Skip to main content

Full text of "An English-Anglo-Saxon vocabulary"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

1 ^ 













W^ -H 

,;>\ ijii^z... 





On the appearance of Mr Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Reader in 1876, 
it occurred to me that an English index (if I may so call it) to 
the words contained in the admirable Glossary appended to it 
would be useful, at any rate to myself. In the course of 1878 I 
made such an index. On looking it over, I at once observed that 
some very common and characteristic words were wanting in it, 
on account of the necessarily limited nature of the selections. It 
then occurred to me that many of these could be readily supplied 
by help of the index to Mr Sweefs History of English Sounds. I 
accordingly went through that index, and so filled up some of the 
gaps. In a very few cases I passed over the words thus indicated, 
because the word was unimportant or the form a little doul^uL 

Hence the present list contains only such English words as 
occur (i) in the explanations of Anglo-Saxon words in -Sweet's 
Glossary to the Reader (first edition) ; and (2) nearly all the words 
given in his History of English Sounds. The result is a vocabulary 
which gives some account of most of the more important words of 
the language; and shews, on the one hand, what words are still 
in use nearly unchanged, and on the other, what ideas are expressed 
by totally different terms in the modem and in the oldest English. 

Limited as is the vocabulary, it has at any rate this advantage, 
viz. that all the Anglo-Saxon words cited are real ones, for which 
actual authority can be adduced. The passages in which they 
occur can be found by the references in the Glossary to the Reader ; 


or else, when the word is but slightly changed, by reference to the 
dictionaries of Bosworth, Lye and Manning, or Ettmiiller. As it is 
chiefly in the former case that the construction of the word may 
require illustration, it is easy to turn to the passages cited and 
observe any peculiarity of usage. It will at once be seen that, from 
the way in which the list has been compiled, it is necessarily scanty 
and imperfect. It is merely a handy list, intended for my own use 
and for that of a few friends and students. 


April 14M, 1879. 

N.B. When modem English verbs and substantives are not 
distinguished as such, the verbs Tciz^y be readily known by the fact 
that the Anglo-Saxon infinitive mood ends in -an. It may also be 
noted that additional Anglo-Saxon words may often be found under 
synonymous English ones. Thus to hid is bebdan ; and, by looking 
under command^ we also find hdtan. 


Of in 

abandon^ forlsetan 

abbess, abbudisse 

abbot, abbod 

abject, hedn 

able, to be, cunnan 

abode, wunung 

about, ymbe, ymb, embe, w, accj 
onbdtan, ymbiitan 

above, ofer, ufan, biifan; (pf supe- 
riority) t6foran ; ad^J,^ uppe ; — 
from above, ufan 

abroad, {xi, litanbordes, i^te 

abstain from, wiCbredan, rejl, 

abundance, genyht 

abuse, v., hirwan 

accessible, gef(^re 

accomplish, aefnan, bewitian, ge- 
forSian, ]>urhte6n ; fullgdn, w, 

according to, be 

account, gerdd 

account, v,, tellan 

accurately, gewyrdelice 

accursed, unlaed 

accusation, wr6ht 

accuse, gewrdgan, forwrdgan ; — ac- 
cuse of, gestaelan, w, dat, 

ache; aece, ece 

acknowledge, oncn^wan 

acorn, aecern, aecirn 

acquire, gewinnan, strfnan 

acre, aecer 

act, V,, d6n 

action, weorc 

adder, naedre 

addition, edca 

adhesive, clibbor 


admonish, gemanian 

adorn, besettan, gefraetwian, ge- 

hlaestan, ger^nian, girwan, gleng- 

an, teon {weak verb), weorSian, 

adorned, gehroden, geatolic 
adulterer^ h6ring, aebreca 
adultery, h6r, fbrligere, aebryce 
advance, wadan 
advent, tdcyme 
adversary, andsaca, wiVersaca 
advice, \ix, Idrcwide, raed 
advise, gersedan, ra6dan, laeran 
cuize, adesa, adese 
afflict, eglan, gebr6cian, gecwilman, 

gedreccan, geswencan, gewsegan, 

genearwian, ge])ryscan, >ryccan 
afflicted, gedr^fed 
affliction, br6c, hearm, weorc 
aforesaid, se foresseda ; foresprecen 
afraid, forht, ofdrsdd 
afraid, to be, forhtian, ondraedan 
after, aefter ; {of time), ofer ; {pf 

place) on Idst, w. dat,j — after 

that, 9aes 9e 
afterwards, eft, siSVan, Waes, aefter 

again, eft, eft ongedn 
against, oij) ongedn, ong^n, wi?J, 
• w, accj \hostilely), t6gednes 
age (old age), ildu ; {^rowing old), 

agitated {in mind), istyred 
agree to, ge^wa§rian, ge>waerlsecan 
agreeable, gecw^me 
agreement, tre6w, wedd, gecwidrse- 

aid, fultum 



ail, eglan 

airy lyft 

akin, gesibb 

alasy vfi. Id wd 

alder, air 

alderman, ealdorman 

ale, ealu 

alight {from a horse), Ifhtan 

altkey gelfce 

alive, cwic, cucu 

a//, call \—mosi of all, calm mest ;-^ 

at all, dwiht, t6 dhte 
allow, dlffan, a/. ^<a/. of pers, and 

ace, of thing; If fan, laetan, ge)>df- 

ian, ge]>waerian 
allure, spanan 

almighty, eallmihtig, eallwealdend 
almost, fomedh \-^almost all, swiC- 

ost ealle 
alms, aelmesse 
almsgiving, aelm^sgifu 
alone, dn 
along, be 

alongside of, t6emnes, w, dat. 
also, ealswd, edc, ^c ; edc swllce, 

edc swd ; swilce, swilge edc 
altar, wcofod 
alter, dwendan 
although, 9edh, t^^h, Oedh 9e 
always, ealne weg, ealneg ; a&fre ; 

symble ; gehwser 
am, eom 

ambition, rfcetere 
ambush, ssetung 
amid, onmiddan 
amidst, t6middes 
among, ongemang, mid, l)etwc6- 

an, dn 

ancestors, ildran 
and, and, ond 
angel, engel 

angels, race of, engelcynn 
angelic, engellic 
anger, torn, grama, irre 
angle; see hook 
angrily, tome, irringa 
angry, irre, grapn, wrdlf, dbolgen, 

angry, to be, dbelgan 
animal, nedt 
ankle, ancleow 
announce, bodian, w. dat.^ dbedd- 

annuls dfdlian, dws&gan ; {annul 

laws), forniman 
anon, on dn 

answer, v., andswarian, andwyrdan 

answer, s., andswaru, andwyrde 

ant, aemette 

anvil, anfilte 

any, aenig 

any one, hwd 

anything, wiht, wuht 

anywhere, dhwaer, hwaer 

apart, sunder 

ape, apa 

apostate, apostata 

apostle, apostol 

appear, aete6wian ; J>yncan, impers,, 

w, dat, 
apple, aeppel 
apply, dte6n ; — apply oneself to, 

befeolan, w, dat. 
appoint, settan, dihtan, scedwian ; 

gelagian, genamian, gescirian, 

approach, nedlsecung. upgang 
approach, v,, genedlaecan 
archangel, he&engel 
archbishop, arcebiscop 
ardour, inbryrdnis, onbryrdnis 
are, sind, sindon, be6«J {Northum- 
brian aron) 
arise, drfsan ; {pe bom), wacan 
ark, earc 
arm, earm 

arm, v,, girwan, gewaepentan 
armour, redf, hereredf; firdham, 

firdhx^gl, eorlgewaede 
army, here, herefolc, folc, fird, 

around, ymbe, ymb, embe ; ymbut- 

an, onbi^tan 
arouse, weccan 
arrange, fadian, dredian 
array {oneself), trymian, trymman, 

arrow, fldn, strati 5 hildenaedre ; 

also arewe 
art, craeft, seam 
art {2 p. s,pres, of verb), eart 
artifice, seam, sirwung 
as, swd ; {according as), Caes fSe ; 

swilce, w, indie; as,., as, 'swd... 

swd; — as if, swilce, w, subj.; — 

cu soon as, s6na swd. [as^tH 

ascend, stfgan 
ascension, updstigennis 
ascent, upstige 
ascribe, getitelian 
ash, aesc 
ashamed, to be, scamian, impers, w. 



ace. of person and gen. of thing; 

baleful, bealufiill, bealu 


balk {ridge of land), balca 

dshes^ aescan, axan, ascan (^/.) 
ask^ dxian, dcsian, dscian ; biddan, 

ban {proclamation)^ gebann 

band, bend 

w, ace, ofpers, andgen^ of thing; 

bane, bana 

fricgan, frignan 

banish, dflfman 

asking, dxung, icsung 

bank {of river), e;l-stae» 

aspen {tree\ sesp, a^ps 

banner, cumbol, j>uf 

asSy assa 

banquet, symbel 

assail, on sittan 

baptism, fuUuht 

assemble, gegadrian, gesamnian 

baptize, fiillian 

assembly, gesamnung, gem6t 

bar, grindel 

assistance, fultum 

bare, baer 

associate, s,, gegada, eaidgeatealla 

bark, V,, beorcan 

associate with, t6 ge]>ecSdan 

barley, bere 

association, ge>e6dnis 

barm {yeast), beonna 

astrologer, tungolwftega 

bam, bem 

at, aet, t6 ; — at all, wiht, wuht, 

barrenness, unwaestm 

wihte; and see all 

barrow {hilt), beorh 

atone for, ongildan 

bast, baest 

attempt, onginnan 

bath, bae« 

attendant, foregenga, gecSngra 

bathe, banian ; trans, gebeffian 

aught, dwiht, dht 

bathing, beCung 

aunt, m6drige 

battle, gefeoht, hild, orett, here, 

authority, onweald 

gewinn, getoht, tohte; beadu, 

autumn, haerfest 

beaduldc; aescplega, ecgplega, 

avail, dugan 

gtiCplega, wfgplega 

avarice, gftsung 

battle-field, wael| waelstow, maettel- 

avaricious, fe6hg{fre 


avengi, dwrecan, wrecan 

be, wesan, weorVan, be6n 

avenger, wrecend 

beacon, bedcen 

avotd, forMgan, forcirran, forfledn 

beam, bedm 

await, bfdan, w. gen*, dbfdan, on- 

bean, bedn 


bear, s,, bera 

awake (arouse\ weccan, ^weccan ; 

bear, v., beran ; — {a child), geberan 

{to be awake), wacian ; {to become 

beard, beard 

awake), onwacan, onwacnan 

bearer of a corpse, Ifcmann 

away, onweg, aweg, fortJ, fram, 

beast, de6r, nedt, nften; {wild 


beast), wildde6r 

awe, ege, egesa 

beat, bedtan, cnyssan, ]ierscan 

awl, awel 

beautiful, faeger, hiwbeorht, fredlic. 

axe, eax 

scfne, torht, wlitig 

axle; see shoulder 

beauty, faegemis, wlite, beorhtnis 

aye; see ever 

because, for t^dm 0e, for 9^ tfe, t^aes 


»e, tJ^ 
beckon, b^cnan^ bedcnian 

become, weortJan 

back, baec, hrycg 

bed, bedd, rest 

back again, eft 

beer, be6r 

backwards, ofer baeq, under haec 

beetle {insect), b^td, bftel 

bad, yfel> earglic, fracod 

beetle {jammer), b^el 

bad, to become, yfelian 

befit, gerfsan 

badly, yfele, yfle 

before, adv,, fore, foran, beforan, aer 

bag, faetels 

before, prep,, for w. dat, beforan;' 

^d!//?^ger^fa, tiinger^fa; wkgef^ra 

{of time), aetforan, w. dat, t6for- 

bake, bacan 

an, w. dat., onforan, w. ace. 

bale, bealu 

beforehand, aetforan 



deg-yhedecisin {Gre£^. Pastoral,^, 285) 

beget, strfnan 

hegifty onginnan, beginnan 

beginnings fruma, frymC, onginn, 

behave y gebaeran, ffran 

behest, haes 

behind, adv,y behindan, set hindan, 

• on swaCe y-^rom behind, aeftan 

behind, prep.y beaeftan 

behold, behealdan, scedwian 

behold/ efne ! Id! hwaet ! 

behove, gebyrian, beh6fian 

being {creature), wuht, wiht 

belch, beailcettan 

belief, geledfa 

believe, gelffan 

believing, geledffuU, gelffed 

bell, bella {or belle) 

bellow, bellan 

belly, wamb, belg 

belong, gebyrian, belimpan 

beloved, le6f 

belt, belt 

bench, bene 

bend, beridan ; {bow down), liitan 

beneath, adv,, neo^an ; prep, beneotJ- 
an, w, ddt 

benefit, v,, fremian, w, dat. 

benefit, s., fremsumnis, fremu, fearf 

benevolent, welwillende 

bequeath, becwetfan 

bereave, beredfian 

berry, berige 

beset, bestandan 

besides, adv,, git, t6edcan; prep. 

{w. dat,), edc, toedcan 
besiege, ymbsittan, besittan 
besom, besma 
best, betst, shiest 
betray, forraedan, beswfcan ; {a city), 

betrayal, swicd6m 
better, adj,, betera, sdlra ; adv,, bet 
between, betwe6num, betwux, be- 

betwixt, betwux, betwix 
bewail, cwftJan 
beyond, begeondan 
bid, bebe6dan, be6dan 
bide, bfdan^ 
bier, bser. 
bill {weapon), bill 
bin, binn 
bind, bindan, cnyttan, saelan ; {as 

prisoner), wiflan 
birch, beorc 

bird, fugol 

birth, dcennednis, gebyrd ; {time 

of\ gebyrdtid; — 0/ noble birth, 

birthplace, cennungstow 
bishop, biscop 
bishopric, biscopst61 
bit, V,, {to furnish a horse with a 

bit), baetan 
bitch, bicce 
bite, bftaii 
bitter, biter 
black, blaec, sweart 
bladder, blaedr 
blade {of grass), blaed 
bldin, blegen 
blame, v,, taelan 
blast, blaest 
bleach, bldcian 
bleak ^pale), blaec, bide 
bleat, blaetan 

bleed, bl^dan ; swsetan {poet,) 
blend, blandan < 

bless, gebl^tsian 
blessed, gesaelig, eddig 
blessing, bl^tsung 
blind, blind 
blind, V,, dblendan 
blindly, blindlice 
bliss, bliss 
blithe, blf?Je 

blood, bl6d ; also heolfor, swdt {poet,) 
bloodshed, bl6dgyte 
bloody, bl6dig ; also dre6rig, heol- 

frig, swdtig {poet.) 
bloom, v., geblowan 
bloom, s,, bl6nia 
blossom, bl6stma 
blow, V,, bldwan ; — blow upon, be- 

blow {as a flower), bl6wan 
blow, s. {stroke), drepe, sweng 
boar, bdr, swfn ; {wild), eofor 
board, bord 

boar-spear, eoforspre6t 
boast, gebe6tian 
boasting, be6t, gilp 
boat, bdt 
bode, bodian 
bodily, Ifchamlic 

body, Ifc, Ifchama, fiaeschama, bodig 
boil, weallan 
bold, beald, gebilde, c^ne, dyrstig, 

fram, hwaet, snell, Strang ; arod, cdf 
boldly, bealdlice, c^nlice, framlice, 

boldness, dyrstignis, hwaetscipe 





bolster^ bolster 

bolt, bolt (?) 

