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303 . £ . Jltc 







T. 0. DONKIN, B. A. 





-3J3 . e . 2 I a.- 


A. S. 

Anglo - Saxon. 


— Lotharingian(Lorraine) 




M. Du. 

— Middle Dutch. 



M. H. G. 

— Middle High German. 





— Milanese. 




— Modenese. 





— Neapolitan. 





— Norman. 




0. E. 

— Old English. 




0. H. G. 

— Old High German. 





— Old Norse. 



Champenois (Cham- 


— Old Saxon. 



— Lang^edocian. 





— Parmesan. 





— Portuguese. 





— Picardian. 



Dutch. C '• 


— Piedmontese. 



English. y' 

'.tlu r 1 • • 

— Provencal. 



Florentine. '7/ 


— RhsBto- Romance (Ori- 



French. .- *^ ; 

/ 1 




Frisian. a"-^, ' 


— Romagnol (Romagna). 



Galician. ^..> 

a^du. • " 

— Rouchi. 




Sard.V ' 

— Sardinian. 





— Sicilian. 




— Spanish. 





— Swiss. 

H. G. 


High German. 


— Swedish. 





— Valentian. 





— Venetian. 





— Veronese. 





— Walachian. 

L. G. 


Low German. 


— Waldcnsian. 

L. L. 

Low Latin. 


— VVallon. 




The present work is based on the ''Etymological Dictionary 
of the Romance Languages" by Friedrich Diez (2"'* edition, 
Bonn 1861). The Author has, however, availed himself of 
the labours of other eminent writers on the same subject, 
amongst whom he would specially mention Wedgwood (Dic- 
tionary of English Etymology), Littr^ (Histoire de la Langue 
fran§aise) and Mahn (Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der 
Romanischen Sprachen). He is also indebted to various papers 
in English and Foreign Periodicals, reference to which is 
made, where due. 

As to the plan of the work, the very inconvenient ar- 
rangement adopted by Diez has been abandoned, and the 
whole Dictionary reduced to one Alphabet, a Vocabulary 
being added of such English words as are connected with 
any of the Romance words treated of. 

To prevent excessive bulk, words are excluded: 

(1) where the etymology is unknown, and 

(2) where it is so obvious and familiar as to require 
no explanation. 

For the general principles of Romance etymology, Dicz's 
Introduction to the Grammar of the Romance Languages 
(translated by C. B. Cayley B. A.) may be consulted. 


A ad It.; Sp. Pg. a, Pr. a az, Fr. a, Wal. a from the Lat. ad, 
sometimes an abbreviation oi apud, Rom. Gr. 3, 145. From 
de ad is formed the It. da, Rh. dad, which correspond to the 
O. H. G. fona, N. H. G. von from af ana (Grimm 4, 782). The 
Pr. daus (in meaning = Fr. des) is prob. from de db with an 
epenthetic s, O. Wald. dos. 

Ab — appo. 

Aba — alabe. 

Ababa ababol Sp.^ Fg. papottia a red poppy ^ corn-rose: a cor- 
ruption of papaver, v. pavot. 

Abait, abah Pr. in Gir. de Rossillon^ a henchman; from ambac- 
ius or andbahts, v. ambascia. 

Abaloar — balicare. 

Abandonner — bando. 

Abaroa Sp. Pg. a coarse shoe of imtanned hide worn by the 
Spanish peasants ; used as a nickname of Sancho one of the 
kings of r^avarre: from the Basque abarquia which is made 
up of abarra twigs (of which these shoes would originally be 
made) and quia things: so = things made of twigs. 

Abaroar — barcar. 

Abbaoo It. arithmetic; Pr. abac; from abacus, 

Abbagliare — bagliore. 

Abbandono — bando. 

Abbedul — betuia. 

Abbeille — ape. 

Abbentare — avveniare. 

AbboBzare — bozzo. 

Abbrivo — brio. 

Abeja — ape. 

Abelluoar — bellugue. 

Abdquer — becco. 

Ab^s — avieso. 

Abisso It., Pr. abis abisme, Fr. abime or abyme, Sp. Pg. abismo, 
Sard, abismu, an abyss; It. abissare and sobbissare, Pr. abissar, 
Sp. abismar, Fr. abimer or abymer to precipitate; from abyssus 
(afivCCog). Abisme abismo is a substantival superlative like 



the L. oculissimus, L. L. dominissimus , It. casissimo &c. cf. 
Kom. Gr. 2, 48. 3, 14. The It. nabisso arose from the frequent 
combination in ahisso like ninferno from in inferno; hence the 
G. nobis. 

Able Fr. a whiting, L. L. abula; from albulus enphon. for alble 
(cf. foible for floible), Swiss albele, Austr. albel, Triers alf, fol- 
lows in meaning the L. alburnus (Ausonius), Sp. albur. 

Abonner Fr., sabonner to subscrioe; from bomis good, well- 
secured, cf. Sp. abonar to bail, secure, E. bonus, 

Abois — aboyer. 

Abome abosm^ O. Fr. dejected; from abominatus one who feels 
abhorrence or aversion (past passive becoming present active) 

R.Gr. 3,253. 

Aboyer to bark, O. Fr. abayer, abboyer; from adbaubari (bau- 
barihxxQT,). Hence a sbst. abois, etre aux abois to be in the 
last extremity, properly of a stag *'at bay'\ — The Eng. bay 
(and perhaps the form abayer) is from bada, badare q. v. 

Abra Sp. Pg. a bay, cove, defile, fissure. The Fr. havre differs 
from it both in gender and in sense. Its primary notion is 
that of an ^'opening", so that like some few other nouns from 
verbs of the fourth conjugation (mtdla from mollire, tupa from 
tupir) it may come from abrir, Lat. aperire, 

Abrego Sp. the South- West wind; from africus. It. affrico. 

Abricot v. albercocco, 

Abrigo Sp. Pg., Pr. abriCy Fr. abri shelter; abrigar, abricar, 
abriter (for abrier with euphonic / as in cafetier ^ cailloxUeux, 
jutexix fromyw5 &c.) to shelter, cover. In the Jura avriller is 
used for abriter of which it is a diminutive. The Bernese has 
aprigd with the tenuis. Mahn (Etym. Untersucjh.) and Littre 
(Journal d. Savans) support the old derivation from apricns. 
The original and principal meaning of the Rom. word is a 
place of shelter from cola, rain, and bad weather generally. 
This notion would be involved in the Lat. locus apricu^y which 
meant simny in contradistinction to opacus shady. In Wallon 
ese a I abri de t plaive = etre expose a la pluie, which perhaps 
points to the fact that abri once bore the meaning of ^^ expo- 
sures^ and after, by association of contrast, that of ^^ shelter ^\ 
Diez, without noticing this, argues against the Lat. etymology. 
Besides the difference in meaning the Lat. deriv. is, he says, 
rendered suspicious by the fact that the Kom. word is not 
found in the It. dialects, except in the Sard, which borrowed 
many words from the Span. (Aprico is indeed found in some 
of the poets in its Lat. sense.) It seems to have taken root 
espec. in Spanish , which has numerous compounds and deri- 
vatives : desabrigo desabrigar to strip, abrigada, abrigaha, abri- 
gamietito, abrigador (Pg.). Diez derives it from the O. H. G. 


rihan to cover, whence birihan A.S. bevrihan, a being prefixed 
as in numerous Sp. words. It is noticeable that the meaning 
"/o cover ^^ is founa in O. Fr.: la tres precieuse carone queJhesu 
Crist ot en sa teste, si com li Juis fen abrierent. He also sug- 
gests the O. G. bergan (bergen) to protect, hide. The sbst. 
berc geberc asylum would be nearer abric in meaning than 

Abrojo — broglio. 

Abrojo Sp., Pg. abrolho a thistle, caltrop; a compound from 
abre (el) ojo open the eye i. e. beware. 

Abrostino It. a sort of wild grape; from labruscum, Sp. lam- 
brusca; sc becomes st as in mistio for mischio, I being rejected 
as though it were the article. 

Abrunho — brugna. 

Abubilla -— upupa. 

Abutre — avoltore. 

Abiuzago — buse. 

Aod — qua. 

Aoabar Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. achever, to bring to a head, finish, 
achieve; from caput which in Rom. meant the end as well as 
the beginning of a thing: far capo = to commence, venire a 
capo to accomplish. 

Aoaeoer Sp. Pg. (O. Pg. also aquecer to be distinguished from 
aguecer to warm v. calentar) to happen; from accadere (for 
accidere) accadescere. 

Aoamar — cama (1). 

Aoarar — cara. 

Aoari&tre — cara. 

Aoatar — catar. 

Aooabler — caable. 

Aooattare It., O. Sp. acabdar, 0. Pg. achatar S. Bos. to earn, 
gain, O. Fr. acater to procure, Fr. acheter to buy. Neap, ac- 
cattare; It. accatto, Pr. acapta acapte, Fr. achat; from ad- 
captare (L. L. accapitare) to take to oneself, to buy, a mean- 
ing first developed in Fr. , and supported by the passage in 
Festus: emere, quod nunc est mercari, antiqui accipiebant pro 
sumere. On emo (orig. = to take up, cf. eximo, dirimo, promo, 
demo, sumo, como) cf. Donald. Varronianus. Hence the com- 
pound It. raccattare, Pg. regatar, Fr. racheter to redeem = Sp. 
rescatar, Pg. resgatar, from re-ex-captare, subst. rescate, 

Acceggia It., Sp. arcea, Prov. Fr. ace'e a snipe, L. L. Acda, ac- 
ceia; from acies or axrj a point, so = bird with the pointed 
bill. The word has very ancient authority, for in the Erfurd 
Glossaries p. 259 ** we find accega holtana or acega holtana 
c= A. S. holt'hana a woodcock, snipe. 



Acoertello It. a bird of prey : dimin. from accipiter. 

Acohinea — haca. 

Aocia asza It., Sp. hacha, Pg. facha acha, Pr. apcha for achay 
Fr. haclie (h asp.), E. adze. Whence M. H. G. hfUsche and 
hdsche, a hatchet, axe; It. acciare, Fr. hacher to hash, cut in 
small pieces. The form of the Rom. words is against their 
deriv. from thcLat. ascia, but the Fr. agrees with the N.H.G. 
andDu. hacke a mattock, hoe, a word not found in the O.H.G. 
but supported by the masc. form hacco (a hook) and the A. S. 
haccan to hack. The German k is preserved in the Picard. vb. 
hequer to hew wood = Fr. haclier. The other Rom. forms are 
all derived from the Fr. , the Pg. f representing the aspirate, 
V. sub arpa. The It. ascia y Pr. aissa, is a different word com- 
ing from the Lat. ascia; the Sp. aza or axa is not found, but 
there is a derivative from it in O. Sp. axada, Sp. azada, Pg. 
enxada mattock, hoe; also a Sp. form azuela an adze. 

Aociacco — achaque, 

Acciajo It., Sp. acerOy O. Pg. aceiro, N. Pg. acOy Pr. Fr. acier, 
Wal. otzei, Hung, atze'ly L. L. aciare aciaritim steel; from 
acies sc. /<?m. Acies ferri is used by Pliny for steel. Hence 
also It. accialCy Ven. azzale &c., O. H. G. ecchily M. H. G. 

Accidia It., Sp. acidia, Pr. accidia, O. Fr. accide laziness, sloth. 
Chaucer uses accidie = lukewammess in religion to be cured 
by fortitude, in Fr. theology acedie; cf. the accidiosi in Dante's 
Inferno. The word comes from the Gr. dxrjSLa through the 
L. L. accidia acedia, 

Acoismare — esmar, 

Acoiuga It., Sp. anchoa anchova, Pg. anchova and enchovay Fr. 
anchoiSy anchovy; from aphya, apua (used by Plin. = small 
fry of any fish) , atpvri , with the suffix uga might be formed 
in Italian acciuga = apj-uga, the other words being corrup- 
tions of this. The Piedm. and Sicil. form is anciova, Veron. 
ancioa, Gen. anciuay Ven . anchioa. But Mahn (Etym. Untersuch .) 
refers the word to the Basque antzua to dry so = the driea 
or salted fish. A dialectical form of antzua is anchua in Bis- 
cay anchuba (pronounced anchuva). Both these are represented 
in the Span. Tz and ch are freouently interchanged in Basque^ 
thus: baltza, beltza, balcha black, aitza acha a rock, itzuli 
and ichuli to turn, alter, ortza and orcha a tooth. Anchua in 
Basque also means a tveaned lamb , doubtless from the same 
root. In the It. acciuga there is , probably , a reference to as- 
ciugare to dry, the truer form being preserved in the dialects. 

Accointer — conto, 

Acoordo It., Sp. acuerdo, Pg. acordo, Pr. accorty Fr. accord 
agreement, accordare, accorder &c. to agree: formed in ana- 


logy to the Lat, concordare, disc or dare from cor, not from 
cJwrda. The Swiss cordere cordre = Wall, keure opp. : mes- 
keure to gnidge. 

Aooorgere — corgere. 

Acooutrer — cucire. 

Aoebo Sp., holly -tree; abbreviated from aquifolivm with the 
accent thrown back as in irehol from trifolium. An old form 
aceveto is found. Hence also Pg. azevinho. The Cat. grevoi is 
from acrifolium. 

Aoeohar Sp., Pg. asseitar to lie in wait for, spy; from assectarL 

Aoeite Sp. Pg. oil; from the Arab, al-zait (azzait), Heb. zait 
Freyt. 2 , 269. 

Aoelga Sp., Pg. also selgd beet; from Arab, selg (Freyt. 2, 344), 
which prob. came from the Gr. 6ixBX6g Sicilian, whence the 
Gr. xBvxXov or 6aikXov, M. Gr. cbvxXov^ oiaxkov N. Gr. 
CBVuXoVj whence it has passed into many of the Sclavonic 

Aoero It., Pg. acer, O. Sp. asre, Sp. arce. Cat. ars maple; from 
acer. The Fr. has erable (Grenoble izerdblo) = erarbre es- 
rarbre = acer arbor. 

Aoesmer — esmar. 

Aoetre — secchia. 

Aoezar O. Sp. to pant, acezo breath; from Basq. hatsa Breath 
with the same suffix as bostezar to yawn. 

Aoha — ascla. 

Aohaque Sp. Pg. illness, disorder, pretext, excuse, whence It. 
acciacco; from the Arab, al-schakd aschschakd sickness. The 
It. cagione also unites the meanings ^^ illness '' and " excuse '\ 
O, Pg. achague = accusation. 

Aohar Sp. Pg. to find. A word as obscure as its synonymous 
irovare. The oldest form found is aflar (A. D. 1166 S. Kosa), 
ch = fl B,a in enchar from in flare (but Mahn derives enchar 
from inchoare). In the Rh. we find aflar, Wal. afla, Neap. 
asciare (sci for fl as in sciume from flumen), also acchiare (Sic. 
ascian). It prob. comes from the Lat. af flare to blow upon, 
then to toucli, meet with. Conflare besides the sense of 
"blowing together" has that of "bringing together", "join- 
ing". From the notion of blowing we easily get that o{ striking 
of. the Eng. blow and tlie Germ, pu/fen (the Pg. ache = a 
hurt), and the German treffen means both to hit, and to hit 
upon, to find (cf. the Lat. ofFendere). In old glosses we find 
adflavit= adtegit (attigit): adftdavit (for nfflavit) leviter tetigit; 
afflata pifundan (befunden): Papias has a f flare = aspirare, 
aspergere, attingere. In It, we have inaf flare = to besprinkle. 
V. 8. hallar. 

Aohamer Fr. to set on, incite; from caro flesh, prop, of dogs 


to urge on by offering flesh: part, acharne j^royoked , exas- 
perated 5 It. accamare to penetrate into the nesh, of. the Pg. 
encamicar to provoke, exasperate. 

Aohat aoheter — accattare. 

Aohe Fr. a sort of parsley, from apium, It. appio, Sp. aipo. 

Aohever — acdbar, 

Aohier — ape, 

Aoiago — auce. 

Aoibar Sp., Cat. cever aloe -tree 5 from Arab, al-cabir accabir. 

Aoioalar^p., Pg. acicalar acacalar to polish; from Arab. cagcUa 
Freyt. 2 , 509. 

Aoioate Sp. Pg. a spur with a single prick instead of a rowel ; 
according to some from the Arab, al-schavkah aschschavkah a 
goad; Larramendi derives it from the Basq. cicatea in same 

Aoier — acciajo. 

Aoipado Sp. well -milled, compact (of cloth); from the Lat. 

Aoonohar — conciare. 

Aconteoer — contir. 

Aootar — cotejar. 

Aootar — quota. 

Aore Fr. a square measure, acre; from G. acker, E. acre. 

Acucia Cucia O. Sp. agility , dexterity , acmiar to hasten , Sp. 
accioso diligent; from the Lat. acuius v. Ducange s. v. acutia. 

Aoudir — ctidir. 

Adaga — daga. 

Adala — dala. 

Adalid Sp., O. Sp. adalid, adaiir, Pg. adail a commander, ge- 
neral; from Ar. ad-dalil guide, vb. dalla to lead. 

Adarga — targa. 

Adarve Sp. a rampart with battlement^ ; from Ar. ai-darb a nar- 
row way, Freyt. 2, 19. 

Adastiare — astio. 

Addobbare It., O. Sp. adobar, O. Pg. adtibar, Pr. adobar, O. Fr. 
adouber to fit out, equip, N. Sp. Pg. to prepare, pickle, tan. 
From the A. S. dubban, O. Norse dubba to strike (Fr. dauber 
to beat), and first used of the accolade or blow with the sword 
given in the ceremony of knighting: A. S. dubban to riddere 
to dub a knight, Fr. addubber a chevalier; it was next used 
of any solemn preparation or equipment, cf. Ducange s. v. 
adobare: Raoul I'adoube qui estoit ses amis: premiers li 
chausse ses esperons massis e puis li a le branc au costel mis, 
en col le fiert si con il ot apris : hence adouber richement to 
equip magnificently, se dauber to arm oneself, this simple form 
being rare. Wedgwood (s. v. dub) considers that the notion 


of preparation, equipment &c. is the primary one and traces 
the word to a Sclavonic root, Bohem. dub an oak, oak -bark, 
tan , dubiti to tan. From dressing leather the term got to be 
used of any kind of dressing or preparation, the dubbing of a 
knight consisting in investing nim with the habiliments of 
his order. In Eng. to dub cloth is to dress it with teasles ; to 
dub a cock to prepare it for fighting by cutting off the comb 
and wattles; dubbing a mixture of tallow for dressing leather, 
also a dressing used by weavers. 

Adeleno Pr. of noble birth (only in Girard de Roussillon), O.Fr. 
din; from the O. H. G. adalinc ediling, A. S. ddheling, Eng. 
Atheling (prop, name) , L. L. adalingus. 

Ademan Sp. Pg. motion, look, bearing; from the Basque adie- 
man (aditzera emanj to give to imderstand, from adi adiiu to 
understand and eman to give; desman = des- ademan. 

Aderedor — redor. 

Ades — esso. 

Adeser adaiser O. Fr. , Pr. adesar to stick to , touch , lay hold 
of: a frequent, from adhrerere adh(esus v. s. aerdre. 

Adesso — esso. 

Adizzare — izza. 

Admon6ter — amonesiar. ' 

Adonare It. to subject, subdue, Dante Inf. 6; 34: I' ombre ch* 
adona la greve pioggia. The Pr. has adonar to give in, Sp. ado- 
narse, Fr. s'adonner to suit oneself to, from donare; hence the 
notion of subduing, cf. Sp. rendir from reddere. 

Adouber — addobbare. 

Adrede Sp. Pg. purposely; prob. from the Prov. adreii rightly, 
exactly, cf. Cat. adretas (1) rightly (2) purposely. 

Aduana — dogana. 

Adiir adiiras O. Sp. = Lat. vix; from durus. 

Adurer O. Fr. Wall. , Pr. abdurar to harden , also to endure, 
like Fr. endurer. Adure adurat enduring was a frequent epi- 
thet of warriors; from obdurare with change of prefix, cf. 

Aerdre aderdre O. Fr. Pr. to hang, attach to: from adhosrere 
(pronounced adherere aderre) witn a d inserted, It. aderire. 

Afla — affanno. 

AflEigar — halagar. 

Afeitar Sp. Pg. to trim, curl the hair; from a/feciare, the Sp. 
coming through the Pg. The Pg. enfeitar is from infectare 

Afeurer — foro. 

AfGeder Fr. a nautical word = to let down; from Du. apialen 
to haul down. 

Afflemno It., Sp. Pg. Pr. a fan, O. Sp. afano anxiety, fatigue, 


Fr. ahan hard labour; affannare to grieve a person, Sp. afa- 
nar, Fr. ahaner to labour, toil, frequently of field -labour in 
L. L. and O. Fr. terram ahanare, whence ahans cultivated 
fieldfi, also ahanables, Rouchi ahan culture, Wall, ahans Tre- 
sults of it) = legumes encore en terre. The oldest meaning 
we can arrive at is that of ^^ bodily pain^'y which, under the 
forms afan, ahan, aan, it bears in some of the earliest extant 

Eoems; in otlier early passages it signifies grief, torture, and 
odily toil, fatigue. Carpentier notes also an O. Fr. vb. haner 
to work, whence enhaner e. g. un cortil to work a garden. 
The word is of French origin , being found neither in Latin 
nor in German. From ahan to afan the transition is easy , v. 
Rom. Gram. 1, 311, and for the Fr. affanner v. Pougens arch, 
franc. 1,11. The derivation from the It. afa anguish is not 
to be thought of, since no suffix ann is known to the Rom. 
languages ; it would rather appear that afa is shortened from 
affanno. Ducange and others derive it from an interjection 
han , which expresses the want of breath caused by a stress 
of bodily exertion. This is preserved in the Berrichon ahan- 
ner to be out of breath (which meaning it bore in O. Fr. up 
to the 16^^ century), and also in the Rouehi e-han-cer to be 
out of breath , cf . Yen. afana to pant , gasp. The Celtic lan- 
guages present no roots identical with these Rom., the Gaol. 
fann W. gwan weary being certainly not so , for the f = ffw 
gives in Rom. not f but v. As to W. afan dispute, tumult, 
which Owen quotes from Taliesin, it only remains to consider 
whether their form, (confined to one of tne Celtic dialects, and 
based on no native root, be still indigenous, or whether it be 
merely adopted from the Rom. The root han is doubtless one 
of those onomatopoeia for which the language is indebted to 
itself alone. 

AStire It. (m.), Pr. afar afaire (m.), Fr. affaire (f^ probably be- 
cause chose is f., in O.Fr. m.), O. Sp. ajfer, a/fair; from a fare 
in such phrases as avere a fare con uno; in the Romagna dafe 
1. e. da fare. Cf. It. avvenire, Fr. avenir the future = il tempo 
a venire. 

Affioher — ficcare. 

AfOrontare It., Sp. afroniar afrentar, Pr. afrontar, Fr. affronter 
to affront, to contradict or insult one to his face (ad frontem). 
Hence the It. affronto, Fr. affront, Sp. afrenia, affront. The 
Fr. effronte, Pr. esfrontat, It. sfrontato shameless (I5ng. ef- 
frontery) is from effrons (Vopiscus Num. 13. consilium ef- 

AfClibler to mask, muffle; for afftbier, L. L. se affibulare to wrap 
oneself up, prop, to fasten the mantle with the fibula y Pr. 
ftevela, It. affibbiare, Rom. afiube. 


Attat — fusta. 

Afouto — koto. 

Afire O. Fr. (Fr. plur. affres, Burg, afre) fright, dismay, Fr. af- 
freux frightful, from the O. H. G. sbst. eiver ^par. Vhe It. 
afro sour may be referred to the same origin. 

Afirenta — affroniare. 

Afro — afre, 

Agaoe — gazza, 

Agalla. — gale. 

Agasajar — gasalha. 

Agastar — agazzare. 

Agaszare It. , Fr. agacer (Pg. agastar) to irritate , entice , set on 
edge (teeth); from O. H. G. hazjan G. hetzen to bait, the 
Rom. a being prefixed to help the pronunciation of the h which 
becomes strengthened into a g. 

Age Fr. , O. Fr. edage aage eage; from (Btaticum (setas): so horn- 
mage = hommadcum , Pr. anttgatge=antiquaticum. For ce = a 
cf. O.Fr. ae=z(Btatem, The ed, which in the Lat. was no part 
of the root (wtas = cevitas) , has vanished. 

Agenoer — gente. 

Ageno Sp., Pg. alhSo strange, foreign; from alienus, It. alieno, 
O. Fr. aliene. Sard, allenu is used for It. altrui, like the Sp. 

Agenuz Sp. fennel, flower; from Ar. asch-schenuz, v. Engelmann. 

Aggeoohire — gecchire. 

AgguefElEkre It. to add, Dante Inf. 23; 16: se V ira sovra il mal 
voler ^ aggueffa; prop. = "to weave on'^ from O. H. G. wi- 
fan to weave, cf. adtexere. Of the same origin is the Lomb. 
wiffa, guiffa a mark of possession attached to a property, vb. 
guiffare to attach such a mark to a thing. Hence Fr. giffer to 
mark a house with chalk, confiscate it; v. Genin. 

Aghirone It. Pr. aigron, Cat. agro, Sp. airon, O. Fr. hairon, 
Fr. heron {h asp.), Berrichon egron, a heron; Fr. dim. aigrette, 
E. egret, and heronceau, heronshaw; from the O. H. G. hdgir 

Agina gina swiftness, strength; a grande aina Dante de Vulg. 
Eloq. 1, 11, O. Sp. agina and ahina, O. Pg. aginha swift. In 
a L. L. glossary we find agina i. q.- festinancia et inde agino 
festinare. It cannot be the same as the word in Festus agina 
= the opening in the upper part of a balance in which the 
tongue plays: it comes from ago as ruina from ruo and in 
meaning approaches agitatio, agilitas. 

Agio It. (rarely asio^, Pr. ais aise, Fr. aise (m.), Pg. azo, ease; 
Pr. ais, Fr. aise, easy; It. ad agio, Pr. ad ais, O. Fr. a aise, 
Fr. a raise comfortably, conveniently, whence It. adagio, O. Fr. 
aaise, O. Pg. aaso convenience &c. ; agiare adagiare, Pr. aisar, 
O. Fr. aisier, aaisier to take care of, agiato, aise comfortable, 


well-off. In Pr. there are still more derivatives : aisir to house, 
harbour, «;5i lodging, dwelling, «/.9/wa facility , opportunity, 
aizinar to arrange &c. ; so that the word probably spread from 
thisBource. Its derivation is uncertain. Manage refers it to 
otium, Ferrari to adaptare, Frisch to the German hehagen to 

E lease. We require a form ais or asi. According to Perion 
ling. Gall. p. 45, it comes from the Gk. atctog luck -fore- 
boding, necessary, proper, convenient, pleasant. Others, as 
Junius, Schilter, Castiglione, recognise in it a Gothic root 
found in the adj. azets easy, pleasant, azeii comfort. J. Grimm 
inclines to this etymology, v. Wiener Jahrb. 46, 188, and his 
Hist, of the Germ, language p. 352, where the Goth, word is 
referred to the A, S. eadhe, N. H. G. odi. The Pr. viure ad 
ais = Goth, vizon in azetjam to live in ease and luxury. To 
hold this derivation we must suppose a substantive azi which 
is very doubtful. The Basque aisia rest, aisina lea^sure are 
rather from the Prov. than vice versjl, such double forms (m. 
and f.) as aisi aisina being common in the latter: cf. plevi ple- 
vina, trahi trahina: aisina would be from the Pr. aise (ph. in 
older form aisi) as the adj . aisa agrees with the Pr. ais. Among 
the compounds from agio are It. agevole, disagio, malagiato, 
Fr. malaise hardship. The It. aggio agio, rate of exchange &c., 
is from agio with a different spelling for distinction. The 
Piedm. agio combines the meanings of both words. 

Aglan Pr., Cat. agld, O. Fr. agland which is still preserved in 
Berry, in Lorrain aiguiand an acorn; from the Lat. gians in- 
fluenced by the Greek axvXog or rather by the Goth, akran 
(acorn), the prosthetic a being unusual in rr. 

Aglayo — ghiado, 

Agognare It. to desire anxiously, Gr. ayavvav. 

Agora — ora (2). 

Agraffer — graffio. 

Agrteble agr6er — grado. 

Agres Fr. (m. pi.) rigging; vb. agre'er to rig; O.Fr. rt<7m = pre- 
paration, agreier to prepare, fit out; from Du. gereide gerei 
apparatus (with prefix a), vb. gereeden parare = Goth, ga- 
raidjan, M. H. G. gereiten to make ready, v. redo, 

Agresto It., Sp. agraz, Pg. agraco, Pr. agras, O. Fr. aigret, 
Dauph. aigraiy Wal. agrisi unripe grapes, juice thereof, ver- 
juice; from acer, O. Sp! agre, Fr. aigre with the suffix as, 
corrupted in It. into est. Agraz corresponds closely to pira- 
ciiim perry (Jerome). 

Agrotto grotto It. a pelican; from onocrotalus, 

Aguet — guadare. 

Aguglia It., Sp. aguja, Pg. Pr. agtdha, Fr. aiguille a needle. 
Not from aculeus: the It. agocchia requires a L. acucula (cf. 


coiucula, conuctda, conocchia, quenout'lle), which was thus al- 
tered from acictda whilst the c was still pronounced as a gut- 
tural^ cf. genucHlum for genictUum &c., v. Rom. Gr. 2, 265. 
Among the derivatives are Sp. aguijar, Pg. aguilhar to goad, 
Fr. dim. aiguillette tag for drawing a lace through an eyelet 
hole, English aglet. 

Aguijar — agugiia. 

Agoilen — aiglen. 

AgUBBino — alguacil. 

Ahan — affanno, 

Ahi — ivi, 

Ahora — ora (2). 

Aib aip Pr. quality, disposition, manners, character, aibit gifted. 
Diez derives it from a very doubtful Goth, word aibr = gift, 
which occurs only once in Ulfilas S. Matt. 5, 24. Mahn (Etym. 
Untersuch.) points out the true derivation from the Basque 
tfiptia report , reputation, which is from aipatu, aippatcea to 
speak of, mention. The Pr. argued from effect to cause so 
aib aip meant character, espec. good character. Aipatu bears 
a striking resemblance to the Gr. bItcbTv (/£«.), Lat. vocare, 
Sansk. vach, v. Pott, Et. Forsch. 1, 180, 234. 

Aide — ajuto. 

Ale Fr. an interjection of pain; an old imperative of aider: ate 
nos Mahum! Ch. d. Rol. p. 74. 

Aleul Fr. a grandfather; dimin. from avus. It. avolo, Sp. abueio, 
Pg. avd. For a similar use of diminutives in O. G. cf. Grinmi 

3 , 677. 
Aiglent O. Fr., Pr. aguilen thorn; hence Pr. aguiiancier, aiglen- 

tina, Fr. eglantier eglantine, eglantine; from aiguille aguiiha 

with the suffix ent, as if from a Lat. acuculentus prickly. 
Aigrette — aghirone. 

Aigu fV. sharp; from acutus. Hence E. ague. 
Aiguille — agugiia. 
Ailleurs Fr., Pr. alhors otherwise; from aliorsum which became 

obsolete after the time of Cato and the Comic writers, and was 

revived in L. L. , v. Muller's Festus. 
Aimant — diamante. 

Ain O. Fr. a fish-hook; from hamus. It. amo. 
Ain9oi8 ains — anzi. 
Ainda — inda. 
Aine — Aine, inguine. 

Ain6 Fr. elder; from ains-ne (ante - natusj ; cf. alnado. 
Ains — anche. 
Ainsi — cost, 
— rame. 


Aire — aria. 

Airon — aghirone, 

Ais Fr. a plank ; from axis assis, It. asse; dimin. aisseau a Bhingle^ 
from axicellus assicellus, It. assicella, 

Ais — asco. 

Ais aisina — agio. 

Aisil aissil O. Fr. vinegar; a corruption of acetum, It. aceto, 
Wal. otzef, Rh. as-chaid, ischeti. The same word is the E. eisii, 
esil, O. K. aistjl, A. S. aisil, eisele. The common Rom. term is 
vinnm acre, vinaigre &c. 

Aisne O. Fr. grape; from acinus, It. acino. 

Aisso — cid, 

Aja It. a threshing-floor; from area, Fr. aire, Pg. eira. 

Ajar to maltreat; identical with the Pg. achar, Obs. Sp. ajar 
to tind = haliarj cf. the Lat. offendere to hurt and to hit 
upon , find , Pg. ache = hurt. 

Ajo — atjo. 

Ajouter — giiisfa. 

Ajuto It. help ; from adjutus -us HVIacr. Sat. 7, 7) ; f em. Sp. aguda, 
Pg. Pr. ajuda, O. Fr. aiie, ric. aitide; It. ajutare, Sp. agu- 
dar, Pg. Pr. ajutar from adju/are. By the side of this we have 
a shortened form It. atta, Pr. ahia, O. Fr. aide ate, Fr. aide, 
Eng. flriV/, It. aitare, Pr. aidar, Fr. aider; the last two =■ a/- 
Mr^, which, however, does not suit the accented i of It. aito 

Al O. Sp., O. Pg., Pr. al ais, O. Fr. al el a neuter pronoun some- 
times joined with a sbst. (al ren, ren al), from aliud, or, better, 
from alid (Lucil., CatuU., Lucret.), neut. of alis, v. Ritschl 
de declinatione quadam latin& reconditiore. 

Ala — enola. 

Alabar Sp. Pg. to praise ; from allaudare (Plant.) , Pr. alauzar. 
The (/being dropped the ti takes a consonantal torm as in Paolo 
= Patdus. In loar from laud are the vowel is kept (o = au). 

Alabarda labarda It., Sp. Pg. alabarda, Fr. halleharde {h asp.), 
a halbert; from the M. H. G. helnibarte (G. hellebarte) ; the purest 
form is found in the Kh. hahmibard. 

Alabe Sp. a branch, espec. one drooping to the ground, an olive 
branch, the ladle of a wheel, the eaves of a house; from the 
Basque alabea "that which bends or droops" v. Larramendi. 
Hence Pg. aba a projecting surface, eaves, cf. paco from 

Alaoha — laccia, 

Alaoran Sp., Pg. alacrao scorpion; from Arab, al-dqrab. 

Alaf6 alahe ala6 an interjection of cheering, rousing up &c., 
prop, of protestation from fe = fides. 

Alaga Sp. spelt; from alica a sort of wheat. 


Alambio — lambicco. 

Alamo Sp.; Pg. alamo alemo a poplar -tree; the Sp. philologers 
derive it from tUmus comparing the N. iUmr aim, Eng. elm; 
but ph. better from alnus. The alder is called alamo negro, 
the poplar alamo bianco. The Sp. avoids the conjunction of the 
consonants In (ana = alna, jalde t=z jalne), so almo alamo 
from alno. 

Alano It. Sp.; Pg. alaOy O. Fr. alan a mastiff; Menage shows 
that Alano was used for Albano, and so Alano would be a dog 
of y^/^flniVi (Epirus) ; cf. the Lat. Molossus, also from Epirus. 

Alarbe Sp., Pg. alarve a clown, rustic, prop. = an Arab; from 
Ar. al-arab. 

Alarde Sp. Pg. a review of soldiers; from Ar. al-ar'd. 

Alare — lar. 

Alarido Sp. Pg. a confused battle-cry, outcry; from Ar. al-arir 
a song of victory, din, clatter Freyt. 1, 24. In the O. Fr. 
Chans. d'Antioche the Saracens cry aride! aride! 

Alazan Sp., Pg. alazao reddish -yellow, sorcl (of a horse); from 
the Arab, al-'has-an beautiful, Pihan Gloss., Freyt. 1, 381, 
or, according to Sousa, from al-^hacan a strong fine horse. 
Hence Fr. alesan. 

Alba It., Sp. Pr. Pg. Rh. alva, Fr. aube dawn; from albtts light, 
clear, bright, as in alba slella (H.), cf. Itix albescil, ceelum al- 
bet (Albunea, according to Pott = Matuta), Dante ^^il sol im- 
bianca i fiorelli", Ariosto gives the dawn more colours: pot 
che Valtro mat tin la bella Aurora V aer seren fe' bianco e rosso e 

AJban Pr., also albanel, It. albanello, Fr. aubrier a bird of prey. 
The corresponding Pg. form alvao signifies another kind of 
bird. Tr^voux explains aubrier by aubere = white and dap- 
pled , from albus. 

Albanal albanar a sewer, gutter; from alveus. 

Albarda — barda. 

Albaro albero the black poplar, Fr.(Berrichon) auhrelle, O.H.G. 
albari, G. alber. In Cat. the poplar (of any kind) is called 
alba, Pr. aubra (aoubre) = the white -poplar, Piedm. albra 
arbra = the black poplar, albron arbron = the white. Mil. 
albera (It. alberella) = the aspen. From albus, so prop. = the 
white poplar, afterwards used generally. The dialectical 
forms disprove Blanc^s derivation from «/^^o (arbor), as being 
the commonest tree. 

Albazano — baio, 

Albedrio Sp. free-will; from arbitrium, Pr. albire, 

Albedro Sp., Pg. ervodo from arbutus; Cat. arbosser {roiu arbu- 
teus, Sp. (dialect.) alborzo, Fr. arbousier. 

Alberare It., Sp. arbolar, enarbolar, Fr. arborer to raise, rear 


(e. g. a mast); from arbor, It. albero, O. It. albore &c. For 
similar formations; cf. vitulari to skip like a calf, It. piombare 
to fall like lead, hrillare to shine like beryl, braccare &c. 

Albercooco albioooco It., Roman bericuocolajo bricoccolajo, Van. 
baricocoio, Sien. bacoco, Sp. albaricoque albarcoque albercoque 
alvarcoque, Pg. albricoq^ie albercoque alboquorque, Fr. abricot, 
N. Pr. ambricot, aubricot auricot, M. Gr. fisQvxoxov fiegC- 
X0X01/, M. Gr. 7tQaix6xxiov ^ fisQixovxCay fisQirXoxxia, fisQi- 
xoxxCov^ §£qCxoxxoVj O. Eng. apricock, an apricot Diez 
derives it from the Lat. prcecoquus, apricots ripening earlier 
than other fruits of the same kind. (Martial nas pnecoqua 
= apricots ; Vilia matemis fueramus Prwcoqua ramis Nunc in 
adoptivis Persica cara simms.) He adds that the Latin word 
finds its truest expression in the M. Gr. n^aixoxxiov y the 
Rom. forms having been influenced bv the Arabic al-berqiiq. 
This account is not quite right. The Kom. words , doubtless, 
came direct from the Arabic through the Span. The Ara- 
bians, probably, got the word from Dioscorides, who has 
(1, 165): rd fii^ka aQfiriviaxdj 'P(0fiaV6tl dh 3CQai.x6xi.aj and 
whose works were early translated into Arabic. The Arabic 
has no p and therefore represents the Latin p hy sl b. V. 
Mahn Etym. Untersuchimgen. 

Albergo It., O. Sp., Sp. Pg. albergue, Pr. alberc, and O. Fr. her- 
berc {fielberc Ch. d' Alexis st. 51 , 65), fem. Pr. dtberga^ O. Fr. 
herberge Oh. d' Alexis 116 &c. &c., N. Fr. auberge an inn, O. 
Eng. herberwe; It. albergare, Sp. albergar, Pr. albergar ar- 
bergar, Fr. heberger, O. Fr. herbergier; from the O. H. G. 
heriberga (f .) {heer araay and bergen to shelter = station of an 
army on its march through the provinces), O.N. herbergi (n.), 
O. H. G. verb heribergdn. The O. Fr. kept the original mean- 
ing "army -station^'. Brut. 2, 160 ses herberges et ses foUlies 
the tents and huts of the army. Through the Fr. come the 
Eng. forms herberwe, herber, harbour, arbour, herbergage, 
herbergeour, harbinger (one who looks out for a harbour or 
lodging for another): in Wiclif we find "I was herbarweles 
and ye herboriden me". S. Matt. Hence E. harbinger for her- 
bergeour, the n being inserted as in messenger, scavenger &c. 

Albomoz Sp. Pg. a woollen mantle, Fr. bournous; from the Ar. 
al-bornoz a cloak with a cape to it, Freyt. 1, 115. 

Alboroto Sp., Pg. alvoroto outcry, riot*, from Arab. aUforo^t 
'^what is beyond measure*' Freyt. 3, 336. Hence alborozo joy. 

Albran — halbran, 

Albricia Sp., O. Sp. alvistra, Pg. alvicara (generally in plur. 
only) reward for good tidings; from the Ar. al-baschdrah 
good tidings, vb. baschara Freyt. 1 , 124. In the Sp. the r is 
transposed not inserted, though alvicia is found in Berceo. 


Aloab&la duty on goods sold ; according to Sousa from Ar. al- 
gabalah (wnich, however, has a different sense, Freyt. 3, 394) 
which is from the verb gahala to take, to receive a price. 
Engebuann refers it to the Ar. al- gabalah a tax. 

AloachofiBk — articiocco, 

Alcahuete Sp., Pg. alcayote, Pr. alcaot alcavot a pander; Ar. 

Alcalde Sp. Pg. an alcaid, chief magistrate; from Ar. ai-gdid 

Freyt. 3,513. 
Alcalde Sp. a justice of the peace; from Ar. al-gd^di judge 

Freyt. 3,461. 
Alcali It. Sp. &c. alkali, from Ar. al-gali salt of ashes Freyt. 3, 494. 
Aloance Sp. Pg. pursuit , capture , grasp , reach , means , alcqn- 

zar to pursue, capture; from Ar. al-qanac prey, booty (of 

hunters), vb. qanaca to hunt, Freyt. 3, 504. Ihe Pg. alcancos 

is of the same origin. 
Aloandara Sp. a falcon's roost; from Ar. al-kandarah. 
Aloaparra — cappero. 
Aloaravea — carvi, 

Aloarrasa Sp. an earthen pitcher; from Ar. al-korraz. 
Aloatraz aloartaz Sp., Pg. cartaz bill, account; from chartaceus 

with the Ar. article. 
Aloavala — gabbella. 
Alo&zar a fort, also a quarter-deck; from Ar. gacr (Freyt. 3, 

452) , pi. = castle. Hence It. cassero, 
Alohimia It., Sp. Pg. alguimiay Pr. alkimia, Fr. alchimie, M. Gr. 

dQxtjfiCa alchemy, It. Sp. Pg. chimica, Fr. chemie, chemistry. 

There are three derivations given (l) from Gr. xvinog (x^a, 

Sycj) = juice, sap, espec. the liquor obtained by infusion and 
ecoction of herbs. (2) from the Arab, al- kimia which , how- 
ever (as Diez , who nolds this etymology , remarks) , has no 
native root. (3) from chemia, XW^^j I^gyp*; ^^ called, ace. 
to Plutarch, from its dark soil (the Coptic kame kami = blacky. 
So the word would orig. mean the Egyptian science. This 
last derivation is the one now generally maintained (amongst 
others by Humboldt Kosmos 2, 451): it is, however, rejected 
by Mahn (Etym. Unters.) who successfully asserts the Greek 
origin of the word. The word XW^^^ (v. 1- X^ftf^a) is first 
used by Suidas (c. A. D. 1100). Alchemia (or chemia) is first 
found m J. Matemus Firmicus (c. A. D. 340), where it means 
the art of gold - making. Up to the middle of the fourth cen- 
tury ;i;vft£ta was used by the Greek physicians to mean the 
art of extracting juices from plants lor medicinal purposes. 
From then up to the middle of the IG**^ century it meant tlie 
art of gold -making, transmuting the baser metals into gold, 
which was supposed, in its liquid form (auruiu potabile), to 


lengthen life y renew youth , and cure diseases , such as gout; 
leprosy. &c. The art of gold -making was much practised by 
the Egyptians and Alexandrian Greeks. Hence it was that 
XVfieia in becoming xrjfisia was influenced by xrifi£a which 
was the native name for Egypt. From the Alexandrians the 
word passed to the Arabs ^ who devoted themselves to the 
study of chemistry and alchemy about the middle of the 8* 
century. The Arabic word was introduced into Spain and 
thence into the other Romance languages. 

Alcohol from the Arabic al-kohl the impalpable powder of an- 
timony used in the East for darkening the eyeorows. From 
the extreme fineness of this powder the word got to be used 
of any pure fine substance, and espec. of refined spirit, pure 
spirits of wine, cf . Pihan , Glossaire des mots fran9ais tires 
de TArabe. 

Aloor Sp. a rugged hill; from Ar. al-qdrah, jpl. alqur, 

Aloomoque Sp. Pg. (m.) cork-tree, whence It. aicornoch; from 
quern 'Oco spungeous oak? oco = hueco q. v. 

Alcorque Sp. Pg. (m.) a shoe with cork sole = Sp. corche, 
whence our cork. From the Lat. cortex, so = alcorgue, cf. 
codigo from codex, peja {vorapix, pulga from pulex. 

Aloova It., Sp. alcoba, Fr. alcove (f.), Pr. alcuba, O. Fr. aucube, 
an alcove, recess in a room &c. Introduced from Spain and, 
therefore, most likely of Arabic origin: al-gobbah in Arab, 
means a vault or tent (Freyt. 3, 388*). It occurs, under the 
form Alcoba, as the name of a Portuguese village , v. Sousa. 

Alouno It., Sp. alguno, Pg. algum, Pr. alctm, Fr. aucun; from 
aliquis unus. In the O. Fr. (Burgundian) we find the forms 
alquen auquen alcon (m.) (f. aucune), which seem to point to 
aliquis homo alcuen, ale' on, though the word is also used as 
an adjective. The Norman dialect has an analogous form 
cascons for quisque, chescon; also ascons (aliquis homo ?)j ascun. 

Alcuno Sp. a surname; from the Ar. kunje = a christian or sur- 
name. The O. Sp. fem. alcuna, Pg. alcunha sex, seems rather 
to be connected with the Goth, kuni genus, athala-kuni = O. 
H. G. adal'ktmni nobile genus. But Engelmann gives Ar. a/- 
konjah ^'renombre de linage". 

Aldea Sp. Pg. Cat. a hamlet; from Ar. al-^dai^ah an estate 
Freyt. 3, 34, like Sp. almea from Ar. almai^ah, 

Aleoe — laccia. 

Aledano Sp. a boundary, adj. = contiguous; from limitaneus; 
80 = alendano. 

Alenare It., Pr. Cat. alenar to breathe, Fr. halener to scent; It. 
alena lena, Pr. alena, Fr. haleine (h mut.) breath. From an- 
helare (l) to pant, (2) in later writers to breathe; It. anelare, 
Sp. ankelar, Fr. anheler; the sbst. comes from the vb. the 


termination ena being too rare and doubtful to allow the de- 
rivation from halare, 

Aldne — lesina, 

Aleroe Sp. the larch; from larix, It. larice, with Arab, article, 
perhaps influenced by Ar. al-arzah cedar = Pers. arz pinus. 

Alerte, alerto — erto. 

Alesna — lesina. 

Aleve Sp. faithless, O. Sp. sbst. aleve^ Pg. eUeive perfidy, not 
from allevare (which verb is not foimd in Sp.), but, perhaps, 
from the Goth, livjan to betray, A. S. leeva a traitor. 

Alezan — alazan, 

Alfiaoe Pg. lettuce; Ar. al-khass, 

Alfadia Sp. a bribe; Ar. al-hadiyyah, 

AlflEklflEk Sp. lucerne ; Ar. aV half ah. 

AifftTift. Sp. a strong spirited horse; hence O.Fr. destrier aufaine. 

Alfange op. Pg. a sabre; from Ar. al-khangar a dagger, Freyt. 
1 , 530. 

AlflBiUB Sp. Pg. a light Moorish cavalry horse; from Ar. al-faras. 

Alfarda — fardo. 

Alfarma alharma Sp. wild rue; Ar. al-^harmal. 

Alferez Sp. Pg. , O. Sp. alferece alferce an ensign , in earlier 
times = a high dignity: alferez del rei comes stabuli, con- 
stable; from the Ar. al-fdres a knight; It. alfiere. 

Alfldo alflere It., Sp. alfil arfil, "Pg.'alfil alfir, O.Fr. aufin a bishop 
at chess; from tiie Pers. ftl elephant, with the Ar. article, v. 
Due. s. alphinus; cf., however, Pott in Lassen's Zeitschr. 4, 12. 

Alflere — alferez. 

Ami — alfido. 

Alfiler alfllel Sp., Pg. alfmete pin, pi. Sp. al/Ueres pin-money; 
from Ar. al-khildl a skewer. 

Alfooigo alfostigo alfonsigo Sp., Pg. dlfostigo pistachio tree; 
from Ar. al-fostoq. 

Alfombra Sp., Pg. alfambar a small carpet; from Ar. al-khom- 
rah a prayer -carpet. 

Alforga Sp., Pg. al forge a wallet; from Ar. al-khorg, Freyt. 
1 , 472. 

Alfos, 6p. Pg. district; from Ar. al-hauz. 

Algalia Sp. rg. civet-cat; from Ar. al-galiyah. 

Algar Sp. Pg. a grotto; from Ar. al-gdr, Freyt. 3, 301. 

Algara Sp. rg. a marauding party (like It. gualdana)\ from 
Ar. al-gdrah, Freyt. 3, 301 , whence, too, algarear to shout 
hurrah ! 

Algarrobo — carrobo. 

Algebra It., Sp. algebra, Fr. algebre, algebra; from the Ar. al- 
gabr a resetting of anything broken (e. g. limbs) , a meaning 
it still bears inSp.; hence a combination into one whole, a 



ropreseiitatioii of several operations by means of a few sym- 
bols. V. (lolins p. 462, Freytag 1, 293''. Contrary to the 
u>iial rule in Arabic words , the accent is on the article. 

Algez .Sp. gypsum, whence it is derived; Sp. also gesOy It. gesio. 

Algier algeir a spear, Ch. d. Kol.; from O. H. G. azger, A. S. 
utgdr, O. N. atgeirr. 

Algo Sp. Pg., Pr. alque alques, O. Fr. auques (in Lorrain eque, 
in Champ. gauq\ui)\ from (diquod , (tliquid; cf. Sp. alguien, Pg. 
afguem, from aiiquem, 

Algodon — CO/ f one. 

Alguacil alvacil Sp. , Pg. alguazH alvacil alracir a magistrate, 
bailiff «&c., Pg. guazil a governor; from Ar. vazir, al-vazir the 
manager of a state, a vizier, which from vazara to bear, Freyt 
4, 461. From alguacil = an overseer comes the Fr. argoum. 
It. aguzzino an overseer of slaves. 

Al£:uien — quien. 

Algiires Pg. = Lat. usquam, O.Pg. algur alhur, for algubre from 
alicnbi , like* alubre from aliubi, Cf. ncnhures, 

Alholba Sp. a plant, foemun Gnccimi; from Ar. ^holbah, Preyt. 
1 , 415; Basque allorbea, 

Alhondiga — fondaco, 

Alhondre — = aliunde, 

Alice — laccia. ^ 

Aliento Sp., Pg. alenio breath, vb. alenlar; from anhelare, n 
and / being transposed ; cf. peligro from periclum. 

Aliso Sn. an alder- tree; cf. the G. form else, Aliso from aiyssm, 

Alize Yv, service -berry, service-tree; from G. else (-beere). 
O. Fr. alie, alier, 

Aljaba Sp., Pg. aljaba quiver; from the Ar. al-gabah, Freyt 

Aljofar Sp. Pg. a small pearl; from Ar. al-gadJiar a pearl, a 
word ot Persian origin, Freyt. 1, 327. 

Aljuba — giubba, 

AUa — la, 

AUarme It. (m.), Sp.Pr. alarma, Fr. alarme, Wal. larm^, alarm; 
allarmarc «&c. ; from the cry alV arme I to arms ! Hence ala- 
turn, and occ. alarmo an interjection expressing wonder, It. 

Allazzare It. to tire; from Goth, latjan, O. H. G. lezjan to let, 
hinder, Goth, hits, 0. II. G. laz, lazy, 

Alleger — lieve, 

Alleggiare — lieve. 

Allegro It., Sp. Pg. alegrcy Fr. alegre sprightly, merry, with 
several derivatives ; from alaccr alacrem witn the accent on 
the penult. From the change of a into ^, the word would 
seem to have been orig. Fr. ; we find an O. Fr. halaigre pre- 


served in the proper name Aligre, The Basque alaguera is 
nearest the original. 

Allende O. Sp. , Pg. alem on the other side; from alii ende. 
Aller — andare, 
Alleu — allodio. 

Allevare It., Pr. alevar, Fr. elever to rear, bring up (tollere pue- 
nan). Partly, perhaps, from the carrying the child at baptism. 
In O. Sp. alevo a baptized person, It. alievo, Fr. eleve pupil. 

Alii — /i. 

Alligator — laceria. 

Allodio It., Sp. alodio, Pr. alodi aloe alo, Fr. alleu, an allodium, 
allodial lands &c. , held in absolute independence without ac- 
knowledgment of any lord paramount, opp. to fie/'. The Lat. 
allodium suits all the Rom. forms; for the Pr. aloe, cf. fasfie 
= fastidiimi, Fr. aleu = aloe, as feu = foe, lieu = loe. Alo- 
dis (Lex Salic.) alaudis are older forms of allodium. Grimm 
(Kechtsalt. p. 493, 950) gives a conjectural derivation from a 
Germ, compound al-dd "all one's own". But Wedgwood, 
with more probability, connects it with the Icel. odal in same 
sense, Dan. Sw. odel a patrimonial estate. The landed pro- 
prietors of the Shetland Isles are still called udallers accoraing 
to Sir W. Scott. Ihre (s. v. od) derives it from the Gothic 
^Utlldha odhoV* an ancient inheritance, like allda-vinr an ancient 
friend, allda-ho'/'d an ancient possession. The L. L. form 
alaudis was , probably , influenced bv laus in L. L. = a grant 
made by a feudal lord, who was said ^^ allaudare'^ to make a 
grant, whence ^^ allow, allowanee^\ v. allouer, 

Allodola lodola It., Sicil. lodana, O. Sp. aloeta (aluda Cane, de 
Baena), Sp. alondra, Pr. alauza alauzefa, O. Fr. aloe (whence 
O. N. Ida, Grimm Reineke Fuchs p. 370), aloue, aloete, Fr. 
alouette, L. L. laudila a lark. This is one of the few words 
w hich we may certainly refer to a Celtic origin. It was known 
to Caesar who raised a "legio Alauda^' in Gaul. This Suet. 
says was the Celtic for galerita or lark. Pliny and Gregory 
of Tours also refer it to the Celtic. Various derivations have 
been given of the Celtic word: (1) from W. al excellent and 
awd song, so = excellent songstress; (2) Villemarque and 
others refer it to the Breton alehoueder eehoueder ehoueder, 
W. alaiv-adar = bird of harmony; (3) from alaio-hedez alaw- 
hed {hedeg to fly); (4) Bullet derives it from al qui s'616ve 
chwedl chant: alehweder qui s'^lfeve en chantant. The W. for 
lark is uehedydd ehedydd hedydd {hedegu to fly, uchedu to soar) 
= prop, the soaring bird ; the Cornish form is evidit for eehi- 
dit, whence the Breton echouedez chouedez, eehoueder ehoueder, 
alehouedez alehoueder. The Lat. alauda dropped the guttural. 


It is noticeable tliat other names of birds of the same genus 
came from the Celtic, e. g. finch, It. pincione, Sp. pinzon, Fr. 
pmcon, from the W. pine; Pg. catovia, Sp. iotovia , Fr. coche- 
vis tufted lark from the Bret, kodioch. V. Mahn (Etym. Un- 
tersuch.) p. 23. V. also Dief. Or. Eur. p. 219. 

Allouer It., E. allow to praise, approve, permit; from laudare, 
Pr. lauzar aiauzar, O. Fr. loer Inner allouer, Allouer, allow in 
the sense of granting (an allowance) is, however, from louer 
= locare. It. allogare to assign, hence also alloue an attorney, 
substitute faJlocatusJ. As laudare and locare coalesced in louer 
the confusion was carried back to the L. L., where alhcare 
= to approve , laus = a feudal grant. 

Alloza Sp. green almond, allozo almond, tree; from Ar- al-lau- 
zah almond -tree. 

Alma — anima. 

Almacen — magazzino* 

Alxnaden Sp. mine, ore; from Ar. al- madden, 

Almadraque — materasso. 

Almagre Sp. Pg. red ochre; from Ar. al-magrah red earth. 

Almanacco It., Sp. almanaque, Fr. almanac, Eng. almanack. 
Perhaps from the Ar. al-mana^h a present, vb. mana^ha to 
give as a present. The Ar. expression is taquim (v. Pihan 
p. 33). See Engelmann, p. 50. 

Almea — aldea. 

Almear — meia. 

Almece Pg. whey; from Ar. macL 

Almena Sp. a battlement: from the Lat. mtna (only in plur.), 
with the Ar. article prefixed. 

Almendra — mandorla, 

Almete — elmo. 

Almez Sp. nettle -tree, eeltis australis; from Ar. al-mais. 

Almidon — amido. 

Almirante It. Sp. Pg., It. almiraglio ammiraglio, Pr. amiran ami- 
rahl amiratz, O. Fr. amirant amiral amiras, Fr. amiral, L. 
Gr. d^riQciXris dfii]QdXiog an admiral, L. L. admiraldus admira- 
bills, in which, of course, there is a reference to admirari. 
The Fr. amiral and the Pr. amirahl present the most correct 
form, coming, as they do, from the Ar. amir al bahr chief at 
sea. The last syllable was dropped , when the word was in- 
troduced into the Rom. during tne Crusades. So Mahn. But 
Diez considers the forms without the final / as older, and de- 
rives from amir simply, the various terminations being used to 
give the word a Rom. appearance. Almirante on the analogv of 
imperante, comandante. The orig. meaning, too, was ^'chfef 
not ^' chief at sea". 

Alxnizole — musco. 


Alxnofalla 0. Sp. O. Pg. an army; from Ar. alma^hallah a camp. 

Almoflar almofre Sp.^ Pg. almafre a cap of mail; from Ar. al- 

Almogarave — mugavero. 

Almohada Sp., Pg. almofada a bolster; from Ar. al-mekhaddah. 
Alxnohasa Sp., Y^.almofaca a curry-comb; iromAr. al-me^hassah. 
Almoneda Sp. an auction , Pg. almoeda; from Ar. al-monddiya 

auction , from nada to cry. 
Almoradux — majorana, 
Almorranas Sp. (plur.) , Pg. aimorretmas, Cat. morenas = hie- 

morrhoides, of which it is a corruption. 

Almoxarife Sp. Pg. custom-house officer; from Ar. at-moshrif 

Almud Sp. , Pg. almude a ^ bushel -measure; from Ar. almudd. 
Almuerzo Sp., Pg. almorco almoco breakfast; vb. almorzar (Cat. 

esmorzar) ; from admorsus (Symmachus) , / for d as in Alfonso 

= Adfonsus (Hadufuns) , cf . M. H. G. anbiz. 

Almussa Pr., Fr. aummse, O. Fr. aumuce (whence Du. «/- 
mutse amutse), Sp. almucio (Seckendprf), Pg. mursa; dim. Pr. 
almucela, O. Pg. aimuceila almocella, op. almocela (almucella 
almocala Ducange), 0. Fr. aumuceUe, Sp. muceta, It. mazzetta. 
These words signify a headgear falling down to the shoulders, 
worn chiefly by ecclesiastics, in the dim. form = a short 
mantle. They do not belong to the Arab. , though like many 
others , they have assumed the Ar. article , but are evidently 
the same as the G.miitze, cap, bonnet, Dxi.muise, usually 
derived from the vb. muizen to crop. v. sub mozzo. 

Alna anna alia It., 0. Sp. O. Pg. Pr. alna, Sp. ana, Fr. aune an 
ell. Probably from the Goth, aleina, O. H. G. elina which is 
of the same gender. This , Grimm (3, 559) says , comes from 
ulnus. So Diez. But there is no word ulnus in Class. Lat.; 
tdna = elhow = Gk. ciX-^^vrj, G. ellen-hogen, 

Alnado andado Sp., Pg. entendo a stepson, from antenatus, Sp. 

also antenado, Isid. Gloss, antenatus privignus; Gr. Tcgoyovog. 
AlOGOO — locco, 
Aloi — lega (2). 
Alors — ora (2). 
Aloser — lusingar. 
Alosna — aluine. 
Alouette — allodola. 
Alquile Sp. Pg. hire, alquilar to take on hire; from Ar. al-kird 

Alqnitran — catrame. 
Alrededor — redor. 
Alrotar — arlotto. 


Altaleno It. a swipe, altalena a see -saw, swing; from toileno 
and flr//f/,v. 

Altresi It., Sp. ofrosi, Pg. otUrosm, Pr. altresi atresi, O. Fr. au- 
tresi; from ai/rrum sic, as aussi i\ou\ aliud sic, 

Altrettale It., Sp. oiro fat, Pg. of//rf> fa/, Pr. alfretal atretaly 
< ). Fr. aufrefel, from fl/Z^r /«/«. So alfretfanfo &c. , from «//«• 
fan fun; Pr. atrestal, afresfan from alfer- sic 'talis, alter sic 

Alubia Sp. a French boan; from the Ar. , Gk. Xo^og. 

Alubre <J. Sp. (and in Herceo a iuffre)-^ from aliuhi, 

Aluine Fr. wormwood; from aloe with suffix ine (as in amaran- 
fine, argentine, avelline, balsamine, eglantine') j r// f or oi as in 
muid from modius <Jtc. Another form with weak n is found, 
(). Fr. alof/ne, Sp. Pg. atosna, losna. 

Aluir Pg. to rock, swing, knock at or against, to hollow (of 
water); from alludere or, perhai).s, alluere, 

Alumelle — lama (2). 

Alvacil — alguaciL 

Alverja — ervo. 

Alvicara — albricia. 

Alzare It., Sp. alzar, Pr. alsar ausar, Fr. hausser (h asp., cf. 
haul II. c), O. E. hawse (whence hawser), AV^al. in-altza to 
raise; from alfus (alfiare). The Fr. exhausser (Pr. eissausar, 
Sp. ensalzar) deserves consideration from its assuming a dis- 
tinct form exaucer with the meaning to hear (a petition) thus : 
Dieu a exaucc mes pri^res = has heard (prop, has exalted, 
favoured) my prayers. 

Ama Sp. Pg. housewife, mistress, hence amo master of the 
house; Isidorus uses amma: luec avis (strix) vidgo ^^amma^^ 
dicitur ab amando parvulos, unde et lac pra?bere fertur nas- 
centibus. The w-ord is prob. the same as the Gael am, AV. 
mam, Basq. ama mother, Occ. ama grandmother, Ar. amm, 
Sansk. amhd, O. G. amma, G. amme a nurse. 

Amacalt., ^^.hamaca, by transpos. amahaca, Pg. maca, Fr. 
hamac {h asp.), Eng. hammock from the I)u. hangmak, G. han- 
gemattc (lit. = suspended bed), or, more probably, a native 
American word, the Dii. being adapted to a false etymology. 

Amadouer Fr. to allure, caress, nence sbst. amadou tinder, also 
a lure, cf. esca; hence ramadoucr. The O. N. vb. mafa, Dan. 
made, meant to feed young birds (Goth, mafjan to eat), Eng. 
meat, hence with ou (= o cf. evanouir) a-mad-oucr to give 
meat to, entice with meat, It. ad-escare. The Goth. / becomes 
rf as m guider from vitan, hadir hair from hata?i. 

Amagar — dmago. 

Amago Pg. the core, innermost part of a thing, vb. Cat. Pr. 
amagar to conceal. The Sp. dmago, Cat. dmag dmad denotes 


a peculiar taste of honev; Sp. dmago also = disgust, aversion. 
Tlie connexion has not been made out. 

Axnalgamare It. &c. to amalgamate, to form a mixture (amalgam) 
of mercury and some other metal; from the Gk. fidXayfia, 

Axnande — mandorla, 

Axnanevir — manevir, 

Axnapola Sp. a poppy; from the Basque emalopa 'Hhat sends to 

. sleep", from ema eman to give and lopa lopea to sleep. Cf. the 
Sp. adormidera. 

Amargo — amaricare. 

Amaricare It., also amareggiare, Sp. Pg. Pr. amargar to em- 
bitter; from amarus v. Ducange. Adj. Sp. Pg. amargo. Cat. 
amarg, sbst. amargor. Hence It. rammaricarsi to lament, ram- 
mdrico lamentation, adj. amaro grieved (Sic. amaru), Wal. 
amar an interjection of grief: so in O. Pg. amaro de mi! Gil. 
Vic. 2 , 465. 

Amarillo Sp. , F g. amarello yelloyr , amber-coloured; for amba- 
rillo from ambar amber which is of Arab, origin anbar being 
prop, a fish 8uj)po8ed to yield ambergris. The word was in- 
troduced into Europe by the Phoenicians, v. Mahn (Etym. 
IJnters. p. 62). 

Amarrar Sp. Pg. , Fr. amarrer to moor a vessel, Fr. demarrer 
to unmoor; amarra amarre a mooring -cable; from the Du. 
marren to moor, also to delay, retain = O. H. G. marrjan to 
stop (v. s. marrire): the fonn merren has also both meanings 
rr^ A. S. merran to hinder (mar), 

Amatita matita red chalk , Fr. hematite; from heematites. 

Ambasciata It., Sp. embaxada, Pr. ambaissada, and m. ambaissat, 
Fr. ambassade embassy; It. ambasciadore &c., ambassador; from 
the L. L. ambaxia ambactia commission, charge, business. 
This ambaxia is seemingly connected with the word ambactus 
used by Caesar (B. G. 6, 15) for servant, vassal: "equites 
circum se ambactos clientesque habent'^ From ambactus comes 
ambactia, afterwards pronounced in France ambacsia (amba- 
xia) and by transposition ambascia, cf. Brescia for Brixia. 
The verb ambasciare to convey a message , serve on an em- 
bassy, from which the Rom. derivatives immediately come, 
was also knowTi in L. L. The Pr. masc. ^^ ambasciatum. Fes- 
tus says the word is Gallic ^^ ambactus apud Ennium lingu^ 
GaHica servus appellatur^'. Hence Zeuss 1, 89, 179 refers it 
to a Celtic origin, viz. the W. amaet husbandman, workman, 
for ambaeth (the b being dropped , as often happens after m, 
cf. amarillo). J. Grimm derives the word from the Gothic 
andbahts a servant, O. H. G. ambaht (Goth, andbahti service, 
M. G. ami office, charge). Andbahts he resolves into and and 
bak (back) whence the meaning Z^rtf/r-Ao/(/efr, supporter, ser- 


vant (cf. henchman = haunchman). Pott and Bopp, however, 
connect and -bah- is with the Sanskrit bhaj colere, venerari, 
partic. bhakta (= -bactus) deditus, devotus. In favour of 
Grimm's etymology it may be urged that the Rom. ambactia 
(which does not occiu* in Latin) is not so easily obtained from 
ambactus (the suffix ia being unusual) as from the Goth, and- 
bahti whence it would be regularly formed, like the Pr. fanha 
= fania from the Goth. fani. The notion of manual labour, 
which appears in the W. word, is preserved in the Du. am- 
hagt a handicraft; ambagts-mann an artizan. Icel. arnbatt a 
female slave. The It. uses ambascia ambascio to mean short- 
ness of breath, distress, anxiety; ambasciare trambasciare to 
be out of breath, be in distress &c., prop. = to be oppressed 
with work ; for a similar connexion of meanings cf . s. affanno, 
Diefenbach (Goth. Diet. 1, 255) has a learned discussion on 
andbahts and ambactus, 

Ambiare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. ambiar, Fr. ambler, to amble; from am- 
bulare not used in Class. Lat. in this sense, which was first 
introduced some time after the 9*** century. The Wal. e'mMa 
still keeps the Classical meaning. 

Ambidos amides O. Sp. unwillingly; from inviius, It. invito, 
O. Fr. envis. 

Ambone It., Fr. ambon, an ambo, a kind of pulpit in the choir 
from which the lessons were read; from the Gk. afifiav any 
rising as a hill, a stage &c. (umbo). 

Ambra It. (f.), Sp. Pg. ambar alambar alambre (m.), Fr. ambre 
(m.), amber, M. H. G. amber dmer, G. ambra; from the Arab. 
'anbar a sweet-scented resin (Freyt. 3, 227), orig. the name 
of a fish from which ambergris was supposed to come. The 
word was probably introduced into Europe by the Phoenicians 
who used it to express the yellow amber found on the shores 
of the Baltic and called by the ancient Germans glees or gles 

^ (Tacit. gl(esum)y v. Mahn (Etym. Unters.) 

Ame — anima. 

Amenaza — minaccia, 

Amender Fr., amende, amendement, E. amend, used by Boethius 
(c. 1150) who writes both emendament and amendament; from 

Amide It., Pg. amido amidao, Sp. almidon, Fr. amidon starch; 
from Lat. amylum {&nvlov). The only instance , says Diez, 
of / becoming d in Rom. ; but we have Pg. escada = scale. 
In Latin the interchange was not uncommon : calamitas, cada- 
mitasy scando scala &c. 

Amiraglie anmiiraglie, amiral — almirante. 

Amite Sp. , 0. Fr. amit amice; from amictus, 

Ammainare Sp. Pg. amainar, Fr. amener (Ics voiles) to lower 


sails. From ad manm cf. demener from de manus, L. L. minare 
to lead drive, which is better der. from manus than, with 
Diez, from minari. For a = e, cf. menottes handcuffs. 

Ammanare — mafia. 

AxnmaaiBare — mazzo. 

Ammiocare It. to wink; from admicare. 

Ammutinare — meuie. 

Amo — ama, 

Amojar Pg. to milk; from Ar. mascha^a? 

Amonestar Sp. Pr., Pg. amoestar, O. Fr. amonester, Fr. admo- 
ne'ter, to admonish, rr. also monestar, O. Fr. sbst. monneste; 
from monitare (used by Venantius Fortunatus , A. D. 600), 
with s inserted to distinguish it from montar which would come 
from monitare as vantar from vanitare. But v. Littr6 p. 34, 
who derives it from monestus a partic. of monire, cf. semondre. 

Amortiguar — santiguar. 

Amparar — parare. 

Amusco — musco. 

Arnuser — muser. 

Ananas It. Fr., Sp. tfnana pine - apple , Pg. ananaz (tree), ana- 
nazeiro (fruit); a South American word. 

Anappo nappo It., Pr. enap, 0. Fr. hanap henap (h asp.); from 
O.H.G. hnapf hnap, G. napf a bowl. Hence L.L. hanaperium 
a cup -basket, E. hamper. 

Anc — anche. 

Anca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. hanche {h asp.), haunch (henchman), Sp. 
Pg. plur. ancas the croup of a horse &c. Hence It. sciancato, 
Fr. ehanche hip-shot. From (l) Gk. ayxri a bend, or (2) from 
G. anke, O. H. G. ancha nape of neck, neck, prop, a curve. 
The Rom. languages have made use of the Greek word in an- 
other instance (y.ancoj, and Festus even mentions a Lat. ancus 
= ^'qui aduncura brachium habet ut exporrigi non possit". 
But tne German word, particularly in its chief meaning (a 
joint) lies nearer the Rom. than the Gk. or the obsolete Latin. 
From the 0. H. G. ancha = tibia, cms, is derived the Fr. 
anc?ie a pipe or tube (of an instrument &c.), from which hanche 
was distinguished by the aspirate (cf . the Friesl. hancke henke 

Anceis — esso. 

Anodtres Fr., O. Fr. ancestres, ace. ancessors, ancestors; from 

Anche anco It., Rh. aunc aunca, also, still (etiam), Pr. anc, 
O. Fr. ainc (= unquam), Wal. ince (-— adhuc). From adhuc, 
whence adunc aunc (cf. 0. Fr. ainsinc = ceque sic), Sp. aun 
(Pg. ainda) cf. Sp. nin = nee , Pg. assim = sic, allin = illic. 
In It. a d between two vowels is seldom lost, so the process 


would be: adunc, actnc, anc, anche. The derivation from hanc 
(sc. horam, cf . It. issa sc. hora) suits the form but not the sense ; 
moreover, we should have a supply ad as well us horam. For 
tlie (). Fr. ainc we sometimes nave ains e. g. Alex. 66, 3, 
whicli must be distinguished from ahis = Sp. anfes, Anc (eu- 
phon. ancaj cf. Rh. aunca) is, probably, the first syllable of 
the compounds Pr. ancui, O. Fr. encui, It. ancoi to - day, Pr. 
ancanuech, (). Fr. enquenuit to-night. 

Anche — anca, 

Ancho Sp. Pg. broad; from amplus (It. ampio &c.), like henchir 
from implere; ensatichar to widen = examplare. 

Anchoa anchois — acciuga, 

Anciano ancien — ami, 

Ancidere It. (poet.) to kill; from incidere, Qi. anaffiare, ancude, 
angiUnaglia for inafftare &c. 

Ancino It., Sp. anzuelo, Pg. anzol, Fr. hamecon a fish-hook; 
from hamus. 

Anco Pg. an elbow, a bending; from the Gk. ayxog a bend, a 
valley; Sp. ancon (m.) a bay, a road, from dyxciv == elbow, 
recess. In Breton ailk = a corner (angxdus), v. Ducange, s. 

Ancolie Fr. columbine Ta plant), G. aglei; from L. aquileja (un- 
class.). It. aquilegia: tor the insertion of n cf. s. anche, andare. 

Ancona anconeta Brese. a small image; from sixcov, whence 
also AVal. icoane, 

Ancora — ora, 

Ancse — se. 

Andado — alnado. 

Andamio — andama, 

Andana Com. Piedm. (1) gait, manner of life; (2) the sweep 
that the mower takes at each stride, swath = Fr. andain (f.), 
Norm, andain (m.) step, Berrichon andain a layer of mown 
grass &c., a swath, Sp. andana, Pg. andaina a row, rank; 
from andare. The first meaning would be ^'stride'', then the 
length or extent of a stride, and, lastly, layer, row; so the 
G. schtimden, Eng. swath = both the sweep of the scythe in 
mowing and the row or layer of mown com. Hence, with un- 
usual suffix, the O.Sp. andamio gait, L.L. andamius a passage, 
= O. Pg. andamo (cf. Rouchi andame = Fr. andain)] hence, 
too, the Sp. andamio, Pg. andaimo andaime a passage, gang- 
way, also a scaffold in which sense some refer it to the Arab. 

