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• (»J»), 

sound of a in. far. 

b (be), 

same as English. 

c (ehe), 

sound of ch in chin. 


an exploded c, not in English. 

d (de), 

same as English. 

e (e), 

sound of e in tliey. 

I (gte), 

sound of g in give. 


a guttural, not in English. 

* (he), 

same as English. 


sound of ch in German ach. 

« (e), 

sound of * in machine. 

k (ke), 

same as English. 



an exploded k, not in English. 

1 (le), 

same as English. 

m (me), 

same as English. 

■ (ne), 

same as English. 

n (in), 

a nasal sound, nearly similar to n in ink. In Dakota it is 

only used at the end of a syllable. 

o (oh), 

sound of o in go. 

P (P<0> 

same as English. 


an exploded p, not in English. 

8 (see), 

same as English. 

s (she), 

sound of sh in she. 

t (te), 

same as English. 


an exploded t, not in English. 

■ (00), 

sound of oo in ooze. 

w (we), 

same as English. 

y (ye), 

same as English. 

x (ze), 

same as English. 


sound of z in azure. 

A few letters are sometimes followed by a short hiatus. Such are 

marked thus, «\ 


There are four dialects to the Dakota language : the San tee, 
Yankton, Teton and Assiniboin. Each of these dialects has slight 
differences, not sufficient to prevent Dakotas from understanding 
each other. To give these differences would require additional 
characters to present fully ; but this has not been attempted as the 
differences are slight. The dictionary follows in the main the Santee 
dialect, with which the author is most familar. The other dialects 
differ from it in extent, in the order named. The number of different 
words used in the different dialects is small. The different words 
used by the Yanktons and Tetons have been mostly noted. The 
number of words pronounced differently is very large, especially in 
the Teton dialect. No attempt has been made to give all these. A 
few have been noted to give the student an idea of the changes. 
In the other three dialects the sound of I never occurs, but the Teton 
changes all the ds and many of the ns into I ; so Dakota becomes 
Lakota ; nina, very, becomes Ula. In the Yankton one of the most 
notable changes is that hd of the Santee becomes kd, and this in the 
Teton becomes gh Thus, hda, go home y in Yankton becomes kda, 
and in Teton f la. 

No attempt has been made to give the peculiarities of the Assini- 
boin dialect, as our knowledge of it is too limited. 

A fuller account of the differences in the dialects may be found in 
Dr. S. R. Riggs' "Dakota Grammar/ 7 and a larger number of the 
different words in his Dakota-English Dictionary, both of which are 
published by the " Smithsonian Institution," Washington, D. C. 

When a ends a word it is often changed to e, principally for 
euphony, as t* kta, to \e kta. 


The Dakota is an easy language to read if one will learn the 
sounds of the letters, and stick to them. 

The division of the words into syllables is simple. As a rule 
every vowel ends a syllable. The following are the exceptions : 

1 . The nasal n always closes a syllable ; as ka-hin-ta, sweep ; wo* 
tai)-ii), news. 


2. A syllable, contracted by dropping the vowel, is attached to the 
preceding syllable, thus making it close with a consonant. Ex.: 
I-pih-ya, cause to boil, is contracted from i-pi-ga, boil, and ya, cause. 

3. The words en, in, and is, he, she or it, and their compounds, do 
not close the syllable with a vowel. 

Accent is very important in Dakota. A misplaced accent is as 
bad as a mispronounced letter. Indeed a change of accent often 
changes the meaning of a word; as, ma'-ga means field, whereas 
ma-ga' means goose. 

Most Dakota words are accented on the second syllable ; and, in 
this dictionary, such are not marked. Then, all words commencing 
with wo are accented on the first syllable, and such are not marked. 
The accent on all other words is marked, and the student should 
carefully note such. 


1. The construction of the simple sentence, composed of the bare 
subject and predicate, is the same as in English. Ex.: Zitkadan do- 
wanpl, birds sing. Wa skan, snow melts. 

2. Where the subject has qualifying words they follow the word 
they qualify. Ex.: Wicasta ksapa kin la, the wise man talks. Zitkadan 
onge dowanpi, some birds sing. 

3. When the predicate has qualifying words they immediately 
precede the verb. Ex.: Jane olyokiplya dowan, Jane sings beautifully. 

Exceptions. — (a) The sign of the future, kta, follows the verb. 
Ex. : John hi kta, John will come. 

(b) The negative, sol, follows ; as, u sol, do not come. 

(c) llin, very, and its compounds hinca and ftca, follow the verb ; 
as, wayazanke hin, is very sick. 

(d) Connective adverbs which imply a succeeding clause follow 
the verb and all other qualifiers. Ex.: Yahi kte sol kinhan, mde kta, 
if you wUl not come, I will go. 

4. When the verb has an object, it precedes the verb but follows 
the subject. Ex.: John James apa, John struck James. 

5. When the object has qualifying words, they follow it. Ex.: 
John tahca cepa topa o, John shot four fat deer. 

6. Where a number of words qualify either subject or object, 
they generally follow in the inverse order of the English. Ex.: 
danktanka clstinaa ska wan canpakmlluiia wldnyanaa Ista-teto oziiaan 
yoedoban, a little white horse drew a wagon full of blue-eyed girls. 

7. An interrogative sentence is distinguished by closing it with 
the word he. Ex.: HoksMan waste, he is a good boy. HoksMan waste 
he, is A* agoodboyt 

8. An imperative sentence is distinguished by ending it with wo 
osr ye. The women use ye and the men generally wo. Ex.: Dea a 
wo* come here. Taspan wan majpi yt, please give me an apple. 

The signs of the interrogative and imperative sentences are some- 
times omitted, and the fact left to be determined by the connection 
or tone of voice. However, the rising inflection is never given for 
an interrogation, but rather the opposite. 

Parts of Speech. 


Dakota nouns make no change of form on account of number or 
case, and but seldom of gender. 

Number is shown by numerals or other adjectives. Ex.: Tlpl wan- 
zi, one house. Tip! ota, many houses. 

The Case, whether objective or nominative is shown, by the relative 
position in the sentence, as already explained. The possessive case 
is shown by following the word with tawa, his. Ex.: Tip! de John 
tawa, this is John's house. Sometimes the pronoun tawa is contracted 
to ta and prefixed to the principal noun ; never to the possessive. 
Ex.: Joha tahanpa ku, he gave him John's moccasins. Sometimes 
again the possessive case is shown only by position. Ex.: He sonka 
pa, that is a dog's head. 

Gender is not distinguished in most nouns. Those referring to 
different classes of human beings and a very few of the animals are 


distinguished. Ex.: Wlcasta, wan. Wlnohlnca, woman. Hehaka, male 
elk. Upan, female elk. If it is desired to indicate the sex of any 
neuter noun, wlca and winyan are added for human beings, and 
mdoka and wiyc for animals. Ex.: Hokslyopa wica, a male child. 
Sonka mdoka, a male dog. Occasionally they are compounded ; as, 
tamdoka, a male deer ; tawiye, a female deer. Female proper names 
very often take the termination win (contraction of winyan); as, 
Tatedatawin. The same name, Tatedota, Scarlet-Wind, is often given 
to men, but wica (male) is never added to it, nor is it to any other 
name for men. 

Simple, derivative, and compound nouns are all found in Dakota ; 
but the study of the language has progressed so little that there is 
yet much to do before a full presentation of them can be given. 
We, however, state some of the most common ways in which nouns 
are formed. 

Wo prefixed to an adjective or verb transforms it into an abstract 
noun. Ex.: Waste, good: wowaste, goodness. Ka'ta, hot: wokata, 
heat. Kkixa, fight : wokicixe, a fight. By prefixing wica instead of 
wo the object is limited to man ; as, kte, hiU : wokte, slaughter : 
wlcokte, human slaughter. 

prefixed to a verb makes it a verbal noun, with about the same 
effect as prefixing the definite article in English ; as, iynwega, cross : 
oiynwega, the crossing. Occasionally it is prefixed to an adjective 
with the same force. 

Wa prefixed to a transitive verb changes it into a noun, signifying 
the agent; as, apa, strike : waapa, striker. Sometimes the plural form 
of the verb is used, making the prefix wica, instead of wo ; as, yasica, 
to slander : wlcayasica, a slanderer. 

1, prefixed to an active verb, makes a noun signifying the instru- 
ment by which the action is done ; as, kahinta, sweep : Icahinte, 
broom; yumdo, to plow: iyamdu, a plow. 

The third person plural of any verb may be used as a verbal noun ; 
as, man], walk : maoipl, walking. 

Kla, after any adjective, noun or clause, shows it is used as a 


Dan (F. aa; T. la) is often suffixed to nouns, verbs and adjectives. 
It is a diminutive, and is generally attached to the last word in the 
clause, but refers to the leading noun, whether subjective or objec- 
tive ; as, John slyo wan ttedan, John killed a little prairie chicken. 

Compound nouns are numerous and may be made of any part of 
speech. Sometimes of two nouns; as, watapeta {fire boat), steam- 
boat; sometimes of a noun and adjective: as, haaapa (black skin), 
negro ; sometimes of a noun and verb : as, nemaal (walks on land), 
railway train. 


The personal pronouns are generally incorporated in the verb ; and 
the objective are different from the subjective ; and in incorporate 
pronouns the third person singular is never expressed, and only the 
sign of the plural for the third person plural. 

The subjective incorporate pronouns are: ya, thou; wa, I; ya-pl, 
you; no-pi, we. Ex.: Kte, he kills; yakte, you kill; wakte, / kill; 
ktepl, they km ; unttepl, we kill. 

The objective incorporate pronouns are : nl, thee ; ma, me ; nl-pl, 
you; on-pi, us. Ex.: Nltte, he kills thee; matte, he kills me; niktepi, 
he kills you ; unttepl, he kills us. 

When both are incorporated they are as follows : lei, he—himself; 
ol-pi, he-you; on-pl, he— us; maya, thou— me; wicaya, thou— them; 
onya-pi, thou-us; oicl, thou— thyself ; mlci, I-nyself; wlcawa, I— 
them; d-pl, I-you; icl-pi, they— themselves ; oi-pl, they-thee, or you; 
ma-pl f they-me; wica-pl, they them; on— pi, they-us; olcl-pl, you— 
yourselves; maya-pl, you— me; wicaya-pl, you— them; onya-pi, you— 
us; onklcl-pi, we- ourselves ; v unoi-pi, we— thee; wicon-pl, we-them; 
onol-pi, we— you. 

When we reach the verb further examples of incorporate pronouns 
will be given. 

Separate Personal Pronouns are also found in Dakota. They are : 
Miye or mis, I; nlye or old, thou; iye or Is, fa? or she; onkiyepi, us; 
nlyepi, you; iyepi, them. Ex.: lye, olye qa miye onyanpf tta, he, you 
and I will go. The same pronouns are used for the objective case. 
Ex.: lye, nlye qa miye kapl, they meant him, thee and me. 


The Possessive Personal Pronouns are : Tawa, his; nltawa, thy or 
thine; mitawa, my or mine; tawapl, their or theirs; nftawapi, your or 
yours; ankttawapi, our or ours. Ex.: Tip! tawa, his house. The 
possessive pronouns are often prefixed to the noun, in which case 
the syllable wa and often the two syllables tawa are stricken out. 
Ex.: Slha, /oot; tasiha, his foot; mislha, my /oot; tasfhapl, their feet. 
Ma'ga, field ; mita'maga, my field. Sometimes the first person singular 
is contracted to ma instead of mi ; as, mapa, my head. 

There is also a Possessive Personal Pronoun that is incorporated 
in the verb. It is: Id, his ; ye, thy; we, mine. Ex.: John pte kikte, 
John hilled his cow. 

The demonstrative pronouns are de. this, and he, that; dena, these, 
and hena, those. Also ka, that, and kaaa, those. They have also a 
number of compounds, as: decea, like this; deceedan, this alone; 
deoaos, these two; denakeca, these many. 

The interrogative pronouns are tuwe, who; taka, what; takte, which; 
anmantnkte, which or whether; tooa, tooaka, tooakeca, how many. The 
above are either subjective or objective. The only possessive is tuwe 
taw*, whose. 

The only definitive relative pronoun is he, that, who, which, what, 
whose. Ex. : Wlaohlnca wayaianke clfcon he wanna asai, the woman 
who was sick is now recovered. Any of the interrogative pronouns 
may be used as indefinite relative pronouns. Ex.: Tawe kte kin tanyan 
adoayapi, who killed him is weU known. 

The indefinite pronouns are nearly all the equivalents of the English, 
and are used much like adjectives. 


In Dakota the pronoun is incorporated in the verb, but for the 
third person singular no incorporate pronoun is used. Therefore, 
for the bare form of the verb we look to the third person singular, 
and not to the infinitive as in English, and that is the form in the 
Dictionary. Thus, if you look for the verb come you will find a. 
That means he comes. Then van means you come ; wan, I come ; upl, 
they come; yaapf, you come; ankapi, we come. From this you see 

the incorporate subjective pronouns are: ya, thou; wa, // ya--pl, 
you ; un—pi, we. Also yon will note that the sign of the plural, pi, 
is added to the third personal plural, to distinguish it from the third 
person singular, and that in the first person plural k is inserted for 

If the verb is transitive, the objective pronouns are also inserted. 
They are : ai, thee; ma, me; wica, them; ol-pi, you; uij-pl, us. As 
an example take the verb kte, kill. 

He kills him, kte; he hills thee, nlkte ; he kills me, makte ; he hills 
them, wlcakte ; he kills you, niktepi ; he kills us, nnktepi. Thou kUlest 
him, yakte ; tlwu killest me, mayakte ; thou killest them, wicayakte ; 
thou killest us, unyaktepi. I kill him, wakte ; I kill thee, clktc ; / kill 
them, wicawakte ; / kill you, ciktepi. They hill him, ktcpl ; they hill 
thee, niktepi; they kill me, maktepi; they hiU them, wicaktepi; tliey 
hill you, niktepi ; they hill us, unktepl. You kill him, yaktepl ; you 
hill me, mayaktepi; you hill them, wicayaktepi; you kill us, unyaktepi. 
We kill him, anktepl ; we kiU thee, unniktepl ; we hill them, wlcunktepi ; 
we hill you, ui) niktepi. 

Besides the singular and plural numbers given above, the Dakota 
has also the dual number. It consists of the person speaking and 
the person spoken to, and only in the subjective case, and is there- 
fore equivalent to we two. In form it is the same as the plural 
without the plural ending pL Thus, take the verb wanka, lie down : 
unwankapi is we lie down : and unwanna, we two lie down. Intransi- 
tive verbs like this can only take one form. Transitive verbs can 
take the third person plural objective pronoun. Thus, with the verb 
kte, kiUj two dual forms may be used: unkte, we hill him; and 
wlcunkte, we kiU them. No one verb takes more than these two 

The relative position of incorporate pronouns should be noted. 
The objective, as a rule, precedes ; as, mayakte, you kill me. There 
is one exception. The first person plural pronoun always precedes 
the second person, whether subjective or objective. Ex.: Unnlktepi, 
we hill you. 

The position of the pronouns in the verb must also be noted. So 
far the verbs selected have had the pronouns prefixed, and the most 
Dakota verbs have the pronouns prefixed. But a large number of 


verbs insert them after the first syllable. Ex.:. Maul, walk; mayani* 
you walk, etc. A few verbs insert the pronouns after the second 
syllable. Ex.: Italian, give away; Itawahan, I give away, etc. 

The sign of the plural, pi, is always placed at the end of the verb. 
Ex.: Ynta, eat; uqyntapl, we eat. When an adverbial particle is 
attached to the verb, it is placed after the sign of the plural. Ex.: 
The diminutive particle dan. Hokslyopa ceyapidan, the little babies 

Contractions resulting from the incorporation of the pronouns are 
quite numerous. 1. Where wa and ya come before ki the two sylla- 
bles are contracted to we and ye ; as, wehdega for waklhdega, I over- 
take ; and ayekton za for ayaktkton £a, you forget. 

2. Where the pronouns come before y in the second person, yay is 
changed to d, and in the first person way to md. Ex.: Yatkan, drink, 
becomes datkan, you drink; and mdatkan, I drink, lyotanka, sits, 
becomes Idotanka, you sit ; imdotaijka, / sit. One of the verbs of this 
class, ynta, eat, drops its first syllable and prefixes the pronouns 
without change ; as, yata, you eat; wata, / eat. 


So far we have spoken only of one class of verbs ; those which 
have the corporate pronoun wa, /, for the first person singular sub- 
jective. We come now to speak of another class, in which the first 
person singular is ma. The class is not very numerous, being mostly 
intransitive verbs, and not all of them. Ex.: Asal, get well; aoisnl, 
you get well ; amasni, I get well ; asolpl, they get weU ; aolsnlpl, you 
get well ; unkasoipl, we get well. Istinma, sleep ; alstinma, mlstinma, 
etc. Wayaianka, sick; waniyazanka, wamayazanka, etc. 

A number of verbs in this class make changes in incorporating 
the pronoun. 

1. Simply drop the pronoun vowel. Ex.: Uo, use ; nun, thou usest; 
man, I use. Ihdahomoi, turn self around; mlduhomal, / turn myself 
around, etc. Most reflective verbs commencing with Ihd take this 

2. Some, in addition to dropping the vowel of the pronoun, drop 
the succeeding consonant in the verb. Ex.: Yanka, is situated; 


aianka, / am situated. Owlnia, spread to lie on ; omii)2a, I spread to 
lie on, etc. Iwanga, ask, changes also the succeeding vowel a to o ; 
thus, tamga, thou askest; imonga, I ask. In the incorporation of the 
objective pronoun the consonant y is restored ; as, Iniayaaonga, thou 
askest me. 

3. There are a few verbs which suffix the pronouns, with other 
changes. Ex.: In, wear, prefixes h and suffixes the pronouns, thus : 
Mnnl, thou wear est; Irinmi, I wear. Ecln, consider; ecaqml, I con- 
sider, etc. Earn, do ; ecanon, you do ; ecamon, / do. 

Eya, say, together with its compounds heya and keya, are alike, but 
still more irregular. Eha, thou sayest ; cpa, I say. Ehapl, you say ; 
nnkeyapi, we say. 


To this class belong what are called adjective and substantive 
verbs, which have the same set of incorporate pronouns as the 
Second Class, and we speak of them separately because of the pecu- 
liarity of their formation and the great extent to which they are 
used. Any adjective or noun may be so used. 

The construction is much the same as the use in English of the 
adjective and substansive verbs with the copula. But in Dakota 
the copula is omitted. Thus : John is tall, in Dakota is John hanska. 
Here is a complete sentence, a definite assertion, with what appears 
to be only a noun and adjective. But hanska is here more than an 
adjective, or it would not be an assertion. The two words are used 
to assert that John is tall. It is then more than an adjective. It is 
a complete predicate, and combines the powers of adjective and 

Perhaps a clearer analysis would be to say that it is predicate 
adjective, and that in Dakota the copula is understood with predi- 
cate adjectives and nouns. 

These predicates, from the nature of the case, have no objective 
pronouns, and, as already stated, the subjective incorporate pro- 
nouns are of the Second Glass. And, like other classes, they are 
incorporated between different syllables. Ex.: Waste, he is good; 
niwaste, thou art good; mawaste, / am good; wastepi, they are good; 
niwastepi, you are good; ui) wastepi, we are good. Dakota, he is a 
Dakota; Damakota, lama Dakota ; Daolkota, thou art a Dakota, etc. 


In some instances the student may be at a loss to know whether 
an adjective or a noun is in the predicate or not. For instance, does 
John hanska mean John is tall or tall John. It might mean either, 
and so is ambiguous. But in fact one need seldom be in doubt. In 
this case, if the connection shows that John hanska is a complete 
sentence, it must mean John is tail. Whereas if another predicate 
follows, and the full sentence is, John hanska wanna hi, then hanska 
is only an adjective, and the translation is, Tall John has come. 


As we have now seen, inflections in the form of the verb show 
very fully the person and number to which it relates. In the matter 
of time and mode no changes are made in the form of the verb. 
Tense and mode are shown by auxiliaries and not by inflection. 

The time expressed in the body of the verb is aorist, that is, inde- 
finite, completed time. And it is used both for the past and present. 
Ex.: Wanhinkpe wakage, I made an arrow. 

The definite time is often shown by circumstances. Ex.: (Pre- 
sent) Taku yakaga he ? what are you making t Wanhinkpe wakaga, I 
am making an arrow. Sometimes it is shown by adverbs of time. 
Ex.: (Preterits) fftanlhan wanhinkpe wakaga, yesterday I made an 
arrow. {Perfect) Wanna mdnstan, I have finished it. If the present 
tense is to be distinguished, dehan is the most definite word, though 
wanna is also used. 

Future time is shown by the auxiliary kta, which is placed imme- 
diately after the verb. Ex.: Wakage kta, I will make it. 

The future perfect has no regular form of expression. Sometimes 
it is not distinguished from the future. Ex.: Do good and you will 
not have lived in vain f taku waste econ, ka Itnya yani kte sni. Some- 
times wanna is introduced as in the present perfect. Ex.: Will he 
have collected enough money t Mazaska iye wanna mnaye kta he. 


As already stated there are no changes of inflection to designate 
different modes. The Indicative is the regular form, the only one I 
have so far referred to. 


The Subjunctive Mode, being one of conditional assertion, is made 
by adding kiohan, unkaos; sta, kes, or some other conditional con- 
junction to the end of the clause. Ex.: Yah! soi kinhan, fade kte sol, 
if you do not come, I will not go. 

The Dakota is not adapted to the classification of a Potential Mode. 
The different senses of our English auxiliaries would require many 
more auxiliary verbs in Dakota. Ex.: I can (am able to) go, mda 
owakihl. I can (am permitted to) go, mda lyowinmakiyapl. Then 
again, many potential clauses are paraphrased in Dakota. Ex.: It 
may be so, okini heceta. Whatever may happen, toketa ceyas. 

The Imperative Mode is formed by placing certain particles imme- 
diately after the bare form of the verb. The regular particles used 
are wo and ye, in the singular, and po and pe in the plural. Wo and 
po are used in command, and ye and pe in entreaty. For propriety's 
sake the women never use the former. Ex. : U wo, come. U ye, do 
come (or please come). These are said only to a single person. 

With transitive verbs the Imperative takes the objective pronouns. 
Ex. When a single person is spoken to : Ku wo, give it to him. 
When more than one is spoken to : Wlcaku po, give it to them. 

Instead of pe, mlye is sometimes used, and this again is sometimes 
contracted to m. Ex.: Instead of Inyanka pe, run, they sometimes 
say inyanka mlye, and sometimes inyankam. 

Sometimes the sign of the Imperative is omitted. 


When the Infinitive is the object of a verb the root form is used. 
Ex.: U cin, he wants to come. 

There is no sign of the Infinitive, but the sign of the future is 
generally used. Ex.: U kta cin, he wants to come. 

The Infinitive takes the incorporate pronouns. Ex.: Klcizapl cinpi, 
they want to fight. Wicakizapi cinpi, tJiey want to fight them. 

When the infinitive is the subject of another verb it takes the 
form of the third person plural. Ex.: Wanyakapi he wicadapl ee, to 

see is to believe. 



The Present Participle takes the root form of the verb. Ex.: Ho* 
ksMan wan Inyanka wanmdaka, J^ato a fcoy running. 

The Pas* Participle takes the form of the third personal plural. 
Ex.: Wlcasta nakaha ktcpi iyewaya, I discovered a man just killed. 

The transitive participle takes an object. Taftca ktrte unklpl, we 
went shooting deer. 


The Dakota verb has no distinctive form for the Passive Voice. 
Instead of saying : / was struck by John, they say, John struck me, 
John amapa. 

Where the form is the indefinite passive the third person plural 
active is always used. Ex.: John was struck, John apapl; that is, 
they struck John. He was a man that was loved, wlcasta wastedapi 


The Dakota verb has some other modal changes peculiar to the 
language. Sometimes a syllable is repeated to indicate repetition 
of action. Ex.: Apa, strike ; apapa, strike repeatedly. The accented 
syllable is generally repeated. 

Then there is a set of causative incorporate verbal prefixes which 
show the manner of the action. They are : ba, bo, ka, na, pa, ya and 
yo. Ba means it is done with a sawing motion ; bo, by a blowing, 
shooting or punching motion ; ka, by a striking or sweeping motion ; 
na, by kicking or bursting ; ya, by biting ; yu, in an indefinite man- 
ner. These prefixes are attached to verbal roots, neuter verbs and 
adjectives. Ex.: Ksa (root), separate; baksa, separate by cutting; 
boksa, by blowing, etc. Ska (adj.), white; yuska, make white. T*» 
die ; kata, cause to die by striking. 

There is also a causative suffix, ya, with the same meaning as the 
prefix ya. Thus: nazln, stand; yunaiin and naiiijya, are both used 
for, cause to stand. Some verbs take the suffix and some the prefix ; 
rarely either may be used. The suffix can only be used with other 



The Dakota adjective, like the noun, is not declined. There are 
no changes for person, number, or case. 

Comparison is shown by qualifying words : sanpa, more, and iyotai), 
most. Ex.: Good, waste; better, sanpa waste; best, iyotai) waste. 

Another form is sometimes used. If one asks, Which is the larger t 
he says, tukte tanka? And if the other replies, This is larger than 
that, he says, de tanka he clstinna. 

Reduplication of a syllable expresses much the same idea as with 
the verb, but as it implies the plural, it is sometimes spoken of as 
the plural. Ex. : Mdo wasteste, nice potatoes. The true sense is 
doubtless, potatoes successively nice. 

The plural ending pi is often attached to adjectives, but as we 
understand, it is a verbal termination, and is properly attached only 
to verbal adjectives. Ex.: Wlcasta wastepi, they are good men. Wl- 
casta waste hlpl, good men Ivave come. 


Adverbs need cause the student no trouble, as there are few 
changes from the form found in the dictionary. As in English, they 
qualify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. 

Their position is immediately before the word they qualify. Ex.: 
He did well, tanyan econ. There are a few exceptions to this rule. 

(a) The negative sol, not; and hinca, very, follow the words they 
qualify. Ex.: Ecamon sot, I did not do it. Tanka hlnca, very large. 

(b) Interrogative pronouns are the first words in the sentence. Ex.: 
Tokeca oltapi kta he. Why will ye die f (c) He, which might be 
called an interrogative exclamation, always closes the sentence. 
Ex.: Yau he. Are you coming t 

The number of primitive adverbs in Dakota is not large, but the 
facility of forming derivatives is ready and well improved. They 
may be formed from any part of speech, but are largely formed from 
adjectives, verbs, pronouns and adverbs. 

1. The suffix ya (or yan) attached to an adjective or verb transforms 
it into an adverb with much the effect as the suffix ly in English. 


Ex.: Slca, bad; slcaya,&a<%. lyuskin, rejoice ; iyusklnyan, rejoicingly. 
Sometimes there is a contraction : Onsika, poor ; onsiya, poorly. 

2. The demonstrative pronouns are transformed into a large num- 
ber of adverbs, mostly by suffixes. 

(a) The suffix en, in, contracted makes den, here, and hen, there ; 
also tukten, where, and kan, yonder, etc. 

(b) The suffixes kl, cl, Idya and ciya make adverbs used with verbs 
of motion. Ex.: Kaki, that way ; deciya, this way. 

(c) The suffixes ken and ceo make adverbs of manner. Ex.: Decen, 
in this manner. Kaken, in that manner. 

(d) The suffixes nan and ban form adverbs of time and locality. 
Each may refer to time or place, which is to be determined by the 
connection. Han conveys the idea of at; nan of to. Thus: hehan, 
at that time, or at that place ; hehan, to that time, or to that place. 
Ex.: Hehan ecamon kta, I will do it at that time (then) ; hehan ehde 
kta, he will set it up at that place (there). Hehan wanl klnhan, if I live 
to that time (HU tlten) ; hehan wai kinhan, if I go to (reach) that place. 

To form adverbs from other adverbs there are a number of suffixes 
used. Tkiya has about the same force as the English suffix wards. 
Ex.: kun, down; kuntldya, downwards. The suffix yan has the force 
of to. Ex.: Hehan, there; hehanyan, to there. Sometimes they are 
accumulative, with only the object of holding to the idea. Ex.: 
Dehan, now ; dehanta, at now; dehantuya, about at now; dehantnyaken, 
somewhere at about now. 

Prepositions are sometimes transformed into adverbs by suffixing 
tu, tnya, ya and wapa. Ex. : Mahenya lyotanka, he sat inside. 


Prepositions have no proper inflection, but where they govern the 
objective pronoun the pronoun is generally incorporated in the pre- 
position. Ex.: dunka niyahnahi, a dog came with you. In the union 
they are often contracted. Ex.: Mlcahda (miye icahda) lyotanka, sit by 
me. The objective pronouns are not always incorporated. Ex.: 
Mlye etldya n, he comes towards me. 

When the preposition governs nouns, or unincorporate pronouns, 
its position is not before but after the word it governs and its quali- 
fying words. Ex.: Tipi ska tanka etaijhai), /row tlie big white liouse. 


There are a number of prepositions in Dakota that are incorpor- 
ated into other words. 

To nouns are affixed ta, ata and yata, all meaning at or to. Ex.: 
Tiyata un, he is at the house. Canyata iyaya, he has gone to the woods. 
Akan, on, is often suffixed. Ex.: fieakan, on the hitt. En is also 
suffixed, but generally contracted to n. Ex. : Tin n 9 come in the 

The first four vowels are used as prepositional attachments to 
intransitive verbs, enabling them to take an object, and occasionally 
to a transitive verb, enabling it to take a second object. The prefix 
a has the force of on. Ex.: Caga amani, he walked on the ice. The 
prefix e signifies to. Ex.: Atkuku ekludega, he overtook (reached to) 
his father. The prefix I means for, on account of. Ex. : Cekiya, pray ; 
Iceldya, pray for. The prefix o means in. Ex.: Kastan, pour ; oka- 
stan, pour in. 

Prepositions are both primitive and compound, but neither are 
numerous ; neither is their composition intricate. One of the most 
numerous classes of derivatives is formed from adverbs of place by 
prefixing I. Ex.: Walk behind, hekta mani; walk behind the horse, 
sunktanka ihektam mani. 


The form and construction of conjunctions is so simple and so 
similar to the English that we need use no space for them here. 

Exclamations are plentiful, but often local, and soon change. 

The Dictionary. 

The abbreviations are mostly the same as found in other diction- 
aries, with the following exceptions. S. stands for Santee; T. for 
Yankton; and T. for Teton. 

The most common definition is placed first. 

English-Dakota Dictionary 

a, a. Waq ; wanM. 

aback, adv. He'kta. 

abandon, vt. Enakiya ; enpeya. 

abandoned, pa. Ehpeyapi ; si'oa. 

abase, vt Yuhukuya. 

abash, vt. Inihanya. 

abate, vi. Asni aya. vt. Asni kiya; 

Abba, n. Ate. 

abbreviate, vt Yuptecedan.. 
abdicate, vi. Enakiya. 
abdomen, n. Cowohe; page. 
abduct, vt. Nanmanicu; i'nahbe. 
abed, adv. Owinia ohna. 
abet, vt. O'kiya. 
abeyance, n. woakipe. 
abhor, vt. Wantedaani. 
abhorrence, n. Wowantedasni. 
abide, vi. Un ; yanka ; ti ; owanzi 

ui). vt. AMpe. 
ability, n. Wowas'ake ; wookihi. 
abject, a. Wachjyeyesni ; ihanke. 
abjure, vt. Wakantanka caieyan 

ablaze, a. Ide. 
able, a. Okihi ; waokihi. 
ablation, n. Woyuiaza. 
ably, adv. Wa&agya. 
aboard, adv. Akan ; o'pa. 
abode, n. Ti'pi ; ounyan.. 
abode, imp. of Abide. 
abolish, vt. Enakiya. 
abominable, a. Wantesni. 

abominate, vt. Wantedaani. 

aboriginal, a. Otokahe. 

aborigines, n. Ikcewicasta. 

abound, vi. O'ta : zinya un. 

about, prep. 1. O'kaai) ; ohomni: 
about the house. 2. Ecetu : 
about a dozen men. 3. Eciya- 
tanhan ; on, : about the war. 

about, adv. O'ksan ; ohomni ; 
wi'yeya tin : ikiyedai). 

above, prep. Iwaijkam ; i'saqpa. 

above, adv. Wankan ; akantu. 

aboveboard, adv. Taninyan. 

abreast, a. I'cipatkun ; iyehan. 

abridge, vt Tuptecena. 

abroad, adv. Tokan. ; tan/kaya ; 
makoce to'keea. 

abrogate, vt. Yuecetu sni. 

abrupt, a. Ihnunan to'keea. 

abruptly, adv. Ihnuhanna. 

abscess, n. Tonye. 

abscond, vt. Nanmaniyaye. 

absence, n. 1. Tokan un : a weel J s 
absence. 2. Wanica : in the ab- 
sence of war. 

absent, a. En ui) sni ; tokan un. 

absent, vt Ihdutokan. 

absentminded, a. Kiksuyesni. 

absolute, a. A'taya ; suta. 

absolution, n. Wakazuzupi. 

absolve, vt. Eiyuska ; ki'cicazuzu. 

absorb, vt. Yunepa ; icu ; e'eedan. 


absorption, n. Oyunepa. 
abstain, vi. Ihdutokai). 
abstinence, n. Ikpatanpi. 
abstract, vt. leu ; manon. n. Yu- 

coya owapi. a. Coyapi; ma- 

abstruse, a. Okahnihsica. 
absurd, a. Eyepicasni ; iyecetu- 

sni ; wowina. 
abundance, n. Wotantoi) ; o'ta. 
abundant, a. O'ta ; otai)toi). 
abuse, vt. Sicaya kuwa ; yasica. 

n. Sicaya kuwapi. 
abusive, a. Sicaya wioakuwa. 
abut, vi. Ipatai) han. 
abyss, n. Wofcbe. 
academy, n Woonspetipi ocoka. 
accede, vi. Iyowinyan ; o'stan 

accelerate, vt. Yuofranko. 
accent, vt. Ho ni'na eya ; iyapa. 

n. Ho iyapapi. 
accept, vt. Icu; iyokipi; iyowinyan. 
acceptable, a. Iyowicakipi. 
acceptance, n. Icu kta eya ; woi- 

access, n. Oau. 
accessible, a. En u'pi wa&te. 
accession, n. Aicage ; o'papi. 
accessory, a. O'kiya. 
accident, n. Wanuwoakipa. 
accidental, a. Ecaken ; wanu. 
acclamation, n. Fyas'api. 
acclimate, vt. Makiyokipiya. 
acclivity, n. Maya. 
accommodate, vt. Tanyan kuwa ; 

accommodating, pa. Wawiyowin- 

accompaniment, n. Kicica. 
accompany, vt. Kici ya. 
accomplice, n. Kici ecoi). 
accomplish, vt. Yustan ; ecoi). 
accomplishment, n. Woyustan. 
accord, vt. Ku. vi. Tawaciij wan- 

zi. n. O'wanzina. 
accordance, n. O'wanzina unpi. 
according to, prep. Ohnayan. 


accordingly, adv. He'cen ; iyecen. 

accost, vt. Ho'uya. 

account, v. To'ketu oyaka ; yawa. 

n. 1. Oicazo owapi : you keep 

the account. 2. Oyakapi: an 

account of his journey. 3. Wo- 

wiyukcan : on no account. 4. 

"Wowiyuijyanpi : of no account. 
accountable, a. Ohdake kta. 
accountant, n. Oicazoowa. 
accouter, vt. Koyagya. 
accrue, vt, Aicaga. 
accumulate, vt. Mnayan ; pahi. vi. 

O'taaya ; wapahi. 
accumulation, n. Womnaye. 
accuracy, n. Yusnasnieconpi. 
accurate, a. WayusnaSni. 
accurately, adv. Yusna&ni. 
accursed, pa. Yasicapi. 
accusable, a. Iyaonpepica. 
accusation, n. Woiyaonpa. 
accuse, vt. Iyaoijpa. 
accustom, vt. Ecewaktakiya. 
accustomed, pa. Ecewakta. 
ache, vi. Yazai). n. Woyazan. 
achieve, vt. Okihi ; ohiya. 
achievement, n. Ta'ku okihipi. 
acid, a. &kumna ; sku'ya. 
acknowledge, vt. Ohdaka ; he'cetu 

acme, n. In'kpa. 
acorn, n. U'ta. 
acquaint with, vt. 1. Sdonyekiya : 

acquaint him ivith the facts. 2. 

Sdonkiya ; iyekiya ; acquainted 

with each otfwr. 
acquaintance, n. Iyekiciyapi. 
acquainted, pa. Wasdonya. 
acquiesce, vt. Iyowinkiya. 
acquire, vt. Kamna; okini; on- 

spe ; mnayai). 
acquired, pa. Onspekiyapi. 
acquisition, n. Wakainnapi. 
acquit, vt. Econsniyacopi ; kiyu- 

ska ; ihunikiya. 
acquittal, n. Kiyuskapi 
acre, n. Makaospe. 
acrid, a. Pa ; fa'ga,. 


acrimony, n. Woyatage; woyasice. 
across, prep. & adv. 1. O'pta; 

hdakinyai) : go across; sweep 

across. 2. Akasanpa; /. koa- 

kata ; ako : lie lives across the 

act, vt. Ecoi); ska'ta; vi. Skaij; 

gka'ta. n. Woecoij; wokage. 
action, n. Woskinciye ; ohan ; wi- 

cohan ; waeconpi. 
active, a. Mdiheca ; ohanko. 
activity, n. Womdihecajni'naskai). 
actor, n. Waecon ; ska'ta. 
actual, a. Wowicake. 
actually, a. A'wicakeya. 
actuate, vt. I'yopastaka. 
acute, a. Pe'sto ; wacinksapa. 
adage, n. Ehanna wicoie. 
adapt, vt. Kipiya ka'ga. 
add, vt. 1. Yuwitaya : add two 

and ten. 2. Aehnaka : I will 

add my mite. 
adder, n. Wamduska&ica. ' 
addict, vt. Econsa ; ecoi)kiya. 
addition, n. Yuwitayapi; on spa 

additional, a. San 'pa. 
address,!;/. 1. WahokonMya ; eci- 

ya : he addressed the people. 

2. Oz'uha akan owa : address 

a letter. 3. Kuwa. n. Woowo- 

hdake ; oz'uha akan owapi ; 

tuktenyeyapi ; wohdakapi en 

opiiciyapi; okiyapi; wowayu- 

adduce, vt. Cazeyata ; pazo. 
adept, n. Wayupika. 
adequate, a. Iyenakeca ; iyecetu. 
adhere, vi. O'ha ; oskapa ; opa. 
adherent, n. O'peyaun. 
adhesion, n. Wi'yaskape. 
adhesive, a. I'kapa ; a'skape. 
adieu, n. Wakantanka onsinida 

adjacent, a. I'yokihe ; ikiyena. 
adjective, n. Wocaze o'kihe. 
adjoin, vt. I'yokihe un. vi. I'ciyo- 



adjourn, vt. Kihnaka; aehnaka; 

adjudge, vt. Yuhe kta yaco. 

adjudicate, vt. Yaco ; Y. yasu. 

adjunct, ». Ta'ku ikoyake. 

adjure, vt. Wakantanka cazeyan 

adjust, vt. Kipiya ka'ga. 

adjustable, a. Piyepica. 

adjustment, n. Piyapi. 

adjutant, n. Akicita o'kihe itancai) . 

administer, vt. Econ ; wicaku ; 
awanyaka; kicanyan. 

administration, n. Kicanyanpi. 

admirable, a. Wastedapi. 

admirably, adv. Yanyan. 

admiral, n. Ozuyewata itancai). 

admiration, n. Stedapi. 

admire, vt. Steda ; inihan. 

admissible, a. O'peyepica. 

admission, n. 1. O'pekiyapi; en 
ukiyapi. 2. He'cetu eyapi. 

admit, vt. 1. En iyayeya; o'pe- 
kiya. 2. Iyowinyan ; he'cetu 

admittance, n. En ya'pi. 

admonish, vt. Iwaktaya; waho- 

admonition, n. Wowahokonkiya. 

ado, n. Owodntaton. 

adopt, vt. Ta'waye kta icu. 

adoption, n. Cincayapi icupi. 

adorable, a. Ohodapioa. 

adoration, n. Waohodapi. 

adore, vt. Ohoda ; wasteda. 

adorn, vt. Yu waste; yuwitan. 

adrift, adv. O'kahbog. 

adroit, a. Wayupika ; ohanko. 

adult, n. Tan/ka. 

adulterate, vt. He'casni ieahiyapi. 

adulterer, n. Wawicihahapi ecoi). 

adultery, n. Wawicihahapi. 

advance, vt. 1. Iyopteya : advance 
the army. 2. Pazo ; yatanii) : 
advance the statement. 3. Wan- 
kan yeya : advance the price, 
vi. Iyopta ; wankanya : advance 
in his studies, a. I'tokam : an 


advance payment, n. Woiyopte; 

iyoptapi; tokahaqpi. 
advanced, pa. Tokahaij; waxjkantu. 
advancement, n. Woiyopte. 
advantage, n. Wookihi; wokici- 

waste. You have the advantage 

of me: mi'kapey a wookihi duha. 
advantageous, a. Okieiwaste. 
advent, n. Hi ; hi kta. 
adventure, n. Woakipa okokipe. 

vt. Kokipe sni skai). 
adventurer, n. Wa'kinomani. 
adverb, n. Wawoyaka o'kihe. 
adversary, n. To'ka. 
adverse, a. Itkom u ; wakipazhj. 
adversely, adv. Kipazhjyai). 
adversity, n. Wocantesica. 
advert, vi. Cazeyata. 
advertise, vt. Yaotaijh). vi. Waya- 

advertisement, n. Wayaotaijiijpi. 
advice, n. 1. Ciqkiyapi ; eeoijsipi : 

the advice of his friends. 2. 

Woyakapi ; toketu oyaka : a 

letter of advice. 
advisable, a. Ecoijpiiyececa. 
advise, vt. 1. Ciijkiya; ecoijSi r 

advise a friend. 2. Okiyaka : / 

will advise you when I go. 
advised, pa. Ecoq&ipi : ill-advised. 
adviser, n. Tuwe oqspekiya. 
advocate, vt. Iciya. n. Wawiciya. 
adz, n. Cai)icakai). 
aerial, a. Tate ohna. 
aeronaut, n. Wica&takiijyai). 
afar, adv. Te'han. 
affable, a. Wohdakesa. 
affair, ft. Wicofraq; ta'ku. 
affect, vt, Kuwa; kuwakoqza; 

iyokipi; eeeca. 
affected, pa. Ta'kuiciya ; wacii)- 

affecting, pa. Cantiyowicakisica. 
affection, n. Wowaciijyuza. 
affectionate, a. Waihakta. 
affectionately, adv. Waihaktaya. 
affiance, vt. Yu'ze kta yu&taqpi. 
affidavit, n. Wowioake wowapi. 


affiliate, 'vt. Om skai) ; kodaya. 

affinity, n. Woihakta. 

affirm, vt. He'cetu eya. 

affirmation, n. He'cetu eyapi. 

affix, vt. Ikoyaka. 

afflict, vt. lyokiMnya. 

afflicted, pa. Iyokisica. 

affliction, n. Woiyokisiea. 

afflictive, a. Iyokisinyapi. 

affluence, n. Wowizice. 

affluent, a. ties, ; wizica. 

afford, vt. 1. Iyecen wi'zica: / 
canH afford to buy coffee. 2. 
Okihi : the good can well afford 
to die. 3. Ieahya ; yukai) : the 
well affords plenty of water. 

affray, n. Kicizapi. 

affright, vt. Yusiijyeya. 

affront, vt. I&tenya ; ostehda. 

afire, a. Ide. 

afloat, a. Okapota; yukai). 

afoot, adv. Huiijyui) ; Y.fT. ma- 

afore, prep. I'tokam. 

aforesaid, a. I'tokam cazeyatapi. 

afraid, a. Kokipa ; wakokipe. 

afresh, adv. Akta ; piya. 

African, n. Wasicuqsapa. Y.fT. 

aft, a. Wahektapa. 

after, adv. bprep. 1. Iyohakam : 
after supper. 2. Wi'cihakam : 
I stood after him. 3. Huwe; 
Y. hiyo : go after water. 4. Oq : 
inquired after you. After all, 
uij'haijketa; he'casta. 

afterbirth, n. Tamni. 

afternoon, n. Wi'cokayasaqpa. 

afterwards, adv. Iyohakam. 

again, adv. Ake ; akes ; is. Again 
and again, akihdehde. 

against, prep. 1. Itkom; i'tkokim : 
go against. 2. Akan; kaseya 
iyam : dashed against the rocks. 
3. Ipatai) : lean it against the 
wall. 4. Oi) : wi'yeya : toys laid 
up against Christmas. Against 
each other, ki'cipatitai). — 


J gainst the wind, tatoheya. — 
Over against, i'yotakons. 

age, n. 1. Wicoicage : ages gone 
by. 2. Oicage : twelve years of 
age, 3. Ta'waihdawapi ; wa- 
niyetu wikcemna non'pa sam 
wanzi : he is of age. vt. Wi- 
cahca a'ya. 

aged* pa. Wicahca ; waniyetu ; 
kai) ; waniyetu o'ta. 

agency, n. 1. Ateyapi ti; owo- 
pamni ; Y. Owakpamni : San- 
tee Agency. 2. Woecon ; wo- 
skinciye : it is an agency for 
good. 3. Waecoijsipi : a mer- 
cantile agency. 

agent, n. 1 . Ateyapi : Indian agent 
2. e'ekiya awanyaka. 3.Waecoi). 

aggrandize, vt. Yutanka. 

aggravate, vt. Akaga ; sam yusica; 

aggravation, n. Sam yusica ; wo- 

aggregate, vt. & a. Tuwitaya ; wi'- 
taya. n. O'yuwitaya. 

aggressive, a. Wioakuwasa. 

aggressor, n. Tokaheya eoon. 

aggrieve, vt. Iyokisinya. 

aghast, a. Inihai) ; tan sag ta. 

agile, a. Ohanko. 

agility, n. Ohankopi. 

agitate, vt. Yuskaijskan ; aia. 

aglow, a. Sasa ; ide. 

ago, adv. Ehantanhan ; hekta. 

agoing, adv. Ta ; iyopte. 

agonize, vi. Kakisya ikan. 

agony, n. Wokakize. 

agree, vi. 1. O'konwanzidan awa- 
cinpi: brotliers should agree. 
2. OMciwaste : agree with thine 
adversary. 3. He'cetu kta eya ; 
wicada ; keya : all agreed to the 

agreeable, a. Iyowicakipi ; waste ; 

agreeably, adv. Iyokipiya. 

agreement, n. Woyustan iapi; 
o'konwanzidan awacinpi. 


agriculture, n. Mahkicanyanpi. 

aground, a. & adv. A'zi. 

ague, n. Cancanpi woyazai). 

ah, interj. E ; ho ; ho. 

aha, interj. Ehai) ; ohan. 

ahead, adv. Tokaheya ; tokata. 

ahem, interj. fio. 

ahoy, interj. Hiwo. 

aid, vt. O'kiya ; wasagya. n. Wao- 

kiyapi; ookiye. 
all, vt. Iyazai) ; to'keca. 
ailment, n. Woyazai). 
aim, vt. 1. Pazo ; e'pazo : aim a 

gun. 2. Hiyuya ; yapa : His 

remark was aimed at me. n. 

Ta'ku kuwa ; wapazo. 
aimless, a. Woawacin co'dan. 
air, n. 1. Tate ; anptaniya : breathe 

pure air. 2. Dowanpi ho itai)- 

cai) : you sing the air. 3. Ohan ; 

ohai) kon'zapi. vt. Okadusya; 

airtight, a. Tate okaduzesni. 
airy, a. Tatesa ; okaduza ; kapo- 

zedan; wi'haha. 
aisle, n. Ti'piwakan ocankuye. 
ajar, adv. Akazamni. 
akin, a. & adv. Takuya. They are 

akin, takukiciyapi. 
alacrity, a. Womdiheoa. 
alarm, vt. Inihanya; iwaktaya. 

n. Woyusinyan ; wowakta. 
alarming, pa. Woyusiijyan. 
alarjnlngly, adv. Wokokipeya. 
alas, interj. He'hehe. 
albino, n. Ukaska. 
alcohol, n. Miniwakan ska. 
alderman, n. Otonwe itancan. 
ale, n. Minitahtoi) hanpi. 
alert, a. Wakta ui) ; ohanko. 
algebra, n. Wi'yacii) wayawapi. 
alias, adv. Caze unmai). 
alibi, n. Tokai) ui). 
alien, n. Oyatetokeca ; to'keca. 
alienate, vt. Tutokeca. 
alight, vi. Iyahai). 
alike, a. I'akidececa. adv. I'aki- 



alive, a. Ni ; %e>'km ; mdiheca ; 
itkoi] ; a'taya skaijskai). 

alkali, n. Cahota haijpi. 

all, a. 1. Owasii); T. oyasiij; 
iyuhpa, T. $ Y. iyuha : all 
men. 2. Hmniyai) : all the way. 
3. A'taya : all the nation. 

all, adv. A'taya. All along, ihui)- 
niyai). — All hut fell, owateca 
hiqupaye kta tka. — At all, eca- 
ca. — All for play, Hk&'tapi e'ce- 
dai) oi). — JW of a sudden, ihnu- 
haijna. — <4M over, a'taya ihuni. 
— <4M the 8am e, to'keca sni. — 
For all that, he'casta. 

allay, vt. Tuasni. 

allege, if. Eya; iyaoijpa; cazeyata. 

allegiance, n. Ihakam uij'pi. 

allegory, n. Wi'yaciijpi. 

alleviate, vt. Yuaokpani; oijspa 

alley, n. Otoijwe cai)ku cis'tina. 

alliance, n. Wodakota. 

allied, pa. Odakonkiciyapi. 

alligator, n. Ahdeskataijka. 

allot, vt. Ku ; ikiyuta. 

allotment, n. Ta'ku ku'pi ; makoce 

allow, vt. 1. Iyowiijkiya : no smok- 
ing allowed. 2. Ku : all-ows good 
wages. 3. Kecii) : I allow he was 

allowable, a. Iyowiijyepica. 

allowance, n. Ku'pi ; iyowiijyaijpi. 

all-round, a. Ecaowarjcaya. 

allude, vi. Ka. 

allure, vt. Iyutaijye; hmuij'ga. 

allusion, n. Wacazeyatapi. 

alluvium, n. Makikoeka. 

ally, n. Kici ti'dai) ; ookiye. vt, 
Wodakota ki'caga. 

almanac, n. Wiyawapiwowapi. 

almighty, a. Iyotai) wasaka. 

almond, n. Yahugapiwaijkadai). 

almost, a. Ikiyedaq; owateca; 

alms, n. Wahpanica taku kupi. 

aloft, adv. Waijkan. 

6 amend 

alone, a. & adv. Isnana ; ecedai). 
along, adv. & prep. Iyopta ; ohna. 

Along by, kahda. — Along with, 

kici ; ko'ya. 
alongside, adv. I'sakim. 
aloof, adv. I'tehai) ; tokaij. 
aloud, adv. Taijiijyai); ho'taqkaya. 
alphabet, n. Oowa ; a-b-c. 
already, adv. Waqna ; e'es waijna. 
also, adv. & conj. Nakui). 
altar, n. Wa'hnawosnapi ; T. wa'- 

gnawauijyaijpi ; oyaqke. 
alter, vt. Yutokeca ; vi. To'ke- 

alteration, n. Yutokecapi. 
alternate, a. Uqmai) itogto : alter- 
nate stripes, vi. Uijmai) itogto 

skaq'pi : day alternates with 

night, n. E'ekiya ye kta. 
alternately, adv. Uijmai) itogto. 
although, conj. Esta; Y. esa; 

altitude, n. Waqkantuya. » 
alto, n. Wiij'yai) ho o'kihe. 
altogether, adv. Owasii) wi'taya : 

a'taya: e'cedai). 
alum, n. Pezutazaijzai) seca. 
always, adv. Ohiijni. Always the 

same, oTuijni he'cetuwarjzica. 
am, v. lstpers. sing, of be. 
amass, vt. Pahi. 
amateur, a. & n. Woihakta oq 

amaze, vt. Inihaqya. 
amazement, n. Wowinihaij. 
amazingly, adv. Wowinihaqyai). 
ambassador, n. Oyateyesipi. 
ambiguous, a. Ta'ku ka'pi tai)ii) 

ambition, n. Ohiyewacinpi. 
ambitious, a. Ohiyewacin. 
ambulance, n. Canpahmihma wa- 

yazanka toksu. 
ambush, n. Iyawicapepi. 
ameliorate, vt. Yuwaste. 
amen, n. He'cetu nuijwe. 
amenable, a. Ihukuya un. 
amend, vt. Piya . yuwaste. 


amends, n. Piyapi ; wokazuzu. 
American, n. Isai)tai)ka ; Y. Mi'na- 

amiable, a. Tawacin waste. 
amicable, a. Waihakta. 
amicably, adv. Iyokipiya. 
amid, prep. E'hna ; cokaya. 
amidst, prep. E'hna ; cokaya. 
amiss, adv. & a. He'cetu sni; 

amity, n. Wowastekiciyapi. 
ammunition, n. Iozu. 
among, amongst, prep. E'hna; Y. 

ekna; T. e'gla; a'kipam; 

amorous, a. Wacantiheye. 
amount, a. To'nakeca ; yuwitaya- 

pi ; to'ken ka'pi. vi. Iyohi ; ka. 
ample, a. Otankaya; iyohihca; 

amply, adv. Tanyehca. 
amputate, vt Baksa ; hu baksa. 
amuse, vt Magagaya ; ihaya ; wi'- 

amusement, n. Womagaga. 
an, a. Wai) ; wanzi. 
analogous, a. Iyececa. 
anarchy, n. Woope wanica. 
anathema, n. Woyasica. 
anatomy, n. Wicatancan woonspe. 
ancestor, n. Hunkake. 
anchor, n. Ma'zaaspeyapi : wat- 

icaspe. trt. Aspeya. 
ancient, a. Ehanna; wanakaza. 

n. Ehanna wicasta. 
and, conj. Ifa; ca; T. na: un'kan ; 

T. yun'kai) ; nakui). 
anecdote, n. Woyakapi. 
anew adv. Piya ; te'ca. 
angel, n. Mahpiyaohnihde ; waho- 

anger, n. Wocanniye; wocai)ze. 

vt. Canzeya. 
angle, n. Okahmin. trt. Ho'psica. 
angry, a. Canniyan ; eanze ; wo- 

anguish, ». WoiyoMsice. 
animal, n. Wamakaskan ; (small 


animals) watutka; (ruminat- 
ing) woteca. 

animate, vt. Niya; nikiya; yu- 
niya ; mdihenya. a. Ni. 

animated, pa. Ni ; mdiheca. 

animosity, n. Wahtekicidapi sni. 

animus, ru Co: ta'ku ka'pi. 

ankle, n. Iskahu. 

annals, n. Woyakapi : o'maka oya- 

annex, vt. Aehnaka ; onspa akaga. 
n. Akagapi. 

annexation, n. Ikoyagyapi. 

annihilate, vt. Atakunisniya ; owi- 

anniversary, n. Wokiksuye anpe- 
tu ; o'maka iyehantu. 

announce, vi, Yaotanin. 

announcement, n. Yaotaninpi. 

annoy, vt Nagiyeya ; kisdeya. 

annoyance, n. Wonagiyeya. 

annual, a. O'maka iyohi ; o'maka 

annuity, n. Wopamni; o'maka 
iyohi ta'ku ku'pi. 

annul, vt Yuecetusni. 

anoint, vt Sdakiya. 

anomalous, a. To'keca. 

anon, adv. Ecana ; to'ke&ta. 

anonymous, a. Caze wanica. 

another, a. To'keca; wan zi to'keca. 

answer, vt. 1. Ayupta : I will an- 
swer. 2. Iyehantu ; ecetu : the 
house will answer, n. Woayupte. 

answerable, a. Ayuptepica ; wawi- 
wangapi kta. 

ant, n. Tazuska. 

antarctic, a. O'kah ihanke. 

anteater, n. Tazuska yu'ta. 

antecedent, n. Otokahe. 

antelope, n. Tatokadan. 

anthem, n. Odowan han'ska. 

anfl; prefix. Kipazin. 

antic, n. Wowiha oecon. 

anticipate, vt. I'tokam awacii) ; 
kecin ; kapa. 

antidote, n. Woaica kte. 

antipathy, n. Wahtedasni. 


antiquated, a. Wicohan ehanna. 
antique, a. Ehanna hoa. 
antler, n. He'yunaha. 
anvil, n. Ma'zaahdehe. 
anxiety, n. Wocantesica; canta- 

hdepi; ni'na cin. 
anxious, a. Cantesica ; ni'na cin ; 

anxiously, adv. Canteainya. 
any, a. 1. TV we ; tu'we kasta : 

any man. 2. Onge : any sugar. 

3. Tukte : any damage, adv. 

Onge; on'spa. 
anybody, pron. Tu'we; wicasta. 
anyhow, adv. To'ketukasta. 
anyone, pro. Tu'wekasta. 
anything, pro. Ta'kukasta. 
anyway, adv. To'ketukasta. 
anywhere, adv. Tuktentukasta. 
anywise, adv. To'ketukasta. 
apace, adv. Dus; onanko. « 
apart, adv. Kinukan ; tokan ; yu- 

apartment, n. Ti'pionspa. 
apathy, n. Waawacinpisni. 
ape, n. Waunca: T. heolela. vt. 

aperture, n. Ohdoka ; T. ohloka. 
apex, ?i. In'kpa. 
apiece, adv. Iyohi; kinukan. 
apologize, vi. Ohdaka; iciya; 

icantesica ohdaka. 
apostate, n. Wowicada nu'ni. 
apostle, n. Yesipi. 
appall* vt. Tansagteya. 
appalling, pa. Woyusinyan. 
apparatus, n. Icuwa. 
apparel, n. Heyake ; Y. hayake ; 

T. hayapi. 
apparent, a. Tanin ; se'ca. 
apparently, adv. Se'ececa. 
apparition, n. Wanagi. 
appeal, vi. 1. Tokan ye kta : I 

appeal to Caesar. 2. Da ; ice- 

kiya : J appeal for aid. 3. Iyo- 

hiya : the call appeals to every 

heart. 4. Cazeyata : appeal to 


8 approbation 

appear, vi. Taninyan u ; taniq ; 
taninioiya; se'ececa. 

appearance, n. Owanyake ; tanii) ; 
ta'ku tanin ; en hi. 

appease, vt Asnikiya ; asniyai) ; 

appendix, n. Ihanke ka'gapi. 

appertain, vi. En ikoyake; ta'- 

appetite, n. Wocantahde ; docinpi. 

appetizing, pa. On' docinpi. 

applaud, vt. Yatan ; i'yakis'a. 

applause, n. Woyatan. 

apple, n. Taspan ; taspantanka. 
Apple of the eye } istasu. 

applicable, a. Unpioa ; en aupica. 

applicant, n. Da; wicohan da. 

application, n. 1. Da ; da/pi wo- 
wapi : his application teas re- 
jected. 1. Waehnakapi : a soft 
application. 3. Ta'ku iyowaza : 
the application of the sermon. 
4. Waawacinpi : close applica- 

apply, applied, vt. Aehnaka; e'- 
hnaka ; a'ya ; en yeya. vi. 

1. Da ; eciya. 2. Iyowaza ; 
kipi; kapi. 

appoint, vt. Kanniga ; econsi ; 

ka'ga; e'hde. vi. Wakonza. 
appointment, n. 1. Wakahniga. 

2. Ta'ku eoon kta eyapi. 3. 
Icuwa; heyake. 

apportion, vt. Pamni. 
appraise, vt. Tohantu yawa. 
appreciate, vt. Pida; wankan yawa; 

wi'yukcan ; wasteda. 
apprehend, vt. 1. Okahniga. 2. 

Tehi kta ecin ; ikopa. 3. Yu'- 

za; Y. oyuspa. 
apprehensive, a. Waawacin ; wi'- 

apprentice, n. Wowasi onspeki- 

apprise, vt. Iwaktaya. 
approach, vt. Ikiyedan u ; en i ; 

kuwa. n. Kiyadan u ; oenape. 
approbation, n. He'cetudapi. 

appropriate 9 

appropriate, vt. 1. Aehnaka : ap- 
propriate money for Indians. 
2. Ikikcu; ta'wa kta icu. a. 
Iyeh&ntu; okiwaste. 

approval, ». Iyecetu da'pi. 

approve, vt. He'cetu da ; yutan- 
in ; waste ihdutanin. 

approximate, a. Uriyedan. v. Dri- 
yedai) ye. 

April, n. Wi'itopa ; Magaoka- 
dawi ; Watopapiwi. 

apron, n. Maknakanpe; T. makua- 

apt, a. 1. Wayupika : wacin- 

ksapa ; ohanko. 2. Ecee ; sa. 
aptitude, n. Wookihi. 
aptly, adv. Wayupiya. 
aquatic, a. Mini. 
arable, a. Wozupiwaste. 
Arapahoe, n. Mahpiyato. 
arbitrary, a. Iyetokencin eoon; 

suta; tenika. 
arbitrate, vt. Woakinica yaco. 
arbor, n. Canwapatipi. 
arc, n. Canhdeska on spa. 
arch, n. Mibeya awakeyapi. 
&rch, prefix. Itancan. 
archer, n. Wanyeya. 
architect, n. Ticahwiyukoan. 
archive, n. Wowapi omnaye. 
arctic, a. Waziyata ihanke. 
ardent, a. Wohitika; ka'ta. 
ardor, n. Womdiheoa. 
arduous, a. Tenika; wakitan. 
are, 2nd per 9. sing, andplur. ind. 

o/Be. Un. 
area,n. Oiyute; oyanke. 
argue, vt. To'keca oyaka; iaaki- 

argument, n. To'ken on etanhan 

arid, a. Waicage sni. 
aright, adv. Tanyan. 
arise, vt. Hinapa; icaga; inazin. 
aristocratic, a. Wahanicida. 
arithmetic, n. Wayawapi. 
ark, n. Noah tawata ; wa'ta ; 

koka wakan. 

arm, n. Isto ; adetka ; wi'pe. v. 
Wi'peton ; wi'pe fcu. 

armful, n. Istoozudan. 

armless, a. Istowanioa. 

armor, n. Ozuye heyake. 

armory, n. Wi'petdpi. 

armpit, n. Doksi; a. 

army, n. Ozuye ; atdoita. 

aroma, n. Ecamna. 

around, adv. Sr prep. O'ksan ; 
ohomni ; kondamniyan ; a'ki- 

arouse, vt Tunica; i'yopastaka. 

&mlgn, vt. Iyaonpa; kaska. 

arrange, vt. Tanyai) e'hnaka ; 
piya. vi. Wayustan ; piioiya. 

arrangement, n. Oehnake. 

array, vt 1. E'hde; koyagya. 

arrear, n. Iyohisni. 

arrest, vt. Kaska ; oyuspa ; ana- 
pta: na'zinkiya. 

arrival, n. Hi ; ehani ; tu'we hi. 

arrive, vi. Hi ; hihuni ; ehani. 

arrogant, a. Aokahyaskan ; wa- 

arrow, n. Wanhinkpe ; warj. 

arrowhead, n. Wanhi. 

arson, n. Tiideyapi. 

art, Sndpers. sing. o/Be. Un. 

art, n. wbonspe. 

artery, n. We'kan dus iyapa. 

artesian, a. Minibosdi. 

artichoke, n. Pangi. 

article, n. Ocaze; iapi; aehna- 
kapi iapi. 

articulate, vt. E'napeya ; o'kihe 

artifice, n. Wowayupika. 

artificial, a. Ka'gapi. 

artillery, n. Ma'zakantanka. 

artist, n. Wakahwayupika. 

artless, a. Wahanicidasni. 
;, adv. # conj. 1. Iyecen : as 
good as, iyecen waste. 2. To'- 
ken : as I do, so he does. 3. 
He'ca : some animals are cun- 
ning, as the fox. 4. Ieunhan : 
as we were riding home. 5. 




Keyas : bad as he is. 6. Na- 
kaes : as he is little, he can 
play. As for, e'kes. — As if, 
or as though, iyecen. — As yet, 
nahaijMi) ; dehanyai). 

ascend, vt. Wankan ya ; adi. 

ascending, pa. I'tanwaqkanhde ; 

ascension, n. Iyakaptapi ; wai)- 

ascent, n. Oiyakapte ; waijkan- 

ascertain, vt. Sdonya. 

ascribe, vt. Ki'ciyawa ; kn. 

ash, n. Pseh'tii). 

ashamed, a. Isteoa. 

ashes, n. pi. Cahota. 

ashore, adv. fieri ; hutata. 

ashy, a. Canotase. 

aside, adv. Icuijom ; tokai). 

ask, v. 1. Da ; kida. Me asked a 
dime, kaspapi wanzi da. — He 
asked him for .a dime, kaspapi 
wanzi kida. 2. Iwaqga. He 
asked him the road, canku 
iwai)ga. 3. Kico ; usi : he asked 
him to dinner. 

askance, adv. Hdakinyan. 

askew, adv. ftminyai). 

aslant, adv. Nakeya. 

asleep, a. Istinma. The foot 
asleep, siha tatake. 

asp, n. Wamduska. 

aspect, n. Owanyake. 

aspen, n. Wahcinca. 

asperity, n. Onanksizeca. 

asperse, vt. Yasihth). 

aspirant, ». Akita; cii). 

aspirate, a. Oowa oniyasi'ca. 

aspiration, n. Caqtiheyapi. 

aspire, vi. Akita ; kuwa ; cii). 

aspiring, pa. Wankantuwacii). 

ass, n. Son/soijnahca. 

assail, vt. Iyahpaya ; aia. 

assassin, n. Tin'wicakte. 

assault, vt. Takpe; natai). 

assemblage, n. Omniciye. 

assemble, vt. Mni'ciya. 

assembly, n. Omniciye. 
assent, vi. He'cetuda eya. 
assert, trt. Eya; kitan. 
assertion, n. Ta'ku eya ; iapi. 
assess, vt. Woynha owa. 
assessor, n. Owicawa. 
assets, n. Kazuzu kta hna'ka. 
assiduous, a. Wakitanpi. 
assign, vt. On kanniga; e'kici- 

hnaka ; ku. 
assignation, n. Wicakupi. 
assimilate, vt. Ta'waiciya ka'ga. 
assist, vt. O'kiya. 
assistance, n. Wookiye ; o'kiyapi. 
assistant, n. Ookiye. 
associate, vt. Yuokonwaqzina ; ki- 

ci ui) ; kodaya. n. Kiciod. 
association, n. Kodakiciyapi; o'ko- 

dakiciye : Young Men's Asso- 
assort, vt. Obe ecekcen e'hnaka. 
assortment, n. Ocaze ; ocaze ece 

assuage, vt. Yuasni; yuhukuya. 

vi. Run ya ; asm. 
assume, vt. Icu ; he'cetu yawa ; 

assurance, n. Yuwicakapi ; a'wi- 

cakeya sdonyapi. 
assure, vt. A'wicakehai] sdonye- 

kiya; ecetukiya. 
assuredly, adv. A'wicakehai). 
astern, auv. Wahektapa; he'kta. 
astir, a. Skanskan. 
astonish, vt. Yusinyeya. 
astonishing, pa. Woyusinyaye. 
astound, vt. Tansagteya. 
astounding, a. Wowinihai). 
astray, adv. Onuniyai) ; nu'ni. 
astride, adv. Akamdas. 
astringent, a. Pa ; ta'ga. 
astronomy, n. Wicanhpi wooqspe. 
astute, a. Ksa'pa ; wakcai)ka. 
asunder, a. Yukinukarj. 
asylum, n. Wicaoijsikatipi ; wo- 

at, prep. Ekta ; iyehan. He is 

at the river, wakpa ekta ui). — 


I will come at noon, wi'cokaya 

iyehan wau kta. 
At all, ecaca. — At hand, 

ikiyedan. — At last, un'han- 

keta. — At least, he'ceca sta ; 

dan. — At your service, wi'yeya. 

Get at, iyohi; yu'za. — Run at, 

ate, imp. of Eat, yu'ta. 
atheist, n. Ta'kuwakan wanica 

athirst, a. I'puza. 
athletics, w. Tan can kaonspepi; 
athwart, prep. Hdakinyai). 
atlas, n. Makoce owapi. 
atmosphere, n. Tate. 
atom, ft. Wokpena. 
atoae, vt. Kazuzu ; ecetuya. 
atrocious, a. N'ina si'ca. 
attach, vt. Ikoyagya ; a'skamya. 

Attach to, ikoyaka; iyayuha; 

attack, vt. Anatan ; kuwa ; kipa- 

zii). ft. Wonatai). 
attain, vt. Iyohi. 
attainment, ft. Woonspe okihi. 
attempt, vt. Iyutaj econuta. w. 

attend, vt. 1. Kici ya ; o'pa : 

attend the king; attend the 

meeting. 2. Kuwa; en e'wa- 

cii) : attend to your lessons. 
attendance, n. O'papi ; en hi'pi. 
attendant, n. Tu'we o'pa ; kicica. 
attention, ft. Tinsaawacinpi. 
attentive, a. Waawaciij. 
attest, vt. Yuwicaka. 
attic, ft. Tice ; wankantipi. 
attire, vt. Koyaka; kicuq. ft. 

Wokoyake ; hayake. 
attitude, ft. Piiciyapi; piiciya. 
attorney, n. Waaiawicasta. 
attract, vt. Yutitan ; iyutanye. 
attraction, ft. Woyutitan. 
attractive, a. Iyutanwicaya ; wi'- 

attribute, n. Onan ; ta'ku ta'wa- 

Myapi; (Gram.) wi'yatokeca. 

41 averse 

attribute, vt. En ai ; ku. 
attune, vt. Ho i'ciyokipiya. 
auburn, a. 6a gi ; sasa. 
auction, n. Pan'wiyopeyapi. 
audacious, a. Ta'kudanohodasni. 
audible, a. Tanin. 
audience, n. Nafronyankapi ; om- 

niciye; wonahon. 
audit, vt. He'cetu keya. 
auditorium, n. Omniciyetipi. 
auger, n. Caniyumni. T. Can> 

aught, ft. Ta'ku kasta. 
augment, vt. Yutanka. 
augur, vt. Ayata. 
august, a. Okinihan. 
August, ft. Wi'isahdogan ; Wasu- 

aunt, ft. Tonwin ; (if mother's 

sister) ina. 
auspices, n. pi. Woawanyake. 
auspicious, a. Owastecaka. 
austere, a, Ke'za ; ksizeca. 
authentic, a. Wicaka. 
authenticate, vt. Yuwicaka. 
author, w. Ka'ga ; tu'we ka'ga. 
authority, n. Wowas'ake. 
authorize, vt. Wowas'ake ku. 
autobiography, n. Oniohdaka. 
autocrat, n. Ta'waiciya itancan. 
autograph, n. Caze oiciwa. 
autonomy, n. Oyate isnaihduhapi. 
autumn, n. Ptanyetu. 
auxiliary, a. Waokiya. ft. Qokiye. 
avail, vt. Okiciwaste ; kicun ; iyo- 

avail, ft. Wi'yokihi. Avails, wo- 

available, a. Icupica ; unpica. 
avalanche, n. Ca'ga kasduta. 
avarice, n. Watehindapi. 
avaricious, a. Woyuha cantahde. 
avenge, vt. Watokicon. 
avenue, w. Canku ; otonwecaijku. 
aver, vt. Wowicake eya. 
average, vt. Yuocokaya. a. Oco- 

kaya ; ecee. w. Cokaya. 
averse, a. Iyokipisni. 


aversion, n. Wowahtedasni. 

avert, vt. Yutokai). 

aviary, n. Zitkadaqtipi. 

avidity, n. Wocaijtahde. 

avocation, n. Wicohai). 

avoid, vt. Aohomni ya ; ecoi) sni. 

avouch, vt. Wowicake eya. 

avow, vt. Ohdaka. 

avowed, pa. Tarjiijyai) oyakapi. 

await, vt. Akipa. 

awake, awoke, vt. Yuhiea. vi. 
Kikta ; mdes'hiqhda. a. Kikta 

awaken, vt. Yuhiea. 

awakening, n. Woyuhica. 

award, vt. Ku ; woohiye ku ; n. 
Woohiye ; ta'ku ku'pi. 

aware, a. Sdonya ; wakta. 

away, adv. Tokai) ; to'kiya ; he'- 
cetuwaijzica. Bun away, tokai) 
iyaya, nazica. — Sing away, 
dowai) yai)ka. — Work away, 
he'cetuwaijzioa ecoi). — Away 

12 backwater 

back, ehaijna. — Away with, 
tokai) a'ya. — Do away with, 
or make away with, ayustan- 
kiya ; ihaqgya. — Eight away, 

awe, vt. Yusinyeya. n. Woyn- 

awestruck, a. Inihai). 

awful, a. Wowinihai) ; wowi- 
toi)pe ; okokipe. 

awfully, adv. Wowinihaijyai). 

awhile, adv. Ki'tanna te'han. 

awkward, a. Waoijspekesni ; e'- 
cipe sni ; to'ketu tai)ii) sni. 

awl, n. Tahin&pa. 

awning, n. Minihuhaohanzi. 

awoke, imp. of Awake. 

ax, n. Oijspe ; mazonspe. 

axiom, n. Ecawowicake. 

axis, n. Ayuhomnipi. 

axle, n. Huhdakinyan. 

aye, n. Hai) ; ho. 

azure, a. To ; manpiyato. 


Baal, n. An'pawiwakan. 
babble, vi. Iaa : hmunhmui). 
babbler, n. les'a. 
babe, n. Hoksiyopa. Y. Hoksi- 

copa. T. Hoksicala. 
Babel, n. Iapiota. 
baboon, n. Waunca. 
baby^n. Hoksiyokopa. a. Cis'- 

tinna. vt. Hoksiyopakiya. 
babyish, a. Hoksiyopaseca. 
bachelor, n. To'hinni tawicuton 

back, n. Tapete ; T. tapetu ; cai)- 

kahu. Lie on your back, itun- 

kam yai)ka. 
back, a. fieyata ; i'sinyai) ; he'- 

back, vt. 1. He'kta iyayeya : back 

the horse. 2. Nakicizii) : back 

a candidate. 3. Cankahu ki'- 
caga : back a book. 4. Akan 
owa : back a letter, adv. He'kta ; 
icicawin ; heyata. 

backache, n. Cankahuyazan. 

backbite, vt. Nahmana yahtaka. 

backbone, n. Cankahu. 

backdown, n. Enakiya. 

backer, n. Nakicizii). 

backfire, n. Kokam ideyapi. 

background, n. I'sinyan ; he'kta. 

backhanded, a. He'ktaitoheya. 

backing, n. Nakicizinpi. 

backset, n. He'kta iwanka. 

backside, n. Nite ; oijze. 

backslide, vi. He'kta iyaya. 

backward, adv. He'kta. a. He'* 
kta un ; hun'kesni. 

backwater, n. Minitanmini. 




backwoods, n. Canyata; makos- 

bacon, n. Wash) ; kukusecosyapi. 
bad, a. Si'ca ; onspesni. 
bade, imp. of Bid. 
Bad River, n. Wakpasica. 
badge, n. Wa'petokeoa; ceski- 

badger, n. fioka. v. Nagiyeya. 
badly, adv. Sicaya ; tehiya. 
Bad Hills, n. fiesapa. 
baffle, vt. Okihisniya. 
bag, n. 1. Wozuha : a big bag. 

2. Ozutonpi : a bag of oats. 3. 

Aze : a cow's bag. vt. Ozuton ; 

baggage, n. Wahpayeca; can'o- 

bah, inter}. Hon. 
bail, n. 1. E'ekiya kaskapi. 2. 

Ce'ga ihupa. trt. 1. E'ekiya 

ihdaska on kiyuskapi. 2. Ka- 

pta; mioi enpeya. 
bairn, n. Hoksiyopa ; cii)ca. 
bait, n. Watan ; wonapce. vt. 

Watankicatorj ; won'kiya . 
bake, vt. Spanyai). vi. Spar) aya ; 

baker, n. Aguyapisparjyarj. 
bakery, n. Agayapiowaspanye. 
baking-powder, n. Wi'naponye. 
balance, n. 1. On'aspeyapi. 2. 

Iyaye. vt. Aspeya ; oioazo 

to'ketu yawa. 
bald, a. Sda ; pe'sda. 
baldly, adv. Za'zaya. 
bale, n. WapaMapi; wopahte. 

vt. Panta. 
baleful, a. Wayusica. 
balk, vi. Ihdonica; wicada&ni. 

vt. Kagiya; okihisniya. 
balky, a. Ihdonicesa. 
ball, n. 1. Ta'pa : throw the ball. 

2. Ta'ku mioe : the earth is a 

ball. 3. Ma'zasu : a riffle-ball. 
ball, vt. Psuijkakaga. vt. Wa 

o'tkapa : the horse's feet ball. 
ballad, n. Ikceodowai). 

ballast, n. Wiya'ka ; ta'ku on wi- 

tawata yuowotarjnapi. 
balloon, n. Wozuhakinyai). 
ballot, vi. Kansuiyonpeya. n. 

Kan suiyonpeyapi. 
ballroom, n. Owacitipi. 
balm, n. Pezutawastemna ; wico- 

balmy, a. Ecamna ; wastemna. 
balsam, n. Isdayewastemna. 
bamboozle, vt. Hna'yan. 
ban, n. Wokaske. 
banana, n. Iyagezizi. 
band, n. 1. IyusMte ; ipante ; wi- 

ciske. 2. Okodakiciye ; op- 

bandage, n. Minihuhaiyuskite. vt. 

Yuwi ; yuskiskita. 
bandit, n. Wamanonwicasta. 
bane, n. Woyusioe. 
baneful, a. Wayusica. 
bang, vt. 1. Kabu. 2. Itehinbak- 

sapi. vi. Bu'hinhda. n. Bu. 

With a bang, buyena. 
banish, vt. Iyayeya ; oyate to'- 

keca ekta iyayeya. 
hanjo, n. Ha'sapatacanbubu. 
bank, n. 1. Maya ; paha. 2. O'- 

huta : the river bank. 3. Ma'- 

zaskatipi : money in the bank. 

vt. Mayakaga ; aokata ; ma'za- 

skatipi en e'hnaka. 
bankbill, n. Ma'zaskawowapi. 
banker, n. Ma'zaskatipi yuha. 
bankrupt, a. Kazuzu okihi sni. 
banner, n. Wi'yokihedan. 
banquet, n. Kicicowotapi. 
banter, vt. Econape ; on/skate. 
baptism, n. Mniakastanpi. 
Baptist, n. Okodakiciye kihnug 

baptize, vt. Mniakastan. 
bar, n. 1. Wi'natake, mazinatake; 

can'inatake : let down the bars. 

2. Wokagi ; wiyaka : a bar in 

the river. 3. Wa'kiyapioyanke, 

the prisoner stands at the bar. 

4. Wa'hna miniwakan wi'yope- 


yapi. vt. Nataka; anapta; 

kagiya : kago. 
barb, n. Keze ; ope ; ohci. 
barbarian, n. Ikcewicasta. 
barbarism, n. Ikceoui). 
barbarity, n. WowaoijBidasniwi- 

barbarous, a. Ikceka ; to'keca. 
barbacue, n. Ikcewonmniciyapi. 
barbed, a. Pepe ; pe ; pe'sto. 
barber, n. Putiqhiqkasai). 
bard, n. Odowaijikcekaga. 
bare, a. 1. Sda : bare ground. 2. 

Taqcodai) : bare feet. 3. E'ce- 

dai) ; napiijyui) co'dai) : wtfft 

bare hands, vt. Sdaya ehpeya. 
bareback, a. Akiij co'dai). 
barefaced, a. I&tecesni. 
barefoot, a. Sicodai). 
barely, adr. Kitaijyai) ; iyusoyah. 
bargain, n. Woecoij yustaijpi ; wo- 

kamna. vt. Yu&tai) : bargain 

away j wi'yopeya. Bargain for, 

barge, n. Wa'ta sicumdaska. 
bark, vi. Pa'pa ; pa. w. Pa'pi. 
bark, n. Caqha. v£. Caqha yuliu, 
bark, n. Wi'tawata. 
barley, n. Wayahotahiqsma. 
barn, n. Wanuyaijpitipi. 
barnyard, n. Wanuyaijpionazii). 
barrack, n. Akicitatipi. 
barrel, n. Kokapahmihma ; ma'- 

barren, a. Waicage&ni ; cirjea wa- 

barricade, vt. Nataka. n. Wona- 

barrier, n. Coij'kaSke ; wokagi. 
barroom, n. Miniwakai) hde'pi. 
barrow, n. Eukuse susu wanica. 
barter, vt. Tokiyopeya. 
barytone, w. Wicaho ocoka. 
basal, a. Ku'ceyedai) ; hu'te. 
base, n. Hu'te ; hutkai) ; onazirj. 

a. Ku'ceyedai) ; ta'kutai)ii)§ui ; 

baseball, n. Takapapi. 

14 bayonet 

baseless, a. Hu'tenica ; ituya. 
basely, adv. Ituya ; sicaya. 
basement, n. Tihute. 
baseness, n. Wowahteaui. 
bashful, a. Wi'&teca. 
bashfalness, n. Wi'stecapi. 
basin, n. 1. Wak&iea ; napozaza. 

2. Makoce oskokpa. 
basis, n. Hu'te ; oahehde. 
bask, vi. Kaniciya. 
basket, n. Makaijopiye ; conwaq- 

zica woknake ; yaij'kapina. 
bass, n. Wakadaijhiyuzapi. 
bass, or base, n. Hokuya. 
bassviol, n. Caqpakinzapitaqka. 
bass wood, n. Hhj'tacai). 
bastard, n. Tuwecineataqiqsni ; 

baste, vt. 1. I'nad kagege. 2. 

Wopasnoi) iun. 
bastile, n. Coij'kaSke. 
bat, n. 1. Hupahuwakihdakeiia : 

a bat can fly. 2. Takicapope : 

a baseball bat. 3. Oape : a bat 

on the head. vt. Apa; ta'pa 

batch, n. Okanwaijzina ; opahi. 
bath, n. Ihduzazapi ; niwaijpi. 
bathe, vt. Yuzaza ; spa'yeya. 
baton, n. Can'hpi. 
battalion, n. Akicitaoptaye taijka. 
batten, n. Canmdaska sbu'na. vt. 

batter, n. Aguyapicocoyapi. vU 

Apapa; kahuhuga; bomdeca. 
battery, n. Waapapi ; ma'zakan- 

tarjka ota : wakaqhdiokage. 
batting, n. Ta'hcahiijkakeapi. 
battle, n. Okicize; akicita kici- 

zapi. vi. Kiciza ; kici ecoi). 
bauble, n. Ta'kusni; wi'napi- 

bawl, vi. Ho'taxjkaceya ; pai). 
bay, a. Hiij'sa ; Y. f T. Hiijik- 

ceka. n. Mde'cahmii) ; sui)'- 

kahotoi). At bay, oyaijke i'te- 

bayonet, n. Ma'zakaijhi. 


bayou, n. Mdecahmin. 
bazaar, n. Mazopiyedai). 
be, am, is, was, vi. 1. Ui) ; ni. 
lam, wauq. — You are, yaui). 

— He is, ui). 2. As a copula- 
tive and auxiliary, it is not 
expressed. You are fat, ni- 
cepa. — Be it so, he'cetu. — 
Let it be, ayustan. 

beach, n. Huta ; niiniwanca hut a. 

beacon, n. Wowakta ; pe'ta. 

bead,n. Totodan; sipto ; wanapii). 

beak, n. Pasu ; zitkapasu. 

beam, vt. I'zaqzai) ; iyoyanpa, n. 
Iyozanzan ; can/ihupa. 

bean, n. Omnica. 

bear, bore, vt. 1. Yuha; ton : 
he bore it on his head; she bore 
twins, 2. Icahya : that tree 
bears apples. 3. Econ ; yustai) : 
bear the expenses. 4. Pat an - 
yuza : bear down. vi. Ahdas- 
kin wanka ; pataijyuza ; iyo- 
wiijyai). Bear a hand, o'kiya. 

— Bear off, tokai) ya. — Bear 
date, wiyawapi ka'gapi. — Bear 
with, iyowiijyai). 

bear, n. Mato. Black bear, wa- 
hanksica. — Grey bear, mato- 
hota; sakehanska. 

beard, n. Putinhii); ikuhin. vt. 

bearer, n. Yuha ; a'ye. 

bearing, n. 1. Yuhapi : bearing 
of children. 2. Oihduhe : his 
bearing. 3. Oiyahde ; ta'ku iyo- 
waza : in all its bearings. 4. 

beast, n. Wahutopa ; woteca. 

beastly, a. Wotecase ; si'ca. 

beat, vt. 1. Apa; iyapa; kasu- 
suza. 2. Eapa ; kte'dan : Henry 
beat. Beat a drum, cehkabu. 

— Beat back, anapta. 

beat, n. Oape ; apapi ; oomani. 
beaten, a. Nasutapi ; ke'za. 
beau, beaux, n. Koska wi'taijtai) ; 
koska waste. 

15 beef, beeves 

beauteous, a. Waste ; oiyokipi. 
beautiful, a. Waste ; tanwaste : 

beautifully, adv. Yupiya. 
beautify, vt. Yuwaste. 
beauty, n. Wowanyakewaste ; tu- 

we owanyagwaste. 
beaver, n. Ca'pa. 
becalm, vt. Yuamdakedai). 
became, imp. of become. 
because, adv. Nakas ; he'onetan- 

han. Y. Dakas; canke. 
beck, n. Wi'kiyutapi. 
beckon, vt. Wi'kiyuta ; nape- 

becloud, vt. Yuatanindni. 
become, vi. Icaga ; a'ya ; iyaya : 

the boy becomes a man. What 

became of, to'kahoi). vt. Ki'- 

ciwaste ; iyokipi ; iyecetu : a 

becoming hat. 

bed, n. 1. Owinza ; tukten istirj- 
mapi; owanka : go to bed; a 
bed of coal. 2. Wozupi owanka, 
a bed of roses. 3. Ohna wai)ka; 
sicu ; ozuha : the bed of the 
river. — Bed-fast, to'hinni na'- 
zin sni. — Bed-fellow, kici is- 

bedaub, vt. Akastaka. 
bedazzle, vt. Istosnisya. 
bedbug, n. Wamduska sasa. 
bedding, n. Owinza. 
bedeck, vt. Inkiya. 
bedew, vt. Acuya. 
bedim, vt. Yuatanjnsni. 
bedlam, n. Hnaskinyanpi. 
bedridden, a. Na'zin sni ui) . 
bedroom, n. Istinmatipi. 
bedside, a. Owanka icahda. 
bestead, n. Ohehdepi; owanka. 
bedtlck, n. Owinzaozuha. 
bedtime, n. Wan/kapi iyehantu. 

bee, n. 1. Tunmaga : the bee 
makes honey. 2. Omniciye : 
a quilting bee. 

beech, n. Utuhu haska. 

beef, beeves, n. Tado; tataiika 

beefsteak 16 

coiiica: tender beef. Beef cattle, 
tatanka tadoyapi kta. 

beefsteak, n. Tado ceguguyapi. 

beehive, n. Tuhma&atipi. 

bee-line, n. Canku owotanna. 

been, jpp. of be. 

beer, n. Minitahton. 

beeswax, n. Tuhmaga ihdi. 

beet, n. Pangisasa. 

beetle, n. 1. Tapopuska. 2. Can- 

befall, vt. Akipa ; iyahdeya. 

befit, vt. Iyokipi ; iyecetu. 

befog, vt. Poya ; wacinhnuniya. 

before, prep. I'tokani ; i kokam. 
Before long, ecadai). — Before 
night, Mayetu i'tokani. adv. 
F tokam; tokaheya. 

beforehand, adv. I' tokam. a. Oi- 
cihi; wayuha. 

befriend, vt. Kodaya ; o'kiya. 

beg, vt. Da ; kida ; icekiya. vi. 
Wada ; wacekiya. / beg you, 
ce'ciciya. — Come begging, ti- 
mata hi. To beg I am ashamed, 
wadapi imasteea. 

began, imp. of begin. 

begat, imp. of beget. | 

beget, vt. Ka'ga ; icahya. 

beggar, n. Wadasa ; orj'sika. 

beggarly, a. On'sika ; ta'kusni. 

beggary, n. Wowahpanica. 

begin, vt. Tokaheya ecoi) ; toka- 
han ; watokahan. It begins to 
rain, wanna magazu. — Me 
can't begin to run as fast, iyo- 
was in'yanka okihi sni. 

beginner, n. Nakaha ecoi). 

beginning, n. Otokahe. 

begone, interj. Iyaya ; Mhda. 

begot, imp. of beget. 

begrudge, vt. Koi). 

beguile, vt. Hna'yan ; iyutanye. 

behalf, n. On etanhan. 

behave, vt. Piiciya; onanyan. 

behavior, n. Ohanye; woeeoi). 

behead, vt. Pa'baksa. 

behest, n. Oie. 

bend, beat 

behind, prep. Iheyata ; ihektam j 

ihakam. adv. He'kta. 
behindhand, a. He'ktaun. 
behold, vt Wanyaka. vi. Ahiton- 

beholden, a. Yu'zapi ; icazopi. 
beholder, n. Wawarjyaka. 
behoove, vi. Iyececa. 
being, ppr. of be. 
being, n. Oun ; oni. 
belated, pa. Te'han ihuni sni. 
belch, vt. Poh hiyuya. 
beleager, vt. Aohomniya. 
belfry, n. fida'fidatipi. 
belle, vi. Ecen eye sni ; ecetuye- 

belief, n. Wowicada; wicadapi; 

to'ken keciijpi. 
believe, vt. Wicada ; awacii) ; ke- 

believer, n. Wicada ; o'pa. 
belittle, vt. Yatakunisni. 
bell, n. Ma'zahdahda ; hda'hda. 
belle, n. Wiwaste i tar) car). 
belligerent, a. Okicize. 
bellow, vi. Hoton ; bu. 
bellows, n. Tatekaga. 
belly, n. Nige ; ikpi ; tezi. 
belong, vi. Ti : oyarjketawa. 
belong to, vi. Ta'wa ; en ikoyaka. 
belonging, n. Ta'ku ta'wa. 
beloved, a. Wastedapi. 
below, prep. Ihukuya; i'hutam. 

adv. Ku'ya; o'kah. 
belt, n. Ipiyaka. 
bemoan, vt. Aeeya. 
bench, n. Can'akanyakapi han'- 

ska : alma pazipapi ; wayacopi; 

paha hepiya omdaye. 
bend, bent, vt. Yuksan ; yuksiza ; 

yuwinza: yuhomnij yuksa 

skan; e'cedan awacin. Bend 

the ear, anagoptan. — Bend the 

grass, pezi kawinza. vi. Ksarj ; 

ksan ye. n. Ipaksan ; oyuksarj. 

Inside the bend, okahmin. — 

Outside the bend, ipusi. — One 

bend, o'ha warjzi. 


beneath, prep, Brakuya. adv. Ku'- 

ya; hukuya. 
benediction, n. Woya waste. 
benefaction, n. Wowaste wiconan. 
beneficence, n. Wowaonsida. 
beneficent, a. Waonsida. 
beneficial, a. Wayuwaste ; waste. 
beneficiary, n. O kiyapi. 
benefit, vt. O'kiya ; yuwaste. 
benefit, n. Wookiye ; wowaste. 
benevolence, n. Tanyan wacinki- 

ciyuzapi; wowaonsida. 
benevolent, a. Tanyan waciijyuza ; 

benighted, a. Aokpasya ui). 
benign, a. Wacantkiya. 
benignant, a. Wayuwaste. 
bent, imp. of bend. 
bent, pa. Ksan ; en ihdutitai). 
bent, n. Wocanteyuza. 
benumb, vt. Kiksuyesniya. 
bequeath, vt. Aihpekiya. 
bequest, n. Woainpeye. 
bereave, bereft, vt. Ki ; e'yaku. 
bereavement, n. Wahpaniyapi. 
berry, n. Waskuyeca ; su. 
berth, n. Owanka. 
beseech, vt. Ce'kiya ; da. 
beset, vt. Anazin. ; kuwa ; aohdu- 

teya; zu. 
beside, prep. Kahda ; icahda ; 

isakim. adv. Ikiyedai) ; ica- 
besides, prep. $ adv. Iakam ; icui)- 

om; ko'kta; anna. 
besiege, vt. Aonawicataka. 
besmear, vt. Akastaka. 
besom, n. Wi'cahinte. 
besotted, pa. Itomni. 
besought, imp. of beseech. 
bespatter, vt. Akastanstan. 
bespeak, vt. Iwahoya ; iciya. 
bespoke, imp. of bespeak. 
best, a, Iyotanwaste. n. Tukte 

iyotan waste, adv. Wakapeya ; 

iyotan ; itancanyan. 
bestial, a, Wotecase. 
bestir, vt. Aiciciya; mdiheiciya. 

17 big 

bestow, vt. £u ; e'hnaka. 
bestride, vt. Akamdas na'zii]. 
bet, vt. Yekiya. n. Ta'ku yeki- 

yapi; kaskapi. 
betake, vt. Iyaya ; inanpa. 
bethel, n. Owacekiyatipi. 
bethink, vt. Kiksuya; awacii). 
betide, vt. Ki'ciyanka ; ayata. 
betimes, adv. Ecadan ; onanko. 
betoken, vt. Iwaktaya. 
betook, imp. of betake. 
betray, vt. To'ka o'kiya ; wi'yo- 

peya ; hna'yan ; yntanin. 
betroth, vt. Yu'ze kta yustan. 
better, a. San/pawaste. vt. San/- 

pawaste ka'ga ; yuwaste. adv. 

betting, n. Wayekiyapi. 
between, prep. Otahedan ; okita- 

hedan ; okookna. adv. Okita- 

betwixt, prep. Okitahedan. 
bevel, vt. On/ya ka'ga. a. Oh/ya. 
beverage, n. Woyatke. 
bevy, n. Optaye. 
bewail, vt. Aceya. 
beware, vt. Itoijpa. vi. Wakta. 
bewilder, vt. Wacinhnuniya. 
bewildered, pa. Wacinhnuni. 
bewitch, vt. flmun'ga ; yuhna- 

skinyan ; iyokipiya. 
beyond, prep. Ako ; akotanhan ; 

i'sanpa; ikapeya. 
bl~, prefix. Non/pa. 
bias, a. On/ya. n. Owaciijyuze. 
bib, n. Makuakanpe. vt. Yatkai). 
Bible, n. Wowapi Wakan. 
bickering, n. Kicigepi. 
bicycle, n. Canhdeskaakanyan- 

bid, bade, vt. 1. Econsi : he bid the 

boy come in. 2. Eciya : he bid 

her y good day. 3. Ku kta eya : 

I bid a dollar, n. To'ken ke ciij . 
bide, vi. Akipe. 

biennial, a. Waniyetu non/pa ni. 
bier, n. Can/akiyuhapi. 
big (bigger, biggest), a. Tan'ka; 


To feel big, tan'kaicida. — To 

talk big, itanka. 
bigamy, n. Tawicu nonpapi. 
Bighorn Mountains, n. fieska. 
bigot, n. Watankaicida. 
Big Sioux River, w. Can'kasdata. 
bile, n. Minizi ; pizi. 
bilious, a. Miniziyukan ; oc in sica. 
bill, ft. 1. Oicazo wowapi ; mini- 

huha ma'zaska. 2. Zitkapasu. 

vt. Wowapi on yaotaijin. 
billet, n. Wowapi ci'stinna ; can- 

billiards, n. Ta'pa bohmihmapi ; 

T icaslo econpi. 
billow, ft. Mini war) ca ta'za. 
bin, n. Opiye ; woknake. 
bind, bound, vt. Kaska ; yuski- 

skita ; opaponki'caga ; ozuha- 

ton. Bind wlieaty aguyapipa- 

hta. — Bind books, wowapi 

binding, w. Apahdate ; iyuskite ; 

biography, ft. Ohanoyakapi. 
biped, w. Hunonpa. 
birch, ft. Tan pa can. 
bird, w. Zitkadan. Y. Zitkana. 

T. Zitkala. 
birth, n. Ton 'pi ; oicage. Give 

birth to , torj. 
birthday, w. Ton 'pi anpetu. 
birthplace, ft. Ton 'pi oyanke. 
birthright, n. Ton pi on ta'waya. 
biscuit, n. Aguyapi psunka. 
bisect, vt. Cokaya baksa. 
bishop, ft. Waawanhdake. 
bishopric, ft. Woawanyake. 
bison, ft. Tatanka ikceka. 
bit, ft. 1. a bit of paper, 

2. Ma'zaiiyuwi. T. Ma'zayapa. 

3. Caijiyumni hi. 
bit, imp. of bite. 

bitch, ft. Sun'ka wi'yedai). 

bite, vt. Yahtaka ; yapa ; yaksa ; 

ya^inza. vi. Wayahtaka. w. 

On spa ; woyahtake. Bite to 

deadly ya^a. 



bitter, a, 1. Pa : bitter medicine. 

2. Otehika ; wayazipa : bitter 

bitterly, adv. Pe'stoya ; carjte- 

bittern, n. Hokadan. 
bitterness, n. Wopaza; woiyoki- 

black, a. Sa'pa; ha'sapa; hin'- 

sapa ; sica ; sapa. ft. Sa'pa ; 

ha'sapa. vt. Samya. 
blackberry, w. Takanheca tan'ka. 
blackbird, n. Zitkatanka;«F. Ptea- 

hpaye ; T Wahpatanka. 
blackboard, ft. Carjrndaskasapa. 
blacken, vt. Samya j samya ; ao- 

Blackfeet, n. Sihasapa. 
blackguard, vt. Ostehda. a. & n. 

lsica ; wayasica. 
blackhaws, «. Mna. 
blacking, n. Wi'samye. 
blackish, a. Sa'peca. 
blackmail, vt. Wakokipekicah ki. 
blacksmith, n. Ma'zakaga. 
blacksnake, n. Wamduskasapa. 
blacktail, n. Sintesapedan. 
bladder, w. Odeza. 
blade, ft. 1. Ape : a long blade of 

grass. 2. Ope ; oyuksiza : a 

knife with two blades. 
blamable, a. Iyaoijpepica. 
blame, vt. Iyaonpa; ba; en ai. 

m. Woba. 
blanch, vt. Skakaga ; yuska. vi. 

Skahinhda ; iteska. 
bland, a, Wa'hba ; iyokipi. 
blandly, adv. Iwastedan. 
blank, a, Ta'kuna owapi srfi ; ska ; 

blanket, ft. Sina; sina ikceka. 

Wear the blanket, sinahdoin. 

vt. Sina on akahpa. 
blaspheme, vt. Ohodasni ia. 
blast, vt. Bozuzu ; boseca ; bota. 

w. Tate ; tateyanpa ; yahotogpi. 
blasted, pa. Bosihtin ; sica. 
blat, vt. Onspekesni eya. 


blaze, vi. Ide : the fire blazes. 

vt. 1. Yaotanii) : blaze his name 

abroad. 2. Kasku : blaze the 

trees, n. 1. Oide; iyoyaijpa. 

2. Kaskupi; ska. 
bleach, vt. Skaya. vi. Ska aya. 
bleak, a. Oasica ; tatesa ; osni. 
blear, a. Aogi ; mini au. 
bleat, vt. Hoton ; ta'frcaskahotoi). 
bleed, bled, vi. We; we we; we 

uya; we au. vt. Weya; we 

ieu ; kakpa ; mazaska ki. 
blemish, n. On spa si'ca. 
Head, vt. I'cicahiya. 
bless, vt. Yawaste ; canwasteya. 
blessed, blest, pa. Yawastepi. 
blessedness, n. Wowaste. 
blessing, n. Woyawaste; wotapi 

blew, imp. of blow. 
blight, vt. Yusniza ; n. Wosihtin. 
blind, a. Istagoqga ; ki'tai) taijii) ; 

tarjh) sni. vt. Istagongaya ; 

yutanin sni. n. Istagonga;. 

oakahpe; wohnaye. 
blindfold, vt. Istapahta. 
blindly, adv. Taninsniyan. 
blink, vi. Istakakpan ; wanya- 

kesni konza. 
bliss, n. Wocaijtewaste. 
blissful, a. Cantewaste. 
blister, vt. Hayusdoka. 
blithe, a. Wi'haha ; wi'yuskin. 
blithesome, a. Wi'haha. 
blizzard, n. Icamnatanka. 
bloat, vt. Napohya. vi. Napoga. 
bloated, pa. Napoga; ce'pa. 
block, n. 1. Canobaksa; can- 

psunka; inyan omdotoi). 2. 

Otonwe obaspe. 3. Wokase. vt. 

Nataka ; kagiya ; kaomdotoi) ; 

okage pazo. 
blockade, n. Natakapi; akicita 

con'kaske. vt. Nataka. 
blockhead, n. Wacintonsni. 
blond, n. Haska. 
blood, n. We ; wotakuye ; tuwe 


19 Blue Earth River 

bloodshed, n. We papsorjpi. 

bloodshot, n. We kahtan. 

bloodthirsty, a. Weye kta hca. 

bloody, a. We ; wewe ; weyesa. 

Bloods, n. We'wieasta. 

bloom, vi. flea ; saiciya. n. flea ; 
iyotan waste. 

blooming, pa. flea ; waste. 

blossom, n. Wahca; hcapi. vi. 

blot, vt. Yusapa; akastaka; sa- 
mya. Blot out, yuatanin sni ; 
pazuzu. n. Wosapa ; samya 

blotch, n. Wosapa ; onspa to'keca. 

blotter, n. Minisapa ipuspe. 

blouse, n. O'kdegangan.. 

blow, blew, blown, vt. 1. Ipogan, 
blow the fire. 2. Yahoton yazo, 
blow the horn. vi. Ipogan ; poh'- 
iyeya; bobdu; tan'kaicidaia. 
Blow away, bohaiyeya. — Blow 
down, bowanka. — Blow off, bo- 
hirjta. — Blow out, bosni. — Blow 
the nose, poge yuzinca. — Blow 
up a steamboat, wa'tapeta na- 
mdasya. The dust blows y maka 
bobdu. n. 1. Apapi ; oape : 
a blow with a stick. 2. Woa- 
kipe tehika : a hard blow to the 
family. 3. Tate : a big blow 
Imt night. 4. Honagidan cin- 
ca : the meat was full of blows. 
5. Tan'kaicidaskanpi. 

blower, n. On ipoganpi ; ihda- 

blown, pa. flea. 

blubber, n. Hogarj sii). vi. Ce'ye- 
ktakta ; ce'ya eya. 

bludgeon, n. Carjksa ; can/hpi. 

blue, a. 1. To ; mahpiyato. Dark 
blue, to sa'pa; to star). 2. Can- 
tesiea se : I feel blue. 3. Wacin- 
yepica ; suta : he is true blue. 

bluebell, n. Wahcato. 

blueberry, n. Aunyeyapi. 

Blue Earth River, n. Makatooze 


bluff, ». lie; paha; maya. vt. 
Kakam ehpeya. a. Ohan ka- 
tinyan ; maya. 

bluing, ». Wi'toye. 

bluish, a. Ki'tanna to. 

blonder, vi. Yusna ; hioahan eooi). 
». Woyusna. 

blunt, a. Pe'sni ; otoza ; za'zaya 
eya. vt. Ofcsya. 

bluntly, adv. Ofcsya ; za'zaya. 

blur, vt. Aogiya. 

blurt, vt. Pohya oyaka. 

blush, vi. ItenasaMnhda. n. Ite- 
sa; wanyagiheyapi. 

bluster, vi. Bobdu; icapta. w. 
Ibobdu ; wohitiya skanpi. 

boa, n. Wanmduskatanka 

boar, n. Kukusemdoka. 

board, n. 1. Canmdaska : a wide 
board. 2. Wa'hnawotapi ; wo- 
tapi. 3. Wa'ta : come on board. 
4. Optaye. vt. 1. Canmdaska 
aokatai) : board it up. 2. Woku : 
/ will board you. 3. Wata en 
opa : board the ship. vi. Wota ; 
kazuzu wota : he boards else- 

boarder, n. En wota. 

boarding, n. En wotapi. 

boarding-house, w. Owotetipi. 

boast, vi. Ihdatan. 

boaster, n. Ihdatan s'a. 

boastful, a. Ihdatan s'a. 

boat, w. Wa'ta. A bull boat, tahu- 

boating, n. Wa'taayapi. 

boatable, a. Wa'ta a'yepiea. 

boatman, n. Wa'tawicasta ; wa- 

bob, n. Oin ; ta'ku psunka ; paka- 
psanpi. vt. 1. Kapsanpsan ; 
kacegceg : bob his head. 2. Ba- 
ksa, bob the horses tail. 

bobtail, n. Onzinca. 

bob-white, n. &iyosapena. 

bode, vt. Iwaktaya. 

bodily, a. Tancai). adv. Tanton- 

20 bonded 

body, n. 1. Tancan ; cehpi. 2. 
Wicasta ; tuwe : she is a merry 
body. 3. Optaye : a body of 
soldiers. 4. Mnayanpi; yuwi- 
tayapi : a body of laws. 

bog, ft. Wiwi ; maka coco. 

bogus, a. Wphnaye. 

bofi, vt. Ohan ; ipihya. Boil beef 
tado ohan. Boil water, mini 
ipihya. vi. Ipiga ; akanskan. 

boil, ft. diyakao : a boil on his 
hand. 2. Ipihyapi. 

boiler, ft. Ohna ipihyapi ; wa'ta- 
peta oipihya. 

boiiing, ft. Ohanpi ; ipihyapi. 

boisterous, a. Okoyaskan ; wohi- 

bold, a. Ohitika ; waditaka ; oki- 
tanin ; ta'kuohodaani. 

boldly, adv. Waditagya. 

boldness, n. Wowaditake. 

boll, ft. Su'ozuha. 

bolster, n. Ipahinhanska ; ipahin. 
vt. Ipahinkiton. 

bolt, n. 1. Mazinatake ; tiyomi- 
natake. 2. Ma'zaoyuskite ; ma'- 
za : fastened with bolts. 3. 
Wayeyapi. A thunderbolt, wa- 
kinyan kutepi. 4. Minihuha 
opahte : a bolt of calico. 5. Wi'- 
yucan han'ska. vt. 1. Nataka: 
bolt the door. 2. Yucan, bolt 
the flour, vi. 1. Botonyan ya, 
he bolted into the room. 2. Iya- 
ya ; napa : ten delegates bolted, 
adv. Patinyan : bolt upright. 

bolter, ft. Napapi ; tokan Skanpi. 

bomb, ft. Ma'zasu napomyapi. 

bombard, vt. Ma'zasu anapom- 

bombastic, a. Wayatankaia. 

bonafide, a. Wowioake. 

bonanza, ft. Ma'zaskaoke. 

bonbon, ft. Ganhanpisuksuta. 

bond, ft. Wokaske; wowapi on 
ihdaskapi. vt. Kaska. 

bondage, n. Wokaske ; kaskapi. 

bonded, a. Kazuzu kta kaskapi. 


bondman, «. Kaska un ; wayaka. 
bone, n. Hu; huhu. 
boneless, a. Huhu wanica. 
bonfire, ». Wi'yuskin cetipi. 
bonnet, n. Win'yanwapana Ih. 

bonny, a. Waste ; tanwa&te. 
bonus, n. Iakamkupi: shite. 
bony, a. Huhu ota ; huhu tanin. 
booby, n. Witkotkoka. 
boodle, n. Wi'si ; optaye. 
book, n. Wowapi ; wowapi ozu- 

haton. trt. Owa; wowapi en 

bookbinder, ». Wowapi ozuha 

bookcase, ft. Wowapi opiye. 
bookkeeper, w. Owakiyapi. 
booklet, n. Wowapi cis'tinna. 
bookmark, w. Wowapi wasaghde. 
bookshop, bookstore, w. Wowapi 

mazopiye. • 
bookworm, ». Wowapi e'cedan 

boom, n. Bu ; ni'na skan'pi ; mi- 

nitai) ; can'icoge okaske. vi. 

Bu ; ni'na skan ; ni'na kuwa. 
boon, w. Wowaste. a. Waste. 
boor, n. Waonspekesni. 
boost, vt. Pataniyeya. 
boot, it. Can'nanpahanska ; sinte ; 

vt. Nahtaka. 
booth, w. Canwapaohanzi. 
booty, ». Woyuha zuyaahdipi. 
boozy, a. Itomni. 
border, n. Opapun ; ihanke ; huta. 

vt. Opapun ka'ga. ft. I'ciyo- 

kihe wanka. 
bore, vt. 1. Ondogya ; ka'ga : bore 

a hole. 2. Nagiyeya. n. Wo- 

bore, imp. of bear. 
borer, n. On ohdogyapi. 
born, a. Tor pi. Still born : itko- 

borne, pp. of bear. 
borough, ». Otonwe. 
borrow, vt. Odota ; odonicu. 

21 bouquet 

bosh, n. Ta'kusni. 

bosom, ». Maku ; cuwi j oma- 

boss, ft. 1. Itancan ; wowasi itan- 
can : the boss comes. 2. Pte- 
wiye. vt. Awanyaka; econkiya. 

botany, ft. Wato woonspe. 

botch, vt. Sinya ka'ga. 

both, a., adv. fpro. Sakim; na- 
pin: T. nupin. 

bother, vt. Nagiyeya. 

bots, ft. Wamduska akaska. 

bottle, ft. banzai). 

bottom, ft. Cete : bottom of the 
kettle. 2. Maka : touch bottom. 
3. Kun'ihanke : the bottom of 
the class. 4. O'smaka; ku'ya. 
5. Sicu : the bottom of a boat. 

bottomless, a. Cetewanica. 

bough, ft. Adetka. 

bought, imp. of but. 

boulder, ». In'yan psnnka. 

bounce, vt. Wankaniyeya; ehpeya; 
ayustankiy.i . vi. Wankanhiyu ; 

bouncer, w. Tuwetanka. 

bouncing, a. Tan'ka. 

bound, imp. of bind. 

bound, vi. Ipsica ; psin'iyaya : the 
ball bounds, vt. 1. Oicago ka'- 
ga. ; aohomniya : bounded by a 
swamp. 2. Opapunoyaka : bound 
the State of Ohio. n. 1. Oipsica ; 
ipsica : he came with a bound. 
2. Owihanke ; opapun : knows 
no bounds, a. Kaska : bound 
hand and foot, 2. Wowicake ; 
he'cetunca : bound to go. 3. 
Ozuhaton : a bound book. 4. 
Ekta ya : bound for New York. 

boundary, n. Ohomnioicago. 

boundless, a. Woptecasni. 

bounteous, a. Ohanpi'. 

bountiful, a. Onanpi' ; woptecasni. 

bounty, n. 1. Wawicaku; wowa- 
onsida : God's bounty. 2. Woo- 
hiye ; wokazuzu. 

bouquet, n. Wancaopahte. 


bourn, n. Owihanke. 

bow. vi. Patuza ; pakapsan, bow 
to the king. vt. Yuksa ; yuksiza, 
bow the knee. n. 1. Wopatuza, 
a low bow. 2. Ipa, the bow of 
the boat. 

bow. n. 1. Itazipe, the Indian's 
bow. 2. Ksaq ; can ksaq, a 
wagon bow. vt. Yuksan ; yuk- 

bowel, n. dupe ; taqmahen ; ma- 
hentu; cante. 

bower, n. Canohanzi. 

bow-knot, n. Yuwosokaskapi. 

bowl, n. 1. Waksiea skokpa ; wi'- 
yatketarjka : a baicl of milk. 

2. Oskokpa : a bowl in the rock. 

3. Ta'pa bohmihmapi 
bowstring, n. Itazipeikai). 
bow-wow, vi. $ n ' Pa'pi ; hotoxj. 
box, n. 1. Can/koka ; can/opiye ; 

koka, a box of crackers. 2. Apa- 
pi ; oape. vt. Apa ; nape mda- 
ska apa ; koka ohnaka. 

boxelder, n. Taskadai) ; Y. Carj- 

boy, n. Hoksidan ; T. Hoksina ; 
T. Hoksila. 

boycott, vt. Toghda 

boyhood, n. Wicahoksidai). 

boyish, a. Wakanheza se. 

brace, vt. Ipatanhde ; pataijyuza ; 
i'ciyakaska. n. 1. Ipatai) ; cai)'- 
ipatai). 2. I'ciyakaskapi ; ta- 
wanzi, a brace of pistols. 3. 
Caijiyumni ipatai). 

bracelet, n. Istoapahte; napo- 
kaske ipahte : T. napoktai). 

bracing, pa. Wasagya ; patanhan. 

bracket n. Wi'yuze. 

brackish, n. Sku'ya ; si'ca. 

brad, n. Ma'zaiokatancistina. 

brag, vi. Ihdatai). 

braid, vt. Son. n. Son 'pi. 

brain, n. Nasu ; wowiyukcai). 

brake, n. 1. Caqpahmihma huina- 
kehye ; wokase. 2. Taskoza. 

bramble, n. Caqpepe. 

22 break, broke 

bran, n. Aguyapiha'. 

branch, n. Adetka ; ozate ; ospaye. 
vi. za'ta ; a kizan ya. 

branching, pa. 2agzanyauya. 

brand, vt. 'Guya; wa'petogtoi). n. 
1. Petuspa.* a fire-brand. 2. 
Ma'zawiguye. 3. Oguye : Mr. 
Smith's brand. 4. Ocaze : a 
brand of crackers. 

branded, pa. 'Guyapi. 

brandish, vt. Ko'za. 

brand-new, a. Nakahateca. 

brandy, n. Miniwakai). 

brant, n. Magasekseca. 

brash, n. Woyazan ahinapa ; a. 
Suta sni. 

brass, n. Ma'zazi ; wi'stecesni. 

brat, n. Hoksiyopa. 

bravado, n. Wohitikakon'za. 

brave, a. Waditaka. n. Tu'we 
ohitika; zuyawicasta. 

bravery, n. Wowaditake. 

bravely, adv. Waditagya. 

brawl, n. Woakinica. vi. Akinica. 

brawn, n. Cehpi. 

brawny, a. Cehpitaijka. 

bray, vt. Bopan. ; hotoi). 

brazen- a. Ma'zazi ; istecesni. 

breach, n. Kicaksapi ; ondoka. 

breachy, a. Pahdokesa. 

bread, n. Aguyapi ; aguyapita- 
cagu; woyute. 

breadstuff, n. Oi) aguyapi ka'- 

breadth, n. Ohdakinyai). 

break, broke, vt. (Boot forms) Ksa; 
spa; mdeca; wega; hdo'ka. 
Break in two, yuksa. — Break a 
piece off, yuspa. — Break in 
pieces, yumdeca. — Break, but 
not separate, yuwega. — Break 
a hole, yuhdoka. 

(Other prefixes.) Break by 
cutting, baksa: — by punching 
or shooting, boksa: — by strik- 
ing, kaksa: — by pushing, paksa: 
— by biting, yaksa : — with the 
foot, naksa. (These prefixes 


may be attached to either of 
the other four root forms. ) 

To break a bank, okihisniya : 
bread, yuspaspa : — a colt, kaon- 
spe: — the fall, yuahececa: — 
glass, kamdeca : — the heart, 
namdasya : — the law, kicaksa : 
— the leg, yuwega: — the news, 
otokahe oyaka :— prairie, mah- 
teca y umdu : — a promise, yuwi- 
cake sni : — silence, enakiye : — 
a string, yupsaka: — through, 
naoksa : — up, nazuzu ; ayustan . 
vi. 1. Nahdeca; napopa; na- 
mdaza : the boil broke. 2. Ihnu- 
han hihuni ; hi ; tanin : the 
storm broke; the day breaks. 
3. Kazuzu okihi sni : the bank 
broke. 4. Yutokeca : the horse 
broke his gait. 

n. 1. Oko; oksahe; onasdeca : 
a break in the ice. 2. Wohiyu ; 
wonatai) : a break for liberty. 
3. Wokiyuspe ; yukinukanpi : 
a break in the tribe. 4. Run ya : 
a break in the price of wheat. 

breakable, a. Yuksepica. 

breakage, n. Woihanke; wi'ca- 

breakdown, n. Oiyanicapi. 

breaker, n. Ta'za ; wayuksa. 

breakfast, n. Hanhannawotapi. 

breaking, n. Mahteca. 

breakup, n. Woynzuzu. 

breakwater, n. Miniokaske. 

breast, n. 1. Maku : a large breast. 

2. Aze : one breast has no milk. 

3. Cuwi : anger hid in the breast, 
vt. rtkokipa. 

breast-bone, n. Makuhu. 
breastpin, n. Makuipasisa. 
breastplate, n. Makuakahpe. 
breastwork, n. Makaokapi. 
breath, n. Oniya ; niya. 
breathe, vt. & vi. Niya ; iwastena 

eya. Breathe out, ipogan. 
breathing, n. Niyapi. 
breathless, a. Niya sni; \a>. 

23 brightly 

breech, n. Ceca ; palm. Breech 

of a gun, pahu. . 
breeches, n. Onzeoge. 
breed, n. Obe ; ospaye. vt. Cin- 

catonkiya; icahya. vi. Cinea- 

breeder, ». Waicahya. 
breeze, n. Tate ; okaduza. 
brethren, n. Huqkawanzipi. 
brevet, a. Yuonihan. 
brevity, n. Pte'cedan. 
brew, vt. Minitahtonkaga ; kah- 

wacinskan. vi. Icaga. 
bribe, vt. Nahmankicicazuzu. n. 

Ta'ku^upi; wokazuzu. 
brick, n. Makaspai) ; makakaska. 
brickbat, n. Makaspai) oksahe. 
brick-kiln, n. Makaspanacetipi. 
brick-layer, n. Makaspai) ehnaka. 
brick-yard, n. Makaspan okage. 
bridal, a. Nakaha kiciyuzapi. 
bride, n. Nakahahihnaton. 
bridegroom, n. Nakaha tawicutoi). 
bridesmaid, n. Hihnatonkta naki- 

bridge, n. Cankahonpapi ; ceyag- 

tonpi. vt. Cankahtoi). 
bridle, n. Sungiyuwi ; ipahte. vt. 

Ikiyuwi; kaska. 
bridlebits, w. Ma'zaiyuwi. 
bridle-path, n. &ui)gakancai}ku. 
brief, a. Pte'cena ; cis'tiyena. n. 

Ptenyena oyakapi. 
brier, n. Canpepe. 
brig, n. Witawata ihupa nonpa. 
brigade, n. Akicita optaye kokizu. 
brigadier, n. AMcitatancan. 
brigand, n. Wamanonwicasta. 
bright, a. 1. Wiyakpa; iyega; 

i'zanzai) : a bright star. 2. Wa- 

cinksapa; wicimdeza: a bright 

writer. 3. Wowiyuskin ; waste ; 

bright hours. A bright red, 

brighten, vt. Pawiyakpa; wacin- 

ksamya ; iyoyamya ; yuteca. 

vi. Iyoyanpaaya. 
brightly, adv. Mdesya ; otaninyan. 


brightness, w. Wowiyakpa. 

brilliancy, n. Woiyega. 

brilliant, a. Yehyega ; okitanin ; 

brilliantly, adv. Yehya; inihan- 

brim, w. Tete. 

brimful, a. Iyuzimnana ; ozuna. 

brimstone, n. Makazi ; oahdizi. 

brindled, a. Hdehdeza. 

brine, ». Miniskuya mini. 

bring, brought, vt. An ; ahi ; ahion- 
pa ; iyokihi. — Bring about, ece- 
tnya. — Bring forth, ton ; uya. 
— Bring on, kohan econya. — 
Bring to pass, ecetnya. — Bring 
up a child, icahya. — Wheat 
brings fifty cents, aguyapisu 
kaspapi za'ptan iyokihi. 

brink, n. Tete ; maya ; huta. 

briny, a. Sku'ye. 

brisk, a. Ohanko. 

brisket, n. Maku. 

bristle, n. Kukuee bin. rt. Nasa. 
vt. Nasakiya. 

British, ft. Sagdasin. 

brittle, a. &tastadan ; wan'kadan. 

broach, vt, Cazeyata. 

broad, a, Tan'ka ; ohdakinyan 

broadaxe, ft. Onspetanka; cani- 

broadcast, adv. Kadaehpeya. 

broadcloth, ft. Sinato. 

broaden, vt. Yutanka. vi. Tan'ka- 

broadly, adv. Tan'kaya. 

brogan, ft. Can'hanpa so'ka. 

brogue, ft. Wayatokecapi. 

broil, vt. Ceonpa ; pasnon. w. Wo- 
pasnon ; woakinica. 

broke, imp. of break. 

broken, pa. Ksawahe. Broken- 
hearted, cantesioa ; waciijye- 

broker, ». Wiyopekieiciya. 

bronchitis, n. Dotehbeze ndi. 

bronze, n. fida'hdamaza. 

24 brushy 

brood, vt. Akihnawanka ; canto- 
hnaka. ft. Obe ; optaya. 

brook, ft. Wakpadai). 

brooklet, n. Wakpadai) cistinna. 

broom, n. Owankicahinte. 

broomstick, n. Owankicahinte 

broth, ft. Harjpi ; wahanpi. 

brothel, w. Witkowintipi. 

brother, ft. Hunkawanzi. My 
brother, mihunkawanzi ; — His 
brother, hunkawanzitku. 

(The following are more en- 
dearing terms.) A sorts older 
brother, cinye. — A son's younger 
brother, sunka. — A daughter's 
older brother, timdo. — A dough- 
ter's younger brother, sunka. A 
father's brother's children, and 
a mother's sister's children are 
accounted the same relation as 
their own children. 

brotherhood, n. Hunkawanziki- 

brother-in-law, n. A man's brother- 
in-law, tahan. A woman's 
brother-in-law, sice. 

brotherly, a. Sunkaku iyececa. 

brought, imp of bring. 

brow, ft. Istahe ; he ; maya. 

browbeat, vt. Wakokipekicaga. 

brown, ft. & a. gi; gitka vt. 
giya. vi. gi aya ; gngu. 

browse, vt. Caninkpa yuta. 

bruin, ft. Mato. 

bruise, vt. Kasuza; kaskica. ft. 

brunette, n. Hagina. 

brunt, ft. Iyotantehika. 

brush, ft. 1. Canhaka ; canadetka; 
otehi. 2. Wi'casto ; wi'cahinte. 
Shoe brush, can'hanpaisamye. 
Clothes' brush, o'kdeicapowaya. 
— Hair brush, wi'casto. — Paint 
brush, onwikiunpi. 3. Woki- 
cize ptecedan. vt Payeza ; 
pastosto ; kahiniyeya ; pakinta. 

brushy, a. Otehi. 


brusque, a. Onankeza. 
brutal, a. Wamanicase. 
brute, n. & a. Wamanica. 
brutish, a. Wamanica se. 
bubble, n. Tagetanka. vt. Tage- 

kaga ; bomdumdu ; anapsapsa ; 

buck, n. Tamdoka ; koska ; ho'bu. 

vt. Panpewacin skan. 
bucket, n. Kokatodai) ; miniyaya. 
buckle, n. Ma'zawiyuze ; vt. Ma'- 

zawiyuze ikoyake. 
buckler, n. Wahacanka. 
buckskin, n. Taha. 
buckwheat, n. Aguyapisu omdo- 

bud, n. Camni. vt. Camni uya ; 

camni o'stan. 
budge, vt. Yuskanskan ; tokai) ya. 
budget, n. Apahte ; owapi. 
buff, n. *Gi ; gizi ; tahazi. 
buffalo, n. Tatanka; pteikceka. 
. Buffalo robe, ptehasina. 
buffalo-berry, n. Mastinpute. 
buffet, vt. Apa ; kiciecoi). 
bug, n. Tapopuska ; wamduskana. 
bugbear, bugaboo, n. On waham- 

yapi; wanagikagapi. 
buggy, n. Canpahmihma ci'stina. 
bugle, n. He'yahotoijpi. 
build, built, vt. Ti'pi ka'ga ; tica- 

ga; ka'ga; sutaya e'hde. n. 

builder, n. Tic age. 
building, n. Ti'pi ; tieagapi. 
bulb, n. Hutkar p&urjka. 
bulge, vt. Yutanka. vi. Po. n. 

Taq'ka; paha. 
bulk, n. Tarcan ; hohanke. 
bulky, a. Pan/ga ; tan'ka. 
bull, n. Tatankabdoka. vt. Pa- 

wankan iyeya. 
bull-boat, n. Tahukawata. 
bulldoze, vt. WakoHpekicaga. 
bullfrog, n. Toi)toi)tai)ka. 
bullet, n. Ma'zasu; suwanzi. 
bulletin, n. Woyaotanin. 
bullock, n. Tatanka susu wanica. 

25 burn, burnt 

bully, n. Ohitiicida. vt. Ohitiya 

bulrush, n. Psa ; cedi. 
bulwark, n. Makakapi ; wo win ape. 
bum, vi. As'in. n. Waas'in. 
bumblebee, n. Tunmagatanka. 
bump, vt. Iboto; iyapa. n. Wo- 

iyapa; pazo. 
bun, n. Aguyapi skuyena. 
bunch, n. Opante ; omnaye ; wo- 

pamna; iyage. A bunch of 

flowers, opante. — A bunch of 

weeds, wopamna. — A bunch of 

grapes, iyage. vt. Yuwitaya; 

buncombe, n. Wayatankapi. 
bundle, n. Wopahte. vt. Panta; 

bung, n. Iostan. Bung-hole, koka 

bungle, vt. Wayusin econ. n. Wo- 

bungler, n. Wayusiksica. 
bunk, n. Owanka ; ohekdepi. vi. 

Wan'ka; istinma. 
bunt, vt. Pa on iboto ; iboto. 
bunting, n. Wi'yokihedan. 
buoy, n. Miniwapetokeca. vt. Oka- 

ponya ; wankan yu'za. 
buoyancy, w. Okapota. 
buoyant, a. Kapozedan ; wi'haha. 
bur, n. Same as burr. 
burden, n. Wokin ; woiyokisica ; 

wokakize ; ta'ku ka. vt. Tkeya 

kinkiya; kakiSya. 
burdensome, a. Tkedapi; tenike. 
bureau, n. 1. Heyakeopiye. 2. Wo- 

awanyake. The Indian Bureau. 
burg, n. Otonwe. 
burglar, n. Ti'pi kandog wama- 

burial, n. Wicahapi. 
burlap, n. Psa'ozuha. 
burlesque, vt. Un'ca. n. Wowiha ; 

burly, a. Tancantanka. 
burn, burnt, vt. Hunnanya ; guya; 

aceti ; ideya. Burnt his house, 

burner 26 

nunnaliya. — Burnt his finger, 
guya. — Burn brick, aceti. — 
Burn oil, ideya. vi. flunnaga ; 
gu; ide; iyega; ka'ta. Sun- 
burnt, mastispan. n. Ogu ; gu- 

burner, n. Ma za oideyuza. 

burning,^. Ide; ka'ta; tenika. 
n. Oide; wokata. 

burnish, vt. Pawiyakpa. 

burnt, j>a. -Gu. 

burr, n. Wi'nawizidan ; ma'zape- 
pe; ma'zayuhomni. 

burrow, n. Wasun ; wamanica ti. 
vt. Makaohdogya. 

burst, vt. Napomya ; nahdeca. 
Burst an egg, napomya. — Burst 
a blood-vessel, na&deca. vi. Po'- 
pa; napopa; hiyu. Burst open, 
namdaya. — Burst out, hiyu. — 
Burst out laughing, napopa se. 
— Burst to pieces, namdeca. — 
The bud burst, namd&ga. — The 
canon burst, namdaza. 

burthen, n. Same as burden. 

bury, vt. fla; hna'ka; akanpa; 
taqinsni iyeya. He buried his 
wife, ha. — Bury onds talents, 
naftman. — Bury a knife in the 
ox, tan in sni iyeya • — Bury strife, 

bus, n. Wicastatoksu. 

bush, n. Otehi ; canwopamna. 

bushel, n. Kokaowiyute. 

bushy, a. Yunana ; otehi. 

busily, adv. Mdihenya. 

business, n. Woecon ; wowasi ; 
wokuwa. It is none of your 
business, ta'kuna iyoniwaza sni. 
— He means business, awacin 

bust, n Wicapa' maku ahna. 

bustle, vi. Skin'ciya. n. Ni'na 
skan'pi ; niteipahin. 

busy, a. Ta'ku econ ; o'hinni ta'- 
ku econ. vt. skin/ciya ; kuwa- 

busy-body, n. Iyowazasni skai). 


but, conj 1. Tuka : I went, but 
came back. 2. He : there is no 
doubt but he will come. adv. 
1. Heceedan; henana ;-na'na. 
But one day, heceedan. — But 
two men, wicasta nom'nana. — 
But now, de'cehnana. 2. E'esni 
kinkan, who can do it but 

butcher, n. Wapate. v. Pa'ta; 
wayusin knwa. 

butt, vt. Pa oi; iboto. n. Hu'te $ 
ma'za ynhomniostanpi. 

butte, n. Paha okitanin. 

butter, n. Asanpiihdi ; ihdi. 

butterfly, n. Ki'inama; kimima- 
na; T. kimimala. 

butternut, n. Tazuka. 

buttock, n. Onze. 

button, n. Taspu ; T. & T. ceski- 
kan. vt. Ikoyagya. 

buttonhole, n Taspuohdoka. 

buxom, a. Tanwaste. 

buy, bought, vt. Opeton. Buy off, 
ayustan kta kazuzu. — Buy a 
wife, wohpa. vi. Wopetoij. 

buyer, ». Wopetoij. 

bun, vi. dmun. n. fimun. 

buzzard, n. Heca. 

by, prep. 1. Icahda ; ikiyedan ; 
isakim : by the river ; he stood 
by. 2. Oi] ; eciyatafjhan : died 
by poison; walk by faith. 3. 
Ohnayan : by tlie dozen; by rule. 
4. Iyehan; eca: by noon; by 
night. 5. Kici : a house ten feet 
by twelve, adv. Icahda; hiyaya; 
icunom. By all means, to'ketu 
ceyas. — By and by, to'kesta. — 
By the way, cun'haqnakes. — 
Come by (obtain), iyokihi.— 
Day by day, anpetu iyohi.-^ 
One by one, wanzikzi. — Set store 
by, teninda. 

bygone, a. He'kta ; henana. 

bylaw, n. Woope ikoyagyapi. 

byway, n. Canku cis'tinna. 

byword, n. Owestepi. 




cab, n. fiemani acetipi onazin ; 

cabbage, n. Wanpetanka. vt. Ha- 
cabin, n. Ti'pidaq ; wa'tapetaho- 

cabinet, n. 1. Tunkan&idaq wi'ki- 

yukcanpi. 2. Can/opiye wo- 

hnake. 3. Ta'ku wowanyake 

cable, n. Wi'ca&ketanka ; mini- 

wai)ca o'pta ma'zaapapi. 
caboose, n. Wicastaohnayapi. 
cache, n. Wofra. vt. Ha. 
cackle, t*. Hotoi) ; pan'niya. 
cactus, n. Unkcekcepepe. 
cadet, n. Akicita waonspeiciciya. 
cage, ru Wamaniti ; ma zatipidai]. 

vt. Timahen nataka. 
cajole, vt. I'frad kuwa. 
cake, n. Aguyapiskuya ; kacoeo- 

kagapi ; oba&pe ; on spa. vi. 

calamity, n. Wokakize. 
calamus, n. Siqkpetawote. 
calculate, vt Yawa; iyukcai) ; 

eciij; se'ececa. 
calculation, n. Woyawa ; wowi- 

caldron, n. Ce'gataqka. 
calendar, n. Wiyawapi. 
calf, n. 1. Ptezicadai) ; T. ptehe- 

cala. 2. Sicogai) : calf of the leg. 
calfskin, n. Ptezicanaha. 
caliber, ». Oiyute. 
calico, n. Minifruha owapi. Calico 

pony, sunkdeska. 
calk, caulk, ft Opundi. 
calker, n. Wa'taopnfrdi. 
call, vt. 1. Kipai) ; kico : call 

John. 2. Cazeyata : lie called his 

son John. vi. 1. Pai) ; pai] ni- 

yai) : call for hel% . 2. Inafrni 

wai)yag i. n. Pai) 'pi : wicaho ; 

kicopi ; inafrni titokai) i'pi. 