bondy bend, clamm 

bone, bdn 

book, b6c 

boon, b^n [boon = IcqI. b6n] 

boot (remedy), h6t 

booty, Idc, hd» 

bore, borian 

borough, burh 

borrow, borgian 

bosom, b6sm, bearm 

both, begen; — both... and, aegCer... 
ge, z^...z^ 

bottom, botm ; (^ a lake, &*c.), 

bottomless, grundle^s 

bough, telga, b6h 

boundary, mearc 

bow, v., gebugan, bugan ; — bow 
down, trans., onhildan ; intrans., 
hnfgan, onliitan 

bow (for shooting, boga, fl^nboga 

bower, bdr 

bowl, boUa 

boy, cnapa, cniht 

braid, b'rt^dan 

brain, braegen 

bramble, bremel {or brdmel) 

branch {of a tree), telga 

brand, brand 

brandish {a sword), bewindan 

brass, aer, braes 

brave, g6d, heard, hwaet, Strang, 
stiffm6d, hr6r ; r6f {Jfoet.) ; un- 
earg ; and see bold 

bravehearted, heardm6d, stfCmod 

bravely, heardlice, )>egenlice 

bravery, hwaetscipe ; and see bold- 

breach, bryce ; {of agreement), 
weddbryce ; {of law), lahbryce 

bread, bredd 

breadth, braedu 

break, brecan ; {become broken), 
' sprengan ; — break to pieces, t6- 
brecan, forbre6tan ; — break asun- 
der, intrans., t6berstan 

breast, bre6st 

breastplate, byme, bymham 

breath, blaed, fnaest, brae© 

breathe, orCian 

breeches, \>x6c {pi. ofhr6c) 

breed, br^dan 

brew, gebre6wan 

bride, br^d 

bridegroom, br^dguma 

bridge, biycg 

bridle, bridels {or brfdels) 

bright, beorht, scir, torht, hddor, 
le6ht, le6htlic 

brightly, beorhte, hddre 

brightness, beorhtnis 

bring, bringan, aetberan, laedan ; — 

bring about, gewendan; — bring 

forth {child), cennan, dcennan, 

oncennan, tfman, tydran ; — bring 

up, f^dan 

broad, brdd 

brood, br6d {unauthorized) 

brook, V.J see use 

brook, s., br6c 

broom {plant), br6m 

broth, bro8 

brother, br6tJor 

brow, brd 

brown, bnSn 

buck, bucca 

buildi, timbrian, timbran, dtimbran, 
bytlan, araeran ; settan ; {firmly), 

building, getimbre, getimbrung, ge- 

bullock, buUuca 

bundle, byndel 

burden, byrtJen 

bum, intr., beoman ; trans., baer- 
nan, aelan, forswaelan ; — burn up, 
forbseman {trans.), forbeoman 

burning, s , bryne 

burst, berstan \— burst forth, bre- 
can ; — burst out, dberstan 

bury, byrgan, bebyrgan, bedelfan 

busy, bysig 

but, ac 

butter, butera {a borrowed word 
from Latin) 

buy, bycgan, gebycgan ; — buy off, 

by, be, bi ; {by means of), )>urh ; 
fram, w. pass, verb 

cable, sciprdp 

calamity, gelimp 

calf, cealf 

call, ceallian ; {to exclaim), clipian, 

cleopian; {to name), gecfgan; 

{to call out), hrfman 
callow {bald), calu 
calumny, h61 ; {attack on character), 




campy wfc, wfcstow, firdwfc 

campaign^ j., fird 

campaigHy z/., firdian 

can (/), cann 

candle^ candel (Latin) 

canon, canon {Lat, and Gk,) 

capacity, maegen 

captivity y haeftnfd 

capture, v., niman, f6n 

care, cam, cearu, heord 

care, v,,hogian; (Jo reck), meoman, 

r^can; (Jo care about), carian, 

onmunan *, {to take care of), gfm- 

an, w, gen. 
careful, carfuU, smeiUc 
careless, r^cele^s, gfnieleis, orsorh, 

carelessly, unwaerlice 
carelessness^ unwaerscipe, gfmeleist 
carnal, flseslic 
carrion, aes 
carry, beran, ferian, laedan, wegan ; 

carry off or away, dlaedan, o&€x- 

ian, iwegan 
cart, craet 
carve, ceorfan 
castle, castel (Latin) 
cat, catt 
catch, gelaecan 
cathedral, mynster 
cattle, cedp, feol^ it6, ne«it, nften, 

orf, hrytter 
cattle-plague, orfcwealm 
cause, d6n, w, infin, 
cause, s., intinga 
cauterize, fortendan 
cave, scraef 

cease, dblinnan, gestillan 
cease from, geswfcan, w. gen, 
celebrate, maersian 
celebrated, msere 
certain one, in, sum 
certain of gewiss, w, gen. 
certainly, gewisslice, georne 
chafer (insect), ceafor 
chaff, ceaf 

chain, clamm, bend, racente 
chain, v,, gehaeftan 
chalk, cealc 

chamber, biir, c6fa, reced 
chamberlain, biir))egn 
champion, cempa 
change, v., dwendan, behwirfan ; 

(change to the worse), onwendan 
change, s., edwenden ; (vicissitude), 

gebregd ; (reverse), edhwirft 
chapman, ce^pmann 

character (nature), hid 

charge, have in, bewitan 

chariot, craet 

charitable, cystig, aelmesgeom 

charity, aelmesgifu 

cheap s see purchase, sb, 

cheek, cedce 

cheer, fr^fran, gefr^frian, dr^tan 

cheese, c^se 

chew, ce6wan 

chicken, cycen 

chide, cfdan 

chilblain; see blain 

child, beam, cild, eafera 

childhood, cildhdd 

chill, fre6rig 

chill, s., c61q 

chin, cinn 

choice, d6m 

choice thing, cyst 

choke, for>rysmian 

choose, ce6san, gece6san 

chough, ce6 

church, cirice, circe ; (congregation), 

cinder, sinder 
circuit, ymbgang, ymbhwirft, be- 

circumference, ymbgang 
citizens, burhle6de, burhsittende, 

dty, ceaster, burh 
clamour, hredm, gebsere 
claw, clawu (or cldwu) 
clay^ claeg 
clean, claene 
clean, adv., claene 
cleanness, claennis 
cleanse, claensian 
clear (evident), swe6tol, swutol; 

{^sed of the voice), beorht 
clearly, swe6tollice 
cleave (adhere), clifian 
cleave (sever), cle6fan 
cleave asunder, t6cle6fan 
clerical, gehddod 
clew, cliwe 
cliff, clif 
climb, climban 
climb up, stfgan 
cling, clingan 
clip (to embrcLce), clyppan 
close, v., liican, beMcan ; (close up a 

road), forwyrcan 
cloth, cWi 
clothe, scr^dan 
clothes, gewaede 




cloud, wolcen. {The A, S, clM^ 

mass ofrock\ 
clouts cWt 
clover, clsefre 
clustery clyster 
coal, col 

coat, tunece, cyrtel^ p^d 
cock, hana, coc 
cockchafer; see chafer 
cock-crow, hancrdd 
cockle; see corti-cockle 
cold, ceald 
cold, s., c6\e 

collect, gegadrian, gesamnian 
colour, hiw 
coloured, fdh, li.% 
colt, colt 
comb, camb 
combat {single), ^nwfg 
come, cuman, becuman; {to the 

thrdne), f6n t6 rice 
comply, cymlfc 
comfort, fr6for 
comfort, v.; see cheer 
coming, cyme, t6cyme 
command, v,, be6dan, hdtan^ be- 

command, gebod, bebod, diht, hses, 

commit, betsecan 
common, gemaene ; -^ in common, 

companion, gesfV, gefi^ra, geneit 
company, gef^rscipe 
compel, geneddian, genfdan, fomi- 

complain, msenan, besprecan 
complete, v., fullfremman, fuUwyrC' 

an, >urhte6n 
compose {^rite), gedihtan 
comrade, wilgehl^Sa 
conceal, bedirnan, bediglian, mf^an 
conceive {be pregnant), geedcnian 
concerning, of 
condemn, forddman 
condition {state), hid 
conduct, faru, faer, drohtnung 
confess, andettan 
confine, becl^san 
confirm, dfaestnian, gefaestnian 
congregation, laSung, gelaSung 
conquer, dlecgan, gehnaegan, ge- 

wildan, ofweorpan; {land), ge^ 

conscious, gecnaewe, w. gen. 
consecrate, gehilgian 
consent to, ge>dfian 


consenier {consenting person), ge- 

consider, be>encan, >encan, hog- 

ian, smeigan, smedn, ismeigan, 

geondsceiwian, geond>encan 
consolation, fr6for 
console, frdfran, gefr^frian 
constancy, dnrsednis 
contain, bef6n 
contemplation, smeigung 
contempt, for^ewennis, forhohnis, 

contend, sacan 
continual, singal 
continually, singallice 
continue, wunian, jnirhwunian 
continuously, dnstreces, on dn 
contrary to, ofer 
contrive, i>encan 
control, wealdan 
conversion, gecirrednis 
convert, gebwirfan, behwirfan, ge- 

cook, s., c6c {Latin) 
cool, c6l 

cool {grow cool), c61ian 
com, com 
corn-cockle, coccel 
corner, hyrne 
corporeal, Uchamlic 
corpse, hraew, hri, Ifc 
correct, gerihtan 
cote {cot), c6te 
could, cu9e 
council, raed, nin 

councillor, wita, n^nwita, rsedbora 
counsel, raed 
count, rfman 
countenance, andwlita 
country, land, eard, molde 
courage, m6d, >rymni ; ellen {Poet,) 
course, ryne 

court, hof ; {inclosure), edor 
cover, belecgan, >eccan, be>eccan, 

helan, wrflian, bewrflian, bewyrc- 

an ; — {cover over), oferhelman ; 

{cover with rime), behredsan 
cow, cd 

cowardice, irg^ 
cowardly, earg, earglic 
cowslip, cusloppe 
crab (fish), crabba 
crackle {as flames), brastlian 
cradle, cradol, cildcradol 
craft; see skill 
cram {stuff), crammian 
crane, cran 




crave, crafian 

create, gesettan, gescippan, onstell- 

an, trymman 
creation, gesceap, gesceaft, gescap- 

ennis, frumscesift 
Creator, metod, meotod, scippend 
creature, wiht, wuht, gesceaft 
creep, cre6pan, snfcan 
cress, cerse, caerse 
crib, cribb 
crime, synn, undaed, mortJor, gylt, 

fdcen, firen, leahtor, min, mkn- 

criminal, s., wearg, scea^Ja 
cringe (bow, fall), cringan, gecring- 

cripple, cr^pel 
crooked, w6h 
crop {of wheat), wyrt 
crop {of a bird), cropp 
cross, r6d, gealga 
cross, sign of the, r6detdcn 
cross oneself, sdnian 
crow, crdwan 
crowd, gemang, hwearf 
^rr«^/, waelhre6w, rdCe, gram, grimm, 

wrdS, unswaeslic 
cruelly, ))earle 
crumb, cruma 
crush, t6cw^san 
crutch, cricc 
cry {clamour), cirm 
cry aloud, hrfman, cirman 
cultivate, gebdan 
cunningly, gedplice 
cup, bune, cuppe 
curse, s., curs 
curse, v., cursian 
cursed, dwirged 
curtain, fle6hnett 
custody, heord 
custom, >edw, sidu, gewuna ; {evil 

custom), unsidu 
cut, ceorfan, hedwan, bftan, snfiJan, 

cut away, dceorfan onweg 
cut off, beceorfan, w. ace, of pers, 

and instr, of thing 
cut through, forceorfan 


daily, daeghwimlice 

daisy, daeges ^ge 

dale, dael 

dam up {a river), forwyrcan 

danger, fr^cednis ; {sudden danger), 

dangerous, frdcne 
dare, durran, n^9an ; / dare, ic 

dark, deorc, mirce, sweart, wann, 

heolstor, >e6stre, j)e6sterfull 
darkness, heolstor, >e6stru 
darling, de6rling 
dart, daro© 
daughter, d6htor 
dawn, uhte, serdaeg, daegr^d 
dawn, V,, dagian 
day, daeg ; d6gor {poet.) 
day's work, daeg^eorc 
dead, dedd, forSgewiten, unlifigende 
deadly, de^^baere, cwealmbaer 
deaf, dedf 
deal, dael 

dear, dedre, d^re, le6f 
death, dedS, gewitennis, for®f6r, 

fortJsfe, hinsfty, swilt, hryre, fill, 

cwealm, cwild 
death, doomed to, fcege 
death-day, dedSdaeg 
decay, forrotian, fdlian, brosnian , 
decay, s., brosnung 
deceit, swied6m 
deceitful, swicol 
deceive, beswfcan, bepsecan 
decide, gescddan, gecedsan, rsedan, 

decline, 6Sfealla i, wanian 
decree, gersedan, raedan, gescirian, 

decree of fate, gesceaft 
deed, daed, >ing 
deem; see doom 
deep, de6p, steip 
deeply, de6pe 
deer, de6r 
defeat, v,, forslein 
defeat, siege 
defeated, sigeleis 
defend, werian, bewerian, gebeorg- 

an^ ealgian 
defender, weriend 
defile, besylian, besmftan, wemman ; 

defilement, wamm, gewemmednis 
degenerate, dbroSen 
delay, ildan, latian, uforian 
delay, ildung 
delve, delfan 
demand, giman, w, gen, 
demon, sceocca, scucca 
den, dehn 






deny^ ile6gan, w, dat of per s, and 
ace, of thing; forsacan 

departy gewitan 

departing thence, Sanonweard 

departure, litgang 

depending on, gelang aet 

deplore, bewdpan 

deprive of, beniman, benseman, w. 
gen, or instr,; bedaelan, belfSah, 
w, gen,; besn^Sian, w, instr.j 
dfirran, w, dat, of pers, and ace. 
of thing; bescirian, w, gen, of 
thing; 6Cwendan, w* dat, of pers, 
and ace, of thing 

depth, dfpe, d^pe 

derision, h6cor, hosp 

derisive, h6corwyrde 

descendant, maga 

desert {waste), w^sten 

desert, adj,, wilde 

desert {merit), gewyrht 

deserve, eamian 

design, ge>eaht, rsed 

desire, giman, w, gen,; gftsian ; 
willan ; wilnian, w. gen, or ace; 
gelystan, impers, w, ace. of per- 
son and gen, of thing 

desire, willa, lust, wilnung 

desirous, geom, w, gen, 

despair, ormddnis 

despairing, orm6d 

despairing of, orw^ne, w, gen, 

despise, forhogian, forse6n 

despiser, oferhoga 

destroy, ford6n, spillan^ forspillan, 
forwyrcan, fomiman, forfaran, 
dmirran, kbre6tan^ ddilgian, t6- 

destruction^ forwyrd, cwild 

determine, gemearcian 

detest, onscunian 

detestable, onscunigendlic 

devastate, hergian 

devastation^ hergaO, hergung, for- 

devil, dedfol 

devil, possessed by a, de6folse6c 

devilish, de6folcund, de6follic 

devise, icrseftan 

devour, forswelgan, fretan 

dew, dedw 

die, steorfan^ sweltan, cwelan, d- 
cwelan^ geendian, ge&ran, gewft- 
an, foi^aran 

