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S S A 

Towards a Pbacticai 

Englilh Grammar, 

Genius and Nature 




Giving likewib 

A Rational and Plain Account of 
GRAMMAR in General, with a fa- 
miliar Explanation of its Terms. 

Sur-Mafter of'St. Paul' s-School 

Extiia ijuid qua^al, fua qui Vtriciul.; 'irpii 


titorj, Noaitsitatt the Lamh^ W»^Vi Katlitv 
" "' ' K^^-- MOCCUU. J 


Richard Me ad A 

Fellow of the College o1 
Phyficians in London, and 
Fellow of the Roya 




YOUR giving mc leave to put the 
Fsr/i Edition of this Effay under 
your Protedion, encourages me 
lay the Fourth there alio : And indeed 
woQld be great Ingratitude as well 
Imprudence in me, to offer to remove it 
from ti>at Shade, onder which it has re- 
ceived both Strength and Security. Ec- 
fides, I could not deny my felf the Plea- 
fure of taking Notice, that as your good 
Senfe, quick Apprehenfion, your ready 
an(f l<did Judgment havt A\ftAi\^v?c*:?^ 


The Dedication. 

you in all the ufeful Parts of polite Learn- 
ing : So your paflionate Love towards it, 
has made you one of its principal Patrons. 
To thefe Qualifications having joined the 
Knowledge of Men and Things, you foon 
found Means of becoming ferviceable to 
Mankind, in that which is of the greateft 
Ufe and Value, the Prcfervation and Re- 
iloration of Health, and have attained to 
that Skill and Knowledge in your Profef-* 
fion, which, as the wife Man has obferv'd, 
{hall lift up the Head of the Phyfician, 
9nd ipake him to be had in Admiration in 
ithe Sight of Great Men. 


/ am. Sir, 


Tour mofi Obliged 

Humble. Serirai 


James G&ebky 




IN E E D Kolf I hopCt mitke any Apology 
for puhlijinng a Grammar of our Mother 
Tongue, fmce il is loo plii!» and evidentt 
bow neceffary a Performanu of this Nc(:m' is., 
and efpecially for tbafe Pcrfcns ivbo t^!k for ite 
moji Partjufi as they have heard tbar Parent;, 
Nurfes, or Teachers, (who likewife may hap. 
pen to be none of the beft Speakers) talk \ 
without ever taking the Matter into any fwtber 
Conjideration : It is indeed pcffiiile that a Tcung 
Gentleman or Lady may be enabled to fpeak 
pretty well upon feme Subje^s, and entertain a 
Vijiter with Difcourfethat may be agreeable enough: 
Tel I do not well fee hew they fhould write any 
Thing with a tolerable CorreSlnefs, unlefs ihiy 
have fame Tafie of Grammar, or exprefs ihim- 
felves clearlyy and deliver their Ibougbts by Let- 
ter or etherwife, fo as not to lay themfehes open 
t» the Cenfure of their Friendst for their blame- 
*hle SpclUn" orfalfeSynxxx.. 

For which Reafon after feveral others^ I bent 
tndtavoured to explain the PtmcvpV:^ (iK ^-s-aicta. 

The P R £ P A C B. 

mar in fticb a perfpicuous and famliar Wof^ 
as may rather incite^ than difcourage the Curio^ 
fity of fucb Kjubo would have a clear Notion of 
what they fpeak or write. And herein I bavi 
bad a Regard to three Things : In the firft Place 
/ was defirous to do what in me lay^ to excite 
Perfotis to the Study of their Mother Tongue* 
Secondly, To give fucb a plain and rational 
Account of Grammar, as might render it eaff 
and delightful to our Engli(h Touth^ who have 
for a long lime ejieemed the Study of this ufci- 
ful Art very irkfomCy ohfcure and difficult : And 
this their wrcng and bard Notion feems to have 
proceeded^ partly from the unpleafing and difad- 
vantageous Manner it has been delivered to them 
in^ and partly through the Want of having every 
Thing eicplained and cleared up to their Under^ 
Jtanding as they go along: Not to mention the 
Teaching them Grammar in Latin, before they 
have learned any thing of it in Englifh. 
And every Beefy niuji readtff grant that the Way 
to come to a true and clear Knowledge of any 
Art J is to explain Things unknown, by Things 
' that are known. Af^d I dare be bold to fpy^ 
that if the Grammar of our own Tongue was 
firfl Taught in our Schools^ our Touth would in 
a far lefs Time, than they now commonly doj 
attain to an Underftanding of the Latin Tongue^ 
and alfo be better prepared for the Study of Things. ^ 
My third yf/'/w that I had in the writing this 
Treatife was, to oblige the Fair Sex, whofe Edu- 
cation, perhaps^ is too much negleSled in, this 


*• -. 

Parlicular: But I Jball give you my Thou^M 
of ibis Matter^ by tranfcribing perl of a Let- - 
ter which I wrote fame Time agt to the Inge- 
nious Author of the Tatler upon ibis Head. 

*' But among all the various Subjedts, 

" of which you have fo excellently treared, 
*' there is none that is of that Importance 
** to the Publick, as the Education of Chil- 
■" dren : For what can be a greater or more 
** noble Defign than the Building up of a 
" Man ? Or rather of making Mankind 
*• more happy? This, Sir, is what you are 
** going To do, fince by the Imptovemenc 
*■• of the Female Sex, you will of courfe add 
" to the Happinefs, Pleafure, and Advantage 
** of the Aftf/f. And I have often with con- 
** cern refleSed on the Negligence, ndt to 
** fay Ingratitude of our Sex, who feem fo 
•* generally carclefs in Cultivating and Adorn- 
'* ing the Minds of thofc Beautiful Crea- 
** tures, that are the Delight and Ornament 
•* of Mankind. Nay, what can be greater 
■" Injuftice than for a Father to find Fault 
** with the Weaknefs and Ignorance of Wo- 
•' men, and yet negloft to cure the Weak- 
*' ncfs, or inftruft the Ignorance of his own 
*' Daughter. There can be no jull Excufc 
*' made for fo great a Piece of Ncglc(5t in 
** the Education of the fair Sex: And all 
•' that can be faid is, that it is the Cuftom, 
" and we know not what Meafures to take 
*' to put Tilings upon a better Foot • But 
A 4 '* 'Jeia. 

The Preface. 

" this, Sir, is what we kopc and cxpc^ 
" from you, 6?^." / have therefore endeavour^ 
cd to render every Thing eafy and familiar to them^ 
by explaining every fPbrd thai might hinder their 
learning thefe Matters with Tleafure. 

I have in this Book taken in every Thing that 
was material from Dr. Wallis, but he writ- 
i^S f^^ Foreigners^ and in Latin, / have not pur^ 
fued his Methods as not being every where an- 
Jwerable to my Dejign. 

I pretend not to call this a Compleat Gram- 
mar, no fuch Thing being to be expelled from 
any -^ne Perfon^ but an "E^s a y, in which I 
haiej to the bejl of n^ Abilities^ confulted thi 
Genius of our Language. 

I mujl here confefs^ that I have been very 
much obliged in the following Papers to Bifhop 
WiLKiNsV Real Charadker, Br. Wallis, 
Dr. HicKEs'j Saxon Gi^^mmar; and I muft 
alfo take notice^ that in two or three Places I 
have made ufe of Mr. Lock'j ExpreJ/ionSy be- 
caufe I liked them better than my own. 

As I am very much obliged to feveral Emi^ 
nent and Learned Gentlemen^ who have honoured 
this Work with their Approbation : So I am in 
a particular Manner to return Thanks to the 
Reverend and Learned Dr. Samuel Clark, 
ReElor of St. James'j, who did me the Honour 
to. make CorreSions to the whole Work: As aU 
fo to the Reverend and Learned Dr. Daniel 
Waterland, who has done me the like Ho- 
nour: My Thanks are due likewife to my Learned 



The Preface. 
Friend Mr. John Dennis, for his EJfay to- 
wards an Englilh Prosody: I fijould be un- 
juft to Mr. Andrew Read, and Mr. 
Jones, if I did not own the Favour of the 
judicious Remarks, they were pleafed to tommU' 

The Places marked with an AJlerifm or Star^ 
are what are tnojt necejfary to be learned at the 
Jirjt going ever : But what is to be learned, 
and what pajfed by^ the difcretion of the Teacher 
will befi determine. 

Tf arty Gentleman will be pleafed to make a^rf 
r Amendments «r Additions to This-, they fhall be 
gratefully acknowledged and inferted in their pro- 
per Placey by 

His humble Servuit, 

Fart of a Letter from Mr. A Np r b w 
R o 8 s, Profeflbr of Humanity in the 
Univerfity of G l A s G o w, to the An* 

I had the Benefit of rea£ng yowr Grammar, 
Jon after it was fublifbeii 1 was^ and fiill 
amy mightily f leafed with it. I put it in the 
Hands of all ny oebolarsj as foon as I emld get 
Copies enough to this Place % and now^ feveral 
Months fince^ I coiddgive my Probacum eft /^ 
the great Ufe of both the Nlattcr and Method. 
/ have occqfioned fome young Perfons of Quali- 
ty and Diftindion in thf Country to begin the 
firft Elements ofGranmar Learning with it^ and 
have partly feen^ and partly been advifed by Let- 
ters fram their Tutors, that they have reaped 
great Advantages from it. Tour Familiar Que- 
ftions upon each Chapter^ which I think are con- 
ieived with much Difcretion^ are of great Ufe^ 
efpecially to the younger Scholars. 1 think your 
Vocabulary anfwers the End of it extremely 
welly there can fcarce be more of Nature and 
Things contained info little Room^ nor that more 
methodically rangedy &c. 

A Cha* 


A Charafler of this Grammar given 
by the Reverend Mr. Isaac Wats, 
in his Book, Intituled, The Art of 
BeaJitig and Writing Englifli. 

Thofe who have a Mini to ivform themfetves 
acre psrfeilty cf the Gmms and Compafuton of 
cur Language, either in the Original Derivatisu 
sf it, or in the prefent life ana PraElicf^ mufi 
tor^uU fuch treatifes as are written en Purpofe ; 
amongft which, I know none equal to that Eflay 
towards a Pradical EnglUh Grammar, compo- 
fed by Mr. James Greenwood; wherein 
be has Jhewn the deep Knowledge, without the 
haughty /iirs of « Critick : /hd he is preparit^ 
4 itew Edition with great Improvements, by the 
friettdh^ CetmRimcations of the Learned Wtrld. 
fVhen that ingenious ^-iathor has finipied the Work 
he defigns, if he would deny himfelf fe far, as 
to pubiyb a fhert Ablb-ad »/;*« thiec firft Parts 
of ily in two or three Sheets, merely for the In- 
firutUon of common Englifli Readers ; / tmf will 
affured it wetdd give them an eafier and hell«r 
Acquaintance with the Nature of Grammw, atki 
the Genius of their Native Tongue, than mq 
TreaJife that has ever yet come within tuy Nelict. 


A 6 ?^v- 

Part of a. Letter from the late Learned 
Dr.TH[icKE3 to the Author. 

Sir J I now give you very hearty j though very 
late Thanks^ for your elaborate Ejfay towards a 
PraSlical Englifh Grammar, which I read with 
great Pleafure \ having had thoughts for many 
Tears to make an Englifh Grammar, for which 
you will imagine 1 was in fome Meafure quail- 
Jied^ by my Knowledge of the ancient Saxon and 
Dano-Sax-Englifli, as well as inclined to fuch a 
mrk, &c. 

Part of a Letter from the late Learned 
John Chamberlayne, Efq; Au- 
thor of the Prefent Stote.of Greats 
Britain to the Author. 

A Minijler of the Swcdifli Church having con^ 
Jtdted me about drawing up an Englifti Qfi^xci'- 
mzx for the Ufe of his Countrymen, I referred him 
to yours^ as a noble Superftrufture, or a furc 
Foundation. 5/r, / have long had Thoughts of 
aiten^tingj what you have now done fo well-, but 
9ne Jitvocatien or other has always hindred me^ 


C I ) 

Dr. TTA L L 1 Sh' 


With Additions. 
IVt Additions have this Mark betorc them (*'), 

SINCE it »j cujiomary ti> «ddrtfi ihi Rcaitr at iht 
Bc^ttmng cf a Work ; I thixk, I gugbt el/ii to fat 
fimtlbing hy If ay ef Prtfaci, as -wtU ta Jliiu lit 
Rca/sitt ^vby J unJirlaok ibii H'sri, anil -wlat 1 
iavi done in it, at ta give an Account af the Rift and 
Pngrf' o/'/Af Engl iQi Ton gee. 

The Englifli Tongue, ivbich ici arc la treat of, and 
vihicb is no^ fpoken, not erily i» England, 
but in Scotland, it »o/ that ancint Brililh The Englifli 
Tongue ivbicb thi firft Britains formerly Tongue, 
ufid\ mr indcid any Bravcb of it, but a 
fuili difftrmt em, brmight bithir by Strangfrt fmmforti^ 

Thirt tuat f^aken amrmg as formerly a 
very emeiint Language fall of Siauty and The old Brl- 
Eltgancy l common to as luitb the Neigb- tifll Tongue. 
tauring htbabitanls ef ■ Gaul, far lube- 
ikcrlbit Ifland 'was jirmerly jaiv'd to Gaul iy an lllhmu*, 
or 'whtthiT it bas ahuays bciadifjuinedbj ^he Hea, and bad 
\o Commerce loilh it hat on the Score of fia^hbeurhood, or 


Caui, we aic w UQiwft.aRi a.w;«»^ ?»«i^'* 

a The Preface* 

nubiiherijoe recri'ved our Jirfi Inbahitants from them^ or thy ' 
fivmms^ or from thi Pbceniciansy «r Trojans, «r elftwhert ; 
yj&f / 1/ certain^ thai both Nations had formerly the Jame 
language and the f ami Cufioms: Jnd truly ^ in my Opinion, 
the Calli and Will}, that is^ the Inhabitants o/hnmct and 
Wales, haifH one common Denomination ; for the Change of 
the Letters G or Gu, and W // miry common^ and Wal]ia> 
^bieb njL'i tall Wale^^ is in the French Language Gales ; and 
in the GtfEMm Tongue the Giuls, or French, ^re cmllid 
WdOien. b is getmratfy agreed upon^ tkatthi Psapie which 
env cal/edWalUf or Wsdlones, are the Gauls or French; 
namely^ the InhabitaMs ofhtXXM , ani, the Farts adjacent ; 
as alfo thcfe ^Loskhardy \ptiAich lies bttveten the Alps and 
the Ri'ver Rabicon) calledG^Xiik Cifalpina ; iiWGarcoigne^ 
is likenvife calledWzfcomti. So the French JVords guerre, g^- 
ytnt, gard,*g»n!ien, ganiercsbe, gnHe» goik;, gage, guicbet, 
guimblct, guerdon, Guillaume, gagner, gater, guetcer, l^c. 
Jigmfy the fame with thefe EnglUh Words^ War, warraaf, 
ivard, warden, wardrobe, wife, wile, wager, wicket, wim- 
ble, reward, William, to win, to wafte. to wai^ C^r. S^ 
niuhat are called in Latin Juglands, in fomt Parts of Eng- 
land, nue call French Nuts, in other Farts, they are in thi 
fame Senfe called WsLi\'liui8y that /> Walfii-Nuts. So thi 
Galatians, or Gallo Graecians are faid to hante tarried a- 
^way their Language with them out of QzvXf and according 
to tstrabo, fpcke two Languages, their cnstn and the Greek t 
Jnd^ perhaps, after the fame manmr, Galloway in Scot- 
land haditsNatm^ 

But this old Languagr, fpoken in com" 
It hath great mon by the Gauls and Britains, was befort 
Affinity with aty thing recorded in Uijhry ; fo that wg 
the Eaftem cannot trace the Original of the Tongue and 
Languages, F^ople, but by Qmje^ures, or by Hiforians, 

upcn whfe Credit we may not entirely de- 
fend ; and perhaps this, as the other Mother Tongues, had 
its Rife at the Confufim ©/* Babel : For it fill has a great 
Jff.nity with thi Eaflern Languages, as it appears not onhj 
in the Derivation cf Words, as John Davies has remarked it. 
'-Sis Welch SriHtmrry, and Sannrel' fiochart in his Gcogni- 
phia Sacra, or Sacred Geography, who thinks that the 'ver 
Name 0/ 'Britain, is dtri^^'cdfrom the Arabick or Punic 


The P R E F A e 1. 

tampuge ; nemely thai B^TJioiKn BrelUnilce : 
from Barat a.nK,\i,tuk'uhfi^tfiti lit Lamfo/TitmiiJheid, 
anJ ibal tht Briii^ JJla wtrt calicd iy tbt Greek) Calliu- 
ridei, a Ward of thi Jam* Signifitatkn tvilb Brelannike: 
£■/ liiewift in Syntax, •mbitb is ptrfsrmd by Prcfixci 
and AiExtt, end lie 'Vnriaus Pemulalioit af tin Stan, at 
appters frtm ibe Grammars af the Wellh Language, fuhUJh- 
td in Latin ijr John Davit aWJolin David Rice: Ftr 
HI the Hebrew* ha-ut m State Ablblute, atda &tMe «/'Ar- 
gimen ; frthe Wekh io-w, as thty txfrifi it, a Primarj', 
Sofi, a Vv\iA and Afpirate State, actardingtt thtVa- 
rUty sf CtnJItuSinn to lubich I /hal! add, thul the jan- 
ing to Ptrfons Nemei iht Nanui of tbtir Falbiri, Gretidi- 
felben, and ptrhafs elbirs e/ ihtir Avtifiors, tval a Cu/itM 
if the E*lterB i^atiens ; fur Exaafli. Jobo D«vid Rice, er 
tofptak in tbelr own IhalcH, Sion ap Dafyd ap Rhys, /* 
tbc/ami at Joha tbi Sen «/ David lf>t Son e/'Rice : /tad 
ibe' novi a-dajs thiy have ibt Names of tbetr FanuUtl after 
ttimontur o/zi* Eoglifll, j« tf-ey are /cr thi moft Part 
KtiT Patrerfaitij ; jar ihi Hamts Price, Powel, Bowel, 
BowcD, Pugh, Parry, Pecivi PricWd, Probert, Proger, 
iSt. art no saert than Ap Rhyi, Ap Howel, Ap Owen, 
Ap Hugh, Ap Harry, Ap Henry, Ap Richard, Ap Ro- 
bert, Ap Roger, Is'c. ^<i Jooes, Jenkins, Q!ivyz%, ore 
nuir Paironymitis, Gryffiih. Worgan, Howel, Teudor, 
LIuellm. Lioyd, tfc. are the NanKs cf dncrfiori ; tba' the 
Wsrd Ap. that it, Mab « Son, bt lift e^t ; andfo -wt e,rt 
H judge of mefi tftkirtlber Names. But 'we mu^ not dif. 
rotrfi fttiargtly if thtfe Mttlttrii tbafe that ixoald he far- 
ther informed, I refr la ihe firhifh Uijtorj o/Tooticus Vi- 
ninmui, axdia tkt hinerary toid Dtfcrtftian tf Wale*, vnit- 
Itn by Giraldat Catnkreolts i and ta Mr. David PawcIV ^ 
Iditiit j^ittatitits la both ihafc Anthari : Tbty mat Hifwiji 
ftufuh itvo PhiloU^i'cai frtatijii if Mr. John Daviw, «« 
^vibiti IS tit tbt Bt^mtiiig af bit DtSiiKsry, the at bar 
in bis iiramnar : and two UitTrtttlfri pnbl^d hy M>S 
John David Rhdiis, or Rice, andprrfxid to his Grammer i 
•ne sfthim bii. and twH in Welch, the olbtr vvril in La. 
tin ij Mr. Uumplirey Pritchard i lbs Description of Bxi- | 
"^~ f Mr. Humphrey Lloyd ; Cambdcn's BritMiiia. and 
^■» Sacred G«^«bIv^ . V?**^- *■• 1- "*"*" "V** S^ • "^^ 

4 The Preface. 

And hefJes thtfe^ Biihop UfherV Antiquities of Brittift, 
VerfteganV Antiquities in Englilh ; H. LloydV Chrono- 
logical Hiftory of Wales, fuhlijhed in Englifh hy David 
Powel; BrerewoodV Enquiries M Englifh ; and other Books 
pftbt liki SubjeSf nuberi nwf hi found many Monuments 
pf uncommon Learning i and although fonu Fables may be 
mixed asntmg the moft andent fVritings^ as is common in the 
Accmmts of a wery old Date^ yet without doubt, there it 
likewife « great deal of Truth to be met nvith. 

But the andent Language of both Nati' 
How this old ons is now almofi every where loft. As to 
Language Gaul or France, af^er the Romans hadfub^ 

came to be diud it^ they endea'vottr^d to introduce their 
difufed in own Language^ and therefore puhlijhed all 

Gauly and of their Edi&Sy and other Writings in Latin ; 
the Original fo that the old Cantabrian or Bifcain Lan^ 
of the mo- fftt^gf i" Spain, and that old one ufed in 

dem Trench France, hy Degrees grenjo obfolete^ and came 
Tongue. under the fame SubjeSion *with the PeopUf 

and in its Room fucceeded a broken kind of 
Latin, and this was called Komznce, or Romanlhe, the Ro- 
man Tongue; but nemerthelefs it ftill retedntd fome Words 
of the old Language. *' The Spaniards call to this Day ^ fuck 
•* Ferfes as they make in their Language^ hy the Name of 
" Romances ; and fo did the French alfo^ as may appear by 
•« the Title of the Poefyj written in French by John Clo- 
*' pinel, alias Meung, called Le Romant de la Rofe ; and 
** afterwards tranjlated into Englifh by Geffery Chaucer, 
<* with the Title ^The Romant of the Rofe. And hence 
** comes our ^<7r</ Romances. 

But when the Franks, or Franconians, a People of G^- 
many, were led by Pharamond into Gaul, or France, they 
brought njoith them their own Language ^ ivhich nvas of the 
fame Original nvith the German, and our Englifh, and not 
'very much different from bothy ivhich continued among them 
fkrfome time, and was called Lingua Franca, the Frank, 
or French Tonguoj till the Gauls or Franks becoming one 
PeopUf the Franks learned that broken or corrupt kind of 
Latin which prenjaiPd among the Gauls, mingling^ without 
doubt f many Words of their own with it ; yet they prefemi'd 
their old SymsiXf whi^ is indeed the famt with the 'ftxxtO' 

The pREFACB. 5 

nick, iut as diffcrtnt from the Roman, ai it is/rem iht 
nld Giulidi ; yS thai •aii cannst Ji/^pfi ital ibii Syntax ixat 
Mitbcr ritci'vcii by lit Romins, f Iranfmilled t» ui hy tie 
enrimi Gauls ; and ixe maj nff.rm the fame l/iing cftht I- 
uliaiiaRifSpaiiilh5)'nrax,/^'afJ:&f Lombards, Goths end 
Vandals, brought tl tkilhir tiut of Germany. And hence 
the Modern French bud in Orighial, •u^hUhpli i/rfi in 
Name. « ibt Piopli thmfihei do from the Franfci. & 
that tbi ancient Gaulilkiang-ii/'^e u elmejt mtirtly iefl'^im 
France, rrmaining anly^meng thi Inhabitanti ef Bretagne, 
•' •aiha tuere a Cahnyfrsm aur Britains efthii IJland. 

" AndbecauUtbrfirtfBid eld and true French, ica/ Jn 
" a mannrr a/I pne-uutbaura^cieBtEapiOxi I'wi/l, lofa- 
" tiijy the carieui Readtr, gi-vt him here ts lafit thereof 
» inthefefe^ nfuing Vtrfa, 'uibith ere tahn out ^f Otfii- 
•* da»V Preface la the four Gcfprh, trenjlattd by him abeuS 
" fiiurhinidred Years ago, out f/LtVta into French Rhime. 


Nil wil ih fcriban unfer hcill. 0/</ French 

Voruj ^ill I 

•write Mr Heailb. 



Of the GoJ^l. 

the Deal, 
the Part. 

So ift DU 



So iliino'w 



In Frenkifga 


h, the French 


*' Hereby it may affeitr, to fuch at ere any tvbil 
' quainted luiih our old EngliQi Tongue, lubal great near- 
• nefi tuas ieftveen thai and this ancient French ; hoiv- 
' beit the Author beiHg a Scbalar, hath fr amid t-wo of thift 
' hit Wards from the Latin, luhieh indeed do not prepirly 
' belong ta his o^n Language, tbmt ii Scrtban ii«</ Evange- 
' liono. A Learned Genlleman is efOpinisn, that Verlte- 

■ gan has a Hull too baftHy faid fo, beceitfe the Gotbiclc 

■ VtrfioH has Etangelion cenftanlly, ivhlth ii iusyyi>,nii 
' txailly i and as to Scriban. it it nt Latin U'ord, but ii 

■ diriwdfiom (rxii'>j,f.( PeaicilUs. 



6 The P R 1 r A c E. 

How the Bri- fbe Britifh Trntpu had iht fame laH «- 
tijb Toneue mmtg 9urfihits\ Jwr thf^ it rtmmn^d un- 
camc to beSif- cvrmfitd HU tht Times cf the Romans, yet 
ofed in Emg' %vifem Jvliai Caefiu*, amd ethers after hint^ 
Used. Jbmd extetsded the Roman Esupire, as /or as 

Britlin, a/the* em the Jceetemt ef its great 
Diftanctfretn Rome* and the f mall Refert 0/* Romans bithir^ 
amr ewn Language Juffered Ufs Alteratiem than that among 
the Gauls^ Spanurds, eutd Lombards, mjbo nvere a more 
tt^ghhoaritig People te Rome, yet the Language in Britain 
receipted many Latin Words, «whichfiill remain, but fo tranf" 
fomCd hy the links emd Syntax of the firitiih Tongue, that 
the Change is not n/ery great ; and there is ne doubt but 
that the Romans on the other hand, carfiedbatk nvith them 
many Britifli Words, nvhether it nvere out ff/" Britain or G<iul, 
of which njtiefee a good Numher colleSod by Camden, 60- 
chaity and other Writers, But after*wards nvhen the An- 
glo-Saxons, or Enzlifh Saxons, a People of Germany, (if 
tue many enlarge the Bounds ^Germany, as feme do^ Jo as 
to comprehend l>enmark and Norway) came into Britain a- 
hout the fame time that the Franks entered into Gaul, and 
after long Wars, had gained the Kingdom } they dro^e out 
the Britain s, together moith their Language, nvho nenjerthe* 
lefsftill inhabit the mount edmous Parts 0/ Cambria, or Wales, 
and are called 'WfXcki, and do yet keep their Language, as 
do feme Cornubians, in the extream Part ^Comubia, or 
Cornwall, and call it Lincua Comubica, the Cornifh 
Tongue: So liJtewife the Pte/Xt 0^ Ireland [to which Place 
J cant find that the Romans or Saxons ever cami) as aifo 
the Ifianders and Highlanders of Scotland, {^hofe Lan^ 
gnage differs 'very IsttJe from that of the Irtfh) have a Law 
guage nnry near a-kin to the Welch, and njchich, perhaps ^ 
*was formerly the very fame, tho* nova it is more different 
from the Welch, than either the Cornifh Language^ or that 
ef Brecagne m France, butfcarcely mere different than the 
fuedem German is from the Engliih. But Scaliger in his 
Book De Linguts Europe, of th Languages ofEtxTopt, and 
nthers that follow him, particularly Mefula in his Cofmo- 
f;raphy, reckoned that the Irilh *was a diJlixSi Original 
Language, and that it had no Affinity with the Britifh, 
9^hich is a plain Mifiake, as has been formerly ohfervd by 



The Preface. 7 

Csmdeit, <nrf iht Tbiig vieii no Free/. But ^hdhH it 
bat any iUlalieti to iht Liogua Caatabrica, or Bifcaian 
Tongue sf Spain, J aa tdtBgethtr igmrant, arilber hin/r i 
Uifur* mnv ta leakt a partieular Enfuirj, and I rslixr in- 
tline ta tbi ceati-nrji Opiaien : ttt Uafi ia ttn/t ft^fitd- 
»ajt of the Csnt«bnan er fiifcaiaii ia Merula, / can finino 
Maris or Sigai af ihi WdlK Tm^af, 'the' it is pojfibti that 
tht Iriih da retain fame Lantabrian Wards, if they art dt- 
/crndid, as many hiVws.'e, from tht Iberi er Spxniarili ( mi 
is ctriain, thai the HitKrai, er Irift, hai,t mat^ Wtrds 
that are net d;^ Britiih Original, but niibntce thij bad them 
1 eanwt tell. But tbe Word Cambria Wales, /ia' ia 
Sound it bt liie Cantabria Bifcay, yit ferhaps it bat a 
greater Affinity ■with /*;■ Cimbri or Cimmeri, {a People of 
I Cimbrica Cherfonefus, er Jutland, and Mr. Csmden has 

" ^le^u that tbe Gauls Ttfre atuitnily called Cimbri <ir 
Ciinmeri) then -with the Caniabri \lhc Pevfle of Bifcay 
in Spain ;) far a Welchoian is called in his own Lan- 
goagti Cymro er Cumro, /ind it is believ'd that bt de- 
' ri-vis that Naat from Gomer, ivbo, arcording ta Scripture, 
Vas JaphetV tUefl Son, and tbe Grand/ha of Noah. 
** Jn^ ebis Goattr vagbt to be laeitd oh ai ibefitfi and trut 
" Itttbir of the Gauls, iominoniy ealitd Gaiatiofls by tie 
*' Greekt. and the firji Nasne ibut they li'tnt by, lubtll yet 
■** in Upper Afia. voai that af Gotnatites er Gomariani ; 
" after tvbich thrjh^ that af^Kae, er ljaq«e«, omJ un- 
" dtr tbtit brciitu tutryfataam in tit* Camlriei of Mai^i- 
** anaoa^ Baflrbna \ju.-hicb imrt in Perfi> Blortb^-ard t« 
" the Cajpan Sea, oWMomur Tauitis.) Bat iepi/mg in 
" i^tir Ages tnuUipUfd apace, e»d in f^vtrai iiturfioia 
" made rbe«febu>s Mafitrs of Leffw Afia, ThraM, the .Ve 
" •/CtTte. and all Greece, ti^y itfeSei the Name ofTi- 
•* tang, «>• tie Children of die Earth ; and it •aias tutdrr 
•■ this Name, fi maeh ultbratid by the anmnt Ports mnt 
" HiJftriuBS, lint they perjarm'd fiuh mighty Tbingi,' ieli 
** »• part of Aiia, and ail e^tr Europe, for tbe Spaet ef 
'■ aboi-t three huadnd Tears. Biftdes im find tbttt finit 
" »f tbif People, hailing fefarattd from the refi, lubo eei- 
•• linard in Upper Afi*, and Ifinid M tlie NirihcrH Parts, 
*' aba-ue the l^uxine Sia, and far heysnd ibe Danube, ^iiir* 

I >■ tfl/Arf' Cuabri. er Cunhfians. that ."^ M.«v« "a^ "W w -, 

I. .■ ■ jvy^q^i 

8 The P R E F A C 2. 

' and thefi nvere they <wbich the Greek Poeis called Cim- 

' merians ; after luhicb this ^warlike People took the Name 

* ^Celtae, nuben they fettled in the Provinces of Europe. 

* And laftly^ they had the Name of Gauls, af^cr they bad 

* thoroughly fixed tbemjel'ves in thofe rich Countries ^ fituated 

* hetioeen the Ocean and the Rhine, and bettueen the Alp» 

* and the Pyrenees; but the t*ivo Nam's, Celtae ^ir^GauU, 
*_Jignify Potent and Valiant Men. Af. Pcxron, 

"* But *what *we ha*ve faid of the Gauls, that after the 
Arrif-jal of the Franks, they in Time reconj. red thtir otx'» 
Language^ tho" called hy another Name^ (I dsnt mean tbt ir 
primitinje Language^ but iA*bat fucceedcd it) hy Reafiin of 
their becoming one People together nx;ith the Franks ; this 
eould not happen in England, for the Britains, tho" they en^ 
dured a thoufand Calamities^ yet being njery zealous for 
their Religion, nvhich nx^as Chriftianity, at.d the Rites and 
Cuftoms of their Country luculd ne*v£r admit of fuch m. 
Commerce or Union 'with the Saxons, nxibo at that Time 
•were Heathens, but bore a deadly Hatred towards them for 
many ^eSf nvbich is fear ce yet laid afide. 

Noma the Saxonst as has been obfer^^et^ 
7%r Anglo-Sax- having made themfelves Mafters ef tt§ 
on, or Bngliih Ancient Seats of the Bsitzia^, named thegt 
Saxon Tongue. Part of Britain lahicb they had conquered 

England ; and the Tongue which they 
brought wth them Englifh ; nvbich ive now commonly cetB 
Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon, to elifiiiiguijb it from our modem 
or prefent Englifh. But the Anglo-Saxon, as likewife the 
Frank or French Tongue, the prefent German Dutch, 
Swedifh and Pruffian Tongues, are Branches of the old 
Teutonic. The Anglo-Saxon Tongue remained bere^ in 
a manner, pure and unmixed^ till the Time of the Nor- 
mans ; only it recei*ved fame Welch Words, as the Welch 
did likewtfe fame of theirs ; for altbo" the Danes, in the 
mean Tim^^ came into England, yet the Tongue fuffered no 
eonfiderable Change, the Daniih Tongue being ahnofi the 
fame, or nfery near a'kin to it. 

But when William Duke of Nor- 

How far the Nor* mandy, called the Conqueror, brought 

nans changed the o<ver his Normans hither, halving, got 

^,ngli/h Tongue. Pojfejfion of England, be attempted an 


The P R E p A c B, 

Alteraliiin ef she Language, eMjea^etiriiig ta inlroduee ibt 
French 1 caguf ; lL:t being ih^ Laniaage iL'iicb he him- 
ftlf ufid in Normandy ; Jar thd lie Normana, er Norih- 
matis, ifiiiA tbty -uiirt a nf Norway, ai farmirly 
iLj liim, /pake iht fame Ta^gui ivnh ihc Saxons wbe 
hud hem ibtir Niigiinrs, aamelj, tbal ivbiih injcii then 
fpaitn kj ihi Saxons in England i but after the Normans 
tarn! iale Neuftria {lui/Vi loai hng of ttr celled Norma* 
dy) tbry tbang:d their Nati-vf Language far tie French, 
lubieli -wat made up of the Romans, er Franco Gallick ; 
and this •was the Language •labich the Ccnqiurer bad a 
Mind Jhouldbe fettledin England -with himfdj, •where/art 
be tcei lu /mall Care la ba'vi oil Diplomi'i, publici EdiSi, 
and Btbtr judidal Matters, <writlcn and per/armed in tht 
NeuRrian, sr French Tcngue. But bit Attempts proved wf 
fuece/sful, bicau/e the Number ef the Normans that eatni 
iilbir 1USS -vtr) /mall, in Comfarifon of the Eogliflj lailb 
i^ham ihej tiiere emht£td or mixed ; inhirefore the Nor- 
mans hfi ar fcrgat their a-wn Language, fianer than they 
ttuld make any Change in the Engliih. But iha' /er ihis 
Jtffin the eld Englifh Tengur kept its Grcund, yeHhis Dif 
advantage ara/e /ram ihe/e Endea^mrs af the Canjaerar, 
I ibsil many French Wards, ib^ far the msji part ef Latin 
Original, crept inta the Englilh, and many Englifll Ward) 
ly Dtgreei gre-ui aat a/ V/i. Far as la the Diri'vatian of 
fmu It'ard', ijje may thus judge ; that the H'erds ivbicb 
tht French ha-tie, that are af German Original, brought 
thither by the Franks, allha' they may nmis chance ta be 
cammtn le us, inith the French, yet isse are to reckon thtm a- 
riginally our atun, ralbtr than homviedfrem them : Sa liie- 
•uiife ai la the old Gaulilh if'ards lubicb they retain, nno 
temmen to them with the Welch, and •which ive lUituif* 
have ktpt from the old Brtt\Q\ Language, tise are la ibini, 
that -iM received them fram the Welch, rather than from 
the French. 

And 1 am af Opinion, that a tolerable Rcafin may be 
given vihy the Names ef thii/e living Creatures, are origi- 
nally German, tvha/e Flejh, iishen prepared /or Food, vjt 
tall by Ffenth Names ; as /or InJIance, an Ox, a Cow. » 
Calf, a Sheen, a Hog, » Boar, a Deer, fe'f. are German 
Namii; htStii, V«l, MuUOn, Pgit, ^Xi-^^i, ^ 'itiSsm.* 

The P R E f 

Ve. Oft French : 7ht Rrafin ihtfi, I tah la br, u ttnt 
' Htf Norman Solifiiri JU nut J» mtieb cumem ihcmfrhiet 
• vAlk FuJJMrts, Parh, Pfnl, and a/hir Placet, •wttre thofi 
I CtNitarri •wtrt ioeifii afier ami tfft, ichich ihtrtfon trt- 
ftrv'd iMr antifHl Nbhks ; *w vMlb Markctj, Kitlblml, 
FejiJIi and Eitltrlaimiitnti, tubirr the Faed ivar tilber frt- 
far'doffaU, luheati it ricfi'B'd ima Names. 

■ But /rim that Time a i^ft Medley affareign Wardi has 
hftn trcifo'd inta tnr Language -, nai fiat the Englilh is of 
it ftlfpB» and barm, but ii Juffieientlj etrieh'd •with Wards 
md Ehtanats \ Md, if I tnoy ft j^eak, is rapisai to an Ew- 
eajt, liar is ibert eiiet iPard, ivhith it eaniiat famifi trs toifB 
cut efitt eian Store, W erfrr/s «ir me;? rejln'd Omeeptitws, 
in ei^gnifitena avdfuU Mamur. 7be Petmt efaar CauMre- 
mait Spencer are a fafcient Pfoafaftbis, toba/e Exfre^hit 
ii neat and elegtmt, eaftaBi end full »f Varittj, yet pure and 
ieautiful, ii-ilbaut the Hsip of eatlaxdijh Omnmsnts. Bet 
inwever. fame Mixture eauld bardfy bt avtided, tarclidersitp 
mr Cemmirtt tvitb Stratrgn-s, and the fre^tunt Merriarrf 
tf eur Piinees ivilh Farcignrri, ta •which itr may add, that 
exeepn/t t*fi ef Nivtlty, 'uibicb, at leafi in this' latter J^e, 
basjluxg maiet ivitb an Itch afinnging in brjand-Sia Wardt 
tuilbnit any tmmner ef NeiiJJstf. Same Peepie being afO- 
piniin, that imlhing can be •tcrll or elegantb/ exprtffed, that 
carries rtat ixilb it an urlMnmna Saitnd, ar a French jtir. 
" ifbtreasauT Aheefars mlJllM nalhing msre in King Ed- 
" ward the ConfefTor, thun ibat he •uiat Frenchified ; and 
" ateautttid the Drfire ef a ftrcign Language then to be a 
" farttaken of the bringing in affareigv Pawers, tuhicb in- 
" drtd happened. And as Mr. Cawden ebfir-vei, far the 
" thneur ef BUT Nati-ce 1 angue, Henry 7\Vz. KWen, Earl ef 
" Arondet, in bis Trai-eli ta rulj, and ibe Lard Vf\\\htit 
" Howard »/" Effingham, in his Getitrnment afC^Kc. at- 
" itit ihey inert nut igitareat of firiign Tvnguti, •v.-aald 6M- 
" fiaer no Strangers in ll'riling, but in Englith. And Clr- 
" dinal Wolfey. in bis Enhaffj inta France, eemmnndcd till 

- his Sir^uantt tt uft na French, bvt jneer Englifh ta the 
" French (o c// their Cen-vtrfatien iL-itb them : Avi if ihh 

- glad Cufiam ef freaking no atber Tangue bat the English. 

- did but once preniaH at etir Court, rise Englith Tenpee 
f iMseid he t/torrfiatStJ at Hpne, end -valittd Aervad. Bat 

The Preface. h 

'• m l» lur Jaily barra'wiag a/mnil/met ifWorit, I taniiH 
" think ear Languag* is btllir'ii by it ; efftHalfy ifiiie eanji~ 
•■ Jtr'wbat a peat Number »f mbh, full and •wtH fianding 
* ' Woiii, thai luire tf our tnnti grmuti, •we hamt, like un- 
" aaiurcl FaraiUt;tpas'dandturndouti}fDmrt\ a liji af 
" ivhiib 1 may fiiiu limi or itber prtfent tbt Warld •Kilb. 
" And Mr. DrydcB, ra ike Dedication of hit Juvenal to tny 
•• UrJ Dorrtt hnt thtff Exprtjfiom : Id nijr Opinion, ob. 
•* fole^c Words may (hen be laudably revived, when either 
" they are more founding, or more fignificant ihan ihofe 
"• in PraSice; and *hen their Obfcurity is taken away. 
" by joiojng other Words to them, which clear the Scnfe 
•• according to the Rule of Horaci, for the AdmilSon of 
" new Words. But ia bub Cafis, a Moderation ii to le 
•* ^fifotdin tbi JJft of ihtm \ far unneetffary Coinage, at 
" 'uiell til urnitdffary Re^viitiil, rum into AffeSation ; a 
" Fault » bt ttiioCdid on either Hand. 

fbtii, partly by ibtfi Mixture), farlly The prefenlfn- 
hjLttiglb ef Jimt, •which cau/ei /r^nge ^/y* Tongue. 
Ultiratieni in all Lenpioga, the old 
Anglo-Saxon Tonpit luas tbaagedints the pre/tut Znglittlt 
■ tabicb bath been ricti-vei likeivifi int» the ebief Pail, of 
Scotland j •whith 1 ielit-vt tbiefly bafftited •when the Nor- 
nram invaded England ; far feveral tf the Englifti Ruyal 
Family, Nobility and Commmalty, being dritien oat a/" Eng- 
land, did luilb ibtmftl'vii carry their Language into Scot- 
land, •aihicb being improved by cvntinual Cimmirce, did fi 
fiir prevail, that the Englilh and Scotch Tonguej are nstu 
the Jamt i unlefs ow Jl^uld rather Jay, that the mere polite 
Part ff/^ Scotland, and that ivbich it Brorf,* England, hat 
got tie fame bihahitanti viiith ihafe of England, -oiha •were 
defetnded fram the Saxons, and formerly made Part of the 
ASfl^ii'onf/' Northumberland: For the Scotch Highlander! 
tall the 1-Owlanders at •well at /Ac Englifh, Saltons. that 
it, Saxons ; tut they formerly called thensfelvet Gael, and 
Gliochtl 1 but the Highlander* and Iflanders, that ii the 
Mafdianti of the Ifie) a^atcnt, •who inbaiit a great, tba' 
the mare atKultivated Part of Scotland, •which lies Norlb- 
fftjt, rrtaia ta ihii Day the ancient Btililh, or rather IHCh 
f«i^: tor tbty »re the Remaindrri rf the Pias, that it, 
the mft annm BritBM, wt» ji/<(a(m«i tbt'**mi» 'T">^' 




12 The P R £ F A C S. 

^cJ info the mountGtnoui and rough Countries^ ond nnnzUd 
ivith the Scots, [the Defcend \nts of the Scythians or Gotns,) 
m:ho came thitbir out of Ireland, " Mr, Edmond Spencer, 
our famous Foetj in bis Vienxj of the State 0/* Ireland, fays. 
That there nvere tiwo Kinds of Scots (as may be gathered 
from Buchanan) the one Irin, or Irifii Scots, the other 
Albin Scots \for thofe Scots izr^ Scythians 'who arri'vedin 
the North Part of Ireland, nvhere fame of them after 
** t^JJ<^d into the next CoaB Albine, no'w called Scotland, 
" nvbich after much Trouble they foffeffedj and of themfeUues 
*• «^7x«^i/ Scotland : hut in Proce/s of Time (as it is common" 
" lyfeen) the Dominion of the Part frenjaileth in the nx^bole^ 
•• for fi^^ Irifh Scots puttirig anvay the Name of Scots, nuere 
** caJled only Irifhf ^/r^ //&^ Albine Scots, leaguing the Name 
•* of Albine ivere called, only Scots. Therefore it eomcth 
thence that offome ff^riters, Ireland is en lied Scotia Ma- 
jor, and that ivhich no^v is called Scotlsind, Scotia Minor; 
jind he fays that the Scythians did Jrom themfel'ves name 
•• <what «we call Scotland, Scuttenland, nvbich by Contra^ 
** £lion hecane Scutland, or Scotland. Andnue learn from 
**' the ChronicumSaxonicum, or Saxon Chronicle ^ and from 
" Bede's Eccleliaft. Hift. 1.1. That Ireland nuas anciently 
" called Scota Ea, the Scots IJland\ and the learned Bp. 
" Gibfon, in his Explication of the Names of Places at the 
*' End of the Chronicum Saxonicuoi, p. 43. under the ff^orst 
** Scottas, faysy Scoti quo nomine apud Hifloricos nonnun- 
*' quam appellantur Hibcrni, ut & Scotise nomine vocatur 
** Hibemia. That is among fome Hiftorians^ the Irifh are 
** called by the Name o/* Scots, /?/• Ireland is by the Name of 
** Scotland." The Engiifh Language then lubicb nue aie 
to treat of is a Branch of the Teutonick, as the prefent 
German, Dutch, Daniih, andthofe that are a-kin to thetn ; 
and our Language differs from them^ jujl as they do from 
one another, *' But I am afraid I ha*ve already exceeded 
** the Bounds of a Preface^ yet I cannot pafs by tiuo or three 
•* ThingSf ivhich if not neceffary^ may notivithfianding be 
•* entertaining to fome Perfons ; namely, fome Account of the 
** Mother Tongues ; and of the 'various Changes that our 
•* Language has undergone for fttveral Ages : Afterivetrdp 
*' *we Jhmll anfijuer an ObjeSion made againfi our Language^ 
** and then gi<ve our Rcafonsfor mukrtaiing this Work, 

" Beeaufe 

The Preface. i-j^ 

" B(caufe vie havi ha I Oceajion to make 
* mmiiQB af the Mother Tongues, it may Of the Mather 
' nut he Jifagrctahla ta fame Readers if I Tonguct. 
'give Jam* jictouKt tf them. Teagu.t *" 

' then art either Mother Tongoei, or Dialefls : Mother 
■' Tongues, are theft out ef'whitb many Dialefls, /He /4 
' many Branebtt, ore dreivx. Thtfe BraicbeiDftneMo- 
" ther Tongue hafvejanu Jffimly ene -with another i hut be- 
'■ ' t^im the Mother Tongues tbemfelwi thtri u m A£.mty 
" at ail. The Mother Tongues, 'which are/a wholly dift- 
■' rent ene /mm enothtr, are ia Number E/rvem; ef 'which 

■ Four are mare Nub!!, the other fiiren of left. Dignity ; 
" thofe 'uie call the greater, tbc/e thf U/s Mother Tongues. 
■* Thifatne Wardin the Original Tongue, by dii-irfi Inftedli- 

■ OnS( and Changes makes di<verfi Dialefts ; ei the fame 
■' {ford in Latin, di-verfely varied, produces the Italian, Spa- 
' niih, aB^ Flench Dialefl:5»f^« Latin £''i//jdSGn.Va-Lu<ui, 
' Genet; the Italian, Genero i /i^ Spanifli, Veroo ; the 
' French, Gendre; all t/jbieh are Latin ia their OrigiHa/, 
' hit according to the farialien, art rifieSively apfrofrieted 

J^j^lbi oforefaiS fiijeral IHaleils, or Lafiguoget. / 

Ti* Four chief Mother Tongues, are Greek, Latin, 
""wick, and Sclavonick. ' 

The Greek luat anciently ef litry great Extent, not 
_ » Europe, hut in Afia rw, and Africk, ■wbire/e've- 
nrf Caloniei of that Naticn ixiere planted i ij -wiicb Dif- 
ferfim and Mixture •with ether People, it did degeneratt 
ietefe-aeral Dialers. Btjidei ibo/e Four that are ctmrnan- 
ly nottd, the Dorick, lonick, >£oIic, Attick : Herodo- 
leadalb mention four ft-verai DiaUils of the laTa<i\(.: 7he 
InUabitanls ^Rhodes, Cyprus, and Cteve, bad each ef 
them fame Ptfaliarily in their Languagsf and the frefeat 
Coptick. er Egff Gnn, fecms hath from the iP'ordsandthr 
Cbarafltr, to be a Branch ef thit Family, emd ivai proba- 
bly ffrtad amangfi that People in the Dayt »f Alexander 
Great, upon his Cangiuring vf tbem : Though fame 
- loneeivt that there tuere at leaji ^Oqoo Familiti of GKcks 
" planted in that Coamtj long before hit Time. 

" a. TirtMin,fhBughlhithfmuchofila Derivation frsm 

« fii^Greek, {of •which the prefeniFtttni)>, Spanifti, dXi/Ita,- 

" lian artftvtral Off-Jprings and Diri'voX\ii-ni\\>o.i. nnn«n4 

*• fnirfeverai Uiahili, at Pctrus ChnilwjTi cutout ofN a.«o ■ 

B ■" ^-^^^ 

M2 *^ '■ 

" the ( 


14 The Preface. 

3. The * Teutonick or German, is n$w drfiingmJM /«- 
to Upper and Loiutr. The Upper bath t*wo notable Dialers, 
I. The Daniih, Scandian, or perhaps the Gochick, to 
ivhich belongs the Language ufed in Denmark, Norway^ 
Swedelandy and Iceland. 2. The Saxon, /# fiuhich apper- 
tain the /enteral Languages of the Englifh, the Scots, the 
Friiian, andthofe on the North of the Elbe. 

4. 7be Sdavonick // extended, though *withfome Varia- 
tion ^ through mawf large Territories, Mufcovy, Ruflia, Po- 
land, Bohemia, Vandalia, Croatia, Lithuania, Dalmatia; 

**• and is Jaid to he the Vulgar Language ufed amongft Sixty 

** federal Natioms — The Languages of lefs Extent are, i . 

'* The Albanefe, or old Epirotick, nonu ufed in the Moun- 

** tainous Farts of Epirus. — 2. The European Tartar, or 

*' Scythian, from isshichfomi concei<ve our Iriih to hanji had 

•* /// Original, 

" ^ As for the Turkifti Tongue, that is originally no otbfr 

*' than the Afiatick Tartar, tnixed tvith Armenian and 
Per£an, /ome Grttls^. and much Arabick. 3. The Hunga- 
rian, uAd in the greateft Fart of that Kingdom, 4. The 
Finniclc, j^^iVr Finland, ««// Lapland, 5. Ti^^ Cantabri- 
an, ufed among the Bifcainers, ^ho li'oe near the Ocean on 
the Pyrenean Hills ^ horderinghoth upon France ^xr// Spain. 
6. The Iri(h in Ireland, and from thence brought o*ver in^ 
to fome Farts 0/* Scotland ; though Mr. Camden nuouldhanje 
this to be a Derivation from the Welch. 7. The oldGsiU- 
lifh or Britiih, nvhich is yet preferred in Wales, Cornwall, 

** and Britain in France. To this Number Mr, Brerewood 
doth add four others, viz* I. Arabick, nonuufedinthe fteep 
Mountains ^Granata, which is yet a Di^&from the He- 
brew, afid not a Mother Tongue. 2. The Cauchian in 

•' Eaft-Frifeland. 3. The lUyrian, in the Ifk of Veggia. 

•* 4. The Jazygian, on the North Side ^Hungary. Befdes 
this Difference of Languages in their firft Deri*vation, every 
particular Tongue hath its federal Dialers, Though Judsea 
fwere a Region of a very narrotv Compafsy yet ivas it not 
ivithout its Varieties of this JGndt tvitnefs the Story concern • 

** ing Shibboleth «WSibboleth, and that of the Levite, ivho 

* The Ttatonicki br^^fches out intp German, Saxon« ei»d 
Danifh. The GernqAn intft Upper W Lower. Vidf. Tho- 

** nwas 






Tlie Preface. 15 

" -Vias tUfiwertd by his Mannir of Sfrech ; andSt. PeWrV 
" briHg ine-ain far a Galilean, (Judges xii. l8. ani/Matth. 
" xxvi. 21.) Th fa gttifrally in olber Ceuntrici, and parlicu- 
" larh •with ut in England, luhtre the Nerihera and Weftern 
" InMitanl! do ahfrrvc a different Dialtil from etbtr Parti 
" aflhiiNalieii. aimtrfafptar frsm that particular Inftanee 
" mtntiontd by Vcrftegan : Wi^treai the IsbaBiiaiits a&suf 
" London <would fay, I would eat more Cheefe if I had 
" it ! a Northern M^ laindd fpeai it ibui, I fad eat 
" mare Cheefe gyn ay had el ; and a Weftem Man thai, 
" Chud eat more Cheefe an chad il. E-very ene of thfe 
" nfHtfd Mother Tongues, except the Arabicic, [andptr- 
" bapt the Hungarian) luai nfedin Europe, during iheTime 
" eflbeRoatia Empire. But lahether they ivire all ef tbim 
" ft ancient ai the Ctmfufion of Babd, d^th net appear % thet-i 
" ttianlsmf p-eat Prebabiliiy ta the contrary for fame of tbem, 
" It bath been the Opinion effime, particularly Boxhor- 
" nius, that the Scythian Tongue luai the eemiuo/i Mather 
" from tuhieb the Greek, Latin, German, and Perfian 
"■ tuere deri-ved, as fa many Diab-^s ; and Salmafiui, in his 
" Treatife. Dc re Helieniftica, inclines 'o this OJlMn; [P, 
" 366.]Scyihiaigiturqa3f adSeptentrionem,onioei fcrmc 
" gentes evomuii cum fuis Linguis qua Europam & 
" Afiam inundarant, that is, mefi qf the Nations, 
" •aalir their Langaarei, ntiiicb o-aer-rcn Europe and AJta, 
" tame from Nerthim Scythia. And Philip Cluve- 
" rfiu cenjtRures, that Germans, Gauls, Spaniards, Bri- 
". tains, Swedes, and Norwegians, did anciently uf the 
" feme Language. One principal Argument a/id far ibis is, 
" the Agreement of thife rtinalc Nt'tions in fomtra£calWords, 
" Jofcrh Scaliger ohfervet, that the JVords Father, Mother, 
" BfOtber, Bond, (ke, are uff din the PeiHun Tongue, viilb 
" fam$ little Variety, in the fame Scnfe and Signifcrlion at 
" they are ufed •with ut. The Learned Monfiur Pezron, in 
" bis AnliquiliitafNetieni,feemi togi'vralolerahle ^cccunt . 
•' of this Matter. The Perfiaa Language, fayi be, is in many 
" things like the Teutonick, or High-Dutch j and that 
'* Uhmtfsii fomtlimesfo apparent, that "very lea medMrti brwe 
" Jleed amazed at it j tiibicb they needed net to be, had they 
" tvell tOHjidtrtd that thofe fvie NatioKi, I mean the Per(\a.ri. 
" tmd German, had anciently receitjcd very numci-ius "^o^o- 

B 2 '_' ™" 


1$ The Preface. 

*^ tdeSt that came from the fame PiopUy fucb as liveJ imXJj^^ 
** per Alia, knonunhy the NameofD2it%t in Latin Daar, or 
** Dai. For twhcn t bey pajj'ed into Europe, theywert called 
^* Dacians, and 'were the Daci of the Romans, lAiho nx-ere of' 
** ten intermixt *witb the Getac, and that made the Anti^ 
** tnts fometimes confound the tiuo Nations, ^i^^Tcatoncs 
** had their Origin from the/if Dacians that ^me from Ada, 
•* lut more particularly from theV\iry^Xi%. 7^«/^ Dacians 
^* hadfefveral Times fent Colonies amongfi the Parthians and 
^* Perfians, their Neighbours j and it may befaid, that the 
^* Arfacidan Parthians reigned in Afia mainly by their Heip. 
*• Thefe Things conjtdered^ it is not to be ixfondered^ that the 
■*' Periian Language^ notnfoithjianding the Changes it may ha<ue 
*' undergone^ had anciently ^ and en/en fill retains^ fo much 
*• Likenefs in many Things to the Teutonick. 
g^g - . " Hazntig thus done ivitb tubat iv^ 

cLn csTnb^ *' ^""^ '^ ^""-^ "^"^^ *^' ^^^^ Tongues, 
T llh T ** "^^ '^ ^^'^ proceed to gi*ve fonu 

S*J Sr • *t 'Examples of the Changes <u;hicb our 
^* o*wn Language has fuffered, No'w^ bejides the common 
" Fate 0^ Corruption to tvhicb Languages, as well as all 
*' other human Things arefuhjeSl, there are many particular 
•* Things rAjhich may occafion the Changes of a Language t 
The mixture ^tb other Nations in Commerce ; Marriages 
iJB Royal Families, ivbich do ufuaUy bring fome common 
Words into a Court-Fajbion i that AffeSation incident to 
fome Eminent Men in all Ages, of coining ntnu Words, and 
altering the common Forms of Speech for greater Elegancy i 
the Necejffity of making other Words, accorathg as ueau Things 
^* and In«veniions are difco^uered : Befdes the Lanvs of foreign 
*' Conquejis ufually extended to Letters and Speech, as 'well as 
** Territories j the Conqueror commonly endeavouring to propa^^ 
*' gate bis onsin Language, as far eu bis Dominions ; 'which 
** is the Reafcn <zvby the Gr&x, and Latin en-e/o univerfalfy 
kno'wn. For as no Pirfon in the Provinces could enjoy the 
Bene ft of the Jloinan Freedom fwith any Honour, andre^ 
mean Ignorant of the Ro^ian lonffte .: So in Embajftes^ 
Suiu, Appeals, or 'whatever Provincial Bufinefs happened^ 
** nothing fwas elbnued to he handled orfpofun in the Senate 
'* at Rome, hut in the Latin Tongue, The Laws alfo 'where- 
*t by the Provinces vuere p'^irncift 'jxere all fwritten in that 

•« l^anguage^ 





The Preface. 17 

•' LangKHgt, as biing in all of them, txe/pi the ^lanlcipal 
" Cirits, the erSnery Roman Lemn. Moreover thr PrctorJ- 
" aj ibt Pra-vineti, 'VJirt mt alh'viei to ieli'ver ihiir Juig' 
" menu tut in that Language -■ ^nd 'we read, in Dion Caf. 
" fius, sfa frr'ncifai Man in Greece, that hy Claudius -wat 
" put from the Order of Judges, for heing ignerant 9f the 
*' 'LiXaiTangue : And to the fame Effeii in Valerius Maxi- 
*' mm, 1. 2, c. 2. that the Roman Magiftrattt luould not 
" £''"' jiudiince to the Grecians [therifore miitb lefs to the 
" barberoiis Naliom] lut in the Latin Taigue. Bejidti thii 
" there •were fublick Stbooli ireHtd in fundry Chiei rf iht 
" Pro^jinees, tviitb •wefvd mentioned in TiCUtK, HJeroin, 
" andothers, in i\ihieb Scbooli the Roman Tongue -was tht 
" ordinary and allmi'ed Speech: Thtfilhingiiurre nefmell 
" furthtraace to that Language, But injlead of foilm/iing 
•' thifi bravi Examplei, ist, far the AdvoHctment of our 
" Language, find »«r Beys and Girti to learn ?KTtzit, a Cu- 
" ftom, efpeeially as it relates to the FcmaleStx, -very ridiculeui 
•' end Honfenjiial ; but of thii luc may have en Orcafiov la 
*' fpeak in another Plate. But to return to our Pgini. 

" Wbtn a Nation is tverffriad -with fi'Vei-al Coloniti of 
" Foreigners, though this does not aliDnyi prpBaiJ to aholip the 
" firmer Langungt, yit if they maie any long Abode, thit 
*■ m»ft needs make fiub a emfiderahle CUnge and Mixture 
" if Speech, US •will very much alter it from ill originttl 
" Purity, ^hofe learned Langaagt) •which ba've nmu ceafitt 
" n be Tslgar, and remain only in Baeii, by •u.kicb the Pu- 
" rity ef thm is regulated, may, •whilf tbc/e Eoaii are ex- 
" tant andfiudied,'eontinue the fame •without Change. But 
" ail Laitgmigti that are -vulgar «r comnxn, ai thafe learn- 
" td tntt formerly •were, art upon the fore-mentioned Oeca- 
" fioui fubjeH la fa tnairf Alterations, that, in Trail of Time, 
** they tvill appear to be ^uiti anolbtr Thing than ixhat they 
" -^re atfirfi. 

" The Liturgies of Si. Bafil, and St. ChryroflotD, ivhieh 
" areyel ujtdin the Greek Churches in their fublick WorjUf, 
" the ane for folemn, the other for eommon Days, ha-veheentt 
" long lime uninlelligihle to that People j fo much ii the vul- 
*' gar Greek degenerated from its former Purity. BtcK* 
" wood's Enquiries, c. 2. and6. 



18 The Preface. 

yfe^Polybius I. 3. c. 22. Ufiijies that the ArtUlis of 
Truce het^ween the Romans and Carthaginians ceuU/critce 
be underfioodby the mefl learned Roman Antiquaries 350 
Years after the Tinu of their making. If any Englilh 
Man Jhould nonu twrite or fpeak 41s our Fere fathers did 
about fix or fe^en hundred Tears fafi^ fwejhould as little 
*' underftand him as he 'would a Foreigner, But IJhall nmv 
froceed to gi<ve fome Specimens of our old Language^ 
** What the Saxon Language waSf at their fir fi Arri^valinto 
England about the Year 440, doth not appear ; but it is 
moft probable that the Changes and Diffirences of it^ have 
been fonwwbat proportionable in fi.veral Ag(S, The moft 
*' ancient Saxon that *we can meet 'with, is in tie ancient Sax- 
" on gloffed E<vangeliftSi njchicb msere ^wrote about the Year of . 
*' Chrift 700 *, by Eadfrid* the eighth Bijhop fl/Lindifiarne, 
** ^r Holy-Ifland ; thefe E'vangclifts are di'vided according-to 
** the ancient Canon ^Eufebius, not into Chapters ; for Ste- 
phen Langton ArchbiJhopofQzxiX.tx^ry/firftdi'uidedthe 
Holy Scriptures into Chcfpten^ about the Year 1 200, or 
fome little Time after ; as Robert Stephens did into Ferfes^ 
** <who li*ued about the Middle of the i^th Century, 

*' But thi Refv. Dr. Prideaux, in his ^valuable and learned 
^ Performance called the Count S ion of the Hiftory of the Old 
<* aiidNe'wTeftamentt Part ift,L. 5. iHr«i// Hugo de Sanfto 
^ Care the Author of this In^vention, i/oho being from a Do- 
^ minical Monk advanced to thi Dignity of a Cardinal, 
<< andthefirft of that Order that weufk, is commonfy called 
•* Hugo Cardinalis. The Pfalms indeed 'were always divided 
** as at Prefent. For St. Paul, A^s xiii. 33. in bis Sermon 
" ea Antioch in Pi£dia, fuotes the fecond rfalm. But as 
«* to the reft of the Holy Scriptures^ the Divifion of them in* 
** to fucb Chapters as at prefent y is what the Ancients ne* 
< *verkfiewof BabeuB Cent. 3. p. 275. The Grtdk Bibles 

C ii I ■ III 

♦ About the Year of Chrift 700. The Latin Text 
may be as old as A. O. 686. But the Interlinear Sazon 
VerfioUf or Dano-SaxoR, appears to be no older than King Al« 
frcd'j Timet and fo may be fet about 88o» and not higher. 
(Vide Wanley's Catalogue, p. 252.) This therefor e^ as a Re* 
fverend and Learned Gentleman has obferijed^ cannot well ha 
called ^z moft ancient Saxon. 

The Preface. 



" amang Chrifliani andently had thririiihoi, mJ Kt^aKaist, 
" hi the Intent ef them -uiai rather to faiai etit the Siim er 
" Cenlenii, than lo diijidi the Booh ; and thtj tuere •vajilj 
" iifftrent from the prt/mt Cbafteri, Jar many of them can- 
" leinedmlj a very /mi Virjes, and fime «f them na tnore 
•• than one. 
" The Saxon is thus. 

" Faderurenthuanhorchabiltinheofniiniorinbeofna;, 
' ' Father our thou art or thou haft in Heai-en, 
" fie gehalgud noma ihin to cymeth tic thin. Sie willo 
'■ i: latlov^ed Name thhe come Kingdom thine. Be mil 
" thin fuac is in heofne and in cortba. Hlaf uferoe ofer- 
" thine ax it in Hiaven and in Earth. Bread our o^er- 
'• wiltlic fel ua lo dwg ; and forgef us Scylda ufra, 
•' fuhjiantialgi'vt us to Day; and forgi-ve u$ Deitj ouri, 
" fuae ue fergefoo Scyldgum ufum. And ne inlead ufitb 
" HI ici fergiije Debtor our. And not lead in ut 
" in CollLinge, ah gefrig ufieh from Vflc, 
" into Ttmpiation, but ddiijer m from £W. 

" 7he next elieft C->fy of the Urd", Prayer ti lie Dano- 
" Saxon one, eailtd RuOiworth's. V. Wanley, p. 81. Tbi 
" Age it triaut ^00. 

" Fader ure thu the in hcofnujn earth. Beo gehalgud 
*' Father our thou ii.he in hei.ntk ail. Be bm'hwed 
" thin noma. Cumc to thine rice, weorthe thin willa 
•• thine Name. Come ity Kingdcm. he done thy -wi// 

" fwa fwa on heofune fwik on eorihe. I-ilaf uferne 
" as in Hii-.ijeH as in eurth. Bread eur 

" or uM daeghwamhcu or idondenlice fel us to-daeg and 
"■ oar daily hourly give ut to Day and 

" forlete us ure fcylde fwa fwa wc cc torleien thaem the 
•' forgive ut eur Debts as ive forgii'e them itio 
** fcyldigat with u; and ne gelaei us geleade in coHnungae. 
" I'fJJpafi againft ui nnd not Ut us be ltd into Temptation. 
•• Ah gelcfc ua of Vfle. 
•■ Buideii-vcrus/i-ouiE'vil. 

" jfbaut the t'ear q6t>, Elfrick, tvht wai nude Abhtt of 

Malmclbur)' by King Edgar, ths ixriltth to one Si^cfaOiv, 

• ugainjftlt Matrtag, 0/ I'ricfts ; Jw one Kl^iit v^^'o"''^'^^*', 

20 The P R £ F A C £• 

" with %mkrih iiif ended tht Marriage 9/ Friefls^ ^tffnmmg 
«• // to he lanufuL ^he Epifile begins thust 

" i£lfric abb, gtetSige/erth freondlice ; me is gelked that 
** thu faedeft be me that ic other taehte on Englifcen 
" gewriten other eower Ancor aet ham med eow taehrh ; 
'* fortham the he fwutelice iaegth, that hit feo alefd that 
" MaefTe-preoflas wel mot wifygon, and mine gewriten 
•' ivithcwetheth thyfen. That is, Elfrick Jhhot greets Si- 
** geferth/r/VW^ > ^^ " gafaed, to me it it /aid, that thu, 
** that thou, faedeft be me, reodeft or fpeakrft hy me, that 
•• ic other taehte, that I other teach, on Englifcen gewriten* 
•* in my Englijh Writings Other eower Ancor, other or than 
** your Ancor, aet ham med eow taehtb, ct home 'with yu 
" teacheth ; fortham the he fwutelice {aegth,y2>r thcn,^ or he* 
" caufe that he foothly faith, thst hit fco alefd, that it is aU 
" lo^ed, that MaefTe-preoftas, that Mafs Priefis, wel motan 
** wifigon, moy take Wi'ves, and mine gewriten and my 
** Writings, withcwethcth thyfen, goinfaytth this. Here 
** any one may perceive a great many En glijb Words, 

** And in the Saxon Homilies there is this remarkable Ex" 
** prejffion ; ^whence fwe may perceive, that Rome, at that 
" Time, bad not refilled to deri*ve her Church from St, Pe- 
'^ ter. Seint Pouel the is the hegeft Lareow the we hab« 
** beth inne hadig Kirk. St. Paid wobo is the higbeft Tea* 
" cher ive have in holy Cburcb, 

•• The Charter that William the Conquerer gave to the 
** City of London* which iias about the Tear io66» ran 
•• thus; 

** Williem King, greets Williem Bifceop and Godfred 
** Porterefan, and odle ya Bargh warn binnen London, Fren- 
*' cifce Se Englife Frendlice Sc ic kiden eoy, yeet ic wille 
'* yeet git ben ealra weera lagayweord. ye get weeran on 
** £dwaerds daege kings. And ic will yeet aelc child by 
'* his Fader Yrfnume, aefter his Faders daege. And ic nelJe 
** ge wolian, yc«t aenig man eoy aenis wrasg beode. God 
*' eoy heald. That is, 

«• William King greets William Sijhop, andGodirty Port- 
" greeve [Lord Mayor] and all the 5ar^^j{Citizens] nxitb- 
** in London, French and Engliih friendly. And I make 
f* knoFwn toyout that I will thai ye be all your Lawworth 

*• that 

The Preface." ai 

" thai yi tutri in Edward'/ Dap the Khg. And 1 'will 
>' that each Child ke hh Father's Htir fl/fw *// Fatkr'i 
" Day. And 1 nil 1 [y/\]X nai\ fiifftr that any Man you any 
" •wring beode [be done.] God ym Javi, *r keef. 

" It Ihifanaus Pfalter a/ Trinity College, turitlen, a> 
■' Mr. Wanley, judges, in the Time of King Stephen. 
" [Wanley, p. |68.) i he Lord's Prayer ii thus; lahicb a 
'' learned Doiliir placi A. D. 1 1 3a. 

" Fader ure the art on heofone, fy gebletfob name thio, 
' fwafwa on heofone and on «orthanbreod[hlaf) uredeg- 

* wamlich geof us to daeg, and fargeof us ageltes ura, 
' fwa fwa we forgeofen agiltenduin urum. And ne led 
' usoncoftunge, ac alys us framjfelefwabeo Mt. 

" Abtut the Ttar 1 160 in the Time of King Henry lit 

* Sfcend, the Lord's Prayer •wai rendered thus, and /cut 
' ever from Rome hy Pope Adrian, an Englilh iSan, turned 

I the Peopit might I 

tajily Item and 

" Ure Fadyr in Heven rich, 

" Thy Name be halyed ever lieh, 

" Thou bring us thy micheSl bliiTe ; 

" AU hit in Heaven y-doc, 

'' EvarinYcarthbeeneitalfo: 

" That holy Bread that lafteth ay, 

■' Thou fend it m this ilk Day, 

" Forgive ous all that we have don, 

•■ As we forgjvel uch other Mon : 

■• Ne let U9 fall into 00 founding, 

*' Ac fliield ous fro the fowle thing. Amen. 

" Aleut a handred Years after, in the Timt »f Henry 
• tiiThird it 'was rendered ibi^s, 

" Fadir that art in Heven richc. 

" Thin helge nam it wnrih the bli&, 

' Cumenan mot ihy Kingdom, 

' Thin holy Will hit be all don, 

■ Ik Heaven aad inEtdtb a\Co, 

9% The P R £ F A c b; 

<< So ikl it bin full well Ic tro. 

•* J3if us all Bread on this Day, 

'< And forgifusurcSinnet, 

** Ai we do ure wider winnes : 

^' Let us not in fonding fall, 

V Oac fro ifele tktt fyU us all. JmiM. 

'' Jleitt the Temr ii8o» tbi Lor£s Prater vi>as thmsp 
" as a Learned Gentlemam tranfcribed ii from tbi Matim- 
'' fcript in Trin. Coll. the fanu Manufcrij^ that Mr. 
•• Wanley ^i«« an Acfumioft p. 169. 

*' The Salm thatiscleped Pater- Nofler. 

<' Fader ure Tha ert in Hevene. Bledfed be thi Naino. 
** cume thi rixlenge. Wurthe thy wil on Eorthe fwo hit is 
** on Hevene. Gif us to dai ure dailgwamliche firead. 
** And forgive us ure gultes fwo we d(A hem here the as 
** aguk habbeth ihild us fram elche pine of helle Ades us 
yofalleivele. Jmen. Swo hit wurthe^ 

Jbcut the Tear 1250. 
" Fadir ur thates in hevene^ 
*' Halud be thi nam to nevene : 
*' Thou do us thi rich rike, 
" Thi will erd be wrought elk : 
" Als it es wrought in heven ay, 
•* Ur ilk day brcdc give us to day : 

Forgive thou all us dettes urs, 

Als we forgive till ur detturs : 

And ledde us in na landing, ^ 

But fculd us fra ivel thing. 

" WickYi^Ts about 1.380, Richard II. 

•' Ourc Fadir that art in Hcvencs, hklowid be thi Name. 
** Thi Kingdom ccme to. Be ihi will doon in erthe as in 
** hevene. Gevc to us this dai our breed over oihir fub- 
** ilannce. A .d forgcve to us ourc dettis as and we for- 
'* geven to Ojfe detrouris. And Icde us not into Terap- 
^* taciounbutdelivcrusfromyvtl. yfwfff. Evang, Matt, vi. 

" ^hcut two hutdred Tears nftcr tbis-y in the 'Time of 
" Henry \ I. (us opfears by a large Mamtfcript Vellum Bi* 
•* b/e in the Oxford Ubiary^ /aid to ha*ve btentbis King^s^ 

» ** end 


tbi Carthdiaiis /» Lou- 

r Fadir that an in Hevenes, halewid by thiName, 
*' thi Kingdom come [o thee, be thy Will don in Eerthc, 
" as in Hevene, give lo us tliis Day our Breed over oihre 
*' fubflanc, and fcrgive to us oure Dettis, as we forgiven 
" our Deitouris, and lede us not into Tempiaiion, but 
*' ildivere us from icel. Amen. 

" In anolhcf^ Manu/lnft ef WJckJiffeV Tranfiatlaii, ivh 
" ii-vtJ in Rkhaid (be IVi Tine, about iheTrar 1377, His 
*' renJereJ iv'nb 'vriy finall Diffirinut fmm this. And Mir 
" chaelDraylon, <"»t."jPoIyolb. Cant. S. haib ibf/tJfurdi 
" »/*/■ Robert 0/^ Gloucefier, ceacerHiag London'j tiiag 
" •walled ij Lud. 

■< Walls he let make al about, and Vatei up and doun, 
" And after Lud that was * his Name he clupeJ it Luds 

(Town ; 

" TheJierteYateof the toun that yout Ilout iherandis, 
" He let hie elupie Ludgatc after is + o name i wis. 
" lie let him tho' he was ded burie at thullc Vale, 
" Theruoreyut after him me clupeih it Ludgate. 
• is, Jir ill, f o, /or a^iiti. 

" IJhaU here pri/ent lit Curiaus RtaJir •wi'li an extraor- 
^ tSn^ry Sptcimin 0/ ibt Zn^ltfh Language, ai it ii-ai/peicm 
"in tbe Ttar 13B5, txlralfid from the late Lmrnid Dr. 
_ *• HickesV Prefate to hii Thefaurus Lituraturae Septen- 
•* trionalis, f. 17. and^all noio addthe CorreQiws of il al 
*• made by a Learned Genihmnn^ luha compared it tvilk ibe 
" Mauujcripl inSt. John's, (a) As it is knowe how meny 
" maner People beelh in this Lond. [llond.] There beeth 
" alfo fo many dyvers long.iges aiid longes. Nothcles 
" Walfche Men and Scoits tliat beeth (i) noaght medled 
•' [iraedled] withoiher Na:lons, holdeth wel nyh hir firfle 
" fongagc and fpeche ; but {<-) yif the Scottes that were 
" fomeiin.e confederat and woned with the Pifles drawc 
•*' ftme what after (./) Ivir fpeche i but the Flemynges, that 
'* ftohett in the wefte fide of Wales, haveih left [ileft] 
" her Anngc fpech and fpekeih Sexoiiliche now. [Sawanc 

(a) AtUiikno^n. t*) N«t mwt. ^.'^ '/- '^^^'^V'l: 

24* 'I'he P R £ F A C £• 

«* liche inow.] Alfo EngUfhe Men, they had from the by- 
** gynnynn thre maner fpeche, Northerne, Southerne and 
* middel ipeche in the middel of the Londe, as they come 
*' of thre manner Peple of Germania. Notheles by com- 
'' myxtion and {a) mellynge firft with Danes, and afterward 
" with Normans, in meny the contrary [contray] Loa- 
" gage is (h) apayred, and fom ufeth fbrong (r) wlaffe- 
•* rynge chiterynge hartynge [harrynge] and gartinge [garr 
** lynge] grisbayting, this (d) apayrynge of the burthe of 
*' the tunge is bycaufe of twde thynges, eon is for chil* 
^* dren in fcole agenft the uiage and maner of all other Na- 
" lions beeth compelled for to leve hire owne Langagc» 
<* and for to conibue hir leiTons and here thynges ii| 
<* French, and fo they haveth fethe [feththe] Norman^ 
«* come firft into Engelond. Alfo Gentlemen Children 
** beeth taueht [itaueht] to fpeke Freniche from the tyme 
«< that they oeeth rokked [irokked] in here cradel^ and {e) 
** kunneth fpeke and play with a childes (f) broche, and 
'* {g) upIondifTche Men will likne hym felf to Gentilmen 
<< and (1) fondeth with great befy nefle for to fpeke Frenfche 
•« to be (i) told [itold] of. . 

*' [f Trevi&. This maner was moch ufed [iufed] to fer 
** firft \k) deth, and b (ithe furo (/) del changel, [ichanged.J 
'' For John Cornwaile a Maifter of Grammer changed the 
** [m) lore in Grammer Scole, and conftrudion of Frencbe 
Into Englifche : And Richard Pencriche lemed the roanere 
techynge of him as other Men of Pencriche. So that 

(a) Mfxifigf or mingling, (b} Spoiled^ or corrupted, (c) 
Noijy talking and chattering, rough, attd harfii talking, 
fawcy jefting^ a skreeking mije, (d) Impairing, (e) JC»^v- 
eth how, (f) AChild*s horfe, that is a Hokiy-hor/e. (g) 
Countrymen, (h) hfond of, or dilighteth, (i) To he talk- 
ed of, i. e. to hi accounted of. (f J Trevifa luas the Tranf 
latorofthe Polychronicon ^Randal Higden, what you fee 
included in the angular Lines is nuanted in the Edition 
of the Polychronicon puhlijhed hy Dr, Gale, (k) Dr. 
Hickes // miftaken in his Interpretations of the Words, to 
/or firft Detb, they mean, before the firft Mortality, or 
Plague, in 1 349 ; the fecond was in 1 361 . Caxton in hie 
Edition of Tnvitii, r^/74V, the grete Deth. i}) Deal or Part. 
fm) Learning or Teaching. 

The P n E F A c E. 25 

" now iheyerc of our Lorde a thoufand thre hundred and 
" fouricore and fyvc, and of the feconde Kyng Richard 
" after the Cooqueftnyne, and alle the Graraerc Scolesof 
" Engelond Children lereth [leueth] (a) Frenfche, and con- 
" ftnieth, and lerneth Englifche, and haveth thereby ad- 
•* vantage in oon fide, and difadvantage in another fide. 
" Here advantage is that they lerneth her Giamer in lalTc 
" tyme, than Children were woned [iwoncd] to do; 
" Difadvantage is chat now Children of Cramer Scole 
" conneth na more Frenfche than can hir lift lieele, and 
" that is harm for [6] hem, and they fchuUe pafle the 
" See and Travaille in firange Landes, and in many o- 
" ther Places, Alfo Gentilmen havith now moch left 
" [ilefi] for to teche here Children Frenfche,] 

" (f) R. Hit feemeih 3 greet wonder how Englifche Men 
" and her owre langage and tonge is fo dyverfe offown 
" in this ooniiond, and the langage of Normandic is (if) 
" coml/nge of another lande and hath oon maner foun 
" amongealle Men that fpeketh hit arigt in Engelood. 

" (-(■) [Trevifa, Neverthcles there is as many diverfe ma- 
•' ner Frenfche in the reeme of France, as is dy vera maner 
" Englifche in the reem of Engelond ] 

" R. Alio of theforfiiide Saxon tonge that is {«) deled 
" [ideled] aihree, and 13 abide ftarcdiche with fcwe up- 
" jondifche Men is greet wonder. For Men of the Ell with 
" Men of the Weft is as it were undir the fame partie of 
" hcvenc accordeth more in f/J fownynge of fpeche than 
•' Men of the North with Men of South. Therefore it 
" is that Mercii, that bceth Men of mydJel Engelond bi 
" it (vereparter.ersof theendes, undeiltoadcih bettre the 
" fide langages Northerne and SouthLrne, than Northernc 
•' or SoutSerne underftondcth either other. W. de Pout. 
'' Lio. 3. 

" Lu) All the langage of the Northumbers and fpccialli- 

(ftj -A 11 flein /mm thi Maau/crlpt ; the otbir Rimli«g 
mJt-r it Nti/tn/c. (b) 7bem. (c) Ranulphus Higdr^.. 
(d) FoniegBT iMing. (t) H'halyoujfc htn iicliiJid in itc 
^igaUr Linn ii •aonling in iht Ediiien e/Dt. Gale, (e) Dea- 
lt4, £vidid, ar fortti. (fj Setmiling, (g) Ttt Liiii^uii£e 



a6 The Preface. 

*' che at Vork, is fo fcharp, flitting, and (a) frotynge and 
** unfchap^ that we Southerne Men may that laneage un^ 
" nethe underdonde. I trow that that is bycaufe that they 
*' beeth nyh to flrange Men and Nations, that fpcketh 
** ftrangliche, and alfo bycaufe that the Kinges of Engelond 
*' [h) wonneth sQwey fer from that Gantry, for they beech 
" more tomed to the South Contray. And yif they goeth 
** to the Northe Contray, they gooth with greet helpe and 
'* flrengthe. The caufe why they beeth more in the South 
*' Contrey than in the North, for it may be better corne 
*' londe, more Peple, more noble Citees, and more profi- 
•• table havenes. 

<* Trevifa's whole Booke concludes thus. God be thonk- 
** ed of al his nedes this tranflation is ended [iended] in 
*• a thorfday the eygtenthe [eygtcthej day of avril, the 
*' yere of our Lord a thoufand thre hondred four fcore 
** and fevenc. The tcnthe yere of King Richard the Se- 
•* cond after the Conqueft of Engelonde. The yere of 
** my Lordes age Sire Thomas of Berkley that made me 

make thys tranflation fyve and thryty. 



'• Jhout the Tear 1400, fouri/hed the famous Cbtacer, 
ivhofe chief Fault 'was the mixing tco many French and 
Latin Words nuitb the Englifli, ifl}ali ginjeyou a ^afte wf 
his Styliy in the Defcriftion of the Judden Stir and Fear 
that happened upon the Cock''s being carried a^way by a Fox. 

'* The fely Widowe and her Daughters two 
" Herde the Hennes crie and make wo, 
** And at the Dore fl:erte they anon. 

And faw the Fox towarde the Wood gop. 
And bare upon his Back the Cocke away. 
And cried out Harow and well away. 
*' Aha, the Foxe, and after hem they ran, 
** And eke with iiaves man) another Man : 
" Ran, Coll our Dog, Talbot and eke Garlonde, 
'• And Malkin with her DillafFe in her Honde. 
Ran Cow and Calfe, and eke the very Hogges, 
For they fo fore aferde were of the Dogge?, 


(a) Jarri::^, to frote is to rub, from the Saxon freothan 
fr^care. (b) Dojuelhtb. \\ AiiSL 

The Preface. 
" Andlhouting of McD, and of Womon ckr, 
" They ran To, her her te thought Co bfckc 
" Thiy yellen as fcndes do in hell : 

• The Duckes cried as Men would them quell. 

'• Axd ihe U'ift ff/Bach'/ raU higim thm : 

• In the old Daies of King Ariaut, 
' [Of which the Bnttm Tpcaken great Honour.) ' 
' All was this Lond fulfilled of fairy, 
' The Elfe Quene, wiih her joty Company, 
' Daunfed full oft in many a grene Medc : 
' This was the old Opinion as \ rede. 
' I fpeake of many an hundred yere ago, 
' But now can no Man fe Elfes mo, 
' For now the great Charite and Praierej, 
' Of Limitours and other holy Freres, 
' That ferchen every Land, and every ftrtme, 
■ As thicke as Motes in the Sunne beme ; 
■' Blifllng hailes, Chambers, Kitchens and Boureg. 
' Citecs, Borowes, Callelles and hie Toures. 

• Thropei, Bernes, Shupens, and Deiries, 
» This makcih that there been no Fairies. 

" Tie Liber FeAialis, ahaai 15CO, 

" Fader eure that arte in hevynes, lialowed be iby 
' name, thy kingdome come, iby wyl be doon in erih 
' as tC is la havytt, our every daie* bredc gyve us to 

' day e, and forgive ua oof TrcfpaiTes aa we forgjve theym 
' that tiellpallii agsynAe ii:>. and kde us nat in tempcacioit 
ILbut delyver us from allcvyll. 

' Tyhdai 

, J. J>. 


• Our Faihcv xvhichart in heaven, halowcd 1 
' tiisnt. Let ihj "kingilom totna Tby will be ''..■ 
■ well in aarth as it is in hcveii. Geve in ■'■■ - r 

• dayly bred, ftiid t'i.ij;cve us oure liou^. a -v: tor^':.e 
iitters. ('.iiJ kade us not iTitoTcinpMiai:t«, rmtii*" 

28 The Preface. 

** lyver as from evyll. For thyne is the kyngdom attd the 
** power and the glorye for ever. ifwM. 

N. B. This is the firfi Lord's Prayer nmth the Dtxciagy 
in the C/o/e, being taken from the Greek ; nuherias ihffit 
before miere taken from the Latin, tuhich tvant that Fart. 

The Athanasian Cr£ed in ^A/Englifh Verfe. 

" Who fo wil be fauf to blis Wbofoenter will hefatxtd. 
*' Before alle thiogcs nede to is 
<< That he hald with alle his miht 
*' The heli trauthe and leue it rihc 

<< Whilk bot ilken to qaeme Which Faith except. 

** Hole and wemles it yheme. 
** Witbouten drede bes thet forn 
'* Fro Codes fight in ai forlorn 

« Sothelic the heli trauht this ifTe The Faith is. 

** That o God inne thrinnefie 
*' And thrinnefsin onneffe 
" Wurchipwe the mor'^ and lefle 

" Ne the hodes oht mengande Neither confouneling. 

** Ne the (layelnes fondrande 
•' For other hode of Fader other of fon For there^s one Ferfom. 

Other o\ hcli goil wil with am wun. 

But of fad ir and fon and heli gofte Hut the Godhead^ 
*' On is godes toningue that is mofie the Father. 
** Heven blis is til am thre 
" fii on in mikelhede to he 

•« Whilk the fader whilk the (on Such as the Fathers 

«' Whilk heli goft wil with am wan 
*' Unfhapen fader unihapen fon is The Father uncreate. 
'* Unfhapen heli eofte in blis 

** Mikel hdcT Mikel fon ai The Father incomfrehenjible. 
** Mikel heli goUe niht and dai 

** Ai laftand fader, ai lalUnd fon The Father eternal. 

** Ai laftand heli be uton 
'* And thow he ther noht thre ai hfland Tet then are 

not three* 
^* Bot on ai laftand over al laml 

*' Als noht thre unmade ne mikel thre Js alfi they an 
*' But on unmade and on mikel is he not three. 

The P n B r A c I. 


" Als SO almightand fader al might and fon StUk.ixi/e the 

" Almihtand heligolte towun Father. 

" And \kovi'tiniiev^Qi\\X.a\ta\\\Xi.'R^Andyil thtjarenstthret. 

" Bot on almthcand n licand 

" Afc so God fader God fone iflc The Father ii Gad. 

" God hali go(1 wiih am in ^is 

" And thowhether nohl godes thre Tit thty are ml ihrfc, 

'' Rot on u god and ai fat he 

" For a!b fengellic hode god our louerde lo be So Uicwife 

" Thurght criflen foihenes Ictle fal he the Father. 

" So llire godus or louerdes lo kail Andjtt net sbrit. 

" Thurgbi heli felines forboden ar all. 

'• The fadirof noo made is be The Fatbir ii made 

" Ne ihapen ne kuraed to he tfmnc, 

" The fone of o.niy fader bl is IbiSaiiii. 

" Noht fhapcn ne made but kumed is 

" The hcligoKc of fadirand fon inihtand The Holy Gbafi, 

'■' Noht fhapen ne made bot foKhcomand 

'• Then a ladir noh( fadrn thre Ii am fall 

" O fon noht thre foncs to be 

" O heli goftandnomo 

'• Of iham comand ne thre no two 

* And this thrinneB thet with inne And in ihisTrimljl 
'* Noght 6rft or latter noht more or minne 

'* Bot al thre perfones iaihnd ai 
' To tham end evenmette are thai 

• So chat bialleahbiforefaide is Sa that in ell Thhgr. 
•' And ihrinnes in onnes 

" And onn«fle in thrinnes ai 

* We to wurschip niht and dai 

' Who that then wU bcrihed be Hi ihertfart that. 

' So of the thrinnes leue he 

' And nede at hele that laft u fal Furlhermort. 

• That the ficfhcde ai with al 

' Ofourlouerd ThaCriftfortbi 

' Thai lie trowe it trewli 

' Then is ever trauihe right Far tit right. 

• That wc !eve withalle oure miht 

■ Hiaioure loverdjhu Crifi in Mis 

* Codes fone and man he is 




30 The P n I F A c E. 

<< Gode of kinde of fadir kuroed werld bifbrn Godoffht 
** Man of kinde of moder into werld born Suhftamce. 

** Fulli god fulli man livand : Pir/ea God, 

** Of r(£lful Saul and mannes fleflie beand 
** Even to the fadir thurght god hede: EfiuiJ to the Fatbir, 

LefTe then fader thurght man hede. 

That thof he be god and man : Who although. 

** Noht two tho whether is bot Crift an 
*' On noht thurght wendinge of godhed in flesfhe Ofte not 
** Bot thurght takynge of manhede in godnesfke hy. 

** On al noht be menginge of ftayelnes 
" Bot thurght onhede ofhode that is 
*' That y holed for oure hele doun went til hclle Whofip 
** The thred dai ros fro dede fo fellc fered, 

Upflegh til heven fittea on right hand» Ht afcendti. ^ 

Of god fadir alle miyhtand 

And yhit for to come is he 

To deme the quik and dede that be 

Ate whos come alle men that are dt nvhofe cotmmg* 

** Sal rife with thaire bodies thare 
** And thelde fal thai nil thai ne wil 
" Of thair awen dedes il 

H And that wel haf douB that dai : diui they tHnt h^m 
'' Sal go to lif thAt laftes ai ' ddm (Sntl. 

** And iuel haf doun fal wende , • 

** In fire lailend withouten ende 

•* This is the traught thtft beli iil^. This h the TrM. 

** Whilk bot ilkon with miht hii!e 
** Trewlic and faftlic trowe hfe 
'^ Saufe ne mai he never be. 

" In a Bible fet forth with the King's LiteH/e, tranJUited 
" ^ Thomas Matthews, ami printed in the Tear 1537, thg 
** Lords Prayer is rendered thus^ 

** O oure Father which arte in Heven, halowed be thy 
" Name. Let thy Kingdome come. Thy Will be fulfileil, 
** as well in Erth, as it is in Heven. Geve us this daye 
** oure dayly bred. And fbrgeve us pur Treafpafcs, even 
" as we forgeve oure Trefpacers. And lead us not into 
** Temptacion, but deliver us from tvyl. Jmen, 

" fTe 

Tbc Preface. 


'• frt pail ttfvi preffnt iht Readtr •uiitA a Puji^t or Moo, 
" mk sfG3,w'\a Douglas Bipop e/Dunkel, ■wio fieiiriptd 
" i« ibe fiurtetttlh and f/leeslh Ctuturici. And theugbfirc 
'* Perfem nayhlemt me, that in pradming Sftihuiu sf tit 
" Alltrathit of the Englifli Toiigur, I quart a ftolch Au- 
" Iher i ytt ifthuft Per/ons itiJJgi'Ve tbetn/ehies the ^i-BuhU 
■* of eenjidsriag him mure hctdflJly, ihiy •uiHi ftreei-vi ihal 
■' his Langacge, if it hi tat old Engjilh, ii very nta- a-iitt 
' to it; and Sir Cavid Lindfey, in hi i Prologue 'f the 
' Complaint cf Papingo, fuiii/ijed at Edinburgh, LT-ja, 
" fiimi tsieof tbij QpiBita/firJPeakliig of thii ' ' 
' htheithe/e£j^rfjiam. 

" Alaceforane, quhilkLamp was intlV ' 

*' Of Eloquence the fiow and baling StranJ i .■ 

" And in our luglis lE-'gli/b'] Rhctorick the Kole 

" As of Rubeis the CarbuncltJe bin chofe, 

** And as Phebusdoia Cynthia precel, 

" So Gawin Douglas Bifliop of Dunkell, 

" And fact I Inrve cited tbii Tefilaany ef Sir Davii 
" Lindfay, e»metraiag the Bipap i I pall ^vi you am mare, 
" and tit rafier^^iecmi/e if rilatei to my prifent D'fiVH, 
" and has mt teea mentioned by the Publipert of the lafl 
" Edition if ihii Author: Andil is (:&a/ a/WiUiam L'ifle 
" Efq; in bis Preface l« a Saxon TreatifeDe veterj Se »aVO 
" Teftamemo. Ed.Land. itz^. i lighted on VuEHSntiifjed 
" by the RrvereiJ Gawia Do\ig\M, Eipop ef Danke\, and 
" Untie to the Earl 0/ Angus, the htjl Tranflatian ef that 
" Pmi that ever I read: And though If mnd that DialtH 
" more bard than any tf tie former (as nearer the SaxOn» 
'* hecaltfe farther frinnlht NotintUi) jtt, nvilb help if the 
" Latin, i made pift ta midrrjiiuni ii, and read the Book 
" mare than once, from the Beginiang toebe Endi iiihetehy 
" / muft eonfrfs 1 got more KnitStilge af that 1 fought, 
" than by any of the other: Far as at the %axOTt Invafon 
' ^^ ■^ '^ Saxora fed into Scotland^ preferviug i 
~ '» tiiitetifu'ertd, as the JLiae Rojal, fa eip the 


I « » -1 ■' 


32 The Preface. 

** guage, better than the Inhabitants here^ una 
•* rors La*w and Cujtcm^ lucre able, 

^bus far Mr. Liflc. JVe Jhall n<yw come 

Bijhop, His Condufion to the iranjlation of\ 

thefe Words, 

" Thus up my Pen and Jnftniinentis full zc 
•* On Virgillis Poft I fix for euermore ? 
** Neuir from thens fic matteris to difcriae. 
'* My Mafe fal now be clene contemplatiue, 
*^ And folitare, as doith the Bird in Cage ; 
*^ Sen fer by worn all is my chyldis age, 
*^ And of my Cay is nere paffit the half date, 
** That Nature fuld me granting, weill I wat< 
'* Thus fen I feile doun fweyand the ballan'ce. 
Here I refigne up zoungkeris obfervahce. 
And wyl derek my labaouris euermoir, 
' Vnto the commoun welth and Goddis gloi 
A dew, gud readeris, God gif zou al gud d 
And eftir deith grant vs his hevinly lychc. 


