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I 3433 07479364 1 


E S S A Y 


G E N I U S 




I P O P E. 




ICTa L ] 

J^,™ 7. 1« 

jJX, I >— L,^ 


IN order to account for the anachronifms 
that appear in this effay, it is neceiTary 
aiid refpedtful to inform the reader^ that this 
Tolunic was printed, as far as the aoiftpage^ 
above twcnt^ years ago. The author begs 
leave to add^ that he flatters himfelf, thM no 
cbfervations in this work can be Co perverfely 
mifinterpreted and tortured, as to make hiqi 
infinuate, contrary to his opinion and incli- 
nation, that Pope was not a great poet: 
he only fays and thinks, he was not the 
great eft. He imagined his meaning would ^ 
liave been perceived, and his motives for 

^ compoiing this eiTay would have been clearly 
known, from the pafTage of Quintilian, pre- 

. ^^ed to the firft volu^ie of it ; which pafTage 

implies, that as there were readers at Rome, 

3 wh© 

% J 

ii ADVEktlSE;ME**f. 

^ iffho inverted' the order of poetical excellency 
and who preferred Lucilius to Virgil; fo 
there might be readers in England, fo devoted 
to, Pope, as Xo prefer him to |h^ilton; »id 
the author thought and knew there were 
actually many fuch readers and judges ; who 

; leemed not to recolle(3:, that, in every lan- 
guage, he is the trueft and moll genuine 
poet, whofe works moft powerfully ftrikc the 
imagination With what i^ Greats Beautiful, 
and New, 


A N 




O F 


- AAA* ^^-^tittti^ 


Of the Temple of Fame- 

FEW difquifitions are more amufing, 
or perhaps more inftrufliive, than thofe 
which relate to the rife and gradual increafe 
of literature in any kingdom : And among 
the various fpecies of literature, the origin 
progrefs of poetry, however fliailow 
reafbners may defpife it, is a fubjedt of no 
finall utility. For the manners and cuf- 
Vol. II. B toms. 


tomSj the different ways of thinking and, of 
living, the favorite paffions, pcrfuits, and' 
pleafures of men, appear in no writings fo 
ftrongly marked, as in the works of the 
poets in their refpe^ve^ ages ; fo that in 
thefe compofitions, the hiftorian, the mo- 
raHff, the poHtician, and the philofopher, 
may, each of them, meet with abundant 
matter for refledion and obfervation. 

Poetry made it's iirft appearance in 
Britain, as perhaps in moft other countries, 
in the form of chronicles, intended to per- 
petuate the deeds both of civil and military 
heroes, but moftly the latter. Of this fpe- 
cics is the chronicle of Robert of Glocef- 
ter J and of this fpecies alfo was the fong, 
or ode, which William the Conqueror, and 
his followers, fung at their landing in this 
kingdom from Normandy. The men'.i'- . ul 
which event, will naturally remind v of 
the check it gave to the native fti;.':i^ of 
the old Britilh poetry, by an introdut>i? ;. 
of foreign manners, cuiloms, imagci>, and 


language. Thefc ancient ftrains were, how«< 
ever, fufficiently harfh, dry, and uncouth ♦ 
And it was to the Italians wc owed any 
thing that could be called poetry : from 
whom Chaucer copied largely, as tbey are 
faid to have done from ; the bards of Pro- 
vence; and to which Italians he is perpe- 
tually owning his obligations, particularly to 
Boccace and Petrarch. But Petrarch had 
great advantages, which Chaucer wanted, 
not only in the friendfhip and advice of 
Boccace, but flill more in having found fuch 
a predecefTor as Dante. In the year 1359^ 
Boccace fent to Petrarch a copy of bante, 
whom he called his father, written with his 
own hand/ And it is remarkable, that he 
accompanied his prefent with an apology 
for fending this poem to Petrarch, who, it 
feems, was jealous of Dante, and in the 
anfwer fpeaks coldly of his merits. This 
circumftance, unobferved by the generality 
of writers, and even by Fontanini, Cref- 
cembini, and Muratori, is brought for- 
ward and related at large, in the third 
Tpliune^ page 507, of the very entertaining 

3 2 Memoii^s 


Memoirs of the life of Petrarch. In the year 
1363, Boccace, driven from Florence by the 
plague, vifited Petrarch at Venice, and 
carried with him Leontius Pilatus, of Thef- 
falpnica, a man of genius, but of haughty, 
rough, and brutal manners; from this An- 
gular man, who periftied in a voyage from 
Conftantinople to Venice, 1365, Petrarch 
received a Latin tranllation of the Iliad and 
Odyflcy. Muratori, in his i. book, Delia 
Perfetta Poefia, p. 18, relates, that a very 
few years after the death of Dante, 1321, 
a moil curious work on the Italian 
poetry, was written by a M. A. di Tem- 
po, of which he had feen a manufcript 
in the great library at Milan, of the year 
1332, and of which this is the title: 
Incipit Summa Artu Ritmtci vulgaris dic- 
taminis, Ritmorum vulgarium feptem funt 
genera, i. Eft Sonetus. z. Ballata. 3. 
Cantio extenfa. 4. Rotundellus. 5. Man-, 
drialis. 6. Serventefius. 7. Motus con- 
feftus. But whatever Chaucer might copy 
from the Italians, yet the artful and en- 
tertaining plan of. bjs Canterbury Tales, 
3 w« 



was purely original and his own. This 
admirable piece, even exclufive of it's poetry, 
is highly valuable, as it prcferves to us the 
livelieft and exaAeft pifhire of the manners, 
cuftoms, charadters, and habits of our fore- 
fathers, whom he has brought before our 
eyes adting as on a ftage, fuitably to their dif- 
ferent orders and employments. With thefe 
portraits the drieft antiquary muft be.delighted; 
by this plan, he has more judicioufly connedted 
thefe ftories which the guefls relate, than 
Boccace has done his novels : whom he has 
imitated, if not excelled, in the variety of 
the fubjedts of his tales. It is a common 
miflake, that Chaucer's excellence lay in 
this manner of treating light and ridiculous 
fubjeds; but whoever will attentively con- 
fider the noble poem of Palamon and Arcite, 
will be convinced that he equally excels in 
the pathetic and the fublime. It would be 
matter of curiofity to know with certainty, 
who was the iirfl author of this interefling 
tale. It is plain, by a pafTage in Boccace, 
that it was in being before his time. It 


has been by fome afcribed to a writer al- 
moft unknown, called Alanus de Infulis. 
I have lately met with an elegy in Joannes 
Sccundus occafioned by this Story ; it is in his 
third book, and is thus intitled: * " In Hifto- 
riam de rebus aThefeo geftis duorumque riva- 
lium certamine,GalIicis numeris ab iUuilri qua- 
damMotronafuavilTimeconfcriptam." Perhaps 
this compliment was addreiTed to Madam de 
Scudery, who is faid to have tranilated Chaucer 
into modern French. Among other inftances 
of vanity, the French are perpetually boaft- 
ing, that they have been our mafters in many 
of the polite arts, and made earlier improve- 
ments in literature. But it may be aflced, 
what cotemporary poet can they name to 
Aand in competition with Chaucer i In care- 
fully examining the curious work of the pre- 
fident Fauchet, on the charafters of the 
ancient French poets, I can find none of this 
age, but barren chroniclers, and harfh ro- 
mancers in rhime, without the elegance, ele- 
vation, invention, or harmony of Chaucer. 

• Ekg. 15; 



Fafquiere informs us, that it was about the 
time of Charles VI. 1380, that les chants 
royaux, balades, rondeaux^ and paflorales, 
began to be in vogue ; but thefe compofitions 
are low and feeble, in comparifon of the ve« 
nerable EngliQi bard. Froiilart the valuable 
hiflorian, about the fame time wrote very 
indifferent verfes. Charles of Orleans, father 
of Lewis XII. left a manufcript of his poems. 
At his death Francis Villon was thirty-three 
years old; and John Marot, the father of 
Clement, was then born. According to Boi- 
lean, whofe teflimony fhould be regarded, 
Villon was the firfl who gave any form and 
order to the French poetry. 

Villon Iceut le premier, dans ces fiecles groffieurs, 
D' ebroiiiller V art confus de no8 vieux Romanciers *. 

But Villon was merely a pert and infipid 
ballad-monger, whofe thoughts and diction 
were as low and illiberal, as his life. 

The House of Fame, as Chaucer entitled 
his piece, gave the hint of the poem before 

• L' Art Poet. Chan. x. 



us, though the defign is in truth improved 
and heightened by the mafterly hand of Pope. 
It is not improbable, that this fubjedl was 
fuggcftcd to our author, not only by Dry den's 
tranfiations of Chaucer, of which Pope was 
fo fond, but like wife, by that celebrated pa- 
per of Addifon, in the Tatler, called the 
Tables of Fame, to which the great worthies 
of antiquity are introduced, and feated ac- 
cording to their refpeSive m.erits and cha- 
rafters 5 and which was publiflied fome years 
before this poem was written. Chaucer him- 
felf borrowed his defcription from Ovid, in 
the beginning of the twelfth book of his Meta- 
morphofes, from whence he has clofely copied 
the fituation and formation of the ediiice. 

Orbc locus medio eft inter terrafquc tretumque, 
Cceieftefque plagas, triplicis coniinia mundi, 
Unde quod eft ufquam, quamvis regionibus abfit, 
Ififpicitur, penetratque cavas vox omiiis ad aures *. 

Ovid has introduced fome allegorical perfo- 
nages, but has not diftinguifhed them with 
ariJT pifturefque epithets j 

• Vcr. 40. f 


lllic Credulitas, illic temerarius Error, 
Vanaque Ljetitia eft, confternaitique Timores, 
SfiPiTioquE recens, dubioque audore Susurri*. 

Dryden tranflated this paffage of Ovid; 
and Pope, who evidently formed himfelf 
upon Dryden, could not but have frequently 
read it with pleafure, particularly the follow- 
ing harmonious lines, 

n!*i8 built of brafs, the better to diffufe 
The fpreading founds, and n^iltiply the News ; 
Where echos in repeated echos play : 
A mart for ever full, and open night and day. 
Nor filence is within, nor voice exprefs. 
But a deaf noife of founds that never ceafe, 
•f Confus*d, and chiding, like the hollow roar 
Of tides, receding from th* infulted fhore : 
Or like the broken thunder, heard from far. 
When Jove to diftance drives the rolling war. 

• Ver. 63. 

+ Confus'd, &c. 
' This is more poetically expreflcd than the fame image lA 

Sadden I heard a wild promifcuous found. 
Like broken thunders that at diilancc roar. 
Or billows murm'ring on the hollow fhore. 
Dryden's lines are fuperior to the original. 
Qualia de pelagi, iiquis procul audiat, undit 

Vol, II. C t& 


It is time to proceed to fome remarks on 
particular paflagcs of this Vifion ; which I 
ihall do in the order in which they occur, 
not ccnfuring or commending any, without 
a reafon afligned. 

I. Nor was the work impurM hy ftorms alone. 
But itit th' approaches of too vnna a fun } 
For fame* impatient of extremes, decays 
Not more by envy, than excels of praile. 

Dogs not this ufe of the heat of the fun; 
appear to be a puerile, and far-fetched con- 
ceit ? What connef^ion is there betwixt the 
two forts of excefies here mentioned? My 
purpofe in animadverting fo fi^quently, as I 
have done, on this fpecies of falfe thoughts, 
is to guard the reader, eipecially of the younger 
fort, from being betrayed by the author!^ of 
fo correct a writer as Pope, into fuch ipecious 
and falfe ornaments of flile. For the fame 
reaibn, the oppofition of ideas in the three 

Efle folent, qoalemve Iboum, cnm Jupiter atias 
Incrapuit naiKs, extrenu touitrua rcddunt. 

In this paflage of Drydcn are many inRances of the oUite- 
rattooi which he has managed beautifully. 



^ words of the following line, may be 

And le^OsLton feem to think in (tone*. 

S* So Zenibla*s rocks^ the beauteoiia work of froft^ 
Rife white in air, and glitter o*er the coaft. 
Pale funs, unfelt, at diftance roll away. 
And on th' impaiSve ice the light'ning^ play ; 
Eternal (hows the growing mafs fupply. 
Till the bright mountains prop th* incumbent iky ; 
As Atlas fix'd each hoary pife appears. 
The gather*d Winter of a thouiand years f • 

A REAL lover of painting, will not be 
contented with a fingle view and examination 
of this beautiful :{: winter-piece, but will return 
to it again and again, with frefh delight. 
The images are diftindt, and the epithets 
lively and appropriated, efpecially the wordsj 
tale, unfelty imfajjive, incumbent y gathered. 

3. There great Alcides, ftooping with his toil, 
Refb on his club, and holds th* Hefperian fpoil §• 

• Vcr. 74. + Vcn 52. 

X The reader may confult Thonfon';) Winter, v. 905. 

S Ver. 8i. 

C2 It 


It were to be wifhed, that our author^ 
whofe knowledge and taAe of the iine arts 
were unqueftionable, had taken more pains in 
dcfcribing fo famous a ftatue as that of the 
Farnefian Hercules, to which he plainly re- 
fers i for he has omitted the charaftcriAical 
excellencies of this famous piece of Grecian 
workmanship, namely, the uncommon breadth 
9f the ihoulders, the knottynei^ and fpaci- 
oufnefs of the * cheft, the firmnefs and pro- 
tuberance of the mufcles in each limb, par- 
ticularly the legs, and the majeftic vaftneG of 
the whole figure, undoubtedly defigned by 
the artift to give a full idea of Strength, as 
the Venus de Medicis of Beautv. Thefe 
were the " invi^ti membra Glyconis," which, 
it is probable, Horace proverbially alluded to 
in his firft cpiftle -f-. The name of Glycon 
is to this day preferved on the bafe of the 
figure, as the maker of it ; and as the virtu- 
ofi, cuftomarily in fpeaking of a pifturc, or 

• Luxuriatque toris animorum peftos. — — — . 

Virg, Ceorg. lib, iii. ver. 8i, 
t Vcr. 30. 




/btue, call it their Raphael or Bernini^ 
why (hould not Horace, in common fpeech, 
ufe the name of the workman, inftead of the 
work ? To mention the Hefpcrian apples, 
which the artifl flung backwards, and almoft 
concealed as an inconfiderable objed:, and 
which therefore fcarcely appear in the ftatuc^ 
was below the notice of Pope, 

4. Amphion there the loud creating lyre 

Strikes, and beholds a fudden Thebes afplre* 

Cythsron's echos anfwer to his call. 

And half the mountain rolls into a wall : 
TTiere might you fee the lengthening fpires afcend^ 
The domes fwell up, the widening arches bend^ 
The growing tow'rs like exhalations rife. 
And the huge columns heave into the fkies *« 

It may be imagined, that thefc expreflions 
are too bold ; and a phlegmatic critic might 
afk, how it was poflible to fee, in fculpturc. 
Arches bending^ and Towers growing? But 
the beft writers, in fpeaking of pieces of paint- 
ing and fculpture, ufe the prefent tenfe, and 

• Ver. 85^ 



talk of the thing as really doing, to give a 
iofce to the defcription. Thas Virgil, 

I Gallot in limine adefle canebat *■ 

— Incedunt vide longo online gentes, 

Quam vaiLe Knguis, habttu Qun vcftk et armtj f i 

As Pliny fays, that, Clefilochus painted, 
•* Jovem mulicbriter ingemifcentem." And 
Homer, in his beautiful and lively defcrip- 
ti(Hi of the ihield ; 

^ "— — -^ — (t frnfit TounF 
AtAM ^(itrjit ti Co^i ij;(iit' — — — ^ 

And again, 

TJtf0 VbJBfXBt xiAado'la §. *«" ** '^ 

In another place, 

"-• — — — AiM> u-n isXai (ui& ||> 

Upon which Clarke has made an obfervation 
that furprifes me : " fed quomodo in fcuto 
DEPiNGi potuit, quem caneret citharifta?" 

• Lib.Tiii. v. 656. f Lib, viii. v. 656. J Iliad, 
lib. xviii. V. 494. ) Ver. 575. 11 Ver. 570, 



This paflage muft not be parted with, till 
wc have obferved the artful reft upon the firft 
fjUable of the fecond verfe, 

Amphion there the loud creating lyre 

There are many inftances of fuch judi^ 
clous paufes in Homer. 

As likewife in the great imitator of Homer; 
who always accommodates the found to 
the fenfe. 

And over diem triumphant death his dart 
Shookf. ~ — — — — 

— — — — — Others on the grafif 
Couchyj. _ — _ — 

And of his blindnefs, 

— — -—-— But not to me returns 
Day! — — ~ — — 

1. V. 51, t Milton, b. ii. v. 49I4 

J B. iv. V. 356, 



In the fpirited fpeech of Satan^ 

— — — — All good to mc becomes 
Banc*. — -^ _ — — 

Thefe monofyllables have much force and 
energy. The Latin language does not admit 
of fuch. Virgil therefore, who fo well under- 
flood and copied all the fecret arts and charms 
of Homer^s verfification, has afforded us no 
examples ; yet, fome of his paufes on words 
of more fy Uables are emphatical. 

Vox quoque per lucos vulgo exaudita fUcntes^ 
Ingcnsf. — — — — 

.— — — Hsercnt infixi pcfiorc vultus 
VcrbaqucJ. • — -^ — . — 

Sola domo mxret vacua, ftratifque reliAis 
Incubatf. — — — — 

— — — — Pccudcfque locutse, 
Infandumll! — — — — 

5. Thcfc flopped the moon, and call'd th'unbodyM fhades 
To midnight banquets in tlie gUmmVing glades ; 

•^Booklx. V. 122. tGeorg. i. v. 476. J ^n. iw v. 4. 
{ ^n. iv. V. 82* II Gcorg. i. v. 478, 



Made vifionary fabrics round them rlfe^ 
And airy fpcftres (kim before their eyes ; 
Ot Talifmans and Stgils knew the powV, 
And careful watch'd the planetary hour *. 

These fuperftitions of the Eaft, are highly 
ilriking to the imagination. Since the time 
that poetry has been forced to afTume a more 
fober, and perhaps a more rational air, it 
fcarcely ventures to enter thefe fairy regions. 
There are fome however, who think it has 
fuiFered by deferting thefe fields of fancy, and 
by totally laying afide the defcriptions o£ ma- 
gic and enchantment. What an exquifite 
pidture has Thomfon given us in his Castle 
OF Indolence* 

As when a fhepherd of the Hebrid iOtSf 

PlacM far amid the melancholy Main, 
(Whether it be lone fancy him beguiles. 
Or that aerial beings fometimes deign 
To Hand, embodied, to our fenfes plain) 

Sees on the naked hill or ralley low, 
Tlie whilft in ocean Phcebus dips'his wain^ 
A vaft allembly moving to and fro. 
Then all at once in air diflblves the wonderous Ihow f • 

^ Ver. loi. t Caftle of Indolence, Stan. 30. B. i. 

Vol II. D I cannot 


I cannot at prefent recollect: any foHtude Co 
romantic^ or peopled with beings fo proper to 
the place, and the ipe£tator. The mind na- 
turally loves to lofe itfelf in one of thefc 
wildernefles, and to forget the hurry, the 
noife, and fplendor of more poliihed life. 

6. But on the South, a long majeflic race 
Of Egypt's priefts the gilded niches grace *. 

I WISH Pope had enlai^ed on the rites and 
ceremonies of thefe Egyptian priefls, a fub- 
jeft finely failed to defcriptive poetry. Milton 
has touched fome of them finely, in an ode 
not fufficiently attended to. 

Nor ii Ofirb fcen 

In Memphiui grore or green, 
Traapltng the unfliower'd gnli widi lowing) toud : 

Nor can be be at reft 

Within hu (acred cheft. 
Nought but profbundefl hell can be fait fliroud j 

In vain with timbrel'd anthems dark. 
The lablfr-ftoled forccren bear hit worflup'd ark ■(■■ 

• Ver. 109. 
i MUton'iPoenu* VoL II. Pa£> 30. Newtim*iEdit.Oa. 

7. High 


i^ on his car Sefoftris ftnick my vieWy 
Whom fceptred flaves in golden harnefi drewj 
His hands a bow and pointed jav*lin hold ; 
His giant arms are arm'd in /cales of gold *• 

This coloflal flatue of the celebrated Eaftern 
tyrant is flrongly imagined. As Phidias is 
£dd to have received his ideas of majefty in 
his £unous Jupiter^ from a parage in Homer, 
{o, it is not impoflible but our author's ima« 
gination was inflamed and enlarged by Mil- 
ton's pidlure of Satan. It is well known, 
that the Egyptians, in all their produdions 
of art, miftook the gigantic for the fublime, 
and greatnefs of bulk for greatnefs of 

8. Of Gothic ftrudure was the Northern fide. 

Overwrought with ornaments of barbarous pride f . 


Those who have confidered the theory 
of Architefhire, tell us the proportions of the 
three Grecian orders, were taken from the 
Human Body, as the moft beautiful and per- 
fect production of nature. Hence were de« 

• Vcr. 113. t Vcr. 119. 

D 2 rived 


rived thofe graceful ideas of columns, which 
had a charader of ftrength without clum* 
finefs, and of delicacy without weakncfs. 
Ihofe beautiful proportions were, I fay, 
taken originally from nature, which, in her 
creatures, as hath been already obferved, re- 
ferreth to fome ufe, end or dcfign. The Gon- 
fiezza alfo, or fwelling, and the diminution 
of a pillar, is it not in fuch proportion as to 
make it appear flrong and light at the fame 
time ? In the fame manner, mufl not the 
whole entablature, with its projections, be fo 
proportioned, as to feem great, but not heavy ; 
light, but not little ; inafmuch as a deviation 
into either extreme, would thwart that reafon 
and ufe of things, wherein their beauty is 
founded, and to which it is fubordinate? The 
entablature and all its parts and ornaments, ar- 
chitrave, freeze, cornice, triglyphs, metopes, 
modiglions, and the reft, have each an ufe, 
or appearance of ufe, in giving firmnefs and 
union to the building, in protecting it from 
the weather, in cafting off the rain, in re- 
prcfcnting the ends of the beams with their 



intervals, the produdtion of the rafters, and fo 
forth. And if we coniider the graceful an- 
gles in frontifpieces, the fpaces between the 
columns, or the ornaments of the capitals, 
ihall we not find that their beauty arifeth 
from the appearance of ufe, or the imitation 
of natural things, whofe beauty is originally 
founded on the fame principle ? Which is in- 
deed, the grand diftin<ftion between Grecian 
and Gothic archite£hire, the latter being fan- 
taftical and for the moil part founded nei- 
ther in nature nor reafon, in neceility nor 
ufe, the appearance of which, accounts for 
all the beauties, graces, and ornaments of the 

9. There fat Zamolxis with erefted Eyes, 
And Odin here in mimic trances dies. 
There on rude iron columns, fmear'd with blood. 
The horrid forms of Scythian heroes flood, 
Druids and bards (their once loud harps unftrung) 
And youths that died to be by poets fung f. 

Sir William Temple, always a pleafing, 
though not a folid writer, relates the follow- 

♦ Alci?hron, Vol. I. Dial. III. t Vcr. 123. 



ing anecdote.——" In difcourfe upon this 
ibbjed, and confirmation of this opinion, 
having been general among the Goths of thofe 
countries, count Oxenftiern the Swedish em- 
bafiador, told me, there was ftitl in Sweden, 
ft place which was a memorial of it, and 
was called Odin's hall : that it was a great 
bay in the fea, encompaifed on three fides 
with fteep and ragged rocks ; and that in the 
time of the Gothic paganifm, men that were 
cither fick of difeafes they eileemed mortal 
or incurable, or elfe grown invalid with age, 
and thereby pail all military adlon, and fear- 
ing to die meanly and bafely, as they eAeem- 
ed it, in their beds, they ufually caufed them- 
felves to be brought to the neareft part of 
thcfe rocks, and from thence threw them- 
fclves down into the fea, hoping by the bold- 
nefs of fuch a violent death, to renew the 
pretence of admifilon into the hall of Odin, 
which they had toil by filing to die in com- 
bat, and by arms *." 

• Temple's Works. Vol. lU. pig. 138. 



In thefe beautiful verfes we muft admire 
the poftures of Zamolxis and Odin, which ex- 
a^y point out the characters of thefe famous 
legiflatorS) and inftrudors^ of the Northern 

As exprefHve, and as much in character, 
are the figures of the old heroes, druids and 
bards, which are reprefented as flanding on 
iron pillars of barbarous workmanfhip : they 
remind one of that group of perfona^es, which 
Virgil, a lover of antiquity, as every real poet 
muft be, has judicioufly placed before the pa* 
lace of Latinus. 

Quinetiam vcterum effigies ex ordine avonim, 
Antiqua e cedro, Italufque, paterque Sabiniu 
Vidfator, curvam fervans fub imagine falcem ; 
Saturnufque fenex, Janique bifrontis imago, 
Vcftibulo aftabant *.— 

Consider alfo the defcription of Evander's 
court, and the pidture of ancient manners it 
affords^ one of the moft fbriking parts of the 

• Ver. 177. JEii. 1. 7. 


^neid. The mind delights to be carried 
backward iotothofe primitive times when 

— — — Paffimque aratm/a vidcbant 
Rominoqueyer* & tauth mugirt carinis. 

And the view of thofe places and buildings 
in tbeir firft rude and artlefs Aate, which be- 
came afterwards fo magnificent and celebrated, 
formB an amufing contraft. 

Hinc id Tsrpeiam fedem> U Capitolia ducit 
AuREA nunCf tUm fylvellribus hoxrida dumts *. 

I HAVE frequently wondered that our mo- 
dern writers have made fo little ufe of the 
druidical times, and the traditions of the old 
bards, which afford ful:je£ts fruitful of the 
moft genuine poetry, with refpedt both to 
im^ery and ientiment. Mr. Gray however 
has made amends by his lall noble ode on the 
-cxpulfioo of the bards from Wales. 

Cold is Cadwallo's tongue. 
That hufh'd the ftormy main : 
Brave Urien flecps upon hli craggy bed : 

• iEn. Vm. 3+6. 



Mountains, ye mourn in vain 
Modred, whofe magic Song 
Maide huge Plinlimmon bow his doud-top'd head. 
On dreary Arvon*s (bore they lie. 
Smeared with gore, and ghaftly pale ! 
Far, far aloof th' affrighted ravens fail ; 
The famiihM eagle fcreams, and pafles by *• 

The ancients conftantly availed themfelves 
of the mention of particular mountains, ri« 
vers, and other objedts of nature ; and indeed 
almofl confine themfelves to the tales and 
traditions of their refpedtive countries : where- 
as we have been ftrangely negledtful in cele- 

brating our own Severn, Thames, or Mal- 
vern, and have therefore fallen into trite re- 
petitions of claflical images, as well as claf-* 
fical names. Our mufes have feldom been 

— — — — playing on the ftcep 
Where our old bards, the famous Druids, lie f, 

• Dodfley*s Mifccllanics, Vol. VI. p. 337, 

f Sappofed to be a place in the mountains of Denbighihjre, 
called Dnddt Jloius, becaoft of the many ftone chefb and 
coffins found there* 

Vol- IL E Nor 



Nor on the (baggy top of Mona high. 

Nor yet where Deva fpreads her wifard dream *. 

Milton, we fee, was fenfibic of the force of 
fuch imagcr)% as we may gather from this 
ihort, but exquifite paflage; and fo were 
Drayton and Spcnfcr. What pidturcs would 
a writer of the fancy of Theocritus, have 
drawn from the fcenes and flories of the iile 
of Anglefey ! 

Yet ftill enamour'd of their ancient haunts, 

Unfeen of mortal eyes, they hover round 

Their ruin'd altars, confecrated hills 

Once girt with fpreading oaks, myilerious rows 

Of rude enormous obelifks, that rife 

Orb within orb, ftupendous monuments 

Of artlefs archite^re, fuch as now 

Oft-times amaze the wandering traveller. 

By the pale moon difcern*d on Sarum's plain f- 

I CANNOT conclude this article without in- 
ferting two ftanzas of an old Runic ode "l pre- 
ferved by Olaus Wormius, containing the 

• Lyddas, Ver. 55. 

t See a fine dramatic poem, by Mr. Wcfk, entitled The 
Inltitution of the Order of the Garter. 

t Cited in Dr. Hickes's Thefaunis. 



dying words of Ludbrog, who reigned in 
die north above eight hundred years ago, and 
who is fuppofed to be jaft expiring by the 
mortal bite of a ferpent. 


Pugnavimus enfibus* 

Hoc ridere me facit fempery 

Quod Balderi Patris Scamna, 

Parata fcio in aula. 

Bibemus cerevifiam 

£x concavis crateribus craniorum. 

Non gemit vir fortis contra mortem ! 

Magnifici in Odini domibus, 

Non venio defperabundus. 

Verbis ad Odini aulam. 


Fert animus finire : 
Invitant me Dyfie^ 
Quas ex Odini aula 
Odinus mihi mifit. 
Lsetus cerevifiam,. cum Afis, 
In fununa fede bibam. 
Vitae elap& funt hone ! 
Ridens moriar! 

These ftanzas breathe the true fpirit of a 
barbarous old warrior. The abruptnefs and 
brevity of the fentences are much in charac- 

E 2 tcrj 

ter ; as is the noble difdain of life cxprefled 
by the two laft words j Ridens moriar. To 
this brave and valiant people is mankind in- 
debted for one of the moft ufcful deliverances 
it ever received ; I mean, the deftruftion of 
the univerfal empire of Rome. The great 
prerogative of Scandinavia^ and which ought 
to place the nations which inhabit it, above 
all the people of the world, is, that this coun- 
try has been the rcfourcc of the liberty of Eu- 
rope ; that is to fay, of almoft: all the liberty 
that is to be found among men. Jornandes 
the Goth, has called the North of Europe 
the magazine or work-fhop of human kind : I 
fhould rather call it the magazine of thofe 
inflrumcnts which broke in pieces the chains, 
which were forged in the South. There thofe 
heroic nations were formed, who iffucd from 
their country, to dcftroy the tyrants and flavcs 
of the earth, and to teach men that nature 
having made them equal, reafon could not 
make them dependent, but only for the fake 
of their own happinefs *. 

• See L'Efprit de Loix, Uv. XIV. and liv. XVH. 



LiBEKTir and courage are the o£^pring of 
the northern, and luxury and learning of the 
fouthern nations. 

10. But in the centre of the hallowM choir. 
Six pompous columns o'er the reft afpire ; 
Around the fhrine itfelf of Fame they ftand. 
Hold the chief honours, and the fane command ^« 1 

The fix pcrfons Pope thought proper to 
fclcdl, as worthy to be placed on thefe pil- 
lars as the higheft feats of honour, are Homer, 
Virgil, Pindar, Horace, Aristotle, 
TuLLV %. It is obfervable, that our author has 
omitted the great dramatic poets of Greece. 
Sophocles and Euripides deferved certainly an 
honourable niche in the Temple of Fame, 
in preference to Pindar and Horace. But the 
truth is, it was not fafhionable in Pope's 

• Ver. 178. 

X Chaucer has mentioned Statins in this place, in a manner 
that fuits his chara^er. 

Upon an iron pillar ftrong. 
That painted was all endilong. 
With tygcPs blood in every place^ 
The Tholofiui that hight y Stace. 


time, nor among his acquaintance, attentively 
to ftudy thefe poets. By a Arange &tality 
they have not in this kingdom, obtained the 
rank they deferve amongft clailic writers. 
We have numberlefs treatifes on Horace and 
Virgil, for inftance, who in their different kinds 
do not furpafs the authors in queftion -, whilft 
hardly a critic among us, has profelTedly point- 
ed out their excellencies. Even real fcholars 
think it fufiicient to be acquainted and touch- 
ed with the beauties of Homer, Hefiod, and 
Callimachus, without proceeding to enquire, 

■■ -■ What the lofty grave tngediaiu tanght. 
In chorus or iambic, teachers heft 
or mora) prudence, with delight receiv'd 
In brief fententious precepts *, 

I OWN, I have fome particular reafons fw 
thinking that our author was not very convcr- 
fant, in this fort of compofition, having no 
inclination to the drama. In a note on the 
. third book of his Homer, where Helen points 
out to Priam the names and characters of the 

• Paiadifc Regained, b. IV. \a. 26^. 



Grecian leaders from the walls of Troy, he 
obferves^ that feveral great poets have been 
engaged by the beauty of this paflage, to an 
imitation of it. But who are the poets he 
enumerates on this occafion ? Only Statius 
and Taflb } the former of whom in his fe- 
venth book, and the latter in his third, 
ihews the forces and the commanders that 
invefted the cities, of Thebes, and Jerufalem. 
* Not a fyllable is mentioned of that capital 
icene m the Phasniflk of Euripides, from the 
hundred and twentieth, to the two hun- 
dredth line, where the old man fbnding 
with Antigone on the walls of Thebes, marks 
out to her the various figures, habits, armour. 

* In the dedication to the mifeiOamis he (b much ftodied 
and admiredy he had read the following ftrange words of hi» 
mailer Dryden, addre^ed to lord Radclifie. ** Though you 
have read the beft authors in their own languages, and per* 
itdXy diftinguifh of their fereral merits, and in general prefer 
them to the Modems, yet I know youjtulgi for the EngHJb tro' 
gsdifj ACAivsT thiGrnkmulLatiH^ as well as againft the French, 
Italian, and Spanilh of theie latter ages. Indeed there is a vaft 
difference betwixt arguing like Perault in behalf of the French 
poets againft Homer and Virgil, and betwixt giving the 
Englifh poets their undoubted due of excelling Efchylus, Euri* 
pides, and Sophocles.^' Mifcell. III. part, Lond* 1693. 


and qualiiicaUons of each diiferent warriour, 
in the moft lively and pidurefque manner, as 
they appear in the camp beneath them *. 

1 1. High on the fiiit the mighty Homer (hone ; 
Eternal adamant compos'd his throne g 
Father of verfc ! in holy fillets dreft. 
His filver beard wa/d gently o'er his breaft ; 
Though blind, a boldneii in hia looks appears : 
In years he fecnis, but not impair'd by years f. 

A STRIKING and venerable pc»tcait! The 
divine old man is reprefented here with fuitable 

* Among the reft, Emipides maket Antigone aaquire, which 
amone the wuriort is her brother Polynices ; this 19 one of thofe 
delicate and tender ftrolcci of nature, Jbr which this feeling 
tragedian is fo juftly admired. When ihc difcoven him Ihe 
breaks out thus, 

A>ipn»t ■>$' ^1^' nf>^*C 

BoA^w^t Xt"" fi/yi' fu}M$w 

She fiops % little, gazes eanKftly upon him, and ezclaimt with 
admiraiioa at the fplendor of his arms : 

at iMem Kfimunt twrtviK) ft"' 

BaXoH mXih. Vcr. l66. 
t Ver. 187. 



dignity. In the Anthologia, is a defcriptioli 
of a ilatue of Horner^ Mrhich from its an« 
tiquity, and the minute enumeration of tHe 
features and attitudes of the figure^ is curious 
and entertaining* 

•— — — tlarvp 0«/M(» wvBioj fiif^p 

TnfciXu/9 TO h Tyi t •nv t^Xvxv twtd 7«p *vT«r 
nXiiort^v irs{t ypf^9' xixipafv jb k»^ism 
aAiatti f iXwTly &€« ^4 

12. The wars of Troy \Vcrc round the pillar fccn : 
Here fierce Tydides Wounds the Cyprian qiiten^ 
Here Hedor, glorious fiom Patrodus' fall. 
Here dragged in Triumph round the Trojan wall } 
Motion and Life did evVy part infptrey 
Bold was the work, and provM the mafter*s fire f V 

The poems of Homer afford a marvellous 
variety of fubjedls proper for hiftory and paint- 
ing. A very ingenious French nobleman, 
the count de Caylus, has lately printed 3 va- 
luable treatife, entituled, *• Tableaux tires 
dc L'lliadc, et dc L'Odyffe d'Homere/' in 

^ Antholog. ad odcem CaUimaclii Edit. Lond. 1741 • pag. 8^ 

+ Ver. iSS. 

Vol. Ih F which 

which he has exhibiced the whole ferles Ctf 
events contained in thefe poems, arranged in 
their proper order ^ has deligned each piece, 
and difpofed each figure, with much taAe and 
judgement. He feems juflly to wonder, that 
artifts have fo feldoni had recourfe to this 
great ftorehoufe of beautiful and noble images, 
fo proper for the employment of their pen- 
cils, and delivered with fo much force and 
diAindlners, that the painter has nothing to 
do, but to fubititute his colours for the words 
of Homer. He complains that a Raphael, 
and a JuHo Romano ihould copy the crude 
and unnatural conceptions of Ovid's metamor- 
phofcs, and Apulcius's afs : and that fome of 
their facred fubjefts were ill chofen. Among 
the few who borrowed their fubjefts from 
Homer, he mentions Bouchardon with the 
honour hedeferves; and relates the following 
anecdote. " This great artift having lately 
read Homer in an old and deteftable French 
tranflation, came one day to me, his eyes 
fparkling with fire, and faid, * Depuis que 


- — — "l~^ ~ ~ ■*""* 


}'ai lu ce livre, les hommes 'ont quinze pieds, 
& la Nature s'eft accrue pour moi. — *' Since I 
have read this book, men feem to be fifteen 
feet high, and all nature is enlarged in my 
fight */' 

13. A ftrong expreffion moft he fecmM t'affcft. 
And here and there difcIosM a brave Negled. 

In the fublime, as in great affluence of for- 
tune, foime minute articles will unavoidably 
efcape obfervation. But it is almofl impof- 
fible for a low and groveling Genius to be 
guilty of error, fince he never endangers him- 
fclf by foaring on high, or aiming at eminence j 
but flill goes on in the fame uniform, fecure 
track, whilil its very height and grandeur 
expofes the fublime to fudden falls. " OvS'ev 

fjL%Xho¥ etu (pepea^xiy xai u fJLti S^t ivos BTSpSj 
TW5 fJLSyoiXofpoa'vrm avTVS ivBKX "f"". This 

noble fentiment of Longinus, is a fuffi- 
cient anfwer to an outrageous paradox lately 

• Pag. 227. 
t Longinus, Sect. 33. Edit. Tollii, pag. i84, 

F 2 advanced 



advanced by Voltaire, in dircdt contradiaioti 
to his former critical opinions ; and wliich is 
berc fet down, for the entertainment of the 
reader* " If we would weigh, without pre- 
judice, the Odyfley of Homer with the Or* 
lando of Arioilo, the Italian muft gain the 
preference in all refpeifts* Both of them are 
chargeable with the fame fault, namely, an 
intemperance and luxuriance of imagination^ 
and a romantic fpndnefs of the marvellous* 
But Arioflo has compenfatcd this fault by aU 
legorics fo true, by touches of fatire fo deli- 
cate, by fo profound a knowledge of the hu* 
i:nan heart, by the graces of the comic, which 
perpetually (uccced the ftrokcs of the terrible, 
in iliort, by fuch innumerable beauties of 
pvery kind, th^t he has found out the fccret 
of making an agreeable monfter *• Let every 

• However M. de Voltaire might laugh at the quoting to 
him ^ father of the churchy yet the following fenfible obferva** 
tion on Homer, might be worth his confideration. 

Oufpo< ^i p.ico{ xai i;raro(, xai v^Anrof varrk vouli, xai ftvi^ 
itot4 7«t <^>T4t T6rcvTo» of at/lov it}^( o^ov ixarof Ararat >aCi»v. 

Pion. Chryfoftom. Orat. i8» 



reader afk himfelf what he would think^ if 
he fhould read for the firft time^ the Odyfley, 
and Tailb's poem, without knowing the names 
of their authors^ and the times when their 
works were compofed, and determine of them 

merely by the degree of pleafure they each 
of them excited ; would he not give the en- 
tire preference to TaiTo ? Would he not find 
in the Italian more conduct and ceconomy s 
more intereiting circumftances ; more variety 
and exadtnefs; more graces and embellifh* 
ment8 ; and more of that foftnefs which eafes^ 
relieves, and adds a luflre to, the fublime ? I 
queftion whether they will even even bear a 
comparifon a few ages hence*". 

14. A golden column next in (ight appeared. 
On which a Ihrine of pureft gold is rear'd ; 
Finlih'd the whole, and labour'd ev'ry part 
With patient touches of unwearied art : 
The Mantuan there in fober triumph fate. 
Composed his pofture, and his look fedate. 
On Homer ftill he fix*d a reverend eye. 
Great without pride, in modeft majefty f • 

* ColIe6tion complette des (Eovres de Mr. de Voltaire. 
Tom, XIII. a Geneve, pag. 46. f Ver. 196. 

■ J 


♦ II fuo carrattcre c per tutto grande, e 
maeftofo : e, per potcrlo fempre foflenere, H 
trattiene il pocta, perlo piu, ful generale, s'fu- 
geodo, a foo potere* tutte le cofe minute, e 
particolari : alle quali Omero, che a voluto 
jntitar ovde, e varior tuono, e liberamentc 
andantoall' incontro. £ iiccome ilimeremmo 
gran fallo biaiimare percio Vergilio, che a fa- 
poto cofe bene mantenere il caraetere propof- 
tofi i cosl non poffiamo non maravigliarci del 
tofto, ch'ad Omero fa Giullo Cefare Scaligero, 
da cui e riputato baflb, e vilcj peraver voluto 
toccare i punti piu fini del naturale : qualiche 
la magnificenza fofle pofta folamente nello 
itrepito dcUe parole Nell' Egloghe pero 

" Vincenzo GratHna was of Naples liad learning, and 
a clear head ; was an admirable civilian as well as critic. He 
wrote five tragedies On the model of the ancients, with chomfTes, 
II' Palamede, L'Andromeda, L'Appio Claudio, I! Papiniano, 
II' Scrvio Tullio. Tt is faid chat he miiTed a cardinal's hct ' 
becaufe of his fatyrical and fevcre turn of mind. When he 
was at Rome, he ufeJ to bow to coach horfes, becaufe, faid he, 
was it not for thde poor bcafis, thefc great people would have 
ntcn, and even philofophers, to draw their coaches. Metolblia 
poet laurcat to the emprefs queen at Vienna, fo famous for 
operas, was his difciple. Gravina founds his critical opinions 
on the folid principles of ArilTotle, that is, in other words, on 
nature and good lenfe. See fiorrctti, pag. 303. 


& prefe la liberta di rappre£entar coftumi alle 
volte troppo civib*, ed innalzo fopra la fem- 
plicita paftorale lo ftile, trattenendofi troppo 
ful generate : onde quantb nella Georgica fi 
lafcib addietro Efiodo^ tanto nell' Egloghe 
cede a Teocrito, da cui raccolfe i fiori : e nel 
poema eroico, ficcome riman vinto da Omero 
cofi e ad ogn' altro fupcriore *. 

15. Four fvirans fuftain*d a car of filvcr bright. 
With heads advanc'd, and pinions ftretch'd for flight: 
Here, like ibme furious prophet, Pindar rode. 
And feem'd to labour with th' infpiring God. 
Acrofi the harp a carclefs hand he flings. 
And boldly finks into the founding firings f . 

The character of Pindar, as commonly 
taken, feems not to be well underftood. We 
hear of nothing but the impetuoiity, and the 
fublimity of his manner ; whereas he abounds 
in flrokes of domeftic tendernefs. We are 


* Gravina della Ragio;i poetlca. In Napoli 1 716. p. 308. 

Pope fpcaking to one of his friends concerning abfurd 
compari(bns, mentioned, as fuch, the comparing Homer with 
Virgil, Comeillc with Racine, the little ivory ftatue of Poly- 
dete with the Coloflus. Thcfc, he added, are magis fares 
^uzm Jtmi/fj, 

t Vcr. 210, 


perpetually told of the boldncfs and violence 
of his tranfitioQSy whereas on a clofe infpeftioti 
they appear cafy and natural, are clofely con- 
nedted with, and arife appofitely from, his 
fubjeft. Even his ftile has been reprefented 
as fwelling and bombaft ; but carefully exa- 
mined, it will appear pure and perfpicuous^ 
not abounding with thofe harfh metaphors, 
and that profufion of florid epithets, which 
fome of his imitators affedt to ufe. One of 
Pindar's arts, in which they frequently feil 
who copy him, is the introdudion of many 
moral refleftions. Mr. Gray feems thorough- 
ly to have ftudied this writer. The following 
beautiful lines are clofely tranflated from the 
firft Pythian Ode. They defcribe the Power 
of mufic. 

Oh fovereign of the willing Ibul, 

Parent of fweet and folemn^breathmg airs. 

Enchanting Ihell ! the fullen cares. 

And frantic paflions hear thy foft controuL 

On Tliracia's hills the lord of war 

Has curbM the fury of his car. 

And droppM his thirfty lance at thy commaHd« 

Perching on the fceptred hand 


.*ain-^=rr- ^y. — :. ^^.t^ . _-. ^ f ^ - 


Of Jove» thy magic lulls thi? felther*d klitg^ 
With ruJBed plumes, and Sagging il^lhg: 
QuenchM in dark clouds of {lumber lie 
The terror of his beaky and lightening of his egrt "^^ 

Tn& reader will doubtlefs be pleafed^ to 
&e thefe ftriking images copied by another 
mafteriy hand. 

«- .^ — ^-^ With flackenM Wing^ 
While now the folemn concert breathes around^ 
Incumbent o*cr the fceptre of his lotd 
Sleeps the ftern e^gle ; by the numbered notei 
Poflefi'd j and fadate with the melting tone | 
Sovereign of birds. The furious God of war 
His darts forgetting, and the rapid wheels 
That bear him vengeful o*er the embattled pUu% 
Udents t> ■ ■ 

It 18 to be obferved^ that both thefe imU 
tations have omitted a natural circumftanc^ 
very expreilive of the ihrong feeling of the 
eagle 3 but very difficult to be tranflated witb 
becoming elegance. 

^ Dodfley's ColIeaioD» vol. VI« p. 3224 

f Ibid. ToL VI. p. 13. UruxlodM N«d% hylk^ 



— — • — O Ji Ktmfut 
yyfdi Mrr» Bitpit Tioif 

PWAtfl KfnWUfUWt *. 

May I venture to add, that thiB ode of 
Mr. Gray, ends a little unhappily ? That is, 
with an antithelis unfuited to the dignity of 
fuch a compolltion j 

Btntatb the (7Wliow far, but 1^ aitn/t the Grtat. 

It may be alfo queftioned, whether his 
ode on the Druids might not have been better 
concluded without mentioning the manner 

• Pinda', Pytii. I. Antiftrophe i. v. J. 

Thi* image puts me in mind of a fine Arake la Apollonius 
Rkodius, who (bus delcribes the tSk&a of Medea'i enchant^ 
ments on the dragon who watch'd the golden fleece< 

— ^ — «uT«f ay qiW 
Oiftn Oi>,reju>ft-, ^Xl;i^> wbAvit' ttna^ta 

Lib. IV. TBT. I JO. 

Few modems have boldneii enough to enter on drcumflancet 
fo MiKUTELr nATVRAL, and therefore highly expreffivef 
they are afraid of being thought vulgar and flaL ApoUoniu 
has more merit than b ufually allowed him, and defervet mon 
conlidcratiiMi among the leaned: the whols befaavioar and 
pa£ion of Medea is movingly derciibcd. He panicular]y «• 
Jboundj In fuch lively and delicate ^kct ai thu gaoled above. 



in which the bard died. There would have 
been a beautiful abruptnefs in finifhing with— » 

Be thine defpair, and fceptred care» 
To triumph and to die are mine. 

The mind would have been left in a pleafing 
and artful fufpenfe, at not knowing what be- 
came of fo favourite a charafter. Lyric poetry 
efpecially, fhould not be minutely hiftorical^ 
When Juno had ended her fpeech in Horace 
with that fpirited ftanza, 

Ter fi refurgat mums aheneus 
Au£lore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
Excifus Arvigis, ter uxor 

Capta, virum, puerolque ploret. 

What follows furely weakens the conclufion 
of this ode, and is comparatively fiat. 

Non haec jocofse conveniunt lyrae : 
Quo Mula tendis * ? 

The infpiration, under which the poet feems 
to have laboured, fuddenly ceafes, and he de* 
fcends into a cold and profaic apology. 

* Ode III. lib. iii. ver. 70. 

G a x6. Here 


1$. Hef9 hap^y Horace tun'd ih' AuTonian lyre. 
To fweetcc founds, and tempci'd Pindai's fire: 
Pleu'd with AIcxus' manly rage t' infufe 
The foftei fpitit of the Sapphic mufe ♦, 

Ho might have felefted ornaments more 
manly and charafteriftlcal of Horace, than— 

The Dovn> that round the infant poet fpread 
Myitlet ud ba|^(, bung hovering o'er his head f : 

Surely his odes a6brd many more Ariking 
fubjct^s for the ba0b relievos about his fta- 
tue. In the prefent ones do we not fee a 
litUenefs, or rather a prettinefs I 

OoR author alludes to the lyric part of 
Horace's works. Among the various views 
JQ which his numerous trommentators have 
coniideKd hia odes, they have neglected to 
remark thff dramatic turn h^ has given 
to many of them. Of this fort, is the ex- 
cellent prophecy of Ncreus, where Horace 
Itas artfblly introduced the principal events 
«Bd heroes of the Iliad, and fpeaks in ib 

^ Ver. aij, f Ver. 226, 



lively a manner of both, as to make the 

reader prefent at every a£lion intended. Of 

this fort alfo is the third ode of the third book, 

in which Juno is introduced, cxpreffing her* 

felf with all that fury and indignation againfl: 

the Trojans, which Homer hath afcribed to 

her* She begins her fpeech with an angry 

repetition of Hion^ Jlion, and will not fo 

much as utter the names of Paris and Helen, 

but contemptuoufly calls him, the incejlus 

yudeXy and her ^ Mulier peregrina*. Thecha- 

rader of this revengeful goddefs is all along 

fupported with the fame fpirit and propriety. 

Equal commendation is due to the fpeech of 

Regulus in the fifth ode, on his preparing to 

return to Carthage, which ends with an excIa-» 

mation fo fuited to the temper of that in* 

flexible hero* 

— O Pudor! 

Q magna Carthago, probroCs 
Altior Italiae ruinis ! 

Nor mud we forget the natural complaints 
of Europa, when (he has been carried away by 

* Tlus hath been ob&nred by tl\e old commentator, Aooo. 



die bull, and the fhune that arifes in her 
boTom, on her having been feduced from her 
father, friends and country. 

Impudens liqni patrLot Penites ! 
Impudens Orcum moroi ! O decirum 
Si quit, hze audts, utinvn inter errem 
Nuda leones*. 

Immediately another ProlbpopcBia is intro- 
duced. She thinks fhe hears her angry father, 
rebuking her, 

Vilis Europe (ptter ui^ sbfara) 
Quid nwri ceflu ? tie. 

Of this dramatic fpecies alfo, is the conclu-' 
fion of the eleventh ode of the third book, 
where one ^f the daughters of Danaus, who 
is not bafe enough to comply with her fa- 
ther's commands, difmifles her hutband with 
a fpeech that is much in character. I cannot 
forbear adding, that, of this kind, likewise 
is the whole of the fifth Epodc> upon which 
] beg leave to be a little particular, as I do 
not remember to have feen it confidered as it 
ought to be. It fuddenly breaks out with a 
beautiful and forcible abruptnefs. 

• Ode XXXVa lib. iii. 



At O Deonim quilquis in ccelo regs 

Terras et huixunum genus^ 
Quid ifte fert tumultus ? aut quid omniain 

Vultus in unum me truces ^ 

It IS a boy utters thefe words, who beholds 
himfelf furrounded by an horrible band of 
witches, with Canidia at their head, who in- 
ilantly feize and ftrip him, in order to make 
a love-potion of his body« He proceeds to 
deprecate their undefcrved rage by moving 
fupplications, and fuch as are adapted to his 
age and iituation. 

Per liberos te, fi vocata partubus 

Lucina veris adfuit; 
Per hoc inane purpuras decus, precor, 

Per improbaturum haec Jovem ; 
Quid ut noverca, me intueris, aut uti 

Petiu ferro bellua ? 

The poet goes on to enumerate, with due fo- 
lemnity, the ingredients of the charm . Thofe 
which * Shakefpear in his Mackbeth has 
defcribed, as being thrown into the magical 

• It is obiervable, that Shakefpear on this great occafion, 
which involves the fate of a king> multiplies all the circiuii-* 


caldron, have a near refemblance with the{e 
of Horace, but he has added others well cal- 
culated to imprefs the deepeft terror, from 
his own imagination. Canidia having placed 
the vi^im in a pit where he was gradually to 
be ftarved to death, begins to fpeak in the 
following awful and ftriking manner. 

— — — O Rebus meis 

Non inlidetes aibitne, 
Nox, & Dianaj ipiae filentium tegts. 
Arcana cum fiunt facra ! 
Nunc, nunc adefte ! nunc in hoRiles domo9 
Iram atque numen verdte. Sec, 

But ihe fuddenly Hops, furprized to fee the 
incantation hW. 

Quid accidit? cur dira bubarae nimui 

Vcnena Mcdex valent ? 

flancea of horror. The babe, whole Cnger U nied in the cd* 
chantnicrt, muft be llnmgled in iti birth, the gteafc moft rtrt 
onljr be hnman, but moft have dropped from « gibber tin 
^bet of a niDnlcrer ; and even the fow, whole blood ii nlcd, 
moft have offended nature by devDining her Own foiTcnr. 
Johnfi>a'> Obfervadons on Mackbeth. AftlV. Scntl. 



^In a few lines inore, (he difcovers the reafon 
that her charms are iDefficacious. 

Ah, ah folutus ambulat veneficiC) &c. 

She refolves therefore to double them, 

* Majus parabo : majus infundam cibi 

Fafiidienti poculum. 


And concludes with this fpiritcd threat. 

Priufque coelum fidet inferius mari 

Tellurem porre£la fuper, 
Qj^am non amore fie meo flagres, uti 

Bitumen atris ignifius. 


* Sanadon has a remark in the true ipirlt of a fafHdioot 
French critic. ** Thefe defcriptions of witchcraft muft hare 
been very pleafing to ancient poets, iince they dwell upon 
them fo largely and frequently. Bat furely fuch objedts have 
fo much horror in them, that they cannot be prefented with 
too much hafte and rapidity to the imagination.^'-— Such falfe 
delicacy and refinement have rendered fome of the French 
incapable of relilhing many of the forcible and mafculine 
images with which the ancients ftrengthened their compq- 
fitions. The moft natural ilrokes in a poem that moft 
abounds with them, the Odyfley, is to fuch judges a fund of 
ridicule. They muft needs naofeate the fcenes that lie in 
Eumeus's cottage, ai^l defpife thd coarfe ideas of fo ill-bred 
' a princefs as Nauficaa. Much lefs can fuch effeminate judges 
bear the bold and fevere ftrokes, the terrible graces* of oor 
irregular Shake(pear, efpecially in his fcenes of magic and 
Vol. II. H incantations. 

The boy, on hearing his fete thus cruelly dc*- 
terrained, no longer endeavours to fuc for 
mercy, but breaks out into tbofe bitter and 
natural execrations, mixed with a ten- 
der mention of His parents, which r^acli 
t6 the end of the ode. If we conli- 
dcr how naturally the fear of the boy 
is expreffed in the firft fpeech, and how 

incanntions. Thefe gatbic tbarau are in truth more llriking 
to the imagioaCioii than the ela^eal. The magicians of An- 
oAo, TalTo, and Spencer, have more powerful IpelU, thaii 
thofc of Apollonius, Seneca, and Lucao. The inchanted 
forell of Ifmeno is more awfully and tremendoully poetical 
than even the Grove, which Cxfar orders to be cut down, in 
Lncan.I.iii. 400, which was fo full of terrors, that at noo«- 
day or midnight, the PrieU himfelf dared not approach it. 

Dreading the Demon of the Grove to meet! 

Who, that fees the fable pluimti waving on the pradigioai 
helmet, in the calUe of Otranio, and the gigantic arm on the 
topof tie grtiujfain*/i, it not laOTc aSeCted than with tlio 
paintings'of Ovid and Apalcius I What a group of drcad- 
fal image* do we meet with in ibtEtiJaf The Runic 
poetiy abonnds in them. 'Tis remarlcsble, that the idea of 
the Fatal Sillert weaving the Dantfh Aandard, bears a mar- 
velloiu relemblance to a paflage in Sophocles, Ajax, 
T. lo;]. '* Sid sot Ennnys berfelf make this fword I 
«iid PJutOi-iiitt dreadful worknian, this belt i" 




the dreadful charadler of Canidia is fupported 
in the fecond, and the various turns of paf- 
lion with which fhe is agitated 5 and if we add 
to thefe the concluding imprecations : wc 
muft own that this ode affords a noble fpeci- 
men of the dramatic powers of Horace. 

17. Here in a fhrine that caft a dazling light, 
Sate fix'd in thought, the mighty Stagyrite ; 
His facred head a radiant zodiac crown'd^ 
And various animals his fides furround ; 
His piercing eyes, ere£t, appear to view 
Superior worlds, and look all Nature through ^. 

It may not be unpleafing to obferve the 
artful manner with which Addifon has intro- 
duced each of his worthies at the Tables of 
Fame, and how nicely he has adapted the 
behaviour of each perfon to his charader, 
Addifon had great fkill in the ufe of delicate 

and oblique allufions. " It was expeded 

that Plato would have taken a place next 
his mafter Socrates ; but on a fudden there was 
heard a great clamour of difputants at the 
door, who appeared with Ariflotle at the head 

H 2 of 

• Vcr. 23 a, 

of them. That philofopher with fome rade- 
nefs, but great ftrength of reafon, convinced 
the whole table that a fifth place at the table 
was his due, and took it accordingly." Thus 
in another pailage.— — " Julius Cxiar was 
now coming forward } and though moll of 
the hiftorians offered their fervice to intro- 
duce him, he left them at the door, and would 
have no conductor but himfelf."— In the fame 
fpirit he tells us } That Q^ Curtius intended 
to conduct Alexander the Great, to an apart- 
ment appointed for the reception of fabulous 
heroes ; that Virgil hung back at the en- 
trance of the door, and would have excufed 
himfelf, had not his modefty been overcome 
by the invitation of all who iate at the table j 
that Lucan entered at the head of many hifto- 
rians with Pompcy^and that feeing Homer and 
Virgil at the table, was going to fit down him- 
felf, had not the latter whifpered him, he had 
forfeited his claim to it^ by coming in as one 
of the hiftorians. 

|8. With equal rays immortal Tully Oione, 

The Romai] rofira dccliM the Conful's throne : 
^^ * TMter, No. »i, nt fup. 


-=• ly-r-'i-iTi 


Gathering his flowing robe he (eem'd to ftand. 
In a& to fpeak, and graceful ftretch'd his hand. 

This beautiful attitude is copied from a 
Aatue in that valuable coileAion, which Lady 
Pomfret had the goodnefs and generofity 
lately to prefent to the univerfity of Qxford.— « 
Cicero, fays Addifon, next appeared and took 
his place. He had enquired at the door for 
one Lucceius to introduce him ; but not find* 
Ing him there, he contented himfelf with the 
attendance of many other writers, who all, 
except Salluft, appeared highly pleafed with 
the office. 

I CANNOT forbear taking occafion to men- 
tion an ingenious imitation of this paper of 
Addifon, called the Table of Modern Fame, 
at which the guefts are introduced and ranged 
with that tafle and judgement which is pecu- 
liar to the author *• It may not be unenter- 
taining to enumerate the perfons in the order 
he has placed them, by which his fenfe of their 
merits will appear. Columbus, Peter the Great, 

^ Si^poied to be Dr. Akenfide. Dodfle/s Ma&um, No. 1 3 . 


Leo X. Martin Luther, Newtoiij Defcartcs, 
Lewis XIV. William the firft Prince of 
Orange, Edward the Black Prince, Francis I. 
Charles y. Locke, Galileo, John Fauft, 
Harvey, Machiavel, Taffo, ArJofto, Pope, 
Boileau, Bacon *, Milton -f-, Cervante^ 

19. When on the Goddefs firft I caft my fight. 
Scarce fecm'd her ftature of a cubit's height ; 
But fwetl'd to lai^er height the more I gaz'd. 
Till to the roof her tow'ring height {he lais'd ^. 

* " The aiTembljr with one accord invited Bacon forward, 
the Godiicfs beckoned him to draw near, and leated him on 
the higheft throne."' Mufxum, No. 1 j. 

f " I was extremdy difcontcnted that no more honourable had been refened for Milton. You forget, (ays my 
conduftor, that the lowefl place in this afTembly, is one of 
twenty, the mofl honourable gifts which Fame hu to beftow 
among the whole human fpccics. Milton is now admitted 
for the firft time, and was not but witli difficulty admitted 
at all. But have patience a few years longer; he will be con- 
tinually afrcnding in the goddcfs's favour, and may perhaps 
at laA obtain the highell, or at haH. the fccond place, in thefe 
het foletnnities. Tn the mean time, fee how he is received by 
ihe man who is bcft qualified here to judge of his dignity. " 
I looked nt him again, and faw Raphael making him the moft 
aSefUonate congratulations." Mufseum, No. 13. 
t ^'"er. ij-;. 



This figure of Fame enlarging and growing 
every moment, which is copied from Virgil, 
is imagined with ftrength and fublimi^ of 

Parva metu primo, mox fele attoUit in auras, 
Ingrediturque folo, ct caput inter nubila condit *• 

There is another figure of this foft in the 
Georgics of Virgil, as nobly conceived. In- 
flead of faying that the peflilence among the 
cattle encreafed daily, what an exalted image 
has he given us ! 

Saevit et in lucem Stygiis emifla tenebris 

Pallida Tysiphone. Morbos agit ante Metumque, 

Inque dies avidum furgens caput altius efFert. 

The fybil in the fixth iEneid is likewife re- 
prefhnted as fpreading to fight, and growing 
larger aa'd larger as the infpiration came upon 

— — Subito non vultus, non color unus, 
Non comptse manfere comae ; fed pe£his anhelum^ 
£t rabie fera corda tument ; majorque videri, 
Ncc mortale fonans t» ■ ■ 

• Book IV. vcr. 175. t Vcr. 47. 


We have, ilill a fourth inftance of Virgil's 
imagination, in the fpirited pifhire he has 
drawn of the Airy who appears to Turnus in 
the feventh ^neid *. Turnus at fitft, fuitably 
to his character, treats her as an impcrtment 
old prieAefs, whofe habit {he bad indeed bor- 
rowed. Upon which (he inAantly kindlea 
into rage, ailiimes her own horrid ihape io a 
moment ; the ferpents hifs aroand her head, 
and her countenance fpreads forth in all its 

At juvcni onnti fubitus tremor occupat artui ; 
Diriguere oculi ; tot Erinnys fibtlat hydni> 
Tantaque fe facio aperit. 

In no part of Virgil's writings is there more 
true fpirit and fublimity, than in this interview 
between Turnus and the fury, both whofe 
charadters are ftrongly fupported. But to re- 
turn to Fame. Virgil has rcprefenled her as 
a dreadful and gigantic monller, in which 
conception, though he might have been af- 
fifted by the Discord of Homer, yet his 

• Ver. 4+8. 




figure is admirably deflgned to imprefs terror. 
She has innumerable tongues, mouths, eyes 
and ears ; the found of her wings is heard at 
the dead of night, as (he flies through the 
iniddle of the air. 

fJo&t volat cceli medio, terra^que per umbram 
Stridens. ■ ■ 

In the day time fhe fits watchful on battle- 
ments, and on the higheft towers, and terri- 
fies great cities, who gaze at her huge and 
f6rmidable appearance. 

Luce fedet cuflos, aut fummi culmine teSti^ 
Turribus aut altis, et magnas territat urbes. 

It did not fuit Pope^s purpofe, to reprefent 
Fame as fo odious a monfter. He has there- 
fore dropped thefe ftriking circumftances in 
Virgil, and foftened her features. 

20. With her the Temple cv'ry moment grew. 
And ampler viftos opened to my view: 
Upwards the columns (hoot, the roofs afcend. 
And arches widen, and long iles extend ♦. 

Akon out of the earth a fabric huge 
Rofe like an exhalation, with the found 

Vol. 11. I 0£ 

♦ Vcr. 262. 



Of dulcet fymphonies and voices fweet. 
Built like a temple, whofe pilafters round 
Were fet, and Doric pillars overlaid 
With golden architrave *. 

This circumftance of the temple's enlarging 
with the growing figure of the goddefs, is 
lively, new, and well imagined. The reader 
feels a pleafure in having his eye carried 
through a length of building, almoft to an 
immenfity. Extenfion is certainly a caufe of 
the lublime. In this view the following paf- 
fage of Thompfon may be confidered, where 
he fpeaks of a lazar-houfe in his Caftle of 
Indolence ^f*. 

Through the drear caverns ftretching many a mile. 
The fick uprearM their heads, and dropp'd their woes 

21. Next thefe a youthful train their vows exprefs*d. 
With feathers crown'd, and gay embroid'ry drefs'd : 
Hither, they cry'd, direSt your eyes and fee 
. The men of pleafure, drefs, and gallantry ; 
Ours is the place, at banquets, balls and plays^ 
Sprightly our nights, polite are all our days : 

• Par. Loft, b. i. ver. 712. f Stanza Ixix. c 2. 




Of unknowB dutchefles lewd tales we tell. 
Yet, would the world believe us, all were well ♦. 

Strokes of pleafantry and humour, and 
fatirical refledions on the foibles of common 
life, are furely too familiar, and unfuited to 
fo grave and majeftic a poem as this hitherto 
has appeared to be. Such incongruities of- 
fend propriety; though I know ingenious 
perfons have endeavoured to excufe them, by 
faying that they add a variety of imagery to 
the piece. This praftice is even defended 
by a pafTage in Horace. 

Et fermone opus eft modo trifti, faepe jocofo, 
Defendente vicem modo rhetoris atque poetae, 
Interdutn urbani, parcentis viribus, atque 
Extenuantis eas confulto. — -— 

But this judicious remark is, I apprehend, 
confined to ethic and preceptive kinds of 
writing, which Hand in need of being en- 
livened with lighter images, and fportive 
thoughts; and where ftriftures on common 

• Ver. 380. 

I 2 life 

life, may more gracefully be inferted. Eut 
in the higher kinds of poefy they appear as 
unr.atural and out of place, as one of the bur- 
lefquc fccnes of Heemfkirk would do, in a 
folemn landfcape of Pouflin. When 1 fee 
filth a line as 

" And at each blafl a laJy's honour dies " 

in the Temple of Fame, I lament as much 
to find it placed there, as to fee fhops, and 
yheds, and cottages,, ercftcd among the ruins 
of Dioclcfian's B-iths. 

On the revival of literature, the firft 

writers fcenicd not to have obfecveJ any se- 
lection" in their thoughts and images. Dante, 
Petrarch, Docc-KJo, Ariofto, make very fud- 
dcn traiifiiions from the fublime to the ridi- 
cu'.ous. Chaucer in his Temple of Mars, 
among many pathetic pictures, has brought 
in a llran^c line. 

The cu~c is fwldcJ for all hb long ladell *. 

• Thys sfain; •' As JL^oyi do^S coiitendicj fur 



No writer has more religioufly obferved the 
decorum here recommended than Virgil. 

22. ThL having heard and fecn, fonac pow*r unknown 
Strait chang'd the fcene, and fnatch'd me from the 

throne ; 
Before my view appear M a ftru£lurc fair. 
Its fite uncertain, if in earth or air *• 

The fcenc here changes from the Temple 
of Fam e to that of Rumour. Such a change 
is not methlnks judicious, as it deftroys the 
unity of the fubjeft, and diflrads the view 
of the reader j not to mention, that the diffe- 
rence between Rumour and Fame is not fuf- 
ficiently diftindl and perceptible. Pope has 
however the merit of compreffing the fenfe 
of a great number of Chaucer's lines into a 
fmall compafs. As Chaucer takes every op- 
portunity of fatyrizing the follies of his age, 
he has in this part introduced many circum- 
ftances, which it was prudent in Pope to omit, 
as they would not have been either relifhed 
or underftood in the prefcnt times. 

• Ver. 417. 

23. While 


23. While thus I flood intent to fee and hear. 

One came, methought, and whirper'd my ear : 
What could thus high thy rafli ambition mfe ? 
Art thou, fnnd youth^ a candidate for prailc ? 
'Tis true, laid I, not void of hopes t came. 
For who fo fond as youthful bards of Fame * ? 

This conclufion is not copied from 
Chaucer ; and is judicious, Chaucer has 
finirticd his ftory inartificially, by faying he 
was furprized at the fight of a man of great 
authority, and awoke in a fright. The fuc- 
ceeding lines give a pleafing moral to the al- 
legory, and the two laft fliew the man of ho- 
nour and virtue, as well as the poet. 

Unblcmifli'd let me live, or die unknown : 
Uh grant an honcll fame, or grant me none ! 

In linifliing this Seflion, we may obfervc, 
that Pope's alterations of Chaucer are intro- 
duced with judgment and art ; that thefe al- 
terations are more in number, and more im- 
portant in condudt, than any Dryden has 
made of the fame author. This piece was 
communicated tu Steele, who entertained a 

• Ver. 496. 

