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emarg of a Pot^tr 


IK A yoLnnfE 






Her SoHj 


The need of a modern English-Persian Dictionary can 
scarcely be questioned, the massive volumes edited many 
years ago by Richardson and Wilkins respectively being 
out of print and well-nigh unprocurable ; in any case, also, 
for various reasons, they are by no means suited to the 
requirements of the present day, while the few other 
works which have appeared are, for the most part, com- 
pilations by natives of India, unacqainted with the spirit 
of the English language, and at best they rise but little 
beyond the level of vocabularies. In these circumstances, 
as I know from personal experience, a student is beset 
with difficulties, and from this point of view no apology 
is needed for an attempt to fill a void so serious and 
perplexing. There is, however, another aspect of the 
case, respecting which an explanation is due to the public. 
Reference has been made to the attempts of foreigners 
to cope with the difficulties of a strange tongue; the 
failure of an Englishman to grasp the endless shades of 
meaning of so ornate and mellifluous a language as Persian 
would scarcely be less conspicuous. Indeed, for my part, 
I am quite prepared to admit that a Dictionary should be 
the joint work of two individuals, responsible each in his 
own sphere for the accuracy of the work. Why, then, it 
may be asked, have I attempted single-handed a task for 
which 1 avow that a coadjutor is incumbent? The 
question is reasonable, and, considering that, by the 
inherent nature of things, a Dictionary must of necessity, 


for good or ill, leave " footprints on the sands of time," 
the answer is important. It seems right, therefore, that 
I should state precisely the grounds upon which I am 
tempted to hope for the accompanying work that appro- 
bation with which the public have been kind enough to 
receive my former efforts in the path of Oriental lore. It 
must be confessed that, from the very first, I was conscious 
that the fact that I have never had an opportunity of study- 
ing the language in the country where it is spoken placed 
me under an immense disadvantage, as compared with 
others more fortunate, who, from long residence in Persia, 
had the means of gaining a critical knowledge, which can 
scarcely be otherwise acquired. So fully alive was I to 
the difficulties of my position in this respect, that, had a 
more competent person been disposed to take the matter 
in hand, I should not have ventured to commence a task 
which, under the most favourable circumstances, could not 
be otherwise than tedious and, in some measure, unsatis- 
factory. As, however, time passed without an indication 
that anyone was williug to undertake the duty of compiling 
an English- Persian Dictionary, I determined, though with 
diffidence, to make the attempt myself, and I resolved to 
reverse a Persian-English Dictionary. But, on reflection, 
it at once became evident that such a mode of procedure 
would not ensure a practical result, for the obvious reason 
that, when translating from Persian into English, the 
student needs the use of every word, however pedantic 
and scarce, which is to be found in any author of note ; 
on the other hand, as regards rendering from English into 
Persian, the introduction of obsolete or neglected phrase- 
ology into a Dictionary would retard rather than assist the 
learner, who would not be likely to possess that knowledge 
and experience which alone could enable him to select 
fitting and suitable equivalents. 

These considerations, while they induced me to abandon 


the' idea of reversing a Persian-English Dictionary, im- 
pelled me to adopt, if possible, some course which should 
at once ensure the omission of what was superfluous, and 
the introduction of such words as experience might dictate 
to be requisite and advantageous. The dilemma was 
perplexing, and ultimately, as my only resource, I de- 
termined to enter upon an extensive course of reading, 
with the view of culling from newspapers and modem 
works as many terms as within a reasonable time might 
be possible. The labour was enormous, extending over 
a period of years ; and in the end, so considerable a mass 
of material was collected as to justify the commencement 
of the undertaking upon which I had resolved. In this 
portion of the work' I received much assistance from 
Lieut.-Colonel Boss, H.B.M.'s Political Resident in the 
Persian Gulf, who obtained for me collections of words 
and idioms the value of which it would be difficult to 
overrate. Matters were in a fragmentary and unsettled 
state, when, about two years ago, the native translator to 
the Bushire Residency, by name Mirza Baker, came to 
this country, and, on his arrival, placed himself in com- 
munication with me, in order to assist in a work rumours 
of which had reached him. A very short conversation 
served to indicate that my new acquaintance was a ripe 
scholar. Not only was he familiar with the Arabic and 
Turkish languages, which supply so many of the words in 
modern use in Persia, but, possessing a truly remarkable 
critical knowledge of his own tongue, he was enabled to 
afford the explanations so necessary to me. I gladly 
availed myself of his services, and, trusting to his revision, 
I also added to my collection some thousands of words, 
respecting which, as I had not absolutely met with them 
in the course of my reading, I had some doubts whether 
they should be introduced or omitted. I may mention — 
not in any spirit of arrogance or presumption, but simply 



as a fact which may tend to enable the public to form an 
estimate of the value of the work now presented to them 
— that six months were consumed in the mere revision of 
the fragmentary matter which I had collected, a task 
which Mirza Baker conducted throughout in personal 
communication with myself. At this stage I deemed 
myself justified in allowing an announcement to appear 
in a literary journal, intimating that the Dictionary was 
approaching completion. But, alas ! for the vanity of 
human plans and schemes. A few months after the 
statement to this effect was published in the Athenceum^ 
I found that the task of working up the rough notes 
would involve a labour, not of days or of months, but of 
years. In despair, I almost contemplated abandoning 
such a Herculean task, when one morning, to my surprise, 
I received an offer from an unknown correspondent in this 
country to place at my disposal papers which were deemed 
of possible use in connection with the work which I was 
understood to have in hand. 

In due course the documents arrived, and, to my* 
amazement, they turned out to be nothing less than a 
miniature Dictionary, compiled some years ago by a 
gentleman during a residence in Persia. I examined 
the production most critically, and could find scarce a 
fault therein. Somewhat perplexed as to what course to 
pursue, I ultimately determined to defer the publication 
of my own larger work, and to revise this " Pocket 
Dictionary," intending to resume my own labours on the 
appearance of its less pretentious companion, an event 
which I had hoped would not be long delayed. My 
correspondent was Mr. R. Monro Binning, and I can 
only regret that it did not fall to his lot to undertake 
a task for which he is so eminently qualified, whether as 
regards practical experience gained during a residence 
in Persia, or critical knowledge of the minutias of the 

language. Oommencing the revision of his Dictionary, I 
soon perceived that, accurate as it was in all respects, it 
was too concise for my purpose ; indeed, with the modesty 
which has characterised all his proceedings in the matter, 
Mr. Binning would never allow that his book was more 
than a mere vocabulary. In these circumstances, I was 
again compelled to change my plans, and instead of placing 
before the world a Dictionary which I felt was very far 
from complete, I determined to add thereto to a degree 
suflBcient for ordinary requirements ; the result is the 
work now before the public. As, however, I increased 
the bulk of Mr. Binning's text to at least twice its 
original size, I did not deem it fair to that gentleman to 
burden him with the responsibility of authorship, seeing 
that many of the sins — at any rate, of commission — ^must 
be laid to my charge. 

I should wish to guard myself against the presumption 
that the present volume is in any degree complete ; as 
previously stated, the preparation of a Dictionary of such 
magnitude as would be requisite to ensure the introduction 
of all the words in common use must of necessity be a 
labour of years. In my own case, the comparatively limited 
amount of time at my disposal will still further tend to 
defer the appearance of the larger work which I have 
undertaken ; meanwhile, the accompanying compilation is 
presented in the hope that it may serve for ordinary 
purposes of reference. Small and insignificant as it is, a 
considerable degree of care and labour has been expended 
in its preparation. That numerous omissions will be found 
I freely acknowledge ; but I should wish to state, with 
reference to the faults of ** commission," that I have 
inserted nothing on my own individual authority, so far, 
that is, as " coining " words is concerned. I do not 
attempt to disguise that, not improbably, in some instances, 
I may have placed erroneous interpretations upon terms 


with which I have met in the course of my reading, in 
which case errors would, as an inevitable consequence, 
have crept into the Dictionary ; however, when any doubt 
existed in my mind, I have preferred to omit rather than 
to mislead. With regard to the large array of words in 
colloquial use, which now for the first time have received 
'^a local habitation," I am privileged to quote, as the 
authority for their introduction, the names of Mirza Baker, 
Mr. Binning, and Lieut.-Colonel Boss, each of whom has 
suppUed me with information derived from a residence in 
the districts where the words in question are used in 
ordinary conversation. As to the mode of spelling and 
the accuracy of transliteration in such cases, I cannot 
avoid assuming a large degree of responsibility; indeed, 
it was impossible to do otherwise than choose a path for 
myself, in a direction where none had preceded to mark 
the way. As, however, Mirza Baker was constantly at 
hand to guide and counsel, I have some confidence as to 
the soundness of the results. 

It will be observed that there are comparatively few 
renderings given for verbs, the object being to save space; 
but the omission will not, it is thought, occasion much 
inconvenience to the student, who can refer to the sub- 
stantive, and add thereto an auxiliary verb, a process of 
** coining " which is strictly legitimate, and not more 
open to objection than the construction of such English 
phrases as, to " do repairs," to " make way," to " have 
confidence," &c. 

For a similar reason, also, it has not been deemed 
necessary to give numerous equivalents for words which 
can be found under their various synonyms. A com- 
pendious Dictionary must be deficient in some points, 
and omissions of this nature commended themselves, 
with the view of providing for the introduction of 
more uncommon words, the absence of which would 


not unlikely occasion the student difficulty and embarrass- 

It may be urged as an objection that, in the translitera- 
tion, no attempt has been made to discriminate between 
the various letters -which, though entirely distinct in 
Persian, are rendered by the same equivalent in the 
Roman character. It was thought, however, that, as 
the original words are always at hand in case of doubt, 
no difficulty would be likely to arise, and the adoption of a 
strict system of transliteration, owing to the numerous 
diacritical marks which it involves, would have materially 
added to the size and cost of the work, a consideration 
which also rendered necessary the omission of any marks 
to indicate the language to which . the various words owe 
their origin. 

The adoption of a " v " in place of a " w *' as the 
equivalent of the Persian letter ^ is open to criticism. 
Mirza Ibrahim, in his Persian Grammar, uses the former 
equivalent, while Mr. Binning, who, having resided in the 
country for a considerable period, is of necessity a high 
authority upon such a point, also adopts the " v." It is 
true that words of Arabic origin not unfrequently retain 
the original pronunciation of "w" assigned to them in 
that language, while in some districts the use of the ^W" 
is comparatively rare ; but I have been unable to gather 
that there is any fixed and invariable rule on the subject. 
On the whole, it seemed to me preferable to use a " v " 
as the equivalent of ^ , as being, in most cases, nearer 
to accuracy. Should the student have occasion to visit 
Persia, he will probably find no difficulty in adapting his 
pronunciation in this respect to the usages of the people 
by whom he may be surrounded. It is a matter of regret 
that the inquiries which resulted in this determination 
on my part were not completed till several pages of the 
Dictionary had been printed, an explanation which will, 

XIY ^EfiFAOfi. 

it is hoped, account for numerous inconsistencies in the 
earlier sheets of the Dictionary, and screen the author 
from the charge of want of care in the revision of the 
work. It would be hopeless to attempt an apology for 
the many errors which are to be found scattered 
throughout the pages of this volume, especially as regards 
the transliteration into Roman characters, a task, in some 
measure, hurriedly undertaken at the last moment, in 
deference to the views of those whose authority it would 
have been presumption on my part to have questioned. 
I can only hope that, while, on the one hand, all that is 
worthy of commendation will not be attributed to me 
personally, so, on the other, the whole of the mistakes 
will not be chargeable to ignorance or carelessness on 
my part. It is, I believe, the universal experience of 
literary men, that, as regards works of magnitude, 
especially of the nature of a Dictionary, flaws will creep 
in, despite all efforts to prevent their appearance — a. poor 
apology, admittedly, but the best it is in my power to 

No attempt has been made to arrange the various 
Persian equivalents according to a strict philological 
system ; at the same time, when words in English have 
distinct and totally different meanings — such as " august," 
which may refer either to a person or a month — care has 
been taken to direct attention to the point. 

In regard to the Oriental portion of the text, I cannot 
speak in too high praise of the care and attention dis- 
played by the Publishers ; few, save those who possess 
personal experience, are aware of the endless mistakes in 
Eastern literature which owe their origin to the ignorance 
and carelessness of the printer. It is self-evident, how- 
ever, that a revision of the proofs by a " reader " who 
understands the language cannot be otherwise than 
advantageous. Messrs. Allen are fortunate in possessing 


such a gentleman, and I gladly avail myself of tendering 
to him my obligations for the intelligent assistance which 
he has afforded me in this respect. 

No attempt is made to disguise the fact that the small- 
ness and somewhat peculiar shape of the type are open to 
objection ; but I may, perhaps, be permitted to explain 
that elegance has been sacrificed at the shrine of economy, 
as, for reasons which could scarcely be understood by an 
uninitiated reader, considerable space and time, and con- 
seqent cost, have been saved by the use of a fount of 
letters specially designed for works, of the nature of a 
Dictionary, where Oriental and English characters are 
continuously printed side by side. 

It is a pleasant duty to express my warmest gratitude 
to Sir Frederic Goldsmid, who has not only from time to 
time afforded me the benefit of his experience and advice, 
but has invariably lent me that encouragement which can 
only be appreciated by those who have toiled for years at 
a work which, though a labour of love, is none the less, 
of necessity, more or less tedious and disheartening. Nor 
must I omit to tender my best thanks to Dr. Bost, the 
librarian of the India 0£5ce ; not the least of the many 
advantages with which I have been favoured has been the 
privilege of a constant reference to that gentleman, whose 
profound learning and vast experience are only equalled 
by his courtesy and readiness to afford to others advice, 
the soundness and value of which it would be difficult to 

The debt of gratitude which I owe to Lieut.-Colonel 
Ross and Mr. Monro Binning may be measured by the 
extent to which they have assisted me in my labours. I 
have endeavoured to explain fully the important part they 
have played in the preparation of the accompanying work, 
and I trust I have not claimed for myself any merit which 
is their due. That I should freely avow the extent to 


which I am indebted to them, and gladly acknowledge mj 
obligations, is a duty no less pleasant than incumbent. 

Lastly, I would add that, frequent as are the mistakes 
which mar the accompanying pages, the errors would have 
been far more numerous and glaring, had it not been that 
I was fortunately enabled at every turn to have recourse 
to the profound learning and experience of Mirza Baker, 
who, as previously stated, has afforded me most valuable 
aid, for which I tender him my warmest thanks. 

A. N. W. 

Olbn Hill, Walmbs, 
January, 1882. 



iQ g" I" 


Aback, c>Jt.^ pusht, s-«Ae 'akab. 
Abaft, c&^ pasht, s-«Ae 'akab. 
To Abandon, (^^A^guzAshtan, *«J/ 

^o^tark kardan (vide To Leave). 
Abandoned, *^)r^ matruk, J^-^ 

makhzul, 6^a\SS' guzashtah. — 

(shameless) f^ ^^ bf-sharm, ^ 

jfi\ bi-ab-ru, W^ ^J bf-hayA. 
Abandoneb, *^j\5 tArik. 
Abandonment, «s3y tark, j^ bajr, 

^^;%* hijr^n. 
To Abase, (^^^y^ ^p^ furdd Awardan, 

^s^\^f j\yA. khwAr gardAnidan, 

^j^«.a^^ past kardan. 
Abasement, ^y^ pasti, (4)^^ 

To Abate, vide To Diminish 

Abatement, ^J^ kamf, «.M^ takh- 

fff. — (in price) Jjy* tanzil, ^a^^j 

Abbey, fiWW kli4iiak4h. 
Abbot, UtAm\ uskuf . 
To Abbbeviate, q)^/ j\^csdA ikhtis^^r 

kardan, (jj/ yoxak^ mukhtasar 

kardan . 
Abbbeyiation, jUsa.^ ikhtisAr, 

j mss if * mukhtasar. 
To Abdicate, vide To Leave, To 

Withdraw, To Besion. 

Abdomen, fA^ sbikm, SJ^«^ mi'dah. 

Aberration, ««^y^ khar&mat, 
ifiJU zalAlat. 

To Abet, ^^^ j^U^ musA^d nimd- 
dan, (^Sj^ •^J^ madad kardan. 

To Abhor, ^^U ^s^>^\/ karAhijat 
dashtan, (^^f ws>yB niirat burdan, 
0jiaiiU jyL^ manf iir dashtan, i/^ 
(^*^ mukrih shudan, ^•^^ yus#« 
mutanaffir budan, o*^J[)^ ««>;*> 
nifrat warzidan. 

Abhorrence, uu^^ nifrat, fi;^ karih, 
cfc**!*^/^ kardhiyat, ft^^^s-.^ istikrah, 
o^ bughz, f^j mghm, &i^ kfnah. 

To Abide (dwell), {^f {^^ watan 
giriftan, (jjj/ i^f tawattun kar- 
dan. — (stay) ^J^U mdndan, iJU|^ 
^*^ tawakkuf shudan. 

Abiding, (jpennanenQ,^4A«^masta- 

Ability, ^V tawAn&,f, va^o dast, 
v»V? tab, cyjJi kudrat, ,^Jai^ ikti- 
dAr, jt^Afr* makdur, uJJiiU k&bilf- 
yat, o^VJ liydkat, Jl%* mij41, 
«A>y^ kdwat, ^^ ^ sar-rishtah. 
—(faculties) ^ 'akl, iA^-^ fir4- 
sat, «s3^^j\ idrak, {^^ zihn, i£>;^) 

Abject, (jj.j ddn, va— i^ past, ^^ 
kbwar, JeSj zalil. 

Abjectness, ^JS^ pastf, ^-u dunf, 
ukJUj razalat, sj,y¥^ khwarf. 

Abjuration, ^^^xa/^ bar-gashtag^. 




To Abjubb, {^sjS ji bar-gashtan. 

Ablatiyb (case), &» sif^ maf'dla 
bihi, Ax« Jy*^ maf*ulu 'anhu. 

Ablaze, ^^J^ suzan. 

Ablb, 4^j|) zaring, «s3yj zfrak, «sX»U- 
ch^buk, <j^' " * chust. — (capable) 
^o\i k^dir, uy taw4n4. 

To be Ablb, i^si^\f taw^nistan, 
^j^j j^ «£>*A) bi-kuwat-i-kh&d 
dfdan, (^<^ J»V> k4bil bddan. 

Ablution previous to prayer), y^^ 
wuzd, va-^J^l 4b-dast, jW va^j 
dast nam^z. — {after defilement) 
«A>)^ tah^rat, ;e«^ tathfr, ^ wx ^ ^ 
ifitiuj^. — (of the whole body) J— A 
ghusl. — (with sand, in default of 
waier) f^^ tajammum. 

Abnboation, £Us^^ imtin^'. 

ABNOBMA.L, ^J\JJAm\ istisna,!. 

Abode, (^VC« mak&n, Jys^ manzil, 
(2^^-^-^ maskan, fM^ mak^m, ^^ 
khduah, J^"^ ma,bid, /k^ makarr, 
yfe -^ mustakarr, ^^U in4w^, «>^ 
v>V» bud-bash. 

To Abolish, 0*>/ 6>-«^ mansukh 
kardan, o*V^ 6^ naskh nimu- 
dan, {^sdX>0 f*^*>«^ ma'ddm sakh- 
tan, (^*y/ •^^ ^ n4-biid kardan, 
^j^ ^y(^ maukuf kardan, JW^ 
^jke»U;5' mubtal garddofdan. 

Abolition, fc^-^ mansukh, ^^J^*^ 
ma'dum, ^-«i naskh. 

Abominable, s^^ makrdh, ^t^ 
karfhy^y^^ manfur. 

To Abominate, (^W j^k^ manfur 
d^shtan, (^U s^^ makriih 

Abomination, «a>ytf nif rat, ft/ karih, 
h\/JJ\ istikrih. 

Abortion (mt^carria^e), J*^ I»U-\ 
isk&t-i-haml, J«*- I»«&^ sakut-i- 
haml, {^ti^ ^W.^ iskat-i-janm. — 
(fruit of a miacarria>ae) ^J***' 
janfn, J^V^ ««^ (^^t)^ janin-i-ghair 
k4mil, SAoMjU (^^^ad. janf Q-i-n&-rasf- 

Abobtive, gfU zA,i*, »J^ ^jj bi- 

To Abound, ^ja «^|i« manfur 
shndan, ^-^ ^^ kasfr shudan, 
^jjk ^\y w4fir shudan. 

About (a/round), *>;f Ujfgird-A-gird, 
•>;^ bar- gird, J^^^ haw4U, ;^«> 
daur, tr^W pairamun. — (nearly) 
s^y» karib, uyti«« mushrif, «<Vi«>y» 
nazdfk. — (concerning) y^y^^ y^ 
dar khusus, j^ )•> dar hakk, 
ftjW j^ dar b4rah, «ft^W babat, 
^j? bar sar. 

Above (upon), j? bar,^ j? bar sar, 
HW bAla, y) rd, ^^^ j^ dar ruf. — 
(over) HW bA14, yj zabar, J^ 'ali, 
jy fauk, j^;^ faraz. 

Above-mentioned, ;^^^ mazkiir, 
j^y« mazbur, jy^ masfur, J**^ 
makdl, ^\ ^Cft^ mnsh^r ilaihi, 
ij\ iy»y» miimd ilaihi, ^\ i3)^ 

Abrasion, v^^/- khirdsh. 

To Abridge, (:}*>^ ^^osa\ ikhtisaT 
nimddan, (^^ yossis^, mukhtasar 

Abridged, yossi^ mukhtasar, ^y^^ 
mujmal, y^y mujaz, ^/ail* mu- 
lakhkhas, j«^« wajfz. 

Abridgment, J^»^ ikhtisar, jW:^ 
fjaz, JW^ ijmal, uwjUs kasarat. 

Abroad, {^^ytn birun,y^ bi-safar. 

To go Abroad, (^^f yL. safar kax- 
dan, (;)^ sA^\t^ sijdhat kardan. 

To Abrogate, vide To Abolish. 

Abrupt, vide Steep, Sudden. 

Abruptly, fitf ^ n4-gah, ^^5' ^ na- 
gahan, "^^ baghtatan. 

Abruptness (in answer), ^y^ 
^^U. jawdb-h&zirf. 

Abscess, J^*> dummal, J<^«> dum- 

To Abscond, ^ja ^Vipanhan shu- 
dan, (^*^ ^J>s^ makhf f shudan, 
(^»y/^\^ firar kardan, ^•^a v>^ ;y 
rd-push shudan. 

Absence, *a^>^ ghaibat, v»W^ ghi- 
yab, ^^U.^ ghair hdzirf. 

Absent, s-^^ gh4,ib, W judd,^ 
/*W ghair hazir, •>¥»••* 5 U mau- 

To Absent (oneself), ^JA *^-J\t 
gha,ib shudan. 

Absolute (having free power), 
j^sa^ mukhtar, J&^ mustakill, 
v^Uto* mutlak. 



Absolxttelt, 'USeiI kat'an, !UV^k&- 

Absolution, u:>yuu maghfirat, y^ 

*afw, v>ji/*l[ dmurzish. 
To Absolve, (^j/ykc *afw kardan, 
^^^>y jySiu* ma*zur dashtan, ^U*» 
(:)•>/ mu^af kardan, ^J^^-^^ bakh- 
To Absobb, (^j^U^ khfs&nidan 

^•x^y nushidan. 
Absorbent, v»*^W jdzib. 
Absorption, UUi nashf, s^ jazb. 
To Abstain, ^^^ ^>( parhfz ni- 
mddan, (^*yy4i)\yeA ihtiraz nimii- 
dan, (^*y/ *^^^\ ijtindb kardan. 
Abstemious, ^S^ ^^^ parhfz-g4r, 
jyo^ hasiir, h\x^^ munt4t, {J>^f 
Abstinence, ^o parhfz, ^j^ ya'^j^ 
parhfz- g4rf, v»ua^^ ijtin&b, sA^\ij 
Abstract, j^^saia^ mukhtasar, jW:^ 

fjaz, ^y^^^t^ mujmal. 
In the Abstract, ^^%s}^ &^^ J^ 

'ala wajha-'t-tajarrud. 
To Abstract (abi^idge), (a*^/ ^-as^e* 
mukhtasar kardan, {^sdXm J4.^^ 
mujmal sakhtan. — (carry off) 
(a*^ji) rubiidan, (^W ^ bar-dash- 
Abstraction, ^^ tajarrud, •^^ 
tajrid — {abduction) o^*>^j ru- 
buda ,;!, ^jJJuiiW; rubdyandagf. 
Abstruse, jkS*> dakfk, <j^ mugh- 

lak, is^gung {vulg,). 
Abstrusely, us^j^ bi-dikkat. 
Abstruseness, vfrJo dikkat. 
Absurd, ^^yc^ bfhudah, fijy^ harzah, 
Jyto^ \i nH-ma*kul, 9^ puch, «^^<* 
'abas, J^ wil, (.yuu.^ bf-ma'nf, 
^/^ charand, ^V^ lfch4r, «sC;A^ 
jafang, ^y» \i nd-muwajjah. — 
{an absurd explanation) ^ i^^f 
^^ taujth-i-n&-muwajjah, J«-aa» 
Jys«^ U tafsfl-i-na-ma^kul. 
Absurdity, (^^ butlan, o^*>^ bi- 

hudagi, ij)^ )^ ^ n4-s4z-kari. 
Absurdly, a>U^ bfhddanah. 
Abundance, vide Plenty, Excess. 
Abundant, vide Numerous, Much, 
Many, Plenteous, Liberal. 

Abuse {had language) , f^JA*y dush- 
n4m, fji^ nihsh, s-^** sabb. — 
{UUusage) ^jVsi^ aj bad-raft4rf, 
JU»x-^ Aj bad-i8ti*m41f, ^^^ aj 
To Abuse, (^A^ ^^Uaio dushn&m d&- 
dan, 0Afl>»UAj dushn&nfdan, 
(2)jU (jfti^ fuhsh dadan. 

Abuser, ^^f^ muftari, saju^j ^Uaij 
dushnam dihandah. 

Abusive, (^\^\ aj bad-zaban, j^^o (^W) 

To Abut, (^aai oV^^ nazdfk|shudan. 

Abyss, fs ka*r, ^jAeA*^ haziz, &^ 
lujjah, aI»j^ wartah. 

Acacia {gum-tree)^ ^ talh, Ioju 
sant. — {eilk'tasselled acacia) Jl 
j,5*Ajt^^ gul-i-abrfshumf. — {aweeU 
scented) ^uu& ^ gul-i-fitnah. 

Academician, a^ijA^ ^\ ahl-i-ma- 

Academy, ^^\ ^U daru-*l-'uldm, 
^jA^ madrasah, s-^' s ^ maktab. 

To Accede, vide To Aoree, To 

Accent, vide Articulation, Pro- 

To Accent, ^o^ JJkl; talaff az kar- 

To Accept, ^j%^ Jj^ kabdl kardan, 
(2)j^ «^^M ijAbat nimddan, 
(j)^ji«H pazfruftan. — (mon«tory 
^rni) (^*yf o^j^ kabdlf jat kar- 

Acceptable, J^«i^ makbul, £^t^ 
matbuS «yu^ manzdr, «A|aju^ pa. 

Acceptation, *a^W\ ij&bat. — {sense 
of a word) ^y»^ ma'nf , ^ J^)^ 
f ahwa,f-i- kalam. 

Accepter, JA* kd,il. 

Access, jW bar, &^ rdh, v»y? takar- 
rub, ^^Ai kudam, J/^ dukhdl, 
^^jSa^^ madkhalijat. 

Accessible, J^aS^ {^^^^ mumkinu- 

Accession {increase), v&^U^ iz^at, 
^y^yi fuzunf. — {to throne), <j<*yk- 
julds, i^ir*^ vA^Qfe? takht-nishfnf. 

Accbssory^y««*^ zamfm ; liAV^^ ziji- 
dah. (Fide Aooomfliox.) 



Aocn>SNT, ^^W h^disah, *aA^ sdni- 
hah, A^^^ ^arizah, yg^ sahw, ^ 
vs'*^^ sar-guzasht, j\is\ ittifak, 
VU khat4. 

Acx^iDEKTALLT, ^yv^ sahwan, *ViW^ 
ittifakan, 'l*,^ '4rizan, a*Va^ U 
ni-g^hAnah, '^ khatan, W 
^j < a l .>W bi-nd-d&nistagf. 

Acclamation, (^^i^l afirin, (^^ ^ - W 

To Accommodate («e<i2e a dispute 
amicdblif), (^^4 OU** musalahah 
kardan. (Fi(£e To Agsbe, To 

Accommodation (JUneas), %a.»>t^\j^ 
manAsabat, saM\y» muwAfakat, 
is^VJ liyakat. 

To Accompany, {^j fi^^ ham- 
r^h raftan, ^^y v ^^ musAhib 
bddan, (j^^ ^^^W^ bi-sah4bat 
raftan, ^^AiU ^^t^o suhbat ddsh- 
Ian, 0^ (d^Uj rafakat kardan, 
^jsij ^\i bA-ham raftan, sA4A\f 
(^*>/ mur^fakat kardan. 

Accomplice, ««\Mh sharfk, i^j 
raffk, J^ ^ ham-'ahd, L>^ ^ 

To Accomplish, e)^^^*^^ pard^kh- 
tan, t)*b^^7» bar-Awardan, (jjJ^L.^^ 
bar-rasanfdan, (:)«>^ ^»««J^ tat- 
mfm nimudan, (^S^ ^W tamam 

Accomplished, vide Able. 

Accomplishment, fX*5\ itmAm, 
f,\s^\ ikhtit4m, JU^ ikmil. 
(Vide Grace, Skill, Lsabnino.) 

To Accobd, ^J^lj j^\j^ farAkhdr 

AocoEDiNo TO, iji>\v» muw4fik, J? 
v>*j bar wafk, Jiji j\ az karAr, 
*».w-r bi-hasb, s-*-*- hash, jfAj^ 
far^khdr, j^ bi-kadr, s-^U^ 
munasib, St^ j^ l>ar tibk. 

ACCOBDINGLT, U^ lihazA, \Sjb ^ 

*alA hAzi, (;>4WW banahar in. 

To Accost, (j)»y v>Uad. khitAb kar- 
dan, (:}^^ s-J»W» mukbatib 

Accouchement, ^f taulfd. 

AccoucHEX78E, tJym muwallidah, 
4tVi kibilah, 4^UU m4m&chah. 

Accountant, J»«*— • mustauff,;^;^^ 
muharrir, s^W* muhisib, uy&^ 

Account-book, j^*> daftar, aXsi.«o 
v»U.-»> dastak-i-hisAb. 

Accounts, v»U^ hisab, ^Ui^ shi- 
mar. — (^o settle accounts), &»-V^>* 
^j^ muhasabah kardan. — (nar- 
rative) yA- khabar, ^us kissah, 
oj|V5^ hik^yat, Js^ nakl. 

To Accoutre, (^J^t6»^ c^ sil&h 

Accoutred {equipped), ^jt^ kib- 
rAgh, s^Ulj amadah, j^m x ^.^ mus- 

Accoutrements, j^^ yar4k, c^ 
silah (pi. W-^ aslihah). 

Accredited (diplomatic term), ^»«A^ 

To Accrue, (^j^I «>)^^ wArid Amadan. 

To Accumulate (trans,) (^*y/ g-** 
jam' kardan, (^•Xe». chfdan, f^\j^ 
(^*y^y\ fardham Awardan. — (intr,) 
f^jjk 2«^ jam' shudan. 

Accumulation, ;U.j^ iddikhAr, {♦% 
jam', Q*-^^ majma*. 

Accumulator, g^W- jAmi*. 

Accuracy, «^^ dikkat, o**;** ^^^ 
rastf, ^s^Vs^ matanat, ui^^^* sih- 
hat, cW« sahAh. 

Accurate, cm^ j dnrust, <d^M^^ rAst, 
r«M« sahfh, J^V^ kamil, ^M«> 

AcGURATELY,''^^t»^« sahfhan, ^^J^ 
bi-durustf, o**V ^i-ristf, u>la» 

Accursed, ^y^ mal'&n, (^^ la'fn, 
^yiL** mat*un. 

Accusation, sa^\^ shikAjat, ^3^ 
shakwA, s s ^^if tuhmat, ^ zamm, 
»>Vju^ isnAd. 

Accusative (case), Af^ maf'ul. 

To Accuse, (ji) (^*y/ sa^\^ shiki- 
yat kardan (bar), (/) o*"^ cr^^ 
n&lish nimudan (bar), ^•^j tf ^»v 
tuhmat zadan. — (to accu§e 
falsely) {js-^ \yii\ iftira bastan, 
^jj o^ tuhmat zadan, ^Va^ 
(;)A^ buhtAn bastan. 

Accuser, ^•s^ mudda'i, ^j ix^!U 



To A0CXT8TOM (oneself), (^^/ vA>jVe 
*Adat kardan, i^ff- khu girif- 

Accustomed, &a^^1| aindkhtah, 
J^\s»^ mu'tAd, ^ypU ma,lAf, 
J4A&«>-^ musta^mal. 

Ache, •>;•> dard, g^^ waja^ e*j ranj. 

To Ache, i^*^)^ ^)^ dard khdrdan. 

To AcHTBYS, eH^^*^ji pard^khtan, 
^*>j^lj \ir: bi-jA Awardan, ^J^^ ^ 

Achieved, &«>U^ amadah, J^^ 
kdmil, f*W tamam. 

Acid, v>y tarsh, o&^W h4miz, ^ 

Acidity, ^J^ turshf, ^s^y^ bu- 
rn dzat. 

To AciDTTLATE, (;)*>/ ,>/ tursb 
kardan, ^^/^ tfz kardan. 

To Acknowledge, (^ja cjyuu^mu'- 
tarif shudan, (^^y^ ^/\ ikrdr 
nimudan, (^jAfti y^• mukirr shu- 
dan, {^^f u\f^\ i*tiraf kardan. 

Acknowledgment, ^^\ ikrar, 
sj\f^\ i'tiraf. 

Acme, ^t^v^^ muntahft. 

Aconite, s^iJ^jM^khaniku-*z.z,ib. 

AcoBN, Ib^i} balut, or ballut. 

Acquaintance, mde Knowledge, 

Ac<iUAiNTED with (cLware of), 
^ ^i^s...>» raustabzar, ^j^ muttali*, 
♦-Ai^^ wakif, ytsia^ mukbbar. — {to 
he acquainted with a person) 
^^sAXxJbt sbinakbtan, ^jjjaU ^J^jJ^ 
asbna,/ d&sbtan, ^^U ^J-^y'^ 
dusti dasbtan. 

To Acquiesce, (j jlAi V^ riz& sbudan, 
^JLS» ^j^^j rAzi sbucmn, (^^ J^ 
kabul kardan. 

Acquiescence, Uj rizA, ,^ja^U» 
riz&mandf, v^oyuh^ kbtisbnddi. 

Acquirable, ,^5isi\4 yaftanf. 

To Acquire, ;:>:^^>x>^ anddkbtan, 
^ae>L«j ^ bi-bam rasanidan, 
(^»^^ J«vbw basil kardan, J«^<»* 
(^Oji^ tabs 1 1 kardan, (:)^y^ ^^«*^ 
iktina nimddan, (^V> yaftan, 
(:);(^l^l 4mukhtan. 

Acquisition, ^y^^ tahsfl, J«W 
hisil, V;ui^ iktin4. 

To Acquit, (^^ ,^^ tabarrf ni- 
mudan, (^^ ^^^ ibrA kardan, 
(jjj^ Uj riba kardan, ^^^ •M- jy 
ru safid nimudan. 

Acquittal, ykc *afw, J«p bibil, 
^Uip bakbsbayisb, «A>yubk 

AcBE, vrOj^ jarfb. 

Acrid, aJ tund, y? tfz, yiiJ di- 

ACRIDNESS, i^^JS tundl, ^jye* tfzi, 

,j«y tursbi. 
Acrobat, /ij^ bazi-gar, ^ UU? 

Across (over), j^ *ub4r, ^^^ sar- 

a-sar, ^^^'S an taraf, lj\y U mA 

war4,f, ^ (^ An sar. 
Acrostic, ^^^ muwasbsbab. 
Act (deed),j(^ kar, jj/ kirdar, J*b 

*amal, J«A fi*!. 
To Act, (^*y/ kardan, (^^j^ J^iC 

'amal kardan, tJ^W J** f i*l ni- 

mddan, {^sdX^ s4kbtan. 
Action (legal tei'tn), A«i\^ mu- 

rAfa*ab, Jj/sj da'wa.— (»ii7i7ary 

term) ^sSJ^ jang. (Vide Deed). 
Active (alert), «djU. cbabuk, *iJXU. 

cbA14k, isX:*^ zaring, ^pU sbdtir, 

j^ gbucbak. — (a^^tive verb) 

vide Verb. 
Activity, ^W cb414kf, ^jS^U cbA- 

bukf, ij^j) zaringf. 
Actor, »*U^ mukallid. 
Actress, &*aU« mukallidab. 
Actual, «^y*^ ma'nawf. 
Actuality («to^e 0/ real existence) 

•^-*tsi** fi'liyat, «-*«*»^^ wdki'iyat. 
Actually, 'hd fi*lan, J«aJI| bi-'l.fi4, 

eiV^ o* ff-'l-wAki*. 
Acute isOj^ zaring, *«3^3 zfrak, 

*£i?U. cbabuk, «:^--^ ebust. — 

(severe) sa^^-i sakbt. 
Acutenbss, ^jj zaringf, ^^3 zf- 

rakf, {^^ zibn, jS»yfc busb. — («e- 

verity) ^yak^ sakbtf. 
Adamant, y*U3\ almas, ^^L. 

Adamantine, is^sb^ sakbt. 
To Adapt, (»)^/ v»^^.u^ manedb 

kardan, ^^^ «&^^^ muwifakat 

nimiidan, (^^ paiwastan. 




sar- I 

Adaptation, v^y tartfb. 
To Add {caet up figures), ^^j 

i'am' zadan, (^•y aU^ jumLah 
:ardan. — (increase) o«>^ »^ 
'al&wah nimddan, 0*y)yi\ afzu- 
Adder, jU m4r, Jjai^ af *4. — (deaf 

adder) j^ j^^ s&ehir-mdr. 
Addition, <a^U^ izafat, a »^ » a zamf- 
mah, ^\^\ ilh&k, ^^2^3^ izdij4d, 
«yb 'al^wah, (jft^^^ afzAyish. — 
(in ariihmetic) £♦%• jam', ^1*^ 
To Addle, (^J^^uT gandidan. 
To be Addled, (^jlAi ^J^ lak shu- 

Address (of a Utter) U> ^ sar- 
khatt, &^j^ sar-namah, f*va^ ^ «*U 
ndm wa mak^m, (^LiJ y ^\i nam 
wa nishan. — (air, deportment) &^y 
wajh, g-*^ waz*. 
To Aj)Dresb, (;)^A5' guf tan. 
To Adduce, (^^^ )^\ izhar kardan. 
Ade<juatb, ^Ct kdff, J>U k4bil. 

0^^^ muwifik. 
To Adhere, (^^ ^ti % chasb/dan, 

^jAi ^j^oU mulsak sbudan. 
Adherence (things), J^y^i pai- 
wastagi, J^ lusdk, ^A^t-^ 
chasbfdagi. — (pereone) isj^'^j^ 
taraf-dAri, ,^;\jiW jan.d4ri. 
Adherent, jW^ taraf-dAr, j\^W 

j4n-dAr, jki^; raffk. 
Adhesion, j^ lusdk, c^JU^^ tnu- 

Adhesive, 5 A ». t ..^ ^ chasbandah. 
Adieu, £^^^ widd*, .J^yA^ pidrud. 
Adjacent, J'as^ muttasil, j^W^ 
muj4wir, ^J;^ j*y dar shuruf, 
c5Ai P*Wdf, s-*^. ;*> dar jamb. 
Adjective, saJl» ^\ ism-i-sifat, 

i-A-p^ wasf, sA^ na*t. 
To Adjoin, ^ja J-is^ muttasil 

To Adjourn, (jjj/ <^^^ maukdf 
kardan, (;^^JJ\;t-«"V?^j dartakbir 
anddkhtan, (^*>y4i o^^U. ^ bar- 
kh&st nimddan. 
Adjournment, ws^w.«U. ji bar-khist, 
\\^\ imhal, omya ta< wf k, oJ^y^ e^.» 

To Adjudicate, <^«y^ J*^ faisal 
kardan, (^^U J,^ tatwA d&dan. 

To Adjust, t)*>jr** **♦-* taswijah 
nimudan, e^sd-U, saKbtan. 

Adjutant, ^^Vj yawar. — (Adjutant- 
General) ^J^^ (^^^yA ajudan- 

To Administer, ^^/ hj\S\ idarah 

Administration, ij\^\ idarah. 

Administrative, ^J^ mnlki, J»j-* 

Administrator, jUafc^ mukhtar, 
oUU malik.— (<o a will), ^y 

Admirable, *a C >, A j kashang. 
Admiral (naval commander), \ij*> 
J^ darja begf, j^\ j^\ amiru- 
'1-bahr. — (rear-admiral) ii\ij riA- 
lah (eur.). 
Admiralty, ^j^^^ ^j\*y\ idArah-i- 
wdpurhd. — (First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty) A8/«^.j«3^ wazi'r-i-bahriyah. 
Admiration, s-^v^ ta'ajjub, ^a-jSm 

To Admibe, oa«A*-^ pasandidan. — 
( Vide To Approve op. To Love.) 
Admission (entrajice), Jj^j dakhtil, 
J^^ ma^khal.— (confession) j\^\ 
ikrar, ^\js^\ i'tiraf, (^Ic^t iz^an. 
To Admit {let iw), (^*>U J^j du- 
kbul dddan (j*>U ^ bar dadan. — 
(confess) o**/;!;*^ ikriir kardan, 
^^y4i u\yic\ i^tirAf nimudan, 
0JaU ^X^ muHiUam dashtan, 
(^^ji j^ mukirr biidan, (^\aS\ 
(^*^y^ iz'an nimudan. 
To Aj>moni8H, ^^/ ^^^^^^ nasi hat 
kardan, (jjj/ kc^ wa*z kardan, 
^jU aa^ pand dadan. 
Admonition, vide Advice. 
To Adopt (child, Ac), (^j/ ^jL^ 

tabanni kardan. 
Adopted (child, Ac.) JjAf** muta- 

banna, h<ii\^ khwandah. 
Adoption (child), ^J^^\^j^ pisar- 

khwandagi, ^y^ tabanni. 
Adoration uAa-»» parastish, «A>«>Wfi 

To Adore, 0^^*-;^ parastfdan, 
^•^ uu^W^'ibidat kardan. 



Adobeb (iocrshipper), J«^ ^ihid, 

Ji^U. 84jid. — (lover) j^tVc 'dshik, 

s-^«^ muhibb, jy^**^ ma'shdk, 

AlkJU«« ma^shdkab. 
To AooBN, o*-^^ draatan, ejA-^j«^ 

pfrastan, o^^*> ss^j zfnat dacUm, 

(^«>/ cr<2\)l Ar^yisb kardan. 
Adorned, &&«\}1 Ardstab, iJ^\j6^ 

pfrastab, {^y muzayyan, ^j^ 

Adornment, ij^^ji ar&yisb, <.&^j 

zinat, vroj zfb, tAiVi pi'rAyish. 
Adroit, At . i .». t .i> chasbm-band, *^^\^ 

%A^^ cbalak-dast, %A^*y ij«^ cbf- 

Adroitness, ^^ A; . i .». » .o cbasbm- 

bandf, ^ji^*> «s3!tW cbakik-dasti, 

v.5^*> >^e»- cbfrab-dasti. 
Adult (adj,)yjfi^ kabfr, ^Vj baligb. 

(sub.) {J^j s-^^ sAbib-Pisb. 
To Adulterate, {^^ ^Uy« 

makbldt sakbtan. 
Adulterated, Wai^ makbldt, 

v^yuu magbsbusb, Ju«\i fdsid, 

jjjiy* muzawwar. 
Adulteration, •^V^ fasAd, s-^ 

Adulterer, j\\ zani, j^\i\ zina- 

Adulteress, i^\) zanijab. 
Adultery, Uj zina, ,<)V^ Uj zina- 

kaH, ^ i'»*^/» ^J\i^ zma,i-i-mub8i- 

nab, c^ sif^b. 
To commit Adultery, (^*y/ V»j zina 

kardan, (^^/ ^^j^ ^} zina-kari 

Advance (of money), < jC ,fc, j ^ pfsbgf, 

«-AL. salaf . — (to pecuants to enable 

them to cultivate) ft*^ Vw« mus4- 

'adab, c5)^^^ wa-sAzf. 
To Advance, ^^j ij^ pisb raftan, 

O*^^ u^ pisb imadan, ^Aff 

^j^ takdim nimddan. 
AlDyanced-ouard, ^jA,^ pfsb-rav, 

AiVo tal^yab. 
Advancement (promotion), ^/ 

tarakkf, ^j^\ irtik^ sS^^r* ^^* 

far&zf, ijfjk bartari. 
Advantage, saTU fa,idab, ^ naf, 

«»^«A^ manfa'at, ^^ sad, Al|^ 


Advantageous, •KsA^ mnffd, 2^V» 
nAfi% ^V..^ ^ naf'-rasdn. 

Adventure, ^^y wak'ab, &»«>U. bA- 
disab, ^;it> U md-jar&. 

Adventurer, yj»^^ aubdsb, ^^ 

Adverb, u^^ zarf. 

Adversary, vide Enebcy, Rival. 

Adverse, U^W* mukbdlif, j^U^ 
mugbdyir, J^^^^U n4-muwafik, 
i^U* mun&kiz. 

Adversity, ^y^.«^ bad-bakbti, 
(.jSa^ sakbtf, sz>^ sbakdwat, 
v£^W« mukbdlafat, m-AA^ ma- 
sbakkat, h bald, c>^ nakbat, 
tf.^j^»^ musibat. 

To Advertise, ^^^ jW^^ isbtibdr 
nimudan, 0*V^ f*^^ i'lam nimii- 
dan, ^^^ o^^ ^'^^^ nimddan. 

Advertisement, j^t^ isbtibar, 
^) i*Um, ^\ I'lAn. 

Advice, •^ pand, va-^^^^ nasfbat, 
^^; rd,f ;«»•>? tadbfr, sA ^ <a,» mas- 
labat, Ihc^ wa'z, j^^\ anduraz, t^ 
saldb, Albc^ mau'izab. 

Advisable, s-^V;^ mnnasib, v3i^ 

Advisableness, tf^.*V»>« munasa- 
bat, fXo sal&b. 

To Advise, ^•^U ju* pand dadan, 
^j^ ci^si«<«> nasfbat nimddan. 

Advocate, Jd^^ wakil. 

To Advocate, ^^jS^^ taraf gi- 

Adze, ^^A^ tisbab. 

Abbonaut, (^yW ^/* mard-i-bdldn. 

Esthetics, *a>\»....^ ^ ^ilm-i-mab- 

Affable, viie Kind. 

Affaib, ;^ kdr, f^\ amr, J4^ 'amal, 
&UU^ mu'dmalab, ^ p 3^ sar wa 
k4r, \^y^ kbusds, v»W bdb, ^^^Vi 
ba])at, Jltt- bdl, sjU maddab. 

To Affect (feign), (^^f a*^» bab&- 
nab kardan, (^^ J^ taklfd kar- 
dan. — (produce effect^ ;^*>/ ^\ 
asar karaan, ^*>/ ^»^ t4,8{r 

Affection, vide Love, Fbiehd- 
SHIP, Chabity. 

Affectionate, ^W/v* xnibrbin, 




To Affiancs, o^r*;^ ^^ n^-zad 

Affinity, ***«—* nisbat, ^j^&--»^^ w4- 

bastagf , ui^ifi- jihat, »a.%»>.U« mund- 

Affibmation, v3i*x«* tasdik, v»W:^ 

ij4b, %a>\^\ isbdt. 
Affirmative, «*^<a« musbit, ^^ 

mu,ayvid. — (particle) w^W*^ U";*- 

harf-i-isbat, J^^ cJ>;b> harf-i- 

akfd, s^VJ *Jy- harf-i-fjab. 

To Afflict, {:y^^ o^ji pari'shan 
sakhtan, {^js^^L, "ks^ mubtal4 
s^khtan, ^^^3! 4zurdan, (^•M^ ^^ 
alam rasduidan. 

Afflicted, «s3U«.£ gham-n&k, (^e ^ » ^ 
gham-gfn, sjy4^ gham-zadah, 
jefl«> dil-gfr, tiA^j ranjidah, A^ 
malul, ceJUifc^^ anduh-nak, s-<>^ 
muztarib, ^^b^ mukhabbat j*x5^ 
mukaddar, ^bVa^ muta,llim. 

Affliction, vids Grief. 

Affront, jj;t^ «£Uft hatk-i-Ab-ru, f^sA 
sbatm, cfAi. khiffat, ^<7 ,..., < a ^ 
sar-shikastagi, ,./^^ ^^ bf- 

To Affront, (^^/ ^\ *«JLsa hatk-i- 
4b-ru kardan, ^^^^ f*Uabj dush- 
n&m dadan. 

Afire, (:)\3^ suzan. 

Afraid, (^^> tarsdn, «f)U«/ tars- 
n&k, UkfU. kh&,if, (^^^y^ hirAsan. 

Afresh, ^ jjv* mujaddadan, y /<• 3^ 

az sar-i-nau. 
After, ij^ pas, -i^ ba*d, ^ pai, 

s-«ft 'akab, f\ asar, JM*> dum- 

b4L — (one after the other) **> ^ 

^ pai dar pai, f^f^ matawatir. 
Afternoon, ^ ahi ba'd-i-zuhr, 

^ 'asr. 
Afterwards, (^ ^ J«) ba'd az 4n, 

Ai»i (^ min ba*d, \j^ (^ 3^ az 4n 

pas, »•»«♦ ba'dahu. 
AoAiN, 3V1 baz, fi^ dfgar,^*> digar, 

^^ wA, (j-H^^ wA-pas, "^jy^ mukar- 

raran, /'•>j^ bAr-i-digar, jVj ^j 

Against, ^lU khildf , J^ 'al4, Jt^ 

mukibil, -ut bi-zidd, J^ y bar 

AoATE, ftJ^ yasbm. 

Age, j^ 'umr, a)U« sAlah, (^ sinn, 
^^^ z&d. — (era, ftme) «^^ 'ahad, 
(^\ 2Amkn,^j>ld age) ^^ pfr{, 
{^\ ^kibaru-'s-sinn, f^ hanim, 
* n ^ A ^ masbib. 

To Age, ^-^ ^ pir shudan, ^^-^--^ 
^jji musinn sbudan. 

Aged, {^'^^ musinn, vei pfr, jtm^ 
mu'ammar, ftoiJ^L. sal-didah. 

Agency, *aJ^ wakalat, eD^J^ j^ 

Agent, J^^j^ wakil, sjaUS gnmAsli- 
tab, «iT-^ na,ib, (^j^ k^r-kun, 
j^r* sar-k^r, jaW^ mubishir. 

To Aggravate, ^t)/ /j^ badtar 

Aggregate, aW jumlah, g j ^%>* 

Aggression, ^^^^^3 zabar-dastf, 
^ zulm, aU» hamlah. 

Aghast, ^^^^ ym sar-^simah, ««^a^ 
mutahayjir, v»Ja-^ muztario. 

Agile, oXiW cbabuk, ceJH^. ch&Uk, 
fca' - » chust. 

Agility, o^W cb^buki, v^^- chA- 
lakf, o^!-^ chusti. 

Agio (difference in value of money)j 
^f» saif . 

To Agitate (ptd in motion) ^ 
^Jke»\^ju^ jumbanidan, e)*^r^ «^j^ 
tabrik niinudan. — (distress) 
(^yklj Asbuftan, (^sdXm ^W;i 
parisban sakbtan. 

Agitation, ^J^^as tasbwfsb, ^j^\ 
iztirab, ^,^s*i*T asbuftagi. — (mo* 
tion)y u&^f-^^ jumbisb, t^y^ tah- 

Ago (lately), vide Newly. — (past 
time) AaaJ^guzasbtab, ^y^*• mAzi, 
J«* kabl, »3»^ sabik. — (a little 
while ago) {^\ 3^ u^ kS*^^'^^ jc^ 
chandf pfsh az fn, (^^ jji ^^<a*^ 
andakf kabl-i-in. — (a few day 
ago) {^\\\ lAH 3j) '^ chand ruz 
pfsh az in, {^\ 3rj«J3^ jj^cband 
rdz kabl az fn, va^^ )^ Ju^ chand 
ruz ast, JA 3^ jj^ chand f&b 
shud. — (^ofujf a^o) vide Long. 

r, vide Pain. — (of death) S^ 
\ cpUC- sakr^t, ^J^ cjW jan- 





To Agree, <;)*>/ J^ kabiil kardan, 
^jA ^j6\j razi shudan, *j>^\y» 
^j>^ EQUwafakat nimudan, J»Vi 
(^*yji ka,il budan, e^^^i'H pazf- 
ruftan, (;j*>^*> j^ karar dadan, j^ 
(^^ kanar dmadan. 

AoBEEABLE, &*>i'>^-<H pasandfdah, 
ji^^a dil-pazir, •u^*^ dil-pasand, 
st^U* munasib, 0^*V muw^fik, 
^VljV- sAz-gar, jNt^ lafk, J^ 
makbul, £yJ^ matbu*, ^^^ 

AOBEBMENT, J^^ ittifak, sA4A\y^ 

muwiifakat, J^^ wif ak, *)W!«^ itti- 
had, ^x^ 'ahd, c:>J^U^ mu'aliadat, 
t/fc shart, (^U«* paiman, &&<fy 
wasikah, J^ kaul, j\^ karar, 
^U^y karar-dad, W bind. 

AoBicuLTUBE, u>^\j) zira'at, ^^^^^A^ 
kisht-kari, ^^^ falahat. 

Agbicultttbibt, (^Uu^j dihkan, 
j\Xs^ kisht-kar. 

Ague, }^ y*^ tab wa larz. 

Aid, vide Assistance. 

AiGBSTTB {ornament worn by wo- 
nun), ^ tiyatah. — {royal, worn 
by princes), ^^«5^ jika. 

To Ail, t)J^ ^^ ,^ , nA-khush 
shudan, (^J^jW bimar shudan. 

Ailment, vide Complaint. 

Aim, o^ nishan, s*— a shist. — {to 
iake^ aim) (^^j/ J«»> dfd kardan, 
{:^/}) rd giriftan. — (to take aim 
from a rest or support to a gun) 
<;)•>/ i3V>*> daj4k kardan, J^U 
^^d^jak giriftan. 

Aib, V ^a^«> **^ ^*^- — (wie^dy) 
»3^^1 awazah, V i^awa. — {deport- 
ment) ^) wajh, ^y waz*.— (to 
give oneself airs) (^•>) «-*5 laf 
zadan, (ij^^j;^;*^ takabbur war- 

To Aib, o^y** c?l^ tarwfh nimiidan, 
^j^ ^j^i^jtj tashammus nimiidan. 

AiB-BED, v^*>W *aX4i^*> dushak-i-badf. 

AiB-GUN, ^J*y^ *25U« tufang-i-bddi'. 

AiB-HOLE, ^ j " A» >* manias. 


AiBY, Cj» W b4-rdk 

Akin, ^\;I bar-4-bar, ^tM^^ shabf h. 

Alabasteb, /•/• marmar. 

AiiACBirT, vide Speed. 

Alabm, ij^^^ Ashuftagi, j^ ta- 

hayyur. — {call to arms, signal) 

«s5CW ^)^){ aw4zah-i-jang, ^^JJt} 

To Alabm, ^•V^V^y tarsdnidan, 

^^sdXm {j^\j^ birds siikhtan. 
Alabming, s-*tfv^ mahib, *«5UJ^ 

Alas ! &^ Ah, M^ wAh, ^j*> dirfgh, 

UtjJ dirighd, <^^^ wAi, ij^^^S 

afsus, ^^ wailah, ^Ui figbdn, 

)8i«^^^ wa-waild, ^^^^ ^^^ ai-w4f, t}\ 

4wakh, v£>^^ haih4t. 
Albumen, ^t^b? &*x«Am safidah-i- 

Alchemist, /^ W«^ kfmiya-gar. 
Alchemy, W*«^\ al-kfmiy&, ^ W^e^ 

W4.«>^ kimiyA wa sfmiy4. 
Alcohol, Jja 'arak. 
Alcove, ( ^Aj Jb\A sh4h-nishin, j^ 

tak, v»^^^^ mihrab. 
ALDEB-TBEE,y<x^«> diiukht-i-gaz. 
Alembic, vide Still. 
Alebt, J«> s*x»j zindah-dil, j^ ch&k, 

jV^^ hush-yAr, ^garm. 
Alebtness, <4)^>^ hush-y£rf, 

^jutA^ hush-mandf. 
Algebba,^^^^ al-jabr, ^VaJ^ ^ jt^\ 

al-jabr wa-'l-mukAbalah. 
Alien, ^^ bfganah, s^^^ gharib. 
To Alight, ^jJ^^ {^tf^ p4,in ama- 

dan, (:)^^ Jj^ nuzdl nimddan, 

^;)A--Ai nishistan, (^^ ^y^ furdd 

Alike, ^^/ bar-4-bar, (^^-^ yak- 

san, j^ nazir, JVA^ misAl, j*W» 

Alimony, (^^ k&bin, aau na£akah. 
Aliye, fiJJj zindah, ^^ hayy. 
Alkali, W^ kalyA. 
All, A4A hamah, vJ^ kull, ge*^ jamf*, 

aW jumlah, j»U? tamAm, ^}»^^ 

kullan wa turran, ( ^ ^♦ ^^ ^ ajma*- 

ina, j^«*^ jumhdr, ^Ui*^ ham- 

To Allay, q)S\^ {^i^^^ tasWn 

dddan, ^-x^Ui nishAndan. 





Allkoation, *3ix^\ ifiniid, j\/^ ikrar, 
jk/B takrir. 

To Allege, (^•^i^i «>Vju\ isn&dnimu- 
dan, (a*^j^j^ ikrAr kardan, ji^fi? 
(a*^X^ takrir nimudan. 

Allegiance, <4)^^^ (^^^ firman- 

Allegoric, s^^'La* mutaskabih. 

Allegory. Je^ tamsil, ^^ misal, 
^U^ kin^yah, y^^^ majaz. 

To Alleviate, (^^U « , AflA a i» takhf if 
dadan, e^^^ e^^^"^ taskin nimu- 
dan, ;»)*y\<y fi\J\ aram d4dan. 

Alleviation, « ■ ftfl* a i» takhf if , (^^^^--i^ 
taskin, (ft^)^ aram. 

Alley, a^^ kdchah, (^^^ kbijA- 

Alliance (connexioii), A2^ 'alAkab, 
<jW ta'alluk, J^*> dakbl, «»^»-^ 
nisbat. (Fi^ Treaty.) 

Alligator, 4s5U^ nahang. 

Alliteration, (.r»^ tajnis. 

To Allot, (^*y/ &•«»> hissah kardan, 
(a*y\*y d4dan, ^«>;^ ^*'i» taksim 

Allotment, &•«»> hissah, ^ a^ ^i g tak- 

To Allow, (jj^Ai^j^ guz4shtan, (^«>W 
dadan, (^«>U ^y^«> dastur dadan, 
^•>U «A>)W^ ijazat d4dan, (^*yji JA* 
ka,il biidan, (^^U ^^i^ izn cUdan, 
{^\SS^ \^ wA-guzAshtan, ct^y 
(;)JW fursat dadan, {^Jt-^J^ hish- 

Allowable, jW' mujaz, \<i; raw&, 
JV halAl. 

Allowance, cS^/^ A^ mablagh-i- 
mukarrarf, fi^ bs^rah. 

Alloy, ^^Uty* makhlut, <>y6^^ &mf- 

To Allude to, (^^«^ ^^ kinAyah 
kardan, Q)^y*i ^yA\ isharah ni- 

To Allure, (^^ \^\ ighw^ kardan, 
0*i^ v ^/ targnib kardan, (j^j^ 
firiftan, (:}*M» kashidan, v»«^ 
^•>^ jazb nimudan. 

Allurement, \^\ ighwa, wr^y 
targhf b, (J^ Icashish. 

Allubbr, s-4;^ J«» dil-firfb. 

Allusion, Ui\ {mk, y^ ramz, ijj^ 

ishArah, ^^4^ iham, ia>;Wft 'ibirat, 
<iU^ kinayah. 

Ally, c^w^ dust, ^jAs^ muttafik, 
oVji/k shank, J^; raf ik, f**X4J» ham- 

Almanac, ^ys» takwim. 

Almighty, JiJs^j'*^ kadir-i-mutlak, 
^Uj j^ hakk ta'ala. 

Almond, ^Ul| badam, j^ lauz. — 
{wild almond) {^^ arjun, {^^^^ 

Almond-cake {made of almonds 
pounded, and a paste of su^ar, 
cream^ &€.), ^^^ bakliwa. — (0/ 
split almonds and brown sugar) 
^^L. sahun. 

Almost, s-^/ karfb, ««^«y nazdik, 
\f./S takriban, s ^t / " *^ *an-karib. 

Alms, &l*^ sadakah, ^W* khair^t, 
(jtAo dihish, kz>\^) zilcat. — (aZiiM 
prescribed by law) «t>^ zikat, — 
{voluntary alms), AiJ^ sadakah. 

Alms-house, a^U. ^ langar- 

•> dirakht-i- 

Aloe {plant), yt^ u^«.^ 

sabir. — (drw^) rf-» sabir. — {lig- 
num ahes), ^•c'ud. 

Aloft, jU faraz, HW bAU. 

Alone, V' tanhd, ^J^ ^ tan-i- 
tanha, •j^aa^ munfarid, *>;^^ mu- 
jarrad, *yy^^ munharid, •w^ 
wahd, »>ft.U wahid, a*V^ yaganah, 
fij\yB\&i bi-infiradah. 

Along with, vide Together. 

Aloof, j[j*> ddr, fi^U^ kanArah. 

Aloud, JuJi» buland. 

Alphabet, ^^^ Uj^ huruf-i-ta- 
haj j 1', "W* hi j A, . ( Vide Letter. ) 

Alphabetical, ^j^ sjlcVs} bi- 
k44dah-i-tahaj j f . 

Alrbady>3^ hanuz, tf.^iy»» A ha- 
mfn-wakht. (Fide Yet.) 

Also, ^ ham, ^ nfz, '^\ aizan. 

Altar, ^•V^ mazbah (pL ^^^ ma- 
zabih), fiV^V kurbdn-^h. 

To Alter, ^•>^^««^ taghyfr nimu- 
dan, (^*y/ JiV tabdil kardan, 
^ jj^ ^^ 'awaz kardan. 

Alteration, ^ taghayyur, J{*M 

Altercation, Aj^le* mubahasah, 




A.ftjU>» munilkashab, &e)U^ munil- 
za'ah, £^y nizaSftj^A^muzakarah. 
aSoV^*^ mujadalah, ^^ takrdr, 
JVi ^ Js5 kfl-u-kAl, Jj/iJ da*w6, 
ftye&-* sitizah. 

Alternate, ^^ j^ ««i2 yak dar 
mi Jan. — {alternate days) %^ 
ghibban, (^^ )*^)y^ yak riiz dar 

Alternately, ^^ bi-naubah, 
^f naiibataD. 

Although, ^j^ agarchib, 4^*5' 
garcbih, ^ ^ yfc bar-cband kin, 
(^ J^ *alH an, &i a^^ Vj bA-wujud- 

Altitude, ^^ irtifa*, i^^ bu- 
landi. — (io take the altitude) 
^ j/ l\iS^ l^ji\ andazab-i-irtifa' 

Altogether, J^W bi-'l-kuU, 6;«3W 
bi-'l-marrab, '^ •f » '> jami'an, 7-^7- 
sar-a-sar, ^Uj^V^ bi-'t-tamam. 

^ /^j>; ''^ bamab rui-bam 
raftab, T)^ kuUan, ^W^ ^ "^ kul- 
laD wa kAtibatau. — (taJcing aM 
into consideration), ^a-i^^ ^^ bi- 
bamab jibat. 

Alum, J^eA- c^j zaj-i-saf{d, s-*** 

Always, &<i««A bamisbab, S;^^*^ 
bamwarab, ^a^i^ y» bar wakbt, 
^jUj jfc har zaman, f^J^ mudam, 
fj\*y dK,im, ^^ y^ bar dam, 
f^\^^\ J^ *ala-'d-dawam, &s^^ 
paiwastab, f**v*«> dam bi-dam, 
1a£^ muttasilan, ^zM^\ a > s^ .4 A 
bamisbab auk&t. 

Amalgam, ^.^aU malgbamab (eur,), 
^yUe* makblut. 

To Amalgamate, M^at^yll Amfkhtan. 

Amanuensis, s-^^katib. 

To Amass, ^«>/ q^^ jam* kardan, 
(^*yjy^ f^V ^arabam Awardan. 

Amateur, ^s^a^ muft. 

Amative, <3A»^ 'asbik. 

Amatiyenesb, <jM*^ *Asbiki, ijyA^ 

To Amaze, (;j»>^ s-*^ ta*ajjub 
nimudan, (^«y «A>;e(^ bairat kar- 
dan, o*^^*^ s->»*a^ muta'ajjib 

Amazed, (^\yt^ hairan, jt^^ muta- 
bayyir, ^h^^^a* muta*aj jib, &*«^^7.« 
sar-asfmab, (^*^y-^ sar-garddn, 
i&>U mdt, A^sAAili asbuftab, v>y^*^ 
madbiisb, «2.0a dang. 

Amazement, ^^sAAili Ashuftagf, 
<A>^ bairat, 700^9 tabajjur, v<%e 
'ajab, *i^^ ta'ajjub, /Jb bakar, 
cfc^AAJ dibsbat, ^xfcAi sbisb-dar, 
&^\yi» talwAsab. 

Amazing, tnie Wonderful. . 

Amazon, a^j zauakab. 

Ambassador, ^.j^^ ilcbi, J^j rasiil. 
7«A«8afir, i*iee paik. — [extra(yrdi- 
nary) ytft^ jt^ safir-i-kabir. 

Amber, W/v^ kab-mba, pJi^' ambar. 

Ambergris, yt^^ 'ambar, hm^ 'abir. 

Ambiguity, i\^fSJbB\ isbtibilb, f•^t\ 

Ambiguous, ^»v<^ mubbam, *■ . - ? ■■* » • 
musbtabib, ««S^Xa^ masbkuk, 
j^U^ mugblak. 

Ambition, ca>» fc ^ *uluw-i-bimmat, 
ilo^ bausalab, ^.y^^-^ -^ buland- 

Ambitious, ^W^a^^ istikbar, -^ 
ua'» » buland-bimmat. 

To Amble, ^^j a^;i jurgbab, 

Ambuscade, {^^t^ kamm, {^^^^ 
makman, fi^^o^^^ kamin-gdb. 

To Ameliorate, (^«>i^ y^ bibtar 
kardan, ^^j/ f^^ kbubtar kar- 

Amelioration, ^y^ bibtarf. 

To Amend (trans.), (^^f «^^*> du- 

rust kardan, (^*^f c^f*^ tasbfb 

kardan. — {intrans,) ftjU-j^ ;- ^ 

(^«>^ bar Bar istAdab nimudkn. 
Amendment, c^^ isldb, ^e^^ tas- 

bib, ssf^ bibtarf. 
Amethyst, ^j*a, ss,f\i ydkut-i- 

kbamri, ^J\*•y ^f^ ydkdt-i-rum- 

m4nf, ^p^ %a>f\^ yakiit.i-kabdd, 

f*y^ jaballakum. 
Amicable, u^ latif, {^jt^ sbfrfn, 

s^yy« margbdb, 0^7^ mibrbdn. 
Amicableness, (^;«^ sbfrini, yi^ 

mibr, sj^j^ mibrb^ni. 
Ammoniac {plant), sj^ ushak.-r- 

(«a20,j«>Uy naush&dur. 




Ammithitiov, eC% syjX^\ asbdb-i- 

jang. — (poiuh) s-^ kff, (jj^*> *J^ 

AxNSSTT, A^U ykfi <afw-namah, y^ 

Among, <^V,>^ mij&n, ^^jW^ j»> dar 

miy^n, (^ bain, (^^ ma-liain, 

^Jif andar, 3 M (yulg.) 
Amorous, <3A»Ve *^8hik, a;u^j dil- 

bastah, a;:M» shfftah. 
Amount (mm), ^>W jumlah, ^*% 

jams iJ^W hiisil, ^L^ mablagh. 
Amoub, ^V^aax 'ishk-bazi, j^^tji; 

ta'ashshuk, aaaiU^ mu'ushakah. 
Amphibology, f*^i^ iham. 
Amphithsatbe, j^ mazhar. 
Ample (space), (^ pahn, q^\^ 

wasiS (/«;» *arfz, !»«>--♦ basi't. — 

(quantity), t^^ farakh, ^\y wiifir, 

j^^ wuf ur. 
Amplenbss (space), 4a^ pahnah, 

j^j^ 'arz. — (quantity) <^V ^*^^"- 

khi, «A>^^ wafi-at. 
To Amputate, ride To Cut. 
Amputation, ^ kat', £^\ iukita'. 
Amulet, Ajyi? ta*w{z, Jjd- birz, JjiU*. 

To Amuse, (^*y\*y Va« safii diidan, 

^jS ^^ khdsh kardan, «£>a5 

(;)«MJ lazzat dadan. 
Amusement, ^53^ bazf, e/* tafar- 

ruj, Va« Bafii, s^ la*b. 
Amusing, Ui sj^ tafarruj-nima, 

JtiSj dil-kash. 
Anachbonism, (^Uj jj Ui£ ghalat 

dar zam^D, tW^ti^ ishtibiib. 
Anagbam, ^/^ tabrif . 
Anagbammatist, wi;^^ mubarrif, 
Analogous, s>^ a a^ mutashabbib, 

v^V*^ muDilsib. 
Analogy, Je^u; tarns fl, > j.^*>i nis- 

To Analyse, (:)*>^ ^yr tajzivah 

Analysis, J^^^tf tafsfl, f^e^JS taksiui, 

jMy^ tafrik. — (chemical) JJ^^tab- 

lil, ^yr tajzijab. 
Analyst, sjjuS djyr tajzivah ku- 

Anabchy, ^Afe ghadr, ^5^«^ ^ 

bf-siy&sa^ lAj/* ^hiiriah. 


Anatomist, (^^«>^/^ tasbrib-diin. 

Anatomy (tAe science), ^y^ ^ 

Anckstob, s^\ a)* (;>i. ^^ aba), .*^ 
jadd ( pL *>W^ ajdad), cAL. salaf 
( ;)Z. uX*\ aslaf ), f^'>i^ mutiikad- 
dim(j7Z. (^^^MU^mutakaddimin). 

Ancestry, s-»— * nasab, ^a^<— i nis- 

To Anchor, ^^^^j^^ y^ laiigar an- 

Anchor, jS^ bingar. — (to weigh 
anchor) ^^U ^ ^ langar >)ar 

Anchorage, 6\Sj^ laugar-^ab. 

Anchorite, ja^j zabid, -^^ *6bid. 

Ancient, ^a5 kadiin, {^^^ pishin, 
ijt^ *atik, ^y«> dirmab, c-AlL. 

Tbe Ancients, (^^^^ avvalij4n, 
^l ^ A^ pishin^n, u!i'^\ aslaf, 
(j«««*MU^ mutakaddiinm. 

And, y wa, * u. — (and sojorih, &c,) 
ly^y wagnairab, ^^ alakb. 

Anecdote, (jU-U dastan, ^^ nuk- 
tah, &»L^\ afsunab. 

Anemone, J^Om. sbaka.ik, v3^ft^ 
^U*J^ sbaka,iku-'n-nu*mdii. 

Angel, &afcy firisbtab, ciJLU malak. 
— (angel of death) «>^^ «*i^ ma- 
laku-'l-maut, J»^j>ft *izra,il, u^j^ 
C^jyS^ kiibizu-'l-arwah. — (guar- 
dian angeh att'udant on man), 
J^ka*id, j?^ tabi*. — (two angels 
who interrogate the dead) y j^^*^ 
^t^munkar wanakir. — (invisible 
angel whose voice is heard) \J*^j^ 
surush, u^U b^tif. 

Angelic, ^jfl^ malak T, ^y ^^;i 

Anger, w-a^ gbazab, {^ kin, ^^ 
kinab, f^J^ kbisbm, ^ ghai/. 
ffi kahr, v;^^; ranjisb, «t>;^ sau- 
rat, jt^ taj^hayyur, iwfc- sukbt, 
«i>J>ft- biddat. 

Angle, aa-^ giisbah, ^ kunj, Aj^^j 
zawiyab. — (acide angle) dJU-44^\j 
zawiyab-i-haddab. — (obtuse an- 
gle) A^yu* &»y\^ zawivah-i-raun- 
fan jab. — (right angle) A*fU A«^\j 

A no] 



Angby, t^U^ ghazab-nak, cs3U^ 


khishm-nak, &iAib,'\ ^ bar-ashuftah, 
ijU^ kaj-khulk, ytJ^:^ mutan- 
afl&r, f^ gann, 8»>;3^ azurdah, 
jj^ mukaddar, fiJ^s«r; ranjidah, 
^;^ dar-ham, \a&. khafa (o6«.). 
Anguish, vide Gbief, Pain. 

Anoulab, p^»> aj^^j zawiyah-dar, 
^U AA^ gushah-dar. 

Animal {living being), j^J^W- jan- 
dar, uyV^D^^J zii-haysU, ^j-a> ,^3 zi 
nafas. — {domestic animal^ cattle 
or fish) (:)^ytp' haiwAn. — (wild 
animaly reptile or insect) ^yW 
j Anwar. 

To Aniblate, (^^^ ftJuij zindah kar- 
dan, {^^\^ (^W jAn dadan, (£>W^ 
^•>^*> hajat dadan. — (incite) 
^j^ ctl^jSKi' tahrik nimudan, 
(2)j:4bc^^ angikhtan. 

Animosity, vide Enmity. 

Ajjise, «>^ shabt, ct^^f— sabt, 

^•— -j>^ anisiin, ^^^ &>V>3\) razi- 

Ankle, csOUa^ ishtalang, V> ^ 

much-i-pa, ^ -^j^i kuzak-i-pa, 

s-^ ka*b, ^sJjyT giizak. 
Anklet, {j^ji ^^^ pai-baranjan, 

v^j l> pA-zib, JV*J^ khalkhal. 

— (of small hells) *sX-^ sdsk. 
Annalist, <4;W^\ akhbari,v^;\; rawi. 

Annals, ^^\ akhbar, ^jV tawa- 

To Anneal, (^^ f^ garm kiiftan. 
To Annex, (^^ jVaJ^ ilhak kardan. 

Annexation, jUJ^ ilhak, &i^\ iza- 

To Annihilate, (^*>/ C}'^^^ lua'diim 
kardan, (^^/^ji ^ na-bud kardan, 
0j^ s-^«. galb nimudan, gU;'^ 
^jjuiU^ muukali* gardani'dan. 

To bf^ Annihilated, ^jJA s-J^ salb 
shudan, (^^^ v*yu-^ masluV) slm- 
dan, (^AS» f»^J^*^ ma*dum sbudan, 
^jy g'-AA^ uiuukali* b lid an. 

Annihilation, o^^"-*!?* ni'stf, ^^J^^ 

Anniyebsaby. ^^^ saligjini. 

To Annotate, ^vi**/ M»^ hasbiyali 

Annotation, M»^ hashiyah, c/» 

sharh, (;)^ bayan. 
Annotatob, C;^ sbarih. 
To Announce, (jjJ^U fiVS^ £gah 

To Annoy, vide To Vex. 
Annoyance, j^^ zarar, ^j ranj, 

c&^.<» n . j zahmat, \^\ izA, j^j^ dzAr. 

(Fide Tbouble.) 
Annual, ^^U saliyanab, v^y->« 

Annuitant, ;^ <UL>t^ wazifah-khiir, 

j\j &>UU saliyanab- dAr. 
To Annul, (;)»>/ J^Vj batil kardan, 

^j^> ^s^ naskh nimddan, 6^**-^ 

(;)^/ mansiikh kardan. 
Annulab, j\) *ai^ balkah-war. 
Annulled, JJa** mu'attal, ti^'^-J^ 

mansdkh. . 
Annulment, J^^ ibtal, y^^ mahw, 

(^ naskh. * 
To Anoint, 0»>JU ^^^ raughan 

malidan, o*^y^ c**^ mash nimu- 
Anomalous, wa-i»t^ u^"^ kbilaf-i- 

Anomaly, ci>*>U j^ kharlv-i-*»idat. 
Anonymous, i»4*^ \» ^^^^ ismf-nA- 

Anotheb, ^*> dfgar, /^ digar, yiA 

Answeb, v*^^ jawab, ^^ pAsukh. 
To Answeb, t)»>^*> v»^^ jawab 

dadan. — (succeed) (»^S\j:i\ fj>*^\j 

rast uftadan. 
Answerable (responsible), j^J^^^ 

jawab-dar, ;^v»U zAniin, j^-^ mnl- 

Ant, jy mur, ^jy murchah. — 

(large black ant) tj,)^y^ jr* mur-i- 

suwiiri. — (white ants) ^kjy mdr- 

yaiiah, ^^jy murjanah. — (an^- 

hill or nest) ^;y» J^- chal-i- 

ui lire hah. 
Antagonist, vide Enemy. 
Antarctic, sjiy^ s-Ja* kutb-i- 

To Antecede, ^j »jS*e> pish rat- 
tan, ^A& ^j)fr« muka<ldam shudan. 
Antecedent (grammatical term), 

v>^ ^\ i«m-i.fa*U. 




Antechambsb, {^ (j^ kafsh-kun, 
Antediluvian, (jjU^ j\ J<i kabl az 

Antelopb, y^li Ahii, J\^ gbazdl. 
Anteriob {antecedent) ^JUI^ mukad- 

dam, (:)«^ pishin, ^y^-> sAbik, 

J^^ avval. 
Anthem, u>a> na't, g» fr «-? tasbfh. 
Antichrist, JW»> diijidl. 
To Anticipate, ^jj^^Ai^ju^ pindasb- 

tan, yJA 8j^ ^^ ^/^ pieb gu- 

mAn kardan sbudan. 
Anticipation, o-'^; Lr*-«H pisb- 

waktf. — (hy anticipation) '^ ^J^^ 

^ pish az wakt. 
Antidote, jV>y tirrjik, j^^L tirynk, 

yfc) ^^^ dafi*-i-zahr. 
Antimony, fca.<fc-\) rasukbt. — {-pow- 
der for the eyes) a^v- surmab, J^ 

Antipathy, iA>yw nitVat, yw taiiaf- 

fur, if karib, ^j ragbm. 
Antiquary, iA>V^V^\ ^W jiimi'ii-M- 

Antiquated, vide Old. 
Antiquities {ruins of ancient build- 

ings, &c.), ^J^ ^ asar-i- 


Antiquity, j»j^ U ma-takaddiim, 

j^L. ^Ij^ ayvam-i-sabik, ^J^ ^Uj 

Antithesis, j^ zidd, oUytazadd. 
Antler, t^ sbakb. 
An tlered, jU ^Ifti shiikb-dar. 
Anus, ^J^ kun, c>cs!»U mA-tabt, 

jb«^ ^^ mauza*-i-mu*t»id, J^- 

*>^ maball-i-kii*iid. 
Anvil, (j\ju-. sindau. 
Anxiety, 4j^^*> dil-tangi, v»^;la-6\ 

iztirab, ^ gbam, ;X* fikr, yj^y&^ 

Anxious, «s5CuIj dil-tang, sj^"-*^ 

muztarib, ;J^ nmkaddar, \J*y^^ 

musbawwasb, fJ»^ mutafakkir. 

Any, »t^ bfcb. — {aiiyone) ,j— ^ kasf, 
cr^^ bicb kad, ,^5'«atA sbakbsi. 
— {anything) ^eys^ cbizf. — {any- 
where) <^W: bij/ii. — {negative) 
^ 8«6? bi-hicb ja. — {anyhow) 
,.59<^^ bi-wajbf, £y j9i bi-bar nau*. 

— (negative) ^^ ^am bi-bfcb wajb, 

j^ S«^ bi-bicb taur. 
AoRiST {of a verb), f;^-^ muzari*. 
Apace, *y^} zud. 
Apart, W jida, ft«A»>J^ 'alabiddab, 

J-A^ mufassal, ^j^W^ mubai'n, 

&>V5lj>9- jidaganab. — {aside) jUSj^a 

dar kanar, *^/^]i bartaraf. 
Apartments, Jy^ manzil. 
Apathetic, *y» sard, Js-« ^jj bi'- 

mail. — {to be apathetic) o*^^^ J^^ 

zubiil nimddan. 
Apathy, <^*y» sardf, aIaU--* musa- 

Ape, vide Monkey. 
To Ape, ^•i/ .*Jfl» takli'd kardau. 
Aperient, Je<-^ mus-bil, J^^ 

Aperture, t^jy^ sur4kb, «^V5^ 

Apex, t)^ auj. 
Aphorism, J^ iiiasal, JU»« misal, 

J«^ tarns il. 
Apochryphal, j;iy^ luuzawwar, 


Apocope {cutting off the final syl- 
lable), wiJto. bazf. — {cutting off a 

short vo^wel) fy^ jazm. 
Apogee, e^\ auj. 

Apologetic, jt^ v>j^ piizisb-pazir. 
To Apologize, (^*y j\Jux\ i*tizdr 

kardau, ^jj^*-^^ «t?^i«^ ma*zirat 

khwastau, ^^S^ jSs^ *uzr kardan, 

^jj*)^ ^j^> puzisb nimudan. 
Apologue, J^ inasal, J^ misdl, 

Jii^u; tarns il. 
Apology, ;Ac *uzr, j\Juift\ i'tiziir, 

wa>).^«^ ma'zirat, v>j^ puzisb. 
Apoplectic, a*>) &s5C« saktah- 

Apoplexy, ^^^^ saktab. 
Apostacy, ^*)jl^\ inkar-i-din, »*Jy 

cfcX« tark-i-millat, »>^J^j^ irtidad. 
Apostate, {^*y f>i^ munkir-i-dm, 

•*»/• murtadd. 
To Apostatize, (:j*>^ '^\^^ iilidad 

nimudau, (^a^ j^^ murtadd sbu- 
Apostle, J^j rasdl. — {of Christ) 

kS^^ bawari. 
Apostles hip, ssJUj rasalat. 




Apostolic, vitr«-*^ paigham-baxi, 
^^UjO paigh^m-bari. 

Apothbgaby, jVIac *attar, ^;;* \^»> 
dawd - f urueh. — (apothecary^ s 
shop) ^^ ^^«> dawa-khanah. 

Appanaok, «sJJ^ milk. 

Appabitub, j\>^ yarak, s^W-^ asbab, 
<^^ rakht, %s»i'\ dial, 3^ saz. 

Apparel, vide Clothes. 

Apparent, Wy^ huwaida, j^*^ 
padfd, jV^^ Ashkar, 8;^^\ ash- 
karah, *AVk zdhir, (jjW^ *iyftn, 
v>U fasn, (^jy raushan, ^\^ wa- 
zih, ^_3>)Xc *alani', {^^t^ mubm, 
^^*^ badfhi, \'^ paida. 

Apparently, "lyfeVk zahiran, '^^ 

Apparition, J^ khiyal, ^J^ ta- 

Appeal, s-J^ talab, ^s^<»i^\y mura- 
ja'at, f^j ruju*, vs^^^ nawdlat. 

To Appeal, ^^\f^^^ dar khwAs- 
tan. — {legal term) o»>y»/ f^j 
ruju* firmiidan, o^^ fca^«n.\y» 
murdja'at nimudan. 

To Appear, (^^^ nimudan, y^^ 
^AAi zahir shudan, ^J^^ j^j^ pa- 
did amadan, ^aai r^*^ ma'ldm 
shudan, (^•^ ^/« mara,i shudan. 

Appearance, j^ zuhur, «a>j*^ surat, 
J15^\ ashkal, u&l^*^> paida,i8h. 

To Appease, eJ•^<^^^J'\ iiramidan, Jl«-5 
^oW tasalli dadan. 

Appellation, s-^ lakab, f^ nam. 

To Append, o^^ ^y\ awiz kardan, 
i^^f^ si^\ ilhdK nimudan. 

Appendage, a ^ a ^ ^ zamfmah, jV^\ 
ilhak, J^ wasl. 

Appendix, J4«i zail, ^ ■•■ j *' ^ zamfmah. 

To Appertain, <:)*>^ g^^j raji* ni- 
mudan, ^*^ ^^f marbiit shu- 

Appetite, V^sAi^ ishtiha, (j**^ hawas, 
J«^ mail. 

To Applaud, ^•j/ 0*-W tahsfn 
kardan, (^•>iSf ^^ aa1» buland- 
awaz gardidan, (^*^f <»^y tau- 
sif kardan, {^siS \^y» marhaba 

Applause, {^^'^^ tahsm, (^^yi 

Apple, s-*©- sfb, •«- siv (tm^.). — 
(crab-apple) J^^ s-e— sib-i- 
jangali. — (of the eye) f^^ *sUjy» 
mardumak-i-chashm, ^^ bubu. 

Appliances, s^W^^ asbab, sayiS 
Alat, jU siiz, j^^ yarak. 

Applicable to, ^^^ab'* makhsus, 
j'^^s^ munhasir. 

Application (assiduity)^ ^y ta- 
wajjuh, f\'>i\ ikdam, J^ takay- 
yud, JUa6.^ ishtighdl. 

To Apply, {:^\y^ j*> dar khwas- 

To Appoint, 0*^^^ (:^««* ta*yin 
nimudan, (;)^^ s^^ nasb kar- 
dan ; i^^^fyf^ mukarrar kardan, 
^j^ jU^ mumtaz kardan. 

Appointment (office), s-*-**^ man- 
sib, (j^e«> ta'yin, aj^ 'uhdah. 

To Apportion, vide To Allot. 

Apposite, s-^^ mundsib, <3*^y» 

To Appreciate, (^^J^^^iU ^-^^ ^ gha- 
nimat ddnista.n. 

To Apprehend, vide To Seize, To 
Fear, To Suppose. 

Apprentice (to a trade, Ac), ^f\j^ 

To Apprentice, {^sdX^ a^U sha- 
gird sakhtan. 

Apprenticeship, v5*^^ shagirdi. 

Approach, ^y>js takarrub, *A^f 
kurbat, ^y^^ dukhtil. 

To Approach, (;)J^^ gfti^a^ nazdik 
amadan, o**r^ *^^/' takrfb nimu- 
dan, (^^^ fiH^ takdfm nimudan. 

Approbation, s^^^.as..^ istiswab ; 
•>^— » pasand, J^ kabul. 

Appropriate, s-^^ munasib, 
J»Vi kdbil, ^^y* sazawar, iS^\y 

To Appropriate, ^j/ j^fvi^ takh- 
sis kardan, (^Jjr^ ^Us«.Ukhtisds 
nimddan, (^>^f ^^yask^ makhsds 

Approval, vide Approbation. 

To Approve of, ^Ji^juu^ pasandi- 
dan, (jjj%^ {^f^a^ tahsfn kardan, 
{^\^ Je^ mail ddshtan, «j:^j 
e^U dust dashtan, {^\^ y^ 
nfkd dashtan. 




Approximate, uK\i«y nazdfk, oy 
nazd, s-^/ karfb. 

Appsoximation, s-^/> takrib, 
s^jV£» takarub, (^*y nazdiki'. 

Appurtenances, ia>VaU.%» muta'alli- 
kAt, ^;)**ysU multazimm. 

Apricot, yVjj) zard-alii. — (pre- 
served and dried) ^j-»e* kaisi, 
^j^Wyk khubanf. 

April, Jij^^ avril, (^W^ naisan. 

Apron, a*P futah, ^^^j^^W jl^ pfsh- 
d4manf, •^ ;:^^«> daman-baud. 

A PROPOs, J*- ^ ba-mahall, W: bi- 
ja, ct^^ ;♦ bar wakt. 

Apt, *a^jj3 zaring, cftJ^j zirak, «-AJ\* 
wdkif, y^^ mahir. — (suitable) 
v^^ munasib, tsU^** muwiilik, 
j^j^l Mik, J»U kabil. 

Aptitude, v^jJ zaringi, ^^ hunar, 
ss^ji firasat. — (suitahility) 
tf,^,.U* munasabat, ^a^\y mu- 

Aquafortis, vide Vitriol. 

Aquarium, &>U- ^j*U mAhi-kha- 

Aquatic, ^j?^ abi'. 

Aqueduct,^ nahr, J J^^ iib-guzar, 
^^ juf, J^Aj. jadwal, s^^ jub 
(vwty.). — (channel leading over a 
hollow) *4Xiafcb pulkhung, ftj^^ 
suwarah. — (subterraneous aque- 
du4it) ia>^ kanat, ^^ kariz. — (a 
channel of stonework built in an 
inclined plane, through which 
water flows into tanks or cisterns 
at intervals), <^j^ shurshurak. 

Aquiline, ^jj^ nasrf. 

Arabesque (ornamental pattern), 
(J^ naksh. 

Arabia, *-r»j^ *arab, t)^*H>fi 'arabis- 

Arabian, ^JlJ^ 'arabf, <4)V* tazi. — 
(an Arab) ^r*j^ *arab. — (a Bedouin 
or desert Arab) ^f^ a*rab, ^^y^ 

Arbitrary (despotic), ^^safe* mukh- 
tdr, v3^ mutlak, Jas..*^ mus- 

Arbitration, &«^W« muhakamah, 

J^ faisal, f^ hukm. 
Arbitrator, e^V» sAlis, csV^ 

miyan-chf, ^«^ hakam, 
munsif, ^^-^ muslih. 
Arbour, ^^ chiftah, li^jW char- 

tak, (^^^^ sajaban. 
Arc, ^j»f kaus. 

Arcade, j^ tak, j^ gumbad. 
Arch, (^U^ kaman, j^ tak, 
s^\;^^ mihrHb, ^^ 'arsh, £Usi 
kita^ — (of a bridge) &*«W chash- 
mah. — (false arches, indented 
pattern on a ujall) Uj(SU» tak- 
To Arch, ^«>3 j^ t4k zadan. 
Archaic, (j«^ *atik. 
Archangel, s^yu mukarrab. 
Archbishop, «1^^ u^u^ uskuf-i- 

buzurg, o^j^ inatran. 
Archdeacon, jUi ^j^ pish-namdz. 
Archduke, «^jJ^j^ arshiduk. 
Arched, (j^j^ mukawwas. 
Archer, }\^\ ^ tir-andaz, jWUi' 

Archery, ^j^^\ y^ tir-andizf, 

ij^ ^U^ kaman-kashi. 
Archetype, |J^\, asl, &^«^ nuskhah. 
Arch-fiend, (^jVL^ shaitAn. 
Architect, U^ jVa-^ ustad-i-banna, 

^V)jUa* mi'inar-bashi. 
Archives, ^\^*y diwan, <w^ /»•> 
daftar-khanah. — (Keeper of the 
Archives) j\*y y:*»> daftar-dar. 
Archway (narrow passage or close 
in a street leading under an arch), 
cyltTL. ga,*ibat, «»W* sahbAt. 
Arctic, JUa ^jk> taraf-i-shimal. 
Ardent, ^j^ «a>;«^ ghairat-kash, 

Afc* xsfijut gbairat-mand. 
Ardour, va>^ ghairat, ^s^j ragh- 

Arduous, vide Difficult. 
Area (ea^anse), i^j^ 'arsah, U* 
faza, vA^L. sahat, ^^o- hayjiz. — 
(of a house, dbc) ^'^^ sahn, ^W 
Arena, (^^a^^ maiden, ^^c 'arsah. 
To Arque, (^^/ sA-^Bs\ bahs kardan, 
^j^ *)j^ munazarab kardan. — 
(argument OA^cordiag to reason) 
o^ JJ*> dalil-i-*aklf. — (accord- 
ing to hearsay or tradition) JJ*> 
^j& daJfl-i-nakU. — (<o ar^tf€ oc- 




cording to reason) *A^e^, Jac jif^ 
(^*y/ bi-taur-i-<akli bahs kar- 

Abotjment, *a^*; bahs, &^\^ mu- 
b&hasah, o^^a. hujjat, Jti^«> 
dalfl (pL ^*y\ adillah). — (dispu- 
iation) vide Altebcation, Di8- 

Abid, «2Vi^ khushk, &»jm sdkhtah. 

Abibness, ^,5^'^^ khushKi. 

Abiqht, ^s^j rast, ys.^j*i durust. 

To Abise, (^^ / bar dmadan, 
0iS-«^ ji bar khdstan, (^ja ^«>U 
sadir shudaii, (^•vai ^^ bar p4 

Abistocbact, \y\ uiuara. 

Abithmetic, v*U-ft. ^ <ilm - i - 
Msdb, ^W^ ^ 'ilm-i-a'dad. 

Abithmetical, ^^>'>«-a- hisabi. 

Abithmetician, j^Ua hifldb-gar. 

Abk (coffer) j^»>ao sandAk, «t>^V5 
tabiit.— (0/ Noah) ^ »o*^ 
kashtf-i-ndh, cy ft^^^«A«. safinah- 

Abm, ;()W b&zii, JVj bal. — (from elbow 
to wrist) •VftU sa*id, o^-4c 'azud. — 
(armpit) J*j baghal, W^ ibt. — 
(<o cross the arms) iJf* ^ iA^*> 
(^*y^ dast bar sinah nih^dan. 

To Abm, (^•>/ jl-^ musallah kar- 
dan, (:)'>^f, c^ sil4h pusbidan. 

Abmadilt.o, ^y^«> «d<j^ nahang-i- 

ABUfFUL, sj»}^\ Hghush. 

Abmistice, &^U« mutarakah. 

Abhobial-beabings, (^V^ TUBban, 
^s^^%fi 'alamat. 

Abmobt, &>Vtf. &^ jabbab-kbanab, 
&>U C^ silab-kbdnab, a^JL.^ ^jU 

Abmoub, Ajj zirab, e^^^ jausban, 
C^- silah, &t^ jabbab, f^a dir*. — 
(chain armour) tj) zirab. — (plate 
armour) ^uj^ ^l^^- cbabar a^inab. 

Abmoub-beabeb, j^ JbX. siUb-dar. 

Abmoubeb, j S^Jt'-A jaisb-gar, Jftd« 

Abms, c^ silab, j^ji jarak, i£^ 
barg, cpU^ dlat, jC saz. — (fire^ 
arms), Ajtj^ W-»^ aslibab-i-ndrf- 

Abmt, ftV* sip^l^y V* sipab, «^^ 
lasbkar, ;^^ 'askar, ey ^uj, 
i/-si». jaisb, AA:^ jund, ^yi 
kusbun. (Fide Regiment.) 

Aboma, ^ b4, '^j ra,ibab. 

Abomatic, ^ v>y*" kbdsb-bd, ^an* 
inu'attar^ (Tf*"^^ masbrndm. 

Abomatics, j\yi\ abz&r. 

Abound, •>j5' gird, *yS\*^jS^ gird-a- 
gird, u\jL\ atrai, ^^a daur, 
J^W baw&14, q>^^^ pairdmun, 
s-^W )6» bi-bar jdnib, tj^^ j^ dar 
daaran, "l;^^ dauran. 

To Arouse, vide To Eouse. 

To Abbaign, (^s^Xm ^•e^ muttabim 
s&kbtan, (^^^^ <d.'Mfti6» tuhiuat 

Abbaingmbnt, o^«»6? tubmat. 

To Abbange, oJ^\)T irdstan, s-^/ 
(^«>^ tartib nimddan, ^^o^ s^^ 
nasb kardan, (^^y^ ^j\js tad4- 
ruk nimddan, (^^y^ fJ^2ba\ inti- 
zam nimddan, o^^^i P^^^ 

Abbangement, ff^^\ intizam, 
H^y tartib, <J^^^j^ Ariistagi, 
f^J^ tanzim. 

Abbant, (^yj^ badtarfn. — (an 
arrant hnave) ^^ n&-bi-kdr, 
v>W^^ aubash, ^^J^«> dast-kaj, 
;2/> sbarir. 

Abbay, «-A-d safE. — (o^iirc) «^ 
rakbt, f^^ libas, «^Ui^ pdsbAk. 

To Abbat, {^s^\^ ULe saJS arastan. 
— (attire) ejJi-Vi pifr^stan, 
(;)^;^ arastan, (^J^^ pdsbidan, 
0^U^ pdsbanfdan. 

Abbeabs, o*^ bdkf, V^^ bakajA, 
6^^^ tatimmab, ^ U mi-baka. 

Abbbst, ^j-*»ft. babs, ij^f girif- 
tagi, (jM kabz. 

To Abbest, (^^j^ jVsi^girift&r kar- 
dan, o^V' y^ ^^^ nimddan, 
^*)j^ Jfi-4 kisfl kar£ji, {^f *); 7- 
sar-i-rab giriftan. 

Abbival, *>j)^ wurdd, (^W^ ity4n, 
Jy«-»> dukbdl. 

To Abbiye, t)*'^ rasidan, Jii-^*> 
t)»xAi dakbil sbudan, {^^ *yj^j 
wArid gasbtan, <:)*>>«^ •>jaj wurdd 




Abbooance,;^ kibr, *t^ takabbur, 
j^ ghurdr, jWxsa^ istikb^r, 
^U^ guBt^khi. 

Abboqant, j^^s^ mutakabbir, jjj;*^ 
magbrur, fcU-^J' gustakh. 

Abbogantly, ^\yt^A^ mutakabbi- 
rAnah, ^JU.UJi' gustAkhanab, 
'\>lA* niaghri'iran. 

To ABBoaATE, (^*^y*i jafe* fakbr ni- 
mddan, (^*>;^ ^^ y» sar-kasbi 

Abbow, j^ tfr, A^ sabm, ^^ 
nawak, 4S^J^ khadang. — {head 
of an arrow) (^^^ paikan. — 
{shaft) f^ kalam. — (Jeathers) j^ 
par, (jftJVF talish. — {notch) j^y^ 
sdf4r, *} v^W ja,i-i-zih. — {storm 
of arrows), (^\)W j^ tfr-b^ran. 

Absenal, Ai^ &^ jabbab-kbanab, 
A*^/ tup-khAnab, AiW ^y» kur- 

Arsenic, v-A»f* *^^J^ marg-i-mdsb, 
«tU^\ v»y turabu-'l-halik. 

Abson, ^JS'JJj^ siizindagi. 

Abt, {j^ fann, ct^jo- birfat, /a 
bunar, s-^— ^ kasb, sa^mj^ 8an*at 
{jpl, gfU- sanA,i*). {Vide Abti- 
TiCB, Deceit, I'kick.) 

Abtebt, e)^/' sbirvan {pL {^}/» 
sbirayin). — {main-artery) ii^^vi^ 
sbab-rag. — ( pulmonary-artery) 
jjtA siS^ rag-i-shush. 

Abtpitl, ^L. dJuD. bi'lah-saz, A-ft->» Vfcj 

Abtfully, '^jJk*- bilatati, ;^ bi- 

Abtfulness, i^j^ makkari'. 

Abtichoke, j^ kangar, jU^\ 
anginar. — {Jerusalem artichoke) 
^J^ji\ e*^j s-^a- 8ib-i-zamfn-i- 

Abticle (rt*Zf), ^y^ kani'in, »J^^ 
ka'idah, 8*>U maddab. — {in gram- 
mar), v*Jj^ ma*rifat. {Vide 
Thing). — {literary) aJU^ maka- 
lab, J-«* fasl. — (leading article) 
^yasis^ jbj^ *arz - i - makbsus, 
^^«afef'* &SV4^ makdlab-i-makbsus. 
— {ware) f^ mata* {pi. &»sA 
amti^ab. — {articles de luxe) v»W-^ 
J^^ asbdb-i-tajammul. 

To Abticlb, {^sdX» y^\ ajfr B&kbtan. 

To Abticulate, (^^ bkl? taloffuz 

Abticulatiok (pronuneiatum, ut- 
terance), Wi* talaffuz. — {proper 
accent when reading) *a>*^/ kira,at ; 
MfT tajwid. 

Abtifice, AJL^a. bflab, s^4 firfb, 
^^ babAnab, ^ kaid, J^ 
gi'il, &U.L. sAkbtab, ^ makr, 
&^x«j damdamab, ^^j^ nai- 


Abtificeb, ^^ karf-gar, j^ aa^ 
pi shah- war, jSJimx^ san'at-gar. 

Abtificial, ^^ sana'f, <JUc 
'amali, ,J^^ sakbtagi, J«^ 

Abtilleby, AJU^y tup-kh4nab. — 
(commaradan^ 0/ artiUery) ^j^y 
^W tdp-cbf-b^sbf. 

Abtillebtman, ^j^f tAp-chf. 

Aetist, fssa^ san*at-gar, •>U-\ 
UBtad. (Fa(if Painter.) 

Abtless, JjajU sadab-dil, c^ ^^^ 
sAdab-Mh, JJ •iJb p^k-dil. 

Abtlessness, ^a fi«>L. sadah-dili, 
Jo »<3V> pAk-dilf. 

As, ^chii, (jj^ chun, *^4iJb bam- 
chu, A^W cbunan-kih, *^^ 
cbunan-cbib, &^^ cbdn-kih. — 
(a^ fioo» {m) (^Ufc hamAn, aXjUa 
hamAn-kib, (:>»«iifc bamfn, *<^fl»ft 
bamin-kih, J^^m bi-inabz, ^^^^ 
bi-mujarrad. — {as if it were) 
0\S UX kama kana, ^♦^ guya, 
<W-^ j^\ agar chunan-cnih. — {as 
before) 'Uj^ aizan, J^S^ ka-'l-av- 
val. — {as long as) ^^oU iiiadani, 
aCj^WU madami-kih.- {as much 
as) j»^»l[ an-kadar, (j^A^r^ an- 
cbandiin, ^^^^— -• musAwi, AljVft^ 
mukabalah. — {twice a« muc^ a«) 
Al?Va- ^j dii mukAbalab, <4j^— -• ^*> 
dii musawi. — {ten times as 
much) Ai)\ji^ ftj dih mukabalah, 
0\jL^ 5J dih chandan, o!^^— -• **> 
dih musAwi. — {as follows, vide- 
licet) ^y»i ya*ii{, ^y*\ a*nf. — (a« 
much or far as possible) A-y^JjJsa. 
hattA-'l-wus*, j^J^ J***! bi-kadar- 




Asbestos, ^^ «iCu sang-i-pam- 

To Ascbnd, (^j 2IW b&la raftan, 

(^^y*i a^ sa'ud nimddan, tyy^ 

^•y *uru] kardan, (^j^1[ ;» bar 

4inadan, ^^^ •xeUs** mutasa^d 

AscENDANCT, s»^ ghalabat. 
Ascendant, gSU* tdli*, i^^ ma'raj. 
Ascension, e^^ mi'rdj. 
Ascent, tf^ ma'raj, *>j«* sa'dd. — 

(slope) jy far^z. 
To Ascertain, (^*>/ ,3«**^ tahkfk 

kardan, o*>^ c<^ tankfh nimu- 

dan, (^^^yr tajwfz kardan. 
Ascetic, ja<j zahid, «>^y; J*^ ahl- 

Asceticism, <a^^ rij4zat, v5*^b 

zahidi, •xAj zuha 

ASCLEPIAS (mooZ^CHI; WoH), *J^f. 

khark, i£^ kharg, y^ 'usbar, 
fiA»\ ishkbir. 

To Ascbibe to, (^^/ «-A»^y tausff 
kardan, (^«>U ^.^"^ nisbat dddan, 
(^^y*i *3\ZJ\ isndd nimudan. 

Ash (tree), j^\ ahar, tfU>v ^ (^Wj 
zab4n-i-gun j ashk. 

Ashamed, ajuu«/i 8harmandah,jU^/i 
sbarm-sdr, J4|#«. kbijil, J«Aju« mun- 
fa'il, ybfeA^ mutakbaffir. 

Ashes, js^\d. kbakistar, «>U^ 

Ash-pit (place where ashes, sweep- 
ings, a/nd nMnsha/re thrown out), 
^j 4£^ ,^*W j4,i-i-rasbt-rizi, 
Ally* mazbalab. 

Aside, ^Vj^j«> dar kanar, ^j^jt bar 
taraf. — (in speaking) \^i^ bi- 
giish, \^y«Bk^ makbsus. 

Asinine, v5^W him4r{, ^f- kbari. 

To Ask, (^^^^j^ pursfdan, (^*^ J\oy- 
sa,il kardan, {^^y^ ^^6^^ istif- 
bdm nimMan, (:)*>^ j Ua? ...\ 
istifs&r nimddan. — (6ea, <£em-and) 
i^^f- khwdstan, (^W^ talbfdan. 
(Fide 0^80, To Beo.) 

Askew, ^ kaj, «.s^\) V» nd-rast. 

Aslant, ^^ kaj, JTU in4,il. 

Asleep, v»W^«> dar khwAb, A*Xe»Y^ 
khw4bfdah, aaa*. khuftah. 

Asp,jU mar, ^\ a£*a. 

AsPABAGUs, ^«»- ^U m&r-cbubab, 
ly^ \^ nawa-i-jfwab, t/^^ 

Aspect, a»^ wajb, fi^e^ cbibrah, ,^jy 
rui, i^ manzar, «i>;^ sdrat, j^ 

Aspen, ^^J^ti^ sapfd&r. 

Asperity, ij^)*^ durusbti, ^A^ytA, 
kbushunat, v^*x^ tundf, ^^ tizf. 

To Aspebse, (^«>U u>w*i6» tuhmat 
didan, {^^ '^ bad guftan, ^Ue^a 
0j\j dusb-ndm dddan. 

AsPEBsioN, (;)W3 •At bad-zab4n, 
f*U4i«> dusb-nam, ^y^\ iftird, ij*^ 

Asphyxia, jU4. kbun^k. 

To Aspirate, (^^f ^ IhAl? talafifuz-i- 
ba kardan. 

To Aspire, ^^sJb^^ ^^ 4rzu d^sbtan, 
^j^ U4J tamannd kardan. 

Ass, ^ kbar, jW bimdr, v>y^ 3\)*> 
diraz-gdsb, ^3^ ulAgb. — (riding 
ass) i^^y^ &< uMgb-i-8Uw4ri. — 
(wild (M«)/-;^gdr-kbar, *^gur. 

AssAFCETiDA, ^\fr^ angdzan, ^^Si\ 
ingisd, cA^;^ cbarkbmdlf 

Assassin, ^f- kbdnf, ^\h^ saff^k, 
JUS kattal. 

To Assassinate, {^^^ kusbtan, 
^j^ J;si katl kardan. 

Assassination, J^ katl, ^Js»jS 
kusbisb, %s^^y^ kbun-rfzf . 

Assault, \Jtj^ yuhsb, ^U^ bamlab, 
f^y^ bujum. — (robbery) o'ty^l) 
rab-zan{, ^y^ sarikab. — (nigJU 
attack) ^Jfi^ sbab-kbunf, jji 

To Assault (aitach), (^*^/ iUt^ 
bamlab kardan, (^'^^ j) ^W bam- 
lab- war sbadan, (^*xai j^ ri^ 
bujdm-^war sbudan, ^«>j^l[ fl^ 
bujdmawardan, o^i^v^jj^ jurisb 
kardan, {j^ j^ yi bar sar rikb- 

Assay, ;W* *iyar, ^j^^- cbAsbnf, 
ytjUj'\ azmayisb. 

To Assay, t)**/ vj^^ cbasbnf 
kardan, ^«>/jWft 'ijdr kardan. 

AssAYER, jV^ft sr^U sdbib-l-'ijir. 

To Assemble, (trans.) (^*^j)\ f^\j^ 




fardham iwardan, (^^^ ^^ jam' i 
kardan, (tn/raiw.) o^^^l ^^ 
far&ham 4madan, ^aai ^^ jam' 
shudan. — (cottri), (j)*>/ ^j-3W^ ijlAa 

Assembly, ^^f guruh, <a^W jama- 
'at, ufc' fl <t» '> jam'ijat, { >»>• maj- 
ma*, (^^yt*> dfwAn, ^ bazm, ^j*Ai 
shdra, u*^JV majlis, JA^^ mahnl, 
y^*^ ma'shar, (;)-^T anjuman, 
•3U mala,. 

AssEMBLT-KOOM, u*" W ** majlis. 

Assent, mde Consent. 

To Assebt, e*^jV^ ikrar kardan, 
^j^ ^yff taKrir nimudan, {^A, 
^jjjir yakfn guftan, {^^f^ s^iJ^ 
tahkik nimudan. 

AsssBTiON, ^/B takrir, ^j^ ikrdr, 
^UAf guftdr, ^cJ^ mudda'6, ^^e^-y 
taaj£b. — (mere cteeertion without 
^oof) (Je^ tahakknm. 

To Assess, (;)^/ e^/- khir&j kar- 

Assessment (land-tax) ^ ^f- khiraj. 

AssBSsoB, J«>^ t^^ shdhid - i - 

Assets, J^^^ amw41, *^%»\ amlak. 

To AssEVBB, i^^f^ *^fS ta*rff ni- 
mudan, (^^y^ ^\f^ i'tirif nimd- 

Asseyebation, u\f^\ i*tir4f, «-A|;«» 
Wriiy jt/S takrfr. 

Assiduity, vide Pebsbyebance. 

Assiduous, vide Industbious. 

To Assign, (^«>/ J^«>^ muhawwal 
kardan, (^^\*^ dddan, (^^ Viae <at4 

Assignation, u>V* mahlat, {^^^ 

Assignee, J^f^ wakil. 

Assignment (o/ good$y Ac.), i\fi^ 

To Assimilate, {^^^ ji\ji bar-d- 
bar sAkhtan, (^*yj^ a^j^ tashbHi 

Assimilation, Ks^JUf\y muwafakat, 
Jc^ tamsfl, vfrJi^W* mumdsalat. 

To Assist, m*^ «>j^ madad kardan, 
^j^ j\^M midM nim4dan, ^J^ 
Q)*yf puslit{ kardaa, ^•>^»> ««U^ 
kiunak d4dan, 0^x^ %s^\^\ i*4nat 

nimddan, (^^y^ is^^W* mu'4wanat 
nimddan, (^*^y^ «A>«&eLiM« musi- 
'adat nimddan. 

Assistance, *m^ madad, *>\^ 
imdad, ^y^ pushtf, «fiU^ kamak, 
(^^ *aun, *A^\s^ i'anat, «-J^U*« 
ma*4wanat, <4;^ jdrf, a^^ ta,aj- 
jud, «A>;^ nusrat, i^jt^s^*^ dast- 
giri. — ( pecuniary aseigtanee) \^ 
^)V«. wa-s4z{, 5JkeL.^ musii'adah, 
&^W baf'anah. 

Assistant, jV$'«>J^ madad-g4r, {^t^^^ 
mu'm, oj^*^ mu'iwin, ^^^^ 
4wdn, jVi y4r, j^^*> dast-gfr, jyk 
j4war, ^«*> nasfr, s-^ n4*ib, ^Vj 
ndsir ( j>Z. ^^^ ans&r). 

Assize, &«X%^ mahkamah. 

Associate, jk^j raf fk, tdiiyb shank, 
f**u*> ham-daim, ^■^^.•^ musdhib, 
6\f^ ham-rdh ij^\ anfs, j^ yar, 
^<««**- ham-sar, }^\ amb4z. 

To Associate with, (^^/ fAM\y 
mur&fakat kardan, (^^ cpv*iU^ 
mu'dsharat kardan, (^*>^ iA»\ 
ikhtiUt kardan, (^^ ^a^f^^ suh- 
bat kardan, O'V^ *^^^ ulfat 
nimddan, (^U ^\ uns dish- 
tan, t)^^ jU-»j dam-sAz bddan. 

Association, v*^^>» suhbat, <d^ 
rafkat. — (^public company) j^*y 
ftjW^\ d4ru-'t.tij&rah. 

Assonance, (j^^W jinas. 

To Assobt, (^'i^ chidan, (^>^\*> ^-^^jf 
tartfb dddan, o«>^ a^V^T 4m4dan 
nimddan, {^^^j} dristan. 

AssoBTMENT, (J^i^ tab'fz, s-^/ 
tartfb, d^j\'iS taddruk. 

To Assuage, (^^^J\ &r4midan, ft\^\ 
(;)^U drdm d4dan, (^*y\*> ,JLJ 
tasallf d&dan, (^*^/ UM^^ takhf if 

Assuagement, <Jk«AAi!( takhfif, j\^ 
kardr, f*\)T 4r4m, JLi tasallf. 

AssuASiYE, {J^, {^6^^ taskfn- 
bakhsh, Js^, f>\j\ 4r4m-bakhsh. 

To Assume, ^^\Ai^ pindishtan, 
^*i^jy^ tasawwur kardan. 

Assumption, ^\ akhz. 

AssuBANCE (certainty of futJU- 
ment)f JUxau^ istikmiL — (com- 
meretoZ term) *^^ bfmah. 




To AssiTBE, {^sjsg^ sA'A ^ hakfkat 

AssuBBDLT, Wift yakfnan, ^J^^ 

yakfnf, 'UJJ kat'an, ^W bi-'l- 

katS A3V<fe^ !) 14-mah41aii. 
ASTEBISK, ^Vjti nish4ii. 
Asthma, Uj dain4, ^j^axS^ (3<»^ zfku- 

'n-nafas, yt^\ zahfr. 
Asthmatic, ^ uo dama-bar. 
AsTOKisHEB, Astonishment, vide 

Amazed and Amazement. 
AsTBAGALUS (trogacantk plant), 

(^^ gawan. — (Jthe gum) \yt^ 

AsTBAii, ^^fr nujdmf, a>^ ^y^ 

nuj iim-paiwand. 
Astray, Aj^S gum-r4h, ^\ytik bf-r&h. 

— (io lead astray) e)^/ firfftan, 

^^U w-4;A firfb dAdan, o*i/ JiA 

izlal kardan. 
Astride, j^^ suwar. 
AsTBiNOENCY, v^*^ tundf, f^^ 

tfzf, u:'> j Ap i kabzfjat. 

ASTBINOENT, u^}^ k4biz, ftJUUL^ 

Astrolabe, s^lf;!^^ U8turldb,s^);&«^ 

Astbologbb, f»V^ munajjim, 

o^U{, yf^^ akhtar-gd. 
AsTBOLOQT, f^yr f^ 'ilm-i-nujum, 

<»ay tf tanjim, e^^^fe^^^ ^^ 41m-i- 

AsTBONOMEB, u>£ft Jft^ 'ahl-i-liai,at, 

aUp rass&d, (j«UZ HjKau sit^rah- 

shinds, •ut ju>^ rasad-band. 



Aotbonomt, yA^SJb ^ 'ilm-i-hai,at. 

Astute, vide Able. 

AsuNDEB, W jida, J'«A^ mufassal. 

AsTLUM, ft^ pandh, vs.*-^ bast, \^ 
malji, *^)U maUz, /^ mafirr, 
jj^*t« ma,inan. 

At, v» bi, ;•> dar, •y nazd, <ji f f . — 
{at least) '^\ akallan, <4)W hkri, 
Jj^ 1 la-akall.— (erf wo«0 «hiW» 
nih^jat, «>i\j z4{d, yt^^ a^sar. — 
(oi aZQ ^d^hfch.- — (jU present, just 
now) JVa^ hal, ^y^ akntin, e^t^ )«> 
«*^^ dar {n wakt, jy^ft handz. — (ai 
all events) u&>j^j«i bi-har sdrat, 

fk^jSi bi-har kisin, gy ;ei bi-har 
nau*. — (at length) /A akhar, M-!IW 
bi-'l-akhirah, j^^\ i*5U 'dkibatu- 
'l-amr, «*^W* nibdyat, ^^jW bAri. 
— (a< once) 'VsAij daf'atan, ««i2 
»jW yak b&rab, ^^j^ cd> yak 
baragf, ^y^^ yak sarah. 

Atheism, y^«> dahr, S^\ ilhad. 

Atheist, jk^'^J ziudiTc, ,^yfc*> dabri. 
Neither of these words properlv 
expresses an atheist, for which 
there is no Persian term. It 
must be expressed by a peri- 
phrase, such as v5^*^ *^f^) 7^^ 
munkir-i-wujdd-khuddi, a denier 
of the existence of a Ood, &c. 

Athlete, y«* pahlav, o^^^ pahla- 
vAn, jS' ^yJt^ kushti-gar. 

Atmosphebe, \y^ hawd, ft jaww. 

Atom, AjJ zarrah, a.^ slmmmah. 

To Atone, (;)•>/ »j^ kaff^rah kar- 

Atonement, ij^ kafEarah, j«/Si 

Atbocious, itjAi sharir, j^ bad, lA^^a^ 
sakht, ^^ zdlim. 

Atbooity, ^ zulm, <^jm> ta'addi, 
jUj f asdd, f^si^ sitatn. 

Atbopht, vide Consumption. 

To Attach, vide To Join, To 

Attaghj^, aa^ \y w4-bastah. 

Attachment, vide Fbiendship, 
Love, Union, Favoub, Inclina- 

Attack, vide Assault. — (medical 
term) Jjd> nuzdl. 

To Attain, vide To Acquire. 

Attainable, {^^'^ mumkin, ^J»JA^ 

Attainment, ^ye^^e^ tahsfl, s^L<j;^\ 
iktisdb, ^}yc^ husdl, Usl^ iktind. 

To Attempeb, (^*y/ <3^^y* muwdfik 
kardan, (^a/ Jaj«^ mu'tadil 

Attempt, ^^^ sa'f, J^ kasd, ^ 
'azm, ij^/ kdshish, t>SJ taldsn, 
^ sar. 

To Attempt, (^'i^/ kdshfdan, 
^j^ xoi kasd kardan, (^^y^}} i^ 
mudan, (^^y*^ ^y^ sa'f nimudan. 




To Attbnd, (^*^*y \^f gush d4dan, 
^AAi iA^Jdu* multafit shudan, Hy^ 
(^«>^ matawajjih budan, ^^\ 
^«W i*tin4 nimudan, {^*^y^ sa>\i^\ 
iltifat nimddan. — (to he present) 
^jA yt\^ hdzir shudan. — (wait 
upon) (^*y/ iA^M. khidmat kar- 

Attendance (waitina upon),ij,j\s^ 
parastdri, o^j^ khidmat, ^W 

Attendant (consequent), ^yi^ ma- 
ndt, s^j«-^ mansdb, (^p karfn, 
vjift^ muta'allik. — (a servant) 
^^.f^Aak^'ti p^sh-khidmat, <»aW 
khadim, et\s tAbi*, <^\5 tAbfn 

Attendants (dependants, retinue), 
^^J^ khudddm, f^Aa. . ^j^ kha- 
dam wa hasham, OM^ lawdhik, 
t^\ atbdS ffV tawabiS v»W/y 
naukar-bAb, e^^'^*^ muta^allikin, 
VeA«»Vj tdbinha (vulg,). 

Attention, *^ tawajjuh, JUaei^ 
ishtighal, ^^ ^•^\ Jo dil-bastagf, 
cyUslT iltifat, wySW^ mubdl4t. 

Attentive, *^j^ mutawajjih, 
Jyu^ mashghdl, fiVS"^ 4g4h, o^JdU 

Attentively, «t^»x^ bi-dikkat,jV5sfj; 

Attenuate, jk^j rakfk. 

To Attenuate, (^j/ ^j rakik 

To Attest, o**^ jV^ ikr6r nimd- 

Attestation, ^/b takrfr, j^J^ 
tasdfk, o*^^ shAhidf, ci>jVe^ 

To Attibe, {^\j6i pfrdstan. 

Attitude, g*^ waz*. 

Attobnet, Jfi»j wakfl. — (power of 
aUomey) ^^ v£J\^. waK4lat-nd- 
mah, &^V» jUa^^ mukhtar-ndmah. 

To Attbact, (^«\>^ kashidan, v**V 
^jy«i jazb nimddan, (^*^y^ v«W 
jalb nimddan. 

Attbaction, v»V jazb, vW jalb, 
(jft^ kashish. 

Attbactive, v»«iW jdzib, s-^W jdlib. 

Attbibute, *a>m^ sifat, uu^ wasf . 

To Attbibute to, (^^y^ «>^^ isnad 
nimddan, (^j\^ sa* ^^s nisbat 
dadan, (^^^ s^^«.u.« mansdb kar- 

Auction, e\^ harrdj, ^y» maz4d, 
f«2M lailam (e«r.). 

AucTioNEEB, c^Vf harrdjf. 

Audacious, i;t/£e ^ld. 

Audible, ty*^'^ masmd'. 

Audience, (*^««<«U simi'in, i^y^^ 
hdzirin. — (interview) jy*^ huzdr, 
jW h&T. 

To Audit, (^*i/ &jmW« muh&sabah 

Auditob, ^•J^"^ mustami', 
samf. (Vide Accountant.) 

AuGEB, ^^^ barmah, &z^ matah. 

To Augment, (^^ ^\i) zijid kar- 
dan, ^^j^y^ afzudan. 

AUQMENTATION, ij)}^^ afzdnf, «>V{j 

AuouB (soothsayer), o^^ f41-chf, 

^ys*-^ akhtar-gd. 
To AuouB, tJJiM' JU f 41 ginf tan. 
AuouBY, J^, ikl, (^/^ shugdn. 
August, f^\ a'zam, *^j^ mubarak, 

0^Ufe humajdn. — (month) v»t 

4b, tf.^ ^ ^ aghust, vfr%»*^^ agdst. 
Aunt (j>af6rnaQ, i*^ 'ammah. — 

(nuUemal) ^^U. kh41ah. 
Au Eevoib, *>i«>}W» ^ t4 bi-b4z-did. 
AuBicuLAB, fUL Bam4S 
AuBOBA, f*«> c^ Bubh-dam, v3^ 



Bhafak-i-shim41{, ^UA^y ndr-i- 

Auspices, ^^ s4yah, sa^W hiin4- 

Auspicious, ajua.^ farkhundah, 

(o^Ui^ hum4ydn, y^\ otW nik- 

akhtar, < <?- » «< khujistah, (^y^^ 

maimdn, ^j^ mub4rak, -Xcju. 

sa'fd, jWas^. bakht-j4r, 6^ farrukh. 
AusTEBE, u**t*^ muta'abbis, u^^ik^o 

duruBht,yy* muwakkar. 
AusTEBiTT, v^^^ durushtf, <^*xJ 

tundi, ^yc^ sakhtf. 
AxTTHBNTic, ^^^^ sahfh, <3S^^ 

muhakkak, ^^^ yakin, fX*^ mu- 





To Authenticate, ^j^ cw^ sabit 
kardan, (^*^ <3{*9^ tasdik kar- 

Authentication, upWi^ isbdt, 
^xtS tasdfk. 

Authenticity, vj^j*^ durustf, 
^ja-\; rastf, ^s^ia. hakikat. 

Author, cAx-*^ musannif, « 
muharrir. {Vide Intentoe.) 

Authoress, <..A^«a^ ^j zan-i-musan- 
nif , j;*^ (^j zan-i-inuharrir. 

Authoritative, j»>^ kadir. 

Authority, ^J^^ ^^ hukm-nini, 
J!iJU^\ istiklal, ^bl^ zabt, c>^*^ 
hukumat, cs)^^** dawarf, ^^^^^^ 
kbudawandi. — {power) *a>;Jki 
kudrat, ^<^ iktidar, #^ hukm, 
fcs-^-o dast, <^*^V tawana,f, oiVj^ 

To Authorize, ej»>^ o.^ ^; rukh- 
sat niinddan. 

Autocracy, J5uu-,\ istiklal, Jfc^^ 

Autocrat, J*^i--» mustakill. 

Autocratic, JlXas-,^ istiklali'. 

Autograph, iBjkyu.j dast-khatt. 

Automaton, (^ys *>^ khud-raw^n, 

s^j^s^ j^ khud-mutaharrik. 
Autonomous, Jte-^ istiklali, 

Jfc^^ mustakill. 
Autonomy, J!M;i-\ istiklal. 
Autopsy, aa>Uu» mu*ayanah. 
Autumn, {^-^ khizan, *-**/- kharif, 

y^ pa*iz, o^;«^ mihrjan, {^^fify 

Autumnal, v^W;^^ mihrjani. 
Auxiliary, i^\^ rahilah, (^j;^ mu- 

*awin, y*^ nasir, ;Vr jx« madad- 

g»r> j^^ yawnr. — (auxiliary verbs, 

in yrammar) ^**>^jy J^^ af*al-i- 

To Avail oneself of, ( j\) ^^/ »;e> 

bahrah giriftan (az). 
Available, ;*>Vi kadir, ^y^k yaf- 

Avalanche {of snow), &^ sha- 

Avarice, ,^f^ hirs, jT az, ^♦J* tamaS 

,^j^^»*t tama*-kArf, J*:*, bukhl, 

ut^ ->-" ^ khasfsat, <^ a kbissat, 

«a}L.^\ ims^k, f**^ lu,m. 

Avaricious, ij>i^ barfs, jV^^uL 
tama'-kar, g*«U» tami*, J««k: 
bakhfl, f^ la,iin, ** V .*..»>« mumsik, 
( j *' ji "^ k basis. 

To Avenge (to/^ vengeance for), 
^j»x^A^ f»U:)^ intikam kasbidan, 
0a*A^ 4^ kmab kasbidan. — 
{avenger of blood) i»J^^ J; waliu- 
'd-dam, »^»<4- aa*^ kmab-kbwab. 

Avenue, (^'M-vs^ kbiyaban. 

To Aver, vide To State. 

Average, ^W^ miyanab, c:^^ sa- 
wiyat. — {on an average) ^ i^^^ 
Ai*; rui-bam raftab. 

Averse, g*U mani*, fij\^ kdrib, 
«-A3U-« mukbdlif, ^^^ ragbim, 
J^ zidd, y^«^ mutanaffir, »;5^ 

Aversion, vide Dislike, Reluc- 
tance, Hatred. 

To Avert, (^j^>*^»>/ gardanidan, 
(jJA\*y \y wa dAsbtan, (^^/ g*»> 
daf* kardan, ^jJ^ »>j radd kar- 

Aviary, AJUAy kiisb-kbanab. 

Avidity, ^*^j ragbbat, j»4. sbauk, 
^♦t tama*, v/»^ birs. 

Avocation, ji«. sbagbl,;^ kar. 

To Avoid, (:)**/>«*;i parbiz kardan, 
^j^ s^U;^^ ijtinab niiuudan, 
(j^y*i j^f^^ ibtiraz nimiidan, j«W 
{^*y^ bazar kardan, (^^/ ^ ^ 
pablii-tuhi kardan, (:^^^ o^j^** 
dur-kasbf nimiidan, ^^J jcS 
kanar raftan. 

To Avow, vide To Acknowledge. 

Avowedly, Aa^^^JW bi-'s-sarabab, 
"^jUiC *amdan. 

To Await, vide To Wait. 

Awake, j^^ bidar, 4.«-«^ inutanab- 

To Awake {trans.), ^^/ jJu? bidar 
kardan ; {intrane.) ^ja j^juj bfd^r 

Award, J^ faisal, #*^ bukm. 

To Award, vide To Assign, To 

Aware, fi^^ agab, Ja^^^ mimtakil, 
jtsi^ mukbbar,j^^^ kbabar-d^r, 
j jt^7.»„» mustabzar, «uJuU multa- 




Away, j^»> ddr, w-^fc gli4,ib, .^«i 

Awe, ^a^e«ft haibat, ^»6-« sabm, s-W 

nib lb. 
Awful, s-^< o * mabib, ««SU3yb haul- 

Awhile, «a>j^ muddat, (••> dam. 
AwKWABD, J-^ kasil, i^^f kau- 

Awkwardness, J-^ kasal, o*»>/ 

Awl, ^j^ dirafsb. 

Awning, <:)W^ B4jab4ii, f^ 


I AwBY, e^ kaj, JJU mA,a. 
I Axe, y^ tabar; ^a^ tiBbah. 
Axiom, fi*^Vi kil'idab, is^Uu mak^- 

lat, j^5»J guMr. 
Axis (tuB^e), ^e* tir, J*^ mil, n-Ji* 

kutb,j)«^ mihwar. 
AziMiTTH, tf^» "1 ^ as-samt. 
AzuBE, (3*>)^^ lAjawardf, «j>)U^ 

sam&wi, o^ kabdd, i^fi^ nfl- 



Babble, v^^»*>V4j ziyadab-guf. 
To Babble, o^^ ^^ liibab nimn- 

dan, t^JJAl 5j\|j zijAdab guftan. 
Babbles, ^h pucb, J^ fuzul, 

^ ftj^j zijadab-gil. 
Baby, *^. bacbab, jAt tifl. 
Babyhood, Ji^ tiflf, cuJykL tufulf- 

Babyish, e^y* JaJ» tifl-mizaj, J^y^. 

Bachelor, sj^* 'azab, \'^ ^ U nA- 

kad-kbudA, ^y^>>* mujarrad, o^^;^ 

&«>;5^ *aru8i-na-kardab. 
Bachelorship, ^5**;^^ mujarrad i. 
Back, v«^ pnsbt, fi^ zabr (j)Z. 

j6^^ azbur and \y^ zubdr). — 

(again) y jW btiz, \y wa, ^jH^^ wii- 

jias, /«»> di'gar, /*> digar. 
To Backbite, (jj*>/ c:^«* gbibat 

Backbiter, ^^ sa'i, f*W nammam. 
Backbiting, ^J''^) J^ bad-zabani, 

ct-tt>i ghibat. 
Backbone, s-^ sulb, •a-a^ csJ^ 

tfrak-i-pusbt, u>-«^ 6;^^ mubrali-i- 

Backgammon, «>y nard. 
To Backslide, e)*>^ *»^J«;;^ irtid^d 

nimudan, (^juAi j^;^ murtadd 

Backward (tardy), J^ bati, J*^ 

tambal, J^ kund, «*^«" - sust. 

Backwardness, *\/^ ikrAb, AeUi 
takiVud, u*V^ i'raz, ,js— 

Backwards, ^-^ pas, j^;A faraz, jW 
b^z, s^<^ bi-'akab, «^^ ^ ;^ ru 
bi - 'akab. — (reversed) (j*^^*^ 

Backwater, ^*yy murd4b. 

Bacon, j^ u^a^^ gdsbt-i-gur^z. 

Bad, ^ bad, Ju.U f^sid, ftjV^ nd- 
karab, J\W battAl, (^^j zabdn. — 
(had langt$agey abuse) f»UBb j dusb- 
nam, [Ji^ fubsb, ^ji pdcb, A);* 
barzab. — (6ad hahit or 'practice) 
^ kubb, J^ c^^Ve <adat-i-bad. 

Badge, (^Ui nisbdn, c&^lb 'alAmat. 

Badger, (:>^^/^ kdr-kan. 

Badinage, o^y^ sbdkbf, J^ 

Badness, ^s"^ badf, u:;*;^* sbar^rat, 
^j^j zabdni. 

To Baffle, ^j^^u^ f*?;^^ mabrdm 
gardanidan, (^^/ ftV?^ o.^^ dast 
kutdb kardan. , 

Baffled, f*;!;*^ mabrdm, u*y^ 

Bag, a--s^ kisab, 4l««;4- kbarftab. — 
(leathern) ^^W*-* bimyan, ^W*^ 
amb^n, *ft U .^ masbk. — (traveU 
ling) ^\ft JUW41, yj*^ mifrasb, 
6;*- kburj. — (aaddle-bags) J^y»- 
juw41, i^\5 tiicbab. 




Baoatbllb (trifle), JtXi ^ shai- 
i-kalfl. — (game) •>;* nard. 

Baggage, c>^^ rakht, O^^ sAman. 
— fci>V*^ asas, s^W-^ asbAb, JU».\ 
JW ^ abmal wa askal. — (travel- 
ling , tents f Sc) AiV&.jl| bar- 
khanab. — (of an army) ^ 
bunab, \3y^^ agbruk. — (email 
qvantUy of baggage carried by a 
traveller) v^»>/* V5**/" kburdi- 
murdi, yj fi^j^ kb4rdab-rfz. 

Bagpipe, ^Wl ^J nai-i-ambanab, 
i^XJi^ ^ nai-i-masbk. 

Bail (security), u>^U^ z&mkn&t, 
«aJV» kafalat. — (sponsor) ^^^ 
zdmin, Js^^ kaffl, jA^s^ muta- 

To Bail, (^'^ (^^ z^min sbudan. 

Bailiff (dun), J**-» mubassil. — 
(agent) J«^jj wakfl. 

Bait, &*«l tu'mab, ^U d&nab, 
&^ cbinab. 

To Bait, (^«>W ^^^^ danab nibidan, 
^J^ ii^ cbinab nibddan. 

Baizb, &Jkfi<*i^ pasbminab. 

To Bake, tH**? pukbtan, (^*yf ^ 
tabkb kardan. 

Baxbhouse, AiVd. j^ tannur- 

Bakeb, ^U n4n-paz, oV^ ^^^~ 
wAf, jV^ kbabbdz. 

Balance («ca26«), ^^f tar4zd, {^ye* 
mizan. — (large balance for weigh- 
ing heavy goods) (^M kabbin. 
(Vide Bemaindeb.) 

To Balance, (trans,) ^«>/ (^^^ wazn 
kardan, (intrans.) ^•^ (^^y* 
muwdzin sbudan. — (to balance 
oneself) {j a^^ i^ ^* sanjidan. 

Balcony, AiV^ SW bala-kbanab, t^ 
kakb. — (fUU terraced roof) ^W 
bAm, (^ b4n. (Vide Yeban- 


Bald, J^ kal, qL^^ asUS £/\ akraS 
(j**^;- 8ar-i-t48. 


r* ^Jr 



Balb (of cloth, goods, Ac), &&x^ 

To Balk, ^•i/ v&^U» nakazat kar- 
dan, (jj«>^ ft^^ «i»^^ dast kiUab 

kardan, (^^\*^/ Ti;^^ mabrum 

Ball, ^^^ gui, ^ gd, */ kurrab. 
— (for fire-arms) 43^^ gbululab, 
A3yr gululab, Air guUab.— (0/ 
thread) ^^guruk, — (for playing 
with) A^y* tupab, ^J^^ &%^ tiipab- 
kasbf. — (dance) fj^^ raks. 

Ballad, vide Song . — (ballad- 
singer) vide Singeb, Minstbel. 

Ballast (of a ship), f*!M nflam, 
^UI» ta'an. 

To Ballast, (^aV^ ^j^ wazn nibi- 

Balloon, (^^W bdlun. 

Ballot, acJ kur'ab. 

Balm, ^UJ} balasan. 

Balmy, ^0*^ mu'attar, (•^«'«^^ masb- 

Balsam, (^UJl» balasAn. 

Balusteb, 3^j^^ ^ft^a dast-andaz. 

Bamboo, ,3*uft ^ nai-i-bindi, (^)y<A' 
. Ban, c^\ i*Un, ^\ i*lAm. 

Banana, 3^ Aj«^ mfwab-i-muz. 

Band (^ie), *)^^ band, J^^ paiwand, 
8*>Uj rifadab. — (company) «tfVL 
ta,ifab, AmT gurdb, J«^ kbail, 
&*— > dfkstan. — (of music) (^^^^y» 

To Band, ma.«4 bastan. — (together) 
(^jU j\0^ ittibad d&dan, JW^ 
^^^L. muttabid sakbtan. 

Bandage, ftaU^ rif4dab, Jui« band, 
d|Ue 'isdbab. 

Band-box, a^^*u« sanduk-cbab. ' 

Bandit, (^^3 fi^^ rdb-zan. 

To Bandy words, (^a/ Jj^ *>j radd- 
badal kardan. 

Bandy-legged, ^^kaj-p4. 

Bane, y^j zabr, ^ samm. 

Baneful, jW yfej zabr-dAr, y^ 

Bang (blow), v>^ zarb, A4U lat- 
mab, <«^JU musbt, ^V* tap4n- 
cbab, u**^ lus. 

To Bang (trans. ),(^'y/ sj»/* zarb kar- 
dan, (^^y*i ^ latt nimddan. — 
(intrans,) o^/j^^l 4w4z kardan. 

To Banish, (^^/ ^ nafi kardan, 
^j^ jJii s\^^ ikbraj-i-balad kar- 





dan, 0»)/ j<^ bi-dar kardan, 

^j.^ ^^ ^^Jjkn- jalai-i-watan ni- 

mudau, (^^\\ randan. 
Banishment, ^ nafi, ^^V jalai, 

*^ e\;^^ ikhr4j-i-balad. 
Banjo, ^pj^ tambur. 
Bank (mound), J? tall, 6ax^ push- 

tah. — (dam) J^ band. — (o/ a 

river, Jtc.) ^ kanar, fijUi" kana- 

rah, Ui shatt, s-^ lab, ^^U sAhil, 

(^^^karin. — (place where money 

ie stored) &>Va^\^ sarraf-khanah, 

^^y^ khizanah. 
Bank-bill, u\j^ U. kbatt - i - 

Bankbb (or money changer), u\j^ 

Bank-note, a^^U kafmah. — (hun- 
dred pound note) tj^)^ •^ ^^ 

kAimah-i-sad-furush i. 
Bankrupt, ^^JIa^ inufli8,j\«> ^ ua- 

dar, As-J^ j^ war-shikastah, jW«3^ 

A^yr idbar-giriftah. 
Bankbuptcy, ^JJ^\ iilas, ^< - ^^<a » j^ 

war-8hika8ta^i,jW«>^ idbar. 
Banneb, (^Ui nishdn, a^)B^ 'alamah, 

^ 'alam, \^ liwa. 
Banquet, <j^W« zijafat, ^U«^ 

mihmanf, j^^ sdr, &^^ walfmah. 

(Vide Feast.) 
To Banquet, {^*>/ h ji jy^ sur bar 

pa kardan, ^*>U &^^ walimah 

Banquet-chambeb, a^^v) bazm- 

^iik, &»W iA^Vo^ ziyafat-Khanah. 
Banteb, yt» tanz, <^^\;L zarufat, 

\y9^\ istihza. 
To Banteb, (a*>/y^ tanz kardan, 

0*>^ u:^\A zadlfat kardan, ^^9%^^ 

^j^ istihzd niinud4n. 
Bantbbeb, ifk--^ maskharah, /^L. 

Banyan-tbee, (^ o^jJ dirakht-i- 

Baptism, Ji«^ ta'mid, ^«>^<*a^ ma'- 

mddfjah, «jA> o sabgbat, ^WJa*^ 

Baptist, *uii^ mu'ammid, •i^e-Mi? 

fijuAj ta'mfd-dihandah. 
To Baptize, (^*>/ ^ sabgh kar- 
dan, e^^ £U»«^ istibilgn nimd- 

dan, (^J^e^ s^^ ab kasbfdan, 
0«>^ ta'mfd nimudan. — (to be 
baptized) {^k t^^^ istibigb j4f- 
taii, (2>J^^ J^e-Mi? ta'mid jaftan. 

Bab, ;«? tir, JysA^ maftul.— (0/ 
woorf), vs.^i'*'^ s^j*^ chub-bast. — 
(of a door) vide Bolt. — (bar 
fastened on a gatCy Ac, to 
strengthen it) JO) u>JL( pusht- 

To Bab, {jx^ bastan, ^^'^^ ss^ 
chift kardan. — ( prevent) (^»y/ g** 
mana' kardan. 

Babb (of an arrow, hook, <§c.), jU. 

Babbabian (sub.), ^j^'^y a'jami, 
(adj.) ^y^^y dashti, ^^^ hi- 

Babbabity, ^ zulm, i»^ sitam. 

Babbabous, cT^ wanshi. {Vide 
Ionobant, Cbuel, Wild, 

Babbeb, «i3)l«> dallak, fX^^ hajjam, 
{^y muzajyin, ^UL* Balmani 

Babbebby, tfUijj) zirishk. 

Babd, f^ 8ha*ir. 

Babe, &^^ barahnah, (^k^ 'uiyan, 
,4;^ *ixi, 0;%^ mujarrad, v*^ 
lukht, «>^y Idkht (vulg.) 

To Babe, (^«>/ '-^^ barahnah kar- 
dan, (^^x^ '^j^^ mujarrad nimu- 

Babefaced, ^U^ gustakh, ^ ^^ 
bf-sharm, tj^ shukh. 

Babbfacednbss, ^^J^«<^ gustakhi, 
i^j^ o* bi-8hann(, vj*-y* shiikhf. 

Babbfoot, ^ i^^ji barahnah-pd. 

Babe HEADED, j^ &^^ barahnah- 

Babeness, o^^^ barahnagf. 

Babgain, !y» shart, j\^ kar4r, J^ 
*ahd. — (money transaction) aUU^ 
mu'amalah, aju^U^ mu'dhs^ah. 

To Baboain, o«y^ ;^jW baz4r nimu- 

Baboe, u**^ kaJs, y ud. 

Baboeman, c^ mall4h, ^y nuti. 

Babk, u:'^^ pdst, y^ kishr. — 
(do</) UUte *a£*af, ^^ 'au'au. — 
(ship) &M** saf inah, ^j^ kashti. 




To Bakk (a dog), (^^ Umh^ «af^af 
kardan, ^«>/ ^^ gnaughau kar- 
dan, O'^y^ ^f^ 'au'au nimudan, 
i^^^i la, 1 dan. 
Bablet, y»- jau, ^*i sha'ir. — (&a?-- 
ietf-bread) {j»f^ ^j^ DAn-i-javiu, 
a4^a^ kashkinah. — (barley-corn) 
<J^ javi, fi;«*Ai sha'irah.— (6ar26y- 
*'***0 ^ *^^^ Ard-i-jau. — (young 
shoots of barleyy on which 
horses are fed) Js-a. khasil, jt^ 
kasir. — (chopped straw and green 
barley shoots mixed, for horses) 
KA^ tilit, ajl? tili'd. — (chopped 
straw and dried barley grain 
mixed) ^ 8^ knh-jau. — (barley- 
sugar) (^\^*> v»^ ab-i-dandau. — 
(barley-water, decoction of barley) 
j^tJ^ U ma-sbaS'r, ^ ^ ril>.i- 
Babn,^W>\ ambar. 
Babbackb, &»W jV)|^ sarbaz-kbanab. 
Babbel, (:^»}^ A^ khumrab - i - 
cbiibiu, {^}^ ijji^ tapui-i- 
cbiibin, Je^^ barmil, ^^s* pip 
(eur,). — (of a gun) ^^ Idlab. 
Babben, ji ^Jt bi-bar, fij^ sbiirab, 
7«^ yiA gbair-musmir, f^ai^ 'akfm, 
Ai\j>^ wairanab. — (woman) a-JV* 
ya,isab, ^*ae ^akimab, fi;iW 
Babbenness, ,J^^=^ ^ bi-hiisili. — 
(woman) o*^"*v **J^*** kbusbk- 
Babbicadb, •ui band, jl. gadd, ^y^* 

JL« zfk-i-sadd. 
To Babbicadb (fortify), ^s^jW* 
(^J^ inubarasatmmiidan,is^W* 
(^^y*i mubafazat nimudan. 
Babbisteb, J«^^ wakfl. 
Babbow, ««W/ <4;Vr gari'-i-kdcbik. 
Babtbb, *Jt9j^9t^ tijarat. 
To Babteb, (^*i/ %a>j\'^ tijarat kar- 
dan, o^^ji/ furdkbtan. 
Babtebeb, J^j^)^ bazargan. 
Base (vile), {^s^ kamin, iJ^ 
kaminab, a^U^J f urd-mdvab, Jj|J|; 
rizfl, f^ muzimm, u** ^ '' ^ kbasis, 

^W kbwar, ^J*> daui, (^^•i dun, 
J«)3 zahl, ALU Biflab, j«a.^ bakir, 

;«H pidar*iag (vu/^.). 

To Base, (^^U (j-^'y* mu'assas 

Baseness, i»^U»-i. kbasAsat, >j* 6 

kbissat, ^J^*y dunf, cbJ.S zillat, 
«>*AA sban'at, ^^^^ kbwdri, 
s^^ kbabisat, J^ zull, i*-e^ 
sagijat (vtdg,). 
Bashful, ^L^i^yi sbarm-s^r, J^ 
khijil, jh^J^ mutakbaffir, ^^jt*- 
BASHFni.NESs, u ' iy* kbijlat, ^V^ 

kbijalat, ^^L^^ sbarm-sari. 
Basil (ocymum basUicum) (^\^ 

Basin, ^^ lagan, c^^aL tasbt, ^-^ 
tas. — (of a river) ^a^ mabda, 
\j^^ majra. 
Basis, AjI^ pAvab, y*L.\ asas, ^W^j 

biinjad, i^)^ hunykn. 
To Bask, t)*);^ ^\sk'\ AMh kbwur- 

Basket, a^ sabad, J«*5 zambfl, 

aL. sallab, A;«^girab. 
Basket-makeb, u\i aLi sallab-b^f, 

^*v- sabad-gar. 
Bas-belief (figures, Ac, carved in 
slight relief), v s.^ . *^ munabbat, 
^jlC;-j^ munabbat-kari. 
Bastabd, ftJ^^^jA. baram-zadab, 

Uj jJ^ walad-i-zind. 
Bastabdt, J^J^y\f- baratu-zadagi. 
To Baste (sew in wide stitches), 
^u^ 4<s*! bakbjab kardan. — 
(meaJt) (^*>y^ JJ^ tablil nimudan. 
Bastinado, ^"H falakab. 
To Bastinado (beat on the soles of 
the feet), (^*>) ^ «Jtf kaf-i-pa 
zadaji, (J ^3 *^y^ cbdb zadan, 
{^SL^ s*y^. bi-cbdb bastan. — 
(to be bastinadoed) o*^)^- v*^ 
cbdb kbdrdan. 
Bastion, tj^ burj. 
Bat (animal), ^j^ sbab-parab, 
^j^ sapparab, jy^ sbab-kdr, 
^Vaa. knuffasb, j^ *s)^y mdsbk- 
kur. — (club) (:)^Sy^ cbaugan, ts)^ 
kutk, jW cbumak. 
Batch, &^u«j dastab. 
Bath, f*U^ bam mam, a> W "** ^ gbusl- 
kbanab. — (foot-bath) 4iy* V^ pa- 
sbdyah. — (outer apartment, or 




undresnng room of h<Uh) ^^ bi- 
nah. — (inner or bathing room) 
^U^;5' garm-khanah. — {tank of 
hot water) ^\y^ khizanah, {^^ 
kullatain. — (bathing dress) ca^ 
f»Uo^rakht*i-hamin4m. — (wrapper 
worn while bathing) «£^ lung, 
^yj^j «sC4 lung-i-raflhti. — (torap- 
per put on after bathing) ^jQ^ 
katifah. — (person who scrubs, 
shampoos, Ac. baHiers), «^S^ dal- 
\k\i,— (Order of tfie Bath) (^Ia* 
f*U*> uishan-i-hammam. — (the 
First Class of the Order of the 
Bath) ftU* (^Ui A«^U i*^ ^o^yr 

kdrdun-i-buzunr - i - malakiyan - 

To Bathe, (^'>/ J--^ ghusl kardau, 
f^j^ yi , 7 ., „t k shust-shu kardan, 
^Ojl" ^^a ^ ab-tani kardcin. 

Bather, J-«-iS*^ mughtasil, ^^y-Uo- 

Bathing, J— ^ ghusl, y^ ^ o.*— a 
shust u shd. 

Baton, \<^ 'asa, s^^ chub. 

Battalion, (^j^UpW batalij^n (eur.). 

Batter, ;««^ khamir. 

To Batter, vide To Beat. 

Battery (raised works on which 
cannons are placed), ^jy miir- 
chah, A^Ju«j damdamah. — (elec- 
trical), ^y»W bdtari. 

Battle, oX^ Jang) ^^/^ nabard, 
f»j) razm, *^f- harb, a^jW* mu- 
hArabah, v>^;t purkbash, ^»oi» 
haija, j\} ^ kar-ziir, *>W jihad, 
j^, paikar, JU5 kital, «U?^ 
mukatalat, ^^ wagha, y^ ^^baza. 

Battle-array, ^^ •-*-• saff-arai, 
<^^;\ V^ tip-arai. 

Battle-axe,^ ta bar, ^^j ^ tabar- 

Battl E-riBLD, vide Field, List. 

Battlement, i/^ kungurah. 

Bauble, ^^ na-chiz, a^^jIj bazu 

Bawd, aIIJj dallalah. 

Bawdiness, (j^^^ fuhsh, ^y^ 

Bawdy (o6«c«i«), (jft*.U fahish, g^ 
piich, A};* harzah, Jy» hazil. 

Bawdy-housb, &>U. Uj zina-khanah, 
A»W Jed. khail-khanah, &»W J^^V^ 

To Bawl, (jj»*W j\^'^ dw4z dAdan, 
^•>^ 4^V} bang kardan. 

Bay (gulf),)f- khaur, Jy-/* marsa, 
yjjj g.;! kunj-i-darya, gtl*. khalfj. 
— (<ree), ^ ghar, « <.....» a j dab- 
mast. — (colour) ^^ ahwa. — 
(horse) f^ kahar. — {light bay 
horse) **^e4^ kumait. — (to keep 
at bay) {^\*y jW b4z d^shtan. 

Bayonet, ^ naizah, iy^ j^ sar- 
naizah, *aS^ iy^ jm» sar-naizah- 
i-tufang. — (present bayonets) ^y^ 
{Js^ uaizah-pfsh. 

Bay - window, ^ ■ A . w fcU shah- 

Bazaar, ;\)V| bdzar. 

To Be, <^*>y budan, (^J^ shudan. — 
(66 it so) J^W bashad. 

Beach, J^-U sahil, ^;*> s-J lab-i- 
darjajjUi" kanar. 

Beacon, (;jUi nishan, u-^lU *ala- 
mat, ^S9^J^ manarat. 

Bead, &i1*> danah, 6;}^ muhrah, 
M^ shabah. 

Beadle, y»Ui shatir, j^ pa-kar, 
(>y farrash. 

Beak,jUa.« ininkar, »«3y nauk, uil^ 

Beaked, j\«>;^AJ^ minkar-dilr, ioSii^ 
jW ching-dir. 

Beam (o/ uDOod, Ac), y^ ^^ shah- 
tir, y^ tir, 45J^ wargah. — (of a 
balance) j^f tH^^ shahin-i- 
tarazd. — (of the sun) fy^ partav, 
i^y^ karu, gUAi shu'a*. 

To Beam, (^.x^j^jO dirakhshidan, 
^jj AiftA sJm'lah zadan. 

Beaming, {^yy raushan, ^I^j 
dirakhshan, ^"i lami*. 

Bean, )9u»W bakiU, aUW b&kilah, 
^y Idbijah. 

Bear, ^j*/- khirs, v»*> dubb. — 
(Great Bear, star) yA v»»> dubb- 
i-akbar. — (Little Bear, star) s^*> 
j*^\ dubb-i-asghar. 

To Bear, ^j^U ^ bar dashtan, (^o^ 
burdan. — (suffer) {jsj^\*y y^ bau: 
dashtan, (j^y^ J^tf' tahammul 




nimddan, (^J^»^ kashi'dan, (^*^)f- 
khurdan. — (bring forth), (^A^ 
zddan, {^^ ji*a> ^^ waz^-i-hami 

Bbabd, (j&ij r/sh, ^>-d^ lahjab, 
^^-V^^ mahasin, la*- kbatt. — 
{young heard, orfirgt appearance 
of the beard) ^ f*«> dam-i-khatt. 

Beabded,j^ju&2; rfsh-dflr. 

Bbabdless, (J^j ^jt bi-rfsh. 

Bbabeb {porter), JU^ hammul, 
u^ jW bar-kash, j\*>ji jW bar- 

Beabino {mien), g-*^ waz*, &^^ 

Bbast, fiJ^^ charandab, ^u.«6» ba- 
bfmab, j^W j an war, (^\ye^ bai- 
wau, ^V^ ;V^ cbabar-pai, o j dad. 

Beastliness, ^/^^ f ubsb, ij^ fisk. 

Bbastlt, ^\i^ na-pak, M^ gbalfz, 
u^ najs,;^^ murdAr. 

To Beat, q)*^^ zadau, (^/ kuftan, 
(^^j^ kubidan. — {conquer) ^ 
(^^ fatb kardan, (^^ s^^ 
gbalib amadan, {j^^ y^ zafar 
yaftan. — {to beat down) (^^/ J W^ 
pdi-mal kardan, (j^J^ sa^.^ [tast 
kardan. — {to beat for game) ji 
^j^^^ bar kbizauidan. — {to 
excel or eurpass) {ji) (;j*y c^-Aj— 
sibkat burdan (bar), (^o^ f^ 
bibtar biidan (vide also To 
Excel). — {throb) (^*>/ (^U^ na- 
baz4n kardan. 

To Beatify, (^*^/ o^iu-^ mas'ud 
kardan, {^^^ ^jV* mub^rak 

Beating (waves), ^!^? tal4tum. — 
(pulse) (;)W nabaz4n. 

Beaiittjde, «»*>U«i sa'Adat, o^V-^ 

Bbau, ^/^ ta,us, (^jVi ^y ja-cwd- 
i-nazn iu , ^a C aj kasbang. ( Vide 
also Fop.) 

Bbatttiful, y&'UA^ kbusb-manzar, 
sa>yyt^^ kbub-surat, ^syf^^ kbub- 
rui, ^Sj^ munakkab, «l<x.Ai ka- 
sbang, J^^ khusb-gil, Jbi^^ 
nik-manzar, s-^s) zfb, Wij zibA, 
{j^''*^' basin, J»«^ jamil, *^ ^M 
latif, Ufi^ ra'ni, yu nagbz, vjM^ 

anik, j»^ kasiin, jy« bublul, 
*«>^ wajib, Jy^ makbul, ^t>%*^ 
khuji'r, (^y*- jun (vulg.). 

Beauty, {^^^ busn, JU> jam&l, 
Ks^^ latafat, sA^\y nazakat, 
s-!) zib,^^*Wj zfba,i, jpj^ rauaak, 
«A>jU> nazarat, w&^W^ wajabat, 
cfc^j ziuat, ^j>^ juni (vulg.) — 
(regularity of features), ^s-^ls-* 
sababat. — (sprightly look, fasci- 
nation) o»^ malabat. 

Beaveb, ^J\ *sC« sag-i-abi. 

Because, ^\f^ cbira kih, ^^jty 
zira kib, ^^23 zira, fi^ banabar, 
6^^ jt az bas kib, 6^ sj>^ ^>\ ji 
az in jibat kib. 

To Beckon, o^/ ui>jUi^ isbai-at 

To Become, (^ja sbudan, (^sjS 
gasbtan, (^'^^^ gai-didan.— 
(befit), (^'i^^) zibidan, (;ja-.:U 
sbajistan, <^^^} ^>S laik biidan. 

Becoming, j^jJ darkbwur, j^y- 
sazawar, s-^^ munAsib. 

Bed, ^-*> bistar, y*;* farsh, s»^j 
v»^^ rakbt-i-kbwab. — (bedstead) 
*4W^ palang (hind,), jiy^ sarir. 
— (</ a garden) &s^ lattah, o\)^l 
db-kburan. — (border of a garden- 
bed) ')f marz. — (of a river) Ju^ 
A>^ rud-kbanab. —(/or a Aor«e) 
^a5> o^dp takbt-i-pi,in. — (to go 
to bed) t)»M^>^^ kbwAbdnidan, 
{^) ^^ cfc^A.^ bi-rakht-i- 
kbwab rattan. 

Bbd-chambeb, sV^^^ kbwab-gab. 

Bedding, s-»^^ v»W-^ asbab-i- 
kbwab, u^^^ pusbisb. 

To Bedew, (^Sf f tar kardan, 
^j^ v^V^ mart lib kardan. 

Bedouin, ^^j^ badawf, v»^;c\ a*rab. 

Bed-bidden, «^yi— > bistan'. 

Bee, J—* j^j zambiir-i-'asal. — 
(tt swarm of bees) jy^) J«*- kbail- 
i-zambdr. — (Qicetrn-bee) J^;^ jabl. 

Beef, ^VT «i^^ gusbt-i-g4v. 

Beef-tea, v*-a^ y^y*. jaubar-i- 
gusht, «fc^^ v>\ db-i-gusbt. 

Bee-hive, J^ kund. J—* J^ knnd- 
i-'asal, ij^ mash. 

Bbbb, ft)^ bdzab. 




Bbbb-shop, ^^ckt^ mai-khanali. 
Bbes-wax, f*y» mum, ^4^ sham*. 
Beetle, J«> ju*al, uiiS 6i^ fi^gdb- 
lulah-kunak, j^j^ gauzad. — 
{small beetle, very destructive to 
plants) {^t^ 8in. 
Beet- BOOT, ^*»J^ chukundur, jJ^^ 

chundar {oulg.). 
To Befal, vide To Happen. 
Before, u^s^ pish, Jti kabl, J^\ 
avval, (j^^A-5» pish-n-pish. — 
{in front) j^ jilav, eA«i j** ^*ir 
pfsh, J»^ raukabil. — {sooner) 
/Ojj zddtar, yi^ j^ <jt*> pish az 
pish, Jti kabl. — (in presence of f 
opposite to) Jj^W* muhuza, j^ji^j 
ni-bi-ru, J»U^ mukAbil, ^\y» 
muwajih. — {mentioned^ vide 
Above- mentioned) . 
To Befriend, ;^*y/ ^s^)^ dusti 
kardan, ^j/ ^s^jaa, shafakat 
kardan, ^^S^ ^J^fi^ mihrbdni 
To Beo, {:^\^ khwastan, «>-^^;0 
(^*^X^^ dar - khw^st Dimudan, 
f^S^ y*UaJ\ iltimas kardan, U^ 
(^«>/*i tamanna nimddan, jW^ 
(:)«y nijaz kardan, (^^AtjW niyaz- 
fdan, (a*^y^ "^^ iljii, nimiidaD, 
^ji^ £xu^ mustadi* budan, Uo 
0«y du'a kardan, ^^^ \ajjl^\ 
istid'a nimudan. — {alms) (^^^ 
khwastan, i^'^/ iy\Ss godn,,! kar- 
dan, (^^/ *j^j** daryiizah kar- 
To Beget, o»>y^ ^^y taulfd nimd- 

dan. ( Vide To Produce.) 
Beooar, W gada, J?U 8H,il, jJk>j*> 

dar-bi-dar, ;-jA* fakir. 
Beogart, vide Poverty, Destitu- 
To Begin, ^^^ giriftan, (jj^/ g^^A 
shurii* kardan, ^J;^ j^l aghaz 
nimiidau, ^*>j^ \asj\ ibtida kar- 
dan, i^*^/ ^ bimi kardan, «^jjW^ 
(:)'H})) mubadarat warzfdan. 
Beginner, t^Ja--* mubtadi, )y'\ ^ 

nau-amuz. i 

Beginning, M'\ aghaz, U> bin4, ' 

J^/i shurd*, J;\ avval, ^}i\^\ 

avdfl, ^ sar, yH badw, U::»^ ib- 

tida, ''^Ju^ mabda, , (j^W^ mab&di, 
\'Xi bnda, , «y"\j^ bada,at, «*^*>W* 
mubAdarat, uu>^W^ mubasharat. 

Behalf, v3^ hakk, Ak«^^ wasitah, 
y»W ^b pas-i-khatir, ^ bahr, ^^\ji 

To Behave towards, {^) (^^/ ^s^y^ 
harakat kardan (bi), (^) o*^/j^j 
raftar kardan (bi). 

Behaviour, 5*^ waz*, j\^\ at war, 
jUi|; raftar, <I^^ harakat, J«>fi 
'amal, *^i^ sutdk. — {had beha- 
viour) v»»*^ *«5y tark-i-adab. — 
{good behaviour) s^«>\ adab. 

To Behead, ^^j^^ j^ sar bur Man, 

(a*^) 0^7^ S^^^^ zadan. 

Behest,/*^ amr, f^ hukm, ^Uy 

Behind, ^^ pas, ^j^^ j«> dar pas, 
UkU kbalf , s-*c ;*> dar *akab, *^jjj 
wara, , JW*»> dumbdl. 

Behold ! «^^ inak, <;p^ ban, (:>«a 

To Behold, vide To See, To Look, 
To Observe. 

Beholden, oy«*^ mamndn, j^joju.* 

Beholder, ;kU nazir. 

To Behove, {^s.^^^ sbajistan, 
(;jA-olj bAyistan. 

Being {creature), ss^j^ ka,inat. 
j^Lofc^ makhldk. — {existence) 
^jy bddani, o^^ wiijud, ^_5a-A 

Belch, £j^^ ardgh. 

To Belch, (^^/ t})^ ardgh kar- 

Belfrt, ^W ^^ jaras-khanah. 

Belief, vide Keligion, Faith, 
Trust, Confidence. 

To Believe, (^*y^ j^W bawar kar- 
dan, (^*y¥^ oUuct i*tikad nimddan, 
^j^ j\^ ikrar kardan, »:^a^ 
(^U *akidat d. shtan, (j***;^;^ 
girawidan, o*^*;;^ c;W^ iman awar- 
dan, 0^A^J ^JlI^ musallam dash- 
tan . { Vide To Thi N k . ) 

Believer, •xtot* mu*takid, {^^^y 

Bell, ^J^y^ jaras, ts^j zang, i^\j^ 
dardf. — (small hells) ^y^j zan- 




gulah, «eU^ sdsk. — (hung round 
the neck of cattle) <j-y^ nakds. — 
[diving-bell) ^^^^ A «M» sbishah- 
i-ghawwasi. — {bell-metal) e^ 
tuj, (^A>. chudan, jyu mafrak. 
Bells, ^^ khdb-rd, f\f^ khiram, 
(j^j^ t)3 zan-i-naznfu. 

BSLLES-LETTBBS, v*j\ ^ *ilm-i- 

Bellicose, and Belligerent, 

^ <aC^ jang-ju, ;;\ 4sC^. jang- 

Bellow, a^ na'rab, *a5&W b4ng. 
To Bellow, (;jJ3 fiyiJ na'rah zaSan, 

(^4>j *a^lj bang zadan. 
Bellows, ^^aa* mini'dkh, t>/**^ dam- 

Belly, ^^ shikm, &ja^ mi'dah, 

(^ batn. 
To Belong to, 0»>^ JU mal budan, 

t>*y O^ j^ *2 ^ budan, (jjo^ j^Ua^ 

muta'aliik budan, ^oai j^Vc <aid 

shudan, {^U «:,.,—* nisbat 

dasbtan, (^*>^ u<'^'«ai>^ makbsus 

budan, (;jJ^ v»^ bab bddan. 
Belonging, tjUs^ muta'allik, 

v>y«u^ mansub. 
Beloved {mistress), ^yt^^ mab- 

bdbab, (^^^W janan; &iyu^ ma'- 

Below, ^j zir, ^j jJ dar zir, {^JS^ 

pa,^n, (j«Ae J** <iar pa,in, ^ furu, 

•-s-^^ tabt, t)^\*> daman, e)^^»> 

ddman (vtt^.)* 
Below-mentioned, J«»i j*> dar 

Belt,*U)^ kaniar-band,^kamar, 

v3^ mintak, f»y. bizam. — 

{leathern strap) J^;*> duwdl, ^U— i 

To Bemoan, 0*>^ aJU ualab kar- 

dan, (^*>;^ ytiu ndlisb kardan, 

O**/ «4;b 2^^^ kardan. 
Bench, ^x^ sakd, («^»»Ai nisbfman. 

— (^aZ ierw) (j)^^4> df wan, ^ui^ 

Bend, ^ picb, u^^ picbisb. 
To Bend {trans,), ^^ ^ kbam 

kardan, (;)>MV^ jp{cbanfdan, 

t)**/ vj*****^ munbani kardan. — 
{irUrans.), (^^^^^ kbamidan, ^ 

(^.^ kbam sbudan, o*'^<»^ pfcbf- 

dan, o^^ J^U ma,il budan. 
Beneath, vide Below, Undeb. 
Benediction, o^ barakat, ^s^y^ 

tabrik, o^W^ mubaraki, Jj^j 

Benefaction, c>.w6 ni*mat, (^U^^ 

ibsan, ctJ^ tabarruk. 
Benefactor, «.^.w6 J^ wali-i- 

ni'mat, f^»Af» mun4m. 
Beneficent, vide Kind. 
Beneficial, •M** mufid, ju^Jm 

sdd-mand, giU nafi'. 
Benefit, (^U^^ ibsan, s&^4a> ni'- 

mat, ^U*^ in*am, ^/ karam, :J\ 

ala. — {advantage) aaAA fa,idab, 

•>^ sdd, g*> naf*, «>«&;*• man- 

Benevolent, vide Kind. 
Bent, (gf kaj, eyi\ a*waj.— (6uw) 

Je^ mail, va^j ragbbat. 
To Benumb, (^Sf i^j^\ afsurdab 

Benzoin, ^^^W jawf, <^^^ angu- 

yan, ^\ angd, (^W^ luban. 
To Bequeath, (^^^ &e«y tausijab 

Bequest, «-4Jj wakf, va-iU^ wasajat, 

4*yS^ maukdfab. 
To Bereave, (j^jsa-U f^j^^* mabrdm 

sdkbtan, (^^/ iJAji barabnab 


Bereavement, d^^o^^^^^ mabrdmi- 

Bereft, fi^ j ^U dagb-didab, f^^^^ 
mabrdm, J^ fakid. 

Berry, «U danab, s-*- babb. 

Beryl, u^^y **Cu* sang-i-tarsbisb. 

To Beseech, vide To Beg, To 

To Beset, ^^^/ aIU ibatab kardan, 
C:)?*^** J*^ sbamil nimddan. 

Beside, s-^^ ;•> dar jamb, ^y nazd, 
y^i j*> dar pabld. 

Besides {moreover), »^ 'alawab, 
O^ ^J^r* 6iwa,i-i-4n, (^ yr. bi- 
juz-i-an, ji* ^ kat*-i-nazar.— 
(eaJcepQ j<i magar, \y^ siwd, (jj^j^i 
biddi, je*» bi-gbair,^ juz, )i\ Uld. 

To Besiege, (^o^ *>/ gird kardan, 
(j'^} j)*> daur amadauy (^«>/ ij^\^» 




mnliRflarah kardan, (j*>y4i 
hasr nimddan, {j^^^ JT^^^ mah- 
siir sakhtan. 

To Bespeak, q)*^'/ f^ hukm kar- 
dan, (j^/f*^ amr kardan. 

Best, e*/* bihtarin, {^f^^ khub- 
tarin, {^^fy^ nikutarfn, (j^— •►^ 
ahsan, J^\ afzal, ^i^ a'la. 

Bestial, ^^^.J*^ haiwani, ^j-**-^ 

Bbstialitt, tf^^^sja- haiwilnfyat. 

To Bestow, ^ A »fc » », bakhshidan, 
(^ot^ didan, (^\*> ,j>^^\ arz^ni 
dashtan, (^^y*^ ^ 'at4 nimudan. 

Bet, ^/» shart, «i^«^. bahs. 

To Bet, {^s^ ^^ sbart bastan, ^a^^, 
(^^f bahs kardan, (^^a^ j«^ nazr 

Betel-nut, J»^ faufal. — (ieq/*) 
Jmo? tambdl {hind.). 

To Bethink, 0»>;^^ •>^ ydd ^war- 

Betimes, «>jj3 zdd, ^s^y ^ bar wakt. 

To Betoken, (^*^y^ «&>jUi\ ishArat 

To Betray, (^^f %a^\^ khiydnat 
kardan, (^^/s^ ghadr kardan. 

Betbayal, cb^Cs^ khiydnat. 

Betbayed, ^}^ matruk. 

Betbayeb, (2^ kha,in. 

To Betboth, M*y/ v»/— *^ mansub 
kardan, (^«y *>y^ nam-zad kar- 
dan, O'V^ s>y>a^ makhtdb ni- 

Bbttbb, A| bib, y^e) bihtar, yt^^ 
khubtar, /t^ niktar, jd^\ akhyar, 
(j'^^y ahsan. — ($o much the hett^) 
f^ (;j\ dn bihtar. — (better and 
belter) ^ j«Ji\ A) bib andar bih, 
/^ / /« bihtar az bihtar. 

To Betteb, (^*y/yf$i bihtar kardan, 
^j^ js^^ khubtar nimddan. 

Between, (^^ miyan, (^^ j*y dar 
miydn, (^ bain, {^^ md-bain, 
J^ j»> dar khilal, U*^ j*> dar 

Betel, jW^ hanjdr. 

Beyebaob, v*\/i shardb, s^/i 

Bevy, »j/ gurdh, *4W» td,ifah.— (0/ 

To Bewabb, (^/jS^ hazar kardan, 
I ^j^ jJkA. ^ pur-nazar budan, jU^ 
(^^^ khabar-darbudau, (:)*>^v«^^ 
parhiz kardan, ^*>^ ^^«^^ ihti- 
yut nimudan. 
To Bewitch, (^*y/ *i^y^ nairang 
kardan, i^*y^ (^y^\ afsun kardan. 
i Beyond, ^^'S dn-taraf, y^'S dn-sd, 
' *\j^ ward,. — {exceedifig) *«>^j zi- 
I yadah, ^yU 'aldwah. 
' Bezoab, jAj S^ bdd-zahr,y>») ^ pd- 
j zahr, Aj«^y^j zahr-mubrah. 
Bias, J«^ mail, «&^ raghbat. 
To Bias, <^«>/ J«^ mail kardan. 
Bib, (:)^y>>^«> ddshwdn. 
Bibbeb, sA^'j^ ^ mai-parast. 
Bible, ^^a^ s^l^ kitdb-i-makad- 
das. — {Old Teeiameni) ij^\ J^ 
'ahdu-'l-'atik, sa^j^ taurdt, (^Ue^ 
^J^ paimdn - i - kadfm. — (New 
Testament) Jk|jk^\ j^e 'abdu-'l- 
jadid, ^M- **«a»j wasikah-i-jad/d, 
J«iv^^ anjil, fijV; (^U«( paimdn-i- 
Bibulous, s>*^W jdzib, sjuu^i^ 

To BiGKEB, (^^/y^JLm sitiz kardan, 
^^ o^jU* mundza'at kardan. 

BlCKEBING, |t)^^ sitlZ, UpXjU* mu- 


Bicoloubed, «25^j ^«> dd-rang. 

To Bid, vide To Command. — (oi a 
Bale) (^*y/ f»\j^ suwdm kardan. 

BiDDEB, iJMi ^\y^ Buwdm-kunan- 

BiEB, ^jrfV; tdbdt, ij^ na'sh. 

BiFOLD, V? ^o dd-td. 

BiFUBCATE, ^Vai ^i> dd-shdkhah. 

Bia, o^)) buzurg, ^ kabfr, ^%Jhe 
*azfm, (^ kaldn, ^*««>^ jasfm, 
^ khatir, «i^Al^ kuluft.— (tmfo 
Bulky). — (pregnant) {^su^'S dbis- 
tan, aUU. bdmilah.— -(6t^-&eUted, 
fai) AjUi kumatrah, j;^ katdr, 
cW. l)ajbdj. 

Bigness, ^^^j^ buzurgf, ^^^ l ^..^ jaa- 

BiooT, ij^^y^y waswdsf, 

ta'assib, ««aju. khushk, ^U 

BiooTBD, ^J*•^^^ waswdsL 





Bigotry, * t %*•? ta'assub. 

'Bile, \y^ safrd, ^yfej zahrah. 

Bilge- WATBK, (^ v>'\ ab-i-khan. 

Bilious, <^y« safrii. 

Bill, vide Bbak, Accounts. — (of 
exchange), *A>\ji barat, <4)*'^^ 
bundaW (hind.), jj iS^V^kiigbaz-i- 
zar. — (of sale) <1W2 kab41ah, 
a^Uaq) bai* - D4mah. — (note of 
hand) y^^*> dast-iyfz. — (bond) 
*g V . « »j tamassuk, tf > ^ hujjat. — 
(Parliamentary) ^i lafh^. 

To Bill, ^oU dL«^ bdsah dadan. 

BiLLBT (note), iLAym murdsalab, 
ijdj ru 

Ajii) ruk'ah 


trood) *&-•> 

To BiLLBT (military term), a*W ^j 
^^j^ sa^\A dar kh&nah ikAmat 

BiLL-HOOK, u^U d&B. 

Billow, ty* mauj. 

Billowy, e^^ mayrdj, fJ»iA* mu- 

To Biio), ^^s^ bastan, (»)^/ JO) 
1 tand kardan, ^>>/ W; rabt kardan. 
— (a hook) ^Jj^^jJi^j-jilil kardan. — 
(one* 8 self by a vow, promise, <§<?.) 
^JS^lm j^JU \ja^ khwndr^ mukaj- 
jad sikhtan. — (over, legal term) 
^^^ J^ kaf il kardan. — (an ap- 
prentice), (^*>/ *^j^ shAgird kar- 

BiMDBB (of books) •xl^^ mujallid, 
^ jJich jUd-gar, uiWo sahhaf. 

BiifDiNO (of a garment, Ac), *^ 
labak.— (afi^Atn^ of the leaves of 
a booh), i^^ A» tah-bandf. — 
(siUc cord at top and bottom of 
ike leaves), <»jt^ shirazah. 

BiNOcuLAB (glass), (^ j^«> ddr-bfn. 

BiooBAPHEB, t)y* muYarrikb, Jifc\ 
j««* ahl-i-sijar. 

BiOGBAPHY, j(r^ sij^r, M^ Urfkb. 

BiPABTiTE, 4A«U« munasafab. 

BiBCH, vide Bon. 

BiBCH-TBEB, 6^^ gbdsbab. 

Bird, {^ margn, fi-^^^ parandab,^ 
tair. — (pird-lim^) ^J^ *a l A ^ .fc S^ 

BiRD*8-BYB VIEW, j\ji\ f^A^ chasbm 

Birth, (j&t^*^ paid^yisb, w&>^2L vi* 
ladat, Ske>» mflid, J3y tayallad. 
(Vide Dbscbnt.) — (to give birth 
to) 0«M^ ^f taulid nim<idan, 
^o\j zadan, (^^j zaidan. 

Birthday, <a>*>S^ j^i; ruz-i-viladat, 
ft^L. sdl-girib, J^y jj^; ruz-i-ta- 

Birth-place, *3^^ maulid, ^^ t)^; 

Birthright, «»sh^ <3^ hakk-i- 
bukuriyat, (^t) J^^ OK hakk-i- 

Birth- WORT (arwtolocAia), J^^jj 

Biscuit, ^Ua. ^U^kumij-i-kbusbk, 
v&>Uy^ baksumAt (onZy ««ed tn 
the plural), — (smaU sweet biscuii) 
^j& kulucbah. 

To Bisect, ^j^;* burfdan, *a*U» 
^•y munasaf ah kardan. 

Bisection, ^«1«5 kit'ah, *a*U^ mu- 

Bishop, uiyu\ uskuf . 

BisHOPRiCK, ss^yu\ uskuf fjat. 

Bison, ^j^^y ^ gav-i-dasbtf, (^^yfk 
bfzun (ewr.). 

Bissextile year, a.^; ^ JU sil-i- 

Bit, 6j^ pirab, ^^ p^rcbab, a^ 
tikkah, &y^ lafcbab, A)i; rfzab, 
&^\y karizab, A4JS lukmab, ftt3 
zarrab, ^^ sbarbab, ^^ kat'an, 
^^py^ juzvf. — (in bits) ^j^ ^j<i 
parab pirab. — (of a bridle) *JJ^^ 
dabanab, ^yi^^ ab-kbwur. 

Bitch, fi*>^ «cC« 8ag-i-m4dab, ^S 

Bite, ^J^/ gazfdagi , ^J''^/ gazan- 

To Bite, (^^^ gazidan, (^^j^ ja- 
Yfdan, (^J^J^ kb4,fdfui, (^*ke^ 
ja,{dan, (^^ o^*^*^ danddn girif- 
tan. — (be pungent) (jj»x4i j<s5 tiz 

Bitter, ^ talkb, ^ murr. 

Bittern, )W^ biitfm4r. 

BiTTBRNBBSy ^J^ talkbf, S;^/* ma- 

Bitumen, )m naft, iU» naftab,/i 





Black, >W Bij4h, ^n^ siyab, ij^ 
tfrah, ^y^\ asTad^ iSy^^ hindavi. 
— (hluek and blue) <>^^ kabud. — 
(hlach and white) ^j^\ ablak, ftW^ 
a(A« ^ siyah va gafid. — {lamp- 
black) A^^«> dudah. 

To Black, (j«>/ »^ sijah kardan. 
— (boots) (^^) *s^j rang zadan. 

Blackberky (bramble), ^^ ^A>f 

Blackbird, ;^ sdr. 

Blackouabd, J^^tt aub/isb, •>W *M 
bad-nibad, ^^ luti. 

Blacking, ^^ sijabf, J^ «^j 

Blackness, ^W siydbf, U^^* 
sauda, ^\y^ say&d, ^jS^ tfragi. 

Blacksmith, y^T ahan-gar, •>\jitt> 

Bladder, ^^ masanab. (Vide 

Blade (of grass, <fec.), %sfy barg, 
jjy yarak, »^ ^ par-i-gijdb, ^J^>^ 
ftV<5 kbas-i-giyab. — (of a sword, 
Ac,), AA«5 tiffbab. — (of the 
shoulder), a^U sbanab. 

Blain, i^\ abilab, Jy tuviil, aJ^ 
aulali (f u2^.). 

Blamable, y^ mukassar, f^ jhtS 
Uik-i-malAm, sa^%» ^^y» saza- 

Blame (fault), jf^ taksir, ftUS' 
gunab, Uwt kbatA, s-ni» *aib,j^ 
kusur. — (censure), yt-) zajr,u:^2U 
maliimat, jjft^j ^ sar - zanisb, 
^•^^'y* mu,dkba2ab, AjUe^ pai- 
gbAiub, v>Ufi 4tab. 

To Blame, Qyi/ o^)U malamat 
kardan, ^^ s-^ 'aib guttan, 
^j^ ^ zamm kardan. 

Blameless, ftUT ^^^ bi-gunAb, ^^i 
sr^ bf-'aib, ^«-« ^^ bi-taksir, 
««S^ pdk. 

Blameb, jU^ gbammAz, jS^ 'aib- 

To Blandish, q)^S hyj^^ 'isbvab 

kardan, (^j^ JUs tamalluk ni- 

Blandishment, )\i naz, ^J»}\^ na- 

vdzishy ft^ sbfvak, a^ 'isb- 


Blank, *«>^ sAdab. — (in lottery) 
soU diJj ruk'ab-i-sadab, is^ j^ 
bad-bakbt. — (in writing) \^ 

Blanket, f^ gilim, ^yu mi- 
frasb, uiVJ libAf . — (for a horse) 
i}^ Jul, A4i ^ jul-i-namad. 

To Blaspheme, (^^/^kufr guf- 

Blasphemer, \sf^ kufr-giii. 
Blasphemous, y ^ kafir. 

Blasphemt, ^ kufr, U^*^ taj- 

Blast, c;^^^** •>W bad-i-sakbt. 
To Blast, (^^\^ S^ ^ bar bad da- 

Blaze, vide Flame. 
To Blaze, vide To Burn. 

To Blazon, {^^^ ^^^ masb-bur 
kardan, (^^^ j^^ isbtibAr kar- 

To Bleach, (jj/ ^^^^ gilznrf kar- 

Bleak, •>;- sard, Jy bard, ^^ 

Bleakness, ^j^y- sardi, U^ gar- 

Blear-eted, f^ ty* Burkb- 
cbasbm, jU ^ ^^ cbasbm-i- 

To Bleat (as a sheep), ^^jj \xo gada 
zadan, ^^f {W hk* kardan. 

To Bleed (open a vein), (;)•>/ J^ 
fasd kardan, ^^^ ^^ kbiin 
giriftan, (jJj iS^ rag zadan. — (in- 
trans,) (j«^<3^ cj^ kbiin cbaki- 
dan, (^^ (^^ kbun Amadan. 

Bleeding (medical term) i»^^o- 
bij&mat, ^j ^j rag-zan, (^ j^ 

Blemish, s-^ *aib, fy^ jurm, &^ 

Blemished, v^e*^ ma'jub. 

To Bless, (^•>U ^»^ barakat da- 
dan, ^^^y^ sj<^ du'a,{.i-kbair 
guftan, {j»*S A^A durud guftan, 
^jjjjS' 0^^^ afir/n kardan — (make 
prosper) {^sa.\^ ♦*J;W* luubarak 
sakbtan, {^'i/ jWadp bakbt-yar 




Blessed, «*1jW<« mubarak, •>] 
mas'ud, oy^*^ maimiin. 

Blessedness, ia>*>U^ sa'&dat, <J^^ 

Blessing, vide Benediction. 

Blight (mildew), (^Vi^ jamkan, 
<&Oj zang, t^;^ purmik, «c^^ 

Blighted, &*>3 «£^; zang-zadah, 
sjj «^j)^ purmik-zadah. 

Blind, ue»^ na-bina, j^ kur, Uc^ 
a'ma, j*^ zarfr. — (curtain) &«>^ 
pardah. — (Fene^ian hlinde) i^f^ 
kirkiri (At'nd.). — {))lind of one eye) 
^j*^ «c^ yak-chashmf , j^\ a'var, 
^^t^\ jm\^ vahidu-'l-*am. — (night- 
blind), j/^ shab-kdr. 

To Blind, {^^ sf kdr sikhtan, 
O*^^^ «» 4^^ chasnm bar-ivardan. 


( Vide To Deceive.) 
Blindfold, ft*M^^ 

To Blindfold, <^^^f, f^ chashm 

pushfdan, {*^s^ f^ chashm 

Blindman's buff, **UU ^ sar- 

Blindness, J^^ n4-biiia,{, (j;/ 

kurf, Ufi 'ama. 
Bliss, vide Joy. 
Blister, Jy tuvul, 4l»\ 4bilah, ^i 

aulah (vulg.). — (plaster) jA-ii 

balastar {eur.). 
Bloated, aja ^;^ varam shudah, 

AAj^U^ amasfaah. 
Block (0/ wood, Ac), ^^ kundah. 
To Block up, {^^^ bastan, <j-j;*^ 

(^f madrus kardan, {^sdXm Ji 

masdud s&khtaD. 
Blockade, A/^W* muhasarah, 


To Blockade, vide To Besiege. 
Blockhead, i^\ ablah, (^^^ kau- 

dan, i^^^ na-dan, ^ V> na-fahm, 

ui^^ bi-vukuf, Ai^^ khwaplah, 

v>»*-^ ahmak. 
Blood, <^^ khun. — (6re(;(i) *455 rag, 

^ ragiui, *>^)> nizhad. 
Bloodless, <^^ ^ bi khun. 
Blood-money, ^•> diyat, W/- 

khun-baha, ^.J ^ * ma'kulat. 

Bloodshed, J^ katl, ^y^ khdn- 
rfzf. (Tide Slaughtsb, Mub- 


Bloodshot, *>y\ (^^ khdn-alud, 
tx^ surkh. 

Blood-stone, f^\ j^f^ hajara-'d- 

Bloodthibsty, JfU katil, ^Vi 
z41im, (^UA»yu khun-fishan, ^^ 
^^^ khiin-khwar. 

Bloody, (:^j^ khdnin, •>^li ^^ 

Bloom (blossatn), &i*^ shikufah, 
jW bahdr, &y^ ghunchah. — (0/ 
youth) ^\yk^ 'unfuvAn, ^Wj 
s^W^ rai'&n-i-shabAb. 

To Blossom, (^^ shikuftan, 
{jxii^ shikuftan, (^*>3 &y^ ghun- 
chah zadan. 

Blot, ^ lakkah, {b dagh. 

To Blot, (^<>/ j\j^\*i dagh-dar kar- 
dan. — (to blot out) QJJM.U ^^» 
mahy sakhtan, (^*y) ^ khat zadan, 
^j^ ^^ p^]^ kardan. 

Blotch (on the akin), J^^ kakmal, 
*iU^ kakmak. 

Blotting- PAPEB, *ii^ »s1ju. j St\^ 

Blouse, o^t»4i kamis, (^^j^ pfra- 

Blow, v*^ zarb, u:^.«ft^ musht, 
^V^ tapAnchah, ^jJ lus, «>3 

To Blow, ^^ajj^ vazidan, (;)J4s^*> 
damidan. — (with the breaih) «-A^ 
(^*^/ puf kardan, (:j*>j^ ««>^ fdt 
kardan. — (a» a flov)er) i^^ 
shikuftan, t)*^*^** damfdan. — 
(the nose) (^^ j\. t . « ,.\ istinsh&k 
kardan, i^f ^^ dimagh girif- 
tan. — (a trumpet, Ac.) {^^^ na- 
▼akhtan, (;)*^^*> damidan, (^^^ 
kashidan. — (from the mouth of a 
cannon, a common mode of exe^ 
cution), (^*yj\SS ^y ^ dam-i-tdp 
guzardan. — (hot and cold) *>•>/ 
{^\^ taraddud dtishtan. — (oui) 
^j^ui^ puf kardan. — (the fire) 
^ j^ ^ naf kh kardan, (^*>/ «a>^ 
tut kardan, (^0/ u^ puf kar- 
dan. — (to blow up, tnth fftin- 




powder), (^*m^\ \^ bi-hava 
afkandan, ^^a^ \j9i bi-hava bur- 

Blubber, ^jtj^ charbf, ^ pib. 

Bludgeon, v*^ cbub. 

Blue, ^ nflah, Je* nil, ^:)j^ nil- 
gun, ^yt^ kabdd, ^^^U- satnaTf. — 
(dark blue) a^j^ surmah, o**J^ 
sdrma,!. — (light blue) ^Jl\ khi, 
^)}J^ firuzah, ^^U— ^ asm^nf. — 
(vivid or intense bltie) <3»>)y»-^ 
Ujayardi. — (Prueaian blue) Je» 
^J»^ nil-i-pr4s. 

Blue-book, ^ji\ s^^ kitab-i-abi. 

Blue-bottlb (fiy)if^ *antar. 
Blueness, ijfi^ nil-gunf, ^^ 

uil-fdmf, ij^yt^ kabudi. 
Blunder, uJu^ zillat, Ui^ ghalat, 

maJL* sakat, VLd. kbatA, ^ sahv. 

To Blunder, <j*>/ ^ kbata kar- 

daii, (^'y^ ^ sahv kardan, ^t^ 

(^^f taksir kardan, {^sa}^ ^^ 

kusiir sAkbtan. 
Blunderbuss, ^^f kanibinah 

Blunderer, ^ ^ kbata-kar, ^ 

j\S sabv-kar. 
Blunt, j^ kund. — (stupid) jm^^ 

abinak, J*c ^jt bi-*akl. 
To Blunt, (j^^Tjo^ kund kardan. 
Bluntness, ^J^ kundf. 
Blush, «j>i%^ kbijlat, vsJV^ kbi- 

jdlat, fjtt sbarm. 
To Blush, (^•^j^ ^\^^ kbij41at 

kasbfdan, {^\^ f^ sbarm dasb- 

tan, {^sj^^ W baja dasbtan. 
Boar, ^j^ guraz, «i3^ kbuk, or 

*4Jj*- kbug, jty^ kbinzir. — (wild 

boar) o*^ ^^ kbuk-i-vabsbf. 
Board, aa*^ takbtab, t^ laub. — (of 

a book) Jju** mukavva. — (diet) 

f*UL ta'alm, ftyk^ sufrab. 

To Board, (jj/ ^J^ «ws^ takbt- 
banJi kardan. [Tbis term is not 
applied to a floor.] - (a person) 
^ju &yu sufrab dadan. 

Board-room, ^Ji'H^ v5^^ utak-i- 
nisbiuiani, u*J^^^ %3^}^ utak-i- 
niajlis, &>W\^j divan-kbanab. 

Board-waoeh, ^^^jf- kbwurAkf. 

Boarish, Vs^ik^ rusta, fiJ^y ^ na- 

tirasbidab, v>*>\ ^Jt bf-adab. 
Boast, ^ fakbr, Jf^ ^^ kbud- 
nima,f. s&>^U.« mufakbarat, •^ 
^3^jj;j buland-parvAzi. — (of what 
one has done) U^\^ gizdf. — (of 
what one can or will do) w*)l laf . 
To Boast, ^^j J* kul raftan, 
0j^ i«y.Uu muf Akbarat nimu- 
dan, ^Jj u\jS^ gizaf zadan, «-^3 
(;;*>j laf zadan. 

Boaster, J^ fuziil, ^yH Uf-zan. 

Boastful, ^yJi lAf -zan, /.U fakbir, 
^ . y Jfc** muftakbir. 

Boat, ^ja^ kasbtf, ^ nau, *^-*-« 
masbuwwab (hiiid,), — (/«^^y- 
boat) yt^f^ mi*bai'. 

Boatman, c^ mallab, ^W jAshu, 
jy nuti. 

Boatswain, ^^Cj^ 7* sar-bang. 

Bob, cr«^ jumbisb. 

To Bob, <;)•^^«^ jumbidan. 

Bobbin, ftje^ cbibrab, *;^U ma- 

Bodice (woi-n by women), •uj ^U*-^ 
pistan-band, Ai» y bar-band. 

Bodiless, {*)* ^ bi-tan, (;>»^ ^jf bi- 
badan, Ju-,- ^J bi-jaead, f>\^\ ^J 

Bodily, ^ - ^ y ^* mutajassim, 
jU— «► jisuuinf, ^J^ badani. 
(Vide Entirely.) 

Bodkin, (^\y^ suzan. 

Body, (^ tan, <;jJ4 badan, x— ► 
jaaad, f^-*^ jism, f>\^\ and4m, 
Jy^^ vujud, f^^a^ sbakbs, s-JV* 
kalib.— (corpae) v>3 lAsb, aaII 
lasbab, v«^** mayyit, Aa^ may- 
yitab, jU/» murdar, »jW janazaib, 
AAtfq^ jaif ab. ( Fide Crowd.) 

Body-guard, ^J^^J f!^ gbulam-i- 
rikabi, ^^ ^ gbulam-i-sbdbf. 

Boa, ^Kgilabab, i^^A^ luasbilab. 

To Boggle, (^j>/ ^r^^ y uH pas va 
pisb kardan. 

Bohemian (bad character) s-^/» 
^^^jj^ murtakib bi-duzdi'. 

Boil (tumour), J^«3 dummal, J**«> 
dumbal, ^jy^ kiirak. 

To Boil, (trans.) ^^^Uiy*. jusba- 
nidan, ^«>/ ^^ jusb kardan. 




— (in^raiM.) t^^M**** jushfdan, 
(^s^'\ \^fr. bi-jiisb amadan. 

BOILBD-MEAT, ^ V»^ c>A^ gusbt-i- 


BoiLBB (jpoO, *s^*> dig. 

Boiling, J^y»- jtisb, cr*^ jusb- 

BoisTEBOUB, t^JA sbadid, ^^ tund, 
<d^«4b*« sakbt. — {Bed) fMA>» muta- 

BoiSTEBOUSNEss, (j^u? tundi, 
sakbtf, ci>*^ Bbiddat. 

Bold, jJ»> dilfr, jp»> dilayar, *«J W 
bf-b4k, jMW jan-b^z, JW^ 
sbujA*, At»%^ sbajfS ^*9^ jari, 
j»)W babadur, oy« ^ sbir-mard, 
^ft- W ba- jurat, •Mkt mshfd. 

Boldness, ^Jyi'^ diliri, <4;^)«> dil4- 
vaH, ifi*^;R- jurat, «a>;U«^ jasilrat, 
iA^l^Ai sbajA'at, uu>;«^ gbairat, 
^W** bi-b^ki', ^s^Jk sbara'at. 

Bolster, (j^W balish, (^W balin, 
jt3W j^ n^z-b^lish. 

Bolt (of a door), (^ kulan, JkJi" 
kuland. — (of iron) icXeUJ tam- 

To Bolt, e^s*-* bastan, (j>o^ Ai» 
band kardan, (^»^/ u>A». cbift 
kardan, (^«>j •^^ kuland zadan. 

Bomb, A;W^ '^^iS' ^ululab-i-kum- 
barah, f^j^ "^^ gul61ab-i- 

To BoMBABDy {^s.^ vr^ bi-tiip 
l)astan, ^^^Ji^ %^y tdp and^kb- 

BoMBABDiBB, ^^ &j^^ kuiub^rab- 
chf, ^^ ^^^^ kfiumparab-cbf. 

Bombabdment, (^)J^^Ji^ s^f tup 

Bombast, ^-aSI^* inub41agbab, i^/^ 

Bombastic, {^f^^^ mutantin. 

Bombazine, «^^U^ garmdsdf, 
tyy^^ mashrd'. 

Bon-bon, ^^jt^ shfrmf. 

Bond (coniract), « *^ '-» » tamassuk, 
tf ' ^ bujjat. — {bond, tie) ^\^^ 
irtibat, i^\ rabitab, ASlU <alakab. 
— (obligation to pay) sa^ v^ buj- 
jat, o^^ tf^- » > tamassuk-i-nakdf, 
l*\^\ Jk&l^ kagbaz-i-iltizAm. 

Bondage, ^j^a-* ^^ va-bastagf, ^ 
kaid, a;^ band, c^^t^ giriftari, 
^\ usr, (^7^-*^ as in, *a^^^ *ubu- 

Bondmaid, y^ kaniz. 

Bondman, ^ gbulim. 

Bone, (^f:k^ ustukbwan, (^W^\ 
ustukban (wig,), ^ 'azm. — 
(bone-setter) '^ Ax . m . ^ sbikastah- 

Bonelbss, (^^^afcA>«^ ^J| bf-ustukb- 

BoN-FiBE, ^} itisb. 

Bonnet, a^ kulab, v>^ r* ^^' 

BoNT, ^^^abAi«\ ^ pur ustnkbwAn. 

Book, s^^ kitdb, &^U namab, 
AAti^« sahifab. — (section or cka/p- 
ter) yu safar. — (account-book) 
js^*y daftar, s^L^ «£Jbu.j dastak-i- 
bisab, aa ^ ,^ safinab. — ((ooX^cover 
or envelope) iji^y* kau,iluk, v3M 
kauluk. — (memorandum - 2k>o^) 
< ^* »»* majma'ab, (>^ bajaz. 

Book-bindeb, «^W« sabbAf, •: 
mujallid, ;^ *^ jild-gar. 

Book-binding, ^Jt j^W jild-garf . 

Booking-office, y^o daftar, 
A»W tfkat-kbanab. 

BooK-SELLEB, J^4*i v>ls^ kitab- 
furdsb, «^W« sanb£f. 

BooK-woBM, ^^ kit^bf. 

Boom, ;^ tir, Jii^;* farvand. 