Andare It., Sp. Pg. andar, Cat. Pr. anar, Wald. anar, Lomb. 
ana to go. The Fr. has another word al/er; the Rh. and Wal. 
have neither of these forms, the fonner making up a verb 
from ire, vadere and meare, the latter using mearge (from 
emergere) y which in conjugation (mearsi, mersj betrays its 


Latin origin. The verb is complete in Sp. and Pg. and was 
once so in It. (as it is still in some of the dialects, c. g. the 
Sard.). It is now mixed up in conjugation with vadere which, 
in Latin wanting the perfect and tenses thence derived, had 
to supply them from elsewhere ; ivi would have been too short, 
so andare was coined. This had the accent on the syllable of 
flexion (whilst vadere is marked on the root -syllable), and 
was , therefore , used in those parts of the conjugation which 
bear that accent: vo, vat, va: andiamo, andate, vanno; an- 
dava; andai &c., cf. esco fexirej, esci, esce: usciamo (ostium), 
uscite, escono. Andare and stare in Rom. were two parallel 
auxiliaries : what wonder then if they tended to adopt similar 
forms in their conjugation ? Such analogous formations are 
not uncommon. Thus the Sp. andiwe corresponds to estuve, 
andido to estido, andudo to estudo; O. It. andetti to stetti, an- 
diedi to stiedi. In Sp. other verbs of the 1*' conj. had similar 
forms: entrido from entrar, catido from catar (\, s. fegat6)j 
demandudo from demandar. It is usually derivea from the G. 
wenden wandern as alter from wallen; but the G. tv does not 
disappear thus in Rom. (the Sp. andnlucia came through the 
Arab. , which avoided the harsh gu (= iv) of the Rom. Guan- 
dalucia: so impia for guimpta'). Wenden, Goth, vandjan would 
be in Rom. guandir, tvalten in Fr. would be gaider. A Celtic 
verb W. athu, Ir. eath to go, would deserve more considera- 
tion were not the derivation from the Lat. aditare, quite re- 
gular and complete. Ennius uses the word once : ad eum adi- 
tavere; its meaning, "to enter often", ^'to go in and out", 
occurs in the various Rom. derivatives: thus, Sp. andante 
cavallero = a knight -errant, andorro a rambler z^ Sard, an- 
daredda. The n was inserted to give the word more force as 
in rendere from reddere, cf. s. anche, ancolie, and cf. andido 
= aditus, L. L. c. 800 cum viis et aquis et anditis suis v. Mura- 
tori and Ducange. For the termination cf. O. It. O. Sp. renda 
for reddita. The Fr. alter is for O. Fr. aler (altar occurs in 
the Pass, de J. C. str. 114), which was for aner (cf. Chrou. de 
Benoit 1 , p. 92, si qu'en exit nos en anium, Choix 6, 300, que 
vos anez por moi fors terre), the two forms being current at 
the same time, like venin and vetin, orphenin and orphetin. 
From aditato by syncope of the d may come the Com. aitcc 
=^ andato; similarly, from adita the Ven. aida = vanne (im- 
perat.). The AVal. defective verb aide aidatzi = Ssvqo Sevrs, 
Goth, hiri hirjith, perhaps = adita aditate, unless it be of the 
same origin as the Servian ajde ajdate. From adire comes the 
Burg, ai' fair) = alter. From alter comes the sbst. attee an alley 
which Ducange refers to taie (q. v.); cf. It. andata. But v. 
Littr<^, Hist, ae la langue fran^., vol. I, p. 40. 


Andario Sp. a water -wagtail; from andar to go and rio a river. 

Andas Sp., Pg. andes (only in plur.) a sedan, litter, bier; from 
amiles; amites bastemarum = the poles of the sedans (Palla- 
dius). Cf. hante, and for the change of mt into nd in Spain cf. 
conde, duendo, lindar, senda &c. 

Andorinha — rondine. 

Andoiiille Fr. a sausage, black -pudding, Rh. anduchiel, Basque 
andoiiia. For endouUle from inductilis, by which word the O. G. 
scubiling (a sort of sausage) is translated in old Glossaries, v. 
Graff, 6, 409, Schmeller 3, 313. This latter is from O. H. G. 
scioban, G. schieben, shove, both being named from forcing the 
meat into the skin finducere) ; for in = an cf . ancidere. 

Andromina Sp. a lib, a tale told to deceive, trick, artifice; from 
the Basque andraminac women's sickness (as being often al- 
leged as a pretext) , which is compounded of andrea a woman 
and mina pain. 

Anegare — negar. 

Angar hangar {h asp. and unasp.) a carriage-shed. It is difficult 
to see the connexion between this and the Lat. angaria ser- 
vice, soccage. It meant orig. a covering, and is especially 
used in the Wall, (angdr). It occurs also in Celtic, at least 
in the Gaelic. 

Angarde engarde O.Fr., Pr. angarda vanguard, also = a watch- 
tower; from ante and garde, like avant-garde (vanguard). 

Angarier angariser Fr. to compel a vessel, even though neutral, 
to do service for the government (hence generally to compel); 
such compulsion was called angarie. In Eng. we have anga- 
risation = compulsion; from the Gk. ayyagog, dyyaQBVG}. 

Angaro Sp. a signal -light; from the Basque garra flame, an 
garra =^ yonder flame, v. Larramendi. The word is remark- 
ably like the Gk. ayyagog, Aesch. Ag. dic^ dyydgov nvgogy 
from the beacon- fire. 

Anglar Pr. stone, rock ; prop, something angular, from anguJaris. 

Angoscia It., O. Sp. angoxa, Pr. engoissa, Fr. angoisse, anguish; 
angosciare, angoisser to vex; from angustia. The Sp. (Pg. 
and Cat.) is congoxa, in which the supposed prefix an is 
changed into con, whilst in Pr. it became en. The idea of 
pressure easily yields that of vexation , torment , cf. oppress, 
Fr. grever. The original meaning of anger was oppression, 
trouble, torment (angor). Ang as a root meaning pressure is 
widely spread: SsLUf^K. an - hu = iyyvg , ayxt (ct.presso)^ G. 
eng compressed enge distress, angere, angina, dyx^y ^yX^'^t 
Sansk. an-hura distressed. 

Angra Sp. Pg. a bay, a cove: in a L.L. Glossary we have ancra 
ayaea, avXcjvsg, cf. dyxciv, ayxog a valley, dyxvXog curved, 
angulus, dyxvkri &c. 


Anguinaglia — inguine. 

Angtirria Sp. a water-melon; according to Larramendi, a Basque 

Anima It., Pr. anma Booth., O. Fr. anime anme, Fr. dme, in It. 

(poet.) Sp. Pff. alma, Rh. oima, also Pr. arma, O. Fr. arme 

airme, sonl, Wal. «ni>w^' soul, and heart; from anima breath, 

life. The Lat. animus is not found in Kr. and Pr. , one of its 

meanings being supplied by courage, coratge, 
Annegare — negar. 
Anqui — qui. 
Ansare — a$ma, 
Ansi — cost, 
Antano Sp. , O. Pg. antanho, Pr. anian, O. Fr. antan entan 

== '^ last year'' (<>PP- hogaiio, v. uguanno), once: from ante 

annum. Hence O. Fr. antenois. 
Antes — ami, , 

Antienne Fr. an anthem; from antiphona {oi, Etienne from Stepha- 

nus)y A. S. antefn. En. anthem, as from A. S. stefn, En. stem. 

Antif O. Fr. old; from antiquus, as O. Fr. eve from aqua. Antif 
in the sense of "high" must be for altif =^ Pr. altiu, Sp. «/- 
tivo (haughty). 

Antojo Sp. , whence Pg. antojo for antolho whim , freak ; from 
ante oculum. In the plur. Sp. anteojos, Pg. antolhos spectacles. 
Antoroha — torciare. 
Antuviar — tuviar. 

Anzi It., Sp. Pg. antes y Pr. ans, O. Fr. ans ains a preposition 
and adverb n'om the Lat. ante with the adverbial suifix s so 
that the It. form is for ansi. From antea would have come in 
It. not anzi but anza^ cf. poscia. A longer form of antes is 
found in the Pr. anceis, O.Fr. aincois, from ante ipsum. Hence 
the It. anziano, Sp. anciano, Pr. ancian, Fr. ancien, ancient; 
It. avanti, Pr. abans avant, Fr. avant, from ab ante; It. avan- 
zare, Sp. Pr. avanzar, Fr. avancer to advance (where the «? 
has been inserted from a false notion of the etymology); It. 
vantaggio for avantaggiOy Pr. avantatge, Fr. avantage, bp. t;^- 
/fl^Vi, Pg. ventagem, vantage, advantage; also It. davanti, Pr. 
davans, O. Sp. Fr. devant, from ^^ a^ aw/^; Pr. davancir, Fr. 
devancer; It. innanzi innante , O. Sp. enante, Fr.enanfsJ; Pr. 
enantar enantir; It. dinanzi, Sp. denante delante, Pg. diante, 
Pr. denan; It. dianzi &c. 

Axuniela — ancino. 

Afiadir Sp. to add, exaggerate; from inaddere, 0. Sp. ennadir, 
O. Pg. emader, Wal. innedi. 

Anafil Sp., Pg. flfwflr/?/ a pipe or tnimpet; from the Ar. al-mtpr 
annaflr a brasen trumpet. The Ar. is derived from the Per- 


sian (Freyt. 4, 312*). Pr. has amafil "parva tuba cum voce 
Anagaza nagaza Sp., negaca Pg.; a bird - call^ lure. Larraniendi 
derives it from tiie Basque ana goza a sweet nurse ! Ferreira 
(Lus. 1, S6) from Lat. illex, whence enagaza (cf. encina from 
ilex), anagaza as anadir from enadir. This etym. suits tlie 
meaning well , tho^igh an easier change would be that from 
enganaza (efiganar to deceive). 

Anil anir Sp., Pg. anil indigo -plant; from Ar. an-nliah "indigo- 
fera tinctoria'% which is from Pers. nil (Sansk. nila black, 
dark -blue). 

Amisgar Sp. to be choked; stifled; from the Basque amsca tlie 

Apacig^uar — santiguar. 

Apanar — pan. 

Ape It., O. Fr. Pic. es for eps a bee, from apis; It. pecchia, Sp. 
aheja, Pg. Pr. abelha, Fr. aheille, from apictda, Nonn. dim. 
avette. Hence too It. apiario, Pr. apiari, Fr. achier, a bee- 
hive, L. apiarium (Gellius), v. Rom. Gr. 1,7. In Wal. the 
bee is called albine, from alvtis a hive. 

Apear Sp. Pg. to alight, remove; from pes Sp. pie. 

Apenas — appena. 

Apero Sp., Pg. apeiro implements, farm-implements, sheep-fold; 

aprisco sheep-fold, cf. Com. aper a partition between a stall 

and a hayrick ; from apparare, whence a sbst. apparium might 

be formed. 
Apesgar — peso. 
Apitar — pito. 
Aposentar Sp. Pg. to lodge a person, aposenio a lodging, room; 

a i)articipial verb from posar (L. pausare). It should have 

been aposantar, but was spelt as if connected with sentar to 

fit, set up. 
ApostiUe — postille. 
Appaner 0. Fr., Pr. apanar to provide for, maintain, whence 

Fr. apanage a provision for a cliild, jointure, Eng. appanage; 

from panis. 
Appareil — parecchio. 
Appat — pasta. 

Appeau Fr. lure, bird-call , Wall, apell; from appellare. 
Appena It., Sp. Pg. apenas, Fr. a peine = vix; from pcena prop. 

painfully, so = with difficulty, hardly, scarcely, cf. L. wgre, 

O. H. Gr. kumo. Vix is found in Sp. aves, q. v. 
Appiccare — pegar. 
Appo It., from aptid. Hence Pr. ah amb am emh, Bern, dap, Cat. 

ab, Wald. au, O.It. am, O.Fr. ab, a, ob, o. In the oldest L.L. 


apud was used = cum (cL Rom. Gr. 3, 157), but its orig. 
meaning was more usual : e. g. encusar ab alcun to accuse to 
a person, Leodegar str. 13; aprendre ah alcun Parn. Occ. 142; 
fud cnseveliz od ses ancestres Liv. d. rois p. 304. v. s. avec. 

Approooiare approoher — proche. 

Appui — poggio. 

Apres — presso. 

Aprisoo — apero. 

Aquecer — calenlar, 

Aquende O. Sp., Pg. aqtiem = Lat. citra; from aqui inde (Lat. 
eccu inde) = It. quindi. 

Aquese Sp. , O. Pg. aquesse, demons tr. pron.; from eccu ipse. 

Aqueste — questo. 

Aqui — qui. 

Ara — ora. 

Aragan haragan Sp. lazy, inactive: probably from the O.H.G. 
arag arg worthless, lazy, G. arg bad, Icel. argr lazy, cowardly 
(Eng. arch = mischievous), hence as a term of abuse; its use 
was forbidden by the Lombard law : si quis alium argam per 
furorem clamaverit, Paul. Diac. 6, 24: memento quod me , . . 
vulgari verbo arga vocaveris. In the district of Como , the an- 
cient abode of the Lombards , the word is preserved (argan) 
= poltrone. The Sp. word could hardly come from the Gk. 

Araldo It., Sp. haraldo heraldo, O. Sp. haraute, Pg. arauto, Fr. 
heraut for heralt (h asp.), Sp. Pg. faraute a herald; from the 
L. L. haraldus heraldus. This woidd be in O. H. G. hariowalt 
(G. heer army, tvalten to rule) an army-officer; a proper name 
Chariovaldus occurs, in O. Sax. HarioU, Eng. Harold, O. N. 

Aramir arrcunir O. Fr., Pr. aramir, O. Cat. aremir (Ducange) to 
assure judicially, to assure, promise, appoint &c. e. g. ara- 
mir un sairement to promise the performance of an oath , ara- 
mir ou jurer to promise or swear , aramir bataille to proclaim 
a combat ^notify i. c. the time and place) , aramic a combat so 
proclaimea, in M. Norm. = arrangement. So in L. L. arra- 
mire sacramentum , bellum. In old MSS. various forms of the 
word are found: adrhamire, adchramire, adcramire, aqramire, 
adframire. These point to a German word beginning with hr, 
with the Lat. ad prefixed. Grimm refers it to the Goth, hram- 
Jan to fasten on the cross, fasten, fix, appoint, akin to the 
O. H. G. rdmen to aim at, strive for. According to Miillen- 
hoff L. Sal. p. 277, adhramire=: adripere, raptare. Cf. Dicf. 
Goth. Lex. 2 , 589. 

Araneel Sp. Pg. a fixed price of things, a rate; perhaps from 
the Ar. al-risdla, ar-risdla a letter. 


Arancio It., Milan, naranz, Ven. naranza, Sp. naranja, Pg. 
laranja ('iWq. laranid). Cat. taranja (sic), \val. neranze, L. 
Gr. i/fparrjiov, N. Gr. vBQavxliy Fr. orange, an orange. Not 
as SalmasiiLs Kays from aurantia = aurata (aurea mala), which 
would give not (grange but orance. The word came from the 
Persian ndrang through the Ar. ndrang (Golius 2346). The 
Fr. had, undoubtedly, a reference to aumm; but arangia is 
the L. L. form (end of the 13*** century). From arancio comes 
the It. adj. rando orange (of colour). 

Aranar Sp. to scratch, scrape, sbst. araho, also arunar anmo 
(pop.). The former word is derived from the latter, with a 
reference to radere. Is arunar from arare, as rasgunar from 
raagar, or from the Sp. roha (Pr. runha, v. rogna) itch? 

Aratro aratolo It., Sp. Pg. arado, Cat. arada (f.), Pr. araire, 
O. Fr. arere, Wal. aratru aratu plough. The ir. has substi- 
tuted charrue from carruca, Pg. charrua a kind of plough, a 
ship. The G. pflug, H. plough is also found in Kom., L. L. 
pious, Lomb. pid, Tyrol. plof=Ij. L. piouus or piovus. Piediii. 
sioira, Lomb. sciloira = an O. Fr. silleoire, sUloire from silier to 
furrow the sea. Piedm. am is a corruption of aratrum. 

Arazzo raszo It., tapestry, arras; from Arras (AtrebatesJ , in the 
Pas -de - Calais , where it was manufactured. 

Arbaldte Fr., Pr. arhalista an arbalist; from arcuballista (Veget.). 

Arban O. Fr. feudal service ; for harban from O. H. G. heriban 
summons to military service ; v. Ducange heribannum. 

Arbolar — alberare, 

Arborer — alberare. 

Arbousier — albedro, 

Arcame — carcasso. 

Arcasse Fr. stern -frame (in a ship); it is the same word as the 
It. arcaccia, Sp. arcaza a chest, from area. 

Aroe Sp., Cat. ars a maple; from acer, It. acerOy O. Sp. asre, 
Pg. acer. 

Arcea — acceggia. 

Archal — oricalco. 

Arcigaye — zagaia. 

Arcigno — reche. 

Arcilla Sp. clay; from argilla. A similar change of the medial 
into the tenuis is found in arcen (agger), encia (gingiva), ercer 
(erigere), uncir (jungere). In the Vocab. S. Gall, we find ar- 
cilia laimo (loam), and the Wall, has arzeie = Fr. argile. 

Aroione It., Sp. arzon, Pg. arpao, Pr. arson, Fr. arron saddle- 
bow , saddle. Not from arctio, but from arcus with the termi- 
nation io7i (like clercon from clercus, oison from auca, ectisson 
from scutum) = "something bowed or bent", cf. G. bogen^ 
saitelbogen, Eng. bow. 


Aroobugio arohibuso It., Sp. arcabuz, Fr. arquebuse, Eng. ar- 
quebuss; from theDu. haak-bus, haeck-buyse, haeck-btisse, G. 
hakenbuchse = a gun fired from a rest Qiaak haeck haken a 
hook or forked rest; buss busse biichse a fire-arm); this inO. Fr. 
became harquebuse. Wall, harkibuse (A asp.). The Italians 
altered the word so as to convey a meaning to themselves, 
arco bugio or buso meaning a hollow or perforated bow ; for 
similar false popular etymologies cf. pcUafreno, battifredo, 
baccalaureus , maJvagio, mainbour. 

Arfon — arcione, 

Arda ardilla Sp. , Pg. harda a squirrel. Larramendi derives it 
from the Basque *^ari da" "he is ever moving'', but the B. 
name is different. Perhaps from the Lat. nitella by prosthesis 
anedilla, whence aredUla ardilla arda. 

Ardid ardil — ardire. 

Ardiglione It., Fr. ardillon, Pr. ardalhd the tongue of a buckle. 
The derivation is uncertain. An old glossary has ardelio acu- 
ius r Class. Auct. 6, 509*), but here we should read glutus. 
Agamst Casaubon's der. from agdtg an arrowhead is to be 
urged the rare use of this word. Manage gets it from dard 
thus: dardUlon (which still exists in Mod. rrov.), lardillon, 
r ardillon, ardillon. The Sp. for ardillon is rejo. 

Ardire It. to venture, dare, Pr. ardir en-ardir, Fr. enhardir to 
embolden. The Fr. hardir (h asp.) evidently comes from the 
O. H. G. hartjan to harden. The adj. ardito ardit hardi (Eng. 
hardy) must be a participle of this verb since there were few 
Rom. adjectives in itj like theL. auritus, pellitus. The participle 
of ardere (ars) to bum is quite different in form. In Sp., how- 
ever , they gradually came to refer ardito to arder ana used it 
as = "irmamed, incensed''; but the O. Sp. fardido bold, cor- 
responds to the Fr. hardi (Rom. Gr. 1, 311). It is curious 
that in Pic. hardiment is used just like O. G. H. harto: har- 
diment dur = harto herti. Hence come the Pr. ardit and O. Sp. 
ardil boldness: but the Sp. ardid crafty, Sp. Pg. ardid cralt, 
cunning, seem to come from artitus, v. artigiano, the t being 
assimilated (ardid for artid). 

Ardite Sp. , an ancient Spanish coin, Limous. ordi: from the 
Basque ardita which from ardia a sheep (cf. pecunia from pe- 
cus , and cf . L^cluse , Basque gram.). 

Ardoise Fr. O. Fr. erdoice, L. L. ardesia, ardosia, ardesius la- 
pis. It ardesia (and lavagna), Pg. ardoisa (and picarra) slate. 
Adelung says it is Celtic, but without any evidence. The 
Celtic words are connected with the English: W. llech, Gaelic 
sgleat leac, Ir. leac. Vergy derives it n-om Ardes in Ireland, 
a place not to be found in the maps. The slate used in France 
probably came from the Ardennes where the hills are composed 



of slate; hence the name: Arduenna, Ardenna, Ardennenm, 
Ardenois, pierre Ardenoise, pierre Ardoise, lapis Ardesius (cf. 
Burdigala, Burdigalensis , O. Fr. Bordelois, Carthago, Cartha- 
gimensis, CarthaginoisJ. 

Arenga — aringo. 

Areata — arista. 

Ardte — arista. 

Aresao — rezzo. 

Argano It., Sp. argano argana argiie a windlass, crane. Cat. 
arga, Pg. argao a crane; Fr. argue a wire -drawing machine; 
It. dim. arganello, Sp. arganel, Fr. arganeau a ring, anchor- 
ring; according to Manage, for organo from organum, ogyavov 
a tool. Vitruvius uses ergata = a windlass, which comes 
from the same root, so, perhaps, from fgydtrig, which was 
altered so as to present a more familiar form. 

Argine It. (m.) a aam ; from agger, cf . cecino from cicer and the 
Ven. form arzare which preserves the r. Ar in Lat. = ad as 
in arcessere &c. ; so argine points to a Lat. arger == agger (ad- 
gerere), Argine = Sp. arcen an edge , border (cf. arcilla for 
argilla). Cf. the Ven. arfiare = adflare and v. Pott (Auf- 
recht and Kuhn's Zeitschr. 1, 326) who quotes armessarius 
from the L. Sal. and Wal. armesariu = admissarius. 

Argolla Sp., Pg. argoia an iron ring, iron collar, pillory: from 
aro hoop and gola throat, the Sp. / being liquefied as in 

Argot Fr. slang, thieves' talk: the etymology, according to 
Diez , is unknown. Was argot a term of reproach from G. 
arg bad, mischievous, with a termination formed on the ana- 
logy of bigot, cagot? Some write it ergot from ergo a word 
usual in scholastic disputes, ergoter to dispute, wrangle. Arc- 
age is found = dialect, perhaps formed of the analogy of 

Argot ergot Fr., Champ, artot the end of a dead twig, the spur 
of a cock &c. Der. unknown. 

Argousin — alguacil. 

Arguer Fr., according to Diez, to embroider, from O. H. G. 
arahdn, Grimm 2, 311 , but arguer is to wire -draw gold with 
an argue a machine for drawing it = Sp. argue for which v. 

Aria It. (poet, aere), Sic. ariu (ni.), Sp. aire, Pg. ar, Pr. air 
aire, Fr. air, air all masc; irom aer, the It. fem. coming 
either from tiie L. L. plur. aera (air a aria), or from an adj. 
aerea. The same word means also '^ outward appearance", 
"disposition", and the Pr. aire means "family", "race", 
whence de hon aire, de mal aire, de gentil aire &c. This is the 
L. L. arum = ager, farm, house, family. The Fr. aire (f.), 


E. aery is the same word: \m faucon de bonne aire of good 
nest = of good family. 
Arings It., Sp. arenque (m.), Pr. arenc, Fr. hareng (h asp.), Wal. 
hiring, a herring; from the O. H. G. harinc, A. S. heering, 
G. hering. Called in Du. niring = G. n&hrung nourishment^ 

Aringolt., a pulpit, rostrum, place of combat, course, ring, 
Sp. Pg. arenga, Pr. arengua, Fr. harangue (h asp.) an haran- 
gue; It. aringarey Sp. arengar, Fr. haranguer to harangue. 
The Fr. asp. shows that the word comes from the O. H. G. 
hring, G. ring a ring^ circle, stage, place of combat &c. Hence 
the Rom. word = a speech delivered before an assembly, cf. 
homily (6fiMa), 

AriBco Sp. Pg. wild, untractable, shy; according to Constancio, 
who derives it from arena, = also dry, e. g. terra arisca. Not 
from rigidus (riisco risco), the prosthesis of the a in adjectives 
being supported by no analogy, but from arriscado bold, free, 
rugged &c. 

Arista It., the chine of a pig, Sp. aresta coarse tow, sack-cloth, 
thorn, fish-bone, Fr. ar^te nsh-bone, Sp. arista, Fr. areste 
arite, Eng. arris edge of a stone, It. resta an ear of com; 
from arista an ear of corn, a fish-bone. 

Arlecohino It., Sp. arlequiri, Fr. arlequin (formerly harlequin) ^ 
a fMrlequin, a comic personage on the Italian stage, a buf- 
foon &c., Sp. arnequin = a mannikin: of unknown, and per- 
haps quite fortuitous , oriffin. For the various etymologies v. 
Flogel, Gesch. des Grotesken p. 35. Genin gets it from arle- 
camps (= Elycamps = Champs Elysees) a churchyard at Aries, 
next = a ghost -chorus, the chief of which, liellequin, was 
afterwards ludicrously represented in masqueraaes. This 
wants corroboration, though we may concede a connexion 
between harlequin and hellequin (g. v.). The word occurs so 
early in Fr. (Ren. 4, p. 146: a sa siele et a ses lorains oc cine 
cent cloketes au mains [moins], hi demenoient tel tintin con li 
maisnie hierlikin) that its der. from the It. seems doubtful. It 
has a Du. appearance. 

Arlotto It, Sp. arlote, Pr. arlot, O. Fr. Pic. arlot harlot (herloi 
Trist. 1, 173) a glutton, idler, O. Eng. harlot herlote a rascal; 
a word, says Trench, which though for the most part implying 
slight and contempt (but cf. Chauc. ProL: he was a gentu 
harlot and a kind) , implied nothing of that special form of 
sin to which the modern harlot refers : cf . for a similar process 
of meaning "lewd": it was formerly used of both sexes but 
now, like so many other words (bawd, courtesan, hoyden, 
shrew, termagant &c.), is confined to females. From the W.A^- 


36 ARMA — ARPA. 

lawd, keriod a youth, lad, heriodes a damsel. Cf. L. adulter 
orig. r-r a young man. 

Anna — anima. 

Armadillo Sp., whence E. armadillo; from armado, so = the 
armed beast. 

Armellixio ermellino It, Sp. armino, Pr. ermini ermin, O. Fr. 
erme ermine, Fr. hermine ermine; from armenius because found 
in Armenia (O. Fr. Ermenie), by the Romans " J/u5 poniicus^' 
(Pontus), Others derive it from the G.; O. H. G. harmo, dim. 
harmelin, M. H. G. hermelin, harmo = Lith. szarmu. 

Armet — elmo. 

Armoire Fr. a cupboard , for armeoire which would correspond 
to an It. armatoja, prop. = a chest in which arms are kept, 
armarium, whence O. Fr. armaire, = It. armario, Sp. armaria 
almario, W. armari, Bret, armel, G. aimer, L. L. armaria al- 
maria a bookcase, armarius a librarian, Enff. ambry almery 
aumbry aumber. The ambry in churches is the niche by the 
side of the altar to hold the sacred utensils. 

Ama Pr. Cat. Sard, a moth (also arda), N. Pr. darna, amar to 
gnaw. Der. unknown. The Rh. has tamOy which corresponds, 
however, to the It. tarma. 

Amese It., Sp. Pg. Pr. arnes, Fr. harnois hamais (h asp.), har- 
ness; 0. Fr. harnas for harnasc, Fr. haniacher, Pr. amescar 
amassar to harness; hence M. H. G. harnasch, N. hardneskja. 
Not from the O. N. idrn jdrn (iron) , wliich woiJd have given 
another form in the Rom. , cf. joli from jol, but from the W. 
haiarn , O. Bret, hoiarn, Ir. iaran (iron) = G. isdrn. It is not 
usual for a language to form a derivative from a foreign root 
which it has not itself adopted. We must, therefore, hold 
that from the W. haiarnaez, iron- tools, was formed the Eng, 
harness and from this the Rom. words, v. Villemarqu6 f honor- 
nach), Schmeller 2, 238, Diefenb. Goth. Wb. 1, 15, Orig. Eu- 
rop. p. 367. 

Amia It., Sp. Cat. ama bee -hive; from Gael, arcan cork? cf. 
Sp. corcha, Pg. cortico {\) cork, (2) bee -hive. 

Aro Sp. Pg. a hoop, ring ac, O. rg. circuit of a town; from 

Arpa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. harpe = (i) a harp, (2) Sp. Pr. Neap, 
claw, hook; Pr. arpar, O. Fr. harper. It. arpeggiare to play 
the harp; Sp. Pg. Pr. arpar, Fr. harper to seize, hook, tear; 
It. arpicare inerpicare to clamber; Fr. harpin a hook, whence 
se harpigner and se harpailler to grapple together, scuffle; It. 
arpignone a large hook, arpione a hinge; Sp. arpon, Pg. ar- 
pao, Fr. harpoti, a harpoon, Fr. harpeau a grappling-iron. For 
Sp. arpa a hook the Pg. has farpa (/* = aspirate) , so also 
f arpar farpdo, whence ph. the It. frappa a lappet, frappare 


snip out; slash; and the Pg. farapo, Sp. harapo a shred; 
tatter. All these forms have their origin in the G. harfe, O. 
H. G. harpha, O. N. harpa, A. S. hearpe; Venant. Fort, who 
first uses harpa, calls it a barbarous ; i. e. a Teutonic instru- 
ment* (Romanusque lyrd, plaudat tihi barbarus harpdj. The 
hooked shape of the harp gave rise to the second meaning. 
The Gk. aQitrj would scarcely have had an aspirate in Fr., 
nor can harpon come from harpago for then we should have 
had an O. Fr. harpaon harpeon. The Sp. Pg. farpa = shaft 
or point of a banner seems to be connected with the Arab. 
^harbah a short spear, Freyt. 1, 361**, whence, perhaps, It. 
frappa, frappare, cf. Pg. farapo, Sp. harapo. 

Arpent Fr., Pr. arpen, O. Sp. arapende = Lat. arepennis Colum. 
5, 1, 6: Galli semijugerum arepennem vocant. The Lat., how- 
ever , is probably from the Celtic. 

Arquebuse — arcobugio. 

Arrabalde arrabal Sp. Pg. a suburb; from the Ar. al-raba^d, 
Freyt. 2, 111. 

Arracher Fr., Pr. araigar eradicar esraigar to pull out, extract; 
from eradicare exradicare (Plant., Ter., Varro^, It eradicare 
sradicare. With arracher araigar cf . pencher, Pr. pengar from 

Arrafflbre — raff are. 

Arraial — real (2). 

Arrappare — rappare, 

Arrate Sp., Pg. arraiel a pound of 16 ounces; from Ar. rail 12 
oz. Freyt. 2, 160. 

Arrebol Sp. Pg. red appearance of the sky at sunrise or sunset; 
from the Ar. rabdb Twith the article prefixed) nubes alba aut 
quae modo alba mocio nigra apparet, ph. contracted from ar- 
rebabol the final / as in admiral being the article which be- 
longed to some fuller expression , v. Mahn. But Diez derives 
it with more probability from ri^or with the Ar. article , / for 
r as in marmol, arbol, bergel, e for u (or o) as in arredondar 
from arrodondar. The verb arrebolar would = It. arrovellare 
(rubellm) and the subst. may come from the verb the ar 
= Lat. ad, 

Arreoife Sp., Pg. arrecife recife, Fr. recif ressif, Eng. reef:^ from 
the Ar. al-racif arracif a row of stepping-stones across water, 
O. Pg. arracef. 

Arreoiflse — redo. 

Arredio — radio. 

Arredo — redo. 

Arrel arrelde Sp. a 4 lb, weight; from the Basque erraldea a 10 lb. 

38 ARREO — ARS. 

Arreo — redo. 

Arresto It. O. Sp., Pg. aresto from the Fr. arrSt the decree of a 
supreme court of justice from which there is no appeal; pro- 
perly = the conclusion of a law - transaction from arrestare, 
arriter to stop, L. ad-restare, cf. G. beschluss. 

Arriba Sp. Pg. = supra; from ripa cf. derribar. 

Arriar — arriser. 

Arridre — retro. 

ArriSre-ban — bando. 

Arriero Sp., Pg. arrieiro a mule driver; from their shouting 
arre (N. Pr. It. arri) to urge on their miiles : the word is prob. 

ArrifflBure — riff^* 

Arrimar, arrimer — rima. 

Arripiar Pg. to shudder; from horripilare? 

Arriser Fr., Sp. arriar to let fall, let down, lower sails = prendre 
les ris , replier les voiles par moyen des ris et des garcettes ; 
from the 0. H. G. arrisan to fall down. Is ris from arriser? 

Arrivare It., Sp. Pg. arribar, Pr. aribar, Fr. arriver to arrive; 
from ripa, L. L. adripare. It. arripare to come to shore. The 
introduction of this verb caused advenire to assume a special 
meaning, v. avveniura. 

Arroba Sp. Pg. a 25 lb. weight; from Ar. alrob^a arrob^a a 4* 
part (sc. of a cwt.) Freyt. 2, 113. 

Arroche Fr. a plant, arrach, Wall, aripp (f .) ; from atriplex (n.), 
It. atrepice. 

Arrogere arrosi arroso It. (antiquated) to add; from arrogare; 
for the change of conjugation cf. Rom. Gr. 2, 118. 

Arrojar Sp., Pg. arrojar to fling, dart, sprout, arrojo intrepi- 
dity, fearlessness; possibly from ruar, as the Fr. ruer tr kick 
from mere with 7* insertea to prevent the hiatus mjar rojar 
arrojar; v. trage. 

Arroser — ros (l). 

Arrostire — rostire. 

Arroyo Sp., Pg. arroio a rivulet, brook, arroyar to overflow, 
O. Sp. arrogio, L. L. arrogium; ph. connected with the Lomb. 
rogia a stream for watering meadows, L. L. rogium (9*** cent.), 
which Murat. (It. Antiq. 2, 1105) refers to Qorj ^co. Cf. also 
the Wal. eruge, Hung. urok. 

Arroz — riso. 

AmiflEkr — ruffa. 

Arrumar — rombo. 

Arrumer — rombo. 

An O. Fr. ^lur. the fore -quarters of a horse; from armtis, m 
vanishing between r and a dental, cf. dors, dort, ferte from 


dorms, dormt, fimCtas, Fr. saigner tm cheval des quatre ars fore 
and hind- quarters. 

Arsenale arsani It.; Sp. Fr. E. arsenal, L. Gr. dQ6£vdXrig] It. 
darsena, Sic. tirzand the part of a harbour which is chained 
off, a wet- dock = Fr. darse darsine, Sp. atarazana, ataraza- 
nal covered shed, Fg.taracena tercena; from the Ar. ddr ap- 
cind^a house of industry, Freyt. 2, 69, 526. 

Artalejo — artoun. 

Artesa — artoun, 

Articiocoo It., Fr. artichaut an artichoke; perhaps corrupted 
from It. carcioffo, Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra which is from 
the Ar. al-^harshaf or al-harshof. 

Artiga Sp. Cat., Pr. artigua land newly broken up for ciJture; 
Adelung refers it to the W. am to plough. The Lat. arare 
would be nearer. The Basque has artica artiga, and to this 
language the word probably belongs. 

Artigiano It., Fr. artisan, Sp. artesano, Pg. artezao an artisan; 
prob. = artitianus from artitus = bonis instructus artibus Fest. 
Then the Sp. must be for artezano. Cf. partigiano hompartitus. 

Artiglio It. a claw, talon, Sp. artijo, Pg. artelho a limb, joint, 
Pr. O. Fr. arteil Twhich form is still found in some of the dia- 
lects), Fr. orteil tne toe; from articuius, 

Artilha Pr. a fortification , entrenchment (?) ; O. Fr. artillier to 
fortify; Pr. artilharia, O. Fr. artillerie, 0. Pg. artelharia cata- 
pults &c. or wagons for transporting them, Fr. artillerie. It. 
artiglieria heavy guns, artillery. From ars artis, cf. engin from 
ingenium, machine from ^rixavi/i. O. Fr. artilleux = crafty, 

Artisan — artigiano, 

Artoun N. Pr. bread, It. artone (Veneroni) ; Sp. artalejo artalete 
a tart, artesa, Pg. arteca a kneading trough. Not from agrog 
but prob. from the Basque artoa maize-bread, which Humboldt 
says meant orig. acorn -bread, from artea a sort of oak. 

Arunar — aranar. 

Arveja — ervo, 

ArBon — arcione. 

As — asso. 

Asca Lomb. a preposition =ipr(eter; from absque? 

Ascella It., Pr. aissela, Cat. axella shoulder; from axilla, whence, 
accord, to Cicero, ala a wing, shoulder. Axilla became ascUla 
as early as Isidorus. 

Asoia — accia, 

Asciolvere It. to breakfast, Rh. ansolver = solvere jejunia. 

Asoiugare asoiutto — suco. 

Asola Pr. Cat. a splinter, asclar to split; from astula (MSS. for 
asstda)y asfla, ascla. Hence, too, the Sp. astil handle of an 

40 ASCO — ASPO. 

axe, astUla a chip, splinter, O. Fr. astele, astillar to splinter, 
astillero a spear-stand, Fr. attelle (=dteiie) a splint (in surgery) 
also = hames (v. atteier = to yoke), Pr. astela. In Occ 
fend-asclat = fendu, 

Aboo Sp. Pg., Sard, ascuy Pr. ais loathing, disgust, ascoso asco- 
roso asqueroso loathsome. Some derive from the Gk. al<s%oq 
aiaxQog, but the Goth, aiviski, A. S. arise ^ adj. Dii. ai$k 
aisch, of the same signification, would be nearer: of. the G. 
interj. of disgust aiks! Larramendi and Diefenbach refer the 
word to the Basque asco (asqui) much, too much; but the B. 
word for asco is nasca which from the Sp. would have had no 
reason for altering. Cf. also the Rh. ascher impure, aschria 
impurity. The Sp. has also usgo for asco. 

ABOoltare scoltare It. , O. Sp. ascuchar, Sp. escuchar, Pg. escu- 
tar, Pr. escoutar, Fr. e'couter to listen; from auscultare which, 
however, would not have given ascultare, so that this latter 
form must have existed in the Latin. Hence It. ascolta scolta, 
Sp. escucha a scutry, scout. 

Asoua Sp. Pg. red-hot coal; prob. from the 0. H. G. ascd, Goth. 
azgd, G. asche, E. ash, ascua from asca as eslingua from slinga. 
Cf. the Lat. favilla = ashes and spark. The Basq. atiscua is 
ph. of the same origin. 

▲scar Sp., Pg. asseiar to adorn; from assidere to suit, become? 

Asermar asesmar — esmar. 

ABestar — sesta. 

AbI — cost. 

ABiento — sentare, 

Aiiinha Pg. adv. for L. statim; from agtna, or from ad signum? 

Asir Sp. Pg., O. Sp^ azir to grasp, seize; from the Lat. apisci, 
whence apiscire (cf. sequi seguire), apsir, asir, Pres. apiscor 
apsco asgo. 

Asma asima ansima It., asthma; from asthma (a6^^a). Hence 
ansimare (l) to pant, (2) to desire eagerly, cf. Sp. anhelar. For 
ansimare are used also ansiare ansare, from arixim (Sp. ansiar 
= to covet). Ansimare ansima are formed as if connected with 

Asolare — scialare. 

ABomar — sommo. 

Aspettare to wait for , Wal. astepta. If from adspeciare {aspetto 
look = adspectus) the O. H. G. tvarten = aspicere and ex- 
pectare may be compared; if from expectare, cf. asciutto from 

Aspo naspo It., Sp. aspa, 0. Fr. hasple. Pic. haple a reel; from 
O. H. G. haspa haspei. The gender in It. has conformed to 
that of naspo from inaspare. 


Assai It., O. Sp. asaz, Pg. assaz, Pr. assatz, Fr. assez; from 
ad satis. 

Assassino It., 8p. asesino, Pr. assassin, Fr. assassin, an assassin. 
From the Ar. ^hashishin the members of an Eastern sect, 
who, intoxicated by a drink (^hashish Golius d. 613) pre- 

Sared from the hemp -plant, tooK an oath to the oheik or Old 
Ian of the Mountain (Shaikh al-gabal) that they would do 
murder in his service if required. The word was unknown in 
Europe before the 12*** century. 

Assembler — sembrare. 

Assentare — seniare. 

Assettare It., to arrange, set in order, put on table (Pr. asse- 
tar)] hence It. rassettare to mend. It. assetto ornament, Pr. 
assieta an arrangement, Fr. assiette a place at table (v. Case- 
neuve) whence = a plate. The It. assettare also means " to 
cut off", "castrate'^, in which sense it must come from secare 
sectus. This sense may have given rise that of "ordering, 
arranging" just as O. H. G. skeran to shear is connected with 
skerjan to portion off, arrange. It. assetto a little board, is 
from assis. 

Assez — assai. 

Assiette — assettare. 

Assisa — assises. 

Assises Fr. (plur.), E. assizes, an extraordinary session of a 
court of justice, a session on a certain day named beforehand. 
O. Fr. also sing, assise, Pr. asiza, which meant, besides, a 
decree passed at such a session, a decree for taxing, a tax, 
hence L. L. levare assisiam to raise a tax. It. assisa tribute, ex- 
cise , Neap, assisa an impost on provisions. It is a participle 
from the O. Fr. Pr. assire to place, place oneself, Lat. assi- 
dere, and so meant anything placed or laid in position , Fr. 
assise = a layer of stones, Pr. = place, position (also cizias 

Slur.). Thus it woiJd prop, mean not the session itself but 
le day appointed for it or the decree passed in it. A variant 
form of assise is found in the Fr. accise (formed as if from ac- 
cidere) = E. excise. 

Asso It., Sp. Pr. Fr. as, Pg. az an ace; from the Lat. as which 
denoted a unit. Muratori, misled by the expression lasciare 
uno in asso to leave one in the lurch, derived it from L. L. ab- 
sus = ager incultus. But this phrase, like the corresponding 
G. einen im stiche lassen (stich = ace) is, probably, borrowed 
from card-playing. 

Assoager assoua^er Fr., Pr. assuaviar to assuage; from suavis 
cf. levi-are, molli-are &c. 

Assommer — saima. 

AssouYir Fr. to satiate. Perhaps from the Goth, ga-sdthjan (xoq- 



td^siv) v = th as in pouvoir = O. Fr. podoir, Pr. poder. The 
deriv. from adsatire, adsair, assa-ou-ir (cf. evanouir), assouir, 
assouvir, is inadmissible. We shoiJd expect assavouir. Gachet 
instances an O. Fr. asouffir, which points to sufficere, a more 
satisfactory etymon than ga-sdthjan, which is too remote. 

Aflsoviar — soffiare. 

Astilla — ascla. 

Astio aschio envy, rancour, adastiare to envy, grudge; from 
the Goth, haifst-s discord, haifst-j-an = ast-i-are. 

Afltiou — hdte, 

Astore It. , O. Sp. aztor, Sp. Pg. azor (whence the name of the 
islands Azores), Pr. ausior, O. Fr. ostor, Fr. autour a goshawk. 
Usually derived from asiur (= the bird of Asiuria), Matemus 
Firmicus A. D. 400; but this would have given astre. The 
grammarian Caper mentions a word acceptor as vulgarly used 
for accipiter; azor would = accept orem just as rezar = reci- 
tare. The Pr. austor is , probably, an irregular form of astor, 
like austronomia = astronomia. The N. Pr. is astou. From 
azor may come the Sp. verb azorar to frighten, bewilder, 
orig. of birds chased oy the hawk, perdiz azorada; cf. Sp. 
amilanar to frighten, from milano a kite. Cat. esparverar from 
esparver a sparrow-hawk. 

Astre aistre O. Fr., Fr. dtre hearth, L. L. astrum; hence Lomb. 

astrac, Sic. astracu, L. L. astricus plastar (pavementl, Vocab. 

S. Galli, O. H. G. astrih, G. estrich. Diefenbach aerives it 

from the Lat. asser. The addition of the article gives the It. 

lastra a slab, lastrico pavement, Sp. lastre lastra, Pg. lastro 

a stone -slab, ballast. 
Astreindre — etreindre. 

Astro It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. astre, a constellation, also = fate, 
luck. Hence Sp. Pg. astroso unlucky (Isidor. astrosus quasi 
maio sidere natus); O. Sp. astrugo, rr. astruc lucky. Hence 
Vv.henastre, henastruc, O. Sp. malastrugo, Ft. malastre, ma- 
lastruc, O. Fr. malostru for maiastru, Fr. malotru (= inep- 
tus); It. disastro, Sp. desastro, Fr. desastre, E. disaster. 

Astuooio It., Sp. esttiche (esiui in Berceo), Pg. estojo, Pr. estug 
esttii, Fr. etui a case, box, repository; Pg. estojar, Pr. estuiar 
estoiar, O. Fr. estuier to preserve, store up. Estug etui come 
from the M. H. G. stiwhe stauche a case for arms Tv. Adelung); 
the form astuccio jfVeron. stuccio) must be reierred to an 
O. H. G. stdchjo, cu guancia from wankja. 

Asurarse Sp. to be burnt (of meat); for arsurarse, cf. It. Pr. 
arsura, Sard, assura (and Lat. assus = arsus). 

Ataballo taballo It., Sp. atdbal, Pg. atabale a Moorish kettle- 
drum, It. timballo, Sf.timbal (timbrel); (r om At. al-tabl, aU-^iablM 


Atal — cotale. 

Atalaya Sp. a watch-tower; from Ar. ^taraah a view, Freyt. 

Atambor — tamhuro. 
Atanoar — stancare. 
Atanto — cotanto. 

Atar Sp. Pg. Cat. to tie, lace; from apiare (cf. apfirfgcti;). 
Atarasana — arsenale. 
Atarfe Sp. tamarisk; from Ar. aH-^tarfd, 
Atargea — targa, 
Ataud Sp. Pg., Pr. iauc, O. Fr. taut iauc, Neap, tavuto a box, 

coffin; from Ar. al-tdbui, at-tdbut. 
Ataviar Sp. Pg. to adorn, atavio embellishment; from the Goth. 

ga-tevjan to set in order, tiva order, or better from Goth. 

taujan (pret. tavida), A. S. tavian, E. taw, Du. touwen, O. H. G. 

zawjan to prepare, dress, cf. Sp. parar to prepare, adorn. 

The a = Lat. ad. 
Ate O. Fr. hot, rash, Charlem. v. 613 (not ate's), also aate, aatir 

to incite, aatie, atine deadly enmity. From the Norse at in- 
citement to fight, att incited (hence ate)j etia to incite. The 

form aastie is not connected with the It. astio. 
At6 — te. 
Atear — tea. 
Atelier Fr. a workshop = Pr. astelier, Sp. astillero (from hasta 

but V. ascla) a lance -stand, stand for tools, workshop. The 

N. Pr. astelier astier = an andiron (place for laying logs). 
Atereoer — intero. 
Atisbar Sp. to search, inquire into; from Basque atisbeatu which 

is compoimded of ateis closed doors , and beatu to spy. 
Atisar — tizzo. 
Atoar — touer. 

Atobar Sp. to astonish; from ttiba, cf. aitonare from tonus. 
Atorar — tuero. 
Atraoar Sp. a nautical word = to come alongside a ship; from 

attrahicare or better from Du. trekken, aantrekken. 
AtraveBar — travieso. 
Atre — astre. 
Atreverse Sp. to be too forward, to venture, O. Sp. treverse. 

From sibi attribuere, sibi tribuere =^ to presume, be arrogant. 

The existence of the verb atribuir tribuir does not affect this 

etymology. The Sp. keeps the Lat. accent atrevo = attribuo. 
Atril Sp. a reading-desk, lectern; ph. corrupted from latril letril 

as if from lectorile, O. Fr. letrin, el atril being a mistake for 

el latril. The form letril occurs. 
Atropellar — tropa. 
Attaoher, attaquer — tacco. 


Atteler — teler, 
Attelle — ascla, 
Attiffep — tiffer. 

Attillare It., Sp. atildar, Pg. aiilnr, Pr. atilhar to deck, trim; 
from a L. atiiiulare to below the utmost care on dress &c., 

1)rop. to forget not a jot or tittle, from It. (itoio = dot over a 
etter, Sp. tilde, Pg. tii. L. L. attitulare = to mark (adorn): 
cruets signacnlo frontem ejus attifulans. 

Attimo It. a moment ; from atofiog, Papias has : hora habet ato- 
mos XXII milia. 

Attiser — tizzo. 

Attizzare — tizzo. 

Atturare It. to stop, Sp. Pg. aturar to hold out, persevere, 
endure (ph. for aturarse), Cat. Pr. aturar to stop, shut up, 
keep back, s' aturar to hold up, exert oneself, persevere, atur 
exertion; from obturare (witn change of prep.) to stop up, 
hence = to stop, hold out, persevere (cf. G. use of aupialten). 
The Sp. occurs in the Lat. sense. Shortened from atturare is 
the It. turare (hence tura a dam), Sp. turar, not from a Lat. 

Attutare — tutare, 

AtufbT — tufo. 

Aturdir — stordire. 

Aubain Fr. a foreigner, L. L. alhanus; from alibi with the suffix 
anus which is frequently added to adverbs, cf. proche pro- 
chain, loin lointain, ante ancien, 

Aube — alba. 

Auberge — albergo. 

Aubier Fr., Pr. albar sap, the white soft wood next the bark; 
from albus (albarius) wnence, too, L. alburnum, O. Fr. aubour, 
Lim. ooubun. 

Aubotir — aubier. 

Auee abce O. Sp. (f.) fate, lot, con dios e con la vuestra auce 
Poem. d. Cid v. 2376; buen auce v. 2379; the etyraologv is 
doubtful. Apul. Met. 9 has: bona et satis secunda aucilla which 
may come from auce (v. s. bubbone), but it is better, perhaps, 
to refer it to auspicium which might follow the gender of 
suerte. With auce abce is connected the Sp. aciago, Pg. aziago 
unlucky through the 0. Val. form abziach; the i of the Sp. 
supports the derivation from auspicium, though the suffix ago 
for aco is imusual. Diez thinks that the etymology remains 
to be discovered. May not auce abce come from avis avica, 
aucilla = avicella? If so the words abce mala (Alex. 545) would 
correspond to the Lat. mala avis. 

Auoun — alcuno. 

Anferrant — f errant. 


Aiifln — alfido, 

Auge It. , Sp. , Pg. the highest point (of glory &c.) ; from the 
Ar. aug an astronomical word borrowed from the Persian 
auk, Frevt. 1, 69. 

Auge Fr. (t.) a trough; from alveus, It. alveo, 

Augurio It. , Sp. agiiero, Pg. agouro, Pr. auguri augur agur, aiir, 
O. Fr. eiir heiir, Fr. heur, Wall, aweure, omen, luck; It. au- 
gurare, Sp. Pr. augurar agurar, Fr. augurer to augur, Pr. ahu- 
rar, O. Fr. heiirer to bless, Wal. ura to wish luck; from augu- 
rium augurare, the derivation of heur &c. from hora being suf- 
ficiently disproved both by the gender and by the forms in 
Pr., O. Fr., and Wallon, though the h may have been pre- 
fixed from a false notion of the etymology, cf. heureux, O.Fr. 
eureux = Pr. auros, It. auguroso, L. L. auguriosus; horosus is 
nowhere found. Hence we have Pr. bonaiir, Fr. honheur, ma- 
laur, malheur; It. sciagurato, sciaurato, O. Sp. xaurado, Sp. 
xauro wretched from exauguratus, It. sciagura, sciaura mis- 
fortune; E. enure; It. uria is a plur. form from augurium, 

Aujourd'hui — oggu 

Aiillar Sp. (aiular Berceo) to howl ; from ejulare as ayuno from 

Atimaille Fr. horned cattle (f ., and generally in plur.) ; from anima- 
lia (cf. merveille from mirabilia, and v. oca). Rh. armal, Wall. 
amd a bullock, Piedm. Parm. animal = a pig, Rom. animela 
a sow, cow, mare, bitch &c.: v. Pott, Hofer's Zeitschr. 3, 161. 

Aumdne — limosina. 

Aumusse — almussa. 

Aun — anche. 

Aune — alna. 

Aun^e — enola. 

Auques — algo. 

Atira ora It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Rh. aura, O. Fr. ore a breeze from 
aura; hence the Pr. aurai, O.Fr. ore; Pr. auratge, O.Fr. orage 
a breeze (lo dous auratge, lo fer auratge), Fr. orage a storm, 
Sp. orage; Sp. orear, Cat. oretjar to refresh, oreo oretj, It. 
oreggio, Pr. aurei a gentle gale. From oreggio is to be distin- 
guished It. orezzo rezzo a cool , shady place , from a form au- 
ritium. Arezzo is also found , a = aw as in ascoltare. 

Aurone Fr. the plant southernwood; from abrotonum, It. abro- 

Au8 N. Pr. (m.) al. aou. Champ, ause the fleece of a sheep; from 
the Lat. hapsus (Celsus) on which the grammarian Caper 
(Putsch p. 2249) remarks : hapsum vellera iana* non hapsus, cf . 
hapsum vellus lance Gloss. Isid. The p is lost as in neipsum, 
Pr. neus, malaptus malaut. 

Au88i Fr., O. Fr. alsi amine, Florent. alsi; from aliud sic. 


Autant Fr., O. Sp. auiati; from aliud tantum. 

Autel Fr. ; from alius talis. 

Autillo Sp. a screech-owl; from oltis (aJrog) a homed -owl, for 
a- otilla. 

Auto Sp. a decree; edict; from actum, It. atto. Hence auio de 
fe, Pg. auto da fe a religious decree. 

Autour — astore. 

Autruche — struzzo, 

Auvent Fr. a shed; awning; apparently the same as the Pr. 
anvan amban a projection or oalcony to defend the entrance 
to a town ; an = au as in erraument = erranment. Anvan may 
be from an = ante (cf. angardd) and vannus or vertus. 

Avaociare It. to hasten, avaccio (accio) haste; a participial verb 
like cacciare; abigere abactus abactiare; hence O. Oat. adv. 
yvac, V. Chron. d'Esclot. 

Avaohir Fr. to relax, give in, languish, to become weak, flaccid; 
from O. H. G. weichjan to weaken , the a prefixed as in avilir, 
attendrir &c. (Rom. Gr. 1, 296). Wall. s^avachi=: to sink. 

Avalange avalanche (cf. O. Fr. fresenge = fresenche)^ whence 
It. valanga an avalanche; from avaler to descend (O. IV. aval 
= down, amont = up, whence montare, monter, mount, amount), 
which has also given avalaison a torrent. Another form is 
lavange lavanche, Pr. lavanca partly from avalange, partly 
from L. L. labina (Isidorus, who derives it from Idbi)^ Rh. 
lavina, G. lawine. Others derive these from G. lauen to thaw. 
Valance is the same word. 

Avancer avant avantage — anzi, 

Avanid It. Pg., Fr. avanie oppression, exaction, prop. = a poll- 
tax extorted from the Christians by their Turtish rulers. 
Probably a Turkish word , M. Gk. a^avCa, 

Avannotto It. a fish of not more than a year old ; from ah anno 

Avanti avanzare — anzi, 
Avaria It. Pg., Fr. avarie, E. average prop. = damage at sea; 

from the G. haferei; Du. haver ij = sea- damage, haf = sea 

Aveo Fr. prep. = It. Sp. con, O. Fr. avoc avuec avec; from 

O. Fr. ab = apud and oc = hoc; cf. O.Ft. por-uec "by means 

of this" Rom. Gr. 2, 405. Another form is avecques, Cf. appo 

and 0. 
Aveindre Fr. to take out, take forth, Occ. avedre, Cliamp. 

avainder (V^ conj.); from abemere to take away (Festus: abe- 

mito significat demito auferto). 

Avel O. Fr. Champ, (plur. aviaux) = anything precious ; not 
from velle but from lapillus, It. lapUlo (=^ bijou). The first 


syllable was mistaken for the article and thus the word be- 
came avel, cf. It. avello from iabeilum. 

Avello It. a stone coffin ^ Mod. laveilo, IVIil. navell a vessel of 
marble &c.; from Iabeilum a vessel, L. L. (9*^ century), lavel- 
lum = a coffin, v. Muratori and Rom. Gr. 1, 240. Vas also 
in L. L. = a coffin. 

Avenant Fr., Pr. avtnen (hence It. avvenante avvenente) becoming, 
next ; from adveniens, cf . conveniens, becoming, Ot. bequem from 
biqueman to come. 

AveriguBT — santiguar, 

Av^s ab^8 O. Sp. adv. =^ vix; from ad vix like assaz from ad 
satis, Rh. vess. Hence malavez. 

Avestruz — stmzzo. 

Aveu — voeu. 

Aveiigle — avocolo. 

Avieso Sp., Pg. avesso perverse; from aver so, O. Sp. enve^ar 
= enversar, cf. rivescio. 

Aviron Fr. an oar, L. L. abiro. Perhaps from ad gyrum as 
moving circiJarly. This derivation is supported by fiie Lothr. 
aiviron an instrument which in working describes a circle. 

Avifl aviser — viso. 

Avocolo vocolo It., Fr. aveugle blind, It. avocolare, Fr. aveugler, 
Pr. avogolar to blind. From aboculus, on the analogy of tf^- 
normis amens &c., cf. the L. Gr. dn^ o^fidrav or dnoiifiarog 

Avoi O. Fr. interjection expressing ill-humoured astonishment. 
Various derivations have been given: (l) ah voie=i It. eh via, 
(2) Lat. evoe, (3) an ecclesiastical refrain evovce, the vowels 
01 ''sectdorum amen!^^ The true etymology is ah voi ah! see! 
= Span, afe (Cid 1325), where r =/ (cf. he) = ah ve. Cf. 
O. Fr. void and veci. 

Avol Pr. bad, wretched, sbst. avoleza. The word occurs also, 
but very rarely, in O. Sp., O. Cat., and O. Pg. Avolome 
(Berceo) = ladron (Sanchez). In Pr. the word is commonly 
used as the opposite to pros, Fr. prevx, and is written did, cf. 
fretd from frevoL It comes from a L. L. advolus (= advena) 
mentioned by Ducange. Advolatus would make advolus avol, 
just as cordatus gives Sp. cuerdo, clinalus Pr. din &c. The 
first meaning would be stranger, homeless; cf. G. elend = (l) 
peregrinus, (2) miser. 

Avoltore avoltojo It., Pr. voltor, Fr. vautour, E. vulture; from 
vollurius, Sp. biutre, Pg. abutre, from vultur. Hence Sp. bui- 
Iron a partridge -net, a fish -net; cf. Fr. epervier = sparrow- 
hawk and fish -net. Littr6 (hist, de la langue franQ.), instead 
of vulturius, gives vidtilrem (for vultur em) as the original of 
the Fr. vautour &c. 


Avorio It., Pr. avori evori, Fr. ivoire (m.) ivory; from ebareus. 

Avouer Fr. , Pr. avoar, E. avow to confess , own , acknowledge. 
not from aduotare but from advocare^ as avoue ::= advocaius. 
Pr. Pg. avocar meant to call to one, own, acknowledge, L. L. 
advocare ut ftiium suum. Hence aveu. 

Avoutre O. Fr. Pr. a bastard, Bret, avoultr; from adulter. It 

at;o/^^ro an adulterer, apandar. Hence;otf/fy. 

For the v v. Rom. Gr. 1, 164. The Wall, avoiron avtUrcn has 

also the sense of a shoot, sapling. 
Avutarda — ottarda. 
Awegnache It. = Lat. etsi; from avvenire = prop, it might 

happen that. 
Awenente — avenant. 
Awentare It. to throw. The Pr. ventar, O. Fr. venter = to 

throw to the wind, whence the It. word. Aventare to thrive 

is from avvenire, Sic. abbentare to find rest, abento rest c= ad- 

vetitus (sc. Chris ti). 

Awentura It., Sp. Pg. Pr. aventura, Fr. aventure, E. adventure, 
G. abeiiteuer, accident, luck, peril {aventure de mort = death- 
aventure), particularly of knightly combat; from advenire to 
happen (cf. arriver). 

Axedrez Sp. , Pg. xadrez enxadrez the game of chess ; from Ar. 
ash-sheUrang chess-board, this from the Persian, which has 
taken the word from the Sanskrit chatur-anga, lit. '* having 
four members", viz. the four sets of men with which the game 
was oriijinally played in the East, or the four different arms 
of which each set was composed. 

Axedrea — satureja. 

Axenjo Sp. , O. Sp. enxenso wormwood ; from absinthium. 

Axuar axovar Sp. bride's trousseau ; from Ar. ash - shutvar. 

Aye Fr. (also ate) interjection; from the old imperative aie 

Ayer — ieri. 

Ayo Sp. governor, tutor, aga nurse. It. ajo aja. The O. H. G. 
has hag an hagjan to nurse, hence hag jo and heio a warden; 
but the Sp. is more probably derived from the Basque ayoa 
*^one who guards and attends", whence zaya a guardian, 
seinzaga a nurse. Is the It. word from theSp.? Others derive 
ay a from avia, ayo from a corresponding avius. 

Ayunar — giunare, 

Ayunque — incude, 

Aza — haza. 

Aza Pg. (1) a handle, ear of a pitcher &c. = Sp. asa, Cat. ansa, 
nansa, Lat. ansa, (2) a bird's wing = Sp. ala not used in Pg., 
perhaps also from ansa, the wing being regarded as a handle. 


The Gloss. Isid. has: acia ala, but whence is this? Graevius 

mentions in connection with it axilla, whence ala. 
Azada — accia. 

Azaflate Sp. Pg. a low basket; tray: from Ar. aUsafaH as-safa^U 
Agaft^n — zafferano. ' 

Asagaya — zagaia. 
Asaut adaut Pr. agreeable ; azautar to cheer ^ enliven: ifom 

adapius, adapt are (cf. malaut from malaptus), thus = It. adatto 

adopted; fitting, agreeable. 
Ascona Sp., corrupted fascona, Vr.ascona, O.C8i.t.esc<ma a dart : 

prob.from O.H.G. asc, G. esche an ash (eschiner schaft Nibel. 

537). Pg. ascona = comet (Lat. hasta). 
Azemar — esmar. 
Asesmar — esmar. 
Asevinho — acebo. 
Asienda — faccenda. 
Asinho — elce. 
Asofar Sp. brass, latten: from Ar. al-cofr ac-fofr. 

Azogne Sp., Pg. azougue quicksilver: from Ar. al-zuwaq az- 
zuwaq or alzibaq azzibaq, which comes from the Persian. 
Freyt. 2, 219. 

Azor — astore. 

Azote Sp., Pg. apotUe a whip, azoiar, apoutar, It. ciottareio flog: 
from Ar. al-sauU as-sauU. 

Azuoar — zucchero. 

AzuoenaSp. a white lily; { assusan, Heh.shashan, 
Gr. aoviSov, Freyt. 2, 375; whence the name Susanna. 

Azufaifa azufeifa Sp. Pg. jujube-tree, fruit of jujube-tree: 
from Ar. al-zofaizef az-^zofaizef. 

Azufire — solfo. 

Azza — accia, 

Azzardo It., Fr. hasard (h asp.), Pr. azar, Cat. atsar hazard 
chance, Sp. Pg. azar an unlucky throw, imforeseen accident, 
ill-luck; jeu de hasard = game of chance; It. azzardare, Fr. 
hasarder, to hazard, stake, wager, h. h. ludere ad azarum. 
O. Fr. hazart = a dice -player, hazarder to be fond of dice 
or hazard -playing. The Fr. d is epenthetical, and the It. is 
derived from tne Fr. The original form is evidently the O. It. 
zaro, It. zara = a throw of 3 aces. Perhaps from the Ar.zahr, 
a die (root zahara to glisten, be white Freyt. 2, 261). The 
Ar. article prefixed, al-zahr az-zahr, gives the conmioner 
Rom. form, v. Mahn (Etym. Untersuch.). 

Azzimare — esmar. 

Azzuro azzuolo It., Sp. Pg. azal, Pr. Fr. azur, dark blue azure: 
from Pers. Idzuward, mience lapis lazuli the sapphire. 




Baba babieca babosa — bava. 

Babosorro Sp. a coarse ^ ill-bred fellow: prop = a sack of 
beans , a nickname of the Alabenses ; from the Basque baba 
bean and zorro sack. 

Babbaccio babbuasso • — babbeo. 

Babbeo, babbaooio, babbano, babbuasso It. a blockhead: Pr. 
babau. Pic. baba a fop, dotard; It. babboie, Fr. babioies, 
baubles; the root is seen in the Lat. babuius (Apuleius), bahur- 
rus stuitus Gloss. Isid.; babtirra stvltitia Gloss. Placid.; of. 
Irish, W. baban a child, Eng. babe, babby. 

Babbo It. father, Dante Inf. 32 ne da lingua che chiami mamma 
babbo y only used by children, but in Sard, babu is the proper 
word for father; so Kh. bab, Wal. fem. babe a midwife, Hung. 
baba, M. H. G. babe. The word belonffs to many languages. 

Babbuino It., Sp. babuino, Fr. babouin, Eng. baboon; probably 
akin to the ir. babine an ape's or cow's lip, and to the G. 
provincial bdppe a mouth , v. beffa. 

Babeurre Fr. buttermilk = bal-beurre: ballre le beurre = to 
make butter. 

Babil Fr. babiller, Eng. babble*, G. babbeln; an onomatop. 

Babine — babbuino. 

Babioies — babbeo, 

B4bord Fr. larboard, left side of a ship; from Du. bak-boord, 
A. S. bcecbord back -board, because in steering the hehnsman 
turns his back to that side. 

Babouches Fr. (f. pi.) whence Sp. babuches Turkish slippers; 
from Ar. bdbdg, bdbiish, this from Fers. pdpiish foot-covering. 

Bao Fr. a flat-boat, ferry-boat, Rouchi = a trough; cf. Du. 
bak a tray, trough, Bret, bag bak, v. bacino. Hence dim. 
baquet (E. bucket), and bailie (bac-ulaj, whence Du. balie, 
Swed. balja, G. balge. 

Bacalao — cabeliau. 

Baocalare It., Pr. bacalar, Fr. bachelier, in later It. baccdliere, 
Sp. bachiller, Pg. bachareL Diez is unable to fix the etymo- 
logy: he mentions some attempts that have been made, e. g. 
Fr. baS'Cavalier, Lat. baculus, or Geiel. bac?iall f= bacuius). 
Littr6 gives vassal as the etymon. Better from the Celtic. W. 
bach little, bachgen a boy, bachgenes, baches (dim.) a little 
darling, bachigyn a very uttle thing. Hence Fr. baceUe, bace- 
lole, bachele, bacheletie a yoimg girl or servant, baceller to 
make love, serve apprenticeship, commence a study; bacel- 
lerie youth; bachelage art and study of chivalry. Hence bache- 
ler, bachelard, bachelier a young man, aspirant to knighthood, 


apprentice in arms or sciences ^ v. Wedgwood. The L. L. 
was baccalariuSy which ^ in the sense of an academician not 
yet admitted to his degree, was corrupted into baccaiaureus: 
do baccharo e do sempre verde iouro, Lusiad 3, 97. 

Baocello It. hull, pod, husk, also blockhead; from L. bacca. 
The Sp. baya (from bacca) also means husk or pod. 

Baochetta It., Sp. baqueta, Fr. baguette a switch; from bacuius 
with a change of suffix, cf. Rom. Gr. II, 224. 

Baohele — bagascia. 

Baohelier — bacca. 

Bachiller — baccalare. 

Bacia Sp. Pg. a basin: L. L. baccea, v. bacino, 

Bacino it., 0. Sp. Pr. bacin, Fr. bassin, Eng. basin: first found 
in Gregory of Tours: paten's Ugneis quas vuigo bachinon (bachi- 
nos) vocant, v. Ducange. The Isid. Glossary has bacca vas 
aquarium. It cannot be from the G. becken, which would have 
given baquin in French, v. s. franco. The Du. bak bowl, 
trouffh. must be referred to the same root, which is, probably, 
the Celtic bac a cavity, cf. bacia. 

Baoio It. (a better but scarcer form is bagio), Sp. beso, Pg. beijo, 
Pr. bais, E. buss a kiss; vb. baciare &c.; from basium basiare 
(mostly poetical). 

Baoio It. a site exposed to the North, adv. a bacio towards the 
North. It is formed on the analogy of solatio a place exposed 
to the sun (from solata sunshine with the sufnx ivus)y and 
meant properly a shady place, obacio for opac-io; the Cat. has 
obaga, N. rr. ubaCy Dauph. Itibac (=rubacj, Com. ovich and 
vagh, Romagn. begh, Gen. luvegu. 

Baoioooo a blockhead, = bacceilo with a change of suffix; cf. 
Augustus using baceolus = stultus Suet. Aug. c. 27. 

Baoler Fr. to bar, bolt; from bacuius. 

Baoo It. a silk -worm, worm generally; from bombyx (fio^fiv^), 
L. L. bombax, whence bombdco baco, Parm. beg bega. The 
Wal. has bambdc from bombyx. The form big-atto big-attolo 
is best referred to bombyx, and so shortened from bombigatto. 

Baooooo — albercocco. 

Baoon O. Fr. Pr. E., from the O. H. G. bacho, Du. bak, E. back 
a chine, but Wedg. from O. Du. backe, Du. bigge a pig. 

Baooro Pg. a one-year-old pig; perhaps from Arab, bekr the 
first bom, a yoimg beast, Freyt. 1, 145*. Nothing to do with 
the preceding word. 

Badaluooo It. a skirmishing (velitatio), a trifling or toying, Pr. 
badaiuc baluc, Ven. badaloco, Com. barloch baloch, tt. baiocco 
a gaper (also = badalucco), It. badaluccare baluccare baloc- 
care, Pieam. badole. Manage gives badare whence could come 
only baduccare. Diez suggests Pr. badalhar to gape, badaiuc 



= badalhuc. A writer in the Journal of ClasBical and sacred 
Philology (June 1855) says that badalucco, if not from the 
Ostrogoths; is prob. of Etruscan ori^n. He compares is with 
the Rhvdto-Rom. badaish fight, quarrel^ which seems coniiected 
with the Goth, baidjan vexare, Sansk. bddh or vddh vexare. 

Badana Sp. Pg. dressed sheep's leather: from Ar. bi-Udnah, 
Hence Fr. basane, adj. basane of the colour of tanned sheep s 
skin^ tawny. 

Badare It., Pr. Cat. badar, O. Fr. baer beer, Fr. bayer (in Berry 
bader)y E. bay. The word meant (l) to gape, Pr. Cat. Fr. O.It, 
in Pr. also = to scoff, in Occit. badado = scoffing, (2) to tony, 
loiter (stop with open mouth), It. Pr. O. Pr., (3J to long after 
a thing (to gape after). It., O. Fr. ; Sbst. Pr. bada a sentinel, 
adv. de bada, a bada, O. Fr. en bades to no purpose, It. stare 
a bada to stay with open mouth, wait. It is probably an 
onomatop. from ba expressing the opening of the month, 
whence ba-itare or ba-are, badare. Hence It. badigliare, siba- 
digliare, sbavigliare, Pr. badalhar, O. IV. baailler, Fr. Miller 
to gape; Fr. badaud, Pr. badau gaper, fool, dotard; Pr. badoc, 
baduel, badiu; Fr. ftarf/V? jester, badiner; It, baderla a simple^ 
foolish woman, Com. baderla to waste time, Rh. baderlar to 
prate, chatter. 

Badaud, badiu — badare. 

Baderla — badare, 

Badigliare — badare, 

Badile It., Sp. badtl, badila a fire-shovel; from batilltan. 

Bafo O. Sp. Pg., Sp. bahOy Cat. rflf/ breath, steam; Sp. avahar, 
Pg. bafar to warm with the breath; an onomatop.^ of. Mil. 
barifa to snort, Ar. bakhnra to emit vapour. 

Bafouer — beffa. 

Bdfre Fr. a rich feast, bdfrer, N. Pr. braffd. Pied, hafre (and 
balafre) to gourmandize, Rouchi bafreiix, Piedm. bafron a 
glutton. Perliaps of the same root as bave slaver, cf. Pie. bafe 
a gourmand, ba flier a sloverer &c.; r is found in It. bdvaro, 
whence Ven. bavarolo a bib; v. safre. 

Baga Sp. packthread, Pr. bagua; O. Fr. bague a bundle, cf. 
Lomb. baga a wine -bag; hence It. bagaglia, Pr. Fr. bagage, 
baggage. The word is Celtic, Gael, bag, W. batch, Bret 
beac'h a bundle, bag, Gael, bac to hinder, Norse baga. 

Bagage — baga. 

Bagarre Fr. a tumult, contention; from 0. H. G. bdga strife (?). 

Bagaseia It., Sp. bagasa (by metath. gavasa), Pg. bagaxa, Pr. 
baguassa, O. Fr. bagasse bajasse &c., a prostitute, E. baggage. 
The term, assa = Lat. acea, in It. ascia. This would make it 
from baga a pack (for the connexion v. s. baste). Other deriv- 


ations are (1) the Celtic bach (v. baccaiare), baisele, bachele, 
a maid -servant; (2) the Arab, bagi a strumpet. 

Bagatella It. a conjuror's trick, a trifle, Sp. bagatela, Fr. baga- 
telle a trifle. Muratori derives it from the Modenese bagattare 
to bungle, huddle, and both words, as well as bagattino a 
small coin, presuppose a sbst. bagatia or baghetta which may 
come from baga (supra), and so = a "small property'' which 
meaning belongs to the Parm. bagata, 

Bagliore It. a sudden and blinding splendour, a dazzling, ab- 
bagliare to dazzle, abbaglio abbagliore illusion, error ^ also 
sbaglio sbagliare, barbaglio abbarbagliare , where the bar is the 
same as that in barlume (q. v.). Menage derives it from bal- 
luca gold -sand, so of anytning glimmering and dazzling, but 
this word was scarcely known in It. (v. baluz)] perhaps it is 
of the same origin as the Fr. berlue (v. bellugue), so for bar- 
gltare = bar-lticolare (cf. diluculum, anteluculus) ; in barbagliare 
there is a reduplication. The Gen. abbarlugd has the same 
meaning, and comes nearer the original form. 