CaU for, da. — Call over, caze- 

yan a'ya. — Call to order, owan- 

zi yankewicasi. — Call to mind, 

tawacii) kiksuyeya. 
calling, n. Pan 'pi; kicopi; ta'ku 

on kicopi ; wowasi. 
callous, a. No'ge ; iyanoge ; so'ka. 
calm, a. Amdakedai) ;wa'frbadan. 

n. Amdakedai] ; ekaqakansni. 

vt. Yuasni; yuamdakedan.. 
calmly, adv. Waft'bayedan. 
calmness, n. Wowafcbadai). 
calumet, n. Wi'yakatacannoqpa. 
calumniate, vt. Aia. 
calumny, n. Woaie. 
calve, vt. Cincatoi). 
cambric, n. Mininuhaska. 
came, imp. of come. 
camel, n. Cankahupazo. 
camera, n. Iteowapi opiye. 
camp, n. Owanka ; wicoti ; ozuye. 

vi. Wan'ka; e'ti. A deserted 

camp, otiwota. 
campaign, n. Okicize ; ozuye ; wo- 

camphor, n. Wi'pakinteska. 
campus, n. Wayawatipi tiok&an. 
can, n. Ma'zakokadan. vt. Ma'- 

zakoka ohnaka. 
can, could, v. aux. Okihi. Can but, 

ecena okihi. — Cannot but, oki- 

hisni 6ni. 
canal, n. Wakpakagapi. 
canard, n. Iapi wicake sni. 
canary, n. Zitkazi. 
cancel, vt. Kazuzu. 
cancer, n. Po'pi ohinni icaga. 
candid, a. Wicake ; hna'ye sni. 
candidate, n. Oitancai) akita. 
candidly, adv. Anafrbe sni. 
candle, n. Wasnapetizanzan. 
candor, n. Iewicaka. 
candy, n. Canbanpisasa. 
cane, ». Cansagye ; cedihu ; can- 

hanpihu. vt. Cansagye on apa. 


canine, a. Sun'ka. 
canister, n. Wanpekokamaza. 
canker, vt. fidi ; kuka. 
cannibal, n. Wica&tacenpi yuta. 
cannon, n. Ma'zakantanka. 
cannonade, vt. Ma'zakantanka 

cannot, v. Oklhi sni. 
canoe, ». Canwaijzi w'ata. Iftrcft 

&arfc canoe, tanpawata. 
canon, n. Woope ; yusutapi. 
canyon, n. Imnizaisdeca. 
canonize, vt. Cazeyawakan. 
canopy, n. Awakeyapi. 
cant, vt. Nake ehde : cant the tub. 

n. Nake ; ho'sinya eyapi. 
can't, contr. for cannot. 
canted, pa. Nake ; naptanyan. 
canteen, n. Akicitaminiyaya. 
canter, vi. Nawanka. 
canton, n. Makobaspe. 
canvas, n. Mininuhaska ; wa- 

canvass, v. Wamnayai); wicacaze 

mnayai) ; yawa. 
cap, ». Wapaha; T. Wapostan. 

Gun-cap, wanhisa. 
capable, a. Waokihi. Capable of, 

capacious, a. Okipika. 
capacity, n. Wookihi; wokipi; 

cape, n. 1. Ipa; makoce ipa. 2. 

Hiyete akanpa. 
caper, vi. Psi'psin ska'ta. 
capital, w. 1. Otonweitancan. 2. 

Oowatai)ka. 3. Woyuha ; ma'- 

zaska. 4. Cai)wakai)pa. a. 1. 

Itaqcan ; tokahai). 2. On t©wi- 

cayapi. 3. Iyotai) ; ni'nawadte. 
capitalist, n. Tu'we watonka. 
capitally, adv. Ni'na tanyan. 
capitol, w. Otor)we itai)cai). 
capitulate, vi. Wokicize enakiye. 
caprice, n. Tawacii) ske'he. 
capricious, a. Ske'he. 
capsize, vt. Naptanyan. 
capsule, w. Su'ozuha. 

28 carpet 

captain, n. Akicitatai)cai) ; opa- 
wiijge itancan. 

caption, w. Iwankam owapi. 

captious, a. Waienhiyeyesa. 

captivate, vt. Caqte hmun'ka. 

captive, n. Wayaka. a. Easka 

captivity, ». Wokaske. 

captor, w. Wayaka icu. 

capture, vt. Icu; ohiya. n. Wa- 
icupi; woohiye. 

car, w. fiemani canpahmihma. 

caravan, n. Ounhdake ; wicota 

carbuncle, w. Siyakao hdi. 

carcass, n. Tancai). 

card, n. Kaijsu; ipakca. Play 
cards, kansukutepi. 

cardinal, w. Sinasapa o'kihe itan- 
cai). a. Itaqcai) : sa. 

care, -vi. 1. En e'wacin ; awacin : 
I do not care to go. 2. Caijta- 
hde : do you care if I take this, 
vt. 1. Ihakta : she donH care for 
you. 2. Awanyaka: care prop- 
erly for the cow. n. 1. Wacan- 
tahdepi ; woawacin ; waawa- 
cinpi : care wearies him. 2. 
Woawaijyake : he has the care 
of the cattle. Take care, iton- 
pa. — Take care of, awanyaka. 
— With care, itonpeya. 

career, n. Oni ; woecon. 

careful, a. Itoqpe &kai) ; waawa- 
cii) ; tanyan kuwawacin. 

careless, a. Itonpedni; awaciijsni. 

caress, vt. Kastosto ; kihna. 

careworn, a. Watuka. 

cargo, w. Watohnaka. 

caricature, n. Wowiha owapi. 

carmine, w. Wi'saye. 

carnage, n. Wokte. 

carnal, a. Wicacehpi. 

carnival, ft. Skan'omniciye tan'ka. 

carol, ». WowiyuSkin odowan. 

carouse, vi. Witkoskan. 

carpenter, ft. Oankazipa. 

carpet, n. Owaijka akahpa. 


carpetbag, n. WapapSuqka. 
carriage, n. 1. Caijpahmihmasapa. 

2. Toksupi. 3. Oihduhe. 
carried, imp. of carry. 
carrier, n. Watoksu. 
carrion, n. Tado sicamna. 
carry, irt. A'ya; yuhaya; yuha; 

ohiya; yastai). Carry away, 

akiyahda. — Carry on, kuwa- 

akai). — Carry a bill, yustai). — 

Carry a fortress, ohiya ; icu. 
cart, n. Caqpahmihma hu noqpa. 

vt. token; a'ya. 
cartoon, n. Iteowapi ohaqko ka'- 

cartridge, n. Iozu apahtapi. 
carve, vt. 1. Baspa&pa : carve the 

turkey. 2. Bago : a carved head. 
cascade, n. Miniihaha. 
case, n. 1. Opiye : a case of books. 

2. Oecor) ; oui) ; woakipe : a 

«ad case. 3. Tuwe kii) : a hard 

case. vt. Ozuhakaga. 
case-knife, n. Isaqmdaska ; roipi- 

cash, n. Ma'zaska. 
cashier, n. Ma'zaskatipiawai)- 

casing, w. Ozuha. 
cask, n. Kokapahmihma. 
casket, n. Wopiyena ; wicafc 

cast,trt. 1. Kahoiyeya; ehpeya; 

hiyuya ; yuwitaya : cast a stone. 

2. ddoya : cast a statue, vi. Wa- 

ciijyeya : he cast about to know 

what to do. 
cast, n. Kanoiyeyapi; sdoyapi; 

okage; obe. 
castaway, n. Ehpeyapi. 
caste, n. Obe. 
castigate, vt. Easaksaka. 
casting, n. Ma'zasdoyapi. 
castie, n. Coq'ka&ketipi . 
castor oU, n. Wi'hdi oi) iheyapi. 
castrate, vt. Susu ehpeyapi. 
casual, a. Ecaken ; inahni. 
casnality, n. WoaMpa tehika. 

29 cavity 

cat, n. Innrasuqka. Y. Ikmui)- 
suijka. T. Igmuqsuijka. 

catalogue, n. Caze owapi. 

catamount, n. Inmn. T. Igmui). 

cataract, n. flaha ; istaaogi. 

catastrophe, n. Woyutakunidni. 

catch, caught, vi. Yu'za ; oyuspa ; 
icu; kihdega. Catch at, yus- 
wacii). — Catch up, kihdega. — 
Catch a train, iyohi. vi. 1. Iko- 
yaka : caught in a tree. 2. Ide : 
the wood caught, n. Oieu ; 

catching, a. I'ciyahpaya : a catch- 
ing disease. 

catechism, n. Wi'wioawangapi. 

catechist, n. Waoqspekiya. 

cater, vi. Ki'cicuwa. 

caterpillar, n. Wi'ihdutena. 

catfish, n. Howasapa. 

cathartic, n. Iyoptaiyeyapi. 

cathedral, n. Bishop ti'piwakan. 

catholic, a. Siijtomni. The Cath- 
olic church, okodakiciye siij- 
tomni. — Roman Catholic church, 
Sinasapa okodakiciye. 

cattle, n. Ptewanuyanpi ; Y. pte- 
waniyanpi ; T. ptegleska. 

Caucasian, n. Ska'wicasa. 

caucus, n. Wi'yukeai) omniciye. 

caught, imp. of catch. 

cause, vt. Ka'ga; -ya. Cause to 
smile, ihaya. 

cause, n. 1. Ka'ga ; hutkai) : the 
cause of his death. 2. Woecoi) : 
the temperance cause. 

causeless, a. On econkta wanica. 

caustic, a. Wi'guye ; pe'sto. 

caution, n. Wawitonpapi ; woi- 
torjpe. vt. Iwaktaya. 

cautious, a. Wawitonpe. 

cautiously, adv. Itonpeya. 

cavalry, n. &ungakan akicita. 

cave, n. Pahaohdogeca. vi. Kao- 
ksa : the bank caved. 

cavern, n. MakoMoka. 

cavil, vi. Cetnnhdaia ; ienhde. 

cavity, n. Ohdoka. 


caw, vi. Uqci&icahotoi). 

cease, vi. & vi. Ayustai) ; iyasni. 

ceaseless, adv. Ayustai) wauin. 

cedar, n. fiaqtesa. 

cede, vt. Ijfu ; makawiyopeya. 

ceil, vt. Mahen okataq. 

celebrate, vt. Yuonihai). 

celebrated, a. Okitaijii). 

celebration, n. Woyuonihai). 

celerity, n. Woobaqko. 

celestial, a. Mahpiya. 

celibacy, n. Tawicutoijpisiii. 

cell, n. Ti'pidai). 

cellar, n. Makatipi ; wolia. 

cement, n. Makasai) wi'puepe. vt. 

cemetery, n. Wicahnakapi. 
censer, n. Owizinye. 
censor, n. Wa'mdeza. 
censurable, a. Bapica. 
censure, vt. Iyopeya ; ba. n. Wo- 

ba ; woiyopeye. 
census, n. Owicawapi. 
cent, n. Ma'zasa. Five cents, ka- 

spapiokise ; so'kela. — Ten cents, 

kaspapi. — Twenty-five cents f ka- 

spapi nom sam okise. 
centenary, n. Waniyetu opawiqge. 
center, n. Cokaya ; caijte. 
central, a. Cokaya ; itaijcai}. 
centralize, vt. Yuwitaya 
centrally, adv. Ocokaya. 
century, n. Waniyetu opawiijge. 
cereal, n. Wahuwapa. 
ceremony, n. To'ken piieiyapi. 
certain, a. 1. He'cetu ; wicaka : 

he is certain to come. 2. Tukte 

kapi : on a certain day. 3. Wi- 

cakeicida : he is certain of it. 
certainly, adv. A'wicakehai); a'wi- 

certainty, n. Wowicake. 
certificate, ». Wayaotaijii) wowapi. 
certify, vt. Wicakaoyaka; yuwi- 

cessation, n. Ayu&taijpi. 
cession, n. Ku'pi. 
chafe, vt. Ha kasdoka ; nagiyeya. 

30 charge 

chaff, n. Ha: suozuha. 

chagrin, n. Wosihda. 

chain, n. Ma'zaicicaMlia ; wi'ca- 
ske ; i'ciyaza yeye. vt. Kaska ; 

chair, n. Cai)'akai)yai)kapi. 

chairman, n. Omniciyeita^oai). 

chaise, n. Caqpahrrrihma. 

chalk, n. Makasai). 

challenge, vi. Kiciecoqape. 

chamber, n. Waijkantipi; oistiqma. 

champ, vt. Kiqskiijsyata. 

champion, n. A'tayawakapa. 

chance, n. 1. To'ketutaijiijsni : 
games of chance. 2. Warm : he 
was killed by chance. 3. Ihnu- 
hai) okihipi : tliere is some 
chance, vt. Iyuta. vi. Thirn- 
hai) akipa. 

chandelier, n. Petizaijzai) yufraha. 

change, vt. 1. Yutokeca : change 
the time. 2. Yuspuspu : change 
a dollar. 3. Ki'cicu; tokiyo- 
peya: change places, n. Yu- 
dpudpupi ; yutokecapi ; to'keca. 

changeable, a. To'kecasa. 

changeless, a. To'kecasni. 

channel, n. Minitacaqku ; eaqku. 

chant, vt. Ahiyaya ; iahai)dowai). 
n. Woahiyaye. 

chaos, n. Ta'kutaqiijsni ; wo- 

chap, vi. Nasdesdeca ; lidifidi. 

chap, n. Cehupa ; tu'we. 

chapel, n. Owacekiyetipi. 

chaplain, n. Wicastawakai). 

chapter, n. Wicowoyake. 

char, vt 'Ghiguya ; samya. 

character, n. Obai); waeazeyatapi; 
ta'kuigiyapi ; oowa. 

characteristic, a. Obai) ta'wa. 

characterize, vt. Cazeyata. 

charcoal, n. Petacabdi. 

charge, vt. 1. Eciya; wahokoij- 
kiya : charge him to go. 2. Ka- 
zuzusi ; isikicaton : he charged 
me a dollar. 3. Iyaoi)pa : he 
was charged with theft. 4, lea- 

chargeable 31 

zoowa : he charged it twice. 5. 

Ozuya : charge the gun. 6. Ki- 

ksuyeya : charge your mind. 7. 

Anatai) : cluxrge tlie fort. vi. 

Wakaztizusi; natai). w. Iozu; 

woawanyake ; wokazuzu ; wo- 

wahokonkiye ; woiyaonpa ; wo- 

chargeable, a. Enayepica. 
charger, ft. Waanatai). 
chariot, ft. Zuyacai)pahmihma. 
charity, «. Wacantkiyapi ; wowa- 

charm, vt. Iyokipiya ; yuhnaskii)- 

yai) ; hmunga. 
charming, a. Oiyokipi. 
.chart, n. Makoceowapi. 
charter, n. Wayuhekiyapiwowapi ; 

vt. Odota; opetoi). 
chase, vt. Kuwa; pasi. Chase 

away, namya. n. Wakuwapi; 

chaser, ». Wakuwa. 
chasm, n. Makoskokpa ; oko. 
chaste, a. Zani ; gape sni. 
chasten, vt. Iyopeya; yuska. 
chastize, vt. Kasaksaka. 
chastisement, n. Iyopeyapi. 
chastity, n. Wozani. 
chat, vi. Iayai)ka. n. Wohdahda- 

chattel, ra. Woyuha yuha omani- 

chatter, vi. Hi'hdakaka ; iaa. 
chatty, a. Wohdakesa. 
chaw, vt. Yata. 
cheap, a. Wasakedan. 
cheapen, vt. Yuwasakedan. 
cheat, vt. Hna'yan ; ki. w. Wo- 

cheater, n. Wicahnayesa. 
check, n. 1. Woanapte ; wokagi. 

2. Wowapi oi) ma'zaska icupi. 

3. Kansu; wowapetokeca. 4. 
Ta'ku hdeze. vt. Kagiya ; ana- 
pta; wa'petogton. 

checkered, a. Hdehdeze. 
checkmate, vt. Kagiya. 


cheek, w. Tapoi) ; iyoha. 

cheeky, a. Istecesni. 

cheer, vt. I'yas'a ; cantewasteya. 

n. Wocaqtewaste ; i'yasapi. 
cheerful, a. Cantewaste ; wowiyu- 

skin ; wi'haha. 
cheerily, adv. Wi'yuskinyan. 
cheerless, a. Wowiyuskincodan. 
cheery, a. Wi'yuskin. 
cheese, w. Asanpipasutapi. T. 

Asanpi samna. 
chemistry, ». Wokpanna wooi]spe. 
cherish, vt. Tehinda ; cai)tohuaka; 

tai)yai) kuwa. 
cherry, n. Cai)pa ; canpakakan. 
cherub, w. Manpiyaohnihde ka'- 

chest, ft. 1. Can'koka; oan'ohna- 

ka; opiye. 2. Cuwi. 
chestnut, ». Yanugapi hazizipena. 

a. *Gi; sa'peca. 
chew, vt. Yata ; yu'ta ; yakpai] : 

chew tobacco, w. Oyata. 
Cheyenne, n. Sahiyena. 
Cheyenne River, w. Wakpawaste. 
chick, ft. Zitkacinca. 
chicken, ft. Anpaohotonna ; Y. ko- 

koyahanna; T.ko'kena. Prairie- 

chicken, siyo. 
chide, vt. Iyopeya. 
chief, ft. Itancan ; wicastayatapi. 

a. Tokapa; iyotan. 
child, children, n. 1. Hoksiyopa: 

a little child. 2. Giijca : the 

ch ildren of Israel. Child's play, 

woeoon sni. — With child, ihdu- 

childhood, ft. Hoksiyopaoun. 
childish, a. Hoksiyopa iyeoeca. 
childless, a. Cinca ni'ca. 
children, pi. of child. 
chill, ft. Cancanpi ; cuwitapi. rt. 

Yusni; cuwita. 
chilly, a. Osni; cusni. To feel 

chilly, ouwitahda. 
chime, ft. fida'ndadowankiyapi. 

vt. Dowaneya; okiciwaste. 
chimney, n. 1. Oceti : a brick 

chimney, 2. Ihupa : a lamp 

32 civil 

chill, n. Iku ; oehupa. 
china, n. Kampeska. 
Chinaman, n. Pecokahanska. 
Chinese, n. Pecokahanska. 
chink, vt. Oko kao$inza. 
chinking, n. Kaotinzapi. 
chip, n. Canokahpa. vt. Kaspa. 
chipmunk, n. Tasnaheca. 
chipper, a. Mdiheca. 
chirp, vi. 2o; kins'hoton. 
chisel, n. Caijicahdoke. 
chitchat, n. TakudniSniiapi. 
chivalrous, a. Wawaditake. 
chivalry, n. Wowaditake. 
chloroform, n. Kiksuyeyapisni pe- 

chocolate, n. Pezutasapazi. a. 'Gi; 

choice, n. Kannigapi ; wokahnige. 

a. Kahnihyuhapi ; waste. 
choir, n. Wocekiye en dowanpi 

obe ; dowanpi oyanke. 
choke, vt. Yuniyasni. vi. Katka; 

cholera, n. Makosiea naksecapi. 
choose, chose, vt. Kahniga; cii). 
chop, vt Kaksa; katku&a; ka- 

spaspa. Chop down, kawanka. 

Chop up, kaksaksa. n. Okaspe; 

chord, n. Hoiciyokipi. 
chore, n. Takusnisni oecoi). 
chorister, n. Dowai)itai)cai). 
chorus, n. Wicota dowaqpi. 
chose, imp. of choose. 
chosen, pa. Kannigapi. 
christen, vt. Baptisma kn ; caze 

Christendom, n. Christ taoyate; 

Christ tawooekiye. 
Christian, n. Jesuswacii)yan ; Je- 

Christianity, n. Jesus tawowacin- 

Christianize, vt. Jesus awacinwi- 


Christmas, n. Jesus ton 'pi anpetn; 

chronic, a. Eoahececa. 
chronicle, vt, Qyaka. 
chrysalis, n. Wamniomni 
chuck, vt En'iyeya. 
chuck-full, n. Ozudanhca. 
chuck-hole, n. Cankuofrdoka. 
chuckle, vi. Iohmunsihaha. 
chum, «. Kicuwa. 
chunk, n. Canksa. 
chunky, a. Hu'na ; pte'eena. 
church, n. Okodakiciyewakan; ti'- 

churlish, a. Ohansiea. 
churn, n. Asanpiiboco. frf.Boooeo. 
chute, n. Ohnaiyeyapi. . 
cider, n. Taspanhanpi. 
cigar, n. Candiyukmunpi. 
cigarette, n. Minihuhacanonpapi. 
cinder, n. Ca'ta; cangugu. 
cinnamon, n. Canha'sa. 
cipher, n. Itkonsa; ta'kusni. vi. 

circle, n. Canhdeskakagapi ; ta'- 

kumibe ; okodakiciye. vi. Ao- 

circuit, n. Ohomni yapi. 
circuitous, a. Aohomni. 
clrcuitously, adv. Iohdamnayai) ; 

circular, a. Mibe ; ohomniya. 
circulate, vi. Iyazaya. vt. Iya- 

yeya: oyaka. 
circumcise, vt BaMhdaya. 
circumference, n. Aohomni. 
circumspect, a. Wakta un. 
circumstance, n. To'ketu; ta / ku; 

to'ken un. 
circus, n. Ho'cokaoskate. 
cistern, n. Miniwoha. 
citadel, n. Con'kaske. 
cite, n. Cazeyate. 
citizen, n. Ihduha ; oyate o'pa. 
citron, n. Sa'kayutapiseca. 
city, n. Otonwetanka. 
civil, a. 1. Wa'hbadan ; ohan- 

waste : a civil boy. 2. Ikceka : 




in cwil life. 3. Oyate iye en'na : 

the civil war. 
civilian, n. Wicastaikceun. 
civilization, n. Wasicuijiciyapi. 
civilize, vt. Wasicuijya. 
civilized, a. Wasicun ; waonspeka. 
civilly, adv. Tan y an. 
clabber, n. Asaqpi nini. T. Asan- 

pi gbugbu. 
clad, imp. of oloths. 
claim, vt. Ta'wa keya ; Idea ; keya. 

n. Ta'wapi keyapi; makoce 

icupi ; keye oil). 
clam, n. TnM ; tukihasan. 
clamber, vi. Adi ; nape kicun. adi. 
clamor, n. Owodutatoi). vi. Wo- 

hitiya eyapi. 
clamp, n. Maswiynzipe. 
clan, n. Tiospaye. 
clandestine, a. Nanmai). 
dang, vi. Ka'ka. 
clannish, a. Isnaicidapi. 
clap, vt. Apa ; kaskapa. n. Bu se 

iyapa; kaskapapi. 
clapper, n. fida'nda icakoka. 
clarify, vt Yumdeza. 
clash, vt. I'ciyapa ; kagikiciya. 
clasp, vt. Yu'za. T. Oyuspa. n. 

Ma'zawiyuzedai) . 
class, n. Obe. T. Owe. Tfo -Bi&to 

classify, vt. Obe ecekcen e'hnaka. 
classmate, n. Eici obe wanzidan. 
clatter, vi. Kokoka; okoya. 
clause, n. Iapi o'kilie. 
claw, n. Sake ; nape. vt. Nahda- 

ta; nakega. 
clay, n. Makagi; makaconpeaka. 
clean, a. Ska ; sapesni. vt. Yuska; 

cleanly, a. Ska ; ska ihduha. 
cleanse, vt. Yuzaza; yuska. 
cleansing, n. Yuzazapi. 
clear, a. Mde'za : clear-water. 2. 

Kasota : a dear sky. 3. Kohdi : 

a clear stone. 4. Adetka wani- 

ca : clear lumber. 5. Iyowa- 

iasni : clear of guilt. 6. Wo- 

kagi waniea : a clear track, 
vt. 1. Ta'ku owasin yutokan : 
clear the table. 2. Mdesya : clear 
the water. 3. Kiyuska : clear the 
prisoner. 4. Kamna; yusota 
iwankam kamna : I cleared a 
dollar. 5 Icantake sni iyaya : 
he cleared the fence, vi. Tokan 
iyaya; kasota : the clouds cleared 
off. Clear off the ground, maka 
kakmin. — Clear out, tokan iya- 
ya. n. Ta'ku to'keca waniea : 
ten feet in the clear, adv. A'ta- 
ya; taninyan. 

clearly, adv. Taninyan ; za'zaya. 

clearness, n. Tanii) ; taqinyai) un. 
With clearness, taniqyaij. 

cleave, cleft, vt. Kaptuza ; kaspa. 
vi. A'skapa; ikoyaka. 

cleft, n. Oko jonasdeca. 

clemency, n. Wowanba. 

clement, a. Wa'hbaka. 

clench, vt. Sutaya yu'za. 

clergy, n. Wicastawakan. 

clerical, a. Wowapikaga. 

clerk, n. Wowapikaga ; mazopiye 

clever, a. Wayupika ; waste. 

clevis, n. Maziyutitai) ako'pa. 

clew, n. On sdonyapi. 

click, vi. & n. Ko'ka ; kakoka. 

client, n. O'kiya ; nakicizin. 

cliff, n. Inyanmaya. 

climate, n. Tate ; tatetokeca. 

climax, n. Iapi sam was'aka ; pes- 

climb, vt. Adi ; waijkan ya. 

clime, n. Makoce. 

clinch, vt. Yus'hiyanka ; in/kpa, 
yuksan ; suta ikoyake. 

cling, vt. Ni'na ikoyaka. 

clink, vi. Sna. vt. Kasna. 

clip, vt. Baksa: yuksa; yusda. 

clipper, n. Wr baksa; wi'tawata 

clique, n. Kodakiciyapi. 

cloak, n. Hiyeteakanpe. vt. A- 




clock, «. Wi'hiyayedan. Y. & T. 

clod, ft. Makatasaka. vt. Maka- 
tasaka on kinii). 

clog, vt. Kagiya. w. Wokagi j 
han'pa cansicu. 

close, a. 1. Ikiyedai) : close to the 
fire, 2. Okaduze sni: a dose 
room, 3. WateMnda : a close 
trader, 4. Ohnayanli ; ecetuya : 
a close copy, 5. Otinza ; tenike : 
money is close, vt. 1. Ecen 
iyeya ; nataka : close the door, 
2. Aohdute : the opening is 
closed, 3. Ihunikiya ; ayustan : 
closed tfie speech, n, Owihanke; 

closely, adv. Ikiyedai); aotiij- 

closet, n. Tiokanmin ; onnoga. 
T, Unhnaga. 

closeted, pa. Kicisnana ui). 

clot, vi. Tasaksaka. 

cloth, n, Mininuha so'ka; haya- 

clothe, clad, vt. Koyagya ; heyake- 
kicatoi] ; o'gekiton. 

clothes, n. Heyake. Y. Hayake. 

clothes-pin, n. Heyake wiyuze. 

clothier, n. Heyakewopetoi). 

clothing, ». Heyake. 

cloud, n. 1. Manpiya ; mahpiya- 
aapa. 2. Manpiyase : clouds of 
dust. vt. Manpiya ; aohanziya. 
vi. Amanpiya. 

cloudless, a. AmanpiyaSni. 

cloudy, a. Amahpiya. 

clove, n. Pezutayuhaha. T. Hi'- 

cloven, pa. 2a'ta; sdesdeca. 

clover, ft. Pezicanhdohu. 

clown, ft. Waoi)cakoi)za. 

clownish, a, Waoncase. 

club, ft. 1. Canksa; cannaksa; 
canwibopa. War club, can'hpi. 
2. Ikce omniciye. vt. 1. Cai)ksa 
oi) apa. 2. Kuwa : club together. 

cluck, n. I'hdaskapapi. vi. I'hda- 

skapa ; ciijca kicoco. 
clue, ft. On'odepi. 
clump, ft. Wopamna ; canwita. 
clumsy, a. Waonspekesni. 
clung, imp. of cling. 
cluster, n. Iyage ; wopamna. vi. 

Yuwitaya ; wi'tayahi. 
clutch, vt. Sutayayuza. 
CO-, pref. Kicica; kici. 
coach, n. Canpanmihma waste; 

wowapitoksu. vt. Onspekiya. 
coal, ft. Makacandi ; candilkce. 

A coal of fire, petaga. vi. Ma- 

coal-pit, ft. Makacandioke. 
coalesce, vi. Yuwitaya. 
coarse, a. Tan'ka ; so'ka ; ikceka. 
coast, ft. Huta ; o'huta. vi. Huta 

kahdaya; osdohankicui). 
coat, ft. 1. On'honda. Y. O'kde. 

T. O'gle. 2. Iunpi : a coat of 

paint, vt. Iui) ; akanpa. 
coating, n. Oakanpe. 
coax, vt. Da ; ciijkiya ; kihna. 
cob, ft. Huwapahu. 
cobble, vt. Cai) harjpapiya. 
cobblestone, ft. In'yankmikmanna. 
cobbler, n. Can'hanpapiya. 
cobweb, ft. Unktomitahokata ; wa- 

cock, ft. An'paohotoi) mdoka ; ma- 

zakai) noge. vi. No'geehde. 
cockade, n. Wa'cinhe. 
cocktail, ft. Miniwakanpa. 
cocoanut, n. Yanugapitanka. 
cocoon, ft. Wamniomni. 
coddle, vt. Kihna. 
code, w. Woope ; woope opahi. 
codfish, u. Hogancosyapisa. 
codger, n. Wicasa onai) to'keca. 
coequal, a. Eiciakidececa. 
coerce, vt. I'yopadtaka. 
coeval, a, Iyehan ni. 
coexist, vi. Kici ni. 
coffee, ft. Pezutasapa; wakadyapi. 
coffeemlll, n. Pezutasapaiyukpai). 
coffeenut, n. Wannanna. 


coffeepot, n. Pezutasapawiyokas- 

coffer, n. Opiyesuta. 
coffin, n. Can/ohnahnakapi. 
cog, n. Ma'zayuhomnipi hi. 
cogent, a. Was'aka. 
cogitate, vt. Awacii). 
cognizant, a. A'taya sdonya. 
cohabit, vi. Kiciyus ui). 
cohere, vi. Kiciiciyaskapa. 
coil, vt. Kaksa. n. Okaksa. 
coin, n. Ma'zaska. vt. Ma'zaska 

sdoya; ka'ga. 
coincide, vi. A'kideeeca. 
cold, a. Sni ; osni ; cuwita. Cold 

iron, ma'za sni. — A cold day, 

ai)petu osni. — 2" am cold, ma- 

cold-blooded, a. We sni; cante- 

colic, n. Teziyazanpi. 
collapse, vi. Napopa ; hinhpaya. 
collar, n. Wanapii) itahuska ; ta- 

huakanpe. vt. Wanapinkica- 

collar-bone, n. CesMcate ; T. ce- 

collate, vt. Mnayai). 
colleague, n. Kicica. 
collect, vt. Pahi; mnayai). vi. 

collect, n. WoceMye ptecena. 
collection, n. Womnaye. 
collective, a. Yuwitaya. 
collector, n. Wamnaye. 
college, n. Woonspewaqkantu. 
collide, vi. I'ciyapa. 
collision, n. I'ciyapapi. 
colloquial, a. Wi'kcekceiapi. 
colonel, n. Kektopawingeitancai). 
colonize, vt. Ospayetoi) i'yotanka. 
colony, n. Ospaye ahitipi. 
color, n. 1. Owapi ; sayapi ; hin'- 

tokeca. 2. pi. Oyate tawowa- 

pi; wi'yokihedai). 
colored, pa. Owapi. 
colorless, a. Owapiwanica. 
colossal, a. Ni'natanka. 

35 command 

colporteur, n. Wowapiwiyopeyao- 

colt, n. dunkcincana. 

column, n. 1. Wowapi cankuye 
obosdata. 2. Canipa'tai). 

Comanches, n. Sintondawicasa. 

comb, n. 1. Ipakca. A fine comb, 
ipakca sbuna. 2. Tuhmaga 
ihdi ozuha, honey comb. 3. An- 
paohotonna pesa, chicken's 
comb. vt. Kakca. Comb one's 
own, hda'ka. 

combat, vt. Ki'za ; kiciza. n. Wo- 

combatant, n. WaMza. 

combative, a. Wakizesa. 

combine, vt. Yuokonwanzina. 

combustible, a. Ideyepica. 

come, came, vi. 1. (in progress) U. 
2. (completed) Hi. — I" come, 
wau. — I came, wahi. — I will 
come, wau kta, or, wahi kta. — 
Come after (later), ihakam u, 
(come for) huwe hi ; hiyohi. — 
Come off (as a shoe) sdokahai). 
— Come to, iyohi. — Come up 
with, kihdega. 

comedy, n. Woskate. 

comely, adv. Owanyagwaste. 

comet, n. "Wicanhpisinteton. 

comfort, vt. Kicanpta ; o'Mya. n. 
1. Wokicanpte ; woozikiye ; 
ta'ku on tanyan un/pi : live in 

comfortable, a. Tanyan ; waste. 

comforter, n. e; owinza 

comfortless, a. Oozi wanica. 

comic, comical, a. Wawihaye. 

comity, n. O'Mciyapi. 

comma, n. Oehnakedai). 

command, vt. 1. Wowas'ake oi) 
eya; — si. He commanded him 
to go, yesi. 2. Itancanun ; wae- 
coi) si : the captain commands 
the company. 3. Iyokihi, wheat 
commands a high price, n. Wo- 
eye ; woawanyake ; wookihi. 


comniaaaant, commander, n. Itan- 

commandment, n. Woahope. 
commemorate, trt. Eiksuya. 
commemoration, n. Wokiksuye. 
commence, vt. Tokaheya econ ; 

wanna ecoi). 
commencement, n. Otokahe. 
commend, vt. Yawaste ; oazeyata. 
commendable, a. Yawastepica. 
commensurate, a. Iyehantu. 
comment, vi. la ; to'ketu oyaka. 
commentary, n. To'ken ka'pi oya- 

commerce, n, Oyate wopekiea- 

commercial, a. Wopetoi). 
commiserate, trt. On'sida. 
commissary, n. Woyute awanyake. 
commission, vt. Woecoi) ku. n. 1. 

Waeconkiyapi : a commission 

to try him. 2. Econpi : the 

commission of crime. 3. Ta'ku 

econsipi ; wowasi. 4. Waecon- 

gipi wowapi. 
commissioner, n. Awanyake itan- 

commit, vt. 1. Ecoi) : commit sin. 

2. E'hnaka : commit to jail. 3. 

En iyayeieiya : he committed 

himself to the work. 
committee, n. Waeconsipi. 
commodious, a. Okipika. 
commodity, n. Woyuha. 
commodore, n. Ozuyewataitancan. 
common, a. 1. He'cecasa: yuke- 

sa : a common event. 2. Ikceka; 

ikoeun : the common people. 3. 

I'akidecen ta'wapi : common 

property; common schools, n. 

Makobaspe oyate ta'wapi. 
commonly, adv. Ece ; sa. 
commonplace, a. He'cetuka. 
commonwealth, n. Oyate a'taya. 
commotion, n. Wofikanskan. 
commune, vi. Wohdaka ; wohduze 

communicant, n. Wohduze o'pa. 

36 complexion 

communicate, vt. Ku ; hiynkiya ; 

oyaka. vi. Woyake ; i'ciyahde 

communication, n. WoMciyakapi ; 

communicative, a. Woyakesa. 
communion, n. 1. Wohduze ; hta- 

yetuwotapi. 2. Odakonkiciyapi; 

o'kicivapi; wokiciyakapi. 
community, n. Oyate ; wicospaye ; 

ta'ku wi'taya ta'wayapi. 
commute, vt. Yuaokpani. 
compact, a. Otinza ; suta. n. Wo- 

konze ; woecoi). 
companion, n. Kicica ; kicuwa. 
company, n. 1. Optaye ; wicawi- 

taya : a company of believers. 

2. Tuwe kici ui)pi : she loves 

company. 3. Okodakiciye : a 

dry goods company. 
comparative, a. I'ciwanyakapi. 
compare, vt. I'eiwanyaka. vi. lye- 

hanyan un. 
comparison, n. I'ciwanyakapi. 
compass, n. Maziwaijyake ; maki- 

waijyake; woiyohiya; aohom- 

niya. vt. Iyohiya. 
compasses, n. Canhdeskawicazo. 
compassion, n. Wowaonsida. 
compassionate, a. Waonsida. 
compatible, a. Eicicayepiea. 
compel, vt. I'yopastagya ; -ya ; 

compensate, vt. Eazuzu. 
compensation, n. Wokazuzu. 
compete, vi. Eici ecoi). 
competence, n. WookiM ; oicihi. 
competent, a. Okihi ; iyecetu. 
competition, n. Eiciecoqpi. 
compile, vt. Wi'taya e'hnaka. 
complacent, a. Waciniyokipi. 
complain, vi. IyoMpi sni ia. 
complaint, n. Woaie. 
complete, a. Yustanpi ; a'taya. vt, 

Yustan ; ecetuya. 
completely, adv. Tanyehea. 
complex, a. Oskiske. 
complexion,?!. Uka; ha. 

compliance 37 

compliance, n. Iyowinyanpi. 
complicate, trt. YusMaka. 
complicated, j?a. Oaki&ke. 
complicity, n. Waokiyapi. 
compliment, vt. Yaonihan. n. Wo- 

comply, t*. Wicakieida; eoen econ. 
comport, trt. Onanye. 
compose, vt. 1. Ka'ga : compose a 

hymn. 2. Yuasni : compose your- 
self. 3. Ma'zaehde. 
composition, n. Iapi ka'gapi. 
compost, n. Tacesdiicabi. 
composure, n. Wowabba. 
compound, vt. Icahiya; a'okpani 

yawa. a. Yuokonwanzipi ; yu- 

comprehend, vt. Okabniga. 
comprehension, n. Wokahnige. 
compress, vt. Paskica. 
comprise, vt. Ka; o'pekiya. 
compromise, vU WoMya ; tawacin 

compulsion, n. Woiyopa&take. 
compunction, w. Wocantiyapa. 
compute, vt. To'nakeca yawa. 
comrade, w. Kiouwa; kioica. 
con, vU Atanse awacii). 
concave, a. Sko'pa. 
conceal, trt. Anabbe. 
concede, vt. Iyowinyan ; kn. 
conceit, n. Iyotanicida; woawaein. 
conceited, a. Wabanioida. 
conceivable, a. Waciniyohipica. - 
conceive, vt. Wacinehde; awacii); 

iyukcaij; ihdu&aka. 
concentrate, vt. Yuwitaya. 
conception, n. Waawacinpi; ihdu- 

concern, vt. Iyowaza ; ioicuwa ; 

en e'wacin. n. Woawaeii) ; ta'- 

ku; okodakiciye. 
concerning, prep. Eciyatanhan;-L 
concert, n. 1. Omniciye wicakido- 

waijpi. 2. O'kiciyapi. 
conciliate, vt. Okiciyuwaste. 
concise, a. Pte'cena ; katiijyai). 
conclave, n, Nanmaijomniciye. 


conclude, vt. Iyukoan ; yustan ; 

conclusion, n. Ihanke ; woynstan ; 

conclusive, a. Wayastan. 
concoct, vt. Ka'ga. 
concord, n. Okiciwastepi. 
concourse, n. O'yuwitaya. 
concubine, ». Tawicu wakanyu- 

concur, vi. 1. He'cetnda. 2. IaM- 

condemn, vt. Yaco; si'cayawapi. 
condense, vt Yuoikana. 
condescend, vi. Ihdahukuya. 
condition, n. Oun : to'ken un. 
conditional, a. Ta'ku ikoyake. 
condole, vt. CantekiciSica. 
condone, vt. En e'tonwe sni. 
^conduce, vi. Waokiya. 
con'duct, n. Oban ; kuwapi. 
conduct', vt. 1. Yus a'ya : conduct 

the boy home. 2. Awanyaka; 

kuwa : conduct the campaign. 

3. Ohanyan : he conducts him- 
self well. 
conductor, n. Tokahan ; itanoan. 
cone, n. Mibeya pe'sto. 
confection, n. Ta'ku sku'ya ioabi. 
confederacy, n. Wodakota. 
confer, vt. ?n. vi. Wohdaka. 
conference, n. Owohdake. 
confess, vt. Ohdaka. 
confide, vt. Awanyagkiya; wica- 

confidence, n. Wowacinye ; wowi- 

confident, a. Wioakeioida. 
confidential, a. Waoinyan; na- 

confine, vt. Aonataka. 
confirm, vt. Yusuta ; ynwicaka. 
confirmation, n. Wicayusutapi. 
confiscate, vt. Ei. 
conflagration, n. Oide. 
conflict', t*. KagiMciya. 
con'flict, n, Woakiniea ; wokicize. 
confluence, n. Mdo'te. 


conform, vi. Iyecenecoi). 
confound, vf. Wacinhnnniya; i'ci- 

hnuniya ; i'cicahiya. 
confront, vt. I'tkokipa. 
confuse, vt. Waeinhnuniya ; i'ci- 

confusion, n. To'ketu tai)ii) sni. 
confute, vt. Yuwicake sni. 
congeal, vt. Tasagya. vi. Tasaka. 
congenial, a. Wi'ciyokipi. 
congested, a. Ozudan ; otinza. 
conglomerate, a. I'cicahi. 
congratulate, vt. Ikiciyuskin. 
congregate, vi. Mni'ciya. 
congregation, n. Omniciye. 
Congregational, n. — Okodakiciye 

wakai) obe. — A'tayedan. 
congress, n. Tunkansina omni- 
conical, a. Mibepesto. • 

conjecture, vt. Ecin ; iyukcan. 
conjugal, a. Wakankiciyuzapi. 
conjugate, vt. Adetka oyaka. 
conjunction, n. Wokantake. 

(Gram.) Iyayuze. 
conjure, vt. Wapiya ; eya. 
connect, vt. I'cikoyake ; kicica. 
connectedly, adv. Yuzunya. 
connection, n. I'ciyahde ; kicica ; 

connive, vi. Iyowinyan ; o'kiya. 
connubial, a. Okiciyuze. 
conquer, vt. Ohiya ; kte'dan. 
conquest, n. Ohiyapi. 
conscience, n. Wi'ihdukcan. 
conscientious, a. Tawiihdukcan 

conscious, a. Eiksuye. 
conscript, n. Akicita opekiyapi. 
consecrate, vt. Yuwakai) ; ku. 
consecutive, a. I'ciyokiheya. 
consent, vi. Iyowinyan. 
consequence, n. 1. Ta'ku etanhan 

icage. 2. Wookinihai). 
consequential, a. Okinihai). 
consequently, adv. He'cen. 
conservative, a. Tawacii) ; naijhi. 
consider, vt. Awacii] ; ecir). 

38 contempt 

considerable, a. Ki'tanna o'ta. 
consideration, n. Woawacin ; wo- 

consign, vt. "Km ; yuhekiya. 
consist, vi. He'ca ; on ka'gapi. 
consistent, a. He'cetuwaijzica. 
consolation, n. Wokicanpte. 
console, vt. Kicaijpta. 
consolidate, vt. Yuokonwanzina. 
consonant, n. Oowa tansna sni. 

a. Kici okiciwaste. 
consort, vi. O'hanhde ; ihakta. 

n. Kicica. 
conspicuous, a. Okitanii). 
conspiracy, n. Nanman kuwapi. 
conspire, vt. Euwa. 
constable, n. "Waoyuspa. 
constancy, n. Wowacintanka. 
constant, a. O'hinni; pa'tawan* 

consternation, n. Woyusinyaye. 
constipated, a. Suksuta iheya. 
constituency, n. Tins'koya ta'wa- 

constitute, vt. Ka'ga. 
constitution, n. Wokagewowapi ; 

wokage; okage. 
constrain, vt. I'yopastake. 
construct, vt. Ka'ga. 
construction, n. Ka'gapi. 
construe, vt. To'ketu oyaka. 
consult, vt. Kici iwohdaka. 
consultation, n. Iwohdakapi. 
consume, vt. Ihangya ; yusota ; 

(by eating) temya; (by fire) 

consummate, vt. Ihunikiya. a. 

consumption, n. Ihangyapi ; cagu- 

sica woyazan. 
contact, n. Icantakapi. 
contagious, a. I'ciyanpeyapi. 
contain, vt. Ohnaka ; en un ; kipi ; 

contaminate, vt. Yusica. 
contemplate, vt. Awacin ; ka. 
contemporary, n. Iyehan ni. 
contempt, n. Wowantedasni. 


contemptible, a. Wahtefini. 
contend, vt. AMnica; kitan. 
content, a. Iyokipi. vt. Iyokipiya. 

n. Woiyokipi; woozi. 
contention, n. WoaMnica. 
contentions, a. Waakinicasa. 
contentment, w. Woozi. 
contest 7 , vt. Akinica. 
con'test, ft. Woakinica. 
context, ». Iapikicica. 
contiguous, a. Ieantaka. 
continent, ». Makotanka. 
continual, a. 7 hinni. 
continually, adv. 7 hinniyan. 
continuous, a. 7 hinni yeya. 
continue, vt. Saq'paya; kuwa. 
contortion, n. Taijoai) yunminpi. 
contract 7 , vt. Yupteoena ; natipa ; 

contract, a. Woyufctan. 
contraction, n. Ayucikapi. 
contractor, ft. Waecon. 
contradict, vt. He 7 cetusni eya; 

contrary, a. To'keca ; kaseya. 
contrast, vt. I'ciwaijyag e 7 hde. 

w. TVkecapi. 
contribute, vt. Womnaye en e- 

npeya; ku; Mcun. 
contribution, «. Womnaye. 
contrite, a. Icantesiea. 
contrive, vt Iyukcan ; kuwa. 
control, vt. Awanyaka. 
controversy, w. Woakinica. 
controvert, vt. Yuwicakedni kuwa. 
contumacy, ft. Wananonpidni. 
convalesce, vi. Akisni. 
convene, vt. Mni'ciya. 
convenience, w. Okiciwa&tepi. 
convenient, a. Un/piwa£te;tanyai). 
convent, n. dinasapawinyan tipi. 
convention, ». Omniciye. 
converge, vt. I'ciyahde ye. 
conversant, a. A'taya sdonya. 
conversation, n. Wohdahdakapi. 
converse, a. Eaicucuya. 
converse 7 , vi. Wohdaka ; iaa. 
Conversion, n. Ihduhomnipi. 



convert 7 , vt. Yuhomni. 
con'vert, n. Yutokecapi. 
convex, a. Pazo ; apaha. 
convey, vt. A'ya ; ai. 
conveyance, n. Oaye ; ku'pi. 
convict 7 , vt. Yaco ; kaSka. 
con 7 vict, n. Yacopi. 
convince, vt. Wicadakiya. 
convocation, ». Wicastawakan o- 

convoke, vt. Wicakico ; mni'ciya. 
convulse, vt. YuSkanskan. 
convulsion, «. Kan'natipapi. 
coo, vi. Zitkadowan. 
cook, vt. Ohan ; spanyan. vi. Wo- 

han ; waSpanyan ; dotihan. n. 

cooked, pa. Span. 
cooky, w. Aguyapi sku'yena. 
cool, a. Cusni ; sni ; mde'za. vt. 

Sniyan ; yusni ; canasni. 
coolly, adv. Onankesya. 
coon, «. Wica. 

coop, n. Ti'pidan. n. Maheniyeya. 
cooper, n. Eokapahmihma ka'ga. 
cooperate, vi. O'kiya. 
coot, ft. Cannpan. 
cope, vi. Kici econ. 
copious, a. Okamdaya ; o 7 ta. 
copper, n. Ma'zaSa. 
copulate, vt. Kiynha. 
copy, vt. Iyecen owa. 
copyright, ». Ta'wayapi. 
cord, ft. 1. Hakahmunpi ; hahon- 

ta ; wi 7 kan. 2. Can'iyutapi. 
cordial, a. CantewaSte. n. Pezuta 

core, ft. Cante ; co. 
cork, ft. 2aqzai)io6tan. 
cormorant, n. Hun/tka ; mdo'za. 
corn, ft. 1. Wamnaheza ; Y. wa- - 

kmaheza ; T. wagmeza ; wahu- 

wapa. 2. Siyukaza anoge. 
corner, n. 1. Oise : the street 

comer. 2. Okahmin : the corner 

of the room. vt. Kanminyata 

cornice, w. Ti'pitete. 




coronation, n. Te'sdagkiyapi. 
coroner, n. Wicate wi'yukcai). 
corporal, a. Wicataijcai). n. Wi- 

corps, n. Optaye. 
corpse, n. Wicafc. 
corpulent, a. Ce'pa ; taqcaqtaqka. 
corral, n. Caqkaskapi. 
correct, a. Owotaijna; he'cetu. 

vt. Yuowotaijna ; iyopeya. 
correction, n. Apiyapi; yuowo- 

correctly, adv. Taijyai) ; zun'ya. 
correspond, vi. 1. Kici iyececa; 

kicica : corresponds with the 

copy. 2. Wowapi kicicu : she 

corresponds with her mother. 
corroborate, vt. Yuwicaka. 
corrode, vt. Yukuka. 
corrupt, vt. Yusica. a. Si'ca ; 

hwii) ; owotai)nasni. 
corruptible, a. Yusicepica. 
corruption, n. Woyusice. 
corset, n. Cuwiiyuskite. 
cost, vt. Iyusote; iyopeya. n. Wo- 

iyopeye; wokazuzu. 
costive, a. Suksuta iheya. 
costly, a. Tehike. 
costume, n. Oihduze. 
cot, n. Owaijka cis'tiqna. 
coteau, n. He. 
cottage, n. Ti'pikuciyena. 
cotton, n. Hiij'ozupi ; minihuha. 
cottontail, n. Mastiqcana. 
cottonwood, n. Wa'gacai). 
couch, vi. Pustag iwaijka. n. 

owai)ka. vt. E'hnaka. 
cough, vi. Hoftpa. Cough up, kas- 

pa. n. Hohpapi. 
could, imp. of can. 
council, n. Omnioiye. 
counsel, vt. Eoiya ; eeoqsi ; ikici- 

yukcai). n. Wowahokoijkiye. 
count, vt. To'nakecayawa ; yawa. 

n. Woyawa ; wowicada ; itaij- 

countenance, n. Ite ; itohnake ; 

wookiye. vt. Iyowiijkiya. 

counter, n. Wa'hna wopetoijpi; 
tuweyawa. adv. &pref. Itkom ; 
ui)mai) eciyatai)hai) ; i'cipas. 

counteract, vt. Yuecetusniya. 

counterfeit, n. Wohnaye. vt. Wo- 
hnaye ka'ga. 

countermand, vt. Yutokeca. 

countess, n. Wii)'yai)itai)cai). 

countless, a. Yawapicasni. 

countrified, pa. Wozuwicasa seca. 

country, n. 1. Makoce : my coun- 
try. 2. Ikcemakooe ; wozutipi ; 
he lives in the country. 3. O- 
yate : the whole country rose in 

countryman, n. Wozuwicasa. 

county, n, Makobaspe. 

couple, a. Noij'pa; tawaijzi. vt. 
I'ciyakaska; i'cikoyake. 

coupler, n. Wi'koyake. 

coupon, n. Orjspaikoyake. 

courage, n. Wowaditake. 

courageous, a. Waditaka. 

courier, n. Waho&iye. 

course, n. 1. Woiyopte; to'ken 
ecoi) : his course was not wise. 
2. Tokiyotai) ya : the ship's 
course. 3. Owecii)haij ecoijpi : 
a course of lectures, vi. Ya ; 
iyopte; kuwa. 

court, vt. Okiya ; wiokiya ; akita. 
n. Wayacoomnioiye ; ho'coka; 

courteous, a. O&aijwa&te. 

courtesy, n. Wokinihan. 

courtier, n. Itai)cai) taokiye. 

courtly, a. Okinihaij. 

courtship, n. Okiyapi. 

courtyard, n. Ti'wasteok&ai). 

cousin, n. {A man's male cousin) 
Tahaqsi: (A man's female 
cousin) naqkasi; (A woman's 
male cousin) icesi ; (A woman's 
female cousin) ioepaqgi. 

cove, n. Okahmii). 

covenant, n. Wokoijze. 

cover, vt. Aka&pa ; ahdeyuza. n. 
Oakabpe; iha. 


covering,*. Oakanpe. 

coverlet,*. Owiqzaakanpe. 

covert, a. Nanmanpi. 

covet, vt. Eoi) ; as'in ; T. konla. 

covetous, a. Wakons'a. 

covetousuess, n. Wakonpi. 

covey, n. Zitka optaye. 

cow, n. Ptewiye; pte. vt. Ini- 

coward, n. Tu'we canwaijka. 
cowardly, a. Canwaijka. 
cowblrd, n. Pteanpaye ; T. wan- 

cowboy, n. Pteawanyake. 
cowhide, n. Pteha ; tahado. 
coworker, n. Kicica. 
coy, a. Wi'steca. 
coyote, n. Mi'ca; mi'caksica. 
cozy, a. Wayaoo ; tanyan. 
crab, n. Matuskatanka ; taspai). 
crabbed, a. Wacinko. 
crack, vt. As a nut, kanuga ; ka- 

kpi. As a plate, or a board, 

yusdeca. As ice, otin ; bu. As 

a joke, wawinaye. As a whip, 

po'pa. n. Oko ; onasdeca ; bu ; 

cracker, n. Aguyapisaka; cahdi 

crackle, vt. Nakpakpa. 
crackling, n. Wash) ogugu. 
cradle, n. I'yokopa. 
craft, n. 1. Woecon ; wowasi : of 

what craft are ye. 2. Wa'ta. 
crafty, a. Wlcahnaye ksa'pa. 
crag, n. In'yanmaya. 
cragged, craggy, a. Hene. 
cram, vt. Pao$inza ; akaska. 
cramp, n. Kan natipapi. vt. Na- 

timya; ao^insya. 
cranberry, n. Potpai)ka. 
crane, n. Pehan ; pehansan. 
crank, n. 1. Iyuhomni; ma'za- 

ksan. 2. Tawacin tokecas'a. 
cranky, a. Onanto'keca. 
crape, n. Apandate gangan. 
crash, vt. Kanunuga. n. Woihan- 

gye ; taint bu ; minihuhapepe. 

41 crimp 

crate, n. Canyankapiopiye. 

crater, n. fieide'ondoka. 

cravat, u. Tahuiyuskite. 

crave, vt. Ni'nacin ; icekiya. 

craw, n. Zitkatapo. 

crawfish, n. Matuska. 

crawl, vi. Sdohai) ; win'ta. 

crayon, n. Makasan wi'yowa. 

craze, vt. Yuhnaskinyan. n. Ihna- 

crazy, a. Waeinhnuni. 

creak, vi. Kin'za. 

cream, n. Asanpizi ; waste. 

creamery, n. Asanpi okage. 

crease, vt. Yuksiza. 

create, vt. Ka'ga; otokaheka'ga. 

creation, n. Otokaheka'gapi. 

creator**. Tu'we ka'&a. 

creature, n. Ka'gapi. 

credence, n. Wowicada. 

credentials, n. Ta'ku yuwioaka. 

credible, a. Wicadapica. 

credit, n. Oioazo ; wowicada ; wo- 
yuonihai). vt. Oicazoku; wica- 

creditable, a. Yawastepica ; wica- 

creditor, n. Tu'weicazo. 

credulous, a. Kohanna wicada. 

Cree, n. Mastinoa oyate. 

creek, n. Wakpana. 

creep, vi. Sdohai) ; win'ta. 

cremate, vt. fiuhnahya. 

Creole, n. Spaniyocinca. 

crest, n. Pesdete. 

crevice, n. Oko ; onasdeca. 

crew, n- Wowasi optaye. 

crib, n. Wamnaheza opiye ; wo- 
knake; i'yokopa; T. tioslola. 

cricket, n. Psi'psicana sa'pa. 

cried, imp. of cry. 

crier, n. E'yaqpaha. 

cries, 3d ps. of cry. 

crime, n. Woope kicaksapi; wo- 

criminal, a. Woope kicaksa. 

criminate, vt. Woope kicaksekiya. 

crimp, vt. Yuraniza. 


crimson, a. Sa ; we 6a. 
cringe, t». Napa; pustaka. 
cripple, vt. Kiuijniya. «. Tu'we 

crisis, ft. Oyuhomni. 
crisp, a. Waij'kadan. 
critic, ft. WakcanMyapi. 
critical, a. Wakcaqkcaijka ; to'- 

ketu tai)ii) sni. 
criticise, vt. Iiya : i'eniyeya. 
croak, vi. fido ; hotoi). 
crock, ». Makacega. 
crocodile, ft. Ahdeskataqka. 
crony, n. Tu'weohaqhdeya. 
crook, vt. Yuksaij. w. Oyuksaq. 
crooked, a. Ksai) ; hmin. 
crookedly, adv. Yuksaijksai). 
crop, «. "Wozupi ; ta'ku icage ; 

tapo. vt. Basmiij; iq'kpabaksa; 

kasda; icanya. vi. Kas'ii)- 

yan u. 
cross, n. Caqicipawege ; caqhda- 

kirjyai) ; i'cipawege. vt Hda- 

kinyan icagopi ; i'cipawega ; 

icaniya ; kagiya. a. 1. Waciij- 

ko ; oai)ksiksi : a cross woman. 

2. Ce'yesa : a cross baby. 3. 

Ocii)sica : a cross bull. adv. 

Hdakiijyai) : o'pta. 
cross-eyed, a. Istaksiij. 
cross-grained, a. Yuwi ; nmii). 
crossing, ft. O'pta ya'pi. 
crosswise, a. Hdakiijyai). 
crotch, n. Caqzate. 
crotchety, a. Ohaijtokeca. 
crouch, vi. Pustaka. 
croup, ft. Kinsya niyapi. 
crow, n. Uijcisicedan. vi, Hotoi) ; 

Crow, ft. Kaijgitoka. 
crowbar, n. Ma'zahoqpe. 
Crow Creek, n. (The Agency) 

Coq'kicakse. (The stream) Kai)- 

crowd, ft. Wicota ; o'ta. vt. Pao- 

tiijza; paotiijsiyeya. 
crown, w. "Watesdake. vt. Wate- 


42 cultivation 

crucifix, ft. Je'sus i'cipawega ka'- 

crucify, vt. I'cipawen okatai). 
crude, a. Ikce ; ka'gapi&ni. 
cruel, a, Waorjsidasni ; caqtewa- 

nica; wakiuijnis'a. 
cruelly, adv. Waonsidasniyai). 
cruelty, n. Wowaoijsidasni. 
cruise, ft. Wi'tawata omani. 
crumb, ft. Aguyapi osnasna. vt. 

crumble, vi. fipuwahe ; ptuhana. 

vt. Yuptuna. 
crumple, vt. Yuksiksiza. 
crupper, ft. Siqteiyutitan. 
crusade, ». Kuwapi ; wotakpe. 
crush, vt. Kaskica ; kasuza. 
crust, n. Ha ; haakamatasaka. 
crusty a. Ksizeca ; ke'za. 
crutch; ft. Caq'huyapi. 
cry, cries, vi. 1. Ce'ya : the baby 

cries. 2. Eyaniya; pan'niya; 

e'yaqpaha ; houya : he stood 

and cried, n. Woe eye ; ce'ya- 

pi^ hotorjpi; eyapi. Cry out, 

eya niyai). 
crying, a. Ce'yes'a ; wakitai) ; 

crystal, a. Kohdi; zaijzai). 
cub, ft. "Waciijca. 
cnbe, ft. I'akidecen omdotoi). 
cubit, ft. Wicispa oiyute. 
cucumber, n. Sa'kayutapi yuMM. 
cud, w. Woyata. Chew the cud, 

cuddle, vi. Adoksohai). 
cudgel, ft. Gai)ksa. 
cue, ft. Pe 'Mi] soi} pi ; sii)te. 
cuff, vt. Napemdaskaapa. ft. 1. 

Oape. 2. Napokaskeska. 
culinary, a. Onwohanpi. 
cull, vt, Kahninpahi. n. Oka- 

ptapi; siksica. 
culminate, vi. Iyotai)wai)kan i. 
culpable, a. Bapica. 
culprit, ft. Tu'wewantani. 
cultivate, vt. Kicaijyai] ; icanya. 
cultivation, n. Wakicanyaqpi. 




culture, n. Kicaijyaijpi. 

cultured, pa. Waonspeka. 

culvert, ». Ceyagtonpi. 

cumber, vt. Nagiyeya ; kagiya. 

cumbersome, a. Okicaqyesica. 

conning, a. 1. Wayupika : a cun- 
ning workman. 2. Wicastasni : 
a cunning fox. 3. Wastena : a 
cunning baby. 

cunningly, adv. Wayupiya. 

cup, n. Wi'yatke. vt. We icu. 

cupboard, n. Waksinopiye. 

cupidity, n. Wocantahde. 

cupola, n. fida'ndatipi. 

curable, a. Asniyepica. 

curative, a. Oi) asnipi. 

curb, vt. Kagiya ; anapta. n. In'- 
yai) cai)kunataka; i'iyuwitinza. 

curd, n. Asanpi suksuta. 

curdle, vi. Suksuta a'ya. 

cure, vt. 1. Asnlyai) : cure the sick. 
2. Pusya : cure hams. 

curiosity, n. Wasdonyewacinpi ; 

curious, a. Wasdonyewacii) ; wa- 
yupika ; wakai). 

curl, n. Owinge ; oyuha. vt. Yu- 
mnimniza; yunanaye. 

curly, a. Yunana. 

curlew, n. Pasuskopa. 

currant, n. Captaheza. 

currency, n. Iyaza ya ; ma'zaska. 

current, a. Hiyaya; un'pi; de. 
n. Kadus ya. 

curry, vt. Yustosto ; kakca. 

curry-comb, n. Wi'cakca. 

curse, vt. Yasica; Wakai)tai)ka 
cazeyan yasica. n. Woyasica. 

cursed, a. Yasicapi. 

cursory, a. Inanni. 

curt, a. Yaftnzapi. 

curtail* vt. Yuaokpaniya. 

curtain, n. O'zanpi. 

curvature, n. Womibe. 

curve, vt. Yuksan. n. Oyuksan ; 

curved, pa. Ksan ; mibe. 

cushion, n. Ipahii). 

custard, n. Wi'tkayuzapi. 

custom, n. 1. Woecon ; woope * 
an Indian custom. 2. Enkieiipi . 
draws custom. 3. Oyate woka- 

customary, a. Econpi ecee. 

customer, n. Enkiciis'a ; tu'we. 

cut, vt. Baksa ; bahoi). (By stri- 
king) Kaksa. (By cutting or 
sawing) Baksa. To cut down, 
kawanka. — To cut off (as grass), 
kasda. — To cut out (as clothes), 
bapta ; yupta. — To cut a gash, 
bahoi). — To cut loose, yusdoka. 
— Cut teeth, hi'uya. — Cut up (in 
pieces), baksaksa; (to play), 

n. 1. (a gash) Obahoi). 2. (a 
stroke) Oape. 3. (apiece) Oba- 
spe. 4. (a drawing) Iteowapi. 
5. (railway) Cai}ku okapi. 6. (a 
short cut) Canku. 
pa. Baksapi ; pasdutapi. 

cute, a. Wastena'; wacinksapa. 

cutlas, n. Mi wakai). 

cutlet, n. Obftkse. 

cutoff, n. A'kokam canku. 

cutter, n. Wi'casda ; canwiyu- 
sdohe ; wi'tawata. 

cutting, n. Obakse ; bahoi)pi. 

cutworm, n. Wamduskadan. 

cycle, n. Mibe ; aohomni. 

cyclone, n. Tatehomni. 

cyclopedia, n. Woonspe sintomni 

cylinder, n. Mibehanska. 

cymbal, n. Ma'za kasnapi. 

cynical, a. Wawiha. 

cypress, n. dantehanska. 

czar, n. A'taya itancan. 





dab, vt. Akastaka; apa. n. oape; 

dabble, vi. Mini en ska'ta ; aspa- 

dabbler, n. Askate. 
dad, daddy, n. Ate ; atkuku. 
daddy-long-legs, Unktomi hu han'- 

dagger, n. Isai) tan'ka; Y. & T. 

miwakan ; anogope. 
dally, a., adv. Anpetu iyohi; 

aijpetu iyohi ka'gapi. 
dainty, a. Wastena. n. Ta'ku 

dairy, n. Asanpiihdi ka'gapi. 
daisy, n. Wahca cuwizizi. 
Dakota, n. pr. Dakota. 
Dakota river, n. pr. Cansansan- 

dale, n. Makosmaka. 
dally, vi. Hun'kesni ecoi). 
dam, n. 1. Hunka wi'ye. 2. Ce- 

yaka. vt. ceyagtoi);mininataka. 
damage, trf. Yusica. n. Woyusice; 

dame, n. Win'yan itancai). 
damn, vt. Yasica; wakansicati 

ekta iyayeya. 
damnable, a. Yasinpica. 
damnation, n. Woyasice. 
damp, a. Tkin ; spa'ya ; frpan. 
dampen, vt. flpanye ; kagiya. 
damper, n. Woanapte. 
damsel, n. Wikoska. 
dance, v. Waci ; wacikiya. n. Wo- 

dancer, n. Waeisa. 
dandelion, n. Waneazi. 
dander, n. Pa'gangeca. 
dandle, vt Kihnahna ; kiskata. 
dandruff, n. Pa'gaijgeca. 
dandy, n. Tu'we wi' tan tan. 
danger, n. Wokokipe. In danger 

of, okokipeya; a'etopteya. 

dangerous, a. Okokipe. 

dangerously, adv. Okokipeya. 

dangle, vi. Otkehai) ; ikoyaka. 

dangles, n. pi. Oheihci. 

dapper, a. Wayuco. 

dapple, a. Hdeska. 

dare, vi. Tawatenya. vt. canwan- 

dare-devil, n. Wakansica. 
daring, a. Ta'ku kokipe sni. 
dark, a. &n. 1. O'kpaza ; o'tpaza. 

2. To'ketutaniq&ni : a dark 

problem. 3. da'pa ; si'ca : a 

dark villain. 4. Sa'peca ; stai) : 

dark skin. 
darken, vt. Aokpasya. 
darkly, adv. Aokpasya. 
darkness, n. O'kpaza. 
darling, n. & a. Tehinda. 
darn, vt. 1. Pasisakagege. 2. Ya- 
dart, vt. Kaho-iyeya. vi. Ni'na- 

iyaya. n. Wi'cape. 
dash, vt. Iyamehpeya ; kamdeca ; 

akastaqstai) ; ohanko yustan. 

vi. Ni'na iyaya. n. Wonatan ; 

woiyapa; wokantaka. 
dash-board, n. Cai)pahminman ite. 
dastard, a. Canwanka. 
date, n. Wiyawapi; watohantu. 

vt. Wiyawapi ka'ga; o'maka 

daub, vt. Akastaka ; apuspa. 
daughter, n. Cunwintku. My 

daughter, micuqksi ; cuns. 

Your daughter, nicunksi. 
daughter-in-law, n. Takos. Your 

daughter-in-law, nitakos. His 

daughter-in-law, takosku. 
daunt, vt. Natongya. 
dauntless, a. Natui)gyapica&ni. 
dawn, n. An/pao; oicage. vi. Jca- 

ge; u. 
day, n. Anpetu ; can ; Y. an 'pa. 


AU day, anpetu ihunni. — JU 
the days, aijpetu owasii). — By 
day, anpetu icunhan. — Day 
about, aijpetu itogto. — Day by 
day, anpetu iyohi. — To-day, 
day-break, n. An 'pa kamdeza. 
daylight, n. An'pao. 
day-time, n. Aij'pa ioui)hai). 
daze, vt. Wacinhnuniya. 
dazzle, vt. Istosnisya. vi. Isto- 

deacon, n. Ookiye. 
deaconess, w. Win/yai) ookiye. 
dead, a. 1. T* : ° ^^ waw - 2. 

Se'ca : a dead tree. 3. Ta : 

dead capital; dead faith. 4. 

A'taya ; wowicake : a dead 

calm; dead sleep, n. Wicata. 

adv. A'wicakehai). 
deaden, rt. fey*. 
deadfall, n. Onhmun/kapi. 
deadhead, n. Kazuzusni o'pa. 
deadly, a. Oijtekta ; oifta'pi ; kte- 

wacii). adv. T* se'ca ; kte kta. 
deadness, n. Ta ; eoeoe sni. 
deal, a. No'ge kpa ; kpa ; wana 

Ikon sni. 
dealea, vt. No'ge kpeya. 
deafness, n. Wonahon sni. 
deal, vt. & vi. £u ; pamni ; econ ; 

deal, n. 1. Oiyute : a great deal. 

2. Kicicupi : a land deal. 
dealer, n. Wopeton ; wapamni. 
dear, a. 1. Tehika ; o'ta iyawapi : 

a dear horse. 2. Tehinda. My 

dear father, ate tewahinda. 

int. Ecahe. 
dearly, adv. Tehiya ; ni'na. 
dearth, n. WicaaMhan ; ta'ku 

owasii) tehike ; waniea. 
death, n. Wiconje. To be the 

death of, fcya. — lb put to 

death, kte; yu$a. — To bite to 

death, yafc. — To tramp to death, 

deathly, a. Ta se ; oasica. 

45 declaration 

debar, if. Okihisniya. 

debark, vi. den inazin. 

debase, v*. Yuhukuya. 

debatable, a. Akininpica. 

debate, v. IaaMnica ; akiniea. n. 

debater, n. IaaMnica. 

debauch, vt. Yusica. n. Ohan 

debauchery, n. Witkopi. 

debility, n. Wowasake sni. 

debt, n. Oicazo. 

debtor, n. Icazo. 

decade, n. Waniyetu wikcemna. 

decalogue, n. Woahope wikcemna. 

decamp, vi. Tokan e'ti. 

decapitate, vt. Pabaksa. 

decay, vi. Kukaaya: tanniaya ; 
ecetusniaya. n. Woecetusni. 

decease, n. Nagiiyaya ; \&. 

deceit, n. Wohnaye. 

deceitful, a. Wicahnayesa; wo- 

deceitfully, a. Hna'yan. 

deceitfulness, n. Wohnaye. 

deceivable, a. Hna'yepica. 

deceive, vt. Hna'yan. 

deceiver, n. Wicahnayesa. 

December, n. Wi'iakenonpa. 

decency, n. Woecetu ; woiyokipi 

decent, a. Ecetu; taqyan. 

decently, adv. Taqyan. 

deception, n. Wohnaye. 

decide, vt. To'ketuyustan. 

decided, a. Yustanpi ; suta. 

decidedly, adv. A'wicakeya. 

decimal, a. & n. Wikcemnamna 

decimate, vt. Iyokise ihangya. 

decipher, vt. Yawa. 

decision, n. 1. Woyustan; woyaco; 
2. Tawacin suta. 

decisive, a. Wayustan. 

deck, vt. Eoyagya ; saya. 

deck, ». Owinza ; kansu opahte. 

declaim, vi. Wohdaka ; iaa. 

declamation, n. Woowohdake. 

declaration, n. Yaotaninpi. 


declaratory, a. Yaotanin. 
declare, vt. Yaotarjin ; eya. 
declension, n. Yuhukuyapi ; 

(Gram.) iokawinh aya. 
decline, vi. Kun ya ; wicada sni. 

w. Kun ya. 
declivity, n. A'pamahde. 
decompose, vt. & vi. Yukuka; 

decorate, vt. Yuwaste ; saya. 
decorous, a. Iyecetu. 
decoy, n. Hna'yan icuj hmun'ka. 

n. wi'hmunke. 
decrease, vi. To'nana a'ya ; a'ok- 

pani a'ya. vt. A'okpaniya. 
decree, v. Kon'za ; woope ka'ga. 
decrepit, a. Kan ; osteka. 
decry, vt. Yasica; yasihtin. 
dedicate, vt. Ku; yuwakai). 
deduce, vt. Icu; iyukcai). 
deduct, vt. Icu; yutokai). 
deed, n. 1. Woecon. ; wicohan ; 

ta'ku ecoijpi. 2. Makocewo- 

wapi suta. vt. l£u; makoce- 

wowapi ku. 
deem, vt. Yawa ; ecin. 
deepi a. Mahentu; (Ofioater) sbe; 

ni'na. n. Wosbe; miniwanca. 
deepen, vt. Yumahentuya. 
deeply, adv. Mahentuya. 
deer, n. Ta'hinca ; ta'hca. 
deerskin, n. Taha. 
deface, vt. Yusica ; pazuzu. 
defalcate, vt. Onge manor). 
defame, vt. Yasica. 
default, v. & n. Ecoijsni. 
defeat, vt. Kte'na ; ohiya. n. Kte'- 

defect, n. Onspa iyecetu sni. 
defective, a. On spa si'ca. 
defence, n. "Wowinape ; anaici- 

defend, vt. Nakicizin. 
defender, n. WaanaMksin. 
defenseless, a. Woawanyake co'- 

defensible, a. Awanyakapiwaste. 
defensive, a. Naiciziij. 

46 delicacy 

defer, vt. Kihnaka. vi. Akdpe ; 

deference, n. Ahopapi. 
defiance, n. Wokipazii) ; wonahoi) 

deficiency, n. Iyohi sni. 
deficient, a. A'okpani ; iyohi sni. 
defile, vt. Yusapa ; yusica. n. 

Canku ocistiyedai). 
define, vt. To'ketu oyaka. 
definite, a. Taijyanoyakapi ; yu- 

taninpi hca. 
definitely, adv. Tanjnyan hca. 
definition, n. To'ken ka'pi oya- 

deform, vt. Yusica. 
deformed, pa. Osteka. 
defraud, vt. Ki ; hna'yan. 
defray, vt. Kazuzu. 
deft, a. Wayupika. 
defunct, a. Ta ; owihanke. 
defy, vt. Kipazii) ; ohoda sni. 
degenerate, vi. Si'ca a'ya. a. Si- 

degradation, n. Wotakuni sni. 
degrade, vt. Yuhukuya. 
degraded, pa. Kun'tuh un'pi. 
degree, n. 1. Ca'hde ; oiyute. 2. 

Wacazeyatapi : the degree of 

A. B. 
dehorn, vt. He kawanica. 
deify, vt. Yuwakai). 
deign, vi. En ahiwacin. 
deist, n. Wowapi Wakarj ohna sni 

Wakantai)ka awacirj. 
deity, n. Wowakai). 
deject, vt. Cantesinya. 
dejected, pa. Can te sic a. 
dejection, n. Carjtesicapi. 
delay, vt. Yutehan ; kagiya. 
delegate, n. Yesipi. vt. Yesi ; ecoi) 

kta wowas'ake ku. 
delegation, n. Yesipioptaye. 
deliberate, v. Awacin. a. Awacii) 

econ ; hanhi. 
deliberately, adv. Awacin y an. 
delicacy, n. Ta'ku wastena ; wo- 



delicate, a. Wastena ; wasazeca ; 

suta 8ni. 
delicately, adv. Iwastena ; wasas- 

yena ; iyokipiya. 
delicious, a. Wastehca. 
deliriously, adv. Oiyokipiya. 
delight, n. Wowiyuskin. v. Iyus- 

Mi) ; iyokipiya. 
delightful, a. OiyoMpi. 
delineate, vt. Icazo ; pazo. 
delinquency, n. Woyusna. 
delinquent, a. & n. Econsni. 
delirious, a. Waciijhnuni. 
deliver, vt. 1. E'hdaku : deliver 

from death. 2. Ku : deliver the 

letter. 3. Oyaka : deliver the 

deliverance, n. Waehdakupi ; oie. 
deliverer, n. Waehdaku. 
dell, n. O'smaka. 
delude, vt. Nu'niya. 
deluge, n. Minitai). v. Amnitai)ya. 
delusion, n. Wohnaye. 
delve, v. Kahdoka ; oka. 
demagogue, n. Oyate hna'yan. 
demand, vt. Da; kitai) da. n. 

Da'pi ; cin'pi ; wi'waijgapi. 
demean, vt. Ohanyai). 
demented* a. Wacinhnuni. 
demi't pref. Hai)ke. 
demise, n. Ta. 

Democrat, n. pr. Itokanwicasta. 
demolish, vt. Yuzuzu. 
demon, n. Wakansica. 
demonstrable, a. Yuwicakepica. 
demonstrate, vt. Yuwicaka. 
demoralize, vt. Yusihtiij. 
demur, vi. Kagiya ia. 
demure, a. Onai) sta'ka. 
den, n. Ti'pidai) ; wamaniti. 
denial, n. Wicakesnieyapi ; wica- 

denominate, vt. Cazeyata. 
denomination, n. Caze ; ocaze. 
denominator, n. Kiyuspapi oyaka. 
denote, vt. Yaotanin ; ka. 
denounce, vt. I en iyeya; yaotai) in . 
dense, a. Pp oU icapi ; so'ka. 

47 . descent 

dent, vt. Paosmaka. 

dentist, n. Hi piya. 

denude, vt. Tancodaya ; kakmi. 

denunciation, n. Yasicapi. 

deny (denied), vt. Wicakesni eya ; 

he'cetusni eya ; ku wicadasni ; 

deodorize, vt. Sicamna asniya. 
depart, vi. Iyaya ; tokanya. 
department, n. Ospaye. 
departure, n. Tokaijya'pi. 
depend, vi. Ikoyaka ; wacinyan. 
dependence, n. I'cikoyagunpi ; wo- 

depict, vt. Owa ; yutanin. 
deplete, vt. Yusota. 
deplorable, a. Oiyokisica. 
deplore, vt. Icantesica. 
deponent, n. Wayatanin. 
depopulate, vt. Wicayusota. 
deportment, n. Oliai). 
depose, v*. Ayustankiya. vi. Ya- 

deposit, vt. E'hnaka ; kihnaka. n. 

Wakihnakapi; oiheye. 
depot, ft. Hemanionazir) ; owo- 

deprave, vi. Yusica. 
depravity, n. Yusicapi. 
deprecate, vt. Iyokipi sni. 
depreciate, vt. Kun yawa. vi. Kim 

depress, vt. Kun iyeya. 
depressed, pa. Iyokisica ; yuhw- 

deprivation, n. Wahpaniyapi. 
deprive, vt. Ki. 

depth, n. Sbe ; wosbe ; omahentu. 
derange, vt. Yuskiska. 
deride, vt. Ihana. 
derision, n. Wowiha. 
derivation, n. Etanhan icupi. 
derive, vt. Etanhan icu. 
descend, v. Kun ya ; kun iyahe ; 

descendant, n. Etanhan icage. 
descent, n. Kun ye ; wonatan ; 



describe, vt. Oyaka ; owa. 
description, n. Woyake. 
descriptive, a. Wawoyake ; ioka- 

winh oyaka. 
descry, vt. Tonweya. 
desecrate, vt Yuikceka. 
desert 7 vt. Ehpeya ; nazica. 
desert, n. Makoce waicagesni. 

a. Waica&esni. 
desert 7 , ». Ta'ku kuwa. 
deserter, n. Tu'we nazica. 
desertion, n. Ehpeyapi ; nazica. 
deserve, vt Eamna: ku iyececa. 
design, vt. Iwanyaka; awacin. 

n. Woawacin ; wowiyukcan. 
designate, vt. Ka ; kahniga. 
designer, n. Wi 7 yukcai). 
desirable, a. Cinpica ; waste. 
desire, vt. Cin ; cantokpani. n. 

Ta 7 ku cin/pi. 
desirous, a. Awacin ; cin. 
desist, vi. Ayustai) ; enakiye. 
desk, n. Ahna wowapi ka 7 ga. 
desolate, a. Makoskantu j otiwota. 

vt Ihaijgya. 
despair, vi. Waciijyesni ; ecinsni. 

n. Wacinyeyapisni. 
desperado, n. Tu 7 we wohitika. 
desperate, a. 1. Wohitika : a des- 
perate man. 2. Mde'ze sni ; 

desperately, adv. Wohitiya. 
despicable, a. Wahtesni. 
despise, vt. Wahtedasni. 
despite, n. Wowahtedasni. prep. 

Ke'yas; he'casta. 
despiteful, a. Ocinsica. 
despitefully, adv. Sicaya. 
despoil, vt. Ki ; wahpaniya. 
despond, vi. Wacinibosake. 
despot, n. Itancansuta. 
despotic, a. Suta ; tehika. 
dessert, n. Sku'yawotapi. 
destination, n. Oahuni. 
destine, vt. Kahniga ; yustan. 
destiny, n. Ta'ku ki 7 ciyai)ka. 
destitute, a. Wahpanica : ni 7 ca. 
destitution, n. Wowahpanica. 

48 devoid 

destroy, vt. Yutakunisni. 
destroyer, n. Wayutakunisni. 
destructible, a. Ihangyepica. 
destruction, n. Woyutakunisni ; 

destructive, a. Wayu&oa. 
desultory, a. Katinyansni. 
detach, vt. Yuspa ; yukca. 
detached, pa. I'cikoyakesni. 
detachment, n. Ospaye. 
detail, vt. 1. Kpanyena oyaka. 2. 

Kiynspa. n. Ospaye ; woyake. 
detain, vt. Eagiya ; i'yaninya. 
detect, vt. Yuasdaya. 
detection, n. Yuasdayapi. 
detective, n. Wayuasdaya. 
detention, n. Fyanicapi. 
deter, vt. Anapta ; hamya. 
deteriorate, vi. Si 7 ca a'ya. vt. Yu- 

sihtin. . 
determinable, a. Sdonyepica. 
determination, n. Wacinyuza ; ta- 

wacii) ; iyaye. 
determine, vt. Kon'za ; yuMan ; 

yaco ; T. yasu. 
detest, vt. Wahtedasni. 
detestable, a. Wahtesni. 
detestation, n. Wowahtedasni. 
dethrone, vt. fieyataiyeya. 
detract, vt. Ki ; onspaicu. 
detriment, n. Woyusica. 
detrimental, a. Wayusica. 
deuce, n. Non 7 pa. 
Deuteronomy, n. Woope FtaHhna. 
devastate, vt. Ihangya. 
develop, vt. Yutanin ; icahya. vi. 

development, n. Yutaninpi ; ioah- 

deviate, vi. Icunom ya. 
device, n. Wowiyukcan. 
Devil, n. WakanSica. 
devilish, a. Wakansica se. 
Devil's Lake, n. Miniwakan. 
deviltry, n. Wonagiyeya. 
devious, n. flmin. 
devise, vt. Iyukcan. 
devoid, a. Wanica. 


devolve, t?t. Hinnpaya. 
devote* vi. $u ; itunan. 
devoted, pa. E'oedaqkuwa. 
devotion, ft. Woawacii) ; woohoda ; 

devotional, a. Waohoda; wace- 

devour, vt. Napcaiyeya ; temya ; 

devout, a. Waawacii). 
devoutly, adv. Yuonihaijyai). 
dew, ». Cu. 
dew-drop, n. Cumnise. 
dewy, a. Cumni ; eustaka. 
dexterity, ». Wowayupika. 
dexterous, a. Wayupika. 
diabolic, a. Ni'nasica. 
diadem, ». Tesdake. 
diag onal, a. O'nya. 
diagram, ft. Oioago. 
dialect, a. Iapi ocaze. 
dialogue, ft. AMciyupteeyapi. 
diameter, ft. Oiynte ohdakiijyan. 
diamond, ft. In'yan tenika. 
diaper, ft. Hokinyopa adeza; ni- 

diarrhea, it. Kazopi. 
diary, ft. Anpetuwowapi. 
dice, ft. Huhu kansukutepi. 
dicker, vi. Wopeton. 
dictate, vt. Eya ; owawicasi ; econ- 

wicaai. ft. Ta'ku eya. 
dictation, ft. Econ&ipi. 
dictator, ft. Itancan. 
diction, ft. Woeye. 
dictionary, ft. Iapi wowapi ; ieaka 

did, imp. of do. 
didactic, a. Wahokonkiya. 
didst, 2nd p. 8. imp. of do. 
die (died), vi. T a ; nagiiyaye ; owi- 

diet, ft. Woyute; omniciye. vt. 

Ci'stiijna won'kiya. 
differ, vi. To'keca : togye awacin. 
difference, ft. Wotokeca; toghdapi. 

It makes no difference, etaijhai) 


49 dip 

different, a. To'keca. 
differently, adv. Togye. 
difficult, a. Tenike. 
difficulty, ft. Wotenika ; woaki- 

diffidence, ft. Wi'steoapi. 
diffident, a. Wi'steca. 
diffuse, vt. Iyayeya; yeya. vu 

diffuse, a. Tin'zeani. 
dig, vt. ga; ofca; pandoka. 
digest, vt. Ecetuya. 
digger, ft. Okesa. 
dignified, pa. Wowimnaka. 
dignify, vt. Yuonihan. 
dignity, ft. Wokinihan. 
digress, vi. Icui)om ya. 
dike, ft. Mini makaokaake. 
dilapidated, pa. Zuzuwahe. 
dilate, vt. Yutanka. vi. Tan'- 

dilatory, a. Hanhi. 
dilemma, n. To'ketu taniq sni. 
diligence, ft. Womdiheca. 
diligent, a. Mdiheca. T. Bliheca. 
dilute, vt. Miniicahi: sutasnika'ga. 
dim, a. Aokpaza ; ki'tanna tanin. 
dim, vt. Aogiya. 
dime, n. Kaspapi. 
dimension, n. Oiyute. 
diminish, vt. Yucistinna. vi. Ci'- 

stii)na a'ya. 
dimly, adv. Atanin&niyan. 
dimple, ft. Uka osmaka. 
din, ft. Oko ; bu. 
dine, vi. Wota ; wicokayawota. 

*t. "Won'kiva. 
ding, vt. Apapa ; kabubu. 
dingy, a. Stan'ka ; 6apa. 
dining, w. Wotapi ; owote. 
dinner, ». Wicokayawotapi. 
dint, ft. O'smaka. 
diocese, n. Woawanyake. 
dip, vt. 1. Oputkan ; iyeya : dip 

the pen in the ink. 2. Kapta ; 

icu : dip up some neater, vi. 1. 

Ondpa o'peiciya. Dip into poli- 
tics. 2. Nake hai). 

diphtheria 50 

diphtheria, n. Doteaogi. 
diphthong, n. Oowaiciyakaskapi. 
diploma, n. Waayatanin wowapi. 
diplomacy,?}. Woitancan wicohan; 

dipper, n. Iyokapte. 
dire, a. Otehika. 
direct, vt. Yeya; yesi; econsi; 

ecoi)kiya ; ozuha owa. 
direct, a. Katinyan ; owotanna. 
direction, n. Tokiyotan ; woawan- 

yake ; tokiyotaijoyakapi. 
directly, adv. Katinyan; a'tayena; 

director, n. Waeconwicakiya. 
directory, n. Wicacazewowapi ; 

direful, a. Oiyokisica. 
dirge, n. Woceye ho. 
dirk, n. Isananogope. 
dirt, n. Maka. 

dirty, a. Sa'pa. vt. Yusapa. 
dis-, prefix. Sni; wowanica. 
disable, vt. Okihisniya. 
disadvantage, n. Tanyansni. 
disaffect, vt. Iyokipisniya. 
disagree, vi. O'konwanzinasni ; 

disagreeable, a. Owastesni ; oiyo- 
disagreement, n. To'kecapi. 
disallow, vt. Wicadasni. 
disappear, vi. Taninsni. 
disappoint, vt. Cantesinya; can- 

disapprove, vt. Iyokipisni. 
disarm, vt. Wi'pe ki. 
disarrange, vt. Yuzuzu. 
disaster, n. Woakipa tehika. 
disastrous, a. Sicaya ; tehika. 
disavow, vt. He'cetusni eya. 
disband, vt. Yuzuzu. vi. Enakiye. 
disbelieve, vt. Wicadasni. 
disburse, vt. Wicaku ; pamni. 
discard, vt, Ehpeya. 
discern, vt. Iyukcan ; wanyaka. 
discernible, a. Wanyagpica. 
discernment, n. Wowiyukean. 


discharge, vt. 1. Ayustankiya : 
discharge a soldier. 2. Kiyuska : 
discJuit ge a prisoner. 3. Bosdo- 
ka : discharge a gun. 4. Ehpeya; 
kazo ; hiyuya : discharge water. 
5. Kazuzu : discharge a debt. 

discharge, n. Kiyuskapi ; iheya. 

disciple, n. Waonspekiya. vt. On- 

discipline, vt. Kaonspe. n. Wo- 
kaonspe ; iyopeyapi. 

disclaim, vt. Ta'wasni keya. 

disclose, vt. Yuzamni. 

discolor, vt. Yutokeca. 

discomfit, vt. Iyokisinya ; napeya. 

discomfort, n. Woiyokipisni. 

discommode, vt. Nagiyeya. 

discompose, vt. Inihanya. 

disconcert, vt. Wacinhnuniya. 

disconnect, vi. Yusdoka. 

disconsolate, a. Iyokisica. 

discontent, n. Woiyokipisni. 

discontented, pa. Cantesica. 

discontinue, vt. Ayustan. 

discord, n. Woakinica ; ho yasni* 

discount, vt. Ihukunyawa. 

discountenance, vt. Iyowinyesni. 

discourage, vt. Wacinibosagya. 

discouraged, pa. Wacinibosake. 

discouragement, n. Woiyokisice. 

discourse, vi. la; wohdaka. a 
n. Woowohdake. 

discourteous, a. &inyaonanyan. 

discover, vt. Iyeya ; yutanin. 

discovery, n. Tokaiyeyapi. 

discredit, vt. Wicadasni. 

discreet, a. Ksapa ; wayupika. 

discreetly, adv. Ksamyahan. 

discrepancy, n. To'kecapi. 

discretion, n. Wowiyukcan. 

discriminate, vt. Iwanyaka. 

discuss, vt. Iwohdaka. • 

disdain, vt. Wahtedasni. 

disease, n. Wowayazan. 

disembark, vi. fien'inazin. 

disengaged, pa. IkoyakesnL 

disentangle, vt. Kiyuska. 


disfigure, vt. Yusica. 

disgorge, v. Hiyuya. 

disgrace, vt. Istenya. n. Wowi- 

disgraceful, a. On istecapi. 
disguise, vt. Ihdutokeca. 
disgust, vi. Wantedasni ; hitida. 
dish, n. Waksica. vt. Waksica 

ohnaka; kaskokpa. 
dishearten, vt. Canteokiouqniya. 
disheveled, pa. Yunaha. 
dishonest, a. Owotannasni. 
dishonor, vt. Yuonihaqgni ; isten- 
dishonorable, a. Kinihanpicasni. 
disinclined, pa. Cin/sni. 
disinterested, a. Iyowazasni. 
disjoin, vt. Yukinunkan. 
disjoint, vt O'kiheyuksa. 
disk, n. Ma'zamdaskamibe. 
dislike, vt. Sicedaka. 
dislocate, vt. Papsun. 
dislodge, vt. Iyayeya. 
disloyal, a. Wakinihansni. 
dismal, a. Oasica. 
dismay, vt. Yusinyeya. 
dismiss, vt. Ayustaijkiya. 
dismount, vi. Kun'iyahai). vt. Kun 

disobedience, n. Wowanaftonsni. 
disobedient, a. Wanahonsni. 
disobey, vt. Anagoptansni. 
disobliging, pa. Waokiyesni. 
disorder, n. Woskiske. 
disorganize, vt. Yuzuzu. 
disown, vt. Ta'wayesni. 
disparage, vt. Yasihtii). 
dispatch. See despatch. 
dispel, vt. Kahamiyeya. 
dispensable, a. 1. Co'danunpica. 

2. Wicakupica. 
dispense, vt. Wicaku ; pamni ; 

disperse, vt. Iyayeya ; yuomdeca. 

vi. Iyaya. 
dispirited, pa. Wacirjyeyesni. 
displace, vt. Eciijsm e'hnaka ; yu- 


51 distillery 

display, vt. Yutanii); pazo. n. Wa- 

pazopi; wowitan. 
displease, vt. Iyokipisniya; can- 

displeasure, n. Wocanze. 
disposal, n. Wokuwa ; tawacin. 
dispose, vt. E'hnaka ; wicaku ; 

disposed,^. Wacinyuza. 
disposition, n. Tawacin ; woku- 
dispossess, vt. Ki. 
disprove, vt. Yuwicakesni. 
disputable, a. Akininpica. 
dispute, v. AMnica ; i'eniyeya. 

n. Woakinica. 
disqualify, vt. Okihisniya. 
disregard, vt. Enewacinsni. 
disreputable, a. Caze si'ca. 
disrespectful, a. Waohodasni. 
dissatisfy, vt. Iyokipisniya. 
dissect, vt. Pa'ta ; baspa. 
disseminate, vt. Oyaka. 
dissent, vi. Togyeawacin ; wica- 

dissenter, n. Obetokeca. 
dissertation, n. Woyake. 
dissever, vt. Kiyuspa. 
dissipate, vt. Iyayeya ; yutaku- 

nisni. vi. Witkoyaui). 
dissipation, n. Wayutakunisni ; 

dissolve, vt. Skanyai) ; sdoya ; 

ihankeya. vi. Skai).; sdo ; 

dissuade, vt. Iyokisni. 
distance, n. I'citehan ; oiyute. A 

long distance. f tehan. A short 

distance, askadan. vt. Tehan 

distant, a. Te'hantu; i'citehan. 
distaste, a. Wowahtedasni ; cii)'- 

distasteful, a. Iyokipisni. 
distemper, n. Po'gehdihdi. 
distend, vt. Yutanka. 
distil, vt. Minipoasbuya. 
distillery, n. Miniwakaijokage. 


distinct, a. Tanin ; i'citanin ; to'- 

distinction, n. Wotokeca; wowa- 

petokeca ; itokeca ; wokitarjin. 
distinctly, adv. Taninyai). 
distinguish, vt. Kahniga ; iyeMya ; 

okitanii) ka'ga. 
distinguishable, a. Oiyekiyawaste. 
distinguished, pa. Okitanii). 
distort, trf. Yuhmin. 
distract, vt. Waciqhnuniya. 
distress, vt. Iyokisinya ; kakisya. 
distress, n. Wokakize. 
distribute, trf. Pamni; iyayeya. 
district, n. Makoceoiyute. 
distrust, vt. Wicadasni. n. Wace- 

dlstrustfuC a. Wacetunhda. 
disturb, vt. Nagiyeya ; yusMska. 
disturbance, n. Owodutaton. 
disunion, n. Wobdeoa. 
disuse, n. Un/pisni. 
ditch, n. Mirricankukapi ; makao- 

ditto, n. Ake iyececa. 
ditty, n. Odowanci'stinna. 
dive, vi. Kihnnka ; en ya. 
diverge, vi. A'kizanya. 
divers, a. O'ta. 
diverse, a. Toktokeca. 
diversify, vt. Yutokeca. 
diversion, n. Woskate. 
divert, vt. Tokan a'ya; magagaya. 
divest, vt. Yusdoka ; ki. 
divide, vt. Kiyuspa ; yukinukan ; 

pamni. vi. Kinukanya. n. Ma- 

koce mdoya. T. Blowanzi. 
dividend, n. Kiyuspapi. 
divine, vt. Wi'yukcan ; ayata. a. 

Wakan. n. Wicastawakan. 
divinely, adv. Wakanyai). 
diving, pa. Kihnukapi. 
divisible, a. Kiyuspepica. 
division, n. Kiyuspapi ; ospe. 
divisor, n. On kiyuspapi. 
divorce, n. WakanMciyuzapi yu- 

zuzupi ; kiyuspa ; enpeya. 
divulge, vt. Yataijin. 

52 domesticate 

dizzy, a. Itomnl. 

do (does, did, doue), v. 1. Econ. 
Do your work well, wowasi ni- 
tawa tanyan econ. 2. Yustan : 
he is done plowing. 3. Iyecetu : 
that will do. 4. Un : how do 
you do. 

Do away with, ihankeya. — 
Do for, ecakicicon ; iyecetu. — 
Do his "best, to 'ken okihi econ. 
— Do over, akta econ. — Do up, 
pahta ; ihankeya. — Do to, eca- 

do, aux. v. (OMyapi iapi heca). 
Do we got We do go, unyanpi 
he ; unyaijpi. — Do you see t I 
do, wandaka he ; waijmdake. 

docile, a. Wa'hbana. 

dock, n. Wataoahuni. vt. Onspa 

docket, n. Woecoi) owapi. 

doctor, n. Pezutawicasta ; ksapo- 
tancan. vt. Pezuta on kuwa; 

doctrine, n. Wowicada ; woonspe. 

document, n. Wayaatanin. wowapi. 

dodge, vt. Napa ; tokanya. 

doe, n. Ta'hcawiye. 

doer, n. Waecon. 

does, 3rd per. s. of do. 

doff, vt. Yusdoka. 

dog, n. Sun'ka. vt. Sun'ka ku- 

dog-days, n. Mdokecokaya. 

dogged, a. Ocinsica. 

dogma, n. Woonspesuta. 

dole, vt. Ci'stinnaku. 

doleful, a. Oiyokis'ica. 

doll, n. Hoksinkagapi. 

dollar, n. Ma'zaska ; kaspapi wi- 

dolorous, a. Oiyokisica. 

domain, n. Makoce ; woawanyake. 

dome, n. Tiinkpamibe. 

domestic, a. Tihdepi ; tiyata ; tia- 
wanyaka. Domestic animals, 
wanuyanpi. n. Tiwahe ookiye. 

domesticate, vt. Yuwahbadan. 




donricll, n. Ti'pi. 

dominant, a. Iyotan ; itaqcan. 

dominion, n. Wokicorjze. 

don, vt. Kicui). 

donate, vt. Ku ; ituhai). 

done,£p. of do. Yustanpi; Spai). 

donkey, n. doqsoqnanca. 

donor, n. Wainpeye ; ku. 

doom, n. Woyaco. «;*. Yaco; yasu. 

doomsday, n. Woyaco arjpetu. 

door, n. Tiyopa. Y. Tiyepa. /n 

door 8, timahen. — Out doors, 

door-way, n. Tiyopa ohdoka. 
dooryard, n. Tiyopa o&tan. 
dope, *. Ta'ku coco. 
dormant, a. Istiqmaseca. 
dormitory, n. Oistiijmatipi. 
dose, it. Oyatkewaqzi. vt. Yatke- 

kiya; ku. 
dot, n. Samyapi. vt. Samya. 
dotage, n. Kan'pi. 
dotted, pa. Samyapi. 
double, a. Non'pa ; non'paakihde ; 

double, vt. Akihdekaga; yukipaza. 
doubly, adv. Akihde. 
doubt, vt. Ce$ui)hda. vi. Wace- 

tui)hda. n. Ce^uijhdapi ; to'ke- 

doubtful, a. To'ketutaijujsni. 
doubtless, adv. Cetunhdapicasni ; 

ciij'to ; a'wicakehai). 
dough, n. Aguyapi do. 
doughnut, n. Aguyapiwihdienspai)- 

dove, n. Tin'wakiyena. 
dower, n. Wiwazica tawa. 
down, adv. Kun; ku'ya : fall 

down. vt. Kun enpeya. Down 

the river, o'kan ; Ih. hu'tam. 
down, n. Wahinyazica ; tiij'ta- 

downcast, a. Pamahenun ; caij- 

downfall, n. Hinnpaya ; hinhe. 
down-hill, a. A'pamahde ; Y. 


downright, adv. A'wicakehai]. 

downward, adv. Kun'kiya. 

downy, a. 2izi ; panpanna. 

doxology, n. Woyatan oehde. 

doze, vi. Istinma. 

dozen, a. Akenonpa. 

drab, a. fio'taka. 

draft, vt. Owa ; o'pekiya. 

draft, n. 1. Woyutitan ; yutitanpi : 
a cart of easy draft. 2. On'ma- 
zaskaicupi : a draft on Xcw 
York. 3. Okaduze ; boide : sit- 
ting in the draft. 4. Woyatke : 
a draft of milk. 5. Oicu : a 
draft of fishes. 6. Owapi ; tihu- 

drag, vt. 1. Yusdohai) : drag a 
stone. 2. Ayuhinhe : drag the 
field, n. Maniyuhinhe ; wosdo- 
he ; wokase. 

draggle, vt. Maka asdohai). 

dragon, n. Wamduska. 

dragoon, n. dungakanakicita. 

drain, vt. Yuskepa ; yusota. n. 
Wiyuskepa ; minitacanku. 

drake, n. Magaksicamdoka. 

dram, ». Miniwakanoyatke ; otke- 

drama, n. Skan'owohdake. 

drank, imp. of drink. 

drape, vt. Minihuha oi) akahpa. 

draught Same as draft. 

draw, drew, drawn, vt. 1. Yusdo- 
hai) : draw tlie log. 2. Iyutanye ; 
yutitai) : his speaking drew great 
crowds. 3. Yusduta ; yusdoka : 
draw a sword. 4. Icu ; yuwai]- 
kan icu: draw a long breath; 
draw water. 5. Icago ; ka'ga : 
draw a picture. 6. Owa : draw 
a check. 7. Minin wanka : the 
boat draws a foot. 8. Boide : 
the stove draws well. Draw off, 
ehdaku. — Draw out, yuzun. — 
Draw near, ikiyedai) hi. — Draw 
up, natipa. 

draw, n. Wosdohe ; yusdohanpi ; 
o'smaka ; cankanonpapihomni. 


drawback, n. Wokagi. 

drawer, n. Can'opiyeyustmtapi. 

drawers, n. Onzeogemahenunpi. 

drawing, n. Napeoniteowapi. 

drawl, vi. Yahaijhi. 

drawn, pp. of draw. 

dray, n. Hunonpaowatoksu. 

dread, trt. Ikopa ; kokipa. 

dreadful, a. Woyusinyan. 

dreadfully, adv. Okokipeya. 

dream, vi. Wi'hanmna. n. Wowi- 

dreamer, n. Tu'we wihanmna. 

drear, dreary, a. Oasioa. 

dredge, vt. Yukinca. 

dregs, n. Wokpukpe. 

drench, vt. A'taya spayeya. 

dress, n. 1. Heyake ; Y. hayake : 
citizen' 8 dress. 2. Nitoske ; T. 
cuwignaka : she bought a new 
• dress, vt. 1. Heyake kicui) ; heya- 
ke uijkiya ; koyagya. 2. Piya : 
yuwaste ; pa'ta. Dress a pig, 
kukuse pa'ta. — Dress a shin, ha 
kpanyan. — Dress a stone, inyan 
kakai). — Dress a wound, oyazan 

dressing, n. Oihduze ; on piyapi ; 
spanyanpi opuhdi. 

dressy, a. Wi'tantanihduza. 

drew, imp. of draw. 

dribble, vt. Sbu'fcbu. 

driblet, a. Wokitai). 

dried, pa. Pusyapi ; sa'ka. 

drier, n. Wapusya. 

drier, driest, comp. & super, of dry. 

drift, vi. 1. Kahboka ; kahbogi- 
yaya : the boat drifted. 2. Bob- 
du ; kata iheya : the snow 

drift, n. Canokahboka ; canicoge ; 
wogai) ; ta'ku bota iheya. 

driftwood, n. Canicoge. 

drill, vt. 1. Pahdoka; yuhdoka. 
2. Akicita kaoijspe. '6. Hi 
ohdogya ozu. n. Iyuhdoka ; 
hi'hdokaiozu ; wokaonspe. 

54 drum 

drilling, n. Minihuhakagopi seca ; 

drink, vt. Yatkai) ; yahepa. vi. 

Wayatkai); miniwakai) yatkai). 

n. Woyatke; wayatkai)pi. 
drinkable, a. Yatkepica. 
drinker, n. Wayatkesa. 
drluking, n. Wayatkanpi. 
drip, vi. Sbu ; sbu'sbu. 
drive, drove, vt. 1. Kahapa ; iya- 

yeya : drive oxen. 2. Okatai) : 

drive a nail. Drive away, ha- 

mya. — Let drive, howo. 
drive, n. Oomani ; woiyopastaka. 
driver, n. Wakahapa. 
driving, pa. Kaho se hiyu. 
drizzle, vi. Minibozan. 
droll, a. Wowiha. 
drollery, n. Wowihaohanyaijpi. 
dromedary, n. Cankahupazo. 
drone, n. Tu'we kuza ; tuhmaga- 

droop, vi. Kun'ya ; snisaya. 
drop, vi. Sou; hinhpaya; tanin~ 

sniiyaya. vt. Yusna : John 

dropped the egg. Kun ehpeya ; 

kun iyeya : drop corn. Ayu- 

stan : drop the subject. — Yusna 

se ku : drop a line. 
drop, n. Osbuye ; T. os'e ; kun'ya ; 

dropsy, n. Miniotakiyukan. 
dross, n. 'Ginginca. 
drought, n. Magazusni; wapuza. 
drove, imp. of drive. 
drove, n. Optaye; wamakaskan 

drover, Pteawanyake. 
drown, vt. Mini^eya ; akiktonsya. 

vi. Minita. 
drowsy, a. Hba. 
drub, vt. Apa. 

drudge, n. Wowidake ; wowasi. 
drudgery, n. Wohtani ; wowasi. 
drug, n. 1. Pezuta. 2. Ehaes ota. 

vt. Pezuta ku. 
druggist, n. Pezutawiyopeya. 
drum, n. Can/cega. vt. Can'cega 


apa;kabu. Drum out, kihdeya. 
— Drum up, mnayan. 
drumstick, w. Ioabu. 
drank, pp. of drink, a. Witko. 

». Witkoiciya. 
draukard, w. Witkosa. 
drauken, a. Witko ; witkopi. 
drunkenuess, n. Witkopi. 
dry, a. 1. Pu'za : dry dirt 2. Se'- 
ca : a dry leaf. 3. Miniwakai) 
wanica : a dry town, 4. Tatake ; 
wi'haha&ni : a dry speech. 
dry, vt. Pusya; kapuza. vi. Pu'za; 

dry-goods, ft. Minilittha. 
dryness, ». Wopuza. 
dubious, a. To'ketutaninsni. 
dnck, w. 1. Magaksica. 2. Mahen- 

iyeiciyapi. 3. Mininuna6oka. 
duck,i?£. Mininiyeya. vi. Kihnuka. 
dude, ft. Tu'we wi' tan tan. 
duds, ft. Heyake. 
due, a. 1. Kazuzupi iyehantu : the 
debt is due to-morrow. 2. Iye- 
cetu : due honor. 3. Iyehantu ; 
hi iyehantu : due at noon. 4. 
On'etanhan he'ceca : due to 
due, n. Ta'kutawa ; woicazo. 
due, adv. Owotanna. 
duel, u. Nom kicizapi. 
duet, w. Wicaho nonpa. 
dug, imp. of dig. 
dug out, n. Canwanziwata. 
duke, n. Itancantanka. 
dull, a. 1. Pe'sni ; otoza : a dull 
knife. 2. Tawacin tatake ; wa- 
cinksape §ni : a dull boy. 3. 
Ohanhi ; hun'kesni : a dull fire; 
a dull trade; a dull pain. 
duly, adv. Iyehanyan. 
dumb, vt. Iesni. 

55 dyspepsia 

dump, vt. Ehpeya. 

dumpling, n. Aguyapi eoya span. 

duu, a. Hin'zi. 

dun, vt. Kazuzusi. 

dunce, ft. Wacintonsni. 

dung, ft. Tacesdi. 

dungeon, n. Wicakaskatipi. 

dupe, vt. Hnayan. ft. Tu'wehna* 

duplicate, vt. Iyececa ka'ga. 
duplicity, ft. Wohnaye. 
durable, a. Te'hansuta. 
duration, n. Tohanyan ya. 
during, prep. Icunhan. 
durst, imp. of dare. 
dusk, ft. O'kpaza. 
dusky, a. Owatanin&ni. 
dust, ft. Makamdu ; wakpukpa. 

vt. Katata; pakinta. 
dusty, a. Makamduota ; makabo- 

Dutch, n. IaSicahoa. 
dutiful, a. Wanahon. 
duty, ft. 1. Ta'kueconiyececa : it 

is your duty. 2. Woecon : he is 

on duty. 3. Woyuha wokazu- 

dwarf, ft. Ecacikana ; stunka. vt. 

dwell, vt. 1. Ti; ounyan : dwell 

in a city. 2. Te'hanoyaka. 
dweller, n. Oti. 
dwelling, n. Ti'pi. 
dwindle, vi. Ci'stinnaaya ; hin- 

dye, ft. Wi'unpi : red dye. vt. 

Wi'unpi akahtan : to dye cloth. 

Dye blue, toya. 
dying, pa. Wannatekta ; t© kta en. 
dynamite, n. Cahdisuta. 
dysentery, n. We'kazopi. 
dyspepsia, n. Woyute isicapi. 




each, a. & pro. Iyohi ; owasii). 
Each one, iyohi. — Each other, 
ki'ci-. Love each other, waste- 

eager, a. Ciij'hca ; ohaijko. 

eagerly, adv. Inabni ; ciq'lica. 

eagerness, n. Woinahni. 

eagle, n. Waqmdi ; Ruya ; anoka- 


ear, n. 1. No'ge; (the auricle) 

nakpa. 2. Wahuwapa : an ear 

of corn. 
earache, n. No'geyazaijpi. 
early, a. 1. Otokahe: his early 

writings. 2. Ecadai) : early 

early, adv. Ecadai] : rise early. 
earn, vt. Eamna ; ohiya. 
earnest, a. Wakitaij ; wicaka. n. 

Oi) yuwicakapi. 
earning, n. Wokamna. 
earring, n. Nakpa oil). 
earth, n. Maka ; maka mibe. 
earthen, a. Maka. 
earthly, a. Makata. 
earthquake, n. Makacaqcai). 
earthy, a. Maka etaqhai). 
ease, vt. Ozikiya. n. WooziMye ; 

easily, adv. Tefiisniyai) ; wasa- 

easiness, n. WoteMsni. 
east, a. & n. Wiyohiyaijpa. 
Easter, n. Woekicetuaijpetu. 
easterly, a. Wiyohiyai)pata. 
eastern, a. Wiyohiyaijpa. 
eastward, a. Wiyohiyaijpata. 
easy, a. 1. TeMkesni : an easy 

lesson. 2. A waste ; owaste ; 

iwastena skai). 
eat, ate, vt. Yu'ta. Eat a hole, 

yaftdoka. — Eat up, temya. vi. 

eatable, a. Oyunwaste. 

eaves, n. Ti'pitete. 

ebb, n. Oyahe ; kanya. 

ebony, n. Caqsapa. 

eccentric, a. Obaqtokeca. 

ecclesiastical, a. Okodakioiyewa- 

echo, vt. Eaiyowaza. 

eclectic, a. Kahnihyuhapi. 

eclipse, n. Wi^a. vt. Aohaijziya ; 

economical, a. Wakpataq. 

economy, n. Wakpataqpi; oki- 

ecstasy, n. Mde'zesni. 

eddy, n. Miniomni. 

edge, n. I; ope; tete; opapui). 
The edge of the ax, ope. — The 
edge of the table, tete. — The 
edge of the cloth, opapui). 

edgewise, a. Omdeeaya. 

edible, a. Yu'tapiwaste. 

edict, n. E'yanpahapi. 

edifice, n. Ti'pitanka. 

edify, vt. Yuksapa ; yuwaste. 

edit, vt. Iapikanniga. 

editor, n. Iapikanniga. 

editorial, a. Itaricai) toie. 

educate, vt. Oijspekiya ; kihiya. 

education, n. Waoqspewicakiyapi; 

educator, n. Waouspekiya. 

educe, vt. Etanhaqicu. 

eel, n. Ho'waijmduska. 

e'en, contr. even. 

e'er, contr. ever. 

efface, vt. Pazuzu. 

effect, vt. Ka'ga ; ecoi). n. 1. Ta'- 
ku ka'ga ; oq itokeca : the effect 
of the storm. 2. Wowasake : to 
speak with effect. 3. Woyuha : 
his total effects. — To this effect, 

effective, a. Waokihi. 

effectual, a. WTyoMhi. 


effeminate, a. Wiij'yai) iyececa. 
effete, a. Taqni ; huij'kesni. 
efficacious, a. Waokihi. 
efficient, a. Wi'yokihi. 
effigy, n. I'had ka'gapi. 
effort, n. Wokuwa ; ecoqutapi. 
effulgent, a. Wiyakpa. 
egg, n. Wi'tka. vt. Wi'tka oi) 

kii)ii) ; i'yopastaka. 
eggshell, w. Wi'tkaha. 
egotist, n. Ihdataijsa. 
egregious, a. Ihaijketa. 
egress, ft. Oenape. 
eh, interj. Wai). 
eight, a. Sahdogai) ; F. sakdo- 

gaij; T. saglogai). 
eighteen, a. Akesahdogai). 
eightfold, a. Sahdogaijakihde. 
eighth, a. 1. Isahdogai) : the eighth. 
2. Sahdogai) ynspapi waijzi : 
one eighth. 
eighty, a. Wikcemna Sahdogai). 
either, a. 1. Uqmaqtukte sta : 
give me either one. 2. Sakim : 
trees on either side. 
either, conj. Uqmaqtukte kasta. 
ejaculate, vt. Ni'na eya. 
eject, vt. Taijkan iyayeya. 
eke, vt. Akaga ; okipata. 
elaborate, vt. Ka'ga. a. OsMske 

elapse, vi. Hiyaya ; owihaijke. 
elastic, a. Zigzica. n. Caqsirjzig- 

elated, pa. Wi'yuskii). 
elbow, n. Igpaokihe ; ipaksai) ; 

ihupa ksai). vt. Paoskm ya. 
elder, a. Tokapa. n. 1. Huqkaya- 
pi ; huqka. 2. Ipapope cai) ; 
elder-berry, n. Caputa. 
elderly, a. Ehaqna. 
eldest, a. Tokapahca. 
elect, vt. Kaftniga. a. Kahnigapi. 
election, n. Kaijsuiyohpeyapi: wa- 

elector, n. Kaijsuiyohpeya. 
electric, a. Wakaqhdi. 

57 embody 

| electricity, n. Wakaijhdi. 
electrify, vt. Wakaqhdiiheya ; yu- 

elegance, n. Wowaste. 
elegant, a. Wastehca. 
elegy, ft. Aceyapi odowai). 
element, n. 1. O'kihe : one of the 

elements. 2. Wooqspe otokahe : 

elements of arithmetic. 
elementary, a. Otokahe. 
elephant, ft. Putehaqska. 
elevate, vt. Waijkaniyeya ; yu- 

elevated, pa. Yuwai)kantu. 
elevation, n. Waqkantu. 
eleven, a. Akewaqzi. 
elicit, a. Oyagkiya. 
eligible, a. Kahnihpica. 
eliminate, vt. Ehpeya. 
elite, ft. Kahnjhwa&tepi. 
elk, ft. (male) Hehaka; (female), 

ellpses, ft. Yusnapi. 
elm, ft. pe ; peoai) ; (Slippery elm) 

pe'tu'tupa. (Bock elm), pe'ita- 

elocution, n. Woowohdake wooi)- 

elongate, vt. Yuhaqska. 
elope, vi. Nahmai)iyaye. 
eloquent, a. Wohdakawayapika. 
else, adv. 1. To'keca: what else 

have you f 2. He'cece sni kii]- 

. hai) : else would I die. 
elsewhere, adv. Tukten to'keca. 
elucidate, vt. Iyoyamya. 
elude, vt. Hna'yai). 
emaciated, a. Sta'ka. 
emancipate, vt. KiyuSka. 
embankment, n. Mayakagapi. 
embark, vi. Wa'ta o'pa. 
embarrass, vt. Inihaqya ; kagiya. 
embellish, vt. YuwaSte. 
ember, vt. Petaga. 
embezzle, vt. Ta'wa&niui); manoi). 
embitter, vt. Waciijhiijyaqsya. 
emblem, n. Wowapetokeca. 
embody, vt. Ka'ga ; tai]ii)yai]hde. 


embolden, vt. Yuwaditake. 
embrace, vt. Adoksoyuza ; o'pa. 
embroider, vt. Ipata. 
embroil, vt. En'ikoyagya. 
embryo, n. Su'cante. 
emerald, n. In'yanto. 
emerge, vi. Hinapa. 
emergency, n. Bmuhan to'keca. 
emetic, n. Onhde'papi. 
emigrant, n. Ihdagunpi. 
emigrate, vi. Ihdaka; oyate to'- 

keca ekta i'yotanka. 
eminence, n. Paha ; wokitanin. 
eminent, a. Okitai)ii). 
eminently, adv. Wakapeya. 
emissary, n. Nanmai) yesipi. 
emission, n. Hiyuyapi. 
emit, vt. Hiynya. 
emolument, n. Wokazuzu. 
emotion, n. Canteyuskanskan. 
emotional, a. Wacantiheyesa. 
emperor, n. Itancantanka. 
emphasis, n. Hoyanka. 
emphasize, vt. Ni'na eya. 
emphatic, a. Iyotai). 
empire, n. Oyate ; wokiconze. 
employ, vt. Wasi ; econsi ; un. 
employee, n. Wowasi. 
employer, n. Wawicasi. 
employment, n. fltanipi ; wowasi. 
emporium, Ho'coka ; carte. 
empower, vt. Wowas'ake ku. 
empress, n. Win'yanitancan. 
emptiness, n. Ituunpi ; ta'kusni. 
empty, a. Cokana ; T. kokala ; ta'- 

kuna en un sni ; ituya un. vt. 

Yucokadai) ; okastan ; ehpeya. 
emulate, vt Iyecen econ. 
enable, vt. Okihiya. 
enact, vt. Kaga; ecoi). 
enactment, n. Wokage. 
enamel, n. Huhuska. 
enamour, vt. Awastedaye. 
encamp, vi. E'ti ; e'yotanke. 
encampment, n. Oeti. 
enchant, vt. Yuhnaskinyan. 
enchantment, n. Wohmunga. 
encircle, vt. Aohomniya. 

58 ' engender 

enclose, vt. Nataka ; apanta. 

enclosure, n. Acankaskapi. 

encomium, n. Woyawaste. 

encompass, vt. Aokibeya. 

encore, vt. AMhdedapi. 

encounter, vt. Akipa; i'tkokipa. 
n. I'tkokipapi ; kicizapi. 

encourage, vt. Was'agya; i'yopa- 

encouragement, n. Wookiye. 

encroach, vi. Kiaya. 

encumber, vt. Kas'agya. 

encyclopedia, n. Woonspe sinto- 
xuni oyaka. 

end, n. 1. Owihanke : the end of 
the road. 2. Wokuwa : man's 
chief end. 3. In'kpa ; ihanke : 
odds and ends. On end : bo~ 
sdan. vt. Owihankeya; yustan. 

endanger, vt. Okokipekaga. 

endear, vt. Wastedaya. 

endeavor, vt. Econwacin ; akita. 

endless, a. Owihankewanica. 

endow, vt. Woyuha ki'cihde. 

endowment, n. Woyuhahde. 

endue, vt. Yuhekiya. 

endurance, n. Wakis'akapi. 

endure, vt. Iwakis'aka ; iwacirj- 
tanka. vi. Ecen hai) ; un. 

enduring, pa. Te'han un. 

endwise, adv. Ohanskeya. 

enemy, n. To'ka. 

energetic, a. Ohitika ; mdiheca. 

energy, n. Wowas'ake ; woohitika. 

enervate, vt. Was'akesniya. 

enfeeble, vt. Yusintin. 

enforce, vt. Ecen econkiya. 

enfranchise, vt. Ta'waiciya. 

engage, vt. Kici yustai] ; ku kta 
yustan ; kici ecoij. vi. 1. Eya : 
she engaged to go. 2. Econ ; 
kuwa : engage in trade. 

engaged, pa. 1. Yu'ze ktayustan- 
pi : she is engaged. 2. Owanzi 
ui) sni ; kuwa : he is engaged 
just now. 

engaging, pa. Wawiyutanye. 

engender, vt. Kaga. 


engine, n. Icuwa ; hemani ; ma'- 

engineer, n. Ma'zaynhomni awan- 

yaka. vt. Kuwa; kicanye. 
English, «. Sagda6a; Wasicun. 

Do you speak English, Wasicun 

iyaa he. 
engorge, vt. Akaska. 
engrave, vt. Bago. 
engraving, n. Wabagopi. 
engross, vt. 1. Wi'taya owa : en- 
' gross the proceedings. 2. Ece- 

dai) en uij ; ozudanye : en- 
grossed his mind. 
engulf, vt. Napcaiyeya. 
enhance, vt. San 'pa ka'ga. 
enigma, n. Wowiyukcan tehike. 
enjoin, vt. Awacindi. 
enjoy f vt. Iyu&kin ; awasteda ; on 

tanyan un. 
enjoyment, n. Wowiyuskin ; wi'yu- 

enlarge, vt. Yutanka. vi. Tan'ka 

enlargement, n. Tan'ka a'ye. 
enlighten, vt. Iyoyamya 
enlightened, pa. Ksapapi. 
enlist, vt. O'pekiya. vi. O'pa. 
enliven, vt. Yuhica ; mdihenya. 
enmity, n. Wowahteda&ni. 
ennoble, vt. Yuwa&te. 
enormity, n. Wotanka. 
enormous, a. Tan'kanca. 
enough, a. Iyenakeca ; o'ta : bread 

enough, adv. Iyehanyan;ni'na; 

enraged, pa. Canniyan. 
enraptured, pa. Mde'zesni. 
enrich, vt. Wi'zinya ; yuwaste. 
enroll, vt. Cazeowa. 
ensign, n. Wa'paha. 
enslave, vt. Wowidake ka'ga. 
ensnare, vt. Hmnnka. 
ensue, vt. Kuwaaya. 
entail, vt. E'yanpeya. 
entangle, vt. Hnran'ka ; kaska. 
enter, vt. 1. En ya : enter the 

house. 2. En owa: enter his name. 

59 equal 

enterprise, n. Wiconan omdihe- 

enterprising, pa. Mdiheca. 
entertain, vt. 1. Magagaya : enter- 
tain with stories. 2. Woku; taij- 

yan knwa : entertain strangers. 

3. En e'wacin : entertain his 

entertaining, pa. Onahonwa&te. 
entertainment, n. Kicicopi. 
enthrone, vt. Itancanka'ga. 
enthusiast, n. Ohandita. 
enthusiastic, a. Wafctedaakan. 
entice, vt. Iyutanye. 
entire, a. Ocowasin ; a'taya. 
entirely, adv. A'taya. 
entitle, vt. On caze ku'pi. 
entomb, vt. Maka en e'hnaka. 
entrails, n. dupe. 
en'trance, n. Tiyopa ; oenape ; en 

entrance, vt. Wi'hanmnakiya. 
entreat, vt. Ce'kiya. 
entreaty, n. Wacekiyapi. 
entrench, vt. Wowinape ka'pi. 
entrenchment, n. Makakapi. 
entrust, vt. Awanyagkiya. 
entry, n. En ya ; en owa ; tiyopa ; 

timahen ocanku. 
entwine, vt. Yuwi. 
enumerate, vt. To'nakecayawa. 
enunciate, vt. Hoenapeya. 
envelope, vt. Iyapehan ; akahpa. 

n. Wowapiozuha. 
envious, a. Wi'nawizi. 
environment, n. Ta'ku o'ksan un. 
envy, n. Wowinawizi. vt. Nawizi. 
epaulet, n. Hiyetebohciunpi. 
epidemic, n. Woyazan a'taya 

Episcopal Church, n. Ska'in Oko- 

dakiciye ; Cuwiknakeska. 
episode, n. Woakipa. 
epistle, n. Wowapi. 
epithet, n. Wocaze. 
epoch, n. Anpetu. 
equal, a. 1. I'akidececapi : of 

equal strength. 2. I'akidehantu; 


o'wanzina : equal temperature. 

3. Iyehan ; okihi : he is equal 

to the task. vt. Iyehan un; 

iyehan econ : no one can equal 

God. Tiro and two equal four, 

non'pa qa non'pa hecen to'pa. 
equality, n. 1. I'akidececapi: 

equality of weight. 2. Omdaye. 
equalize, vt. I'akidecen ka'ga. 
equally, adv. A'kidecenya. 
equanimity, n. Tawacin mda'ya. 
equator, n. Wi'ocanku. 
equestrian, a. dungakanuq. 
equi-, pref. I'akidehantu. 
equilateral, a. Cuwiakidececa. 
equinox, n. An 'pa hanhepi iye- 

equip, n. Koyagya; yuwiyeya; 

ta'ku yuhekiya. 
equipment, n. Icuwa. 
equitable, a. Owotanna. 
equity, n. Woowotanna. 
equivalent, a. Kici iyececa. 
equivocal, a. To'ketu tanin sni. 
era, n. O'maka ; woyawa. 
eradicate, vt. Yuzuq ehpeya. 
erase, vt. Pazuzu. 
eraser, n. Ipazuzu. 
ere, prep. I'tokam. 
erect, a. Bosdan ; T. woslal ; atin- 

yan ; botin. vt. E'hde. 
erection, n. E'hdepi. 
erelong, adv. Ecadan. 
ermine, n. Hitunkasai). 
err, vi. Yusna ; nu'ni ; wahtani. 
errand, n. Wahosiyapi ; ta'ku hu- 

erratic, a. Wi'cisniyai) ya. 
erroneous, a. He'cetusni. 
error, n. Woyusna ; nu'nipi. 
erudite, a. Waonspehca. 
eruption, n. Ahinapapi ; bobdu 

hiyuya; pom'hiyu. 
escape, vi. Iyaya; nazica. vt. 

Etanhan. ihduspe ; ececesni. 
eschew, vt. Econsni. 
escort, vt. Kiciya ; awanyaka. 
especial, a. I'atayedai). 

60 even 

espouse, vt. Yu'zekta yustanpi. 
espy, vt. Wanyagiheya. 
essay, n. Iwohdag wowapi. 
essence, n. Co ; miniwastemna. 
essential, a. E'ehca ; itancan. 
establish, vt. Sutaya e'hde. 
establishment, u. Sutaya e'hdepi ; 

tipi ko hde'pi. 
estate, n. Woyuhaataya ; wicasta 

ta tawoyuha ; oun. 
esteem, vt. Yawa ; -nia. I esteem 

him well, tanyanwada. n. Wo- 

wastedapi ; yuonihanpi. 
estimable, a. Yuonihanpica. 
estimate, vt. Yawa; iyukean. n. 

estimation, n Wi'yukcanpi; woyu- 

estrange, vt. Watokaye; yutokan. 
eternal, a. O'hiijnini. 
eternity, n. Owihanke wanica. 
Ethiopian, n. Ha'sapa. 
etiquette, n. Yuonihan. wicohan. 
eucharist, n. Wotapiwakan. 
eulogize, vt. Yawaste. 
eulogy, w. Woyawaste. 
eunuch, n. Wicasta susu wanica. 
euphony, n. Oeyewaste. 
eureka, excl. Iyewaya. 
evacuate, vt. Etanhan iyaya ; 

evade, vt. Napa; yuspicasni; icun- 

om ia. 
evanesce, vi. Ske'pa. 
evangelical, a. Wotanin Waste ; 

Jesus oie ohna. 
evangelist, n. Wotanin Waste 

evangelize, vt. Wotanii) Waste 

evaporate, vi. Ske'pa; taninsni. 

vt. Yuskepa; kapuza; pusya. 
evasion, n. Napapi ; yatokecapi. 
eve, n. Ahtayetu; i'tokam hta- 

yetu ; htayetu. 
even, vt. Yumdaya; yuotkonza. 

a. 1. Mda'ya; o'wanzidan. 2. 

O'tkonza : even numbers, adv. 


1. Kaes: even he. 2. Hehan- 

yan sta : even to death. 
evening, n. fitayetu. 
evenly, adv. Mda'yena. 
event, n. Woecoi) ; woyustan. 
eventful, a. Woakipa o'ta ; tan'ka. 
eventless, a. Ta'ku cazeyanpica 

eventnally, adv. Un'hanketa. 
ever, adv. 1. To'hinni ; ee'e : do 

you ever dance. 2. O'hinni : he 

is ever the same. 
evergreen, a. O'hiijnito. 
everlasting, a. Owihankewaniea. 
evermore, a. O'hinniyan. 
every, a. Iyohi; owasii). Every 

now and then, icizehan. — Every 

one. iyohi ; owasii). 
eveiybody, n. Owasii). 
everything, n. Ta'ku owasii). 
everywhere, adv. O'wancaya. 
evidence, n. Woyatai)ii). 
evident, a. Okitaqin ; tanin. 
evidently, adv. Taninyan,. 
evQ, a. Si'ca; wayusica : evil 

deeds, n. Ta'ku si'ca ; wosica. 
evince, vt. Yutan.ii). 
evoke, vt. Kico. 
evolntlon, n. Tuzamnipi. 
evolve, irt. Yuzamni. 
ewe, n. Ta'hcasunka wi'ye. 
ex-, pref. He'kta : ex-President, 
ex, prep. Oi) etanhan. 
exact, a. Iyecetuhca ; hehantuhca; 

owotannahca econ. t;*. Waki- 

tanieu; tehiyakuwa. 
exacting, pa. Wakitan. 
exactly, <wfo. Hecetuhca. 
exactness, a. Owotannapi. 
exaggerate, vt. Aokaga. 
exalt, vt. Yuwankantuya. 
exalted, pa. Wankantuya. 
examination, n. Wi'wangapi. 
examine, vt. Iwaqga. 
example, n. Iwanyag ecoqpi ; to'- 

keoa pazopi. 
exasperate, vt. Canzeya. 
excavate, vt. Ofca; ohdogya. 