Boon, ^U>\ in* Am, 

, ^ bakb- 

Boob, ^V«ftodihk4n, «iJ/ turk, o^^i; 

BooBisH, v»*>\ ^jj bi-adab, Ji^W 

BooBisHNEss, ^«>^ ^ bf-adabf, 

w^Utoo dibkAnfyat, ^/^Mi^ ^ 

Boot (covering for leg and Joot), 

^uX». cbakmab, i)y mdzab (obs,), 

— (top-boots) M^ cbakmab. — 

(Vide Gain). 
Booth, a*UV^ Hsb^nab, j^ kappar, 

^ kumab. 
Bootmaker, j^«> A«i^ cbakmab- 

diiz, jU M^ chakmab-saz, ij^ 

j^«> kafsb-diiz. 




Boots (senHini)^ /y naukar, /U 

Booty, vide Plundbb. 

Bo&Ax, J^^ tankal, j\)^ bdrdk. 

BoKDBS (margin), ^^w hashiyah, 
j\jS kandr, ij^ kanArah, (^^/ 
karan, ^\/ kiu^nah, Sj zih, (^U 
daman, s-^ lab, *3^ hadd, j/* 
inarz. ( Vide Bounds.) 

To BoBDBB (j«>Ve» &eikU hashijah 
niMdan; (acfijoin) (^ *aSk^ 
nazdik shudan, ^ja «y nazd 

BoBOBBiNQ, ««\i«y nazdik, «y nazd. 

To BoBB (pierce), ^^siLm suftan, 
^J^M^ sumbicUbn, ^j^ t^jy^ 
sur4kh kardan. 

BoBBAS, JUik *>\i bad-i-shimiil. 

BoBBB, ft*AA;^ 6\;y>« Burakh*kiinan- 

BoBN, «>y^ maulud, •^^ muta- 
yallid, \*\4 paida, *^\) zad. 

To be BoBN, (^«>\j zadan, (^j-^i^j 
za,idan, (;)*xAi \^ paid 4 shudan, 
^Vji •^y tavallud jaftan, jJy^ 
^JA mutavallid shudan. 

To BoBBOW (an article which must 
itself he restored), (jJ^jS ^»^jU 
*ariyat giriftan, ^*yji iM»^\tJj\ 
isti'aiat kardan. — (money or 
other things for which an equiva^ 
lent is to he restored) {^f j^ 
karz giriftan, ^^ji ^\y ydm 

BoBBOWBB, ^Wy karz-dar. 

Bosom, ji bar, ^a^^ sfnah, ^^\ 
dgbiish. — (of a female) vide 

Boss (of a shield, Ac, stud, oma^ 
ment) ^^o^gul-mfkh, M kubbah. 

Botanist, {^t^ udc 'alaf-chin, and 

Botany, ,^,;t^ u^ *alaf-chinf.— 
[These are contemptuous terms 
for a science which the Persians 
hold in no repute.] 

Both, y^ yfc har du, ^'^^'t ham- 
<ifgar> e***^ isnain. (Vide Also.) 

BoTHBB, iJ^ySJ tashvfsb. 

To BoTHBB, (;)^^i> \^ izu dudan, 
^^Uj tf..M j zahmat rasam'dan, 
^•>\*> v»^Ae *azab d4dan. 

BoTTLB (0/ glass), ^a^ shishah. — 
(of earthenware) yu-^ bastu. — (of 
leather) AjU* matdrah, ftjJLp* 
matharah, *sS:^ khig. — (long- 
necked hotUe or phial) «^V* 
surahi. — (large glass hoitle or 
flask) *»y karabah. — (smaller 
ditto) JiAt hfighBlL^(English 
hlack glass hottle) ^JiW built 
(eur.), ijj^ hutri (eur.). — (de- 
canter) *«5C«* tung. — (square de^ 
canter or case hottle) j^W chdrpar. 

To BoTTLB, (J^j A-A^ Aj bi- 

shishah rfkhtan. 

Bottom, a? tab, (^ bun, {^J\i pa,in, 
fi ka*r, «-A^ kaf. — (of a coffee- 
cup, stand, or holder) <:)W^ jt) 
zir-i*iinjan, ^^ zarf. — (stand 
or foot of a vessel, Ac) w^ 

BoTTOMLBbS, A> ^ bi-tah, (^ fjt 
bi-bun, i«i ^Jt bi-ka'r, «-i^ ^^ bi- 
kaf , {^jf% fjt bf-pa,in. 

BouoH, t^ shakh, a^Ui shAkhah, 
jy far* (pi t^ furdO. 

BouLDEB, iiCu. sang. 

To BouNCB, {^ii"'^ jastau, ^> K >f<» 

Bound (leap), ^b^-*^ jast, 
jumbish. — (compelled) 
majbdr, J^S labudda, jWU" ni. 
char. — (hook) Jkl^^ mujallad. 

To be Bound to, ^^^AHtW bayistan, 
0«xAi o^S labudda shudan. 

To Bound, {^s,^^ jastan, ^t^^M-s^ 

Boundless, •»•» ^ bi-hadd, \^\ ^jt 
bi-intih4, (^VjU ^j bi-p4j4n, ^ 
oHt^ bf -nihil jat. 

Boundlessness, (j^W^t ^ bi- 
intiha,!, ^^W ^^ bi-nihdjati. 

Bounds, •j^ hadd, Jio^;- sar-hadd, 
«yk» sughiir, &^J dahanah, (^j^jST 
karan, j^ kanar, JV£^ ma,41, Jj^^ 
aksa, ^\ intiha, f*yj/* marz- 
bum, }y marz, jf-^ sunur. 

Bounteous, >hW jaid, ^j^ karim, 
«>^\y^ jayun-mard. 

Bounty, (^ karam, c>^\y karamat, 
VLe *ata, W-* sakha, ka>y\ak^ sakha- 
vat, •>!«► jud, J^ bazl, ij^/^^ft 




javan - mardf, ya>^ murdvat, 
tf.>> U..i 8ain4hat. 

Bouquet, aa««> dastah, iA*^ gul- 

BouKBE, A»U. u\yo sarrdf-khAnah, 
6i\d^^\^ tijirat-kh^nah, aUUJ^ j\j 

Bout, &«^*3 daf'ah, (^W^t imtih&n, 
i/ karrah. 

Bow, ^U^ kam^n, ^^ kaus. — 
(violin) t)^ kaman. — {pellet^ 
bow) ^U^ ^^ gululah - kamAn, 
Uj^ ^Ui kam&Q - i - gardh4. — 
(houhstring) aU- chillah, »j zih. — 
Ihato-case) (^W/ kirban, e^y^ mis- 
van. — {hdms of a how), (^US 6Jkf 
gdahah-i-kaman. — {bow or pom- 
mel of a saddle) (:>jtj ^/ kiihah-i- 
zfn, cr^^y kajrabus. — (rainbow) 
t^ f^f kauB-i-kuzah, ^J^ ^ * ft » A 
shatnsbir-i-'alf, «s^ (jU^ kamdn- 
i-t'alak. — {fiow - maker) f (^jU^ 
kaman- gar. 

Bow (reverence), y^ y* sar-furu, 
sj^)^ kiirnish, gj|^ ruku'. 

To Bow, {^^f fX* sal am kardan, 
^jj^ 1^ ^ sar-furu kardau. 

BowBLs, A«>j) rudab ( pL Vaj^^ rud- 
abii), Jj*^ mi*a (u2. U^\ am' a), 
i*^^ hasba (2>2. ^^ abshd). 

BowBB, vide Abboub. 

Bowl, ^^^ kasah. 

To Bowl, <^Jk^VUL& gbaltanidan, 
^ j^ jW v5^ gdf-bdz kardan. 

BowLBB, ^ s^f gdi-baz, jW Hh 

Bowls (game) ^\^ ^y» tiipah-bAzi. 

BowsPBiT, ^U^kamanah. 

Box (cheat), J^*)^^ sandiik, e)^*>^ 
yakbdin. — (email chest or box) 
i^yXi^ aanddkcbah, s^Vi kab. — 
(tree) jV^UAi sbimsbad, ^j^ 
baks, j\*y *^*^ kisbab-dar. — (little 
boatf such as snuff-box, pill- 
box, Ac) ^f kuti. — (casket, or 
box bound with iron clamps) 0;%^ 
mijri. — (case or box of wood or 
leather) ^h*^ ja*bab. — (box or 
small press, like a medicine chest, 
full of drawers anil compart- 
ments) A . T a fe? . Ae t pish-takhtah. — 

(earthenware box for saving 

money in) i«U^ kulluk. — (at 

theatre) ^ lazh (cur.), — (private 

box) \^x»sk^ ^ lazb-i-makbsuB 

Box on the ear, ^J^ sili, J^**^^ 

To Box (fight), (^*y) oJU* musht 

BoxBB, (^3 sA^Js^ musht-zan. 
Boxing, (;)«>} ss^J^ musht-zadan. 
BoT, j^ pisar, ««) o^ kddak. ( Vide 

Boyhood, vide Babyhood. 
Brace ( pair), «-a^ juft, jj^ jdr. 
To Bbace, {^x^ bastan. 
Bbacelbt, JULjjw*> dast-band, f^j<i 

j&rah, yU^ alangd. 
Bbaceb, aa} j\^ shalyar-band. 
Bbacket, ij!isJ\ istAdah. 
Bbackish (<u water), )^ shdr. 
Bbad, (^ mfkh. 
To Bbao, vide To Boast. 
Bbahman, {^*^ barhaman. 
Bbaid (lace), (^^^ kait&n. 
Bbain, yb« maghz, ^Uo dimdgh, 

(fc^ mukhkh. — (hare-brained) ^jt 

yb« bf-maghz. 
Bbamble (bUickberry), ^j*/ •«>/ 

Bban, {j^y^ sapds, A)^ nukhalah. 
Bbanch, vide Bouoh. — (of a river) 

^&*-*«» shu'bat, ijy^ jiif, v*^ jiib 

Bband (m>ark of cautery), fW 

d4gh. — (burning stick), ^ y ^ t^ 

To Bband, (^*y/ ^\*y dagh kardan. 
To Bbandish, ^J^Ui\ afshAndan, 

^Ae-^ kashidan. 
Bbandy, v5;fi *arak. 
Bbahs, yji birinzh, ^ji birinj, 

y*W» nab as. — (brazen) {^^ji 

birinj in. 
Bbaye, vide Bold. 
Bbato, "Vf*./* marhaban, a^^ 6^^ vdh- 

yah, {^^ji!\ aiirin, v/^WU> shAbash, 

aUUiU m&shiillah. — (a bravo) 

y^ ^^^S\ ahan-khwur. 
Bbawl, fiJ^ys 'arbadah, v>^*^^ 





To Brat (cm an cue), m^ ff^ 
'ar'ar kaxdan, ^•lU aJij zarah 

Bbazibe,^:-^ mis-gar. 

Brazil-wood (a rtd dye), fA 

Breach, u\^ shik&f , &^ rikhnah, 
J^ A^^ shikastagf, AjU^ mu- 

To Breach (a wall), {^^ «)U^ 
mugharah sakhtan. 

Bread, ^^ n/m, *^jj^ cbtirak. — 
(unleavened bread), ijjj^ o^ ii4n- 
i-fatirf. — (leavened bread) t>^ 
fjy&^ nkn - i - khamfri. — (thick 
bread cake) eU^ kumdj, ^U^ 
kumach. — (bread baked on an 
iron heater) ^J^\^ (^\i nin-i-BAjL 
— (bread baked on heated gravel) 
«iX^*- (^\i nan-i-sangak. — (thin 
bread in sheets) vj^V (^^ n4n-i- 
layashi, 4^^ ^^ nan-i-yukhah. — 
(barley bread) {^y^ ^U nAn-i- 
javfn, aao^ Ji i S kashkfiiah. — (etah 
bread) «w^ (^^ uun-i-bayat, (^^ 
ftjiU nan-i-mHiidah. 

Breadth, (j%>^ pahn, ^y^ pahna,i, 
u*;ft *arz, ^J|^J^ farakhi, ^J 

Break of day, j^m sahar, ^^ 

To Bbeak, (trana,) i»y i > u , <A shikas- 

tan, <^«>/ bj^ D^rah kardan.^ — 
(intrane,) ^^ ^^ shikastan, ftj^ 
0«xAi parah shudan. — (as a tough 
substance, to snap), ^^ss kt ^ 

guBikhtan, (^ ? S gusuBtan. — 

(trans,) c)>M£<^gu8ilaiiidan. — (a 
promise, Sc) (^*>y^ (^ faskh ni- 
mudan, ^lXi> shikastan, e*^j >** 
jir zadau (vtilg.), — (tame) f^JuS 
(^^\«3 ta'lim dadan, )y'\ cu^o 
(^»>/ dast - amdz kardan. — (in 
pieces), i^^/ fij^ &jV^ parah p4rah 
kardan, {^sa.^ ^j^ khwurd sakh- 
tan, (^*y/ fj^ pakhsh kardan. — 
(a seal) ^^\*y y bar-dashtan. — 
(to break with a person) « vJ^J^ 
^jji i^\*>jS^ az kasi ru*gard4n 
8hudan.--^to breaJc up, as an 
assembly) (irans.) {^jMJk fXm 

salam shikastan ; (intrans,) f^ji 
{^^)^ bar-ham khwurdan. — (to 
break doton) (intrans.) ^«>^ A& .*>. C >i 
shikastah budan. 

Breakfast (slight meal taken very 
early), ^^ niishtd. — (meal taken 
near noon) ^W nahdr, la^^^V^ 

Breast, ^iJ^^t^ sinah, ji bar, jXe sadr. 
— (breasts of a woman) \^U«^ 
pistanha, {^^ sudyain. 

Breastworks, «&>U^^[^&^\ istihka- 
mat, /o^ sangur. 

Breath, ^ dam, {j^ nalas. — 
(bad breath) oUi> c^yke <uf dnit- 
i-dahan. — (last breaih) v>*j ramak. 
— (short-breaih) <j*AaJ\ ,>** ziku- 

To Breathe, ^•>3 f^y dam zadan, 
^oe^ ^j^ nafas kashidan. 

Breeches, j\j^ shalvar. — (knee- 
breeches) ^^ f^ j\^ shalvar-i- 

Breech-loader,;^ as tah-pur. 

Breed (race), J*\ aftl, J-* nasi, 
ij-^^ith jins, *y\^ nizhad, ^a^)^ zur- 
rivat. — (cross-breed), *^ y*^ du- 
rag. ( Vide Family, Tribe.) 

To Breed, vid^ To Bring forth. 

Breeze, f^o^ nasim, «>W hid. 

Brevet, ^j rutabf. 

Brevity, j^qs^A ikhtisar, jUsi\ ik- 

To Bhew, {^"^ s^khtan. 

Bribe, ^^j^j rishvat, <j^;\ irah, ftjV^ 

Brick (unbumt), «-A^ khisht. — 
(burnt) y^'S ajur, j^\ 4jur. — 
(kiln) 6;/ kurah, ^ yA %)j^ 
kiuuh-i-iijur-pazf. — (dust) v^T* 
surkhi. — (brick-burner) a y^ 
ajur-paz. — (bricklayer) U? banna. 
— (brick - maker) ^f^ khisht- 
zan. — {brick - making) ^j^UaJU. 

Bridal trousseau, jW jahdz, ««S*3j^ 

Bride, Lr*2)^ ^arus. 

Bride-chamber, aI^a^ hijlah, ft^ 
jilvah, jij^^ «i»^ baitu - 's - 




Bbidsgboom, ^UW dilmad. 

Bbidoe, J> pul, ^— ► jisr, ^j>/ 
kurpi, *>j^ purd. — (suspension 
bridge) ^jt^} Ji pul-i-zanj irf . — 
(of the nose) ^\ anfah, ^^;i 
^Uj bar - imadagi-i-dimagh. — 
(of Paradise) jyt^ janivar, ^\j^ 
sirAt, l\yo J^ pul-i-sirat. 

Bbidle, t)^ *inan, ^Uj zimam. — 
(6i< of bridle) &**•> dahanab, 
j^'\ ab-khwur. — (frontlet) y-^ 
(^^;i magas-paran. — (chain) a^A; 
rashmah. — (nose-bridle), ^^ mi- 
hAr. — (reins) f>^ lijam, ^^ 
ligAm, ^ jilau. — (or7iam€nfec2 
work on the head of a bridle), 

J i^ killah-gf. — (^ca<Z.«toZO, 
jUj\ af sdr. 

Bbief, yassk>» mukhtasar. 

Bbisflt, jUsd.\jya} bi-taur-i-ikhti- 

Bbio (two-masted vessel) ^^ jW 

^o jahaz-i-du-dakalf. 
Bbioadieb, *\y ^ mir-i-liva,, 
Bbioand, ^yfe»; rah-zan. 
Bbioahdage, «J»>*; rah-zani, ^^\f»' 


Bbiqht, (^j) ^us^^^oy^ ™^^^^~ 
var, y«^ munir, ^^ y^^ jauhar- 
ddr, g^H lami*, ^Jk- jali, ^Vaa.j*> 
dirakhshan, (^jW^ tab4n, ^^ J^l* t4b- 
ddr, gtL. sati*, (jjtsu*.^ rukhshan. 
(Fic?€ Mebry, Cleveb.) 

Bbiohtness, ^^y) raushani, JW^ 
tabanf, v*^ tab, <j^^ tabish, 
J^j^jui^j rakhshandagi. 

Bbilliakt, vide Bbiqht. 

Bbim, vide Brink. 

Bbimstone, J^y gugird, ^A^jt^ 

Bbine, j^ s-»^ ab-i-shur. 

To Bring, (^j^i;^ avardan, (^^yj^^ j^\^ 
hazir avaraan. — (forth, to bear) 
(^*y\) zadan, ^•^J\) zA,idan, ^J^ 
(^*>/ paidA kardan, o^^ J«a. g«b^ 
Yaz'-i-haml kardjan. — (up, to 
rear) (^*^jf)i parrardan, ca^^y 
(^j^ tarbiyat nimudan, iA^Uek. 
(a*yy*i hizAnat nimiidan. — (to 
bring bach) (^^\*>jS^ jk bar-gar- 
dinidan, {^^^^^ oX^^y nazdfk Avar- 

dan. — (to bring before) (^*y^ jUtA 
ihzAr kardan. — (to bring together) 
^jj^l[ cE\ijy nazdfk Avardan. 

Bbinjal (egg-plant), ft)W^*>W bAdin- . 

Bbink, s-J lab, j^ kanAr, «)U^ ka- 
nAraii, (^^/ karAn. 

Briny, ^y^ sbur. 

Bbioch, «^^^ o^ nAn-i-kuchik, 
sU^ kumAj . 

Bbisk, vide Active. — (trade) t^^ 

Bristle, y* mix. 

To Bristle, ^JA V^ ^ bar pA shu- 
dan, (^jVsm^T ^a^\j rAst istAdan. 

Bristly, i^'i^ khashin. 

British agent, &t» ^^*y ^y 
< j '- fl . W vakil-i-daulat-i-bahijah- 
i-inglfsi, (j«^W bAljus. 

Brittle, csJjU nazuk, *a^ tunuk, 
^ « ... „ ■ <A shikastanf, ^y turd (tn^Z^.). 

Broad, (^ pahn, ^ pahnA, (>^yi 
*ar{z, ^tr*^ wasiS tV ^S'l'^kh. 

Broadcloth, «A>yfcU mahdt. 

Brocade (c^^^ of gold, &c, ), v^;) zar i. 

Broken -in (horse), f\\ rAm. 

Broker, J1I«> dallAl, ^u.*^ simsAr. 

Bronze, (^•w chudan. 

Brooch, &&««• J5 gul-i-sfnah, jV^ 
sanjAk. — (to wear a brooch), 
^jj jW^ sanjAk zadan. 

Brooding, ;»^ C » > gham-gin. 

Brook, v^^ jdi, s^^ jub (vulg.). 

Broom, s^j^W jA-rub. — (plant) 
{^^ barishfn, ^; ratm. 

Broth, W^y^ sburba, «:-^^ v»^ Ab-i- 
gusht. — (0/ rice) i^ shullah. 

Brothel, a»U J-cj. khail-khanah, 
Ails. jgJ^V^ bivala-khAnah, 6i\d. ^3 

Brother, j*>\;| birAdar, ^ Akh. — 
(/mW) {^ ^•>V biradar-i-*ain. — 
(^//) <j4« j*>V birAdar-sulbi, 
^_5*W p*>^y birAdar-i-batni. [The 
first is a brother by the father's, 
the second bj the mother's, 
side.] — (elder) f^ )^\ji birAdar-i- 
mihtar, <j«»WU dAdAshi, <jtn.>U 
dadA,ish (vulg,). — (younger) 
f^ j*>y biradar-i-kihtar, ^Vi 
kAka (wig,), — (adopted) ^•>V 





IM\^ biradar-khwandah. — {fos- 
ter), je ' t .»i h sS\ji binidar-i-ham- 
shir, o^^> j**V biradar-i-riza*i. — 
(-in-law, wife* 8 brother) (jj jo\^ 
birddar-zan, yft*;** ham-rish. — 
(husband* 8 brother) ^^ ^^\ji bira- 
dar-i-shauhar. — (twin brother) 
f,*\f jjy biradar-taua,m, ^^\^ 
yjyf*^ birddar-jumbuli. — (sis- 
ter* s husband) ^^^ ajaznah. — 
(vnfe*s sister^s htisband) ^^\x^ 

Bbothebhood, v^^'^V biradarf, 
sa>^\ ukhuvat, i£>Vd.\y« mu- 
vdkhat. (Vide Society, Band.) 

Bbow, vide Forehead, Eyebrow. 

Bbowk, jji bur, ^4— \ asmar, f^^ 
(^f ganduin-p^un, *sS^^ a^ tirah- 
rang. — (dark brown) s^<kt- 
mfkhakf. — (a horse) ff »/ karah- 
kahar,jf» bur. 

To Browse, e*^>^ charidan. 

Bruise, o^^ Kuftagi. 

To Bruise, {^y^ kuftan. 

Brunette (of dark complexion), 
y^ sabz. 

Brush, ^^y^ ja-rub, (^ »*JV* pak- 
kun. — (clothes-brush) *^^ i£>yfcU 
{^ mahut-saf-kun. — (hair-brush) 
fj^ ^lo ^5y» mui - saf - kun. — 
(pa%7iter*s brush) y» ^ kaJam-i- 
mu. — (nail brush) {^ U\^ {^^ 

To Brush, {^y ruftan, u>\^ «>ytoU \^ 
^j^. ^\^ ^ ba-mahut-sAf-kun 
pak kardan. — (to brush off) 
{^A^\Ss takanidan, (^o^ oeJ^ pak 
kardan, (^*xit&i\ afshandan. 

Brushwood, Vy butaha. 

Brusque, v*^^ ^Ji bi-adab. 

Brusqueness, ^*^\ ^ bi-adabi. 

Brutal, tj^yt^ haivAni, 

Brutality, ct^^^ea^ haivanfyat, 
^jSAijj durusht/. 

Bryony, v5^-^ tajrizi. 

Bubble, s-*Wliubab. — (to blow bub- 
bles) (^u. v*Wa. hubab sdkhtan. 

To Bubble, (^•M*^ jushidan, \J^fr. 
f^^ bi-jush amadan, ^ v»W^ 
iO^)^ hubdb bar-avardan. 

Bubo, ^^ khijarak, «>W bdd. 

Buck, {^y^ gavazn. 

Bucket, y«> dalv, J;*> dul, ,^JJW 

bald I (hind.) — (of metal) ^JS»- 

satl. — (large leathern bucket for 

drawing water) ^ ftU. J^o dul- 

i-chah-gav. — {bucket of flexible 

hide extended on a hoop) *;*- J^*> 

Buckle, v^^ sagak. 
Buckler, y^ sipar. 
Bud, &iyS^ shikufah, ^s^;^ ghun- 

chah, ly? tunzah, 6^ tukmah, 

%^^ gump. 
To Budge, {^*^f ^s.-^ harakat 

kardan, (;)» k^ * ^ jumbidan. 
Budoet, ty^ y J^*> ^'^y^ muviiza- 

nah-i-dakhl u kharj. 
Buffalo, yt^^VS' garnish, (j«^W 

Buffet, (^^ji*^ diyan, j^*> daftar. 
Buffeting (waves), fXi^ muta- 

Buffoon, i f k"^ maskharah, ^y 

Bug, (j*^ sas, cfcUy- surkhak. — 

(large poisorwus bug) ^ millah. 
Bugbear, J^ ghul, ^^ luld. 
Bugle (horn), jyi^ shaifur, yy^ 

shaipur. — (oblang bead) aJ^ luiah. 
Bugler, ^j^^yi^ shait'ur-chi. 
Bugloss (herb), yWj^VT gav-zabau, 

jyil\ yLJ lisanu-'s saur. 
To Build, e^^^ sakhtau, uu>^Ux 

(^*y/ 'imarat kardan, (^*>/ ^$4Ju 

ta'mir kardan, (j«>/W bina kardan. 
Builder, ^ bannd, ^J^ bani, 

^U*^ mi'mar. 
Building (house), W bina, «A>;Ue 

4marat, (^^ bun van. 
Built, &>^ W bina-shudah, 

mabni, jy***^ ma*mdr. 
Bulb (bulbous root), jW» piyaz, 

J«^ basal. 
Bulk, vide Bigness, Size. 
Bulky, J^y tufal, ^ a -*-^ jasim. 
Bull, y^ y nar-gav, y ^VT gav-i- 

nar, yf saur. 
Bullet, Ajyifc ghululah, aJ^^ gulu- 

lah, Air gullah. 
Bullock, y\S gav. 




Bully, 03 «-i!5 laf-zon. 

BuLBUSH, ^jy^ hirdf, «a^/- khunay, 

«s5^ khunag. 
BuLWA&E, /^ sangur, ;j;W baru, 

6jW bdrah, (j-ys^ matars. 
BuLWOEKS (o/a ehip), fij^y J divarah. 
Bump, vi^ Lump, Swelling. 
To Bump, vide To Dash against. 
Bumptious, ^^^ tiighf, j^ magh- 

rur ^^^l yaghi, <j» ^ sar-kash. 
Bun, ,^/ kurs. 
Bunch, ^^^ khushah, ^^^o dastah. 

— (0/ 9^(^!P^) j^^ ^^J^ khdshah- 
i-angiir. — (0/ (ia<e«) *s^ pang, 
jyue 'ankud. — (a strand or por- 
tion of (he hunch) ^^j risalah, 
&Cdi; tilingah. 

BuNDLB, iA^ bastab, &^ buk- 

Burden, jVf bar, J**- baml. — (beast 
of burden) j\^ji jW bdr-barddr, jW 

Burdensome, cs^ab«« sakht. 

BuBBAU (of administration^ &c»), 
(^jt*^ divan, &>^ ys^^ daftar- 
kbanab, ^^ ^ kar-khanab. 

BuBiAL, {^^ dafn. 

Busied, {^'^ daf in, {^^'^ madfun. 

BuBLY, ^ »■ » >• mujassam, f^t:^ 

To BuBN, (trans.) t)*^!)^ suzAnf ■ 
dan, [intrans,) {^^^y^ sukbtan. 

BuBNiNO, <;)^jy>«s4zan, j^^^mubrik. 

BuBNiNO-GLASs, ^j^'\ isUtjc 'ainak- 
i-atisbi, j^^\ **^!* *ainak-i- 

To BuBNisH, {^sa\^ "i^^ mujalla 
sAkbtan, i^^^^} zidudan, <:>^^^;i 
pardakbtan, (^o^ Ja«« saikal 

BuBBOW, t^^^ surakb, s-*^ nakb. 

To BuBBOw, ^•>/ 1^;^ sdrdkb kar- 
dan, (^03 s-^ nakb zadan. 

To BuBST, (^^f tarkidan, ceSW 
^JA cb4k sbudan, ^ja S;^ parab 
sbudan, {^'i^f tarakfdan, <^*3^ 
pakidan. — (<w a 6at7, or abscess) 
^jLAi > ^A ;>« munfajir sbudan, M) 

^j^ ;Vj rab-baz kardan, O''^ 
paKidan.—( /ori/i, as a spring of 
water f Ac) {^^^^^jt bar-jastan. 

To BuBY, (^j/ ^^o dafn kardan, 
^o/l^ld. khdk kardan. 

BuBYiNo-OBouND, cj^^ guristdn, 
0^7^ kabristan, UpA^ makbarab, 
^\x^j\y mazaristiin, ^^^ rams, 
^U.y»U. ^ sbabr-i-kbamusbAn. 
(Literally y " ciVy 0/ <^ silent.^*) 

Bush, Aj^ biitab, cs^o dirakbt. 

Bushy, t^ ji pur-shakh, 4*y ^ 

Business, j^ kar, jW « ^^ kar va 
bar, J*fi 'amal, /•a amr, J*** 
shugbl, J^ bal. — (concern) J^*> 
dakhl, ^ rabt, j^ kar, &ilU 
'alakab. — (important affair) ^»e^ 
mubimm (pZ. f\^ mabdmm). — 
(house of business) a*U- J^ kar- 
kbanab. — (to do business) 4l*U*« 
(;)<3;^ mu'amalab kardan. 

Bust, ^%^ mujassam, <-J^ 
^(^ mujassam-i-nisf-tanab. 

Bustabd, vb^ bub4r4, lyy^ bu- 
barab, *;»yfc^ Abdbarab. — (large 
bustard, otis) s^j^ tdi, ^^*> ^j|j*> 
duf-dagb. — (small bustard or 
fiorican) jW^j zangib41,))^cbarz. 

Bustle (hurry, tumult), ^^ 
gbaugbd, ^i^ gbulgbulab, ^^ 
sbur. — (padding c^iuj rif4*at. 

Busy, J^*^ mashgbul, f^/-» sar- 

Busybody (officious person), Jy** 
fuziil, u\:tiS taftaf. 

But, t:^ likin, e^ lakin, U 
ammd, ^Jy vali, &4 balkib. 
(FicZe Except, Unless.) 

Butchbb, v»Ui kassAb. — (butcher^s 
stall) v*Ui ^l^j duk4n-i-kassdb, 
A>U. s-*^ kassAb-kbdnab. — 
(butcher's row of meat-hooks), *)Uji 

BuTLEB, /y naukar, (^^y^ suf rab- 
cbi. — (royal butler, who accom- 
panies the king when travelling) 
jU v»^ ab-dar. 

Butt (target), •^JA badaf, ^^ 
nisbanab. — (wine) ^ bat (eur.), 
V^ pfpa (eur,), — (of a musket) 
j\ju5 dj tab-i-kundak. 

To Butt, ^^oj dl^ kalab zadan, ^ 
(^^3 sar zadan. 




BuTTSB, ftj^ karah, ^ &/ karah-i- 
g4v, &^-l^ maskab (o6«.). — (clari- 
fied butter) i^^ raughan, ^VT ^^^ 
raughan-i-gav. — (butter - milk) 
^^j s^l[ ab - i - dugh. — (melted 
butter) {j-^}) raughan. — (salt but- 
ter) j^JiUi fi^ karah-i-namak-dar. 

BuTTBRFLT, AJ^jy* parvAnah, ceJj^ »U 

Buttocks, ^j^/- surin, ^a^\ ust, j»^ 
dubr, ^;)A— Ai ,jfW jdji-i-nishas- 
tan, jA^kafal. 

Button, ^uS^ dugmab, &*^ tuk- 
mab. — (hole) o^*>^ in4dagi. 

Buttress, tj^ burj. 

To But, (^-^^ kbarfdan, o*^^ V**^ 
isbtird nimiidan, (jjo^ JW^^ ibtiya* 
kardan, (^\*> ^ bar-ddsbtan. — 

(to buy back) (^^f- u*i pas kbarf- 
dan. — (buying and selling, traffic) 
jut^ ^ jkKi. kbarid u furusb, *y\*y 
>xs^ ^ dad va sitad, aUU«* mu- 
'amalab, \ji^ ^ q^ bai' u sbira. 

BuYBB, vsr'"*^ musbtari. 

To Buzz (as a fly), (^^/ aJ-j rinnab 
kardan, (^^^f ^y^^ vizvaz kar- 

Bt, ^ az, 3 zi, v» bi, ^ bi, V* ba, 
<^y«( pablui. — (6y cAance) "^iW^ 
ittifakan, "^-^c 'arzan. — (6^ de- 
grees) ^j'^ bi-tadrij, ^j^ ^j»> 
darajab bi-darajab, aa-a^ dA^j^^ 
4bistab dbistab. — (by all means) 
6^\ albattab, ui>;^ ^ bi-bar 
surat, &^^^ bi-bar vajb. 

Btewat, ^f kucbab. 


Cabal, «>V«>-A fasad, ^ makr. 

Cabbage, ^ kalam. 

Cabik (in a ship), v5^^ utak, 

v^y^kutari (hind,). 
Cabinet, fc^a i AA,.^ pfsb-takbtab. 
Cable, ^J^ kals, e^ kataj, jUx; 

'umar (ewr.). 
Cacophony, {^ labn, 3^^^ j^ bad- 

Cad, i;t(26 Blackguard. 
Caddis-worm, ^^ surfab. 
Cadence, M^ kafijab. 
Cage, (.r^ kafas, yoAi kafas. 
To Cajole, <y*>^ ^a^^jW muddrat 

nimudan, {^>^f^ ij^**^ tabniik 

nimudan, o^^ ^^JU ab At; risb- 

kbandi nimudan. 
Cajolery, ksA^A^ mudarat, (^r'^^^ 

cbdplusi, (^•x&at^j risbkbandi. 
Cake, sj^S' ^rdab, A^o^ kulfchab, 

e^ kumaj. 
Calabash (cup or bowl made from 

the shdl of the calahash fruit), 

J/^ kacbkul, ^/^ kasbkdl. 
Calamity, %s^\ afat, ^t-^^^ dsib, 

sA>*^f^ musibat, h bald, ^<^ 

sadmab, ss^^ nakmat, ^J^, J4 

bad-bakbti, <js^« sakbti. 

To Calculate, ^^^yf v»U^ bisAb 
kardan, (j^y^ sbimurdan. 

Calculation, s^U-*. bisab, &<— W* 
mubasabab, jUai sbimdr, v^«M^ 
sbimurdagi, *3^Jk«> ti*dad, ^^\ 
andazab, ^^^ ^ bar-tWard. 

Calendar, vide Almanac. 

Calf, AJUyT gusalab, ^ff kabrab. — 
(of the leg) v5^ iA^^gdsbt-i-sdk. 

Calibre (of a gun) &^«3 dabauab, 
jyt Ajy^ gululab-kbwur, ^^ *iy4r. 

Calico (chintz), ^j>^ cbit, ;^^4l* 
kalam- kdr. 

To Calk, o**r** «4;^ *^ fatflab- 
kari nimudan. 

To Call (summon), (^J^^^ kbwan- 
dan, (^^ s-^ talab kardan, s-^ 
(j^W talab dasbtan, {^^y^ 
kbwastan. — (in the morning) ^>^ 
f^*^ biddr kardan. — {aloud\ *aO\| 
(;)J3 bang zadan, o^mj 3^^^ avaz 
dadan, (^^3 ^J^ gada zadan. — 
(name) (:j«V*^ ndmfdan, (^•>;\Ar ^U 
nam guzdrdau, ^^U ^\ isin 
dddan, ^jjjaI guftan. — (proclaim 
an ititierant trade, sale, <&c,) jW 
f^*^) jar zadan. — (to make a caU) 
i^j cAh V^^^ rattan, (^j J3AH 




bi-manzil raftan, ^^ J^o jW ^ *^^ 
dfd u b&z-dfd raftan. — (to he 
caUed) {^iA\*y ^\ ism dashtan. 

Called {entitled), J94.'«*^ musamma. 

Calliobapht, W\ ^j rasmu-'l- 
khatt, c^^afcAijA. khwush-khatt. 

Callosity, ^U danah. (Fuie 


Calm (placid), S'^lj drmidah, 
Aa^H aaddah, ^U s&kin, f\j\ 
aram. — (cw icea^Aar) ^J^ mula- 
yam. — (to he calm) t)*>^ t5;^*> *>/" 
khwud-darf nimudan. 
To Calm, cj^V^^j^ ^rAmfdan. — (to 

calm oneself) {^/^ f^^ ardm 

Calmxess (placidnesB), o^*V*)^ 

^rmidagf, J^^^li asiidagf, sa^^ 

rdhat, f^^ dram. — (sea) sa^j^^ 

Calomel, h^^ jfvah, *Mm fi^ 

Calthbops (a hind of thistle ; also 

a haM of iron surrounded with 

spikes f to wtnind the feet of an in* 

vading army), uew. khasak, 

** W » * khanjak. 
To CAL(rMNiATB,(:>^ Jk} bad guftan, 

^^ \fi\ if tir4 kardan, (^^a^ ^^ 

buhtan bastan. 
Calumniator, jW\ (^\s^ buhtdn- 

andaz, ^V^j •^ bad-zaban, ^W 

Calumnious, a«ju muf sid. 
Calumny, ^J>^ tuhmat, \/^\ iftira, 

(^^ buhtiin, tf.^»» ^ ghibat, ws^t^ 

Camel, y^ shutur, yA\ ushtur, J>«^ 

jamal, »;•> divah. — (riding) ^y^. 

bukhtf, j\j^ fJ^ shutur-i-suyAr. 

— (she) ft*>U fJ^ shutur-i-mMah, 

**^ nakah. — (camet-driver) fJ^ 

(^W shutur-bdn, (^^ jU sarban. 
Cameleon, W/^ hurba, or*^^ ^^* 

Camelbopabd, «sCd^ ^^r^ sbutur- 

gdy-palang, wi^^j zarraf . 
Camel's-thobn (a prickly shruh), 

f^ j^ khar-i-shutur. 
Cameo, ^^jL. ^U. kbatim-sazi. 
Camomile, A»yV) babiinah. 

Camp, &VryUJ lashkar-gdh, 

mu'askar, ^o^^ urdii, f^^i^ hasham, 

jy^^ iiturak. — (camp-market) 
j\y^ ^^j\ urdd-bazar. — (camp fol- 
lowers) j^^ ft^ ^ bunah-g&-i- 

lashkar, aSW-j rajjalah. 
To Camp, <^^3 j^^- ch4dar zadan, 

^j^j j\jS ^j^\ urdu kar4r d4dan. 
Camphob, j^^ kaf ur. 
Canal, ^ nahr, yjft jAi, h>¥^ jub 

(im2^.). — (subterraneous) vide 

Canaby, ^U^j jUft bazdr-dastdn. 
To Cancel, (^*^fy^^ mahy kardan, 

(^^^ / bar-d4shtan, e^r*^ 6^ 

naskh nimudan, (^«>/ ^^ faskh 

Cangbb (disease), (^^j^ saratdn, 

»)^ khwurah. — (sign of todiac) 

vide Zodiac. 
Candblabba, vide Chandelieb. 
Candid, ^jA^ mukhlis, asUW* 

mukblislnah, juu^^U^ ikhUs- 

mand, joU sddik. 
Candidate, j^^'V*^ umfd-vdr. 
Candle, g*^ tsham'. — (stick) 

0\jkit*jAi sham'-dau, j^**^ pf-suz. 

[The latter is a tall candelabrum, 

haying a little cup on the top, in 

which a wick is placed in melted 

Candoub, ^^jWamU rast«bizf, (/2U.\ 

ikhlds, jJu sidK. 
Cane, ^J nai. — (stick) ^f^ chub, 

Ue 'asd. 
Cannibal, ^\^ (^*>y mardum- 

khw4r, j\^ fS\ Hdam-khw4r. 
Cannon, s^y tdp. 
Cannon-ball, ^y ^^ gululah-i- 

Canoe, ^^ faldkah. 
Canon, b*]^^ k44dah, (^^^ k4ndn. 
Canonical, ^J^^ kdndnf. 
Canopus, J««-« suhail. 
Canopy, (^WV^ sajab^n, /»- chatr, 

;^^j^oU shAduryan. 
Cant, vide Hypocbisy. 
Canteen, uU. ^^ mai-khanah, 

JiUeyi shurb-khdnah. 
To Cantbb, (^j '^j^^ yurtamah 

raftan, {^j i-tJ;^ y drtamah raftan. 




Cakthabides (Spanish Jly), c^** 
zurrah (pL c'l^V zar^r^)» **^^ ^^ 
414 kulang. 

Cakto, ^U#« makAlah. 

Canton, ««)yi» buluk. 

Cantonments, ^*>;^ urdd, aVfj^AJ 

Cantab (cloth), o^ palas. 

Cap, a^ kuUh, aI^ kulah, {^t^f^ 
'arak-chiD. — (Persian cap ofhlaelc 
lamb-skin) ^^^ ^ kulah-i- 
piistf. — (cap of hrown /dt, worn 
by the poorer classes) i^Mi sK 
kuldh-i-namadf. — (pinch or in- 
dentaMon in the Persian cap) sJ>Jm 
fi))^taraf-i.kul4h, i^ iJ^/ gdAhah- 
i-kal4h. — (cloth top of the Per- 
sian cap), ^y^ kallatark, sK dl^ 
kallah - i - kulih. — (skull - cap) 
j^^ 'arak-gfr, cm^ 'aj*ak- 
chm. — (night'Cap) AaM* shab- 
liulih.— (Turkish cap) Sj^ k6,uk, 
vJ^ kalpak. — (Barvish's cap) t^ 
taj. — (percussion cap) *sSJM aU^ 

To Cap (verses), (^^f ft^U-» musha- 
'arah kardan. [A favourite 
amusement with the Persians.] 

Capability, «a^Vs kabil/jat, cL>ji 


Capable, J»U k^bil, <jpj lafk, ;oU 
kddir, V>y tav^ni. 

Capacious, t^f^ *arfz, ge-^ vasi*, 
^\y vAsi*. 

Capacitt, tf^W^ lijAkat, *A^\i k4- 
bilfjat, «A>jJ^ kudrat,j^*xs2^ ikti- 
dAr, j%Jat« makdiir, v»V? tab, 
•>^aiu^f isti'd^d, ***oV- haisfyat, 
**»•»♦- sar-rishtah. — (sixe) ^^^\ 
anai^ah,jJ^ kadr, Jth^j^ gun- 



> r 

Cape (point of land), ;j*»; 
sar, wi;L taraf . 

Capeb (shrub), y4 kabar. 

Capital (chief city), ^ > U )\ ^U 

daru-'s-saltanah, ii!Xaii\ jU daru- 
'l-khilAfat, i^y^\ jU daru.'i- 
hukumah, «»-**' <^^ p4f-takht. — 
(of a pillar) c^ taj. — (^/ocX;) viefe 

To Capitulate, vide To Suk- 


Capitulation, f^c^ taslim. 
Capon, ^J^ g^ murgh-i-khasi, 

o"^ u*jy*- khurus-i-khasf. 
Capbice, ^^ vahm, J^ khajill, 

^jj^*>y^ Khwud-sarf. 
Capbicious, ,^*\) *>ji. khwud-rai, 

^y^s^ mutRJavvin. 
Capbiciousness, ^*\) *>•*. khwud- 

Capbicobn, i;t(^ Zodiac. 
Capstan,;^ t/^ charkh-i-langar. 
Captain, (j»Jj ra,i8, (^\^^ kapdd^n 

(eur.), — (naval) ^j>Jj ra,i8, W^U 

Captive, *«-\ asir, j^^ giriftar, 

A^«) bardah, {j^p-^^ mahbus, Ji«> 

du (vulg.)* 
Captivity, <j;;^/ giriftar f, ^^Juij 

bandagi, -u^ band, •M kaid, (M^*^ 

asfrf, ^\ usr, ^j^^f*. habs, vjCuj 

Captob, c*^ fatih. 
Captube, «^j^/ giriftari. 
To Captube, vide To Take pri- 

Cab, vide Cabbiaoe. 
Cabavan, (^\^\i karvdn, 4U\» rahi- 

lah, AliUkdidlah,^ */r. 
Cabavansaby, «^^/--*^jy^ k4rv4n- 

sarai, o^ khan, tV^^ rib4t, ^^1^ 

sarai, aJUj vakiilah. — («maZZ 

caravansary where manufacturers 

lodge) < V y» fl y tfmchah. 
Cabaway, W^ karviya. 
Cabbine, *i&JS tufang, &Atn\f kara- 

bmah (cttr.). 
Cabbineeb, ^ j ^<«tf tufang-chf. 
Cabbonic, ^Utj zughdii, o**^ 

Cabbunglb (gem) j^jy ravak. 
Cabcass, JtiH lash, &*ill lashah, j1 jy 

murdar, ia.^y mayyit, 6Agim may- 

yitah, aAj^ jaifah, ij^ na'sh. 
Cabd (paste-hoard), ^^ mukav- 

v4. — (English playing cards) 

^^ ganjifah, iJ^^ ganjifah, 

s3j^ varak. — (Persian playing 

cards) (j«tu.^ asnas. 
To Cabd (cotton), e*>/vj^^hallaji 




kardan, ^^3 ^^ pambah zadan. 
(Vide Cotton.) 
Cabdamums, Jo* hil, Ja hil, iiiVi 

Cabd-cask, o^** ^**^ tikat-dan 


Cabdeb, 03 ^ pambah-zan. 
Cabe (attention), /^ fikr, ^Jjf^ 
agahi, A^y tavajjuh, a^a*^^ an- 
dishah, *A^^ himmat, j^ khabar, 
,^ shughl, J^*A8*^ ishtiglidl, 
«yl5W^ inubabit, Usc^ i*tin4. — 
(caution) p^ khabar, i^^'^y^ 
khabar-dari, i»Ws*-^ ilitiyat, j^ 
bazar, »W^^ intibah, i^j^y^ 
hdsh-jari, ^jtt^ basirat, ^J^ »«>4*> 
didah-bani. — (anxiety or sorrow) 
hji parva, f^ gham, »j.*J^ anduh, 
JL«5j dil-tangi, ^^^ ta,anni, 
U;»\ i'tina, v»^jS»a\ iztirab, ^\ 
alam, lt*^ tashvfsh. — (attend' 
ance) c5;^-vi parastari, ;W 
tfmiir, ,^W fi**jt^ didah-bani.— 
(vxint of care, protection, or 
•patronage) <je*-^ o> bi-sahibi. — 
(to take care) <y^/ ^W^^^ ihtiyAt 
kardan, o**^ j^^ hush-yar 
budan. — (to take care of ) ^^fi 
(^Oj^ parastari kardan. 
To Cabe, (j>a*«\*> \«^ parva dashtan. 
Cabeeb, AfiajL tarikah, «e^ silk. 
CabepuLjj^JI;^ khabar-dar, j^^ 
hush-yar, ^f^ mutayajjih, aVT^ 
agah, jj^ W ba-hazar, )fi^ muh- 
tariz, v>y^ ^ ba-h^sh, o**^ 
Cabelbss, ;*afe<rf bi-khabar, J*^ 
ghafil, \j^ bi-parva, ^^tsA ^j 
bi-ihtiyat, aajj^^ ^ bi-andishah, 
>^ kahil, v>^ bi-hiish, >\3 
zahil, i£>liW^ o> bi-mubalat, ^3 
Cabblbssness, ^a^i*fc ghiflat, ^j 
JpW^\ bi-ihtiyati, ^'^j/, ^ bi- 
Cabesb, ,45^r^*> dil-navazi, wiU? 

talatiuf , 3\y navaz. 
To Cabess, q)^/ v>3V navazish 

kardan, eH^V navakhtan. 
Cabgo, 3W ;W biir-i-jahaz, J*^ 

Cabies, tj^^afe^^ w/^^ pusidagi-i- 

Cabnaoe, (jt-A.^ kushish, jVsA^ 

Cabnal, ^J-^ naf sf, jLj» naf s4ni^ 

^j>U-^ jismdni. 
Cabnation, ji •^ *«U*- mfkhak- 

i-sad-par, ji*^ karanful. 
Cabnival, jTj>/ karnavAl (6i*r.). 
Cabnivobous, j^ v>^g»ish-khwur. 
Cabp (fiah), j^^ hapur,;^V^ kapiir, 

f^t^ ^^ mahi-i-sim. 
Cabpbnteb,;W* najjar,^*>j)*>darud- 

gar (o6«.), /;y*> daru-gar (o6«.) 
Cabpet (large), (h^ gilim. — (fine 
carpet) ^U kdli. — (srmU carpet 
or rug) 4^^ kalichah, ^J)y^ 
suzani. — (large carpet in centre 
of a room) ^Vl kalf, ^ gilfm. 
— (eide carpets of thick felt 
doubled) Mi namad.— (/eW layer 
at upper end of the room) 3^^ r* 
sar-andaz. — (felt layers gohig 
down the sides of the room) a^jW 
bArikah. — (cotton cloth covering 
the felts) t^f^ harami. — (linen 
cloth covering the felts) \J*j^ y) ru- 
farsh. — (praying carpet) «*>l^- 
siijjMah, %o>» musalla. — (carpet 
weaver) uW^ kali-baf, u\^*^ 
To Cabpet, o*^r^^ "^f farsh nimu- 

Cabpeted, \J»^ mafrush. 
Cabbiage (vehicle), a»V 'arabah, 
iS[f. 'arradah, ^jS gkti (hind,), 
aSLJ^ kdliskah (eur,). — (open) 
^3^} ^ a5LJV^ killiskah-i-rd-bdzi. 
(close) &*M^^ j^ &CJV^ kaliskah-i- 
sar-pushfdah. — (line of carriages) 
j^ kitdr.— (0/ loads, Ac) ;W 
^U^ bar-bardari. 
Cabbieb (porter), JU» hammal, 
(jft^ jW bar-kash. — (pigeon) fy^ 
;W kabutar-i-bar, jW f*^ kaftar-i- 
Cabbion,^W^ murder, as<s^ maitah. 
Cabbot, j^ gazar, ««)^;3 zardak. 
To Cabby, <^*>;? burdan, (;>jaW ^ 
bar -dashtan. — (transport) ^}» 
(^•>/ nakl kardan. — (as a gun) 




(2^W\ and4khtan, (^*>) zadan, 
^jj JiUi nishanah zadan. — (to 
carry out) {^\*i Jj^^* mujra 
dash tan, (^*^ \y^\ ijra kardan, 
^«>^ U^ vafa kardan. 

Cabt, ^\f^ 'arabah, tS\^ 'arradah, 
^^\j\ arridah. 

Cabtbb, ^j^ ^*y\^ 'arrddah-chi. 

Cabtilaos {gristle), wij^ ghuzriif, 
^yf^ karkaruk, ^y^^ kutkuti 
(tnug,). — (of the noee) f»y^ 

Cabtoobaphy, ^\j\ jty^ tasvir-i- 

Cabtbidge, *a. O ^M fishang, ueUM 
fishak.— (5oz) «£5Ua«a v»Vi kab-i- 
f fshang, <--^ kif . 

To Cabvb (meat, <&c.), (^'i^ji bur- 
rfdan, (:)^/ ^j^ ^j\^ piirchah p4r- 
chah kardan. — (on atone, wood, 
dc.) (^'^ kandan, ^J^^y tiratthf- 
dan, {^*y/ fj^ naksh kardan. 

Cabved-wobk, ij;j^ ^&*-j^ munab- 

Gabteb, Js>\ti nakkdsh. 

Cabtino (sculpture), ij^ naksh. 

Cascade, j^'S db-shar, w^6^\ ^b- 

Case (hox), vJ^jul* sandi'ik. — (for 
sword) U%k ghiUf . — (for instru- 
ments, &c.) ^ g&nj> o^«> y^ juz- 
dan, {^'^ff*' juzv-dan. — (state of 
affairs) J^ h41, y»\ amr, s-?^/* 
mardtib. — (the truth of the ca^e) 
jUw ,^,4kt>So. hakikat-i-hAl,/*:!^ <j^ 
nafsu*l-'amr. — (suppose the case!) 
(^j^v/y farz bi-kun, 'U^ farzan, 
^U^ /\ dgar chunanchih. — (in 
grammar) ctJW h^lat, v»Uft^ *irab. 
— (in case) ^ **o^ i** dar sdrat 
kih. — (in any ease) Jw yfc jj dar 
har hal, ^\ j/t har djinah. 

Cash, aa^ nakd, J^ pul, jj zar, 
^Ajtf nakdinah. — (&00A;) ^j^i 
iWarjah. — (keeper) sjy>^^ kha- 
zanchf, j\*y 6^\^ khiz4nah-d4r, 
j\>ikf^ tahvfl-dar. — (to pay cash) 
^jU jJ» nakd dadan. 

Cabhieb, j^aS^Ja.o sanduk-dar. 

To Cashieb, (^j>/ Jj)*^ ma'zdl 

Cashmbbb (c2o<^), i:)^ j6*-^ kash- 
mfr-shikaii, ^^ kazmfr, a^/ tir- 

Cask, vide Babbbl. 

Casket, t)*^ durj, *a^ hukkah, a««%. 

Cassia, jtJ^ j^ khiydr-shambar, 
^^ fulds. 

Cast, ^&^\j^^ andakht, ss)^^^ ^^' 

To Cast, (^jjui^^ afkandan, ^^^.^J^ 
anddkhtan. — (in a mould) {^^ 
rikhtan. — (anch&r) ^^sd^^\ ^ 
langar andakhtan. — (lots) ac^ 
^jjS^\ kur'ah afkandan. 

Castanets, «<&3 zang. 

Caste, (^^«>.j dudman, s-^*^ maz- 
hab, Ay firkah. 

Castbllain, jU ajJU kal'ah-ddr, 4«U 
^J^ kal'ah-begi. 

Castle, AhVi kal'ah, j^-m^ hisdr, {^^^^ 
hisn, ceJj\ ark. — (garrison of a 
castle) 4«i* J*^ ahl-i-kal*ah. — 
(castle in the air, hope, or fanci- 
ful project) JW*- ^ pilav-i- 

Castob (plant), yt^\ ^ bid-anjfr, 
ySiS kinnatu. — (oil) y^\ ^M (^}) 
raughan - i - bfd-anjir, f^ ^j^^ 
ran ghan-i-kinnat u. 

To Castbate, (:)o/ ^5*^ khasf kar- 
dan. — (men) 0*>/ i^^y^ khw^jah 
kardan. — (horses) (^^f ^^ akh- 
tah kardan. 

Castbated, vj'^afe^ niakhsf. 

Castbation, \^asA\ ikhtisH. 

Casual, *i*oU hMis, ,j*;^ 'ariz. 

Cat, ^jS gurbah. — (long - haired 
Ispahan cat) j^^ A?J5^ gurbah-i- 
burrak. — (wild cai), ^jafti»> A»^ 

Catalooue, ^a daftar, ^c^j^i 

Catamite, t^ mulut, oji^ ma,- 
bAn, <^^aafe^ mukhannas, Jy*^ 

Catapult, ^j^tJ^^^ manjanfk. 

Catabactt, s-^e^^ ab-shfb, a««^^ 
^b-shibah, jtft^lj ab-shAr. — (in the 
eye) v»^ lib, '>i)\)y^ v»^ ab-i-mar- 




Catabbh, vide Cold. 

Catch (staple of a door), fty rizah, 
8)4) rizah. — (chain or hasp fitting 
on the staple) ^s^ ohift. 

To Catch, {^^/ girif tan, (^ *>/ J^jS 
giriftar kardan, o^^ u^ kabz 
nimddan, (^*yj^ ^\ akhz kardan, 
(^*>^j rubudan. 

Categobigal, o*^ kat'f, M^ kat- 

Catboobt, <j*»a* jins, »;^j zumrah, 

Catbbpillab, V( ju ^ kirm-i-sad- 
p4, u>^j«> f^ kirm-i-dirakht. 

Cathabtic, J«^x^ mud-hil. 

Catholic, ««My^ katdlfk (eur.), 
o^^^ papd,i (eur.). 

Cat-o'-ninb-tails, iik)^ tazij&nah. 

Cattlb, s>V ^^^bb, o^y* ma- 
vashi, «A>V>\^«A. haiy^aat, j^ 
'ikar, ^^jW^ chahar-pah^. 

Caitl (of a child), ^*yji pardah, 
A * eA >« masbimah. 

Cauldbon, «s5sij dfg, ^Uy kaz- 
ghan, (^W? tiyan, J«5^ patfl, Jf^y 
mirjal. — (smaller siaed ditto) 
i^^^i p&tilchah, &oA^ tijanchah. 

Cauliflowbb, ^y^p f^ kalam-i- 
rumi, j\^ J^ kamm-i-gal-d4r. 

Causal (verb), )yf^^ J^ fi*l-i-maj- 

Cause, s-^f-«* sabab, s-^*^ mdjib, 
i!^\p vasitah, 6i^^ Tasuah, aV«^ 
▼asilah, <^^«t^ jihat, e^W b44s, 
J^^ ajl> J*^ asl, <^*>*j^ inu,addf, 
i^U d^'ijah, i^Jb <illat, ^jy* 
maris, ^^ vaih. — (caiM6 and 
effect) gy ^ ^Wi asl u far' (pi. 
ty^ ) ^y>\ usul u furd*. 

To Cause, ;^aai s-^f^ sabab shudan, 

(^ j^ f^A*^ mustalzim nimddan. 

Causeway, »a*. M 9 < &.* sang - bast, 
^jSj^ sang-farsh, <>/ Aa*r 
taKhtah-farsh, ^WW^ khijab&n. 

Caustic,^ tfz, aaj timd. 

To Cautebize, (^*y/ £U dagh kar- 

Cauteby, ^U ddgh, <j^ kxyy. 

Caution, Cautious, vide Cabb, 
Cabbful, Wabnino, Attentive. 

To CAUTiONy vide To Wabn. 

Cedab, ^\\} •*- sarY-i-&ziid. — (red 

Cavalcade, f^J^ hasham, ijj^y^ su- 
vAri, s-ff» maukib. 

Cavalieb, jU- suvar. 

Cavalby, fijt^ suvArah. — (&o(2y 0/ 
cavcUry) &^«> dastah, t,^ tip. 

Cavebn, M gh^r, fi;U<« mugharah, 

Caviabb, ^U ^ tnkhm-i-mdhi, 
j\i^U havidr, J^^ ashpil. 

To Cavil, (^*i/ij\jxt\ i'tirdz kardan. 

Cavilleb, ;^ fioj^ khwurdah-bfn. 

Cavity, wi^ jauf. 

Cawing (of a crow), OM* na'fk, VsU 

To Cease, 0*y^ ^^r* niaukdf 
bddan, ^*xfti 5>"A^ munkati' shu- 
dan, ^«>U^\ \^ va-fst&dan, ^ 
<:)*xfti kat' shudan, (:)«>/ <4^/ 
fardghat kardan, ^J^U jW bdz- 
m&ndan, (^tXfti UsL s4kit shudan, 
^jLAi (>yu^ munkariz shudan. — 
(wUhoui ceasing) ^U %i bila f4- 
silah, ^K\j4Am\ istimrdran. 

ce(2ar) eu k&j. 

To Cede, o^^ o.^^J^S' guzasht 
nimddan, ^^^jui^J^ \^ va-guzash- 
tan, o*^jt^ f^i^^ taslfm nimddan, 
(^*iy^ ^^ havalah nimddan. 

Ceiling, «-A4- sakf, \J»^ 'arsh. — 
(level ceiling) &2^~ UUu sakf-i- 
takhtah. — (ceiling tnth the beams 
rounded and carved) ^y^y* ^-A'^ 

To Celebbatb, (^U i\fi nig&h 

Cblebbated, jj^-^^ mashhdr, ^^f<^ 
ina'rdf, ^y^y* mausdf, j\J^^ 
n4m-d4r, jy»^ n4m-var, f\j^ 
nik-n4m, c^^a^i^ mamddh. 

Celebbity, %oj9^ shuhrat, jW^^ 

Celbbity, vide Speed. 

Celeby, u^j^ karaf s. 

Celestial, vide Heavenly. 

Celibacy, <a^^ 'uzbat, *^ tajar- 
rud, <jw^W*j ruhb4nfyat. 

Celibate, v*)^ 'azab. 

Cell (of a recluse), a^^j z4viyah, 
^^^ gdshah, &o^ takyah, ^iy^ 
maksdrah, te^y* sauma'an. ^- 





(small roam) jU»^^ utak, ^\s^\ 
Atkgh, s3^\ utak. 

Cellar, asU. ss tah-khanah, (^^j ^) 
zfr-zamfn, ^\jy* sardabah. 

Cembitt (for glass), J-»j vael, J^^ 
paivand, (J^y^ sarish. {Vide 
Glue, Plasteb.) 

Cemetery, vide BuBTiNa-oBOimD. 

Cbnsbb, ij\*y j^. bakhdr-dan, /t^^^ 
mi j mar (p^/^W* majiimir), Ja*-* 

Censor, ^ as^ nuktah-^fr, s-*** 
(^ 'aib-bfn. 

Censure, vide Blame, Accusa- 
tion, Rebuke. 

Census (of population), ,4;Ua ^ 

Centipede, W ju sad-pa, ^^V* j\y^ 

Centbal, ij^f* markazi. 

Centbe, li-« vasat, ^^ miy^nab, 
^y markaz, ^W madar, v^ 

Centubion, ^Jk\i )fi yuz-basbf. 

Centubt, JV.** •x* sad sal, fiA« sadab, 
^jS kam. 

Cebeal, Ai£ gballab. 

Cebemonial (adj,), ^J•^J rasmi. 

Cebemont, f^) rasm, <Ia1^ takal- 
luf, s***^ adab, wi*U» ta*aruf. — 
(without ceremony) cJJXf ^ bf- 
takalluf, ugi5& ^ bf-taklff.— 
(master of ceretnonies) ^j^UiytJ 
tashrffAt-cbf, ^j^W ^j-UV oXaj^ 
fsbak-ak^sf-biish f . 

Cebtain, (2^ yakin, j^ mukarrar, 
OMW« mubakkak, ^Jkf^ tabkfki, 
{j^>^ mu'ayyan, ^^6^^ sabfb, fX*^ 
musallam, ^/» sarib. — (to make 
certain) o"^^ JMW* mubakkak 

Cebtainly, &^^ albattab, *gi fcc» 
bf-sbak, «s^ii bilA-sbak, (^U^ 
bf-gum4n, ^W^ yakfnanab, ^ 
ctJioO^ ff.'l.bakfkat, ^V^S U- 
mabiilata, 'Vk* bakkan. 

Cbbtainty, (;^ vakin, jM**" tflbak- 

Cbbtificatx, i>i**-*^ tasdik. — (of 
forgiveness and safety) ^Ujui^ U. 
kbatt-i-itmi,n&ii. — ( recommendor' 

tion) A^V* jV«;»\ i'tibAr-n^mab, 

i^\i ^j\Lm sif^risb-n^mcbab. 
Cbbulban, ^ft^ kabiid. 
Cess, v*\y1 abvab. 
Cessation, cJUy tavakkuf, ^a^^ 

mublat, oA^ji faragbat. 
Cession, j\^ \^ va-guziir. 
Chaff, fj^y^ sapi'is, J^h p^sbal. 

— (fun) cV naizah, o*^^ 

To Chaff, ^^\SS^t^y J^ binA,u 

i-mizab guzasbtan, f:)*^y^ A*^^^^ 

kbandab uimudan. 
Chafing-dish, Ja*-^ mankal. — (of 

earthenware) i«U^ kalak. 
Chaobin, vide Kemobsb, Sobbow. 
Chain, ^e^rj zanjir, aLJu silsilab. — 

(of hills) U &/ aUL. silsilab-i- 

kub-ba. — (for door) *a-A^ cbift. 
To Chain, {^j^^ bastan, f^s^ y«f^) 

zanjir bastan. 
Chaib, <j-/ kurs{, vt-^^takbt, Jaa-> 

Chaise, vide Cabbiaoe. 
Chalice, vide Cup. 
Chalk, a^ JS' gil-i-safid, jtJ^^ 

Challenge, «a>^o da'yat, ^^ 

da'vA, Uj\ iddi'a. 
Challop, vide Canoe. 
Chalot, ^JulgandanA, y^^^^sfrmu. 
Chambeb, v5^y iit^k, j^^ utak, 

^i^ iitagb, ij^^ bujrab. — 

(Chamber of DeptUies) (^"^^^ 

^ ■■> W '* v^i-^ mab*usan-i-millat-i- 

Chambbblain, ^J^*^\ eCi^\ fsbak- 

akas{. — (Lord Chamberlain) oiXaj^ 

^V| ^^^U\ isbak-akasi-bHsbi". 
Champagne, &«iL^U sbampauiyab 

Champion, (^\^, pablavan, ^jV^ 

Chance, vide Accident, Fobtune, 

Destiny, By Chance. 
Chancelleby, (^\ji^ dfY^n. 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, 

AjUjij^ vazir-i-mAliyab. 
Chancre (venereal), J^^ tavul. 
Chandelier, ^^;^^• cbil-cbirfigh. 
Chandler, JU) bakk^I. 




Change, v^ kalb, ^^\ inkiUb, 
Ji*^* tabdil. — (jsmall money) «*>j*. 
khurdah, fi«>/*M^pul-i-khurdah. 

To Chakoe, (:^^/ J*^ badal kardan, 
^j^ J»jL«> tabdil nimiidau, ,j*^ 
(^*^ 4raz kardan, o'^r*^ r*^ 
taghjir nimudan, (j*^^ ij^} alish 
kardan, (^^\*y/ Ja^* mubaddal 
gardan/dan. — (one^s mind) jtt^ 
(jj»>^j lA^ i^ taghyir bi-iradah 
dadan. — (money) (j*^ »*>;*. khur- 
dah kardan. — {hands) j\th^ 
{^\*^ istib'dd dashtan. — {to he 
chatiged) o*^ J*^^^ mubaddal 
shudan, (^\i J2*M tabdil j4f tan, 
^sAtjtjiijj* matagbajjir shudan. 

Changeable, vide Inconstant, 

Channel, vide Water, Aqueduct, 
Pipe, Tube. 

Chant, \^ nava, ^^y tarand. 

To Chant, <jjJ^^^ ftjM avazah 
kbwandan, (^•^i\;^ sarajidan. 

Chaos, ^j^ 'adam, ^J^'^ nisti. 

Chapel, ftV^aWe 'ibadat-gah, *xt«^ 
ma' bad. — {chapel - maater) f%^ 
^W mihtar^bashf. 

Chapebone, 4ijJ4 badrakah. 

To Chapebone, (^*y/ ^jJ4 badrakah 

Chaplbt, J^b^ taj-i-gul. 

Chapped {cracked, as the skin), 
g* ^e * -^ tafsfdah. 

Chapteb, J** f asl, v»W bab, yu sif r, 
^%-* kism. — {of the Kur,dn) 4;^ 
surah {pL^y^ suvar). 

Chabacteb {written), ^ khatt, ^; 
rakm, ^s^y nivisht, ^^s^y ni- 
vishtah. — {reputation) «a>;6^ 
shuhrat, o*;^ *irz, j|;»^ ab-ru, ^^ 
nam. — {quality) va-A* sifat, UU^ 
vasf, uJUd. khaslat, c&'^d^U. khas- 
sfjat, %a>ji^ sirat, g^t tab*, ct^niA. / 

Chabcoal, J^) zughal. — (ftwmiw^) 
ut»^ 4tish, (:)*AJ^ Jlfcj zughal-i- 
atishin, iii^ kharg, ««<»> jamr. 

Chabgb {custody), A)t^ havalah, 
<A^M amanat, J^ We^ nigah-bilnf. 
(Fuie Deposit, Command, Ac- 
cusation, Assault, Expense.) 

To Chabge {load), <^*M^jW >t} zfr- 
i-bar kashfdan. — {a gu7i) (^^ ^ 
pur kardan. — {entrust) {^s^US^ 
gumashtan, (^^)^'» sipurdan, aS\j». 
(^a^ haviilah kardan. 

Chabgi^ d'Affaibes, ^^JXs^U^ 

Chabiot, mde Cabbiage, Cabt. 

Chabitable, j^Ue 4n4yat-k4r. 

Chabity {affection), ub^>^^ mahab- 
bat. — {alms-giving) vide Kind- 
ness, Alms, Libebalitt. — 
{charity commissioner) U^i^ ^^y 

Chablatan, jWft *ayyar, ^J». 6jJ\ 

Charles's wain {the consteUaium), 
iJiM}\ «A>U} banatu-'n-na'sh. 

Chabm {enchantment), y*yW jadu, 
;«^ sihr, (^y^\ afsun, ^^.JiL 
tilism. — {amulet) J«yi5 ta'vfz, 
JfUft* hama,il. 

To Chabm, vide To Please. — (en- 
chant) (j*y/ q))^\ afsun kardan, 
Q*>j^j^^ sihr kardan. 

Chabming, vide Pleasant. 

Chabt, &'^^ nakshah. 

Chabteb, -u^ sanad, *^\ji barat, 
(;)Uy firman. — {royal) gely 
tauki', jx^^"^ manshur, o^;^ 
^Uie^U firmdn-i-'alfshan. 

Chase, or Chace, vide To Hunt. 

Chased abticles, J^yu^mankiish.. 

Chaste, «i)^ pak, ft^^ pakizah, 
(^W^ pak-daman, L*;^ p&rs^, 
iJi«Ae <af if , ^^ 'asim, y^VL t^hir, 
jVf^^ parhiz-gar, jy^ hasur, 
i»U^^ muhtat, f^y"^^ ma'sum. 

To Chastise, vide To Beat, To 

Chastisement, vide Punishment. 

Chastity, sA»*<o r 'asmat, u:^Ae *i£fat, 
^y^^jk^ pak-d4mani, <^*^;^ pAr- 
sa,f, AAj zuhd, vi»j^ tak4Tut, 
^s^ifAj ruhbanfjat, «4;V$yeA^ par- 

Chat, vide Conyebsation. 

Chateau, *ii^/ kiishk, ^ kasr. 

Chattel, g^ mat&< {pL i»s^\ 
amti'ah), v*W-^ asb&b {only used 
in the plural). 




To Chattkb (praUle), {^si^ ji pur 

guftan, (^*y) *^ gap zadan 

(hind.). — (a$ the teeth) (^\^*> 

(^*ijJU dandin fishurdan. 
Chatty, u\^ harr^f . 
Cheap, ^^^^ arz^n, W» ^ kam- 

Chxapness, ^J\})^ arz&ni, ^J^ fi 

Chbat, vide Fbaud, Booue, Tbick, 

Rasoal, Impostob. 
To Cheat, vide To Dbfbaud, To 

Check {control)^ I^t^ zabt. {yide 

Cheek, t) rukh, 5^1^ rukhsirah, 

v/>)^ 'ariz, jW ♦izar, Jk*. khadd, 

AK^ giinah. 
To Chbbb, vide To Applaud. 
Cheebfttl, \J^^ khwush, ^a^j^^ 

khwiish-yakht, «>U shdd, •^UJj 

dil-shAd, (^UjUi shad-mdn, ^\im.^ 

farah-nAk, jjir^ masrdr, ;^^«x;^ 

Chbbbfulness, iftf;.*.^ masarrat, 

cy farah, ^^/^ khwushf, u>aUL| 

bashashat, (^«>Ui shddf, y^^f^ 

Cheese, ^*h panir. — (rennet of 

cheese) *«^ ^^^^ panfr-muyah. — 

(cream-cheese) ^i;2 kurdt, tsXAS 

Cheetah, 3^ juz. 
Chemise, (/k«4i kaiuis. 
Chemist, jVLft 'attar, ^y^^ ajza- 

chf, ^ Wi" kimijH.^. 
Chbmistby, W«^ kimij^. 
Cheque (draft) ^\ji bardt, ;j ^^ 

Chequebed, a^U. ^^ cbabdr-kba- 

To Chebish, (a^j))i paryardan, 

(j^^y naydkbtan. 
Cheboot (ctaar), jVa^m sfgbiir (eur.), 

^ cbuttah (hind,). 
Chebbt (white), ^J'Atf gxlAs. — 

(sour) <^«A. yashnab. — {black) 

yWl[ kldhm. — (eating) ^-M- 

Jr^ gflA8-i-ma,kiil. 
Chebub, ^yf karrub. 
CHBByiL,ytfb« Ukle 'alaf-i-mu'attar. 

Chess, ^)»^ shatranj. — {board) ^W 
g»y«»i bisdt-i-shatranj. — (square 
on the hoard) «^ kbanab. — 
(man, or piece) »^ mubrab. — 
(opcnwflf) *>^a5 gusbad. — (king) 
fiUi BbAh. — (queen) e^j;* farzin, 
j«j yazfr. — {bishop) J<s* fil. — 
(knight) s— ^ asb. — (castle) tj 

rukb. — (jHiiCTi) jJ« baizak, »»>Wi 
pijidab. — (check) ^/^ kisb. — 
(check'mate) *a»^ mat. — (to check- 
mate) ^*>/ wwU mAt kardan. — (to 
he cheek-mated) ^^J^ «>^ m^t sbu- 
dan. — (to move a piece) ^*>^*> «>f^ 
barakat dAdan. — (fo take a piece) 
(jsaA*^ ji bar - dAsbtan. — (stale- 
mate) »M ^ gfr-Amadab. — 
(chess-player) )\i ^^ sbatranj- 
b&z. — (to play at chess) v^)^ C*J*^ 
(^*i/ sbatranj -bAzf kardan. — (to 
attack) tj*>;» ^jjt jdrisb burdan, 
^^j^} aU*. bamlab iyardan. 

Chest (box), 3y^^ sanddk, (^^•i*: 
jakbd&n. — (thorax) aa^-* sinab, 
jju» sadr. 

Chbstkut, ^yi» »Ui sbab-balut. — 
(colour of a horse) (^/ kuran. 

CHEyALiEB, «^)i buzurg, (^^y^ v*^ 
khwub jayan. 

To Chew, (^^^^ kba,idan, ^J^^eTW 
jii,{dan, ^J^^W j4yfdan, (^* ^f *' * 
kbasfdan. — (the cud) (^*y/ j\ft4^ 
nisb-kbwar kardan. 

Chicakeby, s-^ firib, ukJ^ kbi- 
y^nat, j^ niiik. 

Chicken, ^y»- jdjab, Ajy^ cbdzab 

Chicken-pox, 11)^93 zabrak. 

Chick-pea, «>^ nukbiid. 

Chickweed, ^3* J% jul-i-yazagb. 

Chicoby, \iAUt bindaba, ^jJuu kas- 

To Chide, vide To Rebuke, To 

Chief (principal), {^^^ pisbm, 
J^^ ayyal, f^ii^ makaddam, f$^ 
mibtar. — (chieftain) j^*y j^ sar-dar, 
;1IL« salar, ^J^J^ kad-kbuda, ye^\ 
amir, ^jtJj ra48, ^3 za*im, f****^ 
mukaddam, \yA^ pfsb-ya, %yi^ 
pfsb-rau, iJ^^ sbarff, i^y^ Kid- 




yah, jsi"^ kaJantar, j^ju^ sfndfd, 
(^^^ Mrdn, ^U zabit, JiVi kd,id, 
{^ 'ain, J^Vl kd'id, •ViAc 'akfd, 
j^fy» 9aX'YB,T.— (chief of an army, 
commander-in-chief) jUL, i^ 
sipah-s^Ur, fJ^ j6^\ amir-niz^m. 
— (chief of nomjodic or ivandering 
tribes) ^\^\ flkhAnf, ,J^ 
flbegf. — (elder, or headman of a 
class of people) «>U^^ ustad, «3VL.^^ 
iistdd, ^ shaikh, «^^ buzurg, 
^j^j ra,is, f*«^&* makaddam, ^e^ 
kabir, js^ mihtar, j^y^ sar-var. 

Chiefly, y^ aksar, s-^^ aghlab, 
"VU gh^liban, js.^ bfshtar. 

Child, &y bachah, JaIb tifl, ««)«>/ 

Child-bibth, J^a. ^^ vaz^-i-haml. 
— (pains of child-birth) »} *>;*> 
dard-i-zih, (ji^ talk, ^^W* ma- 

Childhood, ^^fi^. bachagf, i^^y^ 
tuf dlf jat, yt« sighr. 

Child-like, ^\^. bachag^nah. 

Chilly, ^ sanl, aj^W chiihi- 
dah. — (to be chilly, person), 
(^J^\^ ch^hfdan. — (weaiher) 
f^jA j^ sard shudan. 

To Chime, (>)*>/ *«Oj ^/\a^ 8adA,f-i- 
zang kaxdan. 

Chimbba, <^« vahm, J^W J^ 

Chimney, Jt^j^j dud-kash, ;^^j^ 
rauzan. — (fire-place) ^^j^. bu- 

Chin, ^3 zanakh, ^^^y^ kachah. — 
(double-chin) s^ ^ ghabghab. 

China (porcdain ware), ^Ji^ ^^ 
zuriif-i-chfiif. — (china-root) ^r*y^ 
<j*e^ chub-i-chfnf. — (mender of 
broken china) Jui) ^^i^ kalva-band, 

China-astee (the flower), U«*» Jf 

Chintz, ^a-s^ chft, jVCiii kalam- 

Chip, ftyj v*y^ chdb-rfzah, aj^\/^ 
khirishah, &*i^/ tirashah. 

To Chip (trans.), ^J^^/ tirashidan, 
^.Xe^i^ khir^shfdan. — (intrans.) 

Chibomancy, <-^ <JLe 'ilin-i-kaf, 
,ji,rf gSU. tdli'-bm/. 

To Chibp (<m a bird), 0^/ O^iA^ 
jikjik kardan. 

Chisel, 6j:^\ ishkanah. 

Chit-ohat, vA.'^t^* suhbat, JVS ^ J^ 
kfl u kAI, v^ g&P* 

Chivalboxts, 7^3 j dilir, ^^^ shah- 

Chives, ^aa5 gandaoa. 

Chocolat, H^yb shukdla (eur.) 

Choice, Juu^ pasand, jW^^ ikhtiyar, 
(ji^ guzin. (Vide Rabe, Nice, 

Choib, e^^^ *>)y^ Burdd-khwanitn. 

To Choke (be suffocated), (^^^J^ ^Ui*- 
khafah shudaa. — (in eating, 
swallotoing) ^•xfti yef ^ guld-gfr 
shudan. — (throUle) (^^/ an- kha- 
fah kardan, {^s^ <»j dam bastan, 
^ j^ (jMkf*. \j..J6 naiasri habs kar- 

Choleba-mobbus, W^ vabd. 

Cholebic, e\y«>3\ j))^^ mahruru-*!- 
mizk],t^yy^ tiz-miz6j, e^y J^ 

To Choose, (^*y/ aju^ pasand kar- 
dan, (^^^ ji bar-guzidan, jV»^^ 
(^'^f^ ikhtiyar nimudan, s>U^\ 
(:)«>^ intikhdb nimddan, ^\>msA\ 
(^«y ikhtisAs kardan. 

Choppeb, y^ tabar. 

Chobd (of an arc or segment of a 
circle), ^y vatar. 

Chobus (of a song), {^i^) zamfn, 
&j^3 zamfnah. — (at a theatre) 
^U^ ^ .. ta > pish - khw^nan. — '(in 
chorus) \^ (^W bi-ham&n nava. 

Chbist, J5«*<^ ^isk, ^yr*^ masfh, 
J iy ^j ■'»'»• masfhA, ^ »*M« J^'^'ifi' 

Chbistian, ^y^tfi^ 'isavf, <j^a— • 
masihf, ^J^j^ nasranf (pL ^^ 
nasilri), V«.y tarsa. — (religion) 
^y>^>^ ^j)j|j d{n - i - *isavf, «:Jl« 
^^■»-*^ millat - i - masfhf jah. — 
(priest) tr*-* kissfs. 

Chbistianity, *«y-«ft o^ millat- 
i-'fsayijah, & <>^ j .*..>« oJU millat-i- 
niasihfyah, ^\j^ nasrdnivab. 

Chbistmas, j9*«ttA ^y» maulud-i- 




*i8a, Jj-»«c ^'^ J^ 'id-i-milad-i- 


Ohbonic, ^^} zamanah, {.yy muz- 



Chronicle, ^j^ tari'kh (2)L ^)\yS 
tavArfkh), jV--s.^ akhbar, gi^; 
vakaiS *AHt^jy rirajat. 

Ghroniclbb, 6jy« muvarrikh. 

Chbonologt, ^j\5 tarfkh. 

Chkonombteb, o^L. sa'at. 

CuBTSALis, A^^ol} badamah. 

Chbtsan THBMXTM {flower) , 
^^j*jW gul-i-da,iidi. 

Chbysolite, o^j jm« 'akik-i-zard. 

CuuBCH, W^^kalisiya, a— <^ kaui- 

GuuBL, f^^ «s5gjj tang-chashm. 

Chubn, «sX^ khfg, ti£U>^ mashk. 
[These words both signify a 
vessel made of the entire skin of 
a sheep or goat. This, which, 
in Persia, supplies the ]>lace of a 
churn, is hung up and shaken to 
and fro till the milk it contains 
is churned.] 

Chyle, ,j-y^ kilus (ewr.). 

CuTME, ^J»y^^ kimus. 

To Cicatrize, i^^f^^ dagh kardan. 

CiDEB, s-'^-' i^^\^ paludah-i-sib, 
v*jM* s-*V^ shirab-i-sib. 

Cigar, jJ^ sigar {eur,), jU^j^ 
sfghar (et*r). 

CiOAB-cASE,^^^^ s-*^ kab-i-s/gar. 

CiNDEB,yuJ^ khakistar. 

Cinnabar, fi;&F*j zinjifrah, *-*;>**• 

Cinnamon, ^y^ ^^ dar-chin/. 

CiBCAssiA, ij^j^ charkas. 

Circassian, ^J^j^ charkas f, <j^ 

Circle, ftyio da,irah, ^i^ halkah, 
yf^ chambar, ftjjJ^ mudawarah. 
— (0/ people) W)U. halkah. — 
{centre of a circle) ^y markaz. 
— (diameter) ;U» kutr. — {radius) 
jUJ\ 4JU» nisfu-'l-kutr. — {circum- 
ference) ftyW da,irah. — {segment) 
f Udl kita*. — {semi-circle) ^J\*^ «-A-a* 
nisf - i . da,irah, ^/\*i ^ nim- 
da,irah. — {to form a circle) ^/\*> 
^^j da,irah zadan. 

r I 

Circuit, v>^^ gardish, j^^ daur, 
I «);*> daurafa, •*-*^y«» tavaf. — {legal 
' ^erm) yV«. ^ ;j^*> dair va sai'r. 

Circular, c5;V dayvari, ^^j^ mu- 
davvar, >y/ gird. 

To Circulate, {jJ^ gashtau, 
^OiJ^ gardidan. — {money) ^^ 
(^^iA nashi shudan. — {newspaper) 
^^\i j\aj:A iutishar yaftan, ^j 
(^'Xi» ra,ij shudan. 

Circulation, tjy\^^ mudavarah, 
\J»^jS^ gardish, ^^^ mijan. — 
{money) ^\)) ravaj. — {newspaper) 
j\.Lsi\ intishar. — {to put in 
circulation) ^j*>^** g^^j; ravaj di'idau. 
— {to take out of circulation) }\ 
^^^\ji\ JLf£c\ az 'itibar andakh- 

To CiRCUMCibK, (:)*^y*» AJLS4. khut- 
nah uimudan. — (to be circum- 
cised) ;^*^ (:)f^^ makhtun shu- 
dan, ^•v^ A-sj;^ khutnah shudan. 

Circumcision, &«*- khutnah, or 

Circumference, *>^ gird, tf\*^ 
da,irah, u\jA atraf, J^^ ha- 

To Circumscribe, {^sdX^ ^^J^%^ 
raahdud sakhtan. 

Circumspect, &--«* mutanabbih, 
^-ftr^i*^ mustabsir, jy^^^ muhtariz, 
^UftijV^ kar-shinas. 

Circumspection, )^j^ ihtiraz, 
lisSaA ihtiyat, «^^«^ basirat, (^ 

Circumstance, j^\ amr, J^ hal, 
ijti\^ vaki*ah, gy^ vuku*, ss^-iAc^ 
kaifiyat, ^a^LoS^ hakikat, ^^ 
bab, iA^AJS ym sar-guzasht. — (m 
these circumstances) ^yo ^^ ^a 
dar in surat. 

To Circumvent, ^;)A-* ^\\ rah bas- 
tan, {^y^f *^j 7- sar-i-rah giriftan. 

Circus, <^\«v* maidan, fiVSij^^ jau- 

Cistern, ^^ hauz, ^^ birkah. — 
{large reservoir) ^\ v»^ ab-am- 

Citadel, *iS^ arg, *^^\ ark, ahU 

To Cite, (;)*>^ S^jiS irad uimudan 




— (at law) (^^y^ ^*>^ iddi*a ni- 

OmzBN, i^)^ shahrf, ^J^ baladf. 
Citizenship, u^j^ baJadijat. 
CiTBON, g»/ turanj. 
City, j6^ sbahr, &^ baldah, &^J^ 

CivBT, *>V»j zubad. 
Civic, <^j^ madani. 
Civil ( polite), J^l^s- khalik, ^^^y* 

mu'addab, «-AA>} latif, jV^ v>^ 

Civilian (cm7 functionary, not 

military), ^ s^W)^ arbab - i - 

kalam, ^ J^^ abl-i-kalam. 
Civility, v*^^ adab, jliifi^^ akhlak, 

\j\<i^ mudard, c:^VU latAfat. 
Civilization, o^j^ madani jat, 

^Ji*5 tamadduD. 
Civilized, (^m>^ mutamaddiu. 
Civilly, AiVjj^ adabanah, cfc^UJ \| 

Clad, jj-J^ mulabbas. 
Claim, Jjy^j da*va, Vcj\ iddi'a, s-Jt 

talab, o^^^ j*> dar-khwast, UsS^ 

iktiza, U£^ mubtagha, a^JU** 

Claimant, ^-^^ miidda*i. 
Clamminess, ^s^>j^ luzujat, 

^juj^ chaabandagf. 

Clammy, gyX lazij, &. U i,»a chasban- 

Clamoub, ^Vt/ faryad, ^^ ghau- 

gha, v^yfc ^VA hai-huf, ajU*. sba- 

matah, vi3yu6i shuluk (yulg.). 
Clandestine, vide Secbet. 
Clap, vide Gonobbhcea. — (of 

thunder) Wc^ sa'ikab. 
To Clap (handi), <;jJ>j ^ chapah 

zadan, ^^j i£U««> dastak zadan. 
Clabifigation, M^ tasfijah. 
To Clabipy, (jjj/ M-» tasfiyah kar- 

dan, {^siX^ \h^ musafiEa sdkhtan. 
Clabionet, ^)y^ surna. 
Clashing (of swords), «*JW «<JU. 

Clasp (fastening of a belt, Ac), 

cfc^^j • sy^ chap u r4st, ;^ll ^ y 

nar u Us. 
To Clasp, vide To Embbace. 
Class, ^j-*^ jins, Js»<i kabfl, 

kism. — (school) «-.*^ sinf. — (the 

middle classes) \j^^ \^\^ avasit-i- 

II As. 
Classification, s-^/ tartfb, f^r^JS 

To Classify, o**^ s-^/ tartfb ni- 

mddan, {^•^f f^n-^JS taksim kar- 

Clatteb, J^ ^ J^ k4l va makAl. 

(Vide Noise.) 
Clause (sentence), ^/i fakarah, 

&W juinlab. 
Claw, isO». chang, J^l^ changal, 

J^^ changdl, (^^^^ nAkbun, a^^ 

paDJab, sda L i^ mikhlab, ^aa. 

Clay, J5' gil, ;^ tfn, ^3^^ vahal. — 

(pottery clay) ^j^ iu. khdk-i- 

Clean, asuj^ sbustah, *^^ pak, ftyt^ 

pakfzab, ulo aAf, ciek nazif, 

A«>U s4dab, ^J» nakf. 
Cleanness, ^^>e^ pdkfzagi, va-*^ 

To Cleanse, (^*y^ vi3^ p4k kardan, 

^j^ d«A;» tankijah l^rdan, <^*^«(r 

Cleab (transparent), wi^ sbaffdf. 

— (limpid) '^'^ s4f . — (bright) 

i^y) raushan, jf^ munavvar, j^^ 

muDir, J\>y njirftii^. o^^ tkhkn, 
jU\s tkh-dkT, Jk^ jail, e^ll lAmiS 
gtU sAti', (jjU^jO dirakbsbdn. — 
Tevident) j\^'\ ashkAr, »;^^f 
asbkaraJi, y^VL zAbir, ^Asy^ bu- 
vaidd, {j^^j raushan, ^j^-w» mu- 
bm, ^\y vdzib, ^H lAih, (^jSt^ 
*iyan, yfcV^ bdhir, ^/o sarib, ^jst^ 
bad lb 1. 

To Cleab (a drain, a well, Sc), 
^^S &JLS tankijah kardan, (^'^)) 
rdofdan. — (to clear away, table) 
(^'^ y bar-chfdan. 

Cleably, y^^^ ashkar&, ''\^^ 
vazihan, Hj^ jiddan. 

Cleabness, Uc safd, v^^fU^ vaza,at. 

To Cleave, ^^\^ shikdftan, ^jai 
(^*y/ shakk kardan, (^^j^ ceSU 
chak kardan. ( Vide To Adhebe, 
To Cback.) 

Cleaving (of the earth), <JU^ khasf. 




Clkft, vide Csacx. 

Glemenct, ^ u t tty marhamaty f*/ 

Clement, vj^ ^ khata-baksh, 

f^\j rahim, J*>f»y narm-dil. 
To Clench (the fist), «i-a- \jo-.j 

^a/ dastra musht kardan, ^^v^ 

{^\^ f^ panjah bi-ham gu- 

CLEBOTMiiK, jUi ^jt^ pisb-nam^z, 

,JL^ kasbisb, ^j'^-tr^ kissfs. 
Clerk, f^ M^ abl-i-kalam. 
Clbteb, *«^ chabuk, *^^) zfrak, 

^s^-o- cbuat, *tOjj zaring, ^^i 

zakf, o^y lauza'f, uw«a A^e». 

Clbyeeness, ^^^j^ ziraki, ,^*3 

zariugi, *a^\j^ tirasat, ««>^^} zaka- 

vat, (^•i zibn. 
Clew (0/ thread), a*)J^ kalafab.— 

(guide) sa^^^ dalalat, c^j rab- 

barf, \A^\'iJb bidajat, t^j^ suragb. 
Client, J^y* muvakkil, s-*^*^ 

Climate (toeather, d&c), \yfc baY4. — 

(clime of the world) fi^\ iklfm, 

jy^kishvar, ili*- khuttab. — (the 

seven climes) f¥t}Ji\ oAa haft iklim, 

jyj:^ ss^JUb baft kisbvar. 
To Climb, ;^; HW b41a raftan,^ 

(2)*^^ bar-&madan. 
Climber (plant), aaaa 'asbikab. 
Clime, vide Climate. 
To Clinch (a Tiail), (^*^ {^i^ ^ 

pur-cbm kardan, i^^^ ^ ^ pur- 

cbam kardan. 
To Cling to, (j- Vt- * cbasbidan, 

^ju 6j^y^ paivastab budan. 
To Clip, {^^^ cbfdan, (^^^^ u*V* 

mikr&z kardan. — (to clip one^s 

words) t)»*j^ Vl*" (:>*^ sukbun- 

i-kbwudra kbwurdan. 
Clitobis, {^ kain, j^ij zambdr. 
Cloak, ^\j^ hkrkm, &t^ jubbab, 

U^ ebugba, ^"^ kdtibf, J*^ 

fargbul, c>*\;*> durra*at, **>W li- 

badab, W^ *aba, (^^^^ barrakan. 

(Vide EiDiNO-CLOAK.) 
Clock, ^j-J^ va^L. sA'at-f-majlisf. 

— (^wo o*clock, dc) ^*> vA^L. 

sa'at-i-du, &c. — (cloek'maker) 

jL. cb^Li ga'at-saz. — (to go by 
clock'Work) 0*^ ^ ks^xlL, ftaeU A| 
bi-ka'idab-i-8a*at k4r kardan. 
Clod (of eaHh), t^ knldkb. 

Cloq, v*^ kabkab. (Vide Ob- 

Cloisteb, ;2^ dair. 

Close (shut up), &Ji^ bastab, a^Ju^ 
masdud, aa# band. — (suffocating) 
AA*. kbafab. — (near to) &2-«^ pai- 
vastab, (jJU mulbak, sH|;S karfb, 
s-*^ j»> dar jamb, jy nazd, J«*s^ 
muttasil, ci\jt«y nazdik. — (nar- 
row) *aW tang, «»^-^ ebust. — 
(occult) (;jVi panbAn, «j*afe*» 
makbff, ft«Mi^ pdsbidab, (^jW 
niban. — (stingy) Jtj^. bakbfl, 
<^'e " ' A kbasfs, ^ la'im. — (a 
passage in a street, leading under 
a building or archway) u:>WV.« 
s4,ib4t, «s>W* sabbat, a»W SW 
^j^;^ bala-kbanab-i-kburdj f . 

To Close, {^s.^ bastan, (^^ ju^ 
band kardan, {^\^ j^ju^ mas- 
dud sakbtan. — (an amount), <J^ 
(^^f s4f kardan, (^c^ji ^^ nm- 
&dgb kardan. 

Closeness (narrowness), ^^jS tangi, 
^^5*-^ cbusti. — (nearness) o^*y 
nazdik 1, J^^ ittisdl. — (stinginess) 
^, bukbl, vA^w^ kbissat, u^VxS 

Closet, a^U^^U- kbalvat - kbanab, 
hSSs^ kbalvat- gab. — (for provi- 
sions, Ac.) A*U. gJl^ bava,ij- 
kbtinab, 6^^ ganjab. — (for 
clothes, valuables, and arms) 
d»U. dAiy tusbab - kbanab, f^ 
pastd. — (privy) a>U:».j\ aaab- 
kbanab, 1^ kbali, ^ mabraz. 

Cloth, ^}\ pdrcbab.— (|>iccc or 
web of cloth) 6i^ tikab, i^^j^ 
p^rcbab, %^js tdp. — (woollen 
cloth) u^y^U mandt. — (coarse 
woollen cloth) ^ pattd. — (of 
gold), tj^jj zarf. — (of silk and 
cotton mixed) ^Jy^^f garmasdf, 
Zyr^^ masbrd*. — (cotion stuff ) 
vide Cotton. — (linen) vide 
Linen. — (siUc cloth) vide Silk. 




— (sackcloth) ^j^ palas. — (wop- 

kin) A?^ f dtah, JUx-*> dast-mal, 

ytf^^ pish-gir. 
Cloth-mbbghant, j\y bazzaz. 
To Cloths, o^M^^ pdshidan, ss^a.^ 

^•M^^ rakht pushfdan. 
Clothes, a^W j&mah, «>*.j. rakht, 

^^H pdslidk, \J^^ pdshish, 

(j«*M lib&s, (^^ pdshan, ^^j zi 

(pZ. ^Vj;^ azjd,). — (old clothes) a^ 

kuhnah. — (old clothes man) 6j^ 

^^jk kuhnah - furdsh. — (plain 

clothes) **>U y*\^ libas-i-sadah. — 

(under-cloihes) ^^ ^) zfr-push. 
Cloud, ji\ abr, v*^ sahab, ^ 

mfgh, A^Ufc ghamdmah. — (clouds 

in summer) f\^ kda,r. 
Cloudy, jW^ abr-dar, AaJ^^giriftah. 
Clout, ^e» kahnah, &j^ pinah, &sJ 

lattah. — (nail) ^^ mikh. 
Clouted (patched)^ »»>j a^ pfnah 

zadah, gjy* inurakka'. 
Clove, udabty* mi'khak, JW karau- 

Cloven (divided)^ 6JA asAVSCai ghi- 

kiftah-shudah, ;^*^^ chak-dar, 

fioAi «c)W. chak-shudah, ^ shakk. 
Cloves, ^^ tarf il, ;J^ shafdar, 

j*M* shabdar, &S^ &^ sih-bargah. 
Clown, v5*^jj; rusta,!, ^^Uaj dih- 

kAn. — {buffoon) 5;ab— ^ maskha- 

Club, v*^ chub, ueXs^ kutk, Ue 

*a8A, jU». chunuik. — (of metal) 

vide Mace. 
Clue, vide Tbacb. 
Clxtmst, cfc*^y ^jj bi-nazakat. 
Clusteb, aai^ khdshah, &J^ 4kdah. 
To Clusteb, (jja*^ »>/' gird Amadan. 
Clutch, ride Claw. 
Clysteb, jf^^ dastdr, a5U\ imdlah, 

AAAb. huknah. 
Coach, tricle Cabbiaqe. 
Coach-house, &^-i^ &>U. khanah- 

i-kali8kah,jM^ ambar. 
Coach-man, ^J^ aCJV^ kaliflkah- 


CO-ADJUTOB, ;^V2 javaT. 

To Coagulate, (^^^^ *a^ bastah 
shudan, (^*^ ' U^ ;^ muDJamid 
shudan, (;^*xai M^ ghaHz shudan. 

^«x4b cb^&Mi sift shudan, ^*x4i &«Sj 
dalamah shudan. 

Coal, J^&j zughal. — (a live coal) 
o^T *i5** kharg-i-Atish, fiiA akh- 
gar, ;4.> jo-mr, SjA>jaz7ah. 

Coal-cbllab, (^\*y J^j zughdl-dan. 

Coal-mine, J^&j (;)«ia#* ma'dan-i- 

Coabse, c>A'v^ kuluf t, fiJuT gundah, 
sA^^^^y durusht, (^i- khushn, or 

CoABSBNESs, 4j5Aij»>durushti, ^^» j .tA 
khushunat, ^/J^ gundagi. 

Coast, jU^ kaniir, (^\/karan, J^U 
sahil, uijl taraf. 

CoAST-ouABD, (j)Vj Ja.U sahil-bau, 
Ja.Li Ifa^^pS..^ mustahfiz-i-sdhil. 

Coat, V-i kaba, (^Uas kaftAn, mU^. 
khuftan. — (inner coat) ^J^Wf ar- 
khdlik, uPUJ\ alkhalik, ^UJ\ 
alkhuluk (vulij,), — (cut away 
coat) ^> nimtanf. — (frock- 
coat) A^fii^ kulijah. — (great-coat) 
vj«i^ 3W bala-pdshi. — (of paint, 
&c.) &^;( pardah. 

To Coax, o^^ navakhtan, Jui^ 
c)**^ <*5*^*** rish-khaudi nimu- 
dan, (jjJ;^ cT'^^^' chaplusi kar- 
dan, (^j/ ^;W (•*> dam - bazi 
kardan, o«>^ tjU? tamalluk ni- 
mudan, (:>J^d*^ t)^^ J>>t pizar 
bi-paldn chapanidan. 

Cob bleb (mender of old shoes and 
leathern articles), }y*> ^^ pinah- 

Cob-nut, j*u» f unduk. 

Cobweb, va>^^ ft^^ pardah-i-'an- 
kabut, fiys^ kinatrah. 

CoccuLUS Indicus ( poison-berry) y 
^U iiSyf marg-i-mahi. 

CocHiNBAL,^^ kirmiz. 

Cock, u*j^ khurds. — (of a match- 
lock gun), Aafe^ mashah. — (of a 
firelock) A>U chanih, A*^ chdnali, 
^jj;*- khurds. — (of a cistern, 
waUr-skin, &c,) yt^ {^^ dahan-i- 
shir. — (of a detonating, gun) **^»*> 
ding, {Js^ ohakosh* 

To Cock (a gun), (^^^j^} ^j^ V*^*^ 
chakmdkr4 sar-i-pa avardan. — 
(to half-cock a gun) ^ y V^^ 





^A«j^ \^ chakmAknt bar nim-pa 

Cockroach, tcX*.^ siisk. 
Cocoa, fi^^VS kakavah (eur.). 
Cocoa-nut, J^V* nArgfl, ^j\i 

nArjfl, ^5«ufc j-^ jauz-i-hindi. 
Cocoon, ^ pilah, f^ ^ pflah- 

CoDB, f^J^ tanzim, <^y^ kaniin, 

i^\i ^yU kanun - namah, ft^ 

nizAm, (^^ ^yfn. 
Coffee, ft^ kahvah. — (berries) ^^ 

bunn. — («^rfi6) ftje* c>^j*> di- 

lakht-i-kahvah, ^^ ws^jJ dirakht- 
i-buxm. — (pot)^ ft^ kahvah-paz, 
ji) »j#i kahvah-rfz. — (cup) (^W** 
fin Jan. — («/and for the cup), kJ^ 
zarf, t)W**j4j zir-finjan. — (^oif8«) 
d»U. t^ kauvah-kh&nah. — (coffee^ 
hou9e keeper) ^^ &«6S kahvah- 

Coffers, jM\ amb&r. 

Coffin, j^*)uuo sanduk, va>yVi tabut. 

Coo, 6i\<ii^ dandanah. 

Cogitation, vide Thought. 

Cognizance, m^ khabar, ^^^ 

Cognomen (family name), A^kun- 

To Cohabit, (a*^y^ aa^U** muzaja'ah 

Cohabitation, aa^U« muzaja'ah, 
Af\^afe4ii» ham-khw4bab. 

Coherence, Wj rabt, jW\ ilhAk. 

Coherent, ^y/* marbut. 

Cohesion (uniting), ^J^y^i pai- 
vastagf, oJLo\y« niuvasalat. 

Coil (of rope, Jc), Afll^ halkah. 

Coin, J^ pill, JJU nakd. — (false 
coin) ^jl%3 J^ pul-i-kulUbi, J^ 
^yijbm pul-i-maghshush. 

To Coin, (^*i/ v»/* zarb kardan. 

Coincidence, ci^\y* muYafakat, 
jU»^ ittifdk. 

CoiNSP (word), gfs^ mukhtara'. 

Coiner (stamper of coin), v»V* 
zarrab. — (maker of false coin) 
^j ^Sil kull^bf-zan. 

Colander, A»yi^ pilunah, (a^)^^ 

Cold (cu^*.), »y» sard, *>;V| bind.— 

(«ifc«/.) Jy- sard, v^*>;- sardi, •>»» 
bard, ^->;^ buriidat, U^ sarma. 
— (caiarrh) i^*>j^ Bardi', lt^W^ 
chahisb, f*^ zukam. — (<o catch 
cold) (:)J^^ chabfdan, o**;^^ ^7- 
sarma kbwurdan, ^J*^ f^^j zukain 
kardan. — (cold region, high 
ground), 7*- *>p» sard-sfr, •a^ j-» 

Coldness (0/ tnanner, <§c.), va>^j{;» 

CoLBRic, <jM** safravi, t^^** v/i^ 

Colic, f^*>»»> J-> dil-dardi', gJy ku- 
luuj, 5J/ kulinj. ^ pich. 

Collar (of a coat, &c.), (^jW?;^ gin'- 
ban, ^ jakah, Vib yaka, ^ 
yukhah. — (ring for the neck) jjl* 
tank. — (collar - 60 we) fi^Jy tur- 
kuvab (pL J»y taraki). 

To Collate, tj*>*^ J»^ miikdbil 

Collation, Ai»U* mukdbabih. (Ftrf« 

Colleague, v^.^ sharfk, ,jeAj 

raf ik, ^y^ ham-riiz. 

To Collect, ^«>;^£*^ jam' kardan, 
^*>^^^ ^y faraham avardan, 
^^ cbidan, (^*x,»^ kapidan 
(vulg,), — (to collect one^s thoughts) 
^o^ JVe^ kbiynl kardan. 

Collection, ^^ jam*, £Ua^\ ijti- 
m4*, u&^e*»% jam*iyat, 2^%^ 
majmaS aW juralah, ,jflU^ jum- 
lagi. — (0/ articles, &c.) Aa^^*« 
majmii'ah. — (of taxes) ^}t<^ tah- 

Collectively, aU^W bi-'l-jumlah, 
■^iM^ jam*an, '^••e^ jami^an. 

Collector (0/ revenue, taxes, Ac), 
J-a*^ muhassil, ;e^W biij-gir. 
jVJbf ^ashshar, ^j^\«> ddrugbah, 
^yu«M* muutaufi. 

College, &-«;*v« madrasah. 

Collision, ^jU** musMamah, 
f«jU; tas/idum. — (to come into 
collision) O'^jy^ f^ bi-ham- 

Collusion, tnde Intrigue, Con. 
sPiRACT, Plot. 




CoLLTBiuM {for the eyes), &^y^ 
surmah, Jsi^ kuhl, ^f tutiya. 

CoLOCYNTH, JSi^ hanzal. 

Colon BL, <^i^ «s-« mir-alai, v^r* 
sartip, J»y^ kuluual (eur,). 

Colonnade, «- & a.w ^^yb^j rah-rau-i- 

Colony, ^JW» kabilah. — (/Ae colo' 
nies) *Ju\ij>os^ mutasarrat'at. 

Colossal, ^^^aia^ zakhim, ii^^ 

Colour, *a^j rang, (^^ lauu. — {in 
composition) f^ fam, (^j5' gun. — 
{to change colour) (^*>y^ cs^^V^^ 
rang-&-rang nimudan, (^•xab ^^ 
mulavvan shudan. 

To Coloub, ^Jj <Jt^; rang zadan, 
^j^ o^j rang kardan. 

Coloured, <:)^) rangfn, (^^ mu- 

Colourless, *sS^^ ^ bf-rang. 

Colours, vide Flag. 

Colt, »/ kurrah. 

Column, (^y^ sutuu, (^^ rukn, 
j^ 'amud, •>Uft *imad, J** mfl. 
— {bdse of a column) *4^ pdyah. 
— (capital) g^ tiij. — {in a hook) 
J^J^ jadval. — {to he drawn up in 
column) (;j*>\AHt\ fj^yx . j^ bi-taur- 
i-sutdn istadan. 

Comb, ^^ sh^nah. {Vide Curry- 
comb, Honeycomb.) — {of a cock) 
5^ taj. — {coinb'W^ker) jV- diUi 

To Comb, (^•>j ^^ shdnah zadan, 
^jjUi shdndan (o6«.). — (fo comb 

one's hair) t)**/ **^ \)**J*" *-*^j 
zalf-i-kbwudra shanah Kardan. 

Combat, vide War, Stripe, Bat- 

Combatant, j;W^ mubariz. 

Combination, vide Union, Plot, 
Conspiracy, Aorbement. 

Combined with, &4>. > «^ zamfmah. 

Combustion, \Mi^ tahrfk. 

To Comb, (^^^^ amadan, (;)*9^ rasi- 
dan. — {it came to pass) JA (:)*^ 
cbunin sbud, *xAi gi^^ vaki' shud. 
— {to come about) ^^^^j gyy bi- 
Yuku* rasidan. — (to come across) 
^jUa^ uftadan. — {to corns do^m) 

(^A^\ t^ pa,in amadan. — {to 

come up ) (;)*3^f )W bala dma- 

Comedian, vide Actor. 
Comedy, ^^^ bazi, ^5jW a*«3 lu*bali- 

Comestibles, v^ji^khwurakf, ^^ 

Comet, ;U «iW*»> »)^ sitarah-i- 

dumbaiah-dar,;^J^aA;U.« sitarah- 

Comfort, L.!tj dil-&sa, ^J^ tasallf, 

^^^u-► iw khdtir - jam*f, ^J^f- 

khwusni, f^^ ardm, vr^M asd- 

To Comport, (^J^^ ^JL-i tasalli 

dadan, (^•vt^. cy farah bakhslif- 

Comporter, ftJufe«> ^J^ tasalli di- 

Comic, Mfc W ^>* muzhik. — {comic 

journal) c^y* &^^ ^^ rdz-ndmah-i- 

Command, f^ hukm, <^Uj firmdn, 

(j&oU^ firmdyish, i^^^ nrmddah, 

jA amr, ^^^ irshad, i^-^««4 vasi- 

yat, (^•xi kadgban, J^^Uu si- 

To Command {order), cj«Jyy firmd- 
dan, (:)«>^ (^ bukm nim4dau, 
^o^ ^f amr nimddan, t)**/ '^^j^ 
irshad kardan, ^«>;^ J^j^ sifdrish 
kardan, (^J*/ e)^*^ kadgban kar- 

Commander, v5^y c)^y firman- 
firmaf, j\<vr ^^^Uy firmdn-guzar, 
^^ hakim, u*^j ra,f8, jt^ amfr. 
— {commajider-in-chief) ft^ jtA 
amir-nizdm, tSU a^ sipah-siudr. 
— {of an Order of Chivalry) 
^Ui s-^^ sahib - i - nishAn. 
— {of an army) tJ^j^Jt^ lashkar- 
ka8h,j\«>;^ sardar. 

To Commemorate, (^^ i^p\ *i^ 
yad-dvari kardan, o^^ )^ ^^'^^ 
kir nimudan. 

Commemoration, /^ zikr, ^^5" oVt 
y ad- gar. 

To Commence, vide To Begin. 

Commendation, c*^ madh. ( Fide 
also Praise.^ 




Commensal, ft / ' " »i » ham-sufrah. 

To Comment, (^«>^ c/* sharh ni- 
mudan, (^*^x^ jtr^ tafsir nimu- 

Commentabt, je— ^ tafsir, ;««* 
ta*bir, c>*» shark, J>/^ ta,vil. 

Commentatob, j'*^^^ mut'assir, t)^ 

Commerce, sjf^'^x* saudu - gari, 
»*>;^ tiji'irat,^^^^ mat jar, 4l*U^ 
iuu*fimalah, xu. ^ jU dad u si tad, 
^/i ^ grf bai* va sbira, ^f-^ ish- 
tini. — {Chamber of Ccnnmerce) 
va>^^fcsl\ j\ J daru-*t-tijarat. 

Commercial, ^Jj^ tijarati. 

To Commiserate, (j«>^ i*^»^ ; rah- 
inat niiniidan. 

Commiseration, »&■■•■ j rahmat, ^j 

Commissariat, &;AiW^ mubasharah. 

Commissary, iJ^US gumAsbtah, 
Jefj vakil, A^jyU darugbah. — 
(Voinmissary - General) {^^^ 
%s>\^yS\ amin-i-azdkajat. 

Commission, ^^jS^'v^guindsbtagi. 

- {on goods, bides, Sc.) ,j*— ^^ s3^ 

hakku-*8-8a'i. — {body of men), 

^^ytg »^ 0•^ kumisiyun (twr.). — 

{mbed commission) t>«— o^jj^ 
^JloUa^^ kumisijun-i-mukbtaliti. 
{io undertake a commission) 
^j^ JU«^\ istibmal kardan. 

To Commission, ^j^Uf guiuasb- 

Commissionaire, aaAiUI gumash- 

Commissioner, ^"^ mubasbir. 

To Commit {intrust), (^^^ sipui- 
daii, o^y^ u^y^ tat'viz niinudaii, 
^ij^ ii\^ bavalah kardan, f^^^ 
i^*>/ taslini kardau. — {do) w»^j\ 
(jo^ irtikab nimudau, ^«>/ kar- 
dan, (:^^ sakbtan, (^«>^ f*W\ 
ikdam nimudau. 

Common, f^^ *amm, ^y^ *umum, 
d^jSA^ musbtarak, *-^jy«^ ma*ruf, 
U5;V«#« muta'arif, J*^*^*^ diu- 
tadaval, j^^**-* masb-ndr, Jy«*^ 
ma^mul. — {people) f^ *4mm, f\p^ 
^jM\ 'avvAmu-'n-nas, ^J^^ abali, 
^^ kbalk. — (open space) {^*^ 

cbaman. — {in common, indiscri* 
minately) <^fJ^ musbtarak. 

Commonly, 'U*** 'umiiman, j^\ 
aksar, «Ji«^ ])isbtar. 

House or Commons, {^^^^ ^.r^^ 
majlis-i-mab*ii6an, f^^ j^^ atak- 
i-*avamm. — {an Address of the 
House of Commons) '^\ A*UiW 
^\^ jUi\ ^Jue^ s-^W bayan- 
naniab az J2inib-i-a*zai-i-atak-i- 

Commotion, &^\SifJb baugauiab, 
^jt gbaugba. 

To Communicate, o***^ %g^\j^ 
sirayai nimiidan, ^^jamj a\) rab 
dasiitau. — {message, <fec.) ^eM 
(2)0^ tablfgb kardan, (^^/ t^^ 
iblagb kardan. 

Communication, vide Letter. 

Communications {military term), 
sA>\*y^\y» mayaradat. 

Communion {intercourse), va^^j 
rifakat, va-^jA sbirakat, ^a>*^^^ 
muravadat, jW ^ j^ kar va bar. 
{Vide Intercourse.) — (the 
Sacrament), ^J^) ""^-a* *a8ba,-i- 
rabbaui, fj*\^ kuddds. 

Communist, ^^ » >^^ kiimunist 

Community, c;^;U^ iiiusbarakat, 
cJL* millat. 

Compact, ride Agreement, Pro- 
mise, Solid. 

Companion, ijt^j raf I'k, «E^/i sba- 
rik, f»A4A bam-dam, JU* bamal, 
y^^jL*A bam-dusb, j^j^a bam-raz, 
jLlftj dam-saz, ( ^ ■ ♦ '^♦i fc bam- 
uisbm, Uai^ asbna, jW>^ ambaz, 
s-^^"*** musabib, s-^^ sahib 
{pi. ^W« sababab, or s^V^«\ 

Company, Vide Society, Band. — 
{of soldiers) *J^*^ dastab. 

Comparable, J«>U^ mu*adil, ijS^ 
*w^ bi,ik-i-ta8bbib, jM uazir. 

Comparative {degree), J«-»a» «^J^ 

Comparatively, &«--jJV| bi-'n-nis- 
bab, Al}^ bi-mukabalah. 

To Compare, ^^^ aW^ muka« 
balah nimddan, ^*i/ *ff»Ay taah- 




bih kardan, (^^f ^^^ ^ bar-a^ard 

CoMPABBD with, ^ ^^4^^ nisbah bi, 
A) A .., „; 3l> bi-'n-nisbah bi. 

CoMPABisoN, Jd^UJ tamsil, ^tt^ 
tashbih, %tJ^ mushababah, 
Ai»Va- mukabalah, j^ jur, of;»V 
barabari, jk^i^ tatbik, ^^^ ^ bar- 
Hvard. — {degrees of conifHirison) 
^}tt^JS s-^\^ mariitib-i-tafsil. 

Compass, ;6^ pargar, ;^;j parkar. 
— (manner's), Ui s-J^ kutb- 
uiiuH, Ui &Lj kiblah -nima.-- 
( points of the compass) — N, JUa 
shinial ; N.E. J*-*-* ; JUa ^j^ U 
nifi-bain-i-shimal va mashrik ; 
N,W. v»y^ ^ JUa ^^ U mii- 
bain-i-shinuU va maghrib ; 8. 
v*y^ junub; S.JF. y v>y9- e>«* ^ 
j^'JU^ ma-bain-i-jaQub va mash- 
rik; 8,W. v*;*^ y s^^ t)^ ^ 
ma-bain-i-juDdb va maghrib ; 
E» jyt^ mashrik, j^Ai shark, 
jlU* matla' ; W. v»y^ maghrib, 
s^ gharb. 

Compassion, xa^^ rikkat, ^a^saai sha- 
fakat, o.^» n . j ^ marahmat, ^^ 
ruhm, o* W;«^ mihrbsinf, «^*1; ra,- 
fat, ^J>jA4-ft ham-dardf. 

Compassionate, jM^-ft*^ mushfik, 
^jdAAi shafik, ^»«A.j rahi'm. 

To Compassionate, (^^j*i cb^sAAi 
shat'akat nimudau, (^*^ff^) ruhm 
kardan, (^) (;)«>;^ ^y tarahhum 
kardan (bi). 

Compeebs, i^f-^ y J^\ aiDsal va 
akhiran, ftW^^ ashbah. 

To Compel, (^^ ^j^ jabran kar- 
dan, ^^\o (^^ bar an dashtan, 
t>**/>?>* ^*i-zur kardan, (^^f^ fV^ 
ibram nimiidan, ^^^^ )T^^^ maj- 
btir nimudau. 

Compendium, J«'%^ miijmal, yi^^y* 
mtijaz, &e^4>%^ majmii'ah, y^y 

To Compensate, <^«>^«> ^^ 'avaz 
d^dan, <:}«>^ t*«A^U^ mu'avazat 

Compensation, i>«e *avaz, W jaza, 
^Si? tal4f I, v>^->V^ padAsh, ^\ 

To Compete, (j*>/ o.^U»^ musa- 
bakat kardan, (:)*>^ ft^^V^^ mujd- 
hadah nimudan. 

Competition, a^ftV^^ mujahadah, 
Al}^ mukabalah. 

Compilation, c-aJ*^ ta,lif. 

To Compile {ahooh, &c,, from other 
writings), (jJ>/ UlJ^V* ta,li'f kar- 

To Complain, ^jo^ >a^\^ shik&yat 
burdan, ^^^^ji^yiJ^ shakva kardan. 

Complainant, vide Plaintipf. 

Complaint, ^ gilah, v/J^ nalish, 
AiU nalah, J,^ shakva, chiV^ 
shikajat, ^ tazallum, al^ji far- 
jad, v^^\j ziiri. — (malady) \^y* 
marz, (4;U«} bimarf, ole 411at, 
e>, ranj, ;M AzAr, ^j*> dard, oV^)* 
na-khwushi, e^* r^ takassur-i- 

Complaisance, ^^i^ mihrbani, 
ua»«> ta'attuf. 

Complaisant, ^f^ mutavazi*, 
{^j^ mihrbau. 

Complement, &««:* tatammah. 

Complete, J^VT kamil, j»^ tamm, 
j»Uy tamam. — (completely) vide 

To Complete, <;;•>/ ^W tamtim 
kardan, (;)«v»>^; (^W^W bi-anj^m 

Completely, 'UU? tamaman, J^ 

Completion, ^^♦js? tatammah, ^/^y*^ 
inkiraz, f*U;\ itmam, JU^ ikmal, 
J*«^ takmfl, (•U«.\ ikhtitam. 

Complexion, ^jy^ *^j rang-i-rui. 

Compliance, U; raza, v^ju-U; razA- 
mandi, J^i kabul, s^W:\ ij4b, 
«wW^ ijfbat, S^\ ittifak, ^W?1 
ittih4d, *j>JA\y» muvafakat. 

Complicated, ^-as^ muta'assir, 
J^-A-* mushkil, Jsafe^ mukhtall, 
ULsjfe^ mukhtalit, ^ j«> dar-ham. 

Complication, J^^ ishkal. 

Complicity, jw ittifak. 

Compliments, f>%^ salnm, A^ y Vea 
du'a u saUm, ^j^^ ^/- Khwush- 
4madf, sj«>\ adab, jpU? tamalluk, 
fi^ y ft^ cham va kham, ux^^t^^ ta- 
niyat, \;\*x^ mudAr4. 





To CoMPOSB (arrange), (^*>\j s-*^*;* 
tart lb dadaa, (^^^^^^ s-^^ murat- 
tab sakbtan, (*)«>^ f*U^\ intizani 
uimudan. — (a hookf <fec.) ^ t i- i - ^M 
(^*>/ tasnif kardan, ^^J>/ Ui^''\s 
ta,li£ kardan. [This latter term 
signifies to compile from other 
books.] — (to compose oneself ) 
(^/ f>\j\ aram girifian. 

Composed of, s-^/* murakkab. 

Composer, ^^ nazim. 

Composition (mixturey &c,)j 
ajzA, s-^/ tarkfb. — (of 
author) Ut ^ i^ tasni'f, 4-Ai-a^ 

CoMPOsiTOB (printer), w^y mu- 

Composure, c^^t>*^\ amni'yat, (jjVauX»\ 
itmiyUan, ,j^\)^ ariimi. 

Compounded, s-^/» murakkab, 
&sj^ sirishtah, <A>yL9e« makhlut. 

To Comprehend, vule To Under- 

Comprehending, vide Containing. 

Comprehensible, Jyi*^ ma'kul, 
»«5;J^ mudrak, t^\j^\ JjU kiibil-i- 

Comprehension, ^ fabm, oi^ i«> 
dar-yaft, Jflc *ak:l, ^yfc hiish, 
jyt khirad, «-^y firasat, **J;*> 
darak, »«J\;*>\ idrak. 

Comprehensive, J^U shamil. 

To Comprise, (^j/ aLU-\ ihatah 
kardan, (j^y J<«U shamil budan. 

Compromise, vide Agreement, 
Bargain, Conciliation, Pro- 

Compulsion, j^j zur, jft- jaur, ^j*>ti5 
ta'addi, ^ zulra, (^ji\ ibnim, 
j\j^\ iztirar, U«^ iktiza,^*i^ jabr, 
j9» kahr. — {by compulsiony for- 
cibly, unwiUingly) o^^*^ zdraki, 
'\jt^ jabran, "^^ kahran, 'VAi* 
'anfau, A&^\yB« na - khwastah, 
'y^\ istirdrdn, '^Z kirahan, 
;Wa&-^ ^ bf-ikhtijar. 

Computation, v>L-o. hi sab, ;Ua 

To Compute, {^^f s^L-o. hisab 
kardan, (^^y^ shimurdan, (^*Nt;^^^ 

Comrade, vide Companion. 
Concatenation, ,J-JLj tasalsul. 
Concave, *^y^^ mujavvaf, s^y^ 
ajvaf, J^khali, /JU muka**ar. 

To Conceal, (^jJ^^e* nihuftan, (j>M»^ 
pushi'dan, (^•>/ (jjWh panhan kar- 
dan, (^'^^ (^^ nihan kardan, 
^j^ V4i) ikhfa nimiidau, ^jM^ 
^j-sA-L. makhfi sakhtan, v4)^y^ 
(;^\«.> mutavari dashtau. 

Conceited, vide Proud, Vain. 

Conceivable, sy^^ mutasawir. — 
^ytS JjU kabil-i-tasavvur. 

To Conceive, t^**^ yaf tan, ^s-iVj »•> 
(;)•>/ dar-yaft kardan, o'^e^ ^ah- 
mi'dau. — (in th^ womb) ^ \j J—* 
ijj^jS naslra bar - giriftan, 4^^ 
^judi hamilah shudan. 

To Concentrate, (^*yj^\ ^y fara- 
ham avardan. 

Concentration, ^y faraham. 

Conception, vide Thought. — (in 
the womb) J->*» haml. 

Concern, vide Business, Care, 

To Concern, (^^y^ g*-^ raji* nimu- 
dan, {^^"^^^ (jW ta*a11uk dashtan, 
^^U ^*y dakhl dashtan, joaa^ 
0^^ mukhtass budan. 

Concerning, v»W jJ dar bab, ft;W j*> 
dar barah, ^^ \a^^^ nisbat bi, j^ 
az, vJM- J** dar hakk, <^^ ;*> dar 

Concert, t?i(ie Union. — (music) 
j\^"^ ^ jL. ^j> W* mihmani-i-saz va 

Concession, ^^f tarakhkhus. — 
(to make concessions) (^*>/ ^s^aSS 
guzasht kardan. 

Conch (shell), J^ buk. 

Conciliation, ^W^^ iltiyam, O^-^ 

Concise, ;'A;;ab^ mukhtasar, J^m*^ 
mujmal,^^ vajiz. 

To Conclude, vide To Finish, To 

Conclusion, vide End, Result. 

Concoction, vide Decoction. 

Concomitant, (^j^** mnkarin <3Aa*« 
muttafik, fy!^\ ittifaki. 

Concord, uiJU\^ muvafakat, jU^ 




WfAk, jWi ittihad, ^Vi^ yagii- 

CoxGOBDANCB, ub^Ua^ mutabakat. 
CoNcou&sE, vide Crowd. 
CoKGSBTE, J^W jamid. — {gramma- 

tical term) J^d^^ inukajyad. 

(Vide Plasteb.) 
Concubine, a«a« mut*ah, aJ^x* 

madkhulah, ^ &«^ khjissah-gf, 

jU-.^ parastdr. 
CoNCDPidCENCE, vide Lust. 
CoNcxTBBENCE, vide Consent. 
Concussion, vide Shock. 
To Condemn, {^^y^ f^ tahakkum 

nimudan, (^«>Tj ^f^ fatva dadan, 

{^^f^ f^^» mujram nimudaQ. 
Condensation ,jUsd.\ ikhti8ar,/*sai^ 

mukhtasar. — {yoater) JM^ taksif . 
To Condense, {^^f ^Us^\ ikhtisar 

kardan, (^^/ ytA^ mukhtasar 

kardan. — {water) (;)*^x^ *- A <JL < > 

taksif nimudan. 
Condescension, i*tf tavajjuh, 

g^y tavazu^ 
Condition {state), J^ hal, oiW 

haiat, gAj vaz'. — {stipulation), 

Ijd, shartj^y karar, W bina, j^^ 

Conditional {mood of a verb), 

^^ shartiy. 
Conditionally, ^/*-* mashrdt, 

O^ v!s^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ -V-^ A? bi-sharti- 

To Condole, (^^j^ cj;^**^>^ 'aza-dari 

Condolence, \'^ *aza, ^^^y^? ta'- 

zijat, ^j-;> ^'U matani-pursi, 

va>L.^^ muv^asat. 
To Condone, vide To Fobqive. 
Conduct {guidance), <^UaA; rah- 

uimai, <4;«Aj rah-bari, u>J1Ij dala- 

lat, ss>^\jJt hidajat. — {behaviour) 

^^vaz*, i^^ harakat, j\*>/ kir- 

dar, j^j raftar, j\^\ atvar, *«JyL- 

To Conduct, vide To Beab, To 

Conductob, vide Guide. — {of a 

band) ^J^^. f^ mih tar- bash i. 
Conduit, vide Aqueduct, Wateb- 

couBSB, Dbain. 

Cone {of fir, dc), ^ jj^ jauz-i- 
kalagh, ^ bar, ^ J^^f girdu,i'- 
i-kalAgh. — {conical body) ^yf^ 
makhrutah, ^j^ kalami. 

CONFECTIONEB, *>U5 kauDiid, v^*>U5 
kannadi, o^y» halva,!. 

CoNPECTiONEBY, of;^ shakari, 
^^ shirini. 


Plot, Pabtnebship, Society, 

To CoNFEB, o**^ */ V Diuzakarah 
nimudan, i^*^y^ L^\^ muka- 
lamah nimudan, (^'^y^ i^^\a^ 
mushavarah nimudan. {Vide To 

CoNFEBENCE, s^J^ muzakarah, 
&4.3l^ mukalamah, fi^^U^ musha- 

To Confess, vide To Acknow- 


CoNFESSioN,j\;i\ ikrdr, sJ\f^ i*tiraf , 
*xe^ tashahhud, (^\^^\ iz'an. 

Confidant {svhe,), ^yUt ham-raz, 
f»«uA ham-dam, ^^^^ mahram. — 
{adj,) {^SJii^ mutma,inn. 

To Confide in, ^^>^f ^<^ss^ i*tibar 
kardan, (^^^y*^ «>Use\ i*timad ni- 
mudan, (^'Afi jU£c\ i*tikdd bur- 
dan, (^JA ^\y vdsik shudan, J^y 
(jo^ tavakkul nimudan, ^U>\ 
^^sj^\^ imdn dashtan. 

Confidence, j^W bavar, *>vasc\ i*ti- 
kad, *>Uj»\ i*timad,jWJ»^ i*tibar, 
J^y tavakkul, oUa-i istinad, jy^ 
vusuk, (^U)\ iman, J^^\ umid. 

Confidential, <jj**^ makhf i. 

Confined, f^y>^^ mahbus. — 
{limited) *>;A^^ mahdiid. — {air) 
(j-t»- habs. — {to be confined, 
woman) ^^J^) zadan, (:)*^j za,idan, 
^jy jiU. g^^ ^*> dar vaz'-i-hami 

Confinement, vide Impbisonment, 

Confines {limits), •a^ hadd, «>;J^ 
hudud, Jb. *..• sar-hadd, ^^i^^ da- 
hanah, (^y karin, J^^ aksd, }y^ 
sughur, V^^ intiha,jj^ marz,jyu 

To Confibm, (a*^y^ vJNt*^^ tasdik 


Con] 64 

nimudan, (^*y/ c^^ sAbit kardan, 
^j^ ,JM&^^ muhakkak nimudaii. 
— (in an appointment) ^^f ;} 
(^0^ bar-kamri nimudan. 
Confirmation, *j^\^\ isbat, «y^ 
subut, ^W^^ inzibat, ^sHtys* tak- 
viyat, <3J«^ tasdik. 



To Confiscate, o**^^ 6j*>U»» musa- 
darah nimiidan, (;)^^ W-» zabt 
kardan, 0«>;^ uM kabz kardan. 

Confiscation, W^ zabt, J^ kabz, 
s ^ ^ ghasb. 

Conflagration, yj^.y^ barik, ^^^ 

Conflict, vide Battle. 

Confluent, J^y* mausul. 

To Conform, {^*>y^ «fc-a*\y« muva- 
fakat nimudan, (^•*a» **.^U» mu- 
taba'at shudan. 

Conformably, <3*^y» muTatik, ji 
ij^P bar vatk, ^JM» 7* bar tibk, 
iJjUb^ mutabik, j^V ^arakhwur, 
s-^'-^s^ bi-hasab, s-^^ munasib, 
j\jB )\ az karar. 

Conformity, %£^ji^\^ muvafakat, 
Jh^ tibk, <3*) vatk. — (i/i confor- 
mity with) sj^ji bar tibk. 

To Confound, i;)*^) ^ ;? bar-ham 
zadan, {^*^/ ^ j^ dar-ham kar- 
dan, (j'Sd.'^ \J»yi^ mushaTvash 
sAkhtan, (^J^^^J/ Jsae* mukhtall 

To Confront, 0*>/ j^;} ^ ru bi-ru 
kardan, (^•y^ ^^\y* muvajahah 

To Confuse, vide To Mix. 

Confused, &J3 ^^9 bar-ham zadah, 
laU^e* mukhtalit, J^^a^^ mukhtall, 
^ j^ dar-ham, c)^H parishAn, 
bHS^ pich-a-pich, jt* ^ ^ tar u 
miir. — (in mind) (^^ytfi^ hairan, 
Jityi^ mushavvash, iJM»^ ashuf- 
tah, a*.Li-j daat-pachah. — (to 
he confused) (^jJ^ Jv- khijil 
shudan, (^^J^ jo^^ mutahajjar 
shudan, ^«>^ (O^j^- hairan budan, 
^jufti «».V^j dast-pachah shudan, 
^jsJOt'Sji bar-dshuftan. 

Confusion, o*^^ parfshini, ^%»'\ 


ikhtilat, JU khalal, jSu^t ikhti- 
lal, ^^•A ^ bar-hami, jjtj^ tash- 
VI sh, ijhi ,jfl*^ hais-bais, e/* 6;* 
harj-raarj, ;U ^ %U tar u mar, 
jt) )^ kazh u VI zh (milg.). 

Confutation, f^ *>) radd-i-kabim. 

To Confute, tj*>4 j»y* mulzam kar- 
dan, (^*^x*^ f^ *^j radd-i-kalam 
nimudan, (^^^ t/*- j^^^ kardan. 

To Congeal, vide To Coagulate. 
To Freeze. 

To Congratulate, (^*>/ ^^eJ^ tah- 
nijat kardan, (^>y/ *^p* tabrik 
kardan. — (to congratulate oneself) 
^jU ws.^»m» tahnijat dadan, 
(^j^ j\ju^^\ istis'ad nimddan. 

Congratulation, <j>«^ tahnijat, 
»*>)/• muzhdah, ^5«.>W **JjW^ mub&- 

To Congregate, (;>•"* J*-*- jam* 

Congregation, c:^W jama'at, 
^^^ majnu)/, j^»*^ jamhdr, 
ia^2A4.v jam*iyat, (jj-^^^ anju- 

Congress, 6;^^ u-J^ majlis-i- 
muziikaran, ^j^/ kiingarah 

CoNGBuiTY, *j^^ mutabakat. 

Conic sections, ^&>V«I»j|^ae« makhru- 

Conjectural, ^5**^ vahmi, J^ 
khijali', ,^5-^ kiyasi'. 

To Conjecture, (a*^y^ ^^^ hada 
nimiidan, (^«>j^ ^^ fl »a t» takhmin 
kardan. (Vide To Imagine.) 

Conjecture, ^j-W* kijas, (^jUf gu- 
man, ^ zann, ^^ mazinnah, 
(;j*«^ takhmin, y<»J»- hads, fi3^JkJ\ 
audazah, ^^ vahm, J^ khij&l. 

Conjoined, J^y^ mutavassil, 
J-\^ mutavasil, ^y^s^m muttasil. 

Conjointly with, (^U^W bi-inzi- 

To Conjugate, q)^/ u^^* sarf kar- 

Conjugation (of a verb)^ *-*i/^ 

Conjunction (part of speech), 

UkSafi *atf. 

Conjunctive, ^JU^ vasli. 




CoHJTJNcmjEB, vide Oppobtttnitt. 

CoNJVBBB, A»>W j4dd-gar, 
musba'bid, 3W A*xt«ti shu'badah- 
b4z, jW ^J^ hukkah-bdz, f^^ 
B&hir» jW* sahh&r, fiy^\ af sdn- 

GoNJUBiNo, vide Magic, Chabm, 
Tbick, Fbat. 

To GoKHKCT, vide To Jonr. 

CJoKKEOTiBDLY, "Sux^ muttasilan, 
JUS^ J* 'ald-'l-ittis^L 

CoKKECTioN, J-oj vasl, Jtfl»\ ittisdl, 
J^«> dakhl, ct^i»-*<i nisbat, Ai!U 
*al&kah, J^^ paivand, uw«^ 
paiyast, jW^ ilhdk. — (camaQ 
te^l%^ mujama'ah, a^jVa^ mukd- 

To Connive at, (^^y^i ^jUt\ igh- 
mdz nimddan, ^^ ^^^ aA^ 
chaahm-pdshi kardan, (^^yT JaVci^ 
tajdhul kardan, (^*y/ v&>Ww« mu- 
hdbilt kardan. 

CONNOISSBVB, UU»\. Y&kif, U^Vfi 


To CoNQUEB, (;)*JS^ ^ fath kardan, 
^ j^ &fJi& ghalaoah kardan, <am*»5C<i 
0«M«> Bhikast d&dan, (^Vi /k 
zafar ydftan, ^*>\aS gush&dan, 
^^\i ^z»j^ nusrat y&ftan, jW 
^•xAi ffrdz shudan, 0^ ^\t 
ghdlib dmadan. — (to conquer a 
iubject) {^sh\i ub^j sr*iJ*« ^ bar 
matlab dast jaftan. 

CoNQUBBOB, jji^ f frdz, /ib0m muzaf- 
far, jyf^ mAnsur. 

CoNSANoxnNiTY, ,j-a^^ ham- 

Conscience, J*> dil, jt^^ zamfr, 
s4s kalb. 

Conscientious, <-a*;^ munsif. 

CoNscBiPTiON, i^\i/i nafar-ndmah; 

To CONSBCBATB, (a^\»i/ y*.i«^inU. 

kaddas garddnfdan, (^*^y^ (^Afl» 
takhdfs nimddan, o*^ \j^v^ 
takhsfs nimddan, ^^fi^ mu- 
nazzah kardan. 

CONSECBATION, v/HK*)^ takdf 8, {J^v^^ 

CONBEOI7TIVE, sj^f^ mutaydli, 
f\f^ mutaydtir, ot;«> ot P&^ ^^ 

Consensus of opinion, %si^^ \J\d\ 

Consent, ub>^ ijdzat, Uj razd, 
^jub«Uj razd-mandf, Uyu»\ istirzd, 
J^ kabdl, ^^W\ iidbatj jV»\ 
ittif dk, *j>^\f^ niuy£fakat> o^)^ 
khwushf , Afi^^ mutdya'ah. ( Vide 
Leaye.) — {witk one eoneent) 
'Uas^ muttafikan. 

To Consent, vide To Aobeb. 

Consequence (reevU)^ i^^ natf- 
jah, f»M anjdm, f\ asar, JV£« 
ma,dl. {Vide Impobtance.) 

CoNSEBYATOByj^*^^ nigdh-ddr. 

CoNSEBYATOBT, A»W^^ garm-kbd- 

To CoNsiDEB, (^J^e^Ji) andfshfdan, 
^j^AJbijj\ andishah kardan,/^ 
tj*>/ fikr kardan, m^ J-'V 
ta,ammul kardan, o^xi^ ghaur 
kardan. — {deem) (^•y v»^->*^* 
mahsdb kardan, (j^&^U ddnistan, 
^«yjei shimurdaji. 


CoNsiDEBATioN, vide Thought, 

To Consign, vide To Commit. 
To Consist, (a») (^^^ ^^^ bastah 

bddan (bi). 
Consistency, <3*y taydfuk, ia^\^ 

muydfakat, s^^^^Ja^ mundsabat. 
CoNsisTOBY, v/^J^ majlis. 
Consolation, vide Comfobt. 

To Consolidate, m^ ^ jakf 
kardan, (^*3j^ j\jsJ{ ustuydr kar- 
dan, (a*^x^ ^^s ,^^ mnstahkim 
nimddan, 0«m«> ^V5^^ , &i< istihkdm 

Consolidation, ^jjJA ^^ jakl 
sbudan, ^f^\ ustaydr, (^if^ tam- 
kfn, >*'«^ tasbft. 

Consonant, vide Letteb. 

CoNsoBT, vtde Wife, Husband. 

Conspicuous, vide Appabbnt, 

CoNSPiBAOY, j^^ yifdk, v>J^ 8^- 
zisb, 8jaU^ mu'dhadah, <^*^ft^ 

CoNspiBATOB, J^ee ^ ham*'ahd, 
i^ ^ ham-sbart. — (to c<m«pfr« 





againtt) {^s.^ ^s^^ ^ ham-^ahdf 

CONSTAKOT, i^^f^^ Ufltuvdri, ^f 

kaxdr, vft^«W muddvamat. 
CloHSTANT, jy jk bar-kardr, ^\ 
risikh, o^V^ sibit, ^f^\ ustu- 


CoKSTBLLATioN, f^ akhtar, tji 

burj, \(f\ ulv4. 
C0N8TBBNAT10K, vide AxASM. 

To be CONSTIPATBD, CJ»*A» (jM*^ 

munkabiz Bhudan. 
CoNBTiPATiOK, v/M kabs, ffj^ 

^J^f shikm - giriftag], ^a^yti 

CoNSTiTUBiTT, J/^ mufrad {pi, 

«A>Uyi^ mufraddt), jfiJ^ munfr. 
CoKBTiTUTiON {govemmerU)^ m.-^3U^ 

mamlakat, u^^Vij rijdsat, 

^j^J^Uy firmAn-guz&rf, ^^^ 

hukm-rdnf. — (0/ tAe 5o(2y) c\y» 

mizdj, «>W nih4d, i** » «i» tabf'at, 

iftJW jibillat, ubu^ tfnat, o^^ 


To CoNBTBucT, vids To Make, To 

CoirsuL, oV*^ ^^^H J«fj vakfl, j^W 

bdlj^z (eur.), J^/ kunsal 

CoNBULATE, sjjfL^f kfinsal-kari 

To CoNBULT, i^^y^ fijUA-.\ istisM- 
rah nimddan, (^^f uu^yb^ mash- 
▼arat kardan. 

CoNBULTATiON, sA>^yi^ mashvarat, 
ftj^lJU masbiYarah, ^^ shdrA, 
^tt'^^'O^ maslahat. — {medical 
term) ^\ ^yA^ mashYarat-i- 

To CoNsiTHB, (^ty^ kJ¥o sarf kardan, 
^j^ Uds talf lardan, (:?*>)/- 
khwurdan, ^«>/ Sj^ kharj kardan. 
{Vide To Bubk.) — {to he con- 
eumed) vide To be Ezpendbd, 
To be Akkihilatbd, To Wabtb. 

To CoHBUHMATE, {^siX^ ^j'AAa^ mun- 
kazf Bikhtan, (^*i/ fUs tamdm 
kardtti^ ^H^^) f*VW bi-anj&m 

rasanfdan. — {marriage) is*})^ 
(^^/ to&sf kardan. 

CoNBUMMATioN {marriage), ^y^^ 
'arusf. {Vide Complbtiok.) 

Consumption, *-i%-o aarf, *-*!» talf, 
{disease), J*« sill, uiW* suh&f . 

Cokbithptiyb, Jj^ masldl. 

Contagion, j«*^ ta,Bfr, /\ asar, 
«d^^\ is&bat, <AHtV* sur&jat. 

Contagious, ^)V- sari, ^5/"— • muB- 
rf. — {contagtoue diseases) {J^/*^ 
ii^\^ amrdz-i-s&rijah. 

To Contain, ^j^W^ gunj^nfdan, 
^j^ J.» & A » * mushtamil bddan, 
;^U ddsbtan, (^*>ji {j*'^^ muta- 
zammin bddan. — {to be contained 
in) fc)J4}%^ gunjfdan, (^^ji ej«XA^ 
mundarij bddan, ^«>^ J^U shA- 
mil budan. — {to contain oneself) 
^a^ k^ \jj|^ khwudrd zabt 

Containing, v^»-a 7 i*« mutazammin, 
Jt J' .' t .^* mushtamil. 

To Contbmn, vuie To Dbspibb. 

To Contemplate, vide To Look, 
To Think. 

Contemplation, &m^\ andfsbah, 
jyt ghaur, jytS tasaYYur, J^*^ 
ta,ammul, &^ mulAbazah, ^ 
fikr, *^ tafakkur, &<iV* niurd- 
kabah, ^^^ til&Yat. 

Contemplatiye, vide Thought- 

CoNTEMPOBABY, o^^^^ ham- 
zamdn, ^U^ mu'dsir, ^y karin. 

Contempt, iA.^U\ ih^at, \ys'^\ 
istihzd, vfi^X* mazammat, jo^^ 
tahkfr, ^J^j^ nikuhish. 

Contemptible, j\^ khwdr, JJ»i 
zalil, ^^•> ddn, jeB^ hakfr, aU- 
siflah, ^Uji^ furd-m&yah, f»y«<S^ 
mazmdm, J*)^^^«^ mubtazal, 
6J^^ nikdhfdah. 

Contented, ^V r4zf, ^^^ khwusb, 
«>^«^ khwush-ndd, Ai^y^ khor- 
sand, g>U kani*, ^yJks^*^ muB- 
taglmi, j«^ sfr, 8-y*^ asddah, 
^^ ^ ♦■ Vi >« mutma,inn. 

Contention, vide Stripe. 

Contentment, vide Satisfaction 




CoKTBNTB, (j4^ zimn, ^f^'^ maz- 

Contest, vide Battle. 
Context, &^y^ kaifnah. 
CoNTiauouB, ^)'«&• muttasil, *y^ 

nazd, ^S^ nazdik. 
Continence, Continent, vide 

Chastity, Chaste. 
Contingency (what may happen) , 

*^\*y dirk, &A;^ 'drizah, ^«i^^ rA- 

ki'ah, gSy* mauki^ 
Contingent, ^/*-* mashrdt. — (mi- 

litary) (^yAi kushun. 
Continual, vide Pespetual. 
Continually, vide Continuously. 
Continuance, ^W bAkf, f\y*y da- 

Continuation, ^jS^y^ paivastagi. 
To Continue, vide To Bemain, 

To Last. 
Continuity, o^**^ paivastagi. 

(Vide aUo Continuance.) 
Continuously, A^'3\ Jft 'ald-'l- 

ittisdl, jf\^\ Jft «ala.'t.tavatur, 

y\#s^ mutavatir, ^A*y6i paiyas- 

Contortion, ^ pich. 
CoNTBABANB goods, uu^^um* mam- 

CoNTBACT, vide Aobeement, Bab- 


— (grammatical) ^^f tarkhim. 

To Contbadict, (^^ w^^ takzfb 
kardan, (^^f f^ *^j radd-i-kal&m 
kardan, ^«y ^^ak^ ulU- khil&f-i- 
suklitiii kaordan, {^sjS aa ^ bar 
zidd gaftan. — (oneself) ^Jd^jS 
{^siS tsbuikaz guftan. 

Contbadiction, fAi *yj radd-i- 
kaldm, U^\^ takh&luf, ja\js ta- 
nakuz, JyK *yj4S tamarrud-i- 

Contbadictoby, o^Us^ mutand- 

COITTBABIETY, isH^J^ ziddfjat, 

u:h^\ ikktiUf . 

CoNTBABY, u^ khildf , «JkSW« mu- 

kh&lif, Jm» nakfz, J&SU* mund* 

kiz, tXA zidd, ^j-^ ^ bar 'aks, 

yUu mngbdjir, J|U« muk&bil. — 

(on the contrary) (j^^ «i bar 'aks, 
A^ balkih, uiU ^ bar kbilif, 
•XA ji bar zidd. 
CoNTBAST, cr^W* mukbdlafat, 
«tt>jU^ muz&ddat. 

CONTBAYENTION, <iftJkSW« mukhi- 


CONTBE-TBMPS, <^ ^ bf-Yakt, 
CONTBIBUTION, Ji» bazl, J^ fkit'^Jf 

taksim-i-pdl, &«». bissah, jU 
CoNTBiBUTOB, fiJuu^a u^U^ i*4nat- 
dihandah. (Fw2e Authob.) 

CONTBIVANGE, oWJ fjdd, yvT*' 

tajvfz, jV^\ ikbtirAS e^J^t ibdA*, 

A^y^^ mansdbah, JLe6«^ tamhfd. 
To CoNTBivB, ^*yi ^W:^ fjdd ni- 

mddan, (^*y/ ^y^ tajvfz kardan, 

O'^T^ i^f^^ ikhtird* nimddan, 

(:^«ab6&^ angfkhtan. 
CoNTBOL, ^ zabt, (4)^^«> divari, 

jtii'iS tadbfr. 
To CoNTBOL, (^^/Lt^ zabt kardan, 

^j^ v5j(;^«^ ddvarf nimddan, 

^j^ ^jj tadbfr nimddan, \y 

{^sjbt\j vd^ddshtan. 
CoNTBOLLEB, 1 >*^ T .> „ ..>« mustahfiz, 

y\^ sar-kdr. 


Contumacious, a»U^ mu'dnid. 
Contumacy, •jUc *indd. 

To be Contused, e'bi^ ^H P^^^ 

Contusion, ^ji part. 

CONUNDBXTM, ^ loghz, Jj^A^ mu^- 


CONYALESOENCE, VAIi shifd, u>^^« 


CONYALESCENT, y^ jU^ bfmdr- 
khfz, cW« sahdh. — (<o (e con- 
valescent) {^\i Uii shifd jdftan, 
^\l o,^« sihhat jdftan. 

Convenient, s-^U* mundsib, s-«^^ 
ansab, &ahiU shdjistah, v^\^ 
vdjib, \iy ravd, \y- sazd, jUy-. 
sazdvdr, v3^ ld,ik, oM^^ muy^k, 
(•jlft Idzim. 

Conyent (rdigious house, monae-^ 
tery), jiu dair, fiWW khdnkdh. 





ComrEKTioNAL, ^ •'* muBtalah. 

CONTERSATIOK, f^J^SguUugd, ^y^ 

J^V* ja-v^b 8U,A1, \A^\^ muka- 
lauiut , utybUi* mu'asharat, u^e^- 
subbat, jVi ^ J<^ ka u k&l. 

«^.,>Jl^* mujalasat. 
To CoNVEBBB, (^^/ tf ^^* subbat 

kardan, ^«>} «ji^ barf zadan, 

^a^ ^^^ nutkf Kardan. 
CoNVEBsioN, s^ kalb, ;«a; tagb- 

yfr, — (rdigioui) i***^ jW b4z- 

gasbt, J*^ badal. 
CoNVEBT (proselyie), ^^f upJ^ jW 

b&z - gasbt - kardab, &s&Vt ^j J*v 

badal-dar-j4ftab. — (contwt to 

Muhammc^fdm) •^•>4- jadfd. 
To GoNVEBT, vide To Change. — 

(reZt^riofM ierm) (^^ %a>>^ ^ b4z- 

^bt kardaiiy <2)'y^ J*^ badal 

CoHYEZ, v ^f** mukabbab, ^^ 

<4^ mibi-puBbt, v»«i^^^ mubad- 

CoNYBXiTT, v»*W tabaddub. 
To CoNYEY, 0«>j|^li dYardan, ^J^U) 

rasanfdan, ^ j/ Ji» nakl kardan. 
To CoNYicT, ^mL, f^ mulzam 

sakbtan, m^^ ^ij\ ilz4m kardan, 

O^Ji)^ ui>W^ isbat &Yardaii, ^^j^^ 

{^siX^ mujram aakbtau. 
GoNYicTED \of a crime) f f^ mul- 
zam, ff^ multazim, fy^^ muj- 

CoNYicTiON (of a crime), f>\^\ 

ilzam. (Vide Faith.) 

To GONYINCE, (^^^^Xt^jS^ JJUU.^ mUB- 

tadall garddnfdan, {^s*-^ f^ 

mulzam s&kbtan, ^j^UjT v>l%^ 

muj4b gard4nidaa. 
CoNYiNGBD {made sermble by proof )^ 

J.>&.^ mustadall, ft^ mulzam, 

v»^i«• mujab. 
CovYiYiAL, ^^i f^ bam-pijdlab. 
GoNYOcATiON, fW^ ijmi*. 
To CoNYOKE, (^*y/ ^y far4bam 

kardan, (^*i/ am^ mun'akid 

CoKYOT, tfj«i^ badrikah, «a^U^ 


To GoKYOT (nautictU ierm) «-A|^^ 

^*v«li bi-radif amadau. 
GoNYULBiON (spaem), ^>M taBbau- 

GooK,^^ dflb-paz, t^ tabb4kb. 
To GooK, {^sie; pukbtan, (^*y/ ^ 

tabkb kardaji. 
GooKEBY, ^ tabkb. 
GooKSHOP, ^Ua^ aab-kbanab. 
GooL, «<Xj;^ kbunuk, •>;-« aard, ft*)^^ 

To GooL, (^*y/ ««^ kbunuk kardan, 

^j^ «y« sard kardan. — (oneeelf) 

^^s^L, b^\s tazab adkbtan. 
Goop {for fowls), s^ kafsw, uM 

GooT ((ZocA diver, water-fowl), ^^\jt 

GoPABTNEBBHiP, <j;jW^^ amb&zi, 

uh^li^ muab&rakat, o^yti sbird- 

kat. — {in profUa of stock and 

labour) ^iU« muzirabat. 
Coping, ^ labab. 
GopiouB, vide Plbnteoub. 
GOPPBB, {j^ mis, ^W^ nabas, jA« 

sifr. — (6oiZ«r) vide Gatjldbon, 

Kbttle. — {odj.) {^if^ miBfn. 

COPPEBAB, e^j zaj, Wy tutija. 




mis-gar, jU« 

To Copulate, (^«>/ £W jima' kar- 
dan, (^*^f^ ka>^\^ mubasbarat 
nimddan, ^«>^£U2%>^ ijtima* kar- 
dan, i^y^ paiYastan, (^«>^gadan, 
^oeiVf g4,idan, (^•xai ^^^ jam' 
sbudan, (^«>j^ fc*.J^VA^ muzaja*at 
kardan, <^«y u-^t^^^** mujama'at 
kardan. — {ae animals) (^*i/ ^J^ 
juftf kardan. 

Copulation, fc*»l^lA* muzdja'at,^l^i«« mujima'at, £W jimi'. 
— {animals) ^J^ jufti. 

Copulatiye, ^^ Yaslf. 

Copt, Ja» nakl, &ato«<i nuBkbab. — 
{rough copy) j\^ saYdd, i^iy^^ 
musaYYadab. — {fair copy) &ak«^ 
u\^ nuskbab-i-saf . — {exercise to 
ccpyfrom) JM^ masbk. 

To Copt {imitaie), o*^/ ^^ taklfd 
kardan, ^Oj^ J» nald kardan. — 
{a writing^ do.) {j»^^ ^}\ az ru 




niyishtan, {jsaU y ji& nakl bar- 
dashtan, ^•>/ &4k«-i nuskhah kar- 

Copt-book, a^U ^j^.^ mashk- 

CoQUBTBT, jU naz, &^ shivah, 
lytA ^shvah. 

CoQUBTTE, jWAXe 'ishk-baz, jW ft^ 
shfyah-baz, ^Si^yt^e 'ishvah-gar. 

To Co<)UBTTB, (:)«>/ Mtic 'ishvah 
kardan, ^•J^/ fiy«>^ gnamzah kar- 

CoBAL, oWx» murjan, a^ busadd, 
— (childlB coral) ^^ lu'bah. 
^jV| bazicbah. 

CoBD, (;)UHt; risman, (j^; rasan. 
(Fide BoPB, Stbino.) — {silk 
cord) (^^ kaitan. — {maker of 
silk cord) tUi Ai!U <al&kah-band, 
v»^ ty^ charkh-t4b. — {vmbilxcal 
cord) ^%<aA. kbasm, ^j^ surrah. 


CoBDiALLY, "Vs kalban. 

COBDXTBOT, fi pattu. 

Cobb, v^ lubb. 

COBIANDEBy^^JU^ gfslmfz, ^jl^ kuz- 

CoBK (etojpptr)^ AA^ ^ sar-i- 
Bhfshah, ^J^. bujli. 

COBKSCBBW, M»i pfch, U^ d«A«Ai 


CoBMOBANT, A^\ akiil. — (6ird), 
^^\ isfurua, tPU^ ghayvas. 

CoBN {grain)^ ^ gnallah, j«34 bazr. 
— (eorti'Chandler) sJ^ 'allaf , aJ* 
^^^ ghallah-furush. — (bruised 
com) )p>k ^ gballah-Ubulghdr, 
y^ palk4 (vulg.). — (parched 
com) As«^ Al& ghidlah-i-bursbtah. 
— (ground com) vide Mbal, 
Floub. — (on the foot) A*ei p(nah, 
aj^ pinah, *j*a> ■ saldit (o6«.)* — 
(corn-flower) ^^ y JJ' gul-i-dug- 

CoBNBLiAN, JMB 'akik. 

CoBNBB, ^ kunj, A^^ gdshah, 
Ai^^j zavijah, A)yke| paighdlah, 
\JS kash. 

CoBKiOE, u«*^yt^ mukamas, e^i;*^^ 

COBOKATIOKy ;;«jU- jlllilfl. 

CoBONBB, uiU^ kashshaf . 
CoRPOBATiON, v/^J^ majlis, uiU««) 

asnaf (im6c2 only in plural), 
CoBPOBBAL, ^ <*'%>• mujassam. 
CoBPS d'abm6e, ^^ kushdn, j^'i^ 

CoBPs Lbgxslatif, s^)^ u**W^ 

GoBPSB, vide Body, Cabcass. 

COBPULBNCU, (ty^^ jusdm, f ^ q 

jasfm, ^y farbih{, j^oi kutdr. 
CoBPULBNT, A»y f arbih, j^aS katdr, 

»jUi kumatnib, eW. bajb^j. 
CoBBECT, sA^^ durust, ub^\j rast, 

^t^^ sahm, J^^ kamil, (^^^j:^ 

matfn, U^ ^ bi-ghalat. 
To CoBBBCT, (^^/ c:««^ tas-hfh 

kardan, (^Sf ^^ taslfh kardan. 

— (reprove) cj»>^ v»^«^ *azab ni- 

mddan, c)«>^ s-st«>'^ ta,d{b nimd- 

CoBBBCTiON, x^\ islah, 

tas-bfh. (Vide Ebbuke.) 

COBBEBPONDBNCE, m^'^H^^^ muk&- 

tabat, sa^\y murdsalat. 
COBBBSPONDBKT, )j^^ muhamr, 

ij^^ ^^ akhbar-niyis. 
CoBBEBPOKDiNO to, J^^ mutabik. 
CoBBiDOB, {^1\^ dilan. 

To COBBOBOBATE, 0*V^ ^^ tdkfd 

nimddan, ^«>U uHty^ takriyat 

CoBBOBOBATiNO (confirming or 

strengthening) J ^Nt^* mUjayjid, 

,4j** mokayyi, ^jj^s*^ mu'ayjau. 
CoBBOBOBATiOK, f«l5s^^u.\ istihkatn, 

cHty^ takrijat, u&>^ subdt, v&>Wj\ 

CoBBUPT, Ju«U fasid, «W^ tabah, 

J^io^ mukhtall, v*^/- kharab. — 

(|)er«on) j,j*!yi; rishyat-khwur. 
To CoBBUPT, (^*>y^ *y^^\ ifs&d ni- 

mddan, (^*y/ v*V- kbar&b kar- 
CoBBUPTBD (language), aoAi d^y. 

kharabah-Bhadab . 
CoBBUPTiBLE, j2*3^ Vjj fana-pazfr. 
CoBBUFTioN, jUJ fas^d, *y^^\ 

ifsdd, <jft\^ tabdhf, i»^jAft 'ufd- 

CoBT^OE, s^^ maukib. 




CosMoaBAPHT, ^Ui ^Ve^ jahin- 

Cost, u^^ masraf, tj^ kharj, u>4«s 

To Cost, {^j^\^ <^^^ kaimat d^h- 

tan, (^^i)^ arzfdan. 
Costive, ^/M^ munkabiz. 
C08TIVBKE88, {J>^\ inkibizy J^ 

Costly, vi'cie Deab, Pbscious. 
Costs (law term), t)^^^ makh4rij. 
CoBTUMB, vide Clothbs. — (in the 

eoetwne of) ^^y ««> dar zf. 
CoTTAQB, 4^ kulbah, ^^ sipanj. 

(Vide Hot.) 
Cotton, &tJ^ pambah, (^ kutn. — 

(plant) Af^H «J>^j«> dirakht-i- 

pambah, y^ u^j«> dirakht-i- 
kitu (tmlg,), — (pod of cotton) 
i}jt gbuzah, j}f^ jauzak, ftjy^ 
kuiuzah. — (cleaned cotton) ^ 
chillah, *U. chullab. — (dreeier) 
sj\^ naddaf, t^ hallaj, (^y i^ 
pambah-zan. — (thread) ^^ ^^ 
rishtah-i-pambah. — (calico) ub«^ 
chft, jV^.*!* kalam-kar. — (coarse 
stuff) y-W/ karb^, jsis taftf.— 
(cotton plantaiion)j\} '^ pambah* 
zdr, j^j jf)y». jauzak-zdr, ^ o^;^* 
8ahr4,i-i*kit<i (im2t/.). — (cotton 
cloth) ^4-H ^j^ parchah-i-pam- 
bah. — (strong cotton stuff for 
eoais, Ac) «i)ji kadak. — (white 
stuff for shirting) ^j^j^ chilv^ri. 

Cough, «>W« mih&d, jij* sarir, «id> 
palang (hind.)» 

CouoH, J^ 8u'41, ^^ tiurfah. 

To Cough, e*^^ Khafidau, Ai^ 
^«>/ surfab kardan, ^^/ JU«» 
su'al kardan, (^*y/ cr^^^ tanah- 
nuh kardan. 

Council, v/^J^ majlis, jW;«> darbar, 
^^^«> dfyan, jAi^^ mahfil, ^^ 
shdrd. — (general council) f\^yij*y 
darb&r-i-*4mm, f^ (^^^«> dfy4n-i* 
'^m. — (privy council) ^^^ oV'* 
dfy^n - i - khAss. — (member of 
council) (:j^^»> J*^ ahl-i-divAn. — 
(room) (2)4^ s3^\ ut4k-i-mshi- 
man, &»^ (^\^*y dfvAn-khAnah. 

CouNciLLOBy ride Mikibtbb. — 

(privy councillor) ^^•J J*\ ahl-i- 

Counsel, vide Advice. — (to take 

counsel) ^«>^ jci^ tadbfr nimd- 

CouNSELLOB (of State), jt)f vazir, 

jti^*y dabfr, ^J^ mudabbir, y»*^ 

mushfr, ^y^^ dastar. (Vide 


Count, ws^ kant (eur,). 

To Count, (^*ij*J^ shimuidan, v*U^ 

(^*y^ hisdb kardan, O'^r*^ ^^*^ 

ti'aad nimiidan. 
Countenance, vide Face. 
CouNTEB (6oar(i), &*** takhtah. 
To Cou)fTEBACT, (^J/ Ai»V«^ mukd- 

balab kardan. 
CouNTBBACTioN, Al|^ mukabalah. 


ja*lf, ,jij:*.U sdkbtagf. — (cot«) 
s-J^ kaib, ^)U kullabi, v>yAA^ 

COUNTEBFEITEB, *y*^ kallab. 
COUNTSB-JUMPEB, ^V^«> ^}^\ ahl-i- 


To COUNTBBMAND, 0^/ f^ ^ 

naskh-i-hukm kard^, f\ «-^^ 
(a*y/ khildf-i-amr kardan. 

COUNTEBPANE, U\^ lih&f, J^) 


CouNTBBPABT, ^y^ nimunah. 

CouNTEBPOiSE (equivalent weight), 
^^t--« musavf, **j^y* muvAza- 

C0UNTBB-8CABP, j^jt^ div4r. 

CouNTEB*TENOB, ^ bam. 

Countess, ^\^ k^Lnam. 

CouNTiNa*HousE, &»U. j^^tj daftar* 

Countless, jUju«i bf-shimar. 

CouNTBT (region), <«U^ mulk, c^iS^ 
valdjat, j^ kishvar, aW. kbut- 
tah, •>!» balad, S^ bilad, jV|«» 
dij4r, ^^ iklim, ^\ ulkah, uvj^ 
ydrt, fi^)}}^ marz u biim. — 
(not town) »«V*«> dihdt, i^\>\ 

COUNTBTMAN, tj^^ rtjStk,i. — 

(fellow countryman) ^yi^ ^ 
bam-vatanf, ^^a^A^^i^ ham-shahrf. 

COUNTBT-BBAT, ^P^ 7&,iUlk. 




Coup d'cbuil, ju^ manzar. 

Couple, V?. J dd-tA. (Vide Fair.) 

Couples (jar hounds), ^j^^ miraus, 
^ji^y mir4s, ^j^y* maras. 

CoxTPLBT (verae), ifi^ bait (pL 
uuW^ abjdt). 

Coupling, ^ band. 

Cou&AOX, o^^'V* znard&nagf, ^j^^ 
dilfrf, (4)^)^ diUvari, ^a^^^ him- 
mat, ««> \y¥ jar,at, u&' xV ^^ shu- 
jd'at, ^A>j^ ghairat, «x>)U^ jasd- 
rat, is^W^ ahah^mat, wa» < .» ft ha- 
mfyat, cfc*fr»<« r 'asabfyat. 

C0UBA.OBOU8, vuie Bold. 

Courier (footman) y *x«Vi kdsid, 
ji^ shitir, •i^ paik. — (moun^ec2) 
;V^W ch&pdr, ^^ chapar. 

Course ('progress^ custom), j'^j 
rafUr, ^j; rayish, sa>jf* sfrat, 
A*;j vajh, ^j rasm. — (0/ a rivet) 
\]^» majra. — (of instmciion) 
^jj Ks^^y siirat-i-dars. — (in the 
course of) {^ j«> dar bain, «*-*;i j.> 
dar zarf . 

Courser, v^jV? tazi. 

Courses, vide Menses. 

Court, «V5^a darg&h, fi^^ bargah, 
;Wj«> darb^r, ^Ufc:^^«> daulat- 
khanah, />» kasr, &<^ 'atabah, 
^U«^ Asit&n, A*^ suddah, (^W\ 
aiyan. — (of justice) ^>*>^^t*» man- 
kamah, g/^ ^^ kh^nah-i-shar*. 
— (criminal court) A«-j%- ^■♦^^^ 
mahkamah - i - jarmijah. — (of 
audience) Ai\a^\jt*^ div&n-khanah, 
jWj»> darbar, f>^ e^^i* divin-i- 
'4mm. — (yard) ^j^*?* sahn, t^ 
haj^t, o^^U. sahat, ft;«$W hazirah. 
— (attendants of a prince) f^J^ 
f*«M. • hashm va khadam, (^Uj^ 
malaziman, ffl^y tavabi'. — (to 
hold a court) {^ " i- ^ ' ^ ^^ salam 

Courteous (polite), jh^ khalfk, 
v>j*^ mu,addab, j\j^\ v^«^ 
khwush-atyar, j^^ v^«a. khwush- 

Courtesan, &^u.U fAhishah, ^^tw^ 
kahbah, <^VW j&fjaf, iy^i £4- 
jirah, J^ mi, ^ kashU Jj^ 
kiwU (t^.)> '^''^ jindah (vulg,). 

Courtesy, cb>\j\j^ muddrit. 

Courtier, fto^«> j*OU mul4zim-i« 
dargah, m^ nadim. 

Cousin, «»>\j ^ *ammd zadah, /*-*> 
^ dukhtar - i - 'ammu, ^ (2^\ 
ibn-i-'ammu, «a^j yu kh41u- 
z4dah, Aayu. kh41-zadah, ^ js^*y 
dukhtar-i-'amm, ^ (^^ ibn-i- 
'amm, ^^\) ^ 'amm-z4dah. 

Covenant, *xoe <ahd, «J^ 'uhdah, 
O^ paim4n, )\yM kardr, a\«>j\^ 
kar4r-ddd, ^ shart. 

Coyer, v/^^ pushish, v>H pdsh, 
v>^ ^ sar-pdsh, ^^i pushah. — 
(envelope) u!^ ghil4f , &h\ii HU,^ 
fah. — (of a booh) ^y kau,iiuk, 
f}^ kaulugh. — (hoards) J*^ mu- 

To Coyer, ^j^s^^ pdshidan, 
(jjjk^U^ pdshdnfdan. 

Coyerlet, <^V^ lihaf, Jitj raza,i. 

Coyert (suhs.), 6^ takjah. — 
(adj.) i^tS*^ pdshidah. 

To CoYBT, (:)•>;» jj;T 4rzd burdan, 
O"^})) S^ tama' varzfdan, jV^m.L 
0*yji tama'-k4r bddan. 

Covetous, g^^ t4miS j^^iui tama'- 
k4r, '^>J^)})\ 4rzd-mand, v/atj^-harfs, 
#^ la,fm, ^U d4niS ^^ 

Coyetousness, vide Avarice. 

Covet (of birds), aJIT galah, Jts*- 

Cow, jS gAv, «*>U ^^ g4v-i.m4dah, 
6/i bakarah. 

Coward, *>y* ^ nd-mard, J«> ^ buz- 
dfl, oW jabbdn, Jj^ bi-dii, Ja«^ 
kam-dil, ^/ tarsd (t^«2<7.). 

Cowardice, (^«y« U n4-mardi, 
^^•kei bf-dilf, {^t^ jubn. 

Cowardly, Ja aj bad-dil ; iyfcj ^ 

CowDUNO, {^x^ sargfn. — (dried for 
fuel), ^^ p4cbak, A3y tapALah, 
jV5)U. sdz-g4r. 

Cowherd, (^\y^ ^VTgdv-chardn. 

Cow-aousB, y^jW j4,f-i-gav. 

Cowl (chimney), y^ *>W bad-gfr, 
(Js^ •V> ddd-kash. — (head-piece) 
Js^i^ kuUh-i-kashfsh. 

Coxcomb (fop), «fl^UAS kashang. 




{^'^j^ khwud-bfn, u^%^\ ijl4f, 
• J^j^ khwusli-gil. 
Crab, «fi5CA^ j^ khar-chang, «25Ca*. s\^ 
kallah-chang,«^^^panj p4jak, 
JV/ karanj41, jV^ kftlanjdr, 
^^^ Barat&n. 
Oback (flatei), *^\Sj^ ahikif, (JM* 
shakk, «<)W chAk, f*;i¥> jarm, «<)/ 
tarak, ^ md, u«> darz. 
To Crack, ^i^ySjb^ shikaftan, (JM* 
^•^ shakk shadan, o*^/ tardkf- 
dan, ^•^ «iS^ chAk shudan, y« 
{^\*i mA dishtati. — (^ joinU, 
by pulling the limbs) (») T .,. < <ii Ue^ 
a'zA shikastan. — (<m <^ ^ound 
/rom ^A« heat of the $un, or to 
become chapped as the 8kin),(^Aa''JS 
tafsfdan. — (a nut) {^suSjb, ski- 
kastan. — (as a whip, Jtc.) d^\f 
(^*y/ tardk kardan. 
Cracked, j^^y* mu-dar, aaai ^ 
shakk-ahudah, f^J^f tarkfdah. — 
(to be cracked or light witted) 
^^U £Uo k^ khabt-i-dim^gh 
Cracker (firework), &i;l tarak- 

To Crackle, (^^/ ^*x« sadA kardan. 
Cradle, Sj^^ gahv^rah, j^ mahd. 
Craft, vide Art, Artifice. 
Craftt,j^^ makk^,j^ Al^^^bflah- 
var, jW i^ hflah-bae, «<)^ ^ nd- 
Craqot (uneven, as a hill-top, Sc) 

A»\jjj danddnab. 
To Cram, (^^^^^V^ ampdsbtan, e*^ 
4kaadau, (^^^ tapanidan, 
^j^V^ cbapdnfdan. 
Cramp, ^r^ picbiab, ^a-i? tasban- 
nuj. — (we were cramped), «fiCk» W 
•>^ jd tang bdd. 
Crane (bird), *a^^ kulang. — (for 
raising weights) <3 fri »^ manja- 
Cranny, JU. kbalal, -^aa^ manfaz, 

e/ farj, gA^ kunj. 
Crape, ftW di^jl^ p&rcbab-i-sij&b. 
Cravat, ja«i j^ gardan-band. 
To Crave, vide To Bbo, To Han- 


Cbavbn (cowardly), «>/• ^ nd^mard. 


Jk)» bf-dil, y«/ tarsd, J*u^ kam- 

Cbaviko, ^^sa\ iabtibd, ^^ drzd, 

JUA^j^ kbwdbisb. 
Cbawfibh, vide Cbab. 
To Crawl (reptiles), ^Ay^ kbazi- 

dan. — (men) ^ai)^ gbazbfdan. 
Crayon, f^ kalam. 
Cream, j«a» >^ sar-i-sbfr. — (thick- 
ened or clouted) jU^ kaimik, 
A|j^ cbarbab. — (the best part of 
anything) ^^ sulaUkb, a«2U. 
kbuldsab, A*^j zubdab. 
Crbasb, ^ id, {^t^ cbfn. 
To Cbbabe, ^«W \s td nimudan, 

^o^ Q^«^ cbm nimddan. 
To Cbeatb, o*V^ dfirfdan, o«»/ jU 
kbalk kardan, ^a/ ^J^ paidd 
Cbbation, {^y^ takvfn, cr^y^ 
dfirfnisb, oJlU. kbilkat. — (lord 
of creation) u:»uyUto^ ^jik\ asbraf- 
Crbatob, oPW kbdlik, vA^ kbalUk, 
ftjuu^y^ dfirfnandab, j^/Y dfirfda- 
gdr, g»t» sdniS ^^ mukawin. — 
(Creator of the world) (jijk'S ^\f%. 
jaban-dfirfn, ui>Vi^UuJ\ ^jpU. kbd- 
Cbbatubb, i3^U^ makbluk, &iyUfe<« 
makbldkab, A«^ kbalfkab, s»^j^ 
kd,inat, ft^iy^ dfiridab, *^y^y» 
maujdd, ^ji barfjab. — (living 
creatures), ^A^Vek. ^J ^Vlwi^j^ 
jumbandagdn-i-z f-bajdt. 
Cbedbntials, &^\i iW^^ ikbtijdr- 
ndmab, a^U «>u»^ i'timdd- 
Cbediblb, «>UueS\ s-^U vdjibu-'l- 

i'tikdd, ,Wj»^ JiU kdbU-i-i'tibdr. 
Credit, vide Dignity, Trust, 

Faith. — (money) *&-* nis,ab. 
Creditable, ^i^m^ mu'tabar. 
Creditor, jVS^fJl talab-kdr, a\^ ^/^ 
karz-kbwdb, (^W muddjin, 
j^ ^U-^ bisitdn-kdr (vulg,). 
Creed, vide Belioion. 
Creek (small bay), VijO ^ kunj.i. 
darjd. — (back - water) 
To Creep, vide To Crawl. 





Obeepeb ( plant) f ^ buuah, tcW 

bunak, J^ ^y butah-i-lams. 
C&BPUSCLE (red gleam before sun" 

rise and after aunaet), ^y^ sha- 

fak (pi j\iA\ asbf&k). 
Cbescent (half-moon), J)U hiUl, 

y fiU mab-i-nau. 
Cresses, *^y^ f tar-tfzak. 
Cbest, »jy«i zinrab. — (heraldic) (^Uj 

Cbested (hird)t)\^ c^ t&j-d4r. 
Cbeyice, vide Cbakxt. 
Cbew, tnie Cbowd. — (of ship) aU* 

Cbicket (insect), ^^ cbargbad, 

<<)j)^ kbazuk, «dJU^ susk. 
Cbieb, ,^ )W jar-cbf, i^^U^ mu- 

nAdf. — (to prayers) o^^V niu>*z- 


Cbime, ft^ gunab, &J(5' gimab, y6^ 
taksfr, jy^ kusdr, ^y^^ jarimab, 
f>fi^ jurm, vs^W jandyat, VL*. 
khatd, ^ ism, s-^3 zamb, s-^«e 

Cbiminal, j^ »U5' gun4b-kar, ^V^Ub*. 
kbat4-kar, s-^Ju* muznib, ^^ 
asfm, ti^xA^ mufsid, <>«^ fdsik, 

4*-j; rd-srvab. (Vide Ctjlpbit.) 
Cbimson, 4jA laki, tjJVi k4nf, v5yV 

CRIPPLE, J*i sbal. — (crippled by 

mmming) j)^ cbuldk, ta£« sakat. 
To Cbipple, (^^/ c Aj * ^ za'ff kar- 

Cbisis, ^(^/i^ ma'rakab, &«VCjk ban- 

g&mab. — (0/ a disease), f^\f=', 
Cbitic, {^^ &^ nuktab-cbfn, J^.> 

^Ufti dakikab-sbin^s. 
Criticism, ^^j^fr- &^ nuktab-cbfni. 
To Cbiticize, (^^f ,JJ^s*• Aa^ nuk- 

tab-cbfni kardan. 
Crocodile, «sC# nabang, c^^*^ 

Crocus, (;)V^j za'farAn. 
Crone, vide Hao. 
Crooked, yft^ kbam, 8*^>4^ kbamf- 

dab, ^ kaj, ^ kazb, <^5^:<«^ mun- 

banf, ^f^ mu*ayvaj,' tf^ a'vaj, 

JJU mA,il, j«r gauzb (imZ^f.), J^ 

cbaul (vulg.), ^^cbaulab (wilg,). 

Crookedness, t^ 'avaj, ^j^ 

Ceop (of a field), J^-«^^ mabsul, 
J-U. bdsil, (jJ^^»>*> paidayisb, oU*. 
bas&d. — (of a bird), aU^ bausa- 
lab, (^b ^u^ cbmab-dan. — 
(reaped crop) fiJ^jj^j J^-"^^ mab- 
sdl-i-darvidab. — (standing crop) 
bJopj\i J^-*^^ mabsul-i-nd-darvf- 
dab. — (crop sovm and grown vp) 
va.*A^ kisbt. — (estimate of growing 
crop) J«^ •*4«*3^ bazdfd-i-bdsil. 

Cboss, V^«W chalipd, s ^ salfb. 
(Vide Anoby.) 

To Cboss, (^^^4 )y^ *ubur kardan, 

O^'^^t^S) y ^^ ^^^ guzasbtan. 

Cbousway (place where four roads 
meet), ^\y ^ ^Ui^«> dabanab-i- 
cbab4r-rdb, ^ jU cbar-sd. 

Cbotjp (complaint in children), 
<«X«.ji^ kburdsak. 

Cbow, gK kalagb. — (grev -throated 
crow, like a jackdaw) ^) zAgb. — 
(iron lever) fJi*y dilum, f]^\ 
abrum. — (of a cock) (j*j/- *»^W 

To Cbow, (^jj <iS5C>V} bAng zadan. 

Cbowd, va^W jama'at, Q'^ jamS 
6y^\ ambiib, i^\S^ bang^inab, 
hj^ gurub, M^ gbalabab, *%• 
J^^bIsl, , yj»f biisb, ^Ujj^ izdibdm, 
^^V^ hajum. — (in crowds) f^^Jj^ 
bi - izdibam, ^^f ^yj^ gurub 

Cbowded (filled full), ji pur, JWr^ 
janj^l (vulg,). — (thick, close) 
J*s^ muttasil. — (suffocating), 
m. kbafab. 

Cbown, e^ tAj, ^\ afsar, JJi^\ 
iklil, J^j^\ aurand. — (a/ <Ae head) 
jy fark, A«»«^ ndsiyab. 

To Cbown, q)^/ ^j^^ c^ t4j-guzAri 

Cbowned,^^ bi-afsar, jW g\? t4j- 

Cbucible, iSji bdtab. 

Cbucipix, vide Cboss. 

Cbucifixion, (;)•>) s-**W bi-salib 

To Crucify, {^ys^^ *^^ maslub 
sAkbtan, (j^^ s-^^-"* ta8l'J» nimu- 





dan, ^^t^i s-^ salb nimudan, 

^^ji s ^ salib kardan. 
Cbudb, jV^j^V* nd-banjAr, fi^ kbam. 
CsuBL, ^ W jaf4-k&r, ^;«» bf. 

rubm, is^jJ durusbt, J*i^^^ 

sang-dil, ^^ z&lim, ^j^yy^ bf- 

murdvat, ^W jabb&r, jV5Uju 

Cbueltt, ^ zulm, f^f^ sitam, 

^J^SJ^ sang-dilf, la^ y u kbushd- 

Cbxtbt, 8)^ kuzab. 
Cbuhb, ftyij rfzab, sa^ kburdab, 

^\ji kurizab. — {soft part of 

bread) ^e-*^ kbamfr. 
Cbtjmpet, JjjjLi fatr4. 
To Gbumple, (^•^Z \^ {^t^ y ^ 

picb ra cbfn paid4 kar<&ii. 
Cbuppbb (of a saddle), {^) '431^ j 

dumbalab-i-zin, (^yuLi kusbkun. 

CbUSADEB, ^Jt^ SlSlbf, «*«*;i S-^ 


Cbtjsb, 8jZ kuzab. 

To Cbush, eH^V«« jj^ kbwurd s&kb- 
tan, (2>^Vm f*y narm sakbtan, 
(2^ jyU fisburdan, (^'>/ (J^ pakbsb 
kardan, o*^^ i3^*« sabk nimd- 
dan. — (to heat soft) ^^y/ *3 lib 
kardan. — (to crush against, a 
toallf Ac.) (^J^W**-*. cbasbdnidan. 

Cbubhed, 43 lib, *>jj*. kbwurd, yft^ 

Cbust, fA^f^ pdst. 

Cby (shout or exclamation), i253^ 
b4ng, fyt gbarfv, »;«* na*rab, 
^W farydd, j^^^ 4vdz. — (of joy) 
Jskill,y^ bau, oliiWi^ bababak, 

To Cby (aloud), (^*y\ *f5&l» bing 
zadan, (^J^ 4>Uii sbam4tab kar- 
dan, (^«>U )\y\ kviz d4dan, 6^^ 
(^*>3 surakb zadan, (^^y/ \tyt gbau- 
gb4 kardan, (^.>) &^t^ saibab 
zadan, (^*y)^\ y s^ na'rab bar 
4yardan, (^^^j^} y ^V^y f arj4d bar 
Avardan. — (proclaim) (^«v^ jW 
j4r kasbidan, (^•>;^ \^ nid4 kar- 
dan, (^jUj\^\ isbtibar d4dan. 
— (weep) (jjAHt;^ giristan, 44^ 
0jj^ girjab kardan. 

Cbtpt, y^ gb4r, 8)U#« mugbirab. 

Cbtstal, iJ» buldr. — («ifia22 erystaU 

li»ed body) ^ kalam. 
To CBYSTAiiLizE, (^^/ fH kalam 

CBYBTAiiLizED, •u.^»ju« munjamld. 
Cub, 4^. bacbab. 
Cube, s-^ ka*b. 
CuBBBS, 4|\^ kabdbab, ^y^^ ^^ 

Cubic, s-^*^ muka^'ab, ^J^ ka'bf. 
Cubit, gji zara*, £\>3 zir4', t^ araj, 

ift^o dast. 
Cuckold, (^W^ kaltab4n, «^y«> 

dajyus, jU.^y» karmsdk, •^y^i qj 

zan-bi-muzd, ^j ft«> u«^ kua-dib- 

Cuckoo, ^f kdkd. 
Cucumbbb, jV«^ kbijdr, aCi)W b4- 

Cud (of ruminating animais)^ 

^A^ nusb-kbw4r, ^fi^f ndab- 

Cuddy (of a ship), (j^t^ia dabda, 

fij^ kadab. 
CuDOEL, vide Staff, Club. 
Cue, ^^\ isbdrab. 
Cuff, ^;)**-«T jt sar-istfn. 
CuiBASSE, {^¥^ jauaban, ^^ zirab, 

^^ ^ cbab&r Ajinab. 
To Cull, (^^ cbfdan. 
Culpability, jt^ takafr. 
Culpable, vide Blahablb. 
CuLPBiT, ^ «U5' gunab-kdr, f^^ 

mujrim, f$\ aaim. 
To Cultivate (land, Ac), (^^^ g)\ 

zar* nimddan. — ('plants, &c,) 

(^*>W i«^/ tarbijat d^dan. 
Cultivated (as a country, disirieiy 

&c,), oV}l[ khkd, jiU difr, jy^m^ 

CxTLTivATiON, «^^\)j zir4'at, ^jj^VXsA^ 

kisbt-kdrf, o«^ falabat. 
CuLTivATOB, gj^j z4riS t^ fall4b, 

yfJJ^ bazr-gar, jV^aA^ kisbt-kdr. 
Cultivators (peasantry), ^w^/fi^* 

^M bazardt-i-zariS e^/j zdri'in, 

i?cj ri*ayd. 
Culture, o^\;4.e 'umrdnfjat, 

c>^y tarbijat, h**^^ adab. 
Cumin, fijij zirab. 
Cunning, vide Crafty. 




Cup, a)^ pij&lah, fW Urn, c*^ 
kadah, ^M^ sAghir, ^^ k&fiah, 
AJUfii paim^nah. — (for tea, coffee, 
<§c.) oW** finj4n. — (large tea- 
cup) ^^kisah. 

To Cup {hleed), (^ja/ c^l^^ baj^- 
mat kardan. 

CUP-BKABEB, J^\^ S^kf. 

CuPBOASD, 6^\s t4kchah. 

CuPiDiTT, viae Ayabigb. 

Cupola, j^ giunbad. 

CuppiNO-OLASs, ^n>^** milijam, 
^\^^ ^U shdkh-i-hajj&m. 

CuBABLS, jt*^ c^\ isUh - pazfr, 
A^Ub* JfU k^bil - i - mu'dlajah, 
Ua3\ ^^^XZ** momkinu-'sh-shif 4. 

CUBATOB, Ji^ kdfil. 

CuBB, f*^ ligam, f»V^ lij&m, jW 

To CuBDLE, ^JA * w ^»>» munjamid 
shudan, {^s-^ bastan, (^^j^\ af- 
Burdan, (^•^ w>A« sift shudan, 
^^Jk &*}j daJamab sbudan. 

CuBDS, ift^U m^Bt, (j«U mds 
(yulg,), — {dried and salted) ««U.^ 
kaBbk, u:>««i kurtit. 

Cube, Uai shifd, e^ <U4j, &^U. 
mu'&lajah, j{)U ddrd, SjW cbdrab, 
\^«> dard. 

To Cube, e*^^ 6^ 'i^^j nimddan, 
^o^ A^U^ mu'41ajab kardan, ^ 
(^A*i Bbifd d4dan, e^^ f*V£sS\ 
ilti,dm nimddan. — (he cured) 
{^^^ f»V£sS\ ilti,4m pazfruftan, 
^AAi &i bib sbudan, (^W ^ shif 4 
yAftan. — (to salt) (^jaJU icUi 
namak malfdan. 

CuBiosiTiES, s3)\*s tafdrik, jS\^ 
navddir, cb>Wtf naffsdt, ^a;^^ 
'u^Al amti'a-i-naf fsab. 

CuBiOBiTT, o'W^ taf abbuB, Jy^ }\j 
riz-jd,f, Ua&i«^ istiksd. 

CuBious (inquisitive), ^ j\) rdz-jd, 

^ A7 . M ..» mustafsir, ^^^^AAa*-^ mus- 

taksf, ^/x sirr-ju, (jftJA»» mufat- 
tisb. — (singular) j^^ nddir, s-^ 
gbarfb, s-^^ 'ajab, v , ., , ^ r <aju), 
9«)« badf\ 

CuBL (o/ hair), y^ gfsd, AiU bal- 
kab, •iM^ ja'd. (Fide Lock.) 

To CuBL, o*'^^^ pfcbfdan, ^j\a ^ 

pfcb dddan, o^^^^ v>^ t4b d&- 

CuBLEW (&tre2), t^ tallailab. 
CuBLiNO-PAPEB, »JL turrab. 
CuBBANTB, (J^4>aS kisbmisb. [Tbis 

word strictly means ** SuUana 


CUBBBNT, v4;W jkti, gH; rA,ij, ej;* 

murayyaj, ^^4Ju^ mustamarri, 
(:)^j; rav4n, «;- sarab. — (^fream) 
Je- sail, f^yi- jui. — (cw money) 
^j r4,ij, <4,W jarf. 

CuBBiBB, \yt^ ^*^^ pdst-pfrd, iW»> 

Cubby (ths dish), 6i\^\^ sdliydnah 
(hind.), tjVeXL. s&liy4n (hind.). 

To Cubby (leather), (^*y/ ^a dabgb 
kardan. — (a horse) (^*y/ jU^J 
tfmdr kardan. 

CuBBY-cotfB, jAi kasbau, s^Ui 

CuBSB, ss^J^ la'nat, ^y^ nafrfn, 
s-^ sabb. 

To CuBSE, o'V^ ss^J^ la'nat nimd- 
dan, (;)'>/ (j^ la'n kardan, {^/i 
(^'>/ nafrfn kardan. 

Cubbed, (^f^ mal'dn, {^^ Win. 

CuBSOBiLY, '^\^>t 'ijdlatan. 

To CuBTAiL, (^^y4i j^ kasr nimd- 

CuBTAiN, B^j( pardab, w^^t^^ bij4b, 
b*Xm subrab, ji^r tijfr, ASjy« sar- 
oakab. — (surrounding a tent) 
i^yj^y* sardpardab, i3^^/« sarddak. 

CuBVATUBB, cy^ 'ivaj, C^y*^ i*Yij4j. 

CuBYE, (J"^ picbisb, ^ pfcb. 

CuBYBD, ^ kaj. 

Cushion, u^W bdlisb, 6^ takyab. 
\^A» muttakd, (^W b41fn. 

Custody, <d^U\ amdnat, ^\^ baY4- 
lab, wb^i^^jft. birdsat, *yj^ Bupurd. 
(legal term) u^^tA* babs, •^ kaid, 
jfa» (U^j ddsdkb-nazar. 

Custom, ^^ rasm, v>j; raYisb, «tf»>U 
'4dat, 8ye^ sbfYab, JM^ tarfk, 
«<)yL« Buldk, 8;«^« Yatfrab, jy^«> 
dastdr, e^j^; raYaj, «*xeVi k&4dab, 
e>e*^ 4yin, g^j Yaz% ^^yt kbdf, 
^yVi kandn, aIb»U zdbitab, A-^ 
pisbab, v»\a d4b. — (to») cV 
kbirdj, t^y^" gumruk, q^ baj, 




Jy«^^ mahsiil. — (cudom-hottse) 
6i\s^j4S gumnik - khdnah, &^W 
bAj-g4b. — (collector of customs) 
1^/^ gumruk-chi, ^*^V| hky 
gir. — (fee to shop-boys j given 
by customers) ^^\*yjS\j^ shagirda- 

Customary, vide Usual. 

CusTOMEB, ^f'i^ mushtarf. 

Cut, f»i>%* majzum. — (as a jewel) 
fijL^y tirashidah. — (in facets) 
^^ pakh-dar. — (convex)^ vJ^g^l* 
— (table-cut) c'a— ^ musattsdi, ^a*^ 
takhtah. — (sub,) t\)^ surdkh. — 
(of a coat) sj^jf burish. 

To Cut, (:?•>«;* buridan, or burrf- 
dan, i^*^ £^ kat' kardan, ^J^«^ 
tirasbidan. (Vide To Clip, To 
Pake). — (to cut in two) »jV^ )^ 
(^*>/ dn-'-parah. kardan, (^*y/ ij^ 

kaicbf kardan, 0*^ff^^^ du-nfm 

kardan. — (to cut short, abridge) 

(^^y4i jUs*.^ ikbtis4r nimudan. 
Cute, vide Cleyeb. 
Cutlas, vide Sword. 
Cutler, j flJy saikal-gar, *^i^ 

Cutter (vessel), J3*> c^iijW jab&z- 

Cutting, vide Sharp, Chip. 
Cycle (period of time), j^»> daur, 

ftj^«> daurab. 
Cylinder, ^\^\ ustuv^nab, ^ 

Cymbals, f^ sanj. 
CIPHER (figure or number), *y^^ 

*adad, &«>jua bindisab. — (ought) 

^ sifr. 
Cypbess, y^ sarv, vs^^j j\j\ iizad- 



Daft, (^f^f» majnun. 

Daooeb (straight, single - edged), 
*ij^ kard, t>e^ sikkm. — (curved, 
double-edged) y^^i^ kbanjar, &t t J ^ 
jambiyab, &JA*y disbnab. — (large, 
or cutlass), A^ kamab. — (small, 
or poniard), ctUjS' gazlak. 

Dahlia (flower), s-^^ ^}S gul-i- 

Daily, a.»4J^j rdzmab, 6i\^^ ri'izanab, 
&t^jt yaura/yab, ^jj^y^ bar ruzab, 
"U^ "Uy yauman fi-yaumein. — 
(everyday) }^ ^ bar ruz,jjj;» jjy 
riiz bi-ruz, "U^ *U^ yauman 

Daiby, ^^ ye^ sbfr-kbdnab. 

Dais, ^^^^a* aU sb^b-nisbinf. 

Daisy, Jf^^^i* *A*y^ bAbtinab-i-sab- 
ra,{, j^^^U JJ gul-i.d4Mi, ;y> 
AiU bazdr-ddnab. 

Dale, Bj^ darrab. 

Dalliance, 3^ 11 dz, <^j^y navdzisb, 
j^jl^AAc *i8bk-bdz{. 

Dam, vide Bank, Mother. 

To Dam, ^«>/ ^^ vaslab kardan, 

f^^f jui band kardan, ^«>/ «>^« 

masdud kardan. 
Damage, e^j ziydn, s-^««»l[ dsfb, 

^^ naks, ^WB nuksdn, J^^^ 

gazand, yj^ zarar, JU kbalal, 

«a>jU^ kbasdrat. 
To Damioe, e*^^ i/^ zarar rasdnf- 

Damaged, vide Spoilt. 
Damasked (silk), j^A^ musbajjar. 

— (steel) jW yfc^ jaubar-ddr, ^^ J^^ 

Dame, ^^ kbdnam, ^J^J bfbf. 
Damnation, 63^«> cwy^ *ukiibat-i- 

diizakb, ^«-^(h v*W 'azdb-i-jaban- 

Damned, s^U ^j.j diizakb-ina,db, 

^j^j ji^ abl-i-duzakb. 
Damp, / tar, ^ nam, j^*W nam- 

dar, kfJU** nam-ndk. — (svbst.) 

uw^^ rutubat, ^^ namf. 
Damsel, /^^ dukbtar, ^^i^^ kanfz. 
Damson, ^^^ dl&cbab. 
Dance, ^joij raks. — (national dance) 

^jsU ^^J raks-i-miUatf. — (ofder^ 




niiBhe9 and religioua fanaticB) 
a3mA banralah. 
To Dance, (^^ ^j raks kardan, 
^J^MoSj raksidan, (^o/ ^ ^ «:^---^ 
jast u khiz kardan. 
Dancbb, (^^j rakkds, sjoaS^ rak- 

sandahy^j^ b4zf-gar. 
Dancino, {^j raks. — (tight - rope 

dancing) (4)W *^ band-bazf. 
Dandelion ( plant)y ^J>^ ^ kal- 
lah chumdkf, i^Ju>U J5 gul-i- 
kdsidi, ^y^*^ v^'^^** hmdabdji-i- 
To Dandle, (j)Ju}1-j;*^ jumbdnidan, 
O**/ <4)V ^- bachah-navazf kar- 
Dandy, vide Fop. 

Danobb, j!i<>&- khatar, fijlos- khatrah, 
fiy.Va^ mukhdtarab, ^ bim, 
6AM. khadasbab, ^J^^ tasbvfsb, 
d^\i bak, v./^-*^ tangna,!. — (in 
danger of) f^ j*^ dar bim. 
Dangebous, d^^iJoA. kbatar - nik, 

^U]y» haulndk, u^U^ mublik. 
Danoling, j^ mu*allak. 
Dappled, (>;*^ abrasb, %^^ a^ lak- 

kah-dar, jUU. kbdl-dAr. 
To Dabe, (^\^ iA^^^ bimmat 
ddsbtan, ^^\*^ cwl^ jur,at 
dasbtan, (:)^^ ^^t^^ ddiri nimu- 
Dabing, vide Bold. 
Dabk, ^j^ tArik, »y tirab, ^ 
muzlim. — (as a colour), ytr* sir, 
«;«» tfrab. — (complexion) y^^ sabz. 
To Dabilen, (j^^ &««> tirab kardan. 
Dabkness, ^.yS tarikf, ^^J^ tiragf, 
jV; tar, vs^^ zulmat, f^ zal4m, 
e^a d4j. 
Dabling, v»^t«^ mabbdb, ^^W 

j4nf, (^W janan, 34^ *azfz. 
To Dabn, vide To Sew. 
Dabt, ^ naizab, y^ tfr. — (blunt 

dart used in exercise) '^ft- jarfd. 
To Dash (against), (^<^) ^ bi-bam 
zadan, o**j^ ^'^ sadmab kbwur- 
dan, (:)^^ f*"^^ tasddum nimii- 
dan. (Vide To Fling down, To 
Bbeak in pieces.) 
Dashing, vide Sbiabt. 
Dastabd, vide Cowabd. 