' '"'-M^MrSE.-^. - -IT -| ~ -|* . 


high opinion of its beauties, and who con- 
veyed it to Addifon. Pope had ornamented 
the poem with the machinery of guardian 
angels, which he afterwards omitted. He 
ipeaks of his work with a diffidence uncom- 
mon in a young poet, and which does him 
credit *. " No errors, lays he to Steele, are 
fo trivial, but they defervc to be mended. I 
could point to you feveral, but it is my bu- 
iinefs to be informed of thofe faults I do not 
know ; and as for thofe I do, not to talk of 
them, but mend them. — ^I am afraid of no- 
thing fo much as to impofe any thing upon 
the world which is unworthy its acceptance.'* 

It would have been matter of curiofity to 
have known Addifon's fentiments of this vi- 
fion -t"- His own is introduced and carried 
on with that vein of propriety and poetry, for 
which this fpecies of his writings is fo juftly 
celebrated, and which contribute to place him 
at the head of allegorical writers, fcarce ex- 
cepting Plato himfelf. 

• Vol. Vn. Letters, 8vo. p. 248. 
f Sec T*dcr, No. Si, referred to above. 




Of January and May, The TP'ife 
of Bath, and Translations of 
Statius and Ovid. 

THE firft dawnings of polite literature 
in Italy^ appeared in tale-writing and 
£ibles. Boccaccio gave a currency and vogoe 
to this fpecies of compofition. He collected 
many of the common tales of his country, 
and delivered them in the pnrefl ftile, enliven- 
ed with interefUng cireumftances. Sacchetti 
publiflied tales before him, in which are ma- 
ny anecdotes of Dante and his cotemporaries. 
Boccacio was faintly imitated by feveral Ita- 
lians, PoggiO} Bandello, Cinthio, Firenzuola, 
Malefpini, and others. * Machiavel himfelf 
did honour to this fpecies of writing, by his 

• Machbve], who poflefled die liTeliePi wit with the J»W- 
fonndeft rcflefUoiit wrote alio two comedies, Mandpsgon 
and Clytla, the fbnner of which was played I^cfore Leo X. 
with much magnificence j the latter is an imitation of the 

~~ - ■■i'»Tj» AT ftfS. 


To produce, and carry c^ •/ i •• : ..-^ility 
and decorum, a feries of events, :^ p (^: 

difficult wo^k '.;! invention ; nd if we w 

mini-.tciy to examine the popular ftories of 
every nation, we fhould be ama/:c\: *o find 
how few circumftances have betn ever in- 
vented. Fads and events have been indeed 
varied and modified, but totally new ones 
have not been created. The writers of the 
old romances, from whom Arioftoand Spencer 
have borrowed fo largely, are fuppofed to have 
had copious imaginations : but may they rot 
be indebted, for their invulnerable heroes, 
their monfters, their enchantments, their gar- 
dens of pleafure, their winged Aeeds^ and the 
like, to the £chidna, to the Circe, to the 
Medea, to the Achilles, to the Syrens, to the 
Harpies, to the Phryxus, and the Bellcrophon 

Caffina of Plautus ; " Indigna vero homine Chridiano (fays 
Balzac) qiii (anftiores Mufas colit, et, in ladicris quoque, me- 
minifle debet feveritatis/' Epill. Sclc6t. pag. 202. I have 
been informed that Machiavel towards the latter part of his 
life grew religious, and that Tome pieces of afcetic devotion, 
compoied by him, are preferved in the libraries of Italy. Lord 
Bacon (ays remarkably of Machiavel, that he teaches, quid 
boouBes hccrc iUeant, non quid debeant. 

Vol. II. K of 


of the ancients ? The cave of Polypheme 
might furnifh out the ideas of their giants, 
and Andromeda might give occalion for Hories 
of diilreifed damfels on the point of being 
devoured by dragons, and delivered at fuch a 
critical fealpn by their favourite knights. Some 
iaint traditions of the ancients might have 
been kept glimmering and alive during the 
whole barbarous ages, as they are called ; and 
it is not impoflible, but thefe have been the 
parents of the Genii in the eaftern, and the 
Fairies in the weftern world. To fay that 
Amadis and Sir Triftan have a clailical foun- 
dation, may at firA fight appear paradoxical ; 
but if the fubjed were examined to the bot- 
tom, I am inclined to think, that the wildefl: 
chimeras in thofe books of chivalry with 
which Don Quixote's library was furnilhed, 
would be found to have a clofe connexion 
with ancient mythology. 

We of this nation have been remarkably 

barren in our inventions of fads j we have 

been chiefly borrowers in this fpecies of com- 



f>oiitlon ; as the plots of our moft applauded 
plays, both in tragedy and comedy, may wiN 
nels, which havt generally been taken from 
the novels of the Italians and Spaniards. 

The ftory of January and May now 
before us, is of the comic kind, and the cha- 
rader of a fond old dotard betrayed into dif- 
grace by an unfuitable match, is fupported in 
a lively manner. Pope has endeavoured, 
iuitably to familiarize the 'ftatelinefs of our 
heroic meafure, in this ludicrous narrative; 
but after all his pains, this meafure is not a* 
dapted to fuch fubjeds, fo well as the lines 
of four feet, or the French numbers of Fon- 
taine *. Fontaine is, in truth, the capital 
and unrivalled writer of comic tales. He 
generally took his fubjedts from Boccaccio, 
'f Poggitis, and Ariofto ^ but adorned them 

* It is to be lamented that Fontaine has to frequently tranf- 
greffiMl the bounds of modeily. Boileau did not look upon 
Fontaine as an original writer, and ufed to fay he had bor- 
rowed both his (tile and matter from Marot and Rabelais^ 

t " PoggiusFlorentinus in hoc numero eloquentium virorunt 
fingularc nomen obtinet. Scripfit dc nobilitatex de avaritia, 

ILz de 

them with £0 many natural ftrokes, with fuch 
quaintncfs in his refleftions, and fuch a drynefs 
and archnefs of humour, as cannot hH to ex- 
cite kughter. 

Our Prior has happily caught his manner, 
in many of his lighter tales ; particularly in 
Hans Carvel, the invention of which, if its 
genealogy be worth tracing, is firft due to 
Foggius. It is found in. the hundred and 
thirty-third of his Facetia, where it is entitled 
Vifio Francifci Philelphi j from hence Ra- 
belais inferted it, under another title, in his 
third book and twenty-eighth chapter ; it was 
afterwards related in a book called the * Hun- 
dred Novels j Ariofto finifhes his fifth fatire 
with it; Malefpini alfo made ufe of it; Fon- 
taine who imagined Rabelais to be the in- 

it principum inrdiciute, de moribas Indorum, facetiakuh 
quoque libnim unum. Ab advetHaih exagitanu orationea ple- 
nfque invcOivas edidit. Jn epiffolu etiam laudatur. Cyn>> 
psdlam, qaain Xenophon ille fcripfu, ladnam reddidit, atqoe 
Aiphonib rcgi dedtcavit, pro qua g rege magnam mere 
tC^pit," Facius de virit illufirihiu, Florenti^, 1745. 
• $M Meugiana. Vol, I p. 368. 



ventor of it^ was the iixth author who deli« 
ii^ered it, as our Prior was the laft } and per- 
haps not the leaft fpirited. 

Rabelais was not the inventor of n^ny 
of the burlefque tales he introduced into his 
principal (lory ; the fineft touches of which, 
it is to be feared, have undergone the ufual 
and unavoidable fate of fatirical writings, that 
is, not to be tafted or underftood, when the 
characters, the fa£ts and the follies they ftig* 
matize, are perifhed and unknown. Gulliver 
in the next century, will be as obfcure as Ga- 
ragantua; and Hudibras and the fatire Menippe 
cannot be read, without voluminous commen* 

The Wife o^p Bath, is the other 
piece of Chaucer which Pope feledlcd to 
imitate: One cannot but wonder at his 
choice, which perhaps nothing but his youth 
could cxcufe. Dryden^ who is known not 
to be nicely fcrupulous, informs us that he 
would not verfify it on account of its inde- 

indecency. Pope however has omitted or 
foftened the gro^Ter and more offenfive pallages, 
Chaucer afforded him many fubjedts of a more 
ferious and fublime fpecies ; and it were to be 
wilhed^ Pope had exercifed his pencil on the 
pathetic ftory of the patience of Grifilda, or 
Troilus and Creffida, or the complaint of 
the black knight } or, above all^ on Cambuf- 
can and Canace. From the accidental cir- 
cumftancc of Dryden and Pope's having 
copied the gay and ludicrous parts of Chaucer, 
the common notion feems to have arjfcn, that 
Chaucer's vein of poetry was chiefly turned 
to the light and the ridiculous *, In a word, 
they who look into Chaucer, will foon be 
convinced of this prevailing prejudice, and 
will find his comic vein to be only like one of 
mercury, imperceptibly mangled with a mine 
of gold. 

* Cowley U Md to have dcfpifed Chaucer. I am not fur- 
prized at this (Irange judgment. Cowley was indlTputably a 
Genius, but his taftc was perverted and nanowed by a lore 
ef witticifins. 


^ ^■---- 


Chaucer is ftill more highly magnified 
by Dryden, in the fpiritcd and pleafing pre- 
face to his Fables ; for his prefaces, after 
all, are very pleafing, notwithftanding the 
oppofite opinions they contain, becaufe his 
profe is the moft numerous and fweet, the 
moft mellow and generous^ of any our lan-^ 
guage has yet produced. His digrcflions 
and ramblings,^ which he himfelf fays he 
learned of honcft Montaigne, are interefting 
and amufing. In this preface is a paiTage 
worth particular notice, not only for the 
juftnefs of the criticifm, but becaufe it con- 
tains a cenfure of Cowley. ** Chaucer 
is a perpetual fountain of good fenfe; 
learned in all fciences j and therefore fpeaks 
properly on all fubjedts : As he knew what 
to fay, fo he alfo knows where to leave off; 
a continence, which is pracilifed by few 
writers, and fcarcely by any of the ancients, 
excepting Virgil and Horace* One of our lati 
great poets is funk in his reputation, becaufe 
he could never forgive any Conceit that came 
ia his way; but fwept, like a drag-net, 

K 4 great 


great and fmall. There was plenty enough, 
but the "clifhes were ill-forted; whole pyra- 
mids of Yweet-meats for boys and women ; 
but little of folid meat, for men. All thi^ 
proceeded not from any want of knowledge, 
but of judgment ; neither did he want that, ' 
in difcerning the beauties and faults of other 
poets; but only indulged himfelf in the 
luxury of writing ; and perhaps knew it was 
a fault, but hoped the reader would not find 
i^ For this reafon, though he muft always 
be thought a great poet, he is no longer 
efteemed a good writer; and for ten im- 
preflions which his works have had in fo 
many fucceflive years, yet at prefent a hun- 
dred books are fcarcely purchafed once a 
twelvemonth." It is a circumflance of 
literary hiftory worth mentioning, that 
Chaucer was more than 60 years old when 
he wrote Palamon and Arcitc, as we know 
Dryden was 70, when he verfificd it. The 
lines of Pope, in the piece before us, 
are fpirited and eafy, and have, properly 
enough, a free colloquial air. One pafiage, 
X cannot 


I oinnot forbear quoting, as it acquaints us 
with the writers who were popular in the time 
of Chaucer. The jocofc old woman fays, 
that her hufband frequently read to her out 
of a volume that contained, 

Valerius whole : and of Saint Jerome part $ 
Chryfippus, and TertuUian, Ovid*s art, 
Solomon's proverbs, £Ioifa*s loves } 
With many more than Aire the church approves ^. 

Pope has omitted a ftroke of humour j for in 
the original, fhe naturally miftakes the rank 
and age of St. Jerome: the lines muft be 

Ydepid Valerie and Thcophraft, 

At which boke he lough alwey full fisift ; 

And eke there was a clerk fometune in RomCf 

A cardinal^ that hightin St. Jerome, 

That made a boke agenft Jovinian, 

In which boke there was eke Tertullian, 

Chryfippus, Trotula, and Helowis, 

That was an Abbefs not ferr fro Paris. 

• Vcr, 359. 

Vol. n. L Ajia 


And eke the Parables of Solomon, 
Ovid' is art, and bokis many a one *• 

In the library which Charles V. founded in 
France about the year thirteen hundred and 
feventy fix, among many books of devotion, 
aftrology, chemiflry and romance, there was 
not one copy of TuUy to be found, and no 
Latin poet but Ovid, Lucan and Boethius; 
fome French tranflations of Livy, Valerius 
Maximus, and St. Auftin's City of God. He 
placed thefe in one of the towers of the old 
Louvre, which was called the tower of the 
library. This was the foundation of the pre- 
fent magnificent royal library at Paris. 

The tale to which this is the Prologue, has 
been vcrfified by Dryden ; and is fuppofed 
to have been of Chaucer's own contrivance : 
as is alfo the elegant Vision of thejlower and 
the leafy which has received new graces from 
the fpirited and harmonious Dryden. It is 

♦ Vcr. 671, 



to his fables, though wrote in his old age ♦, 

that Dryden will owe his immortality, and 

among them, particularly, to Palamon and 

Arcite, Sigifmunda and Guifcardo, Theodore 

and Honoria ; and to his mufic ode. The 

warmth and melody of thefe pieces, has never 

been excelled in our language, I mean in 

rhyme. As general and unexemplified criti- 

cifm is always ufelefs and abfurd, I muft beg 

leave to feled: a few paflages from thefe three 

poems, and the reader muft not think any ob- 

fervations on the charadler of Dryden, the 

conftant pattern of Pope, unconnected with 

the main fubjeft of this work. The pidure 

of Arcite in the abfence of Emilia, is highly 

cxprcffive of the deepeft diftrefs, and a com- 

pleat image of anguifh. 

He rav'd with all the madnels of d^fpair. 
He roar*d, he beat his breaft, he tore his hair. 

* The falling ofF of his hair, faid a man of wit, had no 
other coniequenccy than to make his laurels to be ieen the more. 
A perfon who tranftated fome pieces after Dryden ufed to fay. 

Experto credite, quantus 

In dypeum a^urgat, quo turbine torqueat haftam. 

Crebillon was ninety when he brought his Catiline on the ftage* 

L 2 Dry 


Dry forrow in his ftuptd eyes appears. 
For wanting nouriibment, he wanted tears : 
His cye-badls in their hollow fockets fink. 
Bereft of fleep he loaths his meat and drink; 
He withers at his heart, and looks as wan> 
As the pale fpeftre of » murder'd man •. 

The image of the Suicide is equally pidu- 
refque and pathetic. 

The flayer of himfelf yet faw I there 
The gore congcalM was clotted in his hair ; 
With eyes half-clos'd and gaping mouth he lay. 
And grhn> as when he breath'd his fullcn foul away. 

This reminds me of that forcible defcription 
in a writer whofe fancy was eminently ftrong. 
** Catilina vero, longe a fuis, inter hoftium ca- 
«' davera repcrt\is eft. paululum etiam fpirans ; 
** ferociamque animi, quam hahucrat vivus, in 
" vultu rctinens." Nor muft I omit that af- 
fedUng image in Spcnfer, who ever excels in 
the pathetic. 

And him befides there lay upon the grafi 
A dreary corfc, whofe life away did pals, 

* Palamon and Ardte, BookX* 


AH wallow'd in his own, yet lukewarm, blood. 
That from his wound yet welled freih, alas ; 
In which a rufty knife faft fixed ftood. 
And made an open paffage for the gulhing flood *• 

When Palamon perceived his rival had 

— He ftares, he (lamps the ground ; 
The hollow tow'r with clamour rhigs around: 
Widi briny tears he bathM his fetter'd feet^ 
And droppM all o^er with agony of fweat 

Nor arc the feelings of Palamon lefs ftrongly 
impreflcd on the reader, where he fays. 

The rage of Jealoufy then fir'd his foul. 
And his face kindled like a burning coal : 
Now cold defpair fucceeding in her ftead. 
To livid palcnefs turn*d the glowing red f . 

If we pafs on from defcriptions of perfons 
to thofe of things, we (hall find this poem 

* Fairy Queen, Book I. Canto 9. Stanza 36. 

f Thefe paflages are chiefly of the pathetic fort ; for which 
Dryden in his tragedies is far from being remarkable. But it 
is not unufual for the fame perfbn to fucceed in deicribing ex- 
temally a diilreisful charafter, who may miierably fail iu 
putting proper words in the mouth of fuch a character. In a 
word, fo much more difficult is dramatic than dsscrxptivk 



equally excellent. The temple of Mars, is 
fituated with propriety, in a country defolate 
and joylefs ; all around it. 

The laiidfcape was a forefl: wide and bare ; 

Where neither bcaft nor human kind repair ; 

The fowl, that fcent afar, the borders fly. 

And (hun the bitter blaft, and wheel about the flcy . 

A cake of fcurf lies baking on the ground. 

And prickly ftubs inftead of trees are found. 

The temple itfelf is nobly and magnificently 
ftudied} and, at the fame time, adapted to 
to the furious nature of the God to whom it 
belonged ; and carries with it a barbarous and 
tremendous idea . 

The frame of burniffi'd ftcel that caft a glare 
From far, and fecm'd to thaw the freezing air. 
A ftrait long entry to the temple led, 
Blind with high walls and horror over-head : 
Thence iflued fuch a blaft and hollow roar. 
As threaten'd from the hinge to heave the door. 
In through the door a northern light there ftione, 
'Twas all it had, for windows there were none. 
The gate of adamant, eternal frame, 
Which hew'd by Mars himfelf from Indian quarries 



This fcenc of terror is judicioufly contrafted 
by the pleafing and joyous imagery of the 
temples of Venus and Diana. The figure of 
the laft goddefs, i; a defiga fit for Guido to 

The graceful Goddefs was arrayM in green ; 
About her feet were little beagles feen. 
That watchM with upward eyes the motions of their 

But above all, the whole defcription of the 
entering the lifts *, and of the enfuing com- 
bat, which is told at length, in the middle of 
the third book, is marvelloufly fpirited j and 
fo lively, as to make us fpedlators of that inte- 
refting and magnificent tournament. Even 
the abfurdity of feigning ancient heroes, fuch 
as Thefeus and Lycurgus, prefcnt at the lifts 
and a modern combat, is overwhelmed and 
obliterated amidft the blaze, the pomp, and 
the profufion of fuch animated poetry. Fri- 

* The reader is defired all along to remember, that the 
£rft delineation of all thefe images is in Chaucer^ and it might 
be worth examining how mucli Dryden has added purely from 
his own dock 


C5r_. .-jr« .,1—1 


gid and phlegmatic mufl be the critic, who 
could have leifure dully and foberly to attend 
to the anachronifm on fo ibiking an occafion. 
The mind is whirled away by a torrent of 
rapid imagery, and propriety is forgot. 

The tale of Sigifmonda and Guifcardo is 
heightened with many new and afFedling 
touches by Dryden, I fliall feledt only the 
following pidlure of Sigifmonda, as it has the 
fame attitude in which fhe appears in a fa- 
mous piece of CORREGGIO. 

Mute, folemn forrow, free from female noife. 
Such as the Majefty of grief deftroys : 
For bending o*er the cup, the tears flie (hed 
Seem'd by the pofture to difchargc her head, 
O'erfiird before ; and oft (her mouth apply'd 
To the cold heart) flie kifb'd at once and cry'd. 

There is an incomparable wildnefs in the 
vifion of Theodore and Honoria *, that repre- 

• This is one of Boccace's moft ferious llorics. ** It is a 
carious thing to fee at the head of an edition of Boccace's 
tiles» prints.' ^ at Florence in 1573, a privilege of Gregory 
XIII. who lays, ti.j •> rh is he follows the fleps of Pius V. 
his prcdec'jifor, of bkjTcd meruor\', and which tlu-eatcns with 



fcnts the furious fpedlre of " the horfemail 
ghoft that came thundering for his prey/' 
and of the gaunt maftifFs that tore the fides 
of the (hrieking damfel he purfued ; v hich 
is a fubjeft worthy the pencil of Spagnoletti, 
as it partakes of that favagenefs which is (6 
ilriking to the imagination. I fhall confine 
myfelf to point out only two paflages, which 
relate the two appearances of this formidable 
figure : and I place them lafl, as I think them 
the mod lofty of any part of Dry den's works, 

Whilfl: lift'ning to the murmVing leaves he ftood^ 
More than a mile immers'd within the wood. 
At once the wind was laid — the whifp'ring found 
Was dumb — a rifing earthquake roclc'd the ground : 
With deeper brown the grove was overfpread. 
And his ears tingled, and his colour fled. 

The fenfations of a man upon the approach 
of fome ftrange and fupernatural danger, can 
fcarcely be reprefented more feelingly. All 

fevere panifhments all thofe, who fhall dare to give any dis- 
turbance to thofe bookfellers to whom this privilege is granted. 
There is alio a decree of the inquiiltion in favour of this edi- 
tion, in which the holy father caufed fome alterations to be 
made/' LoNCVERVAjfA, Tom. II. p. 6:. a Berlin, 1754* 

Vol. II. M nature 

rr« . --.JS --l" 


nature is thus (aid to fympathize at the fe- 
cond appearance of 

— - -r- The felm on his fable deed 
Arm*d with his naked fword that urgf d his dogs to (peed. 

Thus it runs 

The fiend's alarm began ; the hollow found 
Sung in the leaves, the foreft fliook around. 
Air blacken'd, roll'd the thunder, groan'd the ground. 

But to conclude this digreflion on Dryden. 
It muft be owned, that his ode on the power 
of mufic, which is the chief ornament of 
this volume, is the moft unrivalled of his 
compofitions. By that ilrange fatality which 
feems to difqualify authors from judging of 
their own works, he does not appear to have 
valued this piece, becaufe he totally omits it 
in the enumeration and criticifm he has given, 
of the reft, in his preface to the volume. I 
fhall add nothing to what I have already faid on 
this fubjedt ^ ; but only tell the occaiion and 
manner of his writing it. Mr. St. John, after- 

* \'oL I. pag. JO. 



wards Lord Boliogbroke, happening to pay a 
morning vifit to Dryden, whom he alwajrs ref- 
pcAed *y found him in an unufual agitation 
of fpirits, even to a trembling. On enquiring 
the caufe, ^^ I have been up all night, replied 
the old bard ; my muiical friends made me 
promife to write them an ode for their feaft 
of St. Cscilia : I have been fo ftruck with the 
fubje£fc which occurred to me, that I could 
not leave it till I had completed it ; here it is, 
finifhed at one fitting." And immediately 
he (hewed him this ode, which places the 
Britifii lyric poetry above that of any other 
nation. This anecdote, as trae as it is cu- 
rious, was imparted by lord Bolingbroke to 
Pope, by Pope to Mr. Gilbert Weft, by him 
to the ingenious friend who communicated it 
to me ♦. The rapidity, and yet the perfpi- 

* See Us veries to Diyden, prefixed to the tranflation of 
Virgil. Lord Bolingbroke aflbred Pops, that Dryden oftea 
declared to him, that he got more from the Spaniih critict 
alone, than from the Italian, French, and all other critia put 
together. This appears ftrange. Lord Bolinghoke learned 
Spaniih in kfi dian three weeks. 

f Richard Berenger, Efq; 

M 2 cuity 


cuity of the thoughts, the glow and the ex- 
preflivenefs of the images, thofe certain marks 
of the firft fketch of a mafter, confpire to 
corroborate the truth of the fadt. 

The Translation o^ xht Jirji book of 
StafiuSy is the next piece that belongs to this 
Section. It was in his childhood only, that 
he could make choice of fo injudicious a 
writer. It were to be wifhed that no youth 
of genius were fufFered ever to look into Sta- 
tins *, Lucan, Claudian, or Seneca the trage- 
dian 3 authors, who by their forced conceits, 
by their violent metaphors, by their fwelling 
epithets, by their want of a juft decorum, have 
$t ftrong tendency to dazzle, and to miflead 
inexperienced minds, and talles unformed^ 
from the true relifh of poflibility, propriety, " 
flmplicity and nature. Statius had undoubt- 

♦ Writers of this (lamp are always on the ftrctch, They 
difdain the natural. They are perpetually grafping at the vaft, 
the wonderful, and the terrible. '' Kav ix»roy avrtkv t^o^ aiyaq 
(ttUffKOTTri^, EX re (po^ifs k^t O^iy^i viroifOTH wpo? to it;jtaT«if po>»jTOf .— 

xXt fAY.rrort irirnrotirir >;/xa; a; rfvayTtov thv yap. (fao'i, ^rprifo* 

'- v'j7.i;:tf ." Longinus, 5r£f» v^^q ri*. y, oudl. ili. 


.' - 


ediy invention, ability and fpirit; but his 
images are gigantic and outrageous, and his 
ientiments tortured and hyperbolical. It can 
hardly, I think, be doubted, but that Juvenal 
Jn tended a fevere fatire on him, in thefe v^^ell 
known lines which have been commonly 
interpreted as a panegyric. 

Curritur ad vocem jucundam et carmen amca 
Thebaidos, httam fecit cum Statius urbem^ 
Promijitque diem ; tanta dulcedine captos 
Afficit ille animos, tantaque libidine vulgi 
Auditur : fed, cum fregit fubfeUia verfu, 

In thefe verfes are many expreflions, here 
marked with italics, which feem to hint ob- 
liquely, that Statius was the favourite poet of 
the vulgar, who were eafily captivated with 
a wild and inartificial tale, and with an empty 
magnificence of numbers ; the noify roughnefs 
of which, may be particularly alluded to in 
the expreflion, fregit fubfeUia verju. One 
cannot forbear reflefting on the fhort duration 
of a true tafte in poetry, among the Romans. 



From the time of Lucretius, to that of Statius, 
was no more than about one hundred and 
fonj'fcvcn years ; and if I might venture to 
pronounce fo rigorous a fentence, I would fay, 
that the Romans can boafl of but eight poets 
who are unexceptionably excellent ; namely, 
Terence, Lucretius, Catullus, Virgil, 
Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, Phje- 
DRUs. Thefe only can be called legitimate 
models of juft thinking and writing. Suc- 
ceeding authors, as it happens in all countries, 
refolving to be original and new, and to avoid 
the imputation of copying, became diftorted 
and unnatural : by endeavouring to open a 
Eew path, they dcferted fimplicity and truth ; 
weary of common and obvious beauties, they 
muft needs hunt for remote and artificial de- 
corations. Thus was it that the age of Deme- 
triusPhalercus fucceeded that of Demofthenes, 
and the falfe relifh of Tiberius's courts the 
chafle one of Auguftus, Among the various 
caufts however that have been afligned, why 
poetry and the arts have more eminently 
fioiirlfticd in fome particular ages and nations, 



thaa in others, few have been fatis&dtory and 
adequate. What folid reafon can we give why 
the Romans, who fo happily imitated the 
Greeks in many refpeds, and breathed a truly 
tragic fpirit, could yet never excel in tragedy, 
though fo fond of theatrical fpedacles ? Or 
why the Greeks, fo fruitful in every fpec]e9 
of poetry, yet never produced but one great 
epic poet ? While on the other hand, modern 
Italy, can fhew two or three illuflrious epic 
writers, yet has no Sophocles, Euripides, or 
Menander. And France, without having 
formed a fingle Epopea, has carried dramatic 
poetry to fo high a pitch of perfedion in Cor- 
oeille, Racine, and Moliere. 

For a confirmation of the foregoing remark 
on Statius, and for a proof of the flrength and 
fpirit of Pope's tranflation, I (hall feled the 
following parage. 

He fends a monfler horrible and fell. 

Begot by furies in the depth of hell. 

The peft a virgin's fiace and bofom wears ; 

Hi^ on a crown a rifing fnake appears. 

Guards her black fronts and hifles in her hairs : 



About the realm (he walks her dreadful round • 
When night with fable wings o'erfpreads the ground ; 
Devours young babes before their parent's eyes. 
And feeds and thrives on public miferies *• 

Oedipus, in Statius, behaves with the fury of 
a bluftering bully j in Sophocles -f*, with that 
patient fubmiflion, and pathetic remorfe, which 

are fuited to his lamentable condition. 

Art thou a father, unregarding Jove ! 
And fleeps thy thunder in the realms above ? 
Thou, fury, then, fome lafting curfe entail. 
Which o'er their children's children (hall prevail ; 
Place on their heads that crown diftain'd with gore» 
Which thefe dire hands from my flain father tore ]:• 

Ovid is alfo another writer of a bad tafte^ 
on whom Pope employed fome of his youth- 
ful hours; in tranflating the ftories of Dryope, 
and Pomona. Were it not for the ufeful my- 

• B. I. ver. 701. 

t See his addrefs to the furies in the (Edipus Coloneus of 
SopbiKleSy beginning at the words, n vorviat ^nfonrs^j at veHe 
85, down to veHe 117. And afterwards, when he becomes 
more particularly acquainted with the unnatural cruelty of his 
ions, yet his rcfentment ii more temperate. See verfe 433 down 
to verfe 472, of the fame tragedy. 



thological knowledge they contain, the works 
of Ovid ought not to be lb diligently read. ' 
The puerilities and afFedtations with which 
they abound, are too well known to be here in- 
fifted on. I chufe rather to account for Ovid's , 
falling into fo blameable a fpecies of wri- 
ting. In the words of a fenlible critic*; who 

* Francifci VavafToris de Epigrammtte Liber. Parifiis 
1672. Pag. 47, edit. 8vo. 

About this time it became fafhionable among the wits at 
Batton'sy the mob of gentlemen that wrote with eafe, to tranf- 
late Ovid. Their united performances were publifhed in form 
by Garth, with a preface written in a flowing and lively 
ftyle, but full of ftrange opinions. He declares, that none 
of the daflic poets had the talent of exprefling himfeif with 
more force and perfpicuity than Ovid ; that the Fiat of the 
Hebrew law-giver is not more fublime than the Juflit et ex- 
tendi campos, of the latin poet ; that he excels in the pro- 
priety of his fimiles and epithets, the perfpicuity of his alle- 
gories, and the inftruftive excellence of his morals, Abovo 
all, he commends him for his unforced tranfitions, and for the 
cafe with which he Aides into fome new circumftance, without 
aay violation of the unity of the ftory ; the texture, fays he, 
is fo artful that it may be compared to the work of hie own 
Arachne, where the fliade dies fo gradually, and the light re- 
vives fo imperceptibly, that it is hard to tell where the one 
chafes and the other begins. But it is remarkable that Quinti- 
lian thought very diflerently on thi^ fubjedi, and the admirers 
of Ovid would do well to confider his opinion. ' ' Ilia vero fri- 
gida et puerilis eft in fcholis affedatlo, ut ipfe tranfitus efHciat 
aUqvamutiqac fentcntiamj et hujus velut pracftigise plaufum 

N petat : 


after he hascenfured, what he calls, the pig^ 
menfa, the la/civias, and aucupia fertnonum of 
Paterculus, of Valerius Maximus, of 
Pliny the naturalift, and Pliny the con- 

ful, of Florus, and TACiTtJs, proceeds 


as follows : ** Apud Ovidium, cum in He- 
roidum epiftolis, turn vero praecipue in li- 
bris Metamorphofeon, deprchcndunt qui ifta 
curant, multa folertcr et acute didla. Sed ad- 
vertit nemo, quod fciam, unde exorta haec ei 
praeter caeteros libido, et quae caufa feftivita- 
tis novae, et prioribus inufitatae poetis, eflc 
potuerit. Natus Ovidius codem, quo Cicero 
mortuus, anno, in haec incidit tempora, ut ita 
dicam, declamatoria, hoc eft> ea, quibus in-^ 
duftus primum eft, et valere caepit, et in ho- 
nore eflc, ftridtior is habitus et comptior fcrip- 

petat : ut Ovidins lafcivire in Metatnorphofi folet^ queiii ta* 
men excafare neceffitas poteft, res diverfiffimas in fpeciem 
unios corporis colligentem." Garth was a mofl amiable, and 
benevolent n^n. It was faid of him, chat '' no Fhyficiaii 
knew his Art more, nxx his Trade lefs/' Pope told Mr* 
Richardfon, " that there was hardly an alteration, of the 
innumerable, that were made throughout every edition of the 
Difpenfary, |hat was not for the better." The vivacity of hie 
converfation made him an aniverfal favourite both witk 
Whigs and Tories, when party-rage ran high* 



• . • 


*tura } tibi' color 'fententlarum, plurimiac dcnfi 
icnftis, ct qtticurti quodkin Wmine tcfmina- 
ftiitrir, n6n Tarda 'titc Ihefti 'ftrudtiira. Sic 
cnim nove Icqtfi Va^ptum eft At novo gehere 
loquelidi. It^i^e ejus adolefcel^ ils rtiiixinie 
ihidijs dc difciplinis dtchmitsadi tfkduda, ex- 
'crcitaqdc ttihc, cum Portro l^ailroni dt ArcUio 
Fufbo rhetdribus dardt operanr^ ctuhque fefe 
non ad fottxtti^ a qdb laboris f&^a abhofrebat, 
fed ad poeticam^ in quam erat natura propen- 
iior, contuHfiet : detulit una fecuni figuram 
banc et formam fermonis, cui afTueverat ali- 
quandiu, et inftrtutum jam oratione foluta 
moreixl retinuit in veriibus/' 

We are now advanced, througli many di- 
greflions, that I would hope are not wholly 
impertinent, to I^ope's Imitations ^ Seven 
Engii)h Poets^ fenie of which were done at 
fourteen or filTteen years old. His early bent 
to poetry has been already taken notice of in 
the firft volume *, to which the following 
anecdote muft be added, which I lately re- 

• Pag. 77. 

N 2 ceived 


ceived from one of his intimate friends. " I 

wrote things, faid Pope, I am afhamed to fay 

how foon ; part of my epic poem Alcander, 

when about twelve. The fcene of it "lay at 

Rhodes, and fome of the neighbouring iflands ; 

and the poem opened under the water, with 

a defcription of the court of Neptune. That 

couplet on the circulation of the blood, which 
I afterwards inferted in the Dunciad, 

^< As man's meanders, to the vital fpring 

^< Roll all their tides, then back their circles bring, 

was originally in this poem, word for word.'' 

The iirft of thefe Imitations is of Chaucer ; 
as it paints neither charafters nor manners like 
his original, as it is the only piece of our 
author's works that is loofe and indecent, and 
as therefore I wi(h it had been omitted in the 
prefent edition, I (hall fpeak no more of it. 

The Imitation of Spenfer is the fecond ; 
it is a defcription of an alley of fifliwomen. 
He that was unacquainted with Spenfer, and 



was to form his ideas of the turn and manner 
of his genius from this piece^ would un- 
doubtedly fuppofe that he abounded in filthy 
images, and excelled in defcribing the lower 
fcenes of life. But the charafteriftics of this 
fweet and amiable allegorical poet, are, not 
only flrong and circumftantial imagery, but 
tender and pathetic feeling, a mod melodious 
flow of verfification, and a certain pleafing 
melancholy in his fentiments, the conftant 
companion of an elegant tafle, that cads a 
delicacy and grace over all his compofitions. 
To imitate Spenfer on a fubjedt that does not 
hold of the pathos, is not giving a true repre- 
fentation of him, for he feems to be more 
awake and alive to all the foftnefTcs of nature, 
than almoft any writer I can recoiled. There 
is an aflfemblage of difgufling and difagreeable 
founds, in the following ftanza of Pope, 
which one is almoft tempted to think, if it 
were poflible, had been contrived as a contraft, 
or rather burlefque, of a moft exquifite ftanza 
in the Faery Queen. 



The (happilh cur, (the paflengen uuwjr) 
Clore at my heel with jd^a^ treble fliet ; 
The whimp'ring ^I) and hoarfer-fcreaiiuog bojp^ 
Join to the yelpit^ treble^ flirilling cries ; 
The fcolding quean to louder notes doth riici 
And her full pipci thofc fhrllling cries coofouivl} 
To her full pipej the grunting hog replies-; 
The grunting hog^ alarm the neighboiua round. 
And curs, giils, boys, in the deep bale are drolrn'd* 

The very turn of thefc numbers, have flie 
clofeft refemblancc with the following, which 
are of themfelves a complete conceit of the 
moil delicious mufic. 

The joyous birds Ihrouded In cfaearfiil fliaje. 
Their notes unto the voice attempred fweet ; 
Th' angelical, foft trembling voices made 
To th' infiruments divine relpondence meet; 
The fUver-ibunding inftruments diet meet 
With the bafe murmure of the watet^a fall ( 
The water's fall with diflerence dilcreet. 
Now foft, now loud unto the wind did call ; 
The gentlewatbling wind low anfwered t<k alS *. 

Thefe images, one would have thought, were 
peculiarly calculated to have Aruck the fancy 

* Bookll. Canto 12. Stanza 71. 



of) our yGjuag imitator with fo much admira«- 
tiaD> a^.iiot toliave fuffered him to make a 
pf:travefty of them. 

The next ftanza of Pope reprefents fomc 
allegorical figures^ of which his original was 
fo fond. 

Har4 hj a fly, beneath a roof of thatch 
Dwelt Obloquy, who in her early days, 
Baflcets of fifh at Billinigate did watch. 
Cod, whiting, oyfter, mackarel, fprat or plaice : 
There learned flie fpeech from tongues that never ceafe. 
Slander befide her, like a magpie chatters. 
With Envy (fpitting cat) dread foe to peace ; 
Like a curs*d cur. Malice before her clatters. 
And vexing every wight, tears cloaths and all to 

But thcfe perfonages of Obloquy, Slander, 
Envy and Malice, are not marked with any 
diftinft attributes, they are not thofe living 
figures^, whofe attitudes and behaviour Spenfer 

* Mr. Hume is of opinion, that the peru(al of Spenfer be- 
comes tedious to almoft all his readers. *' This cfFcSt^ fays he, 
[Hiftory of England, pag. 738.] of which every one is con- 
fcious, is ufually afcribed to the change of manners ; but man- 
ners have more changed fince Homer's age, and yet that poet 



has minutely drawn with fo much clearnefs 
and truth, that we behold them with our eyes, 
^s plainly as we do on the cieling of the ban- 
quetting-houfe. For in truth the pencil of 
Spenfer is as powerful as that of Rubens, his 
brother allegorift ; which two artifts refem- 
bled each other in many refpeds, but Spenfer 
had more grace, and was as warm a colourift. 
Among a multitude of objefts delineated with 
the utmoft force *, which we might feledt 

remains flill the favourite of every reader of taftc and judg- 
ment. Homer copied true natural manners, which, however 
rough and uncultivated, will always form an agreeable and 
pleafing pi^ure ; but tlie pencil of the Englifh poet was em- 
ployed in drawing the afFedlations, and conceits, and foppe- 
ries of chivalr)', which appear ridiculous as foon as they lofc 
the recommendation of the mode." 

• Whence it came to pafs that Spenfer did not give his 
poem the due iimplicity, coherence and unity of a legiti- 
mate Epopea, the reader may find in Mr. Hurd's entertain- 
ing letter to Mr. Mafon, on the Marks of imitation, pag. 19, 
and in Obfer\'ations on the Faery Queen, pag. 2, 3, 4. 
•' How happened it, fays Mr. Hurd, that »Sir Philip Sydney 
in liis Arcadia, and afterwards Spenfer in his Faery Queen, 
obfervcd fo unnatural a condu<5l in thofe works; in which 
the dory proceeds as it were by fnatchcs, and with continual 
interruptions ? How was the good fen(c of thofe writers, fo 
co]iverfant befides in the bell models of antiquity, feduced 



on this occafion, let us flop a moment and take 
one attentive look at the allegorical figures 
that rife to our view in the foUovsring lines ; 

By that way's fide there fate infernal Pain^ 
And faft befide him fat tumultuous Strife ; 
The one, in hand an iron whip did ftrain. 
The other brandifhed a bloody knife, 
U^ both did gnaih their teeth, and both did threaten life ^« 


But gnawing Jealoufie, out of their fight 
Sitting alone his bitter lips did bite ; 

this prepofleroos method ? The anfwer, no doubt is, that they 
were copying the defign, or diforder rather of Arioflo, the 
favourite poet of that time." 

A defence of Arioflo was lately publUhed in Lettere Fami- 
liari e Critiche de Vincenzo Martinelli, two of which are 
addreifed to lord Cbarlemont on this fubjedt, pag. 290. 
Something curious on this head may be found in a remark- 
able letter of Bernardo TafTo, the father of Torquato, in which 
there is this paifage. '< Ne fo io s'Ariftotele nafceffe a quefla 
eta, et vede^ il vaghiflimo poema deirAriofto, conofcendo la 
fbrza de 1' ufb, et vedendo che tanto diletta, come V efperienza 
d dimonffaa, mutaflc opinione, et confentiffe che fi potciTe far 
poema heroico di piu attione : Con la fua mirabil dottrina, 
et giudicio, dandogli nova norma, et prefcrivuendogli 
novi legp." 

Lettere di XIII. Huomini Illiiftri da Tomafo Porcacchi. 
InVenetia, 1584. Libro XVII. pag. 422. 

* Book II. c. 7. 21. 
Vol. n. O And 


And trembling Feue ftill to and fro did flie* 

And found no place where lafe he Ihroud him nught. 

Lamenting Sorrow did in darlcnefle lie. 

And Shame hit ugly face did hide fiom living qrs, 

To flicw the richnefs of his &ncy, he has gi- 
ven us another picture of Jealoufy, conceived 
with equal ftrcngth in a fucceeding book *. 

'iito that cave he creepes, tnd thencefoiA there 
Relblv'd to build bis baleful manfion 
In dreaiy darknefs, and continual fare 
Of that rock's fall ; which ever and anon 
Threats with huge luin him to fall upon. 
That he dare never fleep, but that one ej9 
Still ope he keeps for that occafion ; 
Ne ever reRs he in tranquillity. 
The roaring billows beat his bowre lb boifterouflyf . 

Here all is in life and motion j here we be- 
hold the true Poet or Maker > this is crea- 

* Lord Somen was paffionately fond of the Fairy Qgeen j 
it was his favourite work ; in the laA pifture which he late lor 
toSirGodfreyKneller, he defired to be painted withaSpcnfec 
in hi) hand. I was informed of thii circumftance by the 
Somers of the prefcnt age ; I mean by a perfon who unites a 
profbunii knowledge of the laws and confiitution of his oooa- 

try, with the tmcfl taAc of polite literature. Need I, after 

this, mention the Speaker of the Koufe of Coflunons f 

f Bookiiit c. II. 

-'^■='"=^'^'~'--*-''^''^ ' 


tion J it is here, " might wc cry out to Spen- 
fer/' it is here that you difplay to us, that you 
make us feel the fure efFefts of genuine po- 
etry, QToiv a Aiym^ iir €v^}iaioL(rjJLH tcoli TraSai 

Longinus *. 

It has been fafhionable of late to imitate 
Spenfer, but the likenefs of moft of thefe co- 
pies, hath confifled rather in ufing a few of 
his ancient exprefHons, than in catching his 
real manner. Some however have been exe- 
cuted with happinefs, and with attention to 
that fimplicity, that tendernefs of fentiment, 
and thofe little touches of nature, that confti- 
tutc Spenfer's charadter. I have a^ peculiar 
pleafure in mentioning two of them, -f- The 
School-mistress, by Mr. Shenftone, and 
the Education of Achilles, by Mr. Be- 
dingfield. To thefe muft be added that ex- 
quiiite piece of wild and romantic imagery, 
Thompfon's Caftle of Indolence; the firft 

• Hip* wT. Scft. 15. 

t Dodflcy'8 Mifccllanics, Vol. I. pag. 247, and Vol. Iir. 

Pg- 119- 

O 2 C^OtO 


canto of which in particular, is marvelloufly 
pleafing, and the ftanzas have a greater flow 
and freedom than his blank-verfe. 

Pope has * imitated Waller in the third 
place, and has done it with elegance, efpecially 
in the verfes on a fan of his own defign, for he 
defigned with dexterity and tafte. The appli- 
cation of the ftory of Cephalus and Procris is 
as ingenious as Waller's Phoebus and Daphne. 
Waller abounds, perhaps to excefs, in allu- 
fions to mythology and the ancient claflics. 
The French, as may be imagined, complain 
that he is too learned for the ladies. The 
following twelve lines contain three allufions, 
delicate indeed, but feme may deem them to 
be too far-fetched, too much crouded, 
and not obvious to the Lady to whom they 
were addrefled, on her finging a fong of his 

• Speaking of his imitations, Pope faid to a friend, ** I 
had once a dcfign of giving a taile of all die Greek poets ; I 
would have tranflated a hymn of Homer, an ode of Pindar, 
an idyliium of Theocritus, &c. fo that I would have exhi- 
bited a general view of their pocfie, throughout its different 




Chloris, yourfelf you fo excel]. 

When you vouchfafe to breathe my thought^ 

That like a fpirit with this fpell 

Of my own teaching I am caught. 

That eagle's fate and mine are one. 

Which on the fhaft that made him die^ 
Efpy'd a feather of his own 
Wherewith he wont to foar fo high. 
Had Echo with fo fweet a grace, 
Narciflus* loud complaints returned. 
Not for reflexion of his face. 
But of his voice, the boy had burnM. 

Here * is matter enough compreffed together 
for Voiture to have fpun out into fifty lines. 
If I was to name my favorite among Waller's 
fmaller pieces, it (hould be his apology for 
having loved before. He begins by faying 
that " they who never had been ufed to the 
furprifing juice of the grape, render up their 
reafon to the firft delicious cup :" this is fuf- 
iiciently gallant, but what he adds has much 
of the fublime, and is like a thought of 

• Spcnfer and Waller were Pope's great favourites, in the 
•rder they arc named, in his early reading. 


t la 


To man that was i* th' evening made) 

Stars gave the firft delight ; 
Admiring in the gloomy ihade) 

Thofe little drops of light. 
Then at Aurora, whofe fair hand 

RemovM them from the fkies. 
He gazing towards the Eaft did ftand. 

She ehtertain'd his eyes. 
But when the bright fun did appears 

All thofe he 'gan defpife ; 
His wo;ider was determined there. 

And could no higher rife. 

Which of the French writers has produced 
any thing at once fo gallant and fo lofty ? The 
Englifli vcrfification was much fmoothcd by 
Waller ; who ufed to own that he derived 
the harmony of his numbers from Fairfax's 
Taffo, who well-vo welled his lines, though 
Sandys was a melodious verfifier, and Spenfer 
has perhaps more variety of muiic than either 
of them. A poet who addrefTes his pieces to 

• " Even little poems, (aid Pope, fhould be written by a 
plan. This method is evident in Tibullus, and Ovid's elegies, 
and almoft all the pieces of th« ancients. A poem on a flight 
fubjedl requires the greater care to make it confiderable enough 
to be read." 



living charaders^ and confines himfelf to the 
fubjeds of his own times^ like this courtly 
author^ bids fairer to become popular, than 
he that is employed in the higher fcenes of 
poetry, which are more remote from common 
manners. It may be remarked lafUy of Waller, 
that there is no paflion in his love verfes, and 
and that one elegy of TibuUus, excels a vo- 
lume of the moil refined panegyric, 

T«E next imitation is of Cowley, in twa 
pieces, on a garden, and on weeping, in whiclt 
Pope has properly enough, in conformity to 
his original, extorted fome moral, or darted 
forth fome witticifm on every objedt he men- 
tions : It is not enough to fay that the laurels 
ihcltered the fountains from the heat of the 
day, but this idea muft be accompanied with 
a conceit. 

Daphne, now a tree, as once a maid. 

Still from A[>oIlo vindicates her (hade* 


■■r.^=r--*r-- — ^7 


The flowers that grow on the water-fide could 
not be fufficiently defcribed without faying, 

The pale NarcifTus on the bank, in vain. 
Transformed^ gazes on himfelf again. 

In the lines on a lady weeping, you might 
expeift a touching pidlure of beauty in diftrefs ; 
you will be difappointed. Wit on the pre- 
feht occafion is to be preferred to tendcrnefs 5 
The babe in her eye is faid to referable 
Phaeton fo much. 

That heav'n the threatened world to fparc. 
Thought fit to drown him in her tears : 
Elfe might th* ambitious nymph afpire^ 
To fet, like him, the world on fire. 

Let not this ftrained afFeftation of ftriving to 
be witty upon all occafions, be thought cx- 
aggerated, or a caricatura of Cowley. It is 
painful to cenfure a writer of fo amiable a 
mind, fuch integrity of manners, and fuch a 
fweetnefs of temper. His fancy was brilli- 
ant, ftrong, and fprightly j but his tafte falfc 



£lnd unclafCcal, even though he had much 
learning. In his latin compofitions^ his fix 
books on plants, where the fubjcdl might have 
led him to a contrary pradlice, he imitates 
Martial rather than Virgil, and has given us 
more Epigrams than Defcriptions. I do 
not remember to have fetn it obferved, that 
Cowley had a moft happy talent of imitating 
the eafy manner of Horace's epiftolary 
writings ; I mud therefore infert a ipecimen 
of this^ his excellence. 

£rgo iterum verfus ? dices. O Vane ! quid ergs 
Morbum ejurafti toties, tibi qui infidet altis, 
Non evellendu9, vi vel ratione, medullb f 
Numne poetanim (merito dices) ut amantum. 
Derifum ridere deum peijuria cenfes ? 
Parcius hsec, fodes,' neve inclementibus urge 
Infelicem hominem di^is ; nam fata trahunt me 
Magna relu£tantem,et velut equum in vincla minacem. 
Helleborum fumpfi, fateor, pulchreque videbar 
Purgatus inor\>i } fed Luna potentior herbis 
Infanire iterum jubet, et fibi vendicjit segrum. 

There is another epiftle alfo, well worthy pe- 
V61. II. P ru&l 

iq6 essay on the WRITINGS 

i^fal, to his friend Mat. ClifFord *, at tht end 
of the fame volume. Pope, in one of his 
imitations of Horace, has exhibited the real 
charadter of Cowley, with delicacy and can- 

Who now reads Cowley ? if he pleafes yet. 
His moral pleafes, not his pointed ^t ; 
Forgot his epic, nay Pindaric art. 
But ftill I love the language of his heart. 

His profe works give us the moft amiable 
idea both of his abilities and his heart. His 
Pindaric odes cannot be perufed with common 
patience by a lover of antiquity. He that would 
lee Pindar's manner truly imitated, may read 
Mafters's noble and pathetic ode on the Cni*- 
cifixion 3 and he that wants to be convinced 
that thefe reflexions on Cowley are not too 
fevere, may read alfo his epigrammatic ver« 
fion of it, 

* Settle was affifted in wridng the Anti-Achitophel by 
Clifibrdy and others the heft wits of that time, who combined 
againft Dryden. 

t Another line likewife of Pop£ exadly charafterifes him. 
The finfivi Cowley* wurtd lay. Vol. VI- p. 37. 



H trx ofomq oXovopf vpev 
XrhKCorr h f Xoyi 

-Xi a»/x«rt ro^ofUNf —— — • 

Doft thou not fee thj prince in purple dad all oVfy 

Not purple brought from the Sidonian fboire ? 

But made at home with richer gore Cowliy* 

HvXaq tVMViiv* 

Open, oh ! open Vide the fotmtaios of thine eyet. 

And let them call 
Their ftock of moidure forth where e'er it lie^ 
For this will aflc it all. 
Twould all alas ! too little be^ 
Though thy (alt tears came from a fea. 

His general preface; his di(couHe concerning Cromwell; his 
cflkys on liberty, on obfcurity, on agricalture, on greatnefs, 
and on himielf, are full of pleafing and virtuous (entiments» 
exprefled without any afie6tation» fo that he appears to be on« 
of the beft profe writers of his time. 

* Compare Cowle/s ode on prefenting his book to the 
Bodleian library, with one of Milton on the fame fubjed. Ad 
Johannem Rouieium, 1646, written in the true (jpirit of the 
ancient Lyrics, and an excellent imitation of Pindar. One 
allufion to Euripides of whom Milton is known to have been 
ib bmi, I cannot omit. 

P z ^temorum 


Cowley being early difgufted with the per- 
plexities and vanities of a court life, had a 
ftrong defire to enjoy the milder pleafurcs of 
folit^jde and retirement ; he therefore efcaped 
from the tumults of London, to a little houfe 
at Wandfworth ; but finding that place too 
near the metropolis, he left ir for Richmond, 
and at laft fettled at Chertfey. He feems to 
have thought that the fwains of Surry, had 
the innocence of thofe of Sydney's Arcadia ; 

^ternornm operum cudos fidcllsy 

Quacilorque gzzx nobillorisy 

Quam cui pracfuit Ion, 

Clarus Erechthddesy 

Opulenta del per templa parentis, 

Fulvofque tripodas, doilaque Delphica, 

Ion Adlca genitus Creufa. 

Nothing can more ibx>ngly charaflerize the dl^erent manner 
and torn of thefe two writers, than the pieces in queftion. It 
is remarkable, that Milton ends his ode with a kind of prophecy 
importing, that however he may be at prefent traduced, yet 
poftexity will applaud his works. 

At ULTiMi Nepotes, 


Judicia rebu3 iE<^iORA fbrfitan 
Adhibebunt integro iinu, 
Tum, livore iepulto. 




but the perverfcnefs and debauchery of his 
own workmen foon undeceived him, with 
whom, it is faid, he was fometimes fo far 
provoked, as even to be betrayed into an oath. 
His income was about three hundred pounds a 
year. Towards the latter part of his life, he 
fhewed an averfion to the company of women, 
and would often leave the room if any hap- 
pened to enter it whilft he was prefent, but 
flill he retained a fincere afFedion for Leonora, 
His death was occafipned by a fingular acci- 
dent * ; he paid a vifit on foot with liis friend 

* There is fomething remarkable in the clrcumftances that 
occaftoned the deaths of three others of our poets. 

Otway had an intimate friend who was murdered in the 
ttreetf One may guefs at his fbrrowy who has fo feelingly de- 
fcribed true affefHon in his Venice Preferved. He purfued 
the murderer on foot who fled to France, as far as Dover, where 
he was feized with a fever, occafioned by the fatigue, which 
afterwards carried him to his grave in London. 

Sir John Suckling was robbed by his Valet-de-Chambre; 
the moment he difcovered it, he clapped on his boots in a 
pafllonate hurry, and perceived not a large rufty nail that was 
concealed at the bottom which pierced his heel, and brought 
on a mortification. 

Lee had been fome time confined for lunacy, to a very low 
diet, but one night he eicaped from his phyfician, and drank 
(o immoderately, that he fell down in the Strand, was run 
ever by a Hackney coach, and killed on the ipot. 



Sprat to a gentleman in the neighbourhood of 
Chcrtfey, which they prolonged till midnight. 

On their return home they miftook their way, 
and were obliged to pafs the whole night cx- 
pofcd under a hedge, where Cowley caught a 
fcvere cold, attv^nded with a fever, that termi- 
nated in his death. 

The verfes on Silence are a fenfiblc imita- 
tion of the Earl of Rochefter's on Nothing ; 
which piece, together with his Satire on Man 
from Boileau, and the tenth Satire of Horace, 
are the only pieces of this profligate noble- 
man, which modefty or common fenfe will 
allow any man to read. Rochefter had great 
energy in his thoughts and didtion, and though 
the ancient fatirifts often ufe great liberty in 
their expreflions ; yet, as the ingenious hifto- 
rian * obVerves, " their freedom no more rc- 
*' fembles the licence of Rochefter, than the 
•• nakednefs of an Indian does that of a com- 
•' mon proftitute.'* 

• Hiuk's Ifiilory of prcatBritaia. Vol. II. pag. 434. 


_.u - ^ 


Pope in this imitation has difcovered a fund 

ef folid fenfe, and juft obfervation upon vice 

and folly, that are very remarkable in a per- 
fon fo extremely young as he was, at the time 

he compofed it. I believe on a fair compari* 
fon with Rochefler's lines, it will be found, 
that although the turn of the fatire be copied, 
yet it is excelled. That Rochefler fhould 
write a fatire on Man, I am not furprizcd ; it 
is the buiinefs of the Libertine to degrade his 
fpecies, and debafe the dignity of human na- 
ture, and thereby deflroy the mod efficacious 
incitements to lovely and laudable aAions : but 
that a writer of Boileau's purity of manner^ 
fhould reprefent his kind in the dark and difa- 
greeable colours he has done, with' all the nu* 
lignity of a difcontented Hobbist, is a lamen- 
table perverfion of fine talents, and is a real 
injury to fodety. It is a fad worthy the at- 
tention of thofe who ftudy the hidory of 
learning, that the grofs licentioufnefs and ap- 
plauded debauchery of Charles the Second's 
court, proved almoft as pernicious to the pro« 
grels of polite literature and the fine arts that 



began to revive after the Grand Rebellion, 
as the gloomy fuperftition, the abfurd cant, 
and formal hypocrify that difgraced this na- 
tion, during the ufurpation of Cromwell *. 

Artemisia and Phryne are tviro cha- 
rafters in the manner of the Earl of Dorfet, 
an elegant writer, and amiable man, equally 
noted for the fe verity of his fatire, and the 
fweetnefs of his manners, and who gave 
the fairell proof that thefe two qualities arc 
by no means incompatible. The greateft wits, 
fays Addifon, I have ever converfed with, 
were perfons of the beft tempers. Dorfet 
pofleflcd the rare fecret of uniting energy 
with eafe, in his flriking compoiitions. 

* LordBolingbroke ufed to relate, that his Great Grandfah' 
ther Ireton, and Fleetwood, being one day engaged in » 
private drinking party with Cromwell, and wanting to 
uncork a bottle, they could not find their bottlc-fcrew, which 
was fallen under the table. Juft at that inflant, an officer 
entered to inform the protedlor, that a deputation from thm 
prcfbyterian miniHers attended without. *• Tell them, feyt 
Cromwell, with a countenance inilantly compofed, tliat I am 
retired, that I cannot be difturbed, for I zm/eeiing tbt Lmrif^ 
and turning afterwards to his companions, he added, "Thdfe 
fcoundrels think we are feMng tbi Uri^ and we are only 
looking fir our bottU Jcrtw.*\ 




His verfes to Mr. Edward Howard, to Sir Tho- 
mas St. Serfe, his epilogue to the Tartuffe^ 
his fong written at fea in the firft Dutch war, 
his ballad on knotting, and on Lewis XIV. 
may be named as examples of this happy ta- 
lent, and as confutations of a fentiment of the 
judicious M. de Moiltefquieu, who in his 
noble chapter on the Englifti nation, fpeaks 
thus of our writers. " La focietc nous ap- 
prend a fentir les ridicules ; la retraite nous 
rend plus propres a fentir les vices. Leur 
ECRiTS SATYRIQUES fcroicut fauglaus, et i'on 
vcrroit bien des Juvenals chez eux avant 
d*4voir trouve un Horace.'* 

The Description of the Life of a Court'- 
try Par/on is a lively imitation of Swift *, and 

* See a Pipe of Tobacco, p. 282. vol. 2. Dodfle/s Mifcell. 
where Mr. Hawkins Brown has imitated fix later Engliih poets 
with focceis, viz. Swift, Pope, Thompfon, Young, Phillips, 
Cibber. Someof thefe writers thinking themfelves burlefqued, 
are (aid to have been mortified. But Pope obferved on the oc- 
cifioiiy ** Brown is an excellent copyifl, and thofe who take 
Us imitations amifs, are much in the wrong ; they are very 
txonj^ mannered, and few perhaps could write fb well if they 
notfo.'*— — In Pope's imiution of the fixth epiUle of 

VoLU * CL Horace 


1 full of humour. The point of the likenefs 
confifts in defcribing the objects as they really 
txift in life, without heightening or enlarging 
them, and without adding any imaginary cir- 
cumftances. In this way of writing, Swift ex- 
celled; witnefs his defcription of a morning in 
the city, of a city flldwer, of the houfe of 
Baucis and Philemon, and the verfes on his own 
death. Thefe are of the fame fpecies with the 
piece before us. In this alfo coniifls the chief 
beauty of Gay's Trivia, a fubjedl Swift de* 
fired him to write upon, and for which he 
furniftied him with many hints. The cha- 
racter of Swift has been fcrutinized in fo ma- 
ny late writings, that it is fuperfluous to enter 
upon it, efpecially as from many materials ju- 

Horaccy there were two remarlcible lines, the fecond of which 
was thought to contain a heavy anti-dimax. 

Grac'd «s thou art with all the power of words. 
Known to the Courts, the Commons and the Lords. 

The unexpeded flatneis and ^miliarity of the laft linp was 
dius ridiculed by Mr. Brown with much humour. 

Perfuafion dps his tongue whene'er he talks. 
And — hi bos chambers in th$ King\.Bincb wMsm 


didoufly melted down and blended together. 
Dr. Hawkfworth has fet before the public^ fo 
complete a figure of him. I cannot however 
forbear to mention a fad lately pabliihed at 
Geneva, in the additions to Voltaire's works. 
He affirms, " that the &mous Tale of a Tub 
is an imitation of the old ilory of the three 
invifible rings, which a &ther bequeathed to 
bis three children. Thefe three rings were the 
Jewifli, Chriilian, and Mahometan religions. 
It is moreover, an imitation of the hiftory of 
Mero and Enegu, by Fontenelle. Mei-o was 
the anagram of Rome, and Enogn of Gene- 
va. T hcfe two fillers claimed the fucceflion 
to the throne of their fathers. Mero reigned 
firft, Fontenelle reprefcnts her as a forccrefs 
or juglcr who could convey away bread, and 
perform a£ts of conjuration with dead bodies : 
This is precifely the Lord Peter of Swift, who 
prefents a piece of bread to his two brothers, 
and fays to them, ' This, my good friends, 
is excellent Burgundy, thefe partridges have 
an admirable flavour.* The fame lord Prter in 
Swift, performs throughout the very part that 


Mero plays in Fontenelle. Thus all is imita- 
tion. The idea of the Perfian letters is taken 
from the Turkifti Spy. Boiardo has imitated 
Pulci, Ariofto has imitated Boiardo. The 
geniufes, apparently moft original, borrow 
from each other *.' 

I SHALL conclude this feftlon with a ftory, 
which Pope himfelf related, becaufe it is cha- 
radteriftical of his old friend, and I (hall give 
it in the very words which Pope ufed, when 
he told it.— r " Dr. Swift has an odd blunt way 

that is miftaken by ftrangers for ill-nature ; 

it is fo odd that there is no defcribing "f* it 

but by fadls. Til tell you one, the firfl: that 
" comes into my head. One evening Gay and 
" I went to fee him. On our coming in, 
" Hey-day, gentlemen, fays the Dean, what 


" can be the meaning of this vifit ? How came 
*' you to leave all the great lords you are fo 

♦ Ocuvrcs de Voltaire a Geneve. Tom. 4 pag. 223. 1756. 

f The late archbifhop of Annaghy happening to obje^ one 
day in Swift's company to an expreffionof Pope > as not being 
the pureft Englifh, Swift anfwered with his ufual roughnefs-^ 
'' I could never get the blockhead to iludy his grammar." 

" fond 



** fond of, to come hither to fee a poor fcurvey 
** Dean? — Becaufe we would rather fee you* 
^* than any of them. — Ay, any one that did 
" not know you fo well as I do, might poflibly 
«* believe you; but fince you are come I muft 
" get fome fupper for you I fuppofe.— No 
** Dodlor we have fupped already — Supped 
^* already, that is impoflible, why it is not 
** eight o'clock — Indeed we have — That's 
** very ftrange j but if you had not fupped, 
** I muft have got fomething for you 5 let me 
** fee, a couple of lobfters would have done 
*' very well, two (hillings ; tarts, a (hilling : 
*' but you will drink a glafs of wine with me, 
though you fupped fo much before your 
time only to fpare my pocket. — No, wc 
had rather talk with you, than drink with 
you. — But if you had fupped with me, ^s 
" in all reafon you ought to have done, you 
" muft then have drank with me. — A bottle 
" of wine two (hillings — two and two are 
** four, and one is five; juft two and fixpence 
^* a-piece j there Pope, there's half a crown 
** for you, and there's another for you. Sir ; 

'' for 


•* fori won'tfave any thing by you, I am deter- 
" mined. This was all laid and done with 
*' his ufual fcrioafnefs on fuch occafions: And 
" in fptte of every thing we could fay to the 
** contrary, he adually obliged us to take the 
" money." 

Sect. IX. 
Of the Essay on Man. 

IF it be a true obfervation, that for a poet to 
write happily and well, he muil have feen 
and felt what he defcribes, and muft draw 
from living models alone ^ and if modern 
times, from their luxury and refinement, af- 
ford not manners that will bear to be de- 
fcribed ; it will then follow, that thofe fpecies 
of poetry bid faireft to fucceed at prefcnt, 
which treat of tilings, not men ; which de- 
liver doftrines, not difplay events. Of this 


fort is didadtic and deTcriptlve poetry. Ac- 
cordingly the moderns have produced many 
excellent pieces of this kind. We may men- 
tion the Syphilis of Fracaftorius^ the Silk- 
worms and Chefs of Vida, the Ambra of Po- 
litian^ the Agriculture of Alamanni, the Art of 
Poetry of Boileau, the Gardens of Rapin, the 
Cyder of Phillips, the Chafe of SomervUte, 
the Pleafures of Imagination, the Art of pre- 
ferving Health, the Fleece, the Religion of 
Racine the younger, the elegant Latin poem 
of Brown on the Immortality of the Soul, the 
Latin poem of $tav, and the philofophicd 
poem before us. 

The Essay on Man is as clofe a piece oi 
argument, admitting its principles, as perhaps 
can be found in verfe. Pope informs us in his 
FIRST prc&ce, " that he chofe this epiftolary 
*• way of writing, notwithftanding his fubjeia 
" was high, and of dignity, becaufe of its be- 
" ing mixed with argument which of its na- 
" turc approacheth to profe." He has not 
wandered into any ufelcfs digreflions, has em- 


ployed no fidtions, no tale or (lory, and has 
relied chiefly on the poetry of his ftile, for 
the purpofe of interefting his readers. His 
flile is concife and figurative, forcible and 
elegant. He has many metaphors and images, 
artfully interfperfed in the drieft paflages, 
which flood mofl in need of fuch ornaments. 
Neverthelefs there are too many lines, in this 
pierformance, plain and profaic. The meaner 
the fubjedl is of a preceptive poem, the more 
flriking appears the art of the poet : It is even 
^f ufe to chufe a low fubjedl. In this refped): 
Virgil had the advantage over Lucretius $ the 
latter with all his vigour and fublimity of ge- 
nius, could hardly fatisfy and come up to the 
grandeur of his theme. Pope labours under 
the fame cafe. If any beauty in this EfTay be 
uncommonly tranfcendent and peculiar, it is, 
BREVITY OF DICTION ; which, in a few in- 
flances, and thofe pardonable, have occafioned 
obfcurity. It is hardly to be imagined how 
much fenfe, how much thinking, how much 
obfervation on human life, is condenfed toge- 
ther in a fmall. compafs. He was fo accuf- 



tomed to confine his thoughts in rhyme, 
that he tells us, he could cxpreis them more 
fhortly this way, than in profc itfclh On \ts 
firfl publication. Pope did not own it, and it 
was given by the public to Lord Paget, Dr. 
Young, Dr. Defaguliers, and others. Even 
Swift feems to have been deceived : There is 
a remarkable paiTage in one of his letters. 
^^ I confefs I did never imagine you were fo 
deep in morals, or that fo many new and 
excellent rules could be produced fo advan* 
tageouflyand agreeably in that fcience, from 
any one head. I confefs in fome places I 
was forced to read twice ; I believe I told 
you before what the Duke of D faid to 

me on that occafion > how a judge here who 
knows you, told him, that on the firfl read- 
ing thofe eiTays, he was much pleafed, but 
found fome lines a little dark : On the fe- 
cond, moft of them cleared pp, and his 
pleafure incre^ed: On the third, he had 
no doubt remaining, and then he admired 
the whole */' 

* Lettersi vol. IX; pag. 140* 

YouU. R Th5 


The fubje6t of this EiTay is a vindication of 
providence, in which the poet propofes to prove, 
that of all poffible fyftems, infinite wifdom 
has formed the heft : That in fuch a fyftem, 
coherence, union, fubordination, are necef- 
iary ; and if fo, that appearances of evil, both 
moral and natural, are alfo neceflary and un- 
avoidable s That the feeming defeds and ble- 
. mifhes in the univerfe, confpire to its general 
beauty ; That as all parts in an animal arc not 
eyes, and as in a city, comedy, or pidhire, 
all ranks, charadiers, and colours, are not 
equal or alike ; even fo, exceffes, and contrary 
qualities, contribute to the proportion and har- 
mony of the univerfal fyftem ; That it is not 
ftrange, that we ihould not be able to difcover 
perfedion and order in every inftancej be- 
caufe, in an infinity of things mutually rela- 
tive, a mind which fees not infinitely, can fee 
nothing fully. This doiftrine was inculcated 
by Plato and the Stoics, but more amply 
and particularly by the later Platonifls, and 
by Antoninus and Simplicius. In illuftrating 
his fubjc(ft, PoPB has been deeply indebted 



to the Theodicee of Leibnitz, to Archibfhop 
King's Origin of Evil, and to the Moraliil$ 
of Lord Shaftefbury, more than to the phi- 
lofophers abovementioned. The late Lord 
Bathurft repeatedly affured me, that he had 
read the whole fcheme of the EiTay on Man, 
in the hand-writing of Bolingbroke, and 
drawn up in a feries of pro{)ofitions, which 
Pope was to verfify and illuftratc. In doing 
which, our poet, it muft be confeffed, left 
fevcral paflages fo cxpreffed, as to be favour- 
able to fatalifm and necefCty, notwithfland* 
ing all the pains that can be taken, and the 
turns that- can be given to thofe paflages, to 
place them on the fide of religion, and make 
them coincide with the fundamental doc- 
trines of revelation^ 

I. Awake *, my St. John ! leave all meaner things 
To low ambition, and the pride of kings ; 
Let us (fince life can little more fuppljr 
Than juft to look about us, and to die) 

• John&n begini a poem thus 

Wake ! friend^ from forth thy If tbargy- 

R a Expatiate 


txpatiate free o'er all this fcene of man ; 
A mighty maze ! but not without a plan. 

Epist. I. V, I. 