" l^he/t Verfes need no Explanation, finee m 
Change ofafenv Letters they nmlleippear te hi 
lifh* Bui however Injuill epcplmn a Word 99 
ready ; fic, Juch Matters to d(ferib§ | fen, / 
nvorn ; (Mf/^n/di fweyand, faoaying donn 
<' ni'eighitfg ; zoungkeris^ young Men ; z» hei 
^ i/ed among the cid Writers, andeJfeciaUy in 
" for y . Jjha// add a few Verfes more, ivhert 
** that neither his Rhyme nor W9rd% may he cl 

^ Zc Writaru al, and gentle Readarii eik, 
** Oflfendis not my Volame, I befeik, 
** Bot rede lele, and tak gude tent in ^OM^ 
** Ze nouthir magil, nor mifmeter my RyoM 
", Nor alter not my Wourdit, I zoo pray ; 
«' Lo this is all, * bcw fchirrit, have guae d 


* Bcw Stbirrii. Gtfd Ssre, 

The P R E F A c B. 33 

• Ik thijifietnth Century Uvfd ihe famous Edmond Spen- 
' &r, i»ihsfe Charafltr iflj tein already p'ucn ; Wi •will 
• iikpaifeprffintyniuiththt zBih avd iqth Stanza's c/ 
' ibe i)th Cante^ his Fiity Queen. B. 1. comn-ning De- 
' fpMr,_/«-iu£(ViA'r Philip Sydney ^4*(ii>D zoo Pguods ; 
' and/a foncluAe ibii Head. 

'' From whore returaiDg fad and comrorclcfs, 

" As on ihe Way togetherwe did fare, 
' Wc met the Villain (God from hija me blefs) 

" That curfed Wight, froca whom I fcap't whyl'ere, 
•' AManofHtU. that calls himrelfD,y5.fl;r. 

" Who firft »s greets, and after fair aieeds 
" Of Tydiiigs ftrange, and of Adventures rare ; 

" So creeping clofe. as Snake in hidden Weeds, 
*' Inquircth of our States and Knightly deed;. 

" Which when he knew, and felt our feeble Hi;arts 
" Emboli with Bale, and bitter byiin^ Grief, 

" Which Love had launced with hii deadly Dane, 
■• With wounding Words and Terms of foul reprief, 

'■ He pluckt from oi all Hope of due Relief. 
*' That earfl us lieJd in love of lingring Life j 

'■ ThehopeleJi, bartlefs, gan the cunning Thief 
*•■ Perfwadeiodie. to ftint all furclier Strife, 

" To me he lent this Rope, to him a ruAy Knife. 
•■ With which fadlnftrument ofhaliy Death, 

" That woful Lower, loathing lenger Light, 
■" A ^i^ l-Vav£ ta let forth Uvkii? Brc^ih. 

" But I more fearful, or more \at.V.y Wight, 

" Difmay'd with that deformed difmal Sight ; 
" Pled fail away, half dead with dying fear, £^;. 

" 1 fl:^U «™i ftontd tv give fume Inftancti o/ iht 
" Clange cfaur Laitguagr/rem ^hak^CptiT, Ben. Johnfon, 
" my Lffrd BiQfn, Milton, Waller, Cowley, fcfc. Butthty 
" trisg Balis thai are tilmojl in t-verj BtMcs Hands, and my 
*' Ptf/art hegisning alrenJy Is/iutU, I Patl Tiftr it IB » 
*' mure miviaiuit Opfottunily. JJhall theriftrt fndiaijaiir 
" tv m/iver an OljcilioJt thai it madt ag/tigfi ear Tenrnr, 
•■ tbatit it made af ef tut many Monofyllakle) : Suttbiiit 
" a Prsc/tf^itt Jnticnity, (^ wia/ Siima&tt* fuss \>t trw. 

34 The P R E F A c »•' 

** Certum quippeeft, linguas omnesquao Monofyllabis con- 
<* flant efle caeteris Antiquiores. Multis abundavit Mono- 
" fyllabis Antiqda Gracca, cujus veftigia, apud Poetas qui 
** Antiquitatem afFe6tarant, remansere non pauca. DeRe 
** Hellenifiicay p. 390. For it is certain y that all thofe Lan» 
•' gaages mtbich conpft of Monofyllahles are ancienter than 
'* the others ; the Greek "(Tongue abounded in Monofyllahles ^ 
** ofiohich there remain many Injiances^ among the ancient 
** Greek Poets, And indeed 'we ha*ve this Advantage from 
** our Monofyllahles y or Words of one Syllable y that lue can 
** exfrefs more Matter in fencer Words than any other Lan- 
** guage njohatenjer ; and though the Monofyllahles are not fa 
*' jfo/w- Numbers, j>^/ that Happinefs ofComfofitiony nnhich 
** is peculiar to our Language ijcith the Greek, makes our 
•* Poetry as mufical and harmonioui as that of any Nation 
** in the World. And Mr. Dennis, 'U-ho is a 'very good Judge ^ 
** ft^Sy the Englifh // morejhwtgy more fully more found- 
** ingy more figmficanty and more harmmnom than the French, 
** I knomoy fayi he, very ivell that a gremt masr^ ivillhe un^ 
^willing to allonxj the loft ; hut he affedges this as a con^vin^ 
cing Proof of it y that ive ha*ue Blank Verfe ivhich is not 
inharmonious y and the French pretend to m Poetical Num- 
*' bcrs, without the Affiftance ^Rhimc. And the Learned 
** and Ingenious Mrs. Elftob has gi'uen Variety of htftances 
** from our own PoetSy ^wbich fugiciently pronfe that there is 
" afecret Stveetnefs and Httrmony in Verfe$ made up of Mo- 
** nojyllables artfully placed* Preface to her Saxon Gram- 
** war, p. 1 3. Ifiall n'u$ thres Examples as brought by that 
« Lady from Mr, Drydcn. 

" Anns and the Man I fing who forc'd by Fate. 
•* From Mr. Creech. 
" Nor coold the World have bom fo fierce a Flame. 
From Sir John Dcnham's Coopers-Hill. 
Tho' deep yet clear ; tho' ^ntle yet not dull. 
Strong without Rage, without O^er-flo wing full. 

** And indeed there are no $ubfeSfsbut what may he no- 

** bly and beautifully cloathedin «» Englifh Drefs % for our 

** Language has whaten.'er is neceffary to the making a Lan- 

** S^^gf^ compleat'y far it is Sfgnificant^ Eafy, Copk)us, and 

2 " Sweet. 

The P R E p A c £. 35 

' Sweet. But iif raiifi mt cnlargi en thifi Matlcrsi I 
' •mill bwiue^'er Irt/fafi a little more oajcur Patieiat, and 
' g'-T' yi* <' Specijnei sf iht Cofiaiifncfi tf tut Language 
' in ibifi iiM Words, Anger fla<^Slnkmg, Anger;/o«- 
" fTtfi-vihicbPaJJiiiH, lutufe thtfc folU'wingWordi,'^ jv^, 
" P&Qioii, Paliionate.Sharpnefs, Rage, Fury, Out-rage, Pet, 
" Choler.Gaul. Fume. Storm, Fret. Pelt, Chafe,Vex,Take- 
■' oii,Ifl£atne,Kindle,Imtate. Inrage, EwJperate, Incenfe, 
" Provoke, Move, Sullen, Hally, Furioits, Out-ragtouf, 
' Mad, Look-big, Placable, Appeaie, Stomach, Animoiity, 
" Heartburning, Rough, Hot, SnapptOi, Curll, Snarle, 
" Snuffle, i^c. So far ihi WorJ, Striking, -wt uft Smite, 
" Bang. Beat, Baft, Buffet, Cuff, Dalh, Hit, Swinge, 
" Thump, Thwack, Blow, Stripe. Slap, tlap. Rap, 
" Tap, Kick. Wince, Spum. Bob, Box, FiUip, Whirrer, 
" Yerke. Pummel, Puncn, Rebuff, PercuiEon, Repereuffi- 
" on, CoUiCon, ^t. So •ait fyy lo Seeth, or boil Broth, 
" tt Hew Prunes, poche Eggs, coddle Apples, bake Bread, 
*' ferniiluch ExfrtJ^t to Teeth, ftew, pocbe, eoddlei bake, 
*' tkt Latins Aa-ve aaly iht Werd Coqnere, fir Pinfcre it 
** neither Iff mail Brttidnor bah it. In piftrino autem 
" pinfuDtur farta, uti prodeat Tarina, unde Panes conlianc 
" in furno, quo Tint efai demom coquendi ; oi our learned 
** Gataker halb righlh obferved. 

" The IFord Q\t3.T%m tbefe diprtxt Scnfii. Clear «mi, 
" fipiify, I. EntifCOf its felf ; ./S if ii wholly; as lam 
" dcarh effaur Mind. z. Not mingled with others , Jo 
'' it is. Simpler «j clear Ifiiie, i. e, 'withsul aay MiMurt 
" efWaleri tffedtiUy, aotv/ithviOTle, and tbea it it pan, 
" tu dear er pure Ifine, i. «. mu^ht hul Wine end Winti 
" Adear Underftanding, /, r. ji gxd Undfrfan^ng. A 
"■ dear Sight, i.e. A goadSight. A cleir Wit, \.t./pri^~ 
" if, liwTy. Clear of Sitknefsor Pain, i. e. Wiibeue Sick- 
" nefi, •u-iihoui Pain. A clear Skin, i. e. BeautfuL A dear 
" Reputation.!, e. a gaodanf. Clear Dealing, ;". e.ftank, iipen, 
** Dtalhg. aear Weather, Sky, or Water, i. e. Lightfsmc, 
" /air, brigbt. dear Gl^h,!. t. TrBnfparent.lhatm.iifianbt 
" ftm through. A dar Sovind, tbal may be beardivtll. Clear 
" of WQF Difeafe. /. c. Nut infeaed, tr net difeafed. A dear 
•\£&U«. i.4.ti»tinDrh. Clear of any Crime, i. e. Not 
liilj. A clear Con&icDCc, i.*. Tree frem Quilt, Adear 

g6 The P R £ F A C £» 

*« Coafty /. e. Tree from the Enemy* Clear of any Cenfure, 
<* I. e. Net under any Certfure. Not hindered from being 
•* done» then Gear is Eafy. Not hindered from being 
-•• known, then Clear is flain^ manifejl. Not hindered from 
^' being come to, or pafTed through, then Clear is 'what 
*• may he eafily come to, or ffiffed through, as a clear Way, 
^* a clear Psdiage, i^c. 

** As for the Ambiguity and unfixed Senfe of Words, by 
*• reafon of Metaphor /»;»</ Phrafeolpgy, this is, in all infti^ 
** tuted Languages, Jo obvious and fo 'various^ that it is 
•* necdlefs to gifve any Inftances of it ; efvery Language 'hav^ 
" /«^ fome peculiar Phrafes belonging to it, ichich if they 
«« ^were to be tranfiated VcrbTi^m, or Word by Word into ano* 
•• ther Tongue, ixouldfeem iviid andinjignificant ; nvithivhich 
** our Engliih Tongue doth too much abound ; ^witnejs thofe 
" Words of Break, Bring, Caft, Clear, Come, Cut, Draw, 
<< Fall, Hand, Keep, Lay, Make, Pafs, Put, Run, Set, Stand, 
** Take, none of tvhich have lefs than thirty or forty, and 
** fome of them about a hundred federal Senfes, according 
** to their Ufe in Phrafes^ as may be Jeen in the DiSHonary^ 
** vjrote by the Right Reverend Father in God, Dr. William 
•* Lloyd, the late Bijhop ^Worcefter {which is to be met 
" ^vUh at the End of Bijhop Wilkin's Real Charafter) 
** // being the befi Englifh Diilionary that ivas ever publiflf^ 
*^ ed; and voith which, if 1 Jhould ever have any Leifure, 1 
** may fome Time or another prefent the World, in a more 
** familiar Drejs for the fake of common Readers. But 
^* though the Varieties in Language mayfeem to contribute to 
*** the Elegance and Ornament of Speech', yet, like other af- 
•* fe£ied Ornaments, they prejudice the native Simplicity of 
** /■/, an^contribute to the difguifeng of it with falfe Ap^ 
** pearances ; befides that, like other Things of JaJIAon, they 
^* are very changeable, every Generation producing nevu ones ; 
^' nvitnejs the prefent Age, efpecially the late Times, wherein 
** this grand Impoflure of Phrafes hath almojl eaten out Jo- 
** lid Knowledge in all Profejfions ; fuch men being of mojl 
•* E lie em who are skilled in theje canting Forms of Speech, 
*' though in nothing elfe. And from this Conjideration of the 
** feveral Significations if Engliih Words, voe may obferve 
** hvw necefiary and ujcful it vjould be that our Touth be 
■** rightly injirudedin tf)e Knowledge of their own Language^ 

♦• together 

The Preface. 37 

' tagtther nv!l!> thai ef lit Latin and Greek, fitee if '■j.'lff 
' he/omcwjl'al I'artf fir ol^^ts Iraii/^afiEngVilhinta Latin, 
■• ifht he net erfuainled luilb ihc Sen/t of the Englifii, H 
'■' m^y elfa hi taertbf ear Enfuiiy bsnv/ar the htaming the 
■' fritiifluef Grammar inEnglifh, and exflainliig ibem 
•* h familial- V.a^\!ii Exa»!tlc, [as far at tl>i Thing ludt 
" tear} ivaalJ fBm/uee re a h tier, tharer, find juicier f »- 
" JerftandinS (/"Grammar, Euglini tm^ latin. 7br/ might 
" liiev:i/t, at ibi fame Time, h nJiiiiled It an Acatain- 
" tanetixith tiiundaace of u/tful Tbiagf i loh'tli tuoHli/ ren- 
" der the Stu/fy ef fVerds far more tafj and plrafant ; end 
" lb* Ttmu ef Grammar, at ihty art the mafi fimjle] fi 
' are they the mefi eejy of tiny Blbtr « be tinderfised; far 
■ - "hild [}•». ■ ' - ' - - 

' tf ^i', '"•^ '*"• ^ JhonTd not haft txcttded the Trmt, 
' tat lam fare g/fevtn er tlfbt) but •what •wauliie ahl> 
• It underhand the Terms, J^aniidsd they •were femilii.rly 

ixplaintd to their Capacilta .* For in thii Cafi the kind 
" evndifcending Mafler luill part ivilb bit logical Dclioiiicm 
'• far a plain Ddciipiion of the Term. This is what ! bcvi 
" ifien expfrieiced in bandrtdt ef Children, hetb •ivhin I iKot 
" JJiflanI ftrfiveral Years to awry* grext Ma&tT in the 
•• A« of Teaching, and fmtt ; end eon i^art you that t 
" ha-vlina^-n a Child as -well plea/id v.'llb being taught «/- 
" Itr this Manner, atiuitb hii Pli^; and I never miliuirh 
" a Child yet, but t^he nmntrd 7l a Compliment paid le tii 
" UnArfmndlng, to be afi-ed ibe Meaning ef Thingi ; and tt 
" fay that ih.y err net capatle, till fmh an Age, cfeppre- 
•' bending tbrfi Things, is la tbrmu a Siur vpeit humnn Un- 
■* dcrftandlng, twd the Art iifelf 

•' B"! tliji ere only Hints, #,'/ luhiel/ 1 Immbli fuhtnit tt 
•• the Ctnfultreliw ^bi m'^t Itnm^d o^djudideui I«Jlri>a- 
" tri ej Y>^tb. Adit iiliai to return le Z>r. Wallis, 
" eaiJgive Riafens for mdtrlaUng this U'erk. 
^ '■ The Reofen of my taidirti'king this Graniioar ita*, that 
** ForiigBirt might it ojf.fied to under/land our Laaguagr, 
■' ead rtad Iht many exeelltnl Beets nubicb have been 'u/ritien 

. Benj. Morland, F. R. S, aad the pri/int nuertLy 
' rtjSl. PiUilV School. 


7he Preface. 

•* in it, upon all Sorts of Suhje^s ; efpedally 9Ur Booh of 
Fradical Di'vinity, for ivhich pur Divines hteve acquired 
more Fame throughout the Northern Cowitries of Europe, 
than either the Natives ofthofe F laces ^ or any of the mo^ 
dem French Divines, whether they are Reformed or Popi/b, 
And lam of Mr, DeDnisV Opinion^ that our Language^ 
by Reafon of the Dependance it has upon the Saxon, is not 
very difficult to be learnt hy the People of the Northern^ 
Ccwitries, and many of their Clergy have learnt enough 
of it, to make Advantage of our Ecclejiafiical Writings i 

*' to which the learned Dr. Hickes agrees, as vuill appear hy 
the follovjing Scheme of the Northern Languages^ as they 
depend one upon another. 













Cimbrick, or 

Dutch, Frifain, • 
£ngli(h, Scotch. 


Iriandifli, Nor- 
wcgian, Swediih. 

But as many Foreigners are dejirous to underjiand our Lan^ 
guage, fo fome of them complain of the very great Difficulty 
that there is in learning it : And vihat I the more ViOnder 
at, fome of our ov3n Countrymen have 4$tertained this Notion^ 
imagining it to be ftrangely puxxling and perplexed, and thai 
it is not eajily reducible to Grammar Rules, And hence both 
the Teachers and Learners of the Language, fetting cbout 
this Work, for the moji Fart, in a confufed and Mfcrderfy 
Manner, it is no Wonder they fbould meet voith fo much Diffi' 
culty aud Uneafinefs in it : To remedy luhich Inconvenience, I 
hi^ve undertaken to reduce our Language, ivhich is Ttaturally 
'; r^y eaf\, to aftvofhort Rules, by vjhich the Language ^ay 
id rendered more eafy to he learnt hy Foreigners-, ana our 


The Preface. 39 

Caunlfymin mar "w^f r/carlf perceive tbi Rea/aa and Genius 
ef their Native Tongue. 

lamMol ifnarant thai fevtrat frrfini have uadcrlai.-a 
tiil Htri btfire na i 'iohefe Ptrf^rmaxce, at, hj m mts>,! la 
it aiufert'a/tttJ i nomly. Dr. Gill, Mn/ler ef St. Paul'/ 
SehM/,>%vhe ivreu in Latin; Ben, lolmfan the Fset i» 
Englilh; arrf Henry Hexham /« Dutch. Bui mneofihifi 
hai'e, in my O^'niox, Itiien the right Metbnd; for all ef 
fhtmfoTiii:g our Englilh TmsuI Ihq r/uirh to the Laria M- 
iksel (iHla liihicb Emr elmofi all iwha bene •wrote Gram- 
man of the moJern Lanpiagtt have failen) ha-vt delivered 
maaj ufelefs Treapti ceneerninv the Cti/er, GeaJeri, and De- 
cUnfiem of Newts i ibe fenftt. Meads, and C-mjtigetiom of 
Verbs, and other fueh like Things, ivhich our Langaage haf& 
nothing at all to do •with ; tvbifb Tbingi lend only to coifound 
and perplex Matters, ralher tllmi tlear aiid eieplam them. 

And upon this Jceaunt I Smii bttn obliged to par/iu a 
mitt different Method, mgliBittg the Latin Way, and keep~ 
tng ela/e ta •what the particular Nature of cur Tongue repiir- 
4dif»r the Syntait, ar Conjfneaion ef the Noun, !i cliffy 
ferfarmtdby the Help eftiirlain ff'ards called ?nyafit'iim}, etui 
ih* Catyagation being teJUj mnnagtd by the .lid- of certain 
Wtrdt called AiiiaVnTy, or belpiig Verbs, that Matter is per- 
formed tvilb the greatejl Eafe imtigliii^lt, that tifei to create 
fa much Trouile ia other Langutipi, 

There are indeed, in ibt Latin Tongue, feme fTerdi both 
Subftantlve fl«</ AdjedtJve, iiAiVA n« Aptotes, thtiis, art 
trndrelincd, or da mi tijange ibtir Endir-gi futb are pmdo, 
nihil, in&sr, fit (u/ed as a Stbjlaniit'c) frugi, neqa^m. 

Jinefto, faV. yit ibiy arefutfoftJ la bu've Genders end Cifis 
\h Vbcr Nottni,allho^h thtfrtmain the fame [that is, dome 
ehange ibtir Ending) nteill the Cafes and Gmderi : AWi if all 

the Lalin Noiint, as wr//SubBantives as Adjeflives. did ad- 
»dt ef na Change in their Ending, •uiejiould •without daubl 
4mw heard nothing af ihi Cafes and Gmiiri ef Nouns j and 
a g'tat many of iblfe Rules, tchich art fOov ntetfarily laid 

a the LuSft Syntax, lueoldlhen bat/e hem ufllrfs, and 
a^e found no Roam there : And tlxfamt Thing nl/i 
a^e hafprned to the imriaw Formation af the Mou4i 

40 I'he Preface. 

eaebYo\zt (A£livc i?«</Paflivc) tvere to he §xpreffed only hy 
Circumlocution, as it is in fame Tenfes of the Pailive Voice. 
Sinciy tberfforij in our Language Things are quite other^voife 
than in the Latin, nvhere nuefeUom change the Endings of 
our Nouns f and exprefs a!meft all the Tenfes hy Circumlom 
cutiotts ; n»hat Ground or Foundation can ^e haie t§ intro^ 
duce into our Language^ nvithout any manner of NeceJ/ity^ a 
feigned and foolijb Medley ofQvStt^ Genders, Moods, Ten- 
fes, ^c, If^e ha'ue honAiiver retained the Terms of Art ^ as 
ruei'ved among the Latins, although they may not all of them 
he J in every RcfpeSi^ quite fo lUill adapted to our Tongue ; and 
the Reafon ivly I ufed them ivaSy hecaufe their Significations 
are pretty »uwl inonvUf aud I tuouid not makt any wmeceffa" 
ry Jnnwations* 

" The learned and judicious Dr, Wallis has 
Of the Pro- ** eudeantoms^ fo explain the Sound of Let- 
nunciation. *' tf rs, aft^^befame Manner as moft other 

" Grammarians have done ; namely^ hy c§m^ 

paring the- Hie Sounds of other Tongues ivith thofe of ottr 

OfVOH ; as for Example y *when he fays our £ng1i(h e is pro^ 

nounced like the French e Mafculine, But as this migbi 

fcem to our Countrymen the explaining of an unknown 

Thing, hj ivhat is yet morefo ; and the DoBor defigning 

** thofe Rules of bis , cmciming the Pronunciation chief y for 

•* Foreigners ; / have for tbis Reafon thrown fome of his Text 

" among the liotes, 

Aud the DoSor^ to obviate this OhjeifioMt has wrote an 

admirable Treatife of Speech, nvherein he doth very di* 

ftinQly lay down the Manner of Fomang all Sounds of\ 

Letters ufual in Speech^ as voell of the Englifh, as of other 

Languages, And the DoSor fays ^ that ^ being prepared by 

/^/i Treatife, he had taught not ot^ feveral of our Coun- 

trymcm^ nuho fluttered extrcamfy^ and ivho 'were not able 

to pronounce /ome Letters, tofpeak diftinHly and readily ; bui 

'* he likcwife caufed feveral Foreigners^ that complained 9f 

the difficult Sound of fome of our Letters, to pronounce 

*.* them eafily, and vjithout any Trouble ; by direBing them 

to apply their Tongue, Lips, and other Organs of Speech^ 

/ffjuri Pcf}ures and Motions as are proper far the For* 

f^ .'f^^y^a a/yiuJb and/ucb Sounds, He tauAt al/o t«wo Per.- 










" fin$ miha 'Wfre Dutab {bicaufe Dtof) not titly ft rtad 
** Englifll JiflUSly, But m prortcunce ihe mejl di^ult Ward 
" tf tlhcr Langaagei, •wiriri Fsrelgntrt profefid u ihrtni 
" and tkej -were Ufwif, ahU to ixfrefl ihur Minds, ami 
*' ctuld unditflend Litters •oirittea ta tbtm, and ^vritt An- 
" fwtrj. Sat I^all rtftr iht turiiiia Rtedir ta ike Dae 
" iBt^J etfn jiccBfit. 

'• Eui ■u.tjhallenndudi fbls long Prtfatc t»ilh thtfc } fords 
'• if Dr. Wallis," Iftbtribt „nyPtrfm, •win Ihali judgt 
that this PirJhimaiKe, luhnttvir it be, might bn-vc ti:n it 
•u^lUhl akm (ihinkint (Vi KntivUdgt s/lfiirNati-vt -nngar 
ta it e/ little WBtth) let ihtn take thii ahng ixilh r/j, n ; 
Hat ihaugh litre ere taeiay TbiHgs, fie Kna^ledge a/tvbicb 
m.'^Bat di/eroc nay grrnt Praijt, yit tl 't ■» •:jtrj Jhaniful 
thing t% ieigmrtuit cfikim. 

Jufi puhliJJjedt 

In a mat Pocket Volume, 
Price bound is. 6 d. 

Recommended as the hejl in its Kind by Dr, S. Clarke, 
Dr. D. Watcrland, and Dr. I. Watts. Dedicated 
to and deftgnedfor the life of her Royal Highnefs 
thi Princefs of ifales, 

^i&r Fov R T H- Ed 1 T I ON, */ 

"• 1 . . 

T H E 

Royal Englifli Grammar, 


What is necdlary to the Knowledge of the 


Laid do^ ia a plain aod familiar Way. 
* For the Ufe of young. Gcntlerhert and Ladies, 

To which are added, 

Lcffons for Boys at School, fliewing the Ufe of 
the Parts of Speech, and the joining Words 
together in a Sentence. 

By y^JMES GRE ENff^OOD, StiT^ 
Majfer of Si. Paul'j Scfcool. 

[ 43 ] 

Knglijio Grammar. 


MAN, although he has a great Variety 
of Thoughts, and they arc,fuchby 
which others, as well as himfdr, 
ftiight be Profited and Delighted j yet they 
are all within his own Bread, jnvifiblc and 
hidden from others, nor can ot' themfelvcs be 
made to appear. The Comfort and Advan- 
tage of Society, not being to be had witliout 
Communication of Thoughts ; it was neceflir^ 
that Man fhoiild find out fome externa! or out- 
ward feiifible Signs, whereby thore invifible 
Ideas or Notions, which liis Thoughts are made 
up of, might be made known to others. For this 
Purpofc nothing was fo (it, either for Plenty or 
Qiiicknefs, as thofe Articulate Sounds, c;illed 
Words-, which with fo much Eaie and Variety 
he tbund himfelf able to mak.e. T'ftfi,ViN\tw«>'«s. 
[ of^Me n in Speaking are, ot at\tisfit^vi\\5!c\«v^ 

— c X al 

44 ^^^ English Grammar. 

be underftcod ; which cannot be, where Men 
do not ufe their Words according to the Pro- 
priety of the Language in which they fpeak ; 
for Propriety of Speech is that which gives our 
Thoughts Entrance into other Mens Minds 
with the greateft Eaic and Advantage-, and 
therefore dcfervcs fome Part of our Care and 
Study, Wherefore thofe Perfons, who arc de- 
firous to fpeak or write clearly and corredlly 
in any Language, ought to ftudy Grammar, 

Nctft Articulate Souti/fs are fuch as may be cxprefs'd by 
Litters, htarticututi Sounrli are iuch as cannot be well ex- 
prefs^d by Letters^ as Hijfin^y Ccitgbin^, Groaning, LcugkiH^^ 
&c. Oi Articulate U'orcfj there sltc two Sorti; ope Sort 
that denotes or figniiies fome Peifon or Thing ; and ano- 
ther Sort that has no Signification or Meaning at all ; m 
Scifuiap/usy Bli^ri, Li rum, Larum^ Screluutp ScrattlkWf $iC, 

where there ii nothing bat Sound. 


Of Grammar^ and its Parts. 

* Grammar is the Art of Speaking and Writ- 

tng truly and properly. 

GRAMMAR may be diftinguiihed into two Kinds, 
I. Natural SJid diner ml, z. Ifrjiituteif SMd Particular, 

1. Natural Grammar (which may likewife be fliled 
PLilofophical, Rational^ and Uniierfal) fliould contain all 
fuch Grounds and Rules as do naturally and oeceflkrily be- 
long to the Philofophy of Letters and Speech in general. 

2. hjiituted 2lvA Particular Grammar doth deliver the 
liu/cs which are proper and peculiar to «ny out Ijaxi^vA.^'?- 

y'ajnr/cu/ar. Whcrcfort Dr. ff^allis \uMy &nd» ¥aa\t viV^ 

7he English Gfamtnar. 45 

WIT S'j/^GrammBrkDS, where hefjys, All oT them, forec- 
ing our ktiglijh Tongue too muc)i lo ihe Uiiin MriM, have 
delivmd many uTcler^ Precepts concerning Cafea, Genders, 
and DrcIenlioiH of Nouns i thcTenfes, Moodi, and Con. 
jugadoni of Verbs; as alfo the Government of Nnuns and 
Vcibi, and oiher Inch like Things, which our Language 
tiach nothing at alt to do wiib. 

• There are four Parts a? Grammar . 

^^^ Ortbograplrft Eiymclo^^ 

^^ S^axy Prefo^. 

Ntit, For fince Sfitcb conlilb or is made ap of WarJi, 
a H'ord of Syilailii, and a SylUbli of Usi-ri r We may di- 
vide Grammar into four ParCi. 

1. Thai IVt which treats cf Ltittri, or the tnoft con- 
venient and proper Marki or Ssune'i for the ExprelTion oi 
H^Brdi ; whether by Writingcalled Orlliagr/ipliy, or by Sprtii- 
called Orihotfy, which ought to have been reckoned as a 
Part of Grammar before Orthographj, fince Sfrtth pie- 
Cedes IVriling, 

2. That Pan which relates to SyllnHa, and trcah of 
their true Pronunciation in oUferving due ^fLvw and -Timt, 
called Pra/aify. 

3. That Part which relates to Vsrdi, and treat! of 
their Kinds, their Derivation, their Endings, Changes, 
iheir Analogy, or Likcneft to one another in any Language, 
called Eiyimltgy. 

4. That I^t which treats of the ngli Placing or Join- 
ing of Words together in a Sentence, called Sjninx ; and 
this Part is the End of Gratunuir. For to what PutpWc i* 
it to have Words, if we do not join them together i And 
vet ihii it not fuffident, unlefs we rightly join theio, that 
IS. ai ih« bcA Speakers ufed to ^o ; for Exainplar J Siate 
the Perra tht &y ttiiii HU'ti : Here are Wotds joined to- 
gciliet, bat bere is no Syntax ; that U, there h no n%ht 
'Jcittmg of lAem - for die bcft S^s.k«^ >NeKjiSL liwia -ja^^ 
thcia. Tin Sykilhdtlt Varrox 'ailb aStont.. 

46 7he English GrammfMf. 

The Ends of Language in our Difcourie with ot^a artf 
chicPy thefe three, Fh-fi^ To make known our Thought* 
or Ideas to one another. Seconiilyy To do it with as much 
Eafe and Quickncfs as is poffible. And,, ^hirdly^ *there- 
hy to convey the Knowledge of Things. Language is ci- 
ther abttfed or deficient, when it fails of any of thefe Three. 

^cfiions relating tothejirjl Chapter. 

Q. mat is Art ? 

jf. Art is a Method or Way of doing any Thing 'welL 
Q^ JP'bat iiayou learn Grammar/or r 
A. To learn to fpeak and write truly and properly. 
Q. What do j(ou mean by ff making and ^writing truhf and 

A Speaking and Writbg after the Coftom of the beft 
Speakers and Writers. 

Q. What are thofe Sounds called^ ivbicUr Men frame of 
make in Speakifig ? 

A, Words. 

Q. What don Grammar treat off 

A, Words. 

Q. What is the End or Dejign in Sfeeth ? 

A. To declare our Meaning ; or convey the Thoughts of 
onr Minds from one to another. 

Q^ What is Englifh ? 

A, A Language or Tongue y^YazYi the Feoplt of England 

<2l ^^^^ '* Engiifh Grammar ? 
■ A.- Sngiijh Grammar is the jfi^ of fpeidciiig and' tvri- 
tingEng/tyh truly and properly. 

Q. When dots a Man /peak andivrite Engliih truly and 

A. When he fpeaks according to die Cuftom or Ufe of 
the beft Speakers. 

I fhall endeavour to explain what I mean by the Ufe or 
Cuih>m of the beft Speakers, in the Tranflattion-of an Ele- 

r(it pai&ge out of SluintHian^ a iudfcioas Roman Author, 
i. f. 6. •• We ought to determmc in the firft Place, faj^s 
«* hff what we mean by that we call Cuftom ; which, if it 
'' ihoudd cake its Name from the Pradtice of the ftlejoricy. 

1'he English Grammar. 47 

" will have a very dangerous and bad Influence, not onl/ 
*' upon Sjicech, but wliat is of greater Imporonee. upon 
** Lift. Whence can we expect To great a Good, thnt 
" thofc Things which are right fhould pleafe ihe Majority ? 
" TKerefow, as effeminate^ to fmooih the Body. 10 curl 
*' tbe Hair, arid to tipple in the Daihs ; though thefe are 
*' Things that have prevailed in this City, yet they are not 
" Terkoned as Cuftoms, becaiife there is T>one of tfiefe 
" Afiionsbuc whacare blameable and drferve our Reproof; 
" but we walh, we fhave, and welive, or eatand drink 10- 
" eether, according to Cuftom: So iikewifein Difcourfe, 
" if there be any Thing that has corruptly prevailed among 
*' the Multitude, we mult not receive or embrace that for 
" the Rule or Stundard of Speech. For we know that 
" whole ■JhtBirti, and all the tompany of the • Circm. 
" have oftcniimes declared their Sacisfafkion or Dillikc in 
" the fame barbarous Expreffions with thofe of the igno- 
" rant Multitude ; I (hall therefore call the Cuflom of Speech, 
" the Agreement of the Learned, as that of Life, the Agree* 
'* ment or Proflice of the Good, ji, Gclliui does like- 
" wife rightly diilingujlh between the Ufe of (be Vulgir> 
" and that of the Learned, /. I. r. 7. 

Q- What i, Latin ? 

Jl. The Language which the VLnmani fpoke, 

Q. h ihirt B<ry rial Differenct btfoHtn lie fforJi Lan- 
guage and Tongue ? 

J. No. 

f know the Objefiion generally made againft calling the 
Engli^ a Larguage is, t«caofe it is but a Branch of lomc 
other : But this Objeflion feemi to be of no Force 1 for tbd 
Difpulc turns upon the Ufe of tlic Words Languagr ini 
7iingiit. which we ufe indifferently one for the Other. Nay, 
wetranflace Linguir Mafrkii, the Mother Tongues ; ihougli 
if you had rather fay the Methir L.iKguagei, 1 Ihatl not bv 
angiy. The whole Difpute is trifling, and did not dctcrve 
ihuKotCi but People niuA bepleafed. 

h ihu Note 

1 • T4* CiwiU 'U.fli « largi Placi .» Rome, 1. bir, ihr /"« 

L fil/ta ft Jit Uir/c-ReUI, anielhti P^hck Sbe-Ul. 

C 6 <^u«. 

48 Tie English Grammar. 

Qs, Honv m/iny Parts o/* Grammar are there / 

^. Four, • viz. Orthography or Orthoepy, Etymology, 
Proibdy, Syntax. 

Q;^ M^/j/7t is Orthography ? 

jif. Orthography^ h the Art of true Writing, or that Part 
of Grammar which teaches us how to write every Word 
with proper Letters. It comes from the Greek Words Or* 
thus right, and Graphe Writing. For Example, we mail 
write Bijkop^ not Bufiop ; fo <^V, foQt^ might, neither , fru* 
menty ; not dud, fut^ mought, Or med. Mother, furmity, 

Q^ What is Orthoepy ? 

J. Orthoepy, is the Art of True Speaking, and gives 
Kules for the right Pronouncing of Letters, from Orthos, 
right, and Epos sl Word. For Example, We muft not pro* . 
Aounce ftomp, Jhet, famnce, tunder, gmje, eend, ommofi ; 
but fiamp, jhut, fer^iee^ tinder ^ ga<ve, end, almoft. 

The Difference between Orthography and Orthoepy is, that 
the former rehttej to the True Writing of Words, and the 
latter to the right Pronouncing of them. Wherefore Teach« 
ers ought to take great Care that their Scholars fpeak out 
their Words deariy and diftindly, and obferve what Impedi- 
ments of Speech they labour under, and what Letters they 
are which the Scholars are lefs able to pronounce ; and io 
fl^w them how to mend thofe Defers, by diredting them 
to apply their Tongue, Lips, and other Organs of Speech, 
to fuch Poflures and Motions, as are proper for the For-« 
nation of fuch Sounds or Letters. i 

Q. IVbat is Etymology ? 

A* It is that Part of Grammar which teaches you what 
belongs to each Part 0/ Speech. It comes from etumos, true, 
wod/ogos. Speech. 

Q^ /rW // Syntax ? 

J. It n a right Joining of Words in a Sentence. It 
comei ft cm the Greek Prepofition Syn, together, and taxis^ 
ordenMg^ or ranking* In Latin it is callm ConftruStio, Csn^ 

* The Anfwer might be made thus : Five,'«z;/»;. Orthoepy, 
Orthography, ice. making a Diftinftion between Orthoepy 
txA Orthography, ks there really is. 

firuQion \ 

Thi English Grammar. 
fruRitn; from Con together, and y^nii3fa a Building, ora 
Settipg Things in good Order. 

Qjjn'bat ii Prolody? 

J. Pra/nily is the Art of ProHOuncing Words according 
to due Acctnt and Time. It comes from prm, it, and tit, 
a S..g. 

Ct Wbei is Acc«nt ? 

A. It is Taut or 7avt ; which is of two Sorts, 
Grarot Or low Tune ; the Acmt or higher Tune } i: 
Ac<ttitus, from ad, it, and lantm, a 7««. 

Q^ Wbal Je you mean by f romancing tviik Trnte f 

A. Sounding the SjUehUi fwifter or flower. 

Q^ Whtntt eemit Iht n'sriGnmiOK i 

A. From Gramma a Letter. Gramfliar begins v 
Letters which are the Foundation of Words, and proceed* 
to the Explaining of the Properties of the Words them- 
felves. ll takes its Name fiom the Grcdani,\i\\o, not much 
minding the Study of Fordgn Language:, fent iheir Chil- 
dren to Schoolonly to learn to read and write thdr owa 
Language. Hence /iri/jmlt call) Gnunmar, 7bt Knevi- 
ledgt of Ria£ng and ff'rilixg. 




Of Etymology, er that Part ef Grammar vibicb 
teaches what belongs to each Part of Speech. 

• Words are Primitive., or Derivative. 

• A Primitive Word is that which comes 
from no other Word in our language j as 
fr/fi, Sabe. 

• A Derivative Word is that which com« 
from fome other Word in our Language ; as a 
Fiflicr, Fifhy, from Fifh ; Bablcr, Babling, 
(rem Babe i fo RacionaU from Ration;^is. 

';o The Enclisr Grammar. 

0/ the Eight Parts of Speech. 

TO fignify the Difference of our Thoughts or No- 
tion in any Language, there is Need of feveral 
Sorts of Words : Now every Word being confjdered as 
a Part of our Speech or Diicourfe, the (ar/immori/im (or 
they who write of Grammar) do reckon up eight Sorts 
of Words of a different Nature, which they call. Eight 
Parts of Sp€€cb. 

* The Eight Pats of Speech are; 

Nomtf M'vcrh^ 

Frwioun^ ConjunGiwtf 

f^ctk-^ Prefofitiorr^ 

Partidpie^ InterjeSim, 

OPall which we (hall treat in their proper Place. 
Sluc/tjons relating to the /icond Chapter. 


J. Speaking or Difcoarfe. 

Q. How ma$y Parts of Speech are there ? 

A Eight. 

Q. W.ha^ are their Names } 

A. Noun, FroDOun» Verb, Participle, ^c. 

(i What do you mean by Eigfjt Parts cf Speech ? 

J. Eight Sortft of Words, which Men ufe in fpeaking. 

Q^ Jre there no more than Eight Words in a Langnage T 

A. There are Thoufands of Words, but yet there are but 
eight Sorts ; for cvcxy Word, which Men ufe in fpeaking, 
il either i^Nonn, or an AifcffivCf i. e. a Word that figni- 
tfes cBe Qiudlty or Manner of a Notpt, or a Pron'bun, or a 
Pierl^ or a Partieipief or an Adverb^ or a ConjunSion^ or a 
Propofitionf or an Intetje^on. 

Q:^ Why do they give dijferent Names to the Parts of Speech f 

A. To diftinguifh one Part of Speech from another ; 
in like manner as a Carpenter^ to diftmguilb one Tool from 


Tht E N r. L 1 5 H Gramtisr. $i 

another, calls one an HaMmtr, another a Chi£et, another 

Qi Arc the Pari! cfSpiech ihefamt in Snglilh ai In Latin > 

A. Yes, For that, which is a Neun in E>iglijh, is a hSoan 

tJi Latin, and fo of the refl. But as for Numbers, Cares, 

Genders, Declenfions, Cooju^tions, iSc. Thefc are not 

the fame in both Languages. 


O/ a, N O U N. I 

AT^eun is a general Name exprefling ei- 
ther the Thing tifelf, or any Property, 
Quality, or Attribute inhering in, or belong- 
ing CO the Thing. 

• A Nnun Stihfiamive '»■ the Name of the 
Thing itfelt; as, a A&i», i Hurfi, a Tree. 

* The AdjeSlive is a Word that expreffes 
the Qusdities or Properties of a Thing : as 
goody bad, wife^ feolip:), great, finall, &c. 

^efiiam rthllag to the ihirJ Chefttr. 
Q. What ii It iSlouB ?' 

I genfral- Name expreffing ei 
ne Property or Quality ont. 

r either the 
Thing itfolf, or fome' 
CL !t if vol thrjhing ii/H/r 
A. No: For Grammar treats of Words and B91 of 

fy Hpui iloysu make it t!fpear that the Words, Man, 
Horfe, Tree, art Subllantivct f 

A. Becaofe if any one faj-s, f/tt a M^*, fjh-.a Herfi, 
J fir « Tr/e, in each Saying the Senfe ii plain and full, and 
I underfland the Meaning. 
^.Q. Wtw ,/a iffu ncie if tifffur ihut the If'erJt, 
' '^trir*, foohlh, great, fmall, arc Adicflivw ! 



g2 fbe English Grammar^ 

A. Becaule if any one (ays, I fee a goody I fit a had^ I 
fee a. nvifi^ I fie a fiioUJh^ I fit a greats 1 fee a finally 
in thefe Sayings there is no Senfc, nor do we underftaiid 
the Mttming of them, but there needs to be put in a Suh- 
fianti'ue to each Adjeilinjt to make ^enfi \ as Ifie a good 
MuHj Ifie afinall Horfi, I fit a great fret, 

Q^ In thefi Sayings folhwing. tell mt 'which Words an 
SubilantiveSy andwhith art A^e^ves» andtht Reafon nuhj^ 

The Cat catches Mice, This is a wife. 

The Boy 'writes a good, J wife reads Books^ 

71ns is a foolifh, fhey play a fniall, 

Peter lo'ves Pudding, Uorfis drink Wa^cr. 
Wt lome fweetf 

Qs. Whence ettnes the Word Noun ? 

jL From the Latin Word Nomtn^ a Name. 

Q^ From whence ernes the Word Sabfiantiye ? 

A. From the Latin Word Suhfiantits^ Suhftanct ; becaufe 
it fignifies the Sul^ance of the Thin^. 

Q^ Whence eomes.tbe Word Adje&ve I 

A. From the Latin Word A^icere, to tuU, becaufeifts 
to be added to the Suhftanti've, 

In the WmiI Noun Suhfiantivts you nay leave out Nenn, 
and call it a Suhfiemtiw. 

Definitions being only the Explaming one Word by ano* 
thcr that is more nuniliar, fo tmu the Meaning, or Idea it 
itancblbr, may be certainly known, Languages are not al- 
ways ib made according to the Rules ofLogicif that every 
Term can have its Signification exa£Uy or clearly expreflied 
by two others : I have therefore rather endeavoured afcer'a 
Defcription of what the Terms mean^ than after a ftriA Dc- 
initioa of them. And I believe it will be objected ta me 
ttat I have too ftrlAIy foUowed an old Diredion s 

Sfntk imv flearfyp emd lefiliki aScholar^ 


The English Grammar. 


0/Subftantives Proper, and Cctrmofi. 

TH E far greateft Part of WofJf , that make all Z-!*- 
gH/rgci, are general Terms ; but becaufe there h 
OccaGon lo mention thii or that pa.riici:lar Perlbn or Tbing. 
ihey muft have their proper Name* to be known and tu- 
Hingullted by. 
* Nouns SubJiantiveAXZ either pr(J/>fr, or common. 

* A Noun Suhjtantive proper \s 3. Word thac 
belongs to feme {individual) particular One of 
tliat Kind ; as Anne, Peter, James, Marj, &c. 

* A. Noun Suhjiantive common is a Word which 
belongs to all of that Kind ; as Man, IVsman, 
Horfe, tree, &c. 

BeCdes Perfoni, Countries alCo, Cities, Rivers, hfoai]< 
Uini, and other DiilinAiont of f lace, have ufually found 
peculiar Names, they being fuch Words as Men have often 
OccafiOD to marlc particularly. And it ii not to be doubt- 
ed, but if wc bad Reafon to mention particular Harfii, u 
often as we have to mention particular Miv, we Ihould have 
proper Names for the one, as familiar as for the other ) and 
Buftfhelui would be a V^'otd as much in Ufe, a* AUxan- 
dtr. And therefore we fee amongft Joekyi, Horfes have 
dieir proper Names to be known and diHinguilhed by. ai 
cammonly as their Servanci) bccaure, amongll them, there 
is often OccaGon to mention this or that parciciilai Horfe, 
when he is out of Sight, 

It may be faiiher oblerved that tropir Nania, when they 
xre attributed to divcife PcrfoDs, become rammm Ntmtti 
as theC^Virj, the ji/i;fii#<Ar^ i aoy brave Men being callc^ 
by thofe Nunei. 

54 9^^ English Grammar. 

!^Jions relating to the fourth Chapter. 

Q. Is the Word Anne a proper or common Name ? 

A, It is a proper Name ; becaufe it belongs to fome par- 
ticular One of that Kind ; for Anne it not the Name of 
every Woman. 

Qj^ Is the Word Woman a proper or common Name ? 

A. It is common, becaafe it belongs to all of that 
Kind; for every Woman is called a Woman, but ever/ 
Woman is not called Anne, 

Q. Art the Words Ship, River, Horfe, proper or eommnU 
Names ? 

A. They are common ; for every ^hip is called a Sblp^ 
and every Ri'ocr is called a Ri*very ice. 

Q. Are the Words Albemarle [the Name of a Ship] the 
Thames, Bucephalus, proper or common Names f 

A, They are proper, becaufe they belong to fome parti- 
cular Ones of that Aind ; for every ^hip is not called the 
Albemarle t neither is every Ri*ver called the ^hames^ nor 
every Horfe Bucephalus. 

0/ tbi EngUih Pr^er Names. 

I tm fdifiMe that this Accodiit of the BnfUfi p t ofu 
Names does not flriaty relate to the Sv^t&. of this Book i 
yet becaufe it has fome fmall Relation diereto, and nlighf 
entei-tain the Cnriofity of fome Peribns, I had made a Gol^ 
le^on of what feveral Authors have wrote of thefe Mat<< 
ters, with which I defigned to prefent the Reader ; but be- 
ing luckily prevented by the better Performance of the late 
ingenious and learned yohn Chamber lajnit £fq; in his mofr 
fifeful Book, The Pre/ent State ^Great-Britain ; I have 
chofen rather to give you his Account than my own. 

Nomina cunfi Notamina. * Name^ in Sax. Nama^ Gothic. 
« Namo^ Alem. NamOy Perf. Nam, All from the Hchr. naam 
« dixit be feudy Jun, GloX 263. Names were firft im- 
pofed on Men for DiiUndion fake, by the Jt^n^^^s at their 
Circumcifion, by the Qreeks at the feventh or tenth Day, 
by the Romans at the ninth Day after their Birth, and by 
the Cbriftians at thei^ Baptifm, of fuch Signification for 


1 ^^ 

The English Crdmaar. ^g 

thf mod pan, thai might denote ihe future good Hope, 
«r good Wifhci of Parents lowarda their Children. 

The Engiyb Nsmes, at Baptifm, are generally (ither Sax- 
•n or Nsrman i as Rthert, RieharJ, ILmy, If'Uliam, Ed- 
ivari, SdnamJ, Ediuii, GUbert, Waller, Llonarit, &c. or 
(Ifc (efpeciatly in latter Ages) out orthe Oldand NewTe* 
ftamcnl ; as, Ahrabam, //««, Jacib. John, 7hamcis, Jamn, 
Uc. Or fometimesthe Mother's Sar-iramr, erpecially if Ihe 
bas been an Heirela, or of fuperior Birth or Quality to her 
Hufband, and rarely two ChrifUan Names, which yet is 
ufunt in other Countries, efpecisUy in Gtrmany. 

Sur.ntimii.] Names fuperaddcd to the Chriltian Namet. 
the Frtncb call Sur-nomi (i. e.) Supn- Nemina. • The Word 
' Ser-nanie is in old Englijb Manufcripts. The Engtijb for- 
' nieriy called it a To-Kumi ; as is irt Raba-t of Qkudjltr, 
■ and in Langti/t. To-itame litertlly Bnfwcrs to Agnamca tti 
' Cegts'imca, U Sur-name to Safer Nmirn. Out Sax«» Aa- 
' ceilors had no finglc Word to exprefs Sur-name, but cal- 
' led it the elher- Name. Si wfl« at/ire N«man Starietb. 
• Luc. xxii. 3. 

Tlie • Hiirfwi, Cr-eckr, and moft other Nations, had 
no Siir-Hiiinei iixed to their Families, as in thefe Daya. but 
counted thus 1 for Ejrample among the Heirmn, MiMi 
Bt« Addi, AM Btn Ccfum, *c. So the BHtaim, Hugh ttp 
Otun, Chucn op Rb'ft: So the Iri^, Ntal Mat Cm, Ohi 
' fiat Dmrnt, tec. 

As Chriftian Names were firft given for Diftinflion of 
Puionti, To Sur-ttames for DiitinAion of Families. 

About Anne 1000, the Prtmeh Nation began to tilte 
Sar-samii, with De pre&x'd, of a Place, and Lt prefix'd, for 
fame other Qaalificaiioni, as at this Day it their nfual 
Manner. The Eagiifo alfo took to themfelvet SKr-aanei; 
but not generally ainong the common People, till after the 

ReigO of Eikj/arJ 1. 

Great Offices of Honour have broQght divert ^cr-smRi;/; 

as BJimn! Fita-fhfubaU, being lon^ ago made Butler of 

I Irrl.ind, the Duke of OrmoiiJ, and tus AnccAon defcend- 

* See Meet. u. 1, a, 
N 4ftcr the Captivity, 

56 The ENGLISH Grammar. 

ing from him, took the Sur-nami of Butler. So y$hH 
dmt TankemjiiU of N^rmantfyt being made Chambirlain to 
the King of England^ above 400 Years ago« his Defcend- 
ants of ^herbornrCaJik in Oxfsrdflsirfn lately extin^l, and 
of Freftbury^ Mangerjbury\ and Okdingtw in Glouceficr- 
JfAre (from whom the Author of this Account was de- 
fcended) bear ftiil the fame Coat of Arms* by the Name 
of Chamberlain, 

At iirft, for ^ur-names the Emgli/h Gentry took the Name 
of their Birth-place, or Habitation ; as, Thomas of Aftom^ or 
Eaft'Toivn j y^bn of SuttOHt or Soutb-Tcwn ; Hewy of 
IVQtton^ or Wooil'T$nvni and as they altered their Habitati- 
on, fo they altered their Sur-name, After^ when they be- 
came Lords of Places, they called themfelves Ti^^/v/rj A/iMf 
of yJfion ; yobn Sutton of Sutton ; Henry ffotton, of ITotton. 

The ^AAr0« common People (as the Generality of the 
Dhtchf Germans^ Danes^ IJlanders and Snioedes do to this 
Day) for Sur-names^ added their Father's Name, with Son 
at the End thereof; as, Thomas yohnfou^ Robert Ricbardfon ; 
and fometimes their Mother's Name, in like manner ; as 
Betti/ou^ NelfoHf and Margetfon ; they alfo oft took their 
Father's Nick-name, or Abbreviation with the Addition of 
/f at Qibi^ the Nick-name, or Abbreviation of Gilbert j Uabi 
of Robertt Nicktf of Nicholasi Batts, of Bartholomew, Satfu 
0f Samuilf Hoe^es of R^er, Sanders of Alexander i and 
thence alfo Gibfin, Hobfin, Nick/on, Bat/on, Sam/on, H§d-^ 
fin, Sanderfin, and Hutcbinfin, Sec. Many were alfo Sur* 
named from their Trade ; as, Smtbt yoiner. Weaver, WeJ* 
her, that is. Fuller in old Englifi?, and Goff^ that is, Smth ia 
^i?/ri&,&c.Or from their Offices ; as. Porter, Steward, Sbep^ 
herd. Carter, Spencer (that is Steward or Dijtenfer) Caok^ 
Butler, Kempt that is in old Englijh, Soldier mm Campus ; 
or from the Place of Abode ; as. Underwood, Underhil 1 alfo 
Atwoodt Atwellt Athil, which three laft are fhnmk into 
Woody Wills t Hilli or from their Colour or Complexion^ 
as, Fairfax, that is. Flaxen Hair* So from Birds ; as, Arwt' 
del, that b, SwaUow^ from Hirundo ; Corbet, that is, j^- 
*ven, from Corvus ; Wren, Finch, Woodcock, &c. So from 
Beails ; as. Lamb, Fox, llsyle, that is. Mule. From Co- 
lours ; as, Black, White, Brown, Red^ Green. From the Winds* 
19, Eafi, Weftf Norths South. Sometimes from Saints; as St. 

^e E K c L I s H Grammar. JH 

yelm. St Gforge, St tr^, St. Amanil, Styittur, (i. e^| 

St. Maur, ic. ^ 

The A'(»->i<ii)r, M their Grit coining into £ji£/<in</, brougtiC 
Sur-naiHfs for manj' of ilieir Gentry, with Z)^ prefixed, 
as the Fr/nt/i do generall/ at this Dsj-, and their Chriflian 
Names were generally ScenMc, they being originally de- 
fcended from Not^au inhabited by the Progeny of the 
old StaBiiiam ; and fome, for about zoo Years after the 
Conquell, took for Sur-n/imci their Father's Chriftian 
Name, with Fitx or FiU prefixed, as Rehert Fiia-Williamt, 
}Unry Fitr.-Qerard, which is as mxy^-i&H'illiamfin.Gtr. 
r^rdfin, i-C. 

The Bf/Mrw. or WiUh, did not take ^.fr-«fl»«till of lale 
^'ears, and that for (he molt I'art only by teaviag out a in 
ef, and annexing/ to their Father's Chriflian Name; ar, 
inllead of ^ruan ap Rice, now Evan Pn'ci ; fo infiead of 
iB/ Unatl, Pvwel i np Hngh, Pugh ; ap Roreri, Pngrri, &c. 

The molt ancient families, and of beft Account for 
5vr niwM in £jif/<iW, arc either thofe that are taken from 
Places in Normamlr, and thereabouts in Frentt, and from 
(bme other Tranfmarinc Coiintrie« -, or elfe from Places in 
E/igU»d»aA ScstLmJ; as, Evcreyx, Cliaiuirlb, NivU, Maa- 
tepit, Msimn, Birait, Sragfi, CliffcrJ, Btriliy, Aivutr), Ar^y, 
Staurtan, Mtr/ry, Coirtniy, inc. which aDclenliy had all l>t 
prefixed, but of latter Times, geneidly negle^ed, or made 
oncWord. as5fi'<v/i(*,Diwi'irj,Z)ar.r>',&C. unlefsweihonid 
more elleem ihofe, whofe Aneeflors were of gieat Account 
< Iwrc liL-fore the Karmaa Conquell, and their Poftcrity have 
Aitl flourilhed ever fincc, as Aiif„«, Jjbburnbamt ic. 


0/ N U M B E R S. 

Number is the DiftinSiion of One from Many_ 

THerc are two Numbers, the Siitgulta; and 
the Plural. 
• The Singular Number is ufed when we 
^cak but of one thing or Perfon -, as, a Stick, a Bo> 


58 The English Grammar. 

* The Plural Number is ufed when we (peak 
of more than one Thing or Per/on ; as, Siicksy Beys. 

* The Plural Number in Englijh is common- 
ly made by putting s to the Singular ; as Stick 
makes in the Plural Sticks \ fo Boy makes in the 
Plural Beys. 

But when the Singular "^ends in cb^ Jh^ fi^ or x^ the 
Pronunciation requires that e be put before /, or (which is 
all one) that es be added to the Singular, asy 

Church, "J f Churches, 

£ru(h, t £ J Brufhes, 

Witnefs, r ^''''" 1 Witncfles, 

Box, J ^ Boxes. 

Note^ The Plural Number (when it is made by putting 
only J to the Singular) has no more Syllables than there 
are in the Singular ; as in Boy there i& but one Syllable, 
fo the Pluraly Boys, has likewife but one ; and as in Fa^ 
ther there are but two Syllables, fo in the Plural Fathers^ 
there are no more. But when the Singular Number ends 
iny^, «Cy or in ee, ge^ pronounced foft, then the j that is 
addetd cannot be heard m the Sound, except it makes an- 
other entire Syllable; For Example, Horfe in the Singular 
hath but one Syllable, but Hor/es in the Plural has two 1 
fo Face, in the Singular, has but one Syllable, but Faces^ 
in the Plural, has two. 

Formerly all Nouns received the Addition of es for thp ^ 
Plural, which is to this Day retained in feveral Coantm '■ 
q{ England^ 

* But Words that end in /, or fe^ do Cfor 
better Sound's fake) make the Plural by chang- 
ing/and/^ intoi;^j, as 



I Halves, 







'Selves, " 
I Thieves, 




The English Gramnar. 59 

Yet this is not always fo, for thefe Words following. 

wiih feveral others, are 

xccpCed ; as. 

Hoof, ) 
Roof. I 
Grief, i 

f Hoof. 

maket < Roofs, 

(. Griefs 

So l>warf. Mifihiif, Handiircbief, Rdiff, Scarf, Whnrf, 
Rtfr^./, Strife, Scof. Skiff. M,.ff, Ruff, Cff, Snuff. Sitff. 
Puff, &c. And genc'aLIy fpeaking. Words ending in double 
^make the Pmral by the Addition of j. But Staff mike% 


So in Words ending in j and ih, though ihe Wtiting is 
not changed, yeC the Sound is fofLied , for in Ifiin/f, ihe 
Sound of J is changed into z, B3 Hau/f, Htifej, [Wo»is«].' 

fo d' is founded as Ji 


Sirti, keep their owr 

Aft Kqukj ending in 
the P/urai is often ch 

as in Palb, Path, [_Pa,{i>i] : Cloib, 
alb, Sbtaths. \Sheadhi\. Butfi^ri, 
Sound, and all that end in rih. 
y do often change jF into iV, fojiin 




Inquiry s. 

ir Herefies 


• Some Words do form or make the Plural 
otherwife than by taking j or «, and arc there- 
lore Irregular. 

Plural. Singular 

( « OnitreQion ofPinnyi, 

angular. Plural. Singular. , J 

Oie, ■) fDice,(fl) Foot, > TF 

Woafe, / , \ Mice, I Tooih, J- makt, \ T 

LoHe, \ '"'^' \ Lice, Penny. ) ^ P. 

joofe, J (_Geefe, \ijjhii.hiiaCe>itre3hnoJ 

(d] Diet is irregular more in the corrupt Spelling than 
ill the Sound, it Ihould be Dits ; unlefs we intended to 
cxpicrtihe Trcttii, /Jix, as we borrowed the Word from 
' nee. Pfmt is made from Pent, a Contraflion from 

I,, Pmiij. &c. N. B. Dyfi is our afldeot SpeUtu 
fw Did ill ihc Sbgular, 

6o The English Grammar. 

But thefc, Ox, {h) Oxen; Child, Children i Breihir, 
Brethren ; are Imitations of the Dutch Plural which ends in 
Sy and frequently in en, Man among the Saxons was an ir- 
regular Word, and makes Menm the Plural. Alfo all the 
Compounds of Man make their Plural in en ; as, H'o' 
man, Poeiman, Hor/eman, State/man, in the Plural^ Wo^ 
men. Footmen, H^rfimen, State/men, &c. 

Some Words are ufed in both Numbers, as Sheep, Hofe^ 
Snvine, Fern, {c) Peafe, Deer. Chicken is not Plural, for 
we fay Chickens ; as to Fijh, Mile, they are rather ill fpeak- 
ing ; as when they fay, (d) five Shilling, /even Foot high^ 
twenty Year old. [() So Abundance oiFiJh is not the Plw 
ral, any more than Abundance of Meat, 

Note, Swine is a Contra£lion of Sowin ; we Hkewife fay 
Sows from Sow, which is fpoken of the Pemale only ; but 
Swiae u ufed in both Numbers, and fpoken of both Sexes. 

(h) Oxen is the Remains of the Saxon Terminations, as 
Words in a Singular make an in the Plural ; Oxa, Oxan, 
fee Hiekesofthe Second Declenfion, p. lo. 

{c) Peafe ihould be Pea/en, or Pea/es : But the old Cuf- 
tom would not fuffer Pea/es to come in : And the new 
Method has difcarded Pea/en, and is content with a Plural 
that founds like one, and is none. Deer, Sax. Deor re- 
tains its ancient Form, as in Saxon. Chickens, in Saxon^ 
Cicen, is a Singular, and of the third Declenfion : PlmaL; 
Nominative O'cenu, and ia old EngU/h Chickcnes. ^Bh 

{dj Seveft Foot high is as one Word, /pten/pedalis. And ' 
{ofa/e'Tlears old quinquennis. ^\xX, ffgear, Five-Tear, is true 
Saxon, Five Shilling Piece is a Similar Expreflion. Ten 
Pound is good Engli/h upon the old Foot : in Saxon, Tyu 
Fund', For Fund is of the fourth Declenfion, and the fame 
in the Nominative Plural as in the Singular. But ten 
Founds is better Engli/h upon the modem Analogy. 

{e) A learned Gentleman is of Opinion that Abundance ' 
of Fr/h is not ill fpeaking, but proper; for Fi/h is in that ' 
Inftance a fp^dfical Name, like as Flefh is always. See 
below. Fern lit, fpedfical Name, and has no Plural. 


7bi E N o L r s H Grammar. 6i 

It is better alfo to (ay in the Singular a Pro, in tlie Plural 

Brother makes alfo Brothers, for we fcldom ufe Brethren, 
but in Sermons, or in a Burlesque Senfe. 

Some do ufe Kint (a Coaitaflion of Ci-tuin) for Ctivi, 
Sheen for Shoei, Ejen for £>«. ard Hsufia for Heu/et ' 
iheCe Plurals are not to be imitated. 

B ut '\ 

* Some Words have no Singular Number. 

As JJbts, Brllimui, Btrwelj, Breichei, Entrails. Lungs, 
Scifarl, Shears, Snuffers, thanks, Ttngs, Wages. 

♦ Some Words have no Plural Niimher. 

As the proper Names of Ciliii, Countries, Riiiers, A/o«n. 

loins i the Names of ^i«Bf/, yicei; fo ibe Naaiet of Me- 

l»h; {a)aaGgU, Silver, CoMrr, £ic. The D&mei of mofl 

itcris i 

(a)h'uc<imaioa toati Languages for the 5/fci^i-it Names, 
neerly fuch, to be fingular. GolJ is ilie Name only of 
the Species, and fo is froa ; but then it is fometimes made 
a Name for the Individual too, and fo admics of the Plu- 
ral Number, lro«i. 
, The Reafon is plain why fpeciiick Names, as foch. 
admit of no Plural : Plurality is in the Individuals, while 
the Kind is One. Man confidered only as a Specifick 
Name means hum^n Kind, or human Nature ; which is 
one, not many. Flejh is th; whole Flefiiy Kind, SU-vn; 
the whole Silver Kind. Indeed, it often happens that the 
fame Word fhall ferve both for the Kind, and the Indi- 
vidual i as the Word Man, Fijh, and many more: And 
then fuch Word admits of the Plural Number. Some 
Words, in one Language, figoify both the Kind and Indi- 
vidual, and not in another. Cmo in Latin is a Name for 
the Spetitt, and for the IndiiiiJuah too : And therefore 
ihere n Cart; and Comes. Em Fle^ in Engli/d 13 meetly 
ifick : And therefore we have not flrpti. 

6i 7be English Grammmar. 

Herht ; as, Grofs^ Marjoram^ Par/ley, SagCy Mi/it, &C. except 
Nett/es, Poppies, Uiiesy Coieiuorts^ Cabbages ^ &c. The Names 
offeveral Sorts of Com and PhI/l", as. Wheats Rye, Barley^ 
Darnely See. except Beiut, which makes BeaftSt and Pea, 
Peas. So Breads Wine^ Beery Ale, Honey ^ Oily Milky Butter, 
want the Plural, with many others ; but thefe Examples may 
fufHce for the prefent. Ami Tome of thefe, when they figni- 
fy ftveral Sorts y Arc ufed in the Plural; zs. Wines, Oils, Sec. 

* AdjeSiives have no Difitrence of Numbers. 

Notey As we fay, a good Boy in the Singular, fo we 
fay, good Boys in the Plural i where you fee the At^eSi'vt 
is the fame. Yet fomettmes we meet A^e&ives with an 
s added to make them Plurals ; as Good, Goods ; Ni<w, 
News i but then they become or are made Suhftauti*u€s % as. 
Goods for good Things ; fo Ne^^s for new Tnings ; Biackt 
for black Men, or black Colours ; Whites, Reds, for white 
or red Colours. In like manner .the Grammarians oie Subm 
ftanti'ves^ AdjeffinseSy for Nouns Suhftanti*vi. Note This 
makes the/e, and that tbofo* 

^utftions relating to the Fifib Cbafterm 

Q. Wbat is Number ? 

A. Number is the Diftindion of one from many. 

Q^ How many Numbers are then P 

A* TwOy the Singular and the Plural. 

Q. Wben do *we ufe the Singular Number ? 

A. When we fpcak but oione Perfon or Thmg* 

Q^ When donueufe the Plnral Number ? 

A. When we fpeak of more Things or Pcrfons than onf. 

Many like Infbmces may be obferved in the comptring 
of one Language with another. 

The Specifick Names are eafily diftinguiihed in our 
Language : For befides that they hare no nural, th^ are 
never ufed in the Singular with a before them, as other 
Names are. We never fay, a fhfo, a Gold, a Silverj but 
Tlejh^ Gold, Sibuer : And when we ufe a Word fpecincally 
wc ifave out the^> as Man is mortil# and die li»r. 

Tbf E N G L i s M Grammar. 


Q, Heiv h the Plural Number !h Englilh madi? 
'£ Bj' adding i to the Singular. i 

Qj_ h it aliuayi ibat ma^f 

A. Not always ; for to Words that end in cb, fi, fs, or 
,r, wisaddedi isClmnh.Cbwchu, &c. 

Q^ H'hai fli ym mti Or ob/trve it JVarJt that end in k, 
ze, or in ce, ge ? 

j4. Thofe Words gain a Syllable more in the P/ura/ than 
they had in the Singular. 

Q^ Ho^ cemei llii ft pafi T 

A. The I, that is added to make the Plural, would not ■ 
be beard in the Sound, unlefs it made another entire Sylla^ 

Q^hoivdoTfartli, that end inioT fe, waif /An> Plural) ? 

A. By changing/or /(■ into TPr. 

Q^ fVhal i> tht Rmfmt of ihi: Changr P 

A. It is for better Sound's Sake ; /and ii being Letter* 
that are eafily changed the one for the other. 

Q. Db all Word! farm or mail tieir Plural 6y adding s « 
tit Singular ,' ^ 

A, No : Some do not ; for Meajf makes AftVf, anj!! 

Tmtb, Vefth, &c. with feveral others which are irregui^J^ 

• d' WJml Jajau mean by irregular } ^B 

■ A. That Word is fald to be irregular, or excepted, whicS - 

in contrary to. or chat does not follow the general Rule. 

The General Rule in this Place is, thai the Plural Num- 
itr u made by adding i or ei to the Singular. 

Q, ft'hai i! a compounded mrd? 

A. It \i a Word that is made up of two or more finglc 
Words i as, Foetwan is made up of Footiai Man ; fo Caatb- 
taan n made up of Ceacb and Man. 

Qi Ha-Bi all Noam a Plural Number ? 

A. No ; For fome Noani have no Plural, and otherj have 
no SiKrular i and fome few on the other hand are ufcd ia 
both Numbers. 

Q^ Whence comes the Word Numier ? 

A. Fmrnlhe latin VlordNumerui, Number. 

Q. H'he^eeeomeelheH'ordSinzMlvl 

A. From Siagvlarii or Singuliu, a fingle one 

Q. ITheatt earn** tie if B,d Plaritl} 

A- Fioai PItiralii or Piui more. 


^be English Grammari 


Of the Englifli Genitive Cafe, with a Note 

concerning Gender. 

THE Mind is not always employed about fingle 
ObjeAs only, but compares likewife one Thing 
with another, in order to exprefs the Relation and ^^- 
fpe^ that Things have to one another : In the Latin and' 
Greek Tongues, and our ancient Saxon, following therein 
the Greek, tfaey make difierent Endings of the fame Ntan, 
to denote thefe References or RefpeSs, and thefe different 
EnSngs are called Cafes. The Latins have fix in each 
I^iunBer> whofc Names are as follow. 

The Nominati'vff The Accufati'vey 
The Geniti*ve^ The Vocative^ 

TheDatiw, The Jilati'Ui. 

But the ReJ^eff of Tinngs to one another in oar Lan- 
guage is (hewn by the help of certain Words called Prepe- 
Jitiom ; fuch are of, to, fronts &c. So that we have no 
Cafes, except the Gmiive ; whereby we are freed fronoi a 
great deal of Trouble and {a) Difficolty that is foond in 
other Languages* 


fa) We have gradually reduced the Cafes without ob- 
ferving it : Nature itfelf, as it were, teaching the eafieft 
and jQiorteft Way. .In like Manner the Italians and Sfa* 
niards have reduced the Cafes of the Singular Number all 
to one ; which is the Dative, or Ablative : Caimllo, Fwf^ 
Cane, &c. And in the Plural, the Italians have common* 
ly aimed at the Nominative Cafe : CawalH^ Ford. While 
the Spaniards have the Accofiitive ; Cavalias, Pore§s, &c.vid. 
Lhuyd p. 20. 1 have wondered, fays a learned Dtvine, how 
fhc Greeks from whom ibtLatins^. Goths, SehnmiJcc. hiive 

.. . . copied, 

Tbe English Grammar, 6^ 

* The Genitive Cafe hi Englilh ends^ in the 
Singular and Plural Number, in s (v es {if the 
Pronuncialien requires it ;) as, Man's Nature, or 
the Nature of Man ; Men's Nature, cr tbe Na- 
ture of Men J Millon'j Poems, or tbe Poems ef 
Milton 1 the Churches Peace, or tbe Peace of the 

Nate, This Genitive Cafe anfwfrs to ihe Genitive of cKc 
Laths, and to the Ex^lip Pvepofiiion af. fignifj-ing, i . The 
J' 2. The Jutiar. 3. 'I'he Relation of a Ti/n^, Us 
Ftitr\ Horfe, or the H:>rfi tliat P.ur poilefles, or has. So 
JUittsn'i Paims, or the Paims of Milion, that is, the Potms 
XYai Milton made. The King'sSon, ortheSonof the King. 

• If the Subftantivc be of the Plural Number, 
ihejirft s is cut off; as, tbe Warrior's Arms, or 
the Arms of the Warriors ; tbe Stone's End, or 

copied, came to invent Cafes. The Vulgar, one ma^ 

I think, could never naturally fall intofuch a perplexed Me- 
thod, and burdenfome to the Memory ; And yet how 

I could any Language come but by Ufe and Cullom f Rulea 
are formed upon Ufe, and not Ufe upon Rulea. Were 
I to make a Conjedure, from the Nature of the Thing, 
in a Cafe where we have no Records early enough 10 
determine it, I fhould fufpeA that at lirli the Gmh had 
no Cafe* but made their Dcclenfions by the Article 0. n, 
ro, TB, rtt, ra, and fo on, as we do by the Help of 
Prepofitions, and that this Method led them by D:greesfor 

^ Brevicjr'a Sake to make the Tenniaations Similar to rh» 
Articles; which being done, they might then omit the 
Article, Hid the Tcrmicationi alone might (ervc the Purpofc, 

\ The Latins therefore, we fee, content with theTerjni- 

I telioKi, have no Aiiicle. 



€6 The English Grammm^B 

$he End of the Stones ; for the Warriors*s 
Arms, the Stones*s End (a). 

Note, I fay, the iirft / is cut off, or left oat ; for when 
the Subllantive Plural ends in / (it fometimes ending in m^ 
as NVomen) there will be a double / ; one / that mak«8 tbe 
Plural^ as Warriors^ and another t that makes.the Gemtinte 
Ctjc^ as Warriori\ ; then the former / is cut off, or left 
out for better Sound's Sake. 

* But when the Singular Number ends in /, 
both the j*j are for the moft Part exprcflcd \ as^ 
Charleses Horfe, St. Jameses Park. 

(tfj I (;annot but be of Opinion with 2 Learned Divine, 
who conceives this Way of Speaking to be contrary to Ana- 
logy, and not juftiiiable : We have a good Way of denot«> 
ing the Genitive in the Singular, which Way we derive 
from our Saxon Anceftors : But they never ufed it for the 
Genitive Plural : Neither did we. -I'4ia¥e ^fervd f e vera j 
good Writers, who, being offended at this Way of Speak- 
ing, havechofen to clap in theirs as. Warriors their Arms* 
thinking thereby to make the Genitive Plural anfwer to 
the Singular ; ond by his^ and the other by thtir ; Ba( 
they have gone upon a falfe Suppofition, in taking the V 
to be a Contraction of his^ in the Genitive Singular. I 
know no juftiBable Way of coming off here, but to alter 
the Form of Expreffion, and to iay Arms of the IVarriors. 
No Pretence, that I can think of, will ever make the 
other pafs for cerreit Writing. The ignorant Vulgar began 
it ; and the Learned have followed it as ignorantlj, not 
underilanding the Nature of the Expreffion, or whence it 
came. And yet every Body almoft at the firft hearinj^ per- 
ceives that there is ibmething amifs, fome Flaw in the 
Expreflion, and are not (atisfid with it while they ufe it,. 
We have really no diftinft Genitive Plural^ though we 
have a Genitive Singulmr: There is the Flaw, 

The English Grammar. 67 

Nfff, y« here, when the Pronunciation requires it, yon 
may leave out iht fiift 1 ; a;, for HJghtiDufnift Sake. 

• But when three Siibftantives come toge- 
ther, the Genitive Cafe is made by adding s to 
the fecond ; as, The ^een of England 'j CrcwHy 
the King ofSpa.m*sCeuri. 

Where you may fee / is added to the Cecdnd Subftamive, 
and Tor this RettTon, becaufe the ^em a/ EiiglaniT! U 
reckoned but as one Subltanlive. 

Sometimes you will find two or three of thefe Ctniti'vet 
put together : a?, Pcier'j H'ifi's Portion ; that is, the Portion 
of the Wife of P.ter ; P.ier'j Broihtr', Wip, Porlisn ; that 
is, the Portion of the Wife of the Brother of Peiir. 

* This Genitive Cafe is always put before the 
Subftantiveicis to bcjoined to-, as, Man's Na- 
ture, not Naure Men's; MUtorCs PoimSy not 
Peems Milton's, 

Nfftt, This Genitive is a plain Imitation of the S^xen 
Genitive Cafe, which ends in it i as, Gcdn Sunn, rhe Son 
of God. It is farther obfervable, chat the Saxm s did fel- 
dom change the Cafes of the Latin Proper Names in 
their Tranflations, but let them remain in the Nomiaatiw, 
Daii-vc, and other Cafes, as they found thera. Yet they 
ofed 10 change the Genitive of thofe Nanei into n, in Imi- 
tation of their own GV'.mo'^j Cbripi, Alhaxtt, ^f Chnji, 
t>i Alban. The Duitb llkewife end io/j as, 
Piitm Beei, Ptin'i Beti ; Da'vid'i Pfalmcti, DaviiTi 
P/almi. But to conclude, ih« Learned Dr. Hiciii, whofe 
ludecnent in thefe Matters no one will pretend to difpui 
'' aking of tli '^ " " " ■ - 


ing of [he iollowiog Simoii Dcdcnfioii, 

68 Tie English Grammar^ 

Singular Numb. Plural Nianhw 

Nom. Smith, Nom. * Smithas, 

Gen. * Smithes, Gen. Smitha, 

Dat, Smithe, Dat. Smitham, 

jiccu. Smith, Jccu. Smithas, 

Foe. Smith, Foe. Smithas, 

Jbl. Sxnithe^ Jibl. Smithum. 

Says, hence, (that is, from the Gemti've Singular^ and No' 
tninati*ve Plural ^ marked with * an Afteri/m, or Star) the 
Genitiwe Singular and Nominative Plural of Englijh Noans 
end regularly in s or /j, as in Stones^ which is as much as 
LapidiSi of a Stone, and Lapides, Stones^thsLt is more than one. 
But they are miftaken, who think the s is added inftead 
of hij (the firft Part of the Word his being cut off) and 
therefore that an (*) Jpofirophe is either always to be writ- 
ten, or at leafl to be underftood : For though we do not 
deny bat that the Mark of the Jpoftropbe may fometimes 
be properly enough made, that the Ufe of the Letter / may, 
when there is Occaiion, be more clearly perceived ; yet that 
the Apofirofhe ought always to be made, and that it is there** 
fore to be made, to denote the Word [a) bist is what we can 
by no Means grant : For it is added to the Proper Names of 
Women, aad to Subftantives of the [b) Plural Number ^ where 
the Word his cannot, without a Solecifm^ or Impropriety of 
Speech, have Place. It is likewife aidded to the Word (c) Ourt^ 

[fl) We never find his in old Englijb at the End of fuch 
Words in Conftrudion, but either es^ or ji, or is : fFo" 
tnanis for Womaf^s i Mannes^ or Mannys^ or Mannis^ for 

\fi) Where it fhotuld not be added, becaufe i, or f/, is not 
the Termination of the Genitive Plural, as before obferv- 
ed, but of the Singular only. 

(r) If the Subftantive be added, we fay 0«r, your^ an« 
fwering to the Saxon Nominative ure, ec^er : cut with- 
out the Subilantive, ours, yours, anfwering to the Saxon 
Genitive ures, eoweres; and under(!anding Poifeilion, or 
fome other Subftantive of the like Kind, taken in the Ge- 
nitive, Tours f i. e. of your Keeping or Property. 

The E N c L t s H Grammar. 5g 

ycuri, ikciri., iw/, where no one can imagine the World *;'' 
lo be included. And indeed the {d) Word his, as iikewifc 
ihe IttttTTBgali'Bt tvkofe, are nothing elfc, but btt'i (?) lebi'! ; 
where i b» the fame Power, as in the Genili'vi Cnfr i f 
other Words i for*i/j Seei is t^e Bank of bim, 'uibo'i Bosk. 
or ihe Bonk of •vihem. So its is wrote for Wi or e/ it. 
But hit is written for brt'i, by the fame Miftake as we 
fomelimea write bin fOTbren; litewife lyis/r ot luio'jpro- 
creds from the fame Miftake, as when we write licKt, gene, 
inotunt or ittinan, gremjac or grFwn, for t/etK, gorti, kinFuiir, 
gtf^'en, or for Ja'a, ga'n, knavi'a, gFtvUn, every wheie 
ȣ^inA the Analogy of the Language. 

^ note coKcirning Gender; 

As we have jull mentioned one great Advantage of our 
l^neuage. in being freed from that Trouble and Uifficuliy 
which arifes in (he Grttk and Latin from the Variety of 
Cafei ; fo we (hall now take Notice of another Advantage 
it has, fdl as great ai the fonner. 

Of all the Latiguagrs. boih ancient and modern, there is 
none but what admits of a Difference of Gmdir, in their 

{d) Hii, hyi, are the Genitive of he regalarty in Saxen, 
the fame as illiuj or fjui. There is no Miflake in Writ- 
ing hit ; but Hcc^i is wrong. There (hould be no Apo- 
ftrophe in the Genitive Singuhr, but where fome Letter 
or Letters are left out. 

Smith'i. for what was anciently SmitSet, the e is left 
out, which is the fole Reafon of the Apoftrophe. In Mair't 
there ^te left out > and c, it is for Manna, in my Wifti- 
MoihtT, there is no Letter left out ; the Original Genitive- 
is Wiftt, and fo there is no Occafion for an A-poilrophe, or 
10 write f^r'j ; the like may be faid of any other Nour 
ending in e. as. Lift, Knife, &c. 

(<■) IVhofthtiKSaxen hviti, the Genitive of iio^, ii ufed' 
la be fpcUed 'whai i We have added the final e to preferve 
the Quantity of the Vowel- It fhould not be written 
mibri, but -wbti : There h no Letter dropped, oi left our 
Dt. tf'aUit thcieTore is miflaken in this Paragraph. 


The En GL I s H GrdmnuBrl 

Nouns, except the Engiifi and Cbinefi Lrnigaatu. For as 

Mr. IVeb (in his EJjfky t9<wards a frimti've lannuigf, p. 
192.) faysy The Cbinefe are not troubled with Variety of 
Declenjtonsy Coftjugations, Numbers^ Genderj, Moods, Teufes, 
and other Grammatical Niceties, but are abfolately free 
from all fuch perplexinz Accidents, having no other Rules 
in Ufe than what the Light of Nature dictated unto them, 
whereby their Language is plain, ea(y, and fimple, as na* 
iural Speech ought to be. 

* Gjmder is the Dijiiniiion of Sex. 

* There are two Sexes the Adale and FemaU. 

* We have Four ^^jj of diftinguifliing the 

I. When we would exprefs the Difference of 5^x, we do 
it (after the fame Manner as we diftiRguifh the Ages and 
other Accidents) by different Words. 

So in the Relation of Perfons, 


















Ttmale, Male, 

Maid Virgin King 































Lafs (a) 







Slut ■ 





Whoremonger Whore or 

> (Strumpet 

{(i) jU/r is a ComratUoa of Uddrft. 

II« But 

The EwfitrSH Grammar. 


11, But when ihere «rc not two different Words to ei- 
preis both Sixti, or when both Sexes are comprehended 
under one If'orJ, then we add ati Adjeflive to ihe Word eo 
diftinguini the Sex, as a Ma/t OjiM, a Fimcih Child, a 
Ui-Goai far the Male, a SieGtai for the Female. 

JII. Sometimes we add anoitier Subihntire to the 
Word, (odillinguilhtheSex; a^ a Man-ServaDi, & Maid- 
Servant, a Cock-Sparrow, a Hen -Spar row. 

IV. There are likewiie fome few Word) whidi difliK- 
ifk the ffmtUe Sex itota the J!^aU, by the Endu^ (a J 









Jewefs 1 




Liom ft 










































(aj This Kind of leimination we tiave 

borro*ed from 

latin ija and i>. Abbgiip, Ahb,ijfi iji old E«glijh, Jl^ 
bifi. Mrix, Jarii^t, Acticfi. Butiheft-tsfAdiftinguiflj.- 
between ejft and Ut j. we bring botli to one, the Sound be- 
ing nearly the fame- There are all oEiVonmun Ucfcent, un- 
known to the ancient Saxons, in Hormanna-SKXan, we 
have Emfn-ictr Abbtddiffi, and Ccast:^!,, wliich are three 
cf the oldeft. The Original of c .is lerminacion may be 
run up to the Creek tem>nine Termination k, 1779 
■TicipnTn. Pmpbelijfa. Fr.ici; Profii/ttiJ?, o\i E«x/iA Pm- 

Stt'ptsatihvgbdiji, ii»eAiZ(, ftwiJuv, vfi, ^«p;a.!t«m 

72 The English Grammar. 

And two Words in [i>] Adminiflratrixt Execuirije^ 

But the common Words that we ofe to exprefs the Pif- 
ference of Sex by are. He and Sife. When we fpeak of the 
Afff/f Sex we ufe the Word He ; when wc fpeak of the 
Female Sex we ufe the Word She : But when we fpeak 
of a TJbifig that is neither of the Mah nor Female Sex we 
ufe the Word //. For Example, fpeaking of Butter^ wc 
do not fay He or Sle melts, but 7/ melts ; fo fpeaking of 
Beer, we do not fay He or 5i&f is good, but It is ^ood. 
// is alfo fometimes ufed when the Sex is undetermined ; 
|is. Do not a^wake the Child^ it is aJUep, 

But thefe Words He^ She, It, are Adje6liveS| and fo 
£dl under the ^^r0^r^i?ir/^. 

There are fome Words, which though they denote or 
exprefs Things that <2innot be faid to be of any Sex, yet 
commpn CuSom does often ufe them, as if they were 
of the Male or Female Sex, ,For, fp«dcing of Ac Sun, 
we fay. His going forth is from the End of the Heaven, 
and his Circuit to the Ends of it, Speakine of die Church 
we fay. She hath nourified her Children, but they have n- 
helled againfi her. 

Where in the firft Example we may take Notice, that 
His is fpoken of the Sun, as if Sun was of the Male Sex : 
And in the fecond Example, She is fpoken of the Church, 
at if Church was of the Female Sex. 

Mr. Ri^ fays, that ^ueen was ufed by the Saxons to iig* 
Bify the female Sex, becaufe ^uten Fugol was ufed for a 
Hen Fowol. So Whetn Cat b ofed in the Iforth for Siueen 
"Cat : and CarLCat for the Male, the Boar Cat Saxon Carl, 
Mafculos, Carl'fugol, is Saxon for a Cock Fowl. And 
thefe two anfwer to the two mentioned by Mr. Ri^» 
^no or ^uens is Gothick for a Woman or Wife, and 
Gune ywn is Greek, 

Though what has been already (aid may be counted u»- 
necefiary, fince the Enolijb Tongue has no Genders; yet 
becanfe it may gratify fome Reacters, I ii^ ventore to add 
mother Obfenration, which is, that the Genders called Maf* 
euHne, Feminine, and Neuter, do not even among the Latnw 
nlways diftinguifh the Sex; for Manchium a Slave, Scortum 
a Whore, are of the Neuter Gender i Gladius a Sword, Arcu9 
a Ffovty art of the Mafiulint Gtmkri Saptta aa jbmw,.mi 


^he E » c L I s H Grammar. 73 

Am a NccMc. are of the F.iunint Gender. For fucb has 
been the Incoallancy of CuSom in Relation to Gender, 
that fometines Regard has been had only to the Signilica' 
lion of M»K« ; that is. whether they denoted Things thai 
were of the Mate or FtmaU Sex : At Other Times, wiih- 
ojc conlidering either Signification or Ending, it has given 
to Nouns, •uiiai Gender it fhafsd. The Learned Dr. H'lcket 
obferves, that the Sun \Skitna or Sun>ie\ among Che Saxoiit 
and among the ancient franki or Tcuiones (Vid. Hickei. 
Gr. Angl 16, Gr. Fr. 10.) is of the Ftmnine Gender, and 
Moon [MoKo] of the Mafiuiine Gender. To which we 
may add, that Sun tikewife in the German Tongje is of 
the Fiminint Grndir ; and IVife in the Dutch of the New 
ttr. And fo it is in the &axon, and in all the Mother 
Laogoagei, fays Di.Hieits, p. 80. 

^tftiam reiatiag tt tie fiicth Chaptr. 

Q^ m^ !, Cafe i 

A. Cafe is the Ending the Naun has in declining. 

Q^ Hmu many Cafes ba-ue ihe Latini ? 

■4. Six, the Nominal I've, the Gtmti'vi the Datliii, leC, 

Q^ What didtht latins wean bj declining a Noun ? 

A. Changing its Ending ; as for Example, in the Word 
Dius which is Latin for Gad, the Namiiatime Caie which 
ends in iti ti changed in the Genitiiie Cafe into i, and in 
the Dsti'ui Cafe ■» is changed into n, and in the Accufa* 
tivt Cafe ai is changed into am. As, 

Nominative Dens, Dative, Deo. 

Geniiive, Dei. Accuiative, Deiim,- 

Q, Why tSd lit Latin* change the Endings a/ their 
Nouns ? 

A. To fliew the Rtlaiion or Re^a that Things have t« 
one another ; as Ejaui Pttri, the Horle of Ftttn dcdit 
Pttm, he gave to Pttir ; where i in Petri anfwert CO OU 
Word 0/ and a in Petra anfwers to onT Word «. 

Q. Havi ibt Englifh airf Cafes } 

^. They hayc but One coiled ibc GtiaHve Cefi^ 


74 7*^ English Gr4mmar. 

Q. Hrw is the Genitive Otfe made T 

A. By putting / or ^/, if the Pronunciation requires it, 
to the Singular or • Plural Number : as the Mafter's Book^ 
or the J?«^ oftbeMaftir ; the Churches Piacty or the /'fi7f< 
^/i&r Church. 

Q. ^ /i&/ Englifh ha*ve hut out Cafe, i&«at; i/# theyexfrefs 
the Relation and Refped of Things to one another ? 

A> They do it by the Help of certain Words called Frc^ 
fefitions ; fuch are of to^fromy loithy Sec. 

Q. // Hoty of God» in this Sentence the Love of God, « 
Genitive Ccfe T 

A. No« for they are two Words %of\%% Prefofition, 
and God IS a Noun. Now Cafe is the Alteration of the 
Noun : But you fee the Ending of the Noun God is not 
changed to make a Ca/e: For we fay. Gal loves, the Lovg 
tfGod, Enoch walked with God; which Words, if wrote 
in Latin, would be Deus God, Dei of God, Deo withr* 
God. Where you may obferve that the Latin Word has 
three Endings or Cafes, that is, us, iV «; hut the Engli/Sb 
Word, God, is the fame in all the three Phces. 

Q^ Supfofe two s*s to meet together in the Genitive Cafe ? 

A. We cut off the £rft / dius, the IVarrkr^t Jbrm^ for 
the Warriors'^s Arms, 

Q. Honji) come two s*s to meet together f 

A. Becaufe there is one / that makes the Fharal Num* 
ber, as Warrior^ in tiie Plural Warriors ; and another # 
that makes the Gemtivi Cafe, as Warriors^ $, 

Q. When the Singular Number ends in s, eare hotb th$ C% 
io hi written in the Genitive Cafe ? 

A. Yes, for moft Part, as St. Jemes^t Park 

Of is it then uknayi necejfary to dofo f 

A. No; for when it founds better without the /, the 
iatt, 4 may be left out i as for Rigbteottfiufi Sake. 

<^ But if three Subftantives come together^ hom d9 j^tk 
maki the Genkive Cafe then, f 

A. By adding / to the fecmsd Subfiamtvai^ at the i^«« 
^Emglemd*s Crown, 

f Mot regularly to the Flofalf fccabovcu 

the English Grammar. 75 

Ql How bappmi ihii ? 

A. Becaufe the *h«o o/Engtaiid'i li reckoned but as one 

Q. Mayn't I fay. the Seak Majlcr'!, a« well as the Ma- 
fiir'i BoakT 

A. No ; for the G^niiiiii Ca/e is always fet before the 
Sah/laKti<vt it is to be joined to. 

Qj^ It Mil Ihii s BddtdiHftead of his 7 

A. No; for then Afary'j Bffoi, woald fignify Maiy Aij 
^B9k; fo likewtfe when I fay, Su/aii'i Fan, the Senfe 
would be. if/ was put for hii, Su/an hit Fan. ic. 

Q; h it nicejfary ibal an ['] ApoftrO|)hc>a«/</ hi «/. 
Viayi •wriilcn before the s f 

A. No. 

Q^Whtn muft I i^jriti it ? 

A. When fome Letter oi Letters are left outiatbeGc- 
nirive Cafe. 

Q^ What is Gender ? 

-^. The Diftinelion of ^f;«-. 

Q^ WffTir /Brtnjf Sexes an ihtrs f 

J. Two, the 'fdiiit and FimaU. 
, CLMaij/u EoalJih Tongue anj Gender ? 

J*. No. 

Q;_ Ha^ da the EngliHt Sfiinpiifi the Sex ? 

>/. They do it four ifayi. 

\. By two different Words, as Bay for the Mult, Girl 
foi the Female. 

II. By pulling an AdjtHinit to the Word when there 
«rc not two different Werdi 10 exprefs both Sexei, ai a 
M>/< Child, a A«i«Zr C£(^. 

HI. By adding another Suiftantiiie xo the Word, at « 
JAiittfir^iant, ^Maid-ftr'uanl, a Ceci-Jparrav!, to exprefs 
■ the Af.i/^, a Hcn/patro'oi for the Female. 

IV. In fome few Words the P/iwa/r b diftingjaiihcd from 
ihc Male, by the ending i/i, a DiUchefi it the fVaw/t of 
i7«<(f the Male. 

Q, B«; luAa/ ere tii WVA (i«/ jm gsiterallj ufe <uihem 
j»uff)iak »fa Thing that <i Male ar Female, &c. 

A. When we fpcak of the Jl^u/c we fay He, when \ve 
fecak of (he /WiWf wc fay, Sbt^ but wbo) we fpuk 9^ a 


ne English Grammar, 

Thing that is neither of iht MaU nor Fimale Sexr wt 
&y it. 

Q. How many Genders ha've the Latins ? 

A. They commmonly reckon y^f» ; but the three Chief 
arc the Mofctdine^ fignifying the Male Sex ; the Feminine^ 
iignifying the Ftmale ; and the Neuter^ fignifying neither 
one nor the other. But I have already obferved, that 
thefe Genderi among the Latins do not always diftinguiOi 
Che Sex. 

Q. From tuhence comes the Word Cafe ? 

A, From the Latin Word Cajus^ which comes from 
Cafumt the Supine of Cadere to fall. Cafe being as it were 
(among the Latins) the Falling of the Noun : for the firft 
or Nominate Cafe is Dtus^ then by declining or bending 
down, it falls into Dei^ which falls into Deo^ &c. But 
Utjoatiaria, ridens, Percurro: quanquam rideniem dicere 
verum quidem «vetat P 

Q. Whence comes the Word Gender ? 

A. From the Latin Word Geuus^ which comes from 
the Greek Genos, a Word of the fame Signification. 


0/ /** A R T I C L E S. 