Bagno It., Sp. bano, Pr. bank, Fr. baif^ a bath; bagnare &c., Fr. 
baigner; from balneum with elision of the /, balgno being im- 
possible (Basque mainhud). The Wal. bae (fem. pi.) answers 
to the Lat. baiee. 

Bagordo bigordo It., O. Sp. bohordo bofordo, O. P. bofordo bo- 
far do, L. L. bufurdium, Pr. beort biort bort, O. Fr. bohart 
bouhourt behort a sort of knightly exercise, a joust, also a 
lance or other weapon used therein; bagordare &c. to joust, 
break lances. In France the knights rode at the 'quintain' 
with the lance (v. Ducange s. quintana), in Spain the ba fordo 
was used for thjrowing at the tablado, in Germany the btthurt 
was a sort of combat between two bodies of troops. The G. 
origin of bohorder (whence Fr. bohort) is almost demonstrated 
by the Sp. f fcf. faraute from heraut), and the It. g (cf. gufo 
for huette)=^mQ aspirate. The latter part of the word is prob. 
not from hurten to thrust, for this gives in Fr. hurter, but 
from G. hiirde, O. H. G. hurt, O. Fr. horde, vb. horder, the 
form hordets a fence, hurdle corresponding to bohordeis = ba- 
gordo. Hourdum in L. L. = Sp. tablado = a scaffolding, 
hoarding = Rouchi hourd. Perhaps the first part of the word 
contains the root botar (butt v. s. bottaj; hence bot-hort bo- 
hort (t being dropped before the aspirate) = something to 
strike the stage or scaffolding. 

Bague Fr. a ring set with precious stones , also = the ring of a 
circus; from bacca a pearl, link of a chain. Also from baca 
bacca is the Fr. baie a berry, Pr. baga baca, Sp. baca, Pg. 
baga, It. bacca. 


Baguette — hacchetia. 

Bahari Sp.,'arisL kind of sparrow-hawk*, =prop. marine, 
from tne Ar. ba^hr sea (pa^hri marinus; Freytag 1, 88). 

Bahut — bauie. 

Bale — baja. 

Bagner — bagno. 

Bailler — bailo. 

B4iller — badare. 

BaUlet — bajo. 

Baillif — baiio. 

Bailo balio It., Sp. bayle baile, Pg. bailio, Pr. baile, O. Fr. hail 
(whence E, bait) a guardian, tutor, manager, bailiff, Fern. It. 
baila balia, Pr. Kh. baila a nurse; It. balia,Sf. Vr.bailia, O. Fr. 
^flfi///^ a bailifTs office or jurisdiction, bailiwick; It. balivo, Pr. 
bailieu, Fr. bailli a bailiff, or land-steward; It. balire, Pr. bailir, 
O.Vr. baillir to manage, take care of, so also the Pr. bailar, O. 
Fr. bailler to reach forth, present, Wal. beta to foster, educate, 
beiat a boy. From the Lat. bajulus (Dante bajulo) in L. L. = 
a tutor &c., prop, one who carries children , baila = a nurse. 
Hence = a warden, bailiff &c. 

Bailie — bac. 

Bain — bagno. 

Balonnette Fr. a bayonet; so called from Bayonne where they 
were first made or used. 

Baire It. to be astonished or amazed; O. Fr. adj. baif, Rouchi 
bahi astonish; hence It. sbaire, Pr. esbahir, Ir. ebahir to be 
astorended, Sp. embair to deceive, delude, prop, to amaze. 
From the sound bah (which is used in N. Pr. as an exclama- 
tion of astonishment). Thus it would be connected in origin 
with badare. 

Baisele — bagasda, 

Baja It., Sp. Pr. Sard, bahia, Fr. bate, E. bay; Isidoms quotes 
it as a Latin word: hunc portum mercaiores a bajulandis merci- 
bus vocabant baias, Frisch derives it from the Fr. bayer to 
open the mouth, so that bate -- prop, an opening, and this 
seems to be confirmed by the Cat. form badia from badar, the 
d of which had disappeared from the Sp. before Isidore's 
time. Others make bahia a Basque word whence Bayonne 
(baia harbour and ona good) ; others refer it to the Gael, bddh 
or bdgh with which the Rom. forms agree well enough. 

Bajalt., Sp.Pg. vaya, Yr.baie ']esty jeer; whence It. fto/wca a jest, 
a trifle. The Gk. fiatog and the Fr. bate a berry, have been 
proposed , but it is better to refer the word to the Pr. betda, 
D. Fr. bate, adv. en bada in vain, in jest, Fr. donner la baie 
t= Sp. dar vaya to make light of one , v. badare. 

Bajare abbajare It. to bark; from the O.Fr. abayer, which from 


baubari, or formed from the sound like haubari. The Sard, is 
batUai (baubvlari) and beliai abeliai. 

Bajo It., Sp. bayo, Pr. bat, Fr. bai, Eng. bay (of colour); from 
the Lat. badius used by Varro of the colour of a horse. The 
Sp. has also bazo = brown (pan bazo = pain bis). Hence Fr. 
baillet light -red, chesnut, L. L. badiolettus; It. bajocco a cop- 
per-coin, so called from its colour, like the Fr. blanc, G. 
weisspfennig. The Sp. albazano, Pg. alvapao chesnut = «/ft- 

Bajoooo — bajo. 

Bajuca — baia. 

Baladi Sp. mean, worthless. According to the Sp. etymologists, 
from Ar. balad a city, baladi civic; baladi would then be a 
word used by the country -people who had been cheated in 
the towns. 

Baladrar Sp. to bleat; prob. a corruption of O.S^.balitar formed 
on the model of ladrar to bark. 

Balafire Fr. a gash or scar in the face, Rouchi berlafe, Mil. bar- 
leffi, It. sberleffe (= grimace), vb. Fr. balafrer. Prob. a com- 

f)Ound from the part, bis = bad, and the O. H. G. leffur = 
ip, so = bad lip, then of a gaping wound, like XBtXog, In 
Cnamp. berlafre = a sore lip. 

Balai Fr. a besom , balayer to sweep. The Pr. balai = a stalk, 
rod, switch, so too the O. Fr. bcUais (balai?), O. Eng. baleis, 
Pr. balaiar to whip. Prob. of Celtic origin: the W. bala = a 
shoot plur. balaon r= buds, balant a twig, Bret, balaen a 
besom , O. Fr. balain a whip , Bret, balan. But the Rom. has 
no substantival suffix ai so that the entire form must have 
been adopted, but W. balai means the tongue of a buckle. 

Balais — balascio. 

Balance — bilancia, 

Balandre — palandra. 

Balansa — bilancia. 

Balasoio It., Sp. balax balaxe, Pg. balais balache, Pr. balais ba- 
lack, Fr. balais a precious stone, a sort of ruby, so called 
from Badakschan (Balaschan, Balaxiam) where it is found. 
Cf. Ducange s. balascus. 

Balaustro It., Sp. balaustre, Fr. balustre, E. baluster (corrupted 
banister and ballaster), hence balustrata &c.; from L. L. ba- 
laustium (fialav0tiov) the flower of the wild pomegranate, 
Sp. It. balatisira. 

Baloo paloo It. a scaffold, stage, whence Sp. T?g,palco; hence 
It. balcone, Sp. bolcon, Pg. balcao, Fr. balcon, E. balcony; 
from the O. H. G. balcho palcho , G. balken, E. baulk a beam, 
Du. balke a loft, cf. O. N. balkr an enclosure. In Pici^rdy 


bauque retains the German signification. Others derive bal- 
cone from the Pers. hdlkdna a grated window or more probably 
from bdld'khdna, "an upper chamber". See barbacane. 

Baldaoohino It.^ Sp. baldaquino, Fr. baldaquin a canopy; from It. 
Baidacco, Bagdad , whence was brought the peculiar stiff 
(woven of gold-thread and silk) of which they were made. 
Another form in O. Fr. is boudequin. E. bawdekin a rich em- 
broidered cloth used for copes, palls &c., also the portable 
canopy borne over shrines in processions. 

Baldo It., Pr. baut, O. Fr. O. Cat. baud, bold, wanton &c., Pr. 
baudos; It. sbst. baldore, Pr. O. Fr. baudor wantonness , mer- 
riment, It. balddria a bonfire, feu de joie; O. It. sbaldire, Pr. 
O. Fr. esbaudir to be bold or wanton; from the Goth, balths, 
O. H. G. bald bold, frank, Goth, balthjan to be bold, to ven- 
ture. The languages of the S. W. of Europe have a similar 
form baldo empty, bare, de balde, em bcUde in vain , to no pur- 
pose, ^a/^io useless, refuse, imcultivated, balda a useless thmg, 
a trifle, baldar to maim, baldon baldao = affront, insult (prop. 
= worthlessness , cf. O. Sp. en baldon = en balde), baldonar 
baldoar to insult. If from the Germ, the idea of wantonness 
must have passed into that of idleness and worthlessness , cf. 
the O. H. G. gemeit = insolent and idle. But this is improb. 
for the notion of boldness is nowhere met in the Sp., and the 
Sp. words stand quite apart from the rest. Prob. from the 
Arab, ba^tala to be useless, whence batla balda ^ just as spatula 
becomes espalda, rotulus rolde, 

Baldonar — baldo. 

Baldoria — baldo. 

Baleno It. lightning, balenare to lighten; from fiiXefivov a dart 
(fisXeiivitfig = a thunderbolt). The proper form would have 
been belenno. Hence It. arcobaleno rainbow , also called arco 
celeste, arco piovoso. Sic. arcu de donno deu, Ven. arco de ver- 
zene. Sic. arcu de Nue. 

Balevre Fr. the lower lip; for basse -levre. 

Balioare It. (Lomb. balica), O. Fr. baloier to move to and fro, 
to flutter. Cat. bale jar, Sp. Pg. abalear to winnow; perhaps 
from ballare to dance. The Pr. balaiar to flutter, to lash, is 
different in form. 

Balija — valigia. 

Balla It., Sp. Pr. bala, Fr. balle a ball; It. ballone, Sp. balon, Fr. 
ballon, a foot -ball (E. balloon). The It. has also palla pallone 
which leaves no doubt of the derivation from the O. H. G. 
balla palla, M. H. G. bal, O. N. bdllr (which Benecke derives 
from the G.), E. ball. The G. is nearer than the Gk. fidXXeiv 
nakkBiVy sbst. ndkXa. 

Ballare It., Sp. Pg. bailar, Pr. balar, O. Fr. baler to dance; It. 


baUo, Sp. Pff. baile, Pr. Fr. bal a dance, E. balL From baila 
a ball; the Sp. baiiar is for an orig. balear (cf. guerrear, ma- 
near)y whence baelar baiiar ^ in O. Sp. also ballar, Pg. balhar. 
Ball-play in the Middle- Ages, as in ancient Greece, was often 
associated with singing and dancing. Hence Rom. ballare got 
to mean to dance; so in O. Sp. ballar meant to sing, whence 
It. ballata, Fr. ballade a ballad. 

Balme O. Fr., Pr. Cat. balma (in the modem dialects baumo) a 
cave or CTOtto in a rock, Swiss balm. Some consider the word 
to be Celtic (Schmeller s. v. balfen), but in the above sense it 
does not occur in this family of languages. The G. has barm 
a bosom (for the change of r into /, cf. Pr. Alvernhe albre), 
which is found even in Kom. (v. Schott deutsche spr. in Pie- 
mont p. 242), but the sense of cavity, sinus terrse , seems for- 
eign to the G. word. Steub rRhaet. Ethnol.) considers the 
Rhset. palva to be the original form (found in many names of 
places), hence Bav. Tyrol, balfen, Rom. balma, Rh. bova. 

Baloooo — badalucco. 

Baloier — balicare. 

Balordo — lordo. 

Balourd — lordo. 

Balsa Sp. Pg., Cat. bassa a pool, also a raft, Pg. also = straw- 
mat, from the Basque balsa a collection or heap. Humboldt 
refers the name of the town Balsa in Bsetica (Pliny) to this 

Baliiardo — boulevard. 

Baluc — badalucco. 

Balustre — balaustro. 

Baluz.O. Sp. a small nugget of gold; Lat. balux ballux goldsand 
^linjr), balluca (in later authors), prob. an old Sp. word, v. 
Pott, Etym. Forsch.2, 419, 510. Baluz (also baluce) is formed 
by Rom. writers from balux. 

Balza It. the hem or border of a garment; from balteus, Wal. 
baltz a snare. Hence balzano, Pr. bausan, O. Fr. baucant, 
white (prop, striped), generally used of animals, espec. as the 
name of the boar in fables, Fr. balzan a dark horse with 
white feet, E. bawson a name of the badger from the white 
streaks on its face. 

Balzan — balza. 

Balsare It. to jump, spring, bound upwards, Vr.balsar, It. bal zo, 
Cat. bals, (J. Fr. baus, a bound or leap, in It. also = a clfff 
(for which a fem. balza is also used) ; It. sbalzare to swing, 
vibrate, sbst. sbalzo. The word is prob. Italian, being chiefly 
used in that language (cf. balzellare, balzelloni): so, perhaps, 
from the Gk. (iaXk^Biv to hop or bound. 

Bambagio bambagia It. cotton, Milan. bombds, ^.bombast prop. 


= cotton- wadding; from bombyx (/)dfi/Jt;£) silk, cotton^ M.6r. 
Pa^pdxioVf L. L. hambacium. Hence It. bambagino, Sp. bom- 
bast, Fr. bombasin basin j E. bombasine L. adj. bombycinus. 

Bambin bamboohe — bambo. 

Bambo It. childish; silly ^ Sp. bamba a simpleton rCoyajrruvias^; 
hence It. bambino, bambolo, bambola, bamboccioyFr.bamboche), 
Sp. bambdrria (m.) a child, baby, childish man &c.y AuBtrian 
bams a child. The root is the same as that oibamibaiio (Cicero) 
and of PafiPaXog^ Pa^paX{f^€i.v ^ Pa^paivsiv to lisp &c. The 
Sp. bamba -- a swing, bambolear to swing, Norm, bamboler, 
Wall, bambi to waver. Burg, vambe the swing of a bell; the 
It. hamboleggiare (bambolo a child) corresponds exactly with 
bambolear: cf.the cognate babbeo. It. bimbo is a weakened form 
of bambo. 

Ban — bando. 

Ban bana Pr., Cat. banya a horn, a stag's horn; prob. from the 
W. bdn, cf. also O.H.G.^flfm, Bavar. hirschbain a stag's horn. 
Hence Occit. banarut homed , banar(d) a homed beeue. 

Banasta — benna. 

Banoo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. banc, It. Sp. Pg. Pr. banca, Fr. 
banque, a bench; from O. H. G. banc. There is also a W. 
banc (Gael, binnse), but the It. form panca vindicates the G. 
derivation. Hence It. bancheito, Fr. E. banquet, Sp. banquete, 
prop. = a light ornamental dessert, from vb. banchettare to 
give a banquet, prop, to ari'ange tables and benches; ban- 
chiere &c., banker. 

Banda It. Sp. Pr., Fr. bande a band, string, also a band = 9L 
troop; from the Goth, bandi (f.), O.H.G. band(n.). Hence It 
bandiera, Sp. bander a, Pr. bandiera baneira, Fr. bqnniert 
(G.panier, E. banner), a standard, cf. Goth.bandva an ensign, 
and Paul. Diac. 1, 20: vexillum quod bandum appellant; the 
simple bannum is found only in O. Fr. ban, Pr. auri-ban (cf. 
auriflamma); hence, too, Sp. bandear, Pr. bandeiar baneiar 
float (as a banner), intrans. to pass to and fro, to pass across, 
O. Fr. banoier, esbanoier, M.H.G. baneken, whence orig. Rom. 
form banicare, still seen in Com. banya to waver. 

Bande bander — benda. 

Bandibula Sp. the jaw; from mandibula. 

Bando It. Sp. Pg., rr. ban, Fr. ban a public proclamation, bann; 
It. bandire, Sp. Pr. bandir, Pg. bandir banir, Fr. bannir to 

• proclaim, denounce, banish, whence It. bandito a bandit an 
outlaw. L. L. bannum = interdictum, bannire = edicere, 
relegare. The root is German, but G. bannan would have 
given bannare banner; so that it is better to derive bandire &c. 
from the Goth, bandvjan, bannir from another form banvjan; 
some G. dialects omit the v. The O. Fr. arban service ss= G. 


hariban, heerban, whence by a corruption Fr. arriere-ban. 
From bando comes the O. It. Pr. bandon generally with a 
= (1) ban: vendre gage a bandon^ (2) will, discretion (price): 
prenez tot a vostre bandon. From this adv. a bandon is lormed 
a sbst. abandon, It. abbandono abandonment , abbandonare &c. 
to abandon. Trench gets the sense of abandon differently, 
viz. from that of denouncing: "what you denounce you 
detach yourself from, you abandon". Another derivative is 
O. Fr. forbanir to outlaw (for = foras). It. forbanntUo an out- 
law, O. Yr. forban banishment, also = an outlaw, a pirate 
(Fr. forban)y L. L. forbannitus, ferbannitus. It. contrabbando, 
Fr. contrebande = non-observance of an edict, smuggling. 
Hence E. contraband. 

Banlieue Fr. prop. = a league's jurisdiction, so a district under 
such jurisdiction, suburbs, environs. So too O. Fr. ban-molin 
mill -territory, v. Due. s. bannum leucce. 

Bcoine — benna. 

Bannir — bando. 

Banque — banco. 

BanBO — benna. 

Baquet — bac. 

Bara It., Fr. bar usu. biere, Pr. bera a bier, Rh. bara a corpse; 
from O. H. G. bdra, A. S. b^er bire, E. bier, Du. berrie. 

Baraoane It., Sp. barragan, Pg. barregana, Pr. Fr. barracan a 
stuff made of goat's hair, barracan ; from Ar. barrakdn a dark 
dress, Freyt. 1, 113, which according to Sousa comes from 
the Persian barak a stuff made of camel's hair. 

Baraoca It., Sp. barraca, Fr. baraque a hut, tent, barrack; from 
barra a bar, like It. trabacca from trabs. 

Baragouin gibberish; from the two Breton words bara bread and 
gwin wine coined by the French who heard these words often 
uttered by the Bretons whom they regarded as barbarous, cf. 
bretonner to talk unintelligibly. Wedgwood refers it along 
with barbarous, bargain, barter &c. to the root bar signifying 
confused noise, squabble, tumult. 

Baraja — baro. 

Baratto It., O. Sp. barato, Pr. barat, Fr. barat, O. Sp. Pr. barata, 
O. Fr. barate a fraudulent bargain; It. barattare, Sp. Pr. ba- 
ratar, O. Fr. bareter to cheat, truck, exchange barter, Sp. 
baratear to cheapen, O. Pg. baratar to destroy; It. sbarattare, 
Sp. Pr. desbaratar, O. Fr. desbareter to distroy, disorder; Fr. 
baratter to chum (to mix up and stir confusedly); Sp. bara- 
leria fraud, espec, by master of a ship, E. barratry. Barratry 
ace. to Blackstone is the offence of stirring up quarrels. 
Several derivations are given: (l)that from li.barare to cheat 
(baro) would not be regular in form; (2) the Pers. baratel 


bribery could only have been introdaced during the Cmsades, 
whereaH the Rom. word occurs as early as tne first half of 
the 12*** cent.; (3) the O. N. bardtta Imttle corresponds to 
Dante's use of baraita, but this rather means the entangle- 
ment, and bustle, and tumult of a fight, O. Fr. borate, O. op. 
harata; besides the meanings of 'combat' and 'fraud' (en- 
tanglement) could hardly be of common stock. It is best per- 
hH|*»<, to derive it from HQdrxBiv (cf. b(Aie from srv^i^), a word 
which may have been introduced by the Gk. merchants. 
Wedgwoocl gets it from the root bar, v. baragotdn s. fin. The 
So. barato = cheap, sbst. cheapness, vb. baratar to buy 
Barba it. Tm.) uncle, father's brother, Dante Par. 19, 37, Rh. 
barbn, L. L. barbas, It. barbano, L. L. barbanus; from harba 
a bfard. In (Jom. it is used generally as a title of honour, so 
Neap, zi = It. zio. 

Barbaoane It. (m.), Sp. Pr. barbacana, Pg. barbacao, Fr. barba- 
cane a barbican; from the Pers. bdld-khdna upper chamber, 
a word which also gives balcony, prob. brought from the East 
by the Crusaders , Wedg. ; but v. balco, 

Barbaaco Sp. a plant; from verbascum, like O.Sp. bardasca from 

verdasca (viridis) a rod. 
Barbasaero — vassallo. 

Barbeoho Sp., Pg. barbeito a fallow; from L. vervacium. In the 
North West the v (as in other instances v. Rom. Gr. I, 187) 
has become g; thus Pr. garag, Fr, gueret, Valen. guaret. Cat. 

Barbotar barbulhar — borbogliare. 

Barca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Wal. bared', Fr. barque a small trading 
vessel, a bark, barge, L. L. barca. The Pr. barja, O. Fr. 
barge, Fr. berge, E. barge, requires an orig. barica (cf. carrica 
charge , serica serge), which may be from /Serptg (parts Proper- 
tius) like auca avica from avis. Many marine terms are bor- 
rowed from the Gk. cf. poggia, sesto, golfo, artimone. Others 
derive it from O. N. barkr, E. bark, prop. = a vessel made 
of bark, 

Barcar Sp. Pg. foimd in abarcar to embrace , sobarcar to carry 
under the arm. Not from brachiare which would give brazar, 
but from brachicare, like caballicare, Sp. sobaco = armpit is 
the L. L. subbrachium. 

Barda It Sp., O. Fr. barde horse -armour of iron -plate, Pg. 
barda, Yr, barde a saddle, also a slice of bacon so called from 
its being placed round fowls before roasting: hence Fr. bar- 
deau a shingle, It. bardella, Fr. bardelle, rr. bardel a pad, 
pillion. It. bardotto, Fr. bardot a saddle- mule (one which the 


driver rides). Perhaps from the N, bardi a shield; though the 
Pg. barda a hedge. Sp. barda the fencing on a wall belongs 
to the Basque abarra "it is grafted'' (Larramendi). Or all 
the above words may with the Sp. abbarda a saddle and a 
slice of bacon be referred to the Ar. al-barda^ah a pad or 
cloth put under the saddle to prevent its hurting the back. 
Freyt. 1, 106. The O. Fr. Champ, barde a carpenter's axe, 
WsA.bard^, Dauph.par^otiabill is prob. from a different root, 
O. H. G. barta, Du. barde a pick -axe. 

Bardasola It.; Sp. bardaxa, Fr. bardache = pathicus; from the 
Ar. bardag a slave? Lomb. and Piedm. bardassa = merely 
"boy'', the Sard, bardascia has both meanings. On the O. Fr. 
bardache a stake, v. Grandgagnage v. bardahe. 

Bardeau — barda, 

Bardosso — bisdosso. 

Barga Sp. O. Pg., Fr. berge a steep slope; prob. from the Celtic, 
cf. W. bargodi to hang over, bargod the eaves of a house. 

Bargagno It., Pr. barganh, Pg. Pr. barganha, E. bargain, 0. Fr. 
bargaine (= ceremonie Roquefort); It. bargagnare, Pg. Pr. 
barganhar to bargain, Fr. barguigner (for bargaigner , cf. 
grignon) to boggle, loiter. The L. L. barcaniare shows that 
the g is for c, so that the word prob. comes from barca, which, 
according to Isidore, was used for traffic, so that bargagno 
would be properly = trafficking. Wedgwood derives it from 
the root bar (m barbarous &c.) from the notion of squabbling 
and haggUng. Genin derives it from Hom. particle bar = 
bis, ber and gagner, but the L. L. barcaniare, and the constant 
form bar and gagn for guadagn, are against him. 

Bargello It., Sp. Pg. barrachel, O. Fr. barigel a police-officer, 
a bumbailiff; from L. L. barigildus, certainly a G. word, but 
of unknown derivation, cf. Grinmi, Rechtsalt. p. 314. 

Barigel — bargello. 

Baril barile — barra. 

Barioler Fr. to speckle, make a medley of; if from variare, va- 
riolare the b must be due to the particle bar (= bis), for L. v 
does not become b in Fr. (brebis is from L. berbexj, or it may 
be from bar and riole striped. 

Baritono It. Sp., Pg. bariton, Fr. baryton (obsol.), E. barytone; 
from fiaQVTOvog. 

Barlong Fr., O. Fr. berlong (a garment) of imequal length; for 
beslong = It. bislungo, bis = anything uneven &c., q. v. 

Bamatge — barone. 

Baro barro It. a rogue; whence barone, bar are barrare to cheat. 
From the same root prob. come : Pr. baran fraud , It. barocco 
usury, O. Sp. baruca craft, It. barxdlo a fruiterer jTcf. treccare 
to cheat, trecca a huckster); Sp. baraja, Pg. Pr. baralha, 


O. Fr. bereie a tamnlt; brawl, barajar, baralhar to throw into 
coTifaiiion. Perhaps from the root bar, y. 8. baraiia. 

Barocco — baro. 

Barone It., Sp. varon, Pg. vardo, Pr. ^ar (ace. bard), O^ Fr. Aw 
(ace. barfm), Fr. E. ^tfrow orig. = vir or maritus, next as adj. 
= manly, whence Pr. bamatge, O. Fr. baronie bamie prowess, 
emharnir to be courageous, next in L. L. == lord, ^^gravis et 
authenticm vir", barones = nobles or vassals of the crown. 
L. baro = a fool ; simpleton , in Scholiast on Persins is ex- 
plained to be ^^servm militum" and is said to be of Grallic 
origin. We find a Gael, bar = champion , but words formed 
like bar baron are either from the L., as drac dragon, laire 
lairon, or from the G., as fel fellon, Uc ugon; so it is better to 
refer it to the O. H. G. bero (ace. berun beron) porter, from 
vb. beran, Goth, bairan (bear); others make it radically the 
same word as the L. vir, Goth, vair, A. S. toer, Gael, fear a 
man, v. Bopp. Gloss, s. vira. Com. Bergam. bar, Piedm. derro, 
Komag. berr = ram, Lorr. berra (berard), cf. s. mamme. 

Baroque — barrucco. 

Barque — barca. 

Barra It. Sp. Pr., Fr. barre, E. bar; hence Sp. barrio, Pr. Cat 
barri a wall, a suburb, L. L. barrium; Fr. barreau, It. bar- 
riera, Sp. barrera, Fr. barriere, E. barrier &c.; Sp. barrar 
barrear, Fr. barrer &c. From the Celtic: W. bar = a bough; 
M. 11. G. bar barre is used in Kom. sense. Hence Sp. barras 
a bar, Sp. embarazo, Fr. embarras, Sp. embarazar, Fr. emba- 
rasser, debarrasser, E. embarrass &c. ; Sp. barrica, Fr. barriqm 
a barrel, whence barricata a barricade (of casks &c.); It. ba- 
rile, Sp. Pg. barrU, Fr. baril, W. baril, Gael, baraill, E. bar- 
rel, Sp. barral. We find the same word in the Fr. names of 
places, e. g. Bar-sur-Aube, Bar-le-duc. 

BsOTachel — bargello. 

Barragan Sp., Pg. barragdo a companion, a bachelor. As it is 
used for a man of prowess {buen barragan Poem d. Cid"), it 
may be identical with barragan (= baracane q. v.) wnich 
meant a strong durable stuff. 

Barrette — berreita. 

Barrica barril — barra, 

Barriga Sp. Pg. the abdomen. Not from barra since the Sp. has 
no suffix iga. As poitrine prop. = breast -girdle, so barriga 
may = ^rth, from the 0. 11. G. haldrich, baldriga barriga 
(cf . Rodnch Rodrigo) ; baldriga appears in Parm. bodriga = 
belly (o = alj. In Berry baudru = ventru, cf. baudre. 

Barro Sp, Pg. mud, clay; from Ar. barj earth, potter's clay. 

Barrooho — biroccio. 

Barrucco berrueco Sp., Pg. barroco a pearl of uneven shape 


not round, in Pg. also = an uneven rock, Fr. barroque oval. 
Three derivations are given, (1) verruca which Pliny uses to 
express the unevenness of a precious stone; the Lat. uca, 
however, is not exchangeable with Rom. oc, (2) hrochus a 
prominent tooth, (3) bis-roca an uneven rock (v. bis). Brochus 
has the advantage in gender, bis roca in sense and sound. 
Hence, perhaps, too the Pe. barroca an uneven stony district, 
which some connect with the Ar. borqah Freyt. 1, 111. 

Barruntar Sp. Pg. to foresee, guess, O. Sp. barrunta foresight, 
barrunte a spy, a scout. Prob. = baruiar with'n inserted, cf. 
garganta for gargata, encentar for encetar, cimenterio for cime- 
terio, hedant for edat; barutar = to sift, cf. cernere, xqCvbiv^ 
V. blutar. The N. Pr. has the same word barountd to shake 
which, doubtless, comes from the notion of sifting, cf. Sp. 
mecer = to mix, to shake. 

Baruffo — ruff a. 

Barullo — baro. 

Baa — basso, 

Baaane — badana, 

Basca Sp., Pg. vasca disgust, nausea, O. Sp. bascar to feel dis- 
gust. ProD. from the Basque, v. Larramendi. The Rh. 
baschizzi has the same meaning. 

Bascule Fr. counterpoise belonging to a swipe or a weigh- 
bridge, see -saw &c.; from bas and cul according to Frisch 
and Scheler. The N. Pr. leva-coua ^= caudaj is more clear. 

Basin — bambagio. • 

Baaire It. to die, N. Pr. Dauph. basir; from Gael, bds death, 
basaich to die, N. basa to kiU. The Com. has sbasi to die and 
to grow pale, Piedm. sbasi in latter sense. 

Basquiner O. Fr., Wal. bosconi to bewitch; from fiaCxaCveiv. 

Bassin — bacino. 

Basso It., Sp. baxo, Pg. baixo, Pr. Fr. bas low; It. bassare &c. 
The Isid. Gloss, has bassus crassus pinguis , Papias bassus cur- 
tus humilis; the former is the earlier meaning; m fact, the It. 
has bassotto thick = O.Fr. bas broad. The word is a genuine 
Latin one , Bassus having been used very early as a family- 
name, which, like many others, had reference to personal pe- 
culiarity. Perhaps, the orig. meaning oi.bassus was that which 
extends in breadth not in height, whence the senses of "thick'' 
and " short '\ From the adj. comes It. sbst. basso the imder- 
part, Fr. bas stocking (prop, bas-de-chausse, cf. haut-de- 
chausses), Sp. baxos, Pg. baixos (pi.) under garments, also 
shoes, nothing to do with L. baxea, which would have given 
baisse in Fr. 

Basta It. Sp. Pg. Cat. a basted seam, O. Fr. baste, Occ. basto (a 
coat -lap?); Fr. bdtir, Sp. basiear, It. imbastare, Sp. Cat. em- 


baktor v, hojste; from O. H. G. besian to repaur, M. H. G. 
^^f/jm , which fruin ab»t. basi, 

BmttMr — ^</.i/<^. 

BmMtMre bmatUme — basio. 

Bagfillt — basta, 

BMtille b^ — boiio. 

It. Sp.; Pr. baii, Fr. ^a/ (£. ^/- horse) a pack -saddle; 
Pr. bojktary Yr. baler to saddle. It is generally referred to the 
O. bnu uf which the materials for the fasteninzs mi^t be 
tnskfi':, \\%:d^'ood refers it to basia t sap^ the pad being orig. 
a ^jTiilt'rd ntitchf'd; cushion. Diez is led from a comparison 
with bmtone to attribute to basto the notion of **prop'' 
''tnri'tl':'* on which the burden rests, so that it would be akin 
\fi fiafSral^iv. Boiterna a litter may be referred to the same 
root but V. Grimm, Geschichte d. deut. spr. p. 461). But Gk. 
(Ui6tdi fiaard^a) a porter is found in Pr. basiais. Cat. hasiax, 
baitage. It. bastagio. Of the same origin are It. basione 
baton, Wal. be)fion <Scc.;, It. bastire, O. Sp. Pr. basiir, Fr. 
battr to build .jprob. to prop?), whence O. Sp. Pr. basiida. It. 

Hp. bai' 
'Fr. bdi 

harto filled out, sufficient), Ven. bastare to hinder (stop up), 
O. .Sp. baslir to furnish, provide for. Hence, too, proDaDly 
coim:ii It. Sp. Pp. baslardOy Pr. bastart, Fr. bdiardy O. Fr. E. 
baatard, also called in O. Fr. ftls de bast and by corruption 
fili de bag, son of a pack-saddle. The termin. ard is eonmion 
in a bad sense (cf. itom. Gr. 2, 310, such E. words as drunk- 
ard, niggard &c.J. The word prob. had its origin in Provence 
and Spain, where the licentious muleteers were accustomed 
to use the pack-saddles and furniture of their mules for bed- 
ding, cf. Don Quixote, p. 1, cap. 16, where the muleteers 
bed is spoken of as being "fabricado de las enjalmas'' "jL^® 
todo el adonio de los dos mejores mulos que traia". The 
rest of his story affords further illustration, cf G. bankert, 
bankari a bastard, from bank. Wedgwood derives bastard 
from the Celtic baos TGael.) lust. 

Batafalua, batafaluga Sp. (obsolete), with m for b, matalahua, 
-huga, 'huva, Cat. Sard, matafaiuga anise; from Ar. ^habbat- 

Bataille — battere. 

Bdtard — bastardo. 

Batassare It. to shake; prob. from the Gk. nard06€iv to strike, 
to rattle, not from buttare, for the It. has no suffix ass. 

Bateau — batto. 

Bdtir b&ton — basto* 


It., Sp. batir, Pg. baier, Pr. batre, Fr. battre, Wal. bate, 
Serv. bdiaiiy E. ft^a/; from batuere, shortened to batere (Rom. 
Gr. 1, 162). This, though rare in classical, occurs often in 
L. L. where, however, it takes a different flexion: pf. battidi 
(like prendidi , ostendidi), partic. battutus. Amonff the deriva- 
tives are It. battaglia, Sp. batalla, Fr. batatlle, Wal. befide, E. 
battle; It. battaglio and batacchio, Sp. badajo for batajo clappef 
of a bell; It. battigia epilepsy; Sp. batan a fulling-mill; Pr. 
bataria fray, battery, Fr. batterie mounted ordnance, a battery. 

BattesBone It. a coin bearing the image of John the Baptist, 
from battezzare; hence G. batzen, It. bezzo, 

Battifredo It., Fr. beffroi, O. Fr. berfroi beffroit a tower, belfry; 
from M. H. G. bercvrit bervrit a tower for shelter or assault, 
L. L. berfredus belfredm. The It. word has a reference to 
battere. For similar secondary etymologies cf. palafreno, bac- 
calaureus, lanthome &c. 

Batto It. a rowing-boat; hence battello, Sp. batel, Pr. batelh, 
Fr. bateau a boat; from A. S. bdt, O. N. bdtr, W. bdd, E. boat. 

Bau^ant — balza. 

Bauohe O. Fr. plaster- work on a wall, or a workshop; hence 
ebaucher to work in the rough , embaucher to engage a work- 
man, deTfaucher to lead astray, to decoy a workman, E, de- 
bauch. Cf. Gael, bale, O. N. bdlAr partition -wall, baulk 
between furrows. 

Baud Fr. a stag-hound, also called chien muet; from Gael, baoth 
deaf, dumb, Goth, bauth x(oq)6g, cf. Norm, baude numb. 

Baudot Fr. an ass, fem. baude, in fables Boudoum; from baud 
frolicsome (v. baldo). 

Baadr6 O.Fr., Pr. baudrat, Fr. baudrier, Fg.boldrie, It. budriere. 
From the O. H. G. balderich, O. 'E.*baldrick baudrik. Hence 
O. Fr. esbaudre the waist, cf. cinge (cingulum). V. s. barriga. 

Baule It., Sp. bahiU baul, Pg. bahul bahu, Pr. bauc, Fr. bahut, 
bahu, a trunk, valise. From M. H. G. behut (used by Luther 
= magazine, repository) which is from behuten to cover, 
keep. The O. Fr. bahud, L. L. behudum is the orie. form: 
V. Mahn, Etym. Untersuch. p. 89. Diez wrongly refers it to 

BaiiBan — bugia. 

Bauflia — bugia. 

Bava It., Sp. Fg.i?aba, Fr. bave spittle, slaver; Pg. Pr. bavar, 
Fr.baver, Sf.bavear to drivel. An onomatop., expressing prop, 
the drivelling of an infant (cf. papd^siv to stammer), hence 
E. babe, baby, Fr. bave = also childish talk, baveux bavard 
a gossip; Sic. vava = slaver and child. Hence Sp. babieca 
foolish yprop. = drivelling, foanmg, whence its use as the 



name of the Cid's horse); Sp. babasa = a slngi &c., Cat. e mb t' 
biecar, Pg. embabacar, Sp. embaucar to cheat, impose upon. 

Bazo — basso. 

Baya Sp. a berry; from bacca baca, Pg. baga. 

Basrer — badare. 

Base Sp. Pg. spleen, cf. N. Pr. bescle, O. Fr. bascle. 

Baio — bajo. 

Bassa It., Sp. baza. Cat. basa good luck, trump in cards; from 
M.H.G.^«2:2:^gain (baz=besserj. It was proD. introduced by 
the G. mercenaries. Hence It. bazzica a game at cards, buz- 
zicare to have intercourse with, frequent. 

Beau Fr. in beau-pere, beau-fils, beau- fr ere, belle-mere, belle-fiUe, 
belle-sasur, N. Pr. beou-pero, bela-mera, father-in-law or 
step -father &c. Formerly there were words for each: sogre, 
sogredame, gendre, bru or nore, serorge (m. f.) to express rela- 
tionship in law; for step - relationship j9ara£/r^, marastre,fi^ 
astre (m.f.), frerastre, sorastre. When marastre got to mean a 
bad step -mother, belle -mere came into use VKOxoQUftiiuSs, 
and then beau-pere &c. The words were afterwards used for 
relations in-law. The Du. has schoon (fair), the Bret, kaer to 
express step-relationship. The Mil. messee. Yen. missier = fa- 
ther - in - law , madonna = mother -in - law. 

Beauooup Fr., whence It. belcolpo = multum ; from beau fine, 
great (cf. beau mangeur = grand m.), and coup a stroke or 
flirow, a heap, cf . Sp. golpe = a multitude. In O. Fr. we find 
grandcoup, rr. mancolp. 

Bioasse btehe — beoco. 

Beccabungia It., Sp. Pg. Fr. becabunga, Russ. ibunka, a plant, 
brook-lime; from Du. becke-bunge (brook -clod), G. bacMnmge 
one of the very few names of plants which the G. has given 
to the Rom. languages. The usual Fr. is berle de riviere. 

Beooo It., Pr. Fr. bee, Pg. bico beak, bill; Sp. bicas (pi.) small 
gold tags. A Celtic word: cut Tolosee nato cognomen in pueritid 
Becco fuerat, id valet gallinacei rostrum Suet. Vitell. c. 18; 
Gael, beic, Bret, bek, Du. bek, W. pig. Hence Pr. beca, Fr. 
biche for beche a spade, though O. Fr. has besche; It. beccare, 
Pr. bechar, Fr. becquer to hack, becher dig, G. bicken picken, 
Yt.pick; It. heccaccia, Fr. becasse, Cat. becada a snipe; Fr. 
bequille a cnitch, Fr. abequer to feed young birds ; Pg. ddncar 
to eat daintily. It. bezzicare to pick with the beak may in- 
clude the two, becco and pizza (q. v.). 

Becco It. goat. This word is found in very old inscriptions. It 
cannot be of the same origin as the Pr. boc, Fr. bouc, but is 
connected with Fr. bique = chevre, in the Jura bequi = che- 
vreau, = Camp, bequat, Rouchi be'que'riau = lamb^ Norm* 


becard = a wether. The Serv. has bekawitza sheep from be- 
knuti to bleat; Serv. bik = an ox. 

Beoerro Sp. Pg. a calf, Pg. fern, becerra; from Basque beicecorra, 
from beta a cow (W. biw) and cecarra a calf. Hence Sp. bi- 
cerra a wild -goat, bizerra a roe. 

Bedaine — bedon. 

Bedeau — bidello. 

Bedel — bidello, 

Bedello — bettilla. 

Bedon Fr. a tambour, small drum, also = a big belly (= be- 
daine), Com. bidon fat and lazy, Rouchi bidon a fat lazy man, 
Fr. bidon a big -bellied pitcher. Bed = bid in bidet (p. v.). 
Rouchi bedene = bedaine and bidet. 

B6er — badare. 

Befima It. a large doll with which children are frightened on 
the Epiphany (befania), whence the name. So in Germany 
an image of Bertha was used on the same day for the same 

Beflblt., Sp. befa, 0. Fr. beff'e, 0. Sp. Pg. bafa a scoffing, de- 
rision; It. beffare, Sp. befar, 0. Sp. bafar to scoflF, Fr. bafouer 
to treat shamefully; Sp. be/o the underlip of a horse, also = 
thick-lipped (written also belfo), Cat. bifi, Occ. befe; Pic. 
bafe a glutton. Prob. from the (J., cf. Bav. beff'en to bark, to 
scold. Frisch refers to the Thuring. bdppe mouth. Mil. babbi, 
Com. bebb, Occit. bibo a lip ; the Gen. fa beffe = pout the lips 
at. From beffa comes the Fr. beffler, E. ba/fle (formerly = 
mock; put to scorn, espec. a recreant knight). 

Beffler — beffa. 

BeffiK>i — battifredo. 

Befo — beffa. 

Begue Fr., Pic. beique bique a stammerer; hence O. Sp. veffue, 
Pic. Norm. Burg, beguer, Fr. begayer to stammer, Fr. begai 
stammering. Perhaps contracted from the Pr. bavec a silly 
babbler, Sp. babieca a booby, O. Fr. begaud, Norm, begas. 
For the contraction cf. Pr. sageta, 0. Fr. sette. 

B^S^eule Fr. a booby, prop, a gaper: from beer and gueule. 

Behetria Sp. Pg. a free town; from Basque beret-iria a town 
for itself, i. e. independent; according to others from bene- 
factoHa (A. D. 1020), benfetria (A. D. 1129). 

Beignet — bugna. 

Beira — riviera. 

Belare It., Fr. bdler to bleat; from belare used by Varro for 
balare. Hence Romagn. be = bleating. Cat. be a sneep. Norm. 
bat a wether, cf. bidet. 
Beldroega — porttdaca. 

Bele O. Fr. a weasel, Fr. (dim.) belette, Sp. beleta, Mil. bellora, 



Com. beroia, Parm. bcnla, Gen. Mlua, Sic. baddoihda (for 
baliottula belloitula). In form Me corresponds to the W. beie 
a pole-cat; O. H. G. bSie, bat it is more probably the same as 
the Lat. bella beantifnl, so bellora = beiltda, cf. the Barar. 
sch6nthierlein , $ch6ndiglein , Dan. den kjonne (polchra), a pro- 
pitiatory epithet for an animal which was thought to possess 
mysterious power, O. E. fairy. The Norm, word is rasdei 
(red), Lorr. moteile Tmustela), Norm, bacoiuietie. 

Beleno Sp. henbane; from renenum, It. veieno? More probably 
connected with the A. S. belene beione belune. Buss, beiena, 
Pol. bidun, Bohem. bljn, Hung, bdend-fu, O. H. G. bHisa. 

Belier Fr. a ram, in fables Beiiny whence Norm, bim; from Du. 
bel, E. beli, cf. Du. bd-hamei, E. bell-wether, in Fr. also 
clocheman and mouton a la sonnette, L. L. aries squHlatus, The 
Fr. beliere the ring on which a bell - clapper hangs , is of the 
same oriHn. 

Belitre Fr. a beggar, a scoundrel, whence Sp. bdilre, Pg. bUtre; 
It.belitrone. Prob. from the Q.bettler, the O.Fr.belistre having 
an s inserted before the /. 

Bellaco — vigliacco. 

BeUegoin Sp., Pg. belegidm a bailiff; according to Soosa from 
At. balegum, according to Larramendi from Basque Mto=Sp. 
vela, watch. 

Belletta It. sediment, mud. The Mil. has litla. It can hardly 
cowe from ariXog as Blanc suggests. 

Belletto It. paint; from bello, cf. fattibello = belletta, 

Bellesour O.Fr., Vr.bellazar a comparative from bd, Pr.nomin. 
bdlaire; from the L. bellatior, from bellatus (Plant* bdlahdus): 
cf. ebriolatus, pullatus, bifidatus. Bellatus is found in O. Fr. 
bele. The O. Sj). had a peculiar form bdido (bellitus). Con- 
nected with this is , prob., the Neap, belledissemo. 

Bellico — ombdico. 

Bellioone — wilecome. 

Belliacar — pellizcar. 

Bellota Sp., Pg. belota bolola boleta acorn ; = Ar. balli^t Freyt. 
1; 153; which answers to the Lat. balanus. Hence, too, It. 

BeUngne O. Fr., Pr. bduga, whence Norm, bduette, Fr. bluette, 
Pr. belugeiar (belugudar ?J, Fr. btuetter to emit sparks. From 
the part, bis and lux, so = properly " feeble lighf = It. bar- 
lume, Sp. vis-lumbre, Norm, berluette. Beluga = bes-luga as 
O. Fr. beloi = bes-loi. The Fr. berlue a dazzling is only an- 
other form of the same word, Berrichon eberluette, Pr. abel- 
lucar, Piedm. sbaluche, Ber. eberluter, Champ, aberluder to 
dazzle. In the Mil. barluss 0= berlue) lux is preserved not 
altered to luca. 


Benda It. Pr.^ Lomb. bindOy Sp. venda, Fr. bande vitta^ tenia; 
fascia, It. bendare &c.; from O. H. O. binda, O. H. 6. Goth. 
bmdan to bind. O. bundel, E. bundle = O. Fr. boundle. 

Benna It. a basket -cart; Com. a cart; or basket for a cart; Rh. 
a carriage ; Fr. banne a large covering for the protection of 
goods &c.; a tarpaulin; Com. benda, lui. banaigl, Fr. banneau 
benneau, banneton. Festus says: benna lingua Galiica genus 
vehiculi appellatur, so in L.L.= vehiculum and also a kind of 
vessel. The Sp. Cat. N. Pr. banasta is connected; but it must 
be through the O. Fr. banastre as no ending asta is found. 
The Goth, banst is found in the prov. Fr. banse (f.) a large 
basket; L. L. bansta. 

Beodo O.Sp.cs drunken; from bibitus, cf. c(mido=i one who has 
eaten ; R. Gr. 3, 241. Beo = bib. 

B^uille — becca. 

Berbioe It., Wal. berbeace, Pr. berbitz, Fr. brebis, Pic. berbis 
a sheep; from berbex a form used by Petronius for vervex, 
L. L. berbix. Hence Pr. bergier, Fr. berger a shepherd; L. L. 
berbicarius; O. Fr. bercil a sheep-cote = vervecile; Fr. ber- 
cail = vervecale. 

Berbiqui — vilebrequin, 

Bercail — berbice. 

— bercer (2). 
(generally berser) O. Fr. to shoot, also to hunt; O. Fr. 
bersail, It. bersaglio, berzaglio a butt, bersailler berseiller to 
hit. In an old It. chronicle we find: trabs f errata quern ber- 
cellum appellabant i. e. a battering-ram, evidently from ber- 
bex vervex; from berbex would be formed It. berciare (imber- 
dare is found), Fr. bercer = to pierce, cf. Wal. berbeca inber- 
bed to hit. 

Beroer Fr., Pr. bressdr, O.Sp. brizar to rock; O.Fr. bers (whence 
Pic. ber)f Pr. bers bres, O. Pg. brepo, Pg. berpo, O. Sp. brizo, 
whence Fr. berceau a cradle, L.^ L. berciolum. Proo. from 
berbex (v. preced.V the notion beinff got from the swing of the 
battering-ram, cl. L. L. agitarium m same sense. Fr. berceau 
= also an arch of vines &c., from the resemblance to the 
covering of a cradle. Besides brizo the Sp. has brezo and 
blezo = a wicker-work bed, combleza = concubine. 

Bergante — briga. 

Berge — barca. 

Berla Mil. a waggon- basket; from 0. H. G. biral cophinus. 

Berlaaga — brelan. 

Berle Fr. a water- parsnip; Marc. Empiricus has: herbam quam 
Latini berulam, Greece cardaminen vocant. This may be the 
orig. oi berle for though the plants are distinct, yet both are 
found growing in brooks, and both were used for salad. 


Berlins It. Rh. a whipping- post. Muratori gets it from Vr.pUari 
as if for pilorina; out no It. dialect has the tennis. Perhaps^ 
from Bavar. breche pillory, whence breche-lin berchlin berlina? 
or from M. H. G. britelin a smaU bridle. 

Berline Fr. a berlin (carriage) ; from Berlin. 

Berlingare It. to feast, regale oneself, berlingozzo a tart, ber- 
lingoccio = Jeudi gras. From O. H. G. prezHinc a cake. 

Berlue — belluca. 

Berlusoo It. squinting. Com. balosc blusc; for biiusco (v. bis) = 
Rouehi berlou berlouque; warlouque seems a different compound 
connected with Piedm. galuce to squint. 

Berme Fr., whence Sp. berma, narrow path at the foot of a 
rampart; from Du. breme, A. S. brymme, E. brim. 

Bermejo — vermiglio. 

Bemer Fr. to toss a ball, toss in a blanket, scoff. The Romans, 
says Cvjacius, used the sagum for this purpose: sagum=^O.Yr. 
berne (v. bemia), whence berner. The Neap, bemare to umuse 
oneself is from the French. 

Bemia sbemia It., Sp. bemia, Fr. bernie berne a coarse stuff for 
cloaks &c., also a cloak made of it, a rug; from Hibemia 
where it was manufactured. Cf. Sp. holanda, Holland, cam- 
bric &c. 

Berretta It., Sp. birreta, Pr. berreta barreta, Fr. barrelte, O. Sp. 
(m.) barrete, Fr. birrel a cap ; from the late L. birrus (byrrhtu) 
a coarse cloth , v. bujo. 

Berro Sp. water -cress; the same as the W. berwr, Bret, beler, 
whence L. bertila used by Marcellus Empiricus : herbam guam 
Latine berulam , Greece cardaminen vacant. 

Berroviere — berruier. 

Berruier O. Fr., Pr. berrovier champion. Murat. (Ant. Ital. 2, 
530) makes the berruiers = les hommcs perdus du seigneur, 
little different from the ribaldi. Properly = a man of Berry. 
As in the case of chaorcia we have no means of determining 
how it came to be used as an appellative. Hence the It. 
berroviere a highwayman, a birro, police-officer, O. Gen. 

Bersaglio — bercer. 

'Bemer — bercer. 

Berta It. bantering, railing, Lomb. Piedm. a magpie, chatter- 
box; It. berteggiare to jeer; Vr.bertaut a sorry wight? Rouehi 
bertaud an eunuch, bertauder, Fr. bretauder to castrate, Com. 
bertolda to crop the ears or hair; It. bertone a crop-eared 
horse; bertuccio an ape. Is this root brel or beri (mutilating, 
deriding) from the O. N. britian to cut in pieces, or from 
bret&n in the lay of Hildebrand translated by Lachmann to 
mutilate? The It. berta has, however, another meaning, viz: 

BERT0U8ER — BETUI«iu 71 

that of a rammer or beetle for driving posts into the ground, 
Fr. demoiselle. The origin of this is clear enough when we 
consider that the hideous and cruel Bertha of the Germair 
tales also bore the name of Stempfe, from her stamping on 
those obnoxious to her (e. g. refractory children who used to 
be threatened with her vengeance). Whether the other Rom. 
words are connected with this or not; is not clear. 

Bertouseir — bis. 

Bertovello It. a weel, bownet. The L. L. vertebolum (L. Sal.), 
a dim. of vertebra, but, in meaning, directly from vertere, 
the neck of the weel being turned inwards, cf. It. ritroso 
(= retrorstis) mouth or neck of a weel. Hence Ven. bertevelo. 
Pied. Crem. Mil. bertavel, Com. bertavelle bertarel; It. berto- 
vello, as martello from martultts, Fr. verveux (more correctly 
verveu) is for vertveu = vertovello, 
— verza. 
N. Pr. Cat. a birch -tree; from the Celtic: Com. bes bezo, 
Bret, bezd, W. bedw = Lat. betula. 

Besaoe — bisaccia. 

Besaigre Fr. sourish ; from part, bis and acer. 

Besaigud — bicciacuto. 

Besant — bisante. 

BeBoio besso It. blockhead : from bestia, like Pr. pec from pecus, 
cf. Com. bescia a sheep, Rh. beschlar to bleat. 

Beat Fr.^n the W.) a wild pear; cf. Du. bes besie a berry. - 

Beaiole ir. (f. usu. plur.) spectacles. Not from bis-cyclus, but 
= bericle (O.Fr. rr.) = beryllus (used in L. L. = spectacles), 
Occ. mericle, Gen. bericle, Wall, berik. The form beside may 
have originated in Paris, where /rese = frere, misesese z= mise- 
rere, cf. chaise and poussiire, 

Beao — bacio. 

Besoin — sogna. 

BeBtemmia — biasimo. 

Bestordre bestorB — tordre. 

Beta — veta. 

Betarda — ottarda. 

Beter O. Fr. to muzzle = A. S. bcetan, Du. beeten, M. H. G. 
beizen to make bite (the curb), also to bait, M. H. G. erbeizen, 

f^ Hence L. L. abettum, 0. Fr. rr. abet deceit, trick, Pr. 0. Sp. 
abetar, O. Fr. abeter to cheat. Norm, abet a bait, abeter to 
bait, E. abet. The O. Fr. bete, Pr. betat often used with mer 
= coagulatum; cf. M. H. G. lebermer from liberen to curdle, 
E. beestings = colostrum. This, too, is prob. from G. beizen 
to bite , be tart or sour. 

Betula betuUa It. Pg., It. bedello (Crem. beddol)^ Cat. bedoly, 
S^.abedul, Pic. Cham^.boule (M beonle?), whence Fr. bouleau 


a birch -tree; from betula hettdla, which is of Celtic origin, 
V. bes. 

Beugler Fr. to bellow like an ox; from bucuius, whence beuffie 
an ox. 

Bivero It., Sp. bibaro, O. Sp. befre, Fr. bievre, Wal. breb, N. Pr. 
vibre a beaver, O. Norse bifr, A. S. ft^/br beofer, O.H.G. bibar, 
G. Wi&er, Lith. bebru, Russ. ^o*«-, Gael, beabhar, Com. ft^/ipr 
= L. fiber, the asp. of which , according to rule , becomes a 
medial in German, Lithuanian, Sclavonic and Celtic, ef. Zeuss 
1, 44. Bebn'nus is found in scholia in Juv. 12, 34* 

Bivue Fr. a false view, an error; from bis (q. v.) and vue, 

Bessiciure — becco. 

Biacca It. pale- white; from G. bleich. 

Biadetto — biavo. 

Biado O. It., Pr. Cat. Wa^, O.Fr. bled bleif, Fr. bled bU, It. biada. 
Mil. Ven. Piedm. biava (cf. Rovigo = Bhodigium), O. Fr. Nee, 
L. L. bladum blatum corn. Hence Pr. bladaria, Fr. biairie rent 
of pasture ; It. imbiadare, Fr. embiaver (cf. gravir, parvis, pou- 
voir) to sow with com. The usual derivation is from the A. S. 
bleed (f.) fruit, but Romance terms of husbandry are not likely 
to have come from so remote a source; rather is bleed from 
the Rom. as G. fruht from Lat. fructus. Diez derives it from 
the neut. plur. ablata, with the Rom. article f ablata f abiada 
la biada, m. biado (ablatum); for the meaning cf. G. getrade 
(produce) and G.fierbst, Gr.xagxog = that which is gathered. 
Ill L. L. ablatum abladus abladium occur = messis. The Crem. 
biada = Fr. oublie foblataj. Mahn makes the Pr. blat the ori- 

g'nal form and asserts its identity with the G. blalt a leaf, in 
ret. and W. blol, bleud, bled, blawd meal, all which belong 
to the Sansk. root phtdl, phal, E. blow, whence also folium 
and (pvllov, 

Biais Fr. Pr. Val. 0. Cat., N. Cat. biax, Sard, biasciu (m.), E. 
bias, Pg. viez obliquity. It. s-bescio awry (cf. Piedm. sbias, 
N. Pr. es'biai), Fr. biaiser, Pr. biaisar, Sard, sbiasciai. In the 
Isidor. Gloss, we find bifax duos habeas obtulus double-sighted, 
squinting, like the Sp. bisojo, cf. Bavar. zweidugeln to squint. 
From bifax (bis -fax for bis-oculusj would come bifais biais 
(cf. refusar reusar profundus preon) first used as an adj. (via 
biayssa Choix 5, 64) afterwards as a substantive. L. L. bifa- 
ries bifaciare = biais biaiser. 

Bianco It., Sp. bianco, Pg. branco, Pr. Fr. blanc white; from 
O. H. G. blanch, M. H. G. &c. blanc a shining white. Con- 
nected with blinken to glitter, E. blink. It was the common 
word to represent the Lat. albus which became extinct in the 
North-West, in the South- West (Sp. albo, Pg. alvo) = snow.- 


white 9 in Italian dull -white, turbid, dull, i^/^u^ is retained 
in Rh. and Wal., where blank is not found. 

Biante It. a vagabond: for viante from viare to wander (Menage) 
or, perhaps = the Pr. viandan (via andarej wanderer. The 
Farm, is higant. 

Biasoiare biasoioare It. to munch; mumble; perhaps from blcesus 
whence blasare (Com. blassa). 

Biasimo It., O. Sp. blasmo, Pr. blasme, Fr. bldme, E. blame; It. 
hiasimare &c.; from pXaeipr^fiov (adj.), pXa6g)i]pL£tv. From 
pXaegyrifiiaj with a change of the / into t, comes It. biastemma 
bestemmia, Rh. biastemma, Pr. blastenh, 0. Fr. blastenge, 
Wal. blest€m blasphemy; It. biastemmare &c.; with loss of the 
/ (as in lacio for flacio) Sp. Pg. lastima abuse, grief, lamenta- 
tion, lastmar to abuse, move to pity. 

Biastemma — biasimo. 

Biavo Ven. It. (Boiardo 2, 37), O. Sp. blavo, Pr. blau (f. blava), 
Fr. bleu (like /?ew from /?flrw), whence It. blUy E. blue; It. dim. 
biadeito; It. sbiavato sbiadato; from O. H. G. bldo blaw. The 
Rom. blave also = green, blavoyer = verdoyer. Hence Wedg- 
wood derives biada Tq. v.) first used for the brilliant green 
of young com , then tor corn itself. Biavo also = pale straw- 
colour. The word is widest spread in Pr.: blavenc, blaveza, 
biaveiar, blavairo, emblauzir. 

Biaoa — bis- accia. 

Bica It. a circle of sheaves, a stook; abbicare to set up sheaves, 
to heap together (Dante Inf. 9 , of frogs crouching) ; from O. 
H. G. biga a heap. 

Bioohiere It., Rh. bicker a drinking vessel, E. beaker, also It. 
pecchero a goblet, Wal. pihar, Pr. O. Fr. pichier pechier, Sp. 
Pg. picket, Basque pitcherra a tankard, pitcher; L. L. bicarium 
picarium; 0. N. bikar, O. H. G. pehhar, G. becker. The radical 
f will not allow it to c6me from L. bacar (Festus). It may be 
from becco a beak == mouth of pitcher (cf. E. beaker), or from 
Gk. pixog an earthen vessel , the p for b coming through the 
O. German. 

Biooiacuto It. two-edged; corrupted from bisacuto, 0. Fr. be- 

Bioha bioho — biscia. 

Biohe Fr. a hind, O. Fr. E. bisse, Wall, bih, N. Pr. bicho, Picdm. 
becia. The form bisse will not suit the der. from bique a goot, 
N. Pr. bico, so it is better to refer it to L. ibex, 0. Fr. ibiche. 

Biohe O. Fr. a bitch; from A. S. bicce, E. bitch, N. bikkia, cf. 
G. betze; but Frisch makes it for babicke = barbiche (barbe) 
a shaggy dog, whence It. barbone, Gen. barbin. From biche 
Qora^^bichon a small long-haired dog. 

Biooooa, biooiooca, bieioocca It, a watch-tower. Yen. bicoca a 


ndnons house, Sard, bicocca a hat, stairs with two landings, 
terrace, Lomb. a reel, Sp. bicoca a sentry-box, a narrow 
chamber, small town, Fr. bicoque, bicoq. Cf. also Sp. bko- 
quete a bonnet, bicoquin cap with two lappets, Piedm. bicachm 
a priest's cap. The first syllable is, perhaps, bis (cf. bicocca, 
bicoqw'n), but the sense of cocca here is doubtful. 

Bidello It., Sp. Pr. bedei, Fr. bedeau, £. bedell; corresponds 
exactly with the O. H. G. petil emissarius , less exactly with 
the A. S. bydel — O. H. G. butil, G. butiel, E. beadle. 

Bidet Fr. £. a little horse, a nag. It. bidetlo. From a Celtic 
root , Gael, btdeach little, bidein a little creature, cf. W. bidan 
a weakling. 

Bidon — bed on, 

Bieoo sbieoo oblique, awry, souinting; from obliquus which 
should have given obbico bico, out the e is inserted as in piego 
= plico. Dante's plurals bieci Par. 5, 65, biece In{, 2^ , 31, 
come immediately from obliqui obliquce. 

Bled 0. Fr. the bed of a river, whence Norm, bediere (cf. /// 
litiere); from A. S. bed, O. N. bedr = O. H. G. betti, whence 
Fr. biez mill-pool, h.Iu.biezium bietium. From bed come Burg. 
bief, Norm, bieu, Piedm. bial. Gen. beo, L. L. bedum. 

Bidre — bara. 

Biere — birra. 

Biffera It. a woman who has two husbands; from bivira, cf. 

Bifolco It. one who tills with oxen; from bubulctis (/■= ft, cf. 

Biga Piedm. a sow ; Du. biff bigge (f .), E. pig. 

JUgarrer Fr. to variegate, Cikt. bigarrar, Sp. abigarrar (from the 
Fr.). Menage derives it from bis-variare, but, perhaps, better 
from bi' carrer (carr6 square) properly = to make sauare, 
cf. G. scheckig, E. checkered. Bis here denotes irregmarity 
(v. bis). 

Bigatto — baco. 

Bigio It., Pr. Fr. bis dark -grey, dark- coloured. Hence Piedm. 
Pr. bisa, Fr. bise the North -wind, Bret, biz North -East -wind 
(cf. aquilo from aquiltis). The Pg. buzio and Sp. bazo dark 
(pan bazo = pain bis) are probably connected (but v. bajii), 
all coming from bombycius bambttcinus or bonibacius. Silk and 
woollen stuflFs were dyed scarlet or purple before being im- 
ported to Europe, hence L. L. bonibidna = scarlet, It. bam- 
bagello purple pigment, 0. H. G. sidin =3 coccineus. The first 
syllable was dropped, probably, from its likeness to bombus 
(cf. L. L. bacius, It. baco, Fr. basin). Diez formerly derived 
the word from bysseus: Mahn refers it to the Basque baza 
beza = baliza beltza dark, but the radical 1 is an objection. 


BIgle Fr. squinting; bigler to sauint. Probably ==: Sp. bis-ojo 
from bis-octilus, when it woula stand for hisigle, contr. hisgle, 
cf. icle in bomtcie boumicler (Jura). 

Biglia It., Sp. billa, Fr. bUle a ball; probably from the M. H. G. 
bickel a knuckle-bone, Du. bikkel a bone with which children 
play. Hence Fr. biUard (E. bitUard) and billot a lay of wood. 

Bigne — bugna. 

BIgome Fr. an anvil with projections like horns (incus comuta) ; 
from bicomis, It. bicomia, Sp. bigomia, 

Bigonoia It. a tub , a liquid measure ; from bis congius. 

Bigot Fr. E. bigot. In O. Fr. it was used as a nickname of the 
Norman, its modern sense being unknown before the 16* cen- 
tury. An old anecdote gives the following account of its 
origin. Duke Rollo when called upon to kiss king Charles' 
foot made answer: ne se bi god whence the Normans were 
termed bigots, cf. sandio. But we should in this case have ex- 

Sected bigoi rather than bigot (cf. bruth brui v. bru). Others 
erive it from Visi-gothus like cagot from canis gothus. This 
18 too artificial. Trench and others derive the modem sense 
of the word from the Pr. Sp. bigote a moustache, hombre de 
bigote a firm resolute (and so bigoted) man. It. sbigottire = 
fri^ten, disconcert, put out of countenance. We find also 
O. Fr. bigote, bigotelle, bigoterre a purse hanging at the girdle, 
bigoter to provoke. Wedgwood's etymology (from bigio grey) 
is untenable. 

BU<m Fr. a jewel; from a compound bisjocare, bijouer, so = 
something doubly sparkling. Then, why not bijeu? no verb 
bijouer is found. Perhaps it is from the Celtic (O. Corn.) bisou 
^^anulus", Bret, bizou = W. byson (from bys a finger?). 

BUancda It., Mil. Yen. Sp. balanza, Pr. balans balansa, Fr. ba- 
lance, E. balance; from bilanx bilancis. 

Bil«ncx> It. crooked, askew; from G. link? 

BQlard bille — biglia. 

Billet — bolla. 

Bfltare — betitre. 

Bimbo — bambo. 

Bindolo — ghindare. 

Binooolo It., Fr. binocle an opera-glass; from bini oculi. 

Bioooolo It. flock; from floccus, cf. bonte (dialect.) for fonte, 

Biondo It., Pr. blon (f. blonda), Fr. blond, whence, probably, the 
Sp. biondo, G. blond, E. blond. The A. S. has blonden-feax 
= oi blended 'hair grey- haired, but the transition from grey 
to blond 18 difficult. Perhaps it is from the O. N. blaud, l3an. 
UM soft, weak (in colour or quality). The It. biondetla (the 
plant centaur) is so called from its blond tresses. 

Blotto It. wretcned, Lomb. biott blot, Rh, blutt naked, Yen, bioto 

76 BIQUE — BIS. 

simple. Pr. O. Fr. hias destitnte, N. Pr. Nom pure (of water 
&c.>. Mod. Moss naked. Basque htduza. Of German origin: 
Bavar. blutt, Sw. blutt and 6/ii/r, vb. bluiten, L. L. thaare to 
empty. M. H. G. W<5z (whence Pr. W»\, G. ^oss. 

Bfqne — bfcco. 

Birar — rirare. 

Birba birbone — bribf. 

Bircio It. weak-eyed, sbirciare to blink, berciloechio a aqninter. 
Perhaps connected with O. H. G. hrehan, Bar. birg-aug. 
Anst. bir-augig all of which express a defect in the sight. 

Biroccio barocdo It. a two wheeled vehicle^ Sp. barrocho, a 
barouche; from birohis with the ending formea on the model 
of carroccio. The Fr. is brouette for bf-rayettr. Wall, berwetie. 

Birrs It., Fr. biere, Wal. ^«ir^beer. Another expression for the 
O. Rom. word. It. cenigia, Sp. cerreza^ O. Fr. cerraist, L. cere- 
risia. The It. birra is from the G. bier^ the Fr. biere from the 
M. H. G. bier ('as one svllable\ a German-Celtic word: O, H. 
G. A. S. beor, £• beer, O. X. bior, Gael, bedir^ Bret, biarch. 
The G. ^lirr is, according to some, only the L. inf. hibere, 
sbst. bilker. It. berere, beere, bere, Sard, fr^rrf , cf. WaL beit- 
ture, prop. = drink ^ E. ba'er = lunch; according to others 
the'H. G. bier is to be referred to Goth, bim and this to the 
Sansk. pir, pib from pa to drink. 

Birracehio — birro. 

Birreta — berreia, 

Birro sbirro a serjeant, police-officer, whence Sp. eshkro; prob. 
from birrus (v. berretfa^, the dark cloth with which he was 
clothed. So Menage , who also derives bhracckio a steer one 
year old from birrus in its sense of rufus. 

Bia (sometimes in the forms ber bre bar) a Romance particle used 
in composition to denote that which is wrong, false, connter- 
feit &c.; It. biscantare to sing irregnlarly^ trill, htun a tone, 
Pr. beslei bad faith , It. barlume weak light (twilight), Fr. ber- 
touser bertauder to shear unevenly, Pieiim, beriiche to taste a 
little, berlaita whey (poor milk ==petit lait\ cf. R. Gr. 2, 357. 
Various derivations are given. The form is against the G. 
mis, both sense and form against the Bret. besk. The Lat 
rice (= somethine: not -real, fictitiotis^ would suit the It. and 
Sp. where v may become ft, but not the Fr. Perhaps it is the 
adv. bis, which from the sense of double passed into that of 
oblique, awry (as in Sp. bisojo squinting, Fr. biais), and then 
= wrong, coimterfeit, bad, e.g. besivre badly drunk, bes- 
order io pollute, besanca hip -shot, ftA^wr (Fr.) an error. Of 
the same origin is the Sp. bisel, Occ. bizel^ Fr. biseau sloping 
edge, oblique surface, E. basQ bezel. When a joiner's tool is- 

BIS — BIZCO. 77 

ground away to an angle it is called a basti edge (Fr. taiUe en 

Bis — biffio. 

Bisaooia It^Sp. bisaza, Fn besace a wallet; from bisaccium, pi. 
bisaccia (retronius). So Pr. Fr. bissac, Piedm. bersac, from 
biS'Saccus. For bisaza is found also biaza, perhaps on the 
analogy of. via viage, 

Bisante it., Sp. Pg. besante, Pr. bezan, Fr. O. E. besant a By- 
zantine coin; from L. L. byzantius, Or. fivf^avtiog. 

Bisanna — guisarme, 

Bisbiglio It, whispering, noise of talkers, bisbigliare, G. pispein, 
Pic. bisbiile; formed from the sound. 

BiBoanto — canio. 

Bifloia It. a serpent, Lomb. bissa, N. Pr. bessa, O. Fr. bisse, 
'Piedim. biesso , homh.biss, It. biscio a flesh -worm. Usually 
derived from bestia, but this would give bescia. Better, per- 
haps , from the O. H. G. bizo a biting creature = A. S. bita. 
The Lomb. has bisia besia to prick, bisient biting, bisiell a bee's 
Bting, bisioce an insect with sting. The Sp. bicho bicha a grub 
may also come from bizo biza, 

BiBOotto It., Sp. bizcocho, Pr. biscueit, Fr. biscuit, E. biscuit; from 
biS'COCtus. So It. guascotto from quasi- cactus. 

BiadoBso bardosso without saddle; andare a bisdosso to ride on 
the bare back, bis expressing the discomfort (v. bis). 

Biae — bigio. 

Biael biseau — bis. 

Biset — bigio. 

Bislessare — lessare. 

Bislungo — barlong. 

Bismalva — malvavischio. 

BisQgno — sogna. 

Bisojo Sp. squint-eyed, prop, double -eyed from bis-ocuius, cf. 
biais, oard. bisogu, however, = one-eyed (Fr. louche, tuscus). 

Bisse — biscia. 

Bissdtare bissestre O. Fr., Norm, bisieutre, Piedm. bisest disaster; 

Srop. = intercalary day, from bissextus, which was even with 
le Romans considered t/w/t«?A-y, v. Ducange. 
Bistensar — stentare. 
Bistondo — tondo. 
Bittalt., Sp. Cat. bita, Fr. bitte a piece of wood, stake (bitas 

Sp., Fr. bittes = bits to belay the cable), from the 0. N. biti 

a Deam, E. bit, Sw. bissen; L. L. bitus = lignum quo vincti 

Bivae bivouao Fr., E. bivouac, vb. bivouaquer; from G. biwacht, 

beitvacht an extraordinary watch, Sp. vivac vivaque. 
Bisoo Sp., Pg. vesgo squint-eyed. The contraction from bisoctdus 

whextoe Sp. $c«^^> v^>aI>l h^ hxrsh, Larrmiiieiidi derives it 

^p. f. a pUster. fpHma t. a poahke: from ^pU€SMr, 
It. ftpittima . pittdmc . Fr. ^pefk^mir . E. epttkiem^ 

B iao ce o Henagp It.. ^irrf>r>>j«^ a bl^^ckliead. From bikeus 
Plaimis cf. Papia^ . ^V/^j amtiiia came 6crro, with suffix 

Maaafio It. ira:fciblr. capnci*>a>. sprighdv, Sp. Pg. bizarro 

fillant. high-spirited. Fr. bizarre ir hlm^ical • exnmTmeant. 
or the It. w.-inl a primidTe bizza wrath is givoi iriiid^, if 
not of G. origin of. <J. U. O. biz^m to gnash > most be firom 
bizzarro , there being no sofnx cirr. The Sp. is found also in 
the Basque, where another word bizarra = beard t= bizarrm 
••he is nianly" . whence the wider sense in Sp. 

Blalkrd Fr. pale: tnr>m the O. H. G. bMh-faro iG. bitifarb) 
pale-coloored. d epenthetic as in komard, 

Blairean Fr. a badger, also wrinen hieream, bieream: from bUh 
darHIus It. biadarHlo dimic. of L. L. biadama. It. biadajmolo 
cf . O. Fr. biairit = Pr. Nndarkt t= comdealer. The E. badger 
is from the same word biadarnts fbiadiar, bladder badger) and 
in O. E. meant also c^mdeal^. The badger is an ^^mnimal 
onmivonim** and lays up store for the winter. This store was 
popularly, but wr^>ngly . supp*^sed to be com , hence his name 
"little comdealer". Diefenbach derives it from the W.Mner 
iron-grey cf. E. gray = badger. Fr. grisardi, bat aw would 
not become <ii in Fr. The It. grajo is not from £. grog but, 
probably. = agrarius, Ant-^ther Kom. word for badger is /ono 
( It. t, Fr. I'lisson &c. q. v. . In O. Fr. it was cmllea bedaaeau 
bedouan. Norm, bedou = big -bellied. 

BUone — biasrmo. 

Blanc — bianco. 

Blandir — brando. 