61 exhibit 

excavation, n. Okapi ; ohdoka. 

exceed, vt. Kapeya ; i'sam ya. 

exceeding, a. San 'pa; iyotai). 

excel, vt. Kapa ; sam ya. 

excellence, n. Wakapa. 

excellent, a. Ni'na waste. 

except, vt. O'pekiyesni : he ex- 
cepted children, prep. Tuka ; 
tuka he o'pe sni : all except one. 
conj. Kinhan ; ehantaqhan. : ex- 
cept you work. 

exception, n. Wanzi to'keca. 

exceptionable, a. Iyecetusni. 

exceptional, a. To'keca. 

excess, n. Iyecetu i'sanpa ; iyaye 

exchange, vt. Tokiyopeya. 

excitable, a. Kohai) mde'zesni. 

excite, vt. Yumdezesni. 

excitement, n. Mde'zapisni ; ni'na 

exciting, pa. Wayuhice. 

exclaim, vt. Ni'na eya. 

exclamation, n. Pan 'pan iapi. 

exclude, vt. O'pesniya. 

exclusion, n. O'pesniyapi. 

ecluslve, a. Isnaicidapi. 

excommunicate, vt. fleyata iyeya. 

excruciating, pa. Ni'na yazanpi. 

exculpate, vt. Yasicapisni. 

excursion, n. Skan'yapi. 

excusable, a. Iyowinyepica. 

excuse, vt. Iyowinyai). n. On iyo- 
winyanpi kta iyececa. 

execrable, a. Ni'na si'ca. 

execute, vi. Teya ; ecen yustan. 

executive, n. Wayustai). a. Wae- 

exemplary, a. Yuwastepica. 

exemplify, vt. Iyecen pazo. 

exempt, a. O'pasni. 

exercise, vt. Skin'ciya ; icicuwa ; 
nn. n. Woecon ; un'pi. 

exert, vt. Un ; ka'ga ; aiciciya. 

exertion, n. Un'pi; woecon. 

exhale, vt. Poh'iyeya ; hiyuya. 

exhaust, vt. Yusota; yuwas'akesni. 

exhaustless, a. Yusonpicasni. 

exhibit, vt. Pazo. n. Pazopi. 


exhibition, n. Wapazopi. 
exhilarate, vt. Yuwihaha. 
exhort, vt. Wahokoqkiya ; i'yapa- 

exhortation, n. Wowahokoijkiye. 
exhorter, n. Wahokoijkiya. 
exhume, vt. Oka ; yutanii). 
exigency, n. Wotefii. 
exile, vt. Napeya. n. Onazica. 
exist, vi. Ecenni) ; ni ; yanka. 
existence, n. Ni'unpi. 
exit, n. Tokai) ya'pi. 
exodus, n. Hdinapapi. 
exonerate, vt. Kiyuska. 
exorbitant, a. Aoka&eca. 
expand, vt. Yutanka; yumdaya. 

vi. Tan/kaaya. 
expanse, n. Oyumdaye. 
expatiate, vi. Tan/kayaia. 
expatriate, vt. Makoce ta'wa etai)- 

hai) napeya. 
expect, vt. Awacin un ; akipe. 
expectorate, vt Kadpa. 
expedient, a. Iyececa ; owastekta. 

n. Woecon. 
expedite, vt. Inahniya. 
expedition, n. Wicomani. 
expeditious, a. Ohanko. 
expel, vt. Iyayeya. 
expend, vt. Yusota ; ku. 
expenditure, n. Yusotapi. 
expense, n. Woyusota ; woyusna. 
expensive, a. TeMka; ma'zaska 

o'ta yusota. 
experience, vt. Sdonya. n. Wo- 

ecorj oi] sdonyapi ; onan. 
experiment, n. Sdonyapi kta oij 

expert', a. Wayupika. 
ex pert, n. Tu'we wayupika 
expiate, vt. Kakis'ya kazuzu. 
expiration, n. Owihauke. 
expire, vi. Niya hiyuya ; fa 5 owi- 

explain, vt. To'ketu oyaka. 
explanation, n. Woyaka. 
explode, vt. Napomya. vi. Napo- 

pa; atakunisui. 

62 exuberance 

exploit, n. Woecoi). 
exploration, n. Waodeomanipi. 
explore,!;;. Waode. 
explorer, n. Tu'we waode. 
explosion, n. Wanapomyapi. 
exponent, n. To'ketu oyaka. 
export, vt. Yeya ; makoce to'keea 

ekta yeya. n. Ta'ku yeyapi. 
expose, vt. Yutanin. 
exposition, n. Wapazopi ; oya- 

expostulate,^. Iyokigni. 
expound, vt. Oyaka. 
express, vt. Yatanin ; yeya. a. Ka- 

tinyai). n. Owatoksu suta. 
expression, n. Iapi. 
expressive, a. Yatins eyapi. 
expressly, adv. Tai)ii)yan nca. 
expulsion, n. Enpeyapi. 
expunge, vt. Pazuzu. 
expurgate, vt. Pakinta. 
exquisite, a. Yucoya ka'gapi. 
extant, a. Yukan. 
extemporaneous, a. Yukseknag. 
extend, vt. Yuhanska ; yeya. 
extension, n. Yuhanskapi. 
extensive, a. Tan/ka. 
extent, n. Tohaqyan yeya. 
extenuate, vt. Yuaokpani. 
exterior, a. Akapatanhan. 
exterminate, vt. A'taya inaqgya. 
external, a. Akantanhaq. 
extinct, a. Sni ; wanna wanica. 
extinguish, vt. Kasni ; yuzuzu. 
extirpate, vt. Yuzun enpeya. 
extol, vt. Yawankantu. 
extort, vt. Ki ; yus icu. 
extortiou, n; Wicadasni ki'pi. 
extra, a. Iyaye ; kapeya. 
extra-, pref. I'saqpa. 
extract 7 , v. Icu. 
ex tract, n. Ta'ku ieupi. 
extraordinary, a. Iyotan. 
extravagance, n. Wayusotapi. 
extravagant, a. Wayusotesa. 
extreme, a. Ihanketa. 
extricate, vt. Yusduta; icu. 
exuberance, n. Wowizica. 


exuberant, a. Pan'&a. 

exult, vt. Ni'na iyuskin. 

exnltatiou, n. Wi'yuBkujpi. 

eye, n. Ista. 27te human eye, wi- 
cista. — The needle's eye, tahin- 
spa ohdoka. vt. Wanyaka. 

eyeball, ». Istapsunka ; istasu. 

eyebrow, n. Istahehin. 

63 falsity 

eyeglass, w. Istamaza ; istazanzan. 
eyelash, n. Istahepehin. 
eyeless, a. Ista wanica. 
eyelet, n. Hahontaohdoka. 
eyelid, n. Istozuna. 
eyesight, n. Wi'wanyake. 
eyesore, n. Wanyakapisica. 
eye-witness, n. Idta on wanyaka. 

table, n. Ohunkakan. 

fabric, «. Wakazontapi. 

fabricate,^. Ka'ga. 

fabulous, a. Kakarjpi. 

face, n. Ite ; i'toye ; omdaye. vt. 
Iteayuta; i'tkokipaj opapon- 
kaga. Make faces, itesinkiya. 
— The face of a moccasin, han- 
pitake. — Face up, itunkam. — 
Worth its face, owapi iyecen 

facetious, a. Wawihaye. 

facilitate, vt. Ecadan okihiya. 

facility, n. Wookihi ; wayupikapi. 

fact, w. Ta'kuhecetu ; wowicake. 

faction, n. Ospaye. 

factions, a. Wanahonsni. » 

factor, n. Ka'ge wanzi. 

factory, n. Wokagetipi. 

faculty, n. Oi) wasdonyapi; wa- 

fad, ». Wowimdeza. 

fade, vi. San a'ya ; taqinsni. 

fagot, n. Canhakaopahte. 

fall, vi. Okihisni ; sni. 

failure, n. Okihisni ; wanica. 

fain, a. Iyowinyan ; cin. 

faint, vi. JEftksuyesni ; hu'staka. 
a. Wasakesni; iwastena. 

faint-hearted, a. Canwanka. 

faintly, adv. Iwastedan. 

fair, a. 1. Ukaska : fair com- 
plexion. 2. Zi : fair hair. 3. 
Kasota ; owastecaka : a fair 
day. 4. Ki'tanna waste : fair 

crops. 5. Owotanna : fair in 
his dealings. 6. Waste : a fair 
name, n. Wapazopi. 

fairly, adv. Ki'tanna. 

fairness, n. Woowotanna. 

fairy, fairies, n. Wanagi. 

faith, n. Wacinyaqpi ; wicadapi ; 
wowacinye ; wowicada. 

faithful, a. Wacinyepica ; wicaka. 

faithfully, adv. Tanyan; wica- 

faithfulness, n. Wowicake. 

faithless, a. Wacinyepicasni. 

fake, n. Wohnaye. 

fall, fell, vi. Hinhpaya ; kun ya ; 
wankahan. He fell back, he'kta 
iyaya. — Fall in with, kici akipe. 
Fall out with, kici akinica. — 
Fall through, ohna hinhpaya ; 
ecetu sni. n. 1. Hinhpaye : a 
hard fall. 2. Ptanyetu : next 
fall. 3. Minihinhe; haha. 

fallacious, a. He'cetusni. 

fallacy, n. Wohnaye. 

fallen, pa. Hinhpaya. 

fallible, a. Nu'nipica. 

falling, pa. Kun ya ; hinhpaya. 

fallow, a. Ozupisni. 

false, a. Wohnaye ; wicakesni. 
False teeth, hi o'stanpi. 

falsehood, n. Woitonsni; wo- 

falsely, adv. Wicakesniyan. 

falsify, vt. Yuwicakesni. 

falsity, n. Wowicakesni. 


falter, vi. Yasnasnaia; nicahan. 
fame, n. Wokitai)in; wacazeya- 

familiar, a. Taqyansdonya. 
familiarly, adv. A'witukadai). 
familiarity, n. Tanyansdonyapi. 
family, n. Tiwahe ; tiohnake ; wi- 

cowazi ; wicobe. 
famine, n. WicaaMnan ; wanica. 
famish, vi. Akinan ; hu'staka. 
famous, a. Okitanii). 
famously, adv. Okitaninyai) ; ni'na 

fan, n. Icadu. vt. Kaduga. 
fanatic, n. Wi'yukcansni skan. 
fanciful, a. Ituyacii). 
fancy, fancied, vt. Eciij ; wi'han- 

mna. n. Wowiyukcan ; woi- 

hanmde. a. Wayuco ka'gapi; 

wi'hanmnapi se : wayupika. 
fang, n. Hi'pesto ; hinske. 
fanning-mill, n. Aguyapi icadu. 
fantastic, a. Onanhanhai). 
far, a. & adv. 1. Te'han; te'hantu: 

far distant; a far eountry. 2. 

Ni'na : far different. As far as, 

hehanyai). — By far, iyotaij. — 

Far and wide, tan/kaya. — Far 

apart, i'citehan. — In so far as, 

farce, n. Ta'kusni. 
fare, n. 1. Icazuzu : what is the 

fare. 2. Oun ; owote : nice fare. 

vi. Un ; wota. 
farewell, a. & interj. Ehakeiapi: 

farewell words. 
far-famed, a. Tan/kayaotai)in. 
far-fetched, a. Te'hanahipi. 
farm, n. Owozumakoce. vt. Wo- 

zu ; wozuti ; kicanyekiya. 
farmer, n. Wozuwicasta. 
farrow, a. Ihdu&ake&ni. 
farsighted, a. Te'han wanyaka. 
farther, a. San/patehan; ako. 
farthest, a. Iyotantehan. 
farthing, n. Ma'zasanaokise. 
fascinate, vt. Hna'yan ; yuhna- 


64 favor 

fashion, n. To'ken oiyokipi da'pi ; 

wi'tanteqpi. vt. Ka'ga. 
fashionable, a. Wi'taxjtaij. 
fast, a. 1. Du'zahan ; onanko : a 

fast horse. 2. dke'he ; witko- 

tkoka : a fast boy. 2. Suta ; 

yuzuzupi tenike; a fast friend; 

fast colors, adv. 1. Dus ; ohan- 

koya : walk fast. 2. Sutaya ; 

ni'na : fast asleep, vi. Akinan, - 

iciya; wotesni un. n. Akinai)- 

fasten, vt. Ikoyagya ; nataka ; su- 

fastening, n. Inatake. 
fastidious, a. WacinMnyanza. 
fasting, n. Wote&niunpi. 
fastness, n. Wosuta ; conlca&ke. 
fat, a. Ce'pa; zi'ca. n. din. 
fatal, a. Oi) \e kta ; on $a'pi. 
fate, n. Wokonze ; owihanke. 
father, n. Atkuku; ate. My 

father, ate. — Your father, ni- 

yate. — HisfatJier, atkuku. vt. 

Ta'waya; ateya. 
fatherhood, n. Ateyapi. 
father-in-law, n. Tunkai) ; tunkai)- 

si. Your father-in-law, nitun- 

kan. — His father-in-law, tun.- 

fatherland, n. Makoce en wica- 

fatherless, a. Atkuku wanica. 
fatherly, a. Atkuku iyececa. 
fathom, n. Akatinpi. vt. Sbe 

iyuta ; sicu ode. 
fatigue, vt. Watukaye; mdo'ki- 

teya. n. Watukapi. 
fatigued, pa. Watuka. 
fatness, n. Waain ; wocepa. 
fatten, n. Oemya. 
fatty, a. Ce'pa. 
fault, n. Woyusna ; osnaze. 
faultfinder, n. Waya&Maka. 
faultless, a. Tuktena &i'ce&ni. 
faulty, a. Onspaspa sica. 
favor, vt. 1. O'kiya ; on/sida : he 

favors the younger. 2. Owaijg- 

favorable Go 

ya : the boy favors his mother. 

n. Waokiyapi ; wowaonsida ; 

woitufiai) ; wowapi kici^upi. 

I beg one favor, wowaondida 

waqzi cicida. — Tour favor of 

Jan. 1st is received, Jan. 1st 

wowapi yakaga iwacu. 
favorable, a. Iyecetu ; iyokipi. 
favorite, a. Tehiijda ; wasteda. 
favoritism, n. Sanina o'kiyapi. 
fawn, vt Kihnahna. n. Tacin- 

fear, vt. Kokipa ; ikopa. n. Wa- 

kokipapi ; ahokipapi. 
fearful, a. 1. Wakokipa : a fear- 
ful rabbit. 2. Okokipe : a fear- 

ful storm. 
fearless, a. Ta'kukokipesni. 
feasabie, a. Econpica. 
feast, n. Kicicopi. vt. Won'kiya ; 

feat, n. Woecon tan/ka. 
feather, n. Magahii) ; sin) ; wi'ya- 

ka. vi. Hii) uya. 
feathered, a. Hii) yukai). 
featare, n. Itohnake. 
February, n. Wicatawi. 
federal, a. Odakonkiciyapi. 

fed, imp. of feed. 

fee, n. Wokazuzu ; wi'si. vt. Ka- 
znzu ; wi'si ku. 

feeble, a. Was'akesni ; sintii). 

feebly, adv. Iwastena. 

feed, vt. Woku ; yunkiya. vi. Wo- 

ta; winai). n. Woyute; owote. 
feeding, n. Woku ; mahen iyeya ; 

feel, felt, vt. Yutan; icantaka; 

sdonya. vi. 1. Hda : I feel cold. 

2. Ececa : feel better. 3. Canti- 

yapa : feel for the oppressed. 

Feel Wee, canteyuza. — Feel sure, 

tanyan sdonya. — How do you 

feel, tonikeca he. 
feeler, n. On yutanpi; putehin. 
feeling, pa. Waonsida ; waciniyo- 

yaka* n. Canteoyuze. 
feet,jrf. of foot. 


feign, vt. Kon'za. 
feint, n. Kons econpi. 
felicitous, a. Oiyokipi. 
felicitously, adv. Tupiya, 
felicity, n. Woiyokipi. 
fell, imp. of fall. 
fell, vt. Kawanka. a. Ocinsica. 
fellow, n. Tu'we ; kicica. 
fellowship, n. Kodayapi; kicicapi. 

vt. Kodaya. 
felon, n. 1. Woopekicaksa. 2. Na- 

psukaza hu ekta tonye. 
felt, imp. of feel. 
felt, n. Hii) i'ciyaskapa. 
female, a. &n. Win'yan; {of ani- 
mals) wi'ye. 
feminine, a. Win'yan. 
fen, n. Wiwi. 
fence, n. Con/kaske. vt. Acaij- 

kaska; nataka. 
fend, vt. Eakamiyeya. 
ferment, vi. Tageicaga ; napogai) ; 

sku'ya. n. HnasMijyanpise. 
fern, n. Hinhaqtonwai). 
ferocious, a. Wohitika. 
ferret, vt. Kihdega; oyuspa. n. 

ferriage, n. Iyuwenwicayapi. 
ferry, n. Wa'taoiyuwega. vi. Iyu- 

wega. vt. IyuwenMya. 
fertile, a. Waicahya; wi'yukcan. 
fertility, n. Waicage. 
fertilize, vt. Waicage ka'ga. 
fervency, n. Wokata. 
fervent, a. Ka'ta ; wayunioa. 
fervor, n. Wokata. 
festal, a. Wi'yuskii). 
fester, vi. Tonye ; kukaaya. 
festival, n. & a. Wi'yuskinpi ; ska 7 - 

festivity, n. WowiyusMi). 
festoon, n. Kaozezeyapi. 
fetch, vt. Au ; iyokihi. 
fetid, a. dicamna. 
fetlock, n. Iskahuhii). 
fetter, vt. Kaska. n. Wi'caske; 

feud, n. Woakinica. 




fever, w. Wokata; tancaijkatapi 

feverish, a. Ka'ta. 
few, a. To'nana ; Y. co'nana ; T. 

fib, a. Woitonsni. 
fickle, a. Hahadai). 
fiction, ft. Wakankanpi. 
fictitious, a. Wicakesni. 
fiddle, w. Canpakinzapi. 
fidelity, n. Wowicake. 
fidgety, a. Owanziunsni. 
fie, interj. Hoh. 
field, w. Ma'ga ; wozupi ; owozu ; 

fiend, «. Wakansica. 
fierce, a. Wohitika. 
fiery, a. Idese ; ka'ta. 
fife, ft. Akicita tacotaijka. 
fifteen, a. Akezaptan. 
fifth, a. Izaptai). 
fifty, a. Wikcemnazaptai). 
fig, w. Waskuyecasuota. 
fight, fought, vt. Ki'za ; kiciza ; kici 

econ. n. Okicize. 
fighter, «. Kicisohitika. 
figurative, a. Wi'yacinpi. 
figure, vt. Yawa; owa. vi. Wa- 

yawa. ft. Owapi; wayawapi; 

taqcan; wi'yacinpi. 
figured, pa. Owapi; hde'ga. 
filch, vt. Manon. 
file, ft. 1. Mazipabe. 2. I'cipa- 

tkuh e'nazii). vt. Pamai); ki- 

hnaka ; makoce akan caze 

filial, a. Wicacinea. 
fill, vt. Ozuya ; ozuton ; wi'piya ; 

fillet, n. Ipahte. 
filly, ft. Suijgwiyedai). 
film, n. Aogi ; ha. 
filter, vt. Puskepa. 
filth, ft. Ta'kusica. 
filthy, a. Sa'pa ; si'ca. 
fin, w. Hogaijape. 
final, a. Ehake. 
finally, adv. 1. Uij'haijketa : finally 

I succeeded. 2. Ehake : finally 

I say. 
finance, ». Ma'zaskaokicanye. 
financial, a. Ma'zaskaon. 
find, found, vt. Iyeya ; ehani ; ihni ; 

finding, «. Iyeyapi ; yasnpi. 
fine, a. I. Waste; wayupika; owa- 

stecaka; oiyokipi. 2. Ci'stinna; 

sbu'na; kpan'na; zizipena. vt. 

Wayusica kazuzukiyapi. n. 

finely, adv. Oiyokipiya. 
fineness, n. Wowaste. 
finery, n. Oi)itai)pi. 
finger, n. Napsukaza; nape. vt. 

finger-ring, n. Ma'zanapcupe ; Y. 

napsiohdi; T. napsiohli. 
finish* vt. Yustan ; ihunni. 
finite, a. Ihankeyukai). 
finny, a. Ho'apeyukan. 
fir, w. Wazisinota. 
fire, n. 1. Pe'ta; oide: make a 

fire. 2. Ma'zakan utapi. vt. 

1. tdeya : fire the hay. 2. Ma'- 

zakan ecoi) : fire the cannon. 
firearm, n. Ma'zakan. 
firebrand, ft. Petuspa. 
firecracker, n. Napobyapi. 
firefly, w. Wanyeca. 
fireman, ft. Pe'takuwa. 
fireplace, n. Ikceoceti. 
fireproof, a. Ideyepicasni. 
fireside, ft. Petkahda. 
firesteel, n. Canka. 
firewood, ft. Can'aonpi. 
firm, a. Suta; tin'za. n. Woecon 

firmament, n. Okotonyan. 
firmly, adv. Sutaya. 
firmness, n. Wosuta. 
first, a. & adv. Tokaheya ; Y. To* 

keya ; tokapa. 
first-begotten, a. Tokaheya icaga. 
first-born, a. Tokapa. 
first-class, a. Iyotai) waste. 
first-fruit, ft. Tokaioage. 


first-hand, a. Toka-yuha. 
firstling, a. Tokaheyatonpi. 
firstly, adv. Tokaheya. 
first-rate, a. Ni'nawaste. 
fish*n. Hogan. vt. Hokuwa; ho'- 
psica ; hwa. Fish out, yusdu- 
ta; yuze. 
fish-bone, Hogan Ira. 
fisher, n. Skeea ; hokuwa. 
fisherman, n. Hokuwa wicasa. 
fishery, n # Hokuwapi. 
fish-hawk, n. 2ozoka. 
fish-hook, n. Cakiyuhuge ; hoiyu- 

fish-net, n. Ho ; ho wi'yuze. 
fishscales, n. Hocespu. 
fishy, a. Hogan se ; hmun/za. 
fissure, n. Oko ; onasdeca. 
fist, n. Napeyupsunka. 
fit, a. Iyeceoa ; iyecetu ; he'cetu. 
vi. Kipi ; iyecetu : the dress fits 
well. vt. Kipi ka'ga ; ecetuya ; 
iyokipiya. n. Hnaskinjaijpi ; 
kiksuyesni; inafrni ni'na eee- 
fitful, a. Hahayedai) skaqpi. 
fitly, adv. Tanyal). 
fitness, «. Woiyeoetu. 
fitting, n. Kipikaga. 
fire, a. Za'ptai). 

fix, vt. 1. Piya : fix the broken 
wheel. 2. Taijyai) e'hnaka : fix 
the room up. 3. E'hde; suta 
\&'g&: fix your eyes on me. n. To'- 
ketu taijii) sni : I'm in a fix. 
fixed, pa. Piyapi; sutayahai). 
fixings, n. Oij'piyapi. 
fixture, n. Ta'ku ikoyaghdepi. 
fizz, vi. Sdi. 

fizzle, vi. Ecacaokihi sni. 
flabby, a. Dehdega. 
flag, n. 1. Wi'yoMhedan ; Y.&T. 
wowapi. 2. Peziapemdaska. vt. 
Minihuhakoza : flag the train. 
vi. Hun/kesni aya. 
flagon, n. Wiyokastan. 
flagstone, n. fn'yanrodaska. 
flagrant, a. Tan.ii) ; ni'na si'ca. 

67 fleet 

flail, vt. Apa. n. Wi'bopai). 
flake, n. Wokpan ; waokpe. 
flame, n. Oide; idesasa; wocan- 

flaming, pa. Ide ; wohitika. 
Fiandreau, n. Wakpaipaksai). 
flange, n. Tete. 
flank, n. Nigute ; cecuste ; T. La- 

gute. vt. Aohomniya. 
flannel, n. Powayedan. 
flap, vt. Apa; nupahu on apa. 

vi. Ko'za. n. Ape. 
flare, vi. Iyega. 
flaring, pa. Wiyakpa ; itanka. 
flash, vt. Yuwiyakpa ; kohanyeya. 

vi. Wiyakpa hinhda; dus'hi- 

yaya. n. Sa'hinhda. 
flashy, a. Kpa'kpa ; ihapise. 
flask, n. 2anzanmdaska ; cahdi- 

flat, a. 1. Mdaska : a flat stone. 

2. Mdaya : a flat country. 3. 

Ihukuya : a flat note. vt. Yu- 

hukuya; yumdaya. n. Mako- 

mdaya; ta'ku mdaska; ti pi 

owanka. adv. Mdaskaya. 
Flathead, n. Natamdeca. 
flatlron, n. Wi'pamdaye. 
flatly, adv. A'wicakeya. 
flatten, vt. Yumdaska. 
flatter, vt. Ecayawaste. 
flatterer, n. Iskuya. 
flaunt, vt. Ko'za ; ihdatan. 
flavor, n. Ecamna ; utapi. vt. Wa- 

stemnaya ; sku'yeya. 
flaw, n. Oijspa si'ca ; osnaze. 
flax, n. Hanontahu. 
flaxen, a. Zizi. 
flaxseed, n. Hanontahusu. 
flea,n. Ha; T. hala. 
fled, imp. of flee. 
fledged, a. Eihipi. 
fledgUng, a. £izi. 
flee, fled, vi. Nazica. 
fleece, n. Ta'hcaska hin ; hin ; hin 

okasda wanzi. vt. Ki. 
fleet, a. Du'zahan. n. Wi'tawata 
I optaye. 


fleeting , pa. Ohankohiyaya. 

flesh, n. Conica ; cehpi ; tado. 

fleshly, a. Wicacenpi. 

fleshy, a. Cehpitaijka ; ee'pa. 

flew, imp. of fly. 

flexible, a. Swiijswii)4edan,. 

flicker, vi. Taijiijii). 

flier, n. Ta'kukinyaij. 

flies, n. pi. of fly, honagidai). 

flies, vi. Sd p. sing, of fly. 

flight, ft. Wonazice ; kinyanpi. 

flighty, a. Ske'he. 

flimsy, a. Zigzica ; ta'kusni. 

flinch, vi. Napa. 

Hinder, ». Wokpe. 

fling, flnng, vt. Kanoiyeya. n. Oka- 

flint, ». Waijhi. 
flinty, a. Wanhise ; ni'nasuta. 
flippant, a. Awaciijsni ; ske'he. 
flirt, vt. Kahoiyeya ; kiskata. ft. 

Win'yan skatesa. 
flit, vi. Dus hiyaye ; kinyan. 
float, vi. O'kapota ; o'kahboka. 

vt. O'kaponya ; iyayeya. 
flock, ft. Optayej obe. vi. Wi'- 

taya hiyu ; mm'ciya. 
flog, vt. Kapsinpsinta ; apa. 
flogging, n. Kapsinpsirjtapi. 
flood, n. Minitan ; o'ta. vt. Amni- 

floor, ft. Owanka; canmdaska 

owinza. vt. Owinzakaga ; kun 

flooring, w. Owinza canmdaska. 
flop, vt. Kaskapa ; ko'za. 
florid, a. da ; sasa. 
florist, n. Wahcakicanye. 
flossy, a. Pai)pai)na. 
flounder, vi. Kahofro iyei^iya. 
flour, n. Aguyapi ; ta'ku mdu. 
flour-mill, n. Wokpantipi. 
flourish, vi. Tanyai) icaga ; tanyai) 

wanka : crops flourish. 2. Ka- 

hohoskai) : he flourished around. 

vt. Ko'za : he flourished his 

whip. ft. Koskoeya owapi ; ko'- 


68 foist 

flow, vt. Kaduza; uya; bomdu. 
ft. Hiyupi. 

flower, ft. 1. Wahca : red flowers. 
2. Tona iyotai) waste : the 
flower of the army. vi. fioa. 

flowing, pa. Kaduza. 

flown, pp. of fly. 

fluctuate,!*. Aketokeca; hahadan. 

flue, ft. So'taohdoka. 

Floyd River, n.Cohwaijzica Wakpa. 

fluent, a. Hdaheyaia ; kaduza. 

fluid, a. Ta'kukaduza ; mini. 

flung, imp. of fling. 

flurry, vt. Wacinhnuniya. n. Ibo- 
bdu ; to'ketu tanii) sni. 

flush* vi. Itenasa: mini ozudan. 
a. Ozudan ; o'citkonza. 

flustrate, vt. Kiksuyesniya. 

flute, ft. Co'yatanka. 

flutter, vi. Ko'za ; dkanskan, 

flux, ti. Kazopi ; we'iheyapi. 

fly, flew, flown, vt. 1. Kiijyai) : 
birds fly. 2. Kiijyai) se iyaye : 
she flew to his aid, vt. Kiij- 
yankiya. ft. Honagidai); kin- 
yai)pina. The flag fllies, wi'yo- 
kihedai) kafrbftka. — To fly into 
fragments, kpanyena napopa. 
— Let fly f kahoiyeya. 

flyaway, a. Ske'he. 

flyblow, ft. Honagidanitka. 

flying, pa. Dus'yapi ; ko'za. 

flypaper, ft. Honagidaqikmnnke. 

flyspecks, n. Honagidancesdi. 

flying-squirrel, n. Psinca. 

fiying-yisit, ft. Inannititokaijipi. 

foal, ft. Sunkcincana. 

foam, ft. Tage. 

focus, ft. Okiwita. 

fodder, n. Wanuyaijpiwoyute. 

foe, ft. To'ka. 

fog, ft. Minipo ; opo. 

foggy, a. Opo ; po. 

fogy, ft. Ehannawicasa. 

foible, ft. Woyusna. 

foil, vt. Okihisniya ; hna'yaq. ft. 

foist, vt. En'iyeya. 


fold, vt. Pehan ; yukipaza. n. 1. 

Opehe; oyuksiza. 2. Optaye. 
folder, n. Wi'yuksize. 
foliage* n. Caqwapa. 
folk, n. Wicasta ; tin'takuye. 
follow, vt. 1. Thakam ya; ihakam 

u ; iyayuha. 2. Iyecenecoi) ; 

okipa: follow instructions. 3. 

Pasi ; kuwa : follow the deer. 
follower, n. OoMye ; hakamun. 
folly, n. Wowitkotkoka. 
foment, vt. Tukata ; icanya. 
fond, a. 1. (with of) Wastedaka ; 

teniqda : fond of playing. 2. 

Waihakta ; wacantkiya : a fond 

fondle, vt. Kihna ; kicanpta. 
fondly, adv. Ihaktaya. 
fondness, n. Woihakta. 
font, n. Miniohnakapi ; minindo- 

ka; mazaoowa. 
food, n. Woyute ; do. 
fool, n. Witkotkoka ; wacii)toi)sni. 

vt. Hna'yai). vi. Ecaecoq. Fool 

with, kici ska'ta. 
foolhardy, a. Wacintoijsni wadi- 

fooling, pa. Ska'ta. 
foolish, a. Waeiijtoijsiii. 
foolishness, n. Wowitkotkoka. 
foot, feet, n. 1. Siha; si : a sore 

foot. 2. Sihaiyutapi : two feet 

long. 3. Kun'iharjke ; ihukuya : 

at the foot of his class, vi. Ma- 

kaamaniya ; huiijyunya. vt. 1. 

Yawa ; yuwitaya : foot up the 

column of figures. 2. Kazuzn : 

foot the bill. 
football, n. Sitapa. 
foothold, n. Oiyahe. 
footing, n. Sihahdepi. 
footprint, n. Owe. 
footrace, n. Kiijinyankapi. 
footsore, a. Sihayazaq. 
footstep, n. Gahdepi. 
footstool, n. Sihaahdehe. 
fop, n. Heyakeitai). 
foppish* a. Wi'taijtai). 

69 forehead 

for, prep. 1. On ; on'etanhan : do 
it for me. 2. Eciyatanhai) : I 
am for peace. 3. Ee ; he'ea : 
I took you for a gentleman. 4. 
Ta'wa : this book is for you. 
As for me, miye eke. — For all 
he can do, oeyas; he'easta. — 
For a year, hehanyai). — For all 
the world, a'taya. — Go for f oi) 
ya ; huweya ; hiyoya ; takpe ya. 
— Were it not for, e'e sni kiij- 
hai). — We took train for \ ekta 
unyanpi kta on hemani o'un- 
papi. con). Nakaes; oi) etan- 
hai) ; cai)kedaka : I did not go, 
for it was cold. 

forage, n. Wanuyaijpi woyute. 
vi. Woyute ihni. 

forasmuch, conj. Nakaes. 

foray, n. Wamanon. ozuye. 

forbad, imp. of forbid. 

forbear, vt. Pataka ; ecoqsni. 

forbearance, n. Waciijtankapi. 

forbid, vt. Teninda ; iyokisni. 

forbidden, pa. Tehiijdapi. 

force, vt. Pyopastaka; kitaijyan. 
ecoqkiya. n. 1. Wowas'ake : 
the force of laic. 2. Ozuye; 
optaye ; obe : the American 

forceful, a. Was'aka. 

forcible, a. Was'aka. 

ford, vt. Gopa ; iyuwega. n. Oiyu- 

tore;pref. Ptokam. 

fore, a. Watokahan ; otokahe. 

forebode, vt. Ptokam oyaka. 

forecast, vt. Ptokam iyukcan. 

forecastle, n. Watokapa. 

foreclose, vt. Nakitaka. 

forefather, n. Huijkake. 

forefoot, n. Si'toka. 

forefront, n. Otokahe. 

forego, vt. Kpagan. 

foregoing, pa. Ptokamwanka. 

foregone, pa. Ptokam yustanpi. 

forehanded, a. Kohai) yustaq. 

forehead, n. Ite ; nasu. 

foreign 70 

foreign, a. Oyatetokeca ; to'keca. 
foreknow, vt. I'tokam sdonya. 
forelock, n. Itehin. 
foreman, ft. Tokahekiyapi. 
foremost, a. Tokahan. 
forenoon, n. Wi'cokayasni. 
foreordain, vt. I'tokam yustan. 
forerunner, n. I'tokam ya. 
foresee, vt. I'tokam sdonya. 
forest, n. Con'tanka. 
forestall, vt. I'tokam kagiya. 
foretaste, n. I'tokam utapi. 
foretell, vt. I'tokam oyaka. 
forethought, n. Iwaktapi. 
forever, adv. Owihankewanica. 
forewarn, vt. Iwaktaya. 
forfeit, vt. Yusna. 
forgat, imp. of forget. 
forgave, imp. of forgive. 
forge, vt. Ka'ga. n. Ma'zakaga 

forgery, n. Wowapi wohnaye 

forget, vt. Akiktonza. 
forgetful, a. Wacinktonza. 
forgive, vt. Ki'cicazuzu. 
forgiveness, n. Wokazuzu. 
forgot, imp. of forget. 
fork, n. 1. Wi'cape : knives and 

forks. 2. Ozate : the fork of a 

forked, a. 2a'te ; ga'ta. 
forlorn, a. On'gika; oiyoki&ica. 
form, n. Oka'ge ; tancan ; oui) ; 

oecoi). Forms of worship, wo- 

cekiye oecoi). vt. Ka'ga. 
formal, a. Woope ohnahca econpi. 
formation, n. Okage. 
former, a. Tokaheya ; i'tokam. n. 

Tu'we ka'ga. 
formerly, adv. Ehanna. 
formidable, a. Wowinihai). 
formula, n. Woeye. 
formulate, vt. Woeye ka'ga. 
fornication, n. Wawicihanapi. 
forsake, vt. Ayiistan ; ehpeya. 
forsooth, adv. Iesni. 
fort, n. Akicitatipi; coq'ka&ke. 


Fort Berthold, n. flewaktoktotipi. 

Fort Bnford, n. Minisoseozate. 

Fort Laramie, n. Kampeskawakpa 

Fort Pierre, n. Wakpasica. 
' Fort Snelllng, n. fianamdote. 

Fort Sully, n. Hnhbozu. 

Fort Totten, n. Miniwakan. 

Fort Yates, n. In'yanbosdata. 

forte, n. Ta'ku okihi. 

forth, adv. Tokata ; tankan. 

forthcoming, a. Hi kta. 

forthwith, adv. Wan'cahnaua. 

fortification, n. Makaokapi. 

fortify, vt. Ohomnikapi. 

fortitude, n. Wowaditake. 

fortnight, n. Anpetuaketopa. 

fortress, n. Akicitaconkaske. 

fortuitous, a. Wanuwakipapi. 

fortunate, a. Wa'pi ; okiciwaste. 

fortune, n. Wowizice ; woakipa. 

forty, a. Wikoemnatopa. 

forward, a. 1. Otokahe: the for- 
ward seat. 2. Onanko: a for- 
tcatd spring. 3. Tokata : a 
forward jump. vt. 1. Iyopteya : 
forward the work. 2. Iyayeya : 
forward my letters, adv. To- 
kata: go forward. 

fossil, n. In'yanhuhu. 

foster, vt. Icanya. 

foster-parent, n. Hunkakedni ica- 

fought, imp. of FIGHT. 

foul, a. 1. da'pa; si'ca. 2. Woope 
ohna sni; foul play. vt. Yusi- 
ca; yusosa. 

found, imp. of find. 

found, vt. E'hde ; otokahe ka'ga. 

foundation, n. Oahehde. 

founder, n. Tu'weka'ga. vi. Spa'- 
ya ; mininiyaya. vt. Spa'yeya. 

foundry, n. Ma'zasdoyatipi. 

fount, fountain, n. Mininya; mi- 
nindoka ; minibobduyapi. 

four, a. To'pa. By fours, tom'- 

fourfold, n. To'paakihde. 




fourscore, a. Wikeemnasahdogan. 

fourteen, a. Aketopa. 

fourth, a. Itopa ; to'payufipapi. 

fourthly, adv. Itopa. 

fowl, «. Kokoyahanna; wahupa- 

fowler, n. Wahupakoza kntesa. 

fox, foxes, n. dungidan. 

Fox, n. Besdeke. 

foxy, a. Ksa'pa. 

fraction, n. Onspa ; Hba&papi. 

fractions, a. Ske'he ; wananonsni. 

fracture, vt Yuwega. n. Yuwe- 
gapi ; yuksapi. 

fragile, a. Wan'kadan. 

fragment, n. Onspa ; otutka. 

fragrance, n. Woomna. 

fragrant, a. Wastemna. 

frail, a. Sutasni; hahadai). 

frame, vt Ka'ga ; ti'pihunaka'ga. 
n. Huha: wacinoyuze. 

framer, n. Tu'weka'ga. 

franchise, w. Kansniyofipeyapi. 

frank, a. Ananbesni. n. Caze- 

frankly, odr. Ananbesni. 

frantic, a. Mde'zesni. 

fraternal, a. Hunkawanzitku. 

fraternity, n. Hnnkawanzikiciyapi. 

fraud, n. Wohnaye. 

fraudulent, a. Wicakesni ; wo- 

fraught, pa. Ozudan. 

freak, n. Woskateohanye. 

freckle, n. Ukahdeze. 

free, a. 1. Ta'waiciya ; ihduha ; 
kaskapisni: a free man. Set 
free, Myuska. 2. Onanpi ; kpa- 
tansni : he is too free with his 
money : free and easy. 3. Co'- 
dan '.free from pain. 4. Kagi- 
sni : free to talk. 5. Kazuzu- 
sni : a free dinner. Make free 
mth 9 to'ken cin ecoi). vt. Yu- 
ska ; kiyuska. 

freedman, n. Kiynskapi. 

freedom, n. Ta'wai^iyapi. 

freely, adv. Iyuwincodan. 

free trade, n. Kazuzusni wope- 

freewill, a. lye tawacin ohna. 
freeze, vt. Tasagya. vt. Tasaka ; 

ca'ga. Freeze to death, cjiwi- 

ta \&. 
freezing, pa. Ca'ga. 
freight, vt. Toksu ; watoksu. 
French, a. Wasieunikceka. 
frenzy, n. Wohnaskinyai). 
frequency, n. I'ciMyedan. 
frequent, a. I'cikiyedai). 
frequent 7 , a. En i'pi s'a. 
frequently, adv. Icizehan ; -s'a. 
fresh, a. 1. Te'ca; nakahaicage : 

fresh flowers. 2. Nakaha kte'pi ; 

do : fresh meat. 3. Watukasni : 

a fresh horse. 4. Sku'ye sni : 

fresh fish. 5. Onspekesni : a 

fresh country lad. 
freshen, vt. Yuteca. 
freshet, n. Minitan. 
freshly, adv. Piya ; tecanien. 
fret, vt. Iyokipisni ; ce'yektakta. 
fretful, a. Ce'yes'a. 
friction, n. I'cipayezapi; kicipa- 

Friday, n. Anpetu Izaptai). 
friend, n. Koda; kicuwa ; ta'wasi ; 

wastedaka. His friend, tako- 

friendless, a. Takodaku wanioa. 
friendly, a. Kodayapi iyececa. 
friendship, n. Kodakiciyapi. 
frigate, n. Ozuye wi'tawata. 
fright, n. Woyusinyaye. 
frightful, a. Okokipe. 
frigid, a. Sni ; osni. 
frill, n. Opapun yukipas ka'gapi. 
fringe, n. Opapun n'eh'e. 
frisk, vi. Psi'psin skaij. 
frisky, a. Ska'tewaeii). 
fritter, vt. Yutakunidni. n. Agu- 

frivolous, a. Ta'kusni. 
frizzle, vt Yumnimniza. 
fro, adv. Etai)hai). To and fro, 





frock, w. Nitoske. 

frog, n. Hna'ska. Tree frog, hna'- 

frolic, n. Ska'tapi; wodkate. vi. 

frolicsome, a. Ska'tes'a. 
from, prep. Etanhan. From 

whence, totanhan. — Wfccrc 

/row, to'kiyatanhan. 
front, ft. Ite : toe ^Vo»* o/ toe 

store. In front of, i'tokam ; 

ikanye. vi. Itoheyahan. a. 

frontier, a. O'tokahe; opapun. 
frontiersman, w. Tokaahiyotanke. 
frost, ft. fiewaijka ; wotasaka. 
frosty, n. Canhotka ; sni'sni. 
frothy n. Tage ; ta'kusni. 
frothy, a. Tageyukai). 
frow, ». Winonca. 
froward, a. Pemni. 
frown, vi. Iteaksinkiya. 
froze, imp. of freeze. 
frozen, pa. Tasaka; ca'ga. 
frugal, a. Wakpataij. 
frugality, w. Wakpatanpi. 
fruit, w. 1. Waskuyeca : peaches 

and other fruits. 2. Ta'ku ica- 

ge ; toe fruits of the earth. 3. 

Wokazuzu : toe fruit of evil 

fruitful, a. Waicaga. 
fruitless, a. Waicagesni; waka- 

frustrate, vt. OMhisniya. 
fry, fried, vt. Ceguguya. n. Cegu- 

guyapi; optaye. 
frying-pan, n. Cefrhupatonna. 
fuddled, pa. Itomni. 
fudge, interj. Hon. 
fuel, n. Ta'kuaonpi; cai). 
fugitive, ft. Nazicaun. 
ful, suffix. Ozudai) : a cupful. 
fulfill, vt. Ecetukiya; yustai). 
full, a. 1. Ozudai) : a full house. 

2. A'taya: full pay. 3. Tan'ka: 

a full face. adv. I'tkonsya ; 

fullness, n. Woozudan. * 
fatly, adv. A'taya; iyehanyan. 
fumble, vt. Yutantan ; yusna. 
fume, vi. So'ta ; izita ; canze. 
fumigate, vt. Izinya. 
fun, ft. Woskate ; wowiha. Make 

fun of, wowiha kuwa. 
function, ft. Wookihi ; woecon. 
fund, n. Ma'zaskahnakapi ; wo- 

fundamental, a. O'hute. 
funeral, n. Wicahnakapi. 
funnel, ft. Iokastan pesto. 
funny, funnier, a. Wowiha. 
fur, ft. Hin ; wawaha. 
furious, a. Wohitika. 
furiously, adv. Wohitiya. 
furl, vt. Yupohan. 
furlong, ft. Cahdepi opawinge 

furlough, ft. Akicita inahni hdi. 
furnace, n. Oceti ka'ta. 
furnish, vt. Ku ; ikieanye ihni. 
furnished, pa. Ikieanye yukeya. 
furniture, n. Ti'pi ikieanye. 
furor, ft. Wicayumdezapisni. 
furrow, ft. Yugopi. 
further, a. 1. Sanpa te'han : if is 

further than that. 2. Nakui) : 

what further. 3. Ako ; ako- 

tanhan : the further side. vt. 

Iyopteya; o'kiya. 
furthermore, adv. Nakui). 
furthermost, a. Akoihanke. 
furthest, a. Iyotai) te'han. 
fury, ft. Woohitika. 
fnse, vt. Sdoya; iciyaskapa. ft. 

On itkonyapi. 
fusion, ft. Yuokonwanzidan. 
fuss, vi. Ta'kusni okoya. 
fussy, a. Ta'kusni iyokipisni. 
futile, a. Iyokihisni. 
future, ft. Tokata. 
fuzz, ft. Hinkpanna. 





gab, n. Ta'kusniia ; iayanka. 
gabble, vi. Ta'kusni oi) ni'na iaa. 
gable, n. Tice. 
gad, tri. Ituya omani un. n. Can- 

gag, vt. I yuhmunza ; katka. 
gage, vt. Iyuta. 
gaiety, n. Wi'yuskinpi. 
gaily, adv. Wi'yiiskinyai). 
gala, trt. 1. Kamna : gain a dollar. 

2. Ohiya ; okihi : gain the suit. 

3. Kihdega; iyohi : gain ground. 
n. Wokamna ; ma'zaska ; aica- 
ge ; obago. 

gainsay, vt. I en hiyeya. 

gait, n. Omani. 

gaiter, n. Can'hanpaiskahuton. 

gale, n. Tateyaqpa was'aka. 

gall, n. Pizi. trt. Ha'yusdoka. 

gallant 7 , vt. Awanyag a'ya. 

gai'lant, w. Tu'we awanyag ya; 

tu'we waditaka. a. Wawiyo- 

gallantly, adv. Iyokipiya. 
gallantry, n. Wowaditake. 
gallery, n. Tihepiya owanka ; ite- 

owapi ti'pi. 
galley, n. 1. Wi'tawata mdaska ; 

ma'zaehdepi wohnake. 
galling, pa. Tenika; ha'yusdoka. 
gallon, n. Oeganstinna oiyute. 
gallop, vi. Nawanka ; in/yanka. 
galloway, n. Ptesapahinsma. 
gallows, n. Anna wotkeyapi. 
galvanism, n. Wakanhdi hde'pi. 
gamble, vt. Wayekiya; econua. 
gambler, n. Eeonnas'a. 
gambol, vi. dka'ta ; psi'psinun. 
game, n. 1. Woskate ; econpina : 

a game of ball. 2. Waraaka- 

6kan ; ta'ku ikce un. a. Wa- 

gander, n. Ma&a mdoka. 
gaag, n. Obe ; optaye. 

gangway, n. Cankuyapi. 
gantlet, n. Oiqyaqgkuwapi. 
gap, vt. Kahci. n. ftci ; oko. 
gape, vi. Iyowa; yukawa; T. 

iyoya. n. Yukawapi. 
garb, n. Heyake ; oihduze. 
garbage, n. Ta'kuehpeyapi. 
garble, vt. Onspaspa enpeya. 
garden, n. Mahcistinna. 
gardener, n. WaMcanye. 
garfish, n. Ho'waijmduska. 
gargle, vt. Dote hduzaza. 
garland, n. Canwapaokaake. 
garlic, n. Psin ikceka. 
garment, n. Heyake ; o'kde. 
garner, vt. Ohnaka. n. Wohna- 

ka; womnaye. 
garnish, vt. Yuwaste ; koyagya. 
garret, n. Tice. 
garrison, n. Akicitatipi. 
garter, n. Hunskicane. 
gas, n. Tateide ; tatesica. 
gash, vt. Bahon. n. Obahon. 
gasoline, n. Wi'hdi on acetipi. 
gasp, vi. Ki'tanh niya. 
gate, n. Con'ka&ketiyopa. 
gateway, n. Tiyopa oko. 
gather, vt. Pahi ; mnayan : gather 

sticks; gather fruit. 2. Iyukcan : 

I gather from his remarks. 3. 

Kage ieu : gather the skirt. 

4. Yuksa : gather corn. vi. 1. 

Wi'taya ; a crowd gathered. 2. 

Tonye : the sore gathered. 
gathering, n. O'yuwitaya; omni- 

ciye ; po ; tonye. 
gandy, a. &ayapihca. 
gauge, vt. Iyuta. 
gaunt, a. Sta'ka ; tamaheca. 
gauze, n. Capongokeya. 
gave, imp. of give. 
gavel, n. Itancai) tacanhpi. 
gawky, a. Onanoijspekesni. 
gay, a. W/'haha; wi'yuakin. 


gaze, vi. Opahtakuwa. 

gazelle, n. Tatokadai]. 

gaiette, n. Wotaniijwowapi. 

gear, n. Ikai) ; wi'yuhomni. vt. 

gee, vi. Akoyuhomni. 

geese, pi. of goose. 

gelatine, n. Tadonini. 

gelding, n. Susuwanica. 

gem, n. Iij'yantehika; ta'ku ni'na 

gender, n. Wica kais wiij'yan. 

genealogy, n. Wicoicage oyakapi. 

general, n. Akicitatai)cai) tan'ka. 
a. 1. A'taya ; ecaken : the gen- 
eral welfare. 2. A'taya yuhapi ; 
ece : a general custom. 

generally, adv. Ecee ; a'taya. 

generate, vt. Ka'ga. 

generation, n. Wicoicage; ka'ga- 
pi; ciqcakagapi. 

genesis, n. Wicoicage oyakapi. 

genial, a. Okiciwaste. 

genius, n. Wowayupika; waka- 

gens, n. Tiospaye. 

genteel, a. Oiyokipi. 

gentility, n. Wowahbadai). 

gentle, a. Wa'hbadan; ci'stiijna. 

gentleman, n. Wicastawahba. 

gentleness, n. Wowahbadai). 

gently, adv. Iwastedai). 

gentry* n. Wica&ta okinihai). 

genuine, a. Wicaka. 

genus, n. Obe. 

geography, n. Makaoyakapi. 

geology, n. Makamahentuoyaka. 

germ, n. Su ; cante. 

German, n. Iasica. 

germinate, vi. Natuuya. 

gesticulate, in. Wi'kiyuta. 

gesture, n. Wi'kiyutapi. vi. Wi'- 

get, got, vt. 1. Icu; huweya; oki- 
ni : get some water. 2. Yuha : 
she has got brown hair. 3. Ku- 
wa ; oijspeiciciya : get your les- 
son. 4. Iyaya : get out. 5. 

74 girder 

Kiya ; ecoijkiya : get him to 
work. 6. I'yopastaka ; to'ketu 
ceyas : you have got to go. Get 
ahead, iyopte. — Get along, iyo- 
pte. — Get at, iyohi. — Get away, 
tokaqya. — Get away with, yuso- 
ta ; yuha iyaya. — Get back, hdi ; 
heyam inazii) . — Get before, i'to- 
kam iyaye. — Get behind, he'kta 
iyaya. — Get clear, ihdusdoka. 
— Get drunk, witko. — Get for- 
ward, iyopta. — Get home y tiyata 
M. — Get hurt, ksu'weya. — Get 
in, mahen iyaya. — Get loose, 
yuska. — Get off, ipsica; kina- 
ziij. — Get on, iyopte. — Get rid 
off, kiihduspa. — Get out, tan- 
kan iyaye. — Get over, sam ya ; 
akisni.— -Get sick, wayazanka. 
— Get together, wi'tayapi — Get 
up, inazii) ; iyaya. — Get wind 
of, nakihon. 

gewgaw, n. Ta'kusni. 

geyser, n. Makohdoka minibosdi. 

gastly, a. Woyusinyaye. 

ghost, n. Wanagi. 

ghostly, adv. Wanagise. 

giant, n. Wicasta taijka. 

gibe, vt. Yasica. 

giddy, a. Itomni. 

gift, n. Ta'ku ituhaijpi ; wicaku ; 

gifted, pa. Ksa'pa; zinyapl. 

gig, n. Canpakmiyanhunonpa. 

gigantic, a. Tan'kahca. 

giggle, vi. Pamahen ihaha. 

gild, vt. Ma'zaskazi apawinta. n. 

gill, n. 1. Caka. 2. Wi'yatke ci'- 
• stinna oiyute. 

gilt, a. Ma'zaskazi apawintapi. 

gimlet, n. Caniyumni ci'stinna. 

gin, n. Miniwakai) wa&temna. 

ginger, n. Aguyapiicahi gi. 

gingerly; adv. Itonpeya. 

gingham, n. Minihuhahdeze. 

gird, girt, vt. Ipiyagkiton. 

girder, n. Caniciyakaska. 


girdle, n. Ipiyake. 

girl, n. Wiciijyaijna. Y. Wiciij- 
cana, T. Wiciijcala. 

girlish, a. Wichjyaijnase. 

girth, ft. Ipiyake. 

gist, n. Co. 

give, gave, vt. $u; ituMhan; eciya; 
okiyake; yutai)ii). Giveaway, 
itu&ai). — Give back, ki'cu. — 
Give chase, kuwaeyaya. — Give 
in, enakiye. — Give out, pamni ; 
oyaka ; okihisni ; ma'nisni. — 
Give up, i'yakicuijiii; \u. — Give 
way to, kiyukai). vi. Sutasni; 

gizzard, n. Tezi ; zitkatezi. 
glad, a. 1. Iyu&kii) ; pida : a glad 

boy. 2. Wowiyuakiij : a glad 

gladden, vt Iyuskhjkiya. 
gladly, adv. Iyuskiqyai). 
gladness, n. Wowiyuskii). 
gladsome, a. Wi'yuskiijkiya. 
glance, vt. Waijyag iheya. vi. 1. 

Kasdun iyaya: the ball glanced. 

2. Ahitoijwai) : he glanced at 

me. 3. Dus iyaye. 
glanders, n. Stuj'kawakai) po'ge- 

glare, vi. Wiyakpa ; iyega. 
glaring, pa. Istowicasniza ; taqii)- 

glass, n. 1. 2ai)zai) : a piece of 

glass. 2. Istamaza ; istazaq- 

zaq : eye-glasses. 3. 2ai)zai)- 

wiyatke: drinking -glass. 
glassy, a. 2ai)zai)se. 
glaze, trt. Zaqzaqse apawiqtapi. 
gleam, ri. Iyega ; wiyakpa. 
glean, vt. To'na okapta mnayai). 
glee, n. Wowiyuskii). 
glee-club, n. Wiyuskiijdowaijpi 

gkn,n. Eaksiza. 
glib, a. fidusduta. 
glide, tri. A'niniduahiyaya. 
glimmer, vt. Taqiqii) ; kpa'kpa. 
glimpse, n. Waijyag iheyapi. 

75 goal 

glitter, vi. Wiyakpakpa. 

gloam, n. Owataqiijsni. 

gloat, vi. Wosice wi'piiciya. 

globe, n. Makamibe. 

globular, a. Mibe. 

globale, n. Ta'kumibe ci'stiijna. 

gloom, n. Woiyokisica ; o'kpaza 

gloomy, a. Oiyokisica ; o'kpaza. 

glorify, vt. Yatai) ; yawaste. 

glorious, a. Wastehca; wowinihai). 

glory, n. Wowitai). vi. Itaij. 

gloss, vt. Pasduta ; pawiyakpa ; 
to'ketu oyaka. 

glossy, a. Wiyakpa ; sdusduta. 

glove, n. Napinkpayugaga. 

glow, vi. dasa ; ka'ta. 

glowing, a. Ka'ta ; izaijzai). 

glue,n. Con'pe&ka. vt. A'skamya. 

glue-pot, n. Coq'peska iokanye. 

glum, a. Ininahui). 

glut, vt. Ozuya; wi'piyehca. n. 

glutton, n. Wotesa ; wi'pifciciya. 

gluttonous, a. Wotesa. 

gluttony, n. Wi'pijapi. 

gnarl, n. Osnaze ; yuwipi. 

gnash, vt. Yakiqskiqza. 

gnat, n. Hopoijkadai). 

gnaw, vi. Yakega. 

go, went, gone, vi. 1. Ya ; iyaye : 
go east. 2. Iyopte : the mill 
goes. 3. Ohnaya ; e'yustanpi : 
the election went Republican. 
Go against, i'tkokimya ; iyapa. 
— Go astray, nii'ni. — Go bail 
for, iye oi) woyuha kaska. — 
Go for, huweya: kuwa. — Go 
hard with, teMke kta. — Go off, 
to'ki ya ; bosdoka. — Go on, 
saij'pa ya; ska'ta. — Go on a 
journey, i'cimani ya. — Go it, 
to'ken okihi ecoi). — Go out, 
tai)kanya; sni; oyakapi. — Go 
through, iyopta iyaya ; ynstai) ; 
akipa. Let go, iyayeya ; ayu- 

goad, vt. Capa. n. Wi'cape. 

goal, n. Oinaziqta. 


goat, n. He'kinskayapi. 

goatee, «. Ikuhii). 

gobble, vt. 1. Hotonton : the turkey 

gobbles. 2. Onanko napcapca. 
gobbler, w. Zi'catanka mdoka. 
goblet, ft. 2anzai)wiyatkehanska. 
go-by, n. Woaktasni. 
God, n. Wakantanka ; Ta'kuwa- 

goddess, n. Ta'kuwakan win'yan. 
godfather, n. Baptisma en atewi- 

Godhead, n. Wakantanka ouncage. 
godless, a. Wakantanka ohodasni. 
godlike, a. Ta'kuwakan iyececa. 
godly, a. Wakantanka awacin. 
Godsend, n. Wakantanka etanhan. 
Godspeed, ft. Wakantanka ni'ci 


goer, ». Tu'we iyopte. 

goes, 3d per. sing. go. 

goggles, n. Istamaza o'geton. 

going, w. Woiyopte ; oaye. 

gold, ft. Ma'zaskazi. 

golden, a. 1. Ma'zaskazi : golden 
spectacles. 2. Zizi ; ziyena : 
golden hair. 3. Ni'na waste : 
golden words. 

%ont f pa. Iyaya; kihda; henana. 

gong, ft. Can'cega sna. 

good, a. 1. Waste : a good boy. 
2. Ki'tanna : a good deal (M- 
tanna ota). 3. Wowicake : a 
good whipping. Good at, tan- 
yan okihi. — Good for : on wa- 
ste ; i waste. — Good looking : 
owanyag waste. — Good to : 
tanyan kuwa. — In good time : 

good, n. Ta'ku waste ; wowaste ; 

good-by, w. Tanyan yauij nunwe. 

good-day, ft. Anpetu oniciwasteni. 

good-humored, a. Wawihaha. 

goodly, a. Wastecaka. 

good-natared, a. T awacin waste. 

goodness, n. Wowaste. 

goods, ft. Woyuha ; wanpaya. 

76 grain 

goodwill, ft. Tawacinwaste. 
goose, geese, n. Maga. 
gooseberry, n. Wicahdeska ; F. 

wicaknaska; T. wicagnaska. 
gopher, ». Manica. Striped gopher, 

gore, ft. 1. We ; we nini. 2. Tete 

hci. vt. Capa. 
gorge, vt. Akaska ; o^insya. 
gorgeous, a. Wowinihan. 
gormandize, vt. Ni'nawota. 
gory, a. Wewe. 
gosling, ft. Magacinca. 
gospel, ft. Wotanin Waste. 
gossip, vi. Ta'kusniflni oyaka. ft. 

1. Ta'kukeyapi. 2. Woyakesa. 
got, imp. of GET. 
gouge, vt. Pahdoka ; icu ; ki. 
gourd, ft. Wamnuha. 
gout, ft. O'kihepopi woyazan. 
govern, vt. Awanyaka. 
governess, ft. Win'yanitanean. 
governing, a. Itancan ; tokahan. 
government, ft. Woitaijcan ; woa- 

wanyake ; wokiconze. 
governor, n. Itancan; makaitan- 

gown, n. Nitoske; sanksanica; 

o'kde; T. cuwignake. 
grab, vt. Yukabicu ; botica. 
grace, n. Wowaste ; wowaonsida. 

vt. Yuwaste. 
graceful, a. Owaste ; oiyokipi. 
gracefully, adv. Oiyokipiya. 
graceless, a. Wowaste ni'ca. 
gracious, a. Waonsida ; waste. 
graciously, adv. Waonsidaya ; oi- 
gradation, n. Kaocipten wanka. 
grade, vt. O'cipten e'hnaka ; canku 

oka. ft. Okapi ; obe. 
gradnal, a. Iwastedan. 
gradnate, vi. Woonspe ihunni. 
graft, vt. Can o'stan icahya. 
grain, n. 1. Ta'ku su; aguyapi 

su : much grain is sown. 2. Su- 

kaza ; o'kpe : a grain of sand. 

Against the grain, apahatka. 


vt. Ta'ku su won'tkiya : grain 

hogs. Mduya : grain the sugar. 
grammar, n. Iapi woonspe. 
grammatical, a. Woonspe ohna. 
granary, n. Dotopiye. 
grand, a. Wowinihai) ; tan/ka ; 

okinihan, ; woimnake. 
grandchild, n. Takozakpaku. 
granddaughter, n. Takozakpaku 

graadeor, n. Wowinihai). 
grandfather, n. Tunkansidai). His 

grandfather, tunkansitku. 
grandly, adv. Wowinihaijyaij. 
grandmother (grandma), n. Kun'si. 

My grandmother, unci. — Your 

grandmother, nikunsi. — His 

grandmother, kun'sitku. 
grandpa, n. Tunkansidai). 
grandparent, n. San/pa hunkake. 
grandson, n. Takozakpa wica. 
granger, n. Wozuwicasta. 
granite, n. In'yaijhcake. 
granny, n. Unciyapi ; wakai)ka. 
grant, vt. Ku; he'cetu eya. n. 

Ta'ku ku'pi ; wicakupi. 
granulated, a. Sbu'na. 
grape, n. Hastanhanka. T. Caq- 

grapevine, n. Hastai)hai)kahu ; 

can, wiy uwi. 
graphic, a. Taninhca. 
grapple, trt. Yu'za ; oyuspa. 
grasp, vt. Sutaya yu'za. 
grasping, pa. Wayuhektehca. 
grass, n. Wato ; pezi kasdapisni. 
grasshopper, n. Psi'psicadai). T. 

grassy, a. Pezi o'ta. 
grate, vt. Yukega; yukpan. n. 

Oceti ma'zayunana. 
grateful, a. Pida ; iwicawaste. 
grater, n. Wi'yukega. 
gratification, n. 1. Wowiyuskin ; 

wopida : your gift is a great 

gratification to me. 2. Woiyo- 

wiijkiye : the gratification of 


77 grievance 

gratify, vt. Iyokipiya; iyowhjya. 
gratis, adv. Wokazuzu co'dan. 
gratitude, n. Wapidapi. 
gratuitous, a. Isicodai). 
gratuitously, adv. Ituya. 
gratuity, n. Woituhai). 
grave, a. Tan/ka; ohansta'ka. n. 

Wicahapi ; wicaknakapi. 
gravel, n. Ih'e ; isbu ; in yan. 
gravelly, a. In'e ota. 
gravely, adv. Onai) stagya. 
gravestone, n. Wicahnakapiinyan. 
graveyard, n. Wicahnakapi. 
gravitate, vt. Ihdutitan. 
gravity, n. 1. Makawoyutitan. 2. 

Wos'ake; woawacin. 
gravy, n. Waspanyanpi wi'hdi. 
gray, a. flo'ta ; ska. A gray coat, 

o'kde ho'ta. — Gray-headed, 

graze, vt. 1. Wi'haijkiya : graze 

the cattle on the hiU. 2. Icahta- 

ka : the stone grazed his head. 

vi. Wi'hai). 
grease, n. Wi'hdi ; sda. vt. Sdaya. 
greasy, a. Sda. 
great, a. 1. Taji'ka, : a great nation. 

3. Ni'na. A great many, ni'na 

o'ta. — A great while, ni'na te'- 

greatly, adv. Ni'na. 
greatness, n. Wotaijka. 
greed, n. Wayuhapi kte hca. 
greedy, a. Watehinda ; wotesa. 
greedily, adv. Ciij'hca. 
green, a. 1. To; ziyato; pezito : 

the trees are green. 2. Suton- 

sni ; stunka ; to : a green plum. 

3. Te'ca ; pu'zesni : green wood. 

4. Do : a green hide. 
greenhorn, n. Tu'we onspesni. 
greet, vt. Napeyuza ; ho eya. 
greeting, n. Kiciyuonihanpi. 
grew, imp. of grow. 
greyhound, w. dun/kahuhanskaska. 
griddle, n. Owaspanye mdaska. 
grief, n. Woiyokisica. 
grievance, n. On iyokisicapi. 


grieve, vt. Iyokisinya. vi. Iyoki- 

grievous, a. Woiyokisica. 

grim, a. Ksizeca ; suta. 

grimace, ». Itosinkiyapi. 

grimly, adv. Ksizeya. 

grin, vi. lha ; hi pazo. 

grind, ground, vt. 1. Yukpan : grind 
corn. 2. Yumai) : grind the ax. 
3. Kakisya : grind the poor. 

grindstone, n. Izuzatanka. 

grip, vt. Nape sutaya oyuspa. 

gripe, vt. Yuksayu'za. 

grizzled, n. llo'ta. 

grizzly-bear, n. Matohota. 

groan, vi. Howaya ; \ii\'g&. 

grocery, ». Woyute mazopiye. 

grog, n. Miniwakai). 

groggy, a. Itomni. 

groom, vt. dun'kawakai) kakca. 
n. Suqgawaijyake ; tawieuton- 

groove, vt. Bakonta. 

grope, vi. Botoi)toq kuwa. 

gross, a. 1. Tan'ka : tauii) boa : 
gross errors. 2. Ce'pa : a gross 
woman. 3. A'taya : gross earn- 

grossly, adv. Taqinyanhca. 

Qros Ventres, n. flewaktokta. 

grotesque, a. Wowiha. 

grotto, ». Makatipi waste. 

ground, n. 1. Maka ; makoce ; 
oyanke. 2. Oahehde ; etanhai) 
uya. vt. Sutaya e'hde. a. Ma- 
ka ekta ; yukpaijpi. 

ground, imp of grind. 

ground-cherries, «. Wagiogi. 

ground-hog, «. Hakasana. 

groundless, a. Ituyacii). 

grounds, n. pi. Cetetahe : coffee 

groundwork, n. Hu'te. 

gronp, n. Optaya j obe. vt. Optaye 
kahya e'zu. 

grouse, n. Si'yo. 

grove, w. Canwita ; canwozupi. 

grovel, vt. Sdohaq uq. 

78 gullet 

groveling, a. On'sika ; wahtesni. 
grow, vi. Icaga ; a'ya ; tan/kaaya. 

Corn grows, wamnaheza icaga. 

— Father grows thin, ate ci'stin- 

naaya. vt. Icahya. 
growl, vi. "Ado : ieniyeya. 
growler, n. Ienhdesa. 
grown, pa. Icaga ; tan'ka. 
growth, ». Oicage ; woicage. 
grub, vt. ga; ofca. n. Canhu- 

tkai) ; wamduskadaq. 
grudge, vt. Kon ; nawizi. n. Wo- 

gruel, w. Wozapi sutasni. 
gruff, a. Ke'za ; suta. 
grum, a. Ksizeca. 
grumble, vi. Ahdo; iyokipisni ia. 
grunt, vi. fido ; tin'ga ; gin'ca. 
guano, ft. Zitkacesdi. 
guarantee, vt. Yuwicaka. 
guaranty, n. Oq yuwicakapi. 
guard, vt. Awanyaka. n. Wa'- 

wanyake; ikaij. 
guarded, jpa. Waktaun. 
guardian, n. Awanyagkiyapi. 
guerilla, n. Akicita nahmai) ui). 
gness, vt. Iyukcan ; eeii) ; ituya- 

eya. n. Wowiyukcan. 
guest, n. Tu'we titokanhi. 
guidance, ft. Ihakam un'pi. 
guide, vt. Cankuoyaka; yusaya; 

awanyaka ; yuhomni. n. Toi)- 

weya ; caijkupazo. 
guild, ft. Okodakiciye. 
guile, ft. Wohnaye. 
guileless, a. Wohnaye ni'ca. 
guilt, ft. Woahtani. 
guiltless, a. Woahtani eo'dan. 
guilty, a. 1. Ta'ku si'ca econ : he 

is guilty. 2. fii'ca : a guilty 

guise, ft. Kon'za ; kahya. 
guitar, ft. Wi'kaijyudowaijpi. 
gulch, ft. O'smaka ; minibohya. 
gulf, n. Miniwanca okahmii). 
gull, ft. Wicatanktankadaq. vt. 

gullet, n. Wi'napce. 

pilly, n. Oskokpa. 

gulp, vt. Tai)k'tai)ka napca. 

gum, n. Caq&ii) ; caka. 

gumbo, n. Makaotkapa. 

gummy, a. O'tkapa. 

fun, n. Ma'zakaq. 

gunnery, n. Ma'zakai) ecoqpi. 

gunsysack, n. Psa'wozuha. 

gunpowder, n. Candi. 

gurgle, ft. Mininmui). 

gush,i*. Ni'nahiyu. 

79 hand 

gusher, n. Minibosdi. 

fust, n. Tatenca. 

gusto, n. Woiyokipinca. 

gut, n. dupe, trt. dupe icu. 

gutter, «. Minicaijkuokapi; up&iza. 

guttural, a. Honmui). 

guzzle, vt. To'ken okihi yatkai). 

gymnasium, n. Ohnaihduzicapi. 

gymnastics, n. Ihduzicapi. 

flyp*y* *• Oyateomanisa. 

gyrate, vi. Yuhomni. 


ha, interj. Eca (iRapi iapi). 
habeas corpus, n. Auwicasipi. 
habit, n. Onaq ; oihduze. 
habitable, a. Otipica. 
habitation, n. Ti ; ti'pi. 
habitual, a. Ecahececa. 
habituate, vt Ecewaktakiya. 
hack, vt. Apapa; kaksaksa. n. 

Oape ; onci ; caijpahmihma. 
hackberry, n. Yamnumnugapi. 
had, imp. of have. 
Hades, n. Wanagiouijyaijpi. 
hag, n. Wakaijkasicedai). 
haggard, a. Watuka ; sta'ka. 
haggle, vt Kahcihci. 
hall, n. Wasu. w. Wasu hiqhe. 
hall, infer;. Ho (woyuonihai) iapi). 

vt. Kipai) : to hailed me. 
hailstorm, n. Wasu hii)he. 
hair, n. Hii) ; pahii) ; paha. 
hair-breadth, a. Kitaijyai). 
hairy t a. Hii) yukai) ; hinsma. 
hale, a. Taqeaqsuta. 
hall, a. Hanke : half a day. adv. 

Haijkeya : half understood. 
half-breed, n. Wasicuncinca. Y. 

half-past, a. Sam'haijke. 
half-way, a. Gokaya. 
hall, n. 1. Titai)ka ; omniciyetipi : 

city hall. 2. Timahen ocaij- 

kuyapi : hang your hat in the 

halleluiah, n. Wakaqtaqkayatai). 

halloo, interj. Hiwo ; ho. 

hallow, vt. Tuwakai). 

hallucination, n. Ta'ku icihnayaij- 
pi ; woihaqmde. 

halo, n. Wi'acetipimibe ; te'sda- 

halt, vi. Hustemani; na'zii). a. 

halter, n. Iteoge; iteha. vt. Ka- 

halve, vt. Cokaya kibaksa. 

ham, n. Ceca ; kukuaececa. 

name, n. Wanapirjakaskapi. 

hamlet, n. Otoqwena. 

hammer, n. Maziyape. vt. Apa. 

hammock, n. Ho'tedai) owai)ka. 

hamper, vt. Kagiya. 

hamstring, n. Cecakai). 

hand, n. 1. Nape : a sore hand. 
2. Ookiye; wowasi; tuwe ceyaS : 
all hands joined in the sport. 3. 
Nape oi) ka'gapi : he writes a 
nice hand. Back of the hand, 
napakaha. — From hand to hand, 
i'ciyaza. — From hand to mouth, 
ta'kudaq icihdesni. — Hand in 
hand, napekiciyus ; o'kiciya. — 
Hands off, yutaqsni. — Had a. 




hand in it, en nape yekiya. — 
Left hand, catka. — Right hand, 
etapa; Y. onspeapatanhan. — 
Inside the hand, napcoka. — Off 

, hand, katinyaq ; i'tokam pii- 
ciyesni. — On hand, yuha un. — 
On the one hand... on the other 
hand, de'eiyatanhan... he'ciya- 
tanhan. — One hand, napsani. — 
Sliake Jiands, napeyuza. — Slack 
hand, hun ' ke &ni . — Change 
hands, kicicupi. — Come to hand, 
en hi ; ieu. — Lend a hand, o'ki- 
ya. — On all hands, o'wancaya. 
Second hand, wanna un 'pi; tani. 
— Wash the hands, iyowazasni- 
iciya. vt. Hiyukiya. 

handbill, n. Wayaotanin wowapi. 

handbreadth, n. Wicanape oiyute. 

handcuff, n. Napokaske. 

handful, n. Napeohnaka. 

hand-glass, n. Mniokdasin ci'- 

handicap, vt. Kas'agya. 

handiwork, n. Woecoi). 

handkerchief, n. Itipakinte. 

handle, n. Ihupa ; wiyuze. vt. Na- 
pe en yeya ; kuwa ; kicanye. 

handless, a. Nape wanica. 

handling, n. Kuwapi. 

handmaid, n. Win'yanookiye. 

handsaw, n. Canibaksanapsani. 

handsome, a. Owanyagwaste ; tan- 
waste ; oiyokipi ; tan'ka. 

handsomely, adv. Tanyan. 

handspike, n. Hon'pe ; can. 

handwriting, n. Napeonkagapi. 

handy, a. Okinyanwaste ; wayu- 

hang, hung, vt. 1. Otkeya: hang 
. out the clothes. 2. Ikoyaka ; 
ecen ehde : hang the scythe ; 
hang the door. 3. Pa'nakseya : 
hang the murderer, vi. 1. Otke- 
han : the lamp hangs from a 
hook : 2. Ikoyaka : it hangs to 
him. n. Otke ; tokiyotan. 

hanging, n. Otkeyapi. 

haphazard, a. To'kencincin. 

hapless, a. Wa'pisni. 

happen, vi. 1. Wanu : I happened 
to find. 2. Akipa : death hap- 
pens to all alike. 

happily, adv. 1. Canwasteya : they 
lived happily. 2. Wa'piya : hap- 
pily I did not fall. 

happiness, n. Wocantewaste. 

happy, a. C ante waste. 

harangue, vt. Wahokonkiya. 

harass, vt. Nagiyeya. 

harbinger, n. Wahosiye. 

harbor, n. Wi'tawataonazin ; ona- 
papi waste, vt. 1. Anakiksin : 
harbor a thief. 2. Awacin un : 
harbor malice in his heart, vi. 
Onapa ; inazin. 

hard, a. 1. Suta : hard as a stone. 

2. TeMke : a hard lesson. 3. 
Nina kuwa ; wohitika : a hard 
student, adv. 1. Ni'na : run 
hard. 2. TeMya : he trots hard. 

3. Sutaya : tie it hard. Hard 
by, iMyedai). — Hard up, kaki- 
sya. — Hard earned, kitanyaq 

harden, vt. Yusuta. 
hardihood, n. Wocante$inza. 
hardly, adv. Ki'tann; iyus'oya; 

iyehanyansni ; teniya. 
hardness, n. Wosuta. 
hardship, n. WoteM. 
hardtack, n. Aguyapisaka snta. 
hardware, n. Ma'zaicuwa. 
hardy, a. Suta ; wakis'aka. 
hare, n. Mastiqtanka. 
hark, vi. Anagoptan ; a ; Si. 
hearken, vi. Anagoptan. 
harlot, n. Witkowin. 
harm, vt. Yusica; kiunniya. n. 

Wokiunni ; woyusice. 
harmful, a. Wakiunni. 
harmless, a. Wayusicesni. 
harmonize, vt. Yuokonwanzidan. 
harmony, n. Okiciwastepi. 
harness, n. Sungikan ; ikan. vi. 

Ikan ikoyagya. 




harp, n. Wi'kai) yudowaijpi. vi. 

harpoon, n. Wahukeza. 
harrow, n. Mahiyuhinhe. vt. Tn- 

harsh, a. 1. *Gahai) : a harsh voice. 

2. Ksizeca : harsh conduct. 
hartshorn, n. Wi'pakiijteska. 
harvest, n. Wasuton. ; woksapi. 

vt. Yuksa ; mnayan. ; kasda. 
harvester, n. Wi'nakse. 
has, 3d p. s. of have. 
hash, n. Tadobakpaijpi. vt. Ba- 

haste, vi. Inahni. vt. Inahniya. 

n. Woinahni. 
hasten, vt. Yuinahni ; inalini. 
hastily, adv. Inahniyai). 
hasty, a. Inahni ; onanko. 
hat, n. Wapaha. ¥. & T. Wapo- 

hatch, vt Mai) ; pakpiya. vi. Pak- 

pi ; ikpahdoka. 
hatchet, n. Oijspedan. 
hate, vt. Wahtedasni; si'cedaka. 

n. Wowahtedasni. 
hateful, a. Wahtesni. 
hatred, n. Wowahtedasni. 
hatter, n. Wapahakaga. 
haughty, a. Ohitiicida. 
hanl, vt. 1. Toksu : haul wood. 2. 

Yusdohai) : haul ten cars. n. 

Oyusdohai) ; oicu. 
haunt, vt. O'ksai) w\ ; ounyan.. 
haunted, pa. Wanagi ouijyaijpi. 
have, has, had, vt. 1. Yuha : I have 

a dog. 2. Kiya ; ya : / had him 

come. 3. Iyopastaka : he had to 

go. 4. Atuc.j not expressed. I 

have come, wahi ; wanna wahi. 

— / have never seen him, to'hii)- 

ni wanmdake sni. 
haven, n. Oahuni. 
haversack, n. Waneya ozuha. 
havoc, n. Woihaijgye. 
haw, vt. Catkata yuhomni. vi. 

niafa; hohpa. 
hawk, n. Cetan ; can ska ; upizica ; 

ptegopeca. vt. Pan/wiyopeya. 
vi. Honpa. 

hay, n. Pezi. vt. Pezi ka'ga. 

haycock, n. Pezipsuijkaka. 

hayrack, n. Peziitoksu. 

haystack, n. Pezipaha. 

hazard, vt. Otohnaka ; iyuta. 

hazardous, a. Okokipe. 

hazelnut, n. U'ma. 

hazy, a. Sotozu ; owataniijsni. 

he, pro. I'ye : he did it. (Gener- 
ally not expressed.) 

head, n. 1. Pa : my head aches. 
2. Itaijcan. ; tokahai) : the head 
man. 3. Sukaza : I have ten 
head of cattle. 4. O'inkpa : tlie 
head of the river. 5. Oiwaijya- 
ke : the heads of discourse, vt. 
Tokahai) ; itoheyaya ; aoho- 
mniya ; en'tkiya pa yn'za ; pa- 
ka'ga. a. 1. Tokahai) : head 
cook. 2. Tatoheya : We had a 
head wind. 

headache, n. Nasuyazarjpi. 

headdress, n. Wapaha ; tesdake. 

header, n. Tokahai); in/kpaibakse. 

heading, n. Pa :ta'ku ka'pi. 

headlong, adv. Botoijyai). 

headmost, a. Tokahai). 

headquarters, n. Itaqcantoyanke. 

headstone, n. Wicahapiin/yan. ; in/- 
yai) itancai). 

headstrong, a. Tawacii) suta. 

headway, n. Woiyopte. 

heal, vt. Asnlyai) ; yuasni. vi. 

health, n. 1. Wozani : seek health. 
2. Oun ; taijcan : bad health. 

healthful, a. Tan can yuwaste. 

healthy, a. Zani ; waste. 

heap, vt. Pahi ; pahakaga. n. Pa- 
ha ; opahi ; o'ta. 

hear, heard, vt. 1. Naftoi) : / hear 
you. 2. Nahoqyaijka : hear this 
class, vi. Wanahoi). 

hearing, n. Wonahoi) ; no'ge. 

hearken, vi. Anagoptan. 
, hearsay, n. Eeyapi. 




hearse, n. Wica^e canpakmiyan. 

heart, n. Cante. Break his lieart, 
c a ij t e ihankeya. — Learn by 
hearty tawacin on kiksuye. — 
Lose hearty wacinibos'ake. — 
Take heart , cante kicun. — Take 
to heart, cante en yeya. — Set 
the heart on, ni'na cii). 

heartburn, n. Canteyazan. 

hearth, n. Pe'taoahe ; petkahda. 

hearthstone, n. In/yaqpetkahda. 

heartily, adv. Canwasteya. 

heartless, a. Cantewanica. 

heartrending, a. Cantiyapapa. 

hearty, a. 1. Cante on : a hearty 
greeting. 2. Zani; suta : a liearty 
boy. 3. Otantonka ; ciijhca. 

heat, vt. Kanya. n. Wokata ; 

heater, n. On kanyapi. 

heathen, n. Wakagapi ohodapi; 

heave, vt. Yuwankan icu ; hiyuya. 

heaven, n. Mahpiya ; mahpiya to. 

heavenly, a. Mahpiyata ; waste. 

heavily, adv. Tkeya ; ni'na. 

heaviness, n. Tke ; woiyokisica. 

heavy, a. 1. Tke : a heavy stone. 

2. So'ka : a heavy fall of snow. 

3. Oiyokisica : heavy news. 
hedge, n. Otehi con'kaske. vt. 

Nataka ; cankaska. 
hedgehog, n. Sagdasin pahin. 
heed, vt. Awacin ; anagoptan. n. 

heedless, a. Waawacinsni. 
heedlessly, adv. Waawacinsniyan. 
heel, n. Siyete ; ihanke. 
heifer, n. Ptewiye askatudai). 
height, n. Obosdatu ; wankantu. 
heighten, vt. Sam yuwankantu. 
heinous, a. Ni'na si'ca. 
heinously, adv. Sicayahca. 
helnousness, n. Wosice. 
heir, n. Ta'wakte. 
heirloom, n. Ehanna hunkake 

held, imp of hold. 

hell, n. Wakansicati ; wica^e ma- 

helm, n. Iyupse ; woyuhomni. 

helmet, n. Ozuye wapaha. 

helmsman, n. Wasinteyuhomni. 

help, vt. O'kiya. I will help you, 
o'ciciye kta. 2. Yutokeca ; ana- 
pta : J can't help it. 3. Yu- 
waste, it helps my cough. Help 
to, ku. n. Waokiyapi ; ookiye ; 

helper, n. Ookiye ; was'agya. 

helpful, a. Waokiya ; yuwaste. 

helpless, a. 1. O'kiyepicasni. 2. 
Ta'ku okihi sni : a helpless babe. 

helpmate, helpmeet, n. Ookiye. 

helterskelter, adv. To'ken cin'yan. 

helve, n. Ihupa. 

hem, n. Opapun. vt. Opapunka- 
gege. vi. Wakaspewacin. 

btmi'fpref. Hanke. 

hemisphere, n. Makahanke. 

hemlock, n. Wazican. 

hemorrhage, n. Weuyapi. 

hemp, n. Hahontahu tan ka. 

hen, n. Anpaohotanna wi'ye. Y. wi'ye ; wi'ye. 

hence, adv. 1. Detanhan ; tokan : 
go hence. 2. Tokata : a year 
hence. 3. He'on etanhan ; he- 
tanhan : hence it is. 

henceforth, adv. Tokata. 

her, pron. 1. Ta'wa (winyan ka- 
pi) : her book. 2. I'ye ; he 
(Generally not expressed in In- 
dian). Call Iter, kipan. 

herald, n. & v. E'yanpaha ; oyaka. 

herb, n. Wato. 

herculean, a. Ni'na wasaka. 

herd, n. Optaye; obe. vt. Wi'- 
taya awanyaka. vi. Wi'taya 

herder, n. Pteawanyake. 

here, adv. Den ; de'ci. 

hereafter, adv. Tokata. 

hereby, adv. De'ciyatanhan; de'on. 

hereditary, a. Aihpekiciyapi. 

herein, adv. De'en. 


heresy, n. Woonspe to'keca. 
heretofore, adv. De i'tokam. 
heritage, n. Hunkake etanhan yu- 

hermit, ». Tansna makoskan ti. 
hero, n. Itancanka ; wazaza. 
heroic, a. Waditaka. 
heron, n. Hoka. 
hen, pron. Fye ta'wa. 
herself , pron. Iyenca. 
hesitate, vi. Natunka; ecoijka- 

hew, vt. Kakai) ; kaksa. 
hey, interj. Wai). 
hibernate, vi. Waniyetu ui]. 
hiclcnp, hiccough, vi. Mdokaska. 
hickory, n. Cansu. 
hid, pp. of HIDE. 
hidden, pa. Nahmanpi. 
hide, hid, vt. Anahma; nahmai). 

n. Ha; tatankaha; uka. 
Udebonnd, a. Ukaaskapa. 
hideous, a. Owaqyagsica ; oasica. 
hMeonsly, adv. Oasinya. 
hie, vi. Inafrni. 

hierarchy, n. Wowakanitaneanpi. 
hieroglyph, ». Woiyacinowapi. 
Ugh, a. 1. Waijkantu; tehanwaij- 

kantn : a high hid. 2. Tan'ka ; 

iyotai) : high heat. adv. Waij- 

high-flown, a. Wafranicida. 
highly, adv. Ni'na. 
high-road, n. Cankutanka. 
high-spirited, a. Iyotaqicida. 
high-toned, a. Wacintaijka. 
highway, ft. Cankutanka. 
highwayman, n. Wamanoqwica&a. 
hilarity, n. Wawiftayapi. 
hill, ». 1. Paha ; he: the river hills. 

2. Mahpazu : a hill of corn. vt. 

Pahaya akata. 
hillock, n. Paha ci'stinna. 
hillside, ft. fleuijnaptan. 
hilltop, n. Pahaii)kpa. 
hilly, a. fto'&ki. 
hilt, ft. Ihupa; wi'yuze. 
\Am,pron. I've {Generally not ex- 

83 hoe 

pressed). Give him a book, wo- 

wapi wai) Ipi. 
himself , pron. Iyehca. 
hind, ft. Tawiye. a. He'kta. 
hinder, vt. Kaseya ; kagiya. 
hinder, a. He'kta ; unzeta. 
hinderance, n. Woka&e. 
hindmost, a. He'kta ihanke. 
hinge, n. Tiyopaokihe. vi. En 

hint, vt. Icahtag eya; nahmana 

okiyake. «. Wowakta. 
hip, ft. Nite. Hip-bone, nisehu. 
hipshot, a. Nisehu papgui). 
hire, vt. Kazuzu odota. Hire out, 

kazuzu oku. n. Wokazuzu. 
hireling, n. Kazuzu yuha. 
his, pro. Ta'wa ; i'ye ta'wa. 
hiss, vi. Sdi; sdi'sdi. vt. Asdi- 

sdi ; ki&ca. ft. Asdisdipi ; sdi. 
hist, interj. Si. Anagoptan. 
historian, n. Ehanna wicohan oya- 

history, n. Ehanna woyakapi. 
hit, vt. 1. Apa. You hit it, ni'ye 

apa. 2. Iyohi; iyecen ecoi). 

vi. Iyapa. n. Apapi ; iyapa. 
hitch, vt. Iyakaska ; ikoyagya. ft. 

Ikoyagyapi ; wokagi. 
hither, adv. De'ciya. a. De'ciya- 

tanhan ; Y. Tahena. 
hitherto, adv. Dehanyan. 
hive, ft. Tuhmaga ti'pi. 
hives, ft. Ahinapapi. 
ho, interj. Hi'wo. 
hoar, a. Ska ; ho'.ta. 
hoard, vt. Kpatan ; mnayan. n. 

Womnaye ; o'ta. 
hoarhonnd, n. Canhanpi&asa pa. 
hoarse, a. Ho'gita ; gi'ta. 
hoary, a. Ska. 

hoax, vt. Hna'yan. n. Wohnaye. 
hobble, vt. Sihapahta. vi. Huste- 

hobby, ft. E'cena kuwa. 
hobby-horse, n. Can/sunktanka. 
hod, ft. Updizaitoksu. 
hoe, ft. Mahicamna. vt. Akata. 


hoedown, n, Ha'sapa tawowaci. 

hoecake, n. Wokpaijpi spai). 

hog , n. Kukuse. 

hoggish, a. Ohansunkeea. 

hogshead, n. Kokataqka. 

hoist, irt. Waqkaniyeya. 

hold, vt, 1. Yu'za ; oyuspa : hold 
the book, 2. Sutaya yuza; owan- 
ziyuza : feoW Jte train. 3. Yuha ; 
kuwa : hold a meeting, 4. Kipi ; 
ohna yuha : it will hold all. 5. 
Awacii) ; yawa : hold guiltless, 
vi, Inazii) ; hehanyena ecoi). — 
Hold forth, yutanin ; wohdaka. 
— Hold his own, he'cehna ye. — 
Hold the horse for me, sunktai)- 
ka mi'ciyuza. n. Oyuspa : lost 
his hold, Wokaske : the law has 
a hold on him, Con'kaske : a 
mountain hold, Wa'tasicu : the 
hold was full, 

holdback, n. On he'kta yu'zapi. 

holder, n. Wi'yuze. 

hole, ». Ohdoka. 

holiday, n, Woskate ai)petu. 

holily, adv. Wakanyan. 

holiness, n. Wowakai). 

hollow, a. Skokpa ; hdo'geca ; 

, ohdogeca : a hollow tree. — Hol- 
low-horn, hendogeca. — Hollow 
of the foot, sinape. — Hollow 
cheeked, tapoi) sko'pa. vt. Yu- 
skopa : hollow out a tree, 

hollow-hearted, a, Wicakesni. 

holy, a. Wakan. 

homage, n, Woyuonihai). 

home, n. Ti'pi; tiyata; ti. At 
home, tiyata. — My home, ti'pi 
mitawa. — Take Iwrne, ahda. 

homeless, a, Ticodai). 

homely, a. 1. Okinihan&ni ; ikce- 
ka : a homely house, 2. Tiyata 

homesick, a. Tiawakicii) ; icomni. 

homestead, n. Makoce oicu ; ti'pi. 

homeward, adv. Tiyata. 

homicide, n. Wicasta kte'pi. 

homily, n. Wowahokonkiya. 

84 horribly 

hominy, n. Pasdcyapi. 
homogeneous, n, Okage waijzina. 
hone, n. Iyohdi ; iznza. 
honest, a, Ohan. owotaijna; wo- 

wicake ; zon/ta. 
honestly, adv. Owotaqna. 
honesty, n. Woowotaqna. 
honey, n. Tuhmagacahai)pi ; wa~ 

honey-comb, n, Tuhmagasii). 
honeysuckle, n, Caqwiskuye. 
honor, ». Woyuonihai). vt, Yu- 

onihai) ; ohoda. 
honorable, a, Okinihan. 
honorably, adv. Yuonihanyaq. 
honorary, a. Woyuonihai). 
hood, ». Sagdasin wapaha; wa- 

postan. — Hood, oun ; okodaH- 

hoodwink, vt, Istaakahpa; hna'- 

hoof, n. Sake ; woteca sake. 
hook, n. Ma'zayuksan. vt. Icu; 

ikoyaka; manor. 
hoop, ft. Canhdeska; kokawiyu- 

skite. vt, Yuskita. vt, Hoton. 
hoot, vi, Hinyankaga hoton. 
hop, vi, Sisani ipsica ; ipsica ; 

waci. ft. Oipsiea; wahpeona- 

hope, vi. Gin ; waeinyan ; awacii) : 

hope thou in God, n, Ta'ku 

cin'pi ; wowaeiijye ; woape. 
hopeful, a. Waeinyan ; waste kta 

kecin ; waste kta se'ca. 
hopeless, a. Wowaeiijye ni'ca. 
hopper, ft. 1. Tu'we ipsica. 2. 

Ohna ohnakapi. 
horde, n. Wioobe. 
horizon, n, Mahpiya maka i'ci- 

horizontal, a, Mda'ya icazopi. 
horn, ft. He ; ptehe ; wayazopi. 
horned, a, He'tonna. 
hornet, n, Tuhmaga kahohiyu. 
horn-owl, n, Hinhanhetonna. 
horrible, a, Ni'na si'ca. 
horribly, adv, Okokipeya. 


horrid, a. Okokipe. 
horrify, vt. Yusinyeya. 
horror, n. Woyusinyan. 
horse, n. Sunktanka. F. & T. 

Sun'kawakai). Saw-horse, akan 

horseback, adv. Sungakan. 
horse-dealer, n. Sungwopeton. 
horsefly, n. Tatawanmduska. 
horseman, n. Sungakanwicasta. 
horseshoe, ft. Sakemaza. 
horsewhip, n. Sungicapsinte. 
hose, n. 1. Iyahdehunska ; F. hu- 

yakon. 2. Mnibosdiikai). 
hospitable, a. Wonwicayesa; onan- 

pi ; ti en i'pi waste. 
hospitably, adv. Iyokipiya. 
hospital, ft. Wayazankatipi. 
hospitality, ft. Wicasato'keca on- 

host, ft. 1. Wieota; ozuye : a host 

of people. 2. Ti'pitawa. 
hostage, ft. E'ekiya kaskapi. 
hostess, ». Win 'y an ti'pitawa. 
hostile, a. To'k'a ; watoghda. 
hostility, n. Kicizapi; to'kakici- 

hostler, n. Suijgawanyake. 
hot, a. Ka'ta ; pa. 
hotbed, n. Owanka ka'ta. 
hotel, n. Owoteti'pi. 
hotly, adv. Ni'na ; kanya. 
hound, ft. Sun/ka oi) wakuwapi. 
hour, n. Wi'hiyaya ; oape. 
hourly, adv. Oape iyohi. 
house, ft. 1. Ti'pi ; Wasicunti'pi. 

2. Oyate, ffee Aowse ofJudah. 
house, vt. Timahen e'hnaka. 
housebreaker, ». Wabotica. 
household, ft. Tiwahe. 
housekeeper, n. Ti'piyuha. 
houseless, a. Ticodai). 
housemaid, ft. Win/yai) wowasi. 
housewarmlng, n. Ti'piteca kici- 

housewife, ». Ti'piyuha tawicu. 
hove, imp. of heaye. 
hovel, ft. Ti'pisicedai). 

85 humiliate 

hover, vi. O'ksankinyan uij. 

how, adv. To'ken ; to'ketu. How 
are you, to'ken yaun he. — How 
is the corn, wamnaheza to'ketu 
he. — How far; how near, to- 
hanyan he. — How many; how 
much, to'nakeca he. — How 
large; how small, tin/skokeca 
he. Excla. Ta'ku. How far! 
ta'ku te'han. 

howbeit, conj. He'casta. 

however, conj. He'casta. adv. To'- 
ken... esta. However good he 
is, to'ken waste esta. 

howl, vi. Hoton ; sicahowaya. 

howsoever, adv. To'ketu ce'yas. 

hub, ft. Hu psunka. 

hubbub, ft. S'a'se skan/pi. 

huckleberry, n. Ha'za. 

huddle, vt. Yuwitaya. vi. Wi'taya. 

hue, ft. Owapi ; iuijpi. 

hug, vt. Po'skin yu'za. 

huge, a. Tan'ka ; otantonka. 

hugely, adv. Ni'na ; otantonyai). 

hugger, ft. Po'skin yu'za. 

hulk, ft. Wa'ta tan can. 

hull, ft. 1. Ha ; ozuha : nut hulls. 
2. Wa'taskokpa. vt. Ha ehpeya; 

hum, vi. Zizidowai) ; a'nini do- 
wan ; hmun. interj. E; ehan. 

humau, a. Wicasta ; wica. Human 
voice, wieaho. 

humane, a. Wicasta iyececa ; wa- 

humanely, adv. Waonsidaya. 

humanity, n. Wicasta. 

humanize, vi. Wicasta ka'ga. 

humanly, adv. Wicasta iwanya- 


humble, a. On'sika; wa'hbadan. 

humbly, adv. On'siya. 

humbug, vt. Hna'yan. n. Wo- 

humdrum, a. Oasica. 
humerus, ft. Hintkanhu. 
humid, a. Spa'ya. 
humiliate, vt. Yuhukuya. 


humility, n. Wicowahba. 

humming-bird, n. Tanagidan. 

humor, n. 1. Tawacii) : good hu- 
mor, 2. Wowihatawacin : he is 
full of humor, 3. Mini : the 
humor of the eye, 

humorist, n. Wawiha. 

humorous, a. Wawihaye. 

humorously, adv. Wawihaya. 

hump, ». Pazo. 

humpback, n. Cankahupazo. 

hunch, n. Pazo : the cameVs hunch, 
vt. Panini. 

hundred, a. Opawinge. 

hung, imp. of hang. 

hunger, n. Wotektehdapi ; cin'pi. 
tri. Cantiheya : cin. 

hungry, a. Wotektehda; doch). 

hunt, vt. Ode ; ihni ; kuwa. Hunt 
buffalo , wanase. — Hunt game 
for food, wotihni. — Hunt the 
horses, sungode. n. Wotihnipi ; 

hunter, huntsman, n. Wotihnisa. 

hurl, vt. Kah'o iyeya. 

hurly-burly, n. Owodutaton. 

hurrah, vt. I'yakis'a. 

hurricane, n. Tateohitika. 

hurried, pa. Inahni. 

86 idle 

hurriedly, adv. Inahniyan. 
hurry, vt. Inahniya. n. Woinahni. 
hurt, vt. Ksu'weya ; kiunniya. n. 

Wokiunni. \ 

hurtful, a. WaMunniya ; si'ca. 
husband, n. Hihnaku ; wicasta. 

vt. Kpatan ; kuwa. 
husbandman, n. Wozuwicasta. 
husbandry, n. WaMcanyanpi ; wa- 

hush, vi. Inina un. vt. Yuasni. 
husk, vt. Yuga ; ha ehpeya. n. 

Ha ; wahuwapa ha. 
husky, a. Ho'gita ; ho'sica. 
hustle, vt. Ni'na skan ; iyayeya. 
hustler, n. Wohitika. 
hut,n. Ti'pidan. 
huzza, interj. Wi'yuskii) pan 'pi. 
hydrant, n. Minioicu. 
hyena, n. dungmanitusicamna. 
hymeneal, a. Kiciyuzapi. 
hymn, n. Odowai). vt. Idowai). 
hyperbolic, a. Akawin. 
hyphen, n. O'kihe icazopi. 
hypnotize, vt. Wicahmunga. 
hypocrisy, n. Wohnaye. 
hypocrite, n. Wicakesni. 
hypothesis, n. Woiyacin. 
hysterics, n. Hnaskinyanpi. 


I, pro. Mi'ye ; mis ; wa. Who will 
got I will go, tu'we ye kta, 
mi'ye mde kta. — I want, wacin. 

Ice, n. Ca'ga. To break through 
the ice, ca'ga naoksa. — Running 
ice, cahhiyaya. 

Iceberg, n. Miniwanca cahwita. 

icebound, a. CaMyanica. 

Icecream, n. Asanpi acahyapi. 

iced, pa. Acahyapi. 

Iceplow, ft. Cah'icazopi. 

icicle, n. Cah'oin. 

Icy, a. Ca'ga se ; sni. 

I'd, contr. of I would or I had. 

idea, n. Woawacii). 

ideal, n. Woiyacin. a. Tawacin 

en'tu ; ihanmnapi. 
identical, a. He'ehca. 
identify, vt. Iyekiya; yawicaka; 

idiom, n. Iapi okage. 
idiot, n. Ecawitkotkoka. 
idle, a. 1. Ta'kudan econ sni; 

ku'za : an idle boy. 2. Ta'ku- 

sni ; ituya un : idle words, vt. 



Idleness, n. Wokuza. 

idler, n. Tu'we ku'za. 

Idly, adv. Kuzfyeya. 

Idol, n. 1. Wakagapi ; wowakan. 

2. Talcu iyotanda : he is the 

idol of his mother. 
Idolater, n. Wakagapi ohoda. 
Idolatry, n. Wakagapi ohodapi. 
Idolize, t?t. Wakagapi yuha. 
if, coty. 1. Kinhan : t/ you ^o. 

2. He'einhan : *fc« osted t/you 

had come, 3. Esta : I will go, 

if it kills me. 
ignite, trt. Itkonya. vt. Itkoi). 
ifnoble, a. Ta'ku tai)ii] sni. 
ignominious, a. Wantesni. 
ignorance, n. Wasdonyesni. 
ignorant, a. Ta'kuna sdonye sni. 
Ifnore, vt. Aktasni. 
ilium, n. Nisehu. 
Ill, a. Wayazai)ka : Tte is ill. 2. 

Si'ca : ill temper, adv. Tanyan- 

sni : iZZ a&2e. 
Olbred, a. Tan'yan icanyapisni. 
illegal, a. Woopo ohna sni. 
illegitimate, a. Owotannasni. 
illfavored, a. Owanyagsica. 
illiberal, a. Wacintankasni. 
Illicit, a. Woope kaseya. 
illiteracy, n. Waonspepisni. 
Illiterate, a. Onspekesni. 
illnatured, a. Tawacinsioa. 
illness, n. Woyazan. 
ill-tempered, a. Tawacinsioa. 
ill-treatment, w. Sicayakuwapi. 
illuminate, trt. Iyoyamya. 
iilnstrate, vt. Yutaijinyan oyaka. 
illustrious, a. Okitanin. * 
lllwill, n. Tawacinsioa. 
illy, adv. Tanyandni. 
iai", i>r<?f. Sni: »roper/<wrt. 
I'm, confr. I am. 
image, n. Wakagapi ; okagapi. 
Imaginable, a. Awacrqpica. 
Imagination, n. Woawacin. 
Imagine, vt. Awacii) ; kecin ; ituya 

Imbecile, a. Was'akesm. 

87 implement 

imbibe, vt. Icu ; yahepa. 
Imbue, vt. Awacinya. 
Imitate, vt. Iyecenecon ; un'oa. 
immaculate, a. Wosapenica. 
immaterial, a. To'kecasni. 
Immature, a. Stunka. . 
Immediately, adv. Wan'cahnana. 
Immemorial, a. Kiksuyapi i'tokam. 
immense, a. Ni'na tan'ka. 
immerse, vt. Okaspeya; minin 

iyeya. * 

immigrant, n. Oyatetokeoa. 
Imminent, a. Waape un. 
immodest, a. Istecesni. 
Immoral, a. Owotannasni ; si'ca. 
immortal, a. Owihankewanioa. 
Immortality, n. Wicontewanica. 
Immovable, a. Yuskanpicasni. 
Immutable, a. Yutokecapicasni. 
Imp, n. Wakansiea cinoa. 
Impair, vt. Yusica. 
Impale, vt. loam e'hde. 
impart, vt. ?u ; okiyaka. 
Impartial, a. I'akidecen kuwa. 
impassable, a. O'pta yepioasni. 
Impatient, a. Wacintankasni. 
Impeach, vt. Iyaonpa. 
Impede, vt. Kagiya. 
Impel, vt. Iyayeya. 
impend, vi. Iyape han. 
impenetrable, a. En yepioasni. 
Impenitent, a. Iyopeiciyesni. 
imperative, a. Katinyan. 
imperceptible, a. Taninsni. 
Imperfect, a. Yustanpisni ; on spa 

Imperial, a. Itancannca. 
Imperil, vt. Otoya. 
Imperious, a. Wankantu ; wahan- 

imperishable, a. Ihangyepicasni. 
Impertinent, a. Iyehanyansni ; 

Impetuous, a. Wohitika ; onanko. 
Impinge, vt. Kasewanka. 
Impious, a. Waohodasni. 
implant, vt. Ozu. 
implement, n. Wi'kicanye. 


Implicate, vt. Aopekiya. 
implicit, a. Ecaken ; a'taya. 
implore, vt Icekiya. 
imply, vt. Ikoyake. 
impolite, a. Onaneeinsniyan. 
impolitic, a. Wayupikesni. 
import 7 , vt Oyatetokeca etanhai) 

Import, n. 1. Ta'kuahipi. 2. To'- 

importance, n. Wotanka. 
important, a. Ta'kunca. 
importnne, vt Kitanyan da. 
impose, vt Aehnaka ; kinkiya. 
imposing, a. Wowinihan. 
imposition, n. 1. Kii)kiya; aoka- 

nya fcinkiyapi. 2. Aehnakapi. 
impossible, a. Okihipicasni. 
Impostor, n. Tu'we wicahnaye. 
impotent, a. Wowas'ake ni'ca. 
impoverish, vt Wahpaniya. 
impracticable, a. Econpicasni. 
impregnable, a. Ohiyepicasni. 
impress, vt Apuspe ; awacinya. 
impressible, a. Wan'kadan. 
impression, n. Apuspapi ; woawa- 

impressive, a. Awacinwicaye. 
imprint, vt Owa ; sutaya iko- 
imprison, vt Kaska. 
Improbable, a. Wicadapicasni. 
impromptu, a. Piiciyesni. 
improper, a. He'cetusni. 
Improve, vt Yuwaste; tanyanki- 

cun. vi. Wasteaya ; sam eooij. 
improvement, n. Yuwastepi ; ta'ku 

on yuwastepi. 
improvident, a. Wakpatansni. 
imprudent, a. Ksa'pesni. 
impudent, a. Istecesni. 
impugn, vt I'eniyeya. 
Impulse, n. Wocantahde. 
Impulsive, a. Tawacii) onanko. 
impunity, n. Woiyopeye co'dan. 
impure, a. E'cedanini ; si'ca. 
impute, vt Iyaonpa ; ki'ciyawa. 
In, prep. En; mahen; ohna. In 

88 incomparable 

the house, timahen. — In time, 

iyehan. — In turn, i'ciyokiheya. 
R'fpref. Sni. 
liability, n. Okihisni. 
naccnrate, a. He'cetusni. 
nactive, a. Mdihecesni. 
nadequate, a. Iyehantusni. 
nadmlsslble, a. Icupicasni. 
nadvertence, n. Awacinpisni. 
inanimate, a. Niyasni. 
nappropriate, a. Iyecetusni. 
nasmuch, adv. Ehantanhans ; 

nattentive, a. Awacinsni. 
naudlble, a. Taninsni. 
naugurate, vt Ohnahde. 
nborn, a. Yuhatonpi. 
ncapable, a. Okihisni. 
ncapacitate, vt Okihisniya. 
ncarcerate, vt Kaska. 
ncarnate, a. Wicacehpi. 
ncase, vt Ohnaka. 
ncautious, a. Waawacinsni. 
ncendiary, n. Tiideya. 
ncense, -n. Wi'zinyapi. 
licensed, pa. Canze. 
ncentive, n. On'econ. 
nception, n. O'tokahe. 
ncessant, a. Ayustansni. 
ncest, n. Takuya yu'za. 
nch, n. Napsuoiyute. 
ncident, n. Woakipa ; ta'ku. a. 

Kicica ; ikoyake. 
ncldental, a. Ecaken ; wanu. 
ncite, vt I'yopastaka. 
nclement, a. Kihansica. 
ncllne, vt En yeya. vi. Wacin- 

yuza ; patuza. 
nclined,^>a. Atakinyanhan. 
nclose, vt Nataka ; aohomniya. 
nclosure, n. Natakapi ; conkaske. 
nclude, vt. O'pekiya ; en un. 
nclusive, a. Ko'ya ; o'pekiya. 
ncognito, a. Tu'we naicihbe. 
ncoherent, a. I'cikoyakesni. 
ncome, n. Wokamna. 
ncommode, vt. Nagiyeya. 
ncomparable, a. Iyececa wanica. 


incompatible, a. Okiciwa&te&ni. 
incompetent, a. Waokihisni. 
incomplete, a. Yustanpisni. 
incomprehensible, a. Okanninpi- 

inconsiderate, a. Waawacin&ni. 
inconsistent, a. O'citkonzesni. 
inconvenient, a. Wowiyunyanpi- 

inconvertible, a. Yutokeoapioasni. 
incorrect, a. He'cetuSni. 
incorrigible, a. Yuwa&tepica&ni. 
incorrnptible, a. Yusinpicasni. 
increase, vt. Yuota ; yutanka. vi. 

O'ta a'ya ; icaga. n. Aicage. 
incredible, a. Wicadapicasni. 
increment, w. Aicage. 
Incubate, vi, Mai) ; akikna un. 
inculcate, vt. IwahokoqMya. 
incumbent, a. Ikoyaka. 
incnmbrance, n. Wokagi. 
Incnr, vi. AMpeiciya ; ictu 
incnrabfe, a. Asniyepica&ni. 
indebted, a. Icazo. 
indecent, a. WowiSteca. 
indecision, n. Tawacinsutasni. 
indecisive, a. Yustansni. 
Indecorous, a. Onspekesni. 
Indeed, adv. A'wicakehan. excl. 

Eca : ehan. 
Indefatigable, a. Ecoqkap'insni. 
Indefensible, a. AnazinpicaAni. 
indefinite, a. To'ketutaninsni. 
indelible, a. Pazuzupicasni. 
Indelicate, a. Asiceca. 
indemnity, n. Wokazuzu. 
indent, vt. Paosmaka. 
Indenture, n. Wowapi apuspapi. 
independence, n. Ta'waiciyapi. 
independent, a. Ihduha; ihduha- 

icida : ta'waiciya. 
indescrloable, a. Oyagpicadni. 
indestructible, a. Ihangyepica&ni. 
index, n. Ta'ku en un oyaka. 
Indian, n. Ikcewicadta. 
Indicate, vt. Pazo. 
indication, n. On sdonyapi. 
indicative, a. (Gram.) Woyaka. 

89 inevitable 

indicator, n. Wapazo. 
indict, vt. Iyaoqpa. 
indictment, n. Woiyaonpa. 
indifferent, a. To'kecaSni. 
Indigenous, a. Makoce ta'wa. 
Indigent, a. Wanpanica. 
Indigestion, n. Won'owastesni. 
Indignant, a. WahtedaSni. 
indigo, n. Wi'toye ; tosapa. 
indirect, a. Katiqyansni. 
Indirectly, adv. Aohomniyai). 
indiscernible, a. Sdonyepica&ni. 
indiscreet, a. Wi'yukcaijSni. 
Indiscriminate, a. To'kencinyaij. 
Indispensable, a. Co'dai) uqpicadni. 
Indisposed, a. Ecetukesni. 
Indisputable, a. I'eniyeyepicaSni. 
Indissoluble, a. Sdoyepicasni. 
Indistinct, a. Ohmui) ; taqinsni. 
Indite, vt. E'ya ; owa. 
Individual, n. Wicasta ; tu'we. a. 

I'yatayedan ; wicitawa. 
Individually, adv. Iyohiya. 
Indivisible, a. Kiyuspepica&ni. 
Indolent, a. Ku'za ; hun/kesni. 
indomitable, a. Kaonspepicagni. 
indoor, a. Timahen. 
Indorse, vt. Cazeakanowa. 
indubitable, a. Cetanhdapicasni. 
induce, vt. Ciqkiya ; iyutaijyai) ; 

Inducement, n. Woiyutanye. 
induct, vt. En au. 
indulge, vt. Iyowinyan. 
industrial, a. Wokage. 
industrious, a. Ta'ku ka'gesa; mdi- 

Industry, n. Womdiheca. 
indwell, vt. En oti. 
Inebriate, n. Witkos'a. 
ineffective, a. Wawokihisni. 
inelegant, a. Owa&tesni. 
ineligible, a. Iyecetusni. 
Inequality, n. O'citkonzesni. 
inert, a. Skan&kai) okihisni. 
Inestimable, a. Oyagpicasni ; wa- 

inevitable, a. Yusnapicadni. 




Inexcusable, a, Akahpepioaani. 
inexhaustible, a. Yusonpicaani. 
Inexpedient, a. Iyehantusni. 
Inexpressible, a, Oyagpicaani. 
Infallible, a, To'hinni yuanasni. 
infamous, a. Ni'na si'ca. 
infancy, n. Hoksiyopa oui). 
infant, n. Hoksiyopa. 
infanticide, n. Hok&iyopa kte'pi. 
infantry, n, Makaamani akicita. 
infatuate, vt, Yuhnaskinyan. 
infect, vt, Wosice kantan. 
infectious, a, I'ciyahpaya. 
infelicity, n. Wa'pisni. 
infer, vt, Iyukcan. 
Inferior, a. Hukuya ; ku'ya un. 
Infernal, a, Wakangica. 
infest, vt, Na&iyeya ; kuwa. 
infidel, n. Wicadaani. 
infinite, a, Woptecasni ; owihan- 

infinitive, a, Ecaken. 
infirm, a, Hun'kefcni ; aintin. 
Infirmity, n, Woyazan. 
Inflame, i?*. Ideya. 
inflammatory, a. Waideya. 
inflate, vt, Yupogan. 
inflexible, a. Yutokecapicaani. 
inflict, vt, Ecakicon ; iyopeya. 
influence, vt, Iyutanye ; ecoi)kiya. 

n.. Woiyutanye ; wowas'ake. 
Influential, n. Oie nanonpi. 
influenza, w. I'ciyaza honpapi. 
influx, n. Oahi ; en u. 
inform, vt, Okiyaka ; sdonyekiya. 
informal, a, Ikceka. 
informally, adv. Ikceya. 
informant, n. Tu'we wokiyake. 
information, n. Wosdonye. 
informed, pa. Wasdonya. 
informer, n. Tu'we okiyaka. 
infraction, n, Kicaksapi. 
infringe, vt, Awantani. 
infuse, vt. En okaStan ; o£uya. 
ingenious, a. Wayupika. 
ingraft, vt. En o'stan. 
ingratitude, n, Pidapisni. 
ingredient, n. On ka'gapi. 

ingress, n. En ya. 

inhabit, vt. En ti. 

Inhabitant, n, Enti'pi. 

Inhale, vt, Yahota. 

Inhere, vi, Ikoyaka. 

Inherit, vt, Hunkake ainpeya. 

Inhospitable, a. Wonwicayeani. 

Inhuman, a, Wicaata iyeceoeani 

inimical, a, To'kaye. 

Inimitable, a, Wakapa. 

iniquity, n, WoaMani. 

Initial, a, Otokahe. 

initiate, vt, TokaeconMya. 

Inject, vt. Mahen iyeya. 

Injudicious, a, Wi'yukeanani. 

injure, vt, Yuaica. 

Injurious, a, Wayuaica. 

injustice, n, Woowotaqnaani. 

Ink, n. Minisapa. 

inkling, n, Wowajcta. 

inkstand, ». Minisapa oiuha. 

inland, a, fteyata. 

Inlay, vt. Okookastan. 

Inlet, n. Okanmin ; ohdoka. 

inmate, n. En ti. 

Inmost, a, Mahentunca. 

Inn, n, Owotetipi. 

Innate, a, Ecahececa. 

inner, a, Mahentn. 

Innocence, n, Woantenicodan. 

innocent, a, Wahtanisni; wayu- 

Innovation, n. Itnwayntokecapi. 
innumerable, a. Yawapicasni. 
inoculate, vt. O'stai) ; pandoka. 
Inoffensive, a. Wayuaiceani. 
Inordinate, a. Aokageca. 
inorganic, a. Okancodan. 
inquest, n. Wawiwannomnioiye. 
inquire, vt. & vi. Iwanga ; akita. 
Inquiring, pa. Wawiwaijga. 
inquisitive, a. Wasdonyewacin. 
inroad, n. Canku. 
insane, a. Wacinhnnni. 
insatiable, a, I'mnaani. 
Inscribe, vt, Sutayaowa. 
inscription, n, Owapi. 
inscrutable, a. Okanninpicaani. 




Insect, ». Watutka. 
insecure, a. Okope. 
insensible, a. Kiksuyesni; tai)- 

Insensibly, adv. Taijiijsniyai). 
inseparable, a. Yukinukaijpicasni. 
insert, vt. En'iyeya ; ostai]. 
inside, prep. Mahen. a. Mahentu. 

tt. Mahentu ; supe. 
insidious, a. Waape. 
insight, n. Mahenwakita. 
insignia, n. Wa'petokeca. 
Insignificant, a. Ta'kusni. 
insincere, a. Wieakesni. 
Insinuate, vt. Nahman en i ; ataij- 

insipid, a. Takamnasni. 
insist, vi. Kitar. 
insolent, a. Tan/kaicida. 
insoinble, a. flpanyan picasni. 
insolvent, a. Kazuzu okihisni. 
insomuch, adv. Hehanyan 
inspect, vt. Amdeza. 
inspector, n. Wa'mdeza. 
inspiration, n. Woniya ; ecoijkiya. 
inspire, vt. Oniya ku. vi. Niya. 
instability, n. Tawacii) sutasni. 
Install, vt. Sutaya hde. 
instance, n. Woecon ; he'ceca. 
Instant, a. Wan/cahna ; dehantu. 

n. Wowasaghde; onazii). 
Instantly, adv. Wan/cahnana ; ki- 

Instead of, prep. E'ekiya. 
Instep, n. Siitakaha. 
instigate, vt. Econkiya. 
instill, vt. Onspekiya. 
instinct, n. Iyecinkaawacinpi. a. 

Instinctively, adv. Iyecinka. 
Institute, vt. Hde ; ka'ga. n. Ta'ku 

hde'pi ; woope ; woonspetipi. 
instruct, vt. Onspekiya. 
Instruction, n. Woonspe ; woope ; 

to ken econsipi. 
instructive, a. On onspepi wa'ste. 
instructor, n. Waongpekiya. 
instrument, n. Icuwa ; wowapi. 

instrumental, a. On 7 econpi. In- 
strumental music, can'dowan- 

insubordinate, a. Wananonsni. 

insufferable, a. Otawatesica. 

Insufficient, a. Iyenakecasni. 

Insulate, vt. Isnaehde. 

insult, vt. Ostehda. Itisult a 
woman, wikisde. 

insuperable, a. Okihipicasni. 

insupportable, a. Tawatenyepica- 

Insurance, n. Idekazuzupi. 

insure, vt. Idekazuzu. 

insurgent, n. Wakipazin. 

insurmountable, a. Adipicasni. 

insurrection, n. Wokipazin. 

intact, a. Zani ; he'cehna. 

intangible, a. Yutanpicasni. 

Integer, n. A'taya. 

integrity, n. Wozani. 

Intellect, n. Wasdonye ; nasu. 

intellectual, a. Waawacin.. 

intelligence, n. Wasdonyapi ; wo- 

intelligent, a. Wasdonya. 

intemperance, n. Iyatahdeiciyapi ; 

intend, vt. Wacinyuza ; awacin. 

intense, a. To'kenokihi ; wohi- 

Intensely, adv. Ni'na. 

Intent, n. Tawacii). 

intention, n. Wacinyuza. 

intentional, a. Cin/ecoqpi. 

intently, adv. Awacinfica. 

inter 7 , vt. fia ; hna'ka. 

In'ttf, pref. Otahedan. 

Intercede, vt. Iciya. 

intercept, vt. Otahenaicu. 

intercession, n. Icekiyapi. 

interchange, trt. Kicicu. 

intercourse, n. Ki'ciskanpi. 

interdict, vt. Teninda. 

interest, vt. Awacinya ; en e'wa- 
cin. «. Waawacin pi; iyowa- 
zapi ; ma'zaska aicage ; aicage ; 


interesting,^. Onahon waste; awa- 

interfere, vi. En iyeiciya ; kagiya. 
interference, n. Wokagi. 
interim, w. Oko ; iyozipi. 
interior, a. Mahentu. 
interject, vt. Maheniyeya. 
interjection, n. Ihnuhaneyapi. 
interline, vt. Otahedanowa. 
intermarry, vi. Kici kiciyuza. 
intermeddle, vi. Iyowazasniskan. 
interment, n. Wicahnakapi. 
intermingle, vi. Icahiya un. 
intermission, n. Oko. 
intermit, vt. Ci'stiyedan econsni. 
internal, a. Mahentanhai). 
international, a. Oyate wi'ciyota- 

interpolate, vt. Iapi akaga. 
Interpose, vt. En iyeya ; en hiyui- 

interpret, vt. Ieskaoyaka. * 
interpreter, n. Ieska. 
interrogate, vt. Wi'wanga. 
interrupt, vt. Kagiya ; anapta. 
intersect, vt. I'cipawega. 
intersperse, vt Enana ehde. 
intertwine, vt. Icahi yuwi. 
interval, n. Oko; otahedai). 
intervene, vi. Otahedai] un. 
interview, vt. Wi'wanga. 
Intestate, a. Woyuha on tak eye- 

intestine, a. Mahentu. 
intimate, a. Kici un sa ; ikayena ; 

mahentu. vt. Onspa yatanin. 
intimidate, vt. Yusiijyeya. 
into, prep. Mahen;en. 
intolerable, a. Tawatenyepicasni. 
intolerant, a. Iyowinyesni. 
intoxicate, vt. Witkoya. 
intoxicated, a. Witko. 
intractable, a. Kuwapica&ni. 
intransitive, a. Aihpeyapisni. 
intransitu, a. Toksupi en. 
intrepid, a. Itonpe&ni. 
intricate, a. Oskiske. 
intrigue, w. Nahmai) akan'pi. 

92 Irksome 

intrinsic, a. A'tayedan. 
introduce, vt. En iyeya ; en ahL 

2. Tuweoyaka. 
introductory, a. Otokahe. 
intrude, vt. Kitanskan ; iyecetu- 

sni en i. 
intuition, n. Ecakensdonyapi. 
inundate, vt. Amnitan. 
inure, vt. Ecewaktaya. vi. Ki'- 

Invade, vi. En i ; takpei. 
invalid, a. gihtin. 
invalid, a. Ta'kusni. 
invalidate, vt. Ta'kusniya. 
invalnable, a. Waokiyenca ; ni'na 

invariable, a. He'cetuwanzica. 
invariably, adv. O'hiijni. 
invasion, n. Wotakpe ; eni'pi. 
invective, n. Woyasihtin. 
inveigh, vi. En ohoyeya. 
invent, vt. Ka'ga ; tokakaga. 
inventive, a. Okahwayupika. 
inventor, n. Tokawohdoka. 
inventory, n. Woyuhaowapi. 
inverse, a. Unman eciyatanhan. 
invest, vt. En e / hnaka ; kicun ; 

akahpa; unkiya. 
investigate, vt. To'ketu ode. 
inveterate, a. Ayustan otrihisni. 
invidious, a. Wahtesni. 
invigorate, vt. Was'agya. 
invincible, a. Ohiyepicasni. 
invisible, a. Wanyagpicasni. 
invitation, n. Kicopi. 
invite, vt. Kico ; iyutanye. 
invoice, n. Woyuhaowapi. 
invoke, vt. Icekiya. 
involuntary, a. Awachjsni. 
involve, vt. Aopekiya. 
invulnerable, a. O'picasni. 
inward, a. & adv. Mahentu. 
iodine, n. Iunpizi. 
iota, n. Ci'stinna. 
Iowa, np. Ayuhba. 
ire, n. Wocanze. 
Irish, n. Sagdasaiasica. 
irksome, a. Wawioatuka. 


iron, n. Ma'za ; mazasapa ; mazi- 
pamdaye. a. Ma'za iyececa; 
snta. vt. Ma'za ikoyaka ; ma'- 
za okatai). 

Ironical, a. I'had eyapi. 

Irrational, a. Waciijksapesni. 

irreconcilable, a. Yuwastepica&ni. 

irregular, a. Woopeohnasui ; ka- 

irrelevant, a. A'etoptasni. 

irreligious, a. Ta'ku Wakai) oho- 

irreparable, a. Piyepicasni. 

Irresistible, a. I'tkokipepicasni. 

irresolute, a. Tawaciijhahadai). 

irreverent, a. Waohodasni. 

irrigate, vt. Wozupi amnitaqya. 

irritable, a. Waciijhiijyaijza. 

irritate, a. Yucaijze ; yazaqya. 

irniption, n. Ahinaqpapi. 

Is, am, are, be, vi. 1. Ui) ; yaqka : 
he is well. 2. E'e : this is the 
man. 3. He'ca : this is a horse. 

93 iest 

island, isle, n. Wi'ta. 

islander, n. Witoti. 

isolate, vt. Isnana uijkiya. 

issue, vt. Wicaku. ; pamni : issue 
clothing, vi. U ; hinaqpa ; owi- 
haijkeya. n. Hiyu ; uya ; ta'ku 
hiyu ; ciijca ; owihaqke. 

isthmus, n. Makoce skiskita. 

it, pro. He. It is J, he miye. 
{Generally unexpressed in Da- 
kota.) It snows, wapa. — It is 
too had 9 ni'na sicaya. 

Italic (letters), a. Oowa atakiijyaij. 

Itch, n. Yaspuyapi. 

itchy, a. Yaspuya. 

item, n. Ptenyena oyakapi ; oi- 

itemize, vt. Kpaijyena oyaka. 

Itinerate, vi. Iyaza omani. 

Its, pron. pos. He ta'wa. 

itself, pron. Iyenca. 

Ivory, n. Pasuhaijska hi. 

ivy, n. Wi'yuwi ecato. 

Jab, vt. Oapa ; capaiyeya. 
jabber, vt. Oqspekesni ia. 
Jack, n. Koska; wica; soij'soij- 

mdoka; ma'zaicuwa; wi'yoki- 

Jackall,n. Suqgmanitu. 
Jackass, n. Soij'soijmdoka. 
Jacket, n. Okdeoijziijca 
Jack-knife, n. Mi'yuksizapi. 
Jaded, pa. Watuka. 
Jag, n. flci; wokiij. 
Jagged, a. flci'hci ; he'he. 
Jail, n. Owicakaske. 
jailbird, n. Tu'we kaskapi. 
jailer, n. Wokaske awaqyake. 
jam, vt. Wi'tayaiyeya ; paskica ; 

vi. Kataiheya. n. O'cikaijsni ; 

wasknyeca yuzapi. 
jamb, n. Tiyopaozuha. 
jangle, n. Akinicapi ; yuwiwi. 

janitor, n. Tiyopaawaijyake. 

January, n. Witehi. 

jar, vt. Yuhuhuza. n. Wocaijcai) ; 

jargon, n. Iapihcasni. 
jaunt, n. Wi'kcekceomanipi. 
javelin, n. Wahukezadai). 
jaw, n. Oehupa. vt. Aia. 
jay, n. Zitkato. 
jealous, a. Nawizi. 
jealousy, n. Wowinawizi. 
jeer, vt. Ifra. 
Jehovah, np. Jehowa. 
jehu, n. Suijgkahapaohitika. 
jelly, n. Nini. 

jeopardize, vt. Okokipe ka'ga. 
jeopardy, n. Wokokipe. 
jerk, vt. Yukabicu; kahoiyeya. 

Jerked meat, pa'pa. 
jest, vi. I'had eya. 


jester, n. Wawifiaka. 

let, n. Obosdi; in'yansapa. 

Jew, np. Judawicasta. v. Yahu- 

Jewel, n. In/yantehika ; oil). 
jibe, vi. O'citkonza. 
jig, n. Wowaci ofcanko. 
jigjog, adv. Kahoho. 
Jill, n. Wikoskadan. 
jilt, vt Okiya hna'yai). 
jingle, vt. Yusna. vi. Sna'sna. 
job, vt. Opiye ecehna wi'yopeya. 

n. Woecoij. 
jockey, n. duqgkuwawicafra. vt. 

jocose, a. Wdwiha. 
jocelar, a. Wawihaha. 
jog, vt Panini. vi. Nacamya. 
join, vt. 1. Yuokonwanzidan ; i'ci- 

koyagya : join fortunes; join 

the ends. 2. O'pa ; kici ya : I 

will join you. 3. Kici ecoi) : 

join battle, vi. 1. I'ciyokihe 

un : tlie farms join. 3. O'kon- 

waijzidan un : let us join in our 

work. a. Pta'ya. 
joint, n. O'kihe ; obaspe. Put out 

of joint, pap&un. 
jointed, a. O'kihe yukan. 
jointly, adv. Wi'taya. 
joist, n. Owanka cutuhu. 
joke, vt. I'hadeciya. vi. I'hadeya. 

n. Wowiha ; wowiha iapi. 
jollification, n. Wihahakiciyapi. 
jolly, a. Wi'haha ; wowiha. 
jolt, vt. Kahuhuza. 
jostle, vt. Panini ; yucancai). 
jot, n. Wokpe; ci'stiyedai). vt. 

Ptenyedaij owa. 
journal, n. Aijpetuiyohi owapi; 

wotanin, wowapi ; wicohan 

journalist, n. Wotaijiijka'ga. 
journey, n. Oioimani. vi. I'cima- 

ni ya. 
journeyman, n. Wowadi econo- 

joyial, a. Wi'yuskii) ; wi'haha. 

94 just 

jowl, n. Cehupa. 
joy, n. Wowiyuskin. 
joyful, a. Wi'yuskii). 
joyfully, adv. Wi'yuskiijyan. 
joyless, a. Wowiyuskin, eo'dan. 
joyous, a. Wi'yuskin. 
jubilant, a, Wi'yuskii) pan'pan. 
jubilee, ». Wowiyuskin anpetu. 
judge, ». Wayaco ; wayasn. vt. 

Yaco ; Y. & T. yasu ; yukcan ; 

judgment, n. Wo yaco; woyasu; 

wowiyukcan ; wi'yukcanpi. 
judicatory, n. Wi'yukcaq omni- 

judicature, n. Wi'yukcanpi. 
judicial, a. Wi'yukcan. 
judicious, a. Wowiyukcan ohna ; 

jug, n. Makazanzan. 
juggle, vt. Hna'yai). vi. Wakan- 

juggler, n. Wapiya. 
jugular, a. Tahu. 
juice, n. Hanpi ; mini. 
juicy, a. Hanpi o'ta. 
July, n. Mdokecokawi ; canpa- 

6a wL 
jumble, vt To'kencinyan ehpeya. 

n. To'ketutaninsni. 
jump, vt. Ipsica ; wankankan iye- 

ya; ipsinMya. n. Oipsica. 