Date (time), ^jVj tarikb. — (out of 
date) ^)f^ matrdk. — (fruit) 
U^ kburmd, j43 tamr. — (green 
dates) J^ kbilal. — (a little riper, 
hut green) ^ busr. — (unripe 
dried dates) *^j\^ kbarak. — (ripe, 
hut fresh) «-t-^j rutab. — (date-stick, 
stem of leaf) J^;*- jarfd, \J»yi 
pusb. — (cluster of dates) A*»^ 
kbusbab, *f5^ pang. — (each 
strand or portion of the cluster) 
aJ^; risAlab, diJSs tilingab. — 
(tree) ^ mukb, ty. ws^^ 
dirakbt-i-khurmd, J** nakbl. — 
(date-grove) (^\AJi«k» nakblisfcAn. — 
(fibre or coir of the date) «-aJ 
lif, &^j rfsbab. — (leaves of the 
date dried for thatch, <fec.) J^^ 

To Date, ^^\SS^J\5 tarfkb guzasb- 

Dated, t/y inu,arrakb. 

Dative (case), M Jt«*^ maf'dl 

To Daub, (^*>jJ^^ andddan, ^AjJU 
mdlfdan, o^^^ pdlddan, (^j^^ 

Daughteb, ysd.^ dukbtar, c:^ bint 
(pi, ctfW ban4t). — (-in-law) ©3 
<^}y^ zan-i-farzand, v^j^ *ards. 

To Dawdle, (^j/^*V5 ta,kbfr kar- 
dan, (:)*^y^ siS^ maks nimddan, 
^ jj^ L| \^ p& bf-p4 kardan. 

Dawn, vide Mobning. 

Day, \jy rdz, f*y. yaum (pi. ^\i\ 
ayy am) . — (twenty -four ho urs) 
j^ A>\^ 8bab4nab-rdz. — (opposed 
to niglit)})) rdz,jVe> nabdr. — (from 
day to day) )^ \p rdz bi-rdz. 
— (nowadays), (^JT al,dn, (^ j*y 
fA^) dar in yakt. 

Day-book, &^^ j^ rdz-ndmab, jjy 
&^\J rdz-ndmcnab. 

Day-bbeak, vide Mobning. 

To Dazzle, (^*y/ fi^-A f^^ cbasbm- 
kbirab kardan. — (to he dazzled) 
^.xA 8^ f^^ cbasbm-kbirab sbu- 

Deacon (of a church), v^Ua sbam- 

Dead, «•>/• murdab, (^W ^J bf-j^, 




_^ mutavafff, ^^^t- mayyit, 
8A«k uu>y faat-shudah. — (middle) 
L«^ Tasat. — (the dead) (^^^^y^} 
dsddag&n, o^^/* mardagan, 
^\SJjbtSs guzashtagan. 
Deadly (fatal), J^Sufc haldhal, M?^ 
kdtil, c^J^ muhlik, j7Ub« mukd- 


Deaf, / kar, ^yi^ ^ n^-shinaTd, f^\ 
asamm. — (to be deaf) {^^ f ^ v]^^ 
^jjb guah.sangfn shudan. 

Deal (fir-wood), j^f^ H*y^ chiib-i- 

Dealer, y^-^ tdjir. — (in compon^ 
Hon) \J»^ f urdsh. 

Dealixq, vide Affair, Comk ebcb, 
Baboain, Intebcoubse. 

Deab, (^\/ giran, ^iUi^^ giran- 
majah, W^j^ giran-baha, •U4->.j^ 
arjmand, J^ gbali, ^y^ kai- 
mati. — (beloved) yty^ *aziz, ^yt^^ 
mahbdb, ^y«^» mahbubah, ^JW 

Deabkebs, ^J^Sgiria{. 

Dearth, vide Scarcity. 

Death, vi^^ marg, «>^ maat, u^U-* 
mamat, vfi>y faut, ui>^« vafat, 
U» kaz4, ftU. sAm, Jn^^ ajal, J^j\ 
irtihal. — (natural death) J^\ ajai. 
— (sudden death) «>W^ «w^ 
maut-i-muf&j4t, «-iU zdf, ui>y« 
va>*^i> maut-i-faj,at. — (pains of 
death) vide AaoNY. 

To Debar, (^^a!L» f^y^^^ mahrdm 

Debate, vide Altercation, Dis- 

Debauched, ^J^'>^) •^ bad-zinda- 

Debauchee, ^\ rind, (^j^j'^^j*- 
khwush - guzran, ^ii kalldsh, 
t^Wfi 'ajjdsLjjW *M» shaid-bAz. 

Debaucheby, i^jJ-j rindf, (^j*- 
^\jj^ khwush-giizrdn{, ^y^S^ kal- 
lasni, ^J^'^ *ayy&8hf, ^j^U-y^ 

Debilitated, iJ^^ju za'if, «J^ 
nahif, ^y^ D4-tav4n. 

Debility, vide Weakness. 

Debt, ij>^ karz, aj^i bidih, f»\^ v^m, 
^j dun. — (to he in debt) v/j^ 

(^AAi makrdz shudan, (^si^^Jt ^^J^ 
madjun hastan. — (to pay one^s 
debts) (^'>k)^^ f»^^ ykm guzarfdan, 
0j^ \j\ ada nimddan, (^*^/ t)/^ 
mafrugh kardan. 

Debtob, jV^ »•*! bidih-k&r, j^«^>* 
karz-dtir, l^>;^ makrdz, jU ^^^ 
ydm-dar, jW«> dain-dir, ^^W 
ddfn, (^•^^s** mutadajjin. 

Decadence, J^jij zavdl. 

Decagk>n, ^«Ajfe«* ma'asbshar. 

Decanter (of glass), *a^ tang. — 
(square decanter) ^W ch&rpar. 

To Decapitate, ^^) o^«^ gardan 
zadan, (^•ajjI^ sar buriaan. 

Decapitation, (^^3 ^^^ gardan- 
zadan, (^J«^ ^ sar bundan. 

Decay, U* fand, J^jj zavdL 

To Decay, {^"^ k^stan, o*^^^ 
kdhfdan, e^V*/ farsddan, JH) 
C:)*^ z4,il shudan, (^'iJ^ q\* ziv 
shudan, ^•s^A* 84,idan, (^Mt fi 
kam shudan, {^^f J^|} zavil 

Decease, vide Death. 

Deceit, s-st/ firfb, &»-V«* s4khtah, 
J^ gdl, f^ makr, aI^^ hflah, 
^jl} ^le*- hilah-bdzi, &>W bah^nah, 
j*x6 gbadr, {^ ghaban, *^^ rang, 
*^^ kaid, (4)W ^j; rdbah - bazf, 
c>x4^ khud'at, W; rij6, ^o dagh4y 
v.r*J* talbfs, Ji ghill, &^J^a 
damdamah, (jt^^ ghishsh, ^J^^ yA 
dd-rangi, «-i-J^ takallub. 

Deceitful, vide Treacherous. 

To Deceive, ^^y firiftan. (Vide 
To Defraud, To Wheedle.)-^ 
(to be deceived) o^}^ J^ gdl 
khwurdan, O'^JJ^ ^"^^ ^^ 

Deceiyeb, fiJUL^y firfbandah. 

Decent, vide Respectable. 

To Decide (determine), ^•\t«>j^ ^fr^-^** 
musammam gardfd^n. — (seiUe) 
^jUj^ karar d4dan, {^sJb^^ ^ 
mukarrar ddshtan. 

Decidedly, ^j,^ kri. — (firmly) 
ftUs ^Jssk^ bi-sakhtf-i-tamdm. 

Decimal, jU^^ a'sh4r. 

To Decimate, ^«yi jf^^ ta'shfr 




Decision, vide Decree, Deter- 
mination, Eesolution. 

Decisive, <^ kat^f, jtU k4ti*. 

Dbce: (0/ a ship), i^^j^ 'arshah. 

To Deck, vide To Adorn. 

To Declaim, o*^^ "^^^ insb&d 

Declamation, *3iAi\ insbdd. 

Declaration, jW^\ ishtihar, c^^ 
fzAh, oW i'lan, ^^ i*Um. 

To Declare, o^^^ (^^ i'lan nimii- 
dan, o^^ f*y«^ ma'lum nimti- 
dan, ^*^f jbj^ 'arz kardan. 

Declension, J\^) zaval. — (in gfram- 
mar), Ukj^ tasrff, J*^ tahvfl. 

Declination, u\ff»\ inhirdf. 

To Decline, vide To Decay, To 

Declivity, w^t^ nishfb, s-^ shfb. 

Decoction, aj^U^ jdshdndali. 
Decomposition, JOii^ inhildl, {ji»s 

ta'affun, ^J^X(^j^ pdsidagi. 
To Decorate, {^^j\ ar^stan, 

(:^W pii'S'Stan, (^^\*^ ^a^j zfnat 

dddan, (^*^f^ ^v> tazjfn nimd- 

dan, (^'H}^^ tirdzidan, {jsdX^ {^y 

muzajyan s^khtan. 
Decoration, vide Adornment. — 

(of honour) (:j^ nishdn. 
Decorator, ^^J\ ardjindah, 

s*VA2\^ pirdjindan, {^y muzay- 

Decoy, &&iu^ parmuahtdh. — 

(decoy-bird) f\*^ ty* miirgh-i- 

To Decoy, vide To Allure. 
Decrease (in quality) ^ y/Oi naks. — 

(in quaniUy) (^Ui^ nuks4n. 
To Decrease, vide To Diminish, 

To Lessen. 
Decree, ^^^ hakm, J^ faisal, 

JU«^ infisdl, Ui kaza, ^fi fatvd, 

f\ amr, J%^ sijil, <^-^%^ hujjat, 

j^ sundr. 
To Decree, ^j;^ f\ amr nimddan, 

^j\j ^fk £atv4 d4dan, m^^^ f^^ 

bakm nimddan. 
Decrepit, ^fj^ fart At, <Jk«*6 za'ff. 
Decrbpitudb, ^Jf^ fartdtf, 


To Decyphsr, ^«>^ Ji^^ ta,vfl ni- 

To Dedicate (consecrate) ^ *^j^ 
(^^y^ tabarruk nimddan, f^^t^ 
i^siX^ mukaddas sdkbtan, yj^tft^ 
{^^f^ takbsfs nimddan, v/^Usa.1 
i^^f ikbtisas kardan, ^ayT Sy^^ 
munazzab kardan. 

To Deduce, e^r** f^fi teiiri* nimd- 

To Deduct, (^*y/ W^ minbi kar- 
dan, (^*i/ fi kam kardan. 

Deduction, J1Ia&-^ istidldl. (Ficfo 

Deed, ^ k4r, jU/ kirddr, J»fi 
*amal, J** fi*l, g*« san'* — (yoriU 
ten) jij^*y daBt-6vfz, u>.^^ buj- 
jat. — (of gift) &«V* &fA bibah- 
namab. — (of scUe) ^W kabdlab, 
&^Ua«i bai'-n&mab, ^^\> A^W^ ka- 

To Deem, 0j:^\*> danistan, (2)Aab^\ 

Deep, (Jh*^ 'amfk, <Jij|j zbarf, J*i 
kaul. — (the deep, sea) &^ lujjab. 

Deer, (^jyT gavazn. — (an^aZope) yfc^ 
4bd, jy gbaz41. 

To Deface, o*>/^^^ mabv kardan, 
^j^ Buturdan, (^J^^ <<)^ p4k 
kardan, (^^y/ ffS^ zli' kardan. .. j 

Defamation, ^/^ *^^^ batk-i-'irz, 
\js^\ iftird. 

To Defame, (^*>/ ^/^ ailsA batk-i- 
'irz kardan. 

Default ( failure) , fjU& naks, <a4s 
killat, f*^ 'adam, j^ kusdr. 

Defeat, ^a."*-*^ sbikast, i&^N)ft 

To Defeat, (;)«>\*> <d^^v» bazimat 
dadan, (:;^U ufc%.« X <i sbikast dadan. 
— (to he defeated) o»*jj*- us ■'■■'^*> 
sbikast kbwurdan. 

Defect, vide Faxtlt, Blemish. 

Defective, ftW U n^-taniam, ^^^ 
ndkis, /«a^ mukassar. 

Defence, <£^Uft. bifdzat, IhA*. bifz, 
&U^ panab. 

To Defend, (^*i\*^ cHtW bim^yat 
dadan, o^^^ «»^Va». bifazat ni- 
mddan, (^^y^ KA^it^ siydnat kar- 
dan, o*^^ sA^j\^f» mubirasat 




nimtidan. — (excuse) (^^y^ j^*^^*^ 

ma'zur kardan, (^*)^j^ij»\ i*tizar 

Dbfendant {aJt law), ^\ JjCJ^ 

mudda'a ilaihi. 
Dbfskdeb, ^^ bdmf, IbiU. hdfiz, 

j^^^ dast-gfr. — (of ike faith) 

^j^ ghizf. 
Defensive, g*^J^ tadAfa', JV*j 

To Defer, vide To Delay. 
Deference, jWj»^ i*tib4r, gA\y 

taT^zuS (^V^^ ihtiram. 
Dbfebbed, J^'V* mu,ajjal, jyt^ 

mu'ayvak, »*)Um v3«y*' j*^ dar ta*vfk 

uftadah, fiJA 50/ •^n? ta,khfr. 

kardah shudah. — (to he deferred) 

^S^\ ^*lst bi-ta*khir uftadan. 
Deficiency, j^-» taksfr. {Vide 

Deficient, f$ kam, ^^ k^sir. 
Defile (narrow pass), »^j *a5ltf 

tang-r^h, Ja^kutal, e^iS'gardan, 

s-^**» 8ha*b, »*J^J^gadtik. 
To Defile, i^^} ^^ ^^ yaki yaki 

imadan. — (stain) (^^^^ dlddan, 

^j^^s)^ \J n4-p4k kardan, %t*^ 

(2^L« mulavvas sakbtan, ;j-<ic« 

q<l>;^naJ8 kardan. 
To Define, (^*>;^ c/* sbarb kardan, 

^^ 0^ bayan kardan. 
Definite, ^^j^^^ mabdud, *-^}f^ 

ma'ruf , (;j^j«^ mu'ajvan, jj;fi^ mu- 

Definition, *-^fS ta*rif , «JU^ vasf , 

Jtf«A» tafsil. 
Definitive, vide Decisive. 
Deflexion, %J^ietii\ in4tdf. 

To DeFLOWEB, (^*^/ Mw;^ *5\)^ 

izalab-i-bakarat kardan. 

Deformed, S^ cbuMk, £1)^ cbii- 
Idgh, s^^fi^^ ma'jub. 

To Defbaub, e**4y firiftan, s-«>* 
(^jU firib dadan, eJ^\;/- Jj^g^l 
kbwurdnfdan, (^*i^ J^ gdl zadan, 
0j^ja6 gbadar mmudan, ^J«a> 
(;}0y bilab kardan. 

Defunct, vide Dead. . 

To Defy, (^»v«it «yj;W^ ^ bi-mubA- 
razat talbfdan, (^^/ *sSJ^ «£>^o 
da'vat-i-jang kardan. — (brave, or 

slight) vide To Despise, To 

Deobadation, vide Disgrace 

Degbaded, vid^ Abandoned. — 

(military term) iJ^\^\ ^j )\ az 

rutbab and^kbtab, SJ^to^T u>^ 

past gardanfdab. 

Degbee, jJ^ kadr, j^«xfr* mikd&r, 
^f martabab, ^U^ masabab, 
6)\ji\ andazab, J^ badd, aI^Uu 
mukabalab, Ai^)^ darajab. — (pro- 
portion) cfc^e-^ nisbat, ta.»*-U« 
mun^sabat, ut^Ua^ mutAbakat, 
^f^^^ tasavi, 0^*^ vafk, ^)\'^\ an- 
dazab. — (rank) ^j*y darajab, »W 
jab, 0^1 sb4n, tS^y^ manzilat, 
&M> tabakab, &^j rutbab, ^^^ 
martabab, ^^ pAjah, jJi kam-. 
— (mxithem^iticaVJ A*>"j*J darajab. — 
(hy degrees) (•a8» (vaS kadam bi- 
kadam, ^^^ ^\^ darajab bi- 
darajab, g^jx:» bi-tadrfj, 'W*;*** 
tadrfjan, ^C^ ^^ p4yab p&jab, 
&3j^ is^^ Abistab abistab, ^ 
&sit raftab raftab, ^a ^ * ^ -* sang- 
nak. — (to a degree) M/* f^ bar 
martabab. — (to the last degree) 
^A^\i2^ j^ fauka-'l-gbajat. 

Deity, vide God. — (Godhead) 
sA^^\ uldbijat. 

Dejected, vide Sad. 

Delay, ^jft^ dirf, ^J^)^ dirangi, 
C-A5 J tavakkuf , ;tf»^*^ ta,kbfr, Je^ 
mabal, u>Jie^ mublat, J^^ imb41, 
J\f tavani, ,^y tarAkbf, JUa\ 
ibmal, OJiy**" ta'vik,*^^ ana,, J\s 
ta,annf, (^^ tabAvim, ^^ kbu- 
mul, sA^ maks, vi*^ mukus, 
J«3 ^ «^ lait u la*all, fc*^y^ g» J 
daf*u-*l-vakt. — (without delay) 
*^)^ ij bf-dirang, ^*^ h bila 

To Delay, (^^j^\ <J4^ j»> dar 
ta'vfk andZkbtan, (^^^ j«*-*^ 
ta*kbfr nimudan, e**j^ <4;«** dirf 
kardan, (^^f U>*f tavakkuf kar- 
dan. — (to he delayed) ^fS jJ 
0jU*\ dar ta*vik uftadan, j^ 
(jjJA mu*avvak sbudan, (j;JA ^)^*y• 




mu,ajjal shudan, (^S^)\ jtf gir 

Delboatb, /"W* mubdshir. (Vide 
also Ambassador, Agbnt.) 

To Delegate, ^^US gum^shtau. 

Delboation, fi/iW^ mubdsharah. 

To Deliberate, o^^ t^*^ tadbir 
nimiidan, o*^^ &)Uuami\ istisMrah 

Deliberatelt, vide Intention- 

Deliberation, vide Thought, 

Delicate, vide Fine, Soft, Gen- 
tle, Weak. 

Delicious, J«JJ laziz, v»yy» mar- 
ghiib, j^y^)^ khwush-guydr. 

Delight, ui>y lazzat, ^Jb^^^ diU 
khwushf , <j^^ 'aish, ia>y^ 'ishrat, 
!bB- hazz, (^^^ shadi, j^«^ zauk, 
c^VU latafat, ^ safa. 

To Delight, (^*>U vs>.^ lazzat 
dddan, (^^^^ <:?y^-^^ mamndn kar- 
dan. — (to be delighted) (jJA ^^^w* 
mahzuz shudau, ^Jt^^ v^^ 
khwush amadan. [G^nerallj used 
with the terminations ^ , «a> , &c., 
affixed to the first word, thus 
^ f^^ khwusham 4mad, &c.] 

Delightful, vide Pleasant. 

Delimitation, aUa^ o^jka. hudud-i- 

Delin^^ubni, vide Culprit. 

Delirious, yj^jitx* madhdsh, (^^J^ 

Delirium, f^x* sar-sam, ^^S^ hazi. 

To Deliver (tip ), (^*^y^ f^<^^ tas- 
lim nimudan, (^^/ ijij^ tafviz 
kardan, o^^y^ ^\y^ havdlah ni- 
mudan, (:)'>j^ sipurdan. — (set 
free, save) (^Ss S\^ 4z4d kardan, 
^juilfcj rihanfdan, {^^^ ,^3U. 
khalas kardan, (^>yf Uu rihd kar- 
dan, {^^\^^ 6A^y rastan garddnf- 
dan, (^^^«> «x>Ur najat dadan. 

Deliverance, ^^^ij^^ rastagari, 
Uj rih4, ct>V najat. 

Delivery (goods), ^ Lj; taslim. — 
(speaking) jt/s takrfr. — (child- 
birth) J^y tavallud. 

Delta, s-««»« masabb. 

Deluge, o^^ tufan, ^X^ saildb, 
Jd*. sail. — (the Deluge) cy o^^* 

Delusion, vide Illusion, Sham. 

Demand, «t%-^«i» jJ dar-khwAst, 
s-J^ talab, &«3Ua*« mutalabah, Js^j 
d*ava, ^^\ iddi'a Uja-.\ istid'd, 
Usi^ iktiza. — (to be in demand) 
^^U ^M tdlib dashtan. 

To Demand, vide To Ask. 

Demarcation, J-U Ls. khatt-i- 

Demeanour, vide Conduct. 

Demented, vide Mad. 

Demoiselle, /^•> dukhtar. 

To Demolish, vide To Destroy. 

Demolition, f**xft hadm, *s^\ja. 

Demon, ^*> div, {^ jinn, (^W jdnn, 
cwyto «ifrft, J^ ghdl. 

Demoniac, or^^^ majnun, a*\^j 

To Demonstrate, (:)^^ (:^W) baydu 
nimddan, (^^^^^ c/^ sharh kardan, 
^ j^ ^^^ vdzih kardan. 

Demonstration, j^\ izhdr, J«S«> 
dalfl, (^^ji burh4n. — (ocular 
demonstration) ft*xftUM« mushaha- 
dah, o^ *iyAn. 

Den, j^ ghdr, ft)U#« mugharah, ^^ 
masan, &^^j^»4^ kamfn-g&h. 

Denial, j\^\ inkdr, W^ ib4, U\«. 
bashd, ^ nafy. 

Denominated, J34i-'^ musammd. 

Dense (close, thick), «J^ kasff, 
J«2^ muttasil, J^^^ janj41. 

Density (closeness), ^s^U^ kasdfat, 
^^fk* sitabri,jl^ kutr. 

Dentist, j^ J^^f^ dandAn-saz. 

Denuded, ^^^ mujarrad. 

To Deny, <;)*>/ s-sjJ^ takzib kar- 
dan, (:)*y/ ^ nafj kardan, j\^\ 
(2)J^ ink&r nimddan. — (refuse) 
0j^ ^}j dirigh nimiidan, \y 
{^\*y va-ddshtan, ^^^Ujl) baz- 

To Depart, {^sJjS si\^ ravanah 
gashtan, f^j raftan. 

Departure, cpV^ ravanagf, «^j 
rihlat, V jala, n^ kdch, /^ 





To Depend on, (^0|^ ^ylr* ii^^'Ulci^ 
bddan, (^oi^ t»y^ mandt budan, 
(^.xAi s^y.«j^ mansub sbudan, 
(jjj^ dA-^ bastab budan. (Vide 
To Confide.) 

Dependence, ,^a--* ^ va-bastagi, 
U>i«? ta*alluk, «Slc 'alakab. (Vide 
Connection, Eeliance, Trust.) 

Dependency (part of a state or 
kingdom) f JW* maball. 

Dependent, «-iy»^ maukiif. — (to 
he dependent on another person) 
^j^ j\ms^ muta*allik bddaoi, gi^ 
^«y mutiibi' budan. 

Dependents (ra^inue), gi^ tavabi'S 
OKV l&vdbik, (^Vflliju^ muta'al- 
likim, V*»V? tAbinba (vulg,). — 
(family) JW^ *iy41, fiJJ*/- kbwa- 
randab, a^U. Jft\ abl*i-B:b4nah. 

Dbpicteb, U^ Aje^ chabrab-kaabA, 
\J\ «e>j^ 8iirat-4r4. 

To DflPOPrLATE, (^saL» f^\jt^ vairin 
sikbtan, ^a^ s^^/- kbar4b kar- 

To Depose (expel) ^ cj»>^ cV"^ 
ikbr4j nimddan, i^'*/ si)^^ i^^'- 
zdl kardan, (^o^ g& J daf ' kardan, 
(jjji^j rdndan. — (^ve testimony) 
0jU ^^^ gay^bf d4dan, «a>jW*» 
(^*^y^ sbabddat nimddan. 

Deposit, u:*^^^ vadf'at, O)^ si- 
purd, ui^M am^nat, ^s^^^bavilab. 
— (to keep in deposit) (^*y/ i » ^^ 
mubajjar kardan, ^^^^j^ nigab- 
d^sbtan. — (to put in deposit) 
^j^aJ\^ bavAlab kardan, «^U^ 
(^*yj\SS amdnat guzardan, ^j>*9i*yy 
(^jV vadi*at nibadan, (^*y/ U^j^ 
tafviz kardan. 

Depomtion, jijS takrfr, ,^Ja» ^^jW) 

Depositor, ^^j^U^ amanat-dar. 

Depository, (^yi^ makbzan, ;W*^ 
ambar, fi^^U\ amiinat-gab. 

Depraved, aW* tabab, ^\j^ khardb, 
A-A^ niufsid, J^^ fasid. 

Depravity, vide Wickedness. 

To Depreciate (traris,), »-iUafea-^ 
(^*y/ istikbf af kardan. — (intrans.) 
{^A^\i k^stan. 

Dbpbbssbd, vide Sad, 

Depbbssion, J^) ^^ fordd-nif. 
tagi. — (of spirits), vide Me« 


To Depbive, (^AjJU^ ^^j^^^ mab- 
rdm gardanidan, ^^yT ojyu maf- 
kdd kardan, (^j/ ^J^ jidd kar- 

Depth, jm^ *umk or 'umuk, V*j|j 
zbarf A, «^ tak. 

Deputation, J^y^ pfsbvaz, iLAj^ 

To Depute, ^oU«j firistAdan, 
(:?**/ J^^ mAmdr Kardan, *±>fh^ 
{^^f mab'ds kardan. 

Deputy, s-A* ni,ib, JA vakil, 
6jJkUS gum&sbtab, f*Uu ^ ka,im- 
inak&m,j^/« sar-kAr. 

Dbbanoembnt, y^^ tasbvfsb. 

Debision, \y^^ istibzi, ifk-*^ mas- 
kbarab, fk^^ tamasldiar, ^f^ 
sukbri jab, «<Wa zabak, {^f tau- 
bfn, fiJu;^ kbandab, ^^ajW baradf. 

Dbbitation, j^j^ suddr, jVtoii\ 
isbtikik, (j«CsS^ iktibAs. 

Debivatitb (word), ^yj;^ musb- 
takk, i^*U ina,kbdz. 

To Debive, (a^\^ f bar-^vardan, 
^^^f^ akbz kardan. 

Debvish (religious mendicant or 
ascetic), {J^jd*^ darvfsb, jjuds ka- 
landar. — (dervishes gown) Jp*> 
dalk. — (high cap room by der- 
vishes) c^ tdj. — (cup or calabash 
for alms, carried by dervishes) 
J*V tacbkdl, J/A^ kasbkdl. 

To Descend, (^j^^ *y^ f urdd 4ina- 
dan, (^^ (^tiA( p4,fn dmadan, 
(:)'^}jlyi bi-zir dmadan, (jjJA JjU 
ndzil sbudan, (^*y/ ^^^ nuzdl kar- 
dan, (^^^ J.U. bdvil bddan, J\^ 
^j^ zaval Kardan. 

Descendants (offspring), J-i nasi, 
UkLs. kbalf, ^U.\ akbl4f, ^^^.^ 
aulad, JT al, ^y^ banf, *)^)* nizb4a, 
M^ 'akabab, ^)Iu sulalab. 

Descent, s-^s^^i abib, s-e^i nisbfb, 
J;>y> nuzdl. — (origin) J«\ asl, 
w-^ nasab, jW* tabar, J--i nasi, 
*y\y nizhdd. 

To Descbibe, ^o^ Uk^yu ta'rif kar- 
dan, (a*^/ «-A«^ vasf kardan, 




(^^f sifat kardan, q^^^ ^Vet bayin 
kardan, (^«>/ «-^/ tausif kar- 

Dbscsiption, (*)^ bajin, J^^atf taf- 
8il> jifi takrir, <-^ vasf, ia^W 
takhtit, U^^ ta'rii, u:^&« sifat, 
^J*-* tastfr, — (beyond description) 
j>i\ ^j4i t-A*^ 4^ kih bi-yasf na- 
mi - ajad, (^)^ «-*««/ •»*- j^ az 
hadd-i-tausif bfrun, oW jV gjU. 
kh^rij az baj4n. {Vide Kind.) 

Dbsebt, (:)^W bijdban, 6i\^^ yair^- 
nah, u:^«> dasht, AjtoV^ badijah, 
\JS»» baida, J^ chaul, £U k^S Ae' 
tih, ^jt barnjah, uu>jW« maf 4zat, 
«^>«^ sahab. — (salt desert) jLif 
kivf r, ii^ kaffah. 

To Dbsebt, vide To Abandon. — 

(run avooAj) e**/jV ^^^'^ kardan, 
{^sipif gurfkhtan. 

Dbsbbtbb, ss^^ firari. 

Dbsbbtion,// firar. 

To Desbbve, ^«>y jVi** saz^yar bu- 
dan, i^'^^ v3^ " ""* mustahakk 
bddan, <^«xAi O'S 144k shudan, 
i^^y* sazfdan, (^•xai s-^\^ vajib 
shudan, ^•xai s ^ j a**^ mustaujib 

Dbsbbyino, < j^y ■■>• mustahakk, 
s-^^^ yAjib, JjVi k4bil, o^3 lA,ik, 
j^\yM sazdydr. 

Dbsiqn, 8^\)^ irddahy ay* murdd, 
Jui kasd, *Xiaft^ maksaa, u>«} ni- 
yat, fff^ 'azm, *sCa^ dhang, jij;^ 
4rzii, ^,^ sa*i, ^/^ gharaz, ^^.x^ 
mudda'4, »«• sar, W bind, «>J^ 
sadad, &ecw dd'iyah. — {^ietrn) 
^JA naksh. 

To Design, vide To Intend. — 
{'paUern) (^^/ {J^ naksh kar- 

To Designate, ^o^ tfi »«»? tasmiyah 
kardan, o^j^'^f*^ ^^^^ guz&rdan. 

Designation, vide Name. 

Designedly, vide Intentionally. 

Desibable, f^fii^ dil-khw4h, ^a 
dil-j^, w*^r» marghub, J^«A* 
makbdl, ty^ matbii* — (to deem 
denrahle) ;j)A-i\j syAym sayab 

Dbsibb, ij^\^ khwihish, )}^ &rzd, 

f\^ k4m, y»VA. khAtir, o^y* murdd, 
^S\j\ ir4dat, Jy>s#« maksud, ^^y^ 
hayas, (j«A» nafs, jy^ shauk, 
^i^sjbA ishtiydk, ^a^j raghbat, 
vJi^ matlab, J^^ amal, <^J^h^ 
4rzu-mandf, ws^y^ hayfyat, ^^u> 
d&'iyah. — (the desires) gUL\ 
atma'. — (sexual desire) , ^j^j^ 
shahyat, (j^ nafs, (j«y^ hayas. 

To Dbsibe, (:^^^ khwdstan, 9);^ 
(^^^ 4rzu kardan, {^\^ \JJ^y^ 
khwahish d&shtan. 

Dbsibous, *^^i)^ 4rzd - mand, 
jVajl^ mushtak, aJU^J^ hayas- 
n4k, \i^ j^y^i s-*^M rdghib, 
JSjlJo tama'-kar, jAai sha,ik, 
^O 'Aj;^ mutashahhi, ^j g aA^ mush- 

To Desist, (^jaU-i^ jVj bdz-fstAdan, 
^jjU \^ yd-mdndan, (^^/ cJUiy ta- 
yakkof kardan, ^ja ^U^ va<wj 
dast-barddr shudan, o«V«\)^ drd- 

Desk (box containing correspond" 
ence, papers, Sc), & s a fc . ? .. t . , o pfsh- 
takhtah. — (stand for supporting 
hooks while reading) Ja.j rahl. 

Desolate, vide 8ad. — (place) 
A»\/- kharabah, ii\^^ yairaaah. 

Desolation, vide Melancholy. 

Despaib, f^'^ ^ na-umfdi, «^«V«y 
naumidf, v^^ jiia, ^fS kundt, 
^LJ^\ inkisdr. 

To Despaib, (^aai j^^ U nd-umid 
shudan, (^*^ -x^y naumfd shu- 

Despatch, Aa^y niyishtah, j,^^* 
muharrar. (vide Speed.) 

To Despatch, vide To Send. 

Despebado, yj^a ydramaz, jW^jVj 
yarmbdz, jjip^^^jf barddr u*birau, 
^ cs> />*• shir-i-bf-pfr, (^yi jS\ 
dzar bi-zfn. 

Despebate, j^^ \i nd-umfd, J^y 

Despebation, c5^jj;> ^j> bf-parydi, 
^^ yadf. (Fi(ie Despaib.) 

Despicable, vide Contemptible. 

To Dbspisb, (;)«H«>;\^ khwdr dfdan, 
^ j^ joAft. hakfr shimurdan, ^«&^ 
(^«>^ tahk{r nimddan, ^«>/ i&>jU». 




hikirat kardan, (^*^y^ sg^\i^\ ih&- 
nat nimudan, o^jr*^ ift^X* ma- 
zammat Dimudan, (^*^y^ ij^fi 
nikdhish Dimudan. 

Despot, vide Tyrant. 

Despotic, J**--* mustakill, ^s •>•*- 

Despotism, U«j tasallut, JSuuu.^ 
istikl&l, S\XiX^\ istibdad, J^U>» 
tatavul, fi^ zulm. 

Dbssebt {candied fruits, &C.), JA 
nukl. — (dry fruit, nut8,dc,) J^'\ 
ajn, jW^^ khusbkibdr. 

To Destine, (a*^y^ *^^ nam-zad 

Destint, s-*--* nasib, j»vl kadar, 
^j*vi kudrat, jt«a» takd/r, tf^^ ^ . i 
kismat, <x^ bakbt, Ui kaza, ^^VL 
tali', <A^y jp* sar-nivisht. 

Destitute, y ^ji bi-nava, y^\^ 
*Ajiz, <j-^ ^ji bi-kas, J-»*U--. mus- 

Destitution, J\^ ^j bi-nava,/, 
^V^ bi-cb4ragi, ^jyA^ *ajizi, 
AiU f4kah, JWs-^ istfsul. 

To Destroy, (^*y^ sa^^^^ nist kar- 
dan, (^^/ (V*^*^ ma'ddm kardan, 
i:^.) ^ j^ az ham rikbtan, U^ 
(^«>^ talaf nimudan, o^ U 
^Jk^^.>^ na-bud gardAnfdan, Ui 
(;)*y/ fana kardan, ^^^^ f**34^ 
munhadim B^khtan,(^^^ JW^^ 
istfsal nimlidan, ^«>/ ^a^ pakhsh 

Destroyer, j^ aW^^ tab6h-k4r. 

Destruction, JJU. khalal, J!U.^ 
ikhUl, va>jU^ khasarat, Jrf katl, 
^\jus\ i'dam. 

To Detach, ^jalL. W jida sAkhtan. 

Detachment (of troops), a&«o 

Detail, *)U ^y karar-ddd. — (de- 
tails) ^^y^ }\iz,iyit — (in detail) 
Jts-AsJ^ J^ 'ala-'t-tafsH. 

Detailed, J<«a^ mufassal. 

To Detain, ^^W jW baz-dasbtan, 
t)*ft»\»> \j y^-ddshtan, o**/ j*^ g»r 
kardan, (>)*>/ J««*-^ kisfl kardan, 
(^U t\^ mgkh. dasbtan. 

To Detect, vide To Discover, To 


Detention, vide Imprisonment. 

To Deteriorate, {jsJ^ kastan, 
^AAi Jf^j za,il sbudan, ^^; J^;jj» 
bi-zav41 raftan. 

Deterioration, ^\^ zaval. 

Determination, ^ 'azm, o^^^ 
'azimat, ^^ jazm,* ^^ khauz, 
^ e *""? tasmim. ( Vide Courage.) 

To Determine (resolve), (^j\j ^^^^ 
kardrf dddan, ^^sJiS f^^^^a^m musam- 
mim gasbtan, {^^f ^ e **? tasmim 
kardan. (Vide To Settle.) 

To Detest, vide To Abhor. 

Detestable, Bj^;^ makriih, ^2^ 
karfb,jyk^ manfur, ^/^j rijs. 

Detestation, vide Abhorrence. 

Dethronement, gU. kbal'. 

Detour, tf 'avaj. 

Detraction, vide Calumny. 

Detractor, vide Calumniator. 

Detriment, ^/^ zarar, (^\i) zij4n, 
JU khalal, (^to* nuksan, s-^««*^ 

To Devastate, (^*i»S ^j\t gharat 
kardan, (^*^y*i c^V? taraj nimu- 
dan, o*^^ s^^^ khardb uimiidan. 

Devastation, *a>;U gharat, ^j\f' 

To Develop, (jj*)^ \o^ paidii ni- 
mudan, (^«>/ «.JU^ kasbf kardan, 
^^S^Sa^ ishkdr kardan. 

To Deviate, (^^y^i u\f^\ inhiraf 

Deviation, u\fA inhiraf, j^W" ta- 

Devil, (^^W*> shaitan, ij»^\ ib]is, 
^JAi6. khannds, sJ^ khattdf, ^^ 

Devilish, ^UatA* shaitani. 

Devilry, %s>^jL(Jk shaitanat, j^^Mi 

To Devise, (^^fyt^^ tadbfr kardan, 
^j^ At^ tambid kardan. 

To Devolve, {^^j^ fijj^J^ fio^^ jJ dar 
'uhdah guzardab shudan. 

To Devote, vide To Give, To Con- 


Devoted (ajpropriated), j^^-oafc** 
makhsus, j^st:^ mukhtass, {jt'^ 
mu'ajjan. — (attached) V'>^^ mu- 
hibb. — (thing devoted to Ood) jy 




manzur, fj^^^iA* mukaddas, ^^W/ 

kurbAni. — (bequeathed for reli- 

gioua purposes) «-Ai^ vakf , ^y^y* 

maukdfah. — (servant), ,j;^Ji fidvi, 

ftJ^ bandah. 
Dbyotee (religious), JUfc\j zAhid, 

J^^ *abid, Uj^ pdrsA, ^jj^>A3 aa^ 

gushah-nishin, v/^/* murtdz. — 

(twiTkfermgf devotee) {J^»D*y dar- 

vfsh, ^ fakir, jAxI* kalandar, 

«>^j^ azad. 
Devotion (piety), ^^ takv^, 

o-iVij riyazat, «:>jWc *ibadat, J^j 

To Dbvoub, (i)'^^ bal'fdan, e**j/- 

Devout, ^^ (i^s M ^ inu*takif, ^Jis^ 

muttaki, v^/\j^ khud4-tars. 
Dew, f^i^ shab-nam, ^\j zhdlah. 
Dew-lap, s - ^ ^ ghabghab. 
Dbxtebity, vide Skill. 
DExrBOUs, «JsX)V^ chabuk, j^5ju.j 

dast-kdr, J»^ kdbil, 4S^jj zaring, 

»>S'""o chust. 
Diabetes, J^\ ^^Ju salasu - '1 - 

Diabolic, vide Devilish. 
Diadem, vide Cbown. 
Diagnosis, (^ ^ ^a^^ tashkhis. 
Diagram, 6iy4i nimunah. 
Dial, ^^J^^ S^j da,irah-i-biiidi, 

^jScL. Sy^j da,irab-i-s4<ati, w*Vi^;^ 

Dialectics, jjl**^ J^ *ilm-i-inah- 

Dialogue, J^*^ v»^>«^ ]avab-Bu,dl, 

^^^sAl guftugii, c:X^^ mukdla- 

Diametbb, jUi kutr. 
Diamond, ;j«U3\ almas. 
Diabbhcea, J^\ is-hal, f^ (^Vjt^ 

jirydn-i-shikiD, ya^y zabir. 
DiABY, &*»\i yu. safar-nAmah, &^V> j^ 

Dibble, A^A^} bilcbah. 
Dice, j*x<^tA sbisb-dar, ^aCq. jung, 

s-»» ka*b. — (one die) M^ ka*bah, 

^^^ tas. 
Dictate, \jt\ ighra, **^/«^ tabrik. 
To Dictate (letter, Ac), <;)*>/ M 

imla kardan. 

Dictation, 1^^ \ra\k. 

Diction, <j^ nutk, I&aU taiaffuz. 

Dictionary, sa^ lugbat, ^sSJjbjk 

Die (stamp), ^^^ sikkah, fi* 

To Die, (^^f* murdan, (:)«xfti v£>y 
faut sbuoan, (^^^ «^^^ vafat 
kardan, ^^^jk*^ gasbtan. [Also 
expressed by various pbrases, 
sucb as : (^^y ^ Li>? \) (^W j4n-r4 
taslim kardan (to resign life) ; 

(i^^^ o^^ ^'♦ '^y bi-rabmat-i- 
il4bi paivastan (to he received 
into Ood*s mercy) ; vs^W^ **W 
{^siS labaik-i-ijabat guftan (to 
pronounce the word of accept' 
I ance) ; (jjJ^j^ s^^ 8^ ^ gar bi- 
I tfrab-i-turAb kasbfdan (to with- 
draw one^s head into the darkness 
of the grave) ; {^^j^ ^^y \)W**> 
dunjard vidd* kardan (to hid 
adieu to the world), &Q.'] 

Diet, \^ gbizd, W gbadd, ^ 
ta'm, i^^^*iu» tu'mat. 

Difference, jy fark, i£>^^ tafa- 
vut, u:k:A\ ikbtilAf, ^y tauffr 
(vulg.). [Tbis last word pro- 
perly signifies increasing, mul- 
tiplying.]. — (misunderstatiding) 
jy niz4*. — (of opinion) '^j} ^^ 
kasrat-i-drd, , '\y\ u:k^\ ikbtilaf-i 

Different, jy^^ mutafarrik, 
SA^ele 'ald-biddab, W jidd, 
«Jk)Lsa£^ mukbtaJif, ^W^ muta- 
bayin, jjVa* mughayir, U4A U nd- 
hain-t4, j^ var (vtti^.). — (to he 
different from) (&i) (j^W uu^U? 
taSdvut d&shtan (bi). 

Difficult, J^a*« musbkil, j^»Ai*> 
dusbvdr, <^.«4b.« sakbt, jU sbakk, 
H-*-» sa*b, j.Vfts*« muta'azzir. 

Difficulty, ^J^^i^ mushkilf, JV^\ 
isbkal, (4)^yi»«> dusbvdri, ^s^j-^^ 
'usrat, (^,j:ab«<* sakbtf, cwy^o 
su'ubat. — (toith difficulty) ^j^jl 
H-*-» bi-vajbf-i-sa'b. 

To Diffuse, ^JiUi^ afshdndan, 
{^^^^ rikbtan, (:^*M»^ pasbfdan, 
^jo^^^ parakandan, e^^ y^ 




nashr nimddan, {^^ yu&ju* 
muntaahir adkhtan. 

Diffusely, Jiy^\ ^y J^ 'ala 

Diffusion, jUoil iiitisliar,^^ nashr. 

To Dig, ^ay s^^ *3^ kand u kub 
kardan, (^'i^^^ kiyidBJi, (^Ju^ kan- 
dan, (^*yyi {J>^ nuts kardan, {^^ 
kaftan. — {excavate) (^'^f ^ hafr 
kardan, (^'^^ kdvidan. — (up) 
(^xti ji bar-kandan, ^*3^^1 j«> dar- 

To DiossT, (^^/ f^*^ hazm kardan, 
^j^ JJbs!' tahl/1 kardan, ^•^j^^ 
guvdridan, ^«>;^ J*- hall k^dan. 
— (to he digested) {^j Jel^^ tahlfl 
raftan, ^^j^ ^i^a* hazm shudan. 

Digestion, ^Ja* hazm, \J^j^^ gu- 
T4rish, JJa5 tahhl. 

Digestive, j\^ guv4r. 

Dignified, jyt^ mu'azzaz, i>W^ W 

Dignity, ftW j4h, t)^ shdn, criV^r* 
sar-afrazf, ,4)^^ ^ Bar-far4zf, 
^^*> daulat, u>.>.»*fc> hashmat, 
A^^ shukuh, ^j^ martabah, 
s ->^'-^ mansab, UMi sharaf, ^a^jU^j 
rif'at, JV jalal, JW*^ ikb41, )b1 
a^a, j^ kadar, «a»ye <izzat, (,/Aab**i 

DiGBEssiON, u\ff^\ inhirif. 

Dike, vide Ditch. 

Dilapidations, v>y> khardb. 

To Dilate, 0^jS t»y«>-^ mabsut 

Dilation, Je-tf tafsil, s^Ut^ t n4b. 

Dilatory, vide Lazy. 

Dilemma, vide Difficulty. 

Diligence, A^y tayajjuh, ftUj^\ 
ihtimim, ^JtjjS tan-dihf, J^ 
jahd, ^19^ jidd, JUakl ishtighdl. 

Diligent, A^y^ mutavajjih, ^U 
84*1, StA» mukayyad, ^ ^ sar- 
garm. — (to he diligent) f\*JJt\ 
^%yi ihtimam nimiidan, ^ys^ 
(a^ji mutayajjih bddan, f^ ^ 
O*^ sar-garm budan. 

To Dilly-dally, (^*i/ ^s^f\ g*J 
daf*u-'l-yakt kardan, (^*>/ JaSj 
dildil kardan, (^a^ Jff3 ^ X«t^ hut 
u la'all kardan. 

Dim, vide Obscubb, Dabk. 

To Diminish (grow less), {^'^ 
kastan, (^J^ fti kam shudan. — 
(make less) vide To Lessen. 

Diminution, vide Decbeabe. 

Diminutive, vide Small. — (gram- 
matical term) j^^ ta8ghir,yu«* 

Dimple, aU chah. 

Din, vide Noise (clamour), — (din 
of haUle) jif y jU ddr u gir, ^J^ 
Jy^ h4,i hu,i. 

To Dine, o«>)^ f*^ sham khwur- 

DiNiNG-BOOM, A»U. i^ sufrah- 

DiNNEB (at noon)f ^x>^\«^ chdsht. — 
(o^ night) ft^ shim. 

Dint (hruite), ^f gaud, ^ f tu- 
raftah. — {hy dint of) (^ j^ az 
baa, ^y^jl az kasrat. 

To Dip, (^«^ ^ furd burdan, 
^A^\J^ khiB&iidan. 

Diploma, a^^ namah, %a»\f bar4t. 

Diplomacy, o/^e^^ ilchi-gajri. 

DiBECT, (4^^"*^ mustavf. 

To DiBECT, ^«yi «>^j^ irshad ni- 

DntECTiON (of a letter) y &^^ ^ sar- 
nimah, ^Ui ^ ^ nam u nishin, 
^U^ y ^\i n4m u makam. — (place) 
u^jL taraf, c>4^ samt, s-^W ]4nib» 
^ su. — ( guiding) vj^UjiAj rah- 
nima,f, ^jytJ^j raii-barf, «a^\*^ 

DiBECTLY, Q)^\ al,an. 

DiBECTOB, ^x« mudabbir, it J^ mu- 
dir, ij^j rkfisy j^^ sar-Kar. 

DiBGE, &ti>/* marsiyah. 

DntHAM, ^j*> dirham. 

DiBT, tsW chirk, (jV lajan, (^;W*>^ 
idbari, ut^U^ kasafat, i»^^*> 

To DiBT, (^^^'\ aludan, e*\^ chir- 
kfdan. — (to get dirty) o*>w U* j^ 
az safa uftadan, (^J^ «s)^ U na- 
pAk shudan, (:)*xii «£>yu mulawas 
shudan, (^J^ *- * »««^ kasif shu- 

DiBTY, {^t^ chirkfn, < * *e" ' ^ kasif, 
^^i V» ni.p4k, Ikel^ ghaliz. [This 




latter term is now applied only 
to fluids clotted or thickened.] 

Disabled, y^^ '^jiz» oV ^ ^^" 

To DiSAQBKB, o^j^ '-*^^^ ikhtiUf 

kardan, (^•xk c ft laafe^ mukhtalif 

DisAOBBEABLE, *3>J^ ^ n4-pasand, 

J^«A^ \i na-makbul, &^y U na- 


DlSAOBEEMENT, %JksA.\ ikhtil4f. 

(Vide also Diffebence, Dis- 

To DisAPPEAB, (^JA s-*^ gha,ib 
shudan, (^•xk j^j^ \i n4-padid shu- 

DisAPPEABANOE, vs-*^ ghaibat. 

Disappointed, ^1/» V* n4-mur4d, 
l*V^ U nA-k4m, f^^;^^ mahrdm, 
^jjU m4jds, v *»*J^ bi-nasib, 
J^iXato^ makhzul. 

Disappointment, c>««m^ mahril- 
mf jat, O'^^^^y naumidf, ^ ^i ^-. Cfe lo 

To DiSAPPBOYE, (^^>;4^ J^ bad shi- 
murdan, ^^^^jSi\ inkar dAshtan. 

To DisABBANOE, (^^y>^ ^^(^ takhlft 

DisASTEB, vide Calamity. 

To DiSAYOw, 0^/ ^Ji nafy kardan, 
j^j^UU. h4sh4 kardan, (^*y/ j\^\ 
inkdr kardan. 

DisAYOWAL, s\^\ inkar, ^J^ nafy, 
U\<. hish^. 

To DisBUBSE, vide To Spend. 

Disbttbsbment, uUai* masraf , e^ae* 

Disc, v/»/ kurs. 

To Discabd, vide To Abandon. 

To DiscEBN, (^^ u>i^ j*> dar-jAft 
kardan, ^^^a^jU w,.^ 3^ az ghaib 
danistan, (^J^t^ fahmfdan. 

DiscEBNMENT, v«^ tamviz, )\t^\ 
imtiyaz, sa^^ fatanat, vs^^^ 
firasat, (jJb*> zihn, sa^jt^ basirat, 
^jAx^yib hush-mandf. 

DiscHABGE (receipt), «w»o ^J\ji\ 

To DiscHABGE (dismiss), (^*>/ s^/-^ 
fkhr^j kardan, (^•>\^ s^^yi^ jayab 
didan, ^a/ ^j;^! bfriin kaurdan, 

^jj^ J^^ ma'zdl kardan, «^;Ib ;} 
0*>/ bar taraf kardan. (Fule 
To Pebfobm.) — (a cfefeO tv^ 
(^0)^ mafrugh kardan, (w^^)^ \A 
ada kardan, o^j^ ^33^ j^ 
kar-sAz{ nimudan. — (a gun) Jv«i. 
.(:)**/ khali kardan. — (a load) 
^j^ i- Mtfc takhf if nimudan. 

Disciple, ^y» murid, J^^4iJ talmfz, 
J^/^Ui shagird. — (of Christ) <4)^^ 

Discipline, fl^ nizam, fl^bsi\ inti- 
z4m, W) ^ W^ zabt u rabt. 

Disciplined, ^ W ba-nazm. 

To Disclose, (^*>j^^(:)^*^^ bi-maidan 
ayardan, (^^^ <^.A^kashf kardan, 
0j;^L»jifcVt zahir sakhtan. 

Discontent, ^^jo-Uj \i na-riz4- 
mandf, v^j^^ bfzArf, v^;^**^ o^ bi- 

Discontented, yu&« mutanaffir, 
j1^ hizkr, *J^s«F*J ranjidah, ^j^ 
mukaddar, jyu maldl, <£CuS j dil- 
tang, *yyJA^ \i nd-khwushndd, 
^^^^ ^ na-razi, j*-**. ^j> bf-huzdr. 

DiscoBD, u^^^ ikntilif , &^J^ fitnah, 
ly^xm sitizah. 

DiscoBDANT, jt. \i nd-saz. 

Discount (oinitemeni), Jjyr tanzfl, 
«>*fi**^ Tazi'at, «^^) ri*Ayat, ^j*^ 
kami. — (to aUow a discount) fS 
(^^f kam kardan, (^^f <^hi^ 
ri'ayat kardan, (^^^^ {^^ \ p^- 
pd,in guzirdan (vulq^, 

DiscouBSE, vide Speech (harangue). 

To DiscoYEB (find out), u^iVj jJ 
^j^ dar-yaft kardan, ^•^^ ^j^ 
paidd kardan, ^«>^ i^^jJ^A^ustid- 
rak nimddan, {^k yAf tan, U\<jam^ 
(^^/^ istimbat kardan, (^•xk ia. fc Tl»» 
multafit shudan. — (display) ^^\ 
(^Oy«i izhar nimddan, (^J^ uJlaS 
kashf kardan, (^^/ 6^l^l[ 4shk&- 
rah kardan. 

DiscoYEBEB, ftJu^Vi yibandah, cJU^ 
6JLu^ kashf - kunandah. (Vide 

Disco VEBY, uuui^ kashf. (Vide 

DiscB£BT,|M4^ W ba-tamyfz, ««>;««» W 
bi-basfrat, ss^y W bft-firdsat. 




Discretion, v«^ tamjiz, yt^^ tad- 

bir, sz>jtt^ baafrat. 
To Discriminate, (^*^fyt<^ tamyiz 

Discrimination, ^H^ tabayun, 

^\tfiA imtijaz, v3*yff tafrik. 

To Discuss, o**** J-^ y **J ^add u 
badl shudan, (j^/ ^f\^ muza- 
karah kardan. 

Discussion, ^^\^ muzakarah, Jei 
JVi ^ kil u kal. 

Disdain, vide Contempt. 

To Disdain, vide To Despise. 

Disdainful, o-V"" * mustaghnf, 
p^»A» mutakabbir. 

Disease, vide Complaint. 

Diseased, J^y* marfz. | 

To DisFiouRE, o^y*^ ^y^ J***** 
tabdiUi-sdrat nimiidan, (^^ ;^*> 
(^*i/ dfgar gun kardan, (^•y s^^/s- 
kharab kardaa. {Vide To In- 

Disgrace, J^x^j ru8va,i, ^J^^ ^^ 
bi-hurmati, yj)fi\ o* bf-»tb.rd,i', 
^jFyft ^ bi-*izzati, *s^ nang,jVc 
'ar, ^^ •M bad-nami, ^<b,yAt 
fazihat, c*^ tafzih. 

To DisoRACE, (^^/ ^A^^t^ fazihat 

Disgraceful, \y^j rusva. 

Disguise, Jt*M tabdfl. 

To Disguise, (^^^ J4«M tabdfl ni- 

Disgust, *a>y» nifrat, wt-«*|/ kara- 
hi jat, v5;^>e* b{z4ri. 

To Disgust, o**>^ jb** ^i'^^'' i^iniii- 
dan, (^*^y*i jiA^ ttuif ir nimudan. 

Disgusting, ^/a** mughass, ftjj;^ 
makrub,j«^^ v&>yu nifrat-angiz. 

Dish, oKt zarf (pi. ^^ zuri'if), 
Oj;** aur{. — (wooden dish) jh^ 
tabak. — (iray) Ac^^^^^majmu^ah, 
^_3*t>- si'ni. — (plate) v>VaA| bush- 
kab. — (large plate) s^Vi kAb, 
A^ » fl> nfmchah, cf;^ langari 
(Aimi.).~ (disA-cZou^) ^j*^ safi. 
— (of food) \J»)f- khwurish, ^V«Jb 
ta'Am. — (jruide dish) W» f»^ 
ta'4m-i-muhajy4. — (hot dishes) 
6jdP ^ ^^ ghiz&,f - i - garm- 

To Dishearten, (^j^Vm/ tarsAnf- 

dan, i^^f «sCsSj dil-tang kardan, 

^j^ ^'^\ inzdr nimudan. 
Dishonest, (^Uj^ o> bi-iman, ^jt 

<^^^^ bi-diy^nat, SJuLft^ firiban- 

dahyjW f>^ hilab-baz. 
Dishonour, sa^^ ziilat, s-^e^ *aib, 

jj^^ «fibA hatk-i-ab-ru. 
To Dishonour, (^^f^ yeff^ tahkir 

nimudan. — (a bill) (^*^ o-fc^T f. 

bar - gasht kardan, (^jj \^ va- 

To Disinherit, (•<n^^ ^^rt^ j^ 

[^\^ az mfras mahrum sAKhtan. 
Disinterested, ^^jt ^ bi-gharaz, 

(/liU. kh^lis, j^U sadik. 
To Disjoint, ^«s^ glai kat' kardan. 
Disjunction, ^^\ inkitA*. 
Disjunctive Particle (in gram- 

mar)^ •^•y *^^ harf-i-tardid, 

U^^^ «^^ barf-i-istisna. 
Disk (round surface) , ^j» kurs, 

***^ girdab. 
Dislike (aversiofi), ^\ iba, o*^;C^ 

i'ruz, «yyk» nifrat, yw tan^ur, 

*A^\^ karahiyat. 
To Dislike, (^W t^j^ makruh 

To Dislocate, ^j/ W:W ja-bi-ji^ 

kardan. — (to he dislocated, a 

hone or limb) q>**) »** dar raftan, 

f^jA \qrW ja-bi-ja snudan. 
Dislocation, (^* (^^j^ bfrun raf- 
tan, 0Afc ^?'.W ja-bi-jd shudan. 
DiSLOTAL, vj*U *a8i\ Jfc^ taghi. 
To Dismay, vide To Frighten. 
To Dismiss, tnde To Discharge. 
Dismissal (leave to go), ca^maj 

rukhsat. — (discliarge) ^f\ ikh- 

rAj, s^^^ javab, ^^a* nafv. 
Dismissed, J^)*^ ma*ziil. 
To Dismount, (^^ '^•^ furud 

amadan, ^^Jk^^ {^^ p>A,in amadan, 

^Afc fijl^ piyAdah shudan. 
Disobedience, ^J^f ^ na-firmani, 

*>Uc *inad, ^_^ j-. sar-kashi, 

vs^^'OM^ ma'sijat. 
Disobedient, (^U^ U n&-firm/ln, 

j1»>^ (jjU^ U na-firmAn-bard4r, 

^U^ mu'Anid, <>^ ^ sar-kash, 

jW <ik. 


89 . 


To Disobey, (^^f %j^ r* sftr-kasbf 
kardan, ^*^^ u^lM j^ ^ sar az 
itd'at kashfdan, ^J^ jU 'akk 

DisoBBEB, o^^ji parfshAnf, f^xe 
^Vlhi 'adam-i-iiiz4in, \J^yi^ tash- 
vfsh. (Fieie Complaint.) 

To DisPASAOE, ^^/ v^et^y ta'yib 

DisPABiTT, ss»^ taf4vut, j;^ fark. 

To Dispel, (^^/ ^; raf kardan, j^*> 
(^«>j^ d4r kardan. 

Dispensation {distribution^ order- 
ing), (¥6"^^ taksfm, 513/ tauzf^ — 
(method of Providence) f^^\ in- 
tiz^m, sa>Jiii nazarat, OM'y tauf fk« 
— (licenae) vide Leayb, Excuse. 

To Dispense, vide To Qiye, To 
DisTBiBUTB. — (to dispense with) 
^04 ja ^yo sarf-i-nazar shudan, 
^o^jb glai kat'-Unazar nimti- 

To Disperse, (^^^j^ j/s^ mutafarrik 
kardan, e^V^ d^ tafrik nimu- 
dan, {^sdX^ fiJucsU parikandah 
s4khtan, ^«>U ^ ji bar bid 

D18PBBSED, AJ^^ pardkandah, 
jAax ^ muntashir, i^j^ tdr-m&r. 


Dispersion, ^J^'^\ji par4kandagf, 
jyki iafarruk. 

To DispiBiT, (j)JM.L- Jj ^ bf-dil 

To Display, vide To Discoveb, To 

Displeased, <3U^ kaj-kbulk, 
yUA«« mutanaffir, jJ^ mukaddar, 
ft*x^j ranjfdab, aj^j^ 4zurdah, 
j\yt^ bfz4r, iy tlrab, %«JUJUk 
kbisbm-n^. — (to be displeased) 
(jj^H J« bad 4madan. [Generally 
used tbus : I am displeased, dc, 
^ (^ badam imad.j 

DisPLEASTiBE, j^ takaddur, ^J^j}^ 
dzuidagf, ojV^ bfz&rf,/^ tanaf- 

To Dispobt oneself, (^^^ ^j,)^ h&zi 

Disposable, *^j>os^ mutasarraf, 

Disposal (power, free vriU), s\pSA\ 
ikbtiyAr, jSlfts-^ istikldl. — (erf 
one's disposal) ^a^^ jO dar dast. 

To Dispose, vide To Abbanob. 

To Uispose of, vide To Sell. 

Disposed, vide Inclined. 

Disposition, vide Inclination, 
Tendency, Tbmpbb, Obdeb. 

Disputant, *a^W^ mubdbis. 

Dispute, ^^^ da*r4, gU* niz4', 
iiS^jU* mun&za'at, 6^ kazfjab, 
JW jiddl, a3o\^^» mujAdalab, 
eW^ laj4j, A-ft^ kbarkbisbab, 
&^\^ mub&basab, jUU sbalt&k, 
fty^^M, sitfzab, J'ytff^ sitfzagf, ^^ 
sbuluk (wig,). 

To Dispute, {^^^y^ j*^ iJhXt^ mub4- 
basab dar paivastan, (^^y** <^^ 
babs nimiidan. 

Disquiet, ^J^y^'S Asbiiftagf, ^j 

Disregabd, JaW tagb&ful. 

Disrespect, <j»yft ^jt bf-*izzat{, ^jt 


^^ cbasbm-ptisbf, jUifc\ ibm&l. 

j^js^jo. bi-burmatf, ^jxa*.u« ^^^ 
bi-s&kbtagf. — (^0 treat wUh dis- 
respect) (^*y/ ut>;^ bakdrat kar- 

Disruption, j/- kbark, j^ nakz. 
(Fide also Bbeach.) 

To Dissect, (^*y/ ^j^ tasbrfb kar- 

Dissection, ^jAS tasbrfb, JUtf^ 

To Dissemble, e^/^> rijk kardan, 
^o^ &i\^ bab4nab nimddan. 

To Disseminate, vide To Scatter. 

Dissemination, yAi naabr, j\Aa\ 

DissENTiON, Al^V& gb&,ilab. 

DissEBTATiON, Vide Speech (ha- 
rangue). — (essay), *J^) risalah. 

To Dissimulate, <ij»>^ jj^la)** ^^" 
rdgbf nimildan, ^«>^ uu^jIju* 
mud4r&t nimddan, (p^/ 6i\eii ba- 
binab kardan, (p*y/ S^ taklfd 

Dissimulation, «a»\}W mud&r&t. 

To Dissipate, (^«>/ s^«> daf' kardan. 
(Vide To Squandeb, To Sgat- 






DiBBiPATiOK, vide Debavohbbt. 
DiBsoLiTTB, vide Abandoned 

Dissolution, jM nakz, Jl^\ inhi- 

141. (Vide Death.) 
DiSSOLVANT, AJJj^J^ gud^zAiidali. 

To Dissolve, vide To Melt, To 
DisPBBSB.— -(a meeting) (trans,) 
^^MXm Jw^ munhall s&khtan, 
^o^ J*, hall nimddan. — (tn- 
trane.) e)^^^* JW^ inhUdl ydf- 

Dissonant, vide Discobdant. 

To Disbvadb, (^^y4S j\^\ mz4r ni- 
mddan, ^Oj^ m^ mana' kardan, 
^^^*y jW baz-ddshtan, ^o^W^l ^^ 

Distaff, ««1^«> duk, A%f)«> ddkchah. 

Distance, vit)^«> ddri; <a^L^ inas4- 
fat, «JLoU f Asilah, J^t bu'd, cu^Vtf 
tafiyut. — (<o A^e^p at a distance) 
^Ay4i Jj radd nimddan. 

Distant, «*> diir, a^ ba*id, (j^W^^ 

Distaste, vide Dislike. 

DiSTEMPEB, ^y maraz. 

To Distil (drop), c)*^^ chakfdan, 
i^^^f tarivfdan. — (spirits) j^ 
(j>aKS *arak giriftan, cj**;^ y^^ 
jaunar giriftan. 

Distillation, J^e*-» tas'id, jUdU-l 

Distinct, mcle Diffsbsnt, Sepa- 


Distinction, vide Diffebence, 


Distinctly (cZ«oHy),*Vd» tafsilan, 
'^yt^k z41iiran, "U^^ masbrdhan, 
AJV5Ui^ 4sbk4rah, nj^e 'ij&nan. 

To Distinguish, ^»>/jLa»«^ imtijAz 
kardan, e*^^ v/iaiaii.»» tashkhis 
niinddan, (^^ ^Jiy^ tafrfk sikb- 
tan, (^Uk sbinakhtan, ^^^Wl 
^j^ tabijun nimiidan. — (to 
distinguish oneself) {^^ }\^\ 
imtiyaz j&ftan, ^J^ }^s.^^ mumtdz 

Distinguished, jU*^ mumtdz, «^*> 
(wjU zi-sbdn. 

To DisTOBT, tndc To Pebvebt, To 
Bend, To Ebb. 

Distbacted, i^jjk sbdrfdah, \j^»4 
shaida, (^"^jt^ nairAn, (^^ y^ sar- 
garddn, &5Aib»W bar-4shuftab. 

DisTBEss, vide Habdship, Misebt, 
Pain, Gbief, Difficulty. 

To Distbess, vide To Afflict. — 
(to distress oneself) (^^Mj^ \)*>y*- 
(^Ltkhwudra parfsban sakbtan. 
— (to he distressed) ^^M^ <xu^^ 
mibnat kashfdan, {^\ ij^) ran- 
jish j4ftan. 

To Distbibute, (^^f f^ f ^S taksfm 
kardan, (:)«V^. ^^«^ bissah bakb- 

Distbibution, f^ f ^S taksim, ^'♦■■■■ i 

DiSTBiCT (large tract of country), 
jVio dij4r, ^jy^ kdrab, a«^U uL 
bijab.— »(«maZ2er division) d^i^ 

To DisTUBB, o*M^) JU- kbalal 
rasAnfdan, (j^u^^Ji^ v»yi^ Asbiib 
and^kbtan, o^^ f*^*^i^ izdibAm 
nimddan, eH^t*^^ Asbuftan, g^U 
^*>y m&ni' budan, q^j^UjS^ Jk^Uu* 
magbsbdsb gard&nidan. 


Distubbed (as a country, town, &c,, 
in a state of anarchy), ^yAA^ 
magbsbdsb, &siAS ashuftab. — 
(turbid, a« water, d&c.) ft;** tfrab, 
M^ gbaliz, 4.*^ mukaddar. 

Disunited, j.W^ ^Ji bi-ittifdk. 

Disused, JU^ mu'attal, t^— ** 

Ditch, jam. kbandak, a^ gaud, 
jWi gaudAl, ftyk-. bufrab, aJW 

Ditto, *V^^ aizan. 

To Dive, o**^^ *^^ gbdtab kbwur- 
dan, <:)*>^ {j>y^ gbaus nimddan. 

Diybb, ^j>\»t gbavyds, ;^ Ai^* 

DiVEBGBNCE, u!%fiA\ ikbtil&f. 

DiYEBS, vide Yabious. 

DiYEBSiON, «-i^^^ inbidif. — 
(amusement), ^jW bdzi - cbab, 
u>^ gasbt, UUl tam^sbd, t/Sf 
tafarruj, jt^ sair, s-^ p fit labr 
va la'b, Va« safA, <»A«^ kaif . 




To DivEBT (turn off), (^^MU/'gar- 
d^fdan, (^^\j \y v&-r4ndan. 

To Divide, (^o^T ^^^.^ taksfxu kar- 
dan, (^«>/ <A'.»..i,S ^j du kismat 

Dividend (arith,), fyJif* mak- 

Divination, s-*e* Jl^ *ilm.i-ghaib, 
J-; ramal, JU Ml, J^tf tafa„iil. 

Divine, ^ji\ iUhf, ^W^ subMnf, 
^J\^^ rabbdnf, ^j-a» kudsf, y*JA« 

To Divine, vide To Discbbn. 

Divines, vide Magician. 

Divinity, i**©fcy^ uldhfyat. (Vide 

Division, f^ kism, f^t'^JS taksfm, 
<j»j» tafrfk, 45/? tafrikah, 513^ 
tauzfS Ae^y taujih. — (in ari^ 
metic) ia.".» - *'J kismat, ^ '^^tf tak- 
sim, ^»-i kasm. — (0/ an armyy 
river y Sc) *<««*» shu*bah. (Vide 

DivisoB, ^ tT"^ maksum bihi. 

DivoBCE, v3^ talAk. — (reversal 
of a divorce) *^^^^) rij'at. — (di- 
vorce hy mutual agreement) g^ 
khal% or khaV, «a>^jW^ mubdrdt. 
— (triple divorce, which cannot he 
revoked) j3U» &- sib-talak. — (the 
time of probation which a divorced 
woman muH wait before she can 
erigage in a second marriage) ui>.xe 

Divorced (womari), ^»^l^ mutal- 

To DivxTLGB, vide To Reveal. 

Dizziness, vide Giddiness. 

To Do, (^«>/ kardan, (^U sikhtan, 
(^^y^ J4^ 'amal nimudan, (:>^W^ 
pard4khtan, (^*^f^ nimtidaii. — 
(how do you do?) j^ ^ Ua J^^^ 
ss^ ahv^-f-shum4 cbih taur 
ast, «JMi J^^^ ahval-i-sbarff, 
iA^\ jC Ui» ^U«> dimagh-i- 
shum4 ch4k ast, d^/ Ua 4-A)^ 
*j>»^\ kaif-i-shumd kdk ast. 
Docile, vide Tbactablb. 
Docility, cs^^U»« mutAva'at. 
Dock (plant), y &*^ sallamah- 
taxah, ij^y^ Inrds, ^J^^J rhis. 

Dockyard, ^jU ^JJ^ ^6S\6. j\i Idix- 

DocTOB (sage), UU dink, Jo^JtiU 
d^ish-mand, ^Ve <41im, ^^^^ 
bakfm, J*U fAzil. — ((focfer«,|>Z.) 
Uie <alam4, UXk. bukamA, JaVm 
af 4zil, SUft fuzali, ^^-^^ masb^- 
ikh, ^V^^ akAbir. — (physician) 
s-«i tabfb (pi W atibbi), ^ 
bakim (pi, UX». hukamd). — (of 
laws) M^ fakfli, (^524** muftf , a#« 
muUA, «* Ja\ ahl-i-fikah. 

DocTBiNE, va%»5^ hikmat, ^«JbJ 
ta4im. — (religious) s-^J^ maz- 

DocTTHENT, j2^U««> dast-&viz, J^\^ 

Dodge, *Vs»4J tambid. 

DoDGBB, •^44; V| bi-tainbfd. 

Doe, vu2e Debb. 

Dog, 4sC sag, s-1^ kalb. — (hound) 
Oj^ tAzf, a3^ ttilab.— (prf de^) 
,^y bujf. — (shepherd^ s dog) 4s5w 
AiT sag - i - gallab. — (watch- 
dog) AiW 42C. sag-i-kbdnab. — 
(keeper) ^si^ ^^^ ' " ^ mustabfiz-i- 
tdz/, ft)W4)^ tdzf-bdn. — (tftor, 
Sirius) (ts^ sba'rd, s-^^ aJ- 

Dogma, ftA«fie 'akidab, <^JJ^ ^U^ 

Doleful, {^^ bazin, ««)Uft^ji\ an- 
dub - ndk, {^tf^^^ sabm - gfn, 
(:^JUt gbam-gm, 3^/^ jigar- 

Doll (plaything, puppet), oV*^ 
'ardsak, ^^^ff^ 'aruscbab, o^jIa 
'aldcbik (vutg.). 

Dolphin, (2)^*> dalf fn. 

Dolt [stuj^ fellow), «-^jd. kbirif, 
(^^yi kaudan, •sui' kund. 

DouAiN, udlU mulk. 

Dome, J^ gnmbaz, M kubbab. — 
(raised on open arches) jVL ^y^^ 

Domestic (tame), sj^^ kb&nagf, 
i^\ unsf. (Vide Sebvant.) 

Domicile, vide Abode. 

Domiciled, (^f^ mutavattin. 

To Dominate, ^«>^ULi^ musaUat 




DoiOKATiON, IbLj tasallut. 
Dominion, vide Authority, 


Donation, vide Gift. 

DoNKBY, vide Ass. 

DoNOB, AJujfc^ dihandah, ajoaj 6i\e\ 
i'dnah dihandah, fijuut^. bakh- 

DooB, j«> dar, i}\^*^ darv^zah, v>W 
bib, ^U kdpu, ^Vi kApf.— (to 
«%tti the door) i^^j^ sA^ chift 
kardan. — (door-poii) y^W bahd. — 
{one leaf of a door)j*y *4^ lingah- 
i-dar. — (folding doors) ^ji^ j«3 
dar-i-kitdbf. — (hali'door) v»j*> 
darb. — (door-keeper) (^W j^ dar- 

Dot, AiiA nuktah. 

DoTAOB, ^'^^V- khirifat. 

DoTABD, ^^«»jy> khir4fat-gui. 

DoTTBLB, V; y dd-td, Ju^ ^•^ du- 
chand, U^\a» muz4'af, J^^ju mu- 
saxmi, 4l»Uu ^j dd-mukdhalah, 
Ubu zi'f. 

To DouBLB, (^*yy4S U^U* muza'af 
nimddan, ^^^ «-M^ taz'if ni- 
rnddaii. — (fold), t>*>/ ^ ^*> dd- 
t4 kardan. 



DOUBLB-EBGBD (<u a 8word)j &«*>^J 



Doublet, A&^tA^- jilftkah. 

Doubt, ^i«fAi shubhah, (^US guman, 

«<Xito shak, or shakk, s-S|; raib, 

A«A^ Bh4,ibah, aW^^ ishtibiih. 
To Doubt, (^o^ oU shak kardan, 

0*V^ ^Ul gnm&n nimddan. 
Doubtful, M*^ mushtabih, 

d^j^ji^ mashkdk, ^»9«^ mubham. 

DoucBUB, vide Gift. 
Dough, M4A. khamir, aaAi^ Oj^ ^rd- 

DovB, j?^ kabdtar, y^ kaftar, 
f»W ham4m. — (turtle) Aa*-^ 
f dkhtah, ^^ kumrf , j^JJ tazanr. 
[ThiB latter word has usuallj 
been taken to signify the phea- 
sant.] — (houMef or cote) A^U. fp^ 

kabdtar-kh&nah, a»U.^ kaftar- 
khanah, ysA^ »ji burj-i-kaftar. 

Down, ^ furu, *^^ furdd, (^J^ 
pa,iD,ji3 zfr, * I ^ fA i nishfb, (^U 
d4man, (j)^^«3 duman. — (o/ 6irc2«, 
i&c.) ft)4) ji par-i-rizah. — (nap of 
velvet or cloth) *«U^ kulk. 

Downcast, vide Sab. 

DowNWAEDS, ^}\y* Bar-4-zfr, s^ft * 
nishib, v^«Ai shib, ^^^ p4,{n. 

DowRT (mven hy bridegroom to 
bride), j\ J^ sadak, ^ mahr, (^V^ 
kabfn. — ( property which the bride 
brings with her) yee^ jahfz, jW 

DozB, o^^ pinakf. 

To Doze, ^aj c5^^ pfnakf zadan, 
O'^J «a>>^ churt zadan. 

Deaooman, oW/ tarjum&n, f^f^ 

Deagon, VibJ^ azhdahi, t«>j\ azhdar, 
^W su'ban, (:)«aI tanm. 

Deagon-flt, tf^i*^ mashkhurah. 

Deagon's blood, <^^^^ f^ damu- 
'1-akhavain, ^U>^^ (^^ khdn-i- 

Deain, ^\jiS 4b-r4h, jJ^H ib-guzar, 
^ jOf bi-dar*raw, ykj^ k4rfz. — 
(nnA; of a house) ^ji^\ 4b-ahi, 
ytjiS 4b-rfz. 

To Deain (land, house, &e.), «sU4. 
(*)J^U khnshk s^khtan. 

Deama and Dramatic, ^W b4zi, 
AmA shabfh. 

Deapbe, j\y) bazz4z. 

Deaught (gulp), s^/i shurb, &e^ 
jur'ah, «u;* knrt. — (decoction) 
ijs\jky^ jdsh&ndah. — (of a letter, 
Sc.) *y\y^ savdd, i^y^m^ muBavra- 
dah. — (for money) **>\;» bardt, 
^\^ hav41ah. — (act of puUiM) 
(.r^^kashish. — (of air) \y^ j^^j 

Deaughts (the game), «>y nard. 
[This game being played with 
dice, rather resembles backgam- 
mon than draughts.] — (draughts- 
board) «>y A^aAi^ takhtah-i-nard. — 
(draughts-man) ^^ muhrah. 

Draughtsman (drawer), t^f^ tar- 




To Dbaw (pvtt)f M^i^^ kashfdan. 
— (attract) ^J^^kashfdaji, s^«W 
(^U jazb s4kbtan, (^^y^ s-^ 
jaJb nimiidaii. — (a ati^oreQ (^^e) 
^•Xe^ bfrdn kashfdan, ^^s^ 4kn- 
tan (ofe«.). — {extract) (^^)^^ bar- 
4Yardan, (^Ju^ kandan, (:)*>;^ gl^ 
kal' kardan, (^.M^j» bar-kashf- 
dan, ^^/ e^jafeA>«\ istikhrdj kar- 
dan. — (pairii) (^o^«A^ kashfdan, 
^Oj^ ^yd tasyfr kardan, ;^^^ 
ang^shtan. — (a fowl^ &c.) ^\^ 
0*x P^k kardan. — (to draw up 
an army) {^n^ «JU saff bastan, 
^o^ ^JJ\ cJU Baff-&r4,f nimti- 
dan. — (^ draw hack, show a white 
feather) o^^^ e^*^^^^ j^ az Tna.idan 
gurfkbtan. (Vide To With- 
DSAW, To Eetbeat, To Quail, 
To Avoid.) — (to draiv, aa tea or 
other decoction) ^^v^y^ f^ dam 
kasbidan. — (to draw tight) j^} ^ 
^.x^ bi-zdr kasbidan, ws^Am 
^j^JL^ sift kasbfdan, (^•^^il^ oCJ 
tang kashfdan. 

Dbaweb (of a tabUy dc), a^W kb&- 
nab. (Fuie Paintsb.) 

Dbawbbs, a^W jtj zfr-j&mali, ;\ybeb 

Dbawino, vide Pictubb. — (figure- 
drawing) f\'^ jtftS tasyfr-i- 

Dbbad, vide Feab. 

Dbbadfttl, ««lUSy^ baul-ndk, ««)U.«y 
tars-ndk, i^^ok^ mukbayvif , «s)V»^ 
kbatar-ndk, JAa bA,il, s^j^/* 
marbdb, s-^^e^ mnbib. 

Dbbam, v»^ys- kbw4b, Vp ru,vA. 

To Dbeam, (^^a v»y. kbw4b 
dfdaiiy ^^•i v»^^ j«3 dar kbw4b 
dfdan, (^^2 j V^''^ ru,j4 dfdan. 

Dbeos, «>j*> durd, AUft fazlab, Ud. 
kbilt, Jl Uf , JA- sifl. — (of the 
people) y#U5^ ^\iS\ azndbu-'n-nda. 

To Dbekch, ^•>/ i> tar kardan. 

Dbess, «s)U^ pdsn4k, ^^ji pusban, 
u-VJ libas, &*W- j4mab. (Vide 
Clothes.) — (cAani^^; of dress) 
(^\^/\y T^-gardin. 

To Dbbss, e*^^ piisbfdan, va^j 
^«^^ lakbt p6snfdan, ^^M^ 

ptisbinfdan, (*pft.U (j«^ mtilab- 
bas sdkbtaii. — (a wound) ^/* 
(2)jj^A5' marbam guz4rdan. — 
(victualSf dc) (^^ ijt^s*y durust 
kardan, (^*yf 6jU^ 4madab kar- 
dan, (^*y/ ^ tabkb kardan, {^sis> 

Dbessino, vide Plasteb (for a 

Dbieb (fruit, dc.)f o lA^ kbusbk. 

Dbift, Ae^«>^^ majmti'ab. — (mean- 
ing) fjut^ ma'ni, s-^1^ matlab. 

To Dbift, ^ja £^*^^ majmd' sbu- 

Dbill (military exercise), \^j^ <>A^ 
masbk - i - sarbdz, i*^ J^ 
masbk-i-nizim, ^Vlhi ^»^ ta'lfm-i- 
niz4m. — (ground) <>A^ ^^J^e^ 
maidin-i-inasbk. — (tn«^Kme9i^) 
s-^A^ miskab. 

To Dbell, i^'^/ OM^ masbk kardan. 
— (a hole) (^*y/ 1\^ sdrAkb kar- 

Dbink (anything drinkable), v»/k 
sburb, s^M<A>^ masbrdb, ,J^^^ 
ndsbfdan/^- — (intoxuxtting drinki) 
^sAj^'^^ muslardt. 

To Dbink, (^'i^^ ndsbfdan, 
^•x^U^ dsbdmfdan, e^j^ kbwur- 
dan. — (speaking respectfully) Je^ 
(^^y^j^ mail firmddan, ^W J^y 
(^*^y^^ ndsb-i-jin firmudan. 

Dbinkable, {J^)^ kbwnrdanf. 

Dbinkeb, AJoAiy ndsbandab. — 
(drunkard) jij^V* Bbar4b-kbwur, 
Ue^ ftaW bddab-paimd. 

DBiNKiKa-TEssBL, oj^^ H;^ ^^' 

To Dbip, <:)*xa. f^\s takdtor sbudan, 
^jLe^ cbakfdan. 

Dbippino (fat), AtJi pib, o*j^ cbar- 
b{. — (a« uxiter) \J*^f tardvisb, 
ji\B takdtur. 

To Dbivb, (^^\\ rindan. — (in a car- 
riage) t)*^ ;V" 8uv4r sbudan. — 
(awa/y) (^^\) rdndan, ^*>/ g*«3 
daf' kardan, o^^j^ m*> ddr kiardan, 
(^^\^f ji bar-garddnidan. 

Dbiyeb, vide Coach-han. 

Dbizzlb, f^ f^ ^\j^ bir4n-i-nam* 




Dboll, oWA'* muzhik, ^ V^ b4- 

Dbomsdabt, ^y^, bukhtf, A)W 
jummizah, ^ JuJ yjk shutur-i- 
Drop, ^j^ katrah, ^ chakkah. — 

(pendant) fty^^ 4yfzah. 
To Dbop, (:)*\iH chakfdan, ft;Li ft^ 
f^*y\si\ katrah katrah uftadan, 
^^f 6^ chakkah kardan, {^^) 
rfkhtan. — (to let go) (^*i/ J^ yil 
kardan. (Vide To Fall.) 
Dbopsical, ^ji -?" >* muBtaskf. 
Dropsy, Uua*^ istiskd. 
Dboss (of metal), ^j^ durd, aU* 

fazlah, )U filizz, ^j Hm. 
Dbouoht, o^*^^ khushkf, (^\j\i ^ 


To Dbowk, (^^/ j^ ghark kardan. 

— (to he drowned) (^ja j^ ghark 

shudan, ^ja j^a-i*^ mustaghrak 


Dbowsinbss, q^M pfnaki, cu»j». 

chart, jjToy^ ^^u. khwab-41ddagf. 

Dbowsy, 6*>y^ s^U^ khwib-iltidah, 

ftoj ^j^Aei pinaki-zadah. 
Dbudgebt, tA".*^^ mihnat. 
Dbuo, ^^j dava, ^;U daru. 
Dbugoist, ;Uaft <attAr, JJk;/ jyW 


Dbum, Jaj duhl, Jft tabl. — 

(drum-stick) *si^ kajak, e^^ 

changdn. — (kettle-drum) ft)W nak- 

kirah, ^/ kus, ^ (jl^fj; ru,in- 

khum. — (email drum played on 

with the fingers) t^^W tumbak, 

•«A*^«3 dumbak. — (big-drum), ^}A 

^J\\i ym 4*5>» tabl-i-buzurg-i-Bar- 


Dbummeb, ^j^^ nakkdr-chf, Jaj 

^3 duhl-zan, JIA tabbdl, ,,54lM> 

tabl-ch{, ^Wft bAlabAn-chf. 

Dbunk, 4a.^.»«^ mast, u>«m^ j-^ sar- 

mast, j^«4to^ makhmiir, ^y ^ 

sar-giran, \>**-/- sar-khwush. — 

(deGu2 drunk) i*^.*-^ aW«» siydh- 

mast, uw.^ o) bad-mast. 

Dbunkabd, j^ s^y^ shar&b-khwur, 

***^ji «j^ mai-parast. 
Dbunkenkess, ^^'^i^mastiy^^/'j-t 
8ar«gir&nf, ^^^ym sar-khwushi. 

Dby, ««^a^ khushk, y-|Vt y^bis. — 

(ttntfUereffftn^) Ay* ^ bi-mazah. 

— (thirsty) ^UAJ tishnah, (^UW 

'atshan. — (wine) ^ talkh, (jt}«> 

To Dby, (^^ oJU^ khushk kardan, 

^Afjl^Jt^ khushkanidan. 
Dual, a«-^ tasnijah. 
Dubious, vide Doubtful. 
Ducat (value generally about ten 

shillings sterling), ^J^^ bajughli, 

^^eW baj-ukH, «v* majar. 
Duck, «s)*>)4^ urcfak, W bat, ««Uit 

batak, o^vley* murgh-4bi. 
Duct, vide Cakal. 
Ductile, |^ talazzuj. 
Due (to he paid), ^J^\^ dddani, 

\S%\ s-^U yAjibu-'l-ad^. (Vide 

Eight, Fbopsb, Tax, Tbibute.) 
Duel, vide Battle. 
Duos {breasts), ^U.^ pist&nhi, 

(2)^J^ sudjain. 
DuLCiMEB, j^A^ santdr, j^j zan- 

DuLCO-ACiD (a>s the juice of an 

orange, &c.), J^fit^ mai-khwuah. 
Dull, vide Blunt, Stupid. 
Dumb, cs^^ gung, JS Ul, eV>fi» 

bf-zaban, ^i^ bakfm (pL ^UX| 

Dumbness, ij^yti bf-zab^i, ^J^ 

gungf, fA bakam, %s^s^ baka- 

Dun (coloured), a**— samand. — 

(importunate creditor) <j*Vto» mu- 

To Dun (impo^rtune), ^j/ UUb; ta- 

k4zA kardan, (^oa ^ \^ p4-pai 

shudan (vulg,). 
Dung, »^ guh, Af guh, Jjj zibl, jW 

birAz, *i-A* fazlah. — (of cows) {^^^ 

sargin. — (of horses) (^^ pa,fn, (^ 

pain, (j^ pahm. — (of deer, sheep, 

camels, Ac,) J^^ pishkil. — (of 

birds) jy^ chalgh^z, JU«( pf khal, 

ij\) zilk, aU^ fazlah, Jj zil (t;«Z^.). 

— (dried for fuel) *s^^ pAchak, 

aSV^ tap^lah, &V tapalah, aW 

jallah, ^VT jU 84z-g4r. 
Dungeon, J^- ftW«« siyah-ch&L, ^Wj 

zind^, A»WUu*> dustak-khinah. 




DuKo-HiLL, ^ky* mazbalah, {^^ 

Dupe, ^^ ghabf, J/ giil, o**/ 

Duplicate, «JkftU*» maza'af. — (of 
papers) J» naki, Aat-i y*y dd 

Duplicity, vide Deceit. 

Durability, ^ bak4, <4)^J4^ pay- 
dAri, ij;j^^\ ustuvArf. 

Durable, ;^ j^V^ paj-d4r, ^ kA,im, 
y\^\ ustuYar. 

Duration, ^U«a-^ istimrAr, f^^*^ 
daY&m, j\^ KarAr. 

During, f»UU in4dAm, (^ bain, V; 
td, U*^ asni, (;)W«;** dar mijdn, j*> 
JU dar khil&l. 

Dusk (o/ evening), ^A^ tdrikf, 
<^^»J^ zulmat, ij^ tiragf, <3Aa* 
shafak, A^leA snab4n-g&h, u>i^ 
(^;^ ^ ««$^ vakt-i-gurg u mfsh 
(literally " Time of wolf and 
sheep*': French, '*Entre chien et 

Dust, *<JU. kMk, v»y turAb, y:* 
katar, g» nak*, ^ palm. — (flying 
dust) *yf gard, ^ gbubar. — 
(gold dust) d^)} zarak, )^ A)2t 
rizah-i-tila. — (to bite the dust) 
(^jjyk y^ zamin khwurdan. — 
(to dust) O'M^ ^y^ g^i*<^ takanf- 
dan, (^J^Uil j^ gard afsh&ndan. 
— (to kick up a dv3t) o**/^v»^^ 
dshub kardan. 

Dust-hole, vide Ash-pit. 

Dusty, «d;j3^ ;W* ghubAr - 61ddah, 
p^^ mughbarr. 

Duty, v>*^ hakk, j^ kAr, &a^ 

pishab, &^«S zimmah, s-^«a^ man- 
sab, ft*^e 'ubdah, Ua^ mubtaghd, 
ew«jkd. khidmat, vs^j^ minnat, 
»Ac^ Ta'dab. — (special duty) ^ 
(^t»^ kit - i - mu'ayyan. (Vide 
Custom, Tax.) — (to perform or 
fulfil a duty) (^aJ\ o ^^ 8j^ y\ 
az 'uhdab - i - kar oar-dmadan, 
^ jy#i ftAee J^\ iU,l - i - 'uhdah 

nimddan, o*V;^ ^. j^ ^^^r ^i-j^ 
dyardan, (:)*>/ *Jkcy U^ vafd bi- 

va'dab kardan, o**^ y*^ ^■^^T'^ 
ijr4,f-i-amr nimddan, cw****. ^^*>\ 
(^«>j^ ad4,f-i-khidmat kardan. — 
(to fail in a duty) ^J^^ ^ 5*^e }\ 
az 'uhdah bar-naydmaddn, fi*^e }\ 
^j^ J^^ az *uhdah *udul kar- 
dan, e^/ cs*^^^ kdtdhf kardan, 
(a'^/jy^ kusdr kardan. 

Dwarf, juJ *U^ kdtab-kad, %«J*>;^ 
mardak, Jys^ kutdlf, J^ khip- 
pil (vulg.). 

To Dwell, vtcZa To Abide. 

Dweller, {^f^ mutavattin, (j^U 
s&kin, ftJoM) bdshandab, f»«»A« 

Dwelling, vide Abode. 

Dye, «s^j rang, so^Jl^ sibghat. 

To Dye, (^^} «a^j rang zadan, e«^j 
(^^/ rangin kardan, ^«>^ ks^J^^ 
sibgbat nimddan. 

Dyer, (^\ «^j rang-zan, yt) «^j 
rang-riz, ^W« sabb&gh. 

Dynasty, JAjIp tabakaL, J«<i nasi, 
A l 1 - silsilah. 

Dysentery, J^-6--«^ is-liAl, yt-^} 

Dyspepsia, vide Indigestion. 


Each, y^ bar, *^ y^ bar yak. 

Eaobr, J^*^;;j1[ arzd-mand, Aui^A 
sbauk-mand, j^^^^ muBbtak, 
,jJU 8ba,ik, ^/j^ sar-garm. 

Eagle, s>^ *ukab, j— * nasr, J^«> 
d41, (j-^^«> d41man, •>^ mdd, &;> 
sj^^ karab-kdsh. — (two - headed 

eaaU, Russian a/rms) y^ y^ v»^ 
Ear, yj»f gdsh. — (of a pitcher or 
jug) ^aA0» mnshtab, &^«> dastah. 
— (of corn) **•/- kbdsbah, aI^a- 
sumbulab. — (by ear) 'V^Uai sbifi- 
ban. — (to put im^s fingers in one's 




mr$) i^/ \^f gfisb giriftan, Mi 
^jj^ ^^ yy pombfu dar gtish 
kardan. — {to lend an ear) yj^f 
(^j\^ gtish d4daii. — {to Bet by the 
ear8\ <^*>3 ^ ji bar-ham zadan. 

Eably, Ojij zdd, j[) zA (imZ^.). — (in 
/^ morning) ^t^ ^ £ajr-i-subb, 
cM^ J^ 'al4.'s-8ab4h, ^^Vl ^«^ 
sabar - g4bi, «>2} C*^ subb - i - 

To Eabh, e**/ J^^J^ mudakbil 
kardan, ^j^^*^^ andtikhtan, ^)«U 
^a^ b&sil kardan. 

Eabnbbt (truCf really), <3*> bakk, 
lt^mJ^ <y ff.'l-bakfkat, 'Ijin^ 
jiddan, <«^^j r&st, (^^ yakfn. — 
(advance of money) ^^^A ^ pisba- 
gf, ^Uei bai'dnab, ^y^ 'urbdn, 
cJkU salaf . 

Eabnbbtlt, ^*h- j^iit bi-taur-i- 
jiddi, ^•H- jiddan. 

Eabning, ^V^ tabflfl, s^^ kasb, 
v»U^^ iktis^b. 

Eabbing, J^^uL. halkah-i-guah, 
^^^f ffdBbvdrab. 

Eabth, «^U. kb4k, ^^^t^j zamfn, ^/j^ 
arz, ^ palm. 

Eabthsn, ^Vd. kbdkf, (2>«SU.« sifi- 
Ifn. — {earthenware) Jf j\ az gil, 
JU-. eif alf, c^ gUfn. 

Eabthlt, 4j4J^ 'ilamf, ^J^^ arzf. 

Eabth<^uakb, (:>o««3 ^^^3 zalzalab- 
i-zamfn, J^y tazalziu. 

Eabthwobk,32/U. kb4k*rfz. 

Eabwig, ««y> Jk^gtiflb-kbazak. 

Eabb {facility), ^J\A &8&n{, vsJj«« 
sub^at, uw'I j U salisat. — (repoae) 
A^ &r4m, crt^^ 4s4jisb, i*^^ 
rabat, la^y fardghat. — ^a< ea«e) 
Jl^\ Ay muraffabu-'l-b&l. — (to 
he at ease) (^^i^j\ 4r4mfdan. — 
{to take one's ease) cr^ Jy^^^ 
^a^ masbgbtil-i-'aisb biidan. — 
{to ease oneself) (^^\ rfdan. 

Easily, ^U^ dsan, 'V^ sablaiiyjo 
Va« (2^ dar 'ain-i-safd. 

East, jy^ masbrik, j/* sbark, 
£&!»• matW. — (to ^ east of) j«> 
^^jMk «»%4m dar samt-i-sbarkf. — 
{tne East, country) (^tt^j J/^*^ 

Easteb, yM •^A 'M-i-&tir. 
Eastbbk, ^> sbarkf. — {cowidries) 

M 7 "fc** «>Si| bil&d-i-masbrikfjab. — 

{langua^ei) Myk 4a«J^ alsmab*!- 

sbarkijab. — {Q^eetian) j/^ 'i**-^ 

East, (^M 484n, J«-« sabl. 
To Eat, e*^^^ Uiwurdan, ^o^ J^U» 

tanivul kardan. — {speaking 

respectfully) o*^y*j^ J^ mail fir- 

mddan, <:>«>^ ^W J^y ntisb-i- 

jdn firmiidan. 
Eatablb, iJ*^jy^ kbwurdanf, JiVs 

Jfl kabU-i-akl. 
Eatables {provisions) *^\\y^ kbwu- 

r4k, «a>*i kdt, f»UL ta'^, ^j4«^ 

kbwurakf {vtUg.). — {prepared/or 

a journey) «>\j z4d, aa^ tiisbab. 
Eau de Vie, j^ 'arak, «a>\«^\*U 

Eaves {of a house), ^ turrah, 

^^^jU sb&dunran. 
Ebb, J^ji) zay&l, jy^ jazr. 
Ebony, u^yA 4biid8. 
Ebitllition, vide BoxLiKa. 
Eccbhtbic, y/« t)^ kbirij-i-mar- 

kaz, Ajn«> 6)^ kb4rij-i.d4,uab, 

ftjU)\ e^W kb4riju-'l.<4dab. 
Echo, 6«s ^j^* 8adi,{-i-kdb, «^y 

nuf, Jfr^ufcui bintu-'l-jabal. 
Eclat, vide Splbndoub. 
Eclipse {of sun), «^^ kuBiif, 

tf^L^ kasifat, «.JL^1 inkisif . — 

{of moon) ^y^'^ kbusdf , «^Li-^\ 

Eclipsed {sun), »» a .'*^ j .- munkasif . 

— {moon) Ui^ t ig ,!^ munkbasif . 
Ecliptic (circle), ^j^-^Jk ^^ tarik- 

i-sbams, v»U*^ t\j rih-i-mkh. 
Economical, tW a^U. kb4nab-dir, 

^ f^ kam-kbarj. 
To Economise, (^a/ ^jU\ id&rat 

Economy, ^^jU a^U. kbinab-d&rf, 

0j) •s^j^ barfk-rawf. 
Ecstasy, ai^« yajd, UUii sba'af, ^jt 

^*3^ bf-knwudf. 
Eddy, ^^j ef mauj-rizi. 
Eden, (^ac ^W b4gb-i-'adan. 
Edge, ft»y dam, s-J lab. {Vide 

BoBDEB, Bounds, Tbimmino.] 




(to he set an edge, the teelli) J^ 
^jjbt kund shiidan. 

Ediblb, vide Eatablb. 

Edict, jjJ"^ tanzfm, j^\ amr. 
(Vide Proclamation.) 

Edifice, va>;U* 'imArat, Ci| bind. 

To Edify (to improve by teaehingt 
to instruct), o**/*^ iP*^^ ma'indr 
nimiidan, (^^ s-st«>^ ta,dfb kar- 

Edition (of a hook), \f^\ ijra. 

Editob (of a book or periodical, 
Ac), «-AJ*y« mu,allif, f,* H f muh- 
tamim,^J^ inudabbir,j^»Wrj^ kar- 
guz4r, )j^» muharrir, ^j^ mudfr. 

To Educate, (^^/ s-*t^/ tartib kar- 
dan, (^^^ ss^f ' tarbiyat kardan, 
^j^ J^jtaH pa^rvarish kardau. 

Educated, v»*>*y» mu,addab. 

Education, *s^^f tarbiyat, ^^^ 
ta'lfm, s-st*3*^ ta,dib, s-*e*y tar- 
tib. — (of children) ^a-iUa. hizA- 

Eel, <jAU jU mar-mAhi, ^U i^\ 

To Efface, (^^fy^» mahv kardan, 
^j^ ts3V^ p4k kardan. 

Effaced, ]£;^<--^ mansdkb, {j*)^^^ 

EffaceIcent, J^^ ibtal, f^^ 

Effect, f\ asar, ^V» ta,8fr, &%()iS» 
natf jah, g^ far*. — (to produce an 
effect) ^«>^ j^"^ ta,8{r nimtidan. 
— (in effect) "WU vAki'an. — (to 
this effect) ^f {^ jj az in karar. 

To Effect, vid^ To Pebform. 

Effects, vide Goods. 

Effectual, yfj^ k4r-gar, y*y« mu,- 
assir, a^a^ muf id. 

Effehinact, vfi>^^j rakbAyat. 

Effeminate, f-^ rakhv, tA ^ - . X ^3 

To Effbryesce, o*M^>^ jdshfdan, 
O*^^ uA'^sr. bi-jdah ^onadan. 

Efferyescence, y^y^ jush. 

Efficacious, vide Effectual. 

Efficient, vide Able, Capable. 

Effioy, J^ shakl, v^^yo surat, 
^ > »>• mujassamah. 

Effort, \J^f kdahish, ^^ sa'f, 

JuiS kasd, v>^ talash, f*U;;i^^ 
ihtim&m, ^^ 'azm, va^^ ft himmat, 
•^^ jidd, •>«<»► jabd. — (a great 
effort) ^ ^y^ sa'f-i-baligb. 

Effusion, <cUl. safk, J)y% rfzisb. 
— (of blood) f^ **^ safk-i-dam. 
— (literary) aJU« makAlah, J** 

Eoo, J^A»* baizab, ^ tnkhm, ^ 
^/» tukhm-i-murgb. — (rotten 
egg) ijfi f^ tukhm-i-lak. — (shell) 
jAS kishr, «iS^M^ pdst. — (plant) 
vide Brinjal. ( Fide also Ome- 
let, Poached Ego). 

Eglantine (stoeeibriar), {^^j^ nis- 

Egotism, ^^ji ^ khwud-parasti, 
^yti ^f- kbwua-bfni. 

Egotist, or Egotistical, cm^ j^ 
khwud-parast, (^ •Jyh kbwud- 
bfn. — (to be egotistical) (^J») ^^a* 
manam zadan. 

Either, ft^^ khwdh, ^ ja. 

Ejaculation, «^*^ A444A bam- 
bamab - i - zitr, \m nida. — (to 
mutter Calculations) ^^^f j^S &^^i^ 
bambamab-i-zikr kardan. 

To Eject, (^^ (^yy^ bfrdn kar- 
dan, (^J^\} r&nda^. 

Ejectment, t^f^ ikbrdj, *>;L tarad, 
^W itrad, ,j« nafj. 

To Elaborate, (^*>W s-^/ tartib 
dadan, (^^y^ f^J^ tanzfm nimd- 

To Elapse, ^^e^ jy> tdL kashi- 
dan, {jsJb^S^ guzashtan. 

Elastic, ft*u^ jibandab. 

Elasticity, ^J^^^^*^ jibandagf. 

Elbow, v5*/* ™iriak» tfj^ aranj. 
To Elbow, ^^^ aIj^^ gbarbilab 

Elder, f^ mibtar, {^^9^ mibfn, 

J^^ ayyal. — (head-man) vide 

Elders (of the people), e^^-*-* 

masba,ikb, (^V$^)» bazui'g4n, ;»^^ 

Eldest, {j»/S)^ buzurgtarfn. 
Elect (of God), \jk^ Sj^nJ' ;» bar- 

fuzidab-i-kbudd, \m. Ixai bJS\f. 





To Elect, o*»i^ «» bar-guzidan, 
Election, v*U,5»^ intikhdb. 

ElECTBIC light, *A^ l j S, < ^\ ^\y^ 

Electricity, vs^W^e^ kah-rubayat, 

6jii^^i j . x< i\ alaktrisitah (eur,). 
Electeo-pla^ted, W i/i nukrah- 

Electuaby, o^^*^ ma'jun. 
Elegance, o^^y nazakat, <a^UJ 

lat&fat, *A^} zfnat, «a»^U» nakdyat, 

{^"^^ husn, ^J^^ kashangi. 

Elegant (neat), aaa** munakkak, 
*^)\i ndzuk, Ule^^ khwuBh-nim&, 
<JhfiU latff , »a C ui kasbang (tm2^.)* 

Elegy, a«>;^ marsijah. 

Element, /»»* *un8ur (pL j-Uc 
'anisir or ^Uc 'anAa/r).— (<^ 
/ottr elements), 7«-^ j^ cbabAr 
'anasfr, g?;^ ^^ 'anasfr - i - 

Elementary, ^5*^asj^ ibticlH,i, o^ 
^\(ja^ jihat-i-mubtadiy&iL 

Elephant, Jh pil, Jo* f il. — (saddle 
of an elephant) ft*>|^ haudah, t«3^ 
haudaj. — (driver) t)^^ pil-bAn. 

Elephantiasis (kind of leprosy), 
V^ f il-pA, o)^ lam, J«AJn J d4,u- 

To Elevate, {^\ji'\ afrdkhtan, 
(^y\ afrdshtan, (^^ ^ bu- 
land sAkhtan, <:>J^ )W bA14 

Elevated, vide Exalted. 

Elevation, *»-«»*) rif'at, jUi^^ irti- 

f4', ,3*ulf bulaiidi, ojV^ afr&zf, 

)Ui\ a'14.— (Ai^Q e^U Bh&mikh. 
To Elicit, ^«yi l\tJA*\ istimbat 

nunddan, ^«>y^ (tfl^jxu.^ istidrAk 

nimiidan, (^oa uJasU multafit 

To Eliminate, (^*y/ u^^^W* mabzdf 

kardan, 0*3^ e\;«^^^^ istikbrdj 

Elision, «^<W hazf. 
Elite, a^Hj zubdah. 
Elixir, j<h<-^ iksfr. 
Elk, ^jyTgauzan. 
Elliptic, a^^^ baizah, ^5^^ baizavi. 

Ellipsis, f^jS^ mafhum,jJJU mu- 

Elm (tree), (jjy^ uaravan, A»jy^ nar- 

Elocution, (^W o*^ ma*ani- 
bayan, w><il)il> talakat. 

Eloquence, c>»>Ui fasahat, ss^h 
balaghat, ^j,\^ ^W) zaban-avari, 
^'^ yjtyi. khwush-kalamf, *aS^ 
talakat, oj^^^ c)^^ sukhun-par- 

Eloquent, ^^ fasih, j^T oWj 
zaban-avar, U^ (:>i;«A shirin- 
idk, ^ balfgh (pZ. Ui» bulaghi). 

Elsewhere, ^*3 ^j»W ia,M-digar. 

Emaciated, ^21 laghir, ^^ ^ j\) zar 
va nizdr, «-A*^ nan if, J^sb-* 

To Emanate, (^oa ^jIo s&dir shu- 
dan, (a^/ j)"^ sudur kardan. 

Emanation, ji^ zubdr, j^J^ sudur. 

Tu Embalm, <^«M^ ^^t^^ tahnit ni- 
mudan, (^*^j^ Q^y* mdmiya kar- 

Embankment, &^ pushtah, &«j^a 
damdamah, Ai^ band. 

To Embark, {^j jW ^ bar jabaz 
raftaii, (^p-Jti ^j^j*> dar kashti 

Embarrassed, J^j^ ^ pA dar gil, 
JW* mu'attal. — (to he embar- 
rassed) (^J^U JW* mu*attal man- 
dan, (^S<si\ jcS gir uftadan. 

Embarrassment, J^^^ ishk41, 
iA'"tAj dihsbat, &2>U^ muzaya- 
kab, JM^ mazfk. 

Embassy, f!<^ paigbam, ^^ pa- 
yam, AiU; risnlah, va>jli- sifarat, 
AlU. ^UL. sifarat - kbanab. — 
(Secretary of Embassy) vide 

Tt> Embellish, vide To Adorn. 

Embellishment, sHij zfb, ut>jt\)^ 
arayisb, ^a^j zinat, (^^y taz- 

Embkbs, ^^ akhgar. 

To Embezzle, 0*^/ o*^3^ duzdi 
kardan, (j*>/ uyof tasarruf kar- 

Emblem, ^Ui nisbdn, bj^\ isbarab, 
«.s^ie 'aldmat, A^^ kin&yab. 




Emblsmatical, ifr^)U 'aUmat, 
^Ui nish&nah. 

Embonpoint, o^*-i j^ nar-pistAn, 
^jk farbihi. 

Emboitchttbe, tfii^ makhraj, j^y 

Embrace, \J»y^} Aghusb. 

To Embbacb, ^•M^ \^j^^ agbdsh 
kasbfdan, ^«>/ efr^ J^ bagbal- 
gfrf kardan, (:)^^ AfiU^ mu'dna- 
kab nimudan, (:)^^ j^ kinar 
giriftan, t)^^ ^ j** dar bar gi- 
riftan. (Vide To Include, To 

Embbacino, vide Containing. 

Embbasube, j^W b4rd. 

To Embboideb, i^)^ LT^ naksb 
diikbtan, c)*^3^;^ tir4zidan. 

Embboidebeb, }^ mutarriz. 

Embboidebt, (j^ naksb, v^j^*^^ 
kulldb-duzf, csj;*^^ kaitin- 
ddzf, iSji bdtab, (43^«> 6J^ nak- 
dab-ddzi, )\jL tiraz. — (90W em- 
broidery) <^j^*> jj zar-duzi. 

To Embboil, o^;;1 ;«5' gfr Avardan, 
^j^ j\«^ yA dd-chAr kardan. — (to 
"become embroiled) (^^ «J gfr 
4madan, (^J^ j^ ^j dd-cbar sbu- 

Embryo, {^^i^ janfn. 

Emebald, *3^3 zumurrud, y^ 
mind. — [colour) *alij ^^3 zumur- 
rud rang. 

Emeboenct, ^}y^ zardraty A*j\a. 
bddisab ('pl, *±»j^\^ bayidis.) 

Emebt, sjLju Bamb4dab. 

Emetic, ^ ^J\yy dav4,f-i-kai, 
^^Aa-^ ^^^j davA,f-i-mu8tafrigb, 
vjd*» <^^*> dava,f-i-mukayyf. 

Emeute, *j^ fitnab. 

Emigrant, yt^ miib4jir. 

To Emigrate, e^^ e^^ <./W 
jal&,f-i-yatan nimddan, {^y ^f 
^«>;^ tark-i-vatan kardan. 

Emigration, (^^ JfK' jaJ4,M- 
yatan, {^y *^f tark-i-yatan. 

Eminence {high ground), ^y>f ««• 
Bar-kdb, A^ tappab, &&^ pusb- 

tab, i^S girfyab, «ll kullab. 
{Vide Degree {rank). Dig- 

Eminence {term of respect), v*W 
v»Usle^ jan4b-i-fazQai-ina,4b. 

Eminent, vide Famous, Great. 

Emission {sending f<yrth), eV^ 
ikbrAj, JU;^ irsdl, 6\u\ inf4z. 
— {seminal) J^^ inz41, gA-* 

Emolument, ^ naf'. 

Emotion, ;LW ujub, sbagbf-i-kba- 

Emperor, aUju^U sbibinsb&b, ^^UL 
sultan, (w^ViW kb4k4n. — {of Rome) 
j^ kflosar (i.e. Ccesar), — (0/ 
CAtna) ;yua fagbf dr, ^VsU. kbd- 

Emphasis, •x,}^ ta,kid. 

Emphatically, <^^ ^^ bi-taur-i- 

Empire, vide Goyernment, King- 

To Employ, ^^U i\Si nigAb ddsb- 
tan, (^^y*i f*^Aato2^^ istikbd^m ni- 
mddan, {^sdX^ ^tXa fe A.!!^ mustakb- 
dam sakbtan. — {to employ one- 
self) ^Afc JA &A ^ miisbtagbil sbu- 
dan. — {to be employed, idiom, Sc,) 
O*^ ty^y* niauzd* sbndan. 

Employ^, j\^ j^ k4r-guzAr, Jc5|^ 

Employment, jVl" k4r,^Ve yj\i k4r u 

b4r, J*^ sbuffbl, J** *amal.— 
{office) 5*^e 'undab, s-^***^ man- 
sab, is^Jk^ kbidmat. — {out of 0m- 
ployment) A%^ ma'zdl, jV^ ^j bf- 

Empress, j^ kaisar. 

Empty, ^Jf tubf, JW kb41f, ^U 
fdrigb, d^^ pdk {wlq.). — {empty- 
headed) yi^ ^JSf tub^magbz, ^ 
{Uj tubf-dimdgb. 

To Empty, ^^/ <j^Vd. kb41( kardan, 
O^^ <j9^ ^^^^ nimddan. — {into, 
like a river) ^^f ^j^/ ^U. kb41f 
kardan tdf. 

Emulation, «a>^ gbairat, «<Uij 
rasbk. — {competition) tjjt\t^ mu- 
jdbadab, ik^ muk&balab. 

Enamel, U«#* mfn4, ^V^ kdahf. 

To Enamel, e^y^ ^^^ mfni nimd- 




EnAjBISLLED, U««« mini, jV^ U«#* 

Enakbllsb, jV^ ^^«^ mind-kdr, 

^^^^ dayat-gar. 
Enamoured, ^sM* shfftah, «^yt&^ 

To Encamp, ^oij <u<^ khaimah 

zadan, (^*^) ^*>;^ urdu zadan, f^a* 

(^*y/ makAm Kardan. 
Encampment, ^»^j\ urdu, ^J^^f^\ 

uturak, ftV!^^ lashkar-gah. 
To Enchant, vide To Delight, To 

Please, To Fascinate. 
Enchanted, ^^/ o^^^ afsun kar- 

dah, **>3 y^W jadd - zadab. — 

(pleased) ^a^j^jA. khwush-yakt, 

C »i^ mubtahij. 
Enchanter, ^*>W jadu-gar, jS^y^\ 

afsun-gar, ^^ sdhir, jW^ sah- 

Enchanting, W^o dil-iniM, j2^)«> 


Enchantment, ^aW j4du, i^fy*^W 
j4du-garf,;^«» sihr, (^y^\ afsiln, 
ck^^ <az{mat. — (faacinafion of 
the heart) ^U^Jj dil - sitdnf, 
ey^)«> dil-4yfzf, <jAX»W jAn- 
kashf, t ^^ ^aM* shfftagf. 

Enciente, vide Pbeonant. — (mi7i- 
tory <erm) j*^i^^ kbandak. 

To Enclose, e^/*^ ^^^ ihitah ni- 
mddan, ^Ji^ f^y^ hayi budan, 
^jy«i A;«\^muha8arab nimudaD. 

Enclosure, ^^ bajit, ^^\ ib£. 
tab.— (/or caMle) Jfc^ aghil, 
j^/* marbaz, J*- sdl. — (a Zci<er, 
^.) «^yd^ malfuf, ej*^^^ mun- 

Encomiast, ^^ 's^*^ niadihab- 
sanj, c^^x^ maddib. 

Encomium, a,^j^ madibab, c*^ 

Encore, *^\ aizan. 

Encounter, JiUb; takabul, ^^ 
mukibalab. {Vide Battle.) 

To Encounter, (^^^ j^ ji*> dd- 
cbir sbudan. (Vide To Fight.) 

To Encourage, (^oU J\^^^ dil- 
dsd,! dddan, e*^r*^ <J^ tasallf 

Encouragement, J^"^ dil-aB4,f, 
jLj; tasallf. 

To Encroach upon, (wjo^ uVtaj4- 
y uz kardan, ^^SS^ JUk. if az baidd 
guzasbtan, <^*3^ J^*3 dakbl kar- 

Encumbrance, jW bar, J^^- baml, 
g*U m4ni*. 

Enctclopjbdia, f^^\ sa>S\*y d4,- 
iratu - '1 - 'ulum, »-i;Uj\ c:>y\«> 

End (paint or tip), j^ sar, «^y 
nauk. — (c{wu;Ziwu>n) A^ akbir, 
«A>/^1 4kbirat, «d^W'4Kibat, f*W\ 
itm4m, (•W tain4m, A4j;» tatam- 
mab, *-« Bar, (•^)^\ m8ir4m, W^\ 
intiba, u^W mb4yat, ^vlirt anjam, 
f*W^ Baraiij4in, ^»Jl& kbatm, 
&*?W kb4tiiiiab, ^u».^ ikbtit4in, 
^Wy far]4m, JU iiia,41. — (object) 
fjkl gbaraz. — (in the end) ct^Vc 
yi\ 'akibatu-'Uamr. — (to the end) 
A^^ ^\ il4 4kbirab. 

To End, vide To Finish. — (to end 
in) ('^) o*^ (*^ tam4m sbudan 

ENDEAyouR, t;ide Effort, At- 
tempt. — (to nee one's endeavours) 
<D*^j)^ J*** ^^UsA^ ibtim4mr4 bi- 
'amal 4yardan, ^*>^ is^^^J^ JM 
bazl-i-bimmat kardan. 

To Endeavoub, (j^ ^JcL. B4*f kar- 
dan, (^*^x^ ij^^ kAstiish nimu- 

Endemic, J^^***» u^ marz-i-mu- 
tad4yil, <j^y»* «>/• marz - i - 

ENDiys, ^y^\^ k48ni. 

Endless, (^jV^V^ ,jt bf-p4yan, ^antW ijt 
bf-nibajat, «d^W *i bil4-nibajat. 

To Endobss, (^*^ ^yt'^ mazbut 
kardan, ^*3^ U^^ iniz4 kardan. — 
(a statement) ^JSJ^^^ i*^^ zabab 

Endowment (pious hequeM), <-Ai^ 
yakf, ^fy^ maukdfab, ^jc^ 

Endubance, vide Boldness. 

To Endube, (^^/ yt^ sabr kardan, 
^j/ sA^\*i ^ bar-d4sbt kardan, 
^JSJkU «.»alL takat d48btan, J««^ 




(^»yy4i tahammul nimddan, ^ 
(^*i^j\ tab ^vardan. (Vide To 


Enema, e^iW* mihkan, a^Aa. huk- 
nah,jy^*> dastur, ^U\ im41ah. 

Enemt, (£><*a«> dushman, ^^xd 'aduv, 
or 'adaww, ^«^fl^ khasm, t^W* 
inu'4iiid, ^*«^ ghanfm, UkSW* 
mukhalif , (^^^ 'aydn, «-^;ft> harif , 
^/Ji^ mubgmz. 

Enebobtic, JA^»s^ mutaj41iid. 

Enebgy, %s>yi kdyat, or kuYvat, 
<A>*3A shiddat, ^jc^ ghairat, jW^^ 
ijtih&d, viy^ shauk. 

Enfeebled, vide Weak. 

To Enfbjlnchise, (^*yy4i ^JL^ ma- 
sallam nimiidan, o^t*^ *^b^ ^^^^ 
uimddan, ^^/ ;^^j rastagir 

To Engaoe (to^ ifiio emphy\ &^ 
0js^^o nig&h dashtan, (^*>^ {^t^^ 
mu'ajjan kardan. — (edtle) •^e 
^j^ *ahd nimiidaii. 

Engaobd, wde Busy. 

ENGAaEMENT, ft*]^ *uhdah, *^e 
'ahd, vl^^H^ mfB4k, ^ k4r, ftJ^« 
va'dah. — {to have an engagement) 
^^W AJ^^ va'dah d48htan. 

Engaging, ^u^*) dil-pasand. 

To Engbndbb, o*V^ *^y taulid 

Engine (machine), oJ^ 41at, 

^ 3fr' * % . ^ >« manjanfk. 
Engineeb, (j«*u^ muhandis. 
English, u«Jtfi\ ingUs, ,j-J^^ 

To Enobaye, (:)*^ kandan, \JJi 

(^«^ nakhsh kardan, (^^^ «cW 

hakk kardan. 
Engbayeb, «<)l^ hakk4k. 

To Engboss, o*>y^ ji,j^ tahrir ni- 

To Enhance {raise or increase)^ 
^^ jVtj zijad kardan, (a-^^^^ af- 
ziidan, (a*^y^ ^^^ izafah nimii- 

Enhancement, ^^ raf^ ^/ ta- 
rakkf, t^f i^kijah. — (enhance- 
meni of value of goods, by a 
fietUiouB tender of high price ; a 

misdemeanour puniehahle by Mu- 
hammadan taw) lt^ najsh. 

Enigma, U«^ mu*amm4, y»; ramz, 
yti lughz. 

To Enjoin, vide To Command. 

To Enjoy, o«V*^ or (^*>;» *a>«W lazzat 
burdan, or kashfdan, (^ja ffUA» 
mutamatti' shudan, (^*^ ^ hazz 
kardan, (:>*>jyW bar-khwurdan. — 
(possess) ^«y uy^? tasarruf kar- 
dan. — (to enjoy oneself) ^•Jj^ ^A^ 
'aish kardan, (^'^ t^*> mm4gh 

Enjoyment, vide Pleabubb. 

To Enlabge, (^^\*y o^*-.^ yuB'at 
d4dan, 0'>//^>> buztirgtar kar- 

Enlabgement, Q6^f tauflf. 

To Enlighten, (^^y^oe; J^^^ 
riiBhn4,i bakhshiidan, (^*y/ (^^ 
rausban kardan, ^^Sjf^ munav- 
yar kardan. (Vide ^o Infobm.) 

To Enlist (raise soldiers), ^yj\ £«% 
(^•3^ jam'-4yari nimiidan. — 
{take service as a soldier) jW/* 
^•^ 8arb4z shudan. 

Enmity, ^y^Aj dushmani, «a>yae 
'ad4yat, ^^^•xc <udy4n, ^^ kfnah, 
^^ kfn, ut^Ufa^ mukb41a£at, 
tf^N4>*W« mukh4samat, sA^ y « A 
khusiimat. — (to hear enmity) 
{^\»y (^ Hn d48htan. 

Ennobled, oiyu musharraf . 

Ennui, ^^«J»> dil-tangf, ei;V* bi- 

Enobmous, vide Big. 

Enough, (j^ bas, <j*^ kaf i. — (ex- 
clamation t) uw bas, W ba84, 
•^W b48had. 

To Enquibe, vide To Ask. 

Enquiby, cr^ taftfsh, cr««V ta- 
jassus, i/i^Ai tafahhus. (Ficfe 

Enbaged, vide Angby. 

To Enbich, eH^^ c5^ ghanf B4kh- 

Ensign, vide Flag. 

To Enslaye, (^*^/ yt^^ asfr kardan. 

To Ensnabe, vide To Catch. 

En suite, gt^ t4biS g^f taba'. 

To Entangle, ^«>^ «hV^ p/ch-4- 




pfch kardan, 0*>) ^ jt bar-ham 
zadan. — [to he entangled) 

^•^ muhkam shudan, s«>) ^ ^ 
^JA bar-ham-zadah shudan, j«l 
^jl«^ gir amadan. 

To Enter, o*^^ »«*»^ andar Amadan, 
^JA Jd.\«> d4knil shudan, ^^J y 
td raftan, (^^y^ J^^ dakhl ni- 
miidaii, (^'^ j*> dar sliudan. 

Ektbbpbize, o^^^ 'aiimat, uu^oW^ 

Entertainment (A:t9<, <fec.),^W* 
mihmdni, ^yU«e« luflimdnf, %s^\^ 
zijdfat, jy^ sdi*, A^^t^. valimah. 

Enthronement, iji^ ijlks, 

ENTHX78IASM, vide Zeal, Inspira- 
tion, Genius. 

To Entice, vide To Allure, To 

Entire, J^^ kAmil, f»Ui tamdm, 
ft\s t4mm, fJ^"^ musallam, c'i^^ 
sahib, J^ kull. 

Entirely, ^V- sar-a-sar, *UU* ta- 
maman, i^Ml^ bi-*l-kull, uu^«L^W 
bi-'l-kullijat, lyJW bi-'l-marrah, 
-&^Vi ^ "l^ kullan va katibatan, 
^ fH^jt) ^""^ hamah rdf - ham 
raftah, 'W^ kullijatan, ^Utl^ 

Entirety, ij^j*^ durusti, u:^^<^W 

To Entitle, (^^/ &{^*^ s tasmijah 
kardan. — (entitled) s-^Aa* muta- 
lakkib, ^g^^^^ musamm4, f^y^y 

To Entomb, tfide To Bury. 

Entrails, \m^\ am'd. 

Entrance, vide Access, Door, 

To Entreat, vide Beg. 

Entree, Jys-o dukhdl. 

Entrenchments, u:>UIX^a«^ istih- 

Entrepreneur, jU. &t^ shabfh- 

To Entrust, vide To Commit. 
Entry, J^*> dukhdl. 
Enumeration, ^\j«> ta'd4d, s^U'J:^^ 

Enunciation, ppttts ta'bir. 
Envelope (cover)^ Ai^ laf&fah. 

To Envelope, (^*yy4i «^ydU malf uf 

nimddan, o*^^ JUaAp^ ishtimil 

Envied, ^yt^ maghbut, ^y^*"^^ 

mahsud, n^p^j rashk-burdah. 
Envious, f^J^ -i^ bad-chashm, ^M 

M^ bad-khw&h, J*^**^ hasud, 

{^tf^j rashkm. 
Environs, <^V iiav*hi, cV y *^ 

gird u navah, ij^y havdli, y Jj»- 

v>^ haul u haush, u\jL\ atr&. 
Envoy, vide Ambassador. 
Envy, ju^ hA«ad, oUj rashk, uuy-^ 

hasrat, J^ ghill. 
To Envy, ^«>;» *^) rashk burdan, 

^j^ ju^ hasad burdan. 
Epaulette, ^ *alam, ^y*^ ^Ulj 

Epidemic, J^**** «>/• marz-i-mu- 

tadavil, o^^ u*/* marz - i - 


Epidermis,^ bashar. 
Epilepsy, fyo sar^ 
Epileptic, £y^ masrd^ 
Epilogue, a^^U. khdtimah (pL 

f^\y^ khavatim). 
Epiphany, ^J^ tajallf. 
Epistle, vide Letter. 
Epitaph, ^^ kitabah, ^ («^b^ 

Epithet, s^ lakab, «-&«^ vasf, 

VS-A- sif at. 
Epitome, vide Compendium. 
Epoch, j>^ 'asr, ^j^ tankh, jy*y 

daur, &»Uj zam4nah. 
Equal, y\;» barabar, v^^V*-» mus&vf, 

J^ misil, yjii nazir, 0^^ mu- 

tabik, t)} zauj, «4)^V* ™^>^^> 
^L^ yak-san, *3uiU mdnand, 
^♦A ham-ta. — (eubs,) j^ nazfr, 
J^ misl, \s ^ ham.t4, Jt^^e 

Equal to, J*>U^ mu'^dil, ss^^y^ 

Equality, «a>^^U-» mu84v6t, vaJ*>W« 

Equalization, saA^^.^ mu84v4t, 
JiJ^ ta*dfl. 

Equally, vaHt^w bi-savfjat, ^^ 
6iy^\ *al4-'s-savfyah,' ji\^ bara- 
bar, \y^\ ^ 'al4-'s-sava. 




Equation (in arithmetic), «^^y 

Equatob, \^\ ^ khat-i-istiva. 

Equbbsy, )^^y6^ mir-akhwur. 

Eqxtebtbianism, v^jW s-^^ asb-bazi, 
tj,^y^ s-^^ asb-suvAri. 

Equilibrium (equipoise), ^i^y* 
muvdzanah, «^oU^ mu'adalat. 

Equinoctial, Jj^a^ mu'addil. 

Equinox, s-^ ^ )^ J^J^^^ i*tidal-i- 
ruz va shah, jW*^^ ) vW^ J^-'^^V 

To Equip, (^*^y4i ^^ tajhiz ni- 

Equipage, vide Cabbiaob. 

Equipment, ytA^ tajhfz, ^ij^ j^ 
kdr-sdzf, j\ji jarak. 

Equitable, vide Just. 

Equivalent, vide Equal. 

Equivocal, &«aa^ mushtabih, 
dq\jtj^ mutashabih. 

Equivocation, ^j\^ m^\ zaban- 

Eba, vide Epoch. 

To Ebadicate, (^ojS y ^ j^ az 
bfkh bar-kandan, (^^y^ 2^ kal' 
nimudan, (^^ji ^ kam' kardan, 
(^*^yi j Ufl is o ^ istisal nimudan, 
(^^y^ £y^ munazzi' nimudan. 

To Ebabb, vide To Deface, Ef- 

Ebe, ij^ pish, 4? \5 tA-bi. 
Ebect, ^s^mijJ (iurust, •*— ^; rast, 
mustakfm. — { penis) *j>^\) 


To Ebect, {^\^\ afrashtan, ji 
(j^AiU bar - ddshtan, (j^/ s-^ 
nasb kardan, (^^/ ^ ;i bar p& 
kardan, (;)•>) zadan. — (huild) 
^j^«A>jUe 'imdrat kardan, ;«•**> 
^4>^ta'mfr kardan, (^«>/W bind 

Ebection, m(2e Buildino. — (penis) 
iy^\j r^tf. 

Ebmine, ^Vs k4kum. 

To Ebb, (^*y4 Ul& ghalat kardan, 
^j^ \U. knatd kardan, (^*y^ ^ 
sanv kardan, (:)«>^ ^j zallat 
niintidan. — (to cause to err, to 
mislead) (^'>^\*>^ y^ bar-gardani- 
dan, (a*^f^ I»U*>f inbat nimiidan, 

(^ j/ J)U\ izlil kardan, (^o/ ft\^ 
gum-rdh kardan. 

Ebbant, ft;^^^ dvarah, fiV) ^ gum- 

Ebboneously, "^^ sahvan. 

Ebbob, laU ghalat, ^ sahv, ^ 
khatd, <^3 zallat, c:^ zallat, 
oJl^ mazallat, ^ khabt, jyti 
kusur, je^ taksfr. 

Ebuctation, i-yli drugh. 

Ebudite, fHde Leabneo. 

Ebuption (on the skin), ^\jyi^ bu- 
sdrat, ^\ abilah, WU danahd.— 
(to break out in an eruption) ^jy^^ 
(^^j)} j*^ busurdt dar-avardan. 

Ebysipelas, 1^ busur. 

Escape, ^jj^^^j rastagari, Uj rih4, 
^J\ib. riha,i, ^/U^ khalds, ui^W" 

To Escape, {^sumj rastan, {^^^ U»j 
rihd j&ftan, ^V^ u:>V naj&t 
jaftan, c^V^ ^2U khalasf yaf- 
tan, (^'H*^^^j rih4 gardidan. — 
( flee) {^sieif gurikhtan, (^*>/ »U 
firar kardfui, <:)«>;^ ^ t^ pahla- 
tuhf kardan. — (to let escape) (jas^ 

Escheat, ^j{ «>W bdd-dvar. 

EscoBT, vide Convoy. 

Especially, &«U. kh&ssah, '^y^ 
khusdsan, y^y^\ v!^ 'alA-'l- 
khusds, U«M» Biyami, W<«!l 1&. 

Espionage, o'T'W jasdsi. 

To Espouse, vide To Mabby. — (to 
espouse the cause of) (^*^/ i^)\^W 
jAnib-ddrf kardan. 

EsPBiT, s-^ kalb. 

Essay (article), ^^ mak41ah, 
J-^ fasl. (Vide Attempt.) 

Essence, (^ 'ain, «^U z4t, yfe»«i^ 
jauhar, Ci) ^K vl^ 'arak, Md^ 
khuUsah, »*>yVj palddah. — (per- 
fume) jiac *itr. 

Essential, cs;7*y^ jauhari, ^J\^ 
zati. — (obligatory) {j^^/^ mafrdz. 

To Establish, (^'^y^ «a>W^^ isbdt 
nimddan, (^*y/ g^j vaz' kardan, 
^ j^ j\^ ^ bar-karar nimddan. 

Established, ^ mukarrar,j^y^ 
bar-kar&r, ^^f*^ mansdb. 




mutarattib, {^^4Am mutamakkin, 
j^y mu,akkad, ^JU ki,im, j\j^\i 
pdyad4r, **^^ sibit, j^f^^ ustu- 
vdr, {^tM^ mu'ayyan. 

Establishment, s-^ nasb, (.r«***^ 
ta^sfs. — (hatuehold) »^Cs-*> dast- 
gdh, JW* *iyal, ^ y ^ kha- 
dam ya hashm, WmV? tabfnhi 

Estate {eompetenee of meatUj 
eaiUe, Ac, for which taaea mtut 
he paid), s^U» nis^b. {Vide 
Ikhbbitahce, Fief, Land, Pbo- 
PBKTY, Wealth.) 

EsTBEM, s-^ hubb, j%^ mihr, %m^\ 
ulfat, opIU^^ ikhlas, ^\i^\ iltifit, 
3^v0^ i'z&z, f*V^^ ibtirdm. 

To EsTBEM, {^\*> ftf^m^ muhtaram 
ddshtan, e^W ^j^ mukarram 
d^shtan, {^sJk\^ ju^ mu'azzaz 
d^shtan, (^O)^ f^^f^ ihtir^m kar- 
dan. — (deem) i^^f ^^ y ^ mah- 
sdb kardan, (j^Ju^iU dAnistan, 
^j;4jSk shimurdan. 

EsTBBMBD, pJ^^ mu^tabar, ^ f ^i^ 

Estimable, v»y^/« marghdb, Ai^ys^ 

Estimate, *>jj^^^ bar-avard, a^***^ 
takhminah, ftj\«^^ andizah. {Vide 
Value, Opinion.) 

To Estimate, ^«>^ •Jtj^W bar-iyard 
kardan, ^•i^^v^ sanjidan. 

ESTBANOSMBNT, ^^y^ ddrf, -Mq 

EsTT7ABT, jy^ khaur. 
Et CJETEBA {and eo forth), ^jtA) va 

ghairah, (^\ alikb. 
Etebnal, v^*^^ abadi, ^3^ azalf, 

fj\*y d4,im, <^«*X^«> dA^mf, f*^*^ 

mud 4m, ^W^ j4yid4n, (5*Ui« 

samadi, •x«^ samad, v^*^/» sar- 

madf, -^i^W j4yid. 
Etebnallt, '\^\ abadan, ^y^^ dah- 

Etebnitt {without beginning), Jj^ 

azal, <A^3^ azaliyat. — {without 

end) •M^ abad, ^s^^\ abadfyat, •^ 

kbuld, Ut baka. 
Etheb, jtf\ Mir. 
Ethics, j^^ akhl4k. 

Etiquette, <a>UU^ takalluf4t, ^U\ 
adab, ^^^ rusum, u:>\)^j^ muda- 
rat, Uijuii ta'4raf . 

Ettmoloot {of worde), j\i^ isb- 
tikak. — {in grammar) kJj^ sarf. 

Euchabist, ^^j •U* <a8ha,-i-rab- 
b4ni, fjm\jA kudits. 

Euclid, (j«AeU\ uklidas.— (EncIuTt 
Elements) ij'^*>^\ jt^ tahrfr-i- 

To Eulogize, vide To Pbaisb. 

Eunuch, \y ^^^f- khwajah-i-sara, 
A%*A. kbwaiab, V&T 4gb4, &»*^ 4kb. 
tan, ^j*^ khusi. — {chief eunuch 
of a harem) V^T ^yi kazlar-4gh4, 
^^ s^\f^ kbwajah-bAsbi. 

EuBOPE, *^j^ farang, ^U«^y 

EuBOPEAN, J^^ farangf. 

To Evacuate, (^^ ^^^ takhliyah 

To Evade, (£)A*'»^ ftj^ kanarah jas- 
tBLU, (j)^y^ ^j^ j)*^ ddr-kasbi ni- 
mudan, (j^i^jJ^ bazar kardan. — 
(one*» hustnees or dtUy) (^*^) <»y^ 
tafrab zadan, ^o^'J^U; tagn4- 
ful nimddan. 

Evaluation, f^/S takvim. 

EvANOBLic and Evangelist, ^J^\ 

To EvAPOBATs {trans.), t^U. j\ae\ 
bukbar s4khtan. — {intrans,) 
(^*yy^ uui nasbf nimudan. 

EvAPOBATioN, UUi nasbf. 

Evasion, \Jtj riha, J\J^j rih&,{, 
%jf)^^^j FaBtag4rf, ^)U khal48, 
•a>W* naj4t. — {subterfuge), a*W} 
bab4nab, )^ *uzr, ^^ bflah, 
JifcW taj4bul, (j**^ (^W cbun4n 
cbunin, <^V^ bahanab. 

Eve, iJsJbtJS y^ rdz-i-guzasbtah, f>^ 
sham. — {on the eve of) «-ijA 

Even, vide Level, Smooth, Axso, 
Alike. — {not odd) v*^ juft, Sjt) 
zauj, gA^ sbaf. — {even number) 
gAib, JOD <adad-i-8hafS t)) ^-^ 
'adad-i-zauj, tf^V *>Afc *adad-i- 
juft. — {odd or even?) *j^A^ ^ j^ 
t4k y4 juft, ui-V Vj tfU tak y4 




Evening, j*^ sham, Vac 'isha, ;- 
*-r^ sar-i-shab. — (evenifig star) 
fiy^j zuhrah, J^^ ndhid. 

Event, &**\^ vaki'ah, a«->jj vaki*ah, 
gji^ vuku*, aJjU- hadisah, a^jVc 
*arizah, ^j«^U ma-jara, &e-4* kazi- 
yah, ct^Af ^ sar-guzasht, ^V4y\ 

• ittifak. — (result) vide Conse- 
quence. — (i/i the event of) &^jy^ 
surati kih. — (at all events) j^ j.> 
J^ dar bi-har hal. 

EvEB (at any time), ^J^\S gdhf, 
ys^y^t'^ liich vakt. — (at no time) 
3^ hargiz,TU\ aslaiij'lj^^ abadan. 
— (at all times) ^ ' ^a *^ hamisbah, 
b^\y^A hamvarah, j»^Jk»» mudam, 
*W\*> da,iman, c:^^ yfc bar vakt, 
j»*> *A bar dam. — (/or ever) J^^ 
oVji^ abadu-'l-abad, J^W V? ta bi- 
abad, o^**;^^ javidan. 

EvEBOBEEN, yt^ < ^ '' * « fl » fr hamisbah 
sabz, (•/- kburram. 

EvEBLASTiNG, f»^**^ iiiudam. — (in 
religious sense) {jy/-^ ukbravi. 

EvEBT, yfc bar, ct^jy^ bar yak, J^ 
kull, &4A bamab. 

EvEBYWHBBE, W> 'Ui^ bamab ja, 
W yfe bar ja. 

To Evict, c^^; randan, o*>^ ^*> 
daf nimudan, (^*>;^ £^ mana' 
kardan. — (to he evicted) c^y^^ 
^JA mahrum sbudan, (^•^ £y^*^ 
mamnu* sbudan, (;)*xai 6jj\j ran- 
dab sbudan. 

Eviction, g^ mana', g*^ daf*. 

Evidence, vide Testimony. — (to 
a^ccept evidence) (^*>/ ^v^^Vai Ji«*«? 
ta'dil-i-sbabid kardan, );u:>^^ 
(^*y/ J^ sbabadatra kabul kar- 
dan. — (to reject evidence) J*^ tf^ 
(^*y^ jarb-i-shabid kardan, ^j«a>^W^ 
^a^ jj sbabadatra radd kardan. 

Evident, vide Appabent, Oleab. 

Evidently, "^y^Vt zabiran. 

Evil, vide Bad, Wicked, Wicked- 
ness, Calamity, Injuby. 

EwB, eA*^ misb. 

Eweb, *«Uil[ aftabab, ^ji\ ibrfk 
(pi, ijij^^ abarik). 

Exact, J^V^ kamil, o^-;*> durust, 

Exactly, i^j'^ bi-durust/, «&***> ^ 
ba-dikkat, jt*^ ^ ^ nakir va 
katmir, iJ^t^ bi-'ainibi, ^ jakb 
(vulg,), — (in point of time) vide 

Exactness, o^J** durusti, «^j 

To Exaooebate, (j'>y^ j^^^ igbrak 
nimudan, (^^y^ iJi^i^ mubala- 
gbab nimudan. 

ExAOOEBATioN, j\j^\ igbrdk, d^W^ 

To Exalt, (^^^i^ afrasbtan, 
{:^\ji\ afrakbtan. (Vide To 


Exaltation, i^)^^ r* sar-afrAzf. 

Exalted, JVc *alf; JjU^ mu*alW, 
&A£Aji\ afrakbtab, gAsy. murtafiS 
gyy* marfu*, j^t ;- sar-afraz, 
«-J W ^ munif. 

Examination, <j*;> jW bdz purs, 
<j-»M^ tajassus, (jt-^stf taftisb, 
i^^s t-afabbus. — (of candidates) 
^V^s*»\ imtibAn. — (cross - exami' 
nation), Ji^^JSs^ y ^^ barf va 
i*tirdz, jVL«-*\ istintdk. — (to pass 
an examination), (^^jti (;}W^^ }\ 
(jj^l az imtiban bfrun amadan. 

To Examine, (^*^/ u^^ tafabbus 
kardan, i:)*^^*}} dzmudan, ^^^ 
(jjjjj^ tank lb kai'dan, q)^/ <JMp* 
tahkik kardan, (^*yy^ {J^^tsis taf- 
tisb nimudan, ^^^ ji^sr tajviz 
nimudan, q)^/ ^ (^^\ fm*dn-i- 
nazar kardan, (^*y/ ,j-j jyt ghaur- 
rasi kardan. — (candidates) (:)W>^ 
(^^/ imtibdn kardan. — (legal 
term) (^*^f jUft«u\ istintak kar- 

Examines, ^ ^W^"** mutafabbis, 
^^^A^atf taftisb-cbi. 

Example, JV.^ misal, J«^ tamsfl, 
J^ masal. — (for example) ^ 
^J>^ bar farz, '^^^A farzan, ""^ 
masalan, ^^ ^t^ agar cbunan- 
cbib. — (m^del or pattern) ^y^ 
nimunab. — (applicable to punish- 
ment) ^A>y^ *ibrat. — (to follow the 
example) (^*^y^ ^*^^ iktida nimd- 

To EXASPBBATB, {^^ V»jIb^ mUZ- 





tarib sAkhtan, Q)JLi^«)^yus^ mu- 
tanaffir gardanidan, (jJs***^;* bar- 

ExASPEBATiON, s^^^ft*^ iztirnb, ;- 
^&4^ sar-^simah-g{. 

To Excavate, vide To Dig. 

Excavation, j^ haf r, «*> Jk*. buf rat. 

To Exceed, {^s^»^ j*. ^ az badd 
guzasbtan, o**^** })^ tajavxiz 
nimudan, o*^ (^s^ birdn sbu- 

Exceeding, (j\) 3;W*^ mutajilviz 

Excebdinolt, sah^ nibnjat, sa^\^ 
bi-gbAyat, '\yt^ kasiran, (^^yk 

To Excel, ;^\*> <:jV^%j rajahnn 
dasbtan, (;») (;)«>;! vaA'"^ sibkat 
burdan (bar), ^jj»aft.U c^i v ^ fazi- 
lat dasbtan, (^^^ y:69 bibtarbiidan, 
^j^j v>f-^^ ^'-^ kasabu-'s-sibk 
rubudan, (^^ cr^ pisbi yaftan, 
^o^ ^^«> (j^ pfsb-daati nimu- 
dan, ^AAi %^\t gbalib sbudan, 
(:>*>^ v3^ ^^,1^ biidan. 

Excellence, (^«& kbubf, c:Jl«^ 
fazilat, ^j^ niki', <V^^ ni'kii,i. 

Excellency, v»^ janab, «&>;«&»> ^Ve 
'alf-bazrat, (^VjlJVc ^ali-sbau. 

Excellent, ^\j rajib, J<&^ fazil, 
y^ bibtar, ^\ afzal, J^^ a*la, 
{^•"^^^ absan. 

Except, \y^ sava,^ }\\z,yr. bi-juz, 
jc^ gbair, ««A} bi-gbair, /^ magar, 
!l^ ilU, Jn« vara,f. 

Exception, uia-^ istisnii. 

Exceptional, J!<j^s^\ istisna,!. 

Excess, My^ ifrat, ^J^^ afziini, 
ia>ji^ kasrat, vs^^e* nib ay at, J^^^^J 

Excessive, o^;^} j^ }\ az badd 
bfrun, l»yu mufrit. 

Excessively, chi^ bi-gbnyat, j^ 
djASS Jtft. az badd guzasbtab. 

Exchange, J^JuJ tabdfl, aJ*>W^ mu- 
bddalab, ^^^ *ivaz, J^a^x-^ istib- 
dal. — (in exchange for) "^^ ba- 
dalan, ^^^ ;*> dar *ivaz, 'U^ 
Hvazan. — {money) ^ ^^ sarf, 
MV sarAfiyab. (Vide Bourse.) 

To Exchange, ^*>/ u*^ *ivaz kar- 

dan, (jo^ AJ.^U/« mu'avazab kar- 
dan, (^*>;^ JJ4 badal kardan, &S«>W«* 
(^4>^ mubadalab nimudan, Ji*v«; 
(^*y tabdil kardan. 

Exchequeb, wt>;^J; c:j^y*> divan-i- 

Excise-offices, i^f**^ mustauff, 
^vW biij-gir, <j^ »iJ^ gumruk- 

To Excite, (^^satee^^ yi bar-angfkb- 
tan, (^*M^>e^ kbizanidan, ^M^f^ 
(j)j>/ tabrik kardan, {^^ jt*s 
tagbayyur sakbtan. — (to he ex- 
cited) (:)'^'\ oW«* ^ bi-bayajan 
amadan, (jj*y ^V^aL tugbyan kar- 
dan, (jJ5*4i^ ji bar-asbuftan, *<3^ 
(;)A«i kiik sbudan. 

Excitement, UUAi sba'af, (^W«i^ 
bayajan, ^e** tagbayyur. 

Exciting, \ji^ Cj; riib-afza. 

To Exclaim, y**^ jkj^ gbariv ni- 
mudan. (Vide To Cry Aloud, 
To Say.) 

Exclamation, *>^y faryad, *fiOVj 
baDg,3^^T Avaz, pijt gbariv. 

To Exclude, {^\^ C)3^^ mabrdm 
sakbtan, (^*y/ t>U kbArij kardan, 
(jjj^ ^j radd nimudan, ^^sA^*^ \^ 

Excluding, \jJis^\ istisna, g^U 

Exclusion, <x.*«^^^^^ mabrumfyat, 
^■i^^i-^ istisna. — (to the exclusion 
of) 3^ ilia, j\ ^eA» bi-gbair az, 
^y^^!^^^ mustasna. 

Exclusive, o*^ muniifi. 

To Excommunicate, o**^** ia^wJ 
la'nat nimudan, o^^ ^^'V* ii^i*- 
diid nimddan. 

Excommunication, (^^^ la'nat, 
^•>j*y* mardudiyab. 

Excoriation, J^^/- kbirasb, uH> 

Excrement, »^ gub, 6S guh, j^^ 
biriiz, lafVi gba,it, aU* fazlab. 

To Exculpate, (:)^y^ \;»^ ibr& ni- 
mudan, (^ju>U^ a^Jl^ ^ rd-saffd 
gardanidan, (^*y^^^ ji fiV;^ bi- 
gunab bar-avardan. — (oneselj ) 
f^*i^ ^^j^\ ^j^ \jj^ kbwudru 
barm - 'z - zimmab kardan, jSa 




i'tizar kardan, (j*y/ ij'^f- j^ 
'uzr-khwahf kardan. 
Exculpation, vide Excuse. 
Excusable, jSms^ muta'azzir, o^ 

jAc lR,ik-i-*uzr. 
Excuse, j<^ *uzr, j^asc^ i'tizar, iA^jSm* 
ma'zirat, \J*})i puzish. 

To Excuse, vide To Foeoive. — (to 
excuse oneself) vide To Excxtl- 
PATE oneself. 

Excused, ;^*aa^ ma'zur. 

Execrable, ^y^ makruh, f*y^^ 

ExECBATioN, vide CUBSE. 

To Execute, vide To Perfobh, 
To Kill, To Hang, To Do. 

Executioner, oV^ uasakchi, 4>V 
jallad, s-^^ v>V farrash-i-gha- 
zab. — (chief executioner) s-*^^ 
mfr-i-ghazab, ^yiW ^yuJ nasak- 

Executor, <4;%* mujri, J^ mu- 
tavalli, J«^^ vakQ, <j«^ vasi. 

Exempt, ^5;* barf, ^jt^ mubarrii, 
5y^ munazzab, ^ J ^A Am^ mus- 
taghnf, Jgw ...,^* mustasnd, u^tu* 
mu'af, *>^jT azad, oy^* iiia,mun, 
\j^ mu'arra. 

To Exempt, {^^ ^ i^^^ mus- 
tasna sakbtan, o^^ ^t.>*^ musal- 
1am nimiidan. 

Exemption, yj^^^j\ azadagf, iSy^s 

ExEQUATOR, ^j rakam, (^^j^ fir- 
man, iia^f^^ mazbatab. 

Exercise, \J»})^ varzisb. — (tosh) 
ijt9pA *ibrat. — (habitual) vide 
Practise. — (military) vide 
Drill. — (a walk or ride for 
amusement; talcing the air) J^*yjS^ 
gardisb, t/^ tafaiTuj. — (exercise 
in throwing the spear on horse- 
hack) ^^jW Jk8y»- jarfd-bazf, Alfc^j 
(4)W dugbalab-bazi. — (exercise in 
shooting with how or gun while 
riding at full speed) t^ kciikaj. 

Exhalation, j^. bukbar, (^ nizm. 
— (breathing) ^^t-aj tanaffus. 

To Exhale, vide To Breathe. 

To Exhaust, vide To Expend. 

] Exhaustion, vide Fatique, Weak- 

To Exhibit, e^r^ ;W izbar nimu- 
dan, ;^U &AjD. <arzab dAsbtan. 
(Vide To Show). 

Exhibition, j\^\ izbar, yfciUi na- 
majisb. — (place) \J>f^ ma'raz. 
--(Universal), o^^ j\)^ b4zAr- 

ExHiLARANT, *^\i t^ farab-nak. 

To Exhort, ^^y csJlj^ tabrfk 
kardan, ^^^/ ^^ tasbvik kar- 
dan, (^*y^ s-«*/ targbib kardan, 
^^y4i cJhCy* mau*izat nimiidan. 

Exhortation, l^e^ ya'z, %A^y mau- 
*izat, )i)^\ andurz. 

Exhumation, fj^ nabsb. 

To Exhume, (j*^y4i J^ nabsb ni- 

Exigence, Usi^ iktiza, ^o d4,- 
4yab. — (exigencies of the case) 
ytoji\ ^\y^ dava*iu - 'd - dabr, 
sA^y cwW^sa^ muktazfyat-i-yakt. 

Exile, vide Banishment. 

To Exile, vide To Banish. 

To Exist, vide To Live, To Be. 

Existence, ^^^s^j^ basti, «>^^ Tujud, 
(^/ kaun, v^^*^j zindaganf. 

Existent, ^y^y* maujud. 

Exit, tf^ makbraj. 

Exodus, g^/- kburuj, g^/-^ ikbraj. 

To Exonerate, vide To Exculpate. 

Exorbitance, mW' tajavuz. 

Exorbitant, j^W^ mutajaviz. 

Exorcism, ^^y marirat, u>^^ 

To Expand, (^SiiS gusbddan, ^ 
^ j^ bast nimddan, (^*yj^^ gus- 
turdan, (^Jut^ \^ va-sbudan. 

Expanse (area), t&i fiza, o^a.U 
sAbat, ^^ 'arsab. 

Expatriation, (^^ V jaJa-i-vatan 

To Expect, (^J^jAi' j\3bsi\ intizai 
kasbidan, (^>y^ y&sl* muntazii 
budan, ^JSJb^J ^y tavakku' dasb- 
tan, (^.^ (^\jS^ nigaran sbudan, 
^j^ x»^ tarassud nimudan, 
f^jA am^jS^ mutarassid sbudan, 
^^sA»^^ f^^ cbasbm d4.sbtan. 

Expectation, gjy tavakku* ^^\ 




To ExPECTOBATB, Vide To Spit. 

Expectoration, ,4)1- u» tuf-sazf. 

Expedient, ^y^ savAb, ^M^ mu- 
fid. — (device) •M^ tambi'd. 

To Expedite, <:)•>/ v>Uai shitab 
kardan, o^>^ '^^jt) ravanah nimu- 

Expedition, vide Journey, Haste. 

To ExPELy (^^\j randan, (^*^/ t^/A 
ikhraj kardan, (^^ gi^ daf kar- 
dan, (^*^/ j)*^ dur kardan, (^*y/ ^'^ 
bi-dar kardan, Q)^y^ ^J^ naf j ni- 
mddan. — (to he expelled) ^JS^t)^ 
kharij gashtan. 

To Expend, (^^/ tf- kharj kardan, 
(^*>^*i «J(;* sarf nimudan. — (to be 
expended) (^»3Jk ^^ kbarj shudan, 
^j^ k^yoi^ munsarif biidan, \J>^^^ 
(^jjk munkariz shudan, (^*x.a> ^)j'^ 
masruf shudan, (^^^ ^jy^ sipari 
shudan, c}*>y ^^a^ munkali' bu> 

Expense, tj^ kharj, t^/A ikhraj, 
wi/« sarf, u>\j»J\ isr&f , AaA» nafa- 
ksji. — (a< i^e expense of ) e/f*. bi- 

Expensive, vide Dear. 

Experience, ^fr tajribah, jei^ 
tadbfr, «^yi^ yukdf, «a»^ khibrat. 

Experienced, ftJ^^ ^^ kar-dfdah, 
Aj^ pukhtah, &s^«^T Amukhtah, 
A«>y«jT ;^ k&r-azmudah. 

Experiment, cri^j^ azmajish, 
Afor tajribah. 

To Experiment, vide To Try. 

Expert, ««^W chabuk, ^■ " ■■"■o chust, 
«<):iW chilUk, ^x^^ vl^ cbak. 
dast, «-AJ\^ vAkif, /jV^ kar-gar, 
ybU m4hir, *«5&jj zaring. — («u6«.) 
^y^ Ja^ ahl-i-vukuf, «m^ Jifc^ 

Expiation, ftj^ kafE^rah, y^^ tak- 

Expiration, ^^ inkizu. (Vide 
End, Death.) 

To Explain, {^^^y^i o^ bayan ni- 
mudan, O'^y^ c/* sharh nimudan, 
0^) o ■/ ^f^ tsL'rif kardan (az). 

Explanation, <jjW» bayAn, j^^^iS 
tafsfr, «»«5 ta*bfr, J«^n? ta,vil, 
Kashf, ^)e^ tafsfl, c/* 

sharh, &^^Va#« mufayazah, ^^^^y 
taujfb. — (an absurd explanation) 
A^y \i &«^y tauji'h-i-na-muvajjah. 
— (a lucid explanation) (;>«^ C;* 
sharh-i-mubm, ^j^ (^^ bayan-i- 
sarfh, i^y A«^y taujih-i-muyaj- 
jah. — (to demand an explanation) 
^ j^ i^^^ jV| baz-khwdat nimu- 

Explicit, {^^^^ mubin, J-&* mufas- 

Explicitly, "W/** tasrihan. 

To Explode (as gvnpowder)^ fj^\ 
{^f atish giriftan, ^^ij \y» bi- 
hava raftan. 

Exploit, vide Deed. 

Exploration, vide Examination. 

To Export, (^*>;» burdan, <^*>;» (^yyt^ 
birun burdan. 

Exportation, ej^. J-**- haml bi- 

To Expose, vide To Show. 

Exposition, ^\ izhdr, ^«e 'arz. 

Expostulation, vide Alterca- 

To Expound, vide To Explain. — 
(Scripture) t (:)*^y^ yf^^ tafsir ni- 
mudan, (^*y/ tj^ sharh kardan. 

Express, {^x^^i^ makhsiis. 

To Express, (;)«>/ U^ add kardan, 
(^*}y^ nimudan. 

Expression (bv language, <&c.), 
U? talaffuz, c^\ istilah. 

Expressly, 'loy^a^ makhsusan, 
'\x^ 'amdan. 

Expulsion, t^/A ikhraj, ^Ji nafy. 

Exquisite, vide Beaxttiful, Bare. 

Extant, *>y^^ vujdd, *>y^y* maujiid. 

Extempore, ^j«j^ badihf, i>M^\ ^Jt 
bZ-andishah, ^U h bila fasilah, 
J^*b- h bila ta,ammul, 'V^a, badi- 

To Extemporize, (j^^j {^a^ 'UUa» 
shifahan sukhun randan. 

To Extend, e**/ iV diraz kar- 
dan, (j*^««^ kashidan. (Fu2e To 
Keach, To Stretch, To Dif- 

Extension, ^^ madd, ^6^f tausi*, 
S\jaA imtidiid. 

Extensive, fi«>U^ gushadah, ftJ^e^J^ 




kashidah, Qtt^^ vasi*, Jae-i basit, 
(^ pahn. 

Extent, «^,-^»— ^ vus'at, vj*-V 
farakhi, sj>^ bastat, U^ pahna, 
v£.*a^L^misHbat. (Fio^ Degree). 
— (to any extent) ftj^»*>^ j» bi-har 
andazah. — (to that extent) (^jW 
)J^ bi-baman kadar. 

Exterior, gjU kbarij, e^;trf birun, 
J^;-» birdni, «t>^^ siirat. 

To Exterminate, o**/ J^***^^ 
isti,sal kardan, q)^ ji bar-kan- 

Extermination, JU&t-^ istijSiU, 
^jo^^ bar-kaudagi. 

External, tj^ kbarij, yfc^ ziibir. 

Externally, "^yfc^ zabiran, a»\^^ 
zabiranab, "^j^ suratan, (^^;«« 3^ 
az birun. 

Extinct (annihilated), f»9***^ ma*- 
dum, •i^ V* nd-bud, ^J^ mun- 
taf 1, ^U^ munkatiS y^^ mabv. 

Extinction (0/ JJre), UU^ intifa. 
— (0/ a family f ifcc), ^^\^^ in- 

To Extinouish, (j^Ui nisbandan, 
(2)^u&^ kusbtan, O'^r^ ^^ itf a ni- 
mddan, {j^^^ ^J^^^^ muntafi 
sakbtan, o^ ^^^^T*^ kbamdsb 
kardan, (:)«>/ sa^L, sakit kar- 

To Extirpate, vide To Exter- 

To Extort, tJ^^j(;j)# bi-zur girif- 
tan, e*^J|)^ («^^ si tarn varzidan, 
(^*>y^ fc- *^ *> ta'assuf nimudan, 
(2^^ v3^ kuUuk giriftan, <^^cb«. 
^j^ ^jjtf sakbt-girf nimudan, 
^jju^ L^ jLjtj ziyad pa bastau 
(vuZgr.), (^^/ v»\;^ avvab kardan 

Extortion, i^ y if^-* sakbt-girf, 
«^Uh9-\ ijbaf, ^^4«^ janibab, o^/ 
turjuman, s.>^yavvjtb (vulg,). 

Extortioner, o^^ akbkbaz, <^^cb«. 
jif sakbt-gir. 

Extra, J^JIj za,id, J^^ fazil, (>)y^y 
afzun, &i^^ izafab. 

Extract (compendium), j^^ tal- 
kbis, JW^ ijmal, w-^afeXA^ mun- 
takluib, yt^y mdjaz. (Vide Es- 

sence.) — (from a hook) »i>;Wc 
'ibarat, <yu fakarab. 

To Extract, vide To Draw. 

Extraction, o****^ kasbidan. 
(Vide Descent.) 

Extraordinary, »>^6*^ ^ gbair-i- 
ma'biid, *>Uifc* «* gbair-i-mu*tdd. 
(rare) j*>Vj nadir, s-**;^ gbarib. 

Extravagance (squandering), g/- 
6j\j^^ ^jj kbarj-i-bf-andazab, «-Ali 
talaf, e/- J^ vil-kbarj. 

Extravagant, «J|;*«^ musrif, wi^ 

Extreme, «hi^ nibdyat, cw^ gba- 

^ Extremely, c^^^ bi - gbayat, 
cHi\e*» bi-nibayat, fi**^) J^. j\ az 
badd ziyadab, v»U-ft. ^ .k*. ^^j bi- 
badd va bisab. 

Extremity, vide End, Diffi- 

To Extricate, vide To Pull 

Exuberance, vide Plenty, Ex- 

To Exude, o*^*^ cbakidan, o^^i^V 

Eye, f^^ cbasbm, {^ 'ain, fi*^^ 
didab, (J^ ebasb (tmZgf.). — (socket 
of eye) AiVai^^J^ cbaslim - kba- 
nab. — (eye-ball or pupil) c£X^*>/» 
f^Js^ mardumak-i-cbasbm, (:)^ V i. t .o 
cbasbmilan, ^J^. bidkab, &«« 
bibib (vulg.), — (eye-brow) yjn\ 
abru, s-^W bajib. — (eye-lid) *i^ 
palak, {^ jafn. — (eye-lasji) ^y» 
mizbah ( pL ^V^ mizbagau). — 
(eye-sight, vision) ^^J*** didar, *J>4*> 
didab, ^Wj bina,i, j^ basr, jJfc* 
nazar, ^;^\ <^*1; ra,iu-'l-*ain. — 
(extent of vision) j**-J\ a^ maddu- 
'l-basr, ja j^^ madd-i-nazar. — 
(glance of the eye) (;^^ y»; ram- 
zu-U-*ain, ^^\ ^y» tarafatu-'l- 
*ain, « tfU .Aft cbasbmak. — (the evil 
eye) JUfl\ ^^ *ainu-*l-kamal, 

C) ^%Jt^ cbasbm-i-zakbm, ^*^ •X} 
d-cbasbm. — (of a needle) t^jy^ 
(^}^ surakb-i-sdzan, ^*^ cbasbm, 
^ summ. — (smitten with the evil 
eye) ft^j f^^ cbasbm- zadab. — (a$ 




far as the eye will carry) f¥^ \S 
- u^ ^ j\^ ta chashm kar mi-kunad, 
^ jL« U ta madd-i-nazar. — (with 
one's own eyes) {^^\ <^*\) a? bi- 

ra,m-'l-*ain. — (to meet the eye) 
^j\si\ i^^U malhuz uftadan. 

Eye-glass, *s \ j ^ 'ainak. 

Eybie, fi^-«jL« mansarah. 


Fablk, &^ kissah, ws^V^ hikajat, 
&»Uj^ afs4nah, J^ masal, (^VL«W 
dustan, Ai^ khirafah, J» nakl. 

Fabric (maierial), ^Ui kumash. 
(Vide Edifice.) 

Fabulous, a-sa-U sakhtah, t})*^ 
durugh, ^yy muzavvar, j^) zAr, . 
v> j\^ kazih. 

FA9ADS, h\Sisi^ pi'sh-gah, J^yiA <un- 

Face, ^ ru, ^j^ rui, ^ vajh, ftje*^ 
chihi*ah, {ji»^ jabin,^^ manzar, 
t) rukh, V2 lika, ^^ paikar, W<« 
sfma, va^aH tal'at, «a>)^ sural. 
(FiVie Surface). — (face to face) 
vide Opposite. — (open -faced) 
fijlA^^U.,}^ pishani-gushadah. — 
(full face, portrait) fUs ^^tS tas- 

To Face, (^<iA . . . a» |; ru bi ... 

Facet (cutting of a jewel), ^ pakh. 

Facetious, sJ^^ khwush-tab', 
U»ijk zarif, ^ ii^ latffah-gd. 

Facetiousness, vide Fun, Jest. 

Facile, fS^ iuula,im. 

To Facilitate, o**^ J«e-«* tas-hil 

Facility, vide Ease. 

Facing (fronting)^ yji^ ru-bi-ru, 
^«SV«^ muhazf, J}^ mukabil, 
d^ljUJW bi-'l-mushdfahah. 

Fact (deed), jS kar, ;W/ kirdar, 
J«> fi4, J^ 'amal, J^^ harakat. 
— (reality) \s,J^i^ hakfkat, ^j*«^ 
ma'ni, ^J^ hakk. — (in fact) 
ca-WJ^ o* fi-'l-bakikat, s3^\ 
al-bakk, e»V^ ^ f i-U-vakiS ^^^ 
ma'nan, &<(«a» bi-'ainihi. 

Factor, vide Agent. 

Factory, vide Workshop, Office. 

Faculty, vide Ability. 

To Fade (wither)^ (:j*>/*3i pazh- 
murdan, (^«y-i^ aisurdan, (^^ Afl - CA i t 

Faggot, (^ye* &:u^ bastah-i-hizum. 

Fail or Failure, ^jSoj^ j»> dar- 
mandagi, ^jJ dirfgh. — (without 
fail) utor ^ bi-takhalluf. 

To Fail (become deficient^ (^sjk ^\i 
nakis shudan, (2}*x^ «»/ kam shu- 
dan, {^s^ JTU za,il gashtan, 
^JA ^U kasir shudan. — (not suc- 
ceed) <^J^\«* y bar-naydmadan, V* 
^.x^ ^«»^ na-mujassar shudan, 
^.x^ uU sakit shudan. — (as crops 
or produce of the ground) J** 
^xA,^ 'amal najamadan, {^e^^ 
(*)*^jj^ zamfn khwurdan. 

Faint (feeble), ;j|j ^ kam-zur, **— - 
sust, /U fatir, Uli^ za*ff. — (as 
colour) ^^'\ dbakf, j^^ vaz. 

To Faint (swoon), {^^f (J^ ghash 
kardan, (^^^^ \J*jM bi-hush shu- 
dan, (^«^ (J^ gnash shudan. 

Faintness, vide Weakness. 

Fair (in complexion) •XeA- saffd. — 
(handsome) vide Beautiful. — 
(prosperous, favourable) vJi^j^ 
muvafik, J|^«««^ mas'iid, tj^ far- 
rukh, iAnL-jk farkhandah, jWa^. 
bakht-yar. — (as weather) Ui^ 
latif , \yi^ ftaU^ gush^dah-hava. — 
(market) j\j\i bazar. — (the fair 
sex) (:)W^ (a) zan-i-khdb-ruian. 

Fairly (honestly), &»:i^Ve 'adilanah, 
^J\^VJ bis-'s-savab, ^y^^J W ba- 

Fairy, i^j^ pari, (^ jinn, (^W jann 
(pL ^^ ajinnah). — (fairyland) 
(ju«j^ jinnistan, f\^S\J^ shddah- 
kam, «>Vi^^«-^ 'ambar-abad, (:)^j:~»i;( 

Faith (religion), s-^Ju* mazhab, 




millat, {^*y dfn, (J^ kish. — 
(hdief) qW^ imkn, ^\A:^\ i'tikAd, 
jUsc\ i*timad, Jh^\ i*tibar, j«W 
bavar. — (fidelity) U^ vafa, e[;^*>vfc^ 
vafa-darf, ^«^ sidk, ^»J\jui sada- 

Faithful, j^*>^; vafa-dar, ^*3U 
sadik, U^ W ba-vafa, (:>2*xs^ muta- 
dayyin, i^^\ ainfn, ^frfa->*« mus- 
tAiini,-(orthodox) {^y'^y mu,mm, 
j^asUi^ fman-ddr, j\^*> din-ddr. 

Faithfully, ^Udfuu.*^ mustakfmau, 
&>^jla sadikanah. 

Faithless, U^ bf-vafa, ft\f^ **Ui 
namak-haram, J^ ^ bad-'abd. 

Falcon, jW baz, (^W5W bAlaban, fe;^ 
charkb, i;». chargh, vA^ kiisb. — 
(royal falcon) {^^^ sbahi'n. — 
(aea-falcofi) t^f^, bahri. 

Falconer, jUjVj bAz-dar, oV*^ 
kufih-chi'. — (gl^ve) i^ bablab. 

Fall, tyu sukut, wt>^ part (tmlg,). 

To Fall, o**^^^ uftadan, o^\^\ 
uftadau, (^o/ lyu sukut kardan, 
(^^)y^ i:^} zani/n kbwurdan, «t>;^ 
^JA part sbudan (vulg.). — (6c 
killed) Q)'!^ aalS kusbtab sbudan, 
^jLfc Ukb talaf sbudan. — (tumble 
in ruins) (^•xAi s-»^;^ kbarab sbu- 
dan, (^J^j rumbidan (vulg.). — 
(back, to recede) {^j ^^ pas raf- 
tan, (^s.^»Js>j (j»^ pas nisbastan, 
^j|^ J5/6* kabkara nimiidan. — 
(in love) (;}*x.a> v>^^ 'ashik sbudan. 
— (thermometer) cjJA Jj^ nAzil 
sbudan. — (into, ae a river) ^^ 
(:jJA jakf sbudan. — (out) (^^} f^ji 
bar-bam zadan. — (upon) vide 
To Assault. 

Fallacy (deceitful argument), 
sji-A^A falsafat. 

Fallow (ground), j^ baur, ^^Ay 
ma vat. — (colour) ji^\ asfar. 

False, ^^)*> dunigb, v>»iV^ kazib, 
Jt\^ biitil, )^y muzavvar, Ji»> 
daghal, w-i* kalb, a>^ firyab,;^; 
z6r. — (deceitful, knariah) *A^y 
firfbandab, ^V^ makkar, jW aLjd. 
bilab-baz, a^^V) basmab, (^^\ ^J| 
b{-iman, ^^Afc gbaddar, ^^^5^ 
kb4,m. — (haae, as coin) ^"^ kul- 

labi, s-J* kalb, j!k»AJU magb- 
sbush, J^\ isbkili. 

Falsehood, ^jj;*> durugb, vJ^ kizb, 
;4«j)? tazvir, jAfe gbadr, u\et^ irjaf. 

Falsifier, u^^^^ mub:irrif. 

Fame, (•Vj nam, ^^^^ *sX,ji nik-nami', 
uu»^ sbubrat, (j«^^ namus, *aSji 
nang, J,>4j». •^♦S zikr-i-jamil. 

Familiar, uu"U» muta,allif, «J^*U 
ma,h\f, ^A4A bam -dam, (j*y*^ 
ma,uus. (Ft(£e Impudent.) 

Familiarity, sa^\ ulfat, y-i^ uns, 
,jJUaiT asbna,i, fca*-i\*^ mu, ana- 

To Familiarize (oneself) (j-y*^ 
(^^V.* ma,nds sakbtan. 

Family (children), Sl^\ aulad, JW 
atfiil. — (household, wives, depen- 
dants, &c.) jVjjft *ival, iJij^ kbwu- 
randab, ajU. Ja^ abl-i-kbAnab, 
fijyli kbdnvadab. — (descendants 
of a common ancestor) (^^\a. 
khaiidaii, fta^^L^ kbanvadab, 
J-^ asl, J— i nasi, s-*--* nasab, (•y 
kaum, Jl al, J\ ill, S\^ nizhid, 
(^Uj.j diidman, ;W» tabar, 4l<«i 
kabilab. — (of good family) J«^^ 
asfl, A^^JLc^ asl-mand, •J^y i^ pak- 
nizhad, s-<jsr najib. — (0/ low 
family) j^ J^ bad -tabar, {j-*^ a? 
bad- j ins, •>^ji J^? bad-nizbjid. — 
(head of the family) ^Jk*- ^ kad- 
kbuda, ajU. ^ii^y buzurg-i-kbA- 
nab. — (without family) tj^ ^Jt 

Famine, t^ kaht, ^\/ giranf, JMi 

Famished, vide Hungry. 

Famous, j\J^U nam-diir, jy»\i nam- 
var, ^^)^^ ma*raf, *^y^y* mau- 
suf, jj9'^^ masbbur, c^>u>^ mam- 
diib, (vt^ nik-nam. 

Fan, (j^*>W bad-bizau, A».^/* mir- 
vabah ( ;?/. c^^/* maravib). — (/or 
winnowing grain) ^3-.l» tabak. 

Fanatic and Fanatical, s , ^-a<«#* 
muta*assib, ^^*> taXJL*. kbushk- 

Fanaticism, h-*-*** ta*assub. 

Fancy, J^ kbajdl, ^^ vabm, ^y 




tayahhum. — (inclination) J<-« 

mail, ^Uj climagh, ^ safa. 
To Fancy, vide To Imagine. 
Fantastical, i^y^y vasvasf. 
Fantasy, ^J^ •y- khwud-nima,!'. 
Fae, j^*> di'ir, .Ae«* ba*fd, a*-^ 

mub'ad, ^yo\3 kasi, ,ij u £>^ ^ mus- 

tab*ad, c^^** «.j dur-dast. — (as 

far a$) ^ ta, j/( ila. 
Fabce, ^^jM bibudagf. — {play) 

0j^ d^ la'bah-bazi'. 
Fabe, j»UL ta*am, **^^;y*' khwurak, 

6jaM ^ AAftiU. chashtah u nashtah. 

{Vide Hire, Pay.) 
Farewell, £^*>^ vida', *>;;«H pidri'id. 

— {io hid farewell) (^J»;^ *>j(;A> 

pidrud kardan, (^*^/ g\»>^ vida* 

Far-fetched, \\j*> ^ j^o dur va 

diraz, s-J^ / j^*> dur az mat- 
Farina, j*;^ ard. 
Farinaceous, ^^^jT ardi'. 
Farm, ijW\ ijarah. 
To Farm, (y»>W ftjW^ bi-ijnrah 

dadan, <:)»>^ jWJ I'jar nimu- 

Farsier {of land)y ^\-a--« mustajir, 

^U fi^W^ ijarah-dar. 
Farrier, JuJb»* Da*l-baud. — {horer.- 

doctor) ;^ baitar. — {farrier's 

knife) ^^yu— sum-tirjisb. 
Far-siohted, t^rfj^** dur-bin. 
Far-sioutedness, jj^ j|j*> diir- 

Fart, y^ ti'z, 3^ guz. 
To Fart, (:)'^}^ guzidan, (^'Hyt^ 

tizidan, (^•iW y^ ti'z dadau, 3^ 

^^S\*y ftnz dAdan. 
Farther, /;;*> durtar, /-4-*i pishtar, 

J^^ aksa. 
To Fascinate, ^*>/ y^^ afsun 

kardau. {Vide To Delight, To 

Fascinated, q))^^ maftun, y^— *^ 

**>j afsun-zadab, j^^-^ mas-hur. 

— {enraptured), &sAt^ shiftah, f^^ 

4A-4 chashm-bastali, <v . 7 ... }b djl- 

bastah, f*yk^ mughram. 
Fascination, ^^^ afsun, va>^ 

nazrat. (TiV/e Enchantment.) 

Fashion. videCusTOM, Way. — {cut 
of dreffi) fjJ^ ^J^ji burrish-i- 
libas. — iman of fashion) t& Cs . t i 
kashang. — {to he in fashion, like 
things in u^e) {^^ t^y) rav4j 
yaftan. — {clothes, &c,) {^sjbt\^ ^y 
zt dashtan. 

To Fashion, (^^y4i Je^-^ tasbkil 

Fashionable, u(^U&* muta'arif, 
5JLeVi s-^y* A» bi-mdjib-i-ka*idah. 
— {old-fashioned) ^Jk» ciJl«— > bi- 
sabk-i-kadfm. — {new fashioned) 
j^^ tfV f^ bi-sabk-i-jadid. 

Fast {firm), ty<-A»« mazbut, ^ < .^ 7 ...^ 
mustabkim, /»^^^ mubkam, 
^\jk|Vj payadar, ;^^^ ustuvar, ^JVs 
ka,im, o^^ sabit, cs.^/^ sift 
{vulg.), — {quick) *>^j ziid, gi;- 
san'*, o^-^ chust, m^ jald, isSQ^jj 
zaring. — {as watch) J^ tuDd. — 
{swift of foot) y^y^s tiz-rau, ^ ^^ 
tund-rau, Vj S^ bad-pa. — {absti- 
nence from food) I'^y^ riizab, ^^ 
saum, j-A;t parbiz. 

To Fast, e^/' ^w ruzab giriftan, 
^j^ l*\^Me siyara kardan. 

To Fasten, vide To Tib. 

Fastening, vide Knot. 

Fastidious, J*^ sakil, ,j-^^^ vas- 

Fasting {keeping a fast) ^ ^JU sa,im, 
j^»> *35) ruzah-dar. — {hefore eating 
anything) VaftiU nashta. 

Fat {suls.), &«* pih, »jj pi, ^jy^ 
cbarbi, ^•^Ai shahm. — {adj,) A^ji 
farbih, (^^t'^^ samin, M^ lumbah, 
vl^ chak, f¥t ^ 9 jasi'm. — {fat- 
tenedy as an animal), ij)^)^ par- 
vari. — {rich, greasy) sj^^ charb, 
^ a ^ ft i sbahim. 

Fatal, vide Deadly, Mortal. 

Fate, vide Destiny, Fortune, 

Father, ;J» pidar, ^\^ valid, ^\ ab, 
^\ abu, WW buba. — {-in-law) jA» 
(j; pidar-i-zan, yfc^ ;»h pi(^r-i- 
shauhar, ^— A" khusur, *ji»-y bau- 
surab (vulg.), — {step-father) Jy*J^ 
j*v>\ *ammii,f-i-aiidar, ;*>^ yfcyfc 
sbauhar-i-madar. — {god -father) 




h^\^ jj^ pidar - khwdndah. — 
(from father to son) ^a^-A^ A) i*^ 
pusht-bi-pusht, ^ J^ j«j "X-i nas- 
lan ba'd naslin. 

Fathom (measure of six feet) J*» 
baghal. — ((he ordinary height of 
a maUf about 5^ feet) ^ kallah. 

To Pathom, o'V^i paimudan. 

Patioub, ij^J^^ mandagi, 
khastagf, o^/ kuftagi,' 
ta'ab. — (to undergo fatigue) 
^jA ^a.JU^ J^W^ mutahammil-i- 
mashakkat shudan. 

Patigued, vide Tired. 

Patness, ^J»Jh farbihf. — (greasi* 
nes8) ij^^^A^ shahfmf, ^Jy^ char- 

To Patten, (^^ A^y farbih s&kli- 

Pauboueo, <^^ fabdrg (eur,). 

Pault, s-^^ *aib, ^ khata, jyci 
kusiir, ^^ ghalat, fiU5' gunah, ^ 
sahy, s-^J zamb, J^ zall, yit'cS 
taksir, «Jj zallat, ^jaU nuks. — 
(commit a fault) (^^f 1*-^ khabt 
kardan, (^^f laU ghalat kardan, 
^jj^ 6i guh khwurdan. — (to 
firid fault with) (^^/ tSd^Vy 
mu,akhazah kardan, (^*yj^ f^y\ 
ilz^m kardan, o«>^ ft^) zajr ni- 
miidan, (^*^y^ &jWi paighdrah 
nimiidan, (^*^j^ ^3 j^ sar-zanisli 

Faultless, ^e^ ^j bf-taksir, ftUl^i 
bf-gaii4h, <T^c* tf i bf-'aib. 

Paitltt, JHj z4,il, ^^-aS W ba-taksir, 
fiU5' V| ba-gundh. 

Pavoub, «-ALJ lutf , ut^!U muUtaf at, 
u>\i^\ iltdf, A^y tavajjuh, J^ 
fazl, ^karam, ia^^ makrumat, 
ui'^MAi shaf akat, J^j9^ mihr-bani, 
id^Ue *inajat, v^AjV na^vdzish, 
»a>;*» nusrat, <a-a*\) ra,fat, vs 0.4 ft ^ ^ 
marhamat, «a»U25^ iltifat, cSr^j^ 
taiaf-g{ri, (j^jWW iinib-dari. — 
(Divine favour) ^j^^ ijt^f tau- 
f ik-i-il&hi. — (to find favour) 
^\^ ^UsS\ iltifat ydftan, J^)\^ 
{^^ naviizish jaf tan. — (to curry 
favour) (^^y*^ »jUaiu-\ isti'taf ni- 
mudan, (;)«\»U> u:>UsS\ iltifat tal- 

bidan, (jjo^j v>jV *^^ tdlib-i- 
navazish budan. — {by favour of) 
,^jle^jk) bi-dast-yari, vA^Ui-«Vj bi. 

To Favour, o**^ «;>Us3^ iltifat ni- 
mudan, {^^f <-AiJ lutf kardan. 

Favourable, vide Fair. 

Favoured, tyt^^ mahzuz, J^^** 
makbul. — (^e moat favoured na- 
tione) *>UJ^ aUV^ J^j duval-i- 
kamilabu- l-vid4d. 

Favourite, v^/* marghub, s^^«*^ 
mahbub, &i¥f^^ mabbubali, &*Nt)^;» 
bar-guzfdan. — (0/ a prince) ^»^* 
nadim, f»j^ mulazim, (^U-kbass, 
o»^^\ v^Vis. khassu-*l-khav4ss, 
v>yu mukarrab. 

To Fawn, q)*^^ jl*5 tamalluk kardan, 
^ j^ cs**^^ chdplusi nimudan. 

Fayence, <j4i^ kashi. 

Fealty, <^j^*>^^ vafa-dari, *dU> ,3^ 

Pear, <j*/ tars, ^ bfm, ^W bak, 
o-AAo dihshat, Jy^ haul, (j*^y^ 
hirus, ^^ khauf, sy^ sutdh, 
c>»Aft.^ vahshat, s-*<s«> nihfb, *j-> if^ 
khashyat, o<^ haibafc, ct^W* 
mahdbat. — (/ear a/id trembling) 

Ood) \^ takva. 

To Fear, O'^^*-/ tarsidan, (^^^^ 
(^JA birasdn shudan, (j^aU y-y 
tars dashtan. 

Fearful, vide Terrible, Coward, 

Fearing, vide Afraid. 

Fearless, u*^y^ ijt bi-hiras, csJ^ j^j 

Feasible, j^JA shudanf, ^^^^^ 
J^-aJ\ mumkinu-*l-hu8ul. 

Feast, «^^ ziyAfat, ^_5^W• mih- 
mani, ^j^Ue*^ mihmani, ;♦- sur, 
f»yi bazm, (^j-^ jashn, ^^Ji^ valf- 
mah. — (holiday) •v*^ *id, ^>^ *aid 
(vulg,), — (feast days, holidays) 
S^\ a'yad. — (marriage feast or 
m^erry-mahing) yy* sur, (j^«^ *aish. 
— ( feast given by great men to their 
dependants, &c,) (:)Xa shilan. — 
(feast given on certain occasions, 
such as the birth of a son, going 





into a new house, &e.) ^^p valf- 
mah . — {to give a feast) (^ *>^ ^ ^ i^ 
sur bar pd kardan, (^'^^^ J^ 
shilAn kashidan, (^*>U 6^^ valf- 
mah dadan. 

Fbat, ^ band, jV^ kAr, a^W bazi- 
chah, *sS^^ nairang. 

Fbatheb, ^ par. 

Fbathbbless,^^ ^ bi-par. 

Fbathbby, j\^j^ par~d4r. 

Fbatubb, vide Face. 

Fbbbuaby, I»W^ shabat. 

Fbdebation, ftJ^W* mu'ahadab. 

Feb (payment for duties performed) 
^y^^ ij^ hakku-*8-8a*i, y¥\ ajr, 
Jy* muzd. — (doticeur) <j^-*^. 
bakhshisb, ^^ J^ pul-i-cbai. 

Feeble, vide Weak. 

Feebly, a»Vm^ za'ffaiiab, Ai\y^\^ 

To Feed, ^j^V)^ kbwuranfdan, 

0**)j!H parvaroan, c)*>f^ *4«^ 
tagbzijab nimiidan. — ( pasture) 
0j^\j». cbaranfdan, (^«>^ ^;»> cbara 
kardan. — (a horse) (^*>U ajU ^ *^ 
kdb ya ddnab dadan. 

To Feel, (^^ (j«^<«<«a^^ ibsas kardan, 
^j^ ^jn^ jasB kardan. (Vide To 
Pebceiye, To Touch.) 

Feelino, vj"^ bias, ^^^^i fty kuvab- 

To Feiqn, o*>^ A»Vei babanab ni- 
mddan, (^j^s jLelff taklid kardan. 

Felicitation, vide Conobatula- 


Felicitous, vide Happy. 
Fellow (one of a pair), jfh jur, 

e*j zauj, 4^ lingab. — (man) 

Aw^ mardakab. — (feUow-traveU 

ler) vide Tbayelleb. 
Fellowship, «-^^ sbirdkat, 

i»^\JU mu8barakat,«£^Uj raf akat. 
Felt (unwoven woollen stuff), -W 

namad, J^ libd. 
Female, ft*>U madab, &J(jt«>U mddi- 

nab, e^'y* mu,annas, wi>U^ ands, 

^J,^^ unsa. (Vide Woman.) 
Feminine, s^^^y mu,annas. 
Fence, vicfe Hedge. 
To Fence, ^»>jr^^jV> ^ . t ,..»ii sbamsbfr- 

bdzf kardan. Fiele To Englobe. 

Fencing (sword-play), j^jW 

Fennel, <^^^ sbibt, Ai^3\) raz- 

janab, (^^«>W badydn. 
Fenuobeek, J^d^lt-^ sbambalid, 

a1 A - * a sbambalilab, ^dUAi sbam- 

liz (vulg,), 
FEBMENT(a^tto<i(m), (:)^«i^bajajdn. 
To Febment, i^\ \^fr. bi-jiisb 

Febment ATioN, fj^ft^ jusbisb, 

yt*^ takbmir. 
Febmented, j4»afe^ mukbammar. 
Febn, a^W sumdmab. 
Febocious, vide Fiebce. 
Fsbbet, U^ yjty musb-i-kbarmd, 

yJ\j rasu. 
Febbulb, J««( nasi (pi. J^ nusul). 
Febby, fiVS'^J^ guzar-gdb, yt»^ ma*- 

bar, j^AJ'guzdr (vulg.), — (ferry- 

' boat) fij^ •VS'^jft^ kasbti-i-guzdrab. 

Febtile, •i^ jay J id, *i^ a *tf kbasfb, 

fia J«Lft. basU-dib, *3^^j;) bard- 

mand, j^^ bdr-var. 
Febtility, «^J^;» barA-mandf, 

V A kbisb. 

To Festeb, <;)A«i J^j risb sbudan, 

^jji fi^ys. kbwarab sbudan, •i^VA 

(;)*^ fdsid sbudan. 
Festival, vide Feast. 
Festivity, ^5**^ sbddf, o**>*' 

kbwusbf, ^juk^^ kbwusb-vaktf, 

UUi nasbdt. 
Festoon, »yfc birab. 
To Fetch, vide To Being. 
FfiTE, vide Feast. 
Fetlock, ij^ pdy. 
Fettebs, juj \ pd-band, y^^ zan- 

jir, J* gbuU. 
Feudatoby, ^s^^ jk) zfr-dast. 
Feveb, s-J' tab. — (a^gue) j;X ^ s-J* 

tab u larz. — (intermiUent) s-** 

^^y tab-i-naubatf, s^ s-** tab-i- 

gbibb.-(^c^ic) J*) s-* tab-i-dikk. 
Few, ^ kam, «<) ai^ andak, J<sU kal/l. 

— (a few) ^5jJ^ kadri, v5jiy»> juzvf. 
Fez (cap ), {j^ fas (ettr.). 
Fiancee, A^^Lai^ makbtubab, ^) f^i 

Fib, vide Falsehood. — (to tell fibs) 

(2)jj ^y^ cbdp zadoQ. 




Fibre, &^j rishah. 
FiCKLB, vide Variable, Incon- 
Fiction, «Ui^ afs&nah. 
FiCTiTioxTB, ^JJ& nakli, J«9. ja*lf. 
Fidelity, U. vafa, ^j^^U^ vaM-darf, 

u>3\j^ saddkat, viUi j^. hakk-i- 

FiDOETTY, s}^)^ mutazalzil. 
Fie ! ^\^ vaf, fi^, vAh, ^^ of, e^ ukh, 

yff tafd. 
FiBP (estate, feudal tenure), J^ 

tuydl, Jjy tuvfl (vulg.). 
Field, \y^>o salira, (^^J^ maidan. — 

(cultivaied field) ^yy mazra'ah, 

j\j o-fti* kisht-zdr, ct^Vij zird'at. 

— (0/ battle) (^\»V» maidan, 4^^ 

ma'rikah, »VJ' ^^i nabard - gah, 

fi^^j; razin-g4h. 
Fiend, (;)^W^ shaitdn. 
Fierce, J^ tund, i*^;*> durusht, 

ojAfti shadfd. — (animal) »Ji;»> da- 

randah. — (sun) J^ tund, *Jui*5 

zanandah, j«> tfz. 
Fierceness, j^joj tundf, o**!)** ^u- 

rushti, ui>A«i shiddat, u:J^ saulat. 

— (animal) ^J^'^^^ darandagf. — 

(sun) t^^^ tundf, ^J^'^) zanan- 

dagi, ^S}^ t»zi. 
Fiery, c^j^aj^ dtishin, jW^\ atish- 

bAr, <4;V» narf. 
Fife, ^J nai. 
FiFER, (,j^ nai-chf. 
Fia,;««?=^\ anjir. 

FioHT, t?Mi6 Battle, Dispxtte, War. 
To FioHT, (^*>/ *s^ jang kardan, 

(2)JS6^U ^^ razm sakhtau. 
Figurative, e>«^J rangfn, J«iw 

Fioure, J^ shakl, «y^^ surat, 

J^^ kiilbud, ^^ paikar, o5^ 

hai,at, J^ haikal, fij^y kuvarab, 

jjaafcA sbakha, ct^ rikht. — (w 

arithmetic) #%i; rakani. 
File, (^^^ sunAn. — (of papers) vjM» 

tabak, AAfJ* tabakah, &^«> dastab. 
To File, (^^j o^r* s^^^i^ zadan, 

yjj^ ^J,J\^\Jby^ suban-karf kardan. 
Filings, ».>\;» buradah, 2;^ sdvab. 
To Fill, (^j**^ j^ pur kardan, yu*^ 

^^^ mamld nimddan, ^«>/ )i^ 

mala kardan, (*)^^ ^ j ^> » .>« masb- 
bdn kardan. — (cram) (^jJ^li akan- 
dan, (:^Vj^ ampdsbtan, (^>i^^ 
tapdnidan, o^^W cbapanidan. 

Fillet, juj *- sar-band, wiV--* mu- 

To Fillip, t)*)U tf U A,C^ angusbt^k 
d4dan, (^*y) iSSJX» piling zadan. 

Filly, »*>U a^ kurrab-i-mAdab, a^i* 
faluvab, ^y> tarfb. 

Film, «-iy f df, »•>;* pardab. 

Filter, «>V4^ misfat, ^j*U sAff . 

To Filter, (j)*>/ uHo saf kardan, 
O**^^ palddan. 

Filtered, j>jy» murawak. 

Filth, *s5^ cnirk, «t^\cr najAsat, 
(jN^ lajan, <^y laus, (j&i!ll[ 4U- 
yisb, ut^W jandbat. 

Filthy, »xji» palid, (^f^ cbirkfn, 
*^^ Vj n4-pak. ( Vide Indecent.) 

Filtration, M^ tasfiyab. 

Fin (of a fish), «^^^ par-i-m4bf, 
JW bal. — (dorsal fin) ajU mdzab. 

Finally, /-^J^ c^oV^J nibdyabu-'l-amr. 

Finance, «;>U3U mdliyat, gVtf^^ 
^: " -^»^ irtifa* - i - mamlakat. — 
(minister) ijJU ^j^ vazir-i-mdlf- 
yab. — (financial arrangements) 
SjU^ ; 6/- kbarj u makbdrij, 
gjVafc^ ; J*-^**^ madakbil u ma- 

To Find, (jJii^j yaftan, (jj/ \'^ 
paidd kardan, (j^:'***'^ justan, ^ 
^jjo-jUj bi-bam rasanidan. — (to 
find out) (^AAi cft^AsU multafit 
sbudan, ^^Ai J&»#« muntakil sbu- 
dan, (^^ j*> dar-yaftan. 

Fine (not coarse), ij^ ndzuk, <3«J) 
rakfk, isiijW bdrik. (Fi(ie Dear, 
Precious, Bare, Excellent.) 
— (weather) J^U-» musd'id. — 
(small) «£^)W bArik, <3«i*> dakik, 
fi)2; rfzab. — (pen) ^^ nAzuk. 
— (mvXct) &Mf^ jaxfmab, a^W^ 
jarfmAnab, fij^U^ mus^darab. — 
(fine for manslaughter) W^ 
kbdn-babA, «^*> diyyat, di&t^ma*- 
kulab. — (for causing abortion) ^j^ 
gburrab. — (in fine) (J^^ gba- 
yat-asb, uM^^ al-gbaraz, J^W^ 
al-b4sil, j^in al-4kbir. 




To Fine, e*>^ h^Su* musAdarah 
nimiidan. — (to he fined) ^W>^ 
(^JA fij^ jarimunah-kardah shu- 

To Fine-draw, (^^ ^y rafu kar- 

Fineness, ^s^^ dikkat. 

Finesse, vide Abtifice. 

FiNGEE, ws^-&X>^ aufi^usht. — {fore-' 
finger) A<W-» sabbabah, ij>-A^»\ 
«i>*>W*» angusht - i - shahiidat. — 
(ring-fingtr) j-^^ binsir. — (middle 
finger) AiW* o^-aX>\ angusht-i- 
miyiinah. — (little finger) ^-a**- 
khinsir, g^ kilinj. — (joint of 
the fingers) o-AiO^ juj band-i- 
angusht, J-*** mafsil (j;L J«^ 
mafHsil. — (tip of finger) a*U> ba- 
nanah (pi, (jW bunAn), oUi^ 
anmulat (^d. ^^\ an Ami 1). 

To FiNQER, (^*>;» o^. C ^ angusht 
burdan, (^^3 sa.^*^ dast zadan. 

Finish, vide End. 

To Finish, (^j^ ^U? tamAm kar- 
dan, (jj»M^; f^\^ bi-Akhir rasAni- 
dan, eH*-W pardakhtan, u*/^ 
(^Si^-^ munkariz sukhtan, (ja^W<\ 
anjamidan, (^*3^ ^W-^ an jam kar- 
dan, (^'^y*^ fi^^ khatm nimudan, 
0j^ j«u«.\ ikhtitam nimudan. 

Finished, vide Polite. — (to he 
finished, expended) (^^^-a ^X-a. 
khalas shudan, (jjJ^l ^ bi-sar 
Amadan, (^<xu ^^ kharj shudan, 
0«^ yj^ftXf munkariz shudan, 
{^Xtr^y j*-W bi-akhir rasidan, ^U* 
(^«^ tamum shudan. 

Fib (tree),j^yi^ sinaubar, g^kaj. 

FiBE, {J^\ ntish, j^ nar, ^♦il Azar 
(ohs,) . ( Vide Conflagbation.) 
(fire-place in a room) iS)^' ^^- 
khtiri. — (sunk in the fioor) syS 
tannur. — (fire-place or oven) JfW^;^ 
tijak, ^W chalah. — (fire-place 
formed of a pan of charcoal placed 
under a frame or low tahle^ which 
is covered with a quilt), 0^7^ 
knrsi. — (worshipper ; priest; 
temple of worship) rtWe^MAGlAN. 
— (fire-pan orhrasier) J&*^ man- 

kal, (^^xAJ^ Atish-d&n. — (of earth- 
enware) **^ kalak. — (fire-hrand) 
6j\^'\ dtish-pArah, } y 4 e} nim- 
suz. — (fire-fly) s^^^t* u«^ ma- 

To FiEE (set on fire), ^oj yftili atish 
zadan, {^^^"^ afrukhtan, {^ys 
(;)*i/ raushan kardan. — (a gun) 
(^j/ JW khali kardan. — (to 
catch fire) {^^ j»> fJ^A Atish 
dar giriftan. — (to stir the fire) 
0^3 ^ \J^\ atish bi-ham zadan. 
— (to hlow the fire) uJ^ \jA5} 
(^•>j^ atishra put* kardan. — (to 
makeup the fire) i^*^j^ ij^ Atish 
kardan. — (to light the fire) y^li 
^>y^ ^1^ Atish raushan kardan. 
— (to put out the fire) \J^y\A^ ^j^} 
(^*y/ AtishrA khamush kardan, 
^jilA* ^J>5'\ Atish nishAndan, \jA5i 
{*)ASi^ AtishrA kushtan. 

FiBE-DAMP, A^*> damah. 

FiBE-ENOiNE, A^y^ tulumbah. 

FiBEMAN (extinguisher of fire), ij^\ 
^^ i^y\^ Atish-khAmush-kun. — 
(company of firemen) tj^^ ^^ 
^^ J^v»\^ nizAm - i - Atish - khA- 
mush-kun, {^^^ A^yy» tulumbah- 

F1BBWOBK8, s^j^A*^ Atish-bAzf. 

Firm (company), ks^jA* shirkat. 
(Vide Fast, Habd.) — (to make 
firm) (^*>/ j^y^^ ustuvAr kardAn. 

FiBMAMENT, ^j rakf*, i^^^U^ sa- 
mAvAt, JJii^ jalad, (^jU-^ ^Ui 

F1BMNE88, f^j^y^^ ustuvAri, fca^U> 
matAnat, s^Ai^ *j^yi kdvat-mandf. 