Blaaone It. blazonry, heraldry'. Sp. biasoH. Pg. brasao also = 
fame . renown , Fr. Mason coat of arms , escutcheon ; It. btaso- 
nare, Fr. biasonntr to paint arms. Sp. Nasonar to blazon, extol. 
First found in Fr. where it meant a shield or scutcheon, Pr. 
biezd b/izd. It is , doubtless . derived from the A. S. bkae, E. 
btaze, whence the sense of ••/ii^r**'' would do both for the 
device on an escutcbeon and for fame, renoum; cf. O. H. G. 
bidsa a trumpet, Du. biazen to boast. The Pr. blezon takes its 
e from the A. S. 

BI6 — biado. 

BlAche Fr. weak, weakly, Norm. Neque mouldering, decaying; 
{romGr.pUi fiXaxog mollis {Ja.h.biajc=:sndiys\ (k.mousiache 


from fii;tfra|. Grandgagnage (v, bleque) derives it from G. 
bleich pale. 

Bledo Sp.; Pg. bredo, Cat. bred the wild amaranth, or a kind of 
watercress: for blUim (fiXhov). 

BdAme Fr. pale , bl^mer to grow pale. The 0. Fr. has bieme and 
blesme, me s, therefore, is inserted; from O. N. bidmi blue 
colour (bid blue), cf. O. Fr. blemir to beat (prop, make blue), 
E. blemish (prop, of dark colour of lifeless neshj. 

Ble880r Fr. to wound, O.Fr.also to iniure: quant li qtuiire angles 
sani bleciei Liv. de Job 503. The O. Fr. c often = G. z, so, 
perhaps, from M. H. G. bletzen to patch, bletzOO. H. Q.pletz) 
cut leather, whence blesser to slash, M. H. G. ze- bletzen to 

BLet Fr. rotten, now onljr in the phrase poire blette, Pied, biet, 
Rouchi bletir to rot; cf. O. H. G. bleizza a livid spot from a 

Bleu — biavo. 

BL6BO — bercer. 

Bliaut, blisaut, blial, bliau (robe, habit, justaucorps), blezo 
Neso (tunique), O. Fr. bliaut bleaut bliaus bliaux (justaucorps, 
manteau), Sp. Pg. brial a rich petticoat, L. L. bliaudus blial- 
dus, bliaus. The M. H. G. blialt blldt denotes the stuflF merely, 
so also in O. Fr. Diez suggests that the root bli or blid is 
oriental, and Mahn refers to the Pers. baljad a plain garment, 
from Ar. root bald to wear a garment. The Fr. blouse, Pic. 
hleude, Norm, plaude (cf. the forms blizant, bliaus &c.) is the 
same word. Ducange derives bliaud &c. from the W. bliand a 
fine linen -stuff, O. E. bleaunt, blehand. 

Blinder Fr. to cover, blind; from Goth, blindjan, O. H. G. blen- 
dan 9 G. blenden, E. blind. Hence sbst. blindes, It. blinde. 

Bloo Pr. a block, bloquer (It. bloccare), Sp. bloquear to blockade; 
from O. H. G. bloc block, G. E. block, which Grimm derives 
from bi'loh a bolt (Goth, lukan to shut). The Fr. blocus is the 
G. blochiis blockhaus. 

Bloi O. Fr. Pr. light -coloured, yellow, espec. of flowers and of 
hair, L. L. bloius blodius. Thus we find: Vseut la blonda and 
Fsseultz ab lo pel blot/. From A. S. bled blid colour, so light- 
colour as opp. dark , or better to consider bloi another form 
of bleu, botn coming from the O.H.G.W<io=flavus and c»ru- 
leus, cf. poi and peu from pau fpaucus). 

Blois O. Fr., Pr. bles = blcesus. 

Blond — biondo. 

Bloquer — bloc. 

BLoB — biotto. 

Blostre O. Fr. a little hillock or mound ; from Du. bluyster, E. 

¥j BLl>r»E 

— hUgftr, 


Ft. :•:• b^Jt ai«<ral. ^^ptiLnce ii inn>iii tb« brui. M«lf«« kimuir 
X boinn;?-«i-&Te. BImm^t b f*>r hritter ;u: lASpw V«r«r u famidL 
^«r'*flr L» ch*e: L. L. 9ii^4r^. Ri>achi 9«a^r. himiemm Hat L. L. 
Meii^vwL, Tk*^ O. Fr. h^retei i^ nedkrer the •>ri^iiijd . mud = 
Ir. hHTOtteUo from ^«rfirr/> a siere . pr»pu = a tUn staff, v. 
^i0r^ . mud cf . eiamoke. Fr*>m hwetH emme M^<tff Mrtrf bimSemm, 
F'vr ^juratjfi the Pr. hm^ bana^i. Dmaph. b^rit^. Bret. ^wni^. 
Occ. ^'^xntid . h^naHd. ^.^thers derire the word firom the G. 
/b-fv/^A. )L H. G. >wxWji. 

Botrfne Fr. m '•pi'/^J. hf/A»iM, Pi<edizL.9'>^m«f. From i^at^ig becmose 
41 th^ ^MHMoi^ ii«>Lse it make« mco>rd. to Xoniii^ >. 

Bobb Com.. G<rii. ih<^ drink a vord a5<d bj children L Varro 
fam.^ j^y^ in th'^ same ?^n$^« which •'^nommtop. ^eons to have 
b^^n Prdaplicated in the Rom. The words mvolTe the same 
r*»c as hh^'^^. The It. tf^jaUfO bombard b^jmb^tt^srt b radier from 
Gk. fiofL^iir. bomkb^Aa a flask from /ki^^rio^ 

Bobo Sp. Pg.. SanL ^<>rv bl«>ckhead. simpleton: from baib^s. 
It. hilhOf Pr. ^<i/& ic. cf. Sp. farf^A a stammerer, Basq. 
farf valla a bl*>ckhead , and for the form . cf. popmr from pa/- 

'Boc^ It., Sp. Pg. ^<>^a. Pr. buga. Fr. >y>jfiiir the sea*bream; frt>m 
L. b^ac bocu m. • P^7. - Gk. ^de£ /k»$. 

Boca^ie boia — ^(>iro. 

Booca It.. Sp. Pg. Pr. boca^ Fr. b<mcke a month « from hueca. 
Hence Pr. bucdlo X- huccdia Martial n biissi, O. Fr. bo^usim a 
mor«eI: Sp. /^ro/ a muzzle == a L. bmccealey from bmtcem. 

Boccale It.. Sp. Fr. Wal. bocal a mug. pitcher; from L. L. ten- 
calls, which from Gr. fiavxdjuov a ve«$el. t. Jonm. d. Sav. 

1S33, p. 47S. 
Boocia — hozza. 
Booear Sp. to move the lips, O. Sp. Pg. bocejar to e^pe. Sp. bo- 

cezar and bosiezar i for suffix ct. tropezar i : probaolv from Sp. 

buz 2k lip : q. V. «. 
Booel — buz. 
Bocha — bozza. 
Bocbomo Sp. Pg. a snltry East -wind: from mZ/Mmitf. 

Bociare It. to cry. pnblish : from rax. It. boer, 

Boda Sp. P^. Cat. a wedding, nuptials. From rcia pK of roliflN, 
cf- Cod. Jnstin. ad iertia vota migrare. An O. Sp. word for 
vow L« toia. It. boio. 

Bode Sp. Pg. a he -goat: cf. Com. bida a goat. 

Bofe Sp. Pg. long; from bufar to blow , Pg. also bofar cf. xvev- 

BOFfe — BOLLA. 81 

IM>v from xvstv, It. mantaco wind-bag, lung; hence Sp. ho- 
fena bohena a pudding made of pig's lung. 

Bof6 O. Pg. adv. = L. certo; for a boa fe, 

Bof eton — buf. 

Boffloe — buf. 

Boga — boca. 

Bogar — vogare. 

Bohena — bofe. 

Boiflie boisdie — bugia. 

Boiflseau boiter — botte. 

Bolsson Ft. drink; from boire (bibere) ; baisson = beison (bibitio). 

Boite Fr., Pr. bostia boissa, also brostia brustia a box. From 
pyxis was formed L. L. buxis, whence the Pr. boissa; in the 
10*** cent, buxida from ace. pyxida (nviCda) was corrupted into 
buxdia busiia, whence Pr. bostia, O. IV. boiste, Bret, boe'st. In 
a 9*** cent. Glossary we find: pyxides vulgo poxides. From 
boUe come deboiter to wrench, sprain, bolter to limp, Rouch. 
botier. Hence, too, Fr. boisseau (E. bushel) a dialectical form 
of which is boisteau h.h.busteiius. This is to be distinguished 
from the O. Fr. boucei bouchiau, Pr. bossel a liquid measure 
= It. botticello from botte (q. v.). 

Boja O. It., Pr. boia, O. fr. buie a chain, fetter; from boja 
(Plautus &c.) ; M. H. G. boije. The Sd. boya, Pg. boie, O. Fr. 
bcye, Fr. bouee, G. boje, E. buoy is the same word, prop. = 
a floating piece of wood fastened by a rope or chain (boja). 

Boja It. an executioner, O. Sp. boya, N. Pr. boiou, Wall, boie, 
Kh. bojer. The It. forms no masculine in a (though it uses 
some masculines as f., e. g. il camerata, lo spia), so the word 
must have existed before m a diflferent sense. It is the O. It. 
boja a fetter, halter, cf. Papias: boja tormenta damnatorum. 
In Sp. the same word is used for ''rod'* and ''executioner", v. 

Bojar Sp. to sail round an island or a promontory; from Du. 
bogen, G. biegen beugen to bend, cf. L. flectere promontorium. 

Boldrone — poltro. 

Bolegar — bouger. 

Boleta — bolia. 

Bolgia It., O. Fr. boge a sack, Fr. bouge a little room; hence 
Sp. burjaca a knapsack; Vr. bougette a travelling bag, O. E. 
bogett bougett, E. budget, which last has travelled back to 
France in its new sense. It is the Lat. bulga (Lucil.) which 
Festus mentions as a Gallic word; the O. Irish is bole, Gael. 
builg, W. bwlch hole&c, O.H.G. bulga (belgen to swell). The 
Rom. forms come through a L. adj. bulgea. 
BoUa bulla It., Su. Pr. bola bula, Pg. bolha btdla, Fr. boule bulle, 
a bubble, bladder, ball, and, from the form, a seal affixed to 



records Cfor which the form with u is generally used, £.6ti/7); 
from L. buiia. The Sp. boia, O. Fr. Pic. bottle = brag, deceit 
arose out of the meaning ^bubble-\ hence bauler (of pigeons) 
to swell the crop. From boila &c. come It. bolieiia buUeita, 
Fr. biVei note u - sealed paper). It. bvlletino, Fr. E. buUeiin; 
Sp. bfMon , Fr. boulon a thick - headed nail , O. Fr. = bolt , cf. 
L. bulla = head of a nail. From the same root, through L. 
bullire, come It. bollire , Sp. Pr. bullir, Ps. buUr boHr, Fr. 
bottillir to boil; hence It. boHone, Fr. ^ouf//oit broth (E. Indlion), 
cf. Sp. caldo, Pic. caudiau, O. Fr. caudel, E. caudle; Sp. dfi//a^ 
Pg. 6u/^ noise, whence Cat. esbulyar to disturb, and, per- 
haps ^ Pg. esbulhar to search thoroughly, bereave, whicn is 
gen. derived from spoliare. 

Bolaa — borsa. 

Bolflo It. asthmatic, (of a horse) broken - winded , Mil. sbolza to 
cough; from pulsus, whence also Fr. pousse , poussif, Limous. 
poussd to breathe with difficulty, Sw. bulsi have a dry cough. 
Cf. Pr. bols '*equus nimis pulsans^'. 

Bolsone It., O. Sp. O. Fr. bozon, Pr. bossd an arrow with blunt 
point, also a battering-ram; from bulla the head of a nail 
with the suffix cion (cf. boulon Fr. a bolt, arrow), cf. hamecon 
from hamus. There is no necessitv to derive it from the G. 
bf^z holzen. 

Bomba Pr. O. Valen. brag, pomp, show ; It. bombanza rejoicing, 
O. Fr. bombance sumptuous cheer &c., bobance, Pr. bobansa 
= bomba; Pr. bobans for boban, O. Fr. bobant. From bombus 
buzzing, bustle, bombicus noisy, boastful (Venant. Fort.), 
whence also bomba hombarda a noisy missile, a bomb, bombar- 
dare to bombard &e. ; It. rimbombare to re-echo. 

Bomba Sp. Pg. Cat., Fr. pomiye, E. pump. So called, according 
to Adelvmg, from the noise which it makes, but, perhaps, 
better from x\\^/Rova. bombare to drink, suck, whicn, how- 
ever, is itself an onomatop., cf. bobo. In Italian it is called 
tromba, which represented the L. tuba, and = a water-pipe. 

Bombasin — bambagio, 

Bombero It. a ploughshare, Ven. gomiero; for vomero, L. vomer. 

Bomerie Norm, bottomry; from Du. bodemerij, G. bodmerei, E. 
bottomry, these from bodeti , bottom (of a ship) :i= a ship. 

Bonaocia It., Pr. bonassa, Fr. bonacey Sp. bonanza a calm; from 
bonus, ef. Sp. bonazo peaceful, good-natured, Wal. r&sbun€\i 
clears up. Molina in O. Sp. = bad weather, a storm, from 

Bonde Fr. a sluice, tap, bondon a bung (Pr.); from the Sw. punt, 
Swab. buntCy O. H. G. spunt. 

Bondir Fr. to bound, leap, bond a bound. The O. Fr. Pr. meant 
to hum, sound, doubtless fnmi bomhitare to hum, bondar. As 


is often the case in intransitives , hondir took the form of the 
3'** conj., cf. tenlir from tinnitare. 

Bonete Sp. Pg., Pr. boneta, Fr. E. bonnet. It was orig. the name 
of a staff, but whence derived is uncertain (Bonnet in Ire- 
land?). J. Grimm connects with this obbonis (obpinis abonnis 
a sort of net or coif), Merkel, L. Sal. p. 54. 

Bonheur — augyrio, 

Bonina Sp. Pg. ox-eyed camomile; prob. a comiption of Ar. 
bdbimag =rer^. bdbunah, Freyt. 1, 78. 

Bor — ora, 

Borbogliare It., Pic. borboulier to mutter, Sp. borboilar, Pg. bor- 
bolhar borbulhar to bubble out. Cat. borboilar to cheat, con- 
fuse; Sp. burbuja, Pg. borbulha a bubble, a knob. The Sp. 
is prob. from a reduplicated form of L. bullare, the rest are 
more doubtful though the meanings "murmur'' and '^sputter'' 
may easily be connected. Besides borbogliare there is another 
form borbottare, O. Fr. borbeter, Pic. borboter, and another 
word for the Sp. borboilar is borbotar, prob. formed from the 
sound like /3oppt;p^£ti/, Gael, borban a muttering, It. burbero 
morose. Another form (influenced by barba) is Sp. barbotar, 
Mil. barbotta, Pic. barboter, Cat. barbotejar, hence It. barbu- 
gliare, Sp. barbullar to talk confusedly. 

Borboleta Pg. a butterfly ; from borbolhar to ramble, bound , cf . 
Rh. bulla = borboleta, bugliar = borbolhar, cf. also Loth. 
bouble, Du. bobbeln to rove, v. mart'posa. 

Borbottare borbotar — borbogliare. 

Borohia It. a buckle on horse- trappings, a large head of a nail, 
a golden heart or similar ornament worn by women. Prob. 
from bulla though it is difficult to get bul-cula from bullacula. 
Cf. the O. H. G-. bolca = Lat. bulla. 

Borda Pr. Cat., O. Fr. borde a hut ; from Goth, baurd, O. N. 
bord , O. H. G. bort, E. board, cf. Ir. Gael, bdrd, W. btvrdh. 
Hence It. bordello, Pr. Fr. bordel, Sp. burdel, O. Fr. bordela 
(iem.), E. brothel. 

Borde Sp., Pr. bort, O. Fr. borde a bastard. Prob. the original 
of the late Lat. burdo a mule (burdonem producit equus con- 
junctus asellce, Due), which some derive from the G. beran 
to draw. 

Bordel bordello — borda. 

Bordo It. Sp. (also borde) Pg., Fr. bord, O. Sp. Pg. borda hem, 
border, side (e. g. of a ship); from O. H. G. bort, O. S. bort 
rim, &c. Hence Sp. bordar, Fr. border, E. border. The Sp. 
verb also means to embroider, for which the others have a 
distinct form ; Cat. brodar, Fr. broder, E. broider, W. brodio, 
cf. Gael, brod, O. E. brode a prick , a prod, embroidering and 
pricking (Fr. brocher) being cognate. Another form is the 


84 B0SD05C — BOB5IO. 

WalL krrjtder, O. Sp. O. Pg. 9r*jidmr for bn>sdar '1*. L. brottmy 
bnaha ^ eTi'ientlv fr>ai ifae <J. H. G. ^tf-iProrfdn ^ firom a Goth, 
^ncr^i^ldii , el. A. S*. Word •>. X. br»jd4r x p>iiit^-. 

Bordone It.. Sp. Pr. bord»M . Fr. b'jr4a»p. Yr^ b^jftrdam a pilgriiii*s 
staff. wiiic}i he izLidic regard a^ hL* mule Omrdo) from its sap- 
porting him, tf- :^p. wtmleta = fc>ih '^ande^ and -milrA'^. 

Bordone It.. Sp. ^Gr<tf<M. Pg. >wjrf^> . Fr. bovd^my E. ^ivntfat ^of 
a «4>ng . Fr. aU4> = huinble-bee: Fr. h^jm^/fmrner to hum. If 
it be true that thi« word meant orig. a long tmmpet or organ- 
pipe . it mav be the ^ame a5 the preceding hi^rdume firom the 
resemblance to a staff. In this case the GaeL bkrdmk a hum- 
ming, O. £. bowdam are of foreign origin. 

Bot^jue •— v*jtTtiOm 

_ It-. Sp. Pg. bwffo, Pr. b^yrc, Fr. bettrp a «mall town^ a 
borough. The word i> of G. origin . Goth, bawgs, O. H. G. 
bwg • trom bairgan b^rgan to shelter'. E. burgh bortmgk. Burgus 
was also a late L. word . cf. Veget. de re miHt. 4. 10 : casid- 
turn parcum qutm burgwm rocami; if this be from the G., it 
seems to owe at least its masc. form to the Gk. xifpT^o^. It is 
from this L. word that the Rom. forms ei:»me, for tlve 6. bmrg 
conld not have given the soft j^ in It. borgesf^ Sp. byrges, Pg. 
bwgd, Fr. b^Atrgeois. though its inflaenee was sufficient to 
create other forms. It. borghete. Pg. bwguezy Pr. borguts, O. 
Fr. bfjfrgois^ The Sp. town Bwgos is a relic of the same word, 
L. Bwgi'Omm. 

Boria It. pride, arrogance, b'jri'jrt l^oriarsi to be arrogant; per- 
haps from the O. H. G. bwjam to nplifi , G. em-pdren to rebel. 
According to others* , from Boreas or from raporeus (v. brima). 

Borino It., Fr. burin, Sp. Pg. bwH, O. Sp. boril, £. bwrme a 
graving- tool: perhaps from O. U. G. bora terebra, bor&n 
terebrare , E. bore. 

Boria — buria. 

Borne Fr. if.) a bonndary- stone, L. L. 'bonma, O. Fr. botme 
boune bousne, X. Pr. bouino, and L. L. bodina bodma, O. Fr. 
bodne. The oldest form is bodina, which would e;ive both 
bonne (bodna) and borne. The root bod is found also in Pr. 
boz'OLa ^== borne) contr. bola, L. L. bodula, v. bonder, 

Bomi Sp. Pg. a kmd of falcon: from Ar. bums, plur. bardtiU 
said to come from the province of Bomou in Africa. 

Boralo It., Cat. bomi, Fr. borgne one-eved: O. Fr. borgnoier to 
be one-eyed. Grig. = squinting, ct. bomicle (E. bamaciesj 
squint -eved, Jura boumicter to ^quint: Sp. bomear to bendf, 
twist, evade, is of the same orio^i: cf. /M^r/o= twisted, squint- 
ing, and one-eyed. The denvation is uncertain, the Bret. 
bom seeming to come from the French. The Limous. has 
borli. Hence It. bomioia a false sentence. 

BORRA — Bosso; 86 

Borra It. Sp. Pr., Fr. bourre short wool, goat's hair, flock &c. 
It is the sin^. of Ausonius' burrce = quisquilise, ineptise, in 
which sense It. borre, and Sp. borras (pi.) are also used (cf. 
fiocco in both senses). From this burra comes the L. L. rebur- 
rus nigged, rough. Hence come Sp. borra borro a lamb (with 
short wool) also borrego; It. borraccia, Sp. borracha a wine- 
skin (of goat's skin?); Pr. borras, Fr. bourras a coarse cloth; 
Fr. bourrer. It. abborrare to stop with wool, Sp. Pg. borrar to 
blot; Sp. borron, Pg. borrao a plot, cf. burro. 

Borraooia borraoha — borra. 

Borraoelt., Sf.borrax, Fr. lEt. borax; trom At. bur aq, Fers.biirah. 
It comes from China and Japan. 

Borraggine It. (contr. borrana), Sp. borraja, Pg. borragem, Pr. 
borrage, Fr. bourrache, Wal. borantze, E. borage, L. Lat. bor- 
rago; prob. formed from borra (q. v.), with the suffix aggine 
= L. ago (cf. capr- , fus-, lent-, uliv-aggine), because of the 
its rough hairy leaves, unless, indeed, the word be of Oriental 
origin. It is found in the Levant countries, espec. in the 
neighbourhood of Aleppo. 

Borrasoa — burrasca. 

Borrego borro — borra. 

Borrero — bourreau. 

Borrioo — burro. 

Borro It. the bed of a mountain -stream, dell, clift, Moden. bu- 
drione; from fid^gvg fiod'Qiov. Hence burratto (Dante) a broken 
precipice, burrato an abyss. Cf. Wal. buture a cave, Sp. town 
Val-de^buron, N. Pr. bauri a precipice. 

Borrofler — bouder. 

Borsa It. Pr., Sp. Pg. bolsa, Fr. bourse, E. purse, from L. L. byrsa 
(fivQiSa) = leather. Hence, too, Wal. boase, Basque molsa. 

Bonaochino It., Sp. borcegui, Fr. brodequin, E. buskin; from 
Du. broseken, brosektn, a dimin. of broos (f,), probably a cor- 
ruption of byrsa leather, cf. leerse = boot from leer leather. 

BoBOO It., Sp. Pg. bosque, Pr. bosc, Fr. bois, L. L. boscus buscus 

^ a wood. J. Grimm refers this word to the G. bauen to build, 

[^whence buwtsc bm'sc building- material, wood (cf. Fr. bois). 
The G. 6 has been shortened in the Rom. bosco for busco, cf. 
busca. The Fr. bosquet and bocage for the obs. boschet boschage 
are formed after It. boschetto, Sp. boscage; Fr. bouquet is for 
bomquet (for the meaning cf. L. silvd). Hence It. imboscare, 
Sp. Pr. emboscar, Fr. embusquer (O. Fr. embuscher and embtm- 
sier) to lie in ambush, embuche, E. ambush. 

Bosquet — bosco. 

Bosse — bozza. 

BoBseman Fr. from the Du. bootsman, boosmann a boatman. 

Boeso It., Sp. box, Pg. buxo, Pr. bois, Fr. buis, E. box (tree) ; 


from bttxus. Hence It. buscione, Fr. buman, Pr. boisson a b%ish 
(not from bois base which would have given in Pr. boscon); It. 
bossolo box -tree and a box, Sjp. bruxula a compass (for the 
inserted e, cf. Pr. brostia with boite), Fr. boussoie, also Sp. 
buxeta, Pr. bosseta, Fr. bossette. 

Bossolo — bosso, 

Bostar Sp.^ Pg. bostal an oxstall. The Gloss. Isid. has: bosiar 
locus tAi stanl boves: some compare the Gk. Pov6td6Mv, from 
which, however, the Rom. word could hardly come. 

Bostesar — bocear. 

Bot — botta. 

Botequin Sp. a small boat; from Du. bootje (orig. ph. bdikin), 
Rouchi botequin bodequin. 

Botta It.; O. Fr. botte (and boz) a toad. Champ. Dauph. bote; 
from a G. root which appears in bdtzen to thrust , drive, so 
= that which is banished, driven out. Hence Sp. boio dull, 
Fr. bot (pied bot clump -footed) botte a lump, Rh. boti a hill, 
Wal. butaciu dull; the G. butz butzen, L. Gr. E. butt are con- 

Bottare It. (in dibottare to strike, agitate), buttare to bud (of 
trees), Sp. Pg. Pr. botar, Fr. bouter, E. butt; from M. H. Q. 
bdzen to strike. Hence Mil. &t/^/ a bud, It. botto, botta, Sp. 
bote, Fr. botte a push &c., bout end, whence debout, aboutir, 
E. abut, buttress. Hence It. bottone, Sp. Pr. boton, Fr. bouion, 
E. button, ph. = O. G. bdzo a lump. The W. bot bdth a round 
substance is sometimes compared, but the It. forms with the 
double / and double z (v. bozza) seem to come from a G. 

Botte It., Sp. Pr. bota, Fr. botte boute, Wal. botebute tub, skin, 
boot &c. The word is common to many languages , cf . Gr. 
fiovtig fivTig a ilask, A. S. butfe, G. bUtte a butt (vessel), Gael. 
bdt a boot. Hence It. bottiglia, Sp. botilla botiga, Fr. boutMle, 
L. L. buticuia, E. bottle pottle (cf. L. L. from piuicla); It. bot- 
tino a cistern, O. H. G. butin, A. S. byden &c. 

Bottega It., Sp. botica, Pr. botiga, Fr. boutique, E. booth; from 
apotheca. Neap, potiga, Sic. putiga. 

Bottinolt., Sp. botin, both, probably, from the Fr. butin booty; 
from N. byti, M. H. G. biiten. 

Boa O. Fr. a bracelet; from O. H. G. boug (from biugan), O. N. 
baugr a ring. The Pr. was bauc. 

Bono Fr., Pr. boc a he -goat, Rh. buck (E. buck), Com. ftocrA, 
Cat. boc, Arag. boque, O. Sp. ^uro. A word common to the 
Celtic and German languages , but , according to Grimm , in- 
troduced into the G. from the Rom. The It. has instead becco, 
the Sp. bode. Hence Fr. boucher (= It. beccaro), Pr. bocMer, 
E. butcher, pr. = one who kills goats (cf. It. beccaro), Fr. 


boucherie, Pr. bocaria. Cf. brecaria a placp for slaughtering 
sheep, cabreria for goats &c. The O. Vr, for boucher was 
maiselier = macellarius. 

Bouohe — bocca. 

Boucher — bouc. 

Boucher Fr. to stop up, bouchon a stopper, = Pr. bocd, It. boc- 
cone meaning prop, mouthfull, so = tnat which fills the mouth 
of bessels &c. 

Boude Fr. (f.) a metal ring, a lock of hair (Sp. bucle); O. Fr. 
bocle blouque, Pr. boca bloca, O. Sp. bloca = clasp of a shield, 
L. L. bucula scuti, M. H. G. bucket, E. buckle; hence Fr. 
bouclier, Pr. bloquier, It. brocchiere, O. H. G. buckeler, E. 
buckler a shield with a buckle ; from buccula dim. of bucca a 

Bouder Fr. to pout, boudin (com. bodin) a black- pudding (= E. 
pudding, Vf. poten), boudine a knot, 0. Fr. the navel, N. Pr. 
bouddli boudougno a buckle, a tumour, Piedm. bodero thick- 
set; hence N. Pr. boud-enfld boud-oufla baud -i fid to blow; Fr. 
bour-souffler (= boud-souffler) , borrofler (but cf. Wal. boa- 
unfla from borsa a tumour, and inflare). The root is bod which 
denotes something projecting (e. g. in bouder the underlip), 
and which also gives rise to bodina a boundary (v. borne\ cf. 
G. schwette a threshold from srhwetten. The root bot is found 
in L. bot'Ulus, v. bottare, botte. 

Boudin boudine — bouder. 

Boue Ft. mud, O. Fr. boe; prob. the W. baw (m.). 

Bou6e — boja. 

Boufller bouflfon — buf. 

Bouge — botgia. 

Bouger Fr., Pr. bojar to move, cf. Wall, boge to retreat. From 
O. H. G. biugan, G. biegen (to give in, yield), or, perhaps, 
better from O. H. G. bog^, Du. bogen, Sw. bo;en, O. PJ. buga, 
G. beugen to bend; the former would require a radical u 
fbuger). The proper Pr. word is bolegar = It. buticare, from 
bulir bolir to boil, cf. Sp. butlir to move about, bustle, Pg. 
bulir to move a thing from its place (cf. bouger). 

Bougie — bugia. 

Bougran — bucherame. 

Bougre Fr. = Bulgarus, and meant orig. a heretic, Bulgaria 
being the chief seat of the Manichiean heresy, bougerie = 
heresv. Bougre = pcedico, the punishment of this and of the 
heretic being the same. Menage. V. Ducange, s. Butgarus, 

Bouhourt — bagordo. 

Bouillir bouillon boule — bolla. 

Boulanger Fr. a baker. Cf. Sp. boflo a roll. Com. butet a sort of 
bread. The word is prob. from boule, whence would come a 


form botiiange = bread in a round form. Bulengarius is found 

in the 12^** century. 
Bouleau — hetula. 
Boulevard boulevart Fr. (bou/ever Nicot) a fortification , hence 

It. baluardo, Sp. baluarte; from G. boUwerk a bulwark, cf. 

Estrabort from Strdzburc. Eoquefort has boilewerque, 
Bouleverser Fr. prop. = to turn over like a ball (boulej. The 

Lim. has corrupted it into polo -versa {polo clunis). 
Boulimie — bulimo. 
Bouline Fr. (naut.) bow -line, O. Fr. boline, boeline; Du. boe- 

lijne, E. bowline, G. boleine. 
Boulon — bolla. 
Boundle — benda. 
Bouquer Fr. to yield, to truckle; from N. bucka, to stoop, G. 

Bouquet — bosco. 
Bouquin Fr. a bad book; from Du. boeckin (G. buch-cfien). Cf. 

mannequin, brodequin, hellequin, Rouchi penequin = bad oread, 

verquin a small glass. 
Bourbe Fr. (f.) mud, Wall, borbou; cf. Gr. fiogfiogog, 
Bourde Fr., Pr. borda a lie , vb. bourder. The old sense of the 

word (jest, pastime) points to iheFr. bori tor biort (v. bagiordo); 

the O. Fr. behorder had the meaning "to sport, je8t'\ From 

behord]G%i came the E. boord, Gael, biird. 
Bourdon — bordone, 
Bourg — borgo. 
Bourgeon Fr., E. burgeon. Perhaps from the O. H. G. burjan to 

lift, so = something protruding, breaking out. In Langued. 

boure = the eye of a shoot. 
BoumouB — albomoz. 
Bourraohe — borraggine. 
Bourras — borra. 
Boilrrasque — burrasca. 
Bourre — borra, 
Bourreau Fr., Pr. borel an executioner. The contraction from 

bouchereau (boucher) would be too violent. Borel might come 

from boja (q. v.) with the double suffix er-el, cf. Fr. mdtereau 

from mdt, thus = an hypothetical boi-er-ello, cf. Rh. bojer, 

O. Sp. borrero. From bourreau comes bourreler to torture. Or 

it is the same as the O.Fr. borel, burel, O.E. borel a clownish, 

common fellow, prop. = clad in borel or the undyed wool of 

brown sheep, v. buio, 
Bourreler — bourreau. 
Bourrer — borra. 
Bourrique — burro. 
Bourse — borsa. 


BouTBoufler — houder. » 

Bouse Ft., Pr. hoza buza cowdung. The Rh. has hovatscha, Com. 
boascia, Parin. boazza, so we might have a Fr. bouasse; but it 
is doubtful whether this could give bousse bouse, such a trans- 
position of the accent from the suffix to the root being un- 
known in French. Better from M. H. Q. butze clod, cf. etron 
8. stronzare. 

BouBsole — bosso. 

Bout — bottare. 

Boute bouteille — botte. 

Boutique — botiega. 

Bova It. (only in pL), Lomb. boga fetters for the feet; from O. 
H. G. bouga an armlet, L. L. bauca armilla Papias: cf. bou. 

Boveda — volta. 

Box — bosso. 

Bo3ra — boja (2). 

Boyau — budello. 

Bosal — bocca. 
— versare. 

It., Pr. bossa, Fr. bosse, Pic. boche a lump, a boil, Eng. 
boss, Fr. bossu humpbacked, It. boccia a bud, ball, Sp. bocha 
ball, bowl, Pg. bochecha the cheek puffed out ; the same word 
as, theH.G.^w/z^ butzen any blunt point or lump, oi.Dxx.butse 
a boil, from M. H. G. bdzen to thrust Tprotrude), v. bottare. 
The It. bozzo and bozza mean a rougn unformed block of 
stone, whence abbozzare to work in the rough, to sketch, E. 
bo<ist, Pg. esbocar, Sp. bosquejar, O. Sp. esbozo = abbozzo, Fr. 
bossage any stone indeed for sculpture. Other forms have a 
radical u instead of the o: thus It. buzzo a belly, a pincushion, 
Sp. biiche crop, bosom, pad; Sp. buchete = bochecha*^ Fr. but 
a raised knob, a butt, whence scope, design (cf. Gr. axonog, 
G. zwecU)j whence debut; Fr. butte (f.) a raised mound. From 
buzzo in the Mil. buzzccca, Piedm. buseca, It. busecchio the 
bowels , cf. O. H. G. gebuzze exta. From Sp. buche seems to 
come bucha a bread-chest, money-box, buchar to hide. From 
boccia a bud prob. come bozzacchio and bozzacchione (Dante 
Parad.) a witnered plum. 

It., Sp. Pg. braga, Pr, bray a, O. Fr. braie breeches (usu. 
in pi.), Sp. braga, Fr, braie a child's napkin; from Lat. braca 
of GalUc origin , Bret, brages. 

Braoco It., Sp. braco brae, Fr. braque a hunting dog, pointer; 
It. braccare to track; from O. H. G. braccho, G. bracke. The 
Sp. adj. braco = flat -nosed. From O. Fr. bracon came bra- 
connier a poacher, braconner to poach. 

Braoonnier — bracco. 

Bragia brasoia braoia It., Sp. Pr. brasa, Pg. braza, Fr. braise 


glowing coal. FI. hrase; It. abbrtgiare, Sp. abrazar, Fr. em- 
hraser, O. Fr. e$braser to set on fire. From the O. N. brasa 
solder, whence A. S. brda'an to braze, whence It. bra^are: 
braria is like cacio from casevs. Mil. brasca ^^ embrasser. 
Hence E. vb. brase, sbst. braser a pan of hot coals. E. brass 
is from the same. 

;o It., Pr. brae mad« mire, O. Fr. brat mire, whence ie pays 
de Bray, Pr. = matter. Cat. brae ulcer, pitch, Fr. ftr«r jpiteh 
whence Sp. brea, Pg. breo breu, vb. brayer, brear^ cf. Wall. 
briae mire. From Gk. figayog = Hog (Menage V? 
raifi^ae O. Fr. diversion . Fr. braver to be merry , X. Pr. braga 
to E. brag , O. Fr. bragard, E. braggart^ Du. braggaerd. It is 
not found in O. Pr., hence prob. from the N. brak noise, braka 
to brag. Dief. Goth. Worterb. 1 . 268 . derives it from the 
Celtic , W. brag = malt , bragiatc to swell , brew. 
— brago. 

Braidif — brarre. 

Braie — braea, 

Bralller — braire. 

Braiman Pr. a freebooter : prop. = a man of Brabant , O. Sp. 
breimantey v. Due. (s. BrabaneionesX 

Braion — brandone, 

Braire Fr. E. bray, O. Fr. Pic. Norm. Pr. braire generally to 
cry, also to trill (of birds'^: flo rosstnho/$ brai), particip. braif, 
whence braif a crv. As O. Fr. mtiire finom mugire^ bruire from 
L. L. bmgire , so braire from L. L. bragire, Prob. the same 
as raire (q. v.>, cf. bruire from mgire. From braii comes Pr. 
braidar, Pg. bradar, whence Pr. braidiu, O. Fr. braidif im- 
petuous, stormy: prob. also Pr. O. Fr. hraidir, O. It. bradire. 
The Fr. braif/er, Pr. braillar to blare (for braaffler?), Piedm. 
braje may come from braire as eriaii/er from erier, piailler from 
a form pier. It. piare, 

Braiae — bragia, 

Bramare It.. Tlh.brammar to long for, Sp. Vr.bramar, Fr. bramer 
to scream , N. Pr. bramd in both senses , cf. O. Cat. giaiir to 
bark, N. Cat. to desire, and Festus has: tatrare Efmius pro 
poseere posuit. It is the O. H. Ot,breman, Du. bremmen to roar, 
Gr. figsfisiv, L. fremere, Sansk. bhram. 

Bramangiere It. a first coiirse: from Fr. blane- manger a blanc- 
mange , dish made with milk , M. H. G. bidmenschier. 
— brenno. 

It. O. Sp. O. Pg. Pr„ Fr. branehe, Pr. also m. branc, E. 
braneh , Wal. brenee a forefoot , L. L. branea ieonis a plant. 
The L. braehium could only have give braneia. Branca was 
probablv an old Rom. word, perhaps even used in the apoken 
Latin, ^he O. Gael, brae, Com. brech, W. breich arm, are 


connected , the Bret, branc preserving the purer form. From 
branca comes It. brancolare to grope. 

Branohe — branca. 

Brande Fr., N. Pr. brando brushwood, Berr. brande broom. 

Brandir brandon branler — brando. 

Brandifltoooo It. a javelin; from brandire to brandish and stocco 
a stick. 

Brando It., Pr. bran, O. Val. brant, O. Fr. brant branc bran a 
sword -blade (branc de tespee); from O. H. G. brant a brand, 
O. N. brandr a sword, cf. Sp. Tizon Tizona (titio) the sword 
of the Cid. This from G. brennen to bum. Hence come It. 
brandire, Pr. Fr. brandir, Sp. blandir, E. brandish; dimin. Fr. 
brandiller, cont. branler, ebranler, for brandoler, E. brandle, 
orig. used of waving a brand or sword. Hence too Pr. brandd, 
Fr. brandon, Sp. blandon a stake, a torch; O. Fr. brander to 
brand, N. Pr. brandd, Piedm. brande to boil, O. Pr. abrandar 
to ignite. Thus Diez, but Wedgwood connects brand with 
the following word (fire-brand = prop, a splinter or faggot). 
Brandish &c. he gets from the Manx brans to dash. Tliis is 
prob. related to the Sansk. bhranc cadere, in Cans, dejicere. 

Brandone It., cont. brano a piece or coUop of flesh, shred of 
cloth &c., O. Sp. brahon (for bradon) a patch of cloth, Pr. 
bradon brazon braon, O.Fr. braion, Lorr. bravon, Wall.^^ow, 
E. bratvn a lump or roll of flesh, the buttocks; It. sbranare, 
O. Fr. esbraoner to tear piece -meal, from the O. H. G. brdfo, 
ace, brdton a lump of flesh , the calf of the leg. 

Brano — brandone. 

Brana — brenno. 

Braque — bracco. 

Braquer Fr. to bend, manage; from O. N. brdka to subdue (E. 

O. Fr. malt, L. L. bracium, Fr. brasser to brew, O. Sp. 
brasar, L. L. braxare; from Gallic brace (Pliny), Gael, braich 
bracha, W. brag. The Wallon form is brd or brau, Wal. brahe 
malt. From the L.L. comes the G.brauen (J.Grimm); whence 
E. brew. 

— bragia. 

Brasile It., Sp. Pg. brasil, Fr. bresii a wood furnishing a red 
dye; found in Brazil to which it has given its name. Some 
connect it with brasa glowing coal , because of its bright red 
colour, but Diez prefers to make the vb. bresiller to dye with 
Brazil-wood, the same word as bresiller (Pr. brezilhar) to 
break in small pieces, splinter (briza), the wood being usually 
brought to Europe in splinters. 

Brasse — braza. 

Bratta Gen. dirt; whence It. imbrattare to soil {Imbratta a nick- 


name in Bocc. Dec. 6, 10), sbrattare to purify. Diez rives no 
derivation. Perhaps it is shortened from haraila whicn = en- 
tanglement, trouble, v. s. baratto. 

Bravo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. brau (f. bravo), Fr. brave (G. brav, E. 
brave); Sp. Pg. bravio. Diez traces the meanings thus: bravo 
meant (l) unruly, stormy; O. It. unde brave; it was then used 
spocially of wild animals or plants: L. L. bravus bos, It. bue 
brado (a young untamed om), Sf.ffanso bravo a wild goose, Pg. 
uva brava wild grape; thence it came to mean impetuous, 
valiant, fine. The Fr. preser\'es the orig. sense only in ebrouer 
and rabrouer, Diez prefers the derivation from O. H. G. raw, 
E. raw (cf. bruire, brmco, braire), and compares the senses of 
crudvs. Wedgwood, however, refers it to the same root as 
braff (v. braguer), viz.: the N. brak braka crash, noise (cf. use 
of crack in O. Eng. = boast, brag). Brag = Gael, breagh 
fine, Sc. braw, Bret, brao brav j whence the Rom. words. 

Brasa Sp. Pg., Pr. brassa, Fr. brasse a fathom; from brachia the 
(outstretched) arms , cf. O. Fr. brace levee with open arms.i 

Brea — brago. 

Brebis — berbt'ce. 

Breccia — breche. 

Brecha — breche, 

Breche Fr., E. breach, Pr. berca a notch, and from breche It. 
breccia, Sp. brecha, Pr. bercar enbercar. Pic. eberquer, Fr. 
ebrecher; from O. H. G. brecha a breaking, cf. W. brig a 
breach. The It. briccola, Sp. brigola, Fr. bricoie a battering- 
ram , belong to the M. H. G. br€chel a breaker. 

Bredouiller Fr. to stutter ; prob. from O. Fr. bredir, Pr. braidir 
to sing, warble (v. brat'rc). 

Br^haigne Fr. barren (of animals), O. Fr. baraigne. Wall, brou- 
hagne, Pic. breine. Burg, braime, Bret, brechan, O. E. barrayne, 
E. barren. Diez makes baraigne the orig., and derives from 
baro a man, cf. Sp. machorra from macho, Pr. tauriga from 
taur, Wedg. from the Du, braeck sterilis. 

Brelan Fr. a game at cards , brelander to play at such game, 
brelandier a gamester. The O. Fr. form was brelenc berienc 
= a dice -board; from the G. bretlin or bretling a little board. 
Hence Sp. berlanga a game of chance. 

Breloque — loque. 

Brdme Fr. (E. bream) for bresme, from G. brachsme, brassen, 
N. Pr. bramo, 

Brena Sp., Pg. brenha ground covered with brambles, L. L. 
brenna (Ducange). Perhaps from G. brahne a bush or hedge. 
Diez. May it not be connected with bren refuse (v.s. brenno)? 

Brenna It. a jade, a sorry nag; cf. Serv. bama a nag^ br^ja a 
horse with a^blaze or wnite mark. 


Brexmo Gen., Com. Piedm. Pr. O. Fr. O. Sp. bren, Piedm. also 
bran bran, Fr. bran refuse, Sp. braha dung, withered leaves; 
Fr. bren ordure, berneux snotty; a Celtic word, W. brdn, Gael. 
bran, Bret, brenn, E. bran. 

Brenta It., Piedm. brinda, Rouchi brande a wine -vessel, G. 
brente, brdnte a wooden vessel. 

Bresoa Mant. Sard. Sp. Cat. Pr., Sic. vrisca, O. Fr. bresche, L. L. 
brisca a honey-comb. Prob. Celtic: Ir. briosg, W. bresg, Bret. 
bresk; Diez after Villemarqu6. But the Ir. briosg = brittle, 
and no W. bresg exists. Mahn connects it with the Prov. 
brusc, L. L. ruscus, Fr. ruche a bee -hive, which is from the 
Celtic: W. rhisg, Bret, rusk, Gael, rusg bark. Pott connects 
bresca &c. with fiUxxHv^ fiktaac, Brisceus (Kuhn's Zeitsch. 
Vol. 6, p. 328). 

Bressin Fr. (naut), E. brace, Du. Sw. bras, G. brasse; all from 
Fr. bras, the rope having the appearance of an arm, e for a to 
distinguish it from brassin brewmg. 

Bretauder — berta. 

Bret Pr. "homo linguse impeditfie". Ft. parler bret or bretonner 
to stammer; prop, to speak Breton, cf. Sp. vascuence, ai- 

Brete Sp. fetters, Pg. a snare for birds = Pr. bret, O. Fr. bret; 
hence O. Fr. broion a noose, Fr. bretelle a strap, brace. Com. 
bretela bartela a crupper, Sp. bretador a bird-call, Sp. bretel 
brace, N. Pr. bretella, bratella. From the 0. G. brettan strin- 
gere, gabrettan contexere; A. S. bredan bregdan to weave, 
braid; E. to braid and braid in O. E. = to deceive (Chaucer: 
brede). Wedg. connects braid with bray to make a noise (to 
rush, to bena, to twist). 

Brette Fr. (f.) a backsword, vb. bretailler; cf. N. bredda a short 

Brettine ■ — brida. 

Bretto O. It. unfruitful, poor. Cf. bretauder, s. berta. 

Brettonioa It., Sp. Pg. bretonica; from betonica, Fr. betoine, E. 
betony, cf. s. brida. 

Breuil — broglio. 

Breuvage Fr. beverage ; for beurage, Pr. beuratge, It. beveraggio, 
from boire, L, bibere; abbreuver for abbeurer, Pr. abeurar, Fr. 
embreuver to moisten , soak , embruer = E. imbrue. 

Brezo — bercer (2). 

Brezza It., Fr. brise, E. breeze, Sp. brlza brisa a North -East- 
wind. Hence It. ri-brezzo a shudder. Perh. from It. rezzo. 
Wedgwood says that the origin is in the imitation of a rust- 
ling noise. He makes the Fr. bise the same word as brise, but 
v. bigio. 


Brial — bliaut. 

Bribe Fr. O. E. a lump of bread; Wall, brib alms^ E. bribe; 
Wall. brtbe?% Pic. brimber to beg. For bribe the Pic. has brife, 
whence O. Fr. brifer to be greedy, brifaud ^v^^xmy BreUbrifa 
bn/oad, It. briffalda a vagrant woman. Hence Sp. bribar to 
be a vagrant, briba, It. birba a vagrant life; Sp. bribon, It. 
birbone, birbante, O. Fr. briban, O. E. bribour a vagrant, a 
rogue, a robber (v. Marsh, Lectures on the English language). 
Diez suggests the derivation from O. G. bilibi bread, A. S. 
bilifen; others derive it better from W. briwo to break, briw 
a fragment , bar a briw a lump of bread. 

Brioco It., Fr. brique a brick; from A.S. brice a bit or fragment, 
E. brick (from break); brique de pain = A. S. hldfes brice a bit 
of bread. It. briccolino bricioio a criunb. Connected with these 
are It. bricca a rough country, Piedm. brich, Com. sbrich a 

Bricco it., in sbricco, whence briccone, Pr. brie bricon a rogue, 
knave. Prob. from O. H. G. brecho a violator, breaker, A. S. 

Bricco — burro. 

Briccola — breche. 

Bricia bricioio — briser. 

Brioo Sp. a sandbank; from N. breki a sunken rock. 

Brida Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. bride, O. Fr. A. S. bridei, E. bridie, It. 
predelio; from the O. H. G. briitit, pritil (M. H. G. briten) to 
weave. Another form is briglia (from britl) Wal. bregle; also 
It. brettine (for brettile?), Wedgwood gets it from Icel. bitill 
a bridle from bit (that which the horse bites) by insertion of 
r, cf. brettonica betonica, brulicame btdicame, Du. broosekens, 
E. buskins &c. 

Brifer — bribe. 

Briffklda — bribe. 

Briga It. 0. Pg., O. Fr. brigue, Sp. Pg. Pr. Cat. brega strife, 
quarrel (It. also trouble, business. Cat. also tumult, Fr. 
couvassing); It. brigare, Fr. briguer to strive, Sp. bregar, Pg. 
brigar to quarrel , Pr. Cat. bregar to rub ; It. brigante a busy- 
body, intriguer, pirate, Pg. brigao a quarreller, Sp. bergante, 
Pg. barganle a rogue, Fr. brigand a skirmisher, a light-armed 
trooper, a brigand (cf. latro and It. malandrino). The under- 
lying notion of briga is exertion, trouble, from root brak 
(brachium, break), whence --- business, so brigata = a com- 
pany (engaged in same business), Fr. E. brigade. From bri- 
gante a pirate come brigantare to rob, brigantino a pirate-ship, 
a small two -masted vessel, E. brigantine, brig, Fr. E. brigan- 
dine a sort of scale armour, so called because worn by the 


Brigand — hriga. 

Brigantino — hriga. 

Briglia — hrida, 

Bzignole — brugna, 

Brigola — breche. 

Brillare It., Sp. Pr. hrillar, Fr. briller to shine, hence brilliant, 
Diez refers it to O. Fr. bericle from beryllus, but Wedgwood, 
with more probability, to makes it the same word as griller 
to crack, crackle; gresiller griller corresponding to breziller 
briller. Words denoting light are commonly derived from 
those expressing sound, e. g. G. hell clear, from hall a sound, 
etincelle trom tinkle, so bright in O. E. was used of sound. 

Brixnborion Fr a trifle, bawble; ph. from brimber (v. bribe) to 
beg, with a Lat. ending (briniborium). 

Brin Arag. Pr., P^. brim, Fr. brin a fibre, blade of grap &c, v. 
brenno, with which it is prob. connected. 

Brin O. Fr. noise. Ph. from O. N. brim surf, roar of the sea, 
or connected with O. Fr. bramer to cry with desire, bram a cry, 
It. bramare (figefisiv). 

Brin d'estoo Fr. a leaping -pole; from G. springstock. 

Brina It., Langued. brino breino, Mil. prinna rime, hoar-frost. 
From pruina the b for p being unusual but not unexampled ; 
or, better, from vapor, through the Ven. borina (cf. boricco, 
bricco)] cf. Ven. borana burana a cloud, Wal. bare steam, 
rime (Wal. abor = vapor). Sard, borea. Cat. boira a cloud 
come from vaporea better than from boreas. 

Brincar Sp. Pg. to leap, skip, dance, play, brinco a leap &. 
brincos, jewels (play things). Prob. from G. blinken to glitter, 
cf. micare, coruscare &c. 

Brindar — brindisi. 

Brinde — brindisi. 

Brindisi It., Sp. brindis a health (propinatio) ; from G. bring dirs. 
Hence Vr. brinde, horr. bringue'i to drink a health, Hf. brindar. 
The O.Sf.carduz in the same sense Covarruvias derives from 
G. gar-aus, but more prob. it comes from Du. kroesai krosen 
(kruyse a cup , cruse) to tipple , whence carouse. 

Brio It. Sp. Pg., Pr. briu, O. Fr. bri, vivacity, courage, spirit; 
hence rr. brivar abrivar to press, partic. abrivatz, 0. Fr. 
abrive hasty , ph. also It. abbrivo way (of a ship), abbrivare to 
get underway, and not from ab-ripare. Brio is probably con- 
nected with the 0. Ir. brig, Gael, brlgh strength (fiQtdv to be 
strong), cf. Pr. crau from crag. 

Brique — bricco. 

Brisa Sp. (coiimion in Aragon and Catalonia) skins of grapes; 
fromXi. brisa (Columella). 

Brisa — brezza. 


Briscar Sp. Cat. to embroider with gold twist (O. Fr. broissier), 

Brise — brezza. 

Biiser Fr., Pr. brisar brizar to break, Fr. bris rubbish, Pr. briza 
a crumb, E. breeze dust &c., briss brist rubbish, It. brida a 
crumb (cf. A. S. brice = a bit, E. brick), brictola bricioio (v. 
bricco), sbriciolare to crumble; hence Pr. desbrizar, abrizar, 
desabrizar to shatter, Fr. debris rubbish ; Fr. bresilier, Pr. bre- 
zilhar to break up , Fr. bresilles bretilles little bits of wood. 
From a G. root brist found in O. H. G. bre'stan (pres. bristti) 
O. N. bresia to break, G. bersien to burst, O. N. brestr, M. H. 
G. bre'ste a breach , O. E. brise to crush. The Fr. bruiser (q. 
v.), E. bruise, A. S. brysan are connected. There is also a 
Gael, bris to break. It. bricia, briciola, bricioio may be a 
form of Lomb. brisa (cf. cucire from cusire), Pr. briga, Lomb. 
brica &c., vb. Pr. esbrigd = brizar may belong to G. brechen, 
E. break. 

Britar O. Pg. to break = A. S. briiiian to break , whence brit 
brittle, connected with the former word. 

Brive Fr. fragments a Celtic word found in Samarobriva (inter- 
sected by the Somme). Humboldt makes it the same as the 
Celtic briga (q.v.). Dauph. briva ^'o = road, cf. route, O.Fr. 
bris = fragment and road. 

Brizar brizo — bercer (2). 

Brocard, broche, brocher — brocco. 

Brocca It., Pr. Fr. a jug, Sw. broke br6g tub. Ferrari derives 
it from ngoxov^y but more prob. connected with brocco (q. v.), 
so = a vessel with a projecting nose, a beaker. Dim. Prov. 
broisson (broccio) neck of a vessel. Pic. brochon also = vizor 
of a helmet, prop, something projecting. Hence Fr. E. embro- 

Broochiere — bouclier. 

Brocco It. (sbrocco sprocco) a sharp stump, or spur of a tree, a 
snag, bud, peg, short, Parm. broch a bough, O. Fr. Pic. broc 
a point, spike, also Pied, brocio ^^ It. brocco, Lomb. broc = 
broch, It. f. brocca a split stick. Sic. brocca also a shoot, 
sucker. Pied. Parm. Ven. broca a small nail, Lomb. a bough, 
Sp. broca a reel, drill, Pr. broca , Fr. broche a spit, skewer 
(v. Due. brocca) &c., Sp. brocha a button, broche clasp, = E. 
brooch; dim. It. broccolo, Sp. broculi, E. broccoli (cf. It. sverza 
a cabbage sprout and splinter^ ; It. broccare, Pr. brocar, Fr. 
brocher to prick, embroider (E. broach abroach), broccato bro- 
card brocade, Sp. broccado, brocadel, Brocard Fr. = taunt 
may be the same word , though usu. derived from Burchard 
Bishop of Worms, author of treatise called ^^ Brocar dica^\ 
The Lat. has brocchus broccus (Plant. Varro) = a protruding 
tooth (whence the name Brocchus): from this we easily get 


the senses of the Romance words. Wedgwood traces all to 
the root hrak, E. break. From broche comes Fr. brocart, E. 
brocket a hart 2 years old, because of the single snag on his 
antler. The fallow-deer was called sl pricket. 

Brochet Fr. a pike (fish); from broche (broccojy becaoso of its sharp 
head; cf.E./?iA:^(in two senses), Vr.bequet a beak, bill, and also 
A pike, Fr. lanceron a young pike, from lance. The It. broc- 
chetto (= brochet) means a small bough. 

Broder — bordo. 

Brodo, broda It., Sp. Pg. brodio bodrio, Pr. bro, whence Fr. 
brouet broth; from O. H. G. brod, A. S. brodh, G. brUhe, E. 
broth, Ir. broth, Gael, brot, from G. brUhen to pour boiling 
water, W. brwd hot. 

Broglio bruolo It. (Dante brolo a crown), Pr. bruelh, Fr. breuii, 
fem. Pg. brulha, Pr. brnelha, O. Fr. bruelle, G. briihl a bushy 
place; It. brogliare, O. Sp. brollar, Pg. Pr. brolhar, Fr. brouiUer 
(Pg. also abrolhar, sbst. abrolho, Sp. abrojo) to sprout, break 
out, rebel, raise a disturbance, It. broglio, E. ^roi7. Prob. 
from the Celtic: W. brog a swelling, whence brog-il in O. G. 
From brouiUer comes brouilion a disturber, a makebate, also 
= a sketch , rough copy. 

Broi^nie brunie O. Fr., Pr. bronha, L. L. brugna (A. D. 813) a 
coat -of- mail; from Goth, brunjd, O. H.G. brunjd, which from 
brinnan brennen to burn, glitter. 

Broion — brete. 

Broissier — briscar. 

Broisson — brocca. 

Bronoher — bronco. 

Bronoio It. morose, angry look, imbronciare = pigliar broncio to 
wear such a look, L. L. broccus obstinatus, O. Fr. embrons 
soucieux, E. in a broivn study (v. Wedgw.); perhaps connected 
with Sw. brUtsch morose, vb. briitschen, d. protzen. 

Bronco It. a stock, tnmk, Sard, bruncu a shoot, Fr. f, bronche 
a bush, O. Sp. broncha a bough; It. broncone a broken bough, 
Fr. broncher to stumble (cf . It. cespo a bush , cespicare to tot- 
ter), "Pr. abroncar to knock at. Perhaps tromFr. bruc a stump, 
trunk, burcar (brucar?J to stumble, with inserted n (cf. Parm. 
brocon = broncone. Mil. brocca = bronche^, so that bronc may 
be referred to the same origin as brocco, viz. \j2X,broccus bron- 
cm. It may, however, be from O. H. G. bruch, Du. brok any- 
thing broken y a stump, v. brocco ad fin. The Sp. Pg. bronco 
= rude, coarse, morose, cf. L. trunctts, G. kiotz. 

Bronde O.Fr., FieAm. bronda, Langued. broundoa, twig, whence 
Pr. dim. brondel brondill. 

Brontolare It. to murmur: Pqovttj? 

Bronso It., Sp. bronce, Fr. E. bronze, It. abbronzare, 0. Sp. 



"bronzar, Fr. hronzer to scorch, bronze, Ven. hronza, It pi. 
^ronz^ glowing coals. The metal is so called from being used in 
soldering, an operation performed over hot coals, cf. brass 
from brasa embers. Bronza coals is prob. of same origin as 
Gr. brunst heat, brennen to bum. Connected with bruno, brown. 

Brosse — broza. 

Brote brota Sp., Vr.brot, Fr. brout a bud, sprout, Sp. Pr. broion; 
Sp. Pr. brotar to sprout; from O. H. G. broz a sprout, brozzin 
to sprout, 

Brouailles Fr., O. Fr. breuilles the entrails of birds or fishes, 
L. L. burbalia intcstina (Gloss. Isid.). V. Dief. Celt. 1 , 200. 

Brou6e Fr. mist; a participial form like ^wi/^'(?, gelee, S^.nuvada. 
Pic. brouache = fine rain, Berrichon brouasser to drizzle, 
berrouee = broue'e. Ph. from A. S. brodh, G. brodem, Sc, 
broth = steam (from heated bodies): brouUlard fog, from a 
form brodel brudel rising damp. v. brodo. 

Brouet — brodo. 

Brouette — biroccio. 

Brouillard — broue'e. 

Brouiller brouillon — broglio. 

Brouir Fr. to burn; from M. H. G. briiejen, Du. broeijen, G. 
briihen. Picdm. broe brove, Von. broare. Mil. sbroja. Langued. 
braouzi = brauzir which is related to brouir, as auzir to ouir, 
jauzir to jouir, blauzir to blouir. 

Brouques Pic. breeches ; from Du. broek = O. H. G. bruoch, 
V. braca. 

Broussaille — broza. 

Brout — brote. 

Brouter — broza. 

Broyer — briga. 

Broza Sp. fallen leaves, chips, rubbish, also a brush (bruza), 
Pr. brus (but v. bru), Fr. brosse small bushes, heath, brosse 
also = a brush; hence Fr. broussailles brush -wood. It. bruz- 
zaglia rabble. The O. Fr. broce, Pic. brouche shows that ^ 
= st, so the Pr. brostar, Fr. brouter (brouter) to browse (O.Fr. 
broust fallen leaves &c., pasturage) belong here; the It ^ru^iVi 
= Sp. bruza points to tlie same fact. The origin is to be 
sought in the O. H. G. burst brusta a bristle, comb (something 
bristly), plainly seen in Fr. rebours , against the grain, re- 
bourser rebrousser to stroke against the grain (stringere), L.L. 
rebursus bristly. The forms with st favour the derivation from 
the A. S. brustian (burst) to sprout, Bret, broust a bramble 
bush, brousta to browse. 

Bru Pr. heath (only found in the nom. brus), Langued. Mil, 
brug, Gen. briigo; from the W. brwg bush, Bret, briig, Sw, 

BRU — BRUNO. 99 

hruch heath (but v, broza). Hence Fn brut/ere. Cat. bruguera, 
O. Fr. brueroi, 

Bru Fr., O. Fr. Z^rwy = belle -fille, a daughter-in-law. From 
Goth, bruths, O. H. G. M. H. G. brut, G. braut, O. S. brM, 
Du. i^t^, A. S. bryd, E. Z^nrf^, O. N. ^rwtf^r, Swed. &rt/rf. 
Norm. Champ, bruman = brddhgumi = bridegroom, Swed, 
brud'tnan a bridesman. 

Bruces — &mz. 

Bruoiare brusoiare (in abbrusciare) It., Pr. bruzar brmzar, Rh. 
brischar; hence It. brustolare, ab-brustiare, Pr. bruslar, Fr. 
brider, E. ^roi7. . Diez derives from Lat. perustus whence j»^- 
u^/flfr^ prmtare brustare brusciare bruciare (cf. cflfcio for cascio), 
Pr.^ bruzar = brussar; also from perustulare brustolare &c., 
which represent the O.Rom, ustolare fustutarej found inO.Sp. 
Ms/flfr, Tr.usclar fustiarj, WeA.ustura. Wedgw. makes all these 
words onomatopoeia, and compares Sc. ^ir^/^ brissle to broil, 
G. prassein, E. brustle to crackle, also Fr. griser, gresiller 
grilier, grill, It. ^ru/Zo = ^ni//o parched. 

Bruoio — bruco. 

Bruoo It. a caterpillar, Sp. brugo a worm, from bruchus (Pru- 
dentius), PQOvxog] hence brucare to strip off leaves. The form 
ftrt/«o points to an adj. brucheus. Cf. Wal. brug a cockchafer, 

Brugna It., Pg. brunho abrunho, Sp. bruno, Fr. brugnon, Mil. 
brugnoeu, Fr. brignole a plum, plum-tree. Brugna =prttgna, 
brugnoeu = pruynuolo and prugna = pnunea, cf. ciriegia = 
cerasea. The Sp. ^rtino, however, seems to connect itself with 
the adj. bruno. Brignole in Provence (BroniolacumJ was noted 
for its plums. 

Brugnon — brugna. 

Broine Fr., Pr. bruina cold fine rain. Not from pruina, but ana- 
logous to the Pr. forms calina, plovina &c. The root is per- 
haps found in brugir bruir bruire, which last in Champ. = to 
make a noise and to be foggy. Is it the same as the bru in 
bruma (not brevima). 

Bruire It. Fr., Pr. brugir bruzir, Com. briigi, O. Cat. brogir to 
rumble, make a noise; It. bruito, Fr. bruit, Pr. bniit bruida; 
from rugire, or ph. connected with Sansk. brd to speak, W. 
hrud a chronicle, Sc. bruidhean to talk, E. to bruit. 

Braiser bruser O. Fr. to bruise, whence combruisser, debruisier, 
O. Sp. abrusar. From A. S. brysan, E. bruise; connected with 

Bruit — bruire. 

Bruler — bruciare. 

Bruma Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. brume, Cat. broma vapour, mist, Wal. 
2>ru»i^ hoarfrost ; from bruma which in L. L. = hoar-frost. 

Bruno It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. brxm^ brown; from O. H. G. brim, 


ff, f0r^}im. E. hr^/Hcn^ Yi^fcatfr hnnur^. ». hr^dmr ^r-amr ?i 

BruiM* — ^/mn^.n, 

h-^ilj: rwoM . ^\ Pr, fknar bark, fc^^-krv*? frrmL 
Ir, ^/rwi^are v, ♦rrlj, ^^rfc from •-'•/ai- nciri*. K*ni2e Pr. 

Bronco It. .♦^^nr *:, z- oi wmf: . mAr. abrupc. ^p. Pg^ 

Wi'if/J^- jfl^/^jinv. Fr, *fTwy»f wL*-WjiiAtr ie.: Fr. Trvsfsrr on 
tr*:at m4/^lv, Prob. from O. H- G. *nillto(^ krwtfmr ^^hilj. 
Hnt F«rrr:kn d^rivf^ it from cb^ L^t-MncK-vif. dhi^ Ic^inigpin^ 

BmUo It. n;H V. ni d^. mi*iorme^\ : from ^ntfvf ^eiueleiii. skspeles^. 

Bmxn .Sp.. Fif. ^'at. hrv:fn % Acre^.h-owl . a witdi. ct. jJ ^ iy It. 
MUr^^n , ^/rtixo a w'izsltA , AOTCf:rf:T, Perhaps anotber form ot 
//rvz// briiitl^; th^ ^/xr/ b^in^ !H> callfrdfrom it3 i»ha|!:gy h^*^ A 
rfm'Ai hAtr^'A rnan w callea in ^w,huitei=rjacL M'hde* 
thorjj^ht t/# tak^ th^; form of owucf/nrertkUuemffmOi^, **i 
z/w", ^/ ctuTVfA Orrvant. Xor. 6;, v. Dacange* *. bmacm^ 

Bmzal* — iS'OJ^). 

Bmyere — ^m '1;. 

Bnusa — hrozn, 

Bmasgaglla — t/roza» 

Bubbol* — ufnipa. 

Bubbone It.; »Sp. tmljf/n, Pg. hybdo, Fr. bvbon, Wal. te6aai a 
//u///>, a tiHiiour: from fiovfioiv, L. iSrti^i!>. Hence Sp. tate tea, 
Vp;. f/ou/m f/uf/o, Fr. //«//<?, Wal. hube, unless these are to be 
rt'ScTTcA to a loMt Lat. primitive; cf. s. manio, mazza, mazzo, 
fragUf nap. 

Buc - " huro. 

Bacato It., Sp. Pr. hu(/ada, Fr. buce buck Ainen, bucking, Borg. 
buie, It. bwaia bur/c-aAuiA ; bucatare, Rh. buadar, Bret, ^ii^a, 
Fr. buffuer buf/wr buer to //i/cX', G. beuchen, buchen Ac. Diez 
df;riv«:H bucalo from //i/r// a hole, because the ashes were 
Ktrairied through a pinrc-^'d di«h, cf. Sp. colada lye from colore 
to H train, iiut btware doc^H not mean to strain, so Wedg. 
would rofi'r the; word to the; (Joltic bog = moist, Sclav, mok 
(whemce; L. macero U) Moak). In h.tmbuere the guttural is lost 
iiM in Fr. bufT, 

Buooio buccia bark ; ]>('Ay Hkin. Perhaps from lobticcio, from 
h)p6i; or Ao;roi; pee;!, ('f. lappa and Rom.Gr.l, 240, 253. The 
io wan pfirhapH iniHtak(;n for the article, cf. lierre, 

Buoha buohar buohe — bozza. 

Bdoho -— bwtca. 


Buoherame It., Cat. bocaram, Tr.bocaran boqueran, Fr.bottgran, 
E. buckram coarse stiffened stuff with open interstices ; from 
It. bucherare to perforate. Others derive it from boc a goat 
(boc-ar-an) so = stuff made of goat's hair. 

Buoo buca It., Sp. buco buque, Cat. btic a hole, Pr. O. Fr. buc, 
Com. bugh a trunk, Pr. buc (which, however, Mahn makes 
= brusc) a bee -hive; It. bucare to perforate; from O. H. G. 
buh, M. H. G. buck, O. N. bitkr, Du. biik buik = belly, trunk. 
Hence Sp. Pr. trabucar, Fr. tre'bucher to fling to the ground, 
to stumble, prop, to overthrow in wrestling, cf. tram-busiare 
from busto. Hence Sp. trabuco, Pr. trabuc, trabuquet, Fr. ire- 
bucket a catapult. The It. traboccare trabocco trabocchetto have 
reference to bocca (mouth); the Ven. trabucare, O. It. trabucco, 
Com. trabuc, Ver. strabuco preserve the original form. 

Buda burda It. = Gk. tvqyi], L. tomentum. Servius has: ulvam 
dicunt rem, quam vuJgus budam vocat, 

Budello It., O. Sp. budel, Pr. Fr. boyau (O. Fr. boet), E. bowel; 
from botellus (Martial) a sausage; L. L. botelli = bowels. 
Gellius 17, 7 gives botulus as a word used by the vulgar. 
Wedgwood says the word is probably derived from the rumb- 
ling of the bowels, but it would, perhaps, be better to connect 
it with It. botte, Sp. bota &c., A. S. butte ^=- a hollow recept- 
acle, v. s. botte. 

Budget — bolgia. 

Budriere — baudre. 

Buega Sp. a boundary-stone ; cf.O. buk a boundary, buik, Frisch 
1, 151; cf. also E. balk, q. v. s. balco. 

Buer — bucato, 

Buf Pr. Fr. an interjection; It. buffo. Mil. boff d^ puff of wind; 
It. buffa, Sp. bufa a scoff^ (whence buffone &c,\ D. Fr. buffe a 
buff", blow, bufet a box on the ear, a buffet. Wall, bofct a pin- 
cushion , Sp. bofeton = O. Fr. bofet, N. Pr. buff'o the buttock ; 
It. buffare, Parm. boffar, Sp. Pg. Pr. bufar, Fr. bouffer bouffxr 
buffer, N. Pr. buff a bouffd to puff, blow, O.Yr.buffier a buffet; 
for the connexion in meaning cf . blotv in its two senses , and 
Fr. souffler soufflet. From buf an imitation of the sound of a 
blow. The G. has buf puf, puff, puff en, puffer, Fr. pouf, pouf- 
fer. The It. boffice soft, yielding, is formed on the analogy of 
soffice. The Fr. buffeter meant to ''mar wine by often tasting 
it" (Cotgrave) properly to let in air by taking out the vent- 
peg , then , generally, to tap , vin de buffet wine on tap , buf- 
fetier Tut, Ij. bufetarius (E. corr. beef -eater) a tapster. Hence 
buffet would = the tap of a tavern , next in E. any sideboard, 
in Sp. a writing 'desk, in Fr. an office for business. 

Bofera It. a hurricane; from the root buf v. supr. 

Bugia It., Lomb. busia a lie, Pr. bauzia and bauza, 0. Fr. boisie 


deceit; hugiare to He, bauzar boiser to deceive; Yr.baussan 
(i. -and) a deceiver; Sp. bausan an effigy. Prob. from the 
O. H. G. bdsi, G. bdse wicked, bdsa = tricks (= Pr. bauza), 
bdsdn to slander (cf. nugari = to lie). The It. bugiare busare 
also = to perforate, bugio O. Sp. buso = a hole. It. bugio 
btiso = periorated, empty. These are referable to the same 
word bdsi = vain, idle, empty. The Fr. boisdie ^adj. boisdif) 
is formed on the analogy of voisdie (v. vezzo). 

Bugis It. Sp. Pg., Pr. bogia, Fr. bougie a wax-taper; from Bugie 
in North Africa, whence the wax was imported (Menage). 

Bogna Mil. Ven., Romagn. bogna, N. Pr. botigno, O. Fr. bugne, 
Fr. bigne (Menace beugne) a bump (from a blow), boil &c., 
also in masc. Mil. bugn, Sard, bugnu, Romagn. bogn; Voron. 
bugnon a blow, ^.bunion a lump on the foot, bunny a swelling; 
Crem. bugnocca a boil; E. bun, N. Pr. bougneto, Fr. beignel 
bignet, Sp.buiiuelo, Limous.^ouniasmall round cake, properly 
a lump, cf. Gael, bonnach ^=^ bannock. The origin is in the 
idea of striking, Bret, bunta, E. to bunt, Du. bunsen to strike. 
The Manx bun = butt -end, Gael, bun, Ir. bdn = a root or 
stump, Prov. E. btm = the tail of a rabbit, hence bunng = 

Bugno It. a bee -hive, bugna bugnola a basket of straw- work, 
O. Fr. bugnon = bugno, N. Pr. bugno = stump of a tree, v. 
bugna (Celtic bun). 

Buho Sp., Pg. bufo, Wal. buhe an owl; from bubo influenced, 
however, by the O. H. G. biif huf. 

Buie — boja (1). 

Buis buisson — bosso. 

Buitre — avoUore, 

Bujo It. dark, Lomb. ^wro (bur). From bureus burius for burrius 
from burrus which Festus says = rufus (cf. fujo from furvius 
for furvus). O. Fr. bure buire, Pg. Pr. burel, Sp. buriel dark- 
brown, specially of sheep, then = a coarse woollen cloth 
made of the fleeces of such sheep. This being worn by the 
lower orders gave rise to the O. E. borel a layman, a Door, 
cf. griseite. Bureau whs properly a desk covered with such 
cloth. The It. buratto a coarse cloth, buraiello &c., burella, 
bujose dungeons are from bujo buro. For the same L. word 
in anotlu^r form (birrus = a coarse mantle Vopiscus and Pa- 
pias) V. berretta. 

Bala — • bolla. 

Bulicare — bouger. 

Bulimo sbulimo It. intense hunger; from fiovltfiog, Yr.boidimie. 

Bulla — bolla. 

Bulletin — bolla. 

Bollir — boilire. 

BULO — BUSCA. 103 

Bolo Yen* Hedm. Lomb* a fop, beau, a fighter, bully; from G. 
htMe a lover. 

Bulto vulto Sp., Pg. vulto a lump, bulk, pillow -ease, also = 
form , figure. In the latter sense evidently from vultus, in the 
former from the Du. btUt, E. buich bulk a himip, cf. Wedgw. 
s. bulge, bolster, and v. bolgia, Diez refers it to volutusy so = 
volumen, cf. volta. 

Bunuelo — bugna, 

Buquer Fr. to knock; from the Du. beuken. Hence prob. bouc, 
E. buck, W. bwch from its butting. Butt and buck are con- 
nected, cf. rebuier with rebuke. 

Bur Norm, a dwelling, O. Fr. buron a hut; from O. H. G. bur 
a house , G. bauer. 