Jump over, apsica. 
junction, n. I'ciyohpaya ; mdo'te. 
juncture, n. Woakipa. 
June, n. Wazusteca&awi. 
jungle, n. Otehi ; taskozu. 
junior, a. Hakakta ; o'kihe. 
Jupiter, n. Wakinyai). 
jurisdiction, n. Woawanyake. 
jurist, n. Waaiawicada. 
juror, n. Wi'yukcankiyapi. 
jury, n. Wi'yukcan optaye. 
just, a. Owotanna ; woope yuha : 

a just man. adv. 1. Iyehantu- 

dan ; hehantudan hca : just 

noon. 2. Ki'tanna: I can just 

see. 3. fica : just alike; just 


now. 4. He'e boa : just to hurt 

Justice, n. Woowotanna; wowi- 

Justification, n. Yuowotaijnapi. 

95 knave 

justify, vt. Yuowotaxjna. 
jostiy, adv. Owotanna. 
justness, n. Woowotaqna. 
jut,**. Pazohiyu. 
juvenile, n. Wakanhe&a. 


n. Kaq'ze ; Kahanze. 

keel, n. Wa'ta sicu. 

keen, a. 1. Pe : a Arcen erfgrc ; a 
keen breeze. 2. Waciijksapa : 
a keen lawyer. 

keenly, adv. Ni'na. 

keep, vt. Yuha; awanyaka. vt. 
Un ; yai)ka. Keep at it, ayu- 
stai) sni skan.. — J£eep Am &ed, 
owaijka en ui). — J&ip cooi, 
mdesya ihduha. — £e«p con»- 
pany, o'hanhdeya. — Keep down, 
kun yu'za. — Keep a feast, omni- 
ciye eoon. — JTecp for, ki'ciyu- 
ha. — JTeep ^Vow, heyam yuha. 
— ifc0p on, san/pa econ. — Keep 
out of x etanhai) ihduha. — Keep 
still f inina un; owaqzi un. — 
Keep the road, canku ohna ya. 
— Keep up, iyehan un. — Keep 
warm, cosya ui\.—Keep well, 
zaniyan. un. 

keeper, n. Wa'waijyake. 

keeping, n. Woawanyake ; awan- 
yake ; okiciwaste. 

keepsake, n. On kiksuyapi. 

ken,trt. Sdonya. ' 

kennel, n. &un/katipi. 

kept, imp. of keep. 

kernel, n. Go ; su. 

kerosene, n. Petizaniaq wi'hdi. 

kettle, n. Ce'ga. 

key, n. 1. Iyuhdoka; Y. iyusdo- 
ka ; T. iyuhloka. 2. Iyuhomni : 
watch-key. 3. Ho oiyahe. 

keyhole, n. Iyusdoke ohdoka. 

key-note, n. Hohute. 

keystone, n. In'yanawakeyapii- 

kick, vt. Nahtaka; nabagbaka. 

Kick up ajus8, woskiske ka'g:*. 

n. Wonahtake. 
kid, n. Tatokadancinca; tatokaha. 
kidnap, vt. Wioasta manox). 
kidney, n. Paksii) ; Y. azuntka. 
kill, vt. Kte ; t*ya ; ehpeya. 
killer, n. Wioakte. 
kiln, n. In/yai) acetipi. 
kin, n. Wotakuye. 
kind, a. Waonsida : waste. Kind 

to, on/sida. n. Ocaze ; obe. 
kindle, trt. Ideya:ka'ga. vt. Ide. 
kindling, n. Oi) ideyapi. 
kindly, adv. Waondidaya ; cante- 

kindness, n. Wowaontida. 
kindred, a. & n. Takukiciyapi. 
klne, n. Ptewiye. 
king, n. Wicastayatapi. 
kingdom, n. Wokiconze. 
kingfisher, n. Kusdeca. 
kink, n. Oyuha. vt. Yuhaha. 
kinky, a. Yumnimnlza. 
klnnlklnic, n. Candasa. 
kinsfolk, n. Wotakuye. 
Kiowa, n. Wi'tapaha. 
kip, n. Ptezioanaha. 
kiss, vt. I'itputaka. 
kissing, n. I'itputakapi. 
kit, n. Kokana ; inmu cinca. 
kitchen, n. Owohetipi. 
kite, n. Minihuhakiyekiyapi ; upi- 

zate tan'ka. 
kitten, n. Inmusunkana. 
kitty, n. Inmusunka cinoana. 
knack, n. Wowayupika. 
knapsack, n. Wapap&unka. 
knave, n. Wicahnayesa. 


knead, vt. Patfijza. 

knee, n. Hupahu ; diyoto ; Y.&T. 

kneel, knelt, vt. Caqpeskamakahde 

knee-pan, n. Takaijgi. T. Cai)- 

knell, n. Paij'paijpi. 

knew, imp. of know. 

knicknack, n. Ta'kufini. 

knife, n. Isai). F. Mi'na. T. Mi'- 
la. Butcher-knife, isaijpesto ; 
mi'napesto. — Case-knife, isaij- 
mdaska; mipisda. — Pocket- 
knife, isaqyukatiqpi ; miyukSi- 

knight, n. Wowaste itaqcai). 

knit, trt. Kazoijta; ikoyaka; yuski. 

knives, n. j?J. of knife. 

knob, n. Psuqka. 

knock, t?f„ Apa : fcnocfc fciw on fA« 
head. 2. Kabubu; katoto : knock 
at the door. Knock a thing 
away, kakamiyeya. — Knock 
down, kawaijka; kun e&peya. 
— Knock a hole, kabdoka. — 

96 lamb 

Knock off, kaha iyeya. — Knock 
out the eye, ista kakpa. — Knock 
together, i'ciyapa. — Knock un- 
der, kahukim iyeya. — Knock 
up, kawaijkan iyeya. n. Kato- 
topi ; oape. 

knoll, n. Pazodai) ; paha. 

knot, n. 1. Okaske : He a knot. 
A bow-knot, okaske yusdutapi. 
2. Adetka; osnaze: the board 
wasfuU of knots. 

knotty, a. Adetka o'ta ; yuwi ; iyu- 

know, knew, vt. 1. Sdonya: <U> 
you know the road. 2. Oijspe : 
I know my lesson. 3. Iyekiya : 
I don't know you. 

knowledge, n. Wosdonye. 

known, pp. of know. 

knuckle, n. Napakaha. vi. Patus 


kodak, n. Oq'iteicupicika. 

Kootenai, np. Sku'tani." 

Koran, np. Mohamiried Wowapi- 

Kwapas, np. Pe'sa. 

label, n. Kaijsu ; wowasagkde. 
labor, vi. fltani. n. Wohtani. 
laboratory, n. Oskinciyetipi. 
labored, a. Oi) ni'na ntanipi. 
laborer, n. Tu'we htani ; wo- 

laborious, a. Ecoqpi tenike ; tke ; 

ni'na skau. 
lace, n. Sinaapandate gangai). 

vt. Iyakadka ; yuwi. 
lacerate, vt. Bahoqhoi). 
lack, vt. Ni'ca ; iyokpaniui) ; ica- 

kiza ; iyohifini. 
laconic, a. Coya ; pte'eena. 
lacrimal, a. I&tamni. 
lacrosse, n. Takapsioapi. 

lad, n. Koskana. 

ladder, n. Caijiyadipi. Y. Caq- 

lade, vt. I£ii)kiya ; ozudaijya. 

Laden, ozudai) ; wakii). 
ladle, n. Iyokapfc. 
lady, ladies, n. Wiij'yai) ; wiq'yaq- 

lady's slipper, n. Pi'skotahaqpe. 
lag, vi. He'ktaui) ; naqhi. 
laggard, n. Huq'kesni. 
lagoon, n. Minikazedaq. 
bid, pp. of LAY. 
lair, n. Wamaniti. 
lake, n. Mde. 
lamb, n. Ta'hcaska ciijca. 




lame, a. Huste; ecetusni. vt. 

lamely, adv. On/siya. 
lament, vt. Aoeya. vi. Ce'ya. 

lamentable, a. Oiyokisica. 

lamp, n. Petizanzan. 

lampblack, n. Wi'sapa ; cehnagi. 

lance, n. Wahukeza. vt. Capa. 

lancet, n. Kanicakpe. 

land* n. Maka; makooe. Jfcfotof 
land, maka spa'ya. — Fitew the 
land, makoce wanyaka. vt. 
fletezu. vi. Diuni ; hihuni. 

landing, n. Oahuni ; hihuni. 

landlady, n. Win/yai) tiyuha. 

landlord, n. Owotetipiyuha. 

landmark, n. Wowasaghde. 

land-office, n. Makoce owiyopeye. 

landscape, n. Makoce owanyake. 

landslide, n. Makoce kaoksa. 

landwarrant, n. Makoce on icupi. 

lane, n. Cankuacankaskapi. 

language, n. Iapi. 

languid, a. Ahtate; waeconkapin. 

languish, w. fianye. 

lanfnor, n. Woeconkapin. 

lank, a. Sta'ka ; tamaheca. 

lantern, n. Tankanpetizanzai). 

lap, n. Siyoto ; cankpe. vt. I'ta- 
kihna iyeya ; sdi'pa. 

lap-dog, n. feiyoto sun'ka. 

lapse, vi. Hiyaya ; ihunni. 

larboard, n. Wa'tacatkata. 

larceny, n. Womanon Grand lar- 
ceny, womanoi) tan'ka. 

lard, n. Kukuse ihdi. 

large, a. Tan'ka ; woptecasni. So 
large, hin/skotaijka. 

largely, adv. Tan'kaya. 

lariat, n. Wi'kan ikoeka. 

lark,n. ddo'sdona. 

larva, n. Wamduikana. 

lascivious, a. Ecin&niyan. 

lash, n. Icapsinteikan ; apapi. vt. 
Apa ; kapsinpsinta. 

Iass,n. Wikoska. 

lasso, vt Wi'kaxjkah'ooyuspa. n. 

last, a. & adv. Ehake : the last 
cent Hekta : last Summer. At 
last, owihanke ekta; un'han- 
keta. vi. Eoen tug j te'han un.. 
n. Can'siha. 

lastly, adv. Ehake. 

lasting, pa. Te'han un. 

latch, n. Inatake. 

late, adv. Te'han. a. 1. Te'han 
hi sni : a late Spring. 2. Aska- 
tudan : late news. 3. Te'hantu ; 
ihanketa : he was late coming. 
Of late, aakatudan. 

lately, adv. Aakatudan. ¥. De- 

latent, a. Taninsni un. 

later, a. Iyohakam. 

lateral, a. Hdakinyan. 

latest, a. Ehake. 

lath, n. Cansbuna. 

lathe, n. Tuhomni pazipapi. 

lather, n. Wipazaza tage. 

latitude, n. Ohdakinyan. 

latterly, adv. Aakatudan. 

laud, vt. Yatan ; yatanka. 

laudable, a. Yawastepica. 

laudanum, n. Iatinma pezuta sbu. 

laudatory, a. Wayatanpi. 

bngh, vi. Iha. n. Ihapi. 

laughable, a. Wowiha. 

laughter, n. Ihapi. 

launch, vt. Mininiyeya ; iyayeya. 
n. Wa'tamdaaka. 

laundress, n. Win 'y an wozaza. 

laundry, n. Wozazatipi. 

lava, n. In/yaij ado. 

lavatory, n. Owozaza. 

laver, n. Ohna wozazapi. 

lavish, a. O'tayusota ; wayusota.. 

law, n. Woope ; wowasukiye - y 
woecon jwa'kiyapi. 

lawful, a. Woopeohna ; he'cetu. 

lawgiver, «. Woopekaga. 

lawless, a. Woope ahopesni. 

lawn, n. Ticahda pezito ; mini- 

lawsuit, n. Woope ekta kuwapi. 

lawyer, n. Waaiawicaata. 

lax 98 

lax, a. Ti^'ze&ni; suta&ni. 

laxly, adv. To'kenciijyai). 

lay, vt. 1. E'hnaka: lay it down. 

— 2. Okada : lay eggs. — 3. 

Enpeya : lay waste the country. 

—4. Yuwiyeya : lay plans. — 

5. Kun iyeya : lay the storm. 

Lay away r , kihnaka. — Lay hold, 

oyuspa. imp. of lie, which 

see. n. Odowan ; makomdaye. 

a. Itaijcai) sni. 
layer, n. Oehnake ; okage. 
layman, ». ItancaqSni. 
lazily, adv. Iwahnana. 
laziness, n. Wicokuza. 
lazy, a. Ku'za ; hun'keSni ; eeon- 

leach, vt. Ske'pa. 
lead, n. Ma'zasu. 
lead, led, vt. A'ya ; yus a'ya : lead 

your sister, vi. 1. Tokaheya 

ya : you lead. 2. Iyahde : leads 

to the river, w. O'tokahe ; 

oyaqke tokaheya. 
leader, w. Wotokahaq ; itaqcan. 
leading, pa. Tokahai). 
leaf, leaves, w. Ape ; canwapa. 

vi. Ape uya. 
leafless, a. Ape wanica. 
leafy, a. Ape o'ta. 
league, n. 1. Wodakota; okodaki- 

ciye. 2. Makaiyutapi ya'mni. 
leak, vt. 1. Kuse : the pail leaks. 

2. Ohiyu : the roof leaks. 
leaky, a. Kuse. 
lean, a. Tamaheoa. vt. Ataoi)pa ; 

patuia. vi. Ioanhan ; kaonya 

leap, leapt, vt. Apsica : leap the 

fence, vi. Ipsica. n. Oipsica. 
leap-frog, n. Akicipsicapi. 
leap-year, n. Waniyetu itopa. 
learn, vt. Oqspeieiciya ; iyukcai). 

vi. Onspe; okahniga; nahoi). 
learned, a. Waoqspeka. 
learning, n. Wosdonye ; wo- 

lease, vt. Oku ; makoce oku. 


least, a. Iyotai) ci'stiqna. adv. 

leather, n. Tataqkaha ; taha. 
leave, left, vt. 1. Ehpeya; ayu- 

stai) ; kihnaka : leave it here. 

2. Okapta : not a drop left. 2. 

Tokai) ya : I want him to leave. 

n. Woiyowinkiya ; aapeyuzapi. 
leaven, n. Wi'naponye. vt. Na- 

leaves, n. pi. of leaf. 
leavings, n. Okaptapi. 
lecherous, a. Wiciqs'a. 
lecture, vt. Wahokoqkiya. n. Wo- 

led, imp. of lead. 
ledge, n. In'yan maya. 
ledger, n. Oicazowowapi taq'ka. 
lee, ft. I'tahdafrbe. 
leech, ft. Tusda. 
leek, ft. Psin. 

leer, vi. Hdakiqyaqetonwai). 
left, imp. of leave. 
left, a. Catka ; napecatka. 
leg, ft. Hu ; huha ; oyaya. 
legacy, n. Waihpeyapi. 
legal, a. Woope ohna. 
legalize, vt. Woope oi) yuecetu. 
legend, n. Ehannawoyakapi. 
legged, a. Hu yuha. 
legging, ft. Hunska. 
legible, a. Yawapiwaste. 
legion, ft. Ni'naota. 
legislate, vi. Woopeka'ga. 
legislature, n. Woopekaga omni- 

legitimate, a. Woopeohna. 
leisure, ft. Oko j ta'ku econsni. 
leisurely, adv. Inahnisniyan. 
lemon, n. Taspanzi han'ska. 
lemonade, n. Taspanzihanpi. 
lend, lent, vt. Oku. 
length, ft. Ohanska. At length, 

un'hanketa ; haq'skeya. 
lengthen, vt. Yuhanska. 
lengthwise, adv. Ohanskaya. 
lengthy, a. Han'aka. 
lenient, a. Waonsida ; wa'hba. 


lenity, n. Wowanba. 

lens, n. Istazanzan zanzan. 

leat,n. Akihani^iyapi han'ska. 

lent, imp. of lend. 

leopard, n. Inmnhdeska. 

leper, n. Leprosy eceoa. 

leprosy, n. Ukandi&ca woyazai). 

lew, a. & adv. A'okpani ; ihukun ; 
ei'stinna. suf. Co'dan ; wani- 
ca: a fatherless child. 

lessen, vt. Yucistina ; yuaokpanL 

lesser, a. Ci'stinna. 

lesson, n. Woope. 

lest, conj, O'kini. 

let, vt, 1. Iyowinkiya; ito. Let 
atone, aynstan. — Zet ootrn, 
kon'iyeya. — Let go, ayuStan. — 
Let in, en'iyeya. 2. Oku ; ka- 
znzn oku : he let his farm, 

lethargy, n. Wokuza. 

letter, n. 1. Wowapi (kicicupi 
he'ea) : write me a letter, 2. 
Oowa : he don't know his letters, 
3. Wowapi onspe : a rnan of 
letters, vt, Oowa ka'ga. 

lettuce, n. Wanpeyutapi. 

levee, n. 1. Kicicopi: the pres- 
idents levee. 2. Wakpa o'huta. 

level, a. Mda'ya; iyehanyan wan- 
kantu. vt, Yumdaya. n, Omda- 
ye ; wankantu oiyute. 

lever, n. Canipaptaqye. 

levity, n. Tke'sni ; ta'kusni. 

levy, vt, Mnayesi ; aehnaka. 

lewd, a. Si'ca ; wicinpi. 

lexicon, n. Ieskawowapi. 

HaMe, a, Ikoyake ; iyeoeca. 

liar, n. Itonsni ; owewakai). 

Abel, n. Woyasioa. vt. Yasica. 

liberal, a, Onanpi : a liberal giver; 
okamdaya : a liberal education; 
to'ken cin'cin : a liberal thinker, 
n. I'ye to'ken cin nn. 

liberate, trt. Kiynska. 

libertine, n, Wi'hduhesni; wica- 

liberty, n. Ta'waioiyapi ; woiyo- 

99 lightning-bug 

librarian, n. Wowapiawanyake. 
library, n, Wowapiopahi. 
license, vt. Iyowinkiya. 
licentiate, n. Eoonktaiyowinki- 

licentious, a, Wawicinanas'a. 
lick, vt. Sdi'pa. n. Oape; wo- 

lid, n. Iha; oakahpe. Eyelid, 

lie, lay, lain, vi, 1. Iwanka: lie 

down and sleep, 2. Wanka ; 

hpa'ya: it lies east, 3. Yan- 

ka : lie hid, 
lie, lied, vi. ItonSni. Y. & T, Owe- 

wakan : he lied about it. n. 

Woitondni ; owewakanpi. 
liege, a, Wicaka ; okinihan. 
lien, n. Wokaske. 
lieu, n. To'he. In lieu of, e'ekiya. 
lieutenant, n, O'kiheitancan. 
live, Hves, n. Oni ; wieoni ; ni'pi. 
life-estate, n, Woyuha ni'pi ne- 

hanyan ynhapi. 
lifeless, a, Ni'dni ; ta ; hun'keSni. 
lifelike, a, Ni iyececa ; ni se'ea. 
lifelong, a. Tohanyan ni. 
lifetime, n, Anpetu ni. 
lift, vt. Yuwankan icu ; icu. 
ligament, n. Kan. 
ligature, n. Ikan ; wi'caske. 
light, n. Iyoyanpa ; petizanzan : 

bring me a light, vt. Iyoya- 

mya ; ideya : light the lamp, 

vi, Iyahan ; en hi. a. 1. Ka- 

pozedan : light wood. 2. Ci'- 

stina : a light snow ; a Ugh t 

error. 3. Ska: sai) : a light 

complexion, 4. Iyoyanpa; i'zan- 

zan : a light room. 
lightbread, n. Aguyapitacagu. 
lighten, vt. 1. Yukapozedan : 

lighten the boat, 2, Iyoyamya : 

lighten the way, 
lightly, adv. Iwa&tedan ; kapoze- 

dai) ; awacin&niyai). 
lightning, n. Wakanhdi. 
lightning-bug, n. Wanyeca. 




lignite, n. Pe'tacandi sutasni. 

like, vt. Iyokipi ; wastedaka : I 
like to run. a. Iyeoeca : like 
his mother, adv. Iyecen : do it 
like he does. vi. Ikiyedan; owa- 
teca : he liked to have fallen. 

likelihood, n. Se'ececa. 

likely, a. 1. Naceca. 2. Waste. 

liken, vt. Iyaciij. 

likeness, n. Ouncage ; iteowapi. 

likewise, conj. Nakun ; is'eya. 

liking, n. Wowastedake. 

lily, n. Mnancanca. 

limb, n. Adetka ; oyaya. 

limber, a. Win&winzedaij. 

lime, n. In'yanacetipi. 

limit, n. Owihanke. vt. Hehan- 

limitation, n. Owihankeyapi. 

limited, a. A'okpani un. 

limp, vt. Hustemani. a. Patinsni. 

limpid, a. Mde'za. 

line, n. 1. Wi'kan ; hanonta : 
stretch the line. 2. Oicago ; oi- 
cazo : draw a line ; the north 
line of my place. 3. Cankuyo : 
read four lines ; stand in line; 
a line of houses. 4. Wiconan ; 
woecon : line of business, vt. 1. 
Cankuye ka'ga : line up the 
men. 2. I'taMhna ka'ga: line 
a dress. 

lineage, u. Ouncage. 

lineal, a. Caijkuye owotanna. 

linen, n. Minihuhasuta. 

linger, vi. Ye'kapiij ; ye'sni ui). 

lingering, a. Te'hanui). 

linguist, n. Iapi wayupika. 

liniment, n. Wi'pakinte. 

lining, n. Apate ; imahen nn. 

link, n. Oyuksa ; okaske. vt. Iko- 

linseed, n. Wi'hdisn. 

linsey, n. Ta'ncahin ioahi. 

lint, n. MiniTmha hii). 

lion, n. Mna'za. 

lioness, n. Mna'za wi'ye. 

lionize, vt. Yawas'aka. 

lip, n. Iha. Sore lips, ina hdi. 
Upper lip, puto. Lower lip, 

isti. 2. Opapun ; tete : the lip 

of the cup. 
liquefy, vt. Cocokaga. 
liquid, n. Miniiyeoeoa ; ta'ku ka- 

duza ; oeyewaste. 
liquidate, vt. Tikticaya ; kazuzu. 
liquor, n. Miniwakan ; mini iye- 
lisp, vi. Yasdiia. 
list, n. 1. Owicawapi ; owapi. 2. 

Sinatoopapun. vt. Owa. 
listen, vi. Anagoptan ; nahon. 
listless, a. Enewacinsni. 
literal, a. Ohnahca. 
literary, a. 1. Wowapionspehca : 

a literary man. 2. Wowapi on : 

a literary conversation* 3. Wo- 
literature, n. Wowapi. 
lithe, a. Winswinzedan. 
litigate, vt. Woope en kuwa. 
litter, n. Watusekseea. 
little, a. Ci'stinna, a little boy, 

A little while, ci'stiyedan. 
Little Missouri river, n. Wakpa- 

little Rocky mountains, n. fie'- 

Little Sioux river, n. In/yanyanke 

liturgy, n. Wocekiye owapi. 
live, vi, Ni : live by eating. 2. Ti : 

where do you live. 
live, a. Ni ; te'sni ; sni'sni. 
livelihood, n. Wokamna ; on ni 
liveliness, n. Womdiheca. 
livelong, a. Ihunniyan. 
lively, a. Mdiheca ; ni. 
liver, n. Pi. Beef liver, ta-pi. 
livery, n. 1. Sun'kawakan owica- 

kupi : livery stable. 2. Oi- 

livid, a. Stan. 
living, a. Ni; he'cetuwanzica. )>. 

On ni. 
lizard, n. Ahde&ka. 



to, interj. 1. Iho ; wan ; ikcewi- 

load, n. 1. Wokii) : a heavy load. 

2. Ohnaka : two wagon loads. 

vt. Ohnaka ; ozuya. Load your 

gun, ma'zakan okiksu. 
loading, n. Ta'ku ohnakapi. 
loaf, loaves, n. Opatinze : a loaf 

of bread, vi. Wi'kcekce un ; 

as'ii) ; wicaoha. 
Loafer, n. Wa'kduhe; T. Wa'- 

loam, n. Makikoeka. 
loan, vt. Oku ; inahui ku. Please 

loan me a dollar, n. Owioajpi- 

pi ; odotapi. 
loathe, vt. Hitihda ; cin'sni. 
loathing, n. Wowahtedasni. 
loathsome, a. Wahtesni. 
loaves, pi. of loaf. 
lobby, vi. Cinwicakiyapi ; kuwa. 
lobster, n. Matoskatanka. 
local, a. Hen'tu ; hen e'cedan. n. 

En'tu wotanin. 
locality, n. Oyanke ; makoce. 
locate, vt. Oyanke ku ; iyeya. 
location, n. Oyanke. 
lock, n. 1. Inatake : a door-lock. 

2. Nawate : a gun-lock. 3. 

Aske ; onspa : a lock of hair. 

Scalp-lock, pecoka. 4. Oiyani- 

eapi : a lock of carriages, vt. 

1. Nataka: lock the door. 2. 
Fciyuwi : lock arms. 

lock-jaw, n. Cehupapatin. 
lock-op, n. Wokasketipi. 
locomotive, n. demand. 
locust, n. Psipsicadan ; heftaka- 

lodge, vt, 1. E'hde : lodge arms. 

2. Owanka ku : lodge the tra- 
vellers. 3. Pandi iheya : lodge 
an arrow in his side. 4. Kawin- 
za: the wind lodged the oats, 
vi. Wan lea ; ti. n. Ohna wan/- 
kapi ; wakeya. 

lodging, n. Owanka ; ti'pi. 
loft, n. WankantipL 

loftily, adv. Wankantuya. 

lofty, a. Wai)kantu. 

log, n. Caqkaga ; wa'taiyopte oiy- 

log-cabin, n. Cankagatipi. 

loggerhead, n. Nasuwanica; ki'- 

logic, n. Waawacinpi woonspe. 

logical, n. Woawacinhecetu. 

loin, n. Nitiyuksa ; nite. 

loiter, vi. Itayaun ; hanhi. 

loll, vi. Temni ; cezihiyuya ; ozii- 

lone, a. Isnanaun. 

loneliness, n. Ioomnipi. 

lonely, a. 1. Makoskantn : a lonely 
place. 2. Icomni : I am lonely. 

lonesome, a. Wicadta wanica. 

long, a. 1. Han 'ska : a long stick. 
2. Ohanska : a foot long. 3. 
Te'han : a long time ago. All 
day long, anpetn ihnnni. — As 
long as, tohanyai). — How long, 
tohanyai). — Long live, te'han 
ni. — So long, hehanyai). vi. 
Cantokpani : I long to see you. 
To long for, cin : J long for 
some fresh meat. 

longer, comp. of long. 

longest, super, of long. 

longitude, n. Makaipiyaka oiyute. 

long-sighted, a. Te'haij wa'kita. 

long-suffering, a. Wacii)tai)ka. 

long-winded, a. Niyahanska. 

look, t?i. 1. E'tonwai) : look yonder. 
Ahitonwan, look here. 2. Awa- 
cii) ; ecin : I did not look to see 
you to-day. 3. Kon'za : look 
brave. Look about, o'ksai) wa'- 
kita. — Look after, awanyaka; 
akita. — Look at each other, opa- 
kicihta. — Look back, hakikta. 
— Look down on, ta'kusnikiya. 
— Look for, ode ; akita ; hi kta 
wakta un. — Look into, amdeza. 
— Look like, iyeeeea ; se'ca ; ite- 
ka. — Look on^ wanyaka. — Look 
out, ode ; akita ; han/ta ; win/- 

looking 102 

swing. — Look over, aokasii) ; 
amdeza. — Look queer, to'keca- 
seca. — Look sharp, ni'na wa'- 
kita. — Looks toward, itoheya 
wanka (the house looks toward 
the river), vt. Look down, kun 
e'tonwaq. n. Wa'kitapi; iteo- 

looking, n. Wa'kitapi ; owan- 

looking-glass, n. Ihdiyomdasin. 
Y. Mniokdasin.. T. Miyogla- 

lookout, n. Wa'kitapi ; co'wahe. 

loom, n. Wi'eazonte. vi. Hinapa. 

loon v n. Mdo'za. T. Hun'tka. 

loop, n. &unzoyake; oiyaka&ke. 
vt. dunioyakekaga. 

loop-hole, n. Ondokaoenape. 

loose, vt. Kiyuska ; yuska. a. 1. 
Kaskesni : a loose horse. 2. 
fipuwahe ; ikoyakedni : loose 
leaves. 3. Ondandadan : a loose 
fit; a loose bolt. 4. To'ken enj- 
oin. : a loose way of speaking; 
loose ideas. 5. Sutasni; hoho- 
dai) : a loose tooth. 

loosely, adv. To'ken cin'yan. 

loosen, vt. Yu&ka ; yupanpan. 

looseness, n. Wosutasni ; tin'ze- 

loot, trt. Tibotica. 

lop, vt. 1. Baksa : lop off the limbs. 
2. Kawinza : top tffo ear*. 

lope, vi. Nawanka. 

loquacious, a. Ies'a ; i'wasicuns 

lord, n. 1. Itancax) : the house of 
lords. 2. Jehowa. vi. Itancan 

lordly, a. Itancanse ; okinihai). 

lore, n. Woonspe ; woksape. 

lose, lost, vt. 1. Tok'enpeya : lost 
his knife. 2. Nu'ni : lose the 
way. 3. Yusna : he lost two 
days 9 work. 4. Ki'ciyutakuni- 
sni ; ki'eidiea : I lost my hay. 
Lose a battle, okicize kte'pidan. 
— Lose ground, he'kta iyaye. — 


Lose heart, cante kicux)ni. vi. 

Okihisni ; he'kta iyaye. 
loss, n. Akicitakunisni ; woihan- 

ke ; to'kanon. At a loss, to'ketu 

tanin sni. 
lost, a. To'kanon. ; taninsni : yu- 

anapi ; nuni. 
lot, n. Woakipa : a hard lot. 2. 

Maka obaspe : a church lot. 

3. Opahi i a lot of goods. 4. 

Ota ; ni'na o'ta : lots of people. 

— Cast lots : wayekiyapi. 
loth, a. Eoonkapin. 
lottery, n. Wayekiyapi. 
loud, a. Ho'taqka ; tan/kaieida. 
loudly, adv. Ho'tankakiya. 
lounge, n. Akanyaqkapi panpan- 

na. vi. Oziya un. 
Loup River, n. Kusdeca wakpa. 
louse, Uce, n. He'ya. 
lousy, a. He'ya o'ta. 
lovable, a. Wastedapi : waste. 
love, vt. Wastedaka; inakta; on/- 

sida ; eantekiya. n. Waihakta- 

pi ; wacantkiyapi ; woihakta ; 

wowadtedake ; tn'we waste- 

love-letter, n. Wicinpi wowapi. 
loveliness, n. Wowaste. 
lovely, a. Waste ; iyowicakipi. 
lover, n. Tu'we wastedaka. 
toying, a. Waihakta. 
lovingly, adv. Wastedaya. 
low, a. 1. Ku'oeyedan : low ground. 

2. Ka'zedan : the river is low. 

3. TeMsni ; ci'stinna : wheat is 
low. 4. Waonspekesni : the low 
class of people, adv. 1. Ku'oe- 
yedan : fly low. 2. Iwastedan : 
speak low. vi. Pte'hoton ; ho- 

lower, vt. Yuhukuya. vt. Wako- 

kipe ka'ga : the clouds lower. 
Lower Brute, n. Kunwicasa. 
lowliness, n. Ta'kuicidasni. 
lowly, a. Ku'oeyedan ; on'sika. 
lowness, n. Kun'tuh un'pi. 
lowspirited, a. Cantehuqkesni. 




loyal, a. Waohoda; wanaftoi). 
labberly, a. Taqeai) oqspekesni. 
lubricate, vt. Sdaya. 
lurid, a. I'zaijzai) ; mde'za. 
Inciter, n. Aqpaowicaqftpi. 
lack, n. Woakipa. Good focfc, 

wa'pipi. — -Bad tocfc, woakipa 

luckily, adv. Taq'yaq. 
lucky, a. Wa'pi. 
lucrative, a. Wakamna. 
lacre, ft. Woyuha ; wokamna. 
Microns, a. Wowi&a. 
lug, vt. Kii) ; yusdohaq. 
luggage, n. Wofcii). 
lukewarm, a. I{eca ; huq'kesni. 
loll, vt. Kihna. vi. Kun'ya. 
Inllaby, n. Eihnapiodowai). 
lumber, n. Caqmdaska ; wokpai). 

vt. Ta'ku&ni&ni oi) kagiya. 
luminary, n. Iyoyaqpa. 
luminous, a. Iyozaqzai). 
Inmp, n. Wotasaka; oqdpa. vt. 

Yuwitaya ; wi'taya icu. 
Inmpy, a. Tasaksaka ; psuqkaka. 

lunacy, n. Waoiqhmmipi. 

lunatic, n. Waciijhnuni. 

lunch, n. Ina&niwotapi. 

luncheon, n. Otahenawotapi. 

lung, n. Cagu. 

lung e, n. Kafioiyeioiyapi. 

lurch, vi. Naptai) iyaya. 

lure, vt. Iyutaqye. 

lurid, a. Okokipe. 

lurk, vi. Iyape ; naftmai) ui). 

luscious, a. Skuskuya. 

lust, vi. Cii) ; caijtahde. 

luster, n. Wowiyakpa. 

lustrous, a. Wiyakpa. 

lusty, a. Tai)eai)tai)ka ; wad'aka. 

luxuriant, a. Paq'ga. 

luxuriate, vi. I'mnahai) ui). 

luxurious, a. Wi'zica aokageca. 

lyceum, n. Waoijspeioiciya ti'pi. 

lye, n. Caftotahaijpi. 

lying, imp. of lie. 

lynch, vt. Woope wanin kte'. 

lynx, n. Inmu giqteoijziijca. 

lyre, n. Pteheyudowaqpi. 

lyrical, a. Dowaqpiwadte. 


ma, n. Ina. 

ma'am, contr. of madam. 
macerate, vt flpaijye. 
machination, n. Wokuwa. 
machine, n. wi'ouwa; ma'zaicuwa. 
machinist, n. Maza'icuwa ka'ga. 
mad, a. Hnadkiqyai) ; caqze. 
madam, n. Wiq'yai) yuonihaqpi. 
madden, vt. Yuhnaakiijyai). 
made, imp. of make. 
madly, adv. Witkoya. 
madness, n. Wohnaskiijyai). 
maelstrom, n. Miniomni taij'ka. 
magazine, n. Wopiye ; wakihnag- 

tipi ; wotaqiqwowapi do'ka. 
maggot, n. Wamdudai) ; T. wa- 

glula; honagidai) ciqca. 

magic, n. Wakaqkai) skaxj'pi. 
magical,- a. Wakaqse. 
magician, n. Wapiyawicadta. 
magistrate, n. Oyate itaqcai). 
magnanimous, a. Waciqtaqka. 
magnate, n. Itaqcai) taq'ka. 
magnet, n. Ma'zawiyutitai). 
magnetic, a. Wawiyutai), 
magnificence, n. Wokinihai). 
magnify, vt. Yutaijka. 
magnitude, n. Thj'skokeca ; hiij'- 

magpie, n. Uijkcekiha. 
maid, n. Wikoska; nahaijh hi- 

maiden, a. & n. Witaqdna; te'ca; 


mail 104 

mall, n. 1. Wowapitoksupi ; wo- 
wapi : where is my mail. 2. 
Ma'zaheyake. vt. Wowapi to- 
ksu ohnaka : mail my letters, 

mall-carrier, u. Wowapitoksu. 

maim, vi. Kiunniya. 

main, a. Itancan ; tancan. 

mainly, adv. Iyotai). 

maintain, nt. He'cetuwanzicayuha 
ui) ; yuha un ; yuha ; o'kiya. 

maintenance, n. On ni; yus un'pi. 

maize, n. Wamnaheza. 

majestic, a. Okinihan. 

major, n. Itancan ; ateyapi. a. 

majority, n. Hanke i'saqpa. 

make, made, vt. 1. Ka'ga : make a 
shoe ; God made man. 2. Yu- ; 
yusioa : make bad. 3. -kiya ; 
-ya : make him do it. Make 
him go, iyayeya. 3. Icaga ; to- 
kata he'ca kta : a good boy 
makes a good man. 4. Iyohi : 
he can't make the shore. 5. 
Kamna : make money. Make 
amends, yuecetu. — Make free 
withy ta'wa se skaq. — Make 
good time, du'zahai). — Make 
light of, ta'kusnikiya. — Make 
love to, okiya. — Make much of 
ta'kukiya ; kinihai). — Makes no 
difference, to'kecasni. — Make 
out, to'ketu iyukcai). — Make 
use of ui). — Make water, de'za. 
— Make for the shore, nutata- 
kiya ya. — Make at; make to- 
wards, en hiyuiciya. — Make up 
with him, kici okiciwaste. n. 

maker, n. Kaga ; tu'we ka'ga. 

makeshift, n. Inanni un/pi. 

mtA%pref Si'ca. 

malady, n. Wosica; woyazan. 

malaria, n. Tate si'ca. 

malcontent, n. Iyowicakipisni. 

male, n. & a. Wica ; mdoka. 

malediction, n. Woyasica. 

malefactor, n. Wosiceka'ga. 


malevolent, a. Sicaya wacinyuza. 
malice, n, &icawacin.pi. 
malicious, a. Sicawacinskan. 
maiicioasly, adv. Sicawaciij. 
malign, vt. Yasioa. a. Si'ca. 
malignant, a. Wayusica. 
mallard, n. Pagonta. 
malleable, a. Pamdaskapica. 
mallet, n. Oanwiyape. 
malt, n. Su'npanyanpi. 
maltreat, vt. Sicayakuwa. 
mama, n. Ina. 

mammal, n. Wamakaskan. azinpi. 
mammon, n. Woynha; ma'za- 

mammoth, n. Wamakaskan iyotai) 

taij'ka. a. Iyotantaqka. 
man, men, n. Wicasta. Y. & T. 

Wicasa. vt. Wicasta en unwi- 

manacle, n. Ma'zaicaske. 
manage, vt. Kuwa ; yu'za. 
manag eable, a. Kuwapica. 
management, n. Kuwapi. 
manager, n. Kawaitancan. 
Mandan, n. Mawatani. 
mandate, n. Itancan. to'ie. 
mane, n. Apehin. 
maneuver, vi. Skai) ; oskiske skan. 
manful, a. Wicasta. 
manfully, adv. Ohitiya. 
manger, n. Ohnawotapi. 
mangle, vt. KahdeMeoa. 
manhood, n. Wicasta ouncage. 
mania, n. Wohnaskinyai). 
maniac, n. Waciijhnuni. 
manifest, a. Tanin. vt. Yutanin. 
manifesto, n. Yaotaijiijpi. 
manifold, a. O'takiya. vt. O'ta 

manipulate, vt. Iyopteya. 
Mankato, n. Makatooze. 
mankind, n. Wicasta. 
manly, a. Wicasta ; wicastase. 
manner, n. 1. Onan ; oecon. 2. 

Ocaze ; obe : all manner of 

mannerly, adv. Onanwaste. 




man-of-war, n. Ozuye wi'tawata. 
manse, n. Wicastawakanti. 
mansion, n. Ti'pitaijka. 
manslaughter, n. Wicasta kte'pi. 
mantel, n. Wa'hnakapi. 
mantle, n. Hiyeteakanpe. 
manual, a. Napiijyui). n. Wowa- 

pi ci'stinna. 
manufacture, trt. Ka'ga. 
mannre, trt. Tacesdiakada. n. Ta'- 

ku maka yuwaste ; tacesdi. 
manuscript, n. Wowapinapeoijka- 

many, a. O'ta. ,4s man^ <w, iyena. 

— Greaf many, ni'na o'ta. — 

Good many } ki'tanna o'ta. — 

How many, to'nakeca. — So 

many, henakeca ; ni'na o'ta. — 

Too many, ehaes o'ta. 
many-ways, adv. O'takiya. 
map, n. Makoce wowapi. 
maple, n. Hard maple, oanhasan. 

Soft maple, ta'hdohu. 
mar, vt. Yusica. 
marauder, n. Wamanoqwicasta. 
marble, n. 1. In'yai) pamdaskapi. 

2. Iq'yan bonniinmapi. 
march, vi. Ma'ni; caehde. vt. 

Omaniya. n, Oomani ; ma'nipi. 
mare, n. Sungwiye. 
marfin, n. Opapun ; o'huta. 
marine, a. Miniwanca. n. Mini- 

warjca akicita. 
mariner, n. Wi'tawata kicanye. 
marital, a. Tawicutonpi. 
mark, vt. Icazo ; wa'petogton ; 

amdeza. n. Wowapetokeca ; 

wowasaghde ; wokitaijii) ; ihe- 

ea. He hit the mark, iheca en 

marker, n. On icazopi. 
market, n. Owiyopeye. vt. Wi'yo- 

marketable, a. Wi'yopeyepica. 
marksman, n. Wicasta waoka. 
marl, n. Makasan. 
marquis, n. Okinihan i tar) car). 
marriage, n. Wakankiciyuzapi. 

married, a. Yu'zapi : a married 

marrow, n. Cupe. 
marry, married, vt. Yu'za ; wakan- 

yuza; wakankiciyuskiya. She 

is married, hihnaton. — He is 

married, tawicuton . 
marsh, n. Wiwi ; makaspa'ya. 
marshal, n. Itancan ; waoyuspai- 

tancan. vt. Econwicakiya. 
mart, n. Owiyopeye. 
marten, n. Nakpagica. 
martial, a. Akicita ; ozuye. 
martyr, n. Tawowicada on kte'pi. 
marvel, n. Wowapetokeca. vi. 

marvelous, a. Wowinihan. 
masculine, a. 1. (Of man) Wica. 

(Of animals) Mdoka. 2. Wica- 
sta ; tan/ka. 
mash, vt. Pasusuza ; pamdu. 
mask, n. Itekagapi. vt. Akahpa ; 

itekagapi in. 
mason, n. In/yanticage ; makasan 

masquerade, n. Iteakahpawacipi. 
mass, n. 1. Opahi ; tan can. 2. 

fonasapa wohduze. vt. Yuwi- 

massacre, vt. Kte ; kasota. n. Wi- 

cakasotapi ; tinktepi. 
massive, a. Tan'ka. 
mast, n. Wi'tawata ihupa ; u'ta. 
master, n. Itancan ; waonspeka. 

vt. Ohiya; kte'dai). 
masterly, a. Oitancai). 
masterpiece, n. Iyotanwaste. 
mastery, n. Woohiye. 
masthead, n. Caqihupainkpa. 
masticate, vt. Yakpaqkpai). 
mastiff, n. Sun/ka cehupatanka. 
mastodon, n. Pasuhanskatanka. 
mat, n. Psa'owinza ; aske. 
match, n. 1. Can/kaidepi ; Y. Yui- 

depi ; T. Wailepi. 2. Okiciyu- 

ze : a love match. 3. Kici ecoi) ; 

iyececa. vt. Iyececa ahihnaka. 
matchless, a. Iyececa wanica. 




mate, n. Kicica; itancaqokihe. 
vt. Kiciyuskiya. 

material, n. Oi) ka'gapi. a. Tax)- 
ton. ; woawacinhca- 

materialize, vt. Yuecetu. 

maternal, a. Wicahuijka. 

mathematics, n. Wayawapi. 

matin, n. Hanhannacekiyapi. 

matriculate, vt . O'pekiye. 

matrimony, n. Kiciyuzapi. 

matrix, n. Tamni. 

matron, n. Inayanpi. 

matronly, a. Inayapise. 

matter, n. 1. Ta'ku tanton ; ta'ku* 
2. Wicohan ; ta'ku : bring every 
matter to me, 3. Toj) : the sore 
runs matter. Wliatisthe matter, 
to'ketu se. — Nothing is the mat- 
ter, ta'ku to'ketu sni. — No 
matter, etanhan to'ketu&ni. vi. 

matting, n. Psa'owinia. 

mattock, n. Mazice. 

mattress, n. Owin&asoka. 

mature, a. Sutoi) ; icagayustai). 
vi. Sutonya. vi. Iyehantu. 

maul, n. Caqiyapetanka. 

maw, n. Tapo. 

maxim, n. Woopeptecena. 

maximum, n. Wankanihanke. 

may, might, v. (Waokiyapi iapi) 

1. Iyowiijkiya : may I go. 2. 
O'kini ; naceca : he may come, 
I don't knoic. 3. Kta : I go that 
you may come. 4. Nunwe ; 
nun : may you always be Juippy. 

May, n. Wozupiwi. 

may-be, adv. O'kini. 

mayor, n. Otonweitancan. 

maze, n. WoskUke. 

me, pro. Mi'ye; ma-. Give me t 

meadow, n. Peziokadda. 
meadow-lark, n. Sdo'sdona. 
meager, a. Iyohisni ; on'&ika. 
meal, n. 1. Wokpanpi : corn-meal. 

2. Wotapi; wan 'cadan wotapi. 
meal-time, n. Wotapi iyehantu. 

mealy, a. Mdu. 

mean, a. 1. Si'ca ; ohantica : a 
mean man. 2. Oeokaya; i'yota- 
hedan : the mean distance, vt. 
(Mean, meant.) Ka; awacin : 
what do you mean. 

meander, vi. Ksanksai) ya. 

meaning, n. Ta'ku ka'pi. 

meanly, adv. dicaya. 

meanness, n. Si'ca ; wosice. 

means, n. pi. On wi'yokihipi ; wo- 
yuha ; ma'zaska. 

meant, imp. of mean. 

meanwhile, adv. Icunhan. 

measles, n. Sayaahinapapi. 

measurable, a. Iyutepica; iyu- 

measure, vt. Iyuta. n. Oiyute. 

meat, n. Tado; woyute. Dried 
meat, waconica ; pa'pa. 

mechanic, n. Wakaga wayupika. 

medal, n. Ma'zaska wanapin. 

meddle, vi. Iyowazasni skan. 

meddlesome, a. Iyowazasni skan. 

mediate, vi. Wi'ciyotahedanun. 

mediator, n. Wawieiya. 

medical, a. Pezuta.' 

medicate, vt. Pezuta icahi. 

medicine, n. Pezuta. 

medieval, a. Makaoicage ocoka. 

meditate, vt. Awacii). 

meditative, a. Waawacins'a. 

medium, n. 1. Oyanke ocoka : the 
true medium. 2. Oi) wi'yokihi- 
pi ; wi'yotahedan un. a. Oeo- 
kaya : medium size. 

medley, n. I'cicahikagapi. 

meed, n. Wokazuzu. 

meek, a. Wa'frbadan ; on'sihan. 

meekly, adv. Wa'hbayedan. 

meekness, n. Wicowahbadan. 

meet, met, vt. Akipa; wanyaka. 
vi. Wi'tayapi ; mniciyapi : when 
does Congress meet. a. Iyece- 
tu : meet for war. 

meeting, n. 1. Omniciye : a full 
meeting. 2. Wai)kiciyag hi'pi : 
a meeting of friends. 


meeting-house, n. Ti'piwakai). 
melancholy, a. Waciniyokisica. 
mellow, a. Panpanna; mdu; waste. 
melodeon, n. Caq'nahotoqpi. 
melodious, a. Ho'waste. 
melody, n. Odowai) ho. 
melon, n. Sa'kayutapi ; Y. & T. 

melt, irt. Sdunya; skaijya; sdoya. 

vi. 1. Skai) : mow we/te. 2. 

Sdo : iron w«Jte. 
member, n. 1. O'kihe : members of 

the body. 2. O'pa : a member 

of the church. 
memento, n. Wokiksuye. 
memoir, n. Ohanoyakapi. 
memorable, a. Wokiksuye. 
memorandum, n. On'kiksuyapi. 
memorial, a. Wakiksuya : memo- 
rial services, n. Icekiyapi wo- 

wapi : a memorial to Congress. 
memorialize, vt Icekiya. 
memorize, vt. Kiksuyeiciya. 
jiemory, n. Wokiksuye ; tawaoii). 
men, n. pi. of man. 
menace, vt. Wakokipekaga. 
menagerie, n. Wamaka&kanwapa- 

mend, vt Piya. vi. Wasteaya. 
mendicant, n. Wadaun. 
menial, a. On'sika j oasica. 
menses, n. Isnatipi. 
mental, a. Tawacii). 
mention, vt. Cazeyata. 
mercantile, a. Wopetonpi. 
mercenary, a. Ma'zaskaiyotanda. 
merchandise, n. Wopetonpi ; ma'- 

merchant, n. Wopeton. 
merchantable, a. Wi'yopeyepica. 
merdfnl, a. Waonsida. 
merciless, a. Waonsidasni. 
mercury, n. Ma'zanini. 
mercy, n. Wowaon&da. 
mere, a. He'eehnana. 
ly, adv. He'eehnana. 

erge, vt. En iyeya ; aopekiya. 

endUn, n. Wi'cokaya oicago. 

107 mightiness 

merit, n. Woohiye ; wowaste. vt. 

Kamna ; ohiya ; aiyahdeya. 
meritorious, a. Ohiya iyececa. 
merrily, adv. Wi'yuskiijyai). 
merriment, n. Wowiyuskin. 
merry, a. Wi'yuskii) ; wi'haha. 
mess, n. 1. Wi'tayawotapi ; obe. 

2. Woskiske. vi. Wota. 
message, n. Iapiyeyapi. 
messenger, n. Iapiaya ; waho&iya. 
met, imp. of meet. 
metal, n. Ma'za. 
metaphor, n. Woiyacin iapi. 
metaphysics, n. Wicotawacinwo- 

onspe. t 

mete, vt. Driyuta; kn. a. lye- 

meteor, n. Wakanwohpa. 
meteorology, n. Tatewoonspe. 
meter, n. Oiyute ; odowai) ho. 
methinks, vi. Eepca ; se'ea. 
method, Woawacii). 
methodical, a. Awacineconpi. 
metrical, a. Iyutakagapi ; odowan- 

se ka'gapi. 
metropolis, n. Otonweitancan. 
mettle, n. Okage ; eai)te. 
mew. vi. Inmiisiii)kahoton. 
Mexican, n. Spaniowicasta. 
mice, pi. of mouse. 
microbe, n. Wamdndan. 
microscope, n. Maziwanyake. 
microscopic, a. Ni'na ci'stinna. 
mid, a. Cokaya ; hepiya. 
midday, a. Aijpecokaya. 
middle, a. Cokaya ; ocokaya. 
middle-man, n. Wi'ciyotahedan un. 
middling, a. Ocokaya. 
midnight, n. Hancokaya. 
midst, n. Cokaya. - 
midsummer, n. Mdokecokaya. 
midway, n. Cokaya. 
midwife, n. Cincatonwicakiyewii). 
mien, n. Oihduhe. 
might, n. Wowas'ake : with all my 

might v. imp. of mat. 
mightily, adv. Was'agya ; ni'na. 
mightiness, n. Wieaohitika. 

mighty 108 

mighty, a. Was'aka ; ohitika ; ni'- 

na ; oteMka. 
migrate, vi. Tokai) ya ; ihdaka. 
migration, n. Ihdagomanipi. 
milch, a. Asaqpiyuha. 
mild, a. Wa'Rbadaq ; T. wa'Iiwa- 

la ; wastecaka. 
mildew, n. Aa ; waanunu. 
mildly, adv. Abbayena. 
mildness, n. Wicowahbadai). 
mile, n. Caqkuoiyute. 
mileage, n. Omanipi wokazuzu. 
militant, a. Akicita. 
military, a. Akicita ; ozuye. 
militate, vi. Wakagiya. 
militia, n. Inahniakicita. 
milk, n. Asaijpi. vt. Yuskiea. 

F. Yusdi. T. Yusli. 
milky-way, n. Wanagitacaqku. 
mill, n. 1. Wokagetipi. Grrist-miU f 

wokpaqtipi. Saw-mill, caijna- 

sdeca. 2. Kadpapicistiqna. 
milienium, n. Wowaste waniyetu 

miller, n. Wokpaijawaqyaka. 
millet, n. Peziozupi obe. 
milliner, n. Wiij'yaijtawapaha 

million, n. Woyawataq'ka. 
millionaire, n. Ma'zaska woyawa- 

tai)ka yuha. 
mimic, vt. Uij'ca. 
mince, vt. Bakpai) ; wayatokeca. 

vi. Wa&tekoqza. 
mind, vt. Awacii) ; nahoi) ; awaq- 

yaka. n. Tawacii). 
mindful, a. Eiksuya ; awacii). 
mine, a. Mitawa; mi'yemitawa. 

n. Ma'zaoke ; oke. vi. Ka ; oka. 
mineral, n. Ma'za. 
mineralogy, n. Ma 7 zawooi)spe. 
mingle, vt. I'cicahiya. 
miniature, a. Ci'sthjna. 
minimum, n. Ihaqkeci'stiqna. 
minion, n. Ookiyedai). 
minister, n. Ookiye; wicastawa- 

kai). vt. O'kiya ; ku. 
ministerial, a. Wawokiya. 


ministration, n. Wawokiyapi. 

ministry, n. Wookiye. 

mink, n. Doksiqca. 

Minnesota River, n. Wakpamini- 

minnow, n. Hogaqstiqna ; T. ho- 

minor, a. Ci'stiijna ; ta'ku&ni. n. 

minority, n. 1. Waniyetu iyena- 

kecasni. 2. Haqkesni. 
minstrel, n. Dowaqomani. 
mint, n. 1. Ma'zaskaokage. 2. Ce- 

yakata ; ceyaka. 
minuend, n. Etaqhaqicupi. 
minus, a. A'okpani ; wanica. 
minute 7 , a. Ci'stiijna. 
min'ute, n. Oapecistinna. 
minutely, adv. Kpanyena. 
minuteness, n. Ecaataya. 
miracle, n. Wowapetokeca ; onan- 

miraculous, a. Wakai). 
mirage, n. Amastenaptapta. 
mire, n. Upsiza. vi. Kahdi. 
mirror, n. Ihdiyomdasii). Y. Mni- 

okdasii). T. Miyoglasii). 
mirth, n. Wi'yuskinpi. 
mirthful, a. Wi'yuskh). 
miry, a. fidindidan. 
mis-, pre/. Si'ca; ecinsniyai). 
misanthropist, n. Ecawicawahte- 

misbehave, vi. Sfnyaonanyan. 
miscalculate, vt. Ecinsniyai) iyu- 

miscarry, vi. Ecinsniyan iyaya. 
miscegenation, n. Oyatetokeca ki- 

miscellaneous, a. Enanakiya. 
mischief, n. Woyusica 
mischievous, a. Wicastasni. 
misconduct, n. Onanecinsniyai). 
misconduct 7 , vt. Ecinsniyan econ. 
misdirect, vt. Eoinsniiyayeya. 
miser, n. Watenhjda. 
miserable, a. On'sika ; si'ca. 
miserably, adv. On'siya; sicaya. 




miserly, a, Wateniqda. 

misery, «. Wokakize. 

misfit, n. Iyekicihantusni. 

misfortooe, n. SicawaMpa. 

misgiving, n. Wacetunhda. 

mishap, n. Teniwakipapi. 

misjudge, vt, Ecinsni ijrukcai). 

mislay, vt, Eciijsni e'hnaka. 

misrule, vt, Ecinsni awanyaka. 

miss, t?f. Yusna; kasna; bosna. 
fiemani yusna : He missed the 
train, — He shot at two deer but 
missed both f ta'nca nom kute, 
tuka sakim bosna. — He lost his 
knife, but did not miss it, isan 
tok enpekiya tka sdonye sni. 
n. Wikoska nahaijn tansna un. 

missile, n. Wi'pe ; ta'ku yeyapi. 

missing, a, Taninsni; to'kahon. 

mission, n. 1. Wicomani ; yewi- 
casipi : a mission is coming, 
2. Wotanin Wa6te a'yapi : the 
Episcopal Mission, 3. Oi) yesi- 
pi : what is your mission, 

missionary, n, Wotanin Waste aya; 
wicastawakai) ; yesipi. 

Mississippi River, n. flatiawakpa. 

Missouri River, n, Minisose. 

missive, a. Yeyapi. 

misspell, vt, Oowayusna. 

misstate, vt. Ecinsni oyaka. 

mist, n. Minibozai) ; miniwozela. 

mistake, mistook, vt, Yusna ; i'ei- 
hnuni. n, Woyusna. 

mistaken, pa. Yusna ; nii'ni. 

mister, Mr., n, Wicasta. 

mistress, Mrs., n, Win'yan hihna- 
toi) ; win'yan ; win'yan itancai). 

mistrust, vt, Getunhda. 

misty, a. Miniboza; owataninsni. 

misunderstand, vt. Okannigesni. 

misuse, vt. Ecinsniyan un. 

mite, n, Ta'ku ci'stinna ; wokpe ; 
wamdudai); ma'zaska ci'stinna. 

miter, n. Itancai) tawapaha; o'nya 

mitigate, vt, Yuaokpani. 

mitt, n. Napiijkpadai). 

mitten, n. Napinkpa otoza. 

mix, vt. Fcicahiya; T, yuzena; 

o'peya un. 
mixed, a. I'cieahi. 
mixture, n. Ta'ku i'cieahi. 
mnemonics, n. Kiksuyapi. 
moan, vi, Howaya. 
mob, v, & n, Hnaskinyaqkuwapi. 
mobile, a, Kohantokeca. 
mobilize, vt. Yuwiyeya. 
moccasin, n, Hanpikceka. 
mock, vt. Un'ca ; ihana. 
mockery, n. Wohnaye. 
mode, n, Oun ; onan ; to'ketu. 
model, n. Iwanyagkagapi ; iye- 

model, vt. Okage. 
moderate, a, Ki'tanna. v. Yuahe- 

moderately, adv, Iwastena. 
moderation, n. Wowahbadan.. 
moderator, w. Omniciyeitancan. 
modern, n. Askatudan. 
modest, a. Wawisteca ; wa'hba. 
modesty, w. Wowahba. 
modify, vt, Apiya. 
modulate, vt. Ohna ka'ga. 
moist, a, Spaya ; hpan. 
moisten, vt, dpanye. 
moisture, n, Wospaye. 
molasses, n, Caqhanpitiktica ; tu- 

mold, mould, n. 1. Aa ; makamdu. 

2. Wi'sdoye ; okage. vt, Ka'ga. 
moldy, mouldy, a, Aa. 
mole, n. Napeheyatahedai). 
molecule, ft. Wokpe. 
molest, vt, Nagiyeya ; kuwa. 
mollify, vt, Yuahececa. 
molt, moult, vi. Sonpa. 
molten, a. Sdo. 
moment, n. 1. Wihiyayeokpe ; ci'- 

stiyedai). 2. Woawacin. 
momentary, a, Ci'stiyedan. 
momentous, a, Otantonka. 
momentum, n, Woiyopte. 
monarch, «. Itancansuta. 
monastery, «. Sinasapa woozitipi. 

Monday 110 

Monday, ». Aijpetutokaheya. 
monetary, a. Ma'zaska. 
money, «. Ma'zaska. 
monger, ». Wopetoi). 
mongrel, a. I'cicahi. 
monitor, ». Wahokoijkiya. 
monk, ». Sinasapa wowasi. 
monkey, ». Waorjca. 
monopolize, vt. A'taya anica. 
monopoly, ». A'tayaanicapi. 
monotone, ». Ho'warjzidarj. 
monster, ». Wowinihai). 
monstrous, a. Tarj'karica. 
month, n. Wi ; wiyawapi. 
monthly, a. Wi'iyohi. 
monument, n. WoMksuye. 
mood, n. Tawaoii) ; oui). 
moody, a. Tawacii) tokecas'a. 
moon, w. Haijyetuwi ; harjwi. 

Dark of the moon, wi yaspapi. 

— Full moon, wi mirjbe. 
moonlight, ». Harjwiyarjpa. 
moonshine, w. Wiizaqzar) ; ta'ku- 

moor, ». Tiij'ta. vt. Wa'taiyaka- 

moose, ft. Ta. 
moot, vt. Cazeyata. 
mop, ft. Owaijkaipakiijte. 
mope, vi. Oharjstaka. 
moral, a. Ohaqowotaijna. n. Oriar) ; 

morality, ft. Wicohai). 
moralize, vt. Oftarj iwohdaka. 
morally, atft?. Woowotaijna or). 
morass, ft. Makaspaya ; wiwi. 
morbid, a. A&ibtii). 
more, a. & atfo. Sarj'pa ; nakui) ; 

o'ta ; ehake. More than, i'saij- 

pa. — No more, henana. — One 

more, ehake waijzi. 
moreover, adv. Ko'kta; nakui). 
morn, ft. O'haijliaijna ; hiij'haijna. 
morning, ft. Harjharjna ; Y. & T. 

hiq'haqna. — In the morning, 

harjriarjna. — This morning, 

narj'ka harjharjna. — The next 

morning, i'haijhaijna. 


morning-star, n. Arjpaowicarjhpi. 

morocco, ft. Tatokaha. 

morose, a. Tawaciij Sica. 

morphine, ft. Istirjma pezuta. 

morrow, w. rhaqhaqna. 

morsel, ft. Onapce warjzi. 

mortal, a. Te kta ; orj \e kta. 

mortality, »". Wicoijte. 

mortally, adv. Orjtekta ; ni'na. 

mortar, ». Tiisarjyecoco ; wi'bope. 

mortgage, ft. Woyuhakaskapi. 

mortification, ft. Wocarjtesica. 

mortify, v. Carjtesinya ; kuka. 

mortise, ft. Carjohdogyapi. 

mosque, ft. Ti'piwakarj. 

mosquito, ft. Caporjka. 

mosqulto-bar, n. Capoqgicuwa. 

mosquito-hawk, ft. Susbeca. 

moss, ft. Zitkanaipatapi ; waann- 
nu. Water moss, mniwaticoge ; 

most, a. O'ta ; owasirjkiniii. adv. 

mostly, adv. O'hirjnise ; eoee. 

mote, ft. Wokpe. 

moth, ft. Wamdudarjkirjyai). 

mother, ft. Huij'ku; inayarjpi. 
My mother, ina. — Your mother, 
nihuij.— His (or her) mother, 

mother-in-law, ». Kuij'ku. My 
mother-in-law, kurj'si; urjcisi. 
Your mother-in-law, nikui).— 
'His (or her) mother-in-law, 

motherless, a. Huij'kucodaij. 

motherly, a. Huij'ku seca. 

mothy, a. Warjmdudarj yukarj. 

motion, ft. 1. Woskarjskarj; woiyo- 
pte, the motion of the earth. 
2. Wi'Myutapi, he made motions 
for me to come. 3. Omnioiye 
wowiyukcai), I second the mo- 
tion, vt. Wi'kiyuta. 

motive, «. Oij'ecoi) ; woyutitai). 

motley, a. Ocazeota. 

motor, ». Woyutitai). 

mottle, a. Hdeska. 



motto, n. Iapi 007a. 

mould* ». Waanunu. 

mouldy, a* Aa. 

mound, n. Paha; pazo; maka- 

mount, ». Paha; he. vt. Adi; 
iyakapta. Mount a horse, akan 
iyeieiya. — Mount cavalry, akan- 
vaijgkiya. — Mount a map, wai]- 
kan e'hde. 

mountain, ». fie r pahataqka. 

mountaineer, n. . He'oti. 

mountainous, a. fie ; ho'ski. 

mountainside, ». fieunaptai]. 

mountebank, n. Wicahnayai). 

mounted, a. Akanyaqka. 

mourn, t». Cantesica; wasihda. 
vt. Icaijte&ica. 

mournful, a. Oiyokisica. 

mouse, ». Hituqkadai). 

mouser, w. Hitru)kadai)kuwa. 

mousetrap, n. Hituqkadaijihnmx)- 

month, n. I. 3fy mouth, mii. 27<e 
mouth of the river, iyohdoke ; 

mouthful, n. Iohnaka. 

mouthpiece, n. Oyape ; i. 

movable, a. Yutokaijpica. 

move,, vt. Tokaq a'ya ; yntokai) ; 
ynskai)8kai). vt. Tokanya ; iyo- 
pte ; ihdaka jj&kaij&kai). 

movement, ». wodkaqskai) ; wo- 
iyopte ; woecoi). 

mow, vt. Easda ; pezika&da. 

mow, ». Pezitipi. 

mower, mowing machine, ». Pezii- 

Mr., Mister, n. Wicasta. 

much, a. O'ta ; utkanna. T. Yu- 
tkanla. As much as, iyenake- 
ca. — How much, to'nakeca. — 
So much, henakeca. — Too much, 
ni'na o'ta. n. Wotaijka ; o'ta. 
adv. Ni'na : much used. 

mucilage, a. Wiiyaskape. 

muck, ft. Pezihutkai). 

mucus, w. Pandi; ton,. 

mud, ». Upsiza ; maka coco. 
muddle, n. To'ketutanin&ni. trt. 

muddy, a. 1. TTpsiza : muddy shoes. 

2. Sofie : muddy water, vt. 

Akastaka ; yusose. 
muff, ». Napeohnaiyeyapi. 
muffle, trt. Apanta ; yuhmunza. 
muffler, n. Nakpiyutake. 
mug, ft. Eampeska wi'yatke. 
mulatto, ft. Ha'sapacinca. 
mulberry, ft. Cai]ska ; caijska wa- 

mulch, ft. Wokpaqka. trt. Can- 

mnle, ft. don/donna. 
muley, a. He'wanica. 
mulish, a. Okicanye&ica. 
mu\t% pref. O'ta. 
multiform, a. Okahota. 
multiple, a. To'naakihde. 
multiplication, a. Yuotapi. 
multiplicity, ft. Ni'na o'ta. 
multiplier, ft. On yuotapi. 
multiply, v£. Yuota. 
multitude, ft. Wicota. 
multitudinous, a, O'takiya. 
mum, a. Ininaui). 
mumble, vt. Iohmunsia. 
mummery, ft. I'nadeconpi. 
mummy, ft. Sagya wicahnakapi. 
mumps, ft. Cehupapopi. 
munch, vt. Yamnumnuga. 
mundane, a. Makata. 
municipal, a. Otonwe. 
munificence, n. Woohaijpi. 
munificent, a. Onaijpi. 
munition, n. Oi) kicizapi. 
murder, trt. Tinkte. n. Tinktepi. 
murderous, a. Tinktes'a ; si'ca. 
murmur, vi. fimui) ; azizi ; ba ; 

muscle, ft. 1. Conica pSunka. 2. 

Tuki. Muscle shell, tukihasai). 
muscular, a. Tancantanka ; wa- 

s, vi. Awacii) uij. w. Waa- 

wacii) ; odowai) ka'ga. 



museum, n. Wowaijyakehdepi. 

mush, ». Yuzapi ; wozapi. 

mushy, a. Coco. 

music, ». Dowai]pi. 

musical, a. Dowaqs'a; dowaqpise; 

oi) dowaijpi. 
musician, ». Dowarjwayupika. 
musing, pa. Waawacii). 
musk, ft. Sinkpeonzimna. 
musket, w. Akicitatamazakai). 
muskmelon, w. Sa'kayutapizi. 
muskrat, ». Siijkpe. 
mnslin, w. Minihuhaska. 
musquito, ». Caponka. 
muss, vt Yuakiaka. ». Woakiake. 
mussel, ». TuMhasai). 
must, v. awx. A'wicakehai) ; to 4 - 

ketu ceyas ; he'cena iyecetu. 
mustache, w. Putiijhh). 
mustang, ft. Suijgmaninui). 
mustard, ». Wa'hnakapizi'. 
muster, vt. Yuwitaya ; mnayai). 
musty, a. Aamna ; aa. 
mutable, a. Yutokecapica. 

mute, a, Iapiokihiani ; iesni. 
mutilate, vt Yusica ; baspa. 
mutilated, pa. &pa;kaa. 
mutinous, «. Wakipazii). 
mutiny, vi. Itancaqkipazin.. n. 

mutter, vt. fidolidoeya. 
mutton, n. Ta'hcaskatado. 
mutual, a. Anog ; sakim. 
muxxle, n. I ; i'pahte. vt. V pa- 

my, a. Mitawa. 
myriad, «. Ni'na ota. 
myrrh, n. Caq&inwastemiia. 
myself, pron. Miyefrca. 
mysterious, a. Okahninpicaaiii ; 

mystery, n. Wonafrbe. 
mystical, a. Wakaijkaij. 
mystify, vt. Yuakiaka. 
myth, ». Ehannawoyakapi ; hi- 

mythical, a. Kakaijpi. 
mythology, n. Wakakaqpi. 


nab, vt. Oytispa. 

nabob, «. Zinyaihduha. 

nag, n. Sui)ghuna. vt. Yazim- 

nail, ft. Ma'zaiyokatai) ; sake. 
Finger-nail, napsukaza aake. 
vt Okatai). 

naive, a. Katiijyai). 

naked, a. Tancodai) ; e'oedai). 

namable, a. Cazeyanpica. 

name, ». Caze; wicacaze. vt. 
Cazeyata ; eciya. What is your 
name, to'ken enioiyapi he. — He 
named him John, John cazeya- 
ta. — Call names, ostehda. 

nameless, a. Cazewanica. 

namely, adv. De'e ; dena e'e. 

namesake, ft. Cazeyuha. 

nap, n. Woistinmacika ; hiijkpina. 

nape, ft. Tahu. 
napkin, n. I'ipakhjte. 
narcotic, ft. Istiijma peznta. 
narrate, vt. Oyaka. 
narration, ft. Oyakapi. 
narrative, ft. Woyake ; woyakapi. 
narrow, a. Ci'stinna ; hdakiijyan 

ci'stinna ; otinza. vt. Yucika- 

narrowly, adv. Ci'stiyedan. ; ki- 

tanyai) ; aotiqsya. 
nasal, a. Po'ge ; po'ge etanhai). 
nasty, a. da'pa ; si'ca. 
natal, a. Ton. 'pi. 
nation, n. Oyate. 
national, a. Oyatetawa. 
nationalize, vt. Oyatekaga. 
native, a. En ton/pi. ft. Ikcewi- 


aatural 113 

natural, a. Iyeoinka ; wicitawa ; 

naturalist, n. Ta'ku iyecinka ica- 

ga oijspeiciciya. 
naturalize, vt. Oyate o'pekiya. 
natured, a. Tawacii). 
naught, n. Ta'kudaijsni. 
naughty, a. Si'ca ; ohansica. 
nausea, n. Hitihdapi. 
nautical, a. Miniwaijca. 
naval, a. Wi'tawata. 
navel, n. Cekpafrdoka. 
navigable, a. Wa'takipi. 
navigate, vt. Wa'ta on omani. 
navy, n. Wi'tawata optaye. 
nay, «. Hiya. 
near, a. Ikiyedai) ; kiyedai) ; T. 

kanyela. NearfaUing, owateca 

hinnpaye kta. — Near together, 

i'ciMyedai). vt. Ikiyedai) ya. 
nearly, adv. Ikiyedai). 
neat, a. Wayuco ; ska. 
neatly, adv. Ayucoya. 
nebulous, a. -Po se. 
necessary, a. Heceedai) ; hecee- 

dai) econpica. 
necessitate, vt Togye econpica- 

necessity, n. Wokaske. 
neck, n. Tahu. Neck of land, izo. 
necklace, n. Wanapin. 
necktie, n. Tahuskaicaske. 
neckyoke, n. Tahuicaske. 
necrology, n. Wicata owapi. 
need, vt. Yuha iyececa ; icaMza ; 

on kuwapi iyececa. vi. Sta 

he'cetu : you need not come. 

n. Wokakize. 
needful, a. Cokaunpicasni. 
needle, n. Tahiijspacikadai). 
needless, a. Sni sta hecetu ; iye- 

cetusni ; ituya. 
needlework, n. Wokagege. 
needs, n. pi. Ta'ku yuha iyececa. 

adv. Iyececa. 
needy, a. Kakiza. 
ne'er, adv. contr. To'hinni sni. 
nefarious, a. Ni'na si'ca. 


negation, n. He'cetusni eyapi. 

negative, n. He'cetusni ; hiya. 

neglect, vt. Aktasni. n. Waakta- 

neglectful, a. Waaktasni. 

negligence, n. Woaktasni. 

negligent, a. Waaktasni. 

negotiable, a. Wi'yopeyepica. 

negotiate, vi. Woyustan ka'ga. 

negro, n. Wasicunsapa ; ha'sapa. 

neigh, vi. &un'kawakanhoton. 

neighbor, n. Ikiyenati. 

neighborly, a. Riciuijpiwaste. 

neither, a. Unmannasni. 

nephew, n. Tonska ; mitonska ; 
nitonska ; tonskaku. 

nepotism, n. Takuya on o'kiya. 

nerve, vt. On was'agya. n. Kan. 

nervous, a. Kai) ececesni; can- 
can ; wakahtakeca ; wasazeca. 

nest, n. Hohpi ; wahohpi. 

nestle, vt. Adokso ; kihna. 

Nestor, n. Itancan. 

net,vl. Hmun'ka; kamna. n. Wi'- 
hmunke. a. Wayusota iwan- 
kam. Fish-net, ho-icuwa. 

nether, a. Ku'ya. 

netting, n. Minihuhagangan. 

nettle, vt. Pazipa. n. Hasbe. 

network, n. I'ciyuzontapi. 

neuter, a. Unmannasni. 

neutral, a. Unmaqna o'pesni. 

never, adv. To'hinnisni. 

nevertheless, adv. He'casta. 

new, a. Te'ca ; nakaha. 

newly, adv. Nakaha. 

newness, n. Te'ca ; wicateca. 

news, n. Wotanin. 

newspaper, n. Wotaninwowapi. 

newt,n. Ahdeska. 

New-year, n. O'makateoa. 

next, a. Fyokihe ; o'kihe. 

Nex Perces, n. Po'gehdoka. 

nibble, vt. Yaspaspa. 

nice, a. 1. Waste : a nice girl. 2. 
Oiyokipi : a nice time. 3. Iwan- 
yag tehike : a nice question. 

nicely, adv. Tan'yai). 


nicety, «. Wowaste. 

niche, ». Oko ; okahmin. 

nick, n. Ohci ; oko. vt. Kahci. 

nickel, n. Kaspapiokise. F. So'- 
kena. T. So'kela. 

nickname, n. O'hanhan caze. 

niece, n. Tozan. 

niggard, niggardly, a. Ohansica; 

nigger, n. Ha'sapa. 

nigh, a. Ikiyedai) ; i'tato. 

night, ft. Hanyetu. Y.&T. Han- 
hepi. £a*f ftigrAt, hin'han ; he- 
hai]pi. To-night, haijyetu de; 
hanhepi de. 

nightcap, n. Hanhepi wapostan. 

nightfall, ft. fitayetu. 

nighthawk, ft. Pi'sko. 

nightly, adv. Haijyetu iyohi. 

nightmare, ft. Istinma iksuyapi. 

nihilist, n. Wacefanhda. 

nimble, a. Ohai)ko. 

nine, a. Napciwaqka. 

ninefold, a. Napciwaqka akihde. 

nineteen, a. Akenapciwanka. 

ninety, a. Wikcemnanapoiwanka. 

ninny, ft. Witkotkoka. 

ninth, a. Inapciwanka. 

nip, vt. Yaksa ; yaspa ; snisya. 

nippers, ft. Mazwiyuzipe. 

nipple, ft. Azeinkpa ; in'kpa. 

nit, ft. He'ya cine a ; hemnisaka- 

nix, ft. Wanica. 

no, adv. Hiya : no sir; sni ; wa- 

nobby, a. Wastecaka. 

nobility, ft. Wokinihan. 

noble, a. Okinihan ; waste. 

nobleman, n. Itancan. 

nobleness, ft. Wokinihan. 

nobly, adv. Okinihanyan. 

nobody, ft. Tuwedansni. Nobody 
came, tuwedan hi sni. 

nocturnal, a. Hanhepi. 

nod, vi. Pakapsan ; ogingin. 

noise, ft. Ta'ku bu ; ho ; oko. 

noiseless, a. Oko wanica. 

114 note 

noisome, a. Otan tonka. 

noisy, a. Hobuskan. 

nomadic, a. Ihdagunpi. 

nominal, a. Iapieceedan. 

nominate, vt. Cazepazo. 

nominee, w. Cazepazopi. 

non; pre. Sni; wanica. 

none, pro. 1. Tuwedansni : none 
spoke. 2. Ta'kudansni : none 
left. There is none, wanica. 

nonplus, vt. Wacinhnuniya. 

nonsense, n. Woawacinsni. 

nook, ft. Okahmin. 

noon, ft. Wi'cokaya; wiyotanhan; 

noonday, a. Wi'cokaya. 

nooning, n. Wi'cokaya enakiyapi. 

noontide, ft. Wiiyotan. 

noose, ft. dunzoyake. 

nor, adv. gais... sni. He did not 
speak nor move, ie sni, kais 
skanskan sni. — Neither... nor, 
kais.. . ui) manna.. . sni. — He can 
neither see nor hear, wawan- 
yaka kais wanahon unmanna 
okihi sni. 

normal, a. Wahehantu ; woonspe. 

north, ft. Waziyata. — 

northeast, a. Wiyohiyanpa wazi- 

northerly, a. Waziyatatanhan. 

northern, a. Waziyata. 

North Platte (river), n. Kampeska. 

northward, a. Waziyatakiya. 

northwest, a. Wiyohpeyata wazi- 

nose, ft. Po'ge ; pasu. 

nosebleed, n. Po'ge wewe. 

nosegay, n. Wahcaopahte 

nostril, ft. Po'geohdoka. 

not, adv. Sni : not good. 

notable, a. Okitanin. 

notary, n. Wowapi ma'zaapuspa. 

notation, n. Oyawa owapi. 

notch, ft. Ohci ; ohi. vt. Bahci. 

note, vt. 1. Owa : I noted it in my 
book. 2. Amdeza : I noted the 
spot. ft. 1. Wowapi ei'stinna : 




I received your note. 2. Kazu- 

zupi kta wowapi : he gave his 

note for ten dollars. 3. To'ketu 

oyakapi : notes on Romans. 4. 

Wokitaxjin : a man of note. 

5. Dowai)pi ho owapi : I want 

a note-book. 
noted, a. Okitanin. 
noteworthy, a. En e'waciqpioa. 
nothing, n. 1. Ta'kudan.... sni. 

He has nothing, ta'kudan yuhe 

sni. 2. Ta'ku&ni : it grew from 

nothing to be a great city. 
notice, vt. Amdeza; en e'tonwan ; 

wanyaka. n. Woyakapi; wo- 

wakta; woamdeza. 
noticeable, a. Tanin; okitanin; 

en e'tonwepica. 
notification, n. Iwaktayapi. 
notify, vt. Iwaktaya ; okiyaka. 
notion, n. Wowiyukoan ; woawa- 

notional, a. Tawacin hahadan. 
notoriety, n. Ni'na oyakapi. 
notorious, a. A'taya otanin. 
notwithstanding, adv., prep., conj. 

He'cadta ; he'cecasta ; sta. 
noun, n. Wocaze. 
nourish, vt. Icafrya ; woku. 
nourishment, n. On icagapi ; wo- 

novel, a. Te'ca ; to'keca : a novel 

idea. n. Kakanpi wowapi. 
novelist, n. Wakakan.. 
novelty, n. Ta'ku te'ca. 
November, n. Taheeap&uxjwi. 
novice, n. Nakaha econ. 
now, adv. 1. Wanna ; dehan : do 

it now. 2. Dehan : it is cold 

now. 3. Nakahad : I saw him 

just now. 
nowadays, adv. Dehan. 

noway, adv. To'ketusta. 
nowhere, adv. Tuktedansni. 
nowise, adv. To'ketu&ta. 
noxious, a. Wohaka ; Si'ca. 
nozzle, n. Ma'zandogeca i. 
nucleous, n. Hu'te. 
nude, a. Tancodan. 
nudge, vt. Panini. 
nugatory, a. Wi'yokihisni. 
nugget, ft. Ondpa. 
nuisance, n. Wonagiyeya. 
null, a. Ta'kusni. 
nullify, vt. Yutaknnisni. 
nullity, n. Ta'kusni. 
numb, a. Tasaka. 
s number, vt. Ya'wa. n. Woyawa ; 

wayawapi ; to'nakeoa. 
numerable, a. Yawapica. 
numeral, n. On wayawapi. 
numerate, vt. Yawa. 
numerator, n. Okadpe to'nakeca. 
numerical, a. To'nakeca. 
numerous, a. O'ta ; wicota. 
numskull, n. Witkotkoka. 
nun, ft. dinasapawinyan. 
nunnery, n. dinasapawinyan ti'pi. 
nuptial, a. Wakankioiyuzapi. 
nurse, ft. Hoksiyopa awanyaka; 

wayazanka awanyaka. vt. 

Awanyaka ; azinkiya. 
nursery, n. 1. Ohna hok&iyopa 

awanyakapi. 2. Can/ozupi oi- 

cahye ; oicahye. 
nurture, n. Icahya ; woku. 2. 

Woicage ; woonspe ; woyute. 
nut, ft. Yuhugapi; ma'zaayuho- 

nutmeg, n. Cansuukaseca. 
nutriment, n. On wasakapi. 
nutritious, a. Was'agwicaya. 
nutshell, ft. Yahugapiha. 
nymph, ft. Win'yai) wanagi. 




o, inter}. Ho; ho wo; ye : e; wan ; 
u. O God ! hear, Wakaqtanka 
nahon ye. — Ofor a drop, osbn- 
ye waijzidan. mduha ni. — O 
dear 1 eoane. 

oak, n. Utuhu ; ituhu ; uskuyeca. 
An oak tree, utuhu can.. 

oaken, a. Utuhu. 

oakum, n. Wa'ta opuhdi. 

oar, n. Wamnaheca; i'watope- 
kiya ; wadihupa. 

oarsman, n. Watopa. 

oasis, n. Makawadte : makopuze 
ekta ondpa wadte. 

oats, n. Wayahota. 

oath, n. Wakai)tai)ka cazeyatapi. 
Ifo m?<w taking the oath { Wa- 
kantanka cazeyankiyapi. — On 
Ai# oato, Wakartai)ka cazeyan. 
— Profane oaths, Wakantaqka 
ihad cazeyatapi. 

oatmeal, n. Wayahota yukparpi. 

obduracy, n. Cantesutapi. 

obdurate, a. Cantesuta ; tehika. 

obdurately, adv. Okihipicasoiyai). 

obedience, n. Waanagoptai) ; wa- 

obedient, a. Wanahou ; waana- 
goptai) ; wawiyowintaya. 

obediently, adv. Waanagoptanyan; 

obeisance, n. Wapatuzapi ; wo- 

obelisk, n. In/van, omdoton pasda- 

obey, vt. Ana&optai) ; nahon ; 
ecen econ. Obey your mother, 
nihui) anagoptai). vi. Waana- 

obituary, n. Wicate ; wicata oya- 

object', vi. Wicadadni ; ienhiyeya. 
He objects to going, ye kta wi- 

object, 9i. 1. Ta'ku ; ta / ku waqzi. 
All objects, ta'ku owasii). 2. 
Ta'ku on etauhai). Man does 
nothing without an object, wi- 
caSta ta'ku oi) etaqhan&ni ta'- 
kudan ecoq&ni. 3. (Oram,) 
Wi'koyake riapi ikoyake. 

objection, n. Wowioadasni; wo- 
kase ; oi) wicadasni. 

objectionable, a. I'enhiyeyepica. 

objective, a. 1. Ta'ku ; i'ye tan/- 
tanhaq; ta'ku taqii). 2. (Gram.) 
Ikoyag uu. 

objectively, adv. Taijinyan. 

objector, n. I'enhiyeyes'a. 

oblation, n. Wo&napi; F. wai- 
hpeyapi; T. waunyanpi. 

obligate, trt. Econkiya ; en kaaka 

obligation, n. Wokaske ; wi'yuze ; 
ta'ku econ iyececa. Tlie son is 
under obligations to his father. 
Cinhintku kin atkuku ta'ku 
ecakioon iyececa. 

obligatory, a. Sutayaikoyake. 

oblige, vt. 1. Econkiya; -kiya; 
i'yopastag econkiya : they 
obliged him to go. 2. Pida- 
kiya ; o'kiya. I am obliged to 
you, pidamayakiya. — I obliged 
him, pidawakiya. 

obliging, a. Wawapidakiye. 

oblique, a. AtaMnyan ; oh'ya. 

obliquely, adv. Ipawehya ; oh'ya. 

obliquity, n. Woahtani ; woyusna. 

obliterate, vt. Yutaninsni ; yuzuzu. 

obliteration, n. Wayutanhjfini. 

oblivion, n. Wokiksuyesni. 

obloquy, n. Wowantedasni. 

obnoxious, a. Wayusica; wahte- 

obscene, a. WowiSteca ; sa'pa. 

obscenity, n. Wowidteca iapi. 

obscuration, n. Akahpapi. 




obscure, vt. Akahpa ; yutaninsni. 
a. 1. Taninsni; kitanyai) tan- 
in : an obscure expression. 2. 
Tu'we taninsni : an obscure 
man. 3. Nahmana un ; tuwe- 
dan so wanyakesni : an obscure 
bird. 4. To'ken ka'pi taninsni ; 
okahnih tehike : an obscure 

obscurely, adv. Taninsniyan. 

obscurement, n. Woyutaninsni. 

obscureoess, n. Otaninsni. 

obscurity, n. Wonanbe; to'ketu 

obsequious, a. Ituya wayatan ; 

obsequies, n. Wicata okuwa. 

observable, a. Wanyagpica; ki- 
ksuyepica ; opepica. 

observance, n. Ahopapi; wooho- 
da; ohodapi; woahope. The 
observance of the Sabbath, An- 
petuwakai) ahopapi. Catholic 
observancies, Sinasapa woa- 

observant, a. 1. Wa'mdeza ; wa'- 
kite : an observant boy. 2. Aho- 
pe ; en e'tonwe : observant of 
the rules. 

observantly, adv. Wa'mdesya. 

observation, n. 1. Woiwanyake ; 
woamdeza ; iwanyakapi ; wi'- 
wanyakapi. I know by obser- 
vation. 2. Woawacii) ; wowi- 
yukcan ; iapi : a wise observa- 
tion. 3. Woiyute ; wicanhpi 

observatory, n. Wicanhpi iwan- 
yakapi ti'pi ; ton weya eo'wahe. 

observe, vt. 1. Ahope ; kiksnye ; 
patan ; en ewacin ; pakan : ob- 
serve tlie Sabbath. 2. Iwaijya- 
ka ; amdeza : observe the man's 
actions. 3. Oyaka ; e'ya. 

observe, vi. Wa'mdeza ; woyaka. 

observer, n. Wa'mdeza; waoho- 
da ; wawoyaka. 

observing, a. Wa'mdeza. 

obsolete, a. Wanna un'pi sni : 
obsolete customs. 

obstacle, n. Wokagi ; wokase. 

obstetrics, n. Cincatonwieakiyapi 

obstinacy, n. 1. Tawaein sutapi ; 
wonahon nioapi. Obstinacy in 
a pupil is dreadful. 2. Piyepi- 

obstinate, a. Wakitan ; wanahon- 
sni ; okihipicasni. 

obstinately, adv. Wakitanyan; wa- 

obstruct, vt. Kagiya ; anica. Ob- 
struct (lie workmen, htanipi kin 
kagiwioaya. — It obstructs the 
flow of water, mini kaduze ein 

obstructer, n. Wakagiya. 

obstruction, n. Wokagi ; woanica ; 

obtain, vt. Okini ; icu ; kihdega. 
I have now obtained the money , 
wanna ma'zaska owakini. — He 
did not obtain what lie earned, 
ta'ku kamna kin icu sni. — At 
last lie obtained renown, un'- 
hanketa wokitanin kihdega. 

obtainable, a. Icupica ; okihipica. 

obtainer, n. Tu'we icu kin. 

obtrude, vt. En hiyuiciye hca. 
He obtruded himself, Mcopisni 
en hiyuiciya. 

obtuse, a. 1. Tan'ka : pe'sto sni : 
obtuse angle. 2. Haijhi; wa- 

obverse, a. Ite itunkam. 

obviate, vt. Kakamiyeya. 

obvious, a. Tanin ; taninyan wan- 
ka; okitaniq : the meaning is 

obviously, adv. Taijinyan ; okitan- 

occasion, n. Oeyuhpa ; anpetu ; 
ta'ku on ciij'pi ; oun ; ka'ga. 
vt. Ka'ga. 

occasional, a. Wan'wancadan ; 




occasionally, adv. Tuktekten. 

Occident, n. Wiyohpeyata. 

occult, a. Wanyagpicasni ; ana- 

occupancy, n. Hduhapi ; otipi. 

occupant, n. Oti ; yuha. 

occupation, n. 1. Yuha un'pr; oti- 
pi ; en ti'pi. 2. Wicohan ; wo- 
skrnciye. Our occupation is 
farming, wicohan unkitawapi 
wozupi he'e. 

occupy, vt. 1. Oti ; ohna un : I 
occupy this house. 2. Ozudan- 
ya ; akan un : his buildings oc- 
cupy half an acre, 3. Kuwa- 
kiya; wasi : Ten carpenters 
were occupied. 4. Yuha ; yuso- 
ta. He occupied my time ten 
days, anpetu wikoema maki- 

occur, vi. 1. Yukai) ; akipa ; ica- 
ga. What has occurred at the 
Agency. If opportunity occurs, 
oko yukai) kiqhan. 2. Woawa- 
cin hi ; kiksuya. It occurred to 
me just in time, iyehantudan- 
hii) we'ksuya. 

occurrence, n. Woakipa ; woyuto- 
keea : daily occurrences. 

ocean, n. Miniwanca ; ta'ku iyo- 
tai) tan'ka. 

oceanic, a. Miniwancata. 

ocher, n. Makasa. 

octagon, n. Cuwi sahdogan. 

octave, n. Ho sahdogai). 

October, n. Wi iwikcemna ; wa- 

octoroon, n. Okaspe isahdogan. 

ocular, a. Ista oi) wanyakapi. 

oculist, n. Istakuwa. 

odd, a. 1. To'keca ; ohantokeca ; 
wowiha : an odd boy. 2. Sani ; 
sani wanica. A lot of odd 
shoes. 3. Iyaye; ta'kudai] ki- 
cica sni : odd pieces of calico. 

oddity, w. To'keca ; wowiha. 

oddly, adv. Togye ; wowihaya. 

oddness, n. Wotokeca ; wowiha. 

odds, n. Wowiyukcan. 

ode, n. Odowan okinihan. 

odious, a. Wahtesni ; wanted api- 

odiously, adv. Wahtedasniyan. 

odium, n. Wowahtesni. 

odometer, n. Caijkuiyute (canpa- 
hmihma ha ikoyake). 

odor, n. Woomna ; omnapi. A 
sweet odor, wastemna. 

odorless, a. Takumnasni. 

odorous, a. Eoamna ; wastemna. 

of, prep. 1. (Denoting source) Etan- 
han . I received it of my father, 
ate etanhan mduha. — Give of 
your substance, woyuha nitawa 
etanhan ku. — Within a step of 
the river, wakpa etanhan ca- 
hdepi wanii. 2. On ; on etaq- 
han. Of his own will, iye ta- 
wacin oi). 3. (Possessory) Ta'- 
wa; ta-; yuha. The house of 
the king, itancan ti'pi ta'wa. — 
The strength of the lion, mnaza 
to'was'ake. — The shoe of a 
woman, win/yan tahanpa. — A 
man of strength, wicasta wowa- 
s'ake yuha. 4. (With a qual- 
ifying noun the force of the 
proposition is often expressed 
by juxtaposition.) A boat of 
bark, canhawata. — The city of 
Omaha, Omaha otonwe. — The 
love of God is everlasting, Wa- 
kantanka to'wastedake owihan- 
ke wanica. 

off, adv. 1. Tokan ; to'kiya ; to- 
kanyai) ; iyog. Don't look off, 
tokan e'tonwe sni. — He is gone 
off, to'kiya iyaye. — The cover 
is off, iha kin iyog un. 2. 
I'tokai) ; i'citehan. Tfte river is 
a mile off, wakpa kin iyutapi 
wanzi i' tokan un. — Off and on, 
enanakiya. — The concert will 
come off, dowanpi kii) econpi 
kta. — To get off a speech, woo- 

off 119 

wohdake ecoi) . — To get off from 
trial, woyaco etanhan tokai) 
iyaye. — Tctt ojf *fo names, wi- 
cacaie oyag a'ya. — ife w well 
off, tanyan un. — Offhand, wan'- 
cahnana. — Ojf side, unman eci- 
yatanhan. — CW ojf, baspa. 

off, inter;. Tokai) ya ; kihda. 

off, a. 1. Akotanhan ; unmaneci- 
yatanhai) : the off ox, 2. Aie- 
oetusni: an off year. 

offal, n. 1. Ta'ku ehpeyapi. Tfte 
oJfaZ covered the streets, ta'ku 
ehpeyapi kii) canku ozudan. 

2. Tasupe ; wopate to'na yu'za- 
pi sni. 

offend, t*. Iyokipisniya ; sihdaya. 

ifo tro* offended, iyokipisni- 

offend, vi. Wahtani; woope ki- 

offender, n. Wahtanis'a. 
offense, n. Woahtani; woiyokipi 

sni : wosihda. 
offensive, a. 1. Iyowicakipisni ; 

wosihda : offensive words. 2. 

I'ye wicakuwa. 
offer, vt. 1. ]£u kta eya ; kipazo ; 

iwanyagsi : he offered me his 

horse. 2. Waihpeya; wosna. 
offer, n. 1. Woecon ; ecoi) kta 

eyapi. He made a hind offer, 

tanyan ecoi) kta eya. 2. Ta'ku 

ku'pi ; to'nakeca on eooi)pi kta. 

3. Woiyuta: to made no offer 
to run. 

offering, n. 1. Wosnapi; wai- 
hpeyapi ; womnaye wakan. 
The missionary offering, wo- 
taqinwaste womnaye. 2. Ta'ku 
econpi kta eyapi. 

offhand, a. Jhnuhai) ; i'tokam 
awacii) sni : an offhand 

office, n. 1. Ti'pi ; ti ; ohna skin 7 - 
ciye : agent's office. 2. Woe- 
eon ; woitancan : an office in 
the church. 


office-holder, n. Woitancanyuha : 

officer, n. Itancan : a military 
officer, vt. Itancai) wicakaga. 

official, a. Woitai)cai) ; woecoi). 

officially, adv. Itancai) eciyatan- 

officiate, vt. Ecoi) ; woitancan. wi- 
cohan ecoi). 

officious, a. Itancan kte nca. 

officiously, adv. Itancanicidase. 

offsconrlng, n. Ta'ku ehpeyapi. • 

offset, n. Adetka ; wokazuiu. 

offshoot, n. Adetka. 

offspring, n. Cine a. 

oft, adv. See often. 

often, adv. S'a ; izehan ; icizehai) ; 
akihde: o'ta. ITe cowes ftere 
often, den hi s'a. .How often, 

oftentimes, adv. Icizehan; o'ta- 

Ogalalla, n. T. Oglala; F. Ok- 

oh, inter;. E : wan ; yu. 

oil, n. Wi'hdi ; Y. wi'kdi ; T. wi'- 
gli ; sda ; wi'hdi tiktica. Castor- 
oil, wi'hdi iyoptaiyeyapi. vt. 

oilcloth, n. Minifiuha sdusduta. 

oiled, a. Sdayapi ; sda. 

oiler, n. Isdaye. 

oilstone, n. Wiohdisda. 

oily, a. Sda ; sdusduta. 

ointment, n. Wi'sdaye ; ihepi. 

Ojlbway, n. fiafratonwan. 

old, a. 1. Ehanna ; wanakaza ; 
o'ta. An old man, wicasta 
ehanna ; wicanca. — Old age, 
waniyetu o'ta. 2. Icaga ; un ; 
aounye; (often unexpressed.) 
A babd a few days old, hoksi- 
yopa anpotu to'nana. — Sow old 
are you, waniyetu nitonakeca 
he. — I am ten years old, wa- 
niyetu mawikcemna. 3. Ehan- 
tanhan ; ehannatanhan. An 
old ball player, ehannatanhan. 




takapas'a. 4. Ehanna un'pi; 
wai]na ai'ca ; kan : an old coat, 

olden, a. Ehanna. 

older, a. comp. Tokapa. 

oldish, a. Ki'tanna ehanna. 

old-fashioned, a. Okage ehanna. 

old-man, n. Wicahca. 

old-woman, n. Wakanka; Y. wi- 
nohca; T. winohcala. 

oleomargarine, n. Asanpi ihdi wa- 
sna oq ka'gapi. 

olfactory, a. On womnapi. 

olive, a. To'sapa. 

Omaha, n. Omaha. 

omega, n. Ehake ; oowa ehake. 

omelet, n. Wi'tka kaooco span- 

omen, n. Wohdece ; wowakta. 

omen, vt. Kihdeca; wakcan. 

ominous, a, Wowakta ; wakihde- 

omission, n. Econpi sni ; akton- 
zapi ; yusnapi. 

omit, vt. Yusna ; ecoi] sni. 

omnibus, n. Caqpahmihma ano- 
katanhan i'yotankapi; o'ta kipi. 

omnipotent, a. Iyotai) was'aka. 

omnipresent, a. O'wancaya un. 

omniscient, a. Ta'ku owasin sdon- 

omnium-gatherum, «. Wokpahi. 

omnivorous, a. Ta'ku owasii) yu'ta. 

on, prep. 1. Akan; a-: on the 
table. — The board fell on me, 
canmdaska amahinhpaye. 2. 
En ; icunhan. 3. Iyehan ; eca ; 
ehan. On the breaking out of 
the war, okicize icaga ehan. 
4. I'takihna; akan. Stones upon 
stones, in'yan i'takihnahna. 5. 
On ; cazeyan. On his oath, 

. Wakantanka cazeyan. 6. En ; 
ekta. On the public works, oyate 
ta'wicohan en. — He bet on the 
little horse, sun'kawakan ci'- 
stinna en iyakaska. 7. Etan- 
han ; ekta. On the committee, 
committee etanhan. — On the 

one hand, de'ciyatanhan. — 
Come on, mi'hakamu; howo. 
— Put your dress on, nitoake 
kicun. — Depend on, wacinyan. 
House on fire, ti'pi ide. — On 
the way, tahepi. — On the wing, 
aunyan ; owanzi un sni. — 
Placed on high, wankan e'hna- 
ka. — Play on the violin, can- 
pakinzapi dowankiya. — Walk 

on, amam. 

on, adv. San'pa;iyoopta. Goon, 
san'pa ya. 

once, adv. 1. Wan'cadan. Do it 
once, wan'cadan econ. 2. TV- 
hinni ; ehanna : once there was 
an earthquake. All at once I 
heard it, ihnuhanna nawahon. 
— All at once, heave, owasii) 
o'konwanzidai), yu titan. — Do 
it at once, wan'cahnana econ. 
— Once and again, akihdehde. 
— Once more, ehake. — Once 
started, to'hinni iyaye cinhan. 
— Once upon a time, to'hinni 
anpetu wan en. — This once, 

one, a. Wanzi ; wanzidan ; wan- 
zina ; wan'ca ; sani. — All one, 
to'kecasni. — One day, anpetu 
wanzi; to'hinni. — One foot, si- 
sani. — One hand, napsani. — 
One or the other, de'e kais he'e ; 
unmantukte wan'zi. — The en- 
emies are at one, to'kakiciyapi 
kin wanna okowanzipidan. 

one, n. 1. Wanzi. " He will hate 
the one and love the other." 2. 
Onge; to'na; wanzikzi. The 
big ones, to'na tankinkinyai). — 
The little ones, cikcistinpidan ; 
wakanheza. — One by one, wan- 

one, pron. Tu'we; tu'wekasta. 
One another, kici. — They em- 
braced one another, po'akin ki- 

oneness, n. Wowanzidan. 



onerous, a. Tke. 

one-sided, a. Sanina ; sanito'keca. 

oue's self, pron. Iye'hca ; iye i'ya- 

ongoings, n. Woecoi) ; woiyopte. 

onion, n. Psiij. 

only, a. 1. Heceedai). The only 
survivor , heceedai) ni. 2. Isna- 
na ; -na'na. I only, misnana. — 
You only, ni&nana. — He only, 
isnana. — The man only, wicasta 
isnana. — Only one, wanzidan. 
— Only two, nom'nana. 

onset, n. Wonatai] ; takpeyapi. 

onslaught, n. Wonatai] ; ki'ciya- 

onto, prep. Akan. 

onwnrd, a. Iyopta ; san'pa ya : 
the onward march. 

onwnrd, adv. San 'pa ; iyopteya. 

oof e, vi. Nasdi ; sdi'sdi ; ske'pa. 

opaque, a. Kohdisni ; taninsni. 

open, a. Yugan hai) ; kazamni 
han ; natakesni; ca'&asni; tan- 
inyan ni) ; akahpesni. An open 
account, oioazo wowapi yustan- 
pisni. — An open basket, makan- 
opiye akahpapisni. — An open 
door, tiyopa yugan hai). — Open 
air, tankan tate. — Open coun- 
tenance, waanakihbesni ite. — 
Open flowers, wahca kazamnipi. 
— Open for an engagement, ta/- 
ku eooi)kiyapi kta wi'yeya un. 
— Open guilt, woahtani tanin- 
yan ui). — Open house, ti'pi yu- 
hdog hai). — Open road, oai)ku 
natakapisni. — Open shed, ti'pi 
ahanke ofrdoka o'ta. — Open to 
attack, iyahpayapi waste. — 
Open winter, waniyetu wa wa- 

open, vt. Yugan; yuzamni; yu- 
hdoka; yukawa; yutai)in; to- 
kaheya ecoi). Opened his plans, 
to'ken ecoi) kta yutanin. — Open 
one's mouth, i hdukawa. — Open 
the box, koka yuhdoka. — Open 

the door, tiyopa yugan. — Open 
the hand, nape yumdaya. — 
Open the letter, wowapi yuhdo- 
ka. — They opened fire, iye toka- 
heya ma'zakan utapi. vi. Ka- 
zamni iyaye. 

opener, n. On yuhdokapi; yu- 

open-handed, a. Waihpeyes'a ; 

open-hearted, a. Waanahbesni ; 

opening, n. 1. Ohdoka ; oyugan ; 
oko : there was an opening in 
the roof. 2. Yuhdokapi; wo- 
tokahe; tokaheya econpi. I 
saw him at the opening of the 
Conference. 3. Oko ; ohna yan- 
ka waste. An opening for a 
doctor. 4. Canwehna oko ; can- 

openly, adv. Taninyan ; anahbe- 

open-mouthed, a. Icam ; ohansun- 

opera, n. Dowanska'tapi ; woska- 

operate, vt. Econ ; kuwa ; ka'ga. 
Operate a sewing-machine, on 
wakagegepi ecoi). vi. Skan ; 
waecon ; iheyekiya ; kuwa. 

operation, n. Wokuwa ; wicohan ; 
woecon ; kuwapi. 

operative, a. Kuwa okihi ; wi'yo- 
kihi. n. Kuwa wayupikapi. 

operator, n. Tu'we kuwa kin. 

opiate, n. Istinbekiyapi pezuta; 

opine, vt. Eoin ; iyukoai). 

opinion, n. Woawacin ; wowiyu- 
kean;wacinyuzapi. The opinion 
is prevalent, woawacin kii) tan'- 
kaya un. — The good opinion of 
my friends, mitakada tanyan 

opium, n. Pezuta on istinmapi. 

opossum, n. Sintesdatanka. 

opponent, n. Kioi ecoi) ; to'ka ; 

opportune 122 

i'tkokimna'zil) ; kuwa ; wicada 

opportune, a, Waiyehantu. 

opportunity, n. Ohna oecoi) waste ; 
oko ; iyehantu. 

oppose, vt. I'tkokipa ; kipazii) ; 
wicada sni ; ecetu kte sni ; 
kuwa ; fuiapta. I did not oppose 
him, i'tkowakipe sni. — He op- 
posed her going, ye kta wicada 
sni. — They opposed Hie Govern- 
ment, woitancai) kin kipaziijpi. 
— They opposed the prohibition 
law, miniwakan anaptapi woo- 
pe ecetu kte sni kuwapi. 

opposer,n. Wakipazii); waanapte. 

opposite, a. Unman eciyatanhai) ; 
akasai]pa ; koakata ; unmar) ; 
to'keca ; itkom ui) . The opposite 
leaves, ape i'tkokicipa. — The 
opposite party, ospaye unman. 
The opposite side of the street, 
cai)ku unmai) eciyatanhaq, 

oppositely, adv. I'citkokim. 

opposition, n, 1. Wowicadasni; 
wokipazin ; kipazinpi ; kagiya- 
pi. Their opposition is vain, 
wicadapi sni kii) ta'kudan iyo- 
kihi sni. 2. Wakipazinpi ; i'tko- 
kikapi; unmanpi; ospaye ui)- 
mai]. The opposition killed the 
bill, ospaye ui)man woope kii) 
yutakunipi sni. 

oppress, vt. Kakisya ; tkeya kin- 

oppression, n. Wakakisyapi ; wo- 
kakize ; iyahdaskin un. 

oppressive, a. Tke; wakakisya; 

oppressively, adv. Tkeya; waka- 

oppresssor, n. Wakakisya ; si- 
caya wicakuwa. 

opprobrious, a. Wowisteca; wa- 

opprobrium, n. Wowahtesni. 

optative, a. Cin/pi. 

optic, a. Ista ; oi) tonwanpi. 


optical, a. Ista. 

optics, n. Wi'yozanzai) woonspe ; 

wicista woonspe. 
optimist, n. Xu'we ta'ku owasin, 

icantewaste un. 
optimistic, a. O'hiijni waste kta 

option, n. Wokannige; wakahni- 

nigapi ; cin/pi ; tohan cinpi. 
optional, a. Cin/pi kinhaq econpi 

kta : optional studies. 
opulence, a. Woyuha; wowizice. 
opulent, a. Watonka ; wi'zica. 
or, eonj, J£ais ; T. nais. 
oracle, w. Ta'kuwakan oie ; ta'ku- 

wakai) ; wakandapi. 
oracular, a. Wakan. 
oral, a. Ieyahan yuhapi; owapi 

orally, adv. Ieyahai). 
orange, n. Taspaqgi. 
orange, a. Zi'gi. 
orang-outang, n. Waunca istohan- 

oration, n. Owohdake; woowo- 

orator, n. Ieksapa ; wohdaka. 
oratorical, a. Ieksapa. 
oratory, n. Wayapiya wohdakapi. 
orb, n. Ta'ku mima ; wi ; wicai)- 

orbit, n. Oahomni ; ocanku. 
orchard, n. Waskuyeca canwo- 

orchestra, n. Canpakinzapi opta- 

ordain, vt. Ka'ga ; wicastawakai) 

ka'ga ; kanniga. 
ordained, p. Ka'gapi ; yustaqpi. 
ordeal, n. Oecoi) ; wowawiyu- 

order, n. 1. Waecon&pi ; woope. 

An order to sell no whisky, mi- 
niwakan wi'yopeyapi kte sni 

woope. — Our orders were not to 

stop, na'zin sni unsipi. 2. To'- 

ken o'wecinhan wanka ecee; 

owotanna. Bring them in reg- 

order 123 

ular order. 3. Ta'ku da'pi wo- 
wapi ; ta'ku ecoijwicasipi ; ku- 
wicasipi wowapi. I sent an 
order for goods, ma'za da'pi 
wowapi yewaya. — Please give 
me an order for beef tado ku- 
wicasipi wowapi maku ye. 4. 
Ocaze ; obe : order of talent 
5. Okodakiciye : the order of 
Odd FeUwos. 6. Woecon. The 
old order of things, ehanna 
woecoij kiij. — Give orders , econ- 
wicasi. — In order to, oi) etan- 
han. — Keep order, owanzi yan- 
ka ; eoen yanka. — Money order, 
oi) ma'zaska icupi wowapi — 
Order book, ta'ku da'pi wowa- 
pi. — Order of battle, okicize 
oecoi). — Put the house in order, 
ta'pikin tanyai) piyapi. — Stand- 
ing orders, eca oecoi). — The 
order of words in English, Wa- 
sicun iapi woeye to'ken o'we- 
cinhai) wai)ka. 

order, vt. 1. Econsi ; -si. He or- 
dered me out of the house, tan- 
kan yemasi. 2. Da ; auwicasi : 
he ordered some water. 3. E'- 
hnaka ; kuwa. 

orderly, a. 1. Ta'ku owasin tan- 
yai) waijka: an orderly town. 
Wananonpi; owanzi un'pi. 

ordinance, n. Woope. 

ordinarily, adv. Ecee. 

ordinary, a. He'cetuka; to'ken 
yuhapi ecee. 

ordination, n. Wicastawakai) ka'- 
gapi ; wokage. 

ordnance, n. Ma'zakantanka. 

ore, n. Ma'za okapi ecehna. 

organ, n. 1. Caij'dowankiyapi. A 
cabinet organ, candowankiyapi 
koka omdotoi) se. — A pipe or- 
gan, candowankiyapi mazahdo- 
geoa. 2. Adetka ; on spa etan- 
han ; huha. 

organic, a. Huha yukeya ; o'kihe 


organism, n. Ta'ku huha yukai). 

organization, n. Ta'ku tancan hu- 
ha ko ka'gapi ; okodakiciye. 

organize, vt. Oskinciye kta iyecen 
ka'ga; wicohan ecekcen itai)- 
cai) wicakaga; itancan wica- 
kaga ; ecekcen waeoonwica- 

organizer, n. Waeconwicakiya. 

orgies, n. Ska'tapi. 

orient, n. Wi'hinaxjpa; wiyohi- 

oriental, a. Wiyohiyanpata. 

orifice, n. Ohdoka. 

origin, n. Otokahe ; ohinanpe. 

original, a. Otokahe ; tokaheya 
ka'gapi ; nahanfr un'pi sni. 

originality, n. Tokaheya wi'yu- 

originally, adv. Otokaheya; iye- 

originate, vt. Tokaheya ka'ga; 
ka'ga. vi. Tokaheya icaga. 

ornament, n. Woyuwaste ; wowi- 
tai). vt. Yuwaste ; wi'pata. 

ornamental, a. Wayuwaste. 

ornamentally, adv. Yuwasteya. 

ornamentation, n. Wayuwaatepi ; 
wi'patapi; oinkitonpi. 

ornamenter, n. Wayuwawaste. 

ornate, a. Yuwastepi ; yucoya 
ka'gapi ; waste. 

ornithology, n. Wahupakoza wo- 
onspe ; zitkadan oyakapi. 

orphan, n. Wamdenica. 

orphanage, n. 1. Wamdenicatipi. 
2. Wowamdenica. 

orthodox, a. Owotanna; woope 

orthography, n. Iapi oowa tai)yan 
e'hnakapi ; oowa eyapi. 

Osage (Indians), n. Wazaza. 

oscillate, vi. Kazezeya. 

oscillating, a. Kaozeze. 

oscillation, w. Wokaze. 

ossify, vi. Hu icaga. 

ostensible, a. Pazopi. 

ostensibly, adv. Se ececa ; keya. 

ostentation 124 

ostentation, w. Wi'hdutanpi. 

ostentations, a. Wi'tantanpi. 

ostracise, vt. Napeya ; oyate ta'wa 
etanhan kihdeya. 

ostrich, n. Wanupakozatan'ka. 

other, a. Unman ; to'keca. Give 
to other 8, tokan wicaku. — No 
other but, tu'we to'heca. — 
Some... other , onge... onge. — 
The other day, anpetu he'kta ; 
decana. — The other side, un- 
mai) eciyatanhan. 

otherwise, adv. 1. Togye. He 
thought otherwise, i'ye togye 
awacin. 2. He'cetusni kinhan ; 
togye un'kans. 

Otoe (Indians), n. Oyatenonpa. 

Ottawa (Indians), n. Hotawe. 

otter, n. Ptan. 

Ottoman (Turk),n. Wicasta. 

ought, v. aux. Iyececa ; he'cetu. 
You ought to go, de kta iye- 

ounce, n. Otkente ci'stinna. 

our, pron. Unkitawapi; unki-. 
Our country, unkitamakoce. — 
Belongs to you and me (dual), 

ours, pron. poss. Unkitawapi. 

ourselves, pron. Unkiyepi hca. 
We ourselves, unkiyepiiyataye- 

oust, vt. Yutokaniyeya ; iyayeya. 

out, adv. Tankan. Cried out, ni - 
na eya. — Day in and day out, 
anpetu ad'ataya. — Fell out of 
the wagon, canpahmihma etan- 
han hinhpaya. — Fell out about 
who should ride, tu'we akaijyo- 
tanke kta akinicapi. — Find out, 
iyeya. — Fire went out, pe'ta sni. 
— Hear the speech out, owo- 
hdake ihunniyan nafron. — He 
laughed out, taninyai) iha. — 
Out and out, a taya ; tanataya. 
— Out at the knees, cankpehdo- 
ka. — Out in his calculations, 
iyawa ekta yusna ; yusna. — 


Out in the field, tankan ma'ga 
ekta; magata. — Out of, etan- 
han tankan ; i'tankan. — Out of 
breath, niyasni. — Out of bus- 
iness, wioohan ni'ca. — Out of 
conceit with, iyokipi sni. — Out 
of date, anpetn i'sanpa ; iye- 
hantusni. — Out of joint, o'kihe 
papsun; papsun. — Out of his 
mind, tawacin en un sni ; aki- 
ktonza; wacinhnuni. — Out of 
one's head, wacinhnuni. — Out 
of order, sicaya nn; yusicapi. 
— Out of pocket, ma'zaska onge 
kiyusota. — Out of print, yuso- 
tapi. — Out of the question, en 
e'wacinpicasni. — Out of reach, 
iyohiyepicasni — Out of season, 
o'maka iyehantugni. — Out of 
sight, taninsni ; wanyagpicasni. 
— Out of sorts, caniyokipisni. — 
Out of sugar, canhanpiyusota. 
— Out of temper, wacinko. — 
Out of the way, canku icunom ; 
icunom. — Out West, wiyohpey- 
ata. — Put out of the way, icun- 
om iyeya ; ktepi. — Put the Ugh ts 
out, petizanzan bosni.— The 
secret is out, ta'ku nahmaqpi 
kiu otanin. — The wine is out, 
minisa kin henana. — You put 
me out by your noise, oko kin 
on yusnamayaya. 

out, vt. Tankan u; tanin. Truth 
will out, wowicake tanin kta. 

out, interj. Tankan iyaya ; iyaya. 

out-, pref. I'sanpa ; kapeya ; kte'- 

outargue, vt. I'akapeya. 

outbalance, v t. I'sanpa tke. 

outbeg, vl. Wadapi kte'dan. 

outbreak, n. Bosdokapi ; wosice. 

outburst, n. Bomdazapi. 

outcast, a. Tankan ehpeyapi. 

outcome, n. Etanhan ta'ku icage. 

outcry, ft. Owodutaton ; i'eniye- 

outdo, vt. Ikapeya econ. 




outdoor, a. Tankan. 
outer, a. Haakamya ; tankan. 
outermost, a. Tai)kanihanke. 
outfit, n. On, ihduwiyeyapi ; wi'- 

outflank, vt. Aohomniya. 
outgo, vt. Wayusotapi ; kapeya. 
outgoing, n. Oenape. 
outgrow, vt. I'akamicaga; tan'ka- 

outhouse, n. Taijkantipi. 
outing, n. Enanakiya un'pi; to- 

kan Hi) 'pi. 
outlandish, a. To'keca ; si'ca. 
outlast, vt I'sam te'han waste 

outlaw, ft. Woope inazica ui) ; 

woope ohoda sni. vt. Woope 

itankan iyeya. 
outlay, n. Ma'zaskayusotapi; wo- 

outlet, ft. Iyohdoke ; oenape. 
outline, ft. Ohomni icazopi : owo- 

hdake ocankuye. vt. Icazo; 

ptenyedai) oyaka. 
outlive, vt. I'sanpa ni. 
outlook, ft. Owanyake ; iteka ; 

outlying, a. I'hduksan. ; opapun. 
outmost, a. Ihanke. 
outnumber, vt. I'akam o'ta. 
out-of-door, a. Tankan. 
out-of-the-way, a. Makoskan. 
outpost, ft. Icunomti'pi ; woonspe 

output, ft. To'nakeca icupi; ka'- 

outrage, ft. Ta'ku si'ca ; wosice. 
outrage, vt. Sicayakuwa ; iya- 

outrageous, a. Ni'na si'ca ; wohi- 

outrageously, adv. Ni'na sicaya. 
outrank, vt. I'wankam i tan can 
outright, adv. He'cen. 
outroom, ft. Icunomtipi. 
outrun, vt. Kapeya in/yaijka ; 


outset, ft. Otokahe. 

outshine, vt. Ikapeya wiyakpa; 

outside, a. Tankan ; ihanke. 

outside, ft. Akapatanhai) ; tan- 

outsider, ft. Tankan ui). 

outskirt, ft. Opapun. 

outspoken, a. Taninyan eya ; ana- 

outstanding, a. Ecennan ; kazuzu- 

outstrip, vt. Eapa. 

outtravel, vt. Eapeyaicimani. 

outwalk, vt. Ma'nipikapa. 

outward, adv. Tankantkiya. a. 
Tankantanhaq ; tankantkiya ; 

outwardly, adv. Akanya. 

outwear, vt. Te'han suta ; i'sanpa 
te'han suta kta. 

outweigh, vt. I'sanpa tke. 

outwit, vt. I'sanpa ksa'pa. 

oval, a. Wi'tkamibe. 

ovation, ft. Yuonihanpi; yuoni- 
hanpi omniciye. 

oven, ft. Owaspanye. 

over, prep. 1. Iwankam. Hold it 
over your head, pa kin iwankam 
yu'za. 2. O'pta ; akasanpa ; a-. 
Throw over, o'pta ehpeya. — 
Go over the river, akasanpa ya ; 
T. koakata ya. — Jump over, 
apsiea. 3. Dmnni; icunhan. 
Take care of it over winter, wa- 
niyetu ihunni awanyaka. — 
Stay over night, hanyetu un. — 
Have the advantage over, iwan- 
kam wookihi yuha. — Over four 
dollar 8 , ma'zaska to'pa iwan- 
kam. — Run over and killed, adi- 
pi ka teyapi. — The river ran 
over the banks, wakpa maya 

over, adv. 1. O'pta ; hdakinyan. : 
come over. 2. Ihunniyan; 
amdesya : go over the account*. 
3. I'sanpa ; akahya. Over- 




zealous, aokanya mdiheca. 4. 
Ahdap£ii)yai); yuptanyai) : turn 
over the board, 5. Ihunni ; he- 
nana : dinner was over, — All 
over, o'wancaya ; henana. — AU 
over with the sick man. wicasta 
wayazanka wanna ihunni. — 
Over again, akihde. — Over 
against, iyotakons. — Over and 
above, iyaye; okitaijiijyai). — 
Over and over, akihdehde. — To 
do over, akihde ecoi). 

over, a. 1. Aokaga; ehaes ni'na 
ecoijpi : over-work, 2. Akan ; 
akanui)pi : over coat, 

overalls, n, Onzeogeakanunpi. 

overanxious, a, Ehaes ni'na awa- 

overawe, vt, Inihanya. 

overbalance, vt. Iwankam tke. 

overbearing, a. Esizeca ; ohiti- 

overboard, adv, Minin; wa'ta 
etanhan mini en. 

overcareful, a. Ehaes ni'na awan- 

overcast, vt. Akaftpa. 

overcharge, vt, O'ta kazuzukiya ; 
o'ta ohnaka. 

overcoat, n. Akanokde ; un'hohda 
akan nij'pi. 

overcome, vt. Ohiya; kte'dai). 

overconfident, a, Ehaes ni'na awa- 

overcount, vt, Iwankam yawa. 

overdo, vt. Ehaes ni'na econ. 

overdose, n. Ehaesotaku. 

overdraw, vt. Iwankam icu ; a'kam 
iyaye ; ozudanya ; apasboka. 

overflow, vt. Amnitai) ; o'wancaya 
iyaya. Overflowed, the field, 
ma'ga amnitan. — Foreigners 
overflowed the country, oyate- 
tokeca makoce o'wanca iya- 

overflow, vi, Apasboka; a'kam 
iyaye : t)\e river overflowed. 

overgrown, a. Ehaes tan/ka. 

overhaul, vt, Tuzuzu wanyaka; 

overhead, adv. Wankan. 
overhear, vt. Nanmannahon. 
overheated, pa. Ni'na ka'ta. 
overhung, a. Akeyapi. 
overissue, n. Iwankam wi'cakupi. 
overjoyed, a. Ni'na iyuskin. 
overland, a. Makaamani ; makaa- 

overlap, n, I'ciyakahpapi. 
overlay, vt. Akahpa; zu; ahda- 

overload, vt. O'ta ohnaka. 
overlook, vt, 1. Wanyag han ; 

iwankam nn : the fort overlooks 

the town. 2. Iwankam e'ton- 

wan; awanyaka. 3. Aktasni 

e'tonwan ; en e'tonwesni. 
overly, adv. Iwankam ; ni'na. 
overlying, a. Iwankam yanka. 
overmatch, n, Iwankam was'aka. 
overmodest, a. Ehaes wi'steca. 
overnight, adv. Hanyetu icunhai) ; 

hanyetu ihunni. 
overpass, vt. I'sam ya. 
overpay, vt, I'akam kazuzu. 
overpeople, vt. Ehaes oyate otinB- 

overplus, n. Iyaye. 
overpower, vt. Wowas'ake on econ- 

kiya ; kte'dai). 
overproduction, n. Ehaes o'ta ica- 

overrate, vt. Wankantuyah yawa. 
overreach, vt. Iwankam iyohiya; 

override, vt, 1. Adi : he overrode 

all obstacles. 2. Ehaes te'han 

akanyotanka : he overrode the 

overrighteous, a. Waste konzapi. 
overripe, a. Ni'na suton. 
overrule, vt. Iwankam yustai) ; 

overrun, vt. 1. Adi ; a'taya iyaye ; 

o'ta. The vine overran the fence t 

wi'ynwi con/kaske. adi. — The 




weeds overran the farm, canhdo- 

hu makooe a'taya iyaya. 2. 

I'sam iyaya ; kapa. 
overscrupulous, a. Ehaes woope 

ohoda boa. 
oversee, vt. Awanyaka. 
overseer, n. Waawanyake ; awan- 
overshot* a. Iwaijkam yeya. 
oversight, n. 1. Woawanyake. 

2fe has the oversight of the mill. 

2. Waijyake sni. 
oversklrt, n. Nitiyapehe akanuqpi. 
oversleep, t?i. Te'hanistinma. 
overspread, vt. A'tayaiyaye. 
overstate, vt. Akafroyaka. 
overstay, vt. Te'hanyai)ka. 
overstep, vt, I'samcaehde. 
overstock, vt. Ehaes o'ta ahipi. 
overstrain, vi. 6'agya. 
oversore, a. Ehaes wicakeicida. 
overt, a. Taijiijyai) mj. 
overtake, vt. Kihdega ; e'hdega. 
overtax, vt. Ehaes tkeya £ii)ki- 

overthrow, vt. 1. Tuptai) ehpeya ; 

kaptaqyai) : overthrew the table. 

2. Kazuzu ; ihaijgya. 
overthrow, n. Woihaijgye. 
overtop, vt. Ikapeya waqkantuya. 
overture, n. 1. Wowiyukcai). 2. 

Otokahe dowaijpi. 
overturn, vt. Yuptaijyai) ; kawai)- 

overweight, ». Iwankam tke. 
overwhelm, vt. Akahpa ; iyahda- 


overwhelming, a. Tan/ka ; wo- 

. sungye. 

overwork, vt. Ni'na tkeya ecoi)- 
kiya ; yus'aka. 

overwork, vi. d'agiciya. 

overwork, n. A'kam Manipi. 

owe, vt. 1. Ikicazo ; icazo. / owe, 
iwakazo. — I owe him, iwecazo. 
— You owe, iyakazo. — You owe 
him, iyecazo. — He owes, icazo. 
— He owes him, ikicazo. 2. 
Etaijhai) yuha; okihiya : he 
owed it to his father. 3. Ku iye- 
ceca ; icazo. 

owing, pa. 1. Icazo ; ikicazo. 2. 
(with to) Oi) etanhai) ; oi) etai)- 
hai) he'ceca. Owing to his sick- 
ness, wayazanka oi) etaijhai), 

owl, n. Hiqhankaga ; hinyaijkaga. 

own, vt. 1. Yuha ; ta'waya ; ta'- 
wa. Who owns that house, ti pi 
he tu'we ta'wa. — J own it, 
mi'ye mduha. 2. He'cetu eya ; 

own, a. Ta'wa. My own, mi'ye 
mitawa. — Your own, ni'ye ni- 
tawa. — To hold one's own, he'ce- 

owner, n. Ta'waya. 

ownerless, a. Tuwena ta'wa sni. 

ownership, n. Ta'wayapi. 

ox, n. (pi. oxen.) Tatanka; ta- 
taijka wosdohai). 

oxbow, n. Wanapii) oyuksai). 

oxgoad, n. Tatangicape. 

oxhide, n. Tataqkaha. 

oyster, n. Tukihasai). 

pace, n. Caehdepi. vi. Caehde; 

ma'ni ; nas'os'o ma'ni. 
pacer, n. duijgonas'o ; nas'os'o. 
pacific, a. Amdakedai) ; wahba- 

dai) ; wawiciya. 
pacification, n. Wicayuwahbapi ; 


pacify, vt. Yuwahba ; yiiwaste. 

pack, vt. 1. Koka ohnaka ; pahta ; 
he'yun : pack your goods. 2. 
Nahman ohnaka ; nahman ku- 
wa : pack a jury. 3. Ozuya ; 
otins ka'ga : pack a joint of 
the pipe. n. Wapahtapi; wo- 

package 128 

heyun ; wopanta ; optaye ; 

package, n. Wopahtc; opahte; 

oheyun ; wapantapi. 
packer, n. Wapa&ta ; wapata. 
packet, w. 1. wapahtapidan : a 

packet of letters. 2. Pe'tawata 

pack-horse, «. dunktanka wakin- 

pack-house, n. Ti'piwakihnakapi; 

tado okicanye. 
packing, n. Waohnakapi; pao- 

tii)S hna'kapi. 
pack-saddle, ». dungakin on wa- 

pad, ft. 1. Miunpi : p«f a .pad 

under the collar, 2. Wowapi- 

ska apatiijzapi. 3. Wamanoi) 

padding, n. Iyopundi. 
paddle, ft. Wamnaheca ; Y. iwa- 

topekiya ; wadihupa. tri. Wa- 

topa; Y. ko'za. trt. Iyopteya; 

wamnaheca kicui). 
paddler, ». Watopa. 
Paddy, n. imft iasica. 
padlock, n. Tiyoininatake psunka. 
pagan, w. Wakagapi ohoda ; ikce- 

paganism, ft. Wakagapi ohodapi. 
page, ft. 1. Yumdapi; wowapi 

oyumda : the second page. 2. 

Hoksidanwowasi. vt. Yumda- 
pi ka'ga. 
pageant, ft. Wowanyake ; wapa- 

pageantry, ft. Waihdataijpi. 
pagoda, ft. Wakagapi ti'pitanka. 
pall, ft. Ce'ga ; kokadan ; mini- 
yaya : that pail leaks. — A small 

pail, cegastinna. — A wooden 

pail, kokatodan. 
pailful, ft. Ce'ga ohnaka; ce'ga 

pain, ft. Woyazai) ; yazanpi ; wa- 

kakisyapi ; woteni : a pain in 

the head. — Take pains, awacirj- 


hca econ. — Under pain of, ko 

kipe. — With pains, kakisya ; 

awacinya. vt. Yazanya ; ksu'- 

weya ; kakisya. 
painful, a. 1. lyazai) ; yazan : his 

foot is painful. 2. Tehike : a 

painful task. 
painfully, adv. Ieakisva ; teMya. 
palnfuiness, ft. Woyazan ; woteM. 
painless, a. Yazansnt. 
painstaker, ft. Tan/yan econwacin.. 
paint, ft. Wi'sanye ; wi'iujpi. vt. 

1. Owa ; inn ; sanyan : paint 

the house. 2. Wi'unpi on iteo- 

wa; wowa. 3. Oyaka; wan- 

yakapi se'ca oyaka. 
painter, n. Ti'pisanyai) ; iteowapi 

painting, n. 1. Sanyanpi ; iui)pi : 

the house needs painting. 2. 

Iteowapi : a painting hung on 

the wall. 
pair, ft. Non/paaMca&ka ; tawan- 

zi: he gave me a pair. vi. Ki- 

ciea ; nom'nom ya'pi. t;*. Ki'- 

cicaya ; kici iyayeya. 
palace, ft. Ti'piitancai); ti'pitanka. 
palatable, a. Oyunwaste. 
palate, n. Gaka ; u'tapi. 
palatial, a. Ti'pitaijka ; wastehca. 
palaver, n. Owohdake. vi. Wo- 

hdaka ; iayanka. 
pale, a. 1. Ska ; sai) ; ececesni. — 

Pale blue, to'sai) ; manpiyato. 