FiBST, va^— t^ nukhust, (^e?.«,f%^ nu- 
khustin, J;\ avral, ^ yakum, 
^Jk&« mukaddam. — (firstly) '^y\ 
awalan, "Ujiu* mukaddaman. — 
(in the first place) LA«i j^ cr«i pish 
az pi'sh, J^\ h ^y\ awal bilA 
avval. — (first-fruits of the season) 
ji f nau-bar, *;^ y nau-bAvah, 
u*j LT^ pi'sh-ras. — (at first) j*y 
\jsi\ dar ibtidA. — (first day of 
mo7iih) ^jt ghurrahj.ft;^ jji; ruz-i- 
ghurrah. — (to come in first, 
racing) (;)*x^\ {J^ pfsh Amadan. 




PiBSTBOBN, »»>\j J^^ ayyal-zAdali. 

PiscAL, o^V** ^iv^nf. 

Pish, ^J^\^ mahi. — (dried and 
smoked fish) *-A«-^ kisif, ^J^^ 
tf ^ A^ mahi - i - khushk. — (river 
fish) Ju, ^jfcU m4hf-i-8hati. — 
(sea fish) v5f«=*.o*^ mdhi-i-bahrf. 
—(fish-hook) Aj)X» kuMbah, ^/aAi 
shass. — (fishing-net) f^*y dam, 
&^^ shabakah, j^ tur, fi^y turah. 
— (fisherman) ^«CjaU mAlii-gir. 
—(fish-pond) s^y^ iklkh,— (fish- 
monger) J^jiy <j*^ m^hi-furdsh. 

To Pish, o^r^ *^^<i^ ^^^ Dimudan, 
^j^ jk^ ^U mahf said kardan, 
^jj^jlie. shikar kardan. 

PissuBE, vide Cback. 

PiST, o-ft^ musbt. — (to clench the 
fist) (^*y/ vj>J^ \f^*y dastra musbt 
kardaD, (jJ^&^aS' ^ &^^ pan jab 
bi-bam guzasbtan. 

PiSTXTLA, j^^ ndsur, ;^U niisur. — 
(lacrymalis) f^^ (^%6^ saiMn-i- 
cbasbm, ^^a^^ dam'ab. 

Pit, vide Paeoxysm, Swoon. — 
(proper), ,jS^ la,ik, s-9-U vajib, 
^1) rava, s-^Va* niundsib, W- saza, 
y^^y* sazavar, &i-4^ sbayistab, 
^j3 lazim. — (to he fii) ^j^^— 2^ 
sbdjistan, (^^^ (J?^ la,ik budan, 
^j^^ ^Uj bi-kar kbwurdan, (;)J!-h>W 
bayistan, ^^aAi^^jL. saz-kar sbu- 

To Fit, o*^ s-^^ munAsib sbu- 
dan,' {^sji^'^ ctNi..^U^ munAsabat 
dAsbtan, [^sJ^\'i cs^nU^^ muvafakat 
dashtan, (j*>^ j/"V farakhwur 
biidan. ( Vide To Become (hefit). 
To Adapt.) 

PiTNESS, ^ j^ aH>^ sbAyistagi, j^ 
i^j^ saz-kari. 

PiTTiNGS, s^W-^ asbab. 

Pix, fJiSU^ kash-ma-kash. — (to 
he in a fix) (^<^'\ jtf gir amadan, 
(jjjA jW ^J du-char shudan. 

To Pix, (^JiUJ nisbiindan, c>^ 
(:)*y/ sabt kai'dan, (^»>/ s-^ nasb 
kardan, (^*yy^ sa^\j>\ ikamat kar- 

PiXED, (;>*** mu*ayjan, ^^ mu- 
karrar. — (ustuU) *^^y mau*ud. — 

(to keep one^s eyes fiaed) ^^\y 
^^^ murAkib budan. 

Plabbiness, <^y narmi. 

Flabby, f»y narm. 

Flao, (^V*^ nisban, ^ *alam, ws^*\) 
ra,yat, ^^ liva, jf;trf bairak, j^^ 
bairak. — (reed) ^ nai, s^*>;* 
burdf, j^ pizur, ^ lukb, (^^^ 
jagan.— (,^-fito/) ^ jU dAr- 

To PiiAo, vide To Withee. 

Flaqon, &i\^ kar^bah. 

Flail, v>/ ^»uJ gandum-kiib. 

Flambeau, vide Toech. 

Flame, ^^j zabanab, aUai sbu'lab, 
«-^ taf. — (in flames) J^**-* 

Plank, •iee pablu. — (the flanks) 
tU\ azla*. 

Flannel, ^^^ fandlan (cMr.). 

Flap, {^\*^ daman, ^^^-^ cbin. 

Flash, (jftJ^ atish. 

To Flash, ^Atj-s-s^j dirakbsbfdan, 
0*^3 li;^ bark zadan. — (in the pan, 
a gun), (^>^^ J5' gul kardan. 

Flashing, (jjC^j dirakbsb^n, jjW 

Flask, vide Bottle. 

Flat (level), ft\j^ barAbar, ^y^ 
bamvar, ^^^^--^ musavf, la^— i 
basit, ^^ " ^ musattab, (^ pabn. 
— (trade) •v-Vi' kasid. 

To Flatten, vieie To Boll out. 

To Flattee, vide To Coax, To 

Flatteeee, ij»^^ cbaplds. 

Platteey, j^1[ v>^ kbwusb-amad, 
o-^V chaplusf, (jU? tamalluk, 
^ ^ ^ chain va kham, \J*'^f na- 
viizisb, j^JJVafc-A^ risb-khandi. 

Flatulency, ^»Wi ^ uafkb - i - 
shikm, f^ S^ bad-i-sbikm. 

Flatulent, t^ naffakh. 

Flautist, ^j ^J nai-zan. 

Flavoue, ly mazah, f^Wm, j^*S 
zauk, (^5^U. ch^sbni. 

Flaw, ^JiSi naks, A-«efi> nakfsab, 
ut^^ kust,^ md. (Vide Ceack.) 
— (flawed) )\*^y^ mu-ddr, *JA J^ 
shakk-sbudab, &Jt^\^ shikaftab. 

Flax, ^U^ kattan. 




To Flay, e**^ **^^ P^st kandaa, 
^A*A^ o .j^— ^ past, bar-kashidan, 
^jj^ ^ salkb kardau. 

Flea, cd^^ kaik, *^^ kahk. 

To Flee, ^^^s*:/' gurikhtan, (^^^ ^^ 
finir kardan,^^»>^ is^-^oy^ hazimat 
niiiiudau, 0*>U ^^ pusht dadan. 

Fleece, f^ pasbm. 

To Fleece, vide To Shear, To De- 


Fleet {of vessels) ^ ^J^ aj^*> 
dastah-i-kashti'. (Vide Quick.) 

Fleeting, ^J\i fanf, jW^ \i na-pa- 

Flesh, ^a^^ gusbt, ^ labm. 

Fleshy, (j«5Aiyr gushtfn. 

Flexibility, ^j*^ narmi'. 

Flexible, |^ narm, j^^ picb- 

Flexion (grammatical term), ^j^ 

Flight (escape), j\ji finir, js^T guriz, 
v>^ barb. — (act of flying) )\^^ 
parvaz, (:)^j^ tayariin. — (rout or 
defeat) o^y^ bazimat, c&«>*.. ^ ai 
sbikast. — (of arrows) (^\^ y^ tir- 
banin. — (flock of birds), i^ 
galab, 4i«- silab. — (to put to 
flight) (j'X(j\j^ ^^i^ munbazim 
gard/inidan, (;)^\»> c>-*iyfc bazimat 
dadau, (^x^\y./ gurizanidan. 

To Flinch, vide To Quail. 

To Fling, ^^jja-^J^^ andakbtan, 
(^xSi\ atkandau. — (down) ^;ys^^\ 
andakbtan, (^JL;Xi\ ^^ bi-zir af- 
kand.'in, (^*3^ «y;i part kardan 
(vuhj ). 

Flint, jUafe^ ttCu* sang-i-cbakb- 
niak. — {a skin flint) j^ i^\i nan- 
kur. (Vide Miseb.) — (to skin a 
flint) (^*>j ciJJ \ji^ jj \y^S^ ma- 
gasra dar bavii ra«^ zadan. 

Flippant, i^U-lgnstakh, ^^ sbukb. 

Flippantly, 6iii\t rrhafilanab, 'ilAfc 
gbiflatan, *iUU--^ gustakbanab, 
^y» V^ bii-sbukbi'. 

Flirt, ;W fi^ sbjvah-l»az, / 6^ 
sbfvab-gar, jVj fiy^ *i8bvab-l>az, 
jS ly^i^ *i8bvab-ti:ar. 

To Float, ^^^ v>li ^^3W b»ilji,r.i. 
Ah raftan. 

Flock (of large cattle, hor$es, cow$y 
mules, &c.), A-*^ raxnab. — (of 
sheep, goats, birds, c^c.) ^ galab. 

To Flog, 0«>j ^k}^ tazijanab zadan. 
— (tie up and chastise) (^*>) a*»^ \^ 
ba-surniab zadan. 

Flood, v>^ sailab, o^^ tufan. — 
(the Flood) ^U^ tMiin. 

Floor, ^j^j zamin, <-A^ kaf, JV 
f arsh.— (boarded) Aa*J' takhtab. — 
(story of a house) M«iB tabakab, 
AiU* takab, ^W bam. — ( ground' 
floor) J^J»* tabtiini, (^^^^ ^/* 

To Floor, y>/ ij^^y^ ^^a^^ j^ az 
taklitab mafriisb kardan, i>J^ W 
^j^^y ba-takbtabfarsb kardan. 

Florican (small species of bustard), 
JW^j zaugibAl, );». cbarz. 

Flour, •i)^ ard. — (^ne /our) ^JS 
jM; ard-i-rakik. — (place for 
storing flour) ^kattab. 

To Flourish, (^^ sbikdftan. 
(Vide To Brandish.) — (be pros- 
perous) (^J^W balidan, *A^^f- 
(^^^ kbwusb-vakt biidan, Ju^ 6^ 
(^^^ babrab-mand budan. 

Flourishing (exchequer), j^*** 
ma*mur. (Vide Healthy, Pros- 

Flow (of the sea), J^ madd. 

To Flow, ^^sJk ^^^W jari sbudan, 
^j^ O^/*- jirjan nimudan, (^^^ 
(^•X6» ravan sbudan, ^*^ (:;)ik^^ 
sayabin sbudan, (^'^y*^ J«-« sail 
nimudan, (^J^ (^\^j rizan sbudan. 

Flower, J^gul, ^y naur, yfcj zabr, 
&i^ sbilvufab. — (of youth) (^^>J^ 
'unfuvan, (^Ujij ray*an. — 0>esi 
part) fiA}j zubdab, ^-^"^ kbtdasab, 
a3Su sulalab. — (garden) (^U-IT 
gulistan, (jjU-y biistan, ;^jl5'gul- 
zar, A^W bagbcbab. — (flower- 
pot) (:j^JJ^ gul-dan. — (flower-box) 
fij^ kuzab. — (flower-work, etn- 
br aider y) ^^ butab, ^^j\S AJy 

Flowing, ^^jW jari, (^^y) ravan. 

Flue, J^ kbaii, ^j^^y^ dud-kash. 

Fluency (of speech), ct^U* fasd- 
bat, ij,j^} (:)Wj zabdn-dvari. 




Fluent, ^^ fasfh, jy\ (^jWj zaban- 

Fluid, JW- sayyAl, ^si^ jari, ^j\ 
iibi. (Vide Liquor.) 

Flurry, ^y8> ^^ h4i-hui, v>yftil 
^shub, J^^si^^ ashuftagi, &.h4JB> 
hamhamah. — (to he in a flurry) 
^o^ tapidan. 

To Flurry, (^j^^/ tarsanidan. 

Flute, ^J nai, ^^ nay. 

To Flutter, (;)J^ tapidan. 

Fluvial, ^^^ nahri. 

Flux (water) J*- sail. — (blood) 
^yL f^j raf tan - i - kliun, ^^^ 
0^ raftagi-i-khun, J^\ is-b41. 

Fly, w-Si* magas. — (gadfly) w-^^ 
kbar-magaa. — (dragon-fly) HjatA^ 
masbkburab. — (flre-fly) ij*'^ 
s^Vm» magas-i-sbab-tdb. — (Spa- 
nish fly) vide Cantharides. — 
(fly-flap) 0yi *>W bad-bizan. 

To Fly, (;)«^i;> paridan, or parri- 
dan, o*^^ )^)ji parvaz nimudan, 
00^ oV^ tayaran nimudan. — 
(a kite) (^^^«> y^ bavd dadan. 

Foal, «/ kurrab. ( Vide Filly.) 

Foam, U^kaf, Js^ tafisb. 

To Foam, (^^/ Z^i kaf kardan. 

Fob, s-*e9^ jib. 

Fodder, «-Aic *alaf, *^giyab, jk^ 

Fob, vide Enemy. 

Fcetus, {^a^ janfn. 

Foo, Ojj ddd, ^.i^<A ^Vfi gbnbdr-i- 
sbabnam, ^ mib, jU^. bukb&r, 
(jjUy. tiimAn, A-* migb. 

FoooY, A^ ^y^ bava-i-mib, *«JUa<w« 

Foist, y^ tiz, j^ guz. 

Fold (for cattle), ^\ Agbil, j^^ 
marbaz, »;Ji*- bazirab, J^ agil, 
J*- sAL— (pZy) « tab, \s ta, ^^^^ 
14i.— («wo-/oW) Vy^*>dii-ta, cJ^U. 
muza'af , 4*V5'^*> du-ganab. — (three- 
fold) J^ &- sib-laf, Vj &^ sib-ta. 
—(ten-fold) \S aj dib.t4, ^j^J^ »*> 
dib-cband&n, ^^ fi«> dib-mukA- 
balab. — (subterraneous fold for 
cattle) ^ kand. 

To Fold up, (:;*^^^ pfcbi'dan, ^ 
^«>/ tab kardan, (^*>/ ^ ta kar- 

dan, (*^\^ ^ tai sakbtan, 
(^^^j^ navardidan. 

Foliage, tiS^ barg, j;^ varak. 

To Follow, ^^^ s-isc *akab raftan, 
^•>^ s-^U* ta*»ikub kardan, JV-i*> 
0-^^ dumbal raftan, (^^^ ii5;;H 
pay-ravi nimudan, {^j ol^** <iar 
pay raftan, (^j ^^ pas raftan, 
0*3^ ol pa-y zadan. — (^ the door 
on taking leave) ^•>^ «>«4lA-« 
musbaya'at nimudan, {^j ^^J^ 
badrikab raftan. — (to follow 
after) vide To Pursue. — (to fol- 
low as a mourner) fijW gat-^ 
(^•>;^ tasbyf'-i-janazab kardan. — 
(as follows) Jft-AJ ^^V» bd-in tafsfl, 
Jaj J«-»*5| bi-tafsil-i-zail. — (fol- 
lowing) J4»i zail, &e*\ atiyab, (^\ j\ 
j\;S az in kardr. 

Follower, ^ \{j^ pas-ran, s-^U»« 
mu'Akib, g»^ tabi*, g»U^ mutabi', 
**^i; c5t pay-ravandab, (jj^ pay- 
zan. — (believer) ^^»^Aft»» muktadf, 
»kfc«*« mu*takid, .W* talmiz, J«/» 
murid, jJi&^ mnkaJlid. 

Folly, ^J^^ ablabf, «:^Si» balabat, 
u^JUa. bimdkat, <^^JfcU^ safdbat, 
^ kbabt, J»ft «:-ii killat-i.*akl, 
^y^ bi-vukufi, ^\^U n4-d4nf, 
Jtofi^ bi-*akli, cs-sh*- kbarfyat 
(vulg,), — (height of Jolly) ^j JU^ 
Jite kamal.i-bi-*akli. 

Fond, J^ ma,il, jAai sb4,ik, f^ 

To Fondle, e*MW^ jumbdnfdan, 
j^ eSV *^- bacbab-navdzf kar- 

Food, «t>«S kut, *^\^ kbwurdk, 
l*Ul> ta*am, \^ gbiza, *^^^ kbwurd, 
Aljjj^ dzukah, Jj^U ma,kul. — 
(bodily) jU-<«-». ^JJ1Jk^ gbizd,f-i- 
jismanf. — (spiritual) o^'^i) t/^*^ 

Fool, ^\ ablab, (^o«^ kandan, vJ'^a.^ 
abmak, (^j^o U na-dan, ^ ^ n4- 
fabm, &tiAM saffb, ^^ kbwaplab, 
'-*A** bi-vukuf, va^ pakbt 
(vulg.). (Vide Jester.) 

Foolish, vide Stupid, Ignorant. 

Foolishly, AiVa**.^ ahmakanab, ^Jt 
ii"^ 'aklanab, 6*^^ bibudab. 




Foot, ^ pA, ^5^ pAy. — (as applied 
to ihingB) A^-G pAchah. {Vide 
Basis, Pedestal, Vebse.) — (on 
foot) **>W* piyAdah. — {at the foot 
of) (•*> dam, ^5^ p4y. — {to set on 
foot) (^^ sj^ji bar pay kardan. 
— {to go on foot) {^j *»>^ pij^- 
dah raftan. 

FooT-BOABD, ^ W jd-i-pa. 
Footing, fiJ^Vi k44dali, ^^\ asds, 
cuJU. Mlat. 

Footman, ^*y^ piyadah. {Vide 
Sebyant.) — {runner) jtlan shdtir, 
«£^ paik, Ju>U k&sid. 

Footstep (jwce), ^ kadam, ^VS' 
gdm. — {mark) ^J^ (^^ nishAn-i- 
pdj, f\ asar, ftya*- khatvah, j»ai 
kadam, £^^ suragh. 

Footstool, *^^jJ» kadam-g4h, <j-/ 
V^;4j kursf-i-zfr-pa. 

Fop, *gl*Ai kashang, fiSi^ |g^ kaj- 
kuldh, ;:>©» .>yt khwud-bfn, uJW 
ijUf, J^ys^khwush-gil. 

Foppish, {^ {^^^^ khwishtan- 
bfn, *aSUAi kashang. 

Fob, ^Jiji baraf, ;e» j^ az bahr, o-^ 
jihat, 4k-y bi-v4sitab, y»U- ^^\^ 
pds-i-khdtir, Jt*: bakhsh, ^ ta, 
^\^ y^sah {wig,), — {for instance, 
for example) "^ masalan, "U^ 
farzan, u*y j? bar farz. — {for 
long, for a long while) (•^^^ ^.xs j\ 
az kadfmu-'l-ayjdm, jW ^•^ dir- 
b^z. — {for the sake of) i^^ji 
bardf, ^W bin4-bar, •^•U. ^j*V» p^s- 
i-kbatir, j6» J^ az banr, 4k-\y bi- 
▼Asitah. — {for ever) vide Evbb. 

FoBAOE, <--Aic *alaf , &^ gij^b, jk^ 

FoBAY {plundering expedition), ^V^ 
chapdw, va>jVA gharat, e^V» tarai, 
Uik4 yagbmA, s-^ salab, o*>**b 
rah-zanf, s^^\ intihdb, ^.^^V^ 
chapdvali {wig,). 

To FoBBEAB, (^*>^^\ \f ya-fst&dan, 
^^U j} ^A^*y daat bar-dashtan, 
^jj^ ^<jA^ parhfz kardan, J.»ecr 
(^«>^ tanammul nimiidan. 

FoBBEABANCE, v*^^Ji»-^ ijtinab, 
)^fa^ ihtirdz, £Us^\ imtiudS J*ecr 

tahammul, «-A5y tavakkuf, JUa^ 
ihmdl, ^.^y«A;> parhfzi. 

To FoBBiD, (^ J.s ^ mana* kardan, 
0j^ O^j^ narm&n nimddan, jW 
(:^^«> baz-ddshtan, (^*y^ ^ nany 
kardan, (^*^y^ {^^*>i kadgban ni- 

FoBBiDDEN, £y^*^ mamnd*, ^^e^ 
munhf, f>\^ haram, f^^ harfm, 
j^ib^^manzur. — {forbidden things) 
«e»U^^«« mubarramdt, ^j^^ ma- 
nAbi, ^jftlU malahi, o*^ navdhf, 
«£>Vey4^ mamnd'at, «£>\)^^^<« mah- 

FoBCE {strength), vide Stbength. — 
{violmce) vide Compulsion, Vio- 

To FoBCB, vide To Compel. 

FoBCED, jyt^^ majbdr. 

FoBCES {military), c>* fauj, ^^aJ 
lashkar. — {by force) j^) A* bi-zur, 
"V***" jabran. — (to come into force) 
0«xAi \^3\ ^^ mar*iu-'l-ijr4 shu- 
dan. — {to put in force) (a*^/ ^y^^ 
mujri kardan. 

FoBD, j\SS guzdr, tij\^ gaz&rah, 
AVS^JkT guzar-gdh, j^ji^ ma'bar, 
j^Ji' gud&r {vulg.), 

FoBDABLE, s^VjV^ pa-y4b, j\^ e>^U^ 

FoBE, (i>e-ft^ pfshfn. 

FOBEFATHEB, (^^e*^ pfshfn, ^H- 

jadd {pi oW\ ajddd). 
To FoBEoo, vide To Abandon. 

FOBEHEAD, ^U^ pfshdnf, (^irt^ 

jabin, i^t^ jabbah, &««^ n&siyah 
{pi. t5*V Jiav^sf). 

FoBEioN, s-s|;^ gharfb, a*^ higk- 
nab, v^i^-^ ajnab. — {Foreign Mi- 
nister) i*tj\^ jt}y yazfr-i-kbarijah. 
— {Under Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs) &e%)U. jUjL-« 
mustasbdr - i - kb4ri j fyah. — {Fo- 
reign Office) ^^•i &^j^ 6i\A!fj\^^ 
yizArat - kbdnah - i - khdrijah - i - 

FoBEiONBB, fjt^\ ajnabf. 

FoBELEO {of a/n animal), 4a*-o 

Fobeman, jVi^ sar-k&r, oVju^ ustad. 

FoBEMOST, (»)ifA^ pfshtarfn, J^\ 




avval, f**]^ mukaddatn, ^jJ^ 
Forenoon,^ j^ \J^ y(»h az zulir, 

Forerunner, j^^^ pish-rau. 

To Foresee, (^ajo ^J;^ pfsh didan, 

^^^jujU ^JA4Ji^ J*^ J^ ^^ ina,al-an- 

dishf danistan. 
Foresight, ^Ji^jt^ basfrat. 
Foreskin, ssJit ghulfat, u^"^ ghi- 

Forest, (^U--j».j*> dirakhtistiin, 

j\y^j*^ dirakht-zdr, &a«» bishah, 

J>^ jangal, f^\ ujum. 
Foretaste, (jj^^ *urbuii. 
To Foretell, p^ ^^^^ J*V^ }\ az 

^*A*y ma,41-andfBhikhabardadaD, 

{^sJS fj^ pfsh guftan. — (pro- 

phecy) <j*V^ *^y«^ nubuvat nimu- 

dan, o«>y^ )W^^ ikbbAr nimtidaii, 

^^jjUkT uJV kabdnat guftan. 
Forfeit, a^/j- jarfmab, a^W/j- jarf- 

To Forfeit, (^*y/ fS gum kardan. 
FoROE {of a hUicksmith), fij^kiirab. 
To Forge, {^^^ sakbtan. 
FoRGBB, vide Cottnterfeit. 
Forger, ^U kallab, / &^^ sAkh- 

FoRGBRT, J»^ ja'l, ^J^^ sdkb- 

tag/,^j)y tazvir. 
To Forget, (^•>/ <>^V fardmdsb 

kardan, (:)*>3^ <:?W^ nisjan nimu- 

Forgetful, JaU z4bil, ^^^ nAsf, 

j\^yAjk farAmiisb-kdr. 
Forgetfulnsss, v>y«V fS'i^Aniusb, 

(;)Ve-i nisyan, iJ^y^Y fardmusbi. 
To Forgive, (^*y/ y^ ^afr kardan, 

(j)jk^ uJl*« mu'af kardan, y«^«j-A*^. 

bakbsbfdan, (^^U j^*^^'^ ma'zdr 

dAsbtan, ^«>/ ja5^ j«> dar guzar 

kardan, (^'^W^'S amurzfdan, ^yuu 

0j^\ j^ magnf ur gard^nidan. 
Fork, J^^ cbangAI. — (for shifting 

cortiy Ac, while thraahing) ^y^^ 

aucbdm, <j-^\ ausf ; ^ siku. — 

{of flame) a^W) zabanab. 
Forlorn, (^j^^ parfsbdn. — (/or- 

hm hope) «>U»^ ^J^ pfsb-uftAd, 

^i^^ vA«i plsb-dbang. 

Form, vide Figure, Shape. — {cere- 
mony) ^j rasm, i-Al^ takalluf. — 
{(jramiimiical ienn) \^ bina, ^jJ^ 
niabni. — (a/ school) oU» ginf. 

To Form, e-*/ JtJ^^ tasbkfl kar- 
dan, ^^U «i>j^ surat dddan, 
(jj^^U sdkbtan. — {intrans,) ^y^ 
(j>s-» surat bastan. — (to be 
formed) (^^i Je^AJ tasbkfl vaf- 

Formally, 'W^/* sariban. 

FoRMKR, i:^t^ pfsbfn, v»^ sAbik, 
f^^ kadim, f*AA^ mukaddam. — 
(as opposed to latter) J^^\ aula. 

Formerly, v>»^ s4bik, y^^ pfsb- 
tar, '^<iA» mukaddaman, jii (^ 
min kabl, ^4^ )\ |J^^J pfsb az in, 
AaftnVJ' ^^^ ayyAm-i-guzasbtab, "^t 

Formidable, s-*it » * mabib, «<SU)yfc 

FoRMiDABLENESs, vfr^<^ baibat, 
^_/U5y8> baul-nAkf. 

Formidably, u><<«i bi-baibat. 

Formula, y}*^\ ^f^^ dasturu-*!- 

To Fornicate, (^'^f V>j zina kardan. 

Fornication, Vjj zina, ^^^ V*j zind- 
kdri, <4)^ f\^ bariim-k&ri, J^ 
sbaid, ^^jCtA-U fabisbagf. 

Fornicator, j^ Vj; zina-k6r, ^J\y 
zani, jW •M^ sbaid-bdz. 

To Forsake, vide Abandon. 

Forsooth ! «♦ bib, ^jw bibf. 

Port, *«U kal'ab, jUa. his4r, ^ 
barii, (;^-ft- bisn. — {on a hill) y*^ 
dizb, •A'li^ kalAt. 

Forte, ^^ rasm, ^jL tarikah. 

Forthwith, ^ykJ^^ fi-'l-faur. 

Fortifications {of a town) mW 
baru, *;W barab, {^'»^ bisn, jW 

Fortified (a town, Ac) *— « 
mabrusab, (^^^^^^ mahsun, 

To Fortify, (^*>;^ er*^^ mabsun 
kardan, e^^ (:^d<^ tabs in kar- 

Fortitude, ^^y muruvat. {Vide 

Fortnight, AJ^Ai^ ^«> dd-baftab, 





PoETUNATE, ^W?*: bakht-jAr, ceU 
«>*•. nik-bakht, js^y ^ nik- 
akhtar, J^s*- sa*{a, fey farrukh, 
Afc-jj;? baru-mand, e^**^ maimun, 
< . yM%^ khujastah, o^/*^ kamran, 
JuuiJL-t tali'-mand, ^s* *^ ^ ^ ^ 

PoETXTNATKLY, \jUi kazara. 

PoETXTNE, jSjji) rdzigar, ^J,)^ ruzf, 
s-'^ nasib, ^j>^, bakht, ff^ tali*, 

!,&>» S kismat, «;« bahrah, «s^ 

falak, yfc*> dabr, &i^} zamanah, 
«j:J^^ daiilat. — (had fortune) •>» 

,jak: bad-bakhti, j^U-^U 
bakbt-i-na-musA'id. — {good for- 
tune) J^s*-* **^ bakht-i-sa'id, ^a^^, 
y^ bakht-i-nikd. — {to make one* e 
fortune) ^J^ «aJ^*> h-*-^ sabi])-i- 
daulat sbudan. 

FOETITNE-TELLEE,j-sflU fal-gir. 

To FoEWAED, vide to Send. 

FoEWAEDs, (j^ j*> dar pish, jS^-ai 
pishtar, f^J^ miikaddam. 

Fosse, vide Ditch. 

FosTEE {mother), AjW (liiyah, 6*>^ 
sbir-dih. — (brother) ;j ' * -» ^ ;*>^;> 
birAdar-i-ham-shfr, ,^^j j^^V 
biriidar-i-rizA*i'. — {child) ^j^ 
fij ^ farzand-i-shfr-dih, ^^^ ^— * 

To Foster, (^^/ ^j;;i parvarish 

Foul, *sJ^ ^ na-pak, fiJ^^ aliidab, 
jj-«r najifi, »Mi pili'ti, «t-Al> pi- 
lisht. — {wicked) •^U lasid, ^^ 
kabfti, c*-i* fazih, ^-.^Ai sham'*, 
f*y^ inai»hum. 

To Foul, o**/ vfiJV>V> na-pak kardaii, 
(^•>y^ aludan, o**/ tJ^^ chirk I'n 
kardan. — {ehipsy &c.) tj->)ys- ^ 
bi-ham kbwurdan. 

Foul-mouthed, ^V^j •^^ bad-zab/m. 

Foulness, ^./^ ^ nA-pnki, »j^*-.^j 
najdsat, vj^»>y^ Aludagf. 

To Found, o**^ u~*-*^ ta,9i9 ni- 
mudan. — {metals) ^j^-^-a-Ht; nkh- 

Foundation, ^W^ bunyad, (^W^ 
bunyan, ^ l)uu, AjVa payah, y-L.^ 
asas, tj^ tarh, J-b\ asl, 6.^cV5 k:i*i- 
dah.— (0/ a wall) ftJ^JU shAldah.— 

{foundation stone) ^W AjVi *£. 

Founded, ^y^ mabni'. 

Foundee, ^J\i banf. — (0/ metals), 
f aj^ rikhtah-gar, (^ JVi kal- 
kun, /3V5 kal-gar. 

Foundling {child), ^ lakit, *a»-: 
jy^j^ bachah-i-mambuz. 

Fountain, A-^-^chashmab, (;)*c*aiii, 
^fJ^ inamba*, £^ yanibii*, ^J\^ 
khaiii. — {jet d'eau) ^^^ favvdrah, 
^jj^^jlfc shadurvdn. 

Fowl, ty* murgb, fiJ^^ parandab. 

FowLEE, *>W<» sayyAd. 

Fox, fi^M rubjth, ^^ rubah, ftWj ru- 

Fracas, vide Quaeeel. 

Fraction (in arithmetic), *;— i kas- 
rah, }Y*^ •>J^ 'adad-i-maksAr, 
^y^ kusAr. — {vulgar fractions) 
^^ jVfi ^y^ kusdr-i-* Ad 1 . 

Fracture, ^J^^^'SJb^ shikastagi, ^— ^ 

Fragile, vide Brittle, Incon- 

Fragment, ^}i parah, a^;Vj parchah, 
i^; rizah, *j;e purzah, fij- ^ kas- 
rah, i^ tikkab. 

Feaoeance, Kjy^^ khwush-buf, 
A*^j rA,ibah, &<»»&> nafhah, jSac *itr. 

Fragrant, f»^*-*^ mashmum, ^1"*^ 

Frail, vide Brittle, Incon- 

Frame {of wood, &c.), J^^ kal- 
bud, fi\^ kavara. — {frame for 
training vine^f, &c, on) *^3^ 
tabinah, ct > j^*> dAr-bast, 

chiftah. — {frame on which 
lamps are arranged) &j^^ chil- 
chirwi^h. — {fram^ of a window, 
p id lire, &c,) Aj«^ jV^^ chahAr-chu- 
bah, A)^ jU cnar-chdbah. — {hu- 
mail) Ai^ jussab, Agj^ bunyah. 

To Frame, (^*yj\^ ^y^ j^ chahar- 
chubah guzardan. 

Franchise, «^*>^j^ AzAdi, ij'^^^ji 

Frank, J^ fi**^;'? AzAdah-dil ; j^jJ^ 
sadik, jv>U» sadik, ^^J^\) rAst-gu. 
— {European) sj^j^ farangi. 




Fbankincenss, )^ kundar, (^^ 

Pbantic, ^^ji*^ divanah, (i)x^^ 

Fbatebnallt, a*\j*>\^ biradar^nah. 

To Featbbnizb, e*xAi J«^ yak-dil 
shudan, (^^ v^*V^ jak-ra,i shu- 

Fbatbicide, j^\ji J« katl-i-bira- 
dar. * 

Fbaud, s-o^ fin'b, Ai«a- hilah, u-*swi* 
talbfs, &CJ-S- khud*ah, jX^ makr, 
;>;)? tazvir, jjj) zur, ^ dagbd, ^•i 
v5jW dagha-bdzf, J^ gbill, j»^ 
ghadr, J^ kaid, ii©; rang, \ij 
riya, Jt*^ ghishBh, a^VSUmakadan, 
jjj zirk, J*.»> dakhal, Jfc»> daghal, 
J^ gul, s-Jia» takallub. 

Fbaudulbnt, jW^»> dagbA-baz. 

Fbaudulbntlt, 'Ij^ hflatan. 

Fbecklb, A^Ju^gandamah. 

Fbbe, j\j^ Az^d, «*>^3^ AzAdah, ax-; 
rastah, J^^^j rastagdr, ^; riba, 
Jj^ mubarru, ^4;? bari, ^^^^^^ 
fman, *)^ munazzab, ^;»^ mu- 
*arrA, 0^ mutlak, ft»)U5' c:^») 
dast-gushddah, Sbfe^ mukballa, 
fX^ muaallam, jV* mujaz, ^Vsafe^ 
mukhtdr, Ob«^ 'atik, Jaa— mus- 
takilL— (t;otd), J\is. ;kh41f. — (<o 
become free) 0^ rastan, ^!^*- 
(^AAi kbalds sbudan. 

To Fbbe, o»>/ o*^ khalas kardan, 
^jk^ )^SAmj rastagar kardan, U) 
(;)*>;^ rib4 kardan. 

Fbbbdom, «^*>^j1 Azddf, o^»>^3^ aza- 
dagi, o^lJi^ khalas, <j-»5U. khalasi, 
(j^T aman, ^^W* najat, J^j 
riba,i, a»^ burriyah, j^^s^^ ikhti- 
yar. (Fuie Manumission, Li- 
bbbty.) — {freedom of a company) 
fjd^^ ^•iW 'ddat-i-majlis. 

Fbbbly, v^»>^j1 ^y^ bi-taur-i-4zadi. 

Fbbbhason, or*^/ faramAsun 
(eur.)y vjAy V faramushi.— (fVee- 
wMwcm'« Hall), 6i\siAyA^ fara- 

Fbee-thinkeb (a sect of scepUce who 
entertain peculiar mews on rdU 
gious matters, common in Persia), 
,j»yo sufi, ^y^ ^\ ahl-i-tasav- 

vuf. — (complete free-thinker who 
denies the Kurgan and divine mis- 
sion of the Prophet) {jVo^ ^^yo sdf 1- 
i-mutlak. — (free-thinker who ad- 
mits the Kurgan and Prophet, hid 
holds much of the doctrine to he 
metaphorical, and not requiring 
strict obedience) ty^*^^ ^^y» suf f-i- 
mutasharri'. — (doctrine of the 
Bufis or free-thinkers) *^ycS tasav- 

Febewill, jVeAs-\ ikhtiyar. 

To Fbbeze, (ja^ ^ yakh bastan, 
^*^ A » ^ ;.>* munjamid shudan, 
^jy-«i fisurdan. — (to be frozen) 
^«xAi ^ yakh shudan. 

Fbbioht, jW b4r, ^y^ haml, Jy 

Fbench, ^^^L-i\y faransavi, <^^^y 

Fbenzt, i^^ji*^ divanagf, ^y**- 

Fbbquent, vide Numbbous. 

To Fbequbnt, (;)•>/ AAi ^ .^*»\ dmad- 
ya-shud kardan, ^ja f^^ muta- 
vdtir shudan. 

Fbequentlt, ^j^ barha, y^ aksar, 
j\i .\tf^ bisyAr bar, "^o daf 'atan, 
.«£>U^\ y^ aksar auk^t. 

Fbbsh, fij^ t4zah, ^ sabz. — (air) 
ueW. khunuk, ^^ sard, *>jW bdrid. 
— (water) eHr**' shfrfn. 

To Fbeshbn (trans.), ^J^.^ »3^ 
t^zah sdkhtan. — (intraTis,) *j^ 
(2)«xAi tazah shudan. 

Fbeshness, ^J^}^ tdzagi, 1^^ sabziy 
^yiJt^ shfrinf, i^*^j^ saraf. 

ToFbet, o'^ ^ ^ kaj-khulk 
shudan, {^/ f^Jt^ khishm girif- 
tan, (^*>yt 7— ♦ bi-sar burdan. 

Fbetful, «jy-i\ afsurdah, g^y* •^ 
bad-mizaj, vjUfc^ kaj-khulk, jA^ 

Fbetfulness, ^JS^*yJ^^ afsurdagf, 
jj^ takaddur. 

Fbiab, vide Monk. 

Fbiction, u^J^ malish, **^ hakk. 

Fbiday, **♦<► )y^ ruz-i-jum*ah, a^^I 

Fbibnd, o-^j ddst, %^ y4r, Ua^ 
dshn4, oM; ^^» r**^** dil-ddr, 




mukhlis, ft\^ ^ khair- 
khwah, w^^ habib, s-^%^ mu- 
hibb, Je^ khalil, f*iX4j» ham-dam, 
<3t*3^ sadik, (3«AAi sbafik, 

mushfik. — (a /ru« friend) •**-;»> 
,jM^ du8t-i-hakfki, j^U jV> jar- 
i-sddiky 4^^**^ cfc^^»> du8t-i-ma'- 
T^'^U o^^ w:^«»^<^ dust-i-batini. 

Fbiekdlsss, u*^ cy bi-kas, &^^rf»? 
bi-charab, t^^^^o ^^ bf-dust. 

Friendly, a^U«^*> dustanah, ft\*^ ^^^ 
khair-khwah, tfU&J^ mushfikii- 

Friendship, ^^-s— ^^ dusti', ^j;;^ 
yari, ^jTVaa^ ashna,/, *5^-^^^ iiia- 
habbal, ^e^ mihr, ^sJi^ khulliii, 
wi>«>ft«« mavaddat, *>«>y tavad- 
dud, S\^y yidad, ^5 vils'i, «y^\y* 
muvalat, *>W ittihad. — {with an 
inferior) oniU* 'inayat, «-AU lutf, 
i^/* marhamat, c»UsS\ iltifat, 
shafakat. — (m^^ a s^ipe- 
rior) ^i^\ ikhl&8, *a»j\j\ iradat. 
— (with an equal) ,jS-^*> dusti, 
«Jo\ ulfat, ^/jAl ^shna,!, «:-p*^ 
mahabbat. — (mutual) fc«^»>U#« 
musadakat, v>^y^ khulus, *>^ 
ittihad, ^^^^ khair-khwahf. 

Frigate, ^Ji*^ &- jW jahiiz-i-sih- 
dakali. — (man-o^-war) j\^ mau- 
v4r (ewr.), ^j^ jW jahaz-i- 

Fright, vide Fear. 

To Frighten, o*M^/ tarsauidan* 
(jjjt^ Ajo^ tahdid kardan. — (horse) 
(^*>W ^j ram dadan. — (tohe fright- 
enedr— horses) f o**^^ or (^*y ^j 
ram kardan, or khwurdan, ^ 
(;).S'«^ bar-jastan. 

Frightful, vide Uglt, Terrible. 

Frigid, «y» sard. 

Frigidity, (^^r-* sardf, ^^ sarma. 

Fringe,^; rishah, wjl^^ sajaf. 

Frisky, ^j»W jdf 1. 

Frith, vide Bay. 

Fritter, '^U. khaginah. 

Frivolity, J>};'^ harzagi, »j^ ya- 

Friyolous, «<W-« subuk, (•( puch, 
khafif,^ U na-chiz. 

To Frizzle (hair) <j*>y«i J^v^taja'^ud 

Frock, (^^a^ fistan. 

Frog, ^^^ kurbakah, &t^f kur- 
bdghah, *^y^ ghuk, ^^y vazagh. 

From, )\ az, ) zi, (j^ mm, (^ *an. 

Front, (^r*H piab, ^^m ruy, a^a»> da- 
hanah, ^W kaddam.— (tn /rewi^, 
opposite^ in presence of) u*^ j*> 
dar pish, J*W mukabU, ^5«Jw» 
muhazf, ^yi^ jO dar huzur, jijIjm 
I r u-bi-ru. — (in froniy foremost)^ Jo 
avyal, {^^^ pfshiD, (aaa^ mukad- 
dam. — (to go in front) {^) ^ ^ 
az jilau raftan. 

Frontiers, &^*> dahauah, •^ *-• 
sar-hadd, J34i\ aksa, ^^ sughur, 
)f» marz, jy>^ sunur, (^f karan. 

Frontispiece (ornamented first 
page), cy r* sar-i-lauh, (^^y* *un- 
vdn, 'W^ ^ sar-i-eafhah. 

Frost, U^ sarma. — (hoar-frost) 
^ puzliah, ueX^ gachak (vulg.). 

Frost-bitten, ^a^ ^ yakh-bas- 

Froth, U^ kaf, f^^^j raghavah, 
ij^ tafish. 

To Froth, q)*^/ Uk^ kaf kardau. 

Frown, {^t^r, {^^ chin-bi-jab/n, 
j^^ {^^ chfn-abru. 

To Frown, (^a^ ^j»> y^^ ruy dar- 
ham kashidan. ^ 

Frugal, jU a»W khanah-dar, t^ fS 

Frugality, yj,j\*^ ^\^ khanah-dari, 
v5jy ^^ miyanah-ravf, sj^ **^^^i 

Fruit, «^ mivah, ji bar, jVj bar, 
A;4^ samrah, ^6^ f akihab (j)l,A^\^ 
favakih). — (first-fruits) jk y nau- 
bar, fi^Vj} ^ nau-bavah, ^^ vj^ 
pish-ras. — (dried or preserved 
fruit) jl ; . < . AA khushk-bar, Je^-^ 
ajil. — (candied fruits, moist) J* 
nukl, W/» murabba. — (unripe 
fruit, which has not attained the 
proper size) A^UU chaghalah, aU». 

Fruiterer, J^ bakkal, yj^^ fi^ 

Fruitful, ;<^W bar-var, r*^ mus- 




mir, ty farakh, ^^^)ji baru- 
Fbuitpulness, o^V farakhi, 

^ju^^^ barimiaudi. 
Fbtjitless,^ ^Jt bi-»amar. (Vide 

To Fbustrate, (:)ja-U ^;i^^* iiiah- 

rum s&khtan. 
Fbxtstbation, ^A^a^^y:^^ uiahrumi- 

To Fby, (;)*>/ (;)^ji biryan kardan. 
— (/rywty-jjan) a-^LJd tiibah, ^VJ 
tabah, »;^' tavah. 
Fuel, i>^*^ hiinah, ^yt^^ hizum. 
Fugitive, ^j^j^ firari, ^^*^ gurfkh- 
tah, v.j^^>* bazfinati. — {alatie) 
JM"^ Abik. 
Fulcrum, ^y markaz. o^**^^ gar- 
To Fulfil, vide To Perform, To 

Full, ^ pur, yi«-« inamliiw, ^j^ 
inalan, fi*u5r^ akandah, o ^ ^""* 
mash-huu. — (to the hriin) y^ 
lab-riz, j^ *- sar-uisar. — (sa- 
tiated) ;#- Bir. — (in full) ^Us5^ 
Fuller, jUl kassar, jj^ gazur. 
Fuller's - earth, j^cA- J5' gil-i- 

saf id, y^'"^^) rakht-sbu. 
Fully, vide Entirely. 
Fulness, 5^a*^ imtilii, ^^j^ puri, 
,-Sja^ akandagf. — (satiety) ^^jt^ 
To Fumble, o**3 **^»* dast zadan, 

^j^U w:.w«> dast mdlidan. 
Fume, *>^*> diid, o^^ dukhan. 
To Fumigate, (^^y*i yn^^ tabkhir 
niintidan, (^*>/ ^^^*> dukhnah 
Fumigation, &*^»> dukhnah, jt^is^s 

Fun, ^jVj b4zi, *of:jW bazichah, g;*? 

Functionary, Ax«iUf guriiasbtah. 
•Function, j^ k&r, o^.^- khid- 

Fundament, *y\;»^ ^y mauza*-i- 
mu*t4d, «A*aBA*« ma-taht, ^^ kAn. 
Fundamental, ^\ asli, ^^-^^ 
asliBi, Jy0^ j^ az usdl. 

Funeral, ^^ tadfin, SjW jand- 

Fungus, 5;Vj karch, jU y;*. chatr-i- 

mar,j^ jjVi karch-i-mar. 
Funnel, ulj kif. 
Funny, ty^ shukh, *a\^A» muzhik, 

*y»Wba-mazh. (Fiie Strange). 
Fur, ct^»j pdst, ^ khazz. — (fine 
fur) c5j/kurk,^;/kiirk,»«U^kulk. 
To Furbish, vide To Polish. 
Furious, J^ tund, ji^«^^* muta- 

havvir, a>Wj divanah. — (animal) 

J^j zhiyau. — (to he furious) 

^JA ct3 U .».AA khishm-n4k shudan, 

^juAi csJUg.^ ghazab-ndk shudan, 

^^jjb, ^f gar in shudan, {^^^^ ran- 

j idan. 
Furiously, ^^ Ai^yo divanah- vdr, 

AJ^j^a^ mutiihavviranah, ^^Ji^ W 

To Furl, (:)*'^t»^ pich/dan. 
Furlough, c5^-«5-; rukhsat, (;j»i^ izn, 

JJa«* ta*til. — (^0 he on furlough) 

^«xAi diU. (jfl<s^/« murakhkhas-i- 

khanah shudan, {^^^ J^i*« mu- 

'attal budan. 
Furnace, *;/ kurah, ^yi tannur, (^f 

To Furnish, o**^ V.A;* farsh ni- 

mddan. (Vide To Supply.) 
Furnished, yj*^ mafrush, s^W*«W 

Furniture, <^^; rakht, «£>^ asas, 

v>W*«^ asbab, a>U. ciyUl^e* inukhal- 

lafat-i-khdnah, ^^ auza'. 
Furrier, 3^*> ^^i^«&>«^ pdstfnah-diiz, 

\j^ «^-^ pust-pira. 
Furrow, ;V^ shijdr, ^ khatt. — 

(ridge of a furrow) «)/ kurzah, 

^•>/ kurdu. 
Furthermore, tncle Moreover. 
Fury, \i^ ghaiz, j,^ tahawur, j6* 

kahr, o^V** divanagi. 
Furze, ^j ratm. 
To Fuse, (;>sd.W gudAkhtan, v»^*i 

(^«>^ zaub nimudan. 
Fusilier, o^^^ tufang-chi. 
Fusion, s^^«^ zaub. 
Fuss, oy* <^^hai-hui, A*^** ham- 

hamah, V6^ ghaugha, <j^^ 





Futile, vide Vain. 

FuTUBS, Jj A ? '^ inuBtakbil, Aju^^ 
dyandah, «fc**iU 'akibat. — (in 
future) »Ju;e\ ajandah, jW {^\ }^ 
az fn baz, iji\ )\ •^ ba'd az fn. 

<,^*^ sipas. — (neajQ i^ &tijah. — 
(grammatical term) A ^m ^ mus- 
Futurity, JWa*-^ istikb&l, ct^Vc 


To Gabblb, vide To Babble. 
Gabbling, ^i^ chirand, ^jjS^ fio\ij 

ziy4dah-gLii, c^ puch, «fCA^ ja- 

Gabion (basket or pannier filled , 

with earth)y ^ kufEah. 
Gaiety, vide Joy. ' 

Gain, ftJJVi fa,idah, «>^ Bud, J«W | 

h^Bil, ^/« sarfah, s-«^ kisb or 

kasb, H^ * "^ ^ maksab, ff^ naf', 

o.'A'U** manfa'at, gUs»\ intif^'. 
To Gain, vide To Get, To Win.— 

(watch) (jj»>/;^ JO? tund-kdr kar- 

dan. — (to gain over) v5*y^ v5^^a^ 

(^U. muttafiku-'r-ra,f s&htan. 
To Gainsay, (;)*>/ f^ •>» radd-i- 

kalam kardan, o^V^ U^Wtakba- 

luf nimMan. 
Gait, vide Pace. 
Gaiters, (:^e^ lab-cbin, {^t^ laf- 

chin, ^^ ^ pa-tabah. 
Gale (of wind), *>W b4d, \yfc havii. 
Gall, sy^j zahrah, s^^^jjj zard-ab. 
Gallant, vide Bold. — (;paranu>ur), 

^y mul, ^ JAT, j^xu^j diist-dar. 
Gallantry, vide Boldness, Po- 
Gallery, j^^ rav4k, v^**/' f^ 

Galley, vide Boat. — (galley-slave) 

j^\ asfr, jU*^ giriftar, Ji*> dil 

Gallipot, aa». hukkah, v>Vl k4b. 
Gall-nut, ^^ mazu, ^^jU mazi. 
To Gallop, (^^;^ davidan. — 

(causal) ejJ^V davanidan, ^jJ^^Vf 

tdkhtan. (Vide Horse.) 
Gallows, ^W ddr, j^*> v>j»- chub-i- 

diir. — ('pole erected in a pithlic' 
place, at the foot of which cri- 

minaU are executed) J|^^ kapuk. I 

To Gamble, {;)A^ ^^jW iUi kimar- 
bazi kardan, {^sa\^ bakhUn. 

Gambler, vide Gamester. 

Gambling, of)^ j^ kimAr-bazi. 

Gambol, ^^'^ bazf, ^jW bazfchah. 

To Gambol, o»>/ ^^jW baz{ kar- 

Game (sport), s-«> la'b, ijjW bdzi. 
— (gambling) ^jW »Ui kimar-bazi, 
^jCj bazi. — (prey) J^s- said,;^ 
shikar, jtf^ nakhchir. 

Game-cock, ij^ ^j/- khurus-i- 

Gamester, jW jUi kimar-b&z, j^^ 

Gamut, J-iA« ^j durr-i-mufassal. 

Gander, jll kaz, y jVl kaz-i-nar. 

Gang, AtfU» ta,ifaii. 

Gangrene, 6;^ khwarah, aI^^ 

Gangway, Ai^^kiichah. 

Gaol, (^^j^Jj zindau, ^\d. ^\^j zin- 
dan-khanah, ^U. jU^o dustdk- 
khanah, (j**<*> habs, {j»*i-^ mah- 

Gaoler, (^^W^^^^j zindan-ban, «i%i 
di\d:«^a»j buzurg-i-zindan-kh4iiah, 
&»U3U.«o U ^ 7 ■ >• mustahfiz - i - 

Gap, ^U chak, o^ shakk, ujl5:«k 
shikaf. (Ft^ Crack, Inter- 

To Gape (trans,), (^^/ ^jW^ kham- 
jazah kardan. — (intrans,) fij^c-*^ 
(;}«xAi khamj&zah shudan. 

Garb, vide Dress. 

To Garble (corrupt or alter a 
writing or statement, to suU a 
particular purpose), (^^/ c-A^^ 
tahrif kardan. 

Garbled, ^j^» muharraf, *^f^ 




ft«xAi tahrif shndab, ^*^j^ sa^^ 
dast khwiu'dali. 

Gabdbx, t^ bugh, A^V| baghchab, 
&*^ rauzah, A^a*. hadikah, ^j>^^^ 
dauhat, «^^^»«^ jannat. — {Jiower- 
garden) (j^^^^M giilistan, (^U-*? 
bustan, {^^^-^ bus tan, ^'dS gul- 
zar, i:)^ gulshan.— (kitcfien gar- 
den) ^3^-» **^^ baghchah-i-sab- 
zaha. — (sumnier-hofise or lodfje 
hi a garden) wyjU* *imarat, *A/^^ 
kushk, {^^ aivan. — (botanical 
gardens) «w^W* ^W bagh-i-uabatAt. 
— (pvhlic garden) A^Vc ^Ij biigh- 

Gabdeneb, (^W^W biigh-baii, j^^ 
natur (i>i. ^^V navjitfr). 

Gabdeninq, ^yW^Vj bAgh-bani. 

To Gabole, (^j/ AUi kalkalah 

kardan, (;j**r^ *7^7^ ghargharah 

GABaLiKO (rinsing tfie inouih and 
throat), ijtjt ghargharah. 

Gabland, JS'b^ taj-i-giil, ft;6- sih- 

Gablic, ja^ si'r. 

Gabment, ^Ui^ push ale, &^W ja- 
mah, ^j«W libas, «y^w^ kisvat, 
^^^ pushan. (Ficfe Clothes.) 

Gabnet, J«3 la*l. 

To Gabnish, vide To Decobate. 

Gabbet, 3W v3S^ ut:ik-i-bal4. 

Gabbison (0/ (i castle), A*i* Ja\ ahl- 
i-kal*ah, i*l» (jjlU<^x-w« mustah- 

Gabbulity, ^J^ 6*>Vj ziya^ah- 

Gabbulous, ^ 6*>^j ziyadah-gu. 
Gabteb, aaj s^jfh jaurab-band, f\} 

J^^ zanii-baud. 
Gas, j^giiz (eur,). 
Gash, ^j zakhm, ^jy^ surakh. 
To Gasp, (^^) ^j-a> mitas zadan. 
Gate, jJ dar, ^}^^>^ darvazah, ^U 

kapu, ^\i kapi', v*4 bab, v>;«> 

darb, t\Sj*> dargnh, a^»> daha- 

Gate-keepeb, o^^ kapfchf, (:)W j»> 

dar-ban, v>^^ l»avvab. 
To Gatheb, vide To Collect, To 

Pluck. — (to gather it\ harvest) 

^Aijj^j (liravi'dan, (^*>/ ^j*y dirau 

Gauge, ^^^ gard. 

Gauntlet (iron glove), J^A* kul- 

Gauze, ceWy birinjak. 

Gay, vide Mebby. 

Gazelle, J\y^ ghazal, y^"! ahu. 

Gazette, &^^ j^j niz-nauiah, ^j^ 
giizat (eur.). 

Gelatine, ^J|^^ f^-^y^ siri'shum-i- 
mahi', ^J»y^ milk lit I. 

To Geld, vide To Castbate. 

Gelding (horse), &^ akhtah, 
akhtah, ,^^ khusf, v.^'^^^ 

Gem, vide Jewel. 

Gendabmb, f*j^*]^W jandarm (eur,), 

Gendeb, u-*«*^ jins. (Vide Male, 
Female, Neuteb.) 

Genealogist, v>^ nassab. 

Genealogy, vide Pedigbee. 

Genebal (of an anny), ^^j^ sar- 
dar, j5^ A^ sipah-salar, jjt^^i-iJ 
lashkar-kash. (FtV/^ Univebsal, 
Common.) — (to he general) ^^^ 
{^\*^ shuyiVi dashtan, (^•>^ ^^ 
muravvaj budan, i:)^^ J^^jl«s-^ 
mutadavil bddan. — (in general 
and in particular) "^ytA. y ^y^ 
'umuman va khususan. 

Genebality, fty^ *umum, cuw«^ 

Genebalization,^i«4ju ta'qiim. 

Genebally, vide Commonlt, Fbe- 

Genebation (begetting), •^Jy tau- 
Ifd. — (race) vide Family. — (a 
succession) cu^ pusht, AA«1 ta- 
bakah, J--* nasi, «j;^ daurah, 
(^y> karn. — (from generation to 
generation) ^^Si\ ^^j dauru-'l- 
adv^r, , J--> Jk«j "X-i naslan ba*d- 
i-naslin, y^^ ^y^ daur-bi-daur. 

Genebic, vjwa^ jinsi'. 

Genebosity, vide Libebality. 

Genebous, vide Libebal. 

Genial, \'^\ t)j ruh aizA, 

Genitive (case), a*^\ izafah. — 
(noun in the genitive case) ujU.* 
A<J\ muz^f-ilaibi. — (noun which 




goveme another in the genUivf) 
uJU^ muz4f. 

Genius {talent), *:^\^S\ idrak, sa^\^ 
firasat, (j^j zihii, «t>^^ zakavat. — 
(jspirit) {j^ jinn, ^jj^ jann {ph 
&iitS ajinnah). 

Genteel, vide Polite. 

Gentian, «>^/ kdshAd, Vs\«L^. jan- 

Gentiles (na^io/^), tJ^y» taY4,if, 
JU milal, f»\y^ akvam, s^yt*» 

Gentle (mild), f^<^ halim, ^lU 
mulayam, «-AjJ latif. — (horse) f»\> 
ram, gj*^ muti'. 

Gentleman, fi*>^)Cj| beg - zadah, 
s-««<r najfb. 

Gentleness, ^ hilm, o^^jtlU mu- 
Ujamat, c^ lutf . 

Gently, &a-Al[ Ahistah, v>V 7^ 
vash, ** ^ ^i ^ fc- sanganak. 

Genuine, iJ^\^ khalis, J«-\ asil, 
^J>^ 'aini, ^e%^ sahfh. 

Genuineness, ^-^^^ sihhat, !>>> 
hakk, ^^^; rAsti. 

Genus, u**^ jins. 

Geoobafheb, Q)\*y W^^yk^ jughra- 

Geoobapht, *>))i| lae^ takhtit-i- 
balad, ^\;A^ ^ 'ilm-i-jughra- 

Geomanceb, JU^ ramm^l. 

Geomancy, ^y•^\ fJ^ 'iljnu-*r-ramal. 

Geometbical, (^^•uft handasi. 

Geometbician, ^jmA*^ muhandis. 

Geometby, »j.^L^ ^ 'ilm-i-mas^- 
hat, i^*3jjb ^ 'ilm-i-handasah. 

Gebm, ^s^ nabt. 

Gebund (in grammar), aJ^ f^\ 

Gestube, g-*^ vaz*. 

To Get, ^^^ ydftan, ^j^/ J-W 
b&sil kardan, (^«mL>^ ^ bi-ham 
rasanfdan, (j«>/ ^a^* paida kar- 
dan, {^J^)'>i\ andiikhtan. — (by 
heart), {:)^j^ •^W yad giriftau, 
^^•^i amukhtan, (jj*>/ ifaAa. hifz 
karaan, (^•i/^ j^ az bar kardan. — 
(tobegot) ^«xAi jW^o du-char shu- 
d&a, ^J^H ^ gir-amadan, ^»^A} 
(^•^T bi-dast amadan, (;)«Mk As^Vjt 

yaftah shudan, (^ja tf^>u<» ham- 
dast sbudan, (;)*^»-«^ ^ bi>hani 
rasi'dau, (;).x6» \a^ paid4 shudan. 
— (<o get down) (^^ ^^^ pa,iii 
aimadan. — (to get up) vide To 
EiSE. — (from bed) ^ s^^^ '^ 
0^\ az* khwdb bar-kh^tan, 
^AAi l» p& shudan. 

Ghost, cj> rAh, «*-4/c *ifrit. — (^Ac 
HoZy Ghost) ;.;-JJU^ tjt; ruhu-'l- 

Giant, .xi jJI^ ^j*» mard-i-buland- 
kadd, »j^ patyarah (06*.). 

To Gibbet, vide To Uano. 

Gibe, vide Taunt. 

Giddiness, ^J^)t!^ khfragi, ^\^f j^ 
sar-gardani, j- (^)^^ dauran-i- 
sar, ^^^ davar. 

Giddy, ^ gij, ^ gich, o^j/ ^ 

Gift, v>tJt^. bakhshish, oU dad, 
Lr^»> dihish, Uoc *ata, aa^ tuhfab, 
«i>^^ saughat, (^\^^^ armaghan, 
Aioft hadiyah, ^^ hibah, ^^^ 
mauhabah. — (from superior to 
inferior), f»Ui^ in*iim, ^ 'ata, 
,jS-ft«*: bakhshish. — (from tw- 
Jerior to superior) ^JsSa^ pish- 
kash, j^ nazr, Atj^ hadiyah, 
Uj;U5 ta*4ruf. — (between equals) 
^U dad, 4«JA had/yah, Uj;L-«-5 
ta'aruf . — (brought from a jour- 


)JL^\t^ saughAt, Q)^*^j\ ar- 

maghan. — (given for good news) 
uiJJ t^y muzhdah - luk, ^J^'yy• 
muzhdagdni. — (bribe) «*yft»j rish- 
vat, J^j\ irsh. — (power) vide Abi- 

To Gild, (^*>y^\ andudan, s^^^Ss 
(2)j>/ tazhib kardan, (^«^ g«JU 
mulamma* kardan, q)*^/ %>• mu- 
talla kardan. 

GiLDEB, Axu^ £4i« mulamma'-ku- 
uandah, {^ %^ mutall&-kan. 

Gilding, U tila, ^j^ Sd. tila-k^ri. 

Gill (of fish), ^U js./ giish- 

GiLLIFLOWEB, ^ J ^'tf'• JT gul-i- 

mikhaki, jA»y karanful. 
Gilt, liiU* mutalla, •>«J^^ andud, j/ 
SO. gharak-i-tilA, 




Gimlet, ^fi barmah, aa* mattah. 

Gimp, (:)Waefc ghaitan, (^^ kaitan. 

Gin, v>T •^^«*- safid-tU), s3f *arak. 
(Fiie Snaee.) 

Ginger, J«^3 zanjabi'l. 

GiBAPFB, U\y^ zarnif, ^ f^ shutur- 

To GiBD, (^sj^ bastan. 

GiBDEB, y^ tir. 

GiBDLE, JuLj ^ kamar-band, j*^ 
karaar, j*^ J^ shal-i-kamar, f^-f- 
hizam. — {with shooting apparatus) 
y^ &^ kisah-i-karaar. [This 
contains two or three pouches 
for ball, &c., a powder-flask, and 

Girl, ya-** dukhtar, Ajm- sa])ryah. 
— (slave - girl) y^ kanfz, vi?^-^ 
kanizak, &i.jW jariyah. 

GiBTH, *2d5 tang, &^ kaffah. 

To Give, (;J*>^^ dadan, (^^x^-ft^- bakh- 
shfdan, {^U ^J^^^\ arz&ni dash- 
tan, (:>*>/ yJ\jD\ arzdni kardan, Uac 
(j)^/ *ata kardan, o**^ *^ hibah 
nimudan. -(to give up) vide To 
Abandon, To Leave, To De- 
liveb up, To Commit. — (to give 
hack) e^^*> LTl pa's dadan, (j^/ O; 
radd kardan, q)*>/ j^^ ^; va- 
gnzar kardan. 

Giveb, fijujfc** dihandah, tsx^i^ 

Glad, vide Happy, Mebby. — (to be 
glad) e^/ «t>7— j^^ izhar-i- 
masarrat kardan. 

Gladiator, o^^ pahlavan. 

Gladness, vide Joy, Rejoicing. 

Glance, fi^ nigAh, iSfiiJ lahzah, 
v*j ramz, aj»^ tarfah, A»^ 1am- 

To Glance, e>^^ A!2mJ lahzah ni- 
miidan, o^^ *»^ lamhah nimu- 

Gland, *s>^ ghnddal (pi. *>^*^ 

Glanders (disease in horses) ^ ^S^ 
makkaw, ^^ sakkaw, &A4-ft-« 
mishmishah, l»U-» mukhAt. 

Glans (of the penis), 'AA*- hashfah, 
^^X* sar-i-zakar. 

Glabb, s^Vi tdb, uft*^ Ubish. 

Glass, aa-a shfshah, ^i^A\ 4b- 
gfnah, cW) zajaj. — (wine-glass) 
-i^^ Jung. — (cup) f»W jam, a3V^ 
piyalah. — (tumbler) {^\^<a^ istf- 
kan. — (mirror) &J^ a,inah, i^A^y 
mir,at. — (telescope) (^ s^*y dur- 

bin. — (hour-glass) 
shishah - i - sa'at. — (spectacles) 
cfc L u f 'ainak. — (burning or nuig- 
nifying glass) ^^'^ *aU*ft *ainak- 
i-atishi, j^^\ *^J^ *ainak-i- 
atish-gir.. — (cupping-glass) j t^ 
I^^bcw shakh - i - ha j jam. [This 
implement is made of horn 
more commonly than of glass.] 
— (^urinal) ^j^j^ karurah. — (glass 
beads) M* shabah. — (glass- 
blower) f A-ft^ shishah -gar. — 
(glass-blowing) %^j^ &-fctA shishah- 
gari. — (glass-house) ^^ ^ & .' f . ^^ 
shishah-gar-kh4nah. — (inlaying 
work of mirrors) ^5^^*^ 4,iiiah- 
kari. — (room entirely inlaid with 
mirrors) a*^ ^^ a,iiiah-kh4nah. 
— (cut glass, crystal) \^ bulur. 
— (pane of glass) fW jAm. — 
(glass shade) ^3 lalah, t^*V» 
mirdangi (hind,). — (glass de- 
canter) *s^ tung. — ( plate glass) 
j^ bulur, ^J^ A^ A,inah-i- 
sangi. — (sand-glass) ^^J^j rfg- 
dan, ^y^^ A-4^ shishah-i-sd*ati. 
(glass-ware) *ju\\i^ bulurat, a-a^ 
upSli shishab-^lat. 

To Glaze (smooth), (^»y/ fij«^ muh- 
rah kardan, e)^t^ ^ j^^^ nimu- 
dan, (^*A*^ V jila dadan. 

Glazieb, ji AA^ shfshah-bar. 

To Glean, (^j^^i*- Aft»jA- khdshah 
chidan, (:)^p^ ^j^ ^^ khushah- 
chini nimudan. 

Gleaneb, {;)^ Afii^ khdshah chfn. 

Gleaning, ^y^ &a^ khdshah- 

Glebe land, «-Ai^ (j^j zamfn-i- 
yakf, A*y»^ (j^ zamin-i-maukd- 

Glen, ftj^ darrah, a^ julgah, 
4^»>\^ v4df. 

Glimmeb, vide Rat. 

Glitteb, \J^)*y dirakhsh, s^^ t4b. 





To Glitteb, ^A fl .. Uj rakhshfdan, 

^Afi^V; tdbfdan. 
Glttteeino, jU *i«^ shu'lah-dar, 

j^W bArik, (^j AUk shu'lah zan. 
Globe, ^f gdy, »/ kurrah, f*;i»^ 

jirm. (Ftcfo Eabth.) — (fAe 

terrestrial globe) ^^)\ */ kurrah-i- 

arz. — (of a lamip) v*W^ habdb. 
Globulab, jiJAm^ mustadfr, ;^*x^ 

Gloomy, s^ tfrab, ^Jilh^ muzHm. 

(Firfe Gbave, Sullen.) 
Globipication, jWw^ iftikhar, 

U^y^ ta'rff, A e^^y tamjfd. 
To Globift, o»yi J^e%*> tamjfd 

nimddan, <:)«>^ /*^^ ^ f*^/^ 

takHm ya ta'zim nimtidan. 

Globioxts, J«W> jain,^^ 'aziz, 
majfd, j^i)^ buzurgvar, t^ 
rukh, ^^W 'all, Ui^J^ munif, 
J!k^\ ^3 zd-'l-jalal, ^Jh*^ iTiu*az- 


Globiouslt, '^'i^^^ majfdan. 

Globt (praise), J^«<*0s!*tabmid, 
tamjfd, f^J^ ta'zfm, c*^ madb, 
J^«^ bamd, (jteU^i sitajisb. — 
(grandeur) JV jalal, «t>ve 'izzat, 
A^^ majd, y farr, <A^t ubbat, 
^J^y5)y biizurgvArf, )b «alA, ^ 
fakhr, ;Ual^ iftikhAr, kp^ kib- 
riy4, uu^W^ inubabAt, t^^^J^ 
'azamat, u i ^»- t .a basbmat. — (halo 
round the Jiead of a saint, Ac, in 
a picture) ^^ h^lab, a5U. bAlab. 

Glosbabt, *a^ lugbat, «s5Ufty far- 

Glossy, j\»> ft;«^ Diubrab-dAr, Jyi«^ 
maskul, fi«>v> 'K jilA-d4dab. 

Glote, fjSsu*^ dast-kasb, mU««> 
dast&nab (obs,). — {hair glove for 
scrubbing the body) ^u^ kfsab. 

To Glow, rnde To Glitteb. 

Glowing, (^^j^ sdzAn. (Vide 

Glowwobv, s^W^ f*/ kirm-i-sbab- 

Glub, ^ ^/y sfrisbum, f^Mj^ sirf- 
sbum, <><;-• sirfsb. 

Glutton, *»^* f^ sbikm-parast, 
J^ akk&l, j^^;V^ bisydr. 

Gluttonous, jW *Ve-^ bisydr- 
kbw&r, ^J^^^ (^ sbikm-parast. 

Gluttony, ^jS-,^ fSJ^ sbikm-pa- 
rast f, s4;^^jW--» bisyar-kbwdrf. 

To Gnash (ike teeth), ^Jy^i ^jj^jjj 
dand&nfisburdan, o«>f^ (^^J^*>^Ui 
fisb^r-i-dandan nimudan. 

Gnat, ^ pasbab, &^yi» ba'uzab. 

To Gnaw, (jj^x^fW kba,idan, (^•^JW 
ja,idan, 0*^2^ W jAvidan. 

To Go, (^^ raftan, (jjJA (^^^ ravdn 
shudan. — (to go, respectfully) 
0*>;» c-A|^ tashn'f-burdan, «-Aj|^ 
^*AA Uy tasbrif firma sbudan, 
(jjj^y Aqrj f»^ kadam ranjah 
firmddan. — (as a watch) (^*^ ^ 
kar kardan. — (to go away) ^ja ^ 
gum sbudan. — (to let go) J* 
(^^y^ vil kardan, (jj**^ \t>^ riba 
kardan, (^\*Vf guzisbtan — (to go 
down) {^j {^J\i pA,fn raftan. — 
(to go forth) {^) yM bi-dar raf- 
tan. — (to go in) (^^ <jti^ mi- 
ydnasb raftan, (^j f td raftan, 
^«xAi J*.\j dakbil sbudan. — (to go 
out) {^y (^y^ bfrdn raftaji, 
^jjb sjU. kbanj shudan. — (to go 
round) (^*^y^ ))*^ daur nimudan. 
— (to go up) (^s 5Vj bala raftan. 
— (a go-between) J!l*> dallal. 

Goad, o\) y^ (:^*^ 4ban-i-g4v.rAn, 
yj^jy^^ naizab-i-g4v-rani. 

To Goad, ^^^j y6*%^ mibmfz zadan. 

Goal (destination), Jy^ manzil, 
JU ma,Al, y\>^ madar, Ua*» mi,t4, 
\^s^^ muntaha. 

Goat, y buz y»^ (pi, ma'z ve*^ ma*iz) . 
— (wild goat) ^/ y buz-i-kdbf, 
03^ pAzan. — (he-goat) y w buz-i- 
nar, cr<^ kabsb, (j-^ tis, *^ y 
buz-i-taggab. — (she-goal) »*>U v 
buz-i-m&dah, ^^'^^ jadf. — (cAt6^ 
he-goat of the flock) y Alan sbdb- 
buz, jW*^ sbabaz, ^ ^ buz-i-tag- 
gah,^«> dubur. 
Goat-hbbd, ^W y buz-bdn. 
To Gobble, i^'^y^ jW-* bisydr 

Gk)BLET, vtie Cup, Glass. 

Goblin, \^ gbdl, (^^ jinn. 

God, \^ khudd, ^^^J^^. kbuddy, ^\ 




all&h, ^3^ hakk, ^sj^ h&rU v»j 
rabb, J^^ iuaul&, ^^j^ tangrf 
*yy^ fzad, (j)\»>)4 jAzdkji, jy\*y dAvar, 
jVS^ji^XjA. khudavand - gar. — (0 
God!) \i^^ khuddyA, m \i jk 
alldh, fjif\ il&hi. — (God knows) 
mU \ja, khudd ddnad, fJ^\ ^\ 
allAhu a'lam. — (please God) *^^ 
m inBha,allab, JjJW 4U\ "U. (j,\ 
inshd, alMbu ta'&ld. — (/or God*s 
sake) \'>^ f^\ji )\ az baray-i-kbuda, 
m ^y,,.^ ^ a sabn allab.— 
(thank God /) dU jl*^\ al-bamdu. 
'inidh, W /:a. shukr-i-khudii.— 
(God preserve you!) Ua kiU.\jt^ 
khuda bdfiz-i-sbumd. — (God for- 
bid!) AjSi \j>A. khuda na-kunad, 
6ju\^ \^a, kbuda na-kbwdstab, 
UW h&sha, ^\ yuu^^ astagbfiioi- 
'Udh, aUW •iytJ na'dzu-bi-'Udb, 
dUW U\^ 'iydzan bi.'lUb. 
OoD-CHiLD, dJi\^ j^ pisar-kbwan- 

GOD-DAITQHTBB, fiJj\^ ys^*> dukh- 


OoDDESB, A«>U \jMS. kbudd-i-mddab. 

Godhead, <A^^y^ ulubijat. 

Godliness, ij^ji ^*^ kbuda-pa- 
rastf, JkAj zubd, <4;\J^»> din-dari, 
Jjiy? takva. 

GoDLT, ^s^^)i W khuda-parast. 

God-mother, tJi\yi. jjU mddar- 

Godsend, J^ \>^ kbudd-bakbsh. 

GoiTBE (tumour on the throat) , 
Jyftij dusbvil, aa6 gbuddab. 
^ Gold, j) zar, Si tila. — ( pure gold) 
^U. a zar - i - kbdlis. — (jfoW 
thread) ^y^H^ knlabatiin, ^^^ 
gulabatan, i^yt!i*> dabfri. — (smaU 
hit of gold) j\ AiuJ tunkab-i-zar. — 
(gold-dust) V^ fyj rfza-i-til&, ^jj 
zarak. — (gold leaf) J^ s3j)YaieLK- 
i-til&,f. — (ingot of gold) j) v>Ua 
sbumsh-i-zar. — (gold embroidery) 

Jj*> \) ^ kdr-i-zar-duz, ^^^ jj zar- 

1. — (cloth of gold) ^jj zarf. — 

(inlaying of gold), v»^ )W» tiU- 

kub, ^Ui jj zar-uisbdn. 
GoLD-BEATBB, v»4^jj zar-kdb. 
GK>LDEN, {^j) zarin, ,,^ til4,f. 

Goldsmith, jS^ jj zar - gar, JfU 
Bd,igh (|)^. &^U sdgbab). 

Goloshes, a^X^. ^^ sar-cbakmab 
^^ &«X^ cbakmab-pusb. 

Gondola, Jj^j zaurak. 

GoNO, {j^^^ nakus. 

Gonobkhosa, «sUj^ sdzanak, «s)Uu;l[ 
atisbak, Aj^ ^ gum - stizab 
(vulg.), t«J\j^ suzdk (obs,). 

Good (aiy.), v»^ kbub, *<Xe> nik, 
^^ nfkii, y^ niku, ;e^ kbair, 
J^^ kbwusb, {j**^ hasan, ^^ 
malib, A? bib, s-^ tayyib. — 
(suhs.) ^jM*- khubi, <^^^ nikui, 
vj^ niki, ii©^ fazil^. — (good- 
natured) f¥^ halim, oV/V^ mibr- 
bdn. — (good news) ;-e-^ \^y^ 
khwuflb-kbabar, <a>jU4 bisb&iut, 
i*iy^ muzhdah,^W' tabdsbfr, •Aty 

Good-bye, ^\^ \'>^ kbudd bdEz. — 
(to say Good-bye) {jsiS k»U \m. 
kbuda bdfiz guftan. 

Good morning, fA)^ (X^ saldin 
'alaikum, jtfii)^ cW« sabdbu-'l- 
kbair. — (to say Good morning) 
{^^ j«^^ tW« sabdbu-'l-kbair 

Goodness^ o^ nfkf, sj^ niku,/, 
sj^j^ mibr-bdn{. 

GooD-NiQHT, •jW uP*>*- ^ v^ sbab- 
i-sbumd kbwusb bad. 

Goods (possessions), JU mdl, J^^\ 
amydl, ^\ asbyd, £^ luatdS 
(^W\ ajnas, ««\Ui U md-yamlik, 
«£U^ t« md-malak, «c^ milk. — 
(commodities, merchandise), (^W^ 
ajnds, ^\fk<iS tankbydb, £^ 
matd', JU mdl, 6J^\ akmisbab. 

Good-will, oiM sa^ nfyat-i-nfk, 
^j^ «cW nik-nfyati. 

Goose, j^ kdz, 3^ gbdz. — (unld- 
goose) o*^ ^ kdz-i-vabsbi. 

Gore, o^ kbdn. 

Gk>ROE, vide Pass. 

To Gorge, e'^j/' j^»^ bisydr 

Gorgeous, J^l^ jalfl. 

GoRGEonsNEss, vftJlib^ jaldlat. 

Goshawk, ^ bdz. 

Gosling, j^ *^ bacbah-i-kdz. 




Gk>BPEL, Je«r^ inji'l. — (the four Gob- 
peU) *«»)\ J<-»-&^ anajil-i-arb*ah. 

OosSAMER (substance like cobweb), 
tfj^ kinatrah, ^ tar. 

OossiP (a tattler, tale-bearer), uSjJS 
taftaf, cjy barrnf. (Vide 

GouQE, ^jt barmah. 

GouBD, ^^ kadu. 

GouBMAND, vide Glutton. 

Gout, t^fl nikris, y-^iiUfc sbaka- 

€k)UTY, ^J-.y» nikrisf , ^J-•lJUfti sba- 

To Govern, (^j**/ sa^S^ bukumat 
kardan, (^a^ o^V^ bukm-rAiii 
kardan, {^'^f Jn^Uy finnan- 
ravijf kardan, (jjo^ »;U^ idiirab 
kardan. — (grammatical term) 
WV* ^'^ ta*addi nimudan. 

Government, «**^^^ bukumat, 
^\f^^ bukm-rani, «4j^^»* davari, 
^y>j^Uy firman-rava,i, ^^j^j^o^^ 
firmdn - guzari, uv^lfj ri,usat, 
ia'' s >' fc ' M tamsbijat, J^ *amal, 
*A^^\ ijalat, <^*s Vi l., saltanat, ULj 

Governor (of a province), i^CgihlCrf 
beglar-beg, *2<i;l^ bai^lar-bag, 
' fj^) v&li, (;jW^ bukm - ran, 
^^UyttUy firman-firmaf. — (0/ a 
^^y) f^^ bAkim, ^J— 5^ muta- 
sallim, W^ zabit. — (of a fort) 
j\j«li kala*-dar, ^/,rt ajJU kal'ah- 
begi. — (tutor) *>U-.^ ustAd, S5 
141a, ^\5\ atalik, aU lallab 
(vttZgr.), **>*> dadab (rt*Z^.). — ( (Go- 
vernor- (?en<'mZ) ^jfUyyUy firraan- 
fimia,i. — (Lieutenant-Governor) 
fX'^A* mutaisallim. 

Gown, a^Uj c:^j rakbt-i-zananab. 
(Vide Garment.) 

Grace (elegance), {^"^^ busn, ui^UaS 
latafat, «^y nazakat, 3^ nAz. — 
(favour) «H>Uc *inayat, «-AU lutf, 
^jJ^;^ mibrbAnf, jl* fazi, j«/ka- 
ram. — (excellence) j^-^^J^ hunar, 
*A'l ^ fazilat, JUa kamdl. — (of 
God) Jk*y tauf fk, ^jf\ Ja* fazl-i- 
illAbf. — (with goodgrac^ IJLi kal- 

Graceful, cJ^J latif, Je4^ jamil, 
•sJjVi nazuk. 

Gracefully (elegantly), A»^jU n4- 
zukanab, J^^ kbwusb, ^j>S^ ^ 

Graceless, <j^ 1 *» i> ^J^ bi-jamilat, 
ci^y o* bi-nazakat. 

Gracious, ^j^ kan'm, «-&«U latif, 
f^^s^j rah im. — (God) (;jUfc.j rabm&n. 

Graciously, "VaU lutfan. 

Gradation, *«►;•> darajab, ^f 

Grade, &i^ payab, ^y martabab, 
is^Ji^ tabakat, u>3yL« manzilat. 

Gradual, ^^?I)«** tadriji. 

Gradually, a«>.jAj i^j^y darajab-bi- 
darajab, ^ . ^ ^a} as ^a'\ dbistab- 
abistab, ^W^Jk? tadrijan, ^ ^ 
raftab raf tab. 

Graft, ^uJls kalamab. 

To Graft, (^*>/ ^yt» ^^ kalamab 
paivand kardan. 

Grain (corn), 6Xh gballab, j^ bazr. 
— (single grain) ^\^ danab. — 
(iceight) f*J^ A>W danab-i-gan- 
duni. — (of wood) ^^ jaubar. 

Grammar, f^^ ^ <Jy^ sarf va nab v. 

Gram mari an, ^ff^ nabvi, Jy* sarfi . 

Grammatical, ^y*« nabvi, ^^J^ 
sarfi. — (gramtnatical terms) 
6^yo p A*^ va,UJUa«^ istiliibat-i- 
nabviyab va sarf lyab. 

Grammatically, f^ y <Jj^ SjkcU W 
ba ka'idab-i-sarf va nabv. 

Granary, ^\ ambar, (^y^ makb- 
zan. — {place for storing flour) ^ 
kattab. — (receptacle of wicker- 
work plastered with clay, resem- 
bling a large barrel, in which 
grain is stored) ^ tapii. 

Grand, vide Great (mighty). 

Grand-child, ft^ nabirab, **>^j^ 
pisar-zadab, fiJ^j ^J dukbtar- 
zadab, &)^ navab. 

Grandee, j-S\ akbar, y<gA amir. 

Grandeur, vide Glory (grandeur). 

Grandfather, j^ jadd. 

Grandmother, &j^ jaddab, ^jt^ 
bfbf (vulg,). 

Granite, jU^ summak. 

Grant, ^J'^i<i^ bakbsbisb, ^ *at&. 




— (document) Ai-* sanad, o^^ 

To Gbant, vide To Bestow. 

Granted (in a problem), f*^*^ ma*- 
lAm. — (granted that) ^ fytf 

Grantee, sa^W jabandah. 

Grantor, sjuu^j dihandah, fiJuJUa^ 

Gbanulous, JuiU &>U danah-mu- 

Grape, j^^ angur, s-^*^ *inab, ^^Jt-. 
eattah. — (white grapes) WW uH> 
rieh-i-baba. — (unripe grape) 6;^ 
ghurab, g^W bagbich. — (grape- 
stone) )fi>\ ^\^ danab - i - angiir, 
y^\ &«.^ kbassab - i - angur. — 
(dried grapes, raisins) , ^y» ma- 
viz. — (hunch of grapes) j^\ i^^ 
kbusbab - i - angur. — (stalk of 
grapes) '^^ cbumbab, ^W dA^ 
Khushab-i-khali. — (grape-skins, 
spit out while eating grapes) <5J^ 
tufalab. — (grape - treacle) fi;«A 
sbirab, v*UuJ diisb-iib. — (Sultana 
grape), v^^— » *askrf. — (Sultana 
grapes dried) u ^» A ^ kisbmisb. 

Grapnell,;^ langar. 

To Grapple, (;j*>/ jU ^ ^^5' gir u 
dar kardan. 

Grappling-iron, v»)^ kullab. 

Grasp, ^/u* kabz, &^h panjab, 
jSa^^ dast - gir, &-M kabzab, 
o-Am* musbt. 

To Grasp, t)^^ vs^aj bi-dast 
giriftan, t^s*;^^^ panjab girif- 

Grass, fiW^ giyab, cAJb *alaf, 6^ ktib, 
fiy$-^ sabzab. 

Grasshopper, ^ malakb, ^y»> jaz- 

Grate (lattice), &^^ sbabakab, 
*a W A^ musbabbak. — (fire-grate) 
b^H panjarab, v^j^. bukbari. 

To Grate, o*^**'^ tirasbfdan, J^y 
^*>;^tira8b kardan. 

Grateful, jW Vi^ vafa-ddr, ^j-^ J^ 
hakk-sbin^s, ;W;^ sbukr-guziir, 
j^^ sbukur, j^Ju«V^ sipas-dar. 
(Vide Agreeable.) 

Gratefully, 6i\j^ shukr&nab. 

Gratification, ^^ tafrib, e/?, 
tafarruj, j^;-. surur, «w^--^ masar- 

To Gratify, o**^ (:)t^*^ mamnun 
kardan, (jo/ aU Jj dil-sb^d 
kardan, ^^oW U^ riza diidan. — (to 
he gratified) (;)Ji^ ^^a^^ mah- 
zuz gasbtan, (^juAi aU Jj dil sbad 

Grating, (j«a* kafas. 

GRA.TIS, c>A^ muft, ^^ S^ bila- 
*ivaz, f^ tatavvu*, (;j^; ra,igan. 

Gratitude, ij,j^^ /^ sbukr-gu- 
zarf, ^.j-Uft. j^. bakk-»binasf, 
^j\a^V^ sipas-darf. 

Gratuity, vide Gift. 

Grave, ;/ gur, j^y« mazar, j<i kabr, 
'^f markad, ;- sirr. — (solemn) 
yiy* niuvakkar, u '> » *^ muta*ab- 
l^is, cr«r^ *abu8. — (sedate) ^Uj W 
ba-vdkar, t^s^ W ba-tamkin. 

Grave-digger, ^ j^ gur-kun. 

Gravel, ftyjy^ sang - rizab, ^sS^^ 
I'lg) v!r°^ bassa, uiX£u> sangak. 

Graver, ^ kalam, ^\X>.^ kalam- 

Grave-stone, ^ taCu. sang-i-kabr. 

To Gravitate, ^j^ v»JVi^ sakalat 

Gravitation, oJU^ sak&lat. 

Gravity, vide Weight. — (centre of 
gravity), ctJU* ^y markaz-i- 
sakalat.— («6da/e7ie««), jVi^ vakdr, 
(j^^ tamkm. 

Gravy, wa^^v*\ ab-i-gusbt. 

Gray, <4r^--.^ kbakistari, *>^ 
kabud, ^^ JaU filfil-namaki.— 
(a horse) i^ nilab. — (dark gray, 
horse) y^^- sarkbun, cJi^^ 

To Graze, (;)'^.y^ cbaridan. — 
(scrape) (^Xitt\f tirasbfdan. — 
(causal) vide To Feed. 

Grazier, (^W^ sbaban. 

Grease, ^ pih, ^ pf, ^jy^ char- 

To Grease, (^*>/ v»j^ cbarb kar- 

Greasy, v*/*- cbarb. 

Gr£A.t (large) f vide Bio. — (mighty) 
f^M ^azirn, ;«t^ kabfr, ^^y|^^ bu- 




zurg-vAr, *i5>* ^^z^rg, JJ% 
jalil, u»iA shigarf, JU *Air, Jj^ 
jazil, ^^ ulugb, fi^^ tnu'azzam. 
— (great deal) vide Much. 

Obeatnbsb, vide Bigness, Dig- 

Gbbbd, vide Avabicb. 

Obbbdilt, 2^ ^ ba-tama^ 

Gbbbdt, ij^^ harfs, jV <^ « l tama'- 
kar, -^^^j}];^ arzu - mand, v3^ 

Gbben, ^«->« aabz, j^ akbzar. — 
(dark green) ^y»U fiy karab- 
m&sbf. — (pea-green) ^y»U *iX>j 
rang-i-misnf. — (fresh) 6j^ tazab. 
— (tm)^ ripe) (j^j ^ nA-ras. 

Gbben-gagb (plum), ^<- ^^^ 
&lu,{-i-8abz, d*-^ gaucbab. 

Obeen-obocbb, jVA) bakkal. 

Gbeen- HOUSE, si\:i^/ garm-kba- 

Gbbens (pot-herbs), ^sy^ sabzf, &/ 
tarab, J^r bakl. 

To Gbbet, (^*y/ (^ salam kardan, 
^j^ v&>yu Bal4t kardan. 

Gbbbting, <«>y« saldt, (•!« salam. 

Gbbnade, 3^^ *^j ra'd andaz. — 
{grenade-colour) %^^^ gulndrf. 

Gbbyhound, <^)^ «fi^ sag-i-tAzi, 
&Sy t{ilab. 

Gbidibon, ^«i« sfkb, g^^*^ musabba^ 
saAyt^ misbvat. 

Gbibf, ^ gbam, fi\ alam a^j^^ an- 
dub, J!U malal, vfJlU malalat, 
^JlJss ta,a88uf, v&>j^J^ kuddrat, 
C^jranj, ^j ranjab, *>)•> dard, 
jyj\ azar, ^j*- buzu, (:j\)»^^ ibzan, 
«£>««»•- hasrat, ^^ 'aza, ^J^*y 
dii-tangf, ^ bamm, gc^^ vaja', 
«i^ sdg, jW tim&r, J^i^ ban- 
j4r, ^y^^^ tangnA,f. 


To Gbieye (he sorrowful), {^x* J*> 
dil siikbtan, ^^^^r) ranjidan, ^ 
^jj^ gbam kbwurdan, (^*>ji «*;-*. 
basrat burdan, t>**j^ «-4«.*\; 
ta,a88uf kbwurdan, (^ja *iSJji^ 
dil-tang sbudan. (Vide also To 

Gbieyous, <j>^- sakbt, j«ja sba- 

To Gbill, (^^/ (^kji biiyan kar- 
Gbim, ia^j zisbt, *^\j>^f tars-n4k, 

^r^ty^ mabfb. 
Gbimace, }J^y y) rd-tursb. — (to 

make a grimace) (^*^/ \J»f y^ rti- 

tursb kardan. 
Gbime, vide Dirt. 
To Gbime, vide To Dirt. 
To Grin, o**/ \y *AAi<j nishak va- 

To Grind, ^J^^fU. 8a,idan, (jjJ^^ 

sabidan. (Vide To Pound). — 

(meal) (^^/ fjA As kardan. — 

(sharpen) o»*/>«^ t^z kardan. 
Grindstone (whetstone), <^U 4s5U« 

sang-i-sa/, (^UJ «25U.« sang-i- 

fisan. — (of a mill) ^^ *sCu sang- 

Gbipes, lt^ picbisb, f»5Ui «>)«> 

Gbistle, ^^ gbuzruf , ^^ kar- 

karuk, ^yi^ kutkuti (vuZa.). 
Gbit, *«JU. kbiik, *i-^ kbakistar. 
Gboan, ft^ ab, (Ji\ anan, aS^ ndlab, 

j^j z4r. 
To Gboan, (jjj/ i\ ab kardan, aJV* 

^j^ nalab nimudan. 
Gbocer, JVjw bakkal. 
Groin, ^^^ varak, (^) ^ bfkb-i- 

Groom, ;j-IU 8a,i8, y» nafar, f^ 

mibtar. — {head groom), \^\ ^ 

inir-akbwur,^Uyi^ jilau-dar. 
To Groom, (jjj^jW timiir kardan. 
Groove, **U. kbanab, ^ nav, v*U 

Gross, M^ gbaliz, iA.*AijJ durusbt, 

*» *atf kasif. 
Grossness, vsJfaL^ gbalzat, ^^j*> 

durusbti, (A^U^ kasafat. 
Grotesque, m<ieSTBANGE. 
Gbotto, »;U* mugbArab, j^ gbar. 
Gbound, {^e^'j zamm, «^U. kbak, 

u*j^ arz, jk bar, v»y turdb. 
Gboundless (false), v, .,..,.,,^) bf- 

sabab, JtW bdtil, J^o dagbal, 

v»»i^ kazib. 
Gbound-rent, Ai\^kir4jab. 
Grounds, vide Dregs. — (grounds 

of a house) o^^ jilau-kban. 




Group, «^W jamA'at, g »^>« maj- 
inaS ^fti^ ambdh, ftj^ gurdh. 

Grouse, jf^kaiikar, &v- fiW- siyab- 
sinah, a/ j^W baghir-i-karah. — 
(pintailed grovse) s3/f J* kil-i- 
kii,iruk, /^ kaukar, j^^^ kaiikar. 

Grove, ^y^)*^ duakbt-zar, (^U-j^-jJ 
dirakntistan, j^A^ *<^W ja{-i« 

To Grow, ^^ja-j rustan, (^'^^ ru,{- 
dan, (^»y/ y*i nimu kardan, ^ 
^o^ rusbd nimudan, (^^j ^ sar 
zadan. — (increase in size) ^J^s^W 
bdlidan, (^^/ Ui ^ ^ nasbv va 
nima kardan, (:;*>^ *^j rusbd 
nimudan. — (increase in number 
ftr quantity) ^.^ ftoVy ziyddah 
sbudan, ^•>;y^ ^zudan. — (become) 
{jSiAS gasbtan, (^^*^jS gardfdan, 
(^JA sbudan. — (to grow up) vs5>> 
(^AAi buzurg sbudan. 

To Growl, (^^^ gburridan. 

Growth, ^ nimu, Ui ^ ^ nasbv 
va nima. 

To Grub, vide To Dig. 

Grudge, ^^uaj dusbmani, «t>^W 
'adAvat, ci>j^a^ kaddrat, ju«a. 

To Grudge, <:;*>»» ceU, rasbk bur- 
dan, (;)*>;} J^«^*A. basad burdan. 

Grudgingly, 'Vi^^juc 'adavatan. 

Gruel, ^P*^ asb, ^^y* sbdrb4. 

Grupp, va^-Ajj durusbt, < J ^ at ■■■■.. 

To Grumble, (^^ ^ J^ lund lund 
kardan, (^«>/ &444Jk bambamab 
kardan, (^oj sjuJ lundab zadan. 

Grumbling in the stomach, ^ 

To Grunt, (:)*>/ ^ ^mikb mikb 

Guarantee, v^JVa^ kafalat, ^U^ 
zaman, utJlsi kabalat. 

To Guarantee, e**t^ ^Va^ kafdlat 
nimudan, (^ja. Ja^^ mutakaffil 
Guard (compa/ny of men), tf Vy^ ka- 
sbfk, y-V> pAs, J^y kardvul, A^ 
gazmab. — (seritnel, waichnum) 
^\^V& nig&b-bdn, ^W-^ p&s- 
b&n, ^ j ^ <d ' "^ kasbfk-cbf, ^^W 

b4ris, J^y kar&vul. — (ae{t;a7u;ee£ 
guard) u^^»^^ d^jJU mukadda- 
mabu - '1 - jaisb. — (rdieoe gtuird) 
J*^ badal, u*>^ *ivaz. — (of rail- 
way) VA^ a,.....>« mustabfiz. — (keeper) 
^W* mubafiz, I faa^a^io^ mustabfiz, 
^Vf &1& uigAb-ban, (^W** nigab- 
Mn. — (0/ roads) ^^y r4b-dar, 
J*^;5 karavul. — (of a sword-hilt) 
cilik^ barcbak, ^U;} barcbik. 
(Fwie Protection). 

To Guard, vide To Defend. — (to 
he upon one^s guard), (^^ l\^\ 
ibtiyiit kardan. — (to mount guard) 
{^sa\^ ^^ pas dasbtan, J^f *♦ 
;^j bi karavulf raftan. 

Guardhouse, 6^\s ^ Jt S kasbik-kba- 
nab, ^^ jy^ karavul-kb^nab, 
f^ j^ sar-i-dam. — (place of con- 
finement) A»VablU^j dustdk-kba- 
nab, <j-»««« babs, i;^'^) zindan. — 
(on a public road) A*W jW i\^ rab- 
dar-khanab, a»^ J^\;5 karavul- 

Guardian (who has care of an or^ 
phan) ^^ vasi, Je^jj vakfl, f^ 
k&jy iia,-- (protector) lh*W^munA- 
fiz, ^Jf• murabbf, ^y•\^ b4mi. 

GuARDiAjrsHip, olaiW- mubaf azat, 
jWa^ nigjib-biinf. — (legal) 
^a-««; vasfyat, ^aJ^^ vakdlat. 

Guess, i^W* kiyas, AaL* mazinnab, 
0,>4i*» takbmfn, i^Jk^ bads.— (cU 
a guess) ^^f *^ takbmfnan. 

To Guess, (^^y^ <j«Wi kiyAs nimd- 
dan, tj»*^ tV^oi-^ istimb&t nimd- 
dan, (jjjS'c:^^!^^ dar-y4ft kardan. 

Guest, (^W* mibm4n, ^U«o^ mfb- 
mkn, <-A«^ zaif . 

GuGLET (earthenware water -jug), 
ftjj^ kdzab. — (small gullet), aj^ 
parcb, ^yn sbarbab. 

Guidance, ss^^Jt biddyat, ^Uaa\j 
rAb-nim&,f, <4f»^\) rdn-barf. 

Guide, p^\ rab-bar, Uaa\) rAh- 
nimi^^jVA bddi, ^ balad, ,j^ 
balad-cbf, ^^M badrikah. 

To Guide, o'^r^ ^J*V badrikah ni- 
mddan, (^^ i^^jJii baladfyat 
kardan, ^*>/^ io^^JJ^ bid&yat kajr- 
dan, ^«>/ u^!l«> dii&lat kardan. 




Guide-book, «aJ5o syAs^ kitjil)-i-di- 

Guile or Guilt, vide Sin. 
Guiltless, ftUS' ^ bi-gunah, \p^ 

Guilty, ;^^;<>-S» ta ks ir- var, f*j^>^ m uj - 

rim, (t^ mulzam, jV^ »U5 gunah- 

Guinea worm, &j^j rfshtah, d^yei 

pay ilk. 
Guise, jj^ taur, va>jW 'adat, i^M 

GUITAE, jUaei kitAr, •>•© *6d. — 

(large guitar) ^t-» tar. — (small 

guitar) »;^ sitarah, ;U-. sitar. — 

(body of the guitar) ^^ kasah. — 

(neck) &J^*> dastah. — (wires or 

cords) f^t^ Sim. — (bridge) ^^ 

kharak. — (peas) &J^S gusbah. — 

(plectrum) vy*^ mizrab. 
Gulf, vide Bay, Abyss. 
Gull (sea-bird) ^^ yagbu, y ^y 

ij,)^ murgb-i-nau-ruzi, ^Va shalu. 
Gullet, vide Throat. 
GuLLEY, ft;*> daxab or darrah, *sC5 

Gulp (swallow), 6>^fi- jur*ab, «yyS 

To Gulp, (^^ji yj^ furd burdan, &^fi- 

(j)0^ jur*ah nimudan, (:)^y^ «Ay 

kurt nimudan. 
Gum, ^4-0 samagb, •>} zidd. — (of the 

teeth) 0^a5j iA-AjSTgiisbt-i-dandan, 

^ lisab. 
GuMMiNEss, *j^jJ luzujat. 
Gummy, t;} lazij. 
Gun (cannon) ^f tiip. — (swivel) 

*^)T^) zambiirak. — (musket) *sSjiS 

tufang. — (matehlock) Ayi* *sSjJS 
tufang-i-fatilah. — (fire-lock or 
flint-lock) ^J^U^ *sCi> tufang-i- 
chakb-maki. — (double-barrelled 
gun) ^^ ;^ 4sCi» tufang-i-dii- 
liilab, «sCtiur &sA». cbaftab tufang. 
— (small guns) A^5aA>tufangcbab. 

(breech-loader) ^ a» ^f tdp-i- 
tab-pur. — (muzzle-loader) s^f 
^. ^^j tdp-i-daban-])ur. — (needle- 
' gfiii) J^ \J)T* *iCa> tufang-i-Bu- 
zaui'-kar. — (foirling-piece) *sCJBr 
^j iWL. tufang-i-sacbmab-zan. 
— (percussion gun) o^** *sS!UA? 
tufang-i-dingi, , j, . t . < D «£5Uiff tu- 
fang-i-cbakkusb{. — (rifie) toSJJS 
6j\s^iLA» tufang-i-sbisb-kbinab. — 
(smooth-bore) J^yi *£^>JS tufang-i- 
kavval. — (long rifte, fired from a 
rest) JUj^a sbamkhAl, ^y^ ja- 
za,ir. — (parts of a gun) vide Mus- 

Gun-metal, ^.*». cbudan. 

Gunner, ^^y tupcbf. 

Gunnery, ssy^^ vy tup-and4zi. 

Gunpowder, vs^j^^ biirut. 

Gun-shot (range or distance) v*^;^ 
partab, v*U;> ^J^guliilab-partAb. 

Gunsmith, jLXja? tufang-s^z. 

To Gurgle, ^*>^ *y|/' gbargbarah 

To Gush, vide To Flow. 

Gusset, ^^f jW bAd-gir. 

Gust (0/ w-iwd), 4^^ nafhab, •)W 
bad, cO ri'h, o-JJ latmat. 

Gut, »Jj; rudab, Jj** mi,a (^Z. U*»^ 
am*A, U«.basM, (pi. \^^\ absbd). 

Gutta-percha, ^4-0 samagb. 

GUTTA-SEKENA, A>U «L- sijAb-dd- 

Gutted, JW kbali', v»y^ kbarab, 

(^^;>^ vairan. 
Gutter, y>/{ Ab-riz, ^^U ^U nav-d4n, 

v>\y!s^ niizab. — (gutter boy) ^Ji^ai^S 

Guttural (articulafi&n) ^JlL.halki. 
Gymnasium, a»U. ^^j ziir-kbanab. 
Gymnastics (exercise) J^^^ varzisb, 

J^y«J pablavani'. 
Gypsum, *4Ul[ 4bak. 
Gypsy, J^^kavuh',,^^ fiy karabcbf, 

^U-^ susmanf, &^^ zanganab. 





Haberdasher, j^ sX^ pflah-var. 

Habit, mde Custom, Dress. — (to 
acquire a habit) {^^ f- khii 
giriftan, (^jj/ «wjIc *adat kar- 

Habitable, (jj^L. JjU kabil-i- 
STikun, sA^^ j^5 U,ik-i-8uku- 

Habitant, ^^j^l- sakin, (^f^ mu- 

Habitation, (;>^— • maskan, Jva/« 
manzil, (^\^ makan, J^^ •>•> bud- 
bash, ^^U mdvA, J^jU mava. 

Habitual, J.«ju— .*• musta'mal, ^^*>^ 
*Adati, jU*- mu'tad, cJ»5*U ma,- 

To Habituate oneself, (jj»>/ ut>^Vc 
'ddat kardan. 

Hackneyed, J«is«^ mubtazal. 

Hao {hideous old woman), )y^ 
*ajuz, (^}j6i pir-zan. 

Haogakd, mde Emaciated. 

Haoois (niincemeatf Ac, cooked in 
the stomach of a sheep) (^\*yjt^ 

To Haggle (m hargainiiig, &c.), 
0j^ JVi ^ Jai 4l^U^ *J dar 
inu'amalah kil va kal Kardan, 
0jy jj^ mutaraddid budan. 

Hail, c*^^ tagarg, iJ^j zhdlah. — 
(interjection) fX^ sabim, csJj\^ 

To Hail, (jjJ^j^ vi^^ tagarg bArf- 

Hair, y» mii, ^^y mui, yt^ sha'r. — 
(hair-breadth) y» v./^ pahnA,i-i- 
mu. — (lock of hair) f^ gi^su, 
•^«^ ja'd, cJkJj zulf. (Vide Einq- 
LET, Tresses.) — (of the piibes) 
jVa^ zah^r, ^^j ramag^n, »;*«» 
shi'rah. — (head of hair) f^y» ^ 

Hair-dresser, ^.^^^ muzajjin, 
(^j &>Ui shdnah-zan, l^^s^ mash- 

Hairiness, ^j^'^if^ muf-darf. 

Hairless, y ^j bf-md. 

Hairy, j^'>iy* m6f-ddr, jW y» md- 

Hale, a^jij ^yi kavf-bunyah. 

Half, ^ nim, &^ nimah, «.JU» 
nisf. — (half-and-haJf) ^^^ nfm- 

Half-blood, »>^3 j»>U madar-zad. 

Half-caste, vi^ ;** du-rag. 

Half-way, M^ ^ nim-rah. 

Hall, (^\^\ aivan, (^3\j ddUn, j))^ 
talar, ^ ij^ kafsh-kun. — (of 
audience) AJU»\yJ divan-khanah, 
;^;»> darbar. 

To Hallow, {jSdX^ ^r****^ mukaddas 

Halo, ^\^ halah, ^Va halah. 

Halt, *2W lang. 

To Halt (stay), (^S<£^\ fstidan, 
^o^ UU)* tavakkuf kardan, 
^jjU mandan, (^Vx^^ ^^ Y&-istii- 
dan, o^jt^ e^^ maks nimudan. 
— (limp) (^J^o^ langfdan. — (for a 
' day, during a journey) (^»^ *sSJ^ 
lang kardan. — (to halt between 
two opinions) f ^«>y o%>y> mutarad- 
did budan. 

Halter, ^^ khutdm, A\^ shik41, 
*sC^\* pdlahang. — (for gallows) 
^U««>j rism^n. 

Halting-place, si^fy\ dturak, f\^ 
makdm, Ay^ manzil. — (house or 
station) i^j^ saraf, tVfj ribdt, ^jjU. 
khdn, dVfiy^ manzil-gdh. 

To Halve, o^^ Ul^^ tansff ni- 
mddan, (;)«>/ ^ ;0 dd mm kar- 

Halving, UHf^ tansff, ^»>/ ^ ^*> 
dd nfm kardan. 

Ham, (^\j ran. — (for eating) }\/ J^ 

Hamlet (collection of huts), <»A^ 
hasham, ^t&A>\ ihshdm, ft«> dih. 

Hammer (large or sledge), «£UJW 
khdjisk, W dJ^ kallah-pa. — (small) 
v/^ chakush, «sXs^ putk. — (of a 
gunlock) ^ji^Vi kdshluk, s3f^j^ 
kdrshldk. — (steam'hammer) 





jW. chakiish-i-bukh&r. — (of a 
mtuiecU instrument, cr^ cha- 

Hammock, fi nand, ^ nanf . 

Hampeb, a^m sabad, J«<ij zambfl. 
— (wooden hampers for carrying 
fruUf &c,) fi«>y laudah. 

To Hampeb, (^\^ j^ b&z-d&sbtan, 
^j^ 2»U mAni* biidan, {^^ 
giriftan, ^*x*i f^^V* ^^i^zahim 

To Hamstring, (^*>/ ^J^ pay kar- 

Hand, ^a^*> dast, j« yadd (pi. i^'^\ 
aidQ. — (hoUow of the hand) va^ 
kiffat. — (hands of a waich) v»jA^ 
'akrab. — (to shake hands) ^a^^^ 
(^*y\*i dast d&dan. — (to stretch out 
the hand) ^«>W ut^j dast dddan, 
^jj^j\jj ift^j dast dir4z kardan. — 
(to lay ha/nds on)^ O'^y^ y^^ ct^J 
dast Mz nimddan. — (vfieasure) 
s-^^ Tajab. — (o^ hand) «u*-J^ bi- 
dast. — (in hand) va*-.*>j»> dar dast. 
— (off hand) A^J4^ J^ee*^ ^jt bf- 
tamhfd-i-xnukaddamak. — (Aand- 
made) ,ja-*> dastf. — (on the other 
hand) u»jt (^j^ }\ az An taraf . — 
(open-handed) va^^j fiuU.5' giishi- 

To Hakd, ^jU d&dan. 

Handcuffs, vide Manacles. 
Handfxtl, id^JtM* musht, ^J^'i^ 

mushtf, *^ kabzah, c:^^^ ^^ 

Handicraft, u^U« sind'at. 
Handkerchief, JUs^j dast-mdl, 

**.jVx**> dastdr-cnah. — (worn by 

women on the head) •^ j^- ch4r- 

Handle, *j^*^ dastah, a^ kabzah, 

»j;ft 'urvah, fi^e^i&Mj dast-gfrah. — 

(of an organ, Sc) ^f ^ pfch- 

To Handle, i^^"^^ <^^«> dast ra- 

s&nfdan, (^^f \j^ lams kardan. 

Hand-maid, vide Girl. 

Hand-mill, V^^ c:^j dast-dsyd, 
(^1[ ift^j dast-4s, ^j rahd, tfU^ 

Handsome, vide Beaxttifttl. — 
{)uyrse) Je^ sbakfl. 

Hand-vice, c^^^j 8^ girah-i-dast/ 

Hand-writing, U. khatt, W a** ^ 
dast-khatt. — (disguised hand- 
writing) J**- J^ kbatt-i-ja*li. 

Handt, vide Clever. — (ai hand) 
j^Vo. Mzir, «>^>^ maujdd. 

To Hang (suspend), {^^^ avfkh- 
tan, o*^V^^ dvfzdnfdan. — (he 
suspended) t)J*jj^ dvikhtan, v3^ 
(^^^ mu'allak Dudan, (^ja a^I 
dvikhtab shudan, i^sAjb hishtan. 
— (execute) .O'^v^ ^^ ji bar d4r 
kashidan, {^^^ y*^ ji bar d4r 
4vikhtan, (^^^ i^^yt^ 4v{z4n kar- 
dan. — (a picture, &c.) (;)»^s*W-^ 
chasbdnfdan. — (to hang on as a 
dependant) (^*x*i f^f^ mandt shu- 

Hanger-on, j^Ua* muta'allik. 

Hangings (curtains, &c,), &^^ par- 
dab, j^ tijfr. 

Hangman, vide Executioner. 

To Hanker, (^^y^ Je^ mail nimd- 
dan, (^Mi sA^^ ragbbat nimd- 

Hankering, «a^j ragbbat, v&>o^j^ 

Haphazard, jW\ ittff 4k, ^V^ n4- 

Hapless, }^\i n4-ch4r, ^j^ hi- 

Haply, j«U ghdyad, ^W^ ittif4- 

To Happen, ^ja gB\j v4ki* shudan, 
^jUi\ jUF\ ittifak uft4dan, j^ 
^jke«j bi-zuhdr rasfdan, (^^^J^ ^jU 
'4riz shudan, ^JiAi a6» bi-ham 
shudan, (^ja joU sdair shudan, 
^ jj ^ gar zadan, (^*x*i «>j^^ v4rid 
shudan, {^'^y^ ^^ rdf nimddan. 

Happily, "U^ tayammunan. 

Happiness, vide Joy. 

Happy, v-^^i- khwush, ka^jI^^ 

khwush-vakt, ^' % * khujastah, 

fijo^J farkhandah, <a^ «£X«^ n(k- 
baknt, jW^ bakht-y4r, j|/>«^ mas- 
rdr, ^^^^y^i bard-mand, ^/. khur- 
ram, ^U 8h4d, oUJj dil-sh4d, 
^Ujla»sh4dm4n. — (happy tidings) 




A«>}^ muzhdah, «a»jIA| bisli&rat, 

^ ^^ khwush - khabar, J«y 

navid, ^V«; tabisbfr. 
Bjlbanoue, &*)l^ inuk4Iamah, ^^ 

ya'z, (:>ab^ Bukbun, ^ kal&m, 

v»^ kbit&b, '^^ mati4zab. 
To Hasakoub, e^p^ f«^ kal&in ni- 

To Harass, (^*>U ^Jk^^ {zk d&dan, 

^^U^j\jl[ Azdr ras&nidan, (»)*>j)\ 

dzurdan, ^^jJ^W^j ranjdnfdan. 
Habbingeb, ^lyi^ pfsb-rau, AjIM* 

Habboub, j*Uf bandar. 
To Habboub, (^*y\*y sU^ panib d&- 

Habd, uMfcM sakbt, vJU sulb, •sio 

suld. — (Vide Neab, Difficult.) 

— (person) *a^j zisbt. — (with 

force) )y) *♦ bi-z6r. — (to be hard 

upon a person) ^^SiA<k»m ^y^ ji 

bar kasf sakbt giriftan. 
To Habden, (^>y/ iA<^ sakbt kar- 

dan, (2>iS&U ^- C u sangfn s&kb- 

Habd-heabtbd, tf' Bfc '• J«> diU 

sakbt, J«> «s^ju sang-dil. 
Habd-heabtedness, ^J'i^^ sang- 

dilf, Jjuat- sakbt-diW. 
Habdihood, vide Boldness. 
Habdlt, ^sj^^*^ W b&-dusbvAri, 

ii'^^j^ inus1ikil4nab, *a3^ 1} bd- 

Habdness, (^5Sab*« sakbti, la^lU sa- 

Ubat. (Vide Difficulty). 
Habdship, (^5S4b*« sakbtf, cp%t««^ 

musfbat, h bal&, <aAJU musbak- 

Habdt, mid Bold. 
Habe, \J^fj^ kbar-giisb. 
Habe-lipped, ^s^ vJ lab-sba- 

Habbm, f>f^ baram, &»Uj zan4nab. 
Habk ! J\ ild, Ja\ abAf, J^^y ya- 

vdsb, •aAj bi-sbind, (jjVa bin, 

fij ^^gdsb-dib. 
Hable<)uin, ^J^ bambulf, / ^3^1 

Hablot, vide Coubtesait. 
Habm, ^ zarar, s-*«e 'aib, %a^A 

azfyaty s-*«^^ &sfb, ^V^j zij&n, 

(^Utf nuks&n, ;^3^ &z&r, ^f ga- 

zand, uu»jL«^ kbasArat. 
Habmful, y^ muzirr, ^^y* ma,z&. 
Habmless, us^'i\ ^J^ bf-azfyat, ^jt 

s-*-^ bf-Asfb. 
Habmokious, «25Uftli fOt bam- 

To Habmonize, (2>aabU jk«^ tatbfk 

d&sbtan, (jj^Ai^o c:,.^lft>^ musbi- 

babat d4sbtan. 
Habmony, *sSJjiS\ &bang, J^V 

oVJ5\ tavAfuku-'l-albdn, «>a»V 

ct>\^--e\ muv4fakat- i - asvat. — 

(science of harmony) iU*i ^ 

^jUj* <ibn-i-nagbinab-pard4zf. 
Habness, jU b4z, j\j2 yardk, ii2^ 

To Habness, {^ssX^ s&kbtan. 
Habp, *2C*^ cbang, W^ barbat. 
Habpist, ^J^ cbangf, Jk;» bar- 

Habpoon, s^ kull4b. 
Habbieb, ^j^ tazi. 
Habbow, 53U m4zd, jU v4z, J/U 


To Habbow, e*^r*^ ji)^ in4zd ni- 

Habsh, cuAtj durusbt, \>y tursb, 
u>ab-« saknt. 

Habshness, <^j«> durusbtf, ^J^f 
tursbf, (.5S4bM sakbtf. 

Habt, y^l 4bd, J^^ gbazdl. 

Habvest, y)^ ourau, J<eU bdsil, 
Jy«^« mabsdl, oUb. basad. — 
(^Twa) j|;*> «fcJ|j yakt-i-dirau, (^Uj 
jU»»zam4n-i-bas4d. (Fu2e Cbop.) 

Hash, vAj/- kbwurisb. 

To Hash, ^^ Sj^ SjV^ x>4rab p4rab 
kardan, (^^i ^Uel kfmab kardan. 

Hasp, *a^ cbift, 8)i; rfzab. 

Haste, ^^o^ zddi, v»VAei sbitab, 
^\sJk sbitdbf, ^Ju; tundf, vaJl^ 
^ajalat, Jt>%^ td'jfl, ua^C;^ sur'at, 
^^ jaldf, o^U cb414kf, «:,jjW^ 
mubddarat. — (m Aaste) \^\ J^ 
'al4-'l.faur, Jsh^ a? bi-ta'jfl, 
i^^\ ^ *ala-Vajalab. -- (<o 
make haste) {^\s^ sbitaftan, 
(^*yy4S v»bib sbitab nimddan, 
^j^ Jd^ ta'jfl nimddan. 

Hastt (htmried)^ d^V^j dast-pa- 




chah, v»^ ji pur-shitAb, J^^ 
*ajiil, ^ tund. 

Hat, <^y i^ kulah-i-faranc 1.— (/o 
raise one^s hat) ^^\^ ^ fiUi kulah 

Hatch (of a ship), fj/i- khan. 

To Hatch, ^»>/ ^^ taf nkh kardan, 
0**J^^ ;» f*^ j^ ***^^ jujah az tiikhm 
bar-dvardan, o^;)^^ Aili^\ isiia- 
nah bar-^vardan. 

Hatchet, pS tabar, &a^ tishah. 

To Hate, ^^^*y cyy» nifrat dash- 
tan, (^To {^ kin dashtan, ^j 
f^sA\^ raglim dashtan, (^U d^^ 
makruh d4shtan. 

Hateful, ^r^yt^^ ma'yab, *)4 bad, 
(^^3 zabiin. 

Hatred, ^^ bughz, ^^ kin, ^u;^^ 
kfnah, «a>^W 'adiivat, (^^^J^ *ud- 
y&n, ^^jUAo dushmani, o^^/> •^ 
bad-khw&hf, sa^^ca. khusdmut, 
v£>ytf nifrat, ^j raghm. 

Haughtiness, jj^;^ gharur, y^ kibr, 
^^ takabbur. 

Haughty, jji;*^ maghrur, «X:!^ mu- 
takabbir, jWUo dimagh-dar, ^^ 
(j^ khwud-bin. 

To Haul, ^*V^ kashidan. 

Haunch, soJ'gurdah. 

Hautbois (pipe or clarionet), y^-* 
sum4. — {player) (^j U^ suma- 

To Have, (^t»> dashtan. 

Haven, ftV ^ ^AA. ^ kashtf-gah, j*U} 

Havoc, vi(ic Injury (hurt). 

Hawk, }k bdz, J^y kiish. — (sea- 
hawk) i^f^, bahrf. — (sparrow- 
hawk) jJ^y* miish-gir. (Vide 

Hawkeb (/aZco7ier),j^*> j^ baz-d4r, 
i,s^y^ kdsh-chf. — (pedlar) j^ 
pilavar, J^^yu^a dast-furush. 

Hawthorn (small), ^^ tangiz. — 
(large, the hips of which ore 
edible) *iUl^ kivalak, cji^gav/j. 

Hay, ceXa-s. uOi *alaf-i-khushk, 
< j &> i > A ft hashfsh. 

Hazard, ^io6. khatrah, cs)l) bAk, ^ 
bfm. — (chance) o**. bakht. — 
(^aine of hazard) jUs kimdr. 

To Hazard, ;^W bakhtan. 
Hazardous, vide Dangerous. 
Hazy, vide Foggy. 
He, ^ d, ^^y vai, <^j\ ui. — (A€ ^im- 

«^v ) J''***^ ^^ ^ khwudash. 

Head, ^ sar, ^^^j ras, i^ kallah, 
J/ fark. — (source) t*V* mabda. 
— (fo ynt heads torjether) ^j^ 
(;^J|;^ sazish kardan. 

Headache, ♦- *)j»> dard-i-sar, J^*^-» 
suda*. — (from drinking) jU*- 

Heading, (:)^y* *unv4n. 

Headlong, (^fi *- sar-nigiin. — 
(rash) cr^ r- sar-Kash, j^^s^ muta- 
havvir, d^Cx-»J dast-paehah, *>^ 
j^ khwud-sar, WW« ^^ bi-miv 

Headman (chief), jW;- sardar, 
j%^ saldr, fj^j ra,is, j»J^ mu- 
kaddam. — (of a village) \'>^ ^ 
kad-khuda, \jms^ &«> dih-khuda, 
&j ^ pir-i-dih, »•> Lr*a^j ra,i8-i- 
dih. — (of a trade or profession) 
^U«\ ustad, jU«^\ ustAd, ^ 

Headstall {of a bridle), j\^^ 

Headstrong, lt^t- sar-kash. 

To Heal, vide To Cure. 

Health, u>^« sihhat, ^.j^l^jJo* tan- 
dunisti, <j.M*SL« salamat, u:^Ve 
*afiyat, jty\ ughur. — (good health) 
^CU; tan-asanf, w>.^<o ^^^..^^ ha- 
san-i-sihhat. — (Board of Health) 
c:-^\ U^ hifzu-'s-sihhat. 

Healthy, jW chak, ^j^ khwush, 
va-^jjui tau-durust, ^U sagh. 

Heap, &oy tudah, c:'^ r Ur» jamd'at, 
i^ kuppah (vidg.). 

To Heap up (store), (;>*>/ q*^ jam* 
kardan, o*^;^^ ^^^ faraham avar- 
dan. — (gather in a heap) (jj**/ ^ 
kuppah kardan, (^*y^ tpi\ ambuh 
kardan, (^*y/ *»>y tudah kardan. 

To Hear, (^Ae-^^ shiuidan, (jj*>yA 
shiniidan, {^^^''^^^^ shin uf tan, 
^•x^^ niyushidan, (^S\j ^yT 
gdsh dadan, (j)*^^^ ^^ isgha ni- 
miidan, (;)*>/ f Uju\ istima* kar- 
dan, Q)^ji ^t ju^ mustami' budan 




Heakeb, tMyjA shinavandah, g^U 

Heabing, q*^ sam', v^^U- sania'at. 

To Hearken, (^^/ \J»^ gush kar- 

Heabse, ^ji^ ^^y v5j^ gari-i-mur- 

Heart, Jo dil, jtW khatir, s-i* 
kalb, ^\f' khwatir (mdg,), — {to 
get by heart) vide To Get. 

Heabt-bubn, jSij^J dil-suzish. 

Hbabth, ^J^. bukharf, (j\j^'\ 

Heabtless, JJ^rf bi-dil, ^^ zalim, 
j V< ». 7 .^ sitam-kar, Jj^^^ sang-dil. 

Heabtlessnesb, ^j^ bi-dilf, 
^o^o^ sang-dili, ^ zidiu, ^ 

Heabty, Afi^ v5y^ kavi-bunyah. 

Heat, ^^jS garmi, U^ garma, v*Vj 
tdb, <ji«j^ tabish, va>;^;ft. bararat, 
f^ harr, v»^ luhab, j^jo- hirak, 
tf ^ i i» ft> bamijat, ^^^\ avar. — (to he 
on heat) (^'^^ u:.^.^* mast shu- 

To Heat, ^:>^V- ^^ garm sakbtau. 

Heathen, •A^ kafir, ^j^ bi-dm, 
aJL« mumid. — (Pagan) «^-»^ «^ 
but-parast. (Fici<j Unbelieveb.) 

To Heave, vide To £aise, To 

Heaven, is^^^ bihisbt, u>js^ jan- 
nat, i^;*y firdaus. — (sky) (^U— ^ 
asman, (:;^*>;^ gardun, U-«« sama, 
*«U* falak, ;6r* sipihr. — (the high- 
est heavens) ^j^sJ^ *illiyin, *aU* 
^)X*!J) falaku-'l-aMk. 

Heavenlt, ^^Um samdvi, o^^^ 
dsman{, ,^j^ falak i, ^^jSi-ft-e} bi- 

Heaviness, ^\^ gir^f, ^j^u^jui 
sangini, ^jsJjS saklat. 

Heavy, (^\jS^ gir&n, {^t^^ sangin, 
^}^ vazni, Jefl* sakil. 

Hebbew, ^^ *ibri, ij\yt^ 'ibranf, 
1^^)*^ *iinrani, ^^y9L yahudi. 

Hectic ( fever) y jo s-J^ tab-i-dikk. 

Hedge, o.^^ jl& kbar-bast, Ju^ j^ 

Hedgehog, u:^ ;U. khitr-pusht, 
«3a^ kunfuz. 

Heed, vide Attention. 
To Heed, vide To Attend. 
Heedful, vide Attentive. 
Heedfulness, vide Attention. 
Heedless, vide Cabeless. 
Heedlessness, vide Cabeless- 


Heel, i^A\^ pashnah, s-^ac *akb. — 
(to heel over) (jjJA ^ kaj shudan, 
C:)*^ <*5;* ^ y3.k ban' shudan. 

Heifeb, <ioU iiX^ji gusalah-i-iu4- 
dah, bj^ kahran, &oU y\^ gav-i- 

Height, ^xdj bulandi, ^^^V^ bala,i, 
cu^j rif*at, jWj^ irtifaS ^Ic 'ulu, 
^j\j^ farazi. 

To Heighten, {^^ •s^ buland 

Heinous, *)4 bad, ^■*^1^ sangin, 
u:^^** sakbt. 

Heinousness, vjAj bad/, ,jAtt^^ 
sangini, ^^5^(9^^ sakbti. 

Heib, *±»j\) vans, J^ vali, «-jUd. 
khalaf . — (-apparent) J^^ J* vali- 
i-'abd, Af^afi ^asabab, jjuJ( <j^ 
khalafu-'s-sadk. — (Jieirs and suc- 
cessors) '%^ ja) '%^ naslan ba'd 

Heibess, ^j\^ varisah. 

Heibless, v*>j\^ ^ bi-v4ris. 

Heliotbope, «t--;i v»Vsi^ aftab- 

Hell, f^i^ jabannam, tj^o duzakh, 
yu sakar, ^pi\ j\o daru-'l-bavar, 
^«<^^ jabim. — (lowest hell) ^sS^o 
darak, ^2^LJ\ JA.«^ asfalu-'s- 

Hellebobe, J^/> kharbak. 

Hellish, <^j^»> diizakhf, vj4-H^ ja- 

Helm, &U. kballah, o^ sukkan, 
(jj^^o dumaD. 

Helmet, o^ khud, yuu migbfar, 
^f targ. 

Helmsman, ^^^y^^o duman-cbi, 
^J\^ sukkani. 

1 ELP, oju* madad, j\aA imd/id, 
j^^VT oju« madad-garf, ^j^ J^ri, 
<4);^ y^vari, ^y-H pushti, <*>;-»* 
nusrat, «sUX kumak, ^^ *aun, 
<^^^ i'&nat, «x^U&«^ isti'anat. — 




(remedy) »)W ch&rah. — (interjec' 

Hon) ivjy farydd. 
To Help, t)*^ J^ u*;*** niuta- 

'arriz-i-hal shudan, o**^ va>jLcL«*» 

musa'adat nimddan, (^«>^«> cdU^ 

kumak dddan, (:)*>/ *Aj^\ imdad 

Helper, JS jju« madad-gar. 
Helpless (without remedy), ;^) la- 

ch4r, jmA» muztarr, ^j\ti hU 

cMrah. (Vide Weak.) 

HeLTEB-SKELTER, ^Jafct**'^ )H9 bi- 

ham-Amfklitah, t/* &y^ liarj- 

Hem, Ac*: jy^ kdr-bakhyah, jUi' 

kandr, ^J^ maghzf. — (border) 

M»^ hAshiyah, SjU^ lomdrah, 

oU labak, cJV^ sajaf. 
To Hem, ^y*')*^ dukhtan, {^s^ M^Vo. 

hdshiyah bastan. 
Hemispuebe, s^j^y «-ita» msfii-'l- 

Hemistich (single verse), {^^ 

Hemobbhaoe, cjVctTu'af. 
Hehobbhoids (puh),jt^\ji bavA- 

Bir,jt^\ji bavAsir. 
Hemp, ^-r^ kanab, <-JL^ kanaf. — 

(hemp-seed) ^^'^ shahddnaj. 
Hen, (jjW^ makiyan, ^y murgh. — 

(hen - house) fy« ^ kullah-i- 

murgb, ^"^ lanan, ^y^ katdnah. 
Hence (from this place), V**^ j^ az 

fn-jd. — (from this time) uH (^^ )^ 

az m pas, {jk^ }\ •J^ ba'd az fn, 

<j««^ sipas, 3^ (^^ j^ az fn b&z. — 

(for this reason) s-^<— {^^ J^ az 

fn sabab, (j^^ ^\^ baray,i-fn, \^ 

Henna (the Lawsonia inermis, or 

Eastern privet, a plant from vjhich 

a red dye is obtained), ^ liinn&. 

— (seeds of the henna plant) aa^^ 

Hen-pecked (ruled by one^s wife), 

Q^ (^j zan-mutf, (^) q^ muti*- 

Heptagon, Qt"*^ musabba^ 
Heb, ^^ {l, — (possessive) y\ JU m41- 

Hbbald, ^J^ ;W jAr-cbf, }J^)\ 

cha,u8li, (^jU« munadi, oV^ 

Hbbb, v^^j rustanf, i^t^ sabzf, 

«-Jde <alaf, «£»Wi nab4t. 
Hebbaceous, (.y^ rustani, ^J^ 

Hebbage, 8^5" giyah, cJde <alaf, 

6y<^ sabzah, i£>^0 nabdtat. 
Hebbalist, JVjw bakkal. 
Hebd, Air galkih, ^j ramah, i^^W 

jamd'at, A^e^ fasnah. 
Hebdsman, (2)W dl^ gallah-ban, (^W^ 

shabdn, ^\; r4*i, jU ^ gaUah- 

dar, oW cliaup4n. • 
Hebe, V^^ fn-j4, f^ fn-sA. 
Hebeabouts, <J|^ ^^ j^ az fn 

Hereapteb, hjjii\ ayandah, j^ {^\ }\ 

az fn b4z, ^)l\ ^^ min al,4n, fj^^ 

Hebebt, (^ 3^ az fn. 
Hebeditaby, <j»3;^ maurusf, ^\jt^ 

miras. — (hereditary possessions) 

^^yt^ mfr4s. 
Hebein, (^j^ badin. 
Hebebt, «^fiJkj bid'at, j^s rafaz, 

^Ji^ jid4,f, JU zalal. 
Hebetic, ^JA\y rafizf,<j»-jVtf.kh4rijf, 

«-«**» JaV aU-i-bid'at. 
Hebetofobe, {^\ )\ yi<^ pfsb az fn, 

CiS^ j^ J** l^abl az fn, 'Ujki* mu- 

Hebeunto, {^\ji bar fn. 
Hebewith, {^\\ b4.fD. 
Hebitage, *a>j\ irs, ^aA^ mfr48, 

«^\ irsiyat, «*^\>^ virasat, «w^ 

Hebmaphbodite, ^fiiA, khunsa, 

*AuaL.*« mukbannas. 
Hebmit, i^t^ AAi^ gdsbah-nisbfn, 

^\) z4hid, JtA>\ abdal. 
Hebmitage, ^y\) z4yiyab, iMtm^ 

sauma'ah, aai^ gdshah, M^ tair- 

Hebnia, i^ fatk. 
Hebo, P*> dilfr, ;^ll»3 dil4var, (^t^iet 

pablay4n, ^}\t gh4zf, Jj yal, 

3)W* mub4riz, j^ gurd. 
Heboic, ^J^^ pahlavanf, £W^ 

shuj4', j»>\« bah4dur. — (heroic 

verse^ consisting of three dactylt 




and one iambic foot) v»jUu^ mu- 

Heroically, ^\y(f*^ dilfr&nah, 

di\jjl^ bahddurdnah. 
Heroism, cs^ f^ W<> shujd'at, <4);5*> 

dilavari, *a>j^ ghairat, ^X^^j^ 

Heron, j\^ ^J^^ mahi-kbwar. 
Herring, <j*U aU sbdh-m^hi. — 

(herring-gutted) *«J^ ptik. 
Herself, «>^ kbwud. 
To Hesitate, (^\j ^j/ tardid 

ddsbtan, o^^f*^ (j^^T*3 vasvas 

nimudan, o*V^ **•*/ taraddud 

nimudan, (^•>«» *>j^ mutaraddid 

bddan, o»>^ J*> ^•> du-dil budan. 
Hesitating, ^*^f^ mutaraddid. 
Hesitation, ojy taraddud. 
Heterogeneous, (j-***^ ^ nA-jins. 
To Hew (cut or hack), ^J«;» burf- 

dan or burridaji, (:jJ^y tirdshi- 

Hexagon, ^aw* musaddas. 
Hibernal, ^Uw«j zamistdnf. 
Hiccup, a .C.^. C ^ saksakab, ct l ■■■ < .■ 

To Hiccup, (^o^ a^^^^ saksakah 

kardan, (^*y/ toXm S ^ suksuk kar- 

Hidden, (^Wa^ panb^n, (^W nibdn, 

&sAe» nibuftali, ^^^Aab^ makbfi, 

^^^'^^^Qe* mukhtaff, jf*^^ mastur, 

f^s^ mukattam, ^^jt^sae* mukh- 

tabi, ij,)^f^ mutavAri. 
Hide (skin), f^ cbarm. 
To Hide, vide To Conceal. 
Hideous, *a^j zisht, jWJ^ &i^ 

karihu - '1 • manzar, ^^ kabfn, 

geJA sbanf, 6^ mukrib, ^/i** 

Hideously, '^^y^ makrdhan. 
Hiding- PL A.CE, ^^^^^ makman, 

5V5'^j^» nibuf tan-gab. 
HiERARCH, ^^ sbaikb,^ pir. 
Hierarchical, &e^Ju« mazbabiyab. 
Hierarchy, ^j^ tarfkab. 
Higgledy-piggledy, jU ^ j\s tar-u- 

mnr, ^^ #*Aj«> darbam barbam. 
High, aaI| btdand, 5Vj b^la, jy 

&.r4z, ffSy* murtafi*, go*; rafr, 

JUi *41i, U- mu'alla, ^U sdmf, 

(f\^ sb&mikb, {^yi barfn. — (the 
Most Hiqh) Je5\ Jjlft 'ala-'l-'AH, 
JUx*. J^Ad. kbudaf- i - muta'al, 
JIjuJ\ al-muta*dl. — (^t^^ and 
low) Afi- y fj>^ kb4ss u 'dmm, 
\i^\ J ifi\ a*ld Ya adnd. — (on high) 
11^ bala, vl^ j*3 dar f auk. 

High-born, s-^«>^ najib. 

Highness (masc,)^ «a>^ !U^ a'la 
bazrat. — (fern,) va>;-fc" ULc 'ulya 

High treason, ^^fe^i T^gbi. 

Highway, fi^^U Bbab-r4b, gjU 
sbdriS f\^ j^t;I» tarik-i-'4mm. 

Highwayman,' ^y>j rali-zan, j^j' 

HiJRA (jfu^mmck2(m era) ^^j^ 

Hilarity, i£^%e} babjat, (jft^ 'aisb, 
ct>^ *isbrat, vs-^U^ basbdsbat. 

Hill, fi^ kdb, J? tall, V tappali, 
*y^ girivab. — (hill and dale) »jO 
&J y darrab va tappab. — (range 
of hills) A/ &&Aiij risbtab-i-kdh. 

Hillock, ^ tappab, ft^y tddab, 
'Aio pusbtah. 

Hilly, ^/ kubi, Julj ^ «t-^ past 
u buland, -vjiiU d^ tappab-md- 

Hilt, vtcie Handle. 

Him, \y^ drd. 

Hind, vide Hinder. — (hind-leg) l^ 
p&. — (animaQ J/» maral, ^\y 

Hinder, e)*-H pasin, y^\ dkbir, 
^j)^>-i \j yd-pasm, (j^j/-! Akbirfn. 

To Hinder, ^o/ g^* mana* kardan, 
a**^ #^ mani' bddan, ^*>/ ^*> 
daf' kardan, {^\»y j^ bdz-ddsb- 
tan, (;)*^ f^^y* muzabim sbudan, 
^j^ y6^ ta'arruz nimddan, 
{^\^ \) vd-ddsbtan. 

Hindmost, {^yt^ U vd-pasin. 

Hindoo, ;*ui^ binad. 

Hindrance, ^ manaS g^*> daf^ 

Hinge, 11^ lauld, aJ^ laulavab. 

Hint, *)«i\ isbdrab, W^ fmd. — (<o 
faAre a hint) ^*x*i o^«ft^ tf.»teU 
multafit-i-maksdd sbudan. 

To Hint, (^j\*y 5;U\ isbdrab dddan, 
^j\j Ui^ imd dddan. 




Hippodrome, (^\'h^ maid/in, jUa« 

Hippopotamus, Vjtjj f^^^J\ asb-i- 

Hips,' {jij^ surm, JA^ kafal, ji*> 
dubr, ^ ^ ' - ■ '> * yj*W ja,i-i-nishastau, 
^^e <ajuz,3^»fi\ a'j&z. 

Hire, aj^^^ kirajah, ^/ kira, *>y» 
muzd, j^^ ajar, fijW ijarah, ia>;>\ 
ujrat, f*)y^^ iltizam, ^ ghallab. 

To Hire (toifce on hire), {j^j^^^j^ 
bi - kir^yah giriftan, (^*>/ &i\/ 
kirajah kardan, (^»>^ ji^\ ajfr 
kardan, eH^/ ^^-^ aifr giriftan. 
— (let on hire) e*M»> **^^ bi- 
kirayab dadan, (^S\^ »jW-^ ijdrah 
dadan, (:)«>\«> J^kLi^ mustaghall 
dadan, (^^/ ^ gballah kardan. 

Hireling, y^ ajfr, j^»yy muz* 

Hi8,jJ J^ mal-i-ii. 

To Hiss, (^^\ *e^ safir zadan, 
0jj «£\;^ sutak zadan. 

Hist ! J^y»^ khiimush. 

Historian, «a>a«^ muhaddis, t)y* 
muvarrikh, <^^^j ravi. 

Historical, M)^^ ^ ba-tavarikh. 

History, (t^s ta,rikh, ^^\f tavA- 
rikh, i^JiA. had IS, &/<^ tazkarah, 
o^^jL) riv4jat, (jjU-\j d Asian. 
(Vide Account.) — (natural his- 
tory) <j««t ^/^ ta,r{kh-i-tabi*i. 

Hit, v;^ zarb, jj zad. 

To Hit, ^*>) zadan, (^*>/ v»/* zarb 
kardan. — (target, Sc) o**;^ 
khwurdan, o**^^*- *? bi-khwur- 
dan. — (to hit it off) (^^f \J^^ 
sdzish kardan. 

Hither, V^i^^ fn-ja, ^-<^^ in-su, 
^^\ fn-taraf. 

Hitherto, JV«^ ^ U-hdl,^yufc \? tA- 
haniiz, (^U; ^^ \J ta-m zamdn, 
(i)i\ i^\ il4.'l-dn. 

Hive (of bees), J^ kand, {J^ mash. 

Hoard, |^ ganj, u\y^ khizAnah, 
ft^i zakhfrah, ^U radyah. 

To Hoard, (^^•i^^ andukhtan, ^^ 
(^^ jam* kardan, m*>j%T i^V 
far4ham Avardan. 

Hoar-frost, a^ puzhah, juV jalid, 
«<X^gachak (vu^.). 

Hoarse, ^^S \j^ sada - giriftah, 
ishfjis gulu- giriftah. 

Hoarseness, ^ sJ^jS^ giriftagf-i- 

Hoary, juA^. saffd. 

Hobgoblin, cw/c *ifrit (pi, ias|;^ 

Hock (of horse), ^V^ p4y, jl- 

Hockey, o^^ chaugAn. 

Hod, {J^ff-^ ajur-kash. 

Hoe, Je» bfl, ^k^ bilchah. 

To Hob, (^*>/ Jb» bfl kardan. 

Hoo, ^^ khdk, vi^ khdg, }\/ 
guraz, jty^ khinzir. 

To Hoist, vide To Baise. 

Hold! \>^y yavAsh, v>W bAsh, 
^\ji^ «^-.»> dast-nigahd^r. — (0/ a 
ship) (^ khaim, ;ti^ ambar. 

To Hold, ^^U dashtan. — (^o take 
hold) {^f giriftan, (^^^ «>^*> 
dast bnrdan, o*^^ kapidan 
(vula,), — (contain) ^•J^V^aS' gun- 
jAnidan. — (to hold forth) vide To 
Extend, To Preach. — (a pen, 
i&c), (^U »^ nigah-dashtan. 
— (to hold hack) (^SisuA ^j^^ \y 
vd-pas istadan. — (to hold up^ 
rain) (^J^^ ^ ^ kam kam ama- 

Hole, t^^y^ surakh, ^j^y rauz&n, 
&^; rikhnah, s^ sakb. — (hole in 
th^ ground) *yS gaud, t^jy^ sd- 
rakh, s-^ nako. — (hole in a gar^ 
ment, &c.) t\y^ surakh. — (huiton- 
hole) ^J^»>^ mddagi. 

Holiday, JJa*«F ta'tfl, J^ 'fd (pi. 
j\^\ a*yad), J^>ft *aid (vulg,). 

Holiness, y*Ai kuds, o^j^ P^J- 

B^tU <J^ pdkf; u:^«^^Ai Kuddd- 

Hollow, ^J^ khdlf, ^Jfi tuhf , cJ^^ 

ajvaf, <^^^^ mujavvaf, «c3^ p6k 

(vttZ^.). — (cavity) cJ^ jauf, A*jj^) 

rauzanah, ^/ gaud. 
H0LLOWNE8S, oy». javaf , <^^ pdkf 

Hollyhock, ^j*U. Jf gul-i-khatmf . 
Holm-oak, (^Vkxu. sindiydn. 
Holtsters, ji^ kubbul, *^V^ J** 
kubbul-i-tap4nchah, ^y^ kubur. 




Holy, ^^Ji kuds, ^j— ** kudsi, ^^^^i 
kuduB, ^*3ju mukaddas, &y^ 
munazzah, «<3V> piik, j6^ mutali- 
bar. — (to keep holy) (^aa? «£.*e^ 
^^U ftV^ (jjj^ jihat-i-takdiB 
nimudan nigiih dashtan, ^^j^ 
(^^^ l^kdis nimiidan. 

Holt-DAT, .^tjc *id, .^tjc *aid (inilg.). 

Holt Ghost, ^\ tw rtihu-'Udh, 
ij^jji\ t}) ruhu-'l-kuds. 

Holt place (place where a saint or 
prophet has been ; generally marked 
with a heap of stones), ^\S ^ 
nazar-gdh, fio ^ kadam-gah. — 
(place of pilgrimage^ &c.) vide 


Homage, i^^^jt^^j^ firmau - bar- 
dArf, s^^W itd'at, c>*trf bai'at. 

Home, a^^ khinah, Jy^ manzil, 
{^^-^>^ maskan, \^U mavi, ys^ 
makarr, J^*U ma,bad. — (native 
place) (^p Yatan, ^y maulah. — 
(to he at home) (^«>^ Jy^ manzil 
bddan, (^*>y ^U. khanah bddan, 
^jjk u^yts tashrff shudan. 

Home Secbetab7, aU.\j^j^ Yazfr-i- 

Homeliness (persons) ^*> »»>U 
sadah-dili. — (things) ^ ^ xLaj ka- 

Homely (persons) J^ tSLm sddah- 
dil. — (things) «A C uui kashang; 

Homewabd, {^^ s-^W janib-f- 
Yatan, ^U. u^^L taraf-i-khdnah. 

Homicide, ^^ khdni, JUi kattal. 
— (manslaughter) ^^a- khdn, J^J 
katl. (Fu2e Mubdeb, Slaxjgh- 


Homogeneous, (j^iV^i^ mujanis, 

{j'^e^ janis. 
Homogeneousness, u'^J^ tajan- 

nuB, <j*W jiniis. 
Hone, •w^^ mish-haz. 
Honest, joU sadik, ^^ salih, 

^Ju*« muta<iayyin, vs^-^j rast, 

jLi-,^^ rast-baz. 
HoNESTLT, c:^^J4 bi-dijdnat, vl*M 

HoNSSTT, «3«^ sidk, <a<J^ju saddkat, 

^,y^^j rdsti, va^Vij dijdnat, t^ 


Honey, j^ shalid, J— ^ 'asal, 
(;^«^^ an^ubui. — (liquid Jioney) 
\iLC0» J-«A *a.8}il-i-mu8afEd, v»^ J---* 

HoNET-coHB, J'^^ ^^ khdnah-i- 
'asal, J«>^ «£^Vs ndnak-i-'asal, 
tj^ shan. 

HoNOBABiuM, *>y« muzd. 

HoNOUB, vide Keputation, Chas- 
TiTT, DiGNiTT. — (rcverencc) f^Jb^ 
ta'zim, ^/^ takrim, \\^\ i*zdz, 
j\^ i'tibar, (^f^^ ibtirdm. — 
(exaltation) <43V^ r* sar-afrdzi, 
Jif tarakkf, \iSj\ irtikd, UkijAS 
taslirif. — (dress of honour) sam. 
khil*at. — (point of honour) *aO» 
nang. — (on my honour) ^•J^^^ *£C*» 
bi-marg-i-auladam, Ua ^j^j^ bi- 

To HoNOUB {reverence)^ ^^\^ f^f^* 
muhtaram ddsbtan, o^/^ rV^ 
ikrdm nimudan, (^^j^ Mr>s • ^^^»s 
ta'zim va takrfm kardan. — 
(exalt, distinguish) (j)»>^ jU*^ 
mumtaz kardan, {^J^\^ ^y^^ 
musharraf sdkhtan, ^J^^»\«>^ jVr* 
sar-faraz garddnfdan. 


mu'azzaz, ^yi^ musharraf, f*f^^^ 
mubtaram, ^4-sA^ mu'tabar, ^JaA#« 
mu'azzam. — (honourable mention) 
J«.*^^J zikr-i-jamfl. 

Hood, <3i^^ bdshluk. 

To Hoodwink, ^^jj J^ gdl zadan. 

Hoof, ^ sum. — (cloven) j\'i^ ^ 
6um-i-chak-dar, *-Alk zilf (^i. 
^yt zuMf). 

Hook, v»5J» kulldb, 4?)U knlldbah.— 
(reaping-hook) (j^\>y das, Jv^ 
minjal. — (for fishing) vide Fish- 
hook. — (^oA; a«d eye) y*!l ^ y 
nar u Ids. 

To Hook, (:>a^ v»S^ bi-kullab 

Hooked, ^ kaj, 6«x«4^ khami- 

Hoop, p^ cbambar, u^ halkah. 

Hooping-cough, aV^^ ^y^ surfah-i- 
sijdh, J^ 6^j^ Borfah-i-sdlf. 

Hoopoe (Inrd)^ •^•wft hudhud, a^U 





j^ Bh4iiah-8ar, ^U«L. ^y murgh- 

To Hoot, {^^) «fiOV| b^ng zadan, 

0jW ^^ Avdz d4dan. 
To Hop, {^s.'*^ ^ «^ j» bar yak pA 

Hops, ^^ umfd, c^j^y^^ umfd- 

vArf, J^^ amaJ, Wj rajiA, W^j^ irti- 

j^ ^f ^^^> r*^ chashm, gSy 

To Hops, q^aaiU j^^ umid d^sh- 

tan, (:)J^ j^^*\»^^ umfd-vAr shu- 

dan, i^^f^ 2V ^AVakku* nimd- 

HoPEFTTL, ^f^^^^ umfd-vdr, g»^ 

Hopeless, ^^^ nauxufd, ^j^^l*^ 

ma,jil8, f*!)^^ mahrdm. 
HoBDE, vid/t Cbowd. 
HoBizoN, v^^ ufuk, <>U. khafik. 
HoBizoNTAL, vsf^ mutasavyf, 

C^^ musattah, J^SW ^^^-'-^ mu- 

taa^yf bi-'l-ufak. 
HoBN, fcU sh^kh, jj;- surd. — (to 

\yM with the horns) (^*y^ t^ shAkh 

zadan. — (trumpet) ^f kama, jy 

bdk, Vy. suma. 
HoBNSD, j^J^U shakh-dar. 

HOBNBT, j^j ZUmbdr (^Z. ;e?^J 

zanibfr). — (hornet* e nest) ^yti) jC 

HoBOscopE, A^j zi,ichah, a^U«3U» 


HoBBiBLE, vide Dbeadful. 

HoBBiFiED, vide Shocked. 

HoBBOB, Jy^ haul, ^-^t^ haibat, 
o^i fc * y Yahshat, JUa^^ vahimah. 

HoBSE, s-^^ aabv' ii-%-^ asp, jj^^ 
sitdr^ s-*^ markab \(j>Z. s-2y« 
mar&kib), ^W barakf, ^^ as 
(i7tt2^.). — (enHre horse) (^V^y 
nary&n. — (gelding) Aa*-1 Akn- 
tah]i AJt^\ akhtah, ^j^^^ «.r^\ 
asb-i-makhsf, ^ ^ ■ « * s * '^ asb- 
- i - khusf. — (blood horse) s-^^ 
s-«^ asb-i-najfb, J**^ s-^^ asb- 
i-asfl, {^f tausan. — (draught- 
horse) jik yAbd, (J^ ^^ s-^^ asb- 
i-bilr-]^h. — ( post-horse) s-^^ 
sfij^ asb-i-chaparf, ^j^U s— ^ 

asb-i-chapari. — (carriage-horse) 
dL-|\^ s- >\ a8b-i-*arAbah. — 
(saddU - horse), %^^y^ s-*— -^ 
asb-i-suvdrf. — (unsaddled horse) 
^\ s— ^ asb - i . ilugh. — (fed 
horse) J5/ •-r— ^ asb-i-kdtal, »«Jj« 
jadak, v^^^»^ s-^^ asb-i-mujan- 
nab. — (white horse) •*«*- saffd. 
— 0/ray) ^ nflah, •>^ kabdd. — 
(dark gray) {^fy* surkhdn, 
toXi^^ surkhdnag. — (black) 5^ 
sijah, tj^-*-» misbki. — (bay) ff 
kahar. — (light bay) s^^t*^ ku- 
mait. — (chestnut) q)/ kuran. — 
(brotvn) f^ By karah-kahar, ;^ 
bdr. — (dun) Jut«— samaud. — 
(dappled) ^y^ abrash. — (pie- 
bald) j>^\ ablak. — (flea-bitten) 
^J-«X• magas{. — (roan) Jy kizil, 
Sj^sd.^ surkhitfrab. — (armour for 
a horse) (^f^^ bar-gustuvdn. — 
(horse-breaker or jockey) j^^— X»U. 
cbabuk-suvAr, j^ ^y* sdvar-kAr. 
— (horse-dealer) ^»* s-^^ asb- 
furdsb, J3*> dallal. — (horse- 
keeper) vide Groom. — (horse- 
doctor) ^^ baitar. — (horse-dung) 
^^^ pa,m, {^ pai'n, {^<Ai pahin. 
— (horse-blanket) Jv Jul, •W J^ 
jul-namad,jUAi 8hi*Hr,»^^jWyal- 
pdsh. — (horse-hair) s-^^ s3y* 
mdf,-i-a8b.-( Aorw-«Aoe), J*> na*l. 
— (paces of a horse : — to walk) f^ 
{^j kadam raftan. — (to trot) aC 
ijs^j lukkah raftan.-(to anible) ^ 
{^j yurghah raftan. — (to canter) 
^j uLjji yurtmah raftan. — (to 
gallop) (^J^^*> davidan, ^j ^ ^ 
sar-i-shinau raftan. — (horse exer- 
cis€y in throwing a lance or stick 
while riding at fuM speed) v5jW •>«;%• 
jarfd-bazi', <j;jW a1*^»> ddghalah 
biizi. — (exercise in shooting with 
boio or gun while riding at full 
speed) cUji kaikAj. — (bed for a 
horse) (^j^ tf-^*^ takht - i - pa,fn. 
[This is usually made of the 
animars dung, dried and crum- 
bled.] — (on hi/rseba^k), w^\ ^^^ 
rdf-i-asb, ij\y^ suvArah. — (Master' 
of the Horse) j^^je^ mir-dkhwur. 




(it 18 , . . horas'power) s-^^ • • • jaj 
^\*y jMe^, zur-i- . . . asb bukhar 
HoBSEMAK, j\y^ suYar, ^J>»M faris. 
— (good rid£r) s\y^ yj^^ khwush- 
Huvar, j^^««4Ai shah-suY^r. 

HoBS£MAN6HIP, v5j^ ^''^ ^^sb- 

HoBSE-BADisH, vy turb. 
HoBTicuLTTTBB, ^^-^-^^jj zarii'at, 

^VSCaj dihk4nf. 
HosANNA, aU\ (^W^.« sabhan-allah. 
Hose, .Vax* munfiz. — (stocking) s^j^*- 

Ho8iEB,j{9 Alfi* pflah-var. 
Hospice, &»^W* mihmAn-khaiiah. 
Hospitable, j^ji (:)W* mihmAn- 

parYar, j^y yl--* musAfir-naYaz, 

'-a^-^»> ejUi^ mihixian-du8t. 
Hospitably, \J»}^f^ bi-naYazish. 
Hospital, ^\^ Vaai shifa-khAnah. 
Hospitality, ,jjj\jiU^ mihman- 

dari, ^J^ ya^ mfz-bdnf, ^Ue** 

Host (landlord) ^ (^W )«^ mfz-ban, 

j\jiU^ mihm4n-dar. — (who re- 

ceives travellers) i\y^ &>W khanah- 

khwah. — (company) AAfVL ta,ifah, 

t^ guriih, cfc^W jama*at, ft^^ 

ambdh, f*^^^ izdiham. 
Hostage, ije» kaf il, jj;5 giiuY, (^Va 

zamin, (^^U^ zamAn. 
Hostess, j\jJ W« i^} zan-i-miliman- 

Hostile, «-AJlae« inukbalif, ji^ 

mugbayir, ^J»S^J<^ munakiz. 
Hostility, vide Enmity. 
Hot, ^ garm, jVo. hdrr. — (pungent) 

je» tiz, Ju? tund. — (glaring) J^ 

tund, je5 tfz, (^V|^ tabAn. — (red 

Aof) fy- surkh. — (on Aea^ va.*.-^ 

Hotel, vuie Inn. 
Hot-house, es\^\s tdb-khanab. 
HouDA, vft^^ takbt. 
Hound, oi)^ *^^ sag-i-tazi, aX^. 

HouB, «j>.eU sa'at. — (tweniy^four 

sbab u ruz. — 

hours) )}) ^ 

(from howr to hou/r) f^ j»»> dam 

bi-dam, f»«>Uj dam4dam. 

HouB-GLAss, sA^\m & An>Ai shfshah-i- 

HouBLY, «^L^ tA^fiU s4*at bi- 

House, &»U.kb4nah,^U ddr, V* ^ari, 
J)*- manzil, i»^ bait, uwjUft 
*imdrat.— The Yarious parts of a 
Persian house are as follow : — 
(suite of apartments appropriated 
to the man) &»U^ mardanali, (^^ 
birun. — (ladies* suite of apart- 
ments) ^^j zaninah, (^ hairam, 
tjji)*^*^ andardn. — (the court-yard) 
{^•^^ sahn, IbW haj4t. — (passage 
entering the cotiH) yjj^^y dihlus, 
(j)3W dalan. — (tank or cistern in 
the court) j^^ hauz. — (chief 
room, fronting the court) si^\^^ 
diYan-khanah. — (steps leading up 
from court to chief room) aI^ 
piJlah, t^<^j;^ urchin. — (ihresh- 
hold) *V5J*> aargah. — (side rooms^ 
on either side of the chief room) 
{^ (jtA^ kafsh-kun, JUj «ju saf- 
i-ni'al. — (large window, in sashes 
of coloured glass,- looking on the 
court, and occupying the entire 
front of the room) ^j-j\ nrsf. — 
(alcove, at one end of room), 
(^^^ i A\Jb, shah - nishfn. — (small 
apartment above the alcove) ^jt 
ghurfah, jt^ manzar. — (inner 
room, generally entered from the 
alcove) ^J9^ tanabi,<j|U3» tanabf. — 
(open room supported wUh pillars) 
ji!^ t41ar. — (upper story) a*U 2IW 
bala-khanah. — (side rooms of 
upper story) *)^/»^ gushYarah. — 
( flal roof of the house) fSi b4m, 
^\i «^ pusht-i-b4m. — (plat- 
form upon the roof) ^W ^/^ 
sakku,! - i - b4m. — (parapet of 
roof))^^^ ma'jar, )^^* mjikhjar. 
— (coping or border of roof) ^W) 
rukh-b4m. — (atdter) (^\m^ n4b- 
dan, (;)U^U nad-dan. — (eaves of 
roof) ftjt turrah. — (open hall or 
reception room) (^»^ aiY4n. — 
(underground apartment, a retreat 
in hot weather) &i\*yj-^ sard4bah, 
(j^j jt) zfr-zamfn. — (wind-tower 




or ventilator) jS •>W bad-gir. — 
(lumher room), ii\sk^^xi^ san- 
duk-khanah, ^s^ pastd, (^V«^ 
,^^ miyiin-i-pay. — (closet where 
bah are stowed in daytime) 
^^AJb^^ maf rash-dan. — {outhouse 
where pipes and coffee are got 
ready) ^^ A«eS kahvah-khanah, 
— (kitchen) AiCfc- y^'S ash-paz kha- 
nah, (^ matbakh. — ( privy) 
)yi^ mabraz, ^y* mazbalah, 
^f^ mutavazzii, tV^*--* musta- 
rah, &>\^>%iA^ manjalab-khaDah. 
{Vide also Wall, Ceiling, Cor- 
NicB, Niche, Wainscot, Fire- 
place, Chimney, Eoop, Carpet, 
Door, Bolt, Lock, Catch, 
Knocker, Stairs, Room). — 
{House of Parliament) u-J^ 
%x>^yt^ majlis - i - mashvarat, ^^ 
\^yAi\ daru-'sh-shura. — {country 
house) s$^ yflak. 

To House, {^sa\^ s£^\A amanat 
guzashtan, e«>W K^^^i^y vadi'at 

Housebreaker, •>}«> duzd. 

Household, (^^J^Cl khandau, yt\ 
&»U. ahl-i-khAnah, ftJJj^ kliwu- 
randah, ftJ^yU. khanavadah, ^U. 
^S\y khanah-Yadah. 

Householder, a^U. ^\ ahl-Ukha- 

Housekeeper, e/- J^^ yakil-i- 
kharj, *jy** musarrif. 

Housekeeping, ^^jU ^^^ khanali- 

Housemaid, ^e^ kauiz. 

Housewife {case for needletf and 
thread) ij\*^ juz-dan. 

Hovel, cu^ v»*^ a>^ khanah-i- 

To Hover, vide To Fly. 

How? iiy^ chigunah, (^^ chun, 
j^ i^ chih taur, ^^ ^. bi-chih 
vajh. — {how much ?) jJ^ *^ chih 
kadar, j^jA» d*. chih mikdar. — 
{how many ?) Ai^ chand. — {Jiow 
hng?) ^& t4 kai, ^^ V5 ta bi- 
kai, Jusi^ V? ta chand. — {how 
often ?) jW J^ chand bar, a^/« J^ 
chand martabah. — {however) f^ 

magar, {^^ \ va likin, \^ f^ ma' 
h4za, ofjW barf. — Qk,ow far ?) y^ 
jp^ chi-kadar dur, ^\j jAS^ cbi- 
kadar rah, ^ ^ ta kuja, j^ \s 
ta bi-ku. — {how much the more, 
rather) (^y'^\ ^y {^<>^, bi-chan- 
din martabah - i - afzun, jAj ^ 
fJ^ chih kadar bishtar. — {how 
much the less) ftJ^U V^ kuja 
mandah, ^ ^ W ta chih rasad. 

Homtl, ^^% valvalah, ^j^ ghariv, 
J«*e •avil, Ji; vail. 

To Howl, O'^fjtj^ ghain'v kardan. 

Hubbub, ^f^^ ma'rakah, ^^ ghfi.u- 
gha, d ^ o * ^ hamhamah. 

Huckle-bone {of a sheep, used in 
playing), s-*^ ka*b, ^Vi kam 

Huckster {pedlar or dealer in 
smaU wares), yj*^^ &^/> khurdah- 
f uriish, ^y^ piiavar. 

To Huddle, {^'^^ khazidan. 

Hue, ^^ ghaugh4, ^ ^ o * ^ hamha- 
mah. {Vide Colour.) 

To Hug, (^^y^ i>^^j** dar aghush 
nimudan, {^jS ij^tr-^ ^o dar sinah 

Huge, vide Big. 

Hum, J^ y JUi kal va makal. 

To Hum {as bees, Sc), (^^^ *ij 
rinnah kardan. — (a song) ^\^ 
(j*y/ taranah kai'dan. 

Human, ^Jl^^ insdni, ^5^ basharf. 
— {human being) ^U-i^ insan {pL 
(j-^ nas), *y\yS\ adam-z4d, j^ 
bashar. — {human nature) o^Ci^ 
insaniyat, «.sHt;-J^ bashar ijat, 
»*-#**>^ admiyat. — {human ra>ce^ 
yUi^ gy nau*-i-in8an, ^ jy 

Humane, ^/* s-^U sahib-i-muru.- 
vat, f^^ uali'm, ^^ karim, J*> f»f 

Humanity, sa^yj^ muruvat, ^*Jy» 
^j^y^ mardum-dust/, cb^«^j^ ud- 
mijat, o«iLJ\ insanijat. 

Humanly, ^V^j^ admijanah. 

Humble, {^^""^ miskin, {^y^ f urd- 
tan, s-4^ gharfb, g*^^ muta- 

To Humble, vide To Abase. 




HcTMBua, vide Dbcbit, Nonsense. 
To Htjmbuo, (^jj J^gul zadan. 
Humid, vide Moist. 
Humidity, vide Moistuke. 
To Humiliate, o^^r^ ;«**^ tahki'r 

nimudan, (jj*>/ ct— * past kardan. 
Humiliation, ybt? tahkir, £^a^ 

Humility, ^ yj^ f uru-tani, ^^jit>X-^ 

miskini, fyus. khushd', £^ 

khuzuS 5*y tavazu*, jUXj\ inki- 

sar, cfc^^;^ zara'at, ^^^i^^kuchiki. 
HuMMiNG-Bi&D, \j^^ tf* murgh- 

HuMOBOUs, vide Facetious. 
HuMOUE (of the body), U«i. khilt 

(pi, \>%^ aklat). — (temper) f^ 

khu, tV* i^izaj, v>;«^^ mashrab. 

— (jocularity) 4A-U latifah, aJAj 

bazlah, «^^^j^ zarafat. 
To HuMOUB, vide To Coax. 
Hump, ^^f kdhah, {^\i^^ kiihan, 

aJ/ kdlah. 
Hump-backed, sa^ j^ kuz-pusht, 

oJt^ j^ guzh-pusht, ot}y ^I'^^i 

(vtdg,), y^f kdzd (vulg,), 
Hungeb, tj^f gurisnagi, yj^/ 

gurs, gy^ juS oxiV* maja*at, 

W kaht, WsAi\ ishtiha. 
Hunoby, aju.^ gurisnah, (;)^y»> j u'an. 
HuNT,j^ shikar. 
To Hunt, {^^/ J^^ shikar kardaa, 

^j^ ae« said kardan. (Vide 

To Pursue.) 
HuNTEK, vj^j^ 8hik4r-chi, *>W* say- 

y ad, ^Ui kannas, (;)^^ j^^ nakh- 

chir-vau, fy>^ nakhchfr-gar. 
Hunting, v&^jWc siyadat, J^e« said, 

j\^ shikar. 
To Hubl, (jjJoiU^ af kandan, ^jjs^^^^ 

HuBLEY-BUBLEY, &«^4ii^ hamhamah, 

^^ ghaugha, ^/^^ ma'rakah. 
HuBBAH, vide Bbayo. 
HuBBiCANE, •>W *^/ gird- bad, ^/ *>W 

bad-i-gird, *>W ^o div-bad, (^^^ 

Hubby, vide Haste. — (to he in a 

hurry) ^^^aiU J»V^ ta'jil ddsh- 

taii» o**^ •*>) zdd bddan, (;>a»VsAi 


I HuBT, vide Injury. 

To HuBT, (^jJk^Vj ranjanfdan, ^Jj^j^ 
azurdan, (:)*M^)j^3^ az4r rasdni- 
dan, (^<^\*y \^\ iza dddan, ^V^j 
(j5*>/ ziyan kardan, (^J^C; j^ 
zarar rasanfdan, (^«>W s-^«««1 asib 

HuBTFUL (injuriouB)y y^ muzirr, 
^^•>*y« mUjZi, jU (jj\ij ziyAn-dar. 

Husband, y^/i shauhar, <^^ shdy, 
S>; zauj, j/i shdr (vuXg.), 

Husbandman,' fj^j z4ri*, Z^y^ i^^" 
zari', c2^ fallah, ^^^ bazr-gar. 

HusBANDBY, ^s^^jj zara'at, sj^^^ 

Hush, v>^^ khamdsh. 

Hush-money, vs>^ rishvat, i>j\ 
irsh, fij^ parah. 

Husk, c^^^ past, yti kishr. 

Husky, i;i^ Hoabse. 

HussAB, \V-yfc hdsAr (etir.). 

Hut, y^ kappar, &4^ kumah, tjii;^ 
'arish, AUa^ mizallah. 

Hyacinth, J«.*-» sumbul. 

Hy^na,jUa^ kaftar. 

Hydbogele, AjiU. «>V| bad-khdyah, 
&e^^ U,^^ istiska-U-khusyah. 

Hydbogen, "Ui^aS^ mdlidu-'l-mii, . 

Hydbophobia, *UJ^ [^ *J^ khauf,, s-J^\'U da,u-'l- 
kalb, «iSC« o^V^ divanagi-i-sag. 

Hymn, ^ti *^ tasbfh, ^ sana. 

Hyperbole, vide Exaggebation. 

Hyberbolical, ^ balfgh. 

Hypercbitic and Hypercritical, 
Ut'Sjk y md-shikaf. 

Hypocrisy, Vj, riya, <4;^j riya- 
kArf, *a©j rang, ^^y^ ^j du-rdi, 
<3U» nifak, J^^U salds, <£>V 
mara,t, i^^jj^W mud&hanat. 

Hypocbite, ^ Vij riya-kar, ^3*U« 
mundfik, <^/* miird,f, jjjy» mu- 
zavvir, ^^ makkdr, ^^ ^j dd- 
rd, jV» JA^ ahl-i-nifak, jS^lfc 
ghash, (^Tju* mudahfn. 

Hypocritical, ♦aOj ^*> dd-rang, 
tjWj y^ dd-zaban, y^ y^ dd-rd. 

Hypothesis, ^j^ farz, jl^ takdir. 

Hypothetical, y*/ farz, ,j^y 

Hyssop, V^^j zdfii. 





I, (^ man. — (I my$elf) ^^ (^ 

man-khwud, ^^ (^^^ man-khi'id- 

Iambic (measure in verse), y^j 

Ibbx (mouiUain goat), <j*>^>i buz- 

IcB, ^ yakh. — (ice - house) J^^*^. 

jakh-cndL — (ice-cream) ^J«-.» 

bastanf. — (iced-toater) ^ s^^ lib- 

IcHKBUMOK (species of pole-cat), 

^ )^ jy*^ sammdr-i-gur-kun, 

U^ ^Jty miish-i-khunnd. 
Icicle, ^ ^ kalam-i-jakh. 
Icy, •>;«• Bard, *yj^ b4rid. 
Idba, J^ khaydl, (^US' gum^n, 

^Ji*> hads, jy^ tasavvur, ^^ 

▼ahm, e^ zann, j^ fikr, y-V^j 

kijas, (£>4>^ zimn. — (fo Aave an 

idea) (^ja\jj^ pind^Bhtan. 
Ideal, ^s)^^'*^ msL^n&vi, ^^Uju* ma'- 

ndyfjah, ijy**^ ma'navi, ^iyisu^ 

Identical, (^U* haman, ^^^^-^a ha- 

mfn, ^y^ 'ainf, o*«»*^ hakfki, 

^»^« sahfh. 
Idiocy (madness), o^V** dfvdnagf, 

t^^ y x^^ majndnfyat. — (igno- 

ranee) ^J^^^ nd-dAni, JU*^^ ah- 

maki, oVjf** bf-vukdfi. 
Idiom, c^UmI istilah, «a»;^W^ muha- 

yarat, JiU3\ v>^ zarbu-M-masal. 
Idiomatic, va*;^W* ^3*^^ muvAfik- 

i-muhavarat, «>)^V^^ j^A^ ^j bar 

vafk-i-muhdvarat, uwj^V^ ^\^ j^ 

az kar^r-i-muhAvarat. 
Idiosyncrasy, v^^-**^ ©V iJ^iizilj-i- 

Idiot, ^y•^ ummf, a]l|\ ablah, ^fy6k 

Idiotic (mad), 6i\^^ dfvAnah, 

(^yk^^majnuD. — (ignorant) t)^»> U 

na-ddn, ^\ ablah, <34*.\ ahmak, 

«^y(^ bf-Tukdf. 
Idle (unemployed), ^^ bf-k&r, 

JW» mu'attal. — (Uuty) ^ 

Bust, 4V^tf kAhil, ^\tJ5 tambal, 
\ zahil, ^/ ogv t 


^^ ^J^ bAzi-gdsh 

(vulg*). — (to he idle) e**/ ^J^ 

tambali kardan. 
Idleness, ^y'^^ susti, ^JJt\S kdhili, 

(:j!Ma» butlan, ,J^ tambalf, ^jijW 

^^ bazf-gushf (imZ^.). 
Idler, s s ^> *y« mard-i-sust. — 

(scamp) ^j\y} ayirah, <^W^^ aubdsh. 
Idly, &»ift^kahilaiiah. 
Idol, ut^ but, j^^ sanam (pL 

^\jj\ asnam), jV» nigdr. 
Idolater and Idolatrous, ^s^ 

mj^ but - parast, 

To Idolatrize, (^j/ ij^ji «w but- 

parastf kardan. 
Idolatry, ^^ji «a^ but-parasti. 
To Idolize, (^^4 f^/s takrim kar- 

dan, (^^y^ f^^ ta'zim nimddan. 
It, jS\ agar, / gar, j\ ar, (j\ in, /\ 

^W ^S^^ chunan-chih. 

Ioneous, Ui (jtJ^ dtish-nimA. 

To Ignite (trans.), (^•M^j^ suz&ni- 
dan. — (intrans.) (j^^^ sukbtan. 

Ignition, j^ suz, \J>}y^ suzish. 

Ignoble, *i^ ^ bad-rag, *a^^ M 
bad-sirisht, j^ •X} bad-tabiir, (^^•> 
dun, cfc^-* post, JiJj; razfl. 

Ignominious, \y^j rusva, c«^ ^a- 
bfh, •^^ bad, (^ji) zubdn. 

Ignominy, o^^j ru8VK,f, va^^^4t 
fazfhat, jVe *ar. 

Ignorance, ^J^*i M nil-dan f, J«i^ 
jahl, ^^W jahili. — (presump- 
tuous ignorance) s-^ J^^ jahl-i- 
murakkab. — (to feign ignorance) 
O*^ J^V tajAhul kardan. 

Ignorant, ^^^ U nd-ddn, <-Aj^^ U nd- 
THkif,^e^n»» bf-khabar, JiV& ghd- 
fil, J^\i ndshf, 4jjjU 'drf.— (tt». 
learned) ft^\^ ^ n4-khwdndah, 
v5^^ ummf, (^W U ud-diln, •>^^ ^jt 
bi-savid, JM nabati. 

Ignorantly, A*U.«ij U na-danis- 

Ill, s-*ec <aib, «^j^/* zararat, ^J^ 
badf, (^\i) zijan. (Fu?« Sick, 
Bad, Improper.) 

Illegal, £/» «j2U khildf-i-shar*, 
f^j^ bardm, vJK ^ nd-hakk. 




Illeoality, gy^ <^^lab^ mukh/ila- 
fat-i-sharS g/* ^^tJ^U khilafat-i- 

Illegible, V}\^ \i na-khwaua. 

Illeoitimact, J^S^yA^ haram-za- 

Illegitimate, 5o^^^^ haram-za- 
dah, \*^\ j3^ valadu-*z-zina. 

Ill-fated, «>»*: j^j bad-bakht, ^ 
^aaS ^ bakht-bar-gashtah, 
sjnid. bakht-khuftab. 

Ill-pavoured, o-*Aij zisht, »^;^ 

Illiberal, ^}d^, bakhil. 

Illiterate, ^^^ ummi. 

Ill-nature, ^J^ J^ bad.klui,i, J^ 
^J^^y• bad-niizaji, wwj^/i shariirat. 

Ill-natured, jp^ ^ kaj-kliulk, 
^ J4 bad-khd, ^le* ^ bad-nihad, 
^ jui timd-khu, jiji^ sharfr. 

Illness, vide Complaint. 

Illogical, fj^!^ u>%i^ khilaf-i- 

To Ill-treat, o^h^ f^^^ sitam ni- 
mudan, (^J/ <4;^; "^ bad-raf tari 
kardan, (:^«>^ ^ zulm nimudan. 

Ill-treatment, f^si^ sitam, i^j^j J^ 
bad-raftari, ^ zulm. 

To Illuminate, (:5^/ u^W cli"*»^- 
ghan kardan. (Fm;2<' To En- 

Illuminated {euibellUhed with 
Riding and colours, &c., as fine 
manuscript books), s-^>3^ muzah- 
hab, 6JA s-***-^ tazhib-shudah. — 
(tiUe-page of a hook, Sc.) t^ j^ 
sar-i-lauh, &W^ y» sar-i-safhaii, 
^\y*^ •unvan. 

Illumination (of lamps), o^V^ 

Illusion, J^ khayal, i*^ baha- 
nah, ^^ hilah, j^ ^ nazar- 
baDd, ot3^ J^ nazar-bazi, «^^ 

Illusive, ^W^ khajalf, ^J^^ 

To Illustrate (hook, &c,), ^^ 
(^•>/ munavvar kardan. 

Illustration (proof), J^ misal, 
«:*W**^ isb^t, JeJ^ daia. (Vide 

ti&n) ;e— *» tafsi'r, ^*<*» ta'bfr, c/» 
sharh, ^f ta.uzih, ^^ bayan. 
— (ornament or picture), ^y^ tas- 
Yir, (j&a^ naksh. 

Illustrious, vicfe Famous, Great. 

Image, ^^^yo surat, JU4J timsAl, 
f«-^ sanam, (c^ but. 

Imaginable, jy«^ mutasavvir. 

Imaginary, f^^y mauhum, 6^^y 
mauhdmah, <^W^ khayali. 

Imagination, vide Idea, Thought, 
Illusion. — (in iniagvnation) j«> 
jWJ ^^ dar markaz-i-ijdd. 

Imaginative, J^atsJ^ fftj^ 8arf*u-'t- 

To Imagine, (^^ )y^ tasarvur kar- 
dan, {^^^ i^^ mazinnah dash-' 
tan, (^^^ [ji\^ kiyas kardan, (^\*i 
(^^ gumdn burdan, {^sJk\^ pin- 
dashtan, (^«3^ J^a. khay 41 kardan, 
{^sj^ J^ khay&l bastan. 

Imbecile (m4id), ^\^*^ divanah, 
(jjy^^^ majnun. — (foolish) ^\ 
ablah, <34a.\ ahmak, JteJ^ *- ft ^jt6 

Imbecility (madness), o^V** <^^" 
vanagi, vft4*^A^*« majndniyat. — 
(folly) ^j^\ ablah f, ^.j-V ^ ^^' 

To lMBiBE,.in<fe To Drink, To As- 

Imitable, *i^ J»U kabil-i-taklid. 

To Imitate, o^^ ^^^^ iktidd ni- 
mddan, (^«>/ *M^ taklid kardan, 
(^'^j^ j*y *9^ taklid dar-dvardan. 

Imitation, *^A>» taklid, gf^ ta- 
tabbu*, J» nakl, ^asI^ iktida, 
Afr»A? tashbfh, ^Ji»W« mumilsalah. 

Imitator, «i^ mukallid, ,^ j^ 

Immaculate, *<J^ pak, 6U5' ^ bf- 
gun^h, s-^ <ji bi-*aib. 

Immature, ^U. khAm, (ji«j ^ na-ras. 

Immaturity, ^j^U. khami,^^5««jUn4- 

Immeasurable, fij^^^ ^ bi-anda- 
zah, J^ ^Jt bf-hadd. 

Immediate, s-^/ karfb, j^^ h4zir. 

Immediately (quickly), c5^)yi bi- 
ziid{, JV:- j*> dar hAl, aUU Xl bild 

Example, Proof.) — (explana- f Asilah, )/^\ y^ ff-'l-faur, '^«^ 




ma'aii. — {exactly uj'on time) 

^yy^^-i bi - mujarrad, J^^^ bi- 

mahz, a5^U* hamdn-kih, rt<»a»ft 

hamfn-kih, ^ jakh (vulg,). 
Immemorial, ^ Vv^ -^ mustadam, 

^oS kadim. 
Immense, i^\^\ ^ji bi-aiidazah, 

^l^U sh^igan, ;y«^^ ^ n^-roah- 

sur, *45^ buzurg. 
Immensity, J^j^ buzurgf. 
To I M ME ROE, o^^ ^y^ ghiitah ni- 

mudan, o^y Jf;^ ghark kardan. 
Immersed, Sy^ gbark, jyk&J* mu:3- 

Immersion, aL^ ghiitah. 
To Immigrate, vids To Emigrate. 
Immigration, Jfi^ uakl. 
Imminent, «^;*&«* mushrif, csX^jy 

Immobile, fJSi k4,im. 
Immobility, o^ sukun. 
Immoderate, vide Immeasurable. 
Immodest, v»»>^ ^J bi-adab, W ^J^ 

Immodesty, ^j^\ ^jt bf-adabf, ^Jt 

To Immolate, {^*>y*i o^/ kiirban 

Dimudan. • 
Immoral, \J»^^^ j^ bad-ma^ash, JuU 

fasid, J^\^ fahish, ^^ J4 bad- 

Immorality, ^5**^*^ J^ bad-ma*- 

^shi, «>UJ fas4d. 
Immortal, J^*; ^j bi-zaval, ^^h 3 

la-yam ut, J^)4 i U-jaz41. 
Immortality, <^*^^ abadi, vanu^t 

To Immortalize, (:)«>^ ^aIq^ mu- 

khallad niinudan. 
Immovability, ui>W^ sabdt, «£>^ 

Immovable, d^j^^j^ ghair-i-mu- 

Immunity, o*^*^ mu*afi, ,j-aUfc^ 

mukhlisf, v5^^3^ azadi, (^^ aman, 

,^^j riha,i. 
Immutable, y^ ^J^ bi-taghajyur, 

Ja^xi i Id-^utabaddal. 
Imp, *A-4/ft *ifrft. 
Impact, u\^ saf . 
To Impair, imie To Injure. 

To Impale, jjJJ j^jjW kbiizuk za- 

dan, (^»>j j^*y dar zadan, j^o y 

(^A^ bar dar kashidan. — (imvdl- 

ing stake) Jji)^ khaziik, j^»> dar. 
To Impart, v/de To Give. 
Impartial, Jolc *adil, jW^-^j rast- 

baz, y-j *>^*> dad-ras, ^/b^fc ^^ bi- 

ghaiuz, Je* o> bi-mail, j*>^ 

Impartiality, Jj* *adl, ,j*y» ^ bi- 

tarafi, ^jW *a^\) rast-bAzi, *>W 

<j*<«j d^d-rasi, ^a^a^ sadakat. 
Impassable, ^^ ^j bi-guzar, \i 

jy^ ^^S^^ na-mumkin-i-'ubur, 

j;r* JjS jt^ ghair-i-kibil-i-murur. 
Impatience, ^^y^^*^ bi-sabri, v»^y^^ 

Impatient, ^t-M bi-sabr, J4*«? yt^ 

ghair-i-tahammul, s-*<^ (j» bi- 

To Impeach, (^^\^ o» o» tuhmat 

Impeachment, J^«> da'vA, «>^^ 

isnad, sa^^ tuhmat. 
To Impede, vide To Hinder. 
Impediment, ^ mana', fj\^ mani', 

^iS-^U^ mumana*at, vj>.»«^^y« mu- 

zahamat, y^fS ta,arruz, ^ biir. 
To Impel, i^\y raadao, e^^ f^f\ 

ibram nimudan, {^s^\^ ^f^ tab- 

rik sakhtan, q^jaW (^ ^ bar an 

Impenetrable, J^*3^^ c:^^^ ^ la 

Impenitence or Impexitent,^c^ 

^y bi-ghair-i-taubah. 
Imperative (mood)^ yA amr. — 

(needful) vide Necessary. 
Imperceptible, {j-^y^*^^ yt^ gbair- 

Imperceptibly, &siy ^ raftah- 

raftah, ^j^sj bi-tadri], a-s— ufc^ 

aa-a"^ ahistah-ahistah. 
Imperfect, ^W U na-tamam, ,^U 

nakis, 7*^ liasir. — (iniptirfect tense 

of a verb) ^J;J^y4>2^\ ^U mazf-i- 

Imperfection, &'«etf Dakfsah, jy^ 

Imperial, ^U sb^h/, ^/«eS kai- 





To Imperil, ^j)J54^^Ji\ jU. ^j dar kha- 
tar andaklitan. — (to be imperiled) 
^oUi^ ^ l)i-khatar uffcjidan. 

Imperious, a>^^\ amiriinah. 

Imperishable, vide Immortal. 

To Impersonate, (;)^/ a<JSJ tashab- 
buh kardan. 

Impersonation, &--aj tashabbuh. 

Impertinence, tride Impudence. 

Impetuosity, <^Ja? tundi, »•«> ta- 

Impetuous, j^e*^ mutahawir, ^^ juj 
tund-rau, Ju? tund. 

Impetus, j^} zur, va>JA shiddat, «yy 
kdvat, fy^ hujum, i*M ghala- 
bah, aUa- hamlah. 

Impiety, /^ kufr, jU> nifak, ^ 
^yi^ bi-din{. 

Impious, t)**^ bi-dm, y^ kafir, 
v>»^ munafik, ,>.Va fasik. 

Implacable, ^^ ^ bf-ruhm. 

To Implant, (^^f -^^y markiiz kar- 

Implement, ^a^\ iilat. 

To Implicate, (^j-j o.» o » tubmat 
zadan. — (<o 6e implicated) c:.^x# 
0^;ii\^ madkhalijat dashtau. 

To Implore, vicZe To Beg. 

To Imply, (;)^/ftjU^ isharab kardan. 

Impolite, v»^^ ^ bi-adab, o^j 

Impolitic, v3^!5U na-la,ik, <u-.^U U 

Import, o"^*^ ma*ni, s-J^ mat- 
lab. — (goods) J^J^ madkbal. 

To Import, (jj%>;^\ ^^Vj pajin avar- 

Importance {tnatter, consequence), 
j»x5 kadr, 6&\Am muzayakab, cfc*/»jS 
lazimat, *jya- masraf, o*^^ gi- 
rAnf, ^j4«6^ raubammi (FuZt* 
Dignity, Value, Size.) 

Important, ^3!^ hizim, ^•e^ mu- 
binm), (:)\;J giran, jJb6. kbatir, 
&^ ^ysM^ iiivi*tana-bibi, aA«>c 'urn- 

Importation, J*^ baml, J^**^ 

Importunate, ^^*s^ mutakazi. 

To Importune, (j^y^ ^Va» takaza 

Importunity, UU» takazii, cW^ 

To Impose, (^\JS guzasbtan. — 

(to impose upon) {j^j^ firiftan, 

^S\^ vp-jy fin'b dadan, J*-^ 

^xj\j^ gul kbwuranfdaii, ««*- 

(;^^;^bilab kardan, (j>>y^j>\t gba- 

dar niraudan. 
Imposing (structure, d&c), s^<»* 

Imposition, tnrfe Fraud. 
Impossibility, (;)VX^^ (tJ^ 'adam-i- 

Impossible, {^^^^ ^ na-mumkin, 

JW* mubal, g «»^ mumtaniS 
Impost, mde Tax. 
Impostor, jjiy* muzavvir, jVC« mak- 

kar, jW*^ 'ajyar, ftJ^ju^ firfbandab, 

^W*» sbajjad, ^j|)J^ kullabi, o*^^»> 

Imposture, vide Fraud. 
Impotence (phys^'cal), cj-*^ 'unnat, 

>j.^V* * 'inninat. — (practical) Vj 

^jf^^y na-tavana,i. 
Impotent (physically), ^^*^ 'anin. 

— (practically) eV ^ na-taviin, 

^U *ajiz. 
To Impoverish, {^s^^ eUa^-* muh- 

taj sakbtan. 
Impracticable, vide Impossible. 
To Imprecate, vide To Cursb. 
Impregnable, ge^ mani*. 

To Impregnate, {j^^^ ^:>s-^^ abis- 
tan sakbtan. — (a flower) 0*>W ^ 
bd dadan. 

Impregnation, ,jis— *^ 4bifltanf. — 
(Jlower) ^*y\*^ ji bu-dadanf. 

Impresario, )^ <i«-*» sbabfb-sdz. 

To Impress (stamp), (a<>y^ j%*» 
mubr nimudan, ^^^•> (J^^ nisban 
dadan. — (force to serve) ^ fijafcr- 
^^;^8ukbrab giriftan, ^^ w&--»jki=: 
(jj^S iyasi, bi-kbidmat-i-bi-jirab 

Impression (stamp), (jSJft naksb, 
(^Ui nisbau, /\ asar, j9^ mubr, 
s^\^ cbap (hind,), — (to maJce an 
impression) (j*^y^ ;«**^ ta,8{r ni- 

To Imprison, (;j*>W> <^\'Aiy j*> dar 





zindin nih&dan, (^^ ^j'^t^ habs 

Impbisonmbnt, cr«^ habs, *M 

Improbability, ^j^«> diiri. 
Improbable, Jy^ m^ ghair-i- 

ma'kul, J*JW« ^ na-muhtamal, 

j)y> ddr, J^e«»» ba'fd. 
Impbomptu, *^«j* badihan. — (tm- 

promptu reply) va^oi badfhat. 
Impbopeb, s-^^ ^ na-munasib, 

&&^lAi U D^-shijistab, V^«» bi-ja, 

6i^y U n4 • muvajjah, ^^ o? '».>« 

Impbopbiety, u^^^U* U nd-muna- 

sabat, ^j^Iam^U U nd-shiiyistagi. 
To Impboye {tranB,)^ (a*y/jHi bih- 

tar kardan. — (intrans.), (^^^ys^ 

bibtar sbudan. 
Impbovement, j«^ bibtarf, ^^f 

tarakkf, t^^ isUh. 

lMPBOVIi>SNCE, JA^ gbafih'. 

Impboyident, JiCfe gMfil, tWs^^ ^ 

Impbttbence, ;^ tahaYYur, oJiA& 

ghiflat, of/rfJJ ,ji bf-tadbiVi'. 
Impbudbwt, ^«*^ ^j bi-tamyiz, ^ 

«w»-t bf-lwuifrat, w»J^ ^ji bi-tad- 

bfr, iV^\ ^j bf-ibtiyiit. 
Impbudbntly, aU*)\ ^ 'ala-'l- 

ghiflah, iiih\t gbdfilinah. 
Impudence, ,j<y* shdkhi, ^is^ 

gustAkhf, or»>t^o> bf-adabi, sa^U. 

Yakdbat, <jJjm-V- ^jJ bf-sakbtagi/ 
Impudbkt, t/i sbdkh, ^Vs-i' gus- 

takb, v»*>^ ^j bf-adab, ^ jt bf- 

hay^» J^^ f Id-ubdli, J^ fuzdl, 

f*^ ^ b{-8barm. 
Impulse, «*W tahrfk, s-hjV t^r- 

Impunity, ^/1y- jji b{-8az4,f, ^ 

(c^jAe 'adam-i-'ukdbat. — (with 

impunity) \y^ ^jt b{-8az4, 'VAUk 

zalafan, ^^ja badran. 
Impure, *^\i U nd-p4k, J^ palfd, 

u^ najis, *A»jU mulaYYas. 
Impubity, ^J\i \i nA-pAkf, <jft4!l^ 

ildjish, o^^iife gbiMzat, o^W^ 

najdsat, j*)^ kazar, cp^^^JU kazurat, 

j^ kadar, «^y laus. 
Imputation, jUa*^^ ibtim&l. 

tubmat, f*^^ ittibdm, oLu.\ isnad, 
v8.^*<* » nisbat. 
To Impute, (^*>/ s^^-*i*« mansub 

kardan, o^j^ J**-^^^ mubtamal 

kardan, ^«>w c»'^<.«>-^ nisbat d4- 

In, j»> dar, j***^ andar, (^^*y darun, 

(^i;J^\ anclarun, (^^ mijAn, ^•J 

tjC* dar miyAn, J*-U dakhU, y 

tu, <^/ tdi, J* ff, 3 \k (vulg.). 
Inability, ^^'>i^ j»> dar-mandagf, 

J^\f U na tavana,/. 
Inaccessible, ub^o j^«> ddr-dast, 

2»*^ mani*. 
Inaccxtbacy, vj*-j*> ^ na-dunistf, 

^y^^J ^ na-rasti. 
Inaccubate, ufc*-j*> U nii-durust, ^ 

u^^^j nd-rAst. 
Inactive, «*— — sust. 
Inactivity, ,jX— sustf. 
Inadequate, ^ kam. 
Inadvertence, ^aJiifc ghiflat. — (fcy 

inadverteiwe) '\j^ sahvan, '%iit 

Inadvebtent, Ja^ ghafil. 
Inanimate, cjV ^ bi-jan. 
Inapplicable, aI^ ^ bf-maukiS 
Inasmuch as, a>^ bas-kih. 
Inattention, J*^ ghdfiK, *fi^l** 

ghiflat, JiU; taghdful. 
Inattentive, J*^ ghAfil. 
Inattentively, 'VsIa* ghiflatan. 
To Inauoubate, (:)*>^ ^ fath ni- 

Inauoubation, ^ fath. 
Incalculable, a*. ^ bf-hadd. 
Incantation, *sX^jt^ nairang, (^y^\ 

Incapable, jrt U na-i4,ik, J»Vl U 

n4-kdbil, ui>jAaef bf-kudrat, (^y ^ 

Incapacity, ut^U ^ 'adam-i-k4- 

To Incabcebate, vide To Impbi- 


Incabnatb, ^ »>• mujassam. 
Incabnation, ^•-'^q^ tajassum. 
Incautious, ;♦*- ^j» b(-khabar, ^jt 
>0 bf-fikr. 

Incendiabism, <4)^ J/^^ muhta- 




Incendiakt, jU { jf^*» mubtarik- 

Ingbksb, j^. bakhdr. (Vide also 

Incentite, o^j^ tahriz, cdij0^ tab- 

Incessant, i*^j^ inudain,iJl«> da,iin, 

aUU h hilk f&silab. 
Incessantly, \4S\*y dk,ima,n, g^ S 

U-takattuS (^p^\ ^ *al4-'d-da- 

T4m, &^^^ pai\ra8tab. 
Incest, ^j zind, &i\/^\ j^ fujdru- 

Inch, s-*^ vaiab. 
Incident, a»*>w bddisab, \f^^ ma- 

jard, M\^ vdki'ab, J^^ vuku*, Ul 

kaza, is.A> v r^ sar-guzasbt, jW\ 

Incidental, o*^^ ittifdki. 
Incision, ^y^ sbakk, ^ kat^ 
Incisive, g^Vi kdti'. 

zdnfdan, e^^ v^y targbib ni- 
mddan, (^^NSai^^ angikbtan. 

Incivility (rtidenesSf affront), ^^ 
^^^^ bf-sdkbtag/, o*;^ o> bi- 
ta'aruf 1, ^*>^ <ji bi-adabi. 

Inclement, c>4ij^ durusbt, 

Inclemency, o*^;** dunisbti, 

Inclination, J«^ mail, j^\ 4rzd, 
^Uj dimagb, \y^ bava, **>\)^ 
iradab, j^ sbauk, Vao safa. — 
(^in^a) J«^ mail, JzW tamayul. 

To Incline, ^•>/ Je^ mail kardan. 
— (lean) (^*y\*y &e^ takyab dddan. 

Inclined, JA^ ma,il, u&Lu^ mun- 
*atif. — (to he inclined) (^J^ JJU 
ma,il sbudan, o^^ ^s^j ragb- 
bat nimddan.— (i^KXM inclined to 
he fine) J^ ^j^. ^ \y^ bav4 rd bi- 
kbdbf sbud. 

To Include, (jj*>/ J^U ddkbil kar- 
dan, (:?*>^ tj*^ darj nimddan. — (to 
he included) (^J^ J^W ddkbil sbu- 
dan, (^J^ ^U sbamil sbudan, 
^^^ <3^U mulbak sbudan. 

Inclusive, J»a a >^ musbtamil, S)*^^ 

mundarij, (:^»*> g ** mutazammini 
J^U sbdmil. 

Incognito, ^/UUa U u:>j,y« jj dar 
sdrat-i-na-sbinas&,f, ^jAui U j^it 
bi-taur-i-na-sbinis. — (to ao in- 
cognito) ^*^ Ji*^j^ tabdil sbudan. 

Incohbbency, iftJi*^y« ^J bf-muv4- 

Incohebent, iji^x* i^ bf-muvdfik. 

Income, ^•^^ amadanf, J^^J^ ma- 
dakbil, J^tW basil, {j^W j4cbau. 

Incompabability, ij^^^ bf-mis61f, 
o^^ jagAnagf. 

Incompabable, o^^ S l&-s4nf, ^jt 
yJiA bi-nazfr, J^ ^J| bi-misdl, 
^^ jdgdnab, »>ij^ farfd, JuiU^i 
bf-m&nand, (;)^;S\ ^ bf-akr4n, ^ 
U*A bf-bam-td, ^mA ^ bf-sbab(b, 
Jj* o> bi-badal. 

Incompatible, <j*U#« muniff. — (<o 
heincompatihle vnth) Q)Aai\*> ^/Vi^ 
mundfati ddsbtan. 

Incompetent, iji\y U n4-muv4fik, 
^U»«j«^ gbair-i-mut4bik. 

Incomplete, ^joiU nakis, f»W U n4- 

Incompbehbnsible, ^ {^^^^ ^ ni- 
mumkin - i - &bm, ^W» ^^ bi- 
kivas, jp^ f^ ^ az fabm ddr, h 
sA^>y\ bila idrak, is)jJ« S Id-judrik. 

Incongbuity, eg^ ^ nA-s4zi. 

Incongbuous, \y^ ^ na-saza, jU U 

Inconsidebable, Jt^ kalfl. 

Inconsidebate, %x>jt^ ^ bf-basf- 
rat, j^e^ mutabawir. 

Inconsistency, o^U* tan4kuz. 

Inconsistent (things)^ ^^\ja» mu- 
tandkiz, ^^ mundfl, ^fe .*-'* ^ 
nd-mustakim. — (pereona) ^/4U*» 
mundkiz. — (to 6e inconsiiteni) 
^^s^S gAiUi tanakuz guftan. 

Inconsolable, /«>'«(»} bi-sabr. 

Inconstancy, ^^^ talawun. 

Inconstant, j\ji ^ bf-kar4r, ^ 
«A»W^ bf-sab4t, J^^ ^ nd-pAja- 
d4r, <^^ mutalawin, ^«^u^ mu- 
tagbajyir, y) ^*> dd-rd. 

Incontestable, ut^^ sdbit. 

Incontinence, (^ye^H *^ bad-par- 
bfzi, oi)^ *^ bad-karf. 