Burst bureau — bujo. 

Burbero — borbogliare. 

Burbuja — borbottare. 

Burella — bujo. 

Burga Sp. a hot-spring; from Basque bero-ur-ga warm- water- 
spot, V. Larramendi. 

Burgo — borgo. 

Buriel — bt{;o. 

Buril — borino. 

Burin — borino. 

Burjaoa — bolgia. 

Burls It. Sp. Pg., N. Pr. bourlo scoflF, jest; It. burlare, Sp. Pg. 
burlar to scoff; Pr. burlaire, O. Fr. bourleur; It. burlesco &c. 
Ausonius has burra a jest, prop. = shaggy hair, cf. It. fiocco 
= flock of wool and trick; hence burrula burla, Sp. borla = a 
tassel. Wedgw., however, traces the word to the Celtic burd 
burl mockery, whence O. E. bourd a jest. 

Burrasoa It. (eLAj.borrascoso), S]^.Fg.Ca,t.borrasca, Fr.bourasque 
a storm, tempest. As Sp. nieve gave nevasca, so It. borea, 
Mil. Ven. Romagn. bora (= h.boreas) borrasca burrasca. Per- 
haps the double r shows a reference to burrus dark -red (of a 
tempestuous sky), v. bujo. 

Burro Sp. Pg.* an ass. Hence Pg. burrico, Sp. Neap, borrico, Fr. 
bourrique, Lomb. borich. It. bricco an ass. Buricus a nag is 
found as early as the 5*** century. Isidorus has : equus brevior 
quern vulgo buricum vocant. So called either from its shaggy 
hair (v. borra), or from its dark colour (burtcus from burrus, 
V. bujoj. 

Burrone — borro. 

Busare — bugia. 

Busart — buse. 

Busoa Lomb. Piedm. Pr., Sic. vusca, O. Fr. busche a splinter. 
Cat. brusca busca a rod, Fr. buche a log, Fr. bucher to hew 

104 BUSCARE — gA. 

wood. Prob. connected with bois bosc (v. bosco), cf. O. F 
embuscher with It. imboscare, 
Busoare It. to catch, Sp. Pg. btiscar, 0. Sp. boscar to Sfearch, 
track, Vr.busquer to seek after; It. Sp. Pg. busca seach. From 
the Sp.; where buscar=ili, cercare, Vr.chercher, The original 
meaning was '4o go through the bush" (bosco) (cf. montar to 

fo up a hill), hence to hunt, track; Sp. busca = a hunting 
og, O. Sp. busco = a track. 
Busohetta — btisca. 
Busoione — bosso. 
Buse Fr. a sort of falcon, also busart, Pr. buzac, It. bozzago 

abuzzago ^=. L. buteo, G. buse, bufshart. 
Buseochio — bozza. 
Busquer — buscare, 
BuBsare It. to knock; from G. buchsen (E. box), cf. bossen to 

knock, beat; Du. buysschen. Hence, too, the O. Fr. buissier, 

which Roquefort refers to busquer. 

BtLBse buae buce O. Fr., L. L. bucia buza, Pr. (m.) bus, O. Sp. 
buzo; from A. S. butse (butse-carias = shipmen), E. buss, Du. 
buyse, O. N. bussa a fishing- boat. A particular application, 
says Wedgw., of the many -formed word meaning bulk, 
trunk &c., v. boss, box, bulch, bust. V. seq. and buKo. 

Biisto It. Sp. Pg., Pr. bust, Fr. buste, E. bust. L. L. busta = 
arbor ramis truncata. Ph. connected with busca (buche = a 
log),,E. busk, Sp. bucha -~ a chest, buche = breast, L. L. 
busta = area (from buxida, pyxida, y.boite), cf. area. It. casso, 
E. chest, G. rumpf. Hence It. imbusto bodice , busk , Sp. em- 
buste gewgaw, artful story &c., embustero an importer, It. 
trambustare to fiing, overthrow. 

But buto — bozza. 

Butin — bottino. 

Buttare — bottare. 

Buz Sp. Pg. a reverential kiss , Pr. bus lip , E. buss. From the 
Celtic bus a mouth or lip. Sp. buces or bruces ^^ upper lips, 
bocel edge of a vessel, bocera crumbs sticking to the lips, 
though the two last may be from bocca. The L. basium and 
Pers. bds are perhaps connected. 

Buzzo — bozza. 


Ca O. It. O. Sp. O. Pg. = L. nam; from qud re (Pr. Fr. car), 

or from quia. O. It. ca after comparatives = qtiam. 
9a — qua. 


Caable ohaable O. Fr. a machine for throwing stones ; from 
caddble L. L. chadabula. The Pr. is calahre (/ for d). O. Fr. 
caabies also = fallen branches of trees , Fr. chablis. Hence 
Fr. accdbler to crush. The der. from xatapoktj would suit 
both form and meaning of caable. Wedgw. makes calabre the 
original form, and connects cdble, cable, \>Mi wcappio, calibro. 

Cabal Sp. Pg. Pr. exact, perfect; from cabo (caput). 

Cabala It. Sp. Pg., Fr. cabale, E. cabal] from the Hebr. kabalah 
a secret traditional interpretation of scripture. Hence the 
secondary meaning of a conclave of secret plotters. 

Cabane cabinet — capanna. 

Cabana — capanna. 

Cabaz — cava. 

Cabdal — caudal. 

Cabe Sp., O. Sp. cabo, 0. Pg. cabe cabo = juxta; prop. = a 

cabo, O. Fr. a chief at the end or side, sbst. cabe a shake. 

O. Sp. cabear = to adapt. 

Cabeliau Fr. a cod-fish ; from Du. kabeljaauw, whence, too, per- 
haps with a reference to baculus, the Sp. bacalao, Basque ba- 
cailaba, Ven. Piedm. bacala. 

Cabestan Fr. (m.), E. capstan; from Sp.cabrestante = standing- 
goat (cabra), ct. G. bock, E. ram (aries). 

Cabeza — cavezza. 

Cable cabo — cappio. 

Caboral — caporale. 

Caboz — chabot. 

Cabrer Fr., N. Pr. cabra (reflex.) to rear; from caper. 

Cabus Fr. in chou-cabus a cabbage with a head; :^- It. capuccio 
(caput), G. kappes, E. cabbage. 

Cac4o caco&o It., Sp. Pg. Fr. Yj.cacao fruit of a South American 
tree, Sp. Pg. cacao-tree; from the Mexican kakahuatl. The 
tree is also called in Sp. cacagual, Pg. cacaoeiro, Yr.cacaoyer, 

Ca9apo — gazapo. 

Cacciare It., Sp. Pg. cazar, Pr. cassar, O.Fr.chacier, Pic. cacher 
(whence E. catch), Fr. chasser (whence chase); sbst. caccia, 
caza, cassa, chace chasse &c. This word is the representative 
of the L. venari, and comes from captus, whence captiare cac- 
ciare, cf. succiare (suctiare) from suctus, conciare (comtiare) 
from comtus, pertugiare (pertusiare) from pertusus. 

Cache cacher cachot — quatto. 

Cacho — quatto. 

Cacho Sp. a slice, a piece, cachar to break in pieces • from L. L. 
capulare captiare to cut off? Cf. cacha handle of a knife, from 
captUus, and cf. ancho = amplus. 


Caohorro Sp. a whelp, cab. Prob. from catuius catlus, as ca- 
chonda from catuliens. The suffix is, however, of Basque 
form, and the word may be of Basque origin, B. chakhuira 
= dog. 

Caoo Pg. a potsherd; from cacabus (xaxxa/Soff), of. Ja^o from 

Cadahalso — caiafalco. 

Cadaleoho — cataletto. 

Cadastre — caiastro. 

Cadaimo It. cadimo, Sp. cada uno, Pg. cada hum, Pr. cada un 
fcadunj, O. Fr. cadhun, cheun = L. quisque. From usque ad 
unum (ef. Rh. s-cadin ^= s-cadun), or from quisque ad unum (cf. 
O. Sp. quiscadauno, O. Pg. quiscadaun). Cada was afterwards 
used as an independent pronoun ; cf. N. Gr. xad-evag = quis- 
que, from xad' eva^ xdd'B like cada being used as an adj. xdd'S 
divdgov = Sp. cada arboi. 

Cadeau Fr. a nourish of caligraphy, an ornament (hence = 

f resent), vb. cadeler fobs.); from cateUus a dim. of catena, cf. 
t. catenella a chain -hke ornament in needle -work. 
Cadenas — candado. 
Cadera Sp. Cat., Pg. cadeira hip, hip -joint; from cathedra. 

Hence Sp. caderillas (pi.) ladies hoops. 
Cadet Fr. E. the younger son of a family; from capitettum 

(caput), a little cliief. 
Cadimo Pg. crafty; from Arab, kadem (kadim) Freyt. 3, 409, 

which, however, has only the meaning of valiant. Pr. cairn 

is the same word. 
Cadran Fr., Pr. quadran a sun-dial; from quadrans. It. Sp. 

quadrante, a quadrant. 
Cadre — quadro. 
Caes — cayo, 
CaflBu^ — cafre. 
CafTe It., Sp. ¥t, cafe, coffee; from Ar. qahwah a sort of wine, 

a drink prepared from berries, the form following the Turkish 

pronunciation kahve. 
Caffo It. an uneven number: giuocare pari o caffo = ludere par 

impar. From capo that exceeds measure (7Csql6<j6s) : essere it 

caffo = jc£qi<J<j6sj sans pareil, unique; or from the L. caput 

in the formula caput aut navem. 
Cafila a caravan; from Ar. qdfilah, a coffle of slaves. 
Cafire Sp. Pg. rude, barbarous; from Ar. kdfir unbelieving, 

profligate. Hence Fr. cafard a hypocrite. 
Cage — gabbia. 
Cagione It. occasion, pretext (Pr. ocaison, O.Fr. ochoison); from 

occasio, cf. Wald. cat/son, O. Pg. cajdo. 
Cagnard — casnard. 


Cagot Fr. a hypocrite. The Goths and Arabs fled from Spain 
to Aquitaine, where they were protected by Charles Martel 
and his successors; by the French they were regarded as 
Arian heretics , and called canes Gothi, cagots (Pr. cd a dog 
and Got = Goth]. From unbeliever the word came to mean 
hypocrite, cf. cafard. Frisch derives it from cap-gott = Caput 
Dei , an expression used in oaths. 

CaMer Fr. pamphlet, copy-book, quire. Pic. has coyer, quoyer, 
E. quire; from codicarium, not from quatemio (Dante qua- 
demo), which gives carrignon, quaregnon. 

Cahute Fr. a hut, O. Fr. chahtUe and cahuette. Perhaps a coin- 
pound oi ca-hutte , dimin. cahuette for cahuiette. Or cahuette 
IS the original form and cahute a contraction. Cf. Norm, cave 
a ship (Due. s. cayum). Cajute is from the Du. kajuit. 

Caille — quaglia. 

Cailler — quagliare, 

Caillou Fr., Pic. caliau, O. Fr. caillo chaillo, Pr. calhau, Pg. 
calhao flint. Prob. from caitler to coagulate, so = a fused 
mass of silex, cf. G. kiesel = any fused mass, stone or hail, 
kes = glacier-ice, both from kisan to coagulate. Littr6 makes 
caillou from calcuiavus (calculusj caillo caillou, cf. Andigavus, 
PictavuSf which give Anjou, Poitou, clavus clou do, travum trou 
tro, papaver papou. The Berrichon caille preserves the simple 
form , cf. also W. cellt. 

Cais — casso, 

Caisse — cassa. 

Cajoler — gabbia. 

Calabaza Sp., Pg. cabaca, Cat. carabassa, Sic. caravazza a 
pumpkin, a calabash, Fr. calebasse; ph. from Ar. qerbah 
(qerbat), PI. qerabdt a water-skin, with JRom. suffix. 

CaLabre — caable. 

Calabrone scalabrone a hornet; from crabro, L. L. scabro, Pa- 
pias: carabrio genus animalis muscce similis. The Occit. has 

CaLaflEttare It., Sp. calafatear, Pr. calafatar, Fr. cdlafater caU 
fearer, M. G. xakatpatetv to caulk a ship ; from the L. cale- 

CaLamandrea It., Sp. camedrio, Fr. germandree a plant, ger- 
mander; from chamaedrys (xafiaiSgvg). 

Calambre Sp., Pg. cambra cramp ; M. H. G. klamphem to suflFer 
cramp, cf. O. H. G. chlampheren. 

Calaminaria sc. pietra It., Sp. Pg. calamina, Fr. E. calamine; 

from cadmia (xadfieia xaSfiLa) with adjectival suffix, G. 

Galamita It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Cat. caramida, Fr. catamite a magnet. 


From calamus, the needle being inserted in a stalk or piece of 
cork , so as to float on water. 

Calan — chaland. 

Calana Sp. sample, quality; from qualis. 

Calandra It. Pr., Sp. Cat. calandria, Pg. calhandra, N. Pr. ca- 
liandro cartandro, Fr. calendre, M. H. G. galander a tufted 
lack. From galerita with perhaps a reference to caliendrum 
(tuft). The Sp. caladre suits the Gk. xagadgLogy L. L. cara- 
drius translated in the Glossaries by the O. H. G. lerihha (G. 
lerche lark). 

Calandre Fr. a cylinder, E. calander, from ct/Iindrns, prop, ce- 
lendre; calandre is a corruption of colendre, cf. coing from 

Calappio — chiappare, 

Calare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. calar, Fr. caler to let down ; from %aXav 
to loose, let go, L. chalare (Vitruvius), Rh. calar to desist, 
Pic. caler to give way, withdraw, drop; Pg. Pr. calar also 
-— to be silent , Sp. callar, N. Pr. cald unites both senses to 
drop and to be silent. Hence It. Sp. Pg. Pr. cala, Fr. cale. 
It. !N. Pr. calanca a bay {calare = to drop anchor), Gael, cala 
a bay, cal to drop anchor. Hence, too, Sp. cala a peg, Sp. 
Pg. a notch, calar to penetrate, pierce, Fr. Cale = a flat piece 
of wood, a trestle, unless these are from L. cala a piece of 
fire- wood (xdlov) in Lucilius. 

Calavera Sp., Pg. caveira a skull; from calvaria. 

Caldaja It., Sp. caldera, Pr. caudiera, Fr. chaudiere a pot, L. L. 
caldaria; from caldarhts; hence It. calderone^ Sp. calderon, 
Fr. chaudron , caxddron, 

Caleohe — calesse, 

Cale9on — calzo. 

Caleffare It. to mock, jeer; from G. klaffen to yelp, bark. 

Calentar Sp. to heat, from caletis, caleo; hence Sp. escaleniar, 
Pg. esqueniar, acaentar aguentar (O. Sp. calecer, escalecer, Pg. 
aquecer from calescere). Hence fi\).calentura a fever, ^.calen- 

Calere It., O. Sp. Pr. caler, O. Fr. chaloir verb impers. with 
dat. of the person, to be of importance, to concern; from L. 
calere y non mi cale = non mihi calet, cf. i^il ovShv ^dlnav 
xigdog. Hence Fr. nonchalant, nonchalance. 

Calesse calesso It., Sp. calesa, Fr. caleche, E. calash caloch an 
open carriage; from Bohem. kolesa wheel -work (Russ. kaleso 

Calha quelha Pg. a canal, from canalicula, cf. funcho from fee- 

Calhao — caillou. 

Calibre It., Sp. Pg. Fr. E. calibre, E.caliver calliper (-compasses), 


the bore of a cannon. Dicz derives it from the Arab, qdiib a 
model, pattern (0. Sp. has abo calibo); Mahn from qud librd; 
Wedgwood makes caliver ^ an arquebusa or small cannon 
the original sense, and this from catabre (v.caable) an engine 
for casting stones, ^ carabe for cabre from cabra a goat, 
catabre orig. = a battering, ram, G. bock. 
Calina Sp. dense vapour; ph. originally ^= steam, from caleo, 

cf. brvine. Diez suggests caiigo. 
Calma It. Sp. Pg., Fr. calme (m.) absence of wind, calm, Du. 
kulm kaltnle; calmare &c. to calm, Fr. chommer for chaumer to 
make holiday. Sp. calma = heat of the day Gk. xavfia, L. L. 
cautna. At ^ au (v. ffola), though, perhaps, in calma there 
was a reference to caior. The noon-heat was the time of rest. 
N, Pr. chaume ^= time when the flocks sought the shade, 
Rh. cauma a shady place for cattle. 
Oalpeatare It. to tread under foot, sb. calpestio; from catce 
pislare, Pr. rnlpisar, v.pestare. 
~*^ sralierire. 
■. poor, Qcedy; from caducus. 
fp. Pg., Pr. caussada, Fr. chausse'e, E. causeicay. From 
I {calx chalk), prop, a pavement strengthened with 
1 Wedgwood from calceata because shod or protected 
ae, Sp. calzar, Fr. chausser to shoe, 
a It., Sp. calza, Pr. caussa, Fr. chausse, whence cal- 
_,, Fr. calefon; from calceus. Hence It. discalzo scaizo, 
cai:'i. Pr. descaus, Fr. dechaus, Pic. de'caus, Lor. 
c, L. L. discalcius for discalceatus. 
Pg-.i )>ed, a lair. Isidorus has: in ramw i.e. in atratis. 
n /fij<«i' (cf. acamar to stretch on the ground) so = 

M f^- 

lOLity iu phir.) bridle-bits; from camus, xijfio'g a halter, 

It., I'f. capmalh, 0. Fr. camail the collar of a coat-of- 

vin;,^ iilso to cover an head, Fr.camaiV a mantle; from 

1 mailui mail. Hence Sp. carnal a halter, gramalla a 

camce — cameo. 
re It. pulse, vegetables; for capo-mangiare Menage. 
[O It., Sp. cairtarlenffo , l*r. camarlenc, Fr. chambretain, 
lain : from O. H. G. chamarlinc, G. kdmmerling. 
Ao ciambellotto It., Sp.camclote chamclote, Fr.camelot, 
E. camlet chainlet a stuff of camel's hair. It had a wavy or 
watered surface, hence Fr, se cameloter to grow wrinkled. 
Ph. from xaprjidtJ} camel's skin. 
Ounbiare eangiare It., Sp. Pg. cambiar, Fr. can^iar camjar, Fr. 


changer, E. change; L. L. cambiare from cambire in Apnleius 
(xdfiTtrstv xd^petv). Wedgwood, with less probability, 
considers it to be the nasalised form of E. chap chop (Q. kau- 
fen), of. Chaucer's champmen for chapmen. 

Cambrer Fr., N. Pr. cambrd to bend, curve: from earner are to 

Cambron Sp., Pg. cambrao (only in pi.) buck -thorn; from 

Camedrio — calamandrea. 

Camerata It. (m.), Sp. camarada (m., Pg. m. f.), Fr. camerade 
(m. f.), E. comrade; formerly c= a company occupying thfe 
same chamber (camera) y thence = one of such company, a 
tent- fellow. Cf. Piedm. mascrada (1) a company of maskers, 
(2) one of tliem. 

Camicia oamiscia It., Sp. Pg. Pr. camisa, Fr. E. chemise, Wal. 
ce'mase, Alban. cemisi:, whence It. camiciola, Sp. camisola, Fr. 
E. camisole; It. incamiciata, Sp. encamisada, Fr. E. camisade 
a night- attack, the shirt being worn over the armour. 
Hieronymus has: soleni militanies habere lineas quas camisias 
vocant. Various derivations are given: (1) O. H. G. hamidi 
hemidi indusium, (2) cama a bed, Isidor: camisias quad in his 
dormimtis in camis, but neither of these account for the ter- 
mination isia. That is is ]jart of the root we see from It. cd- 
mice, O. Fr. chainse. So it will be better to refer the word 
either to the Gael, caimis a shirt, W. camse, or to the Ar. 
qamlc an under -garment, which, however, is not found in 
other Sem. dialects, and is prob. from the Rom. 

Caminata camminata It. a room (prop, with a fire-place in it), 
Fr. cheminee, E. chimney. L. L. caminata = a room with a 
caminus. The E. chimney now=the gorge or vent of a furnace, 
once = the fire itself, cf. Sir John Cheke, Matt. 13, 50: the 
chimney of fire. 

Camm6o It. (Cellini in 16^** cent.), Fr. camee (m.) and camaieu, 
Sp. camafeo, Pg. camafco, camafeu, caniaMo, E. cameo , G. 
gamahcu, L. L. camaheu, camahelus, camahutus. Mahn's der. 
is the most probable: from gemma, gama, cama, cammaeus 
and from cammaeus attics, camahutus. But the hardening of the 
g is without analogy. V. seq. 

Cammino It., Sp. camino, Pg. caminho, Pr. camin, Fr. chemin, 
L. L. caminus a way, from the Celtic, W. cam a step, caman 
a way. Others derive this and the previous word from the 
Slavonic kamen a stone, though neither are likely to have 
come from such a source. 

Camoscio — camuso. 

Camozza It., Sn. camuza gamuza, Pg. camuca camurca, It. ca- 
moscio, Fr. E. chamois, M. H. G. gafn-z, G. gemse, Vedrnpn 


the original word is seen in the Sp. Pg. gamo gama a deer (E« 
gamut f). This may be from h.dama, cf.golftn = dolfin del/in, 
gragea = dragea, gazapo = dasapo (?). But a ^ is not thus 
hardered in Rom. It may be connected with Celtic cam 
crooked f- homed). 

Cami>agna It., Sp. campana, Fr. campagne (O. Fr. Champagne), 
£. champain; nrom Campania, first used as an appellative by 
Gregory of Tours. E. campaign = time an army serves in 
open field. 

Campana It. Sp. Cat. Pr.^ Pg. campainha a bell ; the Fr. has 
cloche, but tne Limous. has campano, Berr. campaine a bell. 
From Campania where bells were first used in churches , v. 
Ducange. Isid. has: campana (statera unius lands) e regione 
Italiee nomen accepit, thus also = a steel-yard (Wal. cumpene), 
which meaning; however, it soon lost. 

Campeggio It.; Sp. campeche, Fr. campiche log- wood; from 
Campeche in South America. 

Can^ione It.> Sp. campeon, Pr. campion, Fr. E. champion; from 
L. L. campio, which is from campus as tabellio from tabella. 
From campus also come It. campeggiare, Sp. campear (campea- 
dor), O.Fr. champeler to be in the field, to encamp. The A.S. 
has camp a fight, Du. kamp, Du. kempen to fight &c. These 
may be from tne L., though the Scand. kapp would seem an 
older form than camp. Ic. kapp = fight. So in vulgar E. to 
cap = to excel. W. camp = a feat, game, campio to strive, 
Sp. campar to excel. 

CamnfThre — muff are. 

CamuBO oamoscio It., Fr. camus, O. E. camous flat -nosed, Pr. 
gamus camus awkward, camusat= camus. The root is W. cam 
Tcf. cam-ard = camus), and the 2"** part is prob. muso snout. 
Others derive it from camurus nothwithstandmg the diflference 
of accent. With It. camoscio cf. Fr. adj. camoissie bruised, 
black and blue, cf. Rou. ca;raot/^£^' pock -marked. 

Canaglia It., Sp. canalla, Fr. canaille, O. VvPchienaUle rabble; 
from canis, cf . Sp. perreria. 

Canape It., Wal. cenepe, Sp. canamo, Pr. canehe camhre, Fr. 
chanvre h^mp ; from cannabis cannabus. Hence It. canavaccio, 
Sp. caiiamazo, Pr. canabas, Fr. canevas, E. canvas. 

Canapd — canope. 

Canapsa Fr. a knapsack ; from Q. knappsack {knappen to cat; 

Canard — cane. 

Canasto canasta Sp. N. Pr. a canister; from canistrum, It. ca- 

Canavaooio — canape. 

CaTioallare — chance. 


£!andado Sp. (yiilg.ealnado), O.S^.caOado, cadenado a padlock; 

from catenatum; O. Sp. candar to lock. Cf. It. catenaccio, Fr. 

Cane O. Fr. a ship, Fr. canot a small boat (the E. canoe is from 

Sp. canoa an Indian word) ; Fr. cane a duck, canard a drake. 

!Not from rawwfl but from Du. kaan, G. X"flfA« a boat. 
Candire It., Fr. se candir, to candy, become candied, cf. It. zuc- 

chero candito, Sp. azucar cande, Fr. stwre candi, E. sugar- 
candy. The Ar. is ^^nf/ or qandah and is from the Sk.khanda 

a piece, a piece of cristallized sugar {khand to break), v. 

Mahn, p. 47. 
Canevas — canape^ 
Canezou Fr. a light muslin jacket, worn by women. Orig. = 

hot weather, a corruption of quinze aout, v. V. Hugo, Les 

Miserables 1, p. 356. 
Canfora It. Sp., Fr. camphre, E. camphor; from Ar. al-kdfur 

with inserted nasal, Sp. alcanfor; without the nasal It. ca- 

fur a, M. H. G. gaffer. The word is of Indian origin, Sansk. 

Cangiare — cambiare. 

Cangilon Sp., Vg.cangirao a liquid measure, ajar; from congius. 
Cangrena It. Sp., Fr. cangrene, Sp. gangrena. Fr. gangrene, E. 

gangrene; from gangrcena {ydyyQatva), spelt with a c from a 

false reference to cancer. 
Canho Pg. left, canhoio left-handed, sbst. a crooked piece of 

wood ; from cam crooked (v. gamba). 
Canif Fr. a penknife; from O. N. knifr, A. S. cnif, E. knife, 

G. kneif. Dim. ganivet, O. Fr. cnivet, Pr. canivet, whence 

O. Sp. canivete, Pg. canivete. 
Canivete — canif. 
Cannamele It., Sp. canamiel, L. L. canamella sugar-cane, prop. 

= honey -cane. 
Cannella It., Sp. Pg. Pr. canela, Fr. cannelle, whence Yhx.kaneei 

cinnamon ; frod! canna. 
Cannibale It., Sp. canibal, Fr. cannibale, E. cannibal; prop, an 

inhabitant of the Antilles , a Carib or Canibal; the Sp. caribe 

is used in the same sense. 
Cannone It., Sp. canon, Fr. canon, a large pipe (canna), also = 

Canope It., Wal. canapeu, Sp. Fr. canape (O. Pg. ganape^ a 

couch- E. canopy; from conopeum (xcjvcjtcsIov) a mosqtuto- 

net, then = a bed or couch protected by such a net, cf. 

bureau = (l) coarse cloth , (2) a desk covered with it. 
Canova It. a store room, cellar; Isid. Gloss, canava camera post 

Cansare scansare It. to turn aside. From O. Lat. campsare 


(Ennius) ; cf. campsare Leucaten with cansar la morte &c. Pris- 
cian derives it from xd(ixt€iv. 

Cansar oanso — cass. 

Cantiere It.; Pg. canteiro, Fr. chantier a stand; trestle ^ E. gavn- 
tree. Si^cantel a rope for binding casks ; from canterms a yoke- 
beam; Bay ar. gander. 

Cantimplora — chantepleure. 

Canto It. Sp. Pg., O. Fr. cant a comer, angle; Sp. Pg. also = 
stone. It. = side, region (Fr. champ , orig. chant). The word 
is widely spread. Gr. xavd'dQ = comer of the eye, or rim of 
a wheel H^. canthus). The W. cant = circumference rim, 
border. O.Fris. kaed, If.kantr, Dsiii.kant, Ot.kante = corner, 
rim; E. cant canted in carpentry used to express the cutting 
oflf the angle of a square. Hence It. cantone, Sp. Pe. Fr. E. 
canton, Wald. canton a partition; Sp. cantillo a smiul stone^ 
Pr. cantel, Fr. chanteau, E. cantle a comer -piece, a piece (of 
bread &c.); It. Sp. cantina, Fr. cantine, E. canteen a wine- 
cellar (prop. = a comer). It. biscanto = a dark hole, Piedm. 
bescant i= oblique , awry. Vid. Dief . Orig. Europ. p. 278. 

Canaheria Sp. a plant; fennel: iroimcannadiXidifenjUa, CeLt.canga- 
fera. The Sp. canaheja is from cannaferictUa, 

Canamo — canape. 

Capanna It., Sp. cabana, Pg. Pr. Piedm. &c.cabana, Fr. cabane, 
E. cabin. Not from capere nor from cappa a mantle, since 
anna is not a R. term., but homW, caban (dim. of cab) ; hence 
E. cabin, Fr. cabinet, It. gabinetto, Sp. gabinete. 

Capaso — cappa. 

Capdel — capitello. 

Capere It., Sp. Pg. Pr. caber to contain and (intrans.) to have 
room; cf. verbum meum non capit in vobis S.Joan. (xfOQSt)] sub. 

Capessale — cavezza. 

Capitano It.; O. It. catanno, Sp. capitan, E. captain from capi- 
tanus (caput); L.L. capitaneus gives Fr.capitani, Fr.capitaine, 
O. Fr. chevetaine chatainCy E. chieftain. 

Capitare It. to end (intrans.^ ; from caput, v. chef. Scapitare, 
Pr:^ descaptar to lose in traffic ; sunmiam imminuere. 

Capitello It. dim. of capo, Sp. caudillo, O. Sp. capdiello, Pr. 
capdel the captain of a troop; from capit ellum dim. of capit u- 
lum. Sf.acaudillar, "Pr. capdelar to head a troop ; O.Fr. cadeler. 

Capitolo It.; Sp. capittdo cabildo, Pg. cabido, Pr. capitol, Fr. 
chapUre, E. chapter in the sense of an ecclesiastical (or se- 
cular) assembly; from capitulum a heading, chapter (principal 
section of a book): either because the chapters ot statutes 
were read in the assembly; or because they were a governing 



body, cf. capiiol in S. France = a toym- council, capitoul an 
in(li\adual member of such a counciL 

Capocchia It. the knob of a stick, capocchio dull, stupid; from 
capitulum corrupted into captUuium. 

Caporale It., Sp. Fr. caporal, Rouchi coporal corporal, E. cor- 
poral; from capo, capor alt's, prob. formed on the analogy of 
corporalis, with which it was afterwards confounded. 

Capot — cappa, 

Cappa It,, Sp. Pg. Pr. capa, Fr. chape, E. cape. A very old 
word, prob. used in the spoken Latin. Isidore has: capa, 
quia quasi toium capiat hominem. From capere as O. H. G. 
gifang a garment, from fdhan G. fangen to hold. For the 
double/?, cf. cappone from capo. Hence It. cappello, Fr. cha- 
peau a hat, O. Fr. chapel, chapelet, E. chaplet a garland. 
Boccaccio has : capello ghirlanda secondo il volgar francese; It. 
cappella, E. chapel &c., are so called from the covering or 
canopy over the altar, the name being extended to the recess 
in which the altar was placed. Ducange derives the name from 
the chapel where St. Martin's cloak was kept. Hence cappotto, 
cappuccio, capperone &c., Fr. chaperon; Sp. capazo, Sp. Pg. 
capacho a frail or basket. 

Cappero It., Fr. cdpre, E. caper; from capparis, Ar. alcdbar 
whence Sp. Pg. alcaparra, Arag. caparra. 

Cappio It. loop, knot, Sp. Pg. cable, Fr. cdble (O. Pr. chable 
cheable), ^. cable. From h.h. capulum (funis a capiendo Isid.), 
M.Gr. TcanUov, Dn. kabel. The Sp.cabo is a contraction. For 
another der. v. s. caable. 

C&pre — cappero. 

Capre Fr. a pirate , pirate-ship. From Du. kaper which is from 
kapen to rob (Lat. capere?). 

Capriccio It., ii\'hence Sp. capricho, Fr. E. caprice; from capra, 
cf. ticchio, verve, ana Com. nucia = kid, nuce = caprice. 
Thus Diez. Wedgw., however, makes capriccio = arriccia- 
capo = a shivering iit, a fantastical humour (making the hair 
to stand on end). It. riccio = a hedgehog, L. ericius, con- 
nected with bricciare, gricciare, Fr. herisser, Gr. q)Ql66€iv, 

Captener — mantenere. 

Car (quar) Pr. Fr. O. Sp. O. Pg. particle == nam; from quare^ 
Boeth.: morz a me quar no vesDes^thj why comest thou not to 
me? Dante's quare (Inf. 27, 72) is a Latinism, v. ca. 

Cara Sp. Pg. Pr., O. Fr. chiere, ir. chere, whence It. Rh. cera, 
O. Eng. chear cheer. Faire bonne chere = to make good cheer 
to. The word meant (1) countenance (cf. this word) (2) favour 
(3) favourable entertainment (4) banquet. Corippus (6*** cen- 
tury) has : postquam venere verendam Ccesaris ante coram (face). 
Perhaps from the Gk. TtdQu, xaQti. Hence Sp. carear acarar. 


O. Fr. acarier to confront; Fr. acaridire stubborn , whimsical. 
Wal. O'cdrd' affront from a-carare? Fr. contrecarrer to thwart 
is from carrer c= quadrare to arrange , cf. contrecarre = an- 

Caraba Sp. a vessel; from cardbus, ''parva scapha'^, xaQafiog, 
Celtic carbh = plank ^ ship, carbad a chariot^ whence carpen- 
turn, carpenter. Hence Sp. carabela, It. caravella, Fr, car a- 
veile, 'E. caravel. The At. qdrib, Anglo-Indian (/rab is perhaps, 
the same word. 

Carabina It. Sp. Pg., Fr. carabine, E. carbine, Fr. carabin a 
carabineer, O. Fr. calabrin. It. calabrino; from Pr. calabre (v. 
caable), cf. E. caiiver, a machine for casting stones. Cf. mus- 
quet. It. tnoschetia originally = a missile discharged from a 
machine, ct.catapuita used to translate ffun, Sf.Fg. espingarda 
= the ancient springald. 

Caraooa It., Sp. Pg. carraca, Fr. caraque, E. carack a large 
ship, galleon, Du. kraecke. Not from Ar. ^harraqah fire ship, 
the ^h not = c, so cable (cappio) not from ^habl, 

Caraooa — carraca. 

Carafb It., Sp. garrafa, Fr. caraffe. Sic. carrabba a pitcher; 
from Ar. qirdfe^ measure, qarafa to draw water. 

CaragoUo It., Sp. P^. Fr. caracol a snail, winding -staircase, 
turn of a horse (E. caracol. It. caracoUo). From Gael, car a 
twist, carach winding, A. S. cerran to turn. 

Caramillo — chalumeau. 

Caraque • — carraca. 

Caratello It. a small barrel ; for carratello from carrata a car- 

Carato It., Sp. Pg. quilaie, O. Pg. qmrate, Fr. E. carat; from 
Ar. qird^t a carob-bean, from Qk. xsQarvov, Ven. carato. The 
bean was used for a weight. Isid. cerates oboli pars media, 
sUiquam habens unam et semis. 

OarauB — trincare. 

Caravella, oaravelle — caraba. 

Caroame — carcasso. 

Caroan Fr. Pr. a collar, pillory. From O. H. G. querca, O. N. 
gverk the throat. O.Fr. has charchant cherchant, Dw.karkant. 

Caroaeoo It., Sp. carcax, Pg. carcas, Fr. carquois, N. Gr. xag- 
xa6i a quiver: It. Pg. carcassa, Sp. carcasa, Fr. carcasse, E. 
carcass a skeleton. Wedg. derives from W. carch restraint 
(whence carcer\ so=a box or chest, v. carcava. But -asso is 
not a Rom. sutfix, so Diez refers it to caro and capsus (v. 
casso), It. carcame being formed on the analogy of arcame 
from area* 

Caroava Sp. Pg. an enclosure, pit, ditch, vb. carcavar. Diez 
gets it from concava (1) corcava (v. corcovar) (2) carcava. But 



may it not be connected with carcasso, the latter part being 
cavtis, and the former the car or care of career? 

Carciofo — ariicioceo. 

Carcomer Sp. to gnaw, carcoma a wood-louse; according to 
Covarruvias, from caro and comedere! 

Cardo It. Sp. Pg. a thistle, teasel for dressing cloth; from car- 
duus; hence Sp. Pr. cardon, Fr. chardon, It. cardare, Fr. 
carder &c. ; It. scardo a card, Fr. echarde a splinter. Sp. escar- 
dar to weed out thistles, Norm, echarder to scale. Rouchi 
e'eard, Wall, hdrd a notch , vb. ecarder, harder are from O. 
H. G. scartiy O. N. skard, O. H. G. skertan, O. N. skarda to 

Cardme — quaresma. 

Carestia It. Sp. Pg. Pr., L. L. caristia deamess, scarcity; from 
carus. Cf. Basque garestia = carus. The termination is not 
easily accounted for. Fin. karista, which Wedg. connects 
with carus and E. care, means to moan, to grumble (for 

Caricare carcare It., Sp. Pr. car gar, Pg. carregar, Fr. charger, 
E. charge; It. carico, Sp. cargo, Pr. care, It. carica, Sp. Pr. 
carga, Fr. charge, E. cargo (from the Sp.) charge. St. Jerome 
has carricare from carrus. It. caricare also = to overload, 
whence caricatura, caricature an overcharged representation. 

Carmesino oremisi cremisino It., Sp. carmesi, Tg. carmesim, Fr. 
cramoisi, E. crimson; from Ar. qermez (= Sansk. krimis, L. 
vermis, W. pryr;, Goth, vaurms, E. worm), the cochineal in- 
sect, adj.^^r;w«2:/. Pott refers the word to the Sansk. ArrtVniVa 
worm- born. Hence too It. carminio, Sp. Fr. carmin, E. r«r- 

Carmin oarminio — carmesino. 

Camasciale — camevale, 

Camaval — camevale. 

Came Fr. corner. Diez derives this from cardo cardinis a hinge 
(cf. Fr. chamiere a joint), but it is better to connect the word 
with cran, E. cranny, comer. 

Camel carneler — cran. 

Camero Sp., Pg. cameiro a sheep, wether; from L. crena so = 
the notched or castrated animal (cf. Fr. crenel = camel), cf. 
montone, moUone, mouton (mutton) from L. mutilus, and G. 
hammel = mutilated. 

Camevale camovale It., whence Sp. Fr. E. camaval (E. also 
carnival) the festive period before the Lenten fast; not from 
came vale fare well flesh ! but from camelevale a corrupt form 
of the L. L. carnelevamen solace of the flesh. Other forms are 
L. L. camelevarium , Sic. camilivarij Pied, car-lave. It. car- 
nasciale is from came-lasciare. Other expressions for the same 


thing are: camicapium, camiprivmm, Sf.camestolendas, N.Pr. 
carmentran = car^e entrant 

Camicol — carnero. 

Carogna It, Fr. charogney Rouchi carone, E. carrion; from 
caro, camis, by dissimilation for camogna, 

Carole querole O. Fr., whence It. carola, E. carol a circular 
dance, vb. caroler &c. Then = song (cf. balade from balare, 
and w. (lolTtii), The Bret has korolla to dance, W. coroli, 
Gael, coiriolt, Pro v. corola, corolar. Diez derives it from 
chorulus (a for o as in calandre, canape), and objects to co- 
rolla which does not suit the sense and would have given in 
Fr. caroule. Wackemagel gives a verb coraulare (from cho- 
ratila), whence sbst. coraula, carole. 

CaroseUo — carriera. 

Caroube oaroiige — carrobo. 

CaroBza — carriera. 

Carpa Sp., Fr. carpe, Wal. crap, Pr. escarpa, It carpione, E. 
carp, G. karpfen; from L. L. carpa (Cassiodorus). 

Carpentiere It. a cart-wright, carpenter (Sp. carpintero), Pr. 
carpentier, Fr. charpentier; from carpentarius in L. a cart- 
wright (carperUum), in L. L. = a worker in wood. Fr. char- 
j[>^/^= carpenter's work. The word is of Celtic origin, Gael., 
carbh a plank, carbad a chariot 

Carpono adv. "on all fours ^'. Properly = "on the hands'', 
from carpo (L. carpus) the wrist, whence carpiccio a blow, 
N. Pr. carpa to strike. 

Carrasca Sp. Cat., Sp. Pg. carrasco an evergreen oak ; from L. 
cerrus, ct. lagarto for lazarto, r eg alar for rejalar. 

Carr6, oarreau, carrer, oarriere — quadro, 

Carrefour Fr., Pr. carrefore a place where four roads meet ; from 

Carriera It, Fr. carriere, Sp. carrera, Pg. carriera a highway, 
street, career. From carrw^. The O.Fr. cA«rriVr^ is better than 
carriere, which also means a stone pit (quadro). From carrus 
also come It. carrozza, Sp. carroza, Fr. carrosse (carriage); 
Fr. carrousel a tilt-yard. It. carosello. 

Carrignon — cahier. 

Carrillon Fr. a chime; properly of four bells, from a form qua- 

Carriao Sp., Pg. carripo sedge; from carex. It. carice. 

Carrobio It. = L. quadrivium , cf . gabbia from cavea. 

Carrosse — carriera. 

Carrouse — trincare. 

Carraba It., Sp. garroba garrofa algarroba, Pg. alfarroba, Fr. 
carovbe carouge, E. carob\ It. carrobo carrubbio, Sp. garrobo 
algarroba, Pg. alfarrdbeira carob-tree; from Ar. kharriib. 



Carvi It. Sp. Fr., N. Vr.charui, ^.caraway; from careum (xaQOv) 
whence also Ar. al-karviyd, which is nearer in form to the 
Rom. words , espcc. to the Sp. alcaravea, 

Casa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Wal. casd', L- L. casa for the L. damns, 
SRrA.domu. Hence Rh. casar to dwell, It casare, Sp. Pg. Pr. 
casar to marry , prop. = to house. 

Casacca It., Sp. Pg. casaca, Fr. casaque, E. cassock; from casa 
a hut (cf. casipola, and G. E. hose). For the suffix of. It. 

Casamatta It., Sp. Pg. casamata, Fr. E. casemate, L. L. ca- 
samatta. According to Mahn, from casa-matta a weak, poor 
hut hastily constructed, cf. carro matto, penne matte pen- 
feathers, peli matii down. According to Dicz, from xd^fucj 
Xd6fiata, Wedgwood derives it from casa-mata (Sp. mat a 
slaughter) so = slaughter-house, G. mordkelter, the casemate 
being properly a loop-holed gallery in a bastion, whence the 

farrison could annoy an enemy in possession of the ditch, 
lay it not be connected with mattone a brick (q. v.)? 

Casare, casar — casa, 

Cascajo cascara casco — cascar. 

Cascar Sp. to break, Pg. to bruise, Sard, cascai to maltreat = 
quassicare from quassare. Hence casco = potsherd, skull (cf. 
testa\ cask, casca, cascara husk, peel, shell, cascajo broken 
potsnerds, gravel. Casco Sp., Fr. casque ahead-piece; but 
V. Wedgwood, s. case. 

Cascare casoata — casco, 

Cascio cacio It., Sp. queso, Pg. queixo cheese; from caseus, cf. 
Sp. qtiepo from capio, 

Casco It. old, decaying; from cflwcu^ old (Ennius, and Ausonius). 
Hence, perhaps, It. cascare to fall, unless this be from casare 
rPlautus), casicare, or connected with cascar (q. v.) so = to 
tall with a crash. From cascare comes It. cascata, Fr. E. 

Casco — cascar, 

Caserma It., W. cesarme, O. G. casarm, Sp. Pg. casema, Fr. 
caserne a barrack ; from casa darme (Mahn) or from casa like 
caverna from cava (Diez). Perhaps it will be best to take the 
former derivation, allowing that the form of the word was 
modified by its resemblance to caverna, 

Casimiro Sp., Pg. casimira, Fr. casimir^ E. kerseymere; from 

Casipola casupola It. a little hut, hence Fr. E. chasuble, Sp. 
casulla, L. L. casuia; casipola is prob. formed on the analogy 
of manipulus. For itie connection of meanings, cf. casacca, 
and cappa capanna. 

Casnard O. Fr. a Batterer, fawner. Quintilian has: casnar 


assectator e Gallia ductum est. Casnard is prob. for canard or 
cagnard (N. Pr. = loiterer), Pic. cagne acagnardi lazy. Berr. 
cagnaud = casnard. The origin is prob. the root cagn L. 

Casque — cascar. 

CassPr. O. Fr. broken, Pr. casser, Fr. casser to break; from 
quassus quassare. It. accasciare to fail in strength, is from a 
form quassiare. With an inserted n we have Sp. canso weary, 
cansar to weary. 

Cassa It., Sp. caxa, Pg. catxa, Pr. caissa, Fr. caisse, E. ctfs^, 
^ chest, Fr. chdsse a setting; from cop^a (Diez), or from the 
sound of a blow quash! cassi whence cassus hollow, and caisse, 
cask, casco&Cyin the sense of a hollow receptacle (Wedgwood). 
Hence It. cassetta, cassettone, castone, vb. Pg. encaixar, Fr. 
enchdsser. It. incassare, to enchase, chase; also Cat. encastar, 
Sp. engasiar. It. incasirare, Pr. eticastrar, and Pr. encastonar, 
Pg. encastdar, Sp. engastonar, cf. L. L. incastratura. 

Cassero — alcazar. 

Casserola casserole — cazza. 

Casso It. Sp. Pg., Vv.cass, O.Fr. quas empty, void; from casstis. 
Hence cassare, casser, h.cassare for cassum reddere inSidomus 
and Cassiodorus. 

Casso It. the breast, chest, L. L. cassum cassus; from capsus a 
receptacle, cf. L. L. area. Hence, also, Pr. cais the jaw, as 
eis from ipse. Wedgwood gives a diflferent accoxmt (v. cassa). 
Related to cais are rg. queixo. Cat. quex, where Pg. queixada, 
Sp. quixada, and perhaps Sp. quixera. 

Casta Sp. Pg., E. caste; from cast us pure? 

Castaldo castaldione, Yen. gastaldo a steward, cf. Fr. Gastaud 
as a proper name; from L. L. gastaldius gastaldio which is 
from Gfotb. ga-staldan to acquire, possess. 

Casulla — casipola. 

Catacomba It., Sp. Pr. catacumba, Fr. catacombe, E. catacomb, 
a subterranean burial-place. According to Diez, from Sp. 
caiar to view and comba for tomba a tomb (cf. Mil. catatomba, 
O. Sp. catatumba). The Roman catacombs contained the 
remains of the martyrs, and were visited for purposes of 
devotion. In support of this der. cf. catafalco, cataletto. 
Others propose xararvfipiov , or xatd and xyfifios a cavity, 
or the Sabine cumba, cf. Festus: cumbam Sabini vocant earn 
quam militares leeticam. 

Catafaloo It., Sp. cadafalso cadahalso cadalso, Pr. cadafalc, O. 
Cat. cadafal, Val. carafal, 0. Fr. escadafaut, Fr. echafaut, 
M. Du. scafaut, G. schaffot, E. scaffold. The orig. form is 
cata-falco, Sp. cadafalso is from Pr. nom. cadafalcs, the c 
becomes / in Fr. as in Estrabort for Estraborc (Strasbourg). 


Catafalco is from Sp. caiar to view and fdlco = It. palco or 
balco (q. v.), cf. catacomba, cataletto, Fr. catafalque and Sp. 
cadafalco are from the Italian. 

Cataletto It. a bed of state, prop, = show - bed, from catar and 
letto, V. catacomba and catafalco. The same word is found in 
Sp. cadalecho a rush-bed, N. Pr. cadaliech, Fr. cMlit a tenter- 
bed, O. Fr. caltt. 

Catar O. Sp. to see, view, Sp. Pg. to search, examine, taste, 
cata inquiry (also = mine, of. nhaXXov), recatar to taste 
again, to keep carefully, to hide, recato prudence, acatar to 
inspect, respect, &c. Menage gives a Fr. dim. catUler to spy 
out. Rh. Parm. Ven. catar, Lomb. cata = to find, seize. Its 
sense of to "view" is foimd in It. cata-comba, cata-falco, 
cata -letto, Sp. cata-lecho, catarihera, cata-viento. WsA.ciuta 
= to view, seek, keep. Isidorus has: cattus (a cat) quod 
cattat I. e. videt. It is from the L. captare (sc. oculis) to lie in 

Catarana Sp. a sheldrake. Prop, a diver, from catarractes? 

Catasta It. a wooden -pile; from L. catasta a scaffold. 

Catastro It. Sp., Fr. cadastre a register of taxes, a tax; from 
capitastrum a poll-tax, cf. Sp. cabezon from cabeza. 

Catir — quatto, 

Catrame It., Pg. alcatrao, Sp. alquitran, Fr. gtdtran goudron, 
L. L. catar annus tar. From Ar. al-qatrdn. 

Cattivo It., Sp. cativo, Pr. caitiu, Fr. chetif ^ wretch, E. caitiff; 
from captivus, which is also foimd in its proper sense, It. cat- 
tivo, Sp. catUivo, Fr. captif, E. captive. 

Cau caucala — choe. 

Cauohemar Fr. a ghost, night -marc; from vb. caucher {ph2>.\ 
Pic. cauquer, Burg, cdquai = It. calcare, E. cauk, and G. mar 
in nachtmar, E. nightmare. Occ. has chaouche-vielio pressing- 
old woman, witch, also cf . pesant peant peen, greouy ploumb all 
= something weightv, an incubus, Sp. pesadilla, O. Sp. 
mampesada. Rouchi has coquenoir, Wall, marke, v. Grand- 

Caudal Sp. Pg., Pr. cabdal, O. Fr. chaudel superior, rich, sbst. 
power, wealth, capital, abundance; from capitalis. Sp. can- 
daloso = very rich. 

Caudillo — capitello. 

Causer — cosa. 

Cautivo — cattivo. 

Cava It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. cave a cellar, E. cave; from cava. 
Hence Pg. cabaz, Fr. cabas a large basket, whence, ph. Sp. 
capazo, but v. cappa. 

Cavallo It., Sp. caballo, Pr. caval, Fr. cheval (Fr. chevale a mare, 
chevallerie, chivalry &c.), Wal. cal, Alb. cal^' calli a horse; 


from cabailus (xafidXXrig). Hence cavalcare, Sp. cabalpar, Fr. 
chevaucher (Fr.lE. cavalcade) to ride (ct. tjCTcavscv from vTtTtog)^ 
L. L. cabaliicare cavallwn = It. cavalcare un cavallo. Equm 
remains only in Sp, f. yegua, Pg. epoay Pr.e^t/a, O.Fr, aigue, 
Wal. eape', Sard, ebba. From cabailus we have also L. L. ca- 
ballarhis, It. cavdlliere &c., and cavalleria, cavallerie, cavalry; 
It. cavalletta, Sp. caballeta a field -cricket (cf. G. heupferd = 
grass -hopper^ Sp. caballeie = a wooden horse, easel &c. 

Cavare It. to take out; prop, to dig out, L. cavare. 

Cavelle cx>velle It. (Boccaccio) = qualche cosa; perhaps fr. quod 
velleif so = qualsi voglia? 

Cavesson — cavezza. 

CaveBsa It. a halter, O.Fr. chevece a collar, S^^.Tg.cabeza head, 
Pr. cabeissa; also Sp. Pg. cabezo, Pr. cabes the top of a thing; 
hence It. cavezzone, Fr. cavesson cavecon, E. caveson a nose- 
halter, whence G. kapp-zatlm spelt as if from happen to cap 
and zaum a bridle, Sp. cabezon = shirt -collar. Fi:om L. L. 
capitivm, so = (1) head (2) hood (3) collar. It. scavezzare to 
sever = scapezzare, Sp. descabezar, prop. = to behead. 

Caviale It., Sp. cabial, Pg. Fr. caviar, M. G. xaviaQi, caviare 
the salted roe of the sturgeon. 

Cavioohia oaviglia, cavicchio caviglio It., Pg. Pr. cavilha, Fr. 
cheville a peg. From clavictda clavicla for euphony cavicla. 
The Sp. has clavija. 

Cavolo It., Sp. col, Pg. couve, Pr. caui, Fr. chou cabbage; from 
cauiis whence also Bret, kaol, W. cawl, G. kohl, E. cole. 

Caxa — cassa. 

Cayado Sp., Pg. cajado, Cat. gayato shepherd's crook; from 

Cayo Sp. (usu. plur.), O. Fr. caye a sandbank, shoal, Pg. caes, 
Fr. quai, Du. kaai, kaje, E. ^t/a^. Isidor. has: kaij cancelli. 
It is the W. cae hedge , enclosure , Bret, kae also = a dam, 
ph. also the origin of the O, H. G. cahot munimentum. 

Cayo Sp. a daw; cf. O.H.G. kaha a craw, Du. kauw; so called 
from the noise it makes , cf. E. caw. 

Casar — cacciare. 

Cassa It., Cat. cassa, O. Fr. Pic. casse, Rh. cas, Sp. cazo a 
saucepan, a ladle: from O. H. G. chezi fkezij, O. N. kali, 
whence G. kessel, E. kettle. Hence It. cazzuola, Sp. cazuela, 
Fr. casserole (cf. mouch-er-olle , mus-er-olle &c.) a frying-pan, 
whence It. casserola, Pic. Champ, castrole, G. castrol. 

Ce — aid. 

Cians — ens. 

Cebada Sp., Vg.cevada barley. Cat. 'Pr.civada oats; from cibare, 
^^.cebar to feed; fatten. Sp, cibera corn is from cibaria (pi.). 

CebelUno — zibellino. 

122 CECE — CENNO, 

Cece It., Sp. chicharo, Fr.cezer, Fr, chiche ( == L. cicer; 

It. cicerchia &c. from cicercula. 
Ceoero It., O.It. cecino, L.L, cecinns, cico; iromh.cicer; which 

(in It. cece) = the knob or tubercle on the swan's bill, cf. 

Cicero. From cecinus rather than from cygnus, comes Sp. Pg. 

O, Fr. cisne, O. Pg. cirne, 
Cedaso — staccio, 
Cedemo — cedro. 
Cedilla c^dille — zediglia. 
Cedola It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cedula, Fr. ce'dule schedule; from L. 

schedula, as cisma from schisma. From another pronunciation 

arose the Sp. esquela. 
Cedro It., Sp. Pg. cidra, Pg. also cidrao, Fr. E. citron (fruit); 

It. cedro, Sp. cidro, Fr. citronnier (tree); from cUnis, citreum. 

It. has cedemo on analogy of quemus. The usu. word is the 

foreign limane, q. v. The variable quantity of the L. ac- 
counts .for the double form in e and /; hence It. cedronella, 

Sp. cidronela, Fr. citronelle balm, L. citrago; also It. citriuolo, 

Fr. citrouiUe pumpkin. 
Ceffo It. a snout, muzzle, ceffare, Parm. cifar to snap, seize; 

Com. zaf = ceffo, zafa. Sic. acciaffari = ceffare, Piedm. 

ciaflii = ceffuto, Sic. ciaffa = claw, It. zaffo = bailiff. Prob. 

from a G. pronunciation of the root tap (v. tape), whence also 

It. ciampa = Sic. ciaffa, 
Ceindre Fr. to gird; from cingere, as peindre from pingere. 
Cejar Sp. (prop.c^a:flrr as inO.Sp.) to recede; from cessare yflAch. 

in It. = to escape. 
Celadon Fr. sea-green (also lover, gallant); from the name of 

a shepherd (clad in green) in D'Urf^'s Astrsea (1610). 
Celata It., Sp. celada, Fr. salade a helmet, O. Eng. salety W. 

saled, from cwlata (cassis cantata Cicero). 
Celda Sp., O. Sp. celia cell; from L. cella, whence also Sp. ciila 

a granary; cillero, Pg. cilleiro from ceilarius. 
C^l^ri — sedano. 
Celui — quello. 
Cembel — zimbello. 
Cencerro Sp. a bell; Basque cincerria cinzarria, a name derived 

from the sound. 
CeneflA zanefa Sp., Pg. sane fa a frame, fringe, border; from 

Ar. cane f ah the hem of a garment. 
C^nelle Fr. the holly-berry; from coccineila (coccina for coccum) 

scarlet berry. 
Cenno It., Rh. cin a nod, Sp. ceho a frown; It. accennare, O.Sp. 

acehar, 0,Fr. acener to nod, make signs. In the old Glossaries 

we find cinniis tortio oris and cynnavit innuit. It is prob. 

shortened from cicinnnus (xixivvog), so that cinnare cennare 


would denote prop, some peculiarity in the "chevelure", cf. 
Ft. harlocher to agitate , from haarlocke, v. locher. 

Cenogil Sp. a garter; from It. ginocchiello prop. = kneeband. 

Cenoura — zanahoria. 

Centeno Sp., Vg.centeto senteio rye; from centenm as it was sup- 
pose to produce a hundredfold. 

Centinare It., Fr. cintrer to vault or arch; sbst. centina, Fr. 
cintre, E. centre centering the wooden frame for building an 
arch; from cmcturare (dnctura); It. n for r as in cecino from 
cicer. The Cat. is chtdria, the Sp. cimbria cimbra, mb from 
cimborio a dome. 

Centiiiela — sentinella. 

Cenzaya Sp. a nurse; from Basque seinzaya, from seiiia a child 
and zaya watch. 

Cepillo Sp., Pg. cepilho a plane (tool), brush; from Sp, cepo a 
block , L. cippus, 

Ceramella oennamella a shawm; a corruption of Fr. chalemel? 
V. chalumeau. 

Ceroare It., Wal. cerca, Pr. cercar sercar, Fr. chercher (by assi- 
milation for cercher, O. Fr. cerchier, Pic. cerquier, cf. Ciciglia 
for Sictglid), E. search. The orig. meaning is to ^'search 
through'^ Dante, Inf. 1, 84: che nC han fatto cercar il tuo 
votirniCy O. Fr. cerchier les montagnes &c. Sp. Pg. cercar = to 
enclose, but O. Pg. also to search through. Cercare is the 
Propertian circare: fontis egens erro circoqute sonantia lymphis 
(4, 9, 35) ; Isid. circat circumvenit, L. L. circator a watchman, 
cf. Alb. khercoig to seek, from xiqxovv] W. kyrchu, Bret. 
kerchat from the same root as cercare. Hence Pr. ensercar to 
distinguish, Pg. enxergar; L. L. cercitare, Wal. cerceta. 

Cerceau Fr. a ring, circle, O. Fr. recercele encircled; from cir- 
ctiifis circellus. 

Cerceta saneta Sp. Pg., Pr. sercela, Fr. cercelle sarcelle a widgeon, 
teal; from querquedulay It. also cercedula, cercevolo. The It. 
garganeilo (E. gargane) is a corruption. 

Ceroine It. a ring, Fr. cerne (= cerc'ne) a circle, Sp. cercen 

(adv. = thoroughly), Pg. cerce; Fr. cerner to encircle, Sp. 

cercenar to pare round; from circinus a circle, circinare to 

Ceroueil Fr. a coffin. Sarcophagulus would have given sarfail; 

it is , therefore , better to derive from the O. H. G. sark (G. 

sarg) a coffin, with suffix el = O. Fr. [sarqu-el sarqu-eu 

Cerda — cerdo. 
Cerdo Sp.Pg. a hog; according to Larramendi, from the Basque 

cherria a hog, but it may be derived from sardidus (suerdo 



serdo v. frenie). Sp. cerda (f.) = a hoe's bristle , or horse' 

hair, ph. from cerdo so = (ij the hog*s hide (2) the bristles, 
Cereza — ciriegia. 
Cerfoglio It., Sp. cerafdio, Fr. cerfeuil a plant, chervil; from 

caerefolium {xaiQitpvXkov), 
Cerise — ciriegia. 

Cemada Sp. lie; = cinerata, Cat. cendrada, from cinis. 
Ceme cemer — cercine, 
Cemeoohio It., Sp. cemeja, Pg. cemelha a fetlock. From dis- 

cernictdum (acus quce capillos disseparai Nonius), so = prop, 

parted hair. 
Cerqiiinho Pg. in carvalho cerquinho a holm-oak; a corruption 

of quercinho = It. quercino. 
Cerrar — serrare. 
Cerre — cerro. 
Cerretano — ciarlare. 
Cerrion Sp. an icicle; from L, stiria, st = c (cf. mozo from 

Oerro It. (l) a Turkey -oak, from cerrus, Fr, cerre; (2) a bob, 

toupet, from cirrus. 

Cerro Sp. Pg., Pr. ser a hill, a backbone; from Basque cerra 
(which, however, may be from the Spanish word), or from 
L. cirrus :^= sl top -knot, so = top. 

Cers Pr. Cat., Sp. cierzo a north -cast -wind; from L. cercius 
circius a word used in Gallia Narbonensis, v. Pott. Etym. 
Forschung. 2, 499- Hence, perhaps Sp. cecina dried beef, 
cecial dried fish (for cercina ceciat). 

Cervello It., Pr. cervel, Fr. cerveau brain, Pr. Rh. cervella (fem. 
= It. pi. cervella), Fr. cervelle; from cerebellum, L. L. cer- 
bellus. From cerebrum come Sp. Pg. celebro cerebro, Wal. crieri 
(pL), from creebrum. 

Cesoje It. (pi.) scissors ; from caesus as rasojo from rasus. 

Ce8i>o It. a bush, shrub; from cespes turf, brush -wood; hence 
cespuglio; cesto is from cespitem. In Placidus we find caespites 
frutices. Hence It. cespicare, Wal. ceaspeta. 

Cespuglio — cespo. 

Cesao It. retreat, privy; from secessus. 

Cesto — cespo. 

Cet — questo. 

Cetrero Sp. a falconer, = accipitrarius , cf. accertello. 

Cetto It.. O. Sp. O. Pg. cedo (encedo) adv. from ciio. 

Cha — te. 

Chabasca Sp. a twig, rod; from clava a graft, whence also Sp. 
chdborra a young maiden. 

Chablis — cadble. 


Chabot Fr. a fish, the miller's thumb, Pg. caboz; from capvt 
because of its thick head, cf. L. capita, &k. xi^aXog, 

Chabraque Fr. a horse-cloth, housing; the G. is schabracke; 
both words come from the Persian tschdbrdk, 

Chaohara Sp. chatter; an onomatopoeion, Sic. ciacciara, It. chi- 

Chacona Sp. the name of a Spanish dance; from Basque chocuna 
neat, pretty. 

Ghacun — ciascuno. 

Chagrin Fr. grief, chagrin. From the Fr. chagrin, shagreen the 
shark -skin, which, being used as a rasp, came to typify the 
gnawing of grief, cf. It. lima. Shagreen in It. was zigrino, 
Yen. Romagn. sagrin, Du. segrein, M. H. G. zager. Gen. 
sagrind = to gnaw, sagrindse to fret, consume with anger. 

Chainse — catnicia. 

Chaire Fr. a pulpit, Pr. cadeira, O. Fr. chat/ere chair seat; from 
cathedra, whence O. Sp. Cat. Basque cadira, Piedm. Com. 
cadrega seat 

Chaise Fr. a chair, seat. This is not found in the oldest dic- 
tionaries, so prob. a Parisian mispronunciation, cf. beside. 
Palsgrave's French Grammar (1530) mentions cheze as a faulty 
Parisian pronunciation of chaere. 

Chaland Fr. a flat-bottomed boat, a transport, O. Fr. chalandre, 
O. Cat. xelandrin, L. L. chelandium chelinda zalandria, M. Gr. 
%Bkdv8iov. These boats were chiefly used by the Byzantines, 
and prob. derived their name from xikvdQog a turtle. Fr. 
chaland, Sp. calan a trafficker are from chaland a boat, cf. bar- 
guigner from barca. Others derive chaland from calo (Papias : 
calones negotiaiores) and make the sense of boat a secondary 
one. But the form will hardly suit this etymology. 

ChAlit — cataletto. 

Chalonge chalenge O. Fr., calonja Pr. a disowning, disputing 
a claim, chalongier, calonjar, E. challenge, to call in question, 
claim ; to challenge one to fight is to call on one to decide a 
disputed matter by combat; from calumnia a false charge, 

Chaloupe Fr., hence Sp. chalupa, It. scialuppa, £. shallop; cor- 
rupted from the Du. sloep (from sloepen to glide, slope, as Du. 
schuit from schieten to shoot), E. sloop. 

Chaliixneau Fr. for chalemeau, O. Fr. chalemel, Pr. caramel, Sp. 
caramillo flute, E. shatvm; from calamus, L. L. calamel. 

Chamade Fr. E. a trumpet-signal calling to a parley; from Pg. 
chamada a shout (chamar = L. L. clamarej. 

Chamar — chiamare. 

Chamarasoa Sp. a bundle of twigs, for fire -word; from Basque 
chamar 'Osca ^Wery small ^^, Larramendi. 


Chamarra ohamarrer — zamarro. 

Chamberga Sp. a long, wide coat; so called from Marshal 

Schomberg (v. Seckendorf ). 
Chamois — camozza, 
Chamorro Sp. Pg. shorn; chamorra a shorn or bald head; from 

clavus (for calvus) and Sp. morra crown of the head. 
Champ — canto. 
Champignon Fr. a mushroom ; from campus, agaricus campestris 

(Linnseus), It. campignuolo. 
Champion — campione, 
Champis O. Fr. still used in Berry and South -East of France 

for a bastard , enfant trouv^ (dans les champs) ; from L. L. 

campUis (0. Fr. also champil). Wall, champi = mener paitre, 

comes from a form campicare, which wouldbeinFr.cA«mpti^. 

Chamusoar Sp. Pg. to singe, O. Sp. xamuscar; from flamma, 
Pg. chama. 

Chanoa ohanolo ohanoo — zanca. 

Chance Fr., O. Fr. cheance (E. chance) from cheoir L. cadere, 
M. H. G. schanze, It. cadenza &c. Hence chanceler to totter, 
Pr. chancelar, whence It. cancellare. 

Chanceler — chance. 

Chanoir Fr. to get moudly ; from canescere, Sp. canecer. Norm. 

chanir from canere. 
Chancre — granchio. 
Chanela chinela Sp. an overshoe, slipper = It. pianella from 

Change changer — camhiare. 
Chanteau — canto. 
Chantepleure Fr. a watering-pot; from Fr. chanter sndpleurer; 

hence It. Sp. cantimplora. 
Chantier — cantiere. 
Chanvre — canape. 
Chanza — ciancia. 
Chaoroin Pr. a usurer, L. L. caorsinus caturcinus cawarsinus, 

G. katvartsch gawertsch kauwerz. From Cadurcinus, Pr. caor- 

cin chaorcin a native of Cahors, which Dante makes the abode 

of usury : e pero to minor giron suggella del segno sua e Sodoma 

e Caorsa Inf. 11, 49. 

Chapa Sp. a plate of metal or leather, E. chape a plate of metal 
at the point of a scabbard, the white tip of a fox's tail. Hence 
chapar to plate, Pg. chapear; chapeleta de una bomba Sp. = 
Fr. clapet, the clapper or sucker of a ship's pump. Prom root 
klap clap the representation of the sound made by two flat 
surfaces striking together. Hence Sp. chapin a shoe with 
cork sole, E. chopine a clog, this last, perhaps, connected 


with Du. kloppen to knock; from the clumping sound of 

Chaparra ohaparro Sp. a kind of oak; from Basque achaparra 
a claW; its branches resembling claws. 

Chape chapeau ohapelle chaperon — cappa. 

Chapitre — capitolo, 

Chapler chapeler ohaploier 0. Fr.^ Pr. chaplar to cut down, 
sbst. Pr. chaple, whence O. Fr. chapleis, Pr. chapladis; from 
capuius a sword . sword-hilt, L. L. capulare to cut oflF. Or is 
it connected witn chapuiser? 

Chapniser 0. Fr., Pr. capusar to cut oflF, cut in pieces ; chapuis 
= a carpenter. L.L. capus capo = a castrated cock, whence 
Sp. capar to geld. Chapuiser is formed on the analogy of its 
synonyme menuiser; cf. 0. Fr. chantuser from chanter. 

Chapuzar sapuzar sampuzar Sp. to dive, duck, cf. Cat. cdbus- 
sar, Pr. cacahusiar; perhaps from capo caho, so = to plunge 
in over head, cf. chapuiser; zampuzar prob. took its form from 
zampar (v. tape), the Pg. chafundar from fundus. 

Chaque Ir., Pr. cac each. Rather from chac-un (quisque 
unusj than immediately from quisque, ct.ciascuno and cadauno. 
Pr. quecs is for quescs (quisque), Com. ciasche. There is no 
need to have recourse to the Ir. cdch, Gael, ceach, where the 
c = p, cf. O. W. poup, Corn, peb, Bret. pep. 

Charade Fr. E. ; perhaps from Neap, charada (^o) •= It. ciarlata 
chatter, whence "play on words". 

Charoo Sp. Pg. a standmg-pool, puddle, slough; from Basque 
charcoa bad, disgusting. 

Chardon — cardo. 

Charge — caricare. 

Charivari Fr. cat's music, clatter, L. L. charivarium , chalvari- 
cum, 0. Fr. caribari, chalivali, Pic. queri-boiry, Dauph. cha- 
navari, N. Pr. taribari. Orig. used of the discordant music 
used on the occasion of a man's second marriage, Sp. cencer- 
rada from cencerro a bell. Cat. esqueliotada. The termination 
is common, e. g. aurvari, hourvari hnntins cries, Pic. Norm. 
Champ. Gen. boulevari. Pied, zanzivari. Norm, varivara, Rh. 
virivari (G. wirrwarr clatter). The former part of the word 
is made to rhyme with the latter (ci^hurly-burly), and may be 
the L. calix (cf. chalivali and Wall, pailtege from paill = Fr. 
poile). Dante's caribo Purg. 31, 132 is, probably, from chari- 

Charlatan — ciarlare. 

Charme 0. Fr. an incantation, Fr. a charm. It. carme carmo, 
Fr. charmer to charm, O. Fr. charmeresse = enchantress ; from 
carmen, L. L. carminare to enchant. From carmen also come3 
O. E. charm a hum, munuuring noise of birds &c. A charm 


of goldfinches = a flock. In 0. Fr. charraie charroie = 

witchcraft, charroieresse a witch, vb. encharrauder , Norm. 

enquerauder for charmeraie &c. 
Charme Fr. the horn -beam, Berr. chatjie, Rouchi came; from 

carptnus (carplnus), L. L. carpenus, It. carpino, Wal. carpin, 

Sp. carpe. 
Chamiere — cran. 
Charogne — carogna. 
Charpa — sciarpa. 
Charpente — carpentiere. 
Charpie Fr. lint. It. carpia; participle of the O.Fr.verb charpir 

(carpere) found in escharpir descharpir. This latter = O. E. 

verb to stickle, to separate combatants (with sticks). 
Charraie oharroie — charme (l). 

Charro Sp. Pg. a churl ; from tne Basque charro = bad (?). 
Charrua — aratro. 

Chartre oharte Fr. a deed, record, E. chart; from charta. 
Chartre O. Fr. (f.) prison; from career (m.), Sp. carcel (f.), It. 

carcere (m. f.). 
Chasco Sp. the lash of a whip; probably from the sound, G. 

klaischen to clash, lash, cf. E. lash. 
Ch&sse — cassa. 
Chasser — cacciare. 
Chasuble — casipola. 
Chat — gatto. 

Chat-huant ohauana — choe. 

Chdtier Fr., E. chastise; from castigare. It. gastigare. 
Chato — piatto. 
Chatouiller Fr. to tickle; from catuilire (nent), whence catulliare 

(act.) cf. cambire, camhiare. 
Chaudiere ohaudron — caldaja. ' 

Chauifer Fr., Pr. calfar to heat, whence echauffer, escalfar; from 

Chaume ¥t. (m.) stubble, whence chaumiere a straw-hut; from 

calamus, whence also L. L. calma: vineas deplantasseni aut 

calmas rupissent, G. halm, E. haulm. 
Chaumidre — chaume. 
Chaupir caupir Pr. to take or seize a thing; from Go^. kaupdn, 

O.H.G. chaufan, G. kaufen to buy, orig. to take in exchange, 

exchange. For the connection between taking and buying cf. 

L. emere, Fr. acheter, 
Chausse — calza* 
ChausB^e — calzada. 
Chauve- souris Fr. a bat, prop. = bald mouse, from the win^ 

being destitute of feathers. Grandgagnage suggests that it is 

a corruption of choue-souris=souriS'hibou mouse owl, the Wall. 


being chawesori, chausori, chehausori; so the Pic. casseuris and 

catesetiris may be = cave-seuns, cavette-seuris, v. choe. Lorr. 

is ho - volant = flying -toad, Pr. soriiz-pennada = Q. fleder- 
. maus, 
Chavirer Fr. to capsize; from caput virare; It. capo-volgere, 

Chasa Sp. chace in ball -playing, point where the ball stops; 

chazar to stop the ball; from Fr. chasse, chasser, 

Che It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Fr. que pronoun and conjunction; from 
quidy whence also Wal. ce, c^', ca. Fr. quoi from que^ as moi 
mei from me. It chi, Fr. qui from quis; Sard, chini, Sp. quien, 
Pg. quern, from quern, v. quien. 

Chef Fr. head, Sp. xefe, E. cAie/*; from ro/^M/. Hence chevir = 
O. Fr. venir a chief; chief Pr. cap, It. capo = "beginning" 
and also "end", de chief en chief; rechief, rechap = recom- 
mencement. From chevir comes chevance profit , and It. civire 
to provide, civanza profit. 6'A^i;^/(Fr.)=a pillow (for ihehead). 

Chegar — liegar. 

Cheirar — flairar. 

Chelme (schelme) O. Fr. a disturber, makebate; from Q. schelm 
rogue, knave. 

Chdmer — scemo. 

Chemin^e — caminata. 

Chemise — camicia. 

Chenapan Fr. highwayman, G. schnapphahn. 

Chdne Fr. (f.), 0. Fr. chesne. Pro v. Fr. quesne, Pr. casser (m.) 
for cas7ie as Boser for Bosne from Rhodanus, Gasc. casso (m.), 
Bern, cassoura, L. L. casnus. Prob. from quercus, quercinus 
quercnus quecnus quesnus, O. Fr. quesne chesne; for qu = ch 
cf. chascwi from quisque. 

Ch^neau Fr. a gutter; from canalis. " andiron, fire-dog; from canis, being usually made 
with feet like dog's paws. Langued. cha-fuec. 

Chenille Fr. a caterpillar, Pr. canilha. From canicula a little 
dog , from a supposed likeness in the head or eyes ; cf . Mil. 
can cagnon a silk-wonn; in Lomb. it is called gatta gattola 
(cat), in Sp. felpilla (if not, as is more prob., from felp(i\ = 
felis pUosandArj cat = Norm, chatte pelouse , whence E. (cor- 
rupted) caterpillar. The Pg. is lagarta (prop, lizard). 