This opening is awful, and commandsr 
the attention of the reader. The word awake 
has peculiar force, and obliquely alludes to 
his noble friend's leaving his political^ for 
philofophical purfuits. May I venture to ob-p 
ferve, that the metaphors in the fucceeding 
lines, drawn from the field fports of fetting 
and (hooting, feem below the dignity of the 
fubjedt; efpecially. 

Eye nature's walks, shoot folly as it flies. 
And CATCH the manners living as they rise. 

2. But vindicate the ways of god to man. 

This line is taken from Milton ; 

And Juftify the ways of god to man *• 

Pope fcems to have hinted, by this allufion 
to the Paradife Loft, that he intended his 
poem for a defence of providence, as well as 

f Paradife Loll, b» i. ver, 26. 

Milton ; 


Milton : bujt he took a very different method 
in purfuing that end. 

3. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties *, 
The ftrong connections, nice df pendencies. 
Gradations juft, has thy pervading foul 
Look'd thro*? Or can a part contain the whole? 

•* Imagine only fome perfon entirely a ftranger 
to navigation, and ignorant of the nature of 
the fea or waters, how great his aftonifhment 
would be, when finding himfelf on board 
fome veffel anchoring at fea, remote from all 

land-profpeA, whiHl it was yet a calm, he 
viewed the ponderous machine firm and mo- 
tionlefs in the midfl of the fmooth ocean, 
and confidered it's foundations beneath, to- 
gether with it's cordage, mails, and fails 
above. How eafily would he fee the Whole 
one regular flrudure, all things depending 
on one another ; the ufes of the rooms below, 
the lodgements, and the conveniencies df 
men and flores ? But being ignorant of the 

• T« fu^ ir^{ «t/1o TO 5^of hi oxoviirf ii avftifuw ww *«^/*o)to»U 
9KMW. Piotinus. 



latent or defign of all above^ would he pro- 
nounce the mafts and COTdage to be ufele6 
and' cumberfome^ and for this reafon con- 
demn the frame, and dcfpife the archited? 
O my friend! let as not thus betray our igno- 
rance j bat confider where we arc, and in 
what an univerfe. Think of the many parts 
of the vaft machine, in which we have fo 
little infight, and of which it is impoHible 
we fhould know the ends and ufes : when 
inHcad of feeing to the higheil pendants, we 
fee only feme lower deck, and are in this dark 
cafe of flefli, confined even to the hold and 
meancft ftation of the vefTel*." I have in- 

* Charafleriftio, vol. ii, pag. 188. edit, itmo.^'niere i> 
a clofe refembUnce in the following lines with another pafligc 

of Shafteibury's MoraliOs. 

What would chia man i Now upward will he foti* 
And little lefs than angel, would be more ; 
Now looking downwards, juft as griev'd appean 
To want the Arength of bulls, the fur of bean. 

•* Afk not merely, why man is naked, why unhoofed, why flower 
footed than the beails: AOe, why he has not wings alfo 
for the air, fins for the water, and Co on : that he might take 
polTeinon of each element, and reign in all. Not fo, laid I, 
neither; this would be to rate him high indeed I As if he were 


ferted this pafllage at length, becaufe it is a 
noble and poetical illuHratlon of the foregoing 
lines, as well as of many other paflages in 
this Eflay, 

4 Prefumptuous man ! the realbn would'fl tbou find. 
Why fonn'd fi> weak, lb lUtle and fo blind ? 
FiiA if thou can'ft the harder reaTon guel^ 
Why form'd no wcaleer, blinder, and no lefs *. 

Voltaire, in the late additions to his 
works, has the following remarkable words. 
•* I own it flatters me to fee that P0P5 
** has fellen upon the very fame fcntiment 
" which I had entertained many years ago." 
*' Vous vous itonnez que Dieu ait fait I'hom- 
xnc fi born^, fi ignorant, fi peu hereux. Que 
ne vous etonnez-vous, qu'il ne I'ait pas fait plus 
borne, plus ignorant, & plus malheurcux ? 
Quand un Francais &c un Anglais penfent 
de meme, il font bien qu'ils ayent raifon -f-." 

by nature, lord of allt which is more than I could willingly 
allow. 'Tis enough replied he, that this ij yielded. Far if 
we allow once, a /ubarjinaiieu in his cafe, if nature herfdf be 
not for man, but man for nature; then mull man, by his good 
IcKVS, fnbmit to the elements of nature, and not the Hcmcntt 
to him." Vol. ii. p:^. 196, ut fupra. 

• V. 34. t OwYrw dc Voluire. Tom. iv. pag. w?. 
S- The 



5, The Iamb thy riot dooms to bleed to day. 
Had he thy reafon, would he ikip and play ? 
Fleas'd to the laft, he crops the flowery food. 
And licks the hand juft rais'd to fhed his blood *. 

The tendernefs of this ftriking image, and 
particularly the circumftance in the laft line, 
has an artful effedt in alleviating the drynefs 
in the argumentative parts of the Efl&y, and 
interefting the reader, 

6. The foul uneaTy, and confinM from hoSief 
Refts and expatiates in a life to come f • 

In former editions it ufed to be printed at 
home ; but this exprefHon feeming to exclude 
a future exiftence, it v/as altered to from bome^ 
not only with great injury to the harmony of 
the line, but perhaps alfo, to the reafoning 
of the context. 

7. Lo the poor Indian ! whofe untutor'd mind 
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind ; 
His foul proud fcience never taught to ftray. 
Far as the folar walk or milky way ; 
Yet fimple nature to his hope has giv'n. 
Behind the cloud-topp'd hill an humbler heav'n : 

? Ver. 8i. t Vcr. 97. 



Some fafer world in depth of woods embraced, 

Some happier iiland in the watry wafte. 

Where flaves once more their native land behold. 

No fiends torment, no Chriftians third for gold* 

To BE contents his natural defire. 

He afks no angel's wing, no feraph's fire; 


But thinks, admitted to that equal /ky. 
His faithful dog fhall bear him company. * 

Pope has indulged himfelf in but few di- 
greflions in this piece j this is one of the moft 
poetical. Reprefentations of undifguifed nature 
and artlefs innocence always amufe and delight. 
The iimple notions which uncivilized nations 
entertain of a future ftate, are many of them 
beautifully romantic, and fome of the beft 
fubjeds for poetry. It has been queftioned 
whether the circumftance of the dog, although 
flriking at the firft view, is introduced with 
propriety , as it is known that the animal is 
not a native of America. The notion of feeing 
God in clouds, and hearing him in the wind, 
cannot be enough applauded. 

• Vcr. 99. 

Vol. n. S t. From 


8. From burning (iins when livid deaths defcend» 
When earthquakes fwallow, or when tempeAs fweep 
Towns to one grave, whole nations to the deep. * 

I quote thefe lines as an example of energy of 
ilile, and of Pope's manner of compreffing to- 
gether many ichages^ without confuiion, and 
without fuperfiaous epithets. Subftantives and 
verbs are the finews of language. 

9. If plagues or earthquakes break not heav'ns defign» 
Why then a Borgia or a Catiline ? f 

" All ills arife from the order of the univerfe^ 
which is abfolutely perfciS. Would you wUh 
to diflruft fo divine an order, for the fake of 
your own particular intereft ? What if the ills 
I fuffer arife from malice or oppreflion ? But 
the vices and imperfedtions of men are alio 
comprehended in the order of the univerfe« 

If plagues i^c. 

Let this be allowed, and my own vices will be 

alfo a part of the fame order." Such i$ 

the commentary of the academift on thefe fk* 
mous lines :{:. 

• Vcr. 142. t Vcr. 156. 

I Hume's EiTays, quarto, pag. 106. 

10. The 


10. The general order, Jhut tb* whwt btgan^ 
Is kept in nature* and is kept in man *. 

How this opinion is reconcilcable with the 
orthodox doctrine of the lapfed condition of 
man, 1 have not yet been informed. 

1 1. Why hai not nun a microlcopic eye ? 
For this plain realbn, man is not a fly. 
Say what the urc, were finer optics giv'n, 

T' infpeA a mite, not comprehend the heav'n \ 
Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er 
To Doiart and agonize at ev'ry poie ? f 

•* If by the help of fuch microfcopical eyes, if 
I may fo call them, a man could penetrate 
ferthcr than ordinary into the fecret compofi- 
tion and radical texture of bodies, he would 
not make any great advantage by the change ; 
if fuch an acute fight would not fcrvc to 
conduct him to the market and exchange, 
if he could not fee things he was to avoid 
at a convenient dilknce, nor diflinguiih things 
he had to do with by thofe fcnfible qualities 
others do." % 

• Vcr. 171. t Vcr. 19J. 

\ Locke*! Eflay on Human Underltanding, vol. I. pag. 356. 
S a la. ir 


12. If nature thunderM in his opening ears. 

And ftunn'd him with the mufic of the fpheres. 
How would he wifh that heav'n had left him dill 
The whifpering zephyr, and the purling rill ? ♦ 

It is juftly obje<5led, that the argument requi- 
red an inftance drawn from real found, and not 
from the imaginary mufic of the fpheres. 
Locke's illuftration of this dodlrine, is not 
only proper but poetical -f-. " If our fenfe of 
hearing were but one thoufand times quicker 
than it is, how would a perpetual noife diflradt 
us ; and we ihould in the quieted retirement^ 
be lefs able to fleep or meditate, than in the 
middle of a fea-fight." 

13. From the green myriads in the peopled gT2i(a — 
The mole's dim curtain, and the lynx*s beam ; 
Of fmell the headlong lionefs between, 

And hound fagacious on the tainted green : 

The fpider's touch how exquifitely fine. 

Feels at each thread, and lives along the line. § 

These lines are feleded as admirable 
patterns of forcible didtion. The peculiar and 

• Vcr. 201. 

t Eflay on Human Underflanding, vol. I. pag. 255. 

5 Vcr. 210. 





cUicriminatlng expreffivenefs of the epithets dif* 
tinguifhed above by italics will be particularly 
regarded. Perhaps we have no image in the 
language, more lively than that of the laft 
verfe. ** To live along the line" is equally 
bold and beautiful. In this part of this Epiflle 
the poet feems to have remarkably laboured 
his %le, which abounds in various figures, 
and is much elevated. Pope has pradtifed the 
great fecret of Virgil's art, which was todifco* 
ver the very fingle epithet that precifcly fuitcd 
each occafion. 

14. Without this juft gradation, could they be 
Subjeded, thefe to thofe, or all to thee ? 
The pow'rs of all fubduM by thee alone, 
Is not thy reafon all thefe powVs in one ? * 

** Such then is the admirable diftribution of 
nature, her adapting and adjufling not only the 
ilufF or matter to the fhape and form, and 
even the (hape itfelf and form, to the circum- 
flance, place, element, or region ; but alfo the 
affections, appetites, fenfations, mutually to 

• Ver. 229. 



each other^ as well as the matter^ forrn^ adiofi^ 
and all befides ; all managed for the beft, with 
perfedt frugality and juft referve : profufe to 
none, but bountiful to all : never employing 
in one thing more than enough; but with 
exadt oeconomy retrenching the fuperfluou$ 
and adding force to what is principal in every 
thing. And is not thought and reafon prin- 
cipal in man ? Would we have no referve for 
thcfe? No faving for this part of his engine *?*' 

15. Above, how high, progreflive life may go ! 
Around, how wide ! how deep extend below ! 
Vaft chain of being ! which from God began. 
Natures aetherial, human, angel, man, 
Beaft, bird, fifli, infed, what no eye can (ee. 
No glafs can reach ; from infinite to thee. 
From thee to nothing. § 

" That there (hould be more fpccics of intelli- 
gent creatures above us, than there are of fen- 
iible and material below us, is probable to me 
from hence ; that in all the vifible corporeal 
world, we fee no chafms, or gaps. All quite 

• The Moralifts, vol. ii. pag, 199. 5. Vcr. 235. 



down from us, the deibent is by eafy fteps^ 
and a continued feries of things, that in each 
remove differ very little from one another. -— * 
And when we confider the infinite power and 
wifdom of the maker, we have reafon to 
think, that it is fuitable to the magnificent 
harmony of the univerfe, and the great defign 
and infinite goodnefs of the architect, that the 
^^edes of creatures (hould alfo, by gentle de* 
grees, defcend to us downwards : which if it 
be probable, we have reafon then to be perfua* 
ded, that there are fitr more fpecies of creatures 
above us, than there are beneath ; we being 
in degrees of perfection, much more remote 
from the infinite being of God, than we are 
from the loweft ftate of being, and that which 
approaches neareft to nothing *." 

16. From nature's chain whatever link you ftrike. 

Tenth, or ten thoufandth, breaks the chain alike, f 

This dodlrine is precifely the fame with that 
of the philofopbical emperor. " Un^tiTxi y<t^ 

* Locke's Bilay on Human Underftanding, vol. ih pag« iQ* 
t Vcr, 245% 


TO 0A03CA>|J0K, eOiP XCLl OTl W S'l(t')Co\ni TII5 CUKa- 

17. Juft as abfurd, to mourn the talks or pains^ 
The great dire£ting mind of all ordams. § 

Here again we muft tranfcribe another no- 
ble fentiment of the fame lofty writer. " 'Otoiqi^ 

^i TO ?\.fyoiJiivoVy OTl avrera^sv 6 AtrytPinTnos. 
T«Ta) tTTTcLcriavj n -^vK^o^saiavj m oLvoTro^KncLv • 

TOIBTOV ^q^l Xai TO, GVV^TCL^^V T8T0 J? TOiV cAoiy 

^vais voG-oVy n TTYi^eoa-iVy t) aTroSoAuf, n aAAo nri 
Tot)v T013TC0V * xoLt yxo €ycu TO trvvera^evj roisroy 
Ti avfJiciLv^iy eroi^i tuto ir^os t8to, ck xarctA- 
AwAov ei9 vyiUcLv * x(ti evrecvSroL to avfj^QoLivov 

tTLXq'CO T^TOLltlctl ITW TTf 0$ aUTO) xotTctAAwAoy 6i$ 

Twv iifJicLOfjinvYiv *^^heos yctp a^fjiovixecri jn/ccf*.** 

1 8. All are but parts of one ftupendous whole, 
Whofe body nature is and God the foul ; 
That chang'd thro' all, and yet in all the fame ; 
Great in the earth, as in th' aetherial frame ; 

* M. Antoninus, Lib. v. S. 8. $ Ver. 265. 

f M. Antoninus, Lib. v. S. 9. 



Warms in the fun, refreihes in the breeze. 
Glows in the ftars, and blofibms in the trees ; 
Lives thro' all life, extends thro* all extent. 
Spreads undivided, operates unfpent ; 
Breathes in our foul, informs our mortal part. 
As full as petkSt in a hair as heart ; 
As full as perfe^ in vile man that mourns. 
As the rapt feraph that adores aud burns : 
To him no high, no low, no great, no fmall ; 
He fills» he bounds^ conneds, and equals all. * 

Whilst I am tranfcribing this exalted de- 
fcription of the omniprefence of the Deity, I 
feci myfelf almoft tempted to retra<fl an afTer- 
tion in the beginning of this work, that there 
is nothing tranfcendently fublime in Pope. 
Thefe lines have all the energy and harmony 
that can be given to rhyme. They bear fo mar- 
vellous a fimilitude to the old Orphic verfes 
quoted in the valuable treatife Uepi Koo-fjiy^ 
that I cannot forbear introducing them, as they 
are curious and fublime. 

• Ver. 267. 
Vol. n. T 2«t$ 


Zfvf wS/AHv yam Tf xM «^»» aait^tilo^: 

Nor have we a lefs example of fublimity in 
the three preceding lines^ which defcribe the 
univerfal confufion that muft enfue^ upon any 
alteration made in the entire aiid coherent plan 
of the creation. 

Let earth unbalanced from her orbit fly. 
Planets and (iins ruih lawleG thro' the (ky ; 
Let ruling angels from their fpheres be hurl'd. 
Being on being wrecked, and world on world ; 
Heav'n's whole foundations to their centre nod. 
And nature tremble to the throne of God. f 

It is very obfervable that thefe noble lines were 
added after the firfl edition. It is a pleafing 
amufement to trace out the alterations that a 

^ A^ifonXn^ nifi K»fff4Mt pag. 52. edit. GhCgiux, 1745. 
t Vcr. 251. 



great writer gradually makes in his works. 
Many other parts of this epiftle have been 
judicioufly amended and improved. At firft 
it ran^ 

How inftind varies ! what a hog may want 
Compar'd with thine, half-reas'ning elephant 

And again ; 

What the advantage, if his finer eyes 
Study a mite, not comprehend the fkies. 

Which lines at prefcnt ftand thus. 

How inftinA varies in the grovling fwine, 
Compar'd, half-reas'ning elephant, with thine» 
Say what the u(e, were finer optics giv'n, 
T* infpcA a mite, not comprehend the heav'n. 

Formerly it flood. 

No felf-confounding faculties to (hare ; 
No fenfes ftronger than his brain can bear. 

At prefent. 

No powVs of body or of foul to fliare^ 
But what his nature and his ftate can bear. 

T2 It 


It appeared at firft. 

Expatiate free o'er all thU fcene of man 
A mighty ma^e ! of walki without a plan. 

We read at prefent, 

A mighty maze ! but not without a plan* 

19. Submit In this, or any other fpherCf 

Secure to be as bleft as thou canft bear : 
Safe in the hand of one difpofing pow^r 
Or in the natal, 01 the mortal hour. * 

I cannot reiift the pleafiire of illuftrating this 
fentiment in the words of a writer, whofe 
friendfhip I efleem to be no fmall happinefs and 
honour. '^ Teach us each to regard himfelf, but 
as a part of this great whole ; a part which 
for its welfare we are as patiently to refign, as 
we reiign a fingle limb for the welfare of our 
whole body. Let our life be a continued fcene 
of acquiefcence and of gratitude, for what we 
enjoy j of acquiefcence, in what we fufFer ; 
as both can only be referable to that con- 
catenated order of events, which cannot 

• Vcr. 285. 



but be beft, as being by thee approved 
and chofen *." 

20. All nature is but art, unknown to thee ; 

All chance, dire^on wUch thou canft not fee; 
All difcord, harmony not underftood ; 
All partial eWly univerfid good, f 

This is the dodfarine that reigns throughout 
the lofty hymn of Cleanthes the Stoic, particu- 
larly in thefe beautiful and mafculine verfes. 

Itktfl liW9am ^a^ KOMI ofilt^ent amm^t 
AXXa ov %m ra vipi^va tjnala^M m(lta ttuiUt 

n Jk yap IK n inm^m 9vvti^\iA%a^ %^/im tfnrmiwt» 
n^' INI yiyvt^SoM vatlti^y Xoyo* aitv lorlarf ^ 

21. Chaos of thought and paffion, all confus'd i 
Still by himfelf abus'd, or difabus'd ; 

* Three Treatifes by James Harris, Ei^; ptg. 33 1« 

+ Vcr. 289. 

f • Hymn, apad Hen. Steph. pa;. 49. 



Created half to rife, and half to fall ; 
Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all ; 
Sole judge of truth, in endlefi error hurl'd : 
The glory, jeft and riddle of the world ! % 

It was remarked long ago in the Adventu- 
rer *, that thefe reflexions were minutely co- 
pied from Pafcal, who fays j " What a chimera 
then is man ! what a confufed chaos ! what a 
fubjeft of contradidtion ! a profeflcd judge of 
all things, and yet a feeble worm of the earth ! 
The great depofitary and guardian of truth, 
and yet a mere huddle of uncertainty! the 
glory and the fcandal of the univerfe." 

22. Superior beings when of late they faw 
A mortal man unfold all natures law, 
Admir'd fuch wifdom in an earthly fhape. 
And (hew^d a Newton as we fhew an ape. f 

The author of the letter on the Marks of 
imitation, is induced to think, from the Angu- 
larity of this fentiment, that the great poet 
had his eye on Plato ; cti ctv^^^Trm 6 aofMos 
Tpos Qeov TTi^iiKos (pweilai. But I am more in- 

l Epift. ii. V. 13. • No. 63. f Vcr. 34. 



clined to think that Pope borrowed it from a 
paflage in the zodiac of Pdingenins, which 
the abovemcntioncd Adventurer has alfo 
quoted^ and which Pope, who was a reader 
of the poets of Palingenias's age, was more 
likely to fall upon, than on this thought 
of Plato, 

Simia ccdicolum rifulque jocufque deonim eft; 
Tunc homo, quum temere ingenio confidit, et audet 
Abdita naturae fcnitari, arcanaque diviim* 

23. Trace fcience dien, with modefly thy guide ; 
Firft ftrip off all her equipage of pride; 
Dedud what is but vanity, or drefi. 
Or learning's luxury, oridlenefs; 
Or tricks to (hew the ftretch of human brain. 
Mere curious pleafiire, or ingenious pain ; 
Expunge the whole, or lop th' excrefcent parts. 
Of all our vices of created arts. * 

The abufes of learning are enumerated with 
brevity and elegance, in thefe few lines. It 
was a favourite fubjeA with our author 3 and it 
is faid, he intended to have written four 
epifUes on it, wherein he would have treated 

• Vcr. 43. 



of the extent and limits of hnnun reafon, of 
arts and fciences ufeful and attainable, of the 
different capacities of different men, of the 
knowledge of the world, and of wit. Such 
cenfures, even of the mod unimportant parts 
of literature, {hould not, however, be carried 
too far ; and a fenfible writer obferves, that 
there is not indeed any part of knowledge 
which can be called entirely ufelefs." The moft 
abftradted parts of mathematics, and the know- 
ledge of mythological hiftory, or antient alle- 
gories, have their own pleafures not inferior 
to the more gay entertainments of painting, 
mufic, or architecture ; and it is for the ad- 
vantage of mankind that fome are found, who 
have a taffe for thefe fludies. The only fault 
lies, in letting any of thofe inferior taffes, en- 
grofs the whole man to the exclufion of the 
nobler purfuits of virtue and humanity*.*' 
We may here apply an elegant obfervation of 
TuUy, who fays in his Brutus, " Credo, fed 
Athenienfium quoque plus interfuit firma teda 

* Hutchefon's Nature and Condafi of the Paffions. pag. 174. 



xn domiciliis habere^ quam Minervs fignum 
ex ebore pulcherrimum : tamen ego me Phin 
diam cffe mallem quam vel optimum fabrum 
lignarium; quarc non quantum quifquepro- 
£t9 fed quanti quifque fit^ ponderandum eft j 
praefertim cum paupi pinger^ cgrogi^ poffint 

mt fingere^ operarii autem aut bajuli deefle 

non poffint,'* 

24. Paffions, tho' felfifli, if their means be fair. 
Lift under reafon and deferve her care ; 

Thofe, that imparted, court a nobler aim, 


Exalt theiF kind, and take fome virtue's name. ^ 

We find an -f* obfcurity in thefe lines, ari-r 
fingfrom the ufe of the participle imparted i 

f When I am writings fays Fontenelle, I often flop and 
aik ; '* Do I myfelf underfland this fenceoce ?'' And yet, 
f ontenelle| whom the French accafe of introducing the ab^ 
rapt, affe£led ftyle, is frequently obfcure. ^' Non minus au» 
tem cavenda erit, fays Quintiliaii, quae nimium corripientes 
omnia fequitnr, obfcuritas : fatiufque ell aliquid narration! 
fuperefle, quam deefle. Nam cum fupenracua cum taedio di« 
CUAtor, neceflaiia cum periculo fubtrahuntun" 

Inllitut. Orat. Lib. iv. C. 2. 

Happy is he who can unite brevity with perfpicuity.— -^' 
It is but of one writer that Quintilian fays. Idem laetus ac 
Dreffus, turn copia, tum brevitate mirabilis. Lib, x. C. i. 

Yql. II. U a mod9 

a mode of fpeakingof which Pope was fond,- 
ftudious as he was of brevity, and which of- 
ten betrayed him into the fame fault : as the 
ufe of the cafe abfolute does in the follow- 
ing lines i 

Prefent to grafp, and future ftill to find. 
The whale tmpley of body and o€ mind. • 
25. In lazy apathy let Stoics boaft 

Their virtue tix'd ! 'tis fix'd as in a froft ; 

ContraAcd all, retiring to thebreaft; 

The ftrength of mind is exercife, not reft, t 

Perhaps a Aronger example cannot be 
found, of taking notions upon truft without 
any examination, than the univerfal cenfure 
, that has hcet palTed upon the Stoics, as if they 
ilrenuouOy inculcated a total infenlibility with 
refpedt to paffion. He that would be convinced 
that this trite accusation is ill-grounded, may 
confult the notes Mr. Harris has added to his 
third treatife %. There he will find the gcr 
nuine doftrines of the Stoics examined with 
accuracy and fagacity, in a learned deduftioq 

• Ver. laj. f Ver. loi. 

} From note pag, 33;, to pag. 331. 



of paffages, from all the beft writers of that 
fchool ; the fum of which quotations, in the 
nervous language of that critic, appears to be 
this ; " That the Stoics, in their character of 
their virtuous man, included rational defire^ 
averfion, and exultation ; included love, and 
parental affedtion ; J&iendfhip, and a general 
charity or benevolence tB all mankind : that 
they confidered it as a duty, arifing from our 
very nature, not to negleft the welfare of pub- 
lic fociety, but to be ever ready, according to 
our rank, to a£t either the magiflrate or the 
private citizen : that their apathy was no more 
than a freedom from perturbation, from irra- 
tional and exceflive agitations of the foul : and 
confequently that the ftrange apathy, com- 
monly laid to their charge, and in the demo- 
lishing of which there have been fo many tri- 
umphs, was an imaginary apathy, for which 
they were no way accountable.'* 

a6. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's fmiling train^ 
HatE) FeaR) andGRiEF) the family of Paik. 

U 2 This 


This beautiful group of allegorical perfon- 
ages, fo ftrongly contrafted, how do they adt? 
The profopopeia is unfortunately dropped, and 
the metaphor changed immediately in the fuc«- 
ceeding lines. 

Thefe mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd) 
Make, and maintain the balance of the mind. * 

27. On diflbrent fenfes Cerent objeds flrike. ^ 

A didadic poet who has happily indulged 
himfelf in bolder flights of enthufiafm, fup- 
ported by a more figurative ftile, than our au- 
thor ufed, has thus nobly illuflrated this very 

DliTrent minds 

Incline to diiPrent objeds : one purfues. 
The vaft alone, the wonderful, the wild ; 
Another fighs for harmony, and grace. 
And gentled beauty. Hence when lightning fires 
The arch of heav'n, and thunders rock the ground g 
When furious whirlwinds rend the howling air^ 
And ocean groaning from the loweft bed, 
Heaves his tempefiuous billows to thefky^ 
Amid the mighty uproar, while below 

• Vcr. i20# t Vcr. 127. 



The nations tremble, Shakefpear looks abroad 
From fomc high clifF, fupcrior, and enjoys 
The elemental war. But Waller longs 
All on the margin (rf fome flow*ry ftream 
To fpread his carelefs limbs, amid the cool 
Of pUntane {hades. — — — 

We have here a ftriking example of that 
poetic fpirit, that harmonious, and varied ver- 
fification and that ftrength of imagery, v^rhich 
confpire to excite our admiration of this beau- 
tiful poem *. 

28. Proud of an eafy conqueft all along, 

She but removes weak paffions for the ftrong* f 

This is from the Duke de la Rochefoucault 
Whenever we get the better of our paffions 
it is more owing to their weaknefs than our 
our ftrength. And again, there is in the heart 
of man a perpetual fucceffion of paffions, in- 
fomuch that the ruin of one is always the rife 
of another %- 

* ThePleafures of Iinagination« Bookiii. v, 546. 
t Vcr. 157. X Max. X, 

29. Let 


29. Let powV, or knowledge, gold or glory, pleafe. 
Or oft more ftrong than all, the love of eafe. § 

An acute obfervation plainly taken from 
Rochefoucault. " 'Tis a miftake to believe 
that none but the violent paflions, fuch as am- 
bition and love, are able to triumph over the 
other paflions. Lazinefs, as languid as it is, 
often gets the maftery of them all, ufurps over 
all the defigns and adlions of life, and infenfi- 
bly confumes, and deftroys both paflions and 
virtues *." 

30. Virtuous and vicious ev'ry man muft be. 
Few in th' extreme, but all in the degree : 
The rogue and fool by fits is fair and wife ; 
And ev'n the bcft, by fits, what they defpife. t 

A fine refleftion, and calculated to fubdue that 
petulant contempt and unmerited averfion 
men too generally entertain againft each other, 
and which diminifh and deflroy the focial af- 
fedions if. Our emulation fays one of the 
beft-natured philofophers, our jeaJoufy or envy, 

§ Vcr. 170. ♦ ccLxvi. Max. f Vcr. 233. 

X Hutchcfon's Nature and Condudl of the Paflions, p. 190. 


fliould be reftrained in a great mcafurc, by a 
conltant refolution of bearing always in our 
minds the lovely fide of every chara<Ser. The 
complcatly evil are as rare as the perfeftly vir- 
tuous, there is fomething amiable almoft in 
every one, as Plato obferves in his Phidon. 

'O cvv iXtPgAipos ear alix'n evriu^iv auro a Aa/t- 

<pop)iTH ' oAJl.' iicii'^tv (uioAAor, oti aJ^EA^pos, oti 

This charitable doftrine of putting candid 
conftrudions on thofe adtions that appear moft 
blameable, nay moft deteftable and moft de- 
formed, is illuftrated and enforced with great 
ftrength of argument and benevolence by King 
in his fifth chapter on the origin of evilj 
where he endeavours to evince the prevalence of 
moral good in the world, and teaches us to 
make due allowances for mens follies and vices. 

I EpiActi Enchiridion. 

+ Many leflons on this ufeful fpecies of hamaniiy, tending 
to foften the difguft that arifcj from a profpeft of the abttir- 
dity and wickcdncfs of human nature, are to be found in 
Marcus Antoninus; and many noble Precepts in the New 
Tcftamciit riglitly underAood have the fame tendency, but are 
delivered with more dignity and force, and demand certainly 
3 deeper attention and more implicit regard. 

31. What 


31. What crops of wit, and honefty appear. 
From fpleen, from obftinacy, hate or fear ? * 

Au Cid perfecutc Cinna doit fa naiflance, 
Et peut-eftre ta plume aux Cenfeurs de Pyrrhus 
Doit les plus nobles traits dont tu pcignis Burrhus. f 

32. Heav'n forming each on other to depend, 
A mafter, or a fervant, or a friend. 
Bids each on other for aflifiance call, 

'Till one man's weaknefs grows the ftrength of alL 
Wants, frailties, paffions, clofer ftill ally 
The common intereft, or endear the tic. 
To thefe we owe true friendfliip, love (incere. 
Each home-felt joy that life inherits here. § 


• Vcr. 185. 

+ Boileau, Epillrc vii. a M. Racine, pag. 57. 

§ ** In rerum fyftcmate vel optime conftituto, debent efle 
diver(a animantium genera fuperiora, et inferiora, ut locus fit 
prseclaris animi virtutibus ubi fe exerceant: excluderentur enim 
commiferatio, bencficentia, liberalitas, fortitudo, xquanimitas, 
^patientia, lenitas, et officia omnia gratuita et immerita, quo- 
rum fenfus longe efl omnium IxtiiTimus, et memoria jucundiifi- 
ma ; fi nulla cfTet imbecillitas, nulla indigentia, nulla homi- 
num vitia ct crrores." 

Hutchefon. Metaphyficae Synopfis, cap. ii. pag. 81. 

This refembles the doftrine of the old Stoic Chryfippus as he 
is quoted by Aulus Gellius, lib. vi. cap. i. "Nullum ad- 
co contrarium fine contrario altero. Quo enim pafto juftitias 
fenfus eiTe poflet nifi eflent injuria: ? Aut quid aliud juftitia eft 
quam injuftitise privatio ? Quid item fortitudo intelligi poflet 




It was an objection conftantly.urged by the 
ancient Epicureans, that man could not be the 
creature of a benevolent being, as he was 
formed in a ftate fo helplefs and infirm : Mon- 
tagne took it and urged it alfo. They never 
confidered or perceived that this very infirmity 
and helpleffnefs were the caufe and cement of 
fociety ; that if men had been perfe<5l and felf- 
fufficient^ and had flood in no need of each 
others affiflance, there would have been no 
occafion for the invention of the arts, and no 
opportunity for the exertion of the afFcdtions. 
The lines therefore in which Lucretius pro- 
pofes this objedlion, are as unphilofophical 

nifi ex ignaviae oppoiitione ? Quid continentia nifi ex intern- 
peranda? Quo item modo prudentia efTet, nifi foret ex con- 
trario imprudcntia ?" — • " To this purpofe the elegant 
lyric poet. 

Who founds in difcord^ beauty's reign. 

Converts to pleafure ev'ry pain. 

Subdues the hoflile forms to tc^. 

And bids the univerfe be bleft." 
** This is that magic divine, which by an efficacy paft compre- 
heniion, can transform every appearance, the moil hideous, 
into beauty, and exhibit all things fair and good to thee ! 
Eilence Increate ! who art of purer eyes than to behold ini- 
qnity.'* Three Treatifcs, by J. H. pag. 234. 

Vol. II. X and 

and inconcluiive, as they are highly pathetic 
and poetical. 

Turn porro puer, ut (kvis proje^^ ab undis 
Na?ita» nudus humi jacet^ infans, indigus oflMfii 
Vitali auxilio, cum primum in luminis oras 
Nixibus ex alvo matris naiura profudit ; 
Vagituque locum lugubri complet, ut sequum efty 
Cui tantum in vid reflat trandre malonim. f 

There is a paflage in the Moralifts which 
I cannot forhear thinking Pope had in his 
eye, and which I mufl not therefwe omit, as 
it ferves to illuftrate and confirm fo many parts 
of the EfTay on Man ; I ihall therefore give it 
at length without apology. 

" The young of moft other kinds, are in- 
ftantly helpful to themfelves, fenfible, vigor- 
ous, know how to fhun danger, and feck their 
good : A human infant is of all the moft help- 
lefs, weak, infirm. And wherefore fliould it 
not have been fo ordered ? Where is the lofs 
in fuch a fpecies ? Or what is man the worfe 
for that defedt, amidft fuch large fupplies ? 

t lib.v. ver. 223. 




Does not * this dcfc^ engage him the more 
ftrongly to fociety, and force him to own that 
he is purpofcly, and not by accident, made 
rational and fociable ; and can no otherwife 
increafe or fubfift, than in that focial inter- 
courfe and community which is his natural 
ftate? Is not both conjugal afFedion, and 
natural af&dion to parents, duty to magif- 
trates, love of a common city, community, or 
country, with the other duties and focial parts 
of life, deduced from hence, and founded in 
thefe very wants ? What can be happier than 
fuch a deficiency, as it is the occafion of fo 
much good ? What better than a want fo 
abundantly made up, and anfwered by fo 
many enjoyments ? Now if there are ftill to 
be found among mankind, fuch as even in the 
midft of thefe wants fcem not afhamed to af- 

* A longer care man's helplefs kind demands ; 
That longer care contra^ more lafting bands. 

Ep. iii. V. 131. 
And again; 

And fHll new needs, new helps, new habits rife. 
That graft benevolence on charities. 

Ep. iii. V. 137. 

X 2 fcft 


fz& a right of independency, and deny tbem- 
ielves to be by nature fociablc j where would 
their fbame have been, had nature otherwife 
fupplied thefe wants ? What duty or obliga- 
tion had been ever thought of ? What refpcft 
or reverence of parents, magiftrates, their 
country, or their kind ? Would not their fiill 
and fclf-fufficicnt ftate more ftrongly have de- 
termined them to throw off nature, and deny 
the ends and author of their creation ?" * 

31. And pride bedow'd on all a common friend, f 

The obfcrvation is from Rochefoucault j 
" Nature, who fo wifely has fitted the organs 
of our body to make us happy, fecms likewife 
to have beftowed pride on us, on purpofe, as 
it were, to fave us the pain of knowing our 
imperfe<3ions." J 

Un lot en ecrlvant fait tout avec plaifir . 

II n' a point en ks vers 1' cmbarras de choilir, 

* ThcMoraliits, pag. 101. 

t Ver. 272. J Maxim. 36. 


£t toujours amoreux de ce qu' il vient d* ecrire» 
Ravi d' etonnexnent en foi-meme il s' admire. 
Mais un efprit fublime en vain veut s' elevery 
A ce degre parfait qu' il tache de trouver ; 
£t toujours mecontent de ce qu' il vient de faire 
n plaift a tout le monde, & ne fcauroit fe plaire. 

When Boileau read thefe words to his friend 

Molicre to whom they are addreffed, the latter, 
fqueezing his hand with eameflnef s^ faid — — 
" This is one of the beft truths you have ever 
uttered. I am not one of thofe fublime ge- 
niufes of whom you fpeak ; but fuch as I am, 
I muft declare I have never wrote any thing 
in my life, with which I have been thoroughly 
fatisfied *r 

34« See matter next, with various life endu'd, 
Prefs to one centre ftil), the gen'ral good. 
See dying vegetables life fuftain. 
See life diflblving vegetate again : 
All forms that peri(h other forms fupply, 
(By turns we catch the vital breath and die) 
Like bubbles on the fea of matter born. 
They rife, they break, and to that fea return, f 

• Sat. 2, 85, f Ep. 3. V. 13. 



Pope has again copied Shaftdbury fo cloiely 
in this paf&ge, as to ufe almoft his very words. 
<* Thus in the feveral orders of terreftrial 
forms, a refignation is required, a ikcrifice 
and mutual yielding of natures one to another. 
The vegetables by their death, fuftain the 
animals j and the animal bodies diHolved, en- 
rich the earth, an4 raife again the vegetable 
world. The numerous infedts are reduced by 
the fuperior kinds of birds and beaib : And 
thefe again arc checked by man ; who in his 
turn fubmits to other natures, and refigns his 
form a facrifice in common to the reft of 
things. And if in natures fo little exalted or 
pre-eminent above each other, the lacrifice of 
intereft can appear fo juftj how much more 
reafonably may all inferior natures be fubjedted 
to the fuperior nature of the world !'* * 

35. Has God, thou fool .' worit'd folely for thy good. 
Thy joy, thy paflime, thy attire, thy food ? 
Who for thy table feeds the waiiton fawn. 
For him as kindly fpread the Bowery lawn : 
Is it for thee the lark alcends and fings ? 
Joy tunes his v<hcc, joy elevates hb wings f. 


• TheMoralifts, pag. 130. t Vcr. 27. 


The poetry of thtfe lines is as beautiful, as 
the philofophy is folid. ** They who imagiae 
that all things in this world were made for the 
immediate ufe of man alone^ run themfelves 
into inextricable difficulties. Man indeed is 
the head of this lower part of the creation, 
and perhaps it was defigned to be abfolutely 
under his command. But that all things here 
tend diredtly to his own ufe, is, I think, nei- 
ther cafy nor neceffiiry to be proved. Some 
manifefUy fcrve for the food and fupport of 
others, whofe fouls may be neceflary to pre- 
pare and preferve their bodies for that pur- 
pofe, and may at the fame time be happy in a 
confcioufnefs of their own exiftence. 'Tis pror 
bable they are intended to promote each others 
gctod reciprocally : Nay, man himfelf contri- 
butes to the happinefs, and * betters the con- 
dition of the brutes in feveral refpe£bs, by cul- 
(ijrating and improving the ground, by watcb- 

• That very life his learned hnnger craTet, 
He faves from famiAe, from the favage favei ; 
lisLj, feaftt the animal he dooms his feaH, 
And tiU he ends ihc being makes it bleft. 

Bp« iiit ▼• 63 * 

X4 in| 


ing the fcafons, by protedting and providing 
for them, when they are unable to prote6t 
^LTid provide for themfelves." Thefe are the 
words of Dr. Law, in his learned Commen- 
tary on King's Origin of Evil, firft pubr 
liflicd in Latin, lyoi, a work of penetra- 
tion and clofe rcafoning ; which, it is re- 
markable, Bayle had never read, but only 
fome extrafts from it, when he firft wrote 
his famous article of the Paulicians, in his 

• .... 

Dictionary, where he has artfully employed 
all that force and acutenefs of argument, 
which he certainly poflefled, in promoting 
the gloomy and uncomfortable fcheme «£. 
Scepticifm or Manicheifm. ^ 

36. And reafon raifc o'er inftinft as you can. 
In this 'tis ( jd directs, in (hat 'tis man.* 

concerning the condition of brutes* Les 

♦ Ep. lii. 97. 

f We ought not to be blind to the faults of this fin^ writer, 
>vhatever fipplaufe he deferves in general. But it JOfirdt be 
confefledy chat his ftyle is too (horc, abrupt, and epigram^ 
matic ; he tells us hixnfelf, he was fond of Lucipi Florut ; 
' and he believed too creduloufly, and laid too great a ftrefs 
|}pon» the relatione of vq^aj^e-writers and tifavellers s as in* 
fikc^ did jLockft 




betes, n* ont point Ics fupremes advantages 
que nos avons ; elles en ont que nous n' avons 
pas. Elles n' ont point nos efperances, mais 
elles n' ont pas nos craintes ; elles fubiflent 
comme nous la mort, mais c' eft fans la con- 
noitre ; la plupart mexne fe confervent meiux 
que nous, & ne'font pas un au/Ii mauvais 
ufage de leurs paflions." 

37. Who taught the nations of the field and wood 
To {bun their poifon, and to chufe their food ? 
Prefcient, the tides or tempefts to withftand. 
Build on the wave, or arch beneath the fand ? * 

This paflage is highly finiftied 3 fuch ob- 
je^ are more fuited to the nature of poetry 
tmn abflrad ideas. Every verb and epithet 
has here a dcfcriptive force. We find more 
imagery from thefc lines tc ,the end of the 
epidle^ than in any other pa..^s of this Eflay. 
The origin of the connexions in focial life, the 
account of the ftate of nature, the rife and ef- 
feiSs of fuperftitiori and tyranny, and the re- 

• VCT. 99. 

Vol. II. Y ftoration 


ftoration of true religion and juft government^ 
all thefe ought to be mentioned as paflages 
that deferve high applaufe, nay as fome of the 
rooft exalted pieces of Englifh poetry. 

38. Man walk'd with beaft, joint tenant of the (hade. * 

Lucretius, agreeably to his uncomfort- 
able fyftem, has prefented us with a different, 
and more horrid picture of this flate of nature. 
The calamitous condition of man is exhibited 
by images of much energy, and wildnefs of 

■ Saecia ferarum 

Infedam miferis faciebant faepe quietem : 
Eje£lique domo fugicbant faxea tcQiz 
Sf tigeri fuis adventu, validque Leonis, 
Atque intempefta cedebant no£le paventes 
Hofpitibus faevis inftrata cubilia fronde. 

He reprefents afterwards fome of thefe 
wretched mortals mangled by wild beafts, 
and running diftraded with pain through the 
woods, with their wounds undrefled and 
putrifying : 

Ver. I J 2. 



At quoi effugium fciTint, coqme adelb» 
Poferius tremulas fiiper ukera tetra teoentes 
Palmas, horriferis accibant vocibus Orcum i 
Doiiicum eos vita privdrunt vennina faeva, 
Expeites opis, ignaros quid volnera vdlent. * 

pain is forcibly cxpreiled by the a<fUpn d&- 
icribed m tibe fecond line, and by the epithet 

39. The (brine with gore unftain^d, with gold undreftf 
Unbrib'd, unUoody^ ftood the blamelefs prieft. f 

The <i^c€t of alliteration is here felt by the 
reader. Bot at what period of time could this 
be jttftly faid, if we confider the very early 
Snftitution of facrifice^ according to the fcrip* 
ture-account of this venerable rite. 

40. Ah ! how unlike the man of times to come ! 
Of half that live the butcher and the tomb ; 
Who, foe to nature, hears ^e general groan, 
Murders their fpecies, and betiays his own. t 

Ovid, on the fame topic, has nothing fo 
manly and cmphatical. ** Hears the general 

• Lib. V. vcr. 991. f Ep« iii« ^S^. t Ep. iii. 161. 

Y 2 " groan," 

" groan.", is nobly cxprefled, and the circum- 
iiance of betraying his own fpecies, is an un- 
expetfled and ftriking addition to the foregoing 
fentiment. Thomfon has enlarged on this 
do<5h-ine, with that tendernefs and humanity 
for which he was fo juftly beloved, in hit 
Spring, at vcrfe one hundred and thirty. Our 
poet afcribes the violence of the paflions to th« 
ufe of animal food. 

But juft difealc to luxury Tucceeds, 
And every death iti own avenger breeds *. 
41, Thus then to man the voice of nature fpake, 
*' Go from the creatures thy inflruftions take ; 
*< Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield i 
*' Learn from the beafts the phyfic of the Held f* 

The profopoposia Is magnificent, and the 
occafion important, no lefs than the origin 
of the arts of life. Nature is perfonified 
alfo by Lucretius, and introduced fpeak- 
ing with fuitable majefty and elevation ; (he is 
chiding her foolifli and ungrateful children for 
their vain and impious difcontcnt. 

• Ver. 165. \ Ep. 3. ver. 171. 



Quid tibi tantopere 'ft, mortalis, quod nlmis ftgris 
Lu^bus indulges ? quid mortem congemis, ac fles ?— 
Aufer abhinc lacrymas, barathro et compefce querelas. 

There is an authoritative air in the brevity 

of this fentence, as alfo in the concluding Hne 

of her Ipeech -, and particularly in the very laft 

A^ord, " -^quo animoque, agedum^ jam aliis 

concede : ■ neccffe *ft J/' 

42. Thy arts of building from the bee receive. 

Learn of the mole to plow, the worm to weave §. 

The Romans have left us fcarcely any piece 
of poetry fo ilriking and original, as the be- 
ginning and progrefs of arts at the end of the 

fifth book of Lucretius *. I fhaH at prefent 

confine myfeirto tranfcribe his beautiful ac- 
count of the rife of mufic. 

t Lib. iii. vcr. 975. $ Vcr. 175. 

* The Perfians, it is faid, diftingoifh the di^rent degrees 
of the ftrength of fancy in difierent poets, by calling them, 
painters ox fadpt9n. LacretiuSy from the force of his images, 
fhould be ranked among the latter. He is, in truths a 
SCULPTOR-POET. His images have a bold relief. 



At liifutdas avium voces imiurier ore 
Ante fuit multo, quam bevia carmina cantu 
Concelebrare hoaiiiies poftnt, aurafijue javare. 
£t zephyri cava per calamorum fibila primum 
Agrefles docuere cavas inflare acutas. 
Inde minutatim dukeb didicere querelasy 
Tibia quas fundit digitis pulfata canentum, 
Avia per nemora, ac fylvas faltufque reperta^ 
Per loca paftorufn deferta, atque otia dia ** 

43. He from the wond'ring furrow call'd the food. 
Taught to command the fire, controul the flood. 
Draw forth the moofters of th' abyfs profound. 
Or fetch the aerial eagle to the ground f • 

A finer example can perhaps ((carce be given 
fsf a compad and comprehenfive fiile. The 
manner in which the four demtents were fub- 
dued is comprifed In thefe four lines alone. 
Pope is here, as Quintilian fays of another^ 
denfus et brevis et inftans ixhi. There is not 
an ufelefs word in this paiTage ; there are but 
three epithets, "wondering^ frofound^ aerial i 
and they are placed precifely with the very 
fubflantive that is of moll confequence: if 

• Lib. V. vcr. 1378. f Ver. 219. 



there had been epithets joined with the other 
fubflantiveSy it would have weakened the ner-- 

voufnefs of the fentence. This was a fecret of 

verfification Pops well underftood, and hath 

often pradlifcd with peculiar fuccefs. 

44. Who firft taught fouls enflav'd, and realms undone, 
Th' XK0RM0U8 faith of many made for one *• 

" QuAND les fauvagesdelaLouifiane veulent 
avoir du fruit, ils coupent V arbre au pie & 
cueillent le fruit. Voil^ le Gouvernement defpo* 
tique/* A fentiment worthy of the free fpirit 
of Demofthenes, and an image worthy of the 
genios of Homer -f. 

45. Such is the world's great harmony, that fpriogs 
From order, union, full confent of things %. 

• Ver. 241. 

f Chapit. 13, De L'Eiprit des Loix. The(e few words 
are the whole chapter. Woe be to the liberty and icience of 
that country, where this noble and original work is prohibited 
to be read. Can that author be fufpeded of irreligion, who 
in the fixth chapter of his twenty-fourth book has entirely de- 
moliihed one of the moil fubtle objedlions againfl Chriilianity, 
and that too urged by one of the ^bleil adverfarics to our holy 
religion, M, Bayle ; who aflcrts that a focicty of men pradlifing 
the rules of Chriitianity, in their full rigour, could not long 
fubfift. X Ver. 295. ThERE 


There is no where to be found fo perfcdl 
an illuflration of this dodlrine^ that the beauty 
and concord of the univerfe arife from contra- 
rieties, as in the fhort treatife of Ariftotle, 
ir^ci ycocr/jLHy which, notwithftanding the dif- 
ferent form of its compofition, ought to be 
afcribed to this * philofopher : I fhall infert 
it at length in its fublime original, it being, 
as it were, a fummary or compendium of the 
philofophy of the poem before us. " Kai toi 
y€ ris ^SroLv/jLaaej ttoos ttoIs ei ex tcov evxplioDv 
ap^ct)y avveq^Yiycey 6 TcocfjioSj heyco Se ^vpoty re 


• The learned have been divided in their opinions concern* 
ing this piece. Muretus, both the Scaligers, Cafaubon, He- 
infiusy Menage, VofHus, Naude, Alcyonius, and others, will 
not afcribe it to Ariftotle, and lay great ftrefs on a paflage of 
Proclus in his fifth book on the Timxus. On the other hand, 
Demetrius Phalcrcus, Stobajus, Apuleias, Juftin Martyr, 
Bc/Tarion, Bradwardin, and our own truly learned Biftiop 
Berkley, unanimoufly give it to Ariftotle. This opinion is 
confirmed by a fenfible difcourfe on the fubjefl, cap. 19. Pedti 
Mifcell. Obfervation. Lib. 2. One of his obfervations I 
will not omit. " Scriptus quippe ad Alexandrum Regcm, ut 
Titulus indicat, ideoque faciliore, quam alii, ftilo^ et aperto 
orationis plaufibilique filo : ut decet Regibus fcribcntem, ut illi 
nniverfae naturalis fcientix compendium cfiet. Quo pafto et 
objedlionem a ftili difcrepantia dudam removeo." 



fMJ^oievy oTTcoi S'loLfJLeyiij avve^fixtJioLy eye tuv ivxr^ 

I TioDv ^bvojv • TleytiTOJv ^eytOy xeci T/i^trioiv* veooy^ 

%oLi yepoyrcoy^ (ta^eyci)v^ la^v^cov * TroyfiP^Fy ^iT 

fcoy* Ayyo»(ri S^€j on tht my 7ro?iiliK7is of/Lorotctg 

TO boLVfJiaunotiloLlov * A^^oti S^e^ ori bk 7ro?iKcoy fJiictyy 

xai QfA^oiay 0§ ayoiAoi9oyy awolehei S^ix^eaiVy vtq'^ 

Tcai r6»y ^vcLv\im vi (fuan yT^ix^cciy xcci eit T&laiif 
m/jro\Q>dU ro o'Vf/L(pQJVoyy btl ex. rcay ojxoiojy* wTBg 
cifji^Ku TO a^iv avymyaye Tfos to 6;;Ay, icxi bic 
ixxtrBPoy iroos to ofJLoifvhoVy xai my Tpcarny o^o-* 
votxy i^icL Ttoy tyoivlmv Qvvr\\^yj a S'icl Tcoy 6/^otQi)y * 
eoiKi S^ xou i TS^^n rtiy (pva-iy /jnfjLUfjiSvTij tbto 
iroiUv* ^»ypoL(pioL [jiBy yctOy Asu)twy t^ x-ct/ jw-gAa- 
y«K^ ai^a)r tB %cli ^pu^pooy ^pofAoumv eyit^pcLaoLfJi^vn 
ifvaSiSj TflW eiTcoyois TOiC ir^onynfjLevois oLireiiKian 
<fv/JL(p6jyBs • fJLBaixti cTf, o^e/5 cL/ao. xai Qcc^sis cp^of" 
yys fJii^curcLy ey Sioupopoi^ (pcouais fJnoLv aTriisMerey 
dffjiovixv • yfCLfj.fJLcur/.'n Jf, fjc (pojynsvlojv xcti 
ti^^ycf)y ypoLfjifAcciccv ycfcco'iv iroi'iiG'ay.ivny liiv oAnv 
T^^ynv cLir oLulwy avyec^Tja-alQ * tccvto J^f twto >?r 

Vol. II. Z x^L 


occci ro ircLfcc ta) o'xoig/j/o), X^yofJi^vov Wfct'icK^ita * 

CVVCC-^eig b7\jCL^ TLCLl B^l ttAot * GVfJi<fefOlJitVQV^ XOU 

T6)v iv %(ti ^% ivos TTwloL.** It Is to be lamented 
that the prefent flate of literature in this king- 
dom, has rendered it neceflary, to fubjoin a Latia 
tranllation of this beautiful and exalted paffage^ 
which to be able to read in its original is no 
vulgar happinefs. Take it therefore in the 
words of Budaeus. " Tametfi extiterunt,quifcfc 
admirari addubitabundi dicerent, qui fieri taa- 
dem poflet, fi e principiis contrariis mundus 
conflitit, ficcis dico et humidis, frigidis et ca- 
lidis, ut jam dici non dilTolutus fuerit atque in- 
terierit. Perinde quafi mirari quifquam de- 
l)eat, quonam padto civitas incolumis perduret^ 
quae e gentibus contrariis compofita fit, egenis 
inquam et divitibus, juvenibus et fenio con- 
fedtis, infirmis et valentibus, pravis atque in- 
nocentibus. Ignorantia efl ifla utiquc homi- 
num, hoc efle in concordia civili non viden- 
tium, longe admirabiliffimum, quod ex multis 
ipfa unum efEcit afFedum, et e diiUmilibus fi- 


fa L.7 


miiem, omnis ilia quidem naturas fufceptrix 
ct fortunae. Atque haud fcio an ctiam contra- 
riorum appetens fit natura : ex eifquc confona, 
nofi item e fimilibus conficiat. Sic ccrte ipfa 
marem cum fcpmina conjunxit, non etiam cum 
foo horum utrumque fexu. Quin primam 
etiam concordiam per contraria, non per fimi* 
lia devinxit. Adde quod ars naturae smula- 
triz hoc idem faclt. Siquidem pi<ftura^ albo- 
rum nigrorumque colorum, luteorumque ct 
rubrorum naturas inter fe attemperans, effigies 
rerum efiicit confonas exemplaribus. Mufica 
acdtis et gravibus fonis^ longifque et brevibus 
una permixtis in diverfis vocibus unum ex iliis 
concentum abfolutum reddidit. Grammatical 
ex dementis vocalibus et mutis inventa tem- 
peratura artem omnem literaturse ex illis com- 
pofitam reliquit. Hocque nimirum illud ef^ 
quod apud Heraclitum legitur (Scotinum ab 
obfcuritate didhim) crifpa, inquit, et minime 
crifpa uni vinxcris, confentiens et diflentiens, 
confbnans et difibnans, unum etiam ex omni* 
bus, omniaquc e3f uno," 

Z 2 ' 46. O Happinefi ! 


ij,6, O Happinefs ! our being's end and aim ! 

Good, Pleafure, Eafe, Content, whate'cr thy lume •. 

He begins his addrefs to Happinefs after the 
manner of the ancient hymns -f*. by enume- 
rating the titles and various places of abode of 
this goddefs. He has undoubtedly perfonified 
her at the beginning, but he feems to have 
dropped that idea in the feventh line, where 
the deity is fuddenly transformed into a plant ; 
from thence this metaphor of a vegetable is 
carried on diftinftiy through the eleven fuc- 
cecding lines, till he fuddenly returns to con- 
jjdcr Happinefs again as a perfon, in the 
eighteenth line 

And fled from monarctu, St John, dwell* with tbes. 

For to fy and to dwell, cannot juftly be pre- 
dicated of the fame fubje<!t, that immediately 

■ vcr. I. 

t n«{« fur t% tam^K *a.\ ts AKufiatn Ktit^a^t topnafut. Tw 
(i!i jaj A|Ti,ii/ !■ jiv^iar o(ia'., la-^wt Ji iro^tui, in Si warofiia 
K'axa.\ii. Tt;; Ji A^fcJlTi;. (» Knr,;«, Kitfc, It-ji*;, nai «oMl«;(o- 

t.i a>.\aytiit aioKrKAii, Mcuandcr Rhetor, de Hymnis. 



before was defcribcd as twining with laurels, 
and being reaped in harvefts. 

47* When nature ficken'd, and each gale was death *• 

This is a verfe of a marvellous compre- 
henfion and expreffivenefs. The direfiilnefs 
of this peflilence is more emphatically fct forth 
in thefe few words, than in forty fuch odes as 
Sprat's on the plague at Athens -f. 

48* What makes all phyfical or moral ill ? — 

There deviates Nature, and here wanders will §• 

Pope here accounts for the introdudion of 
moral evil from the abufe of man's free wilL 
This is the fcriptural folution of that grand and 
difficult queftion, which in vain hath puzzled 
and bewildered the fpeculatifts of fo many 
ages ; TTo^ey to tcolx^ov. Milton, in one of his 
fmaller and negledled poems, has left us a 
fublime paflage founded on the Chriftian doc- 

• Ver. 108. 

•j* Tat/O or* ftiy tr^f io-^y^eif xai r»ff«faf xa» a|»«/xaTix«- He 
clfewhcre commends a writer, on account of his, wt/xwrvro;, 
xa* <rifA>oTDTo?. Dionyf. HalicamafT. on^i o-i^Of^iw^. t/x. x^. 

5 Ver. III. 



trine of the Fall, and of the preceding har- 
mony of all things. 

That we on earth with undifcording voice 

May rightly anfwer that melodious noife ; 

As once we did, till difproportion'd fin 

Jarr'd againft Nature's chime, and with har(h din 

Broke the fair mufic that all creatures made 

To their great Lord, whofe love their motion fway'd 

In perfeft diapafon, whilft they flood 

In firft obedience, and their ftate of good *. 

^g, ■ A better wou'd you fix ? 

Then give Humility a coach and fix f • 

Worth makes the man, and want of it the fellow i 
The reft is all but leather or prunella §. 

Not one looks backward, onward flill he goes. 
Yet ne'er looks forward further than his nofc J. 

To figh for ribbands if thou art fo filly, 

Mark how they grace Lord Umbra or Sir Billy J. 

In a work of fo ferious and fevere a caft, 
in a work of reafoning, in a work of theology 

• At a Solemn Mufic. vol. ii. pag. 38. 

+ Ver. 17, § Ver. 204, J Ver. 223. 

II Ver. 276, 


I » rii — . ^^ 


defigned to explain the mod interefling fubjedt 
that can employ the mind of man, furely fuch 
ilrokes of levity, of fatire, of ridicule, how- 
ever poignant and witty, are ill placed and 
difgufling, are violations of that propriety 
which Pope in general fo ftricflly obferved. 
Lucretius preferves throughout, the dignity he 
at firft afTumed 9 even his farcafms and irony 
on the fuperftitious, have fomething auguft, 
and a noble haughtinefs in them ; as in parti- 
cular where he afks how it come to pafs that 
Jupiter fometimes ilrikes his own temples 
with his thunderbolts; whether he cm- 
ploys himfelf in cafting them in the deferts 
for the fake of exercifing his arm -, and 
why he hurls them in places where he 
cannot ftrike the guilty. 

Turn fulmina mittat ; et aedcs 

Ssepe fuas difturbet, et in deferta recedcns 
Sxviat, cxcrcens iclum, quod fxpe noccntcs 
Prxterit, exanimatquc indignos, Ir.ouc mcrciUes ^. 

* Lib. ii. vcr. 1 1 co. 


P < -!•• 


He has turned the infult into a magnificent 

50. Heroes are much the fame, the point's agreed 
From Macedonians madman to the Swede *• 

The modern Alexander has been thus cha- 
rafterized by the Britifh Juvenal, in lines as 
nervous and energetic as are to be found in any 
part of our author. 

A frame of adamant, a foul of fire. 
No dangers fright him, and no labours tire ; 
O'er Love, o'er Fear extends his wide domain, 
Unconquer'd Lord of Pleafure and of Pain. 

And afterwards of his unexpeded death* 

Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound ? 

Or hofiile millions prefs him to the ground i 

His fall was deflin'd to a barren flrand, 

A petty fortrefs and a dubious hand ; 

He left a name, at which the world grew pale. 

To point ^ moral, or adorn a tale •. 

51. Self-love but ferves the virtuous mind to wake. 
As the fmall pebble ftirs the peaceful lake f. 

• Dodfley's Mifcellanies, vol. iv. The Vanity of Hunuui 
Wiflies, byMr. Johnfon. f Ver. 363. 



It is obfervable that this iimilitudej origi- 
nally in Shakefpear, hath been ufed twice 
more in the writings of our poet 3 in the Tem- 
ple of Fame in the four hundred and thirty- 
iixth line^ and in the Dunciad at the four 
hundred and fifth. This EiTay is not deco- 
rated with many comparifons ; two however 
ought to be mentioned on account of their 
aptnefs and propriety. The firft is, where he 
compares man to the vine, that gains its 
flrength from the embrace it gives : the fecond 
is conceived with peculiar felicity ; all Nature 
does not perhaps afford fo fit and clofe an ap- 
plication. It is indeed equally new, philofo- 
phical, and poetical. 

On their own axis as the planets run. 
Yet make at once their circle round the fun ; 
So two confident motions * a£f the foul ; 
And one regards itfelf, and one the whole f. 

52. Come then, my Friend ! my Genius ! come along ; 
Oh maftcr of the poet and the fong ! § 

* Should it not be o^tftf//, maSuponf 
t Ep. 3. vcr. 301. § Ven 373. 

Vol. 11. A a In 


In this concluding addrefs of our author to 
Lord Bolingbroke *, one is at a lofs which to 
admire moft, the warmth of his fricndihip or 
the warmth of his genius. Pope indeed ido- 
lized him : when in company with him, he 
appeared with all the deference and fubmiffion 
of an affedionate fcholar. He ufed to fpeak 
of him as a being of a fuperior order, that had 
condefcended to vifit this lower world ; in par- 
ticular, when the laft comet appeared and ap- 
proached near the earth, he told fome of his 
acquaintance, ^^ it was fent only to convey Lord 
Bolingbroke, home again } juft as a ftage- 
coach ftops at your door to take up a paiTen- 
ger." A graceful perfon, a flow of nervous 
eloquence, a vivid imagination, were the lot 
of this accomplifhed nobleman ; but his ambi- 
tious views beine fruftrated in the earlv oart 

* Thofe paflages in Bolingbroke's pofthamoos works, that 
bear the dofeft relemblance to the tenets of this Eflay are the 
following. Vol. iv. o^vo edition, p. 225 & p. 324; p. 94 
of vol. 5; p. 388 of vol. iv. Sc 389; and p. 49 of vol. iv. 
p. ; & 6 of voL V. p. 17 of vol. v. p. 316 of vol. iv. p. 36 of 
vol. V. p. 51 of vol. 5. p. 328 of voliv. and more particidarly 
than all p. 326 of vol. iv. 



of his life> his difappointments embittered his 
temper^ and he feems to have 'f been dif- 
gufted with all religions and all governments. 
I have been informed from an eye-witnefs of 
one of his laft interviews with Pope, who 
was then given over by the phyficians, that Bo- 
lingbroke, (landing behind Pope's chair, looked 
eameftly down upon him, and repeated feveral 
times interrupted with fobs, '* O Great God, 
what is man ! I never knew a perfon that had 
ib tender a heart for his particular friends, or 
a warmer benevolence for all mankind/' It 
it to be hoped that * Bolingbroke profited by 


f His manner of reaibning and philofephifing has been fe 
bappily caught in a piece tndtltd J Fin JtcattM ofNattiraJScdity i 
that many, even acute readers, miftook it for a genuine diA 
cooiie of the author whom it was intended to expoie ; it is in- 
deed a mafter-piece of irony. ^-— No writings that raiied (b 
mighty an expectation in the public as thofe of Bolii|gbroke» 
ever periihed fo ibon and funk into oblivion. 

* It is aflerted on good authority, that BoUngbroke wasac- 
cuftomed to ridicule Pope as not underftanding the drift of his 
own principles in their full extent : It is plain from many of 
our author's letters, vol. ix. p. 324, that he was pleafed to 
find fuch an interpretation could be given to this poem as was 
confiftentwith the fundamental principles of religion. This tJf§ 

A a 2 farther 

thofe remarkable words that Pope fpoke ia 
his laft illnefs to the fame gentleman who 
communicated the foregoing anecdote j ■ — - 
" I am 

fhrdier appears fVom fome carious letters that pafled is the 
year one thoufand feven hundred and forty-two, betweea 
Ramray, Racine the younger, and our author. The ibimer 
addre/Ted a vindication of the principles of the Eflay on Mm 
to Racine, who had charged it with Spinozifm and ifrcUgioo. 
This produced a titter irom Pope to Racitie, which concludes 
with thefe remarkable words. " I declare therefore londlyaad 
wilhthegreatelifiacericy, that my fentitnents are diamettically 
oppotite to thofe of Spinoza, and even of Leibnitz. Theyaia 
in truth perfeftly agreeable to the tenets of Pafcal, and the 
Archbilliop of Cambray : and J Ihall thinit it an honour to 
imitate the moderation and docility of the latter, in alwsys 
fubmitting all my private opinions to the dedfion of the 
church." London, Sep. i. 1747. 

There is a circumflance in die letter of RamJay above* 
mentioned, too remarkable to be omitted; and which perlu^ 
fome may be almoft tempted to doubt the truth of. In a aft 
of fo delicate a nature I chafe to quote the original. " M. le 
Chevalier Newton, grand Geometre Sc nullement M^phyfi- 
cien, ctoit perfoade dc la verite de la Religion : mais il »oii- 
lut raiiner fur d' andennes erreurs Orientales, !e renonyellK 
rAriaalJme par I' organe de Ion fameux dildple Sc intre pret e 
M- Chrke ; qui m' avoua quelque temi avant que de monrir 
aprej plufieurs conferences qucj' avois cues avec loi, combicn 
il fe rcpenloit d' avoir fait imprimer fonOuvraget je Sn 
temoin il y a doaze ans, a Londrcs, des demiers fentintens de 
Cf inodcfte & verteux Dofteur." 

pluvres de Racine, torn. i. p. 233. 


i ' : \ 

AND QEN;US of pope. i8i 

** I am fo certain of the foul's being immortal 
thzt I feem even to feel it within me, as it 
Mrere by intuition." After fuch a declaration, 
3jid after writing fo fervent and elevated a piece 

The manner in which Kamfay explains the doArine of the 
Kflky is u follow*. " Fori is fiv from aflerting that the pre- 
ftnc flate of mania his ^'Mi/>'iwftatei and is confbnnable to 
«tfder. Hia defifn is to (hew that, fiut tie Fail, all is pro- 
]iortioncd with weight, roeafure, and hannony, to the condition 
of a iipadtd being, who fuffers, and who defcrves to fuffer, 
and who cannot be reftored but by fufivringsj that phyfical 
evils are defigned to cure moral evil ; that the paflions and tho 
CTimei of the moll abandoned men arc confined, direfled, and 
gorerned by infinite wifdom, in fnch a manner, as to make 
order emerge out of confufion, light out of darltnefs, and to 
call out innumerable advantages from the tranfitory inconveni- 
ences of this life ; that this fo gradou* Providence condnCls all 
things to its own ends, without ever hurting the liberty of in- 
telligent b«ng;, and without either caufing or approving the 
cSeAs of their deliberate malice ; that All is ardaimii in the 
phylical order, as All \%frit in the moral; that thefe two or- 
ders are coimeAed dofely without fatality, and are notfabjcA 
to that uecelTity uhich renders us virtuous without metit, and 
vicious without crime ; that, we lee at prefent but a fingle 
wheel of the magnificent machine of the univerle ; but a fnull 
link of the great chain ; and but an infignificant pan of that 
immcnfe plan which will one day be unfolded. Then will God 
(idly jullify all the incompreheniible proceedings of his wis- 
dom and goodnefs; and will vindicate himfelf, as Miltoa 
j^>cakt, from the ralh judgment of mortals." 

Lettre De M. I)e Ram&y. 
A PoBtoife le 28 April, 1742. 


of devotion, as the univerlal prayer, would it 
not be injuflice to accufe our author of Uberti- 
nifm and irreligion ? Eipecially, as I am told he 
had iniicrted an addrefs to Jefus Chrifl, in the 
Eflay on Man, which he omitted at the in- 
ftance of BiJhop Berkley, becaufe the ChrilUan 
difpenfation did not come within the compafs 
of his plan. Not that fo pious and worthy a 
prelate could imagine, that this Platonicfchem^ 
of the BEST, fufficiently accounts for the in- 
troduftion of moral and phyiical evil into the 
world } which in truth nothing but revelation 
can explain, and nothing but a future Ibte 
can compenfate *. 

* The Eflay on Ma waa elegantly, bat un&ithfuUyt tranf^ 
lated into French vaft by M. Du Refnel, It wis more aeca- 
rately rendered into French proTe by M. De SUhouete. Which 
tranflation hu been often printed; at Paris 1736 ; at London 
1741, in Qaarto; at the Hagne, 1742. He has Tubjoined 
a defence of the dofirines of the Eflay &om Warbiuton'a Let- 
ters : and has added a traoflation aUb, with a large commen- 
tary, of thefourfucceedingepiftlei of Pope. This is the fame 
M. De Silhouete, who has fince been the famons ControllBr 
Genera] of the Finances ioFrancc. He is well knownisLon- 
don, where he rdided a. coniidcrable timC) attentive to tha 
politics as well at poetry of England, 





Of the Moral Essays in Jive Epistles 

tofeveral perfom. 

