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Air 



ESSAY ON MAN; 

FOUR EPISTLES 

TO 

H. BT. JOHN LORD BOLINGBROK£. 

TO WHICH ARE ADDEDf 
TBI 

UNIVERSAL PRAYER, MESSIAH, ANIf 
.. ELEGY. 

■•'1' 



«■* 



BY ALEXANDER POPE, EM. 



LFOR T^E USE OF SCOOLa 
_ 
D8OI4 TTtfMFUBUSHED B7 J. LOWK 












». 






• ■'-•r^c 



ESSAY ON MAN. 



EPISTLE I. 

THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN, WITH 
HESFKCT TO^HE UNIVERSE. 



THE ARGUMENT. 

Man in the abstract. That we can judge oolj 

ith regard to our own fvsteni, heiug Ignorant of the 
lation of syftems and things. That man is not ta be 
eraed impertect. but a being soited to his plane and 
iilc ID the creation) agreeaNre to the general order uf 
ingiv- and conf irmabTe to ends and relations to him 
known. That it is partly upon his ignorance of I'u- 
rb events and partly upon the hope of a future 
ite, that all his Itappuiess iu the present depends^— 
le pride of aiminfe at more knowledge, and pretend- 
l to more perfeoiioni the cause of man's error and 
isery. The impiety oif pnttiMg himself in the place of 
»n, and judging of the fitoesaor unfitness, p'-rfection 
in;perfection, jusciee or injustice, of bis dispensa- 
■nft The aNsnrdity of conceiting hirs«'U'tlie final 
use of the creation, or eipectinc that perfertion in 
the moral world, which is not in the natural. The 
leasonableneM of his eomplaints against Provi- 
nce!, while on the one hand he demands the perfec- 
•n of the A levels; on the other, the bodily aaalifica- 
ns ofljlie brtites; 'hough to possess any of ine sensi- 
e fanftlea » a higher degree would render him 
serablt. That throughout the wliole visible world, 
universal •rder and gradation in the «eutual and 
rffto/AeiiftlBfli observed, wt\\cYk eaL<a^% ^ vd^Mt^'OL* 
mof ereMUmto ftmtiire, snd oi i^ «t«i^»SK^ vs 



solute submission due to Providence 
present and future state. 

I. WAKE, my St John! leave all i 
ro low ambition, and (he pride of 
^et U8, (sincfe lift biih lilfl^ lUcne k 
Chato. jiMt 'to iMk Wont in, cud 4o- 
Ixpattateiinee o'er aU tliis aceae loi 
L nigbiy miitdl Tnit tiot ^Wifbtrnt a 
L idld, wlief^BtWe^tnad flower* prot 
»r ganlea ierapiiiig. with forbidden 
'ogeiher let ua bebt tMft att^ilf "fid 
'17 wbtftthe dpeo, wM tii^.'wvei 
hehiteiit MckK the^giA^itMghtB 
f all wfao bKiidlj er^ itr itighttei 

■r^ ■— i>4«fii \ . ia«*«iVI«^ »lb<&.MA, ^^la. •• 



Ml, what see we but his station here, 
■ which to reason, or io-wbich refer? 
M^h worids nnnomber'd, though the God be 
' known, 
konrs to trace him only in our own. 
who through vast immensity can pierce, 
worlds on worlds compose one universe, 
we how system into system runs, 
it other planets circle other suns. 
It vari'd being peoples every star, 
ten why Heaven has made us as we are, 
dT this frame, the bearings and the ties, 
strong connexions, nice dependencies, 
ations just; has thy p^vading soul 
7d throi^h? or can a part contain the whole? 

i great chain, that draws all to agree, 
drawn, supports, upheld by God, or thee? 

nnptaoas man! the reason would'st thou find, 
form'd so weak, so little and so blind? 
, if thou canst; the harder reason guess, 
formed ■o'weaker, blinder, and no less? 
if thy mother earth, why oaks are made 
fr and strbbger than the weeds they sbad^ 



TV UVEV MI.'UNIN'fllllr'Or'MOt €4 

AndP aU : that rite, rise in^ die 
Then, inp^kt scale ^nm^ak 
There must li^fjomewiiere,^^ 
And alf Oeiqiueaiioiift (wia^i^U 
It^iilj 4iat,4f Qod haa,plae'd 

Respeetuig man^'^vliate^r wr 
May, iiiaftt be right, ae wlativ < 
hi haniaii wedoij tfcough lab^ 
A thousand movementa scaree 
In God's, one^i^gle ^an itsfen 
Yet Aenres'torseGond, too, sera 
60 man, who here seems princ 
Perhaps ae^ second tosomer s] 



'Ihis hour a slave, (he next a deity. 
Then say not mau's imperfect. Heaven 
Say rather, man's a. perfect as he ough 
His knowledge measured to his sUte an< 
„ ««e a «oiiient^.nd appoint hi. ap« 
W to be perfect in « certain sphere. 
What matter, soon or late, or b«re, or tht 
The blest to day is as completely », 
As who began a thouwuul years dgo. 

Heaven f„„,.i, creature, hides the book 
AH but thepagepresorib'd, their present 
From brutes wJiat men. bom m,n what 
know. 



'ope humbly then^ with tr^iinbling 
''ait the great teiachei^ Death, and G 
^hat future bliss hef givea not thei 
ut gives that hope to be thy blessii 
ope springs eternal in the human 
An never i$, but Always to be bles 
he soul, uneasy, and cOnfin'd frofi 
3st8 and expatiates in a life to com 

>9 the poor Indian! whose untutor' 
ies God in clouds, and hears him ii 
is soul proud science never taught 
tr as the solar walk, or milky way 
it simnle nature to hiA hnn^ hnk <ni 



-""■" "'y ucaie w sense 

e%h Oty <jpiDion against Providence; 
II imperfection what thoti faucs'at ucb, 
r, here heg, ves too IkUe, there 1«» «» 
<^troj all creatures for thy .port or go. 
ciy. If man', unhappy, 0^^,^ ,^^ 
wn aioae engro* not heaven'. hUh « 
ae made perfect he«, inmortod the«, 

tch from his hand the balance Mdlbe, 
•<lge his justice, be »fae GOD of Q^i 
ride, in reas'ning pride, our enw lies; 
luit their.spfcete, and rush into the. aki( 
B still is aiming at 4he blest abodes, 
would be angels, «,gel, would be eod 



PI' use iu«; UAi'ic a Liivuoaiiu ircosi 

»r me helilth scashes from a tbous 
sas roll to waft me, suns to %bt i 
y lootstool earth, my canopy the 

it errs not nature from this grac 
'6m burning suns when livid de 
'^hen earthquakes swallow, or w! 

• sweep 
owns to one grave, whole liatior 
^o, Ctb repliM) the first almighty 
cts not by partial, but by genVal 
b^ exceptions few; some change e 
nd what created perfect/*' Wbj 
the great end be human happiue 



K9.SAY 0N MAlf. I 

then i| Borgia, or a Catiline? 