Incontinent, y^^j^ '^ bad-parhfz, 

J^ J^ bad-kiir. 
Incontbovbrtible, 4j«i»i kat*f. 
iNCONYENifiNGE, oAi^ mashakkat, 

<A>^ mazarrat, c>a^^ mihnat. 
Inconvenient, Jei^ sakil, j\yi^»> 

dushvar, f Juas^ mutasaddi*. 
Incobpobate, ^.^.i ^ ** mujassam. 
To Incobpobate, e^r^ f*^ zamm 

nimudan. — (to he iricorp orated) 

(2)jk2J»^ A »fr»^ zamimah gardidan. 
Incobpobation, jW^ ilbak. 
Incobbect, v»^^ Vj n4-Bayab,<^^*«\j^ 

na-rast, is-^^^j U na-durust. 
Incobbectness, ^J^^^ ^ na-Tastf, 

,ja-;»> ^ na-duru8ti, wfc gbalat. 
Incobbuptibility (things), ^ ^ 

nA-fana. — (persons) ^a-J^ *iffat, 

^ji«\4> («3\^ pak damanf. 
Incobbuptible (things), ji^^ ^ 

fana-Dsi-pazir. — (^erso7is) oiJU 

;^W pak daman. 
Incbease, (j^y\ afzayish, o*jj>*^ 

afzuni', ^^»>V>J ziyddatf, *>Vjjj^ iz- 

diydd, Jk>y tazayud, AiU\ izdfah, 

^^ tarakki, ^U^\ iuzim&m. 
To Incbease, o^j^y^^ afziidan, J«v« 

0*>/ mazid kardan, (^j^ *y^) 

ziyad kardan, o^^ ^^^ izafah 

nimudan. — (to he increased) j^) 

(^•^ ziyad sbudan. 
Incbedibility, jW»\ |«Ae *adam-i- 

Incbedible, ;V<^\ jI24 U na-la,ik-i- 

Hibar, jVto\ s-^^^ ^ na-viijib-i. 

Incbement, A i» ii 4.A zamfmali. 
To Incbubt, (;)«>;Ji^ andddan. 
Incbustation, fij^JJ^ andddah. 
Incumbent (duty), f*jS Uzim, 

vajib, ,jAs«^ muktazi, ^%««rA 

Incubable, ^ S ld-*il4j, \**> ^^ 

bi-dava, *» ^iJ^ A^U^ mu'diajab- 

Incubsion (hostile), fy^ hujdm, 

aW bamlah. (Vide Assault, 

Invasion.) — (to make an incur- 
sion) ^j)^*^^ takhtan. 
Indebted, (^f^^ mamndn. — (in 

debt) \J>yf>f makrdz. 


Indecenct (in wiyrds), *jyfe barzab, 
8^ pdcb, ^J^ fuhsb. — (in 
deeds) J5/> barzagf, yj^^<^-^ gus- 
takbi, ct-D-U^ vakAbat, saJ\^ 

Indecent, (j*^^ fabisb, aahiU U na- 
sbiiyistab, ceM^ rakfk, fijyfc bar- 
zab, (^^ . ? ■.■■■.>• mustabjan, «a%»8a 

Indeclinable, «jy»*^ ^ gbair-i- 

Indecobous, t^ sbdkb, s^*>^ <ji bi- 

Indeed, v>«**^ tabkfk, "V^i^i yakf- 
nan, ^\f\ ^^ fi-'l-vaki*, ^jyl ari, 
amJ^ o* f i-*l-bakfkat, UJ^^ va- 
ki'an, '^Uj^ insafan. 

Indefatigable, v/^ ia-.«*-j zabmat- 

Indefensible, )^\ g«*^ mam- 

Indefinite, ^^a%^ U na-mabddd, 
j^'Ate^ ^ na-mabsdr, (^^e*^ ^^^ 
gbair - i - mu*ayyan. — (granvma^ 
tical term) ij^ nakirab. 

Indefinitely, ui>j^ h bila muddat. 

Indelible, <^^^ sabit. 

Indelicate, vide Indecent. 

Indemnity, cw^jV^k* mujazdt. 

Indemonstbable, jy»^ j«^ gbair- 

Indentation, vide Dint. 

Indentube, a^^ J>ec 'abd-namab, 
i^\i ^\y>\ ikrar-namab. 

Independence, *>\jl{Ju.^ istibdid, 
^J\j1 azadi, jSuu-\ istikldl. 

Independent, ^Uai-» j^ kbwud- 
mukbtar, JfcL,^ mustakill, jf^ 
mutlak, *>\j\ Azad. 

InDESCBIBABLE, J«VvJ^ «-A4;«^ *^ 

kib bi-ta'rif na-mi-ayad. 
Indestbuctiblb, J^ji S la-yaz&l. 
Indetebminable (grammatical 

term), ;^^ munakkar. 
Index, is^-^e* fibriat. — (poinier) 

jaA\u sbakbis. 
India, J^jia bind, ^jjU-^jl;* bindd- 

stan. — (Secretary of State for 

hidia) JkJA m>\ , ♦,%...,■,>• ^j^ vazir-i- 

Indian, ^^uft bindf, v5^*3^^ binduf. 




India-bubbbb, {^ »«5V» j\jb« middd- 

To Indicate, (^^f *;^^ isharah kar- 
dan, o^^ nimudan. 

Indication, vide Sign. 

Indicative, v*^ mu*rib. — (indi- 
cative mood), ij^ J** fi'l-mut- 

Indictment, a-*^ f^ hukm-na- 
mah. — {Vide Accusation). 

Indiffebencb, vide Cabeless- 


Indiffebent, vide Cabeless. 
Indigence, vide Povebtt. 
Indigenous {as a plant) , ^ *>^ 

Indigent, vide Poob. 
Indigestible, {^^^^ sangm, j\y^ \i 

Indigestion, ^j*^^ j^ bad-hazmf, 

c:^^.^ vakhHinat. 
Indignant, vide Angby. 
Indignation, f^J^ khishm, ij^j 

ranjish, y^ tanaffur. 
Indignity, c^J^i zillat, «>44- khif- 

Indigo {substance), J«j» nil. — 

{leaves pounded, as a dye for the 

heard, &c,) *i^j ra^ng, &4— ^ vas- 

mah. — {plant) Je* is^j*> dirakht- 

Indibect, fA^\j U na-rAst, ftJ^«^«^ 

Indiscbbniblb, yfcVlt ytA gbair-i- 

zdbir, f^\ *^d«» baM'du-'l-fabm. 
Indiscbeet, Jfifi ^J bi-*akl, ^ 

j^^sjA bf-imtiyAz. 
Indiscbeetlt, ii\y(^ ^ bi-tami- 

Indiscbetion, vide Folly. 
Indiscbiminating, jWs^^ sjt bi'-im- 

tiyaz, «t>;t}-»«» bi-basfrat, ;trf*xse» 

Indispensable, vide Necessabt. 
Indisposed, vide Sick. 
Indisputable, «fiUi !l lA-sbak, 

& ^i .t^ bi-shabhah. 
Indisputably, 'Vsp^ sar/ban. 
Indissoluble, jt^^ V) J». ball-na- 

Indistinct, <^U \i ni-s&f . 

Individual, /^ nafar, tj^ kas, 
^./aab^ sbakbs. — {adj.) J^\ ahad. 

Individuality, {^r^ ta'ajynn. 

Individually, «AA yak - yak, 
"^jyLL^ munfaridan. 

Indivisible, ^>V% ) la-yatajazA, 
^■^ A i^ ;«^ gbair-i-munkasim. 

Indolence, ,ja-— susti, JaV^ kA- 

Indolent, ut • sust, Ji^^ kabil, 

J<J^ tanbal. — {to he indolent) 
^ j^ ^J^ tambalf kardan, ^^'^^ 
(^^^ sustf kardan, (:)*^j); i&JVe^ 
kanAlat varzidan. 

Indomitable, v»yiA*« ^^ji gbair-i- 

Indubitable, A^^Asf bf-shabbab, 
f\f^ mutavAtir. 

To Induce, (jj*>/ %a^ffi tabrfk kar- 
dan, o^^ s-e*/ targbib nimu- 
dan, Q^iAakU ^ji bar an dasbtan, 
^j^ 5j\^ cbarab kardan. 

Inducement, s-e*/ targbib, **^>;^" 

Induction, iWjuu«\ istimbat, Jl&Ju«*^ 

To Indue, (^j\^ d&dan, (jjJ^e-fc^. 

Indulgence, efc'.» A w* marbamat, 
vs.'JA^ sbafakat, wpUd^ iltifat. 

Indulgent, jksMi sbafik, (;)W;«^ 
inibrban. — {to he indulgent) 
^j^\»> cHiUfi *inayat dasbtan, 
^j^ \s^%» mulatafat nimudan. 

Industbious, ,jSJ^^^ mibnati, ^jcL. 
sa'f, Jk*W jabid. 

Industby, ^s^J^^f* mibnat, ^,j«-» saM", 
^> y ^ jidd va jabd. 

Inebbiated, vide Intoxicated. 

Ineffable, o>^ bi-cbun. 

Inefficacious, y^ fji bf-samar, 
j^ fjt bf-ta,sir. 

Inbfficacy, ^<;-k^ ^J^ bf-samarf, ^ 
^J,JJ^ ta,sfri. 

Inelegance, <^Ui ^ bad-niind,f, 
^J^} ^ nA-ziba,f, ^yJb^j zisbtf. 

Inelegant, Ui ^ bad-nim4, <a^j 

Ineloquent, is ^ ii ^ bi-balagbat. 

Inept, J>^ V* n4-kabil, *sS:ij} V* nA- 
zaring, c^V^ ^ bf-liy&kat. 




iNEi^UALiTT, ^j^y^ ^ na-hamyarah, 

jy fark. 
Inert, vide Idle. 
Inestimable, W o^ bi-baha, yty^ 

Inevitably, a)W« "^ la-muhalah, 

j^ U j\^ chAr-na-chAr, *«U 5^ bila 

Inexorable, ^s^^ sabit, JJ^^1&^ 

Inexpedient, oij^y**^* bi-dushvari, 

v^^ ^ nA-mundsib, <jn U na- 

U,ik, W bf-jA. 
Inexperience, ^fr ^ 'adam-i- 

tajribah, <^^; f**xe 'adam-i-vukuf. 
Inexperienced, 8Aia> j\S kar-na- 

dfdah, f*W kham. 
Inexpert, j\^ *Jy*j^ ^ na-azmudah- 

kdr, UkS\^ \i na-vakif, 6jAj j^ ^Jt 

Inexplicable, (^^ J)Vs U nA-kabil- 

i-bajan, j^t^ h buA-ta'bfr, g«4-» 

<-A-oy^ mumtani'-'l-vasf. 
Inexpressible, ^Ji^^ n4-guftani, 

O^ o> bi-bayan, (^^ ^^ ^^ j^ 

az hadd-i-bajan birun. 
In extenso, ^U;^^ W bi-*t-tamam. 
Infallibility, J"^^ ^ bi-khata,i', 

J\^ h bilii-khata,!. 
Infallible, Ua«- ^Jt bi-khata, ,ji^^ 

inuhakkak, Ua«- h bila - khata, 

fX*^ musallam. 
Infamous, \y^j rusva, ^^ fazih, 

»W jD rd-Biyah, ^\ ^Jl bi-ab-rd. 
Infamy, vide Disgrace. 
Infancy, ^^^, bachagi, ^^^ y ^^ tu- 

Infant, ^. bachah, JaL tifl. 
Infanticide, ^j*^ Ji^ tifl-kashi. 
Infantile, ^J*^ tifl{, ^^*^^ kudaki. 
Infantry, jW/* sarbdz. 
To Infatuate, {^^j^ firfftan, s-^/ 

^j\*y firib dadan. 
Infatuated, ^^^j dfy&nah, ^^i^ 

shfftah, AjUit/ firiftah, eyv* 

Infatuation, •>Ufi *indd, ,j^jA>*» 

To Infect, (:)*>^ o^^^ sirayat ni- 

Infection, kA^\j-* sirayat, o^yke 

'ufdnat, (^^UV isAbat, J^ asar, 
^•^ ta,8ir. 

Infectious, er^^ sari, ^j^a^ mu'di, 
/*y« mu,a8sir. 

To Infer, e^^/ I»VfJuu.^ istimb&t 

[nference, vide Induction. 

Inferior, y^ kihtar, yu^ kamtar, 
jS^)S kdchiktar, jL^ asfal, \iS{ 
adnA, u:^^ past. 

Inferiority, ^J^*> ddnf, m;^ kih- 
tari, v5y^ kamtarf, i^f^f 
kuchiktari, <.r^ pastf. 

Infernal, ij*J^»> duzakhi. — {in- 
fernal regions) vide Hell. 

Infidel, /^ kdfir, t)4J^ bf-dfn, i^ 
gaur, <3i*^3 zaudik, is)y^ mush- 
rik. {Vide TJnbelieyer.) — (in" 
fidel subjects under Muhamma- 
dan government) ^3 zimmf. 

Infidelity, vide Impiety. 

Infinite, \^\ ^J^ bf-intihi, o^W> ^ 
bf-nihdyat, ^U;^ V) nA - muta- 
ndbf, (^V|V^ <ji bf-pay4n, ^}\ji\ ^j 
bi-andaz^, ^^ h biUl kiyds, 
•*^ ,jj bi-hadd. 

Infinitely, vide Much, Very. 

Infinitive (of a verb), jA«^ mas- 

Infinity, eD^«-^ bisyari', jjSjV^ o» 

Infirm, vide Weak. 

Infirmary, a^U. Uii shifA-khanak. 

Infirmity, vide Weakness, Sick- 

To Inflame, ^«>U s^v; t&b dddan. 

Inflamed, (*/ garm, t;/** surkh. 

Inflammable, ^Ws t&b - nak, 
^\i}y^ sdz-n4k. 

Inflammation, i>j^ sdzish, *^^^ 
har&rat. — (medical) ^\^\ ilti- 

To Inflate, e«>/ ^ nafkh kardan. 

Inflation, ^ nafkh. 

To Inflect, (^^/ U^^ tasrff kar- 

Inflected (noun)^ Jy**^ maf*ul, 
J^«*^ ma'mul. — (case) «-iW 
o V Jj.»<^ bdlat-i-ma*mdlfyat. 

Inflexible, «a.^4^ sakht. 

Inflexion (of a noun or v«r6). 




o»*« sarf , uy^ tasrif, Jj^ tab- 

Influbi7CB| im2e Interest, Effect, 

To Influence, o**//^ asar kardan, 
0*>^ j^^Ss ta,8ir kardan, <^;es' 
(;)«>^ tahrfs nimudan, vs^joi 
(^\*> kudrat dashtan, (^*y/ *^f^ 
tahrfk kardan, o^^ s-*^/ tar- 
ghfb nimi'idan, (^«>/ 5^\^ charah 

Influenza, A)y nazlab, f»\^ zuk4m. 

Influx, J^*> dakhl, j^1[ jJ dar- 

To Inform, e**^»* ?^^ ittild* dadan, 
(2^jU ^ kbabar d4dan, gUa^ 
(^j^Uyr mutallf garddnfdan, 
^jjj^ fi(5^ dgab kardan, (^oU ^J^\S^ 
kgkhi dadan, (^^U^ nijusba- 
nfdan, tj«M^^ agdbiGiidan, 
^VU^ '^i;** ma'rtif gard&ni- 
dan, e^'^V^ J*"^ muntakil 
gardanidan, ^j^C^fliafe** mukbbar 

Informal, ^j ;«^ gbair-i-rasm. 

Information, f W ittila*, ^ kba- 

Informer (spy), y-^-W jasiis, *J^^ 

To Infringe, {^^/ ^--i faskb kar- 

Infringement, ^^ faskb. 

To Infuse, vide To Mix, To Boil. 
— (to he infused) (^J^*-^ ^«> dam 

Infusion (tincture), »»^*Uyj. jusbin- 
dab, 5a>L.>«is> kbfsandab, fiJ^U^ 

Ingenious, ^j^«i zaki, j»iW bazfk, 
(^3 zabfn, U^ zarif, JSW 
'akil, *s^\^ cbAbuK. 

Ingenuous, j^U s^dik, ub^^j rdst, 
j\^ju.\j r^st-bdz, ^y^ ^J bi-gba- 

Ingot (of aold or silver), (j**«a 
sbums, ^^ w-^ sabikab, ^^^i^ sabu- 

Ingratitude, J\h^ ^jt bi-vafa,{, V> 
^j-V^ n&-sip48{, ,j-^ v3^ Vi n&' 

Ingredient, ^jjjy*. juzvi, y^ juz, . 

Ingress, J«^3^ madkbal, 6iA\j^ 

To Inhabit, ^^^j^ ^^^^ sakin budan, 
^j^*y tj>i^ sukdnat d^sbtan, 
^j^L- ^^y vatan sdkbtan, Jy*5^ 
^^;5' sukn^ giriftan, {^jS j^f 
karar giriftan, {^/ Jj^ manzil 
giriftan, (;)*>y Jy«— • mustanzil 

Inhabitable, vic^e Habitable. 

Inhabitant, {^i^ sakin (j^Z. &j^ 
sakanab, and (^\^ sukkan), fiJaA»V| 
basbandab (pi. (^Vfjujakl^ bAsban- 
dagAn), {^1^ makiu, (j^ < 4 J ^ mu- 
tamakkin, ^.^d^^ makfm, e^^y^ 
mutavattin, e>^U katin, J-a\ 

Inhabited, ^^^«>^ maskun, )^*a« 
ma*indr, ^W^ Ab4d, (^\^\i\ dbadiin. 

To Inhale, ^^j ^*y dam zadan. 

Inharmonious, *iSjJb\ \i na-4bang. 

Inherent, ^\ aslf, JL^ jiballi, 
^j?U z4t{, ,j»«t tabf*f. 

To Inherit, (^^iZ^Vi %&Ayt^ inirtis 

Inheritance, ^^ miras, ^j\ 
irs, ct^j; virAsat, ^j^ varsab, iif 
tarikab, uw^ 'usubat, sj>^y\ 

Inheritor, «a»;^^ vdris. 

To Inhibit, q)^/ ^J^t gbadgban 
kardan, o'^r^ ^^«m^ tambfb nimd- 
dan, (jj^/ <j6J naby kardan, 
(jj jj^ &fti\ju« mud^fa*ab kardan. 

Inhibition, &i»jS tambfb, (^a6 
gbadgban, qj^ mana', ^^ nabj. 

Inhospitable, u>^>«> (;)W« ^ nd- 
mibmdn-ddst, f^ la,fm. 

Inhospitableness, v^;^ eW* ^ 
n^-mibmdn-ddsti, f^'y lu,m. 

Inhuman, vide Cruel. 

Inimical, «-AJW* mukbdlff . 

Inimitable, Jt« ^ bi-misl, ^jt 
jjii bf-naz/r. 

Iniquitous, ^ bad,^/i sbarfr. 

Iniquity, vide Sin. 

Initial, <^^as»^ ibtidii. 

To Initiate, ^^^ <^*>W* J^W 
d4kbil-i-mab&di nimddan, J^j 
;j)JU dakbl dddan. — ( Fiie To 
Begin.) — (a person) wwUj^ ^j 




(^*>W ^»o^ dar mukaddamit ta^ 

lim dAdaiL 
Initiation, J**^ dakhl, a1*.\x» mu- 

dAkhalah. — {Vide Beginning.) 

— (a person) «t>UAa*jj ^•^ ta*- 

lim dar mukaddamat. 
Injection, a^a^ tankijah, vide 

Injudicious, %a>jii^ ^ bi-basirat, 

^Jut» bf-tadbir, Jae ^ bi-'akl. 
Injudiciously, &^Va*a»^ ahmakanah. 
Injunction, mde Inhibition. 
To Injubb, tj*>j|)^ Azurdan, M 

^AtJL.^ kzkr rasanfdan, (^^f (^Qj 

zijan kardan, (^^^ j/» zarar 

rasanfdan, (^«>^ i«am sitiiin nimd- 

dan, (:)A«»A. khastan. 

Injubious, w (:jV4j zijan-var, j^ 
muzirr, ^e6\ jjj-k zarar-angfz. 

Injury (hurt)y jj^ zarar, ^^j^) zijiin, 
j\)} azar, s-^«j-^ aaih, J^^ tatavul. 
(Vide Loss.) — {contumely) *a^^ 
inuzaininat, {^ ta*n, **^!U ma- 
in mat, y^) zajr. 

Injustice, ^^J^e? bi-dad, *-*<»- liaif, 
i^Ji^ mazlimah, ,j*^^ ^ bi- 

Ink, w^y murakkab, «>^j^ midad. 
— {red ink) ^y^^^ shanjarf, ^y^ 
suranj. — {Indian-ink) y {j^ s-^ 
marakkab-i-chin. — {ink - bottle) 
^\^»> davAt. — {inkstandy case for 
holding pens and inky t&c), (j^*uli 
kalam-d4n, &^^ Amah. 

Inkling, y-Ji^ bads. 

Inlaid {with jewels) y ^y murassa*, 
jy«^ yfcW jaYahir-4mud. — {with 
gold) o^/ ^ tiU-kAft, v*^ U 
tilA-kub, (^^ jj zar-nishan. — 
(t/n7A mosaic work) ^J^^ khd- 
timi, ^^jul^4JU. khatim-bandi. — 
(«n7^ coloured tiles) ^ ijf)^^\^ 

Inlet, Mj rah. 

In lieu of, ^/^c *ivaz. 

Inmate, Ja^ abl. 

Inn {lodging for strangers) wWUe** 
mihmaD-kb^nah. — {Vide Oara- 


Innate, ^J^ tabf'i', s^^ fatr/, 
^U zAti. 

Innermost, ^Jp*> dariini, ^J^'^^ 

andaruni, vj^s batini'. 
Innkeeper, ^j^W) ribati. 
Innocence, ^^ o* bi-guniihf, 

^_^jL- siidagi', ^j^ paki'. 
Innocent, 6^^^ bi-gunah, ^'j\ ,^^ 

barfu-'z-zimmah, f*y**^ ma'sdm, 

J3i;t^mubarra,j^|y^muzakka, ^^j^^ 

bf-jurm. — {pure) *^\ pak, *^U. 

sadah, y^Vk tahir, Jg!^ muzakka. 
Innovation, c^^aj bia'at. 
Innovatob, gJ^J^ mutdbaddi*. 
Innoxious, y^ ^jt hi- muzirr, ^ 

JjJ*^* ni-mu,za. 
Innumebable, ^Ujtn ^ bi-shimar, 

*^L-«. ^ bi'-bisab, ^^ ^ bf-hadd, 

Jk«4 3 la-yu'add, Jj-«se: ^ la-juhsa. 
To Inoculate, i^f ^\ Abilah 

Inoculation, ik\ ;;j*>«^ j^ bar-Avar- 

dan-i-abilab, ^^ ^1 abilah-kiibf. 
Inodobous, ^ ^ bi-bu, ^•^♦a ^ bf. 

Inoffensive, jA^ \a na-muziiT, Vi 

i^^y na-mu,zn. 
Inoperative, y^^^ ^ bi-ta.,8fr, 

J*^ ^Jt bi-*amal. 
Inoppobtune, J^»*«) bf-maball, 

*^^^ o* ^J-vakt, C^y*^ bi-niauki*. 
Inquest, {Jt^ taftfsb, ^/^^^ ta- 

Inquietude, *-r*^^\ iztirab, ^J^ 

tangi, vJM zik, rfj ranj. 
To Inquibx, vide To Ask. 
Inquibeb, (.y^Sb^ mutal^shf, ^^ /W ^ ? >* 

Inquiby, u^^^i pursish, cr*j)i paz- 

vahish, jV,.*» to >.\ istifsar, (•Ve'^A-.^ 

istifham, jWa fe a-^ istikhbar, Jk^s^^ 

tabkfk, yyr tajviz, ^^ tankih, 

v/Wff tafahhus, UAs«.\ istiksa, 

*£j\jja-\ istidrAk. 
Inquisitive, vide Curious. 
Inquisitor, < jn^ft? * mutafahhis, 

^ ^.fee. Ttf taftish-chi. 
Inroad, vide Invasion. 
Insalubrious, vide Unhealthy. 
Insalubrity, «>&JV|^ vabalat. 
Insane, vide Mad. 
Insatiable, g^^ t^miS v>%;»> harfs. 
To Inscribe, (^^y^ f^y markum 




nirnddan, (^j^ ia*<.> sabt nimu- 

dan, {^^ nivishtan. 
Inscription, vs^U^ kitabat, AA6»y 

nivishtah, i-^ katfbah. 
Insect, v&>;'A*. hashrat (pL v£>V 

hashrat), ^U hamah (pi, 'f\J^ 

havdm), csJjylii. jdnvarak, jyw 

Insecubb, i^yw* U na-mahf uz. 
Insecurity, jU. khatar, »jtU-» mu- 

Insensibility, ^yi^ee* bi-hdsbi. 
Insensible, ij^*^ h bilA-hiss, v>^ 

bi-busb. — (duU) ^ kund, J^ j/ 

kdr-dil, e^/ kaudan, fi^ khi- 

Insensibly, &s*j &£ij rafiab raftab, 

^jA5} bi-tadrij. 
Inseparable, J^ muttasil. 
To Insert, ^j/ J*-U dakbil kar- 

dan, (jj j/ ©;*> darj kardan. 
Insertion, g;*> darj, bjA^ mun- 

darij , Jrf-U d4kbil. 
Inside, (jj^^j darun, o^p-^^ andardn, 

^jf tdi, Jrf-W dakbil, ^^ batn. — 

(inside out) ^j)\^ vardnab. 
Insidious, i>*Ji^ J^j bad-andisb, 

jVj Uj dagba-b4z. 
Insidiousness, (^*^^ J^ bad- 

andfsbf, ^jW ^^ dagb4-bazi. 
Insignia, J^Ua. bainail. 
Insignificance, yt- bakr, ^^jS^ 

Insignificant, J^ vil, /^^ mu- 

bakkar, ws^^ past. 
Insincere, ^^ b{-vafa, (3*U« mu- 

Insincerity, ^^^^ bi - vafA,f, 

c>AiVjL« mundfakat. 
To Insinuate, (^*y/ fi^U^ isbdrab 

Insinuation, »;U\ isbdrab, AjUi' 

kinAjab, f*W^ (bam. 
Insipid, ft)4«» bi-mazab. 
Insipidity, Jy*^ bf-mazagi. 
To Insist, (^'^y^ j^j^^ isrdr nimu- 

dan, y^ ^-*« musirr budan, ^ 

^jyiJ pa fisburdan (wig,), 
Insistancb, j^/*^ isrAr. 
Insolent, vide Impudent. 
Insoluble, J»- S l&*ball. 

Insolvent, vide Bankrupt. 

To Inspect, (^^/ a& nigab kardan, 
(jjj^ 5*xaUm« musb^badab kardan, 
Q)^/^j^) zijarat kardan, (^^^ yc^ 
sair kardan, (^*^f iitcJ^m mula- 
bazab kardan, ^«>^ ja (^\mA 
im'iin-i-nazar kardan, (j)J^ J©-* 
sail kardan (vulg,). 

Inspection, a£b.JU mulabazab, ^ 
nazar, ytr* sair, ^)e-- sail (vulg,). 

Inspector, ^^ nAzir, ^C^lw ni- 
gabban, ;^^ sar-kAr, jU-.^ paras- 

Inspiration (revelation by an 
an^el), ^^y vabi. — (supernatural 
influence arising in the heart) 
fXt^\ ilbam. 

To Inspire, o^^r** f^^ ilbdm nimti. 

Inspired, f^^ mulbam. 

To Inspirit, (^*y/ \J^f^ tabris kar- 

Instability, c5j^J«^ ^ n£-pAyad6rf, 
«-5;V o* bi-karArf. 

Instable, ;\*>*^ Vj nA-p6yadAr, ^^ 
^f bi-karar. 

To Install, {^^f h-*-* nasb kardan. 

Installation, s-^ nasb. 

Instalment, ^b«j» kist, Sj^ parab. 

Instance (example), J^ misal, 
J^^u; timsAl, .JtUS tamsil, 6i^ 
nimunab. — (for instance) 'i^ 
inasalan, 'Uy farzan, (>^ ji bar 
farz. — (in the first instance) ;*> 
J*- <^*>W^ dar mabadi-i-bal. 

Instant (0/ time), &W labzab, 
&^ lambab, ^^ ^n, f»o dam. 

Instantaneous, ^^ yak dam. 

Instantly, ride Immediately. 

Instead, j>*ft *ivaz, J^ badal, 
C5W: bi-j4i, 8)?W: bi-ja,izab, ^\}\i 
bi,izd, , ^y^ bi-manzilab. 

To Instigate, (^*y/ ^f^ tabrfk 
kardan, o^^ o^f^ tabriz nimd- 

Instigation, v^f^ tabrik, s-^/ 
targbib, \y^\ igbvi, cA/«^ tabrfz. 

Instigator, «^^^^ mubarrik. 

To Instill, (j)^W nibadan, o**r** 

Instinct, o^^^t^ J*ft *akl-i-baivinf, 





gfL Jfr* mail-i-tabS ^a^yk firA- 

Instinctive, ^J\^ zati. 
Instinctively, sA^\jk j^ bi-taur- 

To Institute, {jJAUf gumAshtan, 

(^*yy^ t^f^^ ikhtira* nimddan. 
Institution, ^\jSa\ ikhtir4*. 
Institutions (regtdationSf pre- 
cepts), (^"^ Ayfn, (^yVi Hnuu 

(pL e)**V kavanin), j^»* das- 

tur, lAtM kA*idah (pi Acy ka- 

vd'id), »a>Vi^;^y tuzukat. 
Institutob, j^^ mujid, tr-V* 

To Instruct, (^*^j^ f^J^ ta'lfm kar- 

dan, t)*^l** s-st»>*^ ta,dib nimti- 

dan, (^ow «>\| jkd dadan, ^s^tiy 

^*>^ tarbiyat nimudan. 
Instbuction, 4«^dy tarbiyat, f^J^ 

ta'lfm, sHt^'Vy ta,dfl>, *>U^ if ad, 

8»>U^ ifddah. — (to give instruc- 

Hani) (^*y\*y J^^ jf^^^ dastiiru-'l- 

'amal dddan. 
Instructive, j^T ij^\*y d^nish- 

4mdz,3^Ji\ ut>^ 4brat-andd2. 
Instbuctob, ^*U« mu'allim. 
Instrument (tool), uk^T ^l&t, J^yi^ 

abzdr, sit>\*y\ adat (j)^ sa>\^^\ ada- 

v6t). — (wMmcaZ))^- sAz. — (agent) 

vide Cause, Means. 
Instrumental, *a^\ dlat. 
Insubordination, i£>^W ba^Mvat, 

^j4J tamarrud. 
Insufferable, J.»^?nsi bi-taham- 

mul, J-^ff^l la-tahammul. 
lNsuFFiciENCY,j^ku8ur„^5*^ kamf. 
Insufficient, ^Vi kasir, ^ kam. 
Insular, v/V)^ jazirA,i. 
To Insulate (telegraphic term), 

^ j^ {;jU. khdrij kardan. 
Insulator, ejA^' gargarf. 
Insult, yjil\ «<lsft luitk-i-db-rd, ^ 

shatm, <j^«A«- khiffat, ^ J^ ^ ^ 

sar-shikastagf, ^J^^f^^ sji bi- 

To Insult, (j)»>j}1 Azurdan, tJ**^ f»**» 

shatm nimudan, (^^U ^Ufti^ 

dusbndm dMan. 
Insultino, ^yAi sbukh, ^^ ^ bi- 


Insupportable, J«w^ bf-taham- 
mul, J*^ ) lA-tahammul. 

Insurance (on a nhip, goods, dtc), 
&«>«} bimah. 

To Insure, (^«>/ ^^-^^t bimah kar- 

Insured, a.*^ bimah. — (uniiisured) 
&4^;«^ ghair-i-bfmah. 

Insurrection, q^^'^ 'isydn, &«* 
fitnah, \J^j>^ shurisb. 

Intact, f^^ salfm. — (to he intact) 
^jjU \i9. ^ bar jk mAndan 

Integer, ^^t^^ ^*^ *adad-i-sahfh. 

Integral, ^j*^^ vafi. — (integral 
portion) y^ jiiz. — (integral and 
differential calculus) ^ ^U? s^U^ 
ijy^ hisAb-i-tamamf va tafa- 

Integrity, o*^j** durustf, ^j*-\) 
rasti, %aJ\xo sadakat, c2U salAh. 
— (entirety) ia^t^W tamdmfyat, 
JU^ kam&l. 

Intellect, Jte *akl, v>y^ hdsh, 
^j^ khirad, (^*^ zihn. 

Intellectual, Jy^ *akul, ^J^A^ 
'aklan/, Jyj*^ ma*kul. 

Intellectually, "T^ 'aklan. 

Intelligence, virfe News, Abi- 


Intelligent, JiU *akil, *^\j*y dar- 
r&k, jW*»yfc biish-yar, Ax«Ayfc hdsb- 
mand, i;^) zfrak, •u-.j-s. kbirad- 
mand, Uj;^ *arif, ^U dann, (^^•> iV^ 
k^r-dan, (:>eA»i zahm, ^*> zakf, 
f^y^ tiz-fahm, ^j*^^ alma'i. 

Intelligibility, c^^ ittizah. 

Intelligible, Jys*^ ma'kul, *43jJ^ 

Intemperance, 4^^— • mastf, ^^i 
kS^)^ bi-parh{zi. 

Intemperate, ^©A;* ^ bf-parbiz, 
J^ju»\ ^ ghair-i-i* tidal. 

To Intend, {^\^ u^ bina dishtan, 
^^\A lA^ irddah d^shtan, {^s^f^ 
khwAstan, ^*>/ j^ kasd kardan. 

Intense, c:^4b«« sakht, J^*^ shadfd. 

Intensely, ui>JUt.| bi-shiddat. 

Intensity, «yJA shiddat, ^^y^ 

Intention, »*>y iradah, J^^ murdd, 
1*^ *azm, *JB.^<*9 « 'azimat, 




kasd, •>y«&« maksdd, f>^ kAm, 
va^ nfyat, {J>jt gharaz, «>-^^ 
khw&st, uHt^ tavijat, j^^ mar- 
kuz, «s5C^^ dhang, j^ sar, ;|j|;T 
&rzu, ^^^ maram, ^->*Jb himmat, 
s-J^ talab, s-J^ matlab, W bind, 
&ecU dA4yah. 

Intentional, j^W bi-'l-kasd, &•)«•> 
^^^:^^«> y didah va ddnistah. 

Intentionally, "^aqJ kasdan, "Ij^a 
'amdan, sa^\j y 5j^j didah va 

ToIntek, (2^«>^(2^j dafn kardan. 

Intebcalaby, &-«^ kabisah. 

To Intercede, <^^y^ uz^Ue^ shi- 
fa'at niinudan, e^^ gA^ tashaf- 
fu* nimudan. 

To Intercept, {^»^ giriftan. 

Interception, o~;^ giriftagi. 

Intsbcbssion, c:^V&a; shifa'at, 
ct^L.^ vasatat, c^JijtW^ muba- 

Intbboebsob, geAAi shaff*. (Ftie 

Intebcoubse (communication, <m- 
eociaiing), jW ^ ^\^ k4r va bar, J^^ 
<^>J»j ^ amad va raft, ^h^\ ikhti- 
lat, ^Ude 'aldkah, (£>^U^ mu- 
'dsharat, ia>o^\^ murAvadat, 
va>l-—U* munasabat. — (carnal) 
tA^*^\A» muzaja*at. 

Interdict, vide Inhibition. 

Intebest, vide Advantage. — 
(participation^ husinesa) ij%i bah- 
rah, *iXc *alakah, J^ k4r, ii^\x 
r&bitah. — (concern, emotion) 
<j^la-J»> dil-bastagi, V«ft\ i*tin4. — 
(on m^oney) *^y» sud, W) riba, ^j 
ribh, 4«e«.\^ murdbahah. — (influ- 
ence) 6i^y vasilah, ^^^ kudrat, 
fijW charah. — {regard to one's 
own wish or advantage) ^^ gha- 


J dil-chasb. 

JmA^ makbdl. 

To Intsbfebe with (hinder), iStfS 
{^sdJ<^\ ta*vik andakhtan, (>j«^ 
^«>y mu'driz biidan, ^ja ^^y* 
muz&him shudan. — (intermeddle) 
ia*yy4i iiA\j^ mudakhalah nimu- 
daiiy i^^^jMS (^^j*y ^ p4 dar mij&u 

guz4rdan, (^\*y J«^ dakhl 

Intsbfebence, i\dAx» mudakha- 

Intebim, ^ asna, <a^^ J^^ asna,!- 
i-vakt, {^ j*i dar bain, (^^ j»y 
dar mijan. 

Intebiob, ^V;W tahtinf, ^W* 

ii^J^ii* o^»^ darunf. 
Intebjection, »A>y«» saut, 'I j^ nidd,. 
To Inteblace (trans,), ^•>^ ««X<jl»» 

mushabbak nimudaji. — (intrans, ) 

(^JA ii\i\Jj tashabuk shudan. 
Inteblaced, o tW * * *** mushabbak, 

«£X)Uj tash&buk. 
Intebleaved (^6e), ^Va j*> fcU 

shakh dar shdkh. — (book) j^ «i2^ 

«^ barg dar barg. 
Inteblocution, &43^ muk&lamah. 
Inteblocutob, f^^A* mutakallim. 
Inteblopeb, J^^*^ muddkhil. 
Intebmabbiage, w>i<o^ vaslat. 
To Intebmabby, (^*yf oJU^ vaslat 

To Intebmeddlb, (^*^/ 6U,\j^ mu- 

d&khalah kardan. 
Intebmediaby, L«^ mutavassit. 
Intebment, {^*y dafn. 
Intebminably, &i\^\ jt^ ^\ ila 

To Intebmingle, (^*>^iybb^ makh- 

Idt kardan, (j^;ab«^f amikhtan. 
Intermingled, Siy*^ mamztij, 

^ ^^bb^ makhldt bi-ham. 
Intebmission, cJU^ vakf , «-A5y ta- 

vakkuf, ub^y fardghat, JUa^ 

ihm41, ^>JG^ taKattuS 
Intebmitting (fever\ v** v^ 

tab-i-ghibb, iA^y •^ tab-i-nau- 

Intebnal, ij\)'^\ andardni, ^JU»U 

dakhilf, Ji^ bAtinf. 
Intebnally, ^U dakhilan, (^})^\ 

andardn, f td. 
Intsbnational, ^y*y duvalijah. — 

(internaiional ohligaiions) jyi^ 

J^ <j*r^ hukdk.i-*umdmi-i- 

To Intebpolate, ^^^^^ J*-^ 

d4khil sakhtan, (;)*^x^ tj*^ darj 





Iktebpolation, jV^\ ilh&k, ^Uy* 

To Interpose, (^^ ^W* j*> dar 
mijan amadan, e^y«>^ aUW mu- 
dakhalah nimudan, (jsjbi\*y Jd^ 
dakhl dAshtan. 

Intebposition, a)U.^j^ mudakha- 
lah, J^«> dakhl. 

To Intebpret, (^*yy4i i^^i^f tarju- 
mah uimddan, (^*>y^ c/> sharh 
nimddan. — (dreams) o^^ 7«*^ 
ta^bfr nimudan. 

Interpretation, A^^^y tarjumah, 
jt^ ta*bfr, e>W baj&n, c/» sharh, 
jt^ *abr. — (of dreams) s^^^ ^««» 
ta*bfr.i-khwdb, ^*jy ^^t**? ta*bir-i. 

Interpreter, f ^/^ ^ mutarjim, 
(^W/ tarjumdn, c^»> dilmdj. — 
(of dreams^ omens, dc) tAu^ j^tmS 
ta'bfr-kunandah, ^jV^ f41-chi, 
j^js^\ akhtar-gii. 

Interregnum, uuyj fatrat. 

To Interrogate, ^j>^ Lr-Ji P^r- 
sish nimddan, (^*yy^ jUjlu.1 istif- 
s4r nimtidan. 

Interrogation, J^*^ su,al, jUax-^ 
istifsar, cArH pursish, ^Va.«^ is- 
tifhdm. — (note of interrogation) 
f\^^s^\ io^'^ *alamat-i-istifhAm. 

Interrogative and Interroga- 
tively,^ l»Le-AA^Lj bi-istifhdm, 
j\ » j A m\i bi-istifsdr. 

To Interrupt, o^^ (^ kat* ni- 

Interruption, JU khaJal, f>^*^}\ 
izdihdm, tf *» ft \y muz^hamat, 
gti kat*, jU? takattu*. — (in 
speech) {^^ek^ ^ kat'-i-sukhun. 

To Intersect, e«>^ ^ kat' nimu- 

Intersection, gLUff takdtu^ 

To Intersperse, (^^U ^^ mu- 
vashshah sdkhtan. 

Interstice, vide Cranny. 

Interval, V^\ asna, ^^ bain, AiW» 
miy^nah, aUU fasilah. — (at inter- 
vals) *^ ^ tak tak. 

To Intervene, (j>*>*4i J*-«> dakhl 
nimddan, (^*y/ iL\j^ mud^kh- 
lah kardan. 

Intervening, ^Vi f&silah. 
Intervention, ia^L*. vasdtat, ^y 

tavasBut, J^«> dakhl, ^\j^ mu- 

Interview, «wVs)U mulakit, ^aJLo^y* 

muvasalat, jW bar. 
To Interweave, e^y*^ ^^bb^ ^ 

bi-ham makhliit nimudan. 
Interwoven, ^ t^bb^ makhlut 

Intestate, «»^«^^ bf-vasijat. 
Intestine, ^j>;y^ darunf, ^Jt^\i ba- 

tinf, o^j))*^^ andaruni. 
Intestines, vide Bowels. 
Intimacy, ^%fd\ ikhtildt, diSW* 

mukhAlatah, ia^^\y» muvinasat, 

^J^^i^'\ a6hn4,f . 
Intimate, «Jkti3\ aJff, f^;^^ muhrim. 

— (to become intimate) «-A3*Vy 

(^•>^ ta,alluf nimddan, va^\ 

^jy«i ulfat nimddan. 
To Intimate, ^^/ Aj^^ ishdrah 

Intimation, £^ shujd', ftjU^ ishi- 

To Intimidate, (^^/ Uktj^ takhvff 

kardan, ^j^JUy tarsAnidan. 
Intimidation, «-Ai^ takhvff. 
Into,j*> dar, jA»\ andar, (^^ »•> dar 

miyan, (^j^j^J dardn, f tu, ^^y 

Intolerable, J4.^j^ !) 14-jataham- 

Intolerably, '^Iuw^ S 14-jataham- 

To Intomb, Q)*i>/ ^^o dafn kardan. 
To Intoxicate, ^o/ ia.^» » i^ mast 

kardan, ^o^ jr*'^^ makhmdr 

Intoxicated, <a.%^>.^ mast, u^^i'^ ^ 

sar-mast, j^*^^* makhmdr, (j^j^ 

sar-girdn. — (slightly intoxicated) 

V^ gich, v>^ />• sar-khwush. 
Intoxicating (Zt^rttor, drug, <fec.), 

^^--* muskir. 
Intoxication, ^^j*--* masti, "^-fci 

nasha, , ^ sukr, t^;^'*'^^ makh- 

Intbactable, ij^ J-* sar-kash, U 

jUji ^Uy n^.firmftn-barddr. 
Intransitive, ^jS 14zim. 




Intsaksmutable, JtJ^\ e>^«^ S 

To Intbbat, (jjJ«3^ niyAzidan, *^\ 
(;)^#4i ilj4, nimudan, (^j^^U4^ 
iltimdB kardan, (^*y/ t^^ ilh^h 
kardan, (^«>^ £xlw« mustadf' 
budan, o^^ Vcx:.^^ istid'i nimu- 

Intkeatt,'^^ ilja, ^UaS^ iltimas, 
t^\ ilMh, lexL^^ istid'a. 

To Intrench, (^*y/ ^jjuij A«li kal'ah- 
bandi kardan. 

Intbbnchm£nt^^4ju sangur. 

Intrepid, vide Bold, Esablebs. 

Intricate, vide Difficult, Ra- 

Int&ioue, ^jU g&zish, j^^ itti- 
fak, <^J^ ^ ham - 'ahdf. — 
(amour) <^jl?&Ax * Hshk-bdzi, (J-Aju 
ta'ashshuk, a&AiU^ mu'dsbakah. 

To iNTBiauB, (:^A^ (^*^ ^ ham- 
'ahdi bastan. — (have an amour) 
(^*yy*i ^jVfiUie 'ishk-bdzf nimAdan. 

Intkiques, jW ^«> daghA-b&z. 

Intrinsic, ^U zatf, ^J^^ aslf. 

To Introduce, (^^jy\ j^ dar-4var- 
dan. — (a person) (^*^^ vjb*^ 
mu'arraf { kardan. 

Introducer, uy^ ma'arrif . 

Introduction, «JL«.^ vasflat. — 
^y »** mu'arraf f . — (aj?peara»ce) 
j^ zuhtir. — (jpra/iice) ^^*> df- 
bachah, &^ja» mukaddamah. 

Introductory, &^j^ mukadda- 

To Intrude, o^y^ v3*"^*^ muda- 
khil nimiidan« 

Intruder, J*-^j^ mudAkhil. 

Intrusion, ^\j^ muddkhalah, 
J^^ dakhl. 

To Intrust, (^'^r^ sipurdan, ^\f^ 
(:)*>j^ havdlah Kardan, (^^y^ ^ ■"■» 
tasHm nimddan, (^*^x^ U^j^ ^^- 
viz nimudan. 

Intuition, J^ khay^l. 

Intuitive, J^ khajAli. 

To Intwinb (trans,) (jj»mV^ pf- 
chdnfdan. — (inirans,) O'^'tt^ 

To Inundate, o^y^ v*^ sailib 

Inundation, v*«6-« sailab, i}t^ sail. 

To Invade, o*^^ ^^v^ hujdm ni- 
mddan, (^^jTaUa. hamlah kar- 
dan, (;)J5«*"^ takhtan, (^*y/ \J»j^ 
jdrish kardan. 

Invader, j^ aU*. hamlah-ivar, t^j\s 
/ taraj-gar. 

Invalid, ^^ U na-khwush. — 
(military term) »Jk>Umandah,^Vc 

To Invalidate, (^^j/ JtVj batil kar- 

Invalidity, (^ butMn. 

Invaluable, ^ ^j bf-bohA, yve 
*aziz,jJi JVc 'dli-kudr. 

Invariability, f\)*^ dav&m. 

Invariable, ^^ da,im. 

Invariably, vide Always. 

Invasion, ^^v^ hujum, ^U^ ham- 
lah, \A^\S takht, J^j^ jiirish. 

Invectivb, (^ la'n, i^unX la*nat. 

To Inveioh against, O'V^ <43b*^^3 
zabdn - dirazf nimddan, ^s.^%» 
(^*y/ malamat kardan, (^'>} iJ^ 
ta'nah zadan, (^o^ iA^\^ shikd- 
jat kardan. 

To Inveigle, e)^y^ ^^^ i^^ nimd- 
dan, ^*M^ j^ var-ghalanfdan, 
(^;A firfftan. 

Inveioler, SA^et/ firfbandah. 

To Invent, (^^ &f^^ ikhtirA' ni- 
mddan, (;)*y *>WJ ij&d kardan. 

Invention, S\eri fj4d, f}f^^ ikh- 
tir4*, «^ju<» san*at, fW^ ibd4', 
^^ tadbfr. 

Inventive, ^^W:^ ijddf, vy^V*"^ 

Inventor, j^^ mdjid, ^f^ei^ 
mukhtariS f^t^ mubdi^ 

Inventory, «^^ fihrist. — (to 
draw up an inventory) y^*^ uu^ 
(^*y/ sabt-i-daftar kardan. 

Inverse, U^Vafe^ mukh&lif, s-^Ull* 

Inversion, ^j^Sa 'aks, s^lM^^ inki- 
lab, s-^Ull* munkalab. 

To Invert, Q)*i>/ v»y^ makldb 
kardan, ^^^^ (^j)\^ vardn kar- 

Inverted, (^J^^y vdzhgdn, ^^ 
makldbi ^|)1^ vardn, iiy)\) vwi- 




nah, o^ 7- sar-nigdn, j\^fi 
nigun-sdr, ^ j ^Sm x ^ 
A^iS bar-gashtah. 



To Invest, vide To Besiboe. — 

(with honours, Ac) t)**^ **^^*'^ 

mutakallid kardan. 
To Intestioate, (^^^ ^j^^fi tafah- 

huB nimudan, ^•>y*^ K^t^ tahkfk 

Intestioation, fj^^is tafahkus, 

OMW tahkik. 
Investment, s^W* muhdsarah, 

j-ft. hisr. — {with honoure, ScJ) 

j^Aa? taklid. 
Inveteracy, ^J^ kuhnagi, 

Invstebatb, ^^ kuhnah, 

Invidious, ju.U. hasid. 
To Invioosatb, (:)^^»> «:>^i kuvat 

d&dan, (^*y/ *a^/s takviyat kar- 
Invioosation, u:>y kuvat, uHtyBT 

Invincible, s^^i^ jtA ghair-i- 

Inviolable, J^jj ^J bf-zaval, ^Ji 

jys^ bf-futir. 
Inviolate, j^ <jt bi-kusdr, ^J 

tf. - * -^ bf-snikast. 
Invisibility, \A' ^ ghaibat, s-^ 

Invisible, *\t*H ^ nA-padfd, s^^ 

gh&,ib, \'i^ U n&-paid4, Jj^ \i 

Invitation, u:>^«> da'vat, %o sila. 
To Invite, (j)*y u:>^^ da*vat kar- 
dan, (^'>j^ ^W* mihmdn kardan. 
Invites, ^U da,/, c?W>d^ mfzbAn. 
Invocation, Uo du*4, Uixu.^ istid'A. 
Invoice, u^^^ fihrist. 
To Invoke, (^«>;^ Uj du'a kardan, 

^.x»^^ khwandan. 
Involxxntabt,jW!«*-^ ^J^ bi-ikhtiyAr, 

»*^V o> bi-irddab, A&-JU U nA- 

To Involve, t>**^ J^ai^ mushta- 

mil budan, ^J^ vitr^^^ muhtavf 

Involved (complicated), mH j^ kH 

pfch dar pich, ^V^ pf ch-a-pfch. 

Invulnebabilitt, iA'* 6 ** ) ^m0» ma'sd- 

Invulnebable, fV*^ ma'sum. 
Inwabd, J;y*> daruni, ^^\i bdtin, 

y tu, ^y tuf, v>W ddkhil. 
Ibascibility, vfi^^ ghazubat, 

iaai^ tasakhkhat, K^ taghayyuz. 
Ibascible, ss.*»6t^ JuJ tund-tabi'at, 

^y^ ghazub. 
Ibe, s-^ ghazab, {^ kfn, 

khishm, <£>•)»»> hiddat. 
Ibis (flower), ^}J)^ {^y^ susan-i- 

azrak, JMS zambak. 
Ibksome, J^-Am* mushkil, v:. ^ .m 

Ibon, {^"S ahan, J^J^. hadfd. — ( for 

ironing clothes) ^\ uttti (hind.), — 

(sheet iron) ^jy (^'\ 4han-i-vara- 

kah. — (for prisoners) y\^. bakh4v. 

— (made of iron) ^y*^ Ahani, 

{^^\ Ahanfn. 
To Ibon, (^'^^t^ f\ uttii kashfdan. 
Ibonclad (ship), v>H b) zarah- 

pdsh, )^'^)) za^-dar, v>^ cH^^ 

Ibon-foundby, ^^j {^\ dhan-rizi. 
Ibonical, H^ tajv, ^S y^ hajv- 

amiz. — (to speak ironically) 6Jk^ 

0^3 gushah zadan. 
Ibonmonoeb, \J^y^ {^\ 4han-fu- 

Ibony, y^ hajv, \y^^\ istihzA. 
Ibbational, ^Lj ;-«-^ ghalr-i- 


Ibbationality, ij^ ji^ ghair-i- 

Ibbeclaimable, jyuM*^ ghair-i- 

Ibbeconcileablb, c^^ S la-yata- 
sdlah, j2<^ V» ^ sulh-na-pazir. 

Ibbecovebable, ^1«k "i la-yaslahy 
jt^ U i^\ islah-na-pazir. — (in€- 
dical) g5Ujt 5 U-yu'41aj, ji^, Vj e))» 

Ibbeoulab, ftJ^VS ^ bf-kd'idah, <^ 
Wy bi-tartib, ^W» *-*l^^ khilaf- 
i-kiyas, ,j-y*^ ^ nii-ma,nd8, — 
(ver6, phrase, &e., in gramtnar\ 
4j-cU— . sama,i. — (troops) je^ 
^VIk» ghair-i-nizami. 

Ibbegulabity, ^VIk» |i»«xe 'adam-i* 




nizim, ,j«5/ ^ bf-tartfbf, o*^;e 
parfshani. — (in a wally side of a 
honse, &c.) ^^ kanas, jsW^^ 

• / • 


Ibreliqion, ^*> ^^ bi-dini. 
Irrelioious, (^^ -^ bad-dm. 
Irremediable, o^j*^ o> bi-dar- 

Irremovable, J>^^ ^ la-yatiihav- 

val, ;4A> \i Jjy*" tahvil-na-pazir. 
Irreproachable, s-*U^ ^ ghair- 

Irresistible, ^^Vat ^ la-yukavam, 

^A> \i ^A^^\i^ mukdvamat-nA- 

Irresolute, J^ys^ mutaraddid, ^Jy« 

muraddad, J*)^»> du-dil, s^^X* 

Irrbsolittion, s^>^>3J tazabzub, ^^y 

Irreverence, ,j*^y^^ ^Jt bi-ihti- 

Irreverent, ft^j^ ^ bi-ihtirdm. 
Irreversible, ^^ !t la-jufsakh, 

^A» U JjjL^ tabdil-nA-pazir. 
Irrevocable, o^;** o* bi-darman. 
To Irrioate, ^*>W s^^ ab dadan. — 

{to he irrigated) t)»AAi s-*;;^^^ 

mashrdb shudan. 
Irrigation, <4;^^ ab-yari, t^^'S 

ab-pashi, ^J^'^'\ ab-dihi. 
Irritability, jjlt ^ kaj-khalk. 
Irritable, v>^^ ghaziib. 
To Irritate, (:)*^j)\ ^»-ft«^. bi-khishm 

^vardan, {;^^ v*^"-^ muztarib 

Irritation, ;^j^ Azar, vA^/- khirash, 

^^ ^ M ashuftagi. (Fide also 

Irruption, wVZe Invasion. 

IsH (a iermiruUion — e.g. reddish), 

A» JfU m4,il bi. 
Isinglass, ^J^\^ Lrix^ sirish-i- 

mahf, <^U f^ j <^ sirishum-i- 

Island, 6jyyt jazirah^ *^\*y\ adak. 
Islander, ^jky^^ J*^ 4hl-i-jazirah. 
Isolated, ^^^^ mujarrad, \^ 

tan ha, *\t/ farid, «si? ««V> tak- 

Isolation, *>/s tafarrud, *yfr tajar- 

Issue (children), ^^^\ aul^d, «4j»> 

zuriyah, J-i nasi. — (Firfe Sore, 

Wound, Boil, Abscess, Result) . 

— (number issued) »;Uai shimii- 

rah. — (copy) Aafc-i nuskhah. 
To Issue, (jj**Ai joU sadir shudan, 

^•i^ c5j^ jarf shudan, (^*^¥^ j^J^ 

suddr nimddan, (^^S ^^ Khardj 

kardan, (^jo^ j;W bariz bddan, ;» 

(;)iX^^ bar-4madan. 
Isthmus, a1^ tangah. 
It, ^ d, (^1 an. 
Itch, ^ gar, s^jq- jarab, v>jVd. khA- 

rish. — (having the itch) {^f^r^ 

To Itch, (^<h)^ khAridan. 
Item, ^*- chiz, *y fard, ^ shay. 
Itinerant, \J»y^ a>^ khAnah-bi- 

Itinerary, M^ r4h. 
Itself, o^ khwud. — (of itself) 

6^*^ bi-nafsah. 
Ivory, gVc *jij, J^ (jjUu dand4n-i- 

fil. — (of the walrus) jt^ (jj^JiJ 

;^^ dandan - i - shfr - mahi, ^ 

^U shir-mAhf. 
Ivy, v»Si*J lablab, JVs^^^i pApfUl, 

&&^^ 'ashakah, «ftW* pichak. 

To Jabber, (^*yy^ JVa^ y JVs kdl u 

makAl nimddan. 
Jabberer, vide Babbler. 
Jackall, JUai shighAl. 
Jackdaw, ^^j z%h. 
Jacket, ^^^ kurdf, ^•>;^ kurdak. 

— (riding ja^kft) ^>s^f^ kulfchah. 
— (long ' skirted ditto) i>^\ uf- 
mah, &4X? tikmah. — (0/ thick 
wool) ««U^ kapank, v/*^»» a^ 
namud - i - ddsh. — (of she^i^nn) 
i:^***^ pdstfn. — (woman*s) {j^^ 

Jad] 168 

chapkun, »;^» buhArah, ^*>/ 

kurdi. — (straii'jaehet) a ^> U » ba- 

Jadb (atone), ^^M yashm. — (horse) 

^jW bar-gir. 
Jaded, i^i^j^ furu-mandah. 
Jaoosd, j^y*^ ^ nA-hamvar. 
Jail, vide Gaol. 
Jailor, vide Gaoleb. 
Jalap (flswer, Marvel of Peru), 

^Wc ^5 lalah-i-*abbii8 1.— (m^di- 

cine) v»V jalab. 
Jam (jelly), W/« murabba, Jya» shi- 

January, ^J\^ (^^\^ kaniin-i-sani. 
Jar, yf^ sabii, ^^^ bastu, vj^^^ bu- 

lunf. — (large jar) #•*• kbum, *;♦*. 

khumrab. — (earthen pot) *^^ 

kuldk, (^^ dfzi. 
Jargon (broken speech, or patois), 

0W3 ^ kaj-zaban. 
Jasper, v*^ yasp* s— *< yasbb. 
Jaundice, *yfcj (>/• marz-i-zahrab, 

(j)Vi^ yarkan. 
Javelin, ^ naizah, ^^ harbah. — 

(blunt javelin used in sport) *\tj<^ 

Jaw, tj\^\ ilvArab, 4»W cbanab, ^ 

kallah, &^ kacbab (vulg.). 
Jay (bird), W* »)i^-• sabzah-kabd, 

\4;^j rang-r^ j^ l^ baliit- 

Zealous (envwvs), Ju-U. b^sid, 

j^-^ basiid, {^rJ^j rashkfn. — 

(suspicious) jy^ ghuydr, . \ .>.»J ^ 

gbairat-mand, (^UT j^ bad-gu- 

Jealousy (envy), iclftij rasbk, ju^ 

hasad. — (suspicion) w^^ gbairat, 

^U^ ^ bad-gam4n. 
To Jeer, (^j^/ *U4b^j rfsb-khand 

kardan, (^*^y^ ^}9^\ istibzd ni- 

mddan, (:)*y^ t^y mizab kardan, 

(jjj^ ijak-'^ maskbarah kardan. 
Jehovah, yfcVj yAbnvA, ft\^ yihu- 

Jelly, vide Jam. 
Jeopardy, vide Danojeb. 
Jerboa (desert rat), ij^j^^ \^y 

musb-i-sahrd,/, ^ ^^ yj»ym musb-i- 

du-pa, l^^ yarbu*. 


Jerk, (^\^ takAn, Jt.^*^ jumbish. 

To Jerk, (^a^\^ takAnfdan, (^V5& 
(j)»>^^ takiin dadan. 

Jersey (dress), Jo^ baghal-band. 

Jessamine, ^^^^-Vj yasaman, ^^^-^-i 

Jest, aaJJ lati'fab, a3j^ bazlah, 
A*W«- muta,ibab, ^^^ sbdkbi, 
<3^jW bArdi, ^j-^ fisus, ^\jS 
kinayah, JjA bazl, ly^,.^ mas- 

To Jest, o^/ ^j*.^ shdkbi kardan, 
(vjj^ ft^afe..^ inaskbarab kardan, 
(jjo^ i*^\^ zarafat kardan. 

Jester, if^^^ maskharab, tT aa^ 

latiian-gu, ^^ggy o a***^ 
Jesus, ' - "^ 

Jet, &<a sbabab, J^**^ »a v ;u sang-i- 

miisa, \iff ftW siyab-kab-ruba. 
Jet d'eau, fi^y fawdrab. 
Jetty, aI^\ askalab. 
Jeu de mots, u-«>*v tajnfs. 
Jew, ,^o^ yabddi, ,^j^ jabddi', 

JS\r^\ \%rk,\\i, J\j^ *ibrani', 

«^yu nigbiik. 
Jewel, ;Ajq. jaubar, yfc/ gaubar. 

— (omamanf) jjij zfvar. 
Jewelled, vide Studded. 
Jeweller, ^^)^y^ jaubarf, i^y^^y^ 

javAhin (vulg.). 
Jewellery (precious si^mes), ^^^ 

javAbir.— (omawwnf* of gold, &c,) 

«i>\)^j zivarat. 

Jewess, ^5"^^ ^j zan-i-jabudf. 

Jewish, c5^^ mdsavf. 

Jio BY JOWL, Uii^j^ bi-radif. 

To JiNOLE, (jj»>) 4sO) zang zadan, 

^ j^ dJa;l> tantanab kardan. 
Job, JA^ shagbl, jV^ kdr. 
JoB-MASTER, sj^y^ ^^^\ asb-furusb. 
Jockey, j^^^U cbAbuk-suvdr, f^ 

mibtar, j^j^y^ suvar-kAr. 
Jocose, g^ab^** maskbarab, jUi* tan- 

naz, t^ sbukb. 
J0COSENE88, (^jA sbukbi, ^ J« baz- 

lab, 4ULU latifab, ^^/aaJJ latffab- 

To Joo, (;)^W ^^ takan dadan. 
To Join, ^a-^ paivastan, (^a^ JJ^ 

paivand kardan, (^*y^ J«^ vasl 

kardan, ^j^^i«h». chasbdn/daiiy 




^J)^ «3^ mulhak kardan, <JH^ 

(^^f mulsak kardan. — {to join 

one^s letters) {^^ J-*s*» y^j;*- 

hurufra muttasil niyishtan. 
Joined, Vide United. 
JoiNEB, vide Cabpbntbb. 
Joint, aai band, J*a^ inufsal, J^ 

*akd, ^ shilv (pi U\ ashld).— 

(limb) x^ *uzv. — (of wrist or 

ancle) ^ much. — (of meat) 4«Ub 

kit'ah, 2^^ vaslah. 
Jointly, jWVj bi-ittittk. 
JoiNTUBB (income settled on a wife) 

j^jLo sad&k, j9^ mahr. 
Joist (feeam), y^ ^ shah-tfr, aJ^^ 

Joke, vide Jest. — (to play a prae- 

ticaljoke), (^^^ «^/ kuk kardan. 
Jolly, vide Pleasant. 
Jolt, (^^ takdn, (J't^ jumbish. 
To Jolt (trans.)^ (j)*>W ^^ tak4n 

dddan. — (inirans,) ^•\»t^ jumbf- 

To Jostle, (^*^^ 4h>* gharbflah 

Jot (tittUf particle), ^^ji^ shushah, 

iytJb hamzah, ^^ nuktah, fij*i 

zarrah, &*-« shammah. 
Journal, ^^ )ji) rdz-nAmah, )^ 

A^U rdz-ndmchah, jsk»i daftar. 

— (account-hook) ««]U.«^ dastak. 
Journalist, ^^ j\t^\ akhbar- 

JousNEY, yk- safar, ^s- sair, ^e— ^ 

masir, s^ kdch, sc^jkli^^ musa- 

To Journey, (^* f\j rkh raftan, 

(^*yy4i tA>ykU^ ^Jl tai-i-musAfarat 

Journeyman (hired workman)^ 

j^*yy muzdur, *4Ni^^ ajfr. 
Jovial, •^UJ^ dil-shdd, sj^^ *ay- 

yish, (^\j^Sj^^ khwu8h-gazr4n. 
Joviality, vufe Joy. 
Joy, ^J^^ khwushf, JJA^khwush- 

dilf, o**^^ dil-khwushi, ,^*>U 

shddf, ^aUXj dU-shddf, o*^**^ 

shAdmdnf, ^^ khurraini, c&^^et 

bihjat, t^^ ibtihdj, jyy^ surdr, 

sjt>y>m^ masarrat, c/ farah, tUi 

nishdt, f^Asi\ ibtish&m, }\yjb\ 

ihtiz&z, kU^^ imbisat, ^Jl» tarab, 
lk». hazz, t^j^\ inshirah. 

Joyful, jjtr**^ masrur, »,» y ui^ mash- 
'uf, ^U shad, csJU».^ farah-n&k. 

Joyfully, "^jj^t"-^ masruran. 

Jubilee, •\jc *id. 

Judaism, va^«>^ yahddfjat. 

Judas-tree (ar&or Jndce, or Cercis 
8iliqvastmm)y (^^ arghavdn. 

Judge, ^Vs kazi, f^^ hakim, ^^5^ 
hakam, UUa^ munsif, j^\^ ddvar. 
— (chief judae^ *js>\^\ ^jAVS kazfu- 
'l-kazz4t, f\^ tHt J ra,i8-i-huk- 

To Judge, o^/ c^j^^"^ ddvarf kar- 
dan, (^*y/ Us kaza kardan. 

JuDOMENTyVuIe Opinion, Thought, 
Discretion. — (decision) ^y^ fat- 
vd, £yi ^»^ hukm-i-shaj-', o^yi^ 
dainunat, f^ tahakkum. — 
(JudgmenJt haU) a »X^.^ mahka- 
mah. — (Jtidgment seai) 9^S jU 
ddd-gdh. — (Day of Jvdgment) 
^s.^\^ )^ rdz-i-kij&mat. 

Judicature, sa^hj^ shar{*at. 

Judicial, o*!/* shar^f. — (judicial 

r^em) 4««yfc e^^V kavAnfn-i- 
Judicious, vide Sensible, Proper. 
Judiciously, ^ 'aklan. 
Jug, fij/^ kdzah. 
To Juggle, ^j**/ c5;W *«»• hukkah- 

bdzf kardan. 
Juggler, vide Conjurer. 
Jugular vein, <H)f\ J**- habl^i-'l- 

varfd, e)W «^ rag-i-jdn. 
Juice, ft^ shfrah, AjUc 'ns&rah, 

^«<«fi 'asfr. 
Juiceless, oU^ khashk, v»^ ^ 

Juiciness, tA>^^j^ tardvat, ya^^^ ru- 

Juicy, j\j^1[ db-ddr, f tar, v»y»/« 

Jujube (tree), j^ kunar, j^*^ kd- 

ndr, jJu- sidr, ^>«* nabk. — (species 

of red jujube) > ^ *>- sinjid, s^U* 

July , j^ tamdz. 
To Jumble, (a*^/ ^^bb^ makhldt 






Jump (tpring)^ ***-* jaet, y«^ khfz. 

To Jump, {^^^"'^ jastaa (root a^ 
jih), O'^/yt^ khiz kardan. — (to 
jump dbotU, ship) (^*^;f y^ } c^*— 9- 
jast a khiz kardaa. — (to jump 
up) {^SL.^ ^ bar-jastan. 

Junction, (^ja ^Jk yakf-shudan, 


June, (^^jty^ haziran. 

Jungle, J^ jangal. 

JuNiOB, ^ kmtar, y^/ kuchik- 
tar,yu\ asghar. 

JuNiPEB, t*^j\ ardaj. 

JuPiTKB (the planet), <4;**^ mush- 
tarf, (j-ts%-;i birjis. 

JuBiscoNSULT, M* fakiyah, >* »^ y 
muj tabid. 

JuBiBDiCTiON, c5ji>^** ddvari, J^/*^ 
bukm - rAnf, *a"^j^ buktimat, 
j;«is kalam-rau, Ui kazA. 

JuRisPBUDENCB, w» fikab,fy«fc sbar*. 

Ju&isT, tm2e Jurisconsult. 

JuET (asaemhly for trying a caae), 
cbJ^Ac ^jJ^p* majlis-i-'adalat. 

JusTMAN, oJW ^j«W^ y^ naf ar-i- 

Just, J^Vc '6dil, j^^*> ddvar, (j-j *>\*> 
d^d-ras, ;» barr. — (exactly) <j*-j«^ 
bi - durustf, cuJ«> W ba-dikkat, 
'Ue£ 'ainan, '^jd^ mukarraran, 
(ft- jakb (vulgX — (equitable) W 
•>W b4-ddd, ^Syo \ bd-savab, 
A^Sole *4dilaiiab, c>3\jLft ^i^; j^ 
az ruf-i-'adalat, ^^ ravd, yW 
ja,iz, w>-^j rast, **— j^ durust, 
C^»«>« sabfb, «-»U\ V} ba-ins^f . — 
(just as) ^ ^^ bi-vakti-kib. — 
(just as they are) q)^ U^ kam4- 
kana. — (just then) {^ (ji^ j*^ dar 
in bain. 

Justice, Jj^ *adl, o^W 'adilat, 
ckJjA'* ma'dalat, ^U dAd, <^U»^ 
ins^f, v&JUi nasifat, <3^ bakk, 
^s^Ai/i shari'at, vs>jl6bj rishAdat. 
— (fo do justice) (^*y\*^ *y\^ dAd d4- 
dan. — (Minister of Justice) jt}^ 
AjjLft vazir-i-*adliyiJhi. 

Justifiable, ^s^j*y durust, sa^\j 

rast, <3^ hakk. 

Justification, j^ *\izt,jM^ i*ti- 
zar, <j;^ tabarri, ui-.^^:^ tazkfyat, 
(32*^ tasdik, iiys tanzfli. 

To Justify (clear from quilt)^^^^^ 
(^*y/ tazkiyat kardan, (^^y^ ^ji\ 
ibra nimudan, e^^ ^yS tanzfli 
nimudan. — (render just) J»>Vc 
(^*iy4A 'Adil sbimurdan, c:J^Jtfi| 
(^A^\*y^ v>/«a^ bi-'adalat mansdb 
gard^fdan, (^^/^^ i3«>^ sdidik 
shimurdan. — (excuse or defend) 
^ j^ j\Juc\ i*tizar nimudan, jy^^^ 
{»^\*> ma'zur ddsbtan. — (absolve) 
^^f u\9^ mxx^ki kardan, yto 
^jy«i <afy niniddan, (^^^f k/^ 
khalas kardan, o*^3/*^ 4mur- 

Justly, s^^^^W bi-'s-8av£b, ^!t«>U 

*adil4nab, g^ *i ^ » basb-i-sbar*, 

<3»- V| bd-bakk. — (justly or t*»- 
justly, right or wrong) <3^U Vj ^j». 
hakk y& nA-bakk. 

Justness, ^y^^j rastf, ^^"^ ^^' 

rustf, <3^ hakk, «.jU»^ insaf. 
To Jut out, (^^ 4madan. 
Juvenile, (^\^ javdn, JU o^^l 

khwurd-sAl, J^W jdhU (vuZ^.)- 
Juvenility, sJ^fh jay&nf, v»W^ 

JuxTA-posiTiON, ^^ mukdbalah, 

^•^W* mubdzf, v&>\)\*^ mu,4zit. 


Kalian (Persian pipe, for smoking 
through water, similar to the 
Indian hukah), (^VJJ kalydn, eW^ 
ghalydn, ^^ kalyun, ii^j^ n&r- 
gflah. The component parts of 

this apparatus are as follow : — 
(the hotOe) ^WlJ kalydn, ^VJi^ 
gbalydn. — (upright stem fitting 
into the hotUe) ^^ miydnah. — 
(tube dipping into the water)^ Je^ 




v»^ mfl-&b, ef;^^ sbakdrf. — 
(straight tvhe applied to the mouth) 
^J nai. — (long flexible snake, vsed 
sometimes instead of the straight 
tribe aforesaid) ^6^ nai-pfch, jU 
^ mar-pich. — (ornamented ends 
of the snake) ««^j zulfak. — 
(motUhpiece of the tube or snake) 
<j* J- sar-i-nai. — (lotver end of the 
tvhe or snake) ,jJ a? tah-i-nai. — 
(bowl or cup) (^\^ J* sar-i-kal- 
y4ii.-^(j>er/bra<ed bottom of the 
bowl) »^Vi panjarah. — (foot of ike 
bowlf fitting on the upright stem) 
f* ** tah-i-sar. — (cover of the 
bowl) yfi *>W bdd-gfr. — (smaM kaU 
yan^ carried in the hand) (^^ 
^J!-**y kaljAn - i - dastf. — (larger 
ditto, placed on the floor, and used 
with a long snake tube) ^n^ ^WiS 
kalj4n-i-nai-pfch. — (servant who 
prepares the kalyan) <j7^^ ^^' 
j4n-chf. — (kalyam,, the vessel of 
which containing the water is 
made of the shell of a cocoa^ 
nut) ii(f^\i nirgflah. — (cases or 
holsters for carrying the kalyan, 
and its apparatus y Ac, on horse- 
back) J-«^ kubbul. — (small 
chaflng-dish attached to the saddle, 
for lighting the kalya/n when on a 
journey) J**^ J<i kubbul-man- 
kal. — (brush for cleaning the kal- 
yan) ^^^ jis gulii-sbiirak. 

Kbel (of a ship or boat), J«^ kfl 

EsBN (sharp), yt^ tfz. — (eager) ^\)\ 
•VA#* irzd-mand, au3^ sbauk- 
mand, f*/ y^ sar-garm, <j^ 

To Keep, ^j^W ddsbtan. — ('pre- 
serve or maintain) (j^W ftV^ 
nig4h ddshtan, (^p^W ks^^^ 
TDBS^i d&shtan, ^^j^l[ W: bi-j& 
d^ardan. — (a promise) <^^y^ ^y 
▼&f& nimddaxi, (^U fiV^ nigdh 
ddshtan, (^^ ji fi^^ee )\ az 'ubdah 
bar-4madan, (^*y/ \*y\ ad4 kar- 
dan. — (to keep away) o-^^ )W 
b4z«m4]idan. — (to keep ba^k) 3W 
^^sjb\^ b&z-ddshtan. 

Keepeb, Ih^W* muhdfiz, 

mustahfiz, dJJ^U d^randab, (^W^^ 
nigab-ban, y*)V^ haris, ^Jl^ mu- 
rabb{. — (in composition) j\^ ddr, 
(^\i bdn, o^ jf, o*^ cbi. 

Keepsake, j^ «>\| ydd-gar, i/^ taz- 

Eennel, a»U^ sag-kb4nab, ^j)^ 
6i\^ tdzf.kbiinab. 

Eebchibf (cloth worn on the head 
by women), Ji^W cbdr-kadd. 

Eebnel,^ magbz, &a.«j^ bastab, 
^'^^ kbassab, ^^^ danab. 

Kettle, *aSk^ dig, ^^^^^ digcbab, 
jaS kidr, ^sf^ loktrf. — {large kettle 
or cauldron) ^^)S kazgb^ Je^^ 

Eettle-dbum, fij^ nakk4rab, ^/ 

Key, J^i^ kilfd, c^*^ miftib, j\^'\ 
dcbdr. — (keystone, of an arch, &c,) 
jVl jm 4sC^ sang-i-sar-i-tak. — 
(false key) ^JU^ Jji^ kil{d-i- 
'amali. — (for musical instrument) 
«^^ SH pfcb-i-kuk. 

Eey-hole, '^ ^jy^ surdkb-i-kilid. 

Kick, *>^ lagad. 

To Kick, (^^3 J^ lagad zadan, ^ 
0*>3 p& zadan. — (with both hind 
feet) {^^\'ii\ <^)i;^ juftak an- 
ddkbtan. — (as a gun) ^*>3 JkC 
lagad zadan. 

Kid, AlVfy buz-gb&lab, ^ kabrab. 

To Kidnap, ^js^jjo duzdfdan. 

KiDNAPPBB, *y)*y duzd. 

Kidney, i*y^ gurdab, ^(^ kulvab. — 
(beans) ^y Mbijab. 

To Kill, jj^ kusbtan, m*>^ J** 
katl nimudan, {^^ •<3a* balik 
8&kbtan, ^•M^; J^ bi ^ katl 
rasdnfdan. — (to kiU animals for 
food in the manner prescribed by 
Muhammadan law) (^*^/ ^^ zibb 
kardan, (^*^/ J«-<«<9 bismil kardan 

KiLLEB, JyU kAtil. 

Kiln, fij^ kdrab. — (for lime) t^^ 
^ ^ kdrab-i-gacb-pazf. — (of 
bricks) y*-} Sj/ kdrab-i-ajur. 

Kin, LTi^ kbwfsb. 

Kind (sort, species), ^y nau' (pU 




^\^\ any&'), ^j-u^ jina, f^^ kism 
(pi. f\^\ ak8am),^^guiiahywAx« 
sinf, ^)Mi kabn, j^ taur, a^^ 
vajh, W*i namat, jy^ jur. — (deite- 
volmt) (^^j%^ milir-bdn, Ok^ Bha- 
f{k, v5AA^ mushfik, ^/ karfm, 
*-AjJ latif , ^i**^ mun'im, ft^ji ye^ 
khair-khw4hy j\^ ^ nfku-kar, 
(:>«-«« muhsin, ^UJ*.\ ihsdn. — {in 
kind) ^y'^ jinai. — (to be hind 
enough to) s^/ ss^kS\ iltif&t kar- 
dah, fi«yr UkU lutf kaidah. 

To Kindle, {^sa^\ afrdkhtan, {^^ 
^ jj^ raushan kardan, (^'^ ^y^f'*^ 
muBhta'al kardan. 

KiNDLTy a^Vsm^j ddstanah, i^^ }\ 
,^T az rdf-i-dshti. 

Kindness, ij^j%^ mihr-banf, sa^ma 
shafakat, o*^^ j^ khair- 
khwdbi, ^)^f^ nfku-kArf, UkU 
lutf, «»^)U muUtafat, lA^^ie 
'utufat, JJW tafakkud, ^^^L^t 
ibsan, ^U^Vd. kb4tir-darf. 

KiNDBED, (jt^^ kbwisb. 

Kino, sUjI^ padisbab, s^ sbab, ^ 
sbab, tcXU malik, ^UJL sultan, 
tjVlU. kbdkan, ^/ kai.— (h'^fe of 
kings of Persia) ^IaoaU sb^bin- 
sbab, AAa«Ai sbabinsbab. 

Kingdom, ^ 9 t \ h Si^ padisbabi, 
«»^^«>^ padisbdbat, «aU«« mulk, 
tf.*^U^ mamlakat, o^oUL sul- 
tanat, tfJ^*> daulat, <A>yX« mala- 
kdt, ^jjU^ firmdn - dibf. — 
(dimsion of natural objects in 
natural history) '^fy mauldd 
(pL JL^^^.^ ma^alid). — (the 
three kingdoms of Naiure) '^\y^ 
M^ maval/d - i - saldsab, •s^^^ 
*i\S 6^ mav&lid-i-sib-ganab. — 
(vegetable) *-a»\^ ^^y» mauldd- 
i-iiab4t. — (mineral) •>W *>y^ 
mauldd-i-jamdd. — (onimaZ) ^^y* 
(a^ytf^ mauldd-i-baivdn. 

KlNOFISHBB, «sK^ ^U m&bf- 
kbwurak, ji^ cbillik. 

KiNGLT, &»UfcUiJV^ p4disb4b&iiab, 
AJ^jj;-*^ khusravdnab. 

King's-bvil (disease), jJ^ ^/» 

Kingship, o*^*^^ padisb&bi, 

Kink, v»^ ^ ^ picb u tib. 

Kinship, ^o^^i^ja jinsijat. 

KiNSiiAN, cr2^ kbwisb. 

Kiosk (summer - house), 

kdsbk, j^ kasr, v6>;Ufi 'im4rat. 

Kiss, ^^y bdsab, ^y bds, f*^ kam, 
(U macb (vulg,). 

To Kiss, (;)*>«-«y bdsidaii, ^^U ^y 
bdsab dddan, ^«>U ^U macb 
dddau (vulg,). 

Kitchen, a^U. y^\ asb-paz-kbanab, 
^J»^ matbakb or mattabakb. 

Kite (bird), ^f^ ^J^ lasbab-kbwur, 
^^ ^S lasb-kbwar, ^y^ gbali- 
T4zb. — (of paper) d^St\i kagba- 
zak. — (to fly a kite) (:)*^^y^ *£St\^ 
kdgbazak baya kardan. 

Kitten, ^. ^f gurbab-bacbab. 

Klick, ^^ gbaugbd, ^^ aydz. 

To Klick, e^y^ ^^ gbaugbi ni- 
mddan, ^«>\«> jM ^t&z dadan. 

Knack, u^ saliKab, ^ band. 

Knapsack, ^ aS^ kulab-b4r, aa^ 
(^*i tusbaib-d&n. 

Knate, &ju^^ firfbandab, ^^^^o 
dast-kaj, jW gbadddr, > u , , » ft «^ 
sar-bam-band, jV} aL*. bilab-baz, 
jW»V ddl4b.b4z, o>V ddldbf. 

Knayest, <3jWft *ayyari, ^^jW *i^e^ 
bilab-bazf, < ^A Xe»A ^ sar-bam- 
bandi, c5jWtV ddlib-b4zf, «a^V«4. 

Knavish, jt^ sbarir, jW^^ dagba- 

To Knead, (^^/if dsburdan, jtM^ 
(^^/ kbam/r kardan, ^jj— a-A^fcl 

Knee, y^\ zAnd. — (knee-pan) y^j ;- 
Bar*i-zand,y^3 AJu^kundab-i-zuiu. 

To Kneel, ^^n y^j zdnd zadan. — 
(to cause to ineeC) ^•MUi y\y bi- 
z4nd nisbdnfdan. — (smaU carpet 
for kneelina on ai prayers) »*> V- 
sujj&dab, !»• musalM. 

Knife, ^J^ kard. — (butcher's knife) 
\j^ bugbdd, jy»U satdr. — (carv- 
ing - knife) *>;V^ kard. — («Aoc- 
maker's knife) ^j^ sbifrab, i^j^J^ 
nisbkardab. — (pen - knife) yi\^ 


ch4kii, if^ kizUk, v>y fii 
kaJam-tirasn. — (small hni/e worn 
in the same sheath with a dagger) 
i S ^^ chikchikf. — (knife with a 
curved blade), ^v^ khanjar, ^sw^ 
jambfjah. — (large double-edged 
knife) i-^i kamah. — ( farrier* e 
knife for paring hoofs) jSi^yu— 
sum-tir^sh. — (knife - grinder) 
j^j^ charkh-gar. 

Knioht (of an Order), (^^ J^W 
«2^ hamil-i-nish^n-i-buzarg. 

Kniohthood, iiSjji (^Ui J«A. haml- 
i-nisbdn-i-buz urg. 

To Knit, e>**^ baftan. — (knit-work) 
&s*W baftah. — (knitting wires or 
needles) Jt^ mfl. 

Knittek, <^W <»-j^ parchab-b4f. 

Knob, M kabbab, &/ girih, «sU 
luk, ^J'i^'\ ji bar-amadagf . 

Knobby, ^^*> &«5 kubbab-dar, ;U fi^ 

Knock (blow) v»/* zarb, oj zad, 
a^jU^ musddamab. — (at door) 
«£Vx^^ dastak. — (vrith the fist) 
fcfr^A^ musbt, '^^ tapanchab. 

To Knock, M«n zadan, e^^f/ kubi- 
dan, 0^^ Kdftan. — (to knock to 
pieces) (^jj/ •>;*- kburd kardan. — 
(to knock down) {^\'>i\ {^^\ 
zamfn andakbtan. — (knocked up) 
U^eiU zA'if, J<Ai& 'alfl, ftJiU m&a- 

Knockeb (0/ a door), ^f kiibah, 
A^ kuTab. 

Knolcols (vegetable), fj^j^l^ fi^ 
kalam-i-sbabri, ^^ kumri. 

Knot, ^f girib, A«e *akd, »J^ *uk- 
dab, Joj band. — (%^ Ano<) )f ^f 

To Knot, (^t^j ^f girib zadan. 

Knotted, j^*3Lft^ girib-dar. 

Knotty, y ^ pur- girib. 

i73 [Lab 

To Know, (jja-jW d&nistan, (j^j^^Ua 
sbinakbtan, ^*M^ fabmfdan, 
(^^^ i\S\ dgab budan, (^\j £^\ 
ittila' ddsbtan, (^t>^ ^Ua^ muttalf' 
budan, {^'^J^ <-Aj\^ vakif sbudan, 
0j>^ l«ybt« ma*lum kardan. — (to 
come to know) (^<^ ^a - AaU multa- 
fit sbudan, (^^ja Jaaj^ muntakil 
sbudan. — (a language) ^•^ *3^ 
balad sbudan. — (to let know) jt^ 
(;)•>/ kardan. 

Knowing, vide Cleyeb. 

Knowingly, a^^^U danistab. 

Knowledge, ^ 'ilm, (J^\^ danisb, 
^UU d&na,i, u:^«A« ma'rifat, ^ 
fabm, «-^y(^ vuKuf yJt bunar, 
jytfii sbu'ur, <^^4Xft. bikmat, t^^Ual 
fatanat, &s4bj ^ sar-risbtab. — 
(superficial knowledge) ^U- ^t-jW 
ddnisb-i-kbam, |*Ui U ^ Hlm-i- 

Known, ^^m^ ma'ldm, ^yf^ ma'- 
ruf, 6ji^\^ danistab, ^s a Ua sbi- 
n4kbtab, j^e«&>^ masb-biir. 

Knuckle, vsl^t ju^ band - i - an- 

Kran, Q^f krAn. 

Kbobe (a number, which in India 
signifies ten millions, and in 
Persia only five hundred thou- 
sand), j^ kartir (hind,), 

Kuban, (^^y^ kur,iin, (^/i\ al- 
ku,ran, (^\iy^ furkAn, «JW«^ 
musbaf. — (verse of the Kuran) 
^ Ayat (pL «y^^ Ayat). — (chapter 
of Kuran) Sj^ surab (pi, jy^ 
suvar). [Tbe bundred and four- 
teen cbapters of tbe Kuran are 
all divided into tbirtj sections 
called j«». juz* (pi, '\y*\ ajza,) ; 
and eacb section is subdivided 
into two portions called v»^ 
bizb (pi. v»V*^ abzab.] 


Label, ^U ^ sar-namab. 
Labial, ,J^ sbaff, ^J^ sba&ibf. — 

(the labial leUers) M*'* ^yf^ 


Labobatoby, jS^ W^ifi^ A»U. j\i kar 

kbdnab-i-k f mi j4-gar. 
Labobious, (^ ^ kar-kun, ^^eU 

sa'fy J^W jihid. 




LjLBOUB (work), jV^ k^, J^ shughl, 
oJi^^ mihnat, J^ 'amal. — 
(endeavour^ action) J^ jidd, •^e^ 
jahd, j,^ sa'i, cr*/ kdshish, 
iA>jj^ mubadarat. — (chUd'hirth) 
»j ^j*^ dard-i-zih, J*^ g*^ vaz'- 

To Labour, (^^y^^i J*^ 'amaJ nimti- 
dan, (:)•>/ jV^k&r kardan. 

Laboubss, jl jV^ kAr - gar, J*^ 
'amil (|72. aU^ 'amalah or JUfi 
*ummdl), JcU f4*il (pi aU* 
fa'alah). — f /or hire) jyiy* muz- 
dtir, ^#»-^ ajir. — (fello%o»iahourer) 
j\C*ifc ham-k&r. 

Labtbinth, ijijL tarfk (pL j|;I»^ 

Lac (gum), «^ lak. 

Lacb (fine netting), ^)f t6rah,jy» 
tdr, A^ shabakah. — (cori or 
braid) (^%^ kaitAn, a;^W b&ftah, 
^V^\A gbaftdn. — (^o^ lace) (^fk^ 
AsftV} kuUbatdn - i - bdftah, (^^VL^S 
j)3 kait&n-i-zar. 

To Lacb, e^^ xi r^ -* musbab- 
bak nimddim. — (fie) (^^x^ baa- 

Lacbd (embroidered), \^ mutar- 
raz, ;jtJU« munakkasn. 

LACEMAN,j|yi»« mutarriz. 

To Lacsbate,. (^^j^ daridan. 

Lacebation, J^^^^y darfdagi. 

Lack, vide Want. — (number of one 
hundred thousand) ^ lak (hind.), 
[In India, one bundred lacks 
make a krore, eqoal to ten mil- 
lions; but in Persia, tbe krore 
contains onlj five lacks.] 

LACKBT,^y naukar. 

Laconic, /*xaft^ mukbtasar. 

Laconically, n;«s«^ mukbtasaran. 

Lacqiteb, (^9) laugban, (^V*^ {^%\ 

Lad, «sS^/ kddak, JaL tifl, *^^ 

Lia>DEB, (^W«>y nardubdn, aI^ pillab, 
•^ sidd, fX* sullam, i^t^)^ 
drcbfn. — (rope-ladder) J^u^ ka- 
mand. — (scaling-ladder), (^^*y^ 
nardubdn. — (naval term) 

To Ladb, (^*y/ jVi b&r kardan, J4*. 

(^*y/ baml kaMan. 
Ladle, aaU^ ma'lakab, ^^/^^ 4b- 

Lady, ^Jt^ bfbf, a*^^^ karimab. — 

(of high rank) ^U. kbanam, fJ^ 

begum, y W b&nu. — (of inferior 

rank), ey^ kbdtdn. 
Lady-likb, «-a«U latff, ^*y^y mu,- 

To Lao (loiter behind), ^^VsJ^y s^«<ft 

'akab uftAdan, 0*y\si\ u^j*y dar- 

pas uft4dan. 
Laib, i*^ kundm. 
Lake, ^kj*y daiydcbah, j«xfe ghudar, 

A^ birkab. 
Lamb, ^j^ barrab. — (newly bom 

lamb) iiXU^ 5^ barrab-i-amlik. 
Lamb, *sSJl lang, Jk sbal, j^{^e^) 

To Lame, (^«>/ Jai sbal kardan. 
Lameness, ^^^ langf, 0;«f ^^e^y 

To Lament, ^j^ ^j\) z4rf nimii- 

dan, o**/ ^/ girjab kardan, 

Q)*^/ (^^ ndlisb kardan. — 

O*^;^ u*y~^^ afsds kbwurdan. 
Lamentable, ju > .4a-^ mustmand, 

j^o dil-suz, wA. cJL.*\; ta,a8Buf- 

Lamentation, a». j naubab, 0;! A».y 

naubab-gari, ajU nAlab, \^ 'aza, 

f^sU \yft <azA-d4rf, a^^ giryab, ^jM 

zarf, ^^ sbfvan, (^\i^ figbw, 

Sy ^ £>^ i**** ^ fazaS cW niyAh, 
^j\j Atyi; ta*zijab-dArf. 
Lambntbb, 03AJU n41ah-zan,j5'A».y 

Lamp, t^f^ cbirdgb, eV sir^j* — 
(street lamp) u*y^ fands. — (email 
earthenware lamp) ^j^^A^ ^\y^ 

Lamp-black, aj^o dddab. 

Lampoon, yt^ bajy, j*^ *xi bad-nim. 

To Lampoon, 0*>^ ^V^ bajv nimd- 

Lampooneb, jU ^v^ baJT-s4z. 

Lampbey (fish), ^y» mur/nab (eur.) . 

Lance, ^ naizab, ^j ruxnh. 
(Ficie Javelin.) 

To Lance, (^*y) f^ nfshtar zadan. 




Lancbb (soldier), jU Syo^ j\|^ sar- 

Lancbt,^2.W nfshtar, ya<i^ nashtar 

Lakd, vide Eabth, Ground, Coun- 
TBY. — (opposed to sea) ;j Ct ^ 
khoshki, J* barr. — (opposed to 
swamp) ^ ^ 1 i i julgah. — (dry 
land, watered only hy rains) 
o**** 0**J zamfn-i-daimi, t)<^j 
^U^j zamin - i - daim^ni, {j^) 
(j-^. zamfn-i-bakhs. — (wet land, 
watered hy wtUs, rivers, &c.) (^^) 
^^;U zamin-i-Mryabi, ^\ ^^j 
zamfn-i-&bf . — (Jaiid planted with 
trees) »%a*« ^^y zamin-i-mushaj- 
jar, yy^\'> dirakht-zar. — {hilly 
land) ^is ^jj^j zamm-i-talal. — 
(jHirren land) y^^ jtA {^t^ zamfo- 
i - gbair - i - inusmir, ;♦ ^ ^j^j 
zamin-i-bf-bar, ^jj^ fijjA shi'irah- 
zamfn. — (undaimed land, belong' ' 
ing to no one) *«UU3^ J.j6^^ {^^j 
zamm - majhdlu - '1 - malik. — (hy 
land) ^J^AA. i\j j\ az r4h-i- 
khushkf, "Ijt barran. 

To Land (trans.) t)^W* j^ ji bar 
kanAr nihadan. — (intrans.) j^ 
(^•Xi«l bi-kanar dmadan. 

Landing-stage, Ai^\ askaiab. 

Landholder, j^^^^vj zamfn - ddr, 
{J>j^^ s^j rabbu-'l-arz, ^j^j *£UU 

Landlord, vi(2e Host. 

Landmark, {^^) ^ ^^ nishan-i- 
sar-zamfn, •)»»> ^Ui nishdn-i- 

Landsoapb, jW\ ^«Jt4^ chasbm-an- 

Land-tax, (^^^*> JU mdl-i-dfvAn. 

Lane, ^^ kucbah, /kd. 

Language, (^V}j zabdn, v£^ lugbat, 
(2^ato«« Bukbun, f^ kal4m, (^LJ 
lisAn. — (vernacular) «^ lugbat, 
^W) ^U. kbass-zab^n. — (teacher 
of languages) ^j*^ mudarris, 
f^^^ mu'allim, ^^j-^o^ muusbf. 
[Tbis word properly signifies a 
secretary or scribe. It is used 
in tbe sense bere given only in 

Languid, »a-w— sust, /U tttir, »»a*^ 

Languor, \f^ futur, ^s>fi fatrat, 

i»^W nakabat, ^•^U mdndagi, 

^^5&«*«» sustf. 
Lank, jtt% lagbir, j^ nizar. 
Lankness, ofr^' Idgbiri, ^^^ 

Lantern, ^yV* fdnus. — {portahle 

folding lantern) f^ u*y^ fdn6s-i- 

fanar. — (Chinese lantern) Jj^a 

kindfl. — (magic lantern) (j-y^ 

fijLfjiAi fAnus-i-sbu'badab. 
Lap, ^^U d4man, %\j^ kindr. 
To Lap, o^^-J Ksidan. 
Lap-dog, **H;j^ **^ sag-i-kdcbik. 
Lapidary, c5;*V- javabiri, c5y^>^ 

jaubari, yj^f^^ sang-tirasb. 
Lapis-lazuli, *>}>^S Idjavard. 
Lappet, {^^ cbin, (:)^U daman. 
Lapse, ^ sabv. — (2a|7«e of time) 

)^j^ murdr. 
To Lapse, (^•>VaA\ uftAdan, JjL 

(^j^e^ tdl kasbfdan. (Vide To 

Lapsus lingua, ^^ v^Jj zallat- 

Lapwing, J^*^ budhud, ;- &i\^ 

sb4nab-sar, ^U«U ^^ murgb-i- 

Larboard, v*^ u^y* taraf-i-cbap. 
Larceny, ^jj^ duzdf. 
Lard, «^^ ^Jff^ cbarbf-i-kbtik. 
Larder, ^U. ^^ baw4,ij-kbdnab, 

&^ ganjab. 
Large, vide Big, Numerous. 
Largeness, vide Bigness. 
Largesse, (j&*-Jfc*> dibisb, |*U-A-i\ 

Lark, fi^l^ cbakavab, «s)^^ cba- 

k^yuk, bj^ kumbarab, j^Vi k4z- 

Ikk,— (crested lark) J^ kul- 

kulati. — (Jarge crested lark) Jyk». 

Larkspur (fUyuoer), Vai ^o ^Vy zabdn 

dar kaf a. 
Larynx, ^ ^\i naf-i-gulu. 
Lascivious, va^-^ mast, ^y^ 

sbabvati, ct^-^ y-tf nafs-parast, 

u*^ •*» bad-nafs. 
Lascjvjousnsss, ^jS-**^ mastf, (^ 




^j^ji nafs-parastf, ^^^ ^ bad- 

Lash, vj^^ 0^3 zab4n-i-kamcbi, 
^JY^ ^i zih-i-kamchf. 

To Lash, 0^3 oV^ kamcbi zadan. 

Lass, ys*-*> dukhtar, &«^ sabfjah. 

Lassitude, ^ J^t.»»a khastagi, J^^ 
mandagi, ^ j » - ■ sustf, s-«5 

Lasso, *Juu^ kamand. 

Last, (:Hr^ pastarfn, {^^^ pasfn, 
/-1[ 4knir, t>«/-^ dkhirfn, yt-^y 
mu,akhkbar, i^^^ ^y vA-pasin. — 
(at hut) ifrHtVa^ nihayat, A^ Akhir, 
fi/^JW bi-'l-Akhirah,>5\ l^i^ ilki- 
batu - '1 - amr, ^jW b4rf. — (l(wi 
to^jk) J«i &J^ ha^b-i-kabl, &sAft 
AAaJ^ haftab-i'guzasbtah. — (last 
month) J<i »^ mab-i-kabl, *^ 
AAkJ^mab • i - guzashtab. — (last 
year) J^ J^ sdl-i-kabl, ajaAT JU 
sal - i • guzasbtab. — (last night) 
v>jj dusb, s-^»> disbab, ^•^ 
disbav (vulg,). — (last day of the 
month) (^ salkb. — (shoemaker's 
last) f^}/ furzum. 

To Last (contijiue), o^J^^ mandan, 
^jy j\jq\^ p4jadar biidan, txti\^ 
(^*yji pajandab budan, ^Jy fj\*y 
dA,im budan, (jsA\*y ^^^a davAm 
ddsbtan, (^*yji fX^ kA,im budan, 
^^^*y \Jli baka dashtan, (^<i^ 
pa,fdan, ^•^U *y\jAA imtid^d 
dadan, ^A^i^ jy» tul kasbfdan. — 
(suffice) (^*y^ iA^\ii^ kifayat kar- 

Lasting, •♦a--^ mustamirr, ^^xum» 
mustadam, ^^ d4,iin. 

Lastly, ft%\ /-^ Akbiru*-l-amr, J*W 
^-•5^ bdsilu-']-amr. 

Latch, jASkufl (pZ. JUi^ akf41). 

Latchbt, •xjii d.*Xi^ cbakmab-band. 

LATE,jt«> dfr, "1^ 'usran. — (lately) 
vide Newly, Aoo. — (deceased) 
ftjy* murdab, fi*xAi «a>^ faut-sbu- 
dab, i^y^ mutavaffi, &si>; raftab, 
<3#l- sabik. — (deceased^ alluding 
to a Musrdman) )^^ magbfiir 
(the forgiven), f^x* niarbdm 
(one who has received mercy) ^ •*!*• 
^VC« kbold-makAn (whose abode 

is in Paradise), (^W^^ sa^j^ jannat- 
asbydn (whose resting-place is 
in the heavens), «>Vjb« o»«t. q » bibisbt- 
mi'ad. — (to he lat^) (^•>/ jt^^ 
ta,kbfr ku^n, (^Jufti ya dir sbu- 
dan, (^^ji*y dir Amadan. 

Lateness, ^/*i diri. 

Latent, vide Secret. 

Lateral, o^W janibi. 

Lath, s>^ cbub. 

Lathe (turner's), *y\^ kbardd, (^^ 
^tj^ Alat-i-kbar4tf. 

Lathes, ^-J^ kaf. — (of soap) «J^ 
(;)yV« kaf-i-sAbdn. 

Latin, (j^5 lAtin (ewr.), c:>e»5 Mtfn 

Latitude, y*;C 'arz, ^J^ pabn&,f. 

— (freedom) i^*y\]^kzAdi, — (degree 

of laiitiide) y^j^ 4^j»> darajeili-i- 

Latrine, tfi^ makbraj, ii\^,S\ 


Latter, uH J^ l>^z pa^» (:Hj^^ 

Akbirin, ^y^ sdnavf. 
Latterly, (j>«^ j^ J<i «^^ Jut^ cband 

vakt kabl az fn, (^\ )\ Jji t^*^ 

cband f kabl az in. 
Lattice, &^ sbabakab, ^^A^dAk 

sbubbakab, tsX^J^ musbabbak. — 

(latticed window) ft;V^ panjarah. 
To Laud, vide To Praise. 
Laudable, fiayu. sitddab, ;^..>^gi»** 

mustabsan, ^M*^ bamfd, s-^^^ 

tJ^ vajib-i-madb. 
Laudanum, <^j) lidan, (^^\ t;^ 

rub-i-ifydn, *«)yy yfcy^ jaubar-i- 

To Laugh, <^J«Jui^ kbandfdan, &*u^ 

(;)a;^ kbandab kardan. — (ridicule) 

Q)*yy*i \y9^\ istibzA nimddan, t^y 

Q)*y/ mizdb kardan, (^*y/ &; 

maskbarab kardan, ^a^^ 

rfsbkband kardan. 
Laughable, &*u^ V» bd-kbandah, 

cftXte^^ muzbik. 
Laugher, «sWU zabik. 
Laughing, ^- ^- e J ^ mutabassim. — 

(laughing-stock) 6,^^a» muzbikah, 

a ^ ^^.* maskbarab. 
Laughter, fi*u^ kbandab, a^ kah. 

kabah, oW* zahak. 




To Launch, 0jtf^W\ h^W bi-ib an- 

Laukdbiss, y^^ rakht-shd, jUl 

Laitndbt, AlU yb u^^^ rakht-sbA- 

Laubbl, jU gb&r, m% H .»ifc*> dab- 

Lata, 4»<J^ •J^y* inay&dd-i-muz&- 

Latation, ^y^ gbusl, y^ ^ i»««jab 
sbust u sbd. 

Lavatoby, a»U J.«*fe gbuBl-kb&nab. 

To Lavb, vide To Wash. 

Layib, (^ lagan, o^Jtl tasbt, ^VL 

Layish, uUii^ musrif , ^^^y^^ mas- 

To Lavish, (^^u\y^\ isr&f kardan, 
^ jU j\| ^ bar bM d&dan. 

Lavishly, '^^y*^ masrdfan. 

Law (Divine) tj^ sbarS i»^yi 
sbarf'at. — (common law) iJUe 
'urf. — (science of law) «* fikan, 
«» ^ 'ilm-i-fikab. (FufcCirs. 


Law-cottbt, s^sa si\^\^>y dfy&n- 

LawfctIi, JDu. bal41, (^y*^*^ masntiii, 
cW* mubAh, \^ ravi, \fW ]A,iz, 
(yyi sbar'f, s^ A .i naab. [A 
man's actions are, bj tbe Sbi'ah 

doctors, pronounced to be : 


y^jib, or ^jJk farz, a lawful 
and imperative a^t, which it ie 
a ain to leave undone; *i w ^«*** 
mustababb, or u^^-x^ smmat, an 
act which it is lawful and right 
to do, hut which to omit does not 
amount to a sin; cW^ mubdb, 
or J^ bal&l, a lawful act, which 
it is neither meritorious to pet' 
form, nor sinful to omit; A^ 
bar&m, the reverse of w^\y ydjib, 
an unlawful act, which it is sinful 
to commit, and meritorious to 
avoid; ^yj^ makriib, (he reverse 
of *i*^** " * mustababb, an act 
which is not unlawful and sin-^ 
ful, hut which had hetter he 

Lawfttllt, *^a sbar'an, £y^ v5^ V 

Lawfulness, J»- bill, ta^Du. bald- 

Law-oiveb, JjU sbAriS jtA^* mu- 

Lawless, {j^y^ ' bf-n&mds. — 

(wicked) jij^ sbarfr, «su.U f isid. 
Law-suit, Jj^ da'y&, i*i\^ mur&- 

fa'ab, £y niz^S gW lajftj. 
Lawn, ^>4<^ cbaman. 

Lawyeb, M A^\ abl-i-fikab, M& 
fakfb, !U mulli. 

Lax, o^- sust, fy rakbv. 

LAXATiys, J6'>«^ mus-bil, (^^ mu- 

Laxity, ^^^s-*^ sustf , ^^^) rakh&yat. 

Lay, vide Song. 

To Lay, {^\^ guz&sbtan, 0*>Va» 
nibddan, (^*i/ £^^ yaz' kardan, 
^ jjt J^ guzdrdan, ^•>W j\ji kardr 
dAdan. — (eggs) ^^V^ &*4trf baizab 
nibAdan, ^«y ^ tukbm kardan. 
— (a wager) (;>*—♦ ly* sbart bas- 
tan, 0«y vA^. babs kardan. — (a 
meaZ) ^«>/ yW \A6 gbiz& b&zir 
kardan, 0*y (^ V^ sn&rr& 
pahn kardan. — (a telegraph) 
0A(^ kasbfdan. — (dust) y^ ^ja V*. 
0jJU kbAkrd furd m&ndan. — (<o 
2a^ a«u20) {^^ U}^ «8&2 j) bar 
jak taraf nibddaji. — (^ lau 
hefore, sevUbmit) {^fi^^ ^J^ pfsb 
dasbtan, {^^y^ ^Ati^ takdfm ni- 
mudan. — (to la^ out a garden) 
(^^ •>W:^ fjAd kcurdan. 

Layeb, 45 tab. — (m layers) ** *» bi- 

Lazabbt, aiU.jU^ bfm&r-kb&nab. 

Lazily, ^ ^t » bi-sustf, ^^^ bi- 

kibilf, JLtJuc» bi-tambaJf . 

Laziness, \J^ tambalf, ij^**^ 
sustf, JbfcVTkibilf. 

Lazy, J^x? tambal, la* ■ sust, JaV^ 


Lead, s>/- surb, ^^^) ras&s. — 
(white lead) ^*M** saffd&. — (red 
lead) u^jSiiA sbangarf, ^y^ su- 
ranj, 9>jhr} zinjifrab. — (hkbck lead) 
&^j- surmab, J^ kubl. — (plum^ 
met for sounding at sea) (a4( bult, 




To LvAD, e«y bardaii, p^^AS 
ka4ilifdan, (^^ i*st^*^ hid^jat 
kardan, (^^ «»JS«> dal41at sax- 
dan, (^^f^ ^^) r4h nimddan. — {to 
lead forth) (^^jij^ bi-dar burdaji. 

Lbadin, ^*o« Burbf . 

LsADSK, viae Chixf, Gitidi. — {one 
who goes first) wt^^^ish-rsMf ^if^fl^ 
mukaddam, Jy avval. 

LiADiNO (prinoipoQ, ft«Ufi 'umdah. 
— {leading to^ tending) %s^^¥* 
mu,add{, f}^ mubaUigh, JIU 
m^^. — (Jl^doding^rein^ long rein 
for a lei horse) ^J*^ ^M yadak- 

Lbav, a5» barg, jj^ varak. — {of 
paper^ sheet) sjj^ yarak, &a*' takb- 
tan. — {of a hook) ** fl^ * aabffah, 
jjjj Tarak. — {of a door) j*> a^ 

Lbavliss, 4i5^ ^ bf-barg, aju^j) 

Lxjlpt, jW ufy barg-d4r, «£$^ j^ 

Lkaouk {paraeang^ about three 
miles and three-quarters), f^^ 
&rBakh, «<0^ji nursang. {Vide 
also Plot, Pabtnxbbhip.) 

To Lkaoitb, i^^f^ *^ 'ftbd nimd- 
dan, {^»^ <JU^ paim&n baatan. 

Leak, uMj^ gbiktf, ^^^ rikbnab. 

To Lbax {exude), e)*^^V tardyfdan, 
^o^ cbakfdan, ^^y ^^ cbak- 
kah kardan. — {ship) ^*>^*> f s>^ 
4b td-d4dan. 

Lbakaob, a^ cbakkab. 

LsAKT (roo/, <§c.) j\*y ^ cbakkah- 
d4r.— («*tp) »Ja*j 5V| s>1 4b. 
b414.dihandab, JuX^^ *S:^ sSlah 
cbakkab mfkunad. 

LxAH {thin)f jt't 14gbir, j\^ ni24r, 
UW^ za'ff. 

To Lban {transX (w^aj a^ taWah 
zadan, e«>y*> ^^ ittik4 nimdoan. 
— {intrans,) o^^ J-*^^^ m4,il 

Leanness, ij^'i Ugbirf, odV 
niz4rf, *— -'^'^^ 

To Leap, {^S'*^ jastan, o^^f y^ 

kbfz kardan. 
Leap- YEAS, a^.^^ JU s41-i.kabf8ab. 

To Lease, ^J^H 4]ndkhtaii, J«i«i^ 
i^^ tahsfl kardan, ^^s^ •^^ 74d 
giriftan. — {study) {^j>^)*^ ^^^^^^ 
giriftan, (^ AaSVL* mut41a'ab 
kardan, o«y ^%«Ui ta^fm kardan, 
^jj^ ^\^ iktib4s kardan. 

Leabned, UU d4n4, ^JU <41iin, ut^U 
*4rif, JU4JtiU d4ni8b-mand, J^U 
f4zil, ^*tt^ bakfm, f^ 'all4ni, 
A5^^ ibndkbtah, UL^* musallat, 
JiVe <4kil. 

Leabneb, fJi*x^ muta^Uim. 

Leabnieo, ytiU d4niBb, ^ 'ilm, 
J«f«^taliB(l, «*^;«^ ma'iif at, la - - ^ 

Lease, ftjW^ i]4rah, ^i^/ kir4jah, 
•i^j^ sanad. 

To Lease {trans.) ^^^U ft;W\ i]4rab 
d4dan. — (intrans.) (^/ ^jW\ iji> 
rab giriftan. 

Least, ^ly^ kamtarfn, ^lyX^^ 
kdcbikturfn, (:Hy^ kibtarfn, 
{^/•^ kburdtarfn, ^\ asgbar, 
iyf\ akaU.— (oi least) ^\ akaUan, 
<3> b4rf, Ji\ S 14.akaU, ^ «a^o 
dast-i-kam. — (no^ tn ths least) 
A^ \^ bargiz nab, ai ftVl^tib bfoh* 
g4n nab. 

Lbatheb, (^ cbirm, «*^h p&st, 
jW iild. — (£u«ma leather) jUl| 
bulgb4r, JVcOi bulkb41 {vulg.).— 
{ox-hide leather) jt^ jfr. — {scented 
leather) f^*y\ sAim, — {shagreen) 
^ybU R4gbarf, fju^ sagbarf. — 
(strong leather of horse or ass 
skin) ia ^f 4 ^ kfmdkbi. — (sheep- 
skin) gW tfm4j. — (solid leather) 
^Va ?ifc - 8akbtf4n. — (worker in lea- 
ther — maker of belts, quivers, hol- 
sterSf Ac., in embroidered leather) 
jy^ij^ y tarkasbddz. 

Lbathebe, i^t^y^ cbirmfn. — (bo- 
them wallet) (^^\ amb4n. — 
(leathern purse) ^W«i^ bim74n, 
6i\^f*Jt bimj4nab. — (leathern cover 
or bag, to protect a box or pack- 
age from rain) ^U. kb4m. 

Leave, upjW^ ij4zat, (^^\ izn, o^^ji 
parv4nagi, o^a>V»^ ib4bat, ^ raza, 
^A^'^j rukbsat, jys^*y <lastdr, 
(4)y^«> dastdri, j^^^ jay4z. — (on 




priffUege learn) "Ul^ ^ •U^i'U 
mAyZimaii va muyakkatm. 
To Lbayb, (^\JS gaz^shtan, «fS^ 
^«>/ tark kardaiiy e)*V^ y^ ^Ji* 
nirnddaiit (2)A6»W y ^a^'^ dast bar- 
d^shtan. — (hidc^ieu) (^/i^^^ 
rakhsat giriftan, ^oai i^y* ii^u- 
rakhkfaas shudan, <^«>^ gU^ vid4' 
kardan, (^^oAf «>^j^ pidx&d guftan, 
^J^ hilfdan. — (to leave off^ 
cease) ^o\ . ? , ,. » ,<^ ^. Td-fstddan, 
^jUhk^ j\» b&z-fBUdan, (^ fj^ 
kat' sliudaiiy ^oai {M^ munkatd' 
shudan, ^«>^ ^y^* maukdf 
b&dan, ^*i^ isMjh nurdghat kar- 
dan. — (give up) vide To Aban- 
don, To Lbayb. — (to go on leave) 

i^^ O*^^ ^^^ giriftan, ij^f* 

^oAi miuakhkhas shadan. 
Lkaten, A|U m4jah, <|U ^^^^ kha- 

mfr - mdjah. — (leavened bread) 

^M«A. ^V» nin-i-kliamM. 
To liBATSN, (a*^)^jy yar-dvardan. — 

(to he leavened) (^^'S jy Tar-dma- 

Lkayinos, M} bakfyah, ««>V«J\t b&- 

kijit, V|Ui) bakdyd, ftJ^U ^^ pas- 

m&ndah, &«itf tatammah, Alii faz- 

lah. — (o/ a feaat) «J^U ^^-i^ pas- 

mindali, ^^ ^ tah-i-sufrah, 

v>y^ uldflh. 
Lbohxbous, <A^a (^ nafs^^Murast, 

^Jy9'^ shahyati, t*^***^ mast. 
Lbchbbt, o^ji cr^ nafs-paraatf, 

««»yk shahvat, ,js«^ masti. 
Lbctubb, ^j«> dam, %y^ aabak, jtyi 

To Lbotubb, ^tt/ u>4j*tf tadris 

IiBOTimBB, M^ y&Hz, u^j*^ mndar- 

Lbdob, vide fin>aB. 
LBDOBB,ysi«> daftar. 
LsBOHf Jj zaldy^^j z41d. — (to apply 

a leech) ^^ja\ y\j z41d andakh- 

Lbbk, \iA»S gatidani. 
To Lbbb, (^^) aX«JU^ chashmak 

Lbbb (dreg8\ •>i«> durd. <Ul fazlah, 


Lbft (remaining)^ ^J^^ b&kf, sJiU 
m&ndah, A^^sf tatammah, «<)j{;^ 
matrdk. — (not right) y^ chap, 
jl^t jasdr, jUii slumdL — (left' 
handed) v»^«> y^ chap-dast, 
^JUj^ shimdlf, y^ «*^J4 ^^ jS 
k&r-kiin bi-dast-i-chap. 

Lbo, j^ 8&k, ^ p4. — (Soft6 0/ Ze^) 
V^ ^ kalam-i-pa. — (to he on orufe 
lege) (^^^ ^ r* J*^ ^^ Bar-i-p4 

Lboact, «a»\m^ mfras, ^^ irs, a1^ 
tarkah, ^|yf^ matrdkah. 

Lboaii, vide Lawful. 

LboaiiITT, f ■■ jryt .>» mashrd'fyat. 

To LbgaiiIzb, 0J^U JV hal&l 
B&khtan, (2)Js«.U ^y;^ shar'f sikh- 

Lboatb, J*«/« muraal, ^j^ flchf, 
j«A-« saf fr. 

Lboatbb, ^^y vdris, jtl «a»j1 irs- 

Lboation, «£>jUm sifdrat, aiU. ui>jUm 

Lbqbnd, a^Uj^ dfs&nah, ^^^y) rivA- 

yat, vs^^ bikayat, ^is tazka- 

rah. — (inecription) ^j rakm, ^j 

rasm, ^a^\sS Htdbat. 
Lboenoabt, )«^1 diUJ^ dfadnah- 

Lbqbbdbicain, e^3^ b4zf-garf, 

^j\| Aji». hnkkah-bazf. 
Lboiblb, 0\^.a khw4n4, ^y^ 


LbOIBLY, U\^ U\^ 84f-B4f. 

Lbqion, ftj^gurdh, {^ tuman. 
To Lbqiblatb, (^U. ^yVs k4ndn 

sdkhtan, e^f*^ f^^^ C^^ vaz'-i- 

ahk4m nimudan. 

Lboiblatiyb, (y^ V l^^^^i^* 
Lboiblatob, 0y(s £^^^ y4zi'-i- 

k4ndn, fX^\ ^\y ▼4zi'-i-ahk4m, 

^j0y»\jS\ ^\y y4zi'a - 'n - n4]ndB, 

^^m ^\y y4zi'u-'l-k4ndn. 
Lboiblatubb, ij^/^^ hukni-r4nf, 

vs^«5^hiikdmat, t^j/^/ fimi4n- 

raya,f, oD^^«> d4yBkH. 
Lbqitimaot, vide Lawfulnbbb. — 

(hiHh) ^^y V bal41.z4dagf. 
Lboitimatb, vide 'LAirwm*.—(horn) 

ft^V^ hal41.z4da2i. 




Lbisitsb, iM^\^ fadighat, <a^ fur- 
sat. — (at leiBure) ^^ ^j ^\^JJt 
hang&m-i-bf-k^rf, ^»^ u^^ a^ 

Leisubblt, iA^ dhifltah. 

Lbhon, y*J Ifmii, Q)y*^ Ifmim, fiU 
y4^ shah-lfmii. — (jfweet lemon) 
J^ bakruyf. 

Lbhonadb, fi^yti^ afshurdah, uwj^ 
f^\ sharbat-i-db-lfmii. 

To Lbnd (money), ^•>^*3 ^^ karz 
d4dan. — (thingB) (^^^ ^JHJ^ 
'4rijat dddaji. 

Lbhdbb, ftJuA*> ^^jk karz-dibandah. 

Lbhgth iihings) J»J» ttil, ei)\)** 
dir^zf.— (^tm«) J^ till.— (a« JvU 
length) J^t ^ 'al^-'t-tafsH. 

To Lbnqthbn, (^^ji \\j J dir&z kar- 
dan, i^^^ Ji^ tavfl kardan. 

Lbkothbnbd, j«j^ madfd. 

Lbnothways, A}j\)«> didtzanah. 

Lbkibkt, ^!U mul4jam, /^jy* mu- 

Lbnitiyb^ (2^ muktjyin. 

Lbnitt, ui>\j\jb* miid4r4t, «*«*i!ll« 

Lbns, AmOa 'adasab. 

Lbht (/cut), &j2) i^^^^sab. 

Lbktils, (jim)^ 'adas. 

Lbopabd, «<5lJi^ palang, (^^ kap- 
14ii. — (hunting leopard) )^ ydz. 

Lbpbb, ^^jyt^ mabriiB, ^^ji barfs, 

Lbfbost (ii;At^), v/>;i baras, o*!);*^ 
mabrdsfy o*^. P^^^« — (&^A;) 

(»^*W juz4m. [Tiiis is tbe eating 
eprosy, a fearful disease, in 
wnicb the flesh rots from the 

Lepboits, ^j^ pfs, ^^ji\ abras. 

Lbss (in quantity), fS kam, f^ 
kamtar, JSt akall. — {Uee in size) 
f^f kdchiktar, f^f^ khurdtar, 
jA*i asghar. — (/eg« in tank or 
degree) f^ kibtar. — (ra<A«r leee) 
ijr^iBATif *<S / . Cu khusbktarak, 
*tiyt^ kamtaraJc. — (much less) 
A^j 6^ \s a chih rasad, J^V« W^ 
kuj4 m4nad. 

Lbssbb^U «tW\ ij4rah-d4r, jU h\/ 

To Lbssbh, ^^/ ff kam kardan, 
^^ uii^j^ kdchiE kardan, Ui^M^ 
^•>^ takhfff nim&dan. (Vide 
To Diminish.) 

Lbsson, Ok«* sabak, {j^j^ dars. — (to 
take leseone) [(^^y^ ^x*)*> darsr4 

Lbsbob, ftJoAj ftjW^ ij4rah - dihan- 
dah, fiJuu^o Aiy kir4yah«dihan- 

Lbst, UW^ mabad4, A^ Vl t4 kih, j^ 
*^ / az taraf kih. 

Lbt (hired out), JA&«^ mustaghall, 
jt^^ aj{r, J||;X« mukr4. 

To Lbt (aUow), ^«>U d4dan, (2)Aik\J^ 
guz4shtan, (^4>U up)W^ ij4zat 
d4dan, ^•>U ^«i\ izn d4dan. — (let 
on hire) (*)*>U Ai^y^ bi-kir4yah 
d4dan, ^•>U ft)W^ ij4rah d4dan, 
^jS «i^ ghallah kardan, J* *-- ** 
^ou mustaghall d4dan. — (M ^o) 
^"^j^ J^ ^^ kardan, {jSJb^\S^ guz4sh- 
tan, (i)*^ Vftj rih4 kardan, ,y>Si*> 
0«>/ kbaUs kardan. — (let looee) 
^j^Uj rih4 kardan, (^*yy^ i^\JtS 
gush4dah kardan, ^o/ jW b4z- 

l^'i'i*^^! c)*^ J^ ▼^l kaardan. — 
(let down, from a height) ^«>^*3 Uj 
rih4 d4dan, (^^^^-t* j^ f urd hish- 
tan, ^iAmU hilfdan. — (let alone) 
^^\SS^ guz4shtan, {^\^\^ yL- 
guz4shtan. — (to he let looee) V*j 
^oAi rih4 shudan, (^ J^ vil shu- 
dan, e*^ jW b4z shudan. — (to let 
down, puU down) (jstA^\ an- 
d4khtan, (^^j^^ {jj\i p4,in 4Tar- 
dan, (^*y^ iM>ji part kardan. 

Lbthaboic, &«>) ,^j- 
zadah, ia*..*.. « sust. 



Lbthajujy, (J^^ pfnakf, 

Lbttbb (of the alphabet), u>^ barf 
(pi, ^^ hurdf). — (capiial) U[^ 
«^^ harf-i-buzurg. — (consonant) 
^ t^» s^^ barf-i-sahih, yy> f ^ «-^ 
harf-i-mu'rab. — {long vowd) «-j»j*- 
**ift harf-i-'illat. — (ehort vowel) 
^\/\ i'r4b, %a^f^ barakat (pL 
«ft>y^ haraJdlt). — (epistuy 
khatt, vys^ maktdb, a^U 
mah, <L^j«* mur4salah9 «>v) 



ruk^ah, *J^tm^ sahffah, Sh\i k&- 

ghaz, &«l\5U mukitabah, A^^y 

nivishtah, jif^ tahrir. — (of a 

king) (^Uy firmAn, o^Ua ^j 

rakm-i-hiunily^y ^yto^ manshiir, 

««i shukkah. — (0/ a prince or 

noble) eW firm&n, iik^ ta'likah, 

^\^ parvdnah, ^j rakm. — (of a 

iuperior) ^/» snarifah, ^»^ 

ta'lflbih, &A^Uu muf^vazah, ^j 

rakm, A»i|^. ■»■ *• musharrafohy 

A«*U:^Ufi 'inijat-n^mah, &^U4»}\y 

]iaT4zi8li-n4mah. — (of an inferior 

to a superior) u*;* *arz, Mt»» 

'arizah, ^^ \^ nij^z - n4mah, 

^a^xbj^ 'arz-disht, ^j^ zarf*ah. 

— (of recommendation) 4^^ v>pVft-» 

8if4rish-ii4mah, &^\i j\-t^\ i*ti- 

bdr-n&mchah. — (of apology) ^^^ 

4**V» i*tiz4r-n4inah. — (of reproof) 

6^\i u>^!U maUmat-n^mah, v»^ 

&«V» <it4b-ndmah, o^fetrf/ ^ ^^^ 

i-taubfkhf.— (0/ mctory) a^V> c** 

fath-ndmah. — (0/ permiaeion^ 

licence) &^^ j^^ javAz-n4mah. — 

(of conaolation) &^^ ia^uI— J tasli- 

yat-n4mah. — (of attestation) 

A«*U «dpj\e^ shahdcLat-nimah.. — 

(of forgiveness and safdy) ^^ 

0U^\ n^mah - i - itmin&Q, •^^ 

^yui<^ jK»U. k4ghaz-i-k]i4tir-jam'f. 

— (0/ condolence) ^^ «-j>«5 ta'zi- 

yat-ndmah. — (of svMnission) 

d^M ^a^\L\ itd'at - nimah, &sAiy 

Mt«J niTisbtah - i - taslfm. — (of 

credU) «>V ^»r^*» i) ^^.^^^ 
ghaz-i-z4r. — (of congraiidation), 
Ai»\i tf.%fr i 6? tabniyat-nimah. — (0/ 
passport) <4)^«*^^j r4h-d4r£, «/^ 
tazkirah.— («tt«e 0/ a iett«r) ft;L 
turrab, ^^^ sbdsbab. — (sweep 
w tab, of a letter) (^U da- 
man. — (unpointed letter, aa \ , 
^f ^9 dc.) ^W* mubmalab. — 
(pointed or dotted letter^ as v», 
6, v>> ^c.) &4^i^ mu'jamab. 
— (letter mth one dot, a« v» » e > 
^) &wy* ij»j»> barf-i-mdbadat. 
r—(with two dotSf as vt»f j) *UA*« 
naiiBn4t. — (wi^ ikree dots, as «a» , 
^^) JUdUti« mualasat. — (with two 


dots above, as w>) ^^ ^ SUi^ 
mu8n4tu min faukib4. — (vfith 
two dots hdoWf a«<^) ^^sa? ^^ SU^ 

mu8n4ta min tabtib4. 
Lettebed, V)t j d4n4, ^^ '41im. 
Lbttx7GE, y^^ kabd. 
Lby^e, f*^ f»^ 8al4m-i-'4mm, fXm 


LbysIi, ;)^y bar4bar, j\y4Jt bamT4r, 

^Ui-*» musattab, oir*"'^ muta- 

savyi. — (^61762 of ihe sea) f^ satb. 

To Leyel, {^s^^ jl\ji bar4bar 

84kbtaiiy (^sdX* AytJt bamy4r 

84kbtan, c)'V^ ir^ ma8attab 

nimddan. — (a gun), i^*^ jVto 

day 4k kardan, {^fy) ru girif- 


Leyblkess, f^jk\^ bar4barf, ^s^y^ 

Leteb, f^\ abrum, fii^ dfliim. 
Lbtebet, ^ ^ff- kbar-gii8b-i- 

Leviable, ^^f^o^ Jf Vs k4bil-i-tab8fl. 
Leviathan, (;)^V2^ l{vf484n (eur.). 
Lbvitt, ub^^«} bihjat, ^^^ subukf. 
Levy, wfVL t4,ifab. 
To Levy (troops), 0**^ »V* ^}^ C** 
jam' - 4varf - i - 8ip4b nimiidan. 
— (taxes) (^^j\^e\j*- kbir4j guz4r- 
dan, ^•>\*> jY g^ b4j karar d4daa. 
Lewd, «*—»» ^H* nafs-panust, ^^^ 

sbabvati, ta.^**-^ mast. 
Lewdness, ^y^^^ u«<tf nafs-parastf, 

«a>^ sbabvat, ^^jS**-^ mastf. 
Lexicoobaphbb, «d^ J^^ abl-i- 

Lexicogbapht, ss^ fi^ <ilm-i- 

Lexicon, «a>US v»^ kit4b-i-lugb4t. 
Liable to, \^f^ mu'arraz, s ^^^ -^ 
mustaujib, ^V>** Baz4v4r, J^^s^ 
Liaison, 'Jie 'al4kab. 
LiAB, ^jD«> durdgb-gd, «ir»*^^k4zib, 

s>^<3k5 kazz4b. 
Libel, f*^ •)« bad-n4m, ^U4i«> dusb^ 
n4m, ^a^^ mazammat, ^v^ 
LiBBLLEB, (jMty (tU d) bad*n4m'» 
nivfs, (ji«ty f»UAi«> da8b-n4m-iiiviB, 
sjif^ muftarf • 




LxBBLLOVB, ^j^ 41 bftd-niinf, 

^Uku du8h-nianf. 
LiBSKAL, (j"fe«« sakhf, m/ karim, 

dah-dasty jyi\^ javin - mard, 
^%AA«« mun'im, v»^9 vahhib, (>^ 

LiBBBALiTT, ««>4W« sakhiYaty W« 
sakh^y Aft^y kaWonat, «a.M*^ 
makramat, «>«%> j&d, J«^ bael^ 
v5^/*>^^ jarui - mardf, *a*^ U .. 

LiBXBALLTy A}\«yi\^ javiii - mar- 

To LiBKBATi, M*3/ ^/il^ khali^ 
kajrdan, M«>/jUL.j rastag^r kar- 
dan, e^^ riliikardan. 

LiBBBTiHK, J(j^\^y^ khwush-guz- 
r&n, v/^ kall^sli, Jij rind, jW Ue^^ 

LiBBBTiRiBKy o^^jJ^^jy* khwuah- 
guzr^nf, ^fi'iAj rindl, 0)W -^^^ 
shaid-bizf, ij^ fisk. 

LiBBBTT, ^•>\j1[ iz&df, <^^3l ^^ 
dagf, Uj rihi, JS^j rih4,f , v/^ 
khal^B, ^jJUfc^ mukhlasf, CD^^^J 
rastagirf. (FtdeMAniTMissiOH.) 
— (to he at liberty to do anyihif^) 
^jy j^jK 4z4d bddan, ^^^y ^j^*^'^ 
ma,ziin bddan, (^\^j\^\ ikb- 
tij4r d^sbtan. 

Libidinous, t^^^ v/*^ nafs-paraat, 
^^ sbahvati, sm.*>^^ mast. 

Libba, ^^)«^ mfzin. 

Ltbrahtan, ^jfi^ IdUb-chi. 

LiBRABT, A}U s^ katub-khAnah. 

Liob, vicfe LOVBB. 

L1CBN8B, vide Lbatb. 

To LiCBBSB, (^US" gumiahtan. 

LiCHBH, «<Cu» JT gil-i-sang. 

Licit, vide Lawful. 

To Lice, ^Jk«^ Ifsfdan. 

LiOTOB, J^Ue 'asiTal. 

Lid, y^jij^ sar-p&ah, »- sar. 

I^«> ij>*> dur^gh, s^-w kizb, nj ziir, 

^Wj\ irj4f (|)L Uke^^V a^^i")- 
To Lib, (^JcAf ^^j durd^ guftan. — 
(to lie on the hack) (^^^^ 5W /• 
■ar«b414 khwibfdan, <ji^ ji 
^j^Ua. bar pnaht khwibfdan. — 
(to Ue on ihe face) ^^^5^ jp f»«» 

dam-i-rd kbwibfdan, ^a^\^ ^ f 
bar rd khw4bfdan. — (to lie on one 
tide) (^A^Xyi- ff'^^ jak-pahld 
kbw4bfdan, ^J^W *f »^ ^ jak- 
jambah kbw4bfdan. — (to lie 
doum) ^J^ }\)^ dir4z sbudan, 
^•koiW khw4bfdan, > a i ■■■ * 
kbuBofdan, ^«>;^ ft\J{ 4r4m kar- 
dan, o*V^ uM^^yu«\ igtir4hat ni- 
mddan, (^*y/ i^ kappafa kardan 
(vtdg.y — (with a M>oman) ^J^f^'^ 
(^ bam-khw4bf sbudaii. 

LiBOB (eovereign) ftUo^ p4diBh4h, 
«<VUmalk. — (efMed) «fc^ra*iyat, 
J^ U^ vaf 4.k{sh. 

LiBV, y^^ 'iyaz, W ]4, i*U« makim. 


li'^gi ^^^ X* sar-kardah. 

LiFB, ,j^j zindagf, o^Vlk»j zinda- 
g4nf, ^j zf, 4»«»4j zfst,^ 'omr, 
utfW hia74t, ^W j4n, (jl«ft 'aish, 
»j) rdb, ^\^ iay4n, ,jX-a hastf. — 
(wriUen naicrative) ^/^ tazkarah, 
^j*V» ta,rfldi.— -(to rvttore to life) 
(^^\t^\ ihji kardan. — (life in- 
terest) £U4Ju.\ i8timt4^ 

LiFB-ouuiDsiiAK, ^^^j^ bam- 

L1FBLB8S, ^W«t bf-j4n, Ajy* mar- 

LiFBTIXB, y^ 'unUT, ««>W ««>4<« 


To Lift, (^U ^ bar-d48btan, 
i^y\ afr48btan, 0^ SW b414 
karoan, (^aidXm juk bnLEUid B4kh- 
tan. — (a fallen pereon or ammal) 
(a^\yt^ji bar-knfz4nfdan. 

LiOAMBBT, s-«^ 'aab. 

LiQATUBB, JJi band, *»<^^ baat. 

Light (eube,), ^^J^ raushanf, 
J^^^ raii8ban4,f, ^y ndr, ^J^^f 
ndr4nf, ^ nayyir, ^J^r tajallf, 
<iy^ jilyab, W^ zi74, tyj^ furdgb, 
fVadi 8hu*4*. — (acy.) 0*2) rausban 
jy ji pur-ndr, jy^ inunaTvar, 
jt** munfr. — (candle, <ftc.), g*^ 
sbam', £V*^ chir4gb. — (not 
heawy) alt** 8abuk, <» M * kbi^ff. 
— (to (nn^ to %^) e^«»t-4^ 
0«»>)\ bi-maidin 4THidflnf «-*Al 




e j/ kaskf kaardan, {^si^l* y^Vk z&- 
hir 8&khtan. — (clb cohv/f) jU t&z, 
0^1 4bakf. 

To Light, (^*y/ {^^ raushan kar- 
dan, (^'^^\ afrukhtan, ^*Mtj^ 
sdzdnfdan, c)^/ cr^^ itish kur- 

To LioHTBN (JUuh), ^A^^J 
dirakhslifdaii, ^«\)«^ jihfdan. — 
(lessen ihe weight) i^^y^ iJit^ 
takbfff nimddan. 

LlOHT-FIKOBBED, ^3*3 duzd. 
lilGHT-FOOTBD, ^^^ 8ubuk-p4. 

LiOHT-HBABBD, jl^S^ subuk-sdr. 
L10HT-HBADBONB88, ^jU'^subuk- 

L10HT-KBA.BTBD, J*> 6jU1[ 4z4dah- 

IjiaHT-HOir8B, cu»jU« man^rat (pL 

t*U« mandm), tj^^^i £4x148, jui 

Lightly, &A«>Jb^ dhistah, a*\;U alt*. 


LiGHTKBBS, ^j^ Bllbukf, n>M. 


Lightning, m bark, aacU 8a'ikah, 
(jft^^a dirakhsh, f»«*U2 jildiram. 

Lights (of the hody)j ^J^ 8hu8h. 

LiGNBOUB, (^}^ ch^bfn. 

LiXB, M)^ chiin, j^ cbd, (^y^f^ 
bam-cndn, ^U^ chunan (gene- 
rally pronounced chinin), j^*^)^ 
bi-kirdAr, ^U^ bi-sdn, JuiU m4- 
nand, J^ misl, J^ niiB41, f^ 
hukm. — (in campoeition) U 84, 
M 484, j^ 84r, X v4r, v>j[ vash, 
^U 84n, f»VAi^ 48h4m. — (<idjeetive) 
ji\ji bar4bar, ^^--^ yak-84n, ijk^y* 
inuT4fik, <3tVL« mut4bik, U«[ft 
liam-t4, a^Um* mu8b4bili, UUa 
hain4n4, JudU m4nand, Jt« misl, 
J»W« miim4Bil, J»>U*« mu'4dil. 

To LiXB, ^J^Juu^ipasandfdan, vs.%«^j 
(^U dust d48htan, (:)^U J^** 
mail d48btan. 

LiKBLiHOOD, isJ^te^ ma'kdlat, 
JUa^\ ihtim41. 

LiKBLT (proftoiZ^), J«>j:^« mubta- 
mal, «-r^^ agblab, jy^"^ ma'kdl, 

To LiKBN, {^s^\^ ji\ji bar4bar 

84kbtan, 0J^U ^\y miiT4fik 
84kbtan, (^^U LuJ^ liam-t4 84kb. 
tan. — (compare) (^'^y^ dJ^VJU mu- 
k4balab nimtidan, ^*>^ *»<Jtf 
tasbbib kardan, ^t);^ Oj^f y bar- 
4yard kardan. 

L1KBNB88 (portrait)^ a«mA shabfli, 
>ty«y ta8vfr, J^ shakl (jpL Jliifc^ 
a8bk41). — (resemblance) ^sfl^ji ba- 
r4barf, Je^ tamsfl, Jlu mis41, 
* » ! ■■ ♦ * » tasbbih, %Uii« inu8li4ba- 
hah, M> 8liibb, is^^y* niU74ia. 
kat, «d^WAi 8hab41iat, ut(W ni- 
m4ji8li, f^ hukm. 

LiKBWi8B,^bain,^ Biz,'^\ aizan. 

Liking, J««« mail. 

LiLAO, iij^ ^J^i y48-i.kab&d, ;^V| Jf 
gal-i-y48. — (colour) (^\^j\ argba- 

Lily, (^y^ sdsan, oMj zambak.— 
(Uvrge white Uly) My J^' gol-i- 
maryam. — (water lUy) jk^ nai- 
liif ar, ^1 4bii. — (smaU Hue spring 
lily) {^yr ciV*^ flchf-i -sdaan, — 
(Japan lUy) ijy\^ ^ ^j zam- 

LiHB, f^ *uzv (2?^. Uft\ a*z4), yu* 
Bbilv (i?Z. )U^ asbU), (j>J )!► juz-i- 

To LiHB, e*H)* bnrfdan or burrfdan. 

Limb, *«l*^ 4hak.— (^ plaster) 
^ gacb. — (^icA^2im«) fU^ oX*^ 
7bak-i-kb4m, fi^y nurah. — (fnTd" 
lime) s^^ % AA * l . %i kishmishk-i- 
k4valf , j*> dakk. — (fruU) ^ 
lfm6. — (sweet lime) J^ bakru,f. 

LiHB-EiLN, ef)^fi;)^kiarab-i-gacii- 

LixB-wATBB, <tfU^ s^^ 4b-i.4hak. 

Limit, vide Bounds. 

To Limit, (^U *^a^» mabd&d 

Limitation, y^ basr, •>»- badd. 

LiMiTBD, •>^A^^ maJidud. — (to he 
limited) ^t^V^ «>9*W^ mabddd 

LiMiTBOPHB, ^Jl^ miital4kf. 

To Limn, ^*M^ kasbidan, (^^^ fy^ 
tasvfr kardan, (^VS^\ angasb* 


LiMNBB, wde Paintbb. 




Limp, ff narm, ^^ laBm. — {in 
ipaXking), J^ langf. 

ToNIiixp, ^•^^^ lanfffdan. 

Liiq'iD, JSj zuUl, ««)t^ p4k, s^V» n&b. 

LlHm>ITT, ^^ p4ki, ^U sAf f. 

LiNB^y^ satar, U. khatt. — (meo- 
attnfl(7 Him) J;U shiyul, ;V6U--|t 
rfsooilln-kdr. (VidA Plitmb-linb.) 
— (cord) o^*--*; rfsmin, *»•*) 
rislitaL — (0/ baMle) «JU gaff (|>2. 
4-iyu sufdf). — (of a compontion) 
ftJU fakarah. — (of ships) aa«j 
oastah. — (of railway) aas^j riali- 
tah. — (lines on the face and hands) 
j\^\ BBtkr. — (military lines) *^j^^ 
Ati^ huddd-i-harbiyah. — (for 
writing) ^5Aaj|^ satar - bandi. — 
(for clothes) ia^ rakht. 

LiKSAOB, vide Family, Tbibi. 

LiKXAL, u"^ »* ^ bam-jins. 

LiKBAMSNT, t) rukb, fito^ cbibrab. 

LiKBK, (^^ katUn, yi oazz. — (fine 
linen) ««SjU ^Vs^ katt^n-n&zuk. 

LiKBN-DBAPBB, ^yi bazziz, j^ A^ 

To LiKOEB, tide To Loiteb. 

LiNoiTAL, (j^^ lis^nf. 

Linguist, (;)^^ ijW} zab4n-d4n, ^Wj 
^U4i zaban-sbinds. 

Linihbnt, fJ^f marbam. 

Lining (of a garment)^ j^\ Astur, 
6s\Li batinab, yu.1 a,star. 

Link (of a chain) <idL balkab. — 
(torch) Jft'J^ masb^al. 

To Link, ^jSJbA^ Ji^ paivand ddsb- 

Linked witb, a^ I^y** mandt bf. 

Linseed, ^UT^ tukbm-i-kattdn, 
<^^ ;y bazr-i-kattin, «<Sjiy bazrak. 

Linstock (nto^^), ^^ fatflab, 

&2^ falftab rt;ti2g.)- 
Lint, 0^ kattan, aII^s^ fatHab. 
Lintel, Me 'atabf^, AlUu.^ &8it4- 

Lion, y^ sbfr, «su.\ asad, cA^j^ ^'J^' 
Un, j«^ baidar, ^y^ bizabr, vft^ 
lais, ^^ sabuSyu^ gbazanfor, 
e>«;* gbarfn. — (liones^ «*>U ^ 
sbfr-i-inddab, a^ labvab, a«su.\ 
asadab. — (lion*s crib) s}t^ sbibl, 
^. j^ sbir-bacbab. — (sea-lion) 

f^.y^ sbfr-i-bahr. — (Order of the 
Lion and 8vn) "Mh^ ^ ye^ e^ 
nisb&n-i-sbfr u kbwma. 

Lip, s-J lab, 'Aa sbifab. 

Liquid (subs,), ^ ih, ^Jl\ 4bf. — 
(odj,) ^^ maz4b, s-^*^ z4,ib, 
jC sayyil. 

To LiQUiFT, (2)Js«*W gudikbtan. 

LiQUOB (flmd), ^\ 4b, U m4. — 
(spirits) Jd^ 'arak, h^V^ 8bar4b. 

LiQUOBicE, ^j»y»» sds, o^ mabk. 

Lisp, sa.'jSi luknat. 

To Lisp, e*^ ^^ *^ bad-talaffaz 
kardan, (^*yji ^a^jSl luknat kar- 

List (catalogue), ^a^^ fibrist, y\t^ 
tafsfl, «y faid, &ai»« 8iy4ban. — 
(arena) ^^•)^maid4n, A^f^ ma'ia- 

To List (hed over), ^^^ ^ kaj 
sbudan, ^*^ v5)^ «8^ yiSk-barf 
sbudan. (Vide To Listen.) 

To Listen, ^«>\«> v>^ gdsb dddan, 

0«>y y . 7 . .• mustfl^i' bddan, 

^jyT fU^u^ i8tim4' kardan. — (in 
a had sense) ^•>^ £4-^ tasaimnu' 

LiSTENBB, g* A ..,^ mostamiS g^t. 

Listless, J^^ gb4fil, u>«««-» snst. 

Listlessly, 'VxLk^ gbiflatan. 

LiSTLESSNESs, ^aJi^ gbiflat, ^^"-^ 


Litany, Uj du*4. 

LiTEBAL, <^ lafzf, ^J^\ aslf. 

LiTEBALLY (ver&a^tm), ^ "^^ laf- 

zan bi-laf z. 
LiTBBABY, fM ,U\ abl-i-'ilm. 
LiTEBATE, sHt*>^ adfb. 
LiTEBATUBE, jJe 41m, s^\ adib. 
LiTHABGE, «siCu« B«>|« murdab-sang, 

4s5Cju. j\*yym murdar-sanff. 

LiTHOGBAPHY, ^^^ VT Cb4p-i. 

Lithotomy, a^VjU tf. C u» ^\jtA ikbr4j- 

Litigant, ^^j^^ mudda'f. 
To Litigate, o**^ is^jU* mun4- 

za'at nimddan, (^*>y4^ ^a*** ^^ 

kbusdmat nimddan. 
Litigation, ^^ da'y4y a«4S kaaf- 





yah, i»*ejU« manAza'at, 

khufldmat, e^ » ^ ^^}^h 
Litigious, ^»*-j^ fW niz4*.ddst, 


ty^ lajdj, ^ 4^5' gilah- j d. 
LmoiOTTSKEss, ^yi^ ^ gilah-jdi, 

uM^V^ laj^jat. 
LiTTEB (sedan), J^«w mahmil. — 
(/or an eZepAani) 6*>y^ haudaj, 
6j^ haudah. — (carried hy mulea) 
(j)t|^ «A-ASf takht-i-ray4n.— (cornel 
panniers) *)W^ kaj&vah. — (of 
cubs, Sc.) s^/ gurdh, ^^«i^^ maj- 
md'ab. — (sweqnngs, rubbish) j^*y\ 
idh&i, MUai\ aslik&l, ^»^j lasht, 
*»%/W kh4k - rdbah. — (straw) 
jCflb^ pdshdl, «sUt uOe <alaf- 
ulang, v>>i pdsh, ftV^ kih. 
To LiTTEB, (^Jyti A^y taulfd nimd- 

dan, (^S\y zddan, e)*^^3 zdfdan. 
LiTTliB (in quantity), ««) Ji^ andak, ff 
kam, J«li kalil, ^^j^ khwurdah, 
tjS zarrah. — (small) «M- khurd, 
«>j^ kkwurd, •^^^ kuchik, j«*« 
aaghfr, 6S kih, ^ p&clu^. — (a 
liUle, some) tj,^^ kadrf, ^^\ an- 
dakf , ftJjj^ khwTirdah, , ^^^ juzvf , 
^^)t^ sbatri. — (a UtUe, short time) 
e^j*^ kadri, <^*3^a^ yak-chandf, 
^jj\ andakf, jji (^Uj zam'&n-i- 
kalfl.— (Zt^Te by little) fi jS kam 
kam, ^ ^ raftah raftab, qh^j^ 
bi-tadrfj. — (too liiil) ff Ji^ 
khailf kam, ^^ pur kam. — {Jmt 
litUe) ^J^^ kamf. — (ever so little) 
d^ji\ andak, ^jS zarrah, ^UJb$ sham- 
LiTUBOY, {jA'ii kuddis. 
LiYx, fi*x») zindah, ^^ hajy. 
To LiYB (be alive), {^su^} zfstan, 
^jy fioij zindah bddan, ^•i^j 
(^*^y^ zindagf nimddan. — (pass 
Ufe) ^•M\)*Vf «a>Vs^t aokdt guzrd- 
nfdan, ^^^i ^ bi-sar burdan, 
(^*y/ ij^^} zmdagdnf kardan. — 
(gain a livd^od), (^^/ (dh^ 
guzrdn kardan, o*)/ \^ (^\\^ 
guzr&n paidd kardan, J«'«0' |>U^ 
(^*^/ ma'ash tahsfl kardan. — 
(dweU) ^^y (^^^ sdkin budan, 
f^xM\^ w^yL* sukdnat dashtan, 

^«>y bddan, (^^U Jy^ manzil 

LlYBLIHOOD, ^fi}^ rdzf, c:o. t «i^ i .JU»« 

ma'ishat, vA^ *^*^ madad-i- 





ma'dsh, o\)*^ guzran. 

LiYBLiKBSs, ^^yt^i*. khwnsh-taVf. 

LiYELOKQ, •UA hamah, ^UJ tamdm. 

LiYELY (gay), «-AW jilf, e«U^ 

LiYEB,^^ jigar, Jkt^ kabid. — (Zwer 
complaint) jS^ •>)•> dar(}-i-jigar, 
^^ fiju. sudiaih-i-jigar. — (one wAo 
lives) »Jk>3 zindah. — (a free-liver) 
U« Ja\ ahl-i.saf4. 

LiYEBY, ^W3 libds, va^ rahkt. 

LlYEBY-STABLE, Jl^\ istabl. 

LiYiD, ^jj z^d, *M«» saffd. 
LiYiDNEBS, <^^jj3 zardf, ^*M-« sa- 

LiYiNO (food, Ac), **J^j>*- khwarik. 

— (alive) fiJ^j zindan, ^ hajj. 


LizABD, ^V^ chalpasah. — (guana 
lizard) j^^^^y»» sdsmdr, &^^ bnz- 
majah, J^^)*^)^ buz - ddsh. — 
(speckled lizard) ^^ft\ ^U s&mm- 
abras, ^j|\ abras. 

Lo ! *^\ mak, (^^Vft ban, (^ hfn. 

Load, ^W bdr, J**- haml. — (load 
of a camel) j\^ jSJb» ghutur-Ydr, 
f^ )^ bdr-i-shutur. — (of an ass) 
^^ khar - Y4r, ^^ khal - Y4r 
(vvlg,), — (of a man) a^jW ^^ - 
kdlah-b4rchah, ^/ kdlah. 

To Load, (^•>/ jW b4r kardan, J«*> 
^«>/ haml kardan. — (a guri) j^ 
(^^^ pur kardan. 

Loadstone, W/^I ^^^ sang-i- 
4han-rub4, ( j *«fll»U i u «sC^ sang- 

LoAP, (^\i n4n, ^U v/>y kur»-f- 

LoAH, J^gil, ««)^ kh4k. 

LOAHY, ^^ gilf, ,^/W kh4kf. 

Loan (of m^mey, Ac), [^f karz, 
^^ Y4m, »J^ bidih, q^j dain. — 
(q/ an article) *a^^ '4rijat, 
fijUs^^ i8ti'4rah. — (commercial 





term) J^^\ uu^juu sanad&t-i- 

To LoATHB, (:)AfcU »M^ makruh 

d&shtan, o^/' *Jt>/i nifrat kardan. 
Loathing, and Loathsomeness, 

W^ ib^, \J^^\ i*dLz, ct»y» nifrat, 

jJuJ tanaffur, *a^^\y^ Icar&hfjat. 
Loathsome, «d^ zisht, ^^j^ mak- 

Lobby, ^^^2^ aiyin, <^)U d^ldn, ^)V7 

t4Ur, c)^ JJ^ kaf sh-kuii. 
Lobe (of •the ear), vA^^y narmah- 

LoBflTEB, isXjii^j^ khar-chang, sig 

a5^ kallah-cnang, «cV|V^ ^ pani- 

p&yak, JWS^ l^jranjdl, j\^M 

kalaiij4r, OTT* saratdn. 
LocAii, fJUto^ mahallf, a«W« mahal- 

liyah, «^y* mauki'f. — (local 

government) * <iw va.M» ^ hukd- 

LocAiiiTT, vuie Place. 
Locally, "UUi* makdnan, ^.^A*- j^ 

J^^ az haiBfjat-i-mahall. 
To Locate, vide To Pur, To Lay. 

— (to locate oneself) {^f W \k 

Location, iA^U) ik&mat, ^^ ma- 

Loch, <^V{jj darj4cbab, jJ^ ghudar, 

A5[^ birlcah. 
Lock, Jtf kufl.— (0/ ^ir) «la^ hal- 

kah, ftj^ turrah, aa^v^ ja'd, v»^ 

tAb. — (ai the sides of the head) 

UUj zulf. — (on the crown of the 

^eckQ J^kdkul, Aiyi shtishab.— 

(ai the hack of Uie head) ^j^ gfs, 

^^^^gfsd. — (on the forehead) V^J^^ 

cbalfp4. — (of a gun) jU^ 

chakbm&k, jUa^ chakmdk. 
To Lock, ^•>/ aj^ \^ kufldi band 

kardan, 0«>/ iaJ^ cbif t kardan. 

— ^ ptU on a lock) ^-MW**^ jAi 

kun chasbdnfdan. 
LocKBBy Jh*>^^ sandiik. 
Locket, ^w ^^y* m4f*d4n, ^U UkSj 

Lock-jaw, &yl) lakvah. 
Lock-smith, 3U JAS kufl-sAz. 
Locomotion, J^4a»\ intikil, JW»j\ 


I LOCOMOTITE, Ui^yf^ Kykdmiittt 

Locust, ^ malakb, «sC6^ maig. — 
(ravages of locusts) ^jy^ ^ ma- 

Lodge, &»W. khdnab, (^\^ makdn. 

To Lodge (abide), {^\*y Jy^ man- 
zil ddsbtan. — (to lodge a person) 
^j^ (jjl^l iskan nimudan, Jy^ 
^jW manzil dadan. 

Lodger, ^ ^i^/ kirdjab-cbf. 

Lodging, Jy^ manzil, a^U. kbdnali, 
v>W •^y Md-bdsb, I^U mdva. 

Loft, AiU. )\t b41a-kb&nab. 

Lofty, vt^ High, Exalted, 

Log, fi*u^ knndab, ajJ tanab. 

Logarithms, v»^^^ ans4b, ^* t ' » i 
nisbat, *> ^U » >» jWt ^Ui^ sbimdr- 

LoGGBBHEAD, ij^ abmak, ^^yti 

Logic, jjWa^ mantik. — (terms of 
logic) &t»flU* ^\i^kA istildbdt-i- 

Logical, ^J&oj^ mantakf. 

Logician, ^"^ mautiki, ijfi»i^ Ja^ 

Logwood, ^ bakm. 

Loin, *4^ kamar, s-^ sulb, (^^W** 
mi J an. 

To LoiTEB, ^J/' isOtJ dirang kar- 
dan, (;)*>y4i ^j4»> dirf nirnddan, 
^jUi^ s-^ 'akab uf tddan. 

LoiTEBBB, (^\^ s-^Ac 'akab-raydn. 
— (had character) ;^V» nd-bi-kdr. 

To Loll, q)^j^ ^y^*^ sustf kardan, 
^jj^ ^^j^ drdm kardan. 

Loneliness, vide Solitude. 

Lonely, W^ tanbd, «>;Aa^ munfaridy 
*>;v* mujarrad, ^^ vdhid, ^ 

Long, j^j*> dirdz, J^ tdl, Ji^L 
tayQ, t^*^ madid, SJ^e^ kasbf- 
dab, aU| buland. — (how long? 
m when?) </ VI td kai, Ju^ U td 
cband, W^ V» td kujd. — (long ago) 
J'3^ muddati, 3W >f> dfr-bdz, 
j^)t ^Ai j\ az kadfmu-'l-ayjdm, 
{^\ \\ ij^ ujx. ^j^ muddati-i- 
maafd pfsb az fn. — (the long and 





shoH of U), i^^^ ^^ kallfy&t- 
i-siikhun. — (to he long^ time), J^k 
^j^\cF(t bi-tul anj^mfdan. 

To LoNQ, (^*y/ (J^\y^ kliw&liisli 
kardon, ^^^ Jt»^ mail nimd- 

LoNaANiMiTT, jVi^ Tak&r, p^ sabr, 
J-«^ tahammul. 

LoKOiKo (desire), (J^\^ khwAhish, 
^ju^.j^^ drzd-maiid/, Je^ mail, 
jV^aM ishtijdk. — (of women in 
chUd-hed) i^j\ armah. 

LoKaiTTJDB, J^ *^^*> darajah-i- 

LoNoiTUDiNAii, Jt^Bt bi-tavQ. 

LoNosuFFSRiNo, jt^ sabr, J*0^ ta- 

Look, a^ nigah, M naz&r. — (aip- 
pearance) jj^ zundr, ^y* sdrat, 
J^^\ ashkal, JJ\^ paidijiBli. — 
(interj.) *«^\ inak, (^ li4n,*(*^ 
bfn, i*i dah. 

To Look, (^si^fi nigrfstan, ^t^*) 
didan, ^*yj^ Jn nazar kardan, ftV^ 
Q)*y/ nigah kardan, (^*y/ 5aaUm» 
mush&liadah kardan. — (seem) 
(^*yy*i nimddan, ^*^^ •^•H p&dfd 
limadan, ^J^y^^ zAkir shudan, 
^jufti ^^jU ma'lum shudan. (Vide 
To Inspect, To Skaech, To 
Expect.) — (to look after) *a^\j^ 
^J|^ muvdzabat nimddan. — (to 
look into, i.e. overlook) ^*yyf ct ■■♦***» 
bi-samt budan. 

Loom, &S J^ k4r - gah, «U. sS^ 

To Loom, e*V^ nimddan, ^A6b y^VL 
z&hir shudan, ^«>^^ ^^^H pa^^d 

Loop, ^udL. halkah, o^«>U mddagf. 
— (2oop-^2ec{) s^jA^ maskdb. 

Loose (tm6owMQ, &«>Ui5' gush^dah, 
JjW* mahldl, &&^ V» n4-bastah, 
jW baz, j^^ v4z, J^ vil (vulg.).— 
(elack, not tight) «».^-— sust, fi*>VA5' 
gdahddah, eV fir4kh, Jai shul, 
««U lak.— (no^ firm) ««U lak, U 
^^5^ n4-muhkam. — (hanging 
down) ^Ai^ y^ furd - hishtah, 
&afc>^^ 4vikhtah, »ja J^ vil-shu- 
dah (ryulg,), — (unconnected) V» 

&^^ n4-paiTa8tah, i^;«« U n4- 
marbdt, oj^;^^ ^ n4-makrdn. — 
(ae leaves of a hook, Ac, «n- 
stiiched) »J^^jj) yar-4madah. — (to 
hang loose) (^^^ hilfdan. — (to 
he loose, unbound, free) c)*^ jW 
b4z shudan, ^j^ \^ yu shudan,^ 
^AS» Uj rih4 shudan. — (infwm, 
shakey) ^•^ lakfdan, ^ojk tcU 
lak shudan, e)*^y ff^ V» n4- 
muhkam bddan. 
To Loose, (^c\aS gush4dan, ^«y^ 
gushddan, (^j/ jW b4z kardan, 

{^\iS guz4shtan. 

Loosely, aoU^ j^-^ bf-taur-i- 

Looseness, ^«>U5' gu8h4dag{, ^ 
,,/^ n4-ba8tag{, ,js*«^ sufftf, ^ 
^ J^ n r .AJb furd-hishtagf, ,^/a-^ u 
n4-paiva8tagf. — (medical tetm) 
jVe-^ ish41, f^ ^Wj* jir74n-i- 
shikm,jti»-3 zahfr. 

To Lop, (;;•>*;♦ burfdan, or burrf- 

Loi^uAcious, J^yt« miky41, ^ ^ 

Loquacity, Jy^ji pur-gd,f. 

Lord, jt^\ amfr, ^ mfr, ^U. kh4n, 
«^^ heg, ^J^) T41f, J^y* maul4y 
V&1[ 4gha, U\ 4k4, ts^ sajjid, ' 
ja^\m. khud4yand, •^^ kh4yand, 
«s^ hazrat. — (67ocQ W khud4, 
W allah, vj rabb, ijK hakk.— (0 
Xor(2 /) vo ^ y4-rabb. — (Houaa 
of Lords) (^^\ u-J^ majlis-i- 

Lordliness, p^ kibr, cdj;^ magh- 

Lordly, jtSJ^ mutakabbir, ^y^ 

Lore, ^ 41m, (jftiW d4nish. 

To Lose, o*>^ ff gum kardan, ^U 
^•>/ z4{' loudan, e*V^ ^/ ^^^ 
nimddan, ^j/ •>ywu maf kud kar* 
dan. — (squander or throw awc^) 
i^\i b4khtan, ^•>U jV) ^ bar b4d 
d4dan, (;>•>/ «JkJiF talaf Kardan. — 
(mM^tn loss) ^ J^e^ iA>^U.*. kha84« 




rat kashfdan, {^h ^Uil uuks^n 
y^ftan, (^j^y o^) ziy4ii burdan. — 
(a§ a toaieh) ij*>/ j^ '^ knnd k^r 
kardan. — (soldiers in haUle) *a>VaI? 
^jU talafat d4dan, (^<x6k Ut^ 
talaf BHudan. 

LosEB, jV-^ c)^j ziyAn-kAr, ;-U 
kh4sir, sjj «fi>jL^ khasdrat-za- 

Loss, e^ij ziy&n, «yrfU naks, (^Ui> 
nuksin, ««>jU^ khasdrat, aijf 
gazand, «J^ talaf, vs>y faut. — 
(military term) vs^Uli talaf&t. — 
(at a loss) jtm^ mutahayyir. 

Lost, ^ gum, «syuu mafkud. — (to 
he lost) ^J^ ^ gum shudan, 
^j^ «^JV6 ghd,ib shudan, ^U 
(^•^ zdf* shudan, ^*^ «a>y faut 

Lot (chance or stake)^ AfiJ kur'ah, 
y\^ dkv. (Vide Pabt, Shabb.)— 
(to cast lots) ijstAjA &ct^ kur'ah 

LoTB (tree)f ^U^ kuiiar, JM nabk, 
jju* sidr. 

Lotion, JLi-a^^ ightisal, ^^«> davd. 

LoTTXBY, o^ A^ kur'ah-bakht. 

Lotus (water4ily)f ^J^ naildfar, 
j^y^ lailupar, y^ abu. 

Loud, •luJii buland. 

Loudly, (3«ui)W ba-bulandf. 

Loudness, ^aU| bulandf. 

LouNOB (place), ^Ji^ ^^W jdf-i- 

To LouNox, ^J^ JfJ^ tambaJ shu- 
dan, 0*>^ (Jiifi'' tambali nimii- 

LousB, u^ shipish, J«i kaml. 
(larvcB of lice) ««Vai. rishk. 

Lousy, ¥*^ shipishu, jU ^^/ti^ shi- 

Lout, ^j*y\ ^J bf-adabf. 

Loutish, v»*>^ ijt bf-adab. 

LovABLB, w^ J*^ dil-chasb. 

LoTB, ij^ 'ishk, sa^t^» mahabbat, 
s-^ hubb, «£>*3y« ma-vaddat, *y\*y) 
▼id4d, fjsk jM, ^y^)*^ ddsti, *«^ 
mihr, (^Xs^ mail4n, ««^\ ulfat, 
s^W- sibdb, \y^ havA, «-*«*• sha*f. 

To LoYE, (^^jf o^Ve 'dshik budan, 
(^U lA^Ne^^ mahabbat ddshtan, 

(^U iA^y^ diist ddshtan, jiye 
(2^U *azfz d4shtan, (^^•^.Jt^ 
mail dishtan, o*^y J^ m4,il 
bddan, o*^^ ^^ mughiam bii- 
LovB-APPLB (tomata)f t\SJj\^ p4- 
tishgdh, o^j* o^**^ b4dinjan- 


^Uj|;fi zulf-i-'ariis4n. 

LoYELiNBSS, (^jASj dil-firfbf, cJkU 
lutf, (^«^ husn, JW ]am41. 

LoYBLY, s*yy* marghiib, £y^ 
matbd', v^t^^ mahbdb. 

LoYB-siCK, oyv* majniin, fiAt^ytn 
shdrfdah, tj^ shaid4. 

LoYBB, (ji^W <4shik, s-^e^ habfb, 
j\^\yit hay4-d4r, s-^^^ muhibb, 
j^ y4r. — (^^«) AiyiJfc^ ^ ^jaVc 
'4shik Ya ma'shdkah, j\ -t.. r 
'ushdk, vt^^^ 9 s-^ef*> habfb Ta 
mahbdb, (^\j\i jkriax, 

LoYiNO-cjup, ey J^ ritl-i-gir4n. 

Low, UA^ past, s ^fc* nishfb, jij 
zfr, ji/ furd, (jj^ p4,fn, ^^a 
ddman. (Fuid Mean). — (adv. 
iAmJb'\ 4histah. — (low ground) 
j> W *^ e)««3 zamfn - i -munhadar, 
i*^«^ i^t^j zamfn-i-past. — (low in 
price) f^ kam, W i»^ kam-bah4, 
JjVJ n4zil. 

To Low, (^^) «iOW b4ng zadan. 

To LowBB, ^«>/ «A^-«^ past kardan. 
— (colours) t)»M^^^ khw4b4nf- 
dan. — (on£s head) {^sa\^\ jtyi y» 
sar bi-zir anddkhtan. 

Lowliness, ^j-^^ y^ furd-tanf, 
f^j^e^x^ miskfnf, £y^ khushii% 
fyii-khuzdS g*y tav4*zu*,jL^1 
inkis4r, \a^jA zar4'at, o^r ^^- 

Lowly, { ^ if^^^ miskin, {^^ fur4- 
tan, s-^j^ gharA), 2^^y^ muta- 

LowNBSs, ij^ pastf. 

Low-spiBiTBD, J*> »•>;-• murdah-dil, 
«sXjJ Jj dil-tang. 

LoTAL, L^1^4^ mukhlis, «aUUi«« 
mukhlisanah, J«>U sadik. 

Loyalty, »a>UU* musdfdt, ^•iU 
s4dikf , o^ C^^ Yatan-paiastf . 






L0ZBNOX9 ^f kurs. 

LUBBBB, JA^ ghdfil, 


LiroBBKE (grass), i^^ ydnjah. 
Lircio, u\^ 8&f. 

LUGIDNESS, ^V« Baf f. 

LnoiFBB (match), i^st^ kibrft. 

Luck, vide Fobtxtnb, Destiny. — 
(good luck) ^y6e^, «xM nik-bakhti, 
^jgdA «cXe» nfk-akhtarf, ^jj^t^ 
bakht - vdrf, ijtt^ yj^f- khwush- 
nasfbi/jWs^ ikb41, ^^ tAHS cW^ 
nijah. — {had luck) ^J^. •*» bad- 
bakhtf, ^.^a^.^kam-bakhtf, va^^ 

LircKiLY, va^wdp jW-4 bi-jAr-i- 

Lttckless, ifr^. ^ kam- bakht, 
u>4M» bf-bakht. 

Lucky, jWaap bakht-ydr, s h>^ » A j *» 
khwush-nasfb, y^\ «sM n(k-akn- 
tar, ia^abt^ nfk-bakbt, a««u. sa'fd, 
£j-J farrukb, ^\^w«L^ k&mrdn, 
A^Ui^ ikbal-mand, < <Tu .^ khu- 
jastah, (^y^t>* maimun. 

LuGBA.TiyB, Juu*j^ sdd-mand, g^^ 
nifiS J^dA^ muf id. 

LucBB, fiJ^ f4,idah, o^ add, J«U. 
hdsil, dJj« sarfah, s^^ kisb or 
kasb, v^-^ muksab, gA^ naf', 
i*^«AA^ maiifa*at, fUsj\ intif4'. 

To LnCTTBBATE, (^*y/ sfrU^^ s-«^ 

bi-shab mihnat kardan. 
LircuBBATiOK, s-^ <au^^ mihiiat-i* 

LuDiGBOus, ft-uA. l| b4-kliandahy 

oWa* muzhik. 
LxTDiCBOUSLY, 6juA.\| bd-khandah. 
To Luo, e*^^«^ kashidan. 
LuGOAOB, s^W-*^ asbdb, Vft^W bdrhd, 

aa) btinah. 
LirouBBious, mde Sad. 
LuKBWABic, (^ yt^ shfr-g4rm, ^ 

f^ nfm-garm, J^U maldl. 
LuKBWAEMKBSS, «£>«>jj;) burddat, 

jfi futdr. 
Lull, f»\)^ ar&m. 
To Lull, {^j^ f»\j\ &rkm ^riftan. — 

(to hiU to sleep) (^^^y^ khwa- 

Lumbbb-booh, ys«^ pastd, ^^^ ^V^^* 

Luminous, (^j^ raushan, a A ^ A A ^ j 

dirakhshandah, j^*>W^ ziyi-dar. 
Lump, a*)^ kundah, ^ tikkah, 

&2at^ lakhtah, &A^ muzghah. — 

(caii«6(2 &y the bite of an insect) 

«iU luk, ^J^A^}j| bar-Amadagf. 
Lumpy, j^^ a*>^ kimdah-d4r, Axaij 

^t*> lakhtah-d4r. 
LxTNACY, <^V*^ dfyAnagf, (^y^ 

jundn, !a{^ khabt. 
LuNAB, ^^ kamarf. 
Lunatic, u\^*y divAnah, oyv* maj- 

Lunch, ai^^ 'asrAnah. — (to take 

lunch) 0*M^ ii\j,aa s^j^ sarf-i- 

'asr&nah mmddaii. 
Lung, {J^ shush, ^j ri,yahy ftVi^ 

LupiNB, (jM^/ tirmus, <4x^, ^W 

LuBB, 4^^ tu'mah, a^U ddnah, Aa«^ 

To Lubb, (^*yy*i \jt\ ighvA nimd- 

dan, (^y^ firfftan, <:)*>/*> «iT*«W 

jazb nixnudan. 
LuBiD, fi^ tfrah, fJ^ muzlim. 
To LuBK, ^*^ (;)Wh pftuhdn shu- 

dan, (^*yj^ (^t^^ kamfn kardan, 

^JA Asii^ nihuftah shudan, tj^^f^ 

^jy mutavdrf bddan. 
LuBKBB, jS' {^i^ kamfn-gar. 
LuBKiNO-PLACB, ftVl ^^t^ kamfn- 

Luscious, hii lazfz, j\*> fiy* mazah- 

d&r, ehi^y ndshm, {^jt^ shfrm. 
LusciousNBSS, ««>«U lazzat, ^^ 

Lust, ^yi'^^ mastf, vs>^ shahTat, 

\y^ hay4, u^y^ havas, (>^ fisk, 

(j*^ nafs, A;^^ fj^ nafs-i-am- 

marah, ^tX tama', ^^«»^ v/si)^ 

Lustful, c:^%««^ mast, *^^^ ^u^ 

shahvat-parast. — (covetous) ^^ 

,f^ la, mi 

t4mi<, jU»4i» tama^k&r, Juu« ^^ 

4rzd-mand, (^at^ harf 

^\*y d4ni', Jil^/kinis. 
LusTiNBSs, «£>y> kdvat. 
Lustbb, «y^jD raushanf, ^.^^^ 




iji^ raunak, C* zija, v»^ t&b, 

{Uai shu'i*, *a>iIa» nazArat. — (0/ a 

$wordy <§c.) s^T 4b. 
Lusty, «»yi W bd-kiivat. 
LuTB, •>*& 'dd, W barbat. 
Lutheran, oVr l^^'S'^^^ (attr.). 
LuTiST, •>^^ *awAd, j^ W^i barbat- 

LuxuBiANCE, ^\^\ ifrat, c:?;^ kas- 

rat, «£>y^ vafrat. 
Luxuriant (a&un(2an<), y^^ vdfir, 

j^^ maufdr, oVj* far4v4D,je^ 

Luxuries, ii^S\ azukah. 
Luxurious, ^J^'^m nafsdnf, vA^ 

e^J^ khwush-guzran, vA^ '&7- 

Luxury, <.r«^ 'aish, uiyb^ 'ishraty 

^L.,s_ft 'ayydshf, ^\jS^Jky^ 

Lying, Z^** dur6gh-gA,j<M.^ s>«i^ 

Lying-in (woman), ^\) zdchak, 

^3 zachah, ^3 zajah. 
Lymph, ^J fi«>U mdaah-i-4bilah. 
Lynx, ij^ vashk, vA^ ^W sijih- 

Lyrb, *>^ *Ad. 
Lyrical, ^J^ji barbatf. 
Lyrist, S\y^ 'avydd, 3U Wj) barbat- 



Macadamised, ^^ pakhtah. 

Macaroni, ^^ rishtab. 

Mace (spice), }y^ <^^^H piist-i-jauz, 
AmW^ bisbasab, y^yi bizbaz. — 
(metal cliib) )/gurz,3^^ tiipuz, 
y^ tupuz, jU^ cbum&k, J<i^ 
gdpal. — (staff of gold or silver) 
Ue 'asa, jU^ cliumak. 

Mace-bearer, j\*y jUi^ chumdk- 
dar,jW j^lgurz-dar. 

To Macerate (gtecp), (;)— s— a— fc^ 
dgbushtan, (^j^^;^^ aghdrfdan. — 
(to make lean) ^^\Z jfi Mghir 

Maceration, yJ^At£\ dgbusbtagf. 

To Machinate, ^•>^ ^^ bflah 

Machination, A^ hilah, ts^ 
makfdab, j^ makr. . 

Machine, d^^ 4ktt, i j^x ^^ man- 

MiLCHiNBRY, (j»W«\ asbdbf. 

Machinist, ji^isJ^ 41at-k4r. 

Mad, ii\ji*y dfyanah, eyv* niaj- 
11611, J J dillf, ijf^ junAnf. — 
(fascinated or distracted) (^f^^ 
majndn, ft*^;^^ sburidah, AsiS\ 
Aluftah, uyu^ mashgbuf, t«M^ 

sbaidd, &xMi shfftah, *yfi^ hU 
khwud, o*y^ jununf. 

Madam, ^U. khAnam, y W b4nd. 

Madcap, ii\jt*^ dfvAnah. 

To Madden, ^^^^s^^ ^\^*y dfT^nah 
sAkhtan, (j^^^U (^yv majniiii 

Madder (a dye), {j^^jd runds. 

Mad-house, &»U ^Ue» tfm4r-kh4- 

Madly, j\^ a*Wj dfy&nab-ydr. 

Madness, o^V*^ dfyAnagf, ^f^ 
jundn, !<H^ khabt. 

Madman, 6S\jt^ divdnah. 

Magazine, o>^^ makhzan, ^\y^ 
khizdnah, ^y^ kbizfnah, j^\ 
ambdr, aa^v^ ganjfnah, J«^ 
hdsil. — (of powder) ^^ vs>^V» 
bdriit-kbdnah, &»W ^y kdr - kbd- 
nah. — (of arms) A}U. c^ sildh- 
khdnah, AiU. &411. jabbah-khdnah, 
A*U.jyi kdr-kbdnah. — (pamphlet) 
^Uj risdlah. 

Maggot, f^/larm. 

Maggoty, fi*>;^ f^kirm-khwurdab. 

Magian (fvre'Worshipper), <j-^^^ 
majusf, o^^^ cr^^ dtish-parast « 
^ mugb, ;5' gabr, ^f gaur, ji 




ij^ dzur-kfsh, ^s^*^J) zardushtf, 
iji-^i) zandfk. — (the Magi or 
Ouehres, fire-worshippera) (j^y^^ 
majdfl, (jVa#» mughdn, (^W gab- 
ran, cfc^wAJlj Ja\ ahl-i-atish- 
parast, o\;^ gauran. — (Magian 
priest) *S4^ mubid. — {fire temple) 
a.\ < A .Til atish-kadah, tf * ■ .t. > ^ 

kunisht. — (Magian cemetery) 

4*^-^ dakbinah. — {religion of the 

Magi) ct %»->»*• majdsiyat, (:>i«> 

«t*Ajjj diQ-i-zardusht. — (sacred 

writiiigs of the Magi) *>i) zand. 

Um^jJj zandavastd, ;4>U%> dasdtfr. 

— {Ma^n belt or girdle) j^j zun- 

Magic, j^W j4dii, ^^<« sihr, ^^W 

Magical, (^y^^ afstinf. 
Magician, / ^%>W jddd-gar, *ft»U 

84hir, jW« sahh&r, (;)U^%>W jadd- 

Magism, ^a- . ^ ^** majdsfjah. 
Magistbate, ^«-^Vj^ h4kiin, Sm^ 

Magnanimity, ^«>j.4^\^ javdn- 

mardf, u:^^»ifc himmat. 
Magnanimous, ^\y^ jaydn-mard, 

ca^» A jud} buland-himmat. 
Magnesia, jd^W>y^>^ jauhar-i-tab4- 

shir, W'^iofrJLA^^maghnfBiyd (eur,)^ 

yli^U mAng^uiz (cur.). 
Magnet, ^y^'S *aSU^ sang-i-dhan- 

ruba, ,^5^U&« i25U^ sang-i-mak- 

Magnetic, ^j.^ flU ;j^« niakn4tfsf. 
Magnetism, A ) %>^Ua^ maghndti- 

siyab {eur). 
Magnific and Magnificent, fM^ 

mu'azzam, f^Jt^ ^azfm, J«W jalil, 

vJ;^ shigarf . 
Magnificence, ta-J^^ Vi 1 latdfat, 

tA^\^ nazfikat, iji^ raunak, 

ss^it^ jalalat. 
To Magnify, (^*y/ ^s^y l>uzurg 

kardan. — (honour) i^*^/ J^*^ 

mumtaz kardan, {^^^^ ^jA^ 

musbarraf sakbtan. 
Magnifying glass, vide Glass. 
Magnitude, ^JSJ^ buzurgf, ct^U9- 

jasdmat. — (importance) j^ kadr, 

A^Uf* muzAyakab, vs^jH lAzimat, 
vj»^ masraf, ^\jS^ giranf, ^J*^ 

Magpie, *^/^ t^ kaUgb-i-jarrak, 
yi^ &S kaUgb-i-jikd, ^\j t^ 
kaldgb-i-zagbi, &i^ ^t ala-kur- 

Mahogany, (j^U magbun (eur.). 

Mahomeoan, ^y•%^^ isldmf, <^*3^4^ 
mubammadf, fXA ^\ abl-i- 
isldm. (Vide Musflman.) 

Maid, vide Vibgin, Slave-gibl. . 

Maidenhood, vide Vibginity. 

Mail, Ajj zirab, (:>^^ jausban, c^ 
silab, A*^ jabbab, ^%> dir*. — 
(post) ^Udkk (hind.). 

To Maim, (^*y/ ^jU^y zakbmf kar- 
dan, ^•>^ li^^ cbdldk nimd- 

Maimed, jH^ cbdlAk, S^ cbuldk, 
IbJU saJcat, ^j*^\ zakbmf, mU^ 

Main, J;^ awal. — (sea) V«jJ daryd. 

Mainly, ji^ aksar. 

To Maintain, vide To Assebt, To 
Defend, To Keep. — (support) 
<J**;;;e parvardan, (^j/ yj^j^j* par- 
varisb kardan. 

Maintenance, vide Subsistence. 

Maize (Indian com), ^^ zurrat, 
Jh ^j^ zurrat-i-ballal, ^"^ «t>^3 
zurrat-i-kabik. — (stalk of maize) 
**>;*^ s^^ cbub-i-zurrat. — (head 
of com) *a>;»i 7- sar-i-zurrat, &*»j*- 
iA>;«5 kbusbab-i-zurrat. 

Majestic, jU^ W bd-yak4r. 

Majesty, c^^'U - sultanat, u>3W 
jalalat, !£>;««»> bazrat. — (Your 
Majesty I) ^Ve di^j kiblab-i-'alam, 
»W CjW jabAn-panAb. — (Her Ma- 
jesty) s^yi^ WId *uly4 bazrat. — 
(His Majesty) ^^j'^^ )U^ a44 baz- 

Majob, j^\i ydvar. 

Majob-domo, eUj^ kabramdn. 

Majobity, j^\ aksar, s-J^^ agblab. 
— (Parliamentary term) s-Ji^ ^jL 

To Make, 0^^U sakbtan, (^^ji 
kardan. — (create) yJ^/l dfirfdan, 
O"^/ <J^ kbalk kardan. — (pud- 




dingif Se,) e«>/ «»^^j daruBt 
kardan. — (cause to become) 
^•V^Ujf gardanfdan. — (make it 
up) (^'^/ ^ sulh kardan. — 
(m^ike over) (^*y/ xiy^^ muhavval 
kardan. — (make up an account) 
^^^ Q^i^ jam' kardan. 

Maker, &*>j^ kunandah, ftJijU sd- 
zandah. — (Creator) ^jJU. khAlik, 
j!U khalldk, AJuujty^ 4£irinandah, 
j\SjJiji!S afiridag^r, g^U sani', (^y^ 

MAi«ACHiTB,i»^dafeU malakhit (eur.). 

Malady, o^/« marz, (4)U«t bfmAH, 
u>JIa 'illat, «>j*> dard. 

Mal a pbopob, s}^,^ bi-mahally 
W ^Jt bf-j4, «J« ^j bf-Takt. 

Malabta, jW. biikh4r. 

Male, y nar, /^ muzakkar, /^^ * 
zakr Cp^o/*^ zukdr), ^y narf- 
nah, am^^ mardanah. 

Malbdiction, *j>j^ la'nat, (^/i 
nafrfn, s-^ sabb. 

Malefactor, J^ aUT gun&h-kAr, 
^ asim, 1^;^^ mujrim. 

Malbtolekcb, (j^J^t '^ bad-an- 
dfshf, fj^^j^ '^ bad-khw4hf, J^ 
^%>W bad-nih4df. 

Malbtolent, jtji^ sharfr, ^\^ j^ 
bad-nihad, {J^J^\ ^ bad-andish, 
b\^ jq bad-khw4h, «a>U jl} bad- 

Malice, ^J•^^ •J^ bad-khwAhf, J^ 
(^J^\ bad-andfsh, (^ km, iJ^ 
kinah, 'iJ^ kikd, ;>^ bugHz, 
ut>y*xe <ad&yat,/» sbarr,^ sharar, 
e^^f^ khubs. 

Maliciotts and Malignant, vide 

Malion, J*»a haldhal, ^>-U k4til, 
«<Ue^ muhlik. 

To Malign, ^%>/ </;£ oXsft hatk-i- 

'irz kardan. 
Mallbablb, ^y narm. 

Mallet, v*^ t^^ kuldkh-ki'ih. — 
(of iron) jUi^ tukmak, sj^f 
tukmak, jWy tiikbmak. 

Mallows (plant), t^}^ khabbdzf, 
^K (^V* nAn-i-kaMgh, a! j tulah, 
oi^^ ^^j4JBd. khatrnf-i-kuciuk. 

Malybrbation, J-^ ghiU, J^-^ 

Mamma, j%>U mAdar, UU in4in&. 

Mammoth, «&>^U m^mdt (eur.). 

Man (mankind), &A^ banf-adam, 
^\—i\ insan, (j*u nas, j-*^ bashar, 
yL| ^^^nOi^ jins-i-bashar, ^jtU ^^^e^ 
haivan-i-natik. — (humun male) 
f^'\ adam, oy« mard, (^y mar- 
dum, yu nafar, ^^u^ shakhs. — 
(piece, at chess, draughts, dc) i^ 
mukrah. — (m^n - o' - toar, ship) 
^J^ jW jahiz-i-jangf, ^^S 
oCih kashti-i-jang, ^^;^ jW ja- 
h^z-i-harbf , ^y^ many&r -(eur.). 

Manacled, ;«<f^3 ^^^-.f bastah-i-zan- 

MLanaclbb (fetters), -ui «»^j 

dast-band, J^ gbuU, ^e<^ zanjfr. 
To Manage, (j)*>^ ^;^J/j^ kAr- 

guzArf nimddan, e)^/ ^^ t^A^ 
ijra,f.i-k4r kardan, ^a^ ^^^ j« 
8ar-bi-r4h{ nimddan. 

Management, ^jsMSj\i kAr-guzirf, 
;«»A> tadbfr, «£>jUh» nazdrat, o^Vr* 

Manager, j^^^ pfsh - k4r, jiU 
ndzir, j^ sar-kar, M^ ^ sar-bi- 
rah. — (6o<2y of managers) ^j\j\ 

Mandate, f^ hukm, ^Uy firmin, 
{J:J\^ji firmd,ish, j^\ ainr. 

Mandrake, &V^ f^y mardum* 
gij4h, f^\ twi yabriiju-'B- 
sauam. [A fabulous plant, the 
root of which is said to resemble 
a man ; and to which many won- 
derful properties are attributed.] 
— (mandrake of Scripture, a smaU 
wild gourd, having a sweet smeU, 
supposed to he the plant alluded to 
in Genesis xxx. 14) ytJJu^ das- 

Mane (of a horse), J^j yAl, ^ft^ 

irANED,y*> J\| j41-ddr. 

Manes, j^ ghdl, o^yke *ifrft. 

Manful, {^A shujd*, **>^ bah&- 
dur,^*> dilir, J^Aj rashfd. 

Manfully, ^O^ culfrdnah, Ai\jj\^ 




Makob, f gar, v^ jarab. 

Mangbl-wubzel, y^^ chukundur, 
yi^^ chundar (vu2^.)* 

Makqeb, f^ 4kliur, ^^ 4khwiir, 
UkU^ ma'laf . 

To Mangle, ^*^^«> daridan. 

Mango (Indian fruit) , ^\ aihbah. 

Mangy, {^ f gar-gin, {^ /t jar- 

Manhood, ^ ^ & ^y i^j rajulfyat. — 
(puberty) v5^yi» bulughat, s^W^ 
shab^b. (Vide Coubagb, Bbso- 


Mania, ^y*^ ^shk, Uy.« saudd. 

Maniac, 0^%^ majnfin, ^^y«> df- 

Manifbst, ^^*^y^ huvaidar, J4*H 
padid, j\^'\ &sbk4r, iij\^'\ ashk^- 
rah, y^Vk z4hir, (^^ 'ij^n, \J^ 
paid&, {^^t^ mubfn. — (nautical 
term) Jy^ kaul. 

To Maitifest, e^/^ nimddan, j^\ 
(^*^y^ izh&r nimudan. 

Manifestation, j\rf^\ izhAr, ^y 
tauzfh, (jft^*^ paiddyish, (^^ 

Manifestly, ^^;^W bi-'s-sardhat, 
^^^\yo sardhatan, "W^^^ vAzihan. 

Manifesto, ^\i j\^\ izhar-naoiah. 

Manifold, *>iJ^ 'adfd, a^^ 'adfdah, 
t^y^"'^ mustaufi, f\:iA» mnta- 

Manikin, oUjy* mardumak. 

Mankind, vide Man. 

Manliness, ^J^^*^f• marddnagf, 
<jj^ mardf, <j*Jy» mardumf. 
(Vtde Boldness.) 

Manly, *yj4i\y^ jay&n-mard, «\jy« 

Manna, (^ mann. — (the drug) 
iA ^A A ^ shfr-khisht, (^t^Jf 
taranjuDin. — (of the tamarisk) 
e)**^^ ^ gaz-angubfn. — (a wZi- 
cious svhetance found in the ham" 
boo), jt^^ tabdsbir. 

Manneb, j^ taur, t^* tarah, a^^ 
▼fl'jlij 0KP» tarik, J^yi^ minval, 
f¥^j rasm, a^* vatirah, ^^ vaz', 
1^9) raTish, j;^ tarz, i\j Hh, Ja<— 
sabfl, «s)yLi suldk, aL^U zdbitah, 
^yuo dastur, ^^ gdnah, *3W^ 

nih&d, W namat, ^s^)j*y dirdjat, 
s^yu^ uslub, fiJUiVs kd'fdab, ^ 
kism. — (in like manner) {^^*^i^\ 
I'n-chunin, \^^ hakazd. — (after 
the manner) (jL-* bi-san. 

Mannebly, j^^ ^^ khwush- 
akhldk, jU^ Sr4*2^ tahzib-akh- 

Mannebs, s^\«>T dddb, f^y^j rusum, 
s]^\ akhlak, j^ siyar, J^^y ka- 
va*id. — (good manners) s-^j^ 
j^^ tahzib-akhlak, sj^juu^ Ju\ 
akhldk-i-pasandidah, jl^\ yj»^ 

Mancbuvbe, »jyi^ manurah (eur.). 

Mansion, ifi>;Ue 'imarat. 

Manslaughteb, Jsi katl. 

Mantel-piece, j^ tdk. 

Mantle, \«>j rida, M*^ ghdshijah. 

Manual, ^^s-j dasti. — (pamphlet) 
a3Uj risalah. 

Manufactoby, ajU j\^ kdr-khdnah. 

Manufactube, J«£ 'amal, va«ju- 
san'at. — (thing made) JU mal. 

To Manupactube, (^^/ 2y**^ ™**" 
mul kardan, ^^'^ sakhtan. 

Manufactubeb, g>U sani*, fiij\S 

Manumission (of slaves), jUe 
*it4k, >(/>i' tahrir, jUc^ i'tak. 

To Manumit, (^^/ jUe^ i'tdk kar- 

Manubb, ^ji^j rishvah, *y^ kdd. — 
(earrier of manure) <jt^«>^kdd- 
kash, ^f!^ gabiiak. 

To Manubb, (^^^U «>^ kdd dddan, 
^«3U fiytkj rishyah dadan. 

Manuscbipt, UsfcA^j dast - khat, 
AAAiy nivishtah, ij^ kalamf. 

Many, iW-*> bisjdr, o^j* fardvdn, 
^j^ basf, <Jl««^ khailf,^«^ka8fr, 
j^^ mauf dr, Jiyi- jazfl, ^y^ vaff, 
a4Jkc *adid, JJ*s*» muWaddid, 
ijtj^jk shigarf, »^\ ambdh. — 
(how many?) Ai^ cband, jJA*. 
chi-kadr. — (so many) {^^^ chan- 
din, e^ *>-**• cband dn, j^ai^ dn- 
kadr, )'^^ fn-kadr. — (as many 
as) (^^^ chanddn, 6SS\Aig^ chan- 
dan-kih, ^^ bi-kadr. — (twice as 

many) aa»- y^ 






muza"af, «-AcU* muzA'af, *1»U* ^%> 
du-miiMbalah, A>Vr ^j dd - gA- 
nah, v5;^— ^ ^•^ dd-inusAvf. — (one 
hundred times as muny) (^'^ ^^ 
sad-chand^n. — (many-coloured) 
^^U^ g4n-4-gdii, *s^j\^s rang- 





Map, aaj> nakshah. — (staff map) 
%^»^ 0\Sj\ u^ nakshah-i-arkdn- 

Maplb (wood), A^jU 84rmah, ***<i^ 

To Mae, vide To Spoil. 

Mabaxtobb, / «t>;^ gharat-gar, t^j^ 
f taraj-gar, ^^ ^U*. hamlah- 

Marble, /•/• mannar, f*U.j rukh4m. 

March (of an army, Ac), j^^ kuch, 
kaJi»>) rihlat, Jc^-j rahil, J^;^ 
irtihal, y^ safar, ^e-» sair, <^.*-ie* 
nuhzat. — (forced march) jU3\ 
ilghar, ^Ul* yalpjhAr. — (month 
j\SS azar, ut>;U mart. 

To March, ^J^/ kuchidan, g/ 
(jjj|;^ kdch kardan, ^*>/ vs^Wj 
nhlat kardan. 

Marches (frontiers or boundary), 
ijJb*i dahanah, )j>» marz, J^ ^ 
Bar-hadd, j**- suniir. — (Lord of 
the Marches) c)^Jr* marzban. 

Marchioness, yW band. 

Marb, (jW*>U madiyan, ft*>U s-*-^ 

Margin, vide Bounds, Border. — 
(ofi the pa,ge of a book, Ac.) M^Va. 
MshiytJi. — (marginal lines) J^J^ 
jadval. — (having marginal lines 
or notes) jj A^** muhashshA, J^J^ 
8«Ub ft«>^ jadyal-kardah-shudah. 

Marigold, jW ^ - ^ ^^ Hamfshah- 
bahiur. — (African marigold) JT 
^ybi^ gul-i-ja'farf. 

Marine, <4fp bahrf, ij^)*^ daryA,f. 
— (naval force), ^j^. or*^ ku- 
skdn - i - bahrf. — (Minister of 
Marine) *«/»! ji}^ yazfr-i-bahri- 

Mariner, ^W jashu, clU mallah. 

Marinette, a^jW b^zfchah, Ai«I 

Marital, csy^y* sbauharf. 

Maritime, ^^yr. bahrf, J^j^ dar- 

Marjoram, \J*fr\f^ marzanjdsh. 

Mark, ^Ui nishan, vs^)U 'alamat, 
y^ asar, ^^;- suragh, 4*^ nishA- 
nah. — (on cattle, Ac.) ^*y dAgh. 
— (target) i^Aft hadaf , ^Ui nishA- 
nah. — (to leave a mark) (^*^y^ jif^ 
ta,8fr nimddan. — (to hii the 
mark) (^*>)^ ^^ nishdnah 
khwurdan. — (to miss the mark) 
(^*yj^ ii\^ nishAnah na-khwur- 

To Mark, (^*y/ ^^^Ui nishAn kardan, 
^j\j ^Ui nishan dAdan. 

Market, M^ bazdr, j^ sdk, jW^ 
y^ chahar-sd, j^ jW char-sdk. — 
(for slaves or cattle) (jtS^ nakhds. 
— (for cloth, Ac.) (:)^j\j» baz- 
zazistan. — (vegetable market) j\j^ 
^^y ,^5y--- bazar-i-sabzf-furdsh. — 
( market - price) tf nirkh, ct-^ 
c-i^Us^ kaimat-i-muta*arif. 

To Market, c>*V^ jh^ bazar nimd- 

Marketable, *A*itf\ ^j r4,iju-'l- 

Marplot, (^3 ^y bar-ham-zau, 
{^xL* muftin. 

Marquis, ye^\ amir. 

Marriage, ^^p^ *ardsf, JJfc*Vj 
ta,ahhul, e^«>jT izdiyaj, t^y) zi- 
yAj. — (temporary) *«*• mut'ah, 
AA©* sfghah. — (ceremony) J^'akd, 
t^ nikAh, ys^})^ 'ardsi. — (writ- 
ten contract) ^^ kab&lah, aac 
A^U 'akd-ndmah. — (feast) jy* sdr, 
uft»-6-B 'aish. — (portion) ^j^-e-^U" 
kdbin, j%^ mahr, j\*w sidAk. 
— (property which the bride brings 
with her) ycSf^ jahfz, jW jahdz. 

Marriageable, ^W bahgh. 

Married (man), t^*^ mankdh, 
t)) zauj, jA*vj;^ muta,ahhil, «W 
j\*> khAnah-dar. — (woman) 6^j^xt» 
mankdhah, ^9} zaujah, ^^y* ^j 

Marrow, yu maghz, ^ mukhkh. 

To Marrt (as a man), ^^^^j zan 
giriftan, (^L. Jft^^ ta,ahhul 




84khtan, f^^Sj\t^\ J^nj ta,ahliul 
ikhtijdr kardan, <;)%>/ iS^ 
'arils I kardan, {^jS^ ;^w bi-zani 
gihftan, (jjJ^ t^ nikah nimu- 
daa, (^Jj^ (j3 zan kardan, ^^y 
(^^/ tazyfj kardan. — {as a wO' 
man)^ O^ Xs^yf tazvij kardan, 
^j^ y^yfti shauhar kardan, t^ 
^j^ nikdh nimudan. — {to join 
a couple in matrimony) t^ '^^ 
{^^^ 'akd-i-nikah bastan. — (to 

give in marriage) o**^** o*>* ^i" 
zani dddan, (^'^y^ *a^^ mukd- 
rabat nimddan. 
Mass (the planet), Mf mirrfkh, 

ff\j9t bahramy^er* (:)^r^ pahlay&n- 

Mabsh, v»1U khaUb, Jp^^ yahal, 
^ ■A^ mashflah, j[;^ marz. 

Mabshal, \;^ Ulo saff-dra. 

To Mabshal, {^^\J\ uu saff Tris- 

Mabshy, j^ Ai^Jt^ mashflah-yar, 
e[)/* marzi. 

Mabt, &»^ 1^^^ sarrdf-kh&nah, 
d^Li5,L^- tijarat - khdnah, jU 
aUU«J\ daru-'l-mu'dmalah. 

Mabtbk (weasel), jy*^ sammdr. 

MABTiAL,y»>«£XUi^ jang-jd,^*> dilfr, 
e^A shuU'. 