THE patrons and admirers of French lite- 
rature, ufuaily extol thofe authors of that 
nation who have treated of life and manaers: 
and five of them particularly are efteemed to be 
unrivalled} namely, Montaigne, Charron, 
RocHFOUCAULT, LaBruyere, and Pascal. 
Thefc arc fuppofed to have penetrated deeply 
into the moft fecret recefTes of the human 
heart, and to have difcovered the various vices 
and vanities that lurk in it. I know not why 
the Englifh fhould in this refpedt yield to their 
polite neighbours, more than in any other. 
Bacon in his Ei&ys, Hobbes in his trea- 
tifes, and Prior in his elegant and witty Alma, 
have (hewn a profound knowledge of man ; 
and many pourtraits of Addifon may be com-- 
pared with the moft finifhed touches of La 
Bruyere. But the Epiftles we are now enter-- 


■^ I ■Mil jtr- 

ing upon will place the matter beyond a dif^ 
pute ', for the French can boaft of no author 
who has fo much cxhaufted the fcience of mo- 
rals, as Pope has in thefe five Epiftles. They 
indeed contain all that is folid and valuable ia 
the above-mentioned French writers, of whom 
our author was remarkably fond : But what- 
ever obfervations he has borrowed from them, 
he has made his own by the dexterity of his 

z. Men may be read, as well as books, too much *• 

" Study life ;" cry the lettered men of the 
world: but that world cannot be known merelv 


by that ftudy alone. The dread of pedantry^^- 
a charafteriftic folly of the prefent age. We 
adopted it from the French, without confider- 
ing the reafons that give rife to it among that 
people: the religious, and particularly the 
Jefuits, perceiving that a tafte for learning be- 
gan widely to diffufe itfelf among the laity, 
could find no furer method of reprefling it; 

* Ep. I. verrio. 


ri ^^1 j-»^B^Mi^^^^i^l^w.^^a*"g^^ ■ -atisi^i^BHH^^BaiA r^— ^ a j.»j« .j 


than by treating the learned chara£ter as ridi- 
culous. This ridicule was carried (o far, that, 
to mention one inftance out of ten thoufand, 
the publifher of Rouchfoucault's maxims 
makes a grave apology in form^ for quoting 
Seneca in Latin. 

2. At half mankind^ when g^'rous Manly raves. 
All know 'tis virtue, for he thinks them knaves *• 

The character alluded to is the principal 
one the Plain Dealer of Wycherly, a comedy 
taken from the Mifanthrope of Moliere, but 
much inferior to the original. Alcefles has 
not that bitternefs of fpirit, and has much 
more humanity and honour than Manly. 
Writers transfiife their own charafters into 
their works : Wycherly was a vain and pro* 
fiigate libertine ; Molicre was beloved for his 
candour, fweetnefs of temper and integrity. 
It is remarkable that the French did not relifli 
this incomparable comedy for the three firft 
rcprcfentations. The flrokes of its fatire were 

• Ver. 57. 

Vol. IL B b too 


too delicate to be felt by the generality of the 
audience, who expedted only the grofs diver- 
lion of laughing j fo that at the fourth time 
of its being adted, the autlior was forced to 
add to it one of his coarfeft farces j but Boileau 
in the mean time affirmed that it was the capital 
work of their ftage, and that the people would 
one time be induced to think fo. 

3. Unthought- of frailties cheat us in the wife f • 

For who could imagine that Locke was 
fond of romances ; that Newton once fludied 
aftrology; that Dr. Clarke valued himfelf 
for his agility, and frequently amufed himfelf 
in a private room of his houfc in leaping over 
the tables and chairs : and that our author 
himfelf was a great epicure ? When he fpcnt 
a fummer with a certain nobleman, he was 
accuftomed to lie whole days in bed on ac- 
count of his head-achs, but would at any time 
rife with alacrity, when his fervant informed 
him there were llewed lampreys for dinner. 

t Ver. eq. 



On the evening of an important battle, the 
Duke of Marlborough was heard chiding 
his fervant for having been fo extravagant as 
to light four candles in his tent, when Prince 
Eugene came to confer with him. Eliza- 
beth was a coquet, and Bacon received a 
bribe. Dr. Busby had a violent paflion for 
the ftage ; it was excited in him by the ap- 
plaufes he received in adling the Royal Slave 
before the King at Chrift- Church ; and he 
declared, that if the rebellion had not broke 
out, he had certainly engaged himfelf as an 
aiftor. Luther was fo immoderately pafli- 
onate, that he fometimes boxed Melanc- 
thon's ears; and Melancthon himfelf was 
a believer in judicial aftrology, and an inter- 
preter of dreams. Richlieu and Mazarin 
were fo fuperftitious as to employ and penfion 
Morin, a pretender to allrology, who caft 
the nativities of thefe two able politicians. 
Nor was Tacitus himfelf, who generally ap- 
pears fuperior to fuperftition, untainted with 
this folly, as may appear from the twenty- 

B b 2 fecond 


fecond chapter of the fixth book of his annals* 
Men of great genius have been fomewhere 
compared to the pillar of fire that conduded 
the Ifraelites, which frequently turned a cloudy 
fide towards the fpedlator. 

4. See the fame man, in vigour, in the gout ; 
Alone, in company, in place, or out ; 
Early at bufinefs, and at hazard late ; 
Mad at a fox-chafe, wife at a debate ; 
Drunk at a borough, civil at a ball ; 
Friendly at Hackney, faithlefs at Whitehall ♦. 

The unexpected inequalities of our minds 
and tempers are here exhibited in a lively 
manner, and with a perfedl knowledge of na- 
ture. I cannot forbear placing before the 
reader TuUy's pourtrait of Cataline, whofe in- 
confiflencies and varieties of conduct are thus 
enumerated : " Utebatur hominibus improbis 
multis, et quidem optimis fe viris deditum eife 
fimulabat ; erant apud ilium iilecebrae libidi- 
num multce: erant etiam induflrias quidam 
ftimuli ac laboris; fiagrabant libidinis vitia apud 

• Vcr. 71. 

ilium : 


Uum: vigebant etiam ftudia rei militaris: 
leque ego unquam fuiiTe tale monftram in 
erris uUum puto, tarn ex contrariis divcrfif-- 
;[ue inter fe pugnantibus naturae ffatdiis^ cupi« 
Utatibus conflatum. Quis clarioribus viris 
j[uodam tempore jucundior ? Quis turpioribus 
XHijundlior ? Quis civis meliorum partium 
diquando? Quis tetrior hoflis huic civitati? 
[^is in voluptatibus inqumatior ? Quis in la- 
boribus patientior ? Quis in rapacitate avarior ? 
(^uis in largitione efFufior ? * " 

5. What made, fay Montagne, or more fagc Charron f • 

One of the rcafons that makes Montagne 
fb agreeable a writer is, that he gives fo ftrong 
I pidure of the way of life of a country gen- 
tleman in the reign of Henry the third. The 
defcriptions of his caftle, of his library, of his 
travels, of his entertainments, of his diet and 
drefs, are particularly pleafing. Malebranch 
and Pafcal have feverely and juftly cenfured 
his fcepticifm. Peter Charron contracted a 

• Orat. pro M. Caelio. Scft. j. t Ver. Sj: 



very ftridt friendfliip with him, infomuch that 
Montagne permitted him by his will to bear 
his arms : in his book of Wifdom which is 
publifhed at Bourdeaux in the year one thou- 
fand fix hundred and one, he has inferted a 
great number of Montague's fentiments ; this 
treatife has been loudly blamed by many wri* 
ters of France, and particularly Garasse the 
Jefuit. Our Stanhope, an orthodox Divine, 
tranflated it. Bayle has remarked in oppo- 
fition to thefe cenfurers, that of a hundred 
thoufand readers, there are hardly three to be 
found in any age, who are well qualified to 
judge of a book, wherein the ideas of an exadt 
and metaphyfical reafoning are fet in oppofition 
to the moft common opinions. Pope has bor- 
rowed many remarks from Charron. 

6. A godlefs regent tremble at a fiar *• 

The duke of Orleans here pointed at, was 
an infidel and libertine, and at the fame time, 
as well as Boulanvilliers, was a bigotted 

• Ver. 90. 



believer in judicial aftrology ; he is the author 
of many of thofe flimfy fongs, nugae ca- 
nors^ to which the language and the manners 
of France feem to be peculiarly adapted. He 
knew mankind. *^ Quiconque eft fans honeur 
& fans humeur, faid he frequently^ eft un 
courtiian parfaite/' Crebillon the father, dur- 
ing this regent's adminiftration, wrote a fct of 
odes againft him of wonderful energy and 
keennefs, and almoft in the fpirit of Alceus ; 
if it be not a kind of profanation to fpeak thus, 
of any produdtion of a poet that writes under 
a defpotic government. 

7. Alas in truth the man but changM his mind 
Perhaps was fick, in love, or had not din'd *• 

For the deftrudion of a kingdom, faid a 
man of wit, nothing more is fometimes requi- 
lite than a bad digeftion of the prime minifter. 

8. Judge we by nature ? Habit can eflPace, 
Intereft o'ercome, or policy take place : 
By anions ? thofe uncertainty divides : 
By paffions ? thefe diiEmulation hides ; 

• Vcr. 1274 

Opinions ? 


Opinions ? they ftill take a wider range : 
Find if you can in what you cannot change. 
Manners with fortunes, humours turn with climes. 
Tenets with books, and principles with times f • 

We find here in the compafs of eight lines, 
an adatomy of human nature ; more fenfe and 
obfervation cannot well be compreiTed and 
concluded in a narrower fpace. This pafikge 
might be drawn out into a voluminous comn 
mentary, and be worked up into a fyftem con- 
cerning the knowledge of the world : There 
feems to be an inaccuracy in the ufe of the 
lafl: verb ; the natural temperament is by no 
means fuddenly changed, or turned with a 
change of climate, though undoubtedly the 
humours are. originally formed by it : influenced 
byy would be a more proper expreffion than 
turn with, if the metre would admit it. 

9. His paflion ftill, to covet gen'ral praife. 
His life, to forfeit it a thoufand ways ; 
A conftant bounty which no friend has made ;J 
An angel tongue which no man can pcrfuade; 

t Ver. 182. 




A fool With more of wit than half mankind. 
Too ra(h for thought, for a^on too refin'd : 
A tyrant to the wife his heart approves ; 
A rebel to the very king he loves ; 
He dies an out-caft of each church and ilate> 
And harder ftill flagitious yet not great *. 

This charadler of the Duke of Wharton is 
finifhed with much force and expreflivenefs ; 
the contradldions that were in it are flrongly 
contrafted. In an entertaining work lately 
publifhed^ which it is hoped will diffufe a re- 
li(h for biography^ we have a remarkable 
anecdote relating to this nobleman's fpeech in 
£ivour of the bifhop of Rochefter. His Grace, 
then in oppofition to Courts went to Chclfea 
the day before the laft debate on that prelate's 
afikir, where ading contrition, he profefled 
being determined to work out Jiis pardon at 
Court by fpeaking againfl: the bifhop, in order 
to which he begged fome hints. The minifter 
was deceived, and went through the whole 
caufe with him, pointing out where the 

• Vcr. 205. 

Vol. II. C c ftrength 


ftrength of the argument lay, and "where it's 
weaknefs. The Duke was very thankful, re- 
turned to town, paffed the night in drinking 
and without going to bed, went to the Houfe 
of Lords, where he fpoke for the bifbop, re- 
capitulating in the mod: maflerly manner, and 
anfwering all that had been urged againft him*. 

20. When Cacaline by rapine fwell'd hb ftore ; 
When Cxfar made a noble dame a whore ; 
In this the luft, in that the avarice 
Were means, not ends ; ambition was the vice f. 

The fame paflion excited Richlieuto d^row 
up the dyke at Rochelle, and to difpute the 
prize of poetry with Corneille j whom to tra- 
duce was the fureft method of gaining the 
afFe&ion of this ambitious minifter, who 
afpired equally to excel in all things; nay, 
who formed a deiign to be canonized as a iaint. 

J I. LucuUus, when frugality could charm. 
Had roafted turnips in the Sabin farm %. 

* Catalogue of the Royal and Noble Authors of England, 
vol.ii. p. 133. 

+ Ver. 214. t Vcr. 218, 



Few writers of his country have difplayed 
a greater energy of ientimient than Crebillon * ; 
in his Cataline we have a noble one that may 
itluftrate this dodrine of Pope ; ^< If, fays this 
fierce and inflexible confpirator, I had only 
Lentulus's of my party, and if it was filled 
only with men of virtue, I fhould eafily afTome 
that charaS^r alfo^ and be more virtuous than 
any of them." 

£c s' il n' etoit rempli que d' hommes vertueiix, 
Je n* aurois pas de peine a Y £tre encor plus qu' eux. 

12. In this one paf&on man can ftrength enjoy» 
As fits give vigour, juft when they deftroy §• 

The ftjength and continuance of what our 
author calls the ruling paflion, is finely ex- 
emplified in RIGHT charaders) namely^ the 

* The creditors of Crebillon would have flopped the profits 
of this tragedy, but the fpirited old bard appealed to the king 
in councily and procured an honourable decree in his finrour^ 
fettingforthy that works of genius (hould not be deemed ESs&» 
that weve capable of being feized. This writer's works were 
lately printed in a magnifiotat manner at the Louvre, in two . 
Yoliunes, quarto. 

§ Ven 22. 

C C 2 POLI- 


Politician: the Debauchee, the Glut- 
ton, the Oeconomist, the Coquet, the 
Courtier, the Miser, and the Patriot. 
Of thefe charadlers, the moft lively, becaufe 
the moft dramatic, are the fifth and fcventh. 
There is true humour alfo in the circumftance 
of the frugal crone who blows out one of the 
confecrated tapers in order to prevent it's 
wafting. Shall I venture to infert another 
example or two ? An old ufurer lying in his 
laft agonies was prefented by the prieft with 
the crucifix. He opened his eyes a moment 
before he expired, attentively gazed on it, and 
cried out, " Thefe jewels are counterfeit, I can- 
not lend more than ten piftoles upon fo 
wretched a pledge/' To reform the language 
of his country was the ruling pafiion of MaU 
herbe. The prieft who attended him in his 
laft moments, aiked him if he was not af- 
fected with the defcription he gave him of the 
joys of heaven ? By no means anfwered the 
. incorrigible bard, I defire to hear no more of 
them, if you cannot defcribe them in a purer 


— ■ -it- 


ftylc. Both thefe ftorics would havt fhone 
under the hands of Pope. 

This doftrine of our author may be ferther 
illuftrated by the following paflagc of Bacon. 
** It is no lefs worthy to obfervc, how litdc 
alteration, in good fpirits, the approaches of 
death make ; for they appear to be the famcf 
men, till the laft inftant. Auguftus Csfar 
died in a compliment ; Livia, conjugii noftri 
memor, vive et vale. Tiberius in diflimula- 
tion ; as Tacitus faith of him : Jam Tiberium 
vires et corpus, non diffimulatio defercbant. 
Vefpalian, in a jeft, fitting upon the ftool, Ut 
puto Deus fio. Galba with a fcntence j Fcri, 
a ex re fit populi Romani ; holding forth hi$ 
neck. Septimius Severus, in difpatchj Ad* 
defir, fi quid mihi reftat agendum ♦/' 

This epiftle concludes with a ftroke of art 
worthy admiration. The poet fuddenly flops 
the vein of ridicule with which he was flowing, 

* Bacon's Eflays. Eflayii. 



and addreffes his friend in a mod: delicate 
compliment, concealed under the appearance 
of fatire. 

And you ! brave Cobham to the lateft breath 
Shan feel your ruling paiEon ftrong in death : 
Such in thofe moments as in all the paft, 
^ Oh ikve my country, heav'n, (hall be your lift*** 

13. Narcifla's nature, tolerably mild. 

To make a wafh, would hardly ftew a child ; 
Has ef 'n been prov*d to grant a lover's pray*r ; 
And paid a tradefman once to make him flare; 
Gave alms at Eafter, tn a Chriftian trim. 
And made a widovr happy for a whim *• 

The epiftle on the charadters of womqn, 
from whence this truly witty character is taken, 
is highly finifhed, and full of the moft deli- 
cate fatire. Bolingbroke, a judge of the fub- 
jedt, thought it the mailer-piece of Pope, 
Flea£mtry reigns throughout it ; and the bit- 
ternefs of the fatire is concealed in a laugh. 
The charaders are lively, though unconunon. 
I fcarcely remember one of them in our comic 

• Epift. 2. V. 53. 



Writers of the bell order. The ridicule is 
heightened by many fuch ftrokes of humour, 
carried even to the borders of extrav^uj-dncc, 
as that in the fecond line, here quoted. The 
female; foibles have been the fubjcd: of per- 
haps more wit, in erery language, than any 
other topic that can be named. The iixth 
fatire of Juvenal, though deteftable for its ob*- 
fcenity, is undoubtedly the moft witty of all 
his fixteen. Pol>£ confines himfelf t6 paint 
thofe inconiiftencies oi condudt, to whicn a 
volatile fancy is thought to incline the fex. 
And this he exemplifies in the contrarieties 
that can be difcovered ifi the characters of 
the Affected, the Soft-na'^ured, £he 
^ Whimsical, the Lewd and Vicious^ 
the Witty and Refineb. In this com- 
prehenfive view is perhaps included each 
fpecies of female folly and abfiirdityy which 
18 the proper objedt of ridicule* If this 
Bpiftle yields, in any refped, to the tenth 
iatire of Boileau on the fame fubjed, it is iit 
the delicacy and variety of th^ tranfitions, 
by which the French writer ^palTes from 01^ 

C c 4 ^^ 


charaiSer to another, conneding each with 
the foregoing. It was a common faying of 
Boileau, fpeaking of Bruyere, that one of 
the mod: difficult parts of compoiition, was 
the art of tranfition. That we may fee how 
happily Pope has caught the manner of 
Boileau, let us furvey one of his pourtraits : 
it (hall be that of his learned lady. 

Qqi s'ofFrira d'abord ? c'eft cette Scavante, 
Qu'eftime Roberval, & que Sauveur frequente. 
D'ou vient qu'ellc a rceil trouble, & le teint fi terni f 
C'eft que fur le calcal, dit-on, de Caflini, 
Un Aflrolabe en main, clle a dans fa goutiere 
J^iiuMP^ Jupiter pafle la nuit entiere : 
Gardens de la troubler. Sa fcience, fe croy. 
Aura par s'occuper ce jour plus d^'un employ. 
D'un nouveau microfcope ou doit en fa pr^fenc?- 
Tantoft chez Dalance faire Texperience ; . 
Puis d'une femme morte avec Ton cmbr}X>n, 
II faut chez Du Vernay voir la difledtion.* 

* Which laft line is a little groft and offenfiye: as it 
invft ht confefled are feme of Pope. There it not i fiagle 
ftroke of this fort in Young's Satires on Women. I mih the de- 
licacy and refervednefs of four or five Ladies now living, who 
have real learning and tafte, would permit me to infert their 
Dwnes in this place, at a counterpart to thia afie&ed ch«nc« 

Ccr in Boileau. 3 



t4« No thought advances, but her eddy brain 
Whifks it about, and down It goes again. 
Full fixty years the world has been her trade, 


The wifeft fool much time has ever made. 
From lovelefs youth to unrefpefted age^ 
No paffion gratify'd, except her rage; 
&o much the fury ftill outran the Wit, 
The pleafure mifs'd her^ and the fcandal hit *• 
._ • » 

These fpiritcd lines are part of a cha- 
radler defigned for the famous Dutchefs of 
Marlborough; whom Swift had alfo fc** 
vef cly fatirized in the Examiner. Her beau- 
ty, her abilities, her political intrigues, are 
Xufficiently known ^f. The violence of her 
temper frequently broke out into wonderful 


• V, la;. Ep. 2. 

f See the account of her own condu6!« drawn up under > 
her own eye and diredion, by Mr. Hooki» author of tho 
Roman Hiftory^ of the life of Fenelon, and of the traiif- 
lation of the travels of Cyrus. Dr. Kino^ of St. Mary 
Hall in Oxford, informed me, that this tranflation was 
made at Dr. Cheyne's houfe at Bath, and that he himfelf 
liad often been Hobke's Amanuenfis on this occaiion, who 
diAated his tranflation to him with uncommon facility and 
y;^pidity. The Dutchefs rewarded Hooke with 5,000/. for 
lua trouble ; but quarrelled with him afterwards, beca^fe. 

Vol. II. D d *• 


and ridicnlous indecencies. In the luft ij 
nefs of the great Duke her huft>and, vh 
Dr. Mead left his chamber, the Dutche 
diiliking his advice* followed him dot 
flairs, Jivore at htm bitterly, and was goi 
to tear off his perriwig. - Dr. Hoadly, t 
late bilhop of Winchefter, was prefent at tl 
fcene. Thefe lines were ihewn to her Gn 
as if they were intended for the portrait 
the Dutchefs of Buckingham, but fhe fc 
ilopped the pci Ton that was reading them 
her, and called out aloud—** I cannot 
" fo impofed upon— I fee plainly enoc 
'* for whom they are defigned j" and abu 
Pope moft plentifully on thcfubjeft; t 
ihe was afterwards reconciled to, and cour 
him. This charader, together with th 
of Philomede and Cloe, were firft pi 

u {he aflirroed, he attem p ted to comen htr to ^p 
Hooke wat a Myftic, and a QjiietiA, and a warni difci^ 
Pcnelon. It was he who brought a Catholic prieft to i 
our author'* confcffion on hii death-bed. The prieft 
Icarce departed, when Bolingbroke, coming over I 
Bancrrca, flew into a great £t of paSon snd indi^atiot 
the occafion. 


'■-jr- „fmmmamm 



liflied in this edition of Pope. They are 
all animated with the moil poignant wit. 
That df Cloe is particularly juft and happy, 
who is reprefented as content merely and 
only to di»ell in decencies^ and fatisfied to 
avoid giving offence; and is one of thofe 
many iniignificant and ufelefs beings. 

Who wsiRt, as thro' blank life they dream along, 
Scnfe to be right, and paffion to be wrong s 

as fays the ingenious author of the t/»/- 
^erjal Fajfion ; a work that abounds in wit, 
obfcrvation on life, pleafantry, delicacy, ur- 
banity, and the moft well-bred raillery, 
without a fingle mark of fpleen and ill- 
nature. Thefe were the firft cbaraSieriJiical 
^tires in our language, and are written with 
an eafe and familiarity of ftyle, very dif.- 
fcrent from this author's other works. The 
four firft were publiflied in folio, in the year 
J 72 5; ♦ and the fifth and fijfth, incom- 

* In thefe, the chara£^ers of Clarindat of Zsntippi the 
Vff&ff lady, Dilia the chariot-driver, of hUft$r Betty the 

P d :{ hun^reft. 

parably the beft, on the charaaers of women, 
in the year 1727, that is, eight years bcr 
fore this cpillle of Pope. Dr. Ypung was 
one of the moH amiable and benevolent of 
men ; mofl: exxmplary in his life^ anil lincer^ 
in his religion * ; nobody ever faid more 

huntrefs, of Daphat the critic, of Lemira the &ck liAj, 
the f«m>le PbiUfifhtr, the Tbtahiifi, of the. Umpdi lady, 
oi Ti/altftrh thf /wtarir, of l.jci the old bcaatjp, of £it4t(SM, 
of a njmfl) of/firit, of Jalia the manager, of jflid* the 
/04//JI, of Clio the fimdirer, of the affcHtd Afiu"'% of *^ 
female Aihtift, and of ihe female Gamifitr; are til oftttem 
drawn with truth and fpirit. And the iniroduClioai to 
thefe two fatirei, particularly the addrefs to the iocompan- 
blc Lad; Betty Germain, are as elegant as any thingin oar 
language. After reading thefe pieces, one ii U a loft tq 
know what M-. Pope could mean by faying, that thg* 
Yaung Wis a man of genius, yet that tt waxlii etmmoM 


* Mr. Walter Harte aflured tne, he had leen thepreffiag 
letter that Dr. Young wrote to Mr. Pope, urging him to 
write fomcching on the fide of Revelation, in order to take 
elf the imprelSons of ihofe dodrines which the Eflay on 
Man were fuppofed to convey. He alluded to thii ia tb^ 
conclufion of his lirft Night-thought. 

O had he prefs'd bb theme, purfu'd the track 

Which opens nut of darknefs into day ! 

O had he moanted on his wing of fire, 

Soar'd where I fink, and fung immtrtel mnn ! 



br^liant things in converfation. The late 
Lord Mel COMBE informed me, that wheii 
he and Voltaire were on a vilit to his Lord- 
ihip at Eaftbury, the Englifh poet was far 
fuperior to the French, in the variety and the 
fiovelty of his bon mots and repartees j and 
Lord Melcombe was himfelf a good judge 
of wit and humqur, of which he himfelf 
had a great portion. If the friend (hip wkh 
which Dr. Young honoured me does not 
miflead me, I think I may venture to affirm, 
that many high ftrokes of charafter in his 
Zanga ; many fentiments and images in his 
Nigbt^t bought s ; and many ftrong and forci- 
ble defcriptions in his paraphrafe on yob^ 
mark him for a fublime and original genius. 
Tho' at the fame time I am ready to con-* 
fefs> that he is not a * correct and equal 


* So little fenfible are we of our own ifflperfe^oni, that the 
▼cry laft time I faw Dr. Yonng, he was feverely cenforing 
and ridiculing the falfe pomp of fullian writers, and the 
naufeoufnefs of hombaft. I remember he faid, that foch 
lorrents of eloquence were muddy as well as m9i^ ; and 
that thefe 'vi^Umt and tumultuous authors^ put him in mind 
^ a ptfiag^ in Milton, B. 2. t. 539. 
* ' Others, 


writer, and was too often turgid and hy- 

15* See boir the world its veterans rewards, 
A youth of frolics, an old age of cards ; 
Fair to no purpofe, artful to no end. 
Young without lovers, old without a friend i 
A fop their paffion, but their prize a fot. 
Alive, ridiculous } and dead, forgot *• 

The antithefis, fo remarkably ftrong ia 
thefe lines, was a very favourite figure with 
our poet: he has indeed ufed it but in too many 
parts of his works ; nay, even in his traiif- 
Jation of the Iliad -j- ; where it ought not to 


Others, with vaft Typhaean rage more fell. 
Rend up both rocks and hills, and ride the air 
. In whirlwind* Hell fcarce holds the wild uproar, 

• V. *43. 

f Voltaire fpeaks thus of La Motte : (b fafhionable « 
critic may, perhaps, be attended to.— Au-lieu d*&haaflfer 
fim genie en tachant de copier les fublimes pelnturet 
d'Momere, il voulut loi donner de I'efprit ; c'eft la Maaie 
de la purpart des Fnin9ois ; une efpece de pointe qa'ila 
. appellchc ub trait, une petite antithefe, on l^ger contraCe 
4e mots leur foffit*—- The following lines are iuitances : 



have been admitted. Our author feldom writes 
many lines together without an antithefis. 
It muft be allowed fometimes to add flrength 
to a fentiment^ by an oppofition of images ; 
buty too frequently repeated^ it becomes tire^ 
fome, md difgufUng. Rhyme has almoft 
a natural tendency to betray a writer into 
it. But. the pureft authors have defpifed it, 
as an ornament pert^ and puerile, and epi- 
gnunmatic. Seneca, Pliny, Tacitus, and 
later authors, abound in it. Quintilian has 
fometimes ufed it, with much fuccefs ; as 

On oBemCe kt diemc, nals par det facrifices 
De ces dienx irrit& on fait dcs dicQZ propicet. 

And again— 

Tont fo camp s'ecria dans nne joie extrfme, 

Qge ne vaincra-t*il poiBt» il a'eft vaiactt lui oienit. 

I aiaft oaly jaft add^ that La Mottc, in all the famona diil 
pote about the ancients, never faid a thing fo ill-founded^ 
and fo void of taf^e, as tlie fellowing words of the fane 
Volture: " Homere n' a jamais £ut repandre de plenrs." 
AffiBus quidem vel illos mitu vel hos c9Mcitmi§j, nemo eiit 
tMm tMM^But qui non in fui poteftate hnnc auAorem habnife 
fnteatur. Quintilian, lib. lo. cap. !• Had Voltaire efcr 
read Quintilian f or rather, had he eter read Homer'— in 
the original ^ 


■i^ ■« «U ' 


when he ipeaks of ilyle -, magna, non ni«' 
mia ; fublimisy non abrupta ; fevera non 
triftis ; Ixtz., non luxuriofa ; plena, non tu- 
mida. And fometimes Tully ; as, vicit pu- 
dorem libido, timorem audacia, rationem 
amentia. But thele writers fall into this 
mode of fpeaking but feldom, and do not 
make it their conjiant and general manner. 
Thofe moderns w!-o have not acquired^ 
a true tafte for the fimplicity of the beft 
ancients, have generally run into a frequent 
ufe of points oppofition^ and contraji. 

They who begin to ftudy painting, arc 
ilruck at firft with the pieces of the mofl: 
vivid colouring ; they are almoft afhamed to 
own, that they do not relifti and feel the 
modefl and referved beauties of Raphael. 
'Tis the fame in writing ; but, by degrees, 
wc find that Lucan, Martial, Juvenal, Q^ 
Curtius, and Florus, and others of that 
ftamp, who abound in figures that contri- 
bute to the falfe florid, in luxuriant meta* 
2 phorst 

k*<»« ^—^ • 


phors, in pointed conceits, in lively ant i- 
thefeSy unexpectedly darted forth, are con- 
temptible for the very caufes which once 
excited our admiration. 'Tis then we re- 
lifli Terence, Caefar, and Xenophon, 

16. Kept drofs for DuchefTcs, the world Jhall know itj 
To you gave fenfc, good-huaiour, and a poet*. 

TJbe world Jhall know it — is a bad cxpref- 
fion, and a poor expletive, into v/hich our 
poet was forced by ( !ic rhyme -l^. 

Maudit foit le premier^ dont I.i verve infcnfcc, 
Dans les borius d' un vers rcnfcrma {jl penfce, 
Et donnant a fcs mots unectroitc piilbn, 
Voulut avcc la rime enchaincr !a raifon J. 

Rhyme alfo could alone be the occafion 

• V. 291. 

t La Rime gene plis qu'elle n' ome les yen, Elle 
les charge d'Epithetes ; elles rend fouvent la didion forcee, 
& pleine d' une vaine parure. En allonganc les difcours, 
die les affoiblic. Souvent on a rccours a un vers inutile ; 
ponr en amener un bon. Fenblon to M. Db la Mottb« 
I^tires, p. 62. A Cambray, 26 Janvier 17 19. 

t Boileau. Sat. z. v. 53. 

Vol. II. E c of 

t lL " .; ^ . ' 


of the following faulty cxpreflions ; taken 
too from fome of his moft finifhed pieces. 

Not Cafar's Emprcfs would / deign to provi-^ 
If Quecnberry to ftrip thiris no comptlUng'^ 
Wrapt into future times the bard begun-^ 
Know all the noife the bufy world can kap^^ 
If true, a woful likenefs, and if lygs-^ 
Nothing fo true as what you once letfall-^ 
For virtue's felf may too much zeal be had-^ 

' ■■ ■ can no want: endure-^ 
VsLj half in heav*n except whafs mighty odd'^ 

■ ■ ■ liftening cars employ--* 

■ on fuch a world wefall-^ 

■ ■ ' ■ take fcandal at afpark-^ 

— do the knacky and —do thefeat.^^ 

And more inftances might be added, if 


it were not difagreeable to obferve thefe 
ftraws in amber. But if rhyme occaiions 
fuch inconveniences and improprieties in 
fo exaft a writer as our author, what can be 
cxpe(3:ed from * inferior verfifiers ? It is not 


* Our author told Mr. Harte, that, in order to difgoife 
his being the author of the fecond epiftle of the Eflay on 



ttiy intention to enter into a trite and tedious 
difcuffion of the feveral merits of rhyme 
and blank verfe. Perhaps rhyme may be 
propereft for (horter pieces 5 for didadtic^ 
lyric, elegiac, and iatiric poems ; for pieces 
Inhere clofenefs of expreflion, and fmartnefs 
of ftyle, are expedted ; but for fubjedts of a 
higher order, or for poems of a greater 
length, blank verfe may be preferable. An 
epic poem in rhyme appears to be fuch a 
fort of thing, as the iEneid would have 
been if it had been written, like Ovid's 
Fafti, in hexameter and pentameter verfes ; 
and the reading it would have been as te- 
dious as the travelling through that one, 

Man, he made, in the firft edition^ the following bad 
rhyme : 

A cheat ! a whore ! who (tarts r.^-t at the name. 
In all the inns of court, or Drury Lane * ^ 

And Hartb remembered to have often heard It arged, 
in enquiries abont the author, whilA h;: was unknown, that 
it was impoffible it could be Popt's, on account of this very 

• V. 20f, 

£ e 2 long. 


long, flrait, avenue of firs, that leads from 
Mofcow to Peterjburg. I will give the 
reader Mr. Pope's own opinion on this fub- 
jeft, and in his own words, as delivered to 
Mr. Spence. ** I have nothing to fay for 
" * rhyme \ but that I doubt if a poem 
" can fupport itfelf without it in our lan- 
** guage, unlefs it be ftiiFened with fuch 

* BoileaUy whofe pra£lice it was to make the fecond line 
of a couplet before the firfl, having writcen (in his fecond 
fatire) this line, 

Dans mes vers recoufus mettre en pieces Malherbc, 

it was thought impoflible by La Fontaine and Moliere; 
and other critical friends, for him to find a proper rhyme 
for the word Malherbc : at laft he hit upon the following ; 
£t tranfpofant cent fois & le nom ^ le verbc. 

Upgn (hewing which line to La Fontaine, he cried out — 
" Ah 1 how happy have you been, my friend ! I would 
'* give the very be ft of all my Tales to have made fuch 
'* a difrovery." So iraporiant in the eyes of French poets 
is a lucky rhyme! The reader may judge what credit is 
due CO the following anecdote of Voltaire. Quefiions fur 
PEccycloped Partic 5, 255 page. Jc me fouviendrai tou- 
jours que je demandai au ccicbre Pope, pourquoi Miltoa 
n'avait pas rime Ton Paradis perdu ; <n. qu'ii me repondit, 

Bccauft he could not ; parcc qu'il ne le pouvait pas. But 

the moft harmonioui of rhymers has laid — ** What rhyme 
'' adds to fweetnefs, it takes away from fenfe.'' Dryden, 

*' ftrange 


'* ftrange words, as are likely to dcftroy our 
'* language itfelf. The high ftyle that is 
•* afFedted fo much in blank verfe, would 
** not have been fupported even in Milton, 
•• had not his fubjedt turned fo much on 
'• fiich Jirange and out of the world things 
'* as it does."— May we not, however, ven- 
ture to obferve, that more of that true har- 
mony which will htHfupport a poem, will 
refult from a variety of paufes, and from 
jvn intermixture of thofe differenty^^/ (iam- 
bic and trochaic particularly) into which 
our language naturally falls, than from the 
uniformity of Jimi/ar terminations. ** T^here 
** can be no mujic,'' fays Cowley, " with 
" only one note.'' 

17. Bleft paper-credit! laft and beft fupply ! 
That lends corruption lighter wings to fly ! 
Gold, imp'd by thee, can compafs hardeft things. 
Can pocket States, can fetch or carry Kings ; 
A fingle leaf fliall waft an army o'er. 

Or {hip off Senates to a diftant (hore^ 

A leaf. 


A leaf, like Sibyls', fcatter to and fro 
Our hits and fortunes, as the winds (hall blow i 
Pregnant with thoufands * flits the fcrap unfeen^ 
And filent fells a King, or buys a Queen f. 

** Not one of my works" (faid Pope to 
Mr. Spence) " was more laboured than my 
•* epiftle on the Ufe of Riches.'* It does 
indeed abound in knowledge of life, and in 
the jufteft fatire. The lines above quoted 
have alfo the additional merit of touching 
on a fubjedt that never occurred to former 
fatirifts. And tho' it was difficult to fay 
any thing new about avarice, " a, vice that 
'* has been fo pelted" (fays Cowley) '* with 
•* good fentences," yet has our author done 
it fo fuccefsfully, that this epiftle, together 
with Lord Bacon's thirty- third EJay, con- 
tains almoft all that can be faid on the ufe 
and abufe of riches, and the abfurd ex- 
tremes of avarice and profufion. But our 

^ The word ^/Vi heightens the fatire, by giving one tho 
ftrong idea of an obfccne and ill-omened bird. 

t Of the ufe of Riches^ v. 39* 

2 poet 


poet has enlivened his precepts with fo ma- 
ny various charafters, pictures, and images, 
as may entitle him to claim the preference 
over all that have treated on this tempting 
fubjed:, down from the time of the Plutua 
of Ariftophanes. That very lively and ami- 
able old nobleman, the late Lord Ba- 
THURST, told me, ** that he was much fur-^ 
*' prized to fee what he had with repeated 
** pleafure io often read as an epi/i/e addreffed 
** to himfelf, in this edition converted into 
** a dialogue i in which," faid he, ** I per- 
** ceive I really make but a (habby and in- 
'* different figure, and contribute very little 
*• to the fpirit of the Jia/ogue, if it mufi be a 
** dialogue ; and I hope I had generally more 
*^ to fay for myfelf in the many charming 
** converfations I ufed to hold with Pope 
f* and Swift, and my old poetical friends." 

l8. A Statefman's flumbers how this fpeech could fpoilj 
*' Sir, Spain has fcnt a thoufaiid jars of oil ; 
^' Huge bales of Britifh cloth blockade the door \ 
*• A hundred oxen at your levee roar *." 

• V. 55. 


.-LKl-l .-5" 


Nothing can exceed this ridicule of the 
many inconveniences that would have en^ 
cumbered villainy^ by bribing and by paying 
hi kind. The following examples carry the 
fatire ftill higher, and can hardly be thought 
to be excelled by any flrokes of irony and 
humour in the bcft parts of Horace, Juvc^- 
nai, or Boileau, 

His Grace will game ; to White's a bull be led. 
With * fpurning heels, and with a butting head. 
To White's be carry'd, as to ancient t games. 
Fair courfers, vafes, and alluring dames. 
Shall then Uxorio, if the (lakes he fwcep, 
Bear home fix whores, and make his lady weep ? 
Or foft Adonis, fo perfum'd and fine. 
Drive to St. James's a whole herd of fwinc \ ? 


We can only lament that our author did 
not live long enough to be a witncfs of the 

• As a confccratcd bcaft to a facrifice ; and alluding to 
Virgil, with much pleafantry. 

Jam cornu pctat, & pcdibus qui fpargat areoam. 

t Alluding to the prizes that Achilles bcftows in the 
games of Homer. Hiad. 23. b; 

; V. 67. _ 



midnight (or morning) orgies of the game- 
Hers at Brooks's. What a fubjed: for the 
ieverity of his fatire! Perhaps we might 
have feen men. 

Safe from the bar, the pulpit, and the thmne^ 
Yet touch'd and fliam'd by ridicule alone I 

For furcly that vice dcferves the keeneft 
inveftive, which, more than any other, has 
a natural and invincible tendency to narrow 
and to harden the heart, by imprejjing and 
keeping up habits offelfijhnefs. ** I forefee," 
{faid Montesquieu, one day, to a friend 
vifiting him at La BredeJ ** that gaming will 
** be the ruin of Europe. During play, 
** the body is in a ftate of indolence, and 
•* the mind in a ftate of vicious activity." 

19. Damn'd to the mines, an equal fate betides 

The flave that digs it, and the Have that hides *» 

•f This is plainly taken from " the caufea 

• V. 109. 

t Sec the Adventnrcr, N» 63, pablidied 1753. The 
feffle£lion wick which Chartrbs^s epiuph, in thit epiftle, 
coBclodet, is from La Brvtirb« 

Vol. II. F £ •• of 

• / 



^'of the decay of C&rj/iian Piny/* It has al- 
ways been held, fays this excellent writer^the 
fevered treatment of flaves and makfadofrs^ 
damnare ad metalla> to force them to dig ta 
the mines : now this is the covetous man's 
lot, from which he is never to expe6: a re*^ 
leafe. And the charad:er of Hellao the 
glutton, who exclaimed even in his laft 
agonies (at the end of the firft of thefis 

-*•— then bring the jowl f 

is clearly borrowed from the concluiion of 
one of the tales of Fontaine: 

Puis qu'il faut que jc meure 
Sans faire tant de fa^on, 
Qu* on m' apporte tout a 1' heme 
he refte de mon poHTon* 

So true is that candid acknowledgment 
which our author makes in his fenfil>le pre- 
face, ^^ I fairly confefs that I have ferved 
-^' myfelf all I could by reading." But the 
'noble paiTage I fhall next quote, he has not 



iKNrrowed from any writer. It is intended 
to illuftrate the ufefulnefsp in the hands of 
a gracious Providence, that refults from the 
extremes of avarice and profufion; and it re- 
curs to the leading principle of our au- 
thor's philofophy, namely^ that contrarie- 
ties ai\d varieties, in the moral as well as 
the natural world, by counter-poizing and 
counter- working each other, contribute ul- 
timately to the benefit and beauty of the 

Hear then the truth ; ^^ 'tis Heav'n each paflion fends* 
^ And different. men direSs to different ends; 
** Extremes in nature equal good produce* 
*^ Extremes in man concur to gen'ral uTe. 
*^ A(k we what makes one keep, amd one beftow I 
** That Pow'r who bids the ocean ebb and flow^ 
^* Bids feed-time, harveft* equal courfe maintain* 
^ Thro* reconciled extremes of drought and rain ; 
^^ Builds life on death, on change duration founds, 
^ And gives th' eternal wheels to know their rounds/' 

Voltaire has* in many parts of his 
works^ befides his Candide, and his Pbiiojb^ 

F f 2 pbical 


fhkal DiBionaryt exerted the utmoft efibrtf 
of his wit and argument to depreciate ^nd 
deftroy the doftrine of Optmtfm, and the 
idea that, 

Th* eternsd art educes good from ill. 

He imagines, abfurdly enough, that the 
only folid method of accounting for the 
origin of evil, confiftcntly with the other 
attributes of God, is not to allow his 
cmnipotence. Sa puiffance eft tres grande % • 
mais qui nous a dit qu'elle eftinfinie, quand 
fes ouvrages nous montrent Ic contraire ? 
Qiiand la feule relTource qui nous refte pour 
Ic difculper eft d' avouer que fon pouvoir 
n' a pu triompher du mal phyfique & 
moral ? Certes, j'aime mieux I'adorer born^ 
que mechant. Peutetre dans la vaftc ma- 
chine de la nature, Ic bien 1' a-t-il empoit^ 
rcceffairement fur le mal, 6c reterncl ar- 
tiiai) a ct^ force dans fes moyeps, en fefant 


encore (malgr^ tant de maux) ce qu*il avait 
de mieux *. 

Voltaire, after having nin the full 
career of infidelity and fcepticifm, feems 
to have funk at lafl into abfolute fatalifm. 
The feptiments are indeed put into the 
mouth of Memmius, the friend and patron 
of Lucretius, and addrefled to Cicero: 
this was only the method the French phi- 
lofopher took to acquaint us with his own 

Je fuis done ramen^ malgre^moi a cette 
ancienne id^e que je vois ^tre la bafe de 
tous les fyfl^mes, dans laquelle tous les 
philofophes retombent apres mille detours, 
& qui m' eft d^montr^e par toutes les aftions 
des hommes, par les miennes, par tous les 
^v^nemens que j'ai lus, que j'ai vus, & 
auxquels j'ai eu part; c'eft le fatalifme, 

* QaeiUont fur I'Enqrclopedie, 9 partie, p. 348. So 
ioconclafive and impiiilofopbical an uScriion, defenres n% 
icrious confutadoni 



c*eft la n^eilite dont je vous ai d^j« 
parle *. 

30- Like Comebne Chirtreux (lands the good old htll^ 
Silence without, and fafts within the wall ; 
No raftered roofs with dance and tabor found^ 
No noontidi bell invites the country round : 
Tenants with fighs x^r fmooklefi tow'rs furvejr. 
And turn th' unwilling fteeds another way : 
Bemghted weinderert^ the foreft o'er, 
Curs'd the fav^d candle^ and unop^ning door ; 
While the gaunt mdLR'iff gfowling at the gate, 
jfffrights the beggar, whom he longs to eat t» 

In the worft inn's worft room, with mat half'hung^ 
The floors of plaljier^ and the walls of dmng^ 
On once ayfori-bcd, but repaired with^^rmcf. 
With tafe'-tfd cortains, never meant to draw* 
The. George and Garter dangling from that bed 
Where taxvdry yellow ftrovc with dirty red^ 
Great Villers lies t*— 

The ufe, the force, and the excellence 

• " He muft have a very good ftomach," (fays Mr. 
Gray) ** that can digeft the Cramte renQa of Volcaifew 
" Atheifm is a vile diib, tho* all the cooks of France 
«' combrae to make aew £uicei for it/' Lectere, qnartOj 

t V. 187. ) V- 399- 




of lahgiu^y certainly confilb. in raifing^ 
clear, complete, and circumjlantial images^ 
and in turning readers into JpeSlators. I 
have quoted the two preceding paflagcs as 
eminent examples of this excellence^ of all 
othecs the mofl: effential in, poetry. Eveiy 
epithet^ here ufed, paints its obje<^^ and 
faints it difthtSily. After having pailed over 
the moat full of crefTes, do you not a&uallf 
£nd yourfelf in the middle court of this 
forlorn and folitary manfion, overgrown 
with docks and nettles ? And do yoa not 
hear the dog that i& going to afTault you ?-« 
Among the other fortunate ciFcumflancet 
that attended Homer, it was not one of the 
|eaft^ that he wrote before general and ah'* 
JtraSl terms were invented. Hence hi^ 
Mule (like his own Helen (landing on the 
walls of Troy) points out every per/on, and 
thing, accurate^ zndi forcibly. All the view9 
and profpeds he lays before us, appear as 
Jsilljf and per/eBly to the eye, as that which 



engaged the attention of Neptune, when he 
was fitting (Iliad, b. 13. v. 12.) 

Those wha are fond of generalities, may 
think the number of natural, ftttle circum* 
fiances, introduced in the beautiful' nar- 
ration of the expedition of Dolon and 
DioMED (Book the loth) too particular 
and tricing, and below the dignity of Epic 
poetry. But every reader of a juft taftc 
will always admire the minute defcription of 
the helmet and creft, at verfe the 257th j 
the clapping cf the wings of the Heron 
which they could not fee ; the fquatting 
down among the dead bodies till Dolon had 
pafled > Ulyfles bijjing to Diomed as a fig- 
nal ; the ftriking the horfes with his bow, 
becaufe he had forgotten to bring his whip 
with him; and the innumerable circum- 




fiances which make this narration fo Ihefy^ 
fo dramatic^ and fo interejling. Half the 
Iliad and the Odyfley might be quoted as 
examples of this way of writing. So dif- 
ferent from the unfinifhed, half-formed 
figures^ prefented to us by many modern 
writers. How much is the pathetic heigh*^ 
tened by Sophocles, when, fpeaking of 
Deianira determined to deftroy herfelf^ and 
taking leave of her palace, he adds, a cir- 
cumAance that Voltaire would have dif- 

favatnrf Ih^ *Xffii^ ^iKma v«^ *• 

Among the Roman poets, Lucretius will 
furnifh many inflances of this fort of (Irong 
painting. Witnefs his portrait of a jealous 
man i Book the 4th, v^. 1 1 30. 

Aut quod in ambiguo virbum jaeulatM reliquit i 
Aut mmi}xm ja£iare oculos, aliumve tueri 
Quod putat, in vultuque videt viftigia riffls. 

* TrtchinuBy v. 922. 

Vol. JI. Gg Of 

Of Iphigenia going to be facrificed, at the 
moment, when, 

^— msftum ante aras aflare parentent; 
Scnflt, & hunc propter fcrruin ctlare miniftcoe *.. 

Of Fear, Li book ili. v. 155, 

Sudorem itaque tt pallartm exiflere toto 

Corpore ; & infringi linguam ; vocemque iboriri'; 

Caligan oculos ; /sturt aures ; fuccidari utus. 

Without fpecifying the vztiQu% Jiroket 
of nature, with which Virgil has defcribcd 
the prognoftics of the weather in his firft 
Georgic, let us only conlidcr with what 
energy he has entunerated- and particularized 
the geftures and attitudes of his dying Dido. 
No five verier ever contained more images^ 
or images more dtJlinBly exprefied. 

Illti graves eculcs conata attolUre^ rurfus 
Deficit ; lafoMmJiridtt fub pe£lorc vultaui r 
Ter fefe attellensy aibitequt ttmixa levavic, 
Ttr revtJula tare eft : aailifque erremliius, alto- 
QuKfivit ckIo luccm, ingtmtatqut repcrti f- 

* Book u V. u. f JEa. iv. 688. 

3 The 

^■(■^.^■VWq.^ ■ 


The wards of Virgil have here painted the 
dying Dido^ as powerfully as the pencil of 
Jteynolds has done, when fhe is jufl: dead. 

But none of the Roman writers has dif- 
played a greater force and vigour of ima- 
gmatipn than Tacitus ; who was in truth 
a great poet. With virhat an affemblage of 
mafterly ftrokes has he exhrbited the diftrefs 
of the Roman army under Cacina^ iii the firll 
book of the Annals ! Nox per diverfa iri-» 
quies ; cum barbari feftis epulis, lato cantUp 
aut truci fonore^ fubjedta vallium ac refute* 
tantes laltus, complerent. Apud ilomano$^ 
invalidi ignes, interrupts voces, atque ipfi 
paflim adjacerent vallo, oberrarint tentoriis, 
infbmnes magis quam pervigiles, ducemque 
terruit dira quies. And what a fpeAre he 
then immediately calls up, in the ilyle of 
Michael Angelo! Nam Quintilium Va- 
ram, fanguine oblitum^ & paludibus emerfum^ 
cernere & audire vifus eft, velut vacant em ^ 
^n tamen obfecutus, & manum intendentis 

G gz A CE* 


A CELEBRATED foreigner, the CouA| 
Algarotti, has palTed jhc following cenfure 
on our poetry> as deficient in this Te£pe€t, 

" La poefia dei popuVi fftintranoM paxe a 
me, che, generalm^nte parlando, confilh| 
piu di penjieri, che d' immagini, fi compiac- 
cia delle riflelTione equalmente che dei &a« 
tlmenti : non fia coli particolarfggiaiaf • 
pittorefca come e la noftra. yirgilit> a 
cagione d'efempio rapprefentando Didooo 
quando t(cc alia caccio fa una tal defcrizione 
del fuo veftimento, che tutti i ritrattiiti,^ 
leggendo quel pafTo, la veftirebbonp a ui) 
modo : 

Tandem progreditur, magn^ ftip&nte catcxriW 
Sidoniam pidlo cbiamydem circuindftta limbai 
Cui pharctra ex auro, crines nodantur ia uinioif 
Aurea purpuream fubnedit fibula veftem, 

Non coll 11 MiLTONO quandp defcrive la 
nuda bellezza di Eva : 

Grace was in all ber ftcps, hetv'n in ber tjt. 

In every gefture, dignity and love. 

Con quella parole geoerale, e afirattt idce 



41 grazia^ cielo, amore« e maefla non pare 
9, lei che ognuno fi formi i(i (xieiite una Eva 

It muft indeed be granted^ that this paf- 
fage gives no diflinA and particular idea of 
the perfon of Eve ; but in how many others 
has Milton drawn his^^j^r^x, and expreffed 
his images, with energy and diftiriBnefs ? 

|7ndcr a coronet hjs flowing hair 
In cufls on either cheek playM \ wings he wore 
Of many a coloured plume fprinkled with gold ; 
His habit fit for fpeed fuccind, and held 
Before his decent fteps a filver wand f* 

Dire was the toffing, deep the groans ; DKSPAilt 
Tended ^e fick, bufieft from couch to couch ; 
And over them triumphant Death his dart 
Shook, but delayed to ftrike %. 

From his flack hand the garland, wreath'd for Eve, 
Down'dropt, and all the faded rofes (bed ; . 
Speechlefs he flood, and pale I § 

And Spencer, the mailer of Milton, to 
much abounds in portraits peculiarly mark- 

^ See hit works. Leghorn, t. 8. f Par. Loft^ b. iii* r. 640. 
} B. zi* tr. 489. \ B. ix. T. 892, 



td, and ftrongly created, that it is difficult 
to know which to fclcft from this copious 
magazine of the moft lively painting. The 
fame may be faid of Shakespeare ; whofe 
iittlp touches of nature it is no wonder 
Voltaire could not reli£h, who affords 
no example pf this beauty in his Henriade^ 
and gives no proofs of a pSturefaue fancy ^ iij 
a work that abounds more in declamation ^ in 
moral and political refle£ttons^ than in poe- 
tic iipages ; in which there is little char^^er 
and lefs nature^ and in which the ju^thor 
himfelf appears throughout the piece^ and if 
himfelfthe hero of hif poem. 

I HAVE dwelt the longer on this fubjed, 
becaufe I think I can perceive many fymp- 
toms, even among writers of eminence^ of 
departing from thefe true and lively^ and 
minute^ reprefentations of Nature, and of 


dwelling in generalities. To thefe I oppofb 
the teflimony of, perhaps the moft judi- 
cious and elegant critic among the ancients. 
Froculdubio qui dicit expugnatam efle civi« 

^ tatem. 


tatem> compleditur omnia qua^unque talis 
fortuna recipit : fed in afFedlus minus pene- 
trat brcvis hie velut nuntius. At fi aferias 
haec quae vcrbo uno inctufa erant, appare-' 
bunt efFufae per domos ac templa fiamma^ 
& ruentium tedtorum fragor^ & ex diveriis 
clamoribus unus quidem fonus \ aliorum 
fuga incerta; ahi in extreme comptexd fuo- 
rum'cohaerentes, & infantium fsminarumque 
ploratus, & mal^ ufque in ilium diem 
iervati fato fenes i turn ilia profanorum fa* 
crorumque direptio^ efferentium praedas, repe-- 
tentiumqu& difcurfus, & aSli ante fuum quif« 
que prasdonem catenatu & conata retinere 
infant em fuum mater ^ & ficubi majus lu- 
crum efly pugna inter vidiores. Licet enim 
hsc omnia, ut dixi, comple£tatur everfio^ 
Minus est tamen • totum dicere, 


% I . Who hung with woods yon mountain's ful try brow ? 
From the dry rock who bade the waters flow ? 

* QuintiI'IaKa lib. viii. cap. 3. 

Not ' 


Kot to the * ftiet in'ufeleft oolaniito toft. 
Or in proud ftllt magnificently loft i 
But clear and artlefa, pouring thra' rbe pluftf 
Health to the lick, and folace to the Twain.. 
Whole caufeway parts the vale with fludy rows f 
Whofc Teats the weary tnreller repofe t 
Who taught that heav'n-direded fphe to rife i 
** The Mam of Ross," each lifinng babe repliet* 
Behold the niaiket*place with poor o'erfpread I 
The Man of S.ofs divides the weekly bread. 

* Hu not the learned commeiiutor, in hii aote on dtii 
paflage» given an iJU&ratioQ rtfher hard and far-dboghCt iS 
the foil owing words i 

" The intimatin in the firft line- well ridicalM the mad* 
" n*fi of fafluonable mag^i&ceocc ; thefe colnmni alpirisg 
" to prop the Ikiei, in a very different lenfe fnna tha 
'* heave n-direOcd fpire ia the verfe that fbllowi ; ai tlis 
" txprtffisw in the fecond line cxpofei the mtaMmtfi of it, iai 
*' falling preudlj, to noparpore."^Perhap( the fame niMgr 
be laid of a note that fbllotn, m verfe 333. 

" Cutler and Brntnt, dying* both exclatn, 
" Virtue and wealth ! what are ye but a name ! 
" There is a greater beauty in thti comparifbn th^ the 
" common reader it aware of. Brutui wu, in raorali at 
" leaA, a Sieif, like hit uncle.— Now Snitnl mrttu vu, as 
" our author truly tells U3, not intrtifi bat afml^. Co&« 
" traded all, retiring to the breaft. In a word, like Sir 
" J. Cutler's fyrfi, nothing for ufe, but kept dole IhDt« 
" and centered all within himfelf. Xow <oirtiu and <w§M&i, 
*' that circumftaoced, «t« indeed no other tEan mere 



He feeds yon alms-houre, neat^ but void of flate. 
Where Age and Want fit fmiling at the gate \ 
Him portion 'd maids, apprentic'd orphans bleft. 
The young who labour, and the old who reft *« 

These lines, which arc eminently bcauti* 
ful, particularly one of the three laft, con- 
taining a fine profopopoeia, have conferred 
immortality on a plain, worthy, and ufeful 
citizen of Herefordfhirc^ Mr. John Ryrle, 
who fpent his long life in advancing and 
contriving plans of public utility. The 
Howard of his time : who deferves to be 
celebrated more than all the heroes of PiM-^ 
DAR, The particular rcafon for which I 
quoted them, was to obferve the pleafing 
cfFeft that the ufe of common and familiar 
words and objedts, judicioufly managed, pro- 
duce in poetry. Such as are here the words, 
taufevoay^feats^J^ire^ market --place ^ alms-boufe^ 
cpprenticd. A faftidious delicacy, and a 
faAfe refinement, in order to avoid meannefs, 
have deterred our writers from the introduc- 

• V. .53. 

Vol. II. ■ H h tioa 


tion of fuch words; but Drvden often ha- 
zarded it, and it gave a fecrct charm, and a 
natural air to his verfes. 

22. Sir Balaam now, he lives like other folks. 

He takes his chirping pint, ancl cracks his jokes : 
** Live like yourfclf," was foon my Lady's word; 
And lo ! two puddings fmok'd upon the board *• 

This tale of Sir Balaam, his progrefs and 
change of manners, from being a plodding, 
fober, plain, and punftual citizen, to his be- 
coming a debauched and diffolute courtier 
and fenator, abounds in much knowledge 
of life, and many ftrokes of true humour^ 
and will bear to be compared with the ex- 
quifite hiftory of Corufodes, in one of 
Swift's Intelligencers. 

Load Bathurst, Lord Lyttelton, 
and Mr. Spence, and other of his friends, 
have aflured me, that among intimates Pop£ 
had an admirable talent for telling a ftory^ 

^ V. 357. 




In great companies he avoided fpcaking 
much. And in his examination before the 
Houfe of Lords, in Atterbury's trial, he 
faultered fo "much as to be hardly intelli- 

23. You fliovr us, Rome was glorious, not profufe. 
And pompous buildings once were things of ufe : 
Yet (hall (my Lord) your juft, your noble rules. 
Fill half the land with imitating-fools*. 

Thus our author addrefles the Earl of 
Burlington, who was then publifliing the 
defigns of Inigo Jones, and the Antiquities 
of Rome by Palladio. *• Never was pro- 
tedion and great wealth •f-" (fays an able 
judge of the fubjedt) ** more generoufly and 
judicioufly difFufcd, than by this great 
pcrfon, who had every quality of a genius 
and artift, except envy. Though his own 
defigns were more chafle and claflic than 
Kent's, he entertained him in his houfe 'till 
his death» and was more (ludious to extend 

• V. 25. 

f Mr* Walpole, p. 108* Anecdotes of Painting, vol. ir« 

H h 2 his 


his friend's fame than his own. As wo 
have few famples of architedlurc more an-- 
tique and impofing than the colonnade with^ 
in the court of his houfe in Piccadilly, I 
cannot help mentioning the effect it had on 
myfelf, I had not only never feen it, but 
had never heard of it, at leaft with any 
attention, when, foon after my return front 
Italy, I was invited to a ball at Burling* 
ton-houfe. As I paffed under the gate by 
night, it could not ftrike me. At day- 
break, looking out of the window to fee the 
fun rife, I was furprized with the vifion of 
the colonnade that fronted me. It feemed 
one of thofe edifices in Fairy Tales, that arc 
jraifed by genii in a night's time." — Popk 
having appeared an excellent moralifi in the 
foregoing epiflles, in this appears to be as 

excellent a ^ connoiffeur^ and has given not 

^ Though he always thought highly of ^i/y(/0«*s Letter 
from Italy, yet he thought the poet had fpoken in terms too 
general of the fineft binldingt and paintings, and without 
mwk 4ifcriia»nawi» of tafte. 



only fome of oMxfirJl^ but our bejl rules and 
obfcrvations on architecture and gardenings 
but particularly on the latter of thefe ufcful 
and entertaining arts, on which he has dwelt 
more largely, and with rather more know- 
ledge of the fubjeft. The foUowingis copied 
verbatim from a little paper which he gave 
to Mr. ♦ Spence. V Arts are taken from 
** nature, and, after a thoufand vain efforts 
** for improvements, arc beft when they re- 
** turn to their firft fimplicity. A iketch 
*• or analyfis of the firft principles of each 
**. art, with their firft confequences, might 
*• be a thing of moft excellent fcrvice. Thus, 
*' for inftance, all the rules of -f- architedturo 
•* might be reducible to three or four heads j 
^* the juftncfs of the openings ; bearings 

* *' Who had both tafle and zeal for the prefent flyle/' 
ikyt Mr. Walpole, p. 134. 

t Oar author was fo delighted with Graevius, that ho 
drew op a little Latin treatife on the chief buildings of 
Rome, colleded from this aotiqaarian. Mr^ Gray had alio 
im exqailite tafte in architeAarOj joined to the knowledge of 
pn accurate antiquarian. See the introdu^ion to Bentham't 
fiiftory of Ely Cathedral^ fuppofed to be drawn up by 
Qnji Qt Qflder his eye. 

\o ♦' upon 

*' upon bearings; the regularity of the pil- 
** lars, &ۥ That which is not juft in build- 
ings is difagreeable to the eye (as a greater 
upon a Icfler, &c,) and this may be called 
^* the * reafoning of the eye. In laying out 
^^ a garden, the firfl and chief thing to be 
** confidered is the genius of the place. 
** Thus at Rifkins, now called Peircy Lodgc^ 
** Lord * ♦ * (hould have raifed two or three 
'' mounts, becaufe his fituation is all a plain» 
•* and nothing can pleafe without variety,'* 

Mr. Walpole, in his elegant and enter- 
taining Hiftory of Modern Gardening, has 
clearly proved that Kent was the artift to 
whom the Englifli nation was chiefly in- 
debted for diffufing a taflc in laying out 
grounds, of which the French and Italians 
have no idea. But he adds, much to the 
credit of our author, that Pope undoubt- 

• To fee all the beauties that a place was fufccptible of, 
was to pofTefs, ai Mr. Pice exprefled it, *' Tht frophetic ift §f 



cdly contributed to form Kent's tafte. The 
defign of the Prince of Wales's garden at 
Carlton Houfe, was evidently borrowed from 
the Poet's at Twickenham. There was a 
little affcfted modefty in the latter, when he 
faid of all his works he was mod proud of 
his garden. And yet it was a Angular effort 
of art and tafte to imprefs fo much variety 
and fcenery on a fpot of five acres. The 
palling through the gloom from the grotto 
to the opening day, the retiring and again 
aflcmbling {hades, the dulky groves, the 
larger lawn, and the folemnity of the termi- 
nation at the cyprefTes that lead up to his 
mother's tomb, are managed with exquifite 
judgment ; and though * Lord Peterborough 
^ilifted him, 

* I cannot forbear adding, in this place, the following 
anecdote from Pope to Mr. Spence; which I give in his own 
words:—*' Lord Peterboroagh, after a vifit to Fbniloh^ 
'* Archbifhop of Cambray, faid to me — Fenelon is a man 
*' that was call in a particular mould, that was never made 
*' nfe of for any body elfe. He's a delicious creature 1 But 
^* 1 was forced to get from him as foon as I poflibly could, 
5' for elfe he would have made mcfioMt.*[ 



To form his quincunx and to rank his vineis ; 

thofc were not the moft plcafing ingredienti 
of his little perfpeftive. I do not know 
whether the difpofition of the garden at 
Roufham, laid out for Genefal Dormer, 
and in my opinion the mofl engaging of all 
Kent's works, was not planned on the model 
of Mr. Pope's, at leaft in the opening and 
retiring " fhades of Venus's Vale/* 

It ought to be obferved, that many years 
before this epiflle was written, and before. 
Kent was employed as an improver of 
grounds, even fo early as the year 17131 
Pope feems to have been the very firft per- 
fon that cenfured and ridiculed the formal, 
]French, Dutch, falfe and unnatural, mode in 
gardening, by a paper in the Guardian, 
Number 173, levelled againfl capricious 
operations of art, and every fpecies of ver^ 
dant fculpture, and inverted nature ; which 
paper abounds with wi( as well as ta/ie^ and 
ends with a ridiculous catalogue of various 




Bgures cut in ever-greens. Neither do I 
think that thefe four lines in this epiiUe,- 

Here Amphitrite fails thro' myrtle bowVs ; 
There gladiators fight, or die in flow'rs : 
Un-water'd fee the drooping fea-horfe mourn. 
And fwallows rooft in Nil us' dufty urn *» 

lo at all excel the following paiTage in his 
Gruardian : 

*• A citizen is no fooncr proprietor of a 
couple of yews, but he entertains thoughts 
of eredling them into giants, like thofe of 
Guildhall. I know an eminent Cook, who 
beautified his country feat with a corona- 
tion dinner in greens, where you fee the 
champion flourifhing on horfeback at one 
end of the table, and the queen in perpe- 
tual youth at the other." 


But it was the vigorous and creative 
imagination*!- of Milton, fuperior to the 


t Sec Mr. WaIpole*t Aneodotei, v. W. p. lak 

VoLt II« I i prgudices 



prejudices of his times, that exhibited in his 
Eden, the firft hints and outlines of what a 
beautiful garden fhould be ; for even bis be- 
loved Ariosto and Tasso, in their luxu- 
riant pi6;ures of the gardens of Alcin a and 
Armida, fhewed they were not free from 
the unnatural and narrow tafte of their coun- 
trymen; and even his mafter, Spencer, has 
an artificial fountain in the midft of his bowre 

I CANNOT forbear taking occafion to re- 
mark in this place, that, in the facred drama, 
intitled, UAdamOy written and publifhed at 
Milan in the year 1617, by Gio* Battista 
And REIN I, a Florentine, which Milton 
certainly had read, (and of which Voltaire 
has given fo falfe and fo imperfedt an ac- 
count, in his Effay on the Epic Poets) the 
prints that are to reprefent Paradife are fijll 
of dipt hedges, fquare parterres, flrait walks, 
trees uniformly lopt, regular knots and car- ' 
pets of flowers, groves nodding at groveSi 
marble fountains, and water- works. And 




yet thefe prints were defigned by Carlo 
Antonio Proccachini^ a celebrated land-« 
fchape painter of his time^ and of the fcho6l 
of theCARRACHEs: many of thofe works are 
ftill adrtiiired at Milafl. To every fcene cjf 
this drama is prefixed a print of this artid's 
defigning. And^ as the book is very curious 
and uncommon^ I intend to give a fpeciraen 
and analyfis of it in the Appendix to this 

It hence appears, that this enchanting 
art of modern gardening, in which thii 
kingdom claims a preference* over every 
nation in Europe, chiefly owes its origin 
and its improvements to two great poets, 
Milton and Pope. May I be fufFered to 
add, in behalf of a favourite author, and who 
would have been a firft-rate poet, if his ftylc 
had been equal to his conceptions, that the 

* Id Castell's Villa's of the Ancients illaftrated, folio, 
Londoni I728« may be feen how mach the celebrated Tafcan 
rilla refcmbled our gardens^ as they were planned a few 
X'ears ago. Pliny's villa was like his genius. 

I i 2 Seofons 



SeaTons of Thomson have been very inflru- 
mental in difiiifing a general * tafte for tfas 
beauties of nature and hmifcbap*% 

24.. To build, to plant, whatever you inteikly 
To rear the column, or the arch to bend. 
To fwell the terrace, or to link the grat \ 
In all, let Nature never be forgot. 
But treat the GoddcTs like a modeft Fair, 
Nor over-dreff, nor leave her wholly barej ■ 
Let not each beauty er'ry where be Tpy'd, 
When half the Ikill it decently to hide. 
He gains all points who pleafingly confounds, 
Surprifcs, varies, and conceals the bounds t* 

The bell comments that have ever been 
given on thefe fenlible and ilriking pre- 
cepts> are, Painjhiilt Hagleyt die h^tmes, 
FerfejUld, Woborut Stourbead, and Blenheim i 
all of them exquifite fcenes in different 
flyles, and 6nc examples oipra3ical poetry. 

* It ii only wichia a few years that the pi&Dreli)Be Tccbcs 
of our owQ country.onr lalcM, moancaiiu, csfcadDi, cftvenis. 
and caftlei, Iiavs beu vifited aid dtfcnbed. 

t V. 47. 