— His face turned pale, ite ece- 
cesni. 2. Iwastedan : pale red. 
paleness, n. Woececesni. 
paling, ft. Canmdaska sbu'na; 

conkaske pe'sto. 
palisade, n. Coij'kaike. 
pall, vi. Was'akesni. 
pall-bearer, n. Wicahnakapi aki- 

pallet, ft. Owinzasicedan. 
palliate, vt. Ikiya ; to'kecasni 

pallid, a. Ececasni; san. 
palm, ft. 1. Napcoka ; napemda- 

palmetto 129 

ska. 2. Cai)wapaicadu ; caij- 

wapaicadu cai). vt. Hna'yai) 

palmetto* n. Canwapaicadu. 
palpable, a. Tantoi) ; taqinyai) 

palpably, adv. Taqiqyai). 
palpitate, vi. Apapa ; iyapa. 
palpitation, n. Iyapapi. 
palsy, n. Tancai) ta£ake. 
paltry, a. Ta'kusni; ci'stinna; 

pamper, vt. Woku ; iyowiijya. 
pamphlet, n. Wowapi ozuhasoka 

pan, n. Cehska waksica. — Hard- 
pan, maka keza. 
panacea, n. Pezuta woyazan owa- 

sii) okihi. 
pancake, n. A&uyapiokastanspaij- 

pander, vi. Ta'ku iyecetusni iyo- 

pane, n. O'zanzanhdepi ; omdaye. 
panegyric, n. Wayaonihaijpi. 
panfni, n. Waksica ohnaka. 
pang,n. Woyazanicapapiseca. 
panic, n. Iksuyapi. 
panlc-itricken, a. Iksuyapi. 
panoply, n. Ozuye oihduze. 
panorama, n. Wowaijyake yuho- 

mni ayapi. 
pansy, n. Wancato. 
pant, vi. 1. Temni ; ohankoya 

niya ; niyasnita nuqse : how 

the baby pants. 2. Ni'na cii) : 

pant for glory. 
pantalet,n. Onzeogedai) ; hunska. 
pantaloon, n. Onzeoge. 
pantheism, n. Ta'ku sintomni wa- 

panther, n. Limutanka ; Y. ikmui)- 

tanka; T. igmuntaijka. 
pantomime, n. Wowanyake iesni 

oyakapi : iesni woyakapi. 
pantry, n. WaspajjkaMhnagtipi. 
pants, n. Oijzeoge. 
pap, n. Azeiqkpa ; woyute. 


papa, n. Ate ; atkuku. 

papacy, n. Sinasapa woitaqcai). 

papal, a. Sinasapa ateyapi ta'wa. 

paper, «. 1. Wowapiska ; minihu- 
haska : two sheets of paper. 2. 
Wowapi : he signed the paper. 
3. Wotaqin, wowapi : the morn- 
ing paper. — Paper money, mi- 
nihuha ma'zaska. — Waste 
paper, wowapi ehpeyapi. vt. 
Wowapi tiaskamya : paper the 

papist, n. Sinasapa ; okdesapa. 

papoose, n. Hoksiyopa. 

par, n. A'kidecece. 

parable, n. Wi'yaciijpi. 

parabolically, adv. Wi'yaeiijyai). 

parade, n. Ikpazo omanipi. vt. 
Ikpazo omani ; itutu omani 

paradise, n. 1. Wowiyuskin, ma- 
koce : what a paradise you live 
in. 2. E'den caqwozupi. 3. 

paradox, n. Wohnaye se'ca tka 

paragon, n. Woiyotai). 

paragraph, n. Iapi oonazin; optapi. 

parallel, a. 1. I'akicitehan ; a'ki- 
yehan wai)ka : a parallel river. 
2. A'kidececa ; iyececa : a par- 
allel story. 

parallelism, n. Ta'ku iyececa. 

paralysis, n. Taqcan. ta^apike. 

paralyze, vt. Kiksuyesniya. 

paramount, a. Iyotaij ; iwaqkam 


paramour, n. Nanmai) wastekici- 
dapi ; nanmai) kiciyuzapi. 

parapet, n. Akicita makakapi. 

paraphrase, n. Akta taij'yai) oya- 

parasite, n. Waas'ii) ; ta'ku tokanj 
ta'wapi on ni. 

parasitic, a. WaMpi on ni. 

parasol, n. O'haijzihdepi ci'stiqna. 

parboil, vt. Ipihya. 

parcel, n. Wapafrtapi ; onge. 

parch, vt. 1. Papahya: parch corn. 

parchment 130 

2. dpanye; atasagye: the ground 

is parched. 
parchment, n. Tahasaka. 
pardon, vt. Ki'cicazuzu ; kiyuska. 

n. Wokazuzu ; woyuska. 
pardonable, a. Kazuinpica. 
pardoning, a. Ki'cicaiuzupi. 
pare, vt. Basku; bahdaya; ha 

ehpeya : pare an apple. 
paregoric, n. Kazopi anapte. 
parent, n. Huijkake ; etanhaq ica- 

ge. His parents are dead. 
parentage, n. Wieahunkake. 
parental, a. Huqkake ta'wa. 
parenthetla, n. Natakapi. 
parhelion, n. Wi acetipi. 
paring, n. Ha ; ha baskupi. 
parish, n. Woawanyake ; wica- 

stawakai) to'awanyake ; okcda- 

parishioner, n. OkodaMciye o'pa. 
parity, n. Woakidececa. 
park, n. Caijwozupi; woskate 

parlance, n. Iapi. 
parley, vi. Wohdaka. 
parliament, n. Sagda&ii) omniciye 

parliamentary, a. Omniciye woe- 
parlor, n. Tioyanke waste. 
parochial, n. OkodaMciye. 
parody, n. Wayutokecapi. 
paroxysm, n. Kan/natipapi ; to'- 

parricide, n. Hni)kake kte. 
parrot, n. Zitkadania. 
parry, vt. Eakam iyeya. 
parse, vi. O'kihe? oyaka. 
parsimonlons, a. Watehiqda. 
parsimony, n. Wateniqdapi. 
parsnip, n. Paijgizizi. 
parson, n. Wioastawakaij. 
parsonage, n. Wieastawakanoti. 
part, n. 1. Onspa ; okise : a part 

of the field. 2. Onge : a part 

of the flour. 3. O'kihe : the 

different parts of the body. 4. 


Wawokihi ; woksape : a man 
of parts. 5. Oyanke ; makoce : 
there never was a school in these 
parts. 6. Wopamni ; wobaspe : 
my part of the goods. 7. (Mus.) 
Wicaho : what part do you sing. 
8. (Gram.) Wocaze : . the verb 
is the most difficult part of 
speech. — For my part, miyeke. 
— For the most part, ecee. 
— In good part, canwasteya. — 
Take part in, onftpa econ.. — 
Your part, oqspa nitawa. vt. 
Kinukan iyeya ; yxikinukai) ; 
yukaa ; pamni : they parted the 
children, vi. Tokai) iyaye : he 
parted from his wife. — To part 
with, kpagan. 

partake, vi. 1. Oi)ge ten; etanhan 
icu : partook of the wine. 2. 
Ondpa iyececa : He partakes of 
the nature of God and man. 

partaker, n. Kicica; kodaya; o'pa: 
partaker in the punishment. 

parted, a. Spahai) ; kinukai) un/]ji. 

partial, a. 1. Iyokise ; oqspa : a 
partial good. 2. Sanina o'kiya ; 
iyotanda : Jacob was partial to 

partiality, n. Sanina o'kiyapi ; i'a- 
kidecen eeonpi sni. 

partially, adv. Okiseya : partially 

participant, n. O'pa. 

participate, tri. O'pa. 

participation, n. O'papi. 

participle, n. ( Gram. ) Aehnake wa- 

particle, n. 1. Onspa ci'stinna; 
ta'ku ci'stinna ; sukaza. 2. 
(Gram.) Wicoiedan. 

particular, a. 1. I'atayedai) ; ka'pi 
e'ehea ; wanzidan : on a partic- 
ular day. 2. OMtanin ; oyag- 
pica : no particular news. 3. 
Kezeca ; lyokipiyapi tenike. 
She is particular about her food, 
n. O'kihe ; adetka ; wokpanka; 


ta'kusnisni : give all the partic- 

particularize, vi. Tan'yan oyaka. 

particularly, adv. Iohdamnayai) ; 

parting, n. Yukinukanpi ; o- 

partisan, n. Ta'wa e'cedan o'kiya. 
a. Sanina. 

partition, ». Ti'pi cokaya nataka- 
pi ; o'zanpi ; kiyuspapi. 

partly, adv. Okiseya. 

partner, n. Kicica ; o'pa. 

partnership, n. O'kiciyapi; oko- 

partook, imp. of partake. 

partridge, n. Zi'ca. 

parturition, n. Cincatonpi. 

party, n. 1. Ospaye : the Democrat 
party. 2. Kicicopi : a tea party. 
3. Optaye; wicasta onge : a 
party of hunters. 4. Waijzi ee; 
kicica : he was a party to the 
murder. 5. Tu'we ; wicasta : 
the party accused. 

paschal, a. Woacaksirj. 

pasha, n. Turk oyate itancan. 

pass, vi. 1. Hiyaya ; iyaya : two 
men passed. 2. Yu'zapi; icupi : 
the money would not pass. 3. lye- 
oen waciijkiyuzapi : he passed 
for a wise man. 4. Kihda; hi- 
huni; ihanke : the day passed. 
— His anger passed away, wo- 
canniye apaspa. — Let it pass, 
he'cehnanakte. vt. 1. I'sam 
iyaye ; i'sam hiyu : he passed 
the bridge. 2. Ihunikiya; yu- 
stan : he passed his life in ease. 
3. Aktasni iyaya : he passed 
me by. 4. Kapa iyaya : his 
horse passed all the otJiers. 5. 
He cetndapi ; yustanpi : tfie bill 
passed both houses. 6. Iyayeya : 
pass the books along. 7. I'ci- 
yaza oyaka : pass the word 
along. 8. Yeya ; hiyuya : pass 
the bread. 9. Wicafcu : he 

131 passionate 

passed counterfeit money. 10. 
O'pekiya ; ye kta iyowinyan : 
he passed him on the train. 
n. 1. Ohna ya'pi ; ocanku ; oko 
ohna ocanku : .a mountain pass. 

2. On kazuzusni omanipi : a 
pass on the railroad. 3. Oape ; 
wacape : he made a pass to 
knock me down. 4. Woakipe; 
wicohan : to what a pass have 
we come. — Bring to pass, ece- 
tuya. — Come to pass, iyecetu; 

passable, a. 1. Iyoopta yepica; 
ohna yepica : the bridge is not 
passable. 2. Icupi kta iyececa ; 
yu'zapi : the money is passable. 

3. Ki'tanna waste ; aheceoa : 
the bread is passable. 

passably, adv. Tan'yanken ; ahe- 

passage, n. 1. Ohiyaye ; ohna iy- 
aye ; hiyaye : the passage of a 
ship through the canal. 2. Ye- 
kta on ; ohnakapi : he took pas- 
sage on a steamboat. 3. Ocan- 
ku ; ocankuyapi ; ohna timahen 
ya'pi : don't stand in the passage. 

4. Iapi ; oeye ; oehde : a pas- 
sage in the Bible. 5. Iyoopta 
iyaye ; yustanpi : the passage 
of the law. 6. Iheyapi : a pas- 
sage of the bowels. 

passenger, n. En o'pa ; i'cimani ; 
wicasta o'papi. 

passenger-car, n. fiemani wica- 
sta toksu. 

passer-by, n. Tu'we hiyaye ; i'ci- 

passing, adv. Ikapeya ; wakapeya. 

passion, n. 1. Wocanteptanye ; 
wocanniye; wosinhda: he left 
in a great passion. 2. Canti- 
heyapi ; wocantiheya : a pas- 
sion for war. 3. Wokakize : 
the passion of Christ. 

passionate, a. 1. Wacinko ; cante- 
ptaijyes'a : a passionate boy. 

passionately 132 

2. Wacantahde : a passionate 

passionately, adv. Wohitiya; ni'- 

passive, a. Atanse ui) ; waecon- 

kiyapi e'cedai) 6kai). 
passover, n. Woacaksin. 
passport, n. Oyatetokeca ekta oi- 

cimani wowapi. 
past, pa. He'kta ; ehanna : the 

past year. prep. San 'pa; i'san- 

pa : half past one. adv. Ica- 

hda ; iyoopta : he ran past. 
paste, n. Con'pedka; wozapi ; co- 

coyapi ; wi'puspe : mix the 

paste, vt. A'skamya : paste this 

in your book. 
pasteboard, n. Minihuhasoka. 
pastern, n. Sun'kawakar) iskahu. 
pastime, n. Wowimagaga. 
pastor, n. Waawanyake ; wicasta- 

wakai) ; wonwicaye. 
pastoral, a. Waawanyake 
pastorate, n. Woawanyake. 
pastorless, a. Waawaijyake co'- 

pastry, n. Aguyapi zizipedan. 
pasturable, a. Owihaijyewaste. 
pasturage, n. Owinanye ; wi'naij- 

wicakiyapi ; good pasturage. 
pasture, n. Wato ; owihaijye : a 

large pasture, vt. Wi'haijwica- 

kiya : pasture the sheep on the 

MUs. vi. Wi'Iiax). 
pat, adv. Coyena; yupiya. n. 

Oape : he gave him a pat on the 

shoulder, vt. Apapa : pat him 

on the cheek. n. Irish wi- 

patch, vt. Okipata ; akihdagton : 

patch a quilt; patch his pants. 
patchwork, n. Minihuha okipa- 

pate, n. Pa ; pesdete. 
patent, a. 1. Taniijyai) un, : patent 

to all eyes. 2. Okage anicapi ; 

wakai) : patent medicine, n. 

Waanicapi wowapi. He has a 


patent on the churn, vt. Waa- 
nicapi wowapi icu. 
patent-office, n. Okage anicapi 

paternal, a. Atkuku. 
paternity, n. Wicaatkuku. 
paternoster, n. Itancan tawoce- 

path, n. Canku ; eaijku ci'stinna. 
pathetic, a. Iyokisicapi; aceye- 

wicayapi se'ca : a pathetic 

pathless, a. Cankuwanica. 
pathos, n. Woiyokisicaj waawa- 

pathway, n. Makaamani eanku. 
patience, n. Wowacintanka. 
patient, a. Wacintanka : a patient 

boy. n. Tu'we pezuta ku'pi; 

wayazanka : his patient is get- 
ting better. 
patiently, adv. Wacintaqkaya. 
patness, n. Woecetu. 
patriarch, n. Hunkakeyapi ; atey- 

api : the patriarch Noah. 
patrician, n. Wicasta itancan; 

tu'we okinihan. 
patricide, n. Atkuku kte. 
patrimony, n. Woynha atkuku 

etanhan. yuha ; okodakiciye ta- 

womnaye ; ainpekiyapi. 
patriot, n. Tamakoee wa&tedaka. 
patriotism, n. Tamakoee tehin- 

patrol, vi. Iyaza omani. n. Oma- 

patron, n. Awarjyake ; kicica. 
patronage, n. Waokiyapij was'a- 

patronize, vt. O'kiya ; kici skan. 
patter, vi. dbu'sbu ; apapa. 
pattern, n. Iyecen ka/gapi kta; 

okage. vt. Iyecen ka'ga. 
paucity, n. To'nana; woMtan. 
paunch, n. Nige. 
pauper, n. Wanpanica; on'ci- 

pauperism, n. Oij'cikpanipi. 

pauperization 133 

panperization, n. On'eikpaniwica- 

pauperize, vt. On/cikpaniya. 
pause, vi. Inaziij ; atanse yanka ; 

ci'stiyedai) ayustan. n. Oena- 

zii) ; enaMyapi : a pause in tlte 

work. 2. Oehnakedai) : notice 

the pauses in reading. 
pave, vt. 1. Caqku akahpa ; cai)- 

ku ksu : the streets are paved 

with rock. 2. Canku M'caga; 

onspekiya : he paved the way 

for them. 
pavement, n. Caqku azupi. 
pavilion, n. Awakeyapi ; o'hanzi- 

paw, n. Nape ; wamanica nape ; 

sake. vt. Natioa ; nahdata. 
pawn, vt. Woyuha kaska; icazo 

kta on woyuha kaska. John 

pawned his watch for one dollar. 
Pawnee, n. Sci'li ; Itokah Padani. 
pay, vt. Kazuzu; ku; ki'cicazu- 

zu : always pay at once for what 

you get. n. Wokazuzu; iyu- 

wii) ; Y. wisi. 
pay-day, n. Wakazuzupi anpetu. 
pay-master, n. Wicakicicazuzu. 
payment, n. 1. WicaMcicazuzupi : 

the payment is next week. 2. 

Wokazuzn : a large payment. 
pay-roll, n. WicaMcicazuzupi kta 

pea, n. Omnica nmiyanyan. 
peace, n. Wookiye. 
peaceable, a. Wanbadan ; Mcizapi 

awaoin sni. 
peaceably, adv. Wa'hbayedag ; 

cantewasteya ; wawokiya. 
peaceful, a. Wokicize wanica; 

peacefully, adv. Eiswacinsni. 
peacefulness,n. Wowafrbana; woo- 
peacemaker, n. Wookiye ka'ga. 
peach, n. Kan/tahiqsma. 
peacock, n. Zizicasintewaste. 
peafowl, n. Zizicasintewaste. 


peak, n. Paha ; pazodan ; ipa. 
peaked, a. Pe'sto ; pazo. 
peal, n. Bu ; sna ; ndahdaopamna. 
peanut, n. Yahugapihawankadai). 
pear, n. Taspanhdandaseca. 
pearl, n. In/yantehika; ta'ku te- 

pearly, a. In/yan.tehika azupi; 

ta'ku ni'na waste. 
peart, a. Mdiheca. 
peasant, n. Wozuwicasta. 
peasantry, n. Makoskantipi. 
peat, n. Hutkan aonpi. 
pebble, n. Isbu; iij'yancistinna. 
pecan, n. Yanugapihanska. 
peck, n. 1. Kokatodan oiyute : 1 

want a peck of potatoes. 2. Ca- 

papi ; pasuoncapapi. vt. Gapa ; 
* pasu on capa ; pahdoka ; kuwa : 

the chick pecked it. — Peck away, 

kuwa yanka. 
pectoral, n. Cuwiyazanpipezuta. 
peculate,!*. Wamanon. 
peculiar, a. 1. To'keca; ohanto- 

keca : he is a peculiar man. 

2. Fye i'yatayedan. 
peculiarity, n. Ohantokeeapi. 
pecuniary, a. Ma'zaska : a pecu- 
niary loss, ma'zaska M'citaku- 

pedagogic, n. Waoqspewicakiyapi 

pedagogue, n, Waonspekiya. 
pedal, n. Siinatan ; candowanH- 

yapi siinatai). 
pedantic, a. Waonspekiyaohan- 

peddle, vt. Tiiyaza wopetoi). 
peddler, n. Tu'we wopetoi) omani. 
pedestal, n. Hu'te. 
pedestrian, n. Makaamani un ; 

pedigree, n. Ehannatanhai) hun- 

kake oyag aupi. 
pedobaptism, n. Hoksiyopa ko 

mniakastaijpi he'cetudapi. 
peek, vi. Ohdatetanhai) wanyaka. 
peel, vt. Kahu; yahu; basku; 




sdaya ehpeya. — Peel bark, eaij- 

ha kafru. — Peel potatoes, mdo 

baskusku. n. Ha. 
peeling, n. Ha : potato peelings. 
peep, ft. 1. Hoton ; zitka cine a 

hoton : fto chicks peeped in the 

shell. 2. Aokasii); kasinyai) 

hinanpa : peeped over the hill. 

n. 1. Zitka cinca hotonpi. 2. 

AokaRiijpi : Can I get a peep. 

3. Tokahinaijpa : peep of day. 
peer, n. lyeeen okihi ; kicica ; 

woitancai) opa. vi. En e'ton- 

peerless, a. Iyotan ; kapepicasni. 
peevish, a. Ce'yes'a ; wacinko. 
peevishness, n. Wawiyokipipisni. 
peg, w. Can/iyokatanna ; wi'huti- 

paspe. vt. Okatan : peg the 

Pegassns, n. &un/kawakai)kin- 

pelican, n. Mde'ga. 
pellet, n. Ta'ku su se'kse ; pezu- 

pell-mell, adv. Omdecahai) ; to'ken 

pelucid, a. Eohdi. 
pelt, n. Ha ; wawaha : a trader 

with his pelts, vt. Apa ; kinin ; 

pelt him with eggs. 
peltry, n. Wawaha. 
pelvis, w. Co'wohe ; nite. 
pemmican, n. Wakapaijpi. 
pen, n. 1. Wowapi icage ; wi'yo- 

wa ; wi'cazo ; minisapa icage : 

dip your pen in the ink. 2. Ti'- 

pidan ; con/kaske : the pig is in 

his pen. vt. 1. Ka'ga ; wowapi 

ka'ga : / will pen you a few 

words. 2. Mahen iyeya; na- 

penal, a. Woiyopeye ikoyake. 
penalty, ». Woiyopeye ; iyopeya- 

pi; wokazuzu. 
penance, n. Kakisiciyapi. 
pencase, n. Wi'cazo ozuha. 
pence, n. pi. of penny. 

pencil, n. Can'wiyowa ; hin/wiyo- 

wa. vt. Owa; iui). 
pencilled, pa. Owapi ; iui)pi. 
pendant, n. Ta'ku otke hai) ; wi'- 

yokihedai) han/ska ; oin. 
pending, pa. Kuwapi; yudtanpi 

sni : apeunpi. 
Pend-Orellle, n. Po'gehdoka. 
pendulous, a. Otke ; ozezewai)ka. 
pendninm, n. Wi'hiyayedai) ma'- 

zahotedan ; ma'zakaozeze. 
penetrable, a. Kahdogpica; ka- 

penetrate, vt. 1. Kandoka ; pa- 

ndoka ; mahen ya ; kahtan : the 

spear penetrated the fish's head. 

2. Tawacii) on kahdoka : too 

deep for his mind to penetmte. 
penetrating, a. Wakahdoka; wa- 

pen-holder, n. Ma'zaieage ihnpa. 
peninsula, n. Izo ; ipa ; makahu- 

penis, n. Deze. 
penitence, n. Iyopeiciyapi. 
penitent, a. Iyopeiciya ; iyokisica. 

n. Tu'we iyopeiciya. 
penitential, a. Iyopeiciyapi. 
penitentiary, n. Wokasketipi. 
penitently, adv. Caijte&inya ; iyo- 
penknife, n. Isanyukdizapidan ; F. 

penman, n. Wowapikaga. 
penmanship, n. Owapi; napeon- 

pennant, n. Wi'yokihedan haij 'ska. 
penniless, a. Ma'zaska ni'ca ; wa- 

penny, n. Sagdasii) ma'zasadan ; 

pennywise, a. Watehinda; ta'ku 

ci'stinna tehinda. 
pennyworth, n. Ma'zasadan iyawa ; 

penrack, n. Wi'cazo ahnakapi. 
pension, n. Akicita enakiya Tun* 

kansina o'wicakiya. 

pensioner 135 

pensioner, n. Tunkaqsina o'kiya. 

pensive, a. Wacantahde un ; awa- 
eii) ui) ; iyokisica. 

pensively, adv. Ieantesinya. 

pensiveness, n. Wocantesica. 

pent, a. Natakapi ; natagai). 

pentagon, n. Za'ptan oiseton. 

Pentateuch, n. Moses tawowapi 

Pentacost, n. Aijpetiiiwikeemna- 

Pentacostal, a. Wicayunieapi. 

penurious, a. Wateninda ; ma'za- 

pennrionsly, adv. Watenindaya. 

penuriousness, n. Watehindapi. 

penury, n. Ma'zasadaij icakizapi ; 

peony, n. Wahcatanka. 

people, n. Wioasta ; oyate : there 
are a great many good people in 
town. vt. Otiwicaya; wioasta 
en nnwicakiya. 

pepper, n. Sucikcikana seea; Y. 
yamnumnugapi su. 

peppermint, n. Tatedanseca. 

per, prep. 1. On ; eciyatanhan : 
per bearer. 2. Iyohi : per an- 

peradveuture, adv. O'kini. — With- 
out per adventure, yusnasni. 

perambulate, vt. O'pta omani. 

perceivable, a. Okannipica ; wan- 

perceive, vt. Sdonya; wanyaka; 

percentage, n. Opawiqge to'ken 

perceptibility, n. Wasdonyepica. 

perceptible, a. Sdonyepica ; tanin. 

perceptibly, adv. Taninyan. 

perception, n. Wowiyukcan. 

perceptive, a. On wasdonya. 

perch, n. 1. (^4 jfoft.) Ho'zizi ; wa- 
kadanhiyuzapi. 2. Can; ean- 
nanska ; sihaiyutapi 16J. 3. Zi- 
tkanaowanka. w. Akan iya- 
han ; inazii). 


perchance, adv. O'kini ; naceca. 
percussion, n. I'ciyapapi. 
perdition, n. Wieotakunisni. 
peregrinate, vi. Makoee to'keca 

ekta omani. 
peremptorily, adv. A'wicakeya; 

he'cetuwan zica. 
peremptory, a. Ayuptepicasni ; 

perennial, a. Waniyetu ihunni ; 

te'han ; o'hinni : perennial foun- 
tain, n. Wato waniyetu \e sni. 
perennially, adv. O'hinniyan. 
perfect, a. A'taya waste ; yustan- 

pi ; ecetn ; owotanna. vt. Yu- 

perfectible, a. A'taya yuwaste- 

perfection, n. A'taya waste ; wo- 

waste a'taya ; a'taya yustanpi. 
perfectly, adv. A'taya ; a'tayedan ; 

ocowasin ; ta'kudan yusnasni. 
perfectness, n. Woowotanna. 
perfidious, a. Wicakesni; wica- 

perfidy, n. Wohnaye. 
perforate, vt. Yundoka ; pandoka. 
perform, vt. Econ ; yustan. 
performabie, a. Ecoqpica. 
performance, n. Woeeon ; econ. pi ; 

performer, n. Waecon ; ta'ku eeon- 
pi o'pa. 
perfume, n. Ta'kn wastemna. vt. 

perfunctory, a. Awacinsni. 
perhaps, adv. Naceca ; o'kini. 
peri, prefix. Ohomni. 
pericardium, n. Cantoge. 
peril, n. Wokokipe. vt. Otohnaka. 
perilous, a. Okokipe ; wokokipe. 
perilously, adv. Okokipeya. 
perilonsness, n. Wokokipe. 
perimeter, n. Aohomni. 
period, n. 1. Anpetu ; waniyetu : 

a long period. 2. (Gram.) Oe- 

hnake tan ka ; woeye. 
periodic, a. Ake iyehantu. 




periodical, a. 1. Ake iyehantu eca : 
periodical storms. 2. Wotaqiij 
wowapi : periodical literature, 
n. Wotaijin. wowapi. 

periodically, acfe. Iyehaijhanyai). 

perish, vi. Atakunisni ; \a. 

perishable, a. Wan'kadan ; ataku- 
nisni wa&'akadan. 

perjure, vt. Ta'kuwakan ieazeyan 
eciqaniyai) oyaka. 

perjury, n. Ta'ku ^Vakai) hna'- 

permanence, n. He'oetuwanziea 

permanent, a. He'cetuwanzica ; 

permanently, adv. He'eetuwan&i- 
ea ; sutaya. To settle per- 
manently, eca i'yotanka. 

permeable, a. Mahen yepioa ; ka- 

permeate, vt. Mahen ya ; kantai). 

permissible, a. Iyowinyepica ; he'- 

permission, n. WoiyowinMye; iyo- 

permit, vt. IyowinMya. n. Woi- 
yowiijkiye ; iyowhjkiyapi wo- 
wapi ; omanipi wowapi. 

pernicious, a. Waihaqgye ; wayu- 

perniciously, adv. WayuSinya. 

peroration, n. Ehake eyapi. 

perpendicular, a. Bosdata : a per- 
pendicular line. n. Obosdata. 

perpetrate, vt. Ecoi) ; sicaya ecoi). 

perpetration, n. Woeeoi). 

perpetual, a. O'hinniyai) ui) ; owi- 
hai)ke wanica. 

perpetually, adv. Oldijiiiyai). 

perpetuate, vt. Sam iyayeya; 

perpetuated, pa. Niyaqpi. 

perpetuity, n. Wosuta ; owihai)- 

perplex, vt. Yu&kiska ; nagiyeya ; 

perplexedly, adv. Wacinhnuniyai). 

perplexity, n. Woskiske; wacin- 
hnunipi ; to'ketutaqinsni. 

perquisite, n. Siijte ; i'akam ta'ku 

persecute, vt. Sicaya kuwa ; woce- 
kiye oi) sicaya kuwa. 

persecution, n. focayawicakuwa- 

persecutor, n. Sicaya wicakuwa. 
perseverance, n. Wakitaijpi; wo- 

persevere, vi. Kitai) ; ayustanwa- 

persevering, pa. Wakitai) : a per- 

severing boy. 
perseveringly, adv. Eitanyan. 
Persian, n. Persia wicasta. 
persimmon, n. Kan/ta pa'za. 
persist, vi. Kitai) ; ayustansni 

persistence, n. Wowaciijtatjka ; 

persistency, n. Wakitaijpi. 
persistent, a. Wakitai) ; wohitika : 

a persistent beggar. 
persistently, adv. Kitanyan ; wo- 

persisting, pa. Wakitans'a. 
person, n. 1. Wicasta ; wicanagi : 

how many persons came. 2. Tu'- 

we : taqcan : what a nice person. 

3. Oun ; oihdawa : three persons 

in one Godhead. 4. Kon'za ; 

keiciya : he came in the person 

of a robber. 5. (Gram.) Tu'we 

personage, n. Tu'we kin : a re- 

nowned personage. 
personal, n. I'ye i'yatayedan ; i'ye 

i'yateyedai) ka'pi : personal 

personally, adv. I'ye i'yatayedan. 
personate, vt. I'ciya ; keiciya ; 

kon/za • personate a doctor. 
personification, n. Wicastakagapi. 
personify, vt. Wicastaka'ga. 
perspective, n. Istaiciyopteyaun. 
perspicuity n. Wa'mdezeca; tan/- 

perspicuous 137 

yai) amdespica; tan'yai) wan- 

perspicuous, a. Mde'za; okanni- 

persplcooasly, adv. Okitaninyan. 
perspiration, n. Temni j itemni. 
perspire, vi. Temni. 
persuade, vt. CinMya ; wicada- 

kiya ; ecoijkiya : we will per- 

suade him. 
persuasible, a. Cinkiyepica. 
persuasion, n. 1. Ciijwicakiyapi : 

hispower of persuasion, 2. Obe; 

okodaMciye : they belong to the 

same persuasion, 
persuasive, a. Wicayuhomni. 
pert, a, Iton/pesni ; wi'stecesni ; 

pertain, vi. Iyowaza ; ta'wa. 
pertinacious, a, Kitaijhiijca ; wa- 

pertinaciously, adv. Kitanyan. 
pertinacity, n. Wakitaijpi; tawa- 

cii) ke'zapi. 
pertinency, n, Woiyecetu ; coyapi. 
pertinent, a, Iyehantu ; iyowaza. 
pertinently, adv. Iyowasya; co- 

pertly, adv. Wayupiya ; ynpiya. 
pertness, n. Womdiheca; wowa- 

perturb, vt, Yuskanskan. 
perturbation, n. Yuskanskanpi. 
perusal, n. Yawapi. 
peruse, vt. Yawa ; wowapi yawa. 
pervade, vt. Mahen iyaye; ka- 

perverse, a. Owotannasni ; skopa ; 

pemni ; wanahonsni ; can tee- 

perversely, adv. Ecinsniyai). 
perverseness, n, Wowanahonsni ; 

perversion, n. Yupemnipi; yae- 

perversity, n, Woecinsniyaij; woe- 

pervert, vt, Yutokeca ; yusica. 


perverter, n. Wayusica. 

pesky, a, Wanagiyeya. 

pessimist, n, Eca wawiyokipisni. 

pest, n, 1. Makosica. 2. Woyu- 
sica ; wonagiyeya. 

pester, vt. Nagiyeya. 

pesterer, n. Wanagiyeya. 

pest-house, n. Makosica ti'pi. 

pestiferous, a. Wosice ka'ga; si'ca. 

pestilence, n. Makosice j woyu- 

pestilent, a. Wayusica. 

pestilential, a. Wayusica ; si'ca. 

pestle, n. Wi'bope. vt. Bopan. 

pet, a. & n. 1. Ihaktapidan ; M- 
hnapidai) : my pet lamb. 2. Wo- 
canze ; wocanteptaqye : the boy 
was in a pet. vt. Kihna ; ki- 
hnahna : the mother pets her 

petal, n. Wanca ape. 

petit, a. Ci'stinna ; ihukuya. 

petition, n. Wadapi ; oeiqpi ; wo- 
cekiye ; wadapi wowapi. 

petitioner, n. Wada. 

petitioning, n. Wadapi. 

petrel, n. Miniwanca wieataqk- 

petrifaction, n. In/yan, icaga. 

petrify, vi. In'yan icaga. 

petroleum, n. Makaihdi ; petizan- 
zai) ikoeka. 

petticoat, n. Sanksaijnica ; niti- 

pettifog, w. Ta'kusnisni; ki'cicu- 

pettifogger, n. Waaiawicasta ta'- 
kusnisni wicakicicuwa. 

pettish, a. Iyokipisni ; canksiksi. 

petty, a. Ci'stinna ; ta'kusnisni. 

petulance, n. Wowacinko. 

petulant, a. Wacinko ; canksiksi ; 

petulantly, adv. Canksiksiya. 

pew, n. Can/akanyakapi han/ska. 

pewter, n. Ma'zawisdoye. 

phaeton, n. Canpahmihma nahu- 
huzapi han/ska. 

phalanx 138 

phalanx, n. Akicita optaye ; aki- 

cita omdotoijyai) na'ziijpi. 
phantasm, n. Kiktahai) wi'han- 

mnapi ; wanagi wanyakapi. 
phantom, n. Wowanyake ; wanagi 

wanyakapi ; wanagi. 
phase, n. Wanyakapi ; wowai)ya- 

ke ; owanyake. 
pheasant, n. 2i'ca ; ticabuna. 
phenomenal, a. Wowanyake ; to'- 

phenomenon, (pi. phenomena), n. 

Wowanyake ; ta'ku tanin. 
philanthropic, a. Waonsida. 
philanthropist, n. Oyate on/siwi- 

philanthropy, n. Oyate waonsida- 

pi ; wicasta owasiij wastedapi. 
philippic, n. Iapi woyahtake. 
philology, n. Iapi woonspe. 
phiiopena, n. Yanugapi su cekpa. 
philosopher, n. Wicasta wi'yu- 

kean ; ksapotancan. 
philosophize, vi. Woksape iwo- 

philosophy, n. Woksape woon- 
phii, n. Ite. 
phlegm, w. Tage. 
phlegmatic, a. Hun/kesni ; haijhi. 
phonetic, a. Ho kin ohnayai) 

phonography, n. Nape oi) ohanko 

phosphorous, n. Yuidepi caijshj. 
photograph, n. Iteicnpi ; wiiyozai)- 

zai) oi) ite icnpi. 
phrase, n. Woeye ; woeye o'kihe. 
phrenology, n. Wicapahu wooij- 

phthisic, n. Oniyasicapiwoyazan. 
physic, n. 1. Iyoptaiyeyapi : give 

him a physic. 2. Pezuta wooi)- 

spe : *totdy physic. 
physics, n. Ta'kutaijtoi) woon- 
physical, a. Wicatancai) ; wica- 

cenpi ; ta'ku tantoij. 


physically, adv. Wicatancai) eciya- 

physician, n. Pezutawicaata. 

physiognomy, n. Ite owanyake. 

physiology, n. Wicatancai) woon- 

piano, n. Mazikai) dowankiyapi. 

piazza, n. O'hanzihdepi. 

picayune, n. Kaspapi okise. 

pick, vt. 1. Icu ; yuwankan ion : 
pick up the booh. 2. Pahi ; yu- 
spi : pick plums. 3. Capa; ca- 
papa :^?icfc a hole. 4. Kalinin, 
ion ; icu : he picked his men. — 
Pick at, kuwa. — Pick a bone, 
huhu yasmi. — Pick a bird, 
Zitkadan yusda. — Pick off, 
yuhpa ; bohpa. — Pick out, 
icu; yusdoka; kahniga. — Pick 
a pocket, sicanopiye napistan- 
yai). — Pick a quarrel, ki'ze kta 
kuwa. — Pick up a living, on. ni 
kta pahi. n. Ice ; makice pe'- 
sto: dig it with a pick. 2. Ka- 
hnigapi ; iyotan waste : he was 
the pick of the family. 

pickax, n. Wi'ee ; hokapasu. 

pickerel, n. Tamahe. 

picket, n. 1. Canpasdatapi ; mazi- 
pasdate : the horse pulled up the 
picket. 2. Canmdaska pespes- 
to : the picket fence. 3. (Mil. ) 
Akicita ton we na'zin. ; akicita 
na'zin. vt. 1. Sunkawakai) oka- 
tai) : picket the horses. 2. Acan- 
kaska ; pasdata. 

picking, n. Wospipi. 

pickle, n. Skumnayanpi ; mini- 
skuya icahi ka'gapi. vt. Sku'- 
yeya ; miniskuya icahiya. 

picnic, n. Manin owoskate ; manin 

pictorial, a. Iteowapi ka'gapi. 

picture, n. Iteowapi;. wowanyake. 
vt. Iteowa ; taijirjyan oyaka. 

picture-frame, n. Iteowapi ozu- 

picture-gallery, n. Iteowapi ti'pi. 

picturesque 139 

picturesque, a. Wa'petokeca ; owa- 

pi wa&te he'ca. 
pie, n. 1. Opemnikagapi : do you 

eat pie t 2. Ma'zaehdepi zuzu- 

piece, n. 1. OijSpa : apiece of bread. 

2. Ta'ku wanzi ; ta'ku kin ; 

o'spe wanzi ; wanzi. A fowling 

piece, ta'ku on wakutepi. vt. 

Okipata ; akihdagtoi) ; onSpa 

akagege : piece his pants. 
piecemeal, adv. Oqspaspa. 
piecework, n. OMpatapi. 
pieplant, n. Apetaijka opemnika- 
pier, n. 1. Cai)kanoi)papi ahdehe. 

2. Mini ekta in/yanconka&ke. 
pierce, vt. Pandoka ; capa ; mahen- 

pierceable, a. Pahdogpica. 
Pierre, n. Wakpasicaotonwe. 
piety, n. Ta'ku Wakan ohodapi. 
pig, n. 1. Kukude cinca ; kukuse : 

the pig is fat. 2. Mazasdoyapi. 
pigeon, n. WaMyedai). 
pigeon-toed, n. Siha naokdiq. 
pignut, n. Caijsn. 
pigtail, n. Kuku&esinte ; kisonpi. 
pike, n. Tamahe ; ho'wakai) ; he 

caught a pike. 
pile, n. 1. Paha ; opahi ; e'zupi : 

a pUe of stones. 2. Cankaga 

pasdatapi : pounding in the 

piles, vt. E'zu ; wi'taya e'hde : 

pile them up. 
piles, ». Unze ondoka po'pi. 
pilfer, vt. Manon. vt. Wamanon. 
pilferer, n. Wamanons'a. 
pilgrim, n. I'eimani ; i'cimani ui) ; 

ohnihde un ; oicimani. 
pilgrimage, n. Oicimani. 
piling, n. Can/pasdatapi. 
pill, n. Pezutapfiunka ; pezuta 

pillage, n. Woyuha ozuye ekta 

wicakipi; taku manon ahdipi. 

vt. Manon ; ozuye ekta manon. 
pillager, n. Wamanons'a. 


pillar, n. Ipatanhdepi ; ti'piipa- 
tai) ; wabosdata. A pillar of 
cloud, mahpiya bosdata. 

pillow, n. Ipahii). 

pilot, n. Iyupseyuza; wasinteyu- 
homni ; makooe sdonya. 

pimple, n. SaSaahinanpa ; oyuhi. 

pimpled, a. YuMhi. 

pin, n. Hi'paskudai) ; wi'pasise. 
A paper of pins. 
— Tent pins, wihutipaspe. vt. 
Pasisa ; ipasise. — Pin the hand- 
kerchiefs together, itipakinte 
i'cipasisa. — Pin the tent down, 
wakeya ipaspa. 

pinafore, n. Makuakahpedan. 

pincase, n. Hi'paskudai) wohnake. 

pinch, vt. Yuzipa ; pazipa ; kaki- 
sya; paskica; o^insyuza. n. 
Woyuzipa jyuzim ieupi. 

pinchers, n. Wiyuzipe. 

pincushion, n. Hipafckudan ipaftdi. 

pine, n. Wazican ; wazi. vi. lean- • 
tesica ; tamaheca a'ya. 

pine-apple, n. Makataspan. 

pine-clad, a. Waziozu. 

pinery, n. Waziokakse. 

pinion, n. Wi'yaka ; hin ; nupanu. 

pink, a. 6a ; sasan : a pink dress. 
n. Wancasasa. 

pinnacle, n. Ipasotka ; in/kpa. 

pint, n. Censkawiyatke oiyute : 
half a pint. 

pioneer, n. Watokahan ; tokaheya 
hi'yotanke. vi. Cankukaga. 

pious, a. Ta'ku Wakan ohoda; 
waoiijyai) : a pious family. 

piously, adv. Waohodaya. 

pious-minded, a. Wocekiye awa- 

pipe, n. 1. Canduhupa; cannon- 
pa : he filled his pipe. — The 
pipe head, oanduhupa pahu. — 
The pipe stem, eanduhupasun- 
ta. — Fill the pipe, opagi. — 
Smoke the pipe, cannonpa. 2. 
Ma'zaondogeca. Water-pipes, 
ma'zaondogeca miniyaya. — 




Stove-pipe, ma'zaoeeti ihupa. 
8. Co'yatanka : blow your pipes. 
— A pipe organ, canhdogeca 
dowankiyapi. vi. Yazo ; zo. 

piper, n. Wayazo. 

pipestone, n. Cannoqpa in/yaij. 

Pipestone Quarry, n. Cannomoke. 

piping, pa. Yapinza; pin/za. 

piquant, a. Yazimzipa ; wayazim- 

plquantly, adv. Pe'stoya. 

pique, n. Woyazipe; wocanze. 
vt. Pazipa ; cai)zeya. 

piracy, n. Wi'tawata wamanoijpi ; 

pirate, n. Wamanoqwicasta ; wi'- 
tawata wamanoi). 

piratical, a. Wamanoi). 

pish, interj. Hinte ; wahtesni. 

piss, vi. De'za ; miniiheya. 

pistol, n. Ma'zakanptecedai). 

pit, n. 1. Makohdoka; oftdoka. 
2. Su. Cherry pits, caijpa su. 
— The arm-pit, a. — The pit of 
the stomach, pi'mnumnuge. — 
Pitted face, itehdohdoka. vt. 
Ofidondogya ; su ehpeya ; kici 

pitapat, adv. Kabubupise. 

pitch, vt. 1. Kan'oiyeya; ehpeya: 
pitch hay. 2. E'hde ; ka'ga : 
pitch a tent — Pitch camp, owan- 
ka ka'ga. 3. (Mus.) Wankan 
iyeya ; ahiyaya : pitch the tune. 
vi. Ticaga ; e'ti : they pitched 
in the plain. 2. Hinftpaya: he 
pitched headfirst down the bank. 
8. Kan'oh'o iyaye : the boat 
pitched about all night, n. 1. 
Maya ; oipa ; o'smaka : the 
lowest pitch of poverty. 2. (Mus.) 
Ho'ieupi. 3. Wokaho : the pitch 
of the boat. 4. Onaptanye : the 
pitch qf the roof. 5. Caijsin : 
he covered the cracks with pitch. 

pitch-black, n. A'wicakehan sa'pa. 

pitch-dark, n. A'wicakehai) o'kpa- 

pltcher, n. 1. Miniiokastan : he 

broke the pitcher. 2. Waka- 

pitchfork, n. Pe&icape. 
pitching, a. A'pamahde ; nake. 
pitchpine, n. Wazi sinota. 
pitchy, n. Can sin yukeya ; wi'ya- 

skape ; sa'pa ; owotaninsni. 
piteous, a. Oiyokisica; on/sika ; 

piteousty, adv. On'siya. 
pitfall, n. Makohdoka wi'hmunke. 
pith, n. 1. Cogin. : punch out the 

pith. 2. Co ; ta'ku ka'pi hca : 

the pith of his remarks. 
pithily, adv. Yucoya. 
pithy, a. 1. Yucoka ; a'taya ; ya- 

tinzapi : pithy remarks. 2. Po- 

popa ; coginse. 
pitiable, a. 

On/sidapi iyececa ; on/- 
sika^ a pitiable company. 

pitifuCa. 1. WaonSida : the Lord 
is pitiful. 2. On/sika : a piti- 
ful face. 3. Wahtesni. 

pitifully, adv. On/siya ; onfiidaya. 

pitifulness, n. Waoqsidapi ; wowa- 

pitiless, a. Wowaonsida ni'ca. 

pitilessly, adv. Waon&idasni. 

pittance, n. 1. Wokpanka ; ci'sthj- 
na : he lived on a pittance. 2. 
Ta'ku on/sika wicakupi. 

pity, n. Ieaqtekicisicapi ; wowa- 
oijsida ; woiyokisica : he has no 
pity. — What a pity, ta'ku woi- 
yokisica ; eoahes. vt. On/sida : 
he pitied me. vi. Waonsida. 

pivot, n. Ahdeynhomni. 

pivotal, a. En yuhomnipi. 

placard, n. Tiaskamya yaotan- 

place, n. Oyanke ; makoce ; otoi)- 
we ; wicohai) : a good place to 
live. — A country place, wozupi 
oyanke. — Qive place for the 
ladies, win 'y an wicakiciyukan 
po. — He wants a place in the 
carpenter shop, caqkazipa ti'pt 

placid 141 

en wicohai) cii|. — In place of, 
e'ekiya. vt. E'hnaka; e'hde ; 

placid* a. Amdakedai) ; owanzi 

placidly, adv. Amdakayena. 

plagiarize, vt. Iapi manoi) ; tu'we 
to'keca to'ie ta'waya. 

plague, n. Makosica; woiyokisi- 
ca ; wonagiyeya. vt. Nagiyeya. 

plaguer, w. Wanagiyeya. 

plaid, n. Sinahdehdega; hdehdega. 

plain, a. 1. Taninyan waij'ka ; 
okaftnin waste : he made it 
plain. 2. Mda'ya ; mdaska : a 
plain country. 3. Yuwastepi- 
ani; aku'yesni; oskiskesni: a 
plain dress ; plain food. 4. Ikce- 
"ka ; katiijyai) : plain people. — 
Plain cloth, mininuha owapi- 
sni.— Plain food, woyute sku'- 
yesni. — A plain tune, ho oski- 
skesni. n. Makomdaye : the 
plains of South Dakota. 

plain-dealing, a. Ohan owotan- 

plainly, adv. Taninyan. 

plainness, n. Woanahbesni. 

plain-speaking, n. Owohdake ka- 

plaint, n. Odowan aceyapi. 

plaintiff, n. (Law.) Tu'we kuwa. 

plaintiye, a. 1. Ce'yapi ; oiyokisi- 
oa : a plaintive song. 

plaintively, adv. Ce'yaya. 

plait, n. Kisonpi; yuskipi. vt. 
Son ; kison ; yuaki : _p/at'^ your 

plan, n. 1. Icagopi ; okage : the 
plan of your house. 2. Owo- 
wiyukcan ; wowiyukcan : what 
is your plan for the campaign. 
3. Huha ka'gapi ; iapi itancai) : 
the plan of a sermon, vt. Iyu- 
kcai) ; owa ; ka'ga. 

plane, a. Mda'ya. n. Canicazipe ; 
sharpen the plane, vt. Pazipa ; 
kamdaya : plane the boards. 


planet, n. Wicanhpi omani. 

plank, n. Canmdaska so'ka. 

planless, n. Wowiyukcan ni'ca. 

planner, n. Wawiyukoai). 

plant, n. 1. Wato ; maka etanhan 
ta'ku icaga: some plants have 
beautiful flowers. 2. Okage ; 
icuwa : an electric plant, vt. 

1. Ozu : plant corn. 2. Huhde : 
plant trees. 3. Ahihnaka ; ma- 
koce en i'yotangwicakiya : 
plant colonies. 4. Onspekiya ; 
ozu : plant Christianity among 
the heathen. 5. E'hde : to plant 

plaintain, n. Canhdohu apemda- 

plantation, n. Owozu; wozupima- 

planter, n. Wozuti ; tan'kaya wo- 

zu : the planters of the South. 

2. Iozu : a corn-planter. 
plaster, n. 1. Wi'puspe ; tiisanye : 

the plaster is falling off. 2. 
(Med.) Pezuta iyaskamyapi : 
put a plaster on the sore. vt. 
Apuspa; a'skamya : plaster this 
room next. 

plasterer, n. Ti'piapuspa. 

plastering, n. Wi'puspe ; tiipuspe. 

plastic, a. Dodo ; okanwaste. 

plat, vt Kazonta; owa. n. 1. 
Son 'pi; wakazontapi. 2. Ma- 
kooe owapi ; makobaspe ; owa- 
pi : a plat of the town. 

plate, n. 1. Waksicamdaska; kam- 
peska : pass your plate for some 
meat. 2. Ma'zamdaska : a roof 
of tin plate. 3. Wowapi ma'- 
zaahdiheyapi ; iteowapi ahdi- 
heyapi : the dictionary plates, 
vt. Ma'zaaskamya. 

plateau, n. Makomdaye ; mda- 

plateful, n. Waksica ozudai). 

platform, n. 1. Oanazii) ; owanka : 
the minister's platform; the 
platform for the cannon. 2. 

platform-car 142 

Wieoie ahdehekiyapi : the 
Democratic platform, 

platform-car, n. fiemanimdaska. 

plating, n. Ma'zaiaskamyapi. 

platinum, n. Ma'zaskatke. 

Platte River, n. Kampeskawakpa. 

platter, n. Waksicamdaska tan/ka. 

platting, n. Son/pi ; owapi. 

plaudit, n. Wayawastepi; ido- 

plausibility, n. Woiyecetu. 

plausible, a. He'oetu se'ca; waste 

plausibly, adv. Wicaka se'ca. 

play,t;*. 1. Ska'ta: he played ball. 
2. Dowankiya; yazokiya: ho- 
toqkiya : play the organ. — Play 
cards, kai)sukute« — Play a trick, 
hnayan. kuwa. n. Woskate; 
ska'tapi; wapazopi woskate; 
woskaqskan. ; woiyowiijkiye. — 
A ball-play, takapsioapi. — Give 
fuU play, woiyowiijkiye fcu. — 
Rough play, woskate ksizeca. 
Shakespeare's plays, Shakes- 
peare wapazopi woskate. — The 
play of the wheel, hu'caij- 
hdeska ieunom ayuhomni. 

play-day, n. Ska'tapi aijpetu. 

player, n. Ska'ta ; waikpazo. 

playfellow, n. Eieiskata ; kicica. 

playful, a. Ska'tes'a. 

playfully, adv. Skanya ; ska'ta. 

playfulness, n. Ska'tapi wasteda- 

playhouse, n. Woskate tf 'pi ; ohna 

playmate, n. Eieiskata. 

plaything, n. Wi'napiskaijye ; oi) 
ska'tapi; wi'skate : the chil- 
dren's playthings. 

plea, n. 1. Iapi; to'ken oi) e'ya : 
the lawyer's plea. 2. Woce- 
kiye ; ta'ku da'pi. 

plead, vi. E'ya; iciya; icekiya; 
oi) etanhan. e'ya : he plead for 
the boy, vt. Cazeyata ; oi) 
etanhai) da : he plead poverty. 


pleadable, a. Cazeyanpica. 

pleader, n. Wawiciya ; ki'ciewwa. 

pleadingly, adv. Ce'kiya se. 

pleasant, a. Wi'ciyokipi ; oiyoki- 
pi; owastecaka; wi'haha. — A 
pleasant family, tiwahe wi'ciyo- 
kipi. — It is pleasant, oiyokipi. 
— A pleasant day, aqpetu owa- 
stecake. — A pleasant fellow, 
tu'we wi'haha. 

pleasantly, adv. Iyokipiya; can- 

pleasantness, n. Woiyokipi; iyo- 

pleasantry, n. Iyokipiwieayapi ; 

please, vt. Canwasteya ; iyoki- 
piya : he pleased his father. — 
The boy pleased me very much, 
hoksidan iyokipimayaqhiijea. 
— He is pleased, iyokipi. vi. 
Ye; iyonicipi ye; ce'eiciye. — 
Please come, n ye ; yau kta iyo- 
nicipi ye. 

pleaser, n. Iyokipiwicaya. 

pleasing, a. Wawiyokipi; wi'ci- 

pleasingly, adv. Iyokipiya. 

pleasurable, a. Owieawaste. 

pleasure, n. Woiyokipi ; wowiyu- 
skii) ; tawacin ; iyokipiiciyapi. 
— Use your pleasure, ni'ye ni- 
tawacii) ye'cun kta. — Lovers of 
pleasure, iyokipiiciyapi ; waste- 

pleasure-boat, n. Wa'ta on ska'- 

pled, imp. of plead. 

pledge, n. Oi) yuwioakapi ; ma'za- 
ska odotapi on. kaskapi. vt. 
Ea&ka ; on. yuwioakapi e'hde : 
I pledge you my horse. 

Pleiades, n. {Astron.) Tawamnipa. 

plenary, a. A'taya. 

plenteous, a. O'ta; ozudai). 

plenteously, adv. O'ta ; iyakicuya. 

plentiful, a. 1. Otantonka; pan/- 
ga ; ni'na o'ta : a plentiful sup- 




ply. 2. Waioaga ; o'ta icaga : 

a plentiful year, 
plenty, n. O'ta ; wooindai) ; wo- 

wizice. — Peace and plenty, wo- 

okiye fca woozudaq. a. O'ta; 

ntkaqna : plenty of corn. 
plethoric, a. Iyakieu ; i'saijpa ; 

ehaes ; o'ta. 
pliable, a. Zigzica ; pai)pai)na. 
pliancy, n. Wopatiqsni ; tiq'zesni. 
pliant, a. Okuwa waste ; swiqswii)- 

zedai) ; waij'kadai). 
pllantly, adv. Iyowiijyaij. 
piled, imp. of ply. 
plight, n. 1. Oui); to'ken uij'pi: 

in good plight. 2. Waehnaka- 

pi ; wooaze. 
plod, vi. flaijhiya ya ; haijhi 

ploddingly, adv. daqhiya. 
plot, n. 1. Wokuwa ; nahmaq ku- 

wapi: a ptof to kill the boy. 

2. Makoce ci'stiqna : a plot of 

ground. 3. Makoce oiyute. vt. 

1. Kuwa ; nafrmai) kuwa : he 

plotted destruction. 2. Makoce 

plover, n. Zitkadaq hu'toto. 
plow, vt. Yumdu; yupta; pago; 

ihaijgya : plow the ground, n. 

Mahiyumdu ; maMce : hitch the 

horses to the plow. 
plowable, a. Tnmdupica ; yumdu- 

plowboy, n. Manyumduhoksidai). 
plower, n. Manyumdu. 
plowland, n. Makoeeyumdupi- 

plowman, n. Manyumduwicasta. 
plowshare, n. MaMyumducuwi. 
pluck, n. Wowaditake : a man of 

pluck, vt. Yuspi; yuksa; yu- 

sda : pluck flowers. 
plnckily, adv. Waditagya. 
plucky, a. Waditaka; cai)tetii)za. 
ping, n. 1. Iostan : put the plug 

in the hole. 2. Oijspa; oba- 

kse : a plug of tobacco. 3. Wa- 

pahasapa. 4. Suifkawakauhu.- 

noge. vt. O'stai) ; yuotiqza. 
plum, n. Kai)'ta : a plum tree, 

plumage, n. Hii) ; zitkadaijhii) : 

beautiful plumage. 
plumb, n. Oi) bosdata iyntapi. 

a. Bosdata. vt. Yubosdata. 
plumbago, n. Caqwicazo cogii). 
plumber, n. Ma'zaftdogecamini- 

plumbing, n. Miniyaya apiyapi. 
plumb-line, n. Wi'yutapi ikai). 
plum-cake, n. Aguyapi kaq'ta 

plume, n. Wa'ciijhe ; wi'yaka. vt. 

1. Wa'chjhekieui) ; wa'ciijheki- 

toi) : a plumed Indian. 2. Oki- 

hiicida ; iwanaxjieida : he plumed 

himself on his strength. 
plumeless, a. Wi'yakacodai). 
plummet, n. Ma'zasu oi) sbe iyu- 

tapi ; bosdata owiyute. 
plump, a. 1. Ce'pa; taq'ka: how 

plump the baby is. 2. A'taya ; 

ocowasii) : a plump lie. adv. 

Bu se ; ihnuhai). 
plunder, n. 1. Ta'ku manoqpi. 2. 

Woyuha; wafrpaya. vt. Ma- 

noi) ; woyuha In. 
plunderer, n. Wawieaki; wama- 

plunge, vt. Mahen iyeya : he 

plunged it in the water, vt. Ka- 

lio iyeiciya : the horse plunged 

into the river, n. Kafroiyeya- 

pi ; maheniyeyapi. 
plunging, a. Kahoiyaya. 
pluperfect, a. (Gram.) O'ta; waij- 

plurality, n. 1. Waqziisaijpajo'ta: 

plurality of wives. 2. O'ta; 

isnana o'ta : he received a 

plurality of votes. 
plus, prep. Sai)'pa ; ka. 
ply, vt. Kuwa; ecoq : ply his 

trade, vi. O'hhjni ya; omani; 

skaq : the boat plies between 

pneumatics 144 

Sioux City and Omaha, n. O- 
yukdiza ; opehe : two plies. 

pneumatics, n. Tate wooi)spe. 

poach, vt. 1. Miniakastanstai) 
spanyanpi : poach eggs. 2. Ma- 
nor] ; nahmai) akiyahda : lie 
poached a cap. 

pocket, n. Sieanopiye; wozuha; 
ohdoka : put it in your pocket; 
a pocket in tlie rock. vt. Ma- 
hen iyeya ; icu. 

pocket-book, n. Ma'zaska ozuha. 

pocketful, n, Sicanopiye ozudan. 

pocket-knife, n. Isanyukatinpi ; 
Y. Miyuksizapi. 

pod, n. Su'ozuha ; ha : a pod of 

poem, n. Iapi odowai) kahya ; odo- 

poesy, n. Odowan ka'gapi. 

poet, n. Odowanka'ga. 

poetess, n. Win'yai) odowan- 

poetic, a. Odowankaga he'ca; 
odowai) se'ca. 

poetry, n. Odowai) iapi ; iapi waci 

poignancy, n. Woyahtake. 

poignant, a. Wayahtake ; pa'za. 

point, n. 1. In'kpa; o'inkpa; ope: 
the point of the needle. 2. Oipa ; 
ihanke : a point of land. 3. On 
okitanii) ; woMtanin ; to'keea ; 
wasaghdepi : his good points. 
4. Wocazeyate ; iapi okitanii) : 
the first point in his speech. 5. 
Oehnake ; samyapidan : in read- 
ing notice the points. 6. Oyan- 
ke ; hehantu : the freezing point. 
— In point of view, iwanyakapi 
eciyatanhan. — Points of the 
compass, makiyutapi oepazo. — 
Gain a point, oyanke ohiya; 
wanzi ohiya. — Score a point, 
woohiye wanzi okioiwapi. — 
Strai7i a point f i'sam iyaye. vt. 
1. E'pazo ; ekta e'pazo : point 
the gun at the wolf. 2 Pazo ; 


wanyagsi : he pointed me to 

Solomon. 3. Kapesto : point 

Hie pickets. 4. Samyapidan 

e'hnaka : point your writings. 

5. Makasan apuspe : the walls 

are not pointed yet. 
point-blank, a. Katinyan. 
pointed, a. 1. Kapestopi ; pe'sto : 

a pointed stick. 2. Pe'sto; ca- 

papi 86 : his pointed remarks. 
pointedly, adv. Pe'stoya. 
pointer, n. 1. dun/ka siyo pazo : 

a brown pointer. 2. Wapazo ; 

wi'pazo ; thatwordis the pointer. 
pointing, n. Wowapi samyapidan ; 

ti'pi apuspapi. 
pointless, a. Pe'stosni ; ta'ku ka 

poise, n. Obosdan haij ; aspeye- 

toijpi. vi. Ze'zeya e'hnaka; 

poison, n. Pezutasica ; wohaka ; 

pezuta oi) wicata ; wosica. vt. 

1. Pezutasica ku; pezuta on 
kte : poison wolves. 2. Yusica. . 
3. Pezutasica aehnaka ; poison 
the meat. 

poisonous, a. Wayusica ; si'ca ; 
ohaka ; poisonous roots. 

poke, vt. Pazipa ; capa. To poke 
fun at, ihaha kuwa. n. 1. Pa- 
zipapi ; wocapa : an iron poke. 

2. Tu'we hun'kesni ; ku'za : 
that boy is a poke. 3. Ptewiye 

poker, n. 1. Pe'ta icuwa ; ma'za 
pesto. 2. Kansukutepi (ocaze). 

pokerish, a. Okokipe. 

polar, a. Waziyata ihanke ; itokafr 
ihanke. Polar bear, matoska. 

pole, n. Tosu ; c an h an ska. A 
bean-pole, omnica cankipasda- 
tapi. — A boat-pole, ipamna. 
— Liberty-pole, canwakan. — A 
pole long, ohanske sihaiyutapi 
16 J. — A tent pole, tosu. — A 
wagon pole, canpahmihma ihu- 
pa. n. Waziyata ihanke ; ma- 

polecat 145 

kapesdete ; itokah ihanke. vt. 

polecat, n. Maijka ; doksiqca. 

polemic, a. Iaakinica. 

pole-star, n. Waziyata wicanhpi ; 
mahpiyapesdete wicanhpi. 

police, n. Akicitawawaijyake ; wa- 
waijyake ; caijnakseyuha. — 
Police station, wa' wanyake ona- 

policeman, n. Wawai)yake. 

policy, n. 1. Oecoi) ; wowiynkcai) ; 
wowaynpika : the policy of our 
government. 2. Waihaqgyapi 
ki'cicazuzupi kta wowapi. 

polish, vt. 1. Pawiyakpa ; payeza ; 
pasduta : polish boots. 2. Yu- 
waste ; wacirjksamya : polish 
his manners, n. Oij pa&duta- 
pi ; wopasduta ; wowiyakpa ; 

pofishable, a. Pasdutepica. 

polite, a. Ohai) waste; wawiyo- 

polite, a. Ohaijwaste; wawiyo- 

politely, adv. Wawiyokipiya. 

politeness, n. Woiyokipi; onaij- 

politic, a. A'etopte ; ksa'pa. 

political, a. Oyate ; oyate oi- 

politically, adv. Oyate oihduhe eci- 

politician, n. Oyate oihdiihe wico- 
hai) kuwa ; wa'kiia wicasta. 

politics, n. Woitaijcai) wicohai) ; 
wa'kiiapi; oyate oyuha wico- 

polity, n. Woope; okodakiciye 

polka, n. Tawaijzi wacipi. - 

poll, ft. 1. Pesdete ; pa : his poll 
is bare. 2. Wicayawapi; wi- 
eapa yawapi : the poll made a 
hundred. 3. Kaijsu iyohpeya- 
pi ; itancai) kahnigapi : go to 
the polls and vote honestly, vt. 


1. Pa kasda ; in'kpa baksa. 

2. Wicacaze owa. 
poll-book, ft. Wowapi wicacaze 


polled, a. Baksapi ; he wanica. 

poll-evil, n. Sun/kawakanpehdipi. 

polliwig, ft. Hosupesde. 

poll-tax, ». Wicasta iyohi kazu- 

pollute, vt. Yusapa; yusica; asa- 

polluted, pa. Asamyapi. 

pollnter, w. Asamya ; waynsioa. 

pollution, n. Wosape ; waasapapi. 

poltroon, w. Canwaijka ; ta'kutaq- 

pdty% prefix. O'ta. 

polygamist, n. Tawicuota. 

polygamy, «. Tawicuotapi. 

polyglot, a. Wicaceziota ka'gapi : 
a polyglot Bible. 

polygon, n. Okahmin o'ta. 

Polynesia, ft. Wi'taota. 

polysyllable, n. Iapiokiheota. 

polythelst, n. Ta'kuwakaijota- 

pomade, n. Isdaye wastemna; 

pommel, w. Psunka; papsuijka; 
pa. vt. Apapa. 

pony, ft. Suijghuna ; &ui)g Dakota. 
Pony-engine, hemani hu'na. 

poodle, n. dun/kana ; snnkaecaci- 
stiijna hiqsma. 

pooh, interj. Hoh. 

pool, ft. 1. Minioskokpa ; mde- 
daij : the pool is deep. 2. Wa- 
yekiyapi ; ta'ku ka&kapi. 

poor, a. 1. Tamaheca. A poor 
cow, pte tamaheca. 2. Wahpa- 
nica: a poor widow. 3. Oij'si- 
ka : a poor sick baby. 4. Wa- 
stesni ; osteka : a poor compo- 
sition. — Poor clothes, heyake 
waste sni. — A poor excuse, iapi 
ta'ku sni. — Poor fellow, tuwe 
on/sika. — Poor health, zani sni. 
— Poor potatoes, mdo siksica. 

poor-house 146 

— Poor scholar, wayawa oi)- 
spekesni. — Poor soil, maka wai- 
cage sui. — A poor speaker, wo- 
hdaka onspekesni. 

poor-house, «. Wahpanica ti'pi; 
tukten wanpanica awaijyakapi. 

poorly, adv. 1. Wanpaniya ; on- 
siya; icakisya : he lived poorly. 

2. Kitaijyai) ; wokitaijyai) ; ci'- 
stiyena : /*e succeeded poorly. 

3. Okikisniya*) ; tai)yai)sni. 
pomp, ft. Wowitan ; wokitanii). 
pomposity, n. Wataqkaicidapi. 
pompous, a. Taij'kaicidajhhj'sko- 

pompously, aifo. Taij'kaicidaya. 
Ponca, n. {A tribe of Indians.) 

Paq'ka; Oyateyamni. 
pond, «. Minioskokpa ; mde'dai). 
ponder, vt. Awacii) ; iwaqyaka. 
ponderer, n. Waawacii). 
ponderous, a. Tke ; taq'ka. 
ponderously, adv. Tkeya. 
pone, n. Wokpaijpitacagu. 
pontiff, n. Sinasapa itai)cai) ; wo- 

pontifical, a. Wosnaitaijcaijtawa. 
pontificate, n. Sinasapa woitai)- 

pontoon, w. Wa'ta oi) caijkanon- 

pop, n. 1. Po'pa; pom'hiijhda. 

2. Minitaga. «?f. 1. Papahya; 

napomya : pop corn. 2. Ihnu; 

hai) ecoi) ; ihnuhai) hiyu : j>op 

Me question. 
pop-corn, n. Wamnaheza popopa. 
pope, w. Sinasapa itaijcai). 
popedom, n. &inasapa wokiconze. 
popgun, n. Wi'papopa. 
popish, a. dinasapa. 
poplar, w. Wahcii)ca ; wanpesto. 
Poplar River, n. Wahciijca wakpa. 
popple, w. Wabcirjca. 
populace, n. Oyate ; wicasta. 
popular, a. 1. Oyate wastedapi ; 

a'taya iyokipipi : a popular 

Agent 2. A'taya iyowazapi ; 


oyate ta'wa : a popular elec- 
tion. 3. A'taya okahnibwica- 
yapi ; okahnih waste ; popular 

popularity, ft. A'taya wastedapi. 

popularly, adv. Oyate ekta ; wa- 

populate, vt. Oyate kanya ui|'pi. 

population, n. 1. Wicasta ; oyate ; 
wicayawapi : a small popula- 
tion. 2. Oyata kagapi; wica- 

populous, a. Wicasta ozudaq ; wi- 
casta o'ta. 

porcelain, n. Eampeska. 

porch, n. Tiyopa aohaqziyapi. 

porcupine, n. Pahii). 

pore, ft. Uka ofrdoka ; ohna temni 
hiyn. vi. Ataqse kuwa. 

pork, ft. Kukuse; wash). Fresh 
pork, kukuse do. — Salt pork, 
kukuse sku'yeyapi. — Smoked 
pork, kukuse cosyapi. 

porker, n. Eukuse (ni uij). 

porosity, ft. Ohdohdoka. 

porousness, n. Woondobdoka. 

porridge, n. Wozapi. Bice por- 
ridge, psin wozapi. 

port, ft. Wi'tawata oinazii) ; oihu- 
ni ; wi'tawatamazakaijtaijka io- 

portable, a. Toksupica; oyuha- 
waste ; toksupiwaste. 

portage, n. Watoha. 

portal, ft. Tiyopa ; oenape. 

portend, vt. Iwaktaya ; wakokipe- 

portentious, a. Wa'petokeca. 

porter, n. 1. Tiyopaawaijyake : 
the porter told me to come in. 
2. Caq'ohnaka kiijkiyapi. 3. 
Miniwakai) sa'pa. 

portfolio, n. 1. Wowapiska oki- 
hnake. 2. Oecoq wowapi ; wo- 
awaqyake. The portfolio of 
war, akicita woawaqyake. 

portico, ft. Tiyopa aohanzi. 

portion, «. Wopamni ; orjge ; oij- 

portionless 147 

spa. vt. Kiyuspeya wicaku; 
pamni ; ongege wicaku. 

portionless, a. Ongedan yuhesni. 

portly, a. Tan'ka ; okinihai) ; ni- 
getanka : a portly old gentle- 

portmanteau, n. Wizipai). 

portrait, n. Iteowapi; wiciteka- 
gapi : my father 9 8 portrait. 

portray, vt. 1. Owa ; iteowa : por- 
tray a landscape. 2. Oyaka ; 
to'keca oyaka : hear Gough por- 
tray a drunkard. 

Portuguese, n. Portugal wicasta. 

pose, vt. Na'zinkiya ; anazin. 

poser, Waanazin ; wanagiyeya. 

position, n. Oyai)ke ; oihduhe ; 

positive, a. Wicaka; wowicake; 
was'aka ; wicakeicida. A posi- 
tive benefit, woyuwaste wicaka. 
— Positive electricity , wakai)hdi 
was'aka. — A positive woman, 
win'yan wicakeicida. n. Oun 

positiyely, adv. A'wicakehan; i'ya- 
tayedai) ; yatinsya. 

posse, w. Wicadta ; wicota. 

possess, vt. Yuha ; ton ; yuheki- 
ya : I possess nothing. 

possession, ». Woyuha; ta'ku 
yuhapi ; ta'ku ta'wa. 

possessive, a. Ta'wayapi. 

possessor, w. Ta'waya ; waynha. 

possibility, ft. Okihipica ; naceca. 

possible, a. Okihipica ; (in com- 
position) -pica. It is not pos- 
sible to go, yepicasni. 

possibly, adv. 1. Naceca ; o'kini : 
possibly it mil rain. 2. Token 
okihi ; to'ketu ceyas ; wokitai) 

post, n. 1. Can/ipasdate : dig 
holes for the posts. 2. Onazii) ; 
owanka ; ti'pi : a military post. 
3. Wicasta wowapi toksu. vt. 

1. Iyohpaya : post my letter. 

2. Tiaskamya; okatan : post 


the notice on the barn. 3. Na'- 
zinkiya ; e'hde : post a sentinel. 
4. (Book-keeping) Oicazo yuwi- 
taya. 5. Sdonyekiya; onspe- 
kiya : I am not posted. 6. Dus 
ya. a. Ohanko : post haste. 

postage, n. Wokazuiu; wowapi- 
toksu wokazuzu. 

postage-stamp, ». Wiciteaskape. 

postal, a. Wowapi oatoksu. 

post-boy, n. Hoksidan wowapito- 

poster, ft. 1. Woyaotanii) tiaskam- 
yapi : see the poster on the 
wall. 2. Tu'we inanni ya. 

posterior, a. Iyohakam ; ehake. 

posterity, ft. Wicoicage ; wica- 

post-haste, adv. Inahni. 

post-horse, n. Sun'ktanka wowa- 

posthumous, a. Ta iyohakam tan- 
in. Posthumous child, hoksiyo- 
pa atkuku ta iyohakam ton/pi. 

postman, n. Wowapitoksu. 

postmark, ft. Wowapitoksu apu- 

postmaster, ft. Wowapi oyuzuzu 

post-office, ft. Wowapioyuzuzu. 
Post-office order, oi) ma'zaska 

post-paid, vt. Kazuzupi ; askam- 

postpone, vt. Kihnaka; i'hakam 

post-road, n. Wowapitoksu canku. 

postscript, ft. Ehake owa. 

posture, ft. To'ken wanka ; wan- 
ka ; na'zii) : his posture is bad. 

posy, ft. Wahca ; odowanna. 

pot, ft. Ce'ga ; ce'ga so'ka. vt. 
Ce'ga ohnaka. 

potash, tt. Cahota hanpi. 

potatoe, ft. Mdo ; bdo ; bio. Sweet 
potatoe, mdo sku'ya. 

pot-bellied, a. Nigetanka. 

potency, n. Wookihi. 

potent 148 

potent, a. Was'aka : waokihi. 

potentate, n. Tu' we was'aka ; itan- 
eai) ; wicastayatapi. 

potential, a. Wookihi yuha. 

potentially, adv. Waokihiya; na- 

potently, adv. Was'agya. 

pothook, n. Cehwiynze. 

potion, n. Woyatke. 

potponrri, n. Icahiohanpi. 

potsherd, n. Cenunuga. 

pottage, n. Tadoyuzapi ; wozapi. 

Pottawatomie, n. Putewata. 

potter, n. Makaeegakaga. vi. Ta'- 
ku ecoi] taniqsni skaii. 

pottery, n. Makaoega. 

pouch, n. Wozuha; wozuhadan. 
Tobacco-pouchy candozuha. — 
Shot-pouch f tasusuozuha. — Pel- 
ican's pouchy mde'ga tapo. 

poultice, n. Ta'kucoco aefrnakapi. 

poultry, n. Wanupakoza wanu- 

pounce, vt. Ihpaya. Pounce on, 

pound, n. 1. Tkeutapi ; otkeute : 
ten pounds of sugar. 2. Ma'za- 
ska Sagdasii) ta'wa : it cost ten 
pounds, vt. 1. Apa ; kasusuza : 
he pounds me with a club. 2. 
Bopai) ; kapai) ; kamdu : the 
woman was pounding corn. n. 
Ptewanuyaijpi okaske : he lock- 
ed the cow in the pound. 

pour, vt. Kastai) ; kada ; papson ; 
okada. Pour on water, mini 
okas t an. — Pour out water, mini 
kastai). — Pour in water , mini 
okastai). — The wheat is pouring 
out, aguyapisu kadada. vi. 
Ni'na hiyu ; dus ya. 

pout, vi. Iyokipisni nn ; pute 

poverty, n. Wowanpanica ; wica- 
wanpanica ; kakizapi. 

powder, n. 1. Cahdi : powder and 
shot 2. Ta'ku mdu : grind it 
to powder. 3. Pezuta apahta- 


pidan : take a powder every 
night, vt. 1. Pamdu ; mduya : 
powdered alum. 2. Akadada: 
powder the hair. 

powder-box, n. Cahdiopiye. 

powder-flask, n. Cahdiozuha. 

powder-magazine, n. Cahdi woha. 

powder-mill, n. Cahdiokage. 

power, n. Wowas'ake ; wookihi : 
the power of steam. 

powerful, a. Was'aka ; otanton ; 

powerfully, adv. Ohitiya; was'a- 

powerless, a. Was'akesni ; wowa- 
s'ake ni'oa. ' 

powwow, n. Dowanpi; wapiya 
dowanpi ; Ikcewicasta owohda- 

pox, n. Ohdi; itehdohdoka. Small- 
pox, makosice itehdohdoka. 

practicable, a. Econpica ; nnpica. 

practical, a. Oecon waste ; akiho ; 

practically, adv. Oecon ekta. 

practice, n. Woecon ; wicohan ; 
ohan. Difficult in practice, oe- 
con ekta tehike. — Practice 
makes perfect, woecoi) wowa- 
yupika ka'ga. — The practice of 
medicine, pezutawicasta woe- 
con, vt. 1. Ecoi) ; ecoi) ecee. 
— To practice fraud, wohnaye 
ecoi) ecee. 2. Kuwa ; ecoi). — 
To practice law, wa'kiyapi wi- 
cohai) kuwa. 3. Onspeieiciya ; 
ecewaktaiciya : to practice 

practician, n. Tu'we econ ecee. 

practitioner, n. Woecon. 

prairie, n. Tin/ta. 

prairie-dog, n. Pinspinza. 

prairie-chicken, tt. Siyo. 

praise, n. Wowitan ; woyatan. 
His praise, to'witai). vt. 1. Ya- 
tai) ; yaonihai) ; yawaste. — 
Praise God f Wakaijtanka ya- 
tai). — Praise the child, hoksiyo- 

praiseworthy 149 

Spa yawafite. 2. (Of things) Ya- 
wa&te : he praised the country. 

praiseworthy, a. Yawastepioa. 

prance, vi. Psi'psin ma'ni. 

prank, n. Woskate ; wowiha 

prate, vi. Ta'ku ka tanindni ia. 

prattle, vi. Hoksiyopa se ia. 

prattler, n. Ie s'a. 

pray, vi. 1. Ce'kiya ; wocekiye 
eya ; wacekiya. 2. Ye ; ce'kiya. 
— Pray, don't do it 9 ce'ciciya, 

prayer, n. Wocekiye; wakance- 
kiyapi ; a'wicakehai) da'pi. 

prayer-book, n. Wocekiye wowapi. 

prayerful, a. Wacekiya ; wocekiye 

prayerfully, adv. Wacekiyes'a. 

prayer-meeting, n. Wocekiyeomni- 

praying, pa. Wacekiya ; waceki- 

pre-, prefix. I'tokam. 

preach, vi. Wohdaka; Wakantan- 
ka oie oyaka; wahokonwica- 
kiya. vt. Oyaka; wahokonki- 
ya. — Preach the Gospel, Wo- 
taninwaste oyaka. — Preach a 
sermon, wowahokonkiye eya. 

preacher, n. Wahokonwicakiya ; 

preaching, n. Wowahokoi)kiye. 

preamble, n. Kaitokam eyapi. 

precarious, a. To'ketu taninsni ; 

precaution, n. Wawitoi)papi ; woi- 

precede, vt. I'tokam ya ; tokahai). 

precedence, n. Wotokahe. 

precedent, n. Wotokahe; canku- 
kaga. a. I'tokam ya. 

precentor, n. Dowanitancan. 

precept, n. Woope ; wowahokoij- 

preceptor, n, Waonspekiya. 

precinct, n. Makobaspe. 

precious, a. O'tayawapi ; tehike. 


preciousness, n. Tehike ; wowa- 

precipice, n. Maya. 
predpltable, a. Oetete ehpeye- 

precipitant, n. Inahni ; to'ken 

precipitate, vt. Kun ohpeya ; ina- 

hniya ; kahoiyeya. 
precipitately, adv. Inahniyai). 
precipitation, n. Woinahni ; ohin- 

he ; mini hinhe. 
precipitous, a. Maya ; a'pamahde ; 

precipitously, adv. Inahniyai). 
precise, a. Basmipi *. iyehantu 

econ ; tkon'zedai). 
precisely, adv. Hehantudanhin ; 

iyehantudanhin ; ohnahca. 
precision, n. Woeoetu. 
preclude, vt. Anapta ; nataka. 
precocious, a. Oicahkokedan ; ko- 

hanna wacinksapa. 
precocity, n. Wokokedan ; woksa- 

pe ohanko. 
preconceive, vt. I'tokam iyukcan. 
preconcert, vt. I'tokam kici yu- 

preconcerted, pa. I'tokam kici 

precursor,' n. I'tokam ya; wowa- 

predatory, a. Wamanon ; wawiya- 

predecessor, n. Watokahe ; wi'ci- 

tokam ya. 
predestinate, vt. Wakiconza ; i'to- 
kam yustai). 
predestine, vt. I'tokam yustan. 
predetermine, vt. I'tokam waki- 
predlcable, a. Eyepica. 
predicament, n. Oun ; oyanke. 
predicate, vt. Icazeyate ; oyaka. 

n. (Gram.) To'ken icazeya- 

predict, vt. I'tokam oyaka ; ayate. 
prediction, n. Woayate. 


predispose, vt. I'tokam awacinya ; 

i'tokam canku ki'caga. 
predominate, vi. I' wankam un ; ka- 

peya ; wowidagya. 
preeminence, n. Wotokahe. 
preeminent, a. Iyotai) ; tokahan. 
preeminently, adv. Iyotanyan ; iyo- 
preempt, vt. Makoce icu; toka- 

heya icu ; anica. 
preengage,trt. I'tokam icu kta eya. 
preexist, vi. I'tokam ni. 
preezistence, n. I'tokam ni'pi. 
preface, n. Otokahe iapi ; i'tokam 

yaotaninpi. vt. I'tokam eya. 
prefect, n. Wa'wanyake. 
prefer, vt. I'wankam e'hnaka ; ka- 

frniga ; cin ; iyokipi. 
preferable, a. Kafrnihpica. 
preference, n. Kahnigaj>i; tukte 

cii) 'pi. 
preferment, n. Wankan e'hna- 

prefigure, vt. Wi'yacinyai) ayata. 
prefix, vt. I'tokam e'hnaka. 
pregnancy, n. Ciijcaikpihnakapi. 
pregnant, a. Ihdusaka ; ta'ku o'ta 

ikoyake ; tke. 
prehistoric, a. Hehanyan woya- 

kapi wanioa ; wanakaza. 
prejudge, vt. I'tokam yaco ; taij- 

yannanonsni yaco. 
prejudice, n. Wowiyukcai) hmii) ; 

woyusice. vt. Sanina wi'yu- 

kcarjkiya ; tawacin yutokeca. 
prejudicial, a. Wayutokeca; wa- 

prelacy, n. Woitaijcai) ; wicasta 

wakai) itai)cai)pi. 
prelate, n. Wicastawakantanka. 
preliminary, a. I'tokam wanka; 

i'tokam; otokaheya. n. O'to- 

kaheya wieohai). 
prelude, n. I'tokam econpi. 
premature, a. Iyehantusni; iye- 
hantusni sutoi) ; kohanna. 
prematurely, adv. I'tokam ; kohai); 

nahanh iyehantusni. 

150 pres'ent 

premeditate, vt. Kohan awacii). 
premeditation, n. I'tokam awa- 

premier, n. Tokaheyaitancan. 
premise, vt. Iapi oaehde ka'ga. 
premium, n. 1. Ta'ku ohiyapi : 

what is the premium. 2. Ma'za- 

ska odotapi wokazuzu. 
premonition, n. Wowakta. 
preoccupancy, n. Tokaheya yu- 

preoccupy, vt. I'tokam yuha. 
preparation, n. Yuwiyeyapi ; pii- 

eiyapi ; piyapi. 
preparatory, a. On yuwiyeyapi ; 

en piwicayapi. 
prepare, vt. Yuwiyeya; piya e'hna- 
ka; piya. vi. Yuwiyeya; pii- 

prepay, vt. I'tokam kazuzu. 
prepayment, n. I'tokam kazuzupi. 
preponderance, n. I'akam tke. 
preposition, n. Iapi i'tokam un ; 

o'takuye iapi. 
prepossess, vt. I'tokam awacinya ; 

i'tokam yuha; woawacin ozu- 

preposterous, a. Yuicinsniyaij; iye- 

prerogative, n. Wieohai). 
presage, vt. I'tokam oyaka. 
presbyter, n. Huqkayapi. 
Presbyterian, n. Okodakiciyewa- 

kan obe wanii; Hunkaitan- 

presbytery, n. Presbyterian wica- 

stawakai) omniciye. 
prescience, n. I'tokam sdonyapi. 
prescribe, vt. Econsi ; wowiyukcai) 



prescription, n. Woecon ; wowi- 

presence, n. En un'pi ; itohnake. 
— In the presence of i'tokam. 
— Presence of mind, tawacii) 

pres'ent, a. 1. En un ; o'peya un. 
— I am present, en waun. 2. 

present 7 



De ; dehan ; dehantu. — The 
present age, wicoicage de. 3. 
(Gram,) Dehantu. n. 1. Ta'ku 
kicicupi ; woitunan : I send you 
a present. 2. Wowapi : know 
all men by these presents. 

present', vt. gu; itukinan. — He 
presented me this book, wowapi 
de maku. 2. Pazo : i'tokam 
e'hde : he presented himself, — 
Present arms, wi'pe kipazo. — 
Present the name, eazeyata; 
caze pazo. 

presentable, a. Pazopiea ; fcupica. 

presentation, n. Pazopi; yutan- 

presentiment, n. I'tokam wasdon- 
yapi: wakihdecapi. 

presently, adv. Ecadan ; to'kedta. 

presentment, n. Kipazopi; kecii)pi. 

preservation, n. Tan/yan yuhapi ; 

preservative, n. On waniyanpi. 

preserve, vt. Tanyan yuha; ni- 
kiya ; hwin'ktesni yuha : pre- 
serve the king. — Preserve fruit, 
waskuyeca hwin'&ni hna'kapi. 
Laws to preserve game, wama- 
ka&kan so'te kte sni woope. 

preserves, n. Waskuyeoa kuke kte 
6ni yuzapi. 

preside, vi. Itancan i'yotanka; 

presidency, n. Woitancai) ; wowan- 

president, n. Itancan ; omnieiye 
yuha ; Tunkanfiidan. 

presidential, a. Itancan ta'wa. 

press, vt. 1. Paskica; yuskica; 
kaskica ; iyahdaskica : press 
out the juice. 2. Patan econ- 
kiya ; i'yopastake : he pressed 
me to go. 3. Ni'na kuwa ; ni'na 
cinkiya : he pressed Mm with the 
truth, vi. WaMtan; wawiyo- 
pa&taka : press on to glory, 
n. 1. Wi'ca&kicej wi'pataq. — 
A hay-press, pezi-ica&kiea. 2. 

Wowapi ahdihpeyapi : a small 
printing press. 3. Wotan in wo- 
wapi : the press is mighter than 
the sword. 4. Wokihnake : a 
clothes press. 5. Woiyopadta- 
ke : in the press of business. 
6. Wieota; kieipatitaqpi. 

pressing, jut. Wawiyopastake; wa- 

pressingly, adv. Ni'na. 

pressman, n. Wowapiahdihpeye. 

pressure, n. Wokaskice; woiyo- 
padtake ; tke : wopatitan. 

presswork, n. Wowapi ahdihpa- 
yapi ; wowapi puspapi. 

prestige, n. Wowiyutanye; wo- 

presto, adv. Ohanko ; inahni. 

presumable, a. Ecinpioa. 

presumably, adv. Iyecetuka. 

presume, vi. 1. Eein ; keoin. — I 
presume, kepea. — You presume, 
kecani. 2. Sdonyekonza ; ta- 

presumption, n. 1. Eeiijpi ; kecin- 
pi; wowiyukcai). 2. Wowitko- 
tkoka ; wi'yukcandni. 

presumptive, a. Wi'yukcanpica. 

presumptively, adv. Wi'yukcan- 
yan ; ecinpi iyeceea. 

presumptuous, a. Eeoqktehca; wo- 
hitika ; sdonya eooi). 

presuppose, vt. I'tokamecin. 

presupposition, n. I'tokam ecinpi 

pretend vt Kon'za ; ecaecon ; 
wieake&ni skan : he pretended 
to be sick. 

pretender, n. Wicahnayan. 

pretense, n. Kon'zapi ; wicahmun- 
kapi : wohnaye ; ecaeconpi. 

pretension, n. Ta'wa kon'zapi ; wa- 

pretentious, a. Ta'kuicida. 

preterit, a. {Oram.) He'kta ; yu- 

preternatural, a. To'keca; wa- 

preternaturally, adv. Togye ; ni'na. 




pretext* n. Wokonze; woakahpe. 

prettily, adv. Wasteya; yupiya; 

prettiest, a. sup. Iyotaqwaste. 

prettiness, «. Wo waste; woiyo 

pretty, a. Waste ; wasteka ; owan- 
yagwaste : what a pretty flower, 
adv. Ki'tanna ; ahecenya : 
pretty good. 

prevail, vi. 1. Ohiya : Israel pre- 
vailed. 2. I'yakapeya; ohiya: 
he prevailed in the council. 3. 
Ecoqkiya ; cin'sni ecoijkiya : 
they prevailed on him to go. 4. 
Yuha ; ecoi) : the custom pre- 
vails in India. 

prevailing, pa. 1. Was'aka ; ohiya : 
prevailing prayer. 2. O'hiqni 
kinin he'ceoa ; iyotan. o'ta : the 
prevailing winds. 

prevalence, n. Wankan un. ; wa- 
s'agya un. ; ni'na eeeca. 

prevalent, a. Ni'na eoecapi ; tan/- 
kaya ui) ; was'aka. 

prevaricate, vi. Ecinfcni oyaka; 

prevarication, n. Wayatokecapi ; 

prevaricator, n. Erinsni oyaka. 

prevent, vt. Eagiya ; kaseya ; oki- 
hisniya ; anapta. 

preventable, a. Anaptepica. 

prevention, n. Anaptapi ; waana- 

preventive, n. Woanapte. 

previous, a. I'tokam ; tokaheya. 

previously, adv. I'tokam. 

prey, n. Ta'wa; waahdipi; wa- 
kipi. vi. Wabotica ; wamanon. 

price, n. Wokazuzu ; iyawapi ; 
iyuwin, ; Y. wi'si : the price of 
toil. — Without price , iyuwin co- 
dai). — What is the price, token 
iyawapi he. 

priceless, a. Yawapicasni. 

prick, n. 1. Wi'cape ; ta'ku pe ; 
ta'ku pe'sto : kick the pricks. 

2. Gapapi; capapa; wocapa. 
vt. Capa; icam e'hde. — He 
pricked me f camapa. — Prick a 
knife into the ground, maka en 
isan ieam hde. — Pricked to the 
heart, oante icapa. — Pricked up 
his ears, nakpa kabosdata. 

pricker, n. Wi'cape. 

pricking, n. Capapa. 

prickle, n. Wi'cape ; in/kpa. 

prickiy, a. Pepe ; pespesto. — 
Prickly-pear, unkeekceka. 

pricky, a. Pepe. 

pride, n. 1. Wowahanieida ; wa- 
hanieidapi ; wamnaicidapi ; wa- 
tankaieidapi : pride goeth be- 
fore destruction. 2. Wowiyu- 
skin ; woiwinkta : James takes 
pride in keeping fat horses. 3. 
Wowinkta ; wowahanieida : the 
pride of his father, vt. (With 
the reflexive pronoun.) Iwin- 
kta ; iwahanieida. 

prier, n. Wa'kites'a ; waasdaye. 

priest, n. Wawayusna; wicasta- 
wakan; T. wakancekiya ; {Bom. 
Cath.) sinaaapa; euwignake- 

prim, a. Wayuco ; stosto. vt. Ayu- 
eo ka'ga ; pastosto. 

primacy, n. O'tokahe ; woitancan. 

prima-donna, n. Win'yan do wan i- 

prima facie, a. Taninyan un ; ite 
akan un. 

primary, a. O'tokahe ; tokahan : 
primary schools. — A matter of 
primary importance, ta'ku kin 
woawaoii) o'tokahe ftca. 

primate, n. Tokaheya itancan. 

prime, a. Tokahan ; iyotan. ; itan- 
can ; itancai). — Prime mover, 
iyotan. kuwa. — Prime number, 
wayawapi kiyuspepicasni. n. 
O'tokahe ; iyotan waste ; hehan 
wastepi; hehanyai) was'ak*. — 
He died in his prime, iyotan 
was'aka hehan t&* vt. 1. Cahdi 


no'ge akada : prime a gun. 2. 

Tokaheya iui) : prime tlw house 

with ail. 3. Onspekiya ; ozuya. 
primer, n. 1. Wowapi tokaheya ; 

A-B-C wowapi. 2. Ma'zaahdi- 

hpeyapi ocaze. 
primeval, a. O'tokahe. 
priming, n. 1. No'ge iyopuhdi; 

no'ge iokadapi : the priming of 

the gun. 2. Tokaheya iunpi. 
primitive, a. O'tokahe; ehanna: 

a primitive church. — A primitive 

style of dress, heyake okage 

primitively, adv. O'tokaheya. 
primly, adv. Yuooya ; yupiya. 
primness, n. Wayuoo. 
primp, vt. Heyake hdnwitan. 
prince, n. Itancan ; itaneancinca. 
princely, a. Itancanse; itai)cai) 

princess, n. Win/yai) itancan ; 

itai)cai)cii)ca win'yan. 
principal, n. Tokahekiyapi ; iyo- 

tan. a. Tokahan. 
principality, n. Woitaneai) ; woa- 

principally, adv. Iyotanyan. 
principle, n. O'tokaheya woonspe ; 

o'hutkai) ; woawacii). 
print, vt. Ma'zaonowa ; oweka'ga. 

n. Owapi; owe; on owapi; 

icahtake. Small print, oowa 

ci'stinna. — The print of his 

foot, siha owe kii). 
printer, n. Ma'zaehde; ma'zaa- 

hdihpeye ; ma'za ox\ wowapi 

printing, n. Ma'za on wowapi ka'- 

gapi. — Printing office, wowapi 

okage. — Printing press, ma'- 

prior, a. I'tokam ; tokaheya. 
priority, n. Wotokahe. 
prison, n. Wokasketdpi; owica- 

prisoner, n. Tu'we kaskapi; ka- 

153 probate 

pristine, a. O'tokahe ; ehanna. 

privacy, n. Wonahbe. 

private, a. 1. Isnana ta'wa; wi- 
eitawa. — Private property, wo- 
yuha wicitawa. — Private secre- 
tary, wowapikaga i'atayedan 
ta'wa. Nahmanpi ; tuwedai) 
en i sni : a private room. 3. 
Ikceya un ; ikceka ; itancan - 
sni : a private soldier. 4. Tu- 
wedan sdonye sni; nahmana 
econpi. 5. I'yatayedan : his 
private property, n. Akicita 
ikceka ; ta'ku nahmanpi. 

privately, adv. 1. Nahmanna : he 
did it privately. 2. I'yataye- 
dai) : he was privately benefited. 

privateness, n. Wonahbe; wici- 

privation, n. Wokakize ; kakisya- 
pi : wakipi ; wieawanica. 

privilege, n. Ta'ku ta'wa; towi- 
yuskii) ; wookihi ; ecatawapi. — 
It is my privilege to call him 
father, ate ewakiye kta he mi- 

privileged, a. Woiyowinkiye yu- 

privily, a. Nahmanna. 

privy, n. Tankantipi. a. 1. Sdon- 
ya. 2. Isnana ta'wa : a privy 
purse. 3. Tuwedai) en i Sni; 
nahmanpi : a privy chamber. 

prize, n. Ta'ku ohiyapi; okipe; 
woohiye ; wakipi ; ta'ku tehika. 
— A prize medal, wanapin ohi- 
yapi. Prize money, ma'zaska 
ohiyapi. vt. 1. Tehinda.— J 
prize the book highly, wowapi 
ni'na tewahinda. 

probability, n. Woiyecetu; se'e- 

probable, a. Iyececa ; he'cetu kta 
se'oa ; se'eeeca. 

probably, adv. Naeeca ; iteka; se'- 

probate, n. Yuwicakapi. Probate 
court, waihpeyapi woyasu. 

probation 154 

probation, n. Iwieayutapi; iyu- 
teya econwieakiyapi. 

probationary, a. Iyutekiyapi. 

probe, vt. Ma'za ohnahna iyeya ; 
pakota. n. Wi'pakote. 

probity, n. Woowotanna; wowa- 
ste yuwicakapi. 

problem, n. Wowiyukcan ; woe- 
con ; woiwange. 

problematic, a. Iyukcanpica ; to'- 
ketu taninsni. 

proboscis, n. Pasu. 

procedure, n. Oaye ; ocanku ; wo- 

proceed, vt. 1. Iyaye ; iyoopta ya : 
he proceeded on his journey. 
2. Hiyu ; hinanpa. 

proceeding, pa. Iyaya; iyopte. 
He is proceeding, iyopte. n, 
Woecon ; wicohan. — Bead the 
proceedings of the meeting, 
omniciye woecoi) yawa. — An 
illegal proceeding , wicohan wo- 
ope ohna sni. 

proceeds, n. Wokamna ; woicage. 

process, n. 1. Woecoi) ; wokuwa : 
the process of making bread. 
2. CMyopte ; yeye. — In the pro- 
cess of time, un/hanketa. 

procession, n. 1. I'ciyaza omani- 
pi. — A funeral procession, wi- 
cahnag ya'pi. 2. Woiyopte ; 

proclaim, vt. E'yaqpaha ; oyaka ; 
yaotai)ii) : proclaim war. 

proclamation, n. £yai)pahapi ; wo 
yakapi: thanksgiving proclama- 

proclivity, w. Woiyutanye ; wowa- 

procrastinate, vt. Yutehai) j kihna- 

procrastination, n. Yutehanpi. 

procurable, a. Iyeyepica ; icu- 

procure, vt. Okini ; icu ; kamna : 
he procured three doctors, 

procurer, n. Wawihni ; ki'cicuwa. 


prod, vt. Pafcipa ; pasim kuwa. 

prodigal, a. Wayusota; waihan- 
gya : the prodigal son. ■ 

prodigality, n. Wayusotapi: wa- 

prodigious, a. Tan/ka; hiij'sko- 
taijka; wa'petokeca; a pro- 
digious ox. 

prodigiously, adv. Wowinihanyai) ; 
nina: he grew prodigiously. — He 
toughed prodigiously , ni'naiha. 

prodigy, n. Wowapetokeca. 

produce', vt. 1. Icahya ; aicahya : 
this ground produces corn well. 
2. Yutanhj; pazo; hiyuya : 
produce the evidence. 3. Ka'ga : 
vice produces misery. 

produce, n. Ta'ku icahyapi ; woi- 
cage ; wokage. 

producer, n. Waicahye ; tu'we ta'- 
ku ka'ge ; wakamna. 

product, n. 1. Woicage ; wokage ; 
ta'ku ka'ge; ta'ku icage. 2. 
(Math.) O'yuwitaya. 

production, n. 1. Ka'gapi ; yutan- 
iijpi : the production of tin. 2. 
Ta'kukagapi ; ta'kuicahya : the 
productions of the earth. 3. Yu- 

profanation, n. Ohodapisni; ta'- 

profane, a. 1. Ikceka x\ ikce : a 
profane author* 2. Waohoda- 
ani. vt. Ta'ku Wakan ohoda- 
sni ; ohodaani : profane the Sab- 

profanely, adv. Ohodasniyan. 

profaneness, n. Waohodapisni. 

profaner, n. Waohodasni. 

profanity, n. Waohodapisni. 

profess, vt. Ohdaka ; en ihdutan- 
in ; he'oa keiciya. 

professed, a. Ihdaotanin ; tanin- 
yan un. 

professedly, adv. I've ohdaka. 

profession, n. 1. Oihdakapi ; ihdu- 
taninpi; keieiyapi. 2. Wico- 
han ; woskinciye : the profession 

professional 155 

of a doctor. 3. Okodakiciye ; 

professional* a, Woskinciye ta 7 - 
wa ; wowayupika ; he'ca. 

professionally, adv. Oakinciye eci- 

professor, n. 1. Wooijspewankan- 
tu waonspekiya : the professor 
of Greek. 2. Je 7 sus o'pa ; wa- 

professorship, n. Waons ekiya 

proffer, vt. Hiyukiya ; ku kta 

proficiency, n. Wookihi ; wowayu- 
pika ; wosdonye. 

proficient, a. Wayupika ; waakino. 

proficiently, adv. Wayupiya. 

profile, n. Ohomni owapi ; wicite 
hdakinjan owapi. 

profit, n. 1. Wokamna ; aicage : 
the profit is ten dollars. 2. Iwi- 
cawastepi; woiyokihi; woka- 
mna : there is profit in exercise, 
vt. Okieiwaste ; kamna : it prof- 
ited him ten dollars, vi. Iwa- 
ste ; wi'yokihi. 

profitable, a. Wakamna; wi'yo- 
kihi ; wayuwaste. 

profitably, adv. Yuwasteya ; tan/- 

profitless, a. Wokamna co'dan. 

profligacy, n. Woyusice. 

proflifate, n. Sinya ohanye ; wai- 

profound, a. Mahentu ; wicaka. 

profoundly, adv. MaheDtuya. 

profoundness, n. Omahentu. 

profuse, a. IyaMcu ; pan 'ga ; onai)- 
pi ; aokageea. 

profusely, adv. Iyakicuya. 

profuseness, n. Wokageca. 

profusion, n. Woptecasni ; o 7 ta. 

progenitor, n. Hui)kake. 

prof eny, n. Cinca. 

prognosticate, vt. Oyaka ; ayata. 

program, programme, n. Woecon- 
oyaka ; omniciye wowapi. 


progress, n. Woiyopte ; iyoptapi. 
progress 7 , vi. Iyopte ; sam ya. 
progression, n. Woiyopte; woi- 

progressive, a. Iyopte ; wakitan. ; 

sam okihiwacin. 
prohibit, vt. Anapta ; teninda : 

prohibit the sale of liquor. 
prohibition, n. Watehindapi ; waa- 

naptapi ; miniwakan anaptapi. 
prohibitive, a. Waanapta. 
prohibitory, a. Waanapta. 
project, n. Wowiyukcaij; woe- 
project 7 , vt. I. Pasdohai) iyeya; 

hiyuya; enpeya. — He projected 

the roof, awakeya sam hiyuya. 

2. Iyukcan '.project apian. 3. 

Icazo ; sam owa : project the 

lines, vi. Hiyu ; sam hiyu : it 

projects afoot. 
projectile, n. Ta'ku yeyapi; wa- 

yeyapi ; wanhinkpe ; ma'zasu. 
projector, n. Ka'ga ; wi'yukcai). 
prolific, a. Waicahya ; ta 7 ku o 7 ta 

ioahya ; cincota. 
prolix, a. Han 7 ska; ehaes han 7 - 

ska ; aokaga ; iapi ecewinota. 
prologue, n. Owohdake otokahe. 
prolong, vt. Yuhanska. 
promenade, vi. Ihduzin omani. 
prominence, n. Wookitaijii) ; wo- 

waqkantuya ; paha. 
prominent, a. Okitanh). 
prominently, adv. Okitaninyan. 
promiscuous, a. I'cicahi; token- 

promiscuously, adv. I'cicahiya. 
promise, n. 1. Wahoyapi ; wowa- 

hoye : the promise of God. 2. 

Wowacinye ; waste kta iyeec n 

unpi. vt. Wahoya ; iwahoya ; 

keya; ku kta eya; se'ca : the 

Agent promised me a wagon. — 

The clouds promise ram. 
promising, a. Waste kta se'ca. 
promissory, a. Econ kta oyaka. 
promontory, n. Ipa ; makoce ipa. 

promote 156 

promote, vt. 1. Icahya; o'kiya; 
i'yopastake : promote education. 
2. Yuwankantuya ; wankan 
e'hnaka : promoted to the next 

promoter, n. Waicahya; wao- 

promotion, n. Yuwankantuyapi. 

promotive, a. Waokiya. 

prompt, a. Iyehan econ ; ohanko ; 
katii}yai). — Prompt attendance, 
iyehan hi'pi. — Prompt obe- 
dience, katinyai) anagoptanpi. 
— Prompt orders, econwicaki- 
yapi ohanko. vt. Econkiya; 
okiyaka : prompt him to go. 

prompter, n. Tu'we ecoijkiya ; tu'- 
we okiyaka. 

promptly, adv. Ohankoya ; ko- 
hanna ; iyehanyai). — Answer 
promptly, kohanna ayupta. — 
Ring the bell promptly, iyehan- 
yan wohda. 

promptness, n. Iyehan econpi; 
woiyehantu ; owicahankopi. 

prong, n. O'iqkpa ; oadetka ; oha- 

pronged, a. Onaka ; gangata. 

pronoun, n. {Gram.) Wocaze e'e- 

pronounce, vt. E'ya; e'napeya; 
ecen e'ya '.pronounce distinctly. 
— I can 1 1 pronounce it, ecen epa 
owakihisni. — He pronounced 
the dollar a counterfeit, ma'za- 
ska he wohnaye keya. 

pronounceable, a. Ecen eyepica. 

pronounced, a. Okitaniq ; wowi- 

pronouncer, n. To'ken eyapi 

pronunciation, n. E'napeyapi ; oe- 
nape ; iapi oenape. 

proof, n. On yuwicakapi ; woiyu- 
te ; on to'ketu sdonyapi : he 
gave no proof of his sincerity. 
a. 1. On yuwicakapi : a proof 
sheet; a proof text. 2. Okihi- 


picasni ; wakahdokesni : bullet 

proofless, a. Yuwicakapi wanica. 

prop, vt. Ipatan e'hde. n. Ipa- 
tai) ; ipatake. 

propagate, vt. 1. Icahya: prop- 
agate religion. 2. Sam icahya ; 
cincatonkiya : propagate buf- 

propagation, n. Waicahyapi. 

propel, vt. Iyayeya ; iyopteya : 
powder propels the balls. — The 
boat is propelled by steam, wata 
kin minipo kin oi) iyopte. 

propeller, n. Waiyopteya ; wa'ta- 

propensity, n. Woiyutanye. 

proper, a. 1. Wahehantu; owo- 
tanna : proper conduct. 2. Wi- 
citawa ; iyecetu : water is the 
proper place for a fish. 3. 
(Gram). I'yatayedan ; isnaiia 

properly, adv. Tanyan ; yucoya. 

property, n. 1. Woyuha : that 
horse is my property. 2. Wo- 
tokeca ; on wasdonyapi : sweet- 
ness is a property of sugar. 

prophecy, n. Wokcanpi ; woayate. 

prophesy, vt. Ayata ; iyukcan : 
prophesies the destruction of 
Jerusalem, vi. Woyaka : John 

prophet, n. Waayate; wicasta- 

prophetess, n. Win 'y an waayate. 

prophetic, a. Waayate ; wakcanka. 

prophetically, adv. Wakcanyan. 

propitiate, vt. Canwasteya ; yu- 
waste ; awacinkiya ; ta'ku ku. 

propitiation, n. Wokazuzu ; yuwa- 

propitiator, n. Wakazuzu ; wayu- 

propitiatory, a. Wakazuzupi. 

propitious, a. Owasteca; waste 
kta iteka ; wayuwaste. 

proportion, n. Oiyute ; iyekicetu. 




proportional, a. Iyekicetu ; i'cide- 

proportionally, adv. I'ciwanyagya. 

proposal, n. Woiwaqyake ; wawi- 
waqgapi; to'ken ecoi) kta oya- 
kapi. — Praposalsfor building a 
house, ti'pi to'ken ka'ge kta 
oyaka. — He made proposals of 
marriage, wakanyuze kta ke- 

propose, vt. 1. Iwanyag&i ; caze- 
yata: he proposed to Mr. Jones 
to come. 2. Iwanyaka; awa- 
cin. I propose to tell you. vi. 
1. Wi'yukcan ; eeonwaoin : man 
proposes, God disposes. 2. Wa- 
kanyuze kta eoiya : Mr. Jones 
proposed to Miss Smith. 

proposer, n. Wawiwanga. 

proposition, n. 1. Woiwan&a ; iapi 
iwanyagwicadipi : propositions 
of peace. 2. Wowioada ; iapi 
ihduotai)ii)pi : the propositions 
of Calvin. 3. Woeye ; iapi iwo- 
hdakapi : the proposition is, if 
liquor is injurious, it ought to be 

propound, vt. Iapi e'lmaka ; iwan- 
yaggi ; e'hnaka. 

proprietary, a. Woyuha ta'wa; 

proprietor, n. Ta'wa ; yuhe ein. 

propriety, n. Woiyokipi : observe 
the proprieties of society. 

pro rate, adv. Iyawa ; i'akidecen. 

prorogue, vt. Enakiyewicaya. 

prosaic a. Tke ; wawihahasni. 

proscribe, vt. Enpeya : yutokan ; 
he'cetufini eya: \e Kta yacopi. 

proscription, n. Enpeyapi ; \e kta 

prose, n. Iapi ikceka; iapi ka- 

prosecute, vt. 1. Kuwa: prosecu- 
ting his studies. 2. Kuwa ; aia : 
he is prosecuted for murder. 

prosecution, n. Kuwapi; aiapL 

prosecutor, n. Kuwa ; aia. 

proselyte, vt Iwioacu; okodaki- 
ciye to'keca etanhai) iwioacu ; 
titokai) wicaki. n. Nakaha ti- 
tokai) ki'pi. 

proselytism,n. Titokai) awicayapi. 

pro-slavery, a. Wayaka yuhapi 
he'cetu da'pi. 

prospect, n. 1. Wowanyake ; ma- 
koce owanyake ; e'tonwaqpi. 
2. Makooe iteowapi : the pros- 
pect from the hill-top. 3. Iteka : 
a prospect of rain. 4. Tokata 
to'ketu kta ; tokata owanyake : 
his prospects are good. vt. Ode ; 
iwanyaka : prospect the hills for 
gold. vi. Waode. 

prospective, a. Tokata iwanya- 

prosper, vt. O'kiya ; yuwaste. vi. 
Taijyan ui) ; wa'pi. 

prosperity, w. Wotaqyan ; wa'- 

prosperous, a. Tan/yai) iyopte ; 

prosperously, adv. Tan/yan. 

prostitute, vt. Ta'ku fii'ca en ku : 
prostitute his talents, n. Wi- 

prostitution, n. Win'yan. wi'yopei- 
oiyapi; ta'ku fii'ca en icicupi. 

prostrate, a. Wankahan ; makata. 
— Makata wanka, lies prostrate, 
vt. Makata enpeya ; yuwanka ; 

prostrated, a. Wankahan. 

prostration, n. Yuwankapi ; wota- 

prosy, a. Tke ; iapi otoza. 

protect, vt. AnakikMn ; akahpa ; 
awanyaka : protect your chil- 
dren. — Protect yourself from 
cold, osni etanhai) aihdanpa. 

protecting ly, adv. Awanyagya. 

protection, n. Woawanyake ; wo- 
winape ; woakahpe ; o'kiyapi. 

protector, n. Waawanyake. 

protest 7 , vi. Awicakehan i'eni- 

protest 158 

protest, n. I'eniyeyapi ; a'wicake- 

hai) eyapi ; wieadapisni. 
Protestant, n. Sinasapa Ateyapi, 

Pope, he itancan yuha wicada 

protract, vt. Yuhanska ; yuteh&n : 

protract the meeting. — Pro- 
tracted meeting, anpetu iyohi 

protrude, vt. Inapeya. vi. Hina- 

pa : hiyu : his tongue protrudes. 
protuDerance, n. Po ; pazowanka. 
protuberant, a. Pazowanka. 
proud, a. 1. Wahanicida: a proud 

race. 2. Iwiijkta ; iyuskin : 

proud of his horse. 3. Wowi- 

tan ; taq'ka ; ohitika : proud 

proudly, adv. Wahanicidaya ; wo- 

prove, vt. 1. Yuwicaka : prove 

what you say. 2. Iyuta : prove 

the strength of the wagon, vi. 

proven, a. Yuwicakapi. 
provender, n. Wanuyaijpi tawo- 

yute ; pezi: woyute. 
proverb, n. Woksape wicoie ; wi- 

coiewakai) ; wi'yaciqpi. 
proverbial, a. Wicoie eyapis'a; 

eyapi cee. 
proverbially, adv. A'taya sdonya- 

pi ; eca. 
provide, vt. Kamna ; kuwa ; wi'- 

yeya e'hnaka; ihni. — Provide 

for his children, cinca wicaki- 

provided, conj. Ehantanhan ; kin- 

providence, n. 1. Woawaqyake ; 

woihni : he has no providence 

for his family. 2. n. pr. Wa- 

provident, a. Wawihni; wi'yeya 

hna'ka ; wakpatai) : a provident 

provideutial, a. Ta'kuwakan etan- 



providentially, adv. Ta'kuwakan 
oi) ; tai)yai) ; wa'piya. 

providently, adv. Wakpatanyan ; 

provider, n. Wakamna. 

province, n. 1. Woawanyake ; wi- 
eohai) : it is not my province to 
act as judge. 2. Makoce; ma- 
kobaspe : the provinces of Ca- 
nada. 3. Tohanyan skan ; ta'ku 
iyowaza : the province of poetry. 

provincial, a. Makobaspe; a'ta- 
yasni ; isnana ta'wapi. 

provincialism, n. Iapi tiospaye 
wanzidan un/pi ; iapihcesni. 

provision, n. 1. Yuwiyeyapi; woi- 
hni : make provision for a big 
crowd. 2. Woyute ; waneya : 
provisions for the journey, vt. 
Woyute Ip. : provision the sol- 

provisional, a. Inahnikagapi. 

proviso, n. Wokase. 

provocation, n. Wonagiyeya; wo- 

provoke, it. Na&iyeya; canzeya; 
wacinkoya ; i'yopastake. 

provoked, pa. dinhda. 
. provoker, n. Wawiyopastake. 

provoking, a. Wacanzeka ; wacin- 

prow, n. Wa'taipa ; watokapa. 

prowess, n. Wowaditake ; woohi- 

prowl, vt. Nahman omani ; na- 
hman ode. 

prowler, n. Nahman omani. 

proximate, a. Ikiyedan ; o'kihe. 

proximity, n. Eiyedan. 

proxy, n. E'ekiya woecon. 

prudence, n. Woksape; wopakan. 

prudent, a. Ksa'pa ; wawitonpe ; 
wakpatai). A prudent king. — 
A prudent driver, wakahapa 
wawitonpe. — A prudent expen- 
diture, owopetoi) wakpatai). 

prudential, a. Waitonpapi ; wi'yu- 




prndentially, adv. Wi'yukoanyan, ; 

prudently, adv. Ksamyahan. 

prune, vt. Ii) ; kpa basimsipa ; oij- 
spaspa enpeye. n. Kan'tasapa. 

pry, n. IynMi) ; iyuptaijye. vt. 
Yuptaqyai) j yuptaqyewacii) ; 

psalm, n. Odowanwakai). 

pshaw, inter}. Hoft ; hinte. 

psychology, n. Wotawacin wooij- 

puberty, n. Cincaton okihipi. 

public, a. 1. Oyatetawa : public 
property. 2. Otanin ; o'wanca 
sdonyapi : ilie discovery is made 
public. 3. Tu'we oeyafi ta'wa ; 
sintomni ta'wapi : a public 
road. n. Oyate ; wioasta a'taya. 
— In public : wioasta i'tokam ; 

publican, n. Ro'ma wamnayan. 

publication, n. 1. Yaotaninpi ; ka'- 
gapi ; wowapi ma'za on ka'ga- 
pi : he gathers the news for 
publication. 2. Wotanin wo- 
wapi: a daily publication. 

publicity, n. A'taya otanin. 

publicly, adv. Taniijyai). 

public-spirited, a. Oyate en wa« 
einyuza; wawacinktayozatan- 

publish, vt. 1. Yaotanin ; oyaka : 
the herald publishes the victory. 
2. Wotaninwowapi oyaka ; wo- 
wapi ka'ga. 

publisher, n. Wowapi ma'za on 

pucker, vt. Yunaha ; yuske. 

pudding, n. Cocoya wa&panyanpi. 

puddle, n. Minio&kokpa. 

pueblo, n. Otonwe. Pueblo In- 
dians, Snsoni wicasa. 

puerile, a. Wakanheza. 

puff, n. 1. Ipogan. : a puff of 
wind. 2. Iapi on apoganpi; 
oazeyatapi : a puff in the paper, 
vt. 1. Apogai) ; ipogan. 2. Yu- | 

tanka ; tate on ozuya : puffed 
up with pride. 3. Yawaste; 
yaonihan : he puffed the doctor. 

puffing, a. Ponpon; niyasni ta 
nun so. 

pugh, interj. Ecahe ; wan. 

pugilist, n. Waapaskata. 

pugnacious, a. Wakizes'a. 

puke, vi. Hde'pa ; hiynya. 

pull, vt. 1. Yutitan : pull down the 
rope. 2. Yusdohan : the horse 
can't pull it. — Pull down, kun 
ehpeya, yuzuzu. — PuU fruit, 
waskayeoa yuspi. — Pull in, 
xnahen icu. — Pull off, yusdoka. 
— PuU out f yupsuij. — Pull a 
tooth, hi yupsun. — Pull to 
pieces, yuksaksa. — Pull up, yu- 
zun. — Pulled up at his father's, 
atkuku ti ekta ninazin. 

pullet, n. An'paohotonna wi'ye 
maka waqzina. 

pulley, n. Canayuhomnipi. 

pulmonary, a. Cagu. 

pulp, n. Co ; nini 

pulpit, n. Wicastawakan. onazin. 

pulpy, a. Coco. 

pulsation, n. Iyapa : oiyapa. 

pulse, n. 1. Kan 'iyapa : a rapid 
pulse. 2. Omnioa. 

pulverise, vt. Pamdumdu; mdu 
ka'ga ; yuparjpan ; bopan. 

pump, n. Miniicu; canhdogeca 
ohna mini icupi. vt. 1. Mini 
icu ; iou. 2. E'ya kuwa ; iwan- 

pumpkin, n. Wamnu; Y. wakmu; 

T. wagmu. 
pun, n. Iapi wawi&ana. 
punch, n. 1. Miniwakan icahi : he 

drank a glass of punch. 2. Ma'- 

zaicahdoke : strike the punch 

hard. vt. Panini ; pahdoka. 
punctual, a. Iyehan econ ; iye- 

hantu : a punctual payment. 
punctually, adv. Iyehanyan. 
punctuate, vt. Samyapidan e'hna~ 





punctuation, n. Samyapidan ; ho'- 

puncture, vt. Pandoka ; capa. n. 
ondoka ; opandoka. 

poof ent, a. 1. Paza ; pa : a 
pungent turnip, 2. Pe'sto ; wa- 
yaMaka : pungent remarks. 

pong ently, adv. Pe'stoya. 

punish, vt. Iyopeya ; kakisya : 
punish the child. 

punishable, a. Iyopeyepica. 

punishment, n. Woiyopeye; iyo- 
peyapi : kakisyapi. 

punk, n. Cankagica. 

pony, a. Ci'stina ; sta'ka ; hun/ke- 
sni : a puny girl. 

pop, n. dunnpadan. 

pupil, n. 1. Wayawa; waonspe- 
kiyapi ; siceca. The Boarding- 
Sehool pupils, ti'pitanka waon- 
spewicakiyapi. — He was a pu- 
pil at Santee Training School. 
2. Istasusapa ; istasu. 

puppet, n. Wicastakagapidan. 

poppy, n. Sunhpadan. 

purr, vi. £[do : the cat purrs. 

purchasable, a. Opetonpica. 

purchase, vt. Opetoi) : purchase a 
house. — Purchase with (or for), 
iyopeya. — Buy of, opekiton. n. 
1. Owopetoi) ; wopetoi) : a bad 
purchase. 2. lyukin ; wi'yuze : 
raise it with a purchase. 

purchaser, n. Tu'we wopetoi). 

pure, a. 1. E'cedan ; Y. e'cena ; 
T. e'cela ; ta'kudan icahisni :< 
pure gold. 2. Ska ; wa'kasote- 
sni ; woantani ni'ca : a pure 

purely, adv. E'cedan. 

poreness, n. Woecedai) ; e'cedai). 

purgative, a. & u. On iheyapi. 

purgatory, n. Wioanagi woyuzaza. 

purge, vt. 1. Iheyekiya : the med- 
icine purged him. 2. Yuzaza ; 
yuska : purge me from sin. n. 
Iyoptaiyeyapi ; oi) iheyapi. 

purification, n. Wayuskapi. 

purifier, n. Wayuska; wayuece- 

purify, vt. Yuska ; yuecedan ; ka- 
sotesni jyuwaste. 

purity, n. Woecedai) ; wowakaso- 

purloin, vt, Manoi) ; napistanyan. 
vi. Wamanon. 

purple, n. Staq ; sastan ; sa. 

purport, n. To'ken ka'pi ; woku- 
wa. vt. Ea ; yutai)ii). 

purpose, n. Ta'ku kuwapi; wo- 
knwa ; tawacii) ; ta'ku ciij'pi : 
what is their purpose in coming. 
— On purpose, cii). vt. Awa- 
cii) ; wacinynza : he purposed 

purposeless, a. Tawacii) wanica. 

purr, vi. lido ; hdodowan. 

purse, n. 1. Ma'zaska ozuha ; wo- 
zuha: an empty purse. 2. Ma- 
zaskayekiyapi : he won the 

pursuable, a. Kuwapica. 

pursuance, n. Wokuwa. In pur- 
suance of, a'etopta; ohnayan. 

pursuant, a. Ecen. Pursuant to, 

pursue, vt. Kuwa ; pasi ; knwa 

■ a'ya; ya; iyaya. — Pursue the 
enemy, to'ka Mi) kuwa. — Pur- 
suing rabbits, mastinca pasi. 

pursuer, n. Wakuwa. 

pursuit, n. Kuwapi ; wokuwa. 
Tlte pursuit of pleasure, woma- 
gaga kuwapi. 

purvey, vt. Ihni ; okini. 

pus, n. Toi). Discharge pus, ton 
hiyu ; tonye. 

push, vt. 1. Patai) ; pataniyeya ; 
patitai) : push the sled. — Push 
the box this way, koka den'tkiya 
pasdohan. — Push hard, ni'na 
patitai). 2. I'yopastag ku'wa ; 
ni'na ku'wa. — He is pushing 
me for pay, wokazuzu on ni'na 
makuwa. — Push aside, pakam 
iyeya. — Push down, kun iyeya. 




— Push off, pahpa. — Push open, 
pahdoka; pagan. — Push over, 
pawaqka. — Push up, pawan- 
kan iyeya. n. Wopatitan ; pa- 
titai)pi womdiheoa ; wakitanpi. 

pushing, a. Mdiheca; wakitai). 

pusillanimous, a. Canto hun/kesni. 

puss, n. Iiimusunka; Y. ikmu- 
sunka; T. igmu. 

put, vt. E'hnaka; Y. e'knaka; 
T. e'gnaka. — Put a ease to the 
jury, wi'yukcanpi oecoi) owi- 
cakiyake. — Put away, tokan 
e'hnaka; ehpeya. — Put about, 
yuhomni. — Put back, he'kta 
iyaye. — Put down, kun e'hna- 
ka ; yusni. — Put down a name, 
caze owa. — Put forth the hand, 
nape yekiya. — Put forth leaves, 
ape uya. — Put forth strength, 
wowa&'ake kicun. — Pat for- 
ward, tokata e'hnaka. — Putin 
a bottle, zanzan ohnaka. — Put 
into a harbor, oahuni en iyaye. 
— Put it off on, fcinkiya ; ku. — 
Put off doing, kihnaka. — Put 
off a robe, sina yusdoka. — Put 
off without anything, coka iya- 
ya. — Put on a coat, o'kde kicun. 
— Put on more horses, sun'ka- 
wakan naknn aopekiya. — Put 
on more wood, can nakun aon. 
— Put out the lamp, petizanzan, 
bosni. — Put out money, ma'za- 
ska owioaku. — Put out tlie ton- 
gue, cezi hiyuya. — Put out the 
thief, wamanns'a tankan iya- 
yeya. — Put out of joint, o'kihe 
pap&un. — Put out (in play), 
ayustanMya. — Put over till, he- 
hanyan kihnaka. — Put over the 

river, akasam e'yahpeya. — Put 
through, ihunikiya; yustan. — 
Put to bed, iwangkiya; istiij- 
bekiya. — Put to death, kte.— 
Put together, wi'taya e'hnaka ; 
i'cikoyagya. — Put to rights, 
tan'yan e'hnaka; eeen e'hna- 
ka. — Put to the sword, miwakan 
on kte. — Put to trial, yacopi 
kta ku. — Put trust in, wacin- 
kiya. — Put up fruit, waskuyeca 
doya hna'ka. — Put up the play- 
things, wi'napiakanya kihnaka. 
— Put up to do it, eeonkiya. — 
Put up a teepee, ti'pi e'hde. 
— Put up the job, wioohan ka'- 
ga. vi. Iyaye : the ship put to 
sea, — Put about, namni. — Put 
back, he'kta iyaya. — Put in for, 
da; kuwa. — To put off, to'ki 
iyaye.- 1 — Put up with abuse, oste- 
hdapi en e'wacinsni. — At what 
house do you put up, ti'pi tnkte 
en nun'ka he. 

putrefaction, n. Kuka a'ye. 

putrefy, vt. Kukaya ; yusica ; yu 
kuka. vi. Kuka a'ya ; hwin. 

putrid, a. flwii) ; kuka. It is now 
putrid, wanna hwin. — A putrid 
smell, hwin/mna. 

putter, vi. Ta'ku econ taninsni 

putty, ft. Mniokdasin wi'puspe. 
vt. Apuspa. 

puzzle, vt. Wacinhnuniya ; okihi- 
sniya. vi. Wacinhnuni ; to'ke- 
tu taninsni. n. Owiyukcansi- 
oa ; to'ketu taninsni. 

pyramid, n. Woomdoton pe'sto. 

pyrite, n. Ma'zaikceka wiyakpa. 

pyrotechnic, n. Pe'ta okinyanpi. 




quack, vi. Hotoi) : the ducks quack. 

n. 1. Hotoijpi. 2. Onspekiya- 

pisni ecoi) ; wicahnayan ; wa- 

mnaicida : the doctor is a quack. 
quackery, n. Wamnaicidapi. 
quadrangle, n. Oisetopa. 
quadrant, n. 1. Canhdeska to'pa- 

baspapi. 2. Otakinyan oiyute. 
qoadrennlal, a. Waniyetu to'pa; 

waniyetu i'topa. 
quadrilateral, n. Guwitopa. 
quadroon, n. Iyokise ya'mni haska 

ka iyokise wanzi hasapa. 
quadruple, a. To'paakihde. vt. 

To'paakihde ka'ga. 
quaff, vt. Ni'na yatkai) ; yahem 

qoafmire, a. Hihi; coco; wiwi. 

n. Wiwi ; makandihdi. 
quail, n. Zi'casapena. vi. Natun- 

ka ; napa ; kokipa. 
qnalat, a. To'keca; heyoka se; 

quaintly, adv. Wowina. 
quake, vi. Cancan ; huhuzahan ; 

kokipa. n. Cancanpi. 
quaker, ». Wacancan ; cancanpi. 

n. 2>r. Wapahatanka wicasta. 
qnakingly, adv. Cancanyan. 
quaky, a. Sutasnij hohodan. 
qualification, n. Woyaatanin ; to'- 

keca oyaka ; woiyecetu. 
qualified, pa. Iyecetu ; okihi ; yu- 

stanpi ; onspaya. 
qualify, vt. 1. Piiciya; onspeici- 

ciya : he qualified himself to 

teach. 2. Onspa yatokeca ; oa- 

hececa ka'ga ; san'pa yatanin. 

3. (Gram.) Yatanin. vi. Oi) 

quality, n. Itokeca kiij ; ohai); obe; 

okage ; ospaye. 
qualm, n. Wohnaskiqye ; woka- 

kize ; t o'keca. 

qualmish, a. Hde'pektenca. 

quandary, n. To'ketutan.insni. 

quantity, n. To'nakeca; oiyute; 
woyawa ; o'ta. 

Quapaws, n. pr. Pe'sa. 

quarantine, n. Wi'tawata woka- 
ske; makosica wokaske. vt. 
Makosica oi) kaskapi. 

quarrel, n. Woakinica; wokicize ; 
akinicapi. vt. Kiciza; akinica. 

quarrelsome, a. WaaMnices'a. 

qnarry, n. Iij'yai) ofcapi. n. Oke. 

quart, n. Mniyatketanka oiyute. 

quarter, n. 1. To'pakibaspapi 
wanzi. 2. Kaspapi nom sam 
okise; Y. kangikagapi: I paid 
him a quarter. 3. Wi ya'mni : 
we are paid quarterly. 4. Oyan- 
ke ; ti'pi : miserable quarters. — 
Head - quarters, akicitatan cai) 
ti. — <S7k>w? no quarters, onsida- 
sni. vt. 1. To'pa kibaspa. 2. 
Oyanke ku ; yuhekiya : they 
quartered the soldiers in the 
church, vi. Ti ; yanka. 

quarterly, a. Waniyetu wanzi to'- 
pakibaspapi ; wi ya'mni : quar- 
terly payments. 

quartermaster, n. AMcita tiawan- 
yake ; heyake awanyake. 

quartette, n. Hotopa do wan pi; 

quarto, n . Wowapiozuhaton tan 'ka. 

quarts, n. In/yan. (ocaze). 

quash, vt. Kasusuza; ihangya; 
yutakunisni; yuecetusni. Quash 
an indictment, woiyaonpa yuta- 

quasi, a. Se'ececa. 

quaternary, a. To'pa; itopa. n. 
(Geol.) Icitopa. 

quaver, vi. Ho yucancan ; hohna- 
gicadowan. n. Ho'yacancanpi. 

quay, n. Wa'taoahuni ka'gapi. 

• queen 163 

queen, ». Wicastayatapiwin ; wi- 

castayatapi tawicu; win'yani- 

tancan : the queen of England, 

— Queen-bee, tubmaga itancan. 
queenly, a. Itancanwinyan se'ca ; 

queer, a. To'keea ; wowina. 
queeriy, adv. Wowinaya. 
quell, vt. Yuasni : quell the riot. 
quench, vt.Yusm: quench the flames. 
quenchable, a. Yusnipica. 
querulous, a. Iyokipisni ies'a ; asi- 

querry, ft. Woiwanga. vt. Wi'- 

wanga £oetui)hda. 
quest, n. Waodepi ; wi'hnipi. 
question, n. Woiwanga ; wi'waq- 

gapi. vt. Wi'waijga ; ce^unhda : 

question his motives, vi. Wa- 

qnestionaole, a. To'ketutaijiijsni ; 

wacetnnhdapica : it is question- 
able whether he can read. 
questioner, n. Wawiwaqga. 
quibble, n. Ecaiapi; wawihapi; 

waoetnnhdapi. vi. Heciyotai)- 

6ni ia ; cetunhda. 
quick, a. 1. Onanko : quick motion. 

2. Ni ; ni ui). adv. Onankoya ; 

kohanna : do it quick. — Be 

quick, inanni. n. Oyazai) ; tu- 

kte ni. 
quicken, vt. Tuinanni ; o'cim onan- 

ko econ.. vi. Ni ; skanskan. 
quickening, n. WicayuMoapi; wo- 

quickly, adv. Onankoya; inanni. 
quickness, n. Woonanko. 
quicksand, n. Wiyaka coco ; wiya- 

ka hdi&didai). 
quicksilver, ft. Ma'zaska nini. 
quickstep, n. Akicitatadowan 

quickwitted, a. Wacinksapa. 
quM, ». Woyata ; yatapi. 
quiescent, a. Owaqziui) ; taninsni 

quiet, a. Owaniiun ; atanse un ; 


wa'hbadai). vt. Kihna; yui- 

nina. n. Woamdakedan ; wo- 

dkanskan wanioa. 
quietly, adv. A'inina ; atansena : 

the bird sat quietly. 
quietness, n. Woamdakena; wo- 

quietness, ft. Woasni ; woayu&tan. 
quill, n. Wi'yaka; wowapiicage. 

Porcupine quills, pahin. 
quilMrlver, n. Wowapikaga. 
quilt, n. Sinaokipatapi ; owinia- 

akahpe. vt. Wakagege. 
quilting , n. Owinzaakanpe waka- 

quince, n. Taspan (ocaze). 
quinine, n. Ganeaijpi pezuta. 
quinsy, n. Wi'napcepopi woyazan . 
quintessence, n. Iyotanwaste ; woi- 

quintette, n. Hozaptan dowanpi. 
quire, n. Wowapiska wikcemna 

nom sam to'pa. 
quirk, n. Wonabaka ; woynkfiize. 
quirklsh,a. dkiska; onantokeca. 
quit, vt. 1. Ayu&tan ; enakiye : 

quit crying. 2. Ihunikiya ; econ : 

quit you like men. 
quitclaim,*}. Ta'waihdawa enakiye. 
quite, adv. 1. Tan'yan ; ooowasin ; 

ni'na : the work is quite done. 