HOWS but he, wboflie hand the lightninf^fonntt 

leaves old o<s«an,and who wiiigg the storms; 

fierce ambitioA in a Caesar's mindy 

as young Ammoii loose to scQurge mankind? 

pride^froni pride, qur very rea^'n^ng springs; 

mt for moral, a^ foe natural things: 

charge we Heaven in those, in these acquit} 

th, to reason right, b to c|ubmit« 

r for UJB, perhaps it might ap pear, 
ther^ all harmony, all virtue here; 
never air or ocean felt the wind; 
never passioQ discomposM the mind. 
11 subsists by elemental strife; 
[lassiQns are the ejlements of life, 
geii^ral order, since the whole b^^n, 
pt in nature, and b kept in man« 

; would this man? Now upward will he soar- 
little less than angel, would be more; 
looking dowawards, just as griev'd, appears 
ant the strength of bulls, the fur of bean. 
! for hu use all creatures if he call, 
rfaaft tlwir ubb, liad he tbii.fo^«t% ^ ^ 
e to these, without p^oCusion^^^iaai^ 



!7^: 



i 



19 ESSAY ON fiAn. 

The proper organs^ proper powers asBign* 
Sack f MHiiog want compensated of coon 
■ere with des^^ea of ewmrieas, Aiere, of fi 
All in exaet proportion to the state; 
Kothiag la add, and nothlog to ahate. 
Each heast, each insect, happy in Hs owi 
i Is HeaveB nnhliMt to man, and man ahm< 
ShaH lie alone, whom Nttlenal we oatl, 
Be pleasM with nothing, if aot blessM wii 

The bliss of bums (could ptide that blessii 
Is, not to ael, ot thiric btjfmtd mankind; 
No powers of hody» or of soul to shave. 
But wbal his natwo and his state eap bes 
!j[ Why has not man a nkroscopie eye? 
For thb plain reason, man is not a fty. 
Say wh^ the use^ weva Inor oplios giTon 
T' inspect ft piilq, qoA iwinprehend the 1 
Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er. 
To amarl and agoiiiyer at ev Vy pore? 
Or quick effluvia darting thsoa^ the bra 
Die of 1^ ros^ hi areoiaii^ pain} 
If iMtme thwMlaf'd in Us opiniBg ears. 
And stunnVl him with the mui^c of the i 
4ri^ir iroiiM lif ifiriv tint H««v«a h»« h 

BttU 






f 



■*. I 



B8SAT ON MAN. 

wMsp'ring sepbjr, and the purUng rill! 
finds not Providence all good and wise, 
in what it gives, and what denies? 



13 



as creation's ample range extends, 
scale of sensual, mental powers ascends: 
how it mounts to man'f imperial race, 
the green miriads in the peopled grass! 
t modes of sight, betwixt each wide extreme, 
mole's dim curtain, and the lynx's beam: 
niell, the headlong lioness between, 

hound sagacious on the tainted gr^en: 
bearii^, from the life that fills the flood, 
'o that which warbles through the vernal wood, 

spider^s touch, how exquisitely fine, 
Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: 
the nice bee, what sense so subtly true 

pmsonons herbs extracts the healing dew. 
iw instinct varies in the grovelling swine, 

d, half-reasoning elephant, with thine! 
wixt that, and reason, what a nice barrier, 
iVCT sep'^rate, yet forever near! 
imbranee and reflection how alli'd; 
thin partitions sense from thought divide; 
niddle natures, how they lon^Xoyns^-^ 



11 ill^ iCOOVU 



•At* •>*'• 



through this air, this ocean, an 
natter quick, and bursting into 1 
ve, how high progressive life n 
ind, how wide! how deep exteB 
t chain of being! which from G< 
ire's ethereal, human, angel, mi 
it, bird, fish, insect! what no cy 
glass can reach; from infinite t< 
n thee to nothing!— On f^aperic 
•e we to press, inferior might oi 
n the full creation leave a void, 
etre, one step broken, the grei|t 
destroyed: 



tSSA^ONMAN. 15 

system only, but the whole must fall: 
iarth ttabalancM from her orbit fly, 
ts and suns nid lawless through the skyi 
iling abgel's from their spheres be hurPd, 
; on being wrecked, and world on world; 
en^s whole foiindatioiks to their centre nod, 
nature tremble, to the throne of God! 
lis ^read order break?— For whom? for thee; 
wonxd — O madness! pride! impiety! 

if the foot, ordainM the dust to tread, 
nd, to toil, aspire to be the head? 

if the head, the eye, or ear, repinM 
^rve mere engines to the ruling mind? 
IS absurd for any part to claim 
s another, in this genVal frame:. 
IS absurd, to mourn the tasks or pains; 
;reat diredtiiig hind of all Ordains. 

re but parts of one Itupendoui^ whole, 
le bodjr nature is, and God the soul; 
chang'd through all, and yet in all the same, 

ih the earth as in the ethereal frame; 
IS in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, 

in tb^ 8tan^ and blossoms \ti iVi^ Xx^^i^ 



16 ESSAY 0«: MAN, 

Lives through all life, extends through all ex 
Spreads undivided, operates unspent> 
breathes in our soul, informs our mortal p|ur! 
As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; 
As full, as perfect, in vite man that moumi^ 
As the rapt seraph that adores aiid bums; 
tTo him, no high, no low, no great, no smaU 
He fills, he bounds, connects and equals alL 

CeasPf then, nor Order imperfection name: 
Our proper bliss depends on what we blame* 
Know thy own point: this kind, this due dq{ 
Of blindness, weakness, Heaven bestows cmtl 
Submit, in this, or any other sphere. 
Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: 
Safe in the hand of one disposing power, 
Or in the natal. Or the mortal hour. 
All nature is but art, unknown to tbee; 
All chance, direction, which thou canst not i 
All discord, harmony, not understood; 
All partial evil, universal good. 
And, spite of pride, in erring reason^s spite^ 
One truth is clean "Whatever is^ is rigbt«^ 



EPISTLE II. 

: NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH 
E«T TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL* 



I'HE ARGUMENT. 

• 

»n««B of man is not to pty into God» bnt to. 
limteir. Hf« middle nature; his powers and 
I, and the limits of his capacity. The two prin- 
>f man, self-lbVe and reason, both necessary: 
e the stronger, and why. their end the same, 
issions, and their use. The predominant pas- 
nd its force; its necessity in directing; men to 
:t purposes; its providential use, in filing oar 
le, and aseertaininf^ oar virtue. Virtue and 
dned in our mixed nature; the limits near, yet 
Qga separate, and evident. What is the office 
ion. How odiouii vice in itself, and how we 
e ourselves into it. That} however, thn enda 
^idence and general good are answered in our 
IS and imperfections How. usefulhr these are 
ited to all orders of men . How useuil they are 
sty, and to the individaaU, in e/try state, and 
y'age of life. 



then thjf elf, presamie not God to scant 
»per study of mankind is Man. 

>n this isthmus of a middle state* 

; darkly wise, and radely great: 

o much knowledge for the sceptic side, 

y tnacb weakness for the 8loi0% ^i\«\^x 

2* 



« of thought, and passioD, all conl 
by himself abusM, or disabiia^d; 
ted half to rise, and half to (all; 
t lord of all things, yet a prey to 
judge of truth, in endless error Jiui 
gloiyv jest, and riddle of the work 

?ond'rou8 creaturef mouirt where 

guides, 
leasure earth, weigh air, and state 
uct the planets in what orb9 to rai 
ect old time, and regulate the sun; 
oar with Plato to th^ empyreal spl 
he first good, first p^fect and first 
ead the mazy round his followers \ 



ESSAY O^ a((AN. 19 

Soperior beings, when of late the^ saw 
A mortal man unfold all nature'9 law, 
Admir'd such wlfidoai in %a ^artb! j i^h^pe. 
And show'd a Newton as we ^w ao ape. 