difficult, earfoCe, earfoClic 

difficulty, with, unedtJe, unf^elice 

diffidence, unbildo 

di^, delfan 

digging, gedelf 

dignity, ge>yng«o, ge>ync?y, weorC- 

diligently, gecneordlice 
dilT, dile 
dim, dimm 
diminish, trans, and intrans., ge- 

din, to make a, dynian 
dint {a blow), dynt 
dip, dtfan ; dyppan 
dire, atol, slfCen 
direct, gerihtlsecan, gewissian, wfs- 

ian, tsecan 
direction, gewissung 
disciple, leomere, leomungcniht, 

discipline, >e6dscipe 
discourse, cwide 
discover, dfindan, onfindan 
discredit, unhlfsa 
disease, c6fS, ddl^ unc60u 
diseased, ddlig 
diseased, to be, idlian 
disengage oneself from, geaemtigian; 

reflex, w, gen, 
disgrace, scamu, scand 
disgraceful, scandlic 
dish, disc 

dishearten, geirgan 
dislike, un>anc 
disperse, intr., t6farany t6f^ran; 

trans,, t6sendan 
display, geswe6toliany geswutolian, 

display, s., waefersfn 
displease, mislfcian, w, dat, 
dissimulate, lytigian, Ifcettan 
distant, firlen 
distension, t6bMwennis 
distinct, swe6tol, swutol 
distinguished, ge)>ungen 
distribute, dselan 
district, scedt, scir 
district, governor of a, scirmann 
disturbance, unstillnis 
ditch, dfc 
dive, diifan 

divide, dselan, tdniman, t6dijelan 
divine, godcund, dryhtenlic 
divinely, godcundlice 
divinity, godcundnis 
division, dael 
do, d6n, ged6n 
dock {plant), docce 
doctrine, Idr 



dog^ hund 

doing amiss, miswende 

dole, geddl, dael 

dominion, onweald, rfce 

doom, d6m 

doom, V,, d^man 

doar, duru 

doudf, twe6, twe6nung 

doudt, z/., twe6gan, twe6n, w. gen,j 

twe6nian, impers, 
doubt, without, untwflice, untwc6- 

doubtfully, twe61ice 
dough, ddh (?) 
doughty, dyhtig 
dove, culfra; diife {or dufa) 
down {hilt), dun 

downwards, of dune, neoOan, niffer 
drag, dragan, te6n 
dragon, draca, wyrm 
draw, dragan, te6n 
draw {sword), gebregdan, dbreg- 

dan, te6n 
draw near, getengan 
dread, v., on>rdcian, ondraedan 
dreadful, on>rsece 
dream, v., gemsetan 
dream, swefn 
dreary, dredrig 
dress, waed, gewsede, waefels, hraegl, 

redf, scrud 
drink, drincan, stipan ; {drink up), 

gedrincan ; {give to drink\ drenc- 

drink, s., drenc 
drinking, gedrinc 
drive, drffan, drsefan ; {away), if^s- 

an, fordrffan, idrffan 
drop, dropa 
dropsy, wseterse6cm9 
drove, drdf 

drown, trans., ddrencan 
drunk, drunceh 
dry, dryge 
dry up, ddruwian 
due, gerisen 
dull, dol 
dumb, dumb 
dun (brown), dunn 
during, under, w, dot, 
durst {I), dorste 
dust, dust 
duty, riht 
dwatf, dweorg 
dwell, wunian, wfcian, eardian, ge- 

bdan, btigian 


dwell in, trans., healdan 
dwelling, him, wfc ; inn, geard, 
hof, eard, geset, gesteald, wunung 
dwelling-place, eardgeard 
dyke, df c 

^«^^, aeghwilc, w, gen.; aelc, ge- 
hwilc,aeghwae»er,aegt5er, gehwaeC- 

each one, gehwi 

^^f^^^y geom, geomfull, geomfullic, 

eagerly, geomfullice, geomlice, 

eagle, earn 
ear, edre 
earl, eorl 

early morning, aememergen 
earn, geeamian 
earnest, eomest; — in earnest, on 

eomest, eomestlice 
earnestly, eomeste 
earth, eorSe, grund, folde, molde, 

hruse, middangeard 
earthdweller, folddgend, foldbtiend, 

earthly, eorClic 
easily, edSe, s6fte 
east, edst 

east, from the, eistan 
east, to the, wiS edstan 
Easter, Edstron (;^/.) 
Easter-day, Edsterdasg 
eastward, eisteweard 
ectsy, eiiJe, ^8e 
eat, etan 
eaves, efes 
ebb, s., ebba 
ebb away, iebbian 
ecclesiastical, circlic 
eel, sel 

egg, «g 
ei^ht, eahta 

eighty, hundeahtatig 

either {of two), dhwaeVer, iwtfer 

either,,, or, oC©e...oS8e, 6Cer...6Cer 

eke, v., dean 

elder, ildra 

elders, ildran 

elder-tree, ellen 

eldest, ildesta 

eleven, endlufon 

eleventh, endlyfta 

elf, self 





ell^ eln 

elniy elm 

eloquence^ getyngnis 

else^ elles 

elsewhere^ ellor 

embrace^ clippan, ymbclippan 

embrace^ j., faeSm 

emmety aemette 

emperor, cdsere 

employment, notu 

empty, semtig, (del 

encamp, gewfcian, sittan 

enclosure, haga 

encourage, trymian, tiymman, ge- 

end, ende, geendung 
end, v., endian 
end, bring to an, onwendan 
endless, ungeendod 
endure, bfdan, w, ace; >olian 
enemy, fe6ndy fe6ndscea0a, sceaSa, 

English, Englisc 
English, the, Ehgle, Angle 
English language, Engliscgereord 
^^J^yy brdcan, «/. gen,j ne^tan, 

w, gen, 
enjoyment, notu 
enlighten, onlfhtan. 
enmity, fe6ung, of}>anca 
ennoble, gedfrsian, ged^rsian 
enough, gen6g 
enrage, gremian 
enslave, ge])e6wian 
ensnare, besirwan 
enterprise, onginn ' 
entice, spanan^ gew^man 
entirely, mid e^e, ealles, eallunga, 

entrails, innoV 
entrance, inngang, instaepe 
entrust, befaestan, w.dat,; bebe6dan 
equinox, emniht 
ere, aer 
erect, draeran 
err, misfdran 
err, to cause to, dwelian 
trrand, sSrende 
error, gedwild 
erst, surest 
escape, aetberstan, 69windan, losian, 

berstan ; — escape from, aetwindan, 

w. gen, 
establish, settan 
eternal, €zt 
eternally, ^celice 
eternity, ^cnis 

eucharist, hiisl 

evangelical, godspellic 

evangelist, godspellere 

even, efen, emn 

evening, aefen 

eventide, alfentfd 

ever, sefre, d, i.\i2k\—for ever, t6 

ealdre « 

every one, aeghwd 
everywhere, slghwa^r, gehwaer, ofer 

evident, swe6tol, swutol, open 
evident, to make, geswutolian 
evil, yfel 

evil, s., yfel, bealu 
evil-doer, mdnfremmende 
ev/e, e6we 
examine, dsmeigan 
example, bigspell, bysen, bysnung 
^example, to give an, bysnian 
excel, oferst^an 
excellence, dugu8 
excellent, aeVele, senile, unforciiV^ in- 

dryhten, gejmngen 
except, biiton 

excessive, ungemetgod, swfClic 
excessively, ungemet, ungemetlice, 

swftJlice, oferlice, ungef6ge 
exchange {barter), s., gewrixle 
excite, onstyrian 

exculpate oneself, betellan, reflex, 
excuse, gelddian, forla^tan 
exhalation, stedm 
exhausted, dgoten, w, gen, 
exhausted, to become, ateorian 
exhort, gemanian 
exile, wraecsfC 
expedition, sf9, rdd; {military), 

expel, ^drsefan 
expend, dspendan 
explain, gereccan 
exploration, scedwung 
explore, cunnian 
expound, dreccan 

extendj brs^dan, ger^an, istrec<tan 
extensive, wfdgille 
external, i^teweard, titanweard 
externally, titane 
extinguish, dcwencan, ddwsscan 
extreme, ^temest 
eye, edge 

face, andwlita 
fade away, wanian 



fail^ swfcan, geswfcan, w, dat, of 

person; dlicgan 
fain^ faegen 
fair^ faeger, scfne 
fairness y faegemis 
faith^ tre6w, tre6wtJ, getre6wt5, ge- 

tr^w», geleifa 
faifh^ want of gele^edst 
faithful^ getre6we, hold 
faithfully^ getre6wlice 
fall^ feallan, dre6san, gedre6san, 

hre6san, dhredsan ; {bow down), 

cringan ; {fall away\ dfeallan 
fall, s., dr)rre, hryre, nil ' 
fallow, fealu 
false, leds 
falsehood, leisung 
fame, hlfsa 
familiar, ctSS 
family, maegC, cynn, hfred 
family, member of a, hfwa 
famine^ hunger 
famous, named©, maere, maerlic, 

br^me, gefraege 
famous^ to make, maeran, gefrsegn- 

far, feorr \—from afar, feorran 
fare, v,, weorBan, imfiers, with accj 

{to go), faran 
farthing, feortJling 
fast {fasting), faesten 
fast, adj., faest 
fasten, faestnian 
fastness, faesten 
fat, faet 
fate, wyrd, sf©; {decree of fate), ge- 

father, faeder 
fathom, faettoi, faettoirfm 
fault, gylt 

favour, ^st, liss, hyldo 
fawn {as a dog), onfaegnian 
fear {be afraid), onscunian, reflex.; 

ofdrsedan, ondraedan 
fear, 6ga, ege, egesa; {fright), 

fyrhto, forhtung; {sudden dan- 
ger), faer 
fearful, egesfull, egeslic 
fearfully, egeslice 
fearless^ unforht, unforhtm6d 
feast, gebe6rscipe, wist 
feast, v., wistfullian 
feather, feCer 
fee {property), feoh 
feed, ffdan, dfi^dan 
feeing f^lan 
fell, ^fillan 


fell {skin), fell 

fen, fenn 

ferny feam 

fervour, wilm 

festival, fre61stfd 

festivity, plega 

fetch, feccan, fetian 

fetter, fetor, racente 

feud, faehS 

fever, fefor, fefor-ddl 

fever y to have a, hriSian 

few, fed 

fickle, ficol 

fiddler, fiiSelere 

fidelity, tredwtJ, tr^wtJ, getre6wtJ, 

field, feld, aecer, wang; {field of 

battle), wael 
fiend, fe6nd 
fierce, gram, grimm, irre,r^©e,hre6h, 

hre<^ stftJ, stf»m6d 
fiercely, wrdCum, irringa, stfClice 
fierceness, rdSnis 
fifteen, ffftfne 
fifth, fifta 

Jm fiftig 

./J^-^^ feohtan, winnan, sacan 
fight, s., gefeoht, feohte, camp, 

campwfg, tohte 
fighter, cempa 
file {rasp), fe61 
fill, fyllan, dfyllan 
fill, s,, fyllo 
film, filmen 
fin, fini^ 
find, findan, m^tan, begitan ; {find 

out), onfindan, dfindan 
finger, finger 
finish, V,, geendian, bet^nan, >urh- 

fir, furh 
fire, f^r 

fire-gieam, f^le6ht 
firm, faest, trum 
firmly, faestlice, faeste 
firmness, faestnis 
first, forma, fyrmest, fyrst 
first, adv., aerest 
fish, fisc 
fisher, fiscere 
fishing, fiscoC 
fist, ff st 
fitly, sidelice 
fitting, gelimplic 
five, f f f 

fiame, blaest, Kg 
flat {applied to land), filde ' 




flatter^ 61eccan 

flattery, 61eccung 

flax^ fleax 

flea^ fled 

flee, fle6gan^ gefle6han 

fleece, fl^s 

fleet, adj,, fle6tig 

flesh, fli£sc 

fleshly, flaesclic 

flight, flyht, fledm 

flight, to put to, dflfgan, dflfman, 

geflfman, f^san 
^/«/, flint 
flitch, flicce 
^^a/, fle6tan 
yf(£7^^, flocc 
flood, flod 
flooded, fldde 
^^^r, fl6r, flett, heallwudu 
flourish, ))e6n, ge):e6n, wridian, ge- 

flourishing, gebl6wen 
_/^w, fldwan; (^w a river), feallan, 

flow of the tide, fl6d ; (^stream), 

fluctuate^ wealcan 
fly, s,, fiedge 
fly, 2/., fle6gan 
/oat, fola 
foam, fdm 
fodder, f6dor 
^^, fe6nd 
/^/ii fealdan 
folk, folc 

follow, folgian, fyligan 
following, seftera 
folly, unsnotomis, unwisdom, un- 

raed, hygeleast, dysig 
food, f6da, mete, metsung, aet, nest, 

feorm, bigleofa 
food, want of, metel^st 
foolish, dysig, dysiglic, dwaes, dol 
foolishly, dollice 
foot, f6t 

foot-measure, f6tmael 
footprint, spor 
for, for, t6 
forbid, forbeddan 
force, nfd 
force^ by, nfde 
yj7r.fl?, ford 

forefather, forCfaeder 
foreign, fremde, welisc, el>e6dig 
foreigner, wealh 

forest^ wudu, holt, weald, wuduholt 
forge, dsmitJian 


forged, ge>uren 

forget, forgitan 

forgive, forgifan 

forgiveness {of sins), forgifennis 

former, aerra 

formerly, gedra, gt6, gid, id, gefyrn, 

forth; see forwards 
forthwith, s6na, sedre, CsSrrihte 

dnunga, semninga 
fortification, geweorc 
forty, fe6wertig 
forwards, fortJ 
foster father, f6storfaeder 
foul, fiil 
found {a town), dsettan, settan ; {a 

building), trymman 
foundation, gesetnis, staSol, weall- 

fountain, willa 
four, fe6wer 
fourfooted^ fitJerfi^te 
fourteen^ fe6wertfne 
fourth, fe6r?Ja 
fowl; see bird 
fowler, fuglere 
fox, fox 

foxglove, foxes glofa 
fragment, bryce 
fragrance, stenc 
frailty, tydernis, hnescnis 
frankincense, rdcels 
free, fre6 
free from, leds 
freeze, fre6san 
fresh, fersc 
Friday, frigedae^ 
friend, fre6nd, wine 
friendless, freondleds 
friendly^ fre6ndlic, hold 
friendship, fre6ndscipe 
fright, fyrhto, forhtung 
frightened, dfirht 
frivolity, fdelnis 
frog, frocga 
from, fram, of, aet ; {fo learn from = 

geliornan aet) 
frost, forst 
frosty, hrfmig 
frozen, froren 

fruit, waestm, ofet, bl^d, bl6stma 
fry, gehirstan 
frying, hirstung 
fryingpan, hearstepanne 
full, full 
fully, fiillice 
funeral, lic>*enunj 





funeral piUy dd, bael 

glide, glf dan 

furlongy furhlang 

glitter, lixan 

furnace^ ofen 

gloaming, gl6mung 

furrowy furh 

gloom, gl6m 

further^ furtJor 

gloomy, to become, gesweorcan 

further away^ ufor 

glorify, maeran, maersian 

furze, fyrs 

glorious, >rymmfaest, >rymmfull, 

future, tdweard 

jvymmlic, >ry©lic, maere, maerlic, 

future, s., foitJgesceaft 

blaedfsest, tfrfaest, torhtlic 

gloriously, hlfsfullice, d6mlice 


glory, wuldor, tfr, hrdC, d6m, lof, 


maerCu, blaed, >ry»u, >rymm, 

£^atrt, gewinnan, strfnan 

weortJmynt, wurtJmynt 

^alt, gealla 

glory, eager for, d6mgeorn 
glove, glof 

gallows, gealga, galga 

game, gamen 

gluttony, oferfyll 

g<^ng, gangan 

gnash the teeth, gristbftian 

gannet, ganet, ganot 

gnashing of teeth, gristbftung 

gape, geapian 

gnat, gnaet 

garment^ scnid 

gnaw, gnagan 

gate, geat 

go, gdn, gengan, cuman, faran, f^ran, 

gatekeeper, geatweard 

ferian, steppan, wadan, scrftJan, 

gather {flowers), gadrian ; {collect). 