2. Kitanna : quite sick. 
quiver, n. Wan'zu. vi. Ganoan. 
qulverlngly, adv. Gancanyan. 
quiz, vt. Wi'wanga ; wi'wanh kii- 

wa. ». 1. Woiwanga; wowi- 

ynkcan : they gave him a quiz. 

2. Tu'we wawinana. 
qulsser, n. Wawiwaqges'a. 
quoit, ft. Ma'zaokah'o. 
quorum, n. Omniciye iyenakeca. 
quota, ft. I'ye to'na econSipi. 
quotation, n. Oie oyakapi. Quo- 
tation marks, to'ie wa'petokeca. 
quote, vt. Gazeyata ; oie oyaka. 
quoth, in. E'ya. 
quotient, ft. To'nakiya yuspapi; 

to'nakeca ohna iyaye. 




rabbet, vt Tete kaskokpa. 

rabbi, n. Itaijcai). 

rabbit, n. Mastiqca. 

rabble, n. Tu'wepi taninsni ; wi- 

rabid, a. Ocinsioa; hnaskiijyai). 
rabidly, adv. Wohitiya; mde'ze- 

raccoon, n. Wica. 
race, n. 1. Obe ; wicobe ; oyate. 

The White race, oyate ska. 2. 

Oii)yai)ke ; kiiqyaqkapi : let us 

run a race. 3. Mnieaduze : a 

mitt race. vt. Kiiqyanke : I 

will race with you. 
race-coarse, n. Oiijyanke. 
nce-horae, n. Suijgiijyaijgkiyapi. 
racer, n. 1. Kiqinyankes'a ; du'za- 

hai). 2. Waqmduskasapa. 
racily, adv. Yazimzimya ; pe'- 

rack, vt. 1. Kaskopa; kahoho; 

yus'aka. 2. Kakisya; kacai)- 

cai) : he racked his brain, n. 1. 

Oi) wakakisyapi. 2. Ahnakapi : 

a hay-rack. 3. Onas'ii) : a slow 

rack. vi. Onas'ii) : can your 

horse rack. 
racket, n. 1. TaMcapsica : a baU 

and racket. 2. Owodutaton ; 

racking , a. Wakakisya ; teMka. 
racy, a. Wayazimzipa ; wayunit- 

Mca ; pe'sto. 
radial, a. Caijhdeska woyugate. 
radiance, n. Wowiyakpa. 
radiant, a. Wiyakpa ; wi'yega. 
radiantly, adv. Wiyakpaya. 
radiate, vt. 1. Iyega : radiate heat. 

2. A'kizanzan iyayeya ; o'warj- 

caya iyayeya. a. A'kizanzate ; 

radiation, n. Waiyanpeya ; o'wai)- 


radical, n. 1. O'hutkan ; o'tokahe. 

2. Hu'tedai) ; wayazuzu. 
radically, adv. Hutkan etai)hai) ; 

radish, n. Paqgisasa. 
radios, n. 1. Caijteiyohiya ; oyu- 

ga. 2. Ispahu : the radius of 

the left arm. 
raffle, vi. Ecoqna. 
raft, n. Caijyuwipi ; caijiyakaska- 

pi. vt. O'kanbogya. 
rafter, n. Awakeyapi huna. 
raf, n. Mininuha ondecahe. 
ragamuffin, n. Mininuha wieasta. 
rage, vi. Wohitiyaskan ; kah'oh'o 

iyeieiya. n. Wocanniye. 
ragged, a. fidendecahan ; hehe ; 

ragman, n. Heyake tani ope ton. 
raid, n. Wicomani ; ozuye. 
rail, n. 1. MaMnatake ; canhan- 

ska. 2. flemanimaza : laying 

the rails. — He came by rail, he- 

mani ohna hi. vi. Ostehda. 
railer, n. Wieakiges'a ; wayasica. 
railing, a. Wayasicapi. n. Acan- 

railery, n. Waostestepi. 
railroad, railway, n. Ma'zacan- 

raiment, n. Heyake ; Y. hayake ; 

rain, vi. Magazu ; hinhan ; hinhe. 

— Bain on, ahii)he. vt. Maga- 
zu; hinhai). n. Magazu; ma- 

gazumni ; womagazu. 
rainbow, n. Wihmunke. 
rainfall, n. Womagazu. 
raingage, n. Magazu iyute 
raininess, n. Magazus'a. 
rainless, a. Magazusni. 
rainwater, n. Magazumni. 
rainy, a. Magazus'a. 
raisable, a. Yuwaijkan icupica. 

raise 165 

raise, vt. Yuwankan icu ; wankan 
e'hde ; na'zinkiya ; icanya ; ka'- 
ga. — Raise bread, aguyapi na- 
ponya. — Raise corn, wamnahe- 
za icanya. — Raise the dead, 
wioate cin ekioetuya. — Raise 
the false report, iapi wohnaye 
ka'ga. — Raise ike fallen, wan- 
kahan na'zinkiya. — Raise a 
flagpole, canwakan e'hde. — 
Raise money, ma'zaska okini. 
— Raise the price, i'wankam 
yawa. — Raise out of sleep, yuhi- 
ca. — Raise troops, akicita 

raisin, n. Hastanhanka pusyapi. 

raisiaf , n. Wankan yeyapi ; bos- 
dan e'hdepi. 

rake, n. 1. Ma'zaiyuhinte ; man- 
iyuhinte. 2. Wieawihomni. 
vt. Yuhinta ; kahinta ; kahin 
eyaya ; kahin e'zu. 

raking, n. Wakahintapi ; woka- 

rally, vt. 1. Piya na'zinwicakiya : 
he rallied his men. 2. Ikihana. 

ram, n. 1. Ta'noaska mdoka : the 
ram has big horns. 2. Wi'bo- 
bdeca. vt. Boskica ; bopan : 
ram it down. 

ramble, vi. Wi'kcekce omani ; to'- 
ken cin/cin omani. n. Oma- 

rambler, n. Omanis'a. 

ramification, n. Oyugaga. 

ramified, pa. Yuhaha ; adetka 

rammer, n. Iboskica ; wi'bopan. 

rampafe, n. Wohitiya skan'pi. 

rampant, a. Wohitika ; bosdata. 

rampart, n. Wowinape; con'ka- 
ske ; makaokapi. 

ramrod, n. Ma'zakaniyopuskice ; 

ran, imp. of bun. 

rancid, a. Hmun'za. 

rancor, n. Wowafttedasni. 

rancorous, a. Wowahtedasni. 


random, n. Otuyacin. 

rang, imp. of eing. 

range, vt. Cankuyeton e'hnaka; 

okamdan e'hde; okawinh ya. 

n. 1. Cankuye : a range of 

mountains. 2. Owaspanyetan- 

ka : a range in the kitchen. 3. 

Wohiyohi; wacinoaye : his mind 

has a small range. 4. Okute ; 

wayeya : a gun of small range. 

5. Makoce ounyanpi ; owinan- 

ye : the feed on the range. 6. 

Bosdata oioazo tan'ka. 
ranger, n. 1. Akicita natantan 

omani. 2. dun'ka womna. 
rank, n. 1. Cankuye; o'cimdan 

na'zinpi. 2. Woitancan obe : 

of the rank of captain. 3. O'he; 

oyanke : a man of high rank. 

vt. 1. O'cimdah e'hde. 2. O'- 

peya yawa; ko'ya e'hnaka. 3. 

Iwankam yawapi. a 1. Han'- 

ska: otantonka : rank weeds. 

2. Iyotan ; wakapeya : rank 

nonsense. 3. Sicamna; nwin'- 

mna: rank meat. 
rankle, vi. Icah a'ya; sam si'ca 

rankly, adv. Otantonyan. 
rankness, n. Wotanton; woohi- 

ransack, vt. Ode ; a'taya ode ; na- 

ransom, n. Wokazuzu ; on kiyu- 

skapi kta : he paid the ransom. 

vt. Ki'oicazuzu ; opekiton : he 

ransomed the prisoner. 
rant, vi. Wohitiya ia ; tamya : the 

preacher ranted, n. Ituya ho'- 

ranter, n. Ituya ho'tanka. 
rap, vt. Katoto; apa. n. Kato- 

rapacious, a. Wabotica. 
rapaciously, adv. Wohitiya. 
rapacionsness, n. Waihangya. 
rapacity, n. Woohitika. 
rape, n. Win'yan iyahpayapi ; wi- 

rapid 166 

cadasni tawinyanpi ; wikiksan- 

rapid, a. 1. Obaqko ; du'zahan : 

a rapid writer. 2. Ni'na kadu- 

za : rapid waters. 3. Kaduza ; 

dus ya : a rapid current. 
rapidity, n. Woonanko. 
rapidly, adv. O'nankoya ; kohan- 

rapine, n. Waboticapi. 
rapper, n. Ioabu. 
rapture, n. Wowiyuskin tan'ka. 
raptured, pa. Wowiyuskin ozu- 

dai) ; hnaskinyan. 
rare, a. 1. TeMka; wan'wanca- 

dan yuhapi : a rare book. 2. 

Kapozedai) : rare atmosphere. 

3. Span'sni; ki'tanna Span : 

rare steak. 
rarify, vt. Kapozedai) ka'ga. 
rarely, adv. Wan'wancadai). 
rareness, n. 1. Wowanica : the 

rareness of the plant. 2. Woka- 

pozedai). 3. dpan/sni. 
rarity, n. Woteni ; eoawanioa. 
rascal, n. Tu'we wantesni. 
rascality, n. Wowahte&ni. 
rascally, a. Wahtesni. 
rase, vi. Kawanka. 
rash, a. Wacinko ; onanko ; waa- 

wacinsni : rash conduct, n. 

Ahinanpapi : a rash on his 

rashly, adv. Waawacindniyai). 
rashness, n. Woawacin&ni. 
rasp, n. Caqipabe. 
raspberry, n. Takanheca. 
rat, n. Sintesda ; Y. hituqktanka. 

Rat-trap, sintesdaihmunke. 
ratched, n. Wi'yuhomnisuta. 
rate, n. Oiyawa ; oiyute ; woka- 

zuzu : the rate on grain is too 

high. — First rate, ni'na tai)'- 

yaij. vt. Yawa ; iyawa ; i'enhi- 

rather, adv. 1. E'es; iyotan; to- 

kaheya : rather grew worse. 2. 

Ki'tanna : rather cold. 


ratification, n. Yueoetupi ; yusu- 

ratifler, n. Waynecetu. 
ratify, vt. Yuecetu ; yusuta. 
ratio, n. 1. Kici oiyute iwanya- 

kapi. 2. Tona iwanyakapi ; 

oiyute wi'yokihi. 
ration, n. Wowicafcupi; aijpetu 

iyawa wowicakupi ; wokpa- 

rational, a. Wi'yukoai) ; mde'ze- 

ca ; ksa'pa. 
rationaUsm, n. Wi'yukoai) icidapi. 
rationally, adv. Waeiqksamya. 
rattle, vt. &da; sna; ko'ka. / 

heard the snake rattle, vt. 1. 

Yunda ; kahda ; kasna, etc. 2. 

Yuecece sni ; waoiqksapeaniya. 

n. 1. Ioakoka ; wamnuha : the 

conjurer's rattle. 2. Oyanna- 

nna : a rattle in the baby's 

rattlesnake, n. Sintehda. 
ravage, vt. Ihaqgya ; sinya kuwa. 

n. Woihangye : the ravages of 

ravager, n. Waihangye. 
rave, vi. Hnaskinyai),; wohitiya 

ravel, vt. Yusba ; yusna. vi. Sba- 

hai) ; snahan. 
raveling, n. Yusnapi ; osbahe. 
raven, n. Kaqgi. a. Kangise. 
ravening, pa. Wateyes'a ; wohiti- 

ravenous, a. Wohitika ; ni'na do- 

ravenously, adv. Wohitiya. 
ravine, n. O'smaka ; kaksiza. 
ravlngly, adv. Hnaskinyanse. 
ravish, vt. 1. Wabotica ; wama- 

noq : ravish the country. 2. 

Iyuskinkiya ; inanaya : the sigh t 

ravished me. 3. Wikiksai) ; yus- 

tawinyan : the tramp ravished 

the girl. 
ravisher, n. Wi'iyanpayes'a ; wi'- 




ravishing, pa. Wowiyuskii) ozu- 

ravishment, n. Wamanonpi ; wo- 

raw, a. 1. Span'sni ; do ; sa/ka : 
raw meat. 2. Ikoeka ; ecehna : 
raw material, 3. Ha wanica: 
a raw sore. 4. Onspeftni; na- 
kaha econpi: raw troops. 5. 
Osni ; wicacuwita. 

raw-bone, a. Tamaheca ; huhase. 

rawhide, n. Tahasaka; tahasaka 

rawness, n. Wosaka; waonspe- 
sni; wosni. 

ray, n. Iyozanzai) ; wiizanzan. 

rayless, a. Iyozanzai) wanica; 

rase, vt. Pazuzu ; ihangya. 

rasor, n. Putinhiqicagan. 

rator-strop, n. Putinhinicasan- 

Tf 9 prefix. Ake. 

re, n. (Mus.) Hoinonpa. 

reach, vt. 1. Iyohiya : I can't 
reach it. 2. Hiyuya : reach 
hither thy hand. 3. Iyohi : the 
line don'4 reach, n. Canpahmi- 
hma; cankahu: lengthen the 

react, vt. Akihde ecoi) : react the 
play. vi. Itkom hiyu : the blow 

read, vt. 1. Tawa : read the letter 
for me. 2. Iyukean : read the 
signs of the times, vi. Wowapi 
yawa : can you read. a. WaoiJ- 
speka; wowapi wayupika: a 
well read man. 

readable, a. Yawapica; yawapi 

reader, n. 1. Wowapi yawa : Jane 
is a good reader. 2. Waya- 
wa ; wayawa wowapi : Second 

readily, adv. Katinyan; kagisni- 

n. Ihduwiy eyapi ; wo- 

kagi wanica ; wokatinyan ; woi- 
nahni. — In readiness, wi'yeya. 

reading, pa. Wowapiyawa ; wa- 

reading-book, n. Yawapi -wowapi. 

reading-room, n. Wotaqinwowapi 

readjust, vt. Apiya. 

readmit, vt Akihde en hiyuya. 

ready, a. 1. Wi'yeya : lam ready. 
2. Ohanko : ready writer. 3. 
Ki'nica; ikiyedan : ready to 

ready-made, a. Kah'yustanpi. 

reaffirm, vt. Akihde e'ya ; o'stan 

real, a. He'cahca; wowicake; 
hca. A real Indian, Ikoewica- 
stahca. — Real estate, makoce. 
adv. ilea, n. Bpaniyo kaspapi. 

realty, n. Wowicake. 

realize, vt. 1. En e'wacin ; oka- 
ftniga; wowicake kecin : he did 
not realize the danger. 2. Etan- 
han kamna: okini. 

really, adv. A'wicakehan. 

realm, n. Wokiconze ; woounye. 

ream, n. Wowapiska opahte. 

reanimate, vt. Kiniya ; yuniya. 
' reap, vt. 1. Easda ; a&uyapi ka- 
sda ; baksa. 2. Mnaye ; icu : 
reapthe benefit of his labor, 
vi. wamnayan ; wakasda. 

reaper, n. 1. Inakse ; icasda : he 
broke his reaper. 2. Wamna- 
ye ; wakasda ; he is a good 

reappear, vi. Ake tanin. 

reappoint, vt. Akihde ecoi) Si. 

rear, n. Wahektapa ; ihanke : he 
went to the rear. vt. Icahya : 
rear children, a. Ihanke ; eha- 
ke : rear-guard. 

reascend, vt. Akihde e'hde. 

reason, n. 1. Wowiyukcan ; to'- 
keca he'eeca : his reason is bad. 
2. Wotawacin ; tawacin : he has 
lost his reason. — By reason of, 

reasonable 168 

on etanhaq. — In all reason, to'- 
ketu ceyas. vi, 1. Wi'yukcan : 
I reasoned thus, 2. Wowiyu- 
kcan, oyaka : he reasoned before 
the Jury, vt. Toketu oyaka; 

reasonable, a, 1. Iyecetu ; hehan- 
tuka : a reasonable request. 2. 
Wi'yukeai) okihi : man is a 
reasonable being, 3. Wowiyu- 
kcan ohna : a reasonable an- 
swer. 4. Ki'tanna; wahehan- 
tu : a reasonable good crop. 

reasonableness, n. Woecetu. 

reasonably, adv, Wahehantuya. 

reasoner, n, Wowiyukcan oyaka. 

reasoning, n. Wowiyukcan. a, 

reasonless, a. Wowiyukcan ni'ca. 

reassemble, vt. Akemniciyapi. 

reassert, vt, Akihde e'ya. 

reassure, vt. Piyawicadaya ; ki- 

reattain, vt. Akeiyohiya. 

reattempt, vt, Piyaiyute. 

rebaptisnt, n. Akta mniakastanpi. 

rebaptize, vt. Akta mniakastan. 

rebate, vt. On spa kicu. n. Kicu- 
pi ; ta'ku kicupi. 

rebel, n. Wakipazin ; itancai) ta'- 
wakipazin. vi. Eipazin. 

rebellion, n. Wokipazin okicize. 

rebellious, a. Wakipazins'a ; wa- 

rebound, vi. Itkom hiyu. 

rebuff, n. Kaitkokipapi. vt. Itkom 
enpeya ; anapta. 

rebuild, vt. Aktaticage ; akta- 

rebuke, vt. Iyopeya. n. Woiyo- 

rebut, vt. I'tkokipa ; itkom e'hna- 

recall, vt. I'cicawin kusi ; kiksuya : 
recall the words. 

recant, vi. Ihduptan ia. vt. Iapi 
e'hdaku ; he'cetusni e'ya. 

recapitulate, vt. To'ie akta yawa. 


recapture, n. Aktaicu ; aktayuza. 

recast, it. Aktakaga; aktasdoya. 

recede, vi. 1. Oyane : the waters 
recede. 2. Enakiya ; he'kta 
iyaya : he receded from his pro- 

receipt, n. 1. Icupi : on the receipt 
of the goods, 2. Icupi wo wapi: 
give me a receipt for the money, 
vt, Icupiwowapi yutan. 

receipts, n. Ta'kuioupi; ta'kuka- 

receivable, a, Icupica. 

receive, vt. 1, Icupi : I received 
your letter, 2. Tin hiyuya; 
i'tkokipa: he received us pleas- 
antly, 3. AMpa : she received 
no harm, 

receiver, ». 1. Tu'we icu kin ; wo- 
kazuzu icu : the receiver of the 
Land Office, 2. Ohnahnakapi. 

recent, a, Askatudan ; Y. decana. 

recently, adv, Askatudan ; Y, de- 

receptacle, n. Wohnake. 

reception, n, 1. Oicu; ohnakapi: 
difficulty of reception, 2. Kici- 
copi : the presidents reception, 

receptive, a, Icuokihi ; okipika. 

recess, n. 1. Ci'stiyedan econpi 
sni; inanni kihnakapi; oko: 
they took recess till after dinner, 
2. Tiokanmiq; onspaomahen- 

recession, n. Kicupi ; he'ktayapi. 

recipe, n. To'ketu oyakapi ; wo- 
ecoi) owapi ; to'ken icahipi oya- 

recipient, n. Ifu'pi; ecakiconpi; 
tu'we icu. 

reciprocal, a. Anokatanhaq ; ano- 
katanhai) ecakiconpi. 

reciprocrate, vt. Itkom econ. 

reciprocity, n. Anokatanhan kici- 

recital, n. 1. Oyakapi ; ohdakapi : 
the recital of the testimony. 2. 
Iyuta econpi ; i'tokara eyapi. 

recitation 169 

recitation, n. Eyewicakiyapi ; obe 
wan'zi onspewioaMyapi ; wi- 
cota en eyapi. 

recite, vt. E'ya ; oyaka : recite 
your lesson. 

reckless, a. Waawaeiijsni ; to'ken 
cin'cin skan. 

recklessly, adv. Waawacinsniyan. 

recklessness, n. Woawacinsni. 

reckon, vt. 1. Yawa; ma'zaska 
yawa : he reckoned the cost 2. 
Yawa; e'hnaka : he was reckoned 
among the transgressors, vi. 1. 
Yawa; wayawa : he can't reckon. 
2. Kecii) ; eein : I reckon so. 

reckoner, n. Wayawa ; wi'yukcai). 

reckoning, n. Yawapi ; oioazo ya~ 
wapi ; wakazuzukiyapi. 

reclaim, vt. 1. Kiyuwaste ; hdu- 
waste ; hdu'za : reclaim the 
desert. 2. E'hdaku; ikikcu; 
kica : he reclaimed his lost child. 

reclaimable, a. Yuwastepica ; iki- 

reclamation, n. Ikikcupi; yuwa- 

recline, vi. Run iwanka ; oziiciya 

recluse, a. Tu'wedan wanyake ani. 

recognition, n. Iyekiyapi; woki- 

recognizance, n. Woiyekiya ; oiye- 
kiye; on sdonyapikta wowapi. 

recognize, vt. Iyekiya ; kiksuya 

recoil, vi. Hduksa ; itkom hiyu. 

recoin, vt. Akta sdoya : recoin 

recollect, vt. Kiksuya. 

re-collect, nt. Akta mnayan. 

recollection, n. Wokiksuye ; wa- 
cinkiksuya ; ta'ku kiksuya. 

recommence, vt. Akta econ. 

recommend, vt. Ya waste ; ohan ki- 
ciyaotanii) ; cinkiya : I recom- 
mend the horse. — The doctor re- 
commended his taking exercise, 
pezutawicasta tancan hduskan- 


skan waste keya. — I want yon 
to recommend me to tlie Agent 
for a teacher, Ateyapi en waon- 
spekiyapi owaMhi miyeeidao- 
taniq wacin. 

recommendation, n. Woyawaste; 
woyaotanin; cinMyapi wowapi. 

recommission, vt. Akta eeonkiya. 

recommit, vt. Ake en e'hnaka ; ki- 
cu ; ake iyukcansi. 

recompense, trt. Kazuzn; ki'cica- 
zuzu. n. Wokazuzu ; wi'si. 

recompose, vt. 1. Ake ka'ga ; piya 
e'hnaka: recompose the song. 
2. Yuasnikiya. 

reconcilable, a. 1. Iyokipikiciya ; 
yuwastepica. 2. Yuokonwan- 

reconcile, vt. 1. Okiciyuwaste ; ki- 
ciyuwaste ; yuokonwanzidai) : 
he reconciled the father and son. 
2. Iyowinyan : I could not re- 
concile myself to it. 

reconciliation, n. Okiciyuwastepi ;. 

recondite, a. Mahentu; okahnih 

reconnoisance, n. Iwanyag oma- 

reconnoiter, vt. Iwanyag omani. 

reconquer, vt. Inonpa ohiya ; inon- 
pa e'hdaku. 

reconsecrate, vt. Aktayuwakan. 

reconsider, vt. Akta iwanyaka. 

reconsideration, n. Piya awacinpi. 

reconstruct, trt. Piya ka'ga. 

reconvene, vt. Ake mniciya. 

record', vt. Owa ; wowapi en owa. 

rec'ord, n. Ohan owapi; woki- 
ksuye wowapi. Church records, 
Okodakiciye ohanowapi. — A 
Court of Record, Omniciye wo- 
kiksuye wowapi yuhapi. 

recorder, n. Wokiksuyewowapi 

recount, vt. Akta yawa. 

recourse, n. Wowacinye ; ake en 
i'pi ece. 

recover. 170 

recover, vt. 1. Ekikcu ; ake ynha : 
he recovered his property. 2. 
Ake akanpa ; piya akanpa : re- 
cover the cushions, vi. Akisni : 
the sick boy recovered. 

recoverable, a. Drikcupica. 

recovering, pa. Akisni a'ya. 

recovery, n. 1. Akisnipi ; akisni- 
ktecin : recovery from sickness. 
2. IMkcupi ; hduhapi : the re- 
covery of property. 

recreant, a. Wicakesni ; canwan- 

recreate, vt. 1. Ake ka'ga : recreate 
the earth. 2. Oziiciya ; mdes- 
iciya ; ska'ta : let the children 

recreation, n. Oziieiyapi ; wodka- 
te ; womagaga. 

recruit, vt. 1. Piya ka'ga ; ecetu- 
ya ; ynteca : recruit his strength. 

2. O'pekiya; o'stan o'pekiya. 

3. Akicita nakaha o'pa. 
rectangle, n. Cuwitopaokanmin- 

rectify, vt. Yuowotanna ; yuecetu. 
rectitude, n. Woowotanna. 
rector, n. 1. Waawanhdake ; itan- 

can. 2. {Epis.) Wicastawakaq 

okodakiciye awanyaka. 
rectory, n. Wicastawakan ti ; wi- 
castawakan tawoawanyake. 
recumbent, a. Ipatanwanka : kun 

recur, vi. Ake hi ; ake ececa ; ake 

recurrence, n. Ake eceoapi. 
red, a. 6a ; du'ta : a red bird. 
redbreast, n. Sisoka ; makusa- 

Redcoat, n. O'kdesa ; Sagdasa aM- 

redden, vt. Saya ; dunya. vi. Ite 

nasa hinhda. 
reddish, a. Ki'tanna sa ; samna. 
redeem, vt. Opekiton ; kazuzu. 
redeemable, a. Kazuzupica ; ope- 



redeemer, n. Opewicakiton ; wa- 

Redeemer, n. WaniMya ; Je'sus. 
redemption, n. Wopekitonpi ; wa- 

red-hand, a. Napewewe. 
red-head, n. Pa'sasa. 
red-hot, a. dakata ; ni'naka'ta. 
red-letter, a. da ; waste ; wa'pi. 
redolent, a. Ecamna. 
redouble, vt. Piyaecon ; sam ai$i- 

redoubt, n. Akicita makaokapi. 
redound, tf. Aicahya. 
redress, vt. Kazuzu; ynecetn. 

n. Wokazuzu; woyuecetu. 
red-tape, a. Iyuskitesa ; ohanhan- 

red-top, n. Peziinkpasa. 
reduce, vt. 1. Yuhukuya : reduce 

the soldiers to the ranks. 2. A'o- 

kpaniya : reduce his pay. 3. 

To'ken owapi kta yustan ; owa ; 

ka'ga: reduce the language to 

writing. 4. Oiyute to'keca ka'- 

reduction, n. Yuhukuyapi; tona- 

na kagapi : reduction of ex- 

redundant, a. I'yakamtu; ituya 

un : ehaes o'ta. 
reduplicate, vt. Akihde ka'ga. 
reecho, vt. Ake naiyowasya. n. 

Ake naiyowaza. 
reed, n. 1. Cedi ; pezihanska. 2. 

{Mm.) Mazayazopi cezi. 
reel, n. 1. Canhdeska on wapa- 

hmunpi. 2. Odowan onanko : 

he played a reel. 3. Wi'yapehe. 

vi. Kacegcegmani ; paptanptaq 

reelect, vt. Akihde kahniga. 
reembark, vi. Ake wata o'pa. 
reenact, vt. Ake yustan. 
reenforce, vt. O'kiya; akicita na- 

kui) en yeyapi. 
reenforcement, n. Akicita nakici- 





reenllst, vi. Ake akicita o'pa. 

reenter, vt. Ake en ya. 

refasten, vt. Ake iyakaska. 

refer, vt. 1. Iwanyagsi ; yeya : 
refer it to a committee, 2. Ekta 
e'pazo ; ekta yesi : he referred 
me to the preaclier. vi. Ka; ca- 
zeyata : he referred to the quar- 

referable, a. En a'yepica. 

referee, n. Yukeansipi; yasuki- 

reference, n. Iwanyagsipi ; iwann- 
sipi; ka'pi;. wanyagsipi. — A 
Reference Bible, Wowapi Wa- 
kan on Odepi. — In reference to, 

refine, vt. Tueeedan ; yuecetu. 

refined, pa. Yuwastepi ; waste. 

refinement, n. Woyuwaste. 

refiner, n. Wasdoye ; wayuwaste. 

refinery, n. Wasdoye ti'pi; ma'- 

refit, vt. Piyakaga. 

reflect, vt. Awaein ; awaicicii) ; 
wawistenya : he reflected on his 
past life. vt. I'cieawin ehpeya ; 
enpeya : the mirror reflects the 

reflection, n. 1. Waawacinpi ; wo- 
awacin ; iapi : a severe reflec- 
tion. 2. Itkom u ; i'cieawin 

reflector, n. Iyoyai)pa enpeya; 

reflex, a. I'cieawin u. 

reform, vt. P'iya ka'ga ; yuwaste : 
he reformed the whole com- 
munity, vi. Ihduwaste ; waste 
a'ya: the drunkard reformed. 
n. Wayuwastepi. 

reformation, n. Wicayuecetupi. 

reformed, a. Yuecetupi. 

reformer, n. Wayuecetu. 

refortlfy, vt. Piyaacankaska. 

refract, vt. Yuktan. 

refractory, a. Ocinsica ; tawacin- 
siea ; ocinsica. 

refrain, vi. Iyowinyesni ; ihduti- 
tan ; ipida. — Refrain one's self, 

refresh, vt. Yuteca ; oziya ; ma- 

refreshing, pa. Wayuwaste. 

refreshingly, a. OiyoMpiya. 

refreshment, n. Was'agiciyapi ; 
oziiciyapi ; on was'akapi ; wo- 

refrigerator, n. Ca'ga opiye. 

refage, n. Wowinape. — To take 
refuge in, inapa. 

refugee, n. Napapi ; nazica- 

refulgent, a. Wiyakpa ; sasa. 

refund, vt. Kicu ; kazuzu. 

refurnish, vt. Piya koyagya ; ta'ku 
icuwa te'ca eee e'hnaka. 

refusable, a. Wicadasnipica. 

refusal, n. 1. Wowieadasni ; wi- 
eadasni. 2. Anicapi wookihi : 
he has the refusal of the horse 
for two days. 

refuse, vt. 1. Wieadasni; he re- 
fused to go. 2. Icu wieadasni : 
he refused the beef. a. Ehpe- 
yapi; si'ea; unpieasni: refuse 
matter, n. Ta'ku enpeyapi : 
the refuse of the town. 

refutable, a. Yuhpepica ; ayupta- 

refutal, n. Woayupte. 

refutation, n. Yuwicakapisni ; yu- 
asdayapi ; woayupte. 

refute, vt. Yutakunidni ; yuwica- 
kesni ; yunpa. 

regain, vt. Ake iyohi; ake ka- 
mna ; e'hdaku. 

regal, a. Wieastayatapi ta'wa; 
itancan ta'wa. 

regale, vt. Tan/yan kuwa ; maga- 
gaya ; won'kiya. 

regard, vt. Iweceya; en e'ton- 
wan ; awaciij ; ihakta. n. Woi- 
hakta ; woawacin ; woayute : 
J send my regards. — In regard 
to, eciyatanhan. 

regardful 172 

regardful, a. Ni'na en e'waein ; 
ni'na we'ceya. 

regardless, a. Awaoinsni. 

regardlessly, adv. Awacinsniyan. 

regency, n. Woitanean e'ekiya un . 

regenerate, a. Te'ca ; teoanien- 
tonpi. vt. Tecanienkaga. 

regeneration, n. Te'cawieatonpi. 

regent, n. E'ekiya itanoan ; wa'- 
wanyake ; awauyagkiyapi. 

regiment, n. Akioita optaye tan'- 
ka ; kektopawinge optaye. 

region, n. Makoce. 

register, vt. Owa : register your 
name. vi. Caze owa : he regis- 
tered at the hotel, n. 1. Caze 
oiciwapi wowapi : the hotel reg- 
ister. 2. Okata wi'yute. 3. Wa- 

registry, n. Owicawapi. 

regress, n. He'ktakiya iyaye. 

regret, vt. Ioante&ca; wacinyo- 
kisica ; ieiba. 

regretfully, adv. Iyokisinya. 

regular, a. 1. He'eetu ; owotanna : 
a regular physician. 2. Iye- 
hantu ca ; kahantu ca : regular 

regularity, n. He'cetuwanzica. 

regularly, adv. Iyehanhanyai). 

regulate, vt. Yuowotanna ; awan- 
yaka ; katinyan econkiya. 

regulation, n. Woope; woawan- 

regulator, n. Wa'wanyake ; ma'- 

rehash, vt. Piyakaksaksa. 

rehear, n. Piya nahon ; akta na- 

rehearsal, n. Ihdaonspepi; i'to- 
kam iyuteya eeonpi ; oyakapi. 

rehearse, vt. Oyaka ; akihde oya- 
ka ; e'ya. 

reign, vi. Itancan un ; wawidake ; 
ounyai). n. Wowidake : in the 
reign of Queen Victoria. 

reimburse, vt. Iyena kiou. 

rein, n. Ikai) ; Suijgiyuwiikan. — 


Give the reins to, iyowinyan. — 
Take the reins, wicakahapa. 
vt. Ikan yutins iyeya. 

reindeer, n. Waziyata ta'nca. 

reins, n. WicapakSin. 

reinstate, vt. Ake ohna e'hde. 

reinsure, vt. Ake wahunnahyapi 
ki'cicazuzupi o'pekiya. 

reinvest, vt. Ake ma'zaskakieun. 

reinvigorate, vt. Piya mdihenya. 

reissue, vt. Ake iyeeeea ka'ga. 

reiterate, vt. Akihdehde e'ya. 

reject, vt. Enpeya ; aktasni. 

rejoice, vi. Iyuskiq ; cantewaste. 
vt. Iyuskinkiya : you rejoice me. 

rejoicing, n. Wowiyuskin. 

rejoin, vt. 1. Ake o'pa ; ekta ki : 
rejoin his regiment. 2. Ake i'ci- 
koyake : rejoin the pieces, vi. 
Itkom e'ya ; ayupta. 

rejoinder, n. woayupte. 

rejuvenate, vt. Piya koska ka'ga. 

rekindle, vt. Piya eeti. 

reland, vt. Ake ihani. 

relapse, vi. I'cicawin Mwanka. 

relate, vt. Oyaka : he related his 
adventures, vi. Ea ; iyowaza : 
it relates to others. 

related, pa. I'ciyowazapi ; taku- 

relation, n. 1. Takuya. — Too many 
relations, takuya ehaes o'ta. 
2. O'takuye : the relation of 
brother and sister. 3. Woya- 
kapi ; wicowoyake ; woyake. 
4. To'ken i'ciyowazapi : the 
relation of the different parts of 
the body. 

relationship, n. Wotakuye. 

relative, n. Takuya ; wotakuye : 
he is a near relative to me. a. 
Iyowaza ; to'keca etanhan ; 
wanna ka'pi. 

relator, n. Woyake ; oyake. 

relax, vt. Pataka ; oziya ; yuska ; 
yuzigzica : he relaxed his run- 
ning. — Relax the ropes, hanon- 
ta yuska. 




relaxation, n. Oziiciyapi. 
relay, n. Wi'yeya hde'pi : t)\e re- 
lay is waiting, vt. Ake aehna- 

releasabie, a. Kiyuskapica. 
release, vt. Eiyuska; ayustai). n. 

Kiyuskapi ; oziyapi. 
relent, vt. Iyopeiciya ; enakiye. 
relentless, a. Canteyuwiijhpica- 

relet, vt. Ake owicaku. 
relevant, a. Iyowaza. 
reliable, a. Wacii)yepica ; wicaka. 
reliance, n. Wowacinye. 
relic, n. Ehai)na wokiksuye ; ta'- 

ku ehai)na yuhapi. 
relict, n. Wiwazica. 
relief, n. Waokiyapi ; wookiye ; 

relieve, vt. Asniyai) ; o'kiya ; ki- 

relieved, pa. O'kiyapi ; yuskapi. 
religion, n. Wooekiye ; wowakan ; 

woohoda ; wowacinye. 
religious, a. 1. Wakantanka wa- 

cinyan ; waohoda : a religious 

man. 2. Wooekiye wowapi : 

religious books. 3. Wooekiye 

oi) : religious wars. 
religiously, adv. Waohodaya. 
relinquish, vt. 1. Ayustai) ; ena- 

kiye : relinquish his claim. 2. 

Kicu ; efcpeya : relinquish the 

relinquishment, n. Enakiyapi. 
relish, vt. Iyokipi ; wastedaka : he 

relished his dinner, n. 1. Woi- 

yokipi; wocantahde; docinpi. 

2. Oi) doeinpi ; icahiyutapi. 
relishable, a. Cinpica; iyowica- 

reload, vt. Ake okiksu. 
reloan, vt. Piya oka. 
relocate, vt. Piya i'yotanke. 
reioctancy, n. Econkap'inpi. 
reluctant, a. Eeonkap'ii). 
reluctantly, adv. Econkap'inseca. 
rely, vi. Wacinyai) ; hakam un. 

remain, vi. Un ; yanke : he'cehna 
un : Noah only remained. 

remainder, n. Okaptapi ; iyaye. 

remains, n. 1. Ta'ku iyaye ; wo- 
kapte. 2. Wicaka ; tancan : they 
buried the remains. 

remake, vt. Piya ka'ga ; ake ka'~ 

remand, vt. I'cicawii) iyayeya. 

remark, vi. 1. E'ya ; cazeyata : 
he remarked on the beauty of the 
scenery, n. Woeye ; iapi. 

remarkable, a. Okitanin ; wa'pe- 
tokeea : a remarkable man. 

remarkably, adv. Wa'petogya. 

remarry, vi. Aketawieutoi). 

remasticate, vt. Akihde yata. 

remeasnre, vt. Akihde iyuta. 

remedial, a. Waasniyai) ; wayu- 

remedy, n. Ta'ku iwaste ; pezuta. 
vt. Yuwaste ; asniyai). 

remelt, vt. Akta sdoya. 

remember, vt. Eiksuya. — Remem- 
ber me, mi'ksuya. vi. WaM- 
ksuya : he can't remember. 

remembrance, n. Wokiksuye. 

remembrancer, n. On kiksuyapi. 

remind, vt. Kiksuyeya. 

reminder, n. Wowakta. 

reminiscence, n. Wakiksuyapi; 
ehanna woyakapi. 

remiss, a. Waawacinsni ; ku'za. 

remission, n. Ki'ciyawapisni. 

remissly, adv. Waaktasniyan. 

remissness, n. Woaktasni. 

remit, vt. 1. Yeya; fcu. — Remit 
money, ma'zaska yeya. 2. A'o- 
kpaniya ; ehpeya : remit part 
of the punishment. 3. Kazuzu: 
remit sins. 

remittal, n. Wieakupi ; yeyapi. 

remittance, n. Ma'zaskayeyapi. 

remittent, a. Akeececa ecee. 

remnant, n. Ongeiyaye ; o'pte. 

remodel, vt. Piyakaga. 

remonstrance, n. Tehindapi ; he'- 
cetusni eyapi. 

remonstrate 174 

remonstrate, vi. Tehiijda; iyoki- 

remorse, n. Woiciba; wocaijte- 

remorseless, a. Ioibasni. 

remote, a. I'tehai) ; te'han. 

remotely, adv. Ftehaijyai). 

remoteness, n. Otehai) ; wote- 

remount, vt Ake akan iyeiciya. 

removable, a. Tokai) a'yepica. 

removal, w. Tokai] a'yapi. 

remove, vt Tokai) a'ya ; yutokai). 
vi. Tokai) ya; tokai) i'yotaij- 
ka ; ihdaka ; iyaye : he removed 
to the country, 

remunerable, a. Kazuzupica. 

remanerate, vt. Kazuzu. 

remuneration, n. Wokazuzu. 

remunerative, a. Wokazuzu yu- 
kai) ; Y. iSiton . 

rencounter, n. I'tkokicipapi ; oki- 
cize ; wokicize. , 

rend, vt YuMeca ; {with the teeth) 
yahdeea; (with a missile) bo- 
hdeca; (by cutting) bahdeca; 
(by striking) kahdeca ; (with the 
foot) nahdeoa ; (one's own) hdu- 

render, n. Ta'ku kahdeca. vt. Ki- 
cu ; ku ; ecakieoi) ; ka'ga ; oya- 
ka. — Render accounts, oicazo 
oyaka. — Mender strong, suta 
ka'ga ; ni'na ecoi) . — Bender 
into English, Isantaqka iapi en 
ka'ga. — Bender good service, 
wowasi tan/yai) ecoi). — Render 
the Church Service, wocekiye 
ka'gapi e'ya. — Render a song, 
odowai) ahiyaya. — Render tal- 
low, wasnaihdi ceguguya. — 
Render vengeance, watokiconpi 

rendering, n. Oecoi) ; okage. 

rendezvous, n. O'yuwitaya ; omni- 
ciye. vt Mni'ciya. 

renegade, n. Wicakesni; nazi- 


renew, vt • Yuteca ; piya ecoi) ; 

piya ka'ga ; ake icu. 
renewable, a. Piya kahpica. 
renewal, n. Piya ka'gapi ; ake 

renewedly, adv. Pipiya ; ake. 
rennet, n. Ptezicedai) nige sku- 

renounce, vt Ehpeya ; ayuAtai). 
renovate, vt. Piyakaga ; yuteca. 
renovation, n. Yutecapi. 
renovator, n. On wayutecapi. 
renown, n. Wokitaijii). 
renowned, a. Okitai)ii). 
rent, n. 1 Makoce odotapi wo- 
kazuzu; wokazuzu. 2. Oyu- 

hdeca; oko. vt Oku; odota. 

v. imp. of rend. Yuhdeca: 

the flag cos rent in twain. 
renter, n. Waodota. 
renunciation, n. Woenakiye ; ena- 

Myapi ; ehpeyapi. 
reoccupy, vt Ake yuha. 
reopen, vt Ake yuhdoka. 
reorganize, vt Piyakaga. 
repaint, vt. Piyasai)yai). 
repair, vt. Piya ; piyakaga ; ece- 

tuya. n. Piyakagapi. vi. Iya- 

repairable, a. Piyepica. 
repairer, n. Wapiya. 
reparation, n. Piyapi ; yueeetupi. 
repartee, n. Woayupte. 
repass, vt Ake hiyaye. 
repast, n. Wotapi. 
repay, vt Eicu ; ki'cicazuzu. 
repeal, vt. Ecetusniya ; yuzuzu. 
repealable, a. Yutokecapica. 
repeat, vt Akihdeeya; akeeya; 

akeecon. n. Akihdeeconpi. 
repeatedly, adv. Akihdehde. 
repeater, n. Akihdeecoi) ; ma'za- 

kaij o'taiyaye. 
repeating, pa. Akihdehde ecoi). 
repel, vt' Iyayeya; i'tkokipa; 

itkom ehpeya. 
repent, vi. Iyopeiciya ; woahtam 

etaqhai) ihduhomni. 

repentance 175 

repentance, n. Iyopeiciya ; woiyo- 

repentant, a. 1. Iyopeiciya : lie 

repentant stands. 2. Iyopeici- 

yapi : repentant tears. 
repeople, vt. Ake oyate en ounye- 

repetition, n. AMhde eeonpi ; aki- 

hde eyapi. 
repine, vi. Iyokidiea. 
replace, vt. E'kihnaka; iyena 

e'hnaka ; iyececa e'hnaka. 
replant, trt. Aktaozn. 
replenish, vt. Ake ozuya. 
replete, a. Ozudan. 
replevin, n. Ikikcupi wowapi. 
reply, vt. Ayupta. n. Woayupte. 
report, vt. Oyaka ; ecen owa. vi. 

Wawoyaka ; ohdaka. n. 1 . Owo- 

hdake ; wawoyake : he made his 

report. 2. Cazeyatapi : of good 

report. 3. Bu : the report of a 

reporter, n. Woyaka; wotanin 

ka'ga ; iapi owakiyapi. 
repose, vi. Wanka ; iozi wanka. 

vt. Owanzi e'hnaka. n. Woo- 

repository, n. Womnaye ; omnaye. 
repossess, vt. Ake hduha. 
reprehend, vt Iyopeya. 
reprehensive, a. Iyopeyapi. 
represent, vt. 1. Pazo ; oyaka : as 

he represented it. 2. E'ekiya 

na'zin : he represented Svuth 

Dakota in the Senate. 
representation, w. Woyake ; tu'we 

representative, n. E'ekiya na'zin ; 

oyate kahnih ye&ipi. a. Wa- 

hehantupi ; oyate iyececa. 
repress, vt. Yuhukun iyeya ; yu- 

titan yn'za ; yuasni. 
repression, n. Yusnipi. 
reprieve, vt. Woiyopeye ki'cica- 

reprimand, ttf. Iyopeya; wahokon- 



reprint, vt. Akta ma'zaehde. n. 

Akta ka'gapi. 
reproach, vt. Ba ; iyopeya. n. 1. 

Woba ; woyafcica. 2. WowiSte- 

ca ; o&tehdapi. 
reproachable, a. Bapica. 
reproachful, a. 1. Wabapi ; woya- 

sica : a reproachful speech. 2. 

Wahtedni ; woiyaonpa. 
reprobate, a. Yuwadtepicasni ; 

reproduce, vt. Ake icahya; ake 

ecen ka'ga. 
reproof, n. Woiyopeya ; wowaho- 

konkiya ; woba. 
reprovable, a. Iyopayepica. 
reproval, n. Iyopeyapi. 
reprove, vt. Iyopeya; wahokon- 

reprover, n. Wawiyopeya. 
reprovingly, adv. Iyopeya. 
reptile, n. Wamduska ; ta'ku ma- 

ka asdohan. 
republic, n. Oyate itanean i'ye 

Republican, n. 1. Waziyatawica- 

sta. 2. Itanean i'ye ihdanni- 
republication, n. Aktayaotaninpi ; 

wowapi akta ka'gapi. 
republish, vt. Wowapi akta ka'ga ; 

akta ka'ga. 
repudiate, vt. Ehpeye; ta'waye- 

repugnant, a. Tehika ; wahtesni ; 

repulse, vt. Iyayeya ; napeya. n. 

Iyayapi ; wonazica. 
repulsive, a. Wahtedapi&ni ; woi- 

repurchase, vt. Ake opeton. 
reputable, a. Okinihan ; yuoni- 

reputation, n. Wacinkiyuzapi ; 

wookitanin ; cazet 
repute, vt. Otanh) ; keyapi ; ecin. 

n. Woyaotanin ; woyuonihan. 
reputed, pa. Oyakapi ; otanin. 

request 176 

request, vt. Da ; kida ; okicicii) ; 
ce'kiya ; eciya. n. 1. Wadapi ; 
wokicii)pi : what is your re- 
quest 2. Ta'ku da'pi : he gave 
them their request. 

requiem, n. Wicahnakapiodowai). 

require, vt. 1. Econsi ; econkiya ; 
kiea; kida. Be requires two 
long lessons. 2. Ciij ; e'cedaq 
oi) okihi kta. 

requirement, n. Waeconwicaki- 
yapi; woecoi). 

requisite, a. Cin'pi ; cin'pi iyeee- 
ca ; ka'pi ; ka'pi iyenakeca. n. 

requisition, n. Wadapi; wadapi 

requital, n. Wakazuzupi ; watoki- 

requite, vt. Itkom eeakicoi) ; ka- 
zuzu ; tokicon. 

rescind, vt. Yutokeca; baspa; 

rescue, vt. E'hdaku ; nikiya ; ki- 
yuska: he rescued his brother. 
— Rescue from the grave, wica- 
hnakapi etai)hai) e'hdaku; ni- 
kiya. n. Waehdakupi ; niyanpi. 

rescuer, n. Waehdaku ; wanikiya. 

research, n. Waawacinpi ; wa'ki- 
tapi ; akta odepi. 

reseize, vt. Akta oyuspa. 

resell, vt. Akihde wi'yopeya. 

resemblance, n. Woakidececa ; 

resemble, vt. Iyececa ; kinma : he 
resembles Washington. — John 
resembles his father, John atku- 
ku kinma. 

resent, vt. Sihda ; to'kieon. 

resentful, a. Watokicons'a. 

resentment, n. Wosihda ; watoki- 

reservation, n. Onspa ohdaptapi ; 
makoce onspa hduhapi. — Men- 
tal reservation, tawacii) onspa 

reserve, vt. Kihnaka ; patan ; oka- 


pta : he reserved a few of tlte 
best. n. 1. Kihnakapi : a re- 
serve of oil. 2. Waanahmanpi ; 
wi'steeapi. — Throw off reserve, 
wi'stecapi ehpeya. 3. Akicita 
ospaye heyam kihnakapi : bring 
up the reserves. 

reserved, j>a. Wi'&teca ; inina on. 

reservoir, n. Mini omnaye ; mde- 

reset, vt. Piya e'hde ; piya ma'- 

resettle, vt. Piya ahiyotanka. 

reshlp, vt. Piya iyayeya ; iyoopta 

reside, vt. Ti ; wanka. 

residence, n. Ti'pi ; ohna ti. 

resident, n. Oti ; en ti. 

residuary, a. To'na iyaye. 

residue, n. Iyaye ; okapta. 

residuum, n. Ta'ku ihe. 

resign, vt. Enakiya ; kicu. 

resignation, n. 1. EnaMyapi ; wo- 
enakiye ; ayustan kta eyapi : 
his resignation was accepted. 
2. Woiyowinkiye ; wowicada: 
the spirit of resignation. 

resignedly, adv. Iyowinyan. 

resin, n. Cansin. 

resinous, a. Cansinsin. 

resist, vt. I'tkokipa : kipazin ; 
itkom inazin. 

resistance, n. Wokipazin; wopa- 
tan ; i'tkokipapi. 

resistible, a. I'tkokipepica. 

resistless, a. I'tkokipepieasni. 

resolute, a. Cantejinza ; tawacii) 

resolutely, adv. Inihansniyan ; 

resolution, n. 1. Wocantetfnza : 
wowaeintanka : he acted with 
resolution. 2. Woyaco; yaeo- 
pi ; yukcanpi : the resolution of 
the difficulty. 3. Woyaotanin : 
the meeting adopted resolutions. 

resolve, vt. 1. Yaco; yasu; yu- 
stan : resolve a riddle. 2. Ya- 




stan ; yaotai)ii) : it was resolved 
by the Synod, vi. Kon'za ; ici- 
coijza : I resolved to quit drink- 
ing, n. Woiciconza. 

resonance, n. Sna ; wosna ; bu. 

resonant, a. Sna'sna ; bu'bu. 

resort, vi. Ya ; inapa ; akita. n. 
Tukten ni'na ai; o'yuwitaya: 
a summer resort. 

resound, vt. Yaotanin ; kaiyowa- 
za : the cliffs resound the lay. 
vi. Otaqii) ; ho'tanin ; bu. 

resource, n. 1. Wowacinye ; wo- 
winape: his last resource. 2. 
(pi.) Woyuha ; wokihnake ; 

resow, vt. AMhde ozu. 

respect, vt. 1. Ohoda ; ahopa ; M- 
nihai) : respect old age. 2. En 
e'towan. n. Woohoda ; woyuo- 
nihai) ; wowastedake : give him 
my respects. 

respectability, n. Wokinihan. 

respectable, a. 1. Okinihai) waste : 
a respectable man. 2. Wahe- 
hantu ; tan'yan : a respectable 

respectably, adv. Okinihanyan. 

respectful, a. Waohoda; wapa- 

respectfully, adv. Yuonihanyan. 

respecting, prep. Eciyatanhan. 

respective, a. Iyohi: their respect- 
ive places. 

respectively, adv. Iyohiya. 

respell, vt. Akta e'ya ; akta oowa 

respirable, a. Yahotapica; niya- 

respiration, n. Oniya ; niyapi. 

respire, vi. Niya ; yahota ; temni 

respite, n. Woenakiye; oziici- 

resplendence, n. Wowiyakpa. 

resplendent, a. Wiyakpa. 

resplendently, adv. Wiyakpaya. 

respond, vi. Ayupta ; ecakicon. 

respondent, n. Waayupta. 

response, n. Woayupte : the re- 
sponses of the service. 

responsibility, n. 1. Iyowasicidapi ; 
waawacinpi : a sense of respon- 
sibility. 2. Woawanyake; ta'- 
ku econkiyapi : he has many 
responsibilities. 3. Wookihi ; 
ta'ku okihi : a man of respon- 

responsible, a. Wacinyepiea ; wa- 

responsive, a. AMciyupta. 

responslvely, adv. AkLciyupteya ; 

rest, n. 1. Woozi; ozikij&pU give 
him rest. 2. Ipatai) ; oahehde : 
put a rest to the beam. 3. (Mus. ) 
Ho'oziyapi ; ho'enakiyapi : the 
bass has a rest. 4. Unmanpi ; 
en un'pi sni : the rest of the 
family. 5. To'na iyaye : I sold 
half and kept the rest. vt. 1. 
Oziya; ozikiya: he rested the 
animals. 2. E'hde ; e'hnaka : 
he rested the foot on the ground, 
vi. 1. Owanzi un ; okinpa ; 
oziieiya : he rested on the Sab- 
bath. 2. Hai) ; wanka. 

restate, vt. Akihde e'ya. 

restaurant, n. Inanni wotapi ti'pi. 

restful, a. Oziyapi ; en ozikiyapi 

restitution, n. Wokazuzu; wica- 

restive, a. Iyowinyesni ; ske'he. 

restiveness, n. Woskehe. 

restless, a. 1. To'ken iyokipi tan- 
in sni ; owanzi un sni : the sick 
boy was restless. 2. Ayustai) 
sni ; ohinni akanskan : the rest- 
less waves. 

restlessly, adv. Iyokipisniyan ; 
enakiya okihisni. 

restorable, a. Asniyepica ; ekice- 

restoration, n. Ekicetuyapi; ki- 
cupi ; ake econkiyapi. 

restorative 178 

restorative, a. Ekicetuya ; wayu- 

waste. n. On ekicetuyapi. 
restore, vt. 1. Ekicetuya : restore 

his health. 2. Kicu : restore the 

stolen money. 3. Ake ohna- 

restorer, n. Waekicetuya. 
restraia, vt. Yutitan yu'za ; kagi- 

ya ; anapta. 
restralnable, a. Yuspica ; anapte- 

restraint, n. Wokagi woarapte. 
restrict, vt. Henana iyowinyan ; 

hehai)yena iyowinyan ; kaska. 
restrictioa, n. Wokagi ; woanapte ; 

restrictive, adv. Wakagiya. 
resubjection, n. Ake wowidagyapi. 
result, n. 1. Owihanke ; oicago ; 

to'ketu ; woyustan : what is the 

result, vi. (with in) Aicage ; 

etanhan icage ; icaga. 
resultant, n. Woicage. 
resultless, a. Ituya ; ta'kudan ica- 

resumable, a. Ake okihi. 
resume, vt. Ake econ ; ikikcu ; 

ake a'ya. n. O'yuwitaya. 
resummon, vt. Ake kico. 
resumption, n. Ake econpi. 
resupply, vt. Ake ku. 
resurrection, n. Woekicetu. 
resurvey, vt. Akta iyuta (makoce 

resuscitate, vt. Ake niyakiya. 
retail, vt. Yuksaksa wi'yopeya; 

onspaspa wiyopeya. 
retain, vt. Hduha ; auica ; ecehua 

retainable, a. Hduhepica. 
retainer, n. 1. Wahduhe ; yuha 

un : the retainer of the goods. 

2. Wokazuzu ; wi'si : the lawyer 

wants a retainer of five dollars. 
retake, vt. Ake icu ; hdu'ze. 
retaliate, vt. To'kicon ; watoki- 


retaliation, n. Watokiconpi. 


retard, vt. Kagiya; yutehai). 
retch, vi. Hde'pektenea. 
retention, n. Wahduhapi ; te'han 

hdu'zapi ; wacintankapi ; ki- 

ksuyapi ; anicapi. 
retentive, a. Wahduhaha. 
reticence, n. I'ihdonicapi ; inina 

reticent, a. Inina un. 
reticule, n. Panbotka; un/ksuna. 
retina, n. Istacatku. 
retinue, n. Itancai) taoptaye. 
retire, vi. Heyata iyeya; ihdu- 

heyapa ; enakiya ; wanka. — 

He retired from the battle, oki- 

cize etanhan ihduheyapa. — 

Retiring pension, enakiyapi 

ehan o'kiyapi. vt. Ayustan- 

kiya ; pazuzu. 
retirement, n. Enakiyapi : wona- 

retiring, pa. 1. Wi'steca; manin 

un : of retiring habit. 2. Ena- 
retort, vt. Itkom e'ya ; itkom iye- 
ya. vi. I'tkokipa; ayupta. n. 

Woayupte; akiciyuptapi; itkom 

retrace, vt. I'cicawin ya ; i'cipas 

retract, vt. E'hdaku ; iapi e'hda- 

ku. vi. Waehdaku ; enakiye. 
retraction, n. Waehdakupi ; nati- 

retranslate, vt. Akihde ieskakiya. 
retreat, vi. I'oicawan u; he'kta 

hdicu : the army retreated, n. 

i'cicawin hdicupi ; napapi. 
retrench, vt. Yuaokpaniya ; ma'- 

zaska to'nana yusota. vi. Wa- 

retrenchment, n. Wakpatanpi j 

yuaokpaniyapi ; maka okapi. 
retribution, n. Wakazuzupi; wo- 

retrieve, vt. Yuasni ; ekicetuya. 
retrograde, vi. He'kta iyaya ; kun 

yaj hun'kesni a'ya. 

retrospect 179 

retrospect, n. Piyaiwanyakapi ; 
he'kta e'tonwaijpi. 

retrospection, n. He'kta e'toij- 

retain, vi. 1. Ake ku ; hdi ; ake 
hi ; ihduhomni : I returned to- 
day, vt. Kicu ; ki'cioahdi : he 
returned the book. 2. l£u : oki- 
yaka : to return answer. n. 1. 
Hdi; ake hi: they rejoiced at 
his return. 2. Kicupi ; kazu- 
zupi : a return for services. 3. 
Wieohai) owapi ; owicawapi : 
he has completed his returns. — 
At the return of the year, o'ma- 
ka iyehantu kii)hai) . — In return, 
itkom. — Cause to return, hdi- 

returnable, a. Kicupiea; hdicu- 

reanlon, n. 1. Hdiwitayapi ; mni'- 
ciyapi : a soldier's reunion. 2. 
Ake ieikoyagyapi. 

reanite, vt. Ake ieikoyagya ; ake 

Rev. abbreviation for Rbverend. 

revaluation, n. Akta iyawapi. 

reveal, vt. 1. Tuzamni ; yutaniij : 
he revealed the hidden wealth. 
2. Yaotaqii) ; oyaka. 

reveille, n. An/pao wakabupi. 

revel, vi. Witkoya wota; witko- 
koi)s skata. 

revelation, n. 1. Wayuotaijin : the 
Revelation of St. John. 2. Ta'- 
ku yuzamnipi; wonahbe oya- 
kapi : it was a revelation to 

reveler, n. Witkos'a. 

revelry, n. Witko skan/pi ; witko- 

revenge, vt. Tokicoij ; watokicoij. 
n. Watokicoijpi. 

revengeful, a. Watokicons'a. t 

revenger, n. Watokicon. 

revenue, n. 1. Wokamna ; woka- 
zuzu : tlie revenue of the govern- 


revenue-cutter, n. Wa'ta womnaye 

reverberate, vi. Eaiyowaze ; bu ; 
kawinhwinfr iyaye. 

reverberation, n. Wokawiijge ; hu- 

revere, vt. Ohoda; kinihai). 

reverence, n. 1. Woohoda ; woki- 
nihai). — They treated him with 
reverence, wokinihai) on kuwa- 
pi. 2. Kinihai)pi; ta'we kini- 
hai)pi ; itaqcai) : his reverence 
is sick. vt. Kinihan ; yuoni- 
hai) : reverence your teachers. 

Reverend, a. Wicastawakan. 

reverend, a. Okinihai). 

reverent, a. Wokinihai) ; waohoda. 

reverently, adv. Kinihanyan. 

revery, reverie, n. Istinbesni ihan- 

reversal, n. Yutokecapi. 

reverse, vt. Yutokeca ; ynhomni ; 
unman, eciyatanhai) iyeya : re- 
versed the decision, n. Unman 
eciyatanhai) ; woyuhonmi ; yu- 
homnipi : the reverse is whiet. 
a. To'keca; unmai). 

reversed, pa. Yuhomnipi ; unman, 
eciyatanhai) iyeyapi. 

reversible, a. Yutokecapica. 

reversion, n. Yuhomnipi; i'cica- 
wii) hdi. 

revert, vt. Yuhomni ; i'cicawii) 
yeya : revert the current, vi. 
1. I'cicawii) ki ; hdi : the prop- 
erty reverted. 2. Ekta waein- 
yeya ; cazeyata : he reverted to 
the incident. 

review, vt. Iwanyaka; amdeza; 
akta iwanyaka ; amdesyayawa. 
n. 1. Akta iwaqyakapi : a re- 
view of the lesson. 2. (Mil.) Aki- 
cita ikpazowicayapi. 3. Wowa- 
pi amdezapi. 4. Wowapi tak 
eyapi oyakapi. 

reviewer, n. Wa'mdeza. 

revile, vt. Yasica ; ostehda. 

reviler, n. Wayasica. 




revisal, n. Apiyapi. 

revise, vt. Piya ; piya owa ; piya 

reviser, n. Piyakaga. 

revision, n. Piyaka&api. 

revisit, vt. Ake waqyagi. 

revival, n. Piyaecoi)pi ; wieayu- 
hicapi : nikiyapi. 

revivalist, n. Wicayuhica. 

revive, vt. Eiiiiya ; mdesya ; yu- 
ftica; mdihenya; ikikcu. — Re- 
vive learning, woonspe yuhica. 
— Revive the story, woyakapi ake 
nikiya. — Revive my thoughts, 
mitawao.ii] mdesya. vi. Kini; 
* kimdiheca. 

revivify, vt. Nikiya ; mdeskiya. 

revocable, a. Yatokecapica. 

revocation, n. Yatokecapi. 

revoke, vt. Yatokeca; yatakuni- 
sni : revoke a law. 

revolt, vi. Ayustai) ; itancai) ehpe- 
ya ; kipazii) ; itkom inazii). n. 
Wokipazii) ; ayustanpi. 

revolter, n. Wakipazin. 

revolution, n. 1. Oyuhomni ; yu- 
homnipi : two revolutions of the 
wheel. 2. Itancai) yutokecapi ; 
wokipazii) ; wo&ki&ke : a na- 
tional revolution. 

revolutionary, a. Oyato yutokeoa- 
pi ; wawakipaziijpi : a revolu- 
tionary soldier. 

revolutionist, n. Wayutokeca. 

revolutionize, vt. Yutokeca ; te'ca 

revolve, vi. Yuliomni ; pahmihma. 
vt. 1. Yuhomni : revolve the 
wheel. 2. Awacii) ; yuptaijptai) : 
he revolved the subject in his 

revolver, n. Ma'zakaqptecedai) ; 

revulsion, n. WowantedaSni ; wo- 

reward, vt. Itkom ecakicoi) ; ki'- 
cicazuzu; ku. n. Wokazuzu; 

rewarder, n. Wieakicicaznzu. 
rewardiess, a. Wokazuzu co'daij. 
rewrite, vt. Akta owa. 
reynard, n. Sungidai) ; suqgi. 
rhapsody, n. Odowan kagapi. 
rhetoric, n. Iapi waJca&nigapi. 
rhetorician, n. Iapi wakannigeca ; 

iapi onspewicakiya. 
rheumatism, n. Cenpi yazanpi ; 

o'kihe yazanpi. 
rhinoceros, n. Pasuheton. 
rhomb, n. To'pa ieagopi atakin- 

yai) cuwi a'kidehankeea. 
rhomboid, n. To'pa ieagopi ata- 

rhubarb, n. Iyoptaiyeyapizi ; can- 

ndonuhu opemni ka'gapi. 
rhyme, n. Ho'wanzidan hinhpaya. 

vi. Odowan; ka'ga; caqkuye 

ihanke ho wanzina ka'ga. 
rhymeless, a. Ho akidececa sni. 
rhymer, n. Odowai) ka'ga. 
rhythm, n. Odowan ca'hde ; ho'- 

rib, n. Cutuhu. — Short rib, eu- 

ribald, n. Tu'we ia wahtesni. 
ribaldry, n. Iapi siksica. 
ribbon, n. Sinaapafcdate. 
rice, n. Psin. — Wild rice, psii). — 

Tame rice, psinska. 
rich, a. 1. Wi'zica ; watoqka : a 

rich man. 2. Napii) : rich food. 

3. Waicanya ; wa&te : a rich 

soil. 4. Wi'ciyokipi ; nagi wi'- 

piya : rich music. 5. O'ta iya- 

wapi ; tenika : a ricli dress. 6. 

Mde'ze rokitaijii) : rich colors. 
riches, n. Wowizice. 
richly, adv. 1. Wi'zinya : richly 

dressed. 2. Ohanpiya ; o'ta : 

richly paid. 3. A'wicakehai) : 

he richly deserved a whipping. 
richness, n. Owizica ; wi'wica- 

rick, n. Pahahanska. 
rickets, n. Tancai) osteka. 
rickety, a. Osteka ; ptai)ptai)na. 




rid, vt. Ehpeya; etaijhai) ihdu- 

riddance, n. Wiihduspapi; ihdu- 

ridden, pp. of bide. 

riddle, n. 1. Wi'yuoaijtanka : the 
riddle don't shake. 2. Wowiyu- 
kcai) ; wi'yukcai) tehika : he 
spake in riddles, vt. 1. Yucaij- 
cai) : riddle the wheat. 2. Bo- 
hdohdoka : riddled with balls. 

ride, vt. Akaqyotaqka ; hiyaya; 
iyaya ; ya : ride the colt. — Ride 
easy, iwastedai) ya. — Ride on, 
iyooptaya. n. Omanipi; suqg- 
akan omanipi ; caxjpahmihma 
ohna omanipi ; akai)yai)g ya. 

rider, n. 1. Akaqyanka : the hm'se 
and his rider. 2. Wowapi on/- 
spa ehake ka'gapi : the Ap- 
propriation Bill had too many 

riderless, a. Tu'wedaq akaijyai)- 

ridge, n. fie ; paha ; mdamdate ; 
bio : climb the ridge. — Tlie ridge 
of the house, tice&ka. vt, Paha 
ka'ga ; akata. 

ridgy, a. Pahaha yeya ; pahaha. 

ridicule, n. Wawihahapi. vt. Iha- 

ridiculous, a. Wowihaha. 

ridiculously, adv. Wowihaya. 

riding, a. Akanyai)kapi. 

riding-school, n. Sui)gakai)yan,ka- 
pi oqspewicakiyapi. 

rife, a. Ni'na yukan ; o'ta. 

rifle, n. Ma'zakai) suwanzi ; sda- 
yaoznpi. vt. Bo'tica; manoi). 

rifleman, n. Wakutewicasta ; aki- 

rifle-pit, n. Akicita makaokapi. 

rift, n. Onasdeoa. 

rig, n. Heyake ; ta'ku ikoyake. 
vt. Ikoyagya ; ikoyaka. — Rig a 
ship, wi'tawata sina ikoyagya. 

rigging, n. Wi'tawata ikan. 

right, a. 1. Owotannaj he'cetu. 

— What is right, ta'ku owatan- 
na. — That is right, he'cetu. — 
A right line, icazopi owotanna. 
2. E'e; he'e: that is the right 
book. 3. Wieaka : you are righ t. 

4. WaSte ; taijyai) ; hehantu : 
disappointed on the right side. 

5. Etapa ; Y. oqspeapatanhan : 
the right hand. 6. Akapatai)- 
hai) : the right side. 7. {Math.) 
Bosdatu; owotanna; itaqcai). 
— A right angle, okahmii) owo- 
tanna. adv. 1. Owotanna : do 
right. 2. Katinyai) : go right 
along. 3. din ; Y. Mil) ; nca ; 
hcin, : right well. — right away ; 
right off, katiqyai) ; hdaheya. 
n. Woowotanna : he was in the 
right. 2. Wicitawa ; ta'ku ta'- 
wa ; wowasake : an Indian has 
no rights under the law. vt. Yu- 
owotanna ; yuwaste. 

righten, vt. Yuowotaqna. 
righteous, a. Owotanna. 
righteously, adv. Owotanna ; tan'- 

righteousness, n. Woowotaijna. 
rightful, a. Owotanna; iyecetu; 

rightfully, adv. Tan 'y an ; owotai)- 

rightfulness, n. Woowotanna. 
right-handed, a. Nape-etapa. 
rightly, a. Owotanna; tai)'yai]. 
rightminded, a. Tawacii) owotan- 
rightness, n. Woowotanna. 
rigid, a. 1. Path) ; sa'ka : rigid 

limbs. 2. Suta ; ^e'za ; tehika : 

a rigid teacher. 
rigidly, adv. Sutaya ; tehiya. 
rigmarole, n. Ituyacii) iapi. 
rigor, n. Wosuta ; wotehi. 
rigorous, a. Tehika ; suta ; yutoke- 

rigorously, adv. Tehiya; a'wica- 

rile, vt. 1. Yusose : rile the water. 




2. Canzeya : the pupils riled the 
teacher. — To be riled, canze. 

rill, n. Wakpadan ; T. wakpala. 

rim, n. Tete ; oe'ga tete. 

rimple, n. Oyuksiza ; ta'zana. vt. 

rind, n. Ha ;,ozuha. 

rindless, a. Hawanica. 

ring, n. 1. Ta'ku mima; ta'ku 
mibe; canhdeska; ma'zacai)- 
hdeska : a ring round the moon. 
2. Ma'zanapcape ; Y. maziyo- 
B.di ; T. napsiofrli : he pat a ring 
on his finger. — The rings on a 
cow's horn, oyuhi. vt. Yuhda ; 
T. yuhla ; yusna ; kakoka : ring 
the bells. — To ring by striking, 
kahda. — To ring with the hand, 
yuhda. vi. 1. ftda : the chvrch 
bell rang. 2. Sna ; snasna : it 
rang in my ear. 3. Bu ; bu'bu ; 
ko'ka : the house rang with the 

ringed, a. Mibebe ; hdeskaska. 

ringer, n. Wakahda. 

ringleader, n. Tokahan ; i tan can. 

ringlet, n. Paha oyumniza. 

ringstreaked, a. Hdeskaska ; hde- 

ringworm, n. Yumniabinapa. 

rinse, vt. Ehake yuzaza. 

riot, n. Owodutaton. vi. Owo- 
dutaton. ka'ga : wicayuhnaskin- 

rioter, n. Wahnaskinyan. 

riotous, a. Sinyaohaijyan j wayu- 

rip, vi. Yumna ; yumdaza ; basde- 
ea. — Rip a seam, yumna. — Hip 
the hide, ha yumdaza. — Rij) 
open a sack, -wozuha yusdeca. 
Rip up the floor, owanka yu- 
sdoka. — Rip a board, carjrada- 
ska basdeca. n. Oyumna ; oyu- 

ripe, a. 1. Sutoi) ; wanna waste : 
the wheat is ripe. 2. Ton 'ye : a 
ripe tumor. 3. Wanna ihurjni ; 

waokihi ; ksa'pa : a ripe scholar. 
4. Wi'yeya un. : ripe for war. 

ripen, vi. 1. Suton a'ya ; gi a'ya : 
the fruit ripens. 2. Iyecetu 
a'ya ; ihduwiyeya ; piiciya : 
ripen for glory, vt. Sutonye ; 
yustai) ; ksamya. 

ripeness, n. Wosuton ; woksape 

ripper, n. Wayumna ; wabamdaza. 

ripping, n. Wayumnapi; waba- . 

ripple, n. Mnitaza ; mnitata vi. 
Tastaza ; taza a'ya. 

rip-saw, n. Caijibakea on basde- 

rise, rose, vi. 1. Wankan ya ; wan- 
kan u : smoke rises. 2. Wan- 
kankan ya ; wankan yeya ; waij- 
kan wanka. 3, Na'zii) ; inazin ; 
na'zinhan na'zin : the boys all 
rose. 4. Eikta ; inazin : I rise 
at five o'clock. — I rise early, haij- 
wekta. — You rise early, haij- 
yekta. — He rises early, kaqki- 
kta. 4. Wankan u ; minitan : 
the river rises. 6 Hinanpa : the 
sun rises. 7. Ahinanpa : an 
eruption arose on his back. 8. 
Icaga ; toka uya : the river rises 
in Canada. 9. San/pa tan ka 
a'ya : his fame rose. 10. Eee- 
ca ; icaga : the fever rose. 11. 
Kini : Christ rose from the dead. 
12. rtanwankanhde ya : as he 
rose the hill. 13. I' tan wankan - 
hde wanka : rising ground. 14. 
Wankan yawapi: wheat rose, 
n. 1. Warjkan ya ; minitan : a 
rise of ten feet. 2. Oicage : 
takes its rise in the mountains. 

riser, n. Wakikta. — Early riser, 

risible, a. Wowiha ; wawihaye. 

rising, n. 1. Ohinape ; inazinpi. 
2. Po ; wankan u. pa. Icaga ; 
warjkan u. 

risk, n. Wokokipe; wo^ohnake; 




otohnakapi. it. Otohnake ; oko- 
kipeya e'hnaka ; iyowinyai) ; 

risky, a. Okokipe. 

rite, n. Wocekiye opiiciyapi wi- 
cohai) ; oskiijciyapi. 

ritaal, a. Woope opiiciyapi ; wo- 
cekiye dskinciye wowapi. 

ritualist, n. Opiiciyapi wakitai). 

rival, n. Kiei ecoi) ; kici akinioa. 
a. Kicipatitai) : rival societies 
vt. Eapewacii) ; unmaqtukte 
tokahan taqii) sni. 

rivalry, n. Waakinicapi. 

rive, vt. Kasdeca ; pasdeca. 

riven, pa. Basdecapi. 

river, n. Wakpa; watpa: Mis- 
souri river. — Across (or over) 
the river, akasaqpa. — By the 
river, wakpieahda. — Down the 
river, o'kah ; T. & T. hu'tam. 

* — Up the river, tatowam; T. & 
T. in'kpata. 

rivet, n. Ma'zaiyokatai) ; iostan. 
vt. Okatai) ; i'ciyokatai). 

rivulet, n. Wakpadai) ; wakpa ci'- 

road, n. Caijkii ; ocai)ku. . 

road-bed, n. fiemani eanku. 

roadster, n. Oicimani sunk'taij- 

roan, vi. Ituomani ; to'ken cii)'- 
cii) omani. n. Wi'kcekce oma- 

roan, a. Hin'hota. 

roar, vi. 1 . Hotoq ; ho'tanka ho- 
toi) : the lion roared. 2. S'a ; 
bu ; otii) : the waves roared. 3. 
Iftatata : the boys roared 4. 
Owodutatoi) : they made things 
roar. n. Hotonpi ; bu ; s'a. 

roarer, n. Hotons'a ; wohitika. 

roast, vt. 1. Ceoqpa : roast the 
meat. 2. Papahya: roast the 
corn. — Boast on a stick, pa* 
snoi). n. Ceonpapi ; waceoi)pa. 

rob, vt. Ei ; makinoi). 

robber, n. Wamanoijwicasta. 

robbery, n. Wamanorjpi ; wawica- 

robe, n. 6ina; saqksannica. — 

Buffalo-robe, ptehasina ; sina- 

hinsma ; tagicaha. vt. Koyag- 

ya ; akahpa : the fields ' are 

robed m green. 
robin, n. Sisoka. 
robust, a. Was'aka ; suta. 
robustly, adv. Was'agya. 
rock, n. Imniza; iq'yantanka ; 

iij'yan. vt. Nahuhuza; paptan 
' iyeya. 
rocker, n. Ohna ikpahuhuzapi ; 

wikpahuhuze ; wikpahuhuze si- 

rocket, n. Petizaijzai) wi'cute. 
rocking-chair, n. Can'ikpahuhuze. 
rocking-horse, n. Sungakan ikpa* 

Rock Island, n. pr. Wi'tawakaq. 
rock-moss, n. Iij'yai) waanunu. 
rock-salt, n. Miniakuya sa'ka. 
rocky, n. In 'van o'ta ; iij'yai). 
rod, n. 1. Caijsakadai) ; caijhai)- 

skedan; ho'psicapi lhupa. 2. 

Owiyute sihaiyutapi akesakpe 

sam hai)ke. 
rode, imp. of bide. 
rodent, n. Hitunkadai) ; wayaMo- 

roe, «. Tawiyedai) ; te'hca. 
roebuck, n. Tamdoka ; ta'hca. 
rogue, n. Tu'we ohanwicastasni. 
roguery, n. Wowiea&tasni. 
roguish, a. Wica&taani. 
roguishly, adv. Wicastasniyaij ; 

roil, vt. Yusosa ; cai)zeya. 
roily, a. Canzeya. 
role, n. Koq'za ohaijyai). 
roll, n. 1. Ta'ku pehaqpi; opehe; 

wowapi pehai)pi : a roll of 

paper. — A wall roll, opehe ti'- 

obosdata en otkehe. 2. Wica- 

caze owapi: call the roll. 3. 

Paptai)ptan iyaya ; kahoho iya- 

ya : the roll of the ship. 4. Aid- 




cita owotanna kabupi ; natanpi 
kta kabupi. vt. 1. Pahmihma; 
pahmihma iyeya : roll the hoop. 
2. Pehai) ; yupehai) : roll the 
paper. 3. Ayuhomni ; yutinza : 
roll the ground. 4. Pawan- 
kankan iyeya: the wind rolls 
the waves. 5. Yuptanptan. — 
Boll one's self, ihduptanptan : 
he rolled all night. 6. Ofti) ; 
bu : the thunder rolls. 7. Ayu- 
hmihma : the mud rolls up on 
the wheels. 

roUable, a. Pahmihmapica. 

roller, n. Maka ayuhmihmapi; 

roller-mill, n. Ma'zapahmima on 

rolling, pa. Onaptaqptai) ; iwaste- 
dan ho'ski: rolling prairie. 2. 
Pahmihma ya : tlw rolling car- 

Roman, a. Ro'ma wicasta ; Ro'ma 

romance, n. Odowai) ohui)kakai). 

Romanlsh, a. Ro'ma ta'wa. 

romantic, a. Wakakanpi se ; wi'- 
haijmuapi se ; waakagapi ; aka- 
hkagapi : a romantic story. 

romp, n. 1. dkates'a : the girl is a 
romp. 2. Woskate : the children 
are having a romp. vi. Ska'ta. 

roof, n. Awakeyapi; tiakahpe; 
waijkantanhai) : a flat roof. — 
the roof of the mouth, caka. vt. 
Awakeya ; akeya ; akahpa. 

roofing, n. Awakeyapi ; tiakahpe. 

roofless, a. Awakeyapi wanica; 

rookery, n. Tisioa o'cikansni. 

room, n. 1. Oyanke ; owanka. — 
There is room, okai). 2. Tima- 
hen ti'pi ; tiobaspe ; tioyanke : 
the house has three rooms. — In 
the room of e'ekiya. — Make 
room, kiyukan. vt. Oyanke 
yuha ; wanka. 

roomful, n. Tiozudan. 

roomy, a. Otankaya ; okipika. 

roost, n. Wahupakoza owanka. 
vi. Wan/ka. 

rooster, n. An/paohotanna mdo- 

root, n. 1. Hutkai) : the roots of a 
tree. 2. Woyute maka mahen 
ieaga ; mdo ; pangi : put the 
roots in the cellar. 3. Hutkai) ; 
hunkake : they sprang from one 
root. vi. 1. Hutkai) yeya : the 
weeds root deep. 2. Hutkai) 
ode ; pamdumdu : the hog roots 
in the field, vt. 1. Huhde; hu- 
tkai) sutaya ehde : well rooted. 
2. Yuzun ; yuzun ehpeya : root 
them out. 

rootless, a. Hutkai) wanica. 

rootlet, n. Hutkai) ci'stinna. 

rooty, a. Hutkai) o'ta. 

rope, n. Hakahmunpi ; wi'kan ; 
hahonta : tie him with a rope, 
vt. Hahonta ikoyake.j hahonta 
oi) icu : rope the calf. 

rope-maker, n. Hakahmunpi ka'- 

ropy, a. Tiktica ; o'tkapa. 

rosary, n. 1. Onzinziijtka owozu : 
he planted a rosary. 2. Woce- 
kiye sipto on yawapi ; dinasapa 

rose, n. OnzinMntka ; sa. 

rose, imp. of rise. 

roseate, a. Sasa. 

rosebush, n. Onziniintka hu. 

rose-color, n. Sa ; onzinzintka sa. 

rose-colored, a. 1. da ; sasa : rose- 
colored paper. 2. &ayapi; aka- 
gapi : a rose-colored story. 

rosery, n. On&inzintka owozu. 

rosewater, n. Onziqzintka mini. 

rosewood, n. Cansa. 

rosin, n. Cansin sa'ka. 

roster, n. Wicacaze wowapi. 

rostrum, a. Oanazin ; akan wo- 
hdakapi; pasu. 

rosy, a. Sasa : rosy-cheeked. 

rot, vi. Kuka ; kuka a'ya ; pon- 


poi). vt. Kukeya; ponponya. 
n. Wokuka. 

rotary, a. Tuhomni ; itogto. 

rotate, vi. 1. Yuhomni : the wheel 
rotates. 2. Ui)mai) itogto ecoi). 

rotation, n. 1. Woyuhomhi. 2. 
Itogto econpi. 3. 8u ocaze ito- 
gto ozupi. 

rote, n. Okahnigesni eyapi. 

rotgut, n. Miniwakai) kuka. 

rotten, a. 1. Kuka : a rotten apple. 
2. Ponpon : rotten wood. 

rottenness, n. Wokuka ; wosice. 

rotund, a. Mibe. 

rotunda, a. Ti pi mibe. 

rouge, n. Wase ; wasesa. 

roach, a. Mdaye sni ; pespesto ; 
pepe; tan'yan kaonspepi sni. 
— A rough board, eanmdaska 
kazipapisni. — Bough cloth, mi- 
niTiiiVin. pepe. — A rough coun- 
try, makoce no 'Ski. — A rough 
day, aqpetu kihansica ; anpetu 
oiyokisica. — A rough man, wi- 
casta tehika. — A rough road, 
cankupahaha; cai)ku si'ca. — 
A rough sea, mini tahtaga ; ta'- 
za wankantuya. — A rough tone, 
ho gahan; ho gaheca; ho za- 
han. — In the rough, ka'gapi 
sni; yuwastepi sni. n. Waki- 
zes'a. vt. Panaha. — To rough 
it, ikceya un. 

roach-cast, n. Iyuteya ka'gapi; 
iwanyag ka'gapi. 

roughen, vt. Yugogo ; yuhaha. 

roach-hew, vt. Ikce ka'ga. 

roughJsh, a. Onspesni. 

roughly, adv. Ikceya ; zaheya ; te- 
hiya ; pe'stoya ; wohitiya. 

roughness? n. Pahaha ; mda'ye- 
sni ; woskiske ; woohitika. 

roach-shod, a. Sakemaza pepe; 

round, n. 1. Mibe; mima; hmi- 
yanyan ; ta'pase. 2. I'ozudan; 
o'ta ; tkon'za : a good round 
sum. n. Ta'ku hmiyanyan ; 

185 rowdy 

woohomni; kahomni wacipi; 
aohomnipi ; i'ciyaza econpi. — 
A round of beef, tado cecaoba- 
ksa. — The round of a ladder. 
caniyamanipi sihdepi. — They 
sang a round, kieipasipi odo- 
wan ahiyayapi. adv. Ohomni ; 
o'ksan ; i'hduksan ; okawinh : 
he went round the field.— The 
wheel turns round, canhdeska 
yuhomni. — AU round, o'wan- 
caya. prep. Ohomni : wrap it 
round the tree. vt. Mibe ka'ga ; 
yupsonpson ; yuwaste : round 
the edges. — Round up the cattle, 
pte kuj yuwitaya. 

roundabout, a. Aohomni; katin- 
yansni : a roundabout toad. 

roundhoase, n. Tihminyanna. 

roundly, adv. Aohomniyan ; a'wi- 

roundness, n. Womibe; woozu- 
dan ; wowioake. 

round-shouldered, a. Tapete pako. 

rouse, vt. Yuhica : rouse the 
people, vi. Kikta ; ihduhica. 

rouser, n. Wicayuhica ; wohitika. 

rousing, a. 1. Wayuhioa. 2. Tan'- 
ka ; otantonka : a rousing fire. 

roosingly,odt;. Wohitiya ; yumdes- 

rout, n. Wonazica; owodutaton. 
vt. Iyayeya ; napeya : he routed 
the enemy. 

route, n. Canku ; ocanku. 

routine, n. Wiconan o'wecinhan; 
to'ken ocankuyapi. 

rove, vi. Okawinh un ; itomni. 

rover, n. Omanis'a. 

row, vt. 1. Watopa : row the boat. 
2. Wa'ta ohna a'ya: row the 
lady over the river, vi. Wato- 
pa : I like to row. n. 1. Watom 
omanipi : take a row. 2. Ocan- 
kuye ; i'cipatkuh wankapi : a 
row of houses. 

rowdy, n. Ho'bu; owoduton ka'- 




rowdyish, a. Ohaijwieastasni. 

rower, n. Watopa. 

rowlock, n. Iwatopekiya wi'yuze. 

royal, a. Itaijcai) ; waste : a royal 
family, n. Itan,cai) ; wowapi 
ska tan/ka. 

royalist, n. Wicastayatapi taobe. 

royally, adv. Itaijcai) iyececa. 

royalty, n. Itaqcai) ; itai|cai) ta'- 
wa: itai)cai) tawomnaye; wo- 

rub, vt. Payeza ; pakinta ; yulida- 
ta; pazaza. — Rub the clothes 
hard, heyake ni'na pazaza. — 
Rub off, pakirjta. — Rub on, iui) ; 
apawinta. — Rub out, patat)ii)- 
sni ; pakiqta. — Rub up, pasdu- 
ta; pakinta; pawiyakpa. vi. 
Kaseya ya ; icahtag ya : you 
rubbed on the wheel, n. Wo- 
kase ; wokahtake ; wopaniui ; 
wokasusuza : a hard rub. 

rubadub, n. Kabupi. 

robber, n. 1. Caqsii) : it is made 
of rubber. 2. Wi'payeza; ipa- 
zuzu : a pencil with a rubber 
head. 3. Caqsii) han/pa : buy 
a pair of rubbers. 4. Ekakena 
ecoqpi : play the rubber. 

rubbish, n. Wokpukpai) ; ta'ku 

rubric, n. Woope ; wocekiye woo- 

ruby, n. In/yan, tenike sa. 

rudder, n. Iyupse; wa'taiyuho- 

ruddiness, n. &asa ; wosa. 

ruddy, a. &asa. 

rude, a. 1. Wicastasni : the rude 
boy. 2. Waonspekesni ; ikce- 
ka : our rude forefathers. 3. 
Tan/yai) ka'gapisni : his rude 

rudely, adv. Ikceya ; oijspesni. 

rudeness, n. Oijwicaspesni. 

rudiment, n. O'tokaheya wooijspe ; 

rudimentary, a. O'tokahe ; stuijka. 

rue, vt. Icaqtesica ; iyopeeiya. ■ 

ruefully, adv. Oiyokisinya. 

ruff, n. Yumnimnizapi ; tahu yu- 

ruffian, n. Tu'we ocinsica. 

ruffle, vt. Yutastaza ; yumnimni- 
za ; yucaqze ; yuhdata. n. Yu- 
mnimnizapi ; wocanze. 

ruffled, a. Canze ; tastaza. 

rug, n. Owinzadan. 

rugged, a. 1. Kagogopi; hehe; 
noskiski : the rugged mountains. 
2. Suta ; wakig'aka ; ke'za : a 
rugged boy. 

ruggedly, adv. Wakis'agya. 

rugfedness, n. WowakS'aka; wo- 
skiske ; wotehi. 

ruin, n. Woyutakunisni ; woihan- 
ke. vt. Yutakunisni ; ihangya. 

ruination, n. Woihaijgye. 

ruinous, a. Wayusica; waihang- 

rotable, a. Wicohan ohna ; woope 
ohna ; heeiyotai). 

rule, n. 1. Woope : I will read 
the rules of the school. 2. Ahna 
icazopi ; owiyute on ieazopi : 
your rule is crooked. 3. Wawi- 
dake : under the rule of kings, 
vt. 1. Icazo ; owotanna icazo : 
J want you to rule this paper. 
2. Idake: she ruled her hus- 
band. 3. Woope oyaka : he 
ruled the case out. vi. Wawi- 
dake ; waawanyake ; woope 

ruler, n. 1. Wawidake ; itancan : 
the ruler of England. 2. Ahna 

ruling, n. 1. Icazopi: the ruling 
is too close. 2. Woyaco ; wae- 
yastai) : tlie judge's ruling, pa. 
Itancan ; itancan, ur) ; iyotai). . 

rum, n. Miniwakan. 

rumble, vi. fimun ; bu ; ko'ka. 

rumbliof ly, adv. Kokogya. 

ruminant, n. Ta'ku wayatekorjza ; 
ta'nca ; tataqka ; ta. 




ruminate, vi. 1. Wayatekonza. 2. 
Awacii) ui) ; wi'yukcan. . 

rummage, vt. Ode ; mahentu ode. 

rumor, n. Woyakapi ; tu'we he ya 
taijii) sni e'yapi. vt. Oyaka. 

rump, n. Nite ; sii)te hu'te. 

rumple, vi. Yuksiksiza. 

rumpus, n. Okoyapi; owoduta- 

run, vi. 1. In'yaqka : tte boy runs. 
2. Kaduza : the water runs. 3. 
Iyaye ; iyopte : the clock runs. 
4. Awacii) ui) ; okawinft un : 
W* mtitd runs on it. — Run after , 
kuwa iyaye. — Run away, naz- 
ica; nanmanhda. — Run away 
with, yuha iyaya. — Run for, 
oftanko huweiyayaj kuwa. — 
Run for Congress, Tunkansina 
omnioiye o'pe kta kuwa. — Run 
in debt, oieazo ka'ga. — Run in 
with, akipa. — Run on, adi. — 
The debt ran on, oieazo kazu- 
zusni yanka. — Run out, hena- 
na; ihanke. — Run over, apa- 
sboka ; adi ya : run over a child. 
— Run over a paper, wowapi 
inanni waqyaka. — Run up an 
account, oieazo han/ska ka'ga. 
vt. 1. In'yaijgkiya ; kiiijyang- 
kiya : ran the horse a mile. 
2. Iyayeya : run the rope 
through the hole. 3. Kagege; 
i'cipasisa: run a seam. — Run 
down, e'tapa ; kihdega. — Run a 
line, iyute. — Run out, tai)kan 
iyayeya. — Run a risk, okihi kte 
sni se'ca econ. — Run through, 
ipahdan iyeya. — Run through 
a fortune, woyuhatai)ka yuso- 
ta. — Run up the figures, waya- 
wapi yuwitaya. n. 1. Oinyaij- 
ke ; kiiqyankapi : a long run. 
2. Minioaduza ; wakpadan : he 
drank at the run. — A good run 
for cattle, ptewanuyanpi owi- 
naqye waste. — A run of stones, 
iij'yai) wi'yukpan, tawaqzi. — 

A run on the bank, ma'zaska- 
tipi ma'zaska e'hdakupi kta 
anataqpi — The common run, 
ikceka; owasin iyececa. — The 
run of mankind, wicasta iyuha 
se ; ecaowanca. — In the long 
run, te'hantu kiijhai} ; owihai)- 

runaway, a. Napes'a ; nazices'a. 

rung, imp. of ring. 

rung, n. Can/oiyadi. 

runner, n. 1. In/yankes'a ; in/yaij- 
ka dn'zahe : runners preparing 
for the race. 2. Wahosiye : a 
runner from the battle. 3. Wo- 
petoi) omani : a runner from 
Chicago. 4. Hu'sdohaqpi : 
strawberry vines have runners. 

running, a. 1. Kiiitf aqgkiyapi : a 
running horse. 2. I'ciyokiheya : 
two day 8 running. 3. Ton 'ye ; 
ton'au : a running sore. — Run- 
ning down to, iyohiya. n. Iij- 
yaijkapi ; wokaduza. 

runt, n. Ecacikana : osteka. 

rupture, n. 1. Kahdecapi ; woka- 
ndeca : a rupture in the wall. 

2. Wokieize ; woakiuica : a 
rupture in the king's family. 3. 
Tezi nanden hiyu. vt. Yunde- 
ca : rupture a blood vessel. 

rural, a. Wozupi makoce; wo- 

ruse, n. Wohnaye. 

rush, vi. 1. Natai) ; dus ya : all 
rushed to the fire. — Rush at, 
anatai). 2. Ni'na hiyu; ni'na 
hiyaya : the water rushed out. 

3. Mde'zesni kuwa : don't rush 
into business, n. 1. Wonatai) : 
see the rush of people. 2. Wai)- 
yeca : rub it with rushes. 3. 
Psa : a rush mat. 

rusher, n. Waanatan ; ohitika. 
rusk, n. Aguyapi sku'yena. 
russet, n. Taspai)tai)ka ha'gi. 
rust, n. 'Gigi ; ma'zaagi. vi. *Gi 

a 'y a j gigi ; » in a 'y a « 




rustic, a. Wozuwicasta ta'wa ; 

ikoe se ka'gapi. 
rusticate, vi. Makoskan ti; wi'- 

kcekce un. 
rustle, vi. 1. Hamhapa ; fta'pa : 

the leaves rustled. 2. flmui) 

se skai) ; mdiheiciya skai) : 

rustle for yourself. 
rustler, n. Tu'we wohitiya skai). 

rusty, a. *Gi ; gigi ' & rusty plow, 
rut, n. Oskokpa; canpahmihma 

hu naoskokpa : keep out of the 

ruts. vi. Takiyuha. 
rutabago, n. Ti'psinazizi. 
ruthless, a. Waonsidasni. 
ruthlessly, adv. Waoijsidasniyan. 
rutty, a. Oskokpakpa. 
rye, n. Aguyapisapa. 

Sabbath, n. pr. Anpetuwakan. 
Sabbath-breaker, n. Aijpetuwakai] 

Sabbatical, a. Anpetuwakan iye- 

ceoa. Sabbatical year, waniye- 

tu isakowin. 
saber, n. Isantanka; miwakai). 

vt. Miwakai) oi) apa. 
sable, n. Nakpagica. a. Sa'pa. 
Sac, n. pr. Za'ke. 
sacharine, a. Sku'ya ; canhaqpise. 
sacerdotal, a. Wawayusna. 
sack, n. 1. Wozuha ; ozuha. A 

sackful, wozuha ozudai). 2. 

Un/hohda ; o'kdeonzinca. vt. 

1. Ozutoi) ; oksu : sack the pota- 
toes. 2. Ihaqgya : the soldiers 
sacked the town. 

sackcloth, n. Minifruhasica ; wo- 

sackful, n. Ozutoijpi. 

sacrament, n. Wohduze; wowa- 
kai) wicohai) (fitayetuwotapi 
ka mniakastaqpi hena kapi). 

sacred, a. Wakai) ; ohodapi. 

sacredly, adv. Wakanyan. 

sacredness, n. Wowakai). 

sacrifice, n. 1. Wosnapi; waihpe- 
yapi. 2. Woihaijgye; wokpa- 
gai). vt. 1. Wosna; waihpeya. 

2. Enpeya; kpagai). 
sacrilege, n. Wowakai) yuikce- 

sacrum, n. Nisehu. 

sad, a. 1. Caqtesica ; iyokisin un, : 
a sad woman. 2. Oiyokisica: 
a sad day. 

sadden, vt. Iyokisinya. 

sadder, a. comp. Sai)'pa caqte- 

saddest, a. sup. Iyotai) eantesica ; 
iyotai) oiyokisica. 

saddle, n. Awakii) ; sungakin. A 
saddle of meat, napco. vt. Akiij- 

saddle-girth, n. Makuiyutitai). 

saddle-horse, n. Sui)gakanyai)ka- 

saddle-tree, n. Awakii) cai) . 

sadly, adv. Cantesinya; oiyoki- 
sinya ; tehiya. 

sadness, n. Woiyokisica ; iyokisi- 

safe, a. Okopesni ; kokipepica- 
sni ; tarjyan ; waste. A safe 
bridge, cankafroqpapi kokipe- 
picasni. n. Opiye suta ; ma'za- 
ska aonatake. 

safeguard, n. Oi) okope sni. 

safekeeping, n. Woawai)yake wa- 

safely, adv. Tan'yai) ; okokipesni- 
yai) ; wakiuijniyesni. 

safeness, n. Wokokipesni ; woza- 

safety-lamp, n. Petizanzai) oko- 

saffron, a. Zi ; wahcazi. 

sac 189 

sag, *». Kawinza ; kawins iyaye. 

n. Okawiqze. 
sagacious, a. Kesa'pa ; wi'yukcai). 
safe, n. 1. Wanpenota. 2. Ksa- 

potanoai) ; wicastaksapa. a. 

Ksa'pa; waste. 
sagely, adv. Ksamyahai). 
sagging, n. Okawiqza. 
sago, n. Woyute yuzapi (ocaze). 
said, tt»p. of sat. 
sail, n. Sina (oi) watopekiyapi) ; 

sinawatopekiyapi ohna omani- 

pi. — Strike sail, sina puhpapi. 

— Sina kicui). vi, 1. Sina on 

watopa : our boat mils well. 

2. Sinawata on omani; wi'ta- 

wata ohna ya. 3. Kiqyai) ya ; 

kahoya ya ; nawin ui) : the buz- 

ssard sails high. vt. 1. Sina on 

watopekiya : sail his boat. 2. 

AMnyan : sails aerial space. 
satiable, a. Sinawatopekiyepica. 
sail-cloth, n. Wa'tasina on, ka'- 

sailer, n. Sinawatopekiya. 
sailiog, n. Sinaonwatopapi. 
sallless, a. Sina wanica. 
sailmaker, n. Wa'tasina ka'ga. 
sailor, n. Sinawata kieanyan. 
saint, n. Wakan ; wanagiwakai). 
Saint Louis, n. pr. Minisoseiyo- 

hdoke otonwe. 
Saint Paul, n. pr. Imnizaskadai). 
Saint Peter (Minn.) n. pr. Oiyu- 

sainted, a. Yawakaijpi. 
saintly, a. Wanagi waste. 
sake, n. Woihakta; wokiksuye. 

— For the sake of, oi) etankan. 

— For his sake, iye on etaij- 

salable, a. Wi'yopeyepica. 
salad, n. Wahpe baksaksa yu'ta- 

saury, n. Wokaznzn; wi'si; wa- 

niyetu wanzi wokazuzu. 
sale, n. 1. Wi'yopeyapi : The sale 

is completed. 2. Owjyopeye ; 

pan, wi'yopeyapi.— For sale, 
wi'yopeyapi han. 

saleratus,n. Aguyapi inapohye. 

salesman, n. Wopeton wioasta; 
wi'yopeya skan. 

salient, a. 1. Okitaqin ; cazeyan- 
pioa. 2. Pazoyahiyu. 

saliva, n. Tage;tagosa. 

sallow, a. Uka to'keca ; ukazi. 

sally, n. Wonatai) ; iapi to'keca. 
vi. Natan: kuwa e'yaya. 

salmon, n. Hoganzi ; ho'wicasta- 

saloon, n. Miniwakan ti'pi. 

saH,n. 1. Miniskuya. 2. Tu'we 
miniwaxjca omanis'a. vt. Sku'- 
veya. a. Sku'ya. 

salt-cellar, n. Miniskuya wohnake. 

salting, n. Miniskuya icahiyapi. 

saltish, a. Ki'tanna sku'ya. 

saltmine, n. Miniskuya o^e. 

saltness,n. Woskuye. 

saltpeter, n. Miniskuyasa. 

salt-rhenm, n. Ikoeahinapapi. 

salts, n. Miniskuyaseca. 

salty, a. Sku'ya. 

salubrious, a. Oniyawaste. 

salutary, a. Wayuwaste. 

salutation, n. Wozani ekiciyapi. 

salute, vt. Wozani ekiciya. n. 
Akiciyutapi: ho ekiciyapi. 

salvation, n. wiconi; waniwica- 
vapi ; woehdaku. 

salve, n. Sda wi'kiunpi. 

Samaritan, n. Samaria wioasta. 

Sambo, n. Wasicunsapa. 

same, a. He'e ; o'konwanzidan ; 
wanzidan. — Much the same, 
a'kideoenya se. — Of the same 
length, a'kidehankeca. — Of the 
same size, a'kiniskokeca. — Of 
the same sort, obewanzidai). — 
Of the same age, waniyetu a'ki- 
denakeoa. — The same day, ai)- 
petu wanzidai). — The same 
direction, is eya heciyotai). — 
The same man, wioasta wanzi- 
dai). — The same number, i'aki- 

sameness 190 

denakeca. — The same time, iye- 

sameness, n. OVaniidan, ; he'ce- 

sample, n. Ox) sdonyapi kta ; oi}- 

fipa. trt. Oqspaspa iyuta. 
sanitary, a. Oi) wieazani kta. 
sanctification, n. Wicayuecepidaq; 

sanctify, trt. Tuwakai) ; yuecedai). 
sanctimonious, a. Wakaijkai) : wa- 

sanction, n. Woyusuta ; waokiya- 

pi. vt. He'cetu keya. 
sanctify, n. Wowakai) ; wocekiye. 
sanctuary, n. Ti'piwakaq. 
sanctum, n. Oyankewakaij. 
sand, n. Wiyaka ; casnra. vt. Wi- 

yaka akada. 
sandal, n. Haqpsicu han/pa. 
sand-bag, n. Wiyaka ozutorjpi. 
sand-fly, n. Honagidan hdeska. 
sandpaper, n. Mininuhapepe. 
sandstone, n. Wiyakaiijyai) ; izu- 

sandstorm, n. Wiyakaibobdu. 
sandwich, n. Aguyapi wasiqapa- 

sandy, a. 1. Wiyaka : a sandy 

road. 2. Sai) ; zi : sandy hair. 
sane, a. 1. Mde'ze ; wacirjhnuni- 

sni. 2. Zani : a sound body. 
sang, imp. of sing. 
sang-froid, n. Inihaijsni. 
sanguinary, a. Weyapi ; we o'ta : 

a sanguinary war. 
sanguine, a. 1. We o'ta ; ka'ta ; 

onaqko; mdiheca: a sanguine 

temperament. 2. Okihiicida : 

sanguine of success. 3. Sa; we. 
Sanhedrim, n. pr. Juda Omniciye 

sanitary, a. Oi) wieazani. 
sanity, n. Wacinhnunidni ; woza- 

sank, imp. of sink. 
Sans Arc, n. j?r. Itazipco. 
Santee, n. pr. Isaqyati. 


Sanskrit, n. pr. Otakahe oyate 

sap, n. 1. Can haijpi. 2. Cai) ha 

ihukuya. trt. Hu'te oka. 
sap-head, n. Tu'we waciqtonani. 
sapient, a. Ksa'pa ; ksapaicida. 
sapless, a. Pu'za ; ai'ca. 
sapling, n. Cai) ci'stiijna; tosu. 
sapphire, n. Ii)'yai) tefiika to. 
sappy, a. Miniota ; atuijka. 
sarcasm, n. Iapi woyafiiake. 
sarcastic, a. Wayafttake ; pe. 
sardine, n. Hoganatinna wilted 

sarsaparilla, n. Pezihutazi. 
sash, n. 1. Ipiyaka han'ska ; ica- 

ske. 2. (Vzanzankdepi cai). 
Saskatchewan, n. pr. Miniduza. 
sassafras, n. Canziocaze. 
sat, imp. of sit. 
Satan, n. pr. Wakansica. 
satanlc, a. Wakaqsica se. 
satchel, n. Pai) botka ; wizipai). 
sate, vt. Wi'piya ; i'mnaya. 
satellite, n. Wicanhpi o'kihe ; o'- 

satiate, vt. Wi'piya ; hitihdaya. 
satiety, n. Wi'pipi. 
satin, n. Minihuha atosto. 
satinet, n. 1. Minihuha sani sto- 

stona. 2. Onzeoge ka'gapisni. 
satire, n. I en iyeyapi owohdake ; 

wawiyokipi sni. 
satisfaction, n. Woiyokipi ; woka- 

satisfactory, a. Wawiyokipi ; tan'- 

satisfy, vt. Iyokipiya; wi'piya; 

sdonyekiya ; kazuzu. 
satisfying, pa. Wi'piya ; napin. 
saturate, trt. ftparjyai). 
Saturday, n. pr. Owaqkayuzazapi. 
sauce, n. Ta'ku sku'ya. vt. Iapi 

pe'sto ku ; i'eniyeya. 
saucebox, n. Tu'we wicastasni. 
saucepan, n. Waskuyaikanye. 
saucer, n. Getetehedan. 
saucily, adv. Wicaataaniyan. 




sanclness, ». Woohodasni. 
saucy, a. Waohodasni; wi'steoe- 

saunter, vi. Wi'kcekce omani. 
sausage, w. Tadoopaskicapi. 
savage, n. Ikcewicasta. a. 1. 

Ikce ; ikoe un : in savage life. 

2. Wohitika; otehika; okoki- 

pe : a savage dog. 
save, vt. 1. Nikiya : Lord save 

me. 2. Kihnaka; kpatai) : / 

wiU save this for you. 3. Yua- 

sni; yutokai) : save trouble. 

prep* A'okpani. 
saver, n. Wakpatans'a ; nikiya. 
saving, pa. Wapatan. 2. Wapa- 

savingly, adv. Kpatanyan. 
savings-bank, ». Wakpatanpitipi. 
Savior, n. pr. Wanikiya ; Jems 

savor, n. Woomna; iteka. vi. Eca- 

mna ; u'ta ; se'ececa. 
savorless, a. Takumasni 
savory, a. Wastemna; oyunwa- 

saw, imp. of see. 
saw, *. Ganibaksa. vt. Baksa. 
sawdust, n. Canbakpaqpi. 
sawer, sawyer, w. Can baksa; can- 

ba. 2. Ganmnicazo. 
sawmill, ft. Gannasdetipi. 
say, said, vt. E'ya; he'ya; keya. 

— I say, epa. — You say, eha. — 

They say, keyapi. 
sayer, it. E'ya. 

saying, ft. Woeye. par. E'ya. 
scab, ft. Ohdi ce'spn ; hakte. 
scabbard, ». Isanozuha ; miozuha ; 

ma'zasagye ozuha. 
scaffold, ft. Co'wahe. 
scaffolding, ft. On co'wahe ka'- 

scald, vt. Minikata aguye. . 
scale, ft. 1. Ho'cespu; cespu : fish 

with scales. 2. On aspeyeton- 

pi : hay scales. 3. Ho'iyadipi : 

sing the scale. 4. Owiyute : de- 

cimal scale, vt. 1. Adi : scale 
the rock. 2. Yuhdaya ; kakin- 

scalp, ft. Wioapaha; paha. vt. 
Paha yu'za. 

scalp-dance, n. Iwakicipi. 

scalpel, ft. Iaai) ; mi'na. 

scaly, a. Gespnota ; hakte. 

scamp, ft. Wicastasni. 

scamper, vi. In'yanka; tokai) ya. 

scan, vt. Iwanyaka ; ca'hdeyawa. 

scandel, n. Woaie. 

scandalize, vt. Woaie ki'cage. 

scandalous, a. Yasicapi; wahte- 

scandalously, adv. dinya ; sicaya. 

scant, a. Iyohisni se ; ki'tanh iyo- 
hi ; a'okpani. vt. Yuaokpani. 

scantily, adv. A'okpani ; icakisya. 

scantling, ft. Ganmdaska omdo- 

scanty, a. Iyokpani ; to'nana. 

scape-grace, ft. Gante wanica. 

scapula, ft. Anidohn. 

scar, ft. Osnaze. vt. Kandeca. 

scarce, a. To'nana ; co'nana ; wa- 
nioa; tehika. 

scarcely, adv. Ki'tanh ; ki'tanseh. 

scarceness, n. Wanica; wokitai). 

scarcity, ft. Wanica ; oteMka. 

scare, vt. 1. Yusinyeya. 2. fia- 
mya : scare off the birds. 

scarecrow, ft. Wahamya hde'pi. 

scarf, ft. Nakpiyutake. 

scarify, vt. Bahonhon ; we icu. 

scarlets, a. Osnaze wanica. 

scarlet, a. Du'ta ; sa'zi. 

scarry, a. Osnaze o'ta. 

scat, interj. Si'si ; hunktiya. 

scathe, vt. Ihangya. 

scathing, pa. Waihangye; okoki- 

scatter, vt. 1. Eadada ; kada ehpe- 
ya : scatter seeds. 2. Yuindeca ; 
enana iyayewicaya : scatter the 
enemy. 3. Enana ehpeya ; ihan- 
gya : scatter my hopes, vi. Ena- 
na yapi ; omdecahanpi. 

scattered 192 

scattered, pa. Obdecahai) ; a'be- 

scattering pa. Enanakiya; i'ci- 

scatterlngly, adv. Enanakiya. 
scavenger, n. Ta'kusica e'yanpe- 

scene, n. Wowaijyake ; wopazo. 
scenery, n. Owanyake. 
scent, vt. O'mna. n. Womna. — 

Keen scented, womnaka. 
scepter, n. Caq'hpi; itancan ta- 

eannpi ; sagye. 
schedule, n. I'ciyazaowapi. 
scheme, n. 1. Wowiyukcan : to 

form a scheme. 2. Gankuyeton 

owapi. vt. Wi'yukcan. ; nanman 

schemer, n. Wakoanka. 
scheming, pa. Wakcanka; ku- 

schism, n. Womdeca. 
schismatic, a. Wayumdeoa. 
scholar, n. 1. Wayawa ; waonspe- 

kiyapi : how many scholars. 2. 

Tu'we wowapi wayupika : our 

minister is a fine scholar. 
scholarly, a. Ksa'pa ; waoijspeka. 
scholarship, n. 1. Takn onspe : a 

man of great scholarship. 2. 

Wayawa ki'cicazuzupi. 
schooC n. Wayawapi; wayawapi 

optaye : woonspe ocaze. n. Ho- 

gan optaye. vt. Onspekiya. 
school-boy, n. Wayawa hoksidan. 
school-dame, n. Waonspekiya win'- 

school-days, n. pi. Wayawa an- 

school-district n. Makoce tin/sko- 

ya oyawatipi wanzi yuhapi. 
school-fellow, n. Kici wayawa. 
school-girl, n. Wayawa wicincana. 
school-hour, n. Wayawa ehantu. 
school-house, n. Wayawatipi. 
schooling, n. Waonspekiyapi. 
school-master, n. Waonspekiya. 
sehool-mate, n. Kici wayawa. 


school-mistress, school-ma'ni, n. 

Wayawa win 'y an. 
school-teacher, n. Waonspekiya. 
school-teaching, n. Waonspekiya- 
schooner, n. Wi'tawata. 
schottish, n. Wacipi ho. 
science, n. Wooqspe ; wosdonye. 
scientific, a. Wasdonye ; ksa'pa. 
scientifically, adv. Okiksamya. 
sdmiter, n. Ma'zasagye. 
scintillate, vt. Pe'tekpa'kpa. 
scion, n. Obaksa ; cinca. 
scissors, n. Wiyuida ; iyuada ci'- 

scoff, vi. IbanA. n. WawiRa&api. 
scoffer, n. Wawinafia. 
scoffingly, adv. Wawinahaya. 
scold, vt. Ki'ge ; iyopeya. n. Wa- 

scoop, vt. Icn ; kapta ; kakam icu ; 

yuskopa. n. Wi'captetanka. 
scope, n. Ta'ku kapi; okiciyu- 

scorch, vt. *Guya ; adosya. To be 

scorched, gu. 
scorching, pa. Ka'ta ; guguya. 
score, n. 1. Obago; oioazo. 2. 

Wikeemna noijpa. vt. Bago; 

icago ; icazo. 
scorn, n. Wowantedasni ; wowi- 

ha. vt. Wantedasni ; aktasni. 
scoruer, n. Wawioaha; waakta- 

scornful, a. Wahtedasni. 
scornfully, adv. Wantedasniyan,. 
scorpion, n. 1. Wanmduska. 2. 

Icapsinte pespesto. 
Scotch, n. pr. Waziyata Sagdasa. 
scoundrel, n. Wantesni. 
scour, vt. 1. Payeza ; pasdusdu- 

ta : scour knives. 2. O'waq- 

oaya ode; omani. vi. 1. Wa- 

pasduta ; wakazo. 
scourge, n. 1. Icapsinte : he made 

a scourge. 2. Wokakize. 
scout, n. Tonweya. vt. Iha&a. 
scowl, vt. Itesinkiya. 




scrabble, vi. Wahutopamani ; na- 

scragged, a. fiWe ; pepe. 

•craggy, a. fi'eh'e. 

scramble, vi. Wahutopa ma'ni. 

scrunch, vt. Yukehkega; yufiu- 

scrap, n. Wopte; oyupte; oba- 
pte ; wokaptapi ; ogu. Scraps 
of food, woyaptapi. 

scrap-booK, n. Wotaqfc) oyupte 

scrape, vt. Kakiijca ; nakii)ca ; yu- 
kiijca; pakiqta; pakoga; pa- 
kega ; pakeza ; patica, etc. 

To scrape (as a turnip), yu- 
koga. — To scrape (as mud), pa- 
kiijta. — To scrape (as snow 
from the walk), katica. — To 
scrape (as the feet on the floor), 
natoqca. — To scrape (as the 
hair from a hide), kakiqca. — 
To scrape (with a grating sound), 
yukega. — To scrape together, 

scraper, n. Wi'kakrqce ; wi'pati- 
ca, etc. 

scraping, n. Wakakii)ca. 

scratch, vt. Yuftdata ; yuspnya ; 
yukoga ; yugo, etc. — To scratch 
(as furniture) yugogo; (as a 
ticket) pazuzu; icago; (as a 
letter) ohaijko owa; (with the 
paws) yuhdata ; nagogo ; (when 
itchy) yu&puya ; yuMetta. 

scrawl, vt. OijspeSni owa. n. fen- 
ya owapi. 

scrawler, n. Tu we si'kfiin owa. 

scrawny, a. Sifrtii) ; si'ca. 

scream, vi. Tehowaya ; ce'ya ; ho- 
toi) ; aioahowaya. The child 
screams, hok&iyopa ce'ya. — The 
owl screams, hiqyaqkaga ho- 
toi). — To scream from fear, te- 
howaya. n. Hotorjpi ; ce'yapi. 

screech, vi. Ho'piqza hotoi). 

screech-owl, n. Popotka. 

screechy, a. Piij'za; kiq'za. 

screen, n. 1. O'zaqpi; kokam 

hde'pi. 2. Wiyaka iyucai) ; wi'- 

yucai). — Screen-door, caporjg- 

okeya tiyopa. vt. 1. Kokam 

naMcizii) ; akafipa ; na&mai). 

2. Yucai)cai). 
screenings, n. pi. Yucaq efipe- 

screw, n. Ma'zayuhbezapi ; yu- 

hbezapi ; yuhbesostaqpi. vt. 

Yuhbesokatai) ; yuhomni ; yn- 

screw-driver, n. Oi) yuhbesofitaij- 

scribble, vt. Tokenciqcii) owa. 
scribbler, n. Tu'we oqspesni owa. 
scribe, n. Wowapikaga. vi. Ica- 

zo ; owa. 
scrimmage, n. Okicize. 
scrimp, vt. Yuptecedai). 
scrip, n. 1. Wowapi oq wayuha- 

pi ; makocewowapi. 2. Paqbo- 

script, n. Napeoqkagapi iyecen 

Scriptures, n. pi. Wowapi Wakaij. 
scrofula, n. Tahupopi woyazaq. 
scroU, n. Wowapi opehe. 
scrub, vt. Yuzaza ; owaijka yuza- 
za. n. Ecacikana; hu'na. 
scrubby, a. Icagece&ni ; si'ca. 
scruple, n. 1. Woohoda ; wacetui)- 

hdapi. 2. Otkeute ci'stiima. 

vi. He'cetu&nida. 
scrupulous, a. 1. He'cetusni ecii)- 

s'a. 2. Owotaijna; taq'yai) awa- 

scrupulously, adv. Ohodaya. 
scrutinize, vt. Amdeza. 
scrutinize^ n. Waamdeza. 
scud, vi. Hiyaya. 
scuffle, vi. Kiciyusecoi). 
scull, vt. Unzeta watopa. 
sculptor, n. Iij'yaij wapago. 
sculptress, n. Wiq'yai) wapago. 
sculpture, n. Wapagopi. 
scum, n. 1. Tage : the scum rises. 

2. Ta'kusui ; tuwetaijiTjRiii. 




scurf, n. 'Gangeca. 
scurrilous, a. Si'ca ; isica. 
scurvy, n. Tan«an po pi. 
scuttle, n. 1. Makacandi wokna- 

ke : wakiskokpa. 2. Awakeya- 

pi ondoka. 
scythe, n. Peziica&da (napinyun). 
sea, n. Miniwanca. At sea, mi- 

niwanca ekta nn ; nu'ni. 
sea-beach, n. Miniwanca huta. 
sea-board, n. Miniwanca kahda. 
sea-breeze, n. Miniwanca tate. 
sea-captain, n. Wi'tawata itancan. 
sea-chart, n. Miniwai)ca owapi. 
sea-coast, n. Miniwanca opapun. 
sea-faring, a. Miniwanca omani- 

sea-girt, a. Miniwanca aohomni. 
seal, vt. Apuspe ; nataka ; yustan. 

n. 1. Wi'puspe : the king's seal. 

2. Miniwanca wawaha. 
sealing-wax, n. Wowapi wi'puspe. 
seam, n. Okagege ; o'kibe. 
seaman, n. Wi 7 tawata wicasta. 
seamless, n. Okagege waDica. 
seamstress, n. Wakagege win'- 

sea-otter, n. Miniwanca ptan. 
sear, t;*. -Guy a ; snis'ya. 
seared, pa. •Ghi;sniza. 
search, vt. Akita ; ode ; en ode : 

amdeza. The sheriff searched 

the house, waoyuspa tiode. n. 

searchable, a. Odepica. 
searcher, n. Waode ; on waodepi. 
searching, pa. Anahbepicasni ; 

pe'sto ; wasdonya. 
search-warrant, n. Waodepi wo- 

sea-room, n. Ocannata; okaton- 

sea-sickness, n. Paptanptan iwa- 

season, n. O'maka ; makoncage ; 

maka ; arjpetu to'na ; tohanyan. 

— A wet season, omaka maga- 

zns'a. — In season, iyehan. — 

Out of season, iyehantu&ni. vt. 

1. Wa'payeton ; icahiya : season 
food. 2. Puaya ; ynwiyeya : 
season lumber. 

seasonable, a. Iyehantu ; i'yacin- 

seasonably, adv. Iyehanyan. 
seasoned, pa. Pu'za ; yusutapi. 
seat, n. Canakanyakapi ; oiyo- 

tanke ; oyanke. Church seats, 

ti'piwakan can'akanyankapi. 

— A country seat, wozupi oyan- 

ke. vt. 1. I'yotangkiya : seat 

the people. 2. Akanyankapi 

ka'ga : seal the church. 
sea-worthy, a. Miniwanca en ye- 

secede, vi. Tokan ya. 
secession, n. Ihdutokanpi. 
seclude, vt. Nanman ; nataka. 
seclusion, n. Wonanbe. 
second, a. Inonpa ; icinonpa ; i'yo- 

kihe. The second floor, owanka 

icinonpa. n. 1. Okoka; wi'- 

hiyayedan ko'ka. 2. I yokihe 

na'zin. 3. (Mus.) Ho o'kihe. 

vt. O'kiya. Second tlie motion, 

iapi o'kiya. 
secondarily, adv. I'yokiheya ; ko'- 

secondary, a. O'kihe ; icinonpa. 
second-hand, a. 1. Tanni ; wanna 

un'pi ; second-liand clothing. 2. 

I'yokihe ; a'tayedansni. 
secondly, adv. Inonpa. 
second-rate, a, I'yokihe waste. 
secrecy, n. Wonanbe. 
secret, a. Nahmanpi; nanman 

sdonyapi. n. Wonanbe; isna- 

na sdonyapi. 
secretary, n. Wowapi kankiyapi. 

2. O'kihe itancan : secretary of 
war. 3. Wowapi ahna ka'gapi. 

secrete, vt. 1. Nahman ; anahman. 

2. Ka'ga : secrete bile. 
secretion, n. Tonyan ; ton ka'ga. 
secretive, a. Nahbes'a. 
secretiveness, n. Waanahmanpi. 

secretly 195 

secretly, adv. Na&mana ; ananbe- 

secretness, n. Wonanbe ; nahman- 

sect, n. Okodakiciye o&paye. 
sectarian, a. Ospaye ta'wa iyo- 

sectarianism,*!. I&naieidapi. 
section, n. 1. Obaspe; obapte; 

ondpa ; oyuksa ; iyokise.* 2. 

(Gram.) Woeye; optapi. 3. 

(Surv.) Obaspe; makaiyutapi 

sectional, a. Oqspana en e'wacin. 
secular, a. Ikce ; wocekiye wico- 

haqsni. Secular music, ikoe- 

secularize, vt. Yuikceka ; ikce ka'- 

secure, a. Okopesni ; wi'kopesni. 
vt. 1. Sutaya hna'ka; sutaya 
yu'za ; kaska : secure the pris- 
oner. 2. Suta ikoyaka : secured 
by mortgage. 3. Icu ; ta'waya ; 

securely, adv. Okopedniyan. 

security, n. 1. Wokokipesni : dwell 
in security. 2. Woyusuta ; wo- 
yuha kaskapi ; wokaske : on 
security. 3. Eici wowapi on 
ihdaskapi. 4. Woyuha kaskapi 

sedan, n. Can/akanyan.kapi akiyu- 

sedate, a. Inina ui) ; waawacii). 

sedentary, a. O'hiijui i'yotanka 


sediment, n. Maka cetetahai). 
sedition, n. Wakipazirjpi. 
seditions, a. Wakipazins'a ; oyate 

sednce, vt. Ta'ku si'ca en iyutan- 

ye ; hmun/ka . hna'yai) ; i'na- 

seducer, n. Wiinahbe. 
seduction, n. Wawiyutan ; wiina- 

seductive, a. Iyutanye. 


sedulous, a. O'hiijni econ ; mdi- 

see, saw, seen, vt. 1. Wanyaka ; 

ista on wanyaka i I see a 

house. 2. Iyukcan, sdonya; ta- 

wacii) oi) wanyaka ; okahniga : 

I can't see what he wants, vt. 

Tonwaij; wawaijyaka. See into; 

see through, okahniga. — See to; 

see about, en e'tonwai). n. Wo- 

awanyake ; wokiconze. 
seed, n. 1. Su : apple seed. 2. 

Cinea : the seed of Abraham. 

3. Woznpi ; su ozupi. it". Su- 

ton ; su icaga. vt. Ozu ; ka- 

seed-corn, n. Wamnaheza ozupi 

seeder, n. On aguyapisu ozupi. 
seed-time, n. Wozupi iyehantu. 
seedy, a. 1. Su o'ta. 2. Tanni 

seeing, conj. He'cen ; he'oij. 
seek, sought, vt. Akita ; ode ; 

ihni ; cii). Seek after, seek for, 

seeker, n. Waode ; wi'hni. 
seem, vi. Se'ca : se'ececa ; iteka. 
seeming, pa. Se'ca ; akapataij- 

seemingly, adv. Se'ececa; tarjii)- 

seemly, adv. Iyecenya ; iyokipiya. 

a. Iyececa ; tan 'y an. 
seen, pp. of see. 
seer, n. Wakcaqka ; waayate. 
seersucker, n. Minihuha hdeze. 
seesaw, n. Oi) nakicihuhuzapi. 
. vi. Nawankankaniyeiciya. 
seethe, vt. Ohai). vi. Ipiga. 
segment, n. Oijspa ; obakse. 
seine, n. Ho ; oi) hogan yuzepi. 
seizable, a. Iyanpayepica. 
seize, vt. Yu'za ; iyahpaya. 
seizing, n. Iyanpayapi ; yu'zapi. 
seizure, n. Icupi ; iyahpayapi. 
seldom, adv. Wan'waijcadai) ; ena- 




select, a. Kannigapi ; watte pa- 
hipi. vt. Kanniga ; kahnin icu. 

selection, n. Wakabnigapi; pa- 

self, a. Iyenca : iye i'yatayedan ; 
-nca ; -ici- ; -nd- ; wasteicidapi. 
A man? 8 self, wicasta iye a'ta- 
yedai). — Myself, miyenca. — 
Yourself, niyenca. — Self-sup- 
port, ihduhapi. — Self-love, wa- 

self*abased,a. Ihduhukuya. 

self-abused, a. Sicaya ecaicicon. 

self-action, a. Iyecinka econ,. 

self-begotten, a. Iye icicaga. 

self-conceited, a. Ksapeicida. 

self-condemnation, n. Ihdacopi. 

self-confidence, n. Okihiieidapi. 

self-conscious, a. Sdonicida; ki- 

self-contradiction, n. Wicakesni- 

self-control, n. Carjte ihduhapi. 

self«convlcted, a. Ihdaco. 

self-culture, a. Waorjspeiciciyapi. 

seif-deceit, n. Icihnayanpi. 

self-defense, n. Anaiciksigpi. 

self-denial, n. Waipiicidapi. 

self-destruction, n. Ibangiciyapi. 

self-discipline, n. IhdaoT)8pepi. 

self-distrust, n. Waciijiciyeani. 

self-educated, a. I'ye ihdaoijspe. 

self-esteem, n. Wamnaicidapi. 

self-evident, a. Iyecinka taqii). 

self-examination, n. Aicimdezapi. 

self-government, n. Oyateihduhapi. 

self-Indulgence, n. Iyowiijiciyapi. 

self-interest, n. I'ye awaicicii}. 

selfish, a. Isnana awaicicii). 

selfishness, n. Ohansicapi. 

self-made, a. I'ye okihiiciya. 

self-murder, n. Iciktepi. 

self-possessed, n. Tawacin hduha; 

self-praise, n. Ihdatanpi. 

self-preservation, n. Niiciyapi. 

self-reliant, a. I'ye waciijiciya. 

self-reproach, n. Icibapi. 

self-respect, n. Taqyanunwacinpi. 

self.rig hteous, a. Owotanna icida. 

self-same, a. Heehea. 

self-satisfied, a. Iyokipiiciya. 

self-sufficient, a. Okihiicida. 

self-taught, a. Iyeonspeiciciya. 

self-torture, n. Kaki&ciyapi. 

self-willed, a. Tawacii) suta. 

sell, sold, vt. 1. Wi'yopeya ; wica- 
ku. I sold my land, makoce 
mitawa wi'yopewaya. 2. Hna'- 
yai). n. Wohnaye. 

seller, n. Wi'yopeya. 

selvage, n. Opapun. 

selves, pi. of self. 

semblance, n. Iyececa. 

Btml; prefix. Hanke ; hankeya. 

semi-annual, n. Waniyetu haijke. 

semi-barbarous, a. Iyokise ikce- 

semicolon, n. Oehnake hanke. 

semifluid, a. Tiktica. 

seminary, n. Woonspe wankantu. 

semi-savage, a. Haqke watoghda. 

semitone, n. Hoiyadapi haqke. 

senate, n. Wicahca omniciye. 

senator, n. Wicahca omniciye 

send, sent, vt. 1 . Yesi : send George. 
2. Yeya : send a letter, 3. Ku ; 
hiyuya: God sent a rain. 4. 
Iyayeya : send them out. — Send 
for, wahoya. 

sender, n. Hiyuya ; usi. 

senior, n. 1. Tokapa; ehanna 
econ. 2. Woonspe Wankantu 
waniyetu ehake yawapi. 

sensation, n. 1. Kiksuyapi ; osdon- 
yapi : a sensation of cold. 2. 
Woyuhica ; woawacii) : the sen- 
sation caused by his speech. 

sensational, a. WayuMca ; wahna- 

sense, n. Wowiynkcai) ; woawa- 
cii) ; wosdonye ; ka'pi ; on wa- 
sdonyapi. — Common sense, eoa 
wasdonyapi. — Moral sense, wo- 
waste sdonyapi. — No sense of 




the kindness, ta'ku waste eca- 
kicoqpi wasdonyapisni. — The 
five senses are seeing, hearing, 
smelling, tasting, feeling : oi) 
wasdonyapi za'ptaq kin, de'na 
ee, wawanyakapi, wanahonpi, 
waomnapi, wautapi ka wayu- 

senseless, a. 1. Kiksuyesni. He 
fell senseless, kiksuyesni hii)- 
npaya. 2. Waciijtonsni : a sense- 
less driver. 3. Witkotkoka ; ksa- 

senselessly, adv. Witkotkoya. 

sensibility, n. 1. Wokiksuye : the 
arm loses its sensibility. 2. Wa- 
wiciyapi; wasdonkiciyapi. 3. 

sensible, a. 1. Waciijtoi) ; ksa'- 
pa : a sensible woman. 2. Sdon- 
ya ; wakantaka. 

sensibly, adv. Wacinksamya; tan/- 
yai) ; taijinyai). 

sensitive, a. Wakantakeca; wo- 
panioa ; canwanka. 

sensual, a. Wicacenpi ; wicacenpi 
wocantiheye ; wicins'a. 

sensuous, a. Wicacenpi iyutan- 

sent, imp. send. 

sentence, n. 1. Wowiyukcai) ; ta- 
wacii) ; oie : my sentence is for 
war. 2. ( Gram. ) Woeye : a com- 
plete sentence. 3. {Law) Woya- 
co ; woyasu. vt. Yaco ; yasu : 
the judge sentenced him to death. 

sentiment, n. Tawaoii) ; wicota- 
waoii) ; woawacii) ; wowiyu- 

sentimental, a. Waawacii) ; waa- 

sentimentally, adv. Awacinyan. 

sentinal, n. Akieitanazin ; awan- 

sentry, n. Akicitanazii). 

separable, a. Yuspepica. 

separate, vt. Yukinukai) ; yuto- 
kai) ; yuspa ; tokan e'hde. vi. 

