiaC, ii. 
p. 78. t. ISl.; and our j^. 481.) is a Nepal 
tree, growing to the beiftht of 30 or 30 feet, , 
with the floH-ers in auUary racemes, and 
nodding, a little shorter than the leaves. 

m C. emargindia Dougl. (Hook. Ft. Bor. 
Abut., p. 169.) is a shrub, growing to the 
height of 6 or 8 feet, with its flowers in co- 
rymbose racemes ; having oval, serrulated, 
glabrous leaves; and globose Ihjil. astringent 
to the taste. The leaves are 2 in. Ions; the 
flowers are white ; and the wood red, with 
white spots. It is found wild about the 

upper part of the Columbia Kiver, especially ,||, rjiim in 

about the Kettle Falls. 

1 C.ca;)rtcti^ G.Don. T/ieCoal-tiiling BirdCAerry. Prunuscapricldalfotf.; 
P. undulata HamHt. in D. Don't Prod. Kepai. p. 339. ; C. undulata Dec. 
I'Tvd. ii. p. 540. — Leaves elliptic, acuminated, coriuceous, glabrous, quite 
entire, with undulalcly curled margins. Petioles glandulous. Racemes cither 
solitary or a^gr^ate by ihrees, uiany-flowercd, glabrous, shorter than the 
leaves. (Don't Mill., ii. p. bib.) A handsome showy tree, probably evergreen, 
a native of Kcpal, at (lurainhelty ; where the leaves are found to conlwn so 
large a quantity of prussic acid as to kill the goats which browse upon them. 
Royte seems to consider C. undulata and C. capriclda as dietiocl species ; and 



294 ARBORETUM ET ERUTtCETUH BRITANKICUM. 

he observes that tbese, and "C. comdta, remarkable for its pod-like mon- 
Btrosity, are handsoone showy trees, groving on lofty mountaiiM, and worthy 
of iatroduction into England." {Royle't lUiat., p. SOS.) 

C. canadensis Lot., C. elltptica Lou., C. paniculita Loit., and oome other 
hardy species, are mentioned in our first edition. 

$ ill. Laurocerari. The Lmirel-ClKny TretM. 

Sect. Ckar. Evergreen. Flowers in racemes. 

■ f se. C. lusita'nica Lrnt. The Portugal JLmire^Cherry, or comtium 
Portu^ Laurel. 



'fs%. ; 




(Dec. Prod.) An evergreen low 
tree. Portugal, and the Aiores. 
Height 10 (t. to SO ft. ; in British 
gardens sometimes 30 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1648- Flowers white; 
June. Drupe dark purple ; ripe 
in September. Young wood pur- 
plish black. 

■ I C. A 2 HfXB Ser. PrU- 

nus Hfxa Broussonet ; P. 

multiglandulosa Ca<:: C. 

Him Webb et Bert. Hist. 

Can. t. 38. (Ourjfg. 4ae.) 

— Leaves larger, with their 

lowest teeth glanded, Ru- 

cemes elongate. Flowers more loosely disposed. Spontaneous in 

the islands of Teneriffe, Grand Canary, and Palma. Mr. P. B. Webb 

informs us that this tree, in its native localities, attains the height 

ofSOorTOfeet. 
The Portugal laurel is generally seen as 
- -ie bush, but when trained up to a 
i it forms a very handsome tree 
1 conical head. It is not of rapid 
growth, seldom making shoots more than 
or 10 inches in length; but, when planted 
in good free soil, and trained to a single 
stem, plants, in the neighbourhood of Lon- ^ 
don, will reach the heieht of from 12ft. , 
to 15 ft. in 10 years. It is generally planted 
solely as an ornamental eveigreen ; but 
sometimes hedges ere formed of it in nur- 
sery-grounds and flower-gardens. The 
berries are greedily eaten by birds, and 
form a favourite food for pheasants. What 
renders the tree particularly valuable. Miller ,„ „™u ihjiii>ic4. 






XXVI. rosa'cejE ! ci/basiis. 



obaerTMiia ita bdng''soTer]'hardyMtoder}' the severest cold of this country; 
for, in thehardfroat of 1740, whenaknosterery other evergreen tree and shrub 
was severel; pinched, the Portugai laurels retained their verdure, and seemed 
to have fdt no injury." In the winter of 1837-B, it was severely hurt in all 
low moist situations in the climate of London ; but in d^ oraveLy soil, there, 
and in most ports of En^and, it escaped uninjured. In British nurseries, it is 
propagated by seeds, which, before and after sowing, are treated like those of 
the common wild cherry (C. sylv&tris), or those of the bird cherry (C i'itdus). 

a- ■ 29. C. LAUROCB'iustJs Loit. The Laurel-Cheny, or common "Laurel, 

., ^p,S.; Dk. Pnlil,l. p.MO.! Don't lOtl.. S. p.MK 

MOM Lit- Sf. GTS. \ Cberrr Bar, ChoTT LuitfI | Lwrlrr u lait, 

aatt.FT.t KICKbg Lorlmr. Ott. ; Laura dl TmWimdi. ItaL 

Xii||rAAi(i. Black*. H<it>.,t.l>ll.i Da Hua. Arb., l.p.sts. l in. | u>1 ourjlf . t8& 

Spec. Char,, 4^. Eveigreen. Leaves coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate, remotely 
serrate, beaiine upon the under surbce of the disk 8—4 glands. Racemes 
shorter than the leaves- Fruit ovate-acute. (Dec. Prod.) A large, ram- 
bling, evM-green, sub-prostrate shrub. Trebisond in Asia Minor ; and found 
in Caucasus, Persia, and the Crimea. Hei^t 6 ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 
1689. Flowers white ; April and May. Drupe dark purple; ripe in Oc- 
tober. Young shoots of a light green. 
Farieiiei. 