te6n, wendan {reflex, or intrans,) 


go in a trcu:k, spyrian 

gaze, starian 

go without, for>olian, w, instrum. 

gear, gearwe 

go wrong with, mislimpan, impers. 

gem, gimm, gimmstdn 

w, dat. 

general^ s,, folctoga 

goad, gdd 

general {common), gemaene 

goat, %iX 

generally, gemaenelice 

God, god 

gentle, r6w, MCe, geswaes, smylte 

god-child, godbeam 

gently, KCelice 

goddess, gyden 

gesture, gebaere 

godfather, cumpaeder 


God-fearing, godfyrht 

get at {reach), geraecan 

godson, godsunu 

ghost, gdst 

gold, gold 

giant, eoten, ent, >yrs, gigant 

golden, gylden 

gift, gifu, He, ledn 

goldsmith, goldsmiS 

gigantic, eotenisc 

good, g6d, g6dlic, til, aerfest 

gild, gyldan 

goodly, godlic 

girdle, gyrdel 

goodness, g6dnis 
goods, god 

girl, mfpgden, maeden, maegB 

^V^, gifan, s6llan ; {permit to have). 

goose, g6s 

onlfhan, w, dat, of pers, and gen. 

gore {blood), neolfor 

of thing; {grant), unnan, w, dat. 

gorse, gorst 

of person and gen, of thing 
give away, forgifan, forgildan 

gory, heolfrig 

gospel, godspell 

give up, ofgifan, oflaptan 

gout, gihOa 

giver, brytta {poet,) 

govern, gewealdan 

glad, glaed, glaedm6d, faegen, blfVe. 

government, ste6r 


grace, 6s\. ; {of God), gifu 

gladden, gegladian, iiitan 
gladly, glaedlice, r6tlice 

gracious, hold 

grandfather, eald faeder 

glass, glaes 

grant, unnan, getftJian, both w, gen. 

gleam, scfma, glaem 

of thing and dat, of person; {grant 
as a favour), tfCe fremian 

glede {hot coal), gl^d 

glee, gliw 

granted, gifeSe 



graspy gegrfpan, grdpian, f6n, haf- 

grasps faeWm, grdp, clamm 
grasSy graes 
grave, graef 

gravely sandceosel, gre6t 
gray, graeg 
gray {of hair) , hdr 
gray-haired f blandenfeax 
greaty gredt, micel 
greater, mdra 
greatest, msest 
greatly, miclum 
greatness, micelnis 
greedily, graediglice 
greediness, gffernis 
^^tf^, graedig, gffre 
green, grdne 
^r^^/, grdtan 
j^y, wed, sdr, hearm 
grief, tidings of, weispell 
grieve, sdrettan 

grievous, swdr, sir, IdC, wrd'Slic 
grievously, weorce 
^ff/w, grimm, grimmlic 
grind, gegrindan 
grip, gripe, grdp 
gripe, gegrfpan, grfpan 
groan, grdnian 
groaning, grdnung 
groom, guma 
grope, grdpian , 
ground, grund, fl6r, folde 
groundsel, grundeswelge 
grove, bearu 
grow, weaxan, gr6wan ; {grow up), 

dweaxan ; {grow over), beweaxan 
growth, waestm 
grudge, of>anca, inca 
guard, V,, beheaLdan, healdan, war- 

guardian, weard 
guardianship, weard 
guest, gist, flettsittende 
guidance, gewissung 
guide, gewissian, wfsian 
guild, gild 
guilt, gylt, scyld 
guilty, scyldig, forscyldigod 
gut, gutt 


habit, gewuna, |>edw 
had, hsefde 
hail, hagol 
hailstorm, hagolfaru 


hair, haer ; ?iead of, feax 

half, healf 

hall, heall, sele, sael, seld 

hallow, gehdlgian 

halt {lame), healt 

hammer, hamor 

hand, hand ; folm {poet.) 

hand over, X6 handa Isetan, draecan 

handgrasp, mundgripe 

handiwork, handgeweorc 

handle, helf 

handy {neaf^, gehende 

hang, trans,, dh6n, geh6n ; intrans, 

happen, gelimpan, getfmian, weortJ- 

an, wesan 
happiness, sael, gesaelS 
happy, gesselig, eddig 
harbour, port 
hard, heard 
harden, dhirdan 
hardhearted, heardheort 
hardheartedness, heardheortnis 
hardly, unedSe 
hardness, heardnis 
hardship, earfoC, geswinc 
hare, hara 
harlot, miltestre 
harm, hearm, bealu 
harp, hearpe 
harp, v., hearpian 
harper, hearpere 
harping, hezCrpung 
harrow, s,, herewe, herwe (?) 
harrow, v., ettan 
harry, hergian 
harrying, hergung, hergaW 
hart, heorot 

harvest, rfp, rfptfma, haerfest 
haste, 6fost ; — with haste, 6fstlice 
hasten, ^fstan, onettan, fundian ; 

f^san {reflex,) 
hastily, recene, ricene 
hat, haet, hsett 
hate, hatung, hete 
hate, v., hatian, M9ian, fe6n 
hateful, ld«, IdClic 
hater, hata 
hatred, anda, nfV 
haughty, oferwlenced, ofenn6d 
have, habban 
haven, haefen 
hawk, hafoc 
hay, hfg, h^g 
hazel, h;esel 
he, h€, se 
head, hedfod, hafola 





headland^ naess 

headless^ hedfodleds 

head-man {leader), hedfodmann 

heal, hselan 

health, gesundfuUnis, haelo 

healthy, hdl, onsund, gesund, ge- 

sundfull, hdlwende 
heap, hedp 
hearing, gehfmis 
hearken, h^rcnian, h^rcnian 
heart, heorte, mdd, hyge ; sefa, 

ferhS {poet,) 
hearth, heorC 
heat, hsete, hsetu 
heat, v., onhsetan 
heath, hseS 
heathen, hae^Jen 
heathendom, haetfenscipe 
heave, hebban 
heaven, heofon, heofone 
heaven, kingdom of, heofonrfce 
heavenly, heofonlic 
heavy, nefig, swdr 
hedge, haga 

heed, gfman, w,gen,j h^dan, w,gen, 
heel, h6h, h^la 

height, hdh9u, hedhnis, hednnis 
hell, hell, hellewfte 
hell-fire, hellbryne 
hell-gate, helldor 
helmet, helm 
help, help, ftdtum, fr6for, dr, duguS, 

^^^, V,, helpan, zt/. ^/<«/. ^r gen,; 

fylstan, w, dat.j gelaestan, w.dat,; 

forstandan, w. dat.j gefultumian 
helve, helf 
hemp, hanep, haenep 
hen, henne 
hence, heonan 
henceforth, heonan for® 
her, ace, case, hf ; dat., hire 
herdsman, swdn, hirde 
here, hdr 

heretic, gedwolmann 
heritage, Idf, irfe, irfeweardnis 
hesitate, wandian, ildan 
hew, hedwan ; {}iew down), dhedw- 

hidden, dime, dfgol 
hide, V,, geh^dan, beh^dan, helan 
hide {skin), h^d, fell 
hie, higian 
high, heih, hedlic 
hdl, beorg, dtin, Yddkw, hlinc, munt, 

hill-side, hliff 

hilt, hilt {often in pi,) 

him, dat,, him ; ace, hine 

hinder, gelettan, w, cu:c, ofpers, and 

gen, of things hremman ; {hin- 
der from or in), dmirran, w, gen, 

of thing 
hip {dog-rose), he6pe, hi6pe 
hip {thigh), hype 
hire, h^ian, dh^rian 
his {own), sfn 

historian, >e6dwita, wyrdwritere 
historical, gewyrdelic 
history, staer 
hither, hider 
hoard, hord 
hoard, v. hordian 
hoarfrost, hrfm 
hoarse, hds 
hoary, hdr 
hold, healdan 
hold out {endure), ])olian 
hole, hoi 
hollow, hwealf 
holly, holegn 
holy, hdlig 
home, hdm, eard, c^, c^u ; — at 

home, aet hdm 
home-coming, hdmcyme 
homewards, hdmweard, hdm- 

honest, getredwe 
honestly, getredwlice 
honey, hunig 
honour, ix, drweorWnis, mae?J, weortf- 

mynt, wurBmynt, weortJscipe, 

honour, v., drian, weorfJian, wurtJ- 

ian, drweorBian, maeCigian 
honour, worthy of, drweortJ 
honourable, drweortJfuU, weorCfuU, 

honourably, weortflice, wurClice, dr- 

hood, h6d 
hoof, h6f 
hook, h6c 

hook {fish-hook), angel 
hop, hoppian 
hope, hopa, hyht 
hope, V,, hopian, gehyhtan 
hopeless of, orw^ne, w, gen, 
horn, horn 
horse, hors, mearg, mearh; eoh 

{poet), wicg {poet,) 
host {vast number), unrfm, ungerfm 
hostage, gfsel 
hostile, IdC, fdg, hetol, wrd8, unhold 





hostility^ fsehS, wiCersac, unfrit^ 

hot, hdt 

hotly y hdte 

hound, hund 

hour, tfd 

hous€y hds, inn, botl 

household, hfred 

householder, b6nda, hdsbdnda 

how, hd 

however, hwaefJre, CedhhwaetJere, 

^«^, hiw, bleoh 
^«^, bright of, hiwbeorht 
human, mennisc 
humble, ed9m6d 
humble, v., geedOmddan 
humbly, ed?tai6dlice 
humiliate, gehfnan, forbfgan 
hundred, hund, hundtedntig 
hunger, hunger 
hunt, huntian 
hunter, hunta 
hunting, hunta9 
husband, ceorl, wer 
husbandry, tilung, teolung 
hustings, hdsting 
hymny lofsang 

/, ic 

ice, f s 

icicle, cdegicel, fsgicel 

idle, fdel 

idleness, fdelnis 

idol, dedfolgild, heai^ 

idolater, de6folgilda, hseOengilda 

idolatry, hsetSengild 

iptominious, hednlic, huxlic 
tptominiously, bismerlice 
Ignorance, nytennis 
ignorant, nyten 

ill {sick), mettrum, untrum, se6c 
ill, to make, geuntrumian 
ill, adv,, yfele, yfle 
illness, untrumnis, mettrumnis 
illuminate, onlfhtan 
ill-use, gehfnan, misbe6dan, tucian 
image, onlfcnis 
immediately, recene, ricene 
immense, ormsete 
impel, f^san 
impending, onssege 
improper, ungerisenlic 
improve {become better), g6dian ; 
{make better), bdtan 

imprudence, unwfsdom 

impure, unsffre, wammfull 

in, in, prep,; on, prep. j inn, adv* 

in exchange for, wi©, w. dat, 

in front of, tdgednes, w. dat 

in order that, x6 Saem Caet 

in, to get, feolgan 

incense, r^cels 

inch, ynce 

incite, dweccan, stihtan, onbryrdan, 

incline, bdgan, gebugan ; {intrafts.), 

incline oneself {bow down), hildan, 

incomparably, unwiCmetenlice 
increase, weaxan ; {trans.), gefcan 
increase, s., edca 
incredible, ungelffedlic, ungelffend- 

incredibly, ungefrjeglice 
indeed, witodlice, eomestlice, hiiru 
indescribable, undsecgendlic 
indignation, nfC 
infirm, untrum 

infirmity, untrumnis, untrymnis 
inflame, onaelan, onbaernan, onhaet- 

inhabit, warian 
injure, wirdan, wyrdan, sceOCan, 

injurious, deriendlic 
injury, hearm, dam, W&, te6na, 

injustice, unriht 
inn, inn 
inner, innera 
innermost, innemest 
innocence, bilewitnis 
innocent, bilewit, unscaeWig, un- 

scyldig, unforworht 
innocently, bilewitlice 
insignificance, wdcnis 
inside, innan 
inspect, gehdwian 
inspiration, onbryrdnis 
institute, gestaelan, stselan, settan 
instruct, taecan 
instruction, Idre6wd6m 
insult, v., bismerian, bismrian, 

insult, s., hosp, h6cor, bismer, te6na 
intelligence, andgit, gewitt 
intelligent, andgitfull 
intend, gemyntan, >encan, hogian 
intense, ormsete 
intercede for, ))ingian, w. dat. 




intercept, offaran 
internal, inweard 
interpret, gereccan 
interprreter, wealhst6d 
into, int6, in, on, inn on 
intolerable, undberendlic 
invite, gelaSian 
involuntarily, ungewealdes 
inward, inweard 
inwardly, inweardlice 
iron, (ren 

iron, adj., fren, fsern 
is, is 

island, fgland, icga», igeo» 
//, hit 
ivy, ifig 


jaw, ceafl 

jeweller, gimmwyrhta 

join, gefegan 

journey, sf», sMaet, faer, faru 

journey, v., siSian 

joy, bliss, blf»nis, wynn, hyht, mirgtJ, 

dredm, gliw, willa 
joyfully, wynnum, hyhtlice 
joyless, wynnleds 
judge, ddma, d^mend 
judge, v., ged^man 
judgment, d6m 
just, riht 
justice, gerihte 


keel; see ship 

keen {bold), c^ne 

keep, healdan, behealdan ; cdpan 

kernel, cymel 

kettle, ctttl, cytel 

key, caeg 

kill, cwellan, dcwellan, dcwilman, 
^dfdan, dfillan, bewegan, forweg- 
an, forspillan, hedwan, gehedw- 

kin, cynn 

kind, hold 

kind {nature), gecynd 

kindly, drlice 

kindness, mann>waemis 

kindred, cynren 

king, cyning, drihten,dryhten, weald- 
end; ire^{poet,) 

kingdom, cyned6m, cynerfce, rfce 

kinsman, maeg 

kinswoman, mdge 

kiss, cyssan 

kiss, s., coss 

kitchen, cycene 

kith, cjn 

knave ; see boy 

knead, cnedan 

knee, cne6w 

knife, seax 

knight; see boy 

knit, cnyttan 

knock, cnucian 

knock against, hnftan 

knoll, cnoll 

knot, cnotta 

know, cndwan, gecndwan, cunnan, 
gecunnan, witan ; — / know, ic 
wdt ; — / know not, ic ndt 

know, not to, nytan 

know assuredly, t6cndwan 

knowledge, craeft 

known, cu©, gecndwen 

known, to make, c^an 

labour, geswinc 

lack, onsfn 

ladder, hlaeder 

lade, hladan 

lady, hlaefdige 

lair, leger 

lake, lagu, mere 

lamb, lamb 

lame, lama 

lament, he6fian, gnomian, rdrian 

lamentation, he6fung, gnomung 

lamp, le6htfaet 

land, land ; {native), d»el 

language, spraec, gereord, ge])e6de 

lank, hlanc 

lap, bearm 

larboard, )Q?t^GT^ 

lark, Idwerce 

last, ^emest, latest 

last {to endure), laestan 

late, adv., late, sfS 

Latin, laeden 

laugh, hlihhan 

laughter, hleahtor 

law, gerihte, gesetnis, lagu; {of 

God), ae 
lawfully, lahlice 
lay, lecgan 
lay down, dlecgan 
lay low {make to sink), gesaegan 
lay waste, dw^stan, f»an 
layman, lay, laewed 
lead, Isedan 



lead {fnetaPjy ledd 

leader y heretoga,folctoga,healdend, 

hedfodmann, rseswa {poet,) 
leafy ledf 
leaky, hlece 
leaHy adj.y hls^ne 
lean, v,, hkenan 
leap, hledpan 
leap up, dhle^pan 
learn, leomian ; — learn by enquiry y 

gefrignan, gedxiap 
learned, gelaered, wfs 
learner, leomere 
learning, leomung, Idr 
least, laest 
leather, leSer 

leave, laefan ; {behind), ketan 
leave, s,, ledf 
lee {shelter), hle6w 
leech {physician), laece 
/<?^/^, ledc 
legion, werod 
/<!?;^, lihan, Isenan 
Lent {spring), lencten 
less, laessa, adj,; laes, adv. 
'less {suffix), -leds 
lessen^ trans, and intrans,, gelyt- 

lest, ^ laes fJe 
/?/, laetan, forketan ; — let us, uton, 

/<?//!^r, aerendgewrit 

letters {writings), stafas, pi. 