Could lie, whose rales the rapid comet bind> 
Describe, or fix, one movement of his mind? 
^ho saw its fir^ here rise, and there descend) 
Explain his own beginning, or lihf end? 
Alas what wonder! man^s superior part 
flneheck^d may rise, and*climb from art to arfi^ 
But when liis anm great work is but begun, 
^hat reason weaves, by passion is undone. 

^nee science, then^ with modesty thy guide; 
'iilt strip off all her equippage of pride; 
deduct what iii but vanity or dress, 
^^ learning's luxury, or idleness; 
^<* tricks to shew the stretch of human brain, 
Vere curious pleasure, or ingenious pain; 
^^uoge th^ whole, or lop the excrescent parla 
^ all our vices have created arts; 
*^henBee how little the remaining sum, 
^hich serv'd the past, and must the times to 



come. 

1 . 



ribe all good; ttf their iniproper, 

-love, the spring of motidn, acts 
son^s comparing balance rules tl 
I, but for that) no action could a1 
I, but for this, were active to no 
d, like a plant, on his peculiar s\ 
Iraw nutrition, propagate and re 
tneteor-like, flame lawless throu^ 

• 

joying othei^, by himself destro 

t strength the moving principle i 
ve its task, it prompts, impels, ii 
it^ and quiet, the comparing lies. 
qM but to check, deliberate and a 



-*mjouon, habit, and experience gai 
Each strengthens reason, and self-lo^ 

Let subtle schoolmen teach these frie 
^ore studious to divide thaa to unite 
^od grace and virtue, sense and reasc 
With all the rash dexterity of wit. 
\)f its Ju^t like fools, at war about a nai 
Bave full as oft no meaning, or the sai 
Self-love and reason to one end aspire, 
Pain their aversion^ pleasure their desi 
But greedy that its object woufd devoi 
This taste the honey, and not wound ti 
k^Ieasure, or wron^i or riflrhnv nnA — * - 



* MA ^VA^' m«.o ^Mj 



cted all, retiring to the breast; 
ength of mind is exercise, not r 
ling tempeiit puts in act the soul, 
t inay ravage, but preserves the 
's vast ocean diversely we sail, 
I the card, but passion is the gaU 
od alone in the still calm we fin< 
•unts the storm, and walks upon 

ns, like elements, though bofii tc 
lix'd and softened, in his work ui 
'tis enough to temper and empl 
bat cbmposeS man, can man dest 
5 that reason keep to nature's roii 

^»^rxnintii\ f hAtYI. follOW her &l 



M/Vl 



aaU&lUO 



And when in act they cease, in j 

Present to grasp, and future still i 

The whole employ of body and o 

I' An spread their charms, but chart 

On different senses, different objec 

Hence different passions more or Ic 

iis strong or iweak, the organs of th* 

-And hence one master passion in tli 

\Ak,e Aaron^s serpent, swallows up 

As man, perhaps, the moment of his 
Receives the lurking principle of dc 
Tlie yoqng disease that niust subdue 
Grows with his growth, and strengUM 
strength: 




ESSAY ON UAN. 



Imagination plies her dangerouB art. 
And pours it all upon the peccant parf. 

Nature ils mother, babit i> its nurse; , 

Wit, spirit, faculties but malie it worse: 
Reason ilseir but gives it edge and power. 
As heaven^ blest beam turns irinegar more toq 
We, wretched sutjents, though to lawful iwaji 
Iq this weak queen some Tav'tite still obej. 
Aht irshe lend not arms, as well as rules, 
What can she more than fell us we are fooli? 
Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend, 
A sbarp accuser.'but a helpless friendl 
Or from a judge turn pleader, to pursuade 
Tbe choice we make, or justir? it made. 
Proud of an easy conquest all along, 
She but removes weak passions for the stroi^. 
So, when small humors gather to a gout, 
r^be doctor fanciea be has dnv'a them out. 

yes, nature's road must ever Ii^ prefer' d; 
Reason is here no guide, but Etill a guard; 
'Tis her's to rectify, not overthrow. 
And treat this passion more as friend than (bBi] 
A aug/itier power the Btrong ^lectina send*. { 



^T 



KSSAY ON MAN. 25 



Dd sev'ial iiie& isppela to sev'ral enda. 
ike varyuig winds, by other passioaB tost, 
bu drives them coBStant to a certain coast. 
rt power or kBOwtodgo, gold or gloiy, pleaso» 
r, (oft fliore atrong tteni all) the love of ease; 
bough life 'Us foUoviVl, evHi at BTe^s exp^act; 
he merchant's toil, the sage's indolence, 
k nonk^s hwoility , the hero's pride, 
B, all alilps, (nd r^son on their 



be etern^i art, educing good horn ill, 
ails on this paision oar best principle; 
Is thus t^e mercury of man is firx^d, 
^Dg gvowi the virttth with his natare mix'd, 
^ droas cements what cliie were too refin'd, 
id in one int'rest body acts with mind.. 

I 

tfnfits, illigralafiirto the plaster's care, 

1 savage stocbi inserted learn to bear; 

^ sareal rktiies thus from passions shoot, 

ild nature'* vigof working at the root. 

katcrop»^'wit dud honesty appear 

m iplceo, irons olitiiiacy, hate, or fear! 

e angdi sM aUd^ icrtitiide supply; 

a 4v'iici^ pwdcnee; sloHii \f\xisiio^\ 

3 



26 ESSAY ON MAN. 

Lust, through Bome certain strainers well ireii 
Is gentle love, and charms all womankind: 
Envy, to which th' ignoble mind's a slave. 
Is emulation in the leamM or brave: 
Nor.' virtue, male or female, can we name, 
But what will grow on pride, or grow on ahu 

Thus nature gives us, (let it check our pride) 
The virtue nearest to our viee allied: ' 
Reason the bias turns to good from ill. 
And Nero reigns a Titus, if he will. 
The fiery soul abhorM in Catiline, 
In Decius charms, in Curtius is divine. 
The same ambition can destroy or save. 
And makes a patriot as it makes a knave. 

This light and darkness in our chaos join'd, 
What shall divide? the God within the miiMl 

Extremes in nature equal ends produce. 
In man they join, to some mysterious use: 
Though each by turns the othei^s bounds inyi 
As,insomewell-wro9ght picture, light andthji 
And oft so mix, the difTrence is too nice 
Where endA ihe virtue^ or begUus this viee*. - - 



kSSAT ON MAPf. 2t 

! wbo from hence into the notioh fall, 
Tice or virtue there is none at all. 
ite and black blend, soften and unite 
Misand ways, is there no black or white^ 
frour own heart, and nothing is so plain; 
to mistake thepi, costs the time and paiou 

is a monster tii io frighCfu! ttiein^ 
be hated, needs hut to he seen; 
teen too oft, familiar with its face, 
irst endure, then pity, then embrace* 
there th' extreme of vice, was ne'er agreed: 
fhere's the north? at York 'tis on the Tweedy 
^tland, at thie Orcades; and there 
reenland, Zembla, or the Lord knows where; 
realure owns it in the first degree, 
hinks^ his neighbor farther gone than he* 
those who dwell beneath its very aone, 
ver feel the rage, or never' own. 
happier nature^ shrink at with affrighf;^ 
hard, inhabitant contends h right 

outi» and vicious every man must be, 
in the extreme, but all in the degree;! 
vgue and fool by fits is im txA ^\i^\ 



whole: 
at counter works eacli folly and C£ 
at disappdtntB th^ ^fifect of evefj v 
at happy (railtiel tp all ranki app] 
ime to the virgin, to the matron pi 
ir to iho ftaleHftao, rashness to the 
kings presumptioa, and to crpwds 
at, virtii^^s ends from vanity can i 
dch seeks tp interest, no reward h 
d bMiIfl <^i wants, and on defects o 
® j^y» V^^ peace, the glory of nianl 

aven forming each on other to de| 
naster, or a servant, or a friend, . 
Is eai^h on other for assistance call 



Whatever the passion, knowledge, I 
^ot one will change his neighbor v 
{ The leam'd is happy, nature to ex[ 
I ^he fool 18 happy that he knows m 
^ { ^he richia happy in the plenty gi^ 
' ybe poor contents him with the car 



: See the blind beggar dance, the crij 
^ The sot a hero, lunatic a king; 
. The starring chemist in his golden 
[ Biqireraely blest, the poet in hb mu 

See some strange comfort every sta 
And pride, beslow'd on all. a mmm 



Meanwhile opinion gilds with var 
Those Rioted clouds that beautify 
Each want ofhappiiiess bj fiope si 
And each vacuity of sense' by prid( 
These build' diT tet as knowTe^ c 
In folly's ($tip rtill langl^cr the^ bubbl 
Dtt6 prospect lost, aiiotheV slin we 
And mi at vaalfjr is^ ^it'h 'td vain. 
E'en mean self-l6ve bedoW^V ^y € 
The scde to iHea^Ut^ oiMrVWiiiiti 
See! and confess, ond cdUflbrt stil^ 
Tis this, though man's afool^ jei ( 



THE ARGUMENT. 

whole universe one system of soeiety. 
de wbollj for itsetf, nor yet wholly for f 
9 happiness of animals mntnal. Mason < 
trate alike to the good of each iodividual 
instinct operate also to sooietv, in all i 
w far society is carried bj instinct; how 
r by reason. Of that which is called th 
are. Reason instructed by instinct, in t 
I of arts, and in the forms of suciety. 
itical societies. Oriefn of monarchy. P 
ernment Origin of true religion and go^ 
n the same principle of love. Ori^n ol 
I and tyranny, from the same principU 
> influence of self-love operating to the i 
lie good. Restoration of true religion 
ment on tbeir first principle Milt got 
ious forms of each, and the true end of i 



matter next, with various life eu 
88 to one cehfre stillj the general | 

dying Vegetable8> life 8ui^tain, 

life dissolving, vegetate again: 
forms that perish, other forms sup 

tarns we catch the vital breath, ; 
e bubbles on the sea of matter bor 
;Jr rise, they break, and to that se 
hing is foreign; parts relate to wt 
i all extending, all preserving sou 
nects each being, greatest with tli 
le beast in aid of man, and man ol 
serv'd, all serving. Nothing stai 
I chain holds on^ and where it ends 



ESSAY OK MANk 3S 

it for tliee the lark aflcends and sings? 
>y tunes fail tniee, joj elevates his wings, 
i it for tiitee Ae linnet pours lis throat? 
lOves of his own, and raptures swell the note* 
7he boan^g steed you pompously bestride, 
ihares with his lord the pleasure and the pride. 
s thine alone the seed that strews the plain? 
rhe birds of lieaven shall vindicate theur graiuv 
Fhine the full harvest of the golden year? 
^art pays, and justly, the Reserving steer. 
The bag, that ploughs not, nor obeys thy call, 
^ves on the labors of this hwdof all. 

iUow, nature's children sfaali divide hetr oare; 
*he fur that warms a monarch, wann'd a bear; 
i^hile man exclaims, ^see all things for my iise!'' 
See man for mine,^ replies a pampered goose: 
LDd just as short of reason he must fall, 
K^ho thinkf all made for one, not one for all. 

rrant that the powerful still the weak control; 
le man the wit and tyrant of the whole: 
ITatnre that tyrant checks; heonlykno^s, 
^ helps, another creature^s wants and woes, 
ay, will the felcon, stooping traaL1fiMSH%^ 



ome hh iotereflt prompts hun to pi 
oore hur pleasure, yet for lAore his 
ied on one vain patronr, and enjoy 
extensive Messing of his luxary; 

very life his learned hunger etavc 
ives from famine, from the savage i 

feasts the animal he dooms his fe; 

tiU he ends the being, makes it b 
:h sees no more the stroke; nor feeh 
1 favoi^d man by touch ethereal s 
creatwe had its feast ef life ftefer 
a^ too, must perish* when thy feast 

^aeh unthinking being Heaven a f 
» not the useless knowlei^ of its 



i'»"Hw»tiuri a to tft< 
. where ful, instinct is the unerring , 
»t Pope or council can they need b 
Jon, bowever able, cool at best, 
» not for Bervice, or but serves wt, 
8 till we caH» and then not often ne 
honest instinct comes a vohinteer, 
never to o'ershoot, but jnst to hit; 

le .till too short or wide is hnmanw 
by quick nature happiness to gain, 
ih heavier reason labors at in vain, 
too serves always, reason never Im 
«»»t fo right, the other may go wn 
ten the acting and comparing powe 



before? 
ho ealk the coimcil, states the cerl 
ho forms the phalaiix» a^ who poin 

»d, in the nature of eaioh being, foiK 
proper bliss, and sets its proper bot 
t as he formed ^ whole, the whole 
mutual wants buHt mutual happia 
from the first, eternal' order ran; 
(4 creature linked to er^aturti vian 
bate'er of life all-quicli'nii^ ether 1 
breath^; throiugb air, or shoota hem 

deeps, 
pouiB profuse on earth, one natuns 
le vital flame, and swells the genial 



ESSAY ON MAN. 37 

love themselves, a third time, in their race, 
least and bird their common charge attend, 
lothers nurse it, and the sires defend; 
oang dismissM to wander earth or air, 
stops the instinct, and there ends the care; 
ink dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, 
er love succeeds, another race, 
ger care man^s helpless kind demands; 
longer care contracts moie lasting bands; 
;tion, reason, still the ties improve, 
ce extend the interest and the love: 
choice we fix, with sympathy we bum; 
virtue in each passion takes its turn; 
till new needs, new helps, new habits rise, 
graft benevolence on charities, 
as one brood, and as another rose, 
i natural love maintained, habitual those: 
last, jscarce ripen'd into perfect Man, 
lelpless him from whom their life began: 
ry and forecast just returns engage, 
pointed back to youth, this on to age; 
B pleasure, gratitude, and hope combined, 
ipread the int'rest, and preservM the kind. 