BECAUSE Nouns commonly fignify Things in « 
general and large Senfe and Manner, certain Words 
called Articles are made Ufe of in fome Languages as in the 
Greek, Welch, Englijh, and feverel odiers, to determine 
and £x theur Signilcation, and apply thenr to- a particular 

ForBxample» ifwefay» ItisaHappincfstobeaiCjrg'; 
this Expreffion is large and not determined^ fbr it may be . 
King of England^ Sweden, or any other Place ; but if you 
add the to the Word Kang^ it f xe» and determines of 
ivhat Place you mean it is a Hapraaefi to be a Kingy and 
cannot be linderftodd but of the Jp^gof a particular Place 
or People mentioned* juft before J ' We therafore general^ 

ki hdQK.SMhjiatttivn for the move dear mm parti* 


^t E H G 1. 1 s H Grammar. 77 

cular exprefling of ibnta, two Words called Anidii, J 

and 7ht. 

* An Article is a Word fet before 3 Suhflan' 
tivSt for the clearer and more particular cxprcf- 
fing of it; as a Man, that \St feme Manor 
other 1 the Man-, that is, fomt certain Man^ of 
whom you have fpoke before. 

* There are two Articles, A and fhe» 

Netr, Thefe are really AJjclH'uti, and are ufed almoll 
after the fame Manner as other Jliljtlii'vri. Therefore 
I have not made ihe jlriicle (as fome have dore, and 
as the late Learned Dr. Hitkti told me he was for having 
it made] a diftinft Part of Speech, Thefe A,iidtt anfwet 
to E/n and Lt of the French, and to Ein and Der of the 
Ctrmani. Ji is true, the AriitUi are but few, but they 
are of very frequent Ufe, and fach aa will difcover any 
Stranger in the World from a natural Eaglljhman : And in- 
deed it is rot every Englijbman that knows how rightly 
to ufe them . Though thefe be not abfolutely necellary to 
fome Languages, for the Lmin is wiihont them ; yei they 
are fo convenient for the Clearnefs and Diftinftnefs of 
Speech to others that all ihcH'efirm Languages have them, 
though varioufly ufed in each ; and the Eafitrn Tongues 
have their Hi Enphaiicum, and the Griik have its i, wHicb 
aofwers to one of our Ari'ult). 

* yf is an Article that may be applied indif- 
ferently to any one particular Perfon or Thing. 

^ is a Numeral Artklt, or an Jrtitle of Number, and 
fignilies u iniich as Ote ; though lefs emphatically ; that 
is. not la fo ftiift a, Scnfe as Qui, unlefs in this Phrafc 
tUi taaMMi. 

yi The English Grammar. 

♦ But when the Subftantive begins with z 
Vowel, or b^ then we write * an^ inftead of 
jt^ if the b be founded ; as an Eye^ an Hour \^ 
but a Hare J a Handy an Habits or a Habit. ^ 

Noff, A or >//r, denotes or fignifies the applying oft 
general Word to fome one particular Perfon or Thing, in 
a large and undetermined Senfe ; that is, not telling what 
particular Perfon or Thing you mean ; as Patience is a Vir- 
tue ; and therefore is ^et only before Nouns of the Singular 
Number ; for if a general Word be applied to more Parti- 
culars than one^ it is exprefTed by the Plural Number. 
This is a particular Phra&, a veryft^w Verfes , a *very few 
^en\ where note, A is not put before the Subftanti'veFer^ 
fes or Mtn, but before the Adje£li've Fenv^ ufed as a Sub^ 
fianti*ije\ for a Few of the Men^ 0/* being left out* 

* Tbe is an Article that declares, or fhews, 
what particular Thing or Perfon is meant in 
(peaking or writing. It figniHes as much as 
Ufaty but lefs emphatically, that is, not fo fully. 

Note, The denotes or Signifies the Determination or fix* 
ing the Senfe of one or more Particulars, as we fay Earthy 
w£en we mean the Elemnt of Earth ; but we fay, tht 
Martht when we mtan the ^cmjii&l GUbe^ or the Globi 
of the Earth (which is a determinate or fixed Individual 
or Particular.) So we fay, q Battle, when we fpeak of 
fome one particular Butth. 

. The is a Dtmoffftrative Article, becaufe it (hews what 
Particular you mean, and is applied only to fuch a Perfon 
or Thing, as the Hearer or Reader knows or hath Reafon 
to know, becaufe of its Eminence, or becaafe of its being 
mentioned before. 

This Article is fet both before the Singular and Plurttl 
Number; becaufe we can fpeak detcrminately, or in a fixed 

' i 

* An from the Saxon An, unus^ Goih% Ains, Gretk tw, 

Unum. Vide VofiT. £tymoL in Yocel^ir/« 


The English Grammar. 79 

Senfe. as well of maitf as of iitie ParlUular ; a, tfte Man, 
that is, hi tuha •uirati the Bosk ; the Mm, that it, they tubs 
rMri the Usufe. In (hor(, J, Qt An, docs moAly note 
ati ondelermined Particularity or Unity : The commonly 
determines the Kind or Kinds, the Sort or Sons, Particular 
cr Particulars of Things. 

Farther ObTervations tencirniHg the Articlo. 

1. The Ai titles do properly belong to the Nouns Sai' 
fianiiv!, and are put before them ; yet where the AiljeSi-ve 
goes before the Subjiantl-vi, as it generally does, the Arikle 
is put before theAdjeftive; as, a'aiife Kitig.a frellyBird. 

Except ziVNfueb and •uibat, and the Adverljs of Com- 
parifon ; ai, fa, too, (and fcarcely after any other Words) 
where the Article A is put between the AdjeQive and it* 
Snbftantive ,- a;, Saeh a Man, he ga've me Jucb a Beait 
Ho litlU a Cat ; too big a Pot. !Vhat a Man ii hi ? mat 
41 Nei/e it that ? Ht ii ai great a ChiaK ai yea. Hcu aiJU^ 
a Man, &c. What afneaking Man u he ? {which Otherwife 
i) generally placed licfore them.) 

Thefe are particular Phrafes or Ways of fpeaklng, Mstg 
a Mar., for tnany Men ; never a Man, for no Man : Though 
there is the fame DifFereaice between imtay a Man, and 
enany Men ; nt^tr a Man, and m Man, as there is between 
every Man, and aJi Men ; for many a Man, never a M^n, 
every Man, are taken Dillributively, and the others arc 
taken CoUeftively, as they call it. 

a. We do not fet thefe Articles before any Adjcflive, 
that does vertually, or in tSeCt, include them in itillf ; as 
in oai Man, foal Man, any Man, tbii or tbal U'orU; where 
ene, fame, any, do vertually iaclude a. So that and ibtt 
figniiy as much as the. 

3. The Articles are not put to the P™/>5mj, /, Thau.Tou, 
Wi,rc, M),Thy,OHr, &c. We do indeed ufc them be- 
fore /o»w, filf, he, jhi i as the, ibefe/f. a or the he, 
a or ibi/he i yet here Tome Subllantive is underllood, as 
ihefame, that is. Prrfon or Thing ; and fo of the reft. 

4. Adje^ives, when ihey are ufed as SublUniives. admit 
of the Articles before them, as ibe Nr<uii, the AJjeSi've, the 
Suhfiantivi : Where in the lirft Word Things, in the othcE 

8o The English Grammar. 

two Noun and JVordzxt underftood : So likewife in thefe Ex- 
amplesy A many, put for a Multitude ; a Score, a Hundred^ tf 
^houfand^ a Million ; the Article a is fet before them, be- 
caufe they are counted Subflantives : But all the other Car* 
dinal Numhirs^ fuch as one, tiuo, three, and their Com- 
pounds, thirteen,fdurteen, &c. have no Articles before them ; 
but the Ordinal Numbers, fuch zrefrji, fecond, third, and 
their Compounds, thirteen, fourteen. Sec, admit or take 
the before them, as the frft Book, William the 7hird, 

c. The Articles are not put before A(7«»/, when nfed 
in a general and large Senfe, as. Virtue alone makes a Man 
happy. Money anfwers all ^Things, For in this Sentence* 
the Piety of the S^ueen makes her beloved', he we muft fay 
the Piety, becaufe of the ^ueen being added to it makes it 
pai ticular. 

6. The Articles are not fet before the particular Names 
of Virtues ; as Jufiice, Sobriety, &c. Of Vices ; as Druff- 
kennefs, &c. Of Metals-, as Gold, Sil<ver, &c. Of Comi as 
Wheat, &c. Of Herbs j as Marjoram, &c, 

7. The Articles are not put before a proper Name, be- 
caufe that of itfelf includes or fignifies a determinate In- 
dividual or particular Thing. 

Except. I . When it is tor DiftinCUon Sake ; as £Sr // 
€^ Churchil i thzt is* one njohofe Name is Churchil ; fo tJ^f 
TalSots, that is, the Family of the Talbots : Or by Way of 
£minency» as the Alexanders, the Cafars, the Marlboroughsy 
the Eugenes \ any brave and valiant Men being called bj 
thofe Names. 

2. When fome Subftantive is nnderftood ; as the Alhi* 
marie, that is, the Ship Albemarle. Hi nvas drvwnedin 
the Thames, in the Rhine, or in the Danube, i. e. In th§ 
lU'ver Thames, fcfr . River being underftood. 

8. Sometimes the Articles alter the Senfe of the Expref- 
fion ; as Thomas is a good Man, Thomas // the good Man i 
that is, the Mafter of the Houfe, or the Hujband. 

There are feveral other Obfervations which we might 
add concerning the Article ; but thefe (hall fufHce for the 
prefent, only we (hall take Notice of the Divifion of the 
Anicles into Definite and Indefinite. 

The Definite Article is ^be which reftrains or deter- 

tDiDcs the Senfe of the Word, it is put before, to fome Far- 

tkulsur. The 

The English Grammar. ii 

• The Indtfiniu Article \% A, which leaves the Senfe of 
tUe Word, to which it is prefixed* undetermined to what 
Particular you inein, ^^m 

Sjitfilmt rtlating ta the Snienti Chapter. ^^H 

Q^ What i, an Article ? ^| 

J. An Article is a Word (fet before a Subltantive, for 
the clearer and more panicular exprefTmg of it. 
Q. Ho'ui mavy Articles are there? 
A. Two, ^and Ut. 
Q^ What » Ibt U/e of the Articles ? 
A, To determine and fix the Signification or Senfe of 
tisuMi, and apply them to a particular Thing, 
I Q^ What u the Dijerenee ietiwex A end The ? 

I A.Aii ufed in a larger and more general Senfe; as, 

Sifwhat it ii fir a Mait ta have to da ^uilh angrate/ui PeofU. 
' ^f Man, that is, einy Man. But Ike is ufed to determJDe 
and difiinguifh individually and^r/tirti/ar^ SubftantivCs 
common, which are applicable to diverfe Subjefla : For 
Example, The Grecian Empirt^fisurijhed under Alexander tkt 
Great, that is, that particular Empire. So the Words Pa- 
I latt and Prinee are common Nouns, which may be applied 
CO any Palace or any Prinee : which Words being put 
without an Article before them in this Phrafe, a Patau sf 
a Printt, ihey afford no diftjntl Idea or Notion of what 
Pa/dCf, .or of what Prince you fpeak; but if you put to 
(hofe two Words the Anidc The, as The Palace ef rie 
Prinee, thereby we are given to underfland, that it is fuch 
a Palace, and the Palace of fuch a Prinee which we are fop- 
pofcd to know, or to have heard mentioned juft before. 
I Q^ It thij Senttnee Peter loves God >. i^-hj hai the Wtrit 

[ Peter never an Article ie/ore it ? 

I A. Becaufe it is a proper Name, and proper Naaei have 

{ naturally no Article let before them ; becaufe they do of 

tbemfe]ves»W<Wi/i«i/^ornar/jVB/flf/(idiftingui(h the Things 

or Perrons of which one (peaks, and they, being thus par- 

I ticularly diAinguifhed, need not any more particular Dif- 

I lindion. Andfor this Reafon, the Word Gsd, fignifying 

the Sovereign Being, has no Article before it. So 1ikew£ 

L the Name* of Countriei Prwincii, Ri'ytn, WWntmiM,. V^^- 

^JnpAO Ankles before thtm. •^m 

it 1 

8^2 ^e English Grammar. 

Q. Do they then never fet the Article before frettr Kama f 
A. Yes fometimes ; but then it is when U)me Word 
is undenlood, or elfe when it is ufed bv Way of Dxftinc* 
tion or Eminence ; fo we likewife fay, the Go^ of Abraham, 
the God of Ifaac, the God of ]zcoh, by Way of Diftindion 
from the falfe Gods worfhipped by the Heathens. 

Ufe, it is trae, has eflabliined a great many Exceptions, 
but they may be pretty fairly accounted for by the Rales 
we have already laid down, if not reduced to them. 

Qj^ Are the Articles e*uerfut before the Adjective ? 

A, Yes ; for though the Adjedives are not of them* 
felves capable of receiving an Article before them, they be- 
ing only applied to SubttantiTes, to tell what they are, yet 
they often go admit one before them, but then it b al- 
ways by Vertue of fome Subftantive exprefled or under- 
flood, as will more fully appear by the following Exam- 
ples ; as Alexander the Greats Anne the Renowned^ Charles 
the Ftrf ; that is, Alexander the great King, or, the great 
Alexander : So Anne the renowned f^een^ or the renowned 
^ueen Anne; fo Charles the fir ft King^ that is, he njcbo nvas 
the firft King 0/* England of that Name ; fo, He is the hap- 
fieft of all Men^ that is, the bappieft Man^ kc. The Good of 
Go%ds^ i. e. the good Thing of good Things : He came the lafi, 
i. e. the late ft man. In like manner we fay. The Goods^ 
the Whites f the Blacks ; but thefe are put fubftantively, for 
the good Things, the ivhite Colours, the black Colours ; where 
you fee Things and Colours are underftood. 

Q. Ha'ue the Pronouns any Articles before them ? 

A, No : And the Reafons, why they nave them not, are 
the fame with thofe given under the fifth Queftion. But if 
by Chance any Pronoun (hould receive an Article, the Rea- 
ion is the fame with that given under the iixth Queftion* 

Q^ Hanfe all Languages the Articles ? 

A, No : For the Latin is without them. 

Q. Is the Article of any great Ser<uice to a Language? 

A* Yes : For it contributes very much co the exprefling 
neatly and clearly certain Refpe^s, and certain Properties 
which could not be fignified but by Help of the Article, 
and confequently there is no Doubt to be made, but (batall 
iiiaie Tongues, which admit of iW ^Tude« Yoln^ ^ %«t;ix 
jidfantage over the Laiin, in that tka As\»dt\><»Si^ta^giKat^ 

The English Grammar. t^ 

«!■ left out, iiii.k--s a great Alteration in the Senfe, which 
cannot be diftinguifht-d in i^/(n ; for Exatnple, The De- 
vil rsid to our Saviour in the Wildernefs, Si lu « Filiui 
Dti, which II, I/you are a Sen e/ Goal, or, Jfjou are iht 
Salt ofGaJ; for chefe Latin Words may receive two SenfeE. 
which may be eafily defermined in the Languages which 
hare (be Article, bat cannot fo well in [he Laiin. 

Q. M'hemenmnlbeWordhxadti 

■d From the Latin Word Ariicittai, a little Joint ! The 
Anide having in fomc Son the fame Ufe in a Sentmce, 
as a Jaiat has io the Bodj. 

Q. Wheart cemttbiH'ard X>cfiaitt\ 

A, From flf^a/sj, which figniiiEi determined orlimil 

Q. H'henu corns tbt WV^/ Indefinite ? 

A. From Indtjiniius, which fignifiea undeicrmined 

Qt What doytu mioB By Individual f 

A By Indi-oiJual, I mean any one Thing or Pufofl; 
from Indi-viduui, that is, indivifible; for one inJitridHal 
Thing, or Perfon, cannot be divided into more Particulars 
of that Soil i or lnd><vuiaal is Single, Individually, Singly, 



THE Prepofimm. of which we {ball now treat, and 
the Cinjueiliaai, of which we fhall Tpeak hcreaf- 
ter, are, as it were, the Nertiei and Ligumtnli of all Dlf- 
courfe i and we cannot attain to a right Knowledge of 
any Language, without a good Underllaiiding of iheie 
two Parts of Speech, The Other Parts of Speech are Ma- 
terials prepared for the Building ; but the Prefejitiotts and 
Conjaa/Herri, are the Mortar and Lime which are to cement 
and join thofe Materials together. But we muft not fay fo 
of ihofe Prifafiiiem which are infeparable from Words, and 
which more ftriflly fpeaking are not fo much Prtpofiicus, 
in rcCpeft to our Language, as they arc in rcfpefl to the 
Langu^ from whence we have bottowed w»wa.. '^^ 
ai^thudiutfiii tbem by, u l^f 'giW^ 'i^^ 

84 fbe Eli cLt%H Grammar. 

fufHcently comprehended under the Words from which 
they are infeparable ; but for the Sake of thofe who know 
nothing but Englifl?^ and that I may give them a cleir Idea 
or Notion of this Sort of Prepofitienst I fhall explain the 
chief of them, when I come to that Part of the Grammar 
called Etymology. 

But before 1 come to define what are Prepofitionsy and 
ihew you their Significancy and Force, I fhall entertain 
you with an Obfervation of the Great Mr. Locke* t relating 
to Prepofitions^ ConjunSlions ^ &c. which by fome are called 
Particles^ as it were, little Parts of Speech. ** Befides Words, 
ftys that great Man, which are Names of Ideals [Notions] 
in the Mind, there are a great many others that are made 
ufe of to fienify the Connexion [Joining'] that the liifind 
g^ves to Idea s or Profofitions one ivitb another. The Mind, 
in communicating its Thoughts to others, does not only 
need Signs of the Ideals it has then before it, but othen 
alTo, to ihew or intimate fome particular A£kioii of its 
own at that Time, relating to thole Idea's. This it does 
feveral Ways ; as, h and // not^ are the general Marks of 
the Mind, affirming or denying. But beiides Affirmation 
or Negation, without which there is in Words no Truth 
or Falfihood, the Mind does, in declaring its Sentiments 
to others, conned not only the Parts of PrepofitionSf but 
whole Sentences one to another, with their feveral Rela- ' 
tions and Dependencies, to make a coherent Difcoarfe. 

The Words whereby it fignifies what Connexion it gives 
to the feveral Affirmations and Negations, that it unites 
in one continued Reafoning or Narration, are generally 
called Particles ; and it is in the Right Ufe of theie that 
the Cleamefs and Beauty of a eood Stile more particularly 
confifls. To think well it is not enough, that a Man J 
has IJeas clear and diilindl in his Thoughts, nor that he 
obferves the Agreement or Difagreement of fome of them ; 4 
but he mud have a Train of Thoughts and obferve the 
Dependence of his Thoughts and Reafonings one upon 
another. And to exprefs well fuch methodicaland rational 
Thoughts, he mufl have Words to (hew what Connexion, 
Rejlriliiont DifiinSlion, Offojitiou^ Emfhafis^ ScC, he gives 
to each refpe^^vc Part of his Difcourfe. To miftake in any 
cftkcA is to piizaiCf inftead o{ VuSqiid^^ \a& YUascx \ 

7be English Grammar. 85 

And iberefore it b, chat thofc Words, which ace not tru- 
ly, by themfelvca, ihe Names of any IJcai, are of fuch 
conftanc aad indifpenfable Ufe in Language, and fo much 
contribute to Mens exprelliiig thenifclves well- 

This Part oi Grammar has been, purhaps, as much neg- 
lefled, as Tome others over diligently cultivated. It is ^::h 
for Men to write one after another, of Cafei and C.-^-Jiri. 
Mijodi and Tinfci, G,rHiidi'a.\iA Sapixtii in iliefi; Hr.'i ihe 
like, there lias been great Diligence ufed ; and rariii:lt» 
themrdves, in fome languages have been, with g,reat 
Shew of Exafinelt, raaked into their feveral Oivler;;. 
But though Prepafiiium and CmiJKtt^iiim, Uz. are Names 
well known in Gram/nar, and the Particles contained un- 
der (hem. carefully ranked into ihcir diftinfl Siib-divifi- 
ons i yet he who would fliew the right Ufe of Particles, 
and what Sgni6cancy and Force they have, in;iit take^ 

t liltlc more Pains, enter into his own Thoughts, and ob- 
ferve nicely the feveral Fofturci of hia Mind in difcoutfing, 
Neitlicf is it enough, for the Explaining of thefe Words, 
to render them, as is ufual in Diflionaiies, hy Words of 
another Tongue which come oearell to their Signilica- 
tion ; for whaci^ meant by them is commonlv ai hard 
to be underwood in one, as another Language. They are 
all Marti Bf fime Aelian, or Intimatien af thi hUnd; and 
therefore to undcrftand them rightly, the feveral Views, 
Pofture), Stands, Turns, Limitations, and E.xceptionj, 
and feveral other Thoughts of ihc Mind, for which we 
have either none, or very deficient Names, are diligently 
W be ftudied. Of ihefe there are great \'ariety, mucn 
exceeding ihe Number of the Particles that moft Langus- 
get have to exprcfs them by -, and therefore it \i not to be 

' wondered, that moft of thefe Paitides have diveife, and 
lomeiimcs almoft oppofite Sigoiiications. Intbe/ZfAif^ 
Tongue, there is a Particle confiiUng but of one Letter, 
of which there are reckoned up, as I remember. Seventy, 
I am fiirc above fifty feveral Signiiicaiions," HuutnH U»- 
Airfiani'm^, \. J. p, 399, +00, £3"^. 

• A Prepe/jiion '\% a Pan cJi ^^ticxJft, 
being added co any oOnet "Cau^ cS. 

S6 The English Grammmar. 

ferves to mark or fignify their State or Refe- 
rence to each other. 

Nofe, By a Part of Speech^ is meant a Word, for e^^ety 
IVorJis a Pifrt cf our Speech, I ufe the Word added i for 
though the Prepodcion is added chiefly to the Noun Bub- 
Jfahti'VCi yet it is alfo added together Parts of Speech ; as for 
Example ; before the Pronoun ; as, he came to vim, oxfrtm 
me : Before the Verb ; as, to fights to read^ &c. JBobic 
the Participle \ as, after baling read: Before the ArticUi 
as, 'u;itb the Help of a Snvord: JBefore the M*verb; Zt^from 
L »:e ; and fometimes afier the Word it governs ; as, f9^bai 
did you fell this for f 

Itfermes to mark or fignify their State or Re/emegh tad 
•ther: That is, it (hews what Refpedi or Relation one \ 
Thing has to another ; as, Peter goes over the Bridge, or *\ 
under it: I go to the Place, or from it : So as to its State \ 
yohn dwells at the Market ; Charles lives in the College ; 
He lives ^within the City, or nxjitbout it. Or you may take 
it thas, 

jt Prcpcfition is a Word added to other Words, tojbenn tbi 
^efpeB, or Relation one 7bing has to anttber. 

* The EngUJh Tongue has no Diverfity of 
Cafes (which the Greeks and Latins efpeoially 
have) but does all that by the Help of Prepth 
Jitions^ which the Greeks and Latins did partly 
by Prepofitions, and partly by the Diverfity 
pr Difference of Cafes, 

Note, We ihall therefore treat of the Do£bine of Prepo* 

fitions, next to that of Nouns Subftanti've, iince they are 

put chiefly before Buhftanti'oes, and becaufe the Meaning of 

thefe Partlcks, or little Words, being rightly underftood, 

the whole Syntax, ox ConfiruHion of 8ubfianti*uet, }s learot 

gt the fame Time. 

For the Prepofition being prefixed or fet before the Sub'- 

^afff/^e /hews what Rejpe^ or Relation t\i^ Subjlantin}| 

/f^th to timt Word which went \)efoic \x •, t^YwxVw \v Vi^ ^ 


The English Grammar. Sj 

a ytri, a Ntun, or any other Part of Speech ; as, /is 7".w- 

But wc IhaJl now proceed to give fome Account of the 
Prepofiiiam, which we will not rank into CI iffis or Heads, 
bat prefent you with the different Acceptations of feveral 
of Uiem. I am fenfible that what I have here done is 
but (tight and fuperiicial to what may and ought to be 
done ; but if this (hall meet with any Encouragement, I 
may be excited to make further Jmprovements in thefe 
Matters, by taking more Pains to obierve nicely the feve- 
ral Pollures of the Mind in Difcourfe. I flijil treat of 
them in an Alphabtlkal Manner. 

ABOVE. 5ax. BUFAN, BUFON.] » Abo-oe 
•hiefly relates to Place^ and anlwers to bihsj 
or btncatb -, as, Hh Chamber ii above mine. 

It has alfo divers o'hcr Acceptations. 

1. It denotes being higher in Grcaincfi, Bxnllc 
anj Digrtii o/Honaut, Sck. Ai. Cafar c»uU nut ahidg , 
have any abate kirn, i.e. in Power, i^c. Hah above ' 
ia Z-mraiiig. 

a. Jba%;e figmfies hiyond, or rnvrf than i 3s, Above 
Sirmgtb, i, e, beyond. He miaJiJ nime b/ liioji above 
rijl, i. e. men ihaa the refl. 

3. It denotes, marc, Qt leigi-r than .* As, Hefeughi above 
»WB Haurt, i. e. moreor longer than, fpV. 

4. It denotes btfidt! : Ae, Otiir and above ihrfi Evih, 
thire wai, &c. i.e. hiftdii. 

ABOUT. Sax. ABUTAN.] • Abmt re- 
lates both to Place and time: As, About Noon-., 
About the FieU. 

I . Aiout is afed 10 denote luithin the Com^i^%, *^4| 

fonePartofi ai, ^hcyba-ve Jtl uji aSto(^o\iVC\ic^H 

i. e. IB fome flm of. or near Chcaffidi- 1 

*. It SgiuBtsnwiJ about: As, Tfcej wadt a H<iy ™ 



S^ 7he English Grammar. 

the Diieh, i. e. round about, isfc. They nuuU a Mount about 
thi Houfty i. e. round about, l^e. 

Concerning* or of : As, He ivrote about the Grculattou of 
the Bloody i. e. Concerning, or of, ^c. 

Nigh, at : // luas about Night, i. e. Nigh« or at 

Jbout^ Being put to Words of Meafure fignifies almofi^ 
near upon, more or lefs than that Meafure : As, About 
four Fingers long ; About ^-r;/ Bujbels. 

Ahout^ being put to Verbs, £gnifies ready to do, or thi 
future Time of ASion: As, Re it about to fights i. e. he is 
ready to fight ; he is about to depart To-morrow, i. e. be wOL 

It denotes alfo the prefent Time of A^on, a^d -im- 
ports one's being bufied and employed in the doing' dfuy 
Tiling; iUflam about Bujinefi, i. e. doing or defigoiBgiC 

AFTER. Sax. iEFTER.] • Jfter is « " 
Prepofition which relates to Time and Place^ 

It (crwCB to denote Pofieriority of Time, and Inferiority of 
Place, or Order, and is put in Oppofition to Before, 

1 . Pofieriority of Time, i. e. a being or coming e^er : As, 
After the Deluge Abraham *was horn, i. e. Abraham came 
into the World, or his Birth was after ^ Deluge. After 
Julius Caefar our Saviour was horn, i. e. Our Saviour caoie 
into the World af^er the Reign of Julius Qefar. 

2. Inferiority of Place or Order, i. e. A lower Degree of 
Place or Order : As, The Lieutenant comes after the Caftmnc 
His Place is after the Mafier^s. 

But After when it is put to Vcrb» has then Reference 
only to Time : as. After te arrived. 

There is a particular Sjenfe of After ufed in Paintiog ; 
as when one lays. To faint after Raphael : To faint afoer 
7'itian, i. e. To copy a Pifture made by Rathael, made 
hy Titian. But we may here render After, by AcconSng 
to : As alfo in the following P)ir^fe, fie writes ^ter his Ca« 
fy, i. e. according ^o. 

There are feveral pth^r Senfes in which After is taken ^ 
as. He /ongs after it, ii C. ht voijhti for it nwitb an ardent 

/^O^^y- ^/tcr all, i. e. Afttt \ia.m^^^\\ tiww^^ 


The E K c L t s fi Grammar. 89 

? T'hingi ; tvetj Thing being well conridered. So Itkewifc 
IP, A/hr that, i. e. It hthig fa. And this Expreffion ii 
ufed by Way of Connexion 10 Difcourle. 

TOGEANES.] ' jigainft hach two particular 
Significations very different from one anothcE. 
In one it is ufed to denote Oppoftiion, Contra- 
riety i in the other Situation of Placi. 

And each of thefe two SigniliGaticKis has alio two diflinfl 

VSa&tna one another. 

j 1. In the firft Acceptaiion, Again]} rometimes fervet ft» 

L denote a direfl O^-pfititn by which one defigns to Bght, to 

r attack, to dcllroy a Perron or Thing , A^ To m«r.A an 

Igainft ibt Enemy, fc cwfpsre againft the ^cin. fa /^it./c 
againA Re/igien. 

So hkewiie to (peak /ar or again J?, where/or and aja/wj* 
; are Prepofitions, Tbingot Pirjen being underftood. 
I Againft, alfo. Si it relates to Plate, lignifies, Jsrji, avet- 

etaiaft ; a*. Hit Hnufi ii againft mine. He ledgei agaiiilt 
tie Cbarth. I luas flaeed tgainll him . 

SteaaMy, It denotes Csniiguiiy, or jcining ta ; as, in tha 

t following Inflanws. 7»fafiin a Ibitig againii the Wsll: Hi 
ran up a ifali againft ear H<m/t. 
It fignifies alfo as much a; Frm : as, Ti Jejevdibt Myrlli 
' a.^ai& the Cild, i. c. Jrom ihi CdJ. 

I For. Ai. H« prepares a Dinner AQZin&Te-mBrrem, i.e. 

, for. fcTf. 

Lafily, Jgainji joined wilh pver, i, c. O-oir-againft, i* 

' only ufed when Reference is made tO the oppcAie I'oliiion 

I of fome Thing. Peifon, ot Place ; as, That Hsufi m^.., J raiii-l 

\ over-againft the alhr. Over-againll ihat Piste. Htjloed 

over agaiiiH him. 

Signifies as much as Biitvce:: or Bciiiixt ; but there is a 
] Billinaion to be obfcrved in the Ule of them. fl«inw<-n 
I or Aftw'w properly fignifiesbeivjceTH.'wo-, Mvir^wrt-^Q^t 
t when we fpatk of more than two tettow ot "Vtw-e-. "^ 
I A betKr to ufe Amang. Thouc\v \ co'Q.W!i bei'W'tn 'i^ 

90 ^he English Grammar. 

f^ixt is foxnetimes nfed when the Dsfcourfe is of saorc 
than tn,vo ; but it is an improper Way of Speaking. 

AT. Sax. -ET.] * At denotes Neamefs to 
a Thing or Place -, alfo, Time^ Price^ the It^ru- 
ment^ Caufe^ Mannery Qcc. And figoifies as much 
as, . . 

In. As, At Sc/joo/, at Churchy at London* i. c. in 

the School, Sec. It lies at the Bottom^ i. e. in tbi B§tt9m, 
At the Beginning, i. c. in tbt Begimning. . , ~- * 

Aboat. As, At Sunfet. At Break of Devf^ i. oifrntOilt 
Siin-fet, &c. 

Near, or clofe by. As, He fwatches at the Door^ i. e* 
near the Door. 

Tor. He fold it at a great Rate^ i. e. for ^grtatt &C^ 
What do you Jell it at ? i. e. For 'what doyoufeUitf 

With. As, He plays at Bo^ls^ i. e. with Btwls, 

Accordiog to. As, at his Pleafure^ i. e. according to tni 


On, or Upon. As, Shore is excellent at the Trumfet^ 
and Tit the Lute, i. e. on, (jTr, Lully isfiilfidtX the Hattt" 
hey, i. e. on, ^c. 

It is ufed alfo to denote all Sorts of Bufitufs or ABitm 9 
As, To he at Study, lo be at Dinner. Tobid^ Writimg, 
i. e. He Jludies, He dines. He «writeSf ieo. 

BEFORE. Sax. BEFORAN.] • Bifore 
is ufed to denote Priority of fime^ Order, 
Ranky Situation^ &c. 

J. It denotes Priority of Time : As, Before /i^ Creation 
of the World. Before the Birth ofCbrift. 

2. It denotes Priority of Order : As, the Captain marches 
before the Soldiers. The Horfegoes before the Cart. 
J. It is ufed to mark the S:tting or Pladne of a Per- 
/on or Thing ; and, when tlvu» t&S, \t dot& viiwt?*nSft ^- 
noteNearfi^s : as. Put it before tbt Fire, v t. 53n«-«Ha»St% 

Of netr, tie imJ Jeiui iht ChilJ before St. Piul'j Cburt^t 
againlt, c 

It \i uf«i by Way of Ctmparlfin, and denote; Pref, rcn;r 
of any Kind; as, '//( 'val»i< GeU befoi'e Liainhi^. \ c. 
more than, i^c. And in iliis Senfe it Cgiiifies, as raudi 

Beyond. Aa, //i 

:^vf^ before <»//, cnJ mRhci^n.-k 

ie!iind Bsnt ; befirt all, i. e. beyond all. tt fignilics alio 

Raiher or Sooner. As, I wHl do am Thing before ItvilJ 
ttiafly^ 1. e. riUhcr at/oancr- 1 Jhall 'Waal **u/ii- bffore J 
/ball'icaMH'ardi, i. t. fooiir, &c. 

DAN. Heb. BEHAND.] * if^iWisaPre- 
pofition relating to Place-, and is iifed co mark 
the Situation that is dircftly oppofite to tliat 
which is cxprefTed by Befon. As» Beliind tht 
Veort behind your Heu/e. 

It it ufed Ukewifc when tve difcourre of Things ihst 
have not, ftriiliy fpeaking, any Fact or Farcpnn .- Ai, Ut 
tiJa bim/rl/beiimi tbtJrrf. Hf ii's behind ri,! B^:f^. 

It is gfcd aifo in a figjruive Minner, when we f^eak 
of a Perfon tint txceih otliera in any Thin j : As, Zv ihat 
Part tf Lterniag bi ItJ-vct ail alhtnfar biti.i:id hii^, i. c, 
biixtiUi elliibn. 

NEOTH.] ** Beneath or Uelom is generally 
uicd in relped co Place or Situation-, and anlwers 
to ^^ve : As, Btneaib the Firmament. 

Itburedalfo to denote the being Inferior, or lefs than 

anoditr m any Kind. As, iif ii beneath dim in V\'.-vn.v , 

i; e. 0Mji ifnnrabtf, H- U btwatlft, or 'b'^'^: Wk-J^ 

ffir/^f i. c. lot fs imll 6oi->i or diArn 

F. ^ ■ 

gi Tie English Grammar. 

This is a particular Phrafe. // iV beneath^ or below 
It'm to dofo andfoy i. c. He imould/comt &c. 

iween or betwixt relates to Timeznd, Place^ and is 
fpoken of two Terms or Words, in which the 
^pace of 7ime or Place^ of which we fpeak, is in- 
cluded : As, Between the Promife made to Abra- 
ham, and the Coming of the Meflias ; i. e. the 
Space of Time which was from the Time 
when the Promife was made to Abraham^ and 
to the Time of the Coming of our Saviour^ 
Between Heaven and Earthy i. e. The Space that 
is between the Places Heaven and Earth. 

1. And in thefe Phrafcs, Tetnxeen cr Betnvixt Hope ar.'d 
Fiar : BetiAnen ibj Father and Son : Bet-ween you and me : 
There are always two Terms coniidered, as being equally 
dilhnt from the Subjeft of which we fpeak. As for In- 
flance, in the firll Sentence, ^he Man is between Hope and 
Fvary i. e. The Man is as diftant» or far from Hope, as he 
is from Fear ; or, he has as much Hope as he has Fear. 

2. It figni£es as much a$> in the Middle^ or thereabouts : 
as, 7'be Ri'ver ran between the tnm Fields^ i. e. in the Mid* 
die, &c. He fat at Dinner , between or betwixt tbentt i. e. 
in the Middle of them, &c. 

3. It ferves to denote Society or Union : As, Tberoiveu a 
Conference between them. Tiere iV a great Friendjkip be- 
tween him and me, 

4. It denotes Participation, or Sharing : As, fie Grey is 
between the IVhite and the Black, i. e. The mf Colour 
pai takes of Part of the white, and Part of mt black 

5. It denotes Pri«z;«ry : As, That was dene httwtta them 
J^/y^, i. e. prinjately^ or, that «• Prr/on jwnednwitb tbtm^tn 

doing a T/jl/Ig. ^^^.rvwrr^. 

The English Grammar. 93 
GEONDAN] • Beyond relates chiefly to 
Place-, or to the farther Side of which any Thing 
is or goes. As, Beyond the Mountain, Beyond 

It is ufed alfo to deoete any Sort or ExreG, either 
good or bad, and it t> applied to any Morai Thingi ; or 
Things relating lo the Manntri of Men : As, He goes bei- 
yond all in >//«, i, e. He ixciUs all. Sec. li plenfa him 
beyond Imaginattim, i. t. It ixcecifiyour Imapnetion ta thivk 
hriu it fleafii him. Hi rrviardid him beyond his M'.rils, 
i.e. ne Reviardiuai griaterthati be rlifervtil. 

It figniiiea Sufcriorily in any Thing : As, He ibchI be< 
yard aU tit Falour, inSlmgth, i. e. ht exciUed thim, &c. 
Ajmii/ fignHiei al{b as much ai, Of«r i ai, He it gout 
beyond St*, er over Sea. 

It fignilies alfo anihe ethir Side, and anfwers to 
Bduther, or, on this Side] ■ ^*i.Virris ufcd to de- 
'aPlacc chat is near, as Beysnd denotes that which 
frdiftantor farther off; As, The Parktir lies\ieV\\\\t\^ 
.dus Side tbt Kitehin. Ik* At-my /in behiihersr oiv 
Side the Rivtr. 

BY. Sax. BE, BI, BIG.] • By denotes 
the Efficient Caufe of a Tiling or Adbn 5 (or 
the Caufe by which a Thing is performed or 
done) the Motive which makes ooe do a Thing, 
and the Means which contribute to that End : 
As, He wasfiain by his Enemy, but was wound- 
ed jirji by his own FeoTy then by his Ene?ny^s 

I. It dernmi the FfiiUm Ciu/i of a Thing or AHion : 
As, Jit Tiitigi -were cn.i fed by iht ft'trd of God. 

i. ttdenotti the Ahiive <ii\C\<A. TO:iK.«mvftittV^*»^'^t- 
M, Si€ ii tuiTitd un by ixr T^^ion. 

E 5 ^ 

c;4 ^tfc En gl i s h Grammar. 

3. It IS ufed to denote the Meant by whidi one ufes 
to do a Thing, or which contributes any Way to the 
Doing of it : As, Hefatvfies all the World hy his ConiuS: 
he received the Letters by the Fofi : he ferfumdes by bii 
Reafons. It iignifies alfo as much as 

In. As, By Day^ by Nighty i. e. In the D^n-TimMp iit. 

Through. As» By Cheapjide, i. e. Through Cheapfidt. 

Beiides, As, By the Marky Befides, («fr. 

At. Asy TocoMehy, i, e. T^ohtaintorcome^t. There 
are Abundance of other Acceptations, bat we moft act 

Befide.] * Befide {i. e. by the Side) denotes NeaneTs, 
and figniiies as much as. 

By, or nigh to. As, He/at hefide the River, i. e. by w 
nigh to the River, Lay mj Bones hejidc bis Bones f i. e. oi^ 
to, Csff. 

It denotes Erring or Wanderine. As, He ihoots befide 
the Mark, i. e. from, &c. He is befide himf elf , i. e. mad. 

Except, fave, or but. As, iVo body thinks fo hefid* nvf- 
filf i. e. except, but, £sff. . 

But its chief Ufe is to denote Augmeuiation or AdMthu ; 

More, more than, over and above : as, There nsien mawf 
things befide thefe, i. e. more than» isTf . 

FOR. Sax. FOR.] * The Prcpofition For 
has a great many Significations, and denotes 
chiefly for what Purpofe^ Endy or Ufe^ or for 
whofe Benefit or Damage any Thing is done 5 
as, Cbrift died for us. He -got a Dinner for 

1 . For, Serves to denote the End or Ol^eS tiMch one 
propofes in any Allien ; as. To fight for the PmblickGood. 

2. It ferves to mark the Motive, the Canfi, the Smb^S 
of any Adtion, and may be rendered by, in C$nfideration of: 
As, God hath done all things for his own GUry, He does all 

T/'/f/gs for tbe Love of Virtue^ I nnill nwritf tb« Btok lot 

The Etiolism Grammar. 


3. It it ufed to msrk the U/c for which a Thing is 
done J as, Chelfea Hsjiiial -was hUt for i/i/ailtJ SaUiii ;. 
He has tht Buffat hil Dinner. 

+. It is ufed likewife to denote Pro//, AJvemtage, h- 
ttreft, and may be rendered by, infairour ef: as, The Laivy.r 
fitads for his CUenl. I do il for jour Intereft. I ixrote fot 
ysur Sariifaaien. 

S It is ufed to denote for what a Thing is proper or. 
not: fif., A^dHorftfartheChariat. It is /f foi a Citi- 
tut. It il it good Rraudf for ihi Ftver. In which laft Ex- 
anipte. to cure is to be onderftood ; and To likAiife is all fuch 
Sort of Phrafe* -, for For is never ufed to lignify agaJnft, 
where fbte feme Verb is always to be undcrilood. For, 

6. Thit prepofition is ufed to denote Agrettnnsi, or H/lp, 
in OppoHtion 10 A-^aivJ! ; as Ptter ii for tite, John ii againft 
me. The Sddier fighn for the Ki'ig. 

7. It is ufed to denote the dr.wviincf, or Incoirveni.nce 
of a Thing : As, The C,«l 1, too tig for bim. The Houfe it 
tua tilth for him. He ii big tnsugh for his Age. Unticr 
this Head we may reduce the Phrafe, liisturll. Sir, forj-on, 

3. It is ufed to denote Exebangi, or Trucking, Rcciim- 
fenei, Riirihatien , or Ri^uilal, and Paymcnl : As, He ebaii};- 
tdSilk for Laie. He g^e a Diama«dht the Cryjlal. lie 
rmiarded him for hit giiod Servicei. To rmdtr E/uil for E- 
inV. He ^e-ve him Money for the Boei. Hither we may like- 
wife refer thefe Phrafes, Eje for Eye. FbuIi for Fault. 

g. It i« ufed to denote, i«ftead^, inlhiPlaciof: Ai, / 
•will grind for him, i. e. in hit Steed. InuiH'waich foiyeu, 
I. e. ia yrnir Place. Sometimes it fcrves 10 denote it Mil- 
late: As, Hijpiaki one Word iax another: Ta tahi a'<e P,r- 
Jin for anathtr: And in this Sen (e we are tol«ke this Phrafe, 
Whom Jo you lair me for I When a Mar fuppoCts all that 
RefpcA is not p«iJ him which be coiints his due. 

10. It is ufed to denote the DiftinfUon of Things by 
Froportion to feveral Perfons : As, He fett Jo^n Ivitk-i 

•t for I- 

Il denotes the Condition of Perfim, 
7ma: Ht luoi laxtd tmugb tor hii Ejlau, i- 
Hi Bjlaii. Hiwua Itai-md Max for thefi Ti^ 



$6 Ti?e En CLi $H GrafmMT. 

12. It IS likewife ufcd to denote, in the SIumHn rfi Ab^ 
lie had him for a Tutor : He hired him for a Coachmam : 
HcfuhQrnedbim for a Witnefs. 

It fignifies likewife as much as, Becaufe 9/, or By Rec' 
fon ofy &c. As, To punijb a Man for bi$ Crimei^ i. e. Be* 
cau/t ofy &c. To impri/cn him for Debt^ i. e. Becaufe of^ &c« 
He c.uld not nualk f after for Age^ \. t. By Reafon^ or, fc- 
aiuf of See, 

Jt fignifies ^j, or, to he: As, Hi 'was/entforaPledgi^ 
i. c. ast or, to he a Pledge, 

During. As, He ivas chofen for Ufe^ i. c. During Ufi^ 

1 his Frepofition is ufed often to denote the Future Tinup 
or Time to comc^ as in the foregoing Example. 

Concerning, About, As to ; ^/ lOr m/, 1. e. concerning mew 

NotwithAanding. As, After having fpoke of the Faults 
of a Man, we add. For all that ^ he is an honeft Man, L o. 
Not^\:ithftanding ail that^ &C. 

FROM, Sax, FRAM, FROM.] * From 

fignities Motion from a Place^ and then it is put 
in Oppofition to To ; as, He goes from London 
io York. He goes from School. 

1 . It is ufed to denote the Beginning of Time : Ab^ 
From the Creation of the World. From his Birth, 

2. h denotes the Orr^'W of Things : As, hgrewfohig 
f ; om a fmali Sicd. He is defcendsd from the Family of tbt 

3. It denotes the Order of a Thing : As, From Headta 
Fact. ¥rom frft to lap. 

And in thefe three lail Senfes it is put before Adverbs : 
As, PVom thence, i. e; from that Place, From hence, i. C; 
from this Place, From knc forth, i.e. from this Timet or, 
at all Times after this, 

4 . It £gnifii f Off: As, Ht took me from the Ground, 
i. e. ojfthe Ground, 

IN or INTO. Sax. IN, INTO.] * In fervM 

chieliy to denote, or mark, Ti'iw^^ Place^ the 

Ma/i^er of Beings of Thinkings dni of ilElinJ,^ w 


The E M o L I s H Crammio: 97 
DoinZi the Motive which caufes one to a£i, and 
the Meam we ufe to all by. 

In relates to Refi ; Inio to Meikn : Ai, Peter Bvii in 
t/>e Hfoji i mt inio, fcfr . But, Peter gti into tbi Ciilar. 

I. It relates to 7inr ; is, la tit Summer, \n th* ffinltr, 

». It relates to Place j as. In the Oty, in thi Country. 

;. Il it ufed to denote or mark the different Pofturer 
and DiffofitioHs of the Body, and the diverle Manners of 
Exiftence or Being, either of Ptrfini or Ihingi, with Re- 
lation Rther to Art or Nature : At, 7» bi in afiipplimnt 
Pofture. To be at gead Health. An Army'm Battle Jrroy. 
He h in bi, Shirt. He i, m a Sobe of Stale. 

4. It ferves likewife to denote the diflerent Circam- 
Aancei of a Perfon's Fortune and Affairs : As, To be in 
Favour. 7a be rich in Land, in readj Menej. To be in tfar. 
To have bU Affair: in a goad Condition. 

{. It ferves alfo to exprefs the difl«rent Manners of 
Being, with Relation lo the Pailions and Affeflions of 
the Soul, to the Thoughts and Operations of the Mind ; 
A», To be in Fear. To be in Daubl. To put bim into good 
Hunaur. To take it in good Part. His Mcmary ii in Extern. 

6. It denotes alfo the Jlfd/ivr aadObjeiH: As, HtJidit 
ID Revenge ; he •tuorki ih Hope. 

7. It fignifies as much as Among: As, The luicked hat 
B*t Gtd'm a// bis ThoBgbti, i. e. nmane ali bii Thtmgbii. 

8. h denotes the Change of a Perfon or Thing, wbe> 
ther it be into better or worfe : As, Tbey turn Bra/s into 
Geld, NarcilTus wnj changed into a Flwier, arc. 

5. la Agnifies fomelimes againft or /nrt .- Ai, He ran 
tit Flier in mj Fact. He put in bii Mouth. 

OF. Sax. OF.] •0/anfwers to the Genitive 
Cafe of the Latins^ and admits of the fame Va- 
riety of Signification with it ■, wlietlicr it be put 
after Subftantivcs, Adjectives, or Verbs. 

I, Itlignifics the A/ior of a TViwf. ai^lVji W»A«<i\ 
^a^ '■ f. (he Worb wViicVi ClKrowww. v"^ 


$t Tie Ekcl i%H Grammar^ 

z. It figaifict the Pejeffir, or Owner of a Thingi ai, 
ne Palace of tJIfe King. 

3. As it iignifies all Sort of Relation or Refpedt Ckat 
the latter Sitbftantive has to the former, fo it fignifies na- 
tural Relation ; as* The Son of the Emrl, or, the EarPj Sw, 

4. It fignifies the Stdjea : A&, ACup of Water^ a Piece 
of Bread. 

5. It fignifies the Oljea : As* ATreatife of Phjjick^ i. e. 
€9ncirmng PMick, he 'writes of the MatbrmeUicks, 

6. It ngniles the Matter of which a Thing is made : 
as, A Cuf^GtH a Building oi Marbie, i. e. A Cup muub ' 
of Gold, a BuileBng made of Marble \ which Phrafes mav 
be turned into an AdjedUre; as, A Golden Qip^ a Mmrtie 

7. It is ufed to fignify the Means or Caufii at» TV die 
of Hunger , to die of a Con/umption, 

. 8. It is ufed to mark or denote the ^ality of es Perfin 
or Thing ; as, A Man of Honour, an Affair of Importance* 

9. It fometimes denotes an A&i*ve Senfe ; a*. The PrO' 
widence of God^ i. e. the Pron^idence by *u:bich God takes core 
of all Things, Sometimes it denotes a PaJ^e Senfe ; as» 
The Fear of God, i. e, by which he isjeared. Sometimes it 
ferves to denote both thefe Senfes ; as. The Love of God^ 
i. e. the Love 'with 'which God lovePbis own People ; or» tie 
Love vntb vihich good Men kve God. 

10. It is fometimes only a Note of Explication, or Sfg* 
eifcationi as. The Gty oi London, the Gtyof Rome. 

Laftly, It fignifies as much as Among ; as. Of fmr 
Daughters three viere blind, i. e. Among four Dmugbteru 

From. As, South of London, i. e. South from, &c. 

But fometimes we ezprefs of, efpecially when it fignifies 
Pofiefiion, by the Cenitive Cafe ; as, The Kjng\ PaUue^ 
1. e, the PaUue of the King i PeterV Hor/e, i. e. the Horfi 
%ili Peter. 

OFF. Sax. OF.] ♦ Off fignifiejs Separatim 
or Diftance : Asy To put off bis Coatbs. He 
fiood oSfrom the Fire. 

Jt' ft denoUB Dehj I As, BeprntitM^h. t. idap^ 

The English Grammar. 99 

2. Ofind 0« being jo'tnediogether denote IncOnJlaocy 
or Unfetdednefs : As, Ht h off onJ on ivitb mc, i. e. He 
fometimcs agreci andfim'timti -wiU ml. 

ON.5-flx.ON,orUPONi 5tf*.UP,UPPAN, 
UPPE.] * On or Upon relates both to 7imt 
\ and Place : As, On or upon that Day. On or 
I upon the Table. 

I. When Ojt or f.^ relates to Place it hasdiverTe Ufes, 
I where it is etaployei in a Senfe more or lefs proper, but 
U every where denotes the Superiority of it: Situation 
\ [dut if, being uppermoft or overj of PcrfDns or Things 
I in Refpeft to one another : As. To fiil ibt Di/h on or upon 
;. the Tail: Ta lie on or upon ihe Bed. To ful b'li Hal on 

IV npon his Hiad. A Brii/gf on tr upon tte I'bamcs. 
t. Andin AUufioDtolhJE Acceptaiionitisuled infpealc- 
ing of t!ie Imporuion on Raifmg of 7'axeE, Contributions, 
iffc. And ilien it lerves to denote either the Perfons of 
whom the Taxes are demanded, or the Funds from whence 
the T3xe$ are raifed T As, Hi laid Csnlri^utisiri on m- upoa 
J a// the Eacniiti Country . It is paid nut nftbe Tax upon 
. Malt, and upon Coah, C.mdUs. S:c. 
\ 3. In rpeaking of Bufinefs ii is ufed to denote what we 

\ are doing, and the Matter or Subject of our Conver- 

Ifation, Deliberation, or Application : f^i,To dij^uteoner 
upon ibe Sutjiil of. Sec. Ta dilihtrale op or upon /«(<&« 
IPnfafitinn. 'To maki Notes Ott or uponyii-^ an Aiithsr. 
\. It [erves alio to denote ttw Caufe or Occiton vf do- 
ing any Thing : As, Uponrfti'M-'Luj^/^icr 4ni-valhi pre- 
fcntlj departed. On «■ upon tlK Advice oj lit Jpfnatb of 
i tb» EHeaiylheyjItd. 

J. It ferves 10 denote by the Verwe or Coofideraiion 
of what a Perfon fayi, does, or defigns any Thing : As 
On tr Upon iho/e Hifii ive marriid. Hi ■vtnlured, rfiyiig 
upon tbf puhliii Faith, i. c. By firtut of. It Coefidcra- 
titntf, Stc. 

6. It ktvta aJlb to denote tl»= Ttims viVvcV »>«k xw^t-. 
u4 <>/■ (O affirm any Thing : A%, I protfjl oft «'• viV'f' "'.^ 

ICO The E N G 1 1 s H Grsntmar. 

Honour^ On or upon «rjr Cmtfcience. To/wear on 9r npea 
the Go/peh, 

On or upon does alfo fignify 

Concerning: As> f/ir has agreed on /^^tf/ Matter, i. ۥ 
cencemingf &c. 

Alfo ^/er ; And denotes the Reiteration, or Repeating, 
of fomething already done, or fpoken : As, He tbanh me 
muith Letter upon Letter, He refeatt Line upon Line, and 
Frecept upon Precept. 

When it is added to Verbs, it fignifies as much asy^- 
nasard^ or Continuation : As, To go on^ i. e. to go/lnnvardf 
&c. And anfwers to Off": As, To put on. To put off. 

OUT, or OUT OF. Sax. UT.] • Out 
or out of refers to the Matter j Place^ Tme^ 
Number or Multitude from whence any Peribn 
or Thing comes^ goes^ is fought^ fetch dj taken^ 
&c. as. He t$ok it out of the Fire. He eame out 
of the Church.. 

It denotes the Reafon or Caufe of a Thing : As, She £d 
it ont of Spite^ i. e. fy Reafon 0/ Spite. 

It fienifies Diilance : As, Go cut of mjf Sigh, L t.from 
mj Sight . 

It fignifies not wtbin the Reach of: As, Out of Guur 
Shot, i. e. not within the Reach of^ &e. 

It £nii£es Not in. As, Out of Date^ Out of PIm^ 
Out QxTaJhiony Out of Heart, i e. Not in ZWf, ftc 

OVER. Sax. OFER.] ♦ Ovir refers 
the Height of Place, above which any Thing is^ 
faid to be, or to be done ; as, A black Shower 
hangs over his Head^ He holds the Sword over 
her Head. 

It refers to the Diflance of Place, beyond or crofs, 02 
overthwart which any Thing movctii oar b im4« \o vm»« \ 
as, I/f^oes over Sea, i. c. £j«i4 01 cro/V, ^Cv 

The E « c L I s H Grammar 

i Over denotes Exee/} t as, // «m« it over mud Eafi, i^t 
fe. loOTBUch, bfc. No Beilyii Over boppj, i. c too. (^c. fl 
It fiEnifict Mtvi i as, // ii itat tiua Fiugeri over, i. e. V 
.abore, Wr. 

It iigQiRes through ; aa, /ff ii dnMtw atla\a lit W»li, 
1. e. tbfwgh tbe whole, ftfr. 

It Tigiufies Pe^vtr or Amboiitj \ a), W^ Capiaia h over 
the Selaieri, i.e. Above in Command or Dignity. 

B<y4<ij.- At, He ga've m fiur wvc, i. t. befidcs, W<:. 
Being put after Verbs it ligni&es to i/^j^ or /fai-e o^j as, 
//c ^ifw Over, i, e. he defilli, He. 

iTHURH, THRUTH.] * Thorough or 
Through iervcs to mark the Efficient Caiife for 
the Caufe tliat brings a Thing to pafs) of a 
Thing or Adion, the Motive of doing a Thing, 
and the Means chat conduce thereto. 

t. 7be EJ-clent Caafe : As, Nothing it Ant hat through 
tht Permijian of God. Tbe iforiJ ivai created through tbf 
fewtr oFGnd, J. e. by. 

2. The Mtti-ut -■ As, Sbe doii it through Envy. 

3. Thateugb or Ibraagb relates likewJIe to Piaet, and is 
ufed to denote Pnfiiict and Mrotment into Place ; as alfo 
the 'nltJium or Middle if Place: Ai, 'The Pe-wcr ifGodis 

feen throughout tht Wtrld: He ran Him through the Badf. 
Tbt Beans eflbt Sunpafifrsm Hteven through the Air ft 
tie Earth. 

%i/» through, t. A through bolb Sides. 

' 'TILL or UNTIL. Sax. TIL.] • *TiU or 
Until relates only to Time : As, HeJIaid till 
f PUT o'clock. 

"TiU figiu£ei Btfiri ; as, They did not dare to begin ib» ■ 
War Hit the Amba£adora were come back fien R»iit» f 
I. «. i^art. 

102 y2»^ English Crammar. 

It denotes Delay : As^ He bath lorn gentfy wtti mi till 
#r until no^\ 

TO. Sax. TO.] * To (or ««/^, which is not 
ib much ufed as formerly) (ignifies^ 

1 . Motion to a Place : As^ / go to Rome, to FnuiOfy 


2. Relation: As, Good to i^/V Friends, FmvottraUi xo 
the Church, I give Money to Peter. Like to me. 

3. It likewife denotes the Ufe for which a Thing is de- 
figned : As, A Mill io grind Coffee, A Ba/on to itMiflf Hands. 

4. It denotes the Capncity, Aptitude and prefent Difpo- 
iition : As, A Man qualified to undertake aitf Thing, ft is 
iafy to do. Wine fit to drink. 

It denotes alfo Defign or Intent : As, Ti? in^jite to Dinner. 
To ha've fcmenuhat to ^. It likewife fignifies as much as. 

In. As, To Dajj i. e. In this Day, To Morrow^ i. e. 
In the next Day, 

For. He did it to /i&f Endy i. e, for //^^ End^ He govt 
her 500 Pounds to /"^r Portion^ i. e. for, w to be her Portion. 

Before, As, He made an Oration to the ^ueen^ i. e. 
before the ^een. He commends him to his Face, i e. be- 
fore^;/, &c. 

About, Of, Concerning. As, // folktws the^t 1 J^eak 
to that one Part ofHonefty^ i. e. about, of, ^c. 

Towards. As, Your Kindnefs to me is greats i. e. to* 
wards iiB/y &C. 

Until. As, The ParliAmint is prorogued to Novemhr^ 
i. e. Until Novemier, Sec. And here it denotes Delay, 

In Comparifon of. As, Ho is nothing to Mf, i. 9. In 
Cosnparifon of me. He thinks them Clowns to him^ i. e. ho 
Comparijon of him. And fometiiDes it Qgnifies 

May or Can. A^s Iha^ve none (o cotnfort mf, i. e. Wi&». 
may, can, 0r will comfort nu, 

Laftly^ This Prepofition, being put before Ottr Verbs, aa- 
fwers to the Infinitive Mood of the Latins ; as, to fight , png^ 
nan ; to toacb, docere: Wbert wc may fiifCber obfenrci 
that to fight is as much as fightmgi Iq, to toeub^ iesBJ^ 
ing : As, / love to fight, to teach, i. c. 7 lo^voJS g ki h igf 


^ht English Grammar. 103 

' Thii Prepornion is frequently left out both in Speaking 
knd Writing : As when we fay, fUe me, gnit mi, lell me, 

leur na, &c. In rII which Places, me n put for « ine, 
Ta is orSnirily left out afterr*rijo/e«S,//aWftha[ini. 

ply a Relation whetiier of Accjuificion or Motion, efpecially 
'\tiote the prr/iMl PraiouHi, when the Noum or Preiouat 
■jmnietiiiceiy follow the Ftrki , aj. Give me tie Cup. SenJ j 
iKe my Bad. Bring meynti- S-umr/!. And alfo after chsW 
]belfi«g ^eris. Can, Lei, &c. And liltewife before the 7"iij 

'/«/(;*/ M,„J. 

voard or Towards has much the fame SignificaiiJ 
pn as Ward^ and is ufcd to denote both 7»»tfl 
■nd Place, though it does more naturally refetj 
to Place than to 'Time. 

1. It is ufed to denot* Time, but without any precife 
fixioK of it ( M, Towards the Spring, towards Noan, to- 

^Viaxii the end of the Winter. 

2. But it gives you a more precife and exaft Diftinfli- 
OB when it is Bpplied to Place; as. The Trespi laareb V)- 
yi\iAi iht Rhine : TV ba<ve bii Rjei turned towardt Henvm. 

From Ward (fee Wurrf) conws bitbcr-tnard, nf-^ard, 
davitt-'ward, Jiire-'ward, batk-iiiard. 

As to the Words, teaching, cQiicermng, aceerdii_ 
longiifg to, during, liQ. thefe are rather Pariicifhi rhanJP* 
, fejiieni. 

It is generally faid, that Prepafiiioni, when cbey do 
govern a Word or corac before «, do become AJvtrbi 
But I believe, that, in almoll every Example that it produ* 
ccd, fome Word is underftood; and if fo, there is no Need 
that t!ie Prepojition Ihould part with its own Nature or Pro- 
perty : for we are to confiJer them according 10 their Senfe 
or til*, and not according to the accidcnul Placing of (ome 

j UNDER. Sax. UNDER.1 • Uiwter =& v 
I PrepoRdon that refers boxKiiot\K* «A'V\^nft»^ 

104 T'^^ English Grammar^ 

But as it relates to Time, it if ordinarily reftfained ta 
the marking the Time of a Reign or Go'virnmeni: As, Uih 
der the Reign of^een Ann6, Under tbe Govtntmemt of Ad* 
guftus C&r//? nvaj bom ; and by Abbrevsatioiiy or for $bort-r 
nefs Sake, we fay Under Sluccn Anne, Under Augufinik 
And wc ofe it in the fame Acceptation or Senfe in jpeak' 
ing of the Time of the Birth of any fortunate Perfon ; 
as. He njcas born under a happy Planet ^ under afa*vourMhU 
Conjiellaticn, i. e. a happy Planet^ afa*wurabli ConJielUi' 
tion ruled at his Birth. 

Under y as it relates to Flaee^ denotes being lower in ^i* 
t nation Qx Place \ as. Every Thing that is ixndtr HeaveMp 
or under the Earth. 

And it is in Allufion to this Acceptation, when we fay« 
He retired undtT the Cannon of fuch a Place: To put « 
Thing under Locl^ and Key, 

It fi^nifies /r/<x;/7/^^ Qxfecretlyi as, to do a Thing under 
Hand^ 1. e. privately* 

Lower^ as, under Lip^ under Sidi^ i. e. lower. 

WARD.] * Ward is a Prepqfition that is al- 
ways fet behind another Word, and denotes 
the Tendency of Perfons or ^ings to one another ; 
as. Heaven ward, i. e. to Heaven^ or toward 

fPardcomtn from the Saxon Weard^ The Saxons Gif 
Eajweetrd, WefinjHard^ as we do Eafiwardy Wepward^ 
i. e. towards the Eafi^ &c. 

Of this Word and the Frepofition To lis compounded the 
Prepojition Toimard^ 

WITH. Sax. WITH.} • With is ufed 
to denote Cof^'tmSion, UmoHy Mixt$aVy Society^ 
jiccen^atrpngi Mians, It^rumeatt AHamer, &c. 

I . It fenrei to denote Conjonfiion, Union : & is Frmtk 
with «// tbt WtU. 

t. It 

The E H G L I s H Grammar. 105 

3. It denotes Mixture : Tf far « IMe Hiugar with a 
great di^^ Oil. 

3. It denotes Society, or Accompanying : A), Y* tal 
with hii Frtnii. 7o go with biM. 

4. It is dfed to mark the Mians : As, With tbi Gratt 
cfGod. With tht Hr!p of hi, Fritnd, He furga himfelf 
with Bucilbern. 

i 5. It m3t4;s the Manner of Being or Doing : A«, 7> 
J)eai with Eloquence. 7i> anjhjer with Stueclnifi, with 
Haughlinefs, &c. 

6. The Inftrument : As, /f^ killed him with /Af Siiwr-*". 
•J. Opfojiiian 01 Jgahfi: As, (A« Da** o/" Marlborough 
jSji// with /*« French, /. c. Againfl, &c. 

WITYN.] • IVubitt is a frepofition referring 
both 10 TVffK and P/k-:?. 

I. When •within refers to /*/fli-/', it (erireJ 10 denote, 
that the Ptrfas or T'iw^ of which we fpeak is contained or 
comprehended in thst Plate. As, Peter ii within the 
Haufi. Hevialki within iht Garden. 

X. When it refers to Time, it ferves to fix and determine 
(he Space of Time, with Refpeft to the Thing that is do- 
ing: As, He 1*1111 ga within three Dayt. h luill be fi- 
nijbtdviil^ii'iil'wa Heurt. 


TAN.] • Wttbout is put in Oppofition to 
Within : As, He is net within the Hcufe^ for he 
is without Doors. 

It denotes what they call Privalita or Exilufien. 

It is ofed to denote Privation, that is, in fpealdng of a 
Good or Advantage we have not. As, Nerhing can he 
without the Grace of God. He paj^i the Night without 
Steep, i. t. att having any, &C. 

io6 The English Grammar. 

Exc/ufion, or being excinpt or free from » ul^'Hg^^ 
without PaJ^oftf i. e. free from, &r. 

Without fignifies not tMjitb ; as. He did ii without ihi 
Juthority ofParUaMent^ i. e. not ivith, &chwMioat Jef' 
ing\ i. e. «0/ fwith^ &c. 

It fignifies woidoji as, Hf // without Wifdom^ i. c. omc^ 
^ &c Hr^» without Riches^ i. e. o/mV ^ &c« 

It iienifies unlefs or ^;rr^ ; as. He ov/// »«/ r^inr^ widi' 
out being fentfor^ i. e, unlefs or except^ &c. for, ^uitboat 
hi hefentfor^ is not good Englijb. 

It dgmfiet ^^(t^i { as, T^^r tfr# Mi;^ Hunted with- 
out /i&^ ^0;/» i. e. bejides or not counting the Boys. 

^eflions relating $0 tbi Eighth Cboftir. 

Q. What is a Pfepofition ? 

j§, A frefofition is a Pkrt of Speech, which, being added 
to any other Part of Speech, . ierves to mark or fignify 
their State or Reference to each other. 

Q^ Whence eonus the Word Prepofitton } 

A. ^TQiaL Frtefnire to fet or put before. Becmfe it is 
for the moft Part fet before Words, though it fomctiines is 
fet after them. 


Ojf the Mfiaive. 

AS the Nwn SithJIemiiw \i ufed to denote -tke Sub- 
ftance of any Thing, or the Thin^ itMf j fb die 
A^eSive is ufed only to denote its Manner or 
f^uality^ according to the different Notions we conceive or 
form of it: For Example. The Word PUmt denotes die 
iThing itfdf ; but if I would exprefs fbme polity belong- 
ing to it, I add the Word Rne to Planf, and this Word 
Kne is called an J^e^ive. 

The English Crar4mar. 107 

• The AdjeSHve is a Word that cxpreflcs 
the Qualilits or Properties of a Thing : As, 
goodfPoJr W'fi> fooUfl^i great, fmalU &c. 

• The JdJeSive is joined to its Suhjianiivtf 
withoutany Difference of Cfl/i, Gra(/(r, or Num- 

Except in the Words thi4, which makes thefe ; and that, 
which makes tbo/i in the Plural. Alfo in 'wbofi and tuiiim, 
from iiifte, Wj from it, ben from ier, lis from iV. 

When tbii ind /W relate to two foregoing Suifianti'vts, 
llijTeicnto the lap mi neareji. that to t.)ie fifi ^nA/ur- 
lUft: As. Pear the Ftamir ain/John thi Shifhtrd ba^ 
iotli EKpraatima : Thii[\.ts. Jaba) cx^&i Advaalagt fram 
Cattle, tint [i. e. Pttlr\/rtBi ibt Earth. 

• The AdjeSive is immediately placed before 
ia Sidfisntive : As, a good Boy, a good GirU a 
gt9d jihtg I good Bey3, good Girls, good Things. 

Unkft a /'«r# comes between tbe AAjeRivt and iti Sn^ 
JIanlivt ; ai, Happy ii iht Man, the Man ii haffy : Or 
when fome other Word dependeth on the AdjeAive ; as, 
^ Subjea ioyal to hii Prince ; alfo frequently in Poetri for 
the more barmonioui Sounding of the Vtrfi ; aa, 

Humant Face Diiiiite. 

• But when tliere are n»re JdjeiJives than 
one joined K^ether, or one AdJeHrve with other 
Words depending on it, the Adje^ive is gene- 
rally fet titer the Subftantive j as, A General 
tolb wifi: and valiant ; a Central very wife ; a 
General Jkilful in politital ani imlitar) Matiwi. 

io8 The English Grammar. 

Though we likewife fay, ji wfe and *oaUanU « W7 
^fe General \ a Jkilful General in political and mUiarf 
Matters, So likewife when the Article the comes betweei 
diem: As, Charles the Firft, WiUiam theSMrd. AUb 
in thefe Examples, l^oun Subftantive^ Verk FaJJhve^ &c. 

A AiNVff Sukftanti've^ with its AdjeBvue^ is reckoned si 
one compounded Word (and fo is any governing VfesA 
with the Words that depend on it) : Whence the SubAan- 
tive and Adjective fo joined do often take another Adje- 
ctive, and fometimes a Third, and fo on : As, A Mu, 
an old Man, a good old Man^ a very good old Man, a very 
learned, JudiciottSt fiber Man. 

Dr. Wallis takes Notice of two Sorts of Adje^ves whU 
are always fet before their Sufhmtives ; the firft he oDi 
an A^eHi've pojefftw^ the other an Ae^eSinft rt/peOvot. 
But we have endeavoured to prove, that what the jDoQor 
calls an A^eQi've fojfejpnje is really a Gemti*ue Crft. 
SeeCbaf. V. 

* When two Suhftantives are put ti^;ether in 
Compofition, the firft takes to itfelf the Na« 
ture of an AdjeSlive^ and is commonly joined to 
the following Subftantive by a (-) Hyphen ; as a 
Sea Fijh^ i. e. a Fijh of the Sea. 

Notef If we reckon this firfl Suhftanti've as an A^eSinft^ 
we may properly enough call it, with Dr. Wallis, an Ad- 
jeBiwe rej^e^ive ; becaufe all Manner of Refpe£i or Rela- 
tion is denoted by it, except Fojfeffion ; as, A Sea tijb, 
i. e.'A Fiih of the Sea, or a Fifh belonging to the Sea ; 
a Wine Vejfel^ i. e. for Wine, or a VdflSd defigned to pat 
Wine in; a Turkey Voyage, i. e. a Voyage to Turkty. 
Home-made, i. e. made at Home ; Self-lonjet or the Love 
of one's felf ; Man-SJaugbter, or the Slau^iter of a Mav; 
a Gold Ring, or a Ring made of Gold. 

But we may reckon thefe Words only compounded Sub' 
flanti'ves ; iince it is ufual only for Adje£li'ues to be joined 
to Sttbftanti'ves ; and indeed in mofl of them fome othen 
Word may be fairly underftood -« il9> in ^un-finne^ i. e. 

■The E N c u I s H (grammar. 


*ke Shine ef the iiun ; where if may be uiiderA^od ; Sa 
in Self-ltritiiiir, i. e. ihe 'rormrnt of one's fcif ; So :i. 
GaU-Rini, i. e. a Ring 0/ Gold. Here wc la^f obferve 
ihv, in SubAaniivct ihus compounded, ib? Subftantive 
that (hould be firll is, * for bettcT Sound Sake, placed Ia& : 
As the HeaJach, the Ach of the Head. 

JJje^i-vii arc ofien ufed as Suhjionliva ; at, ot/jcrt, for 
fl/i<r JWiji, or oihir Tkiiigi : So O^r has in the Plural Ones. 
a* Unit Oaci. But wc fhall have OcEa&on lo fpeak of chii 

Adjtdiiiri do alfo often take the Natare of Ai'va-bi, 
and then are reckoned as fuch ; as, iU done, Stc. 

There are other Things obfervaWe rrlating to the AJ- 
JeJii'vei, for which fee Cbaf. III. and V. m likcii.'ife tbt 
Etymology. J 

It has Men obferved, tbac generally the Article TkeM 
added to AdjeftivM when ufed as Subitaniivcs 
tlie Subftantive is left O'lt ; as. 

Tb£ Lung art Lay, tit Little ta-t kvd. 
7ht Fair an flultip, lit Fan! aie prcu.l 
See Cra;. VIII. 

So all the Ordinal Nnmbert, as firft. fccond, i^c. j 
never added to a Subflantive Plural. 

It may not be amifs lo take Notice of the Ufe of foil 
Jiijeilivii. Sundry and Both are added only lo Subflantivea 
Plural : As,/uiui''y Timti ; ioll/ ihe Men. Fat. B^lb ihi M"v 
and iht Wemaa -f, is a parucular Way of fpeaking. 

" Or perhapi ii may be not fo much for better J 
Sake, as for the Weight and Emphafii of the Exprellio?. 
where the preceding Part is ihac which 'a nofl to be 
tak«n Notice of, as fpecifying and particularizing the 
Qiherwife general Idea: Not fj/* in general, but 5.-«-Fi/A j 
not any Vtfftl but a mm-Vipt. The like may be obfet' 
ed in all Wordi of this Kind. 

■\ That it accidenuU iio.'/^islit Sftxon Buiu, oi Bnt'^ 
\ti£^ or Batsiia, as much as by f<uio. U lisit t^o « 

no The English Grammar. 

being pat to a Suhflanti<ve of the Singular Number, fig- 
nifies the whole Quantity ; as, All the Wine^ i. c. the 
whole Quantity of the ^^/w ; but being put to a^j^oiv- 
ti've Plural, it fignifies the whole Number, as, All the 
Bcysy i. e. all the Number of the Boys, Every iijfOMtd 
only to a Sukflantvve Singular, as, Every Man, every Boy^ 
not Et'cry Men, e'very Boys. Much is added to a Su^fiart' 
tt'cve Singular, and denotes a great Quantity ; as, Much 
Wine, i. c. /? great deal of Wine. Many is joined with a 
SjihjJanti've Plural, and fignifies a great Number ; as. Many 
Min, for a great Number of Men. For Many a Man 
is a particular Phfafe, More, with a Suhftanti^e Singulftr, 
fignifies a greater ^antity ; as, Mttre Wine, i. e. a greater 
Quantity of Wine. But when added to a Sub&ncive 
Plural, it denotes a greater Number ; as, More Men, i. e. a 
greater Number. So Moft, with a Sabdantiv^ Singular, de- 
notes the greateft Quantity ; with a Subftantive Plural, the 
greateft Number. Each is joined only to a Subftantive 
Singular, as, Each Man, not each Men. As to the Word 
Enough, whether it be joined to a Sabftantive Singular or 
Plural, as, Wine enough. Books enough, I fee no Reafon for 
& different Spelling ; though I grant it is ufual to pro- 
nounce it when joined to a Noun Plural more foftly • ; 
as, enoixj. 

For No, when the Subflantive does not follow, we ufe 
Ncne^ as, Is there any Beer ? There is none. We HkeWife 
life No7ie with the Addition of thefe Words, of it, in the 
Beginning, Middle, or End of a Sentence. 

the fame Kind ; as, Tmjo Men, they may be. put Plurally 5 
but if the tijco are of different Kinds, they muft be men- 
tioned fingularly, and feverally ; as. Both tki Mam and 
Woman, Both the Horfe and his Ridtr, &c. 

* This DiifFerence of Pronunciation may poffibl)^ be 
the Remains of the antient Dedenfions. In Sax^n the No- 
minative Singular Mafculine is Genob, the Plural Genobe, 
In Gothick, the Singular is Ganah^ the Plural Ganoha, I 
find no Difference in our old Engltfly, o( Robert of Glmtif- 
ter, between Singular and Plural, both are ezprefled-by 
the fame Word Tnou or Tnowt. 


Q. What !i an Adjcftive ? 

A. The A^tame is a Word that exprelTes the Qualiti«t 
or Ptopcniu of a Thing ; As, ga/td, bad, tui/i, fni'l'Pt- 
gftal, fmall, fcc 

Q^ Whirt h the Adjeaive (a ht flactd ? 

Jt. Before its SuA/antive. 

Q^ li it al<ui4iyj If Be fit it/are ite^aMnntivt f 

A. Not always. [Sec the Exceptions.] 

Ofihe Cmparifon ef Adjectives: 

COmpari/an is, ftriflly fpeaking, the Setting of V 
or more Things togetlier in the Mind, in order i 
cpnrider ih&r Liicmfi or Uiiliii/u/!, their AgreHBinl or Di/- 
agrttmtnt, their ^xtrnt, timt, and Other Circuftiftances ; 
Uit lht» ii not "tiiiAi tvc are to iKit of here i for the 
Scnfe in which wc are 10 treat of Comfari/oH is, as it re- 
IWes to AdjfBi'oes which do make a Cemparijin between 
Things, as that one is fach, another is marr fuch, another 
\irmfi futh: So, of Arec loft Things, oiieu/o/}, another 
is uiire fop. and the tSuri ii/i/ufiof slL Now, to ex- 
prefs Ibis Comparifon betweea Things, Aijidiiiit ire 
mniod^Dio other Endings. 

There are three Degrees oF Comparifon, the 
Pejilive, the Comparative-, and the Superlative j 
M/tftt fefter, fofiefi. 

1. The Ptfiii-vt Dtgrre is ufed 16 AttviJ^* M ^■^ 
TVegto be fimfHyfadt; as, /o/i Woell, ft/ftlrW' 
wicrefore thh U properly fpeaking rn> Dejrti 


112 ^e English Grammar, 

the Thing to he/uch without having any Relation or Re- 
(peft to any other Thing. 

2. The Comparati've Degree is ufed to denote a Thing 
to be more Juch than another Thing ; as, fofter or more fo/t 
Waoll, a fairer y or more fair Woman. And in this De- 
gree ihe Comparifon begins to be made, it having Rela* 
tion to fome other Wooll that is notfofoft^ or to fome 
other Woman thtit is mat fo fair. 

3. The Super laii've Degree /s ufed to denote the Thing 
to be mojl fuch ; as, the fofteft^ or moji foft Woolly the 
fuirejiy or moft fair Woman^ 

* The Comparative Degree is formed or made 
by putting er to the PqfiHve : As, Softer ^ fairer ; 

Which Words are made by putting er to the Pofitivcy^ 
and fair. 

But if the Pojiti've Degree ends in ^, dieti you cut oiF 
the iirfl ^, or, which is all one, only add r, to make the 
Comparative : As, 'wi/e^ tvifer ; for if you were to add 
er * to ^wife^ and not cut oS the firH f, it would be njoifeer, 

* The Superlative Degree is formed or made 
by putting 5/? to be Pojitive ; as, Softeft^ Faireji j 

Which are made by putting eft to the Poiitivesy^ and 

But if the Pofitive ends in f, then the firftr is cut ofF,- 
or, which is all one; '\^ ft n only added to make the Sw 
perlatinjt; as, Wijeft, Sec, 

The Comparati've Degree is likcwife ejq>refred by adding. 
the Adverb more to the Pofitivc; as, fifi^ more fift^ or 
fofur : So likewife the Superlative Degree is expreifed by 

■ ^ 

* The Comparative in Saxon has er^ ere^ ,ar^ tere^ ir^ 
cr, yr. The Latim in /V, longior ; tior^ 'Sapientior. The 
Qreeks in^^j^o^, .A»T^t?» ^f«^?» 

/ The Superlative in Saxon h^s rt/7., Wy?, eft^ oft\ uft, yft. 


The E w 1 1 s H Grammar, 


putting the Advtrb wo^ [0 the Pofiiive ! a). >/>, moft fift. 
otfo/ifjl; fo thal/p/i denotes ihe Pofitive Degree ;/j//fr, 
Qtmcrtfi/i, the Comparative i/e/^i/j?, or wyi/o/f, the Si*- 

But MjfSii'ci, fuch chiefly as come from the tafin, 
*nd that end in ai-, as; in i'-.v, as fngiliii ; in 
gtUfal ; \o. en, M GddtH % in //, as f^lhtrly \ in 
Cflut^/) i in ry, as Nntjarj, in 
as Giniral Jjtt as CanJIant 

Ablt as Cdmmti'dii.iU Eat as ExieUmt 

i J^g as Lot/bj 7*/^ as Tiy^'/Zs 

r ^B 

i VirtuaKt 

Semi as Trauhltfume. 

I Digree by putting tjie 
le Sufci-laifve by pulting 
the Word Mefi before them. 

Except /IVf and UanJfime, which are compared accord- 
ing to tbeRnle. 

Some Adjeftives ire Compared by puttingllie Words 
Uinr to make the CompSTative. and htfi to make the Su- 
perUtive; as, Liarind, btlter Learnid, bifi Learned: Hu- 
Iwti, brUer Niilund, IfJ} Valared. 

Thcfc following Words, hig. hot, and/V, were written 
formerly thus-, \ bigg, Ivli, and_^«; whence they do yet 

• Of Ufce Kind is«;fi, though it comes not frotn 
the Lotin, but from the Saxon terneft, geiirmp. But then ]■ 
It ii obfervable that gesrnejl was originally a Saptrlaii-ut, 
the Pajtii've being geam or gitrac, ^udU/ui. defsmui, and 
the Cempjralivt grern r or geannre, and afterwartls ^<r- 
(WT» in later hal/Saxoa. A!! come from the GatUci Guir. 
ltd*, deRJirart, Griik apv^jti. 

+ Thii does not appear Certainly, Hal In the Sex»H is 
with a fingle t. But the Reafon of doubling the Letter 
fcems ta be to fcccre the fame quick Sound to hii.Jit, \ 
big, in the Ctmfar.iti've, itc. that is in the Pofiti-at : Xhx- 
they mAyt.<XV>aoAho-lir,Ji-Ur, bi-ger,«\'a^«.'0<«N'^ 

F ■>, ^^*''' 


114 7*^ English Cr^xnmfr. 

retain the double Confonant in the Comparative and SnpeiP 
lative Degree ; as, big^ bigger ^ biggefi ; boty hotter , bottefi ; 
' Jity fitter^ fittefi. 

There arc fomc A^eSiveSy which are Irregular * tb^ 
is, are not compared according to the foregoing Rules ; 
fuch are the 

Pofiti'vef Comparative, Superlati<uem 

Good, Better, Beft [hettefi). 

Bad, Enjily or ///, Worfe, 'Wof^from^'worfefi). 

Little, Lefs, Left [iefeft)* 

Note, Dr. JVa//is is for having the Adjeflive written 
L(fiy and the Conjun^ion Leaji f 

There are fome Adjedives that cannot be compared, or 
take the Words more, veryy or mofi before them ; becaufe 
they do not admit of any Increafe in their Signification :. 
That is, in thofe AdjefUves, we cannot fay, one is ^b^ 
another more/ucb, and a third mofifucb i as, ally one, for, 
of tbree onesy we cannot fay, one is oney and another is 
m^ri one, and the other is moji one, &c. 

Thefe want the Comparative Degree; Middle, rnddlt- 
mofty 'verjfy njetyeft. 

Some Adjedives of the Comparative and Superlative 
Degree are formed from Prepojitions ; as from 

* This Irregularity comes from the accidental borrow- 
ing of Words of other L-anguagcy. 

f Leafi is in Saxon haefiy in old BrtgUJh Leefi. The 
Conjundion Lefi is a Contradion of the-lqes-tbey and in 
old Englijh is tbe lefte. There is certainly no more Reafon 
for writing the Conjun6lion £^tf/? than for the other: 
But Dr. l^allis ii offended that an a fhould be inferted in 
Leaft the Superlative, when there is none in Le/s the Com- 
parative ; and he thinks it contrary to Analogy. But tak- 
ing the a out would bear as hard upon the Quantity ; 
beudes that Lefs has been formerly wrijtten LeaJTe, In 
ihort, if there were a Neceffity of changing, it might he 
befb to return to our old Spelling as it was three hundred 
Years ago. Leeft for the Adjedivey Lefi or Lefie for the 


^ Tore 

The Emclish Grammar. irj 

» • FareQOiatiftrMcr,/'iremQft, [inifirji, as it were./ir'y?.] 
From Vp, kffir, apm/i and upfcrmJI. From Ncaili [ob- 
foUte) ntathft, tuaihermafi. From hinJ, hMtr, hiademefi. 
From Late, laltr, and /<Uf«-, lalrji, or /o]^. ilb:< (formerly 
ufcd) makes nwr, moy?, as it were na'r, mo'/l. 

When y^r comes before an Adjeflivc of the Comparative 
or Superlative Degtee, we commonly put Rafter ii j as, 
«A< wViir of the li»o ; ibc nviftjl of all. 

The Wofdi, beiween which the Comparifon is made, 
ftre generaJIy joined by the Conjunction thiat-, as, VVifdont 
is belter than Gold. 

But in Words that have a Comparative Senfe, and are 
purely LalU, ta is added inilead oilbaa.di, Svperier tn ali i. 
I/t/tritr to iKtie. 

Adfcfiives of the Comparative and Superlative Degree: 
do litu other Adjeflives often lake the Nature of Advcibn ;. 
W, Hi Jtilt, iKMtb Ufs, b/spliafaul, mojt learxtd. 

QatfiitnJ rllalhg to the Tinlh Ckapiir. 

Q^ What Ayta fiaan hy Comparifon f 

A. The comparing Things between one another! ivhet*^ 
by we fee that one Thing is fmh, another is mertfuch, 
and another is mefi fiub ; where you fee that, in order to 
make this Comparifon between Things, we make three 
Steps, which are called three Degrees. 

Q. Winu rna«y Dtgrtes afCmferifon an thtre ? 

A. Thrae : The Pafiii-ot Degree, the Cc/ufaraiinit, and 
ike Saptrleli'V*. 

Q^ Hmiii lit CattiYAnave Dtgret ftrwieJ or madt ? 

J. By puiring «■ to the Po/i/i'*; as, HarJ. hardir. Fair,. 
fairtr. But if the Psjiliiit ends in r, then you need add' 
only r to make the Compamii'vt. 

Tiic Comparative Degree is alfo formed by adding mort 
te the Pofitivc i aa, H>^ri, more hard, or hardtr ; Fair, 

11 rrvn tn 

There are fhwa, ftrmt, fitim^JI, Jdjiaiiii all i fl«d 
■ " We hi ■ 

'rom ttienct nfarmtr, foromaji. We have droppcd/»rw, 
aii haM ml now a Word to aiifwer it, except a^ r%<i^. 
■ tff, lattt, ftrm, tardus, \&ai\ Aljiai-ui. 

ii6 ^be English Grammar. 

Q^ Hczv ii the Superlative Degree formed w m'lde ? 

A. By adding eji to the Pofitive : As, Hard^ hardejl ; 
Fiih; faircjL But if the Pofitive ends in e, then you need 
ac'd only // to make the Sttperlati've i as, Wifej m:ifeft: 
Thf <S/.'/a rluti^'e is alio made by adoing nyft to the Pofitive ; 
as. Hard, tfiGjl Hard. 

Q^ Ttllnic wchat Degrees of C'jmparifdn thefollotwinfr Words 
are of-. Hard, harder, hardeil, more hard, molt hard ; 
Fair, fairer, faireft, more fair, moft fiair, feV. 

A, Hard and Fair are of "the Pofitive Dcgreie. 

Q^ Uo'VJ do ycu knonju that F 

A. Eccaiiie they denote or fignify the Thing or Perfon 
to be fiinply fo and fo, without comparing them with 
any ether Fcrfon or Thing : For if I fay, Mary is Fair^ 
that does not gainfay, but that Sarah may he as Fair : So 
if 1 fay that Iron is buvd^ I may alfo fay, ^teel is as hard, 

Q^ Bt-t cf iKjhat Degree of Qomparifon are the Words, 
Fairer, more f;iir, Harder, more hard ? 

A. They are of the Compm-ative Degree. 

Q^ Hc-^ju Jo you knew that ? 

A Btcr.u.e when I make a Comparifon between il£z;jf 
and /Jnrie, I iind that Mary is Fair, but Anne is fairer 9 
or more Fair, that is, exceeds Mary in Beauty. 

Qj^ Of^wbat Degree of Comparifon are the Words, V^^VC^ 
efi, moil Fair, Hardeft, moft hard ? 

A. Of the Super lati've, 

Q^ Hoiv d) ycu kno<w that f 

A. Becaufe when I make a Comparifon between Sufan* 
na, Elizabeth, and Lucj, I perceive that Sufanna, is Fair» 
but that Elisuibelh is fairer, or more Fair than Sufanna, 
and that Lucy- is the faireft, or moft Fair, of either Sufan^ 
na or Elizabeth : That is, Lucy exceeds them both in the 
higheft Degree of Beauty. 

Q^ 7j/>^WEnglifh to fay, More ftronger, moft ftrongeft ? 

A. No : You ought to fay. Stronger, or ci£e more Jirong ; 
ftrongefl, or elfe mofi Jirong j for more ftronger woidd fig- 
nify as much as, more more ftrong, and mtft ftrongeft, as 
much as moft moft ftrong, 

Q. Are all Adjectives compared hy -adding tx or more H 
make the Comparative^ and eft or moft to make the Super- 
Jdtivc i 

The E K c L I s H Grammar. 1 17 

-tf. No : For che Comparifon of fome A^jeJUiYs is ir- 
regular: that 13, they are not compared according lo 
Ihefe Rules: As, Gaud. bclttr,hcft. &c. And fome Adjec- 
oves do not form any Comparifon at all : As, Oap, t^cry, 
laeh, all, 4c. 

Q;_ Hifui Jhall t inotv ivbat Adjeflives may hi compared 
and tvbal not ? 

A. Only thofe A£e{livfs may be 'compared by which 
we may fay, one Thing is fych, anoihef Thing is mare, 
fiub, and anocherTbing is mefl/uch. But [hole AdjiSivit i 
by which we cannot fay one \% fmh, another mere fuch, , 
and another «D/fyJ,f A, cannot form Comparifoa ; as, nil, 
for we cannot iay, a Thing is mn-c a//, moftall. 
Q; Do mt Subftantives/afM CimparifBui ? 
J. No : For though a Thing may have the Word mere 
ox left appli,;d to it, as it is of a larger or lefs F.\tent 
than another Thing } yet it cannot be faid to be Ifi „ Sut- 
fianti-vf than another Thing. For Example, a flam can- 
not be more or lefs a Plant than another P/.jb/. 

Q;_ Givi mc iht Comparative a W Superlative Degree of 
ihtfe AJjtaivti fillrx'ing ; Sweet, Ripe, High, Good, 
All, Big, Loud, Broad. 

A. Svett, fiijettir, fweilep. Ripe, riper, ripcj}. High, 
higher, highcft. Goad, billir, bifi. ^// is not compared. 
fl'le. higgtr, higgrfi. Laud, leudcr, kad'jl. Broad, brouiier, 

Ci. H'htnu timet the Word Pofitive ? 

A. From Pojitui, and that from Foacrr, to put or place : \ 
The Pefiti've Degree being the firil Step that 'a made, or i 
the firil phcitig of the Thing, in order to tlie comparing i 
ci one Thing with another. I 

Q. ff'binu lomes ll^e K'ord Compatative \ I 

A. l-'rom Comparnre, to compare, or to match one 
Thing wiih another. 

Q. tneace eeme, ihi WV^ Superlative > 
A. From Suptrlalui, lifted above the reft, or exceeding ■ 
the reft in Degree. For Things are compared in Three 
feveral [>e^es [ either a! equal, or more exceeding fome 
one or others, or exceeding all, or at leall very much ex- 
ceeding in the Kind. 

1 18 The En Gt { s H Grammar; 

CHAP. x;i. 

0//i^ PRONOUN. 

f ii S the too frequent Repetition of the fame Words 

A\ is diiagreeable and unpleafant, fo this Inconveai* 

ence could hardly have been avoided ; fince Men 

have Occafion to make freauent Mention of the (ame 

Things ; if certain Words baa not been made Ufe of> to 

fupply the Place of Nouns^ and prevent their being too 

often repeated ; which Words are called Pnuouns^ that is. 

Words pat for Nouns, For as Nouns are the Marks or 

Signs of Things, fo Pronouns are oi Nouns » 


* A Pronoun is a Word that may be ufcd 
inftead of any Noun Suhjiantive. As, 

Tnftead of my Name, I fay, 7. 
. Inflead of thy Name, I fay, Thou. 

Jnflead of his Name, I fay, Hem 

Inftead of her Name, I fay. She. 

So inftead of faying the Book ^ Peter, we fay, his Book ; 
jn fpeaking to Peter ^ we fay, it is your Book ; &c. So like- 
wife when it is faid, /teach Thee or Himi the Pronoun I 
reprefents to our The ugh ta the Perfon teaching, fuppofe 
John^ and the Words fhee^'Wrn, the Perfon ipoken to^ 
or of, fuppofe William or Thomas* 

Now we are to confider, that all Dijcourfe may be 
brought under, or confined to thefe three Heads : That 
is. We either fpeak of ourfelves ; to another ; of of ano- 
ther. And theie three Heads are called by the Name of 

* There arc in Difcourfe Three Perfons. 

/. For, in /peakine of myfelf, I ufe the Word Ii and. 

If more than one /pe^ of themfcWw* xVty ^fct^^'W^t^ 


7he EuGLrsH Grammar. tt^> 

Wc- Which Words, /and 0'c, are feid lo be of the F.Vfl 

a. Wbni we Tpeak to 4no«h«r, we wfe the Word Thuii- 
•r Kb ; bjt when we fpeak to more than one, we ufe- 
ihe'Word nor?i«i wliich Words Ti=« or na, and Tf,. 
are faid to be of the SeionJ Ptrfon. 

3. In Tpeaking of another, if of the Mali-Scx. we fajf 
*fc i if of the Feualt-Six, we fay Sii : But if we ffeak 
•f ■ Thing that ii neither of the Malt nor Fnnali-Six, we- 
B& the Word // ; and if we fpeak of more Things lhan> 
•ne. let [hem be of the Mu/t or F.maU-Six. or oiherwife,. 
we ufe the Word Ucf : Aiid rhefe Words Ut., and- 
7hy. are faid to be of the Third Fi'fm. 
Hence we may obferve. 

5 /isof the firft Pir>« Singular. 
* 1 W, it of the Ibft Pcrfon Plural. 
^ 1 T^ioii or J'ou is of the fecond Pir/sn Singular. 
' I You and Tf are of the fecond Fcffin Plural. 

5 He, Sit, It, are of the third Pn-fin Singular. 
3'/ T'iop is of the third Pn-/fifl Plural. 
And fo likewife, all other JW)brj, when fpofcen of, are: 
of the third Pirfon: Of the third Ptrfm Singular if only 
one be roeani ; of the third PiTftn Plural if more thati one- 
be meant. 