lewd {ignorant), laewed 

lick, liccian 

lid, hlid 

lie {tell lies), le6gan 

lie {lie down), licgan, gelicgan ; {lie 

in wait for), saetan 
lief le6f 
life, Iff, gisi, bked, feorh, ealdor, 

life-days, Iffdagas {pi.) 
lifeless, ealdorleds, sdwulle^, or- 

lift, hebban, dhebban 
light, s., Ie6ht 
light {of weight), le6ht 
li^ht {of brightness), le6ht 
lighten {make lighter), gelfhtan 
like, gelf c, w. dat. ; onlTc 
likeness, onlknis, gelfcnis 
likewise, swd same 
limb, lim, \\% gesceap 
lime {for mortar), Hm 
lime-tree, lind 
linden-tree or wood, lind 


lineage, strengc 

linen, s., Ifn ; adj., Hnen 

//«/^ {ring), hlence 

lion, le6 

//^, lippa 

list {edge of cloth), list 

/Af^^f, gehlystan 

lithe. If Se 

//////, lytel 

little, adv., lyt, lythw6n 

/rV//^ one, lytling 

live, libban 

livelihood, bigleofa 

liver, lifer 

lof Id! 

load, v., hladan, gehlaestan 

loaf, hldf 

loam, 1dm 

/(C7tf;y, Isen 

loathe, IdOian, hatian 

loathsome, ld9 

lobster, lopystre 

/^^^, z/., lucan 

lock of hair, locc 

/(0/^^, innian 

lofty, stedp, uplic 

/f?/^^, lang 

long, adv., langlice 

long ago, gefim 

long-Uisting, langsum 

loo%, 16cian, wlftan 

loose {loosen), forlsetan, dKsan, on- 

windan, onlaetan 
loquacity, ofersprsec 
lord, hliford, helm, onwealda ; 

hearra, fired (Poet.); {the Lord), 

lordly, dryhtlic 
lore, Idr 
lose, le6san, forle6san, bele6san, 

w. instr, 
loss, lyre 
lost, to be, losian 
lot, hlot 
loud, hldd 
loudly, hldde 
louse. Ids 

lout {to bow down), Idtan 
love, lufe, lufu, myne, liss 
love, v., lufian 
lover, fre6nd 
low {as a cow), lil6wan 
lukewarm, wlaec 
lurk, Ititian 
lust, lust 

-ly, -lie, -lice (yj7r -Ifc, -Ifce) 
lying {act of), leger 






mady w6d 

madnessy w6dnis 

magistrate, ealdormann 

maiden, maegden, maeden 

mail, coat ^, herebyme, herenett, 
heresirce, liSusirce 

main {strength), maegen 

majority, hedfodgerfm 

make, macian, scippan, wyrcan 

maker, wyrhta 

male, wsepnedmann 

male-child, hysecild 

malefactor, wearg 

mallow, mealwe 

malt, mealt 

man, mann, manna, ceorl, gum a, 
wer, secg, scealc, magu, esne; 
also, eorl, rinc, aeSeling {poet.) 

manhood {state of being a man), 

manifold, manigfeald 

mankind, manncyn 

manner, wfse 

manners {morality), >edwas, pL 

many, manig ; fela, w, gen» 

mar {to spoil), merran 

march, steppan 

mare, mere 

mark, mircels ; {ornament), mael 

mark out, gemearcian 

marriage, gifta (//.) ; ae 

marrow, mearh 

marry, wffian ; geaewnian, w, dat 

marsh, mersc 

marten, mearS 

martyr, martyr 

martyr, v., gemartyrian 

martyrdom, martyrd6m 

marvel, wundor 

marvellous, wundorlic 

mciss (Lat missa), maesse ; mass- 
priest, maessepre6st 

massive, gredt 

mast {of ship), maest, segelgird 

mate {companion), gemaca 

maternal, m6dorlic 

matins, uhtsang 

mature, to become, gerfpian 

maw, maga 

may {to be able), mugan ; pres, ic 
maeg; pret, ic mihte; {may be 
allowed), m6tan ; pres. ic m6t, 
pret, ic m6ste 

me, m^, mec 

mead {drink), medu, meodu 

meal {repast), gereordung, mael 

meal {flour), melu 

meal, to take a, snaedan 

mean {insignificant), wdc, wdclic; 

{disgraceful), hedn 
mean {to intend), maenan 
meanwhile, betwux Oisum 
measure, gemet 
measure, v., metan 
meat, mete 
mediation, >ingung 
mediator, forespreca 
medicine, laeced6m 
meditate, ]>encan 
meed {reward), mdd 
meet, gemdtan 
meeting, gem6t 

melody, sw^g, swinsung, hledtJor 
melt, meltan 
member, lim 
memorable, >ancwir5e 
memory, myne, gemynd 
men, men; also firas, nitJas, ilde 

{all poet.) ; see man 
mend, gebdtan 
merciful, milde, mildheort 
mercy, mildheortnis, milts, milts- 

ung, dr 
mere {lake), mere, lago 
merit, eamung, gewyrht 
mermaid, merewtf 
merry, merg, bliSe 
message, gebodscipe, aerende 
messenger,hod2i, aerendraca, dr,byd- 

methinks, m^ >ynctJ 
mid, adj., midde 
middle, middel 
midge, mycg 
midnight, middeniht 
might, miht, meaht 
mighty, mihtig, ])earlm6d 
mild, milde, smylte 
mile, mfl, mflgemearc 
milk, meolc 
mill, mylen 
mind, m6d, ge>anc, sefa, mddsefa, 

gewittloca, gehyge, hyge, hr^Cer ; 

ferhS {poet.) 
mindful, gemyndig, gemun 
mine, mfn 
mingle, mengan 
ministration, >egnung, >^nung 
minster, mynster 
mint {plant), minte 
mint {for money), mynel 
miracle, tdcen 




mirky^ myrce, ]>e6stre 

movement, power of, fd8e 

mirth, mirg« 

mow, mdwan 

mischuf, anda, yfel, unriied 

much, unlytel ; micle, w, compara^ 

misdeed, misdsed 


miser, gftsere 

multitude, menig^, heiip, worn ; 

misery, wracu, wraec, irm^u 

{host) dugufJ 

misfortune, ungelimp, ungessel©, IdS 

munificence, gumcyst 

mishap, ungelimp 

murder, mors, mortJor, morffdaed, 

mist, mist, genip 

cwalu, siege, mannsliht 

mistletoe, misteltdn 

murderer, bana, cwellere, mortJor- 

misty, grow, genfpan 

wyrhta, mannslaga 

mixed, geblanden 

murmur, murcnian ; {murmur at), 

moderate {small), maete, medmicel 


moderate, v., gemetgian 

must, I, ic sceal ; cf ic m6ste 

moderation, gemetg^ng 

mutter, clumian 

moisture, waeta, ste;^,m 

my, mfn 

mole {a spot), mil 

myrrh, myrre 

moment, in a, bearhtme 

mystery, run 

monastery, mynster 

monastic, mynsterlic, munuclic 


monastic orders, munuchid 

Monday, m6nan-daeg 

nail, naegel 

money, feoh, fe6, sceatt 

nail, v., naeglian 

money-changer, mynetere 
moneyless, teohleds 

naked, nacod 

name, nama 

monger (chapman), mangere 
m^nk, munuc, mynstermann 

name, v., genamian, genemnan ; 

{call by name), hdtan 

monster, aglaeca, elwiht 

ncip {to slumber), hnaeppian ' 

month, m6na9 

narrate, reccan, iwrftan 

mood J see mind 

narrative, racu, spell, gesetnis 

moon, m6na 

narrow, nearu, enge, smael 

moor, m6r 

narrowly, nearulice 

morality, sidu 

nation, ])e6d, ))e6dscipe, le6dscipe, 

more, mdra; adv., mi; — much 

maeg«, dryht, dryhtfolc 

more, micle swfittor 

native, landbuende 

morning, morgen, morgentfd; {ear- 

native land, cffS, c^tKJu, 6f5el 

ly) uhte 

nature, gecjTid 

morsel, snaed 

naught, ndwiht 

mortal, deddjic 

nave {of a wheel), nafu 

moss, me6s ^ 

near, nedh, n^h ; gehende, w, dat. 

most, m^st;— most of all, eallra 

nearly, wel 


nearly every, gewelhwilc 
neat {cattli), nedt 

moth, mo^e 

mother, m6dor 

necessary, nfdbe])earf 

motion, sfS 

necessity, nfd, nfd))earf 

mould {earth), molde 

neck, heals, sweora ; hnecca 

mound, hlapid, hlsew 

need, nfd, n{d>earf, ))earf 

mountain, beorg, munt 

need, v», J>urfan, w. gen. 

mountain-stream, firgen-stredm. 

need, I, ic l>earf, w. gen. 

\Firgen only occurs in com- 

needle, nsedl 


needy {in want), l)earfende 
neglect, forlaetan, forgfman 

mourn, meoman, gnoman 

mourning, gnomung 

neigh, hnaegan 

mouse, mtis 

neighbourhood, neiwist, nedwest 

mouth, mii» ; {of a river), muCa 

neither, n^ihwae^er, n6hwae»er, ndw- 

move, styrian, dstyrian, hr^ran ; 

Cer; neither... nor, ndw^er ne... 

{intrans), wagian 





_ « ^^^ 

ness {headland)^ naess 

nest, nest 

nety nett 

nether; see downwards 

nettUy netele, netle 

never, naefre 

new, niwe 

/f^r/, adv., aet n^stan 

»;^^, nedh 

night, niht 

w^/ft/, ^, nihtes 

nightingale, nihtegaie 

nightly, nihtlic 

nine, nigon 

ninety, hundnigontig 

ninth, nigoOa 

no, nd, nese; — no one, nin, naenig 

nobility, aeCelu 

«^^/^, J., aeCeling 

«^^/^, aeffele, J>rySlic, torht, torhtm6d, 

nobly, weortJlice, wurtJlice 
noise, gebraec, breahtm 
noise, to make a, hl^dan 
none {no one), ndn 
noon^ n6n 

north, norty, nortJdael 
north, from the, nortJan 
north of, be nort^an, w, dat. 
northern, nortJern 
northward, noitJeweard, nortJweard, 

nose, nosu 
not, nd, ne; — neither,,, nor,; 

— not at all, ndwiht, nealles, 

ndbes, mid ndnum >ingum ; — 

not only, nd Oaet da 
nothing, ndwiht 
nourish, f^dan 
now, nd ; — now that, nti 
nowhere, ndhwaer 
nun, nunne, mynecen 
nut, hnutu 


oak, dc 

oats, dte 

oar, dr 

oath, iS6 

obedience, gehfrsumnis 

obey, gehfrsumian, w, dat,j folgian, 

obstinacy, }>weorhnis 
obtain, begitan^ eerxcan 
occasion, cirr, ssel, msel 
occupied, pp,, dbysgod 


occupy {a country), gesittan, gerfd- 

ocean, brim, holm, geofon, gdrsecg 
odour, stenc 
offer, gebeddan; {offer sacrifice), 

offering, Idc 
office, ambiht 
officer, ger^fa 
offspring, ofspring 
often, oft, gel6me, gel6mlice, ge- 

oh! edld 
oil, ^le 

old, eald, unome ; gamol {poet,) 
old age, ildu 
on, on, uppon, ofer 
once, dne sfCe; — cU once, recene, 

one, dn ; {indef pron,), man 
one of six, sixa sum 
only, dnga ; — «<?/ only, nd Caet dn 
onslaught, gdffrses, beadurses 
onwards, gegnum 
(?/^«, V,, openian, ont^nan, onlucan ; 

{forcibly), t6slftan 
open, open 
openly, openlice 
opinion, d6m 
opportunity, rtim 
opposite to, wiC, «/. dSfz/. 
opposition, wiCersaec 
oppress, gehefgian, ge>ryscan 
or, o»»e 
orator, >yle 
£?n^r, endebyrdnis 
ornament, hyrst, gerdne, wraett ; 

(//.), fraetwa 
ornamental, wraettlic 
other, 6Ser 
otherwise, elles 
^//^r, otor 