A'kipamiyaya ; ksa. a. Kinu- 

kai) ; i'ciyowazasni ; i'cikoya- 

separately, adv. Kinukankiya ; 

wanziksi ; hdakeya. 
separation, n. Yukinukai) un'pi. 
separator, n. Wayukinukan ; wa- 

yucai) ; wayueci. 
September, n. pr. Wi'inapcinwan- 

ka ; Psin'hnaketuwi. 
sepnlcher, n. Wicahapi ; wicahna- 

sepulchral, a. Wieahapi. 
sequel, n. Ta'ku ihanke yai)ke. 
sequence, n. Ta'ku ikoyake. 
seraph, n. Mahpiyaohnihde. 
seraphic, a. Manpiyatase ; waste- 

sere, a. Sni'za. 
serenade, n. Hanyen kidowaijpi. 

vt. Adowai). 
serene, a. Amdakedai). 
serenely, adv. Amdagyena. 
serenity, n. Woamdakena. 
serf, n. Wayaka; wicasta maka 

ikoyag ta'wayapi. 
serge, n. Mininuhahbeze. 
sergeant, n. Akicitawieapasi. 
sergeant-at-srms, n. AMoita tia- 

serial, n. Onspaspa oyakapi. 
series, n. I'ciyokihe. 
serious, a. 1. ]£e'za ; inasni un. 

Of serious manner, ohan ke'za. 

2. Wowicake; woawacii). 3. 

Tehike ; okokipe ; ihapicasni : 

a serious illness. 
seriously, adv. Teniya ; okokipe- 

ya ; wicakeya. 
seriousness, n. Woawacii) ; woo- 

sermon, n. Wowahokonkiye ; wi- 

eastawakan tawowahokonkiye. 
sermonize, vi. Wowahokonkiye 

serpent, Wanmduska. 
serpentine, n. Wanmduska se. n. 





servant, n. Wowidake; Y. wo- 

servant-girl, n. Win 'y an ookiye. 

serve, vt. 1. fitani; htakini ; o'ki- 
ye : serve two masters. 2. Wo- 
ku ; woyute iyaza a'ya : serve 
the meat. 3. Un 'pi waste : this 
tvill serve for a seat. 4. Ecaki- 
con ; kuwa : lie served me well. 
— To came to serve, wowidagya. 
— To serve a writ, waoyuspa 
wowapi ki'ciyawa. vi. Wowi- 
dake un ; unpiwadte. 

service, n. 1. Wohtani ; wowasi ; 
wowidake: God requires your 
service. 2. Woeooi) ; wocekiye : 
the burial service. 3. Wawoki- 
yapi : of great service. 4. Icu- 
wa : a communion service. 

servile, a. Wowidakese ; wowida- 
ke ; iye tawach) un'&ni. 

servitude, n. Wowidake. 

session, n. 1. Omniciye wanzi; 
oeyotaqke. The session of Con- 
gress, wa'kiyapi oeyotanka de. 
2. Omniciye. 3. {Presbyterian 
Church) Hunkayapi omniciye. 

sess-pool, n. Makondoka (ohna 
minisica ehpeyapi). 

set, vt. 1. E'hde ; e'hnaka ; hde : 
I do set my bow in the cloud. 
2. Econkiya ; -ki'ya. Set him to 
thinking, awacinkiya. — Set him 
to work, ntanikiya. 3. Sutaya 
e'hde ; skanskandni e'hde : set 
the posts. 4. Cazeyata; ka; 
kahniga : set a price. 5. Ecen 
e'hde: set the clock, n. 2u. 
Set with jewels, in'yan tehika 

To set about it, kuwa. — To 
set against, ipatan e'hde ; di'ce- 
daka. — To set a-going, iyopte- 
ya. — To set a hen, wakikna- 
kiya. — To set apart, iyog e'hde. 
— To set a saw, canibaksa hi 
yuksanyan. — To set aside, icun- 
om e'hde ; ehpeya. — To set at 

ease, kihna. — To set at naught, 
ta'kudnikiya. — To set a trap, 
ma'zahtakiyapie'onpa ; hmun'- 
ka. — To set at work, htanikiya. 
— To set by, tehinda ; icunom 
e'hde. — To set eyes on, wanya- 
ka. — To set forth, taninyan 
e'hde; oyaka; yaotaniq. — To 
set forward, iyaya ; iyopteya. — 
To set free, Iriyuaka. — To set in 
order, pikiya ; wi'yeya e'hnaka. 
— To setoff apart, ondpa icun- 
om e'hnaka. — To set off against, 
en ki'ciyawapi kta. — To set on 
(as a dog), kuwakiya. — To set 
the mind on t awaoin. — To set 
one's cap for f hmun'ka ; yu'ze 
kta kuwa. — To set on fire, ide- 
yaj yuhnaSkinyan. — To set on 
foot, econwicakiya ; ka'ga. — 
To set out (as food), e'hde. — To 
set out (as a tree), huhde. — 
To set out to go to, ekta iyaya. 
— To set right, yuwotanna. — 
To set the fashion, oihduze ka'- 
ga. — To set the teeth on edge, 
hi mananka. — To set the time, 
tohantu kahniga. — To setup a 
factory, wokagetipi ka'gapi. — 
To setup (to exalt), yuwankan- 
tu. — To set up (as a mark), 
e'hde. — To set up (as a post), 
bosdan e'hde. — To set up, type, 
ma'zaehde. — To setup in trade, 
wopetonpi okihiya. 
set,t». 1. Iyaya. The sun is set, 
wi iyaye. 2. Path) ; sag a'ya : 
wait till the glue sets. 3. Iyaya ; 
kaduza : the current sets to the 
other shore, 4. Waanazin. — 
When the dog sets, tohan 6un'- 
ka waanazin. — To set about, 
kuwa ; wanna econ. — To set off, 
iyaya. — To set out for London, 
London ekta iyaya. — To set out 
in business, woioicuwa en iye- 
iciya. — To set to, en iyeieiya ; 
econ. — To set up (one's self), en 




e'icihde ; iyayeiciya. pa.l. Su- 
taya hde'pi; suta; yiihomnipi 
tenike : set in his ways. 2. I'to- 
kam iwanyakapi; kah'yustan- 
pi: set foi^ms of papers, n. 1. 
Optaye ; obe : another set of 
people. 2. Tawanzi ; okantoi) : 
a set of chairs. 

set-down, n. Pamahen iyeyapi. 

settee, n. Akanyakapi han'ska. 

setter, n. Sun/ka siyo anaziij. 

setting, n. E'hdepi; zu'pi; hiya- 

settle, vt. 1. En i'yotanke ; e'ti ; 
ti ; makoce icu : the French 
settled Canada. 2. Eazuzu : 
settle your account. 3. Yumde- 
sya : settle the water. 4. Owan- 
zi yankekiya ; yuwaste : settle 
the minds of the people. 5. Yu- 
stan ; yaco : he settled the quar- 
rel. 6. Sutaya yankekiya ; yu- 
hekiya : settle a minister, vi. 1. 
I'yotanka; owanzi i'yotaqka; 
tihde : he settled in the West. 

2. Waciqtanka ; he'cetuwanzi- 
oa yanka. 3. Iyahe ; kun iya- 
he : the bees settled. 4. Easkin 
iyaye ; kun iwanka : the hay 
settled. 5. Amdakedan iwanka ; 
asni : the storm settled. 

settlement, n. 1. Wiooti ; oyate 
ti'pi ; ti'pi : the Indian settle- 
ment. 2. Yustaijpi ; woyustai) : 
the settlement of the controversy. 

3. Oeyotanke. 

settler, n. 1. Ihdaka ahiyotanka ; 
ahiti ; woyustai) ; owihanke. 

settling, n. 1. Oeyotanke : the set- 
tling of the country. 2. Kun 
iwanke : the settling of the house. 
3. Yustaqpi; yuecetnpi. 4. Ce- 
tete han ; maka oiyahe. 

seven, a. Sakowin. 

sevenfold, a. Sakowin akihde. 

seventeen, a. Akesakowiij. 

seventeenth, a. I'akesakowin. ; ake- 
eakowin yuspapi waqzi. 

seventh, a. Isakowin. ; sakowii) 

yuspapi wanzi. 
seventhly, adv. Isakowii). 
seventy, a. Wikcemna sakowii). 
sever, vt. Eiyuspa ; yuspa ; yuki- 

nukan; yutokai). 
several, a. 1. Wanziksi ; to'nana; 

to'nakeca: sevei'al persons. 2. 

To'keca; iyohi : four several 

severalty, n. Taij 'iyohi ; kiyuspa. 
severe, a. Tehika ; s'a'keca ; ksi- 

severely, adv. Teniya ; tkeya ; ni'- 

severity, n. Wotehi ; woiyokisica. 
sew, vt. Kagege ; pasisa. Sew up, 

sewer, n. 1. Tu'we wakagege. 2. 

Minisica wohdogeca. 
sewerage, n. Minisica oynskepa. 
sewing, n. Wakagegepi; woka- 

sewing-machine, n. On wakage- 
sex, n. Wica kais win 'y an. 
sexless, a. Wi'n'kta. 
sexton, n. Ti'piwakan. awanyaka. 
sexual, a. Kicicinpi; wica kais 

win/yan okicicuwapi. 
shabbily, adv. On'sinaijyan ; on- 

shabby, a. fl'eh'e ; sicaya ihduza ; 

shack, n. Tisica. 
shackle, vt. Kaska; ma'zaikoya- 

ke ; kagiya. n. Ma'zaicaske ; 

shad, n. Miniwanca hoganska. 
shade, n. 1. O'hanzi ; canohanzi : 

come and sit in the shade. 2. 

Samya ka'gapi (iteowapi ekta). 

3. Icahi : painted a different 

shade. 4. Ki'tanna; ci'stiye- 

dan : wheat sells a shade higlier. 

5. O'zanpi : window shades. 6. 

Wanagi otipi : shades of the 

dead. 7. Ki'tanna to'keca: 

shadeless 200 

shade of opinion, vt. 1. O'han,- 
siya ; aohanziya : it shades the 
garden, 2. Oijspa samya owa : 
shade the picture. 

shadeless, a. O'haqzi wanica. 

shading, n. Samsamya owapi. 

shadow, n. O'haijzi ; o'hanzi hiij- 
hpaya; nagi. trt. Aohanziya; 
o'hanzi ka'ga; o'hanzi iyecen 
ihakam un. : kuwa. 

shadowy, a. O'haqzi se; wohna- 

shady, a. O'hanzi; aohanziyapi. 

shaft, n. Ihupa ; hue an. 

shag, n. Hinsma. 

shagged, a. -Gangan ; h'eb'e. 

shaggy, a. Hinsma ; h'efi'e. 

shake, vt. Yucancai) ; yuhuhuza ; 
kacancai) ; kahuhuza ; etc. — 
Slwke hands j napeyuza. — Shake 
the head, po'mnamna ; po'ptarj- 
ptai). — Shake off (as dirt from 
a blanket), katata. — Shake off 
(as fruit from trees), kahna ; 
kasna. — Shake the tail, sicu- 
psanpsai). vi. Cancan : he shook 
all over. n. 1. Wocancan ; caij- 
caqpi ; woyuhuhuza : he had a 
big shake. 2. Onasdeca : a shake 
in the board. 

shaker, n. Oi) yucaijcaqpi. 

shaking, n. Wocancan.. 

shaky, a. 1. Cancan : shaky liands. 
2. Sdecahai) : a shaky board. 

shale, n. Ha ; in/yai) ha. 

shall, v. aux. Kta iyececa; kte 
do; kta. 

shallow, a. 1. dbe&ni; pu'zedan; 
F. ka'zena : a shaUmc stream. 

2. Iwastedai) sko'pa ; mdaska ; 
mahentu. sni: a shallow dish. 

3. Haakamyedan ; mahentu 
sni; wakahdokesni. 

shallow-brained, a. Nasuna ha- 
akamyedan ; ksapesni. 
shallowness, n. Mahentusni. 
shalt, 2d person of shall. 
aham, n. Wohnaye; ecaecorjpi. 


a. Wicakesni. vt. Hna'yan. ; 
kon'za ; un'ca. 

shame, n. Wowisteea; isteeapi; 
taijcan onfipa nanmaqpi. vt. 

shamefaced, a. Wi'ftteca. 

shamefacedly, adv. Wi'stenya. 

shamefacedness, n. Wi'stecapi. 

shameful, a. On isteeapi iyeoeoa ; 
wowisteea; si'ca. 

shamefully, adv. Wi'stenya. 

shameless, a. Isteeesni. 

shamelessly, adv. Istecesniyai). 

shank, n. Humdo ; hu. 

shan't, eq. to shall not. 

shanty, n. Ti'pidan ; ti'pi inahni 

shape, n. 1. Okage ; kagopi ; ica- 
gopi : / don f t like the shape. 2. 
Oehnake ; e'hnakapi : he left 
things in bad shape, vt. Ka'ga ; 
kaskica; wi'yukcan. 

shapeless, a. Okage wanica ; ka'- 

shapely, a. Tan/yan. ka'gapi. 

share, n. 1. On&pa; wopamni; 
oyuspe : give him his share. 2. 
Mahiyumdu hi. vt. On spa ku ; 
pamni ; kiyuspa ; kici yuha. 

share-holder, n. Onspa ta'waya. 

sharer, n. Oqspayuha ; kici ta'wa. 

shark, n. Hogai) wicasa yu'ta ; 
tu'we wicasasni. 

sharp, a. Pe ; pe'sto ; wacinksa- 
pa ; ksa'pa. — Sharp contest, 
woakinica wohitika. — tharp 
eye, istamdeza. — Sharp pain, 
woyazan icamye. — Sharp roof, 
awakeyapi pe'sto. — Sharp sand; 
wiyaka pepe. — Sharp tone, ho 
wankantu; ho pin'za. — Sharp 
trader, wopeton wicastasni. — 
Sharp voice, ho pin'za. — Sharp 
words, iapi pe'sto. n. Ho'ya- 

sharpen, vt. Kapesto ; peya ; yu- 
mai); paman; mdesya. Sharpen 
an ax, oqspe pamai). — SlMrpen 




a sticky can kapesto. — Sharpen 
the intellect, tawacin mdesya. 

sharper, n. Wicastasni ; wioahna- 

sharply, adv. Pe'stoya. 

sharpness, n. Ope: opesto. 

sharpshooter, n. Waoka. 

sharpsighted, a. Istamdeza. 

sharpwftted, a. Wacinksapa. 

shatter, vt. Eamdeca; kamde- 
mdeca. n. Wokpanka. 

shattery, adv. Wai)kadai). 

shave, vt. 1. Easda ; kazipa ; ka- 
sai) ; basmi ; basku. — £%<we the 
beard, putinhin kasai). — /Sftave 
ojf (as hair from a hide) basda. 
•—Shave off (as the tail of a 
horse) 9 basmi. — Shave off (as 
shavings) , kazipa. 2. Hanke ki ; 
man oi). vi. Hdasan ; T. igla- 
61a. w. Wakasai) ; wakaslapi 
wokazipa : wakipi ; icazipe. 

shaver, n. Wakasai) ; wakis'a 
wabotica; hoksidan. 

shaving, n. Wokazipa; wakazi- 

shawl, n. Iteakahpesina ; sina. 

Shawnees, n. dawani; T. Sha- 

she, pron. I'ye (win'yan ka'pi). 
Not generally expressed except 
for emphasis. 

sheaf, sheaves, n. Opahte (agu- 
yapi kasdapi ka'pi). 

shear, vt. Yusda ; basda : shear 
the sheep, n. Wi'yusda. 

shearer, n. Wakasda. 

shearing, it. Wakasdapi. 

sheath, n. Isanozuha; T. mi'na- 
ozuha ; ozuha. 

sheathe, vt. Ozuha en iyeya. 

sheathed, pa. Ozuhaton. 

sheathing, n. Ozuha ; canmdaska 
toka okatanpi. 

shed, vt. Yusna; ehpeya. — Shed 
blood, we papson. — Shed feath- 
ers, sunpa. — Shed horns, he 
kapsun. — Shed leaves, ape ka- 

sna. — Shed teeth, hi yapsun. — 
Shed water J mini ohiyusni. n. 
Awakeyapi ; o'haijzihdepi.— 
Cattle sheds, wanuyanpi awa- 

shedding, n. Wayusdapi; sunpa- 
pi ; Mi) hinhpaya. 

sheen, n. Wowiyakpa. 

sheep, n. Ta'hincawanuyanpi ; ta'- 
hoaska; ta'hcasunka. 

sheep-cot, n. Ta'hcaska acanka- 

sheepfold, n. Ta'hcaska ti'pi. 

sheepish, a. Wi'steca; canwan- 

sheep-shearing, n. Ta'hcahin yu- 

sheep-sorrel, n. Wahpeskuya. 

sheer, a. Ecaea. n. Napapi. 

sheet, n. 1. Owinsa ska : minihu- 
haska : sheets and pillow -slips, 
2. Wowapiska ; ape. — Give me 
a sheet of paper, wowapi ska 
wanzimaku. 3. Omda&ka; o'hi- 
ye : a sheet of iron. 

sheeting, n. Minihuhaska; wake- 
ya ; owinzaska. 

sheik, n. Wicahca; itanean. 

shekel, n. Juda tamazaska ; ma ; - 
zasa 62*. 

shelf, shelves, n. Canmdaska wa- 
ahnakapi ; canmdaska. 

shell, n. 1. Ha; yahugapiha. 2. 
Tukiha : oyster shells. 3. Ma'- 
zasubomdasyapi ; napomyapi. 
4. Haakamya; ozuha; opiye. 
vt. 1. Ha ehpeya : shell nuts. 
2. Yusku : shell eom. 3. Ona- 
pomya : shell the town. — Shell 
out, hiyuya. vi. Eanhe; hba- 
han : the wheat shells. 

shell-fish, n. Tuki. 

shelter, n. Waakahpe ; woinape ; 
o'hanzi; ti'pi. Take shelter, 
inapa ; onapa. vi. Akahpa ; na- 
hman. vi. Aihdahpa. 

shelterless, a. Ticodan ; akahpe- 




shelve, vt. Kihnaka ; canmdaska 

akan e'hnaka. 
shepherd, n. TaTicaakaawanyake ; 

shepherdess, it. Win/yai) wa'wan- 

shepherds-crook, n. Wa'waqyake 

sheriff, n. Wokaake awaqyake; 

sherry, n. Minifta (ocaze). 
shield, n. Wahacanka; wowinape. 

vt. Akanpa ; akahpeton. 
shift, vt. Yutokeca ; tokai) e'hna- 

ka; yu tokai). vi. Tokai) iya- 

ya; piiciya. n. 1. Yutokanpi; 

opiiciyapi. 2. Mahenunpi. 
shiftless, a. Oihduha oqspesni ; 

shlftlessness, n. Wakpataqpi&ni. 
shifty, a. Wi'ihduha ; mdiheca. < 
shlllalah, n. Cannaksa. 
shilling, n. Kaspapi nom sam 

shin, n. Husdi. 
shine, vi. Iyega ; i'ianzai) ; wiya- 

kpa; okitanii). — Fire shines, 

pe'ta i'zai) zai) . — Fish - scales 

shine, hocedpu wiyakpa. — Shine 

in company, wicota en okitanin. 

n. Wowiyakpa ; wiizanzan ; 

can'hanpa pawiyakpapi. 
shingle, n. Canokanpa ; canba- 

kpanpi; Y. can/nahpapa. vt. 

1. Canokahpa okatai). 2. Paha 

kadda ; basmin. 
shingling, n. Awakeyapi. 
shining, a. Iyozanzai) ; wiyakpa ; 

sdusduta ; okitanii). 
shiny, a. Wiyakpa. 
ship, n. Wi'tawata ; mini wan ca- 

wata cai)wakai) ya'mni. vt. 

Wa'ta ohna yeya; yeya; hi- 

yriya. Ship goods, woyuha 

ship-board, adv. Wa'taakan. 
ship-master, n. Wi'tawata itan- 


shipment, n. 1. Iyayeyapi : the 
shipment of grain, 2. Ta'ku 
iyayeyapi : a large shipment. 

shipper, n. Iyayeya ; watohnaka. 

ship-shape, adv. Tan'yan. 

shipwreck, vt. Wa'takamdeca. n. 
Watihangyapi ; wotakunisni. 

shirk, vt. Nanmaqozikiya. 

shirt, n. On/ndonda: wicauijpi; 
Y. o'kde ; o'kdemahenuijpi ; T. 

shirting, n. Minihohaska. 

shirtless, a. O'kdecodai). 

shiver, n. 1. Wocanean ; cancan- 
pi : he was in a shiver. 2. Wo- 
kasdeca; wokpan. vi. 1. Can- 
can : the poor dog shivered. 2. 
Mdecahaq. vt. Kamdecajyn- 

shivering, pa. Cancan. 

shiveringly, adv. Cancanyai). 

shivery, a. Cancan ; sdesdecahan. 

shoal, a. Ka'zedai) : shoal water, 
n. 1. Minikazedai) : the boat 
stuck on the shoals. 2. O'ta; 
akipsap&a hiyeye. 

shoaly, a. dbe'sni ; ka'zedai). 

shoat, n. Eukusedai). 

shock, n. 1. Woyus'iijyaye ; tan- 
aagfceyapi. 2. Aguyapi Opahi. 
vt. 1. Yus'inyeya; inihaijya: 
you shock me. 2. Psunka e'hde. 

shocking, a. Woyu^iijyan ; wo- 

shockingly, adv. Okokipeya; te- 

shod, imp. of shoe. 

shoddy, n. Mininuha akta ka'ga- 
pi ; mininuha suta&ni. 

shoe, n. 1. Can'haijpa : a fine 
shoe. 2. Sakemaza : a horse 
shoe. 3. Ma'zasicu : a sleigh 
shoe. vt. 6akeokatai) ; sieuoka- 

shoe-black, n. Can'hanpasamya. 

shoeblncklng, n. Can. 'hanpaisamya. 

shoeless, a. Can/hanpa ni'ca. 

shoe-maker, n. Caq'haqpakaga. 




shoer, n. Sakemazaokatan. 

shone, imp. of shine. 

shoo, interj. Si ; 6. 

shook, imp. of shake. 

shoot, vt. 1. Eute ; yeya : shoot 
an arrow; shoot a gun. 2. O ; 
en iyeya : he shot a bear. 3. 
Uya; yeya. Shoot out a bud, 
canmni wan nya. — Shoot at, 
kute. — Shoot off a gun, ma'za- 
kan bo&doka. — He was shot at, 
kutepi. — He was slwt, o'pi. — 
Shoot down, bowanka. vi. 1. 
Ma'zakan. econ ; kute ; nta : I 
heard some one shoot. 2. Hi- 
nanpa ; uya : icaga : the grain 
shot up. 3. Dns hiyaya. The 
train shot by, nemani dus hiya- 
ya. n. 1. Kutepi; okute. 2. 
Can 'uya ; oanadetka : green 
shoots. 3. Ohna yeyapi : grain 

shooter, n. Wakute ; on kutepi. 

shooting, n. Ma'zakan .ecoijpi ; 
wanhinkpe yeyapi ; wakutepi. 

shooting-star, n. Wicanhpiokin- 

shop, n. 1. Ohna wowasi eeonpi ; 
woka&etipi. 2. Mazopiye (ohna 
takusniSni wiyopeyapi) vi. Wo- 
peton : she has gone slipping. 

sbop*boy, n. Wowasihokdidan ; 

shop-keeper, n. Mazopiyeyuha. 

shop-lifter, n. Mazopiye etanhan 

shore, n. O'huta ; huta ; minika- 
hda. On shore, hutata. — Out 
from shore, can nan. 

shorn, pp. of shear. 

short, a. 1. Pte'cedai) : a short 
stick. 2. Ci'stiyedan ; askaye- 
dan : a short time. 3. Iyohi- 
sni ; a'okpani. — *hort of provi- 
sions, woyute iyohisni. 4. I'ta- 
to ; itahena ; a'okpani. — No- 
thing short of killing will do, 
kte'pi a'okpani ta'kudan iyece- 

tuktesni. 5. Ohanko ; wacinko : 
a short answer. 6. {Cookery) 
Napin; wan/kadai). — At short 
notice, kohanna. — Cut short his 
speech, wohdaka yapteeedai). 
n. Pte'cedai). adv. Ptenyedan ; 

short-breathed, a. Niyaptecedan. 

short-cake, n. Aguyapi sda'icahi- 

short-coming, n. Eceneconsni. 

shorten, vt. Yuptecedai) ; yuao- 
kpani. vi. Pte'cedai) icaga. 

shortening, n. 1. Sda ; wi'hdi : no 
shortening in the cake. 2. Pte'- 
cedai) ka'gapi : the shortening 
of the road. 

short-hand, n. Ohankoowapi. 

short-lived, a. Ptenyedan ni'pi. 

shorty, adv. 1. Ecadan : / mil 
come shortly. 2. Ptenyedan : 
he spoke shortly. 

shortness, n. Pte'cedai). 

shorts, n. pi. Aguyapiha mdu. 

short-sighted, a. 1. IMyedan ayu- 
ta: short-sighted eyes. 2. Wi'- 
yukcansni : to cheat is short- 

short-waisted, a. Makuptecedan. 

shortwinded, a. Oniyaptecedan. 

Shoshones, n. pr. Su'suni ; 8o'- 

shot, imp. of shoot. 

shot, n. 1. Sukpanna; sucikcika- 
dai) : load your gun with shot. 
2 Wokute : he fired twenty 
shot. 3. Wakute ; kutepi : a 
fine shot. 

shot-pouch, n. Tasusuozuha. 

should, imp. of shall. (Dakota 
iapi iyececa wanica, qa ieska- 
yapisni ecee, tuka wanwanea- 
dan ieskapica.) 1. Iyececa. 
Should I do it, ecamoi) iyececa 
he. 2. He'cetu. I should like 
to go, mda wacin he'cetu. 3. 
Kinhan. Should it turn cold, 
osni hinhda kinhai). 




shoulder, n. Hiyete; tapete; amdo. 
Put in your shoulder, hiyeteoi)- 
pa. — A shoulder of pork, kuku- 
&e isto. vt. Hiyeteonpa ; kin. 

shoulder-blade, n. Amdohu. 

shoulder-strap, n. Hiyeteaskape. 

shout, vi. Pan ; as'a ; ho' tan in. 
Slwutat, kipan. vt. Ho'tanka 
eya; pan/niya. n. Pan 'pi. 

shooter, n. Pan/s'a. 

shove, vi. Patan iyeya ; pasdohai) 
iyeya : shove it away. 

shovel, n. Ma'zamdaska. Fire- 
shovel, cahota on icupi. 

show, vt. Pazo ; yuotanin ; yuza- 
mni. Show forth, yuotanin.— 
Show him in, timahen ukiya. — 
Show off, ikpazo. n. Wapazo- 
pi; wopazo; pazopi; yuotan- 

show-bill, n. Tiaskamya yaotan- 

show-case, n. 2anzan oakahpe. 

shower, n. Wapazo. 

shower, n. Magazu ; inahni ma- 
gazu ; hinhe ; ohinhe. A shower 
of meteors, wicanhpi ohinhe. 
vt. Ahinheya : he showered dirt 
on us. vi. Magazu; hinhai). 

shower-bath, n. Mniahinheyapi. 

showerless, a. Magazuwanica. 

showery, a. Magazus'a. 

show-glass, n. Mniomdasin. 

showily, adv. Wi'taijtanyai). 

show-man, n. Wapazowicasta. 

showy, a. Wowanyake ; owanyag- 
wadte ; wi'tantan. 

shred, n. Minihuhaohdecahe. 

shrew, n. Wakiges'a. 

shrewd, a. Ksa'pa ; wayupika. 

shrewdly, adv. Wayupiya. 

shrewdness, n. Wowayupika. 

shriek, vi. Sicahowaya ; tehowa- 
ya : he shrieked for fear. 

shrieker, n. Sicahowayas'a. 

shrill, a. Pin'za; ho'pinza. vt. 
Yapinza. vi. Pins'hoton. 

shrillness, n. Wopinza. 

shrimp, n. Ta'ku ma'nina ; wica- 

sta ecacistinna. 
shrine, n. Owacekiye ; wopiye- 

shrink, vi. 1. Natipa ; namniga ; 

ci'stinna a'ya : my moccasins 

shrank. 1. (with a prep.) Na- 

tunka ; kokipa ; econkap'ii) : he 

shrunk from speaking, vt. Na- 

shrinkage, n. To'ken aokpani. 
shrinking, pa. Ci'stinnaaya ; ko- 
shrinkiogly, adv. Kokipeya. 
shrivel, vi. Sni'za ; natipa ; sna'ze. 
shriveled, pa. dniSniza; pinspii)- 

shroud, n. Sina ; on iyapehanpi. 

owinza. vt. Iyapemni; aka- 

hpa; aohanziya. 
shrub, n. Ca^) ci'stinna ; otehi. 
shrubbery, n. Car) cikcistinna; 

waskuyeca hu. 
shrubby, a. Canwopamna ; otehi. 
shrug, vt. Tannapakiya. 
shrank, imp. of shrink. 
shuck, n. Ha : ozuha. 
shudder, vi. Cancan ; inihan. n. 

Wocancai) ; cancaijpi. 
shuffle, vt. Yuicicahi; yuskan- 

gkan. vi. dkanskai). 
shumac, n. Oanzi. 
shun, vt. Aohomniya ; okamna ; 

napa : shun bad company. 
shut, vt. Eceniyeya ; ecenieu ; na- 

taka. Shut in, aonataka ; na- 

taka. — Shut his mouth, i nataka. 
shutter, n. 1. Oakpahpe ; i'ha : a 

window shutter. 2. Tu'we wa- 

shuttle, n. Hahonta ozuha. 
shy, a. Watoghda ; wi'kopa. To 

he shy of, kokipa. vi. Napa. 

n. Wonape ; okah'oiyeya. 
shyly, ndv. Watoghdaya ; wi'« 

shyness, n. Wowatoghda. 
Siamese, n. Si'amwicasta. 




Siberian, n. Siberiawicasta. 

sibilant, a. Hosdi. 

sibyl, n. Whj'yan wa'yate. 

Sicilian, n. Si'cilywicasta. 

sick, a. Wayazanka ; yazan. Sick 
of, hitihda; Si'ceda. 

sicken, vt. Oyazai)ya. t*. Waya- 
zaqhinhda ; hinhpaya. 

sicker, a. camp. San/pa waya- 

sicklsh, a. Wayazanka se'ca. 

sickle, n. Isan&kopa; mi'na&ko- 
pa; peziinaksehi. 

sickly, n. Wayazans'a ; sta'keca. 

sickness, n. Wowayazai). 

side, n. 1. Cnwi ; cute. My side 
aches, cnwi mayazai) 2. O'hu- 
ta ; opapui) ; ouwi ; obaspe. — 
On the south side, itokaga eoi- 
yatanhai). 3. Eciyatanhan. God 
is on our side. — Both sides, ano- 
katanhai). — By the side of, ica- 
hda. — Chose sides, anokatan- 

• han kioicahnigapi. — On one 
side, sanina. — Side by side, i'ci- 
yokiheya ; ioicahtag. — Take 
sides, o'kiciyapi. — The other 
side, unman eciyataijhai) — 
This side, de'ciyatanhan. — The 
side of a hill, pahaonaptai). — 
Lie on the side ,tanmdas wanka. 
a. HdaMqyai) ; cuwi eciyataij- 
hai). — A side wind, hdakinyan 
tate. vi. Ti'dan. bide with, 
kiei ti'dai). 

side-board, ft. Caijmdaska wa'hna- 

side-fiance, n. Hdakinyan. e'toij- 

side-hill, n. fiun/naptan. 

sideling, a. Onnaptaq. 

side-saddle, n. Win/yaij fiiujgawa- 

side-table, n. Wa'hnawotapi ade- 

tide-view, n. Hdakinyan wanya- 

sidewalk, n. Kahda ocanku. 

sideways, adv. Hdakinyan. 

sidewind, n. Hdakinyai) tate. 

sidewise, adv. Hdakinyai) ; na- 

siding, n. fiemani icunom cai)ku. 

siege, n. Onawicatakapi (okicize 
ekta otoqwe aohomniyapi ka'- 
pi) ; ohomni kuwapi. 

sieve, n. Wi'yucai). 

sift, vt. Yucai) ; yukcan. 

sifter, vt. Wayucai). 

slgh,vt. Howaya; tonmahen niya. 
n. Howayapi ; oho way a. 

sight, n. 1. Wowai)yake ; a won- 
derful sight. 2. Wawaqyakapi ; 
a cloud received him out of their 
sight; loss of sight. 3. lata; 
wowanyake: in his sight. 4. 
Wi'waijyake : the gun-sight. 5. 
O'ta; ni'na o'ta. He made a 
sight of money, ma'zaska ni'na 
o'ta kamna. — In sight, tanii)- 
yai). — In sight of, o'taninyai). 
— Out of sight, tanindni; i'sin- 
yan. — Take sight, e'pazo. vt. 
Wanyaka jtaninyan hi. 

sighted, a. Wawanyake. Long- 
sighted, te'han wawanyaka. 

sightless, a. Wawanyakedni. 

sightly, a. Owaftteca ; okitanii). 

sight-seeing, n. Wawanyag oma- 

sign, n. 1. Wa'petokeca ; wowa- 
kta; owe ; wasagkdepi. 2. Wi - 
kiyutapi: talk by signs. 3. (Al- 
gebra) Icazopi; wa'petokeca. 
vt. 1. Owa : sign your name. 
2. Wi'yuta: wi'Wyuta. 

signal, n. WaktaMciyapi ; wo- 
wakta. a. Okitanin : a signal 
victory, vt. Iwaktaya; wi'ki- 
yuta : he signaled the boat. 

signalize, vt. Wa'petogton ; yu- 

signally, adv. O'taninyai). 

signature, n. 1. Cazeeicihnakapi : 
I want your signature. 2. (Mus.) 
Ho wa'petogtoijpi. 




sign-board, «. Canmdaska caze 

owapi; caijmdaska wasaghde- 

signer, n. Cazeoiciwa. 
signet, n. Wi'puspe. 
signet-ring, n. Ma'zanapcupe on. 

significancy, n. Ta'kukapi ; wowa- 

significant, a. 1. Okitaijiij ; wa'pe- 

tokeca : a significant look. 2. 

Tan/ka: was'aka. 
significantly, adv. Wapetogya. 
signification, ». 1. To'ken ka'pi : 

the signification of the word. 2. 

Yutai)ii)pi : repress the signifi- 
cation of joy. 
signify, vt. 1. Sdonyekiya ; oyaka : 

he signified his desire. 2. Ea ; 

yutaijii) : it signifies nothing. 
sign-post, ». Caqpasdatapi wowa- 

silence, n. Ininauijpi ; woyakesni 

ui)'pi. interj. Inina unkiya; 

silent, a. Ininaui) ; inina ; owan- 

ziui) ; taninsni ui) : a silent 

man. — A stlent letter, oowa tan. 

insni ui). 
silently, adv. Inina ; a'inina. 
sllentness, w. Woinina. 
silk, n. 1. Wanmduskahii) mini- 

huha; wanmduskahii). 2. Na- 

tu; wanmduskahii) iyececa. 
silken, a. Stosto ; sdusduta. 
silklness, ft. Wosdusduta; wowi- 

sllk'worm, ft. Wanmduska hit) 

silky, a. Wanmduskahin se'ca; 

wiyakpa jpaijpanna. 
sillness, n. Wowitkotkoka. 
silly, a. Wacintonsni ; witko- 

silvan, a. Can ; pa'ta. 
silver, ft. Ma'zaska; ma'zaska 

ma'za. a. Ma'zaska ; ma'zaska 

iyececa; wiyakpa; ska. vt. 

Ma'zaska apawinta; pawiya- 

kpa ; ska ka'ga. 
silver gray, a. Ska hota. 
silver*leaf, ft. Ma'zaska minifcu- 

silversmith, ». Ma'zaska ma'zaka- 

silvery, a. Ma'zaska iyececa. 

similar, a. Iyececa ; i'akidececa : a 
similar house. — Similar houses, 
ti'pi i'akidececa. 

similarity, ft. Woakidececa. 

similarly, adv. Iyecen ; a'kidecen. 

similitude, n. Iyeeece; woiyeoe* 
ce ; wi'yaciijpi. 

simmer, vi. Nas'a. 

simoon, ft. Tate ka'ta. 

simper, vt. 2iziya ina. 

simple, a. 1. E'cedai) : a simple 
idea. 2. Waointonsni ; ksa'pe- 
sni. 3. Wicahnayewaciqsni : the 
simple child. 

simpleshearted, a. Caqte e'cedai) ; 
waMani wacin sni. 

slmple«mlnded, a. Waawacinfinj ; 

simpleton, n. Wacintonsni; wi- 

simplicity, ft. Oskiskesni ; wacin- 

simplify, vt. Yntehisni ; yuecedan. 

simulate, vt. Kon/za. 

simulation, n. Hna'yaqpj ; kon/- 

simultaneous, a. Iyehan. 

simultaneously, adv. Iyehaijyai). 

slmultaneousness, n. Woiyehantu. 

sin, ft. Woantani. vi. Wahtani. 

since, adv. Ehantanhaq; itahe- 
na; iyohakam. prep. Ehan- 
tanhai) ; hetanhai). conj. 1. 
Ehantaijhan : since the world 
began. 2. He'on etanhan. ; na- 
kaes ; he'oi). — Since love is vain, 
ihakiciktapi kii) he ta'kusni kin 

sincere, a. 1. Wowicake : a sin- 
cere intention. 2. E'cedai) ; wi- 




caka; wohnaye ni'ca : a sin- 
cere man. 
sincerely, adv. A'wicakehan ; awi'- 

eakeya j wicakeya. 
slncereness, n. Wioakapi; wica- 

sincerity, n. Wowicake ; wohnaye 

sinecure, n. Makoskan wokazuzu 

yuha; htanisni kicicazuzupi. 
sinew, n. Kan; wi'cuwa; takai). 
sinewless, a. Kanwanica. 
sinewy, a. Kanota ; kantanka. 
sinful, a. 1. Wahtanis'a ; wahta- 

ni : sinful man. 2. Si'oa ; woa- 

htani : sinful words. 
sinfully, adv. Sicaya. 
sinfulness, n. Si'ce ; wosice ; woa- 

slnf, vi. Dowan ; hotoi) ; hnrai). 

vt. 1. Ahiyaya : sing a hymn. 

2. Yatan ; idowan : sing his 

slnf c, vt. Hihnu ; guya. 

singer, n. Dowaqwayupika ; do- 

singing-book, n. Wowapi odowan 

ho ka'gapi. 
singing-man, n. Dowan wicasta. 
singing-master, n. Dowai)pi oi)- 

singing-school, n. Dowaqpi onspe- 

singing-woman, n. Win/yai) do- 

single, a. 1. Waniidai) : a single 

star. 2. Isnana : lie single stood. 

3. Isnana un : a single man. 
vt. Kahniga ; wanzi icu. 

single-handed, a. Napsanij isna- 
na ; tansnana. 

single-hearted, a. Cantewanzidai) ; 
wohnayecodan . 

single-minded, a. Tawacinwanii- 

singleness, n. Wowaniidai) ; woi- 
snana; he'cetuwanzica. 

singletree, n. Caijwiyutitai). 

singly, adv. Wanzikai ; isnana. 

singssong, n. Dowan se. 

singular, a. 1. (Gram.) Waqzidai) 
ka'pi ; wicisnana : the singular 
number. 2. To'keca; wa'peto- 
keoa : of singular appearance. 
3. Isnana ; iyotan ; wakapeya. 

singularity, n. Wowapetokeea ; 

singularly, adv. Togye; wa'pe- 

elnister, a. Catkata ; ecinsni. 

sink, vi. Kun iyaye ; mahen iya- 
ye ; spaya : the boat sank. vt. 
Kun iyayeya ; spa'yeya : sink a 
ship. — Sink a debt, oioazo yu- 
aokpani. — Sink a hole, ohdoka 
mahen a'ya. — Sink money, ma'- 
zaska awihnuniya. — Sink the 
price, wokazuzu a'okpani ka'- 
ga. n. Oskokpa; minisica tu- 
kten ehpeyapi. 

sinker, n. On spayeyapi. 

sink-hole, n. Minisica oskokpa. 

sinless, a. Woahtani ni'ca. 

slnlessly, adv. Woahtani waninya. 

sinlessness, n. Woahtani ecawa- 

sinner, n. Wahtanis'a ; tu'we si'- 

sin-offering, n. Woahtani wosnapi. 

Sioux, n. pr. Dakota. The Sioux 
nation, Dakota oyate. 

Sioux City, n. pr. Otonwe Ci'stin- 
na ; Can/kasdate Iyohdoke. 

Sioux Falls, n. pr. Can/kasdate 
flaha ; Hahe. 

sip, vt. Yatkan ; yazoka ; iyozi- 
yatkan. vi. Wayatkai). n. Wo- 
yatke ; wonapce. 

siphon, n. Wi'yuskepa. 

slr.n. Wicasta (woyuonihan iapi). 

sire, n. Atkuku ; tu'we ka'ga. vt. 
Ka'ga (sungmdoka kapi ece). 

siren, n. Win'yai) wicahmunga; 
win'yai) wawiyutaijye. 

sirloin, n. Tatai)ka ce'ca. 

sirname, n. Wicowazi caze. 




sirocco, n. Tate ka'ta. 

simp, n. Canhanpitiktica ; han- 
piskuya; Y. tunmaga hai)pi. 

sister, n. 1. Ta'winohtin. A man's 
older sister, tankeku. — My sis- 
ter, taijke ; mitanke. — A man's 
younger sister, tanksitku. — My 
younger sister, tanksi; mitan- 
ksi. — A woman's older sister, 
cun'ku; cunweku. — My older 
sister, micun; cunwe. — A wo- 
man's younger sister, tankaku ; 
tan'ku. — My younger sister, 
tanka ; mitanka. — They are sis- 
ters, tankakiciyapi. 2. Sina- 
sapawin'yan ookiye; wiij'yan 

sisterhood, n. Win'yanookiye oko- 

sister-in-law, n. (A man's), Han- 
ka ; (a woman's), ioepai) ; (a 
woman's husbands brother's 
wife), icepandi. 

sisterly, a. Ta'winohtin iyececa ; 

sit, sst, vi. 1. I'yotanka ; yanka. 
Sit down, i'yotaqka. — Sit on the 
log, cankaga akan yanka. 2. 
Aman. ; akikna yanka : ffte ton 
site. 3. Kipi ; wai)ka : the coat 
sits well. 4. Mni'ciya; hi'yo- 
tanka. 5. Hankikta : sit up 
with a sick man. 

site, n. Oyai)ke ; ticagapi makoce. 

sitter, n. I'yotankes'a ; wakikna 

sitting, pa. I'yotaqkahan un. n. 
Oiyotanke; omniciye; nazin- 

situate, a. Yai)ka. 

situated, a. Yanka ; e'hdepi. 

situation, n. Oyai)ke ; onazin; ouij; 
wowa&i ; wohtani. 

six, a. da'kpe. 

sixfold, a. Sa'kpe akihde. 

sixpence, n. (Sagdasin iapi) Ma 7 - 
sadai) akenom. 

six-shooter, n. Sa'kpeutapi. 

sixteen, a. Ake&akpe. 
sixteenth, a. 1. I'akesakpe. 2. Ake- 
sakpe yuspapi wanzi. 
sixth, a. 1. Isakpe : the sixth pie. 

2. Sa'kpeyuSpapi : one sixth of 

a pie. 
sixthly, adv. Isakpe. 
sixty, a. Wikcemnasakpe. 
sizable, a. Ki'tanna tan'ka. 
size, n. 1. Tin/skokeca ; oiyute. 

2. Con'peska. vt. 1. Con/peska 

iui). 2. Oiyute eeekcen e'hna- 

sized, a. Oiyute : large sized. 
sizing, n. Coij'peska. 
sizy, a. Tiktica ; tka'pa. 
sizzle, vi. Sdi ; sdi'sdi. 
Sizzling, n. Wosdisdi. 
skate, n. Ma'zaokazeMcunpi. vi. 

skater, n. Tu'we okazekicun. 
skedaddle, vi. Nazica ; mde'zesni 

skein, n. (Hahonta) Okakaa. 
skeleton, n. 1. Huha : the skeleton 

of a man. 2. Owohdake iapi 

skeptic, n. Wacefunhda; Wowa- 

piwakan wicadaani. 
skeptical, a. Wacetunhda. 
skepticism, n. Wacetunhdapi. 
sketch, vt. Inahni owa; inahni 

icazo; ptenyedau oyaka. n. 

Inahni owapi. 
skew, a. flmin ; nake. vt. Yu- 

skid, n. Can/apasdohanpi. 
skiff, n. Canmdaskawatadan. 
skilful, a. Wayupika ; wakihoka. 
skilfully, ndv. Wayupiya. 
skilfulness, n. Wowayupika. 
skill, n. Wowayupika ; wokahni- 

skilled, a. Waonspeka ; wayupika. 

skillet, a. Ce'gamdaska. 

skim, vt. Kage; wihdi ieu. vi. 

Kasdusdun iyaye. 
skimmer, n. Wi'cage. 




sklm-milk, n. Asanpiwihdiioupi. 

skimmings, n. Tage ; wakagepi. 

skin, n. Ha ; uka : a dog akin, 
vt. Ha yu'za ; bagapa ; ha ba- 
sku. Skin a hog, kukuse ha 
yu / za. — Skin potatoes, mdo ha 

skin-deep, a. Haakamyedan. 

skinless, a. Hacodan. 

skinny, a. Ha oee. 

skip, vi. Psi'psin ya : ipsica. Skip 
over, apsiea. vt. Yusna ; aui)- 
yaniyaye ; econsni. n. Oipsica ; 
wankan iyeiciyapi. 

skipper, n. 1. Ipsices'a ; wacis'a. 
2. Wamdudai) psi'psica. 

skipping, pa. Psi'psin ya ; psi'- 

jping-rope, n. Hahontawiyu- 

skirmish, n. Tonweya kicizapi. 
vt. Tonweya kicis skan. 

skirmisher, n. Toqweya akicita. 

skirt, n. Sanksanica : she wore a 
blue skirt. 2. Opapui) : in the 
skirts of town, vt. Opapui) ka'- 
ga; aohomniya. vi. Ohomni 


skittish, a. Ske'he ; watogkda. 

skittishly, adv. Skeheya. 

skulk, vi. Naicihman un ; ihdo- 

skulker, n. Naiciftbesa ; ku'za. 
skull, n. Pahu. 

skull-cap, n, Wapostanonzinca. 
skunk, n. Manka. 
sky, n. Mahpiyato ; mahpiya. 
sky-blue, a. Mahpiyato. 
sky-high, adv. Mahpiya hehan- 

skylight, n. O'zanzanhdepi awa- 

keyapi ekta. 
sky-rocket, n. Cahdi wankankan 

skyward, a. Mahpiya ektakiya. 
slab, n. Canmdaska ha ; in'yaij 

slabber, vi. I'mnitaga ; i'mnistan. 

slab-sided, a. Nigemdask * . 

slack, a. Tiq'zesni ; iwastedan ; 
hai)hi. adv. Tinsayasni ; to'- 
ken cin'yan. n. Thj'zesni he- 

slacken, vi. Yutinzesnlaya : the 
rope slackens. 2. Ran ya; hun'- 
kesniaya. 3. Mduwahe : lime 
slackens, vt, 1. Yutinzesni : 
slacken the rope. 2. O'cim iwa- 
stedan ya : he slackens his pace. 
3. Mduya : slack the lime. 

slackly, adv. ^in/zesniyan ; to'ken 

slackness, n. Wotinzesni ; woawa- 

siag, n. .Gingiqca ; in/yanSdo. 

slake, vt. Yusni ; yuasni. vi. Snia- 
ya ; sni. 

slam, vt. Ni'naiyeya. vi. Nina- 
iyaya ; bu. 

slander, n. Waaiapi; woaie. vt. 
Aia ; ituya aia. 

slanderer, n. Waaies'a. 

slanderous, a. Waaiapi ; waaies'a. 

slanderously, adv. Waaia. 

siang, n. Iapisni ; owestepi. 

slant, a. Takinyai) ; a'pamahde. 
vt. Takinyan e'hde. vi. Takii)- 
yai) wai)ka. n. Onaptanye. 

slanting, a. Atakiijyai) ; nake. 

slantingly, adv. Atakinyan. 

slantwise, adv. Atakinyan. 

slap, vt. Napemdaska apa. n. 
Skamyena apapi. 

slapjack, n. Aguyapi zizipedan. 

slash, vt, Capapi; bahonhoi). n. 
Obahon ; oape. 

slashed, pa. Bahonpi. 

slat, n. Canmdaska sbu'na. 

slate, n. In'yan sa'pa; in/yai) 

slattern, n. Win'yan samya ihdu- 
ha. a. Samya uij. 

slatternly, adv. damyena. 

slaty, a. In'yanmdaska se'ca. 

slaughter, n. Wokte ; wopata. vt. 
Ete ; pa'ta. 

slaughterer 210 

slaughterer, n. Wicakte ; wapata. 
slaughter-house, n. Owokte. 
slave, n. Wayaka ; wowidake ; ta'- 

slave-horn, a. Wayakatonpi. 
slave-catcher, n. Wayakaoyuspa. 
slave-driver, n. Wayakawicaka- 

slaveholder, n. Wayakayuha. 
slaveholdlng, n. Wayakayuhapi. 
slavehnnt, n. Wayakanazicaodepi. 
sla'ver, n. 1. Wayaka wopeton. 

2. Wi'tawata wayakatoksu. 
slav'er,n. I'mnitaga; i'mnicastan. 

vi. I'mnistan. 
slavery, n. Wayakatonpi. 
slave-ship, n. Wi'tawatawayaka- 

slave-trade, n. Wayakawopetonpi. 
slavish, a. Wayaka iyececa ; te- 

slay, vt. Kastaka ; kte. 
slayer, n. Wakastaka ; tin'wica- 

sled, n. Canwiyusdohe ; Y. can- 

sledding, n. Osdohanpi. 
sledge, n. 1. Maziyapetaijka. 2. 

sleek, a. Sto ; stosto ; sdusduta ; 

wiyakpa. vt. Kastosto. adv. 

sleekly, adv. Stostoya ; wiyakpaya. 
sleep, vi. Istinma ; istinbe j atan- 

seun. n. Woistinma. 
sleeper, n. 1. Tu' we istinma ;istin- 

mapi. 2. Ohna istinmapi. 
sleepily, adv. Istinmase ; hbayena. 
sleepiness, n. Wicahbapi. 
sleeping, pa. Wicistinma ; oistiij- 

ma. n. Woistinma. 
sleepless, a, Istinmesni. 
sleeplessly, adv. Istinmesniyan. 
sleeplesness, n. Woistinmesni. 
sleepy, a. ftba ; T. hwa ; ku'za. 
sleet, n. Watutupa. vi. Watu- 

tumya hinhe. 
sleety, a. Acalicaga. 


sleeve, n. Isto ; on'Iido&daisto. 

Laugh in his sleeve, naftmana 

sleeveless, a. Istowanica. 
sleigh, n. Canwiyusdohe kapoze- 

sleighing, n. Wosdohanpi. 
sleight, n. 1. Woaktasni; woyu- 

sna : it teas a sleight. 2. Woo- 

nai)ko; wowayupika : sleight of 

slender, a. 1. Ci'stinna ; ci'stinna- 

hanska : slender but strong. 2. 

Wan'kadan ; sutasni : a slender 

slenderly, adv. Cistiyedan, ; kpa- 

slept, imp. of sleep. 
slew, imp. of slay. 
slice, vt. Baksaksa ; bamda ; ka- 

mda : slice bread; slice beef. n. 

slick, a. Sdusduta ; stosto. vt. Pa- 

sduta ; kastosto. 
slid, imp. of SLTDE. 
slide, slid, slidden, vi. 1. Kasdun 

iyaya : he slid by. 2. Osdohan 

kicun : slide down the hill. 3. 

Hiyaya ; nanman iyaya : he slid 

out of sight, vt. 1. Kasdun iye- 

ya ; nanman. hiyuya. n. Osdo- 

haqkicuqpi ; wokasduta. 
slider, n. Wakasduta ; kasdutapi. 
slight, a. Ci'stinna ; iwastedai) : a 

slight effort, vt. 1. Aktasni; 

we'eeyesni : she slighted me. 2. 

Tan'yai) ecoi) sni : slight his 

work. n. Woaktasni; wowa- 

slightingly, adv. Aktasniyan. 
slightly, adv. Iwastedai) ; kitan- 

ecinyan ; haakamyedan. 
sllghtness, n. Wotenisni. 
slim, a. Ci'stinahanska ; ta'kusni. 
slime, n. Upsiza ; makaooeo. 
sllmsy, a. Zigzica. 
slimy, a. Tutupa ; hmun/za. 
sling, n. Iyunmun ; in/yaniyu- 




hmun ; wi'otke. n. Miniwa- 
kanicahi. vt. Eah'oiyeya; otke- 

slink, vi. NasdanMhda. vt. Oka- 

slip, vi. 1. Nasduta ; kaAduniya- 
ya : his foot slipped. 2. Ieun- 
om iyaya ; kasdun iyaya : it 
slipped out. 3. Na&dun iyaya ; 
nahman iyaya : he slipped away. 
4. Nasna ; yusna. vt. Easdun 
iyeya ; kohan iyeya : slip in the 
pin. — Slip on a coat, okde ko- 
hai) kicun. n. Wonasduta; 
wonasna; woyusna: a slip of 
the foot; he made a slip. 2. 
Obaksa ; cai)ii)kpa obakse : cur- 
rant slips. 3. Onspa; obakse 
han'ska : a slip of paper. 4. 
Akanunpi; nitoske. 5. Wa'ta 
onazin. 6. Can'akanyankapi 

slipper, n. Can/hanpaonzinca. 2. 

slippery, a. &dusduta ; wacinyepi- 
casni ; to'ketutaijinsni. 

slipshod, a. To'kencinyan. 

slit, vt. Bahon ; bahdoka ; basde- 
ca. n. Obahoi) ; oko ; ohci. 

sliver, n. Can/osdeca ; wokasdate. 
vt 'Easdesdeca. 

slobber, vi. I'mnistan. 

sloop, n. Wi'tawata ihupa wan- 

slop, n. Minisica ; miniehpeyapi. 
vt. Minisica apapson. 

slope, n. fiun'naptan ; o'hya ica- 
gopi. vt. O'hya ka'ga; a'pa- 
mahde ka'ga. vi. Napa. 

sloping, a. Onaptanyan ; o'hya. 

slopingly, adv. O'hya. 

sloppy, a. Upsiza ; coco. 

slosh, n. Coco ; makacoco. 

sloshy, a. Coco ; fianhi. 

slot, n. Canhdakinyan ; o'smaka. 

sloth, n. 1. Wokuza: live in sloth. 
2. (Zooi.) Eu'za; (Wahutopa 
wan inmu hin'skokeca). 

slothful, a. Eu'za ; hun'kesni ; ku- 

slothfully, adv. Euziteya ; hun'ke- 

ftniyan. . 
slothfulness, n. Wokuza. 
slouch, n. Tu'we hcoka ; cogeca. 

vt. fidoheya ecoi). 
slough, n. Wiwi ; ohdihdi. v. Na- 

hdaya ; hinhpaya. 
sloven, u. Cogeca. 
slovenliness, n. Wohnahan. 
slovenly, a. finahai) ; cogeca. 
slow, a. fianhi ; hun/kesni ; he'- 

kta ui) ; ohansdata. 
slowly, adv. fianhiya ; asasyena ; 

slowness, n. Wohaqhi. 
slue, vi. Eahomni ; kasduniyaya ; 

vt. Eahomni iyeya. 
slug, n. Ma'zasuhanska ; ma'za- 

cehdihpeyapi siha. vt. Ma'za- 

su on apa. 
sluggard, n. Ku'za. 
sluggish, a. Hun/kesni; hanhi; 

sluggishly, adv. Euziteyena. 
sluggishness, n. Wokuza. 
slugs, n. Ma'zaagugu ; kaspuspu- 

sluice, n. Minicankukagapi ; mi- 

slum, n. Wahtesniotipi. 
slumber, vi. Ogonga ; istinma ; 

iwastedai) istiqma. 
slumberer, n. Istinbes'a. 
slumberless, a. Istinbesni. 
slung, imp. of sling. 
slung-shot, n. Ma'zasu can/hpi. 
slunk, imp. of slink. 
slur, vt. 1. Ta'kusica ikoyagya ; 

istenya : he slurred me. 2. Ana- 

hma : slur a fact. 3. (Mus.) 

Ikoyaka. n. Wi'koyake; wo- 

slush, n. Upsiza ; ta'kucoco. 
slushy, a. Coco. 
slut, n. Sunkawiye. 
sluttish, a. finahai) ; cogeca. 

sly 212 

sly, a. Nanman skan ; sda'ta ; 

ksa'pa ; wieastasni. 
slyly, adv. Nanmana ; anahbeya. 
slyness, n. Nanmana skan 'pi. 
smack, vt. Tuskapa; po'pa. n. 

1. Ta'knpo'pa; yaskapapi. 2. 
U'tapi ; wokitai) . 3. Oape ; apa- 
pi. vi. KaMan ; on'spa en un. 

smacking, j»a. Yaskaskapa ; itan- 

small, a. Ci'stinna ; ci'kana ; kpa- 

na. Small potatoes, mdo cikci- 

small-arms, n. Ma'zakanikceka. 
smallish, a. Ki'tanna ci'stinna. 
smallness, w. Wocistinna. 
small-pox, n. Itewicandohdokapi. 
smart, a. Wacinksapa : a smart 

boy. 2. Pe'sto ; pa'za : a smart 

rebuke. 3. Mdiheca ; onanko : 

smart to get around. 4. Ni'na 

hiyu ; ni'na : a smart breeze. 

5. O'ta ; tan'yan : a smart crop 

of grass. 6. Wi'tantan ; ksa'- 

pa : most too smart. 
smartly, adv. Wacinksamya ; pe'- 

stoya; wi'tantanyan. 
smartness, n. Wowacinksape ; wo- 

smash, vt. Kamdeca; kasusuza. 

Smashed to pieces, kpanyena 

kamdeca. n. Eamdeeapi ; wo- 

smasher, n. Wakamdeea; wohi- 

smatter, vi. Sdonyesniia. 
smatterer, n. Wasdonyesni iaa. 
smattering, n. Wosdonye haakam- 

smear, vt. Akastaka; sdaya; asam- 

ya. n. Akastakapi. 
smell, vt. 1. O'mna : smell the rose. 

2. Iyukcan : he smelled out the 
answer, vi. Mna ; o'mna : / 

canH smell, n. O'mnapi ; woo- 
smeller, n. On o'mnapi ; po'ge ; 


smelling, n. Waomnapi. 

smelling-bottle, n. Zaqzan o'mna- 

smelt, vi. Sdoya. 

smelter, n. Wasdoya. 

smicker, it. Diana. 

smile, vi. Ina; iyokipi; ahiton- 
wanrwi'ynskin. Mother smiled, 
ina ina. — May heaven smile, to- 
kin mahpiya iyokipi ahiton- 
wai). — Smiling spring, we'tu 
wi'yn&kin. n. Inapi; woina; 

smller, n. Inas'a. 

smilingly, adv. Wi'hahaya; canwa- 

smirch, vt. Aftamya. 

smirk, vi. Rakonza. 

smite, vt. Apa. Apa; kastaka; 
hmuijga. Smite off, kaspa. 

smith, n. Ma'zakaga. Silver-smith, 

smitten, pp. of smite. Apapi ; wi- 
cinpi yuhnaakinyan. 

smock, n. Win'yaq mahennnpi. 

smoke, n. So'ta : I see smoke, vi. 
1. So'ta ; izita ; so'takaga : the 
stove smokes. 2. Canonpa : do 
you smoke, vt. 1. Izinya; so'- 
taya. 2. On'pa; cannonpa. 

smokeless, a. So'ta waniea. 

smoker, n. Cannonpaa'a. 

smoky, a. 1. So'ta ; so'tes'a : a 
smoky house. 2. Sotozu : a 
smoky day. 3. Sotkazi : a smoky 
ceiling. — A smoky teepee, wizi. 

smolder, vi. Izita ; itkonyahe. 

smooth, a. Sdusduta; mda'ya; 
stosto ; amdakedan . — Smooth 
glass, zaxjzan sdusdnta. — 
Smooth hair, hin stosto. — 
Smooth road, canku mda'ya. — 
Smooth words, iapi sku'ya. vt. 
Pastosto ; kamdaya ; yuasrd. 

smooth-faced, a. Hin waniea. 

smoothing-iron, n. Wi'pamdaye. 

smoothlng-plane, n. Wi'cazipepte- 

smoothly 213 

smoothly, adv. Stostoya; iyoki- 

smoothness, n. Womdaye. 
smooth-spoken, a. I'wasicui) ; 

smooth-tongued, a. Ceziskuya. 
smitten, pp. of smite. 
smother, vt. Yuniyasni ; yusni. — 

Smother the babe, hoksiyopa 

yuniyasni. — Smother fire, pe'ta 

yusni. — Smother anger, wocan- 

niye apaspa. 
smudge, n. do'ta ; wi'zinyapi. 
smuggle, vt. Nahman ahi : smuggle 

goods into the country. 
smuggler, n. Na&manwatoksu. 
smut, n. Aguyapisusapa ; cenna- 

• • 

smutty, a. 1. Cennagi asamya. 2. 
Aa : smutty corn. 3. Wowi- 
steca : smutty talk. 

snag, n. Canmnicazo ; can ; can- 
hutkan : the boat ran on a snag, 
vi. Can'naohdoka. 

snail, n. Wamnuhadan ; tu'we 

snake, n. Wamduska ; zuzuhece- 
dai) ; T. zuzeca; wan. — Rattle- 
snake, sintehda. vt. Yusdohan ; 
sdohan : snake a log. 

Snake, n. pr. Sintehdawicasa. 

snakish, a. Wamduskase. 

snap, vt. 1. Kapsaka ; yupsaka : 
snapped the bars. 2. Yupopa ; 
kapopa : snap the fingers. 3. 
Yakoka : the dog snapped his 
teeth, vi. 1. Psa'ka ; kapsaka : 
the pole snapped. 2. Bokega : 
the gun snapped, n. 1. Papsa- 
kapi ; wopapsaka : broke with a 
snap. 2. Woakipa : a cold snap. 

3. Ma'zawiyuze : a bridle snap. 

4. Aguyapi zizina : ginger 

snappish, a. WayaMakes'a. 
snappishly, adv. Esizeya. 
snare, n. Wi'hmunke; wowawi- 
yutanye. vt. Hmun/ka. 


snarl, vi. fido; T. hlo. vt. Yu- 

wiwi ; i'ciyakaska. n. Yuwiwi ; 

snatch, vt. Kohan icu; yukam 

icu. n. Wokitai). 
snatcher, n. Yukamicus'a. 
snath, n. Peziicasdaihupa. 
sneak, vi. Painahdedan ya ; isteca 

se skan. n. Nanmanskan . 
sneaking, a. Waananbe. 
sneer, vi. Ihana. n. Wowiha. 
sneerer, n. Wawinana. 
sneeringly, adv. Wawinanaya. 
sneeze,**. Psa. 
snicker, vi. 2iziya ilia. 
sniff, vt. O'mna ; po'gan. 
sniffle, vi. finanna niya ; tu)'g&» 
snipe, n. Hu'totona. 
snivel, vi. Tii)'ga ; pandi au. 
sniveler, n. Ce'yakenui). 
snob, n. Wahanicida. 
snooze, vi. Istinma ; inanni istin- 

snore, vi. 'Go'pa. 
snorer, n. *Go / pes'a. 
snort, vi. Po'gan ; nnanna. 
snot, n. Paftdi. 
snout, n. Pute ; pasu : the Jwg f & 

snow, n. Wa. Hie snow flies, wa 

bomdu; icamna. vi. Wapa; 

wa hinhe. 
snow-ball, n. Wakaska. vi. Wa- 

snowsbird, n. Wa'kasansan. 
snowbllnd, a. Wa'istaiowicasnize. 
snowdrift, n. Wo'gan ; T. wawo- 

snowfiake, n. 1. Wa'sukaza. 2. 

Wancaska (ocaze). 
snow-plow, n. Wa'icatice. 
snowshoe, n. Pse ; tai)mda. 
snow-storm, n. Waibomdu. 
snow-white, a. Wa'seska. 
snowy, a. 1. Wa'se ; wa'kasote- 

sni. 2. Wa'akanpa. 
snub, vt. Anaptakuwa; okihi- 





snuff, vt. Po'zanzan ; yazinca ; 
o'mna : the dog snuffed the 
breeze, n. 1. Candi bakpanpi. 
2. Petizanzaniyagn. 

snuff-box, n. Caqdiyazincapi opi- 

snuffer, n. 1. Wayazinca. 2. Pe- 
tizanzaq iynkse. 

snuffle, vi. Oyahnahna; pozan- 

snug, a. Ayuco ; tan'yan. 

snnggle, vi. A'skamya iwanka. 

snugly, adv. Kipiya ; ayucoya. 

so, adv. 1. He'cen : God made me 
so. 2. Ni'na ; he'cen : I am so 
tired. — So long, hehankeca. — 
He stayed so long, ni'na te'han 
yanka. — So far, hehanyan ; ni'- 
na te'han. — So forth, san'pa 
he'cekcen. — So large, hin'sko- 
tanka ; ni'na tan'ka. — So much, 
henakeca; ni'na o'ta. — So small, 
hiij'skoyedan ; ni'na ci'stinna. 
— So so, he'cetu; he'cetuka. 
con). Ehantanhans ; kinhan. 

soak, vt. ftpaijyan ; spa'yeya. vi. 

soaked, pa. fipan ; spa'ya. 

soaking, pa. Kafrtanyan. 

soap, n. Wi'pazaza ; Y. & T. ha'i- 
pazaza. vt. Wi'pazaza iun. 

soap-bubble, n. Tagebotankapi. 

soap-stone, n. In'yaijsan. 

soap-suds, n. Miniwipazazaota. 

soapy, a. Wipazaza yukai). 

soar, vi. Waijkan kinyan ; nawin. 
Soar away, aunyan iyaye. 

sob, vi. Ce'yaya ; ce'yektakta. n. 
Ge'yapiho ; mdokaska. 

sober, a. 1. Mdeze ; witkosni : the 
man is sober. 2. Ohantanka ; 
wi'hahasni; wicaka : a very 
sober boy. vt. Kamdeza. 

soberly, adv. Mdesya ; a'wieakeya. 

sober-minded, a. Tawacin mde'ze. 

soberness, n. Womdeze; wowi- 

sobriety, n. Wi'wicamdeza. 

sobriquet, n. I'hadcaze. 

so-called, a. He'cen eciyapi. 

sociable, a. Wohdakes'a; wawi- 
haha ; wawimagaga. 

sodnbleness, n. Wi'cihaktapi. 

sociably, adv. Imagagaya. 

social, a. Okiciya. 

socialist, n. Okiciyapi okodaki- 

socially, adv. Okiciya. 

society, n. Wicastaikieitukapi ; 
okiciyapi ; i'cikiyedan ti'pi ; 
omniciye ; wankiciyakapi. 

sock, n. Iyahdehun&ka ; T. & T. 

socket, n. Ohdoka ; oakokpa. 

sod, n. Pezihutkan ; pezi. vt. Pe- 
zi hutkan azu. 

soda, n. Aguyapiinapohye euta. 

soda-water, n. Miniipiga yatkanpi. 

sodomite, n. Iwicahusa. 

sofa, n. Akanyaqkapi han'ska 

soft, a. 1. Panpanna; panspan- 
zedan ; hihi : a soft bed; soft 
cloth; soft earth. 2» Wan'ka- 
dan : soft iron. 3. Owasteca : 
soft air. 4. Iwastedan : soft 
whispers. 5. Coco: soft mud. 
— Soft water, mini sntasni ; ma- 

soften, vt. Kapanpan ; yupanpan ; 
kacoco ; ynasni. vi. IwaStedan 
aya ; wankadan a'ya ; ado. 

soft-headed, a. Wacinksapesni. 

soft-hearted, a. Canwanka. 

softly, adv. Iwastedai); iwahna- 
na ; wa'hbayena. 

softness, n. Wopanpanna ; wowa- 

soggy, a. Spa'ya ; dodo se'ca. 

soil, n. Makikceka ; maka : the 
soil is good. vt. Yusapa ; asam- 
ya ; don't soil your clothes. 

sojourn, vi. Inahniti ; ohnihde ui). 
n. Ounyanpi 

sojourner, n. Ohnihdeun; ina- 

sojournment 215 

sojournment, n. Ounyanpi. 
sol, n. (Mus.) Ho'izaptan. 
solace, vt. Wacintonhnagya ; ki- 

canpta. w. Wokicanpte. 
solar, a. Anpawi ; anpawi etan- 

sold, imp. of sell. 
solder, n. Wisdoye. i>£. Cehska 

soldier, n. Akicita. 
soldiering, n. Akicitaunpi. 
soldierly, a. Akicitaiyececa ; wa- 

sole, n, Sicu ; sicuha : tJie sole of 

my shoe. vt. Sicu okatai). 
sole, a. Heceedan ; isnana. 
solecism, n. Iapi ecinsniyan ; wi- 

conan ecinsniyan. 
solely, adv. Heceedai) ; he'cehna- 

solemn, a. Wakai) ; wakanse ; wo- 

solemnity, n. Wowakan ; wowica- 

ke ; wowinihai). 
solemnization, n. Yuwakanpi. 
solemnize, vt. Yuwakai) ; ahope- 

wicaya; yustan. 
solemnly, adv. Wakanyan ; a'wi- 

solicit, vt. Kida ; da ; icekiya. 
solicitation, n. Wadapi; ocinpi. 

At the solicitation of his father, 

atkuku okicicii) kii) oi). 
solicitor, w. 1. Wadaui) ; waocii). 

2. Ki'cicuwa ; kazuzuwicaki- 

solicitous, a. Cin'nca; awacin- 

nca ; icantesica. 
solicitously, arit>. Icantesinya. 
solicitude, n. Waawacinnca. 
solid, a. 1. Suta ; ke'za : solid 

ground. 2. lldogecasni : a solid 

ball. 3. Omdotoi) : a solid foot. 

4. Tke ; suta : solid food. n. 1. 

Ta'ku tanton. 2. (Graw.) Ta'- 

ku omdotoi). 
solidify, vt. Yusuta. vi. Suta a'ya. 
solidity, n. 1. Wosuta; hohoeni. 


2. Cante^inzapi ; wotanka ; wo- 

solidly, adv. Sutaya ; a'taya. 

solidness, n. Wosuta ; a'taya. 

soliloquize, vi. I'ciwohdaka. 

soliloquy, n. I'ciwohdakapi. 

solitarily, adv. Isnana. 

solitariness, n. Wicisnana un'pi. 

solitary, a. Isnana un ; wanzidan ; 
makoskan un'pi. 

solitude, n. Makoskantu ; wicisna- 
na unpi. 

solo, n. Wicisnana dowanpi. 

solstice, n. An'pawi namni. 

soluble, a. fipanyepica ; skanye- 
pica ; kahdogpica j okannin- 

solution, n. 1. fipuwahe ; npan- 
yanhan ; mduwahe. 2. Kando- 
kapi ; to'ketu oyakapi : the solu- 
tion of the question. 3. (Client.) 
Skanyanpi: a solution of soda. 
4. Woyuzuzu: owihanke. 

solvable, a. Oyagpica ; yasupica. 

solve, vt. Yukcan ; yasu ; yuza- 
mni; oyaka. 

solvency, n. Wawokihika. 

solvent, a. 1. Kazuzu okihi. 2. 
Skanyepica.; waskankiya. 

sombre, a. Sa'peca ; gigi ; otanin- 
kesni; aokpaza. 

some, a. 1. Onge: some water; 
some flour. 2. Wanziksi : some 
girls; some horses. 3. Wanzi ; 
tu'we kasta : some man will do 
it. 4. Ki'tan'na ; on spa. 5. Ce'- 
tu : some ten miles. 6. Ki'tanna 
o'ta : it will be some days before 
he will come. 

somebody, n. Tu'we ; wicasta 

somehow, adv. 1. To'ketu kacen : 
somehow he fell. 2. To'ketu ka- 
sta : it must be done somehow. 

somersault, somerset, n. Kaho- 
mni enpeiciyapi. 

something, n. 1. Ta'ku ; ta'ku 
wanzi. 2. Onspa ; iyokise. 




sometime, adv. Tohantu kinhan ; 

tohantu sta : sometime come and 

see me. 2. To'hinm. 
sometimes, adv. Tuktentu. 
somewhat, n. Ki'tanna : onspa ; 

ta'ku; haqke. adv. fc'tanna. 
somewhere, adv. Tukten ; to'kiya. 
somerset, n. See somersault. 
somnambulist, n. Istinma omani. 
son, n. Cinhintku ; ciijca. My 

son, micinksi. — Your son, ni- 

cinksi. — His son, cinhintku. — 

Son, cine. — Sons of Jacob, Jacob 

song, n. Odowan ; odowai) ikceka. 
songful, a. Dowans'a. 
songless, a. Dowai) okihisni. 
songster, n. Dowans'a. 
soniferous, a. Ho'kaga. 
son-lu-uw, n. Takosku. — My son- 

in-law, mitakos ; takoswaya. 
sonless, a. Cinhintku wanioa. 
sonnet, n. Odowai) (oeaze). 
sonorous, a. Ho'yukaij ; ho'tan/- 

ka ; ho'waste. 
sonship, n. Ciqhintkuyapi. 
soon, adv. Ecadai) ; kohanna ; 

to'kesta. Sooner, tokaheya. — 

Soonest, tokaheyafrca. — As soon 

as, tohan. — No sooner, he'ee- 

hnana ; i'ecadan. 
soot, n. Cehnagi; sonnagi. vt. 

Cehnagi akahpa. 
sooth, n. Wowicake. 
soothe, vt. Kihna ; iyokipiya. 
soothingly, adv. Kihnaya. 
soothsay, vi. Ayata. 
soothsayer, n. Waayate. 
sooty, a. Cehnagi o'ta ; sa'pa. 
sop, vt. fipanye ; kahtan ; opu- 

tkaij. n. ftpaijyanpi; oi) ki- 

sophism, n. Woksape wohnaye. 
sophist, n. Woksape iwicahnaye. 
sophistical, a. Wicahnaye. 
sophistry, n. Woksape wohnaye. 
sophomore, n. Woonspe wankantu 

waniyetu inonpa. 

sorcerer, n. Wapiyes'a ; wica* 

sorcery, n. Wohmunge ; wawiyu- 

sordid, a. Sa'pa ; si'ca. 
sordidly, adv. Sicaya. 
sore, a. Tazan ; ndi : my sore 

hand. 2. Ni'na si'ca ; tehika : 

a sore disease, n. tldi ; yazan. 

adv. dicaya ; ni'na. 
sorely, adv. Teniya ; ni'na. 
soreness, n. Oyazan. 
sorghum, n. Canhanpihu. 
sorrel, n. Wahpeskuya. a. Hinsa. 
sorrily, adv. Oiyokisinya. 
sorrow, n. Woiyokisiea; wocan- 

tesiea. vi. Icantesica; iyoki- 

sorrowful, a. Iyokisica ; oiyokisi- 

ea ; woiyokisiea. 
sorrowfully, adv. Oiyokisinya. 
sorry, a. 1. Cantesiea : lam sorry. 

2. Oiyokisica : a sorry sight. 

3. Iyecetusni : a sorry excuse. . 
sort, n. Obe ; ocaze : what sort of 

wood. — In some sort, to'ketu- 
yaka. — Out of sorts, ecetukesni. 
vt. 1. Obe eeekeen e'hnaka: 
sort potatoes. 2. Kahniga ; ka- 
hnih icu. Ill-sorted words, iapi 
tan 'y an kahnigapisni. vi. Ki- 
eioa ; kiei iyokipi. 

sortable, a. Pta'pta e'hnagpica. 

so-so, a. Ahececa. 

sot, n. Witkosa. 

sottish, a. Miniwakan akaska. 

sottishness, n. Witkopis'a. 

soul, n. 1. Nagi; wieanagi : Christ 
came to save souls. 2. Oni ; 
canto ; wowas'ake : no soul left 
within him. 3. Wicasta; tu'we: 
ten souls in the boat. 

soulless, a. Cantewaniea. 

sound, a. 1. Zani ; a'taya waste : 
a sound apple. 2. Wieaka ; he'- 
cetu : a sound argument. 3. 
Wowicake ; a'wicake : a sound 
threshing. 4. Suta ; ni'na: 

sounding 217 

sound sleep, n. 1. Ho; ta'ku 
bu : I heard a sound. 2. Mini 
wakpaseyeye : go boating on the 
sound, vt. 1. &be iyuta ; iyuta ; 
yukean : sound the waters. ' 2. 
Kahotoi); yahoton: sound the 
trumpet. vi. Hotoi) ; ho'tanin ; 
sna ; bu : the wind sounds cold. 

sounding, pa. Ho'tanin ; ho'tan- 
ka. n. &be iyutapi. 

sounding-line, n. Hanonta on sbe- 

soundless, a. Ho wanica. 

soundly, adv. A'wieakeya. 

soundness* n. Wozani ; wowicake. 

soup* n. Wahanpi ; hanpi. 

sour, n. 1. dkumna ; skuya : sour 
milk; sour apples. 2. Hinyan- 
za ; wocinko : a sour temper. 
3. Onansica ; osnaze. vt. Ska- 
yeya; yu&ica. vi. dkumna; 

source, n. Oenape ; o / ii)kpa : the 
source of tto river. 

sourish, a. Ki'tanna skumna. 

sour-krout, n. Wanpetanka sku- 

sourly, adv. Skumnayan; iyoki- 

sourness, n. Woskumna ; wocan- 

south, n. O'kaga ; itokaga. a. Ito- 
kah. adv. O'kan. 

south-east, a. Wiyohiyanpa itokan. 

southerly, a. Itokan. 

southern, a. Itokaga. 

southerner, n. Itokahwieasta. 

southernmost, a. Itokah ihanke. 

southing, n. Itokan ye. 

southward, adv. Itokan. 

southwest, n. Wiyohiyanpa ito- 

souvenir, n. Wokiksuye. 

sovereign, n. 1. Itancan ; wicasta- 
yatapi tan'ka : the sovereign of 
the land. 2. Sagdasin ma'za- 
skazi ; ma'zaska $4.84. a. To- 
kahai) ; iyotan ; ihduha. 


sow, vt. Ozu ; kada ; wozu ; ka- 
dada. n. Kukusewiye : the sow 
had six pigs. 

sower, n. Tu'we wozu. 

town, pp. of sow. 

space, n. 1. Oyanke ; okan ; oko ; 
ituoeoka. 2. (Prinf.) Oowa wa- 
nica: oko. 3. (Mus.) Oko. vt. 
Oko ka'ga. 

spacious, a. Tan'ka ; otankaya ; 
okipi. A spacious house, ti'pi 

spade, n. 1. Makinaspe ; ma'za- 
mdaska. 2. Kansukutepi oca- 
ze. vt. Makinaspe on oka ; oka. 

spadeful* ft. Makinaspe ozudan. 

spade-handle, w. Makinaspe ihupa. 

spake, imp. of speak. 

span, n. 1. Napapasdeeapi : a span 
long. 2. Oiyute ci'stinna: life 
is but a span. 3. O'hiyohiye : a 
bridge of tivo span. 4. Akica- 
ska : a span of horses, vt. 1. 
Napapasdeeapi on wiyuta. 2. 
O'pta ya riyute. 

spangle, vt. Yuhdeska ; kahdeska. 

Spaniard, n. pr. Spaniyowicasa. 

spaniel, n. dun'kanakpatanka. 

Spanish, a. Spaniyotawa. 

spank, vt. Napemdaska apa. 

spanking, n. Napemdaskaapapi. 

span-new, a. Te'ea ; nakaba te'ea. 

spar, n. Wa'taipamnatanka. 

spare, vt. 1. Kpagan ; iyakicuhna- 
ka : I have none to spare. 2. 
Kpatan ; itonpeya kuwa : he 
did not spare his horse. 3. 
E'hdaku ; niyan ; kpatan : spare 
us, good Lord. vi. Wakpatan ; 
kpatanyan ni; kpatanyan econ ;' 
wawitonpe. a. 1. Iyakicu : a 
spare horse, sun'kawakai) iya- 
kicu. 2. Iyohisni; kpatanyan 
yuba. 3. Tamaheca ; ce'pesni : 
a spare looking boy. 

spare-rib, n. Cutuhu bazapapi. 

sparing, a. 1. Wakpatan ; wate- 
hinda : sparing of her flour. 2. 

sparingly 218 

To'nana; kpataijyaneconpi : a 
sparing supply. 

sparingly, adv. Kpatanyan ; itoij- 

spark, n. Pesniza; ta'ku wiya- 

sparking, n. Wiokiyapi. 

sparkle, vi. Wiyakpa; kpakpa; 
pihpiga. n. Wowiyakpa. 

sparkling, pa. Wiyakpakpa; pih- 
piga : sparkling eyes. 

sparrow, n. Zitkadai) ; wa'kasan- 

sparse, a. To'nana ; enana. 

spasm, a. Kan/natipapi ; ocisti- 

spasmodic, a. Natiptipapi; ina- 

spat, imp. of spit. 

spatter, vt. Akastastaka; amni- 
mni : spatter your dress. 

spavin, n. Huhu anoge. 

spawn, n. Hoganitka. vt. Hogai) 
itka okada. 

speak, vt. E'ya ; oyaka ; yaotaijii) ; 
ia. — To speak to, eciya. — Do 
you speak Sioux, Dakota iyaa 
he. vi. Ia ; woyaka ; wohdaka. 
Speak for, ekiciya; ki'ciia. — 
Speak in public, wicota en wo- 
hdaka. — Speak, Lord, ia wo, 
Itancan. — Speak of, cazeyata. 

speakable, a. Eyepica. 

speaker, n. Iekiyapi; tu'we wo- 
hdaka ; omniciye itancan. 

speaking, n. Iapi ; wohdakapi. 

spear, n. 1. Wahukeza. A rat- 
spear, huhaka. 2. Ape : a spear 
of grass, vt. Gapa; wahukeza 
on capa. 

spear-grass, n. Mi'capeca ; wi'ca- 

spear-man, n. Wahukeza yuha. 

special, a. Fyatayedai) ; heceedai) 
ka'pi ; iyotai) ; to'keca. 

specialist, n. Heceedai) kuwa. 

speciality, n. Wicohan wicita- 


specially, adv. Iyotaijyai) ; ta'ku 

wanzi on. 
specialty, n. Iyotai) kuwa. 
specie, n. Ma'zaska ma'za. 
species, n. Ocaze ; obe ; ospaye. 
specific, a. I'atayedan. ; ta'wa ; 

specifically, adv. I'atayeda*j ; a'wi- 

spedficatlou, n. Wacazeyatapi. 
specify, vt. I'atayedai) cazeyata. 
specimen, n. On&pa etaqhaq. 
specious, a. Wicaka se'ca. 
speciously, adv. Wicakeya. 
speclonsness, n. Wowicake se'ca. 
speck, n. On&pa ci'stinna ; ta'ku 

ci'stin'na. vt. Yusapsapa. 
speckle, vt. Yuhdehdega; hdeska 

speckled, pa. Hdehdega; hdeaka- 

spectacle, n. Wowaijyake. 
spectacles, ». Ma'zaista; istamaza. 
spectator, n. Wawaijyagui). 
specter, n. Wanagi ; nagi. 
speculate, vi. 1. Awacii) ; iyu- 

kcan : speculate on his conduct. 

2. Wakamna kta opetoi) : spec- 
ulate on wheat. 
speculation, n. Wi'yukcan wope- 

speculative, a. Wi'yukcanka. 
speculatively, adv. Wi'yukcanyai). 
speculator, n. Wi'yukcaij wope- 

toi) ; wi'yukcan. 
speculum, n. Ihdiyomdasii). 
sped, imp. of speed. 
speech, n. 1. Iapi : the gift of 

speech. 2. Owohdake : he made 

a speech. 
speechless, a. Iapi okihisni. 
speech-maker, n. Wohdakes'a. 
speed, vi. Dus ya; to'ken okihi 

ecoi). vt. Dus yekiya. w. Wo- 

duzahai) ; woohanko. 
speedily, adv. Ohankoya ; inahni- 

yai) ; kohanna. 
speedy, a. Ohanko; du'zahaq. 

spell 219 

spell, vt. Oowa e'ya ; oowa caze- 
yata. n. Woeeoi) ; itogto econ- 
pi ; wonmunga. vt. Kici itogto 
ecoi) ; o'kiya. 

spell-bound, a. ftmun/gapi. 

speller, n. 1. Oowa cazeyata. 2. 
Oowa wowapi. 

spelling, n. Oowa e'hnakapi. 

spelt, imp. of spell. 

spend, trt. 1. Iyopeya;ku: spend 
money for an education. 2. Yu- 
sota ; yutakunisni : spent all his 
father's money. 3. Uij ; en yan- 
ka : spend t)ie day with us. — 
I come to spend the night, awang 
wahi. — A spent ball, ma'zasu 
sniyai) ya. — Spend on, ayusota. 
vi. Wayusota ; tanii) sni iyaya. 

spender, n. Tu'we wayusota. 

spendthrift, n. Wahdusotes'a ; wa- 

spent, imp. of spend. 

sperm-oiCn. Hoganihdi petizai)- 

spew, vt. Hde'pa ; hiyuya. 

spewer, n. Tu'we hde'pa. 

sphere, n. 1. Ta'pase ; ta'ku mi- 
ma : the earth is a sphere. 2. 
Oun ; ounye ; obe : out of his 

spherical, a. Mibe ; hmiyanna. 

spice, n. Ta / knicahiyutapi. 

spicy, a. 1. Ta'kuicahi o'ta. 2. 
Pe'stosto ; ksamyahai) : he made 
a spicy talk. 

spider, n. Unktomi. 

spider-web, n. Unktomi tahokata. 

spied, imp. of spy. Wanyaka. 

spigot, n. Iostai). 

spike, n. Ma'zaiokatan tan/ka; 
ma'za pe'sto. vt. Okatai) ; ma'- 
zakantonka no'ge aokatan. 

spiky, a. Pespesto. 

Spill, vt. 1. Papson : spill water. 
2. Kada ; kakada : spill corn. 

Spin, vt. 1. Pahmui) ; kahmui) : 
spin wool. 2. Pahomni ; kaho- 
mni : spin a top. 3. Yutehan ; 


ayucikayedan : spin out the day. 

— Spin a story, wakakan. vi. 

Wapahmui) ; homnimni. 
spinal, n. Cai)kahu. — Spinal col- 

umn, cankahu a'taya. — Spihal 

marrow, cankasunta ; T. cai)- 

spindle, n. Ma'zaiyuhmun. 
spindle-legs, a. Hucistinnahanska. 
spine, n. 1. Cankahu ; canhaha- 

ke : his spine is diseased. 2. 

Hoape ; caijpepe. 
spinner, n. Tu'we wapahmui) ; 

spinning-wheel, n. Canhdeskaipa- 

spinster, n. Win/yan. .wapahmui). 
spiny, a. Pespesto ; tehika. 
spiral, a. Homni ka'gapi ; ma'za- 

icuse ; yuhbezapi ; oiyadi. 
spirally, adv. Hbesyedan ; homni- 

yai) ; homniyai) oiyadi. 
spire, n. 1. Ti'piipasotka ; in/kpa. 

2. Pezi hucan ; ape. 
spirit, n. 1. Woniya ; nagi ; oniya ; 

wicaniya ; wicanagi. 2. Wo- 

m&ihecs, : full of spirit. 3. Can- 
to ; tawacin : in good spirits. 

4. Mini woniya ; miniwakai) : he 

drinks too much spirits. 5. Iapi 

cante; co; to'ken ka'pi; can- 

teoyuze : his talk showed a bad 

spirit, vt. Nanmai) e'yaya : he 

spirited the child away. 
spirited, a. 1. Mdiheca ; ske'he : 

a spirited horse. 2. Tawacin ; 

oai)te : loto spirited. 
spiritedly, adv. Mdihenya. 
spirltedness, n. Womdiheca. 
spirit-lamp, n. Miniwakan peti- 

spiritless, a. 1. Tawacin wanica ; 

hun/kesni. 2. Ku'za ; tase. 
spirit-rapper, n. Wapiya ; wakarj- 

spiritual, a. 1. Tantoijsni ; cehpi 

wanica : a spiritual substance. 

2. Wakan ; woniya. 

spiritualism 220 

spiritualism, «. Wakanicidapi. 
spiritualist, n. Wakanicidapi 

spirituality, «. Wowacinye ; woo- 

spiritualize, vt. Yuwakai) ; ohoda- 

kiya ; taqtonsnikiya. 
spiritually, adv. Wakanyan ; taij- 

toqaniyai) ; ohodaya. 
spirituous, a. 1. Tantonsni ; wo- 

niya. 2. Miniwakanicahi. 
spit, vi. Tago&a. Spit on, atagosa. 

vt. Itagoaa : spit blood, «. Can- 

spit-box, n. Ohna atagosapi. 
spite, ». Wowahtedasni ; wocan- 

ze. In spite of, to'ketu ceyas. 

vt. Canzeya; wahtedasni; si- 

cava kuwa. 
spiteral, a. Wahtesni ; ocinsica. 
apitefniiy, adv. Sicaya. 
spitef ulness, w. Wowahtedasni. 
spitter, «. Atagosas'a. 
spittle, ft. Tage ; imnitagosa. 
spittoon, n. Ohna tagosapi. 
splash, vt. Miniapapsonpson. vi. 

Mininagaga ; minibosdi. 
splasher, n. Wanagaga. 
spleen, n. Pisnize ; wocaijze. 
splendid, a. Wastehinca; wowi- 

splendidly, adv. Ni'na tan'yaq. 
splendidness, n. Wowinihan. 
splendor, n. Wowiyakpa; wowi- 

splice, vt. I'ciyakaska ; i'cikoyag- 

ya. n. I'ciyakaskapi. 
splint, n. Hu wegahai) caqiciya- 

splinter, n. Wokasdatedan. vt. 

Kasdeca ; boptuza. 
splintery, a. Wokasdata o'ta. 
split, vt. Kaptuza ; yaptuza ; ka- 
sdeca ; yusdeoa. w. Onasdeca ; 

kiihduspapi. pa. Ptuzahan ; 

sdecahai) ; kasdecapi. 
splurge, n. Wohitiyaskai) ; bobdu- 



splutter, n. Nagagaskan. vi. Ohan- 

ko ia. 
spoil, vt. Yusica ; napiatanyan. 

vi. Si'ca a'ya. ». Woyuha zuya 

ahdipi ; womanoi) ; ta'ku ohi- 

yapi ; wawicakipi. 
spoilable, a. Yusinpica. 
spoiler, ». Wawieakis'a ; wayusi- 

spoke, imp. of speak. 
spoke, n. Caijpahmihma huyu- 

spoken, pp. of speak. 
spokesman, Iekiyapi. 
spoliate, ft Wicaki. 
spoliation, ft. Wawicakipi. 
sponge, ft. 1. Iyuhepe ; gugecase : 

wipe it with the sponge. 2. Agu- 

yapi cocoya napoge. vt. Pa- 

irinta; paspaya. vi. Wayuhe- 

pa ; titokai) oe'e wota. 
sponge-cake, ». Aguyapiaka'ya gu- 

spongy, a. -Gugeca ; wayuhepe. 
sponsor, ft. Waekiyapi. 
spontaneous, a. Iyeciijkahan. 
spontaneously, adv. Iyecinka. 
spool, ft. Hahonta oiyapehe. 
spoon, ft. Tukiha ; ma'zatukiha ; 

Y. & T. kinska. 
spoonful, ft. Tukiha ohnaka. 
sport, ft. Wo&kate ; wicoskate. — 

Make sport of, ihaha. — In sport, 

iha kta on ; eca econpi. vi. 

Ska'ta; wakute. n. dka'tes'a. 
sporter, n. Wakutes'a ; ska'tes'a. 
sportful, a. Ska'tes'a ; wowiha. 
sportfully, adv. I'hadya. 
sporting, pa. Ska'tapi. 
sportingly, adv. I had. 
sportive, a. Ska'tektehca. 
sportively, adv. Skatekta oi). 
sportsman, n. Wakutewicasta. 
spot, ft. 1. On spa ; oijspatokeca : 

a black spot. 2. Tukte sa'pa ; 

wosape : without a spot. 3. 

Oyanke ; tuktentu : a building 

spot. 3. Hdeska ; hdeakaska. 

spotless 221 

vt. 1 . Asamya ; sam&amya : you 
will spot your dress. 2. Wa'- 
petogton ; samya : spot the 

spotless, a. Wosapewanin; wa'- 

spotted, pa. Hdeska ; hde'ga. A 
spotted Iwrse, suqghdeska. 

spousal, a. Kioiyuzapi. 

spouse, n. Hihnaku ; tawicu. 

spouseless, a. Tansnaun. 

spout, n. 1. Mini ohna hiyu ; i : 
the spout of the teakettle. 2. 
Minibosdi. vt. 1. Hiyuya ; bo- 
sdi : the whale is spouting water. 

2. Heyayanka ; iahan. vi. Uya ; 

sprain, vt. Naguka. 

sprained, pa. -Gukahan ; naguka. 

sprang, imp. of spring. 

sprawl, vi. Nasonson : sdohan. 

spray, n. 1. Minibozan ; minipo : 
the spray from the falls. 2. Can- 
inkpa opahte; canwopamna. 
vt. Miniabozai). 

spread, vt. 1. Yumdaya ; kamda- 
ya: spread his wings; spread 
the blanket. 2. Tan/kaya yeya; 
yeya ; iyayeya : spread its 
brandies ; spread the disease. 

3. Yaotanin ; oyaka : spread the 
news. 4. Akadada ; enana enpe- 
ya : spread manure. 5. Inn ; 
a'skamya : spread butter. 6. 
Akanpa ; wi'yeya aehnaka : 
spread tlie table, vi. 1. Iyaya; 
tan 'kaya iyaye : disease spreads. 
2. Otanin ; tan 'kaya iyaya. n. 
Waakahpe ; wayaotaninpi : the 
spread of the gospel. — Bed- 
spread, owinzaakanpe. 

spread-eagle, n. Wanmdikamdan 

owapi. a. Waihdatan. 
spree, n. Witkoiciyapi ; skatapi. 
sprig, n. Ganinkpa ; oanteca ; ko- 

sprlght, n. Wanagi. 
sprightUness, n. Woohanko. 


sprightly, a. Ohanko ; waeinksa- 
pa ; mdiheca. 

spring, vi. 1. Ipsica ; kahoiyeiciya : 
spring on the hoi'se. 2. Na&ko- 
pa; naskom iyaye: the board 
sprang. 3. Hinanpa; wankan 
u: the grass springs from the 
ground. — Spring at, iyapsica. 
— Spring forth, psin hiyu. — 
Spring on (or upon), iyahpaya. 
vt. Ipsinkiya; napsinya; iya- 
yeya. — Spring a leak, naondo- 
ka. — Spring the wheel, canhde- 
ska naonminyan. — Spring a 
trap, mazantakigrapi naofrpa. 
n. 1. We'tu ; wato u'ya : next 
spring. 2. Minihdoka ; ecamni : 
go to the spring fox water. 3. 
Woipsica ; hiyuiciyapi : no 
spring in him. 4. Ma'zainahu- 
huza : the springs of a wagon. 
5. Owahinapa; ka'ga : the 
springs of joy. 

spring-balance, n. Tkeutapi otke- 

spring-board, n. Ganmdaska oi- 

springer, n. Ipsiees'a; psi'psin 

Springfield, S. D., n. prop. Ti'pi- 

springiness, n. 1. Oipsica. 2. Wi- 
wina ; cocona. 

springing, n. Oipsica ; oicage. 

sprlnglet, n. Miniuyena; wakpa- 

springtime, n. We'tu anpetu. 

spring-wheat, n. Aguyapi we'tu 

springy, a. Swinswinzedan : a 
springy board. 2. Wiwina ; 
spa'ya : springy ground. 

sprinkle, vt. Amnimni ; akastan- 
stan ; mniakastan : sprinkle the 
clothes, vi. 1. Hin/han ; iwa* 
stedai) magazu. 2. Sbusbu. 
n. Magazu ; minihinhe. 

sprinkler, n. On amnimnipi. 

sprinkling 222 

sprinkling, n. Akastanpi; cikci- 

stinna; wokitanyan. 
sprout, vi. Camni uye : the seeds 

are sprouted, n. Camni. 
spruce, n. Wazican (ocaie). a. 

Ayuco : a spruce young lad. 
sprucely, adv. Ayucoya. 
sprung, imp. of spring. 
spry, a. Onanko ; huhawaste. 
spun, imp. of spin. 
spunk, n. Cankagiea; wocanta- 

spunky, a. Canze ; canniyan. 
spur, n. 1. Mazinazipe : he wore 

golden spur$\ 2. Woiyopastake. 

3. Sake; an'paohotonna mdoka 

sake; ta'ku pe'sto. 4. Ipa : t)m 

spur of a mountain, vt. Pazi- 

pa ; i'yopastake. 
spurious, a. Wicakesni ; etanhan- 

sni ; ta'wadni. 
spuriously, adv. Wicakesniyan.- 
spurlousness, n. Wowicakesni. 
spurn, vt. Nahaiyeya; aktaAni. 

vi. Waaktasni. 
spurt, vt. Bosdi : spurt water, vi. 

Ni'na iyaya : the horse spurted. 

n. Obosdi ; hiyuiciyapi. 
sputter, vi. 1. Nagaga ; kpa'kpa. 

2. I'mnigaga ia. 
spy, n. Nafrman tonweyasipi. vt. 

1. Iwanyaka ; nanmanna iwan- 
yaka : spy out the enemy. 2. 
Wai)yaka : I spied him in a 
tree. vi. Iwaijyag un. 

spy-glass, n. Maziwanyake. 
squabble, vi. Akinica ; kiciza. n. 

Woakinioa ; wokicize. 
squabbler, n. Waakinices'a. 
squad, n. Akicita onge ; wicobe. 
squadron, n. 1, Akicita sunga- 

kanunpi optaye. 2. Ozuyewata 

squalid, a. Piyapisni ; sa'pa. 
squall, vi. Ho'tanka ce'ya. n. 1. 

Ce'yapi ho : the baby's squall. 

2. Ibobdu : a snow squall. 
squaller, n. Ho'tanka ce'yes'a. 


squally, a. Ibobdus'a. 

squalor, n. Woeape ; wicaonsika. 

squander, vt. Makoskan yutaku- 

ni&ni ; yusota ; yutakunisni. 
squanderer, n. Wayutakunisni. 
square, n. 1. To'paicagopi ; to'pa- 

omdotoi) : he drew a square. 2. 

Mazwiynte : a steel square. 3. 

Ho'coka to'pa omdoton : the 

village square. 4. Icihduotapi: 

nine is the square of three. 5. 

Akicita omdoton na'zinpi. vt. 

1. To pa omdotoi) k&'ga ; kao- 

mdoton. 2. Piyaka'ga. 3. I'ci- 

yuota. 4. Oicazo yustan ; oi- 

cazo wi'taya e'hnaka. vi. Kici 

akidecece ; kipi ; owotanna un ; 

kipi. a. 1. To'pa omdotoi) ; 

anokatanhai) iakidecece : a 

square timber. 2. Owotanna; 

itancan. : a right angle. 3. 

Omdotoi) : square shoulders. 4. 

Iyecetu; owotaijna: a square 

trader. 5. I'tkonsya yustanpi ; 

i'tkonzedan : his accounts were 

square. 6. Tan'ka ; okipi : a 

square meal. 
squarely, adv. Owotanna. 
squareness, n. Woowotanna. 
squash, n. 1. Wamnu; Y. wa- 

kmu ; T. wagmu. 2. Ta'ku ka- 

suzapi. vt. Kasusuza; owihan- 

squashtbug, n. Wamduskazizi. 
squasher, n. Wakasusuza. 
squat, vi. Pustagwanka ; pustagi- 

yotanka. a. jPustaka; pte'ce- 

squatter, n. 1. Tu'we pnstag yan- 

ka. 2. Makoce nahanb ikiciyu- 

tapisni akan i'yotanka. 
squaw, n. Ikcewicastawinyan. 
squeak, vi. Kin'za; pin'za ; oyaka. 

n. Wokinza ; kin/zapi. 
squeaker, n. Einskinza ; oya- 

squeaky, a. Kinskinza. 
squeal, vi. Hoton ; kins'hoton.. 

squeamish 223 

squeamish, a. Tukte cin taniij&ni ; 

squeamishly, adv. Iyokipisniyaij. 

squeeze, vt. fit^ss, yu'za : paski- 
ca ; po'skin yuza. vi. Paskini- 
yaya ; otiijsiyaya. n. Paskica- 
pi ; poekin jni'zapi. 

squeezer, n. Wapaskioa. 

squeezing, n. Wapaskioapi. 

squelch, vt. Pa{a : kasni. 

squib, n. 1. Oahdi bopopapi. 2. 
Iapi pe'stona. vi. Cafidi na- 
pomya ; pe'stoya ia. 

squint, vi. Istok&ujkiya. a. Ista- 
k&ii) ; ksii). 

squinter, n. Istaksujkiyes'a. 

squint-eyed, a. Istaksii). 

squire, n. £ame as Esquire. 

squirm, vi. Ihduksaijkgai). 

squirrel, n. Tasnaheea ; zica ; he- 
tkadai) ; psiqca. ' 

squirt, vt. Bosdi ; minibosdi. n. 
Ibosdi; obosdi. 

squirt-gun, n. Wi'bosdi. 

stab, vt. Capa : stab tJte hog. vi. 

stabber, n. Wacapa. 

stability, n. 1. Wosuta; hohopi- 
casni : t)\e stability of our gov- 
ernment. 2. Wowaciijtaijka. 

stable, n. Sunktankatipi ; wanu- 
yai)pi ti'pi : no stable for my 
horse, vt. Timahen na'ziijkiya. 
a. 1. Suta : a stable foundation. 
2. Caijtetiijza ; waciqtaqka ; ta- 

staUeroom, n. Suijktanka owai)- 

stack, n. 1. Pezipaha; paha. 2. 
Ocetitaijka. Smokestack, wa'- 
tapeta oceti.— Stack of arms, 
ma'zakan akizupi. vt. Paha- 
kaga : stack hay. 

staff, n. 1. Gaijsagye ; car) : lean- 
ing on his staff. 2. Sagye ; wo- 
waciijye : the staff of life. 3. 
(Mus.) Ho ikicagopi. 4. Cai)- 
-wakan : the flag-staff. 5. Oo- 


kiye : he was one of the generaVs 

stag, n. 1. Tamdoka : I shot a fine 
stag. 2. Tataqka taij'ka susu 

stag-party, n. Wica cee kicicopi. 

stage, n. 1. Wohdakapi oanazii). 
2. Woskate waecoi)coi)pi. 3. 
Oyaijke ; oanazii) ; oun : «to#e 
o/ disease. 4. Wowapi toksu : 
tofto driven the stage. 

stage-coach, n. Wowapitoksu awa- 

stage-driver, n. Wowapitoksu ka- 

stage-play, n. Waeeonpi wo&kate. 

stage-player, n. Wapazo wicasta. 

stager, n. 1. Tu'we te'han -wapa- 
zo. 2. Sunktanka te'han wowa- 

stagger, vi. Kacegcegmani ; aptan- 
ptan ; waciijibos'aka : he stag- 
gered under the weight, vt. Ka- 
cegya ; kahuhuza. 

staggeringly, adv. Kacegya. 

stagnant, a. Skanskansni ; minima ; 
si'ca : stagnant water. 

stagnate, vi. Si'ca a'yaj yuhui)- 

staid, imp. of stay. 

staid, a. Ohai)tanka ; ske'hesni. 

staidness, n. Ofraijtankapi. 

stain, vt. Kantai) ; toya; yusapa : 
stain clotlies. n. Wokafrtan ; 
wosape ; samyapi ; dunyapi. 

stainless, a. Sa'pesni ; wa'kasote- 

stairs, n. pi. Caniyadipi. Down- 
stairs, ti'pi ku'ya. — Upstairs, 

staircase, n. Cajjiyadipioka&ke. 

stairway, n. Caijiyadipicaijkuye. 

stake, n. 1. Can'ipasdate ; can'pa- 
sdatapi : tied to a stake. 2. Wa- 
yekiyapi : held the stake. — A t 
stake, iyowas ui). — Fence-stake, 
coq'kaskeipasdate. vt. Pasda- 
ta ; cai) kipasdata : stake the 




beans. 2. (With out) Wasag- 
hde ; wa'petogton : stake out the 
road. 3. Yekiya ; iyakaska : he 
staked ten dollars. 

stake-holder, n. Wayekiyapi yuha. 

stalactite* n. In'yancahoii). 

stale, a. Ehaqna ; honwinmna. 

stalk, n. Hu ; cai)hu. vi. Ma'ni. 

stall, n. 1. Sun'kawak&n onazii). 
A double stall, akicaska onazii). 

2. Wopetoi) onazii) ; cankuka- 
hda ma'zaehdepi. A butcher's 
stall, tado wi'yopeyapi onazii). 
vt. 1. I'yaninya : he stalled his 
horse. 2. dungonazh) en hde. 
vi. I'yanica ; okihisni : his oxen 

stall-fed, n. Wamnaheza icem- 

stallion, n. Sungmdoka. 
stalwart, a. Tancantanka ; ohi- 

stamina, n. Wowas'ake. 
stammer, vi. Iekaskiska; hinhi- 

cahan ia. 
stamp, vt. 1. Naskica ; nahai) ; 

nahtaka : stamp the ground. 2. 

Natata : stamp the dirt off. 

3. Apuspa. Stamp the date on, 
wiyawapi apuspa. 4. Wicite- 
askamya : stamp your letter. 
5. Ma'zaska ka'ga. 6. A'sk&m- 
ya ; ikoyagya : stamp the truth 
on your heart, n. 1. Wonanta- 
ke : a stamp of the foot. 2. Wi- 
citeaskape; i'yaskape. Postage- 
stamp, wowapikieicupi iyaska- 
pe. 3. Wi'puspe ; ma'zaipuspe : 
the stamp is broken. 4. Okage ; 
oye : he has the stamp of a 
drunkard on him. 5. Wi'bopa ; 

stampede, vt. Napeya ; hamya : 
the wolf stampeded the horses. 
n. Wonazice ; wonapa. 

stamper, n. Wi'bopan ; wi'puspe. 

stamping-machine, n. On wi'pu- 
spapi ; on wi'bopanpi. 

stamping-mill, n. On in'yan bo- 

stanch, vt. Anapta ; pnsya: stanch 
the flow of blood, a. Suta; 
tinze ; wicaka ; waeinyepi- 

stanchion, n. Ipatan. 

staachness, n. Wosuta ; wacinye- 

stand, vi. 1. Na'ziij : stand stiU. 
2. Han ; wanka : some trees 
stood in the field. 3. Ecenhan ; 
sntaya nan. Come and stand, 
hinazin. — Go and stand, kina- 
zin. — Stand against, patan na'- 
ziij ; kipazin. — Stand by, kiei 
na'zin ; o'kiya. — Stand for, e'e- 
kiya na'zin : nakicizin. — Stand 
his ground, he'cehnana na'zin ; 
napesni. — Stand in hand, iye- 
cetuka. — Stand it, iyowinyan; 
wacintanka. — Stand off, i'tehan 
i'nazii) ; wicadasni. — stand one 
off, patan na'zin ; ham'ya. — 
tstand on, akan na'zin ; anazin. 
— Stand out, pazoya ui) ; oki- 
tanin ; wakitan. — Stand to, na- 
pesni ; ecen econ. — Stand up, 
bosdan na'zii) ; na'zinhan na'- 
zii). — Stand up for, nakicizin ; 
ieiya. vt. 1. Na'zinMya ; e'hde: 
stand the umbrella in the corner. 
2. Ki'cinazin ; kici ecoi) ; ito- 
keeasni ; en uij; iyowinyan : 
stood the enemy's fire. — Stand 
it, iyowinyan. — Stand one's 
ground, napesni. — Stand trial, 
aiapikta iyowinyan. w. 1. Ona- 
zii) ; oeyohpa. 2. Ta'ku ahna 
na'ziijpi; wowapi aehnakapi; 
ahna wowapi ka'gapidai). — 
Come to a stand, waanin hina- 

standard, n. 1. Wa'paha ; canwa- 
paha ; wi'yokihedai) ; minihuha 
opasdate. The standard-bearer, 
wa'paha yn / za. 2. Oiyate yu- 
stanpi ; wikiyutapi otokahe. 3. 

standing 225 

Woope hde ; pi. a. Wahehantu ; 
otai)ii) ; a'taya ui)'pi. 

standing, j?a. Na'zinhannazh); eca- 
yuhapi ; bosdan han. — A stand- 
ing army , akicita eca yuhapi. 
— Standing corn, wamnaheza 
yuksesnihan. — standing water, 
mini kaduzesni. n. 1. Na'zin- 
pi ; wonazii) : standing wearies 
me. 2. Wacinkiyuzapi ; yawa- 
pi : a man of high standing. 

Standing Rock, n. prop. Iij'yan 
bosdata ; T. In'yan woslata. 

standing-point, n. Onazin; woi- 

stank, imp. of stink. 

stanza, n. Odowai) oehde. 

staple, a. Itancai) ; iyotan ; o'hin- 
ni yuhapi ; ni'na icahyapi. n. 
1. Wokage itancan ; iyotan ozu- 
pi. 2. Ta'ku etanhan ka'gapi. 
3. Maziyokatai) sunzoyake : 
staples for wire fence. 

star, ». 1. Wicanhpi. The morn- 
ing star, an/pao wicanhpi. 2. 
Wicanhpikagapi : mark it with 
a star. 3. Iyotan wayupika : 
the star singer, vt. Wicanhpi 
koyagya ; wicanhpikaga. 

starboard, n. Wa'ta etapatanhai). 

starch, n. Minihuha ipatii). vt. 

starched, pa. Path). 

stare, vt. Opahta kuwa. vi. Isto- 
wanzidai) e'tonwai). 

star-fish, n. Wicanhpi hogan. 

star-gazer, n. Wicanhpi wanyaka; 
makoskan e'tonwai). 

stark, a, Ecaoa ; a'taya. 

starless, a. Wicanhpi wanica. 

starlight, n. Wicanhpi i'zanzan. 

starllke, a. Wicanhpi iyececa. 

starred, a. Wicahpi koyake. 

starry, a. Wicanhpi o'ta ; wican- 

star-spangled, a. Wicanhpi zu'pi : 
star-spangled tanner. 

start, vi. Iyaya; wanna iyaye; 


napa ; nabaka ; iyopte ; ya. 

Start after, hakam iyaye ; tapa. 

Start to, ekta ya. — Start up, 

bosdan iyeiciya ; nasdog iyaya. 

vt. Iyayeya; yuhica; tokaka'- 

ge ; iyeya ; hamya. n. Woiyo- 

pte ; wonasdoka ; hamyapi ; 

woipsica; otokahe. Get the 

start, tokaheya iyaye. 
starting-point, n. Etanhan ya'pi. 
startle, vt. Yusinyeya ; napeca. 
startling, a. Woyusinyai). 
starvation, n. Wicaakihan ; wo- 

yute wanica. 
starve, vi. Akihan ; icakiza. Starve 

to death, akihan %&,. vt. Aki- 

hanya ; kakisya ; woknsni. 
starveling, n. AMhantena. 
state, n. 1. Makobaspe : the State 

of Nebraska. 2. Oun ; to'ketu 

kin : the state of his health. 3. 

Wowitai) wicohan. 4. Oyate; 

oyate omniciye : the laws of the 

State ; State policy, vt. Oyaka : 

state the number. 
stated, pa. Oyakapi; ka'pi; eca- 

yuhapi : a stated amount. — 

Stated meetings, omniciye eca 

statedly, adv. Iyehaijyai). 
state-house, n. Makobaspe oitaq- 

can ti'pi. 
stateliness, n. Wowicatanka. 
stately, a. Hin/skotanka ; tan'ka- 

hca ; wowinihan. 
statement, n. Woyake ; oyakapi. 
statesprison, n. Makobaspe; wo- 

stateroom, n. 1. Ti'piitancai). 2. 

Istinma ti'pidan. 
statesman, w. Ksapotancai); oyate- 

wiwicakiciyukcan . 
statesmanlike, a. Itancaijiyececa.. 
statesmanship, n. Woitaijcanoui).. 
station, n. Oinazin ; oyanka ; ona- 

zii). Railroad station, hemani 

onazin. vt. Na'zinkiya; yaq- 



station-house, ». Oinazin ti'pi. 
stationary, a. Owanzi han. 
stationer, n. Wowapiska wi'yo- 

stationery, n. Wowapikaga icu- 

statistical, a. Owicawapi. 
statistics, n. Owicawapi ; owapi. 
statuary, ft. Wicastakagapi. 
statue, n. Wicastakagapi. 
stature, w. Ohanske. 
statute, ». Woope ; oyatetoope. 
statute-book, ». Woope wowapi. 
stave, n. Kokapahmihma can. vt. 

Kaluga; pandoka. Stave off, 

paneyata iyeya ; kihnaka. 
Stay, vi. Yarjka ; owanziyanka ; 

akipe. Stay away, tokai) un. 

vt. 1. Kagiya : atay the proceed- 

ings. 2. Patanyuza ; yu'za. n. 

1. Ipatai) ; wi'yuze : the stay 

broke. 2. En ounye : he made 

a long stay. 
stead, ». Oyanke : in his stead. 
steadfast, a. Tawacin suta ; yu- 

steadfastly, adv. Wacintankaya ; 

steadfastness, ». Wowacintanka. 
steadily, adv. Iwastedan ; he'cetu- 

steadiness, w. Pa'tawanzina ; yu- 

steady, a. He'cetuwanzica ; hoho- 

ani; onai)tii)za. vt. Owanzi 

steak, n. Tadoceguguyapi. 
steal, vt. Manoi) ; nanman icu : 

steal apples, vi. 1. Wamanon : 

thou shalt not steal. 2. Nahman 

iyaye : he stole away. 
stealing, n. Wamanonpi. 
stealth, n. Wonanbe. 
stealthily, adv. Nahmana. 
stealthy, a. Wamanonse ; nanman- 

steam, ft. Mini po ; opo ; po. vi. 

,Po;ipiga. vt. .Poya;apoya; 

226 stent 

akemya; ipinya. Steam one's 

self, ini. 
steamboat, ». Pe'tawata ; Y.&T. 

steam-boiler, n. Minioipinya. 
steam-engine, n. Pe'tawata ma'- 

steamer, n. Pe'tawata ; wi'tawa- 

steamplpe, n. Minipo ma'zaobdo- 

steam-plow, n. Minipo maniyn- 

steamship, n. Miniwancawata- 

steamvessel, n. Minipowata. 
steam-whistle, n. Minipozozo. 
steamy, a. Minipoota. 
steed, n. dunktanka. 
steel, n. 1. Ma'zasuta: a knife 

made of good steel. 2. Ta'ku 

ma'za on ka'gapi; mi'na. 3. 

Maziyohdi ; iyohdi. Fire -steel, 

canka. vt. Ma'zasuta kaga; 

steel-trap, n. Ma'zantakiyapi ; ma- 

steep, a. Maya ; i'tanwanhde ; 

a pamahde ; otenika. n. Maya; 

heunnaptan. vt. fipanyan ; 

mini ohna hde. 
steeple, n. Ipasotka ; in'kpa. 
steepness, n. Maya ; wobosdata. 
ateer, n. Tatankadan ; tatanka- 

susuwanica. vt. Iyupseyuza ; 

yuhomni. vi. Hiyu. 
steering-wheel, n. Wa'taiyuhomni. 
steersman, n. Wasinteyuza. 
stem, n. Huean ; hu ; sun'ta ; pa. 

Pipe-stem : canduhupasunta. 

vt. Itkom ya. 
stench, ft. ftunwinmna ; aicamna. 
stencil, ft. Oowa kaosmagkagapi. 
stenographer, n. Wowapi onanko 

stenography, ft. Wowapi ohanko- 

stent, ft. Tohanyan yudtan kte. 




stentorian, n. Ho'tanka ; hin/sko- 

step, vi. Caehde ; ma'ni. Step 
around, o'ksan ma'ni. — Step 
aside, icunom na'zii). — Step 
back, he'kta na'zin. — Step forth, 
cokam inazii). — Step in, en ina- 
zin. — Step over, acaksin. n. 1. 
Caehdepi; cahdepi. 2. Siiya- 
he; cahdepi: the second step, 
3. (Mus.) Hooiyadi. A false 
step, ecinsni caehdepi. — Door- 
step, tiyopa siehde. — Foot-steps 
in the snow, wa kin en sihaoa- 
ehde — Known by his step, ca- 
ehde on iyekiyapi. — Only a step, 
cahdepi wanzina. — Step by step, 
cahdepi hanhi. 

step-brother, n. Cinyeku tawagan. 

step-child, n. Tawaganyan cinca. 

step-father, n. Atkuku tawagan. 

step-mother, n. Hunku tawagan. 

steepe, n. Tin/ta. 

stepping-stone, n. In'yai) siehdepi. 

step-sister, n. Tawinontin tawa- 

step-son, n. Cinhintku tawagai). 

sterile, a. 1. Waicagesni : a ster- 
ile field. 2. Cinca wanica : a 
sterile cow. 3. Iapi co wanica ; 
wowiyukcan ni'ca: a sterile 

sterility, n. Woicagesni. 

sterling, a. 1. Waltehinca ; e'ce- 
dan: a sterling writer. 2. Sa- 
gdasii) tamazaska. 

stem, a. ?eza ; ksizeca ; hinyan- 
zeca : a stern teacher, n. Wa- 

sternly, adv. Esizeya. 

sternmost, a. Ui)zeta ; ehake. 

sternness, n. Ksizecapi. 

sternnm, n. Makuhu. 

stew, vt. Ohai) ; ipihya. vi. Ipiga. 
n. 1. Ohaijpi : a beef stew. 2. 
Mde'zecesni : he was in a stew. 

steward, n. Wa'wanyake ; woyute 

stick, n. 1. Cai) ; canksa : he hit 
me with a stick. 2. Ohna ma'- 
zaahdihpeyapi. vt. 1. Gapa: 
stick a hog. 2. loam e'hde j pa- 
sdata; pahdi: stick it in the 
ground. 3. A'skamya : stick the 
stamp on tJie letter. 4. I'yanin- 
ya. vi. 1. A'skapa; o'tkapa; 
o'ha : the mud sticks. 2. loam 
han ; pahdi : it stuck fast. 3. 
I'yanica ; okihisni : his team 
stuck in the creek. — Stick by, en 
iyaskapa ; tokan ye sni. — Stick 
out, pazoya wanka; tanin. — 
Stick to, stick at, ayustansni 

sticker, n. Wi'yaskape ; woiyaon- 

stickiness, n. Woiyaskape. 

sticklng.plaster, n. Wi'yaskape; 
pezuta a'skamyapi. 

stickle, vi. To'ketutaijinsni. 

stickler, n. Wakitaqka ; waakini- 

sticky, a. Da'pa ; o'tkapa. 

stiff, a. 1. Patin ; suta ; tasaka : 
the clothes were frozen stiff. 2. 
Was'aka : a stiff breeze. 3. Su- 
ta ; da'pa : stiff glue. 4. $e'za ; 
ksizeca ; both) : a stiff woman. 

stiffen, vt. Patinya ; tasagya. vi. 
Patin a'ya ; sa'ka ; da'pa. 

stiffening, n. On patinyanpi. 

stiff-necked, n. Tahusuta ; wana- 

stiffness, n. Wosuta ; wokeza. 

stifle, vt. Yunjyasni; yusni. n. 

stigma, n. Wosapa ; woiyaoi)pa. 

stigmatize, vt. .Guya; iyaonpa; 

stile, n. Conkaske oiyadi. 

stiletto, n. On wacapapi ; wi'cape. 

still, vt. Tuinina; ynasni; yu- 
amdakedai). a. 1. Inina tin : 
a still boy. 2. Inina : be still. 
3. Owaijzi : stand still. 4. 
Amdakedai) : a still evening. 

still-born 228 

adv. 1. Nahannii) : he is still 

here. 2. He'casta : still I shall 

go. 3. Nakui) : still greater. 

n. Miniwakai) okage. 
Still-born, a. Sniyai) ton'pi ; itko- 

stillness, n. Woamdakedan. 
stilt, n. Can'hanska huyapi. 
stilted, a, Ihduwankantuya. 
stimulant, a. Wawiyopagtake. n. 

Woiyopa&take ; miniwakai). 
stimulate, vt. I'yopastake. 
stimulation, n. Wawiyopastake. 
stimulus, n. Woiyopa&take; wo- 

iyutanye ; miniwakai). 
sting, n. Wi'cape; woyantake. 

vt. Yantaka ; capa ; yasipa : a 

bee stung me. 
stinger, n. Wayazipes'a ; waya- 

stingily, adv. WateMndaya. 
stinginess, n. Onansunkecapi. 
stinging, a. Wayazipe. 
stingless, a. Wi'capenica. 
stingy, a. WateMnda ; onan&ca. 
stink, a. Sicamna; nwin'mna. n. 

stint, vt. Ihukui) ku ; a'okpaniya ; 

iyawahca econkiya. 
stipend, n. Wokazuzu ; isi. 
stipulate, vi. Kici ynstan. 
stipulation, n. I tokam yustanpi. 
stir, vt. Yu&kan&kan ; icahiya ; 

ka'ga. Stir the mush, wozapi 

icahiya. — Stir him up to do it, 

econkta i'yopa&taka. — Stir up 

the mind, tawacin yuhica. vi. 

&kanskan; iyopte. — Stir one's 

self, ihduskanskai). n. Woskan- 

&kan ; owodutaton. 
stirring, pa. dkan&kanui) ; mdi- 

stirrup, n. Siinatan. 
stitch, vt. Pasisa ; kagege. n. 1. 

Ipasisa; icape : long stitches. 

2. Icamyazan : a stitch in my 

stitcher, n. Wakagege. 


stitching, n. Okagege ; wakagege. 

stock, n. 1. Hucai) ; tancai) : a 
stock without leaves. 2. Hutkan: 
of the stock of Abraham. 3. 
Okpahi ; ahdihe : a large stock 
of goods. 4. Ta'wayekiyapiwo- 
wapi : railroad stock. 5. Woyu- 
ha joptaye : a big stock of cattle. 
6. Huha okaske : put him in the 
stocks. — Live-stock, wanuyanpi. 
vt. Ohnaka ; mnayan ; hde. a. 
Kihnakapi ; ecayiihapi. 

stockade, n. Canpasdapiconkaske. 

stocking, n. Iyahdehunska. n. Y. 

stocky, a. Hucantanka. 

Stole, n. Cante^inza. 

stoical, a. Cantetinza. 

stoicism, n. Cantetinzapi. 

stole, imp. of steal. 

stolen, pp. of STEAL. 

stolid, a. Waawacinsni ; wacinta- 

stolidity, n. Wowacintongni ; wo- 

stomach, n. Tezi ; nige. 

stone, n. 1. In'yan : a round stone. 
2. Su : a plum stone, a. In'yai) : 
a stone ax. vt. 1. In'yai] on 
kiijir) : stone the birds. 2. In'- 
yai) zu : stone a well. 

stone-coal, n. In'yancandi. 

stone-cutter, n. In'yankakan. 

stone-cutting, n. fej'yaqkakaijpi. 

stone-hammer, n. In'yanwiyape. 

stone-hearted, a. Caqteinyan ; war 

stone-mason, n. In'yankaga. 

stone's-cast, a. In'yanokan'o. 

stone's-throw, n. Iij'yanokah'o. 

stonewall, n. In'yancoi)ka&ke;in'- 

stoneware, n. Makawaksica suta. 

stone-work, n. In'yaqkagapi. 

stony, n. Iij'yan o'ta ; in'yai] se'- 
ca ; in'yan iyeoeoa. 

stood, imp. of stand. 

stool, n. Can'akanyankapimibe- 




dai) ; acesdipi. Stool of a 
window y o'zanzanhdepi gicu. 
n. Akta uya. 

stoop, vi. Patuza ; patus inazin ; 
ihdnhnkuya ; ta'kndniioiya. n. 
Wopatuza : tiyopaa wakey api. 

stop, vi. 1. Na'ziijkiya: stop the 
man. 2. Anapta; kagiya: stop 
the flow of water. 3. Ayustan- 
kiya : he stopped the workmen, 
vi. 1. Aynstai) ; inazii) : *he 
workmen stopped; the clock 
stopped. 2. Waij'ka ; yanka : 
the traveller stopped here. n. 1. 
Inaziijpi ; wonazii) : the train 
made a long stop. 2. Woanapte ; 
wokagi : put a stop to it. 3. Oe- 
hnakedai) : mark tlie stops. 

stoppage, n. Waanaptapi. 

stopper, n. Iostai) ; woanapte. 

stopping, n. Owanziun. 

stopple, n. Iostai). 

storage, n. Wakihnakapi. 

store, n. 1. Mazopiye: buy it at 
the store. 2. Owomnaye ; wa- 
kihnakapi : stores of food. 3. 
Ma'za ; woynha : military stores. 
— In store, wi'yeya un. — Set 
store by, tehinda. — Store-room, 
wakihnaka ti'pi. vt. 1. Kihna- 
ka : he stored his goods. 2. En 
ohnaka ; ozudanya : store the 
mind with knowledge. 

store-house, n. Wakihnaka ti'pi. 

store-keeper, n. Mazopiyeyuha. 

store-pay, n. Ma'za on kazuzupi. 

store-room, n. Ohna wakihnakapi. 

storied, pa. Wi'ciwaqkam ka'ga- 
pi. A four-storied house. 

stork, n. Hotfa (ocaze). 

storm, n. 1. Ibomdu ; icamna : a 
cold storm. 2. Wonatai) : taken 
by storm, vt. Natai) ; en ihe- 
iciya. vi. Natantan ; wohitiya 
skai) ; Mhan&ica ; ibobdu ; ica- 

storminess, n. Woibobdu. 

stormy, a. 1. Kihaijsica : a stormy 

day. 2. Kihan&ices'a : a stormy 
country. 3. Wohitika; wohi- 
tiya skanpi : a stormy meeting. 

story, n. 1. Woyake ; hitunkakai)- 
pi : he wrote a story. 2. Woi- 
tonsni ; wowicakesni : the boy 
told a story. 3. Ti'pi owanka : 
in the upper story. 

story-book, n. Woyakapi wowapi ; 
kakanpi wowapi. 

story-teller, n. Wakakans'a. 

stout, a. Tan/ka ; was'aka. 

stoutly, adv. Was'agya ; ni'na. 

stove, n. Ma'zaoceti. Cooking- 
stove, owaspaqye. 

stove, imp. of stave. 

stow, vt. Ohnaka; e'hnaka; ki- 

straddle, vt. Akamdaza. vi. Ka- 
mdas inazin. 

straggle, vi. Nu'ni ; omdecahan ; 
icunom ya. 

straggler, n. Wi'eisni iyaye. 

straight, a. Owotanna. adv. Wan '- 
cahna; katinyan. 

straighten, vt. 1. Ynowotanna; 
owotanna ka'ga. 2. Yukakiza ; 

straightened, pa. Wakakizyapi; 
wahpanioa ; yuowotannapi. 

straightforward, a. Owotanna ; 
ohai) owotanna ; katinyanskai). 

straigbtly, adv. Katinyan. ; wai)- 

strain, vt. 1. Yutinza; ti^sya 
eeoij : strain the rope. 2. TV- 
ken okihi ecoq ; yutins akai) : 
strain every nerve. 3. Yuguka ; 
naguka; pas'aka: strain his 
ankle. 4. Yus'agya : strain 
every nerve. 5. Puskepa : strain 
milk. vi. Aiciciya; s'agiciya. 
n. 1. Wos'aka; s'agioiyapi; ai- 
cioiyapi ; wotinze : the strain 
was very great. 2. Odowai) iyo- 
kise ; o'spe ; ho : some delight- 
ful strains. 

strainer, n. 1. Ipnskepa : a milk 




strainer, 2. Woyutinze ; waka- 

strait, a. Otii)za; ci'stinna: a 

strait gate. n. 1. O'kiyute ; 

mnioMyute : straits of Gibral- 
tar. 2. Wotehi : in great straits. 
straitened, pa. Otehika. 
straitly, adv. Yatinsya; a'wica- 

straltness, n. Wofinze ; wotehi. 
strand, n. 1. O'huta; huta : on 

the ocean's strand. 2. Kisoxjpi. 

vi. A'zi ; anica. 
strange, a. To'keca ; to'ketutan- 

strangely, adv. Togye; otogye; 

strangeness, n. To'keca ; okafrni- 

stranger, n. Wicastatokeca ; wa- 

strangle, vt. Yuniyasni ; yuta. vi. 

Katka : the babe strangled. 
strangulation, n. Niyadni. 
strap, n. 1. Wi'kanmdaska ; wi'- 

kai) ; tehmiso : a trunk strap. 

2. Iyohdi : a razor strap. 3. 

Mdaskana : strap-iron. vt. 1. 