It is cuftomary among 115 [as likewife among the Trmih 
and others) though we Uieak but 10 one pajticulat Pcrfon,. 
to ufe the Plaral Number: But then wc fay Tou, and .nor 
7r.- So likewife out of Complaitince, as we ufe Ysu for 
7boa and fbit, fo we frequently fay Teur for ITfv, aad' 
reai-i (ox 'ThiKc. When we fpeak in an Emphaiiea! Man- 
ner, or"oiake a dillinA and particular Application to a- 
Pcrfon, we often ufe Thii,; as, RemiihiT O fi'r-, liioil 
«/■/ a Men. Oihcrwife if any one fpeaks to ano:h«r, in 
[he Singular Numbtr, as, Thou Themes, it ia recko^.cd &■ 
Signof Contempt or Fajniltarity. 

We likewife generally ufe n» for n. We feld-jin ufo' 
Ti before the Verb, unlefs by Way of Diftinftion. Fami- 
liarity, or Contempt: As. ?V ere the Men: But it is of- 
icner ufcd after the r*ri or Pff/yff/ji .- As, I'viillg-vtTe 
»J«fttMfil: ^aJI-willgt (nv«j/ron.Tt. 

I20 ^he English Grammar. 

* The Pronouns have a twofold State^ both" 
in the Singular and Plural Number. Thtfirft 
Slate we (hall call the Foregoing State^ as, /, U^e^ 
the fecond State we fhall call the Following State^ 
as, Af^, Us. 

The Pronoun is ufed in the Foregoing State^ when it is 
fet alone; as. Who did it F 1. Or, when it goes before the 
Verb ; as, / /^i;/, not Me lo*ve\ We read, not Us read. But 
it is ufed in the Following State, when it follows the Fer^ 
or Prtpofition, as, T'i^/ Man loves me, not T'i&z Man loves I; 
God bhfs Us, not God hUfi we. So, Peter gave to Me, not 
io li John nvrote to Us, not to We. 

* JVho is an Interrogative Pronoun (or a Pr^- 
»^a« that we commonly ufe in afking a ^ejlion) 
and is the fame in both Numbers : Its Following 
State is IVhom^ which is alfo the fame in both 

Whom, though it be naturally the Following State, yet 
Ufe, in our Language as well as iji moft others, places it 
before the Verb ; as. He is the Man ivhom I /aw, that is, 
Hs is tie Man I /aw whom. But it does for the moft Part 
follow the Prepo/ition, as. He 'was the Man to ^whom I gave 
it : I fay foe the moft Part ; becaufe when the Prepo/ition 
is put out of its natural Places Whom does then go be- 
fore it ; as, Whom did you give that to ? for, To Whom did 
you give that ? Whom do you go with ? for, With Whom do 
ycu go ? Whom is fometimes left out ; as. He is the Per/on 
J gav2 it to ; i. e. to Whom I gave it. 

Who is ufed when we fpeak of Per/ons j as,. Who is that 
Man ? But wc do not fay. Who is that Book ? For, when 
we fpeak of Things, we ufe What, as, What Book is that ? 
And though What be ufed fometimes when we fpeak of 
Pir/onsy yet then it feems to have another Senfe, than what 
ihe Pro:ioun has, and is rather a Noun ifdjeStivt ; as, Whii 
M7Ar/s ^fr* that is, vuhai Sort of a Man ? 



The E M L J s H Grammar. m 

Who and Ji''htm are alCo frei^uemly ufed when no Quefti- 
iD U alked, and rignify Relation to fome FeKon ; as Pcirr 
t iht Aim luhom Ifatu. Thiy are tie Mm leia iuill ibt 

• Fromthefe Pronouns above-mentioned come 
fevcral others, called Proneum Pojfeffive., becaufe 
they fignify Poffcfiion : As, from Me^ come 
My and Mine -, from Thee-, come Thy and Tbim % 
from Us, Our, and Ours ; trom * Tdu, Towy and 
Tourjy &c. So My Book, is the Book belonging 
to me i Tour Book, is the Book belonging to 

Yet thefe ProKPuni Pajfeffi'oe are not always ufed to de- 
note PofftJiBii: For fometimM thej- are ufed lo exprefi the 
Cauj'cer Aulhtr of a Ib'ingi as, Thxsii ymr Doing, that is, 
Tau are the Cmife or Qccafitm e/lbii : This is ny Booi, for, 
7 bit it a Book of ny H'riting, or, / am the Julhor of tbit 

The Pronouns My, Viy, Her, Our, four, Thtir, are tO 
be uled whtn they are joined to Subftantivti ; as, Tb'u ii ay 
Utufc i Ihit it my Boni. But Mint, Uiaf, Hert, nurr, 
Thtirs, are to hi ufed when the Subjlanli'vi is left out or 
underftood, as, -1 bit Houft is nam % THiii Bni ii mine ; that 
is, 'This Haufc is my Hoe/', Sec. Liltewife, if Own does 
not follow; as, // ii Y ur sun, not Tom-i i-ws ; fo, Oar 
ffun, not Okri own. Yet 'Mtne and 7hint are fomecimea 
ufed when (he Subitantive is erprefled, if tht Subltantive 
begins W!th a Vowel, but not die; as, ^ff Arm, or 

Mix! A>m i Thy Oivn, Or Tiiac (Mvn. « 

+ rir„, Ourn, Team, Hifn, for Hers, Ours, fears, Hij, 
is lad £«^/i^. 

A Table 

" Tm Siix. env b citi. T^iet juo. ytur Sax. iBvtcr Franc. 
jatr, Jmerre. 

f i'mina comes ffim ten-aeme Ace. Sit\^. of trv-tr ■^i.ut, 
'torn llie Fianc. jwustTCH, hiX. K-^^-i, Outn ^'^>^«^ 

in TBe^iic Lrtu Gramun 
A T^Ue of all the Pronouns,. 

Thiir Ptjif- 
RfMi ta b* 


1 u 




'" 1. 1 

II. I 

„r \ Sin?. 


( l-Iur. 





•1,. or „. 




I i'lur. 

f, or_,.. 



-Smg. Male 
Kern a It 









- h 








The Inter- 

; ofPerfons 


• 1 hom 

H- hofa 



\ of Things 



H'hireof \ 

I have followed Dodor Ifai/is'i Scheme; but yoa nay, 
if ;ou vtiil, call His and Htrs, lis, Wheje, Geoitive Cafes ; 
Jince we hare already Ihewn that His is put for Wt. bs 
for Ws, and Wbofi for VMs : And Dofior Hickts fays, that 
the FraneMn of the Third Ptr/on has no Ji^tSivt PtffiJ^'vr, 
hm cxprcdet the Fo&£ve Senle by ihe Ginilive Cu/e of 

from »r»/ the Ace. Sing, of art our. Hijk and /fmi 
feem to have been made in Imitaiioa of- the other : Or 
perhaps all have been made in Imiiation.of mine, thint. 
Some fay Ibeirn for tbiin, and htm alfo occurs in old En- 
glijh for theirs : Which tn Saxoe would be btera or lyrai 
BatiaFraco. Th. iirmi, biron. 

Tht English Grammar. i»| 

thcP»aOMi asbytfir, '/ hin; Hi", i/ itr, in. And 
It is probable, that Ours comes fnjia tha Sateen C'lniiive 
Urtj, ' and I'ouri from Eowerfi, by Contraflioii and Toft- 
cning the Sound. IVherecfh generally reckoned as an jiJ- 
vrrt. ittwr uid Tl>i-u, Oun and TtMr,, have the Prepofi. 
tion (/^fesKtixiies befOM then ; u neiu of Uii or of Htrt, 
I Friend of jwiw or of /i^iim, of 0«r/, or of feuri. 

• The Pronouns arelikewife divided into Sub' 
fiantives and ^djeSfives ; the Pronouns Subftanlhe 

are, /, Tioa or Tou, We, TV, or Yea^ Himfelf^ 
and Tbemfehes : The AdjeSives are, ff^, 5^?, 
?^, //, il^v, vW/w, 7^, Thins, Our, Ours^ 
Tour^ToursiHer^Their^Theirs^ Who-, What. 

• The following Words, 7"^j, that^ Tbt 
famCt arc not Pronouns., but Mje^ives. 

For they are not put to fupply the Place of the Neun 
Su^Jlantrve -, but arc joined to Suijiamiija, juft as other 
/Ujtai'vti are ; as, Thi, Mm,, That Mil, IVbich Man, Tit 
Jame Man, Aad ifat any Time we bimc tb«m without 
their Suifianti'Dii, which is not often, yet die Satftanii'vet 
areuDiJerllood. So we Ukewife fay. Oat, Many, All, iht 
Learned, thi UnUarxtJ, their Siibfiantii/ti being left out : 
Vet we do not therefore ufe to rank tbefe AAjeSiijti among 
tbe Number of Prmmai!. 

• A Learned Divine fays, he (hould have thought fo 
too, if the SaxQiii had fo exprclTed ihemfelves, and if the 
fame Kind of Exprcilions had been uninterruptedly handed 
down to us: But the Faft is contrary. For Inftanee, 
Codis rite ii fmner not a-wtrci. old Engl. The Kiniiam pf 
GeJisximr, not gauri. Wlierefore the truer AccouDt 
fecms to be ibis : That we have made hm, aars, yaart^ 
and thtiri, contrary tp ihe old Form out of Her, our, your, 
and ihtir^ in the fame Way a^ we havi; nude moft of our 
Gemiiwi .' Which Way wa»indcedowin&W tb&olslSax'm 

mStKfn'ein three Declcnficmi. „,. 


t24 The English Grammar. 

• This makes in the Plural Number Tbe/e^ 
and Thai makes Tbo/e. 

1 . That is often afed inflead of * Who, Whom, or Which ; 
as /y2rai; tf Man that [who] huihitn on the fame Side that 
[which] / had heen on* He is the Man that [whom] nxje 


2. This and That are called Demonftrati*ves, becaufe they 
(hew what particular Perfon or Thing you mean : And 
thev frequently have Very put after them, for the fuller 
ana more clear Dimonfiration of what you mean. 

3. When Tins and ^Ihat are ufed in Relation to two fore-' 
ping Words, This has Refpe^ to the lad and neareft 

ord of the two, That to the former and more difbmt ; 
as, Peter and Charles are both hra^ve Men, but this is moft 
famous for his Condu^, that for his Valour. Here This re- 
lates to Charles, That to Feter, 

This and That are laid both of Perfons and Things ; as. 
This or That Man, This or That Book. 

• Tf^cb is an AdjeSIive^ and is the fame in 
both Numbers ; it is ufed when we fpeak of 
Things, as Who and Whom are when we fpeak 
of Perfons^ 

Which is called an Interrogati^ue, when it is ufed in aiking. 
a Queftion 5 as. Which is the Place ? And it is alfo called a 
Relatinje, wlien it has Relation to fome SuhJia?:ti^oe exprcf- 
fcd or underftood, as. Which Thing ixill never do. Here 
is the Ring luhich [Ring] you loJi% 

• Own which is ufed fometimes after the Pro- 
nottns Pcjfejfive in an emphatical or expreflive 

• 1'hat, ille^ ii from the Saxcn ihaet. that. That, qui, 
loho, feems to be made from tha the fignifying the fame. 
^A'/Ar /^/7 /A' Ayt gehyrdon : Omiies qui illud audiermtt, -V// 

7jE<« £ m g l I s u Gramncr. 1 25 
Manner, is alfo an AdjeHive; as. My own 
Uoufy Tcur Q%vn Lands, Alcxander'j o'j^n Sword. 

• The Word 6'f//makes in the Plural Sdvi'sy 
and has always a Pronoun Adje^ive before ic j as 
A^ Sflfy thy Self, Our Selves, your Selves. 

B« we commonly &y Himfi// for Hit Sflf, It Stfffir 
III St!/, and Them/il-veiiatTkeir Seli-es , except Own be 
aJiled. for then we fay, liii aisnfelf. Its oivnfilf. Their 

Sometime}, for the more f-uU and empbatical expreffing 
of the Perfon, we double the Pmnoaa : As, for M^felf 
we fay, Sc/f; for tiy Stlf. thou tkf Self, or rather n* 
y»ur Stlfiiw him/d/.h,limfitf;hriiiir/i!-vet,iiiesurf,l'M,i 
Sot feur /civil, yi or yott your /ili/ti ; (at ihfm/tlvei, tbey 
ihimftk/(i: Or elfe we put oitrn between the ^ramuR and 
, Sfi/i as, my imn/tl/, iby mun /el/, or yutr tnun fil/. Hit 
ninnfil/, our inu» felua, your avin/cl'ats, tbiir ewn /eiiits. 

This Word ^ilfii. [eally a Noia SabfianHvt, and 13 alfo 
often ufed in Compofidon wj:h other Subjiiatimi, as Self- 
Le-vf. that is, the Love of one's Se!f. 

N, B. There is hardly any Sufianri-vc among the Lati«t 
that anfwcrs to this Word ; that, which comes nigheft to 
it, i) Perfi^a, Or Propria Per/ana ; ai the Queen's fcif (or 
the Queen's Majefty) lovcth Righleoufnefs may be thiU 
tranaited into Utin. Rfgina ip/a, Bigia Majiftas, Rcgina 
per/ana propria amai Jujlitiam. So likewife among the 
Gretk Poets we meet with '1-, fin, c^stA-, as, Stn 
'HfaxA.j'71, or 'HjaJiM'®. gin, Herculcs'a Self, Herculei 

i'^^corae* from the Saxan Word Syt/ and that from 
the Gsihick Word Silba. The Saxont ufed thus to join it 
to Che /■««.«.». Ljyl/. I my/el/, ^rfyl/e, tarfel-o,,, Hi>/yl/t>, 
t/bimfilf. It was likewife compounded with Nmii S»i- 
fianiivt. u Pttrm/yl/, Peter' 1 /il/. 

126 The Ekclish GrimHutir. 

We often ufe 

Hereof Of this Hire about s About this Place 

Thereof Of that Thereabouts Jhout that Place 

Whereof Of 'which JVhere about s About wobat Place 
Hereby^ By this Herein In this 

Thereby for By that Therein for In that 
Whereby By ivhat Wherein In *which ; and in 

Hereupon Upon this Herenvith With this {*wbai f 

Thereupon Upon that Therewith With that 

Whereupon Upon wjhat Wherewith With ^nbich^ and 


But tbefe are by fome called Adverbs^ and therefore 
might have been placed among them. 

in the Word Whatfotwer^ the Sstbjianti've fometimes 
comes between What and foever ; as. What Placefoever I 
be in : But when the Subjiantive does not come between^ 
It is better to ufe Whatever. . 

^ue/i§us relating to tbi Eleveatb Chapter. 

Q. Wb^t is a Pronoun ? 

A. A Pronoun is a Word that may be nf«d w&ni otmtf 
Nouu Suhfiantive : as inftead of mj Name, 1 t^y, ti in« 
fieadof tky Name, I far. Thou. 

Q. What da you man by ihree Petfons f 

A. Three Heads which comprehend or centain all the 
Bruiches of Diicourfe, or Speech. And though the Woid 
Perfom does more ftri£Uy relate to Rational Creatures ^ ytt it 
is in a Grammatical Senfe applied to any Thing whatever 
that is the Subject of our Dilcourfe or ConveHation. 

Q^ What Pronouns are of the Firft Perfin f 

A. /is of the firft Rrfon Singular ; /T^ of the firft 
Perfon. Plural. 

Q. What Words are of the Second Perfwuf 

A, Thou or You is of the fecond Pcrfon Singular, and Ye 
or You of the fecond Perfon Plural. 

Qj^ But ive ufe You, ^when ixe fpeak only to we Perfon^ 
^^0w can that be then of the Plural Number ? 

The E M G L I s H Gumnntr. 127 

^. Cuftom has made us to do To ; the Firi chat it put 
to it is always of the Plntal Number. For, we lay, Tcu 
lime, which is the Plural, and not ?oa io'v/Jt, which is the 
■ Singular. And it is counted uogenieel and rude to fay, Thta 

Jacfifi MKi/a. 

Q n'bat Prontum arc ef the Third Perfin ? 
J^ He, She, and It arc of the third Pctfon Singular, and 
Tbiftt of the third Perfon Plural. As likewife alt SaA- 
fieniivit whatever, when they are fpoken of, are of the 
ihird Perfon ; of the third Perfon Singular, if only one be 
meant, of the third Perfon Plural, if more than one be 

^^Whai dn yeu mtan by the Foregoing and Following 
State of the Pronoun ? 

J. The PraaotiBi Subflanti've have two difitrent Endings, 
gne Ending that i> ufed when it comes before the Ferh ; 
as, tlave or WV la^e, and thij is called the Faresning Stall, 
becaufe it goes before the Ferb : The other Enoiog is ufed 
after the frrb or Pre^/tion, and is therefore calird the Fb/- 
loiuingStateoTtheFranoKH, becaufe it follows the /Vi, &c. 
As, Johnl^iiUi, T^QiWe: My Father U-vti Mi, not/. 

Q, Ttlirm tubich ProDOuns ar4 Subftantivc, end ivhieb 
art AdjeOive ? 

A. The Preitouin Stihftanti-ar are, /, Thtu or Tdb, Wht, 
&c. the PrBtisum ASiBi-vt are, Ht, Sbt, My or Aiwc, Tly 
or Tiiim, Tour or J»«r/, Jtc. 

Though HtznA She are raoH frequently ufed as Subjlair- 

Q,' ^baf Sff,r,n<:e is ihcrs in ihi Vfi ^ Who and 
Which \ 

A. tyha is ufed when we fpcak of Pcrfant, Whieh when 
we fpeak of Tbings -, as, Th' Book •vnhieb I bougbt, not viha 
or 'wbaml bought. Sec. 

Q. ff'iai dc you mtan by 6it Interrogative Pronoun? 

A. A Proaaun that is afed in afking a Queflion. 

Q; lybal is a Pronoun Pofieflive ? 

A. A ProKOun that i» ufed to denote or fignify PofTeflion ; 
as, A^ Saei, that is, (he Book that belongs 10 me. 

Q^ Ti/I me-which an ibi Pronouns Pofieflive ' 
^4. The Pran^m Peffiftvi are, Wj oc .Tfcj wTUn., 
"" teMert, Oar or Ouri, Tour 01 Tgari.llinf w T.bnT». 

128 ^be E N d 1 1 s H Grammar. 

Q. Is there any Difference ieinnfeen My and Mine, Thjr 
amf Thine ? Wf. 

^. Yes : My 9 Thy^ Her, .Our, Tcur^ Ti^/ir, are joined to 
Subftantives ; but Mine Thine, Hers Ours, Tours. Theirs^ 
are ufed when the Subilantive is left out ; as, Whofe Book 
is ibis ? Mine. But thefc two. Mine and Thine, are fome- 
tim^s ufed when the Subflantive is exprc^d, if tlie Sub- 
ilantive begins with a Vowel, and not elfe \ as> My Jfs 
or Mine Ajs, Thy Oath or Thine Oath. 

Q. What iio This and That maJie in the Plural ? 

A. This makes Thefc, Tbrt makes Thofe, 

Q. irhat Part §f Speech are this, that, fame, which ? 

A. They are rather AdjeSiinjes than Pronouns, 

Q. What do you mean by a Relative Word ? 

J, A Word that has Relation or refers to (bme other ; 
as, That is the Book luhich [Book] 1 lent you ; where 

njohicb relates to the Word Book underflood. 

Qj^ What is a Demonftrative Word ? 

A. A Word that is ufed in Order to our more fully ex- 
prefllng or declaring what we mean : Thij and T&at are 
Demonjirati've Words. 

Qj^ Whence comes the Word Pronoun ? 

A, From Pronomen, becauie it is put pro, [or or infiead 
of, Nomen a Noun. 

Q. Whence comes the /f^r^/ Interrogative ? 

A. From Jnterrogare to afk a QuefUon. 

Qj^ Whence comes the Word Relative ? 

A. From Relatus, that hath Relation, or is referred tO 
fome other Thing. 

Q^ Whence comes the Word Demonftrative ? 

A. From Demonfirarc to ihew or declare. 

CU K^- 

Th^ English Grammar. 


O/iheVeThs, wilh Notes concerning Ter&A or 
Times, Perfons and Moods. 

AS the Krrh is ihe chief Word in a Sentence, fo Ihe 
Grammarians have taken no fmall Fains in giving us 
Definitions of it : Bui 1 ihall content my fdf with the 
common Difiaiiiai. 

• A Verh is a Word that betokeneth Bein^y 
Doing, or Suffering. 

I . Biing is here <o be taken not only i 
Setiie of ExiJIenti but alfo in its largelt Senfe, 
notes the Bting in fome Pofture or Situation, 
ftance, or fome Way or other ^k&eA ; as, 
fit, to hang, to Hit It abidi, ta it eeld, I* be bai , 

I. Dm'bj denotes all Manner of A^on i as / 
•writt, ta play, la dame, &c. 

3. Sufiring detioies die iDtpiefTions that Per/iaii ofTiiiigt 
Kccive : We ate ro con&der, that as Perfini or Tbingt a£l 
Of dt, Co [hey often are afted upon, or become the Sub- 
jeft of Aition themfelvcs ; as, Charlii heats, here beais 
denote: the AdUon oiCbartet; Cbarlci h beaten, herein 
heaun denoies the ImpreiEon or Suffering that Charles 
receives t for Cberlei is tie SutjeS on which the JSha of 
Beatitg is exerdled. So Peter lo-vts, here hiie denotes the 
^Si<m of PitT i Ptiir ii imitd, here it la^id denotes that 
Scmeiotly ti-uis Puir ; or that he is the Oi;Vfl about which 
the Pe^in ^Lonit \% exerdfed. Therefore, 

* All ihofe Words that denote or fignify 
B6ng^ Dcingf or Suffering, are called Ferh. 

t fiend, 10 


ijo ^e English Grammit, 

Thofe Verhs^ that fignify mcerly Beings maj t^ OlQ^^j^^ 
fential Verbs % thofe, that fignify 'Dw»^, arc ^led Virlfs 

AHi've ; thofe, that iienify Sujfering, are-ealled Verbs Faf- 
five. But we have; foiftly faking, no Verbs Paffivei 

how that Defedl is fuppliea^ we ihall fhew afterwards, 

N O T E I. Of Tcnfe lor Time. 

* The Tenfe or 7i'»^ of a Ti^^ relates to a 
Thing a dcingj dtrntj or not done. 

As for Ten/es or 7//««, the natural and proper Number 
IS tHree* becauie all Tm^ u axhex fafig fri/eiUt OS to €9m : 
That is, 

I. The Pre/entTme^ that new is. 

II. The FreterTifftiy that// ^/. 

III. The Future Thai that is yet /# roi«r^« 

In Greei the Number k increafed to Eight w Nine, in 
Italian to Seven, ift French and Spani^ there al:t Six, in 
^wj^/r}^ (a* in Dar/v^) we haveprdperly but Two ; but, by 
the Help of Auxiliary or Affiflant Verbs, we make op^ as 
many as tliere are in Latiny ffbat is, 8ix : Fdr if we €cmii- 
der whether an Adion b^ p^feft or imp^ifeft, wc may 
make Six Ten/es or Times ; that is. Three Times of the 
Impetfed Aaion, and Three Tknes ef the Perfed AAion. 
As, • . 

I. The Pfefittt Time of the ImpH'feft Aaion ; as, / 
fiif^ Iifh/up, or / ant at Supper now, but haiFe not yet done. 

II. The Freter Tintc laf the Imperfca Aftion ; as, invas 
dt Sapper xYittLy buthad'not jrfetdonc'it. 

III. The Futuri-Tmt of thelmpflfeft Adion; as, I 
Jhall fiip, or Jhall be yet at Supper , but not that I fhali 
iiar^ then df6ne it; ' - . " i i .^. : . i . 

IV. The FhfiHt.T'tBit of the Feifed A£^ion ; as, / bmvi^ 
fupped, and it is now done. 

V: . The Preter Time of the Pcrfia ASion \ as, / had 
/^^/f^/ffet/, and it ivas then done. 

N. B. t. In laiia the Pri/ent Time of die Perfcfl A&U 
n is commonly called the PreterptrpH Time, 
2. AndthePra/rr Time of the Perfed Adlion ia e(»m- 
'y called the Prttrr-flaferfta, that is, the fr;, 
ftrfe^z But how prflperty it \% sailed by this Name 
BfiochcredeterBiin*. Hence we may reckon up Six 
_^ a" or ' ?"<««, two of the Prefeitt Time, two' of the 
riitr 'fim, and iiro of the Fiieuri Timi. Thefe Six 
Timtjatt in Lalia txprefled thui.-*-i. Cbw». « C*n- 
ait/m. J. Cr'i'tfj^. 4, CLim-«'i'i. 5. Cati-aver4aii. 6. 
Cam-e^ire. Here j-ou fte cho Latini have diilorent EiiMngi 
ta eitprcfs rftefe 7jmfi. Bii( if we confidbr tfi( Timti ac- 
cotding lo their bring orprefied by the Chaflging the Sitrl- 
/flj, ,wc have in £(iy<V* °^ two diHinft 7tnfis or riitwr, 
w^ making uteofccttRin Word* called AuHtltarf,otHc^,. 
ing' Virhs, to CKpi-efs (lie fell of (he 7imti. 

1 • There are, in EngHflj, two ?>«/^/ or Tm 
the Pf</ffK/ Tfrtif, and the Prettr Time. 

* The Prefenl f$nfe Qt 'Time is the Vtrh \ 
' ieir, as Stfrn. 

• The Prettr Tenfe otTttue is comm<J^L, 
I ifndc by adding id to rtie Prefm Time, as Buf^ 


• The teamed Dr. C/ur^^ his ntjt tboaght this Divifion 
of the Ttfi/rs 10 be beneath his Notice : For, in his jMdici- 
Ottj >nd accurate Ediiion of Hsmtr, he bsi; obfervvd the 
Milkkcf that even Lenincd Men have fiOen into, both in 
tlie Conflrinng of Aalhors, as well as ia writiog of Latin, 
from Want «f ihek Knowlcifee of this DiTiliaa df Oift 
7tnfti. ^izp. 5, 6, Uc. ^^ 

132 The English Grammar. 

But if the Pre/ent Ten/e ends in E, as Love, then the Pre- 
ter ^enfe is made by only adding D to the Prefetit \ as, 
lAHjed, The frequent Contra6lion of this ^cn/e is very 
blameable ; as. Lev* d {or Lvnted^ drw^t^diot dr€Runed\ un- 
lefs in Poetry when the Vtrfe requires it. See Note to the 
1 6th Chapter. 

* In fome Words whofc Prefent Tenfe ends 
in D or 7*, the Prefer Tenfe is the fame with the 
'Prefent Tenfe^ as ready ready and then the Senfe 
of the Place, and the Helping Verbs muft diflin- 
guifh them. It is very probable they arc Con- 
trafiions of ed^ and fo fhould be writ with a 
double dd or U i asj I have readdy Jheaddy or 
Jheddy Jhreadd^ fpreaddy caftty hiftty knitty burtty 
^ putty Jhuttyfettyjlittyjplitty thruftty wetty fweatt. 

There are a great many Irregularities in the Pretcr Tenjiy 
that is, there a great many words of this Tetife, which 
do not end in ed. But of them we fhall fpeak afterwards. 

There is an Obfer^^ation yet remaining to be fpoke to 
concerning the exprefling the Time paft in EngliJ^^ but we 
ihall fpeak of that when we come to give you a Scheme 
of the Verbs. 

NOTE 11. Of the Perfons of the Verbs. 

When we (poke of the Pronouns, there was Mention- 
made of the Perfons, which are three in both Nutnbersj 
/, Thou or Touy He or Sbe^ for the Singular ; We, Te or Tns^' 
and They, for the Plural. 

* The Diftindion of Perfons and Numbersy in 
the Englifb Verbsy is chiefly figniiied by thcfe 
Pronouns bemg put before them ; as, / bunty They 
burn ; or in me third Perfon by any other Sub- 
ftantive \ as, The Fire burns^ The Boys play. 


Tht E N c L l^H Grammar. t j; 3 

Every one of thcfe Protum' caufes an Alteration in the 
Terminations of the Latin Vtfb> : But in EngUjb there i» 
no Change ■( all made by any, except in 

• The Second Perfon Singular of the Prefent 
7e»fet and in the Second Perfon Singular of the 
Preter Tenfsy which Perfons are diftinguifh'd by 
the Addition of Efi ; as. Thou burnefi, Thou read' 
ejiy Tbou humed'Ji, Thou loved'Jl. So likewifc. 

• In the ibird Perfon of the Prefnt Tenfiy an 
Alteration is made by adding the Ending Eth, 
or 5, (or Ei if the Pronunciation requires it ;) as. 
He burneth or lurm. He readeib or reads. In all 
the other Pcrfons the Word is the fame ; as, / 
burniH^eburn-iTebum^Tbeyburn. So, Jburned,He 
burned, IVe burned-, Te burned. They burned, &c. 

If the Trefitit Ttnfe ends in E, then/ ii added inftcad of 
Efi, in the Second Perfon, and th inllead of Eih, in the 
Third Perfon i as, llFjt, fbmtlitvfft, hitltiieib. 

InSead of the ending Etb the S m now moll commonly 
nfel i * but this Change is very blanteable, unlefs it ens/ 
be allowable in Pucirj, fince it has wonderfally nmltipHeit 
a Lener which was before too frequent in the Englijh 
Tongue, and added to that Hiffing in oor Language, 
Irfau^i^ taken fo much Notice of b/ Foreigners. 

Borne ObfervatioHs relating to the Second and 

Third Perfons of Verbs. 

In the Second Perfon of the Helping I'crit, ;/7//and 

SbaJi, we fay ivif/./ij^t, by a Figure cai'ec! Syneepr, for 

" The Changing at nh, or uih, into a,, a, it. is of 
L pretty long Haiuling,-introduced by the Daitii, and reck- 
L OMdttPano' ' ^ " -~ . ~ 


of the D^m .J«*»fl KjOefl by Di. liukti. 
IJiflaacC! of it. Gi. &i\^.%a:x..^.(;tti. 

1 34 7^^ E N G L tf H Grammar. 

nvi/rjf, Jhairp: LikeiSvife hmjt )xi the Second Perfon for 
hdft^ that is» i^^y or banjeft \ U in the Third Perfon, hathy 
that is, ha^th for banPtb or bmvetb; alfo /^W for bavd. 
The Helping Ferbst Wiil^ Sbali^ May^ Can^ never take the 
Endine ^^>& in the Third Perfon ; for we do not fay, 
He mnlletb figbt^ He caunetb Jigbt^ &c. but He nuillfgbt. 
He canjigbtt &ۥ 

* The Perfons Plural keep the Terminations of the firfl 
Perfon Singuhur. 

' * Thcfc Pcrfonal Terminations or Endings, 
tfi and etb^ are omitted, when the Verb is uied 
in an Imperative or commanding Scnfe ; as. Fight 
thou^ not Fighteft thou ; Let the SohUer fight ^ not 
Let the Soldier fight eth^ or fights. Sometimes al- 
fo they are left out after the ConjunSlionSy If^ 
7hatj "though^ Although^ Whether ; as. If the 
Senfe require itj for If the Senfe requirethj or re^ 
quires it : He will dare^ though he die for it^ that 
is, though Jbe dies for it. So} ff I were^ for 
was : Thefe Endings of the Perfon of the Verh 
are alfo fometimes left out after fome other 
QonjunSlions and Adverbs^ elpecially when the 
Verb is ufed in a Commandiiig or Depending Sen* 

In the Endings £/, Etb^ Ed^ and En^ (of which we (hall 
fpeak afterwards) the Vowel E is oftentimes left out, unlefi 
the Pronunciation forbids it ; and its Abfence is, when if t 
neceflary, denoted by an [* ] Jfoftropbe ; as, dd'ft for doefl^ 
do'tb dotb for doeth, di^ft didft for didfft. piae'd iat placed, 
burnd burnt for burned^ hmvow kmnfon^tt-Knmfien. 

* Tht Verb is a}fo often ufcd without exprcf- 

Csig cither the Perfon ox i'bing xbax. \a> does^ or 

Thi E K c L 1 1 H Grammar. 135 
f^ers, or the Number \ and then the Prepojtliont 
70> is feE before it ; ^io bum, to lovt. 

When the yo-h \i thus ufed, U is called a ^^j /h/wV* 
or li^titit, that U, nn/ bnnded; becaufe its Slgnilicarion 
u DOt determined to any /*ir/3A or Numter, This is ufed 
like the hfiititiiit MooJ in Latiit, aod is placed after ferii 
and AJji^iva; as, / /ot* /o /i^i/, A U geoJ t» lahaur: It 
is aifo lUoI as a Subjlanli'vi ; as, to pray ii a geoi AHian, 
that is, « ^«v or Praj'/r Ij a good Aaian. But the Prtpc 
Jitiaa, ts, is A>nietiinc5 omitted or left out, efpecially after 
the Htlping Vtrhu Da. MW, Shall, May, Can, and their 
Prtttr Te^tj, did, •w<a^i, fiauid, might, could; alfo after 
iiuft, lit, bid, dart, blip, and ssakt ; as, / da rtad, I •mill 

MoaneuT Lamj has obferved, that the principal or chief 
Ufe of the Infinitive Verh is to join two frtfefititsi toge- 
ther: As, J knmn Gud ta be juft ; but this Ufe of it it more 
frequent in Latin than in our Language. 

N. B. The Second and Third Perfons Shgalar of the 
Trtfinl Tch/c in the Saxin Language end, the Second in afi, 
'/. or /i as ibu lufafi or luf^, or hffi, thai is, ihsa 
iDvep : The Third in atb, or eth, or ih ; as, be lufaih, or 
lafttbi or htfih, that it, ht Is^eih. The Second of ih« 
Prtttr 7en/e \a ift; u, tbm l^fadefi, that is. than le-utdji. 
TbeotbcrT'oi/fareexprcTedby Htiping Fertiu'm Ejigli/i!^, 

NOTE III. 0/ the Moods. 

As Cafis are the diiferesi Endings of the f^tua, which 
EM ufed to denote the Re^/i or Jte/rraee that Things have 
' to one another t fo Mttdj are the dil&reni Endings ot the 
firb, that are made ufe of to exprefs the Manners or 
Forms of its lignifying the Being, Dting, or Suffiring of a 
Thing. Grammariam do not agree afcK>ut the Number of 
thefe Maadj, not only by Realonofthe Difference thctv 
is tn Lengangit, fame being capable of receiving more or 
fewer l^ximi or ErnSagi ibao others : but jJfo Becaufe of 
the difoent Manners of flgnifyin^, vj\\V^t h\v) \yt iw^ 
mud) maliiplied : for the Btins, Uai«e. >ai S»ff«r»"i ** »■ 

136 ^^ E N o L I s H Grammarl 

Thing, may be confidered not only iimply by it&lf, bat 
alfo as to the Pojftbility of a Thing, that is, whether' it can. 
be done or not ; as to the lAherty of the Speakir, that is, 
whether there be no Hindrance to prevent his doing of a 
Thing ; as to the Inclination of the fTiil, that is, whether 
the Speaker h^s any Mind or Intention to the Doing of 
it ; or to the Kecejfity of the Adtion to be done, that is, 
whether there be any Obligation of any Kind upon a Per* 
fon to do a Thing, 

They commonly reckon, in Latin^ Four Moods^ the huit' 
cati've, the Imferati've, the Suhjun^inje^ and the Infimti'Ui* 

1 . The Indicative declares, demands, or doubts ; at , / 
lovcy do 1 lovi ? 

2. The Imperatvve commands, entreats, exhorts, or per- 
mits ; as, iet me lo*ve, 

3. The Sufjun^fi'vc depends upon fome other Feri in the 
fame Sentence, with fome Conjun^iom between : as, he is 
mady if he ivere there, 

4. The Infinitive is ufed in a large undetermined Senfe; 
as, to love, 

* Now, in Englifiy there are no Moois^ be- 
caufe the Verb has no Diverfity of Endings^ to 
exprefs its Manners of lignifying \ but does all 
that by the Aid of Aacitiary or Helping Verbs^ 
which in the Latirij and fome other Languages, 
is done by the DiverQty of Termnatians or End* 

For the Pojfibility of the Thing is exprefled hy can ^ 
could \ the Liberty of the Speaker to do a Thing by mmf 
or might ; the Inclination of the Willis expreiTed by will or 
would ; and the NeceJ^iy of a Thing to be done by nmft or 
9ughty Jball mfiould^ And herein we alfo imitate our An- 
ceilors the Saxoni. 

i^iD^i^ ^'J^m 

Q. What it a Verb ? 

A. A Vtrb U a Part of Speech that betokcneth Btmg, 
DeiKg, or Suffering. 

Q^ What Word, are Verbs ? 

J. All thofe Words are called ycrhs, that fignify B«>^, 
Doing, or Suffiering ; as, /o if 160^, ro ic coM, to fight, « 
virile, IB ianci, la be humid, to be hamlhid. 

Q. What do ytu mcen by an EfTential Verb ? 

A. A Vtrt that Cgnifics Bdng. 

Q. What diyott Mian by a Vtrb Aaive ? 

A- A Vtrb that figni^es Bm/i^ ; ai, ti Iwt, 10 eat. It 
rtad, to make. 

Q. What da you mean by a Verb Paflive ? 

A. A Vtrb that fignifies Siiffering. 

Q. Havi'uii any Faffive Verbs ? 

A. No. For we have no one Word that denotes Saf- 
ferimg, but are obliged to make Ufe of two or three Word* 
to fupply thai Want; as we Ihall (hew afcerwards. 

Q. What iiTttSK} 

A. TtnJ, is the lime of the ftrb. 

<Xi. What it tht Time ofibt Verb J 

A. The Tra/i or 7i(o» of a Verb relate) to a Thing «• 
^'iTf, i^fi n not dbaf. 

Q. //dw jMoin Tenfes ^ Times iVY rjfr/? 

A. Three. 

I. T\m^ffinl7iaf, thatn«.Tu<V. 

t. The Pr^/^r 7<»tf, that ii fcfl. 

3. The pH/urr 7'iH/, tbattV jrf MroMw. 

Q^ An there ibtit m man than Three Teofea t 

. If we confider . 
Mlfaiified, we may reckon Si> 

1e„fe, i 


Two Prcfent Tenfes or ' 
Two Pteter Tenfes or! 

. lev/doyoumait li'iil I'Pftei 

'Thtie i«, 




The EvcLiSH Grammar^ 

1 . The Pn/ifit Time of tbc A^cm sot fixuihed i w^ I 
di^ kz. b.:t hsive do; yet done. 

2. The Pnjtr.t Time of the A&ion £nifbed ; as» I kepvi 
/u:'}cd, 2.iid it 25 now done. 

3. The Prttir Time of the A&ioii not finiihed; as, 1 
*i.a3 ct Buffer then^ bar had DOi yet done it. 

4- The Priiir Timi of the Adion finiihed i zb, I bed 
fi^pfc', £sd it is now dose. 

5. The Future Time of the Adion not ffoiAied ; as, / 
Jhoilfjj^ or flM he yet at Sufftr, but not that I iha!l thai 
have cone it. 

6. The /V/ffrf Time of the Adion finiihed ; as, J /^aH 
havefupped and ihali have done it. 

Q^ H^rw many Tenfes are there in Engli/h ? 

A. Tw o. The Prtfcnt Tenft and the Preter Tenfi. 

Q. Hcui doroM ktunu them ? 

A. The Preftnt Tenje is the Verh itfclf ; as, hum^ bve^ &C. 
The Preter Ttnfe ends in id\ as, /c^^.t/p hurned. 

Qi /)o// /^< Preter Tenfe aliLajs end in ed ? 

^. Not always ; for fometimes it ends in 7* or £«, bat 
rhefe are called irreffdar ones, of which we ihall fpeak af- 

(^ But if nut ba*ve hut tnvo Tenfetf btw io nut txfrefs 
all the other Times yf the Verb ? 

A. We do it by the Help of ceruin other Words called 
Helping Verbs : As we ihall (hew yon afterwards. 

Q. How do we dijlinguijh the Perfons of the Verbs ? 

A, We diftinguim the Second Perfon Singular of the Pri' 
fetit and Preter Tenfe by the Ending eft i wt% thorn loveft, 
thou hurneft : And the Third Perfon Singular di the Prefent 
Tenfe by the Ending etb or /; as, He leFvetb or l^ves. fiut 
the Diilindion of the Perfont and Numbers of Ferbtis chief- 
ly performed by the Pronouns, /, We, &c. being pat before 
them, or in the Third Perfon by any Subfiaaii'vi ; as, thi 
Fire burns. Boys flay, 

Q^ Do all Verbs take eth in the third Per fan f 
A. No. For Xhck Helping Vtrbs, mU, Shall, May, Can, 
never take eth in the Third Perfon; for* we do not fay, be 
mayeth, hejh4illeth^ &C. 
(i. What is Mood ? 

A. MM 

The English Grammar. 

A. Mjod'n ihe parlieuUr Em/iaj of i Verb, toexprersil 

different Minner of fignifying whether a Thing h, or i 
no/ done, whether it tun or may be done, whether the 
Perfon tuill or fiall do the Thing, or whether lie aught or 
muji do it. 

Q^ Hai ttit Engiidi Tongat any Moods ? 

A. No i Unlers you reckon One, that is the Indkali'ce 
Mttd: For, a OM EiigUp yerh has no Alteration of lis 
Ending, to exprefe its Maitner of fignifying, our 
cannot properly be f^d to have any Momti. 

Q^Hirai Ja you [henixfrtfi thtiiffimt Manntrj efVerbs, 
•wbtlbir a Thing may or can hi doni, &c. ? 

A. We do it by the Afliftance of certain Words called 
Melpitg Ftrbi, fuch as, may or eon, firati or -unU, mnj} or 
eugbt, &c. 

Q. Hmv many Moods art thfit in tit Latin Ttmgiit ? 

A. They generally reckon Four ; the hMtaliiie Maei!; as, 
Ega Amo, I de ieii: The Imfrretnt Mood; as, 7u nma, 
tfot ihtu : The SuIjunSUt Msed; as Bgs tun^m, Imaf 
iMit: The Ufi'dti-vt Mood; m^anmri, tslwt: Where you 
ia«y obferve the different Ending* »j «, fw <ir-, which 
ttiSinguifh one Msod from another- 

Q. What dB jB« man ty an Blfential Verb ^ 

A. A l^trb that rignifies Bring. 

Q. ffhaiita Verb Adlive f 

j#. A 'Vi [hat figrifies Dting. 

Q, »'*«/ (I a Verb Paffive ? 

^. A fr'b thai fignifies Suffering. 

Q. WAfl/ ai._jo« jn^x ijr th Prefent Tenfe » 

/*. The Tint that otiu ii. 

Qi WAfl/ ri'o^w BieaiT ij i$t Prttcr Trtfe ? 

>*. The Time that ij /w/. 

Q. IFhat doyou mtatt by the Future Tcnfc f 

^. The Ti/nt that /V r?/ is lomt. 

(i WT-nirt fom^, tb, W„d Verb > 

*f. From Virbum a */'or<^. it being fo called by Way of 
Eminence ; for it is the chief Word in a Senicnce \ and 
there is no Sentence, wlicicin it is not either exprefleth 
or underflood. 

Q, Wbtnct noui Effential i 
1 ftoa EJiHlialii, or <■/?>, to ti. 
» -^ G^ Q,.W\<T 

-' -^^ 

I40 The English Grammar. 

Q^ Whence ctms A£tivc ? 

A, From A^i'vtu^ or rgert^ to it, 

Q^ Whence comes Pafiive ? 

A. from Pajitus, or Pati, tafkffir, 

f^ irkence comes Tcnfc ? 

A. From the French Word TempSf and that from tlic 
Lisif!^ IcmpuSi Time* 

Q. U'htuce comes Prefnit ? 

ji. From Prafem^ being he/ere^ or at Hand, 

Q^ Whence comes Prctcr ? 

A. From Prateritus^ fafl, 

Q^ Whence comes Future ? 

A, From Futurus, nbcut to ie, or that will be. 

Q^ Whence comes Perfon ? 

A. From Ptrfina^ which in its firfl Senfe iignifies a 
hUJk^ fuch as Players ufe : It is here to be underftood ai 
the Face or Ending of the Verh^ which it takes to denote 
fuch or fuch a Perfon of the Pronoun ; but there, Perfima 
fignifies what we mean by the Word Per/on^ thatis* a 
Man or Woman. 

Q. Whence comes Mood ? 

A From Modus, Manner^ it being the Manmr of ike 
V, >lf. fignifying fo and fo. 

Q. U bt nee comes Indicative ? 

>/. From ludicare^ to declare. 

(j^ Whence comes Imperative ? 

A, From Imperare^ to command, 

Q. Whence comes S\A>}MXiSC\Yt} 

A. From Suhjungere, to Join to, it being generally pat 
after another Sentence. 

Q. Whence comes Infinitive ? 

A. From Infim'tuj, undetermined, becaufe it is not deter- 
mined to any Perfon or Number, 

C H A P« 

The English Grammar. i^ 


CHAP. xni. 


Before we come to give you an Account of the Hi/ping 
ftrh, it is neccflarjf that we fay fomething of that 
Purt a/ Speech which ij called a PartUifli, becaufe it is 
frequently joined to thofe f'srbi. 

* A Parlidple is a Part of Speech, derived 
of a Verb, and betokens Being-, Detng^ or Suf- 
/erv^y as a Verb does, but is othcrwife like x 
Noun Aije£iive. 

1. DirivcJof a Verb] It always comes from fome fn-h f 
n from, tv Ifve, come the PariicipUs, lading and loveJ, 
from to barn come turning and Imraeii. 

II. Sitnijiis Being, Doing, or Suffering] i . 1 Ggai£es 
Sling, Ibavt btm a Chili, I laal fitting. 

2. It fignifies Doing; at, 1 am rccaling tht Bati, Itua* 
fiwufing tin Hcufc, I bavs Bumid ibi Wood. 

3. It fignifies Suffiritig 1 as, /'wai bm-ncd, Iivai luSif^i/. 
I-waial-H/eJ, fie. 

HI. But ii sibtrtKifi Hie a Noun Adjeiiive] that is, 
his often joined to a Sai,fa«rt;^ juft like an AdjeQiiji; as, 
a ttviitg Child, a dancing D:g, a fiia-iitd Hiad. a rained 
Man i yei ia thefc Bxaniplea, you fee how ihey fignify />»- 
(*/ or Sufftri«i as the Fcrb does ; They fignify D.iw^- , as, 
aisving Child, \. e. a Child ibat ieivei, a dancing Dog, L e, 
« D»g ibel duucet: They fignify Sujiringt as. a Jhavti 
HmJ, t. e. d Hiad (hat i> ptmtd ; a ntintd Man, i. e. « 

• There are two Parlidplti, the ASive Par- 
ticipfty which ends in ingy as loving.^ aiwi^iNe. Po.^- 
' fJ^ar/j'apUj which ends in ti islw:t4~ 

i^t The En QL I %H Grammar. 

The Participle^ which ends in ing, is called the ABi*vt Tar* 
iicifle^ becaufe it has an AQin)i Senfe, or iigaifies Doing ; as' 
/ am cutting a Stick, The Participle ^ which ends in ed, is 
called the PaJ/hve Participle^ becaufe we, having in EngUJh 
no Paffi've Voice^ that is, no difiinQ Ending to diflinguifh a 
Verb that fignifies Doings from a Firb that fignifies Sufferings 
snake up this Want by the Help of the Feih Am^ and this 
Participle i as, I am loved^ 1 am burned, 

N. B, For this Partiaple cannot be properlv called a 
P affile Participle^ from its Signification alone, it being alfo 
often ufed in an A3i<ue Senfi i ^ I ha*vi Uved the Man, 
I have burned the Papers, 

* The ASive Participle is made by adding ing 
to the Verb \ as, httm^ hrmttg^ fighl^ fg^tii$g ; 
but if the Verb ends in e^ as Love^ then the # is 
left out in the Participle^ as, loving. 

This Participle is often ufed as a Subjlantive ; as, Ar /^^ 
Beginnings a good Vnderftanding^ an excellent Writing, ft 
aniwers alfo to the Words which the Latins call Gerunds ; 
as, Ofivritingy in luritingy in burning this, in burning 0/ this, 

* This Participle is ufed in a peculiar Manner with the 
Verb te be, efpecially in anfwer to a Queflion ; as, Q. fThat 
nvas you doing P A. I was writing. Q^ Have ycu been 
writing P A, I have' been writing, ^c. And in this Cafe 
a is otun fet before the Participle ; as, he is a-going, it is 
a-doittg, he was a-dying, &c. And particularly after the 
/>r^/ of Motion, to go, to cone ; as, he goes a-huntiug : She 
eame here a-crying : Why come you hither H'/colding ^ 

f Dodlor Wallis malces this a to be put for at, denoting 
as much as ovi^i/f ; for Example, a-dj^ing, ageing, a-burn- 


♦ Urefofareth on hunteth. Our Enemy goes on hunting. 
See Wanlcy^s Catal. 172. 

-}* The a k undoubtedly the Remains of the PrepoGtion 

str rapJdl/ pronounced, Johmx, 3. xa Saxon ihcVfotdt 

cfP^/^ arc : Ic wilJe gan onfxoth^ 1 Y*\\\ ^ ik¥\toa^* 


The E N o L I s H Grammar. 

any ant ii Jyi/ig, &c. pei^fl 

itg, a-nnilng, that is, -..^ _,...;, — . ^..-.-, 

a here u redundant, as it frequend}' U at the Beginiiti) 
ef a great many Saxna and Englifh Words ; as in arije, i 

* The PaJJht Parliciplt is made by adding fif 
to the Ferb ; as burn, turned, kill, killed : But 
if the Ferif ends in e, as love, then it is made by 
adding d ; as, /ouf, /a-uft^. 

The Pi-ettr Tcn/i and the Pa^-vi Parllafte are regularly 
the fafflc, both ending in eJ, as burned. But are often 
fubjeft [o Contra^em, and otter Irregularities, which are 
fometimea the (ame In both ; a», leach, langht, taught, 
iriitg, broagbl, bruight : And fometiines different ; as, /tf, 
/aw, /tin J gi'Vt, gB'-je, gi-jtn ; but of thefe WC (hall give 
you a Lift. 

This ParliapU being ufed with the Ftrt, te it, has (he 
fame Scnfe with Words which end in ab/e or ii/e ; fuch 
are admirable, li/.llc, and it relates to the Future Thar ; 
as, it it ft bt admirtd, that is, it is admirable i it it It be 
/tin, thai is, it is -vi/Silt, &c. 

We have already obferved that the Partiaplei often be- 
came Jt^effivis ; but we cannot therefore by any Means 
grant, chat they ate therefore always mecr AdjtBi'ves, as 
tome do affirm, they being often ufed in fuch a Senfe 

In like Manna r, enixeg. amaj ; anbidan, abide ; tn-gean. •!• 
gainfl i on-fiua, ativo ; ta/ele, a-falit ; an-bidde, tkbid; en/lip, 
Hjhep ; Qit-mang, Buiang. The an in fuch InfUncca firit dc- 
cencraied into sn, and then n came to be left out for the 
fafier Sound Sake ; Both Ways of ExprelTion are to be 
found in Rohtrt of Glouctfiir. ' Hit Men afiffcheth <wert p. 

155. Bulb ag» a fifebingr, ^. 186. Kiag EigiT iw iun- 
fjng jfwtndr •wat^ p. 199. jin bunletb tvende, p, 2O3. 
^riM. Cell. M. S. The Sojieit Chronicle towanls the latter 
^ £iidL l)M »^fi*f, (or what, itt aEtticnt Soxnn, V\ m.fld^, 
Ja^ geinf M buntytig. Stcm't SummaT^, ■%. ■^'^■ 

144 7*^ English Grammar. 

where no A^eQinn can have Place : For in thpfe Examples^ 
/ am ivrittJijr a Book, he is mending a Pen^ tve have rant- 
r// the Coals, ye bawe praifedtbe Horfe^ I cannot fee how any 
of xhsit Participles are ufed as Ad^iBives. 

S^uefiions relating to the Thirteenth Chafer, 

Q. JVhat is a Participle ? 

A. A Participle is a Part of Speech* derived of a Ferh^ 
and betokens neing^ Doing, or Suffering, as a Ferh doer ^ 
but is otherwife like an Adje3i<ve, 

Q^ Is the Participle ahvttys derived from a Verb ? 

A^ Yes; for from the F/r^, toloi;e, comt iht Pariicifles 
loving and loved^ from hum come burning and burned. 

Q. Hovj does itjignijj as a Verb ? 

A, It iignifies Being, Doing, and Suffering as a Verb does, 
and alfo implies Time like a Verb. 

Q^ How is it like an Adjedive ? 
^ A. Becaafe it is often joined to a Subftantive in thefiune 
Manner as the A^eSlive is ; as, a lonnng Child, a Uamtd 

Q^ How many Participles are there f 

A, Two ; The Aaive Participle that ends in ing ; as». 
loving i and the PaJJive Participle that ends commonly in 
ed \ as, burned, loved, &c. 

Q. Doth the A6Uve Participle ai^i^X^ eudisi ing ^ 

A. Yes. 

Q. Doth the Paflive Participle abways end in ed ? 

A. No ; for it is often irregular, and ends in V or V ; 
as placed or plac't', fOT placed; and fometimes in n \ as> 
beaten, begun, &c. 

Qs^ fV^ is tte Participle, in ing, called d>e A6Uve Par* 
ticiple ? 

A. Becaafe it fignifies ABion or Doing. 

Q. Why is the Participle, in ed, ccdUd thr Paflive Parti- 
ciple ? 

A. Becaufe that, with the Verb to be, makes up the whole 
PaJJive Voice, 

Q^ Is the Afflve Participle ever ufed eu a Snbftantave ? 

A* Yes, very often ; for from, to begin, comes the Par^ 
f/c/p/ff iegitming ; zs, I am bigjamni tbt Work \ which is 

The En c l i s h Grammar. 145 
tanti'mU>nSuiJla''ii-vt, as. In ibi Be%mninBGeii creeitJ 

Q. Art iht Parciciplei e^tr ufcd m Adjeaives } 
jt. yes. 

J. I . When they have have no Relpeft to Tinu ; as, a 
ItamiJ Book. 

2, Whenlhey are joined to Subjlanlivct ; a, an undtr- 
fiatuUtig Man, a luriting Dejk, a carvtii HeaJ. 

3. if they may be compared j at leamid, mort Uarnti, 
mtfi Uanud. 

^. If they are compounded with a Prifofirhn that the 
Vrrk ihey come from cannot be compounded with ; as, 
inbtnmng, ttnhtard, unfien ; for we do not fay, ta ttnit- 
ttmt, U unhiar, &c 

Q. Artaatlir Participles rra/Zj- <»fr^ Adjeftives ? 

jI. No i For the Partidfic is often ufed where the Ad- 
itSivt can have no Place. 

Q^ ffiiaice comti the fFard Participle ? 

J. From Partinfiuin, that is, a/drfuitin^ Word, becaufe 
it, eafit Paritm, partakes of fomc Propenies of the /'/rA 
and of the Noun. For it denotes Being, Dsing, or Sufftr- 
ing, and implies Time as a Virh does ; and it is joined to a 
Skhfianiive as a Nom Jdjiaive. 


CHAP. XIV. *] 

the Helping Verbs which are DefeiUvc. 

WE have already obferved that the Ftrki In Engllfir ia 
not changetheir EndiHgi as in Latin, to denote the 
Timii of Biing, Dting, at Sufftriti^, and the l/ioodi or Man- 
ners of their fignifying: For m our Tongue all ihefe 
Mailers arc performed by the Ailiftaace of certain Word] 
which wo call Auxiliary or Htifing Vtrbt: Of which we 
(hall now unt, beg^ng with (hole that inDtftSiiif. 

146 Tie EuoLtSH GramfHor. 

* Thefe Helping Verbs. Bo, mil. Shall, May, 
Can, with their Prefer Tenfes, Bid, Would, Should^ 
Mighty Could, as alfb Muji, are fet before any 
other Verbs, the Prepojition To being left out : 
Except after Ought. 

So likewife thefe Verbs, AV, Dan, Lit, Maki, beiog 
fet before an Infinitivt Verb, the Prepojition To^ is left out* 

We call theie Helping Verbs Defedive ones, becanfe they 
are not ufed but in their own Ten/e, and the Preter ^en/e; 
befides they have no Particif/a, neither do they admit any 
Helping Verbs to be put before them. 

But thefe two, Do and Wiilt becanie thev are foaietimes 
ufed as 4kfolute Verbs, are therefore formed throaghont all 
Tenfes, that is, they have Participles, [doing, do^n, tuilMng, 
*wilLd] and do alfo admit of the Auxiliary or Hilpimg Verbs 
before them, to exprefs the 'Times ^ &c. that is, when they 
are ufed as Verbs abfolute, but not when they are Helping 

* When the Helping Verb is put before ano- 
ther Verb^ it changes its own Ending, but the 
Verb that it affifts is always the fame \ for Ex-» 

I do burn. Thou doft burn. He doth bum^ &c. 

Here you fee the Helping Verb^ Dc, changes its Ending ; 
but, in Bstm, there is no Change of Endii^di all. 

Bo and Bid. 

* Bo does emphatically denote the Prefent 7ime, 
and Bid the Preter Time : As, / burny I burned, 
or in a more emphatical or exprcflive Manner, 

^d^h^rn^ I did bum. TVvt^ «xt ^\x% fcra^d^ 

The English Grammar. 

I do. Thou dofi or Tou de. He dab or 
Plural. If^e do. Ye do or Ton do^ They do. 

I did. Thou didji or Tou did. He did. Plural. 
fi^e did, Te did or 2m did. They did. Did i 
ufcd for Doed, and didft i'or doedfi. 




* Shall and PFil! denote the Future Time, or 
the Time yet to come; as, Itjhallburny it will 
bttt'tt. .-They are thus formed, 

I Poll, thou Pmlt or ToujhaH, Hefidl Plural. 
Wejhull, Ye Jball or YouJbaU^ Ibej jhail. 

I will, Tbou wilt or YoK will. He will. Plural. 
We will. Ye will or Yeti will, Ihey will. But 
there is this. Dificrcnce between jSa// and will: 

• Shall in the firft Perfons, as, //W/, weflball^ 
(imply cxprefles the future Aftion or Event : 
But in the fecond and third Ferfons ; as, Hi 
/hall. They Pall, it promifes, commands, 


• If^'ill in the firft Perfons ; as, 1 wtlU wtf 
I#omifes or threatens : But in the Iccond 

third Pcrfons ; as Thou ivUt or You will^ Ye 
will or Yoit will. He will, Ihey will, it barely 

Thus when I fay, IJhf^llgn. or 1 wilt re. I declare my 
WilUngncfs or RefoLlion to go : But, if' 1 fay, J™ ^ii 

148 The English Grammar. 

£f there is a plain Command or lajunAion. So in IJba// 
m. Thou <wi/tf (or Tou mdll) Hi *wUlf IViJhall^ Tg tml/t 
They <wil/ burn i here I barely foretell : But in / wili^ fbeu 
Jhalu (or Youjhall) HefiaU^ We nnilh Yejball; ThpfiaU 
bum ; I promife that it fhall be» or l*will fee that it Ihall 
be done. 

Should and Would. 

* Shall mzkt%Jhould (from the old VerbfioUe) 
and it is thus formed ? 

Ifimldj ThouJhouUft or Toujhould^ Hefindi. 
Plural. WejhouU^ Tejhould or Toujbould^ Tbef 
Jhould. Shouldfi is ufed for Jhouldeft. 

* fi&0«A/ tells what was, or had been to come.. 

* ^// makes in the PreterTenfe^ Would {ixom 
the old Verb, WoUe) and it is thus form^ i 


/ would^ Thou wouldft or Tou wouldy He would. 
Plural. We would^ Te would or Tou wotddj 
They would. 

* Would tells what was, or had been to come. 

' But there is this Difference between would zsAJhwld'^ 
that 'would intimates the Will or Intention of the Doer, but 
jSlwuldihe bare Futurity, or that the Thing will be ; as, / 
njoould bum, that is, I am willing to bum 1 I Jhould bur§i 
i. e. I ought to bum. 


^e English Grammar. 

May and Can. 


• Mayt and its Preter Tirm, Might, denote 
or intimate the Power of doing a Thing. Thcjr 
arc thus formed ; 

/ may. Thou mayft or Teu mayt He may. Plural. 
H^e mayt Te may or Tou may, T'bey mtrf. 

> * I might. Thou migh^fi or Tou might. He mightt 
Plural, iye might, Te might or Tmt mgbty They 

Aftfv'comea from the Saxta Mtg, and Miglii from MOt. 
The Coaoir}' People do likcwiA Sty, maiigbt, from iba 
8a»»ii Met. 

* Can, and its Preter Time Could, intimate the 
Power of doing a Thing, and are thus fomud ; 

• lean, Thou canft or Tou can^ He can- Plural, 
We can, Te can or Tou can. They can. 

I could. Thou could or Tou could. He could. 
Plural. fVe could, Te could or Tou could, Ihey could. 

But there h this DifFerence between May and Can, May 
and Might, are {poken of the Right, Lawriilne5, or, at 
lead, the Pollibilily of the Thing : Bui C*a» and Gu/^. of 
the Power and Strength of the Doer. As, I might turn, 
\. e. Il was poflible or lawful for me to burn 1 l^aa burn, 
xhAt is, I am aili ta turn; I tduld biu-n, i. e. / luat able 

ISO The English Grammar. 

• Muji and Ougbl imply Neceffity, or de- 
note that the Thing is to be done^ as, Imifit 
bum^ I ought to read. 

I muftj Thou mufi or Tlou mufty He mufi. Plund. 
We mufty Te mufi or You muftj They mufi. 

1 ought y Thou oughteft or Tou oughts He ought. 
Plural. We ought ^ Te ought or Tou ought^Tbeyot^ht. 

Mufi comes from the ^^xon^ Mofi^ a Word of die iune 

Can, 'May, Will, and Mufi ire ufed with Relation bcA 
to the Pre/ent and Future "Time, Shall i? ufed only in the 
Future, and Ought, in the Pre/ent Time. But CouJii, the Pre* 
tir Time of Gm, Might, the Preter Time of Af«^. and WmM, 
^ Preter Qi Will^ have Relation both to the Timtfajt 
and to come : But Should from Shall relates only to the A- 
iure Time. 

. But if ILnfe follows Mmfi, Oughiy and Should^ then they 
relate to the Time paft ; as^ / Qugbt to have thm it^ 1 tmf 
xnft^ould ham gmn thither. 

ffuefiiom relatmg t§ the Fmrteeuii Ciafter. 

Q, What do you mean hf a Helpinjg; Verb ? 

A. A Verh that is put to another Verb to denote or fe- 
nify the Time, or the Mood, . or Maemer^ of a Vcrbw 

Q. Which Verbs are thofe T 

A, Do^ nvill, fijoll, may, can, ha*ve, am or he, are fnck 

Q^ What do tou mean py a Dfcfeftive Verb ? 

A. A Ver6 that want^ fomewhXt that other Verbs haw k l| 
as, may, has no AQii^e 6r Pajp've Participle, nor does tdce ', 
any Helping Verb before ^, as othei' Verbs do : For we do 
not fay, IJhall may, or Ihuue might, 

Q^ When a Helping Verb is Joined to another Verb, e^s { 
it change its Ending to make tie Second and Third PirfoU • 1 
Singular ? 

A. The 

The English Grammar. 
J. The Hr/fiag f'lrh docs, l>at the /'c^i ic is fei before I 
never changed ; SS, Tbm JaJI io-vi. Hi .hllf hitu, 
vfihijeA, if* bath or hai iev<4 : Where^ou lee, /o«< or 
icdxe chafiaw in both Places, 
(i, // :tx,i an, Dijurcnce beM/Jftn Shall and Will. 
^^ <#. Yes. In ue &rll Feribns Sbail exprelTeg the future 
Aflion or Event, ajid fflV/promifes and threatens ; but in 
the fccond and third Perfom, Shall promifcs and threatens, 
hut MV// barely foretells. 
"^ CL h thiri any Diffirinct hifaxn Would <i,/ShouId ? 

A. Yes. WodWioiimates the Will ot Intention of the 

poer ; Siau/ii ihc bare Futurity, or that the Thing will be. 

Q^ fj thtri aay D:ffirence betvieen May and Can .' 

J. Yes. MijF is fpolten of the Right, Lawfiilnefs, or 

^oiTibiliiy of the Thing : But Can of the Power or Strength 

^f the Doer. 

r Q. Gi-ut xii III Preter Time e/ ibt Dffcmi/i Helping 

A. Da in the Prchr Tm/e makes d!d, may makei tnigbt, 
OhM makes nuld, luilt tnaket vjcuU.ptiU taakaJibmU: 

r "-""'"'• — 


Of the Pofeft Helping Verbs, Have and Am 
or Be. 

T^HE Ftrlr, mentioned in the foregoing Chapter, are 
X called Di//c7iw, beeaufe they take no Helping Vcrbt 
before them, on any Occafion ; neither are they ufed be- 
nd the Priter Ttnji or Time : Now, for the contrary 
«foo> ihefe following Verbs are Cud to be Ptrfeii and en- 
dre : i. e. Hi^i and Am or Be. 


f/n/t is a Ferb of rery great Ufe among ug, and in all 
r Modem Language*, though aai vt GrttkuA Luinv 



152 The English Grammar. 

for it is nfed to denote AiverteTimts or Ten/es of Feris^ 
both in an Asi«ui and FaJ/h)e Signification ; and becanieit 
affifts, or helps to denote the Tin ts of Voiit^ it is caOed 
a Helping Verb. But when it is not joiiled #ith another 
Verb then it denotes Pofleflion, and has a Noun alwiji 
following it. As^ / hmve a Book^ I bad a Horfe. It it 
thus formed; 

Prefent Tenfc. 

Iha^vey T'bcu hafi or You hanfey He bath or bas. Fiord* 
We ba*vef Te bave or Tou ba^e, Tbey borne. 

Preter Tenfe. 

/ bady Tbou hadft or You bady He bad. Plural. Wi bad. 
Ye bad or You hady 7bey had. 

The j^ai've Participle Uy Having: The Paffi<ue PwrH* 
ciple is, Had for Halved, 

Hante comes from the Saxon Hehhe^ Hafa or Home. Had 
from He/ed, 

* Have denotes the Time of the Aftion to be 
jufl: paft when we fpoke ; as, / have dined. Had 
denotes the Afbion to have been finilhedac that 
Time, when we were difcouriing of the Matter j 
as, / bad dinedy that is, when Pefer came to wj '|| 

But Had dots likewife indmate the Time pmf of an A- 
Ction not done, but intended to be. done ; Ihad gone M^ 
tbiTy butVctet prevented me; I bad dined nmtb yeu^ hit the '■ 
Rain hindered me. 

* But when Shall or Will is added to bave^ it 
lignifies the ^ime that will be paft j as, J fidll 
bave bumedy He wiU have burned. 

Am or Be. 

To fapply the Want of Verbs Po^t \tl tot Lane^age, 
H'c, as wdl as the other Modfiiu L8i»B»^t*, toSw vA^ ^ 

The'EvotiiH Grammar. 153 

the Ht/ping Vtrb Am or Be, and do by it exprers wh« the 
Iiati» and Grc<k Tongues exprefs by one Word. 

• y^« or 5^ being joined to the PaJJive Par- 
tickle makes up ihe Pajfive Voice ; as, lam loved : 
j^ut when ic is ulied by itfelf it {ignifies Being. 

Tlie Latin TonguE does likewire make u(e or thit Verb 
teilenotefainepiuticularTeniesof the Paffitit Voice, 

* Am or Be is alfo fometimes ufcd with the 
ASHve Participle to exprefs A^ion or Doing: 
A%, J am writing, for / write; I was writings 
I have been wrising, I bad been writing. 

This Verb is very irregular, as it often happens that 

thofe Things, which are moll vulgar or cominon, are moft 

irregular : And it his a double or twofold Formation. 

Prefenc Time. 

lam, Thau crt or You <,ri!. Hi ij. Plural, ffv «w, n 

I mrtOT i'ou art, '[bcyert. Or, 

I Ibt, nm bis. He ke. Plural, Wt ic. Yt bi, thtj ie, J 
\ ■ ThePreurTenfe. m 

Ilea!, Tbm nuafi or Ytu •w*re. He ivai. Flunl. W* iwwi" 
Y€ tutn or Tou •ti/ert, Thef tvere. Or, 

Iiuere, Thu vitrt. He tuere. Plural. ^<r>u«rr, Titiitrt, 
ntf 'were. 

When it is ufed Jnp.iti'uely, it makes « be ; the JBiiU 
Tjujiaple K being i AePa^iie participle iibciin fovwhkb i 
font corruptly write bin. J 

• The fccotid Formation or EniHng of tfi© ' 
Prefent Tenfe, that is, bty be% be, &c. and the 
fccond Formation of the Preter Ten/s, that is, 
wtrtt wert^ -were, &c. is for the molt Part ufed 
i after the Conjun£tioDs, if, tbattallbougb,vibetheri 
as> if J be then alive : I do not known whether it were 


154' ^^ ENOLiSH Grammar. 

he or no. Be is alfo ufed after the Vab Uti 
as, let him he^ &c. 

N, B. But fome are for making this ftQNJfl FarMuUm 
a Suhjunffi<ue M$od, 'i * 

Am comos from the taxm iam4t-dm% Art ftem 
Eart ; Be from l?/0 ; ^f^ from Bjfi ; XF^i Arom the B^xn 
JVes, or rather from the Qmbiek Was \ Were from the ^4- 
xon Word Were \ but XPSrr/ 1 believes comes from the Gf> 
thick Warft , which is fometimes ufed for Waft. 

Do^ MdfJhalifJkeMUt iviik 'wouH ean^ ceuid^ mej^ mght* 
are always (et before the Verb in ^e Prtfeni Jit^e j ai^ /. 
de Bum, &c. But Have, Had, Jm, Be, Was^ Beem^ are Cet 
before the A3i've and ^ajpme Parficifle ; as, I have Uvi^ 
J am loving, 

ThtCe Helping Ferhs 2Lrt likewife often joined together; 

as* I might have ditd\ but then one of them txox^^ the 

Manner, the Other the 7ime of the Verbt iignii^iBg ; ex* 

cept in ^/ or Been, which is ufed to denote Bni% or ^uf* 

firing, i. e« to be done, 

Siueftiotts rtlating to J he Fifteenth Chapter, 

Q. Why aretheje Verbs ca/MTerfe€t Helping Ferbif 

J. Be^fe they are formed like other Verbs. 

Q. When are Be and Were to be ufed inftead ef Am f 

f J. They are commonly ufed after if that, ahheugh,. 

whether; zs. If it he Jo, If he njuere alive^ &c. 

the Irregukr V£R 

\T7Eiballnow rive 
W rtrbiclwati. 
to be taken Notice t^ 

♦ I. That 

Tbt English Grammar. 
* I. That all the following Irregularity re- 
lates only to the Formation ofthc Preter Tenfe 
' J Pajivt Participle. 

', in our trregiiUr Vtrh, we have xoching elfe trrt!A 


* 3. This Irregularity does not relate to Fo- 
T^ fi^erdst but only to the Native Words of 
our Tongue. 

By Farfign Sferds, I mean (hofe that we have borrowed 
from the Latin, Frtncb, Italian, Spamfi, or Wtkh, of which 
there arc a great Number : But I call tbofe Native Words, 
which take thur Original from the old Teutmiei or Saxcn 
Langiaigi ; Etll which are WorJs of Cue SyllaUe, or derived 
from yrrii of one Syllable. 

• The firft Irregularity, and that which is 
the moft general, took its Rife from our Quick- 
ncft of Pronunciation, by changing the Confo- 
nant d into /, (the Vowel e, in the regular End- 
ing ed, being cut off) that the Pronunciation 
might be made more eafy and free. And it 
feems indeed to be rather a CentraSlien than an 

9m, c. ti, >5,/, -f, /, AT, and the Confonants/ ti,vto- 
nounced han}, and fomeiioief /, m, h, r, (when a Ihort 
Vowel goei before) more eaiily take / aiter them than J. 
As, fiat't for fine J or fJatttt.Jnatcl'l for faatili'ii ot/aatcir- 
td, f/b'i for />V or fjhtd, ftujt for fiufd otJluftJ, clapt 
fat claf'.l oi .hfjicJ, mixt for aix'dor mixid, tuak't fof 
■wak'd or nuaiid.—dwilt for ihutlfJ or d^tUcd, fmelt for 
fnuitdatfmtlUd, frota the Vtths, te ftacf, iii/Hatt%,lec, 

But fometiroes, when a long Vowel goea before, it ii ei- 
ther Ihortened or changed into afliortonc, for the fake of 
qnicker PronunciatioD i as, i'-pt,/fSi, tutft, cri{t, JK';i>i. 

156 The English Grammar. 

lept^ from the Verbs to keep^ ujltep, t9 votef^ to cmp^ f 
/"weepi to leaf. 

But d remains after the Confonants h^ g, v, ««;, x, and 
/^ tbf when they are /oftly pronounced ; and 4/ likewiTe 
remairkS after /. m, n, r, when a long Vowel goee before; 
for the> more eafily unite and join together with d, than 
with /, by Reafon of the like Direction of the Breath to 
the Noflrils. So, //i/V, fnuVd^ rasCd^ heliev'dy from //V/, 
fmiUf razCf believe* 

Except when the long Vowel is fhortened before /, m^ w, 
r ; or when b and v are changed into p or/*, and the (of- 
ter Sound of the Letters /, th^ pafles into their harder 
Sound : As, felt from/eely dealt from deal^ dreamt fiom 
dream, meant from meant left from lea've^ bereft firom Ar- 
reave^ ^e. 

Bat in fome Words whofe Preter Ten/e ends in d or /, 
the Preter Ten/e is the fame as the Prefent Ten/e ; as» in 
iht Prefentf read^ Preter, read \ vn xHat Pre/ent, caft^ foin 
the Preter, caft : But it is very probable they are Con* 
tradlions oi ed, and fhould be writ with a double diox tt. 

Somedmes the regular Spelling of thefe Words is obfer- 
ved ; as, placed^ belie<ved, &c. though not often. But in 
thefe Cafes great Regard is had to the Pronuocsadon ; 
whence it happens, that we often fay^ wept, kept, but 
Tery feldom, voec^ed, keeped, 

N, B. This clofing in one Syllable the Terminadon or 
Ending of the Preter Ten/e ; as lov^d for loved. Sec has 
very much disfigured the Tongue, and turned a tenth Part 
of our fmootheft Words into lo many CluAcrt of Confo- 
nants. This is the more remarkable, becaufe'the Want of 
Vowels in our Language has been the general Complaint 
of our politeft Authors, who neverthelefs are the Men chat 
have made thefe Retrenchments, and confequendy very 
much increafed our former Scarcity : As has been very 
juftly remarked by the ingenious Author of the 135th 

Verbs, ending iny, either take a d with an Jpojirophe ; 
as, marry, marry d; or elfe change^ into iedi as, married, 
tarried, carried, &c. 


The English Grammar. T57 

• There is another common Irregularity, but 
which relates only to the Pajfive Participle : For 
the Paffive Participle was formerly often formed 
in eriy in Imitation of the Saxons : And we have 
a great many of this Sort, eipecially when the 
Preier Time fuiTers any remarkable Irregularity. 
But this Ending may be reckoned as another 
Formation of the Participle ; as, been, givcuy ta- 
ken, jiafn, knew'n, from the Verbs to bs, to give, 
to take, to flay, to know. 

We do alTo ufe, •written, Htfrn, ratea, (iiafrti, fiilten, 
rsllin, cbafeB, briktn, as well as, lurit, tit, est, beat, fiat, 
rat, ch'/e, broke. Sic. ia the PaJTvi PartUifle, though not 
in the Preler Tcnfe ; from tbc Verbs to luriti, la biU, « eatf 
la beat, &c. For Exampk we fay, 1 eat, but not / latm, 
but we fay, I ha've iateit, OJ ear. 

So likewifc we iayfivJ'ii ot ftnijd,fit^it mJhevS'd, hiiwm 
•u-d. loadin or iMdtd, ladin or Imdtd, 
tofirw, lo betv, lo woiu, to load or 

' or heta'd, 
from the Verbs lofi- 

But the Irreguh 

of the Verb! will beft appear if 
we put ihem alphabetically ; iirfl, thofe that alter the Pre 
tir lenfe, the Pajfiv Participle being ihe fame with it ; and 
il)ca thoie that have a Pajffvt Pariidple different from (lie 
rr>ler Ten/e. 

Thofc that have this Mark (*) before them, ate not pro* 
fn or ufaal. 


158 7be English Grammar. 


Pre/efit Ten/e. 





Unbend * 

























Prefer Teft/e, — 
and Partic, 

















Dug and 

* digged 










Gelt and 

Gilt and 

Girt and 


Prefent Tenfe, Prefer Tenfe,^ 

and Partic. 





5 Had for 
7 \ Havcd 
3 Behaved • 









Loofed & loosed 






















TiJ-f Engl i shc 

■flBBfMf. 159 


Taught Weep 
Told Wind 





Thought Work 

Wrought and 


Wrupg (worked 




Ttnfe. PriterTenfi. 



Bore or - Bare 


■ irf 














Broke or 




Chidden or Chid 


sr chufe Chofe 
r Clave 



• C!eft 

J Cleft or 
1 • Cloven 

. Clove 





Crew and Crow'd 


\ Dare 

Dura or Dared 

Dared \ 






Do'n or done 





Drank or 
' Drunk 






Eat or Ate 

Eaten or Eat 





Flew and Fled 




Forfaken & forfook 






Gotten or Got 





d did iari when not is added 

as, Hi did not d-rt. 

H I 



V . . 


i6o The En g l i s h Grammar^ 

Frefent fetjfe. 
















Shew or Show 

Shoot . 












Prefer Ten/iu 
Went from 

Helped or 

Rid or 


Sang and * fung 
Sank or Sunk . 


Go'n or Gone 



Hidden and Hid 





Ridden or 


Shaken and Shook 

Shown ; 
Shoten and Shot 
Spoken and Spoke 


* Spake 
Sprang or Sprun|; Sprung 
Stole Stolen and Stole 

* Stank or fivnk 





Stricken & Struck 

Spitten, fpit, Sc fpat 


Swore and * {s(^x% ^'nqiil 


Swung & • fwanj 


Swum S: ■ fwain 



Taken and Took 

Tore and • tare 

Torn and Tore 



- Thrived 




Trodden & Trod 

Won and * wan 






Writ and wrocc 

Written, writ, 








and Wroie , 
^/jHetJ rtlatiiig to the Six/tiink Ckipln: 
Q^ Wbiriin doci tbt IrrigulerUy ef thi Englilh Verbs 

A. In the Formation of the Fnitt ftf/t and the Pa£ivt 

Q^ Giiit mc feme Examples ? 

J. Gj-of would, if it was regular, or formed according , 
to Rale, make^iVcrfin the PrttirTime, and gitirJ la ihe 
Papve Particiflt; but it makes ^-3T>« in ihc Prrtcr Ten/i, 
indgi-vm in the PaJJi-ue Pariicipli \ therefore it is faid to be 
Irrtgalar, or not according to Rule ; for the Pretti- Time 
and the PaJ^-vt PuriUipk Ihould end, if they were formed 
according to Rule, in id. 

CHAP. xvir. 

Of the Formation cf the Times or Tenfes of the 
Verb Aftivc, or the Verb thatjignifits Doing. 

WE (hall firfi fpeak of ihcFormationof the 7/W /,v- 
fint. faj\, and « torn. 

• The Prefint Time is thus formed or made. 
1 §ii^ular Number. / burn, ibou burneil,. «i\ -30* 

H 3 ^«m 

i6s The EiroLiSH Grammar^ 

hum^ be hurnetb ox burns. Plural. JVe hum^^i 
iurn or you hurn^ they bum. 

This Time you may call the fitft Prefent lime. 

* The Treter or paft Time is thus formed or 
made. Singular. / burned^ thou bumedji or you 
burned^ he burned. Plural. fVe burned^ ye burned 
ox you burnedy they burned. 

This Time is the firft Preter Time. 

Thcfe two Tenfes are made by changing the Ettd of 
the Vt:th in the fecond and third Perfons of the Singular 
Number ; but that, denoting the other Timct is done by the 
Ailiflance of another Verif : As, 

* The Future Time, or that Time wtuch is 
yet to come^ is cxprcfled by the Help of Shall or 
Will: As, 

Singular Number. / will burn^ thou wilt burn 
ox you will burny he will bum. Plural. We will 
burn J ye will burn ox you will bum^ they will burn. 

Sing. IJhallburn^ thou Jhalt burn ox you Jhall 
burn, he /hall burn. Plural. We Jhall burn^ ye Jhall 
burn ox you Jhall burn^ th^ Jhall burn. 

This Tenfe you may call the firft Future Time. 

* There are alfo two other Ways of cxprcf- 
fing the Prefent Time. 

For when we would exprefs the A^ieu more diftinSllj 
and fully y we make ufe of the Helping Verb Do ; efpecially 
nkh the Mverb Not ; as, I do not burn. 


thz English Grammar. 

Sing. / A bant, thu isfi turn oi 
t Jaei Barn. Plural. WV i/u burn, 

A bk,-n 

, he d-,lk 


burn, ihij da burn . 

Or when we would exprcCs mare/itUj tluc it is na^v t 
d:i«g, or [he Ccniinaancs in doing, we uTu the Verb jlia 
sod the -*ir7i'iJ( Purliiifle. As, 

Sing, /jiin burning, tkou art burning ov yau arc bura- 
ing, he is turmiig. Plural. W< are buraing, ye arc burK<- 
ing W yati are baraing, they art burning. And indeed, 

• AH The Tenfes of a Verb ASUve may be ex- 
prefled by the Verb Ant^ and the A3ive Parttci- 
fk; aSj / am burning, that is, I burn. I was 
i^urmngt that is, / burtud-, &c. 

• There are alfo four other Ways of expref- 
fing the Ptittr Time, or the Time part. 

For we may fiy that a Thine is prcdftly orjaji dsm, or 
we may only fay that it was done, without determining 
it 10 m Day, a Wtek, a Month, a fear, &C. 

When we fay only that the Thing was done, we cxprets 
it by ihi: Pritcr Tiafi, juft mentioned, as, I burncil ; but 
when we exprefs the Adtion to be precifily orjuji dune, wc 
do it by the lUlping Virb, Ha-vs. 

• The Vreter Time of x^t hSaon predfelj or 
ju^ done is thus expreflid, as, 

Singular. / have hunted, tbou haji hirntd or 
you have bwntd, he hath ot has burned. Plural, ^ftf 
have burned, ye have 'burned or you have burned^ 
tbey have burned. 

N. B. This Time yoa may call thefecond PreUr'. 
CttheFri/catliauofthc /'ir/tfl or finilhed Aftion. 

tf>4- The EiTGLisH Grammar 

But if we join any of thefe Woids^ /ormer/y, hentofiri^ 
in Times pafi^ to Ha*ve ; then, Ha^ve^ may denote or iignify 
a greater Space of Time : As, 1 ha*ve formerly loved him, • 

N, B, Have, with the P^J^ve Participle immediately after 
it, always denotes A6li on ; but if, h-.n, comes between^ 
it denotes Suffiring : Thus, / have burned, is Aftive, but, 
1 have been burned^ is Paffive. But wherever the AQive 
Participle is, it denotes Adlion : As, I have been burning. 

But if we coniider the Adion as imperfedV, or not yet 
finifhed, we exprefs the Time paft by, vjas, and the Aiiive 
Farticiple : And this Time is called the Preter-imperfeU 
Timey or the Time imperfectly paft^ or the Prefer Time of 
the imperfeft AClion. 

♦ 2. The Prefer Time of an imperfeft Afti- 
€n, or an Adion not finifhed, is thus exprefled. 

Singular. I was burnings thou waft burning ov 
you were or was burnings be was burning. Plural, 
fFe were burnings ye were burning or you were bum- 
ingi they were burning. 


But when we would exprefs a Time as psfl^ before fome 
other Time paft ; as, / had fupped before the dockflruck 
Six ; or if we would exprefs the Time paft of an Adiion 
not done only de/igned ; as, 1 had killed the Bird^ tfyou 
had not hindered me, we do it by the Verb^ Had, and the 
Pajffsve Participle, 

* 3. The Time confidered as Prefer or pajf 
before fome other Timtpafty or the Paft Time of 
an Adion not done, only defigned, is thus ex- 
prefled. As, 

Singular. / bad burned^ thou badft burned or 
rpu had burned, be had burned. Plurah We bad 


The English (dammar. 165 
iurned,ys had burned or you bad hurned^ they had 

H Gi'ommar. 165 

• ™ ,.^^,Jf- h/iri hum^d nr \n. 

This Tenfe is called by fome the Pritir-}liipirff£! Tj;/-, 
or the Prriir 7m( more (han paft. 

LaJHy. When we would exprefs the PreUr or Pn/ Timr, 
in aa rmphaiical or /u// Manner, we mitke Ufe of ihc 
Verb Z),V. 

* 4. The Exprefllng of the Time paft in an 
empbaiical or full Manner is as follows ; 

Singular. I did burn, thou didft btcm oryoii 
did burn^ he did burn. Plural. H^e did burn, ye 
did bum or you did burn, they did burn. 

This Word D.W denotes indeed the Time at abfolutely 
fajl, but when K^/>i// h fet before if, then it denotcB the 
TVw impiyfcaly paji ; as, 'wbilft I •lid lurisc, thai is, •wiiljl 
I •aiai ivriling. 

* There is alfo another Way of exprdTing 
the Future lime. 

For if wc confider the Timt la eomt of the Jlftion as 
finiftiedi or if we confider two Thing! Cs emu, one of 
which is fuppofed to be pad befoie the other nill be 
done, we exprds that Time by tlie adding of Havi to SvnU 

* The Future 'time o£thz Aftion not finilhed 
is thus exprdTed : As, 

Sing. IJhall have burned, tboajhalt have bunted 
oTyouJball have burned, he (hall have burned- 
Plural. We Jhall have burned, yejhatlhave bwtmJ. 
orj'ouJbaUhai'e burned, they jhaM ba-;e tm-uel. 

i66 TbeUvohisn Grammar. 

This Tenfc you may call the fecond Future, 
N. B. Shall is often omitted or left out ; ?&ylfhe *writef 
iorjhc II ijcrite ; If he ha<ve ^written, fox Jhall have tvritten* 
The Prcfent and Preter Times arc alfo frequently ufcd inftead 
of this, and the other Futw-e Time : As, When He nurites^ 
for 'when he Jhall <vjrite ; When he has ivriten, for ivheM 
he Jhall have ^wntten, 

A Scheme of the Tenfes of the Verb Adive, confidering tht 
Action as imperfedlcr notfinijhedy or perfedt andfinijhei^ 

I. The frefent Time of the imperfect A3ion. 

Sing, I burn or do burn, thou burned: or doft burn or 
you burn or do burn, he burneth [burns] or doth burn. 
Plural. We burn or do burn, ye or you burn or do burn, 
they burn or do burn. 

\1, The Preter Time of the imperfeS A^ion. 

Sing. I was burning, thou waft or you was burning, he 
was burning. Plural, We were burning, ye or you were 
burning, they were burning. 
, 111. The Future Time if the impetfea Aaion. 

Sing. 1 (hall burn, thou ihalt or you fhall bum, he ihall 
burn. Plural, We fhall burn, ye or you fhall burn, they 
(hall burn. 

Or, Sing. I will bum, thou wilt or you will bum, be 
will burn. Plural, We will burn, ye or you will bura» 
they will burn. 

IV. The prcfent Time of the perfeS Anion. As, 

Sing, I have burned, thou haft or you have burned, he 
hath cr has burned. Plural We have burned^ ye or yoa 
have burned, they have burned. 

V. 7 he Preter Time of the perfeff Anion. 

Sing, I burned, thou burnedft or you burned, he burned. 
Plural. We burned, ye cr you burned, they burned. 

Or thus, Sr7/g. 1 had burned, thou hadft or you had burn- 
ed, he had burned. Plural. We had burned, ye or you had 
burned, they had burned. • 

Or thus. Sing. I did burn, thou didft or yoo did burn» 
he did burn. Plural. We did burn, ye or you did burn, 
tJjc/ did burn, 'i 

Ti/e Enoljsh Giiimmar. 1^7 

VI. Tht Fitturi Timi of ibs fffia J.-^hit. 

Sing. I (liall have burned, thou fiialt ar you (hall have 
burnea. he Ihal! have burned. P/i,>„l. We (hall have burn- 
ed, yc er you Ciall have burred, they (hall hive burned. 

Or, Sing. I will have burned, ihou will er yoii will have 
burned, he will have burned. Plural, ^^'e will have burn-' 
od, ye ar you will have burued, they will have burned. 


rtlating to tlrt EighlMnth Chapitr. 

t Ttttfe •ujilbeut tht fit 

Q; If hit may t u/i th, Prrfm 

^. When you (imply or barely affirm the Thing to be 
fo or fo s as, / bum, Ilu'vt, J riad, &c. 

Qi. Wkcn d>ym ufi. Do. to (Ume the Pnfinl Ttnfi ? 
'. When yoa would expreG the Atiion more JiJIinSlj 


\e hf Am, avdtha 

V a doing die 
, / am reading 

or fully, or when I deny the Thing 

Ja !»-vi it dearly^ Ida nad, I da jiol lo-ui 

<X^ When da you txfvifs the Frefmt Tu. 
Aftive Participle ? 

A. When I would expreft that I aoi 
Thing, or my Continuance in doing it 
na^; I am nevi burning. The Prelent Time is alio molt 
frequently thus expreffcd, in Anfwcr lo the Qallion, What 
All fail a doing ? J. \ am wriiinfr I am reading. 

And fo likcwife are the other Tenfes often exprefTcd by 
this Verb and the Aai'::e Participle ; as, fVbat •wai yoa^ 
Jaivg ,*■ A. I Vfti playiug. H'bal baiit you bets diing f A. 
I have been reading, iifr. 

Q^ IVbtH da jau k/i tht PreierTenfe tuiihaiit the P'.rbi. 
Have, had, fcfi-. 

A. When I would denote the Aftion as pii_p. wiihoirt 
determining or naming the Time, when the Thing wa» 
don;;as, I Is^'td, 1 barmd, I nvrati, linught, 

iX. if I"" Jeyeu ixpnfs tht Preier Time by tin Hdp y 
th* Vtrh, Have .' 

A. When I 6y that the Thing ii pruiftlj or/«y? done, 
OtdlBttl is already done; at, J have fm^hi..<ii i Itefr 
i.tiiJgitiM 1 1 baiK humid lilt Paper, ot I tia%tiHni burning 
'' Tht Preter Time is alwayi tliub cx^t^lKii \e<. h.\<.'««» 

1 w'3 ^he English Grammar. 

to the S!i'eftion^ Haweyou done it ? As, Ha«oe you danced? 
//'77V [danced]. Has ChtLT\€s played ? He y&^j [played]. 

.v. B. Danced, flayed, are put into Crotchets, becaufe iar 
i^rfwer to the Queflion made by Han)e, the Participle Paf» 
^; i-v is fcldom exprefTed ; as, Hwveyou/upt, A, I have. 

Ha<ve is alfo ufed in the Qaeftion, How often ? and itt 
Anfwer to it, when the particular Time is not fpecified. 
Hotv often ha<ve youfecn the King ? I have feen him idcf 
Times. But if the precife Time is exprefTed, we ufe Did an 
Interrogative, and the Preter Time without the Helping 
Verb in the Anfwer ; as. Did you fee the King *whenyou 'were 
at Kenfington ? Yes, Ifanu him tnvice. 

Q. When is the Prefer Time to he expreffed by the Verb^ 
Was, and the A6live Participle ? 

J. When we would exprefs the Time paft of an im- 
pcrfeft or unfinilhcd Adtion, (or when we would exprefs, 
that at fome Time taft fomething was then a doing, but 
not finifhcd^} as, 1 ivas fupping, or l*was then at Supper, 

Q. When do you exprefs the Preter or pafi Time by the 

A, When we would denote a Time as paft before fome 
eihtr Time paft ; as, I had read it before he came. 

Or, when we would denote or make the Time paft of 
an Adlion not done, only defigned; as, I had watered the 
GardeK, if I could have fiumd the Pot. 

Q. When is the Preter or paft Time to be expreffed by. 
Did ? 

A. When we would exprefs the Time paft in an empha- 
tical or full Manner ; as, / did bum it, not Peter. 

Or, when the Adverh, Not, is added to the Verb ; as, / 
did not bum the Houfe 1 did not do it. 

Q. When do you exprefs the Future Time by. Will ? 

A. When I promife or threaten to do a Thing ; as, / 
nvillftudy, I ivill punijh you, 

Q. When is the Future Time to be expreffed by. Shall ? 

A. When one fimply foretells the Thing ; as, Ifhallgo^ 
IJhall lofe it, Ifiall die, 

Q;^ When muft I ufe thefcond Future Time ? 

A, When you would denote or exprefs an Adion that 
will be pad, before another AdHonwill be finifhed ; as, I 
j^a//^a^^ di'md, before he will ceww. 


Of the formation of the Times of the Verb Paffive. 

TH E Verb Pafjive is exprcffed by the Help 
of the Verb, ^m, or Be^ and the Papva 
Participle ; as, / aw burned. 

• The Prefent Time is thus exprefled, 

Sing. / am burned., then art or you are bitrn- 

edt he is burned. Plural. We are burned, ye OJ 

you are burned^ they are burned. 

But the other Fonnation, Bt, is vStA in a depending Sen* 
tence, after the CoxjunSiuns^ !f, Attbeugh, &c. As, If J 
be burnid, Allhcugh hi be humid, &c. 

M 3. When the Pejft^e PartUipU ends in m (for there 
are feveral Irregular ones that end thus] this tn is frequent- 
ly neglefled in the Itnfei of tll» ASinje Verb formed by, 
Itaiii, and Had; as, I katic, oz 1 bad /pake la him. Yet 
when thii Pari idfU is u fed as an jlifuSit/f. ot helps ta 
oiaite the Paffi-ve Ferb, it is better and more ufual, to ufe 
the Ending en ; as, // ii a -wt iltcn Book, not n iiirit Beok ; 
b ii ffsktn ahnai, not /feis abroad ; It luat itjrilliti, not 

* There are three Prtitr Times j wliich arc 
thus exprelTcd : 

* The lirft Preter abfeluie^ commonly called 
x\vi Prettr-imperfeii Time i as. 

i;o The English Grammar. 

Sing. / was burnedj thou waft or you were 
bumedy he was burned. Plural. We were burn'- 
edy ye or ycu were burned^ they were burned. 

* The fecond Prefer Ttenfe^ commonly called 
the Preter-perfeSi \ as, 

Sing. / ha^e been burned^ thou haft or ycu 
bofve been burned^ he hath or has been burned. 
Plural. We have been burned^ ye or you. have 
been burned^ they have been burned. 

* The third Pretei^ commonly called the 
Preter-pluperfeEi\ as^ 

Sing. I bad been burned^ thou hadft or you 
had been burned^ he bad been burned. Plurak 
We had been bunted^ ye or you had been burned^ 
they had been burned. 