£?//'^r, belonging to an, yteren 
ought, v.y &te 
£?«r, lire 
out, tit, lite 
^«/ of^itoi 
outer, dtera, tittera 
outlaw, titlah 
outlawed, fdg 

outside, lit, dtan, titane, tite 
outside, adj,, liteweard, litanweard 
outside of, wit^tan, w. dat,; btiton 
<7z/^», ofen 
over, ofer 




overcome^ ofercuman, oferwinnan, 

overlaid {with gold), begoten 
overrun \a country), gefaran, Ofer- 

overthrow, ofweorpan 
overturn, onwendan 
owl, tale 
own, V,, dgan 
own, adj,, i%en, swses 
ox, oxa 

pain, weorc, sdmis, onc^, angsum- 

painful, angsum 
paint {draw), dmsetan, dtlfran 
pale, bide 
pallor, bldcung 
palm-twig, palmtwig 
pan, panne 
parents, ildran 
park, pearruc 
part, dael 

partly, be sumum daele 
Partner, hlytta 
pass ipn^s life), ddre6gan 
passage, ofeifaereld 
passion, hdtheortnis 
passionate, hdtheort 
path, pae9^ stfg, geldd 
patience, ge>yld 
patient, ge>yldig 
Patriarch, hedhfaeder 
pavilion, geteld, traef 
pay, gildan 
pay for, geb^tan 
payment, sceatt 
peace, griS, fre6d, frifJ, sibb 
peaceful, sibbsum, gesibbsum 
pecu:e-oath, friffd© 
pebble, papolstdn 
peel, screddian 

penetrate, >urhj>yrelian, >urhwadan 
penny, pening, penig 
people, >e6d| cne6ris, folc; le6da, 

people, belonging to the, folcisc 
pepper, pepor 
perceive, ongitan, gefr^dan 
perfect, fuUfremed 
perfect, v,, fullfremman 
perform, fremian, w. €u:c,, fremman, 

sefnan, raefnan, gelsestan, dre6gan, 

perhaps, hiSru 

peril, ))ear^ fs&r 

period, first, stund, ildu 

perish^ forweorBan,. forsfOian, losian 

perjured, forsworen, forlogen 

perjurer, mdnswara 

perjury, dSbryce 

permission, ledf, gej>dfung 

persecute, ehtan, oferfolgian 

persecution, ehtnis, hete 

persecutor, ehtere, hata, cirichata 

person, mann 

persuade, tyhtan 

perverse, w6hlic^ ])weorh, wiCer- 

perversity, >weorhnis 
pestilence, steorfa 
philosopher, tiWwita 
physician, laece 
piece, stycce 

pierce, J>yrlian, stingan, jnirhdrifan 
pierced, J)yrel 
piercing, >yrelung 
piety, aefaestnis 
pine, 2/., pfnan 
pious, se&st, godfyrht 
pirate, wfcing, saemann, saerinc, 

brimmann, brimlft^end 
pit, pytt, sedi 
pitch, pic 
pitcher, ore 
pith, pica 

pity, v., ofhre6wan, miltsian, drian 
pity, milts, miltsung, dr 
place, v., stellan, dsettan, gelogian 
place, steall, stede, stow 
plain, wang, mearc 
plant, s,, plant, wyrt 
plant, V,, plantian 
play, plega 

play, v., plegian, Idcan 
pleasant, wynnlic, wynnsum, he6re, 

please, Ifcian, gelfcian, w. dat, 
pleased with, oflyst, w, gen, 
pledge, wedd 
plight {danger), pliht 
plot, v., sirwan 
plough, V,, erian 
pluck, pluccian 
plunder, v,, berfpan, w. gen.j rf pan, 

plunder, hd9, redfung 
plunderer, redfere 
poem, sang 
poet, sc6p 
poetry, le6($sang; {art of), sang- 




point, ord 

poison, Stor, dttor, unlvbba 

poisonous, iiorbiere, stren, Kttren 

pomp, prass 

poor, earm, unsp^dig, wansp^dig, 

poor, to be, wjedlian 

poor man, wiedla, >earfa 

pope, pdpa 

port, port 

possess, dgan, geSgan, healdan, ge- 

wealdan, rdmigan {-w. gen.) 
possessions, s&hta (pi-), gestre6n 
possessor, weard 
posl, post 
pound, pund 
pour out, gedtan, jgedtan 
poverty, wsedl, inntJu 
power, miht, meaht, geweald, on' 

weald, cneft 
powerful, rice, craftig 
praise, herung, lof 
praise, v., herian, dfran, dfran 
/ray, gebiddan, reflex, 
pray for, biddan, m. ace, of pers. 

andgen. of thing 
prayer, b^n, gebeiT 
preach, bodian, w. dat. 
preaching, bodung 
precious, de<ire, d^ 
predict, foresecgan 
prepare, gearcian, gearwian, girwan, 

present, adj., andwcard 
prese,- -■-- 

pretend, Kcettan 
prevail, ricsian, rfjtian 
prevtHt, forwiman 
price, weorfl, wurti 
prick, prician 
pride, pr^e, m6d, rnddignis, hyge, 

gilp, bEelc, gil, gaelsa, g^lscipe, 

ofernygd, ofermSde, ofermetto, 

priest, pre6st, sacerd 
prince, sSeling, ealdor, brego ; also 

fengel, t«ngel, bealdor, leAd, >e6d- 

en {poet.) 
prison, cweartem, cidstor 
prisoner, rsfepling 
proceed, Kran 
proclaim, kcfUan 
produce, forSbringan, tydran 
progeny, tuddor, tudor, teSm 
progress, foitlgang 


promise, gehit 
promise, v., beMtan 
"■ pt),h&<,1S 

, igen, fcht, feob, fed, ir 

, wftegung 

, wfCegian 

wttega, wftga 

rj, wTtegestre 

•n, ondefti, andefn 
prosper, sp6waa, impers. w. dat. 
prosperity, eAd, %A\ 
prosperous, eSdig 

protect, gebeorgan, mundbyrdan, 

werian, gescildan, frisiaii, grifiian 

protection, eric, gcscildnis, mund, 

protector, helm, mundbora, weriend, 

proud, in6dlic, m6dig, ofenn6d, 

prdt, wlanc, he^c 
proverb, bigspetl 
Proverbs, book of, bigspellbdc 
provide, tilian, w. gen. of thing and 

dat. of person 
provided that, wiB Sim Se 
provisions, nest ; {Jor a journey), 

prudent, gleiw, gledwhjdig, fcrhS- 

psalm, sealm 

psalmist, sealmsc6p, sealmwyriita 

psalter, aealtere 

public, Eebere 

publicly, opealice 

pull, tedn, bregdan 

punish, wrecan, ))rdJian 

punishment, wfte, wracu, morSor 

purchase, s., ctip 

purchase (obtain), gewrixlian 

^«r«,unweinme,dfene, hllitor,h)iitt- 

or, sffre 
purify, cl^nsian, gef^eUian 
purity, clfennis 
purple, adj., pxllen 
fmsh, scutan, Jscii&n, bescCifan 

quarrel, v., flftan 
quarter (dirsetioti), ende 
quean, cw€b 
queen, cvin 
quell, cwellan 



quench (Jire), dcwencan 

question, v,, befrignan 

quick, arod, snell; {living, alive), 

quicken {vivify), gelffFaestan 
quickly, hraffe, hraedlice, sniide, ard- 

lice, tfmlice 
quiet, s», stillnis 
quothy cwae© 


race {kin), cynn, mennisc ; {lineage), 
strenge ; {progeny), tedm 

race (as in mill-race), raes 

raid, rid 

rain, regen 

rain, shower of, regenscdr 

rain, v,, rfnan 

raise, hebban ; {raise uf), dhebban 

rake, s,, raca, race 

ram, ramm, romm; {battering- 
ram), ramm 

rampart, weall 

rank, s,, aetJelu, gebyrd, hid, ge- 
])yng»o, ge>ync» 

rank, of high, weorB, wirtJ 

rank, adj\, ranc 

ransom, ^fsan 

rare, seldciiC, sellic 

rash, wanh^dig 

rcUher {sooner), hratJor ; — he would 
rather, him le6fre wais 

ravage, hergian, forhergian, ofer- 
hergian, f9an 

ravaging, forhergung 

raven, hrsefn 

raw, hredw 

ray of light, le6ma, scfma 

reach, gersecan 

read, rsedan, drsedan 

reading, raedung 

ready, gearc, gearo, fiis ; — ready to 
depart, siSes fiis 

reap, rfpan 

reaper, rf pere 

rear, dra&ran 

receive, onf6n, w. gen,, ace, or 
instr.; underf6n ; {food), picgan 

reck, r^can, meoman 

reckless, rdceleds 

reckon, recenian, tellan 

reconcile, ges^man 

record, gemynd 

recover {rescue), hreddan 

recover {from disease), gewirpan, 

recovery {from trouble), wirpe 

red, redd 

redeem. If san, dlfsan 

reed, hre6d 

reek {vapour), rdc 

re-establish, geedsta?Jelian 

reflect, smedgan^ smedn ; be))encany 

refuse, forsacan, sceorian 
refute, dlecgan 
region, landscipe 
reign, rfcsian, rixian 
reindeer, hrdn 
reject, dcweCan 
rejoice, fsegnian, gefeohan, gebliss- 

related, gesibb 
relationship, sibb 
relative, s,, sibbling 
relax, intr,, t6sltipan 
release, Ifsan, dlfsan 
relinquish, ofgifan, bfls^tan 
remain, festan, Iffan, belffan, xt- 

remains, Idf 
remedy, b6t 
remember, gemyngian ; gemunan 

remind, gemyngian 
remove, dfirran 
rend, hrendan 
render, dgifan 

renew, geniwian, geedniwian 
reparation, b6t 
repent, hre6wsian, behre6wsian, 

daedb^tan ; — repent of {be sorry 

for), of>yncan, impers,, w, dat, 

ofpers. and gen. of thing 
repents, it, hreowetJ 
repentance, hre6wsung, daedb6t 
represent, geticnian 
reproach, aetwltan, w, dat, ofpers, 
reproach, s,, edwft 
reproval, >redgung, >reiung, J>redp- 

ung, )>redtung 
reprove, >rdfian, >rdapian, predt- 

ian, ]>redgan, >redn 
request, bdn 
requital, wifJerledn 
requite, gildan, forgildan, geledn- 

rescue, hreddan, dhreddan 
resist, forstandan ; wiCsettan, w, 

dat,, wit^standan, w, dat* 
resolute, dnrsed 
resolution, dnrsednis 
resound, hlimman 




respite^ first 

rest^ rest 

rest^ z/., restan 

restless,, unstille, waefre 

restore^ eft dgifan 

restrain oneself^ stfran, refl* 

resurrectiofty aerist 

retainer^ mann, magu))egn, hfred- 

mann, hfremann^ geselda, dryht- 

retainers^ body of^ folgoS, dryht, 

retreat, wiffertrod 
return, eftsfO 
return, v., cirran, reflex,; gehwirfan, 

reveal, onhlfdan, geopenian 
revelation, onwrigennis 
revenge, wracu 
reverence, maeC 
revile, leahtrian 
reward, mdd, ledn, edledn, wiCer- 

reward, v,, gelednian 
rhyme, rim 
rib, ribb 

rich, rice, eddig, sp^dig, welig 
riches, wela {often in pL welan); 

spdd, blsed 
rid, hreddan 
riddle, rsedels 
ride, ridan 
rider, ridda 
ridge, hrycg 

right {hand or side), swiffre 
right, riht, adj. and sb, 
righteous, rihtwfs, rihtlic, rihtwfslic 
righteousness, rihtwfsnis 
rightly, rihte, rihtlice 

rtm, rima 

rime, brim 

rind, rind 

ring, bring, bedg 

ripe, ripe 

ripe, to become, geripian 

rise, risan ; — rise high, hlifian ; — 
rise as dust, stincan ; — rise up, 
updstfgan ; — {raise oneself),ixxx- 
an, reflex, 

rising {of the sun), upgang 

risk, gen^San, w. instrum, 

river, ed, €, stredm 

river-bank, edstaeC 

road, weg, straet ; see raid 

roar, rdrian 

rob, re^an 

robber, redfere 

robbery, redfldc, stalu, stnidung 
robe, reif, brsegl, girla, wsed, ge- 

rock, cltid, stdn 
rocky, cltidig 
rod, gird 
roe, rd 
roll, wealwian, wealcan ; intrans, 

rood, r6d 
roof, hr6f 
rook, hr6c 
room, rtim 
roomy, rdm 
roost {hen-roost), hr6st 
root, wyrt, wyrtruma 
root up, dwyrtwalian 
rope, rdp, sdl 
rose, r6se 
rot, rotian 

rough, hre6h, bre6, unsm^Ce 
round about, ymbtitan 
row, s, {order), rdw 
row, v., r6wan ; — row round, be- 

royal, cynelic ; — royal family, cyne- 

rue, hre6wan 
ruin, v., dmirran 
ruined, forloren 

rule, ricsian, rixian, wealdan, rsedan 
rule {dominion), onweald ; — {of con- 
duct), i-egol 
ruler, rsedend, wealdend 
rules, breach of, regolbryce 
rules, according to, regoUice 
ruminate, eodorcan 
run, hleipan, iman, beiman, aern- 

an ; — run aground {of ships), 

run away, aetbledpan 
rune, nin 
rush, raes 
rush, v., raesan 
rust, rust 
ruth, hre6wt5 

sack, sacc, saecc 

sacrifice, Idc 

sacrifice, v., offrian, bl6tan 

sad, sdr, sdrig, sdrlic, ge6mor, hre6w, 

hre6, unr6t, dredrig 
saddle, sadol 

sadness, dre6rignis, unr6tnis 
safe {unbetrayed), unswicen 





safety^ gebeorg 

sagacious^ gescddwfs 

sagaciously^ gescddwfslice 

sagacity^ gescddwlsnis 

sail^ segel 

sail^ v,^ seglian 

sailor^ lidmann, flota, flotmann 

saint, hdlga, sanct 

sake, intinga 'i—for his sake, for his 

Oingum ; and see strife 
sallow, salu 
salmon, leax 
salt, s. and adj,, sealt 
salute, hdlettan 
salve {to anoint), sealfian 
same, self; — the same, ilea ; and see 

sanctuary, place of, frifJstow, hdlig- 

sand, sand 
sap, saep 

Saturday, saetemesdseg 
save, nerian, dhreddan, gebeorgan 
saviour, hs&lend^ nergend 
saw {a saying), sagu, cwide 
say, secgan, cweCan, gecweOan 
saying, cwide, sagu 
scarcely, unedOe, earfoClice 
scathe, sce^an 
scatter abroad, strddan 
science, Idr 
scrape, scafan 
scfwe, b6cere 
scripture, gewrit 

sea, sse, mere, merefl6d, Hot, holm 
sea-bird, brimfugol 
seal {animal), seolh, seol 
seam, sedm 

sear {to wither up), forsedrian 
seat, st61, setl 
second, 6Cer 
secret, dime, dfgol 
secretly, dfgoUice 
secular, woruldcund 
secure {fasten), befaestan 
secure, fsest 

security, faestnung, wser 
sedge, secg 
section, stric 
seduce, forspanan 
see, gese6n, scedwian; {perceive), 

ongitan ; — see over, oferse6n 
seed, ss^d 
seek, s^can, feccan 
seem, J^jmcan, impers,, w, dat, 
seethe, se60an 
seize, f6n, bef6n, niman, gelsecan 

seldom, seldon 

self, self 

sell, sellan, cipan, c^an, becedpian 

send, sendan, dsendan; — send for, 

ofsendan ; — send forth, onsendan, 

sense, andgi^ 
separate, syndrig 
separate, v,, t6twaeman; — separate 

from, getwsefan, w, gen, 
sepulchre, Ifcrest, moldaem 
serf, J>rsel 
sermon, Idrspell 
serpent, wyrm 
servant, ))egen, )>e6w, l>e6wa, cnapa, 

servant {female), Cfnen, «e6wen 
serve, J«-6wian, ]>e6wan; >egnian, 

w, dat, 
service, ))e6wotd6m, ])egenscipe,])eg- 

nung, ])^nung 
servile, cirlisc 
serving-man, ])egnunffmann 
servitude, ))e6wot, J)e6wd6m 
set, settan ; — set down, settan ; — set 

forth {write), gesettan ; {to place), 

settle {people), gesettan ; {intrans.), 

seven, seofon 
sevenfold, seofonfeald 
seventh, seofoOa 
seventy, hundseofontig 
severe, swlC, swfClic, stifS, stftJlic, 