• C. £i. 2 variegala Wort, — Leaves variegated with either white or yellow. 

■. C. L. 3 a;^iMfi^&i Hort., with leaves about a third part of the widlhof 



296 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETOM BRITANNICUM. 

those of the species, and a more Hwnrf-f>rawmg plant, i 
tinct variety, which seldom, if ever, flowers. In some nup 
called HartAgia cap^nsiB, though thiH Utter is a totally different plant. 
The common laurel, though it will grow as high as the Portugal laurel, is, 
in its habit, decidedly a sl^b, though it is occasionally seen trained to a 
ungle stem ai a low tree, and in France it is grafted stundurd high on the 
common cherry for this purpose, though such planta, from the stock being 
deciduous, only last a year or two. The growth of the common laurel a 
rapid for an evergreen, being at the rate of from I 1^. to 3 ft. a year ; but, a.i 
the shoots extend in length, they do not increase proportionately in thick- 
ness, and hence they recline ; so that plants with branches 30 or 40 feet in 
length, though gigantic in size, still retain the character of prostmte shrubs- 
It ot with standing the rapid and vigor- 
ous growth of this plant in ordinary 
seaaons,itsuflerv a great deal more from 
very severe frosts than the Portugal 
laurel, and is sometimes killed down to 
the ground, which the latter rarely is 
in England. In Britain, the common 
laurel is considered one of the most or- 
namental of our evergreen shrubs ; and it 
is also used for covering walls, and for 
hedges, to afford shelter; for which last 
purpose it is exlensivelv used in the 
market-gardena about Isfeworth. It is ; 
also extensively used as undergrowth j 
in sandy soil. Laurel leaves have a i 
bitter taste, and the peculiar Savour of 
prussic acid, which is common to bitter 
almonds, and to the kernels generally 
of the -^mygdSleas, The flowers have 
a similar flavour; and the powdered 

leaves excite sneemng. The leaves, in 

consequence of their flavour, are used *"' "' "■""*"'" 

in a green state in custards, puddings, blancmange, and oihw culinary nnd 
cimfectionary articles, but always in very small quantities. Any soil tolerably 
dry will suit the common laurel ; but, to thrive, 
It requires a sheltered situatiou, and a deep free 
soil. It thrives better as an undergrowth than, 
l>erhaps, any other lirncous plant, with the excep- 
tion of the box and the holly. 



• I 30. C C 

Ufntfjleation. MIchx. Ft. Bdt. Amer., 1. h 9SI 

du Hun., i. y.b.; Dca'i Hia, 1. p. DIG. 
Sgmtiva. Prilnm cuollnlliu Ju. tfarl. M 



Etfrartrnfi. Mlchl. Arti. d'Ainef., 3. 1 1. ; »nd our Jig, tH, 

Spec.CAar., ^c. Eveigreen. Leaves, with the 
petiole short ; and the disk lanceolate-oblong, 
inucronate, even, rather coriaceous, mostly 
entire. Flowers densely disposed in axillary 
racemes, that are shorter than the leaves. 
Fruit nearly globose, mucronate. {Dec, Prod,) 
An ever);rccn shrub or low tree ; in England 
a tender shrub. North America, from Cnrulina 
to Florida, and the Bahama Islands. Heigbt 



-o*^ 



XXVI. AOSA^CE£: PU'RSH/-rf. 



297 



20ft. to 30ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers white; May. Drupe dark 
purple ; ripe ?. 

This tree Michaux considers as one of the most beautiful vegetable pro- 
ductions of the southern parts of the United States ; and it is generally se- 
lected by the inhabitants to plant near their houses, not only on this account, 
but because it grows with rapidity, and affords an impenetrable shade. Pursh 
describes it as a handsome ever^een shrub, resembling C, lusit&nica ; but he 
says nothing of the flowers, which, from the figure in Michaux, from which 
ours was copied, appear to be almost without petals. Seeds are ft^quently 
imported from America, and abundance of young plants reared ; but, as they 
are rather tender, and, north of London, would require the protection of a 
wall, they are very seldom seen in British gardens. The largest plant which 
we know of is in Hampshire, at Swallowfield, where, in 1833, it formed a 
bush 10 ft. high, with a nead about 12ft. in diameter, flowering and fruiting 
occasionally. Culture as in C virginilina, but north of London it requires the 
protection of a wall. 



Sect. II. Sfirme^je. 
Genus VI. 



□ 



W^RSllIA Dec. Tub Purshia. Lin. St/tt. Icos4ndria Monog/nia. 

Identiflcaiiom. Dec. In Trans, of linn. Soc., IS. p. 157. ; Prod., 8. p. Ml. ; Llodl. In Boi. Reg. 
L 1 M6. ; Don*« MiU.. 2. p. 617. 

Sunottyme. T^itrra Ph. Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 83&, not of Aiiblet. 

Derivation, Frederick Pwrsk flnt characterised the only known species In his n>ra Ameriat, 
Sep^ntrionalfs, and named it Tigirea tridentita. The generic name, howerer, having been 
preoceaplnd by Aublet, De CandoUe has named ttie pre