' *-^ 


"25. Confult the Gbnius^ of the place in all^ 
That tells the waters, or to rife or fall ; 
Or helps th' ambitious hill the heav'ns to fcalc^ 
Or fcoops in circling theatres the vale; ^ 

Calls in the country, catches opening glades. 
Joins willing woods, and varies fhades from fhadei* 
Now breakS) or now direds th' intending lines* 
Paints as you plant, and as you work defigns %• 

Would it not give life and vigour to this 
noble profapapaiaf if we were .to venture to 
alter only one word^ and read, in the fecond 

Hs tells the waters— 

* Dr. Warborton*s difcoveries of fome latent beauties itt 
this paffage, feem to be firndfal and groandlefs, and never 
skoogbt of by the author. •* Firft, the Gtidus of the place** 
(iays this oommentator) " tills tbi nuaiers, or fimply gives 
*' diredions : then, hi Mps th' ambitious hill^ or is a fellow- 
** labourer : then again, lit /coops the drclin^ thuors, or 'worit 
*' sJoao, and in thiifm Afterwanlai« ri£ng faft in our idea of 
'* dignity, he tmUs m tb§ comttry. alluding to the orders of 
** princes in their piogrefs, when accufiomed to difphy all 
** their ftale and magnificence: his charader then gra^ws 
** fsund, hejoims mfilliug 'woods, a metaphor taken from one 
«« of the ofioes of the priefthood ; till, at length, he becomes 
** a divinity, and ernttis wxAfrsfidu over the whole. 
" Now breaks^ Of now direds ■ ■ ^*" 


inftead of 
That tells— ? 

Our nuthor is never happier than iri his 
allulions to painting, an art he fo much ad- 
mired and underllood : So below, at verffl 

The wood fuppartt the plain, the parts «»(>(■, 
hnAjirength oijbadt eontinds with firtngtb of light. 

Indeed, the two arts in queftion differ only 
in the materials which they employ. And 
it is neither exaggeration or affet^tion to 
call Mr. Brown a great fainter; for he has 

Whate'er Lorkain light-touch'd with fortening hue. 
Or favagc Rosa dalfa'd, or learned Poussin drew *• 

26. Still follow fenfe, of ev'ry art toe foul. 

Farts anfwering parts fliall Hide into a Whole j 
Spontaneous beauties all around advance. 
Start ev'n from difficulty, ftrilte from chance; 
Nature (hall join you ; Time fhall make it grow, 
A work to wonder at— perhaps a Stow t- 

• Caftlc of Indolence, ft 38. f V. 6;. 

I MtrST 


I MUST confcfs (fays the Earl of Peter- 
borough, Letter 34, vol. viii.) that in going 
to Lord Cobham's I was not led by curiofity : 
I went thither to fee what I had feen, and 
what I was Aire to like. I had the idea of 
thofe gardens fo fixed in my imagination by 
many delcriptions, that nothing furprized , 
me ; Immenfity and Van Brugh appear in 
the whole, and in every part. Your joining 
in your letter animal and vegetable beauty» 
makes me ufe this expreflion : I confcfs the 
ftately Sacharissa at Stow, but am con- 
tent with my little Amoret." (meaning Be- 
vis Mount, near Southampton.) It is plain, 
therefore, that Lord P. was not pleafed with 
thefe gardens ; but they have, fince his 
time, received many capital alterations and 
additions; of which the ingenious author of 
Obfervationi on Modern Gardening has given 
an accurate account, and a minute analyfis, 
in page 213 of his entertaining work; and ■ 
he concludes his defcription in the follow- 
ing words : *' Magnificence and fplcndor 
^e the chara^eriftics of Stow; it is like 

6 QOC 

one of thofe places celebrated in anttquity, 
which were devoted to the purpofcs of 
religion, and filled with facred groves, hal- 
lowed fountains, and templet dedicated to 
feveral deities j the refort of diftant nationip 
and the object of veneration to half the heft- 
then world; this pomp is, at Stow, blended 
with beauty ; and the place is equally diftin- 
gui^ied by its amenity and grandeur." 

a;. And Nero's terraces defert their mils *. 

This line is obfcure ; it is difficult to know 
what is meant by the terraces de&rting their 
walls. In line 1^2, below, is another obfcu- 
rity; — '' iiis hard heart denies"— it does not 
immediately occur wiefi heart, the word ii 
fo far feparated from the perfon intended* 

jS. Ev'n in an ornament it's place remarlc. 
Nor in »n hermitage fet Da. CLAKKS-f 



These lines are as ill-placed, and as inju- 
dicious, as the bufto which they were dc- 
iigned to cenfure. Pope caught an aver- 
fion to this excellent man from Koling- 
BROKE, who hated Clarke, not only be- 
caufe he had written a book, which this 
faihionable philofopher could not confute, 
but bccaufe he was a favourite of Queen 
Caroline. In our author's manufcripts 
were two other lines upon this writer ; 

Let Clarki live half his days the poor's Tupport, 
But let htm pafs the other h^f at Court. 

His AttributeSt arid his SermonSy will be read 
and admired by all lovers of good reafoning^ 
as long as this Epiftle by all lovers of good 

29. At Timoh's villa let us pafs a day. 

Where all cry out, " What fums are thrown a»ay* I" 

The whole gang of malignant and dirty 
fcribblcrs, who envied the fuccefs and fupe- 

• V.»9- 

VoL. U. K k nor 


rior merit of Pope, was In arms at this dc- 
fcription, which they applied to the Diike 
of Chandos, and his houfe at Canons. Wel- 
fted publiihed in folio a moft abufivc libel, 
entitled, Of Dulncfs and Scandal, offtf- j 
fioncd by the CharaBer of Lord timon, 6cc, 
And Lady Wortlcy Montague joined in the 
accufation, in her Verfes addreflcd to the Imt- 
tatar of Horace *. The Duke, the' at firft 
alarmed, wa?, it is faid, afterwards con- 
vinced of our author's innocence. I have 
thought it not improper to infert at length. 
the following letter, as it contains the moit 
direct and pojuive denial of this faft; as it: 
was written at the very time, to a privates' 
friend, and expreired all Pope's feelings oik- 
thc fubjei^ ; and as it is not to be found ii^- 
this edition of his works. It is addrejQed to^ 

•Tkefearetlielinej. Fige ;, folio. LondoD,fbr A.Dodd - 
But if thou fee'ft 2 great and generom hem. 
Thy bow is doubly bent to force a dart. 
Nor only jullice vainly we demand. 
But even benefits can't rein thy hand; 
To this, or that, alike in vun we truft. 
Nor find thee left uDgntcful than unjull. 

I Aaroa 

-1- — ?np" 


Aaron Hill, Efq; an afFcdled and fuftian * wri- 
ter, but who, by fome means or other, gained 
our author's confidence and friendfliip. 

Twickenham, Dec. 22, 1731- 

Dear Sir, 

T THANK you for your Tragedy, which 

I have read over a fixth time, and of 

which I not only prefcrve, but increafe, my 

• See his Athelwood— and his Merope, which I have fre- 
quently reproached Mr. Garrick for adling— his Poem on 
idling— >his poem in praife of Blank Verfe, which begins 
(hus I and which one woald think was burlefijue : 

Up, from Rhyme's poppied vale ! and ride the florm 
That thunders in blank verfe !— • 

See his works throughout, in 4 vols, oflavo ; from which 
the treatifc on the Bathos might have been much enriched 
with many truly ridiculous examples, viz. 

Some black. fouTd Fiend, fome Fury ris'n from heU 
fLsLS darken'd all difcernment. Merope. 

Thro' night's eye 

^aw the pale murdcrpr ftall; ! Ibid* 

Some hint's ofncious reach had touch'd her ear. 

One is furprized (hat fucl^ a writer ^oM be an intin;ate 
friend of Bolingbroke, Pope, an J Thomfon . He was, however, 
one of the very firil perfons who took notice of the Uft* on the 
publication of Winter, on which he wrote a complimentary 
copy of verfet. See a letter of Thomfon's to Hill, dated 
Goodmnn's Coffee-houfe, 1726. 

K k 2 cflcem. 


cfteem. You have been kind to this age, 
in not telling the next, in your preface, the 
ill tufte of the town ; of which the reception 
you defcribe it to have given of your play— • 
worle, indeed, than I had heard, or could 
have imagined — is a more flagrant inftanco 
than any of thofe trifles mentioned in my 
Epijlle ; which yet, I hear, the fore vanity of 
our pretenders to tafte flinches at extremely. 
The title you mention had been properer to 
that Epiflle. — I have heard no criticifms 
about it, nor do I liften after them. Nos 
haec novimus efle nihil. (I mean, I think 
the verfes to be fo :) But as you are a man 
of tender fentiments of honour, I know it 
will grieve you to hear another undefcrvedly 
charged with a crime his heart is free from ; 
for, if there is truth in the world, I declare 
to you, I never imagined the leaft applica- 
tion of what I faid of Timoa could b2 

made to the D — of Ch s, than whom 

there is fcarce a more blamelefs, worthy, 
and generous, beneficent chara6ler, among 
all our nobility : And if I have not loft my 




ifcnfes, the town has loft 'em, by what I 
heard fo late as but two days ago, of the 
uproar on this head. I am certain, if you 
calmly read every particular of that defcrip- 
tion, you'll find almoft all of em point- 
blank the reverfe of that perfon's villa. It's 
an aukward thing for a man to print, in de- 
fence of his own work, againft a chimaira : 
you know not who, or what, you fight 
figainft; the objedlions ftart up in a new 
^ape, like the armies and phantoms of 
magicians, and no weapon can cut a mift or 
^ fhadow. Yet it would have been a pleafure 
to me, to have found fpme friend faying a 
word in my juftification, againft a malicious 
falftiood. I fpeak of fuch^ as have known 
by their own experience, thefe twenty yearSj, 
that I always took up their defence, when 
any ftream of calumny ran upon them. If 
it gives the Duke one moment's uneafinefs, 
J (hould think mylclf ill paid, if the whojc 
earth admir'd the poetry; and, believe me, 
would rather never have written a verfc in 
my life, than any one of 'em fhould trouble a 



truly good man. It was once my cafe be- 
fore^ but happily reconciled; and» among 
generous minds^ nothing fo indears friends» 
as the having offended one another. I la- 
ment the malice of the age» that ftudies to 
fee its own likenefs in every thing ; I la-» 
ment the dulnefs of it, that cannot fee an 
excellence : The firfl is my unhappinefs, 
the fecond your*s ; I look upon the fate of 
your piece, like that of a great treafurc, 
which is bury'd as fpon as brought to light; 
but it is fure to be dug up the next age, an4 
enrich poflerity,'* 


30* His ftudy ! with what authors is it ftor'd } 
In Books, not Authors, curious is my Lord ; 
To all their dated backs he turns you round ; 
Thefe Aldus printed, thefe Du Sueil has bound : 
Lo ? Tome are vellum, and the reft as good. 
For all his Lordfhip knows j but they are wood ^. 

There is a flatnefs and infipidity in the 
lafl couplet, much below the ufual manner of 
our author. Yovng has been more fprightly 
:^nd poignant on the fame fubjedt. 

• V. 133. 




With what^ O Codrus I is thy fancy fmit ? 
The dower of learning, and the bloom of wit* 
Thy gaudy (helves with crimfon bindings glow. 
And Epictstus is a perfeA beau ; 
How fit for thee ! bound up in crimfon too^ 
Gilt, and like them devoted .to the view* 
Thy books zxtfurniturem Methinks 'tis hard 
That Science fhould be purchased by the yard ; 
And ToNsoN, turn'd upholfterer, fend home 
The gilded leather to // up thy xoom *• 

31. Where j^tfw/t the Saints of Verrio and La* 


One fingle verb has marked with felicity 
and force the diflorted attitudes, the inde*- 
cent fubjedts, the want of nature and grace, 
fo vifible in the pieces of thefe two artifts, 
employed to adorn § our royal palaces and 
chapels. ^^ I cannot help thinking (fays 

^ XTniverfal Faflion, Sat. t. 

f He is not fo happy in the ufe of another verb belowy at 
•Yerfe 153. 

The rich buffet well-coloared ferpentf grMCim 

I V. 146. 

% Strange as it may feem« yet I beliere we may ventart 
|o aflert, that there is not a painted ceiling or ftair-cafe iv 
(his kingdom, that we fliould not be afliamcd to ihew to aa 
intelligent foreigner* 



Pope to Mr. Allen, in Letter 89, vol. ix.) 
and I know you will join with me, whd 
have bebn making an altar-piece, that the 
zeal of the firfl reformers was ill-placed, 
in removing piSlures (that is to fay, exam^ 
pies) out of churthes * ; and yet fuffering 
epitaphs (that is to fay, flatteries and falfe 
hiftory) to be a burthen to church- walls, and 
the (hame as well as derifion of all honefl 
men." — This is the fentiment, it may be 
faid, of a papijlical poet ^ and yet I cannot 
forbear thinking it is founded on good fenfe, 
and religion well-underftood. Notwithftand- 
ing the illiberal and ill-grounded rage which 
has lately been excited againft Popery, yet I 
hope we may ftill, one day, fee our places of 
worihip beautified with proper ornaments, 
and the generofity and talents of our living 
artiAs perpetuated on the naked walls of St* 

^ The cbi4>el of New College In Oxfonl will foon receive 
k fingolar and invaluable ornament : A window, the glaff 
of which ife ftained by Mr* Jiavia, from that exijuifite pic* 
tare of the Nativity by Sir Joihua Reynolds* 

32- To 


32. To reft the culhion and foft Dean invite. 
Who never mentions hell to ears polite ♦• 

This it fcems was a fail concerning a cer- 
tain fmooth^ and fupple, and inoffeniive Di- 
vine, one, we may imagine, that held the doc- 
trines which Dr. Toung fo agreeably laughs 
at in his fixth fatire : 

'^ Shall pleafures of a (hort duration chain 

*^ A Lady^s foul in everlafting pain ? 

•* Will the great Author us poor worms deftroy, 

" For now and then zfip of tranficnt joy ?" 

No, he's for ever in a fmiling mood. 

He's like themfelves ; or how could he be good ? 

And they blafpheme, who blacker fchemes fuppofe.«-« 

Devoutly thus, Jehovah they depofe 

The pure, the juft I and fct up in his ftead, 

A deity, that's perfcftly well-bred f 

33. Yet hence the poor are cloath'd, the hungry fed ; 
Health to himfelf, and to his infants bread 
The lab'rcr bears f 

• V. 149. t V. 169. 

Vol. II. LI A fine 



A fine turned and moral refledtion, .which 
illuftrates the dodtrines of his EflTay, in tho 
fecond epiflle^ when he fays, at line 237,; 

£ach individual fceks a fev'ral goal ; 
But Heav'n's great view is One, aiid that the whole i 
That counterworks each folly and caprice | 
That difappoints th* efFedk of every vice 3— 
That Virtues end from Vanity can raife^ 
Which fceks no intereft, no reward but praife; 
And builds on wants, and on defeAs of mind^ 
The joy, thepeate5 the glory of mankind* 

That Providence fliould extraft good 
from evil, and alter its natural biafs and ma- 
lignity, is a doftrine widely different ffom the 
loofe and flagitious principles of Mande-^ 
viLLE, who has endeavoured to prove that 
Private Vices are Public Benefits ^ 

34. You too proceed ! make falling arti your care^ 
£re£t new wonders, and the old repair ; 
Jones and Palladio to themfelves reftore. 
And be whatever Vitruvius was before** 

• V. 192. 



This is not fulfome adulation, but only ^ 
fuch honeft praife as the noble Lord whom he 
addrcffed ftridtly defervcd : who inherited all 
that love of fcience and ufeful knowk4gc 
for which his family has been fo famous. 
The name of Boyle is, indeed, aufpicious 
to literature. That fublime genius and goocj 
man, Biihop Berkley, owed his preferment 
chiefly to this accompliflied peer, For it 
was he that recommended him to the Duke 
-of Grafton, in the year 1721, who took him 
pver withhipi to Ireland when he was. Lord 
Lieutenant, and promoted him to the deanery 
pf Derry- in the year 1 724*, Berkley gained 
the patronage apd friendihip of Lord Bur- 

* Attbrburv was defirons of feeing Berkley ; to whom 
he was introdaced by the Earl of Berkley. After he had left 
the rooin« What does your Lordihip think of my coafin^ faid 
the Earl, does he anfwer your Lordfhip*s.expedation$? The 
Bifliop» lifting up his hands in aftoni(hment> replied," So 
sniich underftanding, fo much knowledge, fo much inno* 
cence, and fo much humility, I did not think had been 
ffae portion of any but angels, till I faw this gentleman.'^ 
Plincombe's Letters* 

L 1 2 lington, 


lington, not only by his true politenefs and 
the peculiar charms of his converfation, 
which was exquifite, but by his profound and 
pcrfeft fkill in architedture ; an art which 
he had very particularly and accurately flu- 
died in Italy, when he went and con tinned -f* 
abroad four years, with Mr Afhe, fon of th^ 
Bifhop of Clogher. With an iniiatiable and 
philofophic attention, Berkley farveyed and 
examined every objedt of curiofity. He not 

f In this journey he paid a vlfit to Father Malebranche. 
The converfaiion turned on our author's celebrated iyftem of 
the non-exiilence of matter. Malebranche» who had an infiam* 
fnatioirin his lungs, and whom he found preparing a medi* 
cioe in his cell, and cooking it in a fraall pipkin, for his difi 
order, exerted his voice and lungs fo violently in the heat ot 
their difpute, that he increai'ed his diforder, which carried 
him off a few days after. St^e Biogr. Britannica, voJ. ii. p. 25I9 
as it is highly improved by the candid and learned Dr. Kip. 
pis. — Many a vulgar critic hath fneered at the Si a is of fierk* 
ley, for beginning with Tar and ending with the TrsMity; in- 
capable of obferving the great art with which the tranhtioni. 
in that book are finely made, where each paragraph depends 
on and arifes out of the preceding, and gradually and imper* 
cepiibly leads on the reader, from common objedls to inoit 
lemote, from matter to fpiritj from earth to heaven. 



only made the ufual tour, but went over 
Apulia and Calabriay and even travelled on 
foot through Sicily y and drew up an accouny 
of that very claflical ground ; which was Ipft 
in a voyage to Naples, and cannot be fuf- 
ficiently regretted. His generous projeS 
for creding an Univerfity at Bermudas, the 
effort of a mind truly adtive, benevolent, and 
patriotic, is fufficiently known. 

55. Bid harbours open, public ways extend. 
Bid temples worthier of the God afcend ; 
Bid the broad arch the dangerous flood contain. 

The mole projeSed break the roaring main ; 
Back to his bounds their fuhjefl fea command. 
And roll obedient rivers through the land **. 

No country has been enriched and adorned, 
within a period of thirty or forty years, with 
fo many works of public fpirit, as Great 
Britain has been ; witnefs our many exten- 
0ve roads, cur inland navigations (fome of 

• V. 197- 



which excel the boaftcd canal oiLanguedoc) 
the lighting and the paving and beautifying 
our cities, and our various and magnificent 
edifices. A general good tafle has been dif? 
fufed in planting, gardening, and building. 
The ruins of Palmyra, the Antiquities of 
Athens and Spalatro, and the Ionian anti- 
quities, by W90D, Stuart, Adam, and 
Chandler, are fuch magnificent monu- 
ments of learned curiofity as no country in 
Europe can equal. Let it be remembered, 
that thefe fine lines of Pope v^^cre written 
when we had no Wyatt or Brown, 
Brindley or Reynolds i no Weflmxnftcr 
bridge, no Pantheon, no Royal Academy, no 
King that is at once a judge and a patron 
of all thofe fine arts, tjiat ought to be em-? 
ployed in raifing and beautifying a palac^ 
equal to his dignity and his taftp. 

36. Sec the wild wafte of all-devouring years. 
How Rome her own f^d fepulchrc appears 



'This is the opening of the cpiftle to Mr. 
Addifon*f upon his treatife on medals, writ- 
ten in that pleafing fofm of compofition fo 
unfuccefsfully attempted by many modern 
authors, DialoCUe. In no one fpeci^s of 
Vriting have the ancients fo indifputable a 
fuperiority over us. The dialogues of Plato 
and Cicero, efpecially the former, are perfed: 
dramas ; where the charadters are fupported 
with confiftency and nature, and the reafon* 
ing fuited to the charaAers* 

** There are in Englifli T'bree dialogues, 
and but three" (fays a learned and ingenious 
author -J-, who has himfelf praftifed this 
way of writing with fuccefs) *< that deferve 

* F2C0RiNi» the celebrated virtaofo^ faid to Mr. Spence^ 
at Florence :*-'' Addifon did not go any great depth in the 
ftttdy of medals : all the knowledge he had of that kind» 
I believe he received of me : and I did not give him above 
twenty leflbns on that fubje^." 

t Dr. Hnrd» in Moral and Political Dialogsei, Preface, 
P- H- 

commendation ; 


commendation; namely, the Mor^ltfts of 
Lord Shaftesbury; Mr. Addison's 
Treatife on Medals ; and the Minute Phi- 
lofopher of Bifliop Berkley." Alci- 
PHRON did, indeed, well deferve to be men- 
tioned on this occafion ; notwithftanding 
it has been treated with contempt by a 
writer* much inferior to Berkley in ge- 
nius, learning, and tafte. Omitting thofe 
paflages in the fourth dialogue, where he 
has introduced his fanciful and whimfical 

* Bidiop Hoadly, in letters to Lady Snndon, vol. i. of 
his works. But Sherlock thought highly of Alciphronj and 
prefented it to Queen Caroline with many encomiums. The 
Queen was ufed to be delighted with the converfation of Berk- 
ley ^ and perhaps Hoadly was a little jealous of fuch a riVal. 
Lord Bachurfi told me« that all the members of the SeriSbnu'^ 
c/u&,hcing met at his houfe at dinner^ they agreed to rally Berk- 
ley » who was alfo his gucfk^ on his fcheme at BermudasBerk* 
ley having lillcned to all the lively things they had to fay, beg- 
ged to be heard in his turn; and difplayed his plan with fuch an 
afloniHiing and animating force of eloquence and ent]iiifiafm» 
that they were llruck dumb, and, after fome paufe, rofe op all 
together with earneflncfs, exclaiming— Let vs all fet oat Vith 
him immediate] V. 

9 opinions 


mrfjrrr . : ■ ^^ f.^ 

AND Gl£NltJS OF POPE. 265 

(>pinion8 about vtfion, an attentive reader 
. will find that there is fcarce a fingle argu- 
ment that ean be urged in defence of Reve- 
lation, but what is here placed in the clear- 
eft lights and in the mofl beautiful diction : 
in this work there is a happy union of rea- 
ibning and imagination. The two different 
characters of the two different forts of free- 
thinkers> are ftrongly contrafted with each 
other^ and with the plainnefs and fimplicity 
^ of Eupbranor^ 

These Dialogues of Addifdn* are written 
with that fweetnefs and purity of ftyle, that 
contribute to make him the firft of our profe- 
writers. The Plcafures of Imagination, the 
Effay on the Georgics, and his lafl: papers 
ih the Spectator and Guardian, are models 
of language. And fome late writers, who 

* It ii obfervable how much he improved aftet* he wfotd 
bit Trmveb. In Swift's Preface to Sir W. Temple's works, 
and in his traDilatioDs from the French^ &c. in that book, 
there are many inaccurate and almoft ongramAatical ezpref« 
fions : thefe were his very firft publicationj. 

Vol. II. M m feeni 


feem to have miftaken Jitffhefs for Jirengtb^ 
and are grown popular by a pompous rotun- 
dity of phrafe, make one wifli that the rifing 
generation may abandon this unnatural, falfe, 
and florid ftyle, and form themfelves on the 
chiijler model of Addilbn. The chief imper- 
fedion of his treatife on medals, is, that the 
perfons introduced as fpeakers, in dircdl con- 
tradiftion to the pracftice of the ancients, arc 
fi^Uious, not real: forCvNTHio*, Philan- 
der, PaL/^MON, EuGENI0,andTHE0CLE8, 

cannot equally excite and engage the atten- 
tion of the reader with Socrates and Al- 
ciBiADES, Atticus and Brutus, Cow- 
ley and Spratt, Maynard and Somers. 
It is fomewhat fingular, that fo many mo- 
dern dialogue-writers ihould have failed in 
tills particular, when fo many of the moft 
celebrated wits of modern Italy had given 
them eminent examples cf the contrary pro- 

* How ill the forms and ceremonies and complimeiits of 
modern good- breeding would bear cj be exadly reprefentiedi 

frt CharaJltriflU}, vol. i. p. 239. 


■ ■HI I H«-Z--^^Ma^Hii«MMMi'< "T^ mi '» ■ ^ ■ m '»i 


cecding, and, clofcly following the fteps of 
the ancients, conftantly introduced living and 
real perfons in their numerous compofitions 
of this fort ; in which they were fo fond of 
delivering their fentiments both on moral 
and critical fubjefts; witnefs the // Corte- 
giano of B. Castiglione, the Aftdani of 
P. Bembo, Dialoghi del. S. Sperone, the 
Naugeriusof Fracastorius, and LU. Gv- 
n ALDUS Vi? Poetis^ and many others. In all 
which pieces, the famous and living ge« 
niufes of Italy are introduced as difcufling 
the feveral dilFerent topics before them. 

37» Huge theatres, that now unpeopled woods*; 

is not fo poetical as what Addison fays of 
an amphitheatre. 

That on its public (hews unpeopled Romf, 
And held, uncrowdedj nations in its woml f. 

• V, 7. t Letter from Italy. 

M m 2 But 


But the beginning of the nineteenth line 
is eminently beautiful ; 

Ambition figh'd- 

38. And fcarce are feen the projirati Nils or Rhx nb ; 
A fmall Euphrates thro' the piece is roH'd, 
And little eagles wave their wings in gold %• 

The two firft-mentioned rivers having 
been perfontfied^ the Euphrates (hould not 
have been fpoken of as a mere river. The 
pircumftance in the lafl line is puerile and 


* • 

39. To gain Pcfcennius one employs his fchcmc$ 
One grafps a Cccrops in ccftatic dreams §. 

How his eyes languifli ! how his thoughts adore 

That painted coat which Jofeph never wore ? 

He {hews, on holiday 5 ^ a facrcd pin. 

That toucht the rufF, that touch t Queen Bcfs's chin J]. 

A GREAT deal of wit has been wafle4 on 
Antiquarians i whofe fludies are not only 

I V. 28. § V. J9. II Young, Satire iy. 


- I . tm 


pleafing to the imagination, but attended 
with many advantages to fociety, efpecially 
fince they have been improved, as they late* 
ly have been, in elucidating the moft im-p 
portant part of all hiftory, the Hijiory of 

4.O. Oh when (hall Britain, confcious pf her claim, 
Stand emulous of Greek and Roman fame f 
In living medals fee her wars enroll'd, 
And vanquifh'd realms fupply recording gold 1^ 

Addison, in the ninety-fixth paper of th» 
Guardian, has given us a propofal, which he 
drew up and delivered to thp I^ord Treafurer; 
The paper ends thus ; 

It is propofed, 

I. That the Engliih farthings and half-- 
pence be recoined upon the union of the 
two nations.' 2. That they bear devices 
gnd infcriptions alluding to all the moft re-^ 
markable parts of her Majefty's reign. 3. 

II V. S3- 



That there be a fodety eftabliihed for the 
finding out of proper fubjeds, infcriptionst 
and devices. 4. That no fubjed, infcrip* 
tion, or device, be (tamped without the ap- 
probation of this fociety, nor» if it be thought 
proper^ without the authority of privy-coun- 
cil. By this means^ medals, that are at pre- 
fent only a dead treafure, or mere curioii- 
ties, will be of ufe in the ordinary commerce 
of life, and, at the fame time, perpetuate the 
glories of her Majefly's reign, reward the la- 
bours of her greateft fubjcdls, keep alive in 
the people a gratitude for publick fervices, 
and excite the emulation of pofterity. To 
thefe generous purpofes nothing can fo much 
contribute as medals of this kind, which arc 
of undoubted authority, of neceffary ufe and 
obfervation, not perifhablc by time, nor con- 
fined to any certain place ; properties not to 
be found in books, ftatues, pidtures, build- 
ings, or any other monuments of illudrious 

41. Then 


^mmmm^^^-»f^^ ■ i^— — ^^m^»— ^i»-— — — ^-^^ — r^nm-t^^'Zj.i^ . !■. 


41. Then (hall thy Caaggs (and let me call him mine) 
On the caft ore,-another Pollio (hine ^, ' 

TicKELL -f*, in his preface to the works 
of Addifon, concludes a copy of highly cle-r 
gant and polifhed verfes^ addreffed to the 
Earl of Warwick, with - the following fine 
lines : 

Thefe works divine, which, on his death-bed laid. 
To thee, O Craggtj th' expiring fage convey'd. 
Great, but ill-omen'd monument of fame. 
Nor he fucyivM to give, nor thou to claim. 
Swift after him thy fecial fpirit flics, 
And clofe to his, how foon I thy coffin lies* 
Bleft pair ! whofe union future bards (hall tell. 
In future tongues; each othei^s boaft $9 farewell! 
Farewell 1 whom join'd in fame, in friendihip try*d. 
No chance could fever, nor the grave divide. 

42. Statefman, 

• V. 6s. 

t In the few things that Tickell wrote, there appear t6 
be a peculiar tericneiii and neatnefs. 

X Addifon's works (fays Atterbary, Letter x. v. 8.) came 
to my hands yefterday, OA. 15, 1721. I cannot but thinkit 
a very odd fet of incidents, that the book fliould be dedi- 
cated by a dead man to a dead man (Mr. Craggs) and ercn 
that the new patron (Lord Warwick) to whom Tickell chofe 



42. Statcfman, yet friend to truth ! of foul fincere^ 
In adlion faithful, and in honour clear ; 
Who broke no promife, ferv'd no private end. 
Who gain'd no title, and who loft no friend ^ 
Ennobled by himfelf, by all approved. 
And prais'd, unenvy'd^ by the mufe he lov*df« 

These nervous and finifhcd linefi wert 
afterwards infcribed as an epitaph on this 
worthy man's monument in Weftminftcf 
Abbey, with the alteration of two words 
in the laft verfe; which there flands thus: 

Prais'd, wept, and honour'd by the mufe he lov'd. 

It was Cr aggs, who in the moft friendly 
and alluring manner offered our author a 
penfion of three hundred pounds per annum; 
which if he had accepted, we (hould have 
been deprived of his bcft fatires. Poets have 
a high fpirit of liberty and independenccf. 

to infcribe his verfes, fhould be dead alfo before they weri 
publiihed. Had I been in the Editor's place. I (hould have 
been a little apprehenfive for myfclf, under a thought that 
every one who had any hand in that work^ was to die befort 
the publication of it. 

• V. (>-]. 

10 They 


They neither feek or expedl rewards. Me- 
CJEHASES do net create geniufes. Neither 
Spencer or Milton, or Dante or Tasso, 
or CoRNEiLLE*, Were patronized by the 
governments under which they lived. And 
Horace and Virgil and Boileau were 
Jormed^ before they had an opportunity- of 
flattering Augustus and Lewis XIV. 

Though Pope enlifted under the banner 
of Bolingbroke, in what was called the 
country party, and in violent oppofition to 
the meafures of Walpole, vet his clear and 
good fenfe enabled him to fee the follies and 
virulence of all parties \ and it was his fa- 
vourite maxim, that, however factious men 

• II n' aimoit point Ic Cour, (fays Fontenellc, fpeaking 
of his uncle Comeiile) il y apportoit un vifage prcfqu* inconnu, 
un grand nom qui nc s' acdrolt que dcs louanges, & un mc- 
rite qui n' etoic point le mcri:e de ce pays-U. Tom, iii. 
p« 126. 

N. B. The piece of Fontcnelie, alluded to in page 115 of 
this volume, is to be found in Bayle*s NouvelUs, &c. vol. v. 

Vol. II. N n thought 

thought proper to diftinguilh themfclves by 
names, yet when they got into power they all 
aded much in the fame manner; iaying, 

I know how like J^hig mintften to Tory, 

And among his manufcripts were four 
very fenfible lines, which contain the moft 
folid apology that can be made for a minifter 
of this country : 

Our miniilers Vikegladidtm Vivci 
'Tis half their bufiners blows to wariit or^iw; 
The good their virtu would eSe&, or ftnftt 
Dies, between exigents zad fet/'de/tKct. 

Yet he appears fometimes to have forgottet^ 
this candid refleftion. 




S E C T. XL 

Of the Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. 

I. QHUT, (hut the door, good John ! fatigu'd, I faid, 
^ Tie up the knocker, fay I'm fick, Vm dead ! 
The dog-ftar rages ! nay, 'tis pad a doubt. 
All Bedlam or Parnaflus is let out : 
Fire in each eye^ and papers in each hand. 
They rave, recite, and madden round the land *• 

This abrupt exordium is animated and 
dramatic. Our poet, wearied with *hc im- 
pertinence and flander of a mr\itude of 
mean fcribblers that attacked him, fuddenly 
breaks out with this fpirited complaint of 
the ill ufage he had fuftained. This piece 
was published •!• in the year 1734, in the 

• V. 1. 

t With this motto ; Neque fcrmonibus fulgi At^tv\i te, ncc 
in premiis humsnis fpem poi'ucris rerum tuarum: fuis te 
oportet illecebris ip/a Vinui trahac ad i^rum Jccus. Qjid 
de te alii loquantur, ipfi videant^ fed loqueniur tamen. 


N n 2 form^ 


form of an epiftle to Dr. Arbuthnot ; it is 
now given as a Dialogue^ in which a very 
fmall fliare is allotted to his friend, ^r- 
buthnotvizs a man of confummate probity -j-, 
integrity, and fwectnefs of temper : he had 
infinitely more learning than Pope or Swift, 
and as much wit and humour as either of 
them. He was an excellent mathematician 
and phyfician, of which his letter on the 
ufefulnefs of mathematical learning, and his 
treatife on air and aliment, arc fufficient 
proofs. His tables of ancient coins, weights^ 
and meafures *, are the work of a man inti- 
mately acquainted with ancient hiftory and 
literature, and are enlivened with many cu- 
rious and interefting particulars of the man- 
ners and ways of living of the ancients. 

f Swift faid, " he was a man that could do every thing 
but walk." His chearfulnefs was remarkable: " As for your 
humble fervant, ^with a great ftone in his kidnrys, and a 
family of men and women to provide for, he is as chearful at 
ever in public affairs." Letters^ vol. xx. p. 206. 

* Oh, fays Swift, if the world had but a dozen of Arbuth- 
not! in it» I would burn my Travtls ! Letters, vol. xx. p. 56. 


And genius of pope. 277 

"^be Bijlory of John Bull, the befi parts of the 
JMemoirs cfScriblerus, tliz Art of Political hying^ 
the Freeholders Catechifm, It cannot rain but 
St pours, &c. abound in ftrokes of the moft 
exquifite humour. It is known that he gave 
numberlefs hints to Swift, and Pope, and 
Gay, of fome of the moft ftriking parts of 
their works. He was fo negledtful of his 
writings, that his children tore his ihanu- 
fcripts and made paper^kites of them. Few 
letters in the Englifh language are fo inte- 
refting, and contain fuch marks of Chriftiaii 
refignation * and calmnefs of mind, as end 
that he wrote to Swift a little before his 
death, and is inferted in the 3d vol. of Let- 

* ^' I make ic my lafl requell (fays Arbuthnot in his lail let- 
ter CO Pope) chat you will continue that noble difdain and ab- 
horrence of vice^ which you feem naturally endued with ; but 
Aill with a due rer^ard to your own fafety ; and (ludy more tof 
rtform than cbaflije, though the one cannot be efFe£led with- 
out the other." Letters^ vol. viii. p. 290. The words are re* 
markable, and cannot fail of raiiing many refledlions in the 
mind of the reader. Pope, in his anfwer, fays, " To reform, 
and not 10 cbaftife, is impoflxble ; and the bed precepts, as well 
as the bell laws, would prove of fmall ufe, if there were no ex-* 
amplei to enforce them." 


— ^^AxiuBKUKE ana c 

The ftrokes of fatin 
epiille, have fuch an ex 
poignancy, that our au 
has been much cenfurt 
whether it will be a fu 
&jt .that thcfc malevo 
ever impotent and inli^ 
perfiit, morals, and f am 
cules and rallies vile 
jfeeming pleaTantry and | 
ought to recolleft, thai 
greflbr, anct had receive 
when he fell upon Cotm, 
jSmmdt CoUetet, Cbapeh 
^vas on this account tl: 
, a man of rigid \ 


and be reconciled to him. The authors that 
Pope profcribed were in truth fo mean and 
contemptible, that Swift faid, ** Give me a 
fhilling, and I will infure you that pofterity 
(hall never know you had a fingle enemy, 
excepting thofe whofe memory you have prc- 

Laiflez mourir un fat dans fon obfcuritc. 
Un autcur ne pcut-il pourir en feuretc ? 
Le Jonas inconnu feche dans la pouflicrc. 
Le David imprime n'a point vcu la lumiere. 
Le MoiTe commence d moifir par les bords. 
Quel mal celafait-il ? Ceux qui font morts font morts. 
Le tombeau contre vous ne peut-il les defendre, 
.Et qu'on fait tant d'auteurs pour remuer leur cendre t 
Que vous ont fait Perrin, Bardin, Pradon, Hainaut, 
Colletet, Pelletier, Titreville, Qiiinaut. 
Dont les noms en cent lieux, placez comme en leurs 

Vonbde vos vers malins remplir les hemiftiches. 

BoiLEAU, Satire ix. v. 89*. 

This is cxquifitely pleafant; and exprefled 
with that purity and force, both of thought 
and didtion, that happy Horatian mixture 

7 of 


of jeft and earneft, that contribute to place 
Defpreaux at the head of * modern clajjics. 
I think it muft be confefled, that he has 
caught the manner of Horace more luccefs- 
fully than Pope. It is obfervable that Boi- 
leau, when he firft began to write, copied 
Juvenal 5 whofe violent ^ downwrighty de- 
clamatory ipecies of fatire, is far more \t^{y to 
^)e imitated, than the oblique, indired:, deli- 
cate touches of Horace. The opinion of 
L. Gyr ALDUS concerning Juvenal feems 
to be judicious and well-founded. Ego, li 
quidquan> mihi credendum putatis, non eo 
yfque Juvenalem legendum cenfeo, nifi 
quoufque cafta & Romana ledlione, plane 
iimus imbuti : atque hoc eo vobifcum liben-. 
tius, quo a magiftris video minus obfervari. 
Lilii G. Gyraldi. De Poet. Dial. iv. p. 1-79. 

* His generoiity was equal to his genius. Patru was re- 
duced to great extremities, and compelled to fell his very va- 
luable library. He not only gave Patku a larger Aim for 
his books than he could get of any body elfe^ but added to 
the conditions of the fale, that he ihould continue to ufe his 
library as long as he lived, 

2. Is 


2t* Is there a Parfon, much be-mus'd in beer, 


A maudlin Poetefs, a rhyming Pecr^ 
A Clerk, pre-doom'd his father's foul to crofs. 
Who pens a ftanza when he (hould engrofs ? 
Is there, who lock'd from ink and paper, fcrawls 
With defp'rate charcoal round his darkened walls? 
All fly to Twitnam, and in humble (train 
Apply to me to keep them mad and vain ! 
Arthur, Mhofe giddy fon neglefts the laws. 
Imputes to me and my damn'd works the caufe *• 

BEFORE this epiille was publidied. Dr. 
Young addrefled two epiftles to our author, 
in the year 1730, concerning the authors of 
the age ; in which are many paflages that 
bear a; great relembLitice to each other; 
though Pope has heightened, improved, 
and condenfcd the hints and fentiments of 

' Shall vre not ccnfure all the motley train. 
Whether with ab irriguous, or champaign ? 

• V. 15. 
Vol. II. O O Whether 



Whether they tread the vale of Profe, or climb. 
And whet their appetites on clifis of Rhyme i 
The college Sloven, or embroider'd Spark, 
The purple Prelate, or the Parifh-clerk, 
The quiet Quidnunc, or demanding Prig, 
The plaintiff Tory, or defendant Whig ; 
Rich, poor, male, female, young, old, gay^ or fad. 
Whether extremely witty, or quite mad ; 
Profoundly dull, or fhallowly polite. 
Men that read well, or men that only write : 
Whether peers, porters, taylors, tune their reeds. 
And meafuring words to meafuring fhapes fucceeds i 
For bankrupts write, when ruin'd (hops are (but, 
As maggots crawl from out a perifhM nut. 
His hammer this, and that his trowel quits. 
And, wanting fenfe for tradefmen, ferve for wits. 
Thus his material, paper, takes it's birth. 
From tatter'd rags of all the fluff on earth f. 

3. Seiz'd and ty'd down to judge, how wretched I J! 

Odifti & fugis, ut Drufonem debitor xris ; 
Qui, nifi cum triftes mifero venere Calendar, 
Mercedem aut nummo unde unde extricat, amaras 
Porredo jugulo hiftorias, captivus ut, audit. 

f Epiflle on the authors of the age, page ;, 1730* 
I V. 33- 

7 Few 



Few paflages In Horace are more full of- 
humour, than this ludicrous punifhment of 
the poor creditor. 

4. Nine years ! cries he, who high in Dniry Lane, 
LulI'd by foft zephyrs thro' the broken pane. 
Rhymes ere he wakes ■ *. 

Qui facit in parva fublimia carmina cella t* 

Lo ! what from cellars rife, what rufh from high. 
Where Speculation roofted near the (ky: 
Letters, eflays, fock, bufkin, fatire, fong. 
And all the garret thunders on the throng J ! 

5* Blefs me ! a packet^-'tis a firanger fues, 


A virgin tragedy, an orphan mu^fc. 

If I diflike it, furies, death, and rage! 

If I approve, commend it to the ftage. 

Then, thank my ftars, my whole commiffion ends. 

The play'rs and I are luckily no friends ]. 

This alludes to a tragedy, never afted, but 
publi(hed 1723, called, The Virgin S^ueen^ 

* V. 41. t Juv. Sat. vii. ) Young* Epiille i. p. 4. 
« V. 55. 

O o 2 written 


written by Mr. Richard Barford. It is faid 
that he offended Pope, by adopting the ma- 
chinery of his Sylphs*, in an heroicomical 
poem, called TheAff'embly,m five cantos, pub- 
lidded 1726, and not wdl received, though the 
author was reckoned a learned and- ingenious 

■ ■ ■ • 

man, and patronized by Lord Pembroke^ 

6. 'Tis fung, when Midas' ears began to fpring, 
(Midas, a facrcd perfon, and a king) 
His very miniftcr, who fpy'd them firft. 
Some fay his queen, was forc'd to fpcak, or burft. 
And is not mine, my friend, a forer cafe, 
When evVy coxcomb perks them in my face J ? 

The abruptnefs with which this ftory from 
Perfius is introduced, occalions an obfcurity 
in the pallligcj for there is no connexion 
with the fcicgoing paragraph. j^oileau 

* He was jealous that his exquifite machinery ihould bo 
touched by any other hand. The Uticr:^ oi M, Je Sevigne^ 
in which the Sylphs arc mentioned as invifible attendants, and 
as intcreft'.d in the affairs of the ladies, are the loift, iOi|.th« 
195th. See vol. i. of this elTay, p. 240, third edition. * 

X V. 69. 



fays. Satire ix. v. 22 1, I have nothing to do 
with Cbapelatns honor, or probity, or candor, 
or civility, or complaifance : but if you hold 
Lim up as a model of good writing, and as 
the king of authors. 

Ma bile alors s' cchauffe, & je brulc d' ecrirc ; 
£t s'il ne m'eft pcrmis de le dire au papier; 
pirai creufer la terre, & comme ce barbierj 
Faire dire aux rofcaux par un nouvel organe, 
♦* Midas, le Roi Midas ades oreilles d'Afne." 

There is more humour in making the 
prying and watchful eyes of the miniftcr, 
inftead of the barber, firft difcover the afs's 
carsj and the yf or A perks has particular force 
and emphafis. Sir Robert Walpole and ^een 
Caroline were here pointed at. 

• 7, Who {hames a fcribblcr ? break one cobweb thro'. 
He fpins the flight, felf-pleafing thread anew : 
Dcftroy his fib or fophiftry, in vain ! 
The creature's at his dirty work again ; 
Thron'd in the center of his thin defigns. 


Proud of a vaft extent offiimfy lines §. 

S V. 89. 



The metaphor ^f- is moft happily carried on 
through a variety of correfponding particu- 
lars^ that exa£tly hit the natures of the two 
infeSls in qucftion. It is not purfued toofar^ 
nor jaded out, fo as to become quaint and af^ 
feSled, as is the cafe of many, perhaps, in 
Congreves Comedies^ particularly in the Way 
of the World, and in Toungs Satires. For 
inflance : 

Critics on verfe, zs /quits on triuai.phs, wait. 
Proclaim the glory, and augment the (late ; 

f Berkley, in his Alciphron, Dialogue vi. p» 107 , has 
beautifully employed an image of this fort, on a more ferious 
fubjeft. '* To tax or ftrike at this divine dodlrine, on account 
of things foreign and adventitious, the fpeculations and dif- 
pates of curious men, is, in my mind, an abfurdity of the 
fame kind, as it would be to cut down a fine tree, yielding 
fruit and ihade, becaufe its leaves afforded nourilhment to car 
terpillars, or becaufe fpidcrs may now and then weave cob- 
webs among the branches." Berkley had a brilliant imagina- 
tion. See his charming defcription of the ifland luarimt^ \n 
Letters to P. vol. vii. p. 330. I have been told, that Blackwell 
received his idea of Homtr, and of the na/ons and cau/et of 
Homer^% fuperior excellence^ from Berkley^ with whom he had 
been connected. 



Hot, envious, noify, proud, the fcribbling fry tt 
Burn, hifs, and bounce, wafte paper, (link and die t* 

The epithets envious, znd proud, have no- 
thing to do with fquibs. The laft line is 
brilliant and ingenious,- but perhaps too 
much fo. 

£. There are who to my perfon pay their court : 
I cough like Horace^ and tho' 7^0^, am^^r/; 
Amnion's great Ton one ihoulder had too high. 
Such Ovid*s nofe, and, Sir, you have an eye §• 

The fmalleft perfonal particularities are- 
interefting in eminent men. We liften with 
pleafure to Montaigne, when he tells us, 
•* My face is not pufF'd, but full, and my 
complexion between jovial and melancholy, 
moderately fanguine and hot. In dancings 
tennis, or wreftling, I could never arrive at 
any excellence j in fwimming, fencing, 

f- See alfo a paffage in his twoEpiflles, where the tranfmi* 
gratioos of Proteus are adapted to the various fhapes aiFuined 
by modem fcribblers. 

X UQiverfaJ Paffion« Sat* iiL (V. 115. 



vaulting, and leaping, to none at all. My 
hands are fo clumfy, that I cannot read what 
I write myfelf. I cannot handfomely fold 
up a lettei", nor could I ever make a pen, nor 
carve at table, nor Carry a hawk. My 
fight is perfeft and entire, and difcbvers at 
a great diflance, but is foon weary ; which 
obliges me not to read long, but I am 
forced to have a perfon to read fo me." 
Vol. ii. 372. 

What palTages in Horace are * more agree- 
able than— 

Me pinguem & nitidum bene curati cute vifes— » 
Lufum it Mxcxnas, dcrmitum ego Virgiliufquc— 
Namque pila lippis inimicum & ludere crudis'^ 
Me primis urbis hilli placuifTc domique\ 
Corporis exigui^ pracanum^ folibus aptunij 
Irafci celeremy tamen ut plaiabilis eiTem. 

• ** My converfation (fays Dryden very entertainingly df 
Idrnfelf) is, flow and dull, my humour facurnine and referved. 
In fliortj I am none of thofe who eudeavour to break jefts in 
iompaoy, or make repartees/' 

Preface to his Indian Eiiperor. 



What Addifon fays in jeft, and with his 

iifual humour, is true in fadt : — ^^ I have 

obferved that a reader feldom perufes a book 

with jpleafure, 'till he knows whether the 

writer of it be a black or fair man, of a mild 

or cholerick difpofition, married or a bat- 

chelor." I will add, at the hazard of its 

being reckoned a trifling and minute remark, 

that many of our Englifh poets have been in 

their perfons remarkably handfome; fuch 

were Spenser, Milton, Cowley, Rowe, 

Addison, Congreve, Garth, Gray.— • 

Virgil and Vida are faid, by Lil. Gy- 

R ALDUS, to be facie prope rufticanaj and 

Ovid and Cardinal Bembo, to be tenui 

& vefco corpore, nervifque compado; as alfo 

was TiBULLus. — The portraits of Dante, 

Petrarch, and BoccACio,arc thus given, 

in the curious and entertaining hiftory of 

their lives by Jannot. Manettus, a 

celebrated writer of the fifteenth century, 

but not publiftied till 1746, at Florence. 

Dante, he fays, was mediocri & decent! 

Vol. II; P p ftatura. 


ftatura^ facie paulum oblonga^ oculis pau- 
lo grandioribus^ nafo aquiiino, latis pendent!- 
bufque maxillis, inferior! labro aliquan- 
tulum quam alterum fuper ementientiori, 
colore fufco, capillis ac barba prolixis^ nigris, 
fubfcrifpifque. Petrarch^ forma ita de- 
cora fuiiTe dicitur, ut per omnem xtatis par- 
tem majeftatem quandam prae fe fcrre vide- 
batur. Tanta corporis agilitate ac dexteritate 
praevalebat, ut vix ab aliquo fuperari pofTet. 
Valetudine profperrina ufque ad fencdam 
ufus eft. Of BoccACio he fays. Habitude 
corporis ejus obefa fuifle dicitur, ftaturi 
proceri, rotundiori facie, hilari & jucundo 
afpedtu, fermone ita facetus & comis, ut 
fingulis ejus verbis dum loqueretur fumma 
urbanitas appareret. In amores ufque ad 
maturam fere aetatcm vcl paulo proclivior. 
p. 8i. 

9. Why did I write? what fin, to me unknown. 
Dipt me in ink, my parents or my own ? 
As yet a cliild, nor yet a fool to fame, 
I lifp'd in numbers, for the numbers came. 


*-=— ■■ L H H 


I left no calling for this idle trade. 
No duty broke, no father difobey'd *. 

BoiLEAU fays, in his fifth epiftle, verfe 
no, that his father left hitn a decent patri* 
xnony, and made him ftudy the law : 

Mais bien-toft amoreux d'un plus noble metier, 
Fils, frere, oncle, coufin, bcau-frere de Grefficr, 
Pouvant charger mon bras d'une utile liaile, 
J'allay loin du Palais errer fur de Parnafle. 
La famille en palit, ic vit en frcmifTant, 
Dans la Poudre du GrefFe un poete naiilant^ 
On vit avec horreur une mufe efFrenee 
Dormir chez un Grcfiier la grafle matinee t» 

SO. But why then publifh ? Granville the polite. 

And knowing Waljh^ would tell me I could write \ 
Wcll-natur'd % Garth inflam'd with early praife, 
/Vnd Congrevi lov'd, and &wift endur'd ipy l^ys : 

• V. 125. 

f He was a grca;; fleeppr ; got op late, and always was ac- 
cuflomed to deep afcer dinner : as alfo was Pope. 

{ Every word and epithet here ufed is charaAeriilicaU ^d 
peculiarly appropriated to the temper and manner of each of 
the perfons here mentioned; the elegance of /^a«//i7<u;«, thp 
open free benevolence of Garth, the warmth of Congrfve, 
the difficulty of pleafing Sivi/t, the very gefture that jftter" 
hmy ufed when he was pleafed^ and the animate^ air and fpiric 
f f Silififiroie. 

P p 2 Th? 

■K^lfct— I.' 1--^ 


The courtly Talbot^ Somcrsy Sheffield read,' 
Ev'n mitred Rochcjhr would nod the head 5 
And St,' Johns fcif (great Drydcn's friend before) 
With open arms received one poet more f. 

To the three firft names, that encouraged 
his earlieft writings, he has added other 
friends, whofe acquaintance with him did 
not commence till he was a poet of efta- 
bliflied reputation. From the many com- 
mendations which WalJJoy and Garths and 
Granville beftowed on his Pajioralsy it may 
fairly be concluded how much the public 
tafte has been improved, and with how many 
good compofitions our language has been 
enriched, fince that time. When Gray 
' publiftied his exquifite ode on Eton College, 
his firft publication, little notice was taken 
of it ; but I fuppofe no critic can be found, 
that will not place it far above Pope's Pafto- 

II. From thefe the world will judge of men and books, 
Not from the Burnets^ Oldmixcnsj and Cooks §. 

t V, 13s. § V. 145, 




Such authors, efpecially the two laft, are 
a kind of literary harpies ; whatever fubjed: 
they touch, they debafe and defile ; 

At fubitae horrifico lapfu de montibus adfunt 
Harpyiae, & magnis quatiunt clangoribus alas^ 
Diripiuntquc dapes, contaSluque omm^/iedant 
Immundo ; turn vox tetrum dsra inter odorem •• 

As to Burnet J his charadter is thus drawn by . 
the very fenfible and judicious tranflator of 
Polybius, Mr. Hampton, in a pamphlet 
that defervcs to he more kn r^vn, entitled, 
RefleSlions on Ancient and Modern Hijiory z 
printed in quarto at Oxford, 1746, ** His 
perfonal refentmcnt put him upon writing 
hiftory. He relates the aftions of a perfe- 
cutor and benefadtor : and it is eafy to believe 
that a man in fuch circumftances muft vio- 
late the laws of truth. The remembrance 
of his injuries is always prcfent, and gives 
yenom to his pen. Let us add to this, that 

* Virg. ^n. iii. v. 125. 


t ^.1 - ^* *Z" 


intemperate and malicious curiofity, which 
penetrates into the moft private receffes of 
vice. The greateft of his triumphs is to 
draw the veil of fecret infamy, and expofe 
to view tranfadtions that were before con- 
cealed from the world; though they fcrve 
not in the leaft, either to cmbellifli the 
ftyle, or connedt the ferics, of his hiftory ; 
and will never obtain more credit, than per- 
haps to fufpend the judgment of the reader, 
lince they are fupported only by one fingle, 
fufpedted teftimony." P. 28# 

12. Yet then did Gillon draw his venal quill j 
I wifh'd the man a dinner, and fat ftill : 
Yet then did Dennii rave in furious fret ; 
I never anfwer'd, I was not in debt : 
If want provok'd, or madncfs made them print, 
J wag'd no war with Bedlam or the Mint f- 

The J unexpefted turn in thzfccojid line 

t V. 151. 

X Ingcnio plurimum eft in eo, & acerbitas mira, & urbanlr 
tas, & v:s fumma ; fed plus ilomacho quam confilio dedit. 
Pn-eterca ut axnari ULtt, ita frequenter amaricudo ipfa ridi- 
cnla eil. M. F. Quintil. lib. x. c. i. 



of each of thefe three couplets^ contains as 
cutting and bitter flrokes of fatire, as perhaps 
can be written. 

It is with difficulty we can forgive our 
author for upbraiding thefe wretched fcrib-^ 
biers for their poverty and diftrefles, if we 
do not keep in our minds the grofsly abufivc 
pamphlets they publiihed^ without previous 
provocation from him i and even, allowing 
this circumftance, we ought to feparate ran-- 
cour from reproof. 

13. Yet ne*er one fprig of laurel gracM thefe ribalds^ 
Ytomjkjhing Bentley ■ ■ t* 

Swift imbibed from Sir W. Temple, 
and Pope from Swift, an inveterate and un- 
reafonable averfion and contempt for Bent- 
ley I whofe admirable Boyle s LeSfures, Re-- 
^^wr^j on Collins, Emendations of MenaM- 
PER and Callimachus, and Tully's Tu/cuL 

t V. 163. 



Difp* ; whofe edition of Horace, and above 
all. Differ tation on the Epiftles of Ph alar is, 
(in which he gained the moft complete vic- 

, tory over a whole army of wits) all of them 
exhibit the moft ftriking marks of accurate 
and extenfive erudition, and a vigorous and 
acute underftanding. He degraded himfelf 
much by his edition of the Paradife Lojly and 
by his ftrange and abfurd hypothelis of the 

• faults which Milton's amanuenfis introduced 
into that poem. But I have been informed 
that there was ftill an additional caufe for 
Pope's rcfcntmcnt; that Atterbury, being 
in company with Bentley and Pope, in- 
iifted upon knowing the Doftor's opinion of 
the Englifh Homer; and that, being earneftly 
prefled to declare his fcntiments freely, he 
faid, " The verfes arc good verfes, but the 
work is not Homer, it is Spondanus.'' It may 
however be obferved, in favour* of Pope, 


• And yet Pope, in a letter which Dr. Rutherforth (hewed 
me at Cambridge, in the year 1771, written to a Mr. Bridges. 



ttiat Dr. Clarke, whofe critical exaftnefs 
is well known, has not been able to point 
but above three or four miftakes in the fenfe 
through the whole Iliad. The real faults of 
that tranflation are of a different kind. 

14. — — — —■ ^-- down to ^/Vi/;.'7^ Tibalds. 

Yet tills very dull and laborious man was 
the firft publifher of Sbakejpeary that hit 
upon the true and rational method of cor- 
redling and illuftrating his author, that is, 
by reading fuch books (whatever trafh Pope* 
might call them) as Shakespear read, and 
by attending to the genius, learning, and no- 
tions of his times -f-. By purfuing and per- 

at Falham, mentions his confulting Chapman and Hobbes, 
and talks of " their authority, joined to the knowledge of 
my own imt)erfe6lners in the language, over-ruled me.** 
Thefe are the very words, which I tranfcribed at that time. 

* Pope was irritated at the many blunders in his Shakefpeor, 
that Theobald pointed out. 

f In this manner alfo has Spencsr been illoflrated. Se« 
Obfervations on the Fairy ^un, by T. Warion, -A. M. 
London, 1762, 8vo. ad edit.; and the Canterbury Tales of 
Chancer, with incomparable remarks by Mr. Tjrwbii. 

Vol. !!• Q^q fcding 

labours of fuch ex 

IS- Esch wight, who „, 
Each word-catcher. 

It it very eafy, 
laugh at coileftors 
adjuftcrsoftMis, ,1 
•crature, who drag 

« V. ,6j. 


To the indefatigable refearches of many a 
Dutch commentator and German editor, arc 
we indebted for that eafe and facility with 
which we now are enabled to read. *^ I am per- 
fuaded," fays Bayle, ** that the ridiculous 
obftinacy of the firft critics, who lavifhed fo 
much of their time upon the queftion, whe- 
ther we ought to fay Virgilius or Vergilius, 
has been ultimately of great ufe ; they there- 
by infpired men with an extreme veneration 
for antiquity ; they difpofed them to a fedu- 
lous enquiry into the condud: and charadler 
of the ancient Grecians and Romans, and 
that gave occafion to their improving by 
thofe great examples." Dift. tom. v. p. 795. 
I have always been (track with the following 
words of a commentator, who was * alfo ^ 

* Mallet, to gratify Pope, by abufing Bentlqr^ pub* 
]i(hedy about this time, a very feeble and flixnfy poem, cm 
Ftrb^d CritUi/m, flufTed with illiberal cant about pedantry, 
and collators of manufcripts. Real fcholars will always fpeak 
with due regard of fuch names as the Scaligers, Salmafiuj^s, 
Hi'mfiui^Si Burmans, Groao^iui's, Reijkiui^s^ Marklandt^ Gif* 
Mirs, and fftyags* 

QLSI 2 great 

t . 


great philofopher, I mean Dr. Clarke, who 
thus finifhes the preface to his incomparable 
edition of Homer : 

** Levi A quidem haec, & parvi forte, fi 
per fe fpeftentur momenti. Sed ex elementis 
conftant, ex principiis oriuntur, omnia : Et 
ex judicii confuetudine in rebus minutis ad- 
hibita, pendet faepiflime in maximis vera at- 
que accurata fcientia." 

1 6. Pretty ! in amber to obferve the forms 

Of hairs, or ftraws, or dirt, or grubs, or worms \ ! 

Very elegant imagery, happily applied! 
Addifon has made a beautiful ufe of a limi- 
lar image to a contrary purpofe, and to il- 
luftrate excellence. " Shakefpear," fays he, 
Speftator 398, ** was born with all the feeds 
of poetry, and may be compared to the flone 
in Pyrrbus^ ring, which, as Pliny tells us, 
had the figure of Apollo and the nine Mufes 
in the veins of it, produced by the fpontane- 

t V. 169. 



0U8 band of nature, without any help of 


17. Did feme more fober critic come abroad ; 
If wrong, I fmil'd ; if right, I kifsM the rod %. 

Such he eftecmcd to be Mr. SpENCE't 
judicious Eflay on his tranflation of the 
Odyffey; a work of the trueft tafte, and 
which Pope was fo far from taking 
amifsy that it was the origin of a lad- 
ing friendfhip betwixt them. I have feea 
a copy of this work, with marginal ob- 
/crvations written in Pope's own * hand, 
and generally acknowledging the juftnefs 
of Spence's obfervations, and in a few 
inftances pleading, humoroufly enough, that 
ibme favourite lines might be fpared. I am 
indebted to this learned and ai^iable man, 

t V. 171. 

* Which do you look apon (fays Spence one day to Pope) 
as the heft age of our Poetry ? '* Why the laft. I think | , 
bat now the old ones are all gone, and the young feem (o 
jiave no emulation among them/' 



on whofc friendfhip I fet the greateft value, 
for moft of the anecdotes relating to Pope, 
mentioned in this work, which he gave me, 
when I was making him a viiit at Byjket^ 
in the year 1754^ 

l8* The bard whom pilfcr'd paftorals renown. 
Who turns a Periian tale for half a crown *• 

And in a line befprc. 

Still to one Bifhop Philips fcems a wit. 

Philips, certainly not a very animated or 
firft-rate writer, yet appears not to dcfervc 
quite fo much contempt, if we look at his 
firft and fifth paftqral, his epiftle from Co- 
penhagen, his ode on the death of Earl Gow- 
per, his tranflations ^ of the two firft olym- 

• V. 180. 

t The fecret grounds of Philipi's malignity to Pope, arc 
faid to be the ridicule and laughter he met with from all the 
Hanover Club, of which he was fecretary, for miftaking the 
incomparable ironical paper in the Guardian, N° 40, which 
was written by Pope> for a fcrious cricicifm on padoral 



pic odes of Pindar, and the two odes of Sap- 
pho^ and above all^ his pleafing tragedy of 
the Diftreft Mother J. 

How far Addifon, as hath been infinuated, 
was concerned in altering and improving 
Philips's works^ cannot no.w be afcertained. 
He was accufed of reporting that Mr. Pope 
was an enemy to the government, and that 
•he had a hand in the famous party paper 
called The Examiner. 

ig. And own'd that nine fuch poets made a Tate f* 

Young fays, with equal pleafantry, of the 
fame Nabum Tate^ 

He's now zfcribblerj who was once a man ♦. 

I I have heard Mr. Garrick fay, that Addifon wrote the 
celebrated epilogue to this tragedy^ publifhed in the name of 
Budgell : that this was a fad he received from fome of thd 
Too Tons. And Addifon is faid alfo to have largely correfted 
and improved fiadgell's tranflation of Theophrafius. 

t V. 190. • Sat. i. 

20. Pease 


ao« Peace to all fuc^ ! but were there one whofe fires 
True genius kindles, and fair fame infpires : 
Bleft with each talent and each art to pleafe. 
And born to write, converfe, -ind live with cafe : 
Should fuch a man, too fond to rule alone. 
Bear, like the Turk*, no brother near the throne^ 
View him with fcornful, yet wiih jealous eyes. 
And hate for arts that caus'd hrmfelf to rife ; 
Damn with faint praife, afl'cnt with civil leer,- 
And, without fneering, teach tlie reft to fneer : 
Willing to wound, and yet afraid to ftrike, 
Juft hint a fault, and hcfitate diflike j 
Alike refcrv'd to blame, or to commend, • 

A tim'rous foe, and a fufpicious friend ; 
Dreading ev'n fools, by flatterers beficgM, 
And fo obliging that he ne'er oblig'd j 

* This is from Bacon de Augmentis Scienc. lib. iii. p. i8o. 
Etfi enixn Arifloteles, more Octoinannorum^ regnare fe hand 
Cute pcfTe putaret, nifi fratres fuos omnes contrucidaflet. 

Which thoughts and alfo that of Cato^s little fenate^ art 
ufed in a letter to Mr. Craggs, dated July 15^ I7i5* Our 
author frequently has verfified paiTages from his own letters. 
" It is ufual with the fmaller party to make up in intereft 
what they want in number; and this is the cafe witk tht 
little fenate of Cato. We have, it feems, a Great Turk in 
poetry^ who can never bear a brother on the tbroDe ; aad 
has his mutes too, a fet of nodders, winkers, and whifpererf« 
whofe buiinefs it is to (Irangle all other offspring of wit in 
theic birth." Vol. Tii. p. 300W 




Like Cato^ give his little fenatc laws^ 
And fit attentive to his own applaufe; 
While wits and Templars cv'ry fcntcncc raife^ 
And wonder with a foolifli face of praifc — 
Who but mult laugh, if fuch a man there be ? 
Who would not weep, if Jtticus were he f ! 

This is thnt famous charadter of Addi- 
son *, which has been fo much commended 
for it's wit and poignancy, and fo much 
cenfured for it's bitternefs and malignity. 
The provocations that induced our author 
to write it, which he did fo early as 1721, 
though it was not inferted in this epiflle till 
1733, have been touched upon in the firft' 
volume of this eflay, at page 160. Since 
,that time, a writer, of the firft eminence, 

t V. 192. 

* Old Jacob Tonfon hated Addifon. You will fee hiin, 
fays he, one day a Bifhop. He intended to have given a 
tranflatlonof all the Pfalms^ of which defign bis verfion of 
the 23d is a beautiful fpecimen. Addifon uied to fpeak con- 
temptuoafly of his own account of the Englilh poets, addrefled 
CO his old friend SMcbeverelL It is remarkable, that he de- 
clared he had never read Spenctr, when be gave bis character 
ia that account. 

Vol. II. R r who. 


who, to a confiimmate knowledge of the 
laws, hiftory, and antiquities of his coun- 
try, joined tlie moil: exquiiite tafte in polite 
literature, the late much-lamented Sir Wil- 
liam Blackftone, drew up, with his ufual 
precifion and penetration, a paper that mi- 
nutely inveftigatcd iiil the fa<5ts that have 
been urged againil Addifon's conduft to 
Pope. The chain of his reafoning would be 
injured, by endeavouring to abridge this 
paper ; I mull therefore refer the reader to 
the fccond volume of the Biographia Britan* 
nica, publiflicd by Dr. Kippis, page 56, and 
fliall only infert the conclulion of it; \\4iich 
is as follows : ** iJpon the whole, however 
Mr. Pope may be excufable for penning 
fuch a charader of his friend in the firft 
tranfports of poetical indignation, it refledls 
no great honour on his feelings, to have 
kept it in petto for fix years, till after the 
death of Mr. Addifon, and then to permit 
its publication (whether by recital or copy 
inakes no material difference;) and at length, 



at the diftance of 18 years, hand it down to 
pofterity Ingrafted into one of his capital 
produdtions. Nothing furely could juflify 
fo long and fo deep a refentment, unlefs the 
ftory be true of the commerce between Ad- 
difon and Gildon; which will require to be 
very fully proved, before it can be believed 
of a gentleman who was fo amiable in his 
moral charadler, and who (in his own cafe) 
had t\vo years before exprefsly difapproved 
of a perfonal abufc upon Mr. Dennis. The 
perfon, iiidecd, from whom Mr. Pope is faid 
to have received this anecdote, about the 
time of his writing the charader (viz. about 
July 171 5) was no other than the Earl of 
Warwick, fon-in-law to Mr. Addifon him- 
felf J and the fomething about Wycherley, 
(in which the flory fuppofes that Addifon 
hired Gildon to abufe Pope and his family) is 
explained by a note on the Dunciad, vol. i. 
p. 296, to mean a pamphlet containing Mr. ^ 
Wycherley's life. Now it happens, that in 
July 17^ S^ ^^^ ^^^^ of Warwick (who died 

R r 2 at 


at thenge of twenty- three, in Auguft 1721) 
was only a boy of feventeen, and not likely 
to be entrufted with fuch a fccret, by a ftatef- 
man between forty and fifty, with whom it 
does not appear he was any-way connected 
or acquainted. For Mr. Addifon was not 
married to his mother tlie Countcfs of War- 
wick till the following ye.^r, 17 16; nor 
could Gildon have been emplo3'ed in July 
171 5 to write Mr. Wychcrley's life, who 


therefore fo many inconfillcncics are evident 
in the ftory itfclf, which never found its 
\vay into print till near lixty years after it 
is faid to have happened, it will be no breach 
of charity to fuppofc that the whole of it was 
founded on fomc ir.iuipprchcnfion in either 
Mr. Pope or the Eurl j and unlcis better proof 
can be given, v/c Hiall readily ac(|uit Mr. Ad- 
difon of this moil odious part of the charge." 

lived till the December following. 

I BEG leave to add, that as to the other 
sccufaiion, Dr. Young, Lord BathurA, Mr, 

1 I larte. 


Hartc, and Lord Lyttelton, each of them 
affured me, that Addifon himfelf certainly 
tranflated the firft book of Homer, Yet J 
have very lately heard, that fome proofs to the 
contrary have been jufl: difcovered. 

21. Proud as Apollo on his forked hill. 

Sate full-blown Bufoy pufF'd by evVy quill ; 

Fed with foft Dedication all day long, 

Horace and he went hand in hand in fong. 

His library (where bufts of poets dead *, 

And a true Pindar flood without a head) 

Receiv'd of wits an undiftinguifli'd race. 

Who firft his judgment afic^d, and then a place; 

Much they extoll'd his pitSlures, much his feat. 

And flatter'd evVy day, and fome days eat ; 

Till, grown more frugal in his riper days. 