38 ESSAY ON MAN. 

Nor think in naTubjc's statc they blind] 
The state of Nature was the reign, of God 
Self-love and social at her birtli began, • 
Union the bond of all things, and- of maiK. 
Pride then was not; nor arts that pride to 
Man walk'd with beast, joint tenant of the 
T}>e same bis table, and the same his bed 
No murder olotb^d bim, and no murder fe 
In the same tiemple, the refounding wood, 
All vocal beings hymnM their equal God: 
The shrine with gore unstainM, with gol 

undress'dv 
Unbrib'd» unbloody, stood the blameleflA f 
Heaven^s. attribute was universal care,. 
And man's prerogative, to rule, but spare. 
Ah! how unlike the man of times to cooc 
Of half that live the butcher and the tcmil 
Who, foe to nature, hears the genValgroa 
Murders their species, and betrays his oi« 
But just disease to luxury succeeds. 
And evVy death its own avenger breeds; 
The fury -passions from that blood begun. 
And turnMon man a fiercer savage, mar 



ESSAY ON MAN. 39 

im from Nature rising slow to art! 
py instinct tfaen was reason's part; 
then to man the voice of Nature spake — 
rom the creatures thy instruction take: 
from the birds what food the thickets yield; 
from the t>easts (he physic of the field; 
irts of building from the bee receive; 
of the mole to plow, the worm to weave; 
of the little Nautilus to sail, 
d the thin oar and catch the driving gale, 
loo ^i forms of social union find, 
lenee let reason, late, instruct mankind: 
subterranean works and ^tie^ see; 
} towns aerial on the waving tree, . 
each small people's genius,'^policie8„ 
at's republic, and the realm of bees; 
hose in common all their wealth bestow, 
.narchy, without confusion, know; , 
bese forever, though a monarch reign^ 
separate cells and properties maintain, 
what unvaried laws pjreserve each state, 
wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. 
n thy reason finer webs shall draw^ 
gle justice in her net of law, 
ight, too rigid, harden into wtOA^^ 









I Cot 



*^^'^tcstoV>eri 






l\io»e--_^^Y<B.ot 



ito^*^ 



M«^* 



tooua^ 



oAi«« 



^^vX 



tOi^V^ 



ato^** 



vjere 



UiaAc- 



kotV^c^ 



ocaT 



\ove<* 



M 



p\d bete tbe ,^ p« 






Jin^ 



Yie 



ftn< 






«,.-»c-:^>^"'' 






,N»ete 



.4t\je 



•m»y 






'ori 



^aoffbttn. •"""'■"'ff furrow 
"gat to command (hp « 

O'fefcb ,h' aerial J,'^'* 
>e7'd unbroken !. J" *" "« 



42 



ESSAT ON MAN, 




Who first taught souls enslaved, and rea 

undone, 
Th' enormous faith of many made for 01 
That proud exception to all nature^s lh\ 
T' invert the world, and ccMinterWorki 
Force first made conquest, and that conqi 
'Til superstition taught the tyrant awe, 
Then shar'd the tyranny, then lent it ai<; 
And Gods of conquerors, slaves of iuhj^c 
She, ^mid the lightning's blaze, and thai 

sound. 
When rocked the mountains, and when 

the ground, 
^'he taught the weak to bend, the pioud 
To power unseen, and mightier far than 
She from the fen^ding earth and bursting 
Saw gods descend, and fiends infernal t 
Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest 1 
Fear made her devils, and weak ho[ie h 
Gods partial, changeful, passionate, nir 
Whose attributes were rage, revenge or 
Such as the souls of cowards might com 
And, formM like tyrants, tyrantit would 
^eal then, not charity, became the guid 
A.ad bell was built on ftpUe, aD!3L\i%«y«a. 



ES3AT ON MAN. 48 

Q eacred seemM th' ethereal vault no oiore;' 
rs grew marble tliten, and reeked tivith gore; 
a first the Flamen tastied livhig food; . 
t hb grim nlol ^mearVI with human bipod; 
1 fae^^'s 6wn tfaUhdierB shook the World 

lielow, 
playM the god an engine on his foe; 

brives self-Iovie through just and through 

nnjoKft, 
me man's poWer, ambition, lucre, lust; 
sa^ self-loVe in all becomes the cause 
rbat restrains him, government and laws, 
wiiat one likes, ifotherii like as well, 
It serves one will, when many wills rebel? 
r «hall he keep, what, sleeping or awake, 
eaker may surprise, a stronger take? 
safety inu^t his liberty restrain: 
join to guard what each desires to gain, 
j'd into virtue thus, by self-defence, 
1 kings learn justice and benevolence: 
•love forsoook the path it first pursu'd, 
I ibUnd the private in the public goo^. 



# 




EBSAT ON MAn. 



Twas then th« Btudiout head, pr gen'iio 
FollVer ot God, or rriend of hoiiiBn kii 
Poet or patriot fom but to restore 
The faith and inoral, Bature gave before 
Re-lum'd her ancient light, not kindled 
If not God's image, yet bii abadow drew 
Taught power's due vae to people and i 
Taught nor to slack, nor strain its tende 
The lessor greater, set so justly trae, 
That touching one must strike the other 
'Til jarring infrests of themselTes creat' 
Th' according music of a well-mis'd ital 
Such is the worid's great harmony, thai 
From order, union, full consent of tbingi 
Where small a;id great, where weak and 

made 
To serve, not suCTer, strengthen, not int 
More powerful each as needful to the re 
And, in proportion as it blesses, blest; 
Draw to one point, and to one centre br 
Beast, man, or angel) servant, lord, or kj 

For fomu of governineBt let fools contes 
Whate'er is best administered, is best: 
For mode* of fail-h let jrwieVtm lealots 1 



Man, like the generous vine, supjx 
The strength he gains is from th' < 

give^. 
On their own axis as the planets n 
Yet make at once their circle roun 
8b two consistent motibnrs act the 
And one regards itdelf, and one the 

^U8 6od and natare link'd the ge 

^ bade i elMov^ and social be th< 

' ■ ■ ■ ■ ' • » , »■ 



EPISTLE IV. 

OP THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN, WI' 
RESPECT TO HAPPINESS. 



THE ARGUMENT, 

False notions of happiness, philosophical aiid popi 
answered It is the end of all men, and aftainabic 
all. God intends happiness to be equal; and to b 
it must be social, since all particular happiness 
pends on general, and since he governs bt geof 
not particular laws As it is necessary for or 
and the peace and welfare of society, that eite 
goods should be unequal, happiness is nut madi 
consist in these But notwithstanding that inequa 
the balance of happiness among mankind is kept f 
by providenpe, by the two passions of hope and I 
What the happiness of indiviiluHls is, hs fer as is eon 
ent with the ctmstitution of this world; and thai 
good man has here the advantage The error of 
puting to virtue what are only the ralamities of oa 
or of fortune. The folly of expo tine that God sh 
alter his general law» in favor of particulars. Tha 
are not judges who are good; but that whenever 
are, they must be happiest That external goodt 
not the proper rewaras, but often inconsistent will 
destructive of virtue. That t^ven these can niak 
man happv without virtue Instanced in riches. : 
ors. nobility, greatlicss, fame, superior tatentSi 
with pictures of human infelicity in men possesM 
them all. That virtue only co; stitutes a happii 
whose ohjf'Ct is universal and whose prospect fU 
That the perfection of virtue and happiness consifl 
a conformity to the order of Providence here^ ai 
a resignation to it here and bereaiter. 



OH HAPPINESS! our being^s end and all 
£food, pleasure, ease^ content! \?hate^er ihj 
name; 



— ^i Avrvrik. 



", occu uuuDie, Dy the foi 
Plant of celestial seed! if drop'il b 
Say, in what moi-tal soil thou deig 
Pair op'ning to some court's prop] 
•Or deep with di'mondg in the flam 
TwinM with the wreaths Parnassiai 
Or reapM in iron harvests of the fi 
Vhere grows? where grows it not? 
toil, 

Ve ought to blame the culture, not 
Pix'd to no spot is happiness since 
Tig no where to be found, or everj 
'Tig never to be bought, but alway 
And fled from monarchs, St. John! 



AD this, that hapfdness i$ happioes 

tke natore^s path, and mad opinion 
I states can reach it, and aUlieads 
Tioas her goods, in no extreme thi 
lere needs but thinking light, and i 

well; 
id moam our various portions as "m 
ual is common sense, and commoii 

^member, man, •'the universal Can 
:t8 not by partial, but by general ki 
id makes what happiness we justlj 
ibsist, not in the good of one, but < 
iicre's not a blessine individuals fin 



cssat'^on MAir. 48 

ract what others feel, what others think, 
)leasure4 sicken, and all glories sink: 
I has his idiare, and who woald mow obtain^ 
1 find, the pleasure pays not half the pain. 

BR is Hedven^s first law; and this confest, ^ 
e are, and must be, greater than the rest, 
3 rich, more wise; but who infers from hence 
t such are happier, shocks all common senses 
iren to mankind impartial we confess, 
1 are equal in their happiness: 
mutual wants this happiness increase; 
[lature^s difiTrence keeps all nature^s peaces 
dition, circumstance, is not the thing; 
B is the same in subject or in king, 
^ho obtain defence, or who defend, 
Am who is, or him who finds a friend: 
ven breathes through every member of ths 

whole 
common blessing, as'one common soiil. . 
fortune's gifts if each alike possest, 
1 each w^re equal, must not all contestt 
len to all men happiness Was meant, 
[ in externals could not pUM;e contents 



I 



^jbmam^ 



, rfW ntWOT" . .nine*!"' 
Or Goo w*^ n\c>a>if*' *" ^AeOWP* 

6t»t! 



BSSAT ON MAN, 



51 



mi all th' advantage prosperous vice attainSi 
bot what virtue flies from and disdainsi 
grant ihe bad what happiness they would, 
they must want, which is, to pass for good, 

r 

I blind to truth, and God's whole scheme below» 
fancy Miss to vice, to virtue woe! 
sees and follows that great scheme the best, 
knows the blessing, and will most be blest, 

fools, the good alone unhappy call, 
ills or accidents that chance to all. 
Falkland dies, the virtuous and the justl 
god-like Turenne prostrate on the dust! 
Sidney bleeds amid the martial strife! 
^u this, their virtue or contempt of life? 
r, was it virtue^ more though Heaven ne'er 

gave* 
snted Digby! sunk thee to the grave? 

II me Jf virtue made the son expire, 

by, full of days and honor, lives the sire? 

by drew Marseilles' good bishop purer breath, 
rben nature sicften'd, and each gale was death! 

why so long (in life if long can be) 
lot Heaven a parent to the poor and me? 



i 



ghqrt aiid biit nirei 'til iiian impro 
We juit as wiwiy mMS^t <tf Heave 
That Tightfeoos Abel m aB deatroy^ 
Ab that tbfe virtuoui Bdn ii ill at f 
When hia lewd father gave the di 
Think we, like some Vff^ pri^»< 

Caiike 
Prone for Mb favMted to revert* I 

Fdig^t to ihUnAefr, ttUlA weal het 
On earth or sea new motions be ii 
Oh blameleiB Bethell to relieve 
When the loose mountain itmb* 



ESSAT ON MAN; 



53 



Idagdom.bf tbe just then let it be; 
first com ider how those just agree., 
good must merit God's peculiar care; 
who, but God, can tell ui who they are? 
thinks on Calvin Heaven's own spirit fell; 
ler deems him instnunent of hell; 
ICslvin feel heaven's blessiii^, or its'rod, . 
cries there is, and that there is no God. 
It shocks one part will edify the rest, « 
jrith one system can they all be blest, 
very best will variously incline, 
what rewards your virtue, punish mihe« 
sver is, is right. — This world, 'tis true, 
ftt made for CsBsar, but for Titus too; - 
1 which more blest? who chain'd bis country, 

say, 
he whose virtue aigh'd to lose a day? 



sometimes virtue starves, while vice is fed.'* 
it then? Is the rew'ard of virtue, bread? 
vice may .me^rit, 'tis the price of toil; 
.knav9 deserves it when he tills the soil, 
knave deserves it, when he tempts the main^ 

folly fights for kings, or dives for gain. . 

5* 




ESSAT ON HAH. 



The good mail mdy be weak, be indcflnt; 
Nor U his claim to plenty, bat conttittt 
But grant him rirhes, jom Abtukai li o'erl 
"No— sbitll the pxtd want health, the gfloi 

power!" 
Add bealtii a&d p6wer, and eTery eartlilf 
f'Whybwnded power? whypHvate? ^hy 

. Wng?" 
Nay why external for intefna) glreb? 
Why ]b not niaa a god, and earth a beave 
Who ask and reason thug, vnll coarce con< 
God gives enough while h« has Aidre tt> gi 
ImraeiKe the power, immeoBe were ttie dei 
gay at what part of ndtore win they stand 

What nothing earthly gives, or can d6stn) 
The soul's oa)m snAslilne, and the beart-f 
Is virtue's priie: a better would yon Gxl 
Then give hiABility a coacb and sfcc, 
Justice a conq'ror's sword, or tntb a gowi 
Or public spirit Its grMt core, a ctowo. 
Weik, rooTiib riiant wtft HeffvcB rewardn 
With the same trash mad tsortals wbh to 
The boy and man an individual nakes. 
Vet eigbst IJiOU now for apples fod for CI 



ESSAt 6N mak. 56 

, like tbe Indian, in Another life 
[)ect thy dog, thy botUe, ^nd thy wife; 
well «8 dream dnch trifles are assigned, 
f6y« aiofd empireg, far a g6d-Jike mind, 
^ards, thdt eithdr tvoold to virtue bring 
joy, or be dedtractitre ef the ihing: 
BT oft by these at sixty are undone 
e virtues pf a saint at twenty-one! 
wb6tn can richeii give repote of trost» 
itMit, 6r pleasure, but th^ good and just? 
ges and Senates have been bought for ^old, 
eem and lolvd were never to be sold, 
fool! to think God hates the iiforthy ndnd, 
i lover and the love of huAian kind, 
ose life is healthful, and wliose cbnsciene^ 

dea^ 
anse he wantsf a thousand poin!ids h year.- 

ior and shainie^ from tfto condition rise; 

well your part, there all the ho^or lies, 
tune in men has some small difference made, 

fiatfhts in rags, one flutters in brocade; 
i cobler apronM andlhe parson gowned, 
i friar hooded, and the tnOMirch crowned. 



i 




Worth makes the man and want oi 
The rest is all but leather er prune 

Stuck o'er with titles and hung roun 
That thou mayst be by kings or wh< 
Boast the pure blood of an illustrio 
In quiet flow from Lucrece to Luci 
But by your father^s worth if yours 
Count me those only who are good 
Gu! if your ancient, but ignoble bl 
Has crept through scoundrels ever si 
Got and pretend your family is you 
Nor own your fathers have been fw 
What can ennoble sots, or slaves, o 

A Ida! nnf all #1tA Mj^«v<i ^r ^n ju. ti 



KSdAT ON MAN. 67 

he vthol^ itniDg^ purpose of their lives, to find 
r make, an ^nemj of all mankind! 
ot one looks backward, onward still he goes, 
et ne^er looks forward further than his nose. 

less alike the politic and wise; 

11 slf, slow things, with circumspective eyes: 
en in their loose, unguarded hours they take, 
ot that themselves are wise, but others weak, 
lit grant that those can conquer, these can 

<^heat; 
^is phrase absurd to call a villain great; 
ho wickedly is wise, or madly brave, 
but the more a fool, the moire a knave, 
'ho noble ends by noble means obtains, 
r failing, smiles in exile or in chains, 
ike good Aurelius let him reign, Or blee4 
ike Socrates; that man is great indeed. 

'^hat^s fame? a fiinciM life in others breath, 
thing beyond ils, e*en before our death. 
1st what you hear, you have, and what's 

nnknowfa 
he same, (my Lord) if TuUy's, or your own. 
11 that we feel of it begins and ends 

1 the small circle of oar foes or friends; 



I 



-^» 



Ao honest man's the noblest work c 
Fame b^t from death a villain's nai 
, As justice tears bis body from the g 
When what t^ oblivion better were r 
Is hung on high to poison half manl 
All fame is foreign, but of ^true dese 
Plays round the head^ but comies not 
One self-approving hour whole year 
Of stupid (^tarers, and of loud huzza: 
And more true joy Marcellus exil'd 
Than Caesar with a senate at his ht 

In parts superior what advantage li 
Tell (for you can) what is it to be 
'Tia hilt to know how little can be 



nen tnese blessings to a strict acco 
air deductions; see to what they 'ii 
uch of other each is sure to cost; 
ich for other oft is wholly lost; 
consistent greater goods with these 
metimes life is risquM, and always 
and if still the things thy envy cal 
luldst thou be the man to whom th* 
^all? 

for ribands if thou (Irt so silly, 
)w they grace lord Umbra or sir B: 
(¥ dirt the passion of thy life; 
it on Gripus, or on Gripus' wife, 
allure tliee, think how Bai»nn ahin' 



60 



ESSAY ON MAN. 



See tbe fake scale of happiness compl 
la. hearts of kings, or arms of q^een9 ^ 
How bappj those to ruin, these bet^aj 
Mark by what wretched steps their glc 
From dirt and sea- weed as proud V^ni 
In each how guilt and greatness equal i 
And all that rais'd the Hero, sunk the 
Now Europe's laurels on their brpws Im 
But stain'd with blood, or ill exchange 
^hen see th^m bn^e with toils, or sub 
Or infamous for plundered provinciss. 
Oh wealth ill-fated! which no act of fi 
E^er taught to shine, or sanctifi'd froia 
What greater bliss attends their close i 
Some greedy minion, or imperious wif 
The trophi'd arches, storiM halls invad 
And haunt their slumbers in the pomp< 
Alas! not dazzled with their ^oon-tid€ 
Compute the mom and evening to the 
Tbe whole amount of that enormous I 
A tale, that blends their glory with the 




Know then this truth, (enough for man 
^^Virtue alone is happiness below.^' 
T^e only point where buinaiibVV&% stai 



|;aSA¥ ON MAN. 61 

And tiaates the good without the t^ll to ill; 

'^here oply merit confltaiit pay receives. 

Is blest in what it takes, and what it gives;^ 

TThe joy unequal, if its end it gain, 
And if it lose^ attended with no pain: 

: Withoiit satiety, though e^er so bless'd. 
And but more relishM as the more distressed: 
The broadest mirth unfeeling folly wean^ 
IS pleasing far, than virtue's very tears: 
food» from each object, from efich place acquired, 

^or eypr exercised,- yet never tir'd; 

^ever elated while one man's oppressed; 

^^ver dejected, while another's bless'd; 

And where no wants, no wishes can repnain, 

CHneebut to wish mons virtue, is to gaiih 

See the sole bliss heaven could on all bestowt 
"Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can 

know: 
Yet poor with fortune, and with learning blind, 
The bad must miss, the good, untaught, will fin^i^ 
SfdYp to no sect, who takes no private road, 
But looks through nature up to nature's God: 
Pursues that chain which links th' immense 

design, 



I 



MM 




ESS\T ON UAV. 



Joins hearen sod earth, and mortal and 6 
Sees that no being any bliu UB kncrwi 
But touches Bome above, and Mme below; 
Xiearoi from this union or the ristng whole 
i^he first, lut purpose at the bumaa soul; 
And knows where faith, law, morals, all b 
All end in love of God and lore of man. 
For him alone hope leadi from goal to goi 
And opens still, aod opens on bis soul; 
'Til lengthen'd on to faith, and aneonfin't 
It pours the bliss that fills up all the mind 
He sees why iiatDre plants in man alone 
Hope of known bliss, and (aith in bliss un) 
(Natnre, whose dictates to no other kind 
Are given in vain, bat what they seek the 
Wise is her present; she connects in thia 
His greatest virtue with bis greatest bliss; 
At once his own bright prospect to be bl< 
And strongest motive to assbt the rest. 

Self-love thus pushM to social, to divine^ 
Gives thee tt> make thy neighbor's bleStiitf 
Is this loo little for tUe bouddless heart? 
Extend it, let thy enemies have part: 
Grasp the whole worlds olteawn, life and 



' God loves from whole to parts: but 
Must rise from individual to the vih 
Self-love but serves the yirtoom mil 
^8 the small pebble stirs the pe^pefi 

'7Le centre mov'd, aeircle «trait su< 

Another still and still another spreat 

Friend, parent^ neighbor, first it will 

His country next, and next all hunuu 

Wide and more wide, th' o'erflom ings \ 

Take ev^ry creature in, of ev'ry kind; 

Earth smiles aronnd« with boi^Klle90 bo 

An4 Heaveflf beholds its image fan his I 



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Pursue the triumph, and partake the 
When statetmen, heroes, king*, in i 
Whose pons shall bli^h th^ father 

foeff^ 
Phall then this ver$e to ftiture age \ 
Thou wert my guide, philopopber a 
That, urg^d by thee, 1 tnm'd the tn 
^rom $ound9 to things^ from fancy 1 
For wit's false mirror held up nator 
ShewM erring pride, whateter is, 
That Reason, tlasiOE, an»wer oae 
That true Self-love and Social are 1 
q?hat Virtue only makea our bliss I 
And all our Imowledge if, ourbelv 



Tax 

UNIVERSAL PRAYER* 

DEO OPT. MAX, 

^ATHER of All! in ev'ry age, 

In ev'ry clime adored, 
Ij saint, by savage, and by sage, 

Jehovah, Jove, or Lord! 

rhou great First Cause, least understood: 

Who all my sense confined 
Co know but this, that Thou ^rt good, 

And that myself am blind; 

ITet gave me in this dark estate, 

To see the good from ill; 
Ipd binding nature fast in fate, 

Left free the human will. 

* It mqy be proper to observe, that some passages in 
he precfding Essay, faaying been unjustly suspected of 

tendency towards fate and naturalism^be autlior com- 
osed this prayer as the sum of all, to show that bis sys- 
im was founded in free*will and terminated in piety; 
lat the first Cause was as well the Lord and Governor 
f the universe, as the Creator of it; and that, by sub- 
lission to his will (the great principle enforced through- 
ut this essay) was not meant the suffering ourselves to be 
irried along by a blind determination, but the resting 
I a religions acquiescence, and confidence full of hope 
ad immortality. To give all this the greater weight, the 
Det chose for his model the Lord's prayer, which of all 
tbers best deserves the t\Ue wt^\WLX"^\a&\«sw<$w:«»'- 



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For God is paid when n^n recei 
T' enjoy is to obey. 

Yet not to earth's contracted spa 
Thy goodness let me bound, 

Or think Thee Lord alone of ma 
When thousand worlds are rou 

Let not this weak, unknowing hj 
Presume thy bolts to throw, 

And deal damnation round the 1 
On each I judge thy foe. 

|f I am right, thy grace impart^ 
Still in the right (o stay: 

If I am wrong, O teach my heart 
To find that better way. 

Save me alike from foblish pride. 
Or impious discontent, 

At aught thy wisdom has deni'd. 
Or aught thy goodness lent. 



kk M.^ 4^ r^^i w Ai^ 



MESSIAH* 

'his day, be bread and peace my lot: 
All else beneath the sun, 
iTfaou knowst if best bestowM or not. 
And let thy will be dope. 

ITo Thee, whose temple is all space. 
Whose altar, earth, sea, ikkies! 

[Pne chorus let all being raise! 
All nature's incense rise! 



MESSIAH, 

nymphs of Solym^* begin the song: 
'o heavenly themes sublimer strains belong, 
'he mossy fountains and the sylvan shades. 
The dreams of Pindus, and th' Aonian maid; 
3)elight no more.— O thou my voice inspire, 
» Who touched Isaiah's b.allowM lips with firel^ 

Hapt into future times, the bard begun: 

.A virgin shall conceive, a virgin bear a son! 

rFrom Jesse's root behold a branch arise, 

^hose sacred flowV with fragrance fills the sk 
rTh' ethereal spirit o*er its leaves shall move, 
[And on its top descends the mystic Dove. 
[Ye heavens! from high the dewy nectar pour, 
And in soft silence shed the kindly show'r! 
The sick and weak the heal^pg plant shall ai 
^rom storms a shelter, and trom heat a shade 
All crime shall cease, and ancient fraud shall i 
I^etarning justice lift aloft her scale; 
^eace o*er the world her olive wand extend, 
And white rob'd innocence from heaven desci 
^wiftfly the yearsiand rise the expected mo 



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Hark! a glad voice the lonely desei 
Prepare the way* a God, a God ap 
A God! a God! the vocal hills repi 
The rocks proclaim th' apprcachii 
Lo, earth receives him from the bei 
Sink down, ye mountains, and, ye * 
With heads declined, ye cedars ho 
Be smooth, ye rocks, ye rapid flood 
The Saviour comes! by ancient bai 
Hear him, ye deaf, andfall ye btin( 
He from thick films shall purge the 
And on the sightless eye-ball pour 
He the obstructed paths of sound si 
And bid new music charm th* unfo 
The dumb shall sing, the lame his 
And leap exulting like the bound ii 
No sigh, no murmur the wide worl 
From evVy face be wipes off cv*ry ' 
In adamantine chains shall Death I 
And hell's grim tyrant feel the eter 
As the good shepherd tends his fle< 
Seeks freshest pasture, and the put 



UESSIAH. 



m 



Pbe brasen trumpets l^indle rage no more; 
kit useless lances into scythes shall bend, 
Ind the broad falchion in a ploughaliare end. 
[hen palaces shall rise; the joyful Son 
nail finish what his short -livM Sire begun; 
rheir vines a shadow to their race shall yield, 
fod the same band that sow'd, shall reap the 
I field. 

the swain in barren deserts with surprise 
pes lilies spring, and sudden verdure rise; 
kd starts amidst the thirsty wilds to hear 
lew falls of water ainrm'ring in his ear. 
k ritted rocks, the dragon's late abodes, 
ke green reed trembles, and the bulrush nods, 
raste sandy vallies. once perpiexM with thoroy 
[he spiry fir and shapely box adorn: 
[o leafless shrubs the flow'ry palms succeed, 
Ind od'rous myrtle to the noisome weed, 
ihe lambs with wolves Shall graze the verdant 
' mead. 

Ud boys in flow'ry bands the tyger lead; 
steer and Uon at one crib shall meet, 
harmless serpents iir.k the pilgum'^&et^ 
he smiling infant in his hand shall take 
le cresied basilisk and speckled snake, 
(3s*d the green lustre of the scales survey. 
Id with their forky toi|jr3es shall innocently 
play. ^ 

crown'd with light, imperial Salem, rise! 
lit thy tow'ry head, and li{t thy eyes! 
^e a long race thy spacious t^fts adorn; 
future sons, and daughters yet anbom, 
crouding ranks on every side arise, 
imanding life, impatient for the skies! 
p barb'rous nations at thy gates attend, 
fdlk in thy light, and in thy temple bend; 
^ thy bright altars thron^'d with 6roitnte 
kings, "*< * 



^or tvening Cynthia fill her i 
Bui lost, dissolve in thy supe 
One tide of glory, one uncloud 

erflow thy courts: the Liehl 
Reveard, and God's eternal d 

1 he seas shall waste, the skh 
Rocks fall to dust, and mounta 
But fix'd his word, his saving 
Thy realm forever lasts, thy « 

reigns. 



ELEG1 

■"VLTHB MEMOUT et AS HH» 

W" ^Tjeck'niog ghost, aloD, 

^it^!L?yh^f\^'*^p^» to 

Why dimly jleams the visional 



BLCCIT. 



71 



Ambition fir&t sprung from your blest abodes; 
The glorious fault of angels and of gods: 
I'hence to their images on earth it flows, 

, And in the breasts of kings and heroes glows. 
Most souls, 'tis true, but peep out once an age. 
Dull, sullen prisoners in the body's cage: 
Dim lights of life, that burn a length of years 

Useless, unseen, as lamps in sepulchres; 

L:ke eastern kings a lazy state they keep. 

And, close confined to their own palace, sleep. 

From these; perhaps, (ere nature bade her die) 
Fate snatch'd her early to the pitying sky. 
As into air the purer spirits flow. 
And separate from their kindred dregs below; 
So flew the soul to its congenial place, 
Nor left one virtue to redeem her rate. 

But thou, false guardian of a charge too good. 
Thou, mean deserter of thy brother's blood! 
Spc on these ruby lips the trembling breath. 
These cheeks now fading at the blast of death; 
Cold is that breast which warm'd the world before 
And those love-darting ey€s must roll no more. 
Thus, if eternal justice rules the ball, 
Thus shall your wi?c», and thus your children 
fall: 

On all the line a sudden vengeance waits. 
And frequent hearses shall besiege vour gates- 
The passengers shall stand, and pointing sav, 
(While the long funerals blacken all the wav) 
Lo! these were they whose souls the furies steel'dc 
And curs»d with hearts unknowing how to yield. 
Thus ur.lamented pass the proud awav. 
The gaze of fools, and pageant of a day* 
So perish all whose breast ne'er leam'd to glow 
For others good, or melt at others woe. 
What can atone, (oh e\et W^Mt^^ ^>>sia«»i 



By strangers honor'd, and by i 

What though oo friends in sab 

Grieve for an hour, perhaps, t 

And bear about the mockery ol 

ro midfiight dancesi and the p 

^ hat though no weeping lovea 

Nor polish'd marble emulate t 

y^ hat though no sacred earth i 

>or hallo Wd dirge be mutter* 

Vet shall thy gr»vc with rising 

And the green turf lie lightly o 

I here shall the morn her eail« 

J here the 6rst roses of the yeai 

vj'hile angels with their silirer « 

The ground now s&ered by thy 

So peaceful rests without a stoi 
What once had beauty, titles, v 
How lovd, how honor'd once, a 
1 n whom related, or by whom I 
A heap of dust alone remains of 
lis all thott artjr and all the pro 




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