]>earl, hefig, Strang 
severely, >earle, ]>earllice, straeclice, 

sew, siwian 
shade, sc^sl 

shadow, scadu, sceadu, sci^a 
shaft, sceaft ; {handle), helf 
shake, scacan, sceacan, dscacan, 

cweccan, dcweccan ; {wag), wag- 

shake oj^ (sleep), t6bredan 
shall, I, ic sceal 
shame, scamu 
shamefully, bismerlice 
shank, sceanc, sceanca, scanca 
shape, scippan 
share, scearu 

shafp, scearp^ scearplic, heard 
sharpness, scearpnis 
shave, scafan 
she, he6 {cf se6) 
sheaf, scedf 
shear, sceran 




sheath, sce^8 

sight, gesih© 

shed, ge6tan ; — shed tears, ^ge6tan ; 

sign, tdcen, bedcen 

{separate), sceddan 

signification, getdcnung 

shedding of blood, gyte 

signify, getdcnian, secgan 

sheep, scedp 

silent, to be, swfgian ; sometimes w. 

sheep-fold, serpen 

silk, seolc 

sheer; see bright 

sheet, scedt 

sill, syll 

shell, scell 

silly {cf A. 8. ges?elig, happy). 

shelter, hle6, scejit 

silver, seolfor; — made of, siifren 

shepherd, hirde 

similarly, swd same 

shew, dwan, e6wan, aetedwan, ge- 

simple, bilewit 


simplicity, bilewitnis 

shield, scild, bord; {poet,\ lind, 

simply, bilewitlice 


sin, v., syngian, dgyltan, scyldgian 

j^/V/ic/ {protect), ymbbeorgan 

sin, synn, scyld, gylt 

shilling, scilling 

since, siCCan, Saes tJe, hii 

shin-bone, scinbdn 

sincere, inweard 

shine, scfnan, blican, lixan 

sinful, synfull, forsyngod 

ship, scip, ce61, aesc, lid, mereheng- 

sing, singan, galan, dsingan, dgalan 


single, dnlfpe 

ships, to provide withy gescipian 

sink, sfgan, dsfgan ; {causal), senc- 

shire, scfr 


shoal {offish), scolu 

sinner, gyltend 

shoe, sc6 

sister, sweostor, swustor ; pL ge- 

jA^<?/, sce6tan ; — shoot through, 



sit, sittan 

shooter, sce6tend 

six, six 

shooting, scyte 

sixth, sixta 

shore, stae9, 6fer, strand 

sixty, sixtig 

^A<?r/, sceort 

size, micelnis 

shot {arrow), gesceot 

skilful, fr6d 

shot {reckoning), gesceot 

skilfully, listum 

should, I, ic sceolde, ic scolde 

skill, craeft, list, seam 

shoulder, eaxl, sculdor 

skin, fell 

shove, scufan, dscu&n 

sky, swegel ; {poet), rodor 

shower, scur ; — {of rain), regensciir 

slack, sleac 

shred, screddian 

slander, h61 

shrew-mouse, scredwa 

slaughter, siege, sleaht, wael, wael- 

shrift, scrift 

sleaht, waelsliht, fill ; — slaughter, 

shrine, scrfn 

greedy for, waelgffre 

shrink up, forscrincan 

slave, J>eow 

shrive, serf fan 

slay, sledn, ofsledn, fillan 

shroud, scrdd 

slaying, sliht 

shun, onscunian 

sleep, siaep, swefen, swefn 

sleep, slsepan, onslsepan, swefan, 

shut, scyttan 

shuttle (cf A.S. scyttel, a bolt, bar) 

hnaeppian ;—;;>«/ to sleep, dsweb- 

sick, seoc, mettrum 


sicken, gesfclian 

sleeplessness, sl^ripledst 

side, sfde, healf ; — on this side of, 

slide, slfdan {Somner) 

beheonan, w, dat.; — on all sides, 

slight, gehwaede 

sighwanon ;— /r(£?/« all sides, ge- 

slightly ^ hw6nlice 


slime, slfm 

sieve, sife 

sling, liCere 

sift, siftan 

slink, slincan 

sigh, sfcan 

slip off, dwindan 

sighing, sfcetung 

slippery, slipor 



slity slftan 

sloe^ sld (Lyi) 

slopey hlinian 

slothj dsolcennis 

sloWf slaw, laet, saene 

slumber^ slumerian {Lyi) 

smally smael, msete, medmicel 

smear, smerian 

smirk, smercian 

smite, smftan 

smith, smi9 

smithy, smiCSe 

smock, smocc 

smoke, v., sme6can 

smoke, Jn'osm, r^ 

smooth^ sm^Se 

snail, snaegl 

snake, snaca, naedre 

snatch, gegrfpan 

sneak (to creep), snfcan 

snow, sndw 

so, swi, ; — so much, t6 Gsem, t6 Caes 

soap, sdpe 

sock, socc 

sodden, soden ; see seethe 

soft, s6fte, hnesc 

soften, gelfCian, gehnescian, onwsec- 

softly, s6fte, hnesclice 
softness, hnescnis 

some, sum, ndthwilc; — some one, sum 
something, hwaethwegu 
sometimes, hwflum, J)ragum 
somewhat, hwaet, hw6n, hw^ne 
son, sunu, mseg, maga, magu 
song, sang, gidd, leoS 
soon, s6na, hraedlic, lungre; — as 

soon as, s6na swd 
sooth {true, truth), s65 
sooth, in, t6 s6Ce 
sore, sdr, adj, andsb. 
sorely, sdre 
sorrow, sorg, sdr 
sorrow, v., sorgian 
sorrowful, sorgfull 
sorry, sdrig 
soul, sdwul 
sound, s,, s6n, hle6Cor, sweg, 

sound (healthy), gesund, onsund 
sound (unhurt), gesund, gesundfuU 
sound of the sea, sund 
soundness (health), onsundnis 
sour, stir 

south, from the, sd^an 
south of, wis silvan, w, aec. 
southern, sdSeme 

S. 33 


south part, suCdsel" 

southward, adj., sd^weard 

southwards, sdS 

sovereignty, ealdord6m 

sow, slwan, sprengan 

sower, sdwere 

space, r^^et; (of time), faec, first 

specious, rum, ginn 

spare, sparian 

spark, spearca 

sparrow, spearwa 

speak, sprecan, specan, cweSan, 
mselan, maOelian, hle68rian 

spear, spere, gdr, franca, daro9, 
waelsteng; (poet), aesc; — spear- 
point, ord 

spear-shaft, aescholt 

special, synderlic 

specially, synderlice 

speech, sprsec, msel, cwide, cwide- 

speechless, cwidele^s 

speed (success), sp^d 

spell; see narrative 

spend, forspendan 

spew, spfwan 

spill J see destroy 

spin, spinnan 

spindle, spindel 

spirit, gdst 

spiritual, gistlic 

spit, spittan, spyttan 

splendid, wraettlic 

splendidly, wraettlice 

sponsor, godsibb 

sport, v., Idcan 

spread abroad, intrans., dspringan 

spring (Lent), lencten 

spring, springan 

spring forth, onspringan 

spring up, dspringan 

sprinkle, sprengan 

sprinkle over, geondsprengan 

j/«r«,spurnan (*S'^/««^r),spomettan 

square, fe6werscfte 

stab, >^dan ; — stab to death, ofsting- 

staff, staef 

stain, wamm 

stained, fig, fdh 

stake, staca, stocc, steng 

stall (for cattle), steall, serpen 

stand, standan; (up), dstandan; 
(still), 69standan 

star, steorra, tungol 

starboard, ste6rbord 

stare, starian 



stark {severe, rough), stearc 

strew, stredwian 

starves see die 

strife, strfS, gewinn, sacu 

state {condition), hdd 

strike, sledn; {off), of dsledn ; {down). 

stature, waestm 


stay {remain), wunian 

strip of, bestrfpan, w, gen. 

stead, stael, stede 

stroke, sweng, dynt 

steadfast, stedefaest 

stroke, v., strdcian 

steal, stelan 

strong, Strang, stranglic, strenglic. 

steal along {move noiselessly), be- 

stfC, trum, swf», dyhtig, >yhtig, 


JyrySlic ; {poet.), edcen 

steam, stedm 

subject, v., under>e6dan 

steed, stdda 

subjection, underj)e6dnis 

steel, stfl 

succeed {prosper), sp6wan, impers. 

steep, stedp 

w. dat. 

steeple, st^pel, st^el 

success, fortJgang, sp^d 

steer, stfran 

successor, aeftergenga 

stem {trunk), stemn 

such, swilc, tJilc 

stench, stenc 

such a one, swilc 

step, steppan 

such... as, swilc.hwilc 

sterility, unwaestm 

suck, siican 

stern, adj., stime, stimmdd 

suckle, ges^can 
suddenly, fseringa, fserlice 

stick, stocc 

stiff, stf» 

suffer {endure), ])olian ; {feel pain). 

stile, stfgel 

>rowian, cwilmian; {allow), ge- 

still, adj., stille; adv,, git, nii git, 


»d git, fortJ 

suffering, J>rowung 

stillness, stillnis 

suffice, genyhtsumian 

sting, stingan 

suffices, it, geneah 

stink, stincan, re6can 

sufficiency, genyhtsumnis 

stir, styrian, hr^ran 

sufficient, genyhtsum 

stirrup, stfgrdp 

suit, v., gedafenian 

stock {stick), stocc 

suitable, gerisenlic, gelimplic, ddflic 

stone, stdn 

sully, besylian 

stone, made of, stsenen 

sulphur, swefl 

stone to death, oftorfian 

sulphurous, sweflen 

stone-wall, stdlnweall 

summer, sumor 

stony, stseniht 

summon, bannan, gelangian, gelaS- 

stool; see seat 

ian, ofsendan, stefnian 

storm, storm, unweder, hrfC 

sun, sunne 

storm, v., styrman 

sunbeam, sunnbei^m 

story, spell, stspr 

Sunday, sunnandaeg 

stout-hearted, swf»m6d 

sunder J see apart 

straight on, on gerihte 

sundry, syndrig 

strand, strand 

sup, sdpan 

strand {a ship), beebbian 

supply {stock), onsteall ; {matetial), 

strange, fremde, elfremede, aelfrem- 


ede, sellic; {unrelated to), un- 

support, iberan 


surface, brerd ; {of the eartH), scedt 

straw, stredw 

surge, brimwilm, ^ 

stream, stredm 

surround, begdn, behringan, be- 

street, straet 

windan; {ride round), beridan; 

strength^ strengu, maegen, ])ry?Ju, 

— (/? town), dtan besittan 

prymm, eafotJ 

survey, scedwian 

strengthen, trymian, trymman 

surveying, scedwung 

strengthening, trymmung 

sustenance, bigwist, bigleofa, f6stor 

stretch, streccan, )>enian; dstreccan 

swain, swdn 


swallow {bird), swealwe, swalewe 




swallowy swelgan, w» instrum, 

swan, swan 

swarm, swearm 

swarthy, sweart 

swear, dswerian 

sweat, swdt 

sweep away, forswipan 

sweet, sw^te 

sweetness, swdtnis 

swell, swellan 

swell greatly, t6swellan 

swift, swift 

swim, swimman 

swimming, sund 

swine, swfn 

swinge {beat), swingan 

swoon, swima 

sword, sweord, swurd, seax, m^ce, 
heoru, heoruwsepen, bill, hilde- 
billjwfgbill; (/^^/.), brand, beadu- 

sword-stroke, sweordgeswing 

table, be6d, bord 

tail, steort, taegl 

take, niman, f6n, gefeccan ; — away, 

^niman; aetbregdan, w» dat.j— 

(a city), dbrecan ; {as food), l>icgan 
tale {story), getael 
tame, tarn 

taper {candle), tapor 
tar, teru 

tart {acrid), teart 
tecu:h, t?ecan, laeran 
teacher, ldre6w 
team; see progeny 
tear, s., tear 
tear, v. teran, slftan ; — asunder, 

tease, taesan 
teem, tfman 
tell, secgan, dsecgan, gec^an ; see 

temperance, forhaefednis 
tempest, gewider 
temple, tempel 
tempt, fandian 
temptation, costung 
tempting, fandung 
ten, tfn, t^n 
tender, tydre 

tent, geteld, teld, burgeteld, traef 
tenth, te6Sa 
term of military service, stefn, 


terrible, grjrrelic, atol 

territory, dffel 

terror, gryre, br6ga, 6ga 

test, cunnian, gecunnian, dfandian 

testimony, gewitnis 

than, Sonne, w. comparatives 

thane, ]>egen 

thank, V,, )>ancian 

thanks, ]>anc; {thanks to God)^ 

Codes >ances 
that, Caet, ©aette, »e; — in order that^ 

for Sdm Saet 
thatch, s,, >aec 
thaw, ))dwan 

the, se {m.), se6 (/.), Caet («.) 
the... the {with comparatives), swd... 

the greater, fSf mdra {correlatively) 
thee, 96, ©ec 
theft, >ff« 
their, hira 

them, hi, hig {ace.) ; him {dat.) 
then, ©onne, ©i, tJaer 
thence, Canon; {from that cause), 

there, ©aer 

therefore, fSf, for tSf, for ©dm 
these, fSAs 
they, hi, hig 

they were. . .©aet wseron . . . 
thick, >icce 
thief, J>e6f, scea?Ja 
//fti^^A, J)e6h 
thin, ))ynne 
/^/«^, Sin 

M/«^, >ing, wiht, wuht 
think, J>encan, hycgan, gemyntan ; 

— of, ]?encan ; — about, hogian 
third, ]>ridda 
thirst, v., ))yrstan 
thirst, purst 
thirty, ]>ritig, l>rittig 
thirtyfold, Kitigfeald 
this, Ses 
thistle, ))istel 
thither, «ider, Ciderweardes, »ider- 

weard, Saer 
thong, ]>wang 
thorn, ))orn 
M^j^, Sd 

though, »edh, C^h; though... yet, 

Sedh Se...SeAh 
thought, ge]>6ht, >anc, ge>anc, mdd- 

geJxSht, m<Sdge))anc, innge>anc, 

thoughtful, pancol, >ancolm6d 




thousand^ Jnisend 

thousands^ in, >dsendmseluin 

thrally )vsel 

thrash, ]>erscan 

thread, >rsed 

threat, be6t 

threaten, ])redgan, >re£n, ]>redtian 

threatening, >redgung, >redung 

three, ])re6, >rf, \r^ 

thresh, >erscan 

thrice, >riwa 

thrill; see pierce 

throat, >rotu 

throne, st61, setl, cynesetl, J>rymm- 

throng, ge])rang, menigu 
throng, V,, ]>ringan 
through^ ]nirh 
throughout, >urh, geond 
throw, weorpan, wurpan, beweorp- 

an ; — away, dweorpan [>i4wan = 

/<? twist] 
thumb, >dma 
thunder, J>unor 
Thursday, >unresdaBg 
Mi/j, Vus 

tile, tigele 

////, z/., tilian 

timber; see building 

time, tfd, tfma, hwfl^ msel, stund, 
])rag; (occasion), ssel, cirr; — 
/ww^ (j/fl^^ of), ixc \—from time 
to time, stundum; — 0iow many 
times), sf» ; — at no time, ndhwaer 

time, wrong {unsuitable season)^ 

tin, tinn 

tinder, tynder 

tired, mdCe, w^rig 

to, t6 

toad, tdde 

to-day, t6 daeg 

/^7^, td 

together, t6gaedere, aetgaedere, on 
geador, aetsomne, endemes, sam- 

toil, earfoC, geswinc 

toil, winnan 

token, tdcen, ticn 

toll, toll 

tomb, byrgen 

tongs, tange (//. tangan) 

tongue, tunge 

/^(?, t6 

./^^/, t61 

tooth, t6» 