Yuskita; aokatai) : strap the 

trunk. 2. Iyohdiya : strap the 

strapper, n. Hin'skotanka. 
strapping, a. Tan'ka; otawatesi- 

ca. n. Wi'pahte. 
strata, n. pi. of stratum. 
stratagem, n. Ozuye wohnaye. 
strategy, n. Wohnaye. 
stratify, vt. Mdaskaicaga. 
stratum, n. Womdaska. 
straw, n. Aguyapihu ; hu. A man 

of straw, wicasta ta'kusni. — 

One straw, sukaza wanzidai). 
strawberry, n. Wazusteca. 
straw-color, n. Zi. 
straw-cutter, n. Aguyapi-icakpan. 
stray, vi. Nu'ni ; yuksanksai) ya. 

a. Nu'ni ; to'keca. 
streak, n. Icagopi; kagopise. A 

streak of lightning, wakanhdi 
cankuye. vt. Yuhdega. 
streaked, pa. Hdehdeze ; hdehde- 

stream, n. 1. Wakpa. 2. Minika- 
duza : the Gulf Stream. 3. Wo- 
kaduza ; kadushiyu : a stream 
of blood. 4. Iyozanzai) : a stream 
of light. 5. O'hinni hiyaye : the 
stream of trade, vi. 1. Kadu- 
za ; kadus hiyu ; wakaduze : the 
water streams. 2. Kahboke : 
streaming in the wind. vt. Ka- 
dusya ; kahbogya ; hdehhdehya 

streamer, n. Minihuha kahboka ; 

streamlet, n. Wakpadan. 

street, n. Otonwe canku. 

strength, n. 1. Wowas'ake ; wosu- 
ta: strengthen body. 

strengthen, vt. Was'agya. vi. Wa- 

strenuous, a. Wakitan ; wohitika. 

strenuously, adv. Kitanyan ; wa- 

stress, n. Wopatai) ; woiyopasta- 
ka. Lay stress on, wotanka ya- 
wa. — Stress of voice, ho tins- 

stretch, vt. 1. Yutitai) ; yutinza : 
stretch a rope. 2. Yuzica ; yu- 
zigzioa : stretch a skin. 3. Na- 
soijsoi) : stretch his legs. 4. 
Akaga: stretch the truth, vi. 
1. Samya; samyeya; yeya; 
zigzica : the lake stretches ; the 
cloth stretches. 2. Aiciciya ; 
ihduzica ; du'zahai). n. Woyu- 
titan ; woyuzica ; womdaye ; 
woecoi) ; aiciciyapi. 

stretched, a. Yutitaijpi ; yuzicapi. 
With stretched arms, akaga- 

stretcher, n. 1. Canwicihupa ; can'- 
akiyuhapi : they carried him on 
a stretclier. 2. Caniciyakaska ; 




strew, vt. Kadaenpeya ; kadada. 

strewing, n. Wakadadapi. 

stricken, pa. l.Apapi. The stricken 
dog, dun/ka apapi. 2. Caijtiya- 
pa ; cantiyanpaya : stricken with 
love. 3. Kai) ; ehanna. 

strict, a. 1. Ecetuhea : strict ob- 
servance. 2. Tfrjza. 3. Idta- 
mdeza ; tenika : a strict teacher. 

strictly, adv. Ecetunca. 

strictness, n. Woecetu. 

stricture, n. 1. I en iyeyapi ; wo- 
iyaonpa. 2. (Med.) Natipapi. 

stride, n. Cahdepi ; ca. vi. Cae- 

strife, n. Woakinica; wokicize; 

strike, vt. 1. Apa. He struck me, 
amapa. 2. Iyapa : the boat 
struck a rock. 3. On iyapa : 
strike the blood on the wall. 4. 
Iyayeya : the tree strikes its 
roots deep. 5. Kun iyeya : struck 
his tent. 6. Awacinya ; iyahpe- 
ya : strike with wonder. — Struck 
off his head, pa kaspa iyeya. — 
StHke of the papers, wowapi 
ahdihpeya. — Strike out, pazu- 
zu; kasni. — Struck up, ecoi) 
iyeya ; econ ; a'ya. vi. 1. Wa- 
apa ; apa : he kept striking. 2. 
Natan ; kuwa ; iyaya. 3. Iyaya ; 
a'zi : the boat struck. 4. Hiya- 
ya; iyaya: if struck through. 

5. Ayudtaqpi ; wokazuzu iwan- 
kamda'pi : tlie carpen ters struck, 

6. Ihnuhan eeeca ; hiyaya. He 
struck a run, in'yang iyaya. — 
Strike for, eciyotai) ya. — Strike 
in, mahen iyaya. — Strike out, 
iyaya; akan hiyu. n. 1. Wo- 
ape; oape; apapi. 2. Woena- 
kiye ; wowasi enakiye. 

striker, n. Woape ; wi / yape. 
striking, pa. Wa'petokeca ; oki- 

strikingly, adv. Okitaninyan. 
string, n. 1. Ikai) ; wikan ; hahon- 

ta ; ipante : tie the string. 2. 
Oyaza ; obohci ; son 'pi : a string 
of beads. 3. Son 'pi : a string of 
corn. 4. Kan : the string of the 
tongue. 5. 1'ciyaza yeye : what 
a string of people. — A shoe- 
string, hankpan. vt. Yazaika- 
za : to string beads. 2. Son ; 
kison : string corn. 3. Ikanton : 
string the bow. 4. Yuftijza : 
string the nerves. 5. Kan yu- 
sdoka : string the beans. 

string-band, n. Can'paMnzapi 

string-beans, n. Omniea ynksao- 

stringed, a. Ikanton ; kazapi. 

stringency, n. Otehika. 

stringent, a. Sutaya wi'yuza ; te- 

stringently, adv. Sutaya ; ecetuya. * 

stringer, n. 1. Ikanwicaton. 2. 

stringless, a. Ikanwanica. 

stringy, a. 1. Ikaniyececa ; kai) 
se'kse ; ikan ecee. 2. Da'pa ; 
tiktica ; suta. 

strip, vi. 1. Yusdoka: strip him 
of clothes. 2. Bagapa; yu'za : 
strip the skin off. 3. Kanu : to 
strip bark. 4. Ki ; kanica : 
stripped of his possessions. 5. 
Ehakedan yusdi : strip the cow. 
vi. Ihdusdoka. n. Ci'stinna 
han'ska ; sbu'na ; mdazapi. 

stripe, n. 1. Oicago ; oicazo owa- 
pi : a red stripe. 2. Okipatapi ; 
wi'pahdate. 3. Oape ; apapi : 
punished with forty stripes. 4. 
Wa'petokeca ; oowa ; obe : of 
the same stripe, vt. Yuhdeze 

striped, a. Hde'zedai) ; zuhan. 

stripling, n. Koskana ; koskalaka. 

gtrippings, n. E'hake yusdipi. 

strive, vi. 1. Akita ; ni'na kuwa ; 
aiciciya. 2. Akinica; akinin 
kuwa; kici econ. 




•trade, imp. of stride. 
stroke, imp. of strike. 
stroke, n. 1. Oape ; apapi : at one 

stroke. 2. Wohiyahae : the stroke 

of death. 3. Icazo; oioazo; oi- 

ca&o. 4. Oecoi) : a stroke of 

genius, vt. Kastoste : stroke 

Mm on the head. 
stroking, n. Wakastopi. 
stroll, vt. Wi'kcekce omani. 
stroller, n. Omanisa. 
strong, a. 1. Watfaka : a strong 

man. 2. Suta . a strong fort. 
stronghold, n. Con'kaske suta. 
strongly, adv. Was'agya ; ni'na. 
strop, n. Putinhii) ioasaq iyohdi. 

vt. Iyohdiya. 
strove, imp. of strive. 
straw, vt. Eadada. 
struck, imp. of strike. 
structure, n. Okage ; ta'ku ka'ga- 

pi ; ti'pi. 
struggle, vi. Ni'na skan ; eeon ; 

kuwa; nasonsoq. n. Woecoq ; 

kicicuwapi ; woakinica. 
straggler, n. Tu'we ©con ; waecon. 
strumpet, n. Witkowiq. 
struog, imp. of string. 
strut, vi. Watankaicida ma'ni. 
strycholoe, n. Pezutaaica onanko. 
stab, n. Hu'tena. vt. Iboto. 
stabbed, a. Hu'na ; hu'tena. 
stubbioess, n. Hu'tena ; wakando- 

stubble, n. Aguyapi hupaksa. 
stubborn, a. Wanahon&ni; tahu 

suta ; okuwaaica. 
stabboroly, adv. Wananonsniyan ; 

stubbornness, n. Wowananoqsni. 
stubby, a. Hu'na. 
stub-end, n. Hu'te. 
.stucco, n. Wi'puspa suta. 
stuck, imp. of stick. 
stuck-up, a. Wahai)i?ida. 
stud, n. 1. Canomdoton bosdan- 

han. 2. Taspu yusdoka ; ce- 

skikai) o'stanpi. 3. Sungmdo- 

ka; ftun'kawakai) optaye. vt 
Taspu okatan ; zu. 

studded, j>a. 2u'pi; zu'pise. 

staddlog,n. Tihunabosdata. 

student, n. 1. Wayawa; wayawa- 
koska : a student in Santee 
Training School. 2. Woawa- 
cin ; waonspoicieiya : a close 

studhorse, n. dungmdoka. 

studied, pa. 1. Iwanyakapi ; amde- 
zapi : a well studied lesson. 2. 
Wi'yukcaq ; waonspeka : a boy 
well studied in grammar. 

studiedly, adv. E'wacinyan ; cin. 

studio, n. Wokagetipidan. 

studious, a. Waawacin ; awacinpi. 

studiously, adv. Awaciqyan ; mdi- 

studioosness, n. Waawacinpi. 

study, n. 1. Waonspeieiciyapi ; 
waawacinpi: study strengthens 
the mind. 2. Woawacin ; woon- 
spo : what studies are you tak- 
ing, vt. Awacii) ; onspeicieiya; 
aiciciya kuwa. vi. Waonspeic> 
eiya; waawacii). 

stuff, n. Ta'ku ; wi'yopundi ; wa< 
npaya; ta'kusni. vt. Opundi; 
paotinsiyeya : stuff the ballot- 
box, vi. Akaska. 

stuffing, n. Iyopuhdi. 

stultify, vt. Yusffitin ; yuwitkotko. 

stumble, vi. fticahai) ; nahnayan ; 
wahtani; nasna. 2. fiinhica- 
hai) ma'ni. Stumble into, wanu 
iyeya. — Stumble over, iboto ; on 
Mcahai). vt. fiicahanya. n. Wo* 
nicahan ; wonasna. 

stumbier, n. fiicahes'a. 

stumbling-block, u. Wonahnaye. 

stumblingiy, adv. ftinnieaheya. 

stump, n. Caijpaksa ; hu'te ; hu* 
tkaij. Stump-orator, eaqpaksa* 
adiwohdaka. — Take the stump, 
iyaza wahokoqwicakiya. vt. 1 
Kahuteya : a stumped bush. 2 
Okihisniya ; ktedan : your que* 

styx, n. Wakansieatawakpa. 
suasion, n. Iyutanyanpi. 
suavity, n. Wi'ciyokipi; woiyo- 

sub-fpref. Ihukuya; ku'ya. 
subagent,n. I'yokiheitancan. 

stumpage 233 

Hon stumps me. 3. Iwahokon- 
wicakiya omani. 
stumpage, n. Canpaksaiyawa ka- 

stamper, n. Wakagiya ; wohitika. 
stumpy, a. Canpaksa o'ta; hu'- 

stan, vt. Tansagteya; kaitekpa- 

za ; yus'inyeya. 
stung, imp. of sting. 
stank, imp. of stink. 
stunner, n. Wokokipe ; woyutfin- 

yaye ; wowitonpe. 
stunning, pa. Okokipe ; woyus'in- 

yaye ; wowitoijpe. 
stunt, vt Yu&ihtin ; yueika. 
stunted, pa. Sihtin ; ci'kana. 
stupefaction, n. Wokiksuyesni. 
stnpefier, n. Wakiksuyesniya. 
stupefy, vt. K ksuyesniya ; yuwi- 

stupendous, Yowitonpe; ni'na 

stupid, a. Tawaciijtata ; wacin- 

stupidity, n. Wowitkotkoka. 
stupidly, adv. Wacintonsniyan ; 

stupor, n. Wokiksuyesni. 
sturdy, a. Was'aka ; cantetinza. 
sturgeon, n. Canhun ; ho'tanka. 
stutter, vi. Un'connicaia. 
stutteringly, adv. Un'conninya. 
sty, n. 1. Kukusetipi. 2. Istao- 

Stygian, a. Wakansieatawa. 
style, n. Okage ; iapiokage ; wi'- 

eazo. vt. Oazeyata. 
stylish, a. Wi'tantan ; ohanfran. 
stylishly, adv. Wi'tantanyan. 
stylishness, n. Wi'tantanpi ; wo- 


subaltern, n. Sam'wasipi. 
subaqueous, a. Miniihukuya. 
subcommittee, n. Committee oinca. 
subcontract, n. Sameconsipi. 
subdivide, vt. Aktakiyuspa. 
subdivision, n. Aktakiyuspapi. 
subdue, vt. 1. Ohiya ; kte'dan : 
subdue a nation. 2. Kaonspe ; 
yuwaste : subdue a horse. 3. 
subject, a. 1. Ihukuya un ; ta'wa- 
ya ui) : subject to his master. 
2. Akipa ce'e ; ececes'a : sub- 
ject to fits, n. 1. Wowidake : 
the subject must obey his king. 
2. Ta'ku ka'pi; ta'ku cazeya- 
tapi ; ta'ku kuwapi. 3. Tu'we 
ni; woawaein. vt. Yuhukun 
iyeya ; wowidagya. 
subjection, n. 1. Yuhukun iyeya- 
pi : the subjection of the rebels^ 
2. Drakun un'pi ; ahopopa. 
subject-matter, n. Iapi ka'pi. 
subjoin, vt. Ahankeya ka'gapi. 
subjugate, vt. Ohiya; yuhukun 

iyeya; ktedan. 
subjugation, n. Ohiyapi. 
subjunctive, n. Ikoyake. 
sublet, vt. Iyoopta econkiya. 
sublime, a. Wankantuya ; wowi- 

nihan ; tan'ka ; owasteka. 
sublimely, adv. Wowinihanyan. 
sublimity, n. Wowinihan. 
sublunar, a. An'pawiihukuya. 
submarine, a. Miniwancakuya. 
submerge, vt. Spa'yeya; minima- 
hen iyeya ; amnitanya. 
submission, n. Ihukuniyeiciyapi ; 

iyowinyanpi ; ihakamunpi. 
submissive, a. Iyowinyan ; waa- 

submissively, adv. On'siya; waa- 

submissiveness, n. Waanagoptai)- 

submit, vt. 1. Ihukuniyeiciya ; ta- 
wacin ecakicoi) ; iyowinyan •. 
children submit to your teachers. 

subordinate 234 

2. Wowiyukcan ku : submit the 
question to the judge. 

subordinate, a. Ihukuya: a sub- 
ordinate officer, n. Ihukuyaun. 
vt. Ihukuya iyeya: wowidagya. 

subordinately, adv. O'kiheya. 

subordination, n. Oun ku'ya. 

subpena, n. Wa'kiiapiope&ipi. 

subscribe, vt. 1. Caze en owa : 
subscribe the contract 2. Ki- 
cun ; en owa. vi. Caze en e'ici- 
hnaka ; wieada ; he'eetueya ; 
wowapi yutan; wotaninwowapi 

subscriber, n. Icupi ; yuhapi. 

subscription, n. Caze en owapi. 

subsequent, a. Iyohakamtu. 

subsequently, adv. Iyohakam. 

subserve, vt. O'kiya; idakeya. 
vi. Wawidakeya. 

subservient, a. Waokiya. 

subside, vi. Kun'ya; enakiya; sni 

subsidize, vt. Opetoi). 

subsidy, n. Wokazuzu. 

subsist, vi. Ni ; un ; iwas'agun ; 
wota. vt. Niya ; wonwicaya. 

subsistence, n. On/nipi ; woyute. 

subsoil, n. Makikceihukuya. vt. 
Makamahentu yuptanyai). 

substance, n. Ta'kuhca ; ta'ku ; 
woyuha ; co ; ta'ku ka'pi. 

substantial, a. 1. Tai)ton ; ta'ku- 
hca. 2. A'wicakehan ; wowi- 
cake : a substantial house. 4. 
Oicihi ; watonka : a substantial 

substantially, adv. A'wicakeya ; co 

substantiate, vt. Yuwicaka. 

substantive, n. Wocaze. 

substitute, vt. E'ekiya; e'ekiya 
e'hnaka. n. E'ekiyapi. 

substitution, n. E'ekiyapi. 

substratum, n. Ihukuya wanka. 

subterfuge, n. Wohnaye. 

subterraneous, a. Makaihukuya; 


subtile, a. 1. Zizipedan; pe'sto; 

hna'yan wayupika ; ksa'pa. 2. 

Wicahnayes'a ; wayupika; 

subtleness, n. Wonahbe; wo- 
subtlety, n. Wonahbe ; wowayu- 

suo-touic, n. Ho'cikadan. 
subtract, vt. Etanhanicu. 
subtraction, n. Etanhanicupi. 
subtrahend, n. Icupikte. 
sab-treasury, n. Oyatetamazaska 

suburb, n. Otonweahanke. 
subversion, n. Yuzuzupi ; yutoke- 

subversive, a. Wayuzuzu. 
subert, vt. Yutokeca; yuzuzu; 

subverter, n. Wayusice. 
succeed, vt. O'kihan ; ihakam un ; 

o'&tai) un ; to'he ohna un : he 

succeeded his father, vi. Oki- 

hi ; waokihi ; ecen yuStan : he 

succeeded in doing it. 
success, n. Waokihipi; wookihi; 

successful, o. Tan/yan; wa'pi; 

a'taya ; waokihi. 
successfully, adv. Tan'yan. 
succession, n. O'kicihanpi ; i'ciyo- 

kiheya yeya. In succession^ 

successive, a. I'ciyokiheya. 
successively, adv. I'ciyaza ; o'we- 
successor, n. O'kihe; tu'we i'yo- 

kihe econ. 
succinct, a. Katinyan ; pte'cedaij. 
succor, vt. O'kiya ; e'hdaku ; ni- 

yan. n. O'kiyapi; woehdaku. 
succorer, n. Waehdaku; wani- 

Succorless, a. Wanikiya wanioa. 
succotash, n. Waskuya omnica 

succulent, a. Wastunka ; mini o'ta. 




guccumb, vi. Kun'iyaye. 

such, a. He'ca ; he'ceca ; ta'ku ; 
he'e. Such a cold day, ta'ku 
aijpetu osni. — Stick a day as 
this, ai)petu de'cece. — Such a 
man has come, wicasta he'e ce 
hi. — Such a time as we had, ta'- 
ku otawatesica unkakipapi. 

suck, vt. Azii) ; yazoka ; yahotoi) ; 
yutitai). vi. Azin ; yazoka. n. 
Waaziqpi; woyazoka. 

sucker, n. 1. Waazin ; wayazoka. 
2. (Icth.) Pahteca; hosixjya- 
seca. 3. Illinois wicasta. 4. 
Akta uya ; hutkan uya. 

suckle, vt. Aziijkiya. 

suckling, a. Azinna. 

suctioo, n. Woyazoka. 

sudden, a. Ihnuhai)hi ; ohanko ; 

suddenly, adv. Ihnuhanna. 

suddenness, n. Woohanko. 

suds, n. pi. Wi'pazazahanpi. 

sue, vt. Woope ekta kuwa; ku- 

suet, n. Sii) ; paksiijsii). 

suffer, vi. KaMza; icakiza; si- 
htiij; tanyaqsni. Suffer for, 
icakiza. vt. 1. Iyowiijkiya : he 
would not suffer him to do it. 
2. Akipa ; ececa : suffer h 88. 

sufferable, a. Iyowiijyepica. 

sufferance, n. Woiyowinkiye. 

sufferer, n. Wakakisyapi ; iyotaij- 

suffering, n. Wokakize ; wakaki- 
zapi ; icakizapi. 

suffice, vi. Wi'pi ; iyehaqyan, ui). 
vt. Wi'piya. Let it suffice, he- 
nana kte. 

sufficiency, n. Iyenakeca ; woozu- 
dan, ; wookihi. 

sufficient, a. 1. Iyenakeca ; iyohi ; 
henana : sufficient provisions. 
2. O'kihe ; waokihi. 

sufficiently, adv. Iyehanyan. 

suffix, n. Aehnakapi. vt. Ae- 

suffocate, vt. Yuniyasni ; yusni. 

vi. Niyasnita. 
suffocatingly, adv. Oniyasniya. 
suffocation, n. Niyasui^api ; oni- 

yasni un'pi. 
suffrage, n. Cazeiyohpeyapi. 
suffuse, t?t. Spa'yeya. 
sugar, n. Canhanpi : sugar is 
• sweet, vt Sku'yeya. 
sugar-cane, n. Canhaqpi hu . 
sugar-maple, n. Canhasaq. 
sugar-mill, n. Oanhanpiiyuskice. 
sugar-orchard, n. Canhasanozu. 
sugar-plum, n. Canhaqpisasakai)- 

sugar-tree, n. Canhaqpican,. 
sugary, a. Skuskuya. 
suggest, vt. Iwaijyagsi; cazeyata; 

econ waste keciya. 
suggestion, n. Wowiyukcan ; ciij- 

suggestive, a. On wokahnigapi. 
suicidal, a. Iciktekta; ihaqgici- 

suicide, n. Iciktepi ; icikte. 
suit, n. Tawaqzi : a suit of clothes. 
2. Woaie ; wokuwa ; aiapi : a 
Criminal suit. 3. Wiokiyapi. 
4. Opahte : a suit of cards, 
vt. 1. Iyokipiya ; canwasteya : 
i" tried to suit him. 2. I'ciyo- 
kipi ; ki'oiwaste : black suits his 
suitability, n. Woiyokipi; i'ciyo- 

suitable, a. Iyecetu ; i'ciyokipi ; 

suitably, adv. Iyecetuya. 
suite, n. Obe ; tawanzi. 
suitor, n. Kuwa ; okiya. 
sulk, vi. Pamahen ui) ; ihdoniea. 
snlks, n. pi. Ihdonicapi ; wowica- 

dasni ; tawacin&icapi. 
sulky, a. Wacinhiijyanza ; ociqsi- 
ca. n. Cai)pahmihmahunoi)pa. 
sullen, a. Cantesinun, ; ociqsica. 
sullenly, a. Iyokipisniyai). 
sullenness, n. Wotawaciqaica. 


sallied, pa. Yufiapapi ; yusicapi. 
sully, vt. Samya ; asamya. 
sulpher, n. Cahdizi. 
sultan, n. Turkey oyate it an can. 
sultry, a. Ka'ta ; odidita : a sultry 

Sam, n. 1. Yuwitayapi ; oyuwi- 

taya : the sum of five and two is 

seven. 2. Oijge ; omnaye : a ' 

large sum of money. 3. Waya- 

wapi ; oecoi) : a sum in division. 

4. O'inkpa ; ihanke : the sum of 

folly, vt. Yuwitaya; ptenye- 

dai) oyaka. 
sumach, n. Cai)zi. 
summarily, adv. Katiijyan ; ofran- 

koya; ptenyedai). 
summary, a. Pte'cedai) ; ohai)ko. 

n. Ptenyedai) oyakapi. 
summer, n. Mdoketu. Indian 

summery ptanyetu sotuzu. — 

Last summer, mdokehan. — 

Next summer, tokata mdoketu. 

vi. Mdoketu ui). 
summer-fallow, vt. Mdokecokaya 

summit, n. O'inkpa; iyotanwan- 

summon, vt. En usi ; kico. 
summons, n. Kicopi ; kicopi wo- 

sumptuous, a. Ma'zaska o'ta; ni'- 

na waSte ; otanton. 
sumptuously, adv. Otantonyan. 
sun, n. Anpetuwi ; anpawi ; wi. 

vt. Wi en e'hnaka ; amasteya. 
sunbeam, n. Wiiyozanzan. 
sunbllnd, a. Istosniza. 
sunbonnet, n. Win/yanwapostai) 

sunburnt, a. Mastispan ; giyenaun. 
Sundance, n. Wi'wanyagwacipi. 
Sunday, n. Aijpetuwakan. 
Sunday-school, n. Anpetuwakan 

waonspeiciciyapi . 
sunder, vt. Yukinukan ; kiyuksa ; 

yukinukan iyeya. 
sun-dial, n. Wiohanzioiyute. 

236 superhuman 

sun-dog, 7i. Wipeeuza ; wi'aceti. 

suodown, n. Wi'iyaye. 

sundries, n. pi. Ta'kuocaze; ta'- 

sundry, a. O'ta ; ocaze toktokeca. 
sunflsh, n. Hoganmdaskana. 
sunflower, n. Wancazi. 
suog, imp. of sing. 
sunk, imp. of sink. 
sunken, a. Minimahenwanka. 
sunless, a. Wi'iyozaqzansni. 
sunlight, n. Wi'iyoyanpa. 
sunny, a. Wi'iyoyaqpa ; iyoyan- 

pa ; wiyakpa. 
sunrise, n. Wi'hinapa. 
sunset, n. Wi'iyaye ; wi'iyonpaya. 
sunshade, n. Win'yantawapaha 

sunshine, n. Wi'iyoyanpa ; o'ma- 

sunshiny, n. Wi'iyoyanpa. 
sunstroke, n. Wi'awieaspaqpi. 

sunup, n. Wi'hinanpa. 

sunward, adv. Wi'ektakiya. 
sup, vt. Yatkan ; iyoziya yatkan. 

vi. fltayetu wota. w. Oyatke. 
superabound, vi. Ehaes o'ta. 
superabundance, n. I'yakam o'ta. 
superabundent, a. To'koijpicasni 

superanuated, a. Waniyetu kapeya 

ui) ; wicahca ; kai). 
superb, a. Ni'nawaste; wowini- 

superbly, adv. Ni'na tan/yan ; oki- 

supercargo, n. Woyuha awanya- 

supercilious, a. Wahanicida ; ihdu- 

superexcellent, a. Wankantuyawa- 

superficial, a. Akapatanhan. 
superfiue, a. Iyotaqwaste. 
superfluity, n. I'yakam o'ta. 
superfluous, a, I'yakamtu ; ituya 

superhuman, a. Wicastaiwankam. 




superintend, vt. Awaijyaka ; ecoij- 

superintendence, n. Woawaijyake. 
superintendent, n. Wa'waijyake. 
superior, a. Waijkantu ; iwaijkam 

ui) ; iyotai). n. Watokaya ; itai)- 

cai) ; tokapa. 
superiority, n. Watokapapi. 
superlative, a. Tokapa ; iyotai). 
supernatural, a. Wakai) ; maka 

akantusni ; wowapetokeca. 
supersede, vt. E'ekiyaui) ; to'he 

superstition, n. Ituyawakai)dapi. 
superstitious, a. Ta'kusniSniwa- 

kai)da ; wakai)kai). 
superstitiously, adv. Wakaijkaij- 

superstructure, n. I'akamtu; ti'- 

supervene, vi. Idazapataqhai) u. 
supervise, vt. Awaqyaka. 
supervision, n. Woawaijyake. 
supervisor, n. Wa'waijyake ; wa'- 

supine, a. Ituqkamui) ; kuzita. 
supinely, adv. Kuziteya. 
supper, n. Htayetuwotapi. 
supperiess, a. Htayetuwotesni. 
supplant, vt. To'heki; yutokai)- 

supplanter, n. Wawicaki. 
supple, a. Winswinzedai) ; pai)- 

supplement, n. Ihaqkekagapi. vt. 

E'hakedai) eooi) ; e'yastai). 
supplementary, a. Ehake. 
suppliant, a. Wadaui) ; oq'dika. 
suppliantly, adv. Oij'siya. 
supplicant, n. Wacekiya. 
supplicate, vt. Ce'kiya. 
suppllcatingly, adv. Oij'siya; ce'- 
supplication, n. Wocekiye. 
supplicator, n. Wacekiya. 
supplicatory, a. On'sinai) ; wada. 
supply, vt. 1. Ahikilmaka ; ku : 

he supplies the beef. 2. Iyena 

ku ; ozuya : he supplied the 
deficiency, n. Iyogehnakapi ; 
wakihnakapi ; woyuha ; wo- 

support, vt. 1. Patai) yu'za ; yu- 
ha : supports the roof. 2. Ki'- 
camna ; wakicamna ; icahya : 
he supports a large family, 3. 
O'kiya; was'agya; wokazuzu- 
ku : support the government 
n. Ipatai) ; wi'kicihni ; oi) niici- 

supportable, a. Yuspica ; tawa- 

supporter, n. Ipataqyuza ; ookiye. 

suppose, vt. 1. Iyacii) ; wi'yacin : 
suppose this ball was the earth. 
2. Ecii) ; kecii) : who do you 
suppose did it. 3. O'kini. 4. 
Oyake ; etanhai) iyukcai). — 
Maris footprints suppose a man, 
wicowe wicasta oyaka. 5. Ito : 
suppose I go. 

supposition, n. Wowiyukcai). 

suppress, vt. 1. Yuasni : suppress 
the rebellion. 2. T* 1 ) 8 '* yu'za ; 
yuhukun yu'za. 3. Nahmai) ; 
akanpa : suppress the name. 
2. Anapta : suppress the flow of 

suppression, n. Woanapte. 

suppressor, n. Waanapte. 

suppurate, vi. Ton'yai) ; toi) au. 

supremacy, n. Woitancai). 

supreme, a. Iyotanwaqkantu ; wa- 
kapa; iyotai). 

supremely, adv. Itai)cai)yai) ; iyo- 

surcharge, vt. Iyatahde ; o'ta ohna- 

surcingle, n. Makiyutitaij ; ipi- 

sure, a. 1. Taij'yai) sdonya. Are 
you sure he has come, hi tai)'- 
yai) sdonyaya he. 3. Suta; 
waciijyepica : a sure promise. 
— As sure as, iyecen a'wicake- 
hai). — To be sure, a'wicakehai). 




— Make sure, yuwicaka; yu- 

surely, adv. A'wicakehan ; a'wi- 

cakeya ; sutaya. 
surety, n. 1. Wowicake : know of 

a surety. 2. On yuwicakapi : 

keep the watch as surety. 3. Oki- 

hiani kinhai) ki'cicazuzukta ; 

kici yutan. 
surf, n. Miniwanca ta'za. 
surface, n. Akapatanhaq. trf.Mda'- 

ya ka'ga. 
surf-boat, n. Ta'zawata. 
surfeit, vt. Wi'piteya. vi. Wi'pija. 

n. Wo^eyapi. 
surfeited,^. Wota. 
surge, n. Ta'zatanka. vi. Hiyu. 
surgeon, n. Pezntawicasta. 
surgery, n. Tancanakapatanhai) 

surlily, adv. Iyokipisniyan. 
surly, a. Waciijhinyanza ; ocin- 

surmise, vt. Iyukcai) ; kecii). n. 

surmount, vt. Iwankam iyaya; 

surmountable, a. Adipica ; ohiye- 

surmounted, pa. Akahpa; iwan- 

kam e'hnaka. 
surname, n. Wicowazi eaze ; caze 

inoi)pa. vt. Oaze inom ku. 
rurpass, vt. Kapa ; kape ; kapeya. 
j r passing, pa. Wakapeya; iyo- 

surpassingly, adv. Iyotanyan. 
«urplice, n. O'kdeska ; sanksanica 

surplus, n. Ta'ku iyaye ; iyaye. 
surprlsal, n. Ihnuhanyapi. 
surprise, vt. 1. Ihnuhanya. He 

surprised the enemy, to'ka ihnu- 

hanwicaye. 2. Inihanya; yu- 

shjyeya. He surprised the peo- 
ple. — J am surprised, imanihai). 

n. Woinihai); ihnuhaijyapi ; wo- 


surprising, pa. Wowinihan. 

surprisingly, adv. Wowinihanyan. 

surreoder, vt. Wayakaicicu ; iyo- 
winyai) ; enakiya. n. Enakiya- 
pi ; wayaka i<?icupi. 

surreptitious, a. Nahmai) ka'gapi. 

surreptitiously, adv. Nafcmana. 

surrouod, vt. 1. Ohomni iyaya; 
aohomniya : the army sur- 
rounded the city. 2. Ohomni 
wanka: a ditch surrounds the 
camp. n. Aohomniyapi ; pte- 
wanuyaijpi wicayuwitayapi. 

surrounding, pa. Ohomni wanke. 

surveillance, n. Woawanyake. 

survey, vt. 1. Wanyaka; amdeza. 
2. Iyuta ; makaiyuta : survey « 
railroad, n. Amdeza ; iyutapi. 

surveying, n. Makaiyutapi ; ma- 
kaiyutapi woonspe. 

surveyor, n. Makaiyuta. 

survival, n. Ehake ni'pi. 

survive, vt. Ihakam ni ; ehake ni. 

survivor, n. Ehakeni. 

susceptibility, n. Wookihi ; wowa 

susceptible, a. Okihi ; kahtaijpiea. 

susceptibly, adv. Taninyan. 

suspect, vt. Kecii) ; atungya ; iya- 
oi) pa ; ce^unhda. I suspect John 
did it, John econ kecanmi.— 
I suspected the driver, wakahape 
cin atungwaya. vi, Waiyaon- 

suspected, pa. Iyaonpapi. 

suspend, vt. 1. Otkeya : suspend a 
ball in the air. 2. Inahni e'hn* 
ka ; e'kihnaka ; ayustankiya : 
he suspended work. 3. Ikoyag- 
ya. vi. Enakiye; ayustai). 

suspenders, n. Ceskiyutitai). 

suspense, n. To'ketutaniijsni. 

suspension, n. 1. Wotkeyapi. A 
suspension bridge, cankahonpa- 
pi otkeyapi. 2. E'kiynakapi: 
woenakiye : during his suspen- 
sion from the ministry. 

suspicion 239 

suspicion, n. Woiyaoijpa; wowi- 

suspicious, a. Wakokipa ; si'ca 

se'ca ; wace$unhda. 
suspiciously, adv. Okokipeya ; si- 

caya se'ca ; wacefunhdaya. 
sustain, vt. 1. Yuha ; ipatai) yu'- 

za; wi'wicakihni. 2. Yuwica- 

ka : sustain the charge. 
sustainable, a. Yuwicakapica ; yu- 

sustenance, n. Woyute ; ta'ku wa- 

sutler, n. AHeitatawopeton. 
suture, n. Okagege. 
swab, n. IpaMijte. vt. Pakinta. 
swaddle, vt. Yuskiskita. 
swag, vi. Naskom iwanke. 
swagger, vi. Ohitiicida skai). 
swain, n. Koskawozu ; koska. 
swale, n. O'smaka. Swale-grass, 

swallow, vt. Napca ; napcaiyeya ; 

iocoka : swallowed a pin. — Steal- 
low his own words, to'ie ikikcu. 

— Swallow the story, woyakapi 

wicada. n. 1. Wonapce : take 

two swallows. 2. Icapsiqpsin- 

cadai) ; upizate : the swallows 

are building their nests. 
swallow-tailed, n. Icapsiqpsinca- 

dai) sinte. 
swam, imp. of swim. 
swamp, n. Ptega ; wiwi. 
swampy, a. fidihdidai) ; coco. 
swan, n. Magatanka; Y. maga- 

swap, vt. Tokiyopeya. 
sward, n. Pezito ; peziozu. 
swarm, n. Tuhmagaoptaye ; opta- 

ye. vi. Optaye icicagapi ; kici- 

swarthy, n. Sa'peca ; stai). 
sway, vt. Kahuhuza ; ko'za ; iyu- 

tanyai). vi. Huhuzahan. n. Wo- 

kazeze ; wowas'ake ; woawaij- 

sway- back, n. Cankahu kas'iq. 


swear, vi. Wakantanka cazeyan 
e'ya : he swore to the account. 
2* Wakai)tai)ka i'had cazeyata : 
swear not. 

swearer, n. Wakaqtanka cazeya- 

sweat, vi. Temni; temni au. n. 
Temni ; itemni ; inipi. vt. Te- 
mniya ; inikicaga. 

sweating-room, n. Initipi. 

sweaty, a. Temni ; spa'ya. 

sweep, vt. Kahinta; kahin e'ya- 
ya; hiyaya. Sweep the floor, 
owanka kahinta. — It swept by, 
dus hiyaya. — The plague swept 
off the children, makosica siceca 
wicakasota. vi. Wakahintapi ; 
ahiyaya ; wawiyohiya. 

sweeping,^. Tan/kaya iyohi. 

sweepings, n. Wokahinte. 

sweepstakes, n. A'taya ohiya. 

sweet, a. Sku'ya ; waste ; sku- 
mnasni : a sweet apple. — Sweet 
butter, asaqpiihdi waste. — A 
sweet face, ite waste. — Sweet 
milk, asaijpi skumnasni. — Sweet 
odors, ecamna waste- — Sweet 
songs, odowai) waste. — Sweet 
water, mini oyatke waste, n. 
Ta'ku sku'ya ; sku'ya ; waste. 

sweet-corn, n. Wamnahezaskuya. 

sweeten, vt. Sku'yeya. vi. Sku'ya 

sweetheart, n. Tu'wewasteda ; tu'- 

sweetish, a. Skuskuya. 

sweetly, adv. Tan'yan ; oiyokipiya. 

sweetmeat, n. Canhanpiicahi ; wa- 

sweetness, n. 1. Woskuye : the 
cane lost its sweetness. 2. Wo- 
waste ; wi'ciyokipi. 

sweet -potatoe, n. Pan^itanka ; 

sweet-scented, a. Wastemna. 

swell, vi. Po ; kapo ; napogan ; 
tan/ka a'ya ; ihdutanka ; mini- 
tan : a swollen river, vt. Yutarj- 




ka ; napogai) ; minitanya. n. 
O'oim tan'ka; paha; mdoya; 
ta'za mdoya. 

swelling, n. Po ; kapo ; paha. 

swelter, vi. Temnita. 

sweltry, a. Maste ; odidita. 

swept, imp. of sweep. 

swerve, vi. Tokan ya ; yupemni ; 
kawinh ya. 

swift, a. Du'zahaij ; ohanko ; wo- 
takunisni onanko : sir if t de- 
struction, n. 1. Upizate. 2. 
(Zool.) Ahdeskadan. 

swiftly, adv. Dus ; ohankoya. 

swiftness, n. Woduzahaij ; woo- 

swill, n. Eukuse tawoyatke. 

swim, vi. 1. Niwai) : I can swim. 
2. O'kapota: the log swims. — 
A swimming-gait, niwaqpi se 
iyopte. — His head swims, ito- 
mni ; itekpaza. — t-wim in 
wealth, wowizice okaponya un. 
vt. 1. Niwai) ; aniwe : swim the 
river. 2. Niwekiya : swim the 
horse, n. Oniwe ; niwai) pi. 

swimmer, n. Niwewayupika ; ni- 

swimmingly, adv. Yupiya ; niwan- 

swindle, vt. Hnayankiynsota ; hna- 
yai). n. Wohnaye. 

swindler, n. Wicahnayes'a. 

swine, n. KukuSe (ni un heca). 

swing, vi. Kaozeze ; kahomni ; ho'- 
tadai) kicun. — The rope swings, 
hahonta kaozeze. — TJie boat 
swung round, wa'ta kin kaho- 
mni. vt. Kaozezeya ; ko'za ; 
kaskanskan. John swung his 
hat, John wapostan ko'za. n. 
1. Ho'tadan : put the baby in 
the swing. 2. Wokazeze ; oyu- 
homni ; to'ken cin : let us take 
a swing, 

switch, n. 1. Cansakadan : a wil- 
low svritch. 2. {Railway) fie- 
mani ma'zaakizate : change the 

switch, vt. 1. Kapsinsinta : 
switch the child. 2. A'kizate 
ohna iyayeya : switch the train. 

switch-man, n. A'kizateapiya. 

swivel, n. Ma'zaicicaniha yuho- 

swollen, pp. of swell. 

swoon, vi. Kiksuyesni ; tansagta. 

swoop, vt. Iyahpaya ; yuwankan 
e'yaya. n. Woiyanpaya. 

sword, n. Ma'zasagye ; Y. miwa- 

swore, imp of swear. 

sworn, pp. of swear. 

swum, imp. of swim. 

swung, imp. of swing. 

sycamore, n. Tanpacantanka. 

sycophant, n. Iskuya; wicahna- 

syllable, n. Iapiokihe. 

sylvan, a. Can ; canowanca. 

symbol, n. 1. Wi'yacinpi; wadiya- 
cinpi : a lion is the symbol of 
courage. 2. Wosukiye : tJie sym- 
bols of faith. 

symbolic, a. Fyacinpi ; ka'pi. 

symbolically, adv. I'yacinyan. 

symbolize, vt. I'yacii). 

symmetrical, a. Okahwanzidan. 

symmetry, n. I'ciyokipi. 

sympathetic, a. Wawacinktayuza. 

sympathize, vi. Wacinkiyuza ; wa- 

sympathizer, n. Wacinkiyuza. 

sympathy, n. Wacinenkiciyuzapi ; 

symptom, n. Wotoketu ; to'keca ; 

synagogue, n. Juddh ti'piwakai).. 

synchronical, a. I'akidehantu. 

syndicate, n. Woecon okodakioiye. 

synod, n. Omnioiye ocokaya. 

synonim, n. Iapiowanzidan. 

synonlmous, a. I'akidececa. 

synopsis, n. Owohdake eo. 

syntax, n. Iapiokage oyaka. 

syphilis, n. Ce'ndipi woyazan. 

syringe, n. Wi'bosdi ; minibosdi. 

syrup 241 

syrup, n. Caqhaijpitiktica ; Y. tu- 

system, n. 1. Okage ; oecoij : the 
railroad system. 2. Wowiyu- 
kcai) : toorfc 6y system. 3. Obe ; 


ta'ku i'cikoyake ko'ya : Me 

solar system. 
systematic, a. Wi'yukcai) skai). 
systematize, trt. Obe kahya e'hna- 


tabernable, w. Wakeya. 

table, n. Wa'hnawot jpi ; omdaye. 
vt. Kihnaka. 

table-spoon, n. Tukihataijka. 

tablet, n. Wowapigka a'skape. 

taboo, vt. TeMijda. 

tabular, a. O'cimdafi owapi. 

tacit, a. A'nini; iyowiijyai). 

tack, n. Ma'zapepe. vt. Okatai). 

tackle, vt. Yu'za; yuhomni. n. 
Wa'ta icuwa. 

tact, n. Wowayupika. 

tactics, n. Akicita wooi)spe. 

tadpole, n. Hosuqpesda. 

taffy, n. Caqhaijpi sagyapi. 

tag, n. Kaqsuikoyagyapi. 

tail, n. Sii)te. BinVs tail, npi. 

tailor, n. Wakagege wicaia. 

taint, vt. Sicamnaya. 

tainted, a. flwiij'mna. 

take (took), vt. 1. leu, take the 
book. 2. Yu'za, he took a wife. 
3. A'ya; akiyahda, take it 
away. 4. Eipi ; iyohi ; yusota, 
how much will it take. — Take 
after, kuwa a'ya ; kinma. — Take 
aim, e'pazo. — Take away, tokarj 
a'ya. — Take care, tanyai) amde- 
za ; itonpa. — Take care of 
awaqyaka. — Take cold, sni ya- 
hotoi). — Take effect, iyokihi. — 
Take from, ki. — lake hold of, 
oyuspa. — Take notice, amdeza. 
— Take off: (the hat), yufcdoka ; 
(tlie foot), baksa; (as cattle), 
tokai) a'ya. — Take part, oijfcpa 
ecoij ; o'pa. — Take sides with, 
kici ti'dai). — Take to, taken 



with, iyokipi ; wastedaka. 

Take a walk, omani. 
take off, n. Uij'capi. 
tale, n. Woyakapi ; kakaqpi. 
talebearer, n. I'wakai). 
talent, n. Ma'zaska wokiij ; 

talented, a. Waciqksapa. 
talk, vi. la; wohdake. To 

to, eciya. — To talk about (or of, 

or over), iwohdaka. 
talkative, a. Wohdakes'a. 
tali, a. Han 'ska. 
tallow, n. Wasna. 
tally, n. Icago ; kici iyececa. 
talon, n. Sake. 
tamarack, n. Siijta. 
tame, a. Wa'hbana ; wanuyaijpi. 

vt. Yuwanbadai). 
tamper, vi. Yuha skai). 
tan, vt. Kpanyan; uka wi aspaqye. 
tandem, a. I'ciyaza. 
tangible, a. Yutaijpica. 
tangle, vt. Yuwi ; i / cikoyake. 
tap, vt. Apapa ; yuhdoka. 
tape, n. Sinaapandate. 
taper, vi. O'cim ci'stina ; sdi. n. 

tar, n. Wazi cansii). 
tardy, a. Iyehau hi Sni. 
target, w. Owinheca. 
tariff, n. Oyatetokeca kici wope- 

tonpi awamnayarjpi. 
tarnish, vt. Asamya. 
tarpaulin, n. Caqsii) itujpi. 
tarry, vi. Apeyanka. 
tart, a. Sku'ya. 
task, n. Wohtani. 

taskmaster 242 

taskmaster, n. Wowasi itancan. 
taste, vt. U'ta; ci'stinna yu'ta. 

n. U'tapi ; wowiyukcan ; wo- 

tasteful, a. Oiyokipi. 
tasteless, a. U'tapi tatake. 
tatters, n. Ofidendeca. 
tattoo, vt. Akito. 
taught, imp. of teach. 
taunt, vt. I'enhde. 
tautology, n. Akihdehde e'yapi. 
tavern, n. Owotetipi. 
tawny, a. Ha sa'peca. 
tax, n. Woyuha hdazuzupi; wo- 

tea, n. Wanpepezuta ; wahpe. 
teach, taught, vt. Onspekiya. 
teachable, a. Oijspekiyapi waste. 
teacup, n. Wahpeiyatke. 
teakettle, n. Miniikanye. 
teacher, n. Waonspekiye. 
team, n. duqgakicaska ; wi'yuti- 

teamster, n. Wakanape. 
teapot, n. Wahpeikanye. 
tear, tore, vt. Yuhdeea. n. Wo- 

yundeca; istamnihaqpe. 
tearer, n. Wohitika. 
tease, vt. Nagiyeya. 
teaspoon, n. Tukiha ci'stina ; Y. 

teat, n. Azeiijkpa. 
teem, vi. Ozudan ; o'ta. 
teeter, vi. Kaozezeya. 
teeth, n. pi. of tooth. 
teething, n. Hi'uyapi. 
teetotaler, n. Miniwakan yatke sni. 
telegram, n. Ma'zaapapiwowapi. 
telegraph, n. Ma'zaapapi. 
telephone, n. Ma'zahoyeya. 
telescope, n. Maziwanyake hai)'- 

tell, told, vt. Oyaka; to'nakeca 

yawa. Tell him, okiyaka. — Tell 

him to come, usi. 
tell-tale, n. Woyakes'a. 
temper, n. Tawacii) ; wosuta. vt. 

Yusuta ; yuecetu. 


temperance, n> ^y^t^hdeiciyapi 

sni ; mde'zoc** 
temperature, n. Osni is maste. 
tempest, n. Icamna ; tate. 
temple, n. Ti'piwakan ; nawate. 
temporal, a. Makaakantu. 
tempt, vt. Iyutanye. 
temptation, n. Wowawiyutaqye. 
ten, a. Wikcemna. 
tenable, a. Yuhepica. 
tenacious, a. Wi'yaskape; waM- 

tenant, n. Wakicanye. 
tend, vt. Awanyake ; kicanye. vi. 

tendency, n. Ocanku ; oaye. 
tender, a. Wan'kadan ; waihakta. 

vt. Eu. 
tenderly, adv. Iwastedan. 
tenement, n. Ti r pi okupi. 
tenet, n. Woope. 
tenfold, a. Wikcemna akihde. 
tenor, n. Ta'ku ka'pi; wicaho 

tense, n. Watohantu; hehantu. 

a. Tin'za. 
tent, n. Wakeya. vt. Ticaga. 
tenth, a. Iwikcemna. 
tepid, a. Itenyapi. 
term, n. Iapi, the term lawyer; 

owa saghde, a term of four 

years; wacirjkiciyuzapi, on good 

terms; nazinsni econpi, a school 

term. vt. Cazeyata ; e'ya. 
terminate, vi. Owihanke. 
terrestrial, a. Makata. 
terrible, a. Okokipe. 
terribly, adv. Okokipeya. 
terrific, a. Woitoijpe. 
terrify, vt. Yusiijyeya. 
territory, n. Makoce ; makobaspe. 
terror, n. Wokokipe. 
terse, a. Iapi ya^inzapi. 
test, vt. Iyuta. 
testament, n. Wokonze. 
testify, vt. Wowicake oyaka. 
testimony, n. Woyaotanin. 
tether, vt. Ikanton hde. 




tut, n. Iapi iwohdake. 

text-book, n. Woonspe wowapi. 

texture, n. Okage. 

than, conj. Kici i'ciwanyakapi. 
More than, i'sanpa. — Less than, 

thank, vt. Wopida eciya. n. Wo- 

thankful, a. Pida ; pidapi. 

thankless, a. 1. Pidasni, a thank- 
less heart. 2. Tuwedai) pida- 

thank-offering, n. Wopida wosna- 

thanksgiving, n. Wopida eyapi. 

thankworthy, a. Pidapi iyececa. 

that, a. & pro. He, that man; that 
is mine; that which I do ye 
know. conj. He'on ; he, he died 
that we might live; the day came 
that she should die. conj. She 
was that scared. 

thatch, n. Peziawakeyapi. 

thaw, vt. Stunya, thaw out the 
frost, vi. Stu'ta. Tliaw off, 

the, def. art. Kin, the day is past. 

theater, n. 1. Woskate ti'pitanka ; 
ikpazotipi. 2. Oyanke, the the- 
ater of war. 

theatrical, a. Woskate. 

thee, pro. Ni'ye. 

theft, n. Wamanonpi. 

their, theirs, pro. Ta'wapi. 

theism, n. Wakantanka wicadapi. 

them, pro. 1. Wica. Kill them, 
wicakte. 2. He'na, sit by them. 

theme, n. Woiwohdake. 

themselves, pro. Iyepihca. 

then, adv. & conj. Hehan. 

thence, adv. Hetanhan. 

thenceforth, adv. Hetanhan. 

theology, n. Woonspe wakan. 

theory, n. Wowiyukcan. 

there, adv. 1. Hen; he'ci, there 
he is; up there. 2. (Used in- 
definitely it is unexpressed.) 
There arose a famine, wicaaki- 

han, icaga — There is work, wo- 
wasi yukai). 
thereabout, adv. Wahehantu. 
thereafter, adv. He iyohakam. 
thereby, adv. Hetanhai). 
therefor, adv. He'on. 
therefore, adv. He'onetanhan ; he'- 
on ; he'cen. 
therein, adv. He en. 
thereof, adv. Hetanhan. 
thereon, adv. He akan ; hehan. 
thereupon, adv. Hehan. 
therewith, adv. He kici. 
thermometer, n. Osniiynta. 
these, a. & pro. Dena. 
thesis, n. Woeye. 
they, pro. pi. Iyepi ; iye . . . pi. 
(Generally expressed only by 
the plural ending.) They came, 
thick, a. 1. So'ka : thick ice. 2. 
Sma. thick grass; thick hair. 
3. Akipsapsa, thick grain; thick 
woods. 4. Tinza; suta, thick 
mush. 5. O'ta : thick as rabbits. 
thicken, vt. 1. Suta ka'ga, thicken 
the syrup. 2. So'ka ka'ga, 
thicken the cloth. 3. Yuota, 
thicken the blcws. 
thickening, a. O'ta a'ya; so'ka 

a'ya. n. Icahiyapi. 
thicket, n. Otehi. 
thickhead, n. Pahu so'ka. 
thickly, adv. Sogya. 
thickness, n. So'ka. 
thickset, a. Hu'na. 
thief, n. Wamanons'a. 
thieve, vt. Wamanon. 
thievery, n. Wamanonpi. 
thievish, a. Manons'a; wamanon. 
thigh, n. Oeca. Thigh-bone, ce- 

cuijte ; cecaowagle. 
thimble, n. Napostan. 
thin, a. 1. Zizipedai), thin paper. 

2. Hdahan ; thin mush. 
thine, a. Nitawa. 
thing, n. Ta'ku ; woyuha. 
think, thought, vt. & vi. 1. Awa- 




cii) ; canteynza, I think of going. 

2. Kiksuya, I cannot think what 

he said. 3. Eoii) ; wacinyuza. 

He thinks well of me, tan'yan 

thinly, adv. Zizipayedan ; enana. 
third, a, 1. Iyamni, the third day. 

2. Ya'mni yuspapi, two thirds. 
thirst, vi. I'puza; cantahde. n. 

I'puzapi; cantahdepi. 
thirsty, a. I'puza. 
thirteen, a. Akeyamni. 
thirteenth, a. I'akeyamni. 
thirty, a. Wikcemnayamni. 
this, a, De, this man. pro. De, 

whose dog is thisf adv. De'- 

cen. This soon. 
thistle, n. CanMonupepe. 
thither, adv. He'ciya ; heciyotan. 
thong, n. Wi'kan ; ikan. 
thorn, n. Canpepe. 
thorny, a. Pepe. 

thorough, a. A'wicake ; wayustan. 
thoroughbred, a. Obetehike. 
thoroughfare, n. Cankuhca. 
thoroughgoing, a. Wakahdokeca. 
thoroughly, adv. A'wicakeya. 
those, a. & pro. Hena. 
thou, pro. Niye. 
though, conj. 1. Esta, I will go, 

though it rains. 2. Tuka; ke 

yas, J am weZ2 though not 

thought, v. imp. See think. 
thought, n. Woawacin ; wowiyu- 

thoughtful, a. Waawacii) ; awacin. 
thoughtless, a. Waawacinsni. 
thousand, a. Kektopawiijge. 
thraldom, n. Wayaka un'pi. 
thrash, vt. Eapai) ; apa. vi. Wa- 

kapai) ; kaholioiyeiciya skaij. 
thrashing-machine, n. Wi'capan ; 

thread, n. 1. Hahonta; wi'kan, 

silk thread. 2. Cankuye. vt. 

Hanoi) ta en iyeya. 
threadbare, a. Yutannipi. 

threat, ». Wakokipe ki'cagapi. 
threaten, vt. Wakokipekicaga ; lte- 

ka ; eyakawa. 
three, a. Ya'mni. 
threefold, a. Ya'mniakihde,; 
threescore, a. Wikeemnasakpe. 
threshold, n. Tiyopaahdehe. 
threw, imp. of throw. 
thrice, adv. Ya'mniakihde. 
thrift, n. Waicihdepi. 
thriftless, a. Icihdesni. 
thrifty, a. Ieihdeka. 
thrill, vt. Yuskanskan. vi. Huhu- 

zahan. n. Woskanskai). 
thrilling, a. Wowinihan. 
thrive, vi. San 'pa tan/yan ya. 
thriving, pa. Ieaga ; oicihi. 
throat, n. Dote ; wi'napce. 
throb, vi. Iyapa. 
throe, n. Wokakize. 
throne, n. Itancan toyanke ; itan- 

throng, n. Wicota. vt. Aotiqsya. 
throttle, n. Dote ; iostan. 
through, a. Dmnniyanye, through 
trains, prep. Iyoopta ; ihuniyan, 

through the board; through the 

throughoot, adv. Bmnniyai). 
throve, imp. of thrive. 
throw, threw, vt. 1. Kanoiyeya, 

throw a stone. — Throw at, kinii). 

2. Kun'enpeya, he threw his 

antagonist. 3. Enpeya, he threw 

it on the ground. 4. Hiyuya, 

threw up his dinner. 
thrush, n. Wagiogi. 
thrust, vt. Iyayeya ; iyeya ; capa; 

capaiyeya. n. Wacapapi. 
thud, n. Woiyapa. 
thumb, n. Napahunka. vt. Yu- 

thump, vt. Apa ; iyapa. 
thunder, vi. Wakinyanhoton ; bu. 
thunderbolt, n. Wakanhdisu. 
thunderstorm, n. Wakinyanica- 

thunderstrike, vt. Wakinyano ; o. 




Thursday, n. Anpetuitopa. 

thus, adv. He'cen, do it thus. — 
Thus far, hehanyan. 

thwart, vi. Okihisniya. 

thy, pro. Nita- ; nitawa. 

thyself , pro. Niyehca. 

tibia, n. Husdi. 

tick, vi. Ko'ka. n. 1. Ko'ka, I 
hear the tick of the clock. 2. Ta- 
skakpa, I see a tick on the dog's 
ear. 3. Owinzaozuha, fill the 
tick with hay. 4. Icazo, don't 
buy on tick. 

ticket, n. Kaijsu. 

ticking, n. Owinza mininuha. 

tickle, trt. Yus'ins'in ; ihaya. 

ticklish, a. Ihawan'kadan ; to'ketu 

tidal, a. Mnitai). 

tide, n. Mniwanca waukanu. 

tidings, n. Wonahoi). 

tidy, a. Wayuco ; ska. 

tie, vt. Iyakaska ; kaska ; pahta ; 
yuskiya. n. 3. Wokaske, the 
ties of kindred. 2. Apahte, 
neck-tie. 3. I'akidenakeca, the 
vote teas a tie. 

tier, n. Oehnake. 

tiger, n. Inmutanka. 

tight, a. 1. Otinza, a tight shoe. 
2. Kusesni ; kahdokesni, a tight 
barrel; air-tight. 3. Itomni, 
tight on beer. 

tighten, if. Yutfnza. 

tile, n. Makaspau tiakahpe ; ma- 
kaspai) ohdogeca. 

till, prep. Hehanyan, till Sunday, 
vt. Kieanyan, till the ground, 
n. Opiye ; wopiye. 

tillable, a. Kieanyepica. 

tiller, n. Wakicai)ye. 

tilt, vt. Yuptanyan ; wahukeza 

timbal, n. Can'oega. 

timber, n. Cai) ; can'obdotoi). 

timbered, a. Can'icahhan. 

timbrel, n. Can'cega mdaskana. 

time, vt. Wihiyayedan yawa. n. 

1. Anpetu, ancient times; the 
times are hard. 2. Wi'hiyaya ; 
wi'hiyayedan, be on time; what 
time isitt 3. Akihde, how many 
times t Two times. 4. Iyehcn- 
tu, there is a time for everything. 
— All the Ume, o'hinniyan. — 
Another time, ake tohan. — At 
any time, tohantu kasta.— A 
short time, ci'stiyedan. — At this 
time, dehantu. — At the same 
time, iyehan. — Beat time, ho 
wi'kiyuta. — Between time, i'yo- 
tahedan. — By this time, de iye- 
han. — In time, iyehan. — It is 
time, iyehantu. — Next time, ake 
tohan. — Time about, unman 

timekeeper, n. Wi'hiyayedan. 

timely, a. Waiyehantu. 

timepiece, n. Wi'hiyayedai). 

timid, a. Canwanka. 

timorous, a. Wakokipe. 

tin, n. Oehska. 

tincture, n. Icahikagapi ; akahtan- 

tinder, n. Cankagica. 

tinge, vt. Iwastedan iun. 

tinker, vt. Apiya. 

tinkle, vi. Sna. 

tinned, a. Cehska akahpa. 

tint, n. Icantakapi. 

tiny, a. Ci'stina ; -dan ; -na. 

tip, n. In'kpa, the tip of his ear. 
vt. Naptanyan ; iwastedan apa. 

tippet, n. Nakpiyutake. 

tipple, vi. Cikcikayena wayatke. 

tipsy, a. Itomni. 

tiptoe, n. Sipinkpa. 

tirade, n. Iapidicaota. 

tire, vt. Watukaya. vi. Watuka ; 
econkaph). n. Ma'zacanhde- 

tired, a. llon'kita ; watuka. 

tireless, a. Econkapii) wanica. 

tiresome, a. Watuka wicaya. 

tissue, ft. Minihuhagangan. 

tit, n. Oape. 

titbit 246 

titbit, n. Onspadan. 

tithe, n. Wikcemnakibaspapi wan- 

title, n. 1. Gaze, the title of the 

book. 2. Oij ta / wa sdonyapi, 

what is his title. 
titter, ti. 2iziiha. 
tittle, n. Wokpe. 
to, prep. & adv. 1. Ekta, go to 

town; wrong end to. 2. (Sign 

of the infinitive.) Eta, I want 

to go. 
toad, n. Natapeha. 
toast, vt. 1. 'Guguya ; ceonpa. 2. 

Tu'we cazeyan wayatke. n. 

tobacco, n. Candi. 
toboggan, n. Canmdaskaowosdohe. 
to-day, adv. & n. Nakaha. 
toddle, vi. Hoksiyopamani. 
toddy, n. Miniwakanicahiyapi. 
toe, n. Siyukaza ; siinkpa ; sipa. 
together, adv. Wi'taya; o'konwan- 

toil, vi. fltani. n. Wohtani. 
toilet, n. Oihduze. 
toilsome, a. Otehika. 
token, n. Wowapetokeca. 
tolerable, a. Ki'tanna. 
tolerance, n. Iyowinyanpi. 
tolerant, a. Wacintanka. 
toleration, n. Wawiyowhjyanpi. 
toll, vt. Wan'wancana apa. n. 

Cai)ku wokazuzu. 
tomahawk, n. Onspecannonpa. 
tomato, n. Waskuyecasasa. 
tomb, n. Wicahnakapi. 
tomboy, n. Wicincana hoksina 

tombstone, n. Wicahnakapi in'- 

to-morrow, n. Heyakecinhan ; Y. 

& T. hin'hanna. 
ton, n. Tkeutapi 2000. 
tone, n. Ho; hooadi; wocante- 

tongs, n. Pe'tawiyuzipe. 
tongue, n. Cezi ; iapi. 


tonic, n. Pezuta imdihecapi 

to-night, n. Hanyetu de. 

too, adv. 1. Ni'na; ehaes, too 

long. 2. Nakun ; eya, give kirn 

one too. 
took, imp. of TAKE. 
tool, n. Wi'kicaijye ; ieuwa. 
toot, vt. Yahoton ; yazo. 
tooth, n. Hi. In the teeth of, wi'- 

toothache, n. Hi'wicayazan. 
toothbrush, n. Hi'ipayeze. 
toothless, a. Hi'wanica. 
toothpick, n. Hi'pasku ; T. hi'yo- 

top, n. 1. In'kpa, top of the house. 

2. Can'kawacipi, whirl the top. 

a. Wankantu ; akan ; o'tokahe, 

a top place, vt. 1. Iij'kpa ka'- 

ga, top the stack. 2. In'kpa 

baksa, top the corn. 
toper, n. Miniwakan yatkesa. 
topic, n. Ta'ku ka'pi. 
topknot, n. Pecokaokaske. 
toplofty, a. Wankantu; tan'kai- 

topmost, a. Iyo tan wankantu. 
topography, n. Oyanke oyakapi. 
topple, vi. Pacegceg. 
topsy turvy, a. Tokencincin. 
torch, n. Ikcecanaizanzanyapi. 
tore, imp. of tear. 
torment', t?*. Kakisya. 
torment, n. Wokakize. 
torn, imp. of tear. 
tornado, n. Tateohitika. 
torpedo, n. Caudi napopapi. 
torpid, a. Ta se. 
torpidity, n. Wicahunkesni. 
torpor, n. Waokihisni. 
torrent, n. Minitan. 
torrid, a. Ni'na ka'ta. 
tortoise, n. Ke'ya. 
tortuous, a. K&anksan. 
torture, vt. Kakisya; yuktanyan. 

n. Wokakize. 
toss, vt. Kahoiyeya ; wankankan- 

iyeya ; paptanptaniyeya. 




tot, n. Ta'kucikana. 

total, a. A'taya ; ocowasii). 

totally, adv. A'taya. 

tote, vt. Kii) ; a'ya. 

totter, vi. Kacekceka. 

tottering, pa. Hahadai). 

touch, vt. 1. Icantaka, the trees 
touch. 2. Yutai), he touched his 
hat. 3. Iyohi, he couWnt touch 
the roof. — Tlie frost touched the 
leaves, iwastena kuwa. — Touch 
the heart } cantiyapa. — Touch 
off, iyayeya ; u'ta. — Touch up, 
yuwaate kuwa; dus iyayeya. 
w. I'cicaMakapi ; wayutaqpi; 
yuwastepi; wokaMaka; woki- 

touching, prep. Icahtagya, touch- 
ing what John said. pa. Caij- 
teiyawicapa, a touching tale. 

touchy, a. Wakantakeca. 

tough, a. Suta. 

tour, n. Oicimani ; aohomni. 

tourist, n. Oicimani. 

tournament, n. Akicitaska'tapi. 

tow, vt. Yusdohai) ; wa'ta yusdo- 
hai). n. Canhdohu hii). 

toward, towards, prep. Ektakiya ; 
a'etopteya ; en'tkiya. 

towel, n. Napipakinte ; itipakinte. 

tower, n. Ti'piipasotka. vi. Wai)- 
kan yeya. 

towhead, n. Pa'zi. 

town, n. Otoijwe. 

township, n. Makobaspe maka 
iyutapi sa'kpe. 

toy, n. Wi'napiskaqye. vi. Ska'- 

trace, vt. Owe ode ; ode, trace a 
thief. 2. Ieago; cai)ku icago, 
trace the outlines on paper, n. 
Owe ; oi) spa ci'stiijna. 

traceable, a. Odepica. 

trachea, n. Dotehbeza. 

track, n. Owe ; caqku. vt. Owe 
atab ya, track a fox. 

tract, n. 1. Oqspa ; obaspe ; ma- 
kobaspe, a rocky tract of land. 

2. Wowahokoijkiye wowapi ci'- 
stiqna, a temperance tract. 

tractable, a. Okiijyai) waste. 

traction, n. Oyusdohai). 

trade, vt. Tokiyopeya, trade horses, 
vi. Wopetoi), trade with In- 
dians, n. Wopetoijpi; woe- 

trader, n. Wopetoi). 

tradewind, n. Waziyata tate. 

trading, pa. Wopetoi). 

tradition, n. Ehanna wicoie. 

traduce, vt. Makoskan yasica. 

traffic, vi. Wopetoq. n. Wope- 

tragedy, n. Tata wocantiyapa. 

tragic, a. Wowinihai). 

trail, n. Caqku ; owe ; ta'ku yu- 
I sdohai). vt. Yusdohai) ; sdo- 
haq ya. 

train, vt. Oi)spekiya ; Mhiya ; yu* 
titai). n. flemani ; owosdohe ; 

trainer, n. Waoijspekiya. 

trainman, n. flemani kicanye. 

trait, n. Ofrai). 

traitor, n. Takodaku wicahnaye. 

traitorous, a. Wicahnayes'a. 

trammel, vt. Huij'kesniya. 

tramp, vt. Siehde ; ma'ni. n. Sie- 
hdepi ; omanipi ; wadaomani. 

trample, vt. Adi ; nasuza. 

trance, n. danmnapi se wawan- 

tranquil, a. Owaijzi ui). 

trans-, pref. O'pta; akasaijpa. 

transact, trt. Ecoi). 

transaction, n. Woecoi). 

transcend, vt. Kapeya. 

transcribe, vt. Aktaowa. 

transfer, vt. Tokaqaya ; wicaku. 
n. Wicakupi. 

transfigure, vt. Yutokeea. 

transform, vt. Piyakaga. 

transgress, vt. Wahtani. 

transgression, n. Woantani. 

transient, a. Askayedai) ui). 

transit, n. O'pta ye cii). 

transitive 248 

transitive, a. Ta'kuiyaheya. 
transitory, a. Ci'stiyedan un. 
translate, vt. Ieska ka'ga ; to'kai) 

translation, n. Ieskayapi. 
translucent, a. Kohdi. 
transmifrate, vt. Piyaiyotanke. 
transmit, vt. Ye'ya ; ku. 
transom, n. O'zanzanhdepi hda- 

transparent, a. Kohdi; tanjn. 
transpire, vt. Otanin ; ynniya. 
transplant, vt. Piya huhde. 
transport, vt. Toksu; yumdezesni. 

n. Itoksu. 
transportation, n. Watoksupi 
transpose, vt. Yutokai). 
transverse, a. Hdakinyai). 
trap,n. Ma'zahtaMyapi; wi'hmni)- 

ke. vt. Hmun'ka. 
trapper, n. Wahmunkes'a. 
traps, n. j>Z. Ta'ku woyuha. 
trash, n. Ta'kusni. 
travail, w. Cinoatonkta yazai). 
travel, vt. I'cimaniya. 
traveller, n. I'cimani. 
traverse, t;*. O'ptaya. 
travesty, n. Wawiha ka'gapi. 
tray, n. Waksinopahi ; sun/ka 

treacherous, a. Wicahnayes'a. 
treachery, n. Wohnaye. 
tread, trod, vi. Siha e'hde ; amani. 

Tread on, amani. — Tread out, 

treadle, n. Siipatai). 
treason, n. Wohnaye, oyate en. 
treasure, vt. Kihnaka ; kpatan. 

n. Woyuha ; wakihnakapi. 
treasurer, n. Ma'zaskaawanyaka. 
treasury, n. Ma'zaska wohnake. 
treat, vt. 1. Kuwa ; ta'ku ecaki- 

coi) t he treated me well. 2. Mi- 
ni wakai) yatkekiya. n. 1. Wo- 

wiyuskin, the music was a treat. 

2. Won'tkiyapi; wayatkekiya- 

pi, a treat of beer. 
treatise, n. Wowapitanka. 


treatment, n. Wokuwa ; okuwa. 
treaty, n. Oyate wowapiyutanpi. 
treble, a. Ya'mniakihde ; ho wan- 

tree, n. Can ; canljosdanhai). vt. 

tremble, vi. Cancan. 
tremendous, a. Otantonka. 
tremor, n. Wocancan ; wicanaka. 
tremulous, a. Cancan. 
trench, n. Makaokapi. 
trend, n. Tokiyotaij ye. 
trepidation, n. Wocancan. 
trespass, vi. Wahtani. n. Woa- 

trl-, pre. Ya'mni ; ya'mnikiya. 
trial, n. 1. Iyntapi, a trial of his 

speed. 2. Aiapi, a trial for 

murder. 3. Wokakize, trials 

by fire. 
triangle, n. Ya'mnioiseton. 
tribal, a. Oyate ta'wa. 
tribe, n. Oyate ospaye. 
tribulation, n. Wokakize. 
tribunal, n. Waaia omniciye. 
tributary, a. Adetka ; ookiye. 
tribute, n. Itancan tawomnaye. 
trice, n. Istakakpapise. 
trick, n. Wohnaye ; woecon. 
tricky, a. Wicahnayes'a. 
tried, pa. Iyntapi. 
triennal, a. Waniyetu ya'mni. 
trifle, n. Ta'ku ci'stinna. vi. Ta'- 

kusnikiya skan. 
trifler, a. Waawacinsni. 
trigger, n. Ma'zakaniyutan. 
trill, n, Hohnagicahoton. 
trim, vt. 1. Basmii), trim the hair. 

2. Aopazan, trim a hat. 3. 

Tan'yan piya. a. Wayuco. 
trinity, n. Ya'mni wanzipi. 
trinket, n. Oin. 
trio, n. Ya'mnipi. 
trip, n. Oicimani. vi. Ofranko 

ma'ni ; hicahaq ; yusna. 
tripe, n. Tasupe. 
triple, a. Ya'mnikiya. 
triplet, n. Ya'niniakioaska. 

triplicate 249 

triplicate, a. Ya'mni. 

tripod, n. Hu ya'mni. 

tripper, n. Psi'psin ma'ni. 

trite, a. Ehanna ; ponpoi). 

triumph, n. Ohiya. ». Woohiya. 

triumphal, a. Ohiyapi. 

triumphant, a. Ohiya. 

triune, a. Ya'mni wan zina. 

trivial, a. Ta'kuitokecasni. 

trod, imp. of tread. 

troop, n. Akicita optaye \ op- 

trophy, n. Woohiye ; wakipi. 

tropic, n. Wi'ihukuya. 

trot, vi. Nacam ya ; in/yanka. 

troth, n. Wowicake. 

trouble, vt. Nagiyeya; yuskan- 
6kan. w. Wonagiyeya; wosioe. 

troubled, pa. Iyoyaka. 

troublesome, a. Wanagiyeya. 

troublous, a. Oiyokisica. 

trough, n. Can'kaskokpa. 

trousers, n. Onzeoge. 

trout, n. Hoganwicastasni. 

trowel, w. Updizaipawinte. 

truant, n. Wayawanazica. 

truce, w. Wokicize kihnakapi. 

truck, n. Ta'kusnisni ; huha. 

truckle, vi. Ihukuya iyeioiya. 

true, a. Wicaka ; ecetn. 

truism, a. Wicaka tanin. 

truly, adv. A'wicakehan. 

trump, n. ItancanMyapi. 

trumpery, n. On i'kpazopi. 

trumpet, n. Ma zawayaotanin. vt. 
Yaotanii). vi. Wayaotanii). 

trunk, n. 1. Caij'ohnaka ; heyake- 
opiye, a leather trunk. 2. Hu- 
can ; caqkaga, the trunk of the 
tree. 3. Pasu, the elephanfs 
trunk. 4. Tancai), the trunk 
only remained. 

truss, n. 1. Can'yohana, bridge 
truss. 2. Teziwiyuftnze. 

trust, vt. 1. Waoiqyai), trust God. 
2. Wacinyan, yuhekiya, trust 
your horse to his care. 3. Wi- 
cada, I trusted his word. 4. 


Ech) ; awacin ui), I" £n«s£ 7*e 
«?iK come. 5. Icazokiya, he 
trusted him for ten dollars, n. 

1. Waawanyagkiyapi, national 

trustee, n. Awanyagkiyapi. 

trustful, a. Wacinyai). 

trustless, a. Wowacinyecodai) ; 

trustworthy, a. Wacinyepica. 
trusty, a. Wacinyepica ; wicaka. 
truth, n. Wowicake ; he'oetu. 
truthful, a. Wicaka. 
try, tried, vt. 1. Iyuta, try your 

new pen. 2. Akita ; kuwa, tried 

to kill me. 3. Aia, he was tried 

for murder. — Try to do, econ,- 

uta. — Try to kill, ktewacin. — 

Try tlie taste, u'ta. 
tub, n. Wi'yuzazakoka ; kokaba- 

tube, n. Wiohdogeca. 
tuber, n. Hutkan psunkaka; psun- 

kaya po. 
tubercle, n. Psunkakana po. 
tuck, vi. 1. Paksiza, tuck up the 

skirt. 2. Paoskica, tuck in the 

Tuesday, n. Anpetuinonpa. 
tuft, n. Wopamna, a tuft of grass. 

— A tuft of hair, afcke. 
tug, vt. Yutitan. ; sogya kuwa. n. 

Woyutitai) ; pe'tawata wayu- 

sdohai) ; suijgikai) woyutitai). 
tuition, n. Woonspe wokazuzu. 
tnllp, n. Mnahcanca obe. 
tumble, vt. 1. Paptaniyeya ; ehpe- 

ya, tumbled it out of the wagon. 

2. To'kencincin, enpeya, tumbled 
up the bed. vi. Paptanptan ; 

tumble-bug, n. Unkeepakmikma. 
tumbler, n. 1. Zanzaqwiyatke, 

broke a tumbler. 2. Waihdu- 

tumor, n. Po. 
tumult, n. Owodutatoi). 
tumultuous, a. Wohitiyaskaijpi. 




tune, n. Odowaq ho. vt. Ho ece- 
tuya ; piya. 

tuner, n. Ho'ecetuya. 

tonic, n. O'kde. 

tunnel, n. fie'ohdogyapi. 

turban, n. Pa'iyuskite. 

turbid, a. 6ose. 

turbulent, a. dkaqskai) ; wohitika. 

turf, n. Pezihutkai) ; pezito. 

turkey, n. Zicataqka j T. Wagle- 

• ksui)tai)ka. 

turkey-buzzard, n. Heca. 

turmoil, n. Woskaijskai). 

turn, vt 1. Yuhomni, turn t/i* 
tcAeeZ. 2. Iyayeya, tarn Me 
ea^e into the pasture. 3. E'e 
ka'ga, turn water into wine. — 
Turn the corner, oise ayuho- 
mni. — Turn aver, yuptaijyai). 
— Turn the stock, hoijyakoi) 
yueoi. — Turn the stomachy hiti- 
hdaya. vi. Kawiqga; namni; 
ihduptai). n. Oyuktaij; oecoi). 
By turns, uijmaij itogto. — His 
turn, i'ye iyehantu. 

turns, n. Isnatipi. 

turn-about, adv. Uqmaqitogto. 

turn-coat, n. Titokaqki. 

turning-point, n. Tukten to'keca- 

turnip, n. Ti'psina. 

turnkey, n. Tiyopayulidoka. 

turnpike, n. Caqkumdoya. 

turpentine, n. Wazihaqpi. 

turpitude, n. Wodice. 

turtle, n. Ke'ya. Soft-shell, ke- 

turtle.dove, n. Tin'wakiyedai). 

tush, inter j. Hot. 

tusk, n. Hiqske. 

tussle, vt. Kici ecoi). 

tut, inter}, Hiijte. 

tutelage, n. Wooijspe. 

tutor, n. Waoqspekiya. 

twaddle, vt. Itutuia. 

twain, a. Noij'pa. 

tweezers, n. Wi'yuiipe. 

twelfth, a. Iakenoijpa. 

twelve, a. Akenoqpa. 

twenty, a. Wikcemnanoqpa. 

'twere, contr. it were. 

twice, a. Noij'paakilide. 

twif, n. Cai)ii)kpa. 

twilight, n. Ki'taqna aq'pa ; owa- 

twill, vt. Yugopise kazoijta. 
twin, n. Cekpa. 
twine, n. Halioijta oi) wapafitapi. 

vt. Yuwi; soi). 
twinge, vt. Yazimzipa ; naij'ka. 
twinkle, vt. Iyega; T. ilega. 
twirl, vt. Yuhomni. 
twist, vt. Pahmun ; yuksa. 
twit, vt. Ostehda. 
twitch, vt. Tanapa ; nan'ka. 
twitter, vt. 2izi. 
'twixt, contr. of betwixt. 
two, a. Non'pa. Only two, nom'- 

nana. — Two-edged, anogope. — 

7%e*6 two, denaoza. — Two by 

two, nom'noijpa. 
twofold, a. Non'paakihde. 
Twokettles, n. pr. Oohenonpa. 
tying, pp. of tie. 
type, n. Ma'zaoowa ; wocaze. 
typhoid, a. Taqoaqkatapi hanhi. 
typhoon, n. Tateiynmni. 
typical, a. Woiyacin. 
tyrannical, a. WawaMpazin. 
tyrannize, vt. Oi)'siya kuwa. 
tyranny, n. Wicaohitikapi. 
tyrant, n. Itaijcan snta. 


ubiquitous, a. O'wanca un. 
udder, n. Aze. 

ugly, a. Owanyagsica ; aica. 
ulcerate, vi. Tonye. 




ultimate, a. Ihanke. 

ultimately, adv. Un'hanketa. 

ultra, a. Aokageca. 

umbrage, n. Wosihda. 

umbrella, n. O'hanzihdepi. 

un* t pref. 6ni. 

unable, a. Okihisni. 

unanimous, a. Tawacinwanzidaij. 

unanswerable, a. Ayuptepicasni. 

unavoidable, a. Yutokecapicasni. 

unawares, a. Tak'ecinsni. 

unbar, vt. Yukca. 

unbelief, n. Wacetunhdapi. 

unbend, vt. Yuowotanna ; yuzioa. 

nnbid, a. Kicopisni ; da'pisni. 

unbind, vt. Yukca. 

unbolt, vt. Yusdoka. 

unbosom, vt. Wonahbe oyaka. 

unbounded, a. Woptecasni. 

nnbrldle, vt. Iiyuwi yusdoka. 

unbuckle, vt. Yuska. 

unburden, vt. Yuhpa. 

unbutton, vt. Yukca. 

uncertain, a. To'ketutaninsni. 

unchain, vt. Ma'za yuska. 

nncle, n. Deksi. Your uncle, ni- 
deksi. — His uncle, deksitku. — 
My father's brother, ate. 

unclothed, a. Tancodan. 

uncoil, vt. Yuhda. 

uncomfortable, a. Taijyarjsni. 

uncommon, a. He'cetusni ece ; to- 

unconcerned, a. Tak'ecinsni. 

nucork, vt. Iostanicu. 

uncouth, a. Onspesni. 

uncover, vt. Yuzamni. 

unction, n. Cantiyowieahi. 

uncurl, vt. Kiyusto. 

undeceive, vt. Okahnihya. 

undeniable, a. I'enhdepicasni. 

under, prep. Ihukuya ; iyohisni. 
Under the house, ti'pi ihukuya. 
— Under weight, tkeutapi iyo- 
hisni. — Under fire, kutepi en'- 
tu. a. Hukuya; imahen, an 
under layer. 

underbid, vt. dukya ka. 

underbrush, n. Otehi. 

underclothes, n. Mahenunpi. 

undergo, vt. Akipa. 

underhanded, a. Nahman skan. 

undermine, vt. Ohdateya fca. 

underneath, a. Ihukuya. 

underpin, vt. Tihute ka'ga. 

underrate, vt. Ihukuya yawa. 

understand, vt. Okahniga ; ecin ; 
nahon. — Do you understand, 
oyakahniga he. — Do you under- 
stand English, Wasicun iapi na- 
yahon he. 

understanding, n. Wookahnige. 

understate, vt. Ihukun oyaka. 

undertake, vt. Econiyuta. 

undertaker, n. Wicaha. 

undo, vt. Yuzuzu. 

undone, pp. of undo. 

undoubted, a. Cetunhdasni. 

undress, vt. Heyake hdusdoka. 

undying, a. Tepicasni. 

nnearth, vt. Yutanin. 

unearthly, a. Maka etanhan sni ; 

uneasy, a. Iyokipisni un. 

unequal, a. Iyekicetusni ; kaoci- 

unequivocal, a. Tanin hca. 

uneven, a. Mda'yesni ; iyehanyan • 

unexpected, a. Waktapisni. 

unfailing, a. Yusotepicasni. 

unfair, a. Owotannasni. 

unfaithful, a. Wicakesni. 

unfasten, a. Yuska. 

unfavorable, a. Okiciwastesni ; 

unfeeling, a. Cantewanica. 

unfit, a. Iyecetusni. vi. Ecetu- 

unfix, vt. Yuecetusni. 

unfold, vt. Yumdaya ; yutanin. 

unfortunate, a. Wa'pisni. 

unfortunately, adv. Wa'pisniyan ; 

unfounded, a. Yuwicakapisni. 

unfriendly, a. Watoghda. 

unfurl 252 

unfurl, vt. Yuzamni. 

ungainly, a. Onspesni. 

ungodly, a. Wakantanka awaciij- 

unhappy, a. Cantewaste&ni. 
unharness, vt. Ikai) yusdoka. 
unhealthy, a. Zanisni. 
unhitch, vt. Yuska. 
unhorse, vt. Pahpa. 
unhurt, a. Ksu'weyesni. 
uniform, a. O'wanzidan ; a'kidece- 

ca. n. Akicita taheyake. 
nnlformly, adv. He'cetuwanzica. 
unify, vt. Yuokonwanzidan. 
uninterrupted, a. Nagiyeyesni. 
anion, n. Yuokonwanzipi ; yu- 

wanzipi; wowanzi. a. Yuwi- 

unique, a. Wicisnana. 
unison, n. O'wanzi. 
unit, n. Wanzina ; wayawapi oi- 

unite, vt. Yuokonwanzidan ; i'ci- 

universal, a. Sintomni. 
unlversalist, n. A'taya ni'pi kta 

unjointed, a. O'kihe papsun. 
unkind, a. Waonsidasni. 
unlawful, a. Woope ohnasni. 
unlearned, n. Waonspesni. 
unless, conj. Sni kinhai). 
unlike, a. Iyececesni. 
unlimited, a. Woptecasni ; tohaij- 

yai) cen. 
unload, vt. fietezu ; pahpa. 
unlock, vt. Yuhdoka j yusdoka. 
unloose, vt. Yuska. 
unmarried, a. Tansna un. 
unnatural, a. Ohantokeca. 
unnecessary, a. Ituya; iyecece- 
f unpack, vt. Yuzuzu ; icu. 
unpleasant, a. Oasica. 
unravel, vt. Yukca. 
unreasonable, a. Tawaciqwauica ; 

unripe, a. Sutoijsni. 


unroll, vt. Yumdaya. 

unruly, a. Wanahonsni. 

unsaddle, vt. Akin yusdoka. 

unsafe, a. Okokipe. 

unscrew, vt. Yuhbezapi yusdoka, 

unsightly, a. Owanyagsica. 

unsound, a. Zanisni ; ecetusni. 

unspeakable, a. Oyagpicasni. 

unsuitable, a. Iyecetusni. 

untie, vt. Yuska. 

until, pi'ep. Hehanyan ; ecen. 

untiring, a. Econkaph) sni. 

unto, prep. Hehanyai) ; ekta. 

untoward, a. E'citapesni ; hmii). 

untrue, a. Wieakesni. 

untried, a. Iyutapisni. 

untwist, vt. Yuhda. 

unusual, a. He'oetusni ecee ; wa'- 

unwell, a. Wayazanhda. 

unwind, vt. Yuhda. 

unwonted, a. Nakahas. 

unworthy, a. Iyecetusni. 

nnyoke, vt. Wanapin yuska. 

up, prep. Wankan ; bosdan ; i'tan- 
wankanhde ; in/kpata ; iyehan ; 
a'taya. Go up, wankan ya. — 
Stand up straight , bosdan owo- 
tanna na'zin. — Up hill, paha 
i'tanwaqkaqhde* — Up the liver, 
wakpa in/kpata. — He ate it all 
up, a'taya owasin yu'ta. — Blow 
up the boiler, minioipihye bo- 
mdaza. — Burn up, a'taya nu- 
hnaga. — The time is up, wanna 
iyehantu. — Upside down, ahda- 

upbraid, vt. Ba ; iyopeya. 

upheave, vt. Pawankan iyeya. 

uphold, upheld, vt. O'kiya ; wan- 
kan yu'za. 

upland, n. Mdamdata. 

uplift, vt. Yuwankan icu. 

upon, prep. Akan; ehan. Bor- 
ders upon, opapun icahtaka. — 
Live upon, on ni. 

Upper, a. Wankantu. Upper lip, 


uppermost, a. Iyotan. wankantu. 

upright, a. 1. Bosdantu : an up- 
right post. 2. Owotanna : an 
upright man. 

uprising, n. Anaziqpi. 

uproar, n. Owodutatoi). 

uproot, i?t. Yuzui). 

upset, vt. Yuptaijyai). 

upshot, n. Woyustai). 

upside down, adv. Ab.dapsin.yai). 

upstairs, n. Waijkantipi. 

upstart, n. Nakahas tan in. 

upward, adv. Wankantkiya. 

urban, a. Otonwekanya. 

urbane, a. Ohanwasteka. 

urchin, n. Wakanheza. 

urge, vt I'yopastake ; inahniya. 

urgent, a. Wakitai). 

urinate, vi. De'za. 

urn, n. Makacega. 

us, pro. Uijkiyepi. 

usage, n. Woecoi) ; wioohai). 

use, vt Un, j kicun. Use for, e'e- 

253 varnish 

kiya nn,. — ?7*e tip, yusota. — 
Ifre tceM, tan/yai) kuwa. t*. 
1. Eoewakta : he is used to 
work. 2. To'hinni : he used to 
live here. n. Uij'pi; ta'ku oi) 
waste. 3To use, uqpieadni; 

useful, a. Un/piwaste ; uijpica. 

useless, a. Ta'ku oi) mjpicasni. 

usher, n. Tiyopa awanyake. 

usual, a. Ecoijpiecee ; to'ketu eoe. 

usurp, vt Icu ; ta'wasniicu. 

usury, n. Wakapeya kazuzuMya. 

Ute, n. pr. Sa'pawicasta. 

utensil, n. Wi'kicanye. 

uterus, n. Tamni. 

utilitarian, n. Wakicuijktehca. 

utilize, vt Ta'kuye. 

utmost, a. Ihai)ke ; iyotai). 

utter, vt E'napeya ; taijinyan. e'ya. 
a. Ocowasii). 

utterance, n. Ho e'napeya. 

uttermost, a. Ihanketan. 

vacancy, n. Oko. 
vacant, a. Cokadan han ; okan. 
vacate, vt. Kiyukaq ; tokan ya. 
vacation, n. Oko ; oziyapi. 
vaccinate, vt Pezuta okandogya. 
vacillate, vi. Ake to'keca oee ; 

vacuum, n. Ta'kudai) en nn sni. 
vagabond, n. Tu'we ituya nn. 
vagina, n. dan ; wisan. 
vagrant, n. Ituya omani. 
vague, a. To'ketutaijiijsni. 
vain, a. Wi'tant&n ; ta'kusni on 

itai) ; ta'kusni. 
vainly, adv. Ituya. 
va'le, interj. Taijyai) yaun. nunwe. 
vale, n. O'smaka. 
valedictory, n. Ehake wohdaka. 
valiant, a. Waditaka. 
valid, a. Wicake ; he'eetu ; suta. 

valise, n. Wizipan ; wapapsuijka. 
valley, n. Makosmaka. 
valor, n. Wowaditake. 
valuable, a. Yuhapi waste ; teM- 

ke ; wi'yokihi. 
value, vt Yawa ; teninda. n. Iya- 

valueless, a. Ta'kudai) iyokihisni. 
van, n. Otokahe. 
vane, n. Tate e'pazo. 
vanish, vi. Taijiijsni iyaye. 
vanity, w. Ta'kusni. 
vanquish, vt. Ohiya. 
vapor, n. Opo ; minipo. 
variable, a. Aketokeca ece. 
variation, n. Tohanyan to'keca. 
variety, n. Ocaze ; toktokeca. 
various, a. Toktokeca. 
varnish, n. Iunpi wiyakpa. vt. 

Wiyakpaya iun. 

vary 254 

vary, vt. Togye ka'ga ; yntokeca. 
vase, it. Kampeaka wohnake. 
vast, n. Tan'ka : woptecaani. 
vat,n. Kokatanka. 
vault, n. Mibeya awakeyapi. 
vaunt, vt. Ihdatai). 
veal, n. Ptezicedan tado. 
veer, vi. Yuktan iyaye. 
vegetable, n. Ta'kusni&ni wozupi. 
vehement, a. Wohitika. 
vehicle, n. Oaye ; caijpakmiyan. 
veil, it. Iteakaftpe ; minifinha gan- 

gan. vt. Akanpa. 
vein, n. We'kaniyapasni ; in'yan- 

velocity, it. Woduzahan. 
velvet, n. Mininuha hin'ton wiya- 

vend, vt. Wi'yopeya. 
venerable, a. Okmihan. 
venerate, vt. Yuonihan. 
vengeance, n. Watokieonpi. 
venison, n. Tahca tado. 
venomous, a. Wayu&ica. 
vent, vt. Yatanin. n. Woyatanin ; 

ventilate, vt. Okadusya ; yutanin. 
venture, vt. Ojoya; tawatenya; 

iynta. n. Woiyute. At a ven- 
ture, ituyaciij. 
venturesome, a. Itonpe&ni skan. 
veracity, n. Iewicakapi. 
verb, n. Wawoyake iapi. 
verbatim, adv. Iapi iyohi. 
verdant, a. To. 
verdure, n. Wato. 
verdict, n. Woyaco ; woyasu. 
verge, n. Tete ; opapui) ; oinkpa. 
verify, vt. Yuwioaka. 
verily, adv. A'wicakehai). 
veritable, a. Wioaka. 
vermilion, n. Wa&eda ; wase. 
vermin, n. Wamdudai) ; he'ya. 
vernacular, n, Hunkake iapi ta'- 

versatile, a. Wayupika. 
verse, n. Oehde. * 
version, n. Ieskayapi ; oyakapi. 


versus, prep. Ftkokim. 
vertebra, n. Canhahaka. 
vertex, n. O'inkpa ; ipa. 
vertical, a. Bosdata. 
very, adv. Ni'na ; Mi) ; Mil) ; nca ; 

Y. ncii). Very good, ni'na wa- 
ste ; wastenca. 
vesper, n. fltayetu woeekiye. 
vessel, it. Ce'ga ; wak&ea ; wa'ta. 

Blood vessel, we kan. 
vest, n. A'okinanna ; Y. kahdog- 

ostanpi. vt. Eu ; yuhekiya. 
vestibule, it. Tiyopatipi. 
vestige, it. Owe ; wowakta. 
vestment, n. Heyake ; sina. 
vestry, n. Wieastawakan ookiye. 
veteran, n. Tu'we ehanna. a. 

veto, vt. Teninda ; anapta. 
vex, vt. Nagiyeya. 
vexation, it. Wonagiyeya. 
vU^prep. Iyoopta. 
vial, n. 2anzanna. 
vibrate, vi. Kaozeze. 
vicarious,**. E'ekiya. 
vice, n. Wicohansica ; ma'zaiyn- 

vicc-,j>rep. O'Mhe. Vice-president, 

itancan o'kihe. 
vicinity, n. Oakiyedai). 
vicious, n. Ocin&ca ; si'ca. 
victim, n. Wo&napi ; woteyapi. 
victor, n. Tu'we ohiya. 
victorious, a. Ohiya. 
victory, n. Woohiye. 
victuals, n. Woyute. 
vide, v. Wanyaka. 
vie, vi. Econ : vie with. 
view, vt. Wanyaka ; amdeza. n. 

Wowaijyake ; owanyake. 
vigil, n. Hankiktapi. 
vigilant, a. Wakta un. 
vigor, n. Wowas'ake ; ni'na. 
vigorous, a. Was'aka. 
vile, a. Si'ca ; wahte&ni. 
vilify, vt. Ya&ica. 
village, n. Otonwe ei'stinna. 
villain, n. Tu'we ai'ca. 




villainy, n. Wosice. 
yim, n. Woohitika. 
vindicate, vt Yuwicaka ; ikiya. 
vindictive, a. Watokiconwacin. 
vine, n. Caijwiyuwi. 
vinegar, n. Mintekumna. 
vineyard, n. Hastai)hai)ka owozu. 
violate, vt Kicaksa ; yusica. 
violence, n. Woohitika ; wosice. 
violent, a. Wohitika. 
violently, adv. Wohitiya. 
violet, n. Wahca tahuksai). 
viper, n. Wamduskasica. 
virago, n. Wilj'yai) ohitika. 
virgin, n. Witan&na ; te'ca. 
virile, a. Wica ; wicasta. 
virtue, n. Wowaste ; wowatfake. 
virulent, a. Wayusica. 
virus, n. Wosice su. 
visage, n. Itohnake. 
vise, n. MazwiyusMte. 
visible, a. Tanin. 
vision, n. Wowanyake; wi'wan- 

yake ; wawaijyakapi. 
visionary, a. Wi'hanmna se. 
visit, vt Titokai) i. n. Titokai)- 

visitor, n. Tu'we titokai) i. 
vial, a. On ni'pi. 
vitality, n. Ni'pi wowas'ake. 
vitiate, t;J. Yusica. 
vituperate, vi. I en hde. 
vivacious, a. Wi'haha. 
vivid, a. Tanii) hca. 
vocabulary, w. Ieskawowapi;iapi. 
vocal, a. Wicaho ; dowanpi. 

vocation, n. Wicohai). 

vogue, n. Woecon. 

voice, n. Wicaho. vf. Tatanin. 

void, a. Ecetusni ; ookadan. 

volatile, a. Eohai) ske'pa. 

volcano, n. Paha ide. 

volition, n. Owaciijyuze. 

volley, n. Ptaya econpi. 

volume, n. Wowapi wanzi ; o'yu- 

voluntarily, adv. Iyecinka. 
voluntary, a. Iyecinka econpi. 
volunteer, vi. Iyecinka e'ya. n. 

I'ye cii) o'pa ; akicita. 
voluptuous, a. Wicins'a; wacan- 

vomit, vt. Hde'pa. n. Hde'papi. 
voracious, a. Ni'na docin ; ni'na 

vortex, n. Miniomni. 
votary, n. Ihakta. 
vote, vi. Wowapi iyohpeya ; ka- 

vouch, vi. Yuwicaka. Vouch for, 

voucher, n. Wayuwicaka. 
vouchsafe, vt Ku ; okihiya. 
vow, vi. Wakantanka cezeyan 

e'ya. n. Woiciconze. 
vowel, n. Oowa ho'waijzi. Oowa 

dena hecen iciyapi : a, e, i, o, u. 
voyage, n. Watom oicimani. 
vulgar, a. Waonspekesni ; ikceka ; 

vulnerable, a. Bohdogpica. 
vulture, n. Heca. 


wabble, vi. Paptanptan ; vuktan- 

wad, n. Iyopuhdi. 
waddle, vi. Maga se ma'ni. 
wade, vt Gopa. 
wafer, n. Wi'puspe. 

waft, vt Kahbogya. 

wag, vt. Yuhuhuza. Wag the head, 
po'ptanptan. — Wag the tail, si- 
cupsanpsai). n. Tu'we wawi- 

wage, vt Euwa. n. Wi'si. 

wager 256 

wager, vt. Yekiya. 

wages, n. Wokazuzu ; wi si. 

waggish, a. Wawifiaye. 

wagoo,n. Canpahmihma; Y. can- 
pakmiyai) ; T. canpagmiyan. 

wagon-bow, n. Caijkfianakeyapi. 

wagon-box, n. Canpakmiyan sko- 

wall, n. Hoksiyopa enpeyapi. 

wail, t*. Ce'ya. Wail for, aceya. 

wainscot, ». Timahen hepiyaoka- 

waist, n. Nigute ; ipiyake. 

waistband, n. Nitoske ipiyake. 

wait, vt. 1. Apeun : wait UU he 
comes, — Wait for, akipe; wa- 
kta nn. 2. Wi'yeya na'zin ; 
waokiya na'zin : wait on tiie 
table, n. Wi'yeya un'pi. Lie 
in wait, waape. interj. Hiijyan- 

waiter, n. Wayutankiyapi. 

waive, vt. Ku; kiyukan. 

wake, trf. Yunica. w. Kikta. n. 
1. Hankiktapi. 2. Wa'ta owe. 

wakeful, a. Kiktasa. 

waken, vt. Yunica. 

walk, vi. Ma'ni : does the baby 
walk. — Walk on, amani. — Wa& 
around, omani. n. 1. Ma'nipi : 
his gait is a walk. 2. Omanipi ; 
oomani : take a walk. 

walker, n. Manipi ; mani. 

wall, n. 1. Tibosdata: a painting 
on the wall. 2. Con'kaske : a 
stone wall. vt. Acankaske. 

walled, a. Acankaskapi. 

wallet, n. Ma'zaskaozuha ; wapa- 

wallop, vt. Kasaksaka ; popomya 

wallow, vi. Ihduptaijptan. 
walnut, n. Hma ; kma ; gma. 
walrus, n. Ui)ktehi ; unkcehi. 
waltz, n. Kaicitkokim wacipi. 
wampum, n. Wamnuhadan ; wa- 

wan, a. Ukaececesni. 


wand, n. Cansakadan. 

wander, vi. Nu'ni ; omani. 

wanderer, n. Omanisa. 

wane, vi. Ci'stinna a'ya. 

want, vt 1. Gin : I want some 
water. 2. Icakiza ; co'dai) ui) : 
she wants even bread. 3. Iyo- 
hisni : it wants one inch. n. 1. 
WokaMze : in want. 2. Co'dai) 
tin : withered for the want of 
rain. 3. Ta'ku cin'pi : civiliza- 
tion increases man's wants. 

wanting, pa. Wanioa ; iyehanyan- 
sni ; iyokpani. 

wanton, -a. Wananon&ni. 

war, n. Wokicize. Make war, wo- 
kicize ka'ga. — War-club, can/- 
npi. — War-dance, i wakicipi . — 
War-party, ozuye. vi. Kiciza. 

warble, vi- I'yasnasna do wan. 

war-cry, n. I'yakisasapi. 

ward, n. Tu'we awanyakapi. 

ward off, vt. Kakamiyeya. 

warden, n. Waawaijyake. 

wardrobe, n. Heyake ; heyake wo- 

ware, imp of wear. 

ware, n. Wi'Mcanye : woyuha. 

warehouse, n. Wokihnaketipi. 

warfare, n. Wokicize. 

warily, adv. Waktaya. 

warlike, a. Kiswaein ; ksi'zeca. 

warm, a. 1. Ka'ta : warm water; 
warm weather. 2. Co'za : warm 
clothing. 3. Waihaktapi : warm 
friends, vt. Kanya ; ka'ta a'ya. 

warmth, n. Wokata. 

warn, vt. Iwaktaye. 

warning, n. Iwaktayapi. 

warp, vt. Yuskopa ; yutokeea. n. 
Hahonta kazontapi. 

warrant, n. Oyuspesipi wowapi. 
vt. 1. Yuwicake : / warrant the 
goods. 2. Iyowiijyai) : it did 
not warrant your going. 

warrior, n. Ozuye wicasta. 

wart, n. Ukaanoge. 

wary, a. Wakta un ; ksa'pa. 




was, imp. of be. Un. 

wash, vt. 1. Yuzaza : wash clothes. 

2. Pakii)ta : wash away sins, 
vi. Wayuzaza : he washed. 

wash, n. On yuzazapi. 

wash-basin, n. Napozaza. 

wash-board, n. Canipaskice. 

wash-boiler, n. Heyake ipihye. 

wash-bowl, n. Napozaza. 

wash-pan, Napozaza. 

wash-stand, «. Ahna ihduzazapi. 

washout, n. Minibohya, 

washtub, n. Wi'yuzaza. 

wasp, n. Tuhmaga han/ska. 

waste, vt. Yutakunisni. a. Ta'- 
kuyepicasni; makoskantu. n. 
Wotakunisni ; woihai)ke. 

wasteful, a. Waihangyes'a. 

wasting, j>a. Yutakunisni. 

watch, vt. 1. Awanyaka : watch 
the cattle. 2. Amdes un ; opa- 
nta kuwa : watch the thief. 
vi. Waawanyag un ; amdes un. 
n. 1. Waawanyake : the watch 
stood guard. 2. Sioarjopiye wi'- 
hiyayedan. 3. dun'ka caze. 

watchful, a. Waktaun. 

watchman, n. Waawanyake. 

watchword, n. Wowaktaiapi. 

water, n. Mini; Y. mni. n. 1. 
Miniku : water the cows. 2. Mi- 
niapapson : water the plants. 

3. Mini icahi : watered the milk. 
Water-cask, miniyaja. — Water- 
elm, peikceka. — Water-fowl, 
miniwakinyanna. — Water-mitt, 
miniwokpan . — Wa ter- tight, ku- 
se sni ; miniondogyesni. 

watercloset, n. Tankantipi. 
watercourse, n. Wakpadai). 
watercure, n. Mini on kuwapi. 
watered, a. Miniyukan. 
waterfall, it. Minihinhe. 
waterhole, n. Minioskokpa. 
watermelon, n. Sa'kayutapi ; Y. 

waterplpe, n. Minimazondogeca. 
waterpot, n. Miniwakiskokpa. 

waterproof, a. Minikandokesni. 

waterspout, n. Manpiyahomni. 

watersupply, n. Minioicu. 

waterway, n. Wa'tatacanku. 

waterwheel, n. Minibohomni. 

waterwork, n. Minioieukagapi. 

watery, a. Mini o'ta. 

wattle, n. Iyonasasa. 

wave, n. Ta'za : the waves roll, 
vt. Ko'za ; kahboka. 

waver, vi. Pataka ; kitansni. 

wavy, a. Mnimiza. 

wax, n. Can sin; tunmagacesdi. 
vi. 1. Icaga : wax great. 2. 
A'ya ; o'cim : wax angry. 

waxy, a. Can sin o'tkapa. 

way, n. Canku; wokuwa; woi- 
yopte. By the way, tahepi ; 
icunhannakes. — By way of, iya- 
opteya. — Half-way, eokaya. — 
In many ways, o'takiya. — A 
little way, ci'stiyedan. — A long 
way, te'han. — Out of the way, 
canku anawam. — To give way, 
enakiya; ksa. — To make way, 

. iyopte. — That way, canku he ; 
he'ciya. — Way passenger, can- 
ku ihanke sni na'zii) kta. 

wayfaring, a. I'cimaniun. 

waylay, vt. Iyape. 

wayside, n. Cankuicahda. 

wayward, a. Wananoi)sni ; ske'he. 

wayworn, a. Omaniwatuka. 

we, pro. Urjkiyepi ; unkiye. 

weak, a. Was'akesni ; sutasni ; 
ta'kusni ; hahadan. 

weaken, vt. Was'akesniya. vi. 

weakly, a. Sintin ; wayazans'a. 

weakness, n. Wowasakesni. 

weal, n. Wozani. 

wealth, n. Wowizice ; woyuha. 

wealthy, a. 2i'ca; wi'zica. 

wean, vt. Azin ayustaqkiya. 

weapon, n. Wi'pe ; ikteka. 

wear, wore, worn, vt. 1. In ; un ; 
oton : wore a white dress. 2. 
Patani; payeza; pakuka. 3. 

wearily 258 

Yutakunisni : worn out. Wear 
off, yutepa. — Wear well, te'han 
tarjni sni. n. 1. Un'pi : worse 
for wear. 2. Heyake : summer 

wearily, adv. Watnkaya. 

weariness, n. Wowicatuka. 

wearisome, a. Wawicatuka. 

weary, a. Watiika; mdo'ktya; 
eoonkap'in. vt. Watukaya. vi. 
Watuka z. kap'in . 

weasel, ». Hitunkasan. 

weather, ft. Anpetu to'keca ; aij- 
petu ; tate. Warm weather, aij- 
petu maste. — Out in the weath- 
er, tankan tate kin en. vt. En 
skan ; i'tkokipa. 

weave, vt. Kazonta. 

weaver, n. Wakazonta. 

web, n. Wakazontapi. Spider's 
web, unktomi tahokata ; wa- 

wed, vt. Yu'za ; wakanyuza ; kici 
i'ciyakaska : he is wedded to his 

wedding, n. Wakankiciyuzapi. 

wedge, n. Canicasdeca. vt. En 
paotins iyeya. 

wedlock, n. Okiciyuze. 

Wednesday, n. Anpetuiyamni. 

wee, a. Ni'na ci'stinna. 

weed, n. Canhdohu; wato. vt. 
Canhdohu yuzun. 

weedy, a. Canhdohu o'ta. 

week, ft. Anpetuwakan oko ; an- 
petu sakowin. 

weekly, a. Anpetudakowin ca. 

weep, wept, vi. Ce'ya; istamni- 
hanpe au. Weep for, aceya. 

weigh, vt. 1. Tkeuta : weigh corn. 

2. Iyukcan : weigh his words. 

3. Tkeya waqka : weighs him 

weight, ft. Otkeute ; tkeutapi. 
weighty, a. Tke ; wacinyepica. 
weird, a. Wakanse. 
welcome, vt. Iyuskii) kuwa ; iki- 
ciyuskin : I welcome you. a. 


Tan'yan hi ; wastedapi : a wel- 
come guest. ». Wowiyuskin; 
wooanteyuza waste. 

weld, vt. Ma'zaiyaskamya. 

welfare, n. Zaniyanunpi. 

well, adv. Tan 'van ; canpteh ; yu- 
piya ; aiecetu. a. Tan'yan ; za- 
ni ; waste, ft. 1. Mnicapi ; mni- 
ohdogyapi: a deep well. 2.. 
Oahinape ; oicn : wells of learn- 
ing, excl. Eca ; hun'hunhe. 

well-being, n. Tan'yanunpi. 

well-known, a. OMtanin. 

well-off, a. Waynha; tan'yan un. 

well-spring, w. Oahinape. 

welt, ft. Oko wi'puspe. 

welter, vi. Kadomdopa. 

wench, n. Win/yan. 

wend, vt. Iokawinh ya. 

went, imp. of go. 

wept, imp. of weep. 

were, imp. pi. of be. 

west, a. & ». Wiyohpeyata. West 
of, i'wiyohpeyata. 

west-bound, a, Wiyohpeyata ya. 

westerly, adv. Wiyohpeyatakiya. 

western, a. Wiyohpeyata. 

westward, a. Wiyohpeyatakiya. 

wet, a. 1. Spa'ya : wet clothes. 
2. Magazus'a : a wet day. vt. 
Spa'yeya. ». Mini; wospaya. 

wether, ft. Ta'hoasunka susuwa- 

whack,ftrf. Skabyeh apa. 

whale/ft. Hogan iyotan tan Tea; 
nnktehi. Whale-bone, nnktehi 

wharf, ». Wa'taoihuni. 

what,»pro. 1. Ta'ku : what do you 
want. 2. To'ken : what do they 
call you. 3. To'nakeca : what 
is the weight, a. 1. Tukte : 
what boy. 2. Ta'kn : what ras- 
cals. 3. Tohantu. What time 
is it, wi'hiyaye tohantu he. 
4. To'na : he gave them what 
chickens he had. 

whatever, pro. Talrakasta. 

whatsoever 259 

whatsoever, pro. Ta'kukasta. 
wheat, n. Aguyapisu. 
wheedle, vt. Iskuyakuwa. 
wheel, n. Gai)pahmihma ha ; can- 

hdeska; ma'zamibe. vt. Pa- 

hmihma iyeya ; aohomniya. vi. 

Ohomni ya ; pahmihma ya. 
wheelbarrow, n. Huwanzipahmi- 

wheeze, vi. fihnunyai) niya. 
whelp, n. dunhpadai). 
when, adv. Tohan : when I go. — 

They stayed till dark, when they 

went, o'tpaza hehanyai) en un/- 

pi, hehan kihdapi. 
whence, adv. To'Myatanhan ; to- 

whenever, adv. Tohaijtukasta. 
whensoever, adv. Tohan tukaSta. 
where, adv. Tukten, where are 

you. — To'kiya, where is he 

whereabouts, adv. Tuktentu. 
whereas, conj. Nakaeft; canke- 

whereat, conj. Tukte ekta ; he'on. 
whereby, adv. Ta'ku oi) ; tukte 

wherefore, adv. To'keca; ta'ku 


wherein, adv. Tukte en. 
whereinsoever, adv. Tukteentu- 

whereinto, adv. Tukteentu. 
whereof, adv. Tukte etanhai). 
whereon, adv. Tukte akan. 
wheresoever, adv. Tuktentukasta. 
whereto, adv. Tukte ekta. 
whereupon, adv. Ta'ku akan ; iye- 

wherever, adv. Tuktentukasta. 
wherewith, adv. Ta'ku on. 
wherwlthal, adv. Ta'ku on. 
whet, vt. Yuman ; iyohdiva. 
whether, conj. Uijmantukte : tell 

us whether you are going or not. 
whetstone, n. Iyohdi ; T. miyo- 

kdi ; T. miyogli ; izuza. 


whey, n. Asanpimini. 

which, pro. Tukte : tell which you 

prefer; which boy did it. 
whichever, pro. Tukte wanzi. 
whiff, vt. Ipohiyeya. 
while, conj. Icunhan : while you 

are here. n. Wi'hiyayedan oij- 

spa : rest a while, vt. Wi'- 

hiyaye yusota : while away your 

whilst, conj. Icunhaq. 
whim, n. Inahni tawacii). 
whimper, vi. Iyokipisni ia. 
whimsical, a. Tawacii) skehe. 
whine, vi. Ho'pinsyaceya. 
whinny, vi. £tan/kawakanhotoi). 
whip, n. Icapsinte. vt. 1. Kapsin- 

psinta ; apa : she whipped the 

boy. 2. Ohankoya iou : whipped 

out a knife. 3. Ohiya ; wicakte : 

our side whipped. 
whlphandie, n. Icapsinte ihupa. 
whirl, vt. Kahomni. vi. Homni. 
whirlpool, n. Miniomni. 
whirlwind, n. Tateiyumni. 
whisk, vt. Kahiniyeya. 
whisk-broom, n. Wi'cahiqtena. 
whiskers, n. Ikuhin. 
whisky, n. Miniwakan. 
whisper, vi. 2izi. Whisper to, azi- 

zi. n. 2izipi. 
whistle, vt. & vi. to; zozo ; he- 

mani hotoi). n. Yahotonpij 

whistler, n. 2o'sa. 
whit, n. Ondpadan. ; eeaea. 
white, a. Ska. White man, Wa- 

sicun. — White paint, wi'sanye, 
whltecap, n. Tazabobdu. 
whiten, vt. Ska ka'ga. 
whiteness, n. Ska ; woska. 
whitening, n. On yuskapi. 
whitewash, n. Miniwisaijye. 
whither, adv. To'kiya. 
whitish, a. Sai). 
whittle, vt. Pazipa ; yucifca. 
whiz, vi. fihnun. 
whizzing, a. dmun/yaq. 




who, pro. inter. Tu'we : who did 
it. pro. rel. 1. He. The man 
who gave me the book, wica&ta 
wowapi maku kin he. 2. Tu'- 
we. He who did it will be sorry, 
tu'we ecoq kiq he cantesice 

whoa, interj. Owaqzinazin. 

whoever, pro. Tu'weka6ta. 

whole, a. 1. A'taya ; ocowasin : 
I want the whole hog. 2. Zani : 
they that are whole. 

wholeness, «. Ecaataya. 

wholesale, a. 1. Opiye a'taya wi'- 
yopeyapi : a wholesale store. 2. 
Ad'ataya : a wholesale slaughter. 

wholesome, a. Owicawaste. 

wholly, adv. 1. A'taya : he is 
wholly ignorant. 2. Heceedan : 
it was not wholly ignorance. 

whom, objective of who. Tu'we ; 

whoop, n. I'yaki'gapi. 

whooping-cough, n. Niya&ui ho- 

whop, vi. Yuptanyai). 

whopping, a. Hin'skotaqka. 

whore, ». Witkowin. 

whortleberry, w. Ha'za. 

whose, pos. pro. Tu'we ta'wa. 

whosoever, pro. Tu'we ka&ta. 

why, adv. & eonj. To'keca ; to'ka. 

wick, n. Petizanzanhahoqta. 

wicked, a. Si'ca ; wicasta&ni. 

wickedly, adv. Sicaya. 

wickedness, n. Wofcice ; woahtani ; 
ta'ku fci'ca. 

wicker, a. Gai)yai)kapi. 

wickiup, n. Cansakawakeya. 

wide, a. 1. Hdakiqyantanka ; 
tan'ka, a wide river. 2. Hda- 
kiijyan, a foot wide. adv. 1. 
Tan'kaya: spread wide. 2. 1'te- 
han : he shot wide of the mark. 

wide-awake, a. Mde'za ; waktapi. 

widely, adv. Tan'kaya. 

widen, vt. Yutarjka. 

wideness, ft. Woptecasni. 

widow, n. Wiwazica. 

widower, w. Wica wiwazica. 

width, n. Ohdakinyan. 

wield, vt. Ui) ; yuha. 

wife, w. Tawicu. My wife, mita- 
wiij. — Your wife, nitawin. 

wig, n. Wicapahakagapi. 

wiggle, vi. Yupsanpsai). 

wiggle-tail, n. Capoqkacinea. 

wigwam, n. Tiikceka. 

wild, a. 1. Ikceui) : a wild hog. 
2. Watoghda : his horse is icild; 
a wild Indian. 3. Wohitika; 
otantonka : a wild storm. 4. 
Mde'ze&ni : wild with delight; 
wild speculation. 5. Iwioiqdni- 
yai) : wild of the mark. 

wild, n. Makoce ikceka. 

wildcat, n. Inmu ; inmutanka. 

wilderness, ft. fle'makoskan j he- 

wildly, adv. Watoghdaya. 

wilful, a. 1. Tawacii) guta. 2. I'ye 
cii) econ : wilful mischief 

wilfully, adv. dieawacii) ecoi). 

wilfulness, n. Sicawaciijpi. 

will* n. 1. Tawacii) : thy will be 
done. 2. Wocanteyuza : his will 
is right. 3. Ecoi)wacii)pi : he 
works with a will. vi. sign of 
future. Kta: / will go. vt. 1. 
Kon'za ; wacirjyuza : God willed 
that there should be light. 2. 
Ku ; tohaq i'ye %e ciijhai) yuha 
kta keya : he willed the horse 
to his son. 

willing, a. Wicada ; iyowiijyai). 

willow, ft. Cohwanzica ; wahpopa. 

wilt, %d pers. sing, of will. Kta. 
vi. de'ca a'ya : the leaves wilt. 

wily, a. Wieahnayes'a. 

win, won, vt. Ohiya. 

wince, vi. Napa ; natunka. 

wind, n. 1. Tate : a cold wind. 2. 
Oniya : took his wind. 3. Woo- 
mna; wosdonye: the police got 
wind of the thief vt. 1. Iyape- 
hai) : wind the thread. 2. Yu- 




homni : wind the clock. 3. Yu- 
ksanksai) ya : he winds through 
the woods. 

windbreak, n. Tatewakagiye. 

windbroken, a. Oniyasica. 

windfall, n. 1. Tatekawanka. 2. 
Ta'ku aihpekiyapi. 

winding, a. Ksaij. 

windlass, n. Ayuhomnipi. 

windmill, n. Tateyuhomni. 

window, «. Owanyeye ; F. o'zaij- 
zankdepi; T. o'zaniaijglepi. 

windpipe, n. Dotehbeze ; Y. dote- 
kbeze; T. glogleska. 

windrow, n. Pezi ; caijkuyezupi. 

windward, a. Tatoheya. 

windy, a. 1. Tate : a windy day. 
2. Ta'ku ka tanin. fini : a windy 

wine, n. Minisa. 

wing, n. 1. flupahu. 2. Ti'pi on- 
spa aka'gapi. vt. Kiqyai) ya. 

winged, a. Ilupahuton. 

wink, vi. Istakakpaq. n. Istaka- 

Winnebago, n. Hotan/ke. 

winner, n. Tu'we ohiya. 

winning, a. 1. Ohiya : the winning 
horse. 2. Oiyokipi : winning 
ways. n. Wakamnapl. 

winnow, vt. Kaduga. 

winsome, a. Onai) waste. 

winter, n. Waniyetu : a cold win- 
ter, a. Waniyetu: winter clothes, 
vt. Waniyetu awanyaka : I win- 
tered ten cows. vi. Waniyetu 
ui) : winter in the South. 

wintry, a. Waniyetu. 

wipe, vt. Pakinta ; apawinta. 

wire, n. Ma'zapsoqpsonna. vt. 1. 
Ma'za on yuskiskita. 2. Maza- 

wiry, a. 1. Suta ; wakisaka : a 
wiry little man. 2. Ma'zapson- 
psonna se'ca : wiry hair. 

wisdom, n. Woksape. 

wise, a. 1. Ksa'pa : a wise king. 
2. Woksape : wise sayings, wo- 

ksape iapi. n. Woecoi) : in any 

wisely, adv. Ksamya. 

wish, vt. 1. Cin : I wish father 
would come. 2. Un/kans ecin : 
I wish it was day. 3. Cinkiya : 
I wish you good-night, n. Ta'ku 
cin 'pi. 

wishful, a. Cantiheya; cii). 

wishfully, adv. Cantiheyaken. 

wishy-washy, a. Takumnasni. 

wisp, n. Peziopahte. 

wist, imp. of wit. Sdonya. 

wistful, a. Sdonyewacii). 

wistfully, adv. Awacinken. 

wit, n. Wowina ; wokannige ; ta- 
wacin. To wit, iokawinh de'- 

witch, n. Tu'we wakaijkai) ; win/- 
yai) wicanmuijga. 

witchcraft, n. Wicanmuqgapi. 

with,jwep. 1. Kici: eat with him. 
2. Om : eat with them. 3. Oi) : 
cut with a knife; silent with 
shame. 4. Yuha : a horse with 
horns. 5. Iyahna : his infir- 
mities increase with his years. — 
6. Ekta : with Indians time is 
of no value. 

withal, adv. Ko'ya. 

withdraw, withdrew, vt. E'hdaku : 
he withdrew the troops, vi. Hdi- 
ou ; tokan. iyaye : he with- 

withe, n. Caqsakadai) ; conwaij- 

wither, vi. Sni'za. vt. Yudniza. 

withered, pa. Sni'za ; se'ca. 

withers, n. Amdoinkpa 

withold, vt. Ipida ; anica. 

within, prep. 1. Mahed : within 
the house. 2. I'tato ; itahena : 
within ten days. adv. Mahen. 

without, prep. 1. Taijkan; i'tan- 
kan : without the gate. 2. Co / - 
dai) : without money. 

withstand, vt. I'tkokipa; he'eehna 


witless 262 

witless, vt. Waoinksapesni. 

witness, vt, 1. Warjyaka : witness 
a battle. 2. Yatanii) : he wit- 
nessed against him, n. Wayaa- 

wittily, adv. Wowinaya. 

wittingly, adv. Amdesya. 

witty, a. Wawihaye. 

wives, n. Plural of wife. 

wizard, n. Wicahmunga. 

woe, n. Woiyokisica. 

wo-be-gone, a. A'sinya ui). 

wofal, a. Oiyokisica. 

woke, imp. of wake. 

wolf, wolves, n. Sunktokeca ; suijg- 

wolfish, a. Sunktokecase. 

woman, women, n. Winohinea ; T. 
& 7'. win/yai). A young woman ; 
8. & Y. Wikoftka; 'J. wikoska- 
laka. An old woman, wakanka ; 
Y. & T, winonea. 

womb, n. Tamni ; tezL 

won, imp. of win. 

wonder, vi. 1. Inihan : I wondered 
at the sight. 2. To'keca ecii) : 
do you wonder why I came. n. 

wonderful, a. Wowinihai). 

wondrous, a. Woyusinyan. 

won't, contr. of will not. 

wont, vt. Ecewakta. it. Ohan. 

woo, vt. Okiya ; wiokiya. 

wood, n. Can ; con'tanka. 

woodchuck, n. Hankasa. 

wooden, a. Can : can ee. 

woodpecker, n. Kanketanka. 

woodwork, n. Car) oi) ka'gapi. 

woody, a. Cai) etanhai). 

woof, n. Hahonta hdakinyai). 

wool, n. Ta'hcahii) ; hin/yumni- 

woolen, a. Ta'hcanii). 

woolly, a. Yumnimniza. 

word, n. Iapi ; wiooie. vt. Wicoie 
ka'ga : lie worded it well. — Send 
word to, iwahoya. — Word by 
word, iapi iyohi. 


wordy, a. Iapi o'ta ; iapi ece. 

wore, imp. of wear. Ui). 

work, vi. 1. fltani ; wowasi eoon. : 
work for a living. 2. A'ya : the 
fire worked down. 3. dkumna 
a'ya ; napofr a'ya : the cider 
works, vt. 1 . Kuwa ; Mcanyan ; 
work a farm. 2. fitanikiya : 
work his horse. 3. Econkiya: 
yuhomni ; yuakanskan, ; work a 
machine. 4. Ecoi) : work iniquity. 
5. Ka'ga ; icanya : faith worked 
patience. — Work oneself into a 
passion, canniyeiciya. n. 1. Wi- 
cohai) ; Y. & T. wowasi ; wo- 
litani : he wants work. 2. Wo- 
ecoi) ; wokage ; ta'ku ecoq ; ta'- 
ku ka'ge : the works of God. 
3. Ma'zayuhomni : the works of 
a icatch. 

workable, a. Kuwapica; kuwa 

worker, n. Tu'we htani: wowa- 

working, pa. fltani ; wowasi eoon. 
n. 1. Woeooi) : the workings of 
the mind. 2. Skumna a 'ye. 

workman, n. Wicawowasi. 

workshop, n. Wokagetipi. 

world, n. 1. Maka: makamibe: 
the world and all therein. 2. 
Makawita: the Old World. 3. 
Makata wicasta : all the world 
knows, 4. Wieobe : the scientific 
world. 5. Ouncage ; okage : the 
animal world. 6. Oyate ; wica- 
sta: the world smiles. 7. Oni; 
makata wiconi : begin the world 
anew. 8. Woptecasni; ni'na 
o'ta : a world of trouble. 

wordly, a. Makata. 

worm, 9i. Wamdudan; wamdu- 
skadan ; oyuhbeza. vt En ihdu- 

wormy, a. Wanmdudan yukan. 

worn, pa. Patanipi; owihanke- 

worry, vt. Nagiyeya; kakisya. 

worse 263 

vi. Icaijtesica. n. Wonagiyeya ; 

worse, a. & ado. San/pa si'ca. 
worship, vt. Ce'kiya ; ohoda. vi. 

.Wacekiya. n. Wocekiye; wo- 

ohoda ; wacekiyapi. 
worshipful, a. Okinihai). 
worst, vt. Kte'dai) ; ohiya ; yusi- 

ca. a. Iyotaq si'ca ; iyotaq te- 

worth, a. 1. IyoMhi iyecetu : the 

dog is worth ten dollars, but yon 

can't get it for him. 2. Woyuha 

yoha : died worth a million. 3. 

Iyececa : worth going to see. 

n. IyoMhi iyecetu; wo waste 

worthily, adv. Iyecetuya. 
worthless, a. Ta'kudan on waste- 

worthy, a. Wowaste yuha ; waste. 

Worthy of, on waste ; yuha iye- 
would, imp. of will. 1. Eta : he 

said he would go. 2. Gii) : / 

would know the truth. 3. Kta 

tuka : he would come if he could. 

4. Kta Mtan ; kta hca : it 

stormed but she would go. 
wound, vt. 1. O ; tao : he wounded 

the deer. 2. Caijtesinya ; kiui]- 

niyai). n. Oo;oyazai). 
wound, imp. of wind. Iyape- 

wrangle, vi. Iaakinica. 
wrangler, n. Waakinicas'a. 
wrap, vt. Iyapemni; pahta; yu- 

wi ; he'yun ; iyapehai). n. Oq 

iyapeicihaqpi ; sina ; hiyete 

wrapper, n. Akahpe ; ozuha. 
wrapping, n. Apahte. 
wrath, n. Wocanniye. 
wrathy, a. Caijniyai). 
wrathful, a. Caijniyehca. 
wreak, vt. Ahinheya. 
wreath, n. Oyuwi ; tesdake. 
wreathe, vt. Yuwi. 


wreck, vt, Ihaqgya ; yutakunisni. 
n. Ihaqgyapi ; takunisni. 

wren, n. Pteganicadan.. 

wrench, n. Yuhomni iyusdoke. 
vt. Yuksai) ; naguka ; yuka- 

wrest, vt. Yuspa ; yutokeca. 

wrestle, vi. Kaho econ. 

wretch, n. Tu'we si'ca; wahte- 

wretched, a. 1. On/sika : a wretched 
man. 2. Oiyokisica : a wretched 
day. 3. Si'ca : a wretched bed. 

wriggle, vi. Yuksanksan. ya. 

wring, vt. Yuskioa. 

wringer, n. Wi'yuskice. 

wrinkle, n. Yusinpi ; iyupiza ; yu- 
skipi. vt. Yusiijsii). 

wrist, n. Napokaske. 

wristband, n. Napokaske apahte. 

writ, n. Wowapi. 

write, wrote, written, vt. Owa; 
ka'ga. vt. Wowapi ka'ga. Can 
you tcrite, wowapi yakaga oya- 
kihi he. — / want you to write a 
letter for me, wowapi miyeci- 
caga wacin. — Write for, kici- 
caga. — Write to, ki'caga. 

writer, n. Ka'ga ; wowapi ka'- 

writhe, vt. Yutimtipa. 

writing, n. Owapi; wowapi; wo- 

writing-paper, n. Wowapiska. 

wrong, a. 1. He'cetusni : a wrong 
ansicer. 2. He'esni : the wrong 
road. 3. Owotaija sni : a wrong 
act. — Turn it wrong side out, 
yueci. vt. Owotanna ecakicoi)- 
sni. — Wrong one out of.lsi. n. 
Woowotannasni. adv. Eciqsni- 

wrongful, a. Si'ca. 
wrongfully, adv. Sicaya. 
wrote, imp. of write. 
wrought, vt. Ecoi) ; kuwa. 
wring, imp. of wring. 
wry, a. fimin; ksai). 




yacht, n. Miniwanca wa'tadan. 

Yankee, n. pr. Isaijtankahca. 

Yankton, ». pr. (Indian) Ihan- 

Yankton, ». jw. (City) dadotonwe. 

Yankton Agency, n. pr. Ihaijktoi}- 
wan Owakpamni. 

Yanktonais, «. pr. Ihanktonwan- 
na; Hunkpati. 

yard, ». 1. No'geiyutayi ; cahde- 
pi ; sihaiyutapi yamni : a yard 
of cloth. 2. Caijhdakiijyai) : the 
yard was too short for the sail. 
3. Tiokaan ; ti pi acankaskapi : 
you have nice grass in your yard. 
— Barn-yard, wanuyaqpi acan- 
kaskapi. — Brick-yard, maka- 
spai) ka'gapi owaqka. 

yardstick, n. Minihuha iyutapi. 

yarn, n. 1. Wapahmuqpi : a ball 
of yarn. 2. Ohuqkahai) : the 
boys were telling yarns. 

yawl, n. Wa'tadai) : two men rowed 
the yawl. 

yawn, vi. Iyowa. 

ye, pro. Niyepi. 

yea, adv. Hai) ; ho. 

year, n. Wi'akenoijpa ; waniyetu ; 
o'maka. — Three years, waniye- 
tu ya'mni. 

yearling, n. Makicima ; eceniea. 

yearly, adv. Waniyetu iyohi. 

yearn, vi. Cai)tokpani. 

yeast, n. Wi'napohye. 

yell, vi. Pai) ; i'yas'a; hotoi). 

yellow, a. Zi. 

yelp, vi. Hotoi) ; pai). 

yeoman, n. Wicasta makoce yuha. 

yes, adv. Hai) ; ho; tog. 

yesterday, adv. Htanihai). 

yet, adv. Nahaijhii) ; ehake ; he'- 
easta. — He is sleeping yet, na- 
haijhii) istinma. — Not yet, na- 
haqhinkeani. — Yet a little while, 
ehake ci'stiqna. — Yet he will 
go, he'easta ye kta. conj. Tu- 
ka. — Willing yet unable, wicada 
tka okihisni. 

yield, vt. Icaga; ku. — It yielded 
tenfold, wikcemna akihde ica- 
ga. vi. Iyowinyai) ; icicu ; ki- 

yoke, n. Can/wanaph) ; wohtani. 
— A yoke of oxen, tataqka aki- 
caska. vt. Ikoyagya : yoke t)w 

yolk, ft. Itkazica. 

yon, a. Ea ; ka'e. 

yonder, a. Ka; kana. — Over yon- 
der, ka'kiya. 

yore, adv. Ehanna. 

yon, pro. Ni'ye. pi. Niyepi. 

young, a. Askatudaij; deeana; 
te'ea. w. Ciijca. 

younger, a. Hakakta ; askatudaij. 

youngest, a. Iyotar) ei'stiqna ; ha- 

youngster, n. Tu'we askatudai). 

your, pro. Nitawa ; ni'ye nitawa. 

yourself, pro. Niyehca. 

yourselves, pro. pi. Niyepihca. 

youth, ft. Koaka; wikoska; wani- 
yetu tonana. 

youthful, a. Wicakoska. 

zeal, ft. Woohitika ; ni'na kuwapi. 
zealot, ft. Tu'^e ohitiya skan. 
zealous, a. Nina skai). 
zealously, adv. Mdihenya. 
zebra, ft. Suijghdezedan. 
zenith, ft. Mahpiyapesdete. 
zephyr, ft. Tateowasteca. 

zero, ft. Osniocoka ; ta'kusni. 

zest, ft. Woiyokipi. 

zigzag, adv. Yuktaqktan. 

zinc, ft. Ma'zato. 

Zion t Davidtoti;Pahawakai). 

zone, ft. Makaipiyake. 

zoology, n. Wamakaskan woonspe.