Mabtim, iA&K^ parastuky *^)^j^ 

Mabtikgale, JUL} ^j zir-band, {J^ 
•^ pfsh-band. 

Mabtyb, J^seAi shaHfd (jpl. ^•i^ shu- 

Mabtybdom, *a>S\^ shah&dat. — 
(place of martyrdom) A ^t ^ 
mashhad. — (to suffer martyrdom) 
(^\i uL>%>Ve«b shahadat jdftan. 

Mabybl, s ^v»* ta'ajjub, 
'ajab. (Vide Mibaclb). 

Mabybllous, s-^^ 'ajab, 

Mabybllously, "Vd^ 'ajfban. 

Mabyel-of-Pebu (jalap - flower), 
^\^ aJ3 Idlah-i-'abbjisf. 

Masculike, i;t(2e Male. — (gender) 
fS^ muzakkar. 

To Mash, (^^f kdbfdan, 0*>/ (jta^ 

pakhsh kardan, ^«>/ a) lib kar- 

Mask (tnior), ^^ burka*. — (pldy) 
s^Qfe^^ maskharah. 

Mason (stone-cutter), \J»\f ijSJ^ 
sang-tirash. — {builder) W bann4, 
jU*^ mi'm&r. — (chief mason^ 
architect) ^V^ .Ua^ mi'mdr-bdsbf, 
U} *}\Am\ ustaa-banna. — (mason*$ 
rule) W^ gdnya, J^jS^ A- sih- 

Masonby, <4;U«^ mi'mdrf. 

Mass (^^^), <^«y tudah, jW>\ ambdr, 
4^ kuppaH. — (agglomeration) 
is^W jama'at, £Us^^ ijtimdS 
g *^** majmaS ^W jumlab, o^W 
lumlagi. — (Church Service), y«W 

To Mass, (j*>/ <j;;^'\ g^^^ jam'-4Yarf 
kardan, (a*^/ q*^ jam' kardan. 

To Massacbb, o^t^ J^ ^^^ nimu- 
dan, (:>sJt^ kusntan, ^^^ dl>VA*« 

mukatalah nimddan, o'V^ T^*^^ 
i'ddm nimddan. 

Massiye, ^•^•a zakhfm, *iSJi^ bu- 

Massiveness, u:^n^U^ zakhdmat, 
^J^J^ buzurgi. 

Mast, JT^ dagal, ^JJ^ dakal, J^«> 
ddl (hind»), — (to set up or ship a 
mast) <j*>/ s-JU bJ^** dagalrd 
sukub kardan. — (to strike or un- 
ship a mast) (^oyT j^ ^) J^^ da- 
galrd khazar kardan. 

Masteb, \t\ &gha, Vs\ &ka, s^U 
sAkib, ^^^^ khuddYand, v!^^ 
mauld, ^M- khdyand. — (oumer) 
«cUU m41ik, s-^^ sdhib. — (chief 
workman or teacher) S<s^\ ustad, 
*>Va-j< dstdd. — (of a school) fi»^ 
mu'allim, ^y^ dkhwimd, ^^f 
dkhwun, ^Jt^ ^ mull4-i-mak- 

To Masteb, ^J^f s-^V& ghdlib dma- 
dan, (j*>Ui'gu8liddan. — (to master 
a subject) {^^ o^«. *> s-J^ j» bar 
matlab dast ydftan. 

Mastebly, ;«!k» ^ bf-naz£n 




Ma8tbb-pi£ce, jL.i— \ j\^ kar-i- 

Masteby, fj^ fath, sa^ ghalabat. 
To Masticate, o*v»A4> kha^fdan, 

^Jk«iW ja,idan, (^J«^W jdvfdan, 

(^> ^e -*>* kbasidaji. 
Mastication, ^^fi'J\^ khd,fdagf, 

^j^».«^ khasfdagf. 
Mastich (^um), lXk«^ mastika, 

ySL. B4kiz,yu Bakkiz. — (tree)^ (^ 

Mastiff, «sC« sag, s-^ kalb. 
Mabtupbation, jV jalk. 
Mat, ^;^ burjd, jt*^ hasir, ^W 

Match (equal, rival), «-^;a. Harif, 

^^'o^ khasm, J«Va^ U|^ taraf-i- 

mukdbil, iS!^^^'^ musdvi, sijj) zauj, 

jj^ nazfr, j(i\ji bardbar. — (patV) 

U^ ham-ta, c>A«. juft, 6^3 zauj. 

— (marriage) ^,s*}^ 'arusf. — (of a 

gun, dc) a^s* fatilah. — (lucifer) 

^^ • f k sham'chah, ss^jtS kibrit. 

— (matchlock) videGuJX, — (wiateA- 

hchman) vide Muskbtbeb. — 

(slow-match) ^^^U mAhtdbf. 
To Match, ^juAi jk^^ barabar bHu- 

Matchless, yj^i ^ bf-nazir. 
Mate {husband or wife), t)} zauj. — 

(of a ship) f^ mu,allim. 
Matebial, ^ ■■ ^ >• xnujaBsam. — 

(cloth, Ac), ^Ui kumdsb. 
Matebiality, ub^W.^9^ jismunijat, 

tf * is *' "9 jismiyat. 
Matebially, J-^ J J dar asl. 
Matebials, ^\^\ asbab, A^jV 

lav&zimah, ^UL» saman, f^j^ 

Matebnal, ^\}JU madaran. 
Matebnity, ^J>^y•\ umumat. 
Mathematician, {j^<^^^^ muhandis, 

(j«Ua sj>t^\i^ riydzfyat-shinas. 
Mathematics, <^^; ^ *ilm-i- 

riydzf, «>,>^\ij riydziyat. 
Matbicide, ^^5^jjU mddar-kushf. 
Matbimonial, ,^\^ nikdhf, jj^i 


Matbimony, i;u2e Mabbiage. 
Matbix, ^j rihm, ^ ♦^ a ^ mashi- 
mah, ^^Aftj zibddn. 

Matbon, ^^ kbanam, yW band. 

Matbonly, ^^ f^^ khanam-yar, yW 
j^ b4nd-yar. 

Mattes, vide Affaib, Impobt- 
ANCE. — (of a sore) fi^ rfm. — 
(what is the matter ?) ^Jk 6^ cbib 
shud. — (no matter) v)j\ jJ s-^ *aib- 
na-darad, u>.W ^J^ harff nist. 

Mattock, ajlj; tishah, aU^ kuland, 
«s5Ui^ kulang. 

Mattbess, oU^a ddshak, «eiAiy 
tdshak. — (spring-mattress) oU^a 
^^Ui ddshak-i-fandrf. 

Matubb, J^^ kdmil, ^j»j ras. 

To Matubb, e*'^ vP^ kdmil shu- 
dan, (^*^-«; rasfdan. 

Matttbely, ^^\S kdmilan. 

Matubity (persons), ^^ buldgh. — 
(things) sa^^ buldgbfyat, JU^ 
kamdl, <^*>^ rasfdagf. 

Matutinal, ^j^j^W bdmdddi. 

Maudlin, (^^^.^^ ^ nfm-mast. 

To Maul, 0%>j zadan, {^^ kdftan. 

Maund (weight of seven pounds and 
a half), {^ man, tsyire* {^ man- 
i-tabrfzf. — (royal, fifteen pounds) 
^Jt\Jk ^^ man-i-shdhf. 

Mausolextm, fi;^ makbarah, j\y 
mazar, ^^ zarih. — (of a saint) 
A^ji; rausah, i\Sj*y dargah, j\y» 
mazar, &j\y«U^ imdm-zadah. 

Maw, (^U ij^ chinah-dan. 

Mawkish, fty^ J^ bad-mazah. 

Maxim, a3juU mas,alah, ^)^ masal, 
A5yu makulah. 

May (month), )\iS aydr, (j-j^ ma is. 

May be, •^U shdyad. 

Mayob, i^t^ 'ain,/»2l^kalantar. 

Maze, ^^/e^ hairdni,^^ tafakkur, 
6J^^\ andfsbah. — (place) ^Ji^ 
tarik (pi. jjt^ atruk). 

Me, (^ man, ^^ mara. 

Mead, {^4^ cbaman, ^)^f margh- 

Mbadow, {^^ chaman, 3^^ cba- 
man-z4r, sV5' ^j». cbara*gah, gf 
martaS jV^/* mai-gb-zar, j\y3i« 
'alaf-zdr, w« sabra, jVa^ maghdz, 
iflk- julgan. 

Meaoeb, ^^3 zabdn, ^^ laghir, 




MsAGSBNBBs, ^Jji) zabdnf, ^^^H 

MsAii, ^j\ Ard, Jk**> dakik. — 
(coarse meal or bruised grain) 
jj^ bulghur, j^ palku {vulg.) — 
(a repast, food) J^j^ khwurAkf, 
^UL ta'am, ^AA? taghziyah. — (to 
take a meal) (^*^y^ i^^ taghazzi 
Mealy, L. Jj\ ard-s4. 
Mean (vile), ^iJ^ kamiuah, ^U^ 
furii - majah, ka^^ past, j\j^ 
kkwdr, 9^ puch, ^^^ dtin, ^^ 
dani, J«S3 zalil, s}i^j razA, ytfl^ 
kakir. — (middle) ^^^ vAsitah, 
\a^yx^ mutayassit. 
To Mean (purpose)^ (^/ •ui kasd 

Meaniko, ^jiM^ ma'nf, \y^ fahy&, 

s-Jla#* matlab. 
Meanness, ^,^3^ siflagf, ^Jy^ ddnf, 

^J^'i^ kaminagf. 

Means, ^Jb^U vasitah, Ai^ yasflab, 

Aie^^ vasilab, s-^y« mujib, s-«4^ 

sabab, a^^j r4bitah, sa^a 'illat, 

«i».^ vajb, «A^W b4*i8, J*^ asl, 

*^)y mauris, ss^L.^ vasdtat, k«y 

tavassut. — (by all means) ^^je» 

bi-har vajh, ^^^ j9^ bi-Har surat. 

— (by no m£ans) ^^ »e6i bi-hfch 

yajh, *%^\ aslan, &>y>^ naxgiz-nah, 

%S y \A\^ hashd ya kaUa.— (6y 

means of, through the agency of) 

<^^L.^ bi-vasatat, i^^ ^ az va- 


Meanwhile, vide Whilst. — (in 

the meanwhile) {j^ ^\ j«3 dar m 


Measles, «sU^ surkhak. 

Msasxtee, (>4U«» paimAyish, (^\y^ 

mizkn, {j*^ kiyas, ^^^\ anddzah. 

— (vessel for measuring) A*W«}* 

paim4nah, (jitV^A^ mikjas, ^^s^^ 

mi*y4r, ^)i^ kail, 4*jj vaznan. — 

(rod or stick) criW* ^ nai-i- 

paimdjish. — (line) J^^ sb&vul, 

jSiU^ rf8m4n-kar.^(gframma- 

ticai term) o V* mf zan, f^, bahr. 

— (proceeding) ye^^ tadbfr, yA 

amr, j^ k4r. — (beyond measure) 

A^ r^\ ftu^j ziyddah az hadd. — 

(good measure), ftUS ^3^ vazn-i- 
tamAm, u>.^^«> q))^ yazn-i-durust. 
— (measure of length) J^ (j*^s** 
mikyas-i-tul. — (measure of quan- 
tity) ^ <j-W&* mikyds-i-kail. — 
(superficial measure) ^a- y-W^* 

To Measubb, (^•^^m paimijdany 
e)^/ LTJtUe^ paim&yisk kardan, 
0j^ g^i zar* kardan. — {land) 
^j^ Mua>L»^ misakat kardan. — 
(ascertain size or depth) {^f *J^«**^ 
and4zak giriftan, {^j5^ as kadd 

Measubeless, \^\ ^ji b{-intik£, ^ 
v»L.^ bf-kisAb. 

Mbasubement, (>iU^ padm&yisky 
cs^^L.^ mis&kat. 

Measubeb, Uei paim&. 

Meat, *a^^ gdskt. 

Mechanic, j^ ^^a^ pfekak-yar, A)^ 
kdrf-gar, g>U s^ni*, ^jt^ kasbf. — 
(mechanical powers) ^j^a^a^ t^^ 
kuy4,i-i-manjanfk. — (lever) *^^ 
akrum. — (wheel) tji^ckarkk,s^j^*> 
diiUb. — (pulley) ijtjt gkargka- 
rak. — (inclined plane) j^'i^tt^ &»** 
takktak-i-niskib-ddr, JJU U^*^ 
basft-i-in4,il, ^^U a^Ao safkak-i- 
in4,il. — (wedge) ^\ akkf, fi^VT 
g&yak, »^ gayyak, j\5' g4z. — 
(«eretf;) ^ pfck. 

Mechanics, Ok-^v^ f^ 'ilm-i- 

Medal, J\*^ inad41 (eur). 

Medallion, a^ sikkak. — (face) 
v5D rdi. — (rewcrae) u^^ puskt. 

Medallist, 3^ J^J^ madal-s&z. 

To Meddle, (;)«>j o^u dast zadan, 

Meddlbb, J^ fuzul. 

To Mediate, ^^ k«y tayassut 

kardan, o^/*^ u>l»L.^ yas&tat ni- 

Mediation, 4^U^ yasAtat, is^VAA 

skifd'at, k«y tayassut, uuJtil«M« 

Mediatob, Qt/^ skafiS ^^\^ y&si- 

tak. — (ar6t^m^or) f^ kakam, 




munsif , i^\^ yasitah, ^U« 
muslih, j\jii^ mijdn-ddr. 

Medical, ^Jt^ tabbi. 

Medicinal, e[}^ ^y*^ ^''"^ jihat-i- 

Medicike, t^ 'il^jy ^^ inu'Ala- 
jah, ^^%> daya, (a^)*> darmAn. — 
(the science) s^ tibb, u»^W^ ta- 
b4bat. — (drug) Uo day4, mU 

Mediocbity, AkL.^ yasAtah, ^^\ 

To Meditate, (^^/ f^ fikr kardan, 
^j|^ ^y£ tasayyur nimudan, 
(^Sf 6JLi^\ andishah kardan. 

Meditation, f^ fikr, f^ tafakkor, 
«ji>^ til4yat,^^ ghaur,^^ tasay- 
yur, &«iV;^ murakabah, J^*^ ta,- 
ammul, a^4»1 andfahaii. 

MEDiTATiyE, fiis^ mutafakkir, 
J««*U« muta,ammiL 

Medium, d^^^ yisitahyW.*/ tayas- 


Medjidie (Order of), A|Jl«^« ^Ui 
niBh&n-i-maj (df js^. 

Medlab, J«^^ azgfl, J5)\ azgil, 
^y^^ kdnds. 

Medley, I»jW« makhldt, J^^^ 

Meed, Aj6} bahrah. 

Meek, f^ halfm, f^ salfm, fA» 
mula,im, (^ nann. 

Meekness, Ji*> bilm, va^^^ iiidl&- 
yamat, «^au lutf, <^y nannf. 

Meet, ijfit 14,ik, s-^U y4jib, \p 
rayi, s-^^ mundsib, ^>« saza, 
^^y» saz^ydr, ashi^ shdjistah, 
m1) Idzim. — (<o &e meet) {^s^^\J^ 
Bndjistan, (^^^ ^jTt la,ik bddan, 
^jj^ ^V^ bi - kdr khwurdan, 
(j^AHtW bAyistan, (^^J^ ^ jU sdz- 
kAr shudan. 

To Meet, (^^f u^U^U muldk&t kar- 
dan, (^^J^ jl^ ^«> dd-chdr shudan, 
^jj^ ^ bar-khwurdan. — (go forth 
to meet) (a*y/ JWa^^ istikbal kar- 
dan, o^j^jV^ pfsh-y4z kardan. 

Meeting, (.H^ majlis, tf ^< * V»^ {a- 
in4'at, g »»>« majma', e>«4>^^ anju- 
man. — (encounter) ia'^Si^ mul4- 
Ut, JU^ yasdl. 

Mbbtness, (^^&«iUi shayistagf , jU 

^jV^ B4z-k4ri. 
Mbobim, /« Ojj dard-i-sar, ;W 

Melancholic, vide Sad. 
Melancholy (hypochondria), 

AeS^akAU malankhdlfyah, U^ 

sauda. — (oe a aad tale, dc.) 

(^ ^ ♦ 0- sahmgm, ^jr* ;^ jigaj:- 

sdz, J^\^ J*> dil-khir4sh. 
Melange, I»y4to^ makhlut. 
Mel^e, ^j^^ n&yard. 
To Meliobate, (^*y/ js^ bihtar 

kardan, (^*>j^ fiy^ khubtar kar- 
Meliobation, c5/6» bihtarf. 
Mellifebotts, yt^'S t^Ai shahd-&mfz. 
Melliflous, i^j6'^ shfrfn. 
Mellow (ripe), ^j»j ras, tji^-^j rasf- 

dah. — (soft) ^ narm, ^A^ mu- 

Mellowness (ripeneBs), o^*'^ 

rasfdag{. — (softness) <j*y narm/, 

v>^%» mul4yamat. 
Melodious, \y^j^ khwush - nay&, 

(2jW\ ^^ khwush-alhin. 
Melodiousness, J\fM»f^ khwush- 

nay4,f, ^j\^Uij«. khwush-Aydzf. 

Melody, g^^ saj', ^^A asja^ V 
nay4, a«a» naghmah. 

Melon, <j^^ kharbdzab,y/-kliar- 
buz. — (small musk lem^m) «*U^ 
garmak. — (unripe melon) ^^ytJ^ 
kuinbiz4h, ^y^ karkd. — (water^ 
mdon) 6i\yMjb hinduy4nah, ftj^y 
tarbdzah, w/ tarbuz, j^^ kar- 
pdz. — (mdon-ground) yj^ ikliz, 
ytf^ p41fz,yW jAlfz,j\j »y»/-khar- 

To Melt, (^^soAjS guddkhtan, s^^ 
(^•Ui db shudan, ^•luei J»> hall 
shudan. — (causal) ^JS^^ gu- 
ddkhtan, (^a^\)W guddzdnfdan, 
O*^/ J^ ^^ kardan, (;)%>;^ s^^ db 

Meltbb^ ajJj\ j^ guddzandah. 

Membeb, vide Limb. — (fellow or 
partner) ««\i;«» sharflc, !»/» ^ ham- 
shart, i>«ik; raf fk, v^U sdhib, ^ 
•*«ft ham-'ahd. — (of a eorporoHonf 




Se.) ♦^e 'uzv, y^ ytf naf ar - i - 
*uzv, \yt\ ajzd (used in plural). 

MsMBXBdHIP, ^A^y^ 'uzvijat. 

Mbmb&ake, A«^;i pardah. 

Memoib, 8/*3j tazkirah, ^s^U j\i 

Memobablb, /^\ s-^^^ vajibu-'z- 

Mbmobandum, vs^ibW jVjt jdd-ddsht, 
fi^Jj tazkirah. 

Memobial, vide Petition, Keep- 

MxMOBT, ^\i jM, th*.^ hifz, ^\^ hk- 
fiz, ^V^ kh4tir. — (to escape the 
memory) {^j ^Ua. j\ az khAtir 
raftan. — (to retain in memory) 
(^U jVjt jAd ddsktan. 

Mekace, vide Thbeat. 

Mbnagebie, a»U.^ shfr-kh&nah. 

To Mekd (r^mir, <u huildingSy <§c.), 
^«>^ «j>#*^ marammat kardan, 
^j^ j-j-^-jti ta*niir kardan. — 
(stitch) (^*y/ ^^ rafy kardan, ^^ 
t)*>/ paivand kardan. — (improv^ 
^ j^ ^\ isldh nimddan, {^^f i^ 
bill kardan, (j«>>4i dSU\ if akah ni- 
mdddn. — (broken articles) ^J^ 
^«>^ taslih kardan, (^*y/ (A^y 

marammat kardan, (^*>/ « 

durust kardan. 
Mekdacious, vide Lying. 
Mendacity, s-^y firib, <j^Ve^ khi- 

j&nat, ^ji/ 1})*^ dur Agh-gari. 
Mendbb, jL. ^s^y marammat-sdz, 

(j^yi; rafv-kun. 
Mendicant, \j^ gadil, J?l- sa,il, 

)•»»;*> dar-bi-dar, j^ f akfr. 
Mendicity, ,^j^ gadA>^, ^^-^ ga- 

Menial (^u5.), r^r-^ naukar, 
ib^ pish-knidmat. — (adj.) 
Menses (awomans monthly courses), 

t/a^ haiz, s£^^ turns, {^t*^ jA-c 

Menbtbuous (unyman), a^^a* ha,- 

Mensijbation, v£^^l«M« ^ 41m-i- 

Mental, ^j^ kalb/, J^ dili. 
Mention, /S zikr, fij^JJ tazkirah. 

*>\| yAd, ^4/3^ b4z-g&f, — (/avottr- 
able mention) J«i<i* /3 zikr-i- 
jamfl,^/^ zi&-i-khair. 

To Mention, {^^ f^ zikr kardan. 

Mentioned, j^^ mazkiir, ^^aU 
malf dz, j^^ mazbiir. 

Mbbcantile, yj^ tijarati. 

Mbbcenaby, y^f- haris, jV^A4i» ta- 
ma*-k4r, g^U» tdmi*, Je^! bakhil, 
A^ la,fm, <*t*>*>»i^ mumsik, ^^ e .... * 
khasfs. — («o2dter) ;tf»-^ ajir, j^jy« 

Mebcbb, j^ji bazz4z, j^ AWt pflah- 

Mebchandise (trade), ^j5W^ sau- 
da-gari, %s>^ tijdrat, ^v^ mat- 
jar, aUU«« mu'amalaii, as^ « %>U 
dad u sitad, V^ ^ £<»» bai' ya snird, 
\fJ^ ishtird. — (^hinq for sale) 
^ya^^/ furukhtanf, sj*^ JU m41- 
i-furush. — (wares) y*W^ ajnas, 
i\fk^ taukhwah, £U» mata*, JU 
mill, &«^ui\ akmishah. 

Mebchant, e^3^ bdzarg&n, j9>V» t4- 
jir, ^\^^ saudd-gar, ^\f- khwd- 
jah (jJ^. jW^ tujjar, «t>)V s^W*^ 

Mebciful, ^*«a>; rabim, {^*^) rah- 
man, j^/*l[ amurzigdr, v>«-^ 
shaf fk, ^^ karim, i^"";^ ra,iif . 

Mbbcifully, ^W/ karimdnah. 

Mebciless, f^) ^Ji bi-rahm, ^ 
is^fiAAi bi-shafakat, JJ^^^ sang- 
dil, **>y» ^jt bf-muruvat. 

Mebcubial, ^Wx* shnabf. 

Mbbcuby (quicksilver), ^yti^ zfbak, 
^yft jivah, s^W- simab. — 
(planet) •>;^ 'utarid, ;«> tit, j^<s 
dabfr. — (alloy of mercury and 
tin-foil, used for looking-glasses, 
<§c.) ^yt^ aai^ kushtah-i-jfvah, 
^^^ ijhi) zibak-i-kusbtah. 

Mebcy, f^j rahm, »*■■»> j rahmat, 
iA'.^ f marhamat, oMAi skafa- 
kat, tA-^X* muldyamat, c:^ rik- 
kat, ^Jj^y narm-dilf, sa^^\j ra,fat. 
(Vide Pabdon). — (to cry for 
mercy) <j*>;^1 t>^^ aman dvardan. 

Mebely, Ui fakat, {J^^^ mahz, 
(jW ^ va bas, V* tanhd. 

Mebidian, j^ zuhr, j\^\ wJW nis- 




f u-'n-nahAr, }^y4^ nim - rdz. — 
(circle) j^^ ^J^ U khatt - i - 

Mebidiokal, oiy% jandbi. 

Mbbit, «>*^ liyAkat, ;Ju» kadr, 
ij^it^ fazilat, ^4;^^^^ sazA^ari. 

To Merit, o**^ jV>** sazavdr 
bddan, (^'^ji t j ^^-^^ mustabakk 
biidaii, i:)'^ ij^ la,ik shudan, 




^a^y^ sazidan, (*)>iJbt 
shudan, y*^ wiyf"" ' 

MBBiTOEiOTr8,^^yjw sazdvar, _ _ 
mustabakk, vi^ 14,ik, s-^^^ vajib, 
^^^ y s, m j» mustaujib. 

Mbbmaid, ymft^\ *a^ biotu-'l-babr. 

Mbbbily, (^^W bi-sh4di, o^^ 

Mbbbiment, vide Mibth. 

Mebby, ^^ sbad, (^UjU sbddmAn, 
^^ kbwusb, v>^*> dil-kbwush- 
JjuAi^ kbwusb-dil, f*/- kburram, 
^^ babfj, oUJj dil-sbAd, «c)U^/ 
farab-ndk, i^yu^ masb^if. 

Mebsion, ^^ gbdtab. 

Mesu, ^^^ sbabakab. 

Mess (repast), t/\)^ khwurakf, 
^UL ta'dm, ^^ tagbzijab. — 
(difficulty) ^Jl^A^ musbkilf, ^.j^^ae- 
sakbti, <j)^^*> dusbvArf. — (stain) 
J^^^ lilAdagf, iU dAgb. 

To Mess, (a*>j^ f*^ ta'dm kbwur- 
dan, o*^jr^ ^ ■< V . * T tagbzirab 
kbwurdan. — (stain) 0*>y^ aliidan, 
^j^«cSl( U nA-pdk kardan, vft>yu 
(jj;^L. mulayyas sakbtan, <jm^ 
0j^ najs kardan. 

Mbssaob, f\ti payam, (J^ pai- 
gbam, oJUj rasalat. 

Mbssengeb, J^j rasul, *^Vi k&sid, 
/(^^ pajam-bar, ^ ■•^ a ^ paigbam- 
bar, •*«;> barfd. — (mounted) j\i\^ 
cbapAr, j^ cbapar, «*Xei paik. 

Messiah, c*-^ masfb, ^ . > .*».»3\ al- 
mas ib, Wt"" * masiba. 

Messmate, ^*^ nadfm. 

Messuaqe, ^^ kbinab, Jy^ man- 
zil, )\^ d4r, \;«* sara, vs^«f bait. 

Metal, <_5>J«^ ma*danf, ^ filizz. 
— (metaUed road) A-s_dp pakb- 

Metallic, <<yU filizzf, ^•3^*^ ma'- 

danf, ^V^ iinL 
To Metamobphose, (^^\«> ^e^* ta- 

gbavvur dadan. 
Metamorphosis, J^ Jj^xJ tabdfl- 

i-sbakl, ^--'^ maskb, ^^ naskb. 
Metaphob, is\MsJ\ isti'arab, ^^ 

kindyab, y^^ maj4z, «a>jW* 

Metaphobical, <4)V* maj4zf, A|U;^ 

)«^^ kinayab-amfz. 
Metaphysics, «£>W^ ilabiy&t, f^^ 

^J*3^ 41m-i-ilabi. 
To Mete, (a*^y*^ paimddan. 
Metempsychosis, (^^ tan&sukh. 

— (in had sense) t*U? tam48ukb. 
Meteob, s^W^ sbabdb (pi (:)\t^ 

Meteobolooical, ^Jt^ sbab^bi. 
Meteoboloqy, ^^^\JA *^\^ sbabab- 

Methinks, W^ gdyA. 
Method, vide Manneb. 
Methodical, ^Juu^ muntazim. 
Metbe (measure of verse), o^** 

mfzan, />=: babr. — (rhyme) M^i 

kafiyab, q^^ saj*. — (m^ea^sure of 

distance) f^ matar (eur,). 
Metbical, f*y^^ manzum, (^^^y 

mauziin. . 
Metbopolis, c:»> m ..J\ jU daru-'s- 

sultanat, sa^%^\ jU diru-'l- 

kbiblfat, c>-.^\ ^\o daru-'l- 

bukumat, «u*f ^ pii,f-i-takbt, 
ftlXftier takbt-gdb, ^^^^ tj^^^ 
madf nab -i-mabrtisah . 

Metbopolitan (ecclesiastical term), 
(^\Ja^ matrAn. 

Mettle, (^W jan, cwJ». biddat. 

Mew, y* ^ mau mau. 

To Mew, <j»>/^ y mau mau kar- 

Miasma, jVa* bukbar. 

Micboscope, (^ 5jJ zarrab-bfn. 

Mid- DAY, vide Mebidian, Nook. 

Middle, (jjW^ miyan, ^^ miyd- 
nab, la^^ yasat, s-^ kalb, u>^ 
asnH, (^ batn. 

Middling, 1*-.^ mutavassit. 

MiD-NioHT, s-^ &4*a* mmab-shab, 
f^ nfm-sbab, J«U\ 




nisfu-'l-lail, j\XfM, shab-dar, j^f^ 

Mid-ships, jW //• inarkaz-i-jaliaz, 

cw^ taht. 
Midst, (^W* miyan, &>^ miydnah, 

Ift-^ vasat, s-^ kalb, ^\ asna, (j>W 

batn. — (in the midst of) (^ j*> 

dar bain, {^^^^j*^ dar sahn. 
MiDBiTSfMEB, (^Isl^l; tabistan. 
Midway, ^ys^ mutavassit, fi\) ^^ V? 

Midwife, d<vUU mAmdchab, AljVi 

Mien, ^^ vajh, ^^ chibrab, ^s)J 

ruf, ji»^ manzar, «t>;^ surat, 

j^ zubur. 
Might, vide Strength, Splen- 
dour, Pride. 
Mightily, «^.>W* nihjiyn.t. 
Mighty, ^jyi kavi,j.3U kadir,^J^^ ;3 

zu-'l-kadr, jJu£^ muktadir, ^^ 

tavana, ^J^ *ali', ;<j^ kabir, ;<>^^ 

akbar, ^•Js* *azim, ^\ a*zain, 

J^A)^ buzurg-7ar, ^Ji** mu*azzam. 

— (mighty deed) ^^ J** fi*l-i- 

buzurg, ^jyM J4* *ainal-i-kavf. 
To Migrate, o**/ J*> nakl kardau. 
Migration, (^^ji JaJ nakl kardan, 

JVa5>\ intikal. — (emigration) ^Jh' 

^^y jala,i-i-vatan, (^^ »sJy tark-i- 

Milch-cow, fto^^ ^l^gav-i-shir-dih. 
Mild, ^^ mulayani, or ^»V mu- 

hi,ira, (•/ narm, ,»-jl=^ hali'm, ^U 

Mildew (plight), ceU^ punnik, ^ 

samm, (^^;* yarakan. 
MHiDEWED, fi^j *^;i purmik-zadab, 

8J3 ^ samm-zadab. 
Mildly, ^yW ba-narmi, c>s4^5UVj 

Mildness, «>-^)U mulayamat, ^^f 

narmi, ^ bilm. 
Mile, J*^ mil (ewr.). 
Militant, *iS^ jangi. 
Military, ^^j^^ jaiJgi> ^^^^--^ 

'askar/, ^5;^^ lasbkari. 
Militia, AsW^ ^^Ux 'asakir-i-zab- 

Milk, 1^ sbfr. — (gkimmed milk) 

t)^ ddgb. 

To Mile, o*^**^;** dushfdan, (^j^^^^ 

diikbtan (o/>.">-.). 
Milk-can, (^\^^ shfr-dAn. 
Milker, tj^ jtA sbir-kash. 

MiLKINESS, ^J^'S y(A sblT-dsai. 

Milk-maid, J^^^ jt^ (^^j zan-i-shir- 

Milk-man, ^j^ ^ sbir-furdsb. 

Milky, M ^e** 8bir-afl4, ^^ ;t pur- 

Milky- WAY (galaxy), ^Va^ kab- 
kasb4n, fy^^ majarrab, *WJ\ s^W 

Mill, W-.'^ asya, (j-"\ as, (:jW^ 
mit-han. — (windmill) *>W o^W-^ 
asya,i-i-b:id. — (cotton - mi7/) j^ 
^ilj ^ &i\i. kar-kbanab-i-sba*r- 
bafi. — (paper-mill) ^^ AiV^ ka- 
gbaz - khanah. — (water - mill) 
v»1 cs^W-l asya,i-i-ab. — (aw- 
mill) (j-^ ^ kbar-as. — (hand- 
mill^ ij*'\ cs.^»> dast - as, *fiL.^ 
asak. — (powder-mill) ajU. «a5^j 
^j»jj)W ding-khanah-i-bdrdtf. — 
(oil-miU, or press) ycau» mi'sar, 
6i\£. jUc ^assar-kbanab. 

Millennium, o*?-; raj*at. 

Miller, (^^ W-^ asyjUban, {^^ 

Millet (large — hohua sorgum), 
iyij &i\ J vs9^j zurrat-i-danab-rfzab, 
^6 «t>jj zurrat-i-ndu. — (small — 
panicum italicum) ^\ allum, 
(^3j\ arzan, ;^*3 dukhu. — (Indian 
— holcus spicatus) u^jyW javars, 
(J^)^ gavars, «£^»^garsak. 

Milliner, ^^j tu*. kbayy^t-i- 

Million, (jj^«1«^ miliydn (eur.). 

Mill-stone, y-"\ *sSJ^ sang-i-As, W-^ 
isSJ^ asya- sang. 

Mimic, JJi* mukallid, ^j^ J^ tak- 

To Mimic, (:)*y/ J^ takh'd kardan. 

Mimicry, JulfiJ taklid. 

Mimosa (gum-tree or acacia), ^ 
talb, laA^ sant. — (scented flower- 
ing mimosa) ^^^ JS" gul-i-fitnab. 

Minaret (spire), fijU^ mandrah 
(pZ.j^U» manAvir), A*«i*U ina,za- 




MiKATOBT, 'H^ tahdfd. 

MiNGB (stew) J 'U^S kfmah. 

To MixcB, (^«>/ i^ kfmah kardan. 

Mincing style, ^^ shfTah. 

Mind, j^^^ zamfr, J>U. kh4tir, J*> 
dil, s-iJ kalb, ^% ra,f, jAc «akl, 
J^yib hdsh, /* fikr, JW bAl.— 
(tniet^*.) *•> dab. 

To Mind, ^•i^ i».JuU multafit shu- 
dan. — (never mind) ^ ^J^ pfsh 
ma-rau, *>j\^ s-*«ft 'aib na-dirad. 
— (to have a mind to) {^sA\*y Je-« 
miul d4sbtan. 

Mindful, iW^y^ hdsh-y&r, ;U p*- 

Mindfulness, t^^W^y^ hdsb-j&rf, 
^jW ^ kbabar-d&rf. 

Mindless, J^U gb4fil, ^a ^ *... sust. 

Mine, (^j^«^ ma'dan, ^V^ kdn. — 
(^old mine) )^ (^*>m^ ma'dan-i- 
til4. — (salt - mine) •«X*i (^ja^ 
ma'dan-i-namak. — (eilver^mine) 
t^ 0j^«^ ma'dan-i-nukrah. — (dug 
paeeage) *-s^ nakb, ^ laghum. — 
(belonging to me) (^ JV^ mul- 

To Mine, (^jui^ kandan, (^«>j s-^ 
nakb zadan. 

Mines, ^jr**^ ma*dan - chf. — 
(aopper) o^^ laghum-chf, s^V» 
nakk4b, ^^ nakb-zan. 

MiNBBAL, ^Jk«^ ma'danf, ^\^ kanf, 
jW jam4d. — (metal) ^ filizz. 

MiNBBALOoisT, ^^ii e*^^*^ ma'dan- 

MlNEBALOGY, (^'Mf ^ 41m-i- 


To Mingle, (j^safe^^li amfkhtan, 
{^^^^ sirishtaD, (^saL, U^W* 
makbldt s&kbtan. 

To MiNisH, {^\^ fi kam sdkhtan. 

MiNiSTEB (of State)y jk\) yazfr, wa^ 
mudabbir, Jef^ vakfl, jyx^*y aas- 
tdr, j^Jtii^ mushfr, ye^^y dabfr. — 
(an envoy or resident delegate) 

yakkal, j^W odljdz (««•.). — 
( Prime Minister) fJ^\ 4)^ vazfr- 
i-a'zam, aLjJ\ uU^e^ i'timadu-'d- 
daolah. — (Second Minister) {^s^\ 
Ayj^ am^u-'d-daulah. — (jlfi- 


nisters of State) \j|U vuzari, ^U^t 
oJ^j arkdn-i-daulat, aS^*> ^^^ 
i-daulat, «>i^*> ^/«J uinan£,i-i- 
daulat, (^.SU^ (;)^»•^ mudabbirdn- 
i.mamlakat,<Auuu» ,^^^\ aaliy4,f- 
i-saltanat. — (itftnu^ 0/ Foreign 
Affairs) *^j^^ jy»\ >tj^ ▼azfr-i- 

umdr-i-khirijah, 4^U. J^o «e*«^ 
amfr-i-duyal-i-khdrijah. — (mi- 
nister of War) f^^ jk}) vazfr-i- 
nizdm. — (Minister or chief En- 
voy from another State) ^^^ jl)) 

MiNiSTBBiAL, ^jtj^ vazfrf. 

MiNiBTBATioN, «jw*Ji^ khldmat. 

MiNiSTBY (office of Ministry) t ^^)% 
▼azarat. — (Parliamentary tenn) 
Si\6. *jx>j\)^ Taz&rat-khdnah. (Vide 
Pbtest, Pbiesthood.) 

MiNOB (petty), j6^ saghir, j^\ 
asghar, iS kih, /^ kihtar, ^ 
kam, ys^ kamtar. — (under age) 
{^ fS kam - sinn, {^\ jt^ 
saf^^hfru-'s-sinn, JU Jj)j*. khwurd- 
sal, ^W \i nA^hihgh.— (term of 
logic) Jy** sughra, ^J^ Ml. 

MiNOBTTY (being under age) ^)^ 
^L. khwurd-salf, ^^\jk^ sighru- 
's-sinn. — ( Parliameniary term) 
JS^ vJ|;L taraf-i-akall. 

MiNSTBEL, vide Musician. — (singer 
of ballads) hj^\f- khw4nandah, 
J\^ kawdl, jaU 'dshik. [This 
latter term is applied to a class 
of wanderinff minstrels, who 
sing Turkish ballads.] 

Mint (flant), ^•>^pddfnah, gU«> 
na'na*. — (for coinage) s^^ ^^ 
ddru-'z-zarb, A^Vde^^j^ zarrdb-khd- 

Minus (in arithmetic) ^ <jiy» tafrflc 
(as A— vJ4y» e-*-i pan] tafrfk- 
i-sih,^t;e minus three). 

Minute (of time), MoSo dakHEsh. — 
(memorandum) ^Hf^ tasvfd. — 
(small) OkS*> dakik, iJhS; rakfk. 
— (in a minute) ^H^ al-&n. 

Minutely, «*J*> V| b£-dikkat, ^ jcfi 
jtA^ nakfr va katmfr, J«'«as3^ ^ 




MlNUTIiB, saf\^ nik4t. 

MiNXy e>^3^ n&zanfn. 

M11U.CLB, *A^\^ kar&mat, &»^%&^ 
u'jdbah, o^^ 4yat. — (uTrou^^ 6y 
a prophet) ^^v*^ mu'jizah. 

MiBAcuLOXTs, (jUbi ^v*^ mu'jiz- 
nish&n, vi^ j » r 'ajib. 

MiBAGB (^faXtacioua appearance of 
water) ^\j^ sarab, s^^^/ kdrdb, 
Al^^ ydlah. 

MiBE, JT gil. 

Mi&BOB, '^ &,iiiah, iju\f mir&t. 
— (room inlaid with jnirrors) AjjI^ 
&»U. &,iiiah- khdnah. 

MiBTH, o^^ khwushf, o^^«> dil- 
khwushf, <^/- kkarammf, j^j^ 
8ur6r, »a> j »M, - ^ masarrat, UVJjCj 
nislidt, bU^^ imbisAt, <^^U 
shddf, ^UjU sh^dindiif, t^^ 
^slirat, tV ^Ai'^^i ^js^'^et bihjat, 
^*A^ tana^um, t;^ farah. 

MiBTHFin., v>Ui shdd, ^UjU sh&d- 
m£n, ^^ khwush, yj^f^^ dii- 
khwush, J*3A^ khwush-dil, f*^ 
khurram, gd6» bahij, %>UJ jdilshdd, 
««}U*^ farah-n4k, «^yi«A^maBh<uf. 

MiBY, j^jJ^ gil-d4r. 

MisADYEKTTJBB, ^ khatd, ye^ 
sahv, «i-i^ 4fat, ^^, ^ bad- 
bakhtf, h bald..*^ 

MisAKTHBOPE an(2 Misanthropic, 
cV" '-^y tur8h-miz4j. 

MiSANTHBOPT, ^j^V ^f tursh- 

tkhtf, ^J^)*y du- 



Misapplied, J«^ jiA ghair-i-ma- 

hall, V^^rf bi-jd, 4^^ ^J bi-vajh, 

CV* o' bf-mauki'. 
To Misapply, ^j^jW;* bar hkd 

kardan, (^*yy^ ff^ z&,i' nimddan. 
To Misapprehend, (^^^^t^ -^^ bad 

MisAPPBBHEKBiON, Uod. khat4, U6 

To Misbehave, (:)^/*>^ <4)^j *^ ^^- 

Taft4rf nimddan, ^*>^ o^j^ *^ 

bad-snldkf nimddan. 
MiSBEHAYiOTTB, <4)^) -^^ bad-raf- 

t4rf, ^yu Jk» bad-suldkf, 2^; 

U- U yaz'-i-n&-8az&, ^j^jja-U ^_^ 


Misbelief, v>Uue\ f*j^ 'adam-i- 
i'tikad, ^•>Uxe\ ^ bf-itik4df, ^ 
JW^ bf-fmdnf. 

Misbeliever, y ^ k&fir. 

MiscABBiAGE (ohortion), J«*- ^yu 
sukdt-i-haml, J4a. \t\iiA iskdt-i- 
haml, J«*- IqL. sakt-i-haml. 

To MiscABBY, ^«yi Uu sakat ni- 

Miscellaneous, Uklsa^ mukhtalif, 
AAbae* mukhtalifah, JA^ muta- 
farrik, as/s^ mutafamkah, gy«^ 
inatanavvi% ac^jul^ mutanav- 

Miscellany, £Ua^\ ijtim&'. 

Mischance, Uod. khat^ ^e** sahv, 
«^\ 4f at, ^jftk: J* bad-bakhtf , h 

Mischief, «a>y/i sharArat, ka^\^ 
kabahat. — (evil) ^ kubh, jj^ 
zarar, ^^ guzand, ^J^ badf . 

Mischievous, jt/i sharfr, j^ mu- 
zirr, A-JU mufsid. 

Misconception, ^^ ♦ q ^ a-i bad- 

Misconduct, ^jU*j jk» bad-raftirf, 
^J^ ^ bad-suldkf, \y^ \i ^p 
vaz*, ^^/j^U ^ bf- 

MiscBEANT, v>W aubAsh. 

Misdeed, cj^^j/^j^ bad-kirddrf. 

MiSDBMEANouB, of)^^ *^ bad-raf- 
tdrf, <j^j^ JL| bad-suldkf, V> ^ 
\^ vaz'-i-nd-saz4, ^./jm-U ^ bu 
sakhtagf. — (crime) fiUX gundh, 
j^-oa? taksfr, j^ kusdr, i^yt jarf- 
mah, |(^ jurm. 

MiSEB, Je^. bakhfl, *« U >4>^ mumsik, 
^ la,fm, ^A^ jdkf, jV^iui* tama*- 
kdr, <^>» -* Khasfs, crij^. karfs, 
gUl» tammd', ^^^ kinis. 

Miserable, J^ aj ^ ^^ shikastah- 
kdl, J^ O^ji parfsk&n-k&l, 
A A» A ^>» mast-man d, {^t^^^ mis- 
kfn, (()V^ bf-ck&rak, ^^ kkwdr, 
3^ fiC* siydk-rdz, ^J^ skakf. — 
(to ^ miserable) (^^^tfr^j ranjfdaUi 
^•Ui m^^ mubtald skudan. 

MiSEBY, c/)Sp» bf-ckdragf, o[)V 
kkwdrf, ^j^y. kkarAbf, tf>%*^"**> 
maskanat, iA>)Vi4 skakdvat, >•» 





^jTjjU dar-mandagi, JU. 
shikastah-hdlf, u>^ faldkat. 

Misfortune, <s-i\ dfat, ^J^. fi 
kam-bakhti, ^jie', ^ bad-bakhti, 
H-e-1 d8ib,Ji^ bala, 
shakkat, a^jU hddisah, 
shakdvat, <^5^iab^ sakhti, wJ^fX^ 
nakbat, vs^Uj zamanat) ks^M^Ui 
shamat, V;^ 'ana, &1^^ gha,ilab, 
«-^<t&^»^ muafbat, o^ falakat. 

Mishap, w^li afat, ^J^, aj bad- 
bakhti, "^ bald, s-^^*^ asib. 

To Misinform, {^ t^y^ durugh 

To Mislead, vide To Pebyebt. 

MiSBULE, e/* 6y^ barj-marj, &««V^JUb 
hang^man, U^ ghaugh4. 

Miss, U^ khatA, v^ *aib.— (^rZ) 
7«^v) dukhtar. 

To Miss, o«>/ VU. khata kardan. — 
{ri^arly get) (^*iji fS kam bddan. 

Missing, fS gum, ^^ mafkdd. — 
(^ 6e missing, lost, or wanting) pS 
(j).Ui gum shiidan, ^JA s--A* 
gh&,ib shudan, 0«M oyuu maf- 
kdd bddan, (jjV^*y j^ u na-bdd 

Mission (evnbdssy), «£>jUl. sifdrat, 
«>i^) rasdlat. — (Special Mission) 
hd4^ «fc-^j^*U ma,mdrfjat-i-*um- 

Missionary, cr«^ kashfsh, u*'v-J» 

Missive, U. khatt, s^y^ maktub, 
A^V* nAmah, aL.^^^ murasalah, 
M; ruk'ak, 4As^ sahifab, ^V^ 
kAghaz, V^ mukAtabah, ^Jjb,^ 
nivishtah, ii;aEf( tahrir. 

Mist, *>^a dud, ^^a-a jlji ghubAr-i- 
sbabnam, ^ mih, j\^. bukhAr, 
ft)^y» tdmAn, ^ migh. 

Mistake, U^ ghalat, ^ sahv, U«l 
khatA, iftJj zallat, oJU zallat, 
>aXu mazallat, l»e^ khibt, jyoi 
kusdr, j^^oS taksfr. — (by mistake) 
^y^ sahyan, ajuJ^jj na-danistah. 

To Mistake, (^^Ua& khatA kardan, 
^•)^ U£ ghalat kardan. — {to he 
mistaken), ^o^Uft ghalat kardan. 

Mistbb, ^ AkA, U^ AghA, \}jt^ 

Mistletoe, ^^^ kAvalf. 

Mistbbss (lady), ^^^a bfbi, yW 
bAnd, ^U mAlikah, (^f^ khA- 
tun, ^U. khanam, ^^^ begam. — 
(chief lady of a harem) ^ ij^^ 
bAnu,i - i - hai^m. — (sweetheart) 
iiytju* ma'shukah, &iyt^f mah- 
bubah, j^ nigar, ^^^W janAn, 
'iJt\jb, sliahid, ^^^- janf. — (tutoress) 
(^yT Atun. — (concubhie) ^j^^ 
khassagi, ^^J^ madkhdlah, Aaa.* 

Mistbust, ^UTiX) bad*gumAni. 

To Mistbust, (}\) (^joy *^*yf^ mu- 
taraddid bddan (az). 

MiBTBUSTFUL, (^"US j^ bad-gumAu, 
v2^ J^ bad-zann. 

Misty, a*^ pur-mih, j\*y ^ migh- 

To Misundebstand, ^^^a^W U& 
ghalat dAnistan, (^^y/ ^ sahv 


khatA. — (quarrel) £\y nizA', 
ift^jUp* munaza'at, &««&* kazfyah, 
J^.>^ jidAl, A)o^|g*« mujAdalah, 
6^ laj^ji A'^^j^ kharkhishah, 
AJ^\^ mubAhasah, jUU shaltAk, 
fij^Ai* sitizah, «c3jlAifihuluk (vulg.). 

Mite (tVwec^), ^^ kirm. — (mi7y, a« 
cheese, &c.) fioj ^ kirm-zadah. — 
(small quantity) ^^)^ khwurdah. 

To Mitigate, (^^«4i «JW^b^ takhf if 
nimddan, ^J^t^^ ArAmidan, (•^^'^ 
(;j*>\j ArAm dadan, (jj*>W JM 
tasalli dAdan. 

Mitigation, uuufi takhfif, f!^^ 
ArAm, ^J^^ tasalli. 

MiTBE, A^Uc *imAmah, gU tAj. 

Mittens, &»U.«j dastAuah. 

To Mix, (^^.^iabc^^ Amikhtan, e^r* 
sirishtan, (j^^U U^Lq^ makhldt 

Mixed, ^Uabty**^ Amikhtah, 6jJky^ 
sirishtah, ^^^ak^ makhldt, e^**^ 
mamzdj, s^^ murakkab. — (to 
he mixed up ivith) (jJ^\*y c^Ji^J^ 
maxikhali)^at dashtan. 

MixTUBE t^yiA imtizAj. — (compo^ 
sition) W\ ajzA, ^^\ akhlAt, 
v*<^ tarkf b. 




Moan, aJU nkhh, »T ah, j\} zar, t)V*\ 

To Moan, (^^/ »^ ah kardan, aXVj 
(^•>^ nalah nimudan. 

Moat, j«x;^ khan dak, *y^ gaud, 
jWy' gaudal, fi/e. hufrah, aJU 

Mob, <j>'. ^ ^»*> jama*at, ^*^ jam*, fi^^ 
aiiibuh, &^\^^ haugaiuah, &^^ 
guruh, <sj^ ghalal>ah, ""^ mala, , 
ij!^^ bush, ^^*>j^ izdiham, f*^^ 

Mobile, J>|>^ mutazalzil. 

To Mock, (^*y/ *uab^j ri'sh-khand 
kardan, (^^y \^^s^\ istihza kar- 
dan. — (mimic) (^*^/ •*«ifi» taklid 

Mookeb, S;4bM^ sukharah. 

MocKE&T, &Ju^ khandah, ^^ab--* 
Bukhrijah, 5^36'«^ maskbarah, 
\^ezJ\ istihza, cdt»^^ tazhik, 
A^^-4»« muzhikah, ^^^^jW bardi, 
t)y» muzah. 

Mode, vide Manner. — (a la mode) 
As^j &> bi-vajh, )^ v>*^^ muv4fik- 

Model, a^^ nimunab, aj^ nak- 

To Model, (J«>/ ajla» nakshab kar- 
dan, (^>^j^ A>^ nimunab kardan. 

Moderate, Jjuit* mu*tadil, v^^^— ^ 

To Moderate, (^^^ Jj^s** mu*tadil 
kardan, (^^)^ J^J^^^ J>»^. bi-hadd- 
i-i*tidal dvardan, ^JA ^ kam 

Moderation, J\a»^ i'tidal, uw^ 

Modern, y nau, j^j^ jadid, f-'\s^ 

muta,akhkhir, fijL— J tazah. — 
(peo}fle) {M/^^\a» muta,akhkhirfn, 
(^Uj ^j?ui\ abna,i-i-zam^n. 

Modest, jI«m«^ sharm-sar, J^ 
khijil, s^o'y* mu,addab, ^ ^ 

Modestly, W^. \^ ba-haya, u>l^ V| 

Modesty, f^ sharm, ^jU^y* 
Bharm-sari, ^ hay a, ^ ^ r m 
hijab, u:^V^khijalat, (^^^ dzarm, 
lA^^jlj zarinat, j^) yakir. 

Modification, Ji*xii> ta'dfl, ;mA» 

To Modify, t)**^*> J«J«» ta'dil dddan, 
(^S\*y jtf^ taghyir dadan. 

To Modulate, (^Oj^ 6,4Jo naghmah 

Modulation, \^ naya. 

Modulator, w>^ mutrib, j^^^ A4.*» 

Moiety, ^ nim, &*->> nfmah, UU» 

Moire antk^ue (silk), *^^;-i pa- 

Moist, ^ nam, {^t^ nam-gm, jf 

To Moisten, o^// tar kardan, ^ 
0)^/ nam kardan. 

Moisture, c:^^^^ rutubat, ^/ tan', 
^_54i namf. 

Molasses, s^ shirah. 

Mole (animal), \f \J»y» mush-i- 
kur.— (o/i <Ae skin) JU. kbdl, *JiJ^ 
kalaf, u>.^Vai shamat. 

Mole-hill, fioy tudah. 

To Molest, (^^y^ azurdan, j^j'^ 
^^Uj az4r rasanidan, (^<3^ ^V 
ziyan kardan, (^•XeiUj ^y^ zarar 
lusanidan, (j^/*^ ^«-^ sitam ni- 
mudan, {^s^^^ khastan. 

Molestation, ^-^ Azdr, ^^ ranj, 
\>A2\ iza, v»\jLM iztirdb, u>^ zah- 
mat, W jafa. 

To Mollify, o**/^ ^^ mulAyam 
nimudan, {^s^\>-^ ^y narm sakh- 
t:in, (;j*x<>-\;'\ 4ramiaan, y^W ,JLJ 
tasalli dddan, ^oW ^V)l[ dr&m 

Molten, s-^«^ za,ib. 

Moment (of time), f^^ dam, a^ 
lamhab, aW lahzah. — (import' 
ance) j*xi kadr, &^U« muzdyakah, 
«^ji Wzimat, *-*;-^ masraf, ^J^\;5' 
giranf, ^J^^ muhammf. 

Momentary, ^} &ui, (^ «c^ yak- 

Momentous, ^j!! lazim, ^ mu« 
himm, (^\j5 gir&n, ^eU. khatfr, 
iM>c *umdah. 

Monarch, ftUjV^ piidishdh, sU 
shdh, &«i shah, «cUU malk, (^^VUu 
8ult6n, ^ViU. khdk&n, ^ lad. 

MoKasBL, ^j yy ad-ragah, ^^^ ^ 

Monition, jo^ pand, v^^ m^ d nasf- 
hat, M»*tf tadbfr, ia.Jl*- masla- 
hat, »fj va*z, j|;Jk>\ anduraz, Akfiy» 

Monitor {headrhoy in a elaes ai 
ichool)^ <AeU khalffah. 

Monk (reehue), J^^j z&hid, a»U 
'4bid, (2^«)«u A*.^ guflhah-niBlifii, 
J^«»i^ abdAl. — IChriBtian monk) 
w^\j rdhib, (jt<^ kashfsb, fj-^^t^ 
InaBlBfp^ hibr (pi. iW^ alibir). 

MoNKBT, ^jy bikzinan, &«ijy bdzf- 
nah, 0x^i^ maimiin. 

Monody, ^y manijah. 

MoNOLOoui, J/^,f. 

Monopolist, jM^i* mahtakir. 

Monopoly, jU«^\ inbisir. 

MoNOTHxisT, tWy* muvahhid. 

MoNOTONB, f»Vju3\ JiJA 'adflu-'l- 

Monotonous, );5U mukarrar. 

Monotony, j\;» tatrir, ^U m^ vaz'- 

MoNJ m 

Monabchical, ^UiL. sultdni, ^U 
sh^f, ^sr**^ khusravf. 

MoNUiCHY, fj^LiioL^ pidisb&hf, 
i»JbUjl^ padisb^hat, «XU mulk, 
ta> <n i, » >» mamlakat, ij<»Ui» sul- 
tanat, «aJjJ daulat. 

MoNASTBBY, s^U. kh&nk&h, jk*y 
dair, te«) buk'ab, ^ U > fc » t^ ka- 

Monastic (K/e), J^-^j zuhd, 
u^VfAj rahbanf jat. 

MoNASTiciSM, u^Waj ruhbdnfyat, 
^j^^j zdbidf. 

Monday, &t^ jo du-shambah. 

MoNBY, «j zar, J^ pdl, J^ nakd, 
4|U majah, fi^^a^ tankhwdb, ^^^ 
vajb. — (reddy ca$h) Aa» nakd, Jh 
^U- pdUi-b&zir, a^^j^ nakdfnan. 
— (mall money) ftUj«. kburdah, 
ft«y. J^ pdl-i-khurdah. — (bad 
m<mey) «-i-l1j z4,if. — {'paper 
mcney) ^Vs k4fmali. 

MoNBY-cHANOBB, u\yf» sardlf . 

MONBYLBSS, (jJi*^ m Uflis, SA^^ijfi 


MONBY-OBDBB, ^\^ boiit. 
[ONOBBL, ^^ 



MoNSiBUB, ytr^ masid (e»r.), 
mdsf (eur.). 

Monsoon, ^y* mausim (pi. f^^f* 

MoNSTBB, *e»jU jj4. khark-i-'Adat, 
*»*4j4ft *ifrft. 

Monstrous, s^^ gbarib, <i ^e^r 
'ajib, «i5^» buzurg, f^ a'zfm, 
^ e ■■■>■< jasTin, vfr-AU' kaluft. 

Month, fiU mah, ja** sbabr. — 
(every fium^) aaU y^ bar m&bab. 
— {first of ike month) «;* shur- 
rab, «U Jj\ avral-i-mab, «U ^ 
sar-i-m^b.— (to^ 0/ ^ monih) 
A. salkb, fiU j4.^ 4kbir.i-m4b. — 
0*M won^A) fiU ^\ fn mAb, J^;^*^ 
sbabr-i-bAl. — (itM« mo»<A) «U 
&s4«vr m4b-i-gazasbtab, J(i fiU 
mib-i-kabl. — {next month) »U 
^^ m^h-i-dyandab, j^ fiU mab- 

The Muhammadan months are 
lunar, and consist of twentj-nine 
and tbirtj days alternately. 
The whole year contains only 
three hundred and fifty-four 
days, and an intercalary day is 
added eleven times in the course 
of thirty years. The following 
are the names of the months, 
which do not correspond in any 
way with ours : — 

1. ^)^^ Muharram. 

2. /^ Safar. 

3. jp^ ge^j Eabfu-'l-avval. 

4. ^J^\ Arf; Babfu-'8.s4ni, A6Is 

a5\ RaW'u.'1.4khir. 
6. *y^5\ Jr>W JumddAu.'l-dU. 

6. J^\ J30W JumW4u.'s-s4n{, 

^:i\ J30W Jum4dAu-'l- 

7. sp**-j Bajab. 

8. oW««i sWb^n. 

9. (^Uuj Bamaziba. 

10. jy SbaTvAl. 

11. ftMC\ ^S Zd-'l.ka<dah, jmS ^a 

12. a^nJ^ f^ Zd.'l-hijjah, ^ ^5^ 

Thirty-two of our years are 
Teiy nearly equal to thirty-three 




Muhammadan years. Their era 
dates from the morning after 
the ^j^ hi j rah, or flight of the 
Prophet from Makkah to Madf- 
nah, that is, the 16th of Julj, 
A.D. 622. Every year begins 
earlier in the season than the 
preceding, so that a month 
occurring in summer in the pre* 
sent year, will, sixteen years 
afterwards, occur in winter. 

The ancient Persian year is 
solar like ours, and consists of 
twelve months of thirty days 
each, five days being, moreover, 
added to complete the year, and 
a leap year occurring every four 
years, as with us. This year 
commences when the sun enters 
Aries, about the 21st of March, 
when the )^) y j^ 'id-i-nau-rdz 
(" New Tear's festival ") is held. 
This feast is still kept up, 
although the solar year has 
fallen into desuetude, and has 
been superseded by the above- 
mentioned lunar era, the Per- 
sians having changed their 
calendar with their religion. 

1. {^*^j^ Farvardfn (March and 

April). [The first. day of 
this month, the 21st of 
March, is the New Year's 

2. iA ^AiM jj\ TJrdf-bihisht (April 

and May). 
8. jU j/. Khwur-d4d (May and 

4. yi^ Tir (June and July). 

5. jU«.^ Murddd (July and 


6. j^je*» Sharfvar (August and 


7. jtf^ Mihr (September and Oc- 


8. ^^^ Abiln (October and No- 

vember). [The intercala- 
tion of five days, or six in 
leap-year, to complete the 
solar year, is inserted at the 
end of this month.] 

9. )i^ Azur (November and De- 


10. (^•> Dai (December and 

11. (^^^ Baiiman (January and 

12. S^j\jjM^\ Isfanddrmuz (Feb- 
ruary and March). 

Days are reckoned in weeks as 
well as months. (Vide Mon- 
day, Tuesday, &c.) Friday is 
the Muhammadan Sabbath. 
Sunset is considered the close of 
one day, and the commencement 
of the next; so that what we 
call Monday evening, a Persian 
will maintain to be Tuesday, as, 
conformably with his theory, 
Monday had ended and Tuesday 
begun when the sun set. Their 
day and night, like ours, com- 
prise twenty-four hours. 

Monthly, ^V^^ mdhiydnah, ^UfcU 
m&h&nah, ^"^^"^ mdhf, <^ j o ii 
shahri, t^\y~Jb\-^ mdhv&rah. — 
(salary or pay) ^jib\J^ mushd- 
harah, wIaU s-^^y* mav4jib-i- 

Monument, jV5jVi ydd-g4r, ^/^ 
tazkirah,/^ asar, «U« man^r, ^j^*^ 
man^rah. — (Uynfib) as^ markad, 
%ja^^ turbat, ^jt»» makbarah, j\y 

Monumental, ^JS S^ v4d-g4r{. 

Mood (tense), imW h&lat, ^^Ae** 
sfghah. — (dupontion) vide Tbm- 


Moon, 5U mdh, a^ mah, j^l kamar. 
— (new moon or crescent) y sU 
m4h-i-nau, Ji/t hil^. — (fvU 
moon) f»Vl fiU m4h-i-tAmm, j^i 
badar, s-**^ nakhshab. — (change 
of the moon) «U Ji^ tahvfl-i- 
m4h. — (wane of the moon) jW* 

Moonlioht, s^W* mah-t4b, v*UftU 
mdh-t4b,j^^ %ft ziy4,u-'l-kamar. 

Moor, J^) zangf. 

To MooB, Q)J^^JJ\ j^ langar an- 
dAkhtan, {^ysi^ l)astan, (^*i^ JU| 
band kaitUin. 




Moral, »aJU f4,idah. — {virtuons) 

^U B41ih. 
Moralist, ^ ^ paud-{?u, ^^\^ 


Morality, ,^\*^ *^\ pak-damani, 
^jfU jl* pArsa,!, c^ salah. 

Morals, jW akhUk, ^)^\ atvar. 

Morass, vide Marsh. 

Morbid, (jAj/* mariz. 

Morbidness, ^J>f• marz. 

More, ij^ \>h\f-^ bishtar, 5»>\j3 
zijadah, J^j^ azyad, (jjjjy*^ afzun, 
^-i-^ aksar, j-J>j\ ..«-■■*-» bisyArtar 
{wig.). — (r^iare or ?<»««) tr*<rf ^ ^ 
kam va bisb, vjft^^^U^kamabish. — 
{neither more nor less) ^^^j ) f^ fj^ 
bi-kam va ziyad. — {more and 
more) fjL^ '^ yi.L^ bishtar az 
bishtar. — (a little more) ^f^i^ 
bishtarak, *«y*>^j ziyadatarak. — 
{much mx>re, rather) ^^\ ^^ 
bi-tarfk-i-ula, q)^\ &^j*^ bi- 
martabah-i-afzun. -^ {no more) 
j^*y A* nah-dfgar, ^ ^*y dfgar- 

Moreover, (j'S ^ t^ *alavah bar 
^n, t)^ y^ juz-i-an, (^'S ^J^y^ 
sava,f-i-an, %)^ mukarraran, 
^ ^ kat'-i-nazar. 

Morning, ^^ subh, cW« sabdh, 
S\j^\i bamdad. — {early j be/ore 
day-hreak) j^^ sahar, 6^ ^^»- 
sahar-gab. — {day-break) ^--o ;%* 
fajr-i-8ubh, y^ fajr, j»*) 6a©^ 
sapidah-dam, fi^ pag^h, Q)^y» 
j^^ inizhagan - i - sahar. — {the 
middle hour between sunrise and 
the meridian, or about 9 o^ clock) 
vs^aU. chasht, fiVijAU. chasht-gah, 
^^^ zuha. — {false dawn before 
sunrise) %^^\^f^ subh-i-kazib. — 
{true daum) j*>^ f-j-« subh-i- 
sddik. — {morning star) fiy^j zuh- 
rah, e. C » A \.<> shabahang. — {early, 
before light) vj^^ « *iJ^ v^jr^ 
hav4,i-i-gurg va m/sh {literally, 
" Time of the wolf and she^.*^) 

Morocco {leather), (^^\ ambdn, 
^•> dfm. 

Morose, e^y^ v^ tnrsh-mizaj, 

Moroseness, ^^jJiab- sakht f, ^y^j*^ 

Morrow, \*>;i farda, ^ ghad, cW* 

Morsel, &4Jd lukmah, Al^y navAlah, 
&5^ tikkah. 

Mortal {man), f^S{ adam, *>y 
mard. — {subject to death) ^J\^ 
fani, 4i^ u*/*^ mu*arraz-bi- 
inarg, %iS^ Al^lfi *al6fah-i-marg. 
—{deadly, fatal) JjVj katil, >Sifc 
halahal, <j£Ue^ muhlik, J*^ mu- 
katil. — {as a wound) <^;\^ kari. 

Mortality, w>^Lb> halakat, J<^\ 
ajal, U* fana, i^y marg, %A>y» 
maut, «yU^ mamat, «y*i faut, 
«i>^; vafat, ^ kaza, ^u. sam, 
JV»j\ irtihal. — {human nature) 
vs^L-i^ iiisaniyat, cwp^ la- 
shariyat, «>ts^oT admfyat. 

Mortally, <£>jl^ bi-shiddat, vs^Wt 

Mortar {for pounding) (jj^Va hA- 
van, (^y> jughan, {:^y^ chd- 
ghan. — (large m.ortar) fij^^ juvd- 
zah, j\y^ juvAz. — {gun) fijW^^ 
kumbarah, *;^^<^ khumparah. — 
{lime, 2)laster) ^ gach, «£Xa'^ 
ahak. — (o/ //»ie and ashes) gj^L. 
sardj. — {of clay and chopped 
straw) J5^ 6*^ kah-gil. 

Mortgage, ;[;5' girav, i^j rahii. 

To Mortgage, ^^^ir (jjt>j rahn 
crnzashtan. i 

Mortgaged, {^^j rahm. 

Mortgagee, t>6»y* murtahin. 

Mortgagor, {^j rahin. 

Mortification {abstinence), w>-*Vj|j 
riyazat, y^^^ i)arhiz, ,4;Vr vJfc^ 
parhiz-^arf, v»\-sji^\ ijtin^b. — 
{corruption) *>UJ fasad, jI«J^ 
ifsad, ^Li tabahi, oiykc *ufu- 
nat. — {annoyance) jj^ zarar, k^j 
rp.nj, c:.^^ zahmat, ^J^^ iza, ji)'\ 

To Mortify {corrupt), ^ja sjiji*^ 
gandidah shudan, ^^J^a 6j»^ khwa- 
rah shudan, ^J^ ju.U f asid shu- 
dan. — {suppress or restrain) ^-* 




(^^/ zabt kardan, {^sj^^ ^ baz- 
ddshtan, {^\*^ \y vd-ddshtan. — 
{vex) t)*MWS ranjAnidan, ^^ 
(;)*>W dzar dddan. 

MoBTMAiN, «-**j vakf, ^J^y vakf {, 
M*^ yakffjah. 

MoBTUABY, A»^ »^/» miirdiih kh4- 
nah, ^^ J\»-^ ghassal-kkunah. 

Mosaic (inlaid work in tessellated 
pattern) ^^ khatimf, ,^Afc^\i. 

Mosque (place of Musulman wor^ 
ship)y A^ .**>« mas j id, sV^jW^ 
4badat-gah, sVf jW namdz-^dh, 
At«- ma*bad, ^^^-^^ mashku. — 
(great mosque) g^W «*^— ^ mas- 
jid-i-jAmi*, g^W j4mi*. — (0maZ2 
mosque) 6^ takjah, ^^\j zdvi- 

Mosquito, ^ pashah, ^^ ba- 

Moss, «JH puzbah, »*>^ pudab, «iUj* 
purmik, (^^J dukdn. 

Most, f'^ bishtar, {^f*^ bfsb- 
tarin,y^ aksar, vJ^^ agblab. — 
(at the most) J^^ «J^ kbaili bd- 
sbad, J*>Va^ mu'adil. 

Mote, fi;3 zarrab. 

Moth (butterfly), ^\j^ parvdnab, 
6|^ sbab-parab. — (small moth) 
•M bid. — (moth-eaien) **^j^ •^ 
bfd-kbwurdah, **>) J^ bid-zadab. 

MoTHBB,j*>^ mddar, f>\ umm, »»*J\^ 
vdlidab, ^U mam, Jut> nanab 
(vwZgr.). — (mother-in-law) (yj »*>^ 
mddar-i-zan, **^ j*>U madar- 
i-sbaubar, (^W^ kbwusb-da- 
man, y^j^ kb&rsu. 

MoTHE BLESS, j*>^ ^^ bi-mddar. 

MoTHEBLY, AitjjU mddaranab. 

MoTHBB - OF - PEABL, <^J^ sadaf , 
J J J jU mddar-i-durr. 

Motion, u^^-t^ jumbisb, o^ 
barakat. — (0/ <^ sea) s^M>\ 
inkilab. — (^erpe^ttai motion) j^*> 
An«> daur-i-dd,im, ^^iX^j^o daur- 
i-muddm. — (in motion) ^s^f^ y^ 
dar barakat. — (of bowels) jSi\ 

Motionless, <^jai> ^ bf-barakat, 
(2^^ s&kin. 

Motive, ^jbjt gharaz, a*i kasd, 

i^SJjb} dhang, s-J^ matlab, Jydi^ 


Motley, s^^ gbarib, s-^ts^ *ajft). 

Motto, (j)^ nisban, ws^N/«!i^ 'aldmat, 

•>)^ vird, ^Vjj *>;^ yird-i-zabdn. 
Mould, s-J^ kalab, *%; rijab. — 
(for bullets) s-JVi kdlab, yt) aUT 
giildlab-rfz, Ai>.; rijab. — (soil) **iU. 
kbdk, s^\;> turab, J^ gil. 
To Mould, {^^\ rfkbtan. 
MouLDiNESS, *^ji purmik, tsOj 
zang, ^^jy mdrij&nab, ^^jy* 
Moulding, &tA\a. hdsbijab (pi. 

^j4»\^ bavasbf). 
Mouldy, 8*x^>«^ pdsfdab, ^ ^^^^i 
fi*>j^^ purmik-bar-dvardah, fij^JoT 
gandidab, s^j «sOj zang-zadab. 
To Moult, (j^j ;i par rikbtan. 
Mound, Aaa^ pusbtab, »^^ gar/- 
vab, •v.* sadd, &^j^*> damdamab, 
^ tappab. 
To Mount (horse), ^*x^ j^^ suvar 
sbudan. — (ascend) {^j ^^ bald 
raftan, (^*yy^ *>^ sa'ud nimudan, 
0*^^ )i bar-dmadan. 
Mountain, »^ kdb, ^ kuh, J*i». 
jabal, ^wi sbdmikb. — (summit 
of a mountain) »^ aIj kuUab-i- 
kub, «y ^ sar-i-kub, J^\ ;^\j 
rdsu-'l-jabal, ^j^ 'urf, 5/ ^ 
tigb-i-k4b. — (brow of a moun* 
tain) *^/^ kamar-i-kub. — (skirt 
of a mountain) fi^ e>^^*> ddman- 
i-kub, *^\ atak, fi/ s-^ shib-i- 
kub. — (mountai^i pass or road) 
Js^ kutal, c^*^/ gardan. — (defUe 
between mountains) &;«> daxrab, 
«2CJ tang, s-^«Ai sba'b, wa^ 
MouNTAiNEEB, ^U.jfc^ kdbistdnf. 
Mountainous, jU-u^^ kdb-sdr, 
^L. T ... ft^ kdbistdn, ^V ? .■■■■ > U 
Mountebank, J»^ Idtf. 
Mounted, j^^ suvdr, ij\y^ suvdrab. 
To Moubn (lament), o^^ ^M 
zarf nimudan, ^o^^ ^ajS giryan 
kardan, (^*)/ JtJU nalisQ kardan, 
0jj^ Lr*/^^ afsus kbwurdan. — 





{for ihe dead) (^^ 4*.J nanhat 
kardan, ^•>/ ^^ nalah kardan. 

MoiTBNBR, o**^ mitamf, / ^y 
nauhah-gar, jW AtyiJ ta'zijah- 
d^. — (mourner hired to bewail 
ihe dead) f ^y nauhah-gar, cV 

MouBNPULy aC»Sj dil-tang, o^;i 
parfflh&n, J«U malul, (j^^s^U^^ 
gbam-gfn, iiiCu^ gham-n4k. 

MOUBKING, <JL.*\i ta,a88uf, ^ 

gham, (4)^) z4ri, ^U mdtam, 
^U nilish.— (/or i^ dead) y 

'az&y ^«^ giiya^i, i»^y nauhaty 
^U matam, aSU n&lah, ^S u^ 
nauliah-garf, ef)^^ V^ 'aza-ddrf, 
^j5^U d2^ ta*ziyah-ddrf. — {dreee) 
^U ^WJ libis-i-mdtam. — (t» 
movrntn^) <j^U mAtami. — (to 

hdlat-i-'az4,{ dashtan. 

MoxiBX, i>r* miish, oj/* marzan 

MousB-TBAP, ^ !>/* mdsh-gfr. 

Mouth, ^V*.> dahan, {^^ dahan, 
f^ k4m, f> fam (pi. sy^ afrdh), 
jj^ pAz. — (0/ a pit or weU) &«**> 
aahanah, ^^ labab. — (of a river) 
A»U. o^ '^'^ dahanah-i-rdd-kli4- 
nah, j^ khaur. 

Mouthful, &4JS lukmah, ^y na- 
▼41ah, ^ tikkah. 

MouTHLEBS, {^*y ^Jt bf-dahan. 

MoYABLB, *ij^^ mutabarrik. 

Movables, *a^j rakht, ^^^ as&s, 
v*W«*^ asb^b, £Uj^ auzd'. 

To Move (trane,), (j)»mWai. jum- 
b4nfdan, ^«M^ tak&nfdan, iA^y^ 
^«>W barakat dadan, ^^U {U^^ 
auzd' sdkbtan, ^«>U ^V^Ji^ kbalj&i 
dAdan, ^jW o^ takdn dddan. — 
(intrans.) (^'i^t^J^ jumbfdan, sa4^ 
(^^ barakat kardan, (;)J^ oiJ^^s^ 
mutabarrik sbudan, ^Ji) Idndan 
(o5«.)* — (from a houee) «^ 
^^x^ rakbt kasbfdan. 

Movement, (jV^^ jumbisb, *a4^ 

To Mow, (^'^j^^^ diravfdan, ^*>/ jyJ 
dirau kurdan. 

MpwBB, ft*^<^«> diravaudab. 

Much, jW4 bisyir, ,Ji««> kbailf , t«i 
basa, jt^ ksisir, y\j v4fir, ^^^ 
mauf ur, eV/ ^arav^n, sy firaa, 
o*j vaf 1, ,j-i basi, Ji)^ jazil, ;^ 
pur, — (much more, far rather) 
fJt^ bfsbtar, ^^^\ ^y ^ bi- 
martabab-i-afzdn, ^^\ (jijW bi- 
tarfk-i-aula. — (much less) V^ 
J^U kuj4 m&nad, a^j ^^ \5 tk- 
cbib rasad. — (that much) j*^ ^T 
4n kadr. — (too much) *>V4j ziydd, 
;^ pur, MyV| bi.afr4t. 
Mucilage, ^«i^ cbarbi, v*V«J lu'4b. 

Mucous, j^ AjUf lu*4b-d4r. 
Mucus (of the hody)^ Uk khilt. — 
(of the noae) ^JArt LU. kbilt-i- 

Mud, ^y gil, »^ gilAvab, (^^^ 
lajan, J^« vabl, ji shuL — (to 
eink in the mud) ^J^ j,jt ^.^ 
gil-4b gbark sbudan. 

MuDDiNESs (dirt), ^^J\ J4k sbul- 

dludagf, ^^J} jr gil-Alddagf.— 

(ground) Js giL— (taorfer) ^j5^ 

tiragi, uu»jJ^ kudraty <Jhel^ gluk- 


To Muddle, e)J»^U sy tfiab s4kb- 
tan, o^/ tf"^"-^ /^ nf m-mast kar- 

Muddled, ^ ^ ^ ^ j dar-bam bar- 

MuDDT (dirtied), fiay^ Jik sbul- 
416dah, t^^\ JT gil-Alddah.— (a# 
ground) ji sbul, J^ j Ja sbul v4 
gil. — (a« vfater, turbid), ly^ 
tfrab, j*^^ mukaddar, M^ gba- 

To Muffle, o*^^>i piisbfdan, 
^j|4i ift^rf^Jr taskft nim&dan. 

Mug, fijy^ kdzab. 

MuGGT, 8^ tfrab, y tar, ^ nam, 
(;:^^^ nam-gfn. 

Muohul, Ja«* mugbul. 

Muhammad, vuie Musulman. 

Mulatto, «a^j jO dd-rang. 

Mulbbbbt, «A>y tut, i£>y4<« sbab- 

Mulct, ^y^ jarfmab, ^Wj% jarf- 
mdnab, &j«>U« musidarab. 

Mule, y»Vi kdtir, y^\ astar, J^ 





MuLBTBBB (keeper of mulee), ^jj^ 
mukdrf, j\ J \^ j\^ chahdr.v4-d4r, 
j^*^ b jW" char-va-dar {properly 
tmlt jl*> L^ jW-i*- chahar-pa-ddr, 
/•* k jV chdr-pA-dar). — (witfe- 
driver) ^ >VS kdtir-chf, ^^ r-^ 

Mttllbt (^A), ,jftU jLt^ Baffd- 
mdhf, cWi biy4h. 

Multifold, vide Nitmbbous. 

MULTIPLB, \yi\ af zd, f ji f tAhdX 

Multiplicand, s^j^^^ mazrtib. 

Mui.TiPLiOATiON (in arithmetic) t 
v*/» zarb. — (eompound midtipli- 
cation) sr^ v»^ zarb-i-murak- 
kab. — (mmtiplication-table) vy* 
*^e«A zarb-i-shabfkah, ,j><*j s^^/* 
zarb-i-zab4n{, s^^j'^^ v*^ zarb 
andar zarb. 

MuLTiPLicATOB, M s^«r^ mazrdb- 

Multiplicity, «:>;^ kasrat, v5jWw 

To Multiply Tincreflwe), (jj*>;y\ 
afzddan, t>**ny^ afzA,idan, jW--* 
q*^ bisjdr shudan, (^J^ jV^j 
ziy4d shudan. — (arithmetic) v>^ 
(^j^ zarb kardan. 

Multitudb, i^m26 Cbowd, Assbm- 


Mummy, \^y» mdmij4, ^jfWy* 

MuiTDANB, 43^*> donjavf, «.*-^ 
past, <j*^J zamanf. 

MuNiJioBiroB, sa>^\^^ sakhdvat, 
W« sakhd, v»v«y kardmat, v»vyU 
makrumat, Jj^ jdd, JJ^ bazl, 
^jj4j\j^ javdn-mardf, tf^\»,, 

MuiriFicBNT, vj-a^- Bakhf, ^r-^ 
karfm, .>\^ jawdd, v»%-j fijujT 
gushddah-dast, ^ji»\j^ javdn- 

Munitions, *s5U^ ^UL. sdmdn-i- 

MuBAL, eJjV- hijdrf. — (mt*m« 

tofcfoi*) j^iD. hajar. 
MuBDBB, ^|A. khdn, ^/y^ kbdn- 

rfzf, JaS katl.— (wi(/W murder) 

J*» katl-i.'amd.— (ocotfenteO 
U-. Jsi katl-i-khatd. 
MuBDBBBB, ^J^ kbdnf, JUj kattdl. 
MuBDBBESs, ^\i katilah. 
MuBD£BOus,j2y^ khdii-rf z, j\ j^*d. 

MuBKY, ijtfi tfrah. 
MuBMUB, &4^*Jt hamhamah, ^ ^ 

fich fich, &«Jb«j damdamah. 
To MuBMUB, (^*y/ JuJjuJ lundalund 
kardan, ^jyT &4«4J^ hamhamah 
kardan, ^jj «jaJ lundah zadan, 
(j)*>^ A^x*j damdamah kardan. 
— (complain) ^*y va-jUC^ shikdjat 
burdan, t)**/ iy^ shakvd kar- 
dan. — (like water) ^uy^)ju> sadd 
MuBMUBBB, ^j^ shdkf. 
MuBBAiN, ,j5^ margi, 
MuscLB (of a body), ^ paj, s-^«c 
'asab (_p^. v>Uc\ a'sdb), i»JUe 
'azalat, ^U. habl.-«(«AeW.^A) 
*^'^ sadai. 
MuscuLAB, isSU uJUe 'azalat-ndk. 
To MusB, vide To Think. 
Museum, gpj^\ ^4^^^ majma'u-'s- 

sand,iS »)r» mdzah (ewr.). 
Mushboom, fcVi kdrch, ^)M ^i^U 

Music, Ufc ghand, v> tarab, JUy» 
musikf. — (inairummtal mtutc) 
jU sdz, *yp tM.— (vocail fmuic) 
fU. samd', Oj;- surdd, ^V^\ 
alhdn. — (science of music) Jlft 
ij^\*^ji A*A» *ilm-i-naghmaJi-par- 

Musical, ij^y mdsikf. 

Musical box, ^)y mdzfk (eur.). 

Musical instbumbnt, jU sdz. 

MUSICLA.N, s^^L. mutrib, ^y** mu- 
ghannf, fioJjU sdzandah, oH* 

Musk, «*U-« mishk, i«l--^ misk. — 
(musk-deer) ^eiX. Jfy^^ dhd,f.i- 
miflhkin, «U ndfah. — (6a^ 0/ 
mwA:) «U ndfah. 

MusKBT, isCjii tuf ang, j\i a^ gold- 
lah-bdr. The different parts of 
a musket are as follow: — (the 
barrel «Sy Idlah.— (coZi&re) &xao 
dahanah,;yk si^ guldlah-khwur. 




— (breeching) a5W»j dumbilah. — 
{touch-hole) &^ji burmah, tj\^ 
gudirah. — (chamber) ^\ja. khi- 
zdnah, a^j*- khizmah. — (nipple of 
percussion gun) vsi^^j^ khurusak. 
(sight) J*4*> dfd, ,jt^ J4^ did-i- 
pfsh. — (hind sight) v/H *^«^ did-i- 
pas. — (htUt) juui 6S tah-i-kun- 
ddk, *iSjJS 6S tah-i-tufang, ji) 
j\Ju5 zfr-i-kund&k. — (stock) j^JuS 
kund&k, 6>t\siS knnddghah. — 
(grasp of stock) &^ kabzah. — 
(ramrod) M-» sumbah, J<y« mfl. 
— (hands confining the stock and 
barrel) v*-*-» bast. — (lock) jUaw*. 
chakbmdk. — (lock-plate) &^^ 
jUq»>. safhah - i - chakbindk. — 
(cock) ^y^ cbiinah, ^^ chanah, 
^j^ khurds. — (cock of a per* 
cussion gun) 4^u ding, ^r*^ 
cbakusli. — (cock of a match' 
lock) AAiU mishah. — (fuU cock) 
L^ ^ jL.4.-Qi,-4fr. chakhmdk-sar- 
p4. — (half cock) ^ ^ J^*^ 
chakhm&k nfm-p&. — (doghead)y^ 
A>|^ sar-i-chunah. — (hammer) 
O^^Vi kdshluk, s3^j^ karshuluk. 
— (pan) AA/ gushah, ajU-aj^ 
atisn-khAnah, a3W ch&lah, jW^\ 
uj4k. — (spring) ^U^ kaman. — 
(tumbler) tj^ charkh. — (screw) 
mH pfch. — (scear) aj^ p&yah. — 
(trigger) ^-u^V^ p&shinsJi, aaU 
mdshali. — (trigger - ^tuircl) fji^y 
kurkhuluk, jy^A-j^J kdrkhuldk. — 
(p2a^ opposite to the lock) A^yie 
'akrabah. — (sling) «sOtf a^.^ tas« 

MuBKETEEB, ^s^f>^ tufang-chf. 

MuBKT, (^>Xa^ mishkin. 

Muslin, **Wy birinjak, JJL* mal- 
mal (AtW.), y^Vi^ dkAbdnd. 

MuBTACHios, Jiff- sibfl, vt9^ burut, 
v>jU sh&rib. 

MusTABD, J*y. khardal. 

Muster (of forces, &c.), t)^ san, 
7^^ </;ft *araz - i - lashkar. — 
(roll) uu—je* fihrist. 

To Mustek, o^^^ o^ ^^^ dfdan. — 
(to be mustered) ^ja fij^j ^U 
sdn-didah shudan. 

MusTiNEss, v.^^^ bdsfdagi. 
Musty, fiJ^$«*)i busidah. 
MusuLMAK, ^ V >■ »• muslim (pi. 
muslimfn), (jjUl— *• musul- 


mdii, jXi\ J«>^ abl-i-islam, (j^y« 
mdmin. — (Musulman faith) fXm\ 
islam. — (scriptures) vide Kuban. 
— (the founder of the faith — 
Muhammadanism, ^Ui-^ mu- 
sulmdnf — whom we call Mahom^et^ 
Mahomed, or Mohammed) ^u^^ 
muhammad (literaMy signifying 
** praiseworthy"). He is also 
termed : « v »^^ %s>j>i^ hazrat-i-mu- 
bammad (the Lord Muhammad) ; 
J^fts«^*u^« muhammad-i-mustaf 4 
(Muhammad the Chosen) ; i^\ J^j 
rasulu-'Uah (the Prophet of 
God) ; iA>\«>L. JL^- 8ajjid-i-sdd4t 
(Noble of Nobles) ; {^^y^\ •»*- 
sayyidu-'l-mursalin (Chief of 
prophets), &c. 

In addition to his own proper 
name, by which ho is universallj 
known, Muhammad allowed 
himself to be called: •Ufi*^ ah- 
mad (most praised) ; ^^^ ft^ 
abu-*l-K4sim (father of Kasim, 
his eldest son, who like aU of his 
children, except Fatimah, died 
young) ; <^^ mahi (th^ blotter 
out, i.e. of infidelity) ; j^U. hdshir 
(the gatherer together, i.6. of the 
faithful) ; s-iVc *4kib (the last in 
succession, i.e. of the prophets) ; 
iif^\ ^^ nabfyu-'t-taubah (pro^ 
phet of repentance) ',sjidLSA^;f\^j^ 
nabfyu-'r-rahmat (prophet of 

Mutability, (^^ talavYun, yt^ 
tskghyir, y6*» taghayyur. 

Mutable, ^eAs-« mutaghayyir, Mi^^jf 
j4)> tabdil-pazir, jiy, j^ taghay- 

Mutation, J* a,* tabdfl, ;«*? tagh- 

Mute, ^V^j ^ bi-zab4n, is^SL, s&kit, 
J!} 141, *sSJS gang, f^ bakim, 
fAi^ abkam. 

To Mutilate (castrate), (^*y/ ^^ 




khwajah kardan, (^^f ,^^ khusf 
kardan, o^/ ^^ ikhtah kardan. 
— (cut off nose, ears, hands ; put 
out eyes, dc, according to the seiv- 
tence of a chief) (^*y/ ij^ nasak 

Mutilated, j!)^ chul4k, ^j^ 
zakhmi, ^a&« sakat, i'^A 6J^ ^j.^ 

Mutilation, m^ tajzim, ^W^ 

MuTiNEEB and Mutinous, ^^\i 
y^ghf, ^\i h&ghi, ^^Vft 'dsf, ^jfcVL 
tdghf, (j&^ (:)^r~^ gardan-kash, 
Ju«A^ mufsid, u^j^pA^ munharif, 
v/^ j^ sar-kash, ^y-s^ mutamar- 

Mutiny, ^^^^Vj yAghf-cari, va?^W 
baghdyat, i^J fitnah, (JO^ tugh- 
yan, oW-fi 'isydn, oL-i fasAd, 
cJ'*^*^;^ gardan-kashf, AtJkfcj 
daghoaghah, ^^^^ ^ sar-kashf, 
Jj/e' kahkard, o^y^ harzagf 


To Mutiny, ^^^ ^W-e 'isyan ni- 
mddan, ^J^ ^^Ve <asi shudan, 
^jj*>^ ^^ taghf kardan, (^J^ ,^Vi 
yughf shudan. 

To Mutter, vide To Grumble, 
To Murmur. 

Mutton, juASi^ vs^^ gusbt-i-giiB- 

Mutual, {^W jdnibain, (^ U 

ma-bain, {^^ tarafain. 
Muzzle (for dogs, <§c.), ^^ e)A*> 

To Muzzle, (jsl^ {^*> daban bas- 

Muzzle-loader, j^ {^*^ daban- 

My, {^ JU mAl-i-man. 
Myriad (ten thousand), (^Uyp tu- 

man, (^ tuman. 
Myrobalan (tree), aIqU balilab, 

aU^ dmulab. 
Myrrh, y murr. 
Myrtle, *^jy mtird, (j^'\ As. 
Myself, {^ *>y^ kbwud-i-man. 
Mysterious, o^^a^^ makhff. 
Mysteriously, '^}yf marmuzan, 

'\y- sirran. 
Mystery, j\) r4z, yj ramz, s-^ 

gbaib,^ sirr. 
Mystical, ^^^W bdtin, ^Jfi^\i b&tinf. 
Mysticism, <^^ tasavvuf. 
Mythological, (•y^y* maubdm. 
Mytholooist, ^y «A>Uy»M« mau- 

bumdt-nivfs, upUyfey* ^U 'alim- 

Mythology, vu\*»^y maubdmat, 

i£»Uyby« ^ 'ilm-i-maubumit. 


Nadir (opposite to Zenith), yj^ 
nazfr, o>^iUJ\^eto nazfru-'s-samt. 

Nag, s-^^ asb, v*-^ asp* ir- sitdr, 
s-^ markab (pL s-^/« mara- 
Idb), ^^j<i bdraif, o*^ as (v^idg.), 

Natl* (0/ ,/8n^er or toe), (^Vi n4- 
kbun. — (hang-nail) ^j risbab. 
— (to cut one^s nails) ^^M^V (^^ 
ndkbun tir&sbfdan. — (of iron, 
Ac.) (^ mfkb, jU««^ mismdr. 

To Nail, o*^/ 6^ mikb kubidan. 

Naive, f^^ Balim. 

Naked, aaa«i barabnab, (^\tf^ 
*uryan, v5jCb *4rf, Jj/»^ mu'arri, 

*yj^^ mujarrad, o^^ Idkbt, us^ 

Nakedness, c/^/ barabnagf, 
v*-4;ft *uryat, •>;^ tajarrud. 

Name, f*U ndm, ^^ ism (pi. ^y^\ 
asdmf, or U^^ asmd). — (surname 
of relationship) &^ kunyah. — 
(surname relating to family, trade, 
or country) s^y^Xf ^\ ism-i- 
mansdb. — (title or nichnams) 
s-J»5 lakab (pi v»^\ alkdb).— 
(assumed name of a poet) ^j^ 
takballus. — {fhe names of God, 
of which there are ninety-nine) 




JjUhe asmi-i-'uzmi. — (it hear$ out 

iia name) *Jt^\ (J^*-***^ ^ ^^ ism 

bA-musammd ast.— (to oMume a 

name) ^^\SS\j4J\ ismri guz^sh- 

tan* ^yi>jS^ f»U n4m giriftan. 
To Nahb, ^*^e^V» n^mfdan, f»V> 

^jj^Ji* n4m guzirdan, 0«>^«> ^U 

n&m dddan, 0*>W^ ^^ iam nih4- 

dan, o^/^ Jj * """ * maBammA ni- 

Nambd (coUei), (•y^^ maiudm, 

^*m. *» muBammtu — (mtmamed) 

s-^'dU mulakkab, *■< J i t a >* matalak* 

Namely, ,y<4 ya'nf, ,j*ft^ a'nf, ^5^ 

Nambbakb, (j*m aamfy, f\uJ^ ham- 

Nap (0/ eloth), ««Ur kulak, v>y 

khwib, })i purz. — («^eep) v>^j*» 

khw&b, o^A^ pfnakf. — (io taJce a 

nap) ^«>) <,^^ pfnakf zadan, 

0*y) ^M»y^ churt zadan. 
Napx (of the nech), Us kaf&, B;e*^ 

Naphtha, ^^ naft. 
Napkik, JUjuo dast-mil, j /^ 

Narcissus, ^r^ nirgis. 
Nabootic, ;^>-^ maskir, (j&ab* ^^ 

To Nabbatb, o^y^ jij* takrfr ni- 

m&dan, {^xis guftan, (^*y/ <JU^ 

yasf kiirdan. 
Nabbatiov, <JU^ vasf. 
Nabbatitb, r^yJ^ takrfr, J-Jlj 

Nabbatob, JXU n&kil, ^^^^^ r4yf. 
Nabbow, «sd tang, v*%-»^ cbnst, 

OM zayyik. 
Nabbowly, s^jI karfb. 
Nabbowkbss, ^J^ tangf, ^.^x^ 

Nasal {yMefanci)^ aa6 ghunnah. 
Nastily, "U^tf kasffan. 
Nastikbss, «j^^ ^ n&-p4kf, ^^^ 

ohirk, iB^L.^ kasif at. 
Nastt, li)^ V» nA-p4k, (^«^ chirkfn, 

t-M^ kasff , >^ mnghass, 


Natatiov, ci^Ve* sibihat, 
shinA, ^jj^^ shindyarf. 

Natiok, f»y( kauxn, «»X« millat, 
ift'- e ^A snu'bat, v»-»\ unimat, jWj 
tab4r, (jU khaJk. — (cownlbni) «sXU 
molk, uHt); valijat. 

National, ,yU millati. 

Natitb (of a country), {^f^ mn- 
tavattin, ^^y» maoliid. — (native 
country or place) {^p yataa, ^y» 
maulad, f^^^) z4d-buin. 

NATiyiTT, woS^ yil4dat, aV* mfl&d, 
«^y tayallud, (/i\«^( paidiyish. — 
(horoacope) u^. bakbt, gSU. t41i'. 

Natbon (nitre)^ (^}^ natrdn, fijy^ 

Natubal, ^U z&tf , ^^ aslf, ^j^ 
tabf'f, ^ tab'f, JW jibiUf, 
^^j^ gnurfzf. — (na^mZ ckUd) 
8jW«U. hardm - z4dali, uy^ <»3^ 

Natubalist, ,^^t«A tabf'f. 

To Natubalizb, (^^ s y ^'^^ 
mahsdb s4khtan, c)*^^^^ -^ J*^ 
ahl-i-balad gard&nfdan. 

NATiniALizBD, ^ y ^f» mabsiib. 

Natubb, ««>U z4t, 2<i tabs «*'< ^ ^ 
tabf'at,yfeiy^ jauhar, ui^W jibil- 
lat, i»u«k tinat, i»^^ sirisbt, 
»«.'i4 kballat, •>•%>« yujdd, <>e<> 
shfmab, j\# nihid, uuiA^ khilkat, 
%B>;U fitrat, *M9jpm sfraty v*/*^ 
mashrab, eV^ miz4j, * a » - 
sajfjab, tf^ alu jibillfjat. — 
(good-natured) v» y ^ «-*J^ latff- 
mashrab. — (tB-nolurecQ JW* -V 
bad-khisiU, y. A} bad-khd, »-^ 
«j^ kaj-khulk. 

Naught, ^ hfch, %j^ chfzf. 

NAuoRTurBSS, uL9)^>ik sharirat, ^^^ 

NAuaRTT (m a child), jt/^ sharfr, 
•>» bad. 

Nausba, £^ tahayyuS 

To Nausbatb (he eick), i^^ t^/^\ 
istifr&gh kardsA, ^«>/ ^ kai 
kardan. — (loaihe) (^U ftj^ 
makrdh d^shtan, (jxktU %a9^ ni- 
frat ddshtan, ^^y yux^ mnta- 
naffir biidan. 

Nausbous, J«i^ sakfl. 




Naubbouskibss, *»^ saklat. 
Nauticaii, v5j*: bahrf, Hy^, bahrf- 

Naval, ^j^, bahrf, ^f^, bahrfyah. 

— (naval college) i^^, i-jj^ mad- 

rasah-i-bahrf. — {Tuival officer) 

^^. s-«*^ s-^^ 8^b-mansab-i- 

Nave, v^ kutb. 
Naybl, *-iV» naf, »;- surrah. — 

(string) f^^ khasm. 
Nayigablb, ,jSA^ ;^ J|V| kabil-i- 

To NAviaATBy i^^\ sj^ kashtf 

Nayiqation (<^ ar^)y (2)IVa«« y^ ^ 

'ilm-i-Bair-i-saf&yin, (j-»X^ ^Jla 

'ilm-i-mallahfy V^^ j yu ^^^ &um-i- 

Navigatob, c^ mallab, ^y niitf, 

v5;9. babrf, •^bli^ jdsbd. 
Navy, *!;*: banrfyah. 
Nay, ^J nai, ** nah, je** kbair. — 

(wvg more) ^ balkih. 
Nazabbne, (^\j^ nasardn. 
Nazabitb (one devoted by religious 

V0W8 to a life of jpuriiy and atM- 

terity), jy^ basiir. 
Nbab, oJii^ nazdfk, «>v» nazd, s^y 

karfb, s^)^ muKdrib, Uyt^ 

mushrif, cJ^ jJ dar sbaraf, 

tj^ pahlti,f, yJ<^ mukdair, 

jjw» muYirik, vuii- j*> dar jamb. 
To Nbab, ^j^ «^^ nazdfk sbu- 

dan, (^'^'\ «<^^ nazdik &madan. 
Nbably, shi^ karib, «<AiJ^ nazdfk, 

"Wyff takrf ban, s^ j fa g 'an-karfb. 
Nbabnbbs, o^^ nazdfkf, ^^ 

karb, vanr;^ muk^rabat, fjt^j\y» 

Nbat, &y«^ pikfzah, ^Uu^ munak- 

kah, Ax-M 4r&stali, 4s5Uaj ka- 

shang, i-M» nazff , J^*^ khwash- 

Neatly, tf^Uh» V| b& • naz&fat, 

(jCui \9 bd-kasbangf. 
Nbatitbbs (elegance), va.JitJ^ sali- 

kat, i»^Uh> nazdfat, M^ tanki- 

yah, ^ j^ J^Ai kasbangf. 
Nbbulous, jU ji\ abr-d4r, &«»/ 

giriftah, ^;( pur-mfgb. 

Nbcbssabibs, f»j\y laY&zim. 

Necesbabily, i£»j4y^^ bi-'z-zardrat, 
(V^S Ujaram. 

Nbcesbaby, j^ zar&r, ftjH Uzim, 
l^ysU multazim, ^^^^sA^ muk- 
tazf, J^^SA^ mu'takid, is^U vijib, 
j^j^ dar-k&r, ^ r ^ r ^ mutahattim. 
— (privy) jj^ <yW ia,f-i-zarur, 
2UJit (A^ baitu-'UkbaU, w* ma- 
braz, &»U. s^S^i^ munjalab-kb4- 
nab. — (to be necessary) ' {j*^\i 

To Nbcesbitatb, {^it^\^ s-^^^ Ydjib 
sdkhtan, e)*V^ *^ljrf zar^rat ni- 
rnddan, (^'^y^ f*jS lazim nimddan. 

Necbbsitoub, aju* jl^ niyaz-mand, 
gU^^ muhtAj, i»%-o ^ tubf- 

Nbcbbbity, ^%v^ zardrat, <a^U. 
b4jat, 6^«a^^ ibtiy&j, i^\ iktizft, 
v»-»jS Uzimat.— (loanO c^y v^ 
bf-naY4,f, o?)W^ bf-cbmgf, 
^\a 'ijizf, AiU fAkah, JW5-\ 

Neck, c)*>j5' gardan, 0M« 'unuk. — 
(throat) yiTguld, (jU balk, (•ydL. 
hulkdm. — (ftaci 0/ the neck) 
^^f ^US kaf& - i - gardui, «;«» 

Necklacb, tXA) ^j/ gardan-band, 
iS^ kilddah. 

Necktie, •XA<i«>;f gardan-band. 

Necbomanceb, f ^S^ j&dd-gar, 
j^U sAhir. 

Necbomancy, i^^ nfranj, yy\^ 
j4dd, *^jt^ nairang. 

Nectab, \yt^) rahfk. 

Nbctabinb, JfiU sbalfl. 

Need, vide Necebbity. 

To Need, vide To Be<)Uibe. 

Needle, e)J^ sdzan, J«^ mfl. — 
(packing needle) J^^j^ javAl- 

Needle-case, ^\jij^ sdzan-dan. 

Needlesb, (A-^ei** ^ bf-jibat, ^J 
^jjff^ bf-zardrat. 

Needlessly, ^a>j^ ^ bf-zardrat. 

Needle-wobk (embroidery), ^^ 
bdtab, efJjJ^S^ kuUAb-ddzf, <>» 
naksb, <<3^J ftJ^ nakdah-ddzf, 
^^jl^j ft^d^ landarab«ddzf. 




Needy, u-Aa* muflis, ^ fakfr, ^j 

Nbfabioits, ^vAb sharir, ^^^ rusya, 
j^>-i» fazfh, «W-« rd-sijah, j^;?^ <j» 
bi-ab-rd, •>» bad. 

Negation, J^\ ink&r, ^Ji nafy, ^^ 

Nboativb, ^J'A^ manfy, ^ naf j, 

^5a*» munkir. — (of photograph) 

&jt^ shisbah. 
Negatively, ^W** nafyan. 
Neglect, *j>^ ghiflat, JAU? tagh4- 

f ul, J^yji o* bi.parva,f, (y^W ta- 

hdvun, JUa^ ibmdl, JUfcV^ kahilf. 

JftU5 tasAhul, ufcJiAL-^ mus^- 

halat, t a »^^^">« musamahat, saJ^ 

To Neglect, ^JA J»Vfc gbdfil shu- 

dan, o^/*^ J^^ ibm&l nimudan. 
NEGLIOi!, Jt^ 'iltil. 
Negligent, Tj-afeei bf-khabar, J*V* 

ghAfil, %;^ W-parv4, l\t^\ ^J 

bf.ihtiyftt, &A4Ji\ ^ bf-andishah, 

>V^ kabU, v>^ bf.hdsh, >^j 

To Negotiate, ^o^ aUW» mu'Ama- 

lah kardan, ^^|*i soaW* mu- 

'dbadab nimddan. 
Negotiation, aUU^ mu'dmalah, 

j\i j\^ k&r-b4r, o»>Jix»* maslahat, 

ftjdtoU^ mu'abadah. 
Negro, ^J^\ zangf, ,^5.**-^ habashf, 

8l«M. siyan, a^-* siyah. — (negro 



g. v . ».,.> bandab-i- 
\^ kakA-i-siyah 

habasbf, d^-* 

(tnt2a.)- — («^t;c girl) ^^ .- r^— 

kanfz-i-babasbf, &«-<• 8*>*> dadab-i- 

siyab (vu2^.). 
Neigh, &9«^ shaibab, Je«« sabil. 
To Neigh (a horse), (j*^/ &^«^ 

sbaibab kardan, (^*y^ JiA^ sabil 

Neighbour, ^U*^ bam - sdyab, 

j^V* muidvir, jW jdr (pZ. (^W 

jfr&n), y^a»«^ bam-kbwdr, ^V^ 

Neighbouring, jijV^i^ mujAvir, J'os^ 

Neighbourhood, ^j^U»4A bam- 

sdyagf,j^^ javAr, va»j^V^i^ muj&- 

yaraty v*yi kurb, (j(^V ^^^^^U 

^oy nazdfkf, J^^ baydlf, J^ 
v>^ ^ baul ya bausb. — (in the 
neighbonrhood of) u\^\ y dar 
atraf , ij^^ j*^ dar bavdli. 
Neighbourly, oV;^ mibrban, 

jk^ sbaf ik. 
Neither, ^ nab. — (neither one nor 
other) {^ ^ {^^ nab dn nab fn, 
j5j &> ««\2 di nab yak nab digar. 
— {neither more nor less) 6i ^ 6i 
*3\i} nab kam nab ziyAd. — (nei- 
ther . . . nor ...) ... A> ...AJ 
nab . . . nab . . . 
Neophyte, fJ^\ s-J^ tilibuM- 

Nephew (brother's son), »*>^^ j^\^ 
biradar - zddab, j*y\ji j^ pisar-i- 
biradar. — (sister's son) «*>\j ^ jf^ '^s t 
bamsbirab - z&dab, fi«>\j jib\yL. 
kbwabar-zddab, y^^/- j^ pisar- 

Nepotism, <A^UJtf nafs^nfyat. 

Nerve, &t«afi 'asabab, ^ pay, ^s-JLac 
'azalat, &^j rfsbab, f^ vatar. 

Nerveless, <^^ ^ bf-kdvat, (^\y ^ 
n4-tav&n, «-A««^ za'ff. 

Nervous, «je)Ut^ pay-ndk, (^^f tar- 

Nest, ^^1[ dsbydnab, ^S l^ab. — 
(0/ ants, wa^s, &c.) JU. cb41. 

To Nestle, ^«>/ &»^f dsby^nab 

Net, &^ sbabakab. — (for fishing 
or fowling) f^^ dam, »)jF tdrah, 
j^B tdr, ^^ sbass. — {commercial 
term) <j*^ 8^^^- 

Nethee, tf^-^ past, j;* furd, jjj 

Netted, «*W-*-» miisbabbak. 

Netting, a^ sbabakab. — (wtVe- 
netting) ^*>/ f^t^ ^ *^*A sbaba- 
kab bd-sim kardab. 

Nettle, ^^ gaznab. 

To Nettle, o**;^^ /**^ bi-kbisbm 
avardan, ^^C v*jk&« muztarib 
sdkbtan, ^«>;}li azurdan. 

Net- WORK, ^>^^ sbabakab. 

Neuter (noun), ^j»*i*h ^ ^^ ism- 
i-bi-jins, e-,J*^ ^ ;e^i? li^ ^\ ism- 
i-bild tazkfr va ta,nis. 

Neutral, u^^t ^jr bf-taraf. 

Nbu] 217 

Nbutbalitt, f^J^ ^J bf-taraff. 
Nev«r, jSyib hargiz, TU\ aslan, 1 j^\ 

Nbybbthbless, q)} *yy^^ I) b4-Tujdd- 
i-an, \Aa J^ g- ma* kuU hazd, 
sS j^ jto har chand kih. 
New, y nau, ajV* tazah, A4J4. jadfd, 
ij^ yangf. — (it is nothing new) 
^.\ji ^U tAzagf na-darad. — 
{New-Year's Bay) }^ ^ nau-rdz. 
— (new comer) {^tiAjAy^ khwush- 
niBhfn, ^^y^ »jVj t&zah - vArid, 
ij^^^j y Dau-rasfdah. 
New-fashioned, j^a,. f^. rasm-i- 

Newlt, y 3^ az nau, ^«>*x%« mujad- 
dsLdan.— (lately) oij ^\ j*> dar 
fn yakt. 
News, ^ khabar, ^V^\ akhbAr, 
*y^ afvAh, »j^^^ avdzah, e^J^a. 
hadfs, ^jeH agahf. — (newsmon- 
ger) jtf x!^ khabar-gfr. — (good 
news) 8^ muzhdab, ^ vA^ 
kbwush-khabar, ui'jU^ bishdrat, 
j*AiW» tab&shfr, J^jy navfd. — (a 
jpre«en^ for good news) «sU fijj^ 
miizbdah-luk, ^V5jj*« niuzhda- 
gAnf. — (hid news) ^ ^ khabar- 
i-bad, ^J^ vs " tift j ^ kbabar-i- 
▼ahshat-mad4r, ^^a* e^Jkh. hadis- 
i-sbdm. — (newspaper) &^U j^ 
jW*-^ riiz-nAmchah-i-akhbAr, 3^ 
*^V» rfiz-namchah, 4*«U j^ ruz- 
nimab, la^jVf gazit (ci*r.). 
News- WRITE a, ^-'^y jW*-^ akhb&r- 

Next (adjoining), J-^s^ muttasil, 
A*-^ paivastab. — (following) 
^*y dfgar, /*y digar, S 'j ; ^ ^ *an- 
karfb, •»«» ba'd, »ju»«\ ^andab, 
u^ paa. — (next day) S*y ^^ rdz-i- 
digar, •iaj U; riiz-i-ba*d.— (wea?^ 
year) f^^} JL. sAl-i-Ayandah, JU 
jiTj sdl-i-digar. 
Nib (point), oiJy nauk, ;- sar. — 
(piece of horn or ivory upon 
which pens are nibbed) ^yai kat- 
zan, <:)yffWs kat'zan. 
Nibbed, J Wy nauk-dAr. 
To Nibble, (yJuAifc khA,Man, oJuAi^ 
jA,fdan, e?*H>^ gazfdan. 


Nice, v>yy« marghtib, *«XeS nfk, 
Si^ laziz, itCvftj kashang, ^y^ 

Nicely, ^^ &> bi-kbubf. 

N1CBNB88, cyJJ lazzat, ^jC* nikf, 
<j^aAS kashangf, «uJUJ latAfat. 

Nicety, &&c^ salfkah, ^jSi nuktab. 

Niche, a<^VL tAkcbab, JU khalal, 
— (spaces between the niches in 
the wall of a room) )y^ jirz. 

Nick (of time), ss^^ ^j^ *am.i-vakt. 

Nick-nacks, Ai^y 6\i\ Ia^^ chfza- 

Niece, j^^ r*^^ dukbtar-i-birAdar, 
^\^ r^*> dukbtar-i-kbwAhar, 
fij\j jj\J» birAdar-zAdab, ft^tj jib\^ 

NiGOABD, Je«fct bakbfl, icJL..^^ mum- 
sik, ^ la,fm, ^j$^ jAkf, cre-^ 
khasfs, yfl^^ft. haris, g-\L tAmi*. 

NlOGARDLINESS, J*». bukbl, ^f^ 

birs, g^ltama', <■"'«■.■ J. *rt khasfsat, 
iS^L^^ imsAk. 

NioGAEDLY, jU*a, tama'-kAr, ^ 
la,im, ^;^ barfs, ^<i^ *sS!JS tang- 
cbasbm, <^ a »*^ khasis. 

Nigh, «ali*>y nazdfk, ^y nazd, s-<y 
karib, v»j^ mukArib, u^yt-« 
musbrif, «J/. j j dar sbaraf, ,^^9^ 
pabld,i, ja\^ mukasir, jj^y» mu- 
vArik, s-**^ j*> dar jamb. 

Night, s-a sbab, JJ lail (jpZ. JU 
lijAlf), aW lailah, yi. sbau 
(wig,),-- (this night, to night) 
<^Ma^\ imsbab, yt-«^ imsbav 
(tmigr.). — (last night) h-^*> di- 
sbab, ^;*> ddsh, yA<*> dfsbav 
(vulg.).—(nig?U before last) s-^ji 
pari-shab. — (at night) s-^ <a^4 
yakt-i-sbab, s-^ f*\SJjb bangAm-i- 
sbab. — (to pass the night) «sy^ 
(a*y/ baitdtab kardan, ^ s-^ 
^*y sbab bi-sar burdan. 

Night-cap, aK<A shab-kulAb. 

Night-dbess, s^\^ ux^j rakbt-i- 

Night-fall, i\^\tJ^ sbabAn-gAb. 

Nightingale, JJi» bulbul, s-Jjuc 
*andalfb, (^U-\ j .^y^ hazAr-dAstAn, 
«-*V| jjj zand-bAf. 

Night-light, J|JuJ kandfl (cw.). 





NiOHTLT, s-^ y dar shab, 1M 
lailan. — (every night) v^ j^ har 
shab, &J^»gA shabfnah, aiWAi sba- 

NiGUT-MAK {cleanser of priviei), 
^\ji kannds, (;)«^ a«U. khissah- 
chfn {vulg.), 

NiaoTSHADS, i^y^^ tWdun, ^sSi^ 

ySi\ sag-angur, *^f \y^ rav^-tur- 

NioHT-wALKBB, ^/ s-^ shab-gird. 
Night-watch (guard) ^ y— ^ 'asas, 

«^^ (^^^ pisbdn-i-shab, ^^ ^ y ^e - ^ ' ^ 

kashik-chfy ^^ gazmah. 
Nihilist, ct^ xM^ l eO^ nihflfst (eur,). 
NiMBLB, ««^^ chabuk, «t)llV^ chdldk, 

oOjj zaring, jLiU shdtir, jVyfe 

Nimbly, o^V- bi-chabuki, o^V- 

NiNirr, <>M^\ abmak, <^y»^ bi- 

To Nep (things), (^a^ chidan. — 

(persona) {^j^ j^^ pinjar girif- 

NiPPEBs, vide Pincers. 
Nipple, ^^*-i ^ sar-i-pistAn, £;* 

zir* (pL Jy» zuru*). — (of a per- 

ctission gun) *dL>^^ khurusak. 
NiTBE, *;yft» shurah, (jy^ natron. 
NiTEOUs, fijyft* ^ ba- shurah. 
No, ^ nah, ^J nai, j«^ khair, !} la, 

Noble, «J^/i sharif, U|;A>^ ashraf, 
»J^*^ *umdah, tsJfj)? buzurg, Jts*^ 
asfl, s-^t«r najib, J^)> cs3^ pdk- 
nizhdd, ;«»^ kabfr, m/ karfm, 

J^'ilh O^^ 'Alf-shjin, aWtJ^ 
'ili-jdh, 2*^\ amfr. — (ara?M2) J<4^ 
jalfl, ui^ shigarf, JVc *dlf, Jj>i^ 
jazfl, J^le^ a'la, f*y^ mukarram. 
(no&2e«, nobility) I > ; ^ sburaf A, 
«^^7-^ ashrdf, \;^^ umarA, i^V- 
khaydss, Vj^y bar&yd, ^^W*^ a*yMi, 
vsJ^** t)^^ arkAa-i-daulat, (^\^jM 
buzurgdn, ^J\y• mavalf, j»tt\ 
akdbir. — (nobles and commoners) 
(•^ ) 1^^ khass va *dmm, ^ i^^^ 
(•\^ khavdss va 'avdinm, J9»«>\ 

(J^\ adn4 a^a, Ut^jSt ^ ^^ yazf 
va sharff, i^^ ^ J/- khurd va 
buzurg, J^y« ^ ;_yVA\ ahali u 

Nobleness, uwW^ najdbat, 4a^\^ 
shar&fat, ^^J|^ buzurgf. 

Nobly, *i\^\ amirdnab, a^iitj^ 
shdrffanah, ^^ mukarraman. 

Nobody, ( j »>S^Jb hfch-kas. 

NocEs, <J^) zifdf . 

NocTUBNAL, ,^^ shabf, «4^ samar. 

Nogtubnally, ^^ shabanah. 

Nod, (j1<-x% jiunbisb. 

To Nod, (^J^\^jh». jumb&nidan. 

Noise (sound), }\y'\ krkz, W sadA, 
«>^ saut. — (clamour) ja^ shur, 
v>jy*» shdrish, *a55lj bang, \t^ 
gbaughd, *3\ijk fairdd, ^y^ valva- 
lah, A^^^llfe hangamah, ^«* ^.^V* 
h4,f hii,i, AyUA shamiitah.— (to 
m>ake a noise) (^*y/ A.f^4A ham- 
hamah kardan. 

Noiseless, }\y] ^Ji bi-dvdz, c^y*^ 

Noisome, (j>a«a» muta'aflin, j^ (:)^j 
zijan-var, ^ muzirr, ^aSi^ jj;* 

Noisy (persons), J^y^ ghaugh&,f. 
— (place) L^jr^ j~i pur-ghau- 

NoLECOLE (or knolcole, the vege- 
table turnip-rooted cabbage), ^jy^ 
kumri, i^j9^ f^ kalam-i-shahri. 

Nolens yolens, "Va^ ^ 'U^ tau*an 
va kurhan, ax-^**» &s^\^ khwds- 
tah na-khwdstah. 

Nomad (wandering tribe of Persia), 
J\ iU, ^\ n (pi. «^U\ iljdt).— 
— (a moM of a nomadic tribe) 
^0\ iljdtf, {^^A^ \j^o sahra- 

NoM DE PLUME, (JUe ^\ ism-i- 
'amalf, ij^ takhallus. 

NOMENCLATXTBE, ^j^U^ «^-.*e* fih- 

Nominal, ^^•-^\ ismfy. 
Nominally, '^4»«^ isman. 
To Nominate, (^*>/ a^ *'*^ tasmiyah 

Nomination, &^f4^ tasmiyah. 
Nominative, JcU ^\ ism-i-f4,il. — 




(case) ifr^U sftJU halat-i-fa'ili- 

Nonage, JU, j^^ khwurd-sili, 
{^^ j*-» Bighru-'s-siim. 

Nonchalance, ^\Ss takahul, ^Ji^t 
ghAfilf, tfJL^ lots/ilat. 

Nonchalant, J*U ghifil, o^L^ 
kasldn, >V^ kdhil. 

None, a ^ hfch-nah, J^ !) lA-shai, 
f\jS ^ hfch-kuddm. 

Nonentity, ^js-t* nfstf , j»Jkc 'adam. 

Non-existent, u3^«*^ nist, f»A«u^ 

Nonsense, s^ puch, J^^ charand, 
«A*^ *aba8, ^J!^fM bihAdagi, 
J*«^ muhmal, «jVi ydvah, fijyfe 
harzah, ^ laghv, (^\iSjb hazjdn, 
«iCV jafang, jV^ IfchAr, Uj^e. 
^s-A* haraf-i-muft. — (to talk non- 
sense) {^^ Ji;^ charand guftan, 
(2^j^ JVW\ ibtdl nimudan, bh 
(:^p&ch guftan, {^Jt^ji^ lichar 

Nonsensical, iS^\ ahmak, <^yM» 

Nook, Sik*^ manfaz, JU khalal, 
AA»^ gdshah. — (nooks and crau' 
nies) 6/ J J^ khilal va furaj. 

Noon, j^ zuhr, }yj^ nfm-rdz, «JW 
jW^^ nisfu-'n-nahibr. 

Noose, au^ kamand, f*\a dam. 

To Noose, ^^^-a^^^^j^^ ju^^^ kamand an- 

Nor, *i nah, ^^ ^ va nah. 

Normal, jVj»»» mutad, <j«»tl» tab*{. 
— (medicai term) i^j^ gharizf. 

North, JUa shim&l. — (pole) s-Jal 
JUa kutb-i-shim^lf. — (north- 
east) jj;A^ ^ JUa (^ U md bain- 
i-snim41 va mashrik. — (north- 
west) v*j** f J^ (:hrf '^ m^ 
bam-i-shimdl va maghrib. 

Northerly, 'HUa shimdlan. 

Northern, ^jIUa shimdlf, d«3UA 

Northward, JUa ^j;^ bi-suvf-i- 

Nose, ^j^^ bfnf, «-A>\ anf. — (jwg- 
noM) ij""^ akhnas. — (tip of nose) 
^J>^ d)y nauk-i-bfnf. — (bridge of 
nose) ^y6i ^^M ji bar-4madagf- 

i-bfnf. — (upper part of nose) JU*> 
dimagb. — (he leads him by the 
nose) *vai^ (jiA^A-sj bi-tasnifash 

Nose-bag (of a horse) , »;»/ tii- 

NosEGAT, AAi-jir gul-dastah. 

Nose-ring, fjs^ aaU. halkah-i-bfni, 
f\)^ khizAm, (^ji bursan (cbs.). 

Nostril, ^y^ «^ parrah-i-bmi, 
jUf*^ mankhar. — (septum^ or 
division of the nostrils) i» e - * ' t ^ 

Not, aj nah, U na, )J U, ;«& ghair, 
U ma, ^J nai. — («o< a< all) *%o\ 
aslan, 'UlU mutlakan, m^ hich, 

Notable, jj^e'>t>^ mash-htir, «^»«^ 
ma'ruf . — (no<a5fe<) tmfo Nobles. 

Notablbness, ui>j6A> shuhrat, m^ 

Notary, ,j^ »/iF tazkirah-chf, y^*y 
LTty dat'tar-niyfs. 

Notation, ^j rakam. 

Notch, ^y^ chiib-khat, s^V> nib, 
^ lanah, L&. ^ chu-khat (vtUg.). 
— (of an arrow) j^y^ stif &r, JJPW- 
*J ia,f-i-zih. — (in the blade of a 
sword or knife) ^^ rikhiULh, 
fi)i/*^ damrfzah, ^JJ^ shalf. 

To Notch, (^^f 6jS kinah kardan. 

Notched, jW &i\j^*> danddnah-dir, 
jU A;aj rikhnah-d4r, jW Ai^ 

Note (memorandum), is-^U *>\jt 
yad-disht, ^/^ tazkirah. — (short 
letter) **Sj ruk'ah. — (enclosure in 
a letter) ^^AU malf 6fah. — (mar- 
ginal gloss) M»U> h&shijah (pi, 
i^^^ havAshf). — (of hand) 
« *^"H »» tamassuk. — (of music, of 
which, according to Persian musi- 
cians, there are twelve) ^Va^ ma- 
kam, oiJ^ kuk. — (half-note, of 
which there are twenty-four) »*>^ 
pardah. — (diplomatic note) 4^!} 
li,ihah, jiyff takrfr, ^J^^*y c/» 
sharh-i-daulati. — (circular note) 
< ^ft * j » t^ ui>\j2;^ tahririt - i - 'umd- 
mijah. — (joint note) Jwa*« ^\i 
^Jw kaghaz - i - muttahidu - '1- 




ma,4If . — (money) ^Vi kifmah. 
— (of interrogation) f>\^^\ kJ^ 
haraf-i-istif ham. — (to make a 
note of a thing) (^^^ nivislitazi. 

Note-book, '^As^ kitabcbah. 

Nothing, ^ hfch, ^ S Id-shaj. 

Nothingness, (^ab, 'adam, ^y*^ 

Notice (observation), ft^ nig^i 
yk» nazar, AhaX* mulahazah. — 
(intelligence) ^^ ig^^U o^^ 
ieahf, £)i»^ ittildS ^ khabar, 
fSt^ i'lim, (^\ i'ldn. 

To Notice, ^^^ y** e^^ im'an-i- 
nazar nimudan, ^ja ia^JuU mul- 
tafit shudan. 

Notification, f^\ i'liun, (^\ 
i'Un,jW^\ i8btiMr,jUAi\ isb'ir. 

To Notify, o**^** jW*»»^ ishtihir 
d4dan, (^*i^ (^\ i*\&a kardan, 
^j^jUb\ ish'^ kardan. 

Notion, J^e^ khay^, e^ gum4n, 
ij**^ liads, jy^ tasavYur, f^) 
vahm, {^ zann, j^ fikr, ;j«W 
kiyds. — (to have a notion) {^\mi 

NoTOBiBTY, UP)6A> shuhrat, ^W^ 

NoTOBious, *^}/^ ma'ruf, jj«^^ 
mash-hdr, \^y^ mansus, •>y^V» 

NoTOBioiTSLT, ^j^^ mashiiran, 
^y^Vk zihiran. 

Notwithstanding, ^ ^y^ W b4- 
vuj&d kih, A^ tu^ y^ nar chand 
kih, Ai^^ JU h41 4n kih, ^Jjk» ^ 
ma' h4z&. 

Nought, Mi^ hfch, on«^ chfsf. 

Noun, ^fism (pi U-.\ asmd). — 
(«tc5«<anh't;e) vu\^ f^\ ism-i-zit. 
— (defmite noun) ^yf^ f^^ ism- 
i-ma'riif. — (indeJmUe noun) f^\ 
f^^ ism-i-munakkar. — (generic 
noun) v/-J^ f^\ ism-i-jins. — 
(primitive noun) J^W f^^ ism-i- 
jamid, Ju\ ^\ ism-i-aslf. — 
(derivative noun) ^j^i^i^ f^\ ism- 
i-mashtakk, SyL'i^m ^i ism-i- 
ma,khdz. — (abetract noun) J*^ 
jA«* h^sil-i-masdar. — (adjective) 
sifat. — (variable or declin- 

able nown) vj^oju* 1^^ ism-i-mun- 
sarif. — (indeclinable noun) f^\ 
%^yai^ jp^ ism-i-ghair-i-munsajrif . 
— (simple noun) ^/t^ f^ ism-i- 
mufrad, laeW ^\ ism-i-basft. — 
(verbal noun) jA«* masdar. — 
(noun of time) ^Uj ^\ iam-i- 
zamdn. — (noun of place) 0^<^ f^\ 
ism-i-mak^n. — (noun of instru' 
ment) ^^ f^\ ism-i-alat. — (noun 
of multitude) £4^ f^\ ism-i-jamS 

To NouaisH, Q^jyji panrardan, \J*j^ 
0*y/ parvarish kiurdan. 

NouBisHBB, ji^ parvar, ^^}}^ par- 

NOUBISHMSNT, ui>y( kdt, *^\^ 

khwurdk, (•UL ta'am, \^ ghiza, 

J;/, khwurd, 6i^S\ Azdkah, J/^ 

Novel, y nau, fij^ tazah, •^•H> 

jadfd, ^J^ J&ngf. — (book) *-■* 

kissah, (^U^U ddst&n, Jtt v>Vs^ 

Novelist, JUtf nakkdl. 
Novelty, ^Jf)\s tizagf. — (U is a 

novelty) *3^J fj^)\5 tizagf d&rad. 
Novembeb, ^U (2^jAJ taahrfn-i- 

Novice, jy} y naa-dmuz, J«*H> 

jadfd, v5*Ut^ mubtadi. 
Novitiate, %s}y^\ y iiau-4m&zf. 

(Vide Novice). 
Now, (W^ akndn, (^y^ kandn, J^ 

h41, i^ h414, JW^ al-h41, c>» 

al,in, )fJ^ hanuz, ubJ^ (^\ j«> dar 

fn vakt. — (no«7-a-day«) (^j^j (^\j*> 

dar in zaman. — (now and then) 

vide Sometimes. 
NowHEBB, W ^ hich-j&. 
Nowise, %e»jyo ^t^t bi-hfch surat, 

'^\ aslan, *^y^e^ hich-vajh. 
Noxious, ^ muzirr, v5*i*y* diU|Zi, 

jU»yj zij4n-kar, A;U ztoiuh. 
Noxiousness, %;4 zarar, ^jj^^} 

zij&n-kdrf, oQj ziyan, ^^j^ 4z4r. 
Nuances, %s>^iy^ juz,iyat. 
Nubile, ^W baligh, ft«*e-j •-Aji^ 4*^ 

bi-hadd-i-taklif-rasfdah, j^ ^^^ 

fix«\ bi-sinn-i-shu'ur-dmadah. 
Nucleus, J«\ asl, ;^U\ asas, i£»^\ 





NxTDB, sjj^ barahnahy ^D^ '^9 

mujarrad, «A^y Mkht, 

To NtTDaB, ^«yi t^f^ tahrfk nf- 

Nudity, ^J^ji barahnagf, o^ 
tajarrud, i^st^ 'uiyat. 

NiroATOBT, JUi»\ ibt41, Ji-W bttil. 

NuisANOB, ^a^y 4fat,;^jHz^, *A^S\ 
azfjat, ^J«\ fz4, JW« vabil. 

Null, ^ U n^-chiz. — (nuU and 
void) JM ibUl. — (to render null 
and void) O"^/ J^^ i^^il kar- 

Nullity, ^^e^ \i nA-chizi, (^ 

Numb, (j»^ ^ bi-hiss, tx."^***-* sust. 

To Numb, q)^s*-U (^;«tf^ ^ bi-hiss 
sakhtan, (^o^ 5j^^ afsurdah 
kardan. — (to 6e nttmftec^) o^— • 
(:)*>A Bust shudan, ^*w ^^;«*. ^ 
bi-hiB8 BhudaD. 

NuMBBB, ooe *adad, s^Uai shim4rah, 
v>Ua. hisdb. — (on a paper, <§c.) 
^/•i numrah (ew.), fi«^y niimrah 
(cur.). — (even nunwer) gA*» •>J^ 
'adad-i-sbaf , ^^ ^^i^ 'adad-i-zauj. 
— (odd number) j^ '^«^ 'adad-i- 
t4k, /^ •>J^ 'adad-i-vitr. — (mixed 
number) ^y* ooe 'adad-i-marak- 
kab. — (round number) ^^ *>J^ 
'adad-i-tamm. — (or(2iitaZ nttm&cr) 
ooe ^\ ism-i-'adad. — (square 
nun^ber) ffj^ •^J^ 'adad-i-mu- 
rabba'. — (whole number) ^^ jj^ 
'adad-i-tamm. — (to the number 
of) ^JJ^ bi-kadr. — (science of 
numbers) v>Ui*a. y «3Wt ^ <ilm- 
i-a'd^d va his^b. 

Numbers of different things 
are customarily denoted by cer- 
tain technical classifications pre- 
fixed, corresponding with our 
terms Lot, Set, Head, Flock, 
Line, Suit, Stand, &c., as 
follow : (x^o dast (applicable to 
clothes, houses, chess or back- 
gammon-men, and hawks), as ««V{ 
tt>|A.j (x^j yak dast rukhdt (one 
suit of clothes), AiU. ^^^o ^j dd 

dast kh&nah (two houses), Ac.; 
{j*\j r4s (applied to horses, 
mules, sheep, cattle, and slaves), 
as s-^^ ^J>^s ^ panj r^ asb 
( five horses), &c. ; yt^ zanjfr 
(applied to elephants;; ^jmf 
manis, or ^S^ kU4dah (hunting 
dogs, hounds) ; j^ kitdr, or 
j\^ mih4r (camels), a term not 
much in use ; ^ bahlah (hawks, 
faJcons) ; v>W b4b (shops) ; 4i^ 
&nrand (ships, boats, Ac.) ; 
ytf nafar (persons, men; also 
teeth, and sometimes camels — 
more used in the latter sense 
than the term before men- 
tioned) ; &^ kabzah (swords, 
daggers, guns, and pistols); 
fijUfi 'arr^dah (cannon) ; 6i\!L 
tdkah (webs or pieces of cloth, 
shawls, handkerchiefs) ; &a*' 
takhtah (carpets) ; ^U d&nah 
(precious stones, and also used 
indiscriminately for anything); 
jJk- jild (books) ; \/^ tughrd 
(papers, documents) ; ^uub^j rish- 
tah (railway) ; \s td, Joe <adad, 
ii\*> danah (applicable indis- 
criminately to abnost anything) ; 
ufc^ juft, or Cjj zauj (a pair of 

To NuMBBB, (^^y^ ^^i^ 'adad ni- 

NtJMBBBBB, / v»Ua. his4b-gar, 
fiji^ shimurandah. 

NuMBBBiNo, J^ <add, S\,itiS ti'dad. 

NuMBBBLBSs, A>Mi^ bf-<adad, ^Uj^ 
bf-shimdr. — (numerous) j^^^^ bis- 
y4r, JiiJkA <ad{d, «3«Mi&« muta'ad- 
did, fty^z^ mutakassarah, jtr^ 
jj^\ kasfru-'l-'adad, J^ khaUf, 

NuMBBABLB,jt*^ •^^JAi ti'd&d-pazfr. 

NuMBBAJi (Jfigure), &«»ju* hindasah, 
^y•yiJ v»Uft. his4b-i-rukdmf. 

NuMBBATioN, Afi <add, f^j rakam, 
o\4fti ti'dad. 

NuMBBATOB, / v>Ua. his4b-gar, 
^W *MA 'adad-d4n. — (in frac" 
Hums) ft-^AA^ ^Ui» shimdr-kunan- 




NxTMSBioAL, (3«>.xe 'adadf. 
Nttmebous, jWf bi874r, J«ae <adf<l, 

joiUf* muta'addid, 5ji^s« muta- 

kassarah, *y^\ yj^ kasfru-'l- 

<adad, jU khailf , jM- khatfr. 
Nttk, ^^\j r41iibah. 
NuKNBBT, jio dair, «i>Wa\j {^^^^^ 

Nuptial, yjy*}!^ 'ardsf, ^^\^ ni- 

k4hf. {Vide Mabbiaob.) 
NuBBE, Ajt\j dayah, i*y*> dadah. — 

(monthly nwrse) a^-UU m4m4- 

chah, aJiiVs k4bilah. 
To NuBBB, (^*yf oij^y «^. bachah- 

naydzf kardan. 
NuBSBBT, AtU. AjtW d^jah-khAiiah. 

— (garden) ^f^)^ dirakht-zdr, 

^Vy.i ^ ^fti shajariBtdn, 4^W b4gli- 

Nttbslino, V- bachah, JaL tifl. 
NuBTUBB, i*^/ tarbijat, i>j!2;i 


To Nttbtube, ^«>/ J^j!2H P&rra^b 
kardan, o^M paJ^ftrfdan, i&*«»/ 
^«>;^ tarbijat kardan. 

NuT,j^iau2. — {fiJheri)^ ^Aii fin- 
duk. — (^j^tachio) **-*» pistah, 
^ 3 — x ... t fistuk. — (walnut) y^jS 
girdu, ^^»>;S' girdgdn. — (cwyoO' 
nut) vW^ ndrga, Je^jU nirjfl. 

NuT-CBACKEB, (2)^ j*^ finduk- 
shikan, {^^ j^ janz-shikan. 

NuTMEO, j^ jauz, «-r^^ j^ jauzu- 

NuTBiMBNT, «£>y( kdt, "^^f- khwu- 
r4k, (aUL ta'4m, \^ gniz4, 0)|A. 
khwurd, ^«*^^ izukah, J^^ ma,- 

NuTBiTious, i^Jdu mughazzf. 

Nutshell, m^-*^ piist. 

NUX VOMICA, tjfcl^ (j-Ji fulu8-i- 

m4hi, ^^ j^ jauzu-'l-kay. 
Nymph (of Paradise), j^ HAT, oft)^ 


O! J< ai, Vi yd, e^^ ivakh, ^W ] 

0a7, «-^;^ khirif, ^o^ kaadan, Ju^ 

Oafishnbss, ^Jh^ ablahf, o^U*. 

hiin4kat, o*^^ bf-vukM, ^jU U 

n4-d4nf, va^jA. kharfyat (tfulg,), 
OAK,iyi| vft^^o dirakht-i-balldt— 

(evergreen oak) ^^-vam 8mdij4n. 
Oak-apple, jj)^ in4zd, 0)U i]i4z{. 
Oaken, ^J»ii balldtf. 
Oab, ^^ pard, i^^ kli4dah. 
Oasib (fertile apot in the deeert), 

i^^\^ v4df, i>jkyt jazfrah. 
Oath, aj^ Baugand, f^^ kaBam, 

t^tH yamfn, <JiW half. — (to take 

an oath) o^j^ ^ kasam khwnr- 

dan, o*V^ *^^ Jut^ Baugand y4d 

Oatb, 03 zann, e)^ z4nn. — («n2(£ 

epecies of cede) aJ^j zangiilah. — 

(wUd oate dried for fodder) ^ji 

burmahi s*^j* bnrfdah. 

Obdubatb, JjXxi^ Bang-dil, 

Bakht, f*»7<^ U-rahm, <a^^o du- 

Obdubatbnbbb, ^J^>^^ Bang-dilf, 

iys^ sakbtf, ij^^j^ hUrahmif 

,y^j^ duniBhtf. 
Obedience, <4)^«y>^;& firm4n-bur- 

d4ri, ^3jU j< .». <ft hukm - burd4rf , 

uuxa t4'at, u:^VL\ it4'at, ^W^^ 

ittib4S jV«»\ mkiy4d, JU:;^\ im- 

tiB41, ^W«S\ iz'4n. 
Obedient, tU^Uy fimi4n-burd4r, 

jU j { » X a bukm-bard4r, A)l>^ 

mutfS g»^ t4bi*, g|Va*» mutabiS 

(•^j r4m, jUu^ munk4d. 
Obediently, ^W^ t4bi'an. 
Obeisance, i/^j^ kdrnisb, m& ^ 

sar-fnru, £^j rukd', f^j^ takrfm. 
Obelisk, J^^ mfl, fi)U« inan4rah. 
Obese, ^^i farbih, (^^^i^^ samfn, 

A^jJ lumbah, jf^ ch4k, ^^^'^'^^ 

To Obey, ^«>/ ub^lL\ it4*at kardan, 




f^jA j\*y ^Ujk firmin-burdar 

Obituart, {^t^fy^ marhumin. 

Object {thing seen), jtt^ manzar, 
j^ mazhar. — (thing) ^J^ shay, 
v*V> b4b, »*>U mddaii. — (desire) 
Jb4i^ maksad, ^yy^a* maksud, g*^ 
matmaS ^^ gharaz, L-cj^-»« 
mudd'A, ^\j^ murad, H-«JiL« mat- 
lab, i*3\j\ iridah, ^ 'azm, J^ 
kasd, u>^ nfyat, ^oAy^ khw&st, 
*sSiiJb^ ahang. — (grammatical 
term) Jy«** ma'mdl. 

To Object to, (^*>x^ *^j radd nimii- 
dan, ^•>/ ij\y^\ i'tir4z kardan, 
^jjtJ v.««fi *aib didan, ^*^«> ^^ 
naks didan, (}\) {^U jUa^^ 
imtiii4' ddshtan (az), (^*>/ UkS W* 
mukhalif kardan. 

Objection, ^J>\]^\ i*raz, ^\;J5ft\ 
i*tir4z. — (fauU) s-*c «aib, ^ 

ObJECTIYE case, *A^i\ y *JU» vsJW 


Objectob, {^^^ muta'arriz. 

To Objueoate, o*>^ J^J^ tahdid 
nimudan, (^'^y^ ^J^ir* sai'scLnish 

Objubqation, J«Ji««* tahdid, »>");- 

Oblation (offering), j^ uazr, ^^ 

Obligation, vide Duty, Favour, 

Obliqatoby, f^)i 14zim,s-^^^Y4]ib, 
^JAsA^ muktazf, f^i^^^ mutahat- 

To Oblige, (^^/ "V^ jabran kar- 
dan, (^W J\ ^ oar an d&shtan, 
(^*^/jj^ bi-zur kardan, o«>y^ f^^ji\ 
ibr&m nimudan, o«>^ ;^«^ ixia,y 
b6r nimddan. — (confer favour) 
Q^L. (^yu^ mamndn sdkhtan, 
(^Af^Uji ^&u^ oy^/* marhdn-i- 
minnat garddnfdan, <^«>W ^^^"^ 
minnat nihadan, ^ j^^L.a.\ ihsdn 
kardan, o^r*^ cnt^ 4n4yat ni- 
mudan. — (i am miM^^ obliged) 

,U o^A^ minnat diram, oyV 
1*^.^10^ u:^a^ marbdn-i-minnat mi- 

Obliging, f^/ karfm, ^ji^A^ mnsh- 

fik, jkAifik shaffk, ^W^ mihr-b4n. 
Oblique, ^ kaj, JTU m4,il, ^ 

^ ghair-i-k4,im, ^• ^te -*^ ;«& 

ghair-i-muBtakim. — (ofrZi^ue cmc) 

sA»t^ y ju» ifJU. h41at-i-ma'mul/- 

Obliquity, t^f^ i*Yii4j. 
To Obliterate, (^^^^u y^» mahv 

sdkhtan, ^«>) U. khat zadan, «<S^ 

^ j/ p4k kardan. 
Obliteration, ^^^^ mahv, ^>^ 

Obliyion, (;)W^ nasyan, ij^y\^ 

far4miish{, Jy^*i zuhul. 
Obliyious, Ji^U z4hil, ^j<«U nAsi, 

jUAiy*y £aramdflh-k4r. 
Oblong, ^ mutirr, JJ»a«--« musta- 


Obloquy, (£>«1» ta'n, i»^!U mal&mat, 

(^Ue) buhtdn. 
Obnoxious, vide Noxious. 
Obscene, (^U fdhish, ac^ puch, 

4d^j zisht, 5j|;o. harzah, Jy^ hazl, 

«i^«<K^ khabis. 
Obscenity, {J^ fuhsh, ,^j 

zishtf, ^y» harzagf, <mW^ kha- 

Obscure (dark)^ ^j\S t4rfk, »;«* 

tirah, fJ^ muzlim, j^ t4r. — 

(dbairuee) <jk^*> dakfk, y^V6 gh4- 

miz, ^ji*^ mughlak. — (unknown) 

^)f^ ^ na-ma'ruf , J«6^^ maj- 

To Obscure, {^\^ hy^ tirah ddsh- 
Obscurely, ^\:Ms tdrfkdnah. 
Obscurity, <j^^^ tArfkf, ^y^ 

tiragi, «MXk zulmat, ^ tar, fAk 

zaldm, gW d4j. 
Obsequies, {^^ tadf in, ftjW jan4- 

Obsequious, gt^^ mutf, 2»^ mu- 

tabi', ^\f^ muta?4ziS i^ y^ 

f urd-tan, %>Vju« biunkdd. 
Obsequiousness, kJ^^ kdchikf, 

C*y taYdzu*, ^yJ y^ furd-tanf, 

jLm&\ inkisdr, 
Obseryable, y^^ z4hir, ^j««a hu- 

vaida, ^^^ padid, j^ ashk4r, 

ftjV^T Ashkarah, cj^ *iyan, J^U 




fdsh, {^^ raushan, ^U v&zili, 

badfhf, ^•^ paid4. 
Obsebyance (respect), ch^Vcj ri'4- 
yat, ^f tayajjuh, *y\^\ inkijkd, 

Obsebyatiok, MV* murdkabah, 
A«3\U mut41a'ali, fi\A nigiih. 

Obsbbyatoby, a^U. juj ra8ad-kh&- 

To Obbebyb (look on), (:)J:<h|;^ ni- 
grfstan, e*^ s-^V murikib 
bddan, ^«y <Uu maUhazab 
kardan. — (obey a rtde) «>4W^ 
^J^ ri'dyat nimudan, ^^\^ ftV» 
nigdb ddshtan, ^«>^ uuJ\«« 8iy&- 
nat nimiidan, i^j^Y fard girif- 
tan, (a*^ iA^\L\ ita'at kardan, 
^^\j \y^\ ijr4 ddshtan. — (<o he 
observed, rule, Sc) o*^ tV^juu^ 
istimb&t shudaD. 

Obsebyeb, s-^^/» murdkib, o^ 6J«*> 
dfdah-b&n, *^\) rdsid. 

Obsolete, ty**^ mansdkh, ^}j^ 
matruk, cr*y*^ ^ n4-ma,nd8. 

Obstacle, ^^ m&ui', ju» sadd, 
u>,*«.^y« muzdhamat. 

Obstinacy, *V^ isrAr, <^*^ *>f^ 

khwad-r4,C iSr* *^^ kbwua-sarf, 
•yi tamarrud, *>Uft <inAd. — (|>er- 
»0vemnc6) j^yu-#\ istikrdr, fc*M»»\j^ 
mud^Yamat, sj>^\y muYdzaoat, 
j{j>o\ isdir. 

Obstinate, 7- •>!<► khwad-sar, J*^ 
marfd, *yj*J^ mutamarrid, ^ma- 
barun, Ifk*^ munkbarit, 4iW« 
mu'inid, J)^^ ikbl41, ^^ lajdj. 
— (persevering) j— a-^ musirr, 
s-^^y* muYAzib, (ajIU muldzim, 
(^\j riisikb, (^^^J^ muddYim. — 
(horse) (^Vfi tf^a fe .^ sakbt-lig&m. 

Obstinately, '^*>Uft 'inddan, oUfi^^ 

To Obstbttct, (^j/ gJt* maua' kar- 
dan, (jstdXm 4>^ju.^ masddd sdkb- 

Obbtbttction, •x&i band, -^ sadd, 
ju» J^^ift zfk-i-sadd. — (medical 
term) jih^ kabz. 

Obstructiye, {^^f*^^ muta'arriz. 

To Obtain, ^^^ y4ftan, 0^ J*U 

bdsil kardan, o*>^ vV**^ tahsfl 
nimddan, (:)^*-U. J^t nail sdkb- 
tan, ^j^^^i-t^ muyassar nimd- 
dan, (^^•^^ and'dkbtan, ^ 
^j^L.j bi-ham rasiinfdan, ^j^ 
^«3/ paidd kardan. 

Obtainable, ,j«i^ jiftanf. 

To Obtbude (fmn«.), (^jja^^jk*^ an- 
ddkbtan, ^o\o &J lub dddan 
(vulg.), (a*^^*> Ji^ bul didan 
(vuig,). — (inirans.) J*»U (^^\ ^J^ 
(^'iA bf-izn ddkbil sbudan, u 
^ju«i| jO dAi«\|A. nd-khwdstah dar- 

Obtrusion, We» J^«>*dakbl-i-b{-j4. 

Obtuse, ^3^ abmak, «a^ kund, 
(^*y^ kaudan, ^^f^y^ bi-Yukdf. 

Obtusely, i^tJtW idnildnab. 

Obtuseness, ^Jl^ ablabf, <d^U*. 
himdkat, o*^^ bf-Ynkdff, ^jU V* 
nd-dftnf, is^j^ khariyat (tnUg,). 

To Obyiate, (a*>f*^ <<mW taddruk 
nimddan, (^^w ;» bar-ddsbtan, 
^ jy^ ^ <il4j nimddan, e^^ ^j^ 
cbarab nimddan. 

Obyious, \^^ buYaidd, a^j^ padfd, 
jV5Ubi| asbkftr, ^j^Sm^ asbk4rah,yfcU 
zdbir, (^Vec <ij&n, J^Vi fdsb, (^m 
rausban, ^\^ Ydzib, ^J%^ 'aldni, 
\^ paidd. 

Obyiously, "lyfeVi zdhiran. 

Obyiousness, j^ zubdr. 

Occasion, vide Leisure, Cause, 
Necessity, Opportunity. — 
(there is no occasion for U) ^Jg^ 
*yj\^ Yajbf na-ddrad. — (to seise 
the occasion) (^^^j^Jt^ tA* A^ V^^ 
fursatrd ghanfmat shimurdan. 
— (on the occasion of) ^y^ bi- 

To Occasion, {^£ake^\ angfkbtan. 

Occasionally, filf sVl gdb-gdb, 
^\^ abydnan, ^yi^ fiV^ gdb- 

Occident, s^y^ magbrib, v^ 

Occidental, ^J)*^ magbribf, ^J^ 

Occult, vide Secret. 

Occupancy, «J>^ tasamif,!^ zabt. 

Occupation, j\^ kdr, J^a 'amal, 




jMi shughl, &^ pfshah. — (pos- 
session) W^ zabt, uy«» tasarruf. 

OccuPiBE, ^j-os^ mutasarrif. 

To Occupy, o**^ ^ zabt niinu- 
dan, (^*y/ uya» tasarruf kardan. 
— (to occupy oneself) ^JA Jas-a-* 
mushtaghil shudan. 

To OccuB, ^JA gi^^ v4ki* shudan, 
^jUi^ jW^ ittifak uftadan, jj^ 
^J^ bi-zuhur rasfdan, (^^sa ^j\d. 
'Ariz shudan, (^•xai a6I bi-ham 
shudan, ^AiBbj«>U sdair shudan, 
^*y} ^ Bar zadan, (^^sa ^j\^ vArid 
shudan, o**^ <^jy ^dy nimii- 

OccuBBEKCB, %A^^ jm sar-guzasht, 
v5^"\ ittif4k, Aiil^^ v6ki*ah, \y^ U 
ma-jara, j^*^jy rdy-dar, 6^^ 
'Arizah, &st!\^ sAnihah. 

Ocean, t*^^ f^^, bahr-i-muhit, ^J^)^ 
ft^ darja,{-i-'azim, ^y*V5 ka- 

OcHBB, ^^ ^ gil-i-mAshf, *>;j JT 

O'clock, o^U s&'at. 

OcTAooK and Octaoonal, {^^^^^ 

OcTOBEB, J^^ {^Y^ tashrin-i-avTal. 

Octopus, va>|^\ akhtapdt (eur.), 
jjUxAA hasht-p^y. 

Octuple, {^^^^ musamman. 

OcuLAB, f^^ W bi-chashm, <^5«^ 

Oculist, JV^ kahh4l, ft^ f^t^ 
haki m-i -chashm. 

Odd (not even), «y fard, «si? tak, 
j^ tAk. — (odd number) y^ •^J^ 
•adad-i-vitr, j^ *>Aft <adaa-i-tak, 
*4^ jjkc *adad-i-tak. — (lent&^uaZ) 
sHt;^ gharfb, j*>^ n4dir, h-^%c 
'a jab. 

Oddity, ^JtkJ^ gharibf, ^ te ^f *aj{- 

Oddly, a*\^^ gbarn>Anah, ai\;oU 

Ode, J)^ ghazal. [This consists of 
from five to eighteen couplets.] 
— (elegy or ode of unlimited 
length) fi«v^ kasfdah. 

Odious, *«/ karfh, ^^j^ makriih, 

Odium, *A'>^\^ karahijat, ss^/i nif- 
rat, yw tanaffur, ;Vc «ar. 

Odobifebous, f^j^"^^ mashmdm, 
;W^ mu'attar. 

Odoub, ^ bu, <^^ bdi, A^^j rA,ihah. 

(Esophagus, ^isj^ mari,. 

Of, }\ az, j zi, (^ min. 

Off! (interjection), v^W )^*> ddr- 
b4sh, jj;» bi-i-au, y^ ^ gum-bi- 
shau. — (far) jy*y ddr, *>^^ ba*id. 
— (from) )\ az, j zf, (;>^ min. 

Offal, »^j rishvah, j\jy» murdAr, 
&Xd^ maitah, 4^^ rasht, dU& 

Offence, *^ gunAh, W gunah, 
jfoS taksir, jy^ kusdr, &^y^ 
jarimah, ^y^ jnrm, 04W janajat, 
uad. khatii, ^i sm, s-^«i zamb, s-^ 
*aib. — (insult) ^} weVsa hatk-i- 
Ab-rd, f^^^ shatm, vs^&s- khiffat, 
vj^^^ iji bf-sakhtagi. — (to take 
offence) {^j^ f***^ khishm girif- 

Offenceless, fiVi^ bi - gunah, 
jyoAtii bf-kusdr, f^y^^ ma'sdm. 

To Offend, (^*yy$i ^^sa shatm nimd- 
dan, ^JjD^ Azurdan, (^^^W^) ran- 
janidan. — (to he offended) »A«^ 
(^*>ji mutanaffir bddan, vj'^a^ 
(^*>ji kaj-khulk bddan, (^^^a j\y(^ 
bizar shudan, (jjaAi «*)jj^ dzurdah 
shudan, (^j^ \^/^ laghzish girif- 
tan, (^*>^ Af .... <^ j^ sar-shikastah 
bddan, (^'^ y^y^ munzajir shu- 
dan, {^^ ^ pa kdftan (vulg.). 

Offbndeb, jV^ »vj^ gundh-kdr, jV^Ua^ 
khata-kar, s-^Ju* muznib, f^\ 
asfm, tiuJ^ mufsid, <jh»U fdsik, 
V« }) rd-siyah. 

Offbnsitb, A2/ karfh, ijj^ mak- 
rdh, (,/aA« mughass. — (to OMume 
the offensive) \^fS ^s>\i^ JL*. ^o 
^•xAi dar khaydl - i- harakAt-i- 
ta'arruz shudan. 

Offensively, ^^pj^ makrdhan. 

Offeb, f^^B taKdfm, ^J^^)^ lAh 
, To Offeb, ^*>;^^ ^J^ pfsh Avardan, 
' ^j^ ^jj» takdim kardan, ^y^/^ 
! o**^ takrfb nimddan. — (to offer 
I up as a sacrifice) ^^^ ^^ zibh 






nimddan, (^*y^ (:)^ji kurb&n, j.W 
0«>/ tasadduk kardan. 

Offering (gift), j^ nazr, <jft»^A^ 
pish-kash. — {sacrifice) d^oA hadi- 
^ah, v)*^ tasadduk, (^^/ kurban, 
(Ji fidA. — (humt-offering) (^^^ 
,^5&sd.^ kurb&n-i-sukhtani. 

Offbbtobt, jM nazr, v / >^Ae^ pfsh- 

Office (public charge), ftx-^-e 
'iibdah, s^ ' * " * mansab, ^}*^ 'amal. 
— (house of business) a»U. jSi*y 
daftar-kbanah, AiW j\i kar-kbd- 
nab. — (good offices) < v l e »^ ^JC^--• 
masi'i-i-jamiiah, ^;«a- o^^***^ 
mas^'f-i-kbairfyaii. — (to use one^s 
good offices) J^«V» a^-*^ vj^^-^ 
(^\o masa'i-i- jam flab mabzul 
ddsbtan. — (to quit office) ^Jt* Jyi 
'azl sbudan. 

Offices, ^^ ^^^ 'ubdab - d»ir, 
^ A t,^ i ^ mansab-dar, s ■■^'■>* s^a-V^a 
adbib-mansab. — (military) s-^^ 
S"*^ ^ sdbib-mansab, i£5Uft^«« gar- 
hang. — (of police) sj^^t^ ka- 
shik-cbf, ^W-oV( p48-ban. 

Official (connected with duty, as 
husinesSy documents, iSfc,), <^^; 
rass&mf, ij^y^ daulatf. — (clerk, 
Sc.) y^W* mub4sbir. 

Officiallt, 'U^j rasman. 

To Officiate, o^/ «JU^ vakalat' 
kardan, ^«>;^ i*^ <JVi ka,im-ma- 
kdm kardan. 

Officious, «jeX}V». cbdbuk, «i)!}W 
cbdlak, *fil^j zarinp, y^U sbatir, 
^U*5 gustakb. 

Officiousness, vj^V chabukf, 
^^W cbalaki, yj^jj zaringi, 
4£>j\J^ jasdrat, ^uJf gustakbf. 

Offspeino, 4>3^^ aiibid, J^ nasi, 
s-J-» salab, 4jh»> zurri'vab, ^^^^ 
a'kab, A3)Lt suidlab. 

Often, Va^W bdrha, ^W jW bdr-bar, 
^ aksar, ^^>V5J^ ;»\ aksar aukat, 
jy^ mukarrar, «y^/^ bi-kirrat, 
C^ basa, ''^*> daf'an. 

To Ogle, ^^*>) ct U .i ^^ cbasbmak 

Ogling, i^^^^ kirisbmab, fty*^ 
gliarazab, {^t^^ y*^ ramzn-'l-*ain. 

Ogee, «Htj*ft Mfrft, J^ ghdl, ;^^^ 

Oh ! ^iJ dirigb, (^U* figbdn, <^^ ai, 
,jU hay, ^\^ vay. 

Oil, (jj^jy raughan. — (castor-oil) 
yt^\ jLei ^^ raughan-i-bid-anjir, 
yu^ (^ji; raugban-i-kinnatu. — 
(of olives) «>ij (^j^ raugban-i- 
zait, (^fi) {^)) raugnan-i*zaitun. 
(0/ linseed) q)^ ^^^; raugban-i- 
kattan. — (lamp-oil) t^^ O^}) 

To Oil, o*y/ v»j^ cbarb kardan, 
0J4JU ^<^ raughan mdlidan. 

Oil - FLASK, (^jj; A»*> dabbah-i- 

OiLiNESS, ^jt}^ cbarbi. 

Oilman, ^jJ {^^ raugban-furusb, 
JV2} bakkal. 

Oil-mill, ^-ait* mi*sar, jU*** mi*- 

Oily, s^j^ charl), ^^ raugbani. 

Ointment, ^/* niarbara, {^^^ 

Old, &j^.jJL> sal-di'dah, sj»;^U sal- 
khwurdah, JU-^ kuban-sAl, &^ 
kubnab, ;** pfr, {^y"^ musinn. — 
^^fy• niuzmin. — (ancient) ^•^i 
kadi'm, ^ji*y dirfnab, t>«Ae» 
pfshfn, vJmV- sabik, «-Al- salaf. — 
(stale) &-^»^*> pusidah, &^ kub- 
nab, (^ Kuban, fiJiU^ shab- 
maudah. — (worn - out) {j*)'^^^ 
mundaris, fiJ^U. sabidah, fio^y 
farsudah. — (to be » . , years old) 
(^\j JL. . . . , ... sal ddshtan. 
— (to grow old) <^«^ ^ p/r sbu- 
dan, (^•xAi (:)-«>-^ musinn sbudan. — 
(old a^e) ^^jei piri', {^ j4 kibr-i- 
sinn, ^J^^»^ zaM'ff, ^^ haram, 
s^fc >* masbib. — (old man) «> 
P»r, J^J zal, •XftA- u*st; risb-saful, 
^^ shaikh, &J;^u« sal-khwur- 
dah,i£>y;&fartut,&^jJU sal-didab. 
— (old woman) ^jei pirab, (^} je> 
pir-zan, ^j* rei pirah-zau, "M- cr«^ 
gis-saffd, Jy i«si pfrah-zal, j^^ 
'ajuz, ^)y^ *ajuzah. — (old clothes- 
man) yj»^^ iJ^ kubnah-fur^isb, 
{^^ i^ Kubnah-ebm. 

Oleaginous, s^;^ cbarb. 




Oleander, fiyftj f^ khar-zahi-ah, 

i^^ diflah. 
Oligaechy, ^Ua\ sa^*^ hukd- 

Olive, (^fi\ zaitun, o^j zait. 
Omelet, ft^ kuku. — {sweet omelet) 

Aii^d^U khagfnah. 
Omen, JU fdl, m^ shugun, ;«-^ 

akhtar, gJ^ tali'. 
Ominous, Ui s-^ ghaib-niiua, 

^^^ ^ pur-shugun. 
Omission, iB^ faut, ^ sahv. 
To Omit, ^^J^ j*) dar-guzashtan, 

^j^ 4£^gai\JkS'^^ furd-guzaslit kar- 

dan, (^^S ^ sahv kardan, WsU 

t^sAiW sakit dashtan, (j^ja-W^ an- 

Omnipotence, ij^ «y;J^ kudrat-i- 

Omnipotent, j^l^ j^^Vi kadir-i- 

mutlak, ;2Ju» kadir, ;W jabbar. 
Omnipresence, ^4;^^ ^ y^ har-jii- 

Omnipresent, j^U. l^ 6j^ hamah- 

Omniscience, ^U &«a hamab- 

dam', ^jA«» d-^A hamiib-bini. 
Omniscient, (^^4> &4A bamah-dan, 

(:>«} ^•«A bamab-biD. 
On, ji bar, 3l» babi, ^ 'ala, V 

fara, <jjj; ruj. — (on /ao^ ***^ 

)>ijadab. — {on horseback) ^^y* 

suvarah, ^^^ suvar. 
Onaoer, ,^5-^*.^ jU^ hiinar-i-vabBh/, 

;/ g'^r, f- ;/ gur-khar. 
Once, AaIj^ yak-daf ab, jW«i^> yak- 

bar. — (in former times) vJ^U. 

sabik, y^^ pisbtar, "Uja** mu- 

kaddaman, ^^^ barf. — {once 

upon a time) i^}~-i bari. — (at 

once) *\sMi*y daf*atan, fijW^ yak- 

barab, <^W^ yak-baragi. — {aM 

at once) ^W ^ yak-b4ragi. — 

{Vide Suddenly.) — {once more) 

j\j^ bi-takrar. 
On dit, «>y^y« j^S0» 6i ^j\ji j\ az 

karari-kih mazkur mf-sbavad, 

a^^^ mf-guyand, va--.^ J» nakl 

One, »aU yak. — {one by one) «*^ «*^ 

yak yak, «y^«y fard-a-fard. — 

{oneanotJier)tj^'^ yak-dfgar. — 
{one with the' other) A**) ^ t^^ 

To Onbrate, o**/ j^ b^r kardaii, 
^j^ J.»A. baml nimudan. 

Onerous, cu^b^ sakbt, Jtsii? sakil, 
(^\/ giran. 

Onion, jV^ piyaz, J-a» basal. 

Only {si7igly)y ^^ yaganab, *>;* 
fard, W^ tanba, *yj^i^ mujarrad, 
^^ yak-ta. — {merely) Wfii fakat, 
;jW ) va bas. 

Onset, yj»j^ yurisb, aU^. bamlab, 
\J»}^ kburusb, i**V^ bujum. 

Onwards, {J^ pisb, y^'^ pisbtar. 

Onyx, vJM^ 'akfk, JUJL, sulai- 

Ooze, 4}^ gil. 

To Ooze, (^*y/ ^ cbakkab kardan. 

Oozy, ^^i^gili. 

Opal, fi^T ^^ 'ainu-'l-birrah, 
ijf^j^ saravf, vj«»4-aJ\ ^^ 'aiiiu- 

Opaque, <^^ ^ na-sbaff4f. 

Opaqueness, ^^ ^ na-sbaffafi. 

Open, jW baz, cy=** maftub, fi*)VA5 
gusbadab, j\^ vaz. — (can^ZuQ 
,jolat* mukblis, A»ULae» mukbli- 
sanab, Ju^^lU.^ ikblas-mand, j*>^ 
sddik. — {open air) (j)|;ei bfrtin. 

To Open {trans.), (^^Ui' ffusbddan, 
(^^y&S gusbudan, (jj*y ^ baz 
kardan, (^^j^ \^ va kardan. — (in- 
trans.) (^^J^ iS<aS gusbadab 
sbudan, (^•xAi \W baz sbudan, 
^jLAi C^^ maftub sbudan, (^-^^ 1) 
va sbudan. — {window) (^*^/ ^W 
b^l4 kardan. — {window of train) 
^^sAM A«M» sbisbab and4kbtan. 
{flower) {^fi^ sbikuftan, {^si^ 
sbikuftan, (^^) &^ gbuncbab 
zadan. — {to open irdo) {^^^ *\) 
rab dasbtau. — {to he opened — 
Parliament) (^^^ c^«*^ iftitih 

Open-handed and Open-hearted, 
,jab- sakbi, ^/ karfm, ^W jav- 
vad, u:^w«> fijU5 gusb^dab-diftst, 
4yi^^ javan-mard, ^•a*^ mun'im, 
^U^ vabbab, ^W* fayyaz, ^U. 




Opening, jA^ mafarr. 

Openly (pMicly), ^^ zahiran, 
i^U 'alaniyah, fijlS^T ashk4rah, 
"UV^ 'ayAnan. 

Open-mouthed, g^U* tami*, {j»if^ 

Openness, ^J^^\^ gushidagf. — 
(candour) ^}\t^j rdst-bazf , ^'^\ 
ikhlns, j*^ sidk. 

Opeba, UUj tamdshd. — (opera- 
house) A>U. UiUJ tarndsh^-khanah. 

To Operate, (^^y/ J*« *amal kar- 
dan, (^^f^ kdr kardan, ^H^^ 
B^khtan. — (surgical ierm)^ ij^\ft 
(^*y/ jarrdhf kardan. — (he effec- 
tual) (^^ f ^ k4r-gar dmadan, 
(^^^ f\ asar kardan, ^^xai f^y 
mu,assir shudan. 

Opbbation, ^)4* 'amal, ^ ktr. — 
(surgical) y ij^f^ jarrahf. 


yar,^S.s*JLe san'at-gar. 
Opebatob, J^Vc *amil. — (surgical) 

CV jarrdh. 
Ophthalmia, ^^a^ s^^^ asLdb-i- 

chashm, J^j ramad, J<->« sabal. 
Opiate, o^v^ ma*jun, v*^|*» o^^** 

(j^ dayd,f-i-khw4b-bakhsh. 
To Opine, vide To Suppose. 
Opinion, ^/\^ ra,f, <^\; r4y, ^U5' 

gum4n, 6Ai^\ andishah, ^^ 

^iy^8» JW* khay&l, cr*«^ hads, j^ 
tasayyur, ^ zann, ^^^sL* mazan- 
nah, ^ fikr, ^^ yahm,^^ tad- 
bfr, ^Usft^ i'tikad,^^^ angar,j^Juii 
pinddr, (^^e^^^ takhmfn, ^j za'm, 
L\<-uu.^ istimbdt. 

Opinionated, s-^^**^^ muta'assib, 
J- *>^ khwud-sar, <^*\; «>^ khwud- 

Opium, ^^^ af^aun, vsJ^i/ tiry4k, 
j^W&^ fi^ shirah-i-khashkh dsb . 

Opium-eateb, o^/ tiryaki, o*^^ 

Opponent, v/j^** mu*ariz, ^Vafe** 
mukhasim, UkSW* mukhalif. 

Opportune, J^* W ba-mahall, W 
ffy b4-maukiS W *» bi-ja. 

OppobtunitT) ui^y fursat, yVs 

kabu, Jft^ mahall, A3lt«^ babal- 

To Oppose, o^^ u:^Vae« mukba- 
lafat nimddan, ^^y tJ^W* mu- 
kbalif biidan, ^*)^ «^^U^ mu- 
kayamat kardan, o*]^ f^^V* 
muzabim shudan, ^^^ (>U»^ 
i*tiraz nimudan, (^^J^ aa ^ oar 
zidd shudan. — (as opposed to) 
^j^t» nakf z, J»U» jj dar mukAbiL 

Opposite, ^^ ru-bi-rd, |^»3V^*« 
muhazf, ^\y muyajih, J»Vft»« 
mukabil, ^/^ 'aks, yjti nazfr, 
i4)^y» muyizi, ji\ji j*> dar baribar. 
(the opposite) ^^ zidd, wilU^ khi- 

Opposition, cs^Uy* mukhalafat, 
is.*-**>\y« muzahamat, o^^U** mu- 
k4yamat,cftJi»Uu inukdbalat,^^^^ 
mu'^razah, u>«»U^ mumdna'at, 
;/sUj tandkuz, va^J^ ziddiyat, 
u^V^^ i*tiraz, wiSu*-\ ikhtilaf , •^•y 
taraddud. — (Parliamentary term) 
^USVae* mukh41if4n. — (in oppo- 
sition to) wilU^^ bar kbilaf, cJ^U^ 
mukhilif. — (to he in opposition) 
^j^ X6 ji bar zidd budan. 

To Oppress, cj»>/ <^jb** '*^** dast- 
dirazi kardan, <^*>y^ ^ zulm 
nimudan, <*)«>/ U^ jaf4 kardan, 
^j\j wHt*^^ aziyat d4dan. 

Oppbbssion, fi^ zulm, (^Ji«> ta- 
'addi, f^s^ sitam, wiUsc\ i<tis4f, 
p^ jabar, jy^ jaur, c-Aa* *unf, 
sA^M azfyat,^ bfz, wiV^^^^ ijhaf, 


J«/« ^ cA»^ haif va mail, 

Oppbessiye, Jeii? sakfl, c ; >^ >fc- sakht. 
(cn*6Q j^ ^ jaf &-k4r, ^^ bf- 
rabm, o-ja»^%> durusht, J*)^^^ 
sang-dil, f^^ zalim, <a»ji;4i«4 bf- 
muruyat, jW jabb4r,^^^4X« sitam- 

Opfbessob, j\)*> i»^J dast-dir4z. 

.« 3^*> diraz-dast, j^ ^ jafa- 
kar, fjX^ zalim. 

Opprobbious, v»^e«^ ma*yub, fc^ 
shukh, (^^\ ^ bad-zaban, j^j*) (^Vy 

rusya,!, j^ *4r. 

fazihat, ^J\)^j 




Optative, <4;W*^^ ikhtiydri. — (op- 

tative mood), J5W J** fi*l-i-ta- 

mannd, ^^*> J** fi*l-i-du*a,i. 
Optical, i^y^ basari. 
Optics (the science), j^ ^ 41in-i- 

Option, J^ khijar, jW^^^ ikhtiyiir, 

JO— ^ pasand, ,j^ marzi. 
Optional, <4;Ws«5-\ ikhtiyarf. 
Opulence, vide Wealth. 
Ob, ^ ja, fi^^ khwah, p\ au. — (or 

else) ^f^ va gamab, !}(^ va ilia, 

A» j^ var-nah. 
Obacle, ^^\ v»VU. kbitdb-i-ilabi, 

oHt^ ay at, ,^^ vaby. 
Obaculab, (Jii)^> tanzili. 
Obal, ^Uai sbif&hi, i^\tJk sbifa- 

Obange, ,^;^ narangf. — (sweet 

JA« madani. — (sour) gi;^ na- 

ranj. — (blood) tj^ ^f tui surkh. 

— (colour) i^^ narangi. 
Obangeby, (^\sj^^ nArangistdn. 
Obang-outano, A*j^ buzinah, A^jy 

bdzmab, ^^^.e^ maimiin. 
Obation, v»Uat khitab, ;^aA5' guftar, 

f^ kaJam, (^^akr-* sukbun, ^./J^ 

nafas (jpZ. ^^W anfas). — (<o 

ftuike an oration) (:)***^^ A»^ 

kbatdbab kbwdndan. 
Obatob, j^T (:>a^ sukbun-avar, 

jUji (2^0^ sukbun-pardaz. 
Obatobical, i>Jei. kbutbab. 
Obatobt, (^j^^ (2>q^ sukbun-ayari, 

iS}^*yji . (j^Qfer^ sukbun-pardazi. — 

(place of worship) fiV5' jUi namaz- 

Obb, f^ jirm, ^^f guf, &/ kurrab. 
Obbit (path of a planet), j)*y daur, 

o\;^«> dauran, \J»*^/^ gardisb. 
Obchabd, £W bagb, <^^^ bdatdn, 

^Uu^ bustan. 
Obchestba, ^U. wfr^y naubat-kbd- 

nab, A»U. 5jVs^ nakkarab-kbanab. 
To Oboain, o«Mi z*^ amr nimddan, 

0Oy*i ^^ bukm nimudan, o*yv* 

iirmudan. — (clerical term) s-^ 

(:)*>^ nasb nimudan. 
Obdbal, vide Tbial. 
Obdeb (arrwngement), (^\)T ard- 

yisb, s-e*/ tartfb, f»Ut* nizAm, 

l*\k:S\ intizam, *^j\*iS tadaruk, 
;^JJ tadbir, cs.^ tA .».> tamsbiyat. — 
(rwie) e^^ dyin, »J^U ka*idab, 
(jjyU kdnun, gy^ sbar*. — (com- 
mand) f^ bukm, y\ amr, (^^y 
firman, (^aS kadgban,jy^ sunur, 
Ji»j^ sifarisb. — (to put in order) 
(;^\j\ Arastan, (^^^j^ s-^/ tar- 
tfb nim4dan, o**r^ s ^ -^- ^ nasb 

k.irdan, (^*y^ >£j\jS tadaruk ni- 
mudan, (^J^ <*U^\ intizam nimu- 
dan, (^\;«> pirastan. — (religious) 
^A ij ^ tarikab. — (of hnighthood^ 
Sc.) <;jUi nisban. — (in order that) 
V? ta, 6S \s tk kib. 

To Obdeb, ^^y^ firmudan, f^^ 
Q)*>y^ bukm nmiiidan, e^^y^ yA 
amr nimddan, (^*y/ S^^ irsbad 
kardan, ^^/ \J»j\f^ sifansb kar- 
dan, Q)*y/ ^J^ kadgban kardan. 

Obdbblbss, s-^ ^ bf-tartfb, ^J^ 
fi\2tsi\ bi-intizam. 

Obdeblt, s-*«»/ tartfb. — (servant), 
fAt gbul4m, Jjj^ ardal (eur.). 

Obdinal, ^^f tartfbf, ^jC^i far*f. 

Obdinance, (^^ 4yfn, »j^U k4*i- 
dab, ^yVs kandn, £vA» 8bar^ 

Obdinabilt, '^Sie. *adatan, ^j»^ )\ 
«t>jlc az rdy-i-'4dat. 

Obdinaby (usual), J^^*^^^ mutada- 
val, ^j r4,ij, d^jAA^ musbtarak. 
— (common, m£an) f\» 'amm, ^ 
^U furu-mAyab, ^s.^^ past. 

Obdination (clerical term), s-^ 

Obdnance (artiUery), *iVd^y tdp- 

Obdube, 5/ gdb, iS gub, J^j zibl, 
j\^ biraz, ^ fazlab. (Fide also 

Obe,^ filizz, ^*>A^ ma'danf. 

Oboan, ttJ^ alat. — (organ of sight) 
f^A^ cbasbm. — (of speech) ^Wj 
zabin. — (musical) (ay^j\ argba^ 
niin(ettr.). — (barrel organ) }^ ^^«*9- 
ja*bab-8az. — (to play the organ) 
^jj \^y^j\ argbanunrA zadan. 

Obganic, ^s^f tarkfbf, ^J>c^^ 

Obganisation, f!^ niz&m, ^^r^y 




To Oboanise, (^*>\j f*V!b» nizam da- 
dan, {^jM*> s-^/ tajrattub daslitan. 

Oboanism, s-49^ tarkfb, Jd^^ 

Obqanist, (^) or^;^ argbanun-zan. 

Obiekt, v)/^ sbark, jy^ masbrik. 

Obiental, ^J^Ji^ sbarkf, oV^ 
masbriki. — (an Oriental) Ja^ 
^2^j jyb^ abl-i-masbrik-zamfn, 
jy6i Jfti\ abl-i-sbark. 

Obificb, &^«> dahanab, t\y^ 84- 

Obiqin, J«\ asl, ole^i bunjdd, ^Wi 
btinyan, j^^^^ masdar, Uju man- 
Bhkf j^ Bar, ^•V* mabdd, J^\ 
awal, ^ bfkb, j^T agbAz, jA^ 
badar, v*U> nisdb, ^tJ^ mamb'. 

Obioinal, ^J^^ asU J^^ avyal. 

Obioikalitt, *js^\j^ gbar4bat. 

Obioinally, '"i)\ ayvakn, "Ijoj^ 
ibtidan, ^\ aslan. 

To Obiqinatb (trans.), ^•*^ ^J^^ 
nasbf kardan. — (intrans,) ^ ^ 
^JA bar p4 sbudan. 

Obiqinatob, g«v* mubdi*. 

Obion (the conat^Uation), ^W jab- 
ber, fj-^X an-nasak. 

Obison, jUi iiam4z. 

Obnament, {J^\j\ arayisb, sHtj zfb, 
«uU4j zinaty *4^;^ pfr4jab, }\^ 
tiraz, AjU- buljab, y farr, iJM 

To Obnamekt, e)^(»^\)^ drastan, 
(:>^W P^i^^stan, ^^W ^a^) zfnat 
dadan, o^^ (i^y tazvin nimu- 
dan, (^'H)^^ tir&zidan, (jsdXm ^^y• 
muzajjan s^kbtan. 

Obnamental, vj^3 zinati, ^^^^j 

Obnamsnted, iA^\j\ dr^Btab, &s^^m^ 
pirdstab, (^^ muzajyan, )^ 
mutarraz, <jiJU« manakkasb. — 
(mthjeweU) {«/• murassaS y^^^ 
{^t^ jay^bir - 4gfn, •^^•T yfc^ 

Obnaments, J4iir v»W-«^ asbdb-i-ta- 
jammul, jyj zivar, y^^^ javabir. 

Obphan, f¥t^ yatfm ( pL |*V»\ aitam, 
or Jj^^t jat4m4). 

Obthodox, ^jj^y» mumin, J/A*s*« 
mutaBbarri', {^^a» mutadayyin. 

Obthodoxt, vj^-Vj raBti, JJ^ sidk, 
^j^juijj dm-dan,v3*-bakk, jU^x«^ 

Obthoobapheb, (^\*y !U^ imla-dan. 
Obthogbaphicax, J>i^\ imlA,{. — 

(orthographic mietaJce) «-A«^«a» 

Obthoobaphy, M imld. 
Obtolan, ^jtS^ pargfrf. 
To Oscillate, o^t^ O^ takau ni- 

Oscillation, ^U» takdn, u^^*«^ 

OsMANi (decoration) f &^UJ^ 'usma- 

OsPBET (aea-eagle), ijf^. j^ nisr-i- 

Ossification, ^^jU. f^Xyi^ ustu- 

To Ossify (trans.) , ^^ysd^^ (^^fi^ 

ustukbwan s^kbtan. — (intrans,) 

f^sAt f^\^:i^ ustukbwdn sbudan. 
Ostensible, j«j^ padfd, \j4s{ paida, 

yt,\^ z4bir. 
Ostentation, ^J\^ «>^ kbwud- 

nim4,i, *^;-jr kibriya, , p^ takab- 

bur, i3*v&^ o^ kbwud-pasandf. 
Ostentatiously, ^ V> bd-kibr. 
OsTLEB, jW ^ jilau-d4r. 
OsTBiGH, ^y fh» sbutur-murgb, 

A^W na'amab. 
Otheb, /io dfgar, f^ digar, ;«^ 

gbair, soa^ 'al4-biddab. 
Othebwise (if not), ** ;5^ Vagar nab, 

IJ^ ) va ilia, A» j^ var nab. — (in 

another way) i^fS^ digar-giinab, 

f^ ^y» taur-i-digar, %f J ^»-i kism- 

i-digar, sjaJU j^ij bi-tarik-i- 

Ottbb, ^^i *aC- sag-i-4bi. 
Ottoman, jj»U^ 'usmdnf. — (Otto- 

man Empire) o^UJte vsJ^o daulat- 

Ought (should), •^W bayad, i*;!! 

14zim, u:^H|\f b4yist, •^U sbdyad. 

— (a cypher) f^ sifr. — {any- 

ihirvg) ij^ cbfzf, ms* bfcb. 
Ounce (animal) w yuz. 
OuB, U JU m41-i-mA, U j\ az in4, 

^U i.]n4n. 
Oubselves, <^U Oj^ khwud-i-mdn. 

Ous] 231 

To Oust, o<*»\; rtlndan, e^jf e\jt~\ l 

dur ' 


ikhraj kardan, (^*^/ 

kardan, (^*y/ ^^ bi-dar kardan, 

O*^^ o** ^^y niniiidan. — (to he 
ouffted) (j»s^ gjU. kharij gash- 

Out, (^)j6i birdn, jAj bi-dar, g;U. 
kharij. — (out of doors) (^^jt:^ 
birun, gj^ kharij. — (to he out — 
flowers) (:)'>^ jW baz shudan. 

Outcast, *>>•>/• mardud, »j^^j ran- 

Outcry, \^^ ghaughA, y^fc ghariv, 
6^\SJjb hangamah. 

To Outdo, t)*V^ «j-J|U-^ musaba- 
kat nimddan, ^^ y*^ pish 

OuTEE, (^)j«^ bfrun, gjU. kharij. 

Outfall, v>j4; rizish. 

Outlandish, ^ »*y - " >« musta'jira, 
ii\i^ biganah. 

Outlaw, i^j^ khAriji. 

To Outlaw, ^^^^ «>^a^>^ mahdiid 
sAkhtan, ;;>*&. L- Q)f^ mal'un 

OuTLBT, y^ mafarr. 

Outline, »/^*> da,irah, A-i^ nak- 

Outpost, J^/ karavul. 

Outrage, j^^c ceXsa hatk-i-*irz, ,^J«? 
ta addi. 

To Outrage, (^^ <j*>«5 ta'addi 
kardan, (^*y/ ^f^ cs^ hatk-i- 
'irz-kardan, (^^\^ ^Ui^j dushnam 
dadan, ^*x«>«Umj dushnAmfdan. 
(Firfe To Bavibh). 

Outrageous, ^J^^^^ tiighf, ^^ 
baghi. — (violent) ^y Ju* tuud 
mizaj, ^ ij^J durusht-khii. 

Outright, 7-^7- sar-ii-sar "UU* 
tamaman, J^W bi-'l-kuU, ct*«lXJV» 
bi-'l-kulliyat, fi^^^W bi-'l-mar- 

To OuTROOT, (^^ ^ bar-kandan, 
^o^ JUfts«.\ istijSal kardan. 

Outside, (^^ bfrdn, t^ kharij. — 
(just outside) (•*> dam (as ^•^ ^^ 
dam-i-dar,^W^ outside the door). 

To Outstrip, ^ja j^ ^j1->> pfsh-raii 
shudan, ^j^ ,^x;» g^ pi'sh- 


bandf kardan, ^jy ia^ a ^dt ^^ 
guf,i-i-sibkat burdan. 

Outward, ^j-j;** b/run, g^U. khiirij. 

Outwardly, '^y^^ zahiran, wy*;^* ;*» 
dar surat. 

Outworks, j-s? jl-- hisar-band. 

Oval («i*6.), <^^-^ J^ shakl-i-bai- 
zavi. — (odj.)^_syAtA baizavi, ^\«>W 
badamf, a«^ baizab, f^5A») baizi. 

OvARious,;^^ &Arf baizah-dar. 

Oven, j«^ tannur, *;/ kurah. 

Over, SW bald, ^ *ala, ;? bar, t?j 
zabar, 7- ;» bar sar, j^* fauk, jy 
faraz, ^^^ ruy. — (across) jy^ 
*ubur, uyU"? an-taraf , *\;^ vara,, 
•--i^ an-Bu. — (exceeding) ^Jl^ 
bish, i*>V43 ziyadah, JJ^j ZH,id. — 
(^o he over, remain), ^jjU nian- 
dan, (^^^ ^jiW biikf budan. 

To Overawe, o^'^H/ tarsanidan, 
^jj^ j«j^ tahdfd kardan. 

Overboard, ^jS**^ <^jy j\ az ruy-i- 

Overcast, ^U j»^ abr-dar, ^s*^ girif- 

To Overcharge (overload), j\i aVjij 
(^*i/ ziyad bar kardan. — (in an 
a^icount) <;)«^«^ «>Vy ziyad talbi- 

To Overcome, {^^^ ^ fath kar- 
dan, (^^ji M^ gnalabah kardan, 
^j^4> ci T .,. X ai shikast dddan, jAk 
{^^ zafar yaftan, (^^^VjuT gusha- 
dan, ^^^4 «t>7«» nusrat yaftan, 
^jLAi u^ f fruz shudan, ;^x«T ^\t 
ghalib amadan. 

To Overflow, <^*y ^^-i lab-n'z 
bddan, ^•xa^ (^^-^ sailan sliu- 

Overflowing, ss^j^ lab-rizi, 7- 
«^;U sar-shAri. 

To Overgrow, (^J^jy ru,idan. — 
(grovj hig) (^**Ai *^)»;i pur buzurg 

Over-hanging, uyu mushrif, ^ 
J*^ 7- sar mA,i]. 

Overhead, 3W biila, JjU 'abi, 7- j» 
bar sar, j^* fauk, )\ji faraz. 

To Over-hear, <;j*>^ S-**^^--^ nnis- 
tanii* budan, ^*>^ {Ua#^ istima* 




kardan. — (in a had sevise) 
^«3^ tasammu* nimudan. 

To OvBELOOK (neglect) t ^*>^ ^a- 
ghiflat nimudan, (^*^y^ JUa^ 
ihm41 kardan, o^)^ J^ uyo sarf- 
i-nazar nimudan. — (connive at) 
^j^ jb\^\ ighm&z kardan, f^J^ 
^j^ ^^ chashm-piishi nimi'i- 
dan. — (forgive) ^*)/ ^ *afv 
kardan, (^j^/ ;«Vf ^j dar-guzar 
kardan, (:jJH>-ft»-^. bakhshidan, 
(jjj*^ »jU*« mu'^f kardan. — (as 
from a window, <§c.) (A?) (;)'>^ Uj;-*^ 
mushrif budan (bi). 

OvBB-MUCH, «*>Wj ziyMah, ^W-4 

OvEB-NiGHT, ^W^ sbabanah. 

Overplus, J'^ ^ mA.b4ki, aU* 
fazlah, ^ U mA-baka. 

To OvBE-EBACH, {^j^ fir/ftan, 
^jW v^ ; "* firfb dadan, J^ 

(^J^\j^ gul kbwurAni'dan, J^ 
(^Jj gul zadan, <;)*>^ j*^ ghadar 
nimddan, q)*^ ^^ nflah kar- 

To OvBRBUN, (^*y/ oV^ vair&n kar- 
dan, (^*y/ s\)^ taraj kardan. 

OvEBSBEB, ^^ nazir, &t^\^ dard- 
gbab, s\^ jVS kAr - guzar, /iW* 
mubAshir,^^;- sar-kar. 

OvBBSioHT, Utfe ghalat, ^ sabv, 
c>Sj zallat. 

To OvEBSLEEP, (^•^^^ *>^J ziyad 

To OVEBSPBEAD (trons.) (jj»>/ H 

pur kardan, (^*A*y JcLsi\ intishar 
dAdan. — (intranaJ) {^y^k j^^^^\ 
intisb&r yiftan, o*^ ^ pur shu- 
dan, (^•xAi e>^ pabn sbudan, ch»\p» 
^«i;^ sirayat kardan. 

OvEBT, j^} dshkAr, fijV^^ ash- 
kArab,yfc^ zahir, (jjW^ *iyAn, c*^^ 

To OVEETAKE, (^J^^ ot^ot pay-^" 

pay Amadan, (^s^^ f^ji barabar 
amadan, (^'iA j^^U mulkik sbu- 
dan, <;)*xAi J^^^ y^sil sbudan. 
OvEBTHEow, JJ*" kbalal, J5^^ ikb- 
Ul, u&>;U.^ kbasarat, o«m m< <ii sbi- 
kast, lA'My'^ bazfmat. 

To OvEBTHROW, vide To Throw 


OvEBTUEE, f%«** u^ pisb-kadam, 
^\ssii\ iftitah. — (to make an 
overture) o**r^ t ^ -^" ^ -*^ iftitab 

To OvEBTUEN, (^*y^ (^fi ^ sar- 
nigun kardan, o^fjt\ y^ sar-zir 
kardan, (^*>;^ 4*^^^^ var^nah kar- 
dan, {^sdXm (^tf^^ v4zbg6n sakb- 
tan, (^sdX^ 6AiS ji bar-gasbtab 
sAkbtan, ^a^U^ ji bar-gardani- 
dan. — (to he overturned) ^*)U4\ 
uftadan, {^sjj^ ^ bar-gasbtan, 
^jLAi a^^ vardnan sbudan. 

To OVEBWHELH, <;>JA s-JVi gbalib 
sbudan, ^ja Jyt-«-« mustaulf 
sbudan, (^^^ i-^ gbalabab kar- 
dan. — (drown) (^^/ jjfc gbarak 

To Owe, (^\j fiJ^ bidib dAsbtan, 
^j^jV^soi bidib-kAr bddan, ^yj 
^^\^ karz ddsbtan, 0»>^ j\j^^ 
karz-dar budan, {^\*y fi\^ ydm 
dasbtan, (^W q^j dain dAsb- 

^^^^> e?"^^ L^jt/^ makrdz bd- 
dan, 0«>^ (:)<>3L&« mutadayyin 

OwiNO to tbis, j^^j (^^ )^ Bz m 

Owl, f%^ bdni, «^^ buf, ^/^ kuku- 
mab (vwZgf.). — (screech-owl) J^ 
jugbd, •&*». cbugbd. 

Own, *>j*. kbwud, trii*" kbwisb, 
(j)J^|l kbwisbtan, ^/>v*. kbass. — 
(my own) {»y *)^ kbwud-i-man, 
^*>j*- i-kbwudam. — (i^eir own) 
^U j|A. kbwud-i-sban. 

To Own (possess), o*>^ «sUU malik- 
bddan, (jjAfti\*) dasbtan. — (admit) 
^j^ j\ J\ ikrAr kardan, ^j^U ^JL-^ 
musallam dasbtan, (^4>^ yi^ mii- 
kirr bddan, (^*^/ u\jS£\ i'tirnf 
kardan, (^ja uyau« mu'tarif sbu- 

OwNEB, **UU malik, s-^^ sAbib, 
Ji^U. kbarand. 

OwNEBSHiP, w-^U malikiyat. 

Ox, ^V5 ff4v, yi» bakar. — (plov^ghing 
ox) ^)p varzay, ^^W ^\S gav-i- 
f addAd. — (wHd ox) ^y^*> y\S g4v- 




i-dasbti, {J^^\ yi» bakaru-*!- 

vahsh. — (ox-goad) o*\)^^ *>*^ ^^^' 
Oxide, jSjj zangar. 

Oxygen, a-^^^^^ j3^ muvallidu-'l- 

OxYHEL, (^c*^^^ sikanjabin. 
Oysteb, wI*^ sadaf. 


Pace (step), f^ kadaip, f^^ g4m, 

fijla*. kbatvab. — (gait) J<sij raftar, 

^y) ravisb, ftV- gam, (•^M kadam. 

— (speed) %s'^ tundi. 
To Pace, (^; f^ kadam raftan, 

^jj l*jj kadam zadau. 
Pacific, c^^-^ musalib, ys^^ ^ 

Pacification, <s^U*« musalabat, 

c^N^JU^ musAlamat. 
Pacificator, ^J^ muslib. 
To Pacify, ^jJ^^j^ aramfdan, ^\)^ 

(^S\*y krkm dddan, (^•jW J—* ta- 

salli dadan, (^*y/ (^jss^--* task in 

Pace, &^«> dastab. 
To Pack up, (i)Ji-» bastan, o**r^ ^ 

tab nimiidan, (^•i/ c&wjJ jW bar 

durust kardan. 
Packer, j^ aj;-4 bastab-band. 
Packet, aa--^ bastab, ^J^-^ dastab, 

<s^ bukcbab. 
Pack-hobse, {J^ j^ s-^^ asb-i-bar 

kasb, ^Vj ydbii. 
Packing - needle, jy^^f*- javAl- 

Pack-saddle, (j)1J^ palan. — (cover 

of pdck-Sdddle, made of omameii" 

tal worsted work) ^^ ^sbur- 

Pack-theead, o^"*— 4j rismdn. 
Pact, vide Treaty. 
Pad (soft saddle), J^ tagal, ^*f^ 

kbd-gir, ,j^ tagalti. 
To Pad, (;j*>/ yi^ basbv kardan. 
Paddle (oar), jyV> paru, »^^ kba- 

Paddle-wheel, j^. tf^ cbarkb-i- 

Paddock, ^^^ cbaman, j^y-*^ cba- 

man-z4r, t\S^f^ cbara-giib, fSy» 

martaS ^fy^ margb-zAr, ^^ 
*alaf-zar, \^ sabrA, '^ mar- 
■gb4z, 4^ julgab. 

Padlock, Jm kufl. 

PiBAN, A^^ c^ fatb-namab. 

Pagan, ^^j* sj>a but-parast, ;i^ 
kafir, «^yu#« musbrik. 

Paganism, o*^;i **^ but-parast i, 

Page (of a hook), a^^ eafbab. — 
(leaf or dovhle pa,ge) iAjj^^ sahi- 
fab, jj^ varak. — (boy) ;-i pisar, 
^ gbulam, o^Jkat-ft-o pfsb-kbid- 

Pageant, U»U* taiiiaslui. 
Pageantry, w-^i** shaukat, ^-♦■■fc * 

Pagoda, AiUy» but-kbanah, 6.*^ 

Pail, ^^ daly, J^*> dul, ,j^W baldf 

Pain, J^;^ dard, ^^ ranj, yt-r; ran- 
jisb, ^\^ *azab, j^j"^ azar, ^^ 
alam, 0.^3 zabmat, g^^^ vaja*. — 
(anguish) «fc-i»i^ aziyat, c^a^k* 
mibnat, ,^^^ tangi. 

To Pain, ^jas-^ o^^i parfsbAn 
s4kbtan, {^^ Su<^ mubtal4 
sAkbtan, o**J!)^ 4zurdan, ^\ 
^•^jL.j alam rasdnfdan. 

Painful, «J^y ^ pur-dard, aa^ ^^^ 
dard-mand, *ji3u JjJ dard-n4k, 
t^yt^\ alam-zadab, ^^s^ muta,al- 
lim, gsb^^ vaji*. — (^ivina jjaw) 
jy^ cb ranj-Avar, <;)^ yj^ azar- 

Painless, *>;*> ,^ bi-dard. 

Pains (toil), vs^JU-« masbakkat, 
«>w»*^j zabmat, c>a^- mibnat 
gi; ranj. — (to taJee pains) **^^y» 
fjxAt\*i muTazabat ddsbtan. 





Pains-takbb, JUftV&» mutajiihid, 


Pains-takino, *M^ mutakajyid, 
<^yu.^^ TDihnatf, J^W jahid, C^^y 
muv&zib, oftV^ii^ mutajahid. 

Paint, *aflj rang. — (rcd^>ainf) v^/- 
surkhf. — (white paint) ^M- *al»j 
ran g-i-saf fd. — (rouge for the face) 
5)1^ gh^zah. — (for the eye-brows) 
u:>VU khitdt. 

To Paint (draw), ^a^ kashfdan, 
^ j»/ (j&ji> naksh kardan. — (colour) 
f^^S ^^^j rangfn kardan, «sOj 
(^A*> rang d4dan. 

Paintxb, jy^ mtisaTYir, i>Ub nak- 
k^Bhy f\^j rassdm, ^VJUi timB^l- 

Paintino (pieiure\ jiyrf tasyfr, 
<>fi naksh, JV^i fi*>^ pardab-i- 
ashkdl, ^J^\B fij^ pardah-i-nak- 
kdshf. — (oil pairUing) J^^\ i*yj^ 
(^}> pardah-i-ashkal-i-raiighan, 
O^}) ^*^A pardah-i-raugban. 

Pair, «-a^ 3«ft, jj^^ jur, cj) zauj. — 
(in pairs) u^Jk^^ ««x> tak ya juft. 

To Paib, (^^/ <aJW: juft kardan, 
^jy*i ^^ zauj nimddan. 

Palacb, sV^W b^gAh, (^\ji\ aiyiin, 
i^y* saraf, ^ kasr, «e>;U£ 4ina- 

Palacioits, *uiU ^ kasr-mdnand. 

Palanquin, (^\^ \A^fi takht-i- 

Palatablb, ^f guyir, \^f guy4r4. 

Palatablbness, (3j^9^ guydrf . 

Palatb, |*V^ k4m, vi^X* maz4k, ^Uu 
mashdmin. — {roof of mouih) <>• 

Pale, •m zard, yu^ asfar, t«^ 
parfdiub. — (tceaJS: »n eolowr) ^J^S 
abakf, j^* ydz. — {to turn paU) *>;|3 
(^•xAi zard shudan. 

To Palb, ^^sJkS^j^ zard gashtan. 
Palb-facbd, jy ojjj zard-rd. 
Paleness, ^J;j zardf, J^^^ parf- 
dagf,j^^\ isfir4r. 

Palisade, \j^f^ matars, a« sadd, 
A&i band, a« ^j^^ zfk-i-sadd. 

To Pall, ^ja fiy« ^^ bi-mazah shu- 

Pallettb (painter* b), ^^J^j as** 

To Palliate, (^*>/yke *afv kardan, 
^jk^ wiU^ mu*af kardan, (^^ Aft - i^: 
bakhshidan, ^JiA\JJj^afc• ma*zdr 
ddshtan, (;)*y jAf j*) dar guzar 
kardan, o*>2j|/*1 dmurzfdan, j^yuu 
^•^j\ jy magbfdr garddnfdan. 

Palliation, ^ afv, %j\»^ inu*df . 
— (mitigation) «-M** takbfff, 
{^^^ taskfn. 

Palliatitb, <jt^. {^^^^ taskm- 

Pallid, Ojj zard, 5jjt^ parfdab. 

Palm (ciafe tree), ^^f- «>*.jO 
dirakbt-i-kburma, Ja^ nakbl, ^ 
inukb. — {palm leaves) v/>^ 
khaus, J^^ tdpul, \J»j^ pdsb. — 
{fibres of the palm,, coir) 4Jt|; 
rfshab, ^-Aj Iff. — (victory) *&>;-» 
nusrat, j^ zafar, c5j^;«^ f iruzf, 
^ fath, Afi^ gbalabab. — (of the 
hand) «-^ kaf , «^\) rdbat. — 

(nieatfttre) ^^ sbibr. 
Palma-ghbisti, jt^\ J^ bfd-anjfr, 

yuS kinnatd. 
Palmistbt, <-A^ fJe 'ilm-i-kaf. 
Palpable, ^»*«^ y i^ mutajassim, j*^ 

zabir, ^^ sarfb. 
Palpably, '^y^^ zibiran, 'Vi/» 

sari ban. 
To Palpitate, o^W* tapfdan. 
Palpitation, ^jt^ tapisb. 
Palsied, ^^\ iflfj, ^yiA^ mafldj. — 

(to he palsied) (^U iJ^j ra'sbab 

d&sbtan, (^U ^U f Alij d4shtan. 
Palsy, gJU f4Hj, Ja sbaU.— (trem- 

&Ztn^) AAcj ra'sbab. — {hemi- 

phlegia) gJU f41ij. — {of the mouth 

and face) ^/^ lakvab. 
Paltby, (^^*> ddn, %s^^ past, ^^j 

To Pampeb, o^jjjj^i panrardan. 
Pampebed, ft*>j)i^ parvardab. 
Pamphlet, a^C^ risalah. 
Pamphleteeb, uHty A3L.J risdlab- 

Pan (earthen), ^*> dizf. — (largf^ 

shallow pan) 

basfn, jVtf 

tagbar. — {frying pan) »^Vy tayab, 
6^\s t4bab. — (0/ a gun) *a/ 




gdsbah, 4iU^T ^tish-khAnah, 

S^y\ dj4k, 43 W chdlah. 
Panacea, j9^\ ^W^-a^ kimijd,f-i- 

Pancake, &Jt«5A^ khaginab. 
Pander, vide Pimp, Bawd. 
Pane (of glass), ^W j^m. — (small 

coloured panes) ,^» kitdbf, •>j1*> 

^U. da,dd-k]i4nf. 
Paneoybic, c^ madh, 4-«U^.^^ 

Panboybical, ^'S c*^ madh-diufz. 
Panboybist, t^*^ maddah. 
Panel, ^Jii' takhtah. 
Pang, JjJ dard. 
Panic, ^y tars, Jy^ haul, £y fazaS 

<d^^).ft hazimat, ^ bim, «i)W b4k, 

«^^ khauf. 
Pannibbs, J«t>j zambn, •^^ sabad. 

— (large wooden panniers for 

carrying fruit) ft*>y laudah. — 

(travelling panniers, resembling 

cradles, and slung on both sides of 

a mule or camel ; much used by 

women) ^^W^ kaj^vah. 
Panobama, Ui j^«> dur-nima. 
To Pant, ^J^ tapfdan. — (draw 

breath quickly) ^*>3 ^«> dam 

zadan, ^oj ^j^ nafas zadan, 

^jj 6SJjb hingah zadan. 
Pantaloons, ^^ sbalv^r. 
Pantheb, (jitjl^ pars, ^^ kaplan, 

*i^jJ^ palang. — (hunting) j^ yuz. 
Pantby, a*U. y^\j^ khwurak-kha- 

Pap, (^\s^ pistdn. — (food) ^\^ 

Papa, ^j^ pidar, ^W b^ba. 
Papeb, -VA^^ kaghaz, {j*^j^ kart^s. 

— (glazed paver) ^^ 5^ J^V^ 

kaghaz-i-muhrah-dar. — {plotting- 

paper) «<^ «si&d. y J^VS k^ghaz- 

i-tar-khushk-kunak. — (ship's- 

papers) J^ kaul. 
Papeb-knife, fk ^^ kdghaz-bur. 
Papeb-maeeb, jU. ^t\^ k4ghaz-s^z. 
Papeb-mill, ^ljU*. i-AL-^ k4ghaz- 

Papist, ^j^^ pAp4vf (eur.). 
Pafybits (reed), <^*>;» bardf, "W 


Pab, vb>^^U-» mu8£v4t. — (on a pa^r) 

^s^^*^ mus^vf , — (aJt par) *a> 

o^«> kaimat - i - durust, 

i^\^ kaimat-i-v4ki*f, ^J^ 

Pabable, J^ masal (pi, JU«*t 

amsAl), J^ inis41, A^«JbJ tash- 

Pababola, <yV5U ^ kat^i-mu- 

Pababolioal, &i\Ax* mutasMbih. 
Pabaclete, la(A2;U f^niklit (eur.). 
Pabade (of an army), ^u s&a, 

j^^ ^^ 'arz-i-lashkar. 
Pabadb-gbound, fi^!}^ jaul&n- 

g4h, (^\'i^t^ maiddn. 
Pabadise, cr*^^y firdaus, c>j^ jan- 

nat, u>«&6» bihisht, a^j^ rauzah, 

•^ khuld. — (Jboundary between 

paradise and hell) ^j^ 'urf, u\j^\ 

Pabadox, y^ lugbz. 
Pabadoxical, \>^ J9««^ mu^arnm^- 

yasb, AAiU yJ lugbz-m&nand. 
Pabaffine, {^\j^ pAriffn (eur.). 
Pabaoon, Ai|4i nimdnah. — (per- 

son) JU*«» Di-misAl. 
Pabagbaph, J^ fasl, syu faka- 

Paballax (astronomical term), 

j»*^ u^hidA ikbtil4f-i-maiLzar. 
Paballel, ji\ji barabar, c5;^y* mu- 

vazi, <^j^y^ mutav4zi, <^*V-«« 

musdyf. — (parallel lines) t^^ 

«4)^^ kbutut-i-mutayizf. 
Paballelibm, ^j-i^^ bardbaH, 

u:>^^L»^ musdvit. 
Paballelogbam, As k ^ ' M ** gt;^ mu- 

rabba'-i-mustatfl, JJb&»^ mus- 

Paballelopiped, (^)U.>iS^ rr^^ 

£)US^ mujassam-i-mutasaTi-'l- 

Pabalysib, qSU f^lij, ^ falj, aaaj 

Pabalytic, m^\ iflfj, cJA* maf- 

Pabamoxjnt, *aVi kibir, j^W J^ 

Pabamoub, jVt y4r, (j^bU <&shik, J>« 





Pabapbt, ^jS^ kangurah, 

ma'jar, ^^«« mahjar. 
Pabaphebnalia, {^^ sAm/in, 

s^W-^ asbab, U^fi yarak. 
Pabaphbase, c/> sharb, jtf*^ taf- 

siY, Je-*» tafsil. 
To Pabaphbase, (:)*>^ j«— *> tafsir 

nimudau, o^^ ^}J^ tafsil nimu- 

Pabasang (Persian league, about 

three miles and three-quarters) 

^y farsakb, ^s^^^ji farsang. 
Pabasite, m*- i*^A* muft-kbwur, 

J^ tufailf, e^ M>^ Msbi- 

Pabasol, f^ chair, »A^^ aftab- 

Pabgbl, &&»4 bastah, A^^y bugh- 

To Pabcbl, (a*>/ fHi'^JS taksfm kar- 

dan, (^»y/ >j^»...i ^j dd kismat 

To Pabgh, {^y-' f^ nfm-sukbtan, 

(^^^ birishtan. 

Pabghhent, Jj rakk or rikk, u^^ 

Pabdon, ykft *afv, o*^*^ niu*aff, 
J^wA Amurzish, v/<Iajp bakh- 
shajish, ^.^^^L,^ musdmahat, 
C** safh, ^\;Afc ghafran, «yy*^ 
maghfirat, j'^j*> dar-guzar. — (to 
beg pardon) 0*^^ v>j^ pdzish 

To Pabdom, (^»y/ y^ 'afv kardan, 
^o^ wiU#* mu'At kardan, ^JLy & i fc^ . 
baKhshfdan, {^^ guzashtan, 
^^S^ j*> dar-guzashtan. — (par- 
don me I used in jwlite conversa- 
tion) \j^ chiri, 4^ laby. 

Pabdonable, (jt-A^. ^}l^ kabil-i- 
bakhshishj^J^ aAc <afv-pazfr, ^^\y<* 
«s>jAA^ saz&var-i-maghfirat. 

To Pabb (strip off skin), (^^ ct^^ 
pust kandan, ^^Uyt^ mukash- 
shar sakhtan. — (the nails) {^^ 
(^j5'nakhungiriftan. — (the hoofs 
of a horse) (^^/^ kayar kardan, 
(^j^\f ^ sum tirdshidan. 

Pabentage, v^^ nasab, v»Uj:>\ 
intisib, J«\ asL 

Pabentaii, is^\y vdlidf, (^i*!^^^ t4- 

Pabenthesis, 6>JifM^ ii^^n. jumlah- 

Pabknthettcal, [^f^ mu'tariz. 

PaBENTHETICALLY, 6JtjS»^ jja^ bi- 

Pabenticide, vj^j'H pidar-kushf, 

^J*ft^J*>U maJar-kushi. 
Pabents, i:)»^\) validain, j*>U ^ jj^ 

pidar u madar. 
Pabeb, ftAi;^ «>-^ pust-kanandah, 

/<*A» mukasbshir. — (nails) (^^ 

toSj^ nakhun-girandah. 
Pabing, *J^\y tirashah, aa\^ khira- 

Pabing-knife (for horse's hoofs) 

^\js,i^ sum-tirash. 
Pabish, ^Jl^^ mahallah. 
Pabishionbb, AlL^^ yb\ ahl-i-ma- 

Pabity, ss»\^^^^ musavAt, (^«>U#* 

Pabk, {^^ chaman, ^\*V* maiden. 

— (public park), A^^ ^ bagh-i- 

Pablance (commxin talk), U^^e 

Pabley, &«iU^ mukalamah, • J«j 

JV* kil u kal, stt»^\M^ mu*asha- 

To Pabley, (^*^y^ ^15^ mukala- 
mah nimudan, (^^y*i «A>^Ub« mu'- 

asharat nimudan. 
Pabliamemt, ^J\)yi^\ ;W daru-'sh- 

shura,]. — (Member of Parlia- 

mnt) c:.*A*)j^ u-J^ ^\^ ^ j^J^ 

'adam az a*za,-i-majlis-i-parla- 

mant. — (Opening of Parliament) 

ia^oJjU ^A- jlj baz-shudan-i-par- 

Lunant. — (to dissolve Parliament) 

^j^U j^&a^ VH;^ pdrlamantrA 

mutafarrik sakhtdn. 
Pabloub, j^\ utrik, u\iAjt^ dfvan- 

khunah, A^y^^ maahrabah. 
Pabochial, ^Jl*-* mahalli. 
Parody, j^ taklid. 
Parole, Jy kaul. 
Paroquet, i«U/ j;.^ tutf-i-kd- 

Pabozybm, cwy uaubat, uJU. ha- 




lat, ^Ve^L tughydn, u:>ja shiddat, 
^^ ghalabah. 

Pabbicidb, f^^J^ ^ kat*-i-arbiim. 

Pabbicidal, ^W.j> gtVs kati*-i-ar- 

Pabbot, ^J^jf^ tuti. 

To Pabby (a stroke) y 0*>/ ^^ daf* 
kardan, (^^/ «>; radd kardan, ^^ 
(^*>) va-zadan. 

To Pabse (resolve grammatically), 
^o^ s-^«^ tarkib kardan. 

Pabsee, j^ gabr, v5^^^»^ nmjusi. 

Pabseeism, va-i».*^^^ majiiBiyat. 

Pabsimonious, ^jflijo. ban's, y << * W 
tama*-kar, ^^ tami^ Je^. ba- 
kbfl, ^»«23 la'im, »g l *>-».>* mumBik, 
{ j »'t'»' A k basis. 

Pabsimoniotjslt, j\) Je*^, bakbil- 

Pabsimont, Jrfc'. bukbl, fj>^ birs, 
j"^ az, g4i tama*, ,^jV^iuJ» tama*- 
kilri, cs^.». fl ... -i^ kbasisat, >>a.**>* 
kbissat, c£)L»^^ imsuk, f*%3 la,m. 

Pabsley, u«i/ kirafs, ^^4.^^ ajrniid, 
,^yk*^ ja*fari. 

Pabsnip, j)S' gazar. [Tbis is pro- 
perly a carrot.] 

Pabson, (J^ y A ^ kasbisb, ( ^c- * kis- 
818, jUi (j&e> pibb-uamaz. 

Pabsonage, ^^ ui^»^ kasbisb- 

Pabt {piece), tj^ parab, &^j^ par- 
cbab, &;j> purzab, &^ tikkab, a«W2 
kat'ab, y^ juz, ^^'^a- hissab, ^j^^ 
juzvf, o^ lakbt, fi;6i babrab, 
^^--i kism. — (*i(ie, party) vJjt 
taraf, s-^W janib, J^i kibal. — 
(6tt#in6»«) j^ kar, J^^ 'amal, y\ 
amr, JU- bal. — {quarter or region) 
«sXU mulk, ^5^^^ valayat, f^\ 
iklim, «>*«-. samt. — {share) *a*4-J 
kismat, &<«^ bissab. — {on the 'part 
of) s-*W ^ az janib. — {for the 
most part) "V^ gbaliban, ^fr^ 
aksari. — (J for my part) iS ^^ 
mankib. — {to take in good part) 
i^ji^ paziruf tan. 

To Pabt, {^\^ ^j*^ jida sakbtan. 
— {to depart) {^sJiS ii\^ ravdnab 
gasbtan, {^j raftan. 

To Pabtakb {have a share in), 

^4>^ «siMi sbarfk bddan, *A^\y^ 
0^^U snirakat dAsbtan, j^«> ^^^^ 
(^>ypi bissab-dar budan, {;ys^\*y tj$i 
banrab dasbtan. — {eat), J** 
(^*^y*i mail nimiidan, (^oj^ J^U; 
tanavul kardan. 

Pabtakeb, tskj^ sbarik, j\*y a-». 

Pabtekbe, (jWWi- kbiyAban. 

Pabtial, j^Jub^ taraf-dar, jWW 

Pabtiality, ,^j^^W janib-dari, 
j^^^jJ^ taraf-dari, s-^^aw ta*a88iib, 
Jt^ mail, ^j<fi^J^ taraf-giri, JjUJ 
tarn ay ul. 

Pabtially, ^jAI kadrf, a)U^\ ^^ 

Pabticipant, ««)^^ sbarik, j\*y du». 

To Pabticipatb, (^•xai ^»«e^ sabfm 
sbudan, ^•^ uei^/^ sbarik sbu- 
dan, o^j^ ;» bar-kbwurdan. 

Pabticipation, sa^ji^ sbirakat, 
Ks^jiA^ musbarakat, &U.\j^ mu- 

Pabticiple {active), J^U f^\ ism- 
i-fa'il. — {pa^ssive) J^«*^ ^^ ism- 

Pabticle, &;*> zarrab, aai^^ sbusbab, 
&y*i^ bamzab, ^^4^ sbammab, lyt^ 
rizab. — (in grammar) ^^ barf. 
— {ajffimuUive particle) ji^*ii Uj^ 
harf-i-ta,kfd, v»WJ ^y^ harf-i- 

Pabticulab, ^J^d. kbass, v/^^«^^ 
makbsus, ^ja;:^^* mukhtass. — 
{fanciful) y^ musirr, j»^ mu- 
brim. — {in general and in parti' 
cular) "^^ycA, y "i^yt^ * umuman va 

Pabticulakity, sj>^t^ya:k^ makbsu- 

To Pabticulabizb, (j)^/ Jc-a? taf- 
sfl kardan. 

Pabticulably, {j>y^ bi-kbu8U8, 
^jp^-iafei^ JjUi *ala-*l-kbusus. 

Pabticxtlabs, jy»% rumuz, «w^y»^ 

Pabtinq {hair), jy fark. 

Pabtisan, ;U \^ havi-dar. — (fe he 




a partisan of) (^*y/ <4)^«MW 
j&mb-dAr{ kardan. 
Pabtition {mutual division) y 
-^^— ^ mukasamat. {Vide 


Wall, Screen.) 

Partly, vj-*-** kismi, *;^ pdrah, 
^jut^5st yak-chandi. 

Pabtneb, ««^/» 8harrk,^W 5^ bah- 
rah-dar,jW>^ ambAz. 

Pabtnebship, u>w^^-Ai shirakat, 
<^^Um« mushdrakat, i^}^\ am- 
bazi. — {unfair dealing in part- 
nership) Jl^j^ f*-^ sitam-shariki. 

Pabtbidqe (red-legged or harta- 
veUe) cbJL-^ kabk. — (of the valley, 
a very large species) <^j*> *£^ 
kabk-i'dari. — (hlack partridge or 
francolin) e\)«> durraj. — (desert 
partridge) ^ taihu, ^^y tuhi. 
— (a covey of partridges) «*)l«^ ^ 

Partdbition, c^ nitaj. 

Pabtt (assembly), ^^j^ gurdh, 
id^W jama'at, m- '»e >^ jam'iyat, 
g»»>« majmaS oV*^ dfyan, f*y 
bazm, \)^ shura, cr^^^ majlis, 
JA^« makfil, th^^ anjuman. — 
(hangup) «^V^ ziyAfat, ^^U^ 
mihmanf, jy^ sur, ^U«3^ yalfmah. 
— (Parliamentary term) *— s— o 
dastab, iiji firkah. — (party 
spirit) A c f^ 'asabfyah. 

Pabtenu, A^i^y Dau-kfsah. 

Pasha, ^^ p^sha. 

Pashalik, v>^^ p/ishdlik. 

Pass (narrow road), »\) *s^ tang- 
r4b, ttfS^^xT gaduk. — (among moun- 
tains) *a^ taDg, s-«Ai 8ha*b, Js^ 
kutal, J5/ kiital, o»>/ gardan. 

To Pass, ^^^ guzashtan, (^*>/ j^ 
guzar kardan, (^^jy\ j^^f guzar 
dvardan. — (Parliamentary term) 
^jjbt iJtijiy^ paziruftah shudan. — 
(a^yross a river) (^*>/ jyt^ *ubiir 
kardan, ^jjJaAT a^U. *y^ ^\ az rdd- 
khanah guzashtan. — (be current) 
(a*^ji e^j r4,ij bddan, (^•Jy e;/» 
muravvaj budan. — (<Ae night) 
^^f iSf^ baitutah kardan, \p^ 
6)^Ji)^ jM) shabri bi - rdz dvar- 
dan. — (fo pass over^ neglect) j*y 

(^aT dar-guzashtan, (jx*A*y ^^ 
sdkit dasbtan, (^*y/ ^ sahv 
kardan. — (to pass off upon, to de- 
ceive) (^*y/ v3^ Iwi'ii kardan, J^ 
(^*i) gul zadan. 

Passable, jft^ ^}|Vi kabil-i-*ubur, 
jAT JjU kiibil-i-guzar, — (allow- 
able) jW^ muiaz, 1m rav4, JV 

Passably, ««^«y nazdik, '\k/8 tak- 

Passage (tn a book), sa>^\^ 4barat, 
<^Uu makalat, AyU fakarah. — 
(voyage) ;*- safar, ^e- sair, Jt-* 
sail (vulg,), — (passage m a street, 
leading under a building ; a close) 
ia^lfJU 84,ibat, ^W« sabbdt, HW 
^jh^ ^^ bdli-khdnab-i-kjLurujf. 
— (in a house) jy^ J*^ mahall- 

Passaqb-monet (fare), ^\/]dri- 
yah, jy ndl. 

Passengeb, «aL^ musdfir, ft*x>j^ ra- 
yandah, jM^ 'abir, «sXSL. salik, 
cW- sayydh, — (tn a ship), ^^jt^ 

Passion, Vide Angeb, Love, Zeal. 
(the passions) jUJtt J^^ haY4,{- 
i-nafsanf, {J>\j^^ aghrdz. 

Passionate, t^y y^ tfz-mizdj, 
i«3Ui.«A6 ghazab-nak, *^ ^j5 tund- 
khu, t^y ^>jS tund-mizdj. 

Passionately, ^»«t^ ^ b4-khisbm, 
W^ ghazaban. — (extremely) 
uHt^ bi-nihayat, ^s^^ bi-gha- 

Passive (unresisting), J^^^^ mu-« 
tahammil, (^^^ sakin. — (verb) 
J^6^^ majhul. 

Passiyeness, J49!* tahammul, (^^ 
sakan,^t« sabr. 

Pasboyeb (feast), ^ J^ *fd-i- 

Passpobt, 45;1«**1j rdh-ddrf, */J^ 
tazkirah, f^j rakm, AAeUJ ta'lfkah. 
— (/or ^ooefo) ^ pattah (hind.), 
ij^ fattab, A^U&^ji fardgh-ndmah. 

Past (beyond), h bild, jy fauk, 
(^y^ bfrdn. — (gone by) AsAiJi' 
guzashtah, ^U mazf, «J^ 
salaf, <3»U sdbik. — (past aU 


hope) *i^ h biM-umfd. — (pcut 

danger) ^ ^ bild-khatar. — (tJie 

past) ^^ sabik, <j^UJ\ al-mazi, 

<-^^ salaf, &sjbiSs f^\i\ ayydm-i- 

guzashtah. — ( past tense) ^U 

mdzi, v>^ o^^ m/izi-i-mutlak. 
Pastk, jt*^ khamir. — (made of a 

root pounded) u^/- sirish, ^^«- 

To Paste up, ^j^jW--^ chasbanf- 

Pasteboard, or Papiee-machI:, 

JjyU mukayva, \j&^ mukayya. 
Pastern (of a horse), t»y^ khur- 

Pastil, j^. bukhur. 
Pastime, ^jW b^zfchah, ey» tafar- 

Pastob, ij-t^ kashfsh, y-*--* 

kiss IS. 
PastobaIi, ^;J4 badavf, (^^^^ &iS^ 

Pastby, ^e4^ khamfr, ajAi^ *>j\ ard- 

Pasttjbaob, Ai^ *alufab. — (pas- 

ture) j\ y t^j ..- margb-zdr, t\S\j^ 

char A- gab. 
Pastubb (ground), ^y marta*, 

J/y» mar'a, sVT^^ cbara-eah, 

jVyisi. *jJaf-zar, ^j^ margb, jyy* 

margh-zar, j^^y kuruk, (j>^ 

To Pastube, (^^ji^ charidan. 
Pat, vj^^kamil,«:^j*>duiai8t, {^,>^y« 

sab lb. 
To Pat, t)^U ss^^ dast mAlfdan. 
Patch, i^ pfnab, jJ«» paivand, 

A*»j ruk'ali, aL»5 vaslab. — (for a 

rifle-bullet) [^ kafan. 
To Patch, (^S^ aL»^ vaslab kardan, 

j;^^^^ 6^ pambab andakbtan. 
PA.TCHED, gS;^ murakka*. 
Patchbr, 3^j 6jJu3 kndarab-duz, 

j^^3^ kullab-duz, j^*J &it>i pinab- 

Patchwobk, <^3^»3 fijJuJ landarab- 

duzi', «^3;J^!y kullab-duz 1. 
Pate, j- sar, ;j*\) ras, ^ kallab, 

^SJ^ fark. 
Patent (exclusive privilege), ju- 

sanad. — (Royal patent), ^jt yar- 

289 [Pat 

1/gb, Ceiy tauki'*.— (et^uicnO »^^ 
asbk^r, a^lX**^ Asbkdrab, yfclt za- 
bir, ^^^ buvaida, (jJb>^ raushan, 
e)**^ mubin, ^\^ vazib, ^S laib, 
tjWc *ijan, jf^k babir, ^;- sarib, 
^j«*^ badfbi. 

Patentee, ;^o juu. sanad-dar. 

Patebnal, ^4;A> pidari, &>\jJb pida- 

Paternity, AjjA* pidanyab, «t>y\ 

Path, i?icfo Eoad. — (of a garden) 
yt»^ ma*bar, (j)W^ kbiyaban. 

Pathetic, j^a dil-suz, ^;3j dil- 
^viz, ^ aC »e- sabm-gm. 

Pathetically, ^^j^^ W ba-dil- 


Pathless, ^\yt^ bi-rab, Jfejt 2i^ bila 

Patience,;^ sabr, ^^yt^ sabdrf, 
s-*^ sbikfb, J\^ sbikfbd,f, 
J^*^ tabammul, u&^lL tAkat, 
^^;W *>;» burd-bdrf. 

Patient, ;»U g^bir, ^^ sabdr, 
jVj *>;♦ burd-bdr, W^^ sbikfbd.— 
(«/c« person) ij^y marfz, JJlc 
*alil, ^^ i^ nd-kbwusb.— .(^0 he 
patient) (^^y4i J^ac^ tabammul 
nimiidan, t)**^ ,;«-• sabr nimu- 

Patiently, p^ W bA-sabr, ^y^^ s 

Patbiabch (of a church), j.;L| ba- 
trak, OM;!aj patrik. 

Patbiabchal, ^jSijlit patrfkf. 

Patbician, j6^\ amfr. 

Patbimony, *±>j\ irs, •A'W miras, 
«j^»\ irsiyat, cs^j^ virasat, uus»^.oe 

Patbiot, «*.-;0 ^^^ vatan-dust, 

t>^y^ ^ 1 ^i s -i* babi'bu-'l-vatan. 
Patbiotism, (j>ty\ s-^ bubbu-'l- 


Pateol (night-watch), s-*j«* o^^ 
pasb/m-i-shab, (.r'«<«£ 'asas, ^i 
gazmab, ciUa^ kasbik. 

To Patbol, ^*>/ ^yW-V^ p^sbdni 

Patbon, ^jtj0» murabbi, ^J•\^ hkmi, 
H-»-^ sabib. 




Patbonaoe, sa^U^' himAjat, &6«y 
tausfyah, ^J^^ sahibi. 

To Pateonizb, (;)*>W cHtW hima- 
jat dadan. 

Pateonymic, wfc-j— 1 nisbat, ^Vj 
nam, f^^ ism. 

Pattens {clogs), {^^ na'lain. 

Patteen, ^y*i uimimali, J\JU 
misal, cr* naksh. 

Paucity, ,j^ kami, *^^\ andak. 

Paunch, ^J^*^ mi*dah, ^•^ shikm, 
^^ batn. 

Paupee, tj*^--» miskin, ^ fakir. 

Pause (i» readinj), «-4Sj vakf. 
(Fide Intbemission, Delay.) 

To Pause, o**^ •-*yij vukdf nimu- 
dan, <:j*>/ •-A»j vakf kardan. 

To Pave, o*x «^/^*^- sang-farsh 

Paved, ^5**/^^ sang-farshi. 

Pavement, ^A^;*^-^ sang - farsh, 
u.^.. i<^8 ■ sang-bast. — {tessellated 
pavement) s^ ^s-^^ Ji»ji farsh-i- 
muD ab bat- kdr. 

Pavee, *J^^ \^j^ **^*- sang-farsh- 

Pavilion, vide Awnino, Tent, 

Paw, V^ p6., J^ pay, ^k pacbab, 
&^j^ pan jab, *s^^ cbang. 

To Paw, (:j*>3 «^-*> dast-zadan, 
^^S a3U u:.^«> dast-malab kar- 
dan. — {as a horse) (^•>j ^ sum 

Pawn, e*j ™^^» >/ girau.— (<Ain^ 
pledged) &J^j rabinab, 6\^3i^ 
tankbwab, )/ girau. — (a< cAe««) 
jJ^ baizak, »*>Q piyadab. 

To Pawn, (^^^^^ (^j rabn guzdr- 
dan, (j^^ )/ girau guzasbtan. 

Pawnbeokbe, ^*^^ rabn-gir, ;«^/ 
girau-gfr, c;)^^; rabin. 

Pawnee {one who pamns), t^y* 
murtabin, ^^ {^y rabn-guzar, 

Pay {wages) y s-^V mavajib, s:^fA 
ujrat, fi^ ajr, aM*; vazifab, &*^ 
*alufab, *>y muzd.— (/are, hire), 
ijl/kirayab, \^ kira, JW jirab, 
^s>fA ujrat, ^ ghallab.— 
(mon^A2^) fty^U^ musbdbarab, 

diV^U mabiyanab. — {yearly) 
4*LXL. saliyanab. — {daily) &«**^ 
yiiniiyab, <w\)i|; ruzanab. — {half- 
pay) A*^ s-^^^ mayAjib-i-nimab. 
— {advance of pay) ^ silm, 
,^/jLei pisbagi, cJl- salaf. 

To Pay, o*>/ ^^jU jl^ kar-sdzf kar- 
dan, (^«y ^«>^ add kardan, (^A*^ 
dadan, (^•J/ t}^ mafrugb kar- 

Payable, Jja ^*>\ ada-sbudani. 

Paymastee, ij9^^/- kbizan - cbi, 
^jAip bakbsbf. 

Payment, \A ada, ^o^» ta,diyah. 

Pay-ofpice, v»L-J jU daru-'l- 

Pea, a^^i^ karsanna, (j)^*^ kisan, 
4*\o ^(5 gdv-ddnab, ^y*^ 4l*W 
bakilab-musbf. — {English pea), 
^J^jk j^ nukbud-i-farangi. — 
{chick-pea) *>j*« nukbud. — {small 
field-pea) ^f girgird. — [green 
pea) \^^ mdsb. 

Peace, <^T dsbti, ^ sulb, <jjU\ 
amau, »^) rafab. — {rest) j»\)^ 
dram, «j^M asdyisb, fA^\j rdbat, 
fi^; rafab, vs-^d^Uj rafdbiyat. — (0/ 
Gotf) ^\ f»l. saldmu-'Uab, ^jjU 
aU\ amdnu-'Uab. — {the conclu- 
sion of pea4;e) ^ *y\smi\ in*ikad- 
i-Bulb. — {peace-footing) ^ J^ 
bdl-i-sulb. — {to make pea^ce) JJte 
(^•3^ ^U^ *akd-i-mu8alabab 
nimudan. — {to make overtures for 
peace) <j*^^^ ji 4jta*« jjui jJ dar 
sadad-i-musdlabab bar-dmadan. 

Peaceable, f^J^ salim, ^ ^ sulb- 

Pbacbably, O^'A*'! bi-musdlalab, 

"W-* sulban, ^yj^'\ ^^y^ '^ az riiy- 

Peaceful, »jl;^j\ armandab. 
Peace-makee, ^JLa« muslib. 
Peach, yUAAi sbaftdlu. — {woolly 

peoAih) yj^ bullu. 
Peach-coloueed { pale red), ji\jiit^ 

4^j sbaftalii-rang. 
Peacock, lt**"^^ ta,us. 
Pea-hen, «*>U y-'^^ td,U8-i-md- 

Pea-jacket {outer coat of felt or 




thick unwoven wool), %Ai^ kapa- 
nak, sj»)*i A«i namad-i-dush. 

Peak {of a rnountain, &c.), j^ sar, 
All kullah, ^\^ ras, s^^ ^ sar- 
kub, **Jy nauk, <^ju1» bulandi, 
^ Ugh. 

Peal, J— 1-w« ^xd sadu-i-musalsal. 

Peak, ^^ gulabi, *^^j*»\ amrud. 

Pearl, ^j^^ marvarid, yfc»^ gauhar, 

W 1^.1^» (i'^- ' J^ Mli. , ;^ durr 
{pL j|j*> durar). — (amall iiearU) 
.X— ♦ basad. — {royal pearl) J^^ 
j^yfcU lu,lu,i-i-8hah-var, o^^ J** 
durr-i-maknun, a33 ^jfJ"^ lulu,i- 
i-lalah, ^^ j*> durr-i-shah-var, 
&(^J4«k snaii-danah, ^j^y^^ giish- 

Peably,jW '>i^^j^ marvarrd-dar. 

Peasant, v/^jy ru8ta,i, ^Vsa a dih- 
kan, gj^j zari*, uu^ ra*ivat. 

Peasantry, ^Vcj ra'dyd, £)^j ww^^ 
hazarat-i-zariS e)**;^} zari*iii. 

Pea-shooter, *ftW tufak. 

Pebble, *ift; rig. 

Peccable, jwJfcUT guniih-kar. 

Peccadillo, s-**^ *aib, ^ khata, 
j^ kusur, Jalfc ghalat, fiU5' «riinah, 
je^ sahv, s^»i zamb, J-& zall, 
jt^ taksir, «>33 zallat, ^/aS 

Peccant, ^^ «-a» taksi'r-var, ^^^^^ 
mujriin, ff^ mulzara, ^^ fiUS' 

To Peck, (;)*>; vsCxo. chang zadan. 

Pecker, »»u»j jUu* minkar-zanan- 

Pectoral, <4)J^ sadr/y. 

To Peculate, ^ja/ '^^jj duzdf 

Peculation, ^^jjj duzdf, uy^ ta- 

Peculiar, w^j& gliarfb, ^^j^ ba- 
dihi, M ^ j»^ *ajifb. — {peculiar to) 
{jfy^si^ makhsus, ^j^xsii^ mukh- 
tass, ; ^^<^ mimhasir. 

Peculiarity, ;y9Uas-cs.\ ikhtisas, 
cu^t»«^ khassfyat. 

Peculiarly, 'U^ khusiisan. 

Pecuniary, ^Jy^ puli, JU mali. 

Pedagogue, ^jjaO ^ mulla-i- 
maktabi, fJi«^ mu'allim. 

Pedant, J-4A^ mutafazzil, j\ j^j^;*^ 
^ maghrur az 41m, *>^ ^U 
Jo-o *aliin-i-kliwud-pasand. 

Pedantic, ^^j^ cJLa* fazflat- 
furush. — (^0 he pedantic) s\^\ 
^jj^ %A'Xs^ izhar-i-fazflat kar- 
dan, i:^^^ *j>Lm fazflat furdkh- 

Pedantry, ^^^ji w>l^ fazflat- 

Peddler, »>ar^ ***jr^ khwurdah- 
f urush, j^ pilavar, j^/- kharraz. 

Pedestal, (^y^ (^} bunn-i-sutuii, 
(^^ bunyan, ajV^ pdyah. 

Pedestrian, J:j-\) rajil, **>Wi piyA- 

Pedigree, d^U^ nasab-namah, 
aUL. silsilah, J-^ tanasul, J«-* 
nasi, s-^-^ ^ H-**-*- hasab va 
uasab. — {to trace a pedigree) 
^j^ v»U*is-\ istiudab kardan. 

Pekl, jA"* kishr, ^s^*-^, pust. 

To Pkel, (j-^ ^^=-^^ P^'ist kindan, 
^^ps.U ^.&.&« mukashshar sakhtan. 

Pkkler, 6Jlu^c:-w^> pust-kaiiandah, 
yi^fl^ mukashsliir. 

Peep, ;li> nazcir. 

To Peep, ij^^— 4;^> ajUjj duzdanah 
iiij^ri'stan, ^^J^^ aa^ j\ az giishah 

Peep-hole, yaj^ manzar. 

Peer, ^ uazir, J^ misl, ^ ^ 
JiJic ham-ta-i-*adil. 

Peerless, ^ ^ bi-nazir, JV»1I 

la-SHTI 1. 

Peevish, t^y xJ tund - miz&j, 

vjlab^^ kaj-khulk, i*yj^\ afsur- 

Peevishness, ,jSly^\ afsurdagf, 

^\y ^jjj5 tundi-i-mizdj. 
Peg, (^ mikh,jU«M.^ mismar. 
Pelf, jJ zar, J^ pul, J^ nakd, *«U 

mdyah, ft^^ot^ tankbvdh, a^^ 

Pelican, Uu ^ murgb-i-8akk4. 
Pelisse {kind of cloak), &*jy bdr- 

mah, ^^ katibi. 
Pellet, ^3^15 gululab, ^15' guUah, 

Aiy^ gbululab. — {pellet-bow) ^U^ 

^*s5' kaman-i-gardaha, ^U^aJ^^ 






Pelliclb, ao^ pardah. 

Pell-mell, &sab«^l| f^ bi - bam 
dmikhtab, ty* ^^ bar j -mar j. 

PBLLUcn), *-*U Baf, {^^ rausban. 
— (transparent) u\ib» sbifaf . 

Pbllucidness, ^ Baf4, t/^JD 
rausban^,f. — (transparency) 
o*^ sbif 4f f. 

To Pelt, (^^j zadan, (j)*>3 *2^^ W 
bd-sang zadan. 

Pelvis (lower part of the ahdotnen), 
f^ A» tab-i-sbikm, ^^ {^if^ 
p4,fn-i-8bikm. — (pelvis hones) 
A^VS kdlfcbab, &^S^ gb^Hcbab. 

Pen, f^ kalam, ^V^ khdmab, «<^ 
kilk, s-^ kasab. — (steel pen), ^ 
«>S^ kalam-i-pdlad, (;)J^^ ^ ka- 
lam-i-dban. — (feaiht^r, quill) ;» 
par, ^ AAi shah-par. — ( pen-knift) 
J>\^ cbdku, *ii^'j^ kizhik, J^\f-4\i 
jcalam-tirAsh. — (nib of a peti) *^y 
f^ nauk - i - kalam. - - (pie/^e of 
hone on which pens are nibbed), 
(^^ kat-zan, ff^ maktaS 03^ 
kat* - zan. — (pen - case) ^^aU* 
kalam-dan, &«\ amah. — ( pen- 
holder) f^ ^Am^ dastab-i-kalam. 
(to cut a pen) (^U ^ kalam 
sdkbtaD. — (pen for cattle), J^^ 

dgbil, J^ Agil, J^ Slil, *;J^ 

To Pen, tJ^^'y nivisbtan. 
Penal, ^^yt^ 'ukdbatf. 
Penalty, a^/^ jarfmah, ajUju^. 

jarfm&nab, &j«>l«« musadarab. 

(Vide Punishment.) 
Penance, s^U^ j^ badd-i-kaffdrab, 

y^ iJ^}^ jazA,f-i-Bbarr, 6^ yt^ 

Penchant (inclination, liking), J*^ 

mail, £U*> dim&gb, jy^ shauk. 
Pencil (leaden), ^^^ ^ kalam-i- 

Burmab, v»»*« ^ kalam-i-surl), 

^j\jL« f)l kalam-i-midadf, «>^*3^ 

middd. — (of hair) y* ^ kalam- 

Pendant, vide Tassel, Eabbino, 

Pendent, (;)^^^ dvfzan, Aaa^^^ 

iyncbtab, (j^ mu'allak, jU^ 


Pending (hanging), \J^ mu*allak. 
—(during) j»\oU mdd4m, [^ 
bain, \* ta. 

Pendulous, (^ji^ kvizkn, sj^ mu- 

Pendulum, o^U ^^ langar-i- 
8a*at, fij^ langar. 

Penetbable,^*^ •iytf nufuz-pazir, 
cfc^i^^ J»Vj kabil-i-sirayat. 

To Penetbate, {^^ e^)*^^ andardn 
raftan, (^j y tii raftan, {^^^ J<-^^ 
ddkbil sbuaan, 0«>^ ^^ nufiiz 
nimudan, (^«>/ j«Vf guzar kardan, 
(^oy iiU n&fiz bddan. 

Penetbatino, JiV* ndfiz, ^ ^ kar- 

Penetbation, J4»»> dukbl, iUA<X0» 
mudakbalah. — (acuteness, saga- 
city) «>-\;* firasat, \a^^ fatdnat, 
;^»i zibn, *d\jj\ idrdk, <j^;ij zfrakf, 
^^ zakd,<^^)i>> jazalat, «t>^»J zaka- 
vat, ^ ct^^ 8iir*at-i-fahm. 

Peninsula, ijw- jazirab, fi^iw- ^ 

Penis, /•i zakar (pi- jy^ zukiir), 

^kir, *^^j) zardak (vulg,). 
Penitence, vide Repentance. 
Penman (fine writer), u-4^^ 

kbwusb-nivfs, s-^^ kdtib. 
Pennant, o^^ nisban, ^ 'alam, 

cHt*^j ra,yat, \y liv4, j^ bairak, 

j\^ bairak. 
Penniless, <j-Jju muflis, gU^s^ 

Pension, aaA^ vazffah, ^^c <alu- 

fah,j\jo\ idrar. 
Pensionee, ;^ AA*k. vazffab-kbwur, 

j^ s-«i-^^ mavd]ib-kbwur. 
Pensive, vide Thoughtful. 
Pent, (j^^t^ habs. 
Pentagon, (^»*-*^'» mukbammas, 

<Ui^^^^»^ pjnij-^i'ishah. 
Pentateuch (Books of Moses), 

^)f taurat, ^s^)f taurdt. 
Pentecost, ^^ aM, , »A j^ 'fd-i-kbam- 

Penubious, ^U» tami*, jV^«^ tama*- 

kar, •x;^ yp\ arzu-mand, ^j^^ 

bans, f^ la,im, g>^*> ddni*, fj^ 

Pbnubiousnbss, gB»^ birs, jH dz, 

Pen] 243 

g*l» taiDaS ^^jV6ut tama*-kAri, 
J^. bukhl, ^a^^^^^ A khasisat, 
<s^ m , f ^ khissat, »«JU^\ imsdk, (•'y 
Pknuey, vide Povbbty. 
People, J^ khalk, ^^UaLs. khalka- 
man, v£^^\ ummat, (j>JU millat, 
^Ujy* marduman, *A>\yie^ haza- 
rat. — (common people) i»^ 'amm, 
^^^ 'avamm, {j*w ^\^ *avam- 
mu-'n-nas, ^J\A\ ahah. — (peo- 
pling and cultivating) <^«>W^ abadi. 
— (peopled place) ^JU\i^ 4ba- 
dani, jy>*^ o^ ja,*mur. 
To People, <^»>/ jV^^ abad kardan. 
Pepper, JAU filfil. — ^red pepper) 
^jjA Jii filfiUi-hindf, er- J*^ 
filfil-i-8urkh. — (pepper and salt 
colour) ^jO JaU fillil-namaki. 
To Pbppbe, o^) J&U filfil zadan. 
Pbppbbcoen, y^ nakir, ;«-iiui kit- 

mir,^*-*^ pisbiz. 
Peppermint, LjlmJ na'na, g-^uu 

Pbbadybntube, Jk^U shajad, ^ 
magar, Ai^ bu-kih, jaI^ bashad, 
^jf g^y^> vs^-aVT gabast. 
To Febahbulatb, (^^y*i *-*UL tavaf 
nimudan, <^*^«>yr o^girdgardi- 
Perambulation, (^^y> tavaf. 
To Perceive, vide To See, To 
Know, To Discover. — (to feel) 
(^*yy4i ^L^\ ibsas nimudan, ^*> 
(2^l2 dar-jaftan. 
Per cent., ^^ ^J» f i sad (^/ww, /Zve 
2>er ce;»<., gH '^ sad-panj, ^ (jJui 
sadri-panj, ^ ^ ^ fi'-sad- 
Perceptible, ^^.^.-^^ mabsds. 
Perobption, vide Idea, Sioht. 
Perceptive, ;«^ basfr. 
Perch, v»f^ cbtib. — (fieh) jV*. ^U 

j^«> m4b/-i-kb4r-dar. 
To Perch, ^;ja-*aj ^^^ ^ bar cbdb 

Perchance, *>iU sbayad,^^ ma- 
gar, ^ bd-kib, •xAiW bashad, 
({^ guja, ^s^^^Jt^S gabast. 

To Percolate, o^r*^ "^A vukub 


Percolation, *^fy vukdb. 
Percussion, ^ju» sadmab, — 
(percussion gun\ ^^ &i^ *±SJJS 
tufang . i - tarakkab - ddr, ^sSJis 
i,S^ tufaug-i-cbakkushf, ioSJJS 
4j^*> tufang-i-ding/. — (cap) 5K 
^y» kulab - i - tarakkab, vjAAiW 
Perdition, ss-^lU balikat, *aJU< 
iblak, ^^/. khariibf, ^jb\^ ta- 
babi, )U*> damar, j\ji bavar. 
To Peregrinate, JlsAf 5j\^\ dvirab 

Peregrination, ^j^TU aviragi. 
Peremptorily, J^'V\i ba-ta^kfd. 
Peremptory, gtU kati*, ^J»U sbAf i, 

•^^*^ mu,akkad. 
Perennial, ^^j^ mudam. 
Perfect, fUS tamdm, fS3 tamm, 
J-^ kamil, ^U sdlim, ^«^« 
sahib. — (perfect tense) s-^J ,-aU 
To Perfect, c^at^o^ parddkbtan, 
^^j^ JU^ ikmal nimddan, J,^*^? 
(^^^ takmfl nimddan, <jj*yi ^^tt^ 
tatmim nimddan. 
Perfection, ij>X^ fazflat, JU^\ 
ikmal, JU^ kamdl, 6jS kunh. — 
(completion) ^Us\ itmim, JUS\ 
ikmal, J^iX? takmil, f\ r ,;l^< 
ikhtitam, fi\y^\ insiram. 
Perfectly, jJ\y* sar-4-sar, '\^Us 
tamdman, J^W bi-*l-kull, ca^>i53W 
bi.'l-kuUiyat, fivJV, bi-'l-marrab, 
-iJpU ^ -5^ kullan va kdtibatan, 
*^ i^<y ^^♦A hamah ruj-ham 
raftah, "^t^ kulhjatan, dU(««i bi- 
Perfidious, vide Treacherous. 
Perfidy, vide Treachery. 
To Perforate, (joA- suftan, ^j^h^ 
sumbfdan, (^*>/ fe^^^ sdrdkb kar- 
Perforation, 6\)>- sdrdkh. 
Perforator, fijuui' (fc\,^ sdrAkh- 

To Perform, ^j^ kardan, (jjjatU 
sakbtan, ^j)J«'\ v. bi-jd dvardan, 
(^f)ij^ bi-kdr burdan, ^«M*^ 
bi-sar burdan, c>^W parddkh- 
tan, (;)^y*i \yiA ijrd nimddan, \S\ 




^•>/ ada kardan, o**r** ^^ ^^^ 

Pbepormancb (act), ^ kar, jW/ 
kirdar, J*^ *amal, J** fi*l. — 
(completion) f»U5\ itmam, JUi\ 
ikmAl, J*^^ takmil, j»L-s-_s-i.\ 
ikhtitam, rV**^ insiram. — («ce- 
cution of a project or design) y^ 
ij^^j^ Bar bi-rahi, W^ ada, ^U»\ 
itmam, ^/j-^ ijra, W^ ifa, ;V^ kar. 
— (0/ a promise, &c^ ^y vaf a, ^\ 
ffd,W\ add,^;*^^ ijra. — (stage play) 
UW tarnish^. 

Pebfobmeb, Jfi^ fa*il, J^lc *amil, 
(2^j^ kar-kun, fioijU sazandah. 
— (sta^e performer) «^j^ bazi. 

Pbbftjhb, j^. bukhur, ^sy^f^ 
khwush-bdf, jUs *itr, W^j rA,ihah, 
A«^ nafbah, j«^ 'abir, 4^^ gba- 
liyab, w**^ nakbat. — {censer for 
burning perfumes) (^<i jy-^. 

To Pbbfitmb, (j)*>/ ji sj»^ kbwush- 
bd kardan, (:)^y^ j<fii^ tabkbir 

Pbbfumed, (•y*-*-* masbmum, ^om^ 

PsBFTJHEB, jVLic 'attar, \J»yji jtc *itr- 
furdsb. — (maker of perfumes) 
iJ^J^ 'itr-kasb. 

Pbbfunctobilt, u>l6*» bi-gbiflat. 

PbBFUNCTOBY, J*Vfc gbafil, jtai^ 

bf-kbabar, ^yj^ bi-parvA, ^J 
LWsa.\ bf-ibtiyat, i-A^J^^ ^j bf- 
andisbab, Ja^ kdhil, J^^ bf- 
bdsb, Ja\j zabil, «w!iW^ ^^ bi- 
xnubAlat, •M ^ la-kaid. 

Pbbhapb, J^iU sbAyad, Ji» magar, 
A^^ bd-kib, J^W basbad, Vjj^'guya, 
«>— A^ gdbast. 

Pebicabdium, J*> 5^*> pardab-i- 

Pbbil, ^ kbatar, fijJo*- kbatrah, 
&;^U^ mukbiitarab, ^ bim, ^>^ 
kbadasbab, ij^y^ tasbvisb, *^^ 
h&k, v5*^^^ tangnd,f. — (at the 
peril of one's life) ^s^^^. <^W 
&::^W^ jdn bi-baldkat andakh- 

Pbbilous, oiJU Jed. kbatar-nak, 
«c3U3^ baulnik, utU^^ mublik. 

Pbbiod (time), ^Jt^y vakt, A-p* 
'arsab, vs>J^ muddat, (j^**- bm, 
(^Uj zam^n, fXSJjt bang&m, or 
bungAm, J^ *abad. — (fuU sen- 
tence) aW jumlab. — (circle of 
time) yy*y daur, »;;»> daurab, \^*^/ 
gardisb, cwy naubat. 

Pebiodical, %S)^)*^ davvari. 

Pbeiodically, cwy^ bi-naubat. 

Pbbiphebt, W^^ mubft. 

To Pebish, (jJ^ ^!^ balAk sbudan, 
yjA »-Al? talaf sbudan, (j).xfti *>y U 
na-bud sbudan, o**^ *^ tab4b 
sbudan, (:>j;^ Jl^j z&,il gasbtan, 
^jkAi f*^*'^'^ ma'dum sbudan, <a>^ 
(;)J^ faut sbudan, (^•^ 5^^ z^f 

Pbbishablb, ^U f4ni, &«t^ fdni- 
yab, jn^ Ui fanA-pazir, JJlj 

To Peejube oneself, ^jy»> JuS^ 
y*>;^ saugand-i-durugb kbwur- 
dan, e**;^ jy^ /•— «» kasam-i-zdr 

Pebjueeb, yS ty)*y ^y^ saugaud-i- 

Pebjqby, ^^;*> ^y^ saugaud-i- 
durdgb, v*i^ cJkll balf-i-kazib, 
j^j ^4..^ kasam-i-zur. 

Pbemanence, Vaj baka, ^)\;*^ bar- 
karari, f»^^*> davam, «j^\ a* muda- 

Pbbmanent, i^J^^ piiyadar, ».U4^ 
pdyandab, /*> Ui? baka-d4r, »^yu.\ 
ustuvar, ^V« k^fm, ^o da,iui, 
^W bAki, cfc^V* sAbit. 

Peemanently, ^s^*^ )i^ bi-tauT-i- 

Pebueable, jt^ *3yu nufdz-pazir, 
ss^ym J^^ kilbil-i-sirayat. 

To Pb EH BATE, o*>^ cw^/- sirayat 

Peemissible, jW^ mujaz, 1;i; rava, 
JS^ balal. 

Peemission, va>jM ijazat, {^^\ izn, 
(^^H parvanagi, «^^^\ ibabat, 
^; raza, o^^cd-j rukbsat, yy^^ 
dastdr, o;r^** dasturi, \^yh javaz. 
— (f>y permission) '^y^ ^ n]a,zd* 
nan. — (to ask permission) fij^^t-^ 
(^o^ istijazab kardan, {^Am\yA, ij^\^\ 




ij^zah khw&Btan, {^\^ (^'i\ izn 

Pebmissive, ij'^^ iznf. 

Permit, vide Passport. 

To Permit, ^^Af guzashtan, <^*>W 
dddan, q)S\^ j^^ dastdr dadan, 
^jW ss»)W\ ijdzat dadan, ^Jy Ji^ 
ka,il budan, (^*>\*> o«^\ izn dadan, 
^j^^AfUva-guzAsbtan, t)^^*) v***^ 
fursat dddan, {;^X'i^ hishtan. 

Permutation, Jj^M tabdil, Jj^ 
tabaddnl, jby^ 4yaz or 'avaz. 

Pernicious, je^^ jj^ zarar-angfz, 
jAm muzirr, sj^^y* mu,zi. 

Perniciously, a»\jl-ju mufsida- 

Perpendicular, ^»t^ft&^*'■>^ musta- 
kim, •UA^ mu'ammad. 

To Perpetrate, o^y-^ kardan, 
(jj^L. sakbtan, (:)*>j^\ W: bi-ja 
>avardaD, (^*>;»j^ bi-kar burdan, 
0jy j^ bi-sar burdan, ^^^Ja-W*^ 
pardakhtan, (^*^y^ ^y^^ ijra nimu- 
dan, 0^«^ UT ada kardan, W^ 
i^^iy^i if a nimudan. 

Perpetration, s^^j^ irtikdb. 

Perpetrator, *^^y mnrtakib. 

Perpetual, ^«> da,im, f\'i^ ma- 
dam, (^\*^yW javidan, ^yW javid, 
^o^^ sarmadf, ^J^t abadi, •u^ 

Perpetually, < i " t . ii » ft hamisbab, 
Aj^^4ii^ bamvarah, vs^^ y^ bar 
vakt, (^^3 »A bar zaman, ^\J^ 
mudam, fJ\^ da,im, f*^ y^ bar 
dam, f*^^*^^ v!s^ *ala-'d-davam, 
^^s^^ paivastab, (••V«> dam-bi- 
dam,''lAS^ muttasilan, w:>^^\ A . » . j .»ifc 

To Perpetuate, o**^ ^^jo.-^ mus- 
tadam nimddan, (jh**-^ j\j'^a^\ 
istimr&r sakbtan. 

Perpetuity, f^yy davdm, sA^y\x» 

mudavamat. — (to all perpetuity) 
j\j4Ji^\ Jd4^ jf bar sabH-i-istimr^r. 

To Perplex, <j*>/ (^\j^ hairAn 
kardan, {^J^^ aM^A parfsbdn 
sakbtan, <^J^U«r j t^f^ muta- 
bayjir gardanfdan. 

Perplexed, e^;«*> bairan, jt^^ 
mutabajyir, v»;^"^^ muztarib, 

<^^ji parishin, s>y^ musbar- 

Perplexity, ^J^J^ bair^nf, jtfi^ 
tabayjur, s^^^^ iztirab, i^^j^ 
parisbanf, ^fAS tasbvisb, ^ 
^W^ sar-gardanf, ^j^jsAAi^ 4sbuf- 
^'^U t)f tavazzu*, J^ j^^ baiz- 

Perquisite, *>y muzd, (yi^\ (Ja- 
bakku - 's - sa'i, U[;W ta*aruf . — 
(king* 8 perquisites, privy purse) 
^jftUi s-*««^ jib-i-shdhf. — (fee to a 
police officer) >j\i kulluk, vJ&i5^ 
takalluf. — (fee to a shop'-hoy, 
given by purchcuers) ^jC^j^U 
sbagirdanagi, ^J\S*^^\Jb^ sbagir- 

To Persecute, (^*yy*i JIL zulm ni- 
miidan, (^*>;^ ^«a« si tarn kardan, 
^jyk> w^U? Wakub nimddan, 
<:)*>/ 0j\^j (A^j dast-dirazf kar- 
dan, (^^y/ ^V^ pa-paj kardan 

Persecution, w-^Ui ta'akub, ^ 
zulm, U^ jafd, /«^*« sitam, j^i^ 
jabr, uV^p^\ ijbaf, ^^\i pd-pay 

Persecutor, s-^J^-*-^ mu'akib, 
j\S^$A^ sitam- kar, ^\ SU ss.^ sitam- 
gar, j\^^ jaf 4-kar, ^^ zalim. 

Perseverance, cs^^\j^ muddva- 
mat, «j^\^ muvAzabat, v»^Uu«^ 
istikdmat, j^yu«.\ istikrar, j\jo\ 
israr. — (obstinacy) j\f\ israr, o^ 
^;«> kbwud-sari, «>Ue <inad. 

To Persevere, o^y^ cs^\i\ ik4- 
mat nimddan, (:)*yy^ )\fo\ israr 

Persevering, ftJ^S «£^L» sibit- 

Persia, (j)^j>^ irdn, ^^^a 'ajam. — 
(<A« t(;Ao/e kingdom of Persia) 
(^\jt\ v>SU^ mamlikat-i-frAn, 
f^^ «Ht5^ vil4yat-i-*ajam. — (a 
province) *s£WL« mulk ; of tbese, 
tbe principal are: ^j*j^ fars, 
ij*'^ J^^ *irak.i.*ajamf, (^U^yu 
kburasdn, (:)W^j*^l 4zarb4,ijan, 
^^j^jU mazandardn, (^/^ giJ^n, 
•»l|\^^ astarabdd, e^J>^ ^^^- 
zistan, and (^^/ kirmdn. 




Pbbsian, ^^^;i\ frdnf, <,j4>%e 'ajamf, 
«sW^ tajik. — (language) ^j-j^ 
fdrsi, tj-j^ pArsf. — (coiiri 2a»- 
guage) ^j*^ dari. — {ancient lan^ 
flTtto^e) ^y«i pahlayf. 
To Pebsist, e*^r*^ «>^*XtJu«\ istibdad 
nimddan, o^^jV^ israr nimu- 
Pbbsistencb, j^jA isrdr, «>^^^ 

muvazabat, o^a^ju*^ istibd&d. 
Pbbsistino, ;4Ju^ mustamirr. 
Pbbson, ^/aabAi shakhs, y^ nafar, |*«>1| 
adam, ^^ kas. — (external ap- 
pearance) fjtaiA shakhs, *^)r^ 
stirat, J^ shakl, W« simk, fi/y 
kavarah, /^ paikar, f\^\ andam, 
&;«&>» basharah, ^s^s^ hai^at, J^«^ 
haikal, v*^j rfkht. — (of the Holy 
2Vm%), f*y^\ aknum (pL f^^ 
akdnfm). — (of a verb or pronoun) 
AAe« sfghah, ^«4^ zaqifr, ^e4>^ ^\ 
ism-i-zamfr. — (first person) ^JSa>» 
xuutakallim. — (second person) 
s-^lafe^ mukh&tab. — (thirdperson) 
s-J^ ghdjib. — (in person) *yU ^^i 
f i-zdtibi, A.^ ^ f i-naf sihi, "toaiHfti 
shakhsan, "Mti z&tan. 

Pbbsonaoe, jtA amir. — (appear- 
ance) uu»j«« sdrat, (/aabAi shakhs, 
o.<4ijj rfkht, J^ shakl. 

Pebsonal, vj^aMb shakhsi, ^U 

Pebsonality, c* fl *a lft i shakhsijat, 
«*U zat. 

Pebsonallt, a^U ^J» fi-zatihi, ^J» 
&-~A( f f-nafsihi, '^'«a^ shakhsan, 
'\;U z&tan. 

To Pebsonate, e^/ <^^^ niyabat 

Pebsonification, &fr«<AJ tashbih. 

To Pebsonift, o*^x^ i^tfJJ tash- 
bib nimudan. 

Pebsfective, ftjlu^ manzarah. 

Pebspicacious, ^ ^ tiz-fahm, 
^j3 zaring, ««);ij zfrak, uu«.«*> 
chust, <^^ chibuk. 

Pbbsficacitt, 4*^V«^kiydsat,«A^U* 
firasat, {^^ zihn, <a>^^ zaka- 

Pebsfiouitt, J\j^ bfna,i, 

Pebspicuous, ^ bfna, ^\^ v&zih, 

(^iit^ mubfn, \^ paidd. 
Pebsficuouslt, '\^^\^ yazihan, 

'^jjhMk zahiran. 
Pebspibation, j^ 'arak, ^^ 
khwai. — (in a perspiraiion) j^ 
jU 'arak-ddr. 
To Pebsfibe, (^*y/ j^ 'arak kar- 
To Pebstjade, (^*y/ ^f^ tahrfk 
kardan, (^'^y^ s-^/ targhfb ni- 
mudan, (^«y ^^\ ighvd kardan, 
(^^f fij^ charah kardan, ^*>j ^*\) 
ra,i zadan. 
Pebsuasible, ^^ s-*«<^y targhfb- 

Pebstjasion, «<W* tahrik, v ^/ 
targhfb, \yt\ ighva, ^/aija*' tahrfs. 
Pebsuasive, ^ baligh. 
Pebt, t^ shukh, tV^^ gustdkh, 

ys> tiz. 
To Pebtain, o^yi g^\j rdji* nimii- 

dan, (^tXAi Ib^^ marbut shudan. 
Pebtinacious, j^ musirr, *^\y 
muvdzib, fj^ mulazim, ^\^ 
rdsikh, ^^a*» mudavim. 
Pbbtinacitt, j^^JU— \ istikrdr, 
v£^\.x^ muddvamat, ia^\^ mu- 
vdzabat, ^jA isrdr. 
Pebtinence, ia.'^fr-U* mundsabat, 

sA^\y muvdfakat. 
Pebtinbnt, s— ^ mundsib, J»U 
kdbil, )^y^ sazdvar, \J^\y* muvd- 
Pebtly, ^fM bi-shukhf. 
Pebtness, ^^^ shdkhf, o*"^^^^ 

gustdkhf, ,^ tizf. 
To Pebtxtbbate, {^^\ dshdftan, 
(:) ' ^ ^ ■ o^r~t p&i'iBhdn sdkh- 
Pebtubbation, ^J^yti^ hairdnf, ytf^ 
tahayyur, s^^j1*a\ iztirdb, «j*^;i 
parishdnf, ^yAS tashvish, y* 
JW^ sar-garddnf, ij^^^ dshuf- 
tagi, gjy tavazzu', ^/^ j^^ haiz- 
Pebusal, &til\L» mutdla'ah, ASb»X« 

To Pebuse, (i)'ii\^ khwdndan, 
^j^ dkbX* muldnazah kardan, 
^j^ AaSUb^ mutdla'ah kardan. 




To Pervade, (^*^ji e(j^ s&r/ bddan, 
^jy J^ shuinul budan. 

Pervasion, cw.^^ sirajat. 

Perverse, ^ o^ khwud-sar, ^y 
mar id, *^j4Jj» mutamarid, (^^y^ ha- 
riin, ^fbi^ munkharit, j^U* mu*- 
diiid, J^^ ikhlal, t^^ ^^juj. 

Perversely, "UUc 'inadan, j^aj 
oUc bi-taur-i-*iiiad. 

Pervbrseness, j^/«^ isrAr, <^*\) j^ 
khwud-ra,i, v5/- **^ khwud- 
sari, *y^ tainarrud, *>Vic *inad. 

Perversion, ^\ff'\ inhiraf. 

To Pervert {defeat an object^ die- 
forty or mislead)^ (^^^ W«»- habt 
kardan, (^*^y^ Vljo^ ibbat nimu- 
dan, ^o^ Ui^ baif kardau, J)U^ 
<jj»>/izlal kardan, (^J^r»Wyr^ bar- 
gardanidan, (^Jj^ e^\ a*vaj kai'- 
dan, (^s^\<^f ^fo» mu*avvaj p'ar- 

Perverted, ^^sj^ ^ bar-^sbtab, 
C^ niuvajj. 

Pervious, cnt^/- J»^ kabil-i-sira- 
yat, ;»»^* •iytf nufiiz-pazir. 

Pest, sj>A afat, j\j't azar, sj:^i^\ 
aziyat, \yj^ iza, JW^ vabal. 

Pestiferous,^ muzirr. 

Pestilence, ^^^ ta*un, W^ vaba. 

Pestilential, s^f^^ ta*un/. 

Pestle, aa^*> dastah, AiA»« midak- 
kab, ^^&A>^ musbtab. 

Pet, j2yc 'aziz, J^-^^**^ ma'sbuk. 

To Pet, (^^^ <^jV i^^azisb kar- 
dan, {^\^ cuw^j dust dasbtan. 

Petal, ^s^* t>arg. 

Petition, vy>;fi *arz, c>^^^ jJ dar- 
kbwast, ^Us3\ iltimas, U^J ta- 
manna. — {written) i^^ 'arizab, 
%A^s^^ 'arz-dasbt. 

To Petition, {^ " ,*\y~A, j*> dar- 
kbw Asian, o**^ «t^\^ j^ dar- 
kbwast nimudiin. 

Petitioner, ^^^ *ariz, '^^j^*^ 
multaji, . 

Petrifaction, ^^iB*?J tabajjur. 

Petrified, j > ^s^ mutabajjir. 

To Petrify, (^J»y«^ /t*^ tabji'r ni- 

Petroleum, ^ naft, ^^ batriil 

Petticoat, ^^U-i fistan. 

Petty, Jtii kalil. 

Petulance, j^ ^ kaj - kbulk, 
^^y*J\ af surdagi, ^y <^JuJ tun- 

Petulant, g^y* J^ tund-mizaj, g^ 
j^ kaj-kbulk, 8o^\ afsurdab. 
— (<o 6e petulant) (^*>j ;» j!k^*> 
dusb bar zadan. 

Pewit (joZover), ^ ^y murgh-i- 
malakb, W*j ^/» murgb-i-zfba. 

Pewter, Cjy rub, ^35; rdv. 

Phaeton, Aj^^ *araDah, »*>Uc *arrA- 
dab, ^s^\S gArf (Atnd.), ^^^^^ 
kaliskab (jeur,). 

Phalanx, UU saff. 

Phantom, JV^a kbajdl, Jk^" tajalli, 
t}) r6b. 

Pharisaical, «sOj ^«> dd-rang, y^ 
(^Wj du-zaban, jy ^*> dii-rd. 

Pharisee, o-i^ I'arfsf {eur,). 

Pharmacy, &iyj\ ^ *ibn-i-adviyab, 
^yA f^ 'ilm-i-ajza. 

Phase, ^y surat. 

Pheasant, *^)f tdrang, J«Vi^ kar- 
kaval, jyJkJ tazarv. [Tbis latter 
i8 an imaginary bird, mentioned 
bv the poets. Some say it is 
meant for tbe dove, not tbe 

Phenomenon, o^!U 'aUmat. 

Phial, aa-jA sbisbab. — (long^necked 
flask) <^V" s^irdbf' 

Philanthropic and Philanthro- 
pist, ^a^-j*> ^•>j^ mardum-dust. 

Philanthropy, o*^^** r*V* ^*r- 

Philippic, y^ bajv. 

Philologist, ^^ ^UJ lisan-asbnd. 

Philology, ^«>\ ^ 4lm-i-adabf- 
yab, *A^i^ f^ 41m-i-lugbat. 

Philomel, J<1| bulbul, v^*^^ 
'andalib, (j)U-\o jlyb bazar-das- 
tan, «^^ •s^j zand-b&f . 

Philosopher, f^^ bakim, «»*»JL«i 

. failasuf, ^^ 'alim, ju^JjA. knird- 
mand, > v L».. fe i\j danisb-mand, *s^yi 
buzurg, &«fi^ cfc.N»Xft bikmat- 

Philosopher's stone, jo^ iksfr, 
y-X\^\^k£miyd,{-akbar. [Tbis 




stone is supposed to have the i 
faculty of transmuting metals 
to gold.] I 

PniiiOSOPHic, JLJu-»— &-jU diinish- 
mand, ^^ *alim, \iU dana, J*Vc 
*4kil, fH^ hakim. 

Philosophy, va^^^ hikmat, aa—U 
falsafah, ^J^^*y danish, ^ 'ilm. 

Phlebotomy, j^ fasd. 

Phlegm, ^ balgham. 

Phleomatic, ^jA balgham i'. 

Phoenix, Va^e *anka, ^^.♦«- simui^h, 
t) rukh. [These three words 
signify a fabulous bird, of enor- 
mous size ; the " Roc " of the 
•* Arabian Nights."]. — (a fabu- 
lous hird, said never to alight on 
the ground. The head which it 
overshadows will wear a crown) 
Ua hum&. 

Phonograph, ^^^^^ funugraf 

Phosphorus, «*s;«^ kibrit, JaAi 
naft. [Strictly 8i>eaking the 
first of these words is the equi- 
valent for " brimstone," the 
second for " naphtha."] 

Photograph, (j-^ *aks, ^^^^ ^t^ 
surat-i-*aks. — (to take a photo- 
graph) {js;^^'^\ u*^ *-*«** shishah- 
i-'aks andakhtan. 

Photographer, ^^^^ 'akk^s. 

Photographic studio, A>lafe-.\5^ 

Photography, <j-^ *aks{. 

Phrase, c^WL*^ istilAh, f^ j^t tarz- 
i-kal^m, J^ s^^ zarb-i-masal. 

Phraseology, ^jw nutk, b4l» taJaf- 

Physic, t^ il^j* *^^«^ mu'alajah, 
\^^ dava, jj;^*> d^ru. — (the science) 
6i^S\ ^ *ilm-i-adviyah, \yA ^ 

Physical, ^^^1^^ tabi*f. 

Physician, s-*«J» tabib (pi, ^\ 
atibbA), f¥t^ hakim (pL UXft. 

Physiognomist, ^j-Vxa^ U«- sim4- 
shinas, ^^ ^^ kiyAfah-shinds. 

Physiognomy, AiW* fJ^ *ilm-i-kiyA- 

Physiology, vt>Uj«».y« ^ 41m-i- 

Pfire^siQUE, t^y mizaj, Si^ nihad, 
c:-««y tabi*at, vs-lrt. jibillat, «>^ 
tiuat, sA^^j^ sirisht. 

Piano, j*Wi piyanu (etir.). 

Piastre (a silver coin), ^^ ku- 
riish, J^jij* ghurdsh. 

To Pick, (^•M*)/ tirashidan, ^*>;A- 
suturdan, o**/**^^ V^^ kardan. — 
(to pick up), Q'^ chidan, {^jM*y ji 
bar - dashtan, (^^f ^ buland 
kardan. — (collect) (;)^/ ^*^ jam* 
kardan, (:)^j^\ r^V ^&i*<^l^ani avar- 
dan, o*^ chidan, (j'^ kapidan 
(vulg,) — (choose) (^^^ guzidan, 
^«Xe».^ bar-chidan, (^*>^ s^U^^ 
intiknab kardan, (^^f ^<tsd^\ ikh- 
tiyar kardan. 

Pickaxe, ♦aWi' kulung, JuJi^ ku- 
lund, A«M tishah. 

Picker, ^^j^ chin. 

Pickle, ^J^f turshi. 

To Pickle, j;)Afc\jj\ ^y turshi 

Pickpocket, j? A-.-si kfsah-biirr. 

PiCQUET (of an army), a«3W» tala- 
yah, -i;-^ pish-rau. 

Picture, ^y^ tasvir, <jftJ» naksh, 
A«Ai shabih, ^ nigAr, ^Jb^\^i ft*>^ 
pardah - i - nakkashi, J^^ fi«>;* 
pardah-i-ashkal. — (to picture to 
oneself) i^sJk\S^\ ang/ishtan. 

Picture gallery, ajU. JSi nigar- 
kh^nah, (jjU-^V^ niganstAn. 

PiB, s^yf^^ sambiisah. 

Piebald, ij)^\ ablak. 

Piece, fij^ parah, &^j\» parchah, 
^ tikkah, &^ lafchah, ^j rizah, 
&J>\j* kur&zah, ^^ lukmah, M 
zarrah, &^^ sharhah, &»^ kat'an, 
^j^ juzvi. 

Piece-meal, ^j^ &;^ parah-p4rah, 
^ i£^ yak-yak, *^f\^jh fard-^- 

Pie-man, y^ a^^^a^ sambdsah- 

Pier, aI^^ askalah (eur.), ^ 

To Pierce, ^^^sft^ suftan, {^ x^j^ 
sumbidan, (^^f ^^y^ sur&kh kar- 



•' e 


dan, ej^** ddkhtan, ^J/ y^ 

furd kardan, (j«>/jJ^ guzar kar- 

PiBBCED, v*yi^ mattkiib, iiSA** suf- 

tah, iJ^y^ ddkbtah. 
PiBBCEB, fiJoA^ t^)y* surukh-kunan- 

dah. — {inatrument) ^ji barmah, 

&£^ mattah. 

PlBBCINO,^ tfz. 
PiBBCINOLT, v5V*^ bi-tlZl. 

Piety, ^^ takva, sa>j^ takavat, 
C^ salah, sA^^^ rivazat, c:^^«> 

Pio,^y*- khinzfr, «4^ kbdg, *sJ^ 
khdk, j^/'guraz. 

PiGBON, fy^ kabutar, f^ kaftar 
(vulg,). — (fantail pigeon) /^ 
fjff^ kaf taj-i-chatri. — (carrier 
jpigeon) j^ fy4 kabutar-i-b4r, ^s*^ 
;W kaftar-i-bdr. — (tumbler pigeon) 
j^ fii kaftar - i - mu*ailak. — 
(jpigeon'houBe) ajU. y^ kabutar- 
khdnah, ^^ jr^A^ kaftar-kh4nab, 
fti e^ burl-i-kaftar. — (wood- 
pigeon) fi^^ fikhtah, ^5^ 

PioMENT, *a^j rang. 

PiQMT (Buhs.), Jk* 5\?/ kutah-kad, 
««3j^ mardak, ^fi kutuli, J^ 
kbippil (vulg.), — (p^j-) **/-^ 
khurd, J^j/s. khwurd, «tW/ ku- 
chik, ;«A« saghfr, a^ kib, A^b pu. 

Pike, ^^ nadzab, A}^ harbab. 

PiKEMAN, ^yt^ Ji^\ abl-i-naizab, 
ji^ ^ naizah-var. 

Pikestaff, 8^ s^^ cbub-i-naizab, 
v»^ cbdb. 

Pile (Aeop), **>y tudab, A*^ kup- 
pab. — (nap of cloth) *aXl^ kulk, 
s^\|A> kbwab. — (stake) »>J^ vatad, 
v»^ cbtib, *>^ *amud. — (of an 
arrow) o^^ paik4n. 

To Pile, o*>j^ ^ kappah kardan, 
^^f &jy tudab kardan. 

Piles (haemorrhoids) fy6^\^ bavdsfr, 
jffo\j^ bavdsfr. 

To PiLFEB, o^/ v5*>;»3 duzdi kar- 
dan, (^*\t«>j^ duzdidan. 

PiLFEBBB, 0^3*> duzdf. 

PiLOBiM (to Makkah)f ^j^^ haji. 

gU- bAjj (pL gV,^ bujdj).— (<o 
minor places of sanctity) \\y) 
za7var,/^3 za,ir (pLj^ji zuvar), 
cW-» sajyab. — (company or cara- 
van of pilgrims) e^ ^^jh *^^ 
j^jj) kafilab-i-zuvAr. 

PiLOBiMAOB, i£>;^3 zijarat, la^ie^ 
B&jj&hekt. — (to Makkah) ^ ^j]» 
%s»y^ *umrat. — (place of pilgri- 
mage, tomb of holy personages^ 
Ac) fi^j^J ziyarat-gab, j\y» ma- 
z4r, ^^ rauzab. 

Pill, s-^ babb, At*- babbab. 

Pillage, ^ cbapaw, cwj^ gb4rat, 
C^jV? taraj, s-^ nabb, c^^J ^^^' 
ZMif, v5j^ **y turk-i-tazi. 

PiLLAB, {^y^ sutun, *>y^ 'amdd, 
(j)-^ rukn, s£»^\ ^ r <iz4dat. — 
(pUlars of the State, ministers) 
c>i^*> (^\Sj\ arkdu-i-daulat, (^^\ 
wsJ^o a*yan-i-daulat. 

Pill-box, ^J^ kdti. 

PiLLOBY, jyp tank, «slxib!)V^ p414- 

Pillow, ytSV^ balish, (^W bAlfn, 
gi3^ balinj, ^^/ ji) zfr.i-gdshi. 
— (large piUow for the ba>ch) ^^x^ 
muttaka, 8«>U^ vasadab, ^^^ 
pusbti. — (piUotv-ca>se) v/^W «^ll^ 

Pilot, f^ mu'alliin, ^jjW^s-a^ 
kasbti-Dan, (^^ barakdtf. 

Pilotage, ^^W^ kasbti-b4nf, 
«£»V2^ barakat. 

Pimp, J5»> dallal. — (to one*s own 
wife) v5^— *y kurmsAk, (^^^ 
kaltaban, *i>^*> dajyus, (jjj «*> ^^ 
kus-dib-i-zaD, «>y4f (^) zan-bi- 

PiMPLB, ««]|;^ kdrk, y^ basar, ^\«> 
danah, ^^ jdsb. 

Pin, liV^ sanjak, iJ^\ alffnab 
(obs,). — (peg) (^ mfkb, jU--« 
mismAr. — (rolling-pin) ^ tirab. 

PiNCEBs, jii\ ambnr, jt^\ j^ gdz- 
ambur. — (smaU tongs) * -<>»L^ 

Pinch, ^xCti nisbkunj, ^Vi pin- 
jar. — (small qvantlty) ••>j|-*' 
kbwurdab, ««3jj\ andak, a^ kam, 
J^ kalfl. 





To Pinch, {^f ^^^^ nishkun 
giriftan, o^y ^ ■ ' ■^AS nishkunj 
kardan, {^fjA ambur giriftan, 
^^jS y^i^ pinjar giriftan. — (live 
frugally) (^j*^ ^ <s^^ bdrik-rau 
bddan, (:)•>/ t/^ fS kam-kharj 
kardan. — (to finch the top of the 
Persian cap) (^a-^Sa i!^^jb taraf- 
i-kulah shikastan. 

PiNCHBBOK, (j)**jD ruyin. 

Pin-cushion, (jj^ (^W balish-i- 

Pine {tree), ^y^ sinaubar. — (red 
pine, a species of cedar) t^ kAj. 
— (stone pine) *3**^- chalgiizah. 

— (pitch-pine) O'j^^ 7^ ®^*" 

To Pine, (j*>/ J^^y^ khwahish 

kardan, y**^ Jtr» mail uimudan. 

— (to pine atcay) ^^J^^ kali Man, 

^jkjO^ &u,jaV^ kahidah j^ardulaii, 

^jkAi &j^\ afsurdah shudan, J^^j 

^•xAi za,il shudan. 
Pine- APPLE, y-^^ (^ *ainu-'n- 

n4s. [This fruit is scarccdy 

known in Persia.] 
Pinion, JVj bill, ^ par, cW janah. 
Pink, tf-lafce^ mikhak, JA>;5 karan- 

ful. — (co^wr) ts^jir gul - rany, 

ajf^ gul-gun. 
To Pink (a dress), q)*>/ M^*. bakh- 

jah kardan. 
Pin-money, ^jw- J** pul-i-siizan. 
Pinnace, ^^s^kashtf, y nau. 
Pinnacle (of a tower), fi^W kun- 

gurah, ^ kullah, s^^ ^ sar-kub. 
PiONEEB, ;^aI«i bil-dar, ^ ^J^ pish- 

To PiONEBB, {^j (jt^ pish-raftan. 
Pious, ^J^^ muttaki, ^V- salih, 

^j zaki', i J^< JiM^ inu*takif , <j*/ ^»^ 

khuda-tars, M^ *ttbid. 
Piously, ia>jVfcj bi-takavat, c^ 

Pipe (tube), ^J nay, *jy lulah, 

fi^y^U mashurah. — (musical) yj 

^^Jy v5^ ^^J' — (for conveying 

water) ^t^ lulah, M» y ^ tam- 

bushah, yiyi\ ab-rfz. — (Turkish, 

for smoking) j^ chibuk, s-JaA» 

shatab, J(k-«« sabil. [This latter 

is a very short pipe of clay, 
much used by the Arabs.] — 
(Persian pipe) (^^ kalyan, ^Wlfc 
ghalydn, (j)^ kalyun, Al©^^ nar- 

To Pipe, i^^} V*^ ^ J nay va sumA 

Pipe-clay, »VtA« Jf gil-i-saf id. 

PiPBR, j^} zammar, (^j ^J nay-zan. 

Pipkin, ^^'^ dizi, »;\y ku,4rah. 

Piquant,^ tiz,j\f guvAr. 

Pique, vJua*> dushmani, **>^W 
*ad4vat, *a>j;Ok^ kaddrat, •^-«- 

To Pique, t)*>jpl| ^^-t^. bi-khishm 
dvardan, i^sdXm v*jUa»* muztarib 

Piracy, ^;*> ^*>j^ duzdi-i-dary4. 

PiBATE, ^j*> *>;*> duzd-i-daryA, (:)^;i 

Pisces, «t>^ hut. 

To Piss, o^/ <Uii^ sh4shah kardan, 
(j*>/ J*» baul kardan, t)*M»^ 

Pistachio, a«-h pistah, j^-.i fistuk. 

Pistol, ^VJ» tapAnchah. — (pocket 
pistol) ^ji^ff ^V* tapanchah-i- 
jibi. — (horse pistol) e^JJ;-* *5rV* 
tapauchah-i-sar-i-zin, Jt* ^^^ 
tapauchah - i - kubbal. — (large 
pistol worn in the girdle) v»U«ft^ 
j>ishtab. — (hell-mouthed or blun- 
derbuss pistol) ^^)/ karAbfnah 

Pit, ^^ gaud, J^^j^ gaudAl, »U. 
chah, <i*^ chah, */». hufrah, *sJU*» 
maghak, JW chiil, aIU. chalah, 
6^*Aa^ hafirah, Jj^ vail. — (of 
fkeaire) A^t^'^ ^Ja- sath-i-zamm. 

Pitch^^^^j zitt. — (liquid) (^\^ 
kitran, j«5 kir. — (degree) j>>* kadr, 
j\jl&* mikdar, M/» martabah, 
<^Vji* masabah, fij^J^^ anddzah, •*«. 
hadd, Al^Vfi- mukAbalah, a^^*> 

To Pitch, (^^U «tJy bi-zift mk- 
lidan. — (throw) (;^\'>i\ anddkh- 
tan, (j)Ju^\ afkandan. — (a tent), 
(^ j zadan, (^*>/ ^ ;♦ bar pa kar- 
dan. — (heave or toss, as a ship, 
dc.) (j*y/ yASf- harakat kardan, 




(^*yy4S (^\^ takdn nimtidan, ^ 
^jj^ pich khwurdan, fjo"^ j»> 
(^J>^ dar talittum budan. 

Pitcher, y^ sabu, fij^ kdzab, y:-^ 
basttS. — (0/ metal) JJ*-. satl. 

Pitchfork, J^^^ changal. 

Pitchy, ,jXI»j zifti. 

Piteous, j^»> dil-suz, ^^ hazfn, 
^Ujfc^jj\ anddh - n^k, {^ t^*^ 
sabm-gfn, j>-j^ jigar-sdz. 

Pitfall, ^^•> dam. 

Pith, yu maghz, s-J lubb. 

PiTHLESd, yk^ fjt bi-magbz, s-J ^J| 

Pithy, J»j^-a»» mazbut. 

Pitiable, tf.^»^ j J^^ la,ik-i-rah- 

Pitiful, Jo ^j rahm-dil, {^•'^^j 

Pitifully, «>-♦*•;» bi-rahmat. 

Pitiless, ^^ bi-rahm. 

Pittance, ^)J^ **et^ vazifah-i- 

Pitted (marked with sTnall-pox), 
^-^^^ mujaddar, »*>;^ ^^ abilah- 
khwurdah, 8«3j ^^^ aulab-zadab. 

Pity, ^j rahm, <>a.».» r>j rahrnat, ^y 
taranhum, cs^^^A-y* marhamat, 
ss^^j rikkat, o^^lSU mulajamat, 
o^sttdi shafakat, vj^J^y narm-dili, 
t-s-Jlj ra,fat. — (interj.) «-A«**- haif, 
J-i-o dakhil. — (i^ is a ;pity) v-A^o. 
*A^\ haif ast. 

To Pity, (^^^y^ c:^«aa» sliafakat ni- 
mddan, (^^y*^ vs»%*a>j rahmat ni- 
mudan, o*^^ (*^/ tarahhum 
nimudan, (jjuJ\o ^j^^ bi-cbarah 

Pivot, j»^^^ mihvar, j^a#« madar. 

Placable, u^^ ra,uf, *a^*^; W ba- 

Placard, f*"^^ i*Mm, (^W i*laii. 

To Placard, (jjJ^W-h>. chasbAnf- 

Place, o^ makan, ^Uu makam, 
J^^ mahall, \^f^ ina*raz, fAy* 
inauza', «-A5y« maukif , ^ bayjiz 
t}^ matrab, W ja, «^W jay, ft^W 
jaj-gdb, gVflj buka*, ^y mauki*. 
— (in composition) *vJ c4h, ^Va^ 
stin, (^"^M istdn, W ja, AS' gab, 

t!l l&kh. — (market - plaice) j\)\i 
baz4r, ^ jVe»- chabar-sd, j^ sdk. 
— (0/ meeting, rendezvous) •^W* 
mi*ad, Jy-« manzil, g«^/• marja'. 
— (in place of) \^^ *avaz, or 4Taz, 
,^W: bi-jAj, J»*» badal, *^j^ bi-izd,. 
— (in the first plaice) '^^^ ayralan, 
{;)^A^'^ nakhustin, "t^JUi^ mukad- 
daman. — (in phice) J^^ W bd- 
mahall, g»y« ^ bi-mauki', W: 
bi-ja. — (ott^ of place) J«4.srf bf- 
mahall, S^r*^ bi-maukiS V^>«) 
bi-ja. — (in place and out of 
place) fiVJ U ^ 5\3r giih va na-g^h. 

To Place, vide To Put. — (to get a 
pla^e, servant) o**/^ ^/^ naukari 

Placid, ^»«L> salfm, f^%» muMyam, 
f«^ halim, jU *>j^ kbwud-dar. 

Placidness, ^ hilm, ^a^^%» mu- 
layamat, ^j^\*> *>^ khwud-ddrf. 

Plagiarism, v5^j** c^jW^ ibArat- 
duzdi, v5*^W (:^4b-« sukhun-duzdf, 
v^Mj^ sarikdt. 

Plagiarist, *>)*> {^ais>m sukhun- 
duzd, »>)•> «y;W«^ *ib^at-duzd. 

Plague, (j^VL tA*dn. — (trouble) \^\ 
fza, c-M^ taklif, ^j^ dzdr, gtJuJ 
tasdi*, gij raDJ. 

To Plaque, (^*y/ j\j\ azAr kardan, 
(jj*>;3^ azurdan, tj»>/ cw^^ azfyat 

Plaid, <^;J«»» shatranjf, ^j zaild. 
[The plaid is unknown in Persia, 
and tbere is no strict equivalent.] 

Plain (open ground), ej^"^«^ meA- 
dan, '^ fizd, <s^ julgah, \;«^ 
sahra. — (smooth) )^y*^ hamvAr, 
^•L.^ musavf. — (unomamented) 
»oU s4dah. — (artless) t^ ••^^ 
sadah-ldh, J«> fi«>t. sAdab-dil. — 
(without relish) ^J^ khAlf. — 
(person) ^^ kabfh, sa^ zisht. 

Plainly, \j\^\ ashkard, *W^^ vA- 
zihan, "^y^Vk zAhiran. 

Plainness (smoothness), <^j^^ 
hamvari, «w^^\— **• musavAt. — 
(unomam>entation) ^J^*^^ sadagf. 
— (artlessness) ^^*^ ••^^ s4dan- 

Plaint, AiT gilah, J^\i nilish, aJ^ 




nalah, is9^ shakva, ww^^ sbika- 

jat, fXiS tazallum, «>\2y faryid, 

^^^) zAri. 
Plaintiff, ^^J^ mudda'i, j^^ 

shaki, i\^ jU dad-khwah, ,J!i^ 

Plaintive, A x^A m ^ must-mand. 
Plaintively, i^j ^\ zkr zar. 
Plait, ** tah, ^ ta, (;)<^ chin, (^^ 

To Plait, ^^W b^ftan. 
Plaits (in cloth) y f\ uttd (hind.)y 

(jj^ chfn. ' 
Plan, vide Map, Plot, Contei- 


PtiANE (carpenter* s), »Jjj randah. 
— (superficies) jia«» sath, ^j— ♦ 
basit, 6j^ takhtah, &«A« safhah. 
— (tree) j^ chin4r, JU*. chinal 

To Plane (woody d&c), o**^ **^j ran- 
dah zadan, (^*y/ ^^VSf 5JJ;; randah- 
kiri kardan. 

Planet, fij^ sayjArah, jTU ^,ir. ( Fteie Jupiter, 
Mebcubt, Mabs, Venus, Sa- 
tubn.) — (conjunction of the 
planets) (^\;i kirAn. 

Plank, ^a&:)^ takhtah, s-^-^^ khashab. 

To Plank, <:)*>/ vA^y^ *^^ j^ az 
takhtah maf riish kardan. 

Plankinq (woodwork) y va^^^ v»«^ 
chdb-bast, ^aj^ iJt^ takhtah- 

Plant, «j««) rustani, sa>lsi nab&t, 
**♦ bunah, ^y<- sabzf. 

To Plant, cj*>/ (j*;^ ghars kardan, 
(^4»Ui nishandan, {jiA\i k Ash tan. 
— (a flag) (^03 zadan, (jAJ^y^ 
afrAkhtan. — (to plant oviyflowers) 
^^\SS(\4j^ dar high guzAshtan, 
(j)j^ ctUy tulak kardan. 

Plantain (fruif), }y» iniiz. 

Plantation (of trees), ^f^)*^ 
dirakht-zdr, y^A^ ^J^ ja,i-i- 

Planteb, {j^^ ghAris. 

Plasteb (lime)y *s^\ khdk,—(fme 
plaster) ^ gach. — (for a wound) 
f^ marham, «>U<& zamud. — 
(oj clay and chopped straw) »V^ 

JJ'kah-gil. — (of lime and ashes) 
Zy^ sdrdj. 

To Plasteb (a wall), (^^y^\ andd- 
dan, tjJ^U J5 i\S kdh-gil mk\U 
dan, 0*>/ <4;^ *^eA- safid-kdrf 
kardan. — (plastering trowd) a3U 
malah. — (trough) ^^ nAvaJh, y 

Plastebeb, fi*x^ ^4*^\ anddd-ku- 
nandah, ^ ^ gacn-k4r. 

Plat (of ground), aj;J lattah, fij/^ 
kurzah, {^^y-^'S Ab-khwur^, 
i^y^^ aukhurdn (tmZ^.). — (divi-- 
sion between plats or beds) j/* 

Plate, v»U^ bushkdb, ^yt^ smf. 
— (big plate) v»Vi kab. — (flat 
piece of metal) A^A^ safhah. — 
(silver spoonsy d&c.) «w3'^ »;* nuk- 

To Plate, ^•^^Jk*^ andddan. 

Platfobm (terrace) y ^ sakkd, 
(k« sath, ^^,-iUaU mah-t4bf, 
^ - f^ ** mastabah. — (wootien «*rt«j- 
fttre) &)^yi> talvarah, ^^sa» takhtah, 
cfc^--4 jw ddr-bast. 

Platina, •XfiA* ^.^ til4,f-i-saffd. 

Plattbb, jJ» tabak. — (fray) 
i^fk-^* majmd'ah, ^^-»^ sfni. 

Plaudit, lA»V)Ui shdbAsh, ^;>4;il[ 

Plausibility, ^jtf- sa>;»« sdrat-i- 
khdbi, ^L-N^s..«\ istihsan. 

Plausible, ^^.^^. ^ . ^ ...^ mustahsan, 
J^««* makbui, v»^;^ marghdb. 

Plausibly, 2)^«a^ makbdlan. 

Play («paH), <4jW bazf, a^V bazf- 
chah, s-^ la*b, &4.c2U mula'abah. 
(gambling) jUi kimAr, <4)W bazi, 
vs^*-W ^ ♦>;» burd va bakht. — 
(sta^e - play) UW tamAshA. — 
(plaything) vide Toy. — (play of 
words) u-«^ tajnfs, ^^^ lt**^ 

To Play, ^2)J»^V) bakhtan, (j)j/ ^^jW 
b&zi kardan, o^^ s-^ la'b ni- 
mddan. — (music) ciH^V ii^vAkh- 
tan, ^Jj zadan. — (/oi*niam) 
(;>s— ^ jastan. 

Playeb, {^ 0)V) ,^;aafe«i shakhs-i- 




Playfellow, vJMj raf^. *^j^ 
sharik, ^*ui^ ham-dam, s-^^ 
sahib, s-^V.^ musahib. 

Playpxjl, JJ^y*- khwnsh-dil, *>Vj6i 
shad, (^U«3U shad-m4ii, <>y&- 
khwush, ^f^*y dil-khwush, ^/- 
khurram, ^«6» bahij, oUJo dil- 
shad, «^yu^ mash^uf. 

Plaything, vide Toy. 

Plea, t^u2e Claim, Abqument, 

To Plead (a cause)y o**;^^ j^ c>.%o- 
hujjat bar-4vardan, (^•y Jj^^ 
da'ya kardan, t)**^ ^**^ *idai*a 
nimudan, o*^*^ &.«A^«* muha- 
kamah nimudan, Q)*yj^} ji iMh\^ 
murafa'ah bar - avardan, *A*y 
{;y^\^ dad khwastan. 

Pleader, J«^ vakil. 

Pleasant, <^^ khwush, uuU latif , 
j2^^«3 dll-aviz, Juu^j dil-pasand, 
ftj^juu^ pasandidah, ^AJ*> dil- 
pazir, ^^ lazfz, -^uU multazz, 
t/^ mufarrih, f^ na*fm, J^<^ 
makbdl, £^^ matbu^ 

Pleasantly, ^J^^. bi-khwushi. 

Pleasaxtsy, AAtJoS latifah, i^M baz- 
lah, AflUa^ mut4,ibah, «^y» shu- 
khi, ^JjV) bardi, u*r^ fisds, ^4^^ 
kindyah, J^ hazl, *;«£-—• mas- 

To Please, (^j**/ i>ys- khwush kar- 
dan, (^*y/ ^y^^ khwushnud kar- 
dan, (^A^\J^SiS*» multazz garda- 
nidan. — (if you please) «t-*M 
sj^^zahmat kashfdah, &«>/ ssM:^ 
iltifat kturdah. — (to choose, or take 
pleasure in) (^^ \J»^ khwush 
amadan, (^^^^^^ •a^^ pasand (d- 
tadan, ^jl^jla^ pasandidan, 
e>J^*«iU C^ saldh danistan, ^Uj 
(^sa\^ dimdgh dashtan, (jjJaW Va« 
safd dashtan, (^U Je^ mail 
dashtan. — (hard to please) J^a^ 
xu-i mushkil-pasand. 

Pleased, v>^ khwush, *>y^y^ 
khwushnud, ^^\^ rkzi. 

Pleasure, ^J^^ khwushi, ^ys- 
khurammf, ^5»>Ui shadf, ^J*^^c 
<aish, i^jA^ *ishrat, ^^ nishat, 
Va« saf 4, jjj;- surdr, *a>;«-^ ma- 

sarrat, c&n% o » bihjat, ts>«3J lazzat, 
!i»- hazz, f^»j5 tana'um. — (with 
pleasure) ^**^. bi - chashm. — 
(pleasure-party) tj^ tafarruj. — 
(pleasure seeker) yj»^ ^•y* mar- 
dum-i-'ajjash, t^^ (a^^j rahat- 
lalab, (^"^^^J^j^ khwush-guzran. 

Plectrum (of a musical instru- 
ment), v»^/^ mizrAb. 

Pledge, (^j rahn, ^ji girau. 

To Pledge, (^♦^^^ {^j rahn gu- 
zardan, ^^\SS ^ girau guzash- 
tan. — (to pledge one^s word) Jy? 
(^S\^ kaul dAdan. 

Pleiades, {^^^^ parvin, ^j^ parv, Vj^ 
pama, \i/ surajya. 

Plenarily, jUi3W bi-'l-kamdl, 
f»UsJl* bi-'t-tamam. 

Plenary, J^V^ kamil, f^s tAmm, 
^U? tamAm. 

Plenipotentiary, jVsae«^j^ vazfr-i- 
mukhtar , ^«^ jc^ saf ir-i-kabir. 

Plenitude, v5rt P^rf. 

Plenteous, ty ^ara^h, ^\^ v4fir, 
v/W* fayyaz, j4A» musmir. 

Plentbously, ui>y^ bi-kasrat. 

Plentiful, y\^ vafir, Ji\y vAff, 
oV^ faravan. 

Plenty (abundance), X»y^ if rat, 
^J^^;\^ faraydnf, «wya kasrat, 
^jJjj)A\ af zunf, <4;W» bisy4rf, uw^^ 
vafrat, o...»»jl ^ ghanfmat, (J^«>^3 

Pleonasm, J^ fuzdl. 

Plethoric, <j;y*«> damavi. 

Pleurisy, f*^/»- jirsdm. 

Pliable, ^f narm, j^^^^ pfch- 

Pliers, pi\ ambur, pi\ }\S g4z- 

Plight, JV^\ ishkdl, ^a -t Ao dih- 
shat, ^^'^ muz&yakah, ij^*^ 

To Plight, {^a^ •^efi 'ahd bastan. 

To Plod, (:j*>^ ^^ s4*f nimddan, 
(^*^y4i iJA^ kdshish nimudan, 
^o^ ^Usa\ ihtim4m nimudan, 
^o^ 6^f^ mutayajjih bddan, y* 
O^^ ^ sar-garm bildan. 

Plodder, Jki^lv^niutaj4hid, 
^ mihnat-kar. 




Ploddino, i^ys^ mutavajjih, ^L* 
8d*i, J^t>** mukayyad, fjS j^ sar- 

Plot, vAj^ s^zish, fiJ^AU.* mu*4ha- 
dah, jU^ vifak, jVtf\ ittifdk, 
A2ty tauti,ah, ss^^ f^ ham- 

Plough, (jt^ khisb, u^iys- khwfsh, 
&JJJ kulbah. — (»^/i 0/ aplattgh) 
jjt^ jU d4r-i-khi8h. — {handle) 
&a»^ bdshah, «sU!)^ kalAkak. — 
(yoke) ty^ jdgh, ^^ ydgh, cjo/ 
*U} gardan-band. 

To Plough, (^'ks^ shiy^rfdan, 
^j»^ ^^4feA Bhukhm kardan, (jt«^ 
(:j«3;^ khish kardan, (:)*y/ tj^ 
nuts kardan. 

Ploughing ox, ^^j;^ varzdv, •^^^^i 

Ploughmak, fj\j zariS (jj^j u^^ 
khfsh-ran, ^\) &t^ kulhah-r4n. 

Ploughshabb, {^^ j^ gav-ahan, 
;V^ supar, (jiai^ Dikhash, «cX^ 

Plover, w^j ^;^ murgh-i-ziba, ^/« 
^ murgh-i-malakb. 

Pluck, ^JO\j^ mardanagi, v5;J^> 
dilirf, <j;)5^*> dilavarf, ta^^ ft him- 
mat, ui>^;9- jur,at, iA^^A shu- 
j4'at, «A>;«^ ghairat, <£>;V.«>:^ jasarat, 
^ shahamat, <j^ j » f> bamfyat, 

To Pluck, (^•^^j rubddan, (j)A«^ 
cbfdan, (;}J^ kapidan. — (a 
fowl) o*^ H pa-r kandan, (^a^^ j> 
par kasbidan. 

Plug, «>\ ju saddd, ^ sar. 

Plum, ^^ aid. — (green-gage) ^J^^ 
yt^ fld,f-i-sabz, &^f gaujab. — 
(huUace) ^fSS 41dcbab. — (dried 
plum, prune) ** V > » .* Jt^} 41u,f-i. 
kbusbk, \j^. J^} 41d,f-i-bu- 

Plumage (of a hird)^ J^ ) )i par 
va b41. 

Plumbago (black lead), ^^y* sur- 

Plumber, ji; v»^ surb-rfz. 

Plumb-line, jUT (jjU-jj risman-i- 
k4r, •^ balad, ^W^ binj4r, 
^Ve'^ mikyas. 

Plume, «JL turrab. — {joyal plume) 

\^ iik4. 

To Plume, {^^j\ Arastan, (;)Js-^^ 
pirastan, o*V^ tr«^;^ arayisb ni- 
mddan. — (to plutne oneself) 
(^^y^ j\a^\ iftikbar nimddan. 

Plump, ^/ farbib, ^^^^ samfn, 
&4jJ lumbab, jV»- cbak, ^ a *« i> ja- 
81 m, 63V; tazab. 

Plumpness, ^jW;* farbibi, ^^* 

Plunder (rapin«), ^V^ cbap4w, 
^)^ gb4rat, e\}^ tkrij, s-^ 
nabb, o*>*^J rab-zani, ^5;'^ **^y 
turk-i-tazi. — (booty) is.^.^ ^ gba- 
nimat, U^t yagbin^, s&>jl& gb4rat, 
H-*^ salab, ^^e^ maubdbab, 
s-^t^ salib. 

To Plunder, (^o^ ^V^ cbap4w kar- 
dan, ^«>/ vs>jU gbarat kardan, 
^j^ UA2 yagbma kardan, h-*^ 
(^^ salab giriftan, i^*^y^ t^j^ 
taraj nimddan, O'^j^ ^^-^ nabb 
kardan, 0»>;^ ^Jj^ cbapavali 
kardan (vulg,). 

Plunderer, fiJujs^ %A>j\t gb^rat- 
kunandab, (^U*t yagbma-cbi. 

Plunge, a^^ ghdtab. 

To Plunge (dive), o*^)^ ^^ gbd- 
tab kbwurdan, e*>^ ij>)^ gbaus 
nimddan, (^*xai j^^ gbark sbu- 

Pluperfect (tense), •M*! ^j^U 

Plural, ^^^ jam'. 

Plurality, •iJ^ ta'addud. 

Plus (tra arithmetic), ^«^ jam' (as 
jW C** *^ sib-jam*-i-cbabdr, 
< Aree jpZtw /our) . 

Plush, J^^i^ makbmal. 

Ply, 65 tab, V? t4, v5^ 14y. 

To Ply, (j)*>/ ojy taraddud kar- 

Pneumatic, v5**^ badf, s^\j/t bavAf. 

Pneumatics, ^y^ ia,^* tf ^ ^ 'ilm-i- 

To Poach, (^j^*>)»> j^^ sbikar duz- 
didan, (^*y^ j\yjb, 6i\*yyj duzdanab 
sbikar kardan. — (eggs) (^*^/ ^; ^ 
nfm-rd kardan, ^«y aac^'U. kbd- 
gfnab kardan. 




Poached egg, yf^ f^ tukhm-i- 
nfm-rd, »;U^ gavAzan. 

Poacher, jvMi ^j*> duzd-i-shikar. 

Pock, ^"S abilab, *s5;y turk. — (pock- 
marked) jW ^^ abilah-ddr. 

Pocket, s-^^^j- jib. 

Pocket-book, (^^*> y^- juz-dan. 


dast-mal, &^^\x^^ dastarcbah. 
Pod, ^yS tuuzab, y^ sar, 4^ pilah. 

— (of cotton) jjy»- jauzak, fij^^ 

Poem, /^^ shi*r, fja nazm. 
Poet, ;cVj6i sha'ir. 
Poetess, ^f^ sbd'irah. 
Poetic, ^jf^ sbi'ri, Ai^^U eha'ira- 

PoETBT, /^ shi'r, fjii nazm, ^j^^y^ 

*artiz. — (the art) ijb^^ ^ *ilm-i- 

Poignancy, iS^ tfzf, ^juJ tundf, 

(^yia^ sakbti. 
Poignant, ye^ tiz, juJ tund, is-^afe- 

PoioNAED, csUy gazlak. 
Point, ^ sar, osJy nauk. — (dot) i^ 

nuktab. — (nicety) &^ nuL^tab, 

AAeiJ dakikab. — (of luiidy cape) 

,j*Mj ra,8, ^ siir, U|^ taraf . — (on 

the point of) *>»x->jj dar sadad. 

(to he on the point of) (jj*>^ %^yi^ 

i» musbrif budan bi. — (point hy 

point) ^^laft** i^ nuktab- bi-nuk- 

tab. — (chief points) »J^j zub- 

To Point, (:j*>-^ «:— 53j daUlat 

kardan, (:j*>^ nimudan, (jjUi 

(^A^ nisban dad an, (^^^ \a»^ 

isb^rat kardan. 
Pointed, j«5 »-• sar-i-tiz. — (pointed 

at) Ui o^-ft^\ angnsbt-niraa. 
Pointer, (^ «wjU\ isbarat-kun. — 

(dog) <4;^^ *^^ sag-i-sbikdri. 
Pointless, «*Jy ^^ bf-nauk. — 

(speech^ (&c.) & ^^ bi-nuktab. 
To Poise, (^^/ (^)^ vazn kardan. 
Poison, ytj zabr, ^ samm. 
To Poison, (^*>U j^j zabr dlidan. 

— (to take poison) o**J^^J zahr 

Poisoned, fx^^^ masmdm. 

Poisonous, j\*y fi) zabr-d4r, ^^ yfc-j 
zabr-nak, ^U samm. 

PoiTREL (0/ a horse), Juij A;^^ 

To Poke (ti;iYA a stick, &c., thrust), 
^•3\j iftL. 8uk dadan, (jj»>U J* 
bul dAdan. 

Poker, <£)\;^^ mibrAk. 

Polar, ,jM kutbf. — (polar-star) 
s-Joi kutb. 

Pole (of the heavens), s-Jb* kutb. — 
(north pole) <^Ua s-^ kutb-i- 
sbimAlf. — (south pole) s ^ ^^ 
(Jiy^ kutb-i-janubi. — (a stick) 
j\^j v»^ cbiib-i-dirAz. — (tent- 
pole) vide Tent. — (boat-pole) 
^5»y* mardf. — (balancing pole) 
fJ^ Ian gar. — (telegraph pole) y^ 
tir. — (of a carriage) p? tir. — 
(pole fixed in the centre of the 
market or other public place, and 
at the foot of which criminals 
are executed) j^Vi kdpdk, ^U dAr. 

Polemic, ^jtf- barbi. 

Police (of a town), ^ (^\ U^ t..i.>« 
mustabfiziin-i-sbabr, Jj^y» kara- 
vul, (j-»-^ *asas, wtU-fc^ kasbik, 
A-^j-lT gazmab. — (policeman) 
^^<;.A< kasbik-cbf, J^\^ karA- 
vul, eW-^ piis-ban. — (chief of 
police) ^^}^ darugbab, AJt^^ 
sbabnab, {^/-^-^-^ jt- mir-i-'asas. — 
(police-station) ^Vd. J^^y> kar4- 
Yul-kb4nab, ^^^ gazmah. 

Policy, u:.^^ ^ bikmat, cs.».^U** 
maslabat, «£)l»sJ^ pulftik (eur.), 
— (lin^ of policy) *«XfrsJ^ {^^^ 

Polish (gloss or brightness), V 
jilA, ^i^ jalvah. 

To Polish, o**^**) zadudan, Ja©* 
(j^/ Baikal kardan, (^S\j V jila 
dadan, ^j^U^ pardAkbtan. 

Polished, ^d« saikalf, Jy^-^ mas- 
kul, j^jj barrak, <us-U^ pardakh- 

Polishes (of arms, &c.), fii^ 
saikal-gar, ^^Is*.^ o^ parddkbt-gar. 
— (of jewels) s^\^ hakkak. 

Polite, s-^*>\ adib, v****^ mu,ad- 
dab, v><^ khalfk, ^^\ v>^ 




khwuBh-atvfo, jSi*.^ v>^ khwush- 

Politely, «W^>*^ inu,addabRnah. 
Politeness, v>»>\ adab, o^**/* 

mardumf, *A^f tarbiyat. 
Politic (discreet), yt^ W ba-tam- 

yfz, «"•;**• W bA-basirat, c^^-^ Vj 

ba - firasat. — (expedient) ^y^ 

savab, J^«a* mufid, v»^^ ojj^i* 

makrun bi-savab. 
Politically, «^Ve- ^ s-^^ 

Politician, ^^C- J*^ ahl-i-siyA- 


Politics, <a>. C »^ 4UU*« mu'amalah- 
i-mamlikat, ca. ;inl .^JJ tadbir-i- 
sultanat, t)"^ ^a— C- ^J^ *ilm-i- 
siy isat-i-m udun . 

Polity, cv-.^^^ bukdmat, «— iVfj 
ri,^8at, w3.*>.lfr^ siydsat. 

Poll-tax, 4y% jizyah, ^^jUa ^ sar- 

To Pollute, (^*y^ dlddan, o*^^^ 
&l&,idaii, (;jJ&*-U jjl^ pilid sakh- 
tan, o*>y^ c^^ tafzih nimddan, 
^«yr «&>Ju« mulavyas kardan, ^ 
^o^ *«3(i n^.pak kardan, {j^ 
^j^^W^najis gardanidan, ( j >'^ft^» y 
(jjj*^ tanjis kardan, (a*^x^ y****** 
tadnfs nimddan. 

Polluted, ^^ ^ nd-pAk, >i^ 
pilid, **>^1 dlddab, *A.y^ mulav- 

POLLtJTEB, *^^ mulaVVis, { j '*t^ 

Pollution, u-e^ tanjfs, c*^ 

tafzib, *A»J laus, ^^W jandbat, 

ytjX^ dUyisb, ^^yi dlddagf. 
PoLTBOON, *>/• ^ nd-mard, Jou 

buz-dil, cjW jabbAn, J*^rf bi-dil, 

JJL^ kam-dil, ^/ tared (vitZ^.)- 
Polygamy, e^y}\ •^•^•^ ta*addud-i- 

Polygon, iU'i\ jt^ ^ sath-ka- 

Polypus (in the nose)^ «-A*^ ;e-*V 

Polytechnic, Acyj^ ft^ 

maktab-i-'uldm- mutanaYY i*ab. 
Polytheism, **5/» shirk, rfJ^-*-* «:- 


PoLYTHBisT, <£!|;it«« mushrik. 

Pomade, ^ » ; >• marbam, t^-*;j; 

PoMEGBANATE, j^ n4r, j^\ auAr, 
(;)Uj riimman. — (flower) ;^^ J^ 
gul-i-anar, jUiS' gul-nar. 

PoMPLET (fish), ^Jt\^ \^ halva* 

Pommel (of a saddle), (^) ^J^y^ 
kdbah-i-zin, u*^/ karabds. — (of 
a sword) a^ kabzah. — (knob or 
top of the handle) <^S^ kuldb. 

To Pommel, o^j zadan. 

Pomp, vide Pbide, Splendoub. 

Pompous, {^f»J^ mutantin, jy^ 

Pompously, &i\jtSJi^ mutakabbird- 
nab, A'SlajdR ^ A|j««> Vf bi-dabdabah 
va tantanah. 

Pond, ^^;«> darydcbah, Jb^ hauz, 
jtfA 4b-gir. 

To Pondeb, vide To Think. 

PoNDEBous, (s^y girdn, {^t^^ san- 
gin, ^JJj^ yaznf, J<J^ sakfl. 

PoNDEBOusNESS, ^^^j-T giraui, 
^jA tf ^Axt sangfnf, ^sM saklat. 

Pontiff, fM im4m. 

Pontifical, ^J>•^^ imkmi. 

Pony, y^ yabd. 

Pool, ^V>jj daryacbab, Jb^ hauz, 
jA^ ab-gir. 

Poop (of a ship), i^ji^ dabbdsab, 
/s taf ar. 

PooB, (jJiiu muflis, ;;^«^w« miskin, 
^y^ bi-nav4, s-^^t gharfb, jtiA 
fakir, <A^«> ^ tubf-dast, \^ 
gsbdk, ^yA^ mafldk, aa^jW niy&z- 
mand, . l is ♦ ? ■■.>• mustamand, 
J-»*\ju-^ musta,8al, jU U na-dar. 

PooBLY, AiLJju mums&uab. — (iU) 
vA^ ^ na-khwush. 

Pope, s^^ p4p (eur.). 

Popish, <^^ papf (eur.), 

PoPLAB (white or Lombardy poplar), 
j\xiJLm safi'dar. — (Oriental poplar 
or plane) ;U^ cbinar, J^ chi- 
nal (vulg.). — (grey poplar) »**^ 
kabddab. — (poplar wUlow) ^WV^ 
^ p4dar-bid. 

Poppy, j^^^y^ kdkndr, jSuLaK-AM*. 




Populace, (M *amin, f»\y^ *avAmm, 
v5*^ khalk, (^Uj-. mardumiin, 
J^\ ahaU. 

Popular, j^*^ ^\^ 'ayAmm-pa- 

Popularity, jW«»V i'tiMr, o^^yt«« 

To Populate, (jjo^ jW\ Abad kar- 

Population, i a * air » i» jam'fjat. 
Populous, *>V|^ abad, /\^ dA,ir, 

j^4«^ ma'miir. 
Porcelain, ,ji-^ u^j^t zurdf-i- 

chfnf, ,j*!j^ chinf. 
Porch, a»U. &aa j dahanah-i-khanah, 

J^jy rivak, j^ tak. 
Porcupine, o^ jU. kh^r-pusht, 
•^Aaj kunfuz, aJ^ cHdlah (tm/gf.). 
Pore (0/ the akin), ^^— ^ ma84mm 

(/?Z. va>UL.^ masamin^t). 
To Pore, (^oy^ ^ nazar kardan, 

yj^ 5^ nigAh kardan. 
Pork, ii^ ct^yT giisht-i-khug, 

^>^^ /•^ lahmu-'l>kbinzfr. 
Porous, ^L-^ ^ pur masainm. 
Porphyry, jU- *sCl- sang-i- 

Porpoise, ^^aU j\^ guraz-mahi, 

<jf\4;»> *£^ kbtig-i-daryA,f. 
Porridge, jS^T ash. 
Porringer, iJ^ kasah, (j«^ tns. 
Port (harbour), jJ^ bandar, W^ 

Portable, J*o. J^Vj kabil-i-haral. 
Portal, ;•> dar, fij^j;** darvazah, ^Vi 

kapu, oi^ ^«^pi> '^^ ^'^^^j V)*> 
darb, fiV^jO dargah, aaaj daha- 

To Portend, (^j**/ i^5»3 dalalat 
kardan, (^j^ va>;U\ isharat kar- 
dan, (:)*yy*i »J^^ va*dah nimudau. 

Portent, JU fal, (^^ shugun, 
f^\ akhtar, g ^ tali*. 

Portentous, W s-*-^^ ghaib-niraa, 
O^ ji pur shugan. 

Porter (of a gate), (jjW;*> darban, 
^ji bavvab, vj^s>^ kapfji, 
s^yi^ kdpuchi. — (of inner rooms) 
s-^Vft. hajib, ^^y ^*yji pardah-dar. 
— (carrier) JU*. hammal, {J^j^ 

Porterage, JU>. himmalf. 
Portfire, s->^^6^ mahtab. 
Portfolio, ,J^ ^yt- juzv-kash, 'yt- 

(:)\*y juz,-dan. 
Port-hole, 5;^^^ panjarah. 
Portico, a*U. djj^^ dahanali-i-kha- 

nah, j^jy rivak, j^ tak. 
Portion, vide Part, Share. 
To Portion, (^*>/ ^-Jj? taksim 

kardan, q)»^/ A-a*. hissab kardan, 

(^•>^*> dadan. 
Portionless, s-«-» ^ bi'-nasib. 
Portliness, JV jabil, t^jV^ /- 

sar-afrazi, jJkl kadr. — (fatness) 

^J9iJ^ farbibi. 
Portly, }^ mu'azzaz, **-*«* W ba- 

haibat. — (fat) Aj/ farbih, jU. 

chak, ^ a ' -x» jasim. 

Portmanteau, e>**jy*" kburjin, aj^ 

Portrait, ^mA shabfh, j>ytS tasvfr, 

ctjjy* ***^ pardah-i-8urat. 
To Portray, (^^) J^ naksh zadan. 
PoRTRA7ER, Ui' 5^ chihrah- 

gusha, ^;1 **>j^ surat-arA. 
To Pose, (jj^^ nihddan. — (confuse) 

^JsaXm o^jti^ hairan sakhtan. ' 
Position, cj^ tarah, g^^ vaz*. — 

(footiny) i*XU halat. 

Positive, ^jiWi ijabf. (Fide 
Sure). — (to be positive) ^^^ 
(f^^^U jakfn dashtan, (2)J;«»\«> ^JL.w» 
musallam dasbtan. 

Positively, 'W«i yaki'nan, 'UlaS 
kat'an, a}\^^ It bi-mubalah, ^ 
ysi^ ^UJ^ bf-bamah cbiz. 

To Possess, ^^^\*y dashtan. — (get 
possession of) (^*^y*^ W^ zabt ni- 
mudan, (:)*y/ *^y^ tasarruf kar- 
dan, (:;*V^; f^ bi-ham rasani- 
dan. — (to become possessed of) 
^j^yM\ andukbtan, (^•^»^^} ^ 
bi-ham rasdnidaa, (^^/ J^^ na- 
sil kardan, (^^o^ ij«^ tahsil 
kardan, (^^ yaftan. 

Possessing, «-i^-^o-2-^ mutasarrif, 
caXJU malik. — (in composition^ 
prefixed) w-^U sdhib, ^•i zu, ^<i 
zf, J*^ ahl. — (ditto, affixed) jW 
dar, *x;^ mand, ;^^ avar. 





P0B8B88l0Ny ^j^ tasaiTUf, ^ 

zabt, A^ kabzah, J«jc 'amal, 
!£.*«•*> dasty sA^^y^M^ ma'murfyat. 
— (prop^^y) **^ milk, «*XU| U 
mk jamlik, «£U^ U mi malak, 
JU mal. 

P088B8SIYS, 4j^^ mdlikf. — (case) 
cs^U\ iz^at. 

Po88ES80By **^^ malik, s-^^ sahib. 

Possibility, ^^^\ imk&n, JU^a.^ 
ihtimal, «^UiA-\ istitd'at. 

Possible, (^^^4^ mumkin, (^^^ 
yumkin, J4J», yahtamii, ^J^•>y 
bMani. — (iw ... as possible) ... ^ 
ysA^S 6^jJt bi ... bar chih tam^m- 
tar. — (to he possible) (jJaU (^\^\ 
imk4n dashtan, ^*xai {^^'^ mum- 
kin sbudan, (^W JUj:»-^ ibtim^l 

Possibly, *NtUi shdyad, J^W bAshad. 

Post (carrier of letters), a*^ kAsid, 
^ &^V» namah-bar, ^\<W chdpir, 
j^ chapar, J«;» barid. — (post- 
free) i»— ^ «wy^^ ij bf-ujrat-i- 
pust. — (postmaster) ^ y^ cha- 
par-chf, ^ji*- j<i^ chap6,r-chf. — 
(post-office) ^W &sm^ ptiBtah-kh4- 
nah. — (Postmaster - Oeneral) ^ 
o**^ vj^ chapar-chf-bishf. — (»t<tt- 
ah'on), ^^ mak4m, ^y» mauzaS 
J^^ mahall. — (office or service) 
ftjue-A 'uhdah, s ^^^- ^ -^ mansab, 
u^^oA. kbidmat. — (military sta- 
turn) »V5 Xti lashkar-g^h, j\y^^ 
iiturak, ;^"« >« ma'askar. — («to«e) 
v»^ chdb, (:)^ sutdn, o^ 
'amdd. — (of a door) y>W bihd. — 
(station where horses are kept for 
travellers) Ai^ y^ chapar-kh^- 
nah, AtU. ^V(\^ chap^r-khilnah. — 
(post-horse) \sy^ *'»"**'^ asb-i- 
chaparf, v5j^V *''"**^ asb-i-chd- 
pan. — (post-boy) *^/^ j^ cha- 
par-sh^gird. — (to travel by post), 
t^**; y^ chapar raftan, ^; ;V^V». 
chapar raftan. 

To Post, (jJSA.\JkJ\ ^a-^ jO dar 
pustah andakhtan. 

Postage, &a-^ pustah (eiir.). — (to 
pay the postage) ^«>^*> J ^ * ^ '* mah- 
Hul dAdan. 

P08TBBIOB, (^t^ ^4 y^-pasfn. 

Po8TEBiOBiTY,j*-'^ ta,akhkhur. 

PosTBBioBS, ji*> dubr, JA^ kafal, 
{^j^ surin, jV^^ a'jdz. 

PosTBBiTY, *ii^\ aulAd, s-«>fi 'akab, 
v>\Ae\ a'kab, U^ khalaf, ui)U\ 
akhl4f , ^X. Rulalah. 

P08TBBN, '^.j^^ dar-i-bachah. 

Posthaste, j^\ ^J^ *ala-'l-faur, 
At^ ^ bi-ta*jil, ^J^\ Jle 'ala- 

Posthumous, a«>VaA\ <,ri pas-ufta- 

Postillion, ,j^ a^«J^ kaiiskah- 

To Postpone, ^jjj^-^j^j^ ^jnfS ta*yik 
andakhtan, (^*i/ y^^ ta,khfr kar- 
dan, (^*yy*^ sa^^ muhlat nimd- 
^^9 C)*x *~^y tayakkuf kardan, 
^•>^ Ks^^j^ <A<M*> dast bi-daat 

P08T8GBIPT, Ji*^ zail or zayl. 

PosTUBB, ^y vaz*, C;^ taxah, %*-JU 

Posy, aa^^ gul-dastah. 

Pot (iron, dc, for cooking), ♦s^»> 
<i%i S^*^ dfgchah, 's^^ pdtfl- 
ch^, ^W tijAnchah. — (earthen 
pot) is^*y dfzi, »;\*/ ku,arah, »)/ 
kuzah. — (chamber -pot) (^\s/b»\/k 
shash - d4n, (^^jlJ^ baul-dan. 
— (flower -pot) (»)\a1S gul-d4n. 
— (jar) *^^ kuliik, ^J|^ bu- 
lun{. — (water pot) y3iyi\ ibrik, 
A»U*^ dftdbah. — (large travelling 
pot) 4«5* *^** dfg-^rg, >A*> 
dig-bar, &U»U k&blamah. [This 
consists of a nest of pots and 
other utensils, all fitting into 
one large one, and comprises 
the following articles : ^y^ *^^ 
dig-i-buzurg (the large outer 
pot) ; (^V^ jU« 8umAk-p41an or 
^^ ^ chalaw-saf 1 (a yessel for 
boiling rice, consisting of two 
parts, one fitting into the other ; 
the innermost being perforated 
with holes to strain off the 
water) ; 4^^^ digchah (a smaller 
pot or kettle) ; 44*>V) b4dijah 
(metal cup), of which there are 




two or three ; and some other 

articles of cuisine.] 
To Pot {flowers, Ac.) (^\M j*> Ji' 

{^sAiS gul dar gul-dan kdshtan. 

— {meaiy <fec.), ^^U 6l& o^^ 

gusht nigah d4shtan. 
Potable, v»ar*^ mashrdb, ij^^^^ 

Potash (aUeali),j\a^ shakh&r, ^Ji 

kill, ^ kilyA, jbf. hurz. 
Potation, v»;i/*-" mashrdb, ct^y 

Potato, o***) *'■*** sfb-i-zamfnf, 

(2^3 jij s-*^ sfb-i-zfr-zamfn, 

^U ^^y^ 41d,i-i-malkam (so 

called after Sir John Malcolm ; 

but the name is now obsolete). 
Potency, *a>y kd^at. 
Potent, j»>^ kadir, jS^ JS k4r-gar, 

f^y^ mu,assir. 
Potentate, sUoV^ pAdish^h, fiU> 

sh4h, AAi shah, *t\U malk, (^VUL 

8ult4n, (^^^ kh4kan, ^^ kaj. 
Potential, (^ < »■ *• mumkin. — 

(mood) {^^^^ J** fi*l-i-mumkin. 
Potently, \yl^ kavfyan, «\)»>U ka- 

PoT-HEBBS, iS^ sabzf, ft/ tarah, 

JA) bakl. 
Potion, v*^^ mashrdb, uw/* 

Potsherd, JU^ saf A1, «J|^ khazaf, 

aSju^ kuni&lah (vulg.). 
PoTTAOB, js»l[ ^sh, W;y«» shdrbd. — 

(irtfi^ chopped meat) fnf^ halim, 

&«»>yk harfsah. 
Potter, y^ ^)^ kdzah-paz, yS^ sj^ 

kdzah-gar, jVaU fakhkhar. — 

(seller of earthenware) f ^)^ 

Pottery {manufactory), 4*U. j\^ 


sazi, / fij/ ^U. ^V^ kar-khanah-i- 
kdzah gar. — {ware) ^^y^ *^^y^ 
zurdf-i-chmi, ^^^ chinf. 

Pouch, a— ts^ kfsah, s-*is9- jib. — (/or 
ammunition, bullets, Sc) «-A«^kif. 

Poulterer, v^ji^ tj^ murgh-fu- 

Poultice, Aa*; pukhtah, •iU-* za- 

Poultry, {j^^y^ y ty* murgh va 

Pounce, ^^>ft hujdm, aUa. ham- 

To Pounce, ^jJj^^ ^y^ hujdm 
dvardan, ^-^j^l aW namlah Ayar- 
dan. — (j)er«orw) o**j^^ o.*-j^ bi- 
dast dvardan. 

Pound {place of detention), u*»t^* 
mahbas. — {sterling) ij^ lirah 

To Pound, ^j^/ kdbfdan, ^H^/ 
kdftan, (^j^^^ sd,fdan. 

Pounder, &*-*> dastah. — (/or rice 
or grain; a heavy iron pestle 
worked by the feet, and playing in 
a stone m,orlar) *sOj dins;. — {per- 
son who pounds) lAi^f kdban- 

To Pour, (j^j rfkhtan. — {rain) 
(jj^jll jjS tund bArfdan- 

Pourparlers, (£>\^X« muzAkardt. 

To Pout {suUc), (^ja »*y-i\ afsur- 
dah shudan, ^Juk^j^sU mukaddar 
shudan, ^*x«9^j ranjfdan. 

Pouting {of the lips), W y-^ 

Poverty, ij^y^ bf.navA,i, ij^\ 
ifl4s, ,j-U- muflisf, ytt fakr, AiU 
fdkah, ^ji-j *sSJ5 tang-dastf, 
^*u^j\«» niy&z - mandf, 
sakhtf, is« s < ■ ■ *«>• maskanat, _ 
miskfnf, JW&-^ istfsal, ^)\*y U 
n4-darf. — {poverty - stricken) 
^^ mafldk, yrt fakfr, <j-U^ 
muflis, SjW ^ bf-charah. 

Powder, «jyu saf df, ^W* ghub4r, 
fi«>^ sddah. — {medicinal) «JUL. 
saf df . — {gunpowder) *«>jyW dA- 

To Powder, ^*^^U miUfdan, (^^^y 
kdftan, ^^^ kdbfdan. — (corer 
with powder) o**J **^*>^ gardak 

Powder-flask, vs>^V) A|o dabbah- 
i-bardt, (^^J^jyW bilrdt-dan. — 
(gmaZ/ priming flask) A * ft .i A \ a 
shakh-dahanah, (^^ J^i^^U.cha8hnl- 

PowDER-MAOAZiNE, AiU^jyW bardt- 
khanah, a^U. ^^ kdr-khanah. 




Powder-mill, ^^ ^y\^ 4*U. JS 

PowDKBY,;^** A^^ khakah-diir. 

PowEE, j;j) ziir, «t>;Ai kudrat, ^\<xsi\ 
iktidar, u^yi kuvat, M kuvah, 
^V tavana,!, c^-jU, takat, «>-.J 
dast, c>aC« niiknat, ^^^ nairu, 
JW^ inaj41, ayfcj zahran, \>^ yara, 
fcsJV3\ avalat. — (to the utmost of 
ones }}Ower) g-j^^ v!r** hatta-'l- 
vasS j^Jka4\ JjSa. hatta-'l-inakdur. 
— {beyond oru^s power) \\ (jy^ei 
Ale^ bfrun az hausalah. — 
(toithin the power) ^^ vJ^^*> ;•* 
dar ddkhil-i-hausalan. — ((£e- 
jprived of power) j^^6S^^\ s->y^~^ 

Powerful, ;^1 jji) zdr-avar, \>\f ta- 
TAna, v5y kavi, sSd kAdir, ^J^ 
kadfr, jxJU muktadir, ju#« ^j^ 
nairu-mand, («>- C »a^ mutamakkm, 
j^ kahhar, ;^*ui\ ub^U s4hib-i- 
iktidar,jAAS\ ^i zu-*l-kadr. 

Powerfully, '\yi kaviyan, 4i\j*>U 

Powerless, (^\y U na-tav^n, v»V» ^ 
bi-tab, jU U n»i-char, *a^U» ^ bi- 

Powers (functions), jy^- hukuk, 
c-A^i^ vazd,if. 

Pox (venereal) y ^^et^ (j*^ marz-i- 
khabi'sab, u>i^ kuft, ^J^ u:*^^)^ 
kun'ihat - i - sliahdijab. — {smalt- 
pox) 4l)l abilab, ^^ aulah (t;i*Z(/.). 

Practicable, ji'^i vs»;y0 surat-pazir, 
'(^J^ shudani, {^^^ mumkin. 

Practical, ^jU* 'amali'. 

Practically, ^jv^ i^y^ j^ az ruy-i- 

Practice, »jwjL-0 *Adat, <>-' * ''■ ^ 
masbk, jUiiAi«\ isti'mal, J^^ 

To Practise (txercise), (^*>/ JM^ 
masbk kardan, (^«>/ JUka^^ mti'- 
m^l kirdan, o"^/^ P^^ kardan. 

Practitioner, s wJ " tal)ib ( ;;?. 
Up^ atibbii), ^^cXd. baki'm (pi. 
U^ hukania). 

Prairie, j^y* uiargh-zar, j\} ty^ 
sabzab-zar, \j^i^ sabra. 

Praise, u^ifS ta*rjf, *-**«y tansif, 

(jft^U^ sitavisb, u&iM niyayish, 
K&^ na*t, wA^^ Tajsf, ^Ua^ bamd, 
^j^ madb, {^c^-^^ tabs in, ;^yt 
afirin, ^ sana, i£>JLK^^ mahma- 
dat. — (self-yraise) <j^^a- oys- 

To Praise, (^j^^ situdan, u^Um> 
^«3^ sitajisb niinudau, «-A««y 
(^j/ tausif kardan, (^^j:*! U^ sand 

P^iseworthy, ,jft<U-. ^ la,ik-i- 
sitayish, c**^^ s-^^^ vajibu-'l- 

madab, { ^ -^7 *• mustabsan, 
bam id, «>^<4^« xnabmiid, 
mubammad, c^*Ui^ maindub. 

To Prance, (:j*>^ yt^ ) «>— ► jast u 
khfz nimudan. 

Prank, s-^ la*b, ^^jW bazi. 

To Prate, ^03 «^ gap zadan 
(hind.), {j^ji pur guftan. 

Prattler, J\yu» mikval, ^j> pur- 
gu, *-*^;ft. barraf, J^ fuzul. 

Prawn, o^^ rubiyan, y^ maigii, 
ySi^ ^jAU mabi-i-maigd. 

Pray I (I bea of you ; I request or 
hope), A^i ^ tamanni in-kib, 
j^ ub4UL6i \\ az sbafakat-i-kbwud, 
«A»j^ wAU j\ az lutf-i-kbwudat, 
iSiii\ ^J^\^^ iltiinas in-kib. 

To Pray (say prayers), (^*^j\^ jUi 
namaz guzdrdan, (^*^W *ji>^ 
salat - kbwandan, (^^saT Go du'a 
guftan. — (beseech) ^^Jt-^^ kbwas- 
tan, (^*>x^ \A^\^ j*> dar-kbwdst 
nimtldan, (^^^ fj^\^\ iltimds 
kardan, o^^ u.w tamanna nimu- 
dan, (jo^ j^ niyaz kardan, 
(jjjijjltji niyazidau, (j^y^ *W^ ilja, 
nimudan, (;}«>^ ^«3 du'a kardan. 

Prayer (intreaty), 3^ uiyaz* ^^^J' 
tamannA, ;j**Usj\ iltimas, ^*> du'a, 
^j;l drzd, ^\;»^ ibrdm, ^\ ilja. — 
(to Ood) jW namaz, *a9^ salat, 
Vi»3 du*a, — (leader in prayers, at 
a mosque) jUi fj^ pisb-namaz, 
*i ' A^ kbatfb. — (praying ca/rpet) 
iSi^^ sajjadab, 1«^ musalld, 
g-i-*^ tashlij. — (small piece of 
clay, usually having the names of 
Godj th€ Prophet, and twelve 
Imams stamped on if, used in 




praying) j^ muhr. — {jowxy of 
ninety ^ne beads, corresponding 
with the ninety^nvne names of 
Ood, used in prayer) l^ft^ sab- 
hat, ^ o»*-* tasbili. — (hook of 
prayers) «s>\^«> 6A^ ^ n sahffah-i- 
da*y4t. — (crier for prayers) t)*^*f* 

The five appointed daily 
prayers of Musulmans are: — 
sunset prayer, s^^-A-^ 3^-**— ^ 
nam^z - i - maghrib; evening 
prayer, U.c jUi nam^z-i-'ishA ; 
morning prayer, ^t^ jUi namaz- 
i-8ubh, j^ jUi namaz-i-£ajr ; 
noon prayer, j6^ jUi namaz-i- 
zuhr ; afternoon prayer, ^ jUi 

namaz - i - 'asr. Besides these, 
there are certain other prayers, 
as follow : —prayer at midnight, 
j^ jUi nam4z - i - tahajjud; 
extra pravers not prescribed by 
law, ^ nafl, ^U nafilah (pi. J^y 
navalil), ^-u* sunnah; prayers 
performed to make up for omis- 
sions, as when sick, on a journey, 
at war, or other occasions, when 
it is lawful to postpone one's 
devotions, *Ui kaza,; prayer on 
the ceremony of marriage, adop- 
tion of children, and some other 
events, &*^^ sighah; separate 
prayers, generally said at night, 
not enjoined, y^ vitr; prayers 
commended but not enjoined, 
s-^^A-^jUi namaz-i-mustahabb. 
The positions of the body in 
prayer, are as follow: — 1st., 
standing erect, with the hands 
down by the sides, f>^ kiyam ; 
2nd., the hands raiised on either 
side of the face, with the fingers 
extended, while declaring God's 
greatness, (^siS ^«tX» tAkbfr-guf- 
tan; 8rd., inclmation of the 
body, the hands placed on the 
knees, £^ ruku' ; 4th., standing 
with the head inclined forwards, 
and the hands on either side of 
the face, v£>yi kuudt; 5th., 
kneeling, with the hands down- 

wards, {^ SnmA i y\j ^j dd zanu- 
nishastan; 6th., prostration, with 
the forehead touching the 
ground, &j^%*« sijdah. 

To Pbeach, o^^ ^) ^ft'z kardan, 
^j^ dLe\^ muv^'azah nimii- 
dan, (a*^/ dJhcy* mau'izah kardau. 

Pbsacheb, M^va'iz, s^ khatib. 
— (a faithftd preacher) joU W^ 
va'iz-i-sAdik, {^t^\ ^\y va'iz-i- 
am in. — (a preacher who does not 
practise as he vreaches) jc^ M^ 
Ms^ va*iz-i-ghair-i-mutta'iz. 

Pbbachino, Ifafi^ va*z. 

Pbeamblb (exordium), &«JUi^ mu- 
kaddamah, a >V g |j dibachah, 
"Lua^ minsha, . 

Pbbcabious, y j«^ U ni^-piyadar. 

Pbbgabiously, y J>|V( ^ na-payadar, 
^ J ^ ghair-i.da,im. 

Pbbcaution, ,j^j^\ j^»> dur-an- 
dfshf, ^^ tadbfr, fi^^^ intibah, 
jdk hazar. — (hy way of precau" 
tion) 'VLLsfc.^ ihtiyatan. 

To Pbecede, {^^ (j^ pfsh ama- 
dan, (^j (j^ pish rattan, ^J^ 
0«>y mukaddam bddan, ^\^ yj^ 
^sjk pish-vaki' shudan. 

Pbecedence, v5^r^ pish - rav/, 
f^'^^ ikdam, f^ takaddum, 
s&' K '* sibkat. 

Pbecedbnt (example), ^^ nimu- 
nah, Jt« msusal, j^ o ^^ pish- 

Pbbcbdino, v3*^ sdbik, (AAfr* mu- 

Pbecbpt, ju^ pand, ^^^^-^ uasihat, 
j^a»\ anduraz, ifi^««^ vasiyat. 

Pbecbptob, *i\^\ ustad, ^^m^ mu*- 
aJlim. — (spiritual preceptor) ^J^f 

Pbecinct, •>«- hadd, *xa. ^ sar-hadd. 

Pbecious, ytf 'aziz, ij^^ nalis, 
•v;^^^ arjinand, ^.jS^-eJ kaimati, 
(jjw*^ samfu, ^*-U fakhir, (^f 
giran, W\;^ giran-baha, ^Ui\^ 

Pbegiousnbss, i^^^J^^^ arjmandi, 
yj^\f giran-Laha,i. 

PaEcious STONE, /b^ jauhar,^^^ 




Precipice, s^^a^^;- J^ jA,f.i-8ar4- 

sa^ kdh-i-parfc. 
Prbcipitai»^ce, vu2e Babhkbss. 
Precipitate, vide Steep, Bash, 

To Precipitate {Jiasien)y ^j^s*V)Uai 

8hit&b4nfdan. — (to precipitate 

oneself) {^^^^ (iJ^r^b**^ khwu- 

dra sar-nigdn sakbtan. 
Precipitation, v»^ Bhitab, j^ 

faur, ;^ tabarnir. 
Precipitous (steep\ «w)t part, 

^3^^ sarAzfr, s-^«^\;«- sarasbib. 
Precis, J-*^ muhassal, y^-^* 

mujmal, JW^ ijmal. 
Precise {exact), <3i*&^ mudakkak, 

^«^« sahfb, oJ«> V| b^-dikkat. 
Precisely, *V— *t-c 'ainan, ^ m V \ 

kat*an, ^ jakb (vu^.). 
Precibeness, sa^^ dlkkat, i,^y^ 

To Preclude, t)**/ C^ mana' kar- 

dan, t>»>y g^^ mani* bddan, e*o 

^*>/ daf kardan, (^W jW baz- 

dasbtan, (^W \^ Td-d&shtan. 
Precocious, ^a^^ bf-vakt. 
Precocity, o**r>» bf-vaktf. 
To Preconceive, (jjA^^A^ji^ ^i^ 

pfsb andfsbfdan, ^•^Z ^yai ^j^h^ 

pisb-Mnf kardan. 
Preconception, ^^^\ ij^ pfsh- 

andishi, ^y^i v/^ pfsb-bfnf. 
Precursor, 4s5Uifcl v/^ pfsh-dbang. 
Predatory, ^VUaj ja^gbind,!, 4^;^ 

gharati, sj^)^ taraji. 
Predecessor, «-A)L. salaf, ^Ate** 

Predestination, s-*«-* nasfb, *jJJ 

kadr, ««>)*^ kudrat, jtAi? takdir, 

u:^«4.-Jkismat, u>^.bakht,Ui kazd, 

2}U» tali', o^a^y ^ sar-nivisbt. 
To Predestine, ^•>^ ;*)^ mukad- 

dar nimudan. 
Predicament, (jSX«jl^ kasb-ma- 

Predicate (m logic), J^ tAli, ;t*- 

kbabar, J^**^ mabmiil. — (in 

grammar), yt^ kbabar, J^*^^ 

mabmul, ^ f*^^^^ mabkdm-bibi. 
To Predict, e«>;^ e^^^ istikhraj 

kardan, ^jU^ s-^ j^ az gbaib 
kbabar dadan, ^ ^jAjj^^ JU j^ 
(^S{*y 82 ma,il andfsbf kbabar 
dddan, {^siS ^J^ pfsbf guftan. 

Prediction, «s^^ kahanat, s-^ 
^^ gbaib-gdf . 

Predictor, ^ s-^ gbaib-gd. 

Predilection, J«^ mail, i»^j 

To Predispose, c>^U ft«>t*^ dma- 
dab sakbtan. — (to he predisposed) 
(^•>^ ftjU^ 4mAdah bddan, J«^ 
(^U mail ddsbtan. 

Predisposition, (j^«>^1 Am^dagi, 
Jd^ mail. 

Predominance, i«x-*^ istild, ixJi*^ 
sibkat. — (prevalence) ^^ gbala- 
bab, "ko^ i8tn4, o^**fi himdmf. 

Predominant, s-^Va gh41ib. — (pre- 
valent) <Jj*--» mustaulf, t)j^ 
muravvaj, ^s)^ tiri, J^^J^s^ muta- 
ddyal, o^ *umdm. 

To Predominate, (^^xai s-^^ gbAlib 
sbudan, i^'\ s-^U gbdlib 4ma- 

Pre-eminence, ^a^Af^ sfbkat, jyff 
tafavTuk,%&»\ istflA, , ^^js-o <j&e( 
pfsb-dastf, ijijfji bartarf. 

Pre-eminent, jy j^ sar-far^z, 
jU4-« mumt^z. 

Pre-eminently, &** j^ <>«» bfsh 
az bamab. 

Pre-emption (right of purchase), 
'^mAAi (JK bakk-i-sbuf'ab. 

To Pre-enoaqe, e«>^ «s>j^\^ 
muYa^adat nimddan. 

Pre - enoaoement, ftJ^^ ya'dab, 
jU«^ mfs&k. 

Pre-existence, o^\jJ kadAmat. 

Prb-existent, f^^ kadfm. 

Preface, ^ ^aj** mukaddamab, 
^Wi^ dfb&cbab. 

To Preface, ^^^ a*.*** mukad- 
damab sakbtan. 

Prefect, fMi nazim, f^^ bakim. 

Prefecture, m* >*\ fc > nizamat, 
yp^j^ bukdmat. 

To Prefer, (j>oU ^«^jF tarjfb 
dadan, ^oU J e A . ft ^g tafzil 
dadan, (^^^^U yJL^ pfsb tar da- 
nistan, (^oU ^•juu takaddum 




d4dan, (gJn» i ^^ pasanclfdan, 
^o^ j\t^ ikhtij4r kardan, f*J^A^ 
;2^A^U mukaddam d^nistan, 
(^S\*y e^^^; rujhan dadan, fA^^ 
(2^W uM^o bishtar ddst ddsh- 
tan, (2^W ^»«*^«> ddsttar dasb- 

Pbefbsable, c*\> ^^ttji^J^' — (fe^^ 
preferdble) {^w ^-t^y tarjih 

Pbbfbbenob, O^^^^J rujhdn, ^e^/ 

Pbevebhekt, ^jV tarakkf, v5jVr* 
sar-fardzf, JW^ ikbAl. 

Pbefioubation, A«-fti tasbbfb. 

To Pbefiqube, i^^iy^i i^^ tasb- 
bfb nimddan. 

Pbefix, J->j «J;^ barf-i-vasl. 

PsEaNANCY, J*^ baml, «j**-»^ 

Pbeqnakt, t)A-^^ dbistan, aUU 
bdmilab, J^ bubla. 

To Pbejudoe, o**/ f^ Aa-JU U 
n4-d4niBtab bukm kardan. 

Pbejudice (in favour of)^ <jj Je^ 
s-^t^ mail-i-bf-sabab, h c^/ 
^^ tarjib-i-bila murajjab, ^^^a»5 
ta'asBub, <4)^*> ^j; ru - darf. — 
(against) s-*«- o» *^/^ ikrab-i- 
bi-sabab, w-?- o» j*^ tanaffur-i- 

To Pbejudice, (^jJJafcts^^ ^ b-ir- 
angfkbtan, (^^ « !■■** ' '• muta- 
'assib B^kbtan. 

Pbejitdicial, f¥^ yakbfm, y^ 
muzirr, c5*^*f* nau,zi,j^Vjj zijan- 

Pbblatb, uiyu\ uskdf . 

Pbeliminaby (8uh,)y A^*A» mukad- 
damab. — (o^;.) j»*>^A^ mutakad- 
dim, |»J^ mulu^dam. 

Pbelude, ji;^ pisb-rau. 

PbEMATUBE, ^s^y6i bf-Takt, J«s 

c&^jJ^ kablu-'l-yakt, c^J^ j\ u^ 

pfsb az vakt. 
To. Pbemeditatb, ^.x^^Ai^jj^ ^jt«i 

pisb andisbfdan, ^«>^ ^*^ tad- 

bir nimddan. 
Pbemeditation, ^a» tadbfr, ji*^ 

tadabburo^ gbaur. 
Pbemieb, J^f avral. 

To Pbehise, (^^ju^ pindilsbtan, 

(^*^/jy^ tasayyur kardan. 
Pbemises, Jy^ manzil. — (logic) 

u&>UjJU mukaddam&t. 
Pbbmium, *iy muzd. 
To Pbemonish, 0*>;^ <X'> ^ fr*> nasl- 

bat kardan, ^^i^ 1^ ya'z kardan, 

^jU jo^ pand dadaii. 
Pbemonition, Ai^ pand, vs^^«^ 

nasfbat, ^*>7 tadbir, ^^ ya'z, 

Akfiy* mau*izab. 
Pbepabation, o^^^^ dm^dagf, 

&fi«3^ tabijaJi, ^^W tadAruk, 

cb4;*<*A^ ma'mdrfjat, »-->» basfj, 

^\a«-^ iBti'ddd. 
Pbepabatobt, ^^J^^ ibtid4,f, 

s^%;f* mujib, A^JJU mukadda- 

mab, A«^ tabijab. 
To Pbepabe, (:)*A^ s-^/ tartfb 

dAdan, (^^ ^^ b&zir kardan, 

^•>^ 6*>U^ AmAdab kardan, W* 

^4>^mabajj4 kardan. — (to pre- 

pare for ...) t)**/ . . . *sS^'\ 4bang- 

i- . . . kardan. 
Pbepabed, fi*>U\ am4dab, W* mu- 

bayyd, ;W» tayyAr, jma«^ musta'- 

idd, ^^ b4zir, sA^j*y durust, j^> 

cb4k, »U» ^ rd-bi-r4b. — (fc be 

prepared) ^J^ *. \ aA.»^ musta^dd 

Pbepondebange, X^\ istflA. 
To Pbepondebate, (^^y*^ Xr'^\ 

istfla nimddan. 
Pbeposition (in grammar) y y^ U>^ 

baraf-i-jarr, ^*3\ ad&t. 
To Pbepossess (influence), ji 

fjsaktfi\ bar - angikbtan, (^\ ^ 

(^U bar an d^sbtan. 
Pbepossession, J«^ mail, ^a^j 

Pbbpostebous, {j^^'*^ ma'kds, 

^^^ bibddab. 
Pbepostebouslt, J^^y^ ^ bi- 

Pbepuce, ^^ gbulfab, <^!U gbilaf . 
P&EBOOATiyE, o^jy* mazfyat, j^s^^ 

imtiy4z, JK bakk. 
Pbbsaoe, JU fdl, e^^ sbugdn, 

fdA akbtar, gJ^ Uli*. 
To Pbesaoe, i^^y^i Jy» iafayyul 





Prbsbttert ( priesthood) y ^^U-^a^ 
kashish^n, sj^ kahanah. 

Prbscibnce, ^y^ {J^ pfsb-bmi. 
— {inteUigenee) «a*-i^/ fir^sat, 
^a^jt^ basfrat. 

PRBsciiBirr, (^ ij^ pfsb-bfn. — 
(intelligent) ^a>jti^ s-^^ silhib- 

To Pbbscbibb, e^r^y firmddan, 
(2)j|4i fS^- hukm nimddan, jA 
(^*yy4i amr nimddan. — (medical 
term) o*'^^ Aa^^ nuskhah dHdan. 

Prbscbibbd, fy*Y* marsdm. 

Prbscbiftion (of a phyneian), 
Aab^ nuskhah. 

Presbkcb, ;^ huz4r, •^t^^ vujdd. 
— (in the presence of), )ji ^ rd- 
bi-rd, ji^ j*y dar huzdr, Ji^ 

Present (not absent) ^V». hilzir, 
«>^y* maujdd, jj;» ^ rd-bi-rd. — 
(not past or future) J^ hiil. — (at 
present) ')W halan, JU;^ al-h41, 

(^y^ akndn, ^!l\ alan, cuS^ ^\ tu 
dar in rakt.— (gift) ju^^, bakh- 
shish, ^U dad, <^*> dihish, Use 
*atk, SAof tuhfah, %ii>\ty^ saugh^t, 
^^ hibah. — (not at present) *S^ 
yu.^ hAlan kamtar. 

To Presekt, ^*>\o d&dan, ^J^frA*: 
bakhshfdan, ^^\*^ (^^j;^ arzAni 
d^sbtan, 0*>t^ <^^i)^ arz^nf kar- 
dan, (^*>4 ^ *ata kardan, ^«fA 
(a**y^ hibah nimddan. — (»u(- 
mit) (;)*>^ u*;^ *arz niinddan. — 
(place before) (^*^y^ ^^ ihzar 
kardan. — (to he present) jy*^ 
(^^•> huzdr dashtan. 

Presentable, jy^ J»^ kabil-i- 

Presentation ( person) ^ ^ * ^ \ 
ihzar, «^;Ui ta*anif. — (offering) 
^•M(» takdim. 

Presented, v/jj;** ma*rdz. — (to he 
presented at Court) ^*^ uy^ 
musharraf shudan. 

Presenter, &JaA*> dihandah, ftJuULde*. 

Prbsentimbnt, JVeA. khay^l, ^^ 
vafam, f^f tayahhum. 

Presentlt, s ^j a ti* <an-karfb. 

Prbservation, <tol^» muh4fazah, 

u^kW hifazat, wwU*. himijat. 

Prbsbrvatiyb, UU. h/ifiz, b»Va^ 
niuhafiz, ^^^ vaki. 

pRBSBRVE (for game), »VJ jlX«i 

To PRESERyE, (jsJ^\*y &ll» nigah 
dAshtan, O'V^ o^W*^ nigah-. 
banf nimddan, ^j^^ Wk^. hif z kar- 
dan, Q)*^4 <d^Uft. hif Azat kardan, 
(2)j^ 4kiW« mubdfazah nimd- 
dan, (^*y/ iA^\^ hirasat kardan. 
— (fruit) t^**"^ V* murabba 


mahfdz. — 
(fruit) sHy* murabbab, W/* mu- 

pRBSERVBB, UW« muh4fiz, ^^ 
ham{, UU hafiz, jfi^ju»j dast-gi r. 

Presbrybs (fruits dried), j Vi^^A 
khushkibar, Je^l k]{\, — (moist 
fruits) J* nukl. — (confections) 
W/* murabbA. 

To Preside, (^«>/ c:.%«Vf^ n,Asat 
kardan, ^•^^ ut>;LJh^ nazarat 

Presidency, ^^^^^ yal^yat. — 
(official term) uhi!I^ yal^jat. 

President, u^J^ jt^' mfr-i-majlis, 
ij^j ra,fs, ^\^ yalf. — (Vice- 
President) ^J\* ^j»^) ra,i8-i-sani. 

Press (for wine), ^^ ^yt^ shirah 
kh4nah, J^^ hauz, )y^\ &;^\ 
dkhwurah-i-angdr. — (for olives, 
<fec.) y^ttb* mi'sar, **^ jV-^ 'assAr- 
khAnah. — (hookhinder's) a^^^ 
shikanjah, ^M kaid. — (printer's) 
AiW v^W <'hiip-khanah, a>U. a^^I^ 
bAsmah-khanah, ^^^ matba*. — 
(closet or store-room) i^t*S ganjah, 
diU ^^ hayA*ij.kh4nah. 

To Press (squeete), ^«>;Ui fishar- 
dan, (^*>Juf\ afshurdan, o*MV^ 
chapdniaan, o*'^^ chilandan 
(tmlg.). — (impress) (a*>y4i ^ 
muhr nimddan, (^•^U (^Ui nishan 
dddan. — [fhrong) i^^^JU\ af- 
shArfdan, e*^^ jU. t„ J\ afshar 
dadan, (^*xai g*^ jam' shudan. 

Pressing (eameti), fjv» mubrim, 
musirr. — (impwtanJI^ f^ 




muhimm, ^j!^ l&zim, txt^ <uin- 

Pbessusb, jV«fti fishar. 
Pbestidioitatob, jW »Ju«Ai shu'ba- 

Pbesto, v5**;3 W bd-zddi. 
Pbesumable, j4-s^^ muhtamal. 
To Pbesume, ^;jja\ju^ pinddshtan, 

(jj»3^ JUS gumAn burdan, &*J^ 

(2^U mazannah dashtan. — (it 

may he presumed) *yj^ J^ J^-*-**-^ 

^ ihtimal-i-kull mf-ravad kih. 
Pbbsumption (arrogance), ^^Vx.-i' 

gust4khf, j)j^ ghurur, cJjtj;** 

magbrdrf, u:>;U^ jasdrat, m^ 

takabbur, <4;^^ ^^ naya-dan, ^ 

ru. — (idea) &J^ mazannah, JUs«^ 

Pbesumptuous, j)^ maghrur, 

je^** mutakabbir, (^j *-*!J Uf-zan, 

^U^ gust^kh. 
Pbebumptuously, AHk\ju^ gusta- 

kbdnab, '^j^A* magbrui*an. 
Pbbtence, ^mk babiinah. 
To Pbetend, (a*^y^ ^^ babanab 

nimudan, (^*y/ aAs taklfd kar- 

Pbbtendeb, (ji3 «^1 lAf-zan. 
Pretention, Vc*>\ *iddi*a, A^ftU 

Pretentious, ^ ^ buland-nazar, 

(^ jLxl} buland-bin. 
Pbbtebite (tense), sHt/ t5*^ 

Preternatubal, ss. * . t M \ u^'U' khi- 

Pbetext, a*^ babdnab. — (to make 

a pretext) (^*yy*i &i\^ babanab ni- 

inddan. — (to find a pretext) ^V^ 

(^\t bahdnab jaftan. . 
Pbettilt, >sU latffan, ctJ^ 

Pbettiness, ^J^>*^ busn, JW 

i'am41, i^^VU latafat, «^^y naz4- 
[at, sHtj zfb, (3*;; raunak, <a--«y 
zfnat, ^y^ jiini (vulg.). 
Pretty, s-^j zib, JIn*. jamfl, «-A-jU 
latff, *£>j^^ kbiib-surat, 4sCu&J 
kashang, j^y^ kbwush-gil, (^yt- 
jdn (mi^.). — (pretty well, toler^ 
able) AftC* miyanab, fj;j^ taurf, 

(:^«A^r4>A bam-chunfn, J*xsiu« mu'- 

To Prevail (over), (;)JA s-J^ gbA- 
lib sbudan, v^b ^\ istila 
ydftan, (j^^ iJr^"^ mustaulf 
sbudan. — (on, to induce) ^f^ 
(jjjk^ tabrfk kardan, (^^ta ^^^ 
bar an dashtan, (^*yy4i ^r-^y 
targbib nimudan, ^^j^ 5jC 
cbdrab kardan. — (he prevalent) 
^jl4i Jj^«*** mutadaval sbudan, 
{:y^\^ ^J-c^-*^ sbuyu'f dasbtan, 
(^sa\^ ^^ ravdj ddsbtan. 

Prevalence, M* gbalabah, 5ie^u.\ 
istfla, i^y^ *umuraf. 

Pbevalent, Jyj-*^ mustaulf, ^^y 
muravvaj, ^^^'^ tkri, J^^J^*^ muta- 
daval, f*^ 'umdm. 

To Prevaricate, ^^siS jbS\js tana- 
kuz guftan, (^*>/ ^^jW ^Wj zabdn- 
bazi kardan, (^*^/ J«J ^ o^ lait 
u la'all kardan. 

Prevarication, v5jW*V)j zaban- 

Prevaricator, jl» (jVjj zab&n-b4z. 

To Pbevent, (j^\j jW b4z-dasb. 
tan, (j*>^ g*U mani* budan, 5*^ 
(j;*>/ mana* kardan, (jjJA ^v» 
iiiuzabim sbudan, (^«>^ ju. saod 
kardan, (^*^y^ d-6jU*« mu'arazab 
nimiidan, ^^^W \^ va-dasbtan. 

Prevention, ^ mana*, gi*> daf*, 
iA^^^y* muzabamat. 

Preventive, gJU niani*, f^^y mu- 

Previous, v3*^ sabik, J^j* pish. 

Previously, (^ j^ J^J kabl az in. 

Prey, vide Game, Plunder. 

To Prey, (^•i/ j^ sbikAr kardan, 
(^^y4i *Xd« said nimudan. 

Price, ^5^4^ kaimat, ^ bab4, j)\ 
arz, 1^5;^ arzisb, ^j\ arj, ^^^^ sa- 
man, a^U mdyab. — (c?4rrewf price 
0/ the market) tf nirkh, sj>>^ 
Uj^Ua* kaimat - i - muta*arif. — 
(price of blood) «Hi»> diyat, W^ 
kbun-bab4, «iJl4**» ma*kulat. — 
(fair price) v»^ ufc**^ kaimat-i- 
kbub. — (a high price) jJ^a. ^1^ 
mablagb - i - kbatir, ^U va.%»^ 
kaimat-i-'&li, (^\)S J\^ babil,{-i- 





gir^D. — (a low price) 
kaimat-i-past, ^ J^ bah4,f-i- 
kam. — (the very lowest price) 
^^ ^^ ut'4<l kaimat-i-4khir-i- 
4khir. — (rate of prices) W^y o^-;6* 

Pbicblbss (very valuable), W ^Ji 
bf-baha, ^ " 4^ fj^ bish-kaimat, 
«lUi^^ gir^n-inajah. — (having no 
fixed price, »uch as many works of 
art, Jc.) j^»>;» s^^ ab-bardAr. 

To Pbick, (^juU khaUdan^ ^03 
zadan, {^) s*^ dar-raf tan. 

Pbicklb,;^ kh4r. 

Pktckly (full of prickles), jU jU. 
kh^r-dar, jU. ^ pur-khar. 

Pbicklt-pkae, J^y .^^^ anjfr-i- 

Pbide, \p^ gburiir, <4;j/^ magb- 
rdri, %y4 kibriyA, , p^ takab- 
bur, {jM naf 8, ^^Juu^ oj*. kbwud- 
pasandf, «s>^ nakhyat, ^J^^ •>j^ 
kbwud-nim4,f, s-«^ 'ujb. 

To Pbidb, {^j Ji kul raftan, 
f^^y^ u&>^U^ mufakbarat nimd- 
dan, ^»>) «^^^ g^zAf zadan, cjS 
^«>} laf zadan. — (to pride one^ 
self) <^^^ j\^^\ iftikhdr nimu- 

Pbibst, {^\^ kAbin, %• mulU. 
[Properly speaking, tbere exists 
no priestbood among Mubam- 
madans. Any person capable 
of reading tbe Kuran may act 
as a priest, but tbey bave no 
ordination of clergy.] — (chief 
priest of the faith) fM imAm 
(pi. &4ii a,immab), a title given 
to Ali, tbe cousin and son-in- 
law of Mubammad, and bis 
descendants to tbe nintb genera- 
tion — twelve Imims altogether ; 
tbe last of wbom is supposed to 
be still living. — (chief priest of 
recent times) M"^ mujtabid, 
(^\j^ mitr&n, &^ (j^^^j ra,is.i- 
kabanab. — (Christian priest) 
(.Td^ kiss 1 8, {j!*^ kasbfsb. 

Pbibsthood (ojflce of priest), c^^e^ 
kahAnat. — ( preihytery) ^^ Vtyti 
kasbisb^n, 6j^ kahanah. 

Pbio (upstart)^ a^^ «y. kbwnd- 

Pbim, <A O .. tJ kasbang. 
Pbimaeily, 3^^ awalan. 
Pbimaby, J^^ avval, ^\ asli. 
Pbime (chief), J^^ awal, J^^ asl, 

ys^ mibtar. — (beautiful) s^y*- 

kbiib, i& C U kasbang, J*V» fnzil. 

— (the prime) j^ babAr. 
To Pbime (a gun), t)**r^ o^W- 

cbdshni nimudan. — (a person) 

^j^ ^{JU talkin nimudan. 
Pbimee, A^JJU ^b^kit^b-i-mukad- 

Pbime VAL, ^J^ kadim. 
Pbimino (of a gun), o^W" cbAsbnf. 

— (small powdeT'hom for prim^ 

ing) ^^JL^juftiLfr. cbaabni - dkn, 

6jjbJA,\jbt sbakb-dabanab. 
Pbimitive, e^t-A^ pfsbin, ^•M ka- 

dfni, j^U. sAbik, J^^ avval. — 

(grammatical term) '^W jAmid, 

JL«^ asH. 
Pbimitively, Ai\H^ kadfm4nab. 
PrviMOOEKiTUBE, ^J^*y^} J;^ ^3^ 

bakk-i-avyal-zAdag{, sa^jf^ <3^ 

Pbince, ftUjV^ pddisbdb, fiU sbAb, 

A4 sbab, ««UU malk, (^^^ sultAn. 

— (son of a king) i*y\yib\jb, sbdb- 

zAdah, h>y\y9ib» sbab-z4dab, V^ 

Pbikcedom, <■ " ■ < ^ V ■ sultanat, 

va^aUoV^ padisbAbat. 
PBiKCiiLY, ^\j^\ amir&nab. 
Pbincess, ftU fA^ dukbtar-i-sbab, 

fSti begum, yV) bAnd, ^U. so^y^lai 

sb4bz4dab.kbanam. — (Princess 

Royal) f^i^ fiUi sb4b-begum. 
Pbincipal*, J^^ awal, ^y^ ^ainf, 

f^ mibtar, J«^ asl, ft*V4x 'umdah. 

— (capital) JU3^ ^J^'^J ra,su-*l- 

mdl, AjtU jm sar-mayab. 
Pbincipality, Ka>j\^\ im^i'at. 
Pbikcipally, "VVfc gbAliban, ^^ 

vJUJ^ fin-gb^lib. 
Peinciple, s-^y» mdjib, 

sabab, 6*^^ vajn. — (element) v^a^ 
'unsur. — (bad-principled) J«1 a» 
Pbint (offootf Ac), (;)Ui nishin, 





f\ aar. — (pO'Per) *yW. chAp. — 
(calico) fj>^ chit. — (out of 
print) 5»>U*^ y W j\ az chdp uf td- 

To Print, ^•^Z &«»«W bdsmali kar- 
dan, (^*y/ ^W chap kardan, g^t 
^^ tab' kardan. 

Pbikted, J^ matbd'. — (<o he 
printed) (^JA JljiaJ^ intibA* shu- 
dan, ^JA sj;^ ^W chdp-kardah 
shudan, (^ja {p»* matbu' shu- 

Pbinter, £\^ tabb^S ^J^^ cli4p- 

Printing, &«.mW bdsmah, 
chAp, ^ tab*. 

Printing - office, a*^W chdp- 

Printing-press, &ft^ matba'ah. 

Prior, ^u^j^o pfshinah. — (preced- 
ina) yi^ jilau, ^J^ ;*> dar pfsh, 
jAi« mukabil. — (monk) s-^\) 
rdhib, i J^yS i- i kashfah, (j'^t^ kis- 
Bfs,^<^ hibr. 

Priority, ^•^ takaddum. 

Prism, j/»^ mausbdr. 

Prismatic, v/*\;> cr*UJ^ almds- 
tirash, M j/i^ maushdr-dsa. 

Prison, (j\^) zlndan, a^U. ^j-^j*. 
habs - khdnali, (j«><k>^^ mahbas, 
ii\d. jVa^j dustak - khanah, 
A»WUj zind4n-khdnah. 

Prisoner, (j^^^*^^ mahbds, -M^ 
mukayyad, o^^^^^J zinddnf, ^^iU-j 
dust&kf (tn*Zgf.). — (o/ war) y»J\ 
asir, Ji»> d£l (inilg,). — (to take 
prisoner) ^^^y^\ asfr giriftan, 
^j/ »U*^ giriftAr kardan, Ji»> 
^»>^ dil kardan (vulg.)* 

Privacy, «*y^ khalvat. 

Private, ^^ khAss, i^^^^a^ makh- 
sds, ^ji*a^ mukhtasB. — (private 
parts) vide Pudendum. — (not 
public or official) ^\a.«^«> dus- 
tiinah, ^^ nihan. — (common 
soldier) jW ^ sar-baz, <jft^ 

Privateer, ^j«> ^j^^*^ kashtf-i- 

Pbivatblt, vide Secretly. 

Privation, vt^^^^^y^^ mahrdmfjat, 

(Vide Poverty.) 
Privilege, Jo- hakk, jW**^ imti- 
yaz. — (written) «t>^;» bardt, ji^-AJs^ 
manshur, 5/JJ tazkirah. 
To Privilege, (^S\^ (^^\ izn dAdan, 
^«u.A^. vl(UaU>«^ iatihkdk bakh- 
ahidan, (^^U &^j nitbah dddan. 
— (to he privileged) {^^ v5^*^*-^ 
iatihkAk jdftan. 
Privity, ^Jb\S\ agdhf. 
Privy, ^^ JPW ia,i-i-zardr, j;<^ 
mabraz, iky^ mazbalah, liiaiji u^^ 
baitu-'l-khaU, ^f"^ muatardh, 
is^f^ mutavazzft, u\6. %^%^ i ^ 
manjaldb - khanah. (Vide Se- 
cret.) — (to go to the privy) Jj^ys^ 
(j^j mutavazzA raf tan, (:)^^ s^|t«o» 
bi-aar-ab raftan, vfr^i^U. ^^jTUsi 
{^) bi-kaza,f-i-hajat raftan. 
Prize, vide Reward, Plunder. 
To Prize, (2)JujU jJ^ kadr ddnis- 

Prize-money, c&*»fr» > ghanimat. 
Probability, Jl». x r^ \ ihtimil, 
«AJ^a** ma'kdlat. — (in all pro^ 
hability) JUs^)!^ v— ^ 'alk 
Probable, J^^^s^i^ muhtamal, w^\ 
aghlab, J^a»^ ma'kdl, k^ gdyA. 
— (to be probable) ^jJA^j Ju^a.^ 
ihtimdl daahtan. — (to appear 
probable) c?*^f i^ J». ; ^»» muh- 
tamal-bi-nazar amadan. 
Probably, \«jf guy4, ^^iU shAyad, 

fca— i^ JUsfc.f ihtimdl aat. 
Probation, ^W:^^ imtihdn, !IU}\ 
ibtila. — (on probation) sj>afi 
(^W^^ taht-i-imtihAn. 
Probationer, ^W^^I u^i/^ ™&'- 

Probe, J^^ mil, jW*« sibAr. 
Probity, ^^Vjo diyAnat, ,jX-.\) rdstf, 

vi(A« sidk. 
Problem, aVju^ mas,alah, i^SJ^ 
muahkilah. — (problems) JfL*.^ 
masA,il, v&>!iXA^ muahkildt. 
Problematical, ^Sji>^ mash- 

Proboscis, f^jL khurtdm, ^ytU. 
khtdtdm ^vulg.). 




Pbocedubx, fA^^ harakat, ^^ 

To Pboceed, tj*>/ ^) raftAr kar- 
dan, {jsJ^JS guzaslitan, v&Jy&>«> 
^«)^.1.«^ pish-raft nimudan. — 
{iasne forth) (jjJA ^*>U sadir shu- 
dan, (^'^f j^J^ Budur kardan. — 
{ari$e) (^'^ ^J^^ iiAshf sbudan. 

Pboceedino, vide Affaib. — 
{issuing forth) j«>^ sAdir, j^»^-» 

Process, *^^ vajh, ^^ vaz'. — 
— (legal) ^u^W^ muHakamah. 

Procession, u\iX> tavdf, Atf\L ta,i- 

To Proclaim, o*V^ c^\) (:>'^ 
sukhun-rani nimudan, (^*>/ ^U 
shdi' kardan, (^^^y^ £cM tablfgh 
nimudan, (a*^y^ \a^\a\ ishd*at 
nimudan. — (call) o*'^*^ j^ j^' 
kAshidan, (^^y/ WU« mandd4 kar- 
dan, (^*y/ \jii nida kardan, jW^^ 
(^*A>y ishtih^r dadan. 

Proclamation, jW jAr, jW^^ ishti- 
har, uyWU« muD^dat, W nida. — 
(written) A#»U jW^^ ishtihAr- 

To Procrastinate, O'V^ o**^ 
ta,annf nimudan, ^j^IjJ^ ^*^ 
ta,khir andakhtau. 

Procrastination, JaS « u^ lait 
u la*all, ^*V> ta,khfr, ^j*> 
dirangi, \}ifS ta'y{k. 

To Procreate, o'^r^ *^y taulfd 
nimddan, (^*Nt^j z4fdan, ^»>^3 

Procreation, -x^y taulid, (j^y\ 

Procreator, <j3U. kh41ik, ftxuiJ^ 

Proctor, Jt^-j vakfl. 

Proctorship, \aS\S^ vak&lat. 

Procurable, ^^"^ yAftanf. 

Procuration, ij>\y*^ hukm-rAn{. 

Procurator, ot*^ hukm-raD. 

To Procure, (^j^^ ^ bi-ham 
rasanidan, ^J;^ c:^^A*ik bam- 
dast kardan, ^j^^.««^ muyassar 
kardan, ^j/ J«U basil kardan, 
{^^ y^ftan, ^«>/ ^ j^ paida kar- 

Procurer, fiJaf^ jdbandah, J«<«p^ 

sjuu^ tabsfl-kunandab. 
Procuress, ^2l«> dallalab. 
Pbodioal, uy..^ musrif , jJl«^ mu- 

bazzir, c A la^ mutlif, u^a^ mus- 
Pbodioality, cJ^^^ israf, jjJ^ 

Pbodioious, s-*^V bu-'l-*ajab, 

vi ^ e^r 'ajib, s-si/i' gbarib. — (hig) 

f^J^ 'azim, tiSjiyi buznrg. 
Pbodioiously, cw^ bi-gbayat, 

u:>x&4 bi-sbiddat, Ji^ ^ *>^j ziydd 

4z badd. 
Peodioy, s-^A^^ s ^ '* 'ajabu-'l- 

*aj4*ib, c\>xu.^ istidrdj. 
Pboduce, J«W basil, J^^^^^ mab- 

stil, (j&X\jL^ paida,isb, JU mAl. 
To Produce, O'^j^^ j^ bar-dvardan, 

^jj^ \j^ paida kardan, ^.);^ **^jr* 

maujud kardan, (^^^\ J*»«» bi- 

<amal-avardan, o^J9^ C^ir»* bfriin 

dvardan, ^J^^) z4idan. 
Product, J^«^<« mabsul, J*W 

basil. — (in arithmetic) v»/* J*^ 

Production, J^y taulid. — (Ztfe- 

rary) *V-u^ insba,. 
Productive, j^jJ^-^-* mabsul-d&r. 
Profanation, ^jJ^ piiidi, y-^v^^ 

tanjis, (.r«*Af tadnfs. 
Profane, j^-U f^sik, ytf k4fir, 

<J*^ munafik, <:>4*> ^j bi-dfn. 
To Profane, (^t. j^ pilfd sdkb- 

tan, (2)0;^ ( j **oV^ tanjis kardan, 

^o^ vW*^ tadnfs kardan. 
Profanely, ^^•Mi pilfdAnab. 
Profaner, jU j^i* pilfd-sAz, <j«>e^JJ 

(^ tadnfs-kun. 

Profanity, /^ kufr, v5^ nif4k, ^j» 
,^»> bi-dinf. 

To Profess, o*>^ ^^\ 'iddi'4 ni- 
mudan, (^»y/ j\^\ izbdr kardan, 
0»^j^jV^ ikrdr kardan. 

Professedly, "ly^^ zdbiran. 

Profession (calling), a.a^ p/sbab, 
**;»► birfab, «^jw-. san'at, ^V^o 
dukan (wttZgr.). — (o/ religum^ 
belief, &c,)y v£>^V* sbabadat, 
•A^ tasbabbud. — (deeltiration) 




^y^ ikrkr, j\^\ izh&r, \^\ iddi'4, 

t^\ fzah. 
Pbofessional (jperaon), AAe^ s-^^ 

sahib-pfsliah, j^ Ai>«^ pfshah- 

Pbofessob (tectcher), u^j*^ niu- 

darris, f^^ mu'alliin, «>Va«^ 

ustdd, ^U«^^ iiatdd. 
Pbofebsorbhip, is*)'^ mudarrisf, 

ij^j*^ tadrfs. 
Pboffbb, f^^ takdfm, ij^*>)){ u^ 

To Pboffbb, (^J|;jJ\ J^ pish 4yar- 

dan, (^*y/ f^^s takdfm kardan, 

^j^ s-siyE^ takrfb nimi'idan. 
Pboficibnct, o^W3 lijAkat, sa^M 

kdbilfjat, v&>^^3 zakavat, uu%»\y 

Pboficient, yfcU mdhir, *a55jj3 

zaring, o<.^ chust, csXtW. cha- 

Pbofile, m ^ nim-rd, f^^ ««\i 

Pbofit, .>y« sdd, 2^ nafS o«&j^ 

manfa^at, SAfU fft^idah, &^j« sar- 

fah, «jy«^ tnasraf , J*^ hdsil. — 

(profit and loss) (^jVjj ^ *y. sdd u 

zijan, ^Ua) ^j^ jabar va nuks4n. 

)3^ ) ^ naf* u zarar. 
To Pbofit (benefit), (:>*-» ,VJ» 

taraff bastan. — (to make propi, 

to gain), (^^2 J^ add yaftan, 

(^^ J*U. hisil giriftan, ^ a*;* 

^•M^; sarfah bi-ham rasanidan, 

{^^ gfi naf* jdftan, (^J;) ^j^W 

jdchan zadan (vulg.). 
Pbofitable, ju^j^ bM - mand, 

e^^ n^iiS J^eA^ muffd. 
Pbofitablt, i»*JKA;(^ V| bA-manfa'at. 
Pbofitlbbb, fiJ^ ^ bf-f&,idah, ^ 

e« bf-naf*. 
PBOFLiaACT, <3-i fisk, j^J^j rindf, 

jjfjV^ J^ bad-karf,j^ fujdr, ^^ 

<j>\)J^ khwush-guzr4nf. 
Pboflioatb, J^t rind, <>«Va fisik, 

jtf J^ bad-k^r, v^V* fdjir, o*** 

shakf, v>^ kalldBh, J»^3 z&nf, 

(^\jSS ^y^ khwush-guzran, J^W^^ 

Pbofound, JU^ kamal. — (learned) 

j\x^ •Um-dAr. 

Pbofoxtndly, ohiVA| bi - gliAjat, 

cwWt bi-nih4jat. 
Pboftxndity, ub^U^ kamdlfjat, 

0;Wl bisy^rf. 
Pbofube (extreme), uhi^ nihdjat, 

wH^Vfc gh4jat. — (prodigal) 

muBrif, j^ mubazzir, 

mutlif , kJj>^ muBiif. 
Pbofubion, cj^t^ biaydrf, j^** 

vuf dr. — (prodigality) u!\jm\ iaraf, 

j2V tabzir. 
Pboobnitob, Ji^ jadd (pi. S\^\ 

ajd&d), UO^ salaf (pi uX^ 

asUf), ^\ ab (|>Z. W^ 4bA). 
Pbooeny, S1^\ aul^d, J«-i naal, 

s-J^ salab, 4i)«i zurrfyah, v»\te\ 

a'kAb, ^Hu sulAlah. 
Pboonobtic, JV» f A1, ^/a sbugdn. 
To Pboonobticatb, mde To Pbb- 


Pboobbss, ^jd ravlBh, jVxi^j raftar, 
gltj*^ tadrij, ua^ fl .. t » y tamshiyat. — 
(tn acquirement) fj>f tarakkf, 
\Bj\ irtikA. 

To Pboobess, ^.>/ ^y>/ tarakkf 
kardan. — (move) ^j^m-^ jumbi- 
dan, (^*y/ t^^^ harakat kftrdan, 
^jL6i tij^s^ mutaharrik shudan. 

Pboobesbiok, ^jy ravish, j^j 
raftar. — (arithmetical progress 
sion) (3i;tf ^ (u^ dUu s^L.^. 
bisAb-i-Bilsilah-i-jam* va tafrfk. 
— (geometrical progression) s^V<«,-». 
f^ &»J B y %^y6 dlJL hi8db-i-BilBilah- 
i-zarb va taksfm. 

PBoaBBssiYB, J>/^ mutarakkf. 

Pbogbbbbiyblt, 6ji^j ^ raftah 
raftah, glt;*^ bi-tadrfj. 

To Pbohibit, (^*y^ q*^ mana^ kar- 
dan, o*^^ O^j^ barman nimd- 
dan, (jJ^W jW bdz-dAsbtan, ^ 
^«>;^ naby kardan, o*^x^ {^^^ 
kadghan nimddan. 

Pbohibitiok, {jt^ kadgban, g^ 
manaS ^Jfi nahy. 

Pbohibitobt, g»u mini*. 

Pbojbct, vide Plot, Contbivakoe. 

To Pboject, 0^y4i •>Wi^ fjdd nimd- 
dan, (^*y^ ^fr taJYiz kardan, 
0j^^ gyd^Y ikbtira* nimddan, 




Pbojxctile,^ tfr. 

Pbojectiok, ^j-5ju-*1[ ^ bar-ima- 

Peojbctoe, Ji^*^ mdjid. 
Peolipic, jijVi bdr-var. 
Pbolix, Jty^ tayfl, J*'*^ mufassal, 

)\)*y dirlz. 
Peolixity, J«^ tafsH, v»W it- 

n4b, Ji^i? tatvfl. 
Peolixlt, M^ tatva, J*-AJ5J\ JjU 

'ala-'t-tafsO, %^ tafsflan, JjU 

^^\ *ala.'t-tavn. 
Peolooue, &«jJU mukaddamah. 
To PiiOLONo, o*^/ •>^»w^^ imtid&d 

kardan, (^^y^ )\)»> dirAz nimd- 

Peolokoatiok, S\jaA imtiddd, J^ 

madd, ^}i^ tatvfl. 
Peolokoed, *3«J^ madfd, J^^ 

tayfl, Juu^ mumtadd. — (to he 

prolonged) {^k ^^^^^^ imtiddd 

jaftan, ^J^«^ J^ tdl kashfdan. 
Peomenadb, \J»^ gardish, UUl 

tamdshd, tj^ tamrnij, jf^ sair. — 

(place) 9\S^JS tafarrui-gah, UUl 

ftVT tarndsha-gab, ^Wh}^ khijd- 

To Peomenadb, ^«>/ 76«* sair kar- 

dan, (^*y/ v&'JuT gasht kardan. 
Peominence, ij^'^\ ji bar-dma- 

Peominekt (men)^ kJjA^ mushar- 

raf, ftA#* 'umdah. — (things) ji 

*J^T bar-amadah, ftJ^^ cr«i pisb- 

Peomiscuous, Axake^f Amfkhtah. 
Peomiscuotxbly, 'U»yi9^ makblu- 

Peomisb, •>«& 'ahd, ^U«^ paimdn, 

AJA^ Ya*dab, J^ kaul, vi^^V* 

misak» j\/\ ikr4r, j^^S kardr. 
To Peomise, (^^y*i •>«£ ^ahd nimd- 

dan, (^•>/ fi«ut; va'dah kardan. 
Pbomised, *^^y* mau'M, ^V^^ 

va'fd, *yy9^ ma'btid. 
Peomisiko (propitious) y ftjuj^ far- 
kbundah, (^fiUJt humdjdn, *m)^ 
f^\ nfk-akhtar, a? ,., ^ khujis- 
tah, (^x^^ maimdn, wf)jW^ mubd- 
rak, *]^e«^ sa,fd, jijt^. bakht-jdr, 
t/ farrukh. 

Peomissoey note, a^^ j^ <ahd- 

Peomontoey, y}t^\ ^j^'^j ra,8u-'l- 
jabal, cr**\) ra>8, *-M\ anf, U[;t 
To Pbomote, ^•>/ ^/ tarakkf 
kardan, ^*>U s-*-U« ^^y^ bartarf 
mundsib dadan. 
Peomotee, '^y^ mdjid. 
Peomotiok, Ji » tarakki, Ufj\ irti- 
^^9 <.5jV r* sar-iardzf, ^/;i bar- 
Peompt, yA^*y Sms*^ chfrah-dasty 
wflSU. chdldk, tf^W chdbuk, «s5^2) 
To Peompt, o'^r^ s-*^ targhfb 
nimddan, o«>f^ ««]ii/>^ tahrik ni- 
mddan, (^^y^ ^^^ ighvd nimd- 
dan, (^ ? j fe <w ^ bar-angikbtan. 
Peompter, wi) j ^ >• muharrik. — 

(theatrical) ^X* muzakkir. 
Peomptittxde, <a.^c^ sur'at, v^^ 
^yy^ tiz-dastf, Jti-»J ta*jfl, ^(sJ^ 
flhitdb, jjjUai shitdbf, ^^*>j^ zudf. 
Peomptly, •^ni*- surf'an, Ij^ 

faaran, »>j|} zua. 
To Peomuloate, 0«>U «e>;e«b shuh- 
rat dadan, (^*i/ j\^ ishtibdr 
kardan, (d^y*i j\^\ izhdr nimd- 
dan, (^*y/ g\jb, sbdf kardan, 
^j^ S;^\ dshkdrah kardan, 
^o^ «,s^!U 'aldniyat nimudan. 
Peomuloation, ;W^^ ishtihdr, j^\ 

Peone, JTU md,il, s-^\) rdgbib. 
Peonenbsb, <a^j raghbat, J««* 

Peono, «sC(^ cbang. 
Peowoxxk, ye'^ zanifr. — (sqniraie 
pronoun) J«Aa^ je'^ zamfr-i- 
munfasil. — (affixed) J-»*^ ^e^-* 
zamfr-i-muttasU. — (demonstra- 
tive pronoun) ^j^\ f^\ ism-i- 
ishdrah. — (relative) jy^y* mau- 
sdl. — (interrogative) j»\^fAm\ f^\ 
ism-i-istifhdm. — (reflective) fi*^ 
^jXA^ zamfr - i - mushtarak. — 
(possessive) ^ «^U*« ^^«^ zamfr- 
To Peonounce, (^*y/ ^Ai talaffuz 




Pbonotxngbb, hAb#« mutalaffiz, hAi> 
ijjjS talaffuz-kunandah. 

Pbokunciation, !faAl> talaffuz, s^ae* 
makhraj, ^J^ takallum, J«yr 

Pkoof, «*W»^ isMt, y^*y dalfl, ^Va^ 
burhan, o^^ ^ hujjat. — (positive 
proof) ^\i (2)^;! burhan-i-kAti*, 
vj«trf tf ^^ ft hujjat-i-bayyinatf, 
A*el bajjinah. — (proof according 
to reason) ^JJ^ JJo dalil - i - 
*akH. — ( proof according to report 
or tradition) ^JJA JtJ*> dalfl-i- 

Prop, \}\ iza, J|^ ^amud, v£>A4^ 
^umdat, ,j*-H pushtf. — (/or sup- 
porting the branch of a tree, a 
line, &c,) A^Ui ^j dd-shakhah. 

To Pbopaoatb (trans.), ^»>U jIaj;*^ 
intish&r dadan. — (intrans.) ytsj^ 
(^sjk muntashir shudan. — (pro- 
create) O'V^ *^y taulid nimd- 
dan, ^Aji^j z^fdan, (^S\) zadan. 

Peopaoation, ^s^\j^ Birajat. — 
(procreation) ^f tavallud. 

Pbopaoatoe, ^^y valid. 

To Propel, (^^\ randan. 

Propensity, J*^ mail, va^j ragh- 

Peopee, ^3^3 lAjik, w-^^^ vAjib, \) 
ravd, \ym saza, jV>* sazd-vAr, 
aa-4^ shAyistah, s-^^ muna- 
sib, *-r^'^\ ansab, f*jll Uzim, ^y 
muvajjah. — (peculiar to) ^yoa^ 
makhsds, y^^>^ munhasir. — (to 
think proper) {^s<^\^ s^^y* savab 
danistan, (^pi^U c^ salah dd- 

Properly, s-*-U^ ^^ bi-taur-i- 

Property, «cUU milk, ss^^^X** mil- 
kfyat, «£lUi U m& yamlik, JU 
m41, J-a»» U mA basal. — (quality) 
cfc^e-oU. khassiyat, ^aJL**- khaslat, 
•j^W jibillat. (Ficfe Quality.) 
— (real property or fixtures) jV«e 
^ak^r. — (moveable or personal pro- 
perty) Jyu#« mankdl. — (property 
held in possession for a year, and 
consequently liable to be tiixed) 
J^ ^3^ haul&n-i-liaul. — (man 

of property) *^X»\ 


Prophecy, »W ikhb^r, 'W^ imbA, , 
v£>«i nuodvat, ^yi s-^ ghaib- 
gdi, tt^^kahAnat. — (the gift or 
power) t&>^ nubdvat, v^^Vg^ ka- 
bdnat, o*V^ J^^ ^s^j^ kardmat- 
i-ikhb^r nimddan. 

To Prophesy, o**r^ «^r^ nubdvat 
nimddan, ^»>T*> ^ yft^ j\ az 
pfsh khabar d&dan, ^i^s-^ 
ghaib guftan. 

Prophet, ; »* * *t paigbam - bar, 
/e-«VA^ paigb4m-bar, j^^^ payam- 
bar, ^j<i nabiy, J^j rasdi. — (fAc 
prophets) ^ y t^ ^ \ paigbam-barAn, 
\tt^\ ambiya,. 

Prophetic, <j(y^^ paigh^m-barf, 
^^p^kki^ paignam-barf. 

Prophetically, AJ^^Ut*^ pai- 
gbAmbaranab, ^^^ { ■♦ifce^ paigham- 

Propinquity, ^•H» nazdfkf, v^ 
karb, ss^^ muE^rabat, sA^^y 

To Propitiate, O"^^ j^ takfir 
nimddan. — (appease) (^^^^ 
Aramidan, ^«>t*> ^JLj tasaUf 

Propitiation, fij^ kaffdrah, ^^455 

Propitious, fij^^ty farkhundah, 
^yUA bum^ydn, y»-^ •*Xe* nik- 
akbtar, &a«.n^ kbujistah, (^y^i:^ 
maimdn, ^jW^ mub&rak, Jujt« 
8a*fd, j^ts^, bakbt-yAr, t^ far- 

Propitiously, c:>j^U^ bi-musA- 

Propitiousness, <4)^***^. bakht- 
y^ri, v£>AcL^ musd'adat. 

Proportion, j»m kadr, j^ja« mik- 
dar, <3ij vafk, ws^a*^^ muvafa- 
kat, fij^J^^ andazab, ^^^V^ ta- 
sAvf, u.^-fr^ nisbat, vs^Uo^ mut£- 
bakat, V^ iza, j\;i kardr. — (in 
proportion) s-^^ bi-tanAsub. 

To Proportion, {^saX^ 0^^^ mu- 
vafik Bakbtan. 

Proportionax, s-^U« munAsib, 
\^\y muvdfik. 




Pbopobtionallt, i*' 4 *iV » it» bi-mu- 

Pbopobtionatb, »^^Ua* mutan^- 
sib, J^U^ inu'Adil. 

Pbopobal, aVju-« ma8,alab, yj>f^ 

To Pbopobb, 0*>;^ «^U^ ik&mat 

Pboposition, *ift-^ nia8,aldh. — 
(propositions of Euclid) jt/^ 
^j^ji^^ tahrfr-i- dklidas. — ( pro- 
position in logic) tf^y* mauzuS 
i^S^m^ ina8,alah. — (affirmative 
proposition) A«^^ mdjibah. — 
(negative proposUion) '^t* sAli- 

Pbopositional, <jMi shartf. 

To Pbopound, (d^fij^ pfsh kar- 

Pbopbibtabt, <^^i^ mulUkf. 

Pbopbibtob, •«UU mdlik, Jf^ 
muTakkal, s-^^ sAhib. 

Pbopbibtt, is^ 3^-^ sAz - kArf, 
(j^^Ui sh^jistagf, «»^^U^ mu- 

Pbobooatiok, j\^^\ imtidAd, 
j^jL^j^^ istiindAd. 

To PnoBoauE, {^^ k^/^^ muta- 
farrik adkhtan. — (to he prO' 
rogued) ^-^ Je^ ta'til sbudan, 
^jjb JU^ mu'attal shudan. 

Pbobaic, fty^ (j) bi-mazah. 

Pbosb, y^ nasr. — (prose in poetic 
measure, blank verse) yty* muraj- 
jaz. — (rhythmical prose without 
measure) { %■■■>• mu8ajja^ 

To Pboscbibe, (2HSA.L1 ^yA^» mah- 
diid s^khtaD, {^^ {^f^ mal'dn 
sdkbtan, ^«>y«i ^^ tafzfh ni- 

Pbobcbiption, ^t^ tafzfh. 

To Pbobecutb (carry on)^ o**r** V^ 
irtk nimudan, ^o^^^ VJir bi-jA 
Avardan. — (legal term) A«iU^ 
(^'^f muhakamah kardan, sA^\y» 
^o^ mur^fa'at nimddan. 

Pbobecxxtion, ^Ui\ itmdm, JV*.^ 
ikmdl, J«4i^ takmO, #>Uai^^ ikti- 
tdm, f^y^^ insirim. — (legal term) 
6Mi\j^ murAfa'ah, a«^W* muh4- 

Pbobbcittob ^jftJ^ mudda'f, ^^U 
8h4kf, f\p^ «>U dAd-khw4h, fS^s^ 
mutazallim. — ( Public Prosecu- 
tor) o^y^ t5^*^ mudda*i-i- 

PBOSBLrrE, vJ*;t Ji^U dakhil-i- 
tarik, J***^ tJ^V* ™u,min - i - 
jadid, tJ^Ji^ jadid. 

Pbobody, s^pf^ fJ^ *ilm-i-'aruz. 

Pbobpect, f^ manzar, j6^ maz- 
har, {>43a^ mutmah. 

Pbospectiyb, jku^ ma ntazaro^^ 
cb^U ^^A^ mdrid - i - chashm- 

Pbobpegtub, y^v^ tafsfl. 

To Pbobpeb, (;)AIi tf^ itX^ n{k- 
bakht shudan, o^^ J^^ ikbdl 

Pbobpebitt, JVfl^ ikb&l, upoU^ 
sa^&dat, ^juuJjUu. sa^Adat-mandf, 
oy^f<et nfk - bakhtf, us)^«^ 
bakht-j^rf, J^^*^ farkbundagf, 
^^«> daulat, iS^A^ M* bahrah- 
mandf, <^'>*t«» bih-bddf, v^^^j^e^ 
f irdz-mandi, ^y/ tarakkf, ut'. u »* 
maimanat, c^ fai&h, tx^ bara- 
kat, <j;;W ^^ ^ bar-khwnr-darf, 
fca-H( ; t* khairijat. 

Pbospebous, ^^;^V^kdmr4n,*u^«>UM 
8a'4dat - mand, jC«\^ k^mg^r, 
o^ami^ mas'dd, «^ ««^ nfk- 
bakht, ftJu^y farkhundah, M^Ui^ 
hum^jdn, ysdS\ itX^ nik-akntar, 
^' ' - ^t * kbujistah, (^y*-t- maimdn, 
•*j;W^ mubarak, J^o*- 8a*fd, ^^^8*5: 
bakht-jdr, t/ farrukh. 

Pbostebnation, ^j-Sl>lsi^ uft&- 

Pbobtittttb, &JU.\i fdhishah, 4^^ 
zdniyab, J J Idlf, ^VW j&fjA 

_^ kahbah, ^^ la- 

van3, J^tr kdvalf (vulg.), »«w^ 
jindah (vuZ^.). 

To Pbostitute, (^*^y^ ^^ za,i* 
nimudan. — (to prostitute oneself) 
^j^ j^ jl^ UUL ^jjj*. khwudra 
Takf-i-kar-i-baa nimudan, ftJus^. 
;;)^^t« jindah sdkhtau, s-^/» 
^.Lk U^^ murtakib - i - fahsni 

Pbobtitutiok, ^^Aitf, jindagf, fiJu^ 




v5jV| jindah-Mzf, ^Jiti^h tthi- 

Peostbate, 6»y\si\ uftadah. 

To Prostrate, (^ju^^ afkandan, 
(jJ5i.W^ andakhtan. — (to prostrate 
oneself) (^»y\si\ uft&dan, \)*>^ 
(^jjSj1\ khwudrA afkandan. 
' Prostration, fi*x^^ sijdah, t>^^«* 
sujud, (ds^\ istilam. — (medical 
term) ^f> sar*. 

To Protect, (j)*>W vs^Ua. him^yat 
dddan, O'V^ c^iUew hifazat ni- 
mudan, (^«>^ ij>i\t^ siydnat kar- 
dan, o^^ ub^^W* muhArasat 

Protection, oiU*. him^yat, »U^ 
pan4h, ^LibV^ nig4h - Mnf, 
<^^U»* hifazat, u>IbiV«^ inuhAfa- 
zat, (i)^\ aman, *j>i^ siy^nat, 
j\^} zinhAr, ^j»^ hirs, ^a^^j 
ri*ayat, ^ mata, fj\i fiJk»*> dfdah- 

Protective, tAW» muhafiz. 

Protector, vj**^ pushtf, o^^ 
hAmf, IbftW* muliAfiz, yfc\^ mu- 
zAhir, o>/* murabbi. 

pROT^at, 0s^^ AjL. sAyah-nishfn, 
^^ murabba, ^'^j^ji panrardah. 

Protest, *> ^ft i j .>« ^ istishhdd, tA^^j^ 
partast (eur.). 

To Protest, (j)*>W «>*>l^ sbahAdat 
dddan, 0*^x^ u:w^ partast ni- 

Protestation, jWa«*^ ishtihAr, cMi^ 

Protocol, »jaU^ «a>;^ sdrat-i- 
mu'ahadab, aLj^a^ mazbatah. 

Prototype, &ab*<xi nuskbab. 

To Protract, ^jjJ».^Ji^ Oi^j** dar 
ta*vik andAkhtan, ^J*^ y^^\s 
ta,khir nimiidan, (^*>/ jjji*^ dfrf 
kardan, ^t>^«JUy tavakkuf kar- 

Protracted, J^ tiil, j\j*> dirdz. 

Protraction, ^"V? ta,kbfr, wi«> dfr. 

To Protrude, ^j^1[ (j^ pfsn Ama- 

Protrusion, ^j^T ^ bar-Amadagf. 

Proud, j^ maghrur, p^J^ muta- 
kabbir, ^xu^ j^ khwud-pasand, 
^jj^ o^ khwud-bin, ^.**» mu- 

dammagb, j\ Ji&U«> dim4gb-dAr« — 
(to 6e proud) (jjjaU ^U*> dimAgb 
dAsbtan, O'V^ 7^ tajabbar ni- 

Proudly, Ai\yi^s^ mutakabbirdnah, 
p^ V| bA-takabbar. 

To Prove, ^«>/ c:^^ sAbit kardan, 
^j^ c:>W>^ isbdt nimiidan, wsJS«> 
^«>y*i daldlat nimudan, ^»>/ J^J^ 
mudallal kardan. — (to he proved) 
^Ju6to d^Vji c^^^ sahfb-yAft shu- 
dan, (:)*Mfe o^\> s&bit shudan. — (to 
prove to he true) o**^ i34J^ tas- 
dfk nimddan. — (to prove to he 
false) (^^y^ sHt«^ takzfb nimd- 

Proveable, vu\^\ J^Vi k4bil-i- 
isbAt, j2*^ *A>\J\ isbdt-pazfr. 

Provender (f(yr cattle), ^^ *ald- 
fah, cJ^ <alaf, Ok^ 'alfk, \;<^ 

Proverb, Jit#» masal, jA*i1 v»^ 
zarbu-'l-masal, ^J^ masalah (^2. 
J\A«^ amsdl). 

Proverbial, J^I vv^ zarbu-'l- 

To Provide, i^^y^ ^^ tahiyah 
nimudan, ^J^ A«>U1[ 4m&dah kar- 

Provided that (on condUion)^ 
A^;Aj bi-shartf-kih, A5aV| L^ 
mashrut bi-4n-kih, ^ ^yo j«> 
dar sdrat-kih. 

Providence (Divine), ^J^ trti 
pfsh-bfnf, j6i^ tadbfr, v&>jjj ku- 

Provident, (^ «fi^U 'Akibat-bfh, 
*u»Ajt«>>^ andfsh-mand, •xa^ ^W^.^ 

Providential, ^^Ij^a. khudi,f, 
^^^ ilAhf. 

Province, jV|*> diydr, olUU mulk. — 
(suhdivision of a province) *j^ 
kdrah. — (smaller subdivision of 
the above) *^i^ biddk. — (the pro- 
vinces) ^^tjj^* ««UU« inam41ik-i- 

Provincial, ^^^^ valAyatf. 

Provision, ^•a? tadbfr. 

Provisional, lA^y mnvakkat, 
6j3y» muvakkatah. 





PsoTisiONAUiT, 'Us^ muvakka- 

Provisions, *^\jf- khwurdk, \^ 
ghiza, J^^ akl, ^UL ta'ain, ^^*>^ 
iiziikah. — (for a journey), 0^3 
zdd, AAy tdshah, ft^i zakhirah. 
— {salt provisions) te^w^U.^ mam- 
ldhdt,^ j - ■■ < •■> namaksdr. 

Proviso, ^/^ shart. 

Provocation, {/^f^ tahrfz, *tkf^ 

Provocatives (aphrodisiace), 

%x>^t QS^t^ mushtahij^t, u:>W<^ 

To Provoke, (;)j;afee^^ »i bar-an- 
gfkbtan, ^J^\yi^ kbizanidan, 
^jj^ *s\i^ tahrik kardan, jt^ 
^ • *V '■ taghayyur sdkhtan. — 
{enrage) ^J^Vj ranjAnidan, 
^jj^ ^Uf^ gbazab-ndk kardan, 
^«y ««)U«JU. kbisbm-nak kardan. 

Provokinoly, A>Uaat--» niaskbi- 

Prow (of a vessel), ^j*^ /- sar-i- 
kasbti,^^- jilau, (^ \j ra,8. 

Prowess, ^^^W^ mardAnagf, ^^ J*3 
diliri, <4M^** dilAvari, ^a.^* ^ him- 
mat, *:^^y^ jur,at, u:^^^a sbu- 

Proximate, ««\i^y nazdik. 

Proximity, <j^»^ nazdik i', vs^/ 

kurbat, uw^^ kardbat, sH|;a7 

Proxy (person), ^^ vakil. — 

draper) A*»U u^JV^ vak41at-nd- 

Prttdb or Prudish, J^;/ oAc 

'iff at - f urdsb, ^y^ aaj zubd- 


Prudence, y^^ tadbir, y<:t*s tam- 
yfz, jWs^^ imtiyAz, jjJa.*Ayfc bdsb- 
mandf, ^^ju^o^ kbird - mandf, 
ij^^ farbangi, %A»y^^ basfrat. 

Prudent, AuAy^ busb-mand, jW^y^ 
busb-ydr, J*Vc *dkil, j«|J^ s-^V* 
sAbib - tadbir, ^«^ Ja^ abl- 
tamyiz, ^aJ^y zirak, ax^*^*. kbird- 
mand. — (a prtu^^ man) y^^ ^}A^ 

Prudently, ^U»\^*w^ ibtiydtan. 

Prudery, ^^j^ o^4e 'iffat-furusbf, 
^^ u&»,».^ r ^smat-furusbf. 

Prune (dried plum), *sIa«a. jj'y^ 
Ald,f.i.kbu8bk, ^;\^. ^^^^ filii,f.i- 

To Prune, (^^^ s^VU. bitab kardan, 
^j^ i»«»ft^^ pd,isbt kardan, 
^ j^ u^'ii^U pAbisbt kardan. 

Prurience, vi^yAi sbauk, va>^ sbah- 
vat, ;^y^ bavas. 

Prurient, *u^ ^y^ bavas-mand, 
<^^-«ji u^^ sbabvat-parast. 

Prying, y»-^ sirr-jd, ^j^j raz-jd, 
^ .*. A7 ,^*» mustafsir, ^ ^ i<& g ..« » * mus- 
taksf, (j&^sA^ mufattisb. 

To Pry, (^jj/ uft«5« taftisb kardan. 

Psalm, jy^ mazmdr, /-j zamr, ^yj 
zabdr. — (Psalms of David) jjl) 
*>/W zubdr-i-da,ud, •>;'1*> y^y* 
mazamir-i-da,dd . 

Psalmist, yt^^y* s-^^ sAbib-i- 
mizanii'r, ^jjij zabdrf. 

Psalter, ^yj zabdr,^^^ mazdmfr. 

Pshaw, 9\y vab. 

Puberty, t!^ buldgb, o^^l) bu- 
lugbat, ^j5j^5-j rasidagf, s^W^ 
sbabab. — (age of pvherty), J^ 
t^ badd-i-bulugb, Ul^ j^ 
badd-i-taklif, ^^ (^ sinn-i- 
shu'ur. — (to come to the age of 
puberty), (^J^ ^W bAligb sbudan, 
^ju-j jyiAi (jj— 4 bi-sinn-i-sbu'dr 
rasioan, (^*V^-<•) «-AJ^ •***: bi-hadd- 
i-taklff rasiaan, (^^ tj^ J««i 
bi-badd-i-buldgb dmadan. 

PuBEs, j^} zabar, ct^W *dnat. — 
(hair on the puhes) j^\ %sy* 
mu,f-i-zab&r, {^^^ ramgan, fA^ 
pasbm, ^fJ^ sbi'rab. 

Public (commom), ^W <Amm, f»^ 
*umum, ^fJL^ musbtarak. — (the 
public) (^^y» mardum, (*fi kaum. 

Publican, ^J^ AtVatt^ mai-kbanab- 

Publication, j^\ izhkr, f!M i*lAm, 
^W i*bin. — (literary) »A!;^ jarf- 
dab, v'bi' kitab, &tiy^ mat* 

Public-house, &>Vab«^ mai-kbdnab. 

Publicity, (^W© 'iydn, ^a^j\ intisbA, 
£^ sbuyd'. 




Publicly, *1yfc^ z4hiran, A^ilU *ala- 
nijah, ajUai^ dshMrah, "^^^ 

Public works, *a '* ^ » <* «t>^*Ui^ in- 
8ha,at-i-'umumfyah. — {Minister 
of Public Works) '^\^ j4jj vazfr- 

To Publish, o**r^ j\J^\ intishAr 
nimudan, ^jyijV^^ ^shkar ni- 
mddan, 0*>/ y^ nashr kardan, 
^^sdX^ ytAi^ muntashir B&khtan. 
— (a hooh) (^*>^»> ^yi^\ intishar 
dadan. — (Jto he published) g^ 
(^\*^ shuvu* dAshtan. 

Publisher, tjjjbj ^Ujs>^ intish^r- 

Publishing - house, j^*Ui!J^ ^^*> 
d4ru-'l-insha,f, AiUjU. chap- 
khanah, diU^^^ matba'-khauah. 

To Pucker (trans.) y (^*y/ {^^ ^ pur 
chin kardan. — (intrans,) (^^a*- j> 
^JA pur ohm s hud an. 

Pudding, *s^*>»> piiding (eur.). 

Puddle, jA} 4b-gir, s^^**^ 

Pudendum (virile), «^^ Alat, /•i 
zakar, j-ji kir, *yy va>j^ *aurat-i- 
mard, sy narah, (jo*a» nafs, ^)^ 
fal&nah, ^\ alfijah, s-^y&S 
kazib. — (muliebre) J^ kus, «i>;»ft 
cy ^aurat-i-zan, ©y farj, M«i 

Puerile, sj'p JaJ* tifl-vash, JoiU d^. 

Puerilely, &>S^ tiflAnah. 

Puerility, ^JAl tiflf. 

Puff, va>y f dt, «-Ai puff. 

To Puff (blow), (^^^ «-A> puff 
kardan, (^^f v£>y fdt kardan. 
— (praise extravagantly) s3^^\ 
{^^ ighr^k guftan, cJb^ jly 
(^»>/ zijad ta*rif kardan. — (to 
puff oneself up) ^J^^-U^ amdsi- 
dan. — (to be puffed up) (jjJA j^yu 
maghrdr shudan, f^oJk S^ ^ pur 
bad shudan. 

Puffy, ,^*>Vj b4df, 5JLfr-U^ dni^sf- 

Pugnacious, vide Quarrelsome. 

Pull, ^J^^ kashish. 

To Pull, ^j^^ kashidan. — (off) 

(^s^ ji bar-kashfdan, ^Ju^ kan- 
dan, (jjJj^ gU. khal* kardan. — 
(dow7i) (^*y/ s-^/^ takhrib kar- 
dan, (^*i/ isfij> part kardan. — 
(out) (j^i^e^ ji bar-kashfdan, ji 

i^*^)^ bar-dvardan, eJ*V^ ^j^ 

ikhraj nimddan, ^^;^ ^ kal' 

Pullet, dq.^ jujah, d^. ^j<k^ 

Pulley, sy^^ ghargharah, ^j^ 

Pulp (of fruit, Ac.), cu*i»^ gusht, 

y^ maghz. — (soft mass or mix- 

iure) jti*^ khamfr. 
Pulpit, pA>» mimbar. 
Pulpy, jW yu maghz-ddr, ^y 

Pulsation, d^ nabzah. 
Pulse (artery), J^ nabz. — (Jbeai- 

^^9 of the pulse) j^ ^s^^ hara- 

kat-i-nabz. — (to feel the pulse) 

^jo J or c>siy o*** uabz giriftan or 

didan. — (pea) dj--^ karsannah, 

(jj— i kisan, d*U j6' gav-ddnah, 

^y 6\i\^ bdkilah - mushf. — 

(leguminous 'plants in general^ 

&c.) «yW^t»" hubiibdt. 
To Pulverize, o"^^ ^^^^ sahk 

nimudan, 0*^^ kubidan. 
Pumice-stone, dJU \^ 4sC^ sang-i- 

Pummel, vide Pommel. 
Pump, d^Jd. tulumbah, W^ bumb& 

(ewr.), ^»4^ bambu (eur.). 
To Pump, o»>^ oW^ fjdd nimd- 

dan. — (worm secrets from) ^^ 

^jy ^jl| rubah-bdzi kardan. 
Pumpkin, ^j^ kaddu. 
Pun, dA<^ latifah, d}J^ bazlah, dtUl' 

kin ay ah. 
To Pun, o*yy^ diJoI latffah nimd- 

dan, o^y*^ ^*^ bazlah nimddan. 
Punch, s-^a^ miskab. 
To Punch, ^•^i c:JUU miskab za- 

dan. — (strike) ^*>3 zadan. 
Punch and Judy, J^ o^^ P*^* 

lavan-i-kachal, 3^ fty karah-gdz. 
Punctual or Punctually, *a3ji 

bi-vakt, «>jyV) bi-'l-eakt, oS^^ 





PUNCTTTALITT, 4a^»> dikkat. 

To PlTNCTTJATE, {^\^ Ja» nukat 

Punctuation, ^sj^^ *^ nuktah- 

Ptoqbnt, yt? tiz, ^ talkh, *>V^ 

liddd, 'XjS tund. 

PUNQKNCY, <4>e5 tfzf, ,jafci5 talkhf, 

j^xJ tundi. 

To Punish, ^*>/ ct^.>*W'* siydsat 
kardan, ^V^; \yF: bi-jaza ras4- 
nfdan, <:)»>W \y» siza dadan, 
(^j)y*i uw^ 'ukdbat niiDiidaD. 

Punishable, ^y* J}^ kdbil-i-sizA. 

Punishment, U«* siz4, tf»%>*W^ sijd- 
sat, uwytfi 'uKubat, s-st»>*^ ta,dib, 
v»\te *ikAb, J^ nakAl, ytij ^ 
sar-zanisb, **>** tambHi. — (reto- 
liatory) ^^^ kisAs. — (discrc' 
tionary) jiy»S ta*zfr. — (prescribed 
hy law) J>^ hadd. — (capital) Jjs* 
latl. — -(hy blinding or mutilating) 
vJM nasak. 

Punkah, ^ «>W bad-kash. 

Punnet, j^- sabad, J«ij zambil, 
^ sallah. 

PuNSTEB, ft^Qby*'^ maskbarah, 4^ Ai^ 
latffab-gd, *^^)«i--* inustanzi,. 

Puny, *>/- kburd, *>j^ kbwurd, 
««l^^ kuchik, jt*^ sagbir, ^ kib, 
^V^ pdcbab. 

Pup, ^. bacbab. 

fupiL (scholar), o^U sbdgird, &«it 

"' talabab. — (of a holy man) •»!/• 
murfd, JkfrJ? talmfz. — (of the eye) 
jlji bubA, f^Jt^ *aUjy« mardumak- 
i-cbasbm, ^liUJt^ cbasbmilan, 
^ bibib (ottZa.). 

Pupilage, ^^j;;!^ sbAgirdf. 

Puppet, «<U»jj«e 'arusak, ^^^3^ 
'ariiscbab, aVyie 'alucbik (mdg,). 

PuBBLiND, jj^ sbab-kdr. 

Purchasable, j«;A. ^)»Vs kdbil-i- 

PuBCHASB, J«/>kbarfd, \/tA\ isbtiri. 

To PuBCHASE, e*^/* kbaridan, 
^*yy^ \j»k\ isbtird nimiidan, 
(jjj/ ^\^\ ibtiyd* kardan, ^ 
(«>iAAiW bar-dasbtan. 

PuBCHASEB, (4;S«'^^ luusbtarf. 

PuBB, *t^^ paky fiye^ p4kizab, U^"^ 

sdf, J^k^ musaffd, jM> tdbir, 
;6^ mutabbar, <j» nakf, J 3) 
zulal, 6y-JL-« munazzab, ^/J«-^ mu*- 
arrd, Hy* sarih, s^^ nab, \^ 
sara, ,^^^ muzakki, #JUi sdlim. 

PuBBLT, '^-slfiis^ mukblisan, *U^* 

PuBOATivB, Je—^ mus-bil. 

PuEOATOBY, jflla^ matbar, u\/i\ 
a,nif. [Tbo latter is supposed 
to be a division between beaven 
and bell, regarding tbe precise 
nature of wbicb tbere is some 
difference of opinion.] 

PuBOE, ^%- juUdb, J«— • <^*^^»> 
dava, i-i-mus-bil. 

To PuBGB, e*^^ M^ tankijah 
nimudan, O'^x^ J^^ is-bal ni- 
mudan. — (to he purged) (a*^/ J** 
fi*l kardan, {^/ J^T is-bdl 

PuBGiNG, J^^ is-bal, 

PuBiPicATioN, A«&** tankiyab, M^ 
taafiyab. — (previous to prayer) 
yi>y Yuzd, j W L z ^*> dast-namdzy 
o— A>^ ab-dast. — (ablution of the 
whole hody) J— ^ gbusl. — (after 
calls of nature) W-i^i-^ istinja, 
ws>;W» tabarat, ;««la* tatbir. — (after 
touching a corpse or other unclean 
thing) va>jW^ tabarat, ^^j^ls— ii 
sbustagi. — (of forty days after 
childbirth) ^j-Ui nif as. 

PuBiPiED, *43^ p4k, 6)<j^ pdkfzaby 
U\^ saf , ^^^ musaffa, j*^ tdbir, 
^6^ mutabbar, ^ naki, J^lj zu- 
lal, 8)J^ munazzab, \^ mu'arrd, 
^yo sar{h, v»^ ndb, \)t- sdrd, 
(_^y« muzakki, ^^ salim. 

To PuBiPY, (^*^/ M^ tankijah 
kardan, O'V^ ^ - ti - * " ^ > tasfijah 
nimiidan, (^^S u\^ sdf kardan, 
^jj^ vsJU pak Kard&n. 

PuBiTY, Jj^ pdki, o*)*^ pdkfzagi, 
VAo said, ^'^Ao 8af^,l, *a^^ nazd- 
fat, ct-ft-\;-o sardbai, \&^\y nazd- 
bat, v£>^Ui^ nakdyat, v&>jW^ tabdrat. 

PuELiEU, 4-*\y.^ atrdt, J^^ ba- 

To PuBLOiN, (^AjiJju duzdfdan, 
(;)•>/ <3^j«^ duzdi kardio.. 




PUBLOINBB, •>)•> duzd. 

PuBPLE, «je5 yy kirmiz-i-tfrali, 
jtf^ ^jtJUj binafsh-i-sfr, ^^^y^j^ ax- 
PuBPOBT, S "^- ^ ^ *• matlab, ^j-^-«-^ 

To PuBPOBT, (^W A*i kasd d&sh- 

PuBPOSK, ^*i\j\ iradah, ^\y» mur&d, 
fj^ 'azm, u:^««*^ 'azimat, A«i kasd, 
jyflft* maksua, f»^ kam, ^s^ nf- 
yat, ,j6;fc gharaz, va^-*^^ khwast, 
*aHi^ taviyat, }/y* markdz, *s^^ 
41iang, j^ Bar, ^j;^ drzd, /^/« ma- 
rgin, o^Jfc himmat, s-^ talab, 
s-J^ matlab, W bind, ^^fiU d^- - 
*iyah. — (onpurpose) 1.u>i kasdan, 
^*x«^ amdan, &s^W ; &aj|J didah 
ya ddnistah. 
To PuBPOSE, (^<3^J^ kasd kardan, 
^j)A-^^ khwastan, ^^W 5*>\)^ ird- 
dah ddshtan, (j)JaW W bind 
To PuBB (as a cat), ^Oj^/^ khur- 

khur kardan. 
PuBSE, ^^--s^ kisah, »;« aurrah. — 
(leathern) (jW^J^ hiniydn, s^W 
jirdb. — (cut-purse) ^^ tarrar, 
ji iL*^ kfsah-burr. 
PuBSLAiN, ^f- kharfah, ^^aU khal- 
f ah, 'A 8 ♦ ^ 1^ ^ 1 g > baklatu- 
PuBsuABLi, s-^3^ J|VS kabil-i-ta'ak- 

Ib Pubsuance of, w-^^ bi-mujib, 

* i ft hasb. 

To PuBsuK, (jJ^j tri pas raftan, 
;j)J5i^ v^j** dar pay raftan, c5;;«i 
^j^ pairavf nimudan, (^j s-a^ 
'akab raftan, (^j JM*> dumbAl 
raftan, (^^/ s-^U» ta'dkub kar- 
PuBsuiT, wStS ta'akkub, s-^W ta*- 
Akub. — (in toar) s-^*^ 4S^^ jang- 
i-'akab. — (in pursuit of) s-^o^w ^ 
To PuBVEY, (jjOj^^U- hAzir kardan. 
PuBVEYANCE, AcflF tahiyah, i^j\^ 
tadaruk. — (for travellers) va>L.jy-» 
sursat, sft>Cj^««« suyursat, x^j 

PuBYEYOB, ^y^ iy^ zakbfrab-clify 
j\^j^ sarkar. 

Pus, f^j rim. 

Push, Jy^ hul, Ja hul, ctU suk, 
tj^ takAn, ^*> daf *, ^*> dasr. 

To Push, (^J^iT^ rindan, ^*>\*> Ja 
hul d4dan, ^^W (^V^ takdn d4- 
dan, 0»>W «sX^ suk dddan, ^ 
(jjoW lah dddan. — (atoay) o^^l) ^^ 
yd- randan, (^t>^ g^*y daf ^ kardan. 
— (m) (:)•** V" tapdndan. 

Pushing (eager) ^ fp^ mubrim, 
^ sA^A^ sibkat-ju, {^^ f^^ ta- 

Pusillanimity, Jj^ej bf-dilf, ^ 
^y*^;9- kam-jura,tf. 

Pusillanimous, J»> o* bf-dil, ^ 
Mw*\;«^ kam-jura,t. 

Puss, ^ijS'gurbah. 

Pustule, ^^j^ kurk, ^i basar, «U 
danah, t^^ jush. 

To Put, {^MS guzdshtan, (^*ij\Sf 
guzardan, ^^^ nihddan, ^^ 
(^*>/ yaz* kardan, (^*y/ kardan, 
i^ysi'ij^ hishtan, ^Jjt^ hilfdan. — 
(outf extimjuish) ^J^Uti nisbdn- 
dau, (2>x^ kusbtan, e^^ ^^ itfd 
nimudan, ^^^^^U* (^jALjl* muntaff 
sakhtan, ^t^^ \J»y\d. khdmdsh 
kardan, ^^y va^^ sdkit kardan. 
— (eject) e^T^Ojtr^} bfrdn kardan, 
(j*^\) randan, ^*>^ 2^«> daf' ni- 
mudan, (:)*>/ ^^ mana* kardan. — 
(on, dress) y*MU.^ pushdnfdan, 
^*i^ ^j**«A* talbis nimudan. — 
(off) videTo Undbess. — (to put in 
practice) tj^rf *V^ bi-kdr burdan, 
O'^j^l^. bi-ja ayardanj^^Nth^yarzf- 
dan, Q)*ij^} J**j bi-*amal dyardan. 
— (off, to procrastinate) vs^-J^ «i^-.«> 
(2)^/ dast bi-dast kardan, ijiyo yy 
{^\M dar ta'yfk anddkntan, 
^jyti ^*V5 ta,kh{r nimudan, 
^j^ J^ ^ «>J lait ya la*all kar- 
dan. — (to put forth, extend) j\)*> 
^«>;^diraz kardan, ^j^^^ kashf- 
dan. — (to put forth, blossom) 
{^/^ sbikuftan, {^siSmb shiknf- 
tan, 0^3 &^^ gbimchah zadan. 
— {to put forward, propose) sa.^\3\ 
(^*y/ ikdmat kardan. — (to hecoms 




put out) tjJ^ je^*> dil-gir shu- 
dan. — (to put up with) o^mT v»^ 
tab uvardan, {^\*y v»w t^b 
dashtan. — (to put to, a horse) 
^^s^ iS\jmi bi-*arradah bastan. 

PUTBEPACTION, ,^.*<5-^ pUSldagl. 

Putrefied, ^^x^^^ pusidah, i^i^sjS 

gandfdah, ^Jolgandah. 
To Putrefy, o*^^ pusidan ,o*34Ju(5' 


PuzzLBy v*\ raxnz 


yk3 lugnz, Al^A^ mushkilah. 
To PuzzLB, (^*i/ jV^ j*> du>cb4r 

kardan. — (to bepuzzled) <^jAjU.^»> 

du-cbar sbudan, ^j>^ jt^f^ mu- 

tabajjir budan. 
Puzzling, J^-a«« musbkil. 
Pyramid, ^^^ baram (pL fXji^X ab- 

ram, or fSjib baram;. 
Pyre, *>y^ vakdd or vukdd. 


Quack, j^ *ajyiir. 

To Quack (as a duck), (^^^ ^y wf)^ 

yak-vak Dimiidan. 
Quackery, i^;^ *ayyari. 
Quadrangle, &^^ J^ cbabdr- 

Quadrangular, g^y» murabba', 

6AjS^j\^ cbabAr-gusbab. 
Quadrant, *y^«> gj; rub*-i-da,irab. 
Quadrate, ^y murabba*. 
Quadrature, Qeiy tarbi*. 
Quadriliteral, ^^^j ruba'i. 
Quadruped, ^ j^ cbabar-pa, jU 

^V^ cb^-payab. 
Quadruple, a*V5' jU. cbAr-ganab, 

S jU. cb4r-lA, ^ jW^ cbabar-tA. 
Quaff, \>y ndsb. 
To Quaff, o^'^y nusbfdan, 

^JL^U*^ ashAmTdan, o*bJ*" kbwur- 

Quagmire, vide Swamp. 
Quail, a^^^ budinab, &»U*» Bam4- 

nab, c:hs^j*^ bildarcbfn, ^; 

To Quail (to show the white fea- 
ther, to flinch) j (;>Ja5^/^ o^J^^ j^ az 

maid&n gurfkbtan, (j^i"^ j^ 

kandr justan, {^\^ ^ tiiab 

Quaint, uuU latif, s-st^ gbArfb, 

s-^«^c *ajib. 
To Quake, o*V*/ tarsfdan, (jjt-^jA 

0*^ birasan sbudan, (^U ^y 

tars dasbtan. 

Quaker, o^/ tars^n, «s)U^y tars- 
nak, Ui;W kba,if, ^Uyfc bird- 

QUALIFICA.TION, *-A*-y tausif, «JU^ 
vasf, «j---J^Vj kabili'yat. 

To Qualify, o*V^' •-Atj-y tausff 
nimudan, (j*^y^ <»^j vasf nimu- 
dan. — (to qualify oneself) ^j*>*^ 
0AkL. J}U kbwudra kabil sdkn- 

Quality, ^a-***^ kbdssijat, •*>;*-• 
sirat, u>JLe^ kbaslat, g«i tab^ 
ui^U z^t, <-A«^ vasf, c:^A« sifaty 
»>^ nibad, va^^ kaif ijat, ifr««i^U 
mAbfjat, ^J»J^ *araz, >j.'i i*<^ baisf- 
yat. — (of cloth) Ji^Ul kumdsb. 

Qualm, <:jW^ gbasyan. — (qualm of 
conscience) (aV^ sbakk. 

Qualmish, jUtrf bim^r, ^^ U n4- 

Quandary, ijf^ mazik. 

Quantity, jJ^i kadr, j^J*« mikdar, 
^U m^yab, 6)\^\ and&zab, s -^ - ' ^* 
basb, u>t»^ kammiyat, ^ kunb, 
^j*V<JU inikyas. — (great quantity) 
V\^\ ifrat, ^J\^^ fardvAnf, sJfi 
kasrat, ^J^\ afzunf, ^jWi bis- 
yari, *a>/^ vafrat, sa»* ^ gbani- 
mat, fj^') ziyadati. 

Quarantine, ^^-t^-^-i^^ kar^ntfn 

Quarrel, J^^** da*v4, J^ nizd*, 
u:.^jU« munaza^at, Sy^Uu^ musbd- 
jarab, J*% jadal, gW IS'JAJ* ^«^ 




kazfyah, * > t l ij a kharkhishah, 
d^ftilL* mun^kashah, J^y^^^ sit (z ah, 
j\^ takrar, (»)l < » j » hay a j an, 
^U^\ ightishash, vilO^ Jang. 
To QuABBEL, Q)*^/ JSii^ jang kar- 

dan, t)**/ 


kardan, o^^f ^fS takrdr kardan, 
O**/ Jj^o da'v4 kardan, <j>»^^^ 

QUABBELSOMB, ty^ l&juj, £M 

vfr^«*3 niza^-ddst, m> <^vt^^ sitfzah- 


QuABBT, igCL (^u kdn-i-sang, ^j^*- 
*fX^ ma'dan-i-sang. 

QuABTEB (one 'fourth) J ^j rub*, 
«£\i j^ chahar-yak, ceJ^U. ch^rik, 
^j\^ &«k. hissah-i-chahiirum. — 
(a qtuirter to . . . ) fi^U ... ^ ^) 
rub* bi ... mdndah, ^ ^/^ ... 
... yak - rub* kam. — (a quarter 
past . . .) Aafti.^ • • J^ fi; '^^^^ az . . . 
guzashtah. — (regiori) csiU mulk, 
»jHt!l^ valayat, jyi^ kishvar, <^Sai 
khuttah, •iij balad, ^ bihid, jVjj 
diyar, f^\ iklim, &^\ ulkab, *^jji 
ydrt. — {of a town or city) J^ 
mahall, Ai^^ mahallah. — {of the 
moon) ge»/ tarbi*. — {mercy) (j\A 
am4n, Jsi-»> dakhil, fiU> jvanah, 
o*: bakht, pVe^j zinMr. — (fo give 
quarter) (^^y^y^) zinhiir dadan. 
— {to seek quarter) tj«V«J^ j^j zin- 
h^r talbidan. 

To QuABTEB, (^^\*^ (j^--* mask an 
dadan, (^*>\^ W ja d^dan. — {to he 
quartered) {^f (j^^** maskan 
giriftan, {^/ W- ja giriftan. — 
{divide in parts) (jsiX^ fi^U ^^^ 
chahar parah sakhtan. 

QuABTEBLT, f^^ ;W yi dar chAr 

To Quash {annul) ^ o^^J^^ vA-zadau, 
^jLjUjTjUy* mubtal gardanidan, 
^a/ JLW ban kardan, J^^ 
^*>^ ibtal nimudan, {^siX^ ^^ 
naskh sakhtan, {^^j^ ty^*-^ man- 
Bukh kardan, (^^f ^^y* maukuf 

QuATBAiN, g/« murabba*, <^Wj 

QuAVEB {trill of the voice in sing- 

ing), )\n{ jif^ tahrfr-i-AvAz, lalfc 

)\^ ghalat-i-dv4z. 
Quay, »VJpAA| bandar- gah, fiVJ ^^^ 

furud-gah, i^^\ askalah {eur,) 
Queen, &^^ malikah, <uUJL sulta- 

nab, aU 0} zan-i-shdh, ftU ^^ 

haram-i-shdh, fj^ begum, yW 

Queek-dowageb, a*Uj *d53U mdli- 

Queeb, s-^%fi 'ajab, s-^«^ 'aj^> 

^T^jt gharib. 
QuEEBLY, "V*^ *aifban. 
To Quell, ^j^/ f^yi drdm kardan, 

^jk^\j\ drdmidan, yo\o ^J^ ta- 

salli dddan, (^j/uLjA*!? takhfff 

kardan, (^*i/ (^U. sdkin kardan, 

(^jjUti nishdndan. 
To Quench {thirst), o»>W ^j^«5Lj in dddan, (^JJt^ nishdndan. 

— {fire) (jjJitu nishdndan, ^jaa^ 

kushtan, (:;*>^ W itf a nimudan, 

^^L. ^^jfiLu. muntafi sdkhtan, 

(jjj*;^ \^^^ khdmush kardan, 

^^^ u:.^C sdkit kardan. 
QuENCHABLE, (jj-X^ J^Vs kdbil-i- 

taskin, j>«^ ^\ itfd-pazir. 
Querist, J>U sd,il, ^ Qft? ..^>« mus- 

Query, aIs*— • mas,alah. — {question) 

J^'y- 8U,dl, Lr*->» pursish, ^^eAs-.^ 

istifhdm, j Ua? ..^ istifsdr. 
Quest, vide Search. 
Question, J^V* 8u,dl, lA-7> pur- 

sish, 1*^6^^ istifhdm, ^U.«aLi\ is. 

tifsar. — {affair) ^ kdr, yA amr, 

^y^ *amal, &UU* mu*amalah, v- 

^ ^ sar va kdr, {j»y^ khusus, 

v»W bdb, cfc^V} bdbat, J^ hdl, ftoU 

To Question, {^^y*^ jU-As-,^ istifsdr 

nimiidan, (j<^^t-^fy, pursidan. 
Questionable, J^\f^\ Jjli kdbil-i- 

i*tirdz. — {suspicious) < v * 7 ...i ft ^» 

Quibble, &j^ nuktah, ^^\ ihdm. 
To Quibble, t;*>/ ^^^ Aa^i nuktah- 

gfrf kardau. 
QuiBBLEB, y<S &jSi Buktah-gfr. 
Quick, ^^3 zdd, i^X^U chdbuk, ^IIW. 

chdldk, o^— ^ chust, f^— ^ musri', 




jJiij^ laid, JUS? tund, y^ tfz, v»Vftai 
shitab, (j)V}Uai shitaban, eO^j 
zaring, &^ y*y da-asbah. — (in- 
terj.) ca^^ &i bih-8ur*at, -Jjj zud. 
{the quick) ^^ ahya, fiAJj zin- 
dah, (^^Jij zindagan. 
To Quicken (trans.), ^»MV»U«i 
Bliitabdzifdan. — (intrans.) (^j^VsAi 
Bhitaftan, cj*>^ %^\s/b, shitab ni- 
mtidan, o^^ J^V^ taj,fl nimu- 
dan. — (make alive) t)^^^ **^J 
zindah s&khtan. 

Quicklime, f*^ <fiVfe\ dhak-i- 

Quickly, .>^j zud, jj^^ji)! bi-zddf, 
"Vicy* sur'atan, c&^iy-^ bi-8U*rat. 
(Vide Soon). 

Quickness (intelligence, facility of 
comprehending and learning), 
^JU» ^A^^Q '* suliulat-i-ta^allum, 
^ iA^jm Bur*at-i-fahm, ^^*VA-9 
(j^»i safa,f-i-zihn, o^W" cliAbukf, 
(J^)} zaringf, *a>)^i zakavat. — 
(rapidity) ^s^^ ziidi, ^«*U- jaldi, 
v»^ shitab. 

QincKSAND, (jj^jD *a^j rig-i-raw4n, 
jUib shiiidr. 

Quickset (thorny shrvh), fij^ dir- 

Quick-sighted, ^ ^ tfz-falim, 

4aOj3 zaring, i^jj zfrak, tsX)l>. 

cMbuk, iA— »• chust, ^♦i zakf, 

vs«%^j tytf^ cbirah-dast. 

QxncKSiLVEB, s^U-j-. sim-Ab, JMJ 
zfbak, »je*»- jivah. 

Quiet (at rest), e>^ sdkin, ».x«^^jl[ 
4r4mfdah, ^^yA dsudah, {^s^i^ 
mutma,iiin, ^y» jnuraffah. — 
(silent) rj»y\^ khimiish, w^U 
sdkit, s-^ khab. — (repose) ^j\ 

dagf, «>«"^j rdhat, sA>^\f^ istird- 
hat, cfc^y^ sukunat, (:>W^^ itmf- 
nku, «^V»j rafdhat, ^a^^\^^ raf A- 
hiyat. — (house) f^) rkm, Qt^ 
mati*. — (man) f\jS aram. — (<o he 
quiet) cjJL^\)\ ardmidan. 

To Quiet, e**/ r\) ''^"^ kardan, 
^t>W jtVjlj drdm dadan, (p*>\»> ^jM 

tasallf dddan, ^a/ ^^^a^^ taskfn 

Quietly, Ax-a1[ dhistah, ^^yt ya- 

vash, cs lX ut sanganak. 
Quill, ^ fiU shah-par, j* par. 
Quilt, cJVJ lahdf, ^5%*; raza,f. 
To Quilt, ^•Jjlf azadan. 
Quilted (with cotton), ^^/ ji *«^ i^ 

ftjuBfe az pambah pur-kardaJi-shu- 

dah, fi>u^ Mi 3^ az pambah- 

Quilting, &e** bakhyah. 
Quince, *> bih, ^j« bihf, J^^ sa- 

Quinine, &J^&J^kinah-kinah (eur.). 
Quinsy, jU^ khuuak. 
Quintessence, 43Su suldlah, a«!^ 

khuhisah, y^^ jauhar, (j^ *ain, 

«»U zAt. 
Quintuple, ^/*«>afty» mukhammas. 
Quip, aaJJ latifah, ^^ bazlah, 

^^ mutii*ibah, <^/i shdkhf, 

^^J^> bArdi, u-r-* fisus, &i^ 

kinayah, Jyfc hazl, fijafc-^ mas- 

To Quip, (^*>U ^Uai^ dushndm 

dadan, ^^As^UaiJ dushndmidaDy 

^jj &Ajj ta*nah zaclan, (:j*>^ s-*-» 

sabb nimudan, t)**j^ <4}\)'^yi 

zabdn-dirdzi kardan. 

Quire (of paper) AfcV^*&a-»*> dastah- 

To Quit, {^\^ guzdshtan, t^y 
(^*y/ tark kardan. 

Quite, j-*\j^ sar-d-sar, *UUj tamd- 
man, J^W bi-'l-kull, oJi^V, bi- 
'l-kullfyat, a^V, bi-'l-marrah, 
-iy^a ^ ^ kuUan va kdtiba- 
tan, "W^ kulliyatan, &its«i bi- 

Quittance (discharge), ^S ol^^i U. 
khatt-i-bard,at-i-ziinniah, ^ C«Uu 
s^Lift. mufasdyf-i-hisAb, oK;^ 

QuiYBB, (^r^ tarkash, ij^ kfsh, 
^t^ ja*ban. 

To Quiver, c?*^ tapfdan, c)*^);' 
larzfdan, (»}A tw^ jumbfdan. 

Quotation (from an author), io^V^n 




To QuoTEy e^r^ *^V^ ^^^ nimd- 

Quotidian, ^j}) ruzmali, ^\)^ 

ruzanab, &t^ji yaumiyah, aj^y j* 

har-rdzah, ^U^ 'U^ yauman f f- 
Quotient (in arithmetic), J*^ 
hasil, ^y^^A^ maksdm. 


Babbit, \J*j^j^ Idiar-gdsli. 
Babble (tow people), ^\^\ alv&t, 
,^y Idtaki, ^U5^ ^^y* *avammu- 

Bacb (family), (jj^J^jU. khandAn, 
5j^yU khanvddali, J-^ asl, ,yi 
nasi, *-r-*-^ nasb, i»«5 kaum, J^ ^1, 
J^ ill, •>^y nizMd, (jjUj.j ddd- 
mdn,jW* tabar, &l«i kabflah. — 
(running m>atch) ^ji» shart, c>a)\.w« 

To Bace, (^jAjjJ^^j davanidan. 

Bace-coubse, 0^»V» maidan. 

Bage-hobse, ^y^ s-^»»^ asb-i-shart. 

Bacino, ^J^^*y s-^^ asb-davanf. 

Back (torture), &^^^ shikanjab. 

To Back, (^o^ a ^iSa shikanjah 
kardan, (jjo^j a ^iSa ^j dar shi- 
kanjab nibadan. 

Backed (clarified), JjA-^ musaffa, 
y^^y muravvak. 

Bacy, isW^ muzbik, &y^ ^ b^- 

Badiance, ^y ndr, y^ partav, tj^\3 

Badiant, jyf^ munawar, ^y ^ pur 
ndr, ^jjAjy rausban, ytfi^ munir. 

To Badiate, (;j^j y^ partav zadan, 
0«>^ j t . » .x. t ? tasba'sbu* nimddan, 
00^ ^Ul; tala*lu* nimddan. 

Badiation, g .t.-n-to tasba^sbu', 
gUl? tala'lu*. 

Badical, ^jU^ asli, ^j>U zAtf. 

Badically, "lU^ aslan. 

Badish, »)»y turbizab, J<^ fujl. — 
(turnip radish) v>y turb. 

Badius (of a circle), ^\ *JUJ 

To Baffle, {^ysdA^ bdkbtan. 

Baft, *aUi^ kalak. 

Bapteb, Jjus^ chandal, ^ tir, A^^ 

Baq, &A,^i pinab, ^ lattab, fi;V^ 
p4rab, a*Sj ruk'ab. — (in rags 
and tatters) \J»j^ &J^j zbindab- 
pdsb. — (rag and hone man) *^ 
^ kubnab-kbar. 

Bage, s-^^ gbazab, ^ gbaiz, ^ 
kabr, ^^^^^ kbisbm, j^ tabaynir, 
ui>j^ biddat. 

To Eaob, <:)«^tfrj ranjfdan, O'^y^^ 
asbdbi'dan, (^J^ ^j*\) U nd-razf 
sbudan, (^J^ ^U^o& gbazab-n£k 
sbudan, ^^^ s-^^^^ tagbazzub 
nimddan, ^j>sAAi1[ dsbuftan. — (fte 
prevalent) ^ja Jyt--« mustaulf 

Bagged, 5Jk>jj darfdab, g5/« mu- 
rakka*, ^^^J**- kbulkan, fi;V* 8j\^ 

Baging (animal), q)^j zbij&n. 

To Bail at, (^oU ^Uao dusbn&m 
dddan, (^ju^\jl&>j dusbndmidan, 
0*>j &.i«L ta*nab zadan, tj*y^ s-^ 
sabb nimddan, (;)•>/ Ve^jb^^^) 
zaban-dirazf kardan. 

Baileb, &;a£^ sukbarab. 

Bailing (balustrade, or fence of 
rails), ^j^^ panjarab, j^*» 
ma* jar. — (round a tomb) i^yoU* 
maksdrab, ^^ zarfb. — (hand 
railing) j^»v»^ o— o dast - andaz. 
— (iron railings) i^^\ j*^ j^jk*^ 
divar dar dbani. 

Bailleby, y^ bajy, W^ ^^j^t t^y 
mazab, \y9s^\ istibz^, y^ tanz, 
*i^^ jafang. 

Bailboad, (^1[ 5\) r&b-i-dban. 

Bailway cabbiage,^^. A^-JV^kA- 
liskab - i - bukbdr, (^/\y yagdn 

Baiment, &«W jtoab, o^; rakbt, 
*sJUu pdsbAk, (J^ji pdsbifib, 
ij^\^ libds, (^^ pdsbaji, ^} zf. 





Baik, e\)V» b&r&n, ^jW b&risli, ;^ 
matr. — (untimely rain) o\)W 
A * fl »<i hkrkD. - i - khamfnah. — 
(slight rain) ^^ tarashsbuh. — 
— (toant of rain) ^ gVL»\ inkitA'- 
i-matr. — (threatening to rain) 
f^^ jjcu^ miista*idd-i-b4r4n. — 
(rains) ^^ miyAb. — (heavy rain) 
jkjjuAi f^^ baran-i-sbadid. 

To Bain, (jj^jW bAridan. 

Bainbow, tj2 ^^ kaus-i-kuzab, 
CyaJ\ (j*y Kausu-'l-kuzab, ;a* >» A 
jjlfi shimsbir-i-'alf. 

Baint, j^^j^ bardnf. 

To Baise (Zi/0, 0J5Ai^o ^ bar-dasb- 
tan, (jjja-^/^ afrAkbtan, tH^y^ 
afrdsbtan, (^^j^ It^ bala kardan. 
— (excite) {^sak^\ angikbtan, 
^jj^ *«X4^ tabrfk nimudan, 
^A^^jf^ khizdnidan. — (an army, 
&c,) (^*>/ ^^)^ g*-h jaui*-avarr 
kardan. — (plants) q)*^j^} J^ 
*amal avardan. — (curtains, blind s, 
&c.) (^^f J^ buland kardan. — 
(to raise oneself) ^^ ^ ^j^^ 
kbwudrd buland karaan. 

Baisinb, yty mavfz. — (Sultana 
raisins) (j^U^ kisbmisb. 

Bakb, ^J^ if)U. kbak-kash, ^^^^ 
auBi, f}^)^ aucbum. — (profli- 
gate) JkJj rind, <^)Ji kallasb, v>^5^ 
aubasby J»^^i*- kbarabati, ^J^) 
zAni, jlj J^ snaid-bdz, (^\j^ yJ»yA. 
kb wnsb- guzran. 

To Bake, <:jJ^y tirdsbfdan, v>V 
(^*y/ tirdsb kardan, ^^Nt'^j randf- 
dan, (^<i^s\^ kbaridan. 

Bakish, j\^ j^ bad - kdr, jW J^ 

To Ballt (<ra7W.), (^*^/ q*^ jam* 
kardan. — (intrans,) (^k S*^ 
jam* jdftan. 

Bam, e^ gbucb, e^J kucb. — (of 
goats), AX?yi buz-i-takkab. 

To Bam, <:jJ^/ kubidan, (^Ju^ 

Bamblb, t/s tafarruj, \J»*i^ gar- 

To Bamblb, c:>»\i*3;^ gardi'dan, ;«- 
^^^ sair kardan, (^*^/ *j>^ 
gasbt kardan. 

Bambleb, fiJuut^ v.A*^^ gardisb-kn- 

Bamblino, yj^'^f gardisb. — (inco- 
herent) f^ji f^)^ darbam-barbam. 

Eamipication, &<*4i 8bu*bab, s-«-fti 

To Bamift, (^^J^ s ^**^^"*^ munsba'ib 

Bamfabts, jyW bdrd, ^^ bdrab. 



Bambod (of a gun), 
J*^ mfl. 

Bancid, \J»jf tursb. 

Bancidnbss, <V»/ tursbf. 

Bancoub, cy^Txfi 'addvat, (^ kfn, 
6^^ kinab, J^&»> bikd. 

Bakdom (chance), A-^;^ *drizab, Ui 
kaza. — (at random) *>^*<A« ^J^ bi- 
maksiid, ajJiVfc gbdfildnab, ^^^ 
viliki (v«7(7.). — (to talk at ran- 
dom) i^siiS^j^y \i nd-marbut guf- 

Ban OB (row), «-A4*>) radif, j^ kitdr, 
ao; radab. — (of shot) s-»^;i par- 

To Banoe, 0*s^ ^Jw^ mnnazzam 
kardan, ^^^w s-^/» murattab 
dashtan. — (to range in battle) 
0j^ cj^U»# musaffat nimddan. 

Banged, s^^^ murattab, Jj-— «^ 
mansuk. — (to form ranks) «-A-© 
^j^ ^^\^\ saff-drdf nimddan. 

Bank (ZtVte), Uuo saff, ^^ kitdr, 
iftU^ silk, aJuJL silsilab, «-^«>; 
radif , **>; radab. — (degrree) jAS 
kadr,j^JA« mikdar, &<iy* marta- 
bab, &>^ masabab, «j(j^\ andd- 
zab, J^ badd, &L?^ mukdbalab, 
*<►;*> darajab. — (army) fiJ^o^ 'ub- 
dah, s-^'oJ^ mansab. 

To Bankle, (^'^a. kbalidan. 

To Ransack, (^jJ*/ t^j\s tdrdj 
kardan, (:)0>^ s-^ nabb nimd- 

Bansom, ^Ji fidd, ^Ji fidyab, ja^ 
tasadduk, ^^^^ ua*l-landi. 

To Bansom, e^^ ^•^ fidd nimd- 
dan, <:)^y*i ^J^ fidjab nimddan. 
— (money paid to redeem from 
prison, servitude, d'c.) c5^^^j1 ^^ 
vajb-i-dzddi', AjJi fidyab. 




To Rant, ^o/ ^^ ghaugh4 kar- 
dan, 0^3 ^^^ ^^^ zadan. 

Rakuncultis, Wj^j J^gul-i-ra*ii4- 

R^F, «cUi«j dastak, ^J^6-» sflf. 

To Rap (at a door), q)^) ;^ dar 
zadan, (^*y/ v>\J^ j*> daku-'l-bab 

Rapacious (animal), &J^j^ daran- 
dah, (jjV^j zhijan. — (ravenous) 
{j*j^ muftaris, J^ akdl. — 
(greedy) \j»lf^ liaris, jV, < ifc»i» tama'- 
kar, •^A^jiJ;^ 4rzd-mand, ,3*Vai 

Rapacity, jj-XjuJjJ darandagi. — 
(greed) \^^ hire, g^i* tama*, 
^jUiuL tama*-kari, 3^ az, J*: 

bukhl, o* A '** * kbasisat, «^— a. 

kbissat, ts3L..^^ imsak. 

Rape, V*j zina, <^j*> fio^ pardab- 
dari, ^^^ ctUft bat.k-i-*irz. 

To Rape, (^^^j^ c^^^-oc ^ bi-*aamat 
kardan, (^^^ ^a s A ^ muftazab 
kardan, (^^j^ cu»j^ bikarat bur- 
dan, (^^^^ Uj jj^ bi-zur zina kar- 
dan, ^*>^ «t>^«j- ^ bi - sirat 
kardan, (^^^^ rubudan, ^^ «aVsA 
(:)«>y^ batk-i-4rz kardan. 

Rape-seed, 4^\) r4pab (cur.). 

Rapid, jo? tund, -y J^ tund-rau, *M 
zud, ^j^ sar/S — (vxUer/all) s^l 
jU db-sbar. 

Rapidity, v5*>;) zudi, ^juJ tundi, 
tA^^ 8ur*at, J«v*» ta*jil. 

Rapidly, J«v^ ^ bi-ta'jil, va. fy ^> 

Rapieb, «sXS^ gazlak. 

Rapine (plunder) ^U». cbaptiw, 
«t>;Vfc gbarat, e\)V5 taraj, s-^ 
nabb, <jy^^j r4b-zani, ,^13^ *«Jy 
turk-i-tdzf. — (robbery) ^*>j^ 

Rapture, J^^ Tajd, UUAi sba'af, 
i^y^ kbwusbf. 

Raptubous, J^^A^ kbwu8b-h4l. 

Rabe, jS6 nadir, v>V> ^ kam- j4b, 
^j^ turfab (precious) ^y^ *azfz, 
(j*^ naff 8, *xui»-j^ ai^mand, i^*-^ 
kaimatf, {^^ samfn, v&>Vi fakbir, 
Q)\jS^ giran, WV gir^n-babd, 
&iUi\^ giran-mayab. | 

Rabely, "^^jJ^ nudratan, yui kam- 
tar, ^ kam, "Ij^U nadiran. 

Rabipaction, ,3ci;> tarki'k. 

To Rabify, (jjoyi ObV tarkik ni- 

Rabity, ^j*3M nadiri, «w;J^ nudrat. 
— (rarities) ^\^i badaf*, <^Vw 
nafais,j*>^y navddir 

Rascal, fiJUL^jy firibandab, Ju^.4J^ ^ 
sar-bain-band, g .<&>*o dast-kaj, 
<>Vj^^ aubasb, jVj aLo. bQab-b4z, 
;Uj U n4-bi-kar, j^j^ gbadddr, 
j^^ makkar, ct^^o U na-durust, 
^_5>1^ kullabf, I J Altja. bilab-var, 
,j> V d^lftbf, jQ V ddlAb-bdz. 

Rascality, ,4;^ aLo. bflab-bazf, U 
4ji-;*> n4-duru8tf, ^<;jW?i8^*> duldb- 

Rascally, ^^ bad, c^^^ zisbt, 
^^^^^ aubasbdnab. 

Rash, <^-^^^ dast-pacbah, ;*)J^ ^ 
bi-tadbi'r, j^«A^ mutabavvir, j*;U--5' 
gustakb, j^— ^ jasur. — (eruption) 
&i\»y danab, ^"S abilab, ^^\ aulab 

Rashly, diU.U-^ gustakbdnab, ^ j^ 
cfc%A>. C ^ az sar-i-augusbt, a^^U 
gbafilanab, "Ui^ ^ajalatan. 

Rashness, ^U^ gustakbi, ^^ 

Rasp, (^^y subdn. 

To Rasp, (^^^^ <^Vft^ suban kar- 

Raspbebby, i^ gfbab. — (bush) 
i^ ij>A,jj dirakbt-i-gibab. 

Rat, \J»y^ mdsb. 

Rate (proportion), ^)\'>i\ and&zab, 
s-^— a- basb, \^\ izd, , jJu» kadr, 
v>*^ vafk, j\ji karar. — (at the rate 
of) v>*^ rf bar vafk, j\/ )\ az 
kar4r, ''\)^ bi-iz4, ,jAaj bi-kadr. — 
(at any rate) J^ j9l )•* dar bi-bar 

To Rate, (^*^ <a* 4< 3 kaimat kar- 
dan, c:;^^ ftjW^ andazab nimd- 
dan, ^J4»v^ sanjidan. — (cAuie) 
^ Aj ^jui sanjfdan, (:)^^^ ^V^ 
nisbdn dddan. 

Ratheb, y:A^ bfsbtar, ^^^^ awalan. 

Ratification,» tasdik,j\^^\;* 
karar-dar, o^J^ durustf. 




Batified, jW j^ kar4r-ddr. 

To Batify, o^/^ kM'^^ tasdik ni- 

mudan, (^^/ (a^j*^ durust kar- 

Batio, j^ j^ mikdar. 
Bational {efidowed with reason), 

vjt^ ndtik. — {judicious) vide 

Bationality, ^^Xcl^A^ sanjidagf. 
Bations (daily allowance of provi- 

gums), A^eji; &S^S\ dzukah-i-ruzi- 

nah, ^j^ jirah. 
Battan, (:}\}>A khaizuran. 
Battle, ^jnb^..-fc«^ chakhchakhf, 

tf .lC;^ ^ .;q jingjiugak. 

To Battle, o*>/ o«^^^ ^S^'^ 
sada,f - i - chakhcbakhi kardan, 
f^^f\xo sadii kardan. 

Bayaoe, ^V^ chapaw, «w;Vfc gharat, 
^^ tAra], s-e* nahb, o>;*>\> rah- 
zani, <4)^ ^f turk-i-tAzi. 

To Bayaqe, (^*^^ ^U*. chapaw kar- 
dan, (^•^^ u^jV& gharat kardan, 
^j^ Uik2 jaghma kardan, s-^ 
{^/ Balab giriftan, (^^y*^ ^^ 
tdraj nimudan, (^^j^ s-^ nahb 
kardan, 0»>/ J^v^ chai)aYali 
kardan (vulg.), 

Bayageb, iajjS wt>jl& gh&rat-kunan- 
dah, ^j^ UAjt yaghma-chi. 

To Baye, (^*yf ij^^jf" Bhuridagi 
kardan, {^^ oVjtJub hazaj4n guf- 
tan, (^•M ^^ fi^j^dt bihudah 
harf zaaan. 

Bayellsd, s<^^^ pfch-d-pfch, ji 
5JJ 1^ bar-ham zadah, ^ j*^ 
dar-nam, ^^^) zhulidah, fi•^^^ 

Baybk, ^jt gliurdb. 

Bayekous, {j^y^ muftaris, J/^ 
akul. — (animal) ^W j4rihah, 
fijjjo darandab. 

Bayine (deep pass or holloui), cX^ 
tang, Js^ kutal, w-^*** sha'b, ,^% 
s-*«*»V* i4,{-i-Bar48hfb, «w;> ^5% 
j4,f-i-part, h-**^ v5*W- j4,f-i- 

Bayinq (subs,), ij^'^jj^ shdrfdagi, 
(^\iiJb hazayan. — (adj.) AA^jyn 
shdridah, (^^ji parfshan. 

To Bayish, ^Oj^ i a^i^o T ^J^ bf-'asmat 

kardan, (^«>;^ ^'AsA^* mnftazah kar- 
dan, (^*^ji ^j^ bikarat burdan, 
O"^/ ^} JJJ)* bi-zur zin4 kardan, 
ej*>/ «t>;e- o> bi-sirat kardan, 
<:>*>^j rubudan, (^*>;^ ^^ ceXsa 
hatk-i-'irz kardan. 

Bayisheb, &*3^Vfj rubajandab. — 
(of women) *»^ hatt4k, ^U 

Bayishino, ^;5*> dil-rub4, j4*3*> dil- 
aviz, jj*> dil-bar, (^jU-Jo dil- 

Raw, ^U khani. 

Rawness, ^^^ khami. 

Ray (of light), ^j^ partaY or par- 
tau, gUfl* Bhu*a*, <s*J Liiu*ah. 

To Raze, (:j»>/ f»»*6^ munhadim 
kardau, t>*y v»^/^ kharab kar- 

Razob, ,j^*> ^ tigh-i-dallak/, (j*y 
mus, vlrT* niusa, iy^\ usturah 

Beach, fj^j .*— *> dast-ras. — (out of 
reach) w>-*>j^o dur-dast. 

To Beach, 0^V«; rasidan, &s^y^ 
(^•J^ paivastah shudan, ^^j^ ^^ 
Yasl kard^, (^'^^ J*^^ yAbiI shu- 
dan, (^•J^ v3^U mulmk shudan. 
— (with the hand) ^-^^j *«^-.J 
dast rasanidan, ^^^ u>.i«j dast 

Beaction, J*^ y-^^^ in*ik4s-i- 

To Bead, (^j^^^^ys^ khwandan, ^«S\L» 
(^*y/ mutala'ah kardan. 

Beadeb, fijui^^ khw4nandah. — 
(for the press) c^^«^ musahbih. 

Beadily, "W^ kalban, s-^ (^t*^ )\ 
az samfm-i-kalb. 

Beadiness, ^-^^li dmddagf. 

Beading, ^j^ dars, A«)Ua.« inut4- 
la'ah. — (reading for the press) 
^6^^ tashfh. 

Be- ADMISSION, £y^) rujd*, J^jlj 

To Be- ADMIT, (:)«>U {-►* rujd* 
dadan, ^j^yi J^ 3V1 biz-kabdl 

Beady, ^W h4zir, fioU"^ am4dah, 
W* muhajy4, t^fr^^o durust, jKt^ 
ta,jy&r, *^f^y maujud, 




musta'idd, 5^^ ^ rd-bi-rah. — 
(ready money) J^ nakd, J»> pul. 
— (ready made) fi^M Amadah. — 
(to m^he ready) ^ja^j s-^y tarat- 
tub dasbtan, (^o^ W* mubajy^ 
kardan. — (to be ready) > x *&»*^ 
^JA musta'idd shudan. 
Beal, ^Jitfi^ hakiki, o-^j rAst, 

^y^6^ *ainf, ^;ts^^ sabili, ^j>\.i 
z4ti, <j«S^^ vdki'f. 

To Bealise, (2)J^L. ^jft^^ mubak- 
kak sakbtan. — (money, &c.) AfiJ 
(:^t, nakd sakbtan, er^^ ^r"^ 
mazbiit sAkbtan, — (to be realised) 
(jjA^*? j^ bi-zubdr 4madan, «t>j^ 
^JA ;4«H sdrat-pazir sbudan. 

Bealitt, ^y*^ ma*ni. — (m reality) 
<3«&s!» tabkfk, "U^ yakinan, 
e»V^ o* fi-'l-vdkiS ^;^ drf, 
«-aea*3^ o* fi-'l-bakikat, n«^^ 
vAki*an, "^iU*^ insAfan. 

Beally, «3«&»!» tabkfk, "^J^ yakf- 
nan, ff\^\ <j» fi-'l-vaki*, ^^^ drf, 
c^-AsaJ^ o* fi-'l-bakfkat, *\^\^ 
yaki'an, ^\^\ insdfan. 

Bealm, ij>53Ui« mamlakaty va.u U ., 
sultanat, isJ^^ daulat. 

Beam, iA^ bastab. 

To Be-animate, {^sdJi^ 6^j jVj bAz 
zindab sdkbtan. 

To Bb-annex, (^*y/ j\J\ jW bAz 
ilb^k kardan. 

To Beap, (jJiij^*> diravfdan, (^^^j^ *)^ 
dirau kardan, (^^/ ol«^ basad 

Beafeb, S ^a dirau-gar, 50*^0 
dirayanoab, SL>^ bassld. 

Beapiko-hook, (j-W dds, jU daz. 

Beapinq-machine, ^s/ i;** w*W 

To Be- APPOINT, (^*^/ s-^ jW bdz 
nasb kardan. 

Bear, ^j»^ pas, s-^«c <akab, JW**> 
dumbdl. — (of an army) »U- s-*fi 
*akab-i-sip4b, J^^J^ cbanddval, 
j[;«H pas-rau. — (in the rear of) )S 
s-'Ae az 'akab. 

To Bear, (a*^j)j> parvardan, sa-^f 
(^*iy4i tarbiyat nimudan, «>»>Ua. 
Q*yy4i bizanat nimudan. — ((w a 
horae) (^-iA V^^^^ 8ikb-p4 sbudan. 

^jA Ufc^j^ cbirAgb-p4 sbudan, 
0*>U— 4^ ^^**r* 8ar-i-du-p4 istddan. 

To Be-ARRANOE, (jjJ>/ (jt,s* ^ jj-^ 

pas va pisb kardan. 

To Be- ascend, (^j ^^ jV^ bdz 
bald raftan. 

Beason (faculty), v3^ nutk, Jfc 
*akl, ^\jS\ fdrdk, a^ kbirad, 
AaLVj «y.yi kuvat - i - ndtikab. — 
(catute) s-*<— sabab, s-^^ mujib, 
At^U vAsitab, a1*-d^ vasflab, iie-.^ 
vasilab, «t-fl«»» jibat, o^lj bi*is. — 
(by reason that) &^\ ^^^ bardy-i- 
An-kib, j9i babr, ^jj; j\ az rdy. — 
(vjithout reason), ^ j A » ». , 9 bi-ma*nf. 
— (/or which reason) e-^-aa. (^ 
min bays, s-*<- (:>i\ ^ az fn sabab. 

To Beason, (^ a/ *±^. babs kardan, 
0j^ 5^U* munazarab kardan. 

Beasonable, A fcUfl c «akl - mand, 
«:^j*> durust, J^&*« nia*kul. 

Beasonableness, A|J^fiiu# ma*kulf- 

Beasonably, a*J^ 'aklAnab. 

To Be-assemble (trans.), f*Vj^ 
O^^j^l biiz fardbam dvardan, jW 
(:)*y e^ baz jam* birdan. — 
(intrans,) ^M ^V jW b4z farA- 
bam dmadan, ^J^ ^^^ jl^ bdz 
jam' sbudan. — (Court) fj^\ jV^ 
^a/ bdz ijlds kardan. 

To Be-assume, c:>a*/jV| bdz giriftan. 

To Bebate, (^S^ ^ kam kardan, 
0*>^ «aU.^ kdcbik kardan, UL^jbi^ 
(jj«3^ takbf if nimddan. 

Bebel, ^\i ydgbf, ^y^W bdgbf, ^j-Vc 
*dsf, ^^Vk tagbf, ^ (^c^f gardan- 
kasb, »x.*.A^ mufsid, *-i;W^ mun- 
barif, u^^ sar-kasb, *>;♦&• mu- 

To Bebel, (^o^ eJ^^>^ *isydn ni- 
mddan, 0JAi ^j*U «ds{ sbudan, 
^^c^<f ^jiL tagbf kardan, (^j ja ^J^V4 
ydgbf sbudan. 

Bebellion, <^/^\« ydgbf - garf, 
«j*» bagbf, «y^U| bagbdvat, e^aii 
tugbydn, ^ji^ ^ gar - kasbf, 
^jA^j^ gardan-kasbf, &«A fit- 
nab, ^-iUs*^ inbirdf, jUi fasdd, 
*>^ 'inad, v>^^^^ igbtisbdsb, 
\j^ balvd. 




Bebellious, {Js^ v» sar-kash, 
yjuXjj^ gardan-kasn, <jfcU, taghi, 
^jc\^ *asi. 

Bebound, ui>^ nabvat, ^^^^A'^^^ jas- 

To Eebound, ^j>A-«h jW bdz jastan. 

Rebuff, g**> daf*. 

To Rebuff, (^*^y*i C***^^ mundaf f* 

To Rebuild, o^j^ yt^ ta'mir 
nimudan, {^sdXm c^« islah sakh- 

Rebuke, u&^j j^ sar-zanish, y^) 
zajr, is^^X* malamat, ^y tau- 
bikb, s-^ nib lb, ^«ja shatm, ^«S 
zamm, &i&«L ta'nab, &;U^ pai- 
gbarab, tSdA^y mu,akbazab. 

To Rebuke, o**^ cA*j /- sar- 
zanish nimudan, (^^y^ ft-} zajr 

To Recall (dismiss), (^*y/ si)/^ 
ma'zul kardan. 

To Recede, vide To Retire. — 
{cede hack) (^'^y^ %a^\jS guzashb 
nimudan, 0j^^<vr ^^va-guzasbtan, 
^jyi ^ fti .... » taslim nimudan, aX^j*. 
^J>^ hay41ab nimudan. 

Receipt, ^t^j rasfd, aUU dakhilab. 
— (prescription) &ab^ nuskbab. 
— (written (u^knowledgment) yA<i 
kabz, *3^ uM kabz-i-rasid, jW 
«^Vj bdz-yaft. — (receipts and dis- 
hursemenis) t^ ^ ^♦^ jam' ya 
kbarj, ^y^ y •J^^ akhz va mas* 
raf, Cr)^a^ ^ vj^^*^ madakbil va 

Receivable, i^^\ jaftanf. 

To Rbcbiye, {^f giriftan, ^*>/ ^\ 
akbz kardan, (^a^ J«W basil 
kardan, (:>^;i*H paziruftan. — 
(accept) (^^^ jJsi kabul kardan, 
^«>y4i 4.ft^W^ ijabat nimudan. 

Receiveb (coUector), j^jItj*eB» tab- 
sfl-dar. — (receiver of stolen goods) 
ojj is\ijA» sbarfk-i-duzd. 

Recent, y nau, AjV* tdzab. 

Recently, "^J^J^ jadidan. 

Receptacle, «a>U& kifat, W j4. 

Reception, v5*^;i«^ pazir}i,f, J^ 
kabdl. — (of doctrine, &c.) ^JAs 
talakki. — (evetiing reception) 

^yo-^ sbab-nisbinf. — (reeepiion- 
room) ^^^y-H v5^^ utak-i-pazirA,i, 
;.r-W^ «3^^ utak-i-majlis, A»U=«\yv> 

Recess (nook), 6JkijS gdsbab, .iA*^ 
manfaz, J)i^ kbatal. 

Recipe, &ab««'i nuskbab. 

Recipient, ajJ*^ girandab. 

Recipbocal, (:>e^^ J^ az tara£ain» 

(:)^W- 3^ az j&nibain,/sK*uA bam- 

digar, /a^ yak-digar. 
Reciprocally, a^^WV^ bi-'l-mu- 

To Reciprocate, (^^^ {^W ^ az 

janibain dadan. 
Reciprocity, 6^^ mufayazab. 

Recitation, i^^^y^ kbwiindagf, 
«i>MyJ kara,at, Ju-ii nasbfd, /•i 
zikr, Sj^X* muzakarab. 

To Recite, <^J^^^ kbwandan. 

Reckless, J^at^ bf-kbabar, J^V^ 
ghalil, \py^ bi-parya, tLio.^ ^ 
bf-ihtiyat, aa^j^^ <j> bi-andisbab, 
JaV^ kabil, Ji^jM bf-bi'isb, jA^j 
zdbil, ^s>%\^ ^jt bi-mubalat, ^s 

To Reckon, o*^/^ sbimurdan, 
(jjjj^ v>L-a. bisdb kardan, A^i^ 
y*>^ ti'dad nimudan, (jj^/ ^Jl?!/ 
bar-ayard kardan. (Vide To 
Think, To Count.) 

Reckoning, s^L>^ bisab, jUik sbi- 

To Reclaim, (^^y^ t^^ isUb ni- 
mddan, c)*^y^ c«^^ tasbfb ni- 

Reclamation, 4>^^^\ istirdad. 

To Recline, e^; ^^ takyab za- 
dan, e^^ ^\ ittikd nimudan, 
^a«fV^ kbwdbfdan, (jj*);^ oft^^yt-^ 
istirabat kardan. 

Recluse, {^t^ a^^ gdsbab-nisbfn, 
{^tA^ W^ tanbd - nisbfn, ^\^\ 

Recognition, o^^Ua sbin&kbt. 

Recognizance, a#«U u^fl^ i'tirdf- 

To Recognize, (^«>^«> j^ts^AS tasb- 
kbis dadan, ^^Ua ^ b^z-sbi- 
nakbtan, (^^^U danistan. 




To Becoil, vide To Shrink. 

To Bkcollect, vide To Bemem- 


Becollection, *)Vj{- ydd, W hifz, 

/i zikr, >^ khdtir. 
To Becomhencb, (^yi t})^}^ ^^z 

sliuru' kardan. 
To Begommekd, ^^ v^jV* s^P^- 

rish kardan, (a*^y^ yJ^J^ sifdrish 

Becommendation, sJ»j\iL^ sifdrish, 

a)^^ vasilah. — (letter of recom- 

mervdation) a^UAjVa-i aifurish- 

naiuah, A^U jW^^ i'tibdr-nnm- 

Becompense, y*^ *avaz, \y^ jazd, 

v>^*>V^ pddasb, *A>ViV^ mukiifat, 

A«yu masiibah, oy» muzd, yA ajr, 

\y- siza, <j*l^> talaf 1. 
To Becompense, ^^^^ ci>UlX^ mu- 

kafat kardan, (^■ v ^* ^ , ;^^ ajr 

bakbsb idau. 
Beconcilable, ji^ c^ salab-paz fr. 
To Beconcile, O'^y^ O^-a^ musa- 

labab nimudan, ^^^ ,^5^1 asbti 

Beooncileb, {lo^ muslih. 
Beconciliation, ji* sulb, c^ 

salah, ^jSAili asbti, f\^\ iltiyiira, 

6^lo0» musdlahab. 
Beconnaissance, wvLa^ kasbfi- 

yat, ^^y*W jasdsi. 

To BeCONNOITBE, (:J^^ cyULfti' 

kashffyat nimudan. 

To Becobd, (^*^/ fca^ sabt kardan, 
{^^^^ nivisbtan. 

Becobdeb, (j^^ y:io daftar-nivis. 

Becobds, y^^ dat'tar, *a\s^»y dastak. 

To Becount, o^r^ J*;® takrir ni- 
mudan, {^y^ ffuftan. 

Becoubse, fcs-^fc^^ murdja*at, J-y 
tayassul, £^j ruju*, V^^ iltija. 
— (to have recourse to) o**^ S*f 
tavassul nimddan, (jj*y ^yt-j 
ruju* kardan, <;j^^ Ci^\ iltija 

To Becoyeb (find), {^^k jVj bdz 
ydftan. — (in health) {^^ ^ 
sbifa yaftan, (^k i&«^« sibbat 
yaftan, ^^\> AiU^ ifakab yaftan, 
(^jjb» &} bib bbudan. 

Becotbbable, J«<«>^ J^Vi kAbil-i- 

Becoveby, j\*);-x— ^ istirdad. — 
(JwaWi) Uft. sbifa, a5U\ ifakab. 

Becbeant, ^;^ V» nA-mard, J*> vi 
buz-dil, ^W jabbAn, J*^ bf-dil, 
J*u^ kam-dil, ^y tarsA (t;iiZ^.). 

Becbeation, e/> tafamij, c;A 
farab, «.a^y nuzbat, u^^^gasbt, 
VAo safd. — (place of recreation) 
wA*** o^ jd,i-i-ta*ayyusb. 

To Becbiminate, (^*^/ u^J r- sar- 
zauisb kardan, (^*^x^ ij>^%» ma- 
lamat nimudan, Q^yy^ ^y tau- 
bikb nimudan. 

Becbimination, ^j j^ sar-zanisb, 
^s.-^%* malamat, ^f taubikb. 

Becruit (new soldier), J«jk«>. jadid. 

To Kecbuit (levy soldiers), j*^ 
^j^ v4;;^ jam*-avari kardan. — 
(health) ^jJJi^ ^ sbifd ydftan, 
(jjih\> o^^-* sibbat yaftan, A*U^ 
^^b ifnkab yaftan, (;)JA a» bib 

Bectangulab, Vjt^^^^ ^V* ka,imu-'z. 

Bectifiable, ^^ o»^^ taBbfb- 

Bectipication, c^^^ tasbfb, J«J«5 

Bectifieb, fiJLu^ cu^j*> durust-ku- 
nandab. — (o/ spirits) 6Juu^ A<A«» 

To Bectipy, (>sd.L. cft^-^j rdst 

sakbtan. — (spirits) (^*y^ 
tasfiyab kardan. 

Bectitude, *>^ju sad ad, ^Xo saldh, 
sj>>i:tJ^ sabibiyat, s^^*-» saydb, 
jJ-> sidk, ct^^op sadakat, ^j^-^j 
rastf, 'i^j rusbd, ^s^\i*y diyanat. 

To Becub, (*)^'\ olj yad amadan. 
— (occur) (jjAii ^\p vaki* sbudan, 
(jj jUi\ jW^ ittiiak uftadau, j^ 
(jjUe-* bi-zubur rasidan, t)*^ *^^^ 
varia sbudan. 

Becubbence, i^.>Jt^\^ murdja'at. 

Becubbent, f¥hj ruju*. 

Bed, tx* surkb, y^oA ahmar, tjyj^ 
kirmizi. — (red ink) ^j^ suranj, 
^y^fi^ sbanjarf. — (Society of the 
lied Crescent) y^\ J3ufc 




jam'fyat - i - hil41 - i - ahmar. — 
(^Society of the Bed Cross) s s ^ t^ t ti 
j^ «^«lo jam'ijat - i - sal/b - i - 

To Eeddbn, oV^ tr* surkh kar- 

Beddish, iJ^x^ Jf^ mA,il bi- 

To Bedebm, o*^ ^^ y4-kbar{dan, 
^Ajijtf. jl» bdz-kharfdan, (jj*>/ W 
fida kardan. — (to redeem one* 8 
word) (:)*>/ ^5 vafa kardan. 

Bedeemeb, ftJuiUj rihanandah, 
sjoi^j v&^W^ najdt-dihandab. 

To E.E-DELIVEB, (^*^y*i f^^^^ jW btlZ 

tasHm nimtidan, (^*^y*^ *i^^ jW 
bAz bavalah nimiidan, (:)^j>$^ jV^ 
bAz sipurdan. — («ef free) *>^jT 3^ 
^»5^ b4z kzkdi kardan, o^M^; jW 
baz rihanfdan, e*^/ ^JJi- jW baz 
khalas kardan. 

Eedemption, a«j^ fidjab, W fida, 
Vaj riba, o^j riha,i. 

Bed-hot, fi-^Ai »Juj^ tabidab - shu- 
dab, tf* surkh. 

Bed-lead, %^^^jJ^ sbangarf, ^^ 
Buranj, ^/>^') zinjifrah. 

Eedness, ^^J^ surkbi, ^j*^ ib- 

BeDOLENCE, y^c^ *itr, ^^y^yA 


Bedolent, }em^ mu'attar, fy^^^^ 

To Bedotjblb, (j)*>j^ o^*^ j** dd- 
cbanddn kardan, (^J^ (^jtju^ ^j 
dd cbanddn sbudan. 

Bedoubt, a«Xs kal'ah, *s5j^ ark, jV-^e- 
bisAr, e^ bisn. 

Bedoubtable, Jy^ haul, ts3U]y^ 
baul-nAk, w -tA^ mabfb. 

Bedbess, ^ tazallum, fi^W cbarab. 

To Bedbess, {^sdX^ sA^\y rast sAkb- 

To Beditcb (conquer)^ ^^/ ^ 
fatb kardan, (^^yj^ 6^ gbalabab 
kardan, (*)S\*y ^JSjb, sbikast da- 
dan, (^^ /t zafar yaftan, (^*iUS 
gusbAdan, ^^k sa»j^ nusrat yaf- 
tan, 0.xfti u^ f {rdz sbudan, CJVfc 
0'^'\ glialib ^.ma'lan. — (Jessen) 
^^^ ^ ]£ajQ kardan, (^^/ ^^^ 

kdcbik kardan, i^^^ «- A f J L Ay 
takbfff nimddan. 

Bedxtcible, UiftAiW^ J*VS k4bil-i. 

Bbduction, ia^Vcj ri'Ayat, ^J^ 
kamf. — {ariihmeUcaX) ^f^ tah- 

Bbdukdakcb, \Ajh\ ifrdt, ^«)*\ 
afzdnf, ia;)^ kasrat, u^^ niba- 
yat, ty**V>j ziy4datf. 

Bedundant, Jiiy* mazfd, •>VtJ ziy4d. 

Beed, ^J nay, <^^ n4y, s-^ kaisab. 
— (/or pens) ^ kalam, «eU^ kilk, 
&«W kb^mab. — (.^ow/, rt«^) ^ytj* 
pizur, ;j)^ cbagan, «^*>yfe burdf, 
^ Inkb. — (reed - bed or reedy 
place) j^\y^ nay-ziir, (^^a^ nay- 

To Beek, e*^r^ '^^'^ <^^d nimddan. 

Beel (for tkread)y ^J^ pili, 43^ 
pilah, »;* pirrab. 

To Reel (totter) y {^j ilj yalab raf- 
tan, Q)>iJbB dXi yalab sbudan, « (^^\ 
e^y a^j^ uftan va kbfzan bd- 

To Ee-ekteb, (^^ jW b4z dma- 

To Be-establish, cj*V^ «t>W*^ jW 
baz isbat nimddan, (j*y/ ^y jW 
baz vaz* kardan. — (health) c«^^ 
^j^ tasbfb nimddan. 

Be - establishment (of health) ^ 
C^««^* tasbib, &s\h\ ifilkab. 

To Repee to, (^>y/ J^j rujd* kar- 
dan, i;)*^/ «J^^ bavAlat kardan. 
— (allude) (^S^iiSiS kin Ayah kar- 
dan, (^*yy*i fi;W isbilrab nimddan. 

Befebencb, i^^jt^^j.^ murdja'at. 
(Vide Relation.) — (official 
term) ^ft^y marjd'ab (pi, ia>^^y» 
marjd*at). — (with reference to) W 
A} d^..^\ bi-'n-nisbah bi, *♦ ^ 
nazar bi, v>W j*> dar bAb, ij>y^ j*y 
dar kbusds. 

To Befine (clarify), (^'^f %J^ sAf 
kardan, (;)«>y*i 4tA«* tasfiyah ni- 
mddan. — (metals, to swell) JV* 
0)^^ kAl kardan, ^^\ss: JVl kAl 

Be FINED (clarified), j5A<o« musaffA 
i-*^ sAf, *«J^ pAk, Jj^ muzakkA' 




— (polite) s-4*>^ adfb, s^*> y» inu,- 

addab, S^ khalik, ;W Jy- 

khwush -* aty^r, JX-^ yj*^^ 

Ebfinement, <j-A.jl,io 8afa,f. — 

(politenesa) s^*>^ adab, o^*y* 

mardumf, «i^y tarbijat, 
Befineb (0/ metals, stnelter), fi\i 

kal-gar, e>^U kal-kun, 5juu^ J,*-*- 

To Bbflect, eJ**r** u*^ 'aks ni- 

mudan, (^*y/ (j-Uai^ in*ikas kar- 

dan. ( Vide To Think.) 
Beflected, fj^^MJ^ muna'kis. 
Beflection, (j«^ 'aks, (j.i^5Ci6^ 

in'ikas. ( Vide Thought.) 
Bbflectite, )\'ii\ ^J»^^ 'aks-anddz. 

— (man) JAkk^ mutakhayyil. 
Bbflectob, }\'ii\ ij»S^ 'aks-andaz. 
Beflex (8vi>8.)f v*^^ inkilab. — 

(adj,) s-*^Aa* munkalib. 

Befbeshment, (j^M ^sayish, ^*^\ 

Beflux, jiyt jazr. 
Befobm, tlM isUh, cd^^ tashfh. 
To Befobm, o^y^ t^^ islah nimd< 
dan, 0*^y^ c^^^ tashfh nimiidan. 
Befobmatiok, c^^ islah, 

Befobmeb, ^Ia^ muslih. 
To Befbact, <:)*>y^ u\f^\ inhirdf 

Befbaction, u\f^\ inhiraf . — (of a 

ray of light) f Ufc u\ftf\ inhiraf- 

i-shu*4*. — (refracted ray) £^*a» 

%^j^i^ 8hu*a*-i-muaharif. 
Befbactiye, U\yf^\ JjU kabil-i- 

Befbagtobiness, *>Ue <in^d, ui>^U| 

baghavat, ^j^S tamarrud. 
Befbactoby, j^U* mu'anid, ^J^ 

*asi, y^ (^3^ gardan-kash, jj^Vt 

Befbain (0/ a song) {^^j zamfn, 

^^V«3 zaminah. 
To Befbain, (^aV&^\ \l| bdz-fstd- 

dan, ^j^U jVj ^jj^ khwudra bAz- 

dashtan, (^^^^^^^(parhizkardan, 

Q)*^y^ JV^^ ihtiraz nimudan, 

O"^))) v>^«^\ ijtinab varzfdan, 

^jUl2\ \^ vd-fstadan. 
To Befbbsh, {^\^ ^}^ t&zah 


rAhat, JJ^" Uzagf.— (/oo(i) J^ 
akl, ^J^ ghizd, ^^ ta'am, *^^jy^ 
khwurdk. — (to take refreshment) 
O'V^y J^ mail firmudan. 
To Befbigbbate, (^*y/ «>;«• sard 

Befbigebation, ^y* 8arm&, o^ 

Befbioebatob, JU ^ yakh-chdl. 
Befuge (asylum), aU^ pandh, (^\ 
aman, i^*^, ♦ilU malaz, 
^^U malja, •iV<>c 'iyAz, j^ mafarr, 
tA^^ bast. — (to seek refuge) ^j^tsL^ 
(^J^ multajf shudan, (^yS^ uu^^ii 
bast giriftan, (jo^ V^t iltij& 
Befugee, y^^ muhAjir. 
Bbfulgence, fj^}) raushanf, ^y 
ndr, (J^\s tabish, o^it) ^^' 
shan A,f, o^\)y niirAnf, ^ nayy^ir, 
J«F tajallf, fi^ jilvah, ^ zijk, 
^ f urdgh. 
Befulgbnt, {^^) raushan, ^yu* 
munayvar, jt>*^ munfr, ^U jfc>-^ 
jauhar-ddr, g*!l lami', JL^ jan, 
A)Ua.jj dirakhshdn, (^l»U tAbdn, 
jfj^V? tdb-d4r, (jj^aa.* rukhshdn. 
To Beftjnd, t)^y4i A*^j^\ istirddd 
nimudan, (^^U \^ vd-dddan, jW 
^jW bdz dddan. 
Befusal, j^\ inkdr, ^j*) dirfgh, 

o** nafy. 
Befusb (leavings, dregs), sL^ faz- 
lah, J&^ sifl, «>)*> durd, fiJ^U ^^^^ 
To Befuse, e^^ ^j radd kardan, 
(2^^^ V)^ ib4 nimddan, (^*^j^ juuo U 
nd-pasand kardan, (^^^ UU. 
hdshd kardan, (^*>;^ ^Jii nafy kar- 
dan, o**r^ £^**«^ imtinA* nimd- 
dan, o*^Mj*^ dirfgh kardan. 
Bbfuseb, j^ munUr. 
Befutation, f^ •>; ntdd-i-kaUm, 
Cj^ jarh. 

To Befute, cJ**r** r^ **) radd-i- 
kaUm nimddan, (^*>;^ a^j^ radf- 
yah kardan, (;}*>;^ c^ jarh kar- 

Bbfutbd, ^; radd, t^^Jy* marddd. 

To Bbgain, (^\i jW b4z ydftan, jW 





^f J«\*. b^z h/lfiil kardan, jW 
O^;^ ^^ ^^z paida kardan. 

Beoal, ^^^ ahah-vAr. 

To Keoale, <:j*>^ vj*W» mihmdnf 

Eeqalia, ifruUL. ^^e^o dayhfm-i- 

Beoai^itt, ca s i U ^i sultanat, i^JftUjl^ 

Beqasd, s-^ hubb, ^ mibr, upiS^ 
ulfat, j>U\ ikhUs, i*,VA55\ iltif At, 
j^^^ i*zAz, f»V^^ ihtirdm. — (rc/er- 
ence to) va^^*.^ nisbat, J^o dakhl, 
Ai5^ ^alAkab. — {regarding, respect- 
ing) ^ sA^ « t^ nisbat bi, ^^j*> 
dar khusds, ft)W j^ dar barah, j*> 
s,^W dar bab, OK j»* dar bakk. 

To Beoabd, ^a^ yii nazar nimd- 
dan, ^•>i*> didan, {^s^fi nigaris- 
tan, [^s^^fi nigarfstan. — (esteem) 
{^sJ^\'> f»f^ mubtaram d^sbtan, 
^^ysjk\^ ft^ mukarram diisbtan, 
f^sjb\s jyt« mu'azzaz d Ash tan, 
^j^ f^f^ ihtiram kardan. 

Eboabdful, ^'^y^ khabar - dar, 
^\ agab. 

Beqabdless, JiV& ghAfil, \^ bf- 
parvA, *%y ^_5> b/-tavajjuh. 

Beobnct (government) y ka^^ 
hukumat, ^\\ ijAlat. — (dis^ 
trict) is^^A' hukdmat. — (body of 

men) ^ * n i l\ s-^U i ju^^ - majlis- 


To BeOEKBBATB, (^*>y>*i ^^ ^ }\ BZ 

nau tauKd nimddan. 

Bboenebation, y jJy tavallud-i- 
nau, ^^ JJy tavallud-i-BAnf, 
ij\5 SXe^ mflAa-i-tAzab. 

Beqent, o^jJJlJ^ v^ nA,ibu-'B-Biil- 

Bboicidb, ^yi^ oVUL sult&n-kusbf. 

Beoimb, ij\*^\ idarah. 

Bboihen, \Stj^j5 tadbfr-i-gbiz&. 

Beqiment, e^ fauj. [A Persian 
regiment of foot consists of one 
thousand men, namely : eight 
hundred jVj;-* sarbaz (private 
soldiers) ; one hundred and 
fifty - nine s-***** v^^ sAhib- 
mansab (officers^ ; and forty- 
one sj^j^ nakkar-chf or oV^ I 

tabal-ch{ (drummers), ^j^ j^^ 
shaifur-chi (buglers), ^J^ nav- 
chi (fifers), &c., belonging to the 
band ; v^r* sartfp (colonel, 
commands two regiments) ; 
<A < . I »j . m sarhang (lieutenant- 
colonel, commands one regi- 
ment) ; ;^^ y4var (major, of 
whom tbere are two to every 
regiment). The regiment is 
divided into ten iAm*y dastab 
(companies); and to each &a«o 
dastah there are one (^UJu sul- 
tAn (captain), two s-A» nA,ib 
(lieutenants), two **>^)^ beg- 
zadah (officers who look after 
the meu), four J«fj> vakfl (ser- 
geants), four ^j^ j^ sar-jaukab 
(corporals). Each regiment has 
besides : a «J^y^ mushrif (head 
accountant), j\^f^ tahvfl-dAr 
(cash - keeper), and five other 
accountants, y^uXa <alam-dar or 
j\^jti bairak - ddr (standard- 
bearers), ^^\i J«fj vakil-bAshf 
(sergeants major), (jj^»>*^^ ajudin 
(adjutant). The ^j^^ fSt^ ghulam- 
i-suvArah (cavalry) are divided 
into ft)^y» hazAraii (regiments), 
commanded by v^/>« sartfp 
(colonel) and t*y^ •«• sar-kardah 
(lieutenant-colonel), assisted by 
t>^lJ^ sxiltAn, s-^ n£,ib, Jtf^ 
vakfl, j^Vj yavar, Ac, as above; 
and some have a ^^ )jt ydz- 
basbf (centurion) to every hun- 
dred men, a ^W «Wh pan jab. 
bAshf to every fifty, and a »^ 
^jAiW dah-bAshf or ^^^ (^^\ aun- 
bashf to every ten. The Life 
Guards, or body of cavalry at- 
tendant on the Shah, are called 
c5>^ r^ ghulam-i-rikAbf.] 

BeQIMBNTAL, ^J^y^ faujf, ^/iti 


Begion, ^ kutr, Uj^ taraf. 

Begi8teb,^*> daftar, V-^ kitab- 
chah, ct*-;^* fihrist. — (ship's re- 
gister) Jy kaul. 

To BBaiBTBBy i^*yji *a^ sabt kar- 




BsoiSTBBBD, ift^ sabt. 

Regnant, {jiA^ ^a-^ takht-nishfn. 

To Eeobess, (^j jW baz raftan, 
^jy4i wa^«i».\^ muraja'at nimu- 

Eeobession, u:^ft<».^j^ mur^ja'at. 

Beobet, f^ gham, ^^ alam, ^v^\ 
andub, JIU mal41, <^1U mal&lat, 
UU*\J tA,as8uf, ui>;^J^ kuddrat, 
fi>; ran], ^) ranjah, *>;*> dard, 
j\3\ Azar, (:))»- buzn, ^^^^ ihzan, 
\a9j'*^ basrat, \^ <azA, ^j^^^ 
dil-tangi, *4^ sug. — (repenU 
ance) o^WH pasbimAnf, A»y 
taubab, u>^\jJ nad&mat, u^u^ 

To Keobet, o*b^ (j-^^ afsus 
khwurdan, (^jJ^^a^ c&-i^^j^ nad4- 
mat kasbidan, (^<^ ^l».» fc .^ pa- 
sbiman sbudan. 

Beobetfttl, o^^^^ drmdnf. 

BsouLAB, ftAcVi v5*^y« muv^fik-i- 
ka'idab, ^^^^ju^^ mustamirrf, ^ 
^J>»^^ 'ala-'l-kiyAs. — (ordinary) 
f^j4Am^ muatamirrf, J^^J^*^ mu- 
tad^vil. — (grammatical term) ^^ 
B&lim. — (regular troops) j^U^ 
At^ 'asAkir-i-nazmiyab. 

Bboulabity, f>^\ intizAm, s-^dV 
tartib, /»^ nizAm, »iJjW tadardk, 
^J^ tadbir, ia^ eA -^? tamsbijat. 

Bboulablt, s^;^ bi-tartf b, *ad\j Ij 

To Bboulatb, o**r** r^^^ intiz^m 
nimtldan, ^^^ «^jW tadaruk 

Bboulation, AJ^Vi k&'idah, ^^^yU 
kindn, (j^^ ^7^Q> v»^«^ d4b. — 
(army regulations) utfV v .^. tf tan- 

Beoulatob (men), ;4Jk*« mudfr. — 
(things) u^^eA^ mikjAs. 

Behabilitation, ^ sbifd. 

Behbabsal, j^;^ takrdr, jky^ tak- 

To Bbheaasb, 0'>y^ ^fi takrir 
nimddan, o*^^ ^fi takrfr ni- 

Beign (sway), «x^.jUL sultanat, 
,j*UjV^ padisbAbf, ^j^^U d&varf, 
^y^^4i^ bnkm-rdnf, UC* tasiUlut. 

— (iims of sovereignty) a^ 'abad, 
(j*jl^ julds, J4^ *amal. 

To Eeign, (^*^y^ is^jdJu sultanat 
nimddan, 0<>^ ULj tasallut ni- 
mddan, (jj^^ j^\^4^ bukm-r^nf 
kardan, (^^^ <4;^^^ d4yarf kardan. 

To Bb-imbubsb, {jsa\^ jyL.^ mus- 
taradd sAkbtan, <:)*>^ W^ ad4 ni- 

Bein (of a bridle), ^Uc *in4n, ^Uj 
zamam, f\^ lijAm, f*^ H^m, 
y^ jilau. — (to rein, pull up) ^^ 
(^x^ jilau kasbidan, &So ^ 
(j^AiU jilau nigab dasbtan. — (to 
give or relax the rein) (^Uc J^j\ 
(^^/ irkb A,i-i-i'nAn kardan, J^ ^ 
^u V^^^ yil- kardan. 

To Kbinfobce, (^*>U-.y oW\ im- 
d4d firistddan, (^*^y*i ^J^ madad 

Beinfobcembnts, S\^\ 5y kdvab- 

Beins, a^/ gurdab, 5^1^ kulvab, 
&e^ kulvab. 

To Eb-install, (^^y*i s— » 3^ bAz 
nasb nimddan. 

To Beitbbatb, e^*^ 5jW^ i'Adab 
kardan, <:j*>^ •x«^'v ta,kid nimd- 
dan, (j^j^ b4z guftan. 

Beitbbation, ^"V? ta,kid. 

To Beject, (^^/ a; ludd kardan, 
0^j ^ pa zadan, (^^f ^J& naij 
kardan, <^*>3 \y vi- zadan. 

Bbjected, *^^^f marddd, *^)/^ 
matrdk, J>«A« ^ na-makbdl, ^J^J^ 
manfy, v5^j raddf. 

Bbjection, gj^^y daf^ g^ nafj, «>; 

To Ebjoicb, e^^ i.5^^>^ kbwusb- 
Taktf nimddan, ^*>^ Je^ tablfl 
nimddan, (^*>;^ a^^ fakbrfyab 
kardan, 0*3^ *>Vai sb&d sbudan, 
f^jjb, AsU multazz sbudan, ( J i^i^tA* 
(j)*>^ muta'ajyisb bddan. — 
(make glad) o^y^ b^^^ tafrib ni- 

Bbjoicino, (^*>U sb&d/, i^^j^ 
kbwusb-vaktf, ^^ tabid, a^^ 
fakbrfyab, ^a^jA^ ^ ^jui^. 'aisb ya 

To Bbjoin, (^x^yti)^ baz paiyastan, 




^^^ jJ^jVf bdz paivand kardan, 
f^^f jl^ jll hkz vasl kardan. 

Bbjoindeb, v>^^ javAb. 

To Bs-KiNDLBy eH^^-jiy^jW bdz af- 

Bblafbb {medical term), (j^ 

To Belapsb (medical term), cr^ 
(d*^ nuks nimiidan. 

To Bblatb, ^0)^1[ dvardan. — (to 
relate to) (^>>y*i £^\) r4ji' nimd- 

Bblated, S '^'^ ai ^ muntasib. 

Relation (story), &<«i kissah, is^t^j) 
rivayat, vs^V^ hikdjat, ^^U^U 
ddstan. — (reference) J^*> dakhl, 
is:^ 'aUkah, u:^^<--» nisbat, s^Uai^ 
intisdb, Usi^ intimd, ^»e«* subm, 
<jW ta*alluk, £y».j rujA*. — (/dn- 
dred, relationship) uh^ kar^bat, 
sj^^ khwfshf, ^s'^)^^ khwfsh- 
avandfy ^».t^i nisbat, MlbJ ta'al- 
lukah. — (reHative, kinsman) cr4/- 
kbwfsh, JJ.U.2^ khwfBh-dyand, 
j^ju^y karabat-d4r, s-^^S karfb, 
(^yj karfn, v3^ka^ muta'allik. — 
(intercourse) sa>it J ij^ munAsabAt. 
— (diplomatic relations), va>W-VA* 
uiXaJUy^j munAsabAt-i-dfplumd- 
tfk. — (suspension of relations) 
fto^j^ ^ kat*-i-murAvadah. — (fo 
have relations ioith) {^sju\*i *»>^\;^ 
murdvadah ddshtan. 

Bblatiye (grammatical term), yt^ 
khabar. — (concerning) ^^j rdji*, 
u ^ ^* nisbatf. — (relative to) 
A} &»««^Vf bi-'n-nisbah bi, *♦ j^ 
nazar bi, v>^ j*> dar b4b, ue»^ j»> 
dar khusds. 

To Bblax, 0>>y ui^'*'.^ Bust kardan, 
^j^ jl^^ itlak nimddan, W.^ 
(jja^ irkhd nimddan, (^*y/ J^ vil- 
kardan (vulg,), 

Belaxatiok, ui>^U;rakbdyat. (Vide 
Best (repose).) 

Bblease, (^j^lLi. khaUsf, o-^^-'!; 

To Bblbasb, (^*>U ^!U khaUs 
dddan, (^*>/ Vft^ rihd kardan. 

To Belbnt, (^•y ^j rabm kardan, 
^jy«i <^JUiab shafakat nimddan. 

— (repent) ^JA ^WH pashfmdn 
shudan, ^o^yT A^y taubab kardan, 
^ju.&i' o^^jJ nadamat kasbidan. 

Beliable, •UJut** muHamad, j^at 
jyy* bi-taur-i-mausdk. 

Beliancb, jUjx\ i'timdd, jW»c^ 
i'tibar, oVto\ i'tikdd, a«S^- takf- 
yahjjjjVj bAvar. — (on Providence) 
J^y tayakkul. 

Belict, 0^ bfyab, i^j\ armalah 
(ph J^\j\ ardmil). 

Belief, ojl^* madad, S\sA imddd, 
<jSA^ pushtf, *sU^ kumak, (^^ 
*aun, ij>i\^\ i'dnat, w^^U** mu- 
'4yanat, ^^Vj ydri, J«*^ ta,ayyud, 
va>;^ nusrat, <^jeis-.j dast-gfri. 
— (from pain) i-M*?^ takbfif, 
J^ tasaUf. — (in high relief) 
jTyj ^\ iA,^ y bar-iastab az dfydr. 
— (in low relief) j^*** *»V>-«^ 
cbasbfdah bi-diyir. 

To BsLiEyE, (jjo^ ^^U f Arigh kar- 
dan. — (pain) (^*^y^ kJ^i^ takh- 
f{f nimddan. 

Belioion, (^0 din, s-^*^ mazbab, 
eW^ fmdn, oU millat, s^^ 
mashrab, (^^^ kfsh, sa^\ urn mat, 
jU»\ i*tikad.--(CAmhan) «-)U 
d fl ^. e >,.^ millat-i-masilifyab, (^«> 
(^^-«««e dfn-i-'fsay{. — (Muhamma^ 
dan) (^\ isldm, ^M.^^ t^JL* 
millat-i-mubammadf . — (true reli-^ 
gion) {^t^ 0i*y d/n-i-mubfn. 

Beliqious, 0— 2*x-jl.^ mutadayyin, 
;^^*> dfn-ddr, j\^\^\ fmdn-ddr, 
^jto^ muttakf, ^j zakf, ^j*/ ^aa. 

Belioiousness, v5;W»> dfu-ddrf, 
cfc^Vjj diyanat. 

To Belinquish, ^^^^ guzdsbtan, 
^ jj^ t«J J tark kardan. — (Zeare off ) 
(jjjUhi( U yA-fstddan, (^jVxHi^jii 
bdz-fsta^n, ^•xAi ^ kat' sbu- 
dan, (^*A^ 2^"A^ munkati' sbudan, 
(jjjy ^^y* maukdf bddan, «:^y 
(^j|^ faragbat kardan. 

Belinquished, *^)/^ matrdk. 

Belinquishmekt, *^y tark, ^v^ 
bajr, <:}^;V^ bijran. 

Belibh (flavour), ^y» mazah, ^^ 
ta*m, wi zA,]kan, J;»5 zauk. — 




(anything eaten with bread, rice, 
&c.y in order to give a relish) 
\J»jy^ khwurish, \faj^ o^ nan- 
khwurish, ^fi katugh. 

To Eelish, l)\) (^'^ji «y» mazali 
burdan (az). 

Eeluctance, •^^z taraddud, ^ uH 
tj^ pas ya pfsh, (jAy^^ yasTds, 
J^f\ i*r4z, \i\ ihL 

Beluctant, oj^ mutaraddid, ^j\ 
abf, u*)** mu'arriz. 

To Belt, (^*y/ oUsc^ i*tmi4d kar- 

To Bemain, (^•xiU m&ndan, (^*yji 
bddan, ^*x>U U y&.mdndan, (^ 
(jjJ^U pas - mandan. — (Uut or 
endure) (^J^U mandan, (^*>^ ^W^ 
pAyadAr budan, (jj*>^ fi-^V^ payan- 
dali bddaQ, ^«>y ^^ dA,im bu- 
dan, (^^lAi^^ r*^^ day dm dAshtan, 
0jy ^ kA,im budan, (^^^bftiU V«| 
bakd dashtan, e*^^ pa,idan, 
^j\j j\ja»«\ imtidad dadan, J^ 
(^*it^ till kashfdan. — (to remain 
behind) ^oUl^ ^^ pas uftAdan, 
^jjU ^j*^^ ydpas mAndan. 

Bbmaindek, ^W bAki, &iA bakf- 
yah, &*J^ tatammah, ^ U ma- 
bakA, 5J^U ^j-»j pa8-m4ndah, oV*^ 

Bemains (of a man), •^**«^ jasad, 
5jW jan&zab. 

Bemakd, «Juy« muyakkaf, jt^^ 

To Bemand, o*^t^ *JUy« muyak- 
kaf nim&dan, (^oU y^'\s ta,khfr 

Bbmabk (saying), ^VaAf guf t£r, J^ 
kaul, a2^ makdlab. 

To Bemabk, (jj^ guftan. — (notice) 
(^*^p4i ji* (^Vjt«\ im^an-i-nazar ni- 
mudan, (^*3^ c^ksU multafit shu- 
dan, <:)^^ yb» nazar nimddan, 
OJii^ dfdan, t>*-;^ nigaristan, 
;:)JU4;^ nigaristan. 

Bemabkable, s-«fr%fi *ajfb, sHt^ 
gharfb. — (celebrated) j y o ■ » » *• 
mash-hur, *-*ji;*^ ma*ruf, *->^^ 
mausdf, j^a^u n4m-d4r, jy^U 
n4m-Yar, f»U5^ nfk-nAm, ty^^^ 

Bbmabkablt, ^^j^ sbarfbAnah. 

Bemediable, ^^ *ij\js tadaruk- 
pazfr, ;* J^ c^' islab-pazir. 

Bemedial, (^ c^^ islah-kun, eSle 
<jft^. Hlaj-bakbsh. 

Bemediless, ft;\ ^ fl > bi-cHArab, 
e!^ S IA-*alAj. 

Bemedy, AjU chArab, e^ 'alAj, ^y 
dayA, ^^^J^ mudayA, &^U*« mu*- 
41ajab, t^\ islAh, «^jW tad4ruk, 
^51? talaf 1, \y^ sizL 

To Bemedt, (^^«^ ^^'^ taliif { kar- 
dan, o"^^ viSJ^A? taddruk nimd- 

To Bemembeb, ^^ «>Vi ydd kar- 
dan, (2^U o\i ydd ddsbtan, jLV^ 
(^^^ khdtir bddan. 

Behembebeb, jU «>\2 yAd-ddr. 

Bemembbance, ^Vt ydd, IhAft. bifz, 
/*> zikr, y*^ khAtir. 

To Bemind, O'^j^^ "^^ J^^ dyardan, 
0oU olji yad dddan, (:)*>;^^ ^^. bi- 
kbdtir dyardan. 

Bbmindeb, ^s^AiU «>\{ ydd-ddsbt. 

Beminiscence, o\jiyad,j^«^ zikr. 

Bemiss, ;<>afe«9 bi-kb'abar, J^V^ ghd- 
fil| ^ji;«<* bi-pary4, tVeSo.^ ^J hi- 

Bemission (j>ardon),ji^ *afy, ^J*^«^ 
mu'dff, lA»J/*^ Amurzish, fJ^\J^ 
bakbsbdyish, ias^A^^ musdma- 
hat, ^ safh, (^\/t^ gbufrdn, 
%a^/t^ magbfirat, j^j*^ dar-guzar. 
— (sending) J^— ;^ irsdl, J-i>— ;-* 
tarsfl, o^^» rayanagf. — (letting 
off payment) vAj/*T dmurzish, ykc 
*afy, ^jiuxdp bakbsbisb. — (abate- 
ment of payment) i£«^U^ ri'ayat, 
UaM^ takhfff, Jitya tanzfl.— (o/ 
a fever or other disease) «-Md* 
takbfif, c-Ajj yakf. — (remission 
of sins) (^\/t^ ghufrdn. 

To Bbmit (restore), (^•jU <^ pas 
dadan, ^o^ o^ radd kardan, ^^ 
(^*y^ j\SS ya-guzAr kardan. — (for- 
give) ^*>/ y^ *afv kardan, i-*U*« 
^«>^ mu'af kardan, (^- \ fJ ^ bakb- 
sbidan, (^sa\^ j^Xm* m^'zAr dasb- 
tan, (^*>;^ jtVS' jj dar-guzar kar- 

^^> <:?*H3/*^ Amurzidan, ^yuk^ 
(ijA^U/maghfdr gardAnfdan, 




Bemittancb, ^*«L^ taslfm, U\ ad4, 

M/ tauf lyah. 
Remnant, ^J^'^ Mkf, &«jJ tatam- 

To Eemodel, (jj»>U jt^ taghayyur 

Bemonstbance, ^ yy ji-J ta'arniz, 

^\jss\ i*tiraz, A-ijV** mu'arazah. 

To Remonstrate, ^>> ^ ♦ » [^y-^*^ 
ta'arruz niinddan, o^^ ^^y^^ 
i'tiraz nimudan, (^*^y^ 6^^^^ 
mu'Arazah nimddan. 

Remobse, u>^^Ji Eadamat, UU*\J 
ta,a8suf, ^Ue^ pashimanf. 

Rbmobseless, Jj^^^ sang - dil, 
f^jtA bi-ralim, ^Vk zalim, <*>y« ^_5> 

Remote, Ac*» ba'fd, ;^*» ddr, ^j«J 

>Vi kdsf, 

*> «*> dur- 



Remoteness, ,^^j ddri, J«i bu'd. 

To Remount {horse), ^j^a ^^^ jl| 
b4z suvdr snudan. — (ascend) jW 
(jj^j SW bdz bA14 raftan, *>yu» jlj 
^4>y4i bAz sa'dd nimddan. 

Removable, ^S^ jUw^ intikdl- 
pazfr, yt^ Ja» nakl-pazir. 

Removal, J# nakl, JUw\ intik41. 

To Remove (oneself), ^.^ a • j-^ 
kdchfdan, e*>/ JUw^ intikiil kar- 
dan, (^.AA «^^ ravAnah shudan, 
^j^ ^l^ J» nakUi-makAn k£r- 
dan. — (a <Atn^) (^o/ J«> nakl 
kardan, ^^U ^ bar-dAsbtan, 
^*y^ V, V jA-bi-jd kardan. — (to 
remove from a house) (^j raf- 

To Remunerate, o*>U va>;^^ ujrat 

Remuneration, ^/A ujrat, ji^^ 
ajr, ^y muzd. 

Remunerative, A/^ muffd, ^V» 
n4fiS saTU fd,idah, Ju^ ^^ sad- 

Rencounter (meeting), j\«^ ^*> dd- 
ch4r, ub>liX« muldkit, aI)^ muki- 
balah. — (battle) «25U^ Jang, ^y^ 
nabard, ft^r&zm, s-»j»- harb, ^tW* 
muhdrabah, v>^;ipurkhasb,C^«A 
haijA, j^j jVf kAr-zir. — (collision) 

&«jU#* mnsAdamali, ^oUr tasA- 

To Rencounter (fight), (^*^f «.^J^ 
jang kardan, {^^^X^ ^j^ razm 
sAkhtan. — (come into collision) 
e**)^ f^ bi-bam khwurdan. 

To Rend, (^^y*^ daridau. 

To Render (pay), ^oU dAdan, \<^\ 
(^^jJi add kardan. — (inflict) 
^jljJLij rasdnidan. — (translate) 
(^*yj^ &^>j* tarjumah kardan. 

Rendezvous, ^y» marja', g >%>» 
majmaS oUtj^* mi'dd. 

Renegade (apostate), <^y» murtadd, 
^*yj^jj» munkir-i-din. 

To Renew, ^*>/ JiiJi^r tajdfd kar- 
dan, (^*y^ ^ ym ^ az sar-i-nan 
kardan, o^t^ >(r^ takrfr nimd- 
dan. — (to renew a lill) f \)J^l^ 
(^^f kdghazra nau kardan. 

Renewal, *^*^r tajdfd, ojiqr tajad- 

Renewed, oa^^ mujaddad. 

Rennet (for cheese), ^U ^^^ 

To Renounce, (^^/j\^\ inkdr kar- 
dan, (^'^y^ ^j^ ))>> ddr-kasbf ni- 
mddan, (^^y*i 63^ fj^ kat'-i- 
'alakab nimddan. 

To Renovate, {^sdX^ ja^^ mujad- 
dad sdkhtan. 

Renovation, ^^ tajdfd, *>J»r ta- 

Renovator, *>jv» mujaddid. 

Renown, ^V» ndm, ^U oM nfk- 
ndmf, «&>^ sbuhrat, (j^V» nd- 
mus, *aCA* nang, Je4-|. ^^ zikr-i- 

Renowned, f^^ ma'ldm, jj^'A.^ 
ma8h.hdr,/A^U ndm-ddr. 

Rent (tear), »s3\^ chak, ^y^ shakk. 
— (^ire) »;W^ ijarab, s^^\ ujrat, 
»;«* jfrah, y kird, djU kirajab, 
Alfe gballah.— (<a«) eV ^^irdj, 
Jy«^^ mabsdl, e^ bAj. — (ret;enii«) 
«*WJ^ mdlfjat, ^W maddkhil. 
— (rent-free) fijWT ^^jj bf-ijarah. 

To Rent (trans,), (^S\^ ii\^ bi- 
kirdjah dddan, ^oU s^W^ ijdrab 
dadan, (^Aa Ja&«>«^ mustagball 
dddan, ^*>^ eXt ghallah kardan. 




— (intrwM,) {^f ^j^ bi-kir&- 
yah giriftan, 0*s^ ^\f kirAvah 
kardan, (j^/ j«fA ajir kardan, 
^^fyt^\ ajir giriftan. 

Bbntal, *jW\ ijarah, &i\f kirAjah. 

Eenteb, ft'y mujjir, jS i^\ 

Benukciation, Ai!)^ ^ kat'-i- 
'aUkah, ^f^ 'uzlat. 

To Bepaib {as buildings, Ac), 
^j^ sa^y^ marammat kardan, 
^^^yS ^e- » it . y ta'mfr kardan. — 
(stitch) <:j*>/ f^j rafv kardan, 
^*>/ jJ^ paivand kardan. — 
(broken articles) i^*^/ ^^^ taslih 
kardan, (^^j^ u>^j^ marammat 
kardan, ^o>/ c:^j«> durust kar- 

Bbpaibs (Jmildings, Sc), jp^^^ ta'- 
mfr, k*-y« marammat. — (gdr- 
ments) c^^ isldh, aU^ vaslah. 

Bepabable, j2*^ C^^ islab-pazfr. 

Bepabation, (j^^*^ tazmfn. 

Bepabteb, sa^\j^ zarafat, ^J^ftJA\^ 
h^zir-javAbf, aaJJ latifah. 

To Bbpass, 0^iAiJ^ jl) b4z guzash^ 
tan, (^^/ jj^ jW bAz guzar kar- 
dan, (^*yj^} )Ur jl| baz guzar 

Bepabt, (2^^^ jasbn, ai^a; tagbzi- 

To Bbpat, (^S\*y jV^ b^z d^dan. 

Bepeal, ty^"^ mansdkb, f^*^*^ 
ma'dfim, ^^ uaskh. 

To Bepeal, (j*y/ ty*"'^ mansukb 
kardan, ^^y^ (;r^ naskb nimu- 
dan, (:^L. ^;*]«^ ma'ddm sakh- 
tan, (^J^ *y^ \i n^-bdd kardan, 
(^*y/ ^^y maukdf kardan, JW^ 
(jjj^jU^ mubtal garddnfdan, JtV^ 
e>».L. batil s&khtan. 

To Bepbat (do again), <jj*>/ jj^ 
mukarrar kardan, o*^/j^^ tak- 
r^r kardan, o**/ j^ ^^^ kardan, 
(jjo^^j ^Vj bar-i-digar kardan. — 
(say again), ^H^j^ ^^^ guftan, 
^j^ ^ \\i baz gii kardan, i^ 
(^jjir mukarrar guftan, c:?**^ J^j^ 
takrar nimudan. 

Bbpbatedly, ^»^ mukarraran, 
jW jVe*«i bisyir odr, jV^ j^ bAr-b4r. 

Bbpeateb, jj^ mukarrir, Ji/s 
ijjjS takrAr-kunandah. 

To Bepel, o'V^ g^*^ daf nimudan, 
0j^ dfti^x* mudafa'ab nimudan. 

Bepellent, s*W dafi*. 

To Bbpent, 0*3^ <:>W^ pasbfmAn 
shudan, (^*y/ ^y taubab kardan, 
^jLf^ iA^\M nadamat kasbidan. 

Bbpentance, (^W^ pasbimAnf, 
A^y taubaJb, is^^ naddmat, 
*A^\i\ inAbat. 

Bepentant, j^J^ ^f taubah-guzir, 
^U^ pasnim&n, s-^ ta,ib. 

Bepebtobt, j^\ ambdr, (^yi^ 

Bbpbtition, j\j^ takr&r, jy^ ta- 
karrur, %j*fyk b4z-gd,f, jciiS ^ 

To BxpiNB, (p«>3» «fi£u5j dil-tang 
bddan, i^'^)^ ^ gbam khwurdan, 
(^jy jjL^ mukaddar bddan, 
(^x^^ ranjidan. 

Bbpineb, y^f^ shAki. 

To Beplacb (exchange), (^^ ^/^ 
4vaz kardan, (;)*>/ A-i^U*« mu'Ava- 
zab kardan, (^^^ J*^ badal kar- 
dan, o^i^ dJoVf^ mabadalah kar- 
dan, e*y y^^ tabdil kardan, 3W 
(^^•VT b&z guzasbtan, (^^^W cri^^ 
vdpas nibidan, (:)'^y^ £^j rujii' 

To Be-plant, (:)*>yJ u*;^ jW bAz 
gbars kardan, ^J^Ui jl| b4z 
nisbandan, ^^^i ^ hkz kAsbtan. 

To Bbplenish, (;)*y )i pur kardan, 
^ j^ 5jl; tazah karaan. 

BxPLBTB, ;( pur, ^^^^ mamluw, j#» 

Bepletion, %»A imtilA, ^^^ airL 

Beplt, ^j^ javdb, ^^ pasukh. 

To Beply, (^>^\*y v>^^ javab dadan. 

Bepobt, vide News, Talk. — (of 
fire-arms) **VjLa» sbalik, <^*\j^ 
*sO« 8adA,f-i-tufang, eOtf ^^ 
AvAz-i-tufang. — (school) 4^.V» 

To Bepobt, ^^sU v&>^ sbubrat 
dadan, ^^W ^ kbabar dadan, 
^jj^A^j \^yf^ ma'ruz dasbtan. — 
— (<o be r^^ted) <;)JA ff^^ shW 




Bbposs, f»\)1 Mm, ^J^3^J\ Aramf- 
dasff, v/<M RsAyisb, o^»>^\ 
Asudagf, iA^\) rdhat, u>ft.\yu,\ 
istirahat, (^y^ Bukun, v£^\y 
faraghat, c>**aU^ rafahiyat. 

To Repose, t)»*r*^ isudan, «fc^\yL-^ 
(:)^«^ istirahat kardan, (:H^/'i*\)\ 
Aram giriftan, (^jJ;^ iA^\^ rahat 
kardan, (^A^^*d. khwdbidan. 

Repositoet, AMj^ khizanah, A^y- 
khazinah, f^yi»^ makhzan, ^ 
ganj,jM^ ambar, y^ kanz. 

To Repossess, ^^JA^^ jW baz dashtan, 
^o^ <ji^ j^ baz tasarruf kardan. 

To Reprehend, (^*y/ i^^X* malA- 
xnat kardan, {^ysJS s-^ 'aib guf- 
ian, (:)*>/ f*«^ zamm kardan, s.U^'y* 
^«>;i^ mu,dkhazah kardan. 

Rbpbshbnsiblb, ycA» mukassar, 
fX» j^3 la,ik-i-malam, *a^%» j^\y» 

Repbbhbnsiox, j»y^ ta'zfr, ft) zajr, 
va^JU malamat, 4^3 j- sar- 
zanish, fiJ^.^^'y^ mu,Akhazah, 
5jU«^ paigharah, v*^ *it4b. 

To Represent, (^^«^ jVei\ izhAr 
kardan, o^^ nimudan, ^*>/ o*;© 
'araz kardan, ^0^0 ^^Ui nishan 
dadan. — (6y petition) (^*y^ y^j^ 
*ftrz kardan, {^\^ ^^j.jl^ 
ma'ruz dashtan, (^^j^ {j^^^\ 
iltimds kardan. — {imitate) aJs 
(^^yi taklfd kardan. 

Bepbbsentation, ^^ *arz, j^ 

bfi^^^ dar-khwAst, ^Us)\ ilti- 

mds, W> tamannd. — (written) 

6^f^ *ari'zah, «>nAi\x6^ 'arz-dasbt. 

—{draTTuitic) J^jl® takli'd, aaUj 

Bepbesentativb, f»VA« ^J^ kA,im- 

Repbesbnted, {^}f^ ma'rdz. — {to 

he represented, at a meeting) ^\ 

(^^ji a*z4 budan. 
To Repress, (^^J^Ui ^ f urd nisbAn- 

Repression, ^^Ui ^ furd ni- 

Rbpressiyb, J4*xai sbadfd, 

Bakbt,/*/* mu'assir. 
Bbpbibyb, «AJi#«* mtthlat. 

To Rbpribyb, ^«>U oJie^ muhlat 

Reprimand, ^) ^ sar-zanisb, ft) 

zajr, fA^%» malamat. 
To Reprimand, (^*y/ u>^Su« maid- 
mat kardan, {^ysiS s-^«e <aib guf- 
tan, (^*y/ ^ zamm kardan, i^Vy* 
(^*y^ mu,akbazah kardan. 
Reprisals, ^Vas*\ intikam, ^^^ 
kisas, «i>UV^ mukafat. — {to 
make reprisals) o*>^-«-* \j>^^^ 
takass nimudan. 
Reproach, ^fS ta'zfr, ^j zajr, 
u>^X« malamat, ^3 j«* sar- 
zanisb, i^^y mu^akbazah, SjU^^ 
paigbarab, v*Ue *itab. 
To Reproach, (^^/ sa^%» malAmat 
kardan, {^siS s-^ 'aib guftan, 
^j^ ^ zamm kardan, 6i^rf« 
^j^ mu,Akbazab kardan. 
Reproachable, sa^%» J|U k&bil-i- 

Reproachful, v*j[««^ ma'jdb, ^aAi 
sbdkb, (^Wj •^ bad-zabdn, (^Wj 
^\)»> zabdn-diraz. — {infamous) 
t^j rusTa, (;e^ fazfb, sW^ j; ru- 
Reproachfully, '\^ ta'nan. 
Reprobate, {^^'^\ ouj^ mardddu- 

'1-fmdn, »>jjy» maradd. 
To Reproduce, c:)*>m^jW bAz AYar- 
dan, {^'^/\ 3^ baz afiridan, 3V1 
(^jj^ ^A(^ baz paida kardan. 
Reproduction, j^j^p tajdid. 
Reproof, ;i3«5ta*«ir,;<»3 zajr, sa^%» 
malamat, {J^^ y* sar - zanisb, 
6id.\'y« mu,Akhazab, Aj^a«> pai- 
gbdrab, v*Ue 'itab. 
Reproyable, <a^!U J|VS kdbil-i- 

To Repboyb, {^^f o^!U maldmat 
kardan, \^fSi£ o«e 'aib guftan, 
^jjo^ ^o zamm kardan, 5JiA.\»y« 
(^^f mu,dkhazab kardan. 
Reptile, ftJJ^)^ kbazindab, ftJUeJ^ 
jumbandab, i£>;'.&A. basbarat (^Z. 
cw^yuo. basbarat). 
Republic, ^j^e*^ ss^y^ daulat-i- 
jumbdriya^. — {President of the 
Bepuhlic) ^j6^^ cr«^j ra^fsu*'!- 




Bepxjblican, <4)^e*^ jumbdrf. 

To Repudiate, ^^^ vJ^iS**^ mun- 
taJik sakhtan. 

Ebpctdiation, (J^ tatlfk. 

Eepuonance (dislike), ^\ iba, u*V^ 
i'rAz, «i>^ nifrat, yw tanaffur, 
«^^\;^ tarahiyat. — (reZttctence) 
oj^ taraddud, Jt^ ^ ^^ pas ya 
pfsb, o*^r-^ vasYiis, {^\j^^ i'raz, 
V iba. 

Repugnant, i-A]Vab*« mukbalif, ;4^*^ 
mughiiyir, (jAlU* munakiz, ^j^Vju 
mumif 1. — (averse) ^^ m^ni^ »i^ 
karib, U^V^fi^ mukbalif, ^\j 
ragbim, aa zidd, /jji^ matanaffir, 
^j^ mukrib. 

Repulse, gAJ daf*, £Uj^\ indifa*, 
g*j raf, *>; radd, c^)^^ barman. 
— (of an enemy, &c.) us '>■"<<> sbi- 
kast, g**> dafS c>^^ bazfraat. 

To Repulse (repel), ^^j^^^ \^ va- 
randan, o^^j j^ baz randan, *>; 
(^»>y** radd nimTidan, ^^^f j^*y 
dur kardan, (^*y/ glj daf' kar- 
dan, <^*>/ g*; raf * kardan. 

Repulsed, e***-^-- mundafi*, »*) 

Repulsion, gA*> daf*, gA\jJ tadafu', 
t^^\ indifa*. 

Repulsite, S;6»^ Jkj bad-cbibrab, 
va-A.j zisbt, ,joA^ mugbasB. 

Re-pubchase, j^/- jW baz-kban'd. 

To Re-pubchase, tjJ^i/- jW bAz 
kbaridan, (^^^ ^r^^ jW Ijaz isb- 
tira nimudan, <:>*>/ £C»>\ jW baz- 
ibtijA' kardan. 

Reputable, ^^:«^ mu*tabar, ^ ^ ^^^ 

Reputation, ^U nam, ^y•^^J^ nik- 
n^mi, jj^^ Ab-ru, ^^^ *irz, c^*-^ 
burmat, «t>^ 'izzat, j\iy vakar, 
iS^ nang, v^^V» namus. 

Request, c:^^\^ io dar-kbwast, 
cr^^j*- kbwabish, U^J tamannA, 
j^^ arzi'i, (^U53\ iltimas, 3^ 
nijAz, Vco du'a, \cjaJ\ istid'a, 
v-iL- matlab, s-Jll» talab, 'V\ 
ilja,. — (at the reqtieat o/) 7* W 
^^*VcAs^\ bin4 bar istid'a,i. 

To Request (beg), (^slJ\^ kbwds-* 
tan, ^*>^ i£^^\^ ;J dar-kbwAst 

nimiidan, ^«>j^ (^UxS\ iltimAs 
kardan, q)*^}^^ ^^^ tamanna ni- 
mudan, <:)«y jW^ niyaz kardan, 
(^o^ Vcj du'4 kardan, o*^^ Vcja«>\ 
istid'a nimudan. 

To Requibe (beg), {jsaX^a, kbwas- 
tan, (^*yy*^ v£^«»Ud. jO dar-kbwast 
nimudan, (^^y ^Us)\ iltimas 
kardan, (:)^y^ ^^uJ tamanna ni- 
mudan, (^S^ )\^ nijaz kardan, 
^j/ Uo du*d kardan, \^jaJ\ 
(j*> j » > istid'a nimudan. — (<o 
neecl, ^0 u>ani) {js/b»\*i ^j'i lazim 
dasbtan, (jsjbt\j j^^h zariir dasb- 
tan, {j^^ kbwAstan, c:^i»>^ 
0JaU bajat dasbtan, (^«>/ Usi\ 
iktiz4 kardan, (^«>*i e^^W* mub- 
taj budan, (^ja jO jJ diir kar 

Requibement, Usa«« muktaza. 

Requisite (subs.), ^jV ^^^^'^z^** 
mab. — (odj) jjjr* zardr, ^jJi 
lazim, pi^ multazim, ^j-Asa** 
muktazi, .*Xsa^ mu'takid, s-^^^ 
vAjib, j^j»* dar-kar, ^^^^s^ muta- 

Requital, cy\jV^i*« mujAz4t, va*UV^ 
mukafat, \)<»> ]iz4. 

To Requite, (^^^^^ c^^jV^^ muj&z&t 
kardan, o^j^ va»U\^ mukafat 

Re-sale, u>^^y \^ v4-furukbt. 

To Rescind, (^ojs Jj radd kardan, 
^*yj^ JL^ batil kardan, ^;)J^^ ^— * 
naskb sdlibtan, (^J>/ ^ kat* 

Rescission, (^^/ ^ radd-kardan, 
^j^ ^ kat' -kardan. 

Rescbipt, j^\ amr, f^J^ tanzfm. 

Rescue, iS^j ribA,f, ^j riha, ^^V 

To Rescue, (:)^^^ ^V kbalas dadan. 

Reseabch, j » ? ' m i » justujii, (^oWu; 

To Re-sell, {j^^))^ ^^ va-furukbtan. 

Resemblance, ^^i^ bar&bari, Je^u; 
tamsil, JVi^ misal, ^ee^ tasbbib, 
d^U^ musb&babab, M» sbibb, 
t^-JU^^ muTafakat, vA^VfA sbaba- 
bat, u^Ui nimdjisb, ^«X». bukm. 

To Resemble, {^s^\^ mdnistan, 





^^\*y &MJtJ tashbfh dAshtan, 
0j(ibU i^\Ji^ mushdbahah dash- ' 
tan, (^U J«^ tamsfl ddshtan, 
(^jy joiU mAnand budan, J^ 
^*>y misl budan, (^W c^^Wa 
shabahat dashtan. 

Besemblino, (i)^ cbdn, ^ cbii, 
(^^.^K*A ham-chiin, (^W cbunan, 
jUy^ bi-kirdAr, (jjVJ^ bi-BAn, 
ja>U m&nand, J^ misl, J^ 
misAl, ^«Xd. hukm. 

To Resent, f^*^y^ f^*^^ khfshm ni- 
mtidan, (^*3^ fi*>;3\ 4zurdah sbu- 

Resentful, jt/^ sharfr, *>W ^^ bad- 
nihdd, ytiJ^^ •*♦ bad-andfsb, ^ 
5\jA. bad-khwab, vs»U j^ bad-zat. 

Resentment, {^ kfn, ftA*^ khisbm, 
&^ kfnab. 

RESEBVA.TION, J> - ft i^ n i ^ t'dh&sbil, 

tV«;;ft>\ ibtiyat, UJU^^ istisna, 3W 
^5j\t> baz-dari. 

Resebye, «y»>jj;» burudat, ^y tau- 
kir. — (without reserve) ^^))i fj" 

To Resebye, (j)JA\o i\^ nigab 

Resebyed, *>^ji barud, ji y mu^ak- 
kar. — (seta) art) ^^^-^afe^ makh- 
bus, (jO'flae* niakhassus. 

Resebyoib (of water) f j^^ hauz. 
— (large public reservoir) jM^ v»^ 

To Reside, ^«>y bddan, (^oy ^^^A.* 
sakin budan, ^«>^^ bi-sar bur- 
dan, {jsjb»\^ ss^JLm sukunat dAsh- 
tan, (j)J^U mandan, (^^f i*^U\ 
ikamat kardan, ^«3y Jy^^.^ mus- 
tanzil budan. 

Residence, e^— ^--« makdn, J ^ -j^^^ 
manzil, (;>^~^ maskan, |*Va»« ma- 
kam, A>^ khanah, J^*U ma,bid, 
yu makarr, ^&s— ^ mustakarr, \^ 
uiava. — (residing) o-*^^ ikamat, 
\A^^^ sukfinat. — (official resi- 
dence) AiVafcJsJ^»> daulat-khdnah. 

Residenct, i^jye^^ balyuzi. 

Resident, (j^^ skkin (pL &a^ 
sakanah and (:?^- < - « sukkan), 
dJULALj biishandah (pi (^\SxjJb,Ci 
bdshandag&n), (^ a --^** makfn, 

(^^iUs^ mutamakkin, ^»«A^ maki'm, 
^»s^ mutaYattin, (^Vi katin, 
JaI ahl. — (poWicoZ or consular 
agent) J^W balydz (cttr.), Jefj 

Residue, o*^ ^^^^> ***• bakfyah, 
&«j^ tatammah, J^ U ma-bdki, 
6J^U ^^ pas - mAndah, (^^ye^ 

To Resign (give up, intrust), o**;r* 
sipurdan, (;>*>/ jiiy«^ tahYfl kar- 
dan, o«>^ u^y^ tafYiz nimudan, 
^j^ ^«4l^ taslim nimudan, ^^^ 
^«>^ haY^lah kardan. — (give up 
office) \^/ «--*-j rukhsat girif- 
tan, ^^f\iats^\ isti'f a girif tan. 

Resignation (to Providence), J^y 
taYakkul, Uj razA, ^•J-^ taslim. — 
(of offiA^e, &c,), ^*fta-^ i8ti*fa, Jys 
*azl. — (letter of resignation) \J»Lm\ 
Ai*^ isti^fa-nAraah. 

Resigned, s-^^^ shikib, ^^ sabir. 
— (religious term) Jfj*^ muta- 

To Resist, <^*^y^ «^Va* muk&Ya- 
mat nimudan, 0*y vA-AXVafe** mu- 
khAlafat kardan, (:>•>/ cUiVa^ mu- 
kabalat kardan, (^aAi f^^y* muzA- 
him shudan, (^^y^ 6j,y\ju» mu- 
'Avazah nimudan, (^o^ A-b^U** 
mu'arazah kardan. — ( successfully 
withstand) (^*^jy\ v»^ tAb aYar- 

Resistance, v^^Va^* mukhalafat, 
cs^V4^ mukaYamat, wsJI^Va.* mu- 
kabalat, vV? Ub. 

Resistible, ;i>^ ws^U^ mukhA- 

Resistless, ^a^Vob^ ^ ghair-i- 

Resolute, ^\j rasikh, j^ ^ bar- 
kanir, ; ♦■ ? ■**■'• mustamirr, ;-«^ 

Resolutely, 'Uyc ^ *Uy^. jazman 
Ya ^azman. 

Resolution (fixed purpose), i»^ 
nfyat, \J>^ khauz, «ylj* sabAt, 
^♦■a» tasmim, ty^j rnsukh. 

Resolys, f^ 'azm, ts^*^^ 'azimat, 
jt^u- iazm, ^j*. khauz, 




To Besolyk, c)*>/ f^^4^ tasmfm 

kardan, f^*y/ ^ \/«^ 'azmra jazm 

kardau, (jh^^ ^♦■ <» '* musammim 

gashtan, <^«>U ^j,j\J kardri dadan. 
Bbsonange, \jui sada. 
Bebobt, v*U ma,ab, o*^ j^ bdz- 

To Bebobt (freqtient), sa^j • ^ 

(:)^y^ amad u raft nimudan, 

^o^ «yo^\^ muravadat kardan. 
To Besound, (^«>U ^a<« sada dA- 

Bbsoubce, AjV^ charab, e^ 'alaj, 

t^\ islab. 
Besoubceb, o^j^ daruian, \y navA, 

v>^ ma*asb. 
Bbspeot, vide Venebation, Ob- 

SBBYANCB, Beoabb. — (ofpersonSf 

from external appearance) yfcVk 

<jitji zabir-bfnf. 
To Bespect, q)^/ rV*"^ ibturdtn 

kardan, ^^^oyyc <aziz ddsbtan, 

^jsA\*i ^* f ^ mubtaram dasbtan. 
Besfectable, ;— e— i!-*— • mu^tabar, 

,^t:^AA» mutasbakbkbis, s-^^ 

j^^ sabib-vakar, (^y^^^ mubtaram. 
Bbspbgted, ji^ mu'azzaz, uy^ 

musbarraf, j» ; ? ^ - mubtaram, 

j.fSiu» mutabar, ^Jt*^ mu,azzam. 
Bespectful, g-^^y^ mutavazi*. 
Bespectfttllt, &i\^y>iA. kbuzuViuab, 

»^j*y#j^ bi-taur-i-mu,addab. 
Bespectino, v»W j*> dar bab, fijW j*^ 

dar barab, A| tf^-j— i sisbat-bi, }\ 

az> <3** J** dar bakk, ^/»^ j»> dar 

Bespectiye, ^/»y«at* makbsus, ^/»^ 

kbAss, &«U. kbassab. 
Bespectiyelt, ««Vi i^ yak yak, 

*iLe.«.j nisbatan,^^^ ^ fi-nafar. 
Bespects, fJu Baldm. 
Bespibatign (breathing), (^^Aa? 

tanaffus, ^./^ nafas. 
To Bespibe, (^j^»^ (./^ nafas ka- 

Bbspite, cJie^ mublat, «JU(^ Yakf , 

<x^y far&gbat, sa^^\ ^*y daf*u- 

To Bespite, (^*A*y *aS^ mublat 

Bbsplekdbnoe, ;y n&r, ^Vf t4- 

bisb, ,^5^jD rausbanf, 8^^ jilYab, 
j^ nayjir, J«r tajallf. 

Besplendent, *^W^ tab-nAk, o^W 
ndranf, Jui4itjiy f orugb - mana, 
(^L&^j rakbsban. 

Besplekdentlt, ^y V| bd-nur. 

To Bespond, (^*s\*y ^^ jaYAb 

Bespondekt (legal term), Uk^^ 
barff, &^ ^5^ mudda'A 'alaibi. 

Bbsponse, v*^^ jaYdb, ^^ p&- 

Besponsible, j^J^^>^ jaYab-dAr. — 
(<o be responsible) (j)JA\j d.««i ^ 
bar zimmab dAsbtan, j\jm\^-^ 
^jy jaYab-dar bddan, <^*xAi ^vsU 
multazim sbudan, ^«>^ |*(y;S^ 
iltizam nimudan. 

Besponsibilitt, <4)^*^^>^ jaY&b- 
d&rf, io^U^ zamdnat, f^yS\ ilti- 
zam, &^*S zimmab. 

Besponsiye, »»* v»^^ jaYab-dih. 

Best (remainder), J»W bakf, Ml 
bak{yab, &4j;7 tatammab, ^^ U 
mA-bakf, fi»xJU ^j^ pas-m4ndab, 
<j)\)o^ mizdn. — (repose) (^^ ar4m, 
Zf^^^ aramfdag/j^jt^U^ as^Yisb, 
,jJj»-l asudagi, «^-*.\j rabat, 
<d^js«i^ istirabat, (^^^^ 8uk<in, 
«^y f aragbat, c^tj^Uj raf dhiyat. 
(fork for resting a long rifle or 
musket) d&.U^j dusbdkbab, i3\«\o 
dayak, jVjto ^yak. — (to be at rest) 
(:)*4^\>^ ardmidan. — (to be at rest, 
volcano) (^^^y vA/*^ kbAmusb 

To Best, (^^y*^ sa^\^ rkhaX nimddan, 
^^2aS ht^**^ mustarfb gasbtan, 
^^yJ\ asudan, (^*^j^ %s^^\ isti- 
rabat kardan, (^^^s^.^^ c>^U\ Ja.j 
rabl - i - ikamat anddkbtan. — 
(remain) (^'^ *Jdf taYakkuf 
sbudan, (^*y/ ^i^X^ maks kar- 

Bbstaubant, ii^ak^ mai-kbdnab. 

Bestino-plagb, jS^ makarr, yuu.^* 
mustakarr, ^U niaYa, 5tC«\j\ 
drdm-gdb, {^ -»■<■■ * ■ ^ nisbfman, 
C^yu-i^ mustardb, Jy^ manzil, 
(;^iw« maskan, f»U« makdm. 

Bbstitittion, o\jyu^ istirddd. — 




(to make restitttiion) (^^f o\jyui^ 
istirddd kardan. 

Restive, {J^ ^ sar-kash, f^j^^s^ 

Bbstitbness, ij^ x* sar-kashf. 

Restless, J^)^ mutazalzil, v*U ^ 
bi-tab.— r(1o be restless) v*\? ^ 
(:)A4i bf-tab shudan. — (at night) 
f^j^\^ sA^\j \i nd-rdhat khwabf- 

Restoration, jWyu.\ istirdAd. — 
(of buildings) c^^ islab, «««>«' 
U^mfr, s^j^ marammat. 

RESTOBATiyB,(jft^.^ shifa-bakLsh, 
^A» mukawf. 

To Restobb, (^*y\*y u^ \^ vA-pas 
dadan, ^*>«^^i jW bAz rasdnfdaii, 
^o^ jj rada niinudan, o^«jyL«\ 
^oyfti istirddd niinddan. — (build- 
ings) o^V^ C^^ isldh nimu- 
dan, <^«y ^<^««7 ta.'mir kardan, 
^j^ vs.^j^ marammat nimddan. 
— (pension) e**/;^;^^ ijrAr kar- 

To Rbstbain, {^\^ \^ va-dishtan, 
(^W jW baz dAsbtan, (:)*^y*^ W^ 
zabt nimudan. 

Rbstbainablb, W^ J}U k^bil-i- 

Restbained, )yt^^ majbur. 

Rests aint, ff^ mana^ W* zabt. — 
(self-restraint) SS*^^ iratina*. 

To Rbstbict, ^«>^ j'^st^ mukhas- 
sar nimudan. 

Rbstbiction, ff>^ mana*. 

Restbingent, ^VS k4biz, 5JaJh^ 

Result, ^»0 ' ^ natfjab, |*V^ anjam, 
f^f^^ insiram, J-U hAsil, JU 
ma,Al, /-\ Akbir, ^ ear. 

To Result, o**^^ jW"^ ittifak 
nftadan, (;)A«i ^^Ve <4riz sbudan, 
t)**/^ tJia; r6y nimddan, <^»>) ;- 
Bar zadan. 

Resumable, ^\ J}U k&bil-i-akbz, 
J^ JjVS kabil-i-*amal. 

Resume, ^Usrf.\ ikhtisar, )Wi ijaz, 
JW^ ijmitl, uw^Ui kasarat. 

To Resume, ^*( 3V) bAz g^riftan, 
i^/ uH h va-pas giriftan, y }\ 
{^/ az nau giriftan. — (the 

phrase " to resume '*) /i*> digar, 
fi^U 'alavab. 

Resumption, *V^^ akbz. 

Resubbection, )frab^ rastakbiz, 
vA.^W2 kijamat, y^ hasbr, ^ ^^^^ 
yti ba*8 va nasbr. — (Day of 
Resurrection) cs.*^W* Vy rdz-i- 
kij&mat, ^ai^ j 3^; ruz-i-rasta- 
khiz, v*w. 3^ ruz-i-bisab, 3%; 
jUa rdz-i-sbimar, oUy« 3,^ ruz-i- 
mirsad, ^yt- )^ ruz-i-jizA, |*y 
jyta]\ jaumu - 'n - nusbiir, yw« 
mabsbar. — (interval between 
death and resurrection) t}ji bar- 

To Resuscitate, (^^^y^ j^^ insbAr 
nimddan, f^*^y^ W^^ ibj4 nimu- 

Resuscitation, W^ ibya, jUi^ 
inshiir, jUls»^ intisbdr. 

Retail, s^y. kburdab. 

To Retail (sell in small quantities) ^ 
i^s6.^j^ fi^/- kburdab furukbtan, 
{^s^^^ y^ juz furdkbtan. 

Rbtaileb, \J»^ A-y> kburdab- 

To Retain, (^U dasbtan, »Vft 
{^\^ nig4b ddsbtan. 

To Retake, e>**/ ltJ pas giriftan. 

To Retaliate, t?**r** <^^ kisas 
nimiidan, ^*V^ vs»U^^ mukafat 

Retaliation, \y^ jiza, va*\3V^#« 
mujazat, y^^ 'avaz, ^^U^ mu- 
'dvazab, A)jk) badlab, J^^«3\^ p^* 
d^sb, jU sar, ^Ui kisas, v£>uU^ 
muk&fat, ^Vas»\ intik&m, i^Vy 

To Retabd, ia^f^ &sL(J tabti'ab ni- 
mddan, (:)»>/»* 7^*V? ta,kbir ni- 
mddan, (^«y y^^^ dfrf kardan. 

Retention, IhA». hifz, ^U^\ imsak. 
— (memory) •iVt y4d, JfcA^ bifz, 
k»U bafiz, ;LU. khAtir. 

Retentive, ^U b4fiz, w\ -,»>» mum- 
sik, »^j\^ 5\^ nigdb-ddrandah. 

Retinue (attendants f dc), y f**^ 
#«Jt«. kbadam va basbam, va'^. A fc 
Iia8bmat,y<»> jilau, s^^ maukab, 
^/ kaukabab, Mt^ kabkabab, 




t^\ atba*, e^tjiUa*. muta'allikfn, 

To Betibb, vide To Bbtbeat, To 
Withdraw, To Rbsion. — (with- 
draw from society) (^^J^ ^^f^ 
mutaY&rf shudan, ^^ T ..*.. A i AAi^t' 
gdshali nishastan, <:)J«^ vA>yL 
kbalvat guzfdan. 

Bbtibbd, J^^ ma'zul. — (modest) 
v ^» ^^ mahjdb. 

Bbtibbmbnt (/rom business, de.), 
is^\j^ farA^ghat, «:Jvc *uzlat, 
VAe*-.\ istfM, VAiu-^ isti'fA, jU 
khalS "^ khaU.— (6o2iiiM2e) ^^il 
kbalvat, ^y^AJ &-a^ gushah- 
nisbfnf, «A>Jkft>^ vahdat. 

Betobt, ^^^^ ^W b4zir-javAbi. — 
(chemical term) ij^\ ambfk. 

To Rbtobt, (jjoW ^\f^ ja\c. hAzir- 
javAbf dAdan. 

To Betbagb one's steps, ^^^i^ jW 
b4z gasbtan, ^^J s-te ^ bar 
'akab raftao. 

To Bbtbact (one's own words), 
(^*y*4i 04^^ »>j radd-i-sukbun ni- 
mudan, (^•^«3jj ^y^ barf duz- 

Bbtbaction (unsaying), (^ak^ Oj 

Bbtbbat (place of privacy), fiVS^y^ 
kbalyat-gdb, |*j6* baram, 6Jb»^ 
gdsbab, i&>yLL kbalvat. — (of an 
ormy), g^j raj*, J^/e* kabkarA. 

To Bbtbbat, {js^j u*i^ pas-A-pas 
raftan, ;^ x >* » u ^^ pas nisbastan, 
O^r^ J^y^i kabkara nimddan. 

To Bbtbbnoh, tjj^ ysyf ^ jilau- 
girf nimiidan. — (expenses) ^a»^c^ 
i:)^^ idArat kardan, e«>^ tj^ fS 
kam kbarj nimtidan. 

Bbtbbkchmbnt, ^srf ^ jilau- 

kbAnab-dArf, ^jy <tf\ij^ barfk- 
Bbtbibution, \y^ jizA, v£»^jV^*« 
mujAzAt, s^^ 'avaz, a-a^U^ mu- 
'Avazab, «3jkj badlab, ^\jV> pA- 
dAsb, ^ sAr, ^Ul kisAs, «yUU. 
mukAfAt, ^las»^ intikAm, si^\y 

Bbtbibvable, jL^ {^^^ darmAn- 

To Bbtbibvb, {^\ yAftan, J-W 

(;)«>/ bAsil kardan. 
Bbtbocbssion, (^ja^AT^^ vA-guzAr- 

Betboobade, «f*v« mudbir, ^\) 


i^ ^^ vA-pas. 

To Betboobade, t?*H>** u*i S vA-pas 
kbazfdan, (:)*>yii q^j raj* mmudan. 

Bbtboobession, <^a«i j\J^ \^ yA- 

Betbospbct, ^^ U dUU mulA- 
bazab-i-mA mazA. 

Betubn, cu^«*^\^ murAja'at, ^A-AfjV^ 

To Betubn (come JklcIc), ^j^'^ jW 
bAz Amadan, (jjx^^ fj»^ \^ vA-pas 
Amadan, ^^£M o bar - gasbtan, 
(j)^f vs»«>^ *audat kardan. — (go 
hack) (^j jW bAz raftan, {^sJiS ^ 
bar-gasbtan, e**/2>^; ruju* kar- 
dan, (^^y4i «>«q.u*« murAja*at ni- 
mddan, (j)J^*>/jvi bAz gardfdan. 
— (give hack) (^j\o jW baz dAdan, 
(^otj ^ \^ vA-pas dAdan, (^^y4i Oj 
radd nimudan. 

Bbunion, J-». vasl, tfJLc^ vuslat, 
jW ^ J dd-diar. — (assembly) u-i%^ 
majlis, ^ bazm, ^j^^ir^ anjuman, 
JW* mabfil. 

To Be-itnitb, t)0;^^ ^y farAbam 
Avardan, {^siXm J^^ mausdl 

Bb-united, ^y^y mausdl, ^f^ 

To Beveal, ^jjjaU ^yu mufavvaz 
dAsbtan, (^saX* Uif if sbA sAkb- 
tan, (^o/ j^U f Asb kardan, jW^^ 
(^jyT izbAr kardan, (:)^«^ cJUi* 
kasbf nimddan, (^j^/ \)»^'f Asb- 
kArA kardan, (^JyJ ,^^ vabj ni- 
mddan. — (in religious sense) 
^jy^j j»y^ ilbAm nimddan, ^Jqr 
^«>^ tajallf nimddan. 

Revealed, uu a— C^ maksbdf, 
«-AaX;^ muntasbif. — (fo &e rc- 
vealed) e^ai j^U fAsb sbudan. 

Bevealeb, ULabU' kAsbif . 

Bevel, ^ bazm, *-h>3^ valfmab, 
(;)A^ jasbn. 




To Betbl, {^^/ ute«J ta'ajyoflh 

Beyelation, «-JLit^ kashf, ^U 
fAshyjW^^ izbar. — {from heaven) 
fi^\ ilhdm, &A4iV5U mukdshafah, 
vjB.^ Tahy, Jiyy tanzfl. 

Beyelbt, ^aS kallAshf, ^ (j&>«fi 
cw^Aft 'aish ya^shrat, o*l)*^'*^j*' 

Bbyenoe, i*U5»\ intik&m, '^ kinah, 
\y^ jiza, ly- siza, ^ %kc. 

To Bbybnoe, c:)^;^ ^/»^ kisiis 
girif tan. — {oneself ) ^•i^ (•UsJ\ 
intikam kardan. 

Bbyenoeful, (•Us^^ ;i pur-intikAm, 
AA«^^ pur-kfnah. 

Bbyentte, «*VJU mdliydt, gW»^ 
irtifa*, J-»W« mahasil, g^j*. • gW 
bdj u kbirAj, ^fl » * > ta*mir. — 
(mano^emen^ of reventies) ^jUVc 
'4mi]f. — (coUecior of revenue) 
j^Vc *4mil (pi. JUc 'amm&l), 
^yu^ muBtauf f, J**^^ mubassil. 

To Beyebbebate, e^r^ ^'^ '^) 
radd-i-sadi nimddan. 

Beyebbbbation (of sound), \jui *>j 
radd-i-sadA, <^y ndf. 

To Bbyebe, (;)A<kW ^ ^ ^ mubtaram 
d&sbtan, e^^r^ r^r^ ikrAm nimu- 
dan, (;>»>^ ^^ ) f^J^ ta'zim Ya 
takrfm kardan. 

Beyebence, f^Jk^s ta'zim, f^/s tak- 
rfm, \\f^\ i*zAz,jWJ»\ i*tibar, f^x^\ 

To Beyebenge, (2)JaU ff^^ mub- 
taram ddsbtan, o^V^ f^^/^ ikrdm 
nimddan, (^^/ m/S ^ ^^jitiS ta'zim 
Ya takrfm kardan. 

Beyebekd (revered), |*yw* mubta- 
ram, ))ft^ mu'azzaz, fJ^^u* mu*az- 
zam, f*;^ mukarram. 

Beyebent (revering, respectful), 
v*j'y« mu'addab, WjVfJ»(i*tibdr- 
nima, Ui f^^j^ ibtiram-nimd. 

Beyebentiallt, 5*y!» bi-taYdzu*. 

Bbybbie, ^\y^ kbwitb, JV^^ kbijdl 
or kbayal. 

Bey E BSE, (j»S^ 'aks, •v^ zidd, <^V 
kbildf , J^ nakfz, j^ Yar (vulg,). 
— (change) v»Sk»\ rnkilAb, ;«*» 
tagbjfr,<A^^^ sarifat. — (disaster) 

Ks^^ nakbaty o.%<X» nakmat, 
ift M ^ Cft i sbikaat, «£-^y^ bazfmat. 

To Beyebse, (^^/ v»^^ makldb 
kardan, q)*^/ (;)^\^ Y^rdn kardan. 

Beyebsed, ^jd\^ Yarunab, (^fi 
nigdn, {j^^^^ ma^kus. 

Beyebsion, tf.*Af^ bar-gasbt, {y^j 

To Beyebt, {^^f^ t^j rujd* nimii- 

Bey IK w (of an army), yV«. skn, — 
(of book), ^JfaoX* mulabazab. 

To Review (book), tj**/ AlhDjU mu- 
labazab kardan. — (army) t)^ 
(;)AjtJ 8an didan. 

To Beyilb, vide To Bail at, 
To Scold. 

Beyileb, ^^f^ muftari, sjuu^o AU6k«> 

Beyisal or Beyisiok,^;^^^ tasbfb. 

Beyise, ^^6^^ tasbfb. 

To Beyise, (^*y/ c^^^ tasbfb kar- 
dan, (^«>/ Ks^^jJ diirust kardan. 

To Bevisit, (;)*yy^ •*«•> jW baz-dfd 
nimddan, ^^ <a>VsS^ muUkdt 

Beyiyal, *>^ *aud. 

To Reviye, (;>«>^ *»*^^ i*Mab ni- 
mtidau. — (get better), (^•»- *♦ bib 
sbudan. — (resuscitate) t)»*^ j^^ 
insbar nimddan, <:)«>^ W^^ ibjA 

Beyiyee, t ; ft >• mufarrib, ^jj.^^ 

Beyocable, ;|*^ (:)^j^ darmdn- 

Beyocation, *ij radd, ^ naskb. 

To Beyoke, (^^4 Oj radd kardan, 
0O^ JL\i bdtil kardan, (^V- ^^ 
naskb sakbtan, (^^^ f^ kat' 

Beyolt, ysj^^ J^gbi-garf, «>jU» 
bagbdYat, &j^ fitnab, (^^^a^^ tugb- 
jdn, (*)Ve«ae 'isjdn, «>L»i fasdd, 
^y^*^;^ gardan - kasbf, Aij^fca 
dagbdagbab, ^^5*^^ ^ sar-kasbf, 
JsjAe* kabkara, o^ barzagf. 

Beyolution, ^*y^ gardisb, ;^o 
daur, (^\)^J daurdn, v»!i^\ inki* 
Idb. — (of the heavens) oj*>;^ j^*> 
daur-i-garddn, «i)!U^ iA>W^ takal- 




lubAt-i-aflAk, (*)UJ\ <>*>/ gar- 
dish-i-asmdn. — (against a prince, 
Sc.) v5/^^ j^ghi-gan', ^y^ 
bagharat, ^jj^ fitnah, (;)Wa^ tugh- 
jAn, ^W«afi 'isyan, Sl^ fasad, 
^Aiij^ gardan - kashi, Afcjkio 
daghdaghah, ^J^ ^ sar-kashf, 
J5;ae* kahkara, ^^yi^ harzagf. 

To Revolve, (:)*MJ/gardidan, ^*^j^ 
O**/ gardish kardan, (^^/ j^»> 
daur kardan, o«M^^ charkhidan. 

Revolver (pistol), j^^ ravalvar 

Rewabd, »yy muzd, ^j*»- jiza, y^\ 

air, ^s*fA ujrat, a; ^ hasanah, 

(•U>\ in* am, ^y^ talafi. — (m the 
next world) ^f sav&b, «i>»>U-. 
<^J4\ 8a'4dai-i-abadf. 

To Reward, (j*>/ ,>UV> padasli 
kardan, (:)«>/ W jiza kardan. 

Rhetoric, fJ^ ^ *ilm-i-kalam, ^ 
oo-Ui 'ilm-i-fas^hat, J^ nutk. 

Rhetorical, ^yfi**^ mantikf. 

Rhetorician, J^aA** mantikf, J*^ 
j^k;^ ahl-i-mautik. 

Rhettm, ft^} zukam. 

Rheumatic, (^«>W badi. 

Rheumatism, oV| bAd, ^j rfh, q>^ 
J-»^ vaj*-i-mafasil. 

Rhinoceros, (;)J^ kargadan. 

Rhododaphne (oleander), 'y^j/- 
khar-zahrah, aIjj diflah. 

Rhombus (in geometry), ^j)— e-«-^ 
ma' in. 

Rhubarb, J^**; rivand. — (bastard 
rhubarb) tj^jti n'vas, v^^^ IfvAs. 

Rhyme, M^i kafijab, g>-« sajS ^ 

To Rhyme (traris.), i^ M^ kAfi- 
J ah guftan, ^^nSjtubt shi'r guftan. 
— (in^raTW.) (jj»>^ 4«iVi kafijah bu- 
dan, ^^U &^\i kafiyah dushtan. 

Rib, ^ej (^^•afe*-^ ustukhwan-i-pah- 
\<i, 5jJj dandah. 

Ribbon, a:^^ baftah, M fit, ^^ 
fatilah, cfUe^ pahnak, M^ t^fi- 

Rice (growing or in the hnsk), **J^sUi 
shaltuk, d^ys^ chaltuk, ^Jva 
shAli. — (cleared from the husk) 
^ji birinj. — (boiled) ^ chilAw. 

— (rice and milk) ^ji ^ shir- 
birinj. — (rice-broth) «Ai shullab. 
(rice and meat, spices, dc) ^ pi- 
law. — (rice-field) j^^y^ sbaltuk- 
zkr, *^f^ £^ mazra'-i-cbaltuk. 

RiCH,p\»x3U mal-ddr,/iy tavangar, 
JLUJ^^o daulat-mand, ^y^ gbanf, 
^JJLi>^^ mustagbani, J^^*-^ mu- 
tammavvil, j^*> jj zar-dar, jU 44U 
mayah-dar, ^•*a- muna'^am. — (as 
cookery, &c.), v»^ charb. — (as 
a country or city, dc.) yt^ y\ zar- 
khfz,)<^ y^^ maddkhil-khiz. 

Riches, JU mAl, «J^*> daulat, ««U 

Richly, a^^ju^j^^j daulat-mandA- 
nab. — (fully) "^^U* tamuman, 
jVft--^ bisyar. 

Richness (wealth), JU mal, «^^*> 
daulat, A^U m^yah. — (fertility) 
^^ju^.^ barii-mandi', v-— ^ kbisb. 
— (of food) ^^ charb f. 

Rick (2?t7€ 0/ com, <fcc.), il^ »»>y 
tudah-i-ghallab, (^j& kharman, 
ji pir (vwZfjr.). 

Rickety (infirm), j\yi^\ U na-ustu- 
yar, vA^..**»* sust, csU lak. 

To Rid, (^jJ^^j rihanidan. 

Riddance, ^Jf^; riha,i, ^"^ kha- 

Riddle (enigma), U*/» mu*amma, 
^j ramz. — (sieve) JW^ gharbal, 
jLU ghalbar, ^^-I* ghalbfr. 

To Riddle, (^^/ t^jy^ t^jy^ surakh 
sdr^kh kardan. 

To Ride, (^j tj\y>* suvArah (or 
sav^rab) raftan, t)*>;^v5j^^ suvArf 
(or savAri) kardan, (^Jufti ^y* 
suvdr (or savar) shudan. — (to 
ride double, behind another per- 
son) {^ '""* i d^y tark nishastan. 

Rider, j^»- suvar (or savAr), w-^j 
rAkib, ^;U f Aria. 

Ridge, aaAj pushtah, !JW bala. — (of 
a furrow) y^f kurdu, 5)/ kurzah. 
— (division of a field or garden) 
}f marz. 

RiDOEWAYS, ^Jt\^ ka^j^ bi-taur- 

Ridicule, ^jja, khandah, cV 
miz^h, fi;4b««^ maskharah, ^f^ 



sukbrfyat, y^ baj v, \)^ iatilizd, 

AilJ labah, <j»>> baradf, *^^^ 

To Ridicule, e**r^ V*^^ istihzd 

nimudan, o^^ ft;at-« maskha- 

rah sakbtau. 
Ridiculous, *s)^ia^^ muzbik, tjait-^ 

RiDiNO-CLOAK (large, with wid: 

sleeves) ^J^J^ barani, &^ jubbab. 

— (furred and richly laced) jjt*^ 


RiDiNO-coAT (long-skirted), &m\ 
ujamab, ^U^ tikmab. — (short 
jacket) &W^ kulijab, ^o/ kurdf. 

RiDiNO-HOOD, J^^ basbluk. 

Rife, Jy^--* mustauli, e^f murav- 
vaj, 0;^ tarf, J^^**^^ mutadAval, 
f^y4^ 'umum. 

Rifle (gun)y wUaa ^sCa? tufang- 
i-sbisb-kbanab (so called from 
its baving usually six grooyes or 
cbannels in tbe barrel ).---(^gr 
rifle) /W jazA,ii-, JT^y^ jaza,il, 
JU^ Bbamkbal, JUiA sbakb- 
mk\, — (groove in a rifls barrel) 
«U. kbanab, v»^ nab. — (different 
parts of a rifle) vide Musket. 

To Rifle, o**/ ^^ cbap4w kar- 
dan, (^^/ ^^ gbarat kardan, 
^Oj^ UAjt yagbma kardan, s-^ 
^/ salab giriftan, e**/ ^^ 
nabb kardan, <:>•>/ J^^ cba- 
pAwli kardan (vi^^.). 

Rifled (gun),^^ ^^ kbanab-dAr, 
jW v»^ nAb-dar. 

Rifleman, o^/^y*" jazA,ir - cbi, 
^j^U^ sbamkbAl-cbi, a*Waa 
^J^^ sbisb-kbanab-tufang-cbf. 

RiooiNO, jW "^ band-i-jabaz, 
^U— 4; risman. 

Right (jwoj^er), W: bi-jd, \^ ravA, 
s— .U^ munasib, *ahi^ sbAyis- 
tab, H-^^ vAjib, ^ ld,ik, ^>- 
siza, ^jli Uzira, **— j*> durust.— 
(to deem right) ^jx^U v»\^8av4b- 
d&nistan. — (correct) ia^-j*> durust, 
c>-\j rast, cesfc- sabib, vp^kAmil, 
U^ o> bi-gbalat.— (tf^raipi^O ^*— ^j 
r4st, s-A« sa,ib, ^^ subi, jhjAs— • 
mustakfm.— (no^ te/iC) «>-v r&st, 


;:^«4it yamfn. — (right and left) 

jL-i yamin u yasar, ^ 
5>.i>.fl^ maimanab Ta maisarab. — 
(on the right) va-^^j u>mJ dast- 

i-rdst, Q><?*4 j*> dar yamfn. — (ri^A< 
or wrong) OK ^ ^ J^ bakk yd 
na-bakk. — (due) OK bakk, a^j3 
Idzimab (2?Z. ^V lavazim). — 
(^prerogative) j^^\ ikbtiydr, 
j\j^\ iktidar, ^'>i kudrat, <JK 
bakk. — (civil rights) ^^^ j^ 
bukuk - i - madinab. — (political 
rights) Ae-W- jy^ bukuk-i-siya- 
siyab. — (established rights) A^yu- 
^.^ (S^ bukiikf kib aVdn bast. 
— (property) vide Pbopeett. 

To Right, (^^f u\^\ insdf kardan. 

Righteous, p^ sdlib, j^U sddik, 
JjU *ddil, ^\^\i^ diydnat-ddr, 
(^yix^ mutadayyin. 

Righteously, ^J^V bi-rdsti, ajIJjVc 

Righteousness, ws^\jui saddkat, 
saldbiyat, •>^jl« saddd, 

v»\^ savdb, o*-\) rdsti, ^a^\i^ 

Rightful, sa^\j rdst, va^j»> durust, 

^t»^« sabfb. 
RiGHTLY,«jfc^j J;^^ bi-taur-i-durust. 
Rigid, s ^^^*^^ mutasallib, i&^^b- 

sakbt, cs^J durusbt, s-^ salab. 
Rigidity, sa^Xo saJdbat, ^r^^b^ 

sakbtf, (^j^ durusbtf. 
Rigidly, 6i\jLcA^ mutasallibdnab. 
Rigorously, ia>juL) bi - sbiddat, 

^^ysae^^ bi-sakbtf. 
Rigobs (shivering of a fever), 

fiyyuui kusba'rfrab, ^^^ irti- 

Rigour, u&>*xAi sbiddat, ^«sa^ sakbtf. 

Rill, ^sf^ j<if, v»^ jub (vula.). 

Rim, s-5 lab, j^ kandr, fijuiT ka- 
narab, (^^ karan. 

Rime, ^ puzbab, utH^ gacbak 

Rind, «^»* pilst, jAi kisbr. 

Ring, a^U balkab. — (for thefifiger) 
yi^\ angusbtar, (^^a.&m^ aa- 
gusbtarin. — (signet ring) ffi^ 
kbdtim. — (earring) ^^y^f gush- 




vArah, sj*f wU. halkah-i-pjdsh. 
— {ankle ring) J^aSJ^ khalkhal, 
{:^irji v5^ pay-baranjan. — (nose- 
ring) fjf^ *8U. halkah-i-bfnf, ^^;» 
bursan (o6«.). — (thumb-ring, worn 
by archers, and used in drawing 
the bow) «-^--A shast, A»\yj-ftX>^ 
angushtavanah, «5' 5) zih-gir. — 
(for fighting) fi^d^A^^kushti-gah, 
diUj^^ zdr-khanah. 

To Ring (a bell, &c,), o^U ^IS^ 
takan dadan, (;)«>j zadan, (:;^^V 
nayAkhtan, (^j\j\jui sada dadan. 
— (like glass) (^»>\ •> 3^^^ avaz dadan . 

Ringdove, ^y*^ kuniri\ Aas^U faikh- 

RiNGLBADBB, j) (jft«( pish-raU, y* 

6S^ sar-halkah. 

Ringlet, *Ji3j zulf, J«^ ja'd, &^ 
balkah, v*V> Ub. 

Ringworm, UUd. hasaf, sy» 

To Rinse (wash), (jJt— fc shustan. — 
(to rinse the mouth with water) 
^j^ &^u.«&^ mazmazah kardan, 
^jjo^ 5^^ ghargharah kardan. — 
(to rinse the nostrils with vjater) 
^^f ^\ajjl J \ istinshak kardan. 

Riot (tumuU), a^^aa hangamah, 
^Uii\ ightishash, 5J^^ *urba- 
dah, v>;^ shtirish, A^ul shama- 
tah, \^ balva, v*^1 dsbiib, &«* 
fitnah, «>\->^ fasad, V6^ ghaugba, 
f^/l«I^ ghalabagf, juU sbiltak, 
(iSyiA. shuliik. 

Rioter, {^ (^'^f gardan-kasb, ;-• 
{J^ sar-kash, \^W^^ aubasb. 

Riotous, Vfc^ ^ pur-ghaugha. — 
(we») ^^ W ba-gbaugha, i^^^ 
ghaugba f. 

To Rip, {^^^^^^ daridan. 

Ripe, i^^t^j rasidab, i^ pukbtah, 
^^ft&Mi^ miRtavi . — (half ripe) {j^j*^ 
nim-ras. — (quite ripe) v^j (•U* 

To Ripen, (^*^d«<*; rasidan. 

Ripeness, o^*^d-j rasidagf, o^Js*; 

Ripple, jClj^ ab-sbAr, ^^^s^j zanjir. 

To Ripple, ^a*^ or (;)»>3 ^^-r-j zan- 
jir zadan or kashfdan. 

To Rise (up) (ja-U ^ bar-khAstan, 
^jjjIs--j|^ fstadan, ^^Jb* \^ pA sbu- 
dan. — (as the sun) ^^o^ gJlL tulu' 
kardan, (^aA y bar - amndan, 
^jj».U j\^\ isbrak sakbtan. — 
(issue) (^AAi .jU sAdir shudan, 
f^j^j^Xo sudur kardan, (^^bt \j^ 
paida sbudan. — (as a blister) 
(^j^ 61^} Abilab kardan. 

Risibility, ^^^\ Ajud. kbandab- 

Risible, ft>ui. l^ bA-kbandab, «£X^,4^ 

Rising (tumult), ^\S^ hangAmah, 
^Uj:A ightishAsh, &J^^ *urba- 
dah, v>;^ sbiirish, AfUl shamA- 
tab, \y» baWA, v*^^ Ashiib, &j^ 
fitnah, SL^ fasAd, ^^ ghaughA, 
o^y^ ghalabagf, jUU sbiltAk, 
^yiAi shuluk. 

Risk, Joa. khatar, tj^ khatrah, 
8;I»Vafe^ mukbatarab, ^ bfm, ^iiiJi^ 
khadashah, ^y^ tashvish, «fi)W 
bak, v5*Vs^ tangna,!. — (/o rw» 
a risk) tjJ^^^J^^ ^8*- j*> \,oy- 
khwudrA dar khatar andAkhtan. 
— (at the risk of one^s life) j*> (^W 
&al\js\ ^)U jan dar halAk an- 

Rite, ^j rasm, U^ takalluf, v*«>\ 
adab, uj^Ui ta'Aruf. 

RiTUAX (stibs,) ^y^j rusum. — (adj.) 
i^y^j rusiimf. 

Rival, *-**;»• harif, ytt ghair, s^j 
raki'b. — (rival wife) m* havti, 
yi* ha,u, ^'yuA ham-shu,!, ^W*\ 
ambagb (obs.). 

To Rival, (^*>/ va^Vij rakAbat kar- 
dan, e**^ t5«-*^ f** ham-chash- 
mi nimudan, ^«>^ <4r* ^ ham- 
sari nimudan. 

Rivalry, cw^j rakAbat, j^Uj tasA- 

River, *y^ rud, a^ *>jy rdd-khA- 
nab, ^ nabr. — (large river) VjjO 
daryA, *>jy ftUi shAb-rud. — (small 
river or brook) ^5^ j6f, v*^ jub 

Rivet, e>tj^^ parchin. — (/or ^2a«tf) 
/Uf gangii. 

To Rivet, (^•>/ e^s^ji parchin kar- 






dan. — (glaaa) (^*^/ f>^ gang^ 
BoAD, &\) rAh, »j rah, iji}^ tarfk, 
J««l* sabfl, tfU L^ maslak, v*j«> 
darb, i»^/« sarat, ^j^y vatirah, 
va-^4— samt, 44i;l» tarfkab. — {high 
road), l)^ 8h4riS i\^ 5Ui shAb- 
rAb, fi»>W jiiddab. — (/oo^ road^) 
jy oy» mard-rau. — (narrow road 
or pa>ss) *s^ tang, i\j *£Sia tang- 
r4b, k«J^Jk5' gadiik. — (path in a 
garden^ or place for waUciiig) 
(^\^\^ yhijkhka, — (path or track 
through deep anow) y^j rusb, or 
rasb, y^ cbikkir. — (carriage 
road) ^ A^-J^ i\j rab-i-kaliskab- 
Roadstead, ^ju^ bandar, ftl lap *' ^ *^ 

kasbti-gab, filS'^U langar-gab. 
To Roam, {^^^aS ij\y} aviirab gasb- 

Roan (horse), ^jus^j* surkb-tirab, 

Jy kizil. 
RoAB, *a^W bang, ^j^ gburrisb. — 

(sea) j^) zakbkbdr. 
To RoAB, ^Jwt^ gburri'dan, f^^/ \^yt 
gburrisb kardan, (^•>3 «s^W b4ng 
zadan. — (as the sea) (^^/ j^j 
zakbkbAr kardan. 
To Roast, (^«>/ v*W^ kabAb kardan, 
(:)*>/ (^^ji birviin kardan, {j^^jf 
RoASTKB, v*W^ A»^ tabab-i-kabab. 
Roast meat, v*W^ kabab, (;)kji bir- 

To Rob, oJ«*>3*> duzdidan, <^»>3J 

(^^/ duzdi kardan. 
RoBBBB, ^\«> duzd, o>^l) rab-zan, 
jjU sArik, ^^\ ^U kati*u-'t. 
tarik, Ok>i^ £^ kattA*u-'t-tarik, 
u^ liss, jUi kazzak, ^^ kazzak, 
^j^^;*- baramf, ^^^UAi yagbnia,f. 
Robbery, ^5*^;** duzdf, oh^^j rAb- 
zan/, ^^ sarikab, ka^\^ lasasat, 
s-«^ ^basb, «i>;Vi gbanvt, ^^ 
cbapAw, e^;^ taraj, s-^ nabb, 
s-^ nibfb, j^^U*-». cbapdwli 

Robe, ^Va>^ pusbak, ^W jamab, 
tr*^ libas, «i>^-i kisvat, {^j^ 

To RoBB, e*^ii pdshfdan, {^^\jS 

Robust, jul* yj tand-mand, j^^j<j) 
zdr-4yar, v5»i kavf. 

Rock, &;afe« sakbrab, *^^ sang. 

To Rock (fran«.), (^oU (jj\^ takAn 
dadan, (^Ae>l<-i^ jumbanidan, 
^jie}\X» takanfdan. — (tnfrat7«.) 
f^s^t^ jumbfdan, o*)^ o^ takAn 
nimudan, {^^"^ Undan Jobs,), 

Rocket (firework), \^ j^ tir-i- 
bavA. — (of voar) y^ «yS' gululab- 
i-kuppuz, er*^ ^ tir-takbsb, 
Sikil AJjlf gululab-i-kunfuz. 

RocKT, t% *i^A- sang-lakb, ta^*- ^ 
pur-sang, o^^ sangf. 

Rod, Uc 'asd, ^^*> v»y^ cbub- 
dasti, A^ tarkab. — (surveying) 

Roe (deer), y^l Abu. [This is 
strictly tbe antelope.] — (of fish) f 
J*Ai\ isbpul, <^U ^ tukbm-i- 
mabf. — (hard roe) ffi^ sa<^^ 
sakbt-tukbm. — (soft roe) ^ f^ 

Roebuck, ^^ ^ buz - i - kub{. 
[Tbis is strictly tbe ibex.) 

Rogation, ^*> du*a, Uxu-^ istid'a, 
J\'yi su,aL 

Rogue, jW *J^ bflab-baz, ;^ *!«»- 
bilab-var, Ajut^y firibandab, j^ 
> U ;.» A sar-bani-band, ^!^ kul- 
labf, c;i^-> dast - kaj, v>Wj\ 
aubasb, j^ ^ na-bi-kar, jW 
gbaddiir, j^i^ makkAr, o> V ^^' 
labf, jW vV dulab-bAz. 

KodUKRY, t^jVoft *ayyArf, ^^jW 4l«^ 
bilab-bazi, <jA*<-»a j-« sar-bam- 

Role, ^j rasm. 

Roll (0/ paper, Ac), ^^ liilah, 
jUy. tiimAr. — {handkerchief, dtc, 
rolled up in a ball) ^jt^ cbam- 
barab. — (mustei'-roll) *a^-»^ fib- 

To Roll (trans,), (^j^jJUqI^ gbaMnf- 
dan. — (intrans,) (^'^J^ gbaltf- 
dan. — (cw a ship) (^^^ vs-^^ ba- 
rakat kardan, (^•>U ^^ tak&n 
dadan. — (roll up) e«^V^ picbA- 
nfdan, {^^*^)^ navardi'dan, (^^f^ 




tah kardan, (^^f ^ tai kardan, 
(j) J^ V? ta kardan. — (roll out, 
flatten, as dough, &c.) (^*>/ {^ 
pahn kardan, (^^^ (ji**; pakhsh 

BoLLBB (for levelling ground, <§e.), 
ceUsl^ ghaltak. — (^for smoothing a 
house-top) <:)^^ o^ bdn-ghalt^n. 

Rolling (shij)), J^y^ mutazalzil. 

BoLLiNO-PiN, S;«» tirah. 

BoMAN Catholic, v5^^^ papavf 

BoMAN Catholicism, ^ ^H** ^^'^^- 
i-pap4 (eur.), 

BoMANCE, A}U»i\ afs&nah, (^U.«U 

To BoHANCE, (:^«-W^ diUi^ afs4- 
nab. pardakhtan. 

BoMANCSK, 3^«3^ A>L»i^ afsanah- 

BoHANTic, ^y &»Ui\ af s^nah-yasb. 

BoHP (person), \J»^ fj,^ bAzf- 

gdsb, »5' »jy^ harzab-gar, j^ J^ 
vil-k4r, v»W la"Ab.— ( 
bazf, «>*J la'b. 

(thing) ^jW 

To BoMP, e*^r^ <43^ ^^zf nimiidan, 
^«3^ s-^ Wb nimudan. 

BooF, ^W bam, o^ ban. — (interior 
or ceiling) «-**- sakf, ^^ 'arsb. 
— (exterior or fiai terrace) «^-H 
(•W pusbt - i - b4m. — (platform 
upon the roof) j*^ v5*|^ sakkd,!- 
i-b4m. — (parapet round roof) 
j^^ ma' jar, j^^i^ mabiar. — 
(eaves or border of roof) */» tur- 
rab. — (coping or face of roof) 
fi^j rukb-bam. — (cupola) o^ 
gumbad, •J^ gumbaz, M kub- 
bah. — (gable or arched roof) 
j\jj^ sbfrvinf. — (palate of the 
mouth) V5-* sakk. 

Book, t^ kaUgb. 

Boom, jI^^\ dtak, t^^\ dtdgb, iy^ 
bujrab, jV>\ utak, j!^\ utdk. — 
(principal room in a Persian 
house) aiU»\^j dfvdn-kbinab. — 
(upper room, higher story) *»^ ^^ 
b414-kbanab. — (open room, sup- 
ported on pillars) j^^ tal4r. — 
(hall or reception - room) (^\ji\ 
aiv&n. — (lumber room) y . a -^-^ 


pastu, A^Vabi^Jo^ sanddk-kbinab, 
v5^ (^^ miy4n-i-pav. — (private 
room) sz>^ jlLj\ dtak-i-kbalvat. 
(Vide aUo House.) — (to turn a 
room inside out) (^*if ^J^ ^ ^j*.^ 
pas va pisb kardan. 

[Tbe different compartments 
of a Persian room are : (tbe floor) 
(;)ns^j zamin, *-A^ kaf ; (skirting 
or level part of the wall, extend- 
ing from tbe floor to tbe beigbt 
of three or four feet, sometimes 
of slabs of marble, sometimes 
of fine plaster, rarely of boards) 
i^^ bizdrab ; (niches or small 
recesses, extending round three 
sides of the room above tbe 
skirting) &^U> takebab ; (spaces 
between the niches) )y^ jirz ; 
(cornice or moulding above tbe 
row of niches) ^^ mukamas ; 
(ceiling) UJl^ sakf ; (level ceil- 
ing) Aa*^ cAu sakf-i-takbtab ; 
(ceiling with cross - beams 
rounded and ornamented) <-i^ 
*^f^f» sakf-i-marjavak ; (vaulted 
ceilmg) s-'-cA^ «JUU sakf-i-mu- 
kabbab, {j*^ «-^^ sakf-i-mu- 
kavvas ; (large window of co- 
loured glass set in carved wood- 
work, in sashes, occupying tbe 
front of the room) ^^j) urusf ; 
(fire-place, generally opposite 
the large window) ^^, bukhdri ; 
(threshold) »V5J»> dargAb ; (upper 
part of a room, seat of bonour) 
jJk« sadr.] 

BooMY, g-.\j vasi*, ge-^ vasf*. 

Boost, v»y^ chub. 

To Boost, ^^s^^^Ai s^y^ ^ bar chub 

Boot, ^ bfkh, &^^ rfshah, {^ 
bun, J-^ asl, jUj dam&r. — 
(gramnuitical term) J*^ asl. — 
(in arithmetic) jJ>a- jazr ( pi. jy^ 

To Boot (take root), (^J>j &-fc4) 
risbab zadan. — (to root up) ^ 
f^^ bar-kandan, (^*>j^^ ^;^ ^ )\ 
az bikb birdn dvardan. 

BoPE, {^j rasan, (^U^ rismdn.— 



(tent-rope) v*U)» tanAb, u\j^ \ 
i&nki (vulg,). — (cable) jUc 'unidr 
(eur,). — {stretched rope, on which 
anything is hung) ^--1* milsa. — 
(network of ropes suspended from 
the roof and which serves to con- 
tain various articles) ^jt^ cham- 
barah, *i^^ Avang. 

£U>PB-i>ANGBR,^jW Mzi-gar, o^^*^ 
jW rfsm^-baz, jW joi baud-baz, 
jVf^ bambaz (vulg,). 

BoPB-MAKBB, J^ babbAl, v*Ul«j 

BosABT) ^er"? tasbih, d^^f>^ sab- 
hah. — (place) (jjti-VS' gulistan, 
{^AiS^ gulsban, j\^ gul-ziir. 

BosE, J5 gul, *>j^ vard. — (large white 
rose) (^f^ nastaran. — (hun- 
dred-deaved rose) tS^^Jui Jl gul-i- 
Bad-barg. — (eglantine or sweet- 
briar) tHr** nasrin. — (Guelilres 
rose, snowball tree) j^*]^ budak, 
^\«*» budAgh. — (cluster rose) JS 
sa^ 6Jkf^ gul-i-khdahah-bastah. 
(rose-bush) {^^ gul-bun. — (rose- 
bower) (*)VLJ5 gulistAn, {^'i^ gul- 
shan, MS gvl-zkr, — (rose-water) 
s^ gul-Ab. — (hot mixture of 
rosewater and sugar) *a>W* v»i^ 
gul-db-nabat. — (otto of roses) ^ 
JS' *itr-i-gul. — (conserve of roses) 
AAi^ gul-kand. — (rose-coloured) 
O^ gul-gdn. 

BOBBTTB, y^g^y 

BosiN, )2U sakiz, aj zidd,yu sak- 

BosT (hue)i (^J^ gul- gun, j^Ulf 

gul-fam, *^fS gul-rang. — (rosy- 
cheeked) tx* surkh. 
BoT, o^***-^ pdsfdagf, ^^A^ gan- 

To BoT, {^^i^t^ji pusfdan, (^«>t*^ 

gandfdan. — (to cause to rot) 

^j^L.^ piisdnfdan. 
BoTATiOK, o^j^*> daurAn, ^p^ daur, 

^«3^ gardish, v»W inkilAb. 
BoTATOBT, ^\o^ garden. 
BoTTBN, ft•^^-«^ piisfdab, ftjuj' gan- 

dah, ft«»tJu5 gandidah. 

BOTTBNNBBS, o^*A«r^ pUSldagl, 

^Atl gaudagi. 

308 [tloiJ 

BoTUND, OjS' gird, j^J^ mudavvar. 

Boui:,^ o>j*. khwud-sar, ol)'^^^*- 
kbwusb-guzrau, aJj rind, jW •M'* 
shaid-bdz, <^P»)^J» kalUsh. 

BouoB, ftjU ghazab. 

BouoH, «^J durusht, ^j zibr, 
j^»«A U na-bamvar. — {as the sea) 
e\y« mavvaj, ^Su^ mutalatim. — 
(unpolished) ^^Js^W;i ^ na-par- 
dakbtab, JyL«^ ;«^ gbair-i-mas- 
kill. — (in temper) asS tund, 
u^«> durusbt, j^ '^ bad-kbu, 
Jsft 'utuU. 

To BouoHBN (trans,) y ^^sdXmJ^y^ \i 
ni-haxuvkr sdkbtain. — (intrans.) 
f^jA ^\y^ \i na-bamvAr sbudan. 

BouoHLT, ^y^J^ W bi-durusbti, W 
t£>J^ bd-sbiddat. 

BouoHNBBS, o^j«> duruBbtf, ^ 
^5j^j*A n6-bamvAri. — (sea) fJ^^ 
tuatum, ty*^ tamavTuj. — (tem- 
per) v5«>^ tundf, 4ja»»j*> durusbtf, 
v^V- ^ bad-kbu,f. 

BouKD, Ojl gird, j^J^ mudawar. — 
(around) ^jS\Sf gird-A-gfrd, j(j»> 
daur, (^y^^y^ pair&mun, ftj)«> j*> 
dar daurab, ^j^o dauran, ^Jy^ ;*> 
dar bavalf. — (of a ladder)^ i^ 
piUab. — (of a race-course) ft)^*> 

Bounded, j^ mudawar. 

BouNDLY,J)^Uj5' gird-a-gird, "^j^J^ 
mudavvaran. — (openly) *\jb\^ 
zabii*an, '^1)^ 'alaniyatan, tjSj^ 
iflbkdrab, '^i^^ 'ajanan. 

BouNDKBBB, *^f gird. 

To Bouse, (^e<^>^ angfkbtan, 

0*^^>«^ kbfz^dftn> (:H^W bar- 
isbuftan, (^^j^ «<^^'* tabrik kar- 
dan, o^/jW bfdir kardan. 

Bout (defeat)^ xa^^^Sj^ sbikast, 
i^'^jA bazimat, f^yf^^ inbizAm. 

To Bout, (^oU ^^^Myit bazfmat 
dddan, ^jU xa- ^ S j ^ sbikast 
d4dan. — (to be routed) ijtn»Xh» 
^jjjA. sbikast kbwurdan. 

BouTB, ft\) rdb, fi) rab, OK;t tarfk, 
Jm^ sabfl, iisXC^ maslak, v*^*> 
darb,U^ sarat, ^y vatirab, <j*».«* 
Bamt, Ai^*L tarikab. — (en rou^) 
*^;» bi-rah, »^^ jj; ru bi-rab. 




To BoYE, (:^s^ ^\\^ Av&rah gasb- 
tan, (^JutJ^garmaan, (^j>^^«^ sair 
kardan, (^^ vs-^^^gasht kardaa. 

BoYEB, 5j^^^ avArah, »aju^ <>•>/ gar- 

Row (line), *-*-» sa£F, jVtB kitiir, 
«-A4»>; radif, fiJj raddah. — (in 
rows) «-*4*>;> bi-radff. — (tumuU) 
6^\iJjb hangAmab, ^Uo^^ igb- 
tisbasb, »»^;fi 'urbadab, ^^j^* 
sbtirisb, iSUJ^ sbamatab, \^ 
balvd, v**Ai^ 4sbub, ^^-ui fitnab, 
*>UJ fasad, V&^ gbaugba, jViU 
sbiltak, vsJ^Lfc sbuluk. — (to lay in 
rows) (:)^W ^-^'^j radif nibAdan, 
^j^^JkTfiJj radab guzardan. 

To Row (a boat), (^•a*-**^ jj;^ pAru 
kasbfdan, (j^\ a«>^ kb&dab zadan. 

RowEB, [J^ A^vi&. kbadab-kasb, j^V> 
\J^ pdru-kasb. 

RoYAi,, <^Vai 8b4bf, ^^Ui*>V» p^- 
disbAbi, 6i\to\Jk sbdbanab, &»U»UjI( 
padisbabanab, ^^UU. kbdkAnf, 
^jJVLL. sultdnf, Oiar^ kbusravi, 
^yV^kaydnf, v5j^;6*» sbabr-ydrf, 
^^ filfti shab-vAr. 

Royalist, o^U- »\^ ^ kbair- 

Royally, ajVaU Bbdbanab, ajUUijI^ 

Royalty, va^^U-. sultanat, <^l4i 

Rub, (j^^ m^lisb. 

To Rub, t)*^^ mdlidan, (j)0^ 
Sudan, (^^efU 8a,{dan, (^^U sa- 
bfdan. — (to rub down a horse) 
^^S jjftJU mAlisb kardan, (jj^U 
malidan. — (to rub off, dust) (^^y^y 
zadddan. — (to rub out) (:)^/ y^^ 
mabY kardan. 

RuBBEB (person), fiJ^^A.^ (jt3U md- 
lisb-dibandab. — (for grooming a 
horse), ^J|^ kaf f, JUtf kaf-mdl. 

RuBBiKQ, (JSJV*« mdlisb. 

Rubbish, vfiSU^ kbasbdk, ^;i/^ 
kbdk-riibab, J^\ asbkal, j\iS\ 
idbdr, ^j>Aj rasbt. 

Ruby, J«1 la4, j^^ vs>y\4 ydkut-i- 

RuDDEB, ^ULi sukkdn, ^^•^ du- 
man, ^ kballab. 

RuDDiKESs, ^^j»^ surkbf. 
Ruddy, ^M^ ^ tr* surkb u safid, 

^^ surkb, isOj ^^ surkb rang. 
Rude, v*»>^ ^jJ bi-adab, ^s^o du- 

rusbt, Aaju ^jj bi-salikab, ^^a-*^ 

gustdkb, ^j*^^^ vabsbi. — (to be 

rude) (:?*>/ OtJ^jJ^Wj zaban-dirazi 

Rudely, ii\^S\ ^ bi-adabanab, 

AiUUJi' gustakbanab. 
Rudeness, ^J|S[ ^^ bi-adabi, ^s^J^ 

durusbti, <j*"^A-^ gustakbi, ^^ 

^j^^V- bi-sakbtagi, ^J^J^ ^^ bi- 

Rudiment, ^\ asl (pL J^^ usul), 

^^y kavAHd (used in plural), 

j.x-a^ masdar. 

RUDIMENTAL, ^J^\ asll. 

Rue (W6), v*\jl« sudab. 

To Rue, vi^^e To Reobet. 

Rueful, <aCjJj dil-tang, o^;i 
parishan, J^ malul, (^e ^ » > 
gbam-gm, ^cSU*^ gbam-nak. 

Ruefully, a>IAjl4^ gbam-uakanab. 

Ruefulness, ^ gbam, o^^;> pari- 
sbani, ^ jt «j < !'.» > gbam-gini. 

Ruffian, \J»k^\ aubasb, *>V jallad. 

To Ruffle, ^^\^ f^ji ^j»> dar- 
bam-barbam sakbtan, (^^j ^^ 
barbam zadan. 

Ruo, ^/ farsb, JVi kali. 

RuooED, v&^jj durusbt, j\y«ftU na- 

Ruggedly, ,^5*61^0 W ba-durusbtf. 

RuGGEDNEss, <jSAj)»> durusbtf, ^ 
^j^^4A nd-bamvarf. 

Ruin, U^ talaf, ^^W? tababi', 
^\/. kbarabf, Jl^ kbalal, JU\ 
ikblal, iA>jU^ kbasarat. — (|)^ce) 
^]^} vairdnf, A»y. kbarabab, A>)^j 

To Ruin, c:)^^ v»y- kbarab ni- 
mddan, (^*y ^y ^ ^y zfr u zabar 
kardan, (^S^ ytf^iS tatbir kardan. 
— (persons) (^>i^\>y/ jyAs^ muta- 
zarrir garddnfdan, J^ ^s^^ 
^s^\^^ sbikastab-bdl garddni- 

Ruined, v»^/- kbarab, j»J4*^ mun- 
badam, fij^j rumbidab, JW^ 
pay-m41, yft^ pakbsb,/W ba,ir. — 

(destroyed) »W* tabih, |»^**«* ma'- 

talaf, JW^ paj-mAl, gU^^ mun- 
kata'. — (broken in fortune) ^jJU^ 
muflis, J^'ls.-^ musta,sal. — (to 
faU in ruins) (^ja v»^*- khar^b 
shudan, e*W) rumbman, ^^j^a^ 
^sjb» munhadam shudan. — (to be 
ruined) oAjj^ ^^as- mutazarrir 
EuiNOxrs, ««U^ muhlik', Ukix*. mut- 
lif. — (desolate) ^jU. vairan, v»V 
Ruinously, ajUIs*. mutlifanah. 
Bulb (^overnmenQ ^a^yL huku- 
mat, o*^/*^ hukm-ranf, ^«\o 
ddvarf, ^V^^ finn4n-raya,{, 
^j\AJ ^Uy firmAn-guzarf, «i*^Wf) 
riydsat, tf ^ e ' t ^? tamshiyat, J^* 
'amal, ^\i\ iy^lat, «-uUL. sulta- 
nat, tLj tasallut. — (regulation) 
oyVs kdnun, «acVi kA*idah, ^j 
rasm. — (according to rule) vide 
Beoulab. — (mason* s rule) V^ 
gdnva, ^/ *- sih-gdsb.— (rwZe 
of three) ^JiU f^^M kanun-i- 
musallasf. — (double rule of three) 
i..&eU« ^^yX^ musallasf-i-mu- 
To Bulb, ^•>/ «a>^ ^ hukumat 
kardan, (jjJ^ ^^^U ddvari nimd- 
dan. — (to rule lines) ^•^^ jl^--* 
mistar nimddan. 
BuLBB (/or marking lines oti paper, 
consisting of threads stretched 
upon a piece of pasteboard, in 
parallel order), ^k— • mistar. — 
(kina) ftUoVj pAdiahah, »U ghdb, 
AAi shab, oiXU malk, mVLL. sultdn, 
CjVsU kbakdn, ^J kai. 
Bum, ^jy rum (eur,). 
To BuMBLB (^Attmier), ©»>»;* gbur- 


ndshkhwAr. ^^ ^^^ 

To BuMiNATB, (j,j/ j^i^*»y nAsh- 
khwdr kardan.— (rc/fccO c:J*>/^y^ 
fikr nimddan. 
BuMMAOE, ^j^ taldsh. 
To BuMMAOB, ^o/^JiF talish kar- 



BuMOUB, i&>;6A* shuhrat, ^ khabar, 

/jsATguftugd, y^gap (Atn^). 
To BuMouB, e**^*>;t^ fchabar dd- 

Bump, {^j^ sunn, JA^ kafal. — 

(rump-bone) y«uift *U8*U8. 
To BuMPLB, oS/ ^^ e>«s^ J ^ pfch 

va chin paidd kardan. 
Bun, ^*y dau. 

To Bun, (^^^*> daTfdan, ^jSd.\s 
takbtan, <^j/ ^Ua gbitab kar- 
dan.— (to flow) f^sjk ^j\^ jiri 
sbudan, <j)^ q)\^ ravdn sbudan. 
—(to flee) ^jj-A^^ gurikbtan, 
0**/jV firar kardan. — (to run 

through) vide To Tbanspix. 

(jneU) c>ai-\^gudakbtan, <^ja v»^ 
ab shudan. — (to run up and 
down) o*>/ f^ takdpd kardan, 
oV^ pu,fdan.— (a# ink on bad 
paper) (^o^cAAi nasbf kardan. 
— (to run out) ^^. rikhtan. — 
(to run over) (^jj/ (^ ^j zfr-i-pd 
BuNAWAY, ^^jk firdrf. 
BuNNEB, *^jO davandab.— (me«- 
senger) A-Vi kasid, jLU gbdtir, 
*«^ paik. 
BuNNXNo, (j)\j*) davdn. 
BuPEE, &tf^ rupiyah. 
BuPTUBE (fereacA), ^a^^Xei sbikaat, 
w*Ua sbikdf, iLjL^. rikbnab.— 
(dispute) Jj^j da'vd, g^y nizd*, 
«:-f;U^ muudza*at,6;ihUM« musbd- 
jarab, Ja^ jadal, e^J lajdj, ftye^- 
sitizab, *fiC^ jang, &AiU« mund- 
kasbab. — (Aemia) OM* fatk.— 
(between friends) ^J^y^ ^Ua^ 
Bubal, ^j'I;*** 8abrd,f, ^J\i^^ din- 

kdnf, <jJU-jy rd8td,f. 
BusB, vide Tbxck. 
Bush (fUig or reed), ^y*^ pfzur, ^ 
lukb, (j?:^ jagan. — (Jbuirush) 
^^ kbdnak, «*U. kbunak, ^^j* 
burdf. — (sudden spring) va..^^ 
jast, 1*^^ bujdm, oiS^U tdkbt, 
*U-«- bamlab, u^^y ydrisb. 
To Bush, (ja-^^ jastan, (^j**;^^ f*iV^ 

bujdm dvardan. 
Busk, cij^b*. sukbri, ciiiu. ^U^ ku« 



mAj-i-khushk, eU^ va^ bast-i- 
kum^j, ^\^ ^\i niin-i-chahf. 

KusT, vsXjj zang. 

RiTSTic (c&untryman), <« 


rusta,!, o\^^ dihkan.~(mmO 
o»^j^ sahrA,!', ^jJUaj dihkiinf, 

(jf^jy nista,!. 
EuOTiciTv, ^o^ ^ bi-adabi. 
To EusTLE, (^j/ \ju» sadA kardan. 
BusTT, A;i/^3 zang-giriftah, ^; 

»^yi zang-dliidah, fioj vsX^j zang. 



Rttt, 0/ gaud. [This is properly 
a ditch.] t- r J 

BuTHLB88,j^ W jafa-Hr, *►«, bf- 
rahm, «ua,j durusht, JjXt. 
sang-dil, ja zAlim, ««.-4i bi- 

muriivat,jU jabbar.jVSUA- sitam- 

Eye tit^ f,j^ gandum-i-sijAh, 
V I '•ff gandum - i - bahiirah, 
y^j!^ chAwdar. 


Sab^an {woTBhipper of the 9un, 
moon, and host of heaven), ^U 
siibf, ^jM nabatr. 

Sabbath (day), c..^ sabt, -.^ 
«^-*-J^ yaumu-'s-sabt. — (Holy 
Sabbath) j^oi. «>^ sabt-i-mu- 

Sable (/ler), jy^ «:^^ ptist-i- 
sammiir. — (the animal) jy^ 
sammdr,— (black) fiU- siy^h.— 
(aahlea, mourning) ^Jist^ ^\^ 
libda-i-mishk/, y ^^y libas-i- 

SABBB, jat < A shiBMiWr. 

Sacchabine, (^^ shirfn. 

Sacebdotai,, t/*J^ mukaddas. 

Sack, J^ juvAl, J^^ chuvil.— 
(storming of a town, Sc.) «:4-^ 
taskhfr, e\)U^ ^^y? takht u tar«, 
vi^jUs. ^ v:y^l£ gharat va khasa- 

To Sack, ^jo/^yjU gharat kardan. 
(:)'>y^ t;\j^ tkrkj niraudan. 

Sack-cloth, ^/.Si^ paWs. 

Sacbambnt (holy institute), v1.wm> 
cj*Aft- mansik - i - mukaddas. — 
(Baptism) .u^*? ta'mfd, ijjyju* 
ma'mudijah, ^\^\ istibagh.— 

(the Lord's Supper) Jl,^ Uc 
'asha-i-rabbam, fjJjJt kudas. 

Sacbed, ^^oa- mukaddas, ^--jj 
kudsi, ^^^i kudus, »i);L^ mu- 
barak, ^ mutalihar, «y^ mu- 
nazzah, ^l> pAk, ^^^ mutabar- 
rak.— (sacred places) A^l^* /;^\ 

Sacbedness, J^ji^ raubaraki', ^J\^ 
paki, ^_;-A5 kuds, ^js takad. 

Sacbipice, jUaT kushtar, ^J^i zibh 

rr/?i?^ ''•^^^ ^^)