* The firft Future is thus exprefled. 

Sing. IJhall be burned^ thou Jhalt or you Jhall 
be burned^ he Jhall be burned. Plural. Wefloall 
be burned^ ye or you Jhall be burned^ they J!-: all be 

Or, Sing. 7 will be burned^ thou wilt or ycu 
will be burned^ he will be burned. Plural. l^Ve 
will be burned^ ye or ycu will be burned^ they 
will be burned. 

* The fecond Future is thus expreffcd ; as. 
Sing. I Jhall have been burned^ thou Jhalt or you 

Jkcll have beefi burned^ he Jhall have been burned. 
Plural. We Jhall have been burned^ ye ot you Jhall 

/^^ve ken burned^ theyjball ba*vc keen bi«naed. 


7he Ekclish Grammar. 171 

Or, / will have been biirneJy thou tvili or yutt 
will have been bunted, 6cc. 

M B. Not being able to pleafe myfdf in the Defcrip- 
tion of the Timti of the firb PaJfiTji, they diJForing in fome 
Refpefis from theTirw/fj in the Vtrb Acliiii. I have con- 
tented niyfelf with barely fetting them down by the old 
Names, though I am afraid my Reader will not be much 
benefited thereby. 


Of the Method of exprejfing the Moods or Man- 
ners of a Verb, fignifying Being, Dcdng, tr 


WE have no Moods, that is, no different 
Endings of the Verb, to denote the 
Manner of tlie Verbs fignifying Being, Doinjy 
or Suffiriiig- 

* The bare or fimple allerting a Thing to 
be fo, or not ib, is thus exprefled, 

/' burn or do burn, I do not bum, I will burn, 
I 'wiH net iuTHy &c. 

This Manner of fignifying is called the Itulitaiive Mad 

* The Manner of Verbs fignifying Command, 
or ExbortaSion, is thus exprefled, 

In an Active Senle. In a PafTivc Senfe. 

Singular. Singular. 

Burn thou or do thou burn, ^e, ^;w»i\wxw^.. 

172 sr*^ E N o L I * H Gramnu^. 

Plural. Plural. 

Burn ye or do yc burn. Be yc burned. 

Note^ The fecond Perfon Singular and PI and are oftener 
expreffibd without a Nominative Cafe than with ; as, G$g 
gmd Prtacb t9 all Nations^ &c. for Go ye, znd PreacA jg, 

* * But this Manner of fignifying in the other 
Perfons is exprefled by the Verb Lei j as. 
In an Aftive Senfc. In a Paffive Senfe; 

Singular. Singular. 

Let him burn. Let him be burned* 

Plural. Plural. 

Let us burn. Let us be burned* 

Let them burn. Let them be burned. 

Sometimes ^tfirft Per/on is thus exprefTed, Shg <we hm' 
ie tb$ Lord^ but this manner of Speaking is not to be imi- 
tated. The third Per/on is alfo thus exprefled, Be it fo^ 
Kjiqw all Men by tbefe Prefents, &c. But here the Word 
Let may be underftood. 

This Manner of the VeA's fignifying is called^ in Latin^^ 
die Imperati've Mood, 

* The Manner of the Verb's fignifying the 
Power of doing a Thing is exprefled in the 
Prefent Time by catty and in the Prefer or pa^ 
T^me by could ; as, 

Prefent Time. 

Singular. / can hum^ thou canft or you can 
iumj he can hum. Pluial. fVe can bum^ ye or 
jyMfan i^urn^ they can lurn^ 

Tht E H c L I s H Grammar. 1 73 
' The P«/«' Time. 

Sing. / could bunty thou couldfi or you ceuld 
hurvy he could burn. Plural- H^e could ^urn, ye 
Otyeu could burn^ sbey could btern. 

• This Manner in a Paffive Seafe is thus ex- 

Prefent Time. 

Sing. / can bt burned^ thou canfi or you can 
hi bumedy &c. 

I could be hurntdf thou ceuldfi or -feu could ht 
burnedy &c. 

• The Manner of a Verb'& fignifying the Li- 
berty of a Perfon to do a Thing, or ot a thing 
to be done, is expreffed by May in the Prtfent 
Timef and Might in the Timepti/, as. 

Prefent Tenfe. 

Sing. Tmi^bum, ihou mayji or you nur/ buntt 
he may burn. Plural. We may burny ye Qt you 
mey burtit they may burn. 

Paft Time. 

Sine. I might burn, thou might eji or you mtgkt 
burn, he might burn. Plural. fVe might burn, ye 
or you might burn^ thty mighi tttrn. 


174 ^^^ English Grammar^ 

* This Manner in a PaJJhe Senfe is thus cx- 
prefled; as, 

Prefcnt Time. 

Sing. / mny he humedy though mctjfi ox you may 
it burnedy &c. 

Preter Time. 

Singular. 1 mighl he burned^ thou mightji or 
you might he humedy &c. 

This Manner is called in Latin the Potential or Su^um* 
fii've Mood* It is called the Potential^ becaufe it denotes the 
Power of doinj; : And it is called the SuhjuuSi've Mood, be- 
caufe it is fubjoined or ^dded to the firft Sentence hy fome 
Couple or Tye; as, Petrr comes that he may preachy where 
that joina Ihe two Sentences together. 

N. B. Can and Miy are ufed with Relation both to the 
7me' frefeni and to come ; Could from Can^ mgbt ftOA 
may^ have a Relation both to ihe Tims f aft and to come. 


* The Manner of expreffing the Inclination 
of the Will is done by Will and Would \ and 
the Neceflity of a Thing to be done, by ShaXL 
saxdShouldy sind bKq J\^Jl andOugbt. 

But the Difference between Jhall and w///, and Jhmdd 
and njjould, is, that Jhall and njoill denote the Future Time 
ahfoltitcy and Jhould and *u3ould denote the future Time as 

Should and Would are often exprefled by the ZuhjunSU've 
Moodxti Latin \ for mod: of the Tenfes of that Mood de- 
note a Sort of Futwity or the Time to come. 

7he E N G L I S I 
• The Manner of the VeM _ . , 
Soing, or Suf fringe without exprcflit^iithcr 
the Perfon or Thing, that is, does, or fitters, or 
the Number, is denoted by fctting the Prepo- 
fition 7*0 bcffire the P^erb j as, to hsy to hurn^ ta 
Isve, to be loved. 

This Maantr b called in Latin tlie Injmitive MooJ. 

CHAP. xxr. 

0/ the Verb Neuter. 

I Have already made mention of this Sort of Vefb in the 
twelfth Chapter under the Name of an Efexiia/ fcri ; 
but becaufe it is not fo well known by that Name, and 
I having but Hightly treated of it there, I Ihall beg Leave 
to give a farther explanation of it in this Place. And, in 
order to give you a clear Notion of this Verb, I mull 
£rft explain to you in a particular Manner what you art 
to undctfiaod by a frri aiii-ut. 

By a y^erb Aai-ve we ate to underftand a Verb (hat does 
not only barely or fimply fignify Aflion, for that is not 
futlicient alone to make it a I'erb ABi'vt ; but it is requi- 
red atfo Cliac the Verb have fome Noun foilowing it, 
which rosy be the Subjefl of the Aflion or Iinpreilion that 
the Verb is ufcd to denote : For Example to Iqvi, ta tiaeh^ 
arc Vtrbi a^ivf ; becaufe we can fay tr iaiit 4 thing, it 
ttecb a Man. 

On the contrary, iajlup, to gi, though thefe Verbs fig- 
nify Aflion as well as U !ovr, ta ttach, yet ihcy are Ferii 
AVaVr, becaufe they cannot have any Noun following ihetn j 
for we do not fay, loJStep a Thing, ta ga a Thing. So in 
thdb Verbs, to lualk, to run, the AQion does not pafs 
upon any other Thin£ or Perfon, there it nothing aded 
npon, but ihe a&ion is terminated or finifhed in tl^ Per. 
Jbo (bat TtSa. For ire do not b.Vi <» 'u^nth nLlbini, ^^■ 

ty6 7i&^ E K G L i s H Grammot: 

but in thefe Verbs, io btat^ to ready to creati^ &C. the 
AAion is terminated in fomething without itfelf, or the 
Adion pafles upon foxne other Thine : For in this £z- 
preflion> to beat a Dog, the Adlion of beating pailes on the 
Dog ; the Dog is the Subjed of beatit^. From thefe 
Confiderations, we may fay, 

* A Verb ASiive is a Verb that can have af- 
ter it a Noun fignifying the Subjeft of the A- 
fiion or ImprcQion that the Verb is ufed tOt 
denote : As, to create the Worlds to receive 4 
IVound: Or, 

* A Verb ASiive is a Verb that fignifies lb 
to a£ty as that the A£tion paiTes over on ibmc 
other Thing : As, to read a Book^ to beat a Dog. 

* A Verb Neuter is a Verb which fignifies 
the State or Being, and fometimes the Ailion of 
a Per/on or Thing j but then it can have no Noun 
after it, to denote the Subjed of Adtion. 

But then it can ha^ve no Noun after it."] That is, when it 
denotes ASion^ the AdHon does not pafs upon any other 
Thing : For we do not fay, to woalk a Things &c. 

This Verb is alfo called a^erb Abfolute\ becaufe the 
Adion is terminated in the fame Perfon or Thing ; as; 
Feter grie^ues. Sec. For the A6tion does not pafs upon a 
SubjeSy different from him who a£ls. 

From what has been faid it appears, that» 

* There are two Sorts of Verbs Neuter : 

1. One Sort that does nor fignify Adion, but denotes 
the Being or State of a Perfon or Thing, either in Rc- 
fped to its Pofture or Situation ; as, to fety to hang^ &c. 

2. The other Sort of Verbs Neuter fignify A^ion, but 
in fach a Maimer that the J^&\oa dot^ itf3»x ^m^*^ >&^xk tl 

The English Grammar. 177 

Subjeft different from what a&s; as, to era^U to ereep, 
U lualk, &c. So in this Sentence, the If'orm cretpi; here 
the Aflion of creeping docs not pafs upon any other Sub- 
jefl, for we do not fay, to crerp a Thing, but the Aflion 
ie terminated in the Wo™; it itfelf. 

N. B. Thofc Verbs chat fi^nify fo to aft. as that the 
Aflion palTes on finne other Ttung. are called in the Laiin 
Verbs Tranjiii've ; And the Verbs, whofe Aflion do not 
pafs on any other Thing, are called hitranfitiiie. 

Tlic Verhs Neuttr, which fignify Aftion, do alfo fome- 
times become Tranjiii've, that is, their A^on pafles over 
OD fome other Thing : For Example, the Verb Neaitr, ta 
•ti'a/i, becomes Tranjitiiii in this Sentence ; Walk my Herjt^ 
that \i, iHnkt my Horfe ta tuali. 

But in thefe Phrafes, I run a Ract, I go a Jaurnty, lg9 
Borne ; the Prepofithn is left out, i. t. in a Race, in a Jsur- 
vty, ta gaHemt: For, run, go, do not pafs the AAion upon 
Jtactt yaumey, Homi; ihefe Words only declaring the Cir- 
cumllanecs of ramiiig, going, kz. So, / urn about to go a 
long Ifay, i. e. It the End of a long Way. 

* The Signification of Verbs Abfohti (or 
Neuttr which fignify Afliion) is in a Manner 
Paffhe : And therefore Verbs Abfolute and Paf- 
five ^e frequently ufed for each other : As, / 
amgrievedt for 1 grieve ^ I am rejoiced; for / 
rejoice; I am laid, for I lie. 

So the Verb, tsge, may be cxprefled alfo p&ilivdf io lie 
Pre/fBt and Fature Tmfti j as, I go, or lam gone, 1 imlt 
go, I loitl be gone, Sic. 

Thefe Verbs following, arrive, tome, dceoytfall, fig, «, 
^rew, ffl/j, return, firay, mhithfr, ran, &C. commonly t^e 
the Pajivt Formation, I am, I luai, for the JSi-ae Fir- 
taatlim, I have, J bad, as : 

ere etmr, ibey ere rente ; for, / iiifve eome, thou haft come, 
tec. So, Iwei come, thou tuaft come, he-was Mnit,St^. fex 
Jieiicsme, ihott bedjltome, ht had (ome, tw.. .. 

178 fhe English Grammar: 

^eftions rtlating to the Jtventj-firft Chapter » 

Q^ What is a Verb Neuter ? 

A. A Verb l^tuter is a Verb which fipufies the State 
or Beings and ibmetimes the Adion of a IMbn or Thing ; 
but then it can have no Voun ^ha i^ to denote tht Sob- 
jed of AAion. 

Q^ Uvw mam Sorts of Verbs Neuter are there ? 

A, Two. One Sort that fignifi€» only the Being or 
State of a Thing -. And the other Sort which fignifies Adi- 
on, but in fuch a Manner, that the Adion does not pafi 
upon a Subjed different from him that ads. 

Q. Are not fome Verbs Neuter exfrejfed like Verbs Paf- 

A. Yes. Asy I grieve 9 or / am grievedy &c« 

Q. What do you mean by a Verb Tranfitive ? 

A, A Verb which fignifies fo to ad, as that the Afiioa 
pafTes over on fome other Thing. 

Qj^ What do you mean by a Verb Intranfitive ? 

A. A Verb that fignifies to ad, but the Adion does 
not pafs on any other Thing. 

Qi Do Verbs "Neuter ever become Tranfidve ? 

A, Sometimes, as. Walk the Hor/e^ Uc 

Q. Whence comes the Word Neuter ? 

Q^ From the Latin^ Neuter, neither ^ becanfe it is neither 
a Verb Active (that pafles the A£Uon on a Thing) nor a 
Verb PaJP've. 

Q. Whence comes Abfolute ? 

A. From AhfolutuSy finifhed or terminated, heeau/e, in 1. 
Verb Abfolute^ the Adlion is terminated in nmhat aas« 

Q. Whence comes Tmndtivti 

A, From Tranjitivus^ or Tranfire, to faft over, becaulf 
the Adlion pafles on fome other Thing. 

Q;^ Whence comes Intranfitive ? 

A. From Intranfitivus^ or i», not, and tranfire, to pafi 
over, bccaufe the Aflion does not pais over on fome othtr 


The English Crammxr. 





E are now come to fpealc of thofe Parti e/Spiith 
which are by fome called PcrticUi, as it were lit- 
j/" Spictb i and it is in the right Ufe of thcfc, 
that !be Clearatfi and Brauly of a good Stile docs more 
particularly conM. And we Oiall begin witii the Adiierh. 

* An Adverb is a Word that is joined to a 
Verht to an AijeSiht-, to a Participles or another 
jldverby to denote or mark fome Circumftance^ 
fymc.^alityt or Manner fignified by them. 

[JehidiB a Kfri.] The Verb fignifies Being, Djiag, or 
■ Suffering ; the Ad'i:crh is joined to it, to (hew Hjou, or ivif- 
/Aer or ne, ot •u:bea, or ithtre, one iV, die j, or fuffcri : As, 
the Biff peinli neatly, Aj -uirtVei ill, he -wrilts now, Tie 
^M* jj rtail there, £^f. 

[Tb an Ai^tffi-vi} As, £« if very gsid, na Mat is always 
luifr. Ac. 

[f«« Partinple] At, A Man traly fearing God, be it 
always living well, &c. 

[Te flao/A;r v*A'*ri] As, he tl'ois very happily, £s*f. 

We than divide the Ad^-erbi into G/«^;j or Heads, ac- 
cording to their Signification, but we do not propofe to give 
you aLifl of all the Adveris of each Cfa/s, but only of 
(bme of the chief. Befides they will be bell known by 
U(e. We (hall ihen, without troubling the Reader with 
aitnecdlary pivifioni, divide them into Adutrhi of Timtt 
of PUii or Sitaalian, of Order or Ranli, of Quantity or 
Numiir, . of ^jliiy. of Manner, of Affirmaiien, of A'f 
getitn Qt Drnjing, oi Douiling, aai. of Ceaparifoit. 
^ .j^aVEKit of Time tefer either to ihe Time trtfim, \i4. 

* " " "' '" an undtierminid Time, Oi ua a t 

iSo tie English Grammars 

id: Thofe that rrfate to the Timefrefent arct Now^ i. e. 
at this Time ; To'Day, i. e. in this Day. Thofe that refer 
to the Time faft are, Yefterday^ i. e. the preceding Day, or 
t/?e Day before the prefent Day ; Already y i. e. before this 
Time, OT having been before^ or *which is noiw-dffne; Hereto» 
fore, i. e. before this Time. Thofe that refer to the Time to 
come are, To-morrofw, i. e. the Day foUofwing this, or the next 
Day to this Day j Henceforth , i. e. from or after this Time ; 
Hereafter, i. e. -/^^r ^/&/j 7V«r^ ; By and by, i. e. in fame 
Time that is near to this Time, Thofe that relate to an ««- 
determined Time, when alone, are. Often or Oftentimes, i. e. 
frequently; Al'uoays, i. e. /» all Times. When is ufed inaik- 
ing a Queftion, i. e. in nxihat Time ; Ti&f^, i. e. at that 
Time; Ever, i.e. at all Times, Nefver, i. e. at no Time. 

Now comes from the Saxon Nu; To- Day, from to deg; 
Yefterday, from Gyrjfandeg or Georftandeg ; To'Morrow from 
^(9 Merigen ; J^i^^ from Hnvenne ; Then from Thonne, &C. ^ 
Ne*ver, i.e. Neever, (See under the ^^/'v^^ ATo.) 

That Expreffion JWi/^r y& «rtffi» is thus explained by my 
worthy Friend Mr. Benjamin Morland, E. G. Let a Man 
gi*ve never fo much, i. e. Let him givefo much as he nenfer 
gave before. Which Latin is exprefTed by a Superlative 

Adverbs of Place relate to all Sorts of Place indiffer- 
ently, and ferve only to mark the DiiFerence of tht Dif- 
tances and Situation in Regard either to the P^rfon that 
fpeaks, or to the Things that are fpoken of; as, Where, 
i. e. in <which Place, or in vuhat Place ? (this Word is ufcd 
in aiking a Queftion) Here, i. e. in this Place ; There, i. e. 
in that Place ; Whither, i. e. to which Place, or to what Place f 
Hither, i. e. to this Place ; Thither, i. e. to that Place; Up- 
nxjard, i. e. towards the Top ; Downward, i. e. tonuards the § 
Bottom ', Whence, i. e.from which Place, or from what Place f 
Hence, i. t.from this Place ; Thence, i. e,from that Place j By, 
OX hard by, i. e. nearfuch a Place \ Far, or Far-off, i. e. a 
great Way diftant from fuch a Place ; Afunder, denotes Sepa- 
ration or the Space between. No where, i, e. in no Place ; 
Elfewhere, tnjome other Place, The Notion of Or^ or 
Rank is infeparable from that of Place, under which they 
are naturally comprifed, and< a great many of them refer 
both to Order and Place ; as, before, behind, &c. Bat thefe 

The English Grammar. 


Thofe that relate to Order, as. 
■ibly, Aflcrwards; for, firft. ScconJ, 
Adjeffi'vc, fome Subjlaali've being aa- 

\ Sre rather Prepofii 

- tonJly, fbirdy, F, 

' &c. are really Noun 

[f'i/rt comes from the Saxan, Hiuir; Hire, I'rom ttr; 
7here, fromTAirj H'hilbtr dam Hivider, Hiihir iiom Hi- 
drf. Thither from ThiJfr, (f'henee ftom Hiia'wn, H. «ce from 
HiMon, Tbctiee from Tbatiim, Ue lihere from Namber, Etfc 
v:here from Ellejhtisider . 

Adverbs of Number are, On^f, i. c. on; T-W, TWf^, 
i. «. /ifo Timet, Thrice, \. e. rirf* Times. But afterward* 
we exprefs the Number by two Word) ; as. Fsur Times, 
Fiw iimis ic. Rarely, Seldom, are alfo counted /td-ntrbt 
■ of Namier, Frequently, o/len, fignif/ alfo an iiidefini:e 

Adverbs of QuANriTY, or thofe which ferve to de- 
note ihe Price or Value of Things as well as any Quantily 
of them, are, Heiumuch, i. e. hetv greal, when it figoi- 
lies ^anlily : But Hevi many when it fignifies the NamStn 
EnDKgh, i. e. what ii/iiffici£!it,''liz.. So Much, Liiile, which 
are really Adjeliinies. 

Adverbs of Affirming or of Confcncare, Tei^, Yet, I, 

, Ye, is more ufual and modiih than Y,a. I, for Yet, is ufea 

in a hafty or merry Way i as, / Sir, I Sir. And fome- 

[iines we ufe Ay, b-it this Way of Affirming is rude arwl 

ungcnteel. Tea or Yei comes from the Sixan In. 

ADveBBs of DiNi IMG are, Na, Not, and A'-y. 

No and Nay are ufed abfolutely, that is, without being 
joined to any other Word j as, H'il! you do ii'f A. No. 
"a/ is ofed when joined to fome other Word; as, tfo 
•t lavt it, where we mull not fay, 1 da m kve it, neither 
may we ufe / ds »s ri«d. He it «a -uw//, for I da nut reed. 
Hi it <i»l ivtll. Sic, Bui f d before a Subftaniive is an Ad- 
jeaive for MB/ ; as, NoMui, or no Body did U. 

Nay is enipliaticaily and elegantly ufed to correfl an Er- 
ror in ouriclvei or others ; As, He is as good a Stbalat 
at you are, hi-jv, a t titer. 

Ne eomes from ihe Saxen No, and Not from No^ : The 
S.iKini ufed aifo AV for JVu, which did often loic its r, 

K:< or join with other Words j as, Kill fot N'- 
will not i to Nt«t (or Nc w, lix.. 


i82 The English Grammar. 

* Jy fcems to be a Contradlion of the LatJn Word Jio, 
as Nay is of Nego, For our Nay^ Nay ; Jy, Ay ; h z 
plain Imitfition of Terence^ s Negat quis P Nego. Ait ? Jh, 
Eunuch II. 2. 21. 

N. B. Two Negatives, or two Ad<verbs of Denying^ do 
in Englijh affirm. 

We put our Ad*verh of Denying after the Verb ; as /<A 
not Icve him 9 I love not bim, or / love him not : But the 
other Adverbs may be placed indifferently either before or 
beliind. Only you may obferve, that the Adverbs^ which 
end in /y, are commonly placed next to the Ferh, 

Nor is always in the fccond Member of a Sentence, and 
then, neither, is in the firft j as, / have eaten neither Meat 
ror Bread To day. But if, not, be in the firft Member, net- 
thcr^ but rather nor, is in the fecond: As, 1 have not tafted 
Bread To-day, nor [neither] have I feen any. 

Adverbs of Doubting, whether it be fo or not, are, 
Perhaps, or Peradventure, i. e. // may be fo or not. 

Thefe are applicable both to Affirmation and Negation, 
and are conjedural, doubtful, and contingent : Perhaps 
and Peradventure are ufed adverbially, though flridlly 
fpeaking they are no Adverbs but a Prepofition compound- 
ed with a Subftantive : As Perhaps is by Hap or Accident ; 
Peradventure is by Adventure, or rather by an Adventure ; 
as alfo, indeed^ which is compounded of a Prepofition and 

But thefe Words relate to Certainty, or Confidence, that 
the Thing is fo or not fo ; Truly, Surely, Indeed, Verily, &c. 

Adverbs of Comparison ; thofe Adverbs which do 
themfelves Ta2x\/iComparifon, or the Difference of Degree 
in Perfons or Things, are, Hovi, As, So, Hovj much Mortf 
Lefs, Leji, Mcfi, Very, Rather, Than. 

The Adverbs of Comparifon, More, Left, and Moft, arc 
joined to any Adverbs, that are capable of receiving Mortt 
or Lefs* 

• Or you may derive ay from the Sax, gea, g<e, ia, ya^ 

Dan. ja, Goth ga, gai. So Ties, from the Sax, gyfe, pr 

^(/e. So nay may come from the Sax, na, «/, Gr, »§ 

or Pi), iviiJcJi is coBunon in Comi^o&\\gu. 

Thi English Grammar. 

Adybubs of Quality, or d/ ihf Manner -,--f ram iflol 
Adjeftives ia our Language are forraeJ Adverbs wliicii 
end in />>. and thcfe lor the molt Part denote the fame 
Quality or Manntr, M the Ailjeftives do, from whence 
ihey arc derived; as, thatvias nebly doni^ or thai miai a 
nabli Deed', GeiTs Mcrey is infinite, or Ged ii i«fimtely mer- 
ciful. So from iafi, •uii/i, fttident, brafve, right, eonfiant, 
&C. come the Adverbs, jujUy, •v;ifi:ly,}irudi«lly,hra'vel}, 
rightly, (e»ftanlly,&.':. 

This Ending anfwers to the Saxan Termination in Lice, 
at, ribltiee, rightly, from riht : And to the French Ending, 
Mfnt, as, pareinent,purtly: To the German Ending Li^jh, 
as, ivnriith. 

This Sort of Adverbs commonly admit of Comfarijan ; 
as, happily, m^rt happily, mojl hufpily. 

N. B. There are Abundance of Words which are rec- 
koned for Adverbs and are not; and a great Number 
of Adjeftives that arc ufed adverbially, or as Adverbs : 
But tbefe. and thofe that are formed from them ending 
in If, and feveral Prepafiiions that arc reciconed as Adverbs, 
I have defignedly omitted. 

• Some Adverhs are alfo compared j as, o/- 
ten^ oftencr^ oflenefi^ &c. 

Adverb] in ^arecompared by me'-« and moJI; as, luifi- 
ly, mure •xxifily. m^fi -wifely. 

Sometimes the Aftic'c The is ufed in an emphatical 
Manner, before the Cemtarali've j as. The Ir/s I jit htm, 
the hitler i The m„r, I l«li wth him, ihi U/t 1 Hie hit«. 

Motion from one Place to another, commonly ex* 
prefled by the Adverbj that end in ihcr; as, Hiiher, tii tbit 
Thither, to that Phier. 

fomecimes ufed as an Adjeftive : As, On the 
nfil, in Contra-diilinftion to the olhcr Side, or 

/ftWAii ilfo often in the Modera Languages tx- 
plained by the Nouv and the Prrpafitim ; m, iviih Jej^ic** 
fo^^^i -uiVi Pfifdam, ior, oii/i/j, &c. 

i84 2^^ E N o L I s H Grammar. 

^eftions relating to the fwenty-fectntd Cbapttr, 

Q. What is an Adverb ? 

A, An Adverb is a Word that is joined to a Verh^ to an 
'AJ^eBi^ve^ to a Participle^ or another Adverb ^ to denote or 
mark fome Circumfianct^ fome ^ality^ or Manner figni- 
fiid by them. 

Q^ Is an Adverb joined only to a Verb ? 

A. No ; for it is alfo joined to AdjeSivest Participles^ 
and to other Adverbs ? 

Q. What is the Ufe of the Adverb ? 

A. To denote fome ^^lity. Manner, or Qrcumflanctf 
ivhich the Word it is pu( to figniiies. 

Q. Are not AdjeSiives fometimes ufed as Adverbs ? 

A. Yes : They often are fo ufed, and there is hardly 
any Adjediive from whence an Adverb in ly may not be 

Q. What Sort ^Adverbs are the Adverbs in ly ? 

A, Adverbs in ly are Adverbs of Quality, or of the 
Manner fignified by them. 

Q. Are not Adverbs fometimes compared? 

A. Yes : Some are, efpecially the Adverbs in ly* 

Q^ What is the Signification of Where, here, there, 
hence, thence, £«fr. 

A. Where, is, in what Place, here, in this Place, {ffc, 

Q, Whence comes the Word Adverb ? 

A. From the Latin Adverbium, which comes from Ad to, 
and Verbum a Verb, or Word, becaufe it is added to another 
Word to fhew fome Manner or Circumilance, and efped- 
jally to the Verb, 

Of the ConjunSiion. 

AConjunftion is a Part of Speech that joins 
Sentences together, and mews the Man- 
ner of their Dependence upon one another. 

I The English Grammar 

f For, to ufe Mr. Lsd's Words already quoted. To ihink 
well, a Man muft obferve the Dependence of his Thoughts 
and Reafonings one Qpon another ; And, to exprefs well 
fuch methodical and rational Thoughts, he mull have 
Word! CO ihew what Comirffion, Rif.riaian, DijUnfiien, 
Opfv/ilien, Emphefu, lic. he give: to each relpeflive Part 
of his Difcourle. See Page By of this Grammar. 

1 (hall therefore divide the Conjuniiions into Conjonfli- 
Otis Cfpulati've ; into DiijunSi'vt, or of hivifian \ into Ad- 
•vtrfaHiit, or of Ofpnfiiien and of Exccpiien ; into CantK- 
' tianal } into Sufpcnfivt, or of Diubting ; into CtmnJJivt j 
, into DtclarMhje i into httrmgaii'vt ; into Cetisparalii-e ■ in- 
to AugmmtativemA Dlminulii.'e ; into CAfid, at Cou/alitir ; 
I Imo lllalive, ot Csntlujiiie ; ialo OaJiiiiL?ic«t of Time, and 
i of 0/tkr i and into CaHJunaitHt of Irmfithn. 

1 Cet^tmRiBitt dpulalivt 

Are ihore Words which fervc to join or couple two 
PfOpofitioni or Sentences under the fame Affirmation, or 
under the fame Negation. jinJ, ai/a, are thufc which aro 
ufed for the Affirmation j itor, or neither, for the Ne- 

There is no ConjunAlon of fuch general Ufe as, AnJ, 
Ai, BrtaJ znA Cbuft, Bt.r&adJU, and _>■«, and ikn 
fire, tuL, 

Cu^untlitas DisjunSi've 

Are ihofe Words which do ferve in fuch a Manner for 
' the Cmae/lien of Difcourfe, that they mark at the fame 
Time Divifion or Dillinftion in the Senle of the Thing» 
: -fpoken of: Thefe are, Or. and Ifbifhtr. Eilbir; a: 
' M/ or lit other. I da nit knaw whether it he gccj ar 

Coiijunilioni Adnjirf^titve; 


\ Conjanflions oi Qfpapion, are thofe Words which 
L qfed W couple two benlences. in marking the Oijijafv 
U^jLiccood Scntencei with ieg^& ui \:»: ^\'i.. 

■l ": 

i86 The English Grammar^ . 

chief of thefe is. But, the others are» Niverfitlefi, Htm^ 
iver^ &c. 

As, But to fay no more : Here But intimates (as Mr. 
Lode fays) a Scop of the Mind, in the Courfe it was go- 
ing, before it came to the End of it. I/aw hut tivo Piantt: 
Here it fhews, that the Mind limits the Senfe to- what 
is.expreiTed, with a Negation of all other. Tou pray i But 
it is not that God nvould bring you to the true Religion, But 
that he ixjould confirm you in your onvn: The firft of theie 
Buts intimates a Suppofition of the Mind, of fomething 
otherwife than it fhould be ; the latter fhews that the 
Mind makes a dired Oppofition between that and what 
goes before it. 

So, All Animals ha've Senfe; But a Dog is an Animal: 
Here it fignifies little more, but that the latter Proportion 
is joined to the former, as the Minor of a Syllogifm. 

Conjundlions of Exception or BeftriSion are, unlefs^ but^ 
9th(m,mfey &C. as, I nvill not go unlefs yowwill go nmtb me* 

CorjunSions Conditional are fuch as, in connedling one 
Fart of the Difcourfe to the other, ferve to pat, between 
the two Sentences that they ^vci, a Condition or Ciaufe 
without which> that which is expreiled in the principal 
Sentence ceafcs to have its EfFedl. Thefe Conjundiions are» 
//; hut if 2\i;yfa«ve and except} if they may be allowed 
to be Conjundlions. 

The Conjunctions Sufpenfive or Duiitative, which ferve 
to mark Sufpenfion or Doubting in Difcourfe, are, Tf^he- 
thcr, &c. as, Ido not knotv ^whether it hefo or no, 

Conjundtions Concefp've, or fuch as grant the Thing to 
be ib, are, Although^ Sec, 

CotijunSlions Declarati'ue^ are fuch as are ufed to explain 
the Thing more clearly ; as, As, namely, to ^uit, for Ex' 
ample, &c. 

As, There are four Elements^ Namely, or for Example^ 
or to fwitf Earthy Water, Air, Fire. But if any one fhould^ 
infill that. Namely, is an Abverb ; For Example, a Prepofi-" 
tion and a Subftantive ; To *u;it, a Prepofition and a Verb ; 
J (hall not difpate it. To wit comes from the Saxon tvi" 
/a/r, /ff^aaav. 
Conjun&ions Interrogative, atttviOM* w^^ofieiui aflc* 
j/jg a QaeHion, or the Realou o£ slTYj^v^ TYa^^ ^^^ 

The English Grammar. 


e for the Conjunitions, ftnce it would be too tedioui 
o go through all the Divifionsof them, and 1 may fome 
other Time explain them more largely and accurately. 
For the Inftances we have given from Mr. Lsvir in the 
Cofljunflior, Silt, may give Occafion to refleft upon (heir 
Ul'e and Force in Langmge, and lead us into the Contem- 
pUtion of Several Actions of our Minda in dircoutfing, 
which it has found a Way to intimate to others by thcfc 
Particles, fome whereof conftantly, and others in ce^ain 
Conllruftioni, have the Senfe of a whole Sentence con- 
tained m them. And there are feme of them do really 
belong to feverat other Diviflons, befides what they are 
generally divided into. 

The Conjunilioosnot yet a«ntioncd are, Far, Scteiiji, 
(i. e. fy tavft, as it was wrota formerly ;) That, Tb,-rifbre, 
Whtrtet, Sinctt LUnui/e, Thereutoa, kc. 

If any (hall reckon fbmcofthefe Words as Adverbs, and 
fome of (he Adverhi as CeBJanJUsni, they hsing often u{ed 
in boUi Senf':.', there will be no great Harm tkinc. 

^tfioHi rileling le ibeTtutaty-lbird Chaptir, 

Q; IVbal h a Co^jUTiaion ? 

A. A Comunflion is a I^rt of Speech that joins Setuen> 
CCS together, and flicws the Manner of [heir Dcp« ' 
upon one aooiber. 

Q^ Wbal i, tbi Uft eflbi C'lnjanSk, 

A. I[ is ufed to join Sentences. 

Q^ Dui itjaiit Words tegitber f 

A. Striflly fpeakingit does not ; for in this Senteticif,* 
Vittr and Puut fr€ach.i ; prcarbes is unoerftood in the firft 
Vut of the Sentence, that is, Ptt»r prtaches. and Pnul 
friacbei, where you fee there are two Sentences joined tO' 
gether by the Cople or Conjumaion, /h<d, 

Q. H'b.nce eomii Conjunilion f 

A. From C^njunah, a Joining together ; becaafc the Ufa 
of tlie Cai^undioa a to join Sentc n e c a together. 

ins Senteit- 
; Sentetwi*.*™ 

i88 The English Grammar. 
0/ /i&^ P R E P O S I T I O N. 

THIS Part of Speech being offuch fpecial Ufe in 
our Language, that, by the Help of it, almoft all 
our Syntax is performed : We have therefore created of it 
in the Eighth Chapter, p. 84. 


THE Interjeffi$n is nodiing but an ExprefTion, which 
is afed to denote fome fudden Motion or Paffion of 
the Mind. And as the greateft Part of the Exprejpovs^ 
ofed on thefe Occafions, are taken from Nature alone, the 
Teal JmterjeSiont, in all Languages, confift but of one Syl- 
lflA>le. And as idl Nations do agree in thefe Kinds of na- 
tural Paflions, fo, likewife, do they very much agree in 
the Signs or Indications of Mirths Sorrow ^ Lo^ve, Hatred^ Sec, 
Some have indeed denied the InterjeQions to be Words, or 
any Part of diftind Speech, but only natural Signs of the 
Motions or Paffions of our Mind, expreffed by fuch rude 
6oands, feveral of which are common with us to brute 
Creatures. But as the Ingenious and Reverend Mr. Symet 
* very well obferves, fince there are Pailions, and thefe 
muft be reprefented in Diicourfe, the InterjeSion has as 
good a Foundation in Nature, and is as neceilary in Con- 
2ru^on as the bed of them. 

* An InterjeSlion is a Part of Speech, that 
denotes fbme fudden Motion or Pafllon of the 

^Ing Book called Nolumtu Lilitim de/amari. « 

The English Grammar^ 

They may be divided into S:!iiary and P.^w.btlng ufed 
by U) when we are alone, or not fo directly tending t« 
Difcourfe with others, in which the Party Ipeaka as I'uf- 
fcring fome Change in himfelf. They are the Refult, ei- 
(her of arurprizedyH^Min/, denoting eitiitt Almiraiion, 

aj, Htigb ; Doubtiag Or Caiifidcriag. as Hem, Hy ; DtfpU 

fiigi as Fijb, Shy. 'tujh, &c. or fuch as denote a furpri- 
«co AfftSien, moved by the Apprchenfion of Gsj./ or £iji7, 
denoting Mirlh ; as. Ha, Ha, H/ ; Scro-w, as, Hsi, OA, 
Oi, Ab ; Loi-t and Piiy, as, Jb. Alack, Alas ; Halt and Ak- 
£ir. as. raub. Hau, Pby, Tab. 

The other Sort may be ftiled Social and Aili'ot, being 
never ufed by us, when we are alonn, but immediaie!/ 
tending to Dilcourfe with others, m which the Party (peaks 
with Dcfign to procure fome Change in his Hearers. Thefe 
are fuch as denote Exclaiming, or Crying out, aj. Oh, Sabot 
Silencing, as St, Hufi ; Such as are rfed to difpofe the 
Senfes of the Hearer, Ivfpealting his Aiteotion, Hs, Oh ; 
Kiptcjpag AlttntitH. as. Ha\ Such as are ufed to difpofe 
the Affections of the Hearer, by Way of hfinuaiien or 
BlanSJhmmt, as. Naiu ; or by Way allhreatning, as, Vt^ 
Wot. But Woe is rather a Subftaniive j for Wa'i me, u, 
Wft is lo, at J or me, 

^eJHoni rilating to lit fwenty-fenrth Chapter^ 

Q. Wifl/ it *ij Interjcflion ? 

J. An hierjcitioTi is a Part of Speech that denotes foms 
fudden Motion or Palfion of the Soul. 

Qi »'hii,(c comts the W'ffrrf Interjeaion I 

A. ^xova htcrjt^is, a Carting, or Putting between; ie 
fijling abruptly oi on a fudden between our I^fcourle. 


jpo The £i( GL I s H Gramiur. 

0/ /Atf E X P L E T I V E S. 

TH ER E are certain Words called Expleti*v€S9 that is» 
redundant Words> ofed in feveral Languages, efpe- 
cially in the Greek and 7ufcan : Thefe Words contribute 
nothing to the Syntax or Conftrudlion, nor to the Senfe of 
the Diicourfe ; but their chief Ufe is to give a greater Em' 
flwjij or Force to i^e Expreflion. 

Our Language admits of feveral Word^ of this Sort, 
therefore I have jull mentioned them here. 

* An Expletive is a Word that is ufed to 
give an Emphafis or Force to the Expreflion, 
but is unncccflary cither as to the ConftruSiion 
or Senfe of the Diicourfe, 

Such are, From^ For^ No^w, The, Then, Well, && At, 
From 'whence come you f For, ^whence come you, &Cf / gQ 
for to fie, i. e. J go to/ee* 

The Heroe came the Battle for to fie. 
But unto him appear* d no Enemy. 


Here alfo Unto is put for To, Prithee now Jo, for, PrA"* 
thee do, i. e. I pray thee do Jo orfi. What am ithe better f 
Do it then j Well, read the Book, * 

* The Learned Dr. Clarke, in his Edition of Homer, is 
of Opinion, that, in the Greek Tongue, the little Words 
called £a'//^//<i'#j are not made ufe of only to fill up the 
Verfe, but that they add Elegance to the Sentence, 
»nd iik^wife ferve to connect the Sentences together, 

V, Prf/\ p. 2. 

Tie English Grammar. 19* 

^ifihttJ rtlaling « ibc T-vieilj-JI/ih Chaplir. 

Q. What is an Expletive ? 

j1. An Expletive is a Word that is ufed to give an Em- 
phali* or Force to ibe Expreffion. but is unneceffary cilber 
as to the Conftruflion or Senle of the Difcoiirfe. 

Q;. What h the Vje a/ the ExpUlivn f 

A. To give aa Empharis or Force to the ExpreSoo. 

<t, tfbenee cmei tbe *«m^ Expletive? 

J. From Exfhiivai, or Sxplirt, becaure it does i.i it 
were £11 up the Sentence. 

^ K-^-^^ 

192 ^te English Grammwr. 




Of Etymology or Derivation. 

HAVING in the former Part treated of the h^ 
veral Parts of Speech; I fhall now come to 
obferve the Agreement or Affinity of each to 
the other, or how one Word comes or is derived from 
another: And this Part of Gra/mnr^r is called Etymology^ 
taken in its common and more afual Senfe, as it trtats of 
the Deriwtion Words • 

*. From any Subftantivc, or AdjedBve, put 
For a Subftantive (in the Singular Number,) 
is formed the Genitive Cafe by adding s. See 
Chap. VI. Page 65. 

* Every Subftantive, put for an Adjcftivc, 
becomes an Adjeflive. 

This may be called tnJdjeGinfe RefpeSi've* See Chap. 
IX. Page 108. 

* Many Subftantivcs, and fomc Adjedlives 
/'and fometimes the other Parts of Speech) be- 

The English Grammar. 1 93 

' ing put for Ferbs, become Veris : And denote 
or fignify Ibme Sort of Application of the fame 
Thing, or the Thing fignified by the Subftao- 
tive : The Vowel being commonly made long, 
and the Confonant foftened. 

^ At from a Mcu/e comes to hcufe, I. e. to go into ■ 
"Bmfi, or to receive into a Houfe. From Brjfi, lo brnft, 
/.#, re cover with Sro/j .' Sofrom GM to^/^/*i Gru/ita 

. graze, Price, to prizi j Brtalh, to brtalbt ; Shade, Jhndina, 
XQJhadt, tajbadi^ ; from a Tip, tofjh ; Oil, ta eil; Rule, 
to rail ; te-Vf. to /imt j life, to //i/( ; Sfri/e, U firi've ; fur- 
thcT,\<ifurthir\ fur'WBrd, V) fifwerd ; liiiieltr, to hiniier ! 
And a great many mori;. 

Sometimes the Syllable <» is added, efpedally to Firit 
that come from A^jtaii'ei -, as, from Shan, comej mjhtrt- 
en, that is, to make fliort ; F,.JI, to /ajtin ; It'bu.-, to 
i,iiun. or 10 iviite ; BUt. to Mack, or lo Uack^,, j Hattf, 
to harden; Ssjt, lo/ofien: And many others. 

• From Verbs are formed the Parlkipk!\ 
The Pajfwe one that ends m ed, or en j .13 
Icved-, given: And the A:- live Participle ihat 
ends always in ing, as, loving: From which 
Verbs by the Addition of er to the Lnding of 
the Preicnt Tenfe comes a SubftantJve figni^y- 
ing the ^gent or Doer. As from Hear conies 
the Noun Hearer^ i. e. one that hears: from 
Rutiy Runner, i. e. one that runs. 

• From Subftantives, by adding the Termi- 
nation or Ending y, arc formed Adjeiftives of 
Plenty, or of Abounding. 

. I, from a Loufi comes Au/y, i. e. one that fiat a cneat 

many I'te; ir,aitb, 'Wipllhy; Htaiih,h,^ilt^\'i^.',\A^ 


many H"; ir,aitb, 'Wipllhy ; Htaiih, hl^ilt^-^V 

194 The EnoLisn Grammar: 

earthy ; Wwd^ ivoody ; jUr^ airy ; Hearty hearty r Band, 
handy : And a great many others. Thr Sr^xon and German 
Termination ig anfwers to this Tcrauaacion/9 at» Enig^ 

* Some Adje6Hves end in «r, and fignify the 
Matter out of which any I'hing is made: As, 
jljhen, Binben, Oaken^ Beacben j An Oaken Sticky 
i. e. A btick made ot Oak. 

* From Subftantives come alfo A^e^livcs^ 
denoting Fulnefsy by adding the Termination^. 

As, from Joy^ comes joyfu/y \, c. full of Joy; Fruiff 
fruitful ; Touth^ yout)ful\ Luft, iuftful ; Care, careful % Vfif 
ufful'y Delight y dtiightfuli FkutJ, plentiful: And many 

* Sometimes the Termination fome is added» 
having much the fame Senfe with/i^. 

As, from trouble comes troublefame^ i. e. full of Trou* 

ble, Delight^ delightjome ; Gamej gamefome ; Burden^ hur^ 

denfomei Lights lightfoma Hand^ handfome\ Ahne^ leme* 

fime i Whole, nubohfome ; Teil^ tailfome ; Foul, Six. Fuip 

foulfime. This anfwers to the Saxon Termination Smm% 

* But the Termination kfs^ being added to 
Subftantives, forms Adjedives fignifying fFant. 

As, Wwthlefsy i. e. of no Worthy or that wants Worth i 
Witlefs, Heartlefs, Joylefs, Carelefs, Helple/s, Uflifs j fofroJD 
Comfort^ cmfortlejfs ; Sap^ ftplefs^ i. e. without Sap : And 
many others. This Termination anfwers to the Saxatt 
Leas, or ieafe ; as, Facleas^ without fault. Which Leas comes 
from the Mefo Gothick La«» 'wVacVi ^wm&r.^ fret fro«, or 

tniboat^ «iidittCompoauofti«w)\fi*w^ 


•The English Grammar, 195 

[ • The fame Thing is alfo figiiifieci by «», 
I or Iff, prefixed to Adjeflives, thoiigK in is only 
ufcd in Words derived from che Lalia. 

' As, P/ca/rar, vnpk.Jivtt, i.e. nm phaf^iitt ; -Ki/e, aniotfi i 
fnfitablt, i,„p,-ofitahlt:Uim.o'lh, <.H/-uil/ul, unafuut, /oW- 
tml, i. e. not hurtful, imf.!iiiitt, i e. nol patient : But 
we ftiall (pe.ik of f h« P.j- /i.-i^Jrr u- and in, more fdly in the 
Chspler of the h/pi-rnblc Frtfnjitimi. 

* By adding the Termination ly to Subftan- 
tives (and fometimes to Adjectives) are formed 
Adjectives which denote Uknoife. 

At, from Gi^nl, comes gianily, i. e, like a Giant % 
Earth, t.irlbly ; Htai/iii, hcavcnlj j GoJ, gadly \ Gnofl, good- 

ly, &c. 

The fame Termination ly, being alfo added to At^je^iveSt 
fbrmt Adverbs of Quality, as from Mighty, comes mighti- 
ly i Rich, richlf, 4c. See Chap. XXII. 

This Termination anfwers to lie, or liet, of the Saxtni ; 

as, HiafanSie, beatiinlikf, or heavenly i And to Ikb and licJi 

ef the Girmans and Dulck. 

,. Adjeftives Diminutive, or Adjeftives that denote Left 

fening of the Signification are made by adding i^ to Ad- 

J jeflives, and often to Subltantives. 

Aa, Green, gremijh ; i. e. a little, or fomewhai green % 
White, t«kitijh i Sajr. fepijh ; Thi.f, tbitvijh ; WolJ, -ws/J^ | 
Cbi/d, childiji: And after this Manner yoa may form many 

M B. But theTe Words in jA, if thfy come from a Sub- 

, Aantive they generally denote Liienefi -, as, IVoIfip, i. e. like 

■ a Wa}f, from the Subllaotivc l^iilf; but if they come from 

an Adjeflive ihcy denote Diminution, or leiTening the Senfc 

of the Word they come from, u, Softifi, i. e. fomewhaC 

..^- from the Adjeaive/o/?. 


1^6 The English Grammar: 

There are alfo fome National Names which end mifii 
as, EngUfl?, Spani/h^ Danijh^ Scottijh^ [by Contra^on Scotch) 
Snjjedijh, &c This Ending anfwers to the Saxon Ending 
i/c ; as, Englei/Cf Englijh^ &C. 


Of Subjiantives Diminutive^ &c. 

♦ A Noun Diminutive is a Word, that 
J^\ comniOiily. by the Addition of Ibme 
Letter or Syllable to the Word from whence 
it comes, fervcs to denote a Diminution or Lef- 
fening the Senfe of that Word from whence it 
comes : As, Lambkin^ from Lamk. 

Here Ain being added to Lamh denotes the leflening the 
Signification of the Word, for Lambkin is a little Lamh, 

Ing is moftly the diminutive Termination as to Animals : 
C-JIin^p Duckling, and the like. Ing there feems to ^gni- 
fy TouKg, Sax. iufrg, Dan. ung. lil. ing. So that Lamh- 
hin, is for Lamb ing: Li*mb young. The k being put in 
here for betttr bound Sake. 

So thefe are Forms of Diminutives ; from Hill, Hillaeky 
U C. a little Hill ; Part, Participle, Parcel-, Cock, Cockerel i 
Pike, Pichrih, Poke, (an old Word Pocket, i. e. a little 
Poke ; / woill not hwy a Pig in a Poke, i. e. a Bag. A Goofiy. 
a GoJIing ; a Chick, a Chicken ; a Pipe, a Pipkin ; So a. 
Man, ALinnikin, i e. a littie Man ; a Word feldom ufed. 
^0 Wilkin, i. e. litilclf///; 'lomkin, little T(?w. 

There are alfo other Ways of forming Diminutiwt 
Words, by foftening or thinning the Sound* as it were of 
the Letters, efpecially of the Voweh ; as the Form of 
making Jagmentati'Le Words, or fuch as encreafe the Sig- 
niBcation, is by (Wdling. or elfe drawing out the Soiin^ 
Mttd that is done fometimes not to mwcVi b^ cWi^^g the 
i^tUn, as by the PronunuaiUou oi ^isl\ ^ v» fv^v 

7ii,e E N'jo n s H Grammar. 197 

(p -// ; Scop, Sap, ; Sipfitt i lop. Tip J spit, Spaul ; 7a«g, 
ViKgt Bsir, Buby. Booty : The Senfe of this Sort of 
Words is alfo enlarged or leiTened by atiding great, or Ut- 
ile to them. The Senfe is alfo often enlarged or leilened, 
by drawing out the Sound in a Word i as. Great, great, 
tsthi So, Le-tle prt-ly Parrot, iav little, priHy. lic. 

So likewife thcfc Words may be faid to be Diminutivej, 
Scrnple, to Dally, to Slumber, Dribblet, Smud, Trip, Nib- 
He 1 being confidered in Relation to Doubt, to phiy. tnjleept 
Sum. Tap. tafiumbk, ta bite, &c. Thefe are alfo Dimi- 
nutives, Neg.Cotlage, Pallet, Wickit, Sprig. Puppif, Dagger, 
PiJIel, S(raf, Cum, Sped, &c. being confidered wiih Re- 
fpefl to Htrfi, Houfe, Bill, Daor, Branch, Image, S-wQrd, 
Gun. Pitei, &c. 

* Words, ending in Ship, denote or fignify 
Office, Emplffj/ment, or Condition. m 

As, King/tip, i. t. the Office of a King,; Sten'ar/^p, 
die Office or Employment of a StiioarJ; fo Fcllevijh'f, 
T*rtnerjhip, ChanCiUtrJhif, Hea^ip, Lon/JMp, tFerJbip, 

whence Wi>rjhipfiii and to luer/hlp. This Termination an- 
fwers to the Saxon endioe Sejp, or Sejf€i ti, ifetrib fcyfe, 
I. «. Worfirif, or ffarlbpip. 

* Words, ending In dom, denote firft Office 
or Charge with Power and Dominion, or with- 
out them 1 as. Popedom, Kingdom ; Secondly, 
the State, Condilion, Bluattty, and Prcpriely, and 
alfo the Place in which a Perfon exercifes his 
Power J as, Freedom, Thraldom, fVhoredomj 
H''ifdom, &CC. Dukedom, which denotes the 'Au- 
thority or Power of a Duke, as alfo the Place 
where he exercifes that L*ower. 

This ending anfwers to the Soxbh Jam, or Jeme i 
friidsm, frtidsm ; Wifdtm, tvi/doati HiiriJun, iwjiri 




X98 The English Grammar. I 

' * Words, ending in Rick j denote al(b Office I 
and Dominion 5 as, Bijhoprickj &c. 

This Ending anfwers to the Saxon Rice or ric, which fig- 
nifies Dominion^ Potvery &c. as, Bi/ceop'ric^ i. e. Biihoprick. 

Alfo thofe Words, which end in fVick, have the fame Sig- 
nification; as, Bailfwicky &c. 

N. B, Ment and Age are purely French Terminations, 
and have the fame Meaning with us as with them, and 
fcarce ever occur but in Words which come from that 
Language; as, Comfnandment, U/age^ Sec, 

* From Adjeftives by adding Nefs, come alfo 
Subftantives, which fignify the Eflence of die 

As, from TFhite^ nuhitenefs ; hardy hardncfs ; great ^ greaU 
nkfs ifiilful,fMiI/ulne/s, &c. Thefe are caUed A^raS Nommu 
This Ending anfwers to the Saxou Nefi, * 

* Nouns, that end in Hood and Head^ denote 
the State^ Condition^ and ^ality ; as. Godhead^ 
Manhood^ fVid&ivboody Knighthood^ Uktlihood^ 
Faifeboody &c. 

This Ending anfwers to the German Heyt^ and die Saxm 
hady or hade^ which iignifies Order ^ SeXf Degree, State, 
and ^aJity, &c. as, Mcdenhad, Maidenhead. 

* The adding of ne/s is now the common Way of de- 
noting Aftradi Ide: s, whether relating to Things or Per» 
Jem : But antiently hrde was more peculiar to perfonal 
Qualities, and nefi ferved for moft other Things. As, 
C^a/itdc'^ Chaflity^ Kuyndhtde^ Kindiuft ; Onkuindbe^^ Un^ 
ifndne/si Fairhedi^ F«>iw/i,BcaSLlY. W^rttclieae,Wrtl«l)«<lnefs. 

The English Grammar. 109 

There are alfo other Sabftantivei (derived from AJjic- 
tiiii and Verbs) which are made by adding the Ending {b ; 
there being (omeiitnes foine Tmall Change made. 

As, from Ltng, conies Ungth ; firing, finnglh \ hrernd, 

, ttmilh i •aiUe, tuidlb ; di ep, dtplb ; high, htighl \ {or as iot' 

mevly itigbti i) rrae, Iruih ; •uierm, 'u.-armib; iiar, diarthi 

Jlivijl-j^jjth ; merry, aSrih ; hail, health \ ivtll, -weal, ii.-tailh ; 

dry, jretBlh, dronghi, drytb i yeuxg. Youth; Mmn, Month. 

Of this Kind aje aJfo feveral Worda derived from Verbs ; 
As, from te die, comes diatb ; ta till, tilth ; gronu, grevtlh ; 
luciu, ptoxufh ; a), Ipter mo^ji'/h, the after moi^ih, now cal- 
led Math. Steal, fiiallb ; fit, fight ; fiei, or fly, flight j 
•weigh, totighl. Sec. 

Thefe Words do alfo retain ihefame Form, Faiib, Sfigbt ; 
ffrtatb, ffrath. Broth. Moth, Froth, Breath. S-toth, Worth, 
Light, Wight, an old Word thac fignifies Thing, or P«r- 
fon, alfo^rsfif, or nimble. 

This Ending is an Imitation of the Saxm Ending th, or ■ 
tbt ', as. Myrtle, Mirth; Esrih, i. e. Earth, &C. 

S»ifiim nialing it the flrf. ar.d ftnsd Ckapttrs »f At 
SKond Pari. '^H 

9jefiiim rtliting I9 the Firfi Chaflir. ^H 

Q. What de yon mean hy Etymology ? 

A. Erymohsy, as it is here treated of, relates to the De- 
rivation of Words, or Ihews how one Word comes from 

Qi Do Skhfiitati'Vti ever become Ferh F 

A. Yes ; For from a Houfe, comes the Verb « honfei 
from a F:Jh, coaic) la fifti \ from a Rule, comci the Verb 

(i. 'Do SMbfianti'va eomifrom Veth f 

A. Yes i Almoft every Verb has feme Subdantivc coming 
from it. which if ihenfore called a Verbal Noun, i. e. a 
Noon ihai comes from a Verb. 

Q^ 611:1 m, an Examp l ? 

A. From the Verb, by adding it, comes a Sublhintive 
figni^ing the Jj^fn/, oiDacr: AJsi tVoiu h«ar,«aia»U«i>T' 

200 The English Grammar* 

gr, or one that hears ; from run comes a Runner, or one 

Q. ^i&^7/ do Jdje^i*ves that end in y denote ? 

A. They denote Plenty, or Abundaice. 

Q. What do AdjeSi'ves that end in (vXJigni/y ? 

A, They fignify Fulnefs, 

J^ What do AdjeSii'ves that end in fome denote f 

A, They alfo denote Fulnefs, 

Q, What do Adje^i'ves in lefs denote f 

A, They denote or fignify Want\ as, Carelefs, without 

Q. What do A^eSi'ves in ifh fignify ? 

A. They imply a Diminution or LelTening the Senfe of 
the Word ; as, So/tijhy i. e. fomewhaty^. 

^eftions relating to the Second Chapter^ 

Q. What is a Diminutive Noun ? 

A. A Noun that denotes Diminution or a LefiTening the 
Senfe of the Word it comes from > as, Lanth^'n, a little 
lambt from Lamb. 

Q. Whence comes the Word Diminutive ? 

A. From Diminuti*uus, or Diminuere, to lefTen or makt 
a Thing lefs. 

Q. What do Nouns that end in Ship denoted 

A, They denote Office^ Employment^ or Conditioie. 

Q. What do Nouns ending in dom denote f 

A, They denote Office, or Charge, with Power or Do^ 

Q;^ What do Nouns that end in Rick and Wv3s.figmfy ? 
I A. They denote alfo Office and Dominion. 

Q. What do Words that end in Hood and Head denote. 

A. They denote the State, Conditio, and Quality of a 
Thing or Perfon. 



^he English Grammar. 


Of Woris*^rrswed from the Latin. 

* T T r E have a great many Words borrowed 
V V from the Latin, (and indeed almoft all 
that arc not Words of one Syllable, or that do 
not come from Words of one Syllable arc La- 
tin :) but the greatcft Part of thcfe the Frettd 
or Italians borrowed from the Latin, and wc 
from them. 

* Neufjs Suhjiantive, as well as jidje^ive, arc 
made EngUJh from the Latin by fome little Al- 
teration or Change in the Words, which is 
common to us with the French: As, 

Nature comes from the Latin Word Natura, Grace, 
from grafia. Clemency, dimenria, Syi^oA, ^nrntin. ingeni- 
OUi, ii:g/iih/ui, I'Dgenuoui. ingcnuus. Ornament, amamtn' 
luia. Vice, I'ifium, Infenc, in/avi, prudent, frtiJeai, Quiet, 
fHiw, Union, anh, Neflar, neSar, Honour, honar. Image, 
imago. Multitude, maliiluda, Majefty, majcflas. Virtue, 
•uirlus, Fotm, poema, Poefy, pntjii, Pheiiix. Phctnix, au- 
dacious, sudax, liberal, liherelu, fpecifical, fpeelfcui, pofli- 
ble, pejibilis, implacable, implacaiilh, Ac, But when there 
kappenB any very confiderable Alteration, we then uk« 
^hc Words from the Frcnib : For from the Latin Wordi 
MuKI^, /cB, itumojjna, clftmojyirariui, lempus, no'vui, extra- 
.Mtui, f»m, magi, acrti i are made the Frincb Words Botitf, 
Lin, AumSnc, Aamfider, Ttms, Nruf, Etrange, FontBini, 
iitmtegne, Jlgrt } from whence sotn« tliC En^fii^ W(«A». 

202 Tie English Grammar. 

Bounty y Lion, * jf/ms. Almoner^ (zxA Ambry , i. c# Mmry) 
Ttn/e, Ncwj Strange, Fountain, Moyntain, Eagir^ SiC* 

In our Words Chamber, tender. Cinder, which come 
from the Latin Camera, tener, ctnis, or ciner, we have the 
Interpofition of ^he Letters b and d from thi Frencbt who 
write Cbambre, tendre, cendre, &C. -. 

The fame Thing may be alfo faidjlf%e Words Dijem- 
ble^ refemhle, ajjemble, bumble^ trenwte, &c which come 
from the Latin Simulo,fimiUs,Jimul, humilis, tremulus, 

* Our Verbs that come from the Lafin are 
formed or made from the Prefent Tenfe^ or from 
the Supines, by laying afide the Termination or - 
Ending, and making Ibme other fmall Altera- 

From the Prefent Tcnfe are formed Extend from exten" 
do ; Jpend and exfftnd^ from expendo ; conduce, conduco ; de^ 
jpife, dejpicio ; appro*ve, approho ; concei've, concipio ; relinqmfif^ 
relinquo ; difiingui/b, dijiinguo ; diminijb, diminuo ; ref/enijb^ 
repleo ; 'vanquijb, ^vinco ; cfiablijh, Jiabilio ; correfyond, f«r- 
refpondco ; contain, contineo ; adndnijler, adminijlro j go<vem^ 
guberno ; concern, concerno ; certify, certijico ; rephf, replico ; 
multiply, multiplico ; fupply, fupplico, &c. 

From the Supines Supplicatum, demonftratum, are form- 
ed Supplicate, demonfirate ; So Difpofe, fupprejs, exempt , coir 
leSl, confecrate, control, mix, rejeil, exaQ, affliU', come 
from the Supines^ by throwing away the Ending, Di/pofi- 
turn, fuppreffum, exemptum, colleSlum, eonfecratum^ contra-^ 
^ium, mixtum, reje^um, exaSum, affli^um, &c. 

* Alms may be dire6lly from the Saxon Aelmejfe, and 
that from the Greek Ihtvifikotrinfi, Nrw alfo may come 
from the Saxon Nitve, and Cinder from the Saxon Sinder^ 
Sindran ; our modern Spelling [c for s] being taken from 
the Frencb : Which Words are from Sindrian, Separure^ t9 
fart, which perhaps from avfiwt^tTp, 

I %Qin\!^ 

5'(6« English Grammar. 203 

Some Verbs are formeJ both from the P'-ytn/ 7>n/e and 
the Svpine, but their Signification is for the moft Part 
foraeihing dilfcrent ; one of chefe we form immediate!/ 
from the Latin, and [he other i> brought from the Latin 
by [he Help of the Frinch ; as from Cemfana comes cam- 
foand and compafi; {tarn expono, txpound and cxfa/e; refer 
and rilule, from riftra l confer and cellate, from cm/trs. 

* There are alfo many Nouns and Verbs 
which we have brought into our Tongue, that 
are purely French, and which arc not derived 
irom the Latin : As, 

Garden, garter, backlir, to aimantr, 1o rry, ta plead, 
which come from the Frmch Jardiu, jartlire, bsudier, 
a'Vancer, crier, plaidir, tiz. Though indeed there are not 
many Words in the Fn-^ch Tongue that are purely French, 
and which are net Origiaally derived from iJie Laiin. 

* But there are many Words which are for 
the mod Part common to us with the Germans, 
of which it is doubtful whether the ancient 
Teufones received them from the Latins, or the 
Latins from them, or whether they did not 
hetb receive them from the fame common fsKa- 

As, Wine, vinum. Sax. W«, siio; ; •wiW, 'ventm. Sax. 
Wind; •went, t/eni, Sax. •wntdan, ivindan ; for to ivend'm 
old EvgUA ij to Go i Way, -via. Sax. Waig ; Waif, -imllum, 
&ix.ira/l; tualleru, -vtho, Sax. -wal-wtan ; West, -vJlul, 
Sax. a'ulU i will, wh. Sax -u;// f W>rm, -v^rmi,. Sax. 
Wjrm ; Warib, iiirtui. Sax. Wesrth. Wjrih j Wi,/p. -vej^a. 
Sax. Waepi ; Day, dies. Sax. Daeg ; di-ipzv, tt.'-ha, ^. 
drngan ; lame, damt. Sax. tamian, infn-du ; Tair, in- 
Jfui, {t^j-ti" Earth, Sax. Etrth; t{« eiier, w/^. Sax. 

204 ^^^ English Grammar. 

ofeTf vtn^' afttf Itfu* break. Sax. brecan^ lnytvtt* fy 
njolo. Sax. fi cgan ; hlotjo^ flo. &C. 

For it is not at all to be doubted, bat, that the Tiutonic^ 
Language was of greater Antiquity than the Latin^ neither 
is it to be doubted but that the Lcttins, who have taken i 
great Number of Words, not only from' the ^r^f^r efped* 
ally the JEolic, but alfo from other neighbouring Tongott 
(as from the Ofcan and others, which are now fo Ioft» 
that there are hardly any Foot-fteps remaining) received 
alfo a great many from the I'lUtonick, 

Strabo fays, that though the Nation of the Ofci wai 
quite loft, yet their Language furvived among the Kcmam; 

Pufjuecioiq. /. 5. and the Way that it was prefervcd, as he 
infinuates, was no other than by means of their Plays and 

It is certain that the EngliJ^, the German, and other 
Languages that are derived from the Teutonic^, have ma- 
ny Words from the Greek, which were never received 
in the Latin ; as, Fatb, pfad\ ax^ achs ; tmth^ mit; /onl, 
ffurd\ daughter, tochter % mickle, mingle \ Moon i fear \ 
jgrace ; graff, to gra^ve, to car*ve, to fcrape ; i\'bole^ i. C, 
all, and ivhole, i. e. found, and heal ; from the Grak^ 
n«r^, d^Un., iMTXy tiro ^^[4.^, ^vyoLlr,p, yuiyd'K^, fkiytvtt^ 
fbtivf}) ^))|^, x4i^^> y^d^u, oXoc, bXof, siT^/tf, &C. And 
fince theie are immediately derived from the Greek, aod 
fome immediately from the Hebrew', without the Intervea** 
tion of the Latin, why may we not conclude, that fevc- 
ral others are likewife immediately derived thence, not* 
withflanding that they are alfo to be found in the Latin 

But it is fomewhat furprizing, to coniider how far 
different the Humour of our Anceliors was from this of 
our Days: For they were mighty careful to contra^^, 
whatever Words they received from other Languages, into 
one Syllable, though they were in the Original of many 
Syllables : And to this End they not only cut off the for- 
mative Terminations, but even the Heads or BeginniDSs 
of Words, cfpecially of thofe which began with a Vowel % 
they likewife threw Vowels out of the Middle of the 
Word, without having any ^e^xd. V)tk«m« and the Con« 

Tht English Grammar. 205 

, ibnanis ihac had but a weak Sound, they likewife rc- 
~ jefted i retaitiing only thole that were of a (tronger 
Sound ; they alfo altered and changed ihem, as they 
thought fit, for others of the fame Organ, that the 
Sound might be foftened : They did likewife often invert 
or change the Order of the Letters ; that ihey might, 
when the intermediate Vowels were removed, fall the 
more eafily into an agreeable Sound : We alfo, in Words 
derived from the Latin, often fhorten the Length of the 
Syllable that gives them a grave Air in their own Lan- 
guage, to make them more conformable to the Geuijs of 

for Example: As from t-xpcndo comt^ fpeuJ, Exnn. 
phim. Sample s rxeipio, fcape ; ixttaneus, ftrange ; exIreHum, 
■ ftretched, lUaight •,firiclum, firdght ; txcruna, lo fctew 
rvcsilo, (in Jlalian, fialirc, fiottn) to ihoot, fhout. (hut 
J?*/;-Dr/o,lof«)ur; excorh, to fcourgc; ixcariico, tofcratch 
emen.h, to mend ; Epifcopui, Bilhop, \n Danip Sify ; Ha- 
fpitah. Spittle : H/^^«fl. Spain; Hi^ria, Story: Which 
Englijb Words you plainly fee are made by cutting off the 
Beginning and Ending of the Leiiit Words ; as, in TJjt.f 
trt, from Theairum ; Orator, from Orator i Langiiut/e, 
from iTngitatlii, &c But in thefe Words followitig the 
Formation feems 10 be fomewhat more harlh ; as, from 
AUxanJir, Sander ; Elifabtlha, Betty ; Aph, a Bee : Jpcr, 
a Boar; by changing js into b, and cutting off a in the 
Beginniogi [but (liis ^is often reftorcd in the Middle ; 
as, lifl^r, a Star .-) fo from Aprugna comes Braiun, by- 
changing the P into B, and by iranrpofmg the ^ as in 
Apcr i fo Pivvus, Pkivn ; Leg', Law ; by changing G into 
H'l 'AAn-TBf, fur. the Head being cut off, and the P 
changes into F: So from Pei/ii comes a Ftll ; Pullui, a 
Fe^-i i Palir. a Fufl'ir; Pavtrs, Ftari Po/ia, File; Pita, !m- 
f lie, pi. pill i Pifdi, m Fip -. Mufti^m, Stum; D^f.nfw. 
Fta/e ; Dij'ptTifattr. Spenev; Exculpo. Arape, [turning L into 
R, which were changed in ■y^^fv, v^ufu) and hence 

' Both which Words may come from the 5«x9n ojlnc- 

2oS 7be English Grammar. 

camtfcrapy fcrahhle^ fcranml^ &c. Excuip§^ Scoop i Exterri" 
tust Jiart ; Attonitus^ fiontd^ now fiunnei\ Stomachus, 
Maavy (in Saxoft Maga ;) OffenJo, find\ Obfiifo^ fiof \ Ju* j 
l/^r*?, Dare \ Cavere, IVare^ (in Saxon Geanwf ;) hence «- 
luarff beiAJorey *wary^ iMariiy Warnings (for the ^Confbnant 
of the Lativ.s was formerly founded like our W^ and the pre- 
fent Sound of our ^was proper to /^ that is the Eolic Di- 
gam/nay ^ hich had a different Sound from ^ or Phi and 
the prefent Sound of F was that of the GrecAs O or Pb i 
Jngenium^ Engine^ Gin; InfimJibuJumt Funntl\ Gagatit, 
Jett ; ProjeSumy to jet forth ; Qtatilus, a Ccw/, &c 

There are likewife fome more harih Cuttings off; as, 
Timtf from Tomfuj} Name^ from Notneni Dame^ horn, 
Domina ; (as the French^ Hommcy Femmt^ Nom^ from Ih' 
^inty Famina^ Nomen i) thus Page^ from Paginal Pott 
from ff-orq^iof ; Cup^ from xvvi AXor ; Can^ from Cantho' 
rus ; Tenfy from ^Tentorium 5 Pri?y, from Precor 5 Pr#^ 
from Pr^dai Spy, from 5/f«<? ; fo Ply, from P/iro ; Imply ^ 
Implicoi Reply y Replico ; Comply, Conplico i and See of a 
BiQiop from Sedes. 

The Vowel is alfo fometimes thrown out of the Mid- 
dle of the Word, to leflen the Number of Syllables ; as, 
jfunty from Amita ; Sprigbt, from Spiriius ; Deht, from 
Debitum\ Doubt % from Dubito\ Count, from Comeu or 
Comitei Clerk, from Clericus \ ^it, ^ite, from j^«f>- 
/»j ; acquit, from acquiito ; to/pare, from ^/tfr^ ; ftable, I 
Jlabilis : Stable for Horfes from Stabulum ; Palace, Place, 
trom Palatium ; r^//, r«W, fwranul, braivl, rabble, brabble, 
from ra^«/a ; ^?^, from ^afitio ; Requed, Requifitioi 
Inqueit, Inqwfitio ', Acqueft, Acqmfitio ; Conqueft, Cmqni^ 
jitio ; Clown, Colonus ; Crown, Corona ; Monk, Monu* 
*bus\ Miniiier, Monajlerium i Pencil, or Penfil Pemecil- / 
//^j ; Crane, Geranius, 8cc. 

Sometimes the Confonant, efpecially when it has a 
fofter Sound, as alfo whole Syllables are thrown out ; as, 
round from rotundas, Roll, rotula ; frail, fragilis ; {uie, 
ftcurus ; Rule, Regula ; Tile, 7eg;nla ; Seal, Sigillum ; Stall, 
Stabulum ; fubtile, fubtlc, fubtilis ; "Noun,. AW^« ; Ocui, 
l>cir/?nus ; Hoft, //(?^« ; Hoftle, bo/pitale; Count, Compnf $ .: 
Accompt, Account, accomputo ; fudden, Jubitanem ; to J 
it^af, /upcrarei Peril, Pericttlum*, ^l\\Qf>as, tmenfo/Jw.; J 

The English Grammar. 107 

Mftfvel, marvellous, MiraUUi -, Perch, PinUa \ Main, 
Mngaai i deign, Dignvr; difdcign, diiligaof:; FeigD, fain, 
fiiga i Slab. Tingo ; Paint, Phigs ; Preach, Prxdieare ', 
Mean, Mrdiaxun Mafler, Magifter, iiC. 

Thefe Contractions feem ytz more harfh than the for- 
mer, where feveral of them meet together in the fame 
Word; ai Kjri, Kjrke, Church, from Ku^iste;, i. e. 
IiJd>.- Prieft, Prijbytcr ; Sexton. Setrijlaaiu ; Frrexi and 
Fi-^, from Frigtfca, by changing 5c into S6, as before in 
BiJ/np, Fijh, Shout i alfo in Skiff, Sea}ba, Ship; rifrr/ht 
Rifnjhment. tec. Rjfrigtrium ; Frelh. T/W/ra ; blame, 
Blcfphtme i Pbleam, Fltam, from PhUhatiiniiu, (an initrii- 
tnenc to let Cattle blood i] Coin or ^n/w (a Term in 
Architeflare, fignifying the Angle wiicre ihe Walls meet) 
from CsKJtntga ; S^ainl, Canjunilum ; C«V, ^ait. Cat' 
jnlum; Tur>i, Terqato; Etr/,8evinai FuO, Fria/iM ; Fei- 
iain, Vitutinu ; Squirl, Scutifrr t Ptnanet, Patdlentla ; Sait- 
auarj, San^uarium i Almi, Atemfs, French Alm«f«e, Al' 
maiK, JhsBiifT, Alm'nrr, Amner, Jliaorj, i. c. a Repo- 
fjtoty of Jhii, Alm'ry, Amrj. and Ambry ; Chafe, from 

ItiynXTi [rather from the S^xoa H^cfl;] Much [Italian 
M«/w. Spaaiftl Muds] from Mu//um ; Oufe, Jfti ; Eil, An- 
guilla ; tjh. Ih, JJIa„d. iUvd. (as it were lU Land) from 
lifala ; to Ipt, Hit, Eyiht [a little Ifland in a River] and 
more contta3cdly Eyi (from the Saxax Ea] whence Oii-f- 
n,y, Rulry, Ely, Sec. that is the l^e in the Oufi, Riyai 
J/hind, and Btl IJIand; Is fian, from Examinarti £ and 
O being, as nfual, thrown away from the Begiming and 
End. mac remains Xi'imii, which the Saxom, who had do 
X, wrote CfumiH, or for the better Sound Saiiairi, whence 
Snn is coetraAed ; as, Da«, from Daminus ; Noun, from 
llcJiKn i Ban, from Aheminar ; thus the Jlaliani form 
Scianu, from Examen, a Swarm of Bees : and from Scia- 
nr, by inferting the Letter R denoting the Murmur, we 
dentw our Word S-i'.'arm : So Sron, from Thefaiirus ; Seoul, 
and StaU, from Siabulom tf'et, from 'Yits;, Udim 
Svatet, Suda j Guy, (Jaudium ; Jay, "Jacus i yeyotu, Ji' 
«A. ; Jmtt, Sn«w \ Cbuir. Calbtdra \ Chain, C.Una ; 
Shantt, Cn&«U» ', 'Thunder, 'Tsnitra ; Graf, Cravn, CrapU' 
\ Pall, ViUt ', Rid, Ruber ; 5<ontfe, Atttnil) w '\ A-. 


2o8 ^ie English Grammar. 

flint, from Extinguo ; Jlack, laxus : fuft, feflinus ; b/tftet 
bafien, {xoxa fefiino \ where we imitate the Spamjb, who 
change F into H ; as, Hablar, from fabulari ; CrvuD^ 
Corpus ; Cr^ou, Cater^ja ; ^^, from alias i IVortb, Virtus ; 
forth, foras ; 5^/r^, Species ; .Span, Spithama ; rf^?^, rraVo ; 
y^/V, j^ifju'vo', jly. Age, E*vcr, ocwf, JEimmi Lock, FioC' 
cus ', Stiffs, Stringo, or StriSium ; Diftrefs, DiJiriSium ; 
Dre/s, Jddrefs, dirigo, addirigo ; Frog, Frogle, Pro<wl, froxn 
Procuro \ fcrape, Jcrabble, fcranxjl, from excerpo i ftray^ Jlrag" 
gle, cxtravagor ; r/c/, or clutch, colle&um ; CwV, Colligo \ 
recoil, recolligo ; fwear, fevero, ajfe^ero ; Shrill, Stridulus ; 
/© Pounce, Pungere, or Pun^biare ; Ponuer, Fojfum, [in 
French Powvoir ;] Poor, Pauper, in French Pauvre ; Prixe, 
Prehenfum ; Comprife, Comprehen/um ; /*oj/^, Pcnfum ; /» 
•''''i/^' /rfl//f , Pretiari ; Proxy, Procurator ; to Pujh, Pulfo ; 
A ^///, Calamus ; /© Impeach, Impetere ; « ^Ht, Culci' 
tra ; /o iw^;*?, augeo, auxi ; /o ivane, vane/co, for which 
we now ufe, /o encreafe and decreafe ; Kitchen, Coquina ; 
Cor», Granum ; « /*/«, Spina^ Spinula, French Epingle ; 
Mince, Minuciare ; Cramp, Crump, Crumple, Crinkle, Com' 
primo ; Square, from ^adratum Italian S quadra, &c 

Of the Derivation offome Proper Names, 

Though many of thefe Words juft mentioned may 
feem to be far fetched, yet they ought not to be rejeded, 
fmce It is plain there are many Names derived from pro- 
per Names which feem as much forced, and yet there is 
none but who agrees in their Etymology or Derivation. 
As, Elick, Scander, Sander, Sandy, Sauny, from Alexan- 
der; Elizabeth, Elfibeih, Betty, Befs, from Elixabetba; 
Margaret, Marget, Meg, Peg, from Margareta ; Mary^ 
Mall, Moll, Pall or Poll, Malkin, Maivkin, Mawkes, from 
Maria ; Matthew, and Mat, from Mattbaus ; Pat, from 
Martha ; Williavi, Will, Billy, Wilkin, Wickin, Wicks, 
Weeks, from Guiliclmus, Wilhelmus, Wkt^t^, (Ital. Giro- 
lamo, French Guillaume) ; Richard, Dick, Hick, Dickin, from 
Riccrdus ; Robert, Rupert, ^ Robin, Dobe, Hobe, Bob, from 
Robert us ; Roger, Hodge, Hodgkin, from Rogerus ; Giietf 
££zW/us ; j^ujlin or Aufien, Au^flinus ; Jerome, Hier$sr^ 
^ws Jla//>/b, Rafc^ Radulpbui\ Jamtu ^tamtiy'Jmmiy^ 

7he English Grammar, 


from Jacohai, ([tal. Giaecmo, Spaniih, DUge, French, Ja- 
p*«i) Sennit, BinnUiiiUi Ma'wJit, Mahiiiaus -.Magiiahn, 
MawJUn, from MagJaUna; MaiuJ, Me/iildhi Cbrijia. 
fbrr, Kijlcr, Kit. Chnflofbarui; OHiJtr, Nol, Oli'verm ; 
Ellen, Nill, HtUna i Gant, or Ghent, Gandeiium ; Dart, Dir- 
dmltam ; Treat, TriJentvm ; Utrecht, Vltrajciiitm i Matf- 
fri(b, Mefie trajeBiu ; lyetii, Lugdunum i Irtlsisd, ytrna, 
Hibirnia ; Redejler, ^offa ; Dn-vtr, Dubri: ; GUcifier, Git- ■ 
mernia [i. e. Claujii CaJIra, ortlie Camp oi CtnuMui,] Us- 
ion, Vlijopania ; Sherry, Xira ; Tangier, Tinfft i Kimrga:, 
f^eimagas j Raaen, Rsloaagui i Caca, CaAmui ; Brijlarai, 
Uratijfama ; Jitt., Judaus ; 7<itry, Jud^a j Poyu, Pay- 
nim, Puganui ; Heelieir, Sllniciis, i&nnk- Sattnlit,TheJ}a- * 
hnica i ScanderoBti, AUxaudretta ; So GiHifatJitr, which the j 
Vulgar bv Miftake turn into Jii!j-F!o-weT, as if it drew 
■IS Name from the Month of 7*/') ham Caiioflil/ui, (Iial. 
Ctriifi/, French, Glrejlei); Speiagc. (which the Vulgar 
wreft to Sjtiirogrnfi or Spamwgra/i) from Afj-aragvi or 
Sparagui; Parjlty, PetroJeUnum; Purjlaitt. Porialace; 

fuinti, Cydevium ; ^iddmj, Cidonialum ; Piacb, Ptrjiium ; 
ryie from Eruca, this fome turn to Ear-Wig, as if it 
wok its Name from the Ear ; Paljy, Paralyfis j M,grim, 
Hemkranium : So a Gimmal or Gimbal, i. e. a doublci] 
or twilled Ring, iioia Gemellus, hence GmMznd 'Jum- 
£17/ are applied 10 other Things twilled and iw>"ed aSvx 
that Manner. Hsg9 ftom Akgs Gujlvs, (Fiench, kmdi 
gevji at haat gout) \ ReipifW!, from Suakftunqiii Ciu/^, 
or French ^el^ue Chsjei. Now fmce the Origin of ihilc \ 
and many more Words is generally agreed upon, how- 
ever ihcy have been wrefted and forced ; we ougiit not 
to wonder, if our Fore Father; did the fame Thing by 
many others, efpecially if we refleft upon their Fondncia 
for Monofjllables or Words of one Syllable j and that 
ihey might render thefe more foftly founding to the Ear, 
ibcy took a very great Liberty of maiming, cutting oF, 
leaving out, fofiening, and tranfpofing as ihey [hough! til. 
And Ihey are rather to be commenocd than blamed for 
what they did. fince they reduced long Words into 
Ihort ones, by fomewhat lelfening them t aj, P.i:j.' 
from Prrjhjltr^ Stat from Stdilit Sfctd (toro. Enljtfca, U."^ 

210 The 'E f^ G L 1 s H Crammar^ 

But, while we are deriving thcfe Words from the Latin, 
we would not have the Reader fancy that we owe dl to 
the Latin, and have not many Worda that came down to 
us pure and unmixt direftly from the Saxon, Danrfi, 
Bilgicy and Teutonic Languages, and their Dialefts : Foi 
many of thofe Words which of old we received from 
che Latins^ and likewife many of thofe which we have 
more lately received from them, by the Mediation or 
Afliftance of the French, Italian, or Spanijb, with fome 
fmall Variation according to the Diverfity and Idiom of 
each Dialed^, are common to us with the Saxons, 
Danes, &c. and thence have come diredly down to us» 
though they may be Originally Latin, Greeks or Oriental, 
I have often wilhed with the Learned Author of the 
Spe^ator No. 165. that as in our Conftitution there are 
feveral Perfons, whofc Bufinefs is to watch over our 
Laws, our Liberties and Commerce, certain Men might 
be fet apart as Super-intendants over our Language, to hinder 
any Words of a Foreign Coin from pailing among us> 
and in particular to prohibit any French Phrafes from be- 
coming current in this Kingdom, when tho& of oar 
own Stamp are altogether as valuable. 

But whatever may be allowed to our Forefathers in 
fhortening the Words they borrowed frona other Lan- 
guages ; I cannot but find fault with the Humour of fo 
miferably curtailing fome of our Words : In familiar Writ- 
tings and Converfations, they often lofe all but their firft 
Syllables, as in Mob, rep, fos, incog, and the like ; and as 
all ridiculous Words make their Irft Entry into a Lan- 
guage by familiar Phrafes, I dare not anfwer for thefe, 
that they will not in Time be looked upon as a Part of 
our Tongue. We fee fome of our Poets have been fo 
indifcreet. as to imitate Hudibras\ Doggrel Expreflions in 
their ferious Compofitions, by throwing out the Signs of 
our Subftantive3, which are e^ential to the Englijb Lan« 

fuage. Nay, this Humour of fhortening our Language 
ad once run fo far, that fome of our celebrated Authors^ 
among whom we may reckon Sir Roger VEfirange in par- 
tJcular, began to prune their Words of all fuperfiuous Let- 
ters as the/ termed them> m oidtt 10 ^^\v)i&. rio!^ ^^Uin^ 

The English Grammar. 2 1 1 

tothe Pronunciation, which woultl have confounded all 
our Et/mologief, and have qiute deftroyed our Tongue. 

0/IVerM •whUh, iaviig a Sfferent Stnfc, ba.'vt aifa a dif- 
fertnt OrigtaaL 

It is obfervable that the fame Word is derived from a 
different Original, according to its difFerent Senfe: For 
Example ; To hiar, fpeaking of a Burthen, and iner or 
hier, a Frame on which a dead Corps lies, alio burdctt 
come from/irsi but to ^^ar Children [whence £»V(A, i*™. 
Bairn, a Child) comes from farU ; and Star, a wild I>cai), 
iFic be of /.rtfi'ji Original comes from F.ra: So Pearch, the 
Name ofa Kith, from Ftrca ; but Pireh, a Meafure, nifo the 
Pcnb, that Birds ^'rr-fi on, from /'.r/;V-7; Tci(\-,e\\,i.t.lQ 
divide a Word inro Syllables, comes from Syllai.i, by iianf- 
pofing the Confonant?, and the i reluming into^. which 
was m ct^MJ.l(■ Sjf//, by which the common Peo- 
ple f»ncy ihat tlie Buundarie? of Fields are fo fixfd and 
guarded, thai no fiody ca:n nafs ihein without the Ov.ncrs 
Leave, comes from tjrfe/!a ; but Sfrl/, for a Mcflage, feems 
10 come from Epljhla, vrheaccGs/fr//, as itwerc GmiJ/Pt//, 
or a good MelTage, EjayyftwT, or Gejjpill, a Divin« 
Meflage, or Epiftlc. So Fit>/e, or Fretae, implying the 
Congealing of Water, comes fiom Frigifia ; but Frttfe, « 
Term of ArchiUilurt, from Zofborui ; and Frcrfi, B Son of 
Cloth, perhaps from Frijia ; or, it may be, this may come 
from F'igt/io, as drnoting a Cloth brtier than others a- 
gaioft Cold. Thus Frf/?, when you fpeak of the bleak Air 
comes from Frigtfco, (whence rtfrrjh, (rem rejngno, rtjrejh- 
Kitnt, refrigirium -,) but it is formed rather from I'htfce, when 
it is meantofihe Bloom ofFlancs.and when metaphorically 
ufcd for niacer and recrnj, hrljk and ip\\. So \o/cl!, 10 cut 
do*n [a to Fall) comes from Fa/h, or rather from ejntAX.', 
heace perhaps might fell, cruel, be derived, and Frlon, as 
a FAkrefMix ; but FtU. 3 Hide orSkin, comet from PJHt, 
whence a FiUnrntgn: In like manner Sfti^ that comei out 
of OurMouihs, conies from Sputum; but a S/it to drefs 
Meat on, perhaps from _^(Va, qua.'i Spicatum; and %'r,ihai 
is, at much as a Spade 

from S/afif/i, , 

S/oale it fc\t doci. "Wva 

2X2 ^he English Grammar* 

nvhat nvefpity from Spuo ; but Spittle y an Hofpital^ from 
Ho/pi tale. So File, to fie y feems to come from Polio^ tof^ 
lyh ; but a File^ as a File of Pearls, a File of Papers, a File 
of Soldiers, comes from Filum^ 9, Thread ot Lane i Xofett 
or make one (it down, is from Sedeo^ tofet or plant from 
Sero ; A7«y, Wicked nefs, from 'vitium ; but a ^/V^, or Vife (in 
French ^/j) comes from Vitis, A -Pcr/^ of a Gate from 
Por//2, which fignifics a Gate ; but a Pcr/^r to carry a Bur- 
thcD from FortOy (Portitor) to hear, or carry, &c. 

* Some few Rules whereby to know when a 
Word is derived from 'the Laliny and how it 
may be made Lalin again. 

P. Moft Engliflj Words, ending in ttce or rr, are derived 
from Latin Words in tia ; Tcmpcrantia^ Clementia ; Tent" 
pi ranee y Clemen y, 

2. Words, in irn in EngUJhy are made Zf<7//« by calling 
away n ; as ^ue/ion, ^ajiio ; Religion, Religio, 

3. Words, ending in /y, are made Latin by changing (jp 
into //7j ; as, Liberty, Liber tasy Charity, Charitas. 

4. Words ending in «^<f are derived from the Latin, by 
clianging into t ; Fortitude, Fortitudo ; Gratitude% Grati- 
tudo, &C. 

5. Adje£lives, which end in d^ do for the moft Part be- 
come Liitin by the Addition of U5\ as, Rigid, Rigidusx 
Putrid, Pvtridus, &C. 

6. Words ending in /, n, or r between two Vowels be- 
comes Latin by changing Ae laft Vowel into us ; as. Mute, 
Mutus ; Ohfcurej Ohjcurui ; Obfcene, Obfcasnus, &c. 

7. Mcft Words ending in nt, are made Latin by chang- 
iny^ /// into «j ; as. Latent, Latens ; Vigilant, Vigilans, Sec. 

S. Many Words ending in alhy the Addition of /j be- 
come Latin', as, Liberal, Liberalin Suhjiantial, Sttbjiui" 

CU k^ 

The English Grammar. 

CHAP. -ill. 

0/tbe Prepofitions ufid in Compofirion, 

* A Compounded Word is, when two or 
XV more Words go to the making up of 

Words in Englifi are cotnpoanded, eicher wilh a Frefi- 
Jtiivn, orwithfome other Part of Speech. 

The PnftfitUnt are of two Sorts, SrparahU and h/ipif 
fahU 1 the Separabli Prtpefitieni are fuch a.3 may be a(e3i 
aloBe i the hfiparahk are fach as are not ufed in Engiijh 
unleJB in Compofitian. 

But we (ha!! conlider the chief Senfes of the Prfpejiihni, 
in an Alphabetical Order. We Ihali begin with the Eng- 
iijh Prepojifhas, then we (hall fpeak of thofe that are la- 
tin, and laflly of thofe thai are Greei. 

A, is ufed for an. or in i as, «/eo(, ajhart, for m Fm/, rn 
Sivre i nhiJ. aAairi, anight!, for in Bed, in thf Daji, &c. 
This -#is alfo oftentimes redundant or fupetfluous, at ilie 
Be^nningoFa great many Words; as, in aii/ft for Bi.if, 
tirif: for rifi, aviake, for luaic, aim/s, ahraad, &c. " 

Be, is often redundant or of no Signi£cation at the Bc- 
Einningofa great many Words; as hemosn, &c. But it 
lometimej is figntficanC, and (igniiies ahnt ; as in S^- 
«r;*(/f, i.e. to Sprinkle about, /a i^j?iV,i. e. rojiraiea/, to 
btjmear, to hrdaitib, to bethink, i, e, to have hi) Thooghls 
about him, i3*(. Te tejirp, &c. It CgnlGn iy or nigh; as 
l<tJ!Je, i. e. by or nigh the S;*, hfignifie^ in; ai;ic' 
timtr, \. e. nf /iW or early. It Cgnifi«/or or i<y^« ; ai, 
ta iij^ai, i, e. to fpcalt for, Wr. 

• Cafaubm [de S^Mai. ling. p. 336 ) ohferves tiiat wo 
Wcin f>lIowcd theGm^ CtiFlom. -rii^V 

■ i 

214 Tie Ek GL 1 s H Gramnar. ^ 

. For, fignifies Negation or Frivatioit, i. e. it deuies or Jit 
frizes; 2ls in to forbid^ i. c. bid it not to be done ; to for- 
fakey i. c. not to feek it any more; to fergi'vti i. c, not to 
give or reckon it to one, &f. toforfnuear^ i. e. to fwear 
the Thing not to be that is fo, C^r. 

* Forcy Sax, forty Gr. «ir«po(, antt^ fignifies as much as 
hefore ; as, to forefee^ to fee before it comes to faft \ tofon^ 
bodcy to tell or fay before it bafpens. 

Mis, is always ufed in 'a bad Senfe, it denotes Defe^ or 
Error ; as, MifDecJ, i. e, an ill Deed, or not done right ; 
fo from take, to mifaie, to take it «wrong or oti^prwife than 
it is; fo to rmfiifey to mifmployy to mif apply, &c. 

This Word comes from the Saxon Mis, and Gotbick Miffa, 
which fignifies a Fault or DeJeB ; So to mifs fignifies to 
fail. In old Englifi, alfo Mijfe fignifies a Fault or Idifdeed: 
For thi grete merci forgi^ve my miffe. 
And bring me to thin endlefs llij/'e. 
Hence comes the French Prepofition Mes, and by an Jpo* 
cope Me, as in 'mecontentf nuconnoitre, to forget, or not to 
know, &c. 

Over, fignifies Eminency or Superiority ; as« /^ 0v«r- 
^ome, to over-fee, to over-rule : It denotes alfo £xcefs : as, 
over hafy, i, e. too bafiy, over-joyfuL This comes from the 
Saxon Oftr, as, Ofer-hlitb, i. c. Over-blith, or merry, 

f Out, fignifies, Exceis, Excellency or Superiority in 
any Thing ; as to out-do, to out-run, to out-go. Sec. 

• The Ncgativcy^ feems partly to flow from fore, and 
partly from the Greek vet^a' Forbid, is forebid, i. c. 
forevuarn againft it. Forgive, Sax. forgifan fignified for- 
merly both to give zadforgive, like Condonare : Remitting 
a Debt or Penalty is a Kind of Gift. Forfake, in old En- 
glifi, is to deny or refkfe ; and is from forjeegan, i. t.fore^ 
fay or forevoamz^zin^ a Thing. Forfwear, is vcg- ogctty* 
they^ made from icx^ot. So Forbear, vet^'iniAi* 

•f- Out from the Sax. ute, ntan, foris, extra, ultra. 