/^, topp, copp 

touch, hxepian, hrinan 

tough, t6h 

torment, wfte, susl, tintreg 

torment, v., wftnian, tintregian 

towards, t6weard, ongedn, ongdn; 

t6gednes, w, datj wis, w, dat, 

ace, or gen. J — towards heaven, 

wis Oaes heofones weard 
tower, stfpel 
town, tiin 

/r^^/^, spor, gang, Idst, swaeS, swa9u 
/r/i^/&, /<? make a, spyrian 
traitor, waerloga 
transform, forscippan 
transitory, hwllwende, hwflwendlic, 

translate, wendan, dwendan, drecc- 

translater, wealhst6d 
trappings, geraede, hyrst 
travel, faran, dfaran 
traverse, geondfaran, geondhweorf- 

an, geondldcan, o^rfaran, ofer- 

gdn, }>urhfaran, >urhirnan^ tredan, 

treacherous, lytig, swicol, fdcenfuU 
treacherous, to be, swician 
treachery, ungetre<SwS, fdcen, searu, 

trecui, tredan 
treason, hldfordswice 
treasure, goldhord, hord, hordfaet, 

sine, mdSum, mddm 
treaty, waer 
tree, tre6w, bedm 
tremble, bifian 

trespass, forwyrcan, reflex,, dgyltan 
trial, fandung 
tribe, maegS, cne6ris 
tribute, gafol, sceatt, nfdgild 
trick, wrenc 

tHm {strengthen), trymman 
trinity, >rfnis 
troop, f^Ca, flocc, gemang, hedp, 

hl6S, gefylce, getrum, getnima, 

swe6t, >redt, werod, worn; — by 

troops, floccmselum 
trouble, s,, gedrdfednis, bysgu, ge- 

winn, wed 
troubled, gedrdfed 
trough, trog, troh 
true, s6», s6»faest, tre6we, riht; 

{faithful), trywe 
truly, sotflice 

trust {in), tre6wian, truwian, ^. dat, 
trusty, gecost 



truth^ s6», s65faestnis, tre6w« 

try, fandian, dfandian 

tub, cyfu 

Tuesday y Tiwes daeg 

tumult J gebland, gewinn 

tufiy tunne 

tunic, tunece 

turbid, to become, drusian 

turf, turf 

turn, wendan, dwendan, cirran, 
gehwirfan, gehweorfan ; {become), 
wendan ; in trans., windan 

turn, inj wrixendlice 

tusk, tusc, t69 

twain, twegen {masc.) 

twelfth, twelfta 

twelve, twelf 

twenty, twentig 

twice, tuwa 

twig, twig 

twin, getwisa ; — twins, getwinne 

twine, twfn 

twinkle, twinclian 

twist, windan, J>rdwan 

twit, aetwftan, edwftan 

two, twegen, masc, twd, fern, and 

type, getdcnung 


udder, lider 

unallowed, undlffed 

unanimous, dnm6d 

unanimously, dnm6dlice 

unawares, on ungearwe 

unbaptized, ungefuUod 

unbelief, ungeledffulnis 

unbelieving, ungeleiffull, geledfleds 

unbumt, unforbsemed 

uncle, edm 

unconsciously, ungewisses 

uncouth J see unknown 

uncover, onwre6n, onwrfCan; {un- 
wind), un windan 

undefended, firdleds 

undefiled, ungewemmed, unwemme 

under, under, w, dat, and ace, 

understand, ongitan, oncndwan, for- 
standan, understandan 

understanding, gewitt 

unhappiness, ungesaelS 

unhappy, ungesaelig 

unhealthy, wanhdl 

unite {draw together), gednlsecan 

unity, dnnis 

unknown, unciiS 


unlawful, undlffed 

unless, nemne, nefhe, btlton 

unlike, ungelfc 

unlock, onliican 

unmindful, ungemyndig 

unopposed, unbefohten 

unreasoning, ungewittig 

unrighteousness, unrihtwfsnis 

unsold, unbeb6ht 

unstable, tealt 

unsuitable, ungerisenlic 

unsuitably, ungerisenlice 

until, <S©, usu, w, ace, 

until, conj,, 68 tJaet, 6© 

unworthily, unweortJlice 

up, up ; adv,, uppe 

upon, onufan, w, dat,, onuppan, 

w, dot,; uppon, w, dat, ana ace, 
upwards, up 
us, \JS 

use, notu, nytt 
use, V,, brucan, w, gen,j ne6tan, 

w,gen,; — use up {consume),genot' 

used to, to be, willan 
useful, nyttwirSe 
useless, unnytt, fdel 
usual, gewunelic 
utility, nytt 
uttermost, ;^temest 

vaguely, unfaestlice 

vain, idel ; — in vain, on fdelnisse 

vale {open broad valley), slaed 

valley, denu, dad 

valour, dryhtscipe 

vane, fana 

vapour, stedm, >rosm 

variegated, fdh, fdg 

various, mislic, mistlic, missenlic, 

vat, faet 

venerable, drweortJ 
venture on, gen^San 
verily, s681ice 
verse, fers 
vertebra, binhring 
very, swftfe, for, full, J>earle ; — very 

old, oreald 
vessel, faet, faetels, cyfu, cylle 
vice, uncyst, unsidu, un))edw 
victorious, sigefaest, sigoreddig 
victory, sige, sigor, hr^© 
vigorously, stranglice 
vilify, hirwan, bismerian 




village^ tun, castel 

vineyard^ wfngeard 

violate, t6brecan 

violence^ nfd 

violent, hetelic, hetol, haest 

violently, hetelice 

virgin, maegden, maeden, maegW, 

faemne ; {poet.), medwle 
virginity, maegtJhdd 
virtue, cyst, maegen, drfaestnis 
virtuous, cystig, drfaest 
visible, gesfne 

visit, s^can ; ne6san, w. gen, 
visitation, ne6sung 
vital, Ifflic 
vixen, fyxen 

voice, stefa, stemn, gereord 
voluntarily, selfwilles 


wade, wadan 

wag, wagian 

waggon, waegn 

wailing, l>oteriing 

wain; see waggon 

wait, andbfdian ; — for, onbfdan ; 
bfdan, w. gen.; — upon, folgian 

wake, wacan 

walk, wealcan 

wall, weall, wah 

wallow, wealwian 

wall-stone, weallstdn 

walrus, horshwael 

wan, wann 

wander, scrfCan, wandrian 

wandering, adj., waefre 

wane, wanian 

wanton, gdlm6d, gdlferh© 

wantonness, gselsa 

war, wfg, winn, gewinn, gii©, hild, 

. heaCu, sacu, orlege, unfriS ; ( poet.), 

ward, weard 

war-expedition, heresfS 

war-horn, giiShom 

warily, waerlice 

warm, wearm 

warn, gewearnian 

warning, wearnung 

warning, to take, warnian, reflex. 

warrior, guma, cempa, wfga, wig- 
end, oretta, dreng, freca, hyse, 
gdrberend, sce6tend, gutJfreca, 
gutJrinc, hedSurinc ; herewsetfa, 
hildede6r, hilderinc, waepenwfga, 
beadurinc, firdrinc, lindhaebben- 

de, lindwfgend, randwfga, rand- 
wfgend, folcwfga, hagusteald- 
monn, sweordfreca, waelwulf ; 
{poet.\ bymwfga, byrn wfgend, 
rinc, haele, haeleC, beorn, eorl, 
pegen, secg 

war-song^ hildelediJ, gu«Jle6tJ 

wary, waer 

was, waes 

wash, )>weahan, J>wedn, d])wedn, 

wasp, waeps, wasp 

waste, w^ste 

waste, to lay, w^stan, dw^stan 

watch, s., weard 

watch, waeccan ; intrans., wac- 
ian ; — over, eahtian 

watchful, waeccende 

water, waeter, lagu 

wave, wseg, waSum, ^S 

wax, s., weax 

wax {to grow), weaxan 

way, wag 

way, to clear a, gar^man 

wayfaring, wegfarende 

we, w6 

weak, wdc, untrum, wanhdl, un- 

weak, to become, wdcian 
weaken, gelffan 
weakness, uncraeft, untnimnis ; — 

weakness of mind, wdcm6dnis 
weal; see wealth 
wealth, wela {often in pi. welan). 
wealthy, walig 
wean, wanian 
weapon, waepan 
wear, warian 
weary, wdrig, m^Se 
weasel, wesle 
weather, wadar 
weave, wefan 
web, webb 
wed; see pledge 
wedge, wecg 
Wednesday, W6dnesdaeg 
weed, we6d 

weeds {garments), wseda, pi. 
week, wicu, wucu 
ween, w^nan 
weep, w^pan, re6tan, gredtan, grset 

weeping, w6p 
weevil, wifal 
weigh, waegan 
weird; see fate 
welkin {sky), woken 





wellj J., willa 
well^ wel, tela 
Welsh, Welsc 
wen, wenn 

wend; see turn 

went, eode 

were, waeron 

west, west 

west, from the, westan 

west of, be westan, w, dat. 

west quarter, westdael 

westwards, westlang, westweard, 

west wind, westanwind 
wet, waet 
wet, V,, wsetan 
wether, weSer 
whale, hwael 
whale-fisher, hwaelhunta 
whale-fishery, hwaelhuntatJ 
what, hwaet, hwilc 
wheat, hwaete • 
wheel, hwe61 
wheeze, hwsesan 
whelk, weolc 
whelp, hwelp 
when, hwanne, hwaenne, tJaer, X.6 

»aes Ce ; {^hen that), tJd »d, mid 

Cdm Ce, mid »^ 
when. . . then, Sonne. . .Sonne, Cd. . .t5d 
whence, hwanon 
where, hwaer, hwar, 6ser 
wherefore, for hw^ 
wherever, swd hwider swd 
w^/", hwettan 
whether, hwaeSer 
whether,,. or, sam...sam 
whey, hwseg 
which, hwilc 

which of the two, hwaeSer 
whichever, swd hwaeSer swd 
while, tJenden 
while, 5., hwfl 
whilst, Sd hwfle Se 
whine, hwfnan 
whirlpool, wael 
whisper, hwisprian 
whistle, hwistlian 
whit, wiht 
white, hwit, bide 
whither, hwider, hwaer, Caer 
whithersoever, swd hwider swd 
«/A<?, Se, se Se, se ; hwd ? 
whoever, swd hwilc swd 
whole, hdl, onsund 
whoop, hw6pan 
whose, hwds 

w^^, hw^, hwaet 

wicked, lyCre, mdnfull, fracod, in- 

widd, drleds 
wickedly, drledslice, mdnfuUice 
wickedness, yfel, yfelnis, mdn 
wide, wfd, sfd, ginn 
widely, wfde, side 
widely known, wfdciitJ 
widen, ger^man 
widow, widuwe, wuduwe 
wield {a weapon), wealdan 
wife, gebedde, wff 
wi^ht, wiht 
wild, wilde 
wilderness, wdsten 
wile, wile 
will, s., will2L, gewill \—ofon^s own 

will, selfwilles; — against his will, 

his un}>ances 
willingly, geome, geornlice, lustlice 
willingness, willsumnis 
willow, wilig 
win, gewinnan ; {by fighting, ge- 

wind, s., wind 
wind, windan 
windy, windig 
wine, wfn 
wing, feSer 
wink, wincian 
winnow, windwian 
winsome {pleasant), wynnsum 
winter, winter 
wire, wir 

wisdom, wfsd6m, snotomis 
wise, wfs, witig, snotor, fr6d, raed- 

faest, hyge)>ancol 
wise, s. {way), wfse 
wise man, wita, wftega, wftga 
wish, willa 
wish, v., willan, w^scan ; — for, hog- 

ian, w, gen,, gelystan, impers. 

w, ace, ofpers. and gen, of thing 
wish, not to, nyllan 
wit, s., gewitt 
wit (to know), witan 
witch, wicce 
with, mid 

wither, forweomian, forse6San 
withhold, forhealdan ; gestiran, w, 

dat, of pers, and gen, of thing; 

o{te6n,w,instrum,; wirnan,wyrn- 

an, w, gen, {and also w, daL of 

within, oninnan, w, dat,, witJinnan, 

w, dat,; adv. {also as prep, w, 

tlat.), innan, binnan 




without^ wiOdtan, w. dat; bdton, 
«/. dat 

witness^ gewitnis, gewita 

woody wdd 

woe^ wd {exclamation) 

woiy wed 

w^^, sign ofy wedtdcen 

woe, tidings of, wedspell 

wolf, wulf 

woman, wff, wffmann ; {poet,), ides 

womb, inno9 ; (belly), wamb 

wonder, wundor 

wonder at, v,, wundrian, «/. gen. 

wonderful, wundorlic 

wont, to be, gewunian 

wonted, gewunelic 

woo, w6gian 

wood, tre6w ; {forest), wudu, holt, 
holtwudu, weald 

wool, wull 

word, word 

work, weorc 

work, V,, wyrcan 

worker, wyrhta 

world, middangeard, woruld ; — cir- 
cuit of the, ymbhwirft 

worldly, woruldlic 

worm, wyrm, maf$a 

worse, to become, wirsian 

worse, wirsa 

worship, s., weortJung, wiirtJung 

worship, weortJian, wurtJian 

worst, wirst 

wort, w)rrt 

worth, s,, weorS, wurtJ ; duguS 

worth, to be, dugan 

worthy, wtfortJ, wirB 

wot, I, ic wdt 

wouldy /, ic wolde 

wounds wund, dolg ; {poet.), benn 

wound, forwundian, gesdrgian 

wounded, dolgwund, wund 

woven, gebroden 

wreak, wrecan 

wreath, wraefJ 

wren, wrsenna 

wrench, wrencan 

wrest, wrsestan 

wretchypoor, earming 

wretched, earm, earmlic, wraecfull 

wretchedly, eamilice 

Wright {worker), wyrhta 

wring, wringan 

wrist, wrist 

write, wrftan 

writer, wrftere 

writhe, wrffJan 

writing, gewrit 

wrong, unriht, wrang, unrihtlic, 

wrong, s., unriht 
wroth, wrdS 
wrought {did work), worhte 

yard {court), geard 
yard {fneasure), gerd 
yarn, geam 

y^> ge 

yea, gei. 
* year, gedr, g6r ; {in reckoning time), 

yearn, geman 
yeast, gist 
yell, gylian 
yellow, geolo 
yelp, gelpan 
yes, gese, gise 
yesternight, gistran niht 
yet, Cedh, ^^h, 'BedhhwaeSere, g^n ; 

{w, neg,), git 
yew, f w 
yield, sellan ; — up, linnan, w, in- 

strum, [gildan = /^ /«_y] 
yoke, geoc 
yolk, geolca 
yore, of, gedra 
yore, days of, fimdagas, gedrdagas; — 

former years, l&rngedr 
you, e6w 

young, ge6ng, unweaxen 
your, e6wer 
youth, ge6gu» ; {young man), hyse 

zeal, anda, ellen, ellenw6dnis 



M . 



«i ;