Chente It. pronoun, from che ente (efts entisj "what a thing" 

formed on the analogy of niente. 
Chercher — cercare. 
Chdre — cara. 
Chervis — chirivia. 
Chdtif — cattivo. 



Cheto It., Sp. Pg. quedo, 0. Fr. coit cot recoi, E. coy; from 
quietus; hence vb. It. chef are, Sp. Pg. quedar (also intrans.), 
Fr. coiser (whence E. cosy = coise), like hausser from alius. 
Hence also Fr. quitte, O. Fr. cuite, Pr. quiii, Sp. quito, E. 
quit, G. quitt = absolutus (L. L. quietus); Sp. rg. quitar to 
absolve make void , take away, Fr. quitter to release , let go, 
E. quit, It. quittare chitare to cede one's rights; sbst. quitanza, 
quittance &c. For cheto It. has chiotto prob. from Fr. coit, 
Neap, cuoto. 

Cheval chevaucher — cavallo. 

Clievet — chef. 

Chevdtre Fr. a halter; from capistrum, It. capestro. 

Cheville — cavicchia. 

Chevir — chef. 

Chevrette — crevette. 

Chevron Fr., Pr. cabrion cahiron a beam, Sp. cabrio a rafter, 
cabria axle-tree, cabrial beam; from capreotus (caper) y cf. 
Wal. cafer = a rafter, G. bock = a block or piece of wood 
on which anything rests. A chevron in heraldry is the repre- 
sentation of two rafters. 

Ghez Fr. = L. apud for eti chez = 0. Sp. efi cas = in casd. Cf. 
(). N. prep, hid from hi, Dan. hos from hus. 

Chi — che. 

Chiamare It., Wal. chiema, Sp. Uamar, Pg. chamar, to call, Pr. 
clamar, O.Fr. claimer to call out, E. claim; from clamareii. L. 
(si quis alterum vulpem clamaveritj = nominare. 

Chiappare It. to catch; from O. H. G. kiappen to clap, clap to, 
klappe a trap; Com. ciapa (cia = cla, ciama == clamare). 
Hence, too. It. calappio galappio a trap. Clap kiappen is, of 
course, an onomatopoeion. 

Chiarina, clarinetto, darone It., Sp. clarin, clarinete, Fr. cla- 
rinette clairon, O. Fr. PT. E. clarion, E. clarionet; from clams. 

Chiasso It. from the Pr. clas a crying, bawling, O. Fr. glas 
(chlazj the sound of bells, Fr. fflas a knell for the dead, Ir. 
f/las wailing, Wal. glas sound, E. clash. These may be 
referred to me Semsk.hlas sonare (cf. hldd and glad), and are, 
doubtless, derived from the sound. Diez, however, makes 
chiasso &c. = Lat classicum a trumpet -signal, L. L. a sound 
of bells , cf. conclassare conclamare Isid. Gloss. 

Chiavica It. sewer, conduit; cornipted from cloaca^ lu.'L.clavaca. 

Chiazza It. scab, chiazzare; {rom Q.kletz dirty, bekletzen to soil. 

Chibo — ziba. 

Chicane ohiohe ohieot — cica. 

Chiochera — xicara. 

Chiohe — cece. 


Chioharo — cece. 

Chioharro — cigala. 

Chioo — cica. ^ 

Chiedere It. to demand, = poet, cherere from qwerere, Sp. 

querer &c., r = ^ as in ftedere from ferire &c. Conquidere 

from conquirere. 
Chien Fr. dog. Cants would give chain, as panis pain. The i 

must be euphonic (chiain, chien) as in lieu for leu &c., or must 

be from the fem. chienne from cania (cf. It. cagnd) as Guienne 

from Aquitania, 
Chieppa oheppia It. a fish; from clupea v. Menage. 
CAiiffe Fr. poor stuflF, chiffon rag; Pic. chifer, Fr. chiffmner. 

Champ, chifouiller to tear, rumple, Piedm. cifogne. Grand- 

gagnage makes chiffonner = Wall, cafougni, chiffon = Wal. 

cafu, Champ, cafut rubbish, from Du. kaf chaff. But cf. E. 

chife a fragment, chibble (to break in pieces) shiver, Du. scheve, 

E. shives. 
Chiflo — cinfolo, 
Chifire — cifra. 
Chiglia It. fchielaj, Sp. quilla, Fr. quille, E. keel; from O. H.G. 

kiol, O. N. AnV»/r. Fr. quille also = G. kegel, O. H. G. )t^^i/. 
Chignon Fr, the nape of the neck, O. Fr. chaaignon chaignon 

for chaignon = ring or link of a chain and nape ; from chaine 

(O. Fr^, L. catena, Nicot has : chainon du col vertebra of the 

neck, Langued. cadena daou col. 
Chillar Sp. to scream, cry &c.; from sifflare like soUar from 

sufflare. Cf . cigolare. 
Chimera It., Sp. quimera, Fr. chimere, chimera whim; from 

Chimioa ohimie — alchimia. 
Chinohe Sp. Pg. a bug; from cimex, It. cimice. 
Chinea — haca. 
Chinquer — escanciar. 
Chioooare It. to beat; 0. U. G. klochdn, whence also cloche, 

clock, G. glocke. « 

Chiocciare oroooiare It., Sp. cloquear, N. Pr. clouchd, Fr. glousser, 

Wal. clocHi to cluck, G. glucksen; an onomatop. as also L. 

glocire, cf. A. S. cloccan, E. cluck. It. chioccia, Sp. clucea, Pg. 

choka, Wal. cloc^', G. glucke a brooding hen; hence It. chioccio, 

Sp. clueco llueco hoarse. 
Chiocoiola It. a snail; for cloce-iola, dim. of a form cloccia from 

Chiodo ohiovo It. a nail = chiavo from clavus, Sp. clavo, Fr. 

clou &c. From chiavo came first chio-o = Pr. clau, O. Fr. do, 

the hiatus being filled up witli d or v, cf. padiglione from 

pifiglione papiglione, Rovigo from Ro'igo Bhodigium. The E. 



form b cif^e so called from its resemblance to a nail^ It. chiodo 
di girofano, Fr. ciou de giroflty Sp. clavo di esptcias. 

Chioma It. the hair of the head^ frum coma, i = i inserted, v. 
Kom. Gr. 1, 269; cf. fiaro = faro &c. 

Chiotto — cheUj. 

Chkmrme — ciurma, 

ChlOTO — chiodo. 

Chiquet — cica. 

Chiiivia Sp., Pg. cheriria, Fr. chtrvis chiroui (m. i, EL skirret, a 
parsnep, L. siser, 

Chirlar — zirlare. 

ChlBme Sp., Cat. xtsme slander, malicious tale; a corroption of 
giMsma (though sch does not regularly = Sp. f A), or from the 
Gk. 6i6ii6g a hissing? 

Chitarra It., Sp. Pg. Fr. guiiarra, Fr. gwiare, E. guitar; from 
Gk. xi^dga. From L. cithara come It. cetera cetra, Pr. cidra 
citffia, O. Fr. cUole &c. 

Chito — zitto. 

Chiudere It., Sp. cluir I'in compos.), Pr.claure, Ft. dare to close; 
from ctudere and claudere. Hence Pr. esclaure, Fr. eciore (ex 
and claudoj; Pr. escture, Fr. exclure (excludere). 

Chiurlare — urlare. 

Choc — ciocco, 

Ghocho Sp. Pg. of weak intellect, doting: prob. from suctus for 
exsuctuSy cf. sciocco. 

Chocolat — cioccolata. 

Choe O. Fr., Pic. cave, Pr. cau chau = L. bubo. Hence Fr. 
chouette, Pic. cavette a screech-owl, whence It. ciovetta civetta, 
Ven. zovetta, Wal. ciovice; Pic. also cavan, Anj. chouan, Berr. 
chavant, Pr. chauana, Bret, kuouan, L. L. cavanus, cauanna. 
The Fr. chat-huant (hooting -cat) is prob. a corruption of 
c/touan. From the same root comes Pr. caucata, Fr. choucas 
a grey crow , also Sp. chova (= Fr. choe) a jay, Sp. choya 
a jackdaw. The root is found in the M. H. G. chouh an 
owl 5 cf. E. chough, Du. kauw a crow, cf. E. caw. 

Clioisir Fr., Pr. causir chausir, whence It. ciausire, O.Sp. cosido 
(adj.), O. Pg. coushnento = Pr. causimen, Pr. escausir, O. Cat. 
scosir to choose, Fr. choix, Pr. causit, E. choice; from Goth. 
kiusan, O. G. kiosan kieseti, A. S. ceosau, E. choose, or from 
Goth, kausjan to prove, try, wliich suits the form causir 

Chommer — calma. 

Chopine Fr. a liquid measure, Rouchi chopc] from G. schoppen. 

Chopper — zoppo. 

Choque choquer — ciocco, 

Chorlo Sp. iron-stone; from G. schdrl. 


Chorro Sp., Vg.chorro smijorro a gush of water; (rom susurrus? 

Chose — cosa. 

Chotar ohoto — ctoccktre. 

Chou — cavolo. 

Chouan ohoucas ohouette — choe, 

Choupo — pioppo. 

ChouTir — chiudere, 

Chova ohoya — choe, 

Choza Sp. Pg. a hut. Perhaps , from pluiea for pluieum L. L. a 
shelter; it is not the same word as Sp. Uosa, Pg. chousa an 
enclosed place, L. clausa. 

Chubarba — jusharha, 

Chubasoo — pioggia. 

Chuoho Sp. a long- eared owl, so called from its cry, or from 
its being supposed to suck the blood of children, Pg. chuchar 
to suck, Piedm. ciixe. 

Chuohoter chut — zitio. 

Chufla — ciufolo. 

Chulo Sp. Pg. a jester; cf. It. zurlare to jest. 

Chumaso Pg. a pillow; from pluma, It. piumaccio and pimaccio. 

Chupar — sopa. 

Chus O. Sp. adv. of comparison , {rom plus, O. Pg. chtis, chos. 

Chusma — ciurma, 

Chuva — pioggia, 

Chuso Sp. Pg. head of a spear, spear. Perhaps from pilum piluzo 
pluzo chuzo, 

Ci — qui. 

CiA — te. 

Ciabatta It., Sp. zapata, Fr. savaie an old shoe, Sp. Pg. zapalo 
a shoe. From Arab, thdbhdty and perhaps the same word as 
Fr. sabot a wooden shoe. It. ciabattajo ciabaltiere, Sp. zapa- 
tero, Yy. savetier a cobbler. But, according toMahn, from 
the Basque zapata a shoe, zapatu to tread, root zap, G. sap- 
pen to tread heavily. 

Ciacco It. a* pig. Perhaps from Gk. fSv^a^ 6vfiaHog whence 
siacco ciacco, cf. camicia for camisia, 

Ciamps — tape (2). 

Cianoia It. raillery, jest, trifle, ciancare to jest, mock, Rh. cion- 
cia tattling, Sp. Pg. chanza^okQ, facetiousness ; formed from 
the sound, cf. Sp. chdchara, E. chatter, N. Gr. tldT^aXa, E. 

Ciarlare It., Sp. Pg. charlar, Val. charrar, Norm, charer to 
chatter, prattle. It. ciarlatano, Fr. E. charlatan a tattler, 
mountebank. Like ciancia, a word derived from the sound of 
chattering or chirping. Cf. Sp. chirlar to chirp, prattle. It. 
zirlare, Basque chirchila = charlatan. From Norm, charer is 


prob. fonned charade. The IL cerretano = ciariatano is said 
to be derived from the name of a town Cerreto. 
Ciarpa — sciarpa. 

Ciascimo It., Pr. O. Sp. cascun, Fr. chacun, from qmqm unus, 
cf. chaque; It. ciascheduno from quisqve et ainitf , or qytisqm ad ' 
unum, like O. Sp. quiscadauno, t. cadauno. 

Ciansire — choisir. 

Cibera — cibada. 

Ciborio It. Pg., Fr. cibofre, the vessel for eontaining the eon- 
secrated elements, Pr. cibori, O. Fr. a'boire. Sp. Pg. eimbano 
the cupola or dome over the altar, L. L. cibonum, M. Or. 
xifidffiov ; from xificiffiov a seed-vessel of a plant, a ''vessel". 

doa It a trifle, adj. cigolo single, Sp. chicOy Cat. xic^ chic small, 
Fr. chiche parsimonious (cf. 6r. aftixgCvtig parsimony). Fr. 
chiquet a morsel, chicot a sprig, stump, Sp. chicoie end of a 
rope, chichota (Sp.) a trifle, Fr. chichotcr to wrangle about 
trifles , Sp. cicatear to be parsimonious. From L. cfccum (cic- 
cum nan interduim = non darei cica), r = r* as in Sp. chicharo, 
Fr. chiche from cicer. Hence also Fr. chicane (l") a crumb (2) 
hair-splitting, wrangling, E. chicane, 

Cidgna It. blind -worm; for ciciglia from caecilia, with change 
of suffix to distinguish it from Ciciglia = Sicilia, 

Cicisbeo It, from Fr. chiche (little) and beau. 

Cidston Sp., Pr. sisclaton, O. Fr. siglaion, Sp. also ciciada, a 

woman's dress ; from cyclas cycladis, 
Cidra cidro cidronela — cedro. 
Cidre — sidro. 
Clers — cara. 
Cierge Fr., Pr. ciri wax -taper; from cereus. 

Ciema Sp. the flower or best of anything, Pg. ceme the heart of 
wood , cf. It. cema choice , and refuse ; from cemere to sift, 
Sp. cerner to sift, to blossom. 

Cierzo — cers, 

Cifra oifera It. cipher (secret writing), Sp. Pg. cifra a numeral 
figure, Fr. chiffre, E. cipher in both senses. Orig. a figure 
denoting a blank or nought, cifra figura nihiU, Wal. cifre, 
From Ar. ci/r empty, nought, cafira vacuum esse. Accord- 
ing to Mann, it is tne same word as Sp. Pg. It. E. zero, Fr. 

Cigala It. Pr. Cat., Fr. cigale, Sio.cigarra a grass-hopper; from 
cicada. The Sp. chicharra unitates the chirping noise it 

Oigarra — cigala. 

Oigolare It, scivolare to creak; from sibilare (Ferrari). Cf. Ven. 


cigare to creak. It. cingotiare to chirp. These may be all 

Cigolo — cica. 

Cigflena Sp., Pg. cegonha a crane for pumping water &c. ; from 

Cilia — celda. 

Cima It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. cime top. From cyma a tender sprout, 
Wal. chime, O. Sp. cima a twig, orig. = the top of a plant, 
cf. It vetta. Hence It. cimiero, Sp. cimera, Fr. ctmier a crest, 
Wal. tzimiriu a token, coat-of-arms, M. H. G. zimier zimierde. 

Ciznbel — zimbello, 

Cimbra — centinare. 

dmbrar Sp. to brandish a rod (prop, to bend), cimbreho pliant ; 
according to Larramendi, from Basque cimela pliant; out cf. 

Cixnento It. proof, experiment, risk, cimentare to put to the 
proof &c., cimentoso nazardous, cimenio also = cement, Sp. 
cmienio = foundation, cimienlo real cement, prop, a composi- 
tion of vinegar, salt, and brick- dust used in the refining of 
gold, cimenio cement, cimeniar to found, refine gold, Fr. ci- 
ment, cimenter, E. cement, L. L. cimentum fundamentum; cae- 
mentare sedificarc, caementarius qui muros struit. The Sp. and 
Fr. words are easily traced to the L. caementum. The It. ci- 
menio = proof, presents more difficulty. Diez follows Ferrari 
in deriving it from specimen specimentum (cf . cantamen canta- 
mentum &c., for the rejection of the first syllable, baco for 
bombaco, ciulla tov fanciiUla &c.). The meanmg, however, of 
"experiment'^ may without much difficulty be deduced from 
that of "a composition for refining gold", v. Mahn. 

Cimeterio It., Sp. cimenterio, Fr. cimetiere, O. E. centric, E. 
cemetery; from coemeterium (xotfjLtinJQtov). For cemetery we 
have It. camajo, Sp. camero, Pr. cornier, Fr. charnier, E. 
^Aamtf/- house, 0. H. G. chamare; from carnarium. 

Gimeterre oimitarra — scimitarra, 

Cinabro It., Sp. Pg. cindbrio, Fr. cinabre, Pr. cynobre, E. cin- 
nabar; from L. cinnabaris; Wal. chinovar from xivvafidQtg. 

Cinoel Sp., Pg. sizel, Fr. ciseau, chisel, Fr. ciseaux scissors; 
ciseler ac. to chisel. From secelltis dim. of secuia a sickle , or 
from sidlicula (sicilis) in Plautus , whence sicilicellus, scilcellus. 
This latter is supported by the wavering between c and s, and 
also by the Sp. n for /, cf. zonzo from insulstis. 

Cinoilio — cencio, 

Cinghia It., Wal. chinge, Pg. cilha, Pr. singla, Fr. sangle a belt, 
chingiare &c. to gird; from cingxUa; It. cinto cinta, Sp. cinto 
cinta cincha, Pr. cinta from cinclus (sbst.). From cingere It. 
cigna, Fr.'cenha, 0. Fr. segne. 


CSngJilale It.. Pr. ^ernglar, Fr. sam^kr a wild b««r, L. L. smgu- 
laru <;pur. So called fn:*m iu s«>Iitarv habits, cf. Gk. fiimf^j 
Sard, f^fme, and cf. Gk. oloro: "tird of prey « froim ciog. 
Cm^hiaie for singkiaU as cfmcia'rjrio for c^jmskaorio, cmancia 
for camidi. 

Gngjber Fr. to whip. fp>m cin^wm, Berr. id/oii = whipcord. 

Cm^ar — smglar. 

Ciiigottare — cigoiare. 

Cintre — cenimare. 

Cio It., Pr. aisio $Oy O. Fr. rVo co fceoj, Fr. or from ecce hoc; 
Pr. o^uo aro from €cc%i hoc, 

Cio — zdo. 

doociare It. to sack, G. zuOch^n: It. ciotoia a drinking- cap. 
Sw. zottdi, G. zauie; Sp. chotar to suck. rA-s/o a sncking-kia. 
Com. rro/ a child, m//A a Iamb. Rh. tichytt; Champ. tMier to 
sack the fingers. All onomat^pceia. 

Cioooo It. a block; O. Fr. choqwt chfjuqwri a root, Fr. ckoCy Sp. 
choque a thrnst, shock, chocar choquer to thrnst. G. sckock 
schocken, E. shock; cf. also It. ciocca a taft with G. schock a 
heap. Cf. ioppo. 

Cioooolata It., Sp. chocolate, Fr. chocoiat, E. chocolate. From 
Mexican chocoQail, 

dolb It. wretch, base, mean fellow: from G. schufi, 

Cioncare It. to break, mutilate. RL ciuncar, Wal. r/irn^ mutil- 
ated, Hung, tsonka; from iruncare, or from It. a'occo? 

Cioppa — giubba. 

Ciotola — ciocciare. 

Ciottare — azole. 

Ciriegia ciliegia It., Sp. cercza, Pg. cereja, Pr. serisiay Fr. cerise, 
Wal. cerdse, E. cherry: from adj. ceraseus, like many others 
names of trees ^faggio, pmgna^ querciaj^ It. ciriegia 2i&primiero 
from primarius, 

Ciro It. a pig: from xoipog'? 

Ciruela Sp. a plimi: from cereola, cf. prunum cereum (\'irgil). 

Cirzir — zurcir, 

Ciaale — rw(>;>. 

Ciaeau ciaeler — cincel, 

CiaemuB O. Fr. comipted from the O. H. G. zisi-miss, A. S. 
sise-miis, L. L. cisimits, G. ziselmaus a shrew-mouse. 

Ciama It. Sp., Pr. scisma, O. Fr. a'sme, schism; from schisma. 

Ciane — cecero. 

Citano — zutano, 

Citriuolo It. a cucumber, Fr. citrouUle a gourd; from cilreum, 

V. cidro. 
Citron citronnelle citrooille — cedro. 


Citta It., Wal. ceiate, Sp. ciudad, Pr. ctutai, Fr. citd, Pr. nom. 
ciu, O. Pr. cit, E. city; from civitas, 

Ciudad — citta, 

Ciuffo It. a top, top -knot; from G. schopf, or from zopf, Lomb. 
zuff, V. zuffa. 

Ciiifolo zufolo It., Sp. chufa, Pr. chufla; O. Fr. chufle, Sp. Pr. 
r/iiyZflr whistle, taunt, jest; vb. zufolare &c. A word formed 
from the sound , influenced by the L. sihilare and mfflare v. 
siffler. Some make zufolo the same as the Etrurian subulo a 
flute -player, 

Ciurmslt., Sp.Pg. chusma, Pg. also churma chulma, Fr. chiourme 
the crew of rowers in a gallery. From xdXsv6fia the signal 
for the rowers, whence it came to designate the rowers them- 
selves, cf. Or. commando. From x^XsviSfia came cletisma chusma, 
as from clamare chamar, Sic. chiurma for clurma clusma, It. 
ciurma for chiurma as morcia from morchia. Of the same 
origin is It. ciurmare to charm with mystical words and'signs. 

Civada — cebada. 

Civaja It. vegetables ; from cibaria. 

Civanza — chef. 

Cive Fr., civette, E. chive; from ccepa an onion. 

Civeo — civiere. 

Civetta — choe. 

Civire — chef. 

Cizza — tetta. 

Clabaud — glapir. 

ClaieFr., 0. Fr. cloie, Pr. cleda hurdle -work, basket-work, 
L. L. clida, clia, dim. cletella. It is a Celtic word, Fr. cliath, 
W. cltvyd. L. L. crctellce = clitcUoi a pack - saddle (prop, of 
basket- work). 

Clairon darinette — chiarina. 

Clamp Fr. Wall, a clamp, Norm, acclamper to clamp; from 
O. N. klampi, M. H. G. klampfe, G. klnmmer^ E. clamp. 

Clap Pr. a heap, mass, clapiera, O. Fr. clapier, aclapar to heap 

up; = W. clap clamp a heap, lump. 
Clapier — clapir. 

Clapir Fr. fse clapir) to nm to burrow (of rabbits); clapier a 
burrow, prop, a heap of stones, E. clapper^ from clap in Lang. 
= a stone, = W. clap, \clamp a lump. Diez refers clapir to 
L. clepere to steal. 

Claque Fr. a crack, sound of a blow &c., claquer to clack, clap, 
clatter; an onomatop., Du. klack, vb. klakken.' 

Clarinetto — chiarina. 

Clatir — ghiattire. 

davioembalo gravicembalo It., Sp. clavecimbano , Fr. clavecin a 


harpsichord; from davis a key, stop (Fr. clavier a row of 
keys), and q/mbalxim» 

Cleda — claie. 

Cligner Fr. to wink, Pic. O. Fr. diner dinner, sbst. din, Fr. 
din dceil; from dinare to nod. For digner for diner cf. 
O. Fr. crigne for crine, Fr. harpigner from harpin, O. Fr. 
dingier is from a form dinicare, 

Clinche Fr., Norm, danche. Champ. Wall.c/Zf^, O.Fr. denque. 
Pic. diguet a latch ; from G. kiinke, Du. klinky a word derived 
from the sound ("imUfted was the clinking latch"), or =: a 
fastener, and connected with ding, clench, clinch, Du. klinken 
to fasten. 

Clinquant Fr. tinsel , dincaille pots and pans , corrupted qtrni- 
caille frippery, vb. se requinquer to bedizen oneself; from Du. 
klinken, G. klingen, E. dink, Fr. quincailler = a tinman. 

Clique Pic. a slap, vb. diqtter, Fr. diquet diqueiie, E. dickei a 
clapper &c., vb. diqueler. An onomatop. G. klick, E. click. 
The Fr. E. r//^i/^ perhaps = a noisy conclave. 

Clisse eclisse Fr., O. Fr. dice esclice a splint; from O. H. G. 
kliozan to split (i from io as in quille from kiol). 

Cloche Fr. = campana in the south, a bell, Pr. cloca clocha, 
Piedm. Com. ciftca, O. Fr. vb. docher, Pr. docar; from L. L. 
clocca cloca = A. S. ducge, N. klucke, O. H. G. docca, glocca, 
G. glockCy E. c/orA', Ir. dog^ W. r/ocA. 67ocA: is a variation of 
clack and is imitative of the sound made by a blow. 

Clocher — clop. 

Clop O. Fr. Pr. lame , halting (W. kloff), sbst. O. Fr. cloprn, 
dopinel, E. doping, vb. eloper, dopiner, Fr. eclope, L. L. 
cloppus = ;ccoAo5. More likely from the G. klopfen kloppen to 
knock (cf. dub -footed), than, as Diez, from xo^otnovg. An- 
other word for eloper is clocher. Pic. doquer, Pr. dopchar, 
from L. L. doppicare, cf. It. zoppicare. 

dore — chiudere. 

Clou — chiodo. 

Coalla — quaglia. 

Cobalto It, Sp. Pg. E. cobalt, Fr. cobolt; from G. Arofto// (from 
Boh. Aro?/; metal, or = kobold mountain -goblin). 

Cobarde — codardo. 

Cobe — cupido. 

Cobrar Sp. Pg. Pr. 0. Fr. coubrer to recover, O. H. G. kobordn ; 
from recuperare, the simple form, preserved, like so many 
lost Latin words, in the Rom. cuperare, would be from capere, 
formed perhaps, on the analogy oisuperarCy to which it is akin 
inmeamng. The Lat. verb recuperare i9> pre8er\'^ed in the Rom. 
but with a different meaning: It. ricovrare to escape, Sp.rtro- 
brarse, Pr. recobrar, O. Fr. recouvrer to recover (from sick- 


ness); cf. L. L. rex cegrotavit quo recuperante filius mgroiare 
caepit. Cf. ressortir (v. sortir) and Gk. avaxofiC^ead'ai. 

Cooagne — cuccagna. 

Co^ar Pg. to scratch, tickle; perhaps from coquere to bum, 
coctus, coctiare. Hence, too, Sp. coscar, cosquillas? 

Cooarde — coq. 

Goooa It., Pr. coca (in encocar), Fr. coche, E. cock the notch of 
a cross-bow; It. coccare to cock, to lay the bowstring in the 
notch , scoccare to discharge an arrow , Fr. encocher &c. Of 
nnceq^in derivation. Wedg. derives the verb cock, coccare 
from the sound of a quick sudden motion imitated by the syl- 
lable cock, which word is also used to express sharp projec- 
tions {cog of a wheel) or indentations (notch). 

Ck>ooa It., Sp. coca, O. Fr. coque, Fr. coche, E. cock = cock- 
boat, cf. coxswain. From concha as cocchiglia from conchyliitm. 
We have also O. H. G. koccho, Dan. kog, W. cwch, Bret. 
koked. From concha also come 0. Sp. coca, Sard, conca head 
(cf. testa, Gk. ic&yxrfjy Sp. cogote, Pr. cogot the occiput, also 
Fr. coque egg-shell, cocon cocoon; from concheus come It. 
coccio potsherd, coccia head, Sp. cuezo cueza basket. 

Ck>ooliio It., Sp. Ft. coche (m.), E. coach. According to some, 
from Hung, kotczy (Wal. code, Alb. cotzi); others make it 
etymologically the same word as couch, from Du. koetse = 
couch or coach (litter), which from koetsen = coucher to lie. 
Diez, however, makes cocchio a masc. dim. of cocca a boat, 
and from cocchio Fr. coche, Sp. coche, G. kutsche, cf. from 
It. nicchia, Fr. niche, Sp. nicho. 

Coooia oooolo — cocca. 

Coociniglia It., Sp. cochinilla, Fr. cochenille, E. cochineal; from 
Sp.cochinilla a wood-louse (dim. of cochina a sow); the Spani- 
ards gave this name to the Mexican insect, which resembles 
a wood-louse. The It. spells the word as if from coccinus. 

Cooear — coz. 

Ck>char — coitar. 

Coolie Fr. a sow, whence cochon and Sp. cochino, cochastro, 
cochambre. Perhaps the same word as coche a nick or notch 
fcocca), cf. Sp. camero from crena, Piedm. crina sow, from 

Ck>olie — cocca. 

Ck>ohe — cocchio, 

Ck>ohenille ooohinilla — cocciniglia. 

Coohevis Fr. a tufted lark = Pg. cotovia, Sp. totovia; from the 
-Bret, kodioch, v. Mahn Unters. p. 26. 

Coohiglia It., Fr, coquille a mussel; from conchylium, as Sp. co- 
quina from concha. 


Cochino — co^h^, 

Cooon — cocca 2 . 

Coca — rurro. 

Coda It.. Pr. rf*a. Fr. queue. Sp. Pg. ro/«i *\-f. esquda for esgueda 
= $rh^/in A:*;.. <J. Sp. r<w' a tail: from cauda. Hence It. codt- 
one cffdrione a bird's tail , < J. Sp. c^idiUa the romp , codasta the 
stenj of a s^hip: vb. It. scodare. Fr. ecouer to dock the tail. 

Codardo It.. Pr. conrt. V>- Fr. ro^r/ c^tord c<mard < whence E. 
coward , Sp. Pp. cfJbardej <>. Sp. cfJ^rdo ^from coardo as 
juricio from Juicio , Fr. couard. From cauda a tail . so = one 
who holds back , cf. O. Fr. rowirder to retire. Or there is a 
ref«/r<:-nef- to a terrifiod animal with his tail between his legs. 
In hf-raldr}- a lion si» depicted is called a lion couari, Mann, 
UiittTs. p. 76. says that cr*uart was a name used by the old 
fabidists for a hare, crtd-ard-o = badly - tailed , short -tailed, 
V. Rom. Gr. 2., 311. 

Codaste — coda, 

Codea, oodena — cotetma. 

Codeso Sp. from cytisuSy corrupted adesus, 

Codida — cvpido. 

Codillo oodo — cttbi'io. 

Codol Pr. Cat., Parm. Crem. codot, X. Pr. codou a sort of stone; 
from cos cotis, 

Codrione — coda. 

Coello — coniglio. 

Co&no coCaro It., Sp. Pr. cofre. Fr. coffrc, E. coffer ^ also Sp. 
cuehano a large bas^ket. Yr. coffin a small basket, 
E. coffin; from coi»hinus. Bret, kof =z the belly, A. S. cof ^ 
cave. Sp. cofa. cofe. It. coffa = the scuttle of a mast. The 
same root appears in cavtts. 

Cofe cofOre — cofano. 

Cofia — cuffia, 

Coger — coglierc. ' 

Cogliere It.. Sp. cf»ger, Pg. rolher, Pr. Fr. cuieUir lE. coil), W'al. 
culeage tc» collect : from rtjllifjere. Hence Sp. CM^oger to select ; 
O. Pg. sbst. escfjl the best of an%nhing, Pr. escolh species. 

Coglione It. dial, cojon. Sp.r6;V>w,*Pr. Yr^coillon testicidus; from 
col ens, Pr. O. Fr. coil , Wal. emu, Coglione also = coward, 
wretch , Sp. collon, Fr. coy on, 

Cognato It.; Sp. athado, Pr. cunhat, Wal. ctmnat (fem. cognata 
&c.) brother-in-law: from cognatm. The Fr. has beau-frere. 

Cogno It. a wine- measure: from congius. 

Cogollo Sp. the heart of a cabbage &c. : perhaps a corruption of 
cologlo from cauliculu^. 

Cogoma It. a pot: from cucuma, whence also Fr. coquemar. 

Cogote — cocca. 


Cogotz COgUl — CUCCO. 

Cogujada Sp., Cat. cogullada a crested lark, It. cappelluta; from 
cogulla a nood , L. cucuilm. Hence also cogujon the corner of 
a pillow or bolster. 

Cohue Fr. noise, bustle; perhaps from con and huer to cry? The 
Berrichon has cahuer from htier. 

Coi — cheto. 

Coiffe — cuffia. • 

Coillon — coglione. 

Coin Fr. comer, wedge; from cuneus, It. conio &c. Hence cognee 
an axe; quignon for cuignon a lunch, whence Sp. quihon, Pg. 
quinhao a share. 

Coing — cotogna. 

Cointe — conto. 

Coitar cochar O. Sp. Pg. Pr., O. Fr. cotter to push, throng, 
press, hasten; sbst. O. Sp. Pr. coita; adj. coitoso hasty. From 
a freq. form coctare (coquere). Cf. O. Sp. cochado = oocido, 
O. Pg. coito = coctus. 

Coitare O. It., Sp. Pg. Pr. cuidar, O. Fr. cuidier, Fr. cuider to 
care; from cogitare. O. It. cotOy O. Sp. cuida, Sp. Pg. cuidado 
care. Hence It. tracotanza, Fr. outreciudance presumption, = 

Coite — colirice. 

Cojon — coglione. 

Col — cavolo. 

Cola It., Sp. actUld, Pg. acold, Wal. colea adverb of place; from 
eccu' iliac. 

Cola — coda. 

Colcare oorcare coricare It., Wal. culca, Pr. colgar, Fr. coucher 
to couch, Sp. Pg. colgar to suspend. Cat. to cover with earth, 
lay a shoot (It. coricare); from collocare, L. L. cidcare. 

Colcha — coltrice. 

Colchete — croc. 

Colgar — colcare. 

Colla It, Sp. cola, Fr. colle glue; from xokka. 

Collare It. to torture, colla a rope for torturing; prob. from M. 
H. G. quellen, kollen to fetter, punish (G. qudlefi); from the 
punishment of mast-heading, collare came to mean "to hoist 

CoUazo Sp. a foster-brother; from collacteus for coUactanctts. 

Collon — coglione. 

CoUottola It. the nape; from collum. 

Colmena Sp., Pg.colmea a bee-hive. Not, as Diez gives, follow- 
ing the Spanish etymologers, from the Arah.kuirdra min nahl 
a hive of bees, but, probably, from the Basque kdldemvenan 
a bee -hive {koloeii a straw -fabric and gwenan bees), spelt 


colmena as if = coimena a well -stocked place (coimarj, v. 
Mahii; Unters. p. 54- 

Colmillo Sp.; Pg. coimilho a tusk; fang; from columella, so = 
dens columellaris ; Sp. columelares = incisors. Isid. has: denies 
caninos vulgus colomellos vocanl. 

Colmo It. Sp., Fr. comble heap, summit, vh. colmare &c., to heap 
up. From cumulus and culmen, the latter heing found also in 
Sf.cumbrj^, Fg.cume summit, the former in Pg. coffioro combro, 
L. L. combrus a mound , Pr. comol = It. colmo full ; from cu- 
mulus also come Pr. Fr.encombre, li.ingombro an incumbrance, 
encombrar, encombrer combrer, ingombrare, E. cumber in- 
cumber; Fr. decombres nibbish. It. sgombrare to remove. G. 
kummer, E. comber grief, trouble are from the Rom. 

Colodra Sp. milkpail , wine - vessel. Of uncertain origin. Prob- 
ably, a compound with uter, Diez. Perhaps the col- is the 
same as in colostrum. From colodra comes Sp. colodn'llo the 
occiput, cf. lesia. 

Colpo It., O. Sp. colpe, Sp. Pg. golpe, Pr. colp, Fr. coup a blow; 
It. colpire to strike, O. Sp. colpar, Fr. couper to knock off, 
cut off. From colaphus, which in L. L. appears as colapus 

Coltrice It. (for colci(re), O. Sp. colcedra, Pr. cousser cosser a 
mattress; from culcUra; It. coltra coltre (f.), O. Fr. cotre, Fr. 
coultre from culctra; Sp. Pg. colcha from culcla for culcila, 
whence also Fr. coulle (E. quill), coite couetle, O. Fr. coute 
keute quieute (for colte &c.), Vv.cota (for colta as mot for molt). 
From culcita puncta came Fr. coulte-pointe, courte-poinie, by 
corruption, contre - pointe , whence E. counterpane. Culcita is 
from the Celtic, W. cylch a circle, cylched bed-clothes. From 
culcita would be formed a dim. culcitinum ctdctinum, whence 
It. cuscino, Sp. coxin, Fr. coussin, E. cushion, G. kOssen. 

Colui — quello. 

Comadreja Sp. a weasel, properly = a little godmother, cf. bele 
and Grimm's Reinliart, p. 224. 

Combagio It. a joining, combagiare to join = combaciare fbacioj 
to kiss, to jom, perhaps with some reference to L. compages. 

Comble — colmo. 

Combleza — bercer. 

Combo Sp., Pr. comb bent, crooked; Sp. comba a bending, Pr. 
comba, O. Fr. combe a deep valley (cf. Alia -comba, Comba- 
longa, Como), Piedm. conba. Com. gomba; Sp. combar to bend, 
Gen. iugumbdse. From W. cwm, E. combe a valley. There 
is no necessity to have recourse, with Diez, to the L. con- 

Combrer — colmo. 

Combro — colmo. 


Come It., Sp. Pff. O.It. como, Sic. comu, O.Sp. O.Pg. Pr. O.Fr. 
com cum, Wfu. cum, Fr. commc, Pr. coma; from L. quomodo. 
Hence Pr. coment, Fr, comment, Sard, comenti; also Pr. cossi, 
coussi from qtwmodo sic. The Pr.has also co for com as L. ^wo 
for qtiomodo. 

Coiner Sp. Pg. to eat; from comedere. 

Cominciare It., Sp. Pr. comenzar, Pg. comecar, Fr. commencer, 
E. commence; from cum and initiare (Mil. inza); O.Sp. compen- 
zar compezar. Sard, incumbenzai from in-cum-iniliare ; Sp. «w- 
pezar from in- initiare, Wal. has incepe from incipere, Rh. 

Comment — ^om^. 
Comoro — coimo. 

Compagno It., Sp. compaho, Pr. O. Fr. compaing, G. companion; 
compagnia &c. company; compagnare accompagnare &c. From 
the L. L. companium, from cmw and /;fl;i« on the analogy of 
the O. H. G.gimazOj gileip from ^i = <?mw and »iflzo meat, /^i/> 
bread. ThusDiez, who rejects the derivation from cowi-/?fl^flfwu5 
(pagus), there being, he alleges, no instance of a similar change 
of accent in derivatives from words in -anus. But the change 
of accent may have arisen from the growing usage of pagano 
in another sense, the commoner word naturally taking the 
shorter form. The g is found in the oldest L. L. uhi habuisti 
mansionem hdc nocte compagn^ cf . O. Fr. compaing. Moreover, 
the meaning of compagnia = confederation, points rather to 
pagus than to panis. The derivation from pagus would be 
further supported by the word semipaganus in Persius, if, as 
has been suggested, the meaning be not "half a clown ^', but 
"a poor half-brother of the guild ^^ (Prof. Conington). 

Compasso It. Pg., Sp. Fr. Vr.compas, E. compass; compassarc &c. 
to compass. From cum and passus a step , Pr. O. Fr. compas 
= equal step, compasser to keep equal stej), so in Sp. compas 
= time in music. Others der. from the W . cu^np circle, cwm- 
pas compass. 

Complot Fr. a plot, comploter to plot. From complicitnm com- 
plic'tum = complicatio. Complot for comploii, as f rotter for 

Compote Fr. preserved fruit; for compdte. It. cofnposta = com- 

Comprare — par are. 

Compter — contare. 

Comte — conte. 

Concerto It., Sp. concierto, Fr. E. concert agreement; vb. con- 
certare to agree. From L. concertare, or, better, from con- 
sertare; It. conserto = agreement, consertare to concert, agree. 

IW :»:ti«Tiia: — o:«t*:-. 

Cciu£sar<fr I:l wrtntrjcr^ >:- artmrtar *; *szr*- aTis. Adj. and 

r.#f lu r-.«u'^C"f iT- :6-">£rr .'-cwtuf.*- al'^'M^ 'Oittmfj. 
Oaasasrgt Yz^. Hii. .".#1*: iatfryjf a ;a£jiC- 
Coadcr^ Ii- ^';- Fr. E- r-imOir: & S>r3. A^ttg^eaa: w«<rd. 

fa»^iii - ±7- :\n^'.r'^ E. rimc'irz v »^r£S^T2*3i: —an angel 
Caa^ 1 J- Pr.: vw^^r" -ttAVt: fr.zi .-*:iiBak!^ciaF : Fr. rmjprirfft i from 


Pr. j-fai ATi- 

COBC9Za 'JM^J^^M. 

Coahftfyr .Sp. = L. •r«v»-.*;^fl^- 
Conhortar — <\^''jri4rt, 

Oittigiio I-- .S;-- t^-^vr-- Pj. !'*.««'*'>, Pr. O. Fr. 4r«:4ur. E. rvMwy; 
fr.ii ruiii^v:w; Fr. viiL cfAr.g^ of ^sfnx^ omuuh, comtume; 

Comietable — <*'.4U^^af«^. 

CoDoocfaia I:.. Fn^b^^*'^'^^ & diUian: L..L.t>^in(/4 for admnda 

it*.'ii^ c'ji^. U- H. G. thjkr!*j, G. Ai0iiW. 
CoDquidere — chM^^^ 

Cooacfode Fr., Sp. i^.H^^vd^ci a plant: fn:>m t-imsoM^^ 
Contadino oontado — c'>«ii/«*. 
Contare It., ^p. cjnt'jr, Pr. ojmiar u.» cx^au. Fr. cjmpier, also to 

t^Ii, Eiarr&te, Fr. rvur/t^: trL»m cjmputarr. of. the two senses of 

O. H. G. zdj'jft and E. /W/. It. c^^mputOj comio ic, = L. roai- 

/w/u« Firm. Matemus;. 
CoDte It-. Sp. Pg. cond^, Pr. romy. <>. Fr. ywciu, Pr. and O.Fr. 

ac-'.-Ti*. com/^, Fr. vjmi^r, £. CAOii: trom rcMKf:; = a companion 

of tlie prince; hence contado Otc. comUyy ccmiadmo a coontry- 

Conteatabile oonnestabile It.. Sp. cKmdtsiabify Fr. commtUM^y E. 

conJktfihle; orig. = Master of the Ho^^eJ from comet siabM, 

then = commander of the armv or uf a fortress ^eonstaUe of 

the Tower Ac), then re^tricteJ to mean a petty officer of the 

Ccntigia — conto. 
ConUr O. Sp. to happen ^ cuniir acuntir, confescer, Sp. Pg. acom- 

iecer; from contingere. 
Conto It., O. Fr. rointe acquainted^ O. Fr. Pr. coiMtr comde neat, 

pretty, E. fjuahit; from cwjnitus known, intimate, agrteMej 


cf. M. H. G. maerc known and agreeable. Hence Pr. coindar 
acoindar, Fr.accointer, ^.acquaint = h.adcogniiare, Pr.acoin- 
dansa, O. Fr. accointance, E. acquaintance. In L. L. we find 
cogniter cognite benigne humane. From comtus comes It. con- 
tigia ornament; v. condare. 

Contrada It. Pr., Fr. contree, F. country; properly = that which 
lies over against one, from contra with sufnx -ata, cf. G. 
gegend from gegen. Pr. has also encontrada from encontrar. 

Contreindre — etreindre. 

Contrebande — bando. 

Contreoarrer — cara. 

Controle — rotoio. 

Convier — convitare. 

Convine Fr. behaviour. It. convegno, Sp. convenio convention, E. 
covin a deceitful agreement: from convenire; for the loss of 
the n in E. cf. covenant, O. E. covent (for convent). 

Convitare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. convidar, Fr. convier to invite; convito, 
Sp. convite, Pr. convit, O. Fr. convi invitation, feast. From 
invitare, the con being taken from convivium. 

Gonvoiter — cupido. 

Gonvojare — voyer. 

Convoyer — voyer. 

Copeau Fr. a chip or snlint; from coupe a slice (couper); or is 
copeau the same word as O.Fr. cospei coispel (cuspis?) a thorn? 

Copete copo — coppa. 

Coppa It., Sp. Pg. Pr. copa, Fr. coupe, Wal. cofe, E. cup; from 
cuppa a form of cupa, L. L. cuppa = cup. Hence also Sp. Pg. 
Pr. ctd>a, Fr. cuve, O. H. G. kupa, E. coop. Hence Pr. cubel 
a tub; Sp. cubiiete, Pr. Fr. gobelet, L. L. gubeiius a cup; also 
It. E. cupola, Fr. coupole, coupe. The same root is found in 
O.Fr. cope. Pic. coupet couplet a hill, W. cop copa, E. cop, Du. 
kop, G. kopf and kuppe head, top; Fr. coupeautof, Sp. Pg. 
copa copo bunch, copete top, tiift, v. toppo. 

Copparosa It., Sp. Pg. caparrosa, Fr. couperose, E. copperas; 

from cupri rosa = x*'^^**'^^'^^^« 

Coppia It., Fr. E. couple; from copula; hence also O. It. cobbola, 
Pr. co^/a, Fr. F. couplet. The It. scoppiare to uncouple is to 
be distinguished from scoppiare from schioppo (q. v.). 

CoQ Fr. = A. S. cocc, E. corA:, Wal. rtwrdj, Rh. cot; so called 
from its cry, cf. vb. coqueriquer, coqueliner, Du.kokelen. From 
coq come coquet, E. cocket swaggerinff (from the strutting 
pride of a cock); cocarde, E. cockade. Wall, cockad prop. == 
the comb of a cock; O. Fr. cocart coquart vain. For coq the 
Pr. and O. Fr. have the Rom. gal, jal. Norm. Berr. jau, jollet 
hor.jaujalle. Champ, gau. 

Coque — cocca. 



Coquelicot Fr., E. cockle wild poppy. From cocctm xoxxog the 
kermes-insect, coque de kermos. By a false association coque- 
licot has taken the same form as the word for the cry of a 
cock = coquelicot, coquericoty the red comb of the fowl being 
the point of connexion. Cf. Occ. cacaracd = crow of a cock 
and poppy , Pic. cocriacot = cock and poppy. 

Coquemar — cogoma, 

Ck>quet — coq. 

Goquille — cochiglia, 

Goquin Fr. a beggar, rogue; according to some, a dim. of co- 
quus, prop. = Kitchen -boy, scullion. Others make it from 
O. N. Aok throat, koka to swallow. The best way is make it 
a dim. of O. Fr. cocs, queux a cook, for L. coquinus would 
give cuisin. 

Goquina — cochiglia. 

Cor — ora (2). 

Coraggio It., Sp. cor age, Fr. E. courage; from cor the heart, 
coraticum, cf. omaggio &c, from hominaticum (homo), 

Gorazza It., Sp. coraza, Pr. coirassa, Fr. cuirasse, E. cuirass; 
from coriacea (corium), cf. L. lorica from lorum. 

Corbaoho Sp., Fr. cravache a scourge, prop, the Nubian lash of 
rhinoceros hide, Gr. karhatscJie; borrowed from the Turk. 
kyrbdch, Kuss. korbatsch. 

Gorbata — cravata, 

Gorbeille Fr. a basket; from corbicula (Palladius). 

Gorbeta Sp., Fg.corveta, Fr.E. corvette; from <7orftf//i a merchant- 
vessel, with a Romanised ending. 

Goroare — colcare, 

Gorchete — croc. 

Gorcho Sp. cork-tree, corcha a cork -receptacle; corc^^ sandal ; 
from cortex, as pancho from pantex. 

Gorcovar Sp. Pg. to bend, corcova a hump; from con-curvare, 
cf. Sp. corcusir for concusir. Pg. corcos = corcovado hump- 

Gordero Sp., Pg. cordeiro lamb ; from agnus chordus (Varro and 

Gordoglio It., Sip.cordojo, Vr. cordolh, Rh. ror^o/i grief ; from 
cordolium (Plautus and Apuleius). Dolium = Fr. deuil, It 

Gordonnier — cordovan o, 

Gordovano It., Sp. cordoban, Pr. cordoan, Fr. cordouan, E. cor- 
dovan, cordwain := Cordovan leather, Ar. kortobani. An older 
form was cordovesus, cordebisus, from L. cordubensis, Sp. cor- 
dobes. Hence cordovaniere , O. Fr. cordoannier, Fr. cordonnier 
a shoemaker, E. cordwaitier. 


Ck>reggia It., Sp. Pg. correa, Vv.correja, Fr. caurroie, WBl,curea 
a strap; from cortigia. Hence It. scoreggia, E. scourge. 

Corgere It. in accorgersi (Rh. ancorscJier) to perceive, and scor- 
gere (1) to perceive (2) to escort, Accorgere = ad-corrigere 
expressed orig. the correction of an error. Scorgere = excor- 
rigere got its sense of escorting, leading from that of ruling 
and guiding. Prom it is derived scar tare, scoria, Fr. escorter 
escortc, E. escort, Sp. escoltar escolta, 

Corine — corruccio. 

CoriBoar Pg. to lighten, corisco lightning, Sic. sumiscu, from 

Corlieu O. Fr. Pr. runner; from corre to run, h'eu light. Hence 
Fr. courlieu, courlis, E. curlew. 

Corma Sp. fetter; from KOQ^iog a block? 

Cormano — hermano. 

Corme Fr. Pg. a fruit, O. E. corme; from comum? 

Cormoran Fr., E. cormorant; from corb = corvus a crow, and 
Bret. m^'Vran (mor sea, bran crow), thus a pleonasm like 
loupgarou. The Pr. is corp-marL 

Comamtisa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. comemuse a bag-pipe: from comu 
Musce. Pr. coma, O.Fv. come = a horn (musical instrument), 
Pr. musa, O. Fr. muse = pipe. 

Gomard Fr. cuckold, = It. becco comuto or becco, Sp. cabron. 
A derisive expression, a comut or bestia comuda (rr.) being 
taken as synonymous with a fool. Cf. Pr. soffren, It. bozzo 
(prop. = a rough stone), Fr. sot all used in the same sense as 

Comia oomiolo It., Sp. comizola, Pg. comisolo, Fr. comouille, 
Wal. coame, come/ plum; It. comio comiolo, Sp. cornejo cor- 
nizo, Pg. comiso, Fr. comouiller, cornel -tree] from comum, 
comus, or from comeus comeohis (cf. s. ciriegio), comiculum 
(comejoj comuculum (comouille). 

Comioe It., Sp. comisa, Fr. comiche, Wall, coroniss, Ot. camies, 
E. cornice; from coronis {xoQovig) a cornice, in Rom. con- 
founded with comix, cf. xogcivri = curve, crown, and crow. 

Comiola It., Sp. comerina, Pg. Pr. comelina, Fr. comaline, E. 
cornelian; from comu, because in colour it resembles the homy 
nail of the finger, whence also its Gk. name owS, v. nac- 

Corral — corro. 

Corredo — redo. 

Corro Sp. a ring; from currere; correr toros to exhibit a bull- 
fight; nence op. corral a court, yard &c. 

Corroyer — redo. 

Oorraooio It., Vr.corrotz, Fr. cowrroua: anger; tor colleruccio &c., 



from cholera gall. Hence It. corucciare crucciare, Pr. car- 
rossar, Fr. courroucer. O. Fr. ccrine as if choierma. 

Corsare oorsale It., Sp. corsario cosario, Pr. carsari, Fr. corsaire, 
E. corsair; from cursus, whence Sp. corsa corso a course or 
cruise at sea. 

Corset Fr. E. bodice; from Fr. cors = corpus, cf. cors-age. The 
It. has cor petto, and also, from the Fr., corset to. 

Corte It. Sp. Pg., Pr. cort, Fr. cour, Wal. curte, E- court; from 
L. r/rors chortis a cattle -yard. From cor/<' &c. in the sense of 
a prince's court, come It. cortese, Sp. cortes, Fr. courfois, E. 
courteous (= cortensis) ; Sp. cortesano, Fr. courtisan, It. cor- 
tigiano, L. L. cortisanus; It. corteggiare, Sp. cortejar, Pr. ror- 
/^y<ir cortezar, Fr court iser to court; It. corteggio, Fr. cortege. 

Corteocia It., Sp. corteza, Pg. cortica rind, bark, from corticea 

(cortex); It. scorticare, Pr. escorgar, N. Pr. escourtegd, Fr. 

ecorcher, Sp. Pg. escorchar to peel, flay, L. L. escorticare. 
Cortege — ror/^. 
Cknrtesa — corteccia. 
Cortina It. Sp. Pr., Fr. courtine, Wal. cortine, E. curtain, from 

^Aors as aulteum from au/a. L. L. cortina = a little court, a 

hanging, a covering (L. cortina). 
Cortir — curtir. 
Corv6e Fr. soccage, L.L. cort>ada. From corrogata like enterver 

from interrogare, Rouchi courowee, Lang, courroe. The orig. 

meaning was "summons", cf. O. Fr. ror^r ^= rogarej to 

Corveta — corheta. 

Corvetta It., Sp. corveta, Fr. courbette, E. curvet; from curvus. 
Corvette — corbeta, 

Corso corza Sp. Pg. a roe; from ^dpS (o(>xd^ a form of ddp| 
do()xd^, or Irom caprea caurea corea corja (cf. granea granja) 
corza, cf. arcilla. 

Coaa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. chose; from causa, in L. L. = a thing; 
the orig. L. form is preserved in the orig. sense, It. Sp. causa, 
Pg. {Touif/i, Fr. cau^e, Wal. raiu^*^ the Pr. rat/^a having both 
meanings. The same connexion of meanings is found in the 
G. sache, and the N. Gk. ngdyiia. From causari come It. cu- 
sare to assert, Pr. chausar, O.Fr. choser to dispute. Ft. causer 
to talk is from O. H. G. chdsdn , G. kosen. 

Coscar — cocar. 

Coscia It., Pg. coxa J Pr. cueissa, Fr. cuisse, Wal. coaps^ the 
thigh; from coxa the hip. Sp. coxo lame, Isid. claudus coxus. 
Hence Sp. quixote, Val. cuixot armour for the thigh, Fr. 

Coscojo Sp., Cat. coscoly the berry of the scarlet -oak, L. cuscu- 


lium (Pliny). The tree is called coscoja, Cat. coscolya, Basq. 
coscoila cusculla. An old S|f(|nish word. 

Ck>secha Sp. harvest; from consecare consectus. O. Sp. cogecha 
= Pg. colheita, L. collecta. 

Cosensa — cuire. 

Coeer — cucire. 

Cosi It. = O. Sp. ansi, O. Fr. ainsinc (Burg, ansin, Pic. ensih), 
Fr. ainsi, Sp. asi, Pg. assim, Pr. aissi, Wal. aja. From rp^'ue 
sic, qu = cu, whence cnsi cosi, Sic. accussu As the Sp. aun 
from adhuc, nin from nee, 5m from 5ic, so an for Arc or ec, 
whence ansi , asL The Pr. has acsi for tff^si ^ Romagn. acse, 
Brescian test, Lomb. inset for cosi 

CoBo Sp. a corso, place for a bull -fight; for corso from cursus, 

It. corso. Hence Sp. coser war-horse = It. corsiere, 1^. courser, 

Sp. acosar to pursue. 
Cospel — copeau. 
Cosse 6oosse Fr. (f.) a pod, husk or shell , ecosser to shell &c. 

From G. schote pod (Du. schosse) = W. cdd cwd a bag, Bret. 

kdd, E. coe?. Cosse would be from ecosse. 
Cosser — cozzare. 
CoBsi — come. 
Cosson BV. a weevil; from cossus, Bret. kos. 

Costa It. Pg. Pr., Sp. cuesia, Fr. r()/e fE. coast), rib, side, coast; 
fromco5/flr a rib; nence It. costato, op. cost ado, Fr. r()/e side; 
It. costerella a little hill , Fr. coteau for cdteau a declivity, side 
of a hill; It. accostare, Sp. acostar, Fr. accoster to approach 
(cf. C05/tf =juxta), Sp. acostar to incline, lay down, E. /iccos/, 

Costd, oosti, costinci adverbs; from eccu' t!s^tfc, eccti' is/ie, eccu' 

Costra Sp. crust; from crusta. 

Costui — questo, 

Ck>8tiima It. Pr., Sp. costttme, Fr. coutume (all fem.^, It. Pg. 
costume, Sp. costumbre, Pr. Cat. costum, Fr. costttme (all masc, 
Cat. also fem.), E. custom (and in der. sense costume); from 
consuetudin costudn, through the medium of a {ormconsuetumen, 
ume being a Rom. termination for expressing qualities , cf . It. 
a$prume,rg. ciume, fr.frescum, and cf. from mansuetudin Sp. 
mansedtimbre, Pg. mansedume, also Pg. mansidao, Tr.mansueza. 
The masc. costume is the earlier form, the fem. being formed 
from a neut. plur. costumina, O. Pr. cosdumna. 

Cota ootar ootejar — quota. 

Cota — coltrice. 

Cotale It., Wal. cutare a pronoim, from ceque-talis? Hence also 
Sp. atcil = Pr. aitai, O.Fr. aintel itel, Norm, entel, O.It aitale, 
V. s. cosi. 


Cdteato It. fn>m «)fir Umim? O. Sp. «r«Ui», Pr. cteiir, O. Fr. 

Colar — ri5<^. 

Cote P^. in 4 r>!4!tr dlf ^>^ adr. = dailr: {n>m fvsliAr. whence 

9^*fJ^ rr4if, ffyf^ry-iAj, ct>nuD>>a ^ Sp. £x de ntf^ a work-da j. 
Cote ooter ooterie — qmfjia, 
Obyt cofU eotesn — casta. 
Cntani ta ^-'^'*^*'"^ It.. Pr. osiiam. Fr. omemme skin. Sp. rodbie 

thick elotfa. Comemme is probl for ammime, O. Fr. rodkn^ 

Twlkeiiee cedeMty from nUamtmf^ Pg. rodbe rind may be firom 

mtica, whence It. rar«na (Pann. caiga^ Yen. coega^ Gen. 

qmgay and atiieagna. 
Coteeto ooleetiii It. from fmli £tfo, L. atv* Idc tfAr. 
Goiilkm — cfAta. 
Coto Sp. an enclosure, bonndarr^ Pg. roitfo asTfaim, sanctoary. 

From L. caMtwm an order, mandate • so in O. Sp. >, whoice = 

limit icj L. L. im/'ra caMios, n/'ra anham^ Impis camiL 
CcfUignm lUy Pr. codomg, Fr. coim^y E. qmmce, WaL gMhdt; from 

cydfrnkiy MvdtinoPf L. L. coiattmm oMamwm, so called fr^m 

Cydfm in Crete. 
Cotone It.; Fr. r^t^/^M, Sp. aigodfAtj £. coiiim; from Ar. fo^iomy al- 

go'icn, Sp. algfjtdfm and alcotom ako = wadding, whoice Pr. 

aicfAf^y O- Fr. auqveiony Fr. hoqwum. 
Cotorello — cvhito. 
Coto^ia Pg. lark , whence Sp. totacia tofred lark . It. ioitorBla, 

¥r. cffchetis; from Bret, kodioch. V. Mahn^ Unters. p. 25. 
Cotta It, Sp. Pg. Pr. ro/tf , O. Fr. cote, Fr. ro//<?, E. coaiy coite 

de maille a coat of mail, Pr. cot (m.); L. L. coita cottus; hence 

Fr. cotiHom cottcrcn &c C^tttus cotta = a coarse woollen mat, 

a monk's tunic , from G. Aotzc a shaggv covering, overcoat, 

E. cot = a matted lock, a fleece of wooL Others daive cotta 

&c. from £. cote, cot a hat, a covering. 
Conard — codardo. 
Ccmchant — ptmente. 
Comber — colcarc. 
Coiuxm — cueco. 
Coude — cubito. 
Ccmdel — capiieUo. 
Coiidre — cucire. 
Coudre Fr. hazel; from corylus, coims, coidnts. Com. coler. It. 

Ckmenne — cotenna. 
Ccmette — coltrice. 
Ooviire O. Fr. cuevre cuwrc, E. quiver; from O. H. G. kohhar, 

A. S. cocevy G. kficher. 
Coulflr Fr. to trickle, flow; from colore. Hence adj. couiis, Pr. 


coladis, as if colattcius, sbst. coulisse a sliding- door , E. culiis 

a groove or channel, O. Fr. colei'ce = E. portcullis. 
Coiilis coulisse — couler. 
Coup — colpo. 
Ck>up6 coupeau — coppa. 
Ck>up6r — colpo. 
Ck>uple — coppia. 
Cour — corle. 
Ck>urage — coraggio. 
Courbette — corvetia, 
Ck>iirge — cucuzza. 
Courroie — coreggia. 
CJourroux — corruccio. 
Courtier — cura. 
Courtine — cortina. 
Ck>iirtiBan courtoie — corte. 
Cous — cucco. 
Cousin — cugino. 

Cousin Fr. a gnat; dim. of culex, as if cvlicinus. 
Coussin — coltrice. 
Couter Fr. E. cost, sbst. cout cost; from constare, to stand one 

in , It. costare- &c. Hence O. Fr. coste a drug , M. H. G. koste 

victuals, cf. G. speise prop. = expense; O. Fr. Wall, costenge 

= expense. 
Coutre Fr. a plough -share; from cutter, It. coltro; Com. coltra 

contra a plough. 
Coutume — costuma. 
Couve — cavolo. 
Couver — covare. 
Covare It., Pr. coar, Fr. couver to brood; from cubare (== incu- 

bare). It. covo cova a den, lair, Sp. cueva a cave, from cubare 

in its proper sense. 
Covone It. a sheaf, Lomb. cov, Piedm. cheuv, as much as can be 

held in the hollow of the hand, from cavus, cf. chiovo from 

Coxa — coscia. 
Cozin — coltrice. 
Coyon — coglione. 
Cozsare It., Fr. cosser to butt; sbst. cozzo. A participial verb, 

from coctus = coictus fco-icerej, cf. dirizzare, cacciare &c., 

Kom. Gr. 2, 323. It. cozzare con uno = co-icere cum aliquo. 
Coz2one It., Pr. O.Cat. cusso, O.Fr. cosson, WsA.goson a factor, 

dealer, espec. in horses, a groom. From co^rfo (Plautus and 

Gellius), coctio (Festus). Hence It. scozzone. 
Crac Fr., vb. craquer; an onomatop., cf. O.H.G.Arrac, G. krach, 

1^. crack, Gael. croc. Fr. craquelin, D\x.krakeling, Fl. crackling. 


Craoher — racher. 

Craie Fr. chalk; from creta, Sp. greda &c. 

Craindre Fr. to fear, O. Fr. crembre, cremir, cremmair, pret. 
creins cremi cremu, part, craint cremi cremu. Prob. from ire- 
mere (cr = tr), cf. empreindre from imprimere, geindre from 
gemere, raemhre (cf. crembre) from redimere. 

Cramoisi — carmestno. 

Crampe crampon — grampa, 

Cran Fr. a slit, a notch, Roiichi cre'ner to notch; hence Fr. ere- 
neau, O.Fr. Pr. camel an embrasure of a battlement, a crenelle 
(whence crenellated), Fr. carneler to notch, sbst. chamiere a 
joint. From L. crena (Pliny), Rh. crenna, Lomb. crena, Pied. 
cran, cf. camera, Cf. also l)u. kam, vb. kamen, Bavar. sbst 
krinnen, v. Fr. came a comer. 

Crane — granchio. 

Cranequin — crone. 

Crapaud Fr., Pr. crapaut grapaut, Cat. gripau, Lim. gropal (for 
grapat) a toad. From E. creep grope, A. S. creopan, Ehi. krui- 
pen, O.H.G.A:r/y»n. Or from rr//p<?= scales on the skin, 80 = 
the blotched animal, cf. Pr. graissant from graissa = Fr. 
graisse, crasse. 

Craquer — crac. 

Crau Pr. the name of a stony district near Aries, whence adj. 
crauc stony, Norm, crau a peculiar sort of stone. The word 
is Celtic: \V.craig, Bret, crag, Gael. creag crag, IS,. crag. Crau 
= crag, as fau = fag, esclau = sclag. ] 

Cravaohe — corbacho. 

Cravanter — crehantar. 

Cravatta It., Sp. corbata, Fr. cravate, E. cravat; introduced into 
France in the first half of the 17**^ century. It was so called 
from being worn by the Cravats (Fr. Cravates), or Croatian 
soldiers. The It. is croatta, Rouchi croate croyatte. 

Creanter O. Fr. to assure, creant bail; from credentare a form 
from credens\ other forms are craanter cranter, graanter gran- 
ter, whence E. grant. 

Crebantar Pr., (). Fr. cravanter, Sp. Pg. quebrantar to break; 
from crepare (crepans). 

Creche — greppia. 

Crema It. Sp. Pr., Fr. crhne, E. cream, L. L. crema n. (Venant. 
Fort.) ; from L. cremor, Wedg. mentions the cognate words 
kraumr kraum in Icelandic (= It. cremore, crema), A. S. ream, 
E. rime, grime, G. rahm. The accent in Fr. prop, belongs to 
cresme, chrism, xQC0{ia, It. cresima. 

Cr6maillon cr^maillere Fr., whence Sip.gramallera a pot-hanger. 
Burg, cramail, Wall, cramd, Champ, cramille, L. L. crama- 
cuius, cramactUa. From G. kram an iron hook, v. grampa. 


Crembre, oremir — craindre. 

Cremisi — carmesmo. 

Crena querena Pg. a keel; from carina, It. Sp. carena, Fr. ca- 

rene; hence carenare, carener, E. careen. 
Crencha crenche Sp., Pg. crencha, Cat. clenxa a parting in the 

hair; from criniculus, or, better, from crenictda {crena a slit). 
Cr^neau — cran. 
Crepare It., Pr. crebar, Fr. crever, Sp. Pg. quehrar to break; 

from crepare. 
Crdpe Fr., E. crape (O.Fr. crespe culled, frizzled); from crispus. 
Crepore It. animosity, rancour; prop, of anger suppressed and 

eager to break out (crepare). 
Crescionelt., Fr. cresson, Cai.crexen; fonned as if from rr^^r/ar^ 

fa celeritaie crescendi), but really derived from another source, 

A. S. caerse, Du. kersse, Sw. crasse, E. cars, cress, G. kresse. 
Cresson — crescione. 
Creiiset oreasequin — crisueio. 
Crenx Fr. hollow, sbst. creux, Pr. cros a hole, vb. creuser. Com. 

croeuss. From carrosus. 
Crefver — crepare. 
Crevette Fr. a small crab; from carabus, or G. krabbe, E. crab, 

whence also Rouchi crape. Chevrette a shrimp is from chevre, 

cf. G. bdckle. 
Criado Sp. Pg. a servant (It. creato); from criar to breed, bring 

up, from creare, so = prop, one brought up in the house 

Crier — gridare. 
Criquet Fr., N. Pr. cricoi, E. cricket, Pic. crequeillon; krekkel a 

cricket, ^.cricell. An onomatop., cf. Fr. criquer, D\i. krieken, 

E. creak, Gk. xqCxsiv, xgi^eiv. 
Criquet Fr. a small horse; from G. kracke; E. cricket prop. = 

a trestle, then = a wicket. 
Cris Pg. an eclipse; from eclipsis. 
Crisueio Sp. a lamp, crisuela a lamj)-pan; from Basque criselua 

cruseiua. Hence also crisol a crucible. Diez. But the Basque 

is more probably from the Sp., which is the same as the Fr. 

creuseul, croisel a lamp, connected with G. krus, E. cruse, Fr. 

crtiche (q. v.), Du. krut/se, whence also Fr. creiiset croiset a 

crucible or cruet, Fr. creusequin, E. cruskin, Ir. criusgin; L. L. 

cruciboium = Fr. creusseul, croissol. V. Wedgwood, s. crock. 
Croc Fr. Pr. Rh. a hook, whence crochet crochu accrocher; O. N. 

krokr, Dan. krog, E. crook, Du. krooke, W. cr^^; hence L. L. 

tncrocare, Fr. encrouer, E. encroach. From crochet comes Sp. 

corchetCj Pg. coichete. 
Crocchiare It. to clatter, from crotalum (xQordlov), cchi = tl as 

in vecchio. Sp. crotorar to cry like a crane is the same word. 


Croccia gruccia It.^ E. crutch. It. cruccia a spade, O. Sp. croza, 
Pr. crossa, Fr. crosse, F,. cross, crazier. From crux, Itke paitm 
pansa panse from pan f ex, or perhaps better from adj. crucea, 
whence als*© O. H. G. krukja. 

Crochet — croc, 

Crogiare It. to roast. Connected with O. H. G. chroste, roast, 
cf. agio asio, 

Croi — crojo. 

CroiBsir croistre — cruxir, 

Crojo O. It. stiff, rude, coarse, Pr. croi. From crud-i-us a by- 
form of crudtis, as bajo from badius. For other instances of 
similarly lenprthened adjectives, cL s. fujo. The long vowel 
is shortened by its position crudjus, and passes into o. 

CroUare It., Pr. crollar croilar to shake, Fr. crouler to fall to 
ruin , O. Fr. croler crodler crosier. The orig. form is croilar 
which is from co-rotulare, as rotlar from rotulare. So Fr. 
crouler agrees with rouler, and we see the original sense in 
the phrase crouler un bdlimenL 

Crone Fr. (m.) a crane (instrument); from Du. krdn, E. crane 
= G. kranich a crane (bird), cf. Fr. grue, Gk. yigavog. 
Hence O. Fr. cranequin (for crossbows), Wall, crenekin a 

Crosciare It., Sp. cntxir, Pr. O.Fr. croissir, Wal. crohi to gnash. 
The Goth, has kriustan to gnash, e. g. Mark 9, 18: kriusiith 
tunthuns = Sp. cruxe los dientes, Pr. cruis las dens = tgi^st 
rovg odovtag. The Kom. forms would not come directly from 
this, but from a form kraustjan (cf. kiusan kausjan Fr. choisirj, 
sij = It. sci as in angustia = angoscia. We find also in the 
2°** conj. Cat. croxer, Rh. scruscer (O. Fr. croistre). 

Crotorar — crocchiare. 

Crotte Fr., Pr. crota mud, dung of sheep, goats &c. Prob. from 
the L. G. Swed. kldt, G. kloss, E. clod, clot. 

Crouler — crollare. 

Croupe croupir — groppo, 

Cruccia — croccia. 

Crucciare — corruccio. 

Cruche Fr., O. Fr. cmye, Gasc. cniga, Pr. crugd, Fr. cruchon, 
E. cruse (v. s. crisuelo); from W. crtvc a pail, cf. O. H. G. 
cruoc crdg, O. Fris. krdcha, A. S. crocca, E. crock (whence 
crockery), G. krug, Rh. cruog hruog. 

Cruna It. eye of a needle. From corona, as crucciare from cw- 
rucciare; for u from o, cf. giuso, tulto. 

CruBca It. bran. O. H. G. cruse = furfur, Sw. krOsch, Swab. 
grOsche, Fr. gnds, Piedm. grus. N. Pr. vb. crusca = to crush. 

Cnudr — crosciare. 

Cuajar — quagliare. 


Cubebe It,, Sp. Pg. Pr. cubeba, Fr. cubebe, E. cvbeb the name of 
an Indian plant which yields a sort of pepper; Ar. kabdbat, 

Cubito It., Sp. codo, O. Sp. cobdo, Pg. covado coto, Fr. coide 
code, Fr. coude, Wal. cot elbow; from cubitus. It. has also 
gomito gombito, Rh. cumbet. Hence Pg. cotovello = coto by 
corruption from covetello? Sp. codillo knee of a horse &c., Sp. 
recodo an angle, cf. iyHciv, 

Cuear — cucco. 

Cucoagna It., Sp. cucana, Fr. cocagne, O. E. cokaygne, E. 
cockney (cokenay coknay), Utopia or land of plenty , thence 
applied in E. to one brought up in such a land, pampered. 
The orig. meaning was Land of Cakes, from Cat. coca, Rh. 
cocca, Langued. coco. Pic. couque a cake, from coquere as 
torca from torquere. Wall, cocogne = Easter eggs. For a full 
discussion of the word, v. Notes and Queries, Vol. 4. Wedg. 
makes the orig. sense oi cockney = rocked, dandled, ci.coque- 
liner, E. cockle cocker. 

Cuoohiajo It., O. Pg. colhar, Pr. culhier. It. fem. cucchiaja, Sp. 
cucchara, Pg. colher, Fr. cuiller cuillere a spoon; from cockle- 
arium cochlearia. The Wal. is lingure = L. lingula. 

Cuccio It., Sic. guzzu (also guzza cuccid), Cat. Pr. gos, Fem. 
gossa, Sf. gozque a cur. Wall, ^o a dog. Cf. Sic. ^wzzm, It. 
cticciolo small, Sp. cuco, perhaps from It. cucco nestling, 
fondling. But the word is found in Ulyr. kutze, Hung, kuszi 
a little dog. 

Cucoo It., Ven. cuco, Romag. cocch &c., Pg. cuco a cuckoo; from 
the Old Latin cucus (Plautus); It. cuculo, Pr. cogul, Fr. cocu 
coucou, E. cuckoo, from cuculus, Sp. cuquillo, cuclillo. In the 
derived sense of the Fr. cocu we have Pr. cogotz (cf. Cat. 
cucut) coutz, 0. Fr. cous, E. cuckold, Sp. cucar to scoff is 
from the form cucus. 

Cuohara — cucchiajo, 

Cuoina It., Sp. cocina, Fr. cuisine, Wal. cocne, also O. H. G. 
kuchina, A.S.cycene, ^.kitchen, O, Fr. cugann, W. cegin; 
from L. coquina for culina, Vb. cucinare &c., from coquinare 

Cuoire It. (prop, cuscire, sc = s), Sp. coser cusir, Pg. coser, Pr. 
coser cusir, Fr. coudre, Wal. coftse to sew; from consuere, L.L. 
cusire. Hence It. costura (for consutura), Fr. couture , whence 
accoutrer, E. accoutre. It. sdrucire sdruscire to unsew, is from 
resuere with privative 5 and euphonic tf, sdrecire, then, on 
analogy of cuscire, sdruscire, 

CucuBza It. (1) a gourd (2) a head; corrupted from cucurbita. 
It. zucca, whence Pr. 0. Fr. sue, Pr. zuquet head, is prob. 
corrupted from cuzza for cwct/zza. The N. Pr. is tuca. From 


cucurbiia comes also Fr. gourde y gougourde, N. Pr, cougourdo, 

E. gourd, Fr. courge, in the Jura coudre. 
Cudir Sp. Pg. in acudir to help, recudir to return, assist. From 

recutcre to strike back , in reflexive sense , to sprink back, 

come« recudir (cf. sacudir from succutere, precudir from percu- 

tere) ; acudir was formed on the analogy of recudir, 
Cuebano — cofano. 
Cueillir — cogliere, 
Cuento — coniare. 
Cuerdo Sp., Pg. cordo prudent; for cordado from cordatus (En 

nius , Plautus &c.) •, cf . pago from pagado, manso = mansueius. 
Cuesco Sp., V^.cosco kernel, coscorron coscorrdo a bruise, a blow 

on the head, a crust (cf. Fr. grignon from granum). Basq. 

coskha = butting (of a ram). 
Cueva — covare, 
Cueza — cocca (2). 
Oiiffla scuffia It., Sp. cofia escofia, Pg. coif a, 0. Pg. escoifay Fr. 

coiffe (coeffe)y Wal. E. coif, Du. coifie. From O. H. G. kuppa 

kuppha kuphja = mitra, E. cap (cf. krippa kripja) came L. L. 

cofea cuphia. Kuppha = L. cuppa a cup (v. s. coppa &c.) cf. 