He paid fome bards with port, and fome with praife X» 

* Thepovertyof Butler is often mentioned among the dif« 
treflbs of poets, as a reproach to his age, and particalarly to 
Charles II. who wasfofondof Hudibrafs. BucDr. Pearce, the 
late BlHiop ot Rochefter, related, that Mr. Lowndes, then be- 
longing to the Treafury, and in the reigns of King V/illiam 
and Queen Anne Secretary to it, affured him, that, by order of 
King Charles II. he bad paid to Butler a yearly penfion of looU 
CO the time of his deceafe. — After having been in many im- 
porunt offices, and an Ambaflador at Paris, Prior had, at one 
time of his life, nothing left but the income of his fellowfhip 
of St. John's college^ Cambridge. 



Dr. Young's parafites and flatterers arc 
painted with equal humour, and a generous 
contempt of fervility; 

Who'd be a crutch to prop a rotten peer ; 
Or living pendant dangling at his ear; 
For ever wrhifp'riiig fccrcts, which were blown. 
For months before, by trumpets thro' the town ? 
Who'd be a glafs, with flattering grimace. 
Still to refledt the temper of his face j 
Or happy pin to ftick upon his flccvc. 
When my lord's gracious, and vouchfafes it leave ; 
Or cufliion, when his Hcavinefs ftiall pleafc 
To loll, or thump it for his b>.tter eafe ; 
Or a vile butt, for noon or night befpoke. 
When the peer raflily fvvears he'll rlub his joke? 
Who'd fliakc with laughter, tho' he cou'd not find 
His Lordfhip's jeft, or, if his nofe broke wind. 
For bleflings to the Gods profoundly bow — 
That can cry chimncy-Avcep, or drive a plough ? 

22. Drydoi alone * (what wonder ?) came not nigh ; 
Drydcn alone cfeap'd his judging eye ; 


• AHuding to the fubfcription that was made for his fun&- 
raL Garth fpoke an oration over him. His neceflities obliged 
him to produce (befidcs many other poetical pieces) twenty* 



But ftill, the great have kindnefs in referve. 
He help*d to bury whom he hclp'd to ftarve t» 


Our poet, with true gratitude, has feized 
every opportunity of fhewing his reverence 
for his great mafter. Dry den : whom Swift 
as conftantly depreciated and maligned. " I 
do affirm (fays he, with exquifite irony 
indeed, in the Dedication of the Tale of 
a Tub to Prince Pollerity) upon the word 
of a fincere man, that there is now ac- ' 
tually in being a certain poet, called John 

feven plays in twenty-five years. He got 25U for the copy, 
and 70I. for his benefits generally. Dramatic poetry was cer- 
tainly not his talent. It is remarkable, that he did not fcru- 
ple to confefs, that he could not relifh the pathos and iimpli- , 
city of Euripides. When he publiihed his fables, Tonfoa 
agreed to give him two hundred and fixty-eight pounds for 
an thou/and ver/es. And, to complete the full number of lines 
iUpulated for, he gave the bookfeller the epiflle to his coufin, 
and the divine mufic ode.—*' Old Jacob Tonfon ufed to fay« 
that Dryden was a little jealous of rivals. He would compli- 
ment Crown when a play of his failed, but was very cold to 
him if he met with fuccefs. He fometimes ufed to fay that 
Crtmfit had fome genius ; but then he added always, that hit 
lather and Crown's mother were very well acquainted.^' Mr. 
Pope to Mr. Spence. 




Dryden^ whofe tranflation of Virgil was 
lately printed in a large folio, well-bound> 
and, if diligent fearch were made, for aught 
I know is yet to be feen." And he attacks 
him again in the Battle of Books. Shaftes- 
bury is alfo very fond of petulantly carping^ 
at Dr}'den. ** To fee the incorrigibleneft 
of our poets, in their pedantic manner (fays 
he, vol, iii. p. 276) their vanity, defiance 
of criticifm; their rhodomontade, and poeti* 
cal bravado ; we need only turn to our fa- 
mous poet-laureat, the very Mr. Bays him*" 
felf, in one of his lateft and moil valued 
pieces, Don Sebajiian*^ writ many yeard 
after the ingenious author of the Rebcarfat 
had drawn his pidture/* Shaftefbury's re* 
fentment -f- was excited by the admirable 


* The dramatic works of Lope de Vega mftke twenty-fix 
▼olames, befidcs four hundred fcriptural dramatic pieces, hu 
jintos Sacramentaks. His biographer a£irms> that he ofKeo 
£niihed a play in twenty-four hours, nay ibme of his comedies 
in \t^ than five* He wrote during his life a 1,31 6,000 verfes. 

f I remember to have heard my father fay, that Mr. 
Elijah Fentoni who was hi» intimate friend, and had 



pofim oiAbfalom and Acbitopbehy and particu- 
larly by four lines in it, that related to Lord 
Afliley, his father; 

And all to leave, what with his toll he won. 
To that unfeathcr'd, two-legg'd thing a fon ; 
Got while his foul did huddled notions try, 
And born a (hapelefs lump, like anarchy. 

But Dryden*s works will remain, when the 
CbaraSieriJiics ^ill be forgotten, 

a3- Blcft be the Great for thofe they take away^ 
And thofe they left me ; for they left me Gay i 
Left me to fee negledled genius bloom, 
Negle£ted die, and tell it on his tomb. 
Of all thy blamelefs life the fole return 
My verfe, and Queenfb'ry weeping o'er thy urn • ! 

httVL hif mafter, informed him, that Dryden, upon fee- 
ing feme of Swift*! earlieft verfes, faid to hyn, *' Young 
xnan, you will never be a poet." And that this was the cauie 
of Swift's rooted averfion to Dryden, mentioned above. 
Baucis and Philemon was fo much and fo often altered, at 
the inftigation df Addifon, that not above eight lines remaia 
as they originally ftood. ^ The violence of party difputes never 
intermpted the fincere friendship that iublifttd between Swifc 
snd Addifon, though of fdch oppofite tempers as well as prid« 
V. ^ss. 

jbB33J^B1— 1— i^l^M— B^^— ^M""ii**fcJ^*'^**"* ^ — "^ '■w 


The fwcctncfs and (impllcity of Gay'i 
temper and manaers, much endeared him 
to all his acquaintance, and make them zU 
vrays fpeak of him with particular fondnefi 
and attachment. He wrote with neatnefs, 
and terfenefs, aequali quadam mediocritate, 
but certainly without any elevation; frequent- 
ly without any fpirit. Trivia ♦ appears to 
be the beft of his poems, in which arc many 
ilrokes of genuine humour and pictures of 
London-life, which hath been much altered 
and changed within a few years. His fables, 
the moft popular of all his works, have the 
fault of many modern fable- writers •{•, the 


* Th« fable of CIoaciD^ is indelicate. I flioold think 
this was one of the hints given him by Swift, to whom he fays 
he was much indebted for many in this poem. Swift himfelf 
was indebted, for many hints in his Gulliver, to Bifliop Gnf* 
witi^s Man in tbi Moon, or Voyage of Domingo Gonzales, 

t The long and languid introdndioni to the fables in tim 
iecond volume (which is indeed mnch inferior to^he firft) read 
like party pamphlets verfified. Diom has not refcsed aa/nM^ 
the imputation of having no paftoral-comedy, that can be 
compared^ in the fmalleft degree, to the Amiau or Paftor Fido. 



afcribing to the different animals and objeAs 
introduced, fpeeches and adtions inconfiftent 
with their feveral natures. An elephant 
can have nothing to do in a bookfeller's {hop; 
They are greatly inferior to the fables of 
Fontaine^ which is perhaps the moft unri- 
valled work in the whole French language. 
The Beggar's Opera has furely been extolled 
beyond it*s merits; I could never perceive 
that fine vein of concealed fatire fuppofed tQ 
run through it; and though I fhould not 
join with a bench of Weftminftcr Judges in 
forbidding it to be reprefented on the flage^ 
yet I think pickpockets, flrumpets, and high-^ 
waymen, may be hardened in their vices by 
this piece ; and that Pope and Swift talked 
too highly of it's moral good efFecfts. One 
undefigned and accidental mifchief attended 
it's fuccefs : it was the parent of that mod - 

The paftoralt were writtefki to ridicule thofe o^ Fhilipt, uA 
confequently very acceptable to Pope. PoUj^ the fecond part 
of the Beggar's Opera, though it brought him a good deal of 
money 9 above isoo pounds, being publilhed by fubfcripcioa^ 
Is AOt e^al to t^e firiU 

S f 2 monflroQt 


monftrous of all dramatic abfurdities, tho 
Comic Opera. The friendfhip of two fuch 
excellent perfonages as the Duke and put- 
chilis of Qiieenfberry, did, in truth, compcn- 
fate poor Gay's want of pcnfion * and pre- 
ferment. They behaved to him copftantly 
with that delicacy, and fenfe of Teeming 
equality, as never to fuffer him for a moment 
to feel his ftate of dependence. Let every 
man of letters, who wifhes for patronage, 
read D'Alcmbert's Ejay on living with the 
Great, before he enters the houfe of a pa- 
tron. And let him always remember the 
fate of Racine, who having drawn up, at 
Madame Maintenon's-f- fecrct requeft, ame- 

• r was informed by Mr. Spence, that Addifan, in hi* laft 
illnefs, fent to dffire to fpeak with Mr. Gay, and told him 
he had much injured him ; probably with rclpcA to hit gaining 
fome appuintmcnt from the court ; but, faid he, if I recover, I 
will cndEavottr ;o tecompenfe you. 

f Ths moA <:\n& account of the occafion on which Racine 
wrote his E.'fk-r and Athaliab, at the requeft of Madstne Matn- 
tenon, for the tife of :h? young ladies at St. Cyr, is to be fonad 
in. La Si>u-vc:iirs di MaJ. De Cjjlus, p. 1S3. There aJfi^ are 
Ibme very interEding and aathentic parcicolars of the life of. 
MaJ. Mainiiuca, 




fnoirial that ftrongly painted the diftreffcs of 
the French nation, the weight of their taxes^ 
and the expences of the court, fhe could 
jiot refift the importunity of Lewis XIV. 
but (hewed him her friend's paper: ag^inft 
whom the king immediately conceived a 
yiolent indignation, becaufe a poet (houl^ 
dare to bufy himfelf with polities. Racine 
had the weaknei's to take this anger of the 
king fo much to heart, that it brought on a 
low fever, which haftened his death. The 
Dutchefs of Queenflberry would not have fo 
betrayed her poetical friend Gay. 

24« Curs'd be the verfc, how well foe'er it flow. 
That tends to make one worthy man my foe. 
Give virtue fcandal, innocence a fear. 
Or from the foft-cy*d virgin fteal a tear* ! 

M, Despreaux s'applaudifToit fort a Tage 
de foixante &c onze ans, de n avoir rien mis 
dans fes vers qui choquat les bonnes mo^urs. 
C*cft une confolation, difoit il, pour les vieux 

• V. aBj. 



poetes, qui doivent bient6t rendre compte \ 
Dieu de leurs a£tions. Tom. v. 4. 

Happy indeed was the poet, of whom his 
worthy and amiable * friend could fo truly fay, 
that in all his works was not to be dif- 

One line, that dying, he could wl(b to bloti 

Would to God, faid Averroes (regret- 
ting the libertinifm of fome verfes which he 
had made in his youth) I had been bora 
old I 

Fontaine and Chaucer, dying, wifht unwrote 
The fprightlieft effort of their wanton thought : 
Sidney and Waller, brighteft fons of fame^ 
Condemned the charm of ages to the flame f. 

25. Let Sporus tremble — ^What ! that king of filk, 
Sporus, that mere white curd of afs's milk ? 

* Lord Lyttelton, in the Prologof to Thomfoa'i Corio» 

t Yonag't Epiftle to Aathort. 




Satire or (enfe, alas ! can Sporus feel ? 
Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel ?— 
Yet let me flap this bug with gilded wings. 
This painted child of dirt, that (links and ftings i 
Whofe buzz the witty and the fair annoys. 
Yet wit ne'er taftes, and beauty ne'er enjoys } 
So well-bred fpaniels civilly delight 
In mumbling of the game they cannot bite* 
Eternal fmiles his emptinefs betray. 
As (hallow ftreams run dimpling all the way. 
Whether mjiorid impttena he fpeaks, 
.And as the prompter breathes the puppet fqueaks. 
Or at the ear of Eve,, familiar toad *, 
Half froth, half venom, fpits himfelf abroad. 
In puns, or politics, or tales, or lyes. 
Or fpite, or fmut, or rhymes, or blafphemies*— t* 
Amphibious thing ! that aSing either part. 
The trifling head, or the corrupted heart. 
Fop at the toilet, flatt'rer at the board. 
Now trips a lady, and now (Iruts a lord. 

* It is but juftice (faid Pope in the firft edition) to own that 
^e hint of Eve and the Serpent was taken from the vtiies to 
the Imitator of Horace-— 

*' When God created thee, one would believe 

" He faid the fame as to the fnake of Eve j 

'' To haman race antipathy declare^ 

" 'Twixt them and thee be everlafting war. 

" Bat oh ! the fequel of the fentcnce dread, 

** Aq4 wbilft yon brnife their heel, beware yoitt btid.^ 



Eve^s tempter thus, the rabbins have expreft^ 
A cherub's face, a reptile all the reft. 
Beauty that fhocks you, parts that none will tnift^ 
Wit that can creep, and pride that licks the duftf. 

Language cannot afford more glowing or* 
more forcible terms to exprefs the utmoft bit- 
ternefs of contempt. We think we are here 
reading Milton againft Salmasius. The 
raillery is carried to the very verge of railingi 
fome will "fay ribaldry. He has armed his muftf 
\yith a fcalping-knife. The portrait is cer- 
tainly over-- charged : for Lord H. fof whom 
it was defigncd, whatever his morals might 
be, had yet confiderable abilities, though 
marred indeed by affedation. Some of his 
fpeeches in parliament were much be- 
yond florid impotence. They were indeed in 
favour of Sir jR. Walpole"^^ and this was 
fufficiently offenfive to Fope. The iz& 

t V. 305. 

* He fought a duel with Mr. Pulteney upon % polidcal 
quarrel. — See alfo a pamphlet, entitled. The Court Sicnt^ocd^' 
£oned by Lord Scarborough's death, for a fevere charmQer of 
Ibrahim, intended for this X4ord. Printed .?vo. 17^1* 

2 thac 

And genius of pope. 321 

that particularly incited his indignation, was 
Lord H's Epiftle to a DoSlor of Divinity^ 
(Dr. Sh^rwin) from a Nobleman at Hampton 
Court 9 1733^ ^s well as his having been 
concerned with Lady M. W. M, * in Verfes 
to the Imitator of Horace^ ^72^* This lady's 
beauty, wit, genius, and travels, of which 
fhe gave an account in a feries of elegant 
and entertaining letters, very charafteriftical 
of the maimers of the Turks, and of which 
many are addreiTed to Pope ; are well known, 
and juftly celebrated. With both thefe no- 
ble perfonages had Pope lived in a flate of 
intimacy. And j uAice obligeth us to con-- 
fcfs, that he himfelf was the aggreiTor in the 

* After her qaarrel with Mr. Pope« which Lord Peterborough 
in vain endeavoured to reconcile, (he wrote thus from Flo-. 
rence, to the Conntefs of - <' The word malignity, and 

.a paflage in your letter, call to my mind the wicked wafp of 
Twickenham ; his lyes affeft me now no more ; they will be all 
aa much defpifed as the flory of the feraglio and the handker- 
chief, of which I am perfuaded he was the only inventor. Thac 
sna^ has a malignant and ungenerous heart ; and he is ba(e . 
CDOOgh to afliime the mafk of a moralilt, in order to decry hu- 
snan nature, and to give a decent vent to his hatred of man and 

Vol. IL T t quarrel 


quarrel with them ; as he firft afTaulted and 
alFronted Lord H. by thefe two lines in his 
imitation of the id Sat. of Horace's fecond 

The lines are weak, attothcr*s pleased to fay^ 
Lord F^nny /pins a thoufand fuch a day* 

And Lady M, W. M. by the eighty-third 
line of the fame piece, too grofs * to be here 


It is a fingular circumftance, that our au* 
thor's indignation was fo vehement and in-^ 
exhauftible, that it furnifhed him with ano** 
ther invedive, of equal power, in profe, 
which is to be found at the erid of the 
eighth volume, containing his letters. The 
reader that turns to it, page 253 (for it is 
too long to be here inferted, and too full of 

* So alfo are lines 87, 88, 89, 90 of the third epiftie am* 
cernxng Fulvia and old Narfes. But let us remember, that. 

As the foft plume gives fwiftnefs to the dart« 
Good-breeding fends the iatire to the heart* Yovmo* 

2 matter 


matter to be abridged) will find, that it 
abounds in fo many new modes of irony, 
in fo many unexpedted ftrokes of farcafm, 
in fo many fudden and repeated blows, that 
he does not allow the poor devoted peer 4 
moment's breathing- time ; 

Nunc dextra ingeminans i£tu8, nunc ille iiniftra ; 
Nee mora, nee requies ; quam multi grandine nimbi 
Culminibus crepitant ; fie denfis i£tibus heros 
Creber utraque manO pulfat, verfatque — ^— — *, 

Jt is indeed the mafter-piece of inveSiive^ 
and perhaps excels the character of Sporus 
itfelf, capital as that is, above quoted. Yet 
who would wifli to be the author of fuch an 
inventive? But can this be the nobleman 
(we are apt to afk) whom Middleton^ in his 
dedication to the Hiftory of the Life of 
TuUy, has fo ferioufly and earncftly praifed, 
for his ftrong good fenfe, his confummate 
politenefs, his real patriotifm, his rigid tern- 
perance^ his thorough knowledge and de-- 

• J£»n. V, vcr. -^56, 
T t 2 



fence of the laws of his country, his accu- 
rate fkill in hiftory, his hofpitality, his ui>- 
exampled and unremitted diligence in lite- 
rary purfuits, who added predit to this very 
hiftory, as Scipip and L«lius did to that of 
Polybius, by revifing and correcting it ? an4 
brightening* it, as he exprcffes it, by the 



• The life of Tully procured Dr. Middleton a grett reps- 
tation, and a great fum of money. It is a pleafing and 
nfeful' work, efpecially to younger readers, as it gives a com- 
preheniive view of a moii interefting period in the Roman 
hifkofy, and of the charaders principally concerned in \ho^ 
important events. It may be worth obferving, that he is mack 
indebted, without acknowledging it, to a carions book lictU 
known, entitled, G. BillenMni, Scoti, de Trihus Lummial 
* Romanorum, Libri i6. Parijsis, ApudTaJfauum du BrMj^ 1^34* 
Folio ; dedicated to King Charles. It comprehends a hiftorjr 
of Rome, from the foundation of the city to the time of Aa- 
guflus, drawn up in the very words of Cicero^ without any al- 
teration of any exprefHon. In this book MiddUtw found every 
part of Cicero's own hiilory, in hb own WQr4s,'and his works 
arranged in chronological order, without farther troable. 
The impreflion of this work being (hipped for England, was 
loH in the veiTel, which was caft away, and only a few copid 
remained, that had been left in France. I only add, that the 
ilyle of Middlecon, which is commonly efteemed very /irrv, it 
blemished with many mulgar and cant terms. Such as Pom- 
pey bad a monthh mind, &c. He has not been fuccefsfol ui 
the tranflations of thofe mai^y epifUes of Tully which he has 
inferted ; which, however curious, yet break the thread of the 
* narration^ 




ftrokes of his pencil ? The man that bad 
written this fplendid encomium on Lord H. 
could not, we may imagine, be very well 
affected to the bard who had painted Lord 
Fanny in fo ridiculous a li^ht. We find 
him writing thus to Dr. Warburton, Jan. 7, 
1740: " You have evinced the orthodoxy of 
Mr. Pope's principles ; but, like the old Com- 
mentators on his Homer, will be thought 
perhaps, in feme places, to have found a mean- 
ing for him, that he himfelf never dreamt of^ 
However, if you did not find hira a pbilojb^ 
fberf you will make him one ; for he will be 
wife enough to take the benefit of your read- 
ing, and make his future efifays more clear 
and confifientJ* 


26. That not in Fancy's maze he wanderM long. 
But ftoop'd to Truths and moralized his fong*. 

narration. Mongamlt and Melmoth bare far exceeded him in 
their excellent tranflations of thefe pieces, which are« after 
all, fome of the moft precious remains of antiquity. What m 
tfMfore would it have been, if the letters of Tully to Jaliut 
Caefiur had remained I 

• V. 349. 



Here is our author's own declaration, de* 
livered in the moft prccife and pofitivc terms, 
that he early left the more poetical provincei 
pf his art, to become a moral, dida^c, and 
fatiric poet. 

37. Of gentle blood * [put flied ia honour's cxnlc* 
While yet in Britain honour had appUufe) 
Each parent Tpning ; what fortune prajitheir own. 
And better got than Beftia's from the throne. 

* When Mr. Pope pnblilhcd the notes oa the E^ftle ta 
Pr. Arbuthnoc, giving an account ofhi* f imilj, Mr. Potiin- 
ger, a relation of hisj obferved, that bit coufin Pope ha4 
made hiDirelf out a fine pedigree, but he woodered where he 
got it ; that he never had heard any thing himfelf of thni 
being defcended from the Earls of Down ; and, what ii mor«, 
he had an old maldca aunt, equally related, a great genealc^ 
gift, who was always talking of her family, but never men' 
tioned this circumHance ; on which ihe certainly would iio| 
have been filent, had ihe known any thing of it. Mr. Pope*! 
grandfather was a clergyman of the church of Englwd^ ia 
Hamplhire. He placed his fon, Mr. Pope's father, with ^ 
merchant at Lifbon, where he became a convert to Popeij. 
(Thus far Dr. SilttM, late Dean of Carii/t, a friend of Pops, 
from Mr. Ptitiitgtr.J The bnrying-place and moat|meati of 
ihe family of the Popes, Earli of Down, ii at Wroxton, 0»i 
fordlhite. The Earl of Gnildford fays, that he hu feen and 
examined the pedigree and defcenta of that family, and i« 
fure that there were then none of the name of Pope left, who 
could be defcended from that family.— ^fn* ^tbu Ltmdttft 
«f Cawrfiam, E/jmri,J 


JKorh to M pride, inheriting no ftriFe, 
Nor marrying dircofd in a noUe wife j 
Stranger to civil and religious rage^ 
The good man wallc'd innoxious thro* bis age, 
Ko courts he faw> no Tuits would erer try, 
Kor dar'd an oath, no^ hazarded a lye. 
tJnlearn'd3 he knew no fchoolman's fubtile artj 
No language, but the language of the heart. 
By nature honeft, by experience wife. 
Healthy by temp'rance, and by exercife ; 
Hi* life, tho' long, to licknefs paft unknown, 
His.dcath was inflant, and without a groan *. 

BoiL£Au*j-, who has been Co frequently 
quoted, becaufe he was the model of our 
ftuthor, fpeaks thus of hia father and family^ 

• V.388. 

i He had DO afperity in hit temper. Mad. de Sevigne 
tfed to fay, he ia croel only in vcrfe. Being panfidal in pen 
jbrmiag all a& of religion, he wa> one dajr in the conntiT, 
and went to confcflion to a prieft who did not know hira. 
What ii your occDpation I faid the good man.— To make 
terlei, replied Boileau. — So much the worfe, faid the PrieA— * 
And what fort of verfei ?— Satiiei — Still worfe ud wwlc, faid 
the confeJTor.-r-And againft whomf— Agunft thofe, faid 
Bulcan, who miKe had verfet ; againft fnch mifckievoai wotkt 
.as operas and rojnaneet.->Ah I ray friend, fayi the Coahftott 
there u no ham in this, and I have nothing more to fay to 
JW4 Memuivs de }. Rkibc, p> ig6. 

• \ 


in an epiftle that was jnftly one of 
^vourite works, addrifled (in imitation of 
Horace's Vertumnum JanumqueJ to his verjes. 

Que fi quelqu'un, mes vers, alofs vous importune^ 
Pour fcavoir mes parens, ma vie & ma fortune, 
Cdntes-Iui, qu' allie d'afses bauts Magiftrats, 
Fils d'un Pere Greffier, ne d'ayeux Avocats ; 
Des le berceau perdant une fort jeune mere, 
Reduit feize ans apres a pleurer mon vieox Pere, 
J'allai d*un pas hardi, {^r moi-mefme guide, 
£t de mon feul Genie tn marcbant feconde, 
Studieux amateur, & de Perfe If d'Horace, 
Afses pres de Regniet m^a/Teoir fur le Parnafle ^ 
Que par un coup de fort au grand jour amene 
£t de bords du PermcfTe i la Cour entraifne, 
Je f^eus, prenant I'efTor par de routes nouvellel 
Eflever afses baut mes poetiques ailes ; 
Qjie ce Roy * dont le nom fait trembler tant de Rois 


• He was appointed Hidoriographer to the Kbg^ with 
Raciiie» in Odlober 1677. They both, together with Vander* 
Meixlen, the painter^ accompanied Lewis XIV. in hit pom« 
pout expedition to Flanders. After the death of Racine, bt 
went once to Verfaillet, to inform the King of the death of 
Ilia colleague ; and when he took his leave, Louis obligmgly 
fatd to him> ihewing him his watch, which he happened to 
hold in his hand, '' Remember that I have always one hoot 
in the week to glve^ you, whenever yon will come to me." 



Voulut bicn que ma main crayonnait fcs exploits : 
Q^e plus d'uii grand m'aima jufques a la tendreflej 
Que ma vcue a Colbert infpiroit, ranegreflc; 
Qu* aujourd'hui mefme ejicor de deux fens affbibli 
Retire de la cour & non mis en oubli : 
Plus d'un Heros eprls des fruits de mon eftude, 
Vient quelquefois ches moi gouter la folitude f. 

All thefe particularities of his father, 
family! and fortunes, become interefting. . 
There is in this paiTage the true manner 
of Horace, his cafy vigour, ^iXi^ Jirma fycili^ 
tas. It is on occafion of this epiftle that 
Boileau wrote his celebrated letter to Monf. 
de Maucraix, from which I fhall, without 
any fcruple, give a large extradt, as it is fo 
replete with good fenfe and folid criticifm» 
and contains fo many obfervations on the 

. h IS to be regretted that Boileau never finiihed, what he 
told his friends he had (ketched out, the life of Diogenes the 
Cynic> a comic romance, in which much literature, facire, and 
knowledge of life and manners, would have appeared. Let 
me take this occafion of adding, that it is alfo to be rt-^ 
gretted, that Montefquieu never finiihed a political romance 
ke intended to give, called Jr/acn. 

f Epiftre X. ver* 93, 

Vol. II. U u more 


more remote and Interior beauties of Ayle. 
Tom. iii. p. 185. Par M. dc Saint Marc. 

Racan excelle fur tout, k mon avis^ h, 
dire les petites chofes, & c'eft en quoi il ref- 
femble mieux aux anciennes^ que j*adoiire 
fur tout par^ cet endroit. Plus les chofei 
font feches Sc mal aif<^ k dire en vers^ plus 
elle frapent quand elles font dites noblement, 
& avec cette elegance qui fait proprement la 
poefie. Je me fbuviens que M. de la Fon- 
taine^ m'a dit plus d'une fois^ que les deux 
vers de mes ouvrages qu'il eftimoit davantage 
c'efloit ceux oii je loue le Roi d'avoir ^tabli 
la manufacture des points de France, a la 
place des points de Venife. Les voici« 
C'eft dans la premiere Epifbe a fa Majeft^, 

£t nos Toifins fruftrez de ces tributs (erviles. 
Que payoit a leur art le luxe de nos villest 

ViROiLE & Horace ibnt divins en cela, 
aufli bien qu' Homere. C'efl tout le con- 




traire de nos I^oetes, qui ne difent que des 
chofes vagueSy que d'autres ont d^ja dites 
avant eux, & dont les expreflions font trou- 
v^s. Quand ils fortent de la, ils ne r9au-* 
roient plus s'exprimeTf & ils tombent dans 
une fecherefle qui eft encore pire que leurs 
larcins. Pour moy, je ne f9ay pas fi j'y ay 
r^ufii : mais quand je fais des vers^ je fonge 
toujours k dire ce qui ne s'eft point encore 
dit en noftrc langue. C'eft ce que j'ay prin- 
cipalement afFe<^e dans une nouvelle epiflre^ 
que j'ay faite k propos de toutes les Critiques, 
qu'on a imprind^es contre ma derniere fatire. 
J'y conte tout ce que j'ay fait depuis que je 
fuis au Qionde, j'y rapporte mes defauts, 
mon age^ mes inclinations, mes mceurs* 
J'y dis de quel Pere & de quelle Mere je 
fuis ne, J'y marque les degrcs de ma for- 
tune; comment j'ay dfte a la cour, com- 
ment j 'en fuis fortii les inconimodite; qui 
me font furvenues; les ouvrages que j'ay 
faits. Ce font bien de pctites chofes dites 

U u 2 en 


en affes peu de mots, puifque la piece, n'a 
pas plus descent trcnte vers. Elle n'a pas 
encore veu le jour, & je ne Tay pas mefme 
encore ecrite. Mais il me paroifl que 
tous ceux a qui je I'ay rccitee, en font audi 
frappez que d aucun autre de mcs buvrages. 
Croiriez-vous, Monficur^ qu'un des endroits 
ou ils fe recrient le plus, c'eft un endroit 
qui ne dit autre chofe, (inon qui aujourd*huy 
que j'ai cinquante-fept ans, je ne dois plus 
pretendrc a Tapprobation publique. Cela 
eft dit en quatre vers que je veux bien vous 
ecrire ici, afin que vous me mandiez d vous 
Jes approuvez. 

Mais aujourd'hui qu' cnfin la Vicillcffc venue. 
Sous mes faux chevcux blonds deja toute chcnuc, 
A jctte fur ma tcftc avcc fcs doigts pefans, 
Onze luftrcs coroplets furchargcz de deux ans. 


II me femble que la Perruquc eft zffis 
hcureulcment frondcc dans ces quatres vers, 

• 28. O friend 1 


28. friend ! may each domeftic blifs be thine I 
Be no unpleafing melancholy mine I 
Mcy let iht tender office long engage. 
To rock the cradle of repofing age * ; 

With lenient arts extend a mother's breath, 
to ' 

Make languor fmile, and fmooth the bed of death ; 
JExpIore the thought, explain the aiking eye. 
And keep awhile one parent from the iky f I 

These exquifite lines give us a very in* 
terefting pidure of the exemplary filial piety 
of our X author. There is a penfive and pa« 
thetic fweetnefs in the very flow of them* 
The eye that has been wearied and oppreft by 
the harfh and auftere colouring of fome of 
the> preceding paflages, turns away with 
pleafure frgm thefe afperities, and repofes 
with complacency on the foft tints of do- 

* See a letter to Mr. Richardfen, defiring him to come to 
Twickenham* and take a iketch of his mother, juft after 
Ihe was dead, Jane 20, 1733. •• It would afibrd, fayt he, 
the fineft image of a (aint expired, that ever painting drew.*' 
Vol. Tiii. p. 933* 

t V.406. 

X For which alfo another troly great poet wu remarkably 
See Memoirs of Mr. Gra/i Life, paffim. 

I o meflic 


medic tendcrnefs. We are naturally grati- 
fied to fee great men defcending from their 
heights, into the familiar offices of common 
life ; and the fenfation is the more plcafing 
to us, becaufe admiration is turned into ^ 
fe^ion. In the very entertaining memoirs 
of the life of Racine (publiflicd by his ion) 
we find no * paflage more amufing and in- 
terefting, than ^here that great poet fends 
an excuie to Mcn*^. the Duke> who had 
earneftly invited him to dine at the Hotel 
de Conde, becaufe he had promifed to par- 
take of a great fifli that his children had got 
for him, and he could not think of difap- 
pointing them, 

Melancthon appeared in an amiable 
light, when he was feen, one day, holding a 
book in one hand, and attentively reading, 

• Memoires fur I> Vie de Jean Racine, p. iSs, printed 
1747 : by the author of the didaOic poemj on Rtlighm aod 
Gract, of ReJUainKt am Pttlty, of TW EfifiUi on iUn, Mil 
Tome excelleot Sactid Qdt$, paiticiilar]/ one from Xfaiah, c. zir. 



and with the other rocking the cradle of his 
infant child. And we read with more iktis^ 

>tf weui^i opifaTo faihiAA^ ^xrtfff 

A^f y I 9aXi vpo( iMXsrvt ivj^ftio riOqvnf 

than we do. 

* Iliad ?i. V. 467* 

t Iliad xiii. ?• SQJ 






Of the Satires and Epijiks of Horace 
imitatedy of the Satires of Donne 
verfijiedy and of the Epilogue to the 

WHEN I had a fever one win- 
ter in town (faid Pope to Mn 
Spence) that confined me to my room 
for five or fix days. Lord Bolingbroke 
came to fee me^ happened to take up a 
Horace that lay on the table, and in turn- 
ing it over, dipt on the firft fatire of the 
fecond book. He obferved, how well that 
would fuit my cafe, if I were to imitate 
it in Englifh. After he was gone^ I read 
it over, tranflated it in a morning or two, 
and fent it to prefs in a week or fortnight 
after. And this was the occafion of my 

^^ imitating 


imitating fome other of the Satires and 
Epiftles. To how cafual a beginning (adds 
Spence) are we obliged, foF the moft de- 
lightful things in our language! When 
I was faying to him, that he had already 
imitated near a third part of PTora«e*s fa- 
tires and epiftles, and how much it was to 
be wiflied that he would go on with them; 
he could not believe that he had gone near 
fo far; but upon computing it, it appeared 
to be above a tliird. He fccmcd on this not 
difinclin:d to carry it farther; but his lafl: 
illnefs was then growing upon him, and 
robbed us of him, and of all hopes of that 
kind^ in a few months ***. 

No part of our author's works have been 
more admired than thefc imitations. The 
aptnefs of the allufions, and the happinefs of 
many of the parallels, give 9 pleafure that is 
always no fmall one to the mind of a reader, 
the pleafure of comparifon. He that has the 

* Tranfcribed from Spence't Ane€dotC9j 1754. 

Vol. II. X X leaft 


leaft acquaintance with thcfc pieces of Horace, 
which rcfemble the Old Comedy ^ immediately 
perceives, indeed, that our author has a/Tumed 
a higher tone, and frequently has defertedf' 
the free colloquial air, the infinuating Socratic 
manner of his original. And that he clearly 
refembles in his ilyle, as he did in his na« 
tural temper, the fevere and ferious Juvenal, 
more than the fmiling and fportive Horace. 
Let us feledt fome paflages, in which he may 
be thought to have equalled, excelled, or 
fallen fliort of, the original; the latter of 
which cannot be deemed a difgrace to our 
poet, or to any other writer, if we confider the 
extreme difficulty of transfufing into another 
language the fubtle beauties of Horace's 
dignified familiarity ^ and the uncommon 
union of fo much facility and force. 

f After nil that has been faid of Horace, by fo many critics, 
ancient and modern, perhaps no words can defcribe him fo 
exadlly and juftly, as the following of Tully, fpoken on ano- 
ther fubject. Lib. i. de Oratore. Accedit lepos qutdam, 
faceciacque, Sc .eruditio libero digna, celcricafque fz brevitM 
refpondendi Sc lacefTendi fubtili vcuuilate & urbanitite coa*> 



ti Trcbati • 

Quid faciam ? prefcribe. T. Quiefcas. H. Ne faci« 

am, inquis, 
Omnino verfus ? T. Aio. H. I^eream male, fi non 
Optimum erat : vtrum nequeo dormire. T. Ter undli 
Tranfnanto Tiberim, fomno qiiibus eft opus alto; 
IrrigUumve mero fub no6lem corpus habento * : 

Timorous by nature, of the rich in awe, 

I come to counfel learned iti the law : 

You'll give me, like a Friend, both fage and free 

Advice 5 and as you ufe, without a fee. 

F. I'd write no more. P. Not write ? but then I think^ 

And for my foul I cannot fljcp a wink. 

I nod in company, I wake at ni^ht. 

Fools rufh into my heaH, and fo I write. 

F. You could not do a worfo thing for your life : 

Why, if the r.i;;ht fecm tcrli.;js, take a wife. 

Or rarhcr truly, if yi;ur point be rcit. 

Lettuce end cowfii;)-wine ; probatum eft. 

But talk with Ccjfus, Cclfus will advife, 

Hartftiorn, or fomcthing that fhall clofe your eyes t« 

Horace, with much fceming ferioufnefs, 
applies for advice to the celebrated Roman 
lawyer, C. Trebatius T^ejla^ an intimate friend 

• Sat. i. lib. I. V. 4. t V. 8. 

X X 2 ©f 


of JiiUits Cafar, and of ^uHy, as appears 
from many of his epiftlcs to Atticus^ The 
gravity and ielf-importance of whofe cha- 
ratftcr is admirably fupportcd throughout 
this little drama. His anfwers are fiiort, 
authoritative, and decifive. ^tefcas, jtio. 
And, as he was known to be a great drinker 
and Jhvimmcr, his two abfurd pieces of ad- 
vice have infinite pleafantry. All thcfc cir- 
cumilances of humour are dropt in the copy. 
The Lettuce and Cowfiip-wine are infipid 
and unmeaning prefcriptions, and have no- 
thing to do with Mr. Forfefcue's charafter. 
The third, fourth, and ninth lines of this imt- 
tation are flat and languid. We muft alfb 
obferve (from the old Commentator •) that 
the verbs tranftiantOj and babentOf are, in 
the very ftylc of the Roman law, ** Vide ut 

* There are many excellent remarks in Jer» xnd P*rffyru ; 
from whom, as well as from Cmqutmi, Daeitr ha* banowcd 
much, without owning iL Daeitr's traiiflation of Horace U 
not equal to his Arijeile'i Poetics. Jo the former, he is per- 
petually llriving to difcover new meanings in hii author, 
which Boileau called. The Revelations of Dacicr. 


z^ J 

direflis junfconrultorum verbis utltur ad 
Trebatium jurirconfultuin. 

2. Aut G tantus amor fcribendi te rapit^ aude 
Cxfaris invifti res dicere, multa laborum 
Pnemia laturus • i 

Or, if you needs muft write, write Cxfar's praife. 
You'll gain at leaft a inightbeaJ, or the hejt f. 

This is fuperior to the original, becauif' 
pramia laturas is general and fiat, in compa- 
rifon of the particular rewards here Ipecl- 

3. ■ neque cTlm quivis horrentia pilis % 
Agcnina, ncc fradla percuntes cufpide Gallos, 
Aut Jabcmis cquo defcitbat vulnera Parthi §. 

What • like Sir Richard, rumbling, rough, and fierce. 
With Arms, and George, and Baunswice crowd 
the verfc, 

• V. 10. t V. ai. 

X Of thefe verfet fayt PtrpiyrU, Bkganter u hftc if<|. 
cxcnfatione, p9flit ft fciibcrc ofieadit. 

^1 .IMiW 


Rend with tremendous found your ears afunder, 
With gun, drum, trumpet, blundcrbufs, and thundcN 

Pope has turned the compliment to Au-* 
guHus into a fevere farcafm. All the wits* 
feem to have leagued again ft: Sir Richard 
Blickmore, In a letter now lying before 
me, from Elijah Flnton to my father, 
dated, Jan. 24, 1707, he fays, " I am 
glad to hear Mr. Phillips will publifli his 
Pomona: Who prints it? I fliould be 
mightily obliged to you, if you could get 
me a copy of his verfes againji Blackmore/* 
As the letter contains one or two literary 
particulars, I will tranfcribe the reft. " As 

• ^1X31 ft never could forgive Blackmore the following ftric- 
tures on a Tale of a Tub^ in his effays^ London, 1 7 17. 
*' Had this writing been publilhed in a Pagan or Popifh 
nation^ whoarejulUy impatient of all indignity offered to 
the eflablifhcd religion of their country^ no doubt but the au« 
thor would have received the punilhment he deierved. Boc 
the fate of this impious huffccn is very different ; for in a Pro-* 
teilant kingdom^ zealous of their civil and religious immuni- 
ties, he has not only efcapcd affronts, and the effeds of pub- 
lic refentmenty but he has been carcfTcd and patronised bjr 
perfons of great figure, and of all denominations/' 

2 ta 


to what you write about rpakin^i a co 
tion, I can only advife you to buy what 
poems you can, that Ton/on h:s printed, 
except the Ode to the S/m; unlefs you will 
take it in, becaufe I writ it ; which I am 
the freer to own, that Maf\ Prior may not 
fufFer in his reputation, by having it afcrihed 
to him. My humble fervice to Mr- Sacbe^ 
njerelU and tell him I will nevc:r imitate Mil-* 
ton more, till the author of Blenheim is for- 
gotten." In vain was Blackmorc extolled . 
by Molyneux and Locke: but Locke^ to his 
Qther fuperior talents, did not add a good 
tafte. He affefted to defpife poetry, and 
he depreciated the ancients ; which circum- 
ftance, as 1 am iniormed from undoubted 
authority, was the fource of perpetual dif- 
content and dif.mte betwixt him and his 
pupil Lord Sh(iftejbury \ who, in many parts 
of the Characleriftics, has ridiculed Locke's 
philofophy, and endeavoured to reprefent 
him as a difciple of liobbes ^, from which 



writer, however, it is certain that Locke bor- 
rowed frequently and largely. 

nifi dextro tempore, Flacci 

Verba per attentam non ibunt Caefaris aurem. 
Cui male fi palpere recalcitrat undique tutus*. 

Alas ! few verfes touch their nicer ear. 

They fcarce can bear their Laureate twice a year. 

And juftly Csefar fcorns the poet's lays j 

It is to Hijlory he trufts for praife f. 

Superior to the original, on account of 
the mention of the Laureate; andthe fudden 
unexpedled turn in the laft line, which is 
uncomnionlyy?^^ znAfevere. 

j. Quid faciam ? faltat Milonius, &c. % 
Each mortal has his pleafure§. 

These words, indeed, open the fenfc of 
Horace ; but the quid faciam is better, as it 
leaves it to the reader to difcovcr what is 
one of Horace's greatcfl beauties, his fecret 

• V. 18. t V. 33. J V. 24.- J V. 45, 



and delicate tranfttions and conneBions, to 
which they who do not carefully attend^ 
lofe half the pleafure of reading him. 

— none deny 

Darty his ham-pyc *, 

Lyttelton, in his Dialogues of the 
Dead^ has introduced Darteneuf^ in a plea- 
fant difcourfe betwixt him and Apicius^ bit- 
terly lamenting his ill fortune, in having 
lived before turtle -feajls -f- were known in 
England. ** Alas !'*, fays he, ** how imperfedt 
is human felicity ! I lived in an age when the 
pleafure of eating was thought to be carried to 
its higheft perfeftion in England and France. 
And yet a turtlc-feaft is a novelty to me ! 
Would it be impoflible, do you think, to 
obtain leave from Pluto, of going back for 
one day, juft to tafte of that food ? I would 

• V. 45. 

t He might have faid the faiAe of the Chine/t Biri*s Nift, 
piece of Oriental luxury lately imported. 

Vol. II. 


' promife 



promife to kill myfelf by the quantity I 
would eat before the next morning." 

6. Caftor gaudet equis ; ovo prognatus eodem, 
Piignis — — — — — — ♦. 

F. loves the fcnate, Hockley-hole his brother. 
Like in all clfe, as one egg to another f- 

This parallel is not happy and exadt; to 
fliew the variety of human paffions and pur- 
fuits, Caftor and Pollux were unlike, even 
though they came from one and the fame 
egg. This is far more extraordinary and 
marvellous than that two common brothers 
fliould have different inclinations. 


7. ]\Ic pcdibus dclcclat claudere verba, 

Luciii ritu J. 

I love to pour out all myfelf, as plain 

As downright SUppen^ or as old Montaigne^. 

*^ My chief pleafure is to write fatiret 
like Lucilius," fays Horace. " My chief 

♦ V. 26. 

t V. 49, i V. 23. 

S V. SI. 



pleafure, fays Pope, is, — What ? tojpeak my 
mind freely and openly.'* There fhould have 
been an inftance of fome employment^ and 
not a virtuous habit-, there follows in the 
original, a line which Bent ley has explained 
very acutely, and in a manner different from 
the other commentators—^ 

neque fi male geHcrat, ufquam 

Decurrens alio, neque fi bene— *. 

He affirms, that the true reading (hould 
be male cejferat^ and that it does not mean, 
whether his affairs went ill or not, but whe- 
ther he wrote fuccefsfully or not. ** Nuf- 
quam alio pra^terquam ad libros decurrens, 
feu bene ei ceflcrat in fcribendoy feu mal^. 
Scilicet quovis ille die fcribere amabat, five 
aptus turn ad ftudium, feu, utfaepe ufu venit, 
ineptior: feu mufis faventibus five averfis." 

The pafTage that immediately follows, 
in the origin^}, at verfe the thirty-fifth,— 

•V. 31. 

Y y 2 Nam 



Nam Venufinus arat — verfe the 
thirty-ninth, to the words, incuterct violen- 
ta, which are frequently printed in a paren- 
thefis, and have been fuppofed to be aa 
awkward interpolation, were undoubtedly 
Intended by Horace to reprefent the loofe, 
incoherent, and verbofc manner * of Lucl- 
lius (incompolito pede) who loaded his fatires 
with many ufelefs and impertinent thoughts. 

- O Pater & Rex, 

Jupiter, ut pcrcat pofitum rubiginc teluai f. 

Save but our army ! and let Jove jncrull 
Swords, pikes, and guns, with cverUfting ruft % ! 

He could not fufler fo favourable an op- 
portutiity to pafs, without joining with his 
friends, the patriots of that time, in the cry 

• atnat fcripGiTe duccotiu 

Atilc cibum verfu), totidem cznatoi^^ 

Hot. Tat. x. lib. i. r. 6i. 
Jd. Baillti, among hi) nuDieroui blunder* and faire judg- 
tnents, is fo abrurd, as to take literallx tbecxpreffioBof Lud- 
lii3»— Stans pede in uno. 
t V. i!. J V. 73. 


againfl a (landing army. The fentiment in 
the original is taken, as the old fcholiaft ob- 
ferves, from Callimachus ; 

Numberless are the pafTages in Horace, 
which he h^s fkilfully adopted and interwo- 
ven from the Greek writers ; with whom he 
was minutely and intimately acquainted; 
perhaps more fo than any other Roman poet, 
having fludied at Athens longer than any of 

^ He imitates two other epigrams of Callimachus* in verfii 
8. of the 2d Sac. lib. i . 

Pneclaram ingrata flringat malus ingluvie rem- 
and Mo, as Heinfius obferves, in the 105 th verfe of the fame 
latire— — 

Leporem venator ut alta 
In nive fedatur -— — 

In the iixth fatire of the fecond book, he has Sopk^clet in hia 
Loferat in campo fortunx filius ■ ■ 

I (£dip. Tyrann. lo^. 



QiiidquiJ fub terra eft in apricum proferet xtas 
Dcfodiet cdndetquc nitenlia— — • 

i» from the Oedipus of Sophocles, vcrfe 659. 

Pcrnicies & Ttrnpifiaiy Barathrumque macelli — — f 

Grotius, in that very entertaining book, 
his Excerptaex I'ragadUs & Comadiis GractSt, 
has preferved, page 583, a fragment of 
Alexis, to which this paffage of Horace al- 
ludes ; 

^uvtei J'a'NM:; TriMfii, tonn nim 

Per mure paunt-rieni fugieiis, per faxa, per ignes Xi 

is from Tbeo^nis ; 

• Ep. vi. V. 24. t V- 3>- «P- 'S* * '^P- *• 

lib. 1.46. 



Sunt verba & voces quibus hunc lenire dolorem 
Poilis, & magnam morbi deponerc partem *, 

is from the Hippolitus of Euripides ; 

Si quid novifti rc£tius idis 

Candidus impcrti, fi non, his utere mecum f, 

is taken, as Cfuquius remarks, from Ifocrates 
to Nlcoc/es; 

Spes jubet efiTc ratas, in praelia trudit inermemf, 

from an elegant fragment of Diphilusi in 
which Bacchus is addreiTcd : 


Orav T»^ti90p fAtyct f^ofetf votm; ji^oiq^y 
Toy TO* o^^vq at^ovra <rt//x7rMGM( 7E^a»9 
Toy t' ajdf»ii roAfUKy Ti> Toy ^fiXoy O^a^'My* 

The bold and beautiful metaphor in the 
fourth ode of the fourth book, 

* Ep. i. lib. I. ver. 35. f Ep. vi. 67. { V. 17. Ep. 5. 



Per Siculas equitavit undas, 

is from the Pbaniffle of Euripides, verfe 222, 
(the Oxford edition' in 4to. by Dr. Muf- 
grave, 1778,) 

Zif v^ flr»oia>( 

Iwivaetnoi ly if^aftj-^^ 

The beginning of the firft ode of the firft 
book, which points out the different incli- 
nations and purfuits of men, alludes to a 
paflage in Pindar, preferved by Sextus Em- 
piricuSf in the firft Pyrrh. Hypothef. 

Tf^TTflat ^1 r%% fir oi^/ak aXioy veti Oo« auv ^ajtmCm** 

And line the 25th of the fecond* ode of the 
third book, is taken from a fragment of 5/- 
monides -f-, cited by Arijiide^. 2. Platonica. 

• See P. Pctiti. Mifc. Obf. lib. iii. cap. 25. 

f The words. Mors & fugacem perfequitur virum, in Ode s« 
book iii. are even tranflated from SimomiJet ; 

7 Eft 


Eft & fideli tuta Silentio 

Merces ' ' . 

Bentley, with his ufual acutencft, con* 
jcfturcd, that an obfcure paflage in Horace 
would be illuftrated, if ever the Greek epi- 
gram of Philodemus^ to which he alluded, 
ihould be diicovered. 

♦ Gallis^ hanc, Philodemns ak L. i. fat. 2, I2I« 

Reijkius has fince printed the very epi- 
gram, and the laft words of it confirm Bent- 
ley's conjecture. 

9« Nec quifquam noceat cupiJo mihi pacis ! at ille 
Qui me commorit (melius non tangerc clamo) 
Flebit, & infignis tota cantabitur urbe f* 

Peace is my dear delight— ir^/ Fleurfs mon: 
But touch me, and no minifter fo fore. 

• See Anthol. Grsec. Lib. tres Oxonii, 1766, p. 93* Phi> 
lodemus lived at Rome in the time of Tnlly, and i< motioned 
}iy him as a friend of Pifom 


Vol. II. Z % -Vn^oc'er 


Whoe'er offends, at fome unlucky time. 
Slides into verfe, and hitches into rhyme t« 

Superior to the original, on account of 
the lively and unexpefted fatire at the end of 
each of the two firft lines ; a high improve- 
ment of Ciipido viihi pads. 


10. Ccrvius iratus leges minitatur & urnam ; 

Canidia Albuti, quibus eft inimica, venenum ; 
Grande malum Turius, fi quid fe judjce certas — % 

Slander or poifon dread from Delia's rage. 

Hard words, or hanging, if your judge be Page §. 

It is difficult to fay which paflagc is the 
more fpirited. But what follows in Pope, 

It's proper power to hurt each creature feels, 
is inferior to 


Iinperct hoc natura potcns, fic coUIgc mccum* 
Utiitc lupus, cornii taurus petit; undo nifi iatu^ 
Monltratuin ? jl 

j V. ->:,, X V. 46. 5 V. 81. 11 V- 51. 

1 But 

But then again thefe two lines^ 

So drink with Walters, or with Cliartres cat^ 
They'll never poifon you, they'll only cheat % 

is expreiTed with an archnefs and a drynefs 
beyond the original, that follows : 

Scxvx vivacem crcde nepoti 

Matrem i nil faclet fceleris pia dextera (mirum ; 
Vt heqne cake lupus quemquam, nee dehte petit bos) 
Sed mala toilet anum vitiatd mclle cicuta f. 

i I. Ne longum faciam : feu me tranquilla feneAus 
£xpe6lat, feu mors atris circumvolat alis ; 
Dives; inops; Romz, feu fors ita juilerit exul^ 
Quifquis erit vita; fcribam Color %• 

Then, learned Sir ! (to cut the matter (hortj 
Whatever my fate, or well or ill at court; 
Whether old age, with faint but chearful ray. 
Attends to gild the ev'ning of my day. 
Or death's black wing already be difplay'd. 
To wrap me in the univerfal (hade ; 
Whether the darkened rooms to mufe invite. 
Or whiten'd wall provoke the fkewcr to write; 
In durance, exile, Bcdiaiti, or the miAt, 
Like Lee or Budgell, I will rhyme and print $• 

•V. S9. t V 53. tV.54. SV.91. 

Zz 2 The 


-1 ini 


The brevity and force of the original it 
evaporated in this long and feeble paraphrafe* 
The t&irJ, and three fucceeding lines, arc 
languid and verbofe^ and fome of the worft 
he has written. 

12. ——Quid cum eft LucUius aofus 

Primus in hunc operis componere carmina morem^ 
Detrahere & pellem, nitidas qua quifqae per ora 
Cederet, introiTum turpis— — — ♦. 


What ? arm'd for virtue when I point the pen. 
Brand the bold front of (hamelefs guilty men, 
Dafh the proud gamefter from his gilded car. 
Bare the mean heart that lurks beneath a ftar^ 
Can there be wanting, to defend ha: caufe. 
Lights of the church or guardians of the laws f f 

^hatjiraln % I heard was of a higher mood — 

and of a tone more awful and majeflic than 
the original pretends to aflume. Our au- 
thor*s Horace differs as much from his ori- 
ginal as does his Homer i yet both will b# 

• V. 64. t V. 105* I Milton's Lyddai^ 87, 




always read with great pleafure and ap« 

13. Could penfionM Bolleau lafh, in honeft ftraiiiy 
FlattVers and Bigots ev'n in Louis* reign* 7 

BoiLEAu a(^ed with much caution and 
circumfpedlion, when he firft publifhed his 
Lutrin, here alluded to ; and endeavoured to 
cover and conceal his fubjedt, by a preface 
intended to miflead his reader from the real 
fcene of action ; which preface is mentioned 
in the firft volume of this eflay, page 214; 
but it ought to be obferved, that he after- 
wards, in the year 1683, threw afide this 
difguife ; openly avowing the occaiion that 
gave rife to the poem, the fcene of which 
was not Bourges or Pourges, as before he had 
faid, but Paris itfelf ^ the quarrel he cele- 
brated being betwixt the Treafurer and th# 
Chanter of the Holy Chapel, in that city. 
The canons were fo far from being offended, 

• V. Ill* 



that they (hewed their good fenfe and good 
temper by joining in the laugh. Upon 
which Boileau compliments them, and adds, 
that many of that fociety were pcrforis of fo 
much wit and learning, that he would as 
foon confult them upon his works, as the 
members of the French Academy -j-. 

14. Quin ubi fe a vulgo & fccna in fecreta remorant 
Virtus Scipiadae & mitis fapientia Laeli, 
Nugari cum illo, & difcindti ludere, donee 
Decoqueretur olus, foliti % 

There, my retreat the beft § companions grace,- 
Chiefs out of war, and flatefmen out of place ; 
There St. John mingles with my friendly bowl 
The feaft of reafon, and the flow of foul : 
And he, \»hofe lightning pierc'd th' Iberian lines. 
Now forms my quincunx, and now ranks my vines, 

t Oeuvres de M. Boileau, Dcfpreaux, par M. de SaintMtrc; 
Tom. ii. 177, Paris, 1747. 


f In the two preceding line^ is z bad expreflion that ouglft 
to be noted 

the din the world can Jteefm 



Or tames the genius of the ftubliom plain, 
Almoft as quickly as he conquered Spain ^. 

I KNOW not whether thefe lines, fpirited 
and fplendid as they are, give us more plea* 
fure than the natural pidiure of the great 
Scipio and Lalius^^ unbending themfelves 
from their high occupations, and defcending 
to common and even trifling fports : for the 
pld commentator fays, that they lived ia 
fuch intimacy with Lucilius, ^^ ut quodem 
pmpore Lah'o circum le(5tos triclinii fugienti 
Lucilius fuperveniens, eqm obtorti mappi 
quafi percuflurus fequeretur." For this is the 
fa6l to which Horace feems to allude, rather 
than to what Tul/y mentions in the fecoad 
hook DeOrator£, of their amufing themfelve* 
;n picking up ihells and pebbles on the fea-« 
fhore. Bolmgbroke is here reprefented as 
pouring out himfelf to his friend, in the 

• V. 125. 

t Whofc charaaer is finely touched by that fwcct cxprcf- 
fipn^ mith fafitntia. 




moft free and unreferved converfations on 
topics the moft interefting and important. 
But P^^ was deceived; for it is aflertcd that 
the philofopher never difcovcred his real 
principles to our poet ; who is faid, ftrangeas 
this appears, not even to have been acquaint- 
ed with the tenets and contents of thofe very 
cflays which were addreft to himfelf, at the 
beginning of Bolingbroke's Philofophical 
Works. And it is added, tha( Pope w^ 
furprifed, in his lad illnefs, when a common 
acquaintance informed him, that his Lord{hip» 
in a late converfation, had deny*d ^he moral 
attributes of God. There is a remarkable paf- 
fage in a letter from Bolingbroke to Swift, 
dated June 1734: — *' I am glad you approve 
of his Moral EJfays. They will do more good 
than the fermons and writings of fome, who 
had a mind to Jind great fault with them. 
And if the doftrincs taught, hinted at, 
and IMPLIED in them, and the trains of 


trines, were to be difputed in profe, I think 



he would have no rea(on to apprehend, cither 
the freethinkers on one hand, or the narrow 
dogmatiils on the other. Some few things 
maybe expreffed a XlnXt hardly i but none 
are I believe unintelligible/' With refpeft 
to the doArines of the Eflay on Man, I fhall 
here infert an anecdote copied exaftly frotn 
the papers of Mr. Spence^ in the words of 
Pope himfelf. ** In the moral poem, I had 
** written an addrefs to our Saviour, imitated 
*• from Lucretius'^ compliment to Epicurus-, 
** but omitted it, by the advice of Dean 
^* Berkley. One of our priefts, who are 
*' more narrow than yours, made a lefs fen- 
** fible objection to the epiftle on happinefs. 
^* He was very angry that there was nothing 
** faid in it of our eternal happinefs hcreaf- 
^' ter; though my fubjcdl was exprefsly to 
i^ treat only of the ftate of man here." 

' "^HERE are not, perhaps, four more fi- 

nifhed^ines in our auth'br's works, than thofc 

above mentioned, relating to Lord Peterbo- 

Vai.. II, 3 A rough : 


rough; particularly the yesy striking turn 
of compliment in the laft line, which fo 
beautifully and vigoroufly figure$ ihp n^pir 
dity of his conqueft of Valepcia. 

ij. ■ tamco me 
Cum i^gnis vixiQe invita fotebitur ufquq 
Invidia • 

Envy muft own, I livp amqng the Oieat* 
No pimp of pleafure, and no fpjr of ftatcf' 

Pope triumphs and felicitates himfclf upr 
on having lived with the Great, without de- 
fcending into one of thofe chara«^ers which 
he thinks it unavoidable to efcape, ip fi^ch a 
fituation. From the gcnerofity and open- 
ncis of Horace's charadter, I think he might 
be pronounced equally free fat leaft from 
the /i!/ij of thefe imputations. There mui^ 
have been fomething uncommonly captivat- 
ing in the temper and manners of Horace, 
that could have made Auguftus fo fond, of 

• V. 75. i V. 133. 

z flinty 

~~ -^ ■■»! — ^m " ■■ JJf 



him^ though he had been fo avowed an ene«> 
tnyi and ferved under Bl-utus. I have feen 
fome manufcript Letters of Sbaftejbury^ in 
which he has ranged in three different 
claifes the Ethical writings of Horace^ ac« 
cording to the different periods of his life in 
which he fuppofes them to have been writ* 
ten. The firft, during the time he pro- 
fefled the Stoic philofophy^ and was a friend 
of Brutus. The fecond, after he became 
diflblute and debauched, at the court of Au- 
guftus. The third, when he repented of this 
abandoned Epicurean life, wifhed to retire 
from the city and court, and become a pri- 
vate man and a philofopher. 


i6. ■ ' ■ ct fragili quxrens illidere dentem, 

Offcndct folido— r- * 

Pope has omitted this elegant -allufion. 
Horace feems to have been particularly fond 
of thofe exquifite morfels of wit and genius^ 

• V. 77. 
3 A 3 the 




the old Mfopic * fables. He frequent^ al- 
ludes to them, but* always with a brevity 9 
very different from our modem writers of 
fable ; even the excellent La Fontaine ha» 
added a quaint and witty thought to this 
very faUe; The File fays to tlie Vipers 
Fab. 98, 

Tu te romprois t<mtcs Fes deiit9« 
J« ne crains que alUs du Temp^ 

17. Si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina^ jtars eft 
Judiciumque. H* cflo fi quis mala, fed bona fi qai» 
Judice-condiderit Undatus Gxiare— — — f 

To laugh at the (blemnity of Trebatius^r 
Horace puts him off with a play upon words: 
But our important lawyer takes no notice' of 
the jeft, and finiflies ,with^a gravity fuited to- 

his charafter. 

Solventur rifu tabula, Tu miflus abibis. 

* Sfce the learned Diflercation, Di Bamio^ latdlf pab* 
lifhed by Mr. Tyrwhic ; in which are fevera 1 of the greauft 
elegance, f' V. 81. 

. ^ 

This dialogue I heard lately fpoken * with 
fo much fpirit and propriety^ that if our au- 
thor tould have been prcfent, he perhaps 
might have been inclined to alter an opinion, 
of which he Teems very fond, in the fourth 
book of the Dunciad, '* that Words only 
are learnt at our great Schools." 

X8. Non mens h\cferint \ iei quse przcepit OfeUut ■ 
Rofticus, abnormis fapieos, craflaque Mincrvif. 

Hear Buhl's fennoii, one not versM In fchools. 
But ftrong in Cenky and wife without the rules}. 

This difcourfe in praife of Temperanctf 
-tofes much of it's grace and propriety, by 
being put into the mouth of a perfon of a 
much higher rank in life than the honefl 
countryman Ofellut ; whofc patrimoay had 
been feized by Auguftus, and given to one of 
his foldiers named XJmbrenusi and whom, 
perhaps, Horace recommended to the enw 
peror, by making him the chief Ipeaker In 

* At Etw Scbod. t Sat. ii. Ub. x> r. a. t V. ■•• 



this very fatire. We may imagine that ^ 
difcourfe on temperance from Horace, raifed 
a laugh among the courtiers of Auguftus ; 
and we fee, he could not venture to deliver 
it in his own perfon. This imitation of 
Tope is not equal to moft of his others. 

- Leporem fe£latus, eqtiovc 

Laflus ab indomlio, vd, (fi Romana fatigac 
Militia affuctum grarcari) feu pila vclox, 
Motlicer aufterum Audio fallente laborem ; 
Seu te difcus agic, pete ccdeiitcm aera difco ; 
Cum labor extuderit fallidia, liccus, inanis, 
Epcrne cibum vikm j nifi • Hymcttia mella Fall 
Nc biberis diluta. Foris eft promus & atrum 
Defcndens pifccs hJetnat fflare \ cum Talc panls ' 
Latrantem ftomachum bene Ie;)iet. Unde putas ii 
Qiii partum f non in caro nidore voluptas 1 

Summa, fn] in teipfo eft. Tu pulmentana quzre 
Sudando, Pinguem vitiis albumquc ncque oftra 
Ncc fcarus, am poteiit peregrina juvarc lagois f. 

* We «rc iolbrmed by Mr. Stuart, in his Atheni, thai tbe 
honey of Hymciiug, even 10 this time, continues to be in 
Toguc, and thai the reraglio of the Grand SeigRor is ferred 
with a quantity of il yearly. 



Go hunt, work, exercife I he thus began. 

Then fcorn a homely dinner if you can. 

Y«ur wine lock'd up, your butler ftroU'd abroad, 

pr fiOi deny'd (the river'yet unthaw'd} 

If then plain bread and milk will do the feat. 

The pleafure lies tn you, and not the meat %, 

This paragraph is much inferior to the' 
original; in which the mention of many 
particular exercifts gives it a pleafing variety. 
The fixth and fevcnth lines in Horace are 
nervous and llrong. The third in Pope lan- 
guid and wordy, which kiA^ta forts eft premus. 
Defendfns, & latrantemt & caro, icpinguemy & 
albumt are all of them very expreflivc epi- 
tket«. And the allufion to Socrates % con- 
Aant exercife, tu pulaientaria, &£-. ought not 
^P haye been omitted. Pope's two laft lines 
in this paiTage are very exceptionable. 

90. Vix tamen eripiam, pofito pavatUj vclis quitt 
Hoc potius quam gaUha tergere palatum f . ' 
Preach as I pleafe, I doubt our curious men 
"WiW chufe a pheafant fttll before a Hen |. 

J V. II. J V. »3. |l V.17. 


He might have inferted the original word 
peacocks^ as many of our Euglilh epicure^ 
are fond of them, Q^ Horlcnfius had the 
honour of being the firft Roman that intro- 
duced this bird to the table as a great dainty, 
in a magnificent feaft which he made on hi» 
being created Augur. The price of a pea- 
cock, fays Arbuthnot, page 129, was 50 
denarii, that is, 1/. izs. 3d'. A flock of x 
hundred was fold at a much dearer rate, for 
322/. i8j. ^d. of our mooey. M. Aufidius 
Lurco, according to Varrp, ufed to maka: 
every year of his pea^ock$ 484/. 7^. td. 

11. Undc datum fcntis Lupvs hie Tibcrinus, an alta 
Captus hiet ? pontefnc inter ja£latus, an aoinij 
Oftia fub Tufci ? laudas infanc UJlibrem 
Mullum } in Ungula qucm oiinoaE palmeiltx DC* 

or carps and mullets why prefer the great, 
Tho' cut in pieces ere my Lord can cat ; 
Yet for fmall turbots fuch eftcem profcfs ? 
Becaufe God made thefe large, the other Icfs %, 

■ V.JI. 

t V. SI 

Very inferior to the origlnali and princi- 
pally fot becaufc that pleafant ftroke is omit- 
ted, of the eater's knowing in what part 
bf the river the Lupus * waa taken, and 
whether or no betwixt the two bridges, 
irhich was deemed an eilential circuroftance. 
The reader wilt be well entertained on this 
fubjed, if he will look into the feventeenth 
chapter of the third book of Macrobius, par- 
ticularly into a curious fpeech of C. Titiuf^ 
there recited. But Horace feems to. have 
bad in his eye a pailage of Lucilius, quoted 

* Plfoff In Iiii Nitmral Bidorj, b. ix. e, 34, nentiou 
«n cxtraordimry circDmftance that g>re vtlge to their filb. 
Tot pifciDio r«poribui, quibtu pretia capiencium pericalo fiunt* 
The fiOi were ellecmed, «id fuppofed to have a higher flavoar, 
IB praportioB to the dangen that hsd been nndergone id th« 
cttching them. We axe not yet amred to the height M 
«Akh Roman Iiuiary wu curied, however we may fluttr our* 
ftlre* on our impravctnenu in caiiag, 

t Cojni verba ideop^no.iioM non rolorndtlBpointertiaM 
pontei capio erunt teStnoiiio, fed etiam rntrn, qaibue plcri- 
^oe taMt viviimmt, facile publicabnnt. Dcfcribeai enira bo- 
ninei prodigoi in forum ad Judicuidom ebrio* commeantei i 
.f nx^ae fbleut inur fa lerinocinan, fie ait | "^adant ale^ iK. 
p. J15. Pariiii^ 1585, 

Vol. II. 3B by 


for 48/. S/. 9^. According to Macro^, 
there w^ paid for another 56/. 10s. id. 
For a third, according to P/inyt 64/. i is, Zd. 
Our age is as yet unacquainted with the nice- 
nefs of the ancients in weighing their fiflies 
at table, and beholding them expire- The 
death of a muUut, with the variety aiid change 
of colours in it's laft moments, was reckon- 
ed one of the (noft entertaining fpei^tacles 
in the world, by the men of tafle at Rome. 

yi.PrerenUf Auftrl, coquitehorumobronia— * 

Oh I blaft it fouth innds t till a ftench exhale. 
Rank at the ripeneft of a rabbit's tail \, 

, A VBRT filthy and olfenCive Image, for the 
happy and decent word coquite; it muft be 
^wned pur au(hor» as well as Swift, wat 
but too fond of fuch di%ullful Images. 

^. Tuttis erat Rhombus, tatoque Ciconia nido. 
Donee vos autor docuit Prxtoiiua-M— }. 

fv.41. ty.«7- jy.4B. 


The Robin-red-bretft till of late had reft. 
And children facred held a Martin's neft, 
•Till Beccafico's fold fo dev'liOi dear. 
To one that was, pr would have been, a peer |* 


He has happily fubftituted for the^ari( 
two forts of birds that among us are held as 
it were facred. AfcUus Sempronius Rufus was 
the pcrfon * who firft taught the Romans tq 
t2Xjlorks^ for which he was faid to have loft 
the prastorfhip. On which fubjedl the fol- 
lowing verfcs were written, and have beca 
prefcrved by the old commentator Forfbyrio. 

Ciconiarum Rufus ifle Conditor ^, 
Hie eft duobus elegantior Plancis ; 
, Suffragiorun? punda noa tulit feptem : 
Ciconiarum populus ultus eft mortem* 


•3. Porreftum magno magnum fpeftare catino 
Vellem, ait, Harpyiis Gula digna rapacibus t« 


« V. 37. 

* See the Horace of Baiiui Afmfiut^ printed at P4111 ia 
'^folio, 1519, f. 213. 

t V. 40. 




CrieS} fend me, Gods I a whole hog' barbecu'd * I 

He has happily introduced this brge un- 
wieldy inAance of gluttony, luppofed to bs 

. peculiar to the Weft Indies. But Athenaus \ 
.ipeaks of a cook that could drefs a whole hog 
with various puddings in his belly. I unfor- ' 
tunately know not with what wine it was 
|>ailed. The flow movement of, the lines in tho 

- cniginal, loaded with fpondees, aptly reprc* 
fent the weight and vailnefs of the difh. Gyla 
is ufed perfonally : as it is alfo by Juvenal, 

34.81 quis nunc merges fuares tdixtrit aflbs, 
Parebit pravi docilis Romaaa juventui^. 

Let me extol a cat, on oyfters fed, 
\'\\ have a party at the Bedford-Head ; 

• y. 2j. ', 

f Aft author that defervei to be more read and regarded^u 
•boanding with cnterUining anecdote*, and variotit ac^ 
connu of the manners and wayi of living^of the ancicnu, and 
lb quotationi cf elrgani fragments of wriceri now lofl. Th« 
iainc any be faid oiSttimtu, a work foil «f cnriou cxtra^ 
■pon important and pleafiog labjeiSii 


, Or 


Or ev'n to crack live craw*fi(h recommend, 
{ I'd ficvcr doubt xt Court to have a friend §. 

To dine upon a cat fattened with oyften«' 

and to crack live craw-filh, is infinitely mor» 
pkafant and ridiculous thaa to eat mergot 
effoi. But then the words extQl^ and r/fcm* 
mendf fall far below edixfrit; give out a dS^" 
tree : So Virgil, Georgic the third, line 295, 
does not advife but raifes hit fubjei^ hjA 

Incipiens fta^ulii tditi }p moIliblM hcrbaqt 
Carpere ovet— — ^ 

15. Tile rrpotia natales iltofque dicrum 

FcAos albacus cclebiet —— - f 


But on fome lucky day (as when they found 

A loft Bajik-billi or heard their fon was drown'd t« 

Much heightened and improved bj two 

J Tbii fbiirtb line ii Mk\t ud naneanlng. 

jv.«i. !y.«». 

iuch fuppofed occafions of th» unnatural fef- 
tivity and joy of a true mifer. 

t6. Dulcu le in bilem vertent, fiomaclioque fiMvJItaMr 
Lenta ferct pituita {, 

Wlfcn bile, and phle^, and wind, and acid jar. 
, And all the man it mw iuteftine war $. 

Ta yap avotxoia cTM^st, lays Hippocrates s 
the very, metaphor here employed by Horace, 
Two writers of fclence, in Greek, have ufed 
a ftyle eminently pure, precife, and elegant* 
Hippocrates and Euclid, 

- vid^s, ut pallidut omnlt 

' Ccoa defurgat dubia -i •. 

How pale each worfbipfiil and rev'rend guefr 
Rife from a clergy ot 1 city feaft t< 

Our author has been firangely guilty h«r» 
of falfe Englilh and falfe grammar, by ufing ^ 
rife for rifet. The expreflion in the original 

tV.7S- SV.7I. •V.77. tV.76. 


is from T'erence; in the iecond aA of 


Ph. Cxnz duUa zifiyitC}pix \ 

* * 

Geta. Quid iftud verbi eft? Pa; uCi tu dubltet quid 
fumas potiffimum* 

From which paflage it is worth, ohferving^ 
that Terence was the firft writer that ufed 
this cxprcflion* 

|g, , „ Hos utinam intcf 

Seroas natum tellus me prima tuliflet*; 

Why had I not in thefe good times my birdr. 
Ere coxcomb-pyes, or coxcombs, were on earth f » 

The laft line, and the conceit of coxcomb^ 
fyes and coxcombs^ fink it below the ori- 
ginal j which, by the way, fays CrtiquiuSp 
feems to allude to that of Hefiod^ Ofer. & 

•y'9y t V. 97. 

S9. Du 


39. Das'aliquij Famae, quse carmliie gratior aiirem 
Occupet humanam J 

Unworthy hcy the xoice of Fame to hear. 
That fwreteft tnufic to an boneft ear §. 

Two very beautiful lines, that excel the 
original ; though in truth the word occufat 
has much force. Hora<% again alludes to 
his favourite Grecians. Antifthencs philo- 
Ibphus, fays the old commentator, cum vi- 
diflet adolefccntem Acroamatibus multum 
* deledari, O te, ait, infelicem, qui fumihum 
Acroama, hoc eft, Laudem tuam non au- 

30. Cui * eget indignus quifquam te dfvite t ? 
How d4tr*Jl thou let one wortbj man be poor i 

Very ipiritcd, and fuperior to the original; 
for ^'ft is far beyond the mere €get* 

J V. 9*. s V. 99. 

* " Ev'o modeft want io<iy blefi your hand anfittn, 
*' Tho' hulh'd in patient wretchednefi at hone." 
Which Tccond line (of Dr. ArinSraiis) it ctqniitdi/ tendtfc 
t V. 103. H V. lit. 

Vol. II. jC 31. N« 


31. Non aliquid patriae tanto cmctiris accrvo* f 

Or to thy country let that heap be lent, 
' As M — ' o's was— but not at five per cent \. 

He could not forbear this ftroke againft a 
nobleman^ whom he had been for many years 
accuftomed to hear abufed by his moft inti- 
mate friends. A certain parafite, who thought 
to pleafe Lord Bolingbroke by ridiculing the 
avarice of the Duke of M. was ftopt fhort 
by Lord Bolingbroke; who faid, H^ was fo, 
very great a man, that I forget he had that 

32. Non ego, narrantem, tetnere edi luce profefta 
Quidquam, &c. ■ * % 

This fpecch of Ofellus continues in the 
original to the end of this fatire. Pope has 
taken all that follows out of the mouth of 
Betbelly and fpeaks entirely in his own pcr- 
fon. 'Tis impoffible not to tranfcribc the 
pleafing pidure of his way of life, and the 

•¥•105. fV. lai. J V. 116. 


account he gives of his own table, in Ifnes 
that exprefs common and familiar obje(5b 
with dignity and elegance. See therefore 
his bill of fare, of which you will long to 
partake, and wiDi you could haye dined at 

33' 'Tis true, no turbots dignify my bovds, 

^ut gud^ons, flounders, what my Tii^ines afllordi : 
To Hounfiow- Heath I point, and B^nftcd-Down, 
Thence comes your mutton, and thefc chicks my 

' From yon old walnut-tree a fliow'r Ihall fall. 
And grapes, long ling'ring on my only wall> 
And iigs from llandard and efpalier joii) % 
The dev'l ii in you if you cannot dine. 
Then ' chearTul healths (your miftrefs (hall have 

And, what's more rare, apoetfliall fay'gracef. 

33. Nam proprlx Telluris herum natura ncque ilium 
Nee me nee quemquam ftatuit . X 

* Which Swift alwayt did, with remarkable decency and 

t V. 141. t V. 130. 

3C a What'a 


Vf^z^sfnftrtj? dear Swift ! yoa fee it aJter, 
From joM to me, from me to Peter Wilttr ^ 

Swift was always reading leAures of cec^ 
noniy> upon which he valued himfelf, to hit 
poetical friends. A fliilling, fays he, is a fe? 
rious thing. His favourite ntaxim wa^^ 
<* Have money in your bead, but nof in jour 

Our author would have been pleaied, if he 
could have known that his pleafant villa 
would, after his time, have been the property 
of a perfun of diAinguiHied learning, tafte, 
and virtue *. - 

- quoc jrca yivite fortes. 

Fortiaque advcrlii opponite pefiora rebus f* 

Let lands and hou'es have what lords they wUl» 
Let us be fix'd, and our own maftera ftill (. 

i V. 167, 

* 1 he Right Hmonrable Welbore EIUi. 

t V. 13s. t V. 179. 



The majeftit; pldinnei^ of the original is 

weakened and impaired, by the addition of 

an antithefis, and a t^rn oi wit^ in the la^ 


35. Priml difi« mil)!, fuaml diceode Caipvni, 
' Spi^d^um fatis, & donatunn jam rude quaris, 
Mzcenas*; iterum antique me includce ludow 
Kon cfdem eft xut^ aon mnuj Vcitniiu armit 

* It hat been rurpeAed tliat hii ■ffefiioii to hii Friend «>( 
fo ftrong, ai to matce him refolve not to ouilire him ; and that 
he lAually pot into execution hii promifc of iiimui, iiimut, 
4Dd, zvii. I. }■ Both died in the end of the ycM 74 1 1 U. C. 
litrtui oalj three week* af^er M/eeiMu, Novc.t} r S7, 
Nothing can be lb different as the piuia and manly fryle of 
die former, fa comparifon with what Qi^intili^n calli the m* 
Immifirfi of the latter, for which Sanoniut, and MatreiUi, c. iS, 
piyt Anguitai frequeniljr ridiculed him, tboutih Au^utliia 
fcioirelf waighilt)' of the fame fault. TheleamrdC CH/jnt, 
in hii excellent edition of Virgil, after obferving. mat tb« 
welt-hnowD ve'fe» ufually afcribed to Aogollus, on Virgil's 
•rdering hi) Aneid to be burnt, are the work of fome bung* 
liag grammarian, and not of that Emperor, adds, *' ViOcaa 
tamen Fttimrium, horridoi hoi tc ir.cptoi verfus non modo 
Augafto tribuere, verum etiam magnopere probare; ill font 
beaux Se femblent partirdn ctgur. Ei^i furlaPo«fieEp:que, 
C. 3. Ita vides, adverum polchrarom feotentiarum fenfuia 
Ji jadicium, fermonii intetlig«ntiam aliquam elle neceflariam." 
P* VtMaroni* Opera, tom.i. p. 131. Liplir, 1767. 



Herculis ad poftem fixis, latct zlxlitus agro» 
Ne poputum extremi tpties cxorct arena*. 

St. John, whofe lovcindulg'd my labours paft. 
Matures my prerent, and Ihall bound my laft. 
Why will you break the fabbath of my days t 
Kow Tick alike of envy and of pratfe. 
Public too long, ah let me hide my -age I 
See modeft Cibber now has left the ftage : 
Our gen'rals now, retir'd to their ellates. 
Hang thdir old trophies o'er the garden gates f. 

There is more plcafantry and humour in 
Horace's comparing himfelf to an pJ4 gla* 
. diator, worn out in the fervicc of the pub-r 
lie, from which he had often begged his 
life, and has now at lall been difmifled with 
the ufual ceremonies, than for Pope to com- 
pare himfelf to an old adtor or retired gene- 
ral. Pope was in his forty-ninth year, and 
Horace probably in his forty-feventh, when 
he wrote this epiflle. Bentley has arranged 

• Ep. i. lib. i. T. 1. t V. L ep. i. 

3 *I»C 

the writings * of Horace in the following 
order. He compofed the iirft book of his 
Satires, between the twenty-fixth and twen- 
ty-eighth years of his age j the fecond Book, 
from the years thirty-one to thirty-thrcej 
next, the Epodes,' in his thirty-fourth and 
fifth year ; next, the firft book of his Odes, in 
three years, from his thirty-fixth to his thirty- 
eighth year; the fecond book in his fortieth 
and forty- firft year J the third book, in the 
two next years j then, the firft book of the 
Epiflles, in his forty-fixth and feventh year; 
next to that, the fourth book of his Odes, in 
his forty-ninth to his fifty-firft year. Laftly, 
the Art of Poetry, and fecond book of the 
Epiftlcs, tp which an exaft date cannot, be - 

36. Eft mihi purgatam crebro qui perfonet aurem. 
Solve fenefcentem mature lanus equum, ne 
Peccet ad extremuin rideiidus & ilia ducat f . 

• J. Maffm, aaihor of the Latin Life of Horace, doei not 
Agree to this arrangement of Horace's worlci ; but does not 
feem to be able to fubHitute a more probable chronological 
ctder. Sec Hifi. Crit. Rcpub. Lit. torn. v. p< 5i> 


A voice 



A voice there is that whifpers in my ear •, 

('Tis Rcafon't voice, which fonctimcs one eta hevj 

Friend Pope, be prudent, i« yout mufe take breath. 

And never gallop Pegafut to death, 

ieft ftilFand Ilately, void 0/ 6re and ferxxf 

You limp like BJackmore, or a Lord Mayor't hoilef, 

Horace plainly atludcs to the good genius 

ctf Socriatesy which conflantly warned lutai 
sgainfl approaching evils and inconveniences^ 
Pope has happily turned it to Wifdom's voic^ 
and as happily has added, " v/h'ioh /&meti/fu» 
one can hear." The purged ear is a term of 
philc^ophy. The idea of the jaded PegafuSi 
and the Lord Mayor's horfe. are high im* 
prorements on the originah A Roman rcf^ 

* He has excelled Soileau's imiiicioii ef thefe verfci^ 
Cp. X. V. 44. And Boileau himfelf it excelled hy an oUf, 
poet, whom indeed he has fret^uentl/imiutcd.that U,tiFrt^ 
nait faufui/in, who was the faibcr of N. V. de« Yvciaux, the 
preceptor of Louis XIII. whofe pcems were pabliflicd towards 
theend of his life, 1611. He fays thai he profited much by 
the fatires ofjritjt. Botleaa has borrowed much from hia^^ 
He alfo wrote an Art of Poeirj'. One of his befl pieces is I 
imitation of Horace'* Trtitniai, being 1 duJogat bet« 
himfelf and the Chancellor of f raace. 

t V. 11. 

der was pleafed with the allufion to two 
well-known verfes of £nnius * ^ 

37. Vir^nth Tcne cuft«, rigijBfque fatellesf- 

True as young LvTTiLTON her caufe piufue. 
Still true to virtue, zai as warm as true |. 

A ju&T, and not over-charged encomium, 
en ah excellent man, who always ferved his 
friends with warmth (witnefs his kindnefs 
to Thomfon) aftd his country with adivity 
and tseal. His Poems, and Dialogues of the 

* Sicnt f<Mtit eqani fpatio qui forte rupretno 
Vicit Olympia, nunc fenio confeftu quiefcit. ' 

Bhbhi9, poeu aociquuj (Ai/s Jul. Scaliger, with lui 
vfoftl bluntnerx) magoificeo ingenio. Utinam huoc ba^ 
bcremui intcgrHm, It amiltema}, Lacanum, Statium, Si- 
lion Italicnm, U lua m gar(mu-l;_ The learned M. 
JtfM>4fr, to whom we are iodebted for lb many addiiioot 
/to tbe Mm^'vi reads with great acutenefs, Ga/t^Hi-U, by 
•which term he ibinlcs Scaliger pojoti out the inllatetl, boin> 
-teftic ftyle of Lucia and Staiiui. How elegantl}', and ttea. 
poeticallyi doet Quintilian give hit judgment of Eonioi j 
Hnnc CcDt facroa vetoftate lucos adoremui, in quibu* gran- 
4ia it antiqua robora,jam noo tantam habcnt fpectem, qifSDian 
(vligioDoa. Lib. X. c. i. 

t V. 17. X V. ay. 

Vol, II» 3D Dead/ 


Pead, are written with elegance and eaie 
his Obfervations on the converfion of SUi 
Paul, with clearnefs and clofcncfs of reafon^ 
ing ; and his Hirtory of Henry II. with aCf. 
curacy, and knowledge of thofc early times, 
and of the Englifh conftitutioii ; and whjch, 
was compiled from a laborious fearch into 
authentic documents, and the records lodged 
in the Tower and at the Rolls. A .UttI?. 
befyre he died, he told me, that he had dCf 
termined to throw out of the concision 0$ 
all bis works, which was thcii foon to bp 
puhlilhed, his firft juvenile performance, 
the Perfun * Iteiters, Wfjttcn, i735> in imi- 

* Montefqoieo himfelf alfb fays, tliM io thii agreeable 
ihere were faite Juvtitilra, iliac he would w>(h to coneAf 
*' for chotieh a Turk ought neceffjrilv lO fee, think, > 
fpeak like j Turk, and not liltc a Chriftian, yet many pcrft 
do not aiEcnd to ihii circa in Dance, in reading my PerfiiB 
Lecieri." See xn entertaining colleflion orbia Uiiginal LM* 
UTS, p iSo- In this catleilion are fome corious parucolu^ 
relating 10 his great work. The Spirit of Lb*i. He lelto 
}tit Frirnil. the Ciunt de Guafco, " 1 hough roiDy king* 
have not done me that honoar, yet I know odc loho hu read igf. 
wclc; and M. Jt Maii_ iriuii hat informed me, thai ihia mo* 
4^rcii is not always of Djr opinion. 1 bire infwcicd Man* 

AND Genius of ?ope. 387 

tstion of thofe of his friend' Mmtefquieu^ 
whom he had known and admired in Eng- 
land i in which he fdid there were princi- 
ples and remarks, that hs wfhed to rctraft 
and altef. I told him, that, notwithAand- 

ptfttdii, and told tiim, I v^dM lay % wager, T could nfilj 
pat sty finger on thofe pafTages which the King diflikei." 
In page l&fi, be t'hlis Tprkk) of Ft/tMrti " Quant IVoluire, 
il t trop d'efprit poor m'tntendre i tou) lei livre* gu'il lit, il 
Icifait, apresquoiil approuveou critique c«qu'il ■ fait. And 
afterward), fpetking of Voltaire') dlfmilSon from Berlin, 
*' Voiladonc Voltaire qoi paroit ae ffavoir ourepoferfaiftet 
ut eadem letlui tjux modo vidori defu'erat, deelTct ad fepul- 
tnram. Le bon efphic. Vaot bcancoap micux que le belefprit." 
^, 198. It il much to be lamcDtcd, that the hifiorjr of Lnit 
the Eleventh, which Moniefquicu bad written, was burnt bf 
a miftake of hii fecretar/, p. 98. Mr. Stanley, for whom 
MOhiefquieu had a fincere cAeem and regard, told me, that 
Monterqtiicu alTared him, he had received more information 
from the cotdmentarici Of J%e on the Codex and Digeft, a fa- 
noui civilian of Bologna in the twelfth century, than fron any 
Odier writer on the civil law. He it faid to have had 10,009 
Scholars. Trithe mini mcntiont him, c. 487. Sec Arifii Cte-; 
, Bionasi Litteratiffl. Tom, i. p. 89 

I beg to add, that Lyttclton was not filiod to the fault* 
niid bleminiea of his friend Moniefquien. See notes on the 
H}Aory of the Life of Henry IT. p. 391, 4(0, where he is cen- 
fured for an excef&ve defire of faying fomething new apon 
every fubjefi, and differing from the common opioitus of man- 

3^ D 2 ing 

ing his caution, the bookfellers, as in faSb 
they have done, would preierve and infert 
thefe letters. Another little piece, written 
alfo in his early youth, docs him much ho- 
nour ; the Obfervations on the Life of tuUy, 
in which, perhaps, a more difpanionate and 
impartial charader of TuUy is exhibited, 
than, in the panegyrical volumes of Middle- 

jS.Nunc in Arifitppi ruttim precepta relibor *. 

Sometimes with Artilippus, or St. Paul, 
Indulge my candor, and grov all to all f* 

There is an impropriety and indecorum, 
in joining the name of the raoft profligate 
parafitc of the court of Dionyfius with that 
of an apoAIe. In a few lines before, the hame. 
of Montaigne is not fufficiently contrafted 1^ 
thenameofZ.O£-/^; tlie place required that two 
philofophers, holding very ditfercnt tenets, 
ihould have been iatFoduced. Hobbes might 

• V. 19, t V. 51. 


hav« ^Ken oppofod tx) Hufcbtfof^. X kaow 
not why he omitted a ftrmg Sentiment that 
follows imtnediaiely, 

£t mihi rea* noa bu nbus fubjupgere conor*. 
Which lllte CornelUfi took for his motto^ 

39. Non ttmen idcirco contemius lippus inuagi t< 
1*11 do what Mead and Cherdden adrife}. 

Mead> a judge of pure Latinity, haring 
difputed whh Pope on theimproprie^ of th« 
expreflion. Amor ^hWcn^ on Shakefpear's 
monument, ended the controverfy by ^ving 
up his opinion, and ^yingto him, 

Omiua vincic amor U not cedamus amori. 

It may be amufing to the lovers of aMc- 
dotes, juft to mention, that in a public in* 
fcriptioh at Rhdms in France, Racine^ 

•V. M. tV. 39. jV.jiJ 



who drew it up, ufcd the words Amor pulw 
licus, in the very fame fenfe. I believe both 
thefe great poets were wrong. 

^O. lov'jiui, iracunduf, iturs, vitiofus, amatar*^ 

Be furious, enviuust llothfu], mad, or Atatik^ 
SUve to a wife, or valTal to a punlc t> 

I CANNOT forbear thinking but tha6 
Horace glanced at his % own frailties and 
imperfeiSions, as he frequently docs, in the. 
Jour laft epithets of this verfe, in the ori- 
ginal. As to aivy, he had not a grain of it 
in his nature. 

• V. 38. t V. 61. 

J Ai he doc5 it bit ptfficn for bdldiog, in vcric ioq^ 

Diruiti cdificat, matat quadrat* rotondit. 

So ilfo. Sat. Ui. lib. ii. v. 508. 

■ Aecipe, prim u IB 

-^dificai i hoc eft longM imtiiri), ab imo 
Ad fuiUBiim tatiu nodali bipcdalJ}-— - 


4It Vintn eft vitium fugert *. 

'Til the lirft virtue, vices to a$hor. 

And the firft wifdom^ to be fool no Kurt\» 

Dr. King informed me, that theji were 
two of the rhymes, to which ^Swift, who 
was fcrupuloufly exaift in this ref]}e£t, ufcd 
to obje<^, as he did to fome others In 

4'a. Per mare pauperiem fugienii per f«ct, per ignet}. 
Scar'd at the fpeSre of pale Pq7Irty 5 f 

^op£ has given life to the image, and add- 
ed terror to the iiraple exprenion pauperiem, 

43. At pueri ludentei. Rex crif> aiant, 
ti xtdK faciei |, 

Yet ev'ry child another fong will fiog, 
Virtue, b]^ve boyi I 'tis virtue makes a king**. 

•V.41. fV.tfs* JV.46. *V.70. |V^59- 



Some commentators think Horace alluded 
to an old Greek play among children, called, 
BafffXiv^a. But Lambinus obferves, that the 
{port alluded to is mentioned in the Tbea^ 
tetiu of Plato'; where Socrates fays, he diat 
fails in his purfuit will be reckoned an afs« 
as the children fay of him who CAnnot 
catch the ball} and he that catches it is 
called their king. 

44. Ut propius fpe^s Ixcr/moTa * poemata Fupi f I 

For what ? to have a box when eunuchi fing, 
■ And forcmoft in the circle eye a king \. 

Our author is To perpetually expreiling 
I affefted contempt for kings, that it bc- 
, comes almoA a naufeous cant ; 

-~tht pridi of iingt— 

—fsmt mtnfitr of a iing-^ 

—fitf iittgt—tbt gi/i of Ungs— 

—GoA of iingt— mueb abovi « kin^-^ ■ ■ 

—Settle wrote of Hugs— 

* The epithet taetymfm it irontcal. f V. 67. jT. 1^ 

X Hawkins 


Hawkins Browi} laughed at him for 
this afiedatiod, in ttie pleafatiC Imitations d£ 
Engliih poets; oil Tobacco; 

CooKj'iet me tafle thee^ mitxtii'H hj irngs I ■ 

** Since we tannot attain to greatnefs (Czy3 
MoniagheJ let us have our revenge by rail^ 
ing at it." 

4.$^ Olim quod vulpes srgroto caiita Icon! 

Rcffktndit, refenim : Quia-me vdligia terrcnt. 
Omnia te adverrum jpe^htia; nuUa retTorfum*. 

Faitb> I Ihall glvi the arifwcr Reynard gave : 
I cannot like, dread Sir ! yoar royal care ; 
Bccaufe I fee, by all the tracks about. 
Full many a beaft goes in^ but nftn« coOies out f: 


4 CoaGifeiic& WU the qaality, for whldi Bairlui, if we ttiaf^ 
|sdgefrointliefragine)m.r«in( tohaVetwenroeXcelteoi. Sec i 
Diflertu. de Babrio, fab. 97, 50, 242 ;. and above all, tbe ex- 
qnifiu fij>1e of the Swallow and Nightingale, Fable 149,' 
;i^d. the lall in tUi learned and elegant diflertatioD. In tJt« 
WmMtnm Mfificmnm Dtbami, a book not fu£cicstl]i knottAr 
Md now out of yrint. publilhed at Oxford, 1698, aie/ir/)r ^' 

Vot. II. iB Wi 


Both poets have told the JFable vfOh an 
elegant brevity. Whydi^Vopcoxiat^tgrvttf 
Dread Sir, and Rtyal cave, are good additions. 
Plato was alfo fond of this fable. He has 
put it into the mouth of Socrates, in the firfl; 
Alcibiadcs. Aax' a,ysj0>tis, kxTX tw Aiawn 
IJLU00V, o¥ 1} AXQ-m^i Tpot Tov Afovrtt tnri, not 
Ttf eic Aaateixttiova voiufffOiTot eurtwrot fuv ta 

IXy^ 7A EXfJffC TtTpai^llVA S'/^p EfyWTOt h, 

sSoMt] av Tts iSoi *. 

bles exquifitely written. TCrfibai IcDatiii, b]r Jut. Jifpf^. The 
bell life of j^fap ii by M. MtztriMc, ikfi le^rud editor of 
DiefiawtMt.- a book fo Tcarce, tbat St»tUj complaiaed be conld 
never get a fight of it ; and B^U had never feen it, when h* 
firlt publilbed his Diflionaty. It was reprinted in the Me^boim 
de LictcracureofM. de SalleDgre, 171^, torn. i. p. 87. Thu 
was the author, whom Malherbe alked, wben he fhcwed him 
the ediiioa of Diophutiu} " if it wonUkflin tke price t£ 
" bread?" 

■ Tom. ii. p. 121. Serrani. Ed. H. Stepfa. 1578. Pope 
hai teinf3tJ,tiie paJTage that immediately fblibw* ta a' Aiccd 
snd (quaint manner, which Horace never thooght of j 
Well, if a king*) a /im, at the leaft 
The people are a nany-headed beaft. V. 120. 

ti if the fford Ming had wy telatioi) to ^ Hm h^an-tum- 

46. .^xcipiaat^w 


4S. Excipiantque Tcnes quos in vivu-is mittiint f . 
Some with fat bucks on childifli dotards fawn t> 

The legacy-hunters, the JLeredipeta^wtTC 
A more common charadler among the ancients 
than with us. The ridicule, therefore, is 
fiot now (o ftriking. Lucian has five pJea- 
faot Dialogues on the fubjeft, from page 343 
to 363, in the 4to. edition of Heml^erhufius. 
Horace hJmfelf appears to have failed more 
ifi expofing this folly, than in any other of 
ilia fatires p and priacipally Co, by mixing 
liQcient with modern maimers, and making 
■Tiiefiasinftruft Ulyfies in petty frauds, and 
' artifices too ibbtle for the old prophet and 
hero to (Udate and to praftife. Sat. 5. 
lib. a. 

47. Multis occulto crefcit res foenqre *,■■ — ■■ 

is far excelled in force and fpirit hy. 

While with the filen^ growth often ftr cent^ 
In Mrf and daritte/t^ haadieis JJini content §i 

tV.79. JV. 130. 'V. «Q. |V. iji. 

3 £ a 48. Nuiliu 

)96 ESSAY C^ TK£.;WRM!!rG8 

^. Nullus in oAt fiont Bdit pralocet iiBCBnji, ' 
$i dixit divet ; laeui & ouce &ntit UMicm 
Feftintntii hen ••rrrr 

Sir job t f«ntd ferA, tfiecTCsiag, Imgltt mI JKU, ^ 
** Noplace oneftrtb|becr]r'4,liUGReinric)h^l!^ 
Up lUrts a palace i lo* dt' obedient bde' 1 

^lopes at its foM^ Uie woodl ifa ^deacntne^ I 
ThelUverTlitmMr4e&Uaaw^^Mi|. J. 

Superior to thsoriginal: apletfinglitde 
landfcapc is added to the iatice. But GrM»- 
wich'billii not an exaft parallel (oxBami 
ivhere the RonuuiB of -die beft tafle ahd 
fafhion built .dieir -villas. Popx'a ii <&e 
yilla of a citizen. The abfuid and aulniiBd 
magnificence of opulent cttizeiu haa,'<'of 
late, beeii frequently expofidi bat'nb iroen 
with more humour than in the C^ftu^fikt^ .. 
zn6. in the chars^rs of SterUi^ and Jfr/f 
Heidelhergt in die plandeftitK Mahi^, 

. J V. I3. / , ' 

t lAm Urc^ tkai Aff gplird mird, 40^ 


— — Cui fi vitic^a * libido 
Fecierit zufpicium j cm ferramenta Tcanum 
ToIletJi, fabri f 

Now let fomc whimff, or that dev'l within. 
Which guides all thofe who know not vhat tl 

But give the knight (or give bis lady) fpleen; 
Away, away < take all your fcaffolds down. 
For jhug's the word } — my deaf, we'll live in town (. 


Horace f»ys, he will carry bis build* 
ings from fo proper and ' pleaCint a fitua- 
tion as Baia, to Teanumi a lituation un-* 
healthy and unpleafant. Pope fays, he will 
pot build at all, he will again retire to 
town. He has, I think, deflroyed the coi^ 
nexion by this alteration. Mutability of 
temper is indeed ogually exhibited in both 
inibnces, but Horace keeps clofer to his 

• Scaliger obferns, that Horace ii fond of adje&ir^ that 
end in t/u, 

■ jv.i«, 


49. Quo teneam vultus tnuttiitem Protei nodo i 
Quid psuper i ride i muut coeniCuIa^ leAos> 
Balnea, tonrores ; condu^ navigio zque, 
Naufcat ac locuples quern ducit priva triremis*^ 

pid ever Proteus, Merlin, any wmh, ^ 

Transform themfelves fo flrangcly as the rich. > 

Well, but the poor — the poor have the iamc itch. J 
iThey change their weekly barber, weekly ofiws, 
Prefer a new japanncr to thctr flioes j 
Difcharge their garrets, move their beds, and run, 
(They know not whither) in achaife and one; 
They hire their fcu]l4r, and, wbenonce aboard. 
Grow lick, and Aaxbn the climate— lik« » Iwd f. 

This imitation is in truth admirable. 
It is, perhaps, one of his fineft pallages. AH" 
the parallels are fortunate, and exaAIy hit 
the original ; and the images drawn from 
IDodern life are miautely applicable to tho 

f 0. Si curtatuB inaetjuali tonfore capilltts, 
Occurro ; rides : fi forte fubucula pex% 
Trita fiibcft tunica, vel fi toga diffidet inparj 
Rides J. 

•V.50. tV.i5z. ty-9h 


You laugh, half b^au, half floven if I fland. 
My wig all powder, and all fnutf oiy band ; 
You laugh, if coat and breeches ftratigeLy vary. 
White gloves, and linen worthy Lady Mary*l , 

I AM inclined to think that Horace laughs 
at himfelf (not at Virgil, as has been fup-. 
pofed) for the ungraceful appearance he 
Sometimes made, and the incongruity of his 
drefs. Perhaps our iittle, rot^d^ fatj oily 
man, was fomewhat of a floven. Poor 
Pope was fo weak and infirm, and his body 
required fo many wrappers and coverings', 
that it was hardly poffible for him to be 
neat. No poet, except MtUbtrhe, ever wore 
fo many -j- pair of ftockings. "Tom/on fpeaka 
elegantly of his p^rfoUj in that deb'ght- 
ful poem. The Caillc of Indolence, fiaoa 
the 33d. 

• V. 161. 

t ?Vs in number, KCffdiDg to hit frifp4.SAQAK* ^ tht 

afconntof hiilift. 

Grofs he who judges fo.- 

JI. Nil admirari, prope res c 
Solaque ijuic poffit facere 

•' Kot to admin, is all t] 

•• Tomaldtmen happy, a 

' Plain truth, dear Muaii, 

fpeech, , ^ 

• So take it in the veiy „or 

Who, io truth, is a mu 
than he is uTually fupj 

• Bpit Ti. 

t He knew the exaft taAe an< 
•«■»«", and haa hhoured this i 

» V. I. 

BMr. CbritopherPitthaaini 
».ii.llhei5tkepaic, b.ii, ith, 
jyffle. b. i. , the i8th epilUe b. i 

be. He is a nervous and vigorous writer : 
and many parts, not' only of his Lucretius, 
but of his Theocritus and Horace (though 
now decried) have not been eiCcelled by 
other tranflators. One of his pieces may 
b^ pronounced excellent ; his translation of 
the thirteenth fatire of Juvenal j equal to 
any that Dryden has given us of that au- 

5a. Hunc roletn & ilelUs it decedencia cert'is 
Tempora momentis, funt qui formidine nulU 
Iinbuti fpeflent— — — •. 

This vault of air, this congregated ball, 
.Self-center'd fun and liars, that rife and fall : 
There arc, my friend, whofc philofophic eyes 
Look through, and truH the Ruler with his ikieSf. 

This laft line is quaint and obfcure; the 
two firfl vigorouHy exprelTed. Horace 

tioB, would not be to adopt t\it familiar bisnk verie, wliick 
Mr. Ctimam hai lb faccersfully employed in his Terence } « 
Jbrt of Terfe no more refembling that of Milton, than th* 
Hexameter! of Homer rcfemble thole of Theocrttui. 

•V.3. tV.5- 

Vot. II. 3 F ' tlwught 


thought of a noble paflage * in Lucretiuiy 
book V. line 1185. 

In coeloque, Deum fedes, & templa locarunt. 
Per coelum volvi quia fol, & luna videntur : 
Luna, dies, ic nox, •& no£Us figna fcrena, 
Nodivagxque faces cccli, flaounaeque volantcs, 
Nubila, ros, ^nbres, nox, venti, fulmina, grando^ 
£t rapid! fremitus, & murmura magna minarum. 

53. Ludicra quid, plaufus, & amicidona Quiritis f. 

Or popularity ? or ftars and ftrings ? 

The mob's applaufes, or the gifts of kings %• 

Considering the prefent ftate of poli- 
tics, the abilities of politicians in this coun- 
try, and the Tiumber of thofe who think 
themfelves completely qualified to guide the 
ftate, might I be pardoned for the pedantry 
of recommending to them the few following 

* To thofe who know the number oftbomgbts that hnmii^ 
mnd nuordt that hurn^ in this animated writer, it is farprifing 
that Tally could fpeak of him in focold and taftelefs a man-' 
ner ; Lucretii poemata non funt lita mollis Ittminibns Iggnii, 
multx tamen Jr/is. £p. ad Fratrem, Lib* ii« Sp* ii. 

fV.y. $V.i3. 



Words of Socrates ; who thus addrcfles Alci- 
biades : FvpiVxtTXi rpo^rov, cd fixiuipte kxi iiol6€ 
OL hi fJLx6ourx isvou iiri ret ryfi T0X6aiC> rporepw 
h fxij. Alcibiad. 2d. p. 133. Serr. Platon. 

54. ' — rCum bene notuin 

Porticus Agripp«, & via te confpexerit Appi ; 
Ire tamen reftat, Numa quo devenit & Ancas *• 

Grac'd as thou art with all the pow'r of words. 
So known, fo honour'd, at the Houfe of Lords ;* 
Confpicuous fcene !— another yet is nigh, 
(More filent far !) whtre kings and poets lie; 
Where Murray, long enough his country's pride, » 
Shall be no more than Tully, or than Hyde f. 

Much beyond the original; particularly 
on account of the very happy and artful ufe 
Pope has made of the "neighbourhood of 
the Houfe of Parliament to Weftminfter Ab- 
bey ; and of the well-turned and unexpefted 
compliment he has paid to hi^ illuftrious 
friend. The charaftcr of Lord Chancellor 

♦ V. 25, t V. 48. 

3 F 2 Clarendon 


Clarendon fecms to grow every day 
brighter, the more it is fcrutinized, and his 
integrity and abilities are more afcertained 
and acknowledged, even from the publication 
of private papers, never intended to fee Ac 

55« ■■ vis reSe vivcrc ? quis non ? 
Si virtus hoc una poteft dare, fortis omiffis 
Hoc age deliciis • 

Would ye be bleft ? defpife low joys, low gains ; 
Difdain whatever Cornbury difdains ; 
Be virtuous, and be happy for your pains f. 

This again is fuperior to the original ( 
where quis non, is feeble and flat : and the 
mention of a particular fhining charadler 
gives a force and fpirit to the line. This 
amiable young nobleman wrote, from Paris^ 
1752, a very prefling remonftrance to Mr. 
Mallet, to diffuade him, but in vain, from 
publifliing a very oflfenfivej digreflion on 


• V. 29. t V. 60. 

J It appears that Swift fufpcaed the irreligious principles 
Hf Bolingbroke> fo early at the year 1724; for he makes for 


the Old Tcftament, in Lord Bolingbroke's 
Letters on Hiftory. ** I muft fay to you. 
Sir, for the world's fake, and for his fake, 
that part of the work ought by no means to 
be communicated further. If t^is digreflion 
be made public, it will be ccnfured, it mqft 
be ccnfured, it ought to be ccnfured. It 
will be criticifed too by able pens, whofe 
erudition, as well as their reafonings, will 
not eafily be anfwered." He concludes by 

liimrelf the follawtng apology to the Dean : — *' I mnft on tbii 
•ccafion fet you right, as to an opinion, which I Ihoutd be 
rcty forry to have yon entertiUD cancerning me. The lena 
*/^f fert, in EngliOi free-thinker, it, according to my ob- 
fervacion, ufually applied to them, whom I look upon to be 
iheftfii of fociety ; becaofe their endeavoun are dtreded to 
loofeo the bands ofic.ond to take at leaft one curb oat of the 
mouth of that wild bead man, when it would be well if he 
wai checked by half a fcore others." Oneof thefe/^f/.^ow- 
erer, he chofe to become, by ftriAly enjtnning Mr. Mallet to 
publilh the writings he left ag^inft religion. Sec Letters of 
Swift by Hawkefworth. vol. ii. p. 200. In thi« colle6Uon is 
the very entertaining jo nmal which Amft wrote daily to Mti* 
' Jofanfon, containing a minute account, and many private 
snecdotes of the minUtry of Qaeen Anne. Perhapa the infidc 
of a co^n,(vits poilfceaia) was never fo clearly difpUyed, 
But yet Swift does not feein to have known all ^e intrigue* 
thcB carried qn. 

T (! UIU11.C, not to raile nc 

^' mory," 

5^' ' Virtutem verb 

Lucum ligna ? .». 

But art thou one, whom n, 
One who believes as Tinii 
Who Viriu, anj a Ci«rd a 
Thinks /i«, but words, and, 

HiRi we have a dire 
fureof a celebrated infi 
«un<, therefore, which w 
ftnmgly and openly on t 
« he knew the great law 
he was writing. Horace 
to the words of a dying H 
tomedr; and n;«„ r^.a- 



the words vrluch Brutus ufed juft before he 
ftabbed himfelf, after his defeat at Philippi. 
But it is obfervable, that this fad refts folely 
on the credit of this fawning and fulibme 
court-hiilorian i and that Plutarch, who 
treats largely of Brutus, is filent on the fubr 
je£t. If Brutus had adopted this pafTage, I 
cannot bring myfelf to believe, that Horace 
would fo far have forgotten his old princi- 
ples, as to have mentioned the words adopted 
by the dying patriot, with a mark of reproach 
and reprobation, 

57. Scilicet uxorem cum dote, fidemque ic amicos, 
£t genus & formam * regina Pscunia donat, 
Ac bene nummatum decorat Suad£La, VBNUsquBf. 

For mark th' advantage ; juft fo many fcore 
Will gain a wife with half as many more ; 
Procure her beauty, make that beauty chafte. 
And then fuch friends as cannot fail to laft. ^ 

^ The Dake of M. dining with Prince Eqgene^ in a 
very large company, fpoke in high terms of his C^een Anne ; 
the Prince whifpeied to the oldeft and mofl venerable genefftl 
officer n^w liwng^ Rtgina Picuma ** tbat^s his ^m.'* 

t V. 38. 

A man 



A tnanof wealdiiidaU'daataoffmdl^ ' 
Venus fliall give bim ttna,$ui AidU»Uc|A*. ^ 

Not imitated with the ngoor and ^oitgr 
of the original. Tie fiift line ^ weak N^od 
languid. Three' Diwikkt, for ibdi fa| 
makes them, Pecunia* Suaobla* and Vi- 
Nus, confpire in '^Ting dieir accon^ifli- 
ments to this faVbaiite of fortune. Modern 
images could not be found tq aitfwar ^tnAi 

58. Chlamyde* LncuUits, nt uaa^ 

Si polTet centum fceiue pnebeie ragHMfk 1 ' 

•V-??- ", ' . ■■: 

t Oradonii Tnbdlitat iaiteKlii QU qdAiB i)dMr itt 
exiftiiniiici, fed niUl opcrienli ■!■■•• Cfaii*' SiavhiK'' 
Oemetrw Phalcreiu iiiyi. in • pkfligB fill of tale »d jid^ ^. 
ment, ti;i m .*;c«. x<i(Mi^K* pag. II5. Oxn. ttfjfi. 

TherelinetofHonceana Ara^nUipkaf ^■%adl»''*. 

offtyle, . - " (* .,, 

■ p tTcendi ^nbu aif ■• - -^ 
Exteanantis eu coafalto 

This treadTc^f DemetriuPkiknwIa aotbaaekntd* bi^., 
pwhapi it more n&Ail duu em IKobj^ da StniEL 80M 
hxTcimagined that IMon^niwutkeaMfiorof iu- liwt 
are many tntcrnal ptooA why it cwddaatbcwtinm ft ot^ 

■ M Qjii 

, ' 


^* Qui poflum ? tot ait ; tamen & quaerem & quo( 

«* Mittam" — poft paulo fcribit fibi millia quinque 
£fle domi chlamydum ; partem vel tollerct omnes *• 

His wealth brave Timon glorioufly confounds ( 
AfkM for a groat, he gives a hundred poupds i > 
Or, if three iadies like a lucklefs play,, 
Takes the whole houfe upon the poet's dayf • ^ 


By no means equal to the original : there 
is fo much pleafantry in alluding, to the 
known ftory of the Praetor coming to bor- 
row dreiTes (paludamenta) for a chorus in a 
public fpeAa^le that he intended to exhibit^ 
who afked bim to lend him a hundred, fays 
Plutarch ; but Lucullus bade him take two 
hundred. Horace huiporoufly has made it 
fiye tf)oufand. We know nothing of Timon, 
or the three ladies here mentioned. There 
is AiU another beauty in Horace ; he has 
fuddenlyi according to his manner, intra- 
duced LucuUu^ ipeaking ; ** quifoffum, &cJ* 

•V.4». , tV.8s, 

Vol. II, 3 Q He 


He is for ever introducing thefc little inteN 
locutions, which give his fatires and epUUet 

an air fo lively and dramatic. 

J. M ro-nur fcrvum, qui diftet nomisi, ! 
Qui fodl^t Utus, ii cogat trans* pondera dextrtai 
Forri^ere : hie niultum in Faiti valet, ille Ftiiw^ 
Cui libet is fafces dabit} eripirtquc curule^ 
Cui volet, importunus ebuT : Frater, Fater, iddef 
Ut cuii^uc efl ztas ita qucmquc facctus adoptaf* 

Then hire a Have, or, if you will, a lord. 
To do the honours, or to give the word t , 

Tell at your levee, as the crowds approach} 
To whom to nod, whom take into your coacll. 
Whom honour wilb your ^lai : to malcc remarks. 
Who rules in CornwJli or who rules in Berksj 

* Various are the optDioni about the meaning of frtat 
Jfondtra ; foine coiDmeniatort think it tattM, icroTi the carV 
riagrs and waggons loaded with beanii and flonei, &c or the 
•tuei^ht of che gown/n/Wup. But Gi/mn'% interpreiadoq 
fcems the n oft fenfible j ultra xquilibtium corporit, cui^ 
periculo cadon'li ; the cjudid^ie h-yut A> low that he almoli 
orerf-'ti hh body F>dit laiui Ixvum candidaii nomencla* 
tor i alacris nimiuni & cupidus can Utlatm ita protendtt dcXt 
trim, ut xquiiibrium pcche perdat. And Ovid ufef/fM^^ 
\n this fenfe ; Pondcribut Ubrau full. Met. i. ij. 

t V. so. 

ANb GfeNltJs 6P POi*Ei 4u 

** This ma^ be troublefome* is near the chair : 

**- That makes three members) this caQ chufe a 

Inftmded thiis, you bow, fembtace, protcft^ 
Adopt him fon> or coufin, at the leaft. 
Then turn about, and laiigh at your ovrn jell *i 


An admtrabTe pifhire of feptenniat iblly 
find meannefs during an eleSlion catroafsf in. 
which the arts of Englifh folicilation are 
happily applied to Roman. Some flrokcs 
of this kind> thbugh mixed Svitb unequal 
trafh, in the Pafyuin of Fielding^ may be 
mentioned as capital, and full of the trneil 
humour. It is indeed a fine and fruitful 
fubje£t fot- a fatyrift. As Pops could not 
ufe a nomenclaior fjervumj he has happily 
added — a Lord, And if he has omitted a 
livfely circumftance,^/«/jw/ latus^ he has made 
ample compenfation by, take tftta yoitr coacBi 
Jmportunus\s admirably turned by, thtf m^ 
be trouhlefome % as is/acetut, b/j /attgh at ytlb^ 

' •ViiiO. 

3 G X in — — rani|it^n^ 

uiiii.uus cireas ol early 

Frem Laiian Syrens, Fun 
Return well travell'd, ,„d 
Or for a titled punk, or fo, 
Renounce our country, juuj 

»,I. Si, Mimneimui ml cenfet, 
Nil e« jucundum, vivas in : 
If SwwT ciy wi&lj, •■ y„ 

The Dean made his , 
by mif-rpending it iq „^ 
in fcribbling paltry riAt 
»nd venting hu fpleen in 
Hi* baniihment to Irela 
thought it, and hia difap. 


philofopher^ whofe lofs I (hall long and fin« 
. cerely deplore^ has lately made the follow*^ 

ing ftridures upon one of his capital works. 


^' Mifantbropy is fo dangerous a thing, 
and goes fo far in fapping the very founda« 
tion of morality and religion^ that I efteem tho 
laft part of Swiff % Gulliver (that I meaii 
relative to his Houyhnhnms and Yahoos) to 
be a worfe book to perufe, than thofe which 
we forbid, as the moft flagitious and ob- 
fcene. One ahfurdity in this author (a 
wretched philofopher, though a great wit) 
is well worth remarking : in order to render 
the nature of men odious, and the nature of 
beafts amiable, he is compelled to givb human 
* characters to his beajlsj and beajily charadtert 
to his men ; fo that we are to admire the 
beafis, not for being bea/ls, but amiable men ; 
and to detejl the men, not for beings men, but 
deteAable beafls. 

Whoever has been reading this unnatU'^ 
ral FiLTH, let him turn for a moment to 2 


"■ ' ' Ij. Cum tot fuftrnns i tani 

Kes Italasarmis tuteris i 
I-'gibus emeiiclcs, ;„ p„b 
Si loogo fermoM mo„, , 

Wiile ro», greit patron 
The balanc'd world, and 
Your country, chief, in an 
At home with moralj, am 
How Hull the manrromf 
*« W, and not defraurf , 

All thofc naufeou! 
eompliments, which He 
■*j=a«diJation, degrade, 

»". «I?I London, ,,8,. p„, iij 

to Auguftus, Pope has converted into bitter 
find pointed farcafms* conveyed under the 
form of the moll artful irony. Of this irony 
the following fpecimens Ihall be placed to- 
gether, in one view, added to the preceding 
lines, which are of the fame caft. 

Wonder of kingb! like whom, to mortal eyes« 
None e'er has rircn« and none e'er fhall rife *. 
How Iball we fill a. library with wit. 
When Merlin's ctvc is half unfioifli'd yet f? ^ 

My liege ! why writers little claiiD your though^ 
I guefs i and with their leave will tell the faulttr 
Yet think, great Sir (■ fo many virtues fliown. 
Ah, think what poet beft mayjnake them kiu)iyn4- 
Or thufe at lealtfome minifter of grace. 
Fit to beftow the Laurcat's weighty place f, 

fTt, and with a tnsply regard to hit owa chantOer." Sfli^. 
kc forgot. 

Juranda'qae tifai per Numtn ponimus ftntr, 
^il oriiurnn aliii, nil ortum talc fatentes, &C. 

W« foine*!inMfpeakincorreAlyof what areca:|rd Ihewriten 
of the AtigmfiaM age. . Terence, Lucietiai^ Catgllui, Tullf, 
J. Czfiir. and SJtuft, wrote btfari th« time ot Auguft»t 
S«l Livy, Virgil. Horace, TibuUui, and Prcpertius, wer* 
||Ot made good wri^ert by faia patronage and encouragement* 

•V.JJ. tV.JS4- tV.JsS. II V. 376. 




Oh could I mount on the Mconian wing. 
Your arms, your aftions, your npofe^ to ling ! 
What feas you travers'd, and what fields you fought. 
Your country's peace, hotv oft, how dearly bought ! 
How oarbarous rage fubiided at your word. 
And nations wonderM while they dropp'd the fword I 
How when you nodded, o'er the land and deep. 
Peace ftole her wing, and wrapt the world in fleep^ 
Till earth's extremes yoi^r piediation own^ 
And Ada's tyrants tremble at your thron^^f 
• But verfe, alas ! your majefty difdains^ 
And I*m not us'd to panegyric ftrains : 
Befides, a fate attends on all I write, 

when I aim at praife, they fa^ I bite\ 

- It (nay be obferved, in general, that thci 
imitations of thefe two epiilles of xhtfecond 
book of Horace, are finifhed with fb much 
accuracy and care, and abound in fo niany 
applications and allufions mod nicely and 
luckily adapted ta the original paOiiges^ that a 
fninute comparifon would be ufelefs. In a very 
few inftances, however, he may be thought 
%o fall fhort of his model. This appears in 



i n ^^ 


the accouut of the rife of poetry among the 
Romans, v. 139 — becaufe he could not pof- 
fibly find a parallel for the facrifices paid to 
Teilus^ and Silvanus^ and the Gtnius, nor to 
the liccntioufnefs of the Fefcennine verfes, 
which wer^ rcftrained by a law of the Twelve \ 

Pope has alfo failed in afcribing that 
introduction of our polite literature to 
France, which Horace attributes to Greece 
among the Romans j (v. 156. orig.) It was to 
Italy, among the moderns, that we owed 
our true tafte in poetry. Spencer and Milton . 
imitated the Italians, and not the French. ^ 
And if he had correftnefs in his view, let 
us remember, that in point oi regularity and 
correSlnefs, the French* had no dramatic 
.piece equal to the Silent Woman of Ben John^ 
fon, performed 1609, ^At which time Cor^^ 
neille was but three years old. The rules of ^ 

• The very firft French play, in which the rules were ob- 
ferved, was the Sofbonijha of Maint, 163}. 

Vol. II. 3H the 


the drama are as much violated in the * CUf 
1637, beautiful as it is, as in the Macbeth^ 
Lear^ and Othello^ all written before Corneille 
was born ; wliofe firft comedy, Melite, which is 
now never a<3:Ld, was reprefented 1625. The 
pieces of the very fertile Hardy (for he wrote 
fix hundred) the immediate predeceffor of 
Corneille s are full of improbabilities, indeco- 
rums, and abfurdities, and by no means com- 
parable to Mclite. As to the correSlnefs of 

• Father Tcurncmine ufed to relate, that M. dc CbaUnff 
who h.nd been fecretary to Mary dt MtJicif, and had retired 
to Rouen, was the peribn who advifed Corneille to ftcdy the 
Spanifh language ; and read to him fome paflage^ of Gaillin 
^e Cajiroy which ilruck Corneille fo much, that he determined 
to Imitate his C/V. The artifices ufed by Ricblhu^ and the en-» 
gines he let to work to crufli this fine play, are well knowii« 
Not one of the Cardinal's tools was To vehement as the Ab- 
be d*Aubignae\ who attacked Corneille on account of hif 
family, his perfon, his gefture, his voice, and even the con- 
dud of his domeflic affairs. When the Cid firft appeared 
(fays Fontenclle) the Cardinal was as much alarmed as if he. 
had {t^'\ the Spaniards at the gates of Paris. In the year 
1635, Richlieuy in the midft of the important political con- 
cerns that occupied his mighty genius, wrote the greateft part 
of a play, called, La comedit des Tuilleriis, in which Corneille 
propofed fome alterations to be made in the third a£t : which 
bpnefl freedom the Cardinal never forgaye. 


the French ftage, of which we hear fo miich^ 
the rules of the three unities are indeed ri- 
goroufly and fcrupuloufly obferved* ; but the 
beft of their tragedies, even Jbme of thofe of 
the fweet and exa<5l Racine, have defe<Ss of 
another kind, and arc what may be juftly 
called, de/criptive and declamatory dramas; and 
contain the fentiments and feelings of the 
author or the J^eSlator^ rather than of the 
f^^fi^ introduced as fpeaking« " After the 
rcftoration, fays Pope in the margin, WaU 
Icr, with the Earl of Dorfet, Mr. Go- 
dolphin, and others, tranflated the Pompey 
of Corneille ; and the more correct French 
poets b?gan to be in reputation/' But the 
model was unfortunately and injudicioufly 
chofen ; for the Pompey of Corneille is one 
of his moft declamatory -f^ tragedies. And 
the rhyme tranflation they gave of it, is per- 

* As they are certainly in Samfm Agonifia. 

t See the Eflay on Shakefpeare by Mrs. Montagoe, io 
which ihe has done honour to her fex and nation ; and which 

3 H 2 was 



formed pitifully enough. Even Vojlaire cott;^ 
fcfles, that Corncillc is always making bk 
heroes lay of thcmfclvcs, that tliey are great 
men. It is in this palTage that Pope fays of 
two great mallerg of vcrfification j 

If'alkr was fmooth ; but Dryden taught to join. 
The varying vcrfc, the fuU-rcfounding line. 
The long majcftic march, aad energy divine •• 

What ! did Milton contribute nothin|^ 
to the harmony and extent of our language ?i 
nothing to our national tafte, by his noble> 
imitations of Homer, Virgil, and the Grecfe 
tragedies ? Surely liis verfcs vary, and refound 
as much, and difpky as much majejiy and. 

wu fent' to VolM^re with chii motto pre&xed 10 it ; by 4 pcr- 
feo who admired it ai a piece of cxquifite cricicifm ; 

Pallas Te hoc Vulnere, Pallas 

Imtnolat Vi«ia. 

The Iphigcnie of Racine, it mufl be owned, i> an incoiBf 
parable piece ; it is chiefly To, frxi'm Racine's atieniive fludy 
of Euripides, Corneille had not read the Gtefk iragedifi. 
He was able to read Ariflotle's Poetics only in Heinfiu)'! 
tranflaticn. h is remarkable, that there \\ doi a ftnglc lineia 
Oiway or Rowe from the Greek tragedies, And Dryden ia 
hit (£dipus has imiuted Seneca and Corneille, not Sopho- 

V. ^':^. 

3 energy. 


energy, as any that can be found in Dryden. 
And we will venture to. fay, that he that 
ftudies Milton attentively, will gain a truer 
tafle for genuine poetry, than he that formSi 
himfelf on French writers. His name furely 
was not to be omitted on this occafion. 

The other paflages in which Pope ap- 
pears not to be equal to his original, are, in 
the three little ftorics which Horace has in- 
troduced into- his fecond epiflle, with {q 
much nature and humour; namely, ihe flory 
of the flave*fcller, at vcrfe 2 ; that of the fol* 
dier of LucuUus, at verfe 26 ; and the ftory 
of the madman at Argos, verfe 128, The 
lad, particularly, Ibfes much of its graces and 
propriety, by transferring the fcene from the 
theatre to the parliament-houfe, from poetry 
to politics. 

63. Two noblemen of tafte and learning, 
the Duke of Shrewfbury and the Earl of 
Oxford, defired Pope to melt down and caft 



anew the weighty bullion of Dv. Ddnht^ 
fatires; who had degnded and JttTui/ii ed' » 
vaft fund of fterling wit and ilroag tjenfief^ 
the moft harfh apd uncoajtb-didniik. Voltp 
fuccecded in giving harmonj to a, wntcr;v, 
more rough and rugged than erch an^-iBfiiJi) 
age, and who profited Ca little by tlie exaa^ ■ 
pie Spencer had Cct, -of a moft moficd vadi. 
mellifluous verfification ; &r bcTond dkU 'df 
Fairfax, who is (6 frequently mentioned M' 
the greatcfl: improver of the harmony- of oi^ ' 
language. The fitirea of Haff, written i4= 
very fmooth and pleating' numbers, p re cted rf : . 
thoie of DoMtw man J years; for his Fi^giiftti ' 
miarum were publilhed, in fix books, in the,. 
year 1597; in whidi he calls himielf the very., 
firll Engliih fatiriit, This, however, wasn^^ 
true in faft j for -Sir Thomas W^tt, of Al?||' 
lingtonCaAlein Kent, the friend and ftvoorki^' 
oi Henry VIIL and, as was fuggefled, ofj^i,, 
Boleyn, was our firft writer of iatire wdrdf'^ 
notice.^ But it was hot in.his numbers on^^^ 
that Donne was reprtthe&fiUe. He abonndt jEC. 

falfe thoughts, in far- fought fentiments, la 
forced unnatural conceits. He was the cor- 
rupter of Cowley. Drydett was the firft who 
called him a metafbyfical poet. He had a 
.confiderable iharc of* learning j and, though 
he entered late into orders, yet was eftcenied 
a good divine. "James I. was fo earncft to 
prefer him in the church, that he even re- 
fufed the Earl of Somerfet, his favourite, the 
requeft he carneftly made, of giving Donne 
an office in the council. Iri the entertain- 
ing account of that converfation which Ben 
Jobnfon is faid to have held with Mr. Drum- 
mpnd of Hawthornden in Scotlsjid, in the 

*. He waa one of our poets who wrote elegantly in Latiii i 
as did Btn JtbnftM, {wbo tranflated into that langnage great, 
part of Bacon de Apgnentis Scient.) Cttultf, Miii»m, Addiftm, 
and Gray In Donne'i introduSion to his wit(^ catalogue of 
corioui boolcs, written plainly ia imitation ofRaitlaii, (whom 
alfo Sw/i imitated, in a catalogqe of odd trcatifes, prefixed to 
the Talc of a Tub) there is a pallage fo minately applicable 
to the nrefent tiraei, that I am tempted to tranfcribe it. 
M^xita ronitiUUqni, quo plani indoflis nihil tnrpins, plend 
doflis nihil rarins. Tam omnes in literii altquid rdant, 
tam nemo omnia. Media jgitur pleramqae itar jA, Se ad eri* 
(Midaa ignorantia tarpitvdiDem, * Icgcndi-faAidium. 

. . year 


year 1619, containing his judgments of the 
Engliih poets, he fpcaks thus of Donne, 
who was his intimate friend, and had fre- 
quently addreA him in various poems. 


•* He told Mr. Drummond, that Donni 
was originally a poet} his grandfather on 
the mother's fide was Heywood the epigram- ■ 
matift : that Donne, for not being undcr^ 
flood, would perifh. He efteemed him the '' 
firft poet in the world for fome things j his 
verfes of the loft Ochadinc he had by heart, 
and that paflage of the calm, that duft and 
feathers did not ftir, all was fo quiet, ^e 
affirmed, that Donne wrote all his bcft pieces 
before he was twenty-five years of age. The 
conceit of Donne's transformation, or me- 
tcmpfychofis, was, that he fought the foul of 
that apple which Eve pulled, and hereaft 
made it the foul of a bitch, then of 3 flie- 
wolf, and fo of a woman ; his general pur- 
pofe was to have brought it into all the bo-- 
dies of the heretics, from the foul of Cain, 




and at laft left it in the body of Calvin. He 
only wrote one (hcct of thi^, and lince he 
was made doftor repented earneftly, and re- 
folved to deftroy all his poems. He told 
Donne^ that his Anniverfary was prophane, 
and full of blafphemies ; that if it had beeh^ 
written on the Virgin Mary, it had been to^ 
lerable : to which Donne anfwered, that he 
defcribed the idea of a woman, and not as 
fhe was *•" 

64.The two Dialogues, entitled One thou- 
fend fevcn hundred and thirty-eight, which 
arc the laft pieces that belong to this fedtion, 
were more frequently tranfcribcd, and re- 
ceived more alterations and corrections, than 
almoft any of the foregoing poems. By long 
habit of writing, and almoft conftantly in 
one fort of meafure, he had now arrived at a 

* And again in his Di/covirits :'-^*^ As it ii fit to read the 
ii/l aiuhors to youth forft, Co let them be of the ofemejf and 
the diortjt. As Liyy before Salluftt and Sydntr^ before 

VoLt II. J I happy 



happy and *clcgant familiarity of ftyle, with^ 
outflatnefst Tiie fatire in thefe pieces is of 
the flrongeft kind; fometimes^ diredl and 
disclamatory, at otherSy ironical and oblique. 
It muft be owned to be carried to excefs, 
^ur country is rcprefented as totally ruined, 
and overwhelmed with diffipation, depravity, 
ajid corruption. Ye* this very country, fo 
cpiafculated and debafed by every fpecies of 
folly and wickednefs, in about twenty years 
afterwards, carried its triumphs over all its 
enemies, through all the quarters* of the 
world, and afloniflied the moft diftant na- 
tions with a difplay of uncommon efforts, 
abilities, and virtues. So vain and ground- 
Iffs'are the prognoftications of poets, as well 
as politicians. It is to be lamented, that no 
genius could be found to write an Om 
^houfand Seven Hundred and Sixty-one, as a 
counterpart to thefe two fatires. Several 

• Wc cannot afcrlbe thefe fuccefles, as M. de VoltaIr« 
flpes, to the tSt&A of Brown^s EJlimati. See Additions « 
}'Hill. Gencralc, p. 40^, 




paiTages deferve particular notice and ap- 
plaufe. The defign of the Friend, introduced 
in thefe dialogues, is to difTuade our poet 
from perfonal invedlives. He defires him to 
copy the fly, iniinuating ftyle of Horace; and 
dextroufly turns the very advice he is giving 
into the bittereft latire, 

Horace would fay. Sir Billy /erv*d the Crown, 
Blunt could do bufirufs, H — ggins inew the town : 
In Sappho touch the failings of the fex. 
In rev'rend bifbops note (ome fmalJ negle^s % 
And own the Spaniard did a waggijh thing, 
' Who cropt our eais and fent them to the king.'^* 

The character of Sir Robert Walpole was 
diftated by candour and gratitude. 

Seen him I have, but in his happier hour 
Ot focial pleafure, ilUexchang'd for pow*r ; 
Seen him, uncumber'd with the venal tribe. 
Smile without art, and win without a bribe f. 

This charadter, together with that drawn 
of the fame minifter by Hume, in his fourth 

• V. 13. t V. 28. 

3 ^ 2 cflay-^. 



eflay, will perhaps contribute to give a dir* 
pailionate pofterity a more amjable chara£ter 
of him than we ufually allow him, and conn- 
ter-work the Difertatum on Paities.-Nothing 
can be more animated and lively, than where 
our author. Teeming to follow the cautions 
admonitions of his friend, replies. 

Came, hu-mlcfs cbara^n, that no one hit. 

Come, Henley'i ontoiy, OflKirn's wit. 

The honey dropping from F&vonJo'a tongue. 

The flow'rs of Bubo, and the flow of Young ! 

The gracious dew of pulpit eloquence. 

And all the well-whipt cream of courtly fenfe*! 

To which muft be added a Aroke that cuts 
to the quick ; 

Oi- teach the melancholy mule to mourn. 
Hang the fad verfe on Carolina's nrn; 
And hail her pafTage to the realms of reft. 
All ^arls perform'd, and a// her children bleftf. 

I RECOLLECT no paiTagc in Horace, Ju- 
venal, or Boileau, more ftrongly pointed, or 
• V. 65. + V. 79. 


more well-turned, than where our poet iniifts 
that the dignity of vice muft not be loft. 

Ye gods ! Ihall Gibber's Ton, without rebuke. 

Swear liko a lord, or Rich out-whore a dulce I 

A fav'rite's porttr with his mafter vie. 

Be brib'd as trften, and as often lie ? 

Shall Ward draw contract with a ftuterinan'4 flcil). 

Or Japhet pocket, like his Grace, a will ? 

Is it for Bond, or Peter, (paltry things !) 

To pay their debts, or keep their faith likr kings^F 

This, this, my friend, I cannot, muft not bear. 

Vice dius abus'd demands a nation's care *. 

The noble defcription of the triumph of 
Vice, one of the mofl'pi^turefque in all his 
works, mull not be here omitted. 

Lo I at the wheels of her triumphal car. 
Old England's Genius, rough with many a fear, 
Dragg'd in the duilj his arms hang idly round. 
His Bag inverted trails along the ground ) 
Our youth, all liv'ry'd o'er with foreign gold. 
Before her dance ; behind her, crawl the old I 
S^ thronging millions to the pagod run. 
And offer country, parent, wife, or Ion t 

• V. n». 


Hear her black trumpet through th^land proclaim^ 
That Not To Be Corrupted is the (hame ♦. 

Swift tells him, in a letter dated Auguft 8, 
1738, that he takes his fecond dialogue to 
equal any thing he had ever writ. The fame 
Friend is here again introduced making fuch 
remonftrances as before. And feveral parts 
of the dialogue are more rapid, and approach 
nearer to converfation than any lines he had 
ever before written : 

P. The pois'ning dame.— F. You mean. — P. I don't. 

F. You do. 
P. See now I keep the fecret, and not you. 
The bribing ftatefman.— F. Hold — too high you go-— ^ 
, P. The brib*d elector. — F. There you ftoop too low. 
P. I fain would pleafe, if I but knew with what^ 
Tell me what knave is lawful game^ or not. 
Suppofe I cenfure — you know what I mean ; 
To favc a f bifhop, may I name a dean i 

F. A dean, 

• V. 150. 

f Some of the reverend bench, and particularly one of t 
truly-exalted charader, are injurioufly treated ia line 70. 

Ev^M in a iijbof, I can fpy defert ; 
Si€kir is iUceni ■ 

• ■' 



F. A dean. Sir ? — No — his fortune U not made ; - 
You hurt a man that's riling in the trade*. 

Wearied with the feverity and poig- 
nancy of moft of the preceding paffages, we 
look with delight on the pleafing ei\umera- 
tion of his illuftrious and valuable friends : 

Oft, in the clear, ftill rairrour of retreat, 
I fludy'd Shrnofiurfi the wife and great : 
CarUlm'i calm fcnfe, and Stanhepis noble flame, 
Compar'd, and knew their gen'rous end the fame. 
How pleafing jitterhury'i fofter hour .' 
How fliin'd the foul, unconqucr'd in the Tow'r f 
How can t, I Pult'itfy, Chejlerfieid, forget. 
While Koman fpiric charms, and Attic wit; ' 

■Tha exemplary life, and extenfivc learning, of this great pre- 
late are fuflicient and ample confutations of llic inviAtm 
tfitbci here ufcd ; which ihofe, who are acquainted with his 
LeAurei and Sermons, in which are found a rare mixture of 
fimplicicy and energy, read with indignation. 

• V. 3S. 

t That Palttney had a more manly undtrfianding than ChiJ- 
frfiiU, will not be doubted : but I verily believe he had alfo 
more true -wit. The two Hncj on ^rgjk areYaid to have 
been added^ on the duke's declaring in the Houfe of Lordt, 
on occaGon of fome of Pope's fatires, that if any man dared 
t& ufc hit name in an invcAive, he would run him through 


Argyliy the (bte's whole thimder born to wirlds 
And (hade alike the fenate and the field ; 
Or JVyndhantj juft to freedom and the throne, « 
The mafter of our paffions, and his own ♦ ? 

Among thcfc, Atterbury was his chief in- 
timate. The turbulent and imperious tem- 
per of this haughty prelate was long felt 
and remembered in the college over which 
he,prcfided/ It was with difficulty Queen 
Anne was perfuadcd to make him a bishop ; 
which fhedid at laft^ on the repeated impor- 
tunities of Lord Harcourt, who prefled the 
queen to do it, becaufe fhe had before dlf- 
appointed him, in hot placing Sacheverell 
on the bench. Afjter her dpceafe, Atterbury 
vehemently urged his friends to proclaim the 
Pretender; and on their refufal, upbraided 
them for their timidity with many oaths \ for 
he was accuftomcd to fwear, on any ftrong 

tbe body, and throw himfelf on the mercy of his peers, wbo» 
he trufted, would weigh the provocation. B^limghr^kt'^ Let- 
ter to IVyndham^ is one of the moil curious of his works, aodl 
gave a deadly s^id incurable blow to the folly and madneft of 
* • V. 78. 



provocation. In a collection of letters lately 
piibliflied by Mr. Duncombe, it is affirmed, 
on the authority of Elijah Fenton^ that At- 
tcrbury, fpeaking of Pope, faid, there was 

Mens curva in Corpore curvo. 

This fentiment feems utterly inconfiftent 
with the warm friendlhip fuppofed to fub- 
tift between thefe two celebrated men. But 
Dr. Herring, in the 2d vol. of this collec- 
tion, p. 104, fays; ** If Atterbury was not 
worfe ufed, than any honeft man in the 
world ever was, there were ftrong contra- 
didions between his public and private 
charafter." There is an anecdote, fo un^ 
common and remarkable, lately mentioned in 
Dr. Matf% Memoirs of the Earl of Chefter- , 
field, and which he gives in the very words 
of that celebrated nobleman, that \ cannot 
forbear repeating it in this place: — *^ I went, 
faid Lord Chefterfield, to Mr. Pope, one 
'morning at Twickenham, and found a large 
folio bible, with gilt clafp5, lying before 
Vol. IL l^ him 


him' upon his table ; and, as I knew his way 
of thinking upon that book, I afked him^ jo- 
cofely, if he was going to write an anfwer to 
it ? It is a prefent, faid he, or rather a legacy, 
from my old friend the Bifliop of Rocheftcr. 
I went to take my leave of him yeftcrday in 
the Tower, where I faw this bible upon his 
table. After the firft compliments, the 
Bifliop faid to me. My friend Pope, conii- 
dering your infirmities, and my age and ex- 
ile, it is not likely that we fhould ever 
meet again; and therefore I give you this 
Jcgacy to remember me by it.— Dpes your 
lordftiip abide by it yourfelf ? — I do.— If 
you do, my lord, it is but lately. May I 
beg to know what new light or arguments 
have prevailed with you now, to entertain 
an opinion fo contrary to that which you 
entertained of that book' all the former part 
of your life ? — The Bifhop replied, Wc have 
not time to talk of thefe things; but take 
home the book ; I will abide - by it, and I 
recommend you to do fo t00| and fo God 



/ I 

' blefs you!" — Charity andjuftice call on us, not 
haftily to credit fo marvellous a tale, with- 
out the ftrongeft;^ teftimony for its truth. In 
one of thofe entertaining letters, which the 
Bifliop wrote about the year 1727, to a Mr. 
Thiriot* a French gentleman, we find a 
ftriking remark on the Birtiop of Meaux. 
*' There is a ferious warmth in all he fays, 
and his manner of faying it is noble and 
moving ; and yet I queftion, after all, whe- 
ther h^ fometimes is in good earneji.** Atter^ 
Auryvrzs J on the whole, rather a man of ability 
than a genius. He writes more with ele- 
gance and corredlnefs, than with any force 
of thinking or reafoning. His letters to 
Pope are too much crowded with very trite 

* In one of thefe letters he fpeaki thus of Sir I/aac Newt en : 
—The very lively and piercing eye that Mr. Fontenelle^ in his 
famous eulogium, gives hixn» did not belong to him, at lead 
not for twenty years paft» about which time 1 firft became ac- 
quainted with him. Indeed, in the whole air of his face and 
make, there was nothing of that penetrating fagacity which 
appears in his works. He had fomething rather languid in 
his look and manner, which did not raife any gieat expefta- 
tion in thofe who did not know him. 

3 K 2 quotations 


quotations from theclaHics. It is fkid, he ei- 
ther tranflated, or intended to tranflate, the 
Georgics of Virgil, and to write the life of 
Cardinal Wolfey, whom he much refembled. 
Dr. Warburton had a mean opinion of his 
critical abilities, and of his difcourfe on the 
lapis of Firgil. He was though t to be the 
author of the life of Waller, prefixed Jo the 
£rft odlavo edition cf that poet's works.. 

There is a happy imitation oi Fif^^Ui^ 
^nd oi LuiUau^ at verfc izZ. 

Come then, 1*11 comply ; 

Spirit of Arnall ! aid mc while I lie ! 
(lclhafn'> a coward, Pdlwartb is a flavc^ 
And LytteJon a dark defigning knave j 
$t, Jchfi lias ever been a wealthy fool j 
But let me add, Sir Robe^fs mighty dulj. 

This is the paflage oi Perfiu^^ Sat, i. 

V. I lo. 

Per rnc cquidem Tint omnia prottnus alba. 

Nil inorori Euge, omncs, omnes, bene mirs^eritisres j 



And thus Boileau, Sat. ix'. v. 287. 

Puifque vous le voulez, je vais changer de flile, 
Jc Ic declare done, Quinault eft un Virgile. 
Pradon comme un folerl en nos ans a paru. 
Pelletier ecrit mieux qu'Ablancouit ni Patra. 
Cotin, 1 fcs rcrmons trainant toute la terre. 
Fend Ics flou d' Auditeurs' pour alter a fa chaire. 

But Pope has plainly the fuperiority, by 
the artful and ironical compliments to bis 

The beaftly fimile, at line 171, may 
fifely be pronounced, however difficult it 
xnAj be in many cafes to trace refemblances, 
^o be taken from a paflagc in the Remains of 
Butler, the incomparable author oiHudibras : 

Let courtly wits to wits afford fupply. 
As hog to hog in flate of Wtfipbaiy; 
Ifone, through nation's bounty, or his lord's. 
Hits what the frugal dirty foil affords. 
From him tha next receives it, thick or thin. 
As pur« a mefs almoft as it came in i 
The bleHcd benefit, not there confin'd, 
Props to the third, who nuzzles clofe behind ; 



. From t^il to mouth they feed, and they caroufe^ 
The lafl full fairly gives it to the Houfe* 

The paflage in Butler runs thus: — *' Our 
modern authors write plays, as they feed 
hogs in Wejiphalia ; where but one eats peafe 
or acorns, and all the reft feed upon his, and 
one another's excrements T Thoughts' on 
Various Subjedls, p. 497. v. 2.— —Though 
thofe Remains were not publifhcd in the life- 
time of Pope, yet Mr. T!byer informs us, 
that Mr. Longueville, in whofe cuftody they 
were, communicated them to Atterbury^ 
from whom Pope might hear of them. 'Tis 
impofTible any two writers could cafually hit 
upon an image fo very peculiar and cm- 

I CONCLUDE this feftion by obferving, 
that thele Dialogues exhibit many marks of 
our author's petulance^ party- fpirit, and felf- 
importance, and of afluming to himfelf the 
charafter of a general cenfor ; who, alas ! if 
he had polTefTed a thoufand times mofc ge- 
10 niu^ 



nius aind ability than he adually enjoyed, 
could not alter or amend the manners of a 
rjich and commercial, and, confequently, of a 
luxurious and difiipated nation. «, 




Of the DuNCiAD. 

WHEN the firft complete and corrcft . 
edition of the Dunciad was pub- 
liflied in quarto, 1729, it confifted of three 
books ; and had for its hero T'ibbald, a cold, 
plodding, and tailelefs writer and critic, 
who, with great propriety, was chofen, oH 
the death of Settle^ by the Goddefs of Dul- 
nefs, to be the chief inftrumentof that great 
work which was the fubjedt of the poem ; 



namely, " the introduftion (as our autfior 
exprelTes it) of the lowcft diverfions of the- 
rabble of Smitbfieldt to be the entertainment 
of the court and town j the aEtion of the 
Dunciad being, the removal of the imperial 
feat of Dulnefs from the city to the polite 
world ; as that of the ^neid is the removal 
of the empire of Troy to Latium." This 
was the primary fubjeft of the piece. Our 
author adds, " as Homert finging only the 
wrath of Achilles, yet includes in his poem 
the whole hiflory of the Trojan war; in like ' 
manner our poet hath drawn into t\ii&^ngU 
a^ion the whole hiftory of Dulnefs and her 
children. To this end, fhe is reprelented,4t 
the very opening of the poem, taking a view 
of her forces, which arc diftinguiAed int« 
thefe three kinds, party- writers, dull poets, 
and wild critics. A perfun muft be fixed 
upon to fupport tini a^ion, who (to agree 
with the dejign,) muft be fuch an one as is 
capable of being all three. This phantom in 
the poet's mind, muft have a name. He 

AND GENIUS 6f POPE. - 44* 

fceks for one who hath been concerned in 
thcjourna/jt written bad p/ays or pcerrut and 
publiflied low criticifms. He finds his nama 
to be Tibhald*, and he becomes of courfe 
the hero of the poem." ' 

This dcGgn is carried on, in the frft 
book, by a defcription of the Goddcfs fixing 

• Who wta a kind of Marglta. It \t a fingalar faB. in tlit 
hiftory of literature, thai the fame migbty genius, who hj 
hii IHmJ and Oijffrj became the founder of Tragedy, (honld 
alfo, by lui Mmrgitu, as Ariltotle obferves in Ch6 fecond chapter 
of his Poetics, become the father of Comedy. This piece was 
written in variout forts of metre, and particularly hexameter 
and iambic. Only three verfei remain of thia piece, whicb 
was much celebrated by the ancients ; one in the fcconA 
JUiiiadti of Piaii i 

Anttther in the fixth boolt of ArifittW* Ethics t 
T«( y A' o^'narlnfs Siw 8is-sr, ar* «f*T«(«> 
A third is cited by the fcholiaft of jirifiafhsimt ui th* 

Mutant tifurtn, niti tmifftKil AmUwHC. 

The poem ia mentioned by PbIjUmi, Di»» Chryftfimut 
Flutareh, Lkcmm, Staitnu, and others. 

Vol. ir. . 3L htr 


her eye on Tibbald ; who, on the evei^iing of 
n lord- mayor's day, is rcprefented as fitting 
pcnfively in his ftudy, and apprehending the 
period of her empire, from the old-age of the 
prefent monarch Settle ; and alfo by ao ac- 
count of a facrifice he makes of his ui\fuc- 
cefsful works ; of the Goddefs's revealing ber- 
felf to him, announcing the death of Settle 
that night, anointing and proclaiming him 
fucceflbr. It is carried on in the fecond 
book, by a defcription of the various games 
inftituted in honour of the new king, in 
which bookfellerSf poets^ and critics contend^ 
This dcfign is, laftly, completed in the tinrd 
book, by the Goddefs's tranfporting the new 
king to her temple, laying him in a deep 
flumber on her lap, and conveying hirti in a 
vifion to the ban|cs of Lethe , where he meets 
with the ^hoft of his predcceflbr Settle \ 
who, in a fpeech that begins at line 35, • to 
almoft the end of the book, {hews him the 
part triumphs of the empire of Dulnefs, then 
the present, and laftly the future : enumc- 
rating particularly by what aids> and by wjiat 



lyerfonsy Creat Britain fhall be forthwith 
brought to her empire, and prophefying 
how firft the nation fhall be over-run with 
farces^ operas, fliows; and the throne of 

Dulnefs advanced over both the theatres : 


then, how her fons fhall prefide in the feats 
of arts and fcien^es ; till, in conclufion, all 
fhall return to their original chaos. Oa 
hearing which, 

Enough I enough ! the raptur'd Monarch cries ; 
And through the ivory gate the vifion flies. 

with which words, the defign above recited, 
being perfected, the poem concludes. Thus 
far all was clear, confiflent, and of a piece; 
and was delivered in fuch nervous and fpi- 
rited verfification, that the delighted reader 
had only to lament that fo m^ny poetical 
beauties were thrown. away on fuch dirty 
and defpicable fubjefts, as were the fcrib- 
blers here profcribed ; who appear like 
monflers prcferved in the rnofl coftlyj^/- 
rifs. But in the year 1742, our poet was 

3 L a perfuaded, 


perfuaded, unhappily enough, to add ^ fourth 
book to \i\% finijhed piece, of fiich a very dif- 
ferent caft and colour, as to render it at laft 
on^ of the moft motley compofitions, that 
perhaps is any where to be found, in the 
works of fo exadl a writer as Popk. For 
one great purpofe oi^\^ fourth book, (where, 
by the way, the hero does nothing at all) 
was to fatirize and profcribc infidels, and 
free-thinkers, to leave the ludicrous for the 
ferious, Grub-ftreet for theology, the mock- 
heroic for metaphyfics ; which occafioned a 
marvellous mixture and junible of images 
snd fcntiments, Pantomipie and Philofo- 
phy. Journals and Moral evidence. Fleet- 
ditch and the High Priori road. Curl and 
Clarke. — To ridicule our fashionable liber- 
tines, and afFedted minute philofophers, was 
doubtlefs a moft laudable intention; but 
fpeaking of the Dunciad as a work of art, 
in a critical not a religious light, we muft 
venture to affirm, that the fubjedl of this 
fourth book was foreign and heterogeneous^ 

3 and 

. .^. ^.^u 


and the addition of it as iojudicious^ill-pl^ced^ 
and incongruous^ as any of thofe difliniilar 
images we meet with in Tulci or Ariojlo. 
ft is like introducing a crucifix into one 
of ^eniers's burlefque converfation-pieccs. 
Some of his priofl fplendid and fl^riking lines 
are indeed hereto be found; but we muft 
beg leave to infift that they want propriety 
and decorum^ and muft wifh they had adorned 
{omt feparate work, againft irreligion, which 
would have been worthy the pen of ouf 
bitter and immortal fatirift. 

But neither was this the only alteration 
the Dunciad was deftined to undergo. For 
in the year 1743, our author, enraged with 
Cibber^ (whom he had ufually treated\with 
contempt ever fince the affair of Three Hours 
after Marriage^ for piiblifliing a ridiculous 
pamphlet againft him, dethroned Tibbald^ 
and made the Laureate the hero of his poem. 
Gbber, with a great ftock of levity, vanity, 
and afFedtation, had ienfe, and wit, and hu« 


1 • 

» * 


mour. And the author of the CareUJi 
Hujbandy was by no means a proper king of 
the dunces. ** His treatife on the Stage^ 
fays Mr. Walpolc, is inimitable : where an 
author writes on his own profeflion, feels it 
profoundly, and is fenfible his readers dp 
not, he is not only excufable but meritori- 
.ous, for illuminating the fubjedl by new 
metaphors, or bolder figures than ordinary. 
He is the coxcomb that fneers, not he that 
infl;ru6ts by appropriated didlion." The 
confcquencc of this alteration was, that many 
lines, which exactly fuited the heavy cha- 
radcr of 'Tibbaldf loft all their grace and 
propriety when applied * to Cibber. Such as,. 

Sinking from thought to thought, a vaft profound \ 

Such alfo is the defcription of his gothic 
library; for Cibbcr troubled not himfelf 

• 'Tis dangerous to difoblige a great poet or painter. 
Dante placed his mafter Brunetto in his Infem: And Mi* 
chael Angela placed the Pope'a mailer of the ceremonies^ Bu 

M^?io in hell, in his Laft JudgmetC. 



with Caxton^ Wyniyn, and De Lyra. I'ibbaldf 
who was an antiquarian^ had collected thefe 
curious old writers. And to dumber in the 
Coddcfs*s iap was adapted to bis Jiupidity^ 
not to the vivacity of his fucceflbr. 


If wc now defcend, from thefe remarks 
on the general dejign and conftitution of the 
Punciad^ to particular paflages, the follow* • 
ing muft be mentioned^ as highly finifhed, 
and worked up with peculiar elegance and 
force. In book i, the Chaos of Abfurd 
Writings, v. 55, to v, 78. In book ii. v. 35, 
the Phantom of a Poet, to v, 50. The De- 
fcription of the Tapeftry, v. 143, to v. 1^6. 
The Adventures of S medley, and what he 
faw in the (hades below, v. 331, to v. 350. 
The EfFefts of hearing two dull Authors 
read> V, 387, to the end of that book. In 
bopkiii. the Ghoft o{ Settle^ v. 35, to v. 66^ 

View of Learning, v. 83, to v. 102. .T4ic 


Dcfcription of Pantomimes, Farces, and their 
monftrous Abfurdities, v. 235, to v. 264. 


1? "juent* parodies iul 

gil, Milton, and i 
which nothing has 
roi-comic poems, ; 
pleafmtry, happinef 

BuTJuft criticifiu 
out Come of thofc 

huma bow many wfrjtf«/i« 
and othtr cmgcdiaa,, Jti 

"" *«<~" ""< He lir« ao .1 
•«• called, »„,(i„,;,^, 
"d the Athenian, »ere Co fo 
""" "■" t'0"Sht of their 
"Ot qait the theatte, bat in( 
"epieee. He «•>, a .,eat lav 
and Hrn.,-^_ ^., 


^eptionable in the Efunciad. Such^ in book i* 
V. 163, is the hero's firft fpeech; in which^ 
contrary to all decorum and probability, ha 
addreiTes the Goddefs Dulnefs, without dif* 
guiling her, as a defpicable being ; and evea 
calls himfelf Fool and Blockhead ; . 

Me emptinefs atid dlilnefk could infplre^ 
And were my eiafticicy and fire**— • 
Did on the ftage my fops appear confined ^ - 
My life gave ampler leflTons to mankind. ■ 
What then remains ? Ourfelf ftill, ftill remain^ 
Cibberian forehead, and Cibberian brain.—— 

For a perfon to be introduced, fpeaklng thui 
of himfelf, is in truth outrageoufly unnatural 
and out of character. 

At v. 300, in this book, alfb, is a fiferokc 
of profanenefs that cannot pafs unblamed : 

. Lift up your gates, ye princes, fee him come I 
. Sound Jound, ye viols; be the catcall dumb 1 

^o alio, book iii. v. 126. (and book iv. v.562/) 

Dove-like, (he gathers to her wings again. 

Vol. II. 3 M And 


And in the arguments he talks of giving 
a Pifgah'/igbt of the future fulnefs of bef 
^lorjy and of fending priefts and comforters. 
In book ii. the iilthinefs of the images^ 
r. 93, and v, 160, is extremely ofFenfive and 
difguding. In book iii. the ridictile on the 
ufeful and curious publications of Heame, 
was very iindeferved. In book iv. the Ge- 
nius of the fchools is made to declare, v. 148, 

Words are man's protince, words we teach alone | 
Confine the thought, to exercife the breath, 


And keep them in the pale of words till death. 


Surely our author, when he paffed thi^ 
tenfure, was ill-informed of what was taught 
a'n4 cxpeded in our great fchools ; namely, 
befides reading, interpreting, and tranflating 
the bcft writers of the bcft ages, to be ^blc 
to compofe Eflays, Declamations, and Verfes, 
in Greek f in Latin, and in Englijb ; and id 
fome, to write critical remarks on Homer^ 
Sophocles, Demofthenes, ArtfiQtlci Poetics, 



or Longtnus ; an cxercifc not of the memory, 
but judgment. And as to plying the memory^ 
and loading the brain (fee verfe 157) it was 
the opinion of Milton, and is a pradice in 
bur great fchools, " that if pafTages from 
the heroic poems, orations, and tragediea of 
the ancients were folemnly pronounced, with / 
right accent and grace, as might be taught, 
iand is) they would endue the fcholars even 
with the fpirit and vigour of Demoftbenes or 
Cicero^ Euripides or Sophocles^ The il- 
luftrious names of Wyndham^ I'albot, Murray^ 
and Pulteney^ which our author himfelf im- 
mediately adds, and ivhich catalogue might 
be much enlarged, with the names of many 
great flatefmen^ lawyers, and divines, are z 
^rong confutation of this opprobrious opi- 
nion. In book iv. v. 2jo. is juft fuch another 
breach of truth and decorum as was remarked 
above, in making Arijiarcbus (BentleyJ abufc 
kiffff^^9 <tnd laugh at bis dwn labours : 

Thy mighty fcholiaft, whofe unweary'd pains 
^adc Horace dull, and humbled Maro's ftrains. . 

3 M 3 Turn 


Turn what they will tp verfe, their toil is vain, 
' Critics like Mt^ (hall make it profe agaifi. 
for attic phrafe in Plato let them Teek^ 
I poach in Suidas for unlicensM Greek— 
For thee we dim the eyes, and ftufFthe head, 
Wiih all fuch reading, as was never read ; 
For thee explain a thing till all men doubt if. 
And write about it, Goddefs ! and about it« 

J-iASTLY, in this 4th book, the fudden 
appearance of Annius, v. 347, of Mummius, 
371, and of a gloomy clerk, v. 459, make 
fhis part pf the poem obfcure, as we know 
pot who thcfe perfonages are, nor whence 


they came.. After all, the chief fault of the 
Punciad is the * violence and vehemence of 


t Which four the temper of the reader ; infomuch that I 
^Lnow a perfon, whofe name would be an ornament to thefe 
papers, if I was fuffered to infert it, who, after reading a 
book of the Dunciad, always y^/i&/ himfelf^ as he calls it, by 
|oming to a canto in the Fairy Queen. This is npt the cafe in 
that ytxy delightful and beautiful poem, Mac FUcuh^ from 
which Pope has borrowed fo many hints, and images,and ideas. 
^ut Dryden's poem was the offspring oi contempt, and Popovs 
pf indignation : one is full oi mirth, and the other ofmalignitym 
A vein of pJeafantry is 'uniformly preferved through the 
l^holc of Mac Flecnoe^ and the piece begins and end^ln the 

Its fatirc, and the exccffive heighth to which 
it is carried j and which therefore I have 
heard compared to that marvellous column 
of boiIi|ig water, near mount HedOy thrown 
upwards, above ninety fect^ by the force of a 
fubterraneous 6re *, 

/^Kt iff. It is nttural and obviooi to bononr a mctaphar 
from mafic, when we are fpcaKiog of a poem whofe verfifica- 
don u particularly and exqaificeljr fweet and barm<mioui. 
The numberi of the Dundad, by being mnch laboared, and' 
encumbered with epiiheia, have fomething in them of ftif- 
fiels and barfhncfi. Since the total decay of learning waa 
foretold in the Dunctad, howmany rery excellent piecei'of 
dniitifm, Ptttrj. Uifitrj, fhih/tpbj, and 1>ivim'tf, have ap- 
peared in thii country, and to what a degree of pcrfcdiqn 
has almoft every art, either ufefal or elegant, been carried t 

* It is in a valley in Iceland, aboat lizty miles from th« 
fea; it u called the fountain of Gn^fr. Sir Jofeph Basics, 
our great philolbphical traveller, had 0^ fatu&iUoq of feeiit; 
fhit wondcrfal pbxnoiiienoii. 





Of forae Imitations of Horace, 
the Miscellanies^ £fitaphS) and 
Prose Works. 

TH E feventh epiftic of the firft book 
of Horace, and the Jixth fatire of 
the fccond, are here imitated in a ftyle and 
manner different from the former imita- 
tions, in the burlefque and colloquial flyle 
and meafure of Swift*; in which our au- 

• The rollowing is written ia the firft leaf of a copjr of 
SteTcns's Herodotus, now in the library of Wincheftcr col- 
lege, in Swift's e'U'n hemJ-wriiiKg, and ii a literary curioficy. 
being a fpectmen of his Latin. — " yuMciitm Jt Htradtt^ 
foft hngunt tmpi'i riUilD. Ctifias rachdacilJiiniil Uir^ 
4tt»9 nefl<}acioruin arguitj cxceptij padciffijiuSt (ut mca 


thor has not fucceeded, but falls back, as was 
natural, from the familiar, into a more high, 
and pompous manner ; as in th? following 
lines, V. 125, I*crditur haec inter* &c. 

Thus la a fea of Folly toft* 
My choiceft hours of life 2re toft | 
Yet always wjflling to retreat. 
Oh, could I fee my country feat ! 

And again at line 189 ; in the fable of ths 

fert fen(nitia) omn! mods excurandam. Cztenim Ainr- 
tkolU abundans bic pater biftoricamai, filnm aUndoBil 
ad' iKdtum abruoipit. Unde oritur (ut par t&) legcDti~ 
bus confafio, et exinde oblivio. Quin ct fbrfan ipfs 
auraitones circumftantiti niniom pro tt fcateu. Q^ a4 
cxteTa,lHinc IcriptorcraiDter apprimc laudandos c;Drcfi,Dei]tif; 
<^rKci9 ncqae barbarii plus xqao favCDtem aut iniqnam; in 
orationibuj fere brevem, iimplicein, nee nimii freqaoii' 
tern. Neque abfunt dogmata c qulbus eruditoa leAor prn- 
dendam tarn moralem quam civilem haurire potent." . ■ 
Swift, in hii difcourfe on the Cantijii, Scq. appears to be well 
soquunted wtik TbkejJiJti, Pafjbiui, and Diewjf. Umiicmr. 
, and to have had a coafidu-able knowledge of ancient hiftoiy. 
Of allour.poeu, perhapi 4i«i^4 wm the bcfl Crwk Icftolw 




* Tell how the moon-beam trembling falls, 
^ And tips with filver all the walls ; 

Palladian walls, Venetian doon, 

(^rotefco roofs, and ftucco floors. 

^ The diflfcrcncc of ftylcs is more perceivable, 
from the circumftance of their being im-* 
' mediately fubjoined to the lighter and lefs 
ornamental vcrfes of Swift. 

The firft ode of the fourth book of 
Horace, is an elegant compliment to Mr. 
Murray^ now Lord Mansfield. And it may 
be worth obferving,^that the meafure Pope 
has chofen, is precifcly the fame that Ben 
yobttjbn ufed in a tranflation of this very 
ode, in which are fome lines fmoother than 
cur old bard s ufual ftrains ; p. 268, 

Then twice a day, in facred lays. 
The youths and tender m^ids (hall fing thy praife^ 

And in the Saltan manner meet 
Thrice round thy altar with their ivory feet* 

I cannot 


1 cannot forbear acjding, that there is much 
harmony and eafc of vcrfification in Ben 
Johnfon's ten lyric pieces addrcfled to Cbaris^ 
in page 165 of his works. 

The fecohd ftanza of the imitation of 
part of the ninth ode of Horace, book iv^ 
is well exprefTed ; 

Tho' daring Milton fits fublime^ 
In Spencer native Mufes play ; 


Nor yet {hall Waller yield to time ; 
Nor peniive Cowley's moral lay. 

Pope fcems to fpeak of Spencer with par- 
ticular complacency. How much this au- 
thor was his favourite, will appear from what 
he faid to Mr. Spence; from whofc anec- 
dotes this paflage is tranfcribed: — '* There 
is fomething in Spencer that pleafcs one as 
ftrongly in one's old-age, as it did in one's 
youth ; I read the Fairy Queen when I was 
about twelve i with a vaft deal of delight; and 
1 think it gave me as much, when I read it 
over about a year or two ago/' 

Vol. II. 3 N Out 

.Miiiii i 

Vain was the 
I'hi'y had no 
Jn vain they 1 
They had no 

But he has m 
epiftle addreffed 
he prefented to 
his old friend F 
there is a weigh 
of diaion, whic. 


furpaffed. His • genius feems to have . 
been invigorated and exalted by the high 
opinion he had juftly conceived of the per- 
fon to whom he was writing j who muft be 
confefled, now that parly-prejudices -f- are 
worn away, to have had great genius, learn- 
ing, and honeily. Strength of mind appears 
to have been his predominant charadlerirtic ; 
of which he gave the moft ftriking proofs, 
when he was Jiahhed, dijpiacedy imprtfoned. 
Thefe circumftances are alluded to in thofe 
noble and nervous verfes ; 

And fure, if aught below the feats divine, 
Can touch immortals, 'tis a foul like thine I 

> * I am well informed thit Lord Bolingbroke was greatljr 
mortified at Pope's beftowing fuch p^aifes on his old antago- 
,nift, whom he mortally hated. Vet I have feen two original 
letters of Lord Balingbroke to Lord Orford, full of the moft 
fulfome flattery, and profane applications of fciipture. 

t At the time when the Secret Committee was held to 
examine the conduft of the Earl of Orford, who was the per- 
fon that impeached the Earl of Oxford. Mr. Harley made an 
stdmirable fpeech in the Houfe of Commons, declaring, that 
he would not treat Walpole, as he \i$A treated his relation ; 
and immediately left the Houfe without giving his vote 
agaioil him. Sir Robert Walpole feemed much affeded with 
(his geocroui behaviour of Mr. Harley. 

3 N I A foul 

ftriking proot ftiU 
tlie Earl wrote fy, 
who advifed him t 
'I'hich is worthy o 
tiquity. This ext. 
pleafure of reading, 
cellent grand-daugl 
Dowager of Portlat 
of literature and (, 
anceftors and famil3 

JeRvas owed m 
tibn to the epiftJe 
Pryden's tranHatior 

, • Thii didaaic d 



his fkill as a painter. He was defe<flive, 
fays Mr. Walpole, in drawing, colouring, 
and compofition 5 and even in that moft nc- 
ceflary, and perhaps moft eafy talent of a 
portrait-painter, likencfs. In general, his 
piftures are a light flimfy kind of fan-paint- 
ing, as large as the life. His vanity waj 
cxceflive. The reafon why Lady Bridge^ 
waters name is fo frequently repeated in 
this epiftle, is, becaufe he aiFedted to be 
violently in love with her. Yet his ♦ vanity 
was greater than his pa/Iion. One day, as 
flie was fitting to him, he ran over the beati- 
ties of her face with rapture ; but, faid he, I 
cannot help telling your lady/hip that you 
have not a handfome ear. ** No ! laid Lady 

c^nfe they are little known, and not inferted in the works of 
ftneloup and are worthy to be read even after the admirable 
tenth chapter of thjB twelfth book oi ^intiUim. 

* He tranflated Don Quixote, without underfiandiog 
Spaniflit as hit friend Pope ufed to fay. Warburton added 
a fupplement to the preface of this tranflatioot concerning 
the origin and nature of romances of chivalry ; whicli fup- 
plement Pope extols, in bis Letters, vol. ix. p. 352, in the 
higheft terms ; but the opinions in it are thoroughly con* 
fnted by Mr. Tjrwhitt, in vol. xi. of Sufflmimtal Obferva- 
lions on Shakefpe^re^ p« 373. 

Bridgewater if 

As our author was 
in this his favourit 
there is a warmth ai 
throughout this epiill 

Together o'er the Alps i 

' FirM with ideas of fair 7. 

With thee, on RaphaePa 

Or wait infpiring dreams 

* In a carioiM and unpabli 
iinclct he tellt him, that his perf 
to 3000 dacau of gold that it 
hu 50 crowns of gold per ano 
that ii, 14I. 7s, 6d. ; and a ye 
dacats of gold, that is, 861. y 
pbce; that the church of St. P 
millioD of gold, a87,;ool. i that 
it (jo,ooo ducats a year, that it, 
uiecdotet, uken from Riihara 
ipodelly confultcd hit friend ^ 


With thee repofe where Tully once was laid. 
Or feek fome ruin's formidable (hade t 

Though the laft line» hy the way, is infe- , 
rior to the reft, becaufe it pafles from parti- 
cular images to iomt^mg general. Yet how- 
ever elegafit and finifhed this epiftle muJl be 
allowed to be, it does not excel that of 
Dry den, addrefled to Sir Godfrey Kneller*; 
and the following lines, both in point of 
fcience and tafte, may be compared to any of 
Pope's ; 

Thence roCe the Roman, and the Lombard line : 
One colour'd beft, and one did beft deftgn. 
Raphael's, like Homer's, was the nobler part. 
But Titian's painting look'd like Virgil's art. 
Thy genius gives thee both ; where true dcfign, 
PoJlures unTonrM, and lively colours join. 
Likencfs is ever there ; but ftill the bell, 
Like proper thoughts in lofty language drefl : 

* To make aa experiment what grofg flattery Sir Godfrejr 
wat capable of fwallowing. Pope one day (aid to him, 
" God, we are lotd, made man in hii mitn image ; if tliit 
Ugare of jamr't had exiAed, man would have been made h ''" 
Par D. je Je croii auffi, Uonf. PopCf rvplled KocDcr. 

■ Where 


Where lights to fhades defcehding, plays^ hot 

Dies by degrees, and by degrees revives. 
Of various parts a perfe&.whole is wrought : 
Thy pictures think, and we divine their thoughts 

One cannot forbear reflcfting on the 
great progrefs the art of painting has* 
made in this country, iince the time that 
Jervas was thought worthy of this panegyric : 
a progrefs, that, we truft, will daily encreafe, 
if due attention be paid to the incomparable 
difcourfes that have been delivered at the 
Royal Academy : which difcourfes contain 
more folid inftruflion on that fubjedt than^ 
I verily think, can be found in any language^ 
The precepts are philofophically founded on 
truth and nature, and illuflrated with the 
moft proper and pertinent, examples. The 
characters are drawn with a prectfion and 
diJlinSlnefsy that we look for in vain in Felt- 
bicTif De Pi/es, and even Vafaru or Pliny 

f Sec Mr. Hayley's fine epiiUe to Mr. Romocy. 



himfelf, Npthing, forexample.^an be more 
juft and elegant, as well as profound and 
fcicntific, than the compariibn betwixt 
Michael Angela and Haffaflty page 169 of 
thefc Difcourfcs. Michael .Angela is plainly 
the hero of Sir Jojkua Reynolds^ for the fame 
rcafons that Homer, by every great mind> » 
preferred to Virgil. 

The epiflle to Mifs Blount^ accompained 
with the works of Voiture*^ is full of 
gaiety .and gallantry. Our author's attach- 

* Some curioui particuUn in ilu life of Voitnre «re OMa- - 
tioned in vol. ii. p. 409, of the eatertaiDiiig MifcelliDiei . 
of ri;fMB/ Mar VILLI. An elegant epiuph, to which Pi^ 
allndci, wai made on hinif copM4 from MirtuU, uid woftfc 
pcru AI : 

Etrufcx Ftntrei, Camtfn^ Iberx ; 

Htrmti Gillicnt, U Lacina Sim $ 

Jtijui, DtUti^, & Bitanlaiu, 

Lmfmt, Ingtaium, Jbcu UffrU, 

£t quicquid fiiit clegi^tuuiiai,^ 

Qua FtSm-iiu hoc jacnt fepulcTO. 
Corneille wu invited to read hn Ptfytmat, tt the hotel ab 
XamitiaUet ; where the principal wiu of the time nfualljr 
aflcmbled, and where fti/ia-t prtfidcd. It wu vety coldly > 
received ; and in a few dajn, Voinn camt M CtnteiUe, aad 

Vpl. IJ. 3p. ' >* 


iDpnt to this lady, ended but with Jiis life. 
Her afFedation and ill-temper gave him^ 
however, many hours of uneafinefs and 
difquiet. When fl)e vjiitcd him in his 
very laft Jllnefs, and her company feemcd 
to give him freih fpirits, the antiquated 
prude cquld not be prevailed on to ftay 
and pafs the night at Twickenhapi, be- 
caufe of her reputation. She occafioned an 
ynhappy breach betwixt him and his old 
friend Allen. The works of Voiture. oa 
which much of this epiflle turns, aftef hav- 
ing been idolized in France, are now funk 
into neglctt^and oblivion. The charad:e- 
^ riftical difference betwixt Voiture and Balfac *, 
is well expreffed by BoileaVy in two letters 
•written under their names, from the Elylian 
fields, %o the Due de Vivonne^ in p. 1 55 of 

in gentle terms told him, ij was the opinioi^ of his friends 
that the piece would not fucceed. Such ill judges were then 
fhc moft fafliionablc wits of France. 

• Difcartes, who, as well as Leiimitz, was an elegant fcholar, 
wrote a judicious cenfure of Bal/ac, in admirable Latin. 
^al/ac was, however, much foperior to Voiture. But he was 
alFcdcdly turgid, pompous, and bloated on all fubjefts, and 
.pn all occafions alike, Vet was he tjie firft that gaTC form 
find harmony tp x\ie French profi;, 


And genius 6i^ Popfi. 467 

.Vol. iii, of his works. And Boi/eau, fpeaking 
often of abfurd readers and critics, loved to 
relate;^ that one of his relations, to whom he 
had prefented his works, faid to him; ** Pray* 
Coufin, how c^me you to infert any other 
perfon's writings among your owh ? I find 
in your works two letters, one from Balfac, 
and the other from Voiture/' III the other 
cpiftle to the fame perfon> the calamitous 
, ftate of an unfortunate lady, banifhed from 
town to 

Old-fa(hionM halls, dull aunts, and croakiiig rooks; 

and the coarfe compliments of a rural 

Who with his hbtind comes hollowi^ig from tht 

ire painted with humour* 

The I'own Echgue was written i^ concert 
with Lady Wortley Montague, who pub- 
liftied five more of this fort. Gay wrote a 
^wker's eclogue, and Swift a Footman's 

3 O 2 eclogue I 


eclogue; and faid to Pope, I think the 
fajloral rklicule is not exhaufted: what 
think you of a Newgate paftoral^ among 
the whores and thieyei there ? When Lady 
M. W. Montague would fometimes (hew a 
copy of her vcrfes to Popc^ and he would 
make fome little alterations, *' No/' faid (he^ 
•* Pope ; no touching ; for then, whatever 
is good for any thing will pafs for yours^ and 
the reft for mine/' 

Next follows a cloie tranflation of a fable 
from Boileau ; which fable Boileau removed 
from the end of his Epiftle to the King, as 
unfuited to Che fubje(ft, and fimihed with it 
^b epiillc to L'Abb^ des Roches, torn, ir 
p. 285. It will be no unuieful or perhaps 
unpleaiing amufement to compare rhefetwo 
pieces. And 1 will not think of making 
any apology for ib frequently quoting a 
writer fo pure, fcnfible, and claflicaU ^ 



Once (fays an luthor, where I need not iky) 
Two trzv'Iers found an oyflcr in their way;* . 
Both fierce, both hungry j the diCpute gretr ftnMlgj 
While, fctle in hapd, dame Juftit:e paft along. 
Before- her each with clamour pleads thelitn, 
Explain'd the matter, and would wis the cau(e. 
Dame Juflicc, weighing long the doubtful rigbt^ 
Talces, opens, fwallows it, before their fight. 
The caufe of Arifc removM fo rarely vrell, 
There take {fays Jufticc) take ye e«ch a ftiejfl. 
We thrive at Weftminfter on fools like you ! 
'Twas a fat oyiler— live in peace.— Adieu. 

Un jour, dit tin Auteur, n'importe en <jucl chapitre^ 
Deux voyageurs i jeun rencontrerent une huttip, 
Tous deux la contefloient, lorfque dans Icur chemin. 
La Juftice pafla, la balance i la main, ' 

Devant elle it grand bruit ils explrquent la chofe. 
TdUt deux avec depcas veulent gagner leur caufe. 

* I cannot forbear mendooinjl a work, not fo well knowA 
u it deferref u> be, che Latin Fablea of J. Delbilloat, • 
Jefuit, primed at Manheim, Vvo. 1768. in a moll cbafic and 
voaffeAed ftj-le. To fpeak in his own wordt ; 

Me Fabularum fuRvii indolei capit,' 
Capit tcauAa mundiiie kciiritas 
Sinplex, Sc arti prxniteiu facilii color 
Labofiofae ■ ' 

The fablci in your £/ef, f*id Pope to Vanbragh, have th« 
very fpirit of Z« Faniainti It may be fo, replied Vaubmgli f 
but I proieH ID you I nsver have read Lit Ftmtaimt't Fable*. 



La Juftice pefant ce droit litigieux, 
Demande Thuitre, Touvre, & Tavale a leur jcux^ 
£t par ce bel arreft tcrminant la bataille ': 
Tcnez voila, dit elle, a diacun une ecaiUe. 
Des fottifes d'autrui, nous vivons au Palais ; 
Mcffieurs, Thuitre etoit bonne. Adieu. Vivez cm, 

We will pafs over the hext ten little 
pieces, (lopping only to commend the verfes 
on the Grotto, and the lines addreiied to 
Southerner when he was eighty years old. In 
the former, is a paflage of a iiriking and 
awakening folemnity« 

Approach ! great Nature, (ludioufly behold 
And eye the mine, without a wifh for gold ! 
Approach, but aweful ! Lo, th' ^gerian grot. 
Where nobly penfive 5/. John fate and thought 5 
Where Britifli fighs from dying Wyndham • ftole, 
And the bright flame was (hot thro' Marchmonfs foul* 

* Who was one 6f the ihoft zh\t and eloquent of that re- 
fpedable body of pttriots, that leagued together againft Sir 
Robert Walpole. Indeed almoft all the men of wit and ge- 
tiius in the kingdom oppofed this minider^ who in vain paid 
the enormous fum df above fifty thoufiuid pounds, to paltr/ 
&ribl4ers iu his defepce. 





' In the latter, the venerable father of Ifabella 
and Itnoinda^ is faid to have raifed by his 

The price of prologues and of plays. 

For Southerne was the firft author that 
had two benefjt-nights, the third and fixth^ 
at the exhibition of his coinedy, entitled^ 
Sir Anthony Love, j 69 1 . By the cuftom^ 
which had ibmething illiberal in it, and was 
firft dropt by Addifon^ of diftributing tickets^ 
Southerne gained 700I. for one play. In the 
year 1722, he rcpeived of a bookfejlcr 120I. 
for copy-money ; when, the year beforc^i 
Pr. Young could get no more than fifty 
pounds. But to drive a bargain, was not 
the talent of this generous and difiriterefte4 

The fifteen Epitaphs^ which conclude ouf 
jiythor's poetical works, do not feem to 
^lerit a particular difcuflion. The three 
tcft are that on Mrs. Corbctt, Fenton^ and 



the Duke oi Buekingbam. They are all in ge« 
aeral over-run with poiat and antithefis, 
and arc a kind of panegyrical epigrams. 
They arc, confequently, very different from 
iHtit Jimpk fepulchral infcriptions of the an- 
cicnts, of vi^hich that of Meleager on his 
wife, in the Greek Anthology, is a model and 
mailer-piece. And in which tafte a living 
author, that mufl be namelefs, has written 
the following hendecafyllables ; 

O dulcis puer, O venufie Marce, 
O multi puer et merj Icporis, 
Fcftivi puer ingeni, valeto ! 
Ergo cum, yirideis vigens per annos, 
Acvi ver agercs nqvum tenelli, 
VidifU Stygias peremptus i^ndas } 
Tuum, moeAus avus^ tuum propin^ui 
Os plenum lepida loquacicat^, 
£t rifus facileis tuos requifunt. 
Te lufus, puer, in fuos fuetos 
Aequales vocitant tui frequenter. 
At furdus recubas, trahifque fomnos 
Cunflis deniqtie, Marce, dormiundos. 




As it was the profeffed intention of thefe 
papers to confid6r Pope as a foet^ the ob- 
fervations on his * profe^works^ will not be 

The rich vein of humour that runs 
through the Memoirs of ScriA/erus, is height- 
ened by the variety of learning they contain i 
and it may be worth obferving^ that the 
chief of thofe who have excelled in works 
of wit and humour, have been men of ex- 
tenfive /earning. We may inflance in Lu^ 
cian, Cervantes, ^uevedo, Rahelais, and Butler i 
for no work in our language contains more 
learning than Hudibras.^ ' This life of the 
folemn and abfurd pedant. Dr. Scriblerus, is 
the only imitation we have of the Jerious 
manner of Cervantes 'f; for it is not eafy to 

* The Ifyle of which is certainly not Co melodious and vov 
Ittble as that of Ofyden's enchanting profe* 

t Don Quixote is the moft original and unrivalled work of 
modern times. The great art of Cenrantes confifts in^ha^^ - 
ing painted his mad hero with fuch a quantity of amiable 

Vol. IL 3? '^'''^^^^ 


fay, why Fielding (houid call his yofeph 
Andre-ws, excellent as it is, an imitation of 
thii manner. Arbuihnot, .whofe tiumput 
was cxquilite, had a very large fliare in thefij 
Memoirs; and I fhould gucls that the fifth, 
fixth, Tcventh, eighth, tenth, and twelfti 
chapters are by his hand ; as they contain 
allufions to parts of learning and fciencp 
\vith which {*OPe was little acquainted. , 

There are few of the many faults and ab- 
furdities, of which modern writers areguilt)^ 
but what arc well expofcd in ^^Batho!; par 
ticularly in chapters eleventh and twelfths 
and in the Project for advancement gf the 
Stage, in c. i6. It is rather fingular, that fom* 
of the moft ufeful criticifm in our language 
ihould be delivered in two ludicrous pieces 
the Rehcarfal and the Bathos. 

quiUties, 35 to make it impoffible for us totttly to ^elpH 
\aa. TIiU light and fhade in dnwing cliaraftTrj, (bcwt tbi 
inaller. It k tbas Addifon has reprerented his Sir Rogeij 
|A^ Shpkerp eare his FalHaF. 


^The familiar, gofftpirtg^ ftylc of Burnet ia 
his hiftory, iis ridiculed in the Memoirs of a 
Parifli Clerk, The Difcourfe on the office 
and creation of the Poet Laureat, might be 
much enriched by the curious particulars^ 
which our author's own tfanflatot, the in- 
genious fihhi Du Refnelt has given us id 
the 15th vol. of the Memoirs of Literature, 
in his learned refearches on poets Laureat. 
The eight papers in the Ouardian are ele- 
gantly written, particularly niimber 6i> oa 
cruelty to animals, aiid number 91^ on a 
club of little men. ' 

Tnfc Preface to his trailflaflon of the 
Iliad, is a declamatory piece of criticifm, inr 
the way of Longinus; it is written with 
force ,and fpirit, but deals too much in gene^ 
raU. The moil: exceptionable paffage in it^ 
is where he compares the different great ^ 
Epic poets to different forts di Jire. The 
Pofifcript to the OdyfTey is better written, and 
more inftrudive. So alfo is the Preface to 

3 P 2 llis 


his Shakefpcare ; though it appears^ by what 
later authors and editors have done, that he 
was not fufficiently acquainted with the 
hiftory of our poetry, nor with the works of 
Shakefpeare's predeceffors and contempora- 
ries. The Letters to various friends, oc- 
cupy three volumes in that* colle£tion of 
his works, which we profeffedly made ufe of 
in drawing up thefe remarks. They appear 
to have been written with a defign to have 
them one day publifhed. They contain, 
it mufl be allowed, many interefting parti- 
culars; but they are tindtured and blemifhed 
with a great ihare of vanity, and fclf-im- 
portance, and with too many commenda- 
tions of his own integrity, independency, 
and virtue. Pope, Swift, and Bolingbroke, 
appear by the letters, to have formed a 

* Hb tranflation of Homer 11 therefore not here included ; 
the difcuiiioo of whofe beauties and faults (for faults it has) 
well deferve a feparate volume ; a work, which if well exe^ 
cated, would be of the greateft utility in forming a jufl ta^e, 
^y (hewing readers, efpecially of the younger fort« how very 
inferior and unlike it is to the, original, and how moch over- 
loaded with improper and unneceflary ornaments. 



, kind of haughty triumvirate, in order to 
ifluc forth pfofcriptions againft all who 
would not adopt thpir fentiments and opi- 
nions. And by their own account of tbem^ 

felves, they would have the reader believe 
that they had engroiTed and monopolized all 
the genius^ and all 'the honefly of the aze^ 
in which, according to their opinioi^, they ' 
had the misfortune to live. 

Thus have we endeavoured to give a cri- 
tical account, with freedom, but it is hoped 
with impartiality, of each of Pope's works ; 
by which review it will appear, that the 
largefi portion of them is of the didaSiic^ 
moral, and fatyric kind ; and confcquently, 
not of the mo^ poetic fpecies of poetry ; whence 
it is manifeft, xhzX, good fenfe ^Jidi judgment 
were his charadteriftical excellencies, rather 
iham fancy and invention ; not that the author 
of the Rape of the Lock, and Eloifa, can be 
' thought to want imagination, but becaufe 
his imagination was not his predominant 



talent, becaufehe indulged it not, and becaufij 
he gave not fo many proofs of this talent 
^ of the other. \ This turn of mind led him 
to admire French models ; he ftudied Boileau 
attentively ; formed himfelf upon bimy as 
Milton formed himfelf upon the Grecian and 
Italian fons of Fancy. He gradually became 
one} of the moft correct, even, and exaft 
poets that ever wrote ; polifliing his pieces 
with a care and afliduity, that no bufinefs or 
avocation ever interrupted : fo that if he 
does not frequently ravifh and tranfport his 
reader, yet he does not difguft him with 
unexpedled inequalities, and abfurd impro* 
prieties. Whatever poetical enthufiafm he 
adtually poflfciTed, he withheld and ftifled. 
The perufal of him afFeds not our minds 
with fuch ftrong emotions as we feel from 
Homer and Milton ; £o that no man of a true 
poetical fpirit, is majier of himfelf while he 
Teads them. Hence, he is a writer fit for 


univerfal perufal ; adapted to all ages and 
Nations J for the old and for the young; the 



jpan of bufincfs and the fcholar. He who 
would think Palamon and Arcite^ the 7V/»- 
feji or Comus, childifh and romantic, might 
relifli Pope. Surely it is no narrow and 
liiggardly encomium to fay he is the great 
Pocf of Reafop, the pirft of E^tbical authors 
ip v^rfe. Aftd this fpecies of writipg is, 
^fter all^ the fureft road to an extcnCve re- 
putation. It lies more level to the general 
capacities of men, than t^e higher flights 
of more genuine poetry. We all remcmbct 
when cvefi a Churchill was more in yoguc 
th^ a Gray. Hp that tr^ts of fafhionable 
follies, and the topics of the day, that de-^ 
fcribes prefent perfons and recent events, 
finds many readers, whofe underftandings 
and whofe paflions he gratifies. The name of / 
Chejlerjield on one hand, and of JValpok on 
the other, failed not to make a poem bought 
up and talked of. And it cannot be doubt- 
ed, that the Odes of Horace which cele- 
brated, and the fatires which ridiculed, wpUr 



known and real charadlcrs at Rome, were 
more eagerly read, and more frequently cited^ 
than the ^neid and the Georgic of Virgil. 

IFbere then, according to the qucftion 
propofed at the beginntj^g of this Effay, (hall 
we with juftice be authorized to place our 
admired Pope ? Not, affuredly, in the fame 
rank with Spencer, Sbakefpeare, and' MUton \ 
however juftly we may applaud the Rloifa 
and Rape of the Lock ; but, confidering 
the correftncfs, elegance, and utility of 
his works, the weight of fentiment, and 
the knowledge of man they contain, we 
may venture to aflign him a place, next 
to MiltOTiy and juft above Dryden. Yet, to 
bring our ifiinds fteadily to make this de- 
cifion, we muft forget; for a moment, the 
divine Mtdfic Ode of Dryden ; and may per- 
haps then be compelled to confefs^ that 
though Dryden be the greater genius, yet 
Pope is the better artift. , 

5 The 


Tut preftrcnce here given to Pope, above 
bther modem EngUfli poets> it muft be re* 
inembered> is fouhded on the excellonj:iel 
of his works in general^ And taif/t a// t0ge^ 
ibtr i for there are pdrti and pajfagts in othef 
modern aathots, in Toung and in ^of^iH, 
for iniUncct equal to any of Pope j and lie 
has written nothing in a flrain £) thdy fub* 
lime, ai the ^ard of Grs^ 

Vol. It. 3 ^ APPENDIX 

THE Alma of Prior, ■ 
only compofition of ] 
played a knowiedge of the w 
For I have lately been permi 
nufcript, now in the hands 
Dovagerof Portland,, con tai 
the Dead, on the following { 

I. Hbads for a Treatifei 
Opinion. 3.'a Dialogue t 
and Clenard the Grammarian 
Monuign. 5, The Vicar c 
More. 6. ' Oliver Cromwell 
pieces were puWifhed, Prior * 
a profe-writcr as poet. It fa 
fafliionable to decry his grea 
who do this, feem not fufliclei 
admirable Ode to Mr. Char 


lire many ftrokcs of true tendernefs and pathos) and bis 
Soloiaoir: A poem, which however faulty in its plan, 
hat very many noble and finiihed paiTages : and which 
' has beea fo elegantly and claffically tranllated by Dob- 
ion* as to refled honour on the college of Wincbefter, 
where he was educated, and where he tranQatcd the firft 
book as a fcbool-exercifc. I once heard him lament, 
that he had not, at that time, read Lucretius, which 
would have given a richnefs, and variety, and force to Mt 
verfes ; the only fault of which, feems to be a monotony, 
ajid want of different paufes, ocicaConed by tranflatiog 
9 poem in rhyme, which he avoided in his Milton, 

The political condu£t of Prior was blamed on account 
of the part he took in the famous Partition-treatyj but 
in fome valuable Memairsoflih life, written by the Hon. - 
Mr. Monugue, his friehd, which are alfo in the pof- 
(eflion of the Duchefs Dowager of Portland, this con- 
du£l is clearly account^ for, and amply defended. In 
thofe Memoirs are many curious and interefting paiticu^ 
X^s of the billory of that tin>c« 


The following is a fummary of the arguments of 
each Seme and Jilj in L'Adamo of G. B. Andkbiki, 
fientigned above, page 242. 

5(^,2 ATT(J 



ScBNA I. Iddio di creta forma Adamo, quale incoii* 
tanente forzafidi lodaftoma divinamente addormenutofi, 
mentre in eftad fcorge altifl\ini mifteri della fantiffim^ 
Trinita^ t^ Inc^rnatione del verbo eterno : dalla cofta di 
|ui ne viene formata Eva : la quale egli^ 'dope fuegliato, 
caramente abbraccia, & accetta percompagna ondebene* 
dettidaDiO) e fecondati, acci& riempiflero il mondo 
d^huominiy riceuono il precetto di non mangiare del al- 
bcroy che fuela il bene^ & il ma^e, e cctminclano a con^ 
templare la bcllesca delle creature, 

' ScBVA2. Lueifero tifcito.dair Abiflb contetnpla il 
f aradifo terreftre9 biafmando tutte Topre di Die. 

ScsNA 3. LucilcrQ eflbrta Sathan e Bdxeba a farsarfi 
di far peccare Adamo, accio macchiato di peccato^ fia in 
odio a Dio, e non s'i|ic%rai il Verbo Etem*. 

ScEVA 4* Lueifero man4a Melecano^^ Lurcone a 
ientar Eya^ quelli di Superbia, & quefti dlnvidia^ accio 
fi dolga di Dio, perche non Thal^i create prima di 

SqiNA 5« Si mandMo RqfpicaQOi if Arfsu^t^ a ten* 

4arla 4'Ira9 2f 4i Avaritia. 


: SciKA 


ScKHA 6. MaltoR vi itentarlad'AcculMj Dolciab*, 
4i LuCuriaj le Gutiar* di Gola, 


SciKA I. <;{uihdeciangeIi'|gKralo<Iono tatte I'opre 

ScSHA a* A^amo pone i) tiome ^ tittti gli aninaii, 
^ infieme con Eva loda coq piolti 01000114 \\ fotnnm 

SciKyi J. Sarpe t'appareccbia per tentar Eva* e dicq 
per qual ^ agione habbi prefq ^Htlla forma, U non 4tn, 

ScBMA 4. Volfino narra ^ S^baq rinfieri^I cpnfij^ 
M modo di aflaltar Era. • 

ScEtTA 5< V^na Gloria e Serpe cqngiuntt d'accQrdq 
cntrano |iel Paradlfo temeftre^ e fi nafcondpao lix I'al^ra 
della fcienca del be^e; c (M ^c, fct teo(ar Eva 4 
suftare i frut^rdi %uel(o, 

ScEHA 6' Eva-gloftaodofi d«i tat^ti farori,, e gratis 
ficeuute da Dio, ritnira il Serpe fopra I'albero, e coi^ . 
inolte ragiooi da quello per&iaia, prende il pooq* l^ 
g^fta, e \i ferc^rtdy Adamo, per farlo {inl'iSpBiih 





SccNA !• Adamo dopo ITiaver defcrltto leggiadrz-^ 
ncnte U fontc chc irrigava il Paradifo tcrrcflre fu da E»a 
pflfuafo a gutlare il pocno, e to mangia per non con- 
Iriftarla ; ondc ambiduc conobbero d'cfler nudl, foggctti 
a taotte U a milk altii mali & fi nakofcro. 

ScENA 2> VoSana rallegrandoli d'd peccato d^Ada- 
I Kcs ci^' fuono di roca tromba cbiamz tutti gli fpini In-^ 

SciNA 3. Sachan certificato d'elln caduta d'AdantK 
fflbrU gli alcrj fpiriti a far fefta. 

ScENA 4. Serpe con Vana Gloria tomando trioafajiti 
d'Adamo fono da Sathan, e da gli allii fpirti pcrci^ 
a4orati : e da Canoro ven^oo cantate Ic lodi loro. 

ScENA 5. Gli Foltetti per a]^e>gmza delta cadatt 
d'^damodanzano rnCemc: ma fentcndo trontke celefti 
V fcorgendo la divina lace tutti rciggoao all' abUIb. 

StEKA 6- II Padre Etcrno chiamanda Adamo It Eva a 
da ]oro confeflato I'trrore^ ad ainbiduc publica Ic pene 
selle quali tono incoi£, malcdice il ferpeate & fi ia£i 
f code da loro. 



ScENA '7. L'Angelo porta due vefti ii pelle ad Adzmo 
& Eva, e da quclli partendo a volo gli lafcia dolenti, ft 
lagnarfi de gli errori Iwo. 

ScENA 8. L'Archzngelo Mkliaele con fpada di ft>c« 
Icaccia Adamo & Evadal Paradifo, & dTortando gli aloi 
Angioli, che folevano ftare con loro, ad andar feco M 
Ciele, fa che rcfti un Chembino con la ipada di ibco a 
guardare la porta del Paradifo. 

ScBKA 9. Gli Angeli pria che partirfi, licentiatifi 
J' Adamo, I'eflbrtano a piaiigere il fuo etrore, promdttea* 
<lolJ aliegrezza, c canto. 


ScEKA I. Volano a fuono di tromba chiamando tutti 
gli fpiriti de gli element!, che vengano ad incontrare ' 
LucifcrOj cgliiio vengono cuttL 

ScEKA 3. Luci&ro chiamat! tutti ^li fpiriti a confc* 
^liOj dimanda a ciafcuno il fuo parere, (i dclle attioni 
d' Adamo, come delle Divine; manonfapendoquellibene 
interpietaric, egli loio Ic dichiara. 

SCSNA 3< Lucifero emulo~ dt Dio, nella creatiohe *. 
del mo.ido, da una malTa di terra confufa fa ufcire 
^uatiw mollri a danno dell'*buomO} Mondot Carne, 
9 Mortc, 

48S feSSAV Oli THE WttltlNG^ 

Klorte» e Demotisoi poi con tutti gli. idtri tonu all^ 


ScENA 4* A4amo folingo nairfa come gli ahlmaiij t 
tutte Taltre cofe hanno cangiato forma, e coftUmi, ptr ii 
ftto peccatO) & amarahientt to piange^ 

ScENA 5. Le fere feguendofij St amatsatidoC trA lon>, 
Inettono gran tcnore ad Adamo tc £va che peicio fi 


ScENA 6. Apparifcoik) ad Adamb qikattro moftri ^a^ 
Fame» Sete^ Fatica, <:,De(peratioiie9 e fai Fame gli dice^ 
che mat queftijiflliii partiranno. 

ScEMA 7« La Mdrte mihacda di tfoncate la viu ad 
Eva, & Adamo, e fubito il Ciel tufbaCo coH Cuoni^ laettei 
gfandini, pioggie^ e.yenti, gli fpauenta. 


ScBNA I. Ita Ca^ne tenta Adamo^ e Crottandolo ix^ 
bofo^ gli moftra^ come tutte le cofe fentclkio amore. 

ScBlTA s. Luciferb s'aggiunge, alia Carne, e tenta^di 
perfuadere Adamo a congioogerii con effii| iagc&doA 
Adamo eeleftc; 



SeiHA 3. Adamo con I'agtuto dell* Augelo fuo cuftodc 
fupen la Carne ii Lucifera. 

SckHA 4. II Mondo nam le fue graiulezze, € cio che 
Hnano gli huommi per I'aro, e s'apparecchia per teatar 

SC£NA 5. II Mondo propone ad Eva tutte le Cue pompe| 
c gli fa apparUe un vago, e ricco palazzo d'oro. 

ScEHA 6. Dal palazzo del Mondo ufcito un chore di 
Ponzelle, con moiti ornamentt vogliono ornarne Eva, 
ma alia voce ic precetto d'Adamo rcftano confufc,'Sc il 
tutto fpzrifce : onde il Mondo miiiacciando ad Adamo, 
cbiama contra di lui tutti gl'Infernali Moftri. 

ScENJb 7. Lucifera, Morte, Mondo, e chor! di Oia- 
voli, s'appar^cchiano per far violenza ad Adamo, e cooi'- 
^ztten con Pio. 

ScENA 8> L'Archangelo Micaele, con chori d'Angeli, 
combatte con Lucifero, & i cbori di Demonii, iSi fupe- 
lati gli fcacciano lino all' AbiQb. 

ScENA 9' Adfinio & Eva riverircono I'Arcbangelo 
Micaele, e da lui fbno confolati & afficuntti, che per la 
penitenza lore, an dranno a goder in cielo : on de per 
alle^x>zza gli angeli cantano lodi a pio, della vittoria* 
U felicita dell' tavomo, per I'imvpfod pieu & Amor di- 

Voulh 3R Tbp 



The lovers of Paradifc Loft will, wc tnift, be entcf^ 
gained with having an opportunity of feeing bow grratly 
and judiciouHy our fubtime and divine poet has height' 
ened and improved any the leaft hints or images, he hU 
been fuppofed to have talceit from this ancient drami 
copies of which are extrcrncly fcarce and uncommon 
and therefore a fpecimen of the verification is fubjoined* 
Not that it can be imagined, that the copious, compiCM 
hciifive, and creative mind of Milton, fo rich in tW 
ilprcs of nalurt, could condel'ccnd to be a meer borrowtr-^ 
as Voltaire would infinuate: nor can we alTent to the 
opinion of that critic who fays, ** that the poetical fire 
of Milton glows like a furnace, kept up to an uncom- 
mon ardour by the force oi Jrt," 

ATTO Q.UARTO, ScekaQuinta, 

Adamo. Doue men fuggo ahi lafTa, oue m'afcondo ? 
Corri nc le mic braccia, 
E chi ha infieme peccato 
Sia da le fere infieme anco Ibranaiq. 

Eta. Ahi ch'ogni fcampo e latto 

Varco di morte, a chi di vita c indegno. 
Pur di qucir antro in fcno 
Sommergiamoci Adano. 

AOAMo. Lafli partiro al fin, ma gia non partoro 
Da I'Huomo le ruine, il duol mortale : 


Strano cafo infelice^ il rifb piangtf, 
L'allegreziEa fta ihefta; 
Hc^gi Ix vita more.' 

Zv*^ Q^anto m'afBigo Adamo, 

Ahi quanto piango o Cicio, 
Quanco fofpiro b Dio, quanto m'accorof 
Ne fon viva, ne mord. 

Adamo^ Ma quat rugglti horrendi 

L'aer fa rimbombar frcmer le valli i 

MdRTK. Til par fufti,' o vil Donna^ 
Che prima mi chiamafti 
Con voce di peccato 
Sin dal Taitafeo ofcurd. 
Tu tu {lutrida came, e poca teirti 
Qucfto terribil moftro 

D'ofla humane contelto * 

A rimirar Je ftelle hoggi chiamafU> 
ttor, che vuoi ? di f favella. 
Stand fe de la vita ? 
Ecco la falciatrice, ecco la falctf 
, Che la luce a lafciar hoggi t'invita.' 

Gia con' occhio lincco , 

Scorgo mirando la futura etate 

€h*al ihio nome, a qukft' armi Arempietat^ 

Trofei s'ergoh funefti: 

Ma* che i non fininn qui le mine 

6hjt ti flunaccia il Cielo i alte fuenwrs 


T'appreft'smco I'lnftroo, 
Colme d'horrorfi grande; 
Ch'io che la Morte fono 

Bramo morir^ per non mirarle in volto : 

Gia tu fe reo di morte, 

Gii tua ftanza e rinfernoy 

Fatto rubello al tuo Fatter fuptrno* 


Adamo. Ahi lagrime, ahi dolore 
A hi crudo peccatore. 

£vA« Ahi dplente, infelice 
Eva gran pcccatrice. 

Adamo* Ahi, che s'annera il Ciclo, ahi che ne toglie 
Com' indegni di luce ogni fua luce. 
Ma tiual tofto nel Ciel s'auuina, e more, 
Fiamma, ch' abbaglia, e ferpeggiando fiigge 
Fatta ferpe di foco i 

Eva. ^ Ahi, che fin non hsiuran qui del Ciel Tire 
Ne conuien pria morire. 

Adamo. Deh qual rimbombo la (u in alto afcolto f 
Forfe con fimil voce 
Ne difcaccia dal Mondo, il Cielo irato, 
£ ne condanna de I'abiiTo al fondo I 
Quante faette^ 6 quante 
Atterran fclue, e bofchi| ^ quaatl^ & qiiaoti 



Venti fremon per I'aria ; 
QuantO'fcende dal Cielo 
Humor converfo in groSe palle, io |peIo> 

£vA> Lais noi> che da I'alto 
Diluviano tant'acque, 
Cbe trabboccano i riui, 
E'n fupcrbiti i fiumi 
Van le bclue fugando, 
E di borchi, e di felue 
Gli humidi pefci babitator fi fanno. 

Adamo. Fuggiamo, ohimS fuggiamo 
D£ monti a quelle cime 
Ou il Ciel fembra c'hoggi 
Dal luflgo fulminar ftanco B'appt^gi. 

The mean of the perfons reprtfentcd, an » fol- 
lowi : 

i N T E R L O C U T O R I. 

Padre Etbrho. 

Chord di Shrafiki, CHtRtruNi, ft Ahoui. 




Chkrvbiho cuftode d'AoAiio. 





Belzebu. ^ X ' 

Gli Sette Peccati MoRTAXii. 


Carne. ^ 





VoLANO, meflaggicro infernale. 
Chord di Foletti. 
' Choro di Spiriti Ignei, AereIj AcquaticiV 
& Infernali. 

Since page 6 was written, it has been clearly proved, that the 
Palaxnon and Arcite of Chaucer, is tilken from the Tbtfeida 
of Boccace ; a poem which has been, till within a few yean 
pad^ flrangcly ncgledled and unknown ; and of which Mr. 
Tyrwhitc has given a curious and exa6l fummary, in his dif. 
on the Canterbury Tales, tol; iv. p. 135. 1 cannot forbeat* 
exprefTing my furprife, that the circumilance of Chaacer's 
borrowing this tale Ihould have remained fo long unkiih>wn; 
when it is fo plainly and poiitively mentioned in a book iof 
very common as the Memoirs of Niceroni who fays, t. 35.* 
p. 44> after giving an abflracl of the Uory of Palamoh and 
Arcite, G. Chaucer, THomerede fonpays, a mis Pouvrage dc* 
Boccace en <vers Jnglois, This book was publiflied, IJ'^6* 
He alfo mentions a French tranHation of the Thefeida,* pob^ 
lilhed at Paris M.D.CC. .1597, in i2mo. The late Mr» 
Stanley, who was as accurately (killed in modern as in an- 

2 atai 


cieat Greek, fot a long time wss of opinion, that thU poem, 
in modem political Greek veHes, was the original ; in which 
opinioo he was confirmed by the Abbf Barthelemy, at Paiis,. 
whofe learned correfpondenec with Mr. Stanley on iliii fub- 
jcAIhave read. Atlallhe candidly gave up this opinion, and 
was convinced that Boccace invented the lale. Crt/ctmiini and 
Muraieri hive mentioned the Thefeida' more than once. That 
. very laborioua and learned ar.tiquary Apefido Zena, fpeakj thus 
of it, in his noie^ to the Bibliotheca of FoHtanini, p. 450. 1. 1. 
.Quelta opera paftorale (that it, the Jmiu) che prende il nomc 
dal paftore Ameto, ha data I'origine all EgUga Itfttiana, non 
Tenza lode del Boccaci», coi pure la noftra lingga du il ritro- 
vamento della eitava rima (which was firft ufed in the The- 
feida) e del fetmrn trtice. GrM'uimi doei ttoi mention thb 
poem. Crt/cimhini gives this opinion of it, p. iiS, t. j, 
Nel medefim^ fccolo del Petrarca, il Saccacio dicde principU 
all' tpka, colla fua Tifddt, e col FUofiraA ; lAt nello' ftile 
non L'ccede la mediocma, anzi fovente cadde nell' umile. 
I mall except out of the number of French writers, mentioned 
at the bottom of this page, William of Lorris, author of thac 
beautiful old poem, Li RamM dt U Rtfi, who, f»Jkbit fays, 
died 1 z6o. The fafhion that has lately obtained, m- all the 
nations of Furopc, of repubtitKinf; and illullradag their old 
poets, docs honour to the good tafte and liberal curiolity of 
theprefcni age. It is always pleafing, and indeed ufcful, to 
look back to the rude beginnings of any art, brought to i 
greater degree of elegance and. grace. 

Aurea nunc, olim fylveftribui horrtda dumii. Viko. 


;. line i6. far lUi tt*i tii, 

b, I. 17. after a^Miir, add uuitt W^iirttm it Lull. 

,. I. 4. Tor <r_j r«d /imk. 

i. 1. 10. Ii>r rt/turtt ciU fmrct. 

]. I. 19. for bifitrj tiipti»i'n[ read bifitrj-ftuiim^, 

b, ddc the whole note it ihe battem. 

%. 1, 7. for aai^mtt leij awdmii. Line 11. per aver. 

t. for uToru^iiH; Kid MTair^9,ur 1;. 

I. 10. for » ri* I}>-.iJ) hi, ul.r ci,. 
4.1. ii.forifijirrud/™.. 
3.1. 14. foiMif/rodif/o^fe. 

4. I, II. % bav read iai, 
J. 1. a. Sk awi rod lltrv 
o. I. I], for itfWiudiv' 

o. 1. i;. for £Jhtft nn tBSurl. 

5. 1.3. fDraka^TVT read mw^tv, and for ofia; r£ad ai 
0. 1. iS. afiatf ptiiiadt, rtti tf irtlilndi. 

1. 1. II. for [irvn reid p^iK\. 
f>. t. iS. for IW read ^(. 

0. DMe, fo( 1747 read 1741. 

1. I. IX. for liUtrtd read nnltilmdt 
7. 1, I. for rttmiwg read rvr. 

1. 1. 5- for binnr rtad tt*wtiir, 
5. I. 16. for RiRHT read Eight. 
I. no'e. for ari found read ti found. 
9. next. I. 4. for O'ftrd rtid OxfirJ. 
]. noM. for ftmij read «a»>tr. 




t r K. 

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