But the Compounds of this Form and in this Senfe are 

very modern : ut-adoen, in Saxon, is to do out. But from 

the French outre-pajfer^ and tbft Yikt, ^^ \an^ XakKGLt\\i« 

TBt Enc tiER Grammar'. 215' 

Un denotci NegatUa and Conirarieiy, or the not being 
To or fo J alfo DTjUuihi, or iho undoing a Thing already 
done : For Example, C/n, bring prefixed or Tet before AJ- 
jnli'sti, fignifies Nal ; as, fleafant, unpliafmt, i, e. Kit 
pUafanti bo wrivBrti}); i. e. nal •wartby ; unfiund, i. e. no/ 
fiuni, &c. Hen Un antwen to the Latin Prepofition 7«r. 
But when t/)t ii put lo /Vij, it dellroys, makes void, or 
undoes what hai been already done; as. la/i^, n uii/'-j,, 
which ligniiiet not only, net lofay, but to call back, and 
deny, what has been faid, to be faid ; fo to anda, is tO' 
dellroy what has been already done i to uiiuca-vr, is to 
undo what has been already lutn'vcd: Here Un anfwersto 
the Latin Prepa/jiian Dt and Re, fignifying a contrary 
Aflion ; as in Uitigo, Dippuhr, Didocce, Sic. This is an 
Imitaiion of the Saxon On or Ua, which is alfo com- 
pounded with Ji/jiai-vii and Firbi ; as, aalji,!, not little, 
i- e. great; fo unatytav, ta untie, tec. Thus the Scate/j lay 
jiifwcU, i, e. not well. But this Form of Speaking feems 
to have been derived from the Gaihi. 

Up denotes Motion upwards, or Place and Thing! 
that lie upwards. As, Upland, i. e, the upper Land, or 
the Land tiiat lies high in Refpeil of feme other ; Vp- 
fidi, i, e. the Side that is higheft. Tbii comes from the 
Saxon up or uppe. which has the fame Signification as. 
Upland, i. c. tbe mountainous Pari of a Country i Upmi- 
Jan, to rife up. 

With fignifie* n^mn/ ; as, to imlhfiaad,\. e. to fievd 
agninfi i Sometimes it iignilin as much s.'iftBm or back i 
as, ta-witbhtld, i. e, leJcU/iomonei le ivitidruw, i. e. 
ta ditpu; froiimx itiei. &c. This is alio an Imitation of 
the Saxons; as, Wiih^andian, to 'wilhjiandi luitblson, tt 
•txitbdraw, &e. 

O/lhe Latin Prtfofititmi, that artafid in the Comf-^fition if 
Englifli li\rds. 

J B or /{ B S, I. e./rom. when it is compounded, de- 
nOtu hme Exce/i 01 F.ncrealiog the Senfe of the Words : 
as, ft /rtitr. It otn/', ehjard. he. or elfe it (i^nitei 
fuTiiig 0/ SfparstiM', aa, (ooMaiii, td cttliji:, '■; o^*'- 
Ml, Ac. 

K 6 '- 

2 J 6 The English Grammar. 

Ad, figniiies to or at i as, Ad'vocate^ Ad'vent^Ad'Virh^ 
Afjc^ii'c, Adjacent, &c. Where Ad<vocate is one that 
is c a lit J to, &c. Adjacent, that which lies at or nigh. 

Ante, fignifies before ; as, antecedent, the foregoing 
Word, or the Word that goes before another in a Sen* 
tcnce : To, antedate, oi dviit \t before. Sec, 

CiRCUM, fignifies about ; as, Circumlocution, a round about 
Way of fpeaking, as when one Word is exprefled b\' 
many ; Circum'vallation, a Ditching about ; Circumfiance, 
what ftands, as it were, about a Matter, as Time, Place, 
Ttrfin, &c. 

Con from Cuiji, fignifies ««;///& or together \ as, ConKo- 
cation^ a Calling or Meeting together ; Colloquy, a Talking 
nvith or together -, Copartner, a Partner nxjith another; Com" 
tnercc. Invading together. 

Contra, fignifies ^7^«/ff^ ; as, to contradiB OTgainfay \ 
and denotes Oppofition or Contraiety: And hence comes the 
Prepofition Counter, as to Counterfeit, &C. 

De, a Kind of Motion /5-c//f, as, decant, detract, deduct, 
dicuj, df/r, for filing off, to decafnf, that i^, to move the 
Ccmp, Sec, Sometimes it only extends the' Senfe of the 
Word : As, to dc7no7tftrate, to deplore. Sec, 

Dis, fignifies Separation, Difference or Di'verfity, and does 
every where give a Signification contrary to the Word it 
is compounded with : As, Dif agree, not to agree \ disbelieve, 
not to beJie've ; difadiantage, no ad^vantage ; dijlike^ not to 

Di, has hardly any other Ufe than the extending or 
ftrctching out the Senfe of the Word it is compounded 
with : hi^ to direSi, to diminijh. Sec. * 

E or 

* D:s from the Greei $vq which in Compofition fignr- 
fies t^gre, non, diffcultcr, Sec, ^va-u^eaxofMn, dif-flicepp 
dif'phafe, dif oblige. The Latins borrowed this Way of the 
Greeks, and the Fre'nch of the Latins: And nve of the 
Fre-ach ; firil in borrowing the very French Words ; and 
sLfcerw&Tds prefixing dhy eveti to fom^ ^axon Words, in 
ImitMioa of the otncr, M\ o>3Lt ^oi^^ oi ^JoA&'^QtTO. ^xni 

T'/je English Grammar. 217 

E or Ex fignifies eul ; as, E'ucnl, the falling out ; 19 
tjfd, ta ciifi oat i la cxiluift, lo jhut oat : So to txprtji, 
ixUhht ixpcSt txplain ; Eloqueaee, Eheufion, it. 

Ev, See under In. 

E»TEa cornea from the Fnmh enlre, and that from the 
Latin Inter, i. e. bcttueea, kc. 

ExTKA fignifies biyon,!, ever and above ; as, extravagant, 
one that goes beyond Bounds ; exlraiiafatid Bhad. Blood 
that is thrown out or beyond the Vtph, i-c. 

In generally denotes ihe Pofiiion or Difpofition, or an 
Aflion, whereby one Thing is as it were put into ano* 
tber, or the Imprefiion whereby 3 Thing receives fuch or 
fuch a Form, and becomes Tuch or fuch ; as, ts import, 
to impair, to imloft, to in-utlof, to im-oll, lo i„fifi -. in thefe 
Words in marks the Aflion by which one Thing come* 
to be put into another : But in thefe Words ta incUant, to 
larage, to iscourogi, tt inricb, /n denotes the Iinpreffion by 
which one Thing receives fuch or fuch a Form, and be- 
comes fuch or fuch, f^c. 

Jnis alfoufed at the Beginning of Words to denote Pri- 
vation or not, and gfres a contrary Senfe to the Word i: 
» compounded with; As, indeimt, i.e. nol lieeeal -, i«/.-H- 
man, net human ; inja/lice, not Janice ; innocent, net nO' 
tnt, i.e. barl/al i imjintiile, not to be conquered. • 

En is a Prepofition ihit we ufe in the Spelling of 
Words that come from the FrencJj : Aa, ta enrage, lo menu- 
ragi ; though we do not always obfcrve this Difijnflion ; 

later th.-in the Conuoeft ; nio.l of them fe vera 1 hundred 
Years l2:cr. 

Di may be referred either tn i.'a, or oi(. which toge- 
ther mjy accoant for ait TltcN Compafiiions, Jiai^/jn,, 
diffirr,-. ilijfir: diviierr, dii.iJe; Only it may be obferved, 
that in foene Words Ai is imtead of lie; 33, MmiKU'j \i Jc- 

• In is iifed commonly in modem Words, wMch we 
have taken from the Lain. In our old Words otSaxtn 
Original, we preferve the Sexeii un 1 and foinctimes even 
in the Words borrowed from the Latix, as bavw-i, 

a ii£ci to hy, an, not iji. 

2i8 The Evf Gti^H Oammar^ 

for we fometimes write /« inftead of en: This en has 
much the fame Signification as i/i, but it ne\'er denotes 
Pri'vation Or not, which in often denotes. 

But it is to be obfcrved, that as all Latin Words com- 
pounded with in do not denote Privation ; fo neither do 
all Englijh Word?, which are written with in: For we 
have many of them from ^z Trench^ but which are for 
the moft Part originally Latin^ that are promifcuouHy 
written with en or /», in which the genuine Significatioa 
of the Latin Prepofition in is preferred : As, In^endery 
Implant y hgra-ve^ &c. which are alfo written with en ; 
as. Engender, Engrave, Sec. and their Participles Engen- 
drtd, Engra*ven, &c. And it were to be wimed, for the 
Sake of Foreigners, that en were prefcrved in thofc 
Words that come from the French, rather than that the 
Latin in fhould be rellored, whence the en came : By 
this means all Ambiguity or Uncertainty concerning thi 
Signification of this Prepofition would be removed ; For 
utt is always privative, or fignifies as much as not ; en ne- 
ver is ; but in is fometimes privative," and fometimes not ; 
for it is not privative in the Words that are promifcuoufly 
written with en or in. But in other Words it is moft com- 
monly privative; namely, in thofe which come fron 
Latin Words that are originally fo. 

Inter, fignifies tooy^-rw j as, to intervene, to come be- 
tween ; Interval, the Space between ; interrupt, to break ift 
between other Bufinels , but, in inter Ji£t, it fignifies a» 
much as for in forbid, &c. Sometimes we ufe enter tA 
Words that come from the French, and they arc wntteo 
enire, which comes from the Latin inter. 

Intro, is a Latin Adverb from the Prepofition intra^ or 
a various Ending of the fame Prepofition, ^d fignific* 
Kjcidin ; to introduce, to bring into, £fff . 

Ob, fignifies againf ; as, Obftacle, i. c. what (lands ilk 
the Way ; to oppofe \ to put agamft. 

Per, i. e. through, it denotes a certain Degree of Excel- 
lency or Excefs \ as, perfeii, i. c. throughly done, fer» 
f crate, to pierce through ; to perfecute, to perfuade. 

Post, /ijtcr', as, Poftfcript^ i. e. written after; ^^Pofl* 
if:^jfi6kj Work, that is puWUhcA a![\.w xlfci^ K\tfJfcs«'%\it«fcL,. 

7be E N G 1 1 s H Grammar. 219 

Pre, comes from the Prepolition Pra, and figr-ifies Ic- 
f«re; as, tt> fremeiilalc, to meditate of before; Prefucr, 
pripare, Prtfu; fri-vcnt ; freingagt, or 10 engage before- 
hand, &c. 

Pro, CgniliesyJr or/owfi ; but it has alfo a. great many 
other Senles ; a, la f^ftfi, frttiS, fnnnance, frorague, 
fmmfs, &c. 

pRETEA, figniiiet egaitij}; as, Pntimalurel, againft Na- 

R'l generally implies a repeated Aflion ; as, tmrptat, 
i. e. to lay over again ; lo reuifife, to fall ill again ; la n- 
turn, I. e. to come again ; to ri-enter, lo enter again : 
Sometimes it denotes Oppoficion or agaiirjl ; aa, to repaifc, 
to beat back ; It often denotes only the enlarging the Scnfe 
of ihe firople Verbi as, it rrpofi, ripefl, Itc^ 

RiTRO, lignifieB baikiDard; as, RtlrograJt Motien, i. t. 
■ Going backward. 

Sk, for Sine without, or Sni/um, by itfelf, in fuch 
Words at Ihcfc, ftturt. (i. e. Sixi Curd, or Siarf^m, a Cirn) 
fimere, ftparau, ficluiie, and the like. Se comes (rom f«, 
ibr *;«, from iii». Vid. Baxt, Gloff. Rom. p. 297. 
fioB, figntfies Uiiiir i as, ta fuhftrihe, to write under. 
SOBTER, midtr i as, SablerJJusui, flowing under, C^c 
Super, ufBc, evir, or aln-ve ; as, Super/eriptiint, the writ- 
ing upon a Letter ; Superfiuou!, over and above : Thit 
Prepolition is changed in fome Words that come from the 
Frtneh into Jar, upon or oi:ir i as, Surface, &c. 
■ Traks, h%mfiti avfi- 01 hiyanJ i as, la traBfpi!rl,mcz.t- 
ry over ; lo iran/grt/i, to go beyond ; and ic figrifies in 2 
great many Woi^ the moving from one Place to another t 
as, /« IraaJptaM, te tranjps/e. Tran/migraticii, Sec. In 
Other Words it denotes the Changing of one Thing in* 
to another i as, /* Iremferm, tratufgure, TranJubJiuHlia- 
tim, &c. 

The Greet Prepofitions ; the chief of ihcfe arc, 
A, which fignifies Priiiatioa or mi ; as, /JnanymsKi, with- 
cialaN«mei Anarthy, without Government. 
Ampui, fignifies pn nyc-ji^Vf. 

Anti, fignifica ^gmnft ; as, Antagsmfi, one that is 
^ainft yon; Aalithri^, out ihw W ra O^Y^"-'^'*'* ^' 
L^i&. _ 

220 ^he English Gramnar. 

Hyper, 0<ver or Abovi. 

Hypo, Under, 

MfiTA, is the fame as trans, i. e. hejond; or elfe de- 
notes the Changing of one Thing into another: As, Mtta- 
fbar^ Mctamorphojts, i. e. Transformation. 

Peri, Ahcut, 

Syn, 'with qx together \ as, Synod^ that is, Cotyuocation \ 
Sy-fitaXi that is, Conjirunion, 

The Prepofitions do often change their laft Letter into 
the Confonant that the Word begins with : As, in Con^ 
n is changed into /, as, Ccl/oqty; and fometimes they 
lofe a Letter, as in Coeternal, where n is left out, £s^r. but 
we mud now enlarge. 

Sluefiions relating to the Third Chapter^ 

Q. What does hhjignifi F 
A. Frorriy and denotes Separation, ^c, 
Q^ What does AnXffJtgniJy ? 

A, Before: And fo you may repeat the QuefUon with 
Refped to any of the other PrepofitioDs. 

C H A p. IV. 

Of the finding out the Original of the Names of 


I Shall here but juft explain a few of the Beginning and 
Ending Syllables, that denote the Original of the 
Namo of Pluces, as they have been treated of by the 
learned Bi{hop Gil font in his Edition of the Chrovicon Saxe^ 
r.icum, ' ' 

Ab, at the Beginning of the Names of Places, is often 
to be derived by a Comradiion from Abbots and denotes 
that a Monaftery was formerly there, or at leaft that rhe 
Place belonged to fome Abbacy : As, Abbington, Ab- 
fyf7^o/T, i. c. the Mountain or Town belonging to the 

^he English Grammar. 22 1 

\c, AK, Uiefe iniiial Syllables come from the Saxea ^c, 
tnOoii; as. Xiuu, i.e. a Town encompafTed with On^t^. 

Al, Attle, AnLH, coine from the Saxaa Eibtl, (ig- 
nif/ing Nible, Fawsm. 

Al/, Ai.0, come Irom mU, ancient; as, Aldhsmughr 
. c. QUbotm,gL: 

Barrow, comes from B^'uttuj, Bcarutve, » G'-e-ue, 

BiAD, at the Bi;gmiiing of Words, lignifies bread, ffud- 
■m, Kc. fiom the SaxBt Brad, broad, krgi ; as, BrfiifarJ, 
. e. the broad Ford. 

Bmc from Drug, a Bridge. 

Bbun, Bsan, Qbown, Bourn, Burn, whether ihejr 
begiQ or end Wordj, fignify a Bj-ver, from theSna-ffi florw, 
" im, Bruaaa, Sec. as, Brunkurb, Bramjian, i. e. « ?"9U'« 

3irRRow,BuRH, Burg, come from Burg,Byrig, aTu'wu, 
Glf, CaflU. tec. Pct^riareugb. i. e. !/■« Tiiun o/S'/. Peler, 
it being dedicated lo his Honour : This Ending is now of- 
ten written 

BuRV, as, Edmundhury, the Town of St. Edmsmd. 

Bye, Bei, thefe ending Syllables come from the Saxan 
Bj. Bjing, a Habitation or Dwelling ; as, Qrimfiy, KettUbyt 
that 13 a Dwelling for the Makers of Kettles, this Town 
being once noted for fuch Kind of Wurkmanfhip. 

"ar, otCJuAR, comes f.-on» CdrraCity ; as, Cardigatif 

Caster, Chester, come from the Saxon CeaJ!cr, a 
City, Town, orCalUei as, Cafttrford o^ Cajtttfsrd, i. e. 
ȣtifili ufion the Ftrd. And it was ufual with the Sexom 
to add the Terminations of Chejlrr, Caipr, Caflei-, to the 
Names of Placet, where the Ramans had formerly erefted 
their Cajlra, Cafi!.i, or Fn'-i,. 

Chip, Cbeaf, Ciiipfikc, denote thai the Town, when 
il received its Name, was a M^rkil Town ; they come from 
Ifac jffA-cn cyfai, ii/pan, to hit or fill; So Chifpenbam, 
Cbi^iipai'uemli 3:iA Uitafftdt. Andhence,asBi(hopC/i/o» 
obferves, may comeC^^f) as to chop aad change, alfoC/wf- 
man from Cjfrnna ; and perhaps Shep may have fomc Re- 
iaiion hereupon. Hence may alfo be derived the Names of 
the Siui-Jiji and Dnnl/h Towoa ending in €"^11 \ ts, Nj- 
Co/f*, i. c. Nc^' Market. 

222 The English Grammar^ 

Cmff, or Clive, whether at the Beginning.or Ending 
of a Word, (ignifies a C^ft i. e. a fteep Place, a Rock, from 
the Saxon C/if, which comes from the Latin Clhrns. 

CoMP» at the Beginning of Words, and Comb at the 
Ending, denote the lower Situatitm of a Place, or a Valkf^ 
from the Bt'ttijh Kum^ which is a Word of the fame Sig* 
nification ; as, Melcomh Regis, Sec. 

Cot, Coti, Coat, whether at the Beginning or Ending 
of the Names of Places, denote a Cote, Cottage, or little 
Hou{e, from the Saxon Cot, a little Houfe ; whence Cot- 
feta, he that dwells in a Cottage, And Sbeef-Cotey the 
Place where Sheep lie. Cotfwold, a Place in Ghucefterfinwtf 
is fo called from the Abundance of Sheep Cotes there. 

Crag, is a Brit i fib M-^ord, and denotes a craggy Rock. 

Den, was added to the Names of Places that were fita- 
ated in Vallics or in Woods : For the Saxon Den denotes a 
Valley i OmiKoody Place. So Tender den, Biddtndcn, Marden, &C. 

The Syllable Ea, in the Middle of the Names of Places, 
is a Contraftion of the Snxcn IVrtra, i. e. Dwellers, Inbatd* 
tants i for the City which we call Canterbury, the SaxM 
called Casst^nvara-burb, And Er at the End of m Word, de- 
noting the Inbabitants of a Place, feems to be of the fane 
Original ; for whom we call Londoneri^ the Saxons caD 
Lunden'tvara ; So Marjbers, i. e. the Inhabitants of the 
Marjbes, they called Mer/e'Wara, Unlefs any one had ra- 
ther derive this Ending from the Gotbick Wair, m Man \ 
as, Lunde/rwer, by Contra^ion Lundomr, Lomkmr, i. ۥ 
a Man of London, 

Words ending in £rn^, or Erom, are derived from die 
Saxon Em, Earn, a fecret Place to pat any Thing in. 
Hence comes Ink-ern, i. e. a little Veflel mto which we pot 
Lik, for which we corruptly write Ink-Horn, as the Right 
Reverend Bifhop Gib/on has very juftly remarked. 

Eye, Ea, jE^, thefe ending Syllables differ in three Re- 
fpe^ls, I . Either as they come from the Saxon lz% aa 
Jfland (G being melted into Y) as, Ramfey, Mar/ty\ 
whence it is plain, that, if 2^fignifies as much as oar 
Word IJland, we are guilty of a tautology, when we fay 
Ham/iy JJland, Mar fey I/land, Jerfcy Jfland, z. They 
either come from ine Saxon Ea» ^W^xar^ a River, ^c. 
Or, 3. From Lei/g^ a VVaiti RA^, 

The English Grammar. 223 

Thn,F{eet,F}cf, fignifjF a DiVffi, where the Tide comes, 
a G'n/jSi or Bay : Hence Flretditch, ttc. 

Gate, in ihe Names of Places, denotes a Way, at Path ; 
as, llighgntf. i. e. Tif High Way or Rea-/, ic. 

Ham, whe^r at the Beginning or Ending of (he 
Word, fignifies a Hauft or Hakitathi. or Home, &c. as, 
E.ijlham, mjthavi, &C. So Bahcwcard, \. c. Humru;arJ. 

Holme, Hmemi, whether ufed alone (for there are feve- 
ral Places nliichare aWeAtht Ilolmei) or joined with ano- 

KWoH, fignify an Hill or IJle, encompafled with little 
b or Rivers , So Stephdmt, Flalbdme. 
ftT, wheiher at the Beginning of a Word, as, HoUan, 
ihc Ending, as, Chirry-holt, JppU-helt, ii a certain 
dial (hat Place did former!/ abound wiih Woods. 
VRST, llarfi, Hirft, come from the Saxon Ihrft, a 

How, Hough, fcem to denote the lower Situation of m 
Place. So Heiu-galt. i. e. a ieiu Way much beaten, &c. 
Perhaps hence comes Hallani, as it were, HaiulaiiJ, \. c. 

InoG, Itgniiies a McaJaiu, and MiaJtziii are now called 
in ftime Parts of EnglanJ the Ingis. 

Lade, Lodt, fignity the Mouth of a River, or the Paf- 
fcge, from the Saxen Lode, a Purging or Emptying ; as in 
Cnkladt, Framlade, Lechtade, kc. becaufe thereabouts the 
Water empties itfelf into the Sea, or into fome greater 

Ley, Ltt, leg, lay, whether at the Beginning or End- 
inj of a Word, come from the Saxsa Leag, a plain Field, 
er PaAure Ground : The ^ being foftened. 

Lowe, Lie, come from the Saxsa Weuie, or Hlia'oi, a 
Bill, or Hilleck; as, Htundjlo^; i, e. a Hill at Dogs, or 
HiTl iit for Hunting. 

Marsh, Man, Mai, tome from the Saxon Mer/e, % 

MarP or Mm-Py Plate. 

Mae», Mire, in the Names of Places, either at the Be- 

t inning. Middle, or End Cgnify a UarJIyy Place, from the 
axon Mere, a Marfli, &C. 

Nejse, or Nejs, at the End of the Name, denotes the 
Place to be, or to be near a rromimiorj, taWti^T-Suxan, 
l>'^e^, Na'^, Nr/e, from hi 9.«(cmbVji«.c \Q ■».^oJt. 

224 ^^^ English Grammar. 

Over, whether at the Beginning or End of the Names 
of Places, denotes commonly the Situation of the Place 
to be near the Bank of fome River; from the Saxtm, 
Ofir or Ofre^ a Brijik or Bankj as, BronjjK/o'ver, SiC, But 
if there be any neighbouring Town, that has Kct/?er pre- 
fixed ro ir, ih'.'n you may derive that O'ver from the Saxtm^ ^ 
Vfir, i. c. t'fpir^ in Oppofition to «^/>&^r or /j'w.Yr. 

Frkst and Pres^ as in Prefton^ Prejhury^ fcem tO come 
from the ^r..\cn Priofi, a PrieJIy O being thrown out, as it 
often liappcns, for Dtrlfy was formerly written Deoraby, 

Rig, kidi^ty fcem to denote the hanging Side, or Steep- 
ncf> of a Hill, a.s in LinJriJgc^ Cotheridge^ Waldridge, &c. 

Sel, denotes the Grcatncfs of the Thing to which it it 
prefixed; as, SJtun, i.e. agreatTo^wniSo SeliArcod/i.t. 
a great Wood. For Sel ia the Saxu7i fignifies Good or 
Liir^r, &c. as, Sd/y, &c. 

Si EAD, and S/ed, fignify P/^ice : Except in the Names of 
Towns that are liigh Rivers, when perhaps it may be bet- 
ter derived from the Saxo;j Stathe^ a SUre^ a Bank^ a Ha* 
I'eny &c. 

Stowe, or Stoe^ from the Saxon Stowe% a Place i af» 
Ccdjlvwey i. e. a Place dedicated to God. 

Thorp, T^hrop^ Threpy 'Prep, Trop^ come from Thorpe^ a. 

I'vN, Ton, tigmiy a To<vc7iy Village^ &c. This perhapi 
comci from the Snxon Dun, becaufe the Towns were for* 
merly built on Hills. 

Weald, Wald, Walt, fignify a Woody Foreft, &c. 

Wert II, Weortb, Wyrth, come from Weortbigy a VU* 
IcigCy Street, &c. 

Wic, or Wichy as in DuJi^ivtcby Harivzch, comes from 
the Saxcfj JVicy which fignifios a Banky a Shore, a Fort, &c. 

Win, at the Beginning of the Names of Places, coxnes 
from the Saxon Wis, a Battle, or Fight, and denotes that 
fome Battle was fought there. 

Wis, denotes the Wellern Situation of the Place; as^ 
Wifizothiy i. e. the JVeJierti Goths, 

Wyrt, Wert, Wyrdy come from Wyrty an Herhy &c. 
Perhsips as Bifhop Gih/on conjeAures, hence comes the. 
Word Root, which ought 10 TaaNS bt^ti^mea Wroti. 

TS^ E N G L I s H Grammar. 







Oftbe Syntax. 

E are now come to fpeak of that Part of Graat- 
mor which treats of the n^^i/ placing or joining 
of Words togeihcr in a Sentence called Syntax- 
^ Syntax or Conltrnflion of the Noun, being chiefly 

ptrfbrmed by the Help of the Prfpejtihm, and I having in 
every Chapter given an Account of what more pariicular- 
\y relates to each Part of Speech, there is not m>ich left 
ior me to fay on ihii Head. 

• The Subjiantive that is, does, or fuffers, 
coroes before the Verb : As, / am, Peter loves, 
the Men read :. The Seek is read. 

Excift. :. In an Intirro^alii-r SenUntt [when a Qie- 
flion is aftedl where the Siiljlimiii-i is put after the f^er6 : 
Ai, h John at Home ? 

If there be an Helping Verb, then the Subftantive comei 
after that i as. Does Peter /or/ ? H'ill yeu riaHf 

If there be wo Helfing l^erhs, then the Subflantive a 
fet after the firfl of them: As, Cimli In have limritt 
Mighi Cbarlci h»vi trtugbi 11 ? 

226 The English Grammar. 

Except. 2. In an lmperati*ve or Cojnmanding Sentence, 
where the Sabftantive is liktwife fet after the Verb : As, 
Bhrfi ThoUy Burn Te. 

3. Alio wken the Verb is ufed by way of Yiddifig or 
Conceflion : As, Had I [if 1 koif] kntnun, ke Jhould ml 
have dnr.e it. Were I a had Man^ &c. 

4. The Suhfianti^e or Nomi native Word\% put after the 
Verb, when, there^ is fet before tie Verb: As, There cam 
a Man to tne: Ibcre ivas the Boy in the Dirt : There is Heat 
in the Sun, i. e. Heat is in the Sun, 

<;. When the Suhft antique or the Nomnati've is more par* 
ticularly denoted or pointed at, we often fet« //, before the 
Verb, and put the Subftantive after it : As, li luas John 
thatfpoie laft ; // rwas the Gla/s that fell. 

Sometimes the Subftantive is alfo fet after the Verb, 
when none of thefe foregoing Exceptions happen: As, 
7 hen foliofwed the General y 8cc, Says /^ for I /ay ; Jaid iff 
for he /aid; Peter ^writes and fo do /, i. e. and I do/o^ &c 

* When the Genitive Cafe and another Sub- 
ftantive come together, the Genitive Cafe is al- 
ways put firft: As, Joints Horfe^ not, Herft 

Concerning the Conilru<5lion of the Adje^ive. See 
Chap. IX. 

* The Article, a^ is joined only to Subftan- 
tives of the Singular Number; tbe^ toSubftan- 
tives either Singular or Plural. See Chap. 

• The Pronoun has two States: The foregoing State 

which goes before the Verb^ unlefs in thofe Cafes where 
the Subilantive does not. See the Exceptions juil men- 

• The following State follows the Verb or Prepofition : 

A% Ihe Majier loves me ; not 7. But, *whcm, is- generally 
placed before the Verb ; as, bt U XJEut MaxL<uj&7in I/aw, 

3 ''.^^^ 

The English Grammar. a 27 

'But afiec the Verb Jm or St, the Fartgoing Slale of 
^ Pronoun is u(Vd : As, It ii /, not Me. Sec Chap X. 

The Word that anfwcrs to the Queftion, Ifba U ? who 
Hoitf WhaMtn? Or, Whetii? ifhatdsa? Whatfuf- 
fnif is xhekvhfiantitit to which the /Vi relates, and u 
caMed the NmninatiiM Ward. As, I love, v/hoJu-atj? I, 
xhat is the h'smiaaiiv* Wtrd. Wt read, who reeds f We, 
Where Wi is tlie Ncim^aU-vt. The JJoo-f w «fl4 Wliat « 
r/a^.* 7be Boot, here fins.* i» the Nominati-vi H'ord. 

N. B. When wc fpealt of Pttfi«i, the QueOion ii to be 
made by /^'^i when we fneak of T'l^iVir/, ii is to be made 
by WhM. 

This Naminati've tfor^'u what the Zmiaiu call Che Nemi- 
nalinie Cafe, 

* Bux not only NbuQs and the Preaeum Salfianii've, but 
wliatever denotea thai which is, or dots, or is dons, \% ac- 
coanted a Komittativt Word to the Vtrb. 

So Che Ftrh put infiufi'jrly, that is, with the Preporidon 
To before it. ofien tells 'u.-het 11, does, or I'ufftrs, and there- 
fore is a ti'Dmin^live It'si-d to tiie firi i as, « p/aywi/I 
phafi, what will //ffl/J ? To /Z^" ; therefore to play is as a 
Niminiitivt Word to the Verb fleaft. To laugi •viillfatui. 
And fo may any Sentence, that lliews tvhai it, don. orjaf- 
fir%, be as a Neminalive Word to the FirB : As, That tbt 
Sun pintt is (Itar, ot it is elter tbal the SanJ&ines ; What it 
dtarf IhatlhtSuitfoina; Therefore, that the Sun M"". 
is as a Nominativs Wordxo the Vtrb, is thar. So in the 
following Ejcamplc. An biarfl andfincire Mind, and a brar- 
rt Dfjire anJ E'sdea-vour ta do tbt WiH of God, is ibi grtattj} 
Sttarifj and hifi pTtfir^jati'vt agai-^ diingtraus Emrt aiid 
Jijijlahi in Mattni of Reliffoii. Wbat is ihc gri/iteji Secu- 
rity ? &C. An bontfi andfiniiri Mind, and a beany Dtfirc, 
and Eitdto'voitr to do the Will of God -, Here, en honifi and 
fiitfire Mind, and a beatiy Defirr. end Endifvow to da the 
Wiil of God. is as a Nominali-je Word to the I'lrb IS. 

If a ftri put infinitr-Dc/y (that is with the Prefofitien to, 
before ii) or if a Stntcnei be K\NemiHaUi'i Word to a 
VeA, wc ufuallv fee the Ftri iolinitiire. or the Sti/cnet, 
afwr the other Ffri, and put /T before it: As, IT is an 
tvil Jbiag n Lji, i. c. it Ljt ii tm tviJ 7ii>tg. IT ii tht 

ftiS The English Grammar. 

Cuftom of Boys to negleSi their Books, i. C. io negleS their 
Books is the Cuftom of Boys. 

So likewife when the Nominati've Word, or the SuhftoH' 
ti've to which the Verb relates, is left out or underfiood, 
we put 77" before the Verb: As, // Rains, it Snotus, it 
^hunders^ &c. Where Rairij or Cloud, or fome other Word 
is underftood : For there can be no Ferb that figntfies Be- 
ihg, Dorngf or Suffering, but what refers or has Relation to 
fome Pivfon or ^hing^ that tj, does, oxjuffers. 

This Manner of ExpreiTion is rendered in Latin by a 
Verb, which they call an Imperfonal^ but oci&y, or how 
rightly it is fo called, we have ihewn in our Explanation 
of cheCoMMOK Grammar. 

* The Verb muft be of the fame Number 
and Perfon as the Nominative Word or Subftan- 
five is of, to which it relates ; as, Peter lovetby 
Men Ivve. 

Where you fee lo^veth is of the Singular Number ^ and of 
the third Per/on^ becaufe Peter is fo : Lo<ve is of the Plural, 
becau^ Men is fo. See Chap. XI. 

Now Peter lo've, or Men lo'veth, would be falfe Gram- 
mar. So, / art, njoe am, ye is, thou are, is falfe Grammar ; 
for we ought to fay, / am. We are, thou art, ye are, &c. 

* But when two Subjlantives Singular arc 
joined together, they fpeak of more than one, 
and fo, being of the Plural Number y muft have 
a Verb Plural ; as, Robert and Mary love^ not 
loveth or loves. 

1 . For / and another is as much as We the firft Perfon 


2. fhou and another is as xnach as Te the fecond Perfoa 


5. He [She or It] and an9ther is as much as They the 

third Perfon Plural. 

The English Grammar. 229 

Sometimes the Verb may be put in the Singular Num- 
ber, when thereare two SuMamives; as, Hh "Juf.i.e 
and Gaadiii/s turn great .- Bat ihen here, m.-ai great is left 
out in the firft Sentence i as. Hit JafiUe laai great, and 
bit Gtojntfs tvai great. 

Likcwife [hough the Noon be of the SitFgu/ar Numher, 
yet if it comprehend many Particulars, the Ftrb may be 
put in the Singular or Plurei Na/nSer ; as, fA* Cammttte 
ka, txamineJlbe Pri/onrr, or, The Cammittee ba've examined 
the PH/aa,.r; Where Aaj is of the Singular Number and 
ba've of the Plural. 

Where, in the firft Example, the Verb, hai, is of the 
Singular Number, becaufe the Subtlanlive, Cnmmiitei, ii (o i 
and, in the feeond Example, the Verb, have, is of the 
Plural Number, becaufe the Subftantive includes more than 
onePerfon. So, Part it gate, Pm-t an gnne. 

Sometimes the Endings EJi, Etb, or S of the TfrA are 
left out after the dnjunahn, if, that, iheugit, although, 
•wbelbcr, &c, fi.i. If liie Sen/e riquire il, ftr. If the Senfe 
rtquirelh or requires \t. He 111111 dart, thaugh bt die far it; 
that is, tbougb be dieth or dirt for it. Thefe Endings of 
the Pcrfon of the Kerb arc alfo fometimes left out after 
fome other Cenjun^imii and AJ'verbs, efpedaily when the 
Verb is ufed in a CummanJing or Dipeniing Senfe. 

* Not, the Adverb of denying, is put aftev 
the Verb ; as. It burnd noty it did not hriiy ii 
bunted me not. 

We iliall jull take Notice that a Seaieiu^e or S/ying is ti- 

tUttrfagie or eompaunded. 

* A fingle Sentence ii that which has but one Verb Ti- 
mte in it ; as Lfe itjhort. 

By a Verb Finite, you are to underftaod any Verb but 
whu i) put infinitively, 1. i. that hu 'It put before il 

* A compounded Sentence i« when two Angle Sent 
CM are joined together by fome CopU or Tje ; So then, 
compounded Sentence, there is, 

1 . One liraplc or fingle Seaunu i ai, Life U p^ort 


230 7he English Grammar. 

2. Another fingle Sentence after it ; as. Art is long, 

3. Between thei'e two a Cople is put to join them toge- 
ther ; as, Lift! is Jhort^ and Art is long. Life is fhort^ but 
Art is long. 

The Ciplis are ConjtinSllonsn whofe only Ufe is to join 
tw o Sentrnccs together ; as, And^ &c. 

2. A Relative Word, or a Word which fetcheth back 
a forego; ng Suhjianti've \ as, njcho^ ^vhich^ that, 

3. A Comparative Word whereby two Things are com- 
pared lOgether ; fo^ cs, fuchy fo many, as many, more than. 

Examples where a Conjunftion is the Cople ; Ptter died^ 
and J J did John ; Will you play, or will you not ? Examples 
\\ here a Relative is the Cople ; as, ^his is the Man which 
[il/^^«] Ifaw ; He is the Man ^2Xfiole the Hor/e ; This is 
the Boy who came to our Houfe. 

Examples where a Comparative Word is the Cople; as, 
As ycu do fo It'/// 7; 1 eat more than he\ 1 heardfuch a 
Siory 2^^ you never heard in your J^ife* 

^ejlions relating to the Firjl Chapter, 

Q. ^'-6«/ /J Syntax ? 

A, It is a right Joining of Words in a Sentence. 

Q^ Where is the Nommative Word, or the Siibflantive 
that the Verb relates tOy to be placed? 

A, Before the Verb : As, / lo^e, thou readeft^ 

Q. is it airways placed before the Verb ? 

A. . No : For in an lnterrogati<ue Sentence, or where a 
Qucllion is aflced, the Nominative Word \% placed after the 
Vtrb ; as. Are you the Boy? Is Peter alive ? Docs he read 

z. In an Im[rratt've or Commanding Sentence^ the Sulh 
fa7iti've is alio iet after the Verb : A^ Bum thou. Read 

yr, SiC. 

3. In a Conditional or yielding Senfe ; As, Say 7, had 

I reeidiht Boo A, Sec. 

4. When the Word, There, is fet before the Verb, the 
N-m native Word follows it; As, 7 here was a Neife^ i.e. 
ii i.V/T. *iViiS. 

c Aiio when, IT^ is put before the Ferh: As, It was 

'Ths E N c L I s H Grammar. 231 

■ Q^ W«u ii iht Geoilive Cafe ta ie plaad ? 

A. Always before ihe other SubKaotives ; aa, the Maf- 
Itr, HBrfi. 

Q. Uaio it tfn Arlide h. ta he placed? 

A. Only before Subflantives of the SiflfM/urA'craiw- J as, 

a MiU, a Boy, not a M^, a Soyt. 

■ Q; Wku is the ArtUli, Ihe, toheplaai? 

A. Before Subiiantivet ekher of the Singular or PluriJ 
Numhr J as. Tie Man, ibi Men, the B^y, tht Boys. 

Q^ n^-m is the ?T„nmn to hepUeit 
\ A. The F'jregeing Slate of ihe Pronoun is to be placed 
before the Verb : But ihe Fol!in.viiig State after the Tjj-i or 
' Frepofithti ; as, / love. We lave, lovi me, hve ui, to me, lo ui. 

Q. // the Foregoing State efthi Pnmoutt xever plated of- 
ter tht Verb f 

A. Yes. When a ^tfiiim ii ojktd in a commanding 
Sfstevet, &c, SB, Ami, Ij He, Figbt Tliaa. i-c. But more 
paiLicularly ii goes before and follows the Verb An or Sc ; 

W, lam He, &C. 

Qj If'hat da ytu mean hy the Nominative Word ? 

A, The Word that anfwers 10 the Queftion, JH* or 
If hat is, dn I, or fMfcri ; as, »'bs is gsod ? Thomas. Sk. 

Q^ Is ml tbt Verb put infinittvely, aid fomeiimes a Sen- 
tence, counted as a Nominative Word (at^rVctbf 
. A. Yea. As, W Lye is fiamefuL 
; Q. How wBjf Ihe Viih agree -wiih lb, Nominadre Word f 
1 A. It muft be of the fame Number and Per/m, that the 
\Nomiiiaii-ue fVerd is of. For Ejtample, 7hou k-vrfi, Thtu 
is ^ Secsnd Per/an Singular, iheref ore love/ mult be fo 
too, for thou UveJ!, or le^e would be falfe Grammar. 

Qi I/iioe Subjianiives Singular esmt logelhcr, hoto mujl 
the Vol) beputf 

A. Tt miill be put in the Plural Number ; as, Feltr and 

Q. Ho'uifiett linoiu what Petfini they ere off 
' A. /and Another is ai much as ^i. 

Tbiu and another is as much as 17. _ 

He and another is as much ai They. fl 

! And Wr is tiie Gtfi Perfon, Ye the fecond, and They thc| 
U^^rfpn Plural. '^ 

L -z ^^' 

232 ^e English Grammar. 

Q. Is not the Verhfometimes of the Plural Number, thwgb 
the Nominative Word be of the Singular ? 

A. Yes : If the Suhftanthte be a Colledi<ve Noun, or a 
Noun of Multitude, that is, comprehends or includes ma- 
ny Particulars in it. As, Fart are^ or Fart u i the MM* 
tude are 'very noijy^ or is wery uoify^ 

Q. IVhat is a Jingle or fimplt Sentence ? 

A, A Angle Sentence is, that which has bat one Verb 

Q^ What is a Verb Finite ? 

A. Any Verb that has not the Prepofitiony /«, before it 
exprefTed or underllood. 

Q, What is a Compounded Sentence? 

A, A Compounded Sentence is, when two fingle Sen- 
tences are joined together by fome Cople orTye : As, Ufe 
is Jhort and Art is long, 
QJWhat Words are tbofe that couple or join Seuteneis together? 

A, A Conjun^ion ; a Relative Word, or a Word that hts 
Relation to fome other Word in the Sentence ; as, Wbo^ 
nxjhich, that: Laftly, a Comparati've Wordy or a Word where- 
by two Things are compared together ; as. So, as, &c. 

Q. Whence comes the Word Syntax ? 

A, From the Greek Prepofition Syn together^ and 7axts, 
Ordering or Ranking, In Latin it is called CmfiruBio^ from, 
Con together, and Stru£lio Building, or a Setting Things in 
good Order. 

Q. ^/&^r^ r^m^/ Nominative ? 

A. From Nominare to Name. 

Q. Whence comes Finite ? 

A. From Finitus bounded, becaufe a Verb Fimte is bound* 
ed by Number and Perfon. 


Of Tranfpofition, or the Tranjplacing of TFords 

and Sentences. 

TH E Syntax, or the ConftradHon of Woid$ into Sen- 
tences, may be d\il\tk^u\fiied into two Kinds : i . That 

which is Natural and Regular » 0T|Z»1\ax^\»dBLS&Oij2<i- 


1'he English Grammar. 533 

marj and Figaralive, That Syntax may be called Rtgulw. 
whicb is according to the natural Senfe and Order of ilie 
Wordi. Cu/emarjf or Figurative Synlax, U that which 
is ufed in the Forms of Speech peculiar to feveral Lan- 
gkiages; wherein Words are put together according to a 
Metapbsrical or borrowed Senfe of them : As, To brink a 
Jtfi, Ishihinaihl to Bid, lotaki em's Huh and Jiy eiuay, 
tte. The natural Order alfo of the Words is changed or 
tranfplaced : For in Englijh, as well as in Laiiu, ibe Words 
of a Sentence are not always placed in their natural Order, 
as they lie in Senfe, but are put into fuch an Order, 
as will found fweeteft to the Ear, yet fo that the Senfe 
. be not thereby darkened or rendered obfcure : For Pirjp- 
,Hlty or CU,.r„,/, is the chief Ejteellenee of Speech. If 
fo, we may take Notice of a verj- great Fault fome Per- 
fODS are too guilty of, who are for writing of Phrafc^, 
before they are acquainted with common Expreffions ; it 
Taa&\x Phra/t Uih ai Fhrafi Englijh, i.e. Bijnhaji La- 
li/i or EngUp. But this is no new Fault, fince pBhius fays, 
there was a certain InftruCtor of Youth, who ufed 10 
order his Scholars tocbfcure or darken what they would 
lay, making Ufe of the Grttk Word rxsi-icrsi , t. e. 
f^ai BbfcttriTy ; hence that extraordinary Commendation, 
Stmuth tht bititr, (or admirably performed) /er / undir- 

* Tranfpofitkn is the Putting the Words in a 
Sentence, or Sentences, out of their natural 
Order, that is. Putting Words or Sentences 
before, which Ihould come after, and Words 
or Sentences after, which Ihould come betore. 

The Suhftanli-ut is often put out of its Place, efpcially 
when Thirt, or //, is fet before the Vtib \ as, Ihrre ix-j, a 
Man, i. e. J M.n, -wai ; II i: tht Oijlm, i. e. TJie Cuf- 
lom is. 

So always in nn Interrogative Sentence. 

So Adjeflives, cfpecialif if a Verb come between the 
Sublbntive and the Adje£live -, »i, Ha^^ii ibt^V-a^ 
t.^ Man ii botpv. 
' Li '^^ 

234 ^^^ English Grammar. 

The Prcpojition is frequently traofplaced ; as, H^m A 
ynu dine ijcith ? For, With ivbom Jo ycu dine f What Plaf> 
dj you c mc from ? For, Fromixbat Place do you come ? 

Bat I fhall not (land to fpeak of the Tranfpofition o: 
each Part of Speech, but fhall give you a Period or two; 
v^Iience our Youth may conflder how it is not in the 
Latin alone, that Words and Sentences are thus tranfpofedj 
but that we are fomewhat guilty of this Cuflom, ihougli 
not in fo great a Degree : And this, by the Dire£Uon ol 
their Mafler, may ferve to put the Lads upon reducing 
the Englijh^ that is given them for their Exercife, into its 
natural Order before they attempt to turn it into Latin, 
Eut we fhall firft obfcrve one Thing, which is, that the 
bell and clcareft Writers have the fewefl Tranfpoiitions 
in their Difcourfes : And that they are more allowable in 
Poetry than in Profe^ bccaufe it is there generally fwcctci 
and more agreeable to the Ear. For Example: ^ 
Tling, though never fo little, lohich a Man /peaks ofbimfe^^ 
in my Opiniony is ftilltoo much. The natural Order is thus : 
Any Thing is too much, in my Opinion, which a Man 
fpeaks of himfelf, though never fo little. So : nis /j 
the Word of Faith nvhich <wefreach^ that ifthoujhalt confefi 
fivith thy Mouth the Lordjefus^ andfialt helie*oe in thy. Hearty 
that God hath raifed him from the Dead^ thorn flfalt h 
jhtved. The natural Order is thus ; This is the Word of 
Faith which «u/ preachy that thou fhalt he fanned, if thOQ 
fhalt confefs, Cffr. So : It cannot be a^dded^ fi long as 
there is Weaknefs on Earthy or Malice in Hell, but that 
Scandals nvill ari/c, and Differences fxill gro^w in the . Church 
of God'y The natural Order is thus : // cannot be atvoided^ 
tut that Scandals mnll arife^ and Differences ^11 grovo in 
the Church ofGcd, fo long as, &c. 

So ; I Tet not the more, 

Ceafi I to ^wander *where the Mufes haunt 
Clear Spring, orjhady Grove, or funny Hill, 
Smit njuith the Love offucrcdSong ; but chief 
Thee Sion, ard the flovj'ry Brooks benath 
^v7/ Tvrj^b thy kalLwed Feet, and viarhlingflonx:^ 
H/^My I'vijit, &C 

The English Grammar. 235 

The natural Order is thus: Yet finit with the Love 
of Sacred Song ; I ceare not to wander, i^c. Bat cliii;f, 
I nightly Vifit thee Sion, &i. 

So i O Woman, htji arc all Thingi ai thi tHU 
Of Cod erilain'ii them, his trtatingUand 
NelhlHg impttfia er lUfiae'il Uft 
Of all that he crtaUd, muth It/s Ma>i. 

The natural Order is thus, O -Wdmiw, all Tbh^i art 
bcft /,! tbi mil of G«d urdoimd tbfm, li, creetUx Handltfi 
HBihlng i^rfiS «r Jefielml ef all that ht crmtid, &e. 

Of MBn'ifirfl Difihedinee, and the Fruit 
Of that firbiddin Trn, n^hofi tw>rtal7^ftf 
Brought Dtath into the World, and all oar IToe, 
ff^iti Lefs b/ Eita, till oni grialer Man 
Rifiert ui and rtgain tht Blif^ful Siat, 

Siag, HeaVfii/j Mafe, &C, 

The Order is thus : Hiavenly Mafi, Sing of M,«'i Jlrft 
Difihedimtft Ac. But we {hall conclude this Chapter of 
TraKjfofiiion with this Caution, that he, who would write 
clearly and plainly, mult obferve natural OrJcr as much as 
in him lies ; yet not To Ilriftly, as wholly to negleA the 
Tranfpo&tion of Words, fince rometimts he wilt be obli- 
ged to tranfplace them, in order to render them more ma- 
fical and harm oniotis. But the Imitation of thofc Writers 
who write the mod fweetly and agreeably will be the bell 
Guide and Direaor in this Cafe. 

^ifihnt relating te tbt Cbafttr o/Tranfpofliim. 

Q. M'hath Iranfpsfitionf 

A. A Placing of Words out of their natural Order in a 

Q. Wijp A the) flaei lb, Wordt ont of ibiir aafmal 

A. To render the Vloiis more hannonious and agree- 
able 10 the Bar. 

236 The English Grammar, 

Q^ May ivi then tnij^lace all Words in ivtry Seninui at . 
nve pleafe ? 

A* No, not always ; but we mad in this, as in all other 
I'hings, follow the Ufe of the bed Speakers. 

Q^ Whence comes the Word Tranfpofition ? 

A. From Tranfpojstto^ or a Puttbg beyond^ or out of the 
natural Place. 


Of the Ellipjisy or the Leaving out of Words in 

a Sentence. 

♦ T T 7 Hatevcr Words may be as well under- 
V V ftood when left out, as they would 
be if they were mentioned, may be left out in 
a Sentence, 

* Words may be left out upon four Accounts. 

I. When a Word has been mentioned jnft before, and 
may be fuppofed to be kept in Mind, then it is often left 
oat. As, Cafar came^ and faiJOy and conquered \ where you 
need not fay, Cafar came, Cafarfaw, and Cse/ar conquer' 
ed: So ye have eaten more than nve, i. e. than ^uo have 
taten. fhu Book is the Mafier\ L e. Sook. Whofe Horfe 
is this ? Ours, i. e. Our Horfe. 

Therefore in a Relative Sentence (a Sentence havine vobo^ 
*which, or that, in it) the Antecedent [foregoing] Word isfel* 
dom repeated : As, 1 bought the Horfe which you fold, i. e. 
*wkich Horfe, &c. ^he Wine fi^^^ which youfent mc^ i. e. 
-which Wine, &c. What Words 1 f^oke, thofe 1 deny, i. e. 
thofe Words, &C. 

J I. When any Word is to be mentioned itraight or pre- 
fently, if it can be well underftood, it may be left out in 
the former Part. As I ever did, and ever voill love yon ^ 
i. €. J ever did love^ &C. Drink ye WhititRed Wino, 1. c. 

thi English Grammar. 237 

Drink ji ffhiie nine, er. Sic 7ti hjl cf tht Churchfi ii 
Pauri. i. c. Ihe htftChurcb d/ Ihf. Churchei ii Pt-itf! 
Church ; Or to put it into the natural Order; Paul's Church 

il the belt Church of the Churchrs. 

HI. When the ThoBghi is expreffed by fomc other 

Means i as, n'bo ii hel Pointing to a Man, you need not 

fay. What Man U that Man P 

IV. Thofe Words which, upon the mentioning of o- 
then, rauft need be fuppofed to be meant, may be left 
out 1 as, H'hn yaa come te Paul'j then turn 11 the left, every 
Body knows you mean Paufj Oiurch, and the lifi Unn^^, 
therefore thofe Words need not be exprefied. ThePrepo- 
fition. In, is often leftout i as. Reach methsBoei, for Reach 
the Beak 10 mc. Hand \% often left out ; as, turn tn ihr 
Right, tun, u the Left i. e. to the Right Man^, ll the left 
Handf ScQ. 

Thing, and A^, are frequently left out when they may 
be underAood : Al, It is bardta travel thmugb ihc Snmv, 
i. e. // i, akardThlng, Sec. It i> eefy ta do fi, i. e. It it 
an tafy Thing er Aa, &0. 

The Cople, that, is oft left out in a CstrpinndedStnteKce, 
ke. as. Jde/re (that) ycu -would ivrite for v,e. I think I 
fma him, i, e. that I fa-vi, Ac. 

The Kdatives that, which. 'uhs, •whom, may be omitted 
or left out; ai, This ii the M&n I killed, i.e. that,m'wk<im. 
Gife tat the Harfi you flole, i. e. ivhich yta floie, &c. It 
tbitlbe Matiye ffuke ef? i. e. ef fubom yt jfake. 

Sometimes a whole Sentence Is left out : For Example ; 
b il ear Duty to pay a RiJ^if and Deferrner, eis to ail tkeft 
that ere •virttmii and toureigeaut, "who def.gnfor the Goed and 
Advantage cf ibe Governmeiit, and {v/no) firve or {who) 
have fervid it in am »f its hlerefi ; fi (it ii cur Duty ta 
pay a Rrjjiea tmd Deference J to thofe ctfi iuh» bear dar Of. 
fee or Commmid iJt thr State. 

I will give yoo an Inftance or two onraifpsfitian, Had , 
of the EJliplii or Supprrfion together. Ai the diluate of " 
the Artifi can quickly difcoiicr the liefi Fault in his Mnfick \fe, 
•wBuliim lake as muih Ctrl iit delciiin« and a/faring our 
Ficei.ive might, frttn the i nf andmoft tri-vtal M^itteri. p:aie 
fi-vrrot Ohfervatieni ihet lutuid he much tt our /titxjQWay . 
F'DM //.if //laving of tar Eyes, /w Exoitif Ic •, J"r om iWmti'T'j or 

2^i Tie Etij GL I s H Grammar. 

/orroiufu/ Air of our Countenances^ &c. tve mgbi emfil^juife 
ai'/jut is haniijlme and becoming us, andiuhat is repugmnt t9 
the Rules of our Duty. That is: As the delicate Ear of the 
Artift can quickly difcover the leaft fault in bis Mufick ; & 
[if] <ztr fwculd take as much Care in deteSing and cenfiering 
cur Fie fs^ nve might make fcveralObfertvations from the lea^ . 
and mcji tri*vial Matters, that [i. e. Obfervations] 'wmddbe 
much to our Advantage. But I (hall give you fomethiog 
for an Example of this Prepofition, We might eafily judge 
nxlat is handfome and becoming, and we might eaJUly judge 
*u;bat is repugnant to the Rules of our Duty from the moving 
of our Eyes, from the merry or forrowful Air of our Comtte' 
nance, &c. 

How ufeful and neceilaiy this Do^ine of the Ellipfs or 
Supprcjffion of the Words is, both for the underliand- 
ing the 6enius of the Latin, and that of any other Language, 
will eafily appear to any confidering PerfonS ; fince there are 
;ibundance of Expreilions which we could have no Senfe 
of, if they were not refolved after this Manner : And 
though I would have nothing allowed for a Rule, without 
fufEcient Authority ; yet we may now and then, to- gra- 
tify an ingenious Mind, indulge ourfelves in a probable 
Conjefture. For Example, how would a Lad or Fo- 
reigner know how to render, III on, into any Language, 
unlefs he were firft informed that, /// on, is as much as, / 
*will go on F So it is an eafy Matter to tell a Lad that in, 
quid agis F ^uid is Latin for <what ; and in, fuid ita f 
that quid IS Latin for wi-hy ; and the Lad muft believe it, 
becaufe the Mafter fays fo, though he finds himfelf puz- 
yJed to reconcile it to his own Mind, how the £une 
Word ihould fignify ^what and lAjhy : But it would be a 
greater Satisfaction to an ingenious Mind, if you ac- 
quainted him ho<w or ivhy it was to be fo conflrued : 
E, G. qitid agis, i. e. to, agis quid negotium } Tou do 
^Luhat Bufittcfs F in quid itafectfti, i. e. Ob quid negotium tu 
ita fecijii F For luhat Thing did you do that F For tvhat 
*fl'ing, i. e. Why F So in like Manner, I fhould have a 
clearer Notion of ^A/ff0^v/«, if you faid it was a Com- 
pofltion for ^am ob rem, i. c. Ob quam rem^ for what 
Thing or Reafon, than if you (aid it was an Advorh^ and 
igaificd fw/.'ere/hre, and eavc m« uo {^sticiu ^^fiaSsm to \\.. 

The Emglish Grammar. 239 ' 

But lis that has a Mind to be beiier acquainted wlih the 
Doftrine of the Ellipjii, as it relates to the Latin Tongue, 
Hiay confult Satifiiui'i Minir^a, and the jodicioui Notes 
of the Learned Ptrizoaim thereupon : Or elfe an Exflana- 
lian of the Syntax in Our Cnmmoit Grammar, wrote by my 
worthy Friend the Reverend Mr. Parfel, late Maper of 
Merchant-Taylcr'i School : Printed for Mr. Boniviik in St. 
fattPs-Ckurch-rarJ: In which Book the Reader willfind 
a very rational and ingenious Account of the Rules of the 
Laih Syntax: And indeed the acquainting Lads with th« | 
Reafons of Things, and to let nothing pafs, before ihcy 
have attained a tolerable true and jull Notion of it, would | 
be of more Service to them towards the Extfcife of their 
Reafon, than the Knowledge of Thoufands of Latin and 
Creek Words. And as the Knowledge of Things it far 
more preferable than that of Words ; fo the Words will 
be but poorly underfiood, unlefs we are alfo inflmfied in 
[he Knowledge of the Things ihey are ufud to denote or 

^tftms ritating t» the Feur/k Cha}ln: 


J. The Leaving out of Words in a Sentence. 

Q. May ii< lea'Ut cut luhat Word, ti.'c ptcejt h a Zcntcitce ? 

A. No. 

Q. Vpiin mhat Aceeant may Words be kft eut ? 

J. L WhenaWordhas been mentionediuft before, anj 
»ay be fuppofcd to be kept in Mind, then it is oft left out. 

Therefore in a Rflative Sentence [or in a Sententc that 
relates to Tome other] the Anwcedcnc [or fotcgolng WoriJ 
is feldom repeated ; a), 7 hsughl iht Hsoks, 'v.LUh [BooksJ 
hi there. 

11. When any Word is to be immediately memionail, 
if it can be well underftood, it may be left out in the for- . 
mer Part s as, Drinkye RrJ [Wine] <jr iybite ffhc ? 

Ill- When the Thought is exprefCed by fome other 
Meant : As, [Minting to a Ulan, you need not r:iy, M'ia is 
' U Matt f Buciv^v is that f 

L 6 V^ ■ '^^^'^' 

240 Tke English Grammarm 

IV , Thofe Words which, upon the mendoning of oAen, 
mull needs be fuppofed to be meant, may be left oot ; la^ 
ff'/jiNjou come /o Paul's then turn f the Left\ every bod| 
knows you mean FauTs Churchy and Utit Left Hamd^ there- 
fore thefe Words need not be exprelTed. 

Q^ Whence comes the Word Ellipfis ? 

A. From the Greek Word Ellipfis^ an OmiJ/um^ or />#• 
^vig out. 

Q. Whence comes Suppreffion ? 

A, From Supfrejfio^ as it were, the Stopping or Keeping 
the Word out of a Sentence. 

Q. Whence comes Antecedent ? 

A» From Antecedens^ foregoing, or going before. 


Of the Points or Paufes in a Sentence. 

Til £ Method of didinguifhing the Senfe, in i Sen- 
tence, properly belongs to that Part of Grammar 
iliut is called Syntax, For xn a Sentence, not only its 
StruSiure or Order is to be regarded, but alfo DifiinSiw, 
For the Ufe of Stops is not only to mark the Difiance 
of Time in pronouncing, but ilfo to prevent any Confu- 
fion or Obfcurity in the Senfe, by diflinguifiiing W^rds 
from Words ^ and Sentences from Sentences* fiut how this 
iDiflin£lion is to be^made, is not yet very thoroughly 
»greed upon among the Learned: For you will fcarce 
ineet with any two, even Learned Men« who (hall dif- 
tinguifh a Paragraph by the very fame Points. And indeed 
it is not much Matter whether we do fo or no, provided 
we take Care fo to diftinguilh Words and Sentences, as» 
not to darken the Senfe, or tranfgrefs any known, eafy, 
and plain Rule : Namely, when a Queftion is aiked^ not 
to make this Mark (?), and at the Ending or Condnfioii 
of an Afiertive Sentence, not to put this Mark or P^int (.) 
Dif^indion of a Sentencej, is either of 9k Sentence writ* 
ten^ or pronounced. 


1'hi English Grammar. 241 

Tlie Points or Stops, that dtreft what Kind 
oF Paufe is to be obferved, are four : A Comma 
(,) A Setnicolon (1) A Colon (;) A Period oc 
fuU Stop (.) 

Nete, Orthefe we Ih&ll immediately treat, aTcer having 
taken Notice, that Writing, being ihe Piflure or Image (3 

Speech, ought to be adapted unto all the material Circum- 
ftances of it j and confequently, muft have fome Marks 
to denote thefe various Manners of Pronunciation : 
Which may be fufficieatly done by thefe fix Kindi of 
Marks or PoinM. 

• I. Permthejis. z. Paratbefts. 3. Ern^ 
tejis. +. Ecpbertejis. 5. Empha/ts. 6. Irotty. 

Some do alfo add Hyphin, but of that we fhall treat in 
the Orlhography. 

I. Perinihejii or Inttrpiifitlen ferves for the DiflinfUon 
of fuch an additional Part of a Sentence, aa is not necef- 
faiy to perfeil the Senfc of it ; and ii ufually expreffed by 
the inclofing of fuch Words betwixt two curve or crooked 
Lines, ( }. hi, Taur KinAnefs la me {tuiici J accaunt » 
1-try grtat HappiHi/i) maiei me unJerga, &C. 

Note, Some do ufe this Point wrong, when chey include 
ei I thiui, ai J /ay, &c. in this Point ; where it is fuffi- 
cient to fet only a Comma, or at moft a Semico/Ba on each 
Side. We ought alfo to uke Care that our Partnibtfii 
be not too frequent or too long, nor crammed one into an- 
Other, for that obfcures and darkens the Senfe. 

a, Pat-alhtfis or Bxpofition is uied for Diftiniiion of fach 
Words as are added by Way of Explication, or of Explain- 
ing fomething that precedes or goes before, and is ufually 
exprefled by inclofmg fuch Words between two Angular 
Lines, [ ]. Ai, Anguiar Liaei [Bracktti^ mark tht 
Feint tullti a fiaraihefis. 

J. E'-oltJiim lali-rragalkn is a Kind of Pir/W for the 

Pi&tnflion of fuch SeftWnfiw as tax. ^lo^sfeiVt '^m ^ , 

242 7% Eir G L 1 6 R Grammar. 

^uefttorty and is ufually thus marked (?). As, does he yet 
doubt of it? 

4. Ecphonejis^ Admiration or Wonder and Exclamationy is 
a Note of I)ire6Uon for raifing the Tone or Voice, upon 
Occafion of fuch Words^ denoting fome vehement Paf- 
fion; and is marked thus, (!). As, O the Folly of Men f 

Note, Some do often omit this Note; and they had 
better do fo, than in fuch Sentences to make a Note of 
Interrogation as fome do. 

c. Emfbajis is ufed for fte Diftindion of fuch Word 
or Words, wherein the Force of the Senfe doth more pe- 
culiarly confift, and is ufually expreiTed by putting fuch 
Kind of Words into another Chara&er, zstkeltalicky &c» 
Some do alfo exprefs it by beginning the Word with a 
Capital or great Letter : Wlierefore, for the better keep- 
ing up the Ufe of DiflinSlion Emphattcal, one ought not 
promifcxiouf]y to write every Noun with a great Letter as 
is the Fafhion of fome now a-days. But we fhall in the 
Orthography lay down fomc Rules when to write Words 
with Capital Letters. 

6. Irony ^ is for the DiflinSlion of the Meaning and In- 
tention of any Words, when they are to be underflood 
by Way of Sarcafm or Scoff, or in a contrary Senfe to 
that which they naturally fignify. 

A'. B, And though there be not (for aught I know) 
any Note deiigned for this, in any of the inftituted Lan- 
guages, yet that is from their Deficiency or Imperfec- 
tion : For if the chief Force of Ironies does confifl in the 
Pronunciation, it will plainly follow, that there ought to 
be fome Mark for Diredion, when Things are to be fo 
pronounced. As, He's a /fecial Fellow : Suppofe this 
IWark < .. I have lately learnt from a German Writer,, 
that the Germans make Ufe of the Note of Exclamation 
turned up to mark the Irony ; as, O good Sir / Which. 
Mark may do very well. 

Vhe Comma rs the fhortefl Paufe or Refling in Speech, 
and is ufed chiefly in diflinguifhing Ncuns, Verbs^ and Ad>- 
'verbs. As, A good Man, and Learned, fo exhort^ to pray. 
Sooner, ir later J every Boily mufi die. It diflinguifhes. alfo 

The English Grammar. 

J of a ftiorter Sentence: Ae, Lift U fior 

^A Smdcslon is the Mark of a Paufe that is greater than 
a Cemma, and left than a CaUn. The proper Place for 
this Point is in the Subdcrifton of the Members or Parts 
of a Sentence : Ex. A thi Shadoiu msiia, and 10* ds boI per' 
ttivt it ; ar as the Tree grmvi, and nut do ntl afprihcnii it : 
So Man, &c. It is alfo of great Ufe in the *ii(tingui(hing 
of Nouns of a contrary Signification ; As, Thitigi iomef' 
tick, Things foreign ; puilici Things, Things private ; Things 

A Cakn is ufed when the Senle is perfeft, but the Sen- 
tence not ended-: As, J/ yon fi»g, jtu fing HI: If yt» 
read, yeu fing. 

The Cokn is generally cfed before a Comparative Con- 
junftion in a Kmilitade ■ Ex. Ai tht Ape csmnKtily Blls her 
young Ones by loa much Fondling: So fame Parents fpoil ihtir 
Children by too much ludulgaice. 

Alfo if the Period runs out prrtty long, the Colon is of- 
ten made Ufe of. 

A Period or full Stop is the greateft Pauley and is (et 
after the Sentence whenit is complett and fiilly ended : As, 

God is the ebiefft Good. 

^cftioni Ttlaling to tht fifth Chapter. J 

Q. Whence comtsthe Word Paufe f ^ 

A. From the Grc,k tla?^«, Paufis, a Slop or RcpHg. ■ 

Q^ Whence eomo Comma } 

A. From the Greek ^^^a. Kamma, a Cutting off; be- 
caufe the former Word or Part of a Sentence is cat off 
from the following one. ■ . 


A. From Ku^o., Kilon, a Member ; becaufe as the 
Body is divided into Members : So is a Period diftinguifhed 
by thcfc greater Members, ^Cehn, Semicolon. 

Q^ Whence comes Semicolsn ? 

244 ^^^ E ir o L I s H Grammar. 

Am From the Latin Word ^emi^ balfy and the GretV tS* 
Acy, Kulon^ a Member ; the Semcolon denoting half die 
Paufe or Refting in Speech of a dkn. 

Q. Whenci comes Vtriod} 

J. From Ilf^io^o;, Periodus^ i. e. a Going about, or 
as it were a Circle or Revolution of Words comprehrad- 
cd by fome Ending 

Q. WbefKt comes Pareathefis ? 

A. From n«(ffSf0-»Cy Parentbefis^ Interpofition, or a 
Putting between. 

Q^ Whence comes Parathefis ? 

A. From Ila^a^fo-K, Parathefis^ Appofition or a Put- 
ting to ; the Putting one Word to another to explain it. 

Q. Whence comes £rotefis ? 

A. From '£f Jth^-k^ an Interrogation, or Aiking a Quef- 

Q. Whence comes Ec^hont^^} 

A, From*tzfu9iiicr^9 Ecphonefis, Exclamadon. 

Q. Whtnce comes Emphaiis ? 

A, From IfA^aUtf^ emphaino, to fhewy or reprefetit; 
it (hewing fome particular Force to be in the Word or 

Q. Whence comes Irony ; 

A, From 'EifuwiU, Ironia^ a Pretending, &r. It mcao* 
ing a Thing contrary to what it naturally fignifies. 


Ihe English Grammar, 2 45 



0/ Orthography, or Orthoepy, 
treating of the Letters and their 

THIS Part " of Grammar ought to have been treat- 
ed of fiift} but we have for feme Reafons re- 
ferred it to this Place. And liere I cannot dif- 
femble my Unwillingners to fay any Thing at all oq this 
Head i Firjl, Becaufe of the irregular and wrong Pronunci- 
ation of the Letiiri and fferdi, which, if one (hould go 
about to amend, would be a Bufmefs of great Labour and 
Trouble, as wellas Fruiilefsand Onfuccejsful. Many have 
been the Endeavours of this Kind, but it has been found 
irapoffiblc to ftem the Tide of prevailing CuHom. Se- 
cnndly, Becaufe the Multiplying of Rules, for the Pronun- 
ciation, rather confounds than helps the Learner ; Since 
that Rule can be but of Uttlc Service, that admits of fuch 
avafi Numb.-r ofExMpiions, as mofi of the Rules, com- 
natAy laid down, generally do, I have therefore often 

• The Treating of this Part laft. being found fault 
with, I fliall, if ihae be another Edition^ ^laca i^viVa, 

246 ^be English Grammar. 

thought, that fome other Way ought to be foand oot to 
render this Matter more eafy and expeditious : And the 
only and befl Way that I can think of is, the making of 
a Book, that (hall contain all the Variety of Pronunciad- 
on, beginning with the Syllahlet and Words that are pro* 
noanced according to the moil fxmple and natural Sound of 
the Letters, and thence proceeding gradually to Syllables 
and Words, that are pronounced otherwife than they are 
written, and contrary to the natnral and genuine Soonds 
of the Letters. And this Book ought to contain not only 
fingle Syllables and Words, but Sentences and Stories : For, by 
the Coherence or Agreement of the Parts of the Sentence, 
the Scnfe of the Words is better perceived ; and, the Senfe 
of the Words being known, the Pronunciation of them 
will be more eafily and plainly underftood. For Pronun- 
ciation being fuch a Thing, quae nee fcribitur^ nee pingitwr^ 
nee earn hauritifas eft, nifi Ti^vd <voce, that is, which can be 
neither written nor painted, but mud be learnt by Ufe, and 
the hearing of others pronounce : Such a Book as we have 
jufl mentioned, being firfl read by the Mafter to the Scho- 
lar, and then repeated by him, would, I believe, fooner 
inftrud the Learner in the Pronunciation, than if he wtrt 
left to gaefs at the Sounds of the Words by himftlf. But 
to proceed ; 

* A Confonant is a Letter that cannot be 
founded without adding a Vowel before or af* 
ter it; as, m, which is founded as emi f^ 
which is founded as pe. 

There are one and twenty Confonants ; ^, r, y, /*, g9 
h,j, ky /, », », ^, f, r, /, /, «i;, w, AT, y, K. y is 
reckoned both as a Vowel an4 a Confonant ; for, when 
y follows a Confonant, it is a FoweL , as, dy : But when 
it comes before a Vowel, it is a Confonant ; as^ Tes, 

But ilnce of Letters there are made Syllables, and of 
Syllables Words, it will be convenient to explain what a 
Syllable is. 

* A Syllable is the Sound of one or more 
Letters expreffed inone'Bt^tVL. 


The English Grofitmar. 247 
If there be one Letter in a Syllable, that Letter maii 

be a Vowel : at, J-mcn: For a. Confonant cannot make 

a Syllable without a Vowel ; as, Ab-bot, not b-bat. 

If a Word haa but one SyUablc. it is caUed a Monojyl- 

hble; if it has two, a Diflyllable; if morcj a Polyfyl- 


A'. B. The Word Syllaile ought to have been wrote Sjl- 
hbt I ai, our/amtiu Pett Mr. Ben. JvAit/ba writes it. 

N. S. I might here obferve from Bi(hop If'iliins anJ 
Mr. Ray, that our Alphabet is deticienl in loras Refpefls, 
and ftiperfluous in others. But we may have Occafion to 
icmarlc fome of thcfe Things under each Letter as we go 
along : We (hall now therefore proceed to the Franuncia- 
(ion, and begin with the VoweU. 

^ejlms rti»iing la iht Jirfi (^efltr, 

Q^ ff^bat ii Orthography i 
A. See Pagi 4;. 
Qi What u Orthoepy ? 
jI. See Paie 45. 
Q. Ifbai h a Letter f 

A. A Letter is a Charafter or Mark of a fimple Sound. 
Q. Ho^v many Lcltcrs are ihir* in Eoglilh f 
4v0M .Twenty -fix. 

Q^ Wbkh are Ihey ? 

A. A, b, c, d, e, f, g, b, !, j, k, I, in, n, 0, p, qi 
r, «, t, u, V, w, X, y, x. 

Q. Hill] are iht Letters di'videdF 

A. Into Faiuili and Ccnfinantt. 

Q. Wkai i, a Vowel > 

J. A Vowel is a Letter that marks a full and perfrft 
Sound of iifelf, without the Help or Joining of any other 
Lemr to it. 

Q. H»w many Vt'uitti ari there f 

A. Pivei a, e. i, <,. u. 

Q^ Is nut y a fgwel. 

A, Yes, it is ufcd inftead of i; but, Gticc « Ixii'JiR. 
fjune Soand, you need not make «aivftitiS.N<M(^- 

248 ?'^^ English Grammar* 

Q. Is not y/ometimes alfo a Confonant ? 

A, Yes ; when it comes before a Vowel it is a Con- 
fonant ; as in yet^ yes \ but when it follows a Confona&t 
it becomes a Vowel : as in ^, my^ &c. 

Q;^ What is a Confonant f 

A, A Confonant is a Letter that cannot be fonoded, 
without adding a Vowel before or after it. 

(^ Gifva me an Example* 

J. M is founded as if it were written em: Ph founded 
as if it were written pe, 

Q. Hotio many Cunfinants are then ? 

A. One and Twenty* 

Q. l^ame them, 

A, B, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, r, 

W X V z* 

'q^ What is a Syl'iable ? 

A. A Syllable is the Sound of one or more Letten e2- 
preffed in one Breath. 

Q^ I/a Syllable cofififts but of one Letter , what Letter is 
that ? 

A. A Vowel ; as, a Man. 

Q. Honv many Letters may there Be fn a Syllable T 

A* Never more than <n ^ven or Eight ^ as, Stref^tb. 

Q. Can there be any Syllable without a Vowel in it f 

A. No. 

Qj^ Whence comes the Wonl Letter ? 

A. From the Latin, Litera, which comes from LiMiMdh 
a Marking on Paper. 

Q. Whence comes Vowel ? 

A, From Vocalis, Vocal or Sounding i Utera it under* 

Q. Whence comes Confonant ? 

A. From Confonans, Sounding together vntb^ bfC it is 
founded with a Vowel. 

Qj^ Whence comes Syllable ? 

A, From Syllaba, Comprehenfio ; for it comprehends or 
contains a Letter or Letters under one Sound. 


7^ English Grammar, 24^ 

C H A P. II. M 

Of the voyvEi^s. m 

TH R Vowels, A E. /. O, U, and r for 7, when 
they end a Syllable are commonly Itng, bat oiber- 
ways are generally ^«.' Kand WdifFer not at all with 
at (as Vowclf) in Sound from i and u; and in many In- 
flance), are alio indiftierendy ufed for the faid Letters, f. g, 
Idilc, ChjU, Font, Sow, Cme, Sec. 

Of ihi Vinutl A. 

• v^ is generally pronounced with a more 
fmall and llender Sound than among many 
other Nations. 

Mneh after the fame Manner as the Trimb pronounce 
their £ when followed by A^, in the Word ErUendmnl, 
but fomething fharper and dearer, as the Iialiant do their 
j1. Gut we mull not pronounce it like the fat or grofs A 
of the Gcrmusi, which we generally exprefi, if long, by 
a* or cit- , or if fhort, by the (liort 0. 

But there are fomc Words in which A b pronounced 
broad or full *. Namely, when ^ comes before the double 
/./. in ihe End of a Word: As, Ail, Tall, Hall, Cell. 
Well. Ball, Fall, &c. In thofe alfo that cDinc from thefe, 
or are conpouaded or made up of them i as, allihauzl>t 
7allnrfs, cJliag, H^allJloiL-i., &c. Where { wouldadvife that 
the Word be marked with a CnumSex (a) to denote the 
traaJ Sound. But lUd/*, tali, 4c. are more rightly pro- 
nounced by the Fnglijk (A) ; which Wofds are very care- 
IcTUy founded by fonte 'uiauk, luuk. Sec. in which Sound 
we imitate the Frmci, who for «/ fometimes. before » 
Confonant, fubfUtute or place aa; and fo do the Snub 

~^ H« Confooant does not follow, 

t 15. %a 

250 The English Grammar. 

N. B. Our Alphabet wants a Letter to exprefi tbe 
Sound we give ^ in the Words.£^i^ IFall, &C 


* £ is pronounced with an acute and clear 

Jufl like the E Ma(culine of the French ; but it is (caicc 
ever pronounced with an obfcure Sound, like the French 
E Feminine ; unlefs when the ihort E goes before R^ as 
in Ftrtue^ Stranger^ &C. 

* But E fimple, or alone at the End of the 
Word, is altogether mute or filent, neither has 
it now a-days any Sound of its own : As in 
make^ bavcy &c. 

Except in the Article Tbe^ which is written with a (in- 
gle E (to diftinguifli it from the Pronoun Tbee) and in 
fome Proper Names j as, Phoebe, Penelopey &c. for a iingle 
E is feldom elfe pronounced at the End of Words, por 
He, She,, be, lue me, would t>e better written as. they are 
founded with EE ; Hee, Shee, bee, fwee, tnee. But as of- 
ten as the Sound of E is at the End of Words, it is ex- 
pre/Ted by another &lent E being added to it ; as^ Pharifet, 
Sadducee : Or elfe A is added to it, as in Sea^ Pea, FJea^ 
yea. Pica, Tea ; or by adding T^ as in Marjhalfey, Lang- 
ley, Hendley, &c. Though the £ is now often ieft«out ; as, 
Marjhalfy, &C. 

^be Original of the filent E. 

The Original of the filent E I take to be this : Name- 
ly, that formerly it only had an obfcure Sound like the 
French E Feminine : So that the Words take^ one, tMne, &c. 
which are now * but Words of one Syllable, were formeriy 

:i. Words 

■ ■ II I !■' " III 

* It may be true, that many of thofe Words wero 
once Di/Tyilables, as xoany aUo v<ci^i^\«aDdL -^^feim 

^he English Grammsf. 251 

Words of two i as, tn-ir, o-xt, loi-ue, &c. To that the firft 
Vowel, that ended the Syllable, was tht;refore counted long. 
But the obfcurc Sound of the final or ending £ by Degrees 
fO far vanilhed, chat at lall it was quite neglefled, (ai it 
often happens to the E Feminine of the French ;) but the 
Quantity of the foregoing Vowel was preferved, aiul the 
other Letters foundeo, as if the £ were likewife to bo 
pronounced. ' And this does raoft plainly appear, if we 
obfervc, that this £ mute was of old always added to 
Words, in which it is now conftantly left out j as, rfar^r, 
^-turi't /oft, tuaiK, and a great many others, to which 
JHudb there can be no probable Conjefture made, * why 
^^^Hhatlld be added, if ihefe Words had not been formerly 
^^^■Donced Jur-ii, mar-h. lia-fe, tuai-lt, ttc. For it could 
^Rir"be prefixed to thofe Words to make the Syllable long, 
which is now its chief Ufe, becaufe the foregoing Sylla- 
ble is cither not long, or elfe is made fo hy ine D'pbtJrong 
or double Vowel that goes before. Moreover in the Wordi 
iave, etat/e, live, la-vr, dovr, tic. you fee before the filent E 
the ^Confonnnt, which is never known to end a Syllable.f 
So likewile in the Word) Fera, Space, Strang,, Race, and \a 

the Time they have been fpelUd as they are now, they 
have been Monofylkbles. For Inftanee, /acan, or tadge, 
is two Syllables 1 It becomes taki, and is two flill : But, 
when it is reduced to leh, it becomes one. And the very 
fame Reafons why we keep the t, at this Day in fuch 
Monofyll^bles, might be Reafons to our Ancellors for do- 
ing the fame. 

" See the Account of the f, at the End of fuch Words 
be^ow. The three firft, darte, Uafi. mirku were never 
Dilfyllables, except perhaps in (he oblique Cafes : But from 
the Time the DilUnftion of Cafes has been fet afide, they 
have foliowed the fame Pronunciation, which ihcy had in 
the Nominative, and fo have been Monofylkbles. 

\ This Rcaibning is thought by fome not to be 'right i 
for thofe and the like Words were became Monofyllables 
before ever the t was added, and ilie 1 was added upon 
ihe chan^Dg / into 'u. In old Eitgliii we find tire S^V- 

252 The Enqlish Grammar. 

many others, Cand G are founded foft before the Pimil S 
Now no Reafon can be given, why thefe Letters C, C 
ihould part with their own proper Sound, unlefs it be 1m 
caufe or the Sound of the E following ; cfpecially fincei 
have received a great Number of Words from the Frsne 
among whom, not only the Spelling, but alfo die iaz 
Manner of Pronunciation of the E Feminine does yet i 
main : To this we may add that among our old Poets d 
E makes the Word either of one or two Syllables, as t; 
Verfe requires : * Juftas nowa^days in Heaven mA E% 
which are either MoneJ^Uahles or Dtjfyllahles^ that is, of 
or two Syllables^ as ihall be moft agreeable for the ronni 
of the Verfe. 

Of the U/e oftbejilent E. 

But though this filent E is not now a-days founded, } 
it is not altogether ufelefs : For befides its difcovering 
us, that thofe Words, to which it is added, were forroei 
pronounced with more Syllables than they are at prefer 
it like wife ferves to three other Ufes. Firfty It ferves to pi 
fcrve the Quantity of the foregoing Vowel, which, if lor 
remains fo, although the iilent E be not now pronounce 
So the Words Bat^ Maty Hat^ Fil, Mil, mi, &c. are ftior 
but the Words Bate, Matey Hate, File, Mile, Wile, are Ion 
all which Words are Monofyllables, or Words of one S' 
lable. Secondly, It ferves to foften the Sound of C, G, a 
*Ib\z.%, fence, lace, mace, &C. huge, rage, &c. breathe, nvreat 
which, if E were abfent, would be pronounced more hs 
or ftrong, fini, lak, mak, bug, ragy breath, nureatb, TbirA 
The filent E ferves to didinguifh the V Confonant from I 

ling thus, haf, for have ; lee/, for lea've ; vifzxAJlfy \ 
f've y gaf, for gafve ; tivel/, for twelve ; bele/^ for be^ 
drof, for drove ; lof, for love, 

* Sometimes by a poetical Licence ; or probably in 1 
firft Manufcripts, thofe Words that made two SyUal 
ended in i, as, granti, forgrante; or croum^ tor cr§w 
So they are written in the Manufcript of Robert of Gi 

The English Grammar. 253 

V Vowel, as in hai/t, craiie, fave, which would elfe be 
pronounced hau, irau^/au. Sec. Bat, the ^Confonaut ha- 
ving now a diftinft Charafler from the U Vowel, this filenc 
E may hereafter happen to be omined Or left out in thix 
Sort of Wordj. 

fT^m ihefitent E it rtdimdant andiift/ffi. 

But, whenever there is none of the foregoiag Conlidera- 
tioui, this £ may be left out : Except afttr i joined to 
another ConJbnar.t ; as in CuiMi, baHiUt, lililc, TiMe, iiran- 
gle, ttc. in which Words the £ might be omitted : But in 
id/e, trijlc, TaU, Fable, lahU, abU^ neble, it feeras to be more 
needful, to denote the Lengthening of th« foregoing Vowd. 

WhnJiUnt E rmmmi in the Middle of a TP'ord. 

Words that end in filent E, whether they b« afierwarils 
compounded, or recervean additional Termination, yet they 
retain their fileitt E if there be Occafion, which has the 
fame Force, the fame Ofiice, at it had before. Bui this fi- 
lent £ \i fcarcEcver found in the Middle of a Word, un- 
lofj it were orieinally a Final £. So MiUi, U'ilrs, Graiiei, 
Li-oei, defiln, hclimts, rarily,Jiiirh/, tbargtalli, unfbange. 
ahle, retain or keep the filent £, becaufc it was a hnal £ in 
Mile, nUe, g,-i"iii, lift, drfU, &c.BuHli. not fbunded 
in thofe, becaufe it is not founded in theft : Though I do 
not at all cjuellion, but that it wa^ fcmnerly pronounced in 
both the Primiiiii and dm^unded Words : As it \i yet by 
fome, in the Word Conmmidimtnt. 

But this E, which was filent io the Singular, is founded 
n the Plural, //M^i fhnfej. Vice, Fir/i ; alfo in the third 
Perfon of Verbs ; asv 5i ■■B'l;'/, berb'mfei; and the Re af on 
of this is, becaufe the Sound 6^ S cannot immediaMy tut' 
low the Confonants, S, 7., X, Sh, or C, C, Ch, pronoun- 
ced foft. {?iet pag. jS;) 

But, where this Neceility of Pronunciation does not re- 
quire i^ the 4 is not written, or at Itaft is not founded j ai 
in Ha«di, Landi, Mi/a, rndi, be tntin, Sie. Bu% ia tndei/r, 
mafrfh, the e ii there founded, tiot becaufe it wse a tavft 
t, butbevufc ft belonij to ihePerroftalTermiiftt,iQo, ar. 
M *^^ 

254 ^^^ English Grammar. 

• It IS ufual in all the A&xvt Participles to 
leave oui the e l^ore ing ; as, for love-ing^ grot' 
ing^ bave-ingf we write, lovingygiving^ havings &c. 

N. B. Mr. Ra^ dHapproi^ of the tdding the Letter ^to 
the Ends of Words to iignify the Produ^ion of the Uft 
Syllable, at to mate, todifUngiiiflt it horn mmi^^fimii from 
fihaek, fi>in€ hfumf^n. This, he iinrs, is a great Oflftnce 
to Strangers and ChiUfen^ who in ludi Worda are ape to 
snake two SvHablee of one» and to f^cU and pronosnce 
^ML'fe% fhid'ie^ Jbi^nif kc. The Piodamon or Lengthening 
the Sylhble oudM to be fignified 1^ a Mark oyer the Vow- 
el to be made fong, thus, 4, /, &c. 

The fame Thing ma^ aMb be find ^ainft the Adding of 
«» to fienify the ProdaClion of a Vowel, as in greats head^ 
/nakf #fM^ hittt ; wldch, at we find juft now, ouj^tto 
befignifiedbjaLine over the Vowel to be produced^ thuii 
Mdy grit, 4/, iH, Ac. 

80 nkewife, in Adfe^Hves diat end in Ut and //#« he would 
kare tlie r left one i aa in fttbukk, hittiip Ik. 

We havt a Maltknde of Words fo ending, and we once 
had many more, before our late Retrenchingt : Snt, how 
and why they were velienched, take the following Account. 


t. /« Nouus Suhftaiitiniu 

Oar Notms StJ^attHve in Saxw^ pardv Ssxctt^ ended not 
in £, in die NumMsiivi, Of very rarely i Out the Dmiivt and 
Ahlatiw in four Dedcniiona did fi> end ; SmitK Smtbii 
Worthy fF9rthe» One ma^ fuppofe thefe Cafe^ bdng moft. 
in Ufe, made this Termination prevail above others 1 and 
(Ot when the Cafes camet all into oiie» this one was the 
Snrviver. That came fo many oiwrMnau to end in E, 
and to be fo written^ though, probably die Proniuciatioa 
ftill followed the Ntmi/uawet or was vanons for fome lime. 
Thus the Spamard$ apd kuUsmi in the Sin/fJisar baxre ocm- 
£ncd their Nouni to dx ilUatin}c» 


LThe £ H o L I s H Grammar, 253; 

X, Jm jUjfSivis. 

\ The Adjciliiia Timuint in three of the Cafes ended in 
£ ; as, god, bonus \ gtic, bona ; min, meus, ihib^, mea. 
This TerminaiJon therefore coming up the ofKneft, and 
being moll frequent, was the Termination that furvivcd 

, the red, when all came to be reduced to one. We need 
DOC then wonder that i/ari« was fofpelledT rather than dark, 
though ftill the hla/:alint Pronunciation very probably pre- 

I vailed sand they no fooner brought all Cafei laAGiadtr^ 

^ to oite, but they reduced the Word to a MaiiB/jHaiit, 

3. InFtrii. 

I The &^«ir(tr«atfirfl ended ina«, as the ItJicati'vt In the 
Prt/ent Tfofi in igi. Cuman, IQ toai ; ie CuKige, I row', 
I By Degrees Cuman degenerated into Cswa, by cutting off 
I *, and Cuma into Cumc. See fiickfs, pag. 9;. xc^S. And 
L this new Termination of the Infinili-vt by Degrees ran 
I through all Maods and ftnfis. Hence it is that fo many oi, 
\ our Virbs end in E, though we have retrenched great Numt 
j bers of them, cutting off the ufelefs E, in brtaki, marker 
\/radt, and many others. I am perfuaded that thcfc anj 
, ihe like Vtrbi have been MonsjyVabltt ever fince tliey were 
1 fo reduced. But, before they came to end in £, many ler- 

■ tninated in /, and fo long kern the Syllahlei diftinfl. Studa, 
' f'crti are very common in the oldell Manufcriptof 5oi/»-/ 
j of G/oB«jfl,r. As to tre-ni, for what we now write to 

■ frtviti i granll for grant, bei9ari to hanoar ; firin xafcrve I 
j ienii to baunt. Where we fee the Remains ofihe antienC 
1 Termination igi ; maki is for maii^' ; la^i for l»via, and the 

like. The Pniirlmptt/iil, in the iirll and third Ptrfin 
! Singular, regularly ended in £, as tueUi and lufodt. And 
from hence would come <u)aiiU and ievtJi i but we have 
retrenched fuch Ftrht in that TVr/-. 

4. Psriidf/tt. . 

In Saxn Aey regularly ended in E, iufigndi, kc. Th* 
it& Cbuiet of {ueh Pariicif hi viiA \w.o \\vi'X«t!iwai-«»- 

256 The English Grammar, 

andiy laftande, depart ande^ confoundandc^ dill the E remained. 
Then came lajiyngey departynge^ confoundynge ; bat at length 
we have changed the j^ into /, and cut off the E^ and very 
juftly. The principal Ufc of the final E was formerly to 
diflingaifh the Participle from the Verbal Noun ; as, Lufgcn- 
de. Loving ; Lufigend, a Lover. We npw difiingitifh better 
by a quite different Termination, in Loading and Lover. Mr. 
J^ay^s Expedient, for fupplying E mute, is not a good one : 
It might give as great OfFence to Strangers and Children, 
as the filent E can be fuppofed to do : Befides, that it 
would be very odd to fill every Page or Line with fupple- 
mental Strokes and Marks, as if our Alphabet were defici- 
enty and we had not Letters enough to fignify all oar 
Sounds. If there were really any luch great Neceflity of 
leaving out the final E, the beft Way, in my Judgment, of 
fupplying it, would be inferting of a Vowel in the Mid- 
dle, inftoul of £ at the End. Let us run through the 
Vowels in Order. 

1 . Our long a might be written with au ; as maad, 
Kaam (for made^ Name) which was our antient Spelling : 
or more agreeably to prefent Ufe, ai might ferve in all fach 
Words, as it now does in many : As in laid^ /aid, afraid^ 
faid^ ftaidy upbraid, hz, the Sound is the very fame: and 
we might thus fpare the final E in all Words fo founding. 

2. Our long E we have already fupplied in moft Words 
by ea, in the Middle ; inilead of the final f , we write 
Cream, dear, fear, tneat% (not Creme, dere,fere, mete) and fo 
moft other Words : Cuftom has infenfibly almoft ftrnckoff 
the final E in this Cafe, and fupplied it another Way. 

3. The greateft Difiiculty would be in the long i, in fuch 
Words, as ivrite, bite. Kite, Wire, Shire, mine, thine, &c. 
nay, we make it long in feveral Words without the Help of 
the final E, as in nvind. Mind, Pint ; while it is fliort in 
Jiint, dint, &c. where Cuftom is the only Rule. I know 
not whether our y or it might not tolerably fupply the 
Want of the final E, but it would appear odd at firft to 
have lAsryt or ivriit, &c. 

4. The long is eafily anfwered by 00, or oa ; as in 
jloor, boat, coat, doat, goat, throat. See. In half our Words 
of that Xind^ we have alxtady cutoff the final E, and fo 


The English Grammar, 2 57 

;. The long e is eafily anfwered hy ui; as in Brim, 
Fruit, Suit, fcc. Such 3 Method a; this would remedy ilie . 
Thing complained of about the final E ; but whctlier other 
Inconveniencics might not enCue, andthofeas great u the 
oiher, h the Queftion. The Inconveniences are, 

I . Thai we Ihoald in fcveral Words go farther ofF from 
their ptiDiiiive State, and lofe Sight of the Eiymohgy. 

z. We fhould want fevcral Diftin^ons in Spelling, whicli 
now ferve to diftinguilh Words ; Hair atwl Hare ; Maid 
and >aede ; ben and itiw ; file and fidt ; move and raeor i 
with many o I hers. 

3. Any Man that begins a new Spelling will run the Ha- 
rard of his Difcretion ; and, if he is not followed in it, it 
comet to nothing : For general Cuftom is at laft liie only 
Thing thai can give CountiMiance or Credit to it. .^1 

Of thtVc^'^elX-' ^ •! 

When the Vowel iis Ihort, it is founded nicft com- 
monly like the /of the /rioiri and other Nations widi a 
fmatl Soand ; as in bil, ■"'•U, fiili, W», pin, fit,, fll, Ac. 

But, whea i is long, It Is moft eommonly pronounced 
like the >. or ei of the Greiis ; as in bite, <wih',fiile, i-jtne, 
tine, almoft after the fame Manner as in ai, in the Fitncb 
Words Main, a Hand, Pain, Bread lie. For it haih a Sound 
made up of the E Feminine, and / or T. It would not be - 
unifs if the long i were always marked with a Circumftx 
at the Top, to dillingulh it from the (hort /, thus, i. 

There is alfo a Third Sound of 1, like et, as in 0*% 
[obleege] Ac. And if at any Time the Sound of the Oiort 
I ia to be lengthened, it is not always writ with /, but 
fomeiimes wi;h ee, as in Steel, Jem, ful \ foraetimes with 
ii, as in fi.iJ, UidJ. 

N. B. No EfTg^fi! Word ends in /, but has always an E 
after it, as eaji'e, not e,jfi, though now le is frequently 
changed into T. 

Iiisthe received Opinion, that is the Word* li^nt, 
mine. Sec. £ is there a Note of Production, £gnifying, that 
the Letter / is to be pronounced long ; but Mr. Raj fays 
it Cgnifies that the Charadler / is. there to be pronounced 
« ■ I> ifilb»ng. Thai it is a Diphthong i^^'i^eM.^^'^V^^ 
^ M J — *— 


.258 ne English Grammar* 

pronouncing of k, yoa cannot continue tbe ca^ Soond* 
but Auft needs terminate in Jtim, or a* 

Of tbi Vvwd O. 

The Vowel O hai three Sorts of Sounds ; as in rofi^p^ 
&c. fometimes it is exprefled by au^ or awi^' and m long; 
as in Foiljy fvnd^ where the Sound of tlie firft Vowel is the 
iame with a^ mfall^ and anv, infamotit only the laft is long, 
and the former fhort i laftly, it is fometimes (bunded like 
the obfcure (/, as when we carelefly pronounce Cfiuditm^ 
London^ Cbmpajfe % as if they were written Cundiiion, Lum* 
don^ Otmpajft^ &c. And fo likewife fome pronounce comtt 
dome, fcmey Sou, Lave, Ddvi ; as if they were written cmme, 
duntj fumty Sec» 

N. B, The fhort Vowel is founded like the German a^ 
or open or fat o^ only it is pronounced fhort ^ ZAia moUi- 
fy, fondj ice. ^ 

The long is pronounced like the Griei k [Onuga] and 
the French au ; as in the Words, SoU, cbc/e, nurt^ &c. This 
Vowel for Diftindiion might be marked with s CktMmr 

JifX A. 

Few Englijh Words end in O, except i§^ g^ /»* m^f ls» 
/«(?, tnno, unto ; the Sound of 0,at Uie End of Worda^ being 
generally exprefied by ow ; except in Jt% Ih^ dn^ JEsr. 


♦ The Vowel 17 is either ^^/ or tof^. The 
fhort Vowel U is pronounced with an obfcure 
Sound : As in but^ cut^ burft^ ^urft^ &c. 

I'he Frtncb exprefs this Sound in the laft Sylhble of the 
Wcrd Ser<iiteur^ the onl^ Difference between this Vpwd 
and the French E Feminine is, that this U is pronounced 
with the Mouth not fomuch opened* This Difierence the 
Englijb may eafity perceive in their pronouncing the LBim 
Words iter itur, terttr turiur, c^d^ furd^t ttmus lar- 
»MJ, Sic, 

The English Grammar. 


The long Vowel U is pronounced like the Frtnci V, 
with a fmall or (lender SoDDdi as in Lute, Mutt, Mu/e, 
Cure, Sec. tvith a Sound as ic were made up of / and if. 
This Sound might be diftinguilhed from the former, by a 
Point Or Accent placed at the Top of [/ihu(, u. 

No Engli/h Word is ended by U, except thou, you ; the 
Sound o'.U being commonly exprefled by Ve or titi: as, 
^gue, trut, tienjL, Nephew, ffw, &C. 

^fiians relating to tbt fiend Chttfttr. 

Q. H'hal do ym mean by e long Syllable f 

A. A Syllable where the Vowel has a loig Sound. \ 

CU 'f'i"^' ^30* titan iji a RiOft Syllable ? 

J. A Syllable where the Votvel has a Ibort Sound, ^| 

Q. mat !, E final i ■ 

yi. An £ that ends a Word. V 

Q. ifhatdayou mean hy E mute crfikni ? ■ 

A. E that is not founded or proncwKcd in a Word ; a» 

it) W(*rr, Hcarib, which are lounded l-urt, harth. 
(^ What U tbt Vfi efthifiUnt or nitfeunded E i 
J. I. li ferveito preferve the Quantity of the fotcf*- 

ing Vowel. 

a. It fervci to ioktn tli« Sound of C, G, 7b, u in 

P«et, P«gt, Brtaiit, i-c, 

a. Itferveito diftinguilh the f^Confonant from the 

Vowel V , ai, Ha-ot inftead of Hau. 

Q. J/ w/ filent E in iti Singular tfim fihititJ in til 

Wwh sfsht Plural Kvmier ? 
A. Yo ; And it is likcwifc founded in the third PerfoB 

Sirgular of Verbi. 

Q^ Civi mtfcmt Examplri ? 

S. Age, P. Age!. 
S. Fi«>. P. Fi^ii. 

IP. BcMi. 
, P. thai,. 
, P. /ftr/». 

/!>/? Ftr/i„. nirJPfrfiu. 

So / fflf^ 


M 4 

^» WW/. 

i-^ V<t<'i-J. 

htfarthti. ' 
ti f tattle f. ' 


26o The English Grammar. 

Qi, mat is tbi Rea/oH of tbis f 

Ji. Becaufe the Sound of / cannot immediateljr foltov 
the Confonants, /» «, x^fi^ or o g% cb, pronounced foft. 

Q^ Is it notfo before tbe otber Letters ? 

A. No. For in other Nouns and Verbs the Syllable is 
not encreafed. 

A Hide makes Hides. 

Wife, Wifes. 

So to bide. 

be bideu 

I^'ame, Names* 

to pipe. 

be pipes* 

Rope, Ropes. 

to gape. 

be gapes. 

Fire, Fires. 

to ivrite, 

bi writes. 



Of the Diphthongs or double Vovoels. 

HEN two Vowels meet together in one SyllaUei 
they are called a Dipbtbong, or double Vowel« 

* A Diphthongs or double Vowel j is the Meeting 
of two Vowels in one and the fame Syllable. 

Meeting, that b, the Union or Coalition of two Vowds ; 
which is Detter than to fay the Sounding ot two Vowds i 
for in fome Diphthongs the Sound of one of the Vowels 
is never heard : As in Meat, P/eafure, where the Sound of 
a is not heard. From what has been here obierved, we 
may divide the Diphthongs into Proper and Improper. 

* A Proper Diphthong is where both the Vow- 
els are founded. As in jUd^ Hawky &c. 

* An Improper Diphthong is where the Sound 
of but one of the two Vowels is heard : As in 
i/eai:/^ Breads $cc. 

The E K c 1 1 s H GramrMrl 2 6 1 

The Prcper DiphihsBgi are (ti or ay, au or oTO, er, si or 

Bui when a Pripir Diphthong lofet its natural Sound, and 
changes lo any other fimple Sound, it ceafes to be a Proper, 
and becomes an Improper Dipbtbofg, as having only ihc 
fimple Sound of fome one fingle Vowel. Exespt when «v 
bunds like sa ; as in could, ^uld, 'ai9uld% for oa, ia alfo S 
Pro^yr Dipblbong. 

The ImpreptT Dipbthongi are m, «, m, k. o«. and ai, 
and «r. 

Where the Sound of only one of the Vowels is heard ; 
and in moll of them it U the Sound of the firft Vowel 
[bat is heard: Though it is very likely that both the Vow- 
els were formerly pronounced. 

A Triphthong is when three Vowels meet together in one 
Syllable ; as, eau, in Beauty ; but this we pronounce 

But the Zxglijh Tongue fcarce admits of any Iriph- 

V. 3. When two Vowels are put together by Way of 
Diphthmg, fo IS to eoalefce or join together in one Syllable, 
that Great and Good M^a Bifhop Vi/iini fays. It is necef- 
fary that there ftiould be fome Note or MarW in their Cha- 
raf^ers, to lignify their Conjunftion, as is ufual in fome of 
the Gie/i and Laiin Difhihcitgi ; as ii, and u, tr, and a.. 
Otherwife there can be no Certainty, whether the Word 
be to be pronounced as a Monofyllable orDlfryUable; as tn 
t>u.i!. Duel, S-ne-et, S-wtel. 

* Ai or ay expreffes a Sound compofed of one 
Ihort a and j : As in Lay^ Prai/e. 

In the Middle of a Word it generally has its full Sound, 
At the End of a Word it is founded like ^ ; as in tnav, 
faf, Ik, Alfo, before r, it has the Sound of •« ; as in ka/'-. 
f'^ir, ftc 

Before Words ending in n, il is beieer to (vrire ai, than 
ti, ai Feantein, &c- 

c62 The Eft ot t %n Granmar. 

N. B. At is written in the Bcgianing and MiMle of 
W ords, but ^, always at the End : unldfs in «f^} choe- 
^'^'c we muft always write jy, at the End of Wcfds, in- 
^.nJ of dr, which ends no Englijh Word. 

Au. or aiv, rightly pronounced^ would ^Te m ft Sound 
1. a '' up of the Enzllfi fhoit a and ^w : But it is now ft- 
d<':ys fimply founded like the fat a of the Germans: Nane- 
ly, xVc ^Jound of u being expreiTed broad, and the Sound 
of the w, quite fupprcfred. 

For thev do with the fame Sound pronoanoe aUt ««/> 

£<it7; calif caulf cttwU &C. 

Avi} always ends a Word ; au^ not. 

Ea is now pronounced as the long f, the Soand of « 
being quite filenced or fupprefTed, and the Sound of/t 
lengthened. For the chief Ufe of a is, that it makes the 
Syllable to be counted long : So, mtt^ nuatifit^fimt^ &c. 
have no Difference in Sound, only the Vowel in the for* 
mer is (hort, and in the latter it is long. 

Ef^ or ie^ is founded like the French long /, that is» flett** 
der I, for the French give the fame Sound to^^s viiff ai 
the EngUfi do to feen, fven^ or perhaps, Jten^ tfiitr, at we 
do \n pendy feen. Single Words of one Syllabic in r o^ 
ten found rr, and ought therefore to be written with don* 
ble ee ; as in Bee^ hee^ mee, ^wee, Jhti^ &c. 

h is nfed for j, at the End of Woids ; u/tgrnfie^ ^fy' 

Words written with ie ; as, Frienii^ Ftend^ Mieve, grievi, 
lee. might perhaps be better written with a fingle h fl^ort 
or long ; or e long. 

£/, or ey, is founded by clear f, and y ; or elfe fimply 
by i long, the Sound of the y being fapprtied ; as in rv- 
rn'o//, /eizi, dectit % or cUe Ukc ai, or m, long in niga^ 
feign^ eight, &c, 

Eu, iWf eau, are founded by dear $ and 4v i or ra- 
ther u long. As in Neniir, frw^ Beauty, &c. But fose 
pronounce them more iharp, as if they were to be written 
Niewter^fiew^ Bieuty, or niuuterfjhv, Biivty, &c. efpecially 
in the Words ne^, kneiu^ Jhrw. But the firft Way of 
pronoancing them is the better. 
Oa has its own nsitural Sovxtvi vcv good^ Jliod^ Esif, Finf, 


It is founded like the fiit E/ of ihs Ctrmam, and the *s 
of the Fmeh, 

0» louodi like long in iictr,Jlicr: But like long a, in 
fand tad b/atd ; wherefore Mr. A«r Tij's thtt Spelling is et- 

roceous, snd thac they ought lo be wiitCea^W, il»d, Stc. 
for we never protioonce iheie Wwdt, as we do Mfd, nci* 
thcr as we do fraud, 

N. B. Mr. Say fays we want a Letter to fignify Ibe 
Sound we give to m in double t, as in fW, &c. And ho 
fays it is a llmple Vowel, becaufe the entire Sound of it 
nay be contiiiued as long ae you pleafe ; which ia the on- 
ly certain Note of DiAin^ion between t fimple Vowal and 
a Dipibihoag. This Bilhop Wiiiht expreffes byji, which 
i) ufed in Grtei for ov Diphihtni i becaufe commonly that 
Oipkthtng, at alfo the Fnach en, it pronounced ia the Sound 
of this fimple Vowel. 

Of, or tj, are exprcHed by open or clear 0, but Ihoit. 
vid jr. As in Nci/i, Bi/jt, Toyj, Oil, OiJIir, Sk. But fome 
do pronounce them like o, or obfcure u : 3», lyl, oil, or 
t%ji, uyi, Sec. In fome Words it h founded like ;' long ; u 
vajtiK, paint, omul, !«. 

N. B. Oi U ufed at the Beginning and Middle of 
Words; e>, at the End. 

Ou, and OTt», have two Sounds, one more clear, the 
Other more obfcure. 

In fome Words the Sound is exprelled more clear by the 
open t and lu. As in San/, fnaio, kmrn, fitu, vnut, bmvl, 
tec. With which Sound the fimple ? ia fometimes txprcfkd. 
Damely bcEore U; as in GeJJ, fteld, Md, tald, old. kc. and 
before double l/t in P^iJ. rci/, uil, &c. But ail thefe Word* 
are pronounced by fome by full i as if they were writ* 
ten SSIr, Si's. &c. 

la othiT Wordi m, tni mu, srt pranoaiiced with a 
more obfcure Sound ; namely with a Sound compofcd of th« 
obfcure a, and u, and •ui. 

As in Umi, Mini*, «ur, tmt, Ovil,/im/, Ffwl, he^v, 
Seugh./mti, ice. 

But in Cpu/./, ivculd, JhonU, tturft, teurl, tu is regli- 
MAtljt vronounted as oo. 

264 fbe English Grammati 

Ow is always written at the End of a Word, not w^ 

It would not be amifs if this dear Sound were to be- 
diftinguiihed from the obfcore one ; which might be doae 
by fome Accent; or eUe by always writing the one by 
§Wf and the other by w. 

Ee; in LftfarJ, /todaryi Jeofmrdj^, &C. Ob fiknt. 

In People, eo is founded ee* 

Oa is founded like • long, the a being added only to 
snake the Sound tong^ and is negleCled in the Aronunda- 
tfon : As in Bhu, float , GoaU But it is founded like emy 
in hroad, abroad. Groat, &c. 

Ui is put for / ihort ; as in Gmliford, GmldHall, bmU^ 
^. a. for # lone, or a Difbthong -, as in Guide, Gtaie, Ac^ 
y f(tr eu, or AvTong ; as in J^'ce, Fruit, bruyt, &c. 

uE, and Oe, at the Bagpuining of Words, are no EugU/k-. ^ 
J>ifbthofigs 3 Though fome Authors do retain et in Leiim r 
Proper Names, and €g in Greek Words bother and et fonnd-^ 
ing like e long : But as they are j|enerally neglected in 
eommon Names, fo they might be m proper Ones. ASf. 
Citjar, Cefar, Oecommy^ &C. 

But oe^ at the End of Words of an EngUJb Origjuialt sa 
aKindof improper />/>^/i^F; As in foe, do^ffit^Jkip 
'woe, where the r is filent, zm the 9 made long. 

^tfefiions relating to the Third Chapter m 


Q^ What is a Diphthong ? 

A. A Diphthong is the Meeting of two Vowds in OBft^ 
and the fame Syllable. - ' 

Q^ What is a Triphthong f 

A, A Triphthong is the Meeting of three Vowds in one 
and the fame Syllable. But we have hardly any Trifhihontgs 
in our Language.v 

Qt fThat is a proper Diphthong ? 

■ji. A proper Diphthong is, where both theVowdaaro 

Q. fThat is an improper Diphthong ? 

A An improper Diphthong is, WCK the Soond of but 
one of thetwo Vowdsisheard» 

Tbe English Grammar. 265. 

Q^ Ttl! lilt i/jhiih Diphthongs are Proptr or Improper : 
Oi or ay, ai OF ay, (o, au Oi av:, on oi aw, la, &c. 

Q^ What Sound hai ai er ay \ 


Q. iS^hen is Ai ^o fo "fid, and •when Ay ? 


<1^ Wheact comet the tforJ Diphthong ? 
A. From ai^Bsyyaf, DifMengut, that i 

Q^ mat it a Triphthong ? 
\ A treble or threefold Sound. 




0/ /if Confonants. 

THere it no great Difficulty in the Pronnndation of 
the Confonants, ^nce they have the lane Soutid 
with at, as chey have for the roofi Part among other 
Nations : Efpecially t, d, /, h, i, I, m, n, p, y. r, z. 
But however we Ihall fay (omcthing of a few of them. 

• A Confonant is a Letter that cannot be 
I founded without adding a Vowel before or after 

it i as, m, which is founded as cm j p, which is 
founded as pe. 

The Cen/onanls are divided into Mulet and Smi-Fatvilf, 
or Helf-Viivth. The Matn are *. f, d, g, p. f,t,Xi 
And all the oihet Confonants are called Stmi-F<nutit ; as, 
/, i, /, «, n, r, I, X. Fonr of which Confonantj, 
namely, /, n, n, r, are called Lijui/fr. But we Ihall noc 
infill upon this Divilion, it being fjiHdem jult to have 
mentioned ic. 

• A Mule is a Letter which makes no Sound 
witbouc a yowel added. . 

2$6 Tie Rholi^h GfMmar. 

♦A Semi-V(melv& a Letter which makes an im- 
perfeft Sound, without any Vnod added ; as, 5 is 
expreffed by hiding, jR by a quivering of thft, 

* A Liquid is a Letter which lofes.Part of its 
Sound in another Confonaht joined with it. 

C. The genuine and natural Sound of c i& hard like i, 
as when it comes before a «» «, /, or r ; as in dm, cofi, 
CuB, c/ear, Crah, But c before the Vowels ^ /, j, or be- 
fore ('] an Jpoflrophe denoting riie Abfence of e, has ge- 
nerally the foit Sound of ^ ; as in Cement, City, Cypher, 
flac'd for placed. 

The french exprefs the foft r, by this Figure, 9, to dif- 
lingttiih it from the hard c : Which Chara^r mig^t be of 
Service, if it were made Uie of amone us, Thoash 
there is the lefs Need of a new Chara&r becaufe tne 
Kule we have laid down hardly admits of an ExcepdoD. 
For as often as the harder Sound of e, eomes before the 
Vowels ey r, y ; k is always either added or put in its 
Place ; as in Sh'n^ SAill, PubUck, (for Putis^ is a Frmcb 
Way of writing, who ufe ^«, becaufe they have no k i) 
Though we may write the Words PuhUek, Ac. withont 
a^, ^.at the *Exid of a Word*, having. ahvm c haid 
Sound. But if by Chance c has any where a fip^fUff Souiut*^ 
as in the End of a Syllable, or before a Csiifinant, or the 
Vowels a, 0, u, they add the fiknt e, to render the 
Sound fofter ; as Chance, AdvamenuM, firctaiky fftni.'^ 
hie,) &c. . 

N. B. Mr. Ray fays, that r, in its proper Power, differs 
not at all from k, and therefore that the one or other mu{t 
nei ds be fuperfluous. * 


* And might not the fame be f^d of ^? They arc aU 
row but one Letter, or oue TotJtt >xtte ^Stev ^MBwat 

The E w c 1 1 s H Grammar. 2 67 

S, When S keeps its oitura! Sound, it ii pronounced 
wiih an afn// (ftiaip) or bii£ng Sound : Bur, when it 
ends a Wonj, it hw for the molt Put a more obfcure or 
{oh Sound like e ; which Sound it alfa foroctime) h» 
when it comes between two VoweU or Diphthongs. 

Ncte, When S has this ibft Soand, it would be conve- 
nient to write it with a Ihortcr Charaflcr of that Let- 
ter i u, Us, tulviir, and in all other Places with the lon- 
ger; aa, biji, ad-vife. (if it be written with an i, and not 
with a c). Tbefe Words End in hard s ; Ut, ibh, thai. 
Ytt. Wherefore all Words of one SyilaUe, except thcfe 
four which end with, and bear hard upo.i the Sound of 
/, mull be written with double ff; but if they be Words 
of more than one Syllable, and end in m, the t \i not 
doubled, but the * is inferted before u/ ; as in iidiam, gm- 

N. B. Though we generally pronounce the nu ia ihefe 
Wordi like u ; as, graciui, ri^hirui, Ac. The like may 
be faid of »ar, in Honour, Oratour, Crcditom- ; Wherefore 
in the firll Words, might be left out, and in the laS 
Son «. 

T. When T comes before /, another Vowel following 
it, ii hai the Sound of the bi£ng S, ocherwife it keeps 

Shapes i and the Shapes are to be varied according to the 
Circumflances, as Ufe has prevailed. Bat i is an aniient 
Letter in t\xLaiia Alphabet, and Hood in the Place of the 
Cnik Kaffa ; and was very dillinfi from C, >vhlch was in 
tbe Place of the Gnek Gamma, and was the only G the- 
Zio/fwhadforaconriderablcTime. Indeed, fmceGcame 
ID u a diftinA Letter, C might be fparcd. For G asd K 
and S all together liKm to luperfcde every Sound or Ufe 
of C. Bui Originally the three were difttn^ enough, ihui : 

Canfwering to Cntk Gamma, Ueimu Gimel. 
G anfwering to Greti Zeta, Heitrw Zain. 
JITanrwering to Greti Kappa, /f; jrt^iv Caph. 

[ CWIom ^1 confouiided iWii VaUun t« Yr'-^^trt. ^^ 

7,6s The English Grammar. 

As in Potion^ NattoM, Meditathn^ ixpatiaU^ &c. whidi are 
founded Pcfion, Nafion, Meditafionf txpafiate^ &c. But, when T 
comes after ^ or A^ it keeps its own Sound ; As im 
Siueftion^ Fufiicn^ Combmfiian^ biftial^ Miximre^ .&C. 

Xj Is founded as Cr or the Gnek 8, * 

N, B. The French are apt to fupprefs the Soond of C 
in this Letter, and the Spaniards to pronounce it too foft. * 

W. This Letter comes before all the Vowels except 1/ »* 
it alfo goes before R^ and follows 7b ; as, JFant^ went. 
Winter, ivont. Wrath, write, wry, icc. It follows as a 
Vowel jf, E, O, and unites with them into the Diph- 
thongs aw, ew, ow, juft like U; as, /anw, few, faw^ ic; 

It likewife comes l>efore the Letter H, though it is really 
founded after it ; as in *when, what, which, that arc 
founded bwen, hwat, bwicb, and fo OUT Saxon Anceflors were 
tvont to place it. 

W is fonnded in Englife as 1/ in the Latin Words, quan' 
do, lingua, fuadeo, and in others after ^, G, S. We always 
count this Letter a Confonant; yet its Sound is not 
▼ery different, though it ibmetimes diffiers from the Ger^ 
man grofs Vowel U very rapidly pronounced. 

Mr. Rajf makes this Letter to be O0 rapidly pronoun- 
ced ; this the Greeks were ieofibk of, for inftead of thd 

* And why not before n ? This Nicety came in I fnp- 
pofe, fince the Gallic nu were introduced inflead of the 
Sax9n y ; for it did not look right to have three «*s toge- 
ther. But, in Saxon,^ u follows py as often as anv other 
Vowel follows the fame: As in p«*» pon'b, pulp, &c; 
And fince we write w as one Letter, and not uu, we might 
have u after w, as well as formerly p, which was al- 
fo a fingle Charaaer. Our antient u has, in this Cafe; 
been changed into 0, or ou, or eo. At the Beginning of 
this Change, they were fometimes content with uu, in 
fuch Words, not adding a third as^thus, uunder for P«n ojit 
But afterwards they riiought there was a Vowel ftill want*- 
ing, and, to fupply the remitted, infertcd <r, ivonder. 

The En Gt 1 SH Grammar. iSg 

Dutch Word Wandah ihey faid '0-j«Ja^ii. And the 
Crttk Diphthong u [Oa] was pronoonced as we do 0». "* 

r. This Letter is both a C^finant and a fVrtr/. Tat 
the Beginning of a Syllable comes before only Vowels. 
erpEcially ji, £, O ; and it alfo follows thefe, and does 
with them malte up the VifMoirgi ; as, ay, ty, ey, which 
have the fame Sound as nu, m, eu. Ac the End of x 
Word, y K more frequently written than / ; but in the 
Middle of \yor(Is it is not (o frequently ufed as / ij, un- 
lofi it be in Words which come from ihe Creik wriciea 
with t. But as often as this Letter is reckoned a Vow- 
el, I would have it marked at the Top with a Point thui 
y, that it may be diAinguidied from the Confonant, snd 
this fomieily \va; always done. 

The ?" Confonant is founded with ui like ihe Craan I 
Confonant ; that is, with a Sound molt nearly approach- 
ing the Sound of the Vowel /rapidly pronounced. The Am- 
Wiwiexprefs r by their I>, as they do our W'by iheir JFa-w. 

N. B. r, iho'.igh it be elleenicd a Confonant, when placed 
before a Vowel, Mr. Rrj fays it is not fo, but only ihc 

Gi-iti lata, or our cc rapidly pronounced. When it is 

accounted a Vowel, ai iii My, Thy, it diiTcrs not at all 
{ram what we call 1 long in mm, ibini, \ 

F. We 

• The Original of our iu is to be fetched from the Gtlhick 
f'ori'.ta-iTOpoftliefeme Valour or Power. The iari'io, 
Cyliii, and Hehrtrx'j have no Letter or Letters that exaftly 
anrn-er Co a 10, unlet ihcir fdw was really IVimi, which 
fome contend for, and t'r.J^us cfpecially. As we make it 
always a Confonant, we do buc blunder in calling it dou' 
ble H ; we fhould have kept to the ancient Samn mme for 
it. K'« i or have called it W'«w. or If an, as the Syriant call 
die Iftire^v Fan. But we give it the Name rather froia 
the Way of Writing it, than from its proper Power. 

i The f h certainly nothing elfe but the Greri UfJUm. 
Rid latini^d, and fo derived to us. But, why it Ihould be 
calledTn'by our 5ajfo« Anceftors, I know not. No C<«i- 
foaint befida takes a diffcreat CoMoTA'CitVa bxeba '-^-Vt ■. 

2yo Tbi English Grammar. 

V. We proDoance the ^Confonant as the Frtnch^ htiU* 
Ar/» Sfaniardst and other Nations do, that is, with a 
Sound very near the Letter F. 

For i^ and ^have the (ame Difference as P and B. It 
is now written with a different Chara&er from the Vowel 
V, In our Language it comes only before the Vowels, 
but never before the Confonant a, as in the French 
Tongue, nor before L, as io Dutch, It follows not only 
the Vowels> but alfo the Confonants, L, iS, in the la& 
Part of the fame Syllable : but the iUent £, or elfe an 
Apofirofhcy is put in its Place, left it ihould be taken for a 
Vowel ; as, Vain^ Vein^ Virtue^ Victy Voice^ Vulgar^ ha*vc$ 
have^ li*Viy LovCt Carve, Calves, &c. 

J, Always begins a Syllable, and is placed only before 
Vowels : For, if at any Time its Sound comes at the End 
of a Word, it is expreffed by foft G, or Dg, with the 
filent E after it, that the fofter Sound of the Letter G rnvj 
be perceived; asin>^/, ^age, Knvwledge. 

it is now a -days written with a loncer Chara^r thus, 
y, to diftiogui/h It from the Vowel /. We pronounce 
the J Confonant harder than moft other Peopiie. Dr. 
WaUis fays, that this Sound is compounded or the Ooa* 
fonants Z^ : as, Dycy^ for Jej. But Bifliop WWdm fmp 
it is a compoanded Sound of D and Zh. That it m 
the Sound of 2) is plain, for bid a young Child that beg^u 
to {peak fay John, it will fay Don. 

G, Before J, O, U, is founded hard ; as. Game, Gear, 
Gka ; but when it comes before Jl, J, T, or befort an 

as we fay he, a, de, &C. v^y not here ye, jti, or (bme- 
thing equivalent ? It feems very peculiar, and is apt to 
lead Foreigners into a Mifbke. But I fuppofe <u;i is a 
Corruption from «y, 9;, or o«, or «/ . The Greek oi, or 
v»> is written in Saxon by their y, as fflro»«0-f», ^fj^x^xu 
vVk, i^^V% iv*««M», is alfo writtem thus: ep«}«ere«. 
In both Readings y flands for ci ; only the u h indifieo 
rently written by i or ei. The Name then was intended 
rather for the y Vowel, than j Confonant ; and fhould b« 

^, or My 9 or oi\ or ai, not <iui\ Some have Fhya, fome Ifyat 

MnoH aDtient is aia. Vid. ra(^« 

The English Grammar. zyi 
Apsfinpbt the Mark of an abrcnt E, ic lias for the moll 
Part a fofier Sound in all Words derived from Latin ; like 

U in Gender, GtHgir, Gypjie, jnd^d htjurfgfd. 

But, u often u j is to be pronOLtnced with a fofter 
Sound, it would be convenient always to have ic mark- 
ed with ■ Point placed over the Head off, to diliinguifh 
it from the hatd^. Which would be of great Advantage 
to Foreigners. But g keeps its natural hard Sound in all 
Words not derived from the Latin or French ; as in Ginie, 
fergive, get, forget, beget, giU, begin, lagttber, and ia all ihc 
Words that come from them. Alfo in Anger, hunger, Ji/i- 
gtr,eagir,yi>tegar,fiuaggeT,JlaggCT, Dagger, kf:. And when- 
ever gg come together, they arc both hard, though /, i, or 
y follow. Alfo in Words derived from Long, Jireng. tig, 
fiig, fiag, bring, and in others whofe Primitives [or the 
Words they come from) end in hard g. In fome Words 
■c or <fr is added after g, which hardens its Sound : as. 
Guide, Guilt, Guile, Tsigue, Guijl, ghefft, Ghaji, and to Others 
where tbe u is not founded. 

* ^, Sounds kut, having u after, and beginning Ward* 
«4th that Sound. 

M S. ^ Is generally Bgfced upon to be nothing elfc 
than Ca, therefore it is reckoned fuperfluous. But, as we 
always put a ■« »f«r it, we make no more than a c of 
it : And befides much may be pleaded againft Gatahr'& 
Account- Many Writers, among othersour Learned Cri* 

" ^is not properly a Sa^an Letter, but it is derived 
to OS immediately from the Ronros Alphabet. If we look 
higher, we may properly bring ir from the Hebre-vj Ktph, 
its Place In the Alphabet, its Figure, and its Valour Ihew 
the fame Thing. It precedes R, as Ka^ precedes Rtfi ; its 
Figure is much the fame with G, the W,t^fi.» aWv* 
of the Greeks ; which though not a Letter of the Greek 
Alphabet is a Numeral Mark, derived from the Hibrtti^, 
and is indeed in Shape a kind of Kiph turned over. Tha 
Valour of ; may be the fame with that of the Uebrma, 
K'ph. Vid. tbsmaf. GL Braf. pog. 90. gi. And fee alfo 
iMltar IhiyJiti his Jrehaahg. (p. i^- ) t*.-^!, nl ^cui'Vw.vwi . ^ 

2y2 fbe English Grammar. 

tick Mr. Gataker^ omit the u after it : Writing infteadof 
fuis^ quidf quanta &C. qiSf M, qam. But Biihop Witkins 
lays, that the Letter involved in i^ is oq^ * not u. See 
Page i6/^. 

f A' and Z are double Confonants ; x containing the 
Sound of csQv hi % contains the Sound olds. 


Offomc Confonanis joined together. 

Gh, A T the Beginning of Words is pronounced as hard 
XjL g •• As in G/hofi, g^'fi* 

Though it is very feldom ufed : By fome it is pro- 
nounced by the foft Afpiration h: As in Mighty l*ight^ 
Nighty Rigbty Sight, Sigh, lueigb, Weight, though, Thought, 
•wrought, taught, &C. 

In fonae &w Words it is pronounced like double ff; 
as, Cough, Trough, tough, rough, laugh, are founded Cojfi 
Troff, tuff, ruff, laff. 

Ch, is pronounced like the ItaUan c before « and /; 
namely, with a Sound compounded of ty: But Bifhop. 
Wi/kiw fays, % TJhurtJh, Church. 

Ch, was introduced by the Normans into our Language; 
as Mr. Lhuyd fays,/. 23. and ^^lotrfff r in his Di£tiopaxy 
(ays, it was not known to the old Englijh Saxons, 

* If he had faid <w, he had not (aid much aroiCs.' The 
Saxon cp is our qu : As in cpacian, to quake. But in 
truth, £nce we add u to it, it involves no Letter, but is 
a meer c ; unlefk half the tv be involved. 

f If double Letters, then are they not properly Lettera, 
but Abbreviations, or Shorthand ; like Q5f, which is no 
Letter, but two in one, et. However it is but a Nicety, 
whether they Ihall be called Letters, or Cbara^ers : And 
Ufe has prevailed for the former. In a Saxon Aipbaht 
[WafilefB Catal. p. 247.) The Mark -\, and, is reckoned 
as a Letter i and lo alfo is ^^ tbat. ^ 

The English Grammar. 2 73 

But in foreign Words it is founded like e or ii as, 
Cbymij], Barueht Arthippm, &c. 

Sli ii pronounced as the Frtnch cb atjy. 
Ph is founded like/; but is feldom written but in 
Words that come from the Greek, written with * or/i. 

7h has a double Sound 1 one foft, coming nigh the 
Letter D ; the other ftroiig, approaching near the Let- 
ter T. 

ft hath a fofter Sound in ail Fronauns, Relative Words, 
Conjunflions. As, Tbcv, thee, thy, thine, the, thii, that, 
tbi/e, Iha/e, they, liem, their,, thmei, thither, tuhilbtr, 
tilher, ivhether, neither, tbeugb, allhiaigh. 

In a few Nouns and Verbs ending in thir. As, Fa- 
tier, Mother, Brother, Ltather, Weather, Feathtr,fmtiith, nta- 
thtr,Jiethe, turiatbe, hrtntbt, bequeathe, cbtbe. 
Elfewhere it generally has a ftronget Sound. 
As in the Prepofitions -with, luithaut, luiihln, ihnmgh : 
In the Verbs thini, thrive, ibra^, thmft, 4e. !»^nh, leach- 
hh, halb, doth. Sec. In the Subftantives TioK^i/, Thigh, 
Thiag.Threig, Death, Srtatb. Cloth, ffralh. Length, Strength, 
&c. In the Adjeflives thid, thin, &c. 

Db and 7h are then of that Power wliich we com- 
inoaly afcribe to tlie Letters D, T, afpirated or founded 
tEick. And though thefc two Powers are conrnionty ufed 
by us without any Provifion for them by diftinft Charac- 
ters, yet our Anceftors the Saxom had feveral Letters to 
exprefs them. They reprefenttd Dh by this mark *, ancl 
7b by ihi) mark P • And 'tis moft evident that the Sounds 
of them, though wo itfually confound them under (he fame 
Manner of Writing, are in ihemfelves very dillinguiCiable, 
as we have alre^y thcwn ; For Dh is foundci in thpfc 
Words ; fbei, thli. Father, &<:. and 7b in thefe i Tliuf, 
thigh, thifile, imh, &c. 

But the l.«rned Mr, Wantef gives a different Account 
of thofe Charaflers, vix. ^ and 6. He fays, the firft of 
them is Ru^ic, and waj in Ufe with many of ihc Karibern 
Kationi. as ii is Itill in letland, where it is called by the 
'Name of Tbitryi (as our Forefathers alfo called it) and that it 
has continued in Ufe from the Beginning of ChriClianity 
among the SeHttnty^Britsun [and probably before) 10 this 

2^4 ^^ English Grammar. 

Thy i w€ only now uHng a IT inftead of it, when we 
abbreviate the Words 7'^^^ This^ That, Then, &c. (to which 
rhe Letter T has no Relation) becaafe at the Infancy of 
Printing the faid Letter Thorn was commonly formed as a 
Ti and that thereby the Charge of that Letter was (ivedy 
and the whole Fount of Letters confeqaently the cheaper. 
As to the other Character, «, the (aid Mr. Wanley informs 
the diagonal Line is only a Note of Afpiration of the D ; 
and fays he has feen a great Variety of them in old Books, 
not only applied to the Letter D, but to other Letters* . 
when they were to be founded with an Afpiration. 

Thefe Letters are framed by a Percolation or Straining of 
the Breath through a Kind of Chink betwixt the Tongue and 
upper Teeth, the firft with fome Kind of vocal Sound, the 
ether wholly mute. But to conclude r That, which doth 
^nerally feem moil difficult to Stranms in our EngUfi 
Tongue, is the pronouncing thefe Afpirationt (as they are 
called) which are very frequently and familiarly uied a- 
nongil us, but hardly imitable by others, though thefe are bat 
few ; thefe five Words, as is laid, comprehending all of 
them : Wbmt think the chofin Judges f Which a HttlelWtice 
nught overcome. 


tftU Divifien of Syllables j and fome Rnles to he 
ohferved in Wriiing of Words. 

S FELLING beiiig the parting Words into cob veni- 
ent Parts, in order to ihew their true Pronunciation, 
or for Decency of Writing ; the Greunmarians have gi- 
ven Reveal Rules for the Performance of this Mat- 
ter. But as Nature is moil eafy Und fimple in all her 
Operations : So I cannot for my Life get u out of my 
Head, but that a due Obfervadon and Imitation of her would 
be as ferviceable as the follpwing a great many of the 
Jbagiflerial aiid perplexed Dife£Uona of Perfont, that coinpcl 
ethers t6 bdte that Padi ^ey t^Mn&dm \am Cor o&n 

1'be E M c L 1 5 H Grammar. 2 ja 

trod, though pcrhapr. there may he one but juft hard hy, ihat 
is more pUalanc, deligtitful, and much better. As to the 
Mutter before us, namiiy ihc DiviAon of Syllable), I am 
apt to bflkve thai ihe eafiert if not the beft Way ia, in 
Reading or Pronouncing, to pari (he Syllables as they found 
'left to the Ear ; and in Writing, as they ihal! appear belt 
the Eye. 

And I find that the Great JuHui ScaHgtr, the Learned 
S-ingiui, anil the Fameus Camtaiui, are of the fame Opi- 
rion, than which lall Perfon, never any Man hath made 
more Improvements \ai\te DidaHleal ifrt. Or the Art of 
Tttubing: For he differed very much from a great many . 
of the Modems, who fancy that the learning of a Lan- 
guage qualifies them of Courfe for the Teaching of it : And 
Hit piar Cemenius worked Night and Day, and wrote Vo- 
lumes for the Advancement of an Art, that comes to us 
without any Thought, Pains, or Study. It is true, a Boy 
rouft ferve feven Years to learn the /tri and M^JIery of 
BriiP-making ; when (even Minutei Ihall qualify a Man 
fufHcienily for the profefling the An and Mjftrry of Teatb- 
tag : But though the Man has not fert^ feven Years, yet 
he has learnt Latin ; and fo confequcntly is Mailer of Prm- 
Jenfe, CsaJu^f,, a KnoiuUdgt afThiagi, the Art ofeomrminka- 
ting hii Theiighit ia a cliar, lafy, and ielighlfnt Manner. Hii 
Laita no doubt will alfo furnifh him with all the ne- 
cellary Arts of pleating the Mind, and winding himfelf in> 
to the Heart 3nd AReflions of his Scholar; His Latin {or 
French perhaps) will furniih him likewife with all the 
Ways of Addrefs and Application that are requifite, to- 
wards the managing and governing a tender, rough, or a 
mild, or froward DifpofiEion and TemE«r. But to the 
Matter in hand : Scaiiger in his Book, dt Caujt! Liaguie ta~ 
tina, fays ; Saitnadimiam h<ptimitr, iln frribtre debemui : 
fcrihendum ilajue Ah-demm, Ig-nii, Om-nii, Pi/ tit, Naf-itr, 
jfy-tui, Satie-liu, Of -IP, ttg-men, ttg-men: fiutadt ctmnmaii 
Of la, I gnii. Nam nt^itt fuffiiieni ratia tji, liltn i f ■« ini' 
lia rmJKngi pajfunt, lai ttiam ia media capulandai : faf 
tint piwm pltrA^m, ^uor%m initiaiu flM, Bd, Ft. Mk, 
Sm, finl feregrim : fa^im qutm pranmiitialia flaii' Jtt inrp- 
la & ri£{ula, Era-Jmui, U^, E(iffmti4t lamtn |iii|yKiv k- 

2j6 ^he English Grammar. 

lifuiJ condonare pojfumw ; ut No-fteTf Aptus. Thftt is ; 
We ought to write as we fpeaic : We muft therefore 
write Ab-domen^ tg-niSf &c (not J^b'depien^ ^'g^^i) fince 
the common Form of fpeaklhg hath quite rejedled this 
Pronunciation. O-mnis, 0-ptp^ i-gnis. For it is not a fuf- 
ficient Reafon, that the Letters, which may be joined to* 
gether at the Beginning of a Word, ihould be alfo coupled 
in the Middle : Partly fince many Words, whoie initial 
Syllables are Bdj F/, Mn^ Sm^ are foreign Woids : And 
partly becaufe this Manner of Pronunciation is very filly 
and ridiculous ; as, E-ra-fmus^ Sec. But however fome 
Allowance may be made for the Neattie(s and Beauty of 
Writing; as, No-ftcr^dA-ptus, 

But we fhall now proceed to give two or three Direc- 
tions about what Words are to be written with Capital or 
Great Letters. 

Great Letters are never to be ufed in the Middle or 
End of Words, but at the Beginning, and then only. 

1 . At the Beginning of any Wiiting. 

1. After a Period, when a new Sentence begins. 

3. At the Beginning of every Verfe in Poetry, or in 
the Bible. 

4. At the Beginning of Proper Names of all Kinds; 
as of Men^ Women, Giles, Rivers, &c. 

5. At the Beginning of any Word or fpecial Note ; as, 
God, ^een. Sir, 

6. The Pronoun I muft always be a Capital or Great 

Great Letters are alfo ufed to exprefs Numbers ; as, / 
Aandsfor i, i^for5, tfr. 


Of fome Points ufed in Writings and of the Jb- 
hrcviation or ContraSlion of Words. 

THERE are feveral Marks or Points that do more 
ftnB\y relate to the Orthography^ er Writing of 
Wordi. .. " 


fie Ekglish Grammar, zjjt 

A Hyphen, which is ufed at the End of a Line, whi 
there is not Room for all the Word, but one or more Syl 
lables remain lo be written « the Beginning of the next 
Line: The Mark is a ftraighi Line thus (■)■ Ji b alfw 
I ufed in the compojnding or joining cwo Words into one ; 
las, Hmi/e-keefer, tec. 

I An Jpi)j}r»pbt, which denotes fome Letter or Letters to 
KM left out, for quicker Pronunciation ; as, I'll for / luiY.', 
F^anV, for cajmtt, Sec: the Mark is a Cemma at the Top, 
iwhich is thus written {'), as in a'asV. 
L But this drawirfg- of two Words into one has very 
fmuch untuned our Language, and clogged it with Confo- 
l^nanu, and is therefore to be avoided as much as poOible : 
; Ae, mayn't, fian'l, ian't, ivwiV, and the like j for ma^ 
' »«/, Jhail ml, do nut, ivi!/ not, &c. 

A Caret is ufed when a Letter, Syllable, or Word bap- 
! fens to be lefi out in Writing : The Mark mull bejull 
{ under the Line where the Letter or Word is td comt^ 


Ai, Tieii art Man. This is very properly called 

Note of InJadhn, Or of bringing in a Word. 

An Jfiiri/m (•) direfts lo fome Note or Remark in the 
Margin, or at the Bo^ ota of a Page, in fome taiia 
^ >OKs it denotes that lame Thing is dcfeflive or want- 

laiLx (C^) the Fore-finger pointing, fignilies thaC 
.Piflage to be very remarkable oveT-igainft which it is 

Sometimes an Ohtlijk (f ) or Spit is ufed upon the like 
Occalion as the foregoing Note. 

Siilian (j) or DiviGon is uled in the Silbdividing of a 
Chapter into Jeffer Pans or Portions. 

A Barograph (fl] or a Note which denotes what ii con- 
tained in the Sentence or Period. 

SlHsiation (") or a double d/notd reverfed at the Be- 
Wjnning of a Line, denotes that FaHage to be quoted or 
tranfcnbed from fome Author in his own Words. 

We have alfo in Writing certain Abbmaiiani or Word* 
made fborl, and this is done for a c»u<;k an^ c:«.'^t&\v»%^ 
"Wajf of WriUBg. But we IhalV owv mewoai). ». ^i"" "^- 

it/8 The English Grammar, 

them. We are to take Notice thit a Point is always to 
be written after the Word thos abbreviated, anlefs when 
the Abbreviation is made by putting the Letter at the 

Anfw. fir jitffiwer, 

A. D. jffpto Domint, or the Tear o/wr Lord. 
Acct. for Accent. 

Abt. alomt. 
Ag. Jgtunfim 

B. A. Batchekr of Arts. 
fip. Bijhof, 

3. D. Batchekr in Divinity. 
fiar. Baronet. 
Chap. Chapter, 

J^.u. DoQor of Divinity, i" 

Dr. J>oJSor. ^/-.'^ ' 

Efq. E/quire. 
S. c. id efi^ that is, 
Bmpr. Emperor. 
Honb. HonourabJe. 
Kt. JCnight. 
LL. D. Doctor of Lanm» 
M. D. Doaor of?hyfick. 
Mr. Majier. 
Mrs. mfirefi. 
Mtj. Maje/y. 
Key. Reverend. 

fi. T. P. Frofeffor ^ or DoBor in Divinity. 
fir. £ir. 
St. Saint. 
Ofaj. OhjeSioKm 
. Qn, Sluefiion. 
£ol. Solution. 
ye. The. 
yt. That. 
yu. Ton. 
yn. Then, 
ym. Tienu 
yi^ Your. 
ie And. 

The English Grammar. 279 
Bat one ought to avoid ihcfe Coairadions of Words as 
(nuchu poSiBle, unlefs it be for one's own private U/c, 
Kai where it would be ridiculous to write them in Letier» 
at length; aa, (ift. ioi aid /i /irfi, oi fhe reft, Mr. for 
Maficr, and Mrs. for Miftrtfi, &c. It argues likewife s 
Difrefpe^l and Slighting ro ufe ContrailioDS 10 your Set- 
ten, ajid is often puzzling to others. 

^e/limi relating to tit Srvenlh Chapter. 

Q. }rhai i, a Hypiien ? 

J. Hyphen is a Line or Mark that tifs Syllables togc" 
ther, and fometiines two Word: to make on& 

<i_ Whence etmei Hyphen ? 

^. From i^' H, Hyphen, that is a Mark to bring two 
Words up', yph, under, (t, hni, one Word. 

Q; What wa» Apoflrophe > 

A. An Apafirtpht is the Mark of a Letter's being cut 
off, or left out. 

Q;, Whence cemei Apoltroplie i 

A, From 'Awirf^p^, Aps/rophui, a furmtig out or 
vtuaj, it being, u il were, the Turning a I^ettei out of 4 

Q^ What h a Caret f 

A. A Caret is a Mark that denotes a Letter or Word 
left out. 

Q^ Whence (anus Caret f 

A. From the Latin Word Cant, it wanteth, or is wfth- 
'out, (hat is, the Line wanteth a. Word or more, ot the 
Word a Letter, ifff . 

Q. Whmei cumis InduflioB f 

A- From hdnaiB, a Bringing in. 

Q. W*a/ 1/ rtB Afteiifm ? 

A. An AJlcri/m is a Note that direAs 10 fone remarki- 
ble Pai&ge. 

Qi_ Whence csmei the ffar^ Afterifin f 

A. From ' Urt^nr^^';, Afimfmui, a Star, or ConfUlIltian 
I of Stars. 

Q. What i, an Index f 
l.jA Aa Judex idfo points to (bme t'-'^^'S^^'^ •PaShj^ . 

a So The English Grammar. 

Q. Whence comes the WordlnAexl 

//, From Indext the Fore-ftiger^ becaufe ituBcai^ it markSf 
or points to, fomewhat that is remarkibie. 

Q. What is a Se€iion} 

A. The Parting of a Chapter into Parts. 
»Q. Whence comn Section i 

J. From SeSfio^ a dating or Dividing. ThU Mark feems 
to be made of Ss, as it were, Signum Se^ionis^ the Sign of 
a Seffion. 

Q^ What is a Paragraph ? 

J, A Mark that denotes what is contained in the Sen- 
teace or Period. 

Q. Whence comes Paragraph ? 

A* From n«^Vf^^^9 Paragraphust that is, a Writ' 
ing to^ it being a Mark which we ufe to denote the Begin- 
ning of a new Sentence. 1 he Mark is taken from the 
Greek n. Pit the firft Letter in the Word Paragraphos. 

Q^ What is a Quotation ? 

A, A Rotation is a Mark that is ufed to denote the 
Quoting or Citation of ibme Author in his own Words. 

•<J^ Whifici comes the /^ 0/7/ Quotation ? 

A. From the Old French Word ^oter^ to praife an Au- 
thor, or to tell quota Jint^ what they are, that are contain- 
ed in fucha Book or Chapter of an Author. 

■Q. What is an Abbreviation ? 

A. The Shortening of a Word. 

Q. Whence comes Abbreviation ? 

A. From Ahbre*viath^ « Shortening or making fliort. 

N. B. About the Year 1 542 it was. That Sir nomas 

Smith wrote a Tradl concerning correfi Writing of Englijh, 

and the true Sounding of the Letters and Words. That 

which he found fault with in our Language was, t?uit ill 

and improper Writing of it. As for Inftance of theie Words, 

Plea/e^ Sonne, Moone^ Hemme^ Cleane, To, Toe, Meane, 

In which Words* he faid, thofe Sounds are not comprehended 

which we exprefs : And in fome of them the Syllables are 

ftoffed with needlefs Letters. Which Letters by therofelves 

hsve their certain Natures, as he obferved, and, bdns join- 

jed after that Manner, Vv^ve tiot that Force which they 

oughf ro liave. Anda^am,moxScLtt'Wot^^»\kfc\s»>a.KQticc 

we i)«d jio Letter whick exwt&ii Oaax >n\3^^\l ^n^ ^^p^'t^ 

The £ K o L I s H Grammar. 


«nd iherefore he thought it neeefiary to have more Letters- 
So he framed Twenty-nine Letters : Whereof Nineteen 
were Romeit, four Gnck, and fix Efglijh or Saxsn. Tlie fiv« 
Vowels he augmenied into Ten, diliinguilhlng them inia 
Long and Short, making certain Aeccnn over, or on ihe 
Side of them, that were to be pronounced Long. It is worth 
feeing his new Alphabet, wheiein might be obferve'd ihH 
he allowed no Diphthongs, nor double Confonants, nor any 
£'/ at the End of Words, being not founded. He hi>d« 
good Mind 10 throw out utterly, and banifti from (he Al- 
phabet the Letter ^ as ufelefs, Ka exprefling the full 
Power of ^, for, without the Vowel 11, the Litter ^ is 
never written. And the fame Uft!efnefs he found lo be in 
the Letter C, for it is ever cxprcfled either by K or by 
S i but he rccalntd it in his Alplkabet to fervc inftead of Qb. 
Sec the Alphabet at the End of the Gramntnr. 

282 The English Grammar. 



By Mr. Dennis. 


IH £ R E fend you, in Compliance with your Ddire, 
my Sentiments concerning the Harmony of our £m- 
g/ij^j Poetry, which is a (hort Eilay towards an Englifi 
Profody ; and I heartily wifh that I could fend you any 
1'hing that could be of any Ufe, or any Addition to fo 
good, fo ufefuU and fo generous a Work as the Grantmarf 
which you are about to publifli a third Time. 


Of Nmbers. 

THERE are two Things to be confidered in the 
Harmony of our Englijhj and indeed of all Gotbick 
Poetry, and ihofe are Nmmbirs and Rhyme, 

A numerous Difcourfe, or a Difcourfe that is writ in 
IfumherSf is a Difcourfe whofe Parts are meafured by fnch 
a Number of Feet or of Syllables. Numbers are necelfa- 
ry to all Sorts of Poetry^ both Gotbique and Antim, But 
the ancient Greniems and ^^wMff/ arriving, by the Advantage 
ofthtir Language and the ¥uitiitb %& thsic Ears, to a great 

PcrfcfUoo in Numbers, utterly contemned and rejefted 
Rhyme : Whereas the Gathiik or modern Pods vainly itna- 
gine that tbev can fuppJy the Defeft of Numbers in their 
nnmufical Idioms by the Ufe of Rfiyae. 

Nvtnbcrs are made mufical and deligbtful to the Ear hf 
Strength, Sweetnefs, and Variety, Confonanta exprels 
Strength, but if unleafonably accumulated are harlh and 
dilagreeable. Voweh fupply Sweetnefs, and efpecially 
Diphthongs, bat too many of them banifli Force. The 
agreeable Mixture of Vowels and Confonancs caufes a 
charming Combination of Strength and Sweetnefs, But 
Vowels and Confonants are to be fo mingled, thatVowelt 
or Confonants may prevail according as Force or SweetDefs 
iimore required. It is partly for this Reafon, that there 
is more Forte and more Sweetnefs in the Ancient Grdtfiaa 
or Roman, than in the modern or Gethick Poetry ; becaufe 
in the ancient Grecian and Raman, and efpecially in lbs 
former, the Vowels and Confonants are more finely min- 
gled than they arc in modern Languages. 

The Variety of Aiiniwi, ^nd the avoiding of Monotony, 
is caufed in Poeini, which confift of only one Sort ofFerfi, 
by the various Mingling of VoweU and Confonants, and 
by the different Placing of Accents and Cadences (of which 
iaft we (hall fay more immediately. ) The Numhtn in our 
ufual Pattavtcttn, which is the Verfe that we call Hi- 
rtici, are divided into equal, and unequal ; and the Fi.r:i.imi- 
In is dtverfified by the jiidicioos ufing the one or the other, 
according as the SubjcA reiguircs. The Numbtri are equal 
when the Jtcints lie upon equal Syllables, and they arc un- 
etjiiai when ihe Aicents lie upon odd Syllables. 


Of Miafure and Cadence. 

I Ni-Kicrt im^y Mcafore, they likewife include * 

. Cadence : The Meafure of oui Eiig!i/i Veife U 

different, according CO the different Kindt of it. The 
Meafure of our common f.-ntanidcr <» HnouV ^ 
N ^ 


2S4 ^he English Grammar. 

is ufually ten Syllables, but foxnetimes, when there are 
DaJ?}/cSt it is extended to e/even or t^welve, as in this Verlc 
of Dryden, 

Thee Samiour, Thee the Nations Vonvs cofift/s* [Tn onr 
Stans.a'st according to the different Kinds of them the Mea- 
fure differs. Two of our Poets have writ long Poems in 
StattxaSf Spencer and Sir William Da'venant, The Stanza 
of Sir HWiam Da<vcnant is what they call the ^laternion, 
%vhich confifts of four Pentameters with alternate Rhyme, 
The Stanxa of Spencer confifts of nine Verfes, the eight 
fird of which are Pentameters, and the ninth is an Jlex* 
itndrine or an Hexameter, But the Stan%a is certainly very 
improper for long and noble Poems, It feems to belong 
in a peculiar manner to our Lyrick Poetry. 

The Meafures of our Lyrical Stanxa^s are as difFerent as 
the Odes which are writ in thofe Stanzas, There is che^ 
Regular Stanza and the Irregular. The Irregular Stanza 
belongs to the Ode which is vulgarly called Pindarick^ in 
which no one Stansca unlefs by chance anftvers exadly to 
another. The Regular Stamzm is that, whofe Meafures and 
the difFerent Placing of its Rhymes anfwer exactly to tvtry 
one of the fame Ode ; and even of thefe there is a vail Va- 
riety, as every one knows who is acquainted with our 
Poets who have writ Odes and Songs ; as Sucklings Waller^ 
Cowley, Sedley, Wilmot, Sachvile^ with a long // r^/^/. 

To treat of Cadence, as one ought to do, would require 
an entire Treatife. The Word feems to me to be a Mtta» 
fhor drawn from the Dancing^School, where it properly fig. 
nifies a Paufe or a Fall from Motion to Reft : Taken me- 
taphoriodly, it figniiies a Paufe in Sound, or a Fall from 
Sound to Silence, or from a ftronger Sound to a fofter, and 
is regulated hv the natural Stops of the Senfe, and influen- 
ced vy the Accents. In our mod mufical Pentameters or 
Heroicks, the Paufes, which are moft remarkable, are thofe 
which are in the Middle of a Verfe, or thofe which are at 
the End of it. 

The Paufes, in the Middle of the Verfe, are either upon 
the fourth Syllable, as in thefe Verfes of Denham ; 

T/ht/* deep, yet clear^ tbo^ gtntU^ yet not idl, 
S/rofig wUbout Rage^ wthmu OVJIowin/ull* 

ftt'E M o L I s ft Grammar. 285 

Or' Bpon the Sixth, u in the following Veife of Ro/iont 

Fain an our Nttgiieurt Uepti, ami iieln ihetr Cere). 

The Pflufe at the End of a Vetfe ought to be greater 
than an;' Paufe that may precede it in the fame Verfc, and 
the Paufe at the End of a Couplet ought to be greater thaa 
that which is at the End of the firft Vcrfe. 

But it ii not necelTary chat ihe Paufe at the End of a 
Couplet ihould be a full one, thai is, aPoint; it i> often a - 
Ca/sK, ofurx i. Semiealon, often a Citnima only. But if the 
Rhjmi is carried on 10 the third Verfe, which caufes the 
three to be called a Triplit, then it is neceflary there Ihould 
be a full Paufe, that is, a Point ; efpecially if the lafl VeHe 
of the three is an Htxameiir, a» it often happens. 

CHAP. in. 

Of Rhyme. 

I Come now to fay fomethia^ of Rhjmt that Getliici 
Pretence to Harmony. Rhfiie then is nothing but a 
Similitude of Sound between the lall Syllable or Sylla- 
blei of one Vcrfe. and the laft Syllable or Syllables of" 
another Verfe, either imraediaiely following the former, 
or following at the Diftance of two or three Lines at the 
molt. Foe if the firft Syllable of the intended Rl^me be 
loft lo the Ear, before the fecond reaches it, there either 
can be tio Rlyme, or at the bcft but a very imperfect one. 

Rhymei are either fingle, or double, or treble ; but bor- 
caufc double and treble Rhjmn are coniined lo one Sort of. 
FMliy. which is fcMom writ now by People of this World, 

'cU it be to advance the Glory of one who has been 

;ral Years in the other ; 1 fhall be contsivted to treat of 
tingle Rtymti alone. 

A (ingle Rhymr then it a Similitude of Sound betwM.n. 
tie hR S/JJabIc of one Vcrfe, and tire \saLS-j\\»>iw«a'i. »t.'Q- 
N 5 ■^«. 

286 Tie UmcL I %H Grammaf^ 

ther Verfe followbg it at the fore mentioned Difiance. 
And fingle Rhymes are divided into half and impcrfiBGt 
Kbymes, and whole and perfect ones. A half and unper- 
fedt Rhyme is, where there is a Similitude with a Diffe- 
rence. The Difference lies chiefly in the Pronanciati6n» 
but fometimes too in the Orthography. We have an Ex- 
ample of both thefe Differences in fix Verfes of WalUr^ 
which are in the Copy» which the Country is fappofed to 
prefent to the Countefs of CarliJU. 

J rural Judge SJ^Qi^d of BemiOfs Prizt^ 
JJimpie Shepherd was frefirr'd to Jove, 
VonvM to the Mountaius/rom the partial Skies 
Came Juno, Pallas, and the ^een ofl^^e^ 
T'o plead for tbat^ luhicb nuasfojufiy gt'o*H 
To the Bnght Carlifle of the Ccurt ofHeas/'u. 

Now here are two imperfed Rhymes ; the Syllables of 
the firft Rhymey Jove and Love, agree in the Orthography, 
but differ in the Pronunciation^ The Syllables of the ie- 
cond Rhyme, gi*v*n and HeanPn, differ both in the Pronun- 
ciation and the Orthography. But then this Paflkge of 
Waller is fo (piritual, S> courtly, and fo gallant, and the 
Numbers confidered apart from the Rhymes are fo very 
good, that the Rejader abandons himfelf to the Pleafure 
they rive him, and is not at Leifure to confider an]r Im* 
perfe&ion of the Rhypu. If there is anv Thing amifs in 
this Paffiige it is, tluit it is a great deal too courtly and 
too gallant for the Country. But Mr. Waller is fo happy 
a Genius, that his very Faults are great Beaaties. 

Another Thing that renders the Rhyme imperfed is, 
when one of the Words, whofe lafl Syllable helps to con- 
ftitute it, is a Polyfyllable, and the Accent does not lie on 
the laft Syllable. As for Example, we find the following 
Lines in Waller^ Tianflation of Part of the Fourth Book 

Her Refohttion to difpatch and £e. 
Confirmed iy miurf a horrid Prodi gy>^ 


The English Grammar. a*7 

Now here the latter Syllable of the Rhymt is not half pro- 
nounced, and confequendy the Rhymi is imperfett, or the 
Accent muft be wrongfully laid upon the laft Syllable, 
which muft make the Reader appear to be an ignoranl 

A whole or pcrfeft Rhymt is, where there is a Simili- 
tude of Sound withoDt any Difference, or in other Words, 
where there is a thorough identity of Sound, which ap- 
pears in pronouncing Sie two Syllables which make the 
Rhyme, chough perhaps ihey may differ fomething in the 
Orihography ; as in thcfe Lines of the fore- mentioned 
Verfes oilValltr; 

CarliHe, a Nami ■which all eur Woedi art tatght, 
LouAai /i«> Amaryllis, terefiund: 
CarliHe, a Name <wtrib en tit Bark is •wreught 
Of livery Tree ihat'i tuorlhy of iht Wound. 

Now here Taught and Wrmghl, though they diiFer in the 
Orthography, yet agree perfectly in the Pronunciation, 
which latter ought chiefly if not folely to be regarded io 
framing the Rhymn. The two Lines of Waller immedi- 
ately following the four which were lalt mentioned bavs 
a perfefl Rhyme, whofe Syllables agree both in Orthogra- 
phy and PranunciacioD. 

Tram Phoebus' Rage, »ur Shadoivi and eur Striamt 
May guard uibttiir, ibanfrsm CarliAeV Btami. 

But thefe perfed Rbymii are more or left fweei, or mora 
or lefsTonorous, as they are moreor lefs compofed of Aiire* 
and Liquids, or Vmvils and Diphihengj. 

Thus, Sir, in Complaifance to you, have I gone through 
the four Things which have been thought to conduce to 
the Harmony of modem Poeiry, which are Numbers, Mea- 
(urc. Cadence, and Rhyme ; of thefe the three firft conUST 
of fcveral different Sounds, which are depcRdcni one of 

Rhymt, as I obferved heretofore, is wholly dependent 
of the other three, and con£fts in the gmier Pmirv, ' 
N 6 


288 ^be £ N o L I s h Grammar. 

af two Sonndi which ut Unifont. Now Unilbm cia 
mike no Hannonj', which muft ilways confift in the 
AmemiaA of difiemt Sounda. So that Riynu, coofifling 
otUnifoni, cm iuvc no Harmony in itfetf, and being 
IndepeodentofNumberi, Cadence, and Meafure can nerer 
jiromote the Harmony which diey produce. And a Pta't 
cooAant Applicadon to Sijmt diverts his Attention in a 
peat Decree from Nombeis, Meafure, and Cadence, and 
COBle(|aenly u « fevere Reftraint upon the three Producer* 
of Harmony. And as it diverts the Application of the 
Writer, fo, hy feising the Attention of vulgar Readers, it 
diverti them from the other thite. Thus you have what 
J have been able to write upon this Subjed. during a great 
and daneerouB Indifpofition : I Ihall be glad, if it proves 
cither lucfiU or ifgreeable to you. 

The English Grammar. 189 

P R A X I 





AVING finidied the Grammar. I ihooglii it 
ighl be neceflkry to aild a few Pages relating to 
~ " PraSht, or Ufe of the Paru rf Speech, 

the Pro 

Dii the Joining of Words together in a Sentence. ■ And J 
Iball firft fpcak of the Diftinaion of one Part ofSpeech 
from another. la ihefe SentenceB following tell me what 
Part of Speech every Word it, aod •why : 

GKdBoyilB--v/g»<iilBoaii. ff'ifre ii tht Sihulf m-wUl 
go nvithjou lo the Ttmplt. I-wfli ia the SbaJi, hicaufe it it 
flea/ant. The Beak is pahlifl^id, I/atu a fraicing Hut/e. 

What Part of Speech is Gaud ? A Noan Adjcni-ve, be- 
caufeit Ihewsthe Manmrnfa Thing ; [See Page ;i.) Boy/, 
is a Noun Subftaniive, beeaufe It fignjfies the Thing it- 
felf i [See Ptigtit.) Itisiheflural Number, S being added 
to it ;- as, %, floTJ J (Sec Pege s8.) Levi is a Ptfi Jdivt, 
beeaufe it figniBe^ doing; {See Pagt iiQ-)Gi>eJ,u an Mte- 
line, as before. Baeh, is a Sui/iaHti-vr, ai before, ffiert, 
han Ad'-Mit: (See P.^ge i7g)And it is en Mvirh a! 
Place I (See P^gi 1 8o.> h, is a Fctb EJfuitial or Neuter, be- 
eaufe it fignifies Bdug; (See P.:gt 130, and 17;.) Tht^ n • 
tn ArtitU, (or Adjetlive) {See Pegt 77 ) Sf4i»/, is a Sub- 
Rsntive, as before ; {P''gi- ^ 1 ) ^'^', is a Pmrmuii. becHufeit 
isputinftcadofaA'»»»i{SecP-'^?liliWf<7/. isatffW 
Ftri, (Pfl^* 146/ Gi ii a f'trh, as before, [P^igt 119, and 

£90 72tf EuchiUH Grammar. 

1 30.) ff^th, is a PrefofitioH^ becaofe it (hews the Rtlation or 
^^^ that jone Thing has ta another ; (P^i^ 85, and IC4.) 
yijr, is a Pronoun j (^<5|^ 118, and 1 19.) 7i?, is a Frefofition^ 
as before, (P^^^ 85.) ibe^ ZAJrticIe^ as before; (P^ge 77.) 
^empUf a Subftandve, as before, (P^^r 51.) /» a Pronoun 1 
[Pagi 118.) ^tf/i, is a Verb iV>»/^r, becaafe the Adion 
does not pafs on fome other Thine, (Page 176.) In, -is a 
PrgpofiiioH, (Page 85, and 06J Tbe^ as before. ^i^«i^» is 
a Subftantive» (Page 51.) iecau/e, h a ConjunSion, for it 
joins Sentences together, (i^^F/ 184.) //, is a Pronoun, 
(Page 1 1 8» and 1 1 9.) //, a Verb Neater, as before, Piea- 
hint, is an JdjcGi've, {Page 5 1 .) The, as before. Booi^ as 
Before, ir, a Verb Neuter, as before. Puhlijhed, is a P^r- 
/iV/>i>, (Ptf^# 141.) and, a Participle Paffive, becanfe it ends 
in eii, (Page 143.} But, // Puhlijhed, being taken together, 
is called a Verb Paflive, \JPage 169.) /, is a Pronoun, as 
before. Zawj^ a Verb Aflive, \JPage 1 30.) A, is an Article, 
<or AdjeAive) {Page 77.) 2^^ ^Numerol Article, (Pagejf) 
Prancing, is a Particifle, (Page 141.) and an ASH've Parti* 
€ifle, (Page 142.) Hor/e, a Subftantive, (/'i?^/ 51.) 

The Second Praxis, 

This and the two following Praxis' s9Xt from Dr. WaJlit, 
with Additions. 

Tbjs Lord's Praybr. 

Q^R Father nvhich art in Heaven : Hallowed ie thy Name : 
Thy Kingdom come: Thy JVill be done in Earth, as it is 
in Heanjcni Gi*ve us ibis Day our daily Bread: Andfargyvo 
us our Trefpajfeif cs nueforgi've them that trej^fs agatnjl us : 
And lead us not into Temptation ; But deli'ver us from EviJf 
For thine is the Kingdom, the Power and the Glory ^ for enter 
nttde*ver» Amen. 

The'] Is an Article Demonftrafwe^ (Page 78, Line 27.) and 
anfwers to he of the French: It denotes or fignifies tne De- 
termination or Fixing the Senfe of one or more Particulars, 
and it (hews what Particular yon Mean, (lim 17.) So, thf 
l^^9 is put by Way of Eminence ; Namcly> 9ur Savimu^ 

7be English Grammar. 291 

Ltr/] Is a Noun Subftanlive, {Page 51, /■ I.) It has no 
Difference of Cafes, except the Geniii-ve,(Pagi 6^, I. 14.) 
Ic h a Contraction of the Saxea Mafard, afterwards Lit' 

Larits] The final or ending S, is the Letter that forms 
or make* the Engi;fii Gcnitiiie Cafe, (Page 6;. 1. 1.) It an- 
fwers to the Gcniiiiie^iife of the Latini, and iignides the 
Author, (I. 9.) 

PrByer] Is a Noun SubOantivc. 

N. B. It anfwors to the Frtntb Priere, to the Italian Prt- 
ghiera : And the Veth lofray\i\nFremb frier, ia Italian 
^igert : All which Words come from the Lalin precari, 

Ihe Lor^i Praytr'\ That is ; the Prayer of the Lord. 

Oar] Is a Pronoun Pofleffivc pat for the firft Perfon of 
the Plural NLimber, {,Page 1 21, /. 9,] It is Our, not Our,, 
bccaufe the Subllantive Fatbtr is exprcfled, (Line 19.) The 
Pronouns, my, thy, nur, &c. are to be ufed when they an 
joined to Subllantives, Our, like other Adjedivcs, has no 
Difference of Cfl/i/, Geadert, otNumbcri, [Page 107,1.4..) 

W. B. Ow. comes from the Saxan O^ri, ure, for which 

the Germaai fay Uer, which feems to be made from "we, as 

II it were, iveif; as from fan and Tbiy, are formed Taur, 

\ T/tiir -■ And from Sii, (the S being caft away) comes Her ; 

J For what we call Slie, the Saxeuj call Sto, aaS'Hia ; and 

lloe ii ufed in fome Parts of England for She. 

Faiber'] li a Noun Subftantive, (Puge 51.) 

N. B. Ucama from the Latin Peitir,o!Tzl'ketiheGreeJi 

) ttiilit. Pfl/cr; but through the Mediation of the Sa.Ks»F«- 

l Jtr, Ihe Danijh F^dir, the Gtrman Valter, the Datcb fader, 

viibifc D is often changed in our Tongue into Tb, and 

< their '^ into f. It has fome AUuiion or Likcnefs to the 
j Damp Fider (to nourifh) whence our to feed, and hence 

< Paid, and Fcder chieliy taken for the Aliment of Beath. 
Hay, £S*f . But this Word does not come to us through the 

; Mediation of the French, as a great many of our Worda 

do i with whofe Ptrt out Word Faihir has no Afiiniiy. 
I fnieh'\ U a Relative, [Page ii<. /. 16.) It is fpoken 

1^2' TSe E N o L r 9 H Grammar. 

ivhff and ivhom are ufed when we fpeak of PirftiUf- (Pag(( 
1 24, /. 20.) And who would have oeen in this Place more 
proper, becaafeit rpeaks of a Perfon, and is now a-days 
more frequently ufra. Hence it is» that in our Englijh Li' 
tvrgy^ or Common Prer^cr-Book^ where formerly they ufed 
*vchich^ it is in the latter Editions changed almoft^ways into 
nxiho or luhfim, as being more elegant when we fpeak of 
Ferfons. But» in this Prayer of our Lord, it has not been 
thought convenient to vary from the received Form, which 
is fo very familiar with the common People. N, B, For 
Which, they formerly faid ivhsIA, as the Scotch do now, or 
elfe ^iik ; the Saxotu, Htuilk ; the Danes, Hinlk ; the Ger^ 
mans, JVilcb, Welcbe ; the Dutch Welk, we/kt ; the French- 
^uel, qu$Ue ; all from the Latin Sinalis ; as from Sfw, 
comes nuho, from ^ando. Whan, When ; and perhaps from 
^uare. Where and Where-fore. For ^tWekk ufed G&wfbr 
the Latin ^, the Saxons Hnv, and We, Wh. For 111^, the. 
Saxons &id liwa and Hma ; the Dutch, tvie, and f6r what, 
the Saxons laid Hwat, the Dutch wat, the Germans nsuts, the 
Dtffff/ H'vadi all from the Z^/Za ^iJor^y$d,' 

Jrt,"] Is a Verb EJfential or Neuter, (Page 1 30, 1. i ,) It 
is the fecond Perfon Singular of the Vtibjim, (Page 153,. 
1. 15.) It is the fecond Perfon Singular^ becaufe it agrees 
with thou underftood, p, 228. /. 14. For thou is the A0- 
mnati've Word of the fecond Perfon Singular, /. 1 1 9, 1. 1 5 , 
N. B. This Verb is very irregular,/. 153, /. 12. Jm, cornea 
from the Saxon Eom, which perhaps came from i ifi<, WW, . 
whence the Latin Sum^ (S ofeing oftien prefixed^ inftead 
of a Spirit or Afpiration.) Art, from the Saxom Eart, though 
X>r. Wallis fays, that from. Am come are and art, which is. 
a Contraction of ar*fi, for.^ is the Termination or End- 
ing of the f( cond Perfon Singular. (/• 1 3 3» /• 7.) Is from £/?, 
or ir«, ^/. 

/».] A Prepofition, /. 96, /. 34. and p. 97, /. 6. But' 
we do all by the Help of Prcpojstions^ which the Greeks and< 
Latim did, partly by Prepojiticnj and partly by the Civerfi* 
ty or Difference of Cafes, /. 86. /. ' 23^ 

Heaven] A Noun Subftant've, /. cim N. B, It* comes 

^om the Saxon Heftn, He/on, Hcofen, which perhaps is from 

their h'f -^an to lift up, and xh\s from lUah^ whence onr 

/^-^. Alio from their Heafan^ CQm«% Ova'^W^Xft heQ5oi« 

to lift up on high ! whence the Partiripk, Heaved, />. 141, 
/. 28. Ic is a ParlidpU Paffi^c, p. 1 57, /. +. Which in the 
oM Form did end in En, as //faffli lifted up, /. 143,/. 4. 
Hence Hcavn figniiies fomething hi^h or lifttd up. 

Halltnaid.'X k Participle Paffive which ends in iii, p. 1^3, 
I. 3. By the Helpof which PartidpliMA the Verb Jm or Si, 
we exprefs what the Lalia Grammarians cail the Pajfiitt 
ToiV/. Of the Formation of the fcrii'rt^i'f.fee^. 169,/. t.. 
iV. S Ha lioiutii corner from the Verb le balUiv, that is, to 
iwa&'iy orconfecrate, from hoij, or rather iheo!d Word half ; 
And to this Day, the Abhiy of the H»tf Cre/j near EMnhurgb 
in Sceriand, is called Haly'-Rocd Hou/i. 1. e. Tii Hot/t e/tbi 
HsiyCro/u For Rotiii or Rude w 3, Cref, ; and Haly Rmd- 
J^lf, h the Day of exaliing or Ihowing the Holy Crofs : 
But the Word Kae,d is now become obfolete, or out of Ufe. 
for which we ufe Cre/i from the Frinti Word Croix. As 
from the Saxan Criece, we fay crutch, craai, craaiid. So 
the Temp/c or Church of Alt-Saiais, is called Jil-Hallvwi- 
Cimrth. And the Feaft of Ail-Saints, is called Ail-Smuts- 
Day, and alfo AH-Halhn-Day and All-Hollon-Tidt.; Tide be- 
ing and old Word for any fet Time. Otir Haly, or Help, 
comes from the Saxon Halig, Haiga : For which the Gir- 
titunt MicHeylig, the Dutch, Hiyligh. But the Word HaU 
Itvi is now out of ufe, for which we put in its Place the 
Frtncb Word to fanSify, from (he UcSnJanaifico : And 
for AHHallo-vis, we fay Jll-SairJs, though feveral Churches 
in Lendea are yet called by that Name, fiul tiiia Word is 
Hill retained in the Lord's Prayer, becaufe it has been, an 
ancient Farmula or ExpreflioB. 

&.] Is a Verb fiom Am, and is ufcd here in an Impi- 
raiiiit or Commanding or Bidding (i. e. praying) Senfe. /. 
154, /■ I- And thencfareil ii put before the Nomiitalivt 
Word, p. 22b, I. I . How the Imperative Manner is expref- 
fed, fec;t. 171, /. zz. 

Iby.] Is aPronoun PoiTeiTive, p. 1:1, I. 8. It is put 
fsr Tbou the Second Perfoo Singular. It ia 'Thy and noc 
Tbint, becaufe it does doc come before a Word beginning 
with a Vowel, and becaufe the Subltancive is not left out, 
p. tzi.i. 17. M B. It comes from the 5rt;ra». Tbia, the 
tiermoKS, Dan, Dutch, Dii« — Tiaa comes from the Saxta 
STlm, for which the Ga-mani iiiA Duttb Wj On -. ■i^.-^irojii. 

294 ^^^ English Grammar. 

come from the Laiim Tu, or the Doruk (i. e. Greek) tv 

^««^.] A Subflantivc. A^. B, Fc //.i.'^r the Saxons fay 
Nama ; the GermuKi^ Name, uabm, Kattni y the Dutch ^ Naem i 
the Danes f Najffk ; the Frettch, Norn ; the */ -ilutfu, Nome : All 
which Words come from the Ztf//>r h'omeuy or the Grrr/f 
SrofA*, onoma^ or rather from the Htbrc'w^ Naam^ iBxitf he 
faid. But this Sentence might be thus placed, Hallenued he 
thy Name, as it is in this Place ; or, 'liy Name he hallowedf 
(as in the next Claufe, '//y Will he done) or Be thy Name 
balloted. But the firil Way is the beft. 

^by,'\ As before. 

Will.'\ A Subflantive, from the Verb/o w//, or clfc this 
may come from that. They wrote formerly 'tmlle, whence 
the Prefer Tenfe^ nuould, i. e. loclled, p. 140. 1. 1 3. fVillvns 
called among the Saxons WHla, among the Dames Vi^e, 
among the Germans and Danes Wille^ and fo it was former- 
ly written among us EngUJh, before the Cuftom of leaving 
out the final E after a dooble //prevailed : All which come 
from the Latin Volo ; for the ^Confonant of the latins ofed 
to be changed into the EngUJh W, which was formerly of 
the fame Sound with the FConfonant of the Latins^ berore 
it degenerated into the Eolick Digamma Fy p. 187. 1. 17. 
As, yia Way, Vinum Wine, Ventus Wind, Vemo Wend (an 
old Word) Vent Went, VeJ^a Wafp, Va^ Wade, Vago 
Wag, Vadlh Waggle, Vallum Wall, Vohuo Wallow, Ow# 
Ewe, Verfus Ward, Vafto Wade, Veho Weigh, Veha Wain 
Waggon, Vidua Widow, ^-r Wca Wo, VeUus Wool, fVnw/ 
Worm, 6fr. But thofe Words, which retain the V Confo- 
nant founded after the modern Way^ were afterwards taken 
into our Language; rather by the Intervention of the frmch 
tongue, than of the Teutonick, or any of its .Dialers. So 
that from Vanefco^ VaKui^ is derived to Wane (an old Word) 
which is of a Teutonick or Saxon Original ; but to Vanijb of 
a French, So likewife Worth and Virtue are both from Vir- 
tue ; Wickedy Wickedne/s, Vice, Vitious, from Vitiojiuy Viti' 
um ; Win and Vanquijh, from Vinco. 

Be."] As before. 

DoneJ] It would be better written Do^n or Doen^ for k 
MS the Farti'cifU faffiveixovBk to dot^ ^. 1^7, 1. 4. p. 155^ 

The English Grammar. 295 

£«.] As before. 

Eartb.'] A Subftantive. N. £. Sy the Saxoiii it is called 
£^d, Eerd, Esrih ; by the Germans, Erd, Srdf i by the 
Dulei, Erd, Atrd, Atrde \ by the Hants, Jird, Jcrdn : All 
fiom the Griik ifn, uulefs any had rather derive them 
from ihe Arabiik Arda, or the Hrtrpw Ant!. 

A.] An Adverb, /. i8z. It comes perhaps from the 
Grttk u{. 

jA.] A Pronoun of the third Perfon Singular, p. iig, 
/^Tg. h is fpoken of a Thing that is neither of the Male 
nor Female Sex, p. iig, 1, 8. For when we fpeak of the 
Malt Sex vie fay He, if of the Fmale Sex we fay Siie. 
JV, B. Il comes from the Saxon Hyt, or the Latin Id, 

/j.j Is a Verb Neuter, the third Perfon Singular of Am, 
lam, thou art, be ii, ice Is, is the third Peifon Singular, 
becaufe the Nominative Word is fo, /. 228, /. 14.. Is, is 
ofed, and not Be, becaufe it is put in an Indicative Senfe, 
Kod not in an Imferatife or SuhjiinSive, noi after the Con- 
jundions If, Whether, &C. 

In Heartien.'l As before. 

d'i».} A Verb i it it ufed in an Imptraiime Senfe, the 
Pronoun ■7'i(7« being left out, for Givt thatt. N. B. In 
ihe Saxoa Gifais, Agy/an, Genfyan, is /# ff-ve : And the ^ng- 
lijb dii formerly write Gj/" i for F Confonant with thai 
Sound has been but lately introduced. Hence comes a 
Gi/i or Gai/t, as it were gived; for as from lieve comet 
li/i, fo from Give comes Gift. In Saxon it is Gi/e, Gift, 
Cte/t i in German, Geba ; in Dutch, Gi/ii, 

Ui.\ Is the following State of the Pronoun Ife, and it 
■a thus put, becaufe it follows the Verb Give, or rather the 
Prcpofition Te underftood, /. 120, /. 10. G;W us is ufed 
byan Eiiif/u for gi-ve « us. p. 103. I. 7. N. B. The 
Saseeni fay Un the Germans, Uns i the Dulih, Oas. 

This.'] Is an Adje&ive, f. 123, /. 14. And it is a de- 
mon ftrative Adieftive, f. ia+. /, 6. ^his, makes in the 
P/ural Ihtfe, p". 124. 1, 1. Ihis, \% fpoken both of Ferfini 
and Ibings, p. 1 24, I. 1 6. The Saxons fa/ fin, Tif/J, &c. 

Doji.] A Noun Subilantive. But this Day is fpoken for 
w /ii» Day, by an £//i^.t ; as Hodie in iad" for Hoe Die. 
fox in i>e Die. N. B. The Saxont for Da fay I><ig, the 

296 Vhe £ N L I s H Gramf9iar. 

Dutch, Dagbi the Dams, Dag i the Germans , Tag\ aU 
ficm the Latin Dm, 

Our,^ As before: 

Daily,"] An adjective from the Subilantiye Day, it fig- 
Bifies what we have evtry Dtvf^ or what iifuffident/or a 

Bread.] A Subftantive. N. B, The Saxom fay Bre^, 
the Germans^ Brodt ; the Dutch^ Broodt ; the Danes, Brod. 

Jnd,"] AConjmnSion,^ 184. It is a Copu/ati'ue, andjmni 
Sentences together, /. i8c, /. 16. N. B, The SoxmsXxj 
And^ the Dutcby Ende ; the Germans, Unde, 

Forgive.] A Verb ufed in an Imperative Senfe. Tor, in 
Conrpofition, denies or deprives, p. 214. N, B. The Saxom 
hy Forgcfan ; the Germans^ Vergeben \ the Dutch, Fergbeven, 

Us.] As before. 

Ojtr.] As before. 

Trefpaffcs,] A Noun Sablbmtive, 5 is added to make die 
Plural Number, from fre/fajjfe^ p. 58, 1. 3. Butic is made 
by this Addition a Word of three Syllables, becanfe, if the 
Sound of the Vowel were not pronounced, the laft / wooU 
not be heard, p. 58, /. 1 5. 7re^£e is a French Word from 
tram^ beyond, urndpajfer, te ge, that is, a going beyond the 
Bounds let for us to oUerve. fFrong, is more an Englijk 
Word than, Trefpafi. 

As.] As before. 

We.] A Pronoun, and in the firegoin^ State, becanfe it 
comes before the Verb Forgi've, p. 1 20, /. 7. 

Forgive.] A Yexhi the Ending in the Plaral Number h 
aever changed, p. 133, /. 2. 

Them.] Is xkt foilowing State of They. See the Table^ 
p. 122, A 8. Itig^bem, and not T^ftf^, becanfe it follows 
the Verb, /. 120, /. 10. N. B. For They ^ the. Saxons-hj 
Hi, (perhaps from the Latin hi or //, or rather the Greei Itj 
the Germans^ Sie. For tbim, the S»xoms fay tow, the Dntck - 
hem, ben; and we, fometimes in Speaking, and fometimcs 
n Writing, ufe em, or ttm, for them. 

That,} An Jd^eaive Rt/ative^ or an Adjedive that hat 
Relation to fome other Word, and is ufed for tvbo or 
which, ^. 124, I. 3. Ic is fpoken both of Fcrjhns and 
^^'^ih p. 134- 

Tiif E M c L I s H Grammar. 


JV^Jij/S.] A Verb. It is ufed in a declaring (or as the 
2ritfiV call it an Indicative] Manner, /, 136. /. 12, tc it 
tbe PriftUtTtn/^ otTimt. p. 130, 1. 6. p. I 3 1, 1. z 1. It i* 
rhus formed, ITrifpafi, Thou 7>^>/, Hi TrcJ^affilb. Pk-- 
nl. WtTrcff^f!, TfTrf^afi, ThiyTrefpafi,^. l6l, 1. »6. 
y. B. It conies from ih'e Noun Trefpo/i. 

Againji.'] A Prtp^filini, p, 89, 1. 4. What a Frepufition il, 
fee/. 85, /. 37. M B. The Soa-oju fay ^^ro, Qngtn ; the 
DAeb, Tegcn j rf/ Germans, Gegcn, Entgegin. 

V, ] As before. 

^»^.] As before. 

Lea<i.'\ A Verb. It is here ufed In an Imperative Senfe, 
p. 171, /. 18. But the Nominative Word is left out; as, 
i*fl</ for Leaii Thou. N. B. For LeaJ, the Saxeii fay, 
LetJan, alteJan; ihe Dnl(lr, Ltjdm, leiden; the Gtrmanj, 
LtyUn-, tbe D<inN, Udcr. 

t/j.] As before. 

AV/.] Ao Adverb of denying, p. iSi, /. 23. What an 
Adverb is, fee ^.179, /, 6. When it i» ufed abfolutely, 
that i', r.ot being joined to any other Word, we faj A'o ; 
p, iBi, 1. 24. But when it is joined to a feri 01 Nniw, 
wefa/^^'t as, Leadmnst, p. 181, 1. 26. Nsf, ii here 
put after ihef/^ri, p. iHz, I. j. A'. B. The Ou/fi fa/, 
W: theGirmam. Nichf. 

hto.l A PrepoJilion. In relates 10 reft, /«/■ to MotiOHr 
/- 97> ^' 3* 

TimptatUal A Subftantive. A'. B. It com u from the 
Laliit Ttalalio, which from tmiB. to ttmft. Ta try u more 

Jb/,] A Conjuniiion. p. 1S6. What a Conjunflion is> 
fee/. 18+ 

D(/ii'.'.] A Verb, from the F'lnth D,li-vrcr. 

Vs.} Is a following State of the I'ronoun. beeaufe ic 
follows the Verb Deliver, for deli-vir lu* would be falfe 

IVbjw]A Prcpofiiion,/. 96. /. 17. N. B. They for- 
merly ufedyVo for /rein i whence frmtiBril, that is, one 
that turns trom others, that will not agree to Thin^ : 
And at, fnm, is ufed in OppofitJon to. 7» \ fo Frt^nrd, It 
|a Tmuard.wiaAToiuardlf , vf (i}w<iriir'imtb,x.'w»S.\iv-».Htm^ 
• !»jJ««iiisMiadorWi\\ioTh\n^f,U,«i^i' 

spS fbi Ekolish Grammar. 

any Thing. We do alfo now &y to andfro^ Uxt U 0ii 
from% hithir and thitbtr. N. B, The Saxotts, for /hm, 
{vyfrapif fra ; the Danes^ fra. 

Evil.'] Is an Adjedive, but is here nfed as a Subftantivei 
that isy without having another Word joined to it ; b$, the 
E'vil^ (Thing or Per/on) p. 109, 1. 7. N. B. For EnHl, 
the Saxom lay Efci^ Tfil i the Dutch ^ Eve/; the GirtKOMS, 

For,'] Is here a Conjun£lipn, /. 187, /. 14. There 11 9X0$ 
for^ a Prepoiition, f.g^/.zz. N. B, It comes from the 
Saxon^ For ; the Germans fay Fur ; and the frtuch^tQur ; all 
which conae, though varioufly changed, from the Latin fM^ 

Thine,] A Pronoun. Thine is here nfed, and not thj^ 
becaufe the Subftancive is left out; /. 121. /. 18. The 
natural Order of the Words is this, ^ht Kingtkm is tbine^ 
that is, the Kingdom is thy Kingdom ; but 1>ecaufe the King- 
dom^ in thelaft Place, is left out, therefore, thine^ ii nfed ra- 
ther than thy : And the Words are put out of their natural 
Order, the Nominative Word, the Kingdom^ being put after 
the Verb, 1/, that it might more fmoothly and ei2&ly join 
with the following Words. The Power and the G/ary. 
Thine is the Kingdom, that is. Then hafi the Kingdom. 

Is,] A Verb, the Third PerTon Singular from am \ and 
agrees with the Nominative Word Kingdom ; See f. 228, 

A 13. 

The,] As before. But here it is ufed in an emphatical 

or exprefllve Manner, by Way of Eminence or DifUndion % 
See/. 78. /. 29. 

Kingdom,] A Subfbntive. It is a Smbflantive Common^ 
P* 53' 1- 7* It comes from King, by adding the Termi- 
nation dom ; and denotes the Kingly State or Government^ 
and the Place governed, f, 197, /• 2a. N. B, The Sax- 
ens, for Kingdom, fay Cynedome ; the Dutch, Koninckdome ; the 
Germans, Konigreicb, N. B, The Saxons, for King, fay Qfugg 
Cyning, Cynigi the Danes, Konning; the Dutch, KeningSi 
the Germans, Konig, You may derive it from Ken, to knew ; 
or Can, to he able ; or perhaps from the Hebrew Chang a 
Prince or Governor, From hence alfo is Ch/tn or Cham, the 
' Tide of tht Prince of Tartary, And the fame Title is com- 
mon with the Perfiam* T\i<e Saxons, tot lLni« ^n Ccmunrv 
CMfuuf, Cunnan i the G^wwiu, Koiiiini\ ^wt i^NracMaoma^ 

The English' Grawnar, 299 

uTe Ktn, but tioi .0 rr,ucb u the Scotib, with whom it ia 
very commoa. Hence comes Cumiingi m. A eunwing 
FeUfw f Alfo t) Cta, that is. lo learn a Thing well : And 
jBtCimtii: Can, is of frequent Ufc among us, forwhich 
tiie Duuh fay Koi^T-fn; the Gi, man,. Konn^f. ; Uh iQ>n, lean. 
Ballet a /i>i|^ come from K,n, or Co. it is certain that 
both Pnidime and ^o^ir are neceflary for that Dignity. 

Tht.'l As before. 

Ftwer."] Fcom the French, Fowaair. But Strtngth is raort 
taiS'igUp Word. 

A^ /if.] As before. 

G/ury.] Krora the frtniri, G/c(V^, and that from the laiin, 


Far foir and evcr7\ A Siltmn Farm, for throughout all 
Ages or Times. 

Fer."] Is a Prepofition, p. 94, /. 22. 

Ei'tr,"] \i originally an Adverb ; but is ufed here as a. Sab- 
ftantive, denoting an cverlalting Duration: Dr. JValth de< 
rives it from M'.um, • Afi : As Aye and Age, from a'lA, 
diatn: But it may befetchedis well from the Suxi>itA,frc,ivtr, 
Amrt.^The ufual Epihgiie, Conclufion or Ending of 
Prayers : It is a Hebrfw Word, but comcnon to almoft all 

fO)/^t7ff Father 'which art in Hia'viB: HallraieJ U thy 

\J Name (thy Name iiHalUiL-cJ): [Lit) ihyKingJom 

tame; ihy Will be Jam in Earth, ai it ii {done) in Heaven: 

Give (thou ib) US oar daily Bread {in J ihii Oay ; Andfcrgivt 

\tht» te) a, eur Trtfpafii, -u •attforp've {ti) ihim [thiir Trtf- 
tafri) that trcfpafs egainft-^ z And lead {thou\ us mt inta 
TfTrnplafien i tut delitier (rheu) us from Evil : Far the IGag- 

^ is thine, the Po-Tner [ij tii«[)/or t-uer e«d e-ver. Amen. 

* Jt 16 fetdom right to derive a Saxon Word from a taiin 
one. Tiere arc but very few Saxcn Words fo derived i 
.and thefe are new in their Language, perhaps tul^en np, 
£nce their Converfion i from which Tiiae the^ o»;i '»■'<«• 
iinrrotved fome Ecclefiaftical t)va«. 

300 The Engixsh Grammar. 
The Second and Third Praxis. 

The ApoflIe*flCiLKED: 

/Beiie*ve in God the Father Almighty ^ MaktrrfHeo^en and 
Earth, And in Jefiis Chrifl lis otdy Son enr Lord: U^bo 
•was conceived hy the HoUGhofiy Born of the Virgin Mwryi/uf' 
fered under Pontius PiUte, IVas crucified dead and buried: 
He defcended into Hell : The third Day he rofe again from the 
Dead: He afcended into Heanjen : And fitteth on the Right 
Hand of God the Father Almighty : From thence he Jkall 
come to judge the ^uick and the Dead, 1 believe in the Holy 
Ghofi : The Holy Catholick Church : The Communion of 
Saints : The Forgivenefs of Sins : The Refurre^ion of thf 
Body : And the Life everlafting. Amen. 

TheS] A Demonftradve Article added to the SubftaDtire 
Jpoftle's : Or to Apoftle^s Creeds which is reckoned but 
one SubfUntive, /. 7c, /. 28./. t'jt l,S. 

Apofiles,'] Apoftle is a Subftantive. By the Addition 
S9 it is the Plural Number Apofiles^ p. 58, 1. 3. and, by the 
Addition of the other S^ it is made as the Genitive Cde» 
^.65. * Apoftle*s ; but, for better Sound Sake, the firft 
S is cut oit, /. 66, /. 3. And an Apojlrophe is added at 
Apofile's, p. 65* I. 13. N. B, Apoftle comes from the Let" 
tin ApofloluSf or the Greek avoro^^*, Apoftdus^ One that it 
fetit. It is called the Apofiles Creed, becaufe it was, as 
(bme would have it, written by the Apofllesi or at leaft 
as it is ngreeable to the Dofbine delivered by the Apofiles^ 
or a Compendiam of it. Bat as my Worthy Pafior the 

* Thzt Plural Genitive is a great Impropriety, and with- 
out Foundation. See the Note in Pagt 66. The Creed 
Hiould be fliled, not the Afoftle^s Creeds which would mean 

tlie Creed of fome one A\o^\t^ Wx ^^ il^Jktica/ Cretd^ 

or the Creed 0/ the Apofiles. 


The English Gramnar. 30Ii 

LearnediDr. Waterland his obferved : Ills welllcnowi 
to learned Men, that the CrecJ, called the ApojIUi, 
other tkan the Roman Creed. " U has obtained the Name 
" «f the ilfofiolick Cri/d [as a learned and accurate Author 
" obferves ") for no greater or other Keafon than this ; 
" It was a Caftom to call ihofe Churches in which any 
" Jpojile had perfonall)' taught, efpeciaily if he had refidcd 
•* there any long Time, or had died there, Apnjldick 
" Churthes. Of thefe there were a great many in the ^a- 
" pm Partf j Jera/alim, Corinth, Efhrfui, Anihch, he. 

" but in the Wifitrn Parts none but Rome So that any 

" one, that in the Wejlem Parts of the World fpoke of the 
'* Jpajlalict Church, was fuppofed to mean ^om^— and 
" lb their BUhop came to be called the Jp^plick Bifliop j 
" their See the Apofialick See, their Farti the Apoftoiiek Faith , 
" and among the reft, the Creed that they ded, the Api- 
** jliiiuk Cried, now called the ApoJiUt." 

CritdS\ A Compendium or Abftrafl of Things to bi it' 
He-ved From the Verb Cred^. IbtUe^e: Which is the ini- 
tial or beginning Word of the Creedia Laim. ' 

/.] A Pronoun of the firft Pcrfon of the Singular Nonu 
«r, p. 1 79, /. 13. It is the Foregoing Stale of the Pro- 
loun, becaufe it comes before the Verb helh'ut, p. 120, 
, 6. H. B. In SaxM it is U, in Dutch, Ic& j in German, Id. 