L. galeola in both senses). 
engine It., Pr. cosin, Fr. E. cousin, fem. cugina &c.; from con- 

sobrinus, Rh. cmrin cusdrin. The Sp. is sobrino. 
Cuidado cuidar — coiiare. 
Cuider — coitare. 
Cuiller — cucchiajo. 
Cuirasse — corazza, 
Chiire Fr. to cook , Pr. cozer, from coquere; cuisson pain from 

coctio; cuisire a pedant, from coquaster, cf. Fr.coguastrd, L. L. 

cocisiro; ¥r. cosenza pain, from coquentia, Fr. cusencon; It. 

cociore, Sp. escozor sharp pain. 
Cuisine — cucina. 
Cuisse — coscia. 
Cuistre — cuirc. 

Cuivre Fr. copper, brass; from cuprum, adj. cupreum. 
Culantro Sp., from coriandrum. 
Culbute Fr. a summersault, vb. culbuter; from c\d rump, and 

bute a projection. 
Oulla It. cradle; from cunula, as lulla from lunula; Neap, con- 

nola, Romagn. conla. 
Oulvert cuivert O. Fr., Pr. culvert roguish, impious, infidel. 

From collibertus a term which denoted one whose condition 

was little above that of a slave inasmuch as he could be sold 

and bought. Matt. Paris has : sub nomine culvertatis et perpe- 

iuce servitutis. The association of ideas is obvious, cf. knave, 

villain &c. 


Cumbre ouine — coimo, 

Ciindir Sp. Cat. to increase , spread (neut.). From Goth, kuni 

= yivoqy 0. N. kynd, A. S. gecynd, E. kind. 
Cupido It., Pr. cobe; whence It. cupidigia cupidezza, Sp. codicia, 

O. Sp. cobdicia, Pr. cobiticia cobezeza, Fr. convoitise (for co- 

voitise), (E. covetousness) from a Lat. cupidiiia (cupidus); It. 

cubitare, Pr. cobeitar, Fr. convoiter, E. cor^/. Pr. ro^ir = fall 

to one's share, e. g. j'ow nCes cobitz; from cupere alicui to wish 

one well, Rh. cuvir; Pr. encobir, O. Fr. encovir to covet. 
Cupo It. hollow; from cwpa a cask, v. Rom. Gr. 2, 232. Sard. 

has cupudu = rt/j^o. 
Cura Sp. Pg. (m.) a clergyman, prop, one who takes charge, in 

which sense cura was used even in Lat., and in L.L. as masc. 

From cura come It. curat o, Fr. cure, E. curate; also It. curat- 

tiere. Pic. couratier, Fr. courtier a factor, one who has charge 

of business. 
Curtir Sp., Pg. cortir to tan leather. From conterere, coterere 

with r transposed carter cortir, cf. derretir, 
Cusare — cosa. 
CuBO Pr. pure, clean, adv. cuschement; from O. H. G. kusc, G. 

keusch pure, chaste. 
Gusoino — coltrice. 
Gusir — cucire. 

Cuspir oospir Pg. to spit; from conspuere. 
Cussd — cozzone. 
Cutioagna — cotenna. 
Cutio — cote, 
Cutir Sp. to strike against, strike, defend. Perhaps from com- 

petere cumptir cuptir cutir, as from conterere cuttrir cutrir. 
Cutretta outrettola It. a wagtail. From coda retta (recta), so for 

cudretta, = Fr. hochequeue; It. coditremola = Fr. branlequeue, 

G. wedelsterz, E. wagtail, W. tinsigl, Gr. CBiOonvyCg^ Lat. 

motacUla &c. 
Cuye — coppa. 

Da — a. 

Da Fr. in oui-da, nenni-da. The oldest form is diva, shortened 
ded (one syllable) used to express an urgent summons: diva, 
ne me ceier! diva tu m'as honi! v. Rom. Gr. 2, 413. The orig. 
meaning was "say on!'' from imperat. of dire, and va imp. 
of aller. 

Daoe — dazio. 

Dadiva Sp. Pg. a present; = dativa L. L. for donativa. 

158 DADO — DAin>IN. 

Dado It. Sp. Pg., Pr. dat, Fr. de, E. die; from dare = to throw 
(dare ad terramj. The Fr. de = dez thimble is from digi- 
tus Cfj. 

Bags It. Sp. Pg. (also Pg. adaga\ Fr. dague^ £. dag dagger, 
Dn. dagge, G. degen, ako in the Celt., GaeL daga pistol, Bret. 
dag dager a dagger (cf. s. pisioia). Fr. daguet = a spade. 
The root is dag to thrust = dig, O. E. dag to pierce. 

Dagome Fr. a one -homed cow; from dague said come , cf. bi- 
gorne for bicome. 

Bafi^uet — guatare. 

Daim Fr. a deer, fem. daine', O. Fr. dain (m.), whence It. 
daino, Pied, dan, O. Sp. dayne, Du. dS^yn; from dlanui (It 

Daino — daim. 

Daintie O. Fr. (m.), also daintier, daintee, E. dainty (sbst. and 
adj.). This is from the Celtic, W. daintaith fdaint = dens), 
O. E. deintee value {dainty worthy) is the O. Fr. deinetet dein- 
tet (=^ dignitas), wnich some indentify with the foregoing 

Daia Fr. a canopy, E. daiSy O. Fr. dois, Pr. deis a table, from 
discus. It. desco (E. desk\ G. tisch. Dais was a corruption of 
dois, cf. e/»ar$ and espois. The name was then transferred to 
the raised step (E. dais) on which the high table was placed, 
or the canopy over it. Wedgw. Others derive from dorsum 
dossium, which, however, could not give the form deis; the 
Sp. dosel, It. dossiere may be from the old form dois, or from 
dor sale dorsarium, E. dorsal, doser, dosel = hB,ngins8 round 
the walls of a hall or church (at the back of the pnests), v. 
Parker, Glossary of Architecture. 

Dala Sp. Pg., Fr. dalle, a fumf- deal (naut). The Sp. adala 
joints to the Ar. dalla ducere, dalalah ductus. Cf. It. doccio 
irom ducere. 

Dalle Sp., Pr. dalfi, O. Fr. dail, Dauph. dailli a sickle; vb. Pr. 
dalhar, O. Fr. dailler to slash, fight, s' entredalier. Perhaps a 
dimin. from daga. 

Damasco It. Sp., Fr. damas, E. damask; from Damascus where 
it was made; the It has also damasto. Damascus was also 
noted for its sword-blades, whence It damaschino &c., and 
also for its plums , whence Sp. damascena &c., E. damascene, 

Dame — donno. 

Dame Fr. interjection; from domine, cf. dame-dieu = domine deus, 

Damigello — donno. 

Dandin Fr. a simpleton, dandiner to rock, dandle; cf. G. land, 
tdndcln, E. dade, dandle, dandy. It. dondolare. Wal. tendale 
= It. dondolo a toy ; v. Wedg. s. dade. 

DANGER — DEC. 159 

Danger Fr., E. danger. Dangerium or domigerhim (domager or 

damager, from damnum, to fine or seize for trespass) was orig. 

a feudal word, and meant the right of inflicting fines for 

breach of territorial rights , fie/' de danger a fief held under 

strict and severe conditions, sergent dangereux the officer who 

looked after the dangeria. Wedgwood. Se mettre en danger 

de quelqu'un to be in the danger of one came to mean to be 

in his power , liable to a penalty , hence the present meaning. 

/>tf«^er also = difficulty, refusal: faire danger de dire to refuse, 

Lim. dondzie refusal. But Littr6 remarks that the O. Fr. 

dangler = authority, and thus corresponds better to a Lat. 

dominiarium, cf. dominicellus, damoisel, dansel. 
Dans — ens. 
Danzare It. (for dansare, as anzare for ansare), Sp. Pg. Pr. dafi- 

sar, Fr. danser, Wal. dentzui, E. dance, G. tanzen. It. danza &c. ; 

from O. H. G. dansdn to draw, extend; from dinsan, Goth. 

Danar Sp., Pg. danar to hurt; from damnare to hurt, cf. L. L. 

condemnare, L. Sal.: si quis terram alienam condemnaverii , O. 

Fr. comdemner. 
Dardo It. Sp., Pr. dart, Fr. dard, Wal. darde, Hung, darda; 

from A. o. daradh darodh, E. dart, O. N. darradhr, O. H. G. 

tart. Others from Soqv doQaxog. 
Darga — targa. 
Dame Fr., N.Pr. damo a slice; from Bret. W. darn a fragment, 

Sansk. darana (dri to tear). Hence E. darn prop. = to patch. 
Darse, darsena — arsenate. 
Dartre Fr., Provincial Fr. dertre = A. S. teter, K. tetter, G. zit- 

ter. Pictet derives the word through the Celtic (W. tarwden) 

from the Sansk. dardru a tetter. 
Datil datte — dattero. 

Dattero It., Sp.Fr. datil, Fr, datte, E. date (fruit); from dactylus. 
Daus — a. 
Davanti — anzi. 

Dazio It., Sp. dado, Fr. dace (f.) impost, tax; from datlo. 
Di — dado. 
D^baucher — hauche. 

Debioar — hecco. . 

Debit Fr. sale, debiter to sell, prop, to enter as dehitum (debt) 

in an account book, to debit. 
Debonnaire — aria. 
Debout — bottare. 
Debris — briser. 
Ddbut — bozza. 
Dec deoh Pr. (\) command (2) government, province (3) tribute 

(4) fine, fault, deficiency. Fern, deca decha := (4) ; 1^. Pr. deed 


to break off, O. Pr. dechar to deceive. From edictum. From 

indictum come Pr. endec injury, defect, endechat defective, Sp. 

endecha a dirge for the dead; O. Fr. enditier, to indite = wi- 

Deoentar — encenfar. 
Dechado Sp. a sample; from dicta(um, Pr. dechai, O. Fr. diiie, 

E. ditty; rr. dechar = diet are, 
Bechat — dechado. 
B^chirer — eschirer. 
B^chouer — echouer. 
B^ciller dessiller Fr. to open the eyes; from cilium, It. disci- 

B^oombres — colmo, 
B^ftklquer — falcare. 
B^faut — falta. 
B^fl duller — disfidare. 
B^filer — fila. 
B^frayer — /'rais, 
Begre Fr., deffrat (degra) Pr., Pg. degrao; for gre = gradus, the 

preposition from degradare being added to distinguish it from 

gre = gratum, 
B^guerpir — guerpir. 
Begun Pr. = nullus, O. Sp. degun; from the O. H. Q. dik^ein, 

cf. maint. 
Beh It. interjection, Fr. dey; probably shortened from deo as T 

from io. 
Behesa Sp., O. Sp. defesa, Cat. devesa pasturage; L. L. defensa 

defensum, O. Ir. defois. 
Beitar — gettare. 
B^ja — gia. 
B^jeuner — giunare. 
B^labrer — lambeau. 
B^lai Fr., E. delay; from diiatum, It. fem. dilata. Hence vb. 

dilayer, O. Fr. delayer, It. dilajare to delay, 
Belante — anzi. 
B^layer — dileguare. 
Beleznar — liscio. 
D6\i6 Fr., O.Fr.also deugie deMcsiie] from delicatus, as /^le from 

plicatus, Pr. delguat, Sp. delgado slender. 
Bemain — mane. 
Bemanois O. Fr., Pr. demanes, = statim. From de manu vrith 

suffix ipsum = "off hand", Gk. ix x^^'Q^Sy M. H. G. zehant. 

For demanois; demanes we also find manois manes. 
B^marrer — amarrar. 
Bemas — mai. 
Demoiselle — donno. 


Demonio It. Pg., Sp. demonio dimoho, Pr. demoni a demon ; from 

dcemonion (Tertullian). 
Denaro danaro It., Sp. diner Oy Pr. Fr. denier from denarius. 

Hence It. derrata, Sp. dinerada prop. = a sum of money or 

its worth, Fr. denre'e commodity, food, cf. Bav. pfennwerth, 
Dende — indi. 
Dengue Sp. Pg. Cat., Sard, denghi prudery, aflFectation; from 

denegare, It. diniego. 
Denier denr^e — denaro. 
Dentello It., Pr. dentelh, Sp. dentellon moulding of a cornice &c.. 

It. denteili (pi.)? ^^' dentelle point -lace; from dens a tooth. 
Denuedo Sp., rg. denodo boldness, denodarse to be bold; from 

nodus knot, restriction. 
Denuesto Sp., Pg. doesto insult, Sp. denostar, Pg. doestar, de- 

ostar; from dehonestum, dehonestare, Pr. desnot = denost? 
D^pdcher — pacciare. 

D^pens d^pense Fr., from dispendere dispensus. 
D^pdtrer — pastoja. 
D^pit Fr., Pr. despieg displeasure; from despectus disdain, It. 

dispetto, Sp. despecho, E. despite. Adj. despit, Vb. despire, E. 

despise from despicere, Cf. repit, 
D^poidlle — spoglio. 
Depuis — poi, 
D^ratd — rate. 
Dernier — retro. 
D^rober — roba. 
Diroute — rotta. 
Derraznar Sp. Pg. to pour out, spread; for des-ramar to sever 

branches, divide. It. disramare, Pr. desramar derramar, Wal. 

dere'ma to prune , Fr. deramer desrasmer to tear. Opposed to 

it is the Com. rama to collect. 
Derrata — denaro. 
Derrear — derrengar, 
Derrengar Sp., Pg. derrear (for derrenar), Pr. desrenar, deregnar, 

O. Fr. ereiner, Fr. ereinter to sprain the hip ; from ren re?ies, 

the Sp. through disren-icare. It. has only sbst. direnato, but 

the Piedm. deme = Pr. desrenar, 
Derretir Sp., Pg. derreter to melt. From deterere or disterere, 

Sbst. derretimiento = detrimentum, V. curtir, 
Denibar Sp. Pg. to demolish, ruin; from ripa a bank, It. a pre- 
cipice, Sp. rU^azo; cf. derrocar, 
Derriere — retro. 
Derrocar — rocca. 
Dee O. Sp., O. Pg., Sp. Pg. des-de, Pr. des deis, Fr. des = Lat. 

ex or usque a, It. da. From de exy des tors = de ex Hid hord, 

desormais = de ex hord magis; cf. O. Fr. desanz = de exante, 



O. Sp. desetit = de exinde. desi = de ex ibi, Sp. despues (v. 
poi) = de ex pttsi: exanie and exinde are found in Latin. 

Descaptar — capitare. 

Descer Pg. to desceiul . < K Sp. decir. From de$idere. 

Besde — de$, 

Deseo — disio. 

Desguinsar — esquinzar. 

Desi — qui. 

Besi^n^iare — disegnare. 

Desinare disinare It., Pr. disnan dirnan dinar, O. Fr. disgner, 
disner, digner, L. L. disnare, E. dine. Among the etjmons 
given arc demviiVy dignnre (the beginning of a grace), decima 
(hora). Diez derives it fri>m decoenare ( ef. derorare depascere\ 
whence Fr. deciner, desner, diner, as from decima, desm^, dime, 
from buccina, busna, cf. O. Fr. reciner a lunch, from recoenarff 
cf. also It pusigno = postcoenium. But Mahn wishes to prove 
that it is merely another and earlier form of sd/j^wnflr^, de- 
jeuner = disjejunare, so that disinare would be the orig. form. 
The s is radical as shown by the Pr. dimar. For the double 
form of the same word , cf. sevrer and separer, chose and cause, 
hotel and hopital &c. But though "breaking the fast'' would 
be a proper designation for the first meal in the day, it would 
not apply equally well to a later meal, nor would the same 
word be used for two distinct meals. 

Besleir — dileguare. 

Besllzar — Uscio. 

Desman — ademan, 

Desmayar — smagare. 

Besollar Sp., O. Sp. desfollar, Pg. esfoiar to flay; from foiiis, 

B^sormais — des, 

Despachar — pacciare, 

Besparpajar — parpaglione. 

Bespedir Sp. Pg. to discharge, dismiss, despedirse to go away; 
from de-expedire. Hence also Pg. despir to strip. 

Bespejar — specchio, 

Despertar — espertar. 

Despir — despedir. 

Bespojo — spoglio. 

Bespues — poi. 

Desrener O. Fr., O. E. darraign, darreine, darreine the battle 
Chauc. = fight it out, let the battle decide, darreine by battle 
= settle, but darraign your battle (Shaksp. H. VI) = array. It 
is from dcrationare, rationes=^ accounts, whence aremer ar- 
raigner arraign to call to account, darraign &c. to clear the 
account , settle the controversy. 

Bessein* dessin» dessiner — disegnare. 


Dessert — serviette. 

Desso It., Wal. densu pronoun. According to Pott from idem 
ipsus, but the loss of the m is against all analogy. It is from 
the L. L. id ipse, Hie est id ipse, ilia videtur id ipsa = desso, 
dessa only used in the nom, case. 

Dessous — sotto, 

Dessus — suso. 

Destare It. to awake; from de-excitare. Mil. desseda. Cf. dor are 
from deaurare. 

Destriero It., Pr. O.Fr. O.E. desttier a war-horse, L. L. dextra- 
rius, so called because led by the esquire on the right of his 
own horse, v. Ducange. 

Destrozar — torso. 

Besver derver O. Fr. to be out of one's senses, rave; O. Fr. adj. 
desvederve frantic, sbst. desverie derverie madness. Fr. etidever 
to rage, rant, faire endever to vex; prob. from desipere, with 
change of conjugation. 

B^teler — teler. 

D^traquer — trac. 

D^tresse Fr., Pr. detreissa, E. distress. Not from destrictus, Pr. 
destreit, whence It. distrettezza is regularly formed, but from 
a verb destreissar to distress L. L. destrictiare. The L. L. 
distringere (Fr. distraindre, E. distrain) was used for constrain- 
ing a person to do something by exaction of a pledge &c. 
Hence distrain for rent. The pledge was termed districtio 
distress. The right of exercising such authority, and the ter- 
ritory over which it was exercised, were called districtus, It. 
distretto, O. Fr. destroict, E. district. 

Ddtrier — trigar. 

Btooit — etroit. 

Bette Fr., E. debt; from pi. dehita, Sp. deuda. 

Beuil — cordoglio. 

Bevant — anzi. 

Bevanar — dipanare. 

B^vider — vide. 

Bevifl — diviso. 

B^YOuer — voeu. 

Bexar Sp., Pg. deixar to leave, from a form desttare des'tare 
(desinere desitusj. Cf. quexar. 

Biamante It. Sp., Pr. diaman, Fr. diamant, E. diamond; from 
adamas adamantis, prob. influenced by diafano transparent. 
Another form is the rr. adiman, aziman, aiman, O.Fr. aimant, 
Fr. aimant, Sp. Pg. iman a magnet, in which sense L. L. ada- 
mas was used. 

Biana It. the morning-star, prop, stella diana, from an old adj. 


164 DIANE — DIO. 

diano (dies), whence the expression hattere la diana, Yr.hattre 

la diane to beat the reveille (inilit.). 
Diane — diana, 
Biante — anzi, 

Biantre Fr. interj., comipted from dtable, Rh. dianser. 
Bianzi — anzi, 
Biapr^ — diaspro. 

Biaspro It., Sp. diaspero a jasper; from jaspis, of. It. (pro v.) 
diacere from jacere, O. Fr. diaspre diaspe flowered stun, Fr. 
diapre variegated, diapered, whence E. diaper. 

Dioha Sp., Pg. dila luck; from dictum, pi. dicta, of. fatum from 
fari. bo also It. delta, 

Bie O.Fr., Pr. dia = henchman, feudal dependant? Prob. from 
the O. H. G. deo (for theo, thio = Goth, thius, A. S. theov) 
with a term, in a (like hada, crida, uca, sira) to distinguish it 
from derivatives of Deus. 

Bieta It. Sp., Fr. diete, E. diet; from diaeta {diaira). 

Bieta It. Sp., Fr. diete, E. diet = day of assembly, then the 
assembly itself; from dies, cf. dietim L. L. for quotidie, 

Bietro — retro. 

Biga It., Fr. digue, Sp. digtie a dam for stopping water; from 
Du. dyk, A. S. die, E. dike (= ditch), v. Wedg. dike. 

Bilayer — de'lai. 

Bileggiare It. to deride = Pr. desleyar to decry, sbst. deslei^=^ 

Dileguare It., Pr. desleyar, Fr. delayer, O. E. delay, to dilute; 
from dis-liquare. The Sp. desleir is prob. a corruption of the 
Pr. deslegar. The O. E. delay often = allay, cf. Surrey : the 
watery showers delay the raging wind ; Holland speaks of the 
delaying of wines. 

Bimanche — domenica. 

Binde Fr. a turkey -hen, dindon a turkey-cock; from coq dtJnde 
the Indian (American) bird. Cat. gall dindi, indiot. 

Biner — desinare. 

Dinero — denaro. 

Bintel — linde. 

Die It., Sp. dios, O. Pg. Sard, deus, Pg. deos fdeosj, Pr. dieu, 
Fr. dieu (0. Fr. deo). In the South West deus was treated as 
a proper name , cf . Carlos , Marcos , Reynaldos &c. The ano- 
malous pi. dioses is also found. Such anomalies are usual in 
sacred names, cf. It. gli dei and v. Grimm 1, 1071 , Dief. 2, 
416. The Wal. for God is dumne-zeu = It. dotneneddio, Pr. 
dame -dieu, 0. Fr. dame -dieu, dombre-dieu. From domeneddio 
comes the It. iddio for eddio, cf. iguale for eguale. It. addio 
= Sp. a dios, Fr. adieu, Pr. a dieu siatz, O. Fr. a dieu soyez, 


O. Cat. a deu siau. It. madio, Sp, madios, Fr. maidieu = 
m'aide dieu, O. Fr. si niait dieus = ita deus me adjuvet. 
Dipanare It., Pr. debanar, Sp. devanar to wind off: from partus 

2L bunch of wool for spinning. 
Dirupare It., Pg. derrubar, Sp, derrumbar to precipitate from a 
rock (rupes); hence dirupo a precipice, O. Fr. desrube, des- 
ruble, also desrubant defile, Pr. deruben; O. Fr. desrubison; Sp. 
derrubio a fall of earth on the banks of a river, also = an 
overflow of water. 
Discolo It. Sp. Pg. unruly, froward ; from SvUxokog. 
Disegnare designare It. (1) to point out, mark out, (2) to draw, 
Sv,desiffnar, O.Sp.desemr, Vr.desegnar designar, Fr. designer, 
E. design = (l), Sp. disenar, Fr. dessiner, E. design = (2); 
sbst. It. disegno, Sp. diseOo designio, Fr. dessein = E. design 
(in both senses). From L. designare. 
Disette Fr. want; from desecta. 

Disfldare sfldare It., Pr. desfizar, Fr. defter, Sp. Pg. desaftar, 
O. Pg. desfiar, E. defy = to retract one's confidence (fidesj in 
a person, to renounce, disclaim, cf. Henry IV, 1, 3. ^'All 
studies here I solenmly de/g.^' 
Disfirausar — farsa. 

Disio It., Sp. deseo, Pg. desejo, Pr. desig a longing; vb. desi- 
are,&c. Not from desiderium, but from dissidium (cf. Cat. de- 
sitj), so, like Pg. saudade, prop. = separation, then == the 
consequent longing. 
Ditello It. the armpit = diiale a thimble, Rom. didel, O. Fr. 
deei, Fr. deau (prov.) de\ For diiello Neap, has teielleca, from 
tellecare to tickle. 
Diva — da. 

DiviBO It., Pr. Fr. devis, E. device plan, contrivance, It. divisa, 
Sf .divisa devisa,^. devise, Yi. device a distinction, distinguish- 
ing mark, cognisance; It. divisare, Sp. divisar to divide, ar- 
range, dispose (0. Pr. deviser), E. devise. From dividere, Pr. 
devire, whence freq. divisar. Wedgw. makes 2 words (1) = a 
badge &c, from dividere (2) = a plan &c. from visa (visum) 
view, opinion. The expression a point devise , E. point device, 
= in a condition of ideal excellence , such as one can devise 
or imagine. 
Bocoiare It. to douse, pour water on, sbst. doccia, Fr. douche, 
Sp. ducha a spout &c., from ductiare (ductus) as succiare from 
suctus. Cf. ductus = O. Fr. duit (conduit). Norm, doui, from 
ductio, Pr. dotz, O. Fr. dois, whence dusii, E. dosil a spigot. 
But Wedgw. derives doccia &c. from G. docke, Yj. dock a 
bunch, tap, whence the sense of spout, conduit &c. From 
Gael, dos a tuft, E. doss a hassock, dosset a plug; E. dosil 
a tent for a wound prob. from Fr. dusil. 


Bodu — dondon, 

Boga It. Pr. Cat., Wal. doage, Alb. doge, Fr. douve, Mil. dove 
the stave of a cask, Du. dwjghc, duig, Sw. dauge, G. dauhe 
staff; hence Sp. dovela duela, Pg. aduela, Norm. douvcUe doti- 
elle, Lor. do\de. The Pr. doga, Norm, douve also = a dam, 
a bank: L. L. douvam sive aggerem (Carpentier). It. doga = 
also a stripe. It. dogare to gird (Dante), Sp. dogal a halter, 
from the notion of hemming in, confining, like the staves of 
a barrel. Gregory of Tours has doga in the sense of conduit: 
tie forte dogis occultis lymphce deducerentur. From doga in 
Lat. = a vessel (Vopiscus) = Gk. Soxn a receptacle. From 
this it would come to mean a dam for holding m water, the 
staving of a cask , a stave. Wedgw. derives it from a dif- 
ferent source, viz. the G. docke, E. dock a bunch, a plug, a 
stopple, a tap, whence dock an inclosed basin which keeps 
out the water by ffceskt flood-gates. From the sense of plug 
comes (1) that of dam (doga, douve &c.), (2) that of conduit 
(doga, doccia, douche &c.). 

Dogana It., Pr. doana, Fr. doua?ie, Sp. Pg. aduana, custom- 
house, excise, toll. From the Arab, divdn ad-divdn a state- 
council (for excise), whence diua?ia doana duana with inserted 
g in It., ph. with a reference to doga a cask -stave. The Sp. 
duan = divdn. Or it may be from divan in the sense of an 
account 'book, Freyt. 2, 74, cf. Boccaccio Dec. 8, 10: i do- 
ganicri poi scrivono in sul lihro delta dogana &c. 

Doge — d^tca. 

Bolequin O. Fr. a short dagger; from M. Du. dolckin, dim. of 
dolk, G. dolch. 

Domani — mani, 

Bome — duomo. 

Bomenica It., Sp. Pg. domingo, Pr. dimenge dimergue, Fr. di- 
manchc Sunday; It. from dominica, Sp. from dominicm, Pr. Fr. 
from dies dominica, whence O. Fr. diemenche = Gk. xvQtraxfj. 

Bominio It. Sp. Pg. lordship, possession, Fr. domainc (m.), E. 
domain, Yr.domaine domeni, O.Fr. also demaine demenie, Yi. de- 
main demesne, O. It. diminio; from dominium, ai from i as in 
daigner from dignari. O. Fr. adj . demaine=oyfn, L. L. demanius. 

Bommage Fr., O. Fr. Wal. E. damage, Pr. dampnatge; from 

Bonaire Sp. Pg. grace, elegance, prop. = natural gift, from 
donarium. Adj. donoso graceful, from don = donum. 

Bone — dunque. 

Donde — onde. 

Bondolare It. to rock , E. dandle. From the same root as the 
Vr.dodiner dodeliner, from f/o</o a word used in rocking children 
to sleep. Dodo is a child's word formed by reduplication from 


dormir. Wedgw, connects these words with E. dade = to 
teach a child to walk, dading strings = It. dande, Fr. dada 
= a child's hobby-horse; hence daddle doddle diddle toddle, 
with nasal dande, dandle, dondeliner dodeliner to rock, dan- 
diner It. dondolare dandle, idle, dandolo a ninny, dandolo dan- 
dola a toy, doll, E. dandy , Sc. dandilly. 

Dondon Fr. f. a plump woman; from E. dump in dump -ling, 
dump-iy (donde). Dondon is connected with hedon (q. v."^ don- 
daine = bedondaine. Perhaps dodu may be also reierred 
hither, though the loss of the nasal is unusual. 

Dongeon donjon Fr., Pr. donjo, E. donjon, dungeon, a strong 
lofty building in a fort, so called from its commanding the 
rest, dominio domnio dongeo (as songer from somniare) donjoti. 
But Diez rejects this derivation, and refers the word to the 
Irish dim a fortified place (v. duna) whence dunion, O. Fr. 
dognon donjon. Zeuss 1, 30 gives as the orig. form dangio 
Fr. daingean. V. Murat. 2, 500. 

Donno donna It., Sp. don dona dueha, Pg. dom dona, Pr. don 

;^ (fem. dom), dombre (in dombre-dieus) domna, O. Fr. masc. 
dame Tin dame-dieu) dan dant, O. E. dan, O. Fr. Fr. fem. 
dame (whence Pr. Fr. Sp. dama), Wal. domn doamne; from 
dominus domina in inscriptions domnus domna, L. L. donnus 
donna. Hence Sp. doncel doncella, Pr. donsel donsella, O. Fr. 
donciaus (nom.) dancel danzel (obliaue cases), damoisiel, da- 
moiseau, damoisele, Fr. demoiselle, nence It. damigello dami- 
gella, Sp. Pr. damisela, as if from a L. dominicillus , Wal. 
domnisor. Vb. Pr. domneiar, O. Fr. donoier to court women, 
whence It. donneare, sbst. domnei donnoi. For the Fr. a = o, 
cf. damesche from domeslicus, danter (daunt) from domitare. 
From domen for domin comes the Prov. and Cat. abbreviation 
en, used before proper names, e.g. En Barral (O.It. Imberal), 
from domna Na as Na Maria &c. For the degradation in 
meaning of damoiseau and donzelle in 0. Fr. cf. valet (Berr. 
vdlet = a help), vassal, varlet. Mesquin, on the contrary, orig. 
= poor wretch , came to be used of young persons even of 
hignest rank , the idea of youth being got from that of weak- 
ness, wretchedness. 

Donnola It. a weasel; prop. = little woman, from donna, cf. Sp. 
comadreja, O. jUngferchen, M. Gr. vv(iq>vra, Basq. anderei- 
gerra from andrea a woman. Cf. bele. The name was derived 
from the character usu. assigned to the weasel in the fables. 

Dont — onde. 

Dope — pot. 

Doppiere It. a taper; from duplus, the which being formed of 
double thread, cf. G. ztvirn from zwir. 

Doroa doro Pr. a jug; from orca, v. R. Gr. 1 , 264. 


Borelot O. Fr. a darling, Fr. dareloier darioier to fondle; from 
A.S. deorh'ng, E. darling, or from W. dorlawd, dawr dear and 
Uawd a boy. 

Dor^navant Fr. = dehinc; from de hara m db ante, 

Doma Pr. a pot, N. Pr. dourno; from uma, cf. dorca from orca. 
Hence Sp. domajo domilla a trough. 

DoBel — dais. 

Dossiere — dais. 

Botta — otta. 

Douaire — douer. 

Douane — dogana. 

Douche — docciare. 

Doudo Pg. a ninny; from the Eng. dolt, doid, A. S. doi, con- 
nected with G. toipel. 

Douer Fr. to endow; from doiare; douaire (m.) Pr. doari, E. 
dower dowry; douairiere a widow who has a jointure, E. 

Douille doille O. Fr. weak; from duciilis, Pr. ductii &c.; Pr. 
dim. douillet (not from duicis). 

Douille Fr. a tap , L. L. ductile a channel ; cf . Com. indoja a 
hnsk, from inductile, v. andouille. From ducere also comes 
Fr. dusil a spigot, E. dosel, but v. doga, docciare for another 

Dour O. Fr., Pr. dom of a hand's breadth , It. dorone; from the 
Celtic, Gael, ddrn, W. dwrn, Bret, dom a hand. Pliny Nat. 
Hist. 35, 14: tegulie a pud G alios didoron dictce a longitudine 
duonim palmontm, di = Gael, da or de, W. dau dwi, Bret. 
daou div two. 

Douve — doga. 

Dove — ove. 

Dovela — doga. 

Doyen dean; from decanus. 

Dragee — treggea. 

Dragoon Fr. a shoot, sprig; from Goth, draibjan to push, O. H. 

G. treibjan (Fr. ge = bj, cf. Rom. Gr. 1, 166), cf. bout on from 

bolder, pousse from pousser. 

Dragomanno It., Sp. dragoman, Fr. drogman, M. H. G. trage- 
munt, E. dragoman an interpreter, also It. turcimanno, Sp. 
trujaman, Fr. trucheman truchement, O. E. truckman; from Ar. 
targomdn, torgomdn an interpreter, from targama to explain, 
Chald. targum a translation. 

Drague Fr. brewer's grains; from ^.dragg, ^. dreg dregs, which 
Wedgw. cx)nnccts with E. draff, G. trdber brewer's grains, Pr. 
draco dregs of the vintage, drasche driche draff, husks (this 
last, however, Diez derives from O.H.G. drescan, G. dreschen 


to (hrash), 0. E. drast drest, G. trestern, A. S. dresten faeces, 
also A. o. dros f»x, whence E. dross. 

Brague Fr., E. drag ^or water). 

Drappo It., Pr. Cat. Fr. drap cloth, whence drappello, drapeau 
a rag, a banner, L. L. drappus, Fr. draper, drapier, E. drape, 
draper. In Sp. and Pg. it has the tenuis : trapo, trapaijo, tra- 
pero, traperia, but also drapero, and gualdrape = trappings of 
a horse, gualdrapazo flap of the sail against the mast, gual- 
drapear to flap. Frisch derives from trappen to tread, so of 
closely- trodden or woven stuff TSp. ^rflfpa = stamping), but 
ph. better from trap the sound ol a flapping piece of cloth. 

Drasohe — drague, 

Dredr^ — trillare. 

Dresser — ^ rizzare. 

Dridriller — trillare. 

Drille Fr. (m.) comrade; from O. H. G. drigil lad, servant, fel- 
low, O. N. thrcell, E. thrall, v. Grimm 3, 321. 

DriUe Fr. (f.) 

Brizsare — rizzare, 

Droga It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. drogue, E. drug spices, aromatics &c., 
so called from their hot, dry nature, Du. droog dry, dried 

Drogman — dragomanno. 

Droit — ritto. 

Drdle Fr. facetious, droll; not found in the Fr. dictionaries of the 
16*** century. It is the same word as the E. droll, G. drollig, 
cf. Du. drol, 0. N. drioli, Gael, droll a blunt, awkward man. 

Dromon O. Fr. a large ship of war, O. N. drdmundr, M. H. G. 
tragmunt dragmunt (but v. dragomanno); from dromo dgo^av 
*' genus navigii velocissimP' Fulgent. Plancus. Pr. dromd = a 
platform. Wal. drom a street , course , from dgofiog. 

Drudo druda It. O. Pg., Pr. 0. Fr. drut druda drue a friend , a 
lover; hence O. Fr. drugun druiun intimate. The word is 
found both in the Celtic and the Teutonic: Gael. e/n//A a harlot, 
O. H. G. dritt iriit, driid (in comp. Drudbald, Wieldrud) friend, 
lover, fem. triutin (all related to triuwi, G. treu, true). In Rom. 
it is often found in connection with ami "mes amis et mes 
drus^' &c. There is also an adj. It. drudo beloved, pretty, 
also = gallant, Fr. dru sprightly, wanton, luxuriant, vb. en- 
druir to make thick, dense, Gen. druo thick, fat, drueza 
abundance, Piedm. N. Pr. dru luxuriant, fruitful. The adj. 
is best referred to the Gael, druth wanton, W. drud vigorous. 

Duca It., Wal. duce', Sp. Pg. duque, Pr. Fr. due, E. duke; It. 
ducato, Sp. Pg. ducado, Pr. ducat, Fr. duche (in O. Fr. fem. 
whence It. ducea) E. duchy, L. L. ducatus for ductus, Duca is 
not immediately from dux, which would have doce (Yen. doge). 


but from the Byzantine doi5|, Sovxa, v. Ducange. From duca 
come It. ducat ducaione, Sg. ducado ducaton, Fr. G. ducat, 
first used c. 1140 by Roger ll. of Sicily who held the duchy 
of Apuglia (dticato d'Aptiglia). 

Ducha — docciare. 

Buela — doga. 

Duello It., Sp. duelo, Fr. E. duel; from duellum. The word in- 
troduced into the Rom. at a late period , and was adopted 
from a mistaken notion of the etymology of the L. word. 
Battaglia was used previously. 

Buendo Sp., Pg. dondo, Pr. domde domestic, tame, vb. Pr. dam- 
tar dofidar, O.Fr. donter, Fr. dompter(E. daunt); from domitus 
domitare. Hence, too, Sp. Pg. duende a fairy, ghost, prop, 
house -ghost (Sp. dueiidc de casa). The words are not derived 
from domus. 

Diiire O. Fr. Pr. to lead, instruct, pf. doist, part, dozen, O. Fr. 
Pr. adj. duit clever, sbst. duison neatness; from ducere (doist 
= duxftj, cf. Sp. ductr = duire, ducho = duit and cf . G. Ziehen, 
L. educare, 

Dtina It. Sp., from Fr. dune a sand-hill; from Du. duin = A. S. 
diin (f.), E. down, don in names of places, which from the 
Celtic, Fr. dUn, W. din a hill, a strong place (dinas a citv), 
whence dunum in Atigustodunum , Lugdunum = KavenhiU &c. 
The root of the Celtic words is in the Ir. dunaim, Gael, duin 

. to shut in, surround, thus showing a community of origin 
with the G. zaun, O. H. G. zim, O. S. ttm tyne enclosure, O. N. 
tun (E. toum, O. E. tune) from G. source, A.S.tynan to enclose. 
V. Mahn, Diefenbach. 

Diinque adiinque It., O. It. donqua adonqua, dunche adunche, 
O.Sp. doncas, Fr. done particle for L. ergo. O. Fr. dune, don- 
ques adunc, Pr. done adonc = L. turn; whence sense of "ergo", 
cf. igiiur = inde and postea, Festus, E. tlien, Sp. pues, iuego, 
Adunc is the orig. from for a or ad and tune. A tunc and ad 
tune are found in old documents. 

Buomo It. a cathedral, = the house (domus) "par excellence'^ 
Fr. ddmCj E. dome = cupola, most ot the cnurches in Italy 
being built with cupolas. 

Dupe Fr. Tf.), E. dupe, vb. duper, dupe. Frisch connects it with 
the Swao. diippel a blockhead; Wedgw. makes it from dupe 
duppe a hoopoe (so called from the tuft on its head), cf. It. 
hubbola a hoopoe, bubbolare to cheat (E. bubble?). 

Burare It., Sp. durar, Fr. durer, E. dure, G. dauem to hold out; 
from durare to harden, for which indurare was used. 

Burazno Sp. a peach; from persica duracina, cf. It. duracine firm 
(of fruit). 

Biireta Sp. a bathing -chair. Suet. August 82; insidens ligneo 

duefeO — >;cco. 171 

solio, guod ipse hispanico verbo duretam vocabal. Larramendi 

rfifers it to the Baaq. vra water. 
Durfeu 0, Fr. wretched, pitiable; from dure fatatus (cf. malfeu 

=: Pr. malfadal, Sp. matfadado) with a Bubstitution of the 

suffix uius for atus. 
Duflil — dotdlle. 
Diuque — jusque. 
Duvet Fr. down of festliere , 0. Fr. ditm, Provin. E. dum, Norm. 

dumet, L. L. dama, from O. N. dun. Duvet is a corruption of 



SaSp., V^.eia, %ic. eja jejamter^., Lat. eja, O.Fr.aye, Bmq.ea. 

Eau Fr. {{.) water; from agua, O. Fr. aiffue, eve (cf. t/ve from 
er/ua), wncnce evier a vase, O. Fr. aigviere, E, ewer (aqua- 
rium), from eve, ieve iave eaue eau (so bei biel biai beau). 
Gris. aua. 

Ebahir — bahir. 

Ebaubi Fr. astounded; from an old vb. ebaubir abatibir; from 
batbus, O. Fr. baabe, prop, to make to stammer. 

EbauohOT — - bauche. 

Ebbio It,, Sp. yedgo yezgo, Pg. engo, Pr. evol, Fr. hiebSe (k asp.), 
Berr. geble, Ven. gevalo dwarf-elder; from ebulus. Sp. d for / 
as in sendos from singulos. 

EbbrUoo imbriaoo ubbriaoo briaoo It., O. Sp. embriaco, Pr. 
ebriac, Fr. (Berr.) ebriat imbriat; from L. ebriitcus (Plautus) 
formed like merdcus from mcrus. Hence Pr, abriga, Fr. ivraie 

Ebe Pr. (f.) ebb; from Du. ebbe, E. ebb. 

Eblooir Fr. to dazzle, Pr. esbalauzir for esblauzir to etun, em- 
blauzir to dazzle. From 0. H. G. bIMi weak, dull (Sc. Mait, 
E. blunt), £/Mi bluntness, whence G. bl6de, blodsichtig weak- 
sighted. The O.H.G. verb was blOdan, Pr. blauzir = a Goth. 

Sbranler — brando. 

Ebroiier — bravo. 

Eoaille 4oale — scaglia. 

Ecarlate — scarletto, 

Eoarter — scartare. 

Eoco It., Wal. eacd', Pr. ec, O. Fr. eke an adv. from cecum, often 
with pronouns; iLeccomi, eccoli, eccolo, eccola, eccoci &e., 
W&l. eaceme, Pr. ecvos, 0. Fr. ekevos; Sp. ele, elo, eta (ior ec-le 
&c.). Pr. vec = ve (imper. of vezer, h. vide) and ec, whence 
vecvos, veus; so, too, It, vecco veccoio. From ecce is Pg. eis, 



-.«*.« ' 

'- va rrrn* 

— "Cfr u 

"/' *■ ,.. * 

- -r-i. 

kt-. _.-^_ -■ - 


— '.-^affr 


•# •"■* is/";. '# ::_ 

'« £ 

•IK fi: k 

*■ ^. • 

BmsvasL 7- -nr -ir 'uir-ui -r -in. r"L t^»oi 
• T r-'L '. 1*1. '•-r -■ '= I frt-in. 'C i«bij£. nf 

i- fc r 

ft TcrrT- 

<r Fr. 

.-«199«!f. E- isifegf^. 

- / •*- 

. TT-.^ >'■'. fjtr-p^. 


Ecorcher — corteccia. 

Ecore Fr. a steep part of the shore; from O.H. 6. srorro a rock, 
A. S. score, E. shore, Du. schorre schore, cf. Gael, sgdr, 

Ecomifler Fr. to spunge ^as a parasite), Norm, to pilfer; = ecor- 
ner fcornuj to break on the norns or ends, to pmch off. 

Ecosse — cosse, 

Ecot — scoito. 

Ecoufle Fr. a kite (bird), Norm, a flying -dragon; 0. Fr. escofre 
escoufre from G. schupfer (from schupfen) a missile. So , con- 
versely, projectiles had their names from birds of prey (v. 

EooiLrg^e — scuriada. 

Eoouter — ascoUare. 

Eoouvillon Fr. a duster or small broom, Sp. escoviUon; from 

Ecran Fr. a screen; from O. H. G. scranna, E. screen. 

Eoraser to crush; a Norman word, from O.N. krassa, Sw. krasa 
bruise, E. crash. An onomatopceion. 

Ecrevisse Fr. a crab, O. Fr. cscrevisse also = armour, O. E. 
creveys, crevish, corrupted craw- fish; from O. H. G. krebiz, 
Du. krevisse, krevitse, G. krehs, Rouch. graviche. Wall, grevess, 
with s prefixed (perhaps from scarabceus). So called from the 
grabbing action of the animal, Sf.escarbar to scrabble, escara- 
bajo beetle (scarabceus), escarabisse a crayfish. 

Eorou Fr. (m.) screw; from G. schravbe, L. screw, 

Eorouelles Fr. (f. pi.) scrofula; from scrofella (scrofula) a swell- 
^ ing in the throat. 

Ecu Fr. shield; from scutum, It. scudo &c., whence ecuyer, Pr. 
escudier. It. scudiere, Yt. esquire, Vr.ecusson, Vj, escutcheon (from 
a form scutio as from arcus arcio arcon), 

Ecueil — scoglio. 

Eouelle Fr., Pr. escudela, E. scull (scullion, scullery) dish; from 
scutella, It. scodella &c. 

Ecume — schiuma. 

Eciirer — sgurare. 

Ecureuil — scojattolo. 

Eourie Fr., escuria escura Pr. a stable ; from O. H. G. scura skiura, 
L. L. scuria, G. scheuer, whence also Wal. sure, Hung, tsiir. 
Hence E. equerry, W. connects these words wrongly with 
ecuyer Tv. ecu). 

EcusBon ecuyer — ecu. 

Eders ellers It., Sp. hiedra, Pg. hei*a, Pr. edra, Fr. lierre (O. Fr. 
Pic. hierreyerre with the article, c{,lendefnain &c., Jiesif.lellira, 
Gen. lellua) ivy ; from hedera. 

Sff^er — faccia. 

Efilurer Fr. to perplex, surprise; not from efferare, but from 


/Vri/.v = shy, timiiK ef. farc^tiche fnjm ferax^ Pr. esferar to 

Effondrer — fomlo, 

EflOrayer efOroi — frayetir. 

EflOronte — affnmtare. 

Egarer — garer. 

Eglantier — aigleni. 

EgU It., <). It. ello el, Sp. el, O. Sp. elle e!U, Pg. elle, O. Pg. W 
<•///, Pr. el elh, Fr. i7, Wal. eL Partly from ille, partly from 
illic (= ille Terence). It. Pr. Fr. Wal. hii\ from illujus or from 
illitic, V. Rom. Gr. % 66: fem. It. Pr. Wal. lei, O. Fr. M and 
lie, fn»m illae or iV/^^v for ////; pi. It. lore, Pr. Wal. lar^ Fr. 
/^i/r, from illomm (Sard, insoni = ipsonim). In It. pi. egiino, 
elleuo, no is a verbal suffix: egli-no, canta-no. 

Egout Fr. sewer; from egouter to drip, cf. Pr. goteiray Fr. ^o«/- 
tiere = «*<70i//. 

Egraffigner — greffe. 

Egratigner — gr allure, 

Egroger — gruger. 

EiB ele — ecco. 

Eisaurar — sauro. 

Eiflsemir — scernere. 

Elaguer Fr. to prune , or thin trees. From O. H. G. lah incisio 
arborum, or from Du. laeckenAo lessen, impair. With lah is 
connected G. leck^ our leak. 

Elan — landa. 

Elan Fr., E. eland, from G. elen-lhier, from O. H. G. elaho, M. 
H. G. elch, E. elk. 

Elce It., Pr. euze, Fr. geuse holm-oak, from ilex; It. leccio, from 
ilicius, lecceto from ilicetum. Another form of elce is It. elcinay 
Sp. encina, Pg. enzinJta azin/io, azinJteira, Pr. olzina. 

Elche Sp. Pg. an apostate; from Ar. elg a proselyte. 

Electuaire — lattoraro, 

Elingue — slinga, 

Elissire It., Sp. E. elixir, Fr. elixir; from Ar. al and iksir the 
pliilosophers stone, elixir, essence; cf. Chauc. ^^The Philo- 
sopher's stone, Elexir cleped^\ 

Ella — enola. 

Elmo It. Pg. O. Sp., Sp. yelmo, Pr. elm, Fr. heaxme (h asp.); 
from O. H. G. Itelm, O. N. hidlmr, Goth, hilms, E. helm. In 
O. Pg. the word meant '^a covering*' generally. Sp. Pg. almete 
for elmete = O. Fr. healmet, E. helmet; hence Fr. armet head- 

Eloendro — oleandro. 

Elsa else It. hilt ; from O. H. G. helza hilt. O. Fr. hell {h asp.), 


also heux (nom.), O. N. hiolt, A. S. E. hilt (n.), wlience vb. 

Email — smalio. 

Embair — haire. 

Embalde — haldo. 

Embarazo — barra. 

Embargar Sp. Pg. Cat. to arrest, lay an embargo on, sbst. em- 
bargo, embarc a seizure; from barra (q. v.) a bar, whence It. 

Embarras — barra. 

Exnbaucar — bava. 

Embaucher — bauche. 

Embaxada — ambasciata. 

Enibelenar — beleho, 

Emblaver — biado. 

Embler O.Fr., Tr.emblar to steal; from involare = volafu rapere 
(Petron. &c.), L. L. imbulare, It. involarey Flor. imbolare, Oris. 
ingiUar angtdar. Shortened from involare is Fr. vder, 

Embora — ora. 

Emboroar — volcar. 

Embraser — bragia. 

Embronc O. Fr. Pr. bent, bowed, pensive, sad, Val. enbronch 
crooked. Pic. embron awkward, vb. embroncher, Burg, r^i- 
broncher, O. S^broncar to bend. From pronns? embronc = 
impronicatus? jBut in O. Fr. Pr. the vb. is used of covering, 
esp. the face. Wedgw. derives the E. phrase "brown study'' 
from Ft. embron, which he refers to broncio anger, grief (q. v.), 
imbronciare = embroncher. 

Embudo — imbuio. 

Embusquer — bosco. 

Embuste — busto. 

Embutir Sp. Pg. Cat. to inlay, impress; from the same G. root 

^ as botar (v. bottare), cf. M. H. G. buz a blow. 

Emeraude — smeraldo. 

Em^ri — smeriglio. 

Em^rillon — smerio. 

Emeute — meute. 

Emoi — smagare. 

Emousser — mozzo. 

Eini>aohar — pacciare. 

Empan — spanna. 

Emparar emparer — parare. 

Empeoer O. Sp. Pg. to injure, with dat. or aoc; for empedecer 
from impedire, or, better, for emperdecer (perda). 

Empdoher — pacciare. 

Elmpefl^untar — pegar. 


Empeine Sp. tetter; from impetigo y It. empetiggine, Wsl. pecin- 
gine. For empeine = groin , cf . pettine, 

Empeltar Pr. (,'at. to graft, sbst. Cat. empelt, Pr. empeut, O. Fr. 
empeau a graft; from y><f///V (= bark), or, better, from dim. 
Pr. peleta (E. pelt, Fr. pelletier), so empeletar = to insert in 
the bark, E. pelzen, 

Empeser empois — pegar. 

Emi>dtrer — pasioja, 

Empezar — comiiiciare, 

Ehnpiffrer — pipa. 

Ehnplasto — piasira. 

Ehnplatre — piasira. 

Ehnplear — piegare. 

^Smplette Fr. a purchase; for O. Fr. emploite, Norm, empleiie, 
from implicitus implicUuSy implicare in Rom. sense to employ. 
O. Fr. emploiier, Pr. empleitar = impiicitare. Cf. exploit. 

Employer — piegare. 

Empreinte — imprenta. 

Empmnter — improniare. 

En — indi. 

En sbst. — donno. 

Encan — ineanto. 

Encaiisar — incaleiare. 

Enceinte — ineinta. 

Eneeitar — encentar. 

Encentar Sp., Pg. eneeitar eneelar to begin , to cut (at a meal). 
From ineeptare to begin. Sp. has also deeentar. 

Encher — henchir. 

Eneia — gengiva. 

Eneima — cima. 

Encina — elce. 

Enclenque Sp. weak , feeble; from r///iiri/if bedridden , with ^i 
as in endebie from debilis. 

Encliune — ineude. 

Eneombre — colmo. 

Encono Sp., O. Sp. enconia malevolence; eneonar to irritate, in- 
flame, eneonarse (of a wound) to fester. Ph. from Sp. ma/en- 
eofiia ill-will (melancholia J, wrongly supposed to be com- 
pounded with mal. 

Encore — ora (2). 

Encre — inchiostro. 

Endecha — dec. 

Enderezar — rizzare. 

Enddver — desver. 

Endica It. the buying up of goods to sell again , also = a store- 
house (Murat.) ; from ivd^^xi]. 


Endilgar Sp. to lead away^ persuade; from indelegare to send to, 

direct to, lead. 
Endillar — relinchar. 

Endivialt.Sp. Pg.Pr.; Fr.'E.endive; from intybus or adj. intybea. 
Endro — eneldo. 
Endroit — titto. 
Enebro — ginepro. 

Eneldo Sp.; Pg. endro dill; a corruption of anethum? 
Enfoncer — fondo. 
Enfreindre — fraindre. 
Enfruxn enfinin O. Fr., Pr. enfmn greedy, s^enfrunar to be 

greedy, to gorge oneself; hom frumen the throat, wind -pipe, 

with en = in. 
Engano — inganno. 
Engar — enger. 
EngarraflEur — graffio. 
EngSBtar — cassa. 
Engeance — enger. 

Enger Fr. to pester, fill, surfeit: Nicot a enge la France de therbe 
nicotiane. From^n^careto plague, ^'c«re, SLSvindicare, viricare, 
venger. The Pg. has engar to throng, press on hostilely, not 
from G. eng. 0. Fr. enger also = to increase, prevail (of dis- 
eases &c.), la peste enge fort, hence engeance a brood, not from 
ingignere. Lim. s'endzd to produce, Sard, angiai to hatch. 

Engle — inguine. 

Engloutir — ghiotto. 

Engo — eppio. 

Engodar — goda. 

Engouer — gave. 

Engrant engrande O. Fr. greedy, desirous. Prob. a corrupt 
form from G. E. hunger. Gachet makes it from an O. N. part. 
angraidr disturbed. 

Engreir Sp. to make proud; from ingredi used trans; cf. Sp. 
escurrir trans. 

Engres O. Fr. engrais engrois (f. engresse), Pr. engres hot, passi- 
onate, sbst. engresie, vb. s'engresser. Perhaps from agrestis 
wild, as engrot from cegroius. Villemarqu^ derives it from 
Bret, enkrez inkrez unrest, grief. So Diez. The verb engresser 
may, however, come from mcrescere in It. = to be irksome, 
ana the rest be thence derived. 

Eiigriman90 — grimoire. 
Engrudo — glu. 
Enherdir — yerto. 

Enhiesto Sp. erect, vb. enhestar, enfestar. From fastigitm (O.Pg. 
festo), so enhiesto = in fastigio. 



Enho Pg. a one-year-old fawn; from hinnuleus for enhlo? or from 

ennius in bi-ennius, cf. cobrar. 
Enic Pr. unwilling; from iniquus. 
Enjoler — gahbia. 
Enlear Pg. to fetter, hinder, O. Fr. etUoier; from the O. Fr. en- 

later = inligare. 
Enne O. Fr. a particle of interrogation and exclamation : from 

interrogative et and the negative particle, Lor. enne. 
Ennodio O. Sp. a young hart; from enodis branchless^ hornless. 
Ennui — noia. 
Enojo — noia. 
Enquar Pr. to berin; from inchoare, one of the few L. words 

confined to the rr. 
Enqui — qui. 

Enrouer Fr. to be hoarse ; from raucus. 

Ens O. Fr., Pr. ins; from intus; O. Vr. dens, Fr. dans, dedans, 
Pr. dins, dedins, from de intus, de de intus; O. Fr. saiens laiens, 
Pr. sains, lains (compoimded with tlie Rom. particles sai and 
lai), Fr. ce'ans, leans. Another O. Fr. form for dens was deinz, 
whence deinzein^ opp. forein (foraneus), E. denizen. 
Ensalmar Sp., Pg. enxalmar to enchant ; from psalmus. 
Ensalzar — alzare. 
Ensanchar — ancho. 
Ensayo — saggio. 
Enseigne — insegna. 
Enseigner — insegnare. 
Ensemble — insembre. 
Ensement — esso. 
Ensenada Sp., Pg. enseada bay, creek; from sinus, insinuate, 

Sp. ensenar. 
Ensena — insegnare. 

Entamer Fr., Pr. entamenar, Piedm. antamna to cut, notch, 
wound. Not from ivri^vHv, but from L. at-taminare to injure, 
with a change of preposition fR. Gr. 2, 391), cf. conviiare for 
invitare, atturare for obturare &c. 
Ente Fr. a graft, Piedm. Parm. enta, Mod. entin, Fr. vb. enter 
to graft. From ifiq)vrov, iii<pvtsv£Lv^ whence also O. H. G. 
impitdn, M. H. G. impfeten, G. impfen, E. imp. L. L. impotus 
= iiiq)vroVj cf. colapus = colaphus. Others derive from in 
and T>\\. poot = foot, hence impdtus, Bret, em-bouden, but this 
der. will not sait the Fr. form, and the Bret, may come 
through the O. Fr. emboter. Pott derives the word from 
Enteado — alnado. 

Enteco Sp. infirm, sickly; from hecticus, O. Pg. eiego. It. eiico. 
For c = Sp. n, cf. anche. 


EntQjar Pg. to loath; entejo loathing; from iwdinm. 

Entercier O. Fr. to recognise; acknowledge; par Civre tentcrcad 
= cestimavii earn temuientam Liv. d. Rois p. 3; from intertiare 
to put in a third person's hands. This was a legal phrase, 
and used of a person who ; detecting his lost property in the 
possession of another, placed it, as by law permitted; in the 
nands of a third, till the right owner -ship should be proved. 
V. Ducan'ge. 

Entero — intero. 

Enterver — rover. 

Entibo Sp. a prop, entibar to prop; from stipes, Basq. estiba. 

Enticher Fr. to infect (with disease &c.) ; from the Q.anstecken. 

Entier — intero. 

Enton O. Sp., Pg. entdo = L. turn, from in turn; Sp. enionces, 
O. Sp. estonze, O. Pg. entonces, from in tuncce, ex tuncce. 

Entrailles Fr., Pr. intralias, E. entrails. L. interaneum, pi. in- 
teranea, whence It. entragno, Sp. entranas, O. Fr. entraigne, 
L. L. intrania. The Fr. has taken the collective suffix aille, 
following the analogy of tripaille (trippa). 

Entraver entraves — travar. 

Entrechat Fr. a caper; from It. capriuola entrecciaia. 

Entregar Sp. Pg. Cat. give up; deliver; entrego delivered up; 
entrega entrego delivery; from integer for entrego, O. Pg. en- 
tregue = entero, enteiro = integer; prop, to make reparation, 

Entremes Sp. interlude; from It. inter-mezzo = L. inter-medium. 

Entresait O. Fr., Norm, antresiais, Pr. atrasait atrasag uncondi- 
tionaUy; entirely. From prep, en, a, and tresait trasait = 
transactus. In O. It. trasatto: ben e ragione che 7 nostro amore 
si parta in trasatto = unconditionally. Cf. It. trasattarsi to 
appropriate, make oneself master of. 

Entroido antroido O. Sp.; N. Sp. antruejo, O. Pg. entroydo, Pg. 
entrudo the last three days of the carnival; from introitus (sc. 
of Lent). 

Envaliir Fr. to seize forcibly, Pr. envazir; from invadere. 

Envelopper — vHuppo. 

Envie Fr. envy; desire: from invidia; adv. a Venvi in emulation, 
with the final vowel elided, cf. chez for chese, or for ore, 
A fenvie was used up to the 16'** century. 

Environ — virar. 

Envifl and a envis O. Fr. adv. against one's will; Wall, eviss. 
Burg, anvi; from invitns invite, v. Sp. ambidos. 

Envoisier — vezzo. 

Envouter Fr. to curse, imprecate evil on (by means of waxen 
images); Ovid, devovet absentes simulacraque cerea ftngit Et 
miserum tenues in jecur urget acus. From devotare (Apul.) for 



devovere. In L.L. we find invuitare from a mistaken reference 

to VilitUS. 

Enzada — accia. 
Enzalma — salma. 
Enxambre — sciame, 
Enxareia — sarte. 

Enxeoo O. Sp., O. Pg. enxeco eyxeco difficulty, harm, punish- 
ment 5 from Ar. esh-shaqq difficulty. 
Enxergar — cercare. 
Enxerir Sp., Pg. to graft; from inserere, as enxeriar from m- 

Enxuagar Sp. to rinse, clean; from ex-aquare, It. sciacquare. 
Enxugar — suco, 
Enxullo — subbio. 
Eninindia Sp. fat; from axungia cart -grease, Fr. axonge, cf. 

Enxuto — suco, 
Bnvoyep — voyer. 
Epa It. belly ; from hepar. 
EpalB — spesso. 
Epancher Fr. to pour out; from expandicare (expandere. It. 

spanderej, cf, pendere pendicare pencher. 
Epanouir Fr. to unfold; a form of the O. Fr. espanir for espan- 

dir = espandre (expandere), cf. tolir = tolre; v. evanouir. 
]^pargner — sparagnare. 
Eparpiller — parpaglione. 
Epaule • — spalla. 

Epave Fr. a runaway. From expavidus. 
Epeautre — spelta. 
Epeiehe Fr. = pic, O. Fr. espeche, Pic. epeque; from O. H. G. 

speh, G. specht a woodpecker. 
Epeler Fr. to spell, O. Fr. espeler to say, mean, Pr. espeiar to 

explain; from Goth, spiiidn, O. H. G. spelldn, E. spell, 
Eperlan Fr. (Sp. eperlano csperlan) a smelt; from G. spierling. 
Eperon — sperone. 
Epervier — sparaviere. 
Epiee — spezie. 
Epier — spiare. 
Epieu Fr. a spit, O. Fr. espieil, from spictdum, as essieu from 

Epinard — spinace, 
Epinceler ^pineer — pizza. 
Epingle — spillo. 
Eplueher — piluccare. 
Epois — spito. 
Epouiller — pidocchio. 


Epouvanter — spaventare. 
Epoux — sposo. 
Epreindre — preindre. 
Equerre — quadro. 
Equi — qui. 
Eqtiiper — schifo. 

It. Sp. E., Fr. ere; from L. (era (ces) counters, items in an 

account; hence L. L. cera cerce (cf. R. Gr. 2, 21) a number 

forming the basis of a calculation, an epoch. 
— or a (2). 
Erable — acero. 
Eroer — erguir. 
Ereinter — derrengar. 
Ergo O. Pg. except; frem L. ergo? Diez also suggests prceter^ 

quod, cf. algo = aliquod. 
Ergot — argot. 
Ergoter Fr. to dispute about trifles, to caid ; from L. ergo, which 

was much used in disputations. 
Erguir Sp., Pg. erguer to erect; from erigere. Another form in 

ercer^ cf. s. arcilla for c = g. 
Erial erio Sp. a uncultivated piece of ground, from era, L. area. 
Eriso — riccio. 
Ermo It., Sp. germo desert, sbst. a desert; from lQi](iogy L. ere- 

mus (Pruo. erSmus), L. L. ermus hermus, 'Eng. hermit from i(fij- 

fiitfig. Hence "N. Pr. hermds a heath. 
Erramnoiit — erre. 

__ O. Fr. (f.) a way, O. E. eyre (Justices in Eyre) journey, 

errer to travel, also to treat, behave {mes-errer to iU- treat), 

hence chevalier errant, langht- errant, juif errant, adv. erran 

erranment. The oldest form is edrar, from L. iter iterare. The 

Prov. errar, however, is the L. errrae. 
Brs — ervo. 

It. steep, partic. of ergere = erigere, sbst. erta an acclivity, 

alTerta, on tne alert, prop. = on an eminence, hence adj. Sp. 

alerto, Fr. alerte, E. alert, Rh. erti. 

and lero (= Vervo) It., Sp. yervo, Pr. Fr. ers tares; from 

ervum, ers conforming to the G. erbse, O. H, G. arwiz. From 

the der. L. ervilia (vetchj come Sp. arveja alverja, Com. erheja, 

It. rubiglia ^rtransposea, as in rigogiio =^ orgoglioj, MH.erbion 

(for erviglione). 
Ervodo — albedro. 
Eflbaliir — badare. 
Eebalanirfr — eblouir. 
Eflbanoier — banda. 
Eflbosar — bozzo. 
EBbulhar — boUa. 


Esca It. Pr., 0. Fr. eche, Sp. yesca, Wal. ^a^r^' tinder; from L. 

esca. Isidonis has: csca vidgo dicilur fungus, quod sit forms 

ignis, Pr. vb. escar to bait, Pg. iscar to bait a hook for fish, 

Sard, escai, It. adescarc, Sp. enescare, Sf.esquero=Si leathern 

bag for fire -materials &e. 
Escada Pg. stairs; a corruption of escala from scala, v. Ronu 

Gr. 1, 241 ; or from escalada. 
Eseadre, escadron — quadro, 
Escai O. Pr. left, = Gr. 6xai6g. 
EBcedin — scellino. 

Escalio Sp. a fallow -field; from squalidus, 
Escalmo — scalmo. 
Esealona — scalogno. 
Escamel Sp. Pg. a sword -maker's benoh, Pr. escaimel, O. Fr. 

eschamel; not from scdbellum (It. sgabello, Fr. escabeau, Cat. 

escambeli), but from a form scamellum (al. scamiilum, scamnel- 

lum) Priscian (from Apiileius). 
Escamondar Sp. to pmne; from escami-mondar to scale^ cleanse; 

cf. mani-atar, perni-quebrar. 
Escamoter Fr. to remove clandestinely, to juggle, whence Sp. 

escamotar. Perhaps from squama, Sp. escamar to scale fish, 

to clean, remove, cf. G. wegputzen, and v. forbire; Sp. esca- 

mato = tutored by experience, cunning. 
Eseanciar Sp., Pg. escancar, O.Fr. eschancer to pour in wine &c. 

(Rh. schanghiar to present); Fr. echanson, Sp. escanciano, Pg. 

escancao a cup-bearer; from O. H. G. scencan, sbst. scenco, 

orig. scancjan, scancjo, L.L. scancio scantio. From G. scJienken 

comes Fr. chinquer to drink, tipple, Prov. Fi\ chiquer. The It 

has scancia scansia a tray for glasses or books ^ = L. L. scan- 

cia, Bav. schanz, G. schenke, 
Eseandallo — scandaglio. 
Escandia — scandella, 
Eseantir Pr. to extinguish; from candere to glow, so for escan- 

dir, can glowing = candidtis. Or from a G. source: O. G. 

kcnten, O. N. kinda, E. kindle, O. N. kindir fire. 
Escapar — scappare. 
Escara It., Sp. Pg. escara, Fr. escarre scurf; from L. eschara 

Escarabajo — scarafaggio. 

Escea'aniiLza — scaramxwcia. 

Escarapelarse Sp. Pg. to wrangle; fromlt. scarpeilare to scratch, 

from scarpello = L. scalpellutn. 
Escarbar Sp., Pg. escarvar, Cat. esgarrapar to scratch; from Du. 

schrapen, M. H. G. schrapfen. 
Escarbot — scarafaggio. 
Escaroela escarcelle — sciarpa. 


Escaroha Sp. Pg. hoar- frost , escarchar to congeal ^ curl; from 
B. ecachea fine rain. 

Efloarda — cardo. 

Escargot Fr. a snail; probably from the same as caracot, with 
a strengthening prefix. 

Esoarir — schiera. 

Esoarlate — scarlatto, 

Escarmentar Sp. Pg. to correct severely, warn, sbst. escarmiento 
warning. Tnree derivations are given, (1) ex-carminare, 
which, however, should give eoocarmenantar, (2) It. schermo 
= from G. schirmen to defend, but this has given Sp. esgri- 
tnir, (3) It. scamamento a tearing of the skin , chastisement. 

Esoarmouohe — scaramuccia. 

Escamio escamir — scherno. 

Escarpa esoarpo — Scarpa. 

Esoarpelo — escopro. 

Esoarzar Sp. to castrate bee-hives; from ex-castrare, by transp. 

Eaoaso — scarzo. 

Eaoatixna Sp. Pg. a diminution, escatimar to curtail, boggle. 
From Basque escaiima a quarrel. 

Esohevi esoavi O.Fr., Vr.escafit slender, C^X,€scofida= a bodice. 
From O. H. G. scafjan to arrange, make, partic. gascafit for 
tvola gascafit, cf. Fr. mole for bien mole, scant for bien scant, 
Lat. compositus for bene compositus, ^. cheap for good cheap &c. 

EBOhiele — schiera, 

EBchiele — sqmlla. 

EBChirer O. Fr., Wall, hire, Pr. esquirar to scratch ; from O. 
H. G. sMrran to scratch, whence also Fr. dechirer. Pic. de- 

Esohiter O. Fr. to soil; from O. H. G. skizan, A. S. scttan, 
whence Wall, hiter. The G. word must also have influenced 
the formation of the Fr. chier which, if immediately from the 
L., would have given chayer (cf . pacare payer). 

Escire It., commonly uscire, Wal. est, O. Sp. exir, Pr. O. Fr. 
eissir issir ttssir, E. issue; from exire. Hence It. riuscire, Fr. 
reussir to succeed , O. Fr. rissir to go out again. The u in 
uscire, ussir is derived from It. uscio (ostium), O.Fr. us a door, 
cf. B. atfiea = uscio y atheratu = uscire, forasire, dvQa^s 

EBolandre Fr. bustle, alarm, slander; from scandalum, O. Fr. 

better eschandre, v. Rom. Gr. I. 269. 
EBolate — schiatta. 
Esdave — schiavo. 
EBOlavin — scabino. 
BBdaTO — schiavo. 


Esdenque O.Fr. left hand; esclenge, Wall, hieing; from O. H. G. 
siinc, Du. slirfk = G. link. 

Esclet — schietto. 

Esolier 0. Fr. to split, slice; from 0. H. G. scUzan, G. schieissen 
to split, A. S. slitan, E. slice, 

Esclistre O. Fr. lightning, eclisle, Rouchi ecliire; from O. N. 
glitrtty Eng. glitter, glisten. 

Esolo 0. Fr., Pr. esclau track; from O. G. slag slac, sclag, G. 

schlag (hufschlag = track) a blow; ci.fau from faguSy and 

Sp. batuda = blow and track. 
Esolusa Sp., Fr. e'cluse a sluice, L.L. exclusa sclusa; from exclu- 

dere, not from G. sliozan schliessen, E. sluice, which would 

have given Fr. eclusse educe. 
Escodar Sp. Pg. to hew stones, prop. = to remove angles, from 

codo an elbow, comer. Hence escoda stone-breaker's hammer. 
Efloolh — cogliere. 
EsoolimoBo Sp. hard, obstinate; from scolgmus (oxoXvfiog) a sort 

of thistle. 
Efloollo — scoglio. 
Esoolta — corgere, 
Escondire O. Fr. Pr. to excuse; L. L. ex-con-dicere, like ixk(h 

Escopeta escopette — schioppo. 

Escoplo Sp., Pg. escopro, estoupro, Val. escapre, O. Fr. eschalpre 
a chisel; from scalprum, Sp. escarpelo, It. scarpello, from seal- 

Esoorcer escorzar — scorciare. 

Esoorre — scuotere. 

Escorte — corgere. 

Escorzon — escuerzo. 

Escola Sp. Pg. a sheet (naut.); from Du. school, E. sheet (from 
schiessen, shoot). 

Esoota — scotta, 

Esoote Sp. a round piece cut out in shaping a garment, vb. esco- 
tar. From G. schoofs, Goth, skaut-s S;c. a lap. 

Escote — scotto. 

Esoouade — quadro. 

Escousse — scuotere. 

Escozar — cuire. 

Escramo 0. Sp. a javelin. We find it in L. Wisig. 9, 2, 1 : scutis, 
spatis, sramis, lanceis, sagittis, and with sa?is a knife in Gre- 
gory of Tours : cum cultris validis quos vulgus scramasaxos vo- 
cant. Cf. Dief. Goth. wb. 2, 257. 

Esoraper O. Fr. to scrape; from Du. schrapen, E. scrape. From 
same source comes O. Fr, escrafe, escreffe a fish-bone, M.H.G. 


schrapfen to scratch, Fl. schraeffen, cf. Langued. escrafd to 
scratch out, blot out. 

Esoregne escriegne escrienne 0. Fr. a little house, summer- 
house &c., connected with L. L. screuna (from L. scrinitm 
Grimm) a subterranean chamber. 

Escrimer — schermo, 

Escroo — scrocco, 

Escuohar — ascoUare. 

Escudrinar Sp., N.Pr. escudrinha to search, scrutinise; for escru- 
dinar, It. scrutinare from scrutinitm. 

Escuerzo escorzon Sp. a toad, It. scorzone a sort of venomous 
snake; prop. = bark, It. scorzo, from the rough, bark- 
like skin. 

Esouina -— schiuma. 

Escupir Sp. Pg., Pr. 0. Fr. escopir escupir, Wal. scuipa to spit. 
A corruption of exspuere. 

Ese — esso. 

EBfolar — desollar. 

Esglay — ghiado. 

Esgrima esgrimir — schermo. 

Esgrumer O. Fr., Cat. esgrumar, 0. Fr. esgrunier esgruner, Pr. 
Cat. esgrunar to crumb, crumble; from Du. kruim, G. krume^ 
E. crum. 

Esguaso — quado. 

Esguince — sguancio. 

Esito It. sale of goods ; from exitus, 

Eslider O. Fr., Norm, elinder to slide; from A. S. sliddn, E. 
slide. Norm. lider = A. S. glidan, E. glide. 

Eslingua — slinga. 

Esmaier esmair — smagare. 

Esmaite — smalio. 

Esmar Pr., O. Fr. esmer, O. Sp. 0. Pg. asmar, Gallic, osmar to 
estimate; sbst. Pr. O. Fr. esme, Cat. esma, Lang, ime, Lorr. 
aume; from cesiimare. Hence Pr. azesmar = ad-cestimarej to 
reckon, aim: a son colp azesmat aimed his blow well, also 
azermar, sermar. From azesmar is O. Fr. acesmer to set in 
order (battle &c.), O. Gen. acesmar, Dante's accismare to set 
to rights, dress (not from cisma), also azzimare, Sp. azemar 
to adorn. Esmar, Pic. amer also gives E. aim, M. H. G. dmen, 

Esmeralda — smeraldo. 

Esmerar esmerer — smerare. 

Esmeril — smeriglio. 

Esmeiil esmerejon — smerlo. 

Eflneque esneohe O.Fr. a sharp-pro wed ship; from O.^.sneckia, 

186 E8PACIAR — E8P0NT0N. 

Dan. snekkCy O. G. snaga, snecke, probably connected with 

G. schnekkc a snail. 
Espaoiar — spazzare. 
Espada — spada. 
Espalda — spalla, 
Espalhar — paglia. 
Espalier — spalla. 
Espantar — spaventare. 
Esparoir Sp. to scatter, Pg. esparzir, O. Sp. Pg. espargir, from 

spargere, Pr. esparser. Cf. arcilla. 
Esparvel — sparaviere. 
Espasmo — spasimo, 
Espautar Pr. to be in anguish, Wall, espawter. Pic. epauter, sbst 

Pr. espaut; from ex-pavitare. 
Especia — spezie. 
Espejo — specchio. 
Espelh espiegle — specchio. 
Espelta — spelta. 
Esperir O. Fr. Pr. to awaken, s'esperir to awake, Pr. resperir; 

from expergere, re-expergere , with elision of the rf, as though 

from experrigere, cf. lire from legere. 
Esperlan — eperlan. 
Espertar O. Sp. Pg. Pr. to awaken ; from espergilus. Hence Sp. 

despierto, Pg. desperto, vb. despertar, Wall, dispierte. 
Espeso — spesso. 
Espeto — spito. 
Espiar — spiare. 
Espiohe Sp. a sharp -pointed weapon, goad, Pg. espicho, vb. 

Sp. Pg. espichar to prick; from spictdum spiclum, spiculare, cl 

= ch cf. hacha (facvia), cuchara (cochlearium). 
Espiegle Fr. a wag, O. Fr. Ulespiegle; from G. Etdenspiegel 

(owl -glass) the title of a collection of droll stories, v. Max 

Miiller, Lectures. 
Espiet espie O. Fr., espieut espiaut Pr. spear; from O. G. spioz 

Espinaca — spinace. 
Espineta — spinetta. 
Espingarda — springare. 
Espion — spiare. 
Espita — spitamo. 
Esplinque Sp. bird -trap; for csprinque, O. H. G. springa, E. 

springe. Hence also Lang, esperenc and Com. sparangon. 
Espojo — spoglio. 
Espolin — spola. 
Espolon espuela — sperone. 
Esponton — spuntone. 


Esposo — sposo, 

Espreitar — exploit, 

Esprelle and prile Fr. shave -grass (bot.), It. asperella; from 

Esprequer Fr. to prick; from Du. prikken, E. prick. 
Espring^er — springare, 
Esproher O. Fr. to besprinkle; from spruejen, M.H.G. spretven, 

G.sprHhen. Sip.espurriar is, probably, a corruption of esprttyar. 
Esprohon O. Fr., Rouchi e'proon, Wall, sprew a starling; from 

O. H. Q.spra, G. sprehe, Du. spreuwe, O.E. sparwe (sparrow), 
Espurriar — esproher. 

Espurrir Sp. to stretch one's legs ; from exporrigere, It. sporgere. 
Esquadra — quadro. 
Esquecer Pg. to cause to forget, esquecerse to forget; O. Pg. 

escaecer = excadescere used actively. 
Esquela — cedola, 
Esqueleto — scheletro. 
Esquena — schiena. 
Esquentar — calentar. 
•Esquero — esca. 
Esquioio — schizzo. 
Esquif esquife — schifo. 
Esqtiila — squilla. 
Esquille Fr. a bone -splint. Dim. from 6%CSri or 6%CSiov whence 

pi. schidicB (Vitruv.). Cf. scheggia. 

Esquilo — scojattolo. 

Esqtiina Sp. Pg. comer, probably from esquena fish -spine, = 
sharp pomt, cf. It. spigolo (spiculumj = corner. 

Esquinzar Sp., Pr. esquinsar esquissar to tear to pieces (rags &c.) ; 
from 6x^Biv with n inserted? Sp. has also desguinzar. 

EsqtLisse — schizzo. 

Esquivar esqtdver — schivare. 

Essai — saggio (2). 

Essaim — sciame. 

Essart O. Fr., Pr. eissart, F. assart fresh land , essarter, eissartar 
to clear land; from exsaritum hoed up, dug up, vb. ex- sari- 
tare, L. L. exartum, exartare. 

Essere It., Pr. Rh. esser, Fr. ^tre, Sp. Pg. ser to be. The L. esse 
in L. L. took the regular inf. ending and became essere (impf. 
conj. esseret). From this was formed Fr. ^stre dtre, as from 
tessere (texere) tistre tUre. The Sp. ser, however, orig. seer (in 
two syllables), is from sedere (1) to be situated: Campo Nola 
sedet, Dante: siede la terra stilla marina (2) remain (3) be. Cf. 
Goth, visan (G. wesen, E. was) to dwell (Sansk. vas), remain, 
be. The Sp. verb takes from sedere its imper. se (or set/), 


genmd, partic. sido (or seido), infinitive, pres. conj. {sea or 

seija) impf. sia for exa, 
Essieu Fr. axle; for aissieu from axictUus, like epieu from spicu- 

lum, It. assictilo. 
Esso It., O. It. isso, Sp. ese, Pg. esse, Pr. eis, eps, Wal. insu from 

//>5^, O. Sp. essi from //)5' ^/r. Often in compounds, e. g. It. 

lun{/fiesso, sovresso, Pr. anceis, demanes, of. Lat. nunc ipsum, 

isthuc ipsum (Ter.), Sp. ahora mismo; Pg. aqui ets there, cf. G. 

daselbst. For L. nunc we have It. adesso, O. Sp. adresso, Pr. 

O. Fr. ades fad ipstm); 0. It. issa, Khset. tt55fl from /j^sa sc. 

/(or« = O. Sp. esora. Pr. epsamen eissamsn, O. Fr. esement, 

essement = L. pariter, O, Fr. ensement, Pr. ensament (with 

inserted n). Cf. (/^5. 
Eflsoigne — sogna. 
Essorer — sauro. 
Essuyer — 5t/co. 
Est Fr., O. Fr. ?iest, whence Sp. este, O. Sp. ieste; from A. S. 

E. east. 
Estaca estache — stacca. 
Estacha Sp. harpoon -rope; from B. est-archa. 
Estaoion — stagione. 
Estafette estafilade — staff a, 
Estskla — stallo, 
Estallar — schiantare. 
Estamena — stamigna, 
Estampar — stampare. 
Estano — stanco. 
Estanoar — stancare. 
Estanoia — stanza. 
Estandarte — stendardo. 
Estano — stagno. 
Estama ■ — starna. 
Estai — etai. 

Esteil O. Fr. an arrow; from O. H. G. stihhil. 
Esteio — etai, 
Estera — stoja. 

Estem Pr. track, estemar to follow ; from A. S. steame, E. stern. 
Esters estiers O. Fr. Pr. without, except: e. g. estiers mon grat 

against my will. From exterius, by metathesis cxtierus estiers, 
Estiar O. Sp. to remain still ; from cestivare. Pg. estiar, = to be- 
come clear, cease from raining. 
Estivar — stivare, 
Esto O. It., Sp. Pg. este, Pr. est,-0. Fr. ist, Wal. isi aist, from 

iste. Hence questo, cotesto &c. 
Eatoo — stocco. 
Estofa — stoffa. 


Bstopa — stoppa. 

Estoque — stocco. 

Estor — starmo. 

Estorer Fr. to erect, build, furnish; from instaurare; estor ee, 
estorement, L. L. instaurum, siaurum, E. store, Gael, stdr, W. 
yst&r. The O. Fr. estoire (though in L. L. instaurum) belongs 
rather to stuoio, 

Estout Pr..O.Fr. haughty, bold; from G. slolz, E. stout. It stolto, 
from L. stulius. From estout, Pr. estot is the O. Fr. estotoier to 

Estovoir O. Fr. impersonal vb. to become , beseem , be neces- 
sary, pres. m'estuet, pf. m'estut. From stare, ester to stand 
near, become, which in pf. has estut = stetit, as arestut from 
arester: from pf. estut came pres. estuet, inf. estovoir like muety 
mut, movoir. Estovoir was also used as a sbst. = necessaries 
of life, E. stover, L. L. estoverium (cf. manoir manerium). But 
the Rhset. has stover stuver = must, pf. stuvet, conj. stuvess, 
and this could hardly come from star (pf . stet), nor is it likely 
to have been introduced from the Fr. It is better, therefore, 
to refer the verb to L. studere, studuit = O. Fr. Fr. estut, Rh. 
stuvet, stuvess = O. Fr. esteust = studuisset. What is desired 
or willed may be regarded as necessary, hence studeo scire = 
I must know, cf. Rom. Gr. 3, 204. 

Estrao Fr. lean, meagre (of a horse); from G. strack, O. H. G. 
strac strictus = Fr. etroit, E. strait. 

Estrada estrade — strada, 

Estragao estragon — targone. 

Estrago Sp. Pg. depravity, corruption, havoc, vb. estragar. 
From strages, cf. gorga from gurges. 

Estraier — strada. 

Estralar — schiantare. 

Estrambote — strambo. 

Estrano — stranio. 

Estrapasar — pazzo. 

Estaraper O. Fr. to glean , cut down , hence Fr. etrape a sickle ; 
from Sw. strapen, E. strip, Bav. straff en to cut. Cf. It. strap- 
pare. Or a form of estreper = exstirpare? 

Estrayer O. Fr., Pr. estraguar to digress, E. stray; from extra' 
vagare. It. stravagare. 

Estrasai' — stracciare. 

Estr^er O. Fr. to give up, deliver ; from Pr. tradar formed from 
tra-dare, ex-tra-dare. 

Estregar — fregare. 

Estreper — estraper* 

Estriar — Strega. 

Sstribo Sp. Pg., Cat. esireb.j Pr. estreup estrieu estrep, estriub,. 

190 ESTBIBOT — fiXAI. 

O. Fr. esirief, E. stimip: hence Sp. estribera, Pe. estribehra, 
Fr. etriviere and etrier. The It. uses staffa instead. From the 
M. H. G. stege-reif, L. G. stireip (E. stirrup), contr. 5/r^j9. 
Hence Sp. estribar, O. Fr. estriver {desestriver = to throw from 
the stirrup). The O. Fr. estriver, E. ^/rji;^ is from G. sireben; 
sbst. Pr. ^5/m, O. Fr. ^^/r//*, E. strife. From e^/n'^o comes Sp. 
costribo support, vb. costribar. Sp. estribo estribiiio = also 
burden of a song, refrain, properly a resting-place or stirrup. 
O. Sp. estribote, 0. Fr. estribot estrabot, Pr. estribot a satire. 

Estribot — strambo. 
Estribord — stribord. 

Estriga Pg. a portion of flax for spinning; from L. stripa a 
streak , or swathe of mown com. 

Estrillar — strecchia. 

Estringa — stringa. 

Estrinque estrenque Sp., Vg.estrinque estrinca a rope, Ps.estrin- 

car to twist; from G. strick a rope, with insertea n; E. string 

(v. stringa). Of. Ven. strica a rope, Com. stricca to tie, and 

cf . tricoter. 
Estriver — estribo. 

Estro It. Sp. enthusiasm; from cestrus (oltStQog). 
Estrope — stroppolo. 
Estropear estropier — stroppiare. 
Estros Pr. O. Fr. with ady ad estros unconditionally, inmiedi- 

ately ; from extrorsum (opp. introrsum) = outwardly, vdthout 

reserve. Par estros was used, whence sbst. ta parestrusse the 

Estrovo — stroppolo. 
Estrubar • — estribo. 
Estruendo Sp., Pg. estrondo noise, clamour; from tonitrus with 

ex and metathesis of the r, extronitus, cf. Fr. estonner from 

extonare. O. Sp. has atruendo. 

Estrujar — torchio. 
Estuoho — astuccio. 
Estufa — stufa. 
Estuque — stucco. 
Esturar — torrar. 
Esturion — storione. 

Esturleno Pr. a combatant; from 0. H. G. sturilinc, cf. adelenc 
from adalinc (E. atheling). 

Esturman O. Fr. (also estrumant, stieresman); from Du. stuw- 
man, A. S. steorman, E. steersman. 

Etablir Fr., E. establish; from L. stabilire (It.). 
Etage — staggio. 

i Fr., Sp. estay a stay (rope), Fr. etaie (Pg. esteio) prop, vb. 

6tain — 6troit. 191 

etoyer; from Du. staede staye = A. S. stede, O. H. G. siaia, 
M. H. G* state, vb. Du. staeden, E. stead, stay. 

Etain — stagno. 

Etal etalon — ^/a//o. 

Etamer — stagno. 

Etamine — stamigna. 

Stamper . — stampare. 

Stance — stanza. 

Etancher 6tang — stancare. 

EtangueB — stanga, 

Etape Ft., O. Fr. estaple a store -house; staple; from Du. stapel, 
E. staple, 

Etau — stallo. 

Eteindre Fr.5 from exstinguere. It. sting uere. 
Etendard — stendardo. 
Eteule — stoppia. 

Etineelle Fr. a spark (hence ^tinselY, a corruption of scintiUa, 
O. Fr. escintele, stencele (E. stencil). 

Etiquette Fr. a stitched or pinned note or billet, Rouchi esti- 
quete a pointed stick, Neap, sticchetto. From same root as It. 
stecco a thorn, prick, Rouchi stique a dagger, L. G. stikke, 
stikken, E. stick, cf. Champ, stiquer to put in, stick in, 0. Fr. 
estiquer to beat with a stick. 

Etoffe — stoffa. 

Etonner Fr., O. Fr. estoner, E. astony, astonish; from attonare, 
extonare. 0. Pr. has estornar for estronar (tronar = tanner). 

Etoiible — stoppia. 
EtoiifllBr — tufo (1). 
Etoupe ^toupin — stoppa. 
Etourdir — stordire. 
Etourgeon — storione. 
Strain Pic. sea -coast; from G. E. strand. 
Strange — stranio. 
Etraper — estraper. 
]fetre — essere. 
Etr^oir — e'troit. 

Etreindre Fr. from stringere; cf. astreindre, restreindre from ad- 
stringere, restringere, contraindre from constringere. 

Etrier — estribo. 

Etrille — strecchia. 

Etriquet — tricoter. 

EtriTidre — estribo. 

Etroit Fr., E. strait; from strictus, Pr. estreit, It. stretto. Hence 
etrecir to narrow, retrecir to draw in, retrench, verbs of in- 
choative form and active sense, from a L. strictescere , Sp. 

192 6tK0N — FACIMOLA. 

. estrechecer. O. Fr. esirecier would = a L, sirictiare. Hence 
detroit a narrow pass , from desirictus, cf. detresse. 

Etron — stronzare. 

Etrope — stroppolo. 

Ette It. (m.) a trifle, Com. eta, Flor. eiti, Rom. eita eti, Com, 
niimporia on eta = niimporta un fruUo; from L. hetta, Festus: 
res minimi pretii .. . cum dicimus ^^non hettce te facio^K 

Etui — astuccio. 

Etuve — stufa. 

Evanouir Fr. (reflex.), Pr. esvanuir to vanish. It. corresponds 

. to It. svanire, Rhset. svanir, Pg. esvair, It. pros, svanisco = L. 
evanesco. Ou is inserted as in epanouir, O. Fr. engenouir, ama- 
doner, bafouer; the o in Pr. manoir = Goth, v (manvjan)^ 

Evaser Fr. to enlarge an opening; from vas, or opp. convasare 
to pack together, evaser un arbre to give it room. 

Eventail — ventaglio. 

^vier — eau, 

Exaucer — aizare. 

Exploit Fr., Pr. espleit esplecha profit, vb. exploiter espieitario 
perform, accomplish ; from explic^tum drawn out, accomplished 
(E. exploit). Cf . ploite (O. Fr.) from plicita, as plait from plod- 
turn, Pg. espleitar to explore is also from explicarej but in a 
different sense, to unfold, find. 

Eziandio It. = L. etiam. From etiam deus; cf. avvegna dio che, 
macari dio che, O. Ven. quanvis-deo, O. Gen. quanvis-de, so 
ezian dio che, ezian dio se, ezian dio. 


Fabuoo — faggio. 

Faca — haca. 

Facoenda It., Pg. Pn fazenda, Sp. hacienda, O. Fr. faciende 

business ; plur. faciendum. Sp. and Pg. =r= management of an 

estate, estate, whence It. azienda. So. Pr. afar (v. affare). 
Faoohino It., Sp. faquin, Fr. faquin a porter, also a knave. 

From Du. vant-kin a lad. Or, perhaps, from Ar. faqir poor. 

Sic. facchinu = tavemaio. 
Faocia It., Wal. fatze, Pr. fassa, Fr. face, Sp. haz {facha from 

the It.), Pg. face face; from fades, the first four forms from an 

old Rom. facia, Sp. hacia = L. versus. Hence It. facciata, Fr. 

facade, and Pr. esfassar, Fr. effacer, E. efface. 
Facha — faccia. 
Facha — accia^ 
F&cher — fastio. 
Facimola flAcimolo sorcery. According to Menage from facne 


moJam (Virg. sparge molam et fragile^ incende hitumme lauros), 
but we should expect faci - moia like /"aci- male. 

Fa9on Fr., Pr. faissd, E. fashion; from f actio used passively, cf. 
toison from tonsio. 

Fade Fr. also fat, Pr. fat (f. fada) insipid, dull (E. fade)] from 
fatuus, cf. vax from vacuus. It. fado. 

Faggio It., Sp. haya, Pg. Pr. /V/y^ a beech, O. Fr. fage a beech- 
wood; from adj. fageus fagea. Fagus is found in Wal.fag, 
iUcfaffufau, Pr. Rh. Rouchi/V/w, O.Fr.fofeu, Lomb.Gen./c). 
Fr. faine beech -nut, O. Fr. Lorr. fai'ne, from faginus fagina^ 
\i. faggiuolo , Sip. fabuco f= fagucoj, with the same suffix as 
alfmnidruco, Cs.t. fatja f:= fagea). 

Fagotto fangotto It., Pr. Fr. fagot, Sp. fogote, E. faggot, W. 
ffagod. From fax prop. = a bundle of split pine -wood (cf. 
\ . jamque faces et saxa volant). Ok. (pdxekog (aimin.); g for c 
as in It. sorgo from soricem , Sp. perdigon from perdicem , Pr. 
lugor from lucem. Wal. /<flrr fagot is from /V/:r as nuc from wi/.r. 
The Sp. owes its form to a supposed connection with fuego. 

Faide O. Fr. feud, hence faidiu hostile, Pr. faidir to persecute, 
banish; from L. L. faida, A. S. fehdhe, O. H. G. gafehida, 
Qf.fehde, Yi.feud. 

Faille — fiaccota. 

Faillir — fallire. 

Faina It., Cat. /V/^/wrt, ^.Vr.faguinofahino, O. Fr. fagne, Fr. 
fouine, hence S\). fuin a , Vy^.fuinha, Yen. fuina foina , Lomb. 
Piedm. foin a polecat, marten, (). E. foin. From foine, faine 
{y. faggio) beech-mast, cf. Yj. beech-martin. From sbst. comes 
a vb. Genev. fouiner, Rouch. founia', Lomb. fogna to track, 
cf. Fr. f ureter to ferret out, from fvret, It. hraccare from 
hracco. The E. foumart = fouine and mart (= nuirtin). 

Faine — faggio. 

Faint O. Fr., E. faint, partic. of se fcindre fde quelque chose), 
Pr. se fenher to neglect; prop, to dissemble, from fingere, 
O. Fr. foindre = E. foin. Hence faignant lazy ^afterwards 
viviiien faineant \faire neantX), cf. li.inftngardo (1) dissembling, 
(2) lazy, Murat. : qui aut nolunt aut cum i)igriti{l faciunt, simu- 
lantes sibi vires deesse. 

Faire O. Fr., Pr. far to speak. Not from fari but from facer e 
(verba), cf. imperf. fesoient they spoke. 

Faiflca — falavesca. 

Faisceau — fascio. 

Faite Fr. (m.), O. Fr. faiste, feste; from fasiigium, \i. fastigio. 
Fust in Devonshire = ridge of the roof. 

Falaise Fr. a cliff, hence the name of a t^)wn in Normandy, O. 
Fr. falise; from O. H. G. felisa (f.), (Jr. fels (m.). 

Falavesca It. embers, l^g.faisca, O. ii\y. fuisca spark, vb. Pg. 



faiscar. Another form is It. favolesca for favillesca from fa- 
villa, Veron. Parm. Crem. faliva ; fuisca is for foisca for /b- 
visca falvisca (cf. topo from talpd). The O. H. G. falawisca 
is from the Rom. The same suflix is found in Fr. flamm-eche 
from flamma. 

Falbala It. Sp. Pg. Fr., Sp. also farfala, Crem. Parm. frambala, 
FieAm. farabald , Roucni farbala , ^.furbelow; fromG./Vi/W 
a plait, flounce, falbeln to plait? Or is this from the Rom.? 

Falbo It., Pr. falb, Fr. fauve; from O. H. G. folo (E. fattow), 
Qen. falewes , G.falb yellow. 

Falcare diflUcare It., Sp. Pg. desfalcar, Fr. defalquery to defal- 
cate, abstract. Usu. aerived from falx, Sp. falcar to reap. 
But better from the O. H. (a,falgan to rob, abstract. If the 
G. word came from the R., it w^ould be falchan falachatu 

Faloo faloone It., Sp. halcon, Pr. falcd, Fr. faucon, O. II. G. 
falcho, Yi, falcon; from falco (first used by Servius ad -^n. 
10, 146), which is from falx, cf. falcxUa a claw. Festus says: 
falcones quorum digiii pollices in pedibus retro sunt curvati. 
Hence falcone, falcon, faucon a gun, dim. falconetto, falconete, 
fauconneau ^falconet j cf. moschetto, sagro, terzuolo. 

Falda It., Sp. falda halda, Pg. fralda, Pr. fauda, O. Fr. faude, 
the skirt or fold of a robe; from O. H. Q.falt, A. S. feald, 
G. falte, E. fold (= Rh. falda). In It. Sp. Pg. it also = the 
brow, slope, or skirt of a hill. 

Faldistorio It. Sp. Pg., Fr. faldistoire a fald- stool, Fr. fauteuil, 
O. Fr. faudestueil an arm -chair; from O. H. G. faltstuol, E. 
faldstool (== folding-stool). For faldistorio O. Sp. has facistor 
facistol = falz-stuoL Hence It. palchistuolo a penthouse (from 

Faldriquera faltriquera Sp. a pocket; {rom falda, whence fal- 
dica, then with inserted r as in faltrero a pickpocket, faldr- 

Falla ■ — favola. 

Fallipe It., O. Sp. O. Pg. fallir falir (Sp. fallecer, falecer), Pr. 
Fr. faillir to fail; from fallere. From faillir is derived the 
impers. pros, faut, pf. fallut, inf. falloir, O. Fr. faldre faudre; 
il me faut = me fallit it escapes me, I want it, I must have it. 
From fallire comes sbst. It. fallo falla, O. Sp. falla, Pr. falha, 
O. Fr. faille, O. It. faglia fault; vb. It. fallare to fail, neglect, 
Sp. Rh. f altar. 

Falo It. a bonfire , Fr. falot a lantern ; from* tpavog a torch , or 
from q)dQog a beacon, Piedm. fard, Ven. fano. It. falotico, 
Fr. falot = odd , extravagant (prop, flaring?). From (pavog 
also It. fanale, Sp. Fr. fanal a ship's lantern. 

Falourde Fr. (f.) from faix lourd. It corresponds in form with 
the O. Fr. falorde falourde (f.) a merry tale, Sp. falordia, 


Cat. falomiay vb. fcUorder to jest, se falorder to make oneself 

Faltare It., Sp. Pg. f altar to fail (falter); hence It. Sp. Pg. falta^ 
Fr. fatUe, L. faiUt, Sp. Pg. adj. falto, It. di/falta, rr. defauta, 
O. Fr. defaute, default. Faltare is a freq. from fallere (falli- 

Faluoa — feluca, 

Famiglio It., O.Sp. O.Vg.famillo familio, Rh.famaigl a servant; 
from familia, of. Sp. manceba from mancipium. 

Fanal fiftnale — falo. 

Fanoiiillo — fante. 

Fanello It. a linnet, Piedm. fanin, Mil. fanett; from the G. 
hanf' il - ing (hemp - ling) ? 

Faner Fr. to let dry, make into hay, faner Vherbe; O. Fr. fener 
fanir to wither, Pic. fener, L. L. af-fenare, Pr. faner, Kh. 
fanar fenar. Vrom faenum foenum, cf, O.Fr. fanoul for fefiouil, 
Lorr. fouon = Yv.foin, Lorr. fouannd = Fr. faner; Lim. sbst. 
/e, vb. /Wifl. 

Fanfla O. Sp. brag; It. fanfano, Sp. fanfarron, Fr. fanfaron a 
blusterer, fanfare blast of trumpet; Sp. farfante, Langued. 
farfantaine braggart; an onomatopoeion. 

FanfEduca It. embers , trifles , Fr. fanfreluche, O. Fr. fanfelue 
trifles, gewgaws. Norm, fanflue, L. L. famfaluca a corruption 
of pompholyx (itofupoXv^) (l) a bubble, (2) slag, scoria. Hence 
Mil. fanfulla, Com. fanfola, Sic. fanfonj (pi.) trifles; Fr. fre- 
luquet a fop, for fanfreluquet. 

Fango It. Sp., Pr. O. Fr. fane, fem. Lomb. fanga, Pr. fanha, 
Fr. fange, Norm, fangue mud. From Goth, fani (n.) gen. /Wri/Ys 
they becoming h (fanha) or g, c, cf. from venio It. vengo, Pr. 
v^nr. Bret. /awA: from the O. Fr., which Pictet refers with 
the Ir. fochall to the Sansk. /^awA-tf . Fangoso, fangevx might 
also come from famicosus (Festus, according to O.Muller from 
famex, whence might come fange [famicem[). 

Fanon O. Fr. a cloth, towel, Fr.fanon f anion; from O. H. G. 
fano, Goth, fana a piece of cloth, O. H. G. hantfano a towel. 

Fante It. a boy, servant, foot -soldier, Sp. infante &.o,\ from 
infans. Hence fanteria infantry, fantoccio a doll. It. fanciidlo 
fancitdla a child, Flor. Bh.fancella. For the loss of the P' syl- 
lable, ci.folto, scipido, str omenta, &c. 

FantomeFr., E. phantom; from phantasma, It. fantasima, Pr. 
fantauma (from fantalma, cf. Cut. fa?itanna). O. Fr. vb. enfan- 
tosmer. Langued. fantasti a goblin, phantasticus. 

Faon Fr., Fa. fawn, vb. faoner, O.Fr. faon feon = young espec. 
of lions, bears, dragons &c., faoner feoner to bring forth young. 
Connected with Pr. feda (q. v.), from fetus; feon from fed on, 
as fea from feda. 



Faquin — facchino, 

Farandula Sj). Pg. Cat. profession of a comedian, also a wander- 
ing troop of comedians. Perhaps connected with the G. fah- 
rende wandering people. Farante (Sp.) = a messenger, actor 
who speaks the proU>giie i^cc. ; farandula from a fonu farandn, 
as lavandula from lavanda, yirandula from giranda, 

Farapo — arpa. 

Faraute — araldo. 

Farce — farsa, 

Fard Fr. paint, vb. farder; fard = teinte, L. tincta, wliich in 

O. II. G. would be gi- far wit gi-farit (from farwjan G. fdrben 

to colour). 

Fardo Sp. Pg. a bale, pack, Sp. fardillo, Pg. Pr. E. fardel, Fr. 
fardeau; Sp. farda aifarda a notch, also a tax, Pg. farda aU 
farda a soldier's coat; Sp. fardage, Pg. fardagem, It. fardag- 
gin higgage. Ar. farda, al-faUda pack tax y fard notch. 

FarfoUa It. a buttertly, a fickle man (Wal. f erf ale), Bas. uli- 
farfalla {tdia a gnat) ; Pg. farfalhas pi. cuttings of met'il in 
coining, bragging, \\. s far fa II are to cut through, become a 
butterfly, N. Pr. eafarfalha to scatter (Fr. eparpiller). From 
papilio com<^ It, parpagliofie , then, perhaps through influence 
of the O. II. G. fifaltra, farfaglione farfalla. The Sw. has 
farfalL farfatola a fickle person. Rh. /V//V/r/ww</ butterfly 
is = L. far fannam "make meal", Sard, faghe- farina, be 
cause it is covered with a dust like that of meal. 

Farfante farfarron — fanfa, 

Farfogliare Neap., Lomb. farfoja, Sp. farfxdlar, Rouchi far- 

fonlier to stammer; an onomatop. (= Fr. farfouiller to nmi- 

mage) or = Ar. farfara to talk confusedly. 
Farga — forgia, 
Farinella — flanella, 
Famia fargna the broad-leaved oak, quercus robur; from far- 

nm (Vitruv.^ by some supposed to be contracted from fraoci 

nns; the It. comes from the adj., Apicius has: famei fungi. 

Faro Pg. scent (of dogs), track, steam of meat &c. ; from Ar. 

Farouche Fr., vb. e/faroucher, from feroxferocis, cf. mordache 
from mordaa\ Pr. Cat. ferotge, O. Fr. haroucJie = insolent. 

Farpa f^urpao farpar — arpa, 

Farsa It. Sp. Pg., from the Fr. farce, a farce, orig., as in French 
= a stuffing, thence a medley, farce, cf. satira; from farsus 
stuffed, whence also It farselfo waistcoat, doublet; {rom farsa 
com<\s Pg. disfarzar, S. disfrazar to mask. 

Fascio It., Sp. /V/.ro, liaz, Pg. feix, Fv. faix bundle &c. ; from 


ffisn's. Hence It. fastello for fascellello, Fr. faiaccnu, It. fascma, 
Sp. faxina hacina &e. ; vb. Pr. nfaissar, Fr. affaisscr, 

Fasquia Sp. Pg. a ledge; from Ar^faschia (Soiisa), which is from 
vb. fasacha to separate. 

Fastello — fascio. 

Fastidio It., fasiio hnsiio Sp., Pg. hastio , Cat. faslig, Pr. fasfig 
fastic, O. Fr. fasii; from fasUdmm; vb. fnstidiare, O. Sp. 
hastiar, Pr. fastigar fasticar, Fr. flicker , E. /(«a7^* adj. It. /V/.s7/- 
f//060, Sp. hastioso, Cat. Pr. fasiigos, Fr. fdcheux, L. fastidiosm. 
The guttural is due to a form /V/5/ - /cfl;*6'. 

Fata — /^'. 

Fata It., Sp. /«<;?« Affrf^, Pg. Pr. fada, Fr. /VV, Dauph. /(7yf', E. 
fay; vb. It. falare, Sp. hadar, Pr. fadar, O. Fr. /err, /V/tr, M. 
H. G. feinen to bewitch; from /Vi/rt = Parca, on a coin of 
Diocletian, fatis = Dts manibus. Fahis is used by Petronius. 
Others derive it from Falun, 

Fatras Fr. booty; (or fartas, from farlus (Menage). 

Fattizio It. &c., artificial, /flr////ot/^; from L. facticim; sbst. Sp. 
hechizo, Pg. feitico enchantment (whence E. sbst. fetish), like 
O. H. G. zoxibar (G. zauherei) from zotiwan to make; hence Sp. 
hechicero, Pg. feiticeiro a sorcerer, It. fattucchiero. Factttra is 
used in the same sense, It. fatlura, Pr. faitura {feature, cf . feat 
= fait, fetish := faictis well made, neat), vb. It. falltaare, 
Pr. faiturar; sbst. Pr. fachurier, Dauph. faiturier. Pr. faililhu 
enchantment is also from faccre, 

Fattuohiero — fattizio. 

Faubourg Fr. suburb. For faux-bourg =^ falsus hnrgus, cf. faux- 
fraiSy faux-bois, fausse-clef This der. is supported by the 
Wall, fd'bor, Wall, fd = Fr. faux. The O. Fr. form fnrhorg 
forsbourg was spelt as tliough from foris. 

Fauoon — falcone. 

Faude O. Fr. sheepfold; from A. S. fald, falud, E. fold, A. S. 
fated, cf. W. ffald dung. 

Faute — falta. 

Fauteuil — faldistorio, 

Fautre flautrer — feltro. 

Fauve — falbo, 

Favola It., Sp. fabla, Fr. fable, Pr.faula, E. fable, Sp. fafjla 
habla, Tg.falla speech, from fabula; It. favella language, from 
fabella, oard. (m.)fueddu speech, word; dim. Fr. fabliau, O. 
Fr. Pr. fabel a short story; It. favola favellare, Sp. hablar 
(whcnco Ft, habler), P^.fallar, Vr.favelarfaular, O.Fr. fabler 
to narrate, speak, Wal. heblei to make a noise ; from fabiUari. 
The It. fola = Pr. faula, ftaba = O. Fr. flabe with the 

Fazo — fascio. 


Fazaleja — fazzuolo. 

Fazzuolo fazzoletto It., (). S^. fazolefo a pocket-handkerchief. 
The 8p. fazaleja is from fades (Sp. faz), L. L. faciale, Dicz 
refers fazzuolo (by reason of its suffix) to anotlier origin , G. 
fefzen a rag (cf. It. pezzuola). But the Sic. fazzutetlu is from 
'Alii, facci (fades), and, doubtless, the It. is of kindred, per- 
haps dialectical, origin. 

Fe (phe) O. Fr. = servus. It is the O. N. faadd-r, fed, brought 
up, cf. Sp. cn'ado. 

Feble — fievole. 

Fechar Pg. to shut, hence fecho a bolt ; prop, to close a letter &e. 
by dating it; from fadum c=: date, Sp. fechar to date. 

Feda Pr. Com., Ficdm.fea, Dauph. /Vm a sheep; from /<?/« = 
quaj peperit, spec, of sheep, cf. cordero and Virg.: Non insueta 
graves tentahunt pabula fctas. Beam. heda^= L. feta generally, 
Wal. fet = child, fate daughter, from fetus, vb. fela = fetare, 
Sard, fedu = fetus. 

Federa It. thick woven stuff, twill; from O. H. G. fedara fea- 
ther, M. H. G. fcdere felt, L. L. penna. 

Fie — fata. 

Figato It., Sp. higado, Pg. figado, Pr. fetge, Wall, feute, Fr. 
foie (m.) liver; from L. L. ficatum (sc. jecur), prop, the fig- 
fattened goose's liver, pinguibus fids pastumjectir anseris albi 
Hor. S. 2, 8, 88, cf. N. Gr. (SLxort from 6vxcot6v '^naQ. The 
accent is thrown back , and we find also figido for ficatum , cf. 
rogitus rogatus , dolitus dolatus , vocitus vocatus, provitus proba- 
tus &c. SsLrd. 18 figdu, Yen.figd, Wtd.ftcdt, For the importance 
of the goose, cf. its name It. oca, Fr. oie (avica, avis) the 

Feindre — faint. 

Feira — fiera. 

Feloe It., Sp. helecho, Fr. fougere fern; (l) from filix (Langued. 
feouze), (2) from filictum, ^3) from a form filicaria. 

Feler Fr. to split ; for fester irom fissiculare (Apideius). 

Feligres Sp. parishioner ; from filius gregis. 

Fello It., Pr. O. Fr. fet impious, wicked; It. fettonc wicked 
wretch, O. Sp. feloji fellon = fello, Fr. felon perjured traitor, 
Yi. felon; It. O.Sip.fellonia, Pr./e/ma /(?t/nia profligacy, wicked- 
ness , Fr. felonie, Sp. felonia treachery (espec. oi a vassal), E. 
felony. From the A. S. E. fell, Du. fel. Pr. and O. Fr. nom. 
sing, fel (fels) ace. felon , whence the other forms , and fern. 

Felpa It. Sp. Pg. plush; from G. felbel, Swed. fdlp; hence Fr. 
feulpier. The It. has also pelpa. Sic. felba, Sard. Cat. pelf a. 
O. Pg. falifa = a sheepskin. 

Feltro It., ^^.fieltro, Pr. Fr. feutre, felt, h.h. ftltrum; It. feltrare, 

FELUCA — FIA. 199 

Sp. filtrar, Fr. fillrer, E. fUicr; from O. II. 0. ftlz, A. S. E. 
felt, with r after t, R. Gr. 1, 323, honco O. Fr. fautrer to 
thrash, from filzen (to press), as f autre f= feutre) from filz. 

Feluoa It., Sp. falucay Pg. falua, Fr. felouque, E. fehwca; from 
Arab. /W^ a ship. 

Fenouil — finocchio. 

Foo Sp. Pg. ugly; from fcedus, O. Sp. ^^£?o. 

Ferlino It., O. Sp. ferlin, O. Fr. ferling ferlin a farthing; from 
A. S. feordfUing (farthing). 

Ferme Fr. (^f.), E. farm, It. ferma, Sp. /Jrwa a signature, bond, 
confirmation^ fennare firmar to sign &c. Fr. sbst./(?r/e strong- 
hold, iov fermete fermie , cf. dorioir for dorrritoir, 

Fermillon fremilon O.Fr., Vr^fremild, perhaps = haubert; from 
mailtes de fer, so = fer-maillon, cf. ^riVfe for graille, provigner 
for provaigner, Al. from firmus, firmacuium, 

Ferrana It., Pg. f err da, Sp. herren (f.) a mixture of various 
chopped herbs for cattle, a mash; {rom farrago, Pg. also/iar- 

Ferrant and auferrant O. Fr., Vr, ferran alferan, an adj. used 
to denote a light colour, e. g. of grey hair, of horses &c. 
From fevro, cf. It. ferretto = iron-grey, semicanus, also fer- 
n'gno, which answers to a Pr. ferrene, O. Fr. ferrant (cf. fla- 
mene flamant), whence Pr. ferran. At is not the Arab, article, 
but for alh'f errant, cf. hlanc- ferrant, chenu- ferrant. Al. from 
the Ar. al-fars, Sp. al-faraz a Barbary horse. 

Ferropea herropea arropea Sp., Pg. ferropea fetters , from fer- 
rum and pes. 

Fert^ — ferme. 

"FerzBJPe sferzare It. to scourge, sbst. ferza sferza. Not from 
ferire (feritiare), since the 4^** conj. does not form participial 
verbs. Perhaps from the O. H. G. fillan, whence an intensive 
fillazan = G. fiizen to scold , hence felzare ferzare (cf. scalmo 

Fesse Fr. (f.) for Lat. natts; from fissus fissa, whence vb. fesser. 

Fetta It. a bit, piece, shred, ribbon, O. Sp. fita ribbon; not 
from vitta, which gives It. vetta, but from O. H. G. fiza sl 
ribbon, thread, perhaps connected with fetzen a shred (Rh. 

Feu — fuoco. 

Feudo — fio. 

Feur — foro. 

Feurre — fodero. 

Feutre — feltro. 

Fi O. Fr. Pr. sure, certain, adv. fiement confidently; from fidus, 
It. fido. O. Fr. adv. de fi = surely. 

Fia fiata — via. 


Fiaba — favola, 

Fiacco It., 8p. /laco, Pg. fraco, Pr. O. Fr. flac ftaque weak, 
languid, vb. fiaccare &c.; from flaccus. The Fr. flasque must 
comti from flacndits = flaxidm -- flasquidm , cf. laxus lasque 
IdrJw , Lorr. fidche, Com. fiasch, 

Fiaccola It., Sp. hacha (whence Kouchi hnche hace), Pg. fachay 
Pr. I'alha, (). Fr. faille a taper; from facula (fax). For the 
inscu'tecl / = / cf. R. Gr. 1 , 269, and cf. flocina , rifiutarc. 

Fiacre a late Fr. word, so called because the inventor'n house 
in Paris bore the sign of S, Fiacre, 

Fiadone It. lioneycomb , Pr. flauzon (flazon ?), Sp. flaon, Fr. flan 
(for flaon), E. flawn a flat cake, a flat piece of metal for coin- 
ing; L. L. flado, flato - - O. H. G. flado f. flada (= laganum, 
placenta, libum, favus), Du. vlade (f.), connected with Ttkarvgy 
ij, plait, E.flal. 

Fiale — fiavo, 

Fiama Pied., Sp. fleme fm.), Pr. flecme, Fr.flamme (f.), E. fleam; 
from phlehotomus , wnence also O. H. G. fliedimd, M. H. G. 
contr. fliede, G. flietc, 

Fiancer Fr. to affiance, Pr. fiansar to promise. It. fidanzare; 
from fides, fidanza. 

Fianco It., Pr. Fr. flanc, Sp. flanco (milit, from the Fr.) flank. 
Diez derives it from flaccus inserting n as in It. fangotlo, Fr. 
ancolic &c., cf. G. for flank tceiche , M. H. G. krenke both = 
weak. Rut it is more probably from the O.H.G./r/wr/irt hlanca 
(through the E. flank) to which U. objects that the G. h would 
not become / but g, v. gufo (l)ut cf. It. Fiovo from Chlodovem), 
and that hlanca is fem. ; we find however It. soldo from siUza, 
Fr. tin from tijina, 

Fiappo It. (prov.). Mil. Piedm. Ven. flap, Crem. flapp flabby; 
from G. flap, flep, flahbe, E. flap, flabby. 

Fiasco It., Sp. flasco frasco, Pg. frasco, fem. It. fiasca, O. Fr. 
flasche, Fr. flacon for flascon (E. flagon), also found in the 
Germ, and Celtic tongues, E. flask, cf. Wal. plosce, Hung. 
palatzk, Lith. pleczca. On the analogy of fiaba (flaba) from 
fabula, pioppe from poptdus, Sp. bloca from buccula, blago from 
bacidm we may get fiasco from vasculum (cf. / for v in para- 
fredrn, biff'era), 

Ficcaro It., 0. Sp. Pg. Pr. ficar, Fr. ftcher, O. Sp. O. Pg, fincar, 
Sp. hincar to thrust or drive in (Pic. hinquer)y It. ficcarsi, Sp. 
fincarse to insist on; It. afficcare , Pr. a ficar, Fr. afficJicr to 
attach. Verbs in ic on the analogy of fodicare , vcllicare are 
common in Rom. cf. gcmicare, volvicare, pendicare, sorbicare. 
So , perhaps , figicare from figere (dim. or frequent.). 

Ficelle Fr.f.packtliread; {romfilum as i{filicellu/n; for tlie change 


of gender ; cf. cervelle from cereMlum, and for the lost /, of. 
pucelle for puicelle. 

Fiche — fiflo, 

Fioher — ficcare. 

Fie fl6e — via (1). 

Fiedere It. to wound, from ferire, SfJierir&c, r being changed 
to d. 

Fief — fio. 

Fiente Fr., VT.fenla dung. From a form fimitus (cf. O. Fr.frienie 
- - fremitus) a corruption of fimetum. Cat. is fempta , N. Pr. 
femlo fiendo, O. Sp. hieiida. 

Fiera It., Sp. feria, Pg. Pr. feira, Fy. foire, E. fair; from feria 
(ferice), fairs being held on saint's days, cf. G. messe. 

Fierce flerohe flerge O. Fr., Pr. fersa, O. E. fers, L. L. fercia 
queen at chess 5 from Pers. ferz a general. Fierge transformed 
into vierge gave rise to dame reine, Sp. reyna, 

Fievole It., Sp. Pr. fehle, Pg. febre, Fr. foible, O. Fr. ftoible 
floibe, E. feeble; from flebilis, the first / being dropped. Cf. G. 
swach (1) flebilis (2) debilis, and wenig (1) flebilis (2) parvus, 

Fifre — pipa, 

Figer Fr. to curdle, congeal; from figere. A late word, but found 
in Stephanus (1539) and Nicot. 

Fignolo It. a pimple; from G. finne, 

Fila It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. file a row, prop, a thread, from filwn, 
Vb. Fr. fUer, de filer, E. file, defile, O. Fr. pour filer, E. pur file 
to embroider (Chaucer), hence also shst defile, i^. defile. Hence 
It. Sp. ftlo, Fr. fil edge of a weapon (pr. thread); vb. affilare 
(1) to sharpen, (2) incite, Sp. afiiar = (l), Pg. = (2); Pg. 
enfiar to thread , pierce , frighten. 

Filhar O. Pg. to take; prop, to take into one's family, from 

Filipendula It. Sp. Pg., Fr. filipendule a plant, so called from 
the tubercles attached to its thread-like roots. 

Filou Fr. a sharper, rogue, Piedm.Com./?/o«, Piedm. also filuca, 
vb. Fr. filouter. The L. L. is filo; from O. H. G. filon to file, 
cf . fourbe, fripon, polisson , also slang Eng. file = rogue. The 
Fr. filouter may be from the part. gi-fiW = expolitus. The 
Du. has fieli good-for-nothing, sbst. fielterye. The Lorr. af filou 
= filou from a vb. aiffilei to deceive = Fr. af filer to polish. 
The difficulty lies not so much in the root as in the termina- 
tion. May it be from E. fellow? 

Filtrar filtrer — feltro. 

Filza It. a row or string of things, vb. infilzare; from filum, 
through a form filitium, 

Tinanza It. a receipt, quittance, Pr. finansa, Fr. E. finance, plur. 


It. finanze, Fr. E. financed; from fints. Pr. fin = end, settle- 
ment, reXog, specially of an adjustment of a legal quarrel, 
usu. by payment of money, L. L. finis = "finalis concordia, 
amicabilis compositio", finemfaccre componere de lite, E, /$it^. 
Hence vb. finar finer finire to pay a stipulated sum, which 
sum was prop, la finance, E. finaunce = fine, L. L. financta = 
generally '^prajstatio pecimiaria'\ 

Finoar — ficcare, 

Finco Ven. a finch, Lat. fringilla; from O. H. G. fincho, G. 
finke, E. finch, Vencroni gives also a form frinco, 

Findar Sp. to finish, conclude; from fim'tus, Pg. findo. 

Fino It. Sp. Pg., It. also fine, Pr. Fr. fin, whence E. fine^ G. 
fein, O. H. G. /Inliho (W^ cent.). The fundamental meaning 
is: perfect ^ure, sincere; Vr, fin aur, fine gold, fin amor, fin 
vertatz, O. Fr. de fine ire from pure anger. From ftnitus finished, 
perfect, cf. din from clinalus, cuerdo from cordattis, manso 
from mansueltis, and for the sense cf. Sp. acabado, Lat. per- 
fecim, Gk. rfAetog. 

Fino inflno It. particle = L./^ww5; from in finem, fine, cf.Festus: 
ienns significat finem. In L.L. (A.D. 8491 we find de alid parte 
fine flumen &c. The Pr. has fis, N. Pr. Uat. fins, Beam. fenSj 
Sard, finza, finzas, 

Finoccliio It., Sp. hinojo, Pg. funcho (whence Funchat), Fr. fe- 
nouil, E. fennel; from fwnicuhim, L. L. fenmlum, 

Fio It., Pr. O. Cat. feu (hence O. Pg. fexi), Fr. E. fief from the 
O. Fr. fieu; vb. Fr. fieffer, O. Fr. fiever, Pr. affeuar to feoff. 
It is the Lomb. fiu in fader- fium patrimony, O. H. G. fihu fehn 
fpecusj, G. vieh, Goth, faihu possession, E. fee = O. Fries. 
fia in both senses. The h was lost (cf. R. Gr. 1, 312), the 
short e became ie as in Pr. mieti from mens, and Pr. u == Fr. / 
cf.juif = Fr,judeu, Fr. fiefi^er for fiever as in ensuifer for en- 
suiver. Sic, fegu substitutes the regular ^ for ^, R. Gr. 1, 311. 
Fi'om fiu feu came the L. L. feudum feodum (in the 9^** cent.), 
the d being euphonic, as in ladico for laico, chiodo for chio-o 
(clavus clauus). The L. L. word spread into the Rom., It, Sp. 
feudo &c. 

Fiocina It. a harpoon; from fuscina with i = / inserted, cf. fiac- 
cola, and with ci for sci, cf. cacio for cascio. Sard, fruscina, 
Mil. frosna insert r = L 

Fioco It. hoarse, faint, weak. Diez derives it from raucus (frau- 
cus, cf. fromho, froco, (loco, fioco), Mahn, however, maintains 
that the meaning of weak {fioco lumc Dante &c.) ought to 
precede that of hoarse, and derives it from flaccus by means 
of a form flaucus, Flaccus is connected with /SAag, E. flag, 
flabby, A. S. wlaec = E. luke (luke warm). The Pr. frauc 


makes the der. from raucus more plausible than that from 

flaccus which in Pr. is flac. 
Fionda It., Fr.fronda, Fr. frofide a sling. From funda It fonda, 

O. Fr. fonde, with inserted i =-= /, cf. ftocina. 
Fioretto It., Sp. florete, Fr. fleuret a foil; so called from the 

button on the point, like the bud of a flower. 
Fiorino It., Sp. Fr. E. florin, orig. a gold coin, stamped with 

the lily (fiore) of Florence, hence also in O. Pg. froienca for 

Fiotta frotta It., Sp. flota, Pg. frota, O. Fr. flote, masc. It. fiotto 

frotto (cf. fragello from flagellum), Fr. ftot a troop flood, tide; 

from fluctus. Vb. It. fiottare &c. to float, {rom^uctuare. From 

froUa comes frottola a vaudeville. Com. frotola jest. 
Fischiare It. to whistle, from ftsluia, L. L. fiscla. 
Fisga Sp. Pg. a harpoon, vb. fisgar; from Goth, fiskdn to fish, 

O. H. G. fisker a harpoon. 
Fistella It. a basket, from fiscelia, fisc-eU-ella. 
Fita — fetta. 
Fitta It. soil that gives way under the feet; from O. H. G. fiuhii 

moisture (G. feucht moist)? For iu to = passing into i, cf. 

R. Gr. 1, 287, and cf. Rhset. fiecht from feucht. 
Fitto It., Sp. hito, Pg. ftto fixed; sbst. Sp. hito, Pg. fito a mark, 

target, landmark, hita a peg, nail. It fitto rent (= fixed 

frice). From the O. Lat. ficttis TLucret. Varro) = fixus. The 
'v.fiche a peg may = Sp. hita, tnough ficher is better referred 
to ficcare. 

Fiuoia fuoia hucia O.Sp. confidence; from fiducia. Hence com- 
pounds such as: afiuciar ahuciar, desfiuzar deshuciar, des- 

FiuBSo — floscio. 

Fiutare — flauto. 

Flaoo — fiacco. 

Flaoon — fiasco. 

Flageolet — flauto. 

Flagomer Fr. to flatter meanly; from flatter and corner (aux 
oreilles) according to IjC Duchat. 

Flairar Pr. Cat., Fr. ftairer, Pg. cheirar ffl=Vg. ch), = L. fra- 
grare, changed to flagare; sbst. Cat. flaira, O. Fr. Pic. flair, 
Pg. cheiro. The It. and Sp. have only derivatives, such as 
fragrante, fraganza fragancia. 

Flairer — fragrare. 

Flambe Fr. the iris, flag, O. Fr. Pic. also = flame; from flam- 
mula flamble flambe. Hence flamher, flambeau &c. 

Flambcnrge Fr. a sword, now only in the phrase: mettre flam- 
berge au vent to draw swords ; it is the G. flamberg flamberge 
from flanc flank and bergen to cover. Cf. froberge used as 


tho luiiHo of a sword, according to Grimm from /r/) (lord) nnd 

btrgen, or from tlie god Fro = N. Frcyr, 
Flan — frignare. 
Flan — fiadone, 
Flanc — fianco. 
Flanella frenella It., Sp. franela, Fr. flanelle, E. flanncL The 

!)riinitive form is found mO.Vr.flawe a bod-covering (Roque- 
ort), cf. W. curaing (l) l)ed-covoring, (2) flannel. Flaine may 
1)0 from vclamen v /amcti, as flasca from viasca. The Pg. form 
farinella is quite anomalous. 

Flaon — fiadone. 

Flaque Fr. a puddle, slough; from Du. vlacke a lagoon. Qi. 
Ducange, flaco flactra. 

Flasque — fiacco. 

Flatir — flatter. 

Flatter Fr., Pr. flatar, E. flatter; from A. S. O. N. E. flat, O. H. 
G. flaz. Hence also O. Fr. flat a blow, flatir to strike to the 

Flauto It., Wal. flaute, Sp. Pr. flautOy Fr. flute, E. flute; vb. Pg. 
frautar, Vr.flautar, Vr.fluter to flide. The old form wasflahute 
flaiite which fonn it still keeps in Pic, also with an s flahuste, 
vb. flahuter flailter. Ftatiter is for flatuer (cf. veiide for vidue, 
Pr. tetthe for tenue), from flatus, the w being kept as in flatu- 
eux. From /7r/w/^ is Pr. dim. flautoi flaujot (flautiolusj^ O. Fr. 
flajnl, Fr. E. flageolet. It. fluiare to smell is from an old form 
flatitarc, cf. rubare from rauben, 

Flavelle O. Fr. flattery; from flabellum a fan. 

Fl^au Fr. a scourge, O. Fr. /7^^/, E. flail; from flagellian, Witli 
r for / the It. has fragello, \V. ffrowgll, O. Fr. srogelL 

Flecha fleche — freccia, 

Pleche de lard Fr. flitch, O.Fr. flique flee, Pr. fleca. From A. S. 
flicce, E. flick flitch, G. /?/rA-. 

Fl^chir Fr. Pr. to bend. From fleet ere, rcflechir = reflectere, 
though ct is not usu. changed to ch in Fr. {ci. pacciare), O. It. 
fiettere, It. flettere is a Latinism. 

Fleco flueco Sp. fringe ; from floccus, v. frente. 

Fleis — flechir. 

Fleme — fiama. 

Flete flette Fr. a ferry-boat, from Du. vleet, E. /7^e?/. 

Flete — fret. 

Fl6trir Fr. to wither, Berr. flatrir, O. flaistrir. From the O. Fr. 

adj. flaistre flestre withered, which is a contraction from 


Fleurer — fragrare. 

Flibot Fr. from E. fly -boat. Hence Sp. flibote fUibote. 


Plin Fr. a thunderbolt, whetstone; from O. H. G. flim, A. S. 

E. flint. 
Floe — froc. 
Floresta — foresta. 
Florin — fiorino. 
Flosoio It., Sp. floxOy Pg. frouxOy Pr. flvis lax, slothful, weak; 

from fluxus, whence It. fmsso transient. 

Flot flota — fiolta, 
Flotar — frottare, 
Flotta It., Sp. flota, Pg. frota, Fr. flotte, E. fleet. The O.llom. 

words for classis are It. armata, Sp. armada, Pr. estol, Fr. 

estoire. The O. Fr. flote (fluctus v. fiotta) had a wider sense, 

o. g. flote de gens as well as flote de nefs; the later word is 

prob. through the Du. vloot or the Sw. flotta, 

Flou Fr. languid, feeble, O.Fr. (fein.//of>^^), O. Pie. //rm, Rouchi 
flau. This latter is the orig. form , of. O. Fr. poi po pou from 
pau. From flaccus corrupted into flaucus, (Of. snif for suev 
from sevum). From flou comes the adj. fltiet for flouet, 

Floxo — floscio, 

Fluet — flou. 

Flute — flauto. 

Foeaecia It., ^^.hogaza, Yv, fouasse fouace t\, cvlVqj bun; from 

focus, Isidor: citiere coctus et reversatus est focacius, Cf. foca- 

lia, fouaitle, fuel. 
Foeile — fuoco. 
Fodero It., Sp. ¥g.forro, Vr.feurre (E.fur), ().Fr.fue?Te foerre 

foarre (the Bue au Fouarre ^= Vico degli sir ami of Dante Par. 

10). Tne meanings are, in It. sheath, lining, fodder, in Sp. 

Pg. lining, sheathing, Pr. O. Fr. sheath, Fr. fodder; hence 

Fr. fourreau; Sp. forrage, Fr. fourrage, fourrure fourier &c., 

E. forage; vb. It foderare, Sp. forrar, Pr. fotrar, Fr. fourrer. 

From Goth, fddr a sheath, O. H. G. fustar sheath, fodder, 

O. N. fddr sheath, lining. 

Fofo Sp. Pg. spongy, soft. The same root appears in Ven. fofio 
asthmatieal, breathless, soft, weak, sbst. />>/« , homh, fuf a 
fright (breathlessness), Com, f of a a spongy substance; it is 
the Du. pof, vb. poffen, G. puffen^ E. puff, f for p by assimila- 

Foga It. violence, impetuousness , whence Fr. fougve, foitgueux; 
vb. It. fogare. From fuga, Sp. fuga = liveliness, quickness; 
this is supported by the Romag. Crem. fuga. Focus would 
have given fuoca. 

Foggia It. fashion, shape, manner, vb. foggia; hova \j, fovea 
a hole (Pg. fojo, Sp. hoyo hoy a). For the connexion of mean- 
ings, ci.ii, cava, Gk. rvjrog. The Ven. form is />>/</, so the 


word cannot come from Fr. forge = Piedra. forgia a forge; 
Sard, forgiai = Fr. forger. 

Fogna It. conduit, fognare to draw off water; from siphm 

(Menage) ? 

Foible — fievole. 

Foie — fegato, 

Foin Fr. liay ; from foennm facmim. The regular fien c= It. fieno 
would have been confused vfi\\\ fien = fimus , and ae soine- 
tiiijes becomes oi, cf. blois. O. Fr. Pic. fehi answers to a L. 

Voire Fr., Rh. fnira diarrhoea ; from foria. 

Poire — fiera. 

Fois — vece. 

Foison Fr. E., Pr. foisd; from fusio. It. fmione, 

Foja It. heat (sexual); from furia, Kh. foia. 

Folc foucO. Fr., Pr. folc. Com. foico a flock, troop, crowd; 

from O. H. G. A. S. folc, O. N. fdlk a crowd, E. folk; A. S. 

/?o^, E. flock, is O. Fr. floe (flon). 

Folego — holgar. 

Folia — follare. 

Follare It., Sp. hollar, Pr. /o/flr, Fr. fottler to tread on , E. to 

/?///; It. /b//// fola, Sp. /b//tf , Fr. /o?//^ (Pg. fula) a throng, cf. 

It. calca, also Sp. /mtV/flf a footstep, huello a tread; hence It. 

fidlone, Fr. foulon a fuller. The L. has not preserved the vb, 

fullare, but has the sbst. />^/t>. Hence It. a/follare^ O.Sp. afoi- 

lar, Pr. afolar, Fr. afoler, to spoil. 

Folle It., (). Sp. fol, Pr. /o/, fern, fola, Fr. /bw /b//^, sbst. and 
adj. droll, fool (Cat. foil = choleric); hence Fr. affoler to 
make a fool of (whence E. foil), Pr. afoUr to be a fool. Folle 
is the L. follis used as an adj. (cf. R. Gr. 2, 232); it does not, 
however, denote the empty -headedness of the fool but his 
imtabilUy , Lat. follere (Jerome) meaning to move in and out, 
up and down , so a restless gliost , a hobgoblin , is termed It. 
folletto, Pr. Cat. ¥r. folle f, Beam, hoy let, cf. Fr. feu follet = 
ignis fatuus. In an (). Fr. psalter we find for de mandatis tuts 
non erravi de fes commandemenz tie folia t from folier to err. 
Sp. follon = indolent, rogue, braggart (O. S.); Bnrg. feulleu 
= a beneficent spirit that guards cattle at night = a Fr. fol- 

Follon — folle. 

Folto It. thronged: not from folia, but = infultus, Sic. 'nfultu. 

Fona Pg. flake oi fire. Goth, fdn, O. N. fmii glowing coal, 
embers, whence G. funke spark. 

Foncer — fondo. 

Fonda Sp. a tavern, O. Sp. sling = Sp. honda; from funda a 


purse, L. L. place of rendezvous for market-people, of. bursa 
borsa in both senses. 

Fondaoo It., Sp. fundago, O. Fr. fondique a warehouse; from 
Ar. fondoq alfondoq (whence Sp. alhondiga, Pg. alfandegd) a 
tavern for merchants, also a store -house (from, xavdoxetov^ 
navSoxiov). The suffix ic in Rom. is so unusual as to forbid 
the der. from L, L. funda, v. fonda. 

Fondefle O. Fr., = L. L. fundibalum fundibulum, Sp. fundibulo, 

Fondo It. Cat., Sp. hondo, O. Sp. Pg. fundo deep. From fundus 
an old adj. found \n profundus, or from sbst. fundus Sp. fondo, 
Pg. fundo &c., sbst. being used as an adj. cf. R. Gr. 2, 232, 
and cf. folle. From fundus we have in Fr. (besides fond) 
fonds, Yr.fons, cf. ftls from fiiius; hence Pr. fonsar fondar, 
Fr. f oncer, fonder E. found, Pr. a fonsar (cf. preonsar from 
preon = profundus), Fr. enf oncer, O. Fr. afonder. In the Pr. 
esfondrar, Fr. effondrer the r corresponds to tlie / of the It. 

Fonil Sp., Pg. funU, Basq. unila; from fundibulum for in fundi- 
bulum, Lim. enfounil. It is the same as the E. funnel, Bret. 

Fonsado O. Sp. O. Vg.fosado; from fosar to surround with a 
foss , thus prop. = a fortified camp. 

Fontaine — fontana. 

Fontana It. Sp. Pr., Fr. fontaine, Wal. f^nt^ne, E. fountain; 
from fons, L. L. fontana (sc. aqua), 

Foraixi — fuora, 

Forban — bando. 

Forbire It., Pr. forbir, Fr. fourbir, E. furbish; from O. H. G. 
f urban to purify: da lor costumifa che tu tiforbi, Dante. Hence 
It. furbo,rr. fourbe rogue, cf. fripon from f riper, Sp. limpiar 
(l) to clear (2) to clear out, rob, cf. also escamoter, ftlou. 

Force O. Fn, Fr. forces (only plur.), Pr. forsa shears; from for- 
pex forpicis. 

Force — forza. 

Forceis — fuora. 

Forcen^ — senno. 

Foresta It., Sp. Pg. Cat. floresta, Pr. forest foresta, Fr. forei (f.), 
Yi. forest. Tne Sp. floresta has adopted itself to flor, and bears 
also the meaning of a flowery mead. We find in L. L. (f. 
whence Fr. fordl), foreste (n.), forestus, forestum forastum, 
foresta forasta , in the sense oi unenclosed land, o^^. parcus 
= enclosed land. The O. G. varst, G. forst is from tlie Rom. 
Some derive from the O. H. G. for aha a fir, forehahi a fir- 
wood. But, besides the loss of the h (usu. g in Rom., cf. ar- 
guer from arahdn), the termination ast est is very unusual, 
though found sometimes, cf. brumasto brumesto. From L. L. 


forasticus = exterior (Placidus) came L. L. forasiis forestis 
fforas fans) = outlying land, open, unenclosed, of. foresiiere 
= exter exlran'us, Forasftrus is also found in It. foraUico^ 
Sic. furesticOy Pr. foreaguCj Cat. feresteg wild, savage, Wald. 
/V>;v'.s/ strange. Pic. hors-ain country people, prop. = these 
outside the town. Zeuss derives/b;Y*5/« from W. fforest, which 
is, however, from the E. 

Forese — fnori. 

Porfture O. It., Pr. Fr. f or f aire, L. L. forts facere = offenderfy 
nocerc prop, to err, do wrong, qL foris consiliare to mislead. 
In (). Fr. se forfairc envcrs (luelquun = se mefaire vers q,; 
with ace. =^ to los(^, forfeit a thing, f or f aire son fief, M. H. G. 
verwiirken, A. S. forvyrcean. Part, forfatto forfaif = (1) an 
evildoer, L. L. forisfnrfm, Goth, fravatnhls (2) an evil aeed, 
L. L. forisf actum , Goth, fravaurhts (f.), E. forfeit = a thing 
forfeited. The prefix is the same as tlie (i.ver, it. for in forget, 
forswear &c. 

Forgia Piedm., Sp. Pg. forja, Fr. forge, E. forge, Pr. farga, 
i^l). fraga; from fabriea, \h. forgiare ^c, fabricare. =z au 
from ab, Pr. faur = faber, O. Fr. fevre, Fr. orfevre = auri- 

Formaggio It., Pr. formatge fromatge, Fr. fromage, Pic. &c. for- 
mage, ^i^, fojmage cheese. From Lat. /V>r;//flf//nAv from forma 
a pn^ss : liquor in fi^ceilas vel in formas iransferendus Columella. 
Pr. founno = forma. 

Fomire It., Sp. Pg. Pr. fornir, Fr. fournir, E. fnmisli. The Pr. 
has also the form formir furmir to j)erfect^ finish = It. fonme^ 
also fromir (It. fronire); it is from the O. II. iJ.frumjan to. 
further, perfect. 

Foro It. Pg., Sp. fuero law, statute, jurisdiction, Pr. for, (). Fr. 
feur statute, tax; iroin forum. Hence Sp. Pg. Pr. aforar, O. 
Fr. afeurer to tax, rate, guage. From forensis is Sf.forense 
foreign , It. forese countryman , influenced by foras. 

Forro — fodero. 

Forza It., Sp. fuerza, Vr.forsa, Fr. E. force, vb. forzarr &v. 
L. L. forcia from a L. fortia (fortis), prob. used in the spoken 
L., if formed later we should have expected fortia as from 
falsus falsia. Or forcia may be from the vb. fortiare, from 
/b;7/.v as graviare from gravis, leviarc from levis. Hence It. 
sforzare y Sp. esforzar, Fr. efforcer, whence sbst. It. sforzo, 
Sp. esfuerzo, Pr. esfortz, Fr. effort (E. effort) for effors, the y 
being rejected as though it had been a mere case suffix. 

Fopziere It. a coffer, from (pogrCov (Ferrari), or better r- O. Fr. 
f order, L. L. forsarius (for forfiarius) strong-l)ox = Fr. coffre- 
forty from forza , force, 

Fouasse — focaccia. 


Foudre Fr., Pr. foldre folzer, O. Fr. esfoldre, from fulgur foVre 

foldrCy It. folgore, Wal. fvlger, 
Foudre Fr. a tun , from G. fuder, E. fvdder. 
Fouet (pron. foi() Fr., Mil. foetty Cat. fuet a whip, scourge, vb. 

fonetter; from fou = faguSy Rouchi fouet = a fagot, bundle of , 

twigs , whence = rod , whip. 
Fouger Fr.; irom fodicare , Romag, fudglie. Hence /bwiY/^r, Pr. 

fozilhar, from a form fodicuiare , whence Wall, foyan a molo. 

Hence also, by assimiLation , far-fouiUer to nimniage. Lang, 

fourfouUd seems compounded with furca , cf. frugar. 
Fougere — felce. 
Fougue — foga. 
Fouiller — fouger. 
Fouine — faina. 
Foule fouler -^ follare. 
Fourbe fourbir — forhire, 
Fourgon Fr. a wagon; prop, a wagon with a thill, from/f/rra, 

It. forconey Sp. hurgon. 
Fourmiller Vr. to swarm; -- formiculare from formica , O. Fr. 

formier =^ formicare. Sp. gusanear, from gusano a worm, has 

the same meaning, ci. also M. H. G. wibelen from wibel 

Fourrage fourreau fourrer — fodero. 
Fouteau Fr. beech, Fie. fo-iau; from faguSy the / being a late 

insertion , cf. sureau dim. from O. Fr. seu (salix). 
Foyer Fr., Pr. foguier hearth; from adj. focnriuSy Sp. hogar. 
Foxa Sp. = anas torquata, coot; from g?(ol"5 (Covamivias). 
Fra — tra. 
Fracassare It., Sp. fracasar, Fr. fracasser to smash , sbst. fra- 

cassOy fracasOy fracas, Rh. f areas. The Pr. frascar is from 

fracsar as lasc from laxus. From fra-cassare =^hvii. inter- 

Fracido It., corr. fradiciOy putrid; from fraciduSy which occurs 

once in Cato de Re Rust., but which, corrupted and widely 

spread in It., must have been common in the spoken Latin. 
Fraga Pg. rough stony ground, Sp. Pg.fragura roughness. From 

the root of L. friig-osus, cf. hiibhone. Sp. /rr/^« = brambh^, 

blackberry (from frngum strawberry), cf. Pg. fragoso wild, 

uncultivated. Perhaps the Pg. word is the same as the Sj)., 

taking a modified meaning through fragosus. 
Fragata — fregata. 
Fragua — forgia. 
Frai — fregare. 
Fraiditz fraidel fradel Pr., O.Yv. fradous wretch; fromO.H.Ci. 

freidi freidic a deserter, apostate, M. H. G. rrn'dec faithless. 
Fraile — fraire. 




Praindre O. Fr. to break , from frangere; Fr. enfreindre from 

Fraire freire O. Sp., Pg. freire, Sp. fraile freile ^= Fr. frere, E. 
fn'ar, contr. Sp. fratj (It. //v/), Pg. //r/, fern. Sp. /rflr/7a &c. a 
mm; from frafer, prob. through the Pr. (where fraire is re- 
gular), as the forms arc m)t Spanish. 

Frairin frarin O. Fr., Pr. fraire poor, miserable; from f rater a 
monk (Gaehet). 

Frais Fr. (pi.) costs, expenses; from L. L. fredum (= mtdeta 
qua reus pacem exsequitur, I)uc.), (). H. G. fridu, G. friede 
>cacc, friede-hrief Vi letter of acquittance, cf.pagarc^=pacare, 
lonce vb. defrayer, E. defray. 

Frais — fresco. 

Fraise Fr., Vr.'fraisa strawberry, hence Sp. fresa? Prob. from 
fragum, whence Wall, freo, Parm. fro. 

Fraise fraiser — fregio. 

Fralda — falda. 

Framboise Fr., whence N. Pr. framhoiso, Sp. franibuesa, Com. 
frnmhrosa, Piedm. flanhoesa raspben-y. .From Du. hraamhezie, 
O. H. G. brd?nheri = Yi. bramble -berry. The h was changed 
to f perhaps from fraise. 

Frana It. fall of earth, vb. franare; from fragmina, framna, cf. 
baleixo from peXefivov. 

Franco It. Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. franc, E. frank, N. Pr. fran cxtomo 
/V>;- pure as gold. Usually derived from the name /'r^nri/**, 
(). li. G. Franco, and this from the A. S. franca a dim. of 
framea a spear (Tacitus). J.Grimm, however, derives it from 
the Goth, freis -=-(}. frei, K. free, whence the name of the 
people, who gave their name to the national weapon. There 
are two sets of forms, one with a soft c, tlie other widi a k 
(chy qn); It. francese, Sp.f ranees, Vr.francois, from the L. 
Francia; It. franchezza , Sp. franqueza, Fr. franchise (where 
the ch = It. ch, cf. dtichesse, sachet &c.), from G. Franco, the 
G. guttural being invariably retained in derivatives, cf. horgo. 

Frangia It., Sp. franja, Fr. f range, whence Du. frangie, G. 
franse fringe. From framea would be regularly formed frange, 
as from vindemia vendange, cf. glierone. But framea w^as an 
uncommon word, so it is better to refer it to fimbria whence 
fringe (E.), frangc, cf. Wal. flmhrie, O. Pr. fremna =r= a form 
frembia. Kouchi finche (frimbia), Sic. frinza from an O. Fr, 

Franzir — froncir. 

Frappa — arpa. 

Frapper Fr., Pr. frapar. Like friper from the Norso, where 
hrappa means to scold, Y^.frape, adj. hrappr violent, K. frapir 
to make a noise (cf. increpare), whence frape a crowd, O. Fr. 


frapin frapaille, Cf. also the E. flap, Du. flappen, Fr. (Rheims) 
frapouille = E. flap (subst). 

Frasca It. Rh. leafy branch, whence Sp. frasca, Rh. sfrascar to 
strip off bonghs. Diez derives it from virere, virasca vrasca 
frasca, as fuggiasco from fuggire, cf. Sp. verd-asca. But it is 
better to connect it with (joth.frasts a child. Frasclie =irickay 
whence Fr. faire des frasques. 

FrasBugno — fresange. 

Fratta It. a hedge; from q)QdttBiv^ N. Gr. (pQaxtij = g)Qdyfia, 

Fray freile — fraire. 

Frayer — fregare. 

Frayeur Fr., O. Fr. f rotor ^ Pr. freior fright; hence Fr. effroi, 
O. Fr. esfroi, Pr. esfrei, vb. Fr. effrayer, Pr. esfreyar esfrei- 
dar. From frigidus, frigus, shivering being the eflFect of fright 
as well as of cold, cf. ^qC^cslv^ horrere, schaudem, farsi di 
gielo &c. Others derive the word from E. fray, fright y but 
these are prob. from the Rom. 

Frasada — fregio. 

Frecoia It,, O. Sp. Pg. frecha, Sp. Pg. Pr. flecha, Fr. fleche 
(E. Fletcher = an arrow -maker), Piedm. Sard, flecia, also 
frizza, WsAl.flicIie an arrow; from Du. flits an arrow, M.H.G. 
Vliz, flitsch a bow. 

Fredon Fr. a shake in singing; yh. fredonner ; from the root frit 
in fritinnire to chirp? 

Fregare It., Sp. Pg. Tr. fregar, Fr. frayer, O. Fr. froyer (cf. 
plicare ployer), E. fray {freak = streak), rub ; from fricare. 
Hence It. frega lust (E. freak), Fr. frai spawn, O. Fr. fraye, 
Rh. frega, It. fregola. Sp. refregar, refriega; It. s fregare, Pg. 
esfregar, Sp. estregar. 

Fregata It., Sp. Pff. Cat. Neap, fragata, Fr. frcgate, E. frigate, 
orig. = a small boat. From fdbricata, cf. hastimento hateati. 

Fregio It., Sp. /mo /r^so, Fr. /m^ /rai.9£? fringe, E. /wz^ (= a 
horizontal broad band occupied with sculpture) