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At JlsAf Dr Ge.r^i rhtpa, ^! -2. T%c ^ 

•Rfraordinaiy Graun/liicti i.f Ji'h L:^ {q 3 
inrd'cal Senfe iray be VftcoUtAd 6.411 ha / 

proceed, like Ibppocrgtn ot oM jnd .y^r .•«■ 
•f late, opJn a /nr frcat peittptble Tru'ht. 
— H<: wrircfaicHr (o the Stad-.ous, thcVMu^tu- 
•iiff jnd thure who inherited bid Cumlnttiirna 

firraea doc nu a «• lucKwrc imav ^ ...... .-» 

Man, who cmlatei hanun rieafwss end 

KfliofH will Mfer wanl t'ieiiji»-rhit he «- ^. . , /J 

alight be miibken'm(iWBBFaitimJTbfKid»y t^\ V \ " • i^ ^ ' f 

flVowed, hot it pUinly irofiri thrt hr wr.t ^ *" - - *'V • " X V TT . , 

from tbefullCOnfiAMNi of h'iHeaft.-ri.! t-> ; , 

CHOM nearer to the Poini nd wiilao tJse c t.- ' ,' ? '".'^J/. v^V'*.''^ *^ /S -# 

■ion JudgiBent of Minkind, bii ojHct. r^i 

a Ptxuhar tendency to promote Virtue laa Re- 

ligioo, to c Im the Padvv , rrisne th M.r. , 

and pttrify the Hnrt It has seta the c r.vr. n, 

nay a proverbial Phrafe to dtfrp ihf P' .— T -g ^ 

of Phyfic with Irrfli|inn, it a h-ipe:, riiiN . •/ /• ' /'^ 

H'jwefer, Dr ttnf«* haJ I pecullirly jTc-r- and ^-i^' ''-C*^ ' -^ "^1* 

Titii warmth UitCtri/luiaty Hs c-ntdere.: > /'•"/' ^ -, ^ 

in the pr mitivcAje* ai 'liai praAifsd. jnc or: >"'*^ ^H * •' » 

in the prefrm as 'tis tmisht He irj-e hj X>i>.,'^.'*^ 'tJ^^^- 

Writing* all fubftrrient t-' Vlf toe vC tfte I'l r . 

ry of God. He loft vA h*s Creatt 10 1! e cS . 

nlre Works of Creation ; he l«if*d the Licf v, 

and was bcl V. d bv t hern. H;dieJ,asi'e e»:r / 

wiA*<' and brincjEh: God, calm aiJ wih 11! J "\ , ^ ^. ^^ > ^ 

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C^//?'jalf;.JncientMwir. Weanrotfry,. / ] » .^^ "-"Y ^ ' -V 

fo r-c-nmrnd n- our Readers on thisrcpf... ^^^ '-^ *^^^-0^rW*-//jt:"//» •-Z.VV 

0/^r. :V^. Vol. VIII. p. ;u2. *^ • >" -; '/ ^ - -. -« ^. 

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. v 

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•• • 5»* ■• 


A N 


O F 




By George Cheyne, M.D. F.R.S. 

^Aa-Joicjis 'T}4««fj cl7(fiQjin TopjiJigj oLokvIa II^ 
vm. Hlppoc. 

At Imbecillis [quo in Numero magna ^ars 
Urbanorum^ omnejque pene Cupidi Li- 
ter arum funt) Obfervatio major necef- 
faria eft: ut quod vel corporis y vel 
Loci, vel Stuaii Ratio detrahit, Cu- 
ra reftituat^ CelH 

L O N "D O N. 

Printed for George Strahan, at 
the Golden 5i//ovcr-againft the Royal 
Exchange in Cornhill ; and J. L e a k e, 
Bookfellcr at Bath. 1724. 






Right Honourable 

• * 

Sir JosephJekyll, 

This Treatise 

is inlcribed 

As a Teftimony of Refpe^l, 
and Gratitude, 

B Y 

His moft obliged 
faithful humble Servant, 

George Cheyne. 


HIS heing probably the 
lafl Time I may tref^afs 
mtheVubliek, Ilt>ok«£- 
m myjdf injome Mea- 
fure obliged U jettU my 
Accounts "Jtntb the World ds an Au-, 
thor, before I make my Exit, ly en- 
deavouring to/hcw 1 have not ahiaays, 
offended out of Trefum£tio», l^amty, 
or Wasitmnefs. 



Thefirfl Time laJveutwsd m Trittt, 
•was m the Accmnt of my great Ma- 
Jler md cenerau! Friend, Dr. Pit- 
cairn. He that^ht himfelf ill-ufed fy 
fame of his Brethren of the TrofcJJion 
•who then were at intefline Way m 
the SuijeS of Fevers ; md fancied the 
bandfomeft IVay to bring them down, 
was to exhibit a morcj£ecims Account 
of this Difeafe, than any of them bad. 
jhewn. His Bufmefs then in the Tra- 
Sice of Phyflck was fo great, as net 
to allow himfufficicnt Time for fucb a 
Work, Two others therefore, with 
myfelf, were joined to manage the Af' 
fair: In which he voas to cut and 
came, cmd to add the froMkal Tart, 
My TrmnrKe 'was the Theory. I "was 
then very yourff in the 'profeffion, and 
Uving in the Country. But in a few 
'Days Thought in rtry Tart Jinijhed, as 
it now a^£eitrs, under the Title of 




The New Theory of Fevers. The 

ethers eitber fup^ejs^d or forgot ihars^ 
and ntitu, without the lec^ jSterationy 
hut in a few Words, was ordered for r* 
the Trefs. I could not refiB the Com- 
mands of my Friend 'f mt would not 
fi^er my ilame to he pi to it, beaig 
confcious it was a raw and unexft* 
rieiKed performance. There are thc^j 
fome Thif^s in it which may he ofUfe 
to Beginners, both as to the Method of 
pbilofo^hifijg on the ammd Oecom- 
my, and in the Accoum of the Mam* 
ner of the Operation of the greater Me* 
dicmes. The Foundations alfo and the 
Calces ajjlgned for acute ana flow Fe* 
vers, J ftill think fotid andjt^, and 
more fartictdar and limited than thofs 
of any ether Theory yet fuUiJbed, Bui 
it wants fo much fling and ftmfhingy 
fo mam Alterations and Additions , as 
would coft me more haboitr and Tarns 
than the vaitit^ a new Treatife on the 


iv The PREFACE. 

fame SuijeS : So that out of mere Lm- 
zinefs and InaJ'^etemyj I have thrown 
it by as unrife Fruit, and [uffered it U 
he as if it never had been. 



iWy neptt Sally -was in a Book of 
abflradied Geometry and Algebra, tM- 
titled, Methodus Fluxionum. Inver- 
la, bromht forth in Ambition and bred 
u£ in Canity. There arefome Things 
in it tolerable for the Time, when the 
Methods of Quadratures, the Menju' 
ration of Rations, and Transformation 
ofCurves,into thofe of other Kinds, VDcre 
not advanced to fuch Heights as they 
now are. But it is a long Time fime 
J was forced to forgoe thefe barren and 
airy Studies for more fubjlantial and 
commodioui Speculations : Indulgingand 
Rioting in thefe fo exquifitely bewitch' 
ing Contemplations, being only proper 
for publick Trofeffors, and thofe born 
to Eftates, and -who are under no out- 



^wardNecejJlues. BeJideSy to own a 
great but grievom Truths tho" they may 
quicken and Jhar^en the Invention^ 
ftrengthen and ep^tend the Imagination^ 
improve and refine the reafoning Facul- 
ty ^ and are of Ufe both in the. necejjary 
and the lumriom Refinement of me-- 
chanical Arts ; yet having no Tendency 
to reSlify the iVilly fwecten the Tern- 
feTy or mend the Hearty they often 
leave a StiffnefsjTofitivenefs^ and Suf^ 
ficiency on weak Minds ^ ynuch more 
pernicious to Society^ a^td the Interefls 
of the great End of our Beings than all 
the Advantages they bring them can 
recommence. They are indeed Rdge^Toolsy 
not to be trufted in the Hands of any ^ 
hut thofe "who have already acquired an 
humble Hearty a lowly Sprity and a 
fiber and teachable Temper. For in o^ 
thers they are very a£t to beget a fe^ 
tret and refined ^ride^ an over-ween-* 
ing and over-bearin^ V^anity {the moH 

a o^^o^ 


vi The PREFACE. 

op2^pte Temper to the true Gof^eU 
Spirit J whicby without Offence^ Imay 
fup^ofe to he the heSi ^Dif^oftion of 
Mind) that temps them to jprefume 
on a Kind of Omnifcience in Ref^eB 
of their Fellow-Creatures^ that have 
not rifen to their Elevation ; and tofet 
up for an InfaUihility ^ or at leajl a de^ 
cifive judgment ^ even in Matters which 
do not admit of a more or lefs {their 
proper Objedi) of which Kind whixt^ 
ever relates to the infinite Author of 
our Being moB certainly is. Upon all 
which Accounts^ confciom of my own 
JVeaknefsj I have long Jince bid them 
an AdieUy farther tha^ as they ferve 
to amufey or are ufeful in the abfolute 
j^ecejities of Life. 

The Defence of that Book againB 
the learned and acute Mr. Abr. de 
Moivre, being written in a Spirit of 
Tjevity and Refentmenty I mo§f fm^ 



The PREFACE, vii 

cenly retraSl^ and isuifh undone^ J^fa^ 
as it is £erfonal or ^eevtjh^ and ask 
him and the World Tardon for it ; 
as I do for the Defence of Z)r. Pit- 
cairnV Diflertations^ and the New 
Theory of Fevers, againB the late 
learned and ingeniom 'Dr. Oliphant, 
/ heartily condemn and detcB all £er^ 
fond ReflcMonSy all malicious and tm- 
mannerly Terms y und all falfe and 
tmjuH Re^refentationSy oi unbecoming 
Gentlemeny Scholars^ and Chriflians ; 
and dif^rove and undo both ^erforman^ 
ces^ oi far as in me lieSy in every 
Thing that does not jlridly and barely 
relate to the Argument. 

The frft Tart of the Philofophi- 
cal Principles, that o/Natural Re- 
ligion, conpjls merely of Difcourfes 
and LeSlures of Natural Philofo- 
phy, and of its Confequences on Reli- 
gion^ occafiorudly read or difcourfed 

a 3 to 


viii The P R.E F A C E, 

to that moB nolle and great Terfon^ 
the Duke (^/Roxburgh^ "who is no^m 
jo great an Ornament to his Country^ 
and his high Employments^ to 'whom 
they were infcribed. I thought they 
might be of life to other young Gentler 
men^ who^ while they "were learning 
the Elements of natural Thilofo^hyy 
might have thereby the Trinci^les of 
natural Religion infenfibly inflilled in^ 
to them. And accordingly it has been 
and isfliU ufedfor that TurPofe at both 
Univerfties. tJpon which Account^ 
u£on pv^er Gccafions^ I will not fail 
to improve it in all the new ^ifcove- 
ries in Ep^^erimental Thilofo^hy^ or in 
the final and natural Caufes of Things 
as ha^£en to be fnade^ fo as ta leave it 
(IS Utile im^erfcdi in its Kind as I 
poffiUy can. 

The fecond Tart of the Philofo 
phi^al Principles^ to wity that ff 
* ' Re- 


The PREFACE, ix 

Revealed Religion^ wm added aftcr^ 
"wardj tojhewj that all our Knowledge 
of Nature "was by Analogy^ or the 
Relations oj Things only^ and not their 
real Mature^ Subflance^ or internal 
^rinci^les : That from this Method 
of Analogy {the onJy Medium of hu^ 
xnam Knowledge) wefhouldhe necejfa^ 
rily ledy to conclude the Attributes or 
Qualities of the fupreme and abfolute 
Infinite^ "were indeed amlogoiu to the 
^ro^erties (fr ^^ualities 6f finite Beir^s^ 
but only infuoh a Manner as the 2)i^^- 
rence between Infinite and Finite re-- 
quires j and that therefore^ not being 
able to know ^recifely thefe differences ^ 
"weotdght implicitly to believe without 
reafoning what is revealed to m concern^ 
ing the Nature oj the infinite Being j 
or bring our lieafon to Jubmit to the 
My fi cries of Faith. How I have fuc^ 
ceeded is not forme to determine. As the 
End was honcB^ I amfecure the great 



X The P R E F A C K 

Tr indoles and the fundamental TrOj^o^ 
jitions are true and jujl. They may 
"want a little farther clearing u£ and 
Explication : But as yet I have met 
^th no Reafon to retraB any Thing 
material ; elfe Ijhould mojl certainly 
do it. 

The Eflay on the Gout and Bath 
Waters was brought forth iy mere 
Accident. The firfi ^ramht beings as 
I there mentioned^ only a ra£er ^ 7)i^ 
reBions jor a Gentleman^ my Friend 
and Tatient^ troubled with the Gout. 
It was enlarged upon different Occa- 
fionSy and publijhed to prevent its be- 
ing pyrated ^ f ever al Copies having been 
given out to others in the fame Gircum" 
fiances. I have the Sati^aBion to 
htow from many different Hands ^ that 
it has benefited great Mumbers ofin-- 
firm and affided Terfons ; and /hall 


The PREFACE, xi 

therefore go on to ctdtivate it as far as 
my ^oor Abilities will permit. 

I am now come to this my laB Tro- 
duRion\ whofe Origin was as cafuat 
as that of my former. My good and 
worthy Friend^ the ^refent Majler of 
the Rolls, having been lajl Autumn 
at Bath^/J^r a Confirmation of his Healthy 
at his Defeature dejired of me to draw 
u£ fame Tn/lru^ions in writing to direB 
him in theConduB of his Health for 
the future^ and in the Manner offu^- 
porting his Sprits free and fully under 
the great Bufinefs he is engaged in. I 
was then in the Hurry of our Seafon^ 
and could not fo foon anfwer his Es- 
feBatiwiy tM his real Worthy and my 
fncere Ejieem required. I thought my- 
f elf therefore the more obliged as foon as 
I had Ueifurey to esert myfelf to the 
uttermoH in Obedience to his Com^ 
mands. At firH I drew u^ moH of 


xii ThePREFACE. 

tbcje Rules at the End of the fevered 
Chafers ; but^ upn Reflepcion^ thought 
it not Ref^ed enough to his good Tafie 
and Capacity to judge of the Reafons 
of Things^ to p'efcribe him hare and- 
dry Diredions in Matters of fo great 
Moment, ladded therefore the^hilo^ 
fo^hical Account and Reafons of thefe 
Rules y "which make u£ the Bulk of the 
Chafers themfelves. He^ out of his 
Love to his Fellow-Citizens (which is 
onejhining Tart of his CharaSer^ and 
which I ought to fup^ofe has in this 
Infiance only im£ofed on his better 
judgment) de fired they might be mack 
piblick. Upon which Account fever al 
Things have been fince added^ to maize 
the whole of more general Ufe. Ifthere^ 
fore any Thing in this Treat if e be tole^ 
r able J or if any Terjon receive Benefit 
ly it^ they owe it entirely to that epc^ 
cellent Terfon^ U£on whofe Account 


The PREFACE, xiii 

folely it iwiii undertaken, and at isuhofe 
RequeB it is ^ulUjhed. 

I have indeed long and often oh' 
ferved, with great Tity and Regret, 
many very learned, ingenious, and even 
religiotui Verfons, who heing -weak and 
tender {as fitch generally are) have fitf- 
fated to the lafl Extremity for Want 
of a due Regimen of 'Diet, and other 
generaiDireHions of Health, who had 
goodScnfe enough to under/land the Force 
and MeceJJtly of fuch Rules, valued 
Health ftijjicientiy J and defpfed fen- 
fual Gratifications for tlx rleafures 
of the Mind fo far, m to he able and 
willing to abfiam from every Thing 
hurtfidy deny themfelves any Thing 
their jl^^etitcs craved, and to con* 
form to ayvy Rules for a tolerable de- 
gree of Health, Eafe, and Freedom of 
Sprits j and yet beir^ ignorant brim 
b to 


sir Hic P k M 1« i OE. 

i(f cmMi ihetfifelveSy from ixibat ta 
abjlain and i/bbat to ufcy thiy have 
fleered, even to mortal Jigomes ; . isthoy 
md tim hem letter ctife&ed and in- 
jfruSea, had£afs'd their Lives in to* 
lerdBle Eafe and ^iet. It is fir 
fhefcy and thefe only, the foU&imf^ 
Treatife is depgned. The Kohufl, the 
JuHM&^duhy the 'Pot-Coni^daiioits, the 
t^ofcy ami the Abandoned, have here 
nS Bufiiefs ; theii^ Time is not yet 
qkne. But the ^tcUy and the /^d^ 
ihe. Sfkdiom aHd ihe Sedentary, ^er* 
Jons of weak Merves, and the Gen" 
ilemen of the teamed 'Brofejjkms, I 
hopey hy the divifie BleJJiv^ on the 
f^'wi^ Treafife, may he eTiaUed to 
nUorub their Studies and Trofejj^ons 
*w^b greater Security and A^^lica* 
tim* and yet ^refervc their Health 
am treedom' of Spirits more entire dnd 
to, a longer Date. I am morally cer* 


TtifPREFiiCE. »y 

tarn-, had J hntnm avd hen as mM 
faiiified 4 the. Nmffity of the J?^/ 
here laid dovm, thirty Tears ^aga^ '4^ 
t am vfymp I had fiffered lefs, <m/ 
had had a greater freedom cf ^rit^ 
tha» J have etj^/d. But every 2%(i^ 
ishSfi. (t$\4Jt hofi ieffty e^itcejp; th^ .^^ 
rvs gM,Bulifigs,Qf our free ff^^Sp 

• \ • 

I5mw no iMd Means ^He^h 

awi Jbmijg Ufe 1 ha^ie omittedy m; 
atiy £emiciom Cufiom I have not noted i 
and have given the pUineB and moB 
f0nUiar Reafins J could ur^for the 
JSjdes J have here laid down. Mo& 
Qf'ifny ^guments (ojithey needs rwif) 
hsfffe i^ieniHfit of the animal Fun&ims 
andOecmmy: And I have ufed as 
Uttte Stfhulty (i^yR^^m^H^ in wy 
Ex^ieatums of fhefe, <« the frefettt 
State ofj^aturd Tl^ofofhy comdad" 
mit, I have bemofie^ contented li^tb 

hi -plain 



xvi The PREFACE. 

plain and obvious FaBs to account for 
A^earanceSy and the Cautions thence 
deStced*^ vohen^ according to the Hu" 
mottr of the^efent ^Cylnught have 
run into rejmed Spjectdations of Mita- 
phyftcksy or Matbemaiichs ; being con" 
tented with the CrafTo Modo philo- 
fbphari ; hecauje we JhaU never he 
aUe to fearch out the JVorhs of the 
Almightj/ to TerfeBion, fo as to fe- 
netrate the interned Nature of Things. 

I have confdted nothing bet rny 
own Efi£erience and Objervation on 
my own crazy Carcafe and the Injar- 
tnitids of mhers I have treated, in the 
foSowing RuleSy their Reafans and 
^i»lofo£hyy (fo that if ai/iy Thing is 
borrowed, it has occurred to me as my 
own) but in fo far as Authorities go 
to /horten ^bilofophical Accounts. Not 
but that all fydematick Writers in 


■ThePREFACE. xvii 

'Phyjicky and many particular Authors, 
have treated the fame SubjeB I But 
their Rules, hejides that they are of- 
ten inconftflcnt -with Reafon, or con" 
trayy to Experience, are fo general, 
ana exprefs'd in fo unlimited and un- 
defined TermSj a^ leave little or no 
Certainty in tbem ; isubcn ii^fly^d to 
particular Cafes, they want the necef' 
Jary 'Precipon and ExaMnefs, and fo 
Became ufelefs or^er^lesing : and lafi' 
ly, isuhen they come, (which is rarely 
to be found among them) to give the 
Reajons and 'Phdofo^by of their 1)1- 
reSions, they have not the Terfpcuity 
and natural Way of convincing the in- 
genious, ficUy, and tender Sufferers^ 
fo necefjary to make them dxarfuUy 
and readily undergo fuch fevere Re- 
flrcdnts ; which I take to he by far 
the moH difficult Tart of fuch a Work, 
and vohicb I have laboured with my 
jHtmoH Tower tofu££ly. 

xviii The PREFACE. 

Ihww not what majt he the Patg 
midSucceJs of this IPtrfermmce ; nw 
am I Jolicitms about it, ieit^ confcioui 
the 'Dtfign was honeH, the Mp^ 
w^ightjy aad the Esemtion the ieit 
my rime f myj^ilities, andnr^ Hedtif 
wotdd permit y which camtot hear shf 
Ijai^ur af much fUeing amd Ftnijhi 
peing careful not tQ imrtmh m t 
'Province of the Thyfcimy I have conr 
cecded nothing my Knowledfge jcould 
fmgeB to direSi the Sufferer^ yn tht 
leu Mditner I could, U preferpg k»s 
JJedth and lengthen out his Lip i 
And! have held out no fdfe or delui- 
fory Ughts to lead him aflrayy Qrtorr 
went him unnecejfarily. 


If it were foJfihU any Set of Mm 
C9tddle offended ^t my jPerffrnfoncey 
it nMt oe pty ,Brct]jre^ of the Tro^ 


feffwn^ far endeavownng to leffen the 
Materia Morbifica, But as this 
'sooidd he the moB malicious^ unjuB, 
atid tmworthy Reflexion could he 
thrown on Schdars cmd Gentlemen of 
a liberal Education ', fo I never enter* 
taifCdthe mofi remote Vamty to think 
any Endeavour of mne 'would mtdic 
fo confiderable a Change in the Ma- 
tion ; efpeciaUy vahen the Devil, the 
World, and the Flejh 'were on the o* 
ther Side of the ^ueftioUy which have 
flood their Qrmmd even a^ainB the 
Rules cfLife md JmmorU^ brot^ht 
to Light by the Gofpel. 

I cannot conclude this tediom 'Pre- 
face without begging Pardon of the 
Reader for troubling him with my fri- 
vate Matters. AU lean fay as anA^o^ 
logy is, that of whatfoever Indiffe- 
rence my Concerns as an Author may 



le to him, yet they were not jo to 
me ; this being the only 'Plate aad 
Time I may have to mjuB them in, 
and it being the Jicighth of my jAmbi- 

Nil confcire mihi, nulla pallcfcere culpa. 





. It i'i e0lf ii freferm 

thm riiiipir tiedtw, to 

prevent tiSU » cure i)if- 

__ eafes. P- ^ 

The Cmfdemtions ihdt Jlidutid the 

Author to fuUijb tfiisTfeitife, and 

accommodate it to geitir'^ Ufe. ibid, 

s. The Method Si it to froceed in, 

and the Reafms for it. 3 

3. The Folly of an over-ftrufulous, and 

ihi Reafons for a moderate andpro- 

per Care of our Health. + 

A dmUe Advantage if that Care, y 



Of A I R. 


f. I. The Necejftty of a careful Choice of 
the Air we are to live in. p. 6 

2. Proofs from Experience , of the In- 
fuence of the Air on the animalOe- 
conomy. ib. 

3 . Rules to be obferved in the Choice of 
the Situation of a Houfe. 7 

4. Eaflerly fVinds moji dangerous to 
Health in England. 9 

The Time they prevail mofi, andisjhen 

the Wefterly and Southerly Winds 

blow moft conftantly. ro 

How to prevent and remedy the ill 

Effe£fs of cold and moift Air. ib. 

5. PVhat is to be done to avoid theun- 
wholefome Influence of the Fog that 
commonly hangs over London in the 
Winter Time. 11 

That tender Verfons ought to be carC' 
ful of the Healthimfs of their Fa- 
ViilieSf and all that are much about 
them 3 of Cleanlinefs ; and to avoid- 
ing damp Rooms t Beds^ Linnen^ &c. 
6. The 




6. The Manner of catching Col4, or 
howferfpirationis obftruEled. p. i j 

An Obfervatim concerning the Effeil 
of rich Food and generous Wines in 
the Time of a Tlague, 1 4 

Why "People in 1)rink are not ready 
to catch Cold. ib. 

H011U the ObfiruStion of l^erfpiration 
contributes to the producing Vapours 
and all nervous and hyfierick Dif- 
orders. i 5 

Rules for Health and Long Life with 

RefpeSi to Air. 

Of Meat and 


. To preferve Health, the ^antity 
and Nature of our Food, both Meat 
and l^rinkj muft be proportioned to 
the Strength of our 'Digeftion. 1 p 
The Sources of Chron!cal'T)tfeafes. ib. 
2. Three general Rules by which the Va- 
letudinary and Infirm may judge of 
the feveral Kinds of vegetable and 
animal Food, and find which are 
moft proper for them. 2 1 

'ication of thefe Rules -, where 

e Applic 

ts fbewedj that thofe Vegetables and 
c z Animals 


Animals that cume fionefi to Ma- 
turity are more eafily d^ejied than 
thofe that ripen wfire kifurely ^ p . 2 2 

The fmall^ oj^ each J^ind than the 
large ft ; 23 

Thfi Food of any ^nipuU than the 
Animal itfelf% t^ Animals that 
live on Vegetables than thoJ\ t^at 
live on other Aninfals s thpfe that 
live on Food of an eafy ^igeftion 
than thofe that eat ftronger Food. 24 

Land' Animals than Fijhes and am- 
phibious Animals s ib. 

Vegetables and Animals of a dry, fleflsyy 
fibrous Subftancey than thofe whofe 
Subftance is oily^faty and glutinous : 


Thofe of a light and whit i^, than thofe 
of a brown or reddi^ Colour : ib. 

Thofe of a mildoftdfoft^ thantlgpfe cf 

ftrongy poignant^ arqmaffck, qr hot 

Tafte. 2 6 

3 . The proper Way of feeding Animals 

and raifing Vegetables,foas they may 
become the mo ft whole fome Food. 2 8 

The Cookery fitt eft for that Turpofe. ib. 

How the Appetite is to be preferved 
good and keen. 29 

4, OftheG^antity ofMiot^ ingetieraL ib. 

5^ The 


5. Tk^ gffAt Advantage of [pare an4 
fiwpk ^i^t^ fkewn in fever al Ex- 

an^ks ofPerfons that have by that 
Means lived healthy to a great Age 
in iJ^arm CiimAteSj p. 3 o 

6. Inftancesto thefam pwfofe in cold 

Clipmfes. 31 

7. A particidar determination of the 
Weight of Meat proper ffi for weak, 
ten^r.4vdfedenfary People. 33 

%. The MiCchiefs of Repletion, or living 

toofntly. is 

How to fifpply the Tlace of Medicines 
by "Diet. ib. 

9. Of the Ufe of Turgative Medicines 
when one has exceeded* 3 6 

The Form of an expellent Medicine for 
this Vurpofe. 37 

Sir Charles Sca^ boroughV Advice t^ 
the T)utchefs of Portfmputh. ib. 
IP. • How Jiudious Terfons may know 
when they have eat too much. 3 g 
How the Appetite may become the right 
Meafure of Eating. ib. 

II. How we may judge by our Eye of 
tbejuft §luantityof Meat very near- 
ly ^ without the continual Trouble of 
weighing it. 39 

Of TorkandFijb : their Unftnefsfor 
weak and valetudinary Teople. 40 

12. The 


h z . The great Advantage of drinking Wa- 
ter in preferving the Appetite, and 
fttengthening and promoting theHi- 
gejiim. p. 43 

The pernicious Effeiis of drinking Spi- 

* rits for thefe 'Purpofes 43 

^ There is no Manner ofl^anger in break- 
ing off fo pernicious a Cuftom all at 
once J as is pretended. 45 

" Sir W. TcmpleV Rule for drinking 
after 'Dinner. 47 

I J. The ill EffeSis of drinking fVine 
plentifully to digeft too full a Meal. ib. 

14. The bad Confequences of the common 
Ufe of firong-hodied IVines unmixed^ 
and the "Preference of light fVines of 
middling Strength J orftrong fVines 
diluted i^ith Water. 4<> 

1 5 . That 'Drinking, efpecially of fpiritu- 
Otis Liquors, to raife the Spirits in 
Vapours and Melancholy, increafes in- 

ftead of curing the Difeafe. 5 1 

Cordials are not effeSiual Medicines 
that ftrike at the Root of a difeafe s 
but only prefent Reliefs to mitigate 
continual Suffering, and gain Time 
for a more effeBtial Courfe. J4 

16. OfPunch, and the mifchievous Con- 
fequences of drinking it. 5 5 



Of the immoderate and indifcreet UJk 
of the acid Juices. p. 5 <S 

The Caufe of the Frequency of Belly^ 
aches yTalJies^ Cramps^ Convulfions^ 
and other nervous ^ijlempers in the 
Weft-Indies i andthe Cure of them. 


17. The Uf^tnefs of Malt Liquors for 
weak otomachs. ed 

IS. OftheUfeandAbufeofCoffee.Tea^ 
and Chocolate y and{jbytheay)of To- 
bacco and Snuff . 61 

1 9. Of the due Proportion of watry Li- 
quors to our Meat ^ and the beJlTime 
for drinking it. 67 

This Quantity is to be different accord- 
ing as we eat moftly of boiled or of 
roafted Meat. tf S 

What Meats are fit t eft to boil and what 
to foaft. ib« 

20. The Form of a Cordial^ where fuch 
Medicines are fit to be ufed. 7 ^ 

Of the proper Ufeofit. ib, 

Kulesfor Health and Long Life with 

ReJpeSi to Meat and Drink. 7 z 



CHAP. lil. 

\^ • 

' ••) 

J. X. Of the Ufe and Necefa/ of Reft 

find Sleep to Animals. V'77 

bffBe CareWo)ight iotahthmake 

'^ethinj^.: 78 

The eat trig htmJmSupphsf^uftratei 

the Ends of Sleep. ib. 

2, An Account of the very hiH/rtful Ef 

. feBsofthdtTramce. ib. 

The Caufe ofu%fbund and difturied Reft j 

Cramps y Suffocations^ Stortings in 

Sleepy and Might-Maris s Sicknefs i) 

'at Stomach iri the Mof^hi/^, and ' 

Heaviriefs all the ^ay. 79 

The effeBudl Means of pteventing all 

thefe. 80 

3 ": Thepropir Seafon for Ski^. i i 

The To^crsfndit more hurtful to fit up 

^^ latCy though fobery than to go to Bed 

half drum But early. 82 

4. The Strong andRobuft may without 

danger fometimes negle^ the due 

Seafon of Sleep ingh yet the Weak and 

Tender never can, with Safety, ib. 

$.^^Such Teople muft go early to Bedy 

and rife early y by which Means their 



Sleep will be more refrejbingj and 
need not be fo long, as if they went 
later to Bed. p. 83 

6. The ill Effe6is of loitering a Bed in 
a Morning, and the Advantage of ri- 
fing early. 84 

7* A daily Regimen for the Studious. 8 5 

ACautionMout the Aged and Sickly. 86 

Rules for Health and Long Life, with 

Regard to Sleep and Watching. 8 7 

Of Exercise and Quiet* 

J. I. Exercifeas necejfary to Health now, 
as Food itfelfy whatever may have 
been the Cafe in the State of Inno- 
cence. 89 

The Effects of it in preferving the 
Blood and other Juices fluid, the 
Joints fupple and pliant, and the 

, Fibres in a due Tenfion. 90 

2. Of the Time and Occaflon of allow- 
ing Men the Ufe of animal Food and 
ftrong Liquors. 9 1 

The Reafon why they were allowed to 
them. pa 

d 3.0/ 

•<! - 


$. Of the fiver al Sorts af Exercifi in 

Ufiy and of the Choice af them. 94 

The Reafon why Children-^ delight fa 

Ttmch in runnings jumping^ cltmhin^^ 

and all Sorts of n^xerfije. ? 95 

4. Several Inftances of the Beneft of 
Exercife on the Lmbsm0fi emfkyrd 
^in divers laborious Employments^ 96 

5. The Ufe of this Obfewation, in op- 
propriating different Exercife s to dif- 
fer ent Kinds of Weakneffes in the 
fe veral Varts of the Body, 9 7 

That there ought to be ftated Times of 
Exercifes: and which are the pre- 
perefi. 98 

6. Three Conditions of Exercife that it 
may have its full Effe£f. 1^9 

?• The Ufifulnefs of Cold Bathing ; 

1. to keep the Verfpirat ion free and 
open. loi 

2. to promote a free Circuldtion of 
the Juices throe^gh the fnmllefi 
Veffels. ib. 

V I. to prevent catching of Cold^ by 

ftrengthning the Fibres andfirait^ 

ing the perfpiratoty ^uBs. i o z 

»v How oftj in what QafeSy and in 

'udmt ^Manner ; Cold Bathing fbould 

: : be ufed. ib. 

9. Of 


9. Of the Flep^-^ufh^ i^nd the great 
Ufefidnefs of it. 104 

jin Obfervation of its conjiderable Ef 
feBsm Horfis. ib. 

T^at it ought Us well as Coid Bathing) 
t^ he ufed oft the Animals whofe 
Flejb we eat. 105 

Ruks for lieakfe and Loflg Life re- 
lating to Excrcife. 106 

C H A IP. V. 

Of our EvACiiTATioNs a^d 

their ObftmSions. 

J. I . That the PiRjces in healthy People 

are of a moderate Conjijienee. 1 09 

TheCi^es^fci^ive and purging St4>ols^ 

and how they difcover the Xs^odnefs 

^ Badnefs efthe Regimen we ufe. ib. 

€)f the Reafon why Mercury fltrges in- 

fiead 4>f Salivating. iii 

That the fame Reafon willumke even 

Reft f ingests dnd Opiates purgative. 


2. A dangerous Miftake in thefe that 

would gfe^ fhtitp and fat. ib. 

Another in thi r^ttfing ^p of Children. 

d 2 The 


The right Method of begetting a proper 
§iuantity of good and found Fleflj. 

p. 113 
/.3. Loofe and pw^ative Stools difcover 

' V, intemperate Eating. 115 

Of the prefent Relief the Hjfjlerical 

and LoW'Jpirited find in good Eat- 

ing and Tfrinkingy and the Mifchief 

that follows on it. • ib. 

The common Caufe of Head- Ache s^ 

Stomach' Ache s^ andColicks. 116 

4. The rtght Method of bracing relaxed 

Nerves. 11 j 

: How oft healthy and temperate Teo- 

pie go to Stool. ib. 

5. How long it is from the eating of a 
Meal till the difcharging the Faces 
of it. . 118 

That the bad EffeSis of an intempe- 

rate Meal are felt mojl the. "Day 

; the Excrements of it are thrown 
out. ... :, , . 119 

The Confequences of this Obferva- 

tim* .ib. 

6. Some AHwents that ft not eafy on 

the Stomach may affordgood Nourijh- 

. ment. 1:^0 

y, 8. Of the fever al Sorts of Urine y and 
!wi^tjheyjigmfy.. .. 121 



The ^ij^r^nce 1?H-J!)^m hfjfertck fFd- 
ter dttd f hat made in ^" Biabctcs. 

' ^: The Regimen frhpef 'for th^e ihat 
make pale high'Cvl6ufed"ar"tutif(iPFa' 

^' t^. " ' ^' ': '^" ^' "; /* 124 

' 1 6. Ofibi Tf anger thby 0te in that make 
aatk brown or dirty rb^Wntef. 125 
J Of other Kinds of fVnfef. ., ib. 

1 1 * Ofdn uncommon Eni dentation both by 
\ifge and Urine y and theCa^fescf 

'^ • tt. 125 

12. ObflruBed Terfpiration the (2aufe of 
moft acute T^'tfeafes\ and the ^ffeti 
of chronical ones. 128 

13. Catching of Cold what y dndhowdkn- 
gerous. 129 

A prefent and eafy Remedy kg/^nfi 

it. . ib. 

The danger of delaying the Xlure of 

it. ib, 

14- The Way to maintain free Yerjpira- 

tion. 130 

The Confequences of its ObJlruStion. ib. 

An Objirvdtion concerning the life and 

final Caufe -of cbnvutfive Motions^ 

Coughing J Sneezing, Laughing j 

Tawnif§, Stfetchirigi^tc., v\ i 3 1 

15. Of a critical Salivation h^^ening 

to T^rfons of relaxed Fibres. 132 

'■'■-^' The 



The Regard that ought to ie hai to 
the Eje in (I^ronicalCaff. 135 

^he Reafonof the Appearance of Spots y 
Flie^y AtomSy ^c. before the Ej^s 
jof hyfifrical Terfons^ and of their 

, fDimnefs andC^nfuJion of Sight- 13^ 

Whence hyfierical Teople have the Senff 
of Qhoaking md Stranding. ib. 

Of the UfefuTnefs ofthejor^fnentmied 
SaUviition. is7 

OftM right JVay efm^n^tng it. 138 

Rules for Health and Long Life with 
Regard to 5^aci4atioo§, j 3 9 

C H A p. VI. 

■»<• V 

\ : « 

Of the P A s 5 1 o N $. 


^. J . The ^ajjions hav£ a great Influence 
on Health. 144 

J^otfT fundamental Tropofj!tiont of the 
T>oSirine of the Tafftons. ib. 

Prop. L The Soul refides in a particu- 
lar Manner in the Braifh where it 
ferceives Motjon^ excited by out- 
ward Ohje.&f^a'^ afcording to their 
Jfnprej^ons e^^itf$ Mottms in the 



Schol. With Regard to the different 
Natures af out mar d ObjeBs^ or the 
Subje£i [nody or Mind") they imme- 
diately offeBy the TaJJions are di- 
wded into fpiritual and animal. 145 

!^Dp, IL Wherein the Union of^ the 
Soul and Body confijls. 146 

SchoL Some La^s of that Union. 1 47 

Prop. III. In Spirits there is andSiive 
filf-metiiie "Trinciph. tb. 

Sdtiol. ATroof of Phis Trincipie^from 
the Exiftence of Mutton. 1 48 

l?irDp. IV. There is in Spirits a ^tmci^ 
fie analogous to Attrtt^ion. 149 

Schol. The Neceffty of this Trinci- 
pie. ' 15.0 

The Remains of it in our fallen 
State. ibt 

Corol. I. The Natnere offpiritual Good 
and Evil. 151 

Corol. IL A ^ivifion^ of the^ Tajlons 
into ^leafurabk and Tamfuly viz. 
Love and Hatred^ arid the ^penn^ 
dents on^ them. ib. 

%. The Taffions with RefpeSi to their 
Effects on theBoi^ maybe dptfidedin- 
this or that Kind of mifeafes. 153 

The EpHs of acuta T'affioftt. ib. 

TheQmsfrofaS^ ib. 



The Caitfe of a Blujh. 1 5+ 

The 'Pulfe accelerated and the Breath 

fhort in Anxiety. ib. 

The EffeSls of Fear and Anger, i > s 
J. The EffeBs of chronical'^ affions. ib. 
Of fixing the Attention on one Thought 

or Idea. I i (S 

Of Grief, Melancholy J unfuccefiful 

Love, Tride. ib. 

The EffeB of continued A^iony in the 

Indian Faquiers. i S7 

Of Religious Melancholy. ib. 

4. The Tender and Valetudinary ought 
carefully to avoid all Excefs ofVaf- 
fi'om and-vi'hy. ib. 

The Acute Tajfons more dangerous 
than the Chronical. i s 9 

5 . The different EffeBs of the Tafftons 
on different Conftitutions. ib. 

1 . on thofe of moji elaflick Fibres, ib. 

2 . on thofe ofjiiff, rigid Fibres, i do 

3 . on thofeoffluggifh, refty Fibres, ib. 

6. That the T>iforders or IVeakneffes of 

the Nerves employed in the mental 
Operations may, in fome Cafes, be 
remedied by 'Phyjick. ib. 

7. fVhat fpirilual Love, or Charity, is. 


. Tbo' at firfi it has the Appearance of 

a common 'PaJ/ion ; yet in its Ter- 



•feHion it proves the Exercife of a 
particttiar Faculty in the Soul pro- 
per to itfelf. p. 1 61,. 
That all Obje6is keinz to be loved in 
proportion to their Beauty, God mufi^ , ' 
be loved infinitely, and all Creatures, 
ersen ourfehes, in Com^arifon to him^ ^ 
not at all. 163 
S. Tet there is an aHo'j^idle andjuji-,- 
Self-love. i'S;5 ^ 
The Mtaftres of it. ib,^ . 
The Love of God for his o-wn SakCj 
and without Regard to out o-jtjn 

■ 'llappixefs, is noi'u::ithJi'andiTig infe- 
farakk in its Nature from our Hap- ^ 
fiTifp- 166 

AH' Benuty conji/fs in Harmony, and 
all 'Pleafure in the 'Perception of 
that Harmony. 167 

9. The Advantages of fpirituat Love 
with Regard to Healrb. i d s 

h removes all Anxiety and' Saitcitude^ j 

// hanijhes a^ thofi' Vices that n^ofi^ 

ruin Health. ib, J 

It gives continual yo^ i 'VJhich is i^d\ 

Jepsralflff from HeaMj. 'ib. 1 

Rules of Health i:jith Regard X# ^mJ 

, Man^emtnt of the Paflions. 170 ' 




• The Ad^vmtage if a full and free Ter- 

fpiration in the Soles of the Feet. 2 00 

9. AC^utim^ofiudionsTeople cmcetn- 

- ing thefoteft Tofture of the Body in 

Reading and IFriting. 201 

. The Inconveniencies of a wrong one. ib. 

10. ^ very necejfary Caution Xo fat and 

over 'grown People. 203 

11. Tw^ important Advices to the Aged* 


The Advantage of removing to a 

warmer Climate in oldAg^* .206 

1 2. The Folly of expeBing a quick Cur^ 

of chronical Difeafes. 2 07 

The Mifchiefs this vain Expeitatiori 

triMS on the Valetudinary. 208 
The Original, andonly Met hod of Cure 

$f mofi chronical T>ifeafes. 2 09 
The NeceJJity of fubmitting to this 

Method. 211 

. The Efficacy, of it. 212 

1 3 . Qf the great Ufefulnefs of Opium, 213 

The. Manner of its Operatum, ib. 
Proofs that it operates in that Man- 
nef. zi$ 

ifawitfu»fsal}m[h«ek. 217 

. /» wliat Caf^ Qptiu^ is «f grgateji 
^/f.' v.A'v. . , . ib. 

ff^^ ^^ QpiUttu 'uiiwtk U<iw<i Lau- 

danun3t.#fii#«|«a(i-: ./ . . ib. 



The proper Vehicles for it in different 
Cafes. z 1 8 

The right Way of dojing it. zip 

That Opium oijet'dofed kills not fo 

readily as is commonly thought, ib. 

14. The great Secret of "Long Life. 220 

Tho' the Solids mufi necejfarily harden 
by old Age., fo as to fop the Circu- 
lation i yet this may be retarded by 
keeing the Juices fluid by a meager 
and diluting T>iet. 221 

The Manner of doing it. 222 

Of thin, and what is commonly, and 
what ought to he called, poor Blood, ib. 

IVhat is the beft Bloody and for -what 
Reafons it is to be accounted fo. 224 

Of the great Advantages of Tempe- 
rance. zz6 

Mifcellaiiy Rtdes of HcdXth. and hong 
Life. 227 

Conclulion. ^jo 



In Clariffimi Medki GiE,o. CHEYNifii 
Tentamcn tie Sanitate & Longaevitatc, 
doStum varhmque Opus miratus, hac 
effudit * ♦ VtTtutum illius Viri Cult or 

' imfenfiffimus . 

HU C ade$, o ! faevum Mcmbris arcere Vcncnum 
Qai capis, & Morbi femina tetra gravis. 
Sive tremens pavidufque vides inftare minacem 

S€9rbutuia,(ut videas hie Liber, eccel docet) 
Sive parant atras Hj;podtondria turgtda Nub^ 

C^ 74enti ofiu% triftia Tpeflra dareot ; 
Seu Jtfonftri qnodcunqHc imis PenetraUbusliaeret, 

Frincipiotn Mbtbi, mox generanda Lties: 
EcceOpifcr prafens, CHETNMUS^ Icait accrbum 

In Venis Tuccuns^ nee tiU Mdnbra dolent ; 
Aut pcllit triftis fimulacra fugacia (j^eftr^ > 

ACque Animo prohibet Gaudia abefie tuo ; 
Maturaque Opera privertens triftia Fata 

£grotare vecac, nee doluifle (init. 

Pcrlege Catattentos) culti Docufflenta LibelK, 
St Te v(rt &num vel cupis eflb probum ; 
, CArA^ ecenim ibciata Salus iideliter hasret 
Virtuti, VitiO'incc Conies eflfe vokti) 



^.- . 

Kfte Volnptatts proltmviefre'^floCMieejj 'r: ' 

Hinc difce & verts innocnifqne fral. ' '. 

Ut Ttbi fit Somnns Lenimcn dulce Labornm; 

Quxqne onerant Menfas dulcu Fercia fieot ; 
Ut Tigant Artos, nee fanda tAeinbn laboreat ; - 

Hic G»]x eflrxnis Criraina miDe lege* 
Chiru^ Ferrum T^ flc tetrica Phamuca Cerxeat? 

Hincdilce ambobus pofle careie Malis. 




BOOKS Trintedfor and Sold by Q-e^o. 
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PHUofophical Piinciples kS Religion, Matural mi 
Reveal'd; tntwopacis. TheFirft conuininarhe 
Elements of Natural Philorophv, and the Proofe of 
Natural Religion. The Second Edition: Tlie Second 
Part containing ihe Nature of Iniinites, together with 
the Philolbphick Principles of Reveal'd Religion. By 
George Cheyne, M. D. F. R. S. 

A New Theory of Acute and flow continued Fevers; 
wherein, befides the Appearances of fuch, and the Man- 
ner of their Ciiccj occafionally, the Strufture of the 
Glands, and the Manner and Laws of Secretion, the 
Operation of Purgative, Vomitive, and Mercurial 
Medicines, are mechanically explain'd. To which is 
prefis'd. An EiTay concerning the Improvements of the 
Theory of Medicine. The Third Edition, with many 

Fluxioaiim MeChodus Inverfa; iiyeQuantitatumFlu- 
entiuM Leges generaliorei A Georgio Cheynio 
M. D. F.R.S. 

Rudimentorum Mechodi Fluxionum Lnverfe Speci- 
mina, adverfus Abr. De-Moivre. EodEni Audiore. 

An Effay of the true Nature and doc Method of 
Treating theGoutjToge ther, with an Account of the Na- 
ture and Quality of Bath- Waters, the Manner of uling 
them, and the Difeafes in which they are proper : As 
alTo of the Nature and Cure of moft Chronical Diftem- 
pers, notpublifhed before. By George Cheyne, M. D. 
F. R. S. The fifth Edition Revifec^ Correaed, and 
Enlarged to more than double of the Former. 

Prefagium Medicum, or the Prognaftick Signs of 
Acute Difeafes, Eftablilhed by Ancient Obfervation, 
and Explain'd by the beft modern Difcoveries. The 
Second E4itioniWith a Preface by Dr. W. Cock- 
burn. /:!^'T\]~~ 


A N 



Health and Long Life. 

T is a common Say- 
ing, That every Maa 
paft Forty is either a 
FmI at a ^hyfician : 
It might have been u 
juftly added, that he 
was a divine too : For, as the World, 
goes at prefcnt, there is not any Thing 
that the Gcntrality of the letter Sort <rf^ 
Mankind fo laviflily and lb unconcern- 
cdly throw away as Healfh, iicept etet' 
naiFtUcity. Moft Men Jnholr when they 
B iUC 

1 ^wEssAY ofUnAttn 

' arc ill, but very few when they are well. 
And yet it is moft certain, that 'tis ea- 
iier to preferve Health thin to recover 
it, and to prevent Difeafes than to cure 
tlicm. Towards the firft, the Means art 
moftly in our own Power: Little elfc 
is required than to bear and forbear. 
But towards the latter, the Means arc 
perplexed and uncertain ; and for the 
Knowledge of them the far greateft Part 
of Mankind njuft apply to others, of 
whofc Skill and Honefty they are in a 
great meafurc ignorant, and the Benefit 
of whofe Art they can but conditionally 
and precarioufly obtain. A crazy Cop- 
ftitution, original weak Nerves, desk- 
bought Experience in Things helpful and 
hurtful, and long Obfervation on the 
Complaints of others, who came for Relief 
to this univerfal Infirmary, BATHy have 
at laft (in fome meafure) taught me fome 
of the moft efFedual Meanj$ of prefcrving 
Health and prolonging Life in thofe who 
arc tender and ficklyy and labour under 
chronical Diftempers. And I thought I 
could not fpend my leifure Hours better 
than by putting together the moft gene- 
ral Rules for that Purpofe, and fetting 
them in the cleareft and ftrpngeft Light 
I could, for the Benefit of thofe who 


and Lo NG Life. . 3 

may want them, and yet have not had 
fuch favourable Opportunities to learn 

5. 2. And that I might write with 
(bme Order and Connexion, I have cho- 
fen to make fome Obfervations and Re- 
fledions on the Non-naturals (as they are 
called, poflibly becaufe that in their pre- 
ternatural State they are eminently inju- 
rious to human Conjlitutions 5 or more 
ffobably^ becaufe tho' they be neceffary 
to the Subfiftence of Man^ yet in refped 
of him^ they may be confidered as ex^ 
ternaly or different from the internal 
Caufes that produce Tiifeafes) to wit,. 
I. The Air\ft breathe in. 2. Our Meat 
and ^rink. 3. Our Sleep and Watch^ 
im. 4- Our Exercife znd Rejl. 5. Our 
Evacuations and their Objiru£iions. 6. 
The Tajfjions of our Minds : And laftfy-, 
to add fome Obfervations that come not 
fo naturally under any of thefe Heads, 
I (hall not confider here how philofophi^ 
colly thefe T)ijlin£iions are made 5 they 
ieem to me, the beft general Heads for 
bringing in thofe Obfervations and Re- 
fictions I am to make in the following 

B 2 %i. 

4 -^ Essay ^Health 

IJ. 3. The Rcfleftion is not more 
common than juft. That he who lives 
phyfically muft live miferibly. The Truth 
\%j too great Nicety and Exadnefs tl&mL 
every minute Circumftance that may im- 
pair our Health, is fuch a Yoke and Sla»- 
very, as no Man of a genctous free Spi- 
xit would fubmit to. Tis, as a Teet t)^ 
preflcs it, to die for fear of Trying. And 
to forbear or give over a juft, charitable^ 
or even generous Office of Life, from a 
too fcrupulous Regard to Health, is un- 
worthy of a Many much more of a O&rr- 
jiian. But then, on the other Hand, to 
cut off our Days by Intemperancey Indi^ 
jfcretiony and guilty TaffionSy to live mi* 
ferably for the fake of gratifying zfweet 
Toothy or a brutal Itch s to die Martyrs 
to our Luxury and JVantonnefSy is equal- 
ly beneath the Dignity oi human Nature, 
and contrary to the Homage we owe to 
the Author of our Being. Without fomc 
Degree of Health, we can neither be a^ 
greeable to ourfe/ves, nor ufeful to our. 
Friends s we can neither relifh the Blef- 
/ings of divine Providence to us in Life, 
nor acquit ourfelves of our duties to 
our Maker, or our Neighbour. He that 
wantonly tranfgrcflcth the felf-evident 


P and LongLife. 5 

Rules oi Health, is guilty of a Degree 
oi Self- Murder i and an habitual 'Penile- 
verance therein is dired + Suicide, and 
confequently, the grcateft Crime he can 
commit againft the Author of his Being i 
as it is flighting and defpifing the nobleft 
Gift he could beftow upon him, i)iz, 
the Means of making himfcif infinitely 
happy J and alfo as it is a treacherous for- 
Taking the "Pajl, wherein his IVifdom has 
placed him, and thereby rendering him- 
Iclf incapable of anfwering the Dcfigns 
of his 'Providence over him. The infi- 
nitely wife Author of Nature has fo 
contrived Things, that the mofl: remark- 
able Rules of preferving Life and 
Health are moral "Duties commanded 
us, fo true it is, that GodUnefs has the 
'Fremifes of this Life, as 'well as that 
to come. 

To avoid all ufelefs Refineijient, I 
will lay down only a few plain cafily 
obfervcd Rules, which a Man may rea- 
dily follow, without any Trouble or 

• Sclf-Murd:r. 



6 An Essay o/^ Health 

Of A I R. 

5. I. A / i? being one of the moft nc- 
jfj^ ceflary Things towards th^ 
Siibfijtence and Health of all Animals i 
'tis a Wonder to me, that here in Eng- 
land y where Luxury and all the Arts of 
living welly are cultivated even to a P^ce^ 
the Choice of Air fhould be fo little 

J. 2, From Obfervations on Bleeding 
in Rheumatifmsy and after catching Cold, 
'tis evident , that the Air with its diffe- 
rent §lualitieSy can alter and quite vitiate 
the whole Texture of the Blood and am^ 
m^/ Juices : From the ValfieSy Vertigoes^ 
VapourSy and other nervous Affemons^ 
caufed by Tu>ampSy MineSy and working 
OQ fome Minerals^ (f particularly Mer-^ 


f Vidi Ramazini of f£e Difia[ti cfTraiefmau 

and LongLife. 7 

cury ^nd j^niim&n/) 'tis plain ^/'r Co and 
fo qualified, can relax and obftruft the 
whole nervous Syjiem. From the Cho- 
licSj Fluxes, Coughs, and Confumptions., 
produced by damp, moift and nitrous Air, 
'tis manifeft, that it can obftruft and 
Ipoil the noble Organs. The Air is at- 
traded and received into our Habit ^ and 
mixed with our Fluids every Inftant of 
our Lives -J fo that any ill §^ality in 
the Air To continually introduced, muft 
in Time produce fatal EfFc£ts on the a- 
nimai OEconomy: And therefore it will 
be of the utmoft Confequence to every 
one, to take Care what kind of Air it 
is ihcy fleep and watch, breath and live 
in, and are perpetually receiving into 
the moft intimate Union with the Prin- 
ciples of Life. I fliall only take Notice 
of three Conditions of Air, 


J.J. Thtfrfi is, That when Gentlemen 
build Seats, they ought never to place 
them upon any high HUl, very near any 
^rtzt Confluence of Water, in the Neigh- 
bourhood of any great Mines, or Beds of 
Minerals, noron any fwamp, marfhy, or 
molly Foundation ; but either in a champ- 
paign Country, or on the Side of a fmall 
Eminence, IheJtereU from the North and 

8 ^w Essay 0/ Health 

Eaji Winds, or upon a light gravelly 

Soil. The Nature of the Soil will be 

ifrell known from thc'T/ants and Herh 

<tiat grow on it, or rather more fccurely 

' ironi the Nature of the fVaters that 

ifpring out of it, which ought always to 

be pxeet, deary light, foft, and tafielefs. 

All high Mountains are damp, as Dr. 

* Halley oblerved at St. Helena, a moun- 

I ftainous Place, where T)amps fell fo pcr- 

[ Jpetually in the Night time, that he was 

[ 'fjbliged to be every Moment wiping his 

Piaffes, in making his Afironomicd 

Observations. And where the Mottn- 

I tains are high, the Inhabitants of them 

I «rc forced to fend their Furniture, in 

' AVintcr, to the Valley, left it (houldrot. 

' And 'tis common to have it rainor fnow 

\ *n Mountains, when the Valleys below 

are clear, fercnc and dry. All great Hills 

are Nefts of Minerals, and Covers (made 

' *of the prominent Earth) ioi Refervoirs oi 

■Rain-fVater. The Clouds are but great 

I Wleeces of ratified Water failing in the 

[ 'Air, fometimes not many Yards above 

I Hhc champaign Country; and thefe high 

''§iills intercepting them, they arc com- 

I ^refled into ^ew or Rain, and are per- 

■petually drilling down the Crannies of 

tht Mountains into thcfe BaJtHs. Hence 
the Origin of Rivers, andfrtjh Water 
Springs. Bdddes that, thcfc mountain- 
ous Places, arc always exposed to higli, 
and alfftoft perpetual Winds. Where 
mny great Cwrwr/2» of Water is, the Air 
ttiiiA needs be perpetuaily damp, becaufe 
the iun is perpetually draining from thc(e 
W^ers, moift l^ews atid Vapours thro* 
it. All great Nefts of Minerals, or large 
Mines, muft ncceffarily impregnate the 
ulir. With their refpedive Qualities. And 
imjjy Blacknefs, is fome Degree of IPu^ 
tfrfa^m, as ♦ Sir Ifaac Newtdn ob^ 

J. 4. Secemdfy,tht Winds t}cAttxtmf:i^ 
frequent, and moft pernicious in Er^ 
Und, are the Eaflerly, efpecially the 
JUarih Eaft Winds, which in the Win^ 
9er are the moft pterci^g cold , in 
Summer the mtA parching hot. In 0^n- 
9er Acy bring along with them, all the 
tfitre of the Nerthem and Scythian 
Snows, Mountains of Ice, and frot^en 
Seas thro* which tliey comes and In 

v# yammer, 

• ^ Stt bis Treatife about Light and Colours. 

lo j4nEssAY of Health 

Sumnter, blow with all the fory Parti^ 
clcs of the perpetual Day they pafs thro'. 
From the end of January^ till towards 
the end of May^ the Wind blows ilmoft 
perpetually, from xSxzEaftern and North- 
em Points, if the Spring is dry 5 and 
from the Southern and Wejlern Points, if 
the Spring is wet, (and generally from 
the fetting in of the fVinds^ on a Kew^ 
Moon, you may predid the Weather of 
the Spring) and our Bodies moft certain- 
ly attracting, the circumambient yf/r, 
and the Fumes of thofe Bodies that are 
next to us, it will be Very convenient 
for valetudinary, fiudious, and content 
j>lative Perfons, in a dry Spring, or in 
Eajierly Winds, to change their Bed- 
chambers into Rooms that have Wejlern 
or Southern Lights, or to fliut clofe up 
the Eaftern and Northern Lights, or to 
have them but feldom opened 5 and in 
wet Seafons, to take the contrary Courfe, 
And if any fuch Perfon, has been much 
cxpofed, or long abroad, in a Northerly 
or bleakifl) Eajierly Wind, it will be very 
proper for him to drink down, going 
to Bed, a large Draught of warm Wa- 
ter-gruel, or of warm fmall Mountain* 
wine Whey, as an Antidote ag^inft the 



^ and LongLife. ii 

nitroHt Effiuvia, fuck'd into the Body, 
and to open the ObjiruStions of the jPfr- 
fpiration made thereby. 

^. 5- Thirdly., from the beginning of 
l^ovember i\\\ towards the beginning of 
February., London is cover'd over with 
one univerfal nitrous and fulphurous 
Smoak, from the Multitude of Coal 
Tires, the Abfence of that material 'Di- 
vinity the Sun, and the Confcquence 
thereof, the faUing of the 'Di.-'tus, and 
Vapours of the Night. In fuch a Sea- 
fon, iveak and tender People, and thofe 
that are fubje£t to nervous or pulmonick 
Diftcmpers, ought either to go into the 
Country, or to be at home foon after 
Sun-fet, and to difpel the "Damps with 
clear, warm Fires, and cheartbl Con- 
vcrfation, go early to Bed, and rife pro- 
portionally fooner in the Morning j for, 
as the t^WK's Removal fufFers the Vapours 
to fall and condenfe, in the Evening, 
fo his Approach difpcls and raifcs thcni 
in the Morning. I need not add, that 
it will be very fit, for thofe that are va- 
letudinary, to have their Servants, Chil- 
dren, Bedfellows, and all thole that ap- 
proach them, with whom they hve con- 
C 3 ftantly 

ftantly,and mix Attmffhefes^to\xt asbcaU 
thy, found aud fwwt as poifiWy they 
can 5 and, for their own fnhs, to have 
them remov'd till they are made fo, if 
they arc othcrwife. Nor fh^l I add a»y 
prefling inftanccjs> to avoid w^t Rooroii 
€imtf Beds, and fsiul Linnen, or to to- 
move Ordure and Nufmces 5 the Luxu-^ 
. ly of England having run all thefc la* 
ther into a Vice. 

g. ($• The y£tr is a i%Wi wheicitt Pa«$v 
of all Kinds iff Bodies fwim as in Wa^ 
tcf. But Ak diffew from Water in 
thi«^ that the j!&)^ is comp^efliWc iuto ai 
kifer Conopats, andfaiatle;r Volume^ JWrq 
a Fleece of i^^4 ^ther by its own 
^^^, o3:anyothet/J?rr^, which Weight 
er rQrce being removed, the Aif iqaoie- 
diately recovers its former Bulk and Di? 
menfions again, wheteas. no F&rcie what- 
ever can bring Water istp narrpiwcjj 
Bounds J that is, Aix is extf eamly ^/4? 
j^fi ztidfpringyr but /^^ is not at aU 
fa. Yet the Parts, of Air would fecra 
to be gtojfer than the Parts of W^^er; 
For ^^^ will get th«nigh a Blad4f^^ 

and may be forc^ thrqugh flhe ^tor^^^ of 
G^ld> hut ^ir wil poife through nieith«y» 
87^ this its elafiifk FdKe^ the -^/> infi- 


" a«(i Long Li F E* 13 

nuatcs itfelf into the patent Cavities of 
zWanima/ Bodies i ^nd the, Infant, which 
never breathed before, aflbon as it is 
cxpofed to this Element, has the little 
Bladders , v^fhcreof the Lungs coafift, 
blown up voxQ^ perpendicular Erection oa 
the Biajiches of the Wind-pipe -, where- 
by the Obftrudion, from the Preflure of 
tlicfe Vejides (arifing from their being 
compreiVed together, and lying upon one 
another) being in fame Meafurc taken 
off, the mufcular Action of the right 
Ventricle of the Heart is able to force 
the Blood through the Lungs into the 
left Ventricle. But thefe little Bladders, 
being thus rafiated by an elafiick Fluid, 
ftill picfs fo fat up<wj» and grind the 
gcoflcr 'Particles of the Blood into more 
fizeableones, that they may become fraall 
cuough to circulate through the other 
capillary Vejfels of the Body. This ela- 
fi^k Air, prelling equally every Way 
QOitnd, by its IVeight and Spring, fhius 
dole the Scales of the Scarf-skin o£ 
healthy and ftrong Perfons ; fo that it 
dcjiks all Entrance to. the nitrous and 
'seiolry lAixiwsQ, contained in it, and thus 
becomes a Kind of Cold Bath, to them, 
and defends them from catching Coidz 
put isifiaklj^ fiudiem, SLoAfeckttiarjf Peo- 

14 An-^sshY of Health 

pie, and thofe of weak Nerves^ where 
the Spring of the Coverlets and Scales^ 
that defend the Mouths of the fer/pira- 
tory T)u6ts is weak, the ^erfpiration lit- 
tle or next to none at all, and the Blood 
poor and Jizey s the nitrous and watry 
Particles oi the Air get a ready and free 
Entrance, by thefe ^u6fs into the Blood, 
and by breaking the Globules thereof, 
coagulating and fixing its Fluidity, quite 
&o^theVerfpirationy and obftru£t all the 
capillary Veflels, the cutaneous Glands, 
and thofe of the Lungs and alimentary 
Paffages, when fuch Bodies are long ex- 
pofed to fuch an Air : And thus begets 
all thefe Diforders in the Body, that Air 
thus and th\is poifon'dy was fhewn capa- 
ble to produce. So long as the Verfpi- 
ration isjlrongj brisk, zndi full, 'tis im- 
poflible any of thefe Diforders fliould hap- 
pen $ becaufe the Force of the perfpira-- 
tory Steams outward, is greater than the 
Force whereby thefe noxious Mixtures 
enter j unlefs the Body be indifcrectly 
too long cxpofed, or the Adion of the 
nitrous and watrf Mixtures be extreme- 
ly violent. Hence it comes to pafs, that 
thofe who are vtty Jlrong and healthy ^ 
and thofe who have drank firdng Liquors 
fo plehtifullyj^ as to have thereby a brisk 

y '^ Circulation 

WLongI^ife. 15 

Circulation and full Terjpirationj feldom 
or never catch Cold. And this is the 
Reafon why rich Foods ^ and generous 
Wines^ moderately u£ed> become fo ex- 
cellent an Antidote in infectious and e- 
ftdemick Diftempersj not only as they 
banifh Fear and Terr or ^ but as they make 
fo full and free a Stream of ^erfpirafwn^ 
and maintain fo adive and brisk an At- 
mo/pherCy as fufFers no noxious Steams 
or Mixtures in the Air to come within 
its but drives and beats off the Encny 
to a Diftance. But Perfons of vifcous^ 
heavy Fluids y of poor and Jizey Juices^ 
of little or no Terfpiral^ipnj fuch as ge- 
nerally all ftudiousy fedentary^ ^n^Jtckly^ 
Perfons are, but efpecially thofe that arc 
fubjeft to ^^ri/^^j Diforders, muft neccf- 
farily fuffer under thckpoifonous Mixtures 
in the Air, if they do not cautiouQy and 
carefully fence againft them^ or take not 
a prefent Remedy and Antidote, when 
tainted. For befides the Air that gets 
through the perfpiratory TOu^s into the 
Blood, whenever we Eat, Drink, or 
Breath, we are taking into our Bodies, 
fuch Air as is about us. And when the 
concoBive Powers are weak, as in fuch 
Ver/ons, and the G^antity of the Food 
is too great, or its §luality too ftrong for 


1 6 y4« Essay ^ Health 

them, thcCi&y/t?istoogrofs, acidthc/fr- 
^pratary Matttr is Aoppcd, bccaufc too 
latge for tlicfc fmall ^}u£is i and this 
whole Mafsy which in tmnm&n Health 
is more than Wlwr^/f of thegrofs EvMUd* 
tiwSy receiis in upon the Bswehy and 
becomes, as it were, Sftars, and 'i)arts, 
and Armour to the u^ir reccir'd fiom 
without 5 whichheingthusy>/if|^£i»f//with 
the Salts of the i^ncenasiRed F&(hi, to- 
gether with its o\i^n elafiick F^rce^ pierces 
tiic Sides of the Veffds^ and gets into 
all the Cavities of the Body, and be- 
tween the Mujbks and tiieir Memifranes^ 
and there, ia Time, brings fiorth hyfe^ 
cbtmJriack, hyfterick, nervous, and va^ 
/^»r//bDiforders, and all that Mack Train 
of E^iis fuchConftitutionsfuiFer under. 

I fliall now draw out the Cauti&fU 
here inculcated into a few general Kules. 



ottiLoNG Life. 17 


General Rules fir Health and Lom 
Life^ drawn from the Head. 


I .np H E hcalthicft Situation for ^Seaf 
X is in a champaign Country, or 
on the Side of a fmall Eminence, on 
a gravelly Soil, with a Smtbem or ^- 
y?^r»Expofition, Ihdtcrcd from the Nortb 
and Eafi Winds, diftant from any grea! 
ConcQurfe of Waters, or any great Mines 
or Beds of Minerals^ where the Water is 
fweet^ dear, lights foft, and tafikfs. 

2. Tender People on the fetting in of 
Eafierly and Northerly Winds, ought to 
change their Bed-Rooms for others of 
Wefterly and Southerly Lights, and the 
contrary in wet Seafoni. 

3. Thofe who have been much ex- 
pofed to, or long abroad in Eajierly or 
Northerly Winds, (hould drink fome thin 
and warm Liquor going to Bed. 

4. When the dark, dull, foggy Wea- 
ther lafis at London in Winter, tender 

D People, 

i8 ^nEssAY of Health TH 

, People, and thole of weak Nerves ana 
' Lungs, ought either to go into the Coun- 
try, or keep much at Home in warm 
Rooms, go early to Bed, and rife be- 

$. Valetudinary People ought to have 
their Servants, Children, and Bedfellows, 
or thofe they continually approach and 

. converfe with, found, fweet, and healthy, 
or ought to remove them 'till they are 

;,^fo, if they are othcrwifc. 

6. Every one, in order to prefcrvc 
their Health, ought to obferve all the 
Cleanncfs and Swcctnefs in their Houfes, 
Cloaths, and Furniture, fuitablc to their 



andhoNGhiFE. 19 


Of Me A T tf«^ Drink, 

5* I .'T^O have our Food, that is, our 
JL Meat and Drink, as to Quan- 
tity and ^«^//f;' duly regulated, and pre- 
cilcly adjufted to our concoSiive Towers^ 
would be of the utmoft Confcqucnce to 
Heath and Long Life. Our Bodies re- 
quire only a determinate G^uantity there- 
of, to fupply the £;^/^»r^^ of living : and 
a juft Proportion of that to thefe would 
very probably preferve us from acute, 
moft certainly from chronical Diftempers, 
and enable us to live, without much Sick- 
nefs and Pain, fo long as our Conftitu- 
tions were originally made to lajt. The 
Sources of chronical Diftempers are firji 
Vifcidity in the Juices, or the Over- 
largenefs of their conftitucnt Tarticks, 
which not being fofficiently broken, by 
the concoiiive Powers, flop or retard the 
Circulation , or, fecondly, too great abun- 
dance of fliarp and acrimonious Salts, 

D z whereby 


so jinEiSAY qJ Health 

whereby the Juices themfelves arc ren- 
dered fo corrojtvey as to burft or wear 
out the Solids 5 or, thirdly^ a Relaxa- 
turn, or Want of a due F^ce and Sprin- 
ginefs, in the Solids theiftfelves. AnE;c- 
cefs in ^antity begets thcfrfi^ the /// 
Condition of Our Meat and Dnnk the 
fecondy and both together, with Want of 
due Labour, the third. 

% z. The Mtat of England 1% gene- 
iA\^ ^mal Subftances. The Animals 
thtmftves, ftom i^pidemick Caules^ bad 
F66d, Age, Or other Infirmities, have 
their Difeafes as well a$ human Crca« 
tiiires: and thefe difeafcd Animals can 
Atvct be proper or foand Food for Men. 
Adult Animals abound more in miwous 
Saks than yourig ones : Their Parts arc 
more elofely compared, becaufc nrK>re 
forcibly united 5 atid fo harder of Dige- 
ftion. Tis true, the great Diftinftion of 
the Fitnefs or Unfitnefs of the fevcral 
Sotts of Animals and Vegetables for hu- 
man Food, depends upon their original 
Makey Framey ^nA Nature (and that can 
be found out only by Experience) as alfo 
upon the fpecial Tafte, Complexiotiy Tenh 
peramenty and Habits of the Perfon that 
feeds on them. But by the Help ^ thefe 


oud Long Lx FO^ ii 

Thfet Principles, wjb. Firft^ That the 
Stret^th or Wcakncfs of Cohcfion of 
the Panicky of fluid Bodies, depends up- 
on their Btgnefs or Smallmfs s that is, 
the biggeft Particles cohere more firmly, 
riian thcfnuUleTy becaufe more Parts come 
into Contad in large Bodies than fmall, 
j^d fo their Union is greater. SecMdfy^ 
That the ^rwr^r the Force ^M^wtentmO 
is, with which two Bodies meet, the 
ftronger is their CohcHon, and the im^e 
difficult their Separation. Thirdfy, that 
SdiiSy being compreiicnded by plain Sur-^ 
fscfSy being hMrd, and in all Changes 
recovering their Figure, unite the moft 
firmly of any Bodies whatfoever : Their 
plain Surfaces bring many Points into 
CmtaGt and Union : their Hardnefs and 
conftant Figure make tiiem durable and 
muUterable \ and thereby the aSfive^rin- 
cipleSj and the Origin of the Qualities 
of Bodies; and when they approach with- 
in the Sphere of one another's A£iivitjf^ 
they firmly unite in CluJlerS} all which 
make the Separation of their original 
Particles the more difficult. I fay, from 
thefe three Principles y we may in gene- 
ral compare the Eafinefs or Difficulty of 
digefiing (that is, breaking into fmall 
Parts) the feveral Sorts of Vegetables 


ai An^s&KY of Health 

2Xid Animals y one with another ; andfo 
difcover their Fitnefs or Unfitnefs for 
becoming Food for tender and valetudi- 
nary Perfons. 

I. All other Things being fuppofed 
equal, thofe Vegetables and Animals 
that come to Maturity the fooneft, are 
lighteft of ^igejiion. Thus the Spring 
Vegetables^ zsAfparagus^ Straw-berries^ 
and fome Sorts of Salladingj are more 
cafily digefted than Tears^ Apples^ Tea- 
ches ^ zxaik Keytar in£s i becaufe they have 
lefs of ihcfolar Fire in them 5 their Parts 
are united by a weaker Heat 5 that is, 
with lefs Velocity y and abound lefs in, 
nay fcarce have any ftrong and fixed 
Salts. Among the Animals^ the con^- 
mon Poultry, Hares j Sheepy Kidsy Rab- 
bitSy ^c. who in the fame, or a few 
Years come to their Maturity (that is, to 
propagate their Species) are much more 
tender and readily digefted than CowSy 
Horfes, or Afles, (were thefe laft in ufe 
for Food, as they have been in Famine) 
O'C. for the Reafon already given, be- 
caufe their Parts cohere lefs firmly. 
And it is obfervable, of the VegetableSy 
which are longeft a ripening, that is, 
whofe Juices have moft of thtfolar Rays 


f and LongLife. 23 
in them, that their fermented Juices yield 
the ftrongeft vinous Spirits j as Grapes, 
Eldcr-berrics, and the like; and of the 
Animals that are longcft in coming to 
Maturity, that their Juices yield the moft 
rank and moRfwtid urinous Salts. 

2. Other Things fuppofed equal, the 
larger and bigger the Vegetable or Ani- 
mal \s, in its Kind, ihcjlronger and the 
harder to digeft is the Food made thereof. 
Thus a large Owiow, Affle, oiTear, and 
large Beef and Mutton are harder to di- 
geft than the lejfer ones, of the fame 
Kind; not only, as their Veflels being 
flrongcr and more elajtick, their Parts are 
brought together with a greater Force ; 
but alfo, bccaufe the Qualities are pro- 
portionably more intenfc in great Bodies 
of the fame Kind ; Thus, other Things 
being equal, :l greater 'iizz is proportion- 
ably more intenfely hot, than a leffcr 
one ; and the Wine contained in a larger 
Vcflcl becomes ftronger than that con- 
tained in a Icffer; and confequcntly the 
Juices of larger Animals and Vegetables 
wc more rank than the Juices of Imallcr 
pes of the fame Kind. 

3. Other 

24 ^EtiAY of Health 

3. Other Things being equal, Tlic pro- 
per Food appointed for Animals by Na- 
ture, is eafier digefted than the Animals 
themfeives $ thofe Animals that live on 
Vegetables^ than thofe that live on Ant* 
mals 5 thofe that live on Vegetables or 
Animals^ that fooneft come to MatUri- 
tyj than thofe that live on fuch as are 
longer a ripening. Thus Milk and Eggs 
are lighter of Digeftion than the Flefti of 
Beafls or Birds 5 bullets and TurkieSy than 
^ucks znd Geefe^ and Tatridgey and 
Vheafant are lighter than Woodcock or 
Snipe 5 becaufe thcfe laft, being long-bil- 
ledy fuck only animal ^mc^s i and for 
the Reafons already given, Grafs Beef 
and Mutton are lighter thznftallfed Ox- 
en and Sheep. 

4. All Things clfe being alike, Fifi 
and Sea- Animals are harder to digcft 
than Land- Animals I becaufe univcrfal- 
ly their Food is other Animals^ and the 
iK^/f Eletnent in which they live compafts 
their Parts more firmly ; Salts having a 
ftronger Power of Cohejion than other 
Bodies. And for the fame Reafon, Salt 
Water Fifh is harder to digeft thznfrejb 
Water. Thus the Sea Tortoife is harder 


WLoNG Life. 25 

to digeft than the Land Tortoife; and 
Sturgeon and 7«r^/^,than Trout or 'Perch. 

S. Other things being equal, Vegeta- 
bles and Animals that abound in an oify, 
faty ^ndgluthious Subftancc, are harder to 
digeft, than thofe of a ^Irj, fejby, fibrous 
Subilance; bccaufe oily and fat Subftan- 
ccs elude the Force and Action of the 
concodive Powers j and their Parts at- 
traft one another, and unite mote ftrong- 
]y than other Subftances do, (except Salts) 
as Sir Ifaac Newton * obferves. Their 
Softnefs znA Humidity relaxes and weak- 
ens the Force of the Stomach, and the 
Fat and Oil itfeif is fhut up in little 
Bladders, that are with Difficulty broken. 
Thus Nuts of all kinds pals through the 
Guts, almoft untouched : 0/ii/« arc har- 
der to digeft: than Teafe ; fat flefii Mear, 
than the lean of the fame. Carp, Tench, 
Salmon, Eel, and Turbit, are much harder 
to digeft than Whiting, Tsrch, Trout ^ 
Haddock. /r^ 

6. Vegetables zxiAAnimalSt allThingi 
elfe being alike, whofe Subfliancc U'white, 

* V,ds Sir Ifaac NewtoaV f'fi EngliOi Edition of 
^bt MuiCclourt. 

a6 ^rt Essay 0/ Health V 

or inclining to the lighter Colours, arc 
lighter to digcft,than tliofe whofc*y«^.3»« 
isredderybro'-jL-?ier, or inclining towards the 
more flaming Colours; not only be- 
caufc the Parts that reflcii white, and 
the lighter Colours are leffer in Bulk 
than thoi'c that reflcft the more flaming 
Colours * ; but alio becaufc thofe of the 
more flaming Colours abound more with 
urinious Salts. Thus Turnips, TarfnipSj 
and Potatoes, are lighter than Carrots^ 
Skirrets, and Beet-Raves^ TuHet, Tur- 
key, 'Pheafant, and Rabbet, are lighter 
than Duck, Geefe, Woodcock, and Snipe, 
Whiting, Flounder, Terch, and Soals, arc 
lighter than Salmon, Sturgeon, Herring, 
and Mackarel. Veal and Lamb is lighter 
than Redot Fallow Deer. 

7. Ldflly, All other Things being e- 
qual, Vegetables and Animals of ^firong, 
poignant, aromatick and hot Tafte, are 
harder to digefl than thofe of a milder, 
fofter, and more /K/^i(/ Tafte. HighRe- 
lilh comes from abundance of Salts : A- 
bundance of Salts fuppofes adult Ani- 
wtalSf and I'uch as are long a coming to 
Maturity j 

* Sit the \afl quiUA Auihtr. 

' W Long Life. 97 

Maturity i and where Salts abound, the 
Parts are more difficuttly Teparated, and 
harder to be digcftcd. Strong and ara- 
mattck Plants imbibe and retain moft of 
the/i'/tfr Rays, and become folid Spirits, 
or fixed Flames. And they that deal 
much in them fwatlow fo much live^ 
Coals, which will at ]aft inflame the 
Fluids and burn up the Solids. 

J. J. There is nothing more certain, 
than that the greater Superiority thecoB- 
caBive Powers have, over the Food, or 
the ftronger the concoftive 'Powers arc, 
in regard of the Things to be conco0edi 
ths finer the Chyle will be, the Circttla- 
tion the more free, and the Spirits more 
lightfome ; that is, the better will the 
Health be. Now from thefe general 
Propofittons, taking in their own parti- 
cular Complexion and Habits, 'vale- 
tudinary, ftudious, or contemplative Pcr- 
fons may eafily fix upon thele particular 
•vegetable or animal Foods, that are fit- 
ted for them. And if any Error fliould 
be committed, 'tisbcfl: tocrronthefafdl 
Side, and rather chufe thole Things that 
arc under our concoBi-ve Powers, than 
^ofethat arc above them. And in the 
hoicc of Animals for our Food, we 
£ 2 muft 


28 ^B Essay 5/ Health ^B 

mufl not pafs over the Manner of fatten- 
ing and fitting them up for the Table. 
About London we can fcarce have any, 
but cramm'dy«v//r>', otjiall-fed Butche- 
ry Meat. It were futficient to dUguft 
the ftouteft Stomach, to fee the foul, 
grofs, and nafty Manner, in which, and 
thcfetid, putrid and unwholefome Ma- 
terials, with which they are fed. Perpe- 
tual Foulncfs and Cramming, grofs Food 
and Naftincfs, wcknow, will putrify the 
JuiceSyZ-ad moityfy the mufcular Subftance 
of ^«mizn Creatures J and fure they can 
do no lefs in Brute Animals, and thus 
make even our Food Poifon, The fame 
may be faid of hot Beds, and forcing 
Tlants and Vegetables. The only Way 
of having found and healthful animal 
Food, is to leave them to their own na- 
tural Liberty, in the free Air, and their 
own proper Element, with Plenty of 
Food, and due Cleannefs, and a Shelter 
from the Injuries of the Weather, when 
they have a Mind to retire to it. I add 
lOthing about Cookery: Plain Roafting 
^and Boiling is as high, as •valetudinary^ 
"tender, ftudious, and contemplati-ve Per- 
fons, or thofe who would prcfcrve their 
Health, and lengthen out their Days, 
ought to prefume on. il/&/<f Difhcs, rich 

r oMc/ Lo NG Li F E. 29 

Soopj high Sauces^ Bakings Smoaking, 
Salting, zviATickling, are the Inventions 
of Luxury J to force an unnatural Appe- 
tite, and encreafe the Load, which Na- 
ture, without Incentives from ill Habits, 
and a vicious Palate, will of itfelf make 
more than fafficient for Health and long 
Life. Abjiinence and proper Evacua- 
tions, due Labour znd Exercife, will al- 
ways recover a decayed Aj>petfte, fo long 
as there is any Strength or Fund in Na- 
ture to go upon. And 'tis fcarce allow- 
able to provoke an Appetite, with medi- 
cinal Helps, but where the digefiive Ti- 
cultics have been fpoiled and ruined by 
acute or tedious chronical Diftempers. 
And as Toon as 'tis recovered to any to- 
lerable Degree, Nature is to be left to 
its own Work, without any Spurs from 
Cookery or Thyfick. 

5. 4. The next Confideration is the 
^antity of Food that is ncccfiary to 
I'upport Nature, without overloading it, 
in a due Plight : That is indeed various, 
according to the Age^ Sex, Nature, 
Strength, and Country the Party is of, 
and the Exercife he ufes. In thefe Nor- 
tbern Countries, the Coldnefs of rhe 
pr, the Strength and large Stature of 

5© y^EssAYp/ Health ^ 

People, demand larger Supplies than in 
the Eaftern and warmer Countries. Young 
growing Pcrfons, and thofe of great 
Strength and large Stature, require more 
than the Aged, Weak, and Slender. But 
Pcrfons of all Sorts will live more heal- 
thy and longer by univerfal Temperance^ 
than otherwifc. And fome general Ob- 
fervations on the Quantity Perfons of 
different Nations and Conditions, have 
lived on, healthy, and to a great Age, 
may give fome Afliftance to valetudina- 
ry and tender Perfons, to adjuft the due 
^antitjf necclTary for them. 

J. s- It is furprifing, to what a great 
Age the eaftern Chriftians, who retir'd 
from the Perfecutions into the Defarts 
of Egypt znd Arabia, lived healthful on 
a very little Food. We are inform'd by 
CaJJian, that the common Mcafure in 
twenty four Hours, was about twelve 
Ounces or a Pound, { for the eaftern 
Pound was but twelve Ounces) with 
mere Element for Drink. St. Antho- 
ny liv'd to 105 Years, on mere Bread 
and Water, adding only a few Herbs at 
laft. J amestht Hermit, to 104. Arfe- 
nitts, the Tutor of the Emperor Arcadi- 
us, to 120: 65 in the world, and sj in 

^P and LongLife. ^i 

the Defart. St. EpiphanuSj to 1 1 5 . St. Je- 
rome, toaboutioo. Simeon Sty liteSt 109. 
-And Romualdus, 1 20. And Lewis Coma- 
rOy a Venetian Nobleman, after he had u- 
fedallother Remedies in vain, fo that his 
Lifewasdefpair'dof at 40, yet recovcr'd 
and liv'd, by the mere Force of his Tem- 
^Ktancc, near to 100 years. 

^V(. 6. Our Northern Climate, as I faid 
^m>m the Purity and Coldncfs of the Air, 
■*'hich bracing the Fibres, makes thc^* 
petite keener, and the Aftion of Digc- 
ftion ftronger; and from the Labour 
and Strength of the People, which makes 
the Expences of living more, will necef- 
fariiy require a greater Quantity of Food. 
Yet 'tis wonderful in what Sprightlinefs, 
Strength, Aiflivity, and freedom of Spirits, 
a low Diet, even here, will prcfcrve 
thofe that have habituated themfelvcs to 
it. Buchanan informs us, of one Lau- 
rence whoprelerved himfclf to 140, by 
the m(;te Force of Temperance and La- 
bour. Spotfwood mentions one Kenti- 
gern { ^tcrwards called St. Mongah^ 
or Mungo, from whom the Famous 
Well in IP'ales is named) who lived ro 
18 J Years, tho' after he came to the 
^Hcirs of Undctftanding, he never rafted 
H' Wine 

31 y4nEss AY of Health 

Wine nor ftrong Drink 5 and flcpt on 
the cold Ground. My worthy Friend Mr. 
ff^e&t is ftill alive. He by theQiiickncfs 
of the Faculties of the Mind, and the 
AdivityofthcOr^awj-of his Body, (hews 
the great Benefit of a low Diet, living 
altogether on 'vegetable Food and pure 
Element. The Hiftory of the Milk * 
Doctor of Croydon, who by living on 
Milk only, cured himfelf of an other- 
wife incurable Diftempcr, -viz. the E- 
filepfy, and liv'd in perfeiS Health for 
iixteen Years after, till an Accident cut 
him off", I have already narrated in my 
Trcatifeof theGout. Henry Jenkins a 
Filhcrman, liv'd 169 Years, his Diet 
was coarfe and fowert as his Hiftorian 
informs us, that is, plain and cooling, 
and the Air where he lived (harp and 
clear, viz. Allerton \x^on Swale xxi Tark- 
fbire. 'Parr died fixteen Years younger, 
viz. atrhe ageof IS3 Years, 9 Monthsj 
his Diet was old Cheefe, Milk, coarfe 
Bread, ftnall Beer, and fVhey : And 
his Hiftorian tells us, he might have 
lived a good while longer, if he had not 

changed his Diet and Air, coming out of a 
clear, thin, free Air, into the thick Air 
of London, and after a conftant, 


* Sii an Efaj oa the Gout Md Bath IVaters. 




and homely country Diet, being taken 
into a fpcndld Family, where he led high, 
and draok plentifully of tiic bcft Wines, 
whereby the natural Fundions of the 
Pacts were overcharged, and the Habit 
of the whole Body quite dirordeicdi up- 
on whieh rlicieeould not but foon cnlUc 
a 'Diffolution.. * Dr. Lj/?fr mentions eight 
rcrfons in the North of England, the 
Toungift of which was above loo Years, 
and the cldcft 140. He fays, 'tis to be 
obfcr\'ed, that the Food of all this moun- 
tainous Country is exceedingly coarfe. 
And certainly there is no Place in the 
World more likely to lengthen out Life 
than England, cipecially thofe Parts of 
if, that have a free open Air, and a gra- 
velly and chalky Soil, if to due Exenife, 
Ahjlemioufnefs, and a plain fimple ©;>/ 
were added. 

%. 7- 1 have -f- cllewhcrc offered ro 
dctcrmi nc the ^antity of Food, lUffi- 
ctent to keep a Man of an ordinary Sta- 
ture, following no laborious Eniploy- 
F ment. 

■ • t V, 

Y S:e lb: tfay ef lb: Gout iW Batb '.t'litin. 

34 ^n Essay of Health 

nicnt, in due flighty Health, and Vigour ; 
to wit, 8 Ounces of Flefh Meat, 12 of 
Bread, or vegetable Food, and about a 
Pint of Wine, or other generous Liquor 
in 24 Hours. But the Valetudinary, and 
thofe cm^Xoy cAmfedentary Profeffions, 
or intelleBual Studies, muft leflcn this 
Cluantity, if they would preferve tiieir 
Healtii, and the Freedom of their ^irits 
long. Studious ^wAfedentary Men muft 
of Neceflity eat and drink a great deal 
lefs, than thofe very fame Men might 
do, were they engaged in an aStive Life, 
For as they want that Exercife that is 
ncceflary towards ConcoSiion and Ver^ 
Jpiration, and that their Nerves are more 
worn out by intelleBual Studies, than 
even bodily Labour would wafte themi 
if, in any wife, they indulge Freedom of 
Living, their Juices muft neceffarily be- 
come vifcid, and their Stomachs relaxed. 
He that would have a clear Head muft 
have a clean Stomach. The Negledi: of 
which is theCaufe,why we fee fo many by- 
pochondriacal, melancholy, and vapourilh 
Gentlemen, among thofe of the long 
Robe i the only Remedy of which is La- 
bour and Abftinence. 

%. 8. Moft 

WLoNG Life. 35 

5'. 8. Moft ofaIlthef>&r^»/V^/Difeafcs, 
the Infirmities of old Age, and the ^ort 
Periods of the Lives of Englifljmen^ arc 
owing to Repletion. This is evident from 
henee; becaufe Evacuation of one Kind 
or another is nine Parts of ten in their 
Remedy : For not only Cuppings Bleed- 
ings Blifteringj IJfueSy Tn^ging^ Vomit- 
ings and Sweatin^y are manifeft Evacua- 
lionSj or Drains to draw out what has 
been fuperflupufly taken down i but even 
Abftinences Exercife-, Alteratives^ Cor- 
dialsy Bitters^ and Alexipharmicks^ arc 
but (everal means to dilpofe the grofs 
Humour^ to be more readily evacuated 
by infenfible ^erfpiration s that new and 
well concoftcd Chyky and fwect com- 
minuted juices, may take their Place to 
rcftore the Habit. And therefore it were 
much more cafy, as well as more fafc 
and effeftual, to prevent than incur the 
Ncccllity of fuch Evacuations. And a- 
ny one may lofe a ^ound of Blood, take 
a Vurg€y or a Sweat s by dropping the 
great Meal, or abftaining from animal 
Food and ftrong Liquors, for four or five 
Days (in chrjonical Cafes) as effedually 
as by opening a Vein^ fwallowing a Dofc 
of ^iUs^ or taking a fudorifick Bolus. 

F 2 §.9. 

36 ^nEssAY of Health 

§. 9. I advifc therefore all Gentlemen 
of zfedejitary Life^ and of learned Vio- 
feffions, to ufc as much Abftinence as 
poffibly they can, confiftcnt with the Pre- 
fcrvation of their Strength and Freedom 
oi Spirits: Which ought to be done as 
foon as they find any Heavinefs^ Inquie^ 
tudes, reftlefs Nights, or Averfion to Ap- 
plication 5 either by leflening one half 
of their ufual Quantity of animal Food 
and7?r^»^ Liqours, 'till fuch Time as they 
regain their wonted Freedom and Indo- 
lence i or by living a due Time wholly 
upon vegetable Diet, fuch as SagOj Rice^ 
^udding^ and the like, and drinking on- 
ly a little Wiae and Waten And if they 
would prefcrve their Health and Confti- 
tution, :ind lengthen out their Days 5 they 
niuft either inviolably live low (or mof- 
grey as the French call it) a Day or two 
in the Week 5 or once a Week, Fort- 
night, or Month at fartheft, take fome 
domejiick Purge, which fhall require nei- 
ther ^iety nor keeping at Home 5 but 
may at once ftrengthen the Bowels, and 
difchargc fuperfluous Humours. Of this 
Kind arc a Dofc (6 or 7) of the Scotch 
Pills 5 half a Dram of the "^iluU Stomor 
(hicoi cunt Gutnmi^ wi^h ?hree or four 


and Long Life. 37 

Grains of T)iagryd^ mixt 5 half a Dram 
of the TiluU Rujji\ two Ounces ot 
Hiera Tieray with one Dram of the Sy- 
rup of Buckthorn 5 two or three Ounces 
of Elixir Salutis j or (what I prefer be- 
fore all thcfc) this Preparation of Rhu- 
barb : 


Take the beft Rhubarb in Powder two 
Ounces and a half 5 Salt of Worm- 
wood a Dram 5 Orange Teel half 
an Ounce ; grated Nutmeg two Scru- 
ples 5 Cochinealj half a Dram. In- 
fufe 48 Hours by a warm Fire-fide, 
in a Quart of true Arrack. Strain 
it off, and put it in a well cprked 
Bottle for Ufe. 

Of this two or three Spoonfuls may 
be taken, two or three Times a Week, 
or at Plcafure, with great Safety and Be- 
nefit, without Interruption of Bufinefs, 
or Studies, and continued even to ma- 
ture old Age, if found neceflary. So true 
is old Verulam's Aphorifm : * Nihil ma- 
gis canducit ad Sanitatem & Longavi- 


^ Noibtf^ c9iUrlbut€S more to Health and Long Zifi, 
tbaafrefuent Family Purges. 

gS ^tEssAY of Health 

tatem quam crebra & domejtica purga- 
tioTies. And the Gentlemen of the Img 
Robey thofc of learned Profeffions and 
contemplative Studies, muft of Neccflity 
at laft take Sir Charles Scarborough's Ad* 
vice, as 'tis faid, tothe Dutchefs of jP^r;^ 
mouth: Ton muft eat lefsy or ufe more 
Exercife^ or take ^hyficky or bejick. 

§. I o. Thofc who have written about 
Health have given many RuleSy where- 
by to know when any Perfon has exceed- 
ed at a Meal: I think, there needs but 
xhxsP)ort one, which is 5 If any Man has 
cat or drank fo much, as renders him 
unfit for the duties and Studies of his 
Profcflion (after an Hour's fitting quiet 
to carry on the Digcftion j) he has over- 
done. I mean only of thofe of learned 
Profcfllons zndftudious Lives 5 for thofe 
of mechanical Employments muft take 
the Body, the other Part of the com^ 
poundy into Confideration. If tender 
People, and thofe of learned Profeffions 
would 2;o bv this Ruky there would be 
little Ulc for 'Phyfick or Thyjicians ia 
chronical Cafes, Or if they would but 
eat only one Part oi animal Food, at the 
great Meal, and make the other two of 
vegetable Foodi and drink only Water 


cmd hoNG Life. 3^ 

with a Spoonful of Wine, or dear fmall 
Beers their Appetites would be a fuffi- 
cient Rule to determine the Quantity of 
their Meat and Drink. But l^ariety of 
Diflies, the luxurious Artfuhiefs of Cook- 
ery^ and fwallowing rich Wine after eve- 
ry Bit of Meat, fo lengthen out the Ap- 
fetite i the Fondnefs of Mothers, and the 
Cramming of Nurfcs have fo ftretchcd 
the Capacities of Receiving, that there 
is no Security from the Appetite among 
the better Sort, 'Tis amazing to think 
how Men of VoluptuoufnefSy Lazinefs^ 
and poor Confiitutions^ fliould imagine 
themfelves able to carry off Loads of 
high-feafoned Foods, and inflammatory 
Liquors, without Injury or Pain 5 whca 
Men of mechanick Employments, and 
Tobuji ConJiitutionSy are Icarcely able to 
live healthy and in Vigour to any great 
Age, on a iimple, low, and almoil vege- 
table Diet. 

5. II. Since then our Appetites arc 
deceitful, and IVeight and Meafnre trou- 
blcfomc and finguiar 5 we muft have Rc- 
courfe to a Rule independent of our JV;/- 
fationSj and free from unneccflary Trou- 
ble and Pain. To anfwer which, 1 know 
nothing but Eatins; and Drinking by our 

hre : 

40 j^n Essay I?/ Health 
Eye. that is, determining firil of all ci- 
ther by Weight or Meafure, or by par- 
ticular Obfcrvation or Experiment, the 
Bulk, or Number of Mouthfuls of Flclh 
Meat, and the Number of Glaflcs of ftrong 
Liquors, under which we are bcft; and 
then by our Eyt determining an equal 
Quantity at all Times for the future : 
Thus the two Wings of a middling 'Pul- 
let, or one Wing and both Legs j three 
Ribsofa middlingNcck oi Mutton, two 
middling Shces of a Leg or Shoulder, 
throwing away the Fat and the Skim 
fomewhat lefs of Beef, may be fufficJent 
for Flcfh Meat, at the great Meal. Por 
we are fo wifely contrived, that our Food 
need not be adjufted to jnathematical_ 
Points : A little over or under will 
no Difference in our Health. As 
Tork, and all Kinds of Hog's Flel 
think they ought to be forbidden 
tndinary and ftudious People, as 
were the Je'X's: They feed the f<; 
of any Creature, and theirjuices are 
rankefl ; their Subftancc the moft fttr- 
feiting, and they are the mod fubjcft to 
cutaneous Difcafcs and Putrcfaftion, of 
any Creature ; infomuch, that in the 
Time of a 'Plague, or any epidemical Di- 
ftcniper, they ace univcrfally dcftroycd 

and ho N G LtFE« 41 

by all wife Nations^ as the Southern Peo- 
ple do mad Dogs in the hot Months. 
The fame Cenfure I fhould pafs upon all 
Fsjh. Moft Fijb live in zfjdtijh Element, 
and come only into frejb Water Rivers, 
for the Quictnefs and Conveniency of 
bringing forth their young oncs; This 
makes their Parts more dofely united and 
harder of Digeftion. Beitdes, as I liave 
before obfcrved, they feed upon one a- 
nother, and their Juices abound with a 
Sak that corrupts the Bloody and breeds 
chr§nical Difeafes. And 'tis always ob- 
(ervable, that thofe who live much on 
Fifi are infcded with the Scurvy ^ cuta- 
meous EruptidnSy and the other Difeafes 
of a /^/ Blood. And every Body finds 
himfelf more thirfty and heavy than ufual 
after a full Meal of Fifty let them be 
ever fo freftij and is generally forced 
to have Kecourfe to Sprits and diftiiled 
Liquors to carry them off: So that it is 
•become a Vroverby among thofe that 
live much upon them, that Brandy is 
IsOfinfoT Fijb. Befidcs, that after a fiill 
Meal of Fifh^ even at Noon, one never 
flceps fo (bund the enfuing Night ; as is 
certain ftom conftant Obfervation. Thefe 
few Hints may ferve the valetudinary 
PcrioD, in a groft Manner^ to judge by 

Q the 

4^ AiEssxY of Health 

the Eje the ^antitj^ of folid Flcfli Mcjir 
he takes or ought to take down : For I 
/udge the mention'd Quantities to be ra- 
ther a little under than over eight Ounces. 
As to Broths, SoopSy and J elites y if they 
be ftrong, I account them equal in Nou- 
rifhment and harder to digeft than the 
fame Weight of folid Flefh Meat 5 and 
three or four common Spoonfuls, at moft, 
make an Ounce in Weight in Liquids 5 
and about double the Number of Bits 
commonly fwallowed at once make the 
fame Weight in folid Flefh Meats for 
Exaftnefs is not here requifite. 

J. 12. T^rink is the other Part of our 
Food. The common ^rink here in 
England is either Water, Malt-Liquor, 
or Wine, or Mixtures of thefe 5 for Cy- 
der znd Verryzie drank but in few Places, 
and rather for Pleafure and Variety than 
common Ufe. Without all peradven- 
ture. Water was the primitive, original 
Beverage, as it is the only Simple Fluid 
^for there are but /^r^^ more in Nature, 
Mercury y Light y and^/r, none of which 
is fit for human T>rink) fitted for diluting^ 
moiftening and cooling ; the Ends of T^rink 
appointed by Nature. And happy had 
it been for the Race of Mankind other 


. c»c/Lo N G Li FE. 43 

mixt. and artificial IXc^ots had never 
been invented. It has been an agreea- 
ble Appearance to me to obferve, with 
what Freflinefs and Vigour^ thofe who, 
tho' eating freely . of jFlefh Meaty yet 
drank: nothing but this Element y have 
lived ia Htalth^ IndaJencey and Chearful- 
nefsy xo/z gtczt Age. fVater alone is 
fufficicnt and effcdual for all the Pur- 
pofc^ of human Wants 'm^rink. Strong 
Liquors were ne^yer defigned for com- 
moxi.Ufe ; They were formerly kept (here. 
in England) as other Medicines are, in 
Afo^hec^ies Shops y and prefcribed by. 
^hyficianSy as they do ^iafcordium and 
Vknice-Treach i to refrefh xhcPVearyy to 
ftrength^n .the Weak^ to give Courage 
to jttoe paint 'heart edy and raife the Low-, 
fpirited* And it were as juft and rcafo- 
nable to fee Men {and if they go on, it 
19 not impoiTible I nyay hear of it, lince 
h^ndmum is already . taken into Feafis 
zod jEntertainments) itt down to a Difh. 
of ff^fnice-Treafley . or Sir Walter Raw- 
higif^ Confe^iony with a Bottle of Hy- , 
Jferifk Cordialy as to a Difh of Craw- 
ffthSi^opi . an O^ - Cheek or Venifon- 
^aft^y yf%x\x a Bottle of Hermit age y or 
Xocka^r Or which fome prefer to either 
ctfx ritfm, a Bowl of Punch. IVine 

G 2 is 

44- j4n Essay of He A J.TH 

j is now become as common as fVaten 
and tlic better Sort fcarce ever dilute 
their Food with any other Liquor. And 
we fee, by daily Experience, that (as na- 
tural Caufes will always produce their 
proper Eftedts) their Blood becomes in- 
flamed into Gouty Stone, and Rbeuma- 
tifm, raging Fevers, 'Pleurifies, Small 
"Pox, or Meafles ; their Paffions are en- 
raged into parrels. Murder, and Blaf' 
phemy i their juices are dried up j and 
rheir Solids fcorch'd and {hrivcl'd. Thofc 
whole Appetite and Digeftion is good 
and entire, never want ftrong Liquors to 
fupply J^/r//x ; Such Spirits arc too "ytfi- 
latiie and fugitive for any folid or ufcfiil 
Purpofes in Life. Two Ounces of Flejb 
Meat, well digcftcd, beget a greater Stock 
of more durable and ufcful Spirits, than 
ten Times as iv,\iQ\\flreng Limtors, which 
nothing but Luxury and Concupifcence 
makes ncccfl'ary. Happy thofc, whom 
their 'Parents-, their natural Avcrfion to 
ftrong Liquors, or whom kind 'Provi- 
dence among the better Sort, has brought 
to the Age of Maturity and "Difiretiony 
without dealing in or defiring any great 
§luantity oi ftrong Liquors : Their 'Paf- 

Jions have been calmer, tiieir Senfatiens 

and Long Life. 


more exquijite, their Appetites lefs unruly ^ 
and their //(f^?^moreunintcrrupted,than 
any other natural Caufe could have pro- 
duced. And thrice happy thcyi, who con- 
tinue this Courfe to their laft Minutes. 
Nothing is more ridiculous than the com- 
mon ^/f^z for continuing in drinking on, 
large ^antities of ffirituous Liquors ; 
viz. Becaufe they have been accultomed 
fo to do, and they think it dangerotts to 
leave it oif, all of a fudden. It were as 
rcafonable for him that is fallen into the 
Fire or Water to lie there, becaufe of 
the Danger of removing him fuddenly. 
For neither Element will dcftroy him 
more certainly, before his Time, than wal- 
lowing in7?ro»^ Z,;^«tfri'. If the i^(?K- 
tity of ftrong Liquors they have been ac- 
cuftomed to, may be fuppol'ed prejudicial 
to their Health, or to introduce nexious 
Humours into the Hahtt i the Iboner a 
Stop be put to it, the better. No Man 
is afraid to forbear ftrong Liquors in an 
acute Diftemper, what Quantity foever 
he might have drank in his Health : And 
yet any fudden Change of the Humours 
would not only be more dangerous then, 
than at any other Time ; but alio would 
mote readily happen and come to pafs, in 
1 critical Cales. For the whole Syfiem 

46 j4nEssAY of Health 

of the Fluids y being in a Ferment at ioni 
fmall Changes or Errors then, would not 
only bempJCQf^t^ly but niore plain and ob- 
vious. Aadt if a Perfon be in Hazard by 
fuch a fudden Alteration^ he cannot Jive 
long by taking down fo much Toijbn^ 
But the Matter oiFa£iis falfe and ground- 
kfs. Por I have known and obferved 
cpnftant good EfFeds from leaving off 
fuddenly great Quantities of fFine and 
Fkp) M^ats too, by thofe long accuftonv 
cd to both, am ready to name the Per-, 
fons, and never obferved any. ill Confc- 
quence from it in any Cafe whatfoever, 
Thqfe whofe Conftitutions have been 
quite broken^ and running into ^ijjolu- 
Z/V^, have lived longer, and been lefs 
pained in Sicknefs by fo doing: ,Ai\4 
thofe who have had a Fund in Naturp 
to laft longer, have grown better, and 
attained their End by it... I allow eye^y 
Man, that has been aqcuftomed to drink 
PFinCy or ftrong Liqiters^ a Pint in. 24. 
Hours : And I am well fatisfied, that 
^antity is fufficicnt ioi Healthy let their 
Cuftom have been what it wUlt Th^U 
Spirits may indeed jiag^^inA Jink a kittle 
at firft, for Want of iiitrpduced G^ick- 
lime and Fire, But Low-fpiritednefs., in 
fuch a Cafe, I count. nQjPjtfeafe. . ArjI 


and L o N 6 L I F £. 47 

bearing it for fome Time, is bountiful- 
ly rccompenccd by tlie Health, Indo- 
lence^ and Freedom of Spirit s^ they after- 
wards enjoy : Not taking into Confide- 
ration their being refcued from the Ty- 
ranny of fo immoral and mifchievous a 
Habit. It may be fufficient for thofe 
who are tender, ftudious, or contempla- 
tive, to drink three Glafles of Water with 
a Spoonful of Wine at the gr^at Meal. 
And as Sir fV. Temple has it. One for 
your Self, another for your FriendSy a 
third for good Humour, and a fourth for 
your Enemies, are more than fufficient 
after it. 

► Jf. 13. A great Miftake committed in 
this Affair is, that moft People think the 
only Remedy for Gluttony is drunken- 
nefs, or that the Cure of a Surfeit of 
Meat is a Surfeit of Wine : Than which 
nothing can be more falfe, or contrary 
to Nature 5 for, 'tis lighting, as the Say- 
ing is, the Candle at both Ends. For, 
firft of all, IVine and all other ftrong Li- 
quors are as hard to digcft, and require as 
much Labour of the conco^ive Powers, 
as Jlrong Food itfelf. This is not only 
evident with Refped to People of weak 
Stomachs^ but alfo from hence^ thatheaU 


48 ^« Es s A r o/ H E A t T « ^B 

thy People who drink only fVater, or 
■weak fmall Beer, fiiall be able to eat and 
digell almoft double of what they could, 
did they drink ftrong Liquors at their 
Meaisy as every one that plcafes may ?*•- 
ferience. WaUt is the only univerfal 
Diflblvcnt or Menfiruum, and the mod 
certain Diluter of all Bodies proper foif 
Food i tho* there are a great many that 
jPiritmus Liquars not only will not diC- 
foJve, but will harden, and make more 
undigefiihle t efpccially the Salts of Bo- 
dies, \i\\zx:^mx[\Q.\iaBive G^alities, that 
is, thofc which can do moft Harm to hu- 
man Conjlittitions, confift. And I have 
known Men of weak and tender Conjii' 
tutions, who could neither eat nor di- 
geft upon drinking of IVine, who, by 
drinking at Meals common Water heat- 
ed, have recovered theii' Appetites and 
'Digeftion, havethrivcn and grown plump, 
'Tis true ftrong Liquors, by their Heai 
and Stimulation on the Organs of Con- 
coftion, by encrcaitng the Velocity of the 
Motion of the Fluids^ and thereby quick- 
ening the other animal FunBions, will 
carry off the Load that lies upon the 
Stomach, with more prefent Chcarful- 
nefs : Yet, befidcs the future Damages o( 
fuch a ^antitjr ofWine, to the Stomach 

I" itnd LongLife. ^9 

and to the Fluids, by its Heat and In- 
jlammation, the Food is hurried into the 
Habit, nnconcoBed, and lays a Founda- 
tion for a Fever, a Fit of the Cholick, 
or feme chronical Difeafe. 

y. 14. Another Miftake I Ihall ob- 
ferve, is the extreme Fondnels Perfons 
of the better Sort here in England, 
have lately run into, for the ftrong and 
high Country Wines. I can think of 
no Rcafon for this, but the very ho- 
neft one the Vulgar give for drinking 
Brandy : that they get (boner drunk on 
it. For furcly the middling lighter 
Wines, inflame Khz. animal'^\y\zt%\z£%, go 
morceafily off xhz Stomach, and afford 
more Room for long Converfation and 
Chcatfulncfs. Excefs in them, gives 
lefs Pain, and is fooner remedied. But 
there are Degrees in this Matter. * Ne- 
mo repente fuit turpij/imus. They begin 
withthe weaker Winesj thefe byUfe and 
Ha^ie will not do, they leave the Sto- 
mach ftck and marjukip}, they muft fly to 
ilronger Wine, andftrongcr ftill, and run 
the + Climax, through Brandy to Bar- 
badoes Waters, and double diftill'd Spi- 
rits, 'till at laft they can find nothing 
H hot 


Ifo Body btcomts txtrrmtij had all at entt* 
Sift bibber bj iJejjref i. 



5o j^hEssax of Health ^B 

hot enough foe thcDi. People who have 
.any Regard for their Health or Lives, 
ought to tremble at the firft Cravir^s^ 
for fuch poyfonous Liquors. Strong 
Heaters iliould never be taken but 
I by the 'Dire^ion of a Thyjiciant or in 
-the Agmies erf" ^eath. For when Per- 
■ . Ions arrive at that State, that they become 
Lneccflary to their Eafe and Freetiom of 
*• Spirits) they may be juftly reckoned a- 
mbng the i)eadt both as to the (hort 
. Time they have to live, and the little Ufe 
■they can be of either to thcmfelves or 
.Mankind. I (peak not here of thofe who 
. «re under an aftual Fit of the Gout, or 
ChoUck in the Stomach. {H^e muft not 
die for fear of dying.) Nor am I rccom- 
(tnending four Verjuice or unripe fVines, 
But I cannot help being well fatisficd, 
■both trom Reafon and Experience, that 
-the light IVines, of a moderate Strength, 
due j4ge and full Maturity, arc much 
jlfefcrable for Chearfulnefs and Conver- 
fation, much more wholeifome for human 
^Conftitutitms-, and much more proper for 
^igejiion than the hot and ftrong Wines. 
The richj ftrong, aud heavy Wines ought 
never to be t^cd without a fufficient 
, Dilution of Water } at Icaft they fliould 
|» ufedg likp Brand][ o; Spirits, fora Cor- 

and Long Lifi. 


dial *. j^d fummum tria pocula fume. 
Whatfoevcr is more cometh of Sifti 
and muft be diluted witli the Waters of 

^. 1$. I have no Intention here to 
diicouragcthe innocent Means of fw/ivfn- 
ing Converfation, promoting Frieneifliip, 
comforting the 7tfrr(7K/a/ Heart, and rai- 
flng the drooping Spirits, by the cheer- 
ful Cup zndxhc facial Repaft. Perhaps I 
may like the harmlefsiro/t^j^, the warm 
Reception of a Friend, and even the f 
1)uke Furere itfelf, more than I ought: 
Pcrfons fober in the main, will receive 
little Prejudice from fuch a Fillips when 
the Occafions happen but leldom, and 
cfpccially when they make it up, by a 
greater Degree of Abftinence afterwards. 
But a Sot is the loweft Charafter in Life. 
Did only xhz'^rofligate-, the Scoundrel^ the 
Abandon' d, run into thefe Excefics, it were 
in vain to endeavoLir to reclaim them, 
as it were, to ftop a Tempefi, or calm a 
Storm, but now rhar the Vice is be- 
come Epidemical, fince it has got not 
only among Mechanicks and Tradefmen, 
but among Pcrfons of the biighteft Ge- 
H a nius^ 

* i. e. At mofl to tail but ttirtt (mail Clajfes of fucb. 
■f- Horac. i. c ^n a^rfeath Frelhk or Extravd^we- 

51 y4«EssATo/ Health ^I 

nitts, the fineft Ta^ey and the moft ac- 
compliih'd ydff J ; and (oh that 1 could 
give my Confcience the Lj/e, in men- 
tioning them !) even among the frfi and 
ieaji fallen Part of the Creation itfelf, 
and thofe of them too, of the moft ele- 
gant Tarts, and the ftrideft Virtue o- 
thcrwife ; and which is fttU the moft fur- 
prifing of all, even thofe too, who arc 
in all other Rcfpefts blamelcfs. Since 
I fay the Cafe is fo, it will not be amifs 
to ihcw, to the Evidence of a 'Demon- 
firation, the Folly as well as the Fruit- 
leflhefs of fuch a Courfe. A Fit of the 
ChoUckt or of the Vapours^ a Family- 
misfortune, a cafual'Dtfappointment, the 
^eath of a Child, or of a Friend, with 
the Afllftancc of the Nurfe, the Midwife, 
and rhe next Neighbour, often give Rife 
["and become the weighty Caulcs of fo 
I 'fatal an Etfed. A little Lms^nefs requires 
•*^rops, which pafs readily down under 
► the Notion of Thyfick; Drops beget 
r 'Drams, and *Z)ri2»;j- beget more'DrdMJ, 
^^ill they come to be without Weight 
''and without MealUrc; fo that atlaflthc 
miferable Creature fufters a true Mar- 
tyrdom, between its natural j\/<?(i(P/?y, the 
great Necefliry of concealing its Crav- 
ings, and the ftill greater one of getting 
them fatislkdyi'/?;;' ho'^\ Higher and more 

and Long Life. 


vul/tanSj begot by thcfe, bring forth far- 
ther Necejftty upon NecfJJtty, of TiropSf 
^ramsy and Gills-, 'tili at laft a kind 
Tiropfy., nervous Cowvulfions-. a nervous 
Atrophy, or a coUoquative ^iarrhaa, if 
not a Fever, or a Frenzy, fct the poor 
Soul free. It has very often raifcd in 
mc the moft melancholy Reflexions, to 
fee even the Virtuous, and the Senflbk, 
bound in fuch Chains and Fetters, as 
nothing Icfs than omnipotent Grace, or 
the unreientivg Grave could rclcafe 
them : They were deaf to Reafon and 
Medicine i to their own Experience, 
and even to the cxprefs Words of 
Scripture, fays, the 'Drunkard pjall 
not inherit the Kingdom of Heaven. Did 
this bewitching 'Poifon actually cure or 
relieve them, from 1 ime to Time ■-, fomc- 
thing might be Hiid to extenuate the Fol- 
ly and Frenzy of fuch a Courfc. Cut, 
on the contrary, it heightens and enrages 
all their Symptoms and Sufferings, ever 
afterwards, excepting the few Moments 
immediately after taking it down ; and 
every Dram begets the Neccllity of two 
more, to cure the ill Effects of the 
_/fr/?; and one Minutes Indolence they pur- 
chafe with many Hours of greater 'Pain 
and Miferys befides the making \\icMa- 


54. An Essay of Health V 

ia/(y more incurable. Lew-jpiritednefs, 
in itfelf is no Dircafe } befidcs that there 
are Remedies in ^rt that will always re- 
lieve it> fo long as there is any 0/7 re- 
maining in the Lamp ; and 'tis in vain, 
to try to raife the Dead. Exerci/e, Ab- 
fiinence, and proper E'vacuattons, with' 
Time and Tatiencc, will continually make 
it tolerable., very often they will perfe^Iy 
cure it. The running into 'Drams is 
giving up the whole at once ; for nei- 
ther Laudanum nor Arfenkk will kill 
more certiinly, although more quickly. 
The Pretence of its being Thyjick, or a 
prefent Remedy, is trifling. Cordials of 
any Kind, even out of the Apothecaries. 
Shops, arc but Reprieves for a Time, to 
gain a Refpite^ 'till proper and extirpat- 
ing Remedies can take Place j and arc 
never to be ufed twice, the one imme- 
diately after the other, but in the laft 
Neceliity. And I can honeftty lay, I ne- 
ver failed of relieving, lb as to make 
Life tolerable^ vapotirt^, hyfierical, or 
hypochondriacal Perfons, who would be 
governed in their Diet, by the Ufe of 
other proper il/fd»x, if there was a Fund 
in Life, and no incurable Difeafe, com- 
plicated with Lownefs. Thus much the 
Weight of the Subjccl forced from one; 

and Lo NG Li F E. 55 

more than this, its T^ifa^reeablenefs hin- 
ders me to fay. 

g". itf. Ncxtto93rflMr, no Liquor dct 
fcrvcs more to be ftigmatizcd and banifli* 
cd the Rcpafts of the Tender^ Valetudi~. 
nary, and Studious^ than Punch. 'Tia 
a Compoiition of fuch Parts, as not on« 
of them is falutary, or kindly to fuel* 
K^onftitutionSj except the pure Element 
in it. The principal Ingredient is Rum^ 
Arrack, Brandy, or Malt Spirits^ a» 
they are called, all of them raifed bjp 
the Fire, from the fermented Juices oZ 
Plants, brought from Southern Coun- 
tries, or which have longcft born tho 
Heat of the Sun in our own Climate i 
And 'tis obfervablc, that every Thing 
that has paft the Fire, to that it has had 
due Time to divide and penetrate its 
Parts, as far as it polfibly can, retains a 
caujlick, corroji've, and burning ^ality 
ever afterwards. This is evident from' 
ihc fiery and burning Touch and Tafie of 
new-drawn Spirits, as al fo from the burn- 
ing of Litne-fione, which, tho' extin- 
guiili'd by Boiling Water, does ever after 
retain its heating and drying ^w//^;', as 
appears from the great Ufc of Lime-fVa- 
Per, in drying up all humid Sores, when 
givca iuwardly t>y Jilclf, pr compounded 

56 ^ff Essay of Health 

' "With fudofific Woods and Roots, and 
from its Succefs in outward Applications 
for the fame Purpofes. And the' Time 
may in fome Mcalure get the better of 
this, in its fenfibk and obvious Operationst 
yet fince PVater is a groflcr Body than Fire^ 
or Flame, it never can penetrate it fo far as 
quite to cxtinguifh its inmoft Heat i efpe- 
cialiy if we confiderjthatty/'rr//'jarebutan 
j^ccumulation of fine Salts and light Oil, 
compared together into the fmallcft P^o- 
lumti the _fir^ whereof is lb hard and 
folid, as naturally to retain their Heat 
the longcft, into which IVater cannot 
enter ; the other, to wit the Oyle, is fo 
inflamable, that it moft readily receives 
Heat and Fire, and defends the Salts 
from the Fovt'cr of Pl^ater over them. 
And in the continued Tiijlillation of Spi- 
rits, this Aftion of the Fire is fo ftrong, 
as to reduce them to liquid Flames at 
laft, which will of themfclves evaporate 
in vifible Flames and Fumes. The othct 
ptincipal Part of the Compofition is the 
Juice of Oranges ^Tid. Lemons. And if we 
confider, that a Lemon or Orange could 
never be tranfportcd half Seas over to 
us, without rotting or fpoiling.if gather* 
cd when wholly ripe, we (hould have 
no great Opinion of their Juices. Eve- 
ry Spanif} ot yom/g-tf/ Merchant can in- 

oKtiLoNG Life. 57 

form us, that they miift be gathered 
green, or at leaft a Month before they 
are ripe, clfe they are not fit to be fenc 
beyond the Seas. The Sea- Air, and their 
being ftut up clofe, gives them i\\%x goU 
den yellirjD Colour, wc To much admire. 
The Juice of a Crab Apple, of unripe 
Gr^es, or Goofeherries, or even good 
yttice of Sorrel, would come up at leaft 
to their Virtue of cxtingaiHiing the Heat 
of Spirits, if not to their Flavour. And 
how kindly a Gueji fuch Juices would 
be to the fine Fibres of weak Stomachs 
and Bowels, I leave every one to judge. 
The Truth is, iSS. ferment ing'yx\cz%, fuch 
as ihefe eminefitly arc, muft be highly 
injurious to weak Confiituiions ; for meet- 
ing with the Crudities in the Borsjels, 
they muft raife a new Battle and Col- 
luBation there, and fo muft blow up the 
whole Cavities of the human Body, with 
acrid Fumes and Vapours, the great and 
fore Enemy of fuch Bowels. And in the 
Wefi Indies, where from the Neceffity 
of drinking much, bccaule of the Vio- 
lence of the Heat, and from the Want 
of proper Liquors there, they are forc'd 
to drink much TUNCH, tho' Lemons 
and Oranges be in their full Perfection, 
they are univerfally afflicted with Ncr- 
V9KS and Mortal dry- Bellj-acheSy Talfies, 
Mij I Cramps 

58 ^« Essay (?/ Health 

C Cramps, and Convuljions -, which cut 
them off in a few Days, entirely owing 
to x.h\s poifonous Mixture. 

The Bath-JVater is the only Remedy 
in Tuth Cafes, whither they all haften, 
if they can get thither a^ive. And here 
I have been infoim'd of this FaB, by 
Wen of the Trofeffion, as well as their 
patients, who univert'ally afcrib'd them 
to tht^ir drinking of-Pf/ i\rC// and Spi- 
' rituous Liquors. If j^cids muft be had, 
without all peradvcnture , the P^inous 
ones, arc the bcft and fafeft. The Ro' 
mans, the' they had the vegetable ^f/j/r 
in Perfeftion, made very little Ufe of 
ihcm but in Cookery^ where the Quan- 
tity of the 'Poifon was fo fmall, as 
liot to do fufficicnt Harm, to forbid 
their ufing them for the Sake of the 
CXquifite ReliHi they gave their Sauces i 
and the conftant Drink of the lower 
Souldiery was P^tnegar and Water, which 
they found of £xcellent Ufc, both as it 
. prevented Feniers, 'Plagues, and ^utre- 
Vfafiion; and alfo as it gave an Energy 
to the unaflivc Element^ and hindered 
it from lodging in the Body, Hepce 
alfo the great XJic of Oxymel and Oxy- 
frate, (that is, of Vinegar with Honey 
■ and with Water) among all the antiertl 
^"^hyfcians. And indeed, whenever 

' L O N G I, * F E. 


they prefcrib'd an Acid, they very pru- 
dently join'd a Cortcflive with it, both 
to piomore its good^ and to prevent 
its bad Eftcdts. The two remaining In- 
gredients are Sugar and Water 5 and 
thefe I will give up to the ^unch- 
T)rinkers, and. allow them all the Be- 
netit of them, ihcy can bring to this 
Compofition : Yet it will ftiJl have Ma- 
lignity llifficient remaining, to be held 
in Dctcftation, (at leaft for any great 
Ufe, Of in any great ^ajiBf;/y, for Ibmc 
^oifans arc lb only by their ^laniity) 
by thole tender and valetudinary Pcrfons, 
who value Health and Life. The 
Strong, the Voluptuous, and tiic Aban- 
doned, need no Advice, at leaft they 
will take none. 1 could never fee any 
Temptation, for any one in their Senfes, 
to indulge in this Heatheni^ Liquor, 
but that k ftiakes its Votaries the fooneft, 
and all of a fuddcn the decpeft Tirunky 
holds then! iongcfl in the Fit, and de- 
prives them the moft entirely of the Ufc 
of their InfelleBaal Faculties, and Bo- 
dily Organs, of any Liquor whatfocver. 
It is likdl: Opium, both in its Nature, 
and in the Manner of its Operation, and 
ncareft Arfenick in its deleterious and 
poifonons Qualities : And lo 1 leave it to 

I i H^h» 


^o An Essay of Health 

' Who knowing this, will yet drink on 
and die. 

g. 17. As to Malt Liquors, they arc 
not much in Ufc, excepting fmall Beer, 
with any but Mechanickf and Fox-hunt- 
ers. The French very juftly call them 
Barley 'Soop. 1 am well fatisfied, a weak 
Stomach can as readily and with lefs Pain, 
digeft jP^r/fc, and Teafe-Soop, as Tork^ 
Jbire or Nottingham Ale. They make 
excellent Bird-lime, and when fimmefd 
fome time over a gentle Fire, make the 
moft flicking, and the beft Vlaifier, for 
eld Strains that can be contrived. Even 
the fmall Beer that is qommonly drank 
at London, if it be not well Boiled, vc- 
ry Clear, and of a due Age, muft be hurt- 
ful to Perfons of weak Nerves, znd Jlow 
^Digejiion. '^ot fermenting again in the 
alimentary Channels, it will fill the whole 
Cavities of the Body with Windy Fumes 
and Vapours, which will at Length play 
odd Tranks in a crafy Conftitutioo. In 
Fine, the Valetudinary, Studious, and 
Contemplative, muft be contented with 
a "J^int of middlings light Wine a Day, 
one half with> and the other without 

J. 18. Since the T\mt foreign Latxwy 
has been brought to. its Perfe£fcion here, 


md Long Life. 


there arc a kind of Liquors In Ufe among 
the better Sort, which fbme great doc- 
tors have condemn'd, by Bell, Book, 
and Candle, and others have as cxtra- 
vangantly commended : I mean. Coffee, 
Tea, and Chocolate. For my own Part, 
I take all their Virtue to confift in Cu- 
fiom, and all their Harm in Excefs. As 
to Coffee, it is a mccr Calx, or a Kind 
of burnt Horfe Bean, but lighter on the 
Stomach, and of fomewhat a better Fla- 
vour. The Turks ufe ;'/, and Opium in- 
ftead of Brandy. But the Plea that fome 
make for running into Excefs in it, from 
this Mahometan Cuftom, is altogether 
weak and groundlefsj for thofc that do 
(o there, fuffer by it, as we do here: 
And thofe that Debauch in it, turn Stu- 
pid, Feeble, and 'Paralitick by it, efpe- 
cially when they join Opium with it,'"as 
they frequently do, as thofe who wal- 
low in thcfe, do here, and are as much 
defpis'd and cxpos'd by fcrious Perfons, 
as our Topers and Brandy-ffmllers are 
here. A Difti or two oi Coffee, with a 
little Milk to foften it, in raw or damp 
Weather, or on a JFaterijh and Flegma- 
tick Stomach, is not only innocent, but 
a prefent Relief. But 'tis as ridiculous, 
and perhaps more hurtful, at leaft in thin 
aad dry Habits, to dabble in it two or 

63 ^w Ess AY ff/" Health 

three Times every Day, as it would be 
for I'uch to drink norhing but fcalding 
Lime-floater. There arc two Kinds ot' 
Tea in Utc, Green and Bohea. Mr. 
Cuninghamt who liv'd feveral Years ia- 
China^ a very learned and accurate Pcr- 
fon * informs us, that they ate both ga- 
thered from the fame Shrub, but at dif- 
ferent Scafons of the Year j and that the 
Bohea is gather'd in the Spring, and is 
dried in the SuUy the Green at the Fire. 
But I fufpcft, and not without Autho- 
rity, that, bcfides thcfe Differences in 
drying, Tome Infufion of another Plaat 
or Earth (perhaps fuch a one as that o£ 
Japan Earth, or Catechu ) muft be pour- 
ed on fome forts of Bohea Tea, to give 
it tlic Softnefs, FUvaur, and Heaviwfs 
on the Stomach it has, whetcby it be- 
comes a meet "Drug, and wants tiic na» 
tural Simplicity of Green Tea^ which 
when light, and drank neither too ftrong 
nor too Hot, 1 take to be a very pro- 
per Diluent, when foftn'd with a lit- 
tle Milk, to clcanle tiic alimentary 
Paflagcs, and waOi off the Scorhutick and 
Urinous Salts, for a Breakfaft, to thcfe 
who live full and freej as alio it, or TV* 
made of a (He'd Orange or LeTruntf is 
one of the beft: promoters of 'D^efitm 

" » Vide Piiil. Collefl. 

mtd Long Life. 


after a full Meal, or when one is adry 
between Meals, and much more (afc 
and effedual than l^rams or ftrong Cor- 
dialSy which are commonly ufcd for that 
Purpofe. Some Perfons of weak tender 
Nerves, fall into Lownefs and Trem- 
bling upon ufing either of thcfc Liquors 
with any Freedom, from their too great 
^antity, or their Irrilaltonon the ten- 
der and delicate iv^rcj- of the Stomach. 
Such ought carefully to avoid and ab- 
ftain from them, as from 'Drams and 
'Drops. But I can never be of their O- 
pinion who afcribe the Frequency of 
Scurvy, Vapours, Ltywf^iritednefs, and 
nervous Diftempers now, to what they 
were in the Days of our Forefathers, to 
the Cuftom of Drinking more frequent- 
ly and freely of thcfc yi-r^/^w Infttfions. 
The Caufe is not adequate to the Etfect i 
nor indeed has any Analogy to, or Con- 
nexion with it. Wc kiiow that warm 
Water, willmoftofany Thing promote 
and a(fift 'Digeftion in weak Stomachs 
and tender Nerves. And by this alone 
I have iccn fcveral fuch Perfons recover to 
a Miracle, when celd Mineral Waters, 
Bitters, Cordials ^nA'Drams, i>ave done 
rather Hurt than Good, And Tea is 
but an Infnjion in Warcr of an innocent 
Plant ; Innocent, I fay, bccaufe wc find 
— by 



64. ^» Ess AY 0/ Health ^* 

by its Taftc it has ncitiicr poifonouSj de- 
leterious not acrimmious Qiiaiitiesi and 
wc are certain from its Ufc in the 
Countries it comes from, (which are larg- 
er than moft of fiaro/'f) that they receive 
no Damage from it, but on the contra- 
ry, that it promotes both T>igeftion and 
^erfpiration. The Argument from its 
relaxing the Coats of the Stomach and 
Bowels by its Heat^ is of no force. For 
unlcfs it be drunk much hotter than 
the Blood itfelf, it can do no hurt that 
way: And wc fee the Bath Guides, who 
dabble in Water almoft as hot as Tea is 
ever drunk, a great Part of the Day, and 
for one half of the Year at Icaft, arc no 
ways injured by it ; except when fhey 
Aim!^Jirong Liquors, too freely to quench 
the Thirft it raifcs. However, I Ihould 
advife thofe who drink Tea plentifully, 
not to drink it much hotter than blood- 
•warm--, whereby they will receive all its 
Benefit^ and be fecure againft all the 
Harm it can poflibly do. As to Choco- 
late, I am of opinion, it is too hot and 
heavy, for •valetudinary Perfons ; and 
thofe of weak Nerves. I have before 
obferved, that Nuts pafs through the 
alimentary PafTagcs untouched ; and tho' 
they may part with fome of their more vo- 

aitd Lp If G L ; F E.; . 65 

muc^ oourifhroem to Perfoiif of weak 
IDigeJlims. Some fay. Chocolate gives 
them ajc> Appetite j the njeaning of which 
may Ije, ^:hftt when they have a good Ap- 
petite for their Br^kffift 5 it is not unlike* 
ly it may continue all the Day : But I 
.am of opinion, : 'tis 2Lfalfe zjxd, hjjiericai 
Appetite^ fuch as iharp Wines, and Iharp 
jHnmours in the Stomach give, tot fat 
and oify Things, ft^ch as ail Nuts are, are 
Jbar$l to digeu, and lie long in the Sto- 
mach, for reafons I have already e^- 
plain'd : It may Jkikricate and iheath againil 
the Irritation oi fait znd fharp Humours 
4n the!Bowels, and therefore may be good 
4n the Colicks and Gravel of thofe of 
/Irong and ftoujf Digeftion 5 but can ne- 
ycr be good Food for thofe of weak 
JN^erves zndpodr Confiitutions. Nothing 
j& io light and eafy to the Stomach, moft 
^ceftainly, as the Farinaceous or piealy 
'Vegetables 5 fuch as Teafcy Beans ^ Mil- 
Jet J OatSj Barfyi^ Rye^ Iflseat^ Sago, 
Rice J ^otatoes^ zvtd the Jike 5 of fome 
4>i which on Milk or Water ^ I fliould 
ever advife the Valetudinary ^ and thofe 
iof weak Nerves, to make their two lejfer 
€>T fecandary Meals. Tobacco is another 
foreign IVeed, m^di in ufe here in Bri^ 
tain, though not. among th^ ^, yet 
among the v$f44lf -^pA infcfUf^p-Kz^ 
of the People : For thofe 0/ gr6i*s and 

66 ^B Essay o/ Health ' 

'Phlegmatick Conftitutions, who abound 
\aferous and watcy Humours, who are 
Tubjcft to Coughs, Catarrhs, and afthma- 
tick Indifpofitions ; who labour under vio- 
lent Tooth-achSt or are troubled with 
Rheums in their Eyes ; who have cold and 
waterifh Stomachs, and live fully and 
freely, both Smoaking and Chewing is 
a very beneficial Evacuation, drawing off 
JuperfuousHamouis, Crudities, and cold 
Phlegm, provided they carefully avoid 
fwallowing the ^«;(ji?j6, or the. Juice \ and 
drink nothing, but rinfe their Mouths 
with ibmc watry Liquor after it, and 
fpititout. Batto thin,meagre, andhe^ick 
Conftitutions, it is highly pernicious, 
and deftruftive j heating their Blood, dry- 
ing their Solids, and defrauding the Food 
of that Saliva, which is fo abfolutely 
necefiary towards ConcoBion. Snuffing 
the Leaves, or the groITer Cut in a 
Morning, will readily promote a Flux 
of Rheum by the Glands of the Nofe ; 
and will be of good uie, to clear rhe 
Head and the Eyes. But the ridiculous 
Cuftom, of perpetually fucking in fo- 
phifticated Powders, and other Foreign 
^rugs fold for Snujf, cannot but be 
prejudicial both to the Eyes, and even 
to the Stomach j at lead, if we believe 
the Ryjorts of thofe who fay they have 
brought it up from thence. 

%■ IP, I 

W Long Lite. 67 

J. 19. I have endeavour'd to afliftthc 
Jltader, with fomc Obfervations and 
Heflexions, to enable him towards dc- 
Krmining the ^antity and equality of 
hisfolidFood, ncceffary either to prevent 
or cure chronical Diftempers. It may 
not be amils, here to make fome Refle- 
xions alio on the fit Proportion of 
^rink proper for thai purpofe ; As the 
rood is, lb muft that be, various and 
nncertam, with regard to the ^f, Size, 
Labour, and Conjtitution of the Perfon, 
and the Seafon of the Year. I have of- 
fer 'd to limit the S^antity of flrong Li- 
quors,fIttcft to prefcrve Health and length- 
en out Life in general, to a Tound or 
jP/B/, and that of the middling Kind. 
But the Sickly, the Aged, and thofe 
who would cure a chronical Diltcmper, 
muft even abate of this Quantity. The 
only remaining Queftion, is about the 
Quantity of IVater, or watry Liquors, 
proper to be mix'd with xixii Jlrong Li- 
quor, or drunk by itfclf : For in thisalfo, 
though in i felf harmlefs and innocent, 
yet there is a Choice and Preference i 
bccaufc , too much Water will only 
fcrvc to diftend zn3.jb;ell up the Vcflcls, 
and wafli oft' Ibine of the finer and more 
nutritious parts of t\\t Chyle i and too 
little, will not be fufficicnt to dilute the 
fgiid Food, or to make the Chylt; thin 
K. i and 


6S ^nEssAY of Health 

VitiA fluid enough, to circulate through the 
fne and fmall Vcffcls. I will fuppofc 
my Patient to deal in fto other Coakefi^ 
but Raafiki^ and Boiling ; and that ne 
cats only frefb Meat. Bailing oAimat 
Food, draws more of the ranky ftrortg^ 
Juices from it, and leaves it lefs nutti- 
tive^ more dilutedy Ughrtety and eafiet 
of' Digeftion. Roafting on the othet 
hand, leaves it fuller of xkcftrorrg ituoi- 
tive Juices^ harder to digeft, and wanting 
more J}ifution: Thofe therefore, who 
muft have fitll grown and adult animd 
Food, ought to eat it boiled, and nsuetl 
boiled too; if their Digeftion be but 
weak. They who can live on young 
animal Food, (which is beft for we^k 
Stomachs,) ought to eat it roaftedy but 
itiuft leflen the Quantity, in refped of 
the fame Food hotted --, but they muft di- 
late it more : For as roaft Meat has ^ 
better Flavour, and mote Nourifhment, 
fo it lies \z{% flabby on the Stomach, and 
docs not fo readily flif from, or difap- 
p<5finr the A^ion of Grinding^ which 
has fohic fhate in ^igeflionSy both pri^ 
mury ^n(X ft4bfequeni : But it will want 
more :^rlutiony . with a watry ikfrtsr- 
flnmmy to ibftrn its more rigid and 
ntyp tibrts. "^"Ift^itxcforCj the whole 
Wfci'siht of the Md^i'iJOTl; in twenty four 
f?dttrf;^iuj^bfed*i'^ znd^ffd^i 

P and ho a c hi F E. 69 

then three 'Pounds of Liquor, that is, 
one of ftrong Liquor, and two of fomc 
aqueous fluid, will in a Medium, be 
fufficicnt to, dilute it abundantly. For 
thus there will be two Particles of a Fluid, 
to one Iblid Particle; which abating the 
foHd Parts thrown off by Sie^e, will ftif- 
ficc to make the Chy/e abundantly thin, 
to circulate through all the jfoe Channels, 
v/hofciyiaffteters aYC larger than that of 
the folid Particle, the principal End of 
its Thinnefs and Fluidity. More than 
this, would but diftend the Vclfcls, and 
carry off the finer Parts of the Chyle by 
fVater ox.'^erfpiration--, for we conftant- 
ly find both thefe encrcafed by an over- 
dofe oi Fluids: And lelii would not fuf- 
ficiently dilute rhcir Food. I (hould ad- 
vife thofe therefore, who have -,^-eak Sto- 
machs, or relaxed Nerves, to mix their 
Wine with the above-named quantity of 
boiled Water, with a burnt Cruil, at lead 
Bloodwarm,'!inAioAnnk JtaftcrthcirMca! 
is over, if they can do it with cafe, rather 
than in the Time of Eating : For the more 
fpiritumis and moft nourifhing Parts of 
the Food, will readily run off, without 
much 'Dilution j and it will be the groffer 
andi6<3r<i^i?rrcmainingPart, thai will want 
it moft. And if fome time after their 
great Meal, they find their Stomach load- 
td, the Food rifing, hard Belching, 


JO An^ssK^ of Health 

Heart 'burnings or much Tawning^ to fwill 
down and dilute it with milk-warm, light 
Green-Teay or warm Water, rather tfcuia 
to run to i>rams and Cordials y the ufual, 
biit moft pernicious Antidote in fuch 
Cafes. And upon great and heavy Op- 
prejffiany much trouble and great ftruggle 
in the Digcftion, to have recourfe to 
Carduus or Camomile-Flower Tea^ to 
bring it up, rather than to trefpafi in 
thefe foifonous and cauftick Liquors; 
which, though they may at prefent lef- 
fen the fufFering, and hurry on the frji 
ConcoHion 5 yet make them dearly pay 
for it, when the unconcoBed load of 
Crudities comes to pafs by Siege or ^er- 
fpiratiouy either in Colicksy Gripes ^ Va- 
pours j and OppreJJion of Spirits ; or by 
a general i>if ability and Rheumatick 

Stitches and Pains. 

• ■ / 

J. 20. Upon the Head of Cordials 
mentioned in one of the foregoing Ar- 
ticleSy I cannot forbear fetting down one^ 
whofe Virtues and Efficacy I have long 
tri,ed, and have never found it fail, when 
any thing would fucceed : And I recom- 
mend it (to be kept by them) to all thofe^ 
who are liable to low Spirit Sy Faint ingSy 
OppreffionSy Sicknefs at the Stomach, 
Head-achSj and yapqurs\ and alfo to 
thofc who wanting to exert, tihemfcivcs 


and Long Life. 71 

in any bufindS of confequence, need a 
FUw of Spirits for fomc fhoft time, fof 
that purpofc 5 or indeed upon any fuddcn^ 
accident arifing of its own atcord, out 
of the Habit itfelf 5 I think it a kind qf 
ain univerfal Remedy y but never to be 
ufcd, but upon fuch occafions ; becaufe> 
Ufc may weaken it, if not extinguifli its 
Vcrtue. Tisthus, 

Take of fimple Chamomile Flower Wa* 

ter^ fix Ounces i Compound Gentian^ 

and Wormwood Waters ^ each an 

Ounce and a Half 5 Compound Spi- 

• rit of Lavender y fal Volatile ^ Tinc-^ 

' ture of Cajior^ ztidGum Ammoniack 
diflblved in fomc fimple Water, 
each two Drams ; Tinftureof^y^^^/fe^^ 
weedy and Tindure of the Species 
T^iambr£y each a Dram j the Chy- 
mical Oils of Lavender y Juniper^ 
and Nutmegy each ten Drops, mix- 
ed with a Bit of the Yolk of an Egg, 
to make the whole uniform $ jiffih 
fetida and Camphire in a Rag, each 
half a Dram : But thefe may be left 
out by thofe to whom they arc dit 

Two, three or four Spoonfuls of this 
is a prtfent Help in fuch Cafes. It will 
^ccp fix Months good. 


72 AiEssxY of Health 

General Rules for Health and Lo^ 
Life^ drawn from the Head of 
Meat and Drink. 

I. 'Tp HE great Rule of Eating and 
\ Drinking for ffealfb J istoadjuft 
the ^ality and §luantity of our Food 
to our digeftive Powers. The ^mlitj 
may be judged by the following Rmes. 

2. Thofe Stibfiances that confift pf the 
grojfeji Parts are hardeft of ^igejiiom 
the conftituent Particles coming into 
more Conta£iSy and confequently adhe- 
ring more firmly. 

3. Thefe Std?ftances whofe Parts are 
"brought together with the greateft F^rf^, 
cohere proportionably clofer, than thofe 
that come together with a fmaller ^ Mo- 

4. 4$^// J" are very hard to be fepcrated, 
becaufe united by plain Surfaces^ under 
which they are always comprehended. 
And in the laft Stages of the Circulatmj 
where it is flower, Jhoot readily into lar- 
ger Clujiers^ and fo are harder to be dri- 
ven out of the Habit. From thcfc we 
may eafily infer, that (i.) Thofe Vegeta- 
bles and Animals that come fooneft to 
their full Growth are eafier of Di^eftion, 
than thofe that are longer of attaining 


■' ' ' ' " 1 1 I J ■ ■ ..I ■ III - 1 1, I 

* i. e. Force* 


andhbHG Life. ^j 

the State of Maturity. (2.) Thofe that 
arc the fmallefi of their Kind, than the 
biggeji. (3.) Thofe of a ^ry, 3?^yj;', and 
fibrous Subftancey than the oily^ fat^ and 
glutinous. (4*) Thofe of a white Sub* 
ftance, than thofe of a more fiaming Co- 
lour. (5.) Thofe of a mildy foft^ and 
fweety than thofe of a ftrongy poignant^ 
aromaticaly or^^/Tafte. (6,) Land- A- 
nimalsy than Sea-Animals, (7.) Thofe 
Animals that live on VegetabteSy or other 
light Food, than thofe that live on other 
Animals y or hard and heavy Food. (8.): 
The Nourifhment Nature has appointed 
for young Animalsy is lighter than the 
Flefh of thefe Animals themfelves. 

5 . All crammed Poultry an^ ftall-fed 
Cattle, and even Vegetables forced by 
hot Beds, tend more to Tutrefa£iiony 
and confequently are more unfit for hu- 
man Food, than thofe brought up in the 
natural Manner. 

6. Tlaindrejfed Food is eafier of Di- 
geftion, than what i^ pickled j fait ed^ baked^ 
fmoakedy or any Way high-feafoned, 

7. Strong lAcWy thofe of /«r^^ Stature, 
and much Labour y and the Inhabitants of 
1 cold and clear Air, require more Food^ 
than IVomeny Children^ the IVeaky the Se- 
dentary y and the Agedy and thofe that 
live in a warmer CVimzUy or grofferAir^' 

L «. Nothing 

74 -^M Essay of Health^^™ 

s. Nothing conduces more to Health 
and Long Liffy than Abft'mence znd^lain 
Foody with due Labour. 

9- Where Exercife is wanting (as in 
fiudious Perfons) there is the greater Need 
of Abflinetice ; for thefe, 8 Ounces of 
animal, and 1 2. of vegetable Food, ia 
24. Hours, is fufficient. 

10. Moft chronical Dilcafes proceed 
from Repletion ; as appears from their 
being cured by Evacuation. 

1 1 . Tender Perfons ought to ufe as 
much Abftinence, as they pollibly can : 
And, if they negledt it, their only Re- 
lief is from frequent jlomachick and Fa- 

12. A plain Rule for judging of the 
^antity is, not to cat fo much as in- 
dilpofcs for Bufinefs. 

13. A more fenfible and readier one 
is, firft by Experience to find out how 
much fits one, fo as to be lightfome and 
healthy under it, and ever after to judge 
the Giuantity by the Eye -, Nature requir- 
ing therein no mathematical Exadnefs, 

14. Vork and Fi/S are not fit Food for 
the Studious and the Tender. 

15. Water is the moft natural asd 
wholcfome of aJl brinks, quickens the 
Appetite, and ftrengthens the T>igeftio% 

\6. Strang 

" and LosG Life. 75 

16. Strong and ^irituous Liquors free- 
ly indulged, become a certain tho* a flow 

17. There is no Danger in leaving 
them off all at once ; the 'P/ea for con- 
tinuing them being falfc and groundlefs. 

18. The bcAJirong Liquor foe weak 
And Jittdious People is IVine-., the bed 
G}uantityj a Pint in 24. Hours ; and the 
bcrt Way of drinking it is, three Glafles 
iSDith^ and three without Water. 

19. The middling, light Wines, fully 
ripe, zndoi'^ due Age, are preferable to 
tiie firong JFines. 

20. Strong Liquors do not prevent the 
Mifchicfs of a Surfeit, not carry it off, 
fo fafcly as Water, tho' they fecm to give 
prefent Relief. 

21. The frequent Ufe of Spirits in 
Grants and Cordials, is fo far from cu- 
ring Low-fpiritednefs, that it increafes 
it, and brings on more /<??(?/Difordcrs. 

22. And even when they are diluted 
with Water, in Punch, the Quantity 
taken down at once, and the Addition 
of a corroding Acid, produce equally 
pernicious Effects in human Conftitut ion's. 

2 3 . Malt Liquors (excepting clear fmall 
Beer, of a due Age) are extremely hurt- 
ful to tender and Jiudiotts Pctfons. 

L 2 24, Coffee, 

76 An Essay of Health 

24. Coffee is only an Infujton of a 
kind of CalXy and lias the EfFcds of an 
abforbent Medicine 5 and fo may be of 
fome Service to watry Stomachs^ if mo- 
derately ufed. 

2 5 . Green Tea is a good T>iluter of 
the Food, as it is an agreeable, warmy 
fmall Liquor : But Bohea is too heavy 
for the Stomach. 

26. Chocolate (as all Nuts elfe) is fo 
heavy and hard of T)igeJliony that it can 
»^x^^r be fit for the Stomachs of weak 
and tender People. 

27. SmoakingTobaccQy without ^r/»^-. 
i/jTj^ after it, Chewing andiy^^^^^thegrofs 
cut Z/^^in a Morning, are ufeful to ^(^- 
matick Conftitutions ; but 10 dry and lean 
Habits they zxz pernicious. Snuff is juft 
good for nothing at all, 

2 8 . The proper §luantity oi watry Li- 
quors in 24 Hours, to thofe that live re- 
gularly, is two TintSy (as that oi firong 
Liquor is one Pint) which is bcft drank 
warmy and rather after than in the Time 
of Eating. 

29. The Form of a Cordial fit to be 
kept in private Families, as a prefent and 
certain Relief, for fudden G^ualmSy Faint- 
nefSy^SicknefSy or low Spirit s-y but ncvcj 
%o be t?ii;^n but ijp Cafe of N?ceffity,. 


and Long Li F e. 77 

.A« C^i 



Of Sleeping and 

§. I. 'TpHE next general Head in 
JL order, is our Sleeping and 
ff^atching. All Bodies by their Adions 
upon one another, and by the Adion of 
the circumambient Bodies, are liable to 
be impaired and wafted: And all animal 
Bodies, from an aSiive and felf-moving- 
Principle within them, as well as from 
the Rubs of Bodies without them, are 
conftantly throwing off fome of their 
fuperfluous and decayed Parts j fo that 
animal Bodies, are in a perpetual Flux. 
To reftore this T)ecay and Wafting of 
animal Bodies, Nature has wifely made 
alternate Periods of Labour and Reft^ 
Sleeping^ znd WaUhingy necejfary to our 
Being 5 the one for the a£iive Employ- 
ments of Life, to provide for and take 
in the Materials of our Nourijbment 5 
the other, to apply thofe Materials to 
the proper wafted Pait^ and tp fuppiy 


yS ^« Essay of H^Atrn 

the Expences of Living, And it feems 
as improper in the Order of Nature y to 
difturbthe animal FunSiions in the time 
oi Sleeps by any other Employment, than 
thzt of the fecondar^ ConcoBions (as they 
are called 5) /. e. the applying the Nou- 
rifhmcnt to the decayed Parls> to ^^uit 
the Blood, perfeB the SecrePionSy and 
tolay uppkn'tyof SpititSy or (to fpeak 
more ^hilofophically^ to reftore the 
weaken^ Tone of nervous Fibrii \ that i^, 
in fliort, to reftore the T)ecays of Watch- 
ing and ABion : This I fay > is as imprd^ 
^r, as it would be (were it poffible^) to 
e^t or drifik^ or make provision fo^ tht 
Ncccflities of Life, in the time <tf Sleep- 
ing. From hence is evident, the Abfut^ 
4ity of heavy y various y and luxurious 
Suppers, or of going to Reft till man^ 
Hours after fuch a Meal$ which mu^ 
otherwife break in upon the Order of 
Nature and the due and appointed TicAca 
of Sleeping and Watching. Wherefore, 
I advife the V^letudinaty y - the Studitms^ 
and the Contemplative y either to make 
no Suppers, or only of vegetable Food 1 
and to take a due Tiihe for ff^atthif^ 
after them. 

^. 1/ Thtre is nothing more (^rtaiil^ 
than that (ftbftrading; drdtn facutt Qzki) 


md Long Life. 


our S/eep \s found, fisijeet, and refrep^ingy 
according as the alimencary Organs, are 
cafy, quiet and clean. If any one not 
fuiFering under any Difeafe, is diflurbed 
in his Sleep, 'tis certain his Stomach is 
filled with Food, or Crudities j or his 
Guts filled with Whid, Choler, ot ftiper- 
fluous Chyle : And thole reftkfs Nights, 
and the Difficulty of going to Sleep, which 
arc generally afcribed to Fapours, arc 
entirely owing to thcfe Caufcs ; though 
they be not (ojirong, as to become fcii- 
iiblej for then Taini^ added to IVatch- 
jngj and they are felt. And upon com- 
plaints of fuch refticfs Nights, I nevct 
once failed, upon enquiry of finding die 
true Caufe in the 2)/V?, of the prececiing 
Day, or of fome few Days bcfores and 
conftantly have difcovcred that Ibinc Er- 
ror in Eating and drinking, either in 
^luaxtity or ^lality has produced them. 
I have been aftonilhcd to fee hypechon- 
driacal and h^fterical. People, refflcfsi all 
Night, toflingand tumbling till towards 
Morning, then dropping aflcep till late 
Hours, awake heavy, opprejfed, and aa- 
refre^ed. complain of being bag-ridden'^ 
tired and '■-wearied, as if they had been 
whip'd, fpurr'd, /ajhed, and beaten thro' 
all the IVatches of the Night; rife with: 
feiti Mofiihs,ind. white Tgngucylklchings, 

8o An Essay of Health 

Yawnings, Coughing, Spitting, orReach^^ 
ing and Heaving, without Appetite ^ Spu 
Tits or Life^ all the Day-time i begin to 
live and breath, become cheerful zxidi hun- 
gry, about ten, eleven, or twelve a clock 
at Night 5 cat a hearty ^ "variouSy and 
luxurious Sappers drink a cheeruping 
Cup of the beft, become as merry as 
Cricket 5 y and long to fit up later 5 at laft, 
tumble to Bed, and repeat the fame Farce 
over again. The Reafon of all this Com- 
plaint, is the Load on the Stomach, that 
will not fufFer them to reft, till 'tis got 
off. The fharp and crude Humours, 
twitching and twinging the nervous Fi- 
bres^ and Coats of the Bowels^ become 
like fo many Needles and TinSy conftant- 
ly running through them 5 though not 
always with fenfible pain : The uncon- 
copied Chyle flopping or circulating.yZwe;- 
fyy firft in the Bowels, then in the fmal- 
left VeJffelSy begets thefe ConvulJumSy Fla- 
tuSy Night'MareSy and Opprejpons of 
Spirits. So that the fecondary Digefti- 
ons are not over till next Evening, (hence 
their want of Appetite:) And when thefe 
are finifhed their Stomachs come, and 
their Spirits flow 5 and thus the perpe- 
tual Round is carried on. Did they but 
follow the TyiSlates of NaturCy go to 
Bed for feme days with a light Vegetable^ 


■ and LongLife. 8i: 

or no Supper at all, and bear the Incon- 
veniences thence arifing ; their Appetites 
would come in due feafonj and they would 
quickly find the Truth of the AphoriCm of 
the Schola Salernitana. 

* Somnus utfit levis^ fit tibi dene brevis. 

§. J. The Scafons for Sleeping and 
IVatchingy which Nature fccms to point 
out to us, at leaft in thefe our Climates. 
near the Tropick, arc the Vidjfitudes of 
lyayniViA Night . T\\o{z'D amp s^ Vapours, 
ZTvd Exhalations, that are drawn up into 
the. higher Regions, and arefo rarificd by 
the Heat and Action of the Srm, as to 
become innocent or very weak in the 
Day-time; zzz condenfed^ fink\o\/, near 
the ^«r^c^ of the Earth, and are perpe- 
tually drooping: down in the Night Sea- 
Ton; and confcqucntiy muft be in/uri- 
otts to thofe tender Pcrlbns, that 7tnna- 
turally watch in that Seafon ; and muft 
ncceflarily obftruft the Terfptration , 
which the AEiivtty of IVaichmg, and 
the Motion of Labour promotes. I have 
already fliewn, that our Bodies y«fife and 

J , y M dram 

* i.e. tlMpurSl^-iiiaj'hc' fmifjtct'}i>ur Sufptr 

8i ^M Essay of Health ^H 

tiraw into them^ the good or bad qua- 
lities of the circurnambient Air, through 
the Mouthsof all the perfpiratary ^Du6is 
of the Skin. And it we were to view 
an animal Body \\ ith a proper Giaii^ it 
would appear with an Atmofphere quite 
round it, like the Steam of a boilirtg 
Pot. Now wc may cafily conceive, what 
irijucy a Confiitution may receive-, Hoc 
only by ftopping luch a perpetual IHf- 
cbarge of Superffuities, but alfo by forcc- 
ing into the Habit, by the Air's fVeight 
and 'Prcffure, thofe noxious Futnes and 
V^apourSy that are perpetually falling near 
the Surface of the Earth, in the Night- 
time. Your true Topers are fo.fcjnliblc 
of this, that by Oblervation they have 
gathered it ro be more fafe for thiixHeaUh, 
and better for prolonging their Lrvss, to 
■ get drimk betimes and go to Bed, than to 
KStup and bcfober. 

J. 4- On the coatrary, the Heat of 
.the Sun in the E>ay-time, by its A0ion 
* on human Bodies, the very Light, and 
*. free Air, and thcMotions of things aboui 
iis, difturbing the (^ici of the Air,muft 
ficceffarily diforder the equable Courfc 
of rhe Terfpiration, the Tenour of the 
fecondary Concetiions, and the Tranquil- 
lity oi the Spirits Ibacceflary \.<;>ReJtixA 

" y^iond LongLifE. 85 

^uiet. Sothat notliingfeems more di- 
jxftly pointed out to us by Nature, than 

. the 'Daj' for Labour, and the Nighf for 
Refi : And this without taking in the 
Confidcration of the Nccertity of the 
Sun's Light for the ends of Labour, and 
providing the Ncceflaries of Life. Some 
Animals that ace exceeding tender, are 
direded by Nature to alternate 'Periods 

-of fVatchitig and Reft, not twice in Z4 
Hours, but twice in the Year, 'viz. Sum- 
mer and JVinter ; fuch as Swallows, Bats, 
andmany forts of InfeBs, who ilcep aJl 
the Winter, and watch, all the Summer. 
Soconfiftcnt is Nature, in appointing the 
brighteft and moft enlightened Parts of 
our Lives for ASiion, aad the darkefi and 
moft inclement for ReJL Not but that 
rahuji Conjiitutians (as well as Animals 
fitted by Nature for different ways of 
living ) may by Cuftom, get the better 
of thefe natural Appointments: But I 
■wmciozihz Valetudinary, the Studious^ 
id the Contemplative. 



5". 5. I advife all fuch, if they would 
jreferve their Health and lengthen out 
iheir Days, to avoid as much as is poiliblc 
evening T>ews, noBurnal Studies, and 
unfiafonable Watching ; in Summer to 
go to Bed with the Sun, and in Winter to 
M ,2 tifc 

84- ^iEssAYo/ Health f 

rife at leaft by Break of 1)ay. . Thofe 
who live temperately^ will necclTarily 
Sleep But little : But to rccompcnce that, 
their Sleep will be much mote founds «- 

frejhing, and fruitful of Chcarfulncfs 
znd free Spirits, than that of thofe who 
live moic freely . For as I have before 
laid, the ^antity of Sleep will always 
be in proportion to the Q^uantity of Rat- 
ing and 'T>rinkirig. Valetudinary, Stu- 
dious, and Contemplative People, ought 
to go to Bed by etpht, nine, or ten at 
fartheft, and rife by_^«r, j?i;f, ox fix, by 
which they will have eight Hours 2. Bcdj 
and that is fufticicnt for any Perfon, not 
under an acute, or the fharp Fits 

' C*&rff»/M/Diftemper. 


J. 6. Nothing can be more prejudi 
to tender Conllitutions, fiudious and fe»- 
templative Pcdons, then lying longa Bed 
of lolliTig and (baking in Sheets, any time 
after one is diitinftly awake, orhasflcpt a 
due and reafonablc Time: It neceflarily 
^/.j/V^fKJ" the Juices, enervates the Sohds, 
zndnz'eakens the Conftitution. A free open 
jiir is a kind of a cold Bath, efpecially 
after rifing out of a warm Bed j and con- 
fequcntly makes the Circulation brisker 
and more compleat, and braces up the 
Solids, which Jjing a Bed dtjjblves and 

■ a«t/LoNG Li F E. 85 

foaks in Moifture. The ereEi Tejiure, 
and the Activity of Watching, make the 
S^fj^/rd/ww more plentiful, and the grofs 
Evacuations more readily thrown oiF. 
This is evident from the Appetite and 
Hunger, thofe that rife f<«r^ feel, beyond 
that which they get by lying long a Bed. 
Add to all thefe the Influence of thcfrejb, 
henign. Morning Air, the retreating of 
all the noxious Damps and Vapours of 
the Night, together with the Clouds and 
Heavinefs, that are thrown upon the 
J5rtfi» from Sleep; andlaftly, that C^wr- 
fulnefs and Alacrity that is felr by the 
Approach or Prefcnce, of that glorious 
Luminary the Sun, which adds a new 
Force to the Heart, and a Spur to the 

5". 7. All Nations and Ages have 
agreed that the morning Seafon is the 
proper Time for fpeculative Studies, and 
thofe Employments that moft require 
the Faculties of the Mind. For then the 
JVtffi^ of the Spirits isundiminifiicd, and in 
its greateft Plenty, the Head is clear and 
ierenc, the Vajjions arc quieted and for- 
got; the Anxiety and Inquietude that the 
'Digefiions beget in tiie ttervous Syjiem, 
in moft tender Conltitutions and the 
Hurry the Spirits arc underafter the great 

86 ^« Essays/ Health ^H 

[ Weal, arc fettled and wrought off'. I 

[ fiiould advife therefore thofe who are of 

I « weak relaxed State of Nerves, who arc 

f 4ubjed to hypochondriacal or hyfterical 

ttoiforders, whofe Profcfiions lead them 

I %o much Ufe of their intdleEiuai Facul- 

1 ^ies^ or who would indulge fpeculatwe 

Studies, to go early to Bed, and to rife 

iKtimes j to employ their morning Hours 

in thcfe ExercifeSj till eleven a Clock, 

then to take fomc agreeable Breakfafi 

of vegetable Food ; to go on with their 

Studies and ^rofeJ/iOTisx\\\three,f0ur,oi 

five, as their Spirits will hold out,and then 

to take ihcii great Mealoi animal Food j 

all the reft of the Day to throw off all 

Study and Thought, divert themfelvcs 

agreeably in fome innocent Amufetnent, 

with Ibme gentle bodily Exercife i and 

P^ foon asthe'D/g-^wn isovcr, to retire 

F*ftnd provide for going to Bed, without 

^any farther lupplies, except it be a Glafs 

i'tjf fair Water, or warm Sack-Whey. 

f 5ut the Aged and Sickly muft go fooncr 

l*to Bed and lye longer, becaufe Age and 

^Sicknefs break reft, and the ftiffcn'd and 

fiiardened Limbs of the Antient become 

novc pliant and relaxed by much Sleep, 

fiy«//Bf Pofturcj and the Warmth of the 



m and LongLife. 87 

Rules for Health and Lot^ Life 
dra''ji)n from the Head 0/^ S l E E p 

aa/W A TCHl NG. 

i.'T^HE V^etudinary, the Sedentary, 

X and the Studious fhould eat very 
light, or no Simper ; if any, it ought to be 
•vegetable Foodi; neither ought they to go 
foon to Bed, after any Supper whatfoevcr. 

2. Going to Bed on z.fuU Stomachy and 
TVtnd and Crudities fomewhere in the 
alimentary Paflages, is the Caufe of the 
want of due Reft, which h found and re- 
frefbing , always in ^Proportion to the 
Emptinefs and Cleannefs of thcfe Taf- 
fages, and their Vacation from their pro- 
per Office oi^Digeftion : And this is the 
Caufcofthe V/znt of kindly and re fref}- 
ivg Refit in hypochondriacal and hyfier.i- 
CM People. 

J . fVatching by Night and Sleeping by 
Day, is of the moft pernicious Conlc- 
qucncc to Health and Long Life ; and 
plainly contrary to the Indications of Na- 
ture and the Confiitntions of our Bodies. 

4. The Valetudinary, Sedentary, .and 
Studious, ought carefully to avoid even- 
ing T)ewSt noiSurnal Studies, and unfca- 
fonablc Watching ; go to Bed by eight. 

88 y^EssAY »/ Health 

nine, or teUy and rife proportionably by 
four,fivet ozjixi unlcfs adually under* 
a Fit of Sicknefs. 

5. Nothing is more prejudicial to ten- 
der Conftitutions, than lying loTig a Bed, 
indulging a lethargical ^i\d drowfy Sleep, 
or hlling or loitering awake ; as appears . 
by their Heavinefs, and want of Appe- 
tite, upon doing fo; and their good Jre- 
machs, ChearfuUnefs , and Freedom of 
Spirits, when they rife early. 

6. The moft advantagious manner for 
the Tender, Sedentary, and Studious, to 
bcftow their Time, on account both of 
their Health and Studies, is to go early to 
Bed, rife betimes, go about their Srudies 
till eleven, taking a light vegetair/eBteak- 
faft i profecute them till about^ar in the 
Afternoon,then to take their great Meal of 
animal Food, and after that to employ 
the reft of their Time in fome innocent 
Amufement, or gentle bodily Exercije i 
to retire betimes, to prepare for going to 
Bed, taking no farther Nourifhment, ex- 
cept a Draught of Water or warm Sack- 
JVhey, which will be particularly ufcful 
to thofe who labour under Stone and 


and Long Lii^e^ 89 

CHAP. ir. 


^. I. \i/'E proceed, \a the nextPIaccj 
^^ to the Confideration oiExer^ 
cife and Qjfi^t^ the due Regulation of 
which, is almoft as neceffary 10 Health 
and L(?;?^ L//^, as fi?^^ icfelf. Whether 
we were fo made before the Fally as to 
live in intire Health, in a rigidly /t^ot- 
tarj and contemplative Life, is a Specula-'' 
tion of no great Confequence^ not eafily 
determined in our prelent Situation ; foi? 
there is no certain Analogy between 
Things as they now are, and as they 
might have been then. As there happened 
an intire Revolution in the Complexion and 
Qualities of the Minds of the Ftrft Patr ; 
lo, to me^ there appear, to be evident 
Indications of a a defigned Change and 
Alteration of the material World^ and the[ 
Nature of the Animals and Fegetabkes 
which fubfift on iXusGlobe^ from what 
they were when GOD pronounced 

N every 

9© ^» Essay o/Health 

every Thing Good that he had madeJ 
Nor feem the Ccelejlid Bodies to have 
efcaped, fo far as they regard usi^ 
Whatever be in this, the Paffage where 
God tells Adam^ ^ Thaf in the Sweat of his 
Brow he (ball eat Bread^ feeras to be th6 
Injunftion of a falutarj Penance ; that 
is, Not merely a Pumjhmentj but alfo'?i 
Remedy againft the Dilbrders his Body 
would be liable to in this /^^r; State of the 
Creation, and againil the poifonous Ef* 
fefts of the Forbidden Tree he had catdn 
the Fruit of. I am the more confirmed 
in this Belief, that I obferve, the abfoluie 
Necefficy of Labour and Exercife^ to pre- 
fer ve the Body any Time in due plight, 
to maintain Healthy and lengthen oiit 
Life. For, let whatfoever Diet be pur- 
fued, however adjufted, both in Quan^ 
titj and Qualitj ; let whatever Evacua^ 
tions be ufed to lefTen the Malady ^ or 
any \ Succedaneum be propofed, to pre- 
vent the ill EfFefls ; our Bodies are fo 
made, and the Animal Oeconorny now fo' 
contrived, that without due Labour and 
Exercife, the Juices will thicken, the 

* Ge72. chap. iii. v, 19. 
f /. e. Equivalent. 


and Long Life. 91 

joints will ftiifen, the Nerves will relax, 
and on thefe Diforders, Chromcal Di* 
fiempersj and a crazy old Jge muft enfue. 
Nor is this necelTary only in the colder 
Climates, and where the Food isgrofs^ 
|)ut even in the warmeft Climates, and 
where the Food is lighteft. For though 
the Warmth of the Air may keep the 
Terffiration free and open, or rather, 
where it is very great, promote Sweats 
ing ; yet, at the fame Time, and by Con- 
iequence, it will thicken the Fluias, and 
relax the Fibres; to prevent both which, 
Exercife is abfolutely neceffary : but in 
fuch a Climate it ought to be gone about 
in the Cool of the Day. And tho' light 
JFocd may, in a great meafure^ prevent the 
Thickening of the Fluids, yet it cannot do 
it fufficiently without Exercife ; nor can 
it at all keep the Fibres in due Tenfwn ; 
for to that Purpofe Exercife is abfolutely 
neceflary. Nay, the joint Power of 
warm Air, and light Food, cannot fupply 
. the Place of Exercife in keeping the 
Joints pliant and moveable^ and preferv- 
ing them from growing rejty and//jf. 

4. 2. 1 have fometimes alfo, indulgM a 
Conjedure, that Animal Food, and Made 
or Artificial Liquors, in xht Original 

N 2 ..^ I'r'ame 

92 An %ssK^ of HiMat a 

^rame of our Nature, and Defign of oup 
Creation^ were not intended for Human 
Creatures. They feem to me, neither to 
have thefe ftrong and fit Organs for dige- 
ilingthem(at leaft fuch zsBtrds SindBeafii 
of Frey have, who live on Flefb ; ) nor, 
naturally, to have thofe voracious and 
k^ufifif Appetites, that require Animal 
foody and ftrong Liquors, to fatisfy 
them ; nor thofe cruel and hard Hearts; 
or thofe ^/>W/WPafiions, which could 
(^afily fuifer them tp tear and deftroy 
th?ir Fello9v Creatures ; at leaft, not ia 
%hfifir(t and early Ages, before every Moi^ 
kad corrupted his Waj^^nd God was forced 
to exterminate the whole Race, by an 
univerfaipeluge, and was alfoobUged 
(that the Globe of the Earth might not| 
from the long Lives of its Inhat)itants, 
become a Helly and a Habitation for in- 
carnate Devils) to fliorten their Lives 
from 900 or 1000 Years, to 70. He 
wifely forefaw, that Animal Food^ and 
Artificial Liquors^ would naturally con- 
tribute towards this End^ and indulged,. 
or permitted, the Generation that was 
to plant the Earth again after the Flood^ 
|he Ufe of thefe for Food^ knowing that 
though it would fliorten the Lives^ and 
plate a . Scourge of Thorns for the Back? 

■ ; ^- • of 

^ - < 

and Uo N g L i r b1 93 

of the Lazj and Volaftuous^ it would be 
cautioufly avoided by thofe who knew 
it w^s their Duty and Happinefs to keep 
their Paflions low^ and their Appetites \a 
Subjedion^ And this very Mra of the 
Flood, is that mentioned in Holy Writ^ 
for the Indulgence of Animal Food and 
Artificial Liqaorsj after the Trial had 
been' made, how infufficient alone, a 
Vegetable Diet (which was the firft 
Food appointed for Human^kind^ immedi-^ 
ately after their Creation) was, in the 
long Lives ofMen^ to reftrain their Wicki 
ednefs znd Malice ; and after finding,that 
nothing b\it fhortning their Duration could 
poffibly prevent the Evil. *Tis true, 
there is fcarce a Poflibih'ty of preventing 
the deftroying of Animal Life, as Things 
are now conftituted, fince InfeSls breed 
and nefile in the very Vegetables them- 
felves, and we fcarce ever devour a 
Plant or Root^ wherein we do not de^ 
ftroy innumerable Animalcules. But 
befldes what I have faid, of Nature^ 
being quite altered and changed from 
what was originally intended, there is 
a great Difference between defiroying 
and extinguijbing an Animal Life (which 
pthcrwife might fubfift many Years) by 
Choice and EleSiion^ to gratify our Ap^ 


94 ^» Essay (/Health 

fetifeSf and indulge Concupifcence ; and 
the Cafual and Unavoidable crufhing of 
thofe,who perhaps, otherwife,wouId die 
within the Daj^ or at nioft, the Tear^ and 
obtain but an inferior kind of Extfienu 
and Life at beft. Whatever be in this 
CM]eBure^ 'tis evident to thofe who 
underftand the Animal Oeconomy^ and 
the Frame of Humane Bodies, together 
with the Hifiory, both of thofe who 
have lived Ahfemioujly^ and of thofe 
who have lived Freely^ that indulging in 
flelh Meats y and ftrong Liquors^ inflames 
the Paffions^ and jhortens Life, begets 
Chronical Diftempers, and a Decrepid • 
Age, as the Hifiory of the Life ofCornara 
manifefts to a Demonftration. 

^. J. Of all the Exercifes that are, or 
may be ufed for Health (fuch as Walk- 
ing^ Riding a Horfe-back, or in a Coach, 
Fencings Dancings playing at Billiards^ 
Bmls^ or Tennis^ ^(g^^^«?> Working at 
a Pump^ Ringing a Dumb Bell, ^c.) 
Walking is the moft natural^ as it would 
be alfo the moft ufeful^ if it did not 
fpend too much of the Spirits of the 
Weakly. Riding is certainly the moft 
Manly ^ the moft Healthy, and the Icaft 
Laborious^ and Expenjive of Spirits j of 

any ; 

and L o N G L I p E. 95 

mny ; Ihaking the whole Machine^ pro- 
moting an univerfal Perffiratio» and 
Secretion of all the Fluids ( to which 
inay be added, The various Changes of 
the Air^ thro' which they fo quickly 
pais, every Alteration of which, be- 
comes, as it were, a new Bath) and 
thereby, varioufly twitching the Nervous 
Fibres^ to brace and contrafi them, as 
the new Scenes amuft the Mind. Thofc 
who cannot ride^ mud be carried in a 
Coach or Litter^ which is the beft Exer-^ 
cife for the Lame and Crazy^ and the 
only one proper for Old and Decrepit 
Ferfons, as well as thofe that are fo 
Toungj that they are not able to manage 
their own Exercife. The Home Exer-* 
eifeSy fuch as flaying at Tennis and BiL 
liardsy Dancings Fencings and the like, 
ought to be followed only when the 
Seafon forbids being Abroad ; for being 
in the Air^ contributes much towards 
the Benefit of Exercife. 'Tis beautiful 
to obferve that earneft Deftre, planted 
by Nature^ in Toung Perfons, to romv^ 
jumfy xprejtle^ and run^ and conftantly 
to be purfuing Exercifes and Bodily D/- 
verfions^ that require Labour^ even till 
they are ready to drop down ; efpecially 
the healthier Sort of them : So that 


96 -^jtEssaVo/Healtk 

ficting, or being eanfi/fed^ feems to be tbd 
greateft Pumfbment they can fufFcr, and 
mprifmmg them for fome Time, witt 
much more readily correal them chaa 
Whiffifjg. This is a wife Contrivance o£ 
Nature ; for thereby, their Joims arc 
renderM pliable and ftrong ; their Blood 
continues fweet, and proper for a full 
Circulation ; their Perffiration is free, and 
their Organs firetched out,by dueDegr eeS| 
to their proper Extenfion^ 

§• 4* It is alfo very agreeable to ob^ 
fervej how the leveral different Organs 
oi Labouring Men are ftrengthen'd, and 
rendered Brawny and Nervous^ as they 
happen to be moft employed in their 
feveral Vocations^ let them be otherwifc 
ever fo fmall or weakly. The Legs^ 
Thighs^ and Feet of Chairmen ; the Arms 
and Hands oi Watermen ; the B^r^*; and 
Shoulders of Porters^ grow //^/VX*, ftrongy 
and ^rtfir;?; by Time, 'Tis certain^ that 
fpeaking /r^/?g and loudy without over^ 
firaining^ will firengthen the Kt?/V^, and 
give Force to the Lungs. Our Nails and 
iSi^/r, the more they are cut ^nAfhaved^ 
the more they grow. And we may pro- 
mote any one Evacuation fo far,, as to 
weaken and ftarve all the red. Ufing 


a?id LoNo LiPE. 97 

any Orgaa frequently and forcibly, 
brings Shod and Spirits into it, and lb 
makes it grow F/flOTjp and Braipfl?. And 
if due Pains were taken by the Labour 
proper to them, the Organs of all the 
Functions of the Animal Oeconomy might 
be ftrengthen'd and kept in due plight. 

§. 5. Therefore, to the A(thmaiickt 
and thofeof weak LuK^f, I fliould re- 
commend T^/jfe/^T^ mmh and load^ even by 
themfelves, walking up ancity Jfcenf, 
and when any degree otWearimjs warns 
them, to fit and reft, 'till they are cafy, 
and then to return to their Wi/w^ again, 
and fotoincfeafe it every Day, 'till they 
are able to walk a reafonable Diftance, 
in a reafonabie Time. To thofe who 
have weak Nerves and D/gefiionj and to 
thofe who are much troubled with 
Hsjd-oches (moft of all which arife from 
the ill State of the Stomach and Boivels') 
I fliould recommend riding on Horfeback 
as much as poflibly they could, in the 
cleareft and drieft Air^ and to change the 
Jtr daily, if poffible. To thofe who 
are troubled with the Stone or Gravelj 
10 ride much over rough Caufewajs in a 
Coach. To thofe that have HJjeumaiick 
P&\nijiop\iy at Bi/lmrds,TenKiiOrCri{i:ef, 

o till 

98 -^» Essay o/ Health 

till they fweat plentifully, and then go 
immediately into a warm Bed, and 

drink liberally of fome warm thinlliquor 
with Ten Drops of Spirit of Sal Arma* 
mac or Harts-horn in each Draught, to 
encourage the Sweating. To thofc who 
have weak Arms or Hams^ playing two 
or three Hours at Tennis^ or at J?oot4all^ 
every Day. To thofe who have w6ak 
Backs or Breajisy ringing a Bellj or work« 
ing at a PmTff. Walking thro' rough 
Roads, even to Laflitude, will (boneft 
recover the Ufe of their Limbs to the 
Gouty ; tho' Ridi;7g on Horfeback or ia 
a Coach will belt prevent the Diftem^ 
fer. But the Studious and the Content 
plativey the Valetudinary^ and thofe of 
weak Nerves^ if they aim at Health and 
Long Life, mult make Exercife a Part 
of their Religion^ as it is among fbmc 
of the Eaftern Nations, with whom 
Pilgrimages, at dated Times, are an in- 
difpenfible Duty, and where Mechanical 
Trades are learned and praftifed by 
Men of all Ranks. Thofe who have 
their Time in their own Hands, ought 
to have dated Seafons for Riding* or 
Walking in a good Air^ as indifpenfiblc, 
as thofe for going to Dinner ^ to Bed, or 
to Church. Three Hours for Ridings or Tm 


and LongLipb. 99 

for Walkiftg^ the one half before the great 
Meal^ and the other before going to Bed^ 
is the leafl: that can be difpcnfed with : 
As the firft Part begets an Appetite^ the 
fecond helps on the Digeflioff. Thofe 
who are not Matters of their own Time, 
mud take it when they can ; but to be 
fure they ought to let no Opportunity of 
taking it flip. 

^ 6. There are Three Conditions of 
Exercife to make it the moft Beneficial 
that may be. F/>y?, That it be upon 
an empty Stomach ( as, indeed, that 
is the proper Time for all Medicinal 
Evacuations ) for thereby, the now 
eoncoSfed ^ Crudities^ Or thofe Super • 
fiuities Nature would be rid of, and 
has fitted, by going through the proper 
Secretions^ for being ejeSted^ but cannot 
throw off without foreign Jfftftance^ will 
be readieft difcharged. For, on a full 
Stomach Exercife would be too tumul- 
tuous, precipitate the S^cretionsy and 
throw off the found Juices with the cor- 
rupted Humours. Secondly^ That it 
be not continued to down-right Loffitude^ 

* Co^ non cnida funt evacuanda, Uif^ocrat. 

O 2 De- 

loo -^» Essay o/Health 

Depreffion of Spirits, or a meltiffg Sweats 
The Firjt will wear out the Organs^ the 
Secofid fpend the Strength^ and the Third 
will only do Violence to the Natural Fur»* 
Bions. Thirdly^ Due Care is to be had after 
Exercife, to retreat to a warm Roam and 
proper Shelter from the Injuries of the 
Weather, left fucking into the wafted 
Body, the nitrous Particles of the cir- 
cumambient Jir^ they fhould inflame 
the Blood, and produce a Rheumatifm^ 
fever or Cold. I might add a Fourth 
Condition^ Joining Temperance to Exercife^ 
otherwife the Evil will be as broad one 
Way, as 'tis long the other. For fince 
Exercife will create a greater Jppetite^ 
if it is indulg-d to the fuS^ the con^ 
co^ive Powers will be as unequal to the 
Loadj as they were before. But I pafs 
that over, having lufficiently treated 
this Subjed already. 

§. 7. Under this Head of Exercife^ I 
cannot forbear recommending Cold- 
bathing ; and I cannot fofficiently admire, 
how it fhould ever have come into 
fuch Difufe^ efpecially among Chrifti- 
ans^ when commanded by the grest^t- 
eft Lawgiver that ever was, under 
the Diredion of God\ liolj Spirit^ 


m and Long Life, loi 

to his Chofev People, and perpetu- 
ated to us in the Immcrfwn at Baptifm, 
by the fame Spirit^ who, with wpmte 
Wifdom in this, as in every Thing elfe 
that regards thcTempor/tl and Eternal 
Felicity of his Creaiares, combines their 
Datj with their eternal Happinefs. F/rfi, 
The Necelfity of a free Ferfp/ratio/t to 
the Prefer-vatiofi ofHeulth, is now known 
to every Body, and frequent ivajhiKg the 
Body inM-'tf;er,cleanfestheMouthsofthe 
Perfpiratory Duffs from that Glutinous 
Foulnefs that is continually falling 
upon them, from their own condenfed 
dejpj Atmofphere^ whereby the Perfpi' 
ration would be foon ohjlruiied^ and 
the Ptirty languilb. Secondlj, The hav- 
ing the Circulation, fult^ free and opeti^ 
thro' all thtCapilUry Arteries^ is of great 
Benefit towards Hejhh and L(?/!g Life. 
Now nothing promotes that fo much as 
Cold-bathing ; for by the violent and 
fudden Shock it gives to the whole i)/?(;w 
of the Fltteds^ from the Circumference in- 
ward towards the Centre^ and the fluids 
(beczu(c Reacf ion is a\way sexual and con- 
/rarjtoAt^owjfpringing back again from 
the Centre to the Circumference^ a Force is 
raifed almoft ever fufficient to break 
thro' all the Dams and Ohjlruciions of tlie 

102 -/^» Essay o/Healti^ 

Jmatefi Veflfels, where they moftly hap. 
pen, and to carry the Circulation quito 
round. Thirdly^ Nothing is fo injurious^ 
and fo much prevents the Benefit of 
Exercife to iveak and icftder Conftitu* 
tions^ as fucking into their Bodies the 
Nitrous and Humid Particles of the Air^ 
that is, Catching of Cold. Now nothing 
lb efFeftually prevents this, as Cdd-^ 
tathingi as the Nature of the Thinj 
ihews, and Experience confirms : For 
Exercife^ to attenuate the Js^ices^ an^ 
ftrengthen the Solids^ be added to Cold^ 
bathing^ a new Spring and Force will be 
given to the Bloody both to drive out 
thck foreign and noxious Mixtures, and 
to unite the Cuticular Scales, which form 
the Scarf Skin^ fo as to ftrengthen it for 
the future againft fuch violent Entries. 

§.8. I (houldadvife therefore, every 
one who can afford it, as regularly to 
have a Cold Bath at their Houfe to walh 
their Bodies in, as a Bafon to walh 
their Hands; and conftantly, two or 
th'ee Times a Week, Summer and fVtn^ 
ter, to go into it. And thofe that can- 
not afford fuch Conveniency, as often as 
they can, to go into a River or Living 
Pond^ to wafh their Bodies, But this 


and Long Life, 


ought never to be done under the aftual 
Fits of a Chronical Diftemper, with a 
cfuhi: Palfe, Heai~achy weak Lungs^ or z 
foal Stomach; nor ought they to ftay in 
til] they are ovsr-chilPd. And in Winter^ 
they ought to purfue their Exercifes im- 
mediately after they come out ; and thofc 
of tender Nerves^ ought to pour BjfoKS of 
Cold Water on their Head, or wafli it 
well with a dripping Sponge before they 
go in. I cannot approve the precipitant 
Way of jumping in, orthrowing the Head 
foremoll into a Cald Bath ; ic gives too 
violent a Shock to Nature, and rifques 
Veflels. The Natural Way is, holding 
by the Rope, to walk down the Steps as 
faft as one can, and when got to the 
Bottom^ bending their Hams (as Women 
do when they Curt'fy low) to Jborten 
their Length, fo as to bring their Heads 
a good Way under H^ater^ and then 
fopping up again to take Breath ; and 
thus alternately for two or three Times, 
and out again, rubbing and currying well 
before they arc drefs'd. And this brings 
me to fay fomethlng of another kind of 

§. 9. The 


1O4 -^» Essay o/Health 

§• 9. The .Bk/b Brufb is an Exercife 
moft ufeful for profhoting a full and free 
Pgr ^/>gAj( Mj> ^nd. Circulation ; Almoffc 
everpSllpl^ what well Civrr/m^ 

will db to Horfes^ in making themjfe^if: 
TinAgdji lively and ^^lo/^ ; even fo much^ 
as to be worth half the Feeding. Tl\is 
it can no otherwjr& ^(^/y^^^,[- 
aflifting Nature tb^thtqw off by Perfpi* 
ration J the * Recrements of the Juices 
which flop the full and free Circu- 
lationj and by conftant Friifionj Ir* 
ritation and Stimulation^ to allicite 
Blood and Spirits^ to the Parts moft 
diftant from the Seat oi Heat and Mo^ 
tionj and fo to plump u^ the fuperfcial 
Mufcles. The fame Effe£t it would pro- 
duce in other Animals ^ even Human 
Creatures themfelves, if they were 
managed in the fame Manner, with the 
fame Care and Regularity. I fhould 
think it therefore, well worth the Pains 
of Perfons of weak Nerves and Sedentarj 
Lives, efpecially thofe threatned with 
Paraljjtick Diforders, to fupply the Want 
of Exercife of other Kinds, with {pending 

* i. e. The grofler Parts. 


and Long L i t ej 105 

half an Hoar, Morning and Night, iii 
Currying and Rubbing their whole Bod/j 
more-efpecially' their Lia^Sy with t 
FUJb Brufit. And 'tis a Wonder to me# 
that Luxury has not brought Coidrktthing 
and Carrying in Ufe, upon the Animals 
(efpecially choTe of them u^n. U^honi 
they can be To readily tnade Ufe of, fuch 
as 6xen, FigSj Vealy Lamb^ and all Poultry^ 
tirhich naturally delight in Cold-bathing^ 
which are brought to the Table. For 
icertain it is, that Cleannefs and due Exev" 
iife(oi which Currying is one Part)would 
much contribute to make all jinimals 
whatlbever, without Exception, heal- 
thier iti tbemfelves, fuller oi Juice and 
Sprits^ and, cOnfequently, better Food 
for Human Creatures. 

As to Quiet^ the Conditions of Exert' 
cife being determined, there needs no* 
thing to be faid of it. 


io6 Jn Essay o/Hbaltr 

RULES for Health and Long 
Lifc^ drawn from the Head 


i.WHATEVER was the Ori. 
^ ginal Conftitution oiMan^ in 
our prefent State, a due Degree of £jc« 
ercife is indifpenfably neceflary towards 
Health and Lor^g Life. 

2. Animal Food, and Strong Uquors^ 
fcem not to have been deOgned for Man 
in his Original Make and Frame ; but 
rather indulged, to fhorten the Antedi^ 
luvian Length oiLife^ in order to pre- 
vent the excejfive Growth of Wicked- 

g. Walking is the mod Natural and 
efFeftual Exercife, did it not fpend 
the Spirits of the tender too much. 
Riding a Horfeback is iefs laborious, and 
more effedual for fuch- Riding in a 
Coach is only for the Infirm^ and Toung 
Children. Houfe Exercifes are never 


and L on g Li f e, 107 

to be allow'd, but when the Weather, or 
fbme Bodily Infirmity will not permit 
going abroad ; for Air contributes 
mightily to the Benefit of Exercife. 
Children naturally love all kinds of Ex^ 
ercifcy which wonderfully promotes their 
Healthy increafes their Strength, and 
llretches out their Organs. 

4. The Organs of the Body that are 
moft ufed, always become Jirongefi^ and 
therefore we may ftrengthen any weak 
Organ by Exercife. 

5. The Lungs are fortified by loud 
Talking, and walking up an eafy Jfcenr. 
The Digefiion and the Nerves are 
ftrengthen'd, and moft Head-aches cur'd, 
by Riaing ; the Stone and Gravel eafed by 
riding in a Coach over rough Ground ; 
Rheumatick Pains by playing at Tennis^ 
Billiards^ &c. 'till one fweat^ and then 
going to a warm Bed, to promote the 
Sweatings Feeble Arms by playing at 
Shinlecock^ or Tennis ; Weak liams by 
Foot-ball^ and weak Backs by Ri^gi»gy or 
Pumping. The Gouty beft recover the 
Ufe of their Limbs by Walking in rough 
Roads; but prevent the Fits beft, by 
Riding a Horfeback, or in a Coach. The 

P 2 Vale^ 

lo8 An Essay o/HfiALTrt 

Ydetudinarj^ and the Studiom^ ought tQ 
have ftated Times for Exercife, at leaft 
Two or Three Hours a Day, the one 
Half before Dinner, the other (before go- 
ing to Bed. 

6. Exercifej i.fbould always be gone 
about with an empty Stomach : 2. Should 
never be continued to Wearinefs : 3. Af- 
ter it, one mud take Care not to catch 
Cold. And it (hould always be accom- 
panied with Temferance^ elfe, inftead of 
a Remedy y it will become an EviL 

7. Cold-hathifig is of great Advan- 
tage to Health : but fhould not be ufed 
pqder a Fit or a chromcal Diftemp^r, 
With a quick Pulfe^ or with a Head^ 
aeh^ or by thofe that have weak Lungs. 
it promotes Perfpiration, inlarges the 
Circulation^ and prevents the £>anger 
pf catching Cold. Thofe of tender 
i!fervesj (hould pour Water on their 
fleads before they go in, and none 
pught to jump in fuddenly, and with 

their Heads foremoft. 


8. The Befi-Brujh is a moft ufefii- 
Exercife, as appears by its Advantage 
19 Horjes, and oqght not only to be 


and L o >^ G L i f e. 109 

ufed on Human Bodies, but alio on 
fuch of the Animals we defign for our 
Food^ as it can be applied to. 

t X.-C,,^ 'I^'W-i 

CHAP. y. 

Of our Evacuations, and tbelr 



^. i-Tp H E Three Principal Evacuaii* 
^ ons a re. By Siege^ by Water ^ and 
by Perffiration. All thefe muft be duly 
regulated^ and in the Order oi Nature^ 
towards the Prefervation of Healthy and 
the prolonging of Life. The F/r/? ought 
to be of a due Cortfi^ence between both 
Extremes. * Oportet Sanorum Sedes ejfe 
fgttratas. Thofe who are coftive ; have 
cither ^^^tfr-i&M/^^ their Bodies vijiih firong 
Liquors ; have eaten too fparingly ; have 
too flow a Digefiion^ or the Pertjialtick 

* /. €> The Grofs Evacuations ought to be of 
fiich a Confidence in the Healthy, a« to take the 
Imprpffion of the Guts. 


no -^» Essay o/Health 

Motion of their Guts are too weak^ 
whereby the Food flaying too long ^ 
Time before the Mouths of the LaBeds^ 
is over-drained of its Moifiure : Thofe 
who have purging Stools^ have eat too 
mticb^ or of Things too firong for their 
eoncoiiive Powers. Vov fuferjluous Nou- 
rifliment leaves too much (Ihjle in the 
f Fdces^ which fermenting in the GutSj 
fiimulates them fo as to become a Purge. 
I have often obferved, That a full Meal 
oSfirong Meat, as Fijh, Beefj Porkj Baked 
Meatj or made Difhes, in tender Perfons, 
goes off with the Hurry and Irritation of 
a Purge^ leaving the Bowels inflated^ cd^ 
licked^ ov grifedy and the Spirits yir;/ifc to 
the laft Etegree. The Food^ by its va- 
rious Mixture^ Weight, and Ferment atioit^ 
Jtifnulating all along from the Stomach tO 
xhtReltumy and being fcarce ever drain- 
ed of its ChjUy without affording any 
NouriQiment to the Body, runs oS thus 
crudely, and becomes equal to a total 
Abfiineme from Food for a long Time. 
And hence we have a moft infallible 
Ruky * a fofierioriy to judge if we have 


t f. e. The Food, after it is drainM of (ts Nu- 
tritious Parts. 
♦ /. e. After the Tryal has been made. 


and Long Life, itl 

governed ourfelves in our Diet in Pro- 
portion to the Neceffities o^ Nature, and 
the Forces of our comociive Powers. 
This is the very Reafon why the B^rA 
over dofed,and given to Perfons of weak 
Digeftion, fo conftantly furges them ; 
and why Mifr car;, given either inwardly, 
Or by frtStion^ runs off in violent fur^- 
ingy and cannot be raifed into a. Saliva, 
tian ; to wit, the not adjufting the Dofcs 
Co the Strength of the Stomach and ner- 
vous Fibres. For the Bark naturally 
binds, and Mercury naturally rjfes to the 
mofl pervious Glands. And in this 
Senfe,! myfelfhave frequently obfervcd 
in weak indfcrofulous Bowels, even Dia- 
fcordium^ and Vcmce Treacle to purge : 
Whereas, had the Doles beenduly pro- 
portioned, or had they begun by Under- 
dofing, and taken a little longer Time, 
their End might have been effeftually 
anfwered ; as I have often experienced 
without ever failing. 

§. 2. And here it may not be amifs 
to take Notice o( a fatal- Miftakethofe 
run into, who, being weakly^ thin, and 
(teaderj aim, by all Means, and at any 
Price, to become /'/aw/' and round^ and 
in order to attain this, are perpetually 

If2 An Essay 0/ Health 

devouring Ivuge Quantities oihigh^Jhong 
Food, and fwallowing proportionablts 
Meafures oigenetous Liquors, not know- 
ing, that by this very Method, they 
promote and confirm the Difeafe they 
would remedy; For in fuch Perfons 
and Cafes, th^ globular Part of the 
Blood is conftantly of a /wiJiZ Quantity, 
and vtvygleny^ and the ferous Part, tbin 
and watry (that is, The Blood is foor 
and rpeak)2ind the Solids or Nerves are hdfe 
and relaxed. And the conco£l:ive Pow- 
ers being in Proportion to thefe law, of 
Cohfequence, the Digefiions muft be 
weak and imperfect, and their Force un- 
able to difTolveand break any Quantity 
oi {\iq\{ firong Meat ov ffirituotis Liquors 
into a proper Chyle for Nourifhment. 
And this great Load muft either be 
hurried off intirely thro' the alimentarj 
DuUs in fupernumerary Difcharges, or 
the fmall Portion oiChjle drawn out of 
it, being too grofs to unite and make a 
Jimilar Fluid with the Mafs of the Blood, 
muft be precipitated through the other 
Drains of the Body ; and thus the poor 
thin Creature muft ftarve in Lttxarj^ 
and wafte amidft Superfiuity. The Cafe 
is the fame with Nurfes and Parents in 
rearing up Toung Children. The perpe- 



■ and Long Lifb. 113 

tual Gripes^ Colicks^ Loofenejfes^ hard BeU 
lies^ Choakings, Wind, and Convulfve Fiis^ 
which torment half the Children ot'Exig- 
land, are intirely owing to the too greac 
Quantities of too ftrong food, and too 
rank Milk, ihruft down their Throats 
by their over-laying A/o/Aerf and Nurftis. 
For what elfe do their/Zw^/, iheir^^ii; or 
chjilousy their hlackijb and cholcrtck Dif- 
charges, the Noife and Motion in their 
Bowels, their Wind and Choakir}gs,\m\Ayi 
but Crudities from fuperfluous Nourilh- 
inent? This is fo certain, that they are 
univerfany,and infallibly cured by tejia* 
ceotts Powders, which on\y abfurb fharp 
Crudities, by Rhubarb 'Pmg^s, which at 
once evacuate and (frengthen the Bowels, 
and by Milk Clyjters, Ijjues, and Blijters, 
whichare ilill upon the Foot of Evacu- 
ation: by o^/?iwfl/e/^ perfifting in thefe, 
and the like (intended to evacuate and 
firengthen the alimentary PalTages) and a 
thin, fpare, and nutritive D/«. Nothing 
nourillies but Food duly concoBed ; and, 
in the Courfe of Nature, we rauft firft 
flump up and extend, and then harden 
and ftrengthen. This is the Way of 
Nature in t'egetation. And thus the 
Animal Creation, devoid of Reafon, 
rear up their Young: And thus even 
Ci. the 

114 ^» Essay e/HEALTH 

the skilful Groom treats bis wafted and 
decayed Horfe : And (which is wonder- 
ful) you fhall find a fagacious Horfe^ 
Doctor plump up and fatten a rotten^ 
leany hroken-mnded Jade, and make hinfi 
look Jlsek^ g'ty, 2Lndlk/eiy, fo as to cheat 
not only the Efquipe^ but his Brother^ 
DoifoKj in fewer Weeks, than all tfee 
Man- Doifors in England could rea r up 
their Fellow Creature^m Years, 'Tistrue, 
the Jukes of ^kn are more varioufly, 
and rnore throughly corrapted, and 
their Solids intirely broken^, which ne- 
ver happens to the Bruie-Cr^ation. But 
the greateft Miftake lies fti the Negfe^ 
of duly obferviflg, and religioujty profe- 
cuting a proper Regimen. This liiuft 
principally confift in a Diet o^foft^ lights 
tender, coolj and mucilaginoHs Foods, or 
fuch as are already become Chyte^ either 
by Nature or Arr^ fuch are MUk^ and 
MilhMeais^ Ricej Sago^ Barley^ Wheap^ 
EggSy Broths^ Ugh Soaps ^ J^ii^y white ^ 
youngy tender^ and well-fed Poultry j or 
Butchery Meat, eaten little at a Tinie, 
and often, never without an Jppetitei, 
nor to Satiety ; joining to thefc, the other 
Helps and Affiftances mentioned in this 
Treatife. When Fkjh is oncGQOtney Yts 
t^{y to mak^ it Jlrong and hardy^ by 


" and Long Life. 115 

due Exercife, and a gradual adventuring 
upon higher Foods and more generom 

§. J. I have ofcen heard valetudinary 
and tender Perfons, and thofe of f^denta- 
ry Lives and learned Profeflions, com- 
plain of Head-acbes, Skknejfes at the Sto- 
mach, Colicks and Gripes^ Loivnefs of 
Spirits^ Wind, zndVapottrs, and yet pre- 
tend they were very moderate and ab- 
fiemious in their Eating and Drinking *, 
But, upon Enquiry, Iconftantly found 
thefe very Perfons purfued with ptirging 
Stools, which was an evident Pruofy to 
me, that they had taken down more 
than they wanted, or could digeft. 
For 'tis aniverfally certain, That thofe 
that do not exceed, mull have cither 
Cojiive, or, at leaft, Stools of a middle 
Conftfience. There i; nothing more ridt- 
culous, than to fee tender, hyjlericd at\A 
vapourijb People, perpetually complainhgy 
They are ready to fmk into the Ground, 
and faint away, and yci gobbling down 
the richift Sindjirof/gcji Food, and higheft 
Cordials, to opprefs and overlay them 
quite. FrefJj a^nd generous Food, mixing 
the jjjiirp Humours of the Stomach 
Q 2 and 

ii6 An Essay o/Health 

and Bomls, may, for fome fhort Time, 

quality and abate their Irritation, and 

may give a Blltf to the fluggifh Circula- 

lioHj and become, as it were, a Cork to 

ftop the perpetual Fuming up of thefe 

Dojc/o/*/ Steams upon the Head and^raw; 

But this is (pardon the Similitude) as if 

one fhouid go to quench t\[efe(itlentiai 

: Steams of qOmwow-SAorff, by throwing 

f in greater Heaps of Ordure and Nuifance 

rinto it. The proper Remedy in this 

FCafe, is, Firft, To cleanfe the feetid 

\ ^hjfs, and then to preferve it clean by 

Cutting off all the hlets of Putrefaciion, 

This will require a little Courjge^ La- 

houfy and Pam ; but the future Eafe 

and Sweetnefs^ will more than abun- 

r dantly recompence them; for there is 

nothing more certain, than that of thofe 

hora found here in England^ the Head. 

aches J Stomach-aches^ Colicks, and nervoui 

Pains and Diforders, umverfallj proceed 

from Idlenefs and Fulnefs of Bread. 

§. 4. Thofe who eat but one mode- 
rate hlejh Meal a Day, will have regu- 
larly once a Day a Difcharge of theRe» 
mains of their Food. And, generally 
fpcaking, thofe that go ofcner, have 
exceeded fome how. Thole who pre- 

r £?wj Long Life. 117 

tend to cure themfelves 0^ nervous Dif- 
orders, or any other chromcal Difeafes, 
or preferve themfelves from them, or 
lengthen out their Days, muft under^ 
dofe themfelves (and therefore can go 
but once in two Days) even though they 
fliould undergo the Pain 0^ Ccjhvenefs, 
For 'tis impoflible the Nerves of thofe 
who have Jlippcry Bowels, Ihould ever 
be braced or n'oand ap ; for there the 
Cure muft begin, where the E'vil be- 
gan; and muft be communicated thence 
to the reft of the Syflem, as a Rope- 
maker begins the Tmft at one End of the 
Rofe, and communicates it to all the 
other Parts. Our Acccfs to the Nerves 
of the Scomach and Bowelsy is obvious 
and open : To the «/?, the Way is dif- 
ficult, and far about. And fince a. Re- 
laxatio)/, Weaknefs^ and ivant of Spring 
in the Fibres, is the Origin of all nervous 
Diftempers, no Medicines, but fuch as 
contraH^ {I'jfi^'i, rvir^d ap, and jborten 
them, can remedy this E'vil ; and they 
muft neceirarily contraEi and bind up 
the fibres of the Stomach and Guts^ as 
the Parts they firft approach and exert 
their Virtue upon. And he, who with- 
oiit frm Bowels, tliinks to cure a nervou-s 
ftemper, labours as much io vain as 

ii8 -^« Essay o/Health 

he who would keep a FiddU^ftrhg 
foaking in Oil and Water ^ to make it 
vibrate or play off a fine Corapofition 
of Muftck. 

§• 5. By Experience and Obfervation I 
have found, That in thofe who have 
one regular Difcharge in Twenty four 
Hours, the Time of the Progrefs of the 
Food from the Stomachy till its Remains 
are thrown off, is Three Natural Days. 
And in thofe who go but once in Two 
Days, the Time is Six Natural Days. 
The Curious may be fatisfied in this, 
by fwallowing an Almond^ or any other 
iViy/,which palTes without being broken, 
or making any Irritation. The Rea- 
fon is this. That a fmaller Quantity of 
Food is retained longer^ by their Suction^ 
at the Mouths of the La^eals^ to drain 
it intirely of its Chjle^ and its Weight 
being lefs, the Concoctive Powers have 
the greater Force upon it, and fo it is 
retained till it is perfe6ily Digefied^ and 
drainM of all ics Humidity \ whereby 
fuch People become Cojlive : Whereas 
in People that exceed^ the contrary 
Caufes precipitate the Courfe of the 
Aliment^ and fo leave the Bowels al- 
ways (lippery. , And nothing can more 

' demon^ 

^ and Long Life. 119 

demottfiratively rtiew an Excefs^ than the 
Lubricit) of the Difcharge ; and I have 
often obferved in tender Perfons, and 
thofe of weak Ner've!, when a Meal 
(I mean only of thofe who eat Ftejb 
Meat but owi^ a Day) has been a little 
too hard for the Stcmnch^ tho^ x\\t Spi- 
rits have been full and free, and the 
Health equal and good, by duly propor- 
tioned Meals for two preceding Daysj 
the Third Day, when the grofs Meal 
came off, they have been full ofWifid. 
and Vapours^ their Eyes dim, and their 
Heads heavy, with flying Rheumadck 
Pains over the Body, and CoUck-Gripes. 
From whence we may draw thefe 
three CorvlUries. 

Corolt. I. It requires the fame Time 
for the umomoEled Chyle of a grofs Meal 
to run the Circle of the Habit, and the 
feculent Remains to pafs thro' the Gats ; 
the Firft by PerJpiratioKj and the Laft- 
by Siege. 

Coroll. 2. We may likewife gather 
from thence, a Coffrmation of that 
Jphorifm of the PlyficiaHS ; That the 
Errors of the frjl Concociion^ are never 
mended in the fubfe^aeni^ unlefs the 

J20 ^« Essay o/Healt 

Cafe to be mentioned in the next Para< 
graph be an Exception to it. Foi' the grofe 
Meal gave rather more XJneafinefs^ when 
it came to be thrown ofF by Perjpiration* 

Coroll, 3. From hence we may alfo 
fee, the Ridiculoufnefs of the Vulgar 
Opinion, afcribing univerfally the Pain 
they futfer, or the Relmf chey find, to 

the laji Meal or Medicine. 

§. 6. There are fome forts of Food 
which may op^refsund load the StOTnach 
and Alttneatarj DaBs in the ^rfi Con- 
foHion, which may be very fafe and 
benign in x\i& fuhfequent on^s. For in- 
ftance, Cheefe^ ^gi^t Milk-Meats, and 
Vegetable Food^ tho' duly prepared, and 
juftly proportioned in Quantity^ may 
chance to lie heavy on the Sfomich^ or 
beget i4^ind in the Alimentary PaiTages 
of ibme Perfons (and yet drinking of 
Waier will always remedy this Incon- 
veniency) : But thefe neither having 
their Parts /^-i^wg// united, nor abound- 
ing in Iharp Urinatts Salts, when they 
become fufficiently diluted with a 
wairy Minflruumy or diflblved into their 
Componern Parts, and their Parts being 
^iWfmaller than the fmalleji VelTcls, and 

■ and Long Life. 121 

their t/«/oflconftantlylefs, than the Forse 
of theCoscoctive Powers, in Pcrfons who 
have any remaining f/^nd of Life in 
them ; wi!I thereby yield a fweet, thin, 
and eafily Circulating Clj^ie, in the after 
ComoctioRs become benign and falutary, 
and afford no M'^terids for Chronical 
Diftempers. And the Wind rhence 
generated, not being pointed zn6. armed 
with luch fharp AW/j, as thofe of flejb 
Meats, or the Corrofive Juices o£ Spiri- 
tuous Liquors, will be as innocent and 
fafe, as thefi^cmsfff we breathe in. 

§. 7. The Second Evacuation is by 
PVaterj whole Circumftances and Con- 
dition, tho' little adverted to, may be 
ofgreat Service to dilcover both theState 
of our Confiitutiof/, and the Proportion of 
our Diet. Some People are frightncd 
when they find their Witer turbid^ bro. 
kettt and full of Urick-du(i Sediment ; 
whereas that is the befi: Symptom it 
can have. For tho' it fuppofes the 
Blood loaded with Urim.'ts Salts and 
Crudities-^ yet 'tis ftill better they fhould 
pafs off than continue in the Habit. On 
the contrary, when thofe that live freelj, 
have Quantities of pale, Itmpid and fcveet 
Water, 'tis a certain Sign that the Pw- 

122 Jn Essay o/^Health 

ffiraPioH is flopped ; that neither the F/rj? 
not the Secondary Concoctions have been 
duly performed ; that the Chjle has not 
been fufficiently broken^ nor the finer 
Secretions ^\.\\y made by the leffer Dr^/w; 
and that the Urinous Salts are ftill re* 
tained in the Habtt. Upon which mfoft 
needs enfue OppreJJion of Spirirsj ChiBs 
tipon the Extremities, fijing Rbeumatick 
Pains over the Body, Bead- aches, Choliehs 
and Gripes. And here it may not be 
amifs. to take Notice of the DiflFercnce 
of the pale Water of Hypochondriaad 
and Hyjlerical Perfons^ from that of 
thbfe who labour under a true Diabetes^ 
the Apprehenfion of which terrifies fo 
often the Low and Dijpirited Perfons of 
the Firfi Clafs, The Heater of both has 
the fame Appearance ^ both in QualityznA 
Quantity^ at leaft, in the firft Inftance, 
they are both attended with the fame 
Sinking and Difpiritednefs. But in a 
true Diabetes^ there is a conftant jR&/>/, 
a low but quick Fulfe^ the Water is 
much fweeterj and continues longer to 
come off in prof afe Quantities^ infomuch, 
that fbmetimes it is fo violent as to 
run down the Party in a few Days. In 
Hypochondriacal and Hyfierical Perfons, 
there is little or no Thirfi^ never a quick 


^flj Long Life. 123 

Pulfe, but rather too low sindjlotv a one, 
the Flux foon flops of itfelf, or by any 
Jittle Diapboretick Medicine, and they 
are cold upon the Extremttiesj which 
the others are not. 

• §. 8. That bluijh and variegate A Film^ 
which fometimes looks like Oil and 
JFaf fwimming on the Water of Scor-^ 
katick and Cacheciick Perfons, is nothing 
but the congregated Salts which are 
rr(^Wtf^ fo thick together, that they are 
ready to fhoot into Clujters^ much like 
the FilmoiB, ^ Lixivium^ when (land- 
ing for the Cryftalliz^ation of fixed Salts. 
The Water which has a light Cloud hang- 
ing almoft from the Tof to the Bottom^ 
is of a bright Amber Colour, and about 
three Quarters of the Liquor taken dQW^^ 
is beft, and a certain Sign of a due Con^ 
€0Bion^ a juft Proportion of Food, and 
a total Abfence of Repletion and Crudity. 
And thofe who live Temperately^ ufe 
due Exercije, and enjoy a perfeSb State 
qS Healthy always make fuchW^^^^r. 

* /. f . A Lye, 

K z §.9- Thofe 

124 -^ Essay o/'Healtk 

§. 9. Thofe who are fubjeft to great 
Quantities of //«y/^ and fale Water, 
ought to conclude, that their Food has 
been too heavy in Quality^ or too much 
in Quantity for their Conco£tive Power Sy or 
thtk Labour too little ; and that therefore, 
they ought to proportion both, for the 
future, with more Caution and Exa^nefs^ 
by living low for fome Time, or ufing 
more Exercife. And to flop their Flux 
of pale Watery they ought to take a 
little Gafcoign\ Powder^ ConfeHion of 
AlkermeSy or Sir Walter Raleighh Cor* 
dial at Night, and drink liberally of 
fmaB warm Hack Whey^ with a few Drops 
of Spirit of Hart^S'horny to fet the Perfpi^ 
ration in order again. Thofe, on the 
other Hand, who make high colour'^ d^ 
foulj and very turhid Water in fmaller 
Quantities, have either inflamed thqjir 
Blood too much with Spirituotis Liquors^ 
or loaded it with too great a Quantity 
of Animal Salts. To prevent therefore 
Diforders and Difeafes^ they muft Icflen 
the Quantity of their Flejb Meat, and 
temper the Heat of their Wine with 
Water. Elfe they will lay the Foun- 
dation of fome Acute Inflammatory^ or 
4angeroqs Chronical Diftemper, 

§. 10. The 


and Long Life. 125 

§. 10. The worft kind of Water of 
all, is that of a dark Brown or dirty Red, 
in a fmall Qjaniitj^ and without any 
Sediment. iWisXdnAoi Water, in Acute 
Difeafes, always indicates infuperable 
Crudity^hi^hlfiUaMmatiori tcndingtowiids 
Mortificattorj, and a dying Languor la 
Nature. And in Perfons labouring 
under no vifiUe Diftemper at the Time, 
an almoft total Dehslity oi \.\\q ConcoBive 
Powers, an infeparable t7fl/o» of the Cow- 
gi"ee of Cr«(/r/j', and 2. Deadriefs ia a\\ %hQ 
Animal Funiitons : And, if preceded by 
long continual Excejfes, requires the Ad- 
vice ofa Phyfician. I flwU fay nothing of 
Coffee-coloured^ Bloody, WbeytPj, Or Puru- 
lent Water, or that with white Grai/e/, 
Films, Rags or Bits of broken Mem- 
hrattes. They are well known to be 
Nephrttick, or Symptoms of an Ulcer 
fomewhere in the Urinary Paffages. 

K ^. 1 1. There happens alfo an Evacu- 
ation both by Siege and Urine^ to fome 
Veak Vc^ian^ Qi relaxed Nerves^th^t cx- 

ffsmely alarms the Patient^ and is not 

126 ^7/ Essay o/Health 

fo readily accounted for in common * 
jEtiology. It is when either a white 
tranfparent^ vifcid Subftance, like GeUy^ is 
conftantly voided by the Bowels^ more 
or lefs ; or when a white^ «^^%i i}^^ 
Subftance, like Cream or laudable Mai;, 
ter^ fettles in the Water : Both thefe Jp^ 
fearanees are commonly afcribed to an 
Ulcer in the Guts^ or in the Kjdneys^ 
the very Apprehenfion of which 6 
almod fufficienty in fome low Perfon% 
to bring on the Diftemper feared: 
And yet, I am very certain, there is 
neither tflcer nor true Matter in eich^ 
Cafe, as I propofe them. For whert 
there is violent and acute Pain, or 
Matter of different Colours or Mixtures, 
there, very poflibly, may be, nayj 
certainly there is, an Ulcer. But in rht 
Cafe I here intend, there is very little 
or no Pain ; no Hectical Paraxyfnts^ 
which always attend an inward Ulcer \ 
no bloody ov fa^ious Mixtures, which 
always betray the inward Sore; no 
fetid Smell to imply Corruption. For 
the Cafes I put at prefent, happen to 

* That Part of PhyficJc which teaches the 
Caufcs of Difiafes. 


and Long Life. 127 

Perfons the leaft capable of Inflammation 
or Impofthtimatson^ viz. to paralytick Per- 
fons, or thofe of a Natural Tendency 
that Way, to cold^ vapour ijb Perfons of 
low Spirits and weak Nerves^ whofc 
Pulfe is low and flow, and their na- 
tural FunStions weak and languid ; all 
which evidently fhew, that thefe Dif- 
charges cannot come from an Ulcer. 
The firft Cafe I take to be either an 
Gbftruftion of fome of the LaSieals^ 
whereby the Chyle cannot be carried 
off in any fufficient Quantity, but 
pafling through the Guts^ and its more 
Watry Part being evaporated^ it be- 
comes thick and gelatirjous^ and is 
thrown off at laft with the Remains of 
the Food. Elfe it muft be an Obftru* 
aion of thofe Glands of the Guts^ by 
which a vifcid Matter for lubricating of 
them, is commonly fecerned ; by the 
Imprifonment and Evaporation of which 
Matter, it thickens and turns like a 
Gelly (as it does by Cold, or Overfeeding, 
in the Glands of the Mouthy Throat and 
Windpipe) and, at laft, by the Squeezing 
of the Guts^ is thrown offl And in the 
fame Manner, I take that Milky Sub- 
ftance fubfiding in the Water ^ in fuch a 
Cafe as I have mentioned, to ariie from 


128 w^/iEssAvo/ Health 

a Relaxation of tho Glarfds o£ the Kfdaey^ 
and Bladder^ and other Urinary Paffages j 
and that both are to be cured the fame 
Way other Nervous Diftempers are 
cured, wc. by a proper Regimen of Diet ^ 
and a Courfe of contrafting, ftrengthen- 
ing, and volatile Medicines. 

§• 12. The infenfible Perfpiration is 
the Third Evacuation to be confidered* 
The 5^/jx//WC/^^/V in vented by SanStorius^ 
for examining the Quantity of the Per* 
fpiration, however sngenious and delight^- 
Jul in Speculation^ is too cumberfome and 
laborious to be of any great Ufe in Com. 
monUk. 'Tis certain, however, that the 
free and full (lowing of this Evacuation^ 
is as ncceffary to Health as any of the 
groffer, fince in Quantity it is at lead 
equal to both the torementioned ; and 
an ObfiruStion thereof, is generally the 
Source of all Acute Difeafes, as it is a 
Confequence of all Chronical ones. And 
therefore, I have advifed thofe who 
are much abroad in Eafierly and 
Northerly Winds (which moft of any 
obftruft Perfpiration) and have Fluxes 
qI white 2Lnd pale fVater^ to a ready jin* 
tidote to prevent the Beginnings of thefa 

§.13. Dr. 

and LpNG Life. 129 

§. ij. Dr. * JAMES KEILL 
has made ic out, beyond all pofl^bilky of 
doubting, that catchivg of Cold is no* 
thing but fucking in, by the Paffages of 
ferjfifation, large Quantum of moift 
Air and nitrom Salts^ which, by -thickening 
the 3lood and Juices (a$ is evident 
firom. Bleeding after catching Col£) and 
thereby obftru^ing^ not only the Per- 
ffiratiQnj but alfo all the other finer Se* 
actions J raifes immediately a fmall 
¥ever and a Tumult in the Whole Animal 
Oeconon/y ; and, negle6):ed, lays a Foun- 
dation for Confumftions^ ObfiruBions of 
the gxtztVifcera^ and univerfal C^i&^jci^j. 
Th^ Tender therefore, and Valetudinary 
ought cautioufly to avoid all Occalions 
of catching Coldy and ii they havje 
been fo untortunate as to get one^ to 
fet about its Cure immediately, before 
it has taken too deep Root in thp Habit i, 
From the Nature of the Diforder thus 
defcribed, the Remedy is obvious ; To 
wit. Lying much abed, Dr//?/r/;sg plen- 
tifully of fmall warm Sack Whey^ with 
a few Drofs of Spirit oi Harts^horn^ P^jf^t;^ 
Drinks Water Gruel^ Or any other warm 
fmall Liquors, a Scruple of Gafcoignh 
Powder Morning and Night, Living 

S lov^ 

* His Statica Britannica, 

I^o ^/i Essay o/Health 

lotv upon Spoon-MeafSj Pudding and 
Chicken^ and drinking every thing warm : 
In a Word, treating it at firft as a fmall 
Fever, with gentle Diaphoreti^ks *^ and 
afterward, if any Cough or Spitting 
ihould remain (which this Method 
generally prevents ) by fofiening the 
Breajt with a little Sugar-Candy^ and 
Oil of Sweet Almonds, or a Solution o( 
Gum Ammoniac^ an Ounce to a Quart of 
Barley Water, to make the ExpeHoration 
eafy ; and going cautioujlj and well 
cloathed into tht' Air afterwards. This 
is a much more natural^ eafy and effe^ud 
Method, than the Practice by Balfams^ 
Lin£tus\ PeStoralsy and the like Tram* 
fery in common Ufe, which ferve only 
to fpoil the Stomach, opprefs the Spirits, 
and hurf the Conflitution. 

§. 14* The fureft Way of maintaining 
and promoting a due Perfpiration^ is, To 
take down no more Feod than what 
the Conco£tive Powers are fuflSicient to 
reduce into a due Fluidity^ and the 
Expences of Living require, to profe- 
cute neceffary Exercife^ and ufe the 
other AJJifiances advifed in the foregoing 
Chapters. Want of due Reji-y and the 
Re/rejbment that follows upon it, fiart- 

and Long Life. 131 

ing^ tcfflng^ and tumbling abed, are 
certain Signs that th^ Perfpiration is 
not duly carried on in the Night Seafon. 
And therefore, in order to remedy this, 
a greater Proportion of Exercife, a 
greater Degree of Abjiinence^ or fome 
gentle domeftick Purge^ muft be had 
recourfe to the next Day. Colual 
Pains, Grifes and Purging^ m\xc\iEru£tam 
tion and Belching of Wind, Low Spirited- 
nefs^ Tawning and Stretchings are infalli- 
ble Signs that the Perfpiration flows not 
freely and plentifully then. And 
therefore the fame Remedies ought to 
be profecuted, as foon as an Oppor* 
tanity offers; elfe the Party will fuffer 
at laft. Wind^ as SanSforius obferves 
and demonjlrates^ is nothing but ob- 
fruited Perfpiration: And Tawning and 
Stretchings are but Convulsions of the 
proper Mufcles and Organs appointed by 
Nature, the one for Pumping up Wind 
from the Bowelsy the other for prefling 
upon the Excretory DuSis in the Skin^ 
to force out the fluggifh/>er//?/V^W^ Mat- 
ter. And 'tis beautiful to obferve, how 
wifely Nature has contrived the Spafms^ 
Cramps and Convulftons of the proper 
Organs y to expel every noxious and ex* 
traneous Body out of the Habit. Thus 

S 2 Qough- 

132 An Essay o/Hea^tm 

Coughing is a Convulfion oS t\iQ Diafhragtn^ * 
and Mufcles of the Breafi^ to throw out ^ 
vifcid Phlegm ; Vomiting of the Stomash^ 
(aflifted by the Diaphragm and Mufcles, 
of the Abdomen) to throw up its Gftf* 
/i///<?5, and thofe of the Boivels ; or to 
^jc/?^/ Sand or 5re>»tfj from the Kjdneysh^ 
The Throws of Labouring Women^ ar? 
to bring oflF the Burden. Sneezi^ is an 
Effort of the proper Mufcles^ to cjeQ: 
fome noxious Particles from the Organs 
of Smelling. Shivering 2Lt\d Stretching to 
affift Perfpiration ; and X^^^i^g to puoip 
up noxious Wind. And even hanghing 
itfelf, is an Effort of the Mufcles of 
the whole Tr^/iit, to throw off fome- 
thing that its delicate Membranes can-r 
not bear. And, Laftly, Hyperical Fits 
and ConvulfionSy both in Infants and 
JPerfons come to Maturity^ are but 
violent Efforts^ Struggles, Workings^ • 
Cramps and Spafms of all the Mufcles 
pf the whole Body together, to expely 
fqueeze, and prefs out the Iharp Acri* 
monioHs Wind^ Fumes and Vapours from 
the Cavities of the whole Machine. 

§.15. There is an Evacuation in- 
cident to Perfons of weak Nerves^ 
which could not conveniently come ia 


arid Long Life. 133 

Wnder the general Divifion^ becaufe it 
f happens too feldom to make a nev/ 
Member of it. It is a Difcharge of thin 
B^heum from the Glands of the Mouth, 
Throat and Stomach, and is called by 
, fome, A Nervous or Scorbutick Spitting. 
b it rifes fometimes to the Heighth of a 
fetit Flux de Bouchcj as the French call 
it, and threatens fome tender Perfons, 
as they apprehend, with a Confumftion^ 
though it imply nothing lefs. We may 
obferve fome, who are ftruck with a 
deep Falfey^ to flow at the Mouth, and 
drivel down their Breads; infomuch, 
that the Afflided of this 6Vf, who are 
advanced in Years, can fcarce fpeak 
intelligibly for the Flux^ 'till they have 
firft emptied and cleaned their Mouths. 
And this arifes to (o great a Heighth, 
in fome much broken paralytic k Perfons, 
that, upon the flighteft Occafions,either 
ofjcy or Griefs they are apt to run into 
a Frofttfion of Tears, Sighs and Sobbings. 
And fome forts of Ideots^ and thofe 
Hyftericallj mofd^ and m oft of thofe who 
fuffer from relaxed and weak Nerves ^ 
are more or lefs fubjeft to thefe Salival 
Difcharges, efpecially after Excejfes in 
Diet. Hence the firj} Sort receive the 
Appellation of Snivellers or Drivellers. 


134 -^» Essay o/Health 

And the DiiBculty of the Cure of all 
the Defeafes of weak Nerves depends 
much on the Quantity and Confticution 
of this Bux. For much and long 
Spitting and Running off of this Rheumy 
implies a total Relaxation oi th^ whole 
Nervous Syfiern^ and fhews neither the 
firft nor fecond ConcoSliom have been 
duly performed. I have frequently had 
Occafion to fhew, how Excejfes in the 
Quant it) or Quality of the Food, in 
Perfons of relaxed and weak Nerves^ 
begot a vifcid and groCs Chyle^ of which 
that Part^ which could not get through 
the LaBealsy lay fermenting and putri* 
fying in the Alimentary Paffages, begot 
Wind^ Grimes and Colicks^ and at laft 
wrought itfelf off like a Purge ; and 
that that Party which got through the 
Laiteals, and was received within the 
Limits of the Circulation^ being too grofs 
and glewy to be mixed with the old 
Mafs of the Fluids^ to circulate through 
the fmalleft Veffels, and to enter the 
fine Perfpiratory Glands^ would necef 
farily be thrown into the wider, more 
fpongy and loofe Salivary Glands^ which 
are appointed by Nature to fecern the 
more Glutinous Parts of the Fluids. 
And from thence this Salivary Inunda- 

r and Long Life. 135 

tion proceeds. The faf? is, When thofc 
of weak Nerves^ commit habitual Ex- 
ceiTes in their D/ef, the Glands and 
fmall VelTelsof all the Body are /aw/jf^^?, 
[welled and obflrucied thereby, as they 
needs muft be. And 'tis from the 
Preffure of thefe inlarged Glandsy and 
the obllruftcd capillary Veflels on the 
Nerves, and patent Blood Ve^els, that 
moft of the Evils they fuffer under 
proceed. But moie cfpecially, are the 
G/d»iij appointed to draw off the more 
vifcid ferous Part of the Blood, oh^ruliei 
and tuT/fified thereby. Upon which Ac- 
count, as Bagltvi advifes, 10 enquire 
well into the State of the Tongue and 
Mouthj in order to dilcover the Con- 
dition of the iVo«Bdc/7, Guts and Bowels-j 
{o I think 'tis highly reafonable, in a 
Chronical Cafe, to have great Regard to 
the Condition of the Eyes ; and if a 
dead, cold Languor be obfeived in the 
Hue or Heater of them ( as Jeipellers 
fyt:z.k o£ Diamonds') and more-efpecially 
if the lachrymal Gland in the Corner 
next the Nofe, whichi always narrow)/ 
infpe&i if, I fay, this Gland be found 
harder, or larger than ord'toiry, ftveSed 
and tumifed, it muil certainly be con- 
cluded, whatever elfe be in the Cafe^ 

136 ^» Essay o/HEALTit 


there muft be a relaxed State oi Nerves^ 
much Vafoursj weak aatural FunBions^ 
and a mifmanaged Regimen. And it is 
from the Obftradion and Swdling of 
this and the other Glands^ in and about 
the Ejes^ and their Preffure upon the 
Optical Nerves^ and fine Blood V€ffclsi 
that thofe Sfots^ Flies ^ Atomsy Dimnefsj 
Darknefsy and Confufton of Sight, in 
Vapoanfb and Hyfierical People proceed; 
"^ For this Gland ihews, that the whole 
ferom Glands in the upper Regions of the 
Body are, in Proportion, tumified and 
fwelled with vifcid Humours through 
Excefs of Diet ; unleft the Perfon have 
fuffered there by Accident, or labours 
under fome natural Diforders of the 
Eyes. From the Obftruftlon and SweU 
ling of the Salivary Glands in the Mouth, 
Throat and Gullet, proceed alfo thofe 
ChoakingSy Gulping and Strangling^ that 
Hyfierick Perfons fo often complain of. 
The Wind a ad Crudities lodged in their 
Stomach and Guts, and the reft of the 
Cavities of the Body, prefling to get 
Vent upwards, are refifted and ftoppM in 
their Palfage by the Diaphragm, where- 
by the Infpiration is ftreightned, and^ 
by the Bulk of thefe Glands throughout 
the Gullet, the Way isintirely ftoppM; 


and Long Life* 137 

which raifes fuch a Tumult and Struggle^ 
as produces the mentioned Symptoms ; 
which I have not Leifure to detail here 
more minutely. Now this Salivation 
or Difcharge of the thinner Rheum^ and 
that Coughing and Hawking of, more 
vifcid Flegm^ commonly called a nervoui 
Cough, as alfo the Chincough of Children, 
and all fuch Difcharges of (harp 5«^/^w 
in Perfons of weak and relaxed Nerves, 
is an Effort of Nature to relieve them* 
And. if difcreetly managed^ and duly 
heeded, would prove a Crife to their 
Difbrders, and quite free them from 
their prefent ^ Paroxyfms, and fet the 
Circulation and Perfpirationy and, confe- 
qucntly, the Spirits^ at Freedom and 
Liberty again. Some Perfons moft 
diftraaedly run to Drams and Cordials 
to remedy this £i//7, to ftop the Violence 
of this Deluge^ and to raife their 
drooping Spirits. But it fervesonly to 
thicken the F/^^?», fhut up the Mouths 
of the Salivary Glands clofer, and fo to 
perpetuate the Evil they mean to cure* 
Others devour large Quantities oi high 
znd generous Foods, becaufe they find a 

* The (harpcft Part of the fuffcrhig Fit of ^ 

T h'ttle 

138 An Essay ofHcALTH 

little Relief to their Spirits, from the firft 
Run of the {"^^ttt^ thin, and fpirituous 
Chyle : But this is only adding Fewel to 
the Fire, and runnir>g on in a perpetual 
Round ofLownefs and Slaverwg. Where- 
as, would they ftitfer Nature to aft 
her own Way, to carry on this critical 
Dffcharge, as far as it will go, without 
oflfering in the leaft either to check or 
promote it ; but by thin, light Food, 
and cool Liquors, in moderate, or 
rather under-dofed Quantities, fupport 
her in the manner thtConcoStive Powers 
are fufficient for; after fhc had diC 
charged all the Crudities from the Mafe 
oilht Fluids^ by thck Emu^^oryGlaftdsy 
and thereby given a free Paffage tothe 
Pi^i/7d to elcape the Way it tends, the 
Salivation would leflen gradually, and 
at laft ftop of itfclf. And if then towards 
the Decline^ a gentle Fomit^ to pUmp up 
the flow and vifcid Remains of the 
Wifid and Flegm in the Upper Part of 
the AUmentary Paflages, and afterwards 
a gentle Stomachick warm Purge^ to 
fcour the Lower Part of thefe Ti^i^/, 
were carefully adminiftred ; the Patient 
would foon find a clear Head, iightfome 
Spirits^ Eafe and Fr;eedom from Pain and 
Oppreffion ; the Circulation^ and Per/pi^ 


and L o N G L I F E* 139 

ration would be fooQ brought to their 
natural and found State, and Health and 
Cheerfulnefs rcftored together ; unlefs a 
mortal or habitual ^ Ptydifm was the 
Cafe, which I Imve fometimes obfer- 
vedy as fatal and incurable as a true 
Dropfjj or inveterate Diabetes ; all which 
owe their Being to a deep Scurvy^ 
whereby the Globular Part of the 
Blood is intirely broken^ and the Scrum 
made a meer Lixivifum or Lye* 

R U LE S /or Health and Long 
Life^ drawn from the Head 


t.f^OSTIVE Stools are Signs of 
^ over- heated Blood, too fpare 
Feeding, Slownefs of Digeftion, or 
Weakoefs of the Guts. 

2. Purging Stools fhew intemperate 
Feeding. Too full a Meal has the 
Effefts of a Purge^ fills the Guts with 
Wind, and gives Gripes. Mercurj^znA 



T 2 even 

140 Jn Essay o/Health 

even the Barkj Diafiardium and Treacle^ 
i( aver-dofedy furge. 

J . Head-aches J fick Stomachs, Vapours^ 
low Spirits, Grifes and Colicks^ proceed 
from Cranfming ; and are ever accom* 
panied with loofe Stools. 

4* Thofethat live temperately^h^ve one 
regular Stool a Daj. Thofe who have 
more^ exceed^ 

5. The Cute of all Relaxations of the 
Nerves (the Source of Chronical 
Difeafesj muft n^eflarily begin at thQ 
Stomach and Guts. 

6. The Time from eativg a Meal, 
till its Difcharge^ is three Days, in thofe 
that have Qne Stool ^ Daji : Six in thofe 
th^t have but one la two DaySt 

7. A grofs Meal produces more Dif- 
orders^ the Day the Excrements of it 
go ojf^ than the D^y it is eaten, 

8. A Meal takes the fame Time to get 
through the Habit by Perfpiratfon^ that 
its Remains do to pafs through th^Guts^ 

9- The 

and Long Life. 141 

9. The ErroTf of the firft Concoftions 
cannot be mended afterwards. 

10. Pain or Reliefs is oot always the 
EffeSt of the lafi Meal or Medicine^ that 
was taken down. 

11. Though Cheefcj Eggs^ Milk and 
vegetable Foods^ may be hard to digefl:, 
without drinking of Water^ to fome 
Stomachs ; yet their Cbjle is good^ and 
produces no bad Effeds. 

1 2. Turbid Water with Brick-duft Sedi- 
ment| proceeds from the critical Dif^ 
charge of what was preternaturally 
retained in the Habit. 

I J. Pale fweet Water, from the 
Urinous Salts being yet retained. 

14. There is great Difference be- 
tween Hy^erick pale IVater, and that 
which procetds from a Diabetes. 

15. That Appearance of Fat on the 
Urine of fbme People^ is nothing but a 
fhin Ftlm of Sialts, 

i6. Bright 


142 Att Essay (/Health 

1 6. Bright Amber^cdour^d Water, with 
a light Sediment rifing toward the Top, 
amounting to three Quarters of what is 
drank, is a Sign oigood Digefiiou. 

17. Great Quantities oi pale Water 
proceed from Excefs in the Quantity of 
Food, and want of Exercife. The Cure 
of it is performed by eating lefs^ ufing 
more Exercife, and taking lome Diapho- 
reticks^ to fet the PerfpiradM right. 

1 8. High-coloured turbid Water in 
fmall Quantity, fhews abundance of 
Animal Salts in the Habit, or the 
immoderate Ufe of Spirituous Liquors: 
And muft be cured by vegetable Fqod^ 
and Water J or other fmall Drink. 

1 9. Dark brown Water, or of a dirtj 
redj is extremely dangerous^ both in 
acute Cafes, and in thofe that feeni at 
prefent to ail nothing. 

20. Bloody purulent Water, and full 
of Eilms^ is a Sign oiNephritick Ailments^ 
Stone and Gravel. 

21. The 

and Long Life. 143 

21 • The vxkid Matter XvktGeUyy in 
the Stoolsy and the vifcid milky Suh^ 
fiance fomewhat like Matter in the 
Urine of forae People of iveak Nerv^es^ 
proceed from a Corruption of the 
Liquor of the Mucotis Glands of the 
Intefiines^ znA oi tht Bladder y and Other 
Urinary PafTages. 

22. ObfiruSlion o[ Perfpiration is One 
Source of acute Difeafes, and a Confe- 
quence of chronical ones. 

23. Catching of Cold is an ObfiruSiion 
of Perfpiration^ oy the humid and nitrous 
Particles of the Air. It fhould be cured 
by gentle Diaphoreticks, and not by 
Balfamick Pedorals, which do no good 
but in the End of the Cure, to pro- 
mote Expectoration from the Lungs, if 
there be any Occafion for it. 

24. Perfons of weak Nerves, have 
often a critical Flux of Rheum from the 
Glands of the Mouth and Throaty to a 
very large Quantity, which, if not 
tampered with, brings them great 


ij^^JnEssAY o/Health 



§. i.TCome now, in the Order of my 
-*■ firft propofed Method^ to treat 
of th« Vaffions ; which have a greater In- 
fluence on Health and Long Life^ than 
mod People are aware of. And that I 
may propofe my Scheme with the great- 
eft Clearnefs I can, I will lay down 
fome Profofitions or Axioms^ as the 
Ground- work on which it is founded. 

Prop. I. The Soul refides eminently 
in the Braw^ where all the Nervous 
Fibres terminate inwardly, like a 
Muftcian by a well tuned Infirument^ 
which has Kjjs within, on which it 
may play, and without, on which 
other ¥erj'ons and Bodies may alfb play. 
By the imvard Kjys^ I underftand thofc 
Means by which the Thoughts of the 
Mind affeft the Body ; and by the out* 


and Long LitE. 14J 

ward^ thofe whereby the Anions of 
Sensations of the ^oij afFeflt t;he Minn. 
Both thefe Affections may be called 
Vaffions \Ti a general View^ as either 
Part of the Compound is aaed upon. 

Scholium. As a Man is compounded 
of two different Princifles^ Soul and 
Body ; and as there are two different 
jcinds of outward ObjeSts^ by which thefe 
two different Principles mzy be afted 
upon ; to wit, Matter and Sfirit j the 
faffipns in thefe two different Vietvs may 
be divided into Spiritual and AnimaL 
As to thtfirft Branch of this Divifion, 
(ince Spirits (if I may be allowed there 
are any fuch Beings) may be fuppofed 
CO a6l upon one another^ without the 
Mediation of Organical Bodies (fuch 
perhaps was St, Paul\ E.xtaJ)^ when he 
was rapt up into the Third Heavens; 
fuch w^s Mofes^s Commerce with his 
Maker J when he fpoke to God Face to 
Face ; fuch muft the Influence of the 
Divine Grace be fuppofed ; and all who 
allow of Revelation^ admit, that the 
Soul may be Serene and Tranquil, while 
.the Bodf is in Diflrefs and Pain ; and 
even all the Stoick Philofopby is grounded 
en this Dijliniiion^ it mufi have a real 

U ' Ex* 

14*5 ^w Essay o/Health" 

Exigence in l^ature. And the other 
, Branch muft alfo be allow'd by all 
thofe, who cannot thinit Brute AmmnU 
mere Machines^ and whoobferve, that 
we have Imfrejftons made on our Bodily 
Organs, which affed us, fometimes 
very deeply, even in our BUep, How- 
ever thefe Things be, 'tis fufficient for 
my Purpofe, that Man is allowed to be 
a compounded Being, on which out- 
ward Objefts may act, to abftraft the 
Confideraiion of the Imprefflons made 
on the Sftrit^ from thofe made on 

Prop. If. The Union of thefe 
Fririciples In the Compound, Man^ 
feems to confift in Lim pras-eftablifh'd 
by the Author of Nature^ in the Com- 
munications between Bodies and Spirits^ 
as there are, no doubt, L.uvjeftablifli*d 
for Spirits, in their Commerce and 
Aftions upon one another. For every one 
knows there are Lam of Nature, efta- 
blifliM by its Author^ for the Anions Of 
bodies upon of>e another. 

, Scholium* Thefe Lan;/ of the Aflions 

' of the Soul on the Bodj^ and of the Body 

upon the Soul^ arc never to be known 

and Long Life. 147 

to us, but by their EfeBs ; as the Laws 
of Nature in the Actions of Bodies 
upon oae another^ were firft difcovered 
by Experiment^ and afterward reduced 
into general Propo^cio/is. One Liw of 
the Aftion of the Soul on the Bodjy i^ 
'Vice verpij feems to be, That upon fuch 
and fuch Motions produced in the 
Mufical Inftrument of the Body, fuch 
and (ach Senfations ri]oiild arife in the 
Mind; and on fuch and fuch Actions of 
the Soul, fuch and fuch Motions in the 
Body (hould enfue; much like a Signal 
agreed to between two Generals, the 
one within, the other without a Citadel^ 
which ftiould figjiify to one another, 
what they have betbre agreed to, and 
eftablifhed between them ; or Uke the 
Kjy of a Cypher^ which readily explains 
the other wife unimeHiome Wiiting. 
Befides thcfe Pajfions and Jffeiitons, 
which are involuntary^ 

Prop. III. As Bodies are purely ^/j^x'?, 
andaie a£ted upon by other Bo^rw, con- 
formable to the fettled Laws ot Nature ; 
in Spiritual Beings, on the contrary, 
there is an acHve, [elf motive, fdf-deter- 
mining Principle^ by which it dircfls arid 
Banages itfeif with regard not only ta 
U 2 its 

148 An Essay o/Health 

its own felfj and its own Sentiments ; but 
alfo to its ABions and Influence on other 
Beings without it, and their A£lioas 
and Influences on it. And this is the 
Foundation of Liberty^ or Freewill^ in 
Rational and Intelligent Beings. 

Scholium. That this Faculty or PriH^ 
ciple really exifts, and is eflTential to 
Spiritual Beings, is as certaini as chat 
there is Motion in the Univerfe^ or chat 
Body and Spirit are ejfentiaRy different. 
For) that Motion is not effential to Bodies^f 
is as certain as that Bodies are imfenc-^ 
irable ; and that the Quantity oi Motion 
in the Univerfe J maybe, and is daily in- 
creafed, is as much Demon/iration as any 
Proportion in Euclid. And if Motion be^ 
is, or may be increafed, it mud arifc 
^om Spiritual Beings. And he who 
can deny this, only fhews himfelf 
Ignorant of the principles of all true and 
juft Philofophyy and of the firft Elements 
of the Syjtem of material and fpiritual 
Beings. For further Convittion 0^ 
this, and clearing up all poflible OfiC 
jedions and Dimculties^ I refer the 
Reader to the Learned and Ingenious 
pr. Clarke^ in his Anfwer to the En- 
quiry into Liberty J and bis Letters to 
^ ' ' • " Mn 

and Long Life. 149 

Mr. LeibnitZy where he has treated 
this Matter with the greateft Perfpi- 
cuicy and Juftnefs. Befides thefe now 
mentioned Princifles^ 

Tfof. IV. As in Bodies there is a 
Principle oi Gravity or AttraStion^ where- 
by, in VacuOy they tend to one another^ 
and would unite^ according to certain 
haws and Limitations eilablilhed by the 
Author of Nature : So there is an Ana^ 
kgMs Principle in Spirits j whereby they 
would as certainly, in their proper 
Vacuity^ be attraSled by, tend to, and unite 
with one another, and their firft An* 
iiwj Centre^ and the Rock out of which 
they were hewn (to ufe a Scripture* 
Pbrafe ) as the Planets would to one 
another, and to the Sun. And this is 
nothing elfe but what in Scripture is 
caUed Charity. 

Scholium. This Proportion is as cer- 
tain as the Rules of Analogy are, which, 
in my Opinion, are the Foundation of 
all the Knowledge we can have of 
Nature^ while we can fee only a few 
JJnks of the Univerfal Chain^ and but a 
few disjointed Parts of the grand Sj^em 


150 ^« Essay o/Health 

of the Univerfe, The Jathar oi Nature^ 
who could create intelligent Beings only 
in order to make them Happy, could 
not leave them to fo many differenc 
jIttraflionSy without impianti/ig into their 
Effeitce and Suhfiame^ as an Antidote to 
fuch Variety 0^ Diftraiiions^ an iȤmte 
Tendency^ Bent and Biifs towards Beings 
of the fame Nature, and towards /Ifiw- 
felft who was the Caufe and Object of 
their Felicity. And even in this our 
lapfed and forlorn Eftate, there remain 
evident Footfteps of this Principle yet 
un- effaced. Such are the Checks of Con- 
fcience, natural AfeBion^ and the uni- 
verfai Defre of Immortality^ and Dread 
of Annihilation ; what the World calls 
the Seeds of Honour and Renown; all that 
Concern and Regard paid mere Ro- 
mantick Heroes ; and the Worjhip beftow*d 
by all Nations, who are not funk into 
mere Brutality, on fome Superior and In- 
vifihle Powers. Thefe arc Remains of 
this Pri/iciple, and its Workings, fuf- 
ficient to (hew its Reality apojieriori; as 
the Laws of Analogy, and the Nature 
and Attributes of the jirjl Being, fhew it 
a priori. Thofe who admit of Revela- 
tion, cannot doubt of it for aMooient^ 

and Long Life. 131 

Ibr ^ Mofes calls it, A Law engraven on the 
Heart of Man^ and f St. Paul^ The 
greatefi PefeStion of Human Nature. 

CoroS.i. Hence the true Nature of 
Suprenfie Sfiritual Good and Evil may be 
difcovered. For if there be impreffed 
on Sfiritual Beings, an infinite Ten- 
dencj^ Bent and Biafsy to be reunited 
with their Divine Original^ and the 
Place in the Divine Subflance out (^ 
which they were formed (if I may 
fpeak fo in a Figurative Senfe ) thea 
their being iinally united with this their 
Divine Original^ is the Supreme Spiritual 
Good^ and the feveral Approaches to- 
ward this Union, are inferior Spiritual 
Goods ; as the being finaBji feparated from 
it, is the fupreme Spiritual Evilj and 
the feveral Steps toward this Separation^ 
inferior Spiritual Evils. And the Means 
of this Union and Separation^ are Moral 
Good and Evil. 

CoroB. 2. By SchoL of Prt?/. i* the 
moft general Divifion of the Pafflons^ 

* Deut. XXX. 14. 
t I Cor. xiH. ulc. 


1^2 ^» ESS^AY o/HeALTI* 

was into Spiritual zttA Animal. A$, id 
the Jirjt Seofe^ Pa/fion may be defined^ 
Tha Sentiments produced on the Soul by 
external ObjeSts^ cither Spiritual ones 
immediately 9 or Material bnes^ by the 
Mediation or the Organs of the B(?^ : SOt 
in the y^rt^/r^ Senfc, Paffion may be 
defined, The Effcft produced by 5/>/ri» 
or Bodies^ immediately on the Bodji 
And fince outward OhjeHs may be con* 
fidered as Goods or Evils^ the moft na- 
tural Divifion of the Pajpons (whether 
Spiritual or Animal) as they regard 
thefe Objects^ is into the Pleafurable and 
the Painful ; which exhaufts their 
whole Extent. And in this Senfe all 
the Paffions may be reduced to Love and 
Hatred^ of which ^oy and Sorrow^ Hope 
and ftf^r, &c. are but different Modi^ 
feat ions or Complexions^ as they may be 
called. I do not defcend to a more 
particular Acqount, not intending an 
accurateTreatifeon the P^j^f?;^/, but only 
to lay a Foundation for fome general 
Objervations on them, as they regard and 
influence Health and Lof^g Lifei, 

^ §. 2. In relation to the Organical Iri- 
ftrumentsof the Body^ and the Effefts 
wrought on them, or the Dilbrdcrs 


and LoNQ Lif E. ^53 

brought upon them, the PaJJions may 

be divided into Acute and Chronical^ 
after the fame Manner, and for th^ 
feme Reafon, as Difeafes are. Thie 
acate PaffioftSy whether fUafurable or 
fahful^ have much the fame EfeSl^ 
and work much after the fame Manner^ 
as Aftite Difeafes do. They eflfefb i 
brisk and lively Circulation of the Fluidsy 
mff up and conftriB the Solids for fome 
ftlort TTime. Thus fudden Gufis of Joj 
or Griefs Pleafure or Pain^ ftimulate 
and fpur the Nervous Fibres, and the 
Coats of the Animal Tuhs, and thereby 
give a Celerity and brisker Motion to 
their included Fluids, for the fame 
Time. And the FafiBiom of the Heart 
and Lungs being involuntary^ they have 
their more immediate Effefts upon 
them. Thus both fudden Joy and Griefs 
make us breathe (hort and quick, and 
make our Pulfe fmall and frequent. 
The retaining our Breath for fome 
Time (for fo far our Breathing hvolunr 
tary) to refleft more intenfely upon the 
painful Objeft, forces at laft a ftrong 
Exfpirationj which becomes a Sigh. 
Thus a fudden painful Idea^ makes 
a quicker Circulation of the Bloody 
and thereby throwing a greater 

X Qjian- 

154 ^» Essay 0/ Health 

Quantity thereof upwards, through 
the froportionatty larger Branch of the 
Jorta, makes it appear in the fuperficmt 
Veffels of the tace^ Neck and Breafi\^ 
and fo produces a Bluflj^ which, when 
longer continued, and being very ftrong, 
is difperfed over the whole Surface of 
the Body. Hence the Obfervation of 
Blujbwg at the Back of one^s Hand \ and 

the Reafons why we figh upon fome 
Occadons, and hluj^ upon others, de^ 
pend upon the different Structure of 
the Organs of Puliation and Refpiratioff, 
A quick furprizing Pain of Mind a£h 
upon the Hearty becaufe the Motion of 
the Heart is altogether involuntary : So 
that a fudden Confiriliion takes plaCd 
there immediately to increafe the Pulfe^^ 
Whereas we have fome Power over 
the Breathing ; we can flop or fufpend 
it for a Time ; and when we are thinkr 
in^intenfely^ our Attention partly makes 
us hold our Breathy and hence enfues; 
Sighing father than Blufbing. For the 
Pain being jlowy quickens the Vulfe 
more gradually: But if it continues 
long both Aftions of both Organs are 
refpeftively produced ; and hence it 
comes to pafs, that upon Anxietjy 
Concerny and earneji Expe^ation, the 


and Long Life. 155 

Pulfe is found quick and fmall, and the 
Breath thick and difficult, as Experience 
fliews.Thc fame Principles will account 
for the Effefts of Fear and Afiger^ which 
make us change Colour, and look red or 
faie^ as the Blood is accelerated or re- 
carded in its Courfe. The fudden 
Giffts of thefe Paffions being thus ac- 
eounted for, when they become ex- 
treme, they drive about the Blood with 
fuch a Hurricane, that Nature is over- 
fot, like a Mill by a Eood : So that what 
drove it only quicker round before^ 
now intircly ftops it, and renders the 
Countenance pale and ghafily. Sudden 
and great Fear or Griefs do fo convulfe 
the Nervous Syftem^ that fometimes 
they alter the Pofirion of the Parts,, 
and fix them in a new one. Thus the 
Hair ftands on end in a Fright^ and the 
whole Sjftem of the Nerves becomes ib 
rigid and (iiff^ as to lofe their EUfticitj ; 
whereby the Animal Functions are 
ftopp^d at once ; and Fatnting^ and 
fometimes Death^ enfues. 

§. J- The Chronical Paffions^ like 
Chronical Difeafes^ wear out, wafteand 
deftroy the Nervous Sjftem gradually. 
Thofe Nfves which are neceffary for 

X 2 ccn* 

• * ^ 

156 Jn Essay o/Health 

confidering^ broodingov^v^ and/^/iig fuch 
a Set of Ideas on the Imagmaiiony being 
conftaotly employ^d^ are worn out» 
broken and impaired. The refiy by 
Difufe, become relly and unad:ivei 
lifelefs and deftitute of a fuificienc fl»^ 
of warm Blood and due NourifhcnenK, 
And thus the whole Sjft^m lai^uiihfis 
and runs into Decay. Thus (low aod 
Ipng Griefs dark Melancholy^ h^eUJA 
natural Love^ and overweening Pride^ 
(which is an outragious Degree oi Self- 
love) impair the Habit, by nftaking the 

8 roper Seafons of neceflary Food afid 
ue Labour be negle^led, and tbfifcbjr^ 
depriving the natural Funilians ^,%\\tAt 
wonted Supplies, overworking fomot 
Part of the Nervous Syfiem^ anjcjlleaviflg 
the other to ruft^ and become re^ tee 
want of Ufe. Some of thefe PajffijOes^ 
as Lovs^ Grief and Pride^ when v^ry/ 
intenfe and long indulg'd^ teumioafiat 
even \a Madnefs, The Reafoa is^ as \ 
have been faying, beqaufe long* aoA 
conftant Habits, of fixing one ThiagOA 
the Imagination^ begets a ready Difpofiti- 
on in the Nerves to produce agajfi rfie 
fame Image^ till the Thought of icbecome 
//7c?/irti/?^^/^and.natural) like breathiogiOC 

mQMptJm oMvifieart^whi^^^^^^^ 


and Lo MG Life. 157 

peribrms without the Confent of the 
fVill; and alio a Difability or ^Tetanm 
enfues on the other Parts, juft as the 
Faquiers in India^ fix One Or both Hands 
by long holding them up, fo as thac 
they cannot bring them down again. 
There is a kind oi Melancholy , which is 
cUJled Religious, becaufe "tis converfanD 
^bout Matters of Religion ; although^ 
often the Perfons {o diftempered have 
Utthfolid Piety. And this is merely a 
Tidily Difeafe^ produced by an iU Habit 
or Conflitution^ wherein the Nervous 
&yfiem is broken and difordered, and 
ths Juices are become vifcid xndglefitf. 
This Melancholy arifes generaUy from 
^.Dijguft or Difrelifb of worldly Jmufe^ 
wents and Creature-Conforts^ wheireuTOh 
the Mind turns to Religion for Conjold^ 
tio». and Peace : But as the Perfon is in 
a very imperfcft and unmortified State, 
not duly inftru^ed'and difciplined, anci 
ignorant how to govern himfelf, there 
eofues Fluctuation and hdocilitj/j Scru^ 
palojityy Horror and Deffair. 

§• 4. Since tjte Mind reddest as^ has 
beea&id!,' in* the common Senfory^ like 

158 Ja Essay o/Hbalth 

a skilful Mufician by a well^tunei Infifu^ 
tnent ; if the Organ be (bund, duly tern- 
peredy and exadly adjufted, anfwering 
and correfponding with the A6lions of 
the Mupciaff^ the Mufick will be dijiink^ 
agreeable and harmortious. But if the 
Organ be fpoiled and broken^ neither 
duly tuned^ nor juftly fitted up, it will 
not anfwer the Intention of tht Mufician^ 
nor yield any diftind Sound^ or true 
Harmonj. Thofe therefore who are 
tender and valetudinary^ \t2Ld fedentarj^ 
Lives, or indulge contemplative Stu« 
dies, ought to avoid ExcefTes of the 
Faffions^ as they would ExceiTes in high 
Food) or Spirituous Liquors, if they 
have any Regard to Health, to the 
Prefervation or Integrity of their In^- 
telleifual Faculties, Or the bodily Organs' 
of them. As the Pafjions^ when^(?m and 
continued^ relax ^ unbend^ and dijfolve 
the Nervous Fibres ; fo the fudden and 
violent ones Jcrerv up^ ftretch and Bend 
them, whereby the Blood and Juices 
are hurried about with a violent Impe^-^ 
tuofitjj and all the Secretions^ are either 
ftopp'd by the Conftridions, Cramps 
and Convulfions begot by them, or* 
are precipitated, crude and uncon- 
coded, and fo beget, or, at leaft,^:dir- 


and Long L i f e. i 59 

pofe toward Inflammations^ Fevers ot 
Mortifications. Hatred^ for Example^ 
jtnger and Malice^ are but Degrees of 
a Frenzy y and a Frenzy is one kind of a 
raging Fever. From all which 'tis 
plain, the violent and fudden PaffionSj 
are more dangerous to Healthy than 
thzjlovff and continued, as acute Difeafes 
are more deftrudive than chrdnicaL 

§. $• To flicw yet farther, the In- 
fluence of the Paffions on the Animal 
Oeconowjj let us coniider the different 
Conftitutionsof Men. Thofe who have 
very fpringy^ lively j and elajick Fibres, 
have the quickeft Senfations^ a weaker 
Jmfulfe producing a ftronger Senfation 
in them. . Thefe generally excel in the 
Animal Faculty of Imagination. Hence 
the. Poet, 

• " ^ Genus irritabile Vatum. 

And therefore, your Men o( Imagination 
are generally given to fenjual Pleafure, 
becaufe the Qbjeds of Senfe yield them 
a more delicate Touchy and a. livelier 
Senfation^ than they do others. But if 
th^y happen to live fo Jong (which is 
" ■ ■ ■ .1 ■ ' ' ■ . I ' ■ 

* Pgcis arc fiwh provok'd. •: 

: • - hardly 

f6o Jv Essay a/ He Attn 

hardly poflRble) in the DccUm of Life 
they pay dearly for the greater bodily 
Pleafures they enjoyed in the Youthlul 
Days of their Vanity. Thofc oi rigid, fisf 
and unpiUir^ Fibres^ have Ujs vivU 
$enfations^ becaufe it requires a greater 
Degree of Force to overcome a greater 
Refinance. Thofe excel moft in tht 
Labours of the Underfiandin^^ or the If^ 
telleSiual Faculties, retain their Impref- 
^ons iongeft, and purftie themfartheil; 
and are moll fafceptibie of the flow a«Nl 
lafting P(2JJionSy which fecrcdlv confume 
them as chronical Djfeafes oo. AimI 
laftfy^ Thofe whofe Organs of SenfaPi^ 
are (i( I may fpeak fo) iM^ekifl;ickf or 
intireiy callom^ refij for want of B*l 
ercite, or any way ohjirtiiled^ or na« 
tu rally ill- formed^ as they have (carce 
any Paffions at all, or any lively Sctt* 
fations, and are incapable of laftiflg 
Jmpreffions ; lo they enjoy the jirmefi 
Health, and are fubjeft to tbo feweft 
Difeafes : fuch are Ideots^ ^&afanu and 
Mechar/icksy and all thofe w^e call Jdi* 
dolent People. 

§. 6, We have befons jQiewii, that 
weak Lifffk^ aiid all t^he- bodily 
Organs^ may be- (^pefigDfa^ntcl and fe* 



and L6ng Lii'E. i6i 

j^aired by proper Exercije. And there 
IS no doubt to be made, but the Organs 
oiSenfation^ and thofe the Mind ufes 
in its intelleiiual Operations j may be like- 
wife improved J firengthned and perfected 
by conftant Ufe, and proper Application. 
And if by ExcefTes, an original bad Con- 
formation^ or any Accident, i\i^{t Organs 
Come to be fpoiled^ or by the bad State 
of the "^uices^ they be weakned in their 
Funliions ; then the Medicinal and 
Chirurgical Arts may take place, and 
come in play. But if the Pa (lions be 
imaging and' tumultuous^ and conftantly 
fuelled, nothing lefs than He, who 
has the Hearts of Men in His Handsy and 
forms them as a Potter does his Claj^ who 
fiiBs the Raging of the Seas^ and calms the 
Tempefis of the Air^ can fettle and quiet 
filch tumultuous, overbearing Hurri* 
cane^ in the Mind, and Arjtmal Oeconqmyi 
Without fuch a Miracle^ fince the Soul 
and BodydidimMiw^Wy upon one another^ 
and the Tabernacle of Clay is the 
weakeft Part of the Compound:^ it muft 
at laft be overborn and thrown down. 

§. 7. In fuch a wretched Cafe I knoii/ 
no Remedy, but to drown all other 
Pafllions ift that Spiritual one of t\\6 

Y L0V6 


I6a ^fi Essay o/Health ^* 

[Love of God. The Reafonablenefs and 
JuAnefs of which Proceeding, and 
(what may feem a Paradox) the Ufefu!- 
nefs oHt to Health, and its benign In- 
fluence on the Animal Oecofiomji^ I Ihall 
endeavour lodemonftraie. Spirttual Love 
is that Principle analogous ro Attraliion^ 
fpoken of in Prop. IV. 'Tis the Teit' 
dencj^ Byafs or Imputfc of the Minds of 
Men and other Spirits, toward themoft 
amwi/ff Objects, communicated bytheir 
Creator in theic original Formation^ by 
virtue of whicli, they conftantly tend, 
frefs zxi^ urge 10 nmtf: (and, JfObftacles 
were removed, would unite) with one 
another, and be all united with their 
Origin, This Principle indeed, in this 
laffed EJlate of Man (where 'tis over- 
laid and buried under K«A^;yi&, involved 
in fo many other JtiraUlom^ and ftifled 
with fuch Letts and Contrarieties^ that 
its Aftion is felt but juft enough to know 
that it is, and wants to be awaked with 
Labour, and excited with Fiolence^ as 
the Scripture mentions, the taking the 
KJngdont of Heaven by torce) on its firft 
Dei'elopenient and Exp'infan, and in its 
firft Exercifes, may be called a Spiritual 
Pi^oHj as 'tis the firll Motions, En- 
deavours and Velleiiies toward the Love 

and Long Life. 163 

ef God or Chanty. But in its Advances, 
iadfntl Perfeiiion zn<\ Confummatton^ it 
diicovcrs itfclf to be a Fact/ltj, Qualityj 
Or inherent Power in the Soul^ whereby 
it will aft without Solicitation^ Motive 
or Direcliofj. As a Stone in a Wally 
Aftned with Mortar^ comprefled by 
furrounding Stones^ and involved in a 
Million of other AttraBinns, cannot fall 
toxhc Earth, nor fenfibly exert its na- 
tural Gravity^ no, not fo much as to 
difcover there is fuch a Principle in it ; 
juft fo, the intelligent Soul^ in this her 
Uffed Eftate, being drorvned in Senfe, 
chained ^nd fettered by Ignorance and 
Perverfenels, drawn and hurried away 
by the DevU^ the World and the Re/i&, 
is difabled from exerting this inherent 
and innate Principle of Re-uniony and 
wants fufficient Light on the Under- 
fiandingj and a right Turn of the Jl'r//, 
to be put in a Capacity ofexercifing ir. 
But in its proper Vacuity^ and being 
freed from thefe Letts and Impediments^ 
it would mount towards its Original, 
like an Eagle toward the Sun. Jmiahi- 
lity. Pulchritude or Beauty ^ is as much 
the peculiar and proper Objeft of this 
AfFeftion of the Mtnd^ as Lighty or a 
lumittoui Body is off^ifotr ; for Deformity, 
Y 3 as 

164 ^ Essay o/Health 

as fuch, can never be loved. Ani 
Beauty or PerfeStion^ is, in Reality and 
jufl: Philofophy, nothing but Andqgjj 
Order^ or juft Proportion. From hence 
it necelTarily follows, that in the Scale 
of Beings, all Objeds ought to be loved 
in proportion to their Degree ofBeautjy 
Symmetry or Perfection. And confe- 
quently, the higheft Perfe^ion ought to 
be loved with the highefi Degree of 
Love^ and the feyeral fubordinate De- 

frees of Perfection, with proportionate 
)egrees of this AjfeCtion of the Mind. 
And (ince Finite^ when compared with 
Infinite^ vanifhes quite, or becomes 
nothirjg\ it follows neceflarily ((ince 
there is, and can be, but one Qbjed 
that is Infinite^ Good and Perfe^, and 
all others are but Created^ and Fini^ 
Goods ; that is, in Comparifon they are 
nothing) that, according to the esernal 
and immutable Laws of Anakgy^ the 
One fupreme Good^ endued with Injinite 
Perfection^ ought to be loved with a 
Love infinitely fuperior to our AfFefti- 
ons for other Things, or (which is the 
fame Thing in other Words) that^ in 
Comparifon^ our Love to the Author of 
our Being, ought to be in^nite ; and 
that to ourfelvcs and other Qbjeds, ais 


and hoiJG Life. 165 

being finite Crt2ituvcs, none at all. 
This is the true Philofophy of this Matter, 
and as much a Demonftration^ as any 
thing in Numbers or Geometry poffibly 
can be; however it may be received 
by Men of Self-Love and Carnal Minds. 

§. 8. Yet I would not be {o under- 
ftoody as if I condemned ?lW fubordinate 
and duly proportioned Regards for Our^ 
felves and other Objects about us, that 
are neceffary for our Support and Ac- 
commodation in our prefent State. No! 
There is a juft and laudable Self-love, 
as well as a falfe and vitious one. If 
we love Our/elves^ as we love our 
Neighbours ; if we love Ourfelves as God 
loves us ; if we love Ourfelves as we 
deferve to be loved by the infinitely 
ferfeSl Being ; if we love Ourfelves with 
a juftly proportioned, and duly fub- 
ordinate Love : that is, if we love Our-- 
felves with a Finite^ and Him with an 
infinite Lave^ or a Love increafing, and 
goinp on in infinitumy that has neither 
Limits nor End : Then we love Our- 
felves as we ought ; this Self love is juft 
and laudable, and has its due and pro- 
per Degree of Reality and Exiflence^ in 

fhe Nature of Things. Perfe(fion^ or 
'.- ' aa 

i66 ^» Essay (/Health 

an Objed perfefl: in its kind, or one 
that we think foi is the proper Objed 
of our Love. And as in due Amalcgi^ 
Proportion and Ordery wfimte Fbr- 
fedion requires wfiniie Love, or the 
higheft Degree of Lave we can give it ; 
fo all other ObjeSls are to be loved with 
a D^ree of Lave proportioned to their 
Perfe£lian. And fince a Being of m- 
fnite PerfeStion can be but ane^ and all 
other Beings can have but ^ finite De- 
gree of Perfeifioffj We muft love them 
but with a finite Love ; or, the Profarm 
tion of our Love to Him and them, 
ought to be, as Infinite is to Fimite. 
That is, comparatively we ought to 
love them with na Lave at all ; but 
abfolutely ( or without comparing 
ereated Things, to the infinitely ferfe& 
Being) with their proper Degree of 
finite Love, according to their Rank in 
the Scale of Beings. 

CoroU. Tho' from the Nature of the 
Demonfiration I have given, that Goi is 
to be loved, it is evident he is to be 
loved infinitely for Himjelfj and his own 
infinite Perfe^ions^ abftraQ:ing from all 
Other Confiderations, even that of our 
own Happinefsy in die Enjoyment of, or 


and Long Life. 167 

Union with Him; Yet it is certain, 
thefe TwOy our Love to God^ and our 
awn Haffinefs^ cannot be aflually iepa- 
rated. Pleafure confifts in this, That 
the Soul and Body are afFe^ed, by the 
Objeds that produce it, with an har- 
monious and commenfurate A£lion or 
Touch ; for in their original and uncor^ 
rupted Make, as they came from the 
Hands of their Creator j both feparately, 
and each by themfelves, and alfo m 
their Anions on one another, all 
was Harmony and Concord. As to the 
Body ; as nothing but a mufical or com- 
men fur ate Touch, can afieffc it with 
Pleafure, and as a difcordant and uncom- 
menfurate Stroke creates a Jarring^ 
Grating and Obfiru5tion^ which is Pain 
("this is evident in Hearing^ where the 
agreeable Senfations of fonorous Bodies, 
are altogether harmonious ; Sir Ifaac 
Nemon^ has made it plain in Virion \ 
And, no Doubt, it is fo in all the other 
Senfes) So likewife as to the Soul ; Trutb^ 
and Beauty or Perfeifion^ are the only 
Objedis that give Pleajure to the Un- 
derftanding and Will^ its two Cardinal 
Faculties. And thefe are nothing but 
Harmony^ or juft Proportion va the re- 
fpedi ve Objeds. And we have Ibewn, 


i68 ^» Essay b/HEALTH 

that the Union of the Soul and Body 
(or Lifcy the fo much coveted Good) 
confifts in a kind of HarmoniafntftabiUta 
(though a kind very different from Mr. 
Leibmtz?s) whereby an harmonious Teach 
or Adion upon either of them, produces 
a fleafurable Senfation. Now as Beauty 
or Perfeciion gives Pleafure to both the 
Parts of the Compound^ and as nothing 
but the higheft Degree of Perfe£tion or 
Beauty^ can give the greatefl: Pleafure^ 
ue. Happinefs; it necefTarily follows^ 
That Spiritual Love^ or the Lx>ve ofGodi 
as it is the only Mean of uniting us with 
the One Being, who h infinitely ferfeU^ 
IS alfo the only Mean of making \A 
infinitely hapfy. 

§. 9. As to the fecond Thing propofcd 
concerning Spiritual Love^ however 
foreign thefe metaphyfical Speculations con- 
cerning it may feem, to a Difcourfe 
about Health and Long Life ; yet, if 
fteadily believed, and their natural 
Confequences reduced to Practice^ they 
would not only become the moft ef- 
fedual Means to prevent Difeafes^ but 
alfo, the mofl of any Thing, promote 
Health and Long Life. For, y?r/, Were 
our Love proportioned to the Order and 


Andigj^ Tliiflgs ; were out* L^^ to the 
Stffreme Gifodinfinitiy and that to oth^^ 
in Comparifod, mmr 4/ liiZ} we fhbiil4 
have but one (ingle Yiew in all cldr 
Thoughts^ Words and AStions^ viz. The 
Fromoting and Raifing that fufreme 
Lovt^ « tb its due Degree and ElevatioB : 
whereby all Anxiety^ forking Care^ ana 
Soliiitade abbut othef Things (the 
Source of all oxxv Miferies^ and of many 
Bodily Difiiafcs) would be ri/^ off all at 
once. Secondly^ Since Le^i/^ always be<^ 
^sRefrmbhme of Manners ; fince the 
Objed of this L^e is infinitily fetfeB ; 
if we loved him in the^/rr^M^ Degtet^^ 
we fhould injinitely endeavour to refemble 
Him: whereby Hat fed and Mslice^ 
LuxMry and Lewdnefsy Lazhefs^ and aH 
the other ^fe^fj of Bodily Difea(eSjWOV\d 
be altogether defiroyed. Thirdly^ Since 
Spiritual Love is not only the ndfUJt^ 
but alfo the moft m/«/ and pleafant 
Affe(\ion of the Mindf; fince ttie Ob- 
|ed of our fufreme llove (as an in^ired 
Poet cxpreffes it) -has fulnefs of Joy in 
his Prefence^ and Rivers of Pleafures at his 
Right Hand for ever*, and fiflce ourji^ 
and Haffinefs will dways rife in |)ro- 
portion to our Love ; the placing Ourt* 
fufreme Love on the fufreme Gcod^ 
: Z would 

I70 ^» Essay o/HEALTrt 

would render us infinitely jcyful^ ferencj 
ealmzndpleafed; than which^ certaittly, 
no Man can imagine a more effe&ual 
Mean of Health and Long Life. 

RULES 0/ Health j»^/ Long 
Life, drawn from the Head. 


I. np H B Pafflons have a greater In* 

^ fluence on Healthy than moft 
People are aware of. 

a. All violent znd fudden Paflions, 
difpofe to^ or a£kually throw People 
into acute Difeafes ; and fbmetimes the 
fnofi violent of. them bring oa fudden 

3 . The JIow and lafiing PaffionS, bring 
on chronical Difeafes ; as we fee in Griei^ 
and languifhing hopelefs Love* 

4* Therefore the fudden and acute 
Paffions are more dangerous than the 
flow or chronical. 

5. Med 


and Long Life. 171 

5. Men of lively Imaginations and 
great Vivacity^ are more liable to the 
fuddea and violent Paffions and their 


6. Thoaghiful People, and thofe of 
good Underftanding, fuffer moft by the 
yfoff, aad feeretly confumif)^ Paijions. 

7. The 7»(fo/ff»f andtheThoughtleCs, 
fuffer Uajl from the Paffions ; The 
Stupid and Ideots not at all. 

8. The Vifeafes brought on by the 
Paffions, may be cr4red by Medicine, 
as well as thofe proceeding from other 
Caufes, when once the Paffions them- 
feves ceafe, or are quieted- But the 
preventing or calming the Paffions them- 
felves, is the Bufinefs, not of Phyfick, 
but oiVirtue and Religion. 

9. The Love of God, as it is the fove- 
reign Remedy of all Mifertes, fo, in parti- 
cular, it effeftuall y prevents all the Bodily 
Diforders the Paffions introduce, by keep- 
ing the Paffions themfelves within due 
Bounds; and by the unfpeakable Joy, 
pad pcrfed Calm, Serenity and Tran- 

Z 2 quility 

17^ An Essay o/He\a]uth' 

quilityit gives the Mind, becomes the 
mo^foveerjuloi all the Means q^ Health 
and Lofg Life. 



Contamng thofe OBSERVA- 
TIONS, that came not na- 
turally under the forego'mg 

[■^i.V(l^NTfON having been (b often 
r .\ *^'' made of Chronnal^ and fome- 
tin^cs oWftf/eDiftempers, it may be con- 
venient here, to fuggeft to the Readers, 
i as clear an Account of their Nature 
i .%nd Difference, as I poffibly can. 
J ^cute DiJ^empcrs, then, are underftood, 

Juch as within fome fhort Itmiied Time 
avc their Periods, either of a perfeS: 
I ^''^f^. and fubfequent Recovery, or of 
"lUttinganEnd to ihsDiJlemi>erind Life 
U^tj^ together j and are therefore called 

and ho VG Lif»- 173 

^icky Jbarp or ^ute Dideqipers^ whofc 
Syi;npcomsar^ pqr€ yioleqt, their Dura- 
tion (horteriaod cheirPcriods more quick, 
either of fuddet^. D^athy or 9 glorious 
Vii^orj over th» Difeafe. Thefe are 
generally limited within forty Days. 
And thoTe th»t run out; longer, turn 
iptQ chronical Dideippers^ whofe Periods 
afe more flo^t tbeir Symptoms lefs 
fipvere, and their Duration longer* 
They too (if new Fuel were not ad- 
miniftred to them ) would, by the 
Courfe of Nature^ and the Animal 
Qeconomjy have their Period^ and ter-* 
iplnate at the laft. The Vifcidity of the 
Juices^ and the FLacodity of the Fibres^ 
^puld, in agreatmeafurc, and to fome 
very tolerable I>egree9 by fraper Reme^ 
4ies^ and a due RegimcPj be removed^ 
^nd the Party recover in thefe, as well 
as inciy/^ Cafes. But this requiring long 
Time, much Care, and great Caution^ 
unwearied Patience 'and Perfeverance, 
and fo long a Courfe of Self-denial ^ as 
few People are willing to undergo, ic 
is become the Reproach of Pbyfick and 
Pbyficians^ that acute Cafes cure them- 
felves .(or, rather, Natur.6: cures them) 
and chramtaL Cafes are never cured. 

?ut both the Branches of the Reflexion, 


174 ^» Essay o/Health 

are equally falfe. In the Firft, Art 
and Carej judicioufly applied, will al- 
ways alleviate the Symptoms and Suffer- 
ing, will help on Nature to the Reli^ 
ihe points out, and quicken the Crife, 
which it will conftancly bring about, 
if the Diftem^er is not too ftrong for the 
Coaftitudoff. And even then it will 
natigate the Pain, and lay the Patient 
gently and eafily down. But in the Ufi 
Cafe^ if due Care be had, to follow time- 
ouQy the Advice of an honeft and expe- 
rienc'd Phyficiaay a Period certainly may 
be brought about to moft chronical Di- 
fiemfersy where the great Vifura are 
not fpoiled and del^royed. The Fail- 
ing is in the Patient himfelf, who will 
not, or cannot, Aeny himfelf {or a Time 
fufficicnt to bring about the Cure. Some 
chronical Di^em^ers indeed are fuch, 
cither by having gone too faty or by 
being Hereditary^ and interwoven with 
the Principles of Life, as never to be 
totally overcome. And then 'cis a 
P'kcz oi great Wtfdomy to know how far 
their ConAitution will go, and fit down 
contented with that Meafure of Health 
their original Frame will admit of. But 
of this I am morally certain, If the Rales 
and Cautions laid down in thisTreatife, 

and Long Life. 175 

be carefully^ Jieadiljj and confiantlj ob- 
ferved, few chronical Diftempers but 
will receive fuch Relief and Alleviatiott 
by them, as to make Life tolerably eafy^ 
and free from grievow Sufferings : And, 
in the mentioned Cafe^ that is all that 
is tefc for Art to do. But in other 
chronical Diftempers, taken in due Time^ 
where the Vifcera are not quite fpoiled, 
they would infallibly bring about a fiml 
Period^ and perfeft Cure. The moft 
certain diftinguifhing Mark of an Acute 
Diftemper, is, To have a quick Pulfe ; 
that of a Chromed, To have ^jlow one. 
The firft will exhauft the fluids, and 
Wear out the Solids in a {bort Time ; 
whereas the lafi will require a longer 
Time to produce the fame Effeft. Some 
chronical Diftempers, efpecially towards 
the lafi and fatal Period, turn acute. 
And fome acute ones terminate in thru- 
meal Diftempers. But this Mark will 
not only keep them diftin£i \ but alfo 
point out, when acute Diftempers have 
chronical Remillions or Intermiflions, 
and when chronical Diftempers have 
acute Fits or Paroxyfms. 

§. 2. Some Perfons who are ex- 
tremely healthy and found during 

175 JnBssMYof Mi Atr^ 

their younger D4ys> abdut, or food 
after tht Meridian of Life (that fe, 
about Thirty-five or Thirty-fix^ -ac-^ ^ 
cording to the ObferVatidn of znhffirei 
Kj^) fall into chronical Dlftertipers, 
which cat tHeih off in few Years^ Of 
make them mifersble all the r6ft of 
their Lives. Thtis Omfamtions provd 
mortal to fotfieAboiit that Time. Thus 
Stone and Gravely Goat atid Kheamdtifm^ 
Scurvy artd OropJ), Kjn£ s-^Evit 2itiA Skin^ 
Dfjeafes^ either mike their/r/? Appear* 
anccs, or (hew themfelves in theit trcr* 
Tjfe about this Time of Life. Ttid ' 
Reafbn is, While the Juicer are fvree^^ 
fufficiently thin and fluid,' but efpe^ 
cially while ihtfolid Organs^ the Meni^^ 
brdnes ^nd Fibres^ are yet biit unfoidtn^^' 
ftre^ching and drawing out to their full 
Dimenftons^ any Acrimony^ Sharpnefs, 6t' 
corroding Humour, can affeft them nd 
other Way, than by making them w- 
yme^ and fo extend thehtfelves farthef 
and- farther. For as Pain, fo thefi 
fharp salts, by their Twitching and Irri- 
titioh ori the tender F/^r^^, make thefli . 
only contrad, and fo draw at both^ 
ExtremitieSy and thereby unfold and 
extend themleives farther ; So while 
the original Foldings and Ccmsflicatians of 



dwJ Long Life. 177' 

the Solids are not yet quite extended, 
this Jrritaiiofi ierves only to draw them 
out, and does not hurt them, till they 
are arrived at their full Extent, which 
generally happens about Fivc-and- 
cwenty. It takes a (^«? Time at'ter that 
for thefe_/i&dr;> Humours to ejr^/f them- 
felvcs to their utmoft AcrimoRj^ to cor- 
rupt and putrify the Juices, and alfo 
fome more Time to wear out, to ob- 
ftru£t and break the great Organs^ and 
their fmaller capillary VetTels. The Sum 
of all which, brings the Periods of the 
great Attacks of thefe Diftempers to 
the mentioned Time of Life. Thofe la. 
whom the original Taint is deeper and 
more radicated, and the natural Con-^ 
ftitution weaker^ fuffer under thefe At- 
tacks fooner. And thofe in whom it is 
Jlighter 3.nd more fuperficial, and whofc 
Complexion is fironger and more hardy, 
hold out longer. But the Generality 
fuffer firft, eminently, about the Meridia/t 
of Life. Hence the common Obferva- 
tion of thofe that die of a genuine Ce)»- 
famption, that they begin to feel it firft 
before Thirty-ftx. 

§. 4. There is no chronical Diftemper 

wbatfoever, more univerfaly more 0^- 

A a fiinatSf 

178 An EssAK (/Health 

ftinatc^ and ttiox^ fatal in Britain^ than 
the Scurvjj taken in its general Extent. 
Scarce any one chronical Diftetnper but 
owes its Origin to a Scorbutick Cacbexie^ 
or is fo complicated with it, that it fur- 
nifhes its mofl: cruel and moft obftioate 
Sjmptams. To it we owe all the Drtffies 
that happen after the Meridian of Life, 
^n Diabetes^ j4fihma\ Confuwfpivns of 
leveral kinds, many forts oiColicks2it^ 
piarrhaa^Sj fome kind$ of Gouis and 
Rlffumatifms^ all PalSes, various kinds 
oilllcersy and, pofllbly, the C^^r^ il^ielfi 
s^nd moft cutof^eom Foulnefles^ weakly 
ppnftitutions, and bad Digcftt(»is, 
Vapours^ Melancholy^ and almoft all mt- 
vQis^ Diftcmpers whatfoever. And 
what a plentiful Source of Miieries thefe 
la ft: are, the Jffli^ed befl: can teL 
And fcarce any one chronical Diftemper 
whatfoever, but has fome Degree of 
this ^vil faithfully attending it. The 
Reafon why the Scurvy is fo * endemick a 
piftempfr, and fo fruitful of Miferies^ 
hy that it is produced by Caufes moftly 
l^ecial ai}d particular to this IJland\ to 
wit, The indulging fo much in animal 
Food^ a nd^re?;5g fermenting Liquors, in 
^pntmflatm^ Studies, 2j\6jedentary Pro- 


^ FjPCuIiar to this Country. 

, and L o N G L I F E. 1 79 

feflions and Employments (and thence 
the Want of due Labour and Exercife) 
together with the »«ro»tf Moirtuie of an 
Jflandy and the InsonfinKcjznd Imlsmeney 
of the Seafons thence arifing. I have 
had many Occafions to Ihew, how fuch 
Caufes muft necelTarily and naturally 
produce fuch Effeils. I will here only 
touch the Matter flight! y, to point out 
the Connexion. Jnimal Foods andjlror/g 
Liquors to Excefs^ g^nd with Continuance, 
muft load and charge the Fluids with 
their Salts. Want ot due Exercife muft 
fuffer thefe to unite in Cinders, and in- 
creafe their Bulk in the fmall VclT;ls. 
Their larger Bulk^ and greater AaimD?}y^ 
thencearifing, muft increafe the Fifitdtiy 
of the Fluids, by breaking the Blood 
Globules, and fo caaguUtwg the Mafs, 
and at laft obftruft thejfwer Pipes, and 
all the fmallcr G/fl«(^j.- Whereby the 
Tone of all the elafiick Fibres muft be 
interrupted and broken, and their 
Vibrations ftopt at every obftruQcd 
Gland and capillary Veffcl, and an unf- 
verfal Diforder produced in the whole 
snimat Oeconomy. And this Diforder 
win operate, and ftiew it fdf inij^ra/'- 
toms fpecial and particular, according 
to the fpecial and particular Make and 
A a z Co«- 

1 Conformation of the Parts, the Wesfrr- 
",|ie£b or the Strength of the Orgam^ the 
rpanicular Mifmanagctnents, and pre- 
..pife Slate of the Atr the Party lives io, 
'.And the Detail of thefe general Caufe« 
applied to particular Perfons, muftpro- 
' iluce the refpeSive Difcafes mentioned. 
_In a Wora, The Scurvy is a kind of 
CathoUck Diftemper here in Britain^ 
^rifing from conjlani and general Caafes, 
from the Caftoms of the People, and 
■f -om the Nature of the Climate^ which 
renders the ferous Part of the Blood 
too thick and glewy^ breaks and divides 
^he Union of the globulom Parts, ob* 
ftruQs the fmali VefTeis, and deftroys 
the Springinefs and Elajlicity o£ihe Fibres. 
So that moft chronical Diiftempers, can 
be iittle elfe, but Branches and Cions 
from this Roof, which (like Pandora's 
pox) is fo fruitful of Variety of Mif- 
phiefs. And its arifing from the Climate 
and Cttjloms of the People, is the Rea- 
JTon why chronical Diftempers are fo fre- 
quent in Britain^ to what they are in 
varmer Climates (which, by & freer Per' 
■ fpiraiion and Irgbier Diet^ not only pre- 
vent thofe Difcafes in their own Inhabi- 
taniSy but univerfally cure thofe of our 
md whp ?re afflided 

and Long Life. i8i 
if they flee to thofe Regions any reafon^ 
able Time before Nature be quite worn 
out). For though the Inhabitants of 
Britain, live," for the moft part, as long^ 
or rather longer^ than thofe o? tvarmer 
Climates ; yet fcarce any one, efpe- 
cially thofe of the hetter Sort, but be- 
comes crafyy and fuffers under fome 
chronical Diftemper or other, before 
they arrive at old Age. The fame Rea- 
fon is to be afligned for the Frequency 
of Self-murders here, in England efpe- 
cially, beyond any other Country. 
For few have Grace and Refignation 
enough, to fuffer patiently the lafting 
Pains of a chronical Diftetnper, or the yet 
more torturing aod crucifying A»guifh of 
a perpetual Difpiritednejs ; though I 
have obferved genemSj, and have good 
Reafon to conclude aniverfallj^ That all 
Self-ntarderers are firft diJtraBed and 
diftempered in their intelleifualV^cuhies. 
Notwiihftanding the Diffuftvenefs and 
Z7»/T/fr/'/;;)iofthis Difeafe, fothatfcarce 
a fingle Individual of the better Sore 
is altogether free from rt^;yet I never 
once in my Life, faw it tocal/j extirpated 
in thofe who had it to any Degree, Co 
as to be intircly free from it all the reft 
of their Lives after ; but that it ftill ap- 

i82 j4tt Essay of Health 

pearcd^fld fprangupagaln in (6meSynip~ 
I torn or other, and at laft brought foith 
. thitgrafd one, which put a fiaal Period 
CO all their Sutfeiiogs. One good Reafon 
fi)r this is, That it requires a Regimen 
\ and Ccttduci fo intirely contrary and of- 
I fofite to the natural Habiis and Cufioms^ 
' and the univerfal Bent and Jppetites of 
the Inhabitants of this Jjland^ that it be- 
I comes a kind of perpetual Self-denial m 
them ; which the Britijb Natiosj id 
' general, does not mightily admire. 
I Another Reafon is, That fne Folks ufe 
their Phjficians^ as they do their Laun. 
I drejfeSf fend their Linen to them to be 
cleaned, in order only to be dirtied 
I again. Nothing lefs than a very mo- 
, derate Ufe of animal iood^ and that cf 
, the Kind which abounds leaft in urinous 
I Salts (as moft certainly the young and 
1 flie lighter-coloured do) and a more 
moderate ufe of Spirituous Liquors^ due 
habour and Exercife^ and a careful 
guarding againft the Jmonfiamy and 
Inclemency of the Seafons^ can keep this 
Hydra under. And DOthing elfe than a 
total Ahjhnence from ammal Foods^ and 
firong fermented Liquors, can totally ex- 
tirpate it. And that, too, muft be be- 

and Long Life. 185 

gun early ; before, or foon after the 
Aiendia» of Life; or elfe there will re- 
main too lirtle Oil in the Lamp^ the 
Spirits will fink too far, ever to be re- 
covered ag^.in ; and the remaining Part 
of Life, will be too Ihort for fo total a 
Change as muft be made. So that 
thofe who luffcr greatly under this 
British Dirtemper, muft be contented 
to hear and forbear a little, and muft 
expcft no greater Degree of Healthy than 
their Time of Life, the Nature ot their 
Difeafe, and the State of their Co»jlitu- 
tion will admit of. But ftill a great 
Moderation in animal Foodsy and fpiritu- 
om and fermented Liquors, due Exereife^ 
and a Care to fence againft the Injuries 
oi the Weather, will make Life tolera- 
bly eafy ; efpecially if fome gentle 
domeftick Purgesh^ interfpeifed. The 
Seeds and young Sprouts of Vegetables, 
have fcarce any grofs, fixed, or ejfential 
Salts at all in them. This is not only- 
evident from the Reifons formerly 
given (becaufe they arc young, or the 
Nourifhment appointed by Nature for 
young Vegetables ; for the Earth is 
only a proper Neji or Matrix for them ; 
and the A»b's Heat fcrves them in- 
*- ftcad 

i84^tf Essay o/HEALTrt ^^ 

(lead of IncuhationJ but upon * Trial 
and Ex'imwaihn, they yield none, being 
coo light and thin to caUiae and in- 
eineraie, and the Salts too volatile (and 
confequently, fmall and fit to pafs by 
Perfpiratiofj^ and thereby can be no way 
injurious to Human Conjiitutions) to en- 
dure the Fire ; which full-grown Plants^ 
t\ic\: Stalks zad Wood, readily do. And 
in unfermented Li^uors^ the Salts are fij 
enveloped^ that they cannot unite to 
form a Sprite and are fo jbeathed, by 
particular Coats of the Materials of the 
Vegetable^ that they can fcarce do any 
harm (except when they exceedingly 
abound) to animal Bodies, Hence it 
comes to pafs, that a 'vegetable Vi'ict ^q'c 
a few Weeks or Months, together with 
drinking Water or unfermented Liquors 
( fuch as Tea, Coffee^ Barley-Water^ 
Liquorice- Water, Teas made ol Oranges, 
or other Seeds and Plants) will faftea 
the Teeth when dropping out, from a. 
Conjumption of the Gums by fcorbutick 
Salts, cure any cutatteotts Foulnejfes or 
Eruptions, and even any fpreading 
Ulcer, if it is not Scrofulous, when no 

* SceZowr^.Abridg. of Phil.TraoCv. j./.«i. 


and Long Life. 185 

Mecficrne on the Face of the Earth will 
touch ir. Hence the grand Maxim in 
the Cure of all Ulcers is, by Diet to 
bring them to the State of a Wound^ 
and then they will cure of them- 
ietves. And, as I have elfewhere ob- 
fcrved, there is fcarce a thtn^ confump- 
trve^ h)flertck, or hypochondriack^ and 
Weakly Conrtituiion in Enghnd^ which 
hasnot for its Parent, a latentormaniteft 
fcorhutick Cacbcx), excepting that which 
arifes from a Scrofula, Fi'om the whole 
we may gather, how much a proper 
Regimen oi Diet, and due Exercife, with 
the Other Helps and Remedies already 
mentioned in this Tre«;//^, is able to do 
in moft Britijb chromed Diftempers, 

§. 4. Having had ^o often Occafion 
to fpeak of weak and relaxed Nerves, 
it will not be amifs to fu^gefi, fome of 
the outward and moft fcnfible S/gns and 
CharaHers^ whereby it may be raanifeft, 
whether ofle'jy^//, or any p-snicuUrVcv- 
fon he is concerned for, be of this Make 
and Conftitution, before fome chronical 
Diftemper, or other difmal Sjmptom has 
made it plain ; in order to prevent rbefe 
as far as pofllble. To whidr Purpofe 
we muft oblci've, that the-AVr^'SJ arc 
B b Bundles 

i86 ^« Essay o/Health 

Bundles of folid^ ff^^^SJ^ ^^^ elafikk 
Threads or Filaments (like twifted Cat- 
Guts or Hairs') whofe one Extremity is 
terminated at the cvmmon Senforj in the 
hrain^ where the Soul is fuppofed tp 
refide ; the other is interwoven into 
every Vo\i\t0^x\\t Scarf-skin^ l\{t Mem- 
branes^ the Coats of the Veffelsj the 
Mufcles and the oihtv fen fible Solids of the 
Body, in order to convey the Motions^ 
Aii-i<mi, Vibrations^ or Impulfes of Out- 
ward 0^>c7j to the 5e?i//. Thck Threads 
or Filaments are highly elafiick or fpringj^ 
as we may fee from their hardned Sub- 
ftances, fuch as Whalebone^ Ivorjfy Horny 
and Cartileges ^x^hich are more eminently 
fo^ than any other Bodies known. Some 
Perlbns have their Fibres very quick, 
readily vibratirfg^ highly fpringy and 
elafiick^ fo as to tremble zn^ (hake violent- 
ly, by the leaft Imptdft. Others hav« 
more rigid ^ frm^ and fir etched Fibres^ 
which yield not but to ftrong Impref 
fions^ and move flowly, but move for 
a long Time. Lajilj, There are thofe 
wholiave tveak^ loofe^ flender^ and relaxed 
-Fibres^ which, though eafily moved, 
and yielding to the weakeft Impulfe^ 
yet communicate only imperfect j languid 
^aA faint Itnprefflom and Vibrations to 


a?id'LotJG Life. 187 

the Soaly and have all their other 
Animal Funffio/js of the fame langnijl^iig 
Nature. And 'tis of thefe Uft, I have 
been all along fpeaking. And we may 
readily difcover them, by thefe out- 
ward Char'iifiers and Signs, i. Tliofc 
who have naturally /o/f, thin^ fmiiH, 
znd jhort Hair, areot kloofs fi>bbj, and 
re/i7W State of Nerves. For the Hair 
feems to be fome of the flefliy t'shresy 
only lengthen'd outwardsand harden'd. 
At leaft, like the f/^/^/, they confift 
of a great many leffer Fthnisms con-' 
tained in a common Mim^r^ne, arefoltd^') 
tranfparent and elajlhk: And as thefe 
Hairs are in Strength and Hulk, fo 
generally the Fibres of the ]3ody are. 
2. Thofe of the f'trefi Hair, a re o{ the 
loofeji Fibres (other Things beingequal) 
becaufe the Fuirejl a re more n^rc, poronf, 
and fungous; And becaufe Bodies of 
the lighter Colours, confift of [mfillcr 
Parts, than thofe of the more flaming 
Colours; as has been formvrly obfcrv- 
cd. 3. Thofe of large, or (as they 
are called) >»<ifiiff Miffdes^ and of big 
Bonesy are generally of a firmer State of 
Nerves, than thofi; oUitcle Mufdes and 
Bonef: Becaufe the Mufcles and Bones 
being fmilar to their Fil/res^ as is highly 
B b 2 pro- 

i88 An Essay o/HSitLXH 

probable, and jthefe being hiyifir^ ai4 
confequcntly ftronger, fo muft thofe 
be : And, on the contrary, 4, $cft% 
yielding^ fafpj FleCh, is a fure Sjmffom of 
loofe fibres ; whereas hardy firm^ and Mfh 
yielding Mufcles, are the conftant Sig» 
of firm Fibres. 5. A rvhitej fair^blamh^d^ 
or £2/&^/r-coloured Complexion or Skin^ 
conilantly indicates a tveaker and more 
relaxed State of Fibres^ than a fuddj^ 
frefli^ dark fallow^ or black Hu^y for 
Reafons already given. 6, A h% c^f^ 
fulent and/^«^<j//riirConftitution, is al- 
ways attended with loofe^ flMfy$ and r^-r 
taxed Fibres, by their being diflblved 
and averfoaked in Moifiure and Humidity. 
And, on the contrary, thofe of a drjt 
clearjy and jirm Make^ have firoefg^ frnff 
and tenfe Fibres. 7. Thofe who are 
fubjefi to Evacuations of any kind, ia 
any Degree greater than what is na^ 
tural; aqd thofe who by ^ny Accidm^ 
have fufFered long by any pretern^mai 
Evacuation whatfoe ver, are, or beconje of 
loofe ^ related Fibres and Nerves. Thu* 
thofe who frequently rynintoP«r^if;5g;,Qr 
Floods of pale Water^ flow at the Moi|tb or 
Nofe, or melt into profufe Sweats ; thofe 
yho any Way have loft much Biood^ 
lliave baq ^ Piarrharay htive recovcired of 

and Long Life. 189 

a Fever^ and thofe of the5*rj; who have 
purified longer or more than is ufual ; all 
of ihefe are originally^ or become acci- 
deKtaHy^ oiweak and relaxed Nerves and 
Fibres. 8. L'7jlljj Thole who are of a 
eold Co»ftitH!io«^ are apt to run into 
C old ffeffes on their Exinmities^ or ready 
to catch Coldy are alfo of weak and loofe 
Fibres and Na'ves : becaufe thele are 
Signs of a Jlow and intcrrupied Circulation 
and Perfpiration ; which manifclh a 
weak Sprwg in the ivird-j of the Coats of 
the Veffeis^ the Fibres of the Mufcles^ and 
a Weaknefs of the Spring of the Scales 
of the Scarf fktff. 

^ 5. On this Occafion of rehearfing 
the Signs of weak Nerves, I cannot 
omit apprifwg thofe of the breeding 
Part of the -SVjc, and thofe who are 
concerned in them,oftheirReadinefsof 
Mijcarrytng^ unlefs duly tended and ma- 
naged, dpecially thole of them of ;£»iier 
and «eali NerveSf 0T0{ too dtlttale^Co/f- 
fiiiutro/;. The Signs I have now laid 
down, will always make ic evident, if 
any particular Perfon is lb or not. And 
if upon Examifintion they be found to 
be fmh^ they will be ape, upon the 
flighteft Occafion, to run into frequent 

ipo ^« Essay o/Health ' 

Ml/carriages ; wherebjzgreat Part of their 
Fofierit) will be deftroyed, and they 
thcmfelves cxpofed to Dropfies or Con- 
fumpcioos^or (which is worfe than either) 
perpetual Lownefi of Spirits, Vapours and 
other Hjjierick Diforders. And by this 
Misfortune alone, a confiderable Part 
of the better Sort here in EngUnd, perith 
and are loft. Nature has formed the 
Generality of the Sex, o£a.Joft, Jlender^ 
and delicate Make. \Vant of due Exer- 
cifcj a full Tahle^ indifcreet Narfes^ over- 
fond Mothers^ and Hereditary Sharp- 
neffes, make them much more fo. And 
if by Negle^ or Accident^ they once begin 
to mifcarrj^ every firft Mifcarriage paves 
the Way for iifecoad, and a third, and 
fo on, till the pear, prettf Creature^ has 
neither Blood nor Spirits^ Appetite nor 
Dige^ion left. For one Mifcarriage 
wea kens theCo»/2;/«;;oa,breaks and tea rs 
the /jer-voui Sjjhm more, than two raa- 
ture Births. If ever this is to be fecured 
or prevented effeftually, 'tis to be 
done, at leaft attempted, in the frji 
Inftanse, if poflible, at leaft as foon as 
may be, betbre a total Relaxnion and 
Dijfulution of the nervous Sjjlem is 
brought on. The Giddinefs, Romping 
and Gadding about of the young Crea- 

and Long Life. 191 

ture herfelf, is often the Caufe of her 
Mifcarriage. But oftner the Fortvardnefs 
and Indifcretion oiHurgeons and MidmveSj 
by hleedwgon every h'ttle threatning 
Sjmptomy without confidering the Con- 
ft it ut ion. Bleeding may do well enough 
in [anguine^ robuft, and^lethorickConni* 
tutions : But ^tis Death and certain 
Ruin to thofe of (lender and weak 
Nerves^ and the fureft Waj to caufe the 
Mifcarriage 'tis defigned to prevent, 
by relaxing the Nervous Fibres ; which 
Bleeding does as certainly, as it lefTens 
the Quantity of the Blood. The raoft 
efFefl:ual Method I have ever found to 
prevent fuch Miffortunesy vSy To order 
thofe in fuch CircumftanceS) to drink 
plentifully Briftol Water^ with a very 
little red Wine^ for their confiant Drink ; 
to lay the Plaifier ad Herniam^ with Oil 
ofCinnamony and London Laudanum^ in a 
due Proportion, to their K^/W; to keep 

them to a W, light ^ eafily digefled Diet^ 
efpecially of the farinaceous Vegetables^ 
and milk Meats \ CO ftrengthcn their 
Bowels, with Diafcordium and toafied 
Rhubarb J i£ thty hccomt too Jlipperj ; to 
air them once or twice a Day, in a 
Coach or Chair^ and to keep them cheer^^ 
ful, and ii]L good Humour j as much as 


192 u^» Essay o/HfiALTH 

may be. This Method will fcaree ever 
fail, unlefs a latent S^rofula^ or fome 
other Hefeiit(Xfj Sharfnejfes in their 
Juices^ d'cftroy the Birfh. 

^. 6. The Tender^ Sickly^ and thofc of 
r9eak Nerves^ ought to have a Regard 
in the Cortdu£{ of their Healthy to the 
diflferem S^afvns of the Tear. I have 
clfewhere ^ obfervedt, that ftich Con^ 
^itttptom begin 10 fink ^ droop ditid langmijhj 
about Chrtjimas or Midwhter^ go on 
from ir^r/er to worfe till the '^r/^^ k over, 
get ttf a little, as the Sun grows higher 
and (tronger^ arrive at their P^^^pm 
Altitude of Health and Strength about 
Midfummer^ and hold it out fo long as 
the 5«;^ warms them, or the Strength 
they have acquired lafts. Thofe who 
have very weak Nerves^ fail fomer^ 
even about the Autumnal Equinox : 
But they get up fooner^ becaufe their 
weaker Nerves make lefs Refifiance. 
The Sun nerp ferments^ rarijief^ and exalts 
thtk vtfcid Juices : 9o that the Circtda^ 
tton is better performed, more fuJl^ 
free and univerfal. The Perfpirativn is 
alfo thereby much tncreafed and pro* 

* Effky on the Gout. 

motei : 

iHoted: And the Load being drawn off; 
by the Force of the Suns Heat 5 their 
Appetite is fharpen'd, and their 2)/- 
geftion mended : To which the ferenei 
warm and clear Aify and the greater 
Liberty of Exercife and Bujinefs con- 
tributes. I fhould advife fuch there- 
fore, religioujly to follow the Indications 
of ^Naturcy and to take thefe Benefits 
it offers theriy as a certain Sign of their 
being A?/? and fitteft for them. After 
ChrtftmaSy and in the Beginning of the 
Springy MHky EggSy and Spring-Herbs y as 
Afpardgus\i Spinach^ znd Sprmts come in 
\firfi: Of which! advife them, to make 
the great eft Part of their ^iet then. 
Asthc JiJ^r/^J^ advances, Lamlf zndFea/y 
Green ^eafe and Sallading abound. 
"After the vernal Equinox y Chicken and 
Rabbity young TnrkieSy and early Fruit 
come in Seafon. About Midfummerj 
Mutton and Vartridgey Colliflower and 
Artichoak may be had. And Autumn 
brings in Beef and Venifony Turnip and 
Carrot. And it will be found, tlie con- 
codiive lowers of weak Perfons, and 
ihok of relaxed Nerves^ rife znd fortify 
gradually, as thcCc ftronger Foods come 
itrSeafon.' By Seafony I mean nory 
tiiofe earlier Days, that Luxury in the 

Gc Buyers^ 

194- jiin Ess AY of He Ai^ru 

Buyers, and Avariee in the Sellers aboutf 
LandaUy have forced the feveral kinds 
of Vegetables^ and Animals in. But by 
Seafm I mean, that Titne of the Tear^ 
in which by Nature^ common Culture^ 
and the mere Operation of the Sun and 
Climate, they arc in moft Plenty and 
Verfe£tion in this Country. But the 
principal y^/»/ I would »ir^^ is. That 
j^>& Perfons, would regutariy begin to 
correfpond with Nature, in both 
lejfening the §luantity, and lowering the 
Quality of their FW, as the Seafans 
indicate, and Providence provides the 
propel Food in greateft Plenty and 
Perfcdion. By which they wUl pre- 
ferve the Ballance of their Health 
pretty near equal all the Year round, 
have the lightejl and leaji Food, when 
their concomve Towers are leaft, and 
their nervous Fibres weakeji, and rife in 
the Food, in proportion as thefe rife. 
Add to thefe. That as Winter is beft 
for Home Exercifes, Summer is fitteft for 
ihofe without T^oors. And as the "Day 
lengthens, their Labour and Exercifes 
abroad ought to be lengthened out. 
Neither Sydenham nor Fuller, have been 
able to tell the Half of what obftinatc 


and ho if G Life. 195 

Exercife will do, in low, cachcftick 
confumptive Cafes. 

* — Lobar omnia vincit 

Improbus. H o r a t. 

5. 7. The Germans have a Proverb, 
That wife Men ought to put on their 
Winter Cloaths early in Autumn^ and 
put them off late in the Spring. By 
which they would infinuate, that 
People ought always to go wellcloathed. 
Whatever may be in this, as to Per- 
(bns that drink hard, and require a 
iplcntifnl^ ifcharge by the Skin,thoCc who 
are fobery or who would render them-^ 
felves hardy^ ought to accuftom them- 
felves to as few Cloaths, both in Sum- 
mer and Winter^ as is pofliblc. Befides 
the general Rule^ of having as few Ne^ 
cejfaries as may be ; much and heavy 
Cloaths, attroB and draw too much by 
Verfpiratiom zsDr. Keill provcSy in his 
MedStatic.Britann. tender ^nd debilitate 
the Habit, and weaken the Strength, 
The Cuftom of wearing Plane I ^ Js al- 
moft as bad as ^ diabetes. Nothing 

* f. 4. Unwcary*d Exercife will overcome any 
chrooiptl Diftemper. 

Cc a can 

196 AtEssAYof Heaj-th 

jcan enfeeble and drairiy weak and tender 
Perfons more. To make this clear, 
we muft diftinguifh between ^erfpira- 
tion and Sweatings which differ as 
widely, as the daily natural Emptying 
pur Bowels, and a Loofenefs oi'Diarrhaa. 
And as no Body in their Senfes, much 
lefs the Tender and Weakly,' would 
endeavour to encourage this laft; 
po more ought they that other of 
Sweating. For as promoting Jlippery 
Bowels, would always keep the Fibres 
of the alimentary Paflfages relaxed-, fo 
would perpetual Sweatings thofc of the 
Skin. And as the Moijiure and ^amps 
that Flanel perpetually keeps the Skin 
in, and its growing fo readily dirty ^ 
fliews what a Flux of ^erjpiration i% 
promotes there ; fo the perpetual Fri- 
iiion produced by it, gives the Reafon. 
If one lays on zfuperjiuous Loadoi Jlrong 
Liquor Sy 'tis happy for him Nature dif^ 
charges the Ocean any how ; for he had 
\;>tVi^ifweaty than burn in a Fever. But 
for temper at Cy tender y zw^fickly Perfons. 
the vciotcjirm and tight all the Organs of 
their Evacuations be (if they be not 
totally obJlru£ied) the better it will be 
ibr them, the more it will Jirengthen 
their Nerves^ and harden their Confiitu- 


< ' •■/■'> 

and ho NG Life. 197 

fion. Nothhig but Superfluity in Food or 
Jirong Liquors^ requires Sweating : And 
that is the Reafon, the Germans run fo 
much upon it. So far, that * 
TfchirnhauSy a very learned and ingenious 
Gentleman otherwifc, refolves the Cure 
of almoft all ^ifiemfers into Sweatings 
upon obferving its Succefs in their 
Bottle-Fevers. They drink much thiri 
pjarp fFiney which paffes every way; 
and when it comes through the Skin^ 
both the Confli^ and the danger is 
over. But for thofe Inhabitants of our 
IJlandy who are fober becaufe they arc 
tender y or would preferve their Healthy 
the lighter znd fewer their Cloaths are, 
both by Night and by ^ayy in Summer 
and Winter y the hardier they will grow. 
The more open the whole Body is to 
the Airy provided it be benigny the more 
jluidy and the more aSiivey will the 
Animal Juices he 'y and, by confequence, 
the more full and free will the ^erfpi- 
ration be. For right tempered Airy is 
beneficial and medicinal to the Animal 
Juices : And a great Heap of CloathSy 
only condenfes our own excrementitious 

^ In hi^ Mcdicina Mentis & Corforiu 


i^S ^nEssAY of HEAtrn 

AtmoJ^here about us, and ftops the 
kindly Influence of this beneficial Ele- 
ment. As to catching Coldy he that 
lives foherfy J and avoids nitrous j that is, 
moift otfrofty Air^ will cither not readily 
catch Coldy or if he does, will foon get 
rid of it. It is only Air thus conditianedy 
that thickens and coagulates our Juices,, 
and gives painful and dangerous Colds. 
It is inward Heat only, which dcftroys 
us. No fober Verfons ever fufFcred by 
Coldy unl efs it were extreme y or that 
they expofe themfelves obftinately to it, 
againft Senfe and Reafon. 

J. 8. Another Means of Healthy to thc^ 
Tender J Studious and Sedentary y is much 
and often /having Head and jF^r^, and 
wajhingy fcrapingy and paring their jRf^? 
and Zi^^j". The great Benefit (befides 
the Pleafure ) to the Heady EyeSy and 
Ears J by oftcnfhaving the Headwind Facey 
and wafbing them Daily in r^/^ fFater, 
with a few 'Drops of the Compound Spirit 
of Lavender y or Hungary Watery is beft 
underftood by thofe that have felt it. 
The Cutting off the //^ir, and /having 
the //I?^^, will, in the firft Inftancci 
fcarce fail to cure a Head-achy a Fluxiony 
or f ven a nervous Weaknefs of the J^^x, 

and LokgLifs. i^^ 

Any one Evacuation^ will not only Icficn 
the whole Mafs 5 but, if encouraged, will 
make that Evacuation more ample and 
full. The more and oftner the Hair is 
fbaved, the fajier and thicker it will^r^w^ 
So that thus /having the Head and Face 
frequently, will be like an ij^, or per- 
petual Blijier on thefe Tarts. Befides 
the fVajhing with warm Water and Soap^ 
and fcr aping the Skin with a Razor ^ will 
cleanfe the Mouths of the "Perspiratory 
^ucisyixom that Morphew and ocurf thzt 
adheres to them, and will extremely 
encourage the Terfpiration from thefc 
Parts, and give a full and free ^^/^ 
to the Fumes on the Head and Brain. 
And wajhing well, and dipping in r^/is/ 
PFater afterwards, will Ihut the Scales 
of the Scurf-skin, and fecure againft 
catching Cold in the //i?/^<^ which is fre- 
quently a heavy Grievance, to tender^ 
fiudious and fedentary Perfons. There- 
fore 1 fhould advife fuchy to yj^o;^ both 
^^^^/ and Face every i>ayy or every 
other Day, or as often as they poffibly 
can, and wafh them well in cold Water 
afterwards. What /having does to the 
upper Tarts, the fame do wajhing and 
fcr aping the Feet, zud paring thcit Mails 
to the lo'Ji;er. We know oy the Tick- 

^ li/fmefs 

2od At Esi At of HKAttU 

lifbnefs of the Soks, what a multitucfd 
of fine nervous Fibres terminate in them. 
Walkings Standing zn^Treadingy rendei^ 
them cdUms^ and the Skin thick and 
bard\ which much injures the ^erfpin^. 
tioHy and hinders the derivation oi the 
Blood and Spirits into them. And 'tis i 
common Oofervation^ That nothing is a 
furcr Sign of ftrong and rank Healthy - 
than a kindly Hedty and a profufe Terjpi^^ 
ration on the Feet. It ftiews a fuU and^ 
free Circulation in the fmall Veffelsy at»* 
th6 grcatcft Diftance from the Source of 
Heat and Motion y than which nothing can 
ttiore ^\2Xn\y indicate great and good 
Health. On the contrary, weak and ten- ^ 
der Pcrfons, are always cold in the Legs 
and Feet, and firft of all feel Cold there 
in frojly Weather. Let the Tender there- 
fore, and the fVeakfyy duly once a Week, 
wafh in warm Watery ruby fcrapCy and 
pare their Feet and Nails. Which will 
likcwife prevent CornSy HardneJjfeSy and 
the unnatural Tendency of their Nails 
into the Flefli. Thefe are, 'tis true, but 
low and fcemingly trifling Obfervations 
towards Healthy but 'tis in this Cafe, as 
'tis a more momentous one 5 He that de^ 
Jpifeth little Things, fballperifh by little 
and little. 

§. 9^ Thofe 


(wiLpNG Life. aoj 

§. p. Thofe tender and 'valetudinary 
feople, whofc Studies or 'Profeffion 
oblige tUem to read or write much, 
ought, as far as they poflibly can, to 
fiaTid in an cre£t 'Pofture, bending their 
Head and Breaft as little as may be, 
leaning only on Ajioping 'Desk, and con- 
tinuing their Exercifes in that 'P&fturey 
'till they grow WMry ; then reft, and 
be at it again. Cujiom ^.n^TraBice, ob- 
ftinately pcrfiftcd in, will at length ren- 
der the 'Pofiure caly to them. And 'tis 
inconceivable, how many and great Ad- 
vantages it will bring to the Conftitu-' 
tion. Sitting, Bending, and Leaning low, 
comprefs feme, it not many of the l^ejfels 
of the Body; and fo flop and retard the 
Circulation of the Blood and Juices thro' 
them } which makes a more ready Flux 
through the other more patent and per- 
•vious ones. Whence that Sleepinefs 
and T>tfability to Motion in the Limbs^ 
till the Blood and Spirits^ by a pro- 
per Pofture, get a free Admittance into 
them. From this alfo, chere enliics aji 
unequable and ftibfultory Circulation of 
the Juicesy and an unequable Secretion 
in the Glands i and confcqucntly, an 
unequal Cr<m)th, Strength, and Vigour, 
D d of 


r floi ^« Essay of HeaIT 

pof the Organs and 'Parts, Which is the 
piCaufc of Rickets in Children -, cateleli 
"Jurrcs, ncgicftlRg to rock, dandle and 
tofs them fufficiently, that the Circuiti- 
hiien of the Juices and Spirits may be 
Wequally promoted every where. And 
►w avoid this Inconveniency , feems to be 
Mxhc Reafons why the Romans and the 
f£,afiern Nations, lay along, at fheit 
t|5Teat Meals and Feajis, and when they 

■ were obliged to continue long in one 
' 'Pofiure. Befidcs, that in fVriting or 

■Reading, if one fits, there is a conftant 

y^rejfure on rhe Cavity of the Breaft and 

^Stomach, which muft necefTarily weaken 

^ythzi^ Functions i and thefe are common- 

<ly the Organs, which firft decay in Clerks 

j-and Under-Secretaries. And hanging 

m down the Head is the ready Way to raife 

\yFumes znA Vapours to it: Whereby fuch 

: will be cxpofedtOjLfl^»^of^/W/J,and 

( perhaps Canfnmptions •■, all "which arc, in 

la great meafure, avoided by an ercft 

. ^ofiure : For thereby all the Organ! 

■will be in their natural Situation. Many 

f of the Mufcles will be in Action, and fff 

i prcfs on the Blood VeJJels, to facilitate 

■ the Circulation. But chiefly, by this 
crcft Tojlure, the Juices will have the 
Advantage of their own Gravity, to 


Bt/LONG LjFE. 103 

defcend with the greater Velocity^ to 
warm and eheri^ the lower 'Parts, which 
arerenioteft from the Source oi Motions 
and the grolTcr Evacuations \/ill be more 
rcidily promoted, and thereby prefervethc 
upper Regions clear ^ndferene: Which 
will bring great Advantages towards 
Health and Long Life. But this Tra- 
£tice will never become ealy, unlcft to 
thofe who begin young. Thole who 
dilate or corifult, ought to do them 
fianding or walking ; which would re-- 
lievc both Body and Mind. 

§. 10. The Unwieldy, Fat, znd Over- 
grown, befides the Rules already laid 
down, I advife, in partrcular, as much 
as is poflible for them, to ahjlain from 
fDrink of all kinds. No one Rule or 
Condition, ever was contrived, or can 
be, of fa great Ufe, to freferve and 
lengthen the Lives of fuch, as an obftinate 
and univerfal Abftinence from alt kinds 
of Liquors. If the TJioHrine be true (as 'tis 
highly probable) that the Mafs of all the 
Bodies of Vegetables and Animals, is 
only 'Pipes and vafcular Tubes, formed 
4II at once, in their firft Rudiments and 
ly^fi/i i then Growth and Increafe of Bulk, 
is oaly filing md plumping up, dilating 
D d :; anU 


ao4 An EssAT tf Heaith 

iftd unfolding thcfc Tipes with Liquors 
Wc know from Kirchefs and Dr. 
Woodwards Experiments^ to \i\i^ Bulk 
Vegetables will thrive, by mere Element 
alone. Two 5P/^x of the fame Litter^ 
were fed upon an equal Quantity ^iMilk^ 
only, to one of them, the Milk '^ds 
mixt with the fame Quantity of fFaPfr, 
After a Month's feeding, they were 
both killed, and that which had the 
Watery was found much /!si;^rai\d^//tt 
than the othen T^ropfies (at leaft Ana- 
/area's) have been cured by an obftinatc 
Forbearance pf ^rink. And Lethargies 
proceed from the Moifivre of the Brdin^ 
And thefe arp the two Difiempers, Uth 
wieldyy Faty znd Overgrown P^tfons are 
moft fub;ea to. Therefore, fuch ought 
to avoid ^rinky as thofe do, tn^ho havt 
the * Hydrophobiay or are bit by a mad 
^og. Which they may cafily bring abocrt, 
if they feed only on young animalj and 
inpiji and cool vegetable Food. But when- 
ever I fpeak of vegetable Foody I mean 
that which is dreflfed by Fire. 

*/. e. -Drftfi/ofWater; a Difeafe 9;^ called, pro- 
ceeding from the Bite of a mad Dog^ . 

' : ^. II. To 


'WLoNG Li F E. 305 

'Jf. IT. To the Agedt and thofe who 
arc pafling off the Stage oi Life, 1 have 
only two Things to recommend, if they 
would make the laji Hour, as eafy, in- 
dolent and free from Vain as may be. 
Theji>y?is, That they would avoid the 
Injuries of the fVeather, as much as ever 
they can. The Blood of the j^ged is 
ever moft certainly poor and vifcid. 
Their 'Perjpiration little or none at all j 
and ihciv conco&ive Powers •u.'eak. And 
confequcntly, they muft he fuifjc^ed tO, 
and fufFer by the weakeft/H/«r/f/ of the 
IVeatber. Therefore I advife fuch, to 
keep Home, provide -jDarm Rooms and 
BedSj and good Fires, whenever the 
Sky lowrs, fVinds blow, or the Air is 
fharp. Such are not to exped to raife^ 
improve, and exalt their Confiitutions or 
Healih. Freedom from ^Fatn, to prevent 
the vital Flame's beina; cxtinguifhed by 
Accidents, and to have it burn as clear, 
and as long as Nature, at their Age, has 
dcfigned it (hould, is all they ought to 
aim at. Exercife is only to purge otF 
Superfluities. If thefe therefore, be care- 
ful not to exceed, they will want none, 
nor would it much contribuie to theic 
Bafe. For in old Men the Bones petrify i 

aoB Am Essay ^Health 

the Cartilages and Tendons turn into 
Bones \ zxi^^zMufcUs^SiA Nerves \viXjb 
Cartilages and Tendons. And all th(^ 
Solids lofc their Elafticity^ and turq, in 
a great meafure, into thap Ei^rth they 
ate going to be i^JJolved into. So that 
the Solids waating Bl^llicitf^. Epfercife 
can do but little to fbake off th? Zi^i^ 
It will therefore be enough for fufh^ tc^ 
air themfelves when the Sifn lights 
them, and the SummfiT Bree;2i^s ca^ r^ 
freP) them. Or, tf they , would ki^r 
then out their ^aj/s^ to remove to .a 
warmer Climate y by which they may 
live a^ long as the CroWi The ficmd 
Thing I would advife fuchy }?^ To lef- 
Xen their ^iet gradijally, a^ they grow 
older y before Nature has forced this jDi- 
minutian upon them. This is a powerful 
Mean to make their old Age green 
and indolenty and to preferve t^e Re- 
mains of their Senfes to the yery laft. 
By this alone, , 0!r»/?r(7 lengthened out 
his T>aySy and prefer ve^ his ,$etffeSy in 
a great meafure, intire to a hundred, 
Tears. He gradually leflened his ^ief 
io far, that, as his Hijiorian informs 
us, he came at laft to live on the Talk 
qf art Egg three, Days. I will apt take 
upon me to advife others, in what Mea^ 


ftwHLdNd Liif E. 

fare, cither of Time or Quantity of 
FW, they ought to diminip}. But this, 
I think, they ought to confider. That 
fince 'tis certain aged 'Perfons become 
Children, as to the Weaknefs of their 
'DigeJiionSj they ought to diminish, as 
Children increafe in their Food, from 
•weaker to "jJeaker, and from lefs to 
lefs. For as their Solids are unelaftick, 
their conc0£iive T<r^ers weak, their 'Per- 
fpiratian little, and the Expences of 
Living fcarcc any, their Repairs (not to 
overlay the Spark of Z/z/i* remaining) 
ought to lelVcn proportionally. And 'tis 
to the Ncgled of this, in aged Terfons, 
that rhofe Rheums^ Catarrhs, Wind and 
Coltcks, Lofs of Memory and Senfes, thofc 
jicheszriA^ains, and all that «^/^d/tfW(/ 
^/tffi Tra/M tf/" Miferies, that wait on 
Z<cw^ /-(^j is moftly owing. Which, 
by a difcrcetand timeous lelTening their 
't>iet, might, in a great mcafurc, be 

'"■^.Ti. Thei'c is do Miftake more fatal 
' ■ the Cure of chronical Diflempers, 
^ncidcnf to the Weak and Tender, than 
tie ^'i^/n a«(/ »»/«/? Expcftation they cn- 
fertain of a fudden arrd quick Cure, or 
Sjvcn of a fcnfibic Relief. This, with 

ao8 Jn Es^AY of Hi. A1.T; a 

their loconftancy, and XmpatieiQce of 
hcii^g confincci 'm tHcir AppQtites,. makes 
thorn cither thjroW; off all ,Reinedie3 
ao4 JBLeftraints In DeXjpai^, an4^ive them- 
iielvQS up to an hfibitual Indulgence iit 
all thofe Things tha,t brou^ on ^t 
cxaiperated the Diftempcr, or run about 
changing, from I)odpr to DoAoti ^till 
they ,end with a J^hfOtcky ox die unjdcr 
the hands of a Mountebanks^ aiad are 
faoPd out of their Lives and Money 9Sl 
once* It is furpruing that reafonable 
Men can imagine, that in any Jmall 
Time, any. poilible Methods or Medicines 
(hould cure, or even renHbly relieve a 
Difteniper, that perhaps was brought with 
them into the World, and interwjyjjfn 
with the Principles .of their Qeing, or, at 
Jeaft, may have been TV^^or Twenty 
Tears a breeding, by Excejfes^oi vi Jn- 
difcj^eet Regimen. I know no fitter Si- 
militude of the Caiib, than the annual 
Income of an Eftate juft fulficient to 
keep one in decent Ncccflaries, and 
due Plenty and Cleannefs. If one ithat 
has fuch an Eftate, r^m out every Year, 
for Ten or Twenty Years, and then 
fet about to retrieve, before he be come 
to Starving or a Gaol^ would we not 
cpiuit him mad^ if he flK)uld inoa^ 


^ine, by Retrenching, Management or 
Saying, even joining tp thofe T^ayAabourj, 
?hat a f^ Moqtlu or Ycar$ would 
recpycr all, an4 bring his Eftate to it^ 
firft Condition. J>Ip! Ik mu(l labour ^^ 
skfiain and mAWgf fpr Jeveral Years } 
and the Time required^ >viU he always 
in a ProjpQjrtion compoMnded pf the; 
i?^^ of his former ^xfev.c^Sj and hii 
prpfent Sofvtvg. Tli^t is, If his Ex- 
peaces were hut fmnlh ?/>d his Saving? 
gr^Oity the Time will be the fjiorfcr, in 
jrefpeft of the Time he continued hi5 
overfpending. If he g^vcs over ,SAViP!g^ 
fee rouft at Uft piofl: CA^^t^inly ^ary^ 
^pr go to Gaol 5 and if he hcgins f/gt f^vf 
in 4ue Time, he will c/jrt^iijly r(tw^4 
alls but the whp^i: conJlJiAs |n /^^i^iii^ 
und Saving for a ^^ T/>»^. Excejffs a nd 
an «i^/w ffiegimn^ is running ouf pf one'^ 
Health i , which > withoijt j* pr-ppet 
Rfmedy, ^ L4&0itmv^i :4bjimence, wii^ 
iicceflTariiy bring a Man to ^ifeafis pf 
^eatjh. And thefe mui): be continued ^ 
Timepfportimed to th? CreatflcG qif the 
Exjcijfes:, with regard to the: Lakour and 
Akfikaence. Hs^ chronical Diftempers 
have ..for their JBMeac^, corrupte^i 
f Uiidiy and hcofcen 3qU<^i as \^^ he<^9 
^ew|L A Jp«^ Scale . «f , jhc SfP^fm}> 
J £ e and 

aio y^M Essay 5/ Health" 

I a\\<\ aliment ary Organs, cither beget thefe 
I or accompany tlicm. Suppofc, foe Ex- 
) ample, the Cafe be a fcorbutick Habit, 
k ihcwing it felf with Blotches and a isDatry 
y \Ichor,oi Bump s,\j'nY\yellou! ox black S^OK 
1 ,0:1 tiic Skin, a thick, vifcid, rheumatick 
\ 31ood, an obftrudcd Liver, and a con- 
I itant overflowing of the Gall, Opprcf- 
L vfion of Spirits, want of appetite and 2);- 
m^Jfion, and thereby a JFaJting, LaJJttude. 
\iinquietudet &c. which 1 have often met 
liwith in your Ben Vivants, and your 
L^Iree - Livers, who have been born 
fciiiealthy, vigorous and lively; I know 
(41110 way in Nature to relieve and cf- 
.rfcfttiaily cure this Cafe, but by often- 
j'lKpeated, gentle Vomits and Stomach 
Vi^urges, as the Choler (which certainly 
J .degenerates into Flegm, before the 
f '.Cure be brought about j for Flegm 
but Choler more diluted , or the 
jgtofl'er Partof the 5'fra»/ only, as Choler 
pis that of the whole arterial Fluid; and 
fiVihcTi Choler h come to Flegm, the Cure 
|. Is half carried on, one Part of the Fluids 
li'bcing already purified, and the Liver 
|i free and open } As the Choler, I fay,) 
>'and the Flegm rifes and loads the ali- 

■ mentary Pallagcs ; Bitters, Aromaticks 

■ and Steel varied and prcfcribed, ac- 


and L o N G I. J F E. 2 11 

cording to the Strength of the Patient, 
and one kind as another has lofl its 
Virtue; Chalybeat and Miner at \Jsx.zi%, 
conftaiit Labour and Exercifci a cool, 
iight, /pare 'Diet, and confiant proper 
Regimen, long and obftinately pcrfirted 
in. The Patient will often complain. 
What ! Promts and Bitters, Galloping and 
Fajiing for ever I Vomits only relieve for 
a few Days, but do not cttre : We grow 
as bad as ever again , and in fome 
Months Pcrfcvcrance , find ourfclves 
juft where we began. New Doftors 
muft be had, and they muft cither be 
ca(hicr'd if they purfue the fame Inten- 
tions (which, if they be honeft Men, 
they muft do) or clfe muft write Things 
that can neither do Good nor Harm, or 
thofe which will aftually hurt , for 
their Fees (for there is no Medium) 
till the miferable Perfon has run thro* 
the whole Faculty, and at laft got Into 
the Charlatan Tribe. It is certain, that 
when Nature has begun to throw the 
grofs and vifcid Parts of the Juices on 
thofe loofe and fpungy Glands, it will 
continue fo to do, till it has dcflcgmatcd 
the whole Mafs: and every new Vomit 
will make Room for another ,■ and 
Dther Remedy as long as 
E c 2 there 

ill ^ ESJAY*/ HeaIth 

there is any viurid Humour temaihiiig, 
nor can the Decline oF the EK(Hfe be 
difcovcred fo certainly by any Thitig, 
las by the Lcflfening of the Quantity ex- 
Ccrned, and the Lengthening of the In- 
tervals : As in a Veflcl of Oil and 
Water incorJ)orated, a ftire W^y to fc- 
|)aratc the Oil From the Wat^r is, to 
Skim it off as it comes to the Tt))^, - Nbw 
as bng as there is any Oil rentiinlng i^ 
will fwim, if you but give it Timi tt> cJc- 
tricate itfelf from the Embraces of tht 
fTaterj and then yicm ntey fepatate the vlf- 
tid Mixture intirely • No great Purpfeft 
in Life wias ever brought aboiiti but by 
Time ^nd T^fenct, and by c6h(fently 
mrfhmg the moft natural and bctt ^p- 
iroved Means that lead towatds ftiat 
nd. .Nature >^orks not by ftAdeh 
Jumps and Starts, but goes oft fteailily, 
jbrterheTft & dtmeirh^nt^ and Yfe Niiture 
that is the true Pliyfician : Art onTy re- 
movers Obftaches, checlts Violtncc^, and 
jgently follicttcs Nature the Wa[y fee 
tends. This tiquires Tme and ^ifii- 
jmce. TempusedaK Rerum. krtioftiitr- 
tainly conlumes chronical DiFeafts, if 
not fuelled ^nd fed i J^atbingeffeczi^. 


and ho a G hi YK. 115 

I J, In fine, Providence has been 
kind and gracious to us beyond ail Ex- 
prcflion, ill futnilTiing us witli a ccttain 
Relief, if not a Remedy, even to our 
moft intenfi 'Pains znA extreme Mi feries. 
When cue Patience cnn hold out no 
longer, and our Pains are at laft come lo 
be infupf or table, wc have always ready 
at Hand a Medicine, which is not only 
a prclent Relief, but, I may fay, a 
flandins; And catiftatiS Miracle. Thofe 
only who have wanted it moft, and 
have felt its friendly and khid Help in 
their Tortures, can bed tell mxvotuierjul 
EffeBs, and the great Goodnefs of Him 
who has beftowed it on us. I mean 
Opjmn, and its Sotation Laudanum^ 
which, when properly prefcribed, and 
prudently managed, is a moft certain 
and fiidden Relief in all exquijite and 
" -iHteKfe Pain. The Manner of its Ope- 

'lon may be gathered, from the Ob- 
rvations I have made in the preceding 
■Tteaiife. Pain conftrids, crifps i^, 
•^holtens and contrafts animal Fibres. 

afts like a Wedge in tearing, rending 
i*nd dividing rhefe fmatl h'ilamcntsj it 

tes to them in a living Body, what 

LC Fi^nts of* Salts do to all animal Sivb- 




014- An Ess \Y of Health^ 

fiances, which arc to be prefcrvcd for 
Food, viz. hardens, ftiffcns and con- 
tratls them. The Fibres of live Ani- 
mals being con t radii e, tonick and 
l^ringy, when a hard pointed Body 
enters them (which is the Cafe in aU 
bodily Pain) the Parts by their „coni 
tradile Nature, fly from, recede, and 
ftmi, as much as poflibly they can, 
the wounding Inltrumcnt. This apr 
pears in the large Gafh of a Wound, 
made acrols the Fibres of a Mufcle j 
in the continual Bending towards 
the other Side, when any Part of 
one is pai/icd; in the Cramps and Cort- 
•vuljions, nay, and fometimes Fevers, 
produced by intenfe acute 'Pain. Plca- 
furc, on the contrary, r^/d;ir^x the Fibres 
by a gentle, foft, and bland, or (as the 
Mathematicians fpeak; a commenfiuat|p 
and harmonious Touch. It a^s on ttu 
Fibres as two unilbn and concordant mu- 
/Ical Inftrumentsaii on one another, and 
by ftroaking, foftening and fmpothing, 
comes at laft intirely to relax and un- 
bend them. The Parts of the Fibres 
run after, follow and purfue, and at 
laft break their Union in fomc Degree, 
to reach fuch a demulcent Touch. 
Some Perfons have had the Faculty to 

a«/ Long Life. 015 

aHay Pain, by gently fmoothing f>i<s 
afflidcd Part with their Hands; which 
in fome Meafurc was true of the 
Touching ^o£for. Soft Oils, and emoU 
licnt Herbs, with gentle Warmth, by 
relaxing the crifped Fibres, will allay 
Tain. Soft ^ Beds and Cloaths, and 
tepid Baths will relax and weaken the 
whole Habit. Now fincc Pain (o cm 
tainly crifps up, conftrids and contra&s 
animal Fibres, and itncc Opiates inj^ 
fallibly, if duly dofed, relieve and Mfi 
Pain, I can fee no poflibk- Way it caa 
cffed that, but by relaxing and meh 
bending thefe Fibres as m^cb, of' neat 
as much, as Pain contrafis andv'^ws 
tliem up. And that this is the rc4 
Fa£t, wc may obfervc from many 
EfFe^s of Opiates, i. Nothing is ib 
powerful, or fo certain a ^iaphareticku 
an Opiate. Nothing caufes fuch plenti- 
ful Sweating, efpecially if joined with 
Valatiles^ and promoted with plentiful 
drinking fmall, warm Liquors. This 
it can do only by relaxing the Fibres of 
the Skin and Perfpiratory Glands* 
2. Nothing fo mach palls the Appetite^ 
and weakens the firft ^igejiims^ as the 
frequent Ufe of 0//^/^j i iofomuch^ tbat 
moft People^ a^ter a liberal Doft^of 


af6 ^» Essays/ Health 

them, feldom fail to xe^ch, and ntver 
care for Food for a coniidcrable Time 
after, till their Effcds are wrought off; 
which are the conftant Symptom^ oi x 
rflaxed Sumach and Guts. 3. Kothing 
fo much promotes the Erupti§n of the 
Small-Pox and Meafles, the Expmlfum 
ef the Stone and Foetus, the Monthly, 
and the Aftcr-Sirth ^Mrifications ai the 
Sex, as 0piat4S s in(bmuch, tl^t in dif- 
£k:ult Births, they are now the only 
Refource of the Midwife Phyficians) 
and, when joined wkh . VhlatileSy will 
bring on the moft powerful and vigerj9U$ 
Throws, in tbe moft weak aoii Ian* 
guijbing Conftitutions. Thef^ JEffeds 
they can produce only by telaxipg thoSk 
Fibres Pain has C4mtra5ted zndi rendered 
unclaftick in fome meafure. 4. Kor 
thing quiets and AopsCramfs, Commlr 
fans^tid Hyfterick Fits, ib fuddewly. and 
certainly as Opiates do. And eveiy one 
knows ith^e ari(e £ropi violj^m Con^ 
tradions, and crifping u^ of the raoiC* 
cular Fibres. AH thefe, xvui Gxzvvf 
more fuch Effeds, Opiates produce, bj 
unbending^ loofeningy and rel^Ktng riiofis 
Fibres violent , and acute Pain had con- 
ftfided and contraBedy aiut by giving a 
R'ciptte and Reprievc^r^n^^lf T^ruures^ 


^ wtd LongLife. 217 

and thereby aliowing Nature (the 
only true PJiyfician) to go undifturbed 
about its own Work. The Way it 
flops Purging, and cures a 'Diarrhaa, I 
take to be by carrying off the fharp 
and watry Humours in the Bowels by 
^erjpiration, which Opium exceedingly 
promotes; by quieting thofe Spafms and 
Convulfions, and allaying tholc Stimula- 
tions excited by Purging ; and icttling 
and calming the Violence of the 'Peri' 
ftaltick Motion of the Guts, which 
hurries off their Contents. 1 will not 
take upon me here, to determine the 
proper Cafes for Opiates^ or their 'DofeSi 
That is the Bufinefs of the Phydcian. 
But in general I may fay. Wherever 
Pain is acute, intolerable and paft endu- 
ring;, where it may indangcr Convuljions^ 
a Fever or Infiarnmatioft ; after premiiing 
the proper univerfal Evacuations (fuch 
as Bleeding , Blifteting , Cupping,, 
Purging or Glifteting, as the Cafe re- 
quires, or will bear) Opiates then will 
moft certainly relieve, and may be 
fafcly adminiftrcd.. If the Cafe is at- 
tended ynith yorniting, folid Opium will 
do befti becaufc it will be in a fmallcr 
Volume, and will not be fo readily re- 
jeded. If Tpccdy Relief be required 
F f where 

ti% ^EssATjf Health 

is BO Vomitii^, thea 

li dc^iczic iboacft dirougb 

firiin, becBik UfmH and joined 

t a ifnnraoM Vcatidc will Jbrnefl 

I>c%i^ ODk tke <^rdicd 

closer and 

In rfgmw Caics a viooos 

l«uiac wiSt be faftrimf, bccaofc 

bckJmohcdtkWwc, tomake 

I^cic are fom Csfes^ in 

CUaiki liy^SUmy the 

and Monthly 

<rf ^ Sc^ dpe- 

viokuPain, as 

; and in the 

In thcfafiy it 

en with foflie 

Ssbaisy or 

^kwm, with JJFm^of 

ihoicof more tender 

idRknUrki cfpe- 

ii in the lower 


Vomit is to 

forbid il 

ID be given 

or in (bme 

ttePaits. In 

oqgjbr always to 


I rtW Lo i< G L I FE, 21 J 

be given with proper Volatiles, Anti- 
hyftericks and Attenuants. In violent 
and acute Pain, the firft Dofe ought to 
beiarge, at leaft from ^^/rr^ xo forty -five 
Dops of liquid Laudanum, or its Equi- 
valent in Opium, from fa-s Grains and a 
half, to three and a half; and after- 
wards to be incrcafcd by fifteen Drops 
of Liquid, or half a Grain of folid 
Laudanum every half Hour, till the Paia 
begin to remit ; and then an intire flop 
is to be put to its Adminiftration. 
And thus the End will be obtained 
without any Fear of over-dofing. And the 
Truth is, there is lefs Hazard of that, 
than Pcrfons are aware. For thofc 
who die of an Over-dofe of Laudanum 
in the Opinion of the IVorld, would have 
lived few Days without it. For there 
are thofe that by Cuftom, have brought . 
thcmfelves to tijijo "Drams of folid, that 
is, neatyiAT Ounces of liquid Laudanum 
a Day. And I know a Gentleman 
who took near three Ounces at once, 
inftcad of Elixir Salutis , and had 
never taken any in his Life i^efore j who 
( though it extrcamly weakened his 
Stomach for fome Time, and that he 
dofed almoft a Month under it) yet 
did we/l, and, for ought I know, is alive 

F f 2 mil. 

aio j^EssAY of Heaj-th 

ftill, though it be many Years fince. 
If the preceding Dofe be rejeftc4 by 
Vomiting, about ^ Third Part may be 
fuppofcd to ftayj and then the fubfc- 
qucnt Dofes may be proportioned ac- 
cordingly. The Difference of Confti- 
tutions willmake no great Alteration 
here, ftnce very weak Perfons feldom 
iuffcr very violent Pain, which is the 
bnly Cafe I am here conitdering. * 

J. 14. To draw towards a Con-' 
*<;lu(ion. The Grand Secret and Sole 
Mean qf Long Life, is to keep the 
Blood and Juices in a due State of^ 
Thinncfs and JFhtdityy whereby they 
Hiay be able to make thofe Rounds and 
Circulations through the animal Fibres, 
v^hcrein Life and Health confifl, with 
the fewefl Rubs and leafl Reftflance 
that may be. In fpite of all we can 
do, Time and Age wUI^a; ^ndtfiiffen our 
Solids. Our original Frame and Make 
renders this unavoidable and neccffary. 
As in the greater World, the * Quan- 
tity of the Fluids is Daily Icffening and 
decreafingi fo in our kfer World aftei 

* " ' ^ ' — * >■■■»■! I . .,. I I mi- 

■ - • • ' 4 . 

J 5eoSir (foot Afcwi^'i Prindp. • • -^ 

^ * ^ ^ Uniitcd 

• • • w 


P flMc/Lo NG Li F E. 331 

a limited Time, the Appetite and 
Concodlions failing, the Fluids arc 
lefl'encd and fpent on the continual Re- 
pairs of the Solids, and thereby lo(e 
their Nature, and become firm and 
hard. For by infinuating themfclvcs 
into all the Pores of the Solids-, and the 
Inrcrftices of their Parts, and ftraitening 
and damming up the fmall Veifels, 
which carry in Nourifhment to the in- 
ternal Subftance of the Solids, and fo 
depriving them of their Moifiure and 
Lubricating Juices, thefe Solids coinc 
at laft to harden, ftiffen and fix, and 
thereby lofe their Elajlicity and Springi- 
nefs. Here the Proccft is Mechanical 
and Necejfary. Age and Time, by 
wcakning the Concoftions, impairing 
the natural Heat, which confifts in a 
brisk and extended Circulation of the 
Juices, by tlic turning thofe Juices into 
folid Subttanccs, and thereby fixing and 
hardning thefe Solids, and depriving 
them of their due Elafticity, the Fluids 
circulate with lefs Velocity and Force, 
and fcldom reach the Extremities and 
fmalleji Veffels, but pafs through the 
more patent and larger Veffels, by their 
iiggeji lateral Branches, And if uich 
all thefe unavoidable and iriemcdiabic 

ail ^H EjsAY 2^/ Health 

CircumfttinceSy both the nutritious and 
icrous Part of the Bloody and the glo* 
bular, become vifcid^ thick and gk^y% 
the Circulation muft ftop at laft, and 
tome to an End^ Now 'tis ctrtainljr 
in a great mcafiutJ irt our Pbwet to 
maintain the Jukes in a due State of 
Fluidity and ThinnefSj and to render 
them fuch, if they are not corrupted to 
an extreme Degree, fo that the re- 
maining Part of Life be not too ftiort 
for fuch a tedious Work. We certain- 
ly may dilute and thin any FiiUdy that 
his an Inlet and: Outlet* And the 
more fluid a circulating , Liquor is, 
^at is, the fmalkr and finer its Parts 
are, xhttefs Force it will require td fet it 
a going, and to continue its Motion, 
And in animal Bodies the thinner and 
moit fluid the Juices afe, they will riot 
only circulate by the lefs Force ^ ahd 
with lefs Refiftance ( i. e. Tain ) but alfd^ 
they will preferve by their Circulation, 
the Solids the lonjger froiti ftiffening and 
hardenirig. There is n6t a more mif- 
chicvous, hot greatir Miftake than 
the common one, that thin Blood \%po^ 
Blood, which the Vulgar and Herd 
rf Mankind are as terribly affrighted 
for, as outward Poverty and Want. 


aKf/ Lo NG L I F E. 223 

on the contrary, the thinnefi and 
»oft piid Blood is the richeft, that is, 
tie ^eft Blood (if rub and good mean 
he fame Thing). For in ttyJropiady 
4nafarceus, Cacheifick, and Scorhitkk 
fcPerlons, both the ftrous and globular 
hPart ot" the Blood is thick,gk-J!jy and acri- 
Juwnious, fo that it can neither get thro' 
Ltbcfmal/Fefe/s, nor can it bclongcon- 
Bincd in them, but corrodes and frets 
l^lhcm, aiul fo falls (at leall the thinncfli 
Mart of it) into the Cavities, and begets a 
m^repj) j or flops in and obftruds thefe 
inall Veflels, and fo becomes an ^m*. 
Qirca or Scurvy. In all which Gates, 
i the ferous Part is overloaded with 
urinous Salts, and becomes a perfctt 
Lixivium ; ib that by i ts CroJJhefs it can- 
not run into Globules, to facilitate the 
Circulation through the Capillaries (for 
thefe fmall clartick Globules, by turning 
Gval or Oblong, wonderfully facilitate 
the Circulation of the Juices through 
the fmall Palfagcs) and the red or glo- 
bular Part becomes a mere Cake of 
Glue ? and thus the Quantity of Serum 
t. Is incrcafcd, and the C^antity of the 
I globular Part gradually leflencd. And^n(c (of a greater proportion of 
Serum) this Stat« of the Blood may be 


234- ^KssAY ^Health 

called thin } but it can in no Scnfe be 
called good Blood. The thinneft and 
moft fluid Blood» is ever to be look'd 
upon as the hejl Blood, as confirting of 
Jmejl and fmallefl Parrs, which moft rea- 
dily runs into red Globules, and mod 
cafily circulates thro* the capUUry VeflTels, 
which is the moft folid Foundation of 
good Health and Long Life. Now as 
nothing but indulging in ftrong high 
Foods, which the concoftivc Powers 
cannot break and divide into Parts 
fmall enough to run into red Globules, 
or circulate through the fmall Vefl'els, 
but overftock them with urinous Salts, 
which run into Clujiers, and firft oh' 
JiruSfy and afterwards break thefe fmall 
Vefl'els, and in wallowing in ilrong 
Liquors, which parboil and eat out the 
tender and delicate fibres of the Solids j 
I fay, as nothing but fuch an Indul- 
gence, and fuch Exceffes, long con- 
tinued and obftinately perfifted in, can 
beget fuch a State of the Fluids and 
Solids, and fo bring on a C<w^f*)', which 
may end in a ^ropjy, or fome other 
fatal chronical Diftcmper, according to 
the Habits and particular Make and 
Conftitution of the Party (for no Perfoa 
that lived low and meagre, and drank 

ondhomQ LllfJfi; i25 

Oilly fpiall and thin Liquors, ever be-^ 
came Hydropical, if his Solids werd 
originally firm, and his Fluids not 
tainted with fomc hereditary Sharpnefs) 
£o I know nothing undet the Sun, that 
C4n fplidly and fully effe^uate the con* 
trary State of the Blood and Jukes ^ to 
render them tbin^ fwcet, and in a con- 
ftant flowing Condition, but taking thai 
contrary Meafu^es, and keeping to a 
ftrift Regimen X)f a thin^ fluids (pare and 
lean Diet. We have no poffible Way 
to attenuate, clean and dilute a Vejfet 
full of grofsj glewy^ and fbul Mixtures^ 
that has only a fmall Inlet and Outlet, 
but by pouring into it a thin, clear^ 
InRpid Fluids and by (haking it often 
and much. It is niuch the fame with 
an animal Body« No voluptuous or lazy 
Perifbn, unlefs he has had an original 
Conftitution of Brafs^ was ever a long 
Liver. And even then, as his Life has 
been more Mifery and Tain^ than evet 
^ fiber Gaily Slave endur'd, his End^ and 
the latter Part of his Days has beea 
Rack and Torture j Horror and T^efpair^ 
And though he has not had the Hope 
nor Confilation of a Martyr^ yet hid 
Sufferings has been far more exqmfite 
and extreme* All thofe who have lived 

Gg long 

1^6 ^ Essay of IIe Attn 

' Itmg and without much Pain, haVe 
lived abftemioiifly^ poor arid meagre. C^- 
naro prolonged Iiis Life, and preferved 
his Senfcs, by z\mof( ftdrving in his 
latter Days 5 and fome others haVc done 
the like. They have intdeed thtreby, 
in fome meafure, wcikned their^ na- 
tural Strength^ and qualified the Fire 
and Flux of their Spirits: But they 
have preferved their Senfes^ weakened 
their TainSy prolonged their Days, and 
procured themfelviis a gentle aria quiet 
^ajfage into another State. Gentle 
domeftick Purges frequently repeated, 
due Exercifey and the Ufe of the other 
Means pretcribcd in the foregoing* Trca- 
tife, will mightily ri?;^fr/^«ff^ toward this 
End. But the Ground 'Work niuft be 
laid, carried on, and fihiftied in:>f^- 
ftemoujnefs 5 and though not iri abfoliitc 
Fafting (for that is no Ways requirfei^ 
and would be prejudicial) yet in ^thin^ 
poor^ lowy light and me^e Diet. All 
the reft will be infuircicnt without 
this. And this alone, without thefe^ 
will fuffice to carry on Life^ as long as 
by its natural Frame it was made to 
laft, and will make the Paffage i^aj} and 

calm, as a Taper goes out for «raiit of 
Fuel. " ; . ' 


4w^LoNG Life, 127 

Mfcellany RULES af Health 

and Long Life. 

I - f^HR O NICAL Difeafes laft longy 
^ wear out the Conftitut ion /(?/^r^^, 
and are accompained with a flow Pulfe 5 
whereas acute ones foon terminate ei- 
ther in Death or Recovery, and arc 
joined with a quick Pulfe. 

2. The Scurvy is the Root of moft 
chronical Difeafes of the Britijb Nation ; 
qnd is a neceflary Confequence of their 
Way of living almoft wholly on animal 
Foody and drinking fo much ftrong Li- 

3 . Softy thiny finally fborty fair Hairy 
Jlender Mufcles and Bones i foft FleQii 
a whitCy fairy blanched or afiencoloured 
Complexion $ a/J^/r, corpulent, flegmaticky 
cold Conftitutioui ChillinefSy efpecially 
in the Feet 5 a Readinefs to catch Colds i 
and being fubjed to immoderate Eva^ 
citations of any kind, arc certain Signs of 

. Joofe, flabby, or relaxed Neryes. 

G ^ z 4. fTo- 

058 ^?i Essay c/ HEALTH 

4. IVomm of weak Nerves arc very 
fubjcti to Mifcarriages. Their Danger 
is incrcafcd by high Living, and indiC- 
crcct Bleeding. The only Remedy for 
them, is drinking Brijiol Water and 
red Wine, with a low and light 'Diet, 
going Abroad to get Air, and ufing 
Aftringent 'Plaijfers, and other proper 
Medicines to corroborate their Bowels. 

5. The JVeak'SxvA Sickly (as their Con- 
coftive Powers fail in Winter, and re- 
cover in Summer) fhould carefully pro- 
portion the Quantity and Quality of 
their Food, torhc Strength of them in 
the fcvcral Seafoiis. 

6. The fewer Clmths one ufcs, the 
^hardier he will be. Flannel and great 

Loads oiCloaths by Day or Night, relax 
the Fibres, and promote only Sweating, 
■iiiftcad of the natural and beneficial 7er- 

7. The fVeak, Sedentary and Studious, 
Should frequently psave their Head and 
Face, wapy and fcrape their Feet, and 
pare the Nails of their Toes. 

i. People 

IandhoNG Life. 019 ^H 

8. People that read and write much> ^^^ 

ought CO do them ftanding, or in as ereSi 1 
a Pofture as they can. And thofe who 

can go about any Pact of their Studies ^^A 

walkings fhould do it. ^^| 

9. TheF(3/, unweildy ^nA over erown, *^^ 
ought to ^vaii^ all manner of ^rink, 
strong and fmall, and even fVater it&l£, 
as much as poffiblc. And if their Food ] 

be Vegetables and young Animalsj they 

•will have little Occafion for any Liquor, 
t- ■ I o. The Aged (hould ( i ) carefully 
guard againft all the Injuries of the Wea- 
ther i and (2) lejfen the Quantity, and 
lower the Quality of thetr Food gra- 
dually ^ as they grow older ; even before 
a manifcft 1>ecay of Appctite/tfrff then* 

1x0 it. 
■ IT. As ckromceU Difeafes arc not 
brought on all at once j fo they cannot 
be quickly removed. A gradual Cor- 
ruption, muft be gradually remedied. 
Tis contrary to the Nature of chronical 
pifeafcs to be quickly cured. 

12. la 

a^o An EssAT ^/Health 

12. la all acute aad vehement Tain, 
Ofium is the fovcrciga Relief j particu- 
larly in the Colicky Stone, Gout^ Rheuma- 
tifm, and hard Labour of Women. It 
operates by relaxing and unbending the 
Pibrcs, overjiretched and crifpcd lip by 

1 3 . The great Secret of Health and 
hong Life, lies in keeping the Blood 
(and coniequently the otherjuices of the 
Body) in a due Degree of Plui^itjf^ 


'TT O Conclude, without taking the 
-*• Benefit of Revelation, which, in 
a Senfc relating even to our mortal 
Bodies, has brought Life and Immortality 
to Light \ if but the Precepts of the 
Tagan Philofophcrs were obfervcd, 

-Servare Modum, Finemque tueri. 

Naturamque fequi. 



imd Ld N g'Li f eI lit 

If Men would' but oh^ciwti^i golden 
Mean in all their TAffiOnSy Appetites and 
^e^resi iVmz\lt}^dtth(mghti,H^or^^^ 
and Asians y they wcwild biCt rnin(;l, I 
will not fay the Etid of their Being ixrid 
Exigence hcte, bift the -E»^ to which 
thtii Thought Sy ff^tifds zvid A£ii(fnsriztur 
rally tended in their laft Re fort} And; 
Lajity^ If jtn theGria^/jf^ 
petitesj^dfflonszxyd ^^r«, they folio w'd 
the uncorrupted^V^i^r^j oiNaiurey and 
neither, fpurred her ^ on , beyond her 
Cravingy nor too violently reftraincd 
her in her innocent Biafs s they would 
enjoy a . greater Mtamre of Health 
than they doj Ymt thtii Senfations 
more delicate y apd their ^leafures more 
exquijtte i live with.lfefs 5Pi^/», and tiic 
with lefs Horror. For had it not been 
for the Lewdnefsy Luxury and intera- 
petate Gratifications of the ^ajjlons and 
Appetite Sy which fitft ruined andfpoiled 
the Conflitution of the Fathers y whereby 
they* could communicate only a difeoTed, 
crajy and untuneable Carcafs to their 45^;5f^, 
fo that with the World's Tiecayy ^vicious 
Souls and putrified Bodies^ have in this 
our AgCy arrived to their higheft and 
moft exalted T)egrees 5 J fay, Had it not 
been for thefc Evils, thcrd never had 


2^1 At Essay (^/Health, he* 

happened (o much Stcktufs, Tain and il4?- 
Jery, Co unhappy Lives, and fuch wretch-^ 
ea Ends, as wc now behold among 
Men. But even in this our lapfed Eftate 
and Condition, had the T^i^ates of Na- 
ture and Reafon^ not to fay Reli^wjti 
been followed j wc might have palTed 
out Days in Indolence (at Icaft from 
chronical Diftempers) if not innocent 
Vleafures, arrived at A^^od aidAge^^ivCix 
our Senfe-i free, and our rational fa- 
culties clear, and at laft departed in 
1*eace, as a Lamp goes out for Want of 
Oil. And let the Gentlemen oiWit and 
FirCf of Banter and Sneer^ hug thcm- 
fclves ever fo much in their boaftcd 
Tranquillity aud Security, gratify their 
^ajjions. Appetites and Humours to the 
Full, and defpife Futurity and IVhiningi 
\ dare promife, when the Farce is ended, 
and the laft Minutes are drawing on, 
they would prefer a Life thus led, and 
an End fo calm, to all the Tleafures of 
Lewdnefs and Senfuality, and the Bounce/ 
of a falfe and ignorant Security.