BtUf^i.'\ A Verb, The Pnfcnr Tenfi, or limt, I believe. 
f Ida kiieiie. Be, h a Prepolitian fet before Verbs and 
Aidciples, i^c. p. 213. 1. 15. As in other Languages Ge 
and Ghi. K S. Btlie-vc is in Saxon Geleafan, in Dnich 
Gbtlooven, in G.rman Gtaiibiis. And Belief is Gcltafa, 
Gbtlaovf, Glaub, 

In God.^ Or nn Gcd, in the lame Seofe. In, \i 1 Ftepiifi~ 

n. p. 96. 1. 33. God, is a Subllantivc. V. B. The Sax- 

:, a we, fay God ; the Danti, Gad; the Duiebt Goedt 
the Gtrmam, Goii, which they derive from the GirmaWf 
Gate, Good. 

fki Faiher-I As before. 

AH'Mighty-l A Compounded Adjeftive. of AU and 
Mighty, i. e. Po^uirful. N. B. For A//, the Saxom fay ^i. 

♦JWr, #V/'sHiit. of Inf. Bau. ¥as\ 1. t.^-\- V=ci\ 

'. ss 

302 7h€ English Grammar* 

Ma/9 Ea/U, Alle ; the Danes^ 011% the Dutcb^ Al ; the Gtr^ 
xnans^ All. All which come from the Greek oA^. bolos. 
Mighty^ is formed or made from the Subftantive Mighty by 
the Addition of y ; for from Suhftantt<ves^ by adding the 
Endingj^, are formed AdjeAives of Plenty, or Abound- 
ing, /. 193. /. 28. And Might comes from May^ far 
^hich the Saxons (siid Maeg; iheuMtcb, Mach ; tht Germans^ 
Mag, So the S axons n for Might, faid Mihte^ Maeht^ Meaht ; 
the Ccrtjuifis and Dutcby Macht ; the Danes, Maet, So, 
f jr Mighty, the Dutch fay Machtigh ; the Germans, Mach' 
tig. So, for All mighty f the Dutch fay Almachticb ; the Ger- 
mans, Allmachtig; the Danes ^ Allmeetig, 

Maker.'] A SublUntive, iignifying the Deer 1 for, from 
Make, comes the Verbal Subflantive Maker, by adding the 
Ending ^r, p. 193. /. 23. -AT. i5. For to Mmke, the Saxons fay 
Macan ; the Dutch, Maecken, Make ; the Germans, Macbcn ; 
the Danes, Mager: All which are from the Z^/Zv Machinart. 

O/.] A Prepoiition, and anfwers to the Genitive Cafe 
of the L00inj, p. 97. 1. 30. iST. ^. Perhaps it comes from 
the Lattnab, or the Greek uwo, afo, or rather af, afb 
put for apo, 

Hia^en and Earth.'] As before. 

J?iii in.] As before. 

Je/us Chrijl.] Je/us is a Proper Name, or a Subllantive 
Proper, p* SS^ ^' 7* ^- ^' It fignifies a jS^ro;/ 0«r. Chrift 
is alfo a proper Name, and fignifies Anointed. 

His.] Is the Genitive CafeofHip, the Pronoun of the 
third Pcrfon Singular, and denotes the Male Sex, p. 119. 
/. 6. His, fee the Tahle, p. 122. 1. 5. N. B. The Saxons 
fay Hyfe, Hife, His ; perhaps it comes from the Latin, Is. 

Only. ^ Is an Adjediive in this Place ; for fometimes it 
is ufed Adverbially, p. 109. 1. 10. N. B. It comes from 
One, for which the Saxons fay An, JEne ; the Dutch, Een ; the 
Germans, Ein ; and the Scotch ean, ane ; all from the Latin 
Unus, or the Greek il?, he is, u, ben. From one comes al- 
fo once *. For any the Saxons faid jEnig. Hence alfo An, 

»-»^— '^^^••B* 

* in Saxon ane or aene ; and in the Genitive anes^ aenes. 

Pronrivhence comes mt%^ onts^on^^ in old WritingSy which 

is now once. For thvn ones, c^t then oiice» '^Vk!;^ il^BOVir 

corruptly fpoken and wniXftti /or the nonce* 


The E N c 1 1 s H Grammar. 30 

a, for which [he Fieneh ufe Un. An and One have t 
Cifference, that Ann\eh Emphatical than Ow, p. 77,1,28.1 

5««.] A Subfianiive. N. B. The Sa.roni fay ^B-ia; [he 
Dutd, Sw ; the Gtrmans, Sehn -, the Ojnrt, 5bb, &c. 

Oar.] As before, 

L<ird~\A Subftantive common, /. 53 I. 9. 
isaContraflionof theJ/ixoB WA/ir^. which Dr. IVslli, 
will have to come from Hlof, whence our Word Loa/ani 

ford which we now call afford. 

Wko.l or -wbicb. If bo is fpoken of Perfon only, TTbie^ 
otTbingj, p. 120. /, zj.andp. IZ4, /, ig. 

fl'ai.} The Preter Time of the Verb Am, p. 153, /. 19. 
1 <u/ai, 'Thau luaj}, &c. But here, tuai, being joined to tfco 
Participle Cencei'ued, denotes the firft Preter Time of the 
Paffve faiet, as the LatimczW it, f. 170. /, 1. 

Concii-vtd.'\ A Participle Paffh't, from the Verb Caaceivr, 
by the Addition of the formative Termination Ed, p. 143. 
/. 4. A''. B. Cancei'vc, comes from the French Cencevffir, 
and that from the Lalii CmripiB. 

Byl A Prepofition, fignifying the Efficient Caufe. f. 93. 
i. ^\. 

The Holy Gboji.l Tki. as before. Hely, fee Halhii.-eA. Ghojt, 
is a Subftantive, it fignifics tpiriti which Word we now 
ufe kiilead of Ghofi. Though it it yet retained, from ancient 
Cullotn, as the Title of the Holy Spirit, lefl theconnron 
People Ihould think there was fome Change or lanovacion 
in the Doflrine, if the Name was altered, fiut we da 
alfofaythe HilySpiyii. N. B. But CAotf comes from the 
Saxon GaJI, which the Dulth and Seoich call Ghtji ; the 
Cermani, Gryji. To this, the Word Qufi has fome Rela- 
tion, denoting a violent Blaft of Wind, But the Word 
Ghofi \i now more frequently ufed to denote fome SpeSn 
or Apparition , For they thought formerly, ai fome do 
now a-days, that Cbi^jls or Apparitiani were very often 
feen, efpecially near Charch-Yards and Sepulcheri, and 
that they were the wandering Souls or Spirits of Dead 
Pcrfons that had been murdered, or that had hid Trea- 
fures which were not yet found out. From the Subftm- 
tive Gbsjl by the Addition of !y, comes the Word Ghsfly, 
that is, Spifilual, p. ig;. 1, g, which ii now alCo^ 
i^egucnrf/ uled. Hence alto ctime^ ^«jUj, wiMK.W.'fi*-- 

O 1 ^^- 


04 Sie English Grammar. 


f\i\, like a Ghoft, or like a dead Corps ; for a gaftly 
Look is chiefly faid of the Coantenance of a dying Per- 
/on. Alfo 4s^J^ afFrightedy as it were at the Sight of a 
Ghoift. To gaxe, that is* to look attentively upon a 
Thing, as on fomewhat new or imufuaU from the Greek 
«ya^ofMti, iigazomai, to *wonder w admire. 

Bom.'] A Particifie Fafftve from to hear^ which makes 
in the PreCer Tenfe Bare or Bore^ p. 159. 1. 4. Table I L 
Whence comes the Participles Boren^ p. 157. 1. i. which 
hy Contraction is made Bor'tty Bent, N, £. Hence comes 
a Bairfi, Bantt a Son^ or ChiU, (a Word common with 
the Scotchf and our North Country-Men ;) alfo hence the 
Noun Birtift as it were Bcarth or Beareth the third Per- 
ion of xhe Verb to hear. To breed z,% a breeding Woman, or 
to breed up , that is, to educate ; alio Breeds QffJp^^^Z » Brat^ 
Broody as a Brood of Chickens, and to broody have fome Re- 
lation to this Word bear. 
Cy.J A Prepofition, p. 97. 

The Virgin^ A Subllantive. AT. J?. It comes from the 
, Latin^ Virgo. Ma^d^ Maid, or Maiden^ is more an Englijh 
Word, which the Faxons call Moeden, Moegden ; the Dutch 
Maecht^ Maeght^ Maeghdi the Germans ^ Magd, 
Mary.] A Subftantive proper, p. 53. 1. 7. 
Sufered.] The Preter Tenfe of the Verb to/ujer, which 
is made by adding the Ending Ed, p. 134.). ;s2, and 24. 
and it is ^thus formed Ifuffcred^ &c. p. 162. 1. 5. M B^ 
Suffer comes from the Latin, Suffero.^ Pear, iare^ is jnoxe 
an Englifi Word. 

Under.] A Prcpofition, p. 103. 
Fontius Pilate.] Subflantives proper. 
Was.] As before. 

Crucified.] A Participle P^ive from crucify. Was crucifi' 
ed is the firft Preter Tenfe of the P^ffive Verb, fee p. 1 70. 
h \, N. B. It comes from the French^ Crucijierf which 
from the Latin, Crucifigo, 

Dead.] An Adjective from to dy, whence alfo Death, 
p. 193. 1. 7. N. B. The Saxons faid deadi the Dutch, 
dlood; the Danes, dod ; fhe Germans, tod, todt. 
4nd,] As before. ^ 

juried.] A Participle ftcm to hux^\ •was buried, is alfo 

7he English Grammar, ^0$'^* 

N. B . The Saxans fay BirSan, Birygmx, Birjgan, Sdyr^cai, 
Bi/jrigian, to hury. and iyrgid, biiricrl, from Bcarg, a H;7- 
lack or Heap, which has fome Affinily with the Germant 
Btrg, a Hili. But the Dn/ci fay B.-graw, the Gn-mans, Be- 
grahia, from G/-«/", Gj-af, which we call Grave. 

W*.] A Pronoun of the third Perfon Singular, p. iig, 
1. |6. It is the f^ominati-ve IfaJ to the Verb 

Dcfiended.] The firfl Prefer Timi of the Verb D/fanil. 

f. 131, I. 22. Seethe Formation of it, p, 162.1, ■^.N.S- 
t comes from the Latin Word dcfctndo, to dtfcini, that is I 
to go down, defcendid, \. e.' lucni i/o^vh, from the ol<f 
Vfordivend, p. 160, 1. I. Of the Senfe oi De, in Com- 
pofition, feep, 3t6. I. 18. 
Jri/o.] A Prepofition, f. 96. 

//*■//.] A Subftantive. N. B. The ^^vshj fay Hellr i the 
Z)i(/ffi and Gtrmam, Hell, Hdh : Which come from the 
Sexmt HtUeii, to cover, whence ajfo our Word 11 hmi; or 
elfe from the Snxon, Ho!, Hoh, Huh. or the Dutch and Ger- 
maH, Hal, which anfiver to our, Wt/c Itanfwers i<S Sheoi 
• of the Hebrtivi, and ah<i., of ihe Greek ; which 
Words are ufed for the Grave, as well as for G. henna tht 
Place of the Damned : Or here it is rather put indefiiiiiely 
for the State of the Dead, which fcems to be the Senfei 
it in this Place. 
The.} At before. 

Third.] Is an Adjeaive, and is called an Ordinal Nitmirr. 
»f, Thrrt, is a Cardinal Number, p. So. 1. 7. and I. 4. A". B. 
For. 7'i«r,,the Soxflni faid, Tbri, Tkrig, tl-reo, fhridda, tkrii- 
dt j the Dutch, Drie, Dry, Dryde, Dirdi -, the Gtrmans, Trey, 
Drty, for Three-, Ehitta, Triite. Drill, int Third; all from 
the Laiiu, Trtj, Trrtitts, or rather from the Grrei. 

Day.} A Subftantivc. The third Day is put by an E/lipJii,, 
p. 225. 1. 9. for in fht lkirdDas,'ox an the third Day. 
K. 3. For ZJfl)' the Srt.vD;/j faid D^,^-, the Dat.h, Dagh ; 
the Da«eh Dag ; the Germain, T,:g. 

" From whence it feems tc 
only from the billing f to the afpiracei which is natural 
aiul frequent. 

3o5 The English Grammar* 

He.'] As before. It is the Nominaiive Word to the Vcrb^ 
and comes before the Verb, p. 225. 1. 9. 

Rofe.] U the Preter Tenfe of the Ytxb^o ri/ei it is an 
irregular Preter Tenfe, p. 160. N. B. To rife or arife^ comes 
from the Saxon Arifan^ The Dutch ufe the Word Opftaen^ 
in the fame Senfe, that is, Up-ftand oxfiand up \ but to 
rai/c is to make to ri/e. 

Again."] An Adverb, from the Saxon, Agen. 

FromA A Prepofition, as before. 

The Dead.] Here, as alfo before, the Subllantive Pcrfim 
or People may be underftood. 

//#.] As before. 

SittetL] Is the third Perfon Singular Prefent Tenfe, of 
the Verb to Sit ; for the third Per&n of the Prefent Tenfe 
generally endeth in r/i&, p. 133. 1. 10. It is the third Per* 
ion Singular, becaufe the Nominative Word, He, is fo, 
p. 228. I. 13. He, is the third Perfon, p. 119. ]. 15. He^ 
18 here left out, becaufe it was mentioned juft before ; as. 
He ajunded into Heaven, and (He) Jitteth, &c. p. 236. 
1» 12, N. B. To Jit, in Saxon, Sit tan ; in Dutch, Sit ten ; in 
German, Sizzen : All from the Latin, Sedeo, or the Greek 
t^u, hezo. And the Greek i(u, I'^a, heKo, hizo, have the 
fan^e Signification as our to^t and to/et. 

Oft or At.] A Prepofition, p. 99. and p; 90. On fig- 
nifies tit or nigh : For we fay at the Right Hand, or on the 
Right Hand. 

'I he Right Hand,] Right, is an Adjedive, and agrees with 
the SubfUntive Hand, p. 107. 1. 4. and it is placed before 
the Subilantive, p. 107. 1. 14. N, B. Right, m the Saxon, 
Riht ; in Dutch and German, Recht ; and in Latin, Re£}us ; 
from whence thofe Words do alfo come, the Italian Ritto, 
and the French Droit, or DroiSi, as it were Directum. Right, 
has feveral Senfes ; as. Right and Left i Right and Crooked i 
Right and Sloping, or Leaning j Right and Wrong, &c. Hand, 
is a Subilantive ; perhaps it was formerly Gandt, whence 
the French Gant and Gantlet, Goropius Secanus is of this 
Opinion, who will have the Greek ylyuAa, a Giant, to 
he of the German Original 5 as it were Gi-gani, or Wi" 
ganff J. e. Wide -hand. 

Of God the Father Almi^i'^?^ K%\idox^ 



'«.] from, is 3 Prepofition, p. 96, What a Pec- 
, fee p. 85. It is here added to the AdvCTb 
" , is here a Sort q{ Exfltii'-Je, 

1, and 1.13. Thenct, is an AJ-verh cfPlac 
lignihes as muchas frem that Plire, p. 180, 1, 34. ^01 
Hence, ihence, luhmee, in fome Places they fay, Hirencr, 
Tbertnce, Whertnci: But this Manner of Expreffion is not 
to be imitated. 

Htjhall comt:\ Hi, as before. ShaU. is a lielping Ferh, 
p. I4J, and p. 146. It is thus formed, Ifiiall, ihoujhalt^ 
heJhaU; Floral, IVifien, &c, p. 14;. Shall, and Will, dc- . 
note the Futurt lime, or the limt to e»me, p. 147. Shall, 
in the thijd Perfon, does here frsmlfi, baC fometimes ic 
eummanii ot threaten!, p. 147. 1. 16. and iS. Come, it a 
Verb i when two Verbs come together, the latter has the 
Prepofition, to, placed before it, p. 175. (This the Leiint 
call the Infiniii-ve Uoed ;) but after the Htlfing Vtrh (fuch 
a one is, pal'C) and fome few other Verbs, the Prepofitioi* 
te is left out, p. 146, 1. I . Come, makes in the Freter limt. 
Came, p, 159, 1. 15. N. B. Coint,h in Saxon Ceman, Cj- 
man ; in Dutch, Koaen j in the German, Kammtn ; in Greet 
Ms^ai. This Infinitive Manner, which we exprefs by 
fetting the Prepofition /a before the Verb, the Latins did 
by the Infiniti've Meed; the Hanes, by the Ending er ; thff 
Saxoni, by the Ending an ; Ewd the Dutch and Germans, 
by the Ending en. 

To judge-} Is the latter of two Verbs, and therefore ha* 
the Prepofition, to, placed before it. p. 171;, 1. 7, This ■» 
ealled tJie Infiniti've Manntr. N. B, But Judge, lojudger 
judgement, (a French Juge, juger, jugtmcnt} are of Uiiiit 
Original. Deem is more Englijh, ana Doem or Dome \ as 
Domet-day, the Day ofjudgment -, Doems-day Boot. 

The ^ici.'] Ao Adjeftive, which is joined to its Sub- 
ftantive without any Difference of Cafi, Gendtr, or A'am- 
bir, p. 107, I. 4. Mm, the Plural of Man is underftood, 
p. 60, 1. 4. ^iei, isnowa-days ufed chiefly to fignify 
S-uii/t, nimble. Sec. but formerly [whence in the Creed it 
does now retain its ancient Senfe) it more often, and now 
it figtufies Jlive ; fo that the ^ici and Dead, is the iiii-- 
ing and DraJ. From ^uici, comes the Verb /» ^cien,. 
I f. 195, 1. 14. But ntiw for, gnlckiiJt ^Tasi\t'i&K„U.'u- 


7be English Grammar. 

ing and Ali've ; the Saxons for ^ick faid Cuicfy Cuce, (for 
J^ was not very ufual with them;) the Dutch, ^icki we 
ia/ ^ick-fil'ver, to fare the Nails to the ^ick^ &C. 
Jind the Dead"] As before. 
/ believe in the Holy Ghojl,"] As before. 
*Ihe Holy.'] As before. 

Catholick.'] Am AdjeSli've, and fignifics Generah Uni^vrrA I. 
N, B. It is of a Greek Original, CatlM>licos^\n Latin Cat ho- 
Ucus: The Saxons faid Allic from Mle Ail, w.hence our 
Word AIL 
^ Church,] A Subllantive. K B, For which the North 
Britons fay ^/Vif, the Dutch, Kercke ; the Germans, Kirch, 
Kirche ; the Saxons^ Gyric, All which are contrafled from 
the Greek xv^iaxl^, kuriakos, xv^iaxi, kufiake, oik^, or 
•txiu, oikos, or oikia, being underflood. 

Communion,'] A Subllantive from the Latin, Ccmmjinio ; 
for Words, in iony are made I^z/zi? by cading away n ; as, 
. Communion, Communio, p. 212, 1. 16. 

Of Saints,] Of, is a Prcpofition. Saints, is a Subftantive 
of the Plural Number, which is made by adding S to the 
Singular Saint, p. 58, 1. 5. It is {>utinto the Plural Num- 
ber, becaufe it is fpoken of more than one Saint, p» 5S, 
1. I . N, B, Saint, comes from the French Word Saint, 
which from the Latin, SanBus, Holy, 

^he Forgi'venefs.] A Subftantive made from the Verb For^ 
gi'ue, by adding the Ending siefs, p. 198. 1. 10, Which 
Sort of Words are often formed from Aoje^ves, but very 
feldom from Verbs. 

. Of Sim,] Sins, is the Plural of the Suhftanti've, Sin, and is 
xnade by adding S, p. 58, 1. 3. N. B, The Saxons faiy 
Sinne, Synne ; the Dutch, Sonde, Sunde ; the Germans^ Sunk, 
^he RefurreQion.] That is, the Up-rijing, or the Rijing 
again; it is a Subftantive from the Latin, BefurreSio^ 
p. 212, 1. 16. The Force of Be, in Compofitiony fee 
p. 219, 1. 8. 

Of the Body,] A Subftantive from the Saxon, Bodtge. 
And the Life.] A Subftantive. Hence comes the Verb 
to Li've, p. 193, 1, 6. Thence comes the Adlive Participlie 
Z/'z///fgyp. ijj^Zg 1. 13. and Li<vely, p. 195, 1. 9. Alfo Life' 
^9 or iii/e/efil i. e. without UJty 5, ^%> V, 21 • 

The English Grammar. 

E'vei-lafllng.'] It is 3 compound Adjeftive, or a Word 
made up of the Adverb, Ever, and the Participle, Lafting, 
from ihe Verb to luji, to continue or abUi ; and ra lafl, 
comes from the Adjeflive laft, p. igj, 1. 6. Which is a 
Contrailion of, Lo/^y?, the Superlative Degree of. Late, 
p. 115, 1.4. Life everlafting, and the Father Almighty. 
for everlafting Life, and the Almighty Father : Where you 
fee the AdjeQive is pot after the Subftantive, p.fio?, I. 8. 
JV. B. The 5fl*oaj for Late, Later ; Lalefi, or La'fi ; fay 
Late, Later, Latre i Latejl, Lalcji. The Dutch fny Lm, /, a 
and from their Latertn, Ltuierev, comes our Ltittr, to at' 
lay, to fpend one's Time idly. 
■iimeii.\ As before. 

The CrW placed in theOrderof Conllruflion, or in the 
Natural Order, with the EUipfes's, or the Words that ue 
left out. 

/ hthe-vi in JlmigbtyGoi the father, {the] Maker afMea- 
tiin and E^rtb. And (I beUeve) .« Jefus Chrijl hit c»!j 
Sob our Lord; •who -wai eonaiiied by the Holy Ghajl, [who 
was) born of the Virgin Mary, (who) fiffered undtr Pon- 
tius Pilate, (who) -waj trueifed, [who was).»i«fl', and (who 
was) buried ; He defccnded into Hell ; He roft again Jr$m tht 
Dead (People) pn or on) the third Dny ; Hi a/cended tnia 
Ummtn ; and (lit)Jiltetb an the Right Hand of Almighty 
Gid ihi Father; from ibeaet He fiall somi to judge the 
fuici {People) and the i/mi/ (People). I believe in tbe Hofy 
Chafi ; (I believe) the Holy Calholiik Church ; (I believe) lke_ 
CimmaHion of Sainti: (I believe) the Forgi-venefi of Sin: 
(I believe) ibe R//u,-rcSioii of the Body : And (1 believe) tbt 
Life Ei-erlajling. Amen. 

The Fourth J" R AXIS. 

HIS Prnxii'ii added to fhew the Qeatity of our 

Language, which has Woid* vi\\M«vn\^ vaNit'iQxiTA. 

ftpeat Likeneu or Agreement \ti t\ie \,tvi,«4 y* <^^e.'^"^■>n% 
O i 



510 TheEuGtisuGramfMr. 

£gnified : Likewife to fhew the peculiar Force or Ex- 
prrfiiveners of a great many fingle Words. 

A certain Freuch Gentleman praifing the Happlnefs of his 
Native Languaee, which had Words that implied a Like- 
nefs to the Thing figniiied : At the fame Time finding 
fiult with the Englijb Tongae, as not beine ^hle to do the 
like \ he propofed the following Verfes to ut, WalUs. 

Sluandun Cordter, eordanty «vult corder une eorde ; 
Tour fa corde corder^ trots cordons ileucorde » 
Mais, Jiun des cordons de la cordt eUf corde, 
Le cordon d^cordant fait defcorder la corde. 

Which Dr. WfliUs thus rendered into EngUfh VerCe, mak- 
ing ufe of the pure Englijb Word Tovi}? (contrary to the 
Expe6lation of the French Geutleman) infl^ of the French 
Word Cord. 

When a Tiuiferf a-twifting, vnlltmnft him a tnmft ; 
For the t<wifiing his tnmfl, he three tnmnes doth int*wijl ;■ 
But if ow of the tnmnes of the tnmjl do untnmfi, 
fhe iwinOf that ttnttvifieth, unt*wifieth the twijt. 

the DoSor added four Verfes more. 

VntnvirliUg the tnmne that untwifteth hetvjeetit 
fie tnmrlsy 'with his ifwifter, the tnjuo in a tnvine t 
Then, fwice hawig tivifed the twines of the t^wine ; 
He tivitcheth the twine he had twined, in twain. 

Afterwards he added four more. 

"^ he' twain, that in -twining, before in the twine. 
As twifu nuere intwified ; he now doth untnuine. 
^TiMxi the twain inter-tmnfiing a tnmne more between^ 
Me, twirling his twijler, makes a tnjaiH of the twine. 


The E N G L rs [T Grammar, 


o R, 

Of the Formation or Genuine Sound ef 
all Letters • fVritten in Latin Ijy the 
Learned Dr. WalUs, 

S £ C T. I. ■ )M 

Of Speech and its AffeStens, ^1 

EVERY Body knows that Tf^ardi joined togeihcT- 
make Smtintes, and thai Sylleblii jaiced cogether 
make ^("-fllr, and that Lf//frj joined together make 5)) i7<?i/«; 
SnttttciisiXo are again refolved into W^oriii, Wtrdt into* 
Syllahles, and SyUBblei into Luiin. And feeing the Jaalyfii, 
or Rcfoluiioo of Words, is terminated in the Letters, s»it 
were in the tirll EUmtnis where the Anaiyfis or RefolutioD cani 
go no farther, (for which Reafon the Lst- 
ters are called Si-o.^". Sisichia, or EU- What m I't- 
menti by the Grciiam) a teller may be faid ttr u. 
to be ^fimplc er untampoundtd Saand in a 
Word, itihieb tataitt be ditiideitnta any mere fimfleS^undt. 
And it ii generally marked by a particular Charafter. But 
if any had tather have it, thai a Letter is oot a limplc 
Sound it felf) but a Cbara^ir which marks a fungls: 
Saundi he ii at Liberty to enjoy his Opinion. 

O 6 

312 The English Grammar. 

For the Gr^ei Word T^ccfAfAUf Gramma, 
A Letter comes fron:^ T^dfu, Grapho ^ a Word* 
whence fe which fignifies to nvHte ; and the Latin 
called^ ' Word Litera^ Letter^ comes either from^ 
LineandOi as Scaliger will have it, or, as 
the Word Linea^ a Line does, from. Linendo i, fo that both 
£gnify that which is written or marked on Paper. 

But if there be any CbaraSer that does not entirely ex- 
prefs a fimple Sound, but a Sound compofed or made up 
of two or more Sounds, and may be refolved into as 
many Sounds ; we cannot fo properly call that Character 
a Letter^ as an Abbreviation o/fenjiral Letters^ or a Con- 
tra£tion of Letters into, one Note, or Mark, containing 
in it feir fo many Letters a» its Power contains fimple 
Sounds. This is plain and evident, from the Latin &, X^ 
the Greek H, Y, r, the Hebrew X, and o,tbers>. for they 
are compofed of C/, G, K?^ n^, Xr, Dt3 

On the other Hand, a fimple Sound, although it be 
written perhaps by different Characters, is to be reckon- 
ed but as one Letter. For Tb^ Ph, are as well as 0, 0^ 
but fimple Letters. 

The chief Inftruments of Speech are 
Inftruments the Lungs» the Larynx or Top of the 
of Speech* Windpipe, with all the Parts adjacent, 

the J^eria Af-teria or Windpipe ; alfo the 
Tongue, NoftrSs, the Lips, and the feverai Parts of the 

The Breath or infpired Air, which does as it were fur- 
Jiiffi the Matter of the Voice or Speech, is blown front 
the Lungs through the Windpipe. For from the various 
Collifion (Striking together) of this Air or Breath, arifes 
the Variety of Sounds, both as to their fonts and' Articw^ 
lation. And this Variety of Sounds comes not from the 
Lungs, but from other Caufes, as we ihall fhew after- 
wards. For all the Variation, that Sounds receive front 
the Lunes, is only according to the greater or lefier Force, 
with which they fend out the Breath, by which the Voice 
becomes more or lefs ftrong and fonorous or loud. For 
the Lungs perform in Speech, what the Bellows do in an 

I'h E N G L t s H GramiHar. 

The Variety of Tones, as far as ihey relate 
to Gravity or Acutenefi, that is, are flat or [harp, Toms. 
arifes .from the ^/pcria Ai-teria or Windpipe. 
Foraj iu a T«i* or Fiili. fo in the Ifiinipifc, the longer 
and fmaller it is, the Tone will be ftiarper, or fnialler, and 
the larger and (horter it is, the jravec and bigger will be 
the Tens- Hence proceeds, at leaft in fame Meafure, the 
Variety of Tones in the Voices offeveral Men, or even 
of the fame Man in dilterent Ages of his Life: But this 
Variety of Tones arifes chiefly from the Larjnx or Knot 
of th< TTiroat. For, as the fmall Cleft or Chink of the 
Laryiix doth more or lefs open, the Tone of the Voice it 
more Grave or Flat, or Acute and Sharp. And this is 
the Seat of all mufical Modulation. 

From the fame Place or Seat we mull fetch the Reafon 
of the Difference between afi/ier Ji'Ujjicr and loud or o/sn 
Talk. For if, in Speaking, we make a cremnlous Concuf- 
fion of the Larynx and iVindpi^, ic produces, by Reafon 
of their Extenlion, open or loud Speaking ; but when the 
Larynx and iFimipife are lefs ftretehed, and more dofe, 
that Sound is comnionly called U'hifpiring, 

But all the Letters are not capable of this Diverfity or 
Difference of Sound, bji only thofe which we call Vowdt, 
Semi-vowels or Half-Vowels, Half-Mutes and fuch as 
come from Ha!f-Muies; For P, T, C, [or A] and their 
Afpirates, never admit of that Concuflion, nor is their 
Sound, in open Speech, different from what it is in a 

To this Seat we may refer Hoarfenefs, often the ColT^. 
panton of a Catarrh, which hinders thai ConculTion of the 
Larynx and the H'inilpipc. 

The Articulation of Words, or the Formation of the 
feveral Letters, then begins, after that the Breatli has paf- 
(ed the Larynx : And is almofl wholly performed by the 
Noftrils, Mouth, Tongue, and Lips. 

But of the Letters, fome are called Vowelsi others Con- 

'314 7*^ English Grammar. 


0//i&^ Vowels^ 

IF we Judge by, or regard, the CharaAers only, t&r 
Number of Vowels h not the fame among difierent Na- 
tions. But it is generally granted, that there are more 
Sounds of Vowe£, than there are Charaders to exprefs 
them by I therefore am of Opinion, that they ought to« 
be diitinguifhed into thefe three Clafies, GtOtural or Throat 
Sounds, Palatine or Sounds of the Palat^ and LMeU or 
Sounds of the Lips ; as they are formed or made by the 
Throat, the Pakte, or the Lips. Te which the fame 
Number of ^r/7^/^ff Vowels, Phaiba^ KexrOf Datnma do 
anfwer, and which are formed in the fame Seat or Parts: 
Alfo ^ three Hebrrw Letters \ Vaut ^ y^d, t!t Alefb^ 
which they call Matres LeQianis ; and it^ is believed that 
they formerly, before the Inventioa of the Points* fup« 
plied the Pkce of all the Vowels. * 

* It is now more reafonably judged by Criticks that 
the Hebre^i^. had ^yt Vowels, ^ Jlepb^ fl[ ^'> ^ Jodp. 
^Vauy y Ain^ Vid. ^bomaf. GloJJf. Praef./. 31, '32, 54.. 
Some add D ^ib^ to the Number, making fix in all: 

K ■ a Oiott.. 

n ■! ■ e fhort. 

1 ■ 0V9 or Um> 

n -— — — . # long. 



y , — — a long, or oi 

Tbe English Grammar. 

But if we reckon the Number of Vowels fas we Ougf 
to do) according to the Number of Vocal Sounds, as they 
are now a-days founded, their Number will be Nine, iiiz. 
Three in the Throat, three in the PuLite, and as many in 
the Lifs, according ro the threefold Manner of opening 
the Mouth in thofe feverai Seats or Places ; that is, by a 
larger, imddlc, or lefs Degree of opening it. 
ThcGftf^Hra/orT'AfDfl/ Letters are formed in Guliuruh. 
the Top. or upper Part of the Throat, or in 
the lower Part of the Toagae and Palate, by a moderate 
Comprefiion of Air or Breath. 

And if the Breach goes out with a larger or u, S, efea, 
wide Opening of the Mouth ; the German a, 
or the open o is formed, Neither do the Gtrmans alone, 
but the Frtneh and fome other Nations, moft commonly 
pronounce their a with the fame Sound. The Englijh ex- 
prefs that Sound, when Ihort, by (hart £ ; but when it 
19 long, by au or aiv, but very feldom by a. For, in 
fall, fillj; call, c„a>,r; U'Wi.lofi ; caufi,«,Jti a^\i, odd; 
fmu'd, fidd; and in many fuch like Words, there is the 
&rae Sound of the Vowels heard in both Syllables, only 
tn the firll it is long, and in the lall the Sound is Ihott. 

In this fame Place, but with a more mo- 
derate Opening of the Mouth, is formed the e Fimnini. 
Fratch E Feminine, with an obfcure Sound. 
Nor does the Formation of this Vowel differ, any other 
Ways, from the Formation of the foregoing open Jt, than 
that [he Mouth is more contrafted in this, than in die for- 
mer, but lefs than in the Formation of the following Vow- 
el O. 

This Sound the EngUJh fcarce any where own, unlef* 
when the (hort Vowel £ immediately precedes the Letter 
£ ; as. Virtue, Liberal, Liberty, &c. Ajid this is thus found- 
ed, not becaufe it ought to be fo, but becaufe it can fc^.rce 
be pronunced otherwife; for one may, if it can be done 
without Trouble, pronounce E there, with a brifk or 
Mafculine Sound. 

la the fame Seat, but with a lefs Open- i, Z, Okfeuri, 
ing of the Mouth, is formed a or u ob- 
fcure : It diifers from the Freiicb e Feminine, only in 

2i6 The E N c L r s H Grammar. 

nearer together. The French have this Soirnd in the laft 
Syllable of the Words Scr^viteur, Sacrijicateur^ &c. The 
Englijh do mofl commonly exprefs this Sound by ihort u ; 
as, in turn J burn, dully cut, &c. And fometimes pro- 
nouncing after a carelefs Manner, they exprefs this Sound 
hy oOT u; as in Come, fonte^ doncy Comparyy Country y Cou- 
f/e, covetf Lo^e, and in foroe others, to which they, ought 
to give another and more jufl Sound. The fP^e^ gener 
rally mark this Sound by y, only that they found this Let- 
ter in the laft Syllable of Words^ as /. 

The Palatine Vowels are formed in the Pa* 
Palatine, late ; the Air or Breath being moderately com.- 
prefTed between the Middle of the Palate or 
7ongue: Namely, when the Hollow of the P^^A^/^ is made 
lefs, by the Elevation, or Raiiing of the Middle of the 
Tongue, than it i& in the Pronunciation of the Guttural^ 
or Throat Letters. And thefe are of three Sorts, accord- 
ing as the faid Hollow is enlarged or leflened : Which 
Diveriity or Difference may be made two feveral Ways : 
Either by contradting the Mouth, the Tongue remaining 
in the fame Pofture ; or by lifting up the Middle of the 
Tongue higher, to the Fore- parts of the Palate, the Mouth 
or Lips remaining in the fame PoUure or Pofition : But 
it is the fame Thing which Way foever you do it, or if 
you do it both Ways. 

The Englifi flender a is formed or made^ 
^Jlender. bf a greater Opening of the Mouth; as ia 
Baty bate i Pally pale i Sam, fame\ Dawy 
dame\ Bar, bare , Bany bane, 8cc. This Sound differs 
from the flat or open J of the Germans, in this Refpe£l, 
that the English raife up the Middle of the Tongue, and 
fo comprefs the Breath or Air in the Palate; but the Ger* 
mans deprefs or keep down the Middle of the Tongue>.and^ 
fo comprefs the Breath or Air in the Throat. The French. 
exprefs this Sound, when E goes before Af or iV^ in the fan^ 
Syllable, as in Entendment, &c. The Weljh pronounce their 
A with this Sound. In the fame Seat, but with a mo* 
derate or leiTer Opening of the Mouth, is 
c Mq/iTu/me. formed the Frencfe E Mafculine> with a 
^, brifk and ft\ar]f Sound, 2l^ i^^ ^ttgjijh^ Ita* 

^a/gj, S/ianiards, and others, arc ufed X-O ^xoiwwjw* ^^ 

The English Grammar. 317 

I.ecirr, For it has a midJIe Sound, beiwi\T the forego- 
ing Vowel ((lender A'l and that (llender i) which will im- 
mediatdy Tollow to be fpoken of. The £»£/y* exprefs this 
Sound, not only by E, but alfo when it is made long, by 
En, and rometimes by Ei ; as. The, th^re, tbtfi, fill, feal, 
trll. lud, Jli:,l, fit, feet, btft, be^JI, reJ, read, recdw, limine. 

But the Words, wriuen with «?, would be more right- 
ly pronounced, if to the Sound of f long the Sound of 
the Eaglijh a, moft rapidly pronounced, were added ; as it 
is very probable (hey formerly were, and aa they are ftill 
in the Northern Parts. And thofe Words, which arc writ- 
ten with ei, might be more rightly pronounced, if the 
Sound of each Letter were mixt in pronouncing. 

In thi; fame Scat, but yet with a lefler Open- 
ing of the Mouth, is formed (lender /, which ijliuitt. 
li very common among the ¥irncb, Spanieiifi, 
Iialiaiis, and moll other Nations. 'This Sound, when 
(hort, the Englijh cxprtfs by / fliort ; but whtn it is long, 
ihey write it for the moft Part, by ee, oftentimes by ie, 
and alfo b/ m ; as in //, /«7, //, feet, fill, M. fi^l^, 
Jictl, ill, eel, in, Lin, fin, fern, friend, fiend, near, dear, 
hear. Sec. Although fomc of thofe Words, that arc written 
with ea, wQuld be better written with double ee, «nd 
others with e Mafculinc, adding to it the Sound of flen- 
der /i, very rapidly or fwiftly pronounced. The tf'el/i' ex- 
prefs this Sound not only by i, and in the laft Syllable hy T", 
but alfo by [/.which IxCttet they always pronounce with chi» 
Sound, and they exprefs the Diphthongs a«, eu, like ai, ti. 

The Labial or Lip Vowels are made in the Lips 
being put into a round Form or Shape; the LabiaU, 
Breath being there moderately comprefled. There 
arealfothreedifferent Sorts of thefe Vowels, asof the former. 

The round O is formed by a greater Opening 
of the Lips, with which Sound moft People around. 
pronounce the Greek n. The f'rtni.h give this 
Sound to their A. The EngHp alfo do almoll always 
thus pronounce their long or oo, [the a as it were not 
being now a days founded in pronouncing, and of which 
we may pafs the fame Judgment, as we have juft now 
palTed, concerning ea) as, one, none, •vilitU^ hiU^ tanf, 
3m/, 0at, rhn/i, chofe, &c. Bui W^vca a w 'ii\a\^-, ^x.---.^ ■k*^ 

3i8 The English Graptmar. 

commonly expreiTed by open e (of which above} but very 
(eldom by round O. 

In the Lips alfo, by a moderate or middle 
DO, u^at» Opening, is formed the fat or erofs U of the 

Germans, which Sound is ufecTby the Spa- 
mards^ Italians^ and feveral other Nations. The French ex- 
prefs this Sound by ou ; the Weljh \yf m3\ the Englijh for 
the moft Party by Qo^ and but now and then by » or ou\ 
as, Footyjhoot^fullj Fooi^pull^ Pooiy goody fiood^ Wood^ luoo^d^ 
Moodf mourn, Courfcy Source^ could^ njoouldy Jhould, &c. But 
doe, goe, mtyue^ &c. are better pronounced by round O, 
than by the grofs or fat u. 

In the fame Scat or Place, but with a yet 
u Jlender. lefler Opening of the Mouth, is formed flen- 
' der u ; well known both to the Englijb and 
Trench. The Englijh every where pronounce their long u 
with this Sound, aail fometimes eu and enu are thus jpro- 
nounced, which would be better pronounced, by preierv* 
ing the Sound of E Mafculine : As, Mufe, June, Lute^ 
dure, mute^ new, hreav, kneiv, &c. Foreigners would learn 
the Sound of this u, if they endeavoured to pronounce 
the Diphthong iu, namely by putting the {lender /be- 
fore the Letter « or w, as in the Sfanrjh. Word Ciudad, 
which iignifies a City : But this is not entirely the fame 
Sound, though it comes very nigh to it ; for in is a com* 
pounded Sound, but the Englijh and French » is a £mple 
Sound. The fTel/h commonly exprefs this Sound by itv, 
yvu, WW ; as in Lliiv, Colour *, Llyw, the Rudder of a Shif; 
Duw, God I and in a great many other Words. 

I acknowledge thefe Bine Sounds to br 
Number of Vowels, but I do not know any more : 
Fowels, For the Englijh broad /, I do not reckon to 
how aug' be a- iimple Sound : Yet I do not deny, but 
menttd, that there may be, among fome Nations, or 

that Pofterity may difcover, more Vocal 
Sounds, or Sounds of Vowels, in each Seat of the Voice, 
than thofe three Sorts that I have taken Notice of : And 
fo it is poflible that there may be fome intermediate 
Sounds, fuch perhaps as the French e Neuter is, being be- 
twlxt the Palatine Vowe\s iVetidet a and e Mafculine. 
For the Meafurc of the Ajctuii^ ot 0^gta«v'l^ ^1 xVa 

The English Grammar. gij 

Mouth is like a continued Quantity, which is divifible 

in infiiiiiam. For, as in the Numbering of the Winds, at 
firft ihey reckoned but /'•ar, afterwards iiuil've, and now 
at laft they reckon ihirtv-lmni : So likewife, whereas the 
Arabians, and perhaps the antient Heireivt, numbered but 
llirec Vowels, that is, one in each Seal, we do now plain<- 
ly obferve three Vowels in each Seat, which may plainly 
le another J and who knows, but 
ir place many intermediate Sounds 

e capable of being ^lantity tf 

be diflinguilhed from ( 
that i'ofteriiy may mix < 
among thefe. 

But all thefe Vowels 
made long a^Jliort, and hence arifes the Diffe- 
rence of Quantity in kng and Jhort Syllables : 
Althoughlome of thefe are very feldoro made long, as ob- 
fcure e and i Feaiinine ; others are very feldom made 
Ihort, as round d, and llender u, at leail in Englijh. 

But the Canfinanli alfo are capable of being made leng, 
crpecially thofe that come neareft to the Nature of Voweli, 
except p, t, k, or hard r, which are entirely Mute; nei- 
ther do they make any Sound of them fc Ives, but only mo- 
dify [proportion, or give Meafure to] the Sound of the 
foregoing -ec following VowcL 


Of the Cenfonants. 

AS wt have divided the Vowels into Divi/an »/ 
three ClaiTes or Ranks, fo we have CoH/oaaiiij. 
madea threefold Divifion of the Con- 
fonanti, namely, into Laiiai or Up Confooants, Palatini 
or Palate, Guttural Or Threat Confonants ; as [hey are 
formed or made in the Lips, the ?alate, or Ibnat : Name- 
ly, while the Breath, being fcnt from the Lutigi, is inttr- 
tiptid in thefe Seats or Placei, or at leaA is very ftrongly 

220 Sfie English Grammar. 

Bat it is b1(6 remarkable, that there mtj 
DtreQimof be obfervcd a threefold DireSHon of the 
ihc Breath. Breath. Either it is; i. Wholly diredled /« 
the Mouthy that is, is feeking a PadSage, or go- 
ing out hy the Lifs : Or, ^. It is almoft wholly direded 
to the Nofln'/sy and feeks a Paflage out thence : Or, laftly, 
this Direffion of the Breath is, as it were, equally divided 
betwixt the Mouth and the Nojlrib. But 1 believe this Di^ 
vcrfity of the Direction of the Breath does wholly pro- 
ceed from the various Pofition of the Uvulay [or the Piece 
of Flefh that (huts the Wind-pipe.'] 

Since therefore the* Breathy being fent out 
ClofeJ Con* after this threefold Manner, may be per- 
finants or it&\y intercepted thrice in each of thefe 
Frimiti'Ui, three Seats ; there are nine different Con- 
fonants which derive their Original from 
them, and which for that Reafon we fhall call Primitive, 
or Qofed [ihat] Confonants: Bat if the Breath be not 
perfectly intercepted in thefe Seats, but only more fbaitt^ 
comprehed, finding out a PafTage though with fome DiN 
ficulty, there are formed the Sounds of diverfe other Coa- 
fonants, according to the various Manner of Compreffi* 
on, which Confonants we ihall call Derived, or Open Con- 

If the Breathy dire^ed through the Mouth to the 
Mutes, LipSy be intercepted through the Clofing of the 
Lips'y the Letter P is formed, the Greek n, and 
P. the Hebrew Pe, The Arabians have not this Letter, 
but fubftitute or put in its Place citHer Be^ or Phe-y 
the PerfansyhcMcs this Phe of the Arabians, havealfo their 
Fe, whith they diftinguilh from Be, by putting three 
Points under it. But if the Breath reaches not the Lips, 
but be wholly intercepted in the Palate, or which is all 
one, at the Roots of the Upper Teeth, the Confo- 
rm nant T is formed, the Greek T, the Hebreiv Teth, 
ajid the Arabian Te or Ta, But if the Breath does 
not reach fo far, but be intercepted at the Top of Uie 
Throaty the hinder Part of the Tongue being moved to the 
hinder Part of the Palate^ k or hard c is formed, and 
C. the Creek k, the Hefcre^ Ca^Jj 2ixA Ko^la, ^Jwt Arahi- 
m Kepb and Caph. AtvA WlYi xVv&^v«A. ^^ttWdjb 

7*£ E N G L I s H Grammar^ %i\ 

&1ways pronounce their r. But we call thefe three Con^ 
fonaots abfoliite or meer Muta, becaufe they make no 
Sound of themfelvea, ner indeed can make any i for the 
Bnaih can no Way get into the free Air, for it has so 
Pafl'age either to the NQJirils, or by the Mrnnb. 

If the Briath, really di'uidid bitnvstn the 
iStifirlh Bftdthe Mmtb, he intercepted by the Simi-Multi. 
CloAiie of the Lifi, the Confonant i a 
iiunied. the Grtct Beta, the Hibreiu Bcsb with a B. 
Dage^; the Arabian Be. If the Breath thus equally 
divided be intercepted in the Palate, D ii formed ; the 
Grctk Delta ; the Hebriiu Daltlb, with a Dagtfh; the D. 
Arabian Dal; as aKo De and Dad. But if the Breath 
be thus intercepted in the Threat, that h, between the 
hinder Part of the Taii^ut and Palate, G is formed, 
Ihe Grtei Gamma, the Hsirrui Gimci with a Dagejb, G, 
the /irabiait Gain, not Jim, though that Letter has 
ibme Aflinity with it. The We//X' do always give thia 
Sound to their g. And thefe Confonants I call Ha//- 
Mutn i for they make but a little Sound in the Ne/e, 
which can be heard by it felf without the Help of the 
Sound of any other Letter. 

But if the whole Breuth, or the greater Part Semi- 
cf it be direfled to the Nefirilj, tlriking in its Fawtls, 
PafTage the Air that remains in the Hollow of the 
Mouth, the Lipi beingiuftclofed, Mis formed, the 
Greei My, the tf,*r™ Mem, the Arabian Mim. M. 
But if this CloTing be made tn the Fore-part of the 
Pahite, N is formed, the Gr^fi A>. the Heirc-^ and K 
Arabian Kun. But if this L'lofitig he in the hinder 
Part of the Palate, that Sound is formed which the Grtih 
exprefs 1^ r Gaxma, before K, y, ;c, £ ; and the La- 
tivs of old by £i as Agchiftst agceps, aggulut, for Anehifiif 
ancep!, angolas ; as, Prifdan and Farro aifirm. But now 
n is written before thoio Confonants, efpecially in the fame 
Syllable ; namely, i, g, x, alfo r, g, ch, pronounced with 
» hard or natural Sound. For the Sound of a in thin. Sin, 
in, differs from that in thing, think, Jing, fingle, jink, tut. 
Jink, &G. Alfo » has 3 dilFerenl Sound in hand, band, r 

322 The English Grammar. 

Words the Sound of tbu Letter is varied, according to the 
Divifion of the Syllables : For n has a different Soand in 
Lon ger, /Iron-ger, an-geTf drin-ktr^ in-gruo^ con-gruop from 
what it has in Long-er^ ftrtrng^erf anger, dr inkier ^ hg-rua, 
cong-ruo. Alfo, while fome pronounce in-quam^ tan quam^ 
nun-quam^ &C. others pronounce them as if written inq- 
vtMiM^ tanq-nvam^ nunq*wamt or, ink'^wam, tank-ntutm^ nunc 
nuam. In the former Words when n is founded, the Ex- 
tremity of the Tongue always ftrikes .the Fore-part of the 
Palate near the Roots of the upper Teeth ; but in the lat- 
ter» the fame Extremity of the Tongue rather bends to 
the Roots of the lower Teeth, but the hinder Part of 
the Tongue is raifed to the hinder Part of the Palate, and 
there intercepts the Sound ; for it is formed in the Mouth 
after the fame Manner as G, but it has the fame Diredion 
of the Breath with «. And this is the Sound, if I am 
not miAaken, with which many would have the Hebnno 
y {Gbnajin) pronounced, when they teach us to pronounce 
it by ngy npj^ gn^ nghn^ &c. whereby they imply a Sort 
of Sound, which does not perfectly agree either with n 
or gt but has foroewhat that is common to both. And I 
do not know whether the Spaniards mean the fame Sound 
or not, by their n with the Mark over the Head. 

I call thefe three ConfonantsHa^-^oou^/i, becaufe they have 
a greater Sound than thofe which we called Half- Mutes. 

But thefe nine Confonants, that I have 
Confonants treated of» are formed by a total Interception 
open or De^ of the Breath, fo that it has no Paflage 
ri'vative. through the Mouth : For which Reafon we 
have called them clofed Confonants. "Bui if the 
Breath ftraitly prejfedj find a Pajfage or Way out, though with 
fome Difficulty t the fame Formation remaining, thofe Con- 
fonants are formed which we call open ones, which are 
the Jfpirates of all thofe, except the Half Vowels from 
whence they are derived : But the more fuhtilt 2nd ^ thin 
Confonants are formed, if the Breath goes out by an ob- 
long Chink ; and the more grofs or fat art formed, if the 
Breath goes out as it were by a round Hole. Bat they 
are referred to the fame Clafles or Sorts with the clofed 
ones, their Primitive» to w\jkV ^^ Vaw^ an Affimty, 
cr are near a-kin. But 1 Ub\om Qt m^ xi^ Kl^Ja:«9ife\>Rfc 

The English Grammar. Jij 

ters to the liulf-yo^-ch ; not that there is no Sound when 
the Breath breaks from one in pronouncing them, but be- 
caufe that Sound has not as yet, as far as I can difcover, 
obtained a Place in the Number or Lirtof Letters : For it 
either exprefTes the Loiaing of an Ox, or the Sighing of 
a Man i the iird, if it be made in the Lips, but [he laft, 
if in the Palate or Throat. 

When we are going to pronounce the Letter 
P, if the Breath efcape the Mouth, then is form- Lahiali. _ 
td its Afpirate F or Ph. which is the Gr^cia» *, 
the Arabian and Hchn^ Phi, and the m!<hf. Nei- F. 
ther does it much matter whether tiie Breath goes 
out by a little Chink or a round Hole. Though that Way 
a Sound raotefiiltilc ^.nAfm, and this a more grofs one be: 
heard; yet the Difference is fo little between them, that 
I believe they are in no Language diltinguiOicd byditlinCt 

In our going to pronounce B, if the Breath go 
out by a Chiht, it forms the Englifi V Confonant, and V. 
the Hibremi ^/ih ; the Spanlardi alfo fometimes give 
the feme Sound to B, pronouncing the Letters f and B 
proinifcuoafly, or one for the oiher. The HVJi' exprefs 
this Sound by F, as they did the foregoing one by Ff. 
The Ettgli^-Saxcn! eiiher had not this Sound, or wrote 
it by Fj for they ufed no ^ Confonant, and they wrote 
many Words with F, as the Englijh did after them, for 
fome Ages, which are now written with V, as well as 
thofe that are now written with F ; as, Qif, Hcofan, Sec. 
which are now written Give, Hea-urv. The /fraliaas and 
Ferfians have not this Sound, but the Turii pronounce 
their faiu with this Sound ; and fo fome do the Hiirtvi 
VaM, which fome think more properly pronounced as the 
JrabiaTi, ffa-w or IV. And I do not doubt, but that the 
Eo/ic Digaitima had the fame Sound ; for, before the Greth 
had the Ciarailer *, there was no Need for the Inventtoa 
of a new one, to exprefs the fame Sound. Befides, Prj^ 
tian owns, that the Laiiii formerly pronounced F after 
the fame Manner ; namely, with the fame Sound with 
which afterwards the f Confonant was pronounced ; fo 
that, ai lall, the Soiind of the Lcnei F <i%Sisi ta Oja Saiicd. 
off or Pb. _ , 

J24 y^ English Grammar. 

But if the Breath goes out through a round Hole, 
JF. that is, the Cheeks being contra6led, and the Mouth 
made round, the Englijh * ^and the Arabian Wevw is 
formed. With which Sound many would have the He- 
hrnn Vatxj to be pronounced. But the German W^ if I am 
not roiflaken, has a Sound compounded of this and the 
former Letter ; that is, by placing that before this, {o 
that what the Germans would write with Wa^ the EngUJh 
would write Vnua. This Sound does not much differ mm 
the Englijh Ooi the French Ou, the German U very rapidly 
pronounced, for which Reafon it has been reckoned by 
lome as a Vowel, when it is really a Confonant, although 
it is very near a-kin to a Vowel. The fre{/h write that 
Vowel, as well as this Confonant with the fame Charac- 
ter ff"'; that is, when it is a Vowel it has an Accent over 
tb^ Head of it, and is founded long ; otherwife it is often 
taken for a Confonant, and is pronounced fhort ; as, 
G^ydd, (a Word of two Syllables) a Goofe^g'vofdd^ Places 
fit lAjith Trees (which is a Word of one Syllable) |wjr, 
crooked, G*wyr, Men, In Latin Words, as often as this 
Sonnd is added to the Letters /, f , g, as in fuadeo^ quan- 
do, lingua, &c. it is reckoned by moft People as a Vowel, 
and even by thofe Perfons who are for making it a Con- 
fonant in thefe Englifi Words ^ade, perfwade^ faoade^ &c. 
and yet the Sound is the very fame in both Places. But 
in the Diphthongs au^ eu, ou, rightly pronounced^ the 

* It is very probable that our JV was originally the 
GreeJ^ ^, or the Hebrew £). 

L Becaufe of its Place in the Alphabet, anfwering near- 
ly to the other. 

« ' II. Becaufe of the Figure in Saxon and Gothick, refem> 
bling the Greeik O, or Hebrew JB, turned over. 

in. Becaide ^ Syrians were ufed^ change Q iBf 
double 1. 

Ma^nopere oh/ervari debet duplex Vaw adhiberi pro Phe : 
' 4J enifa/ecuta futtt pojlea Saxoii\c% tt Tcutonica gentes om- 

"The English Grammar. 315 

j fut^oined or added Vowel, is no other than this very 

I' Cwifonant : Of which Matter our /earnrdMd. acute G-r- 

taiirmzy be confulied in his Treatife Dt SiijocsHhsu, or 

But when the fame famous Perfon ailerti, as feveral 

other great Men do, that the y ConfonanC of the Latim 

was formerly always pronounced with (he fame Sound* 

as it is now in fome Na'inns pronounced ; I do, in fome 

Meafiire, alTent to or believe tt ; that is, in fome parti* 

cularWord^: But that it had the fame Sound, in all 

Words, is what I durll by no Means affirm. For I am 

rather inclined to believe, that both Sounds, not only the 

modern, but the ancient, Sound was affixed to the fame 

Charafier; that is, that fome Words were fometimes 

promifcuoufly pronounced, in different Places, and bydiH^* 

rent Perfons : And I am more particularly induced to think 

fo, becaufe 1 fee that feveral Latin Words which are writ- 

ii ten with fare, when iranflaied into Gmk, written with 

i & Beta, and fomeiimes with u oa, and this formerly pre- 

1 vailed. For I fee no Reafon, to give an InDance, v/hy 

f/iwiiu fiiould be written in Gnei, and that always, ♦?«t- 

vii( rather than C^a'^iK, and the fame may be faid, of & 

great many other Words, unlefs the Confonant /' (honld 

come nigh to the Soand of the Ea/ic Digammtt : Efpeci- 

I ally, fincc it is agreed upon, that the V Confonant, in ma- 

\ ny Words, had its Origin from the Etlic Dig^mtaa. For 

who crinaflign any other Reafon why in the £j/iw Word*, 

, trrf.P, "u/j, -vifper, 'uinum, •vtater, 'veftii, 'vrfiar, Ftntim, &c. 

there IhouU be the ^Confonant, which In the Grai Words, 

' dous not appear ) but thai the Ealinvi were wont to pre- 
fix the D'gimma to this Sort of Words ; Neither need 
I any Boi!y wonder, that the Lniia Tongue, which was then 
., their Mvlhet 7sngiii, Ihould Ihare the fame Fortune wiiIi 
' ol\tK Mother 7Mguei i namely, that the Pronunciation of 
the fame Letter is not every where regular and con- 
, ftain, And perhaps the Sound of the Hrirrw fau wai 
t every wliere the fame, therefore in Gnti we read 
>g)}, not AofiJ. But this is evident « t» Shn. 
i 'Ja^' xii. 6, 

326 The English Gramtnar. 

But when we are about to pronounce 7*, 
Palatine, if the Breath goes out very grofsly or thjcki 
and as it were by a Hole, the Greek Tbeta is, 
7h. formed, the Hebreiv Thau, the Arabian The, that is, 
the Englifi 7h, in the Words Tbigh, Uin, Thing, 
Thought, Throng, &c. The Jn^lo-Saxons formerly exprefled 
thi I Sound by the Note h, which they called Spim, or Tke 
Thorn. The IVelJh always write it by Tb, 

But if the Breath go more fubtilly or thinly out of the 
Mouth, and as it were bv a Chink, that Part of the 
Tongue, which is next to the Extremity, being lifted up, 
that the Breath may as it were be Hatted or thinned, and 
prefTcd into a wider, but Icfs grofs or thick Form, the 
Greek Sigm^t is formed, the Hebreio Samecb and Shi, the 
Arabian Sin and Sad ; and the Latin and Englifi S, that is 
pronounced with a (harp and hifllng Sound, as in the 
Word.*., yes, this, us, lip, Icfs, fend, Jlrcng, &c. With 
this Sound we alfo pronounce foft C, that is, before E^ /, 
T; as in, Grace ^ hlercy. Peace, fuue. Principal, &C, The 
Trench fometimes prono-'nce C mjith the fame Sound before 
" the ether Vcuoils, but thfn tbfy comiDoaly mark it with a 
Tail, as in Gar9on, a Bey, Scz, 

But when we would pronounce the Letter d, if the 

Dh. Breath break forth in r. grofler Manner, and as it were 

by a Hole, then ti.e Arabian D.ibi is formed, the 

Ihhreiv Daltth^ and the fofcer D of the Spaniards, that is, 

as that Letter is pronounced in the Middle and End of 

Words; as in Majeftnd, ^rin'did, &c. The Englijh write 

this Sound as they do another, which we have named a 

little above ; that is by th, as in the Words thy, tbine, tkis^ 

though^ Ac. The ^a.xons formerly wrote that Sound by \>, 

b^C this by J^l ^, as it is evident from their Writings, 

thoagh th'Qr fometimes confounded thcfe Chara£lers : But 

in following Ages the Englijh made ufc of the fame Cha- 

ra£ler l» for both Sounds which by degrees degenerated 

in p, which is feen in a great many Manufcripts in thofc 

Words which are tow written with ih. And hence came 

the i*afhion, which now often prevails, of writing the 

j4b5reviations, yr, yt, yu, for thty that, thou, &c. The 

//*r^ exprefs the formei: So\3Ltii \i^ th» ^t \3j»Rt by dd. 

The English Grammar. 317 

ouly <''>me will have it ihsti it had bFtter be written with 
id^bnc tliey have not bceo able to get thii oIJ M.mnrr 
alwieU. But we. as b» been faid, write each Sound in- 
JiJ&rcntly with ib; but vrroncoufly : Since neither or tlirnt 
i> a com|ioundcd Sound, but niBiiifcllly a iimple one, d>i(Vr> 
Ing almofl in the fame M»noer from the Sounds «f ihe 
I^tteti t and J, as / and v do from the Sounds of p and 
i. But I acknowledge that by the lame Rearon, tliat fb is 
written for/'i **, r/i, and Jh, might be fllfo ivrirtcn ; That 
U. ihac the Affioiiy or Rtlaiion and the Derivaiion of the 
Arpiraie Letter might in fomc Part be fliewn But it is 
plain from ilie following Words, that the genuine. Sound, 
coinpofcJ of ihefe Lettera, jg different from the Sound of 
the Afplrate Letters ; as. Ceb-ham, Cbai-fiam, ffit-tam, 
Mail-kik, Wadbatu, IVotJ-hufi, Sbif-tirJ, Clap-tern, 
^^i-bam, &c. Andfo weiind quite different Sounds in Of- 
JMJn, SHnkhciid, tleg berif. CagbHi. Heuf-bcll, Hif-heneur, 
l^.hof, Oif.hmtfi. Tiif-htarun, Maf-hmn, Ca^-bam.Wif- 
' hemi, &c. than in thofe Words which U'C cominonly 
write with cb, gh, p ! But the Trtrcb, the Daid', and 
fcvctal others do not at all. or very liiile pronounce ei- 
ilier of thofc Sounds which we write with ih: And 
whili! the fnmh endeavour to pronounce 1:, ilicy fay r, 
and Guiih J, and foine others i. Yet it is not difficult 
to pronounce thcfe genuine Sounds, if a Perfon will be 

Fretty careful to obfervc the Manner of their Formation : 
Of all the Parts of the Formation are the fame as if we 
. were going to pronounce t and d, only hers wc fuffct the 
"'Breath 10 go out oF our Mouths, but in /, &c. we do 
not, Wc o'jght alfo to taboCare thatwedonot, ihroi>gh 
Want of Attention, let the Part of the Tongue next to 
the Extremity of it rife a little, andfo form the LeitcrST 
J (ind E, for as s h to r, fo is c to y, as we fhall now 
(Iiew you. 

But if, when you are going to pronounce d, you ex- 
trude or let out the Breath in a more fublile Manner, as it 
wflfft by a Chink, the Part next to the Extremity of the 
Tpnaue being to that End raifed, or lifted up, the ti^lia 
ais'ftrmed, the Ccri ^, the Hebrciu Zain, the Arabian 
Zf, which Souad the £H^'/(/Aerprers by theirs : Bui they 
s well as the Frtnch fometimes give the fame Sound to r. 


Tbe English Grammar. 

.^fpecially when it comes between two Vowels, and at the 
£nd of a Word ; as in PIta/ure, Ea/e, Laws, 8cc. And 
when a Nomm having hard s in the laft Syllable becomes a 
Ferh^ then this ^eri is pronounced with foft i, that is, 
with z; (o SL Hotr/ef.^ Lcufe^ a Moufe, z Price^ Ad'uice, ckfe^ 
Brajs^ Grafi^ Glafs^ Greafe, a fleece^ end in hard s ; but 
,tO bmjey to loufe, to moufe, to prizxy to advife, to clofc, to 
hravUf to flnzt^ 8cc. are pronounced with foft s or z. 
But there are alfo other Letters that have an analogous or 
like Manner of foftening : For from the Nouns PFi/c^ Li/r, 
Strife, Ha//, Ca/f, /afe. Breath, Cloth, pronounced with 
.a harder Sound, comethe Verbs, to tvi^e, to Uve, loftrive^ 
XQ halve, to eahue, to Jave, to breathe, to clothe. The 
Italians fometimes pronounce z very ftrong, efpecially 
when it is doubled, like the Hebrew Tscade, or tz : This 
Sound fome People alfo give to Latin Words when / comes 
before /, another Vowel following j as for Piazza, Vtm^ 
iiit, they pronounce Piatza, Venetzi^, &c. -^ 

We may add to the Letter d, or if you pleafe to «, tw5 ^ 
kOther Letters formed in the fame Seat, that is, in the P^ ;; 
late, miz, Isind r. I chufe rather to join thefe Letters to j 
.d and «, than to the Letter /. by Reaion of the Concuffion 
of the Larynx or Windpipe^ and the EmifTion of the Breath 
.to the Noftrils in their Pronunciation, of which the Let- 
ter /, and all that come from it, are utterly incapable. 
For if, when you are about to pronounce d or n, you 
gently fend ou,t the Breath from one or both Sides into 
the Month, and by the Turning of the Mouth to the open 
Lips, with a Trembling of the Tongue, then the Letter 
L is formed. And the Sound of this Letter, if I am not 
xniflaken, is the fame in all Languages, as the Hebrew La- 
irj^d, .and the Gnek Lambda, 

But the Wel/h have another and ftronger, thoueh a 

LI, kindred Sound to this, which they write with a £% to 

diflinguifh it from that of the iinglc /, by the Breath 

.being much more forcibly preflcd into the Mouth, 

.whereby is formed a very frothy Sound, as it were com- 

founded or made up of it. But thb Sound, as far as 
knowt .no other Nation has^ unlefs perhaps the Spa'- 

The English Grammar. 329 

JThfi Letter r, which it commonly called the Dog 
Letter, is alfo formed in the Palate; that is, if, when R: 
you are about lo pronounce li or ", the Extremity 
of the Tongue ii turned inward, and, by a ftrong and 
frequent Coneuflion, beats the Air that is going out ; 
from this Struggle that hailh or rough Sound of ihc 
Letter r is formrf. And the Sound of this Letiei is the 
fame among all Nations : That is, as the Hthrtw Rejh. 
and the Qrttk j. The Wtlp frequently fubjoin b 
10 this Letter, and their rh anfwers to the Gieik \ fiA. 
ej^iralid. They fay that the AiierUam bordering 
on Nmi-En^laK^, or at leaft a great Part of them, cannot 
pronounce either an / or r, but ufe «, infteadof it ; fo for 
Lehper they fay Keipn. 

If the Breath, being more ftriflly compreffed, Cb. 
break: out more /uitil/j, when you arc about to pro- 
nounce i, or hard c, it forms the Cnei ;(, the Jrakiaa 
Cia, the Hebrew Chcth rightly pronounced ; that \i, by a 
middle Sound betv,'eeo c and h. This Sound is very com- 
mon both to the Gtrmans and Wcljh, who both exprelk it 
by ch. But this Sound is quite neglefled among us ; for 
our fi has a very diffetent Sound ; as we fliali Ihcw by 

But if the Breath go out in 3 groOer Manner, and H, 
lefs comprell'ed, by Keafon of the more lax Pofition 
of the Tongue, and larger Paflage for the Breath, the La- 
tin b is formed, the Hiiriiu and Arabian Ht, and the Grtti 
ti/pirate S/iViV. And this Sound is common to mott Na- 
lions. But the Fnnch, though they write b, yet ihey fel- 
dom pronounce it. The Di^crencc betwixt die Sound of 
the foregoing Letter and this is, that the Breath in the 
former is expelled with a greater Force and by a narrow- 
er PaHige, as it were through a Chink, and is therefure 
called the double Afpirate ; this Sound is driven more 
freely, and tu it were through a. Hold or larger Paflage. 
The Cttcii, becaufe its Sound is but fmall, called it an Af- 
piration, as it were no Letter, and they do not now a-d.iya 
fet it down in the direct Line of the Lcttcii, but place 
it over the Head of the Letter. Though formerly ihejf 
placed it before the Vowels in a. dwtO, VXti*. 'fisft^S'i- 
j am nor mirtaken, ihev tct il iSwt \\* <i«tv\'n.w«- ^» 


33© The English Grammar. 

or ^u ; and hence it is, that H f!ar.ds among thein for 
ihe Mark of an Hundred ; for what is now written, *'Exa- 
TCF, was formerly written Hmalov Hecr.ton. But I caa 
iee no Manner of Reafon why b fhould not be a Ccnfo- 
nant in all other Languages, for it is by no Meads to be 
rejected from the Number of Letters, btcaufe the Sound 
of it is, not pronounced by the French, and fome' others; 
for that is common to many other^Letters, efpecially of 
the Hibi'iiv, and other OriV;://?/ or -E/?^fr» Tongues, where 
they are quit/cent or (ilent. Neither is it lefs a Letter, be- 
can{e it coes not prevent the Elifion or Cutting off of the 
foregoing Vowel, when anotlier comes after it in the fol- 
low ine Woid : For formerly neither n nor s did hinder 
this Elifion or Cutting oiFof the foregoing Vowel. But I 
own, it may be doubted whether the Latins^ vyho were 
fuch mighty hr.itators of the Greeks, allowed it to be 'a 
Letter or not, efpecially ilnce 1 fee the Grammarians fo 
carncflly fpeaking againft it. 

If the Breath, being pretty f!raitly comprefled^ 
Ch. goes out by a very imall or fubtile Chink, w&en 
you are pronouncing >& or hard g^ then that Sbaiid 
23 formed which is expreSed by gb, I percewe the ^ji- 
glijh had this Sound formerly in the Word Lights Ni'^bt^ 
Right, Davghtir^ &c. but now a>days they retain the 
Writing, yt t they entirely neglcft the Sound : But the 
Nattb Country People, efpecially the Scats, do for tfie 
jnofl Part yet retain it, or do rather make ufe of the 
Sound b in its room. The Irijb do triily exprefs this 
Sound in their gb^ as in Logb, 2l Lake. It ditters from 
the Girfnatts cb, as ^ does from r, by a Diredlion of the 
Breath in fome Reipedt to the Noflrils, which neither c 
nor cb admit of. But the Germans do for the moil Part 
write thofe Words with cb, which the Englijh write' with 
gb ; for their Niubt^ Recbt, Liecht, Ferbteu, Toucbter^ an- 
Iwer to our Night, Ri^bt, Light, Figbt^ Daughter, &c. The 
Latins, Greeks, Hchreivs, Arabians have not this Sound, 
unleis you may pronounce the Hebrew Gimel, with this 
Sound The Fcrjians give this Sound to their Ghaf, which 

is diliingui{hti from the Arabian Kef^ by having three 

Points over it. 


The English Grainnter. 33; 
But if the Breath go out pretty freely, and as it 
were through 9 broader Hole, the Eaglijh y Confo- T. 
nantis formed, the German > Confonant, ihe Ai-ahian ^ 
yf, wiih \uhich Sound man}' would have the Hibrfi-v j?J 
to be pioaaunced ; Chat U, with a Sound near a-kiu la 
Jiender/, verjrrapidly prooounged. Therefore the Diph- 
thongs (71, ei, ei, or ay, ry, ey, are indjfFerontly wrilten 
by / aady : Efpecially among ttie E/ig/i/Hi a,ad Fnath. But: 
that Sound, which is reckoned by ibme as a Subjun^ivc 
Vowel, is really a Confonanc ; for the Letter will be pro- 
nounced exaftly after the fame Manner in /ayhg, fi-ay 
ii:g, iic, whether it be referred to the former SylL3bIe> 
and called a Vowel ; as in fay-ing, fray-rag ; or whethu 
it be referred to the latter Syllable, and be accounted a Coti- 
fonant j as in faying, pra-ylng. For we perceive (he lame 
Aliiniiy between oa, or fat a aod iv, that llierc n betiveen 
, Header i and y. Concerning which Sounds the Learned 
Gatjvk£r may be conliilteii in his forcfaid Trealife. But 
Sometimes alfoyis pur fori, where/ is a Vowel, eTpect- 
' ally at the End of Words; in which Cafe not only the 
I ancient Engtlp Saxoni, but likewife the fn^/yU that- foe* 
I' ceeded them did for many A^es mark the Letter^', wlteit- 
I ever it flood for a Vowel, with a Toint over the Head oi , 
I it, thus y, 

F Bat that there is a great Afiinitv beween tjils Letter v 
I and g, and gb, ia evident from (hqfc Words wiijcb »■• 
I now wntewilh^iiSj, Lig^t, Migl-t, Th)ugl't.!iC.i\titiiew 
' former)/ in old Manufcripis written with the Confotiani 
■ *y, with the Ome Charatter ; as atjtt, yenJcr, &c. For-* 
r they had a threefold Figure, one y tvliich we now exprefi 
' by til, as wc have already '^' ' ' ' ' ' 

y obferved ; another which « 

' For Stixm 
fcrlpi! J or J, 

5 by Degrees came 10 be wrilten in M:ic.u. 
:iid becaufcits Power was vaiious it caffls 
, ejiher byj;, pr^f. 

y, ot fi, a the Pointers or Au'.hurs judged poper, uriCDSi* I 
_£,inEdj}iiaiit bill aufwcr its ToAir in ibatPiacc. 'Tliii ' 
~— i— "^- '-'iDftiaicd by a ic« V'k^.wvk^. -, 

g^2 Tie English Grammar. 

vied for the Vowel i, Ukd differing from the former only 
hy the Point over it ; and a third 3, which was always 
puf for J' Confonant, and which is found in thofe Words 
which we now fpellwith^^. But the later Copieis or 
Tranfcribers of Books, being ignorant of the Chara^ler 
that was then made ufe of, have by a very grofs Miftake 
fubftituted the Charader of the Letter x in its room, 
whence thofe monftrous Words Thoazf, Scuxty &c. for 
^boughtf Soughty &c. or rather for Tbouyty Scuyt ; and they 
were then ufcd to be written with y Confonant, as we 
xnay fee in the ImprciTions of Chaucer^ and others of the 
old Poets. 

But the Learned Whethcy formerly Profeflbr of the Ara^ 
6ick and Saxon Tongues in Cambridge, does more truly 
write this Sort of Words with b in his Edition of Vene- 
rable Beds' ^ Ecclefiafiical Hiitory in Saxon, &c. where you 
aeet with cmbte, mtbte, drub^ &c. for Knight^ fJiigbt^ 
thrtmgb^ Sec. To which we ihall add, that not a few Words 


T inftead of the Saxon j^. 
For 20^ we now write good. 
For Xeuc we now write give, 1 -ua^- j ^e 

GAinflc«iof5 . } •uinfteadofsv 

For rijt we now write right, 5 own ? j^*^ 

For lizt we now write light, J awn J 

For Almizti Almighty. Law lajs. 

In the Saxon thefe three are fpelled with b, bnt in old 
Znglifi with |Pi inftead of s* 

For seer we write Tear, 

For daes we write Day, 

I do not know that we have in any Word changed the 
old 2 into the Letter Zad z. But the figuring 3 by je, in 
fome Authors, was owing purely to the Relemblance of 
the Figure 3 to z, and not that thofe two Letters ever 
had the fame Valour or Power. It was therefore a great 
Fault of fome Authors and Copiers to write z by Zad ; 
which is quite another Letter, and of a very different Power. 
Vet it mu& be owned, that (bene Maaufcripts about the 
7x0^ ofPriatingt or alitd^Wote, VaA>afc^gMi^&«x«w- 

The E M L I s H Grammar- 33; 

which we write with y, were formerly by the Saxani 
[and are now mofi commonly by the Girmani] wriilen 
wiih g ■ For our Words Slay, p.jh fay. Day, Rain, and 
2 great many others, are written by the Saxani, and 
partly by the Giriaain, Schlagm, figil, ftgm, fag. Dag, 
rtgen, &c. And on the contrary, many Words, whichare 
now written with g, were formerly written with y ; as 
in agalu, egeinfi, giiicn, Stc. were written ayea, aycnft, 
yeo'ven, &C. 

Thus I have given you an Account or all the Ample 
Sounds of the Lettere, that I know of; I have treated of 
their Formation, and have likewife divided them into their 
Families or Clares. All which Sounds yo*j may behold 
at one View, as follows, 

rjpt Way of putting 3 for = or j ; ai in Pounce 3 Py- 

The North Britons ha»e kept the Figure 3 for 3, but 
they feem not to lake it for z but for y. See Hicii G. A. 
P- '38- 

When Dr. Wallh here faya that many Words, now writ- 
ten with ^, viwt /armirly Written withj'i we are not to 
underfiand /amrr^ in fuch a Senfe, ai whea he faid.yo/^- 
mirly by the Saxani. 

The y for 5 in eycnil, eyii, &c. la fcaree fo high at 
1460. And it was not very judicious to fubftituie the^ 
for s in fuch inAances, unlefs again and againfl had then 
a very different Sound from what they now iiave ; which 
is not probable. But becaufe y would anfwer the s in 
fome Cafes, as in Day, Tear, the Copiers unadvifedly ap- 
plied ii in Others. 

33+ ^^ English Grammar. 
A Synopfis of all the Letters, 

With an Opening 

r Greater 

^Guttural or throat "\ I ' 

mm J '^ I **^ * 

P :l tinforpalart^ ^ < 




e Feminine u obfcure 

JLabitd or lip 



C Mafculine i Jlendir 


6 •■ow^y lu /9/f 

u fltndrr 

.' '■ 

lalial #r It/ i i^^^ Mute - B 

C HdlfVvwel M 

S I r. Afu,- ■■..-■■ T 

g -^ Palatim or PaUte< ^^ if Mute D 

K I K 


a Lowing 






C Hfilf Ve^ujeTSi 

Mute - - . » C 
Guttural 9r^hr9ai \ Half Mute G 


L Half Vonxel 


iifCh L 

• ■ • I 






TU English Gr 

^^ Of the Compeuxded Sounds. ^^ 

TH E reft of the Sounds are wslly dmpetiKJiJ i| 

compounded ones, alihmigh foire Scdhi/j, ay, rj, 
of tjiem are commonly taken fcr liir-ple e^,«iu, ww.fliw. 

The Diphthongs ai, li, or, au, «, aa, or ajf, «. oj, «w, 
rw, i^ii, when they are rightly pronounwd, are com- 
pounded or made up of the Prepofiiive or foregoing 
Vowels, and the Confonants T" and If, which yet are 
coaiinoniy taken for Subjonflive or following Vowels. 
For in ai, cu, or aj, aiv, the flender a is fet firit ; in 
«, or ly, the t Feminine is fct a<ii; in tu or tiv, the e 
Marculine,- in ei, tu or cy, mu, the open O ii rometimes 
fct fiill ; as in (he E^gllJ^ Worili, Say, '%, Sob/, &w/, a 
Cup : and ibmctiroes the obfcure is fet lirll ; as in the 
Jb^/^ Wotds, MV, ro7/, O;/, ilLCB./. 0-w/, ic. Altboiigh 
I do not deny but that fame of thefe Words are prD< 
noitnccd by (bmc, by open O. 

But whereas (ome will have it that the Confonaou f 
and Wdo not at all difter from ihe / and U, or 
as V.e wiite them EE and 00, vety rtipidly pronounced ; 
it will be ealily found to be a inanifeft Error, by any 
Pcrfon, who Ihall nicely and carefully con6der (he For- 
marion of the Words r« and mo, efpecially if be often 
repeat [he fame Formation ; for he will lind. that lie 
cannot eaflly pafs from the Sound of the Con fnn ant, to 
that of the following Vowel, without a manifelt Mo- 
tion, and fo a new PoGtion of ibe Organs of Speccb* 
which does not happen in the tepeating of the Souodi 
£E. 00. 

But I am not ignorant, that 'hefe, which we com* 
roonly call Diphihengs, have Sounds diSinnt from ifecit 
genuine Soimd, ia diScie^V '^Oftits, ^'t -<n^»fifc *~ 

336 fhe English Grammar. 

fhall not now treat : Yet thefe may all be fouHd and 
difcovered among thofe Sounds, which I have difcour&d 
ofp and fo may be reduced to their proper Places. 

The Englifl} long or grofs / is plainly a Sound com- 
pounded of the A^eminine and they Confonant. And 
has altogether the fame Sound as the Greek i\. 

The Engtijh J Confonant or foft G, or 
j Confinantn elfe Dgy is compounded of the Confonants 

Dy: For their Jar^ Joy, gentle. Lodg- 
ings &C. found efyar, dyoy, dytntle, ley ding, &c. And 
WJth the fame Sound is the Arabian Gjim pronounced^ 
(which Letter although it comes from the Abreiv Gbi' 
mil, yet does not retain its Sound) as alfo the Italian 

The French J Confonant, or foft G, is compounded 
of the Sounds Zy. For their Je, Age^ &c. are Zye, A-zy^, 
Sec, The Perfians write this Sound oy their Zye, which is 
diAinguiflied from the Arabian Ze^ by having three Points 
at the Top. 

But the G/r/Mff y Confonant is plainly a fimple Sound, 
namely, the fame with the Englifi? T: As has been faid 

The Englifi? Sb, the French Ob, the 
Shp chy fcb, German Sch, the Hebrew and Arabian 

Schin, have the Sound pf Sy. For the 
French Word Chambre, the Englijb Shame, the German 
Seham, found Syamhret Syame, Syam. The Welfo oxprefs 
this Sound by Si, with a Note of Produdion over the fol- 
lowing Vowel. Sien [John] is a Monofyllable, but Sion 
[Mount Sion] is a Word of two Syllables. 

The Englifif Ch or Teh founds Ty : For Orchard, 
Ibehej, have the Sound of Ort-yard, Rit-yes, &c. With 
this Sound the Italians pronounce their E Vowel before 
the Vowels E and /. The Perfians, to exprefs this Sound, 
befide the Arabick Alphabet aflume their Che, which 
they didinguiih from the Arabian Gjim, by three Points 
•ver the Head of it. Tf before the Englijh Word Yeiw, 
yon feverally put 2>, 7, S, Z, it will be made. Dye^o 
y^ww^ Syenv, Zyewf that is, the Englifif Words Jew, 


The English Grammar. 337 

Chiiu, Shew, and the Frincli Word Jiu, Play. And if 
yoti put 5, Z, before Yairyer, it will make the Friacb 
ChangiTf that is, Sjan zfir ; but if you put 'T, O, 
before it, it will make the Enghjb Cbaag<r, that ji, 

I am renfib'e that there are fome who will have ir, 
that the Sound S 'a heard in Englijh ehe and ge, as if 
CLairger were to be founded ifyandfyer -, and I appeal xa 
oihers, whether he, who truly pronounces the Englifi 
Word Chasgir, does not at the fame Time pronounce the j 
Sounds han-dyer. 

The ^ of the Larim and the i of the Gridani, X. 
and the X of almolt all other Nations are com- 
pounded of cj, KS-. This Letter the Hibreiiii and other 
Oriental People have not, but write in its Stead the 
fiRiple Letters of which (bis Letter is compounded, 
which the Gcimans likewife often do; for their Oihi, 
IVaebs, Sccti, Secbji, Sic. are the Evg/i^ Ox, Wax^ Six, 
Sixib. The U'clp always exprefa this Sound by a. 
The Latin K was antienily ufed for Ca : for they K. 
I wrote inctiff'erenily Cii/ffld^ and A'/f'xi^. But it now 

ally has amongft moR Nations the fame Sound ai 
k K Kefpu, from whence it came, or the Latin C: 
vould be altogeiher a fuperiiuaus Letter, if Cal-. 
aincd iis Genuine Sound. Wherefore the Wf^, 
taote t has always the fame Sound, have no J ; as well 
as fome other People. 

GL.i.,iir does Tightly affirm, that the S>_ of the ^ 
taitVj was formerly wrillen for la, or rather rw: 
Sut now a-days when n is fubjoined to it, it hai the 
fame Sound as C or K, and ii a fupcrlluoas Letter. The 
Weljh have not this Letter i but for fa always write cw, 
oTcb^. And the i'.iJi!/;! wrote ipen, that is, Cwen, for 
what we write ^cm. 

. The Engii/l' nil h altogether founded as bw. For If 6. 
the Eng/ijtr •u.-iit, and the Frendi iuiS have the lame 
Sound though they diifer very much in Signification. 
Tiie Saxeni did alio fet the A beJbre the iw, but 1 cannot , 
tell how the Sugiiji came to alter the placing Of it : So V" 
for the SaxM btutl, iwi/.-, the Eagl'^} fay iiibat, •wbitb, 
\iai^e Scelcb, juial, <{uilk. . ^^ 


The English Grammar. • 

And it is worth our obferving, that the Confotiants y 
and *ti', though they be not much minded, are moft com- 
monly fubjoined to kindred Confonants before kindred 
Vowels : For j^ is often fubjoined to the Guttural Con- 
fbnants r, gt when a Palatine Vowel follows : For can^ 
g€tf l>egini ire founded as if they were to be written eyan^ 
gytt, ktiyiu : For the Tongue can fcarce pafs from thefe 
-' Guttural Confonants to form the Palatine Vowels* but 
that it mufl pronounce y. But it is not fo .before 
the other Vowels % as in Call, Gall, go. Gun, Goofe, comey 

/f^is fometimes fubjoined to the Labial or Lip ConCo' 
nant/ and b, efpecially before open ; as in Pot, JBoy, 
BqH, &c. which are founded as if they were to be writ- 
ten fnvot-, h*woy, hnxoil, &c. but they are not always thus 
pronounced) nor by all Ferfons. 

The Latin oe ; the Englijh ea, 00, ee, 00, 
4ii, oe, ea, and fometimes ei, ie, ou, cu, alfo th, ph ; 
§a, ee, co. (the like to which are to be found among 
other Nations) although they are written 
with two CharatSters or Letters, are, notwithflanding, 
according to our prefent Pronunciation of them, but iim- 
pic Sounds: As v\e have (hewn in ;heir Places. 

And hitherto have I explained all the Sounds of the 
Letters, which do occur in any Nation, both fin^ple and 
compounded as far as F thought fuflicient : And do be* 
lieve that you can fcarce find any Sounds which may not 
be reduced to the ClafTes of fome of the Sounds that have 
been here treated of. 

It is alio oblervable, that there is fome Difference of 
Pronunciation among different Nations ; which does not 
proceed fo much from thf diftinit Power of the Letters, 
as from the Manner of the Pronunciation : For the Eng* 
Jij% do, as it were, thrufl their Words forwards, towards 
the outward Part of the Mouth, and fpeak more open- 
Jy ; whence the Sounds beromc alfo more diflindl. 
The G/rmeiKJ do rather drau back their Words towards 
the hindtr Part of the Mouth, and Bottom of the 
Throat ; whence their Pronunciation is more flrong. 
Tic French draw their "Wotds moit \a\sards towards the 

The English Crmtmsr. 539 

Palaiir, and fpcak !efs openly ; when;f their Pronuncia- 
tion becomes lefs dillinft, and is intermix^ witti a Sort of 
confufcd Murmur. So the Italians, *nd efpecially the 
Sp^-nlardi fpt»k more jk^i-ly ; the F/-."f A more tnpily, 
and the £Bj///ft in a middle Way l^iwixt both, Tiute 
are feveral 'Other DifTerencM of Prontinctabon ajsong 
other 'Nations, which any one may obrcTve uj Occafion 
fhalJ ofTer. 

Sir Thomas SmithV mw Englifh Alphabet: 

Nomen. Potedts. Exemplum. 

A a JiboTt. Man, Hat 

jf a a, A long. Man^ i . t. Maine, Hat, /. e. Hate.- 

B b. Be. 

Cc. Cb^TcbfBnal. Ceri,/.^.Chery, Mac, /./.Match 

D d. Di- 

A $ A D A^, i. e. n. Aou, /. e. Thou, Bais, /. e. Bath. 

Ee E fliort. Led, Bred, Hel. 

E' iee. E long. Led,/. /.Lead, Bred, / . /. Bread,* 

♦ Hel, I. /. Heal. 

/ e. E Englifh Bred, /. /. Breed, Hel, i. /. Heel. 

F/ E/. Fil, Strif. 

W p. -^^ V i-l» '. /.Vile, Striv* /. /. Strive. 

G £. Ge-. Gai, Get. 

S /. -P/-. Sai, /. /. lay. Set, i. /. let. 

H h. Ha. 

It J. /(hort. Hid, Bi, /. /. By. 

T • ?/. /long. Hid, /. /. Hide, BI, /. /. Buy. 

K k. Ku, Kat, Kac, /. /. Catch. 

L I. EL 

M f/tm Em, 

N «. E/t. 

Oo O (hort. Hop, Hors, /. /. Horfe. 

(y #. O long. Hop,!. /. Hope,H6rs, /'. /.Hoarfe 

Pp. Pe: 

R r. Er. 

S s. Es. 

Z z^ Ezed, Liz, I. /. Lyes, Di-z, /. /. Dyes. 

S j;.' Et:. i. e. Ejh.Lez, i. /. Leaih, Fir, /. /. Filh. 

rUu.^ L/(hort. Buk, /. /. Buck, full. 

Fyuiv. U long. Biik, ./. /. Book, Fiil /. /. Fool. 

Ty V, V Greek. Tru, /. /. True, Ru, /. /. Rue,f 

X X X, Ex. + Ny, i. /. New. 


./ • 


A URGE HlMicol Frefatl. gimng en Airount tf 
Ibt Ri/i «r.d fregr,/, tf ihi EngliHi Tongu* 
Page 1 
Jin Account Bftht Mother Tongues la 

Specimcmt if thi •variaai Chaiigii and JUtralhni »f «w* 
Tan^t, fram iht Tear ;oo l6 

Oflh, Di-aifien tf thi Scriffurii hlQ CiafttTJ aniVnfu 
35 and 16 
A rcmarkaUe Sfnimtn of thi Englilh tanpiagi, A. D. 
•38! 23 

fie Athinafian Creed joOWEnglJIh Fir/e aS 

Til Inlroduiiier. ,% 


Part L 

Chap. I. (yGraroroarnm^fV/ Parts 

^[fiiom TcUti»g IB lb, fiwft Cbepttr 
N. B. Th^rc arc adj,d ^■rjlhni rAating !» iWtJ 
Chap. I(. O/Exy mo\ogy .ar that Part of GnmrnK tabhb 
tcacbit mib^t bihn^s In tach Part eJ^ Speech u 

Of tht Eight P,^.;> of Speech ^ J2_ 




Chap. III. Of a Noun 51 

Chap. IV. 0/ Sukftanii'vis VfOY^tr and Qommon 53 

jIn ^cc^unt of the "Exi^i^tL pro^r Names * 54 

Chap. V. OfNumhers 57 

Chap. VI. Cy/^^^ Engli(h Getiiti've Cafe 64 

A Note conarmtig Gender 69 

Chap. VII. Of the Articles yS 

Chap. VII T. OfthePrefofitions 83 

Chaf. JX. Of the Adjeai've 106 

Chap. X. Of ihi Comparifon of Adje^i^ves 1 1 1 

Chap. XI. Of ibe Pronoun 118 

Chap. XII. Of the Verb, 129 

A Note concerning Tenfe or Time 1 30 

A Note concerning the Perfons of the Verb 1 32 

Some Ohfemjotions relating to the Second and ThirehPeffons 
of Verbs - 133: 

A Note concerning Moods 15^ 

Chap. XIII. Of the Participle 141 

Cjiap. XIV. Of the Helping Verbs nnhiehttreHef^ai'oe^aji^ 
do^ 'willtjhall^ &c. 145 

Chap. XV. C)/'/i&//^f/>^HclpiiigVcrbs,Have>#i«/ Am, 
or'Bt 151 

Chap. XVI. Of the Irrt galar Verb* 154 

A Table of the Irregular Verbs 158 

Chap. XVII. Of the Formation of the Times of a Verb 

Adlhe, orihtVirh that Jig^ii fie s Doing 161 

Chap. XIX. Of the Termination of a Vab Paffive, or a Verb 

that fignifies Suffering 169 

Chap. XX. Of the Method of exprejpng the Moods, or 

Manners of a Verb fignifying Being, Doing, or Suffering 

Chap. XXI. O/I/;^^ Verb Neuter 175 

Chap. XXII. Of the Mvtxh% 179 

Chap. XXI II. Of the Conjundiion 184 

Chap. XXIV. Of the Interjection 1S8 

Chap. XXV. Of the Explecives 190 

? A. R T 



Cinp. I. Of Etymology, »r Derivnifid 
Chap. II. O/SubftaniivesDimiiutiVe 
Cmap. III. O/ iys^^s h^'rinfid /rem tit tK'm 
■ D/z/w D^rivalran iffime Proper Names » idt « 

Of Ifarifi iihich, bu'ving a diffrrtnt Senft, l/ave alfi ti * 

diffttcnt Qiiginiil III 

SeSefcu'SuLs •v/biniy Iq imtii 'wbai a tfof/Ki Jcrit-iJ 

fPKm the Lmio, end iiD'Ui) it may l/l made Laiin egsia 

■Ghaf. IV. O/thfrepofaiaaiu/iiiinCtmft^hn 213 

O/tle Latin Papofitlmu Mfidintbe CoMfofiiion ./EngliOi 

//'flM zis 

Cbap. V. Of tht fading out iht Original l^amci of ?\i!:£% 

Chap. I. 0//i^ Syntax ai; 

Chap. If. 0/ Tiaiifpolition, crTran^hel*gtfW»riiiaf^ 

CiiAP. III. O/rirEilipfis, or fi^ £^^/»y «/»"»;■/*/« * 

Smttnci jj6 

Chap. IV. tyf*^ Points or Paufcs /« n StMcnet j^o 



Chap. f. O/* Ortbography, tr Oithoepy» trunimw •/ tbt 

iMters and their Prenmmcuttnm 24 ^ 

Chaf. JI. Cy ibe Vowels 249 

Chap. III. Cy /^r DiphtlMiigi, m- Jsmllg Vowels 260 

Chap. IV. Of thi ConiomgiU 265 

Chap. V* Of fome ConfonenH jdmtd i wm nht r . 272 

Chap. VI. 0/^/ift# DM/mm ifSyOMa^ tndJ^mltMUif 

bi chfer^td in fFiriHag 9f Wvrds ' 274. 

Chap. VII. Of feme PoioU mfed im Writini^ ami rf tU 

Mbrrviation or CantraBion of Wtrds 276 

A Note of Sir Tiu>iiutt Smith, corctrmmg the Eogliih 

7ongut sSo^ 

P A R T V. 

0/ P R O S O D Y 2gr 

Chap. 1. 0/ Numbers iWd. 

Chap. If. Of Mcifurt andCadme^ 283 

CuAf. HI. Of Rhymi 2«5 

4 Pinxb 0« ibt Grammar, tofl^tw the life and Fraaice 

of the Ruirs of the Grammar 289 

J Praxis, or Erafticc on the Lord's Prayer 290 

J Praxis on the Creed 3*^ 

The Fourth Praxis 3^9 

Of Spctdi, or of the Formation^ or Genutne Sound of all 

Iftnn. 3 * * 

F f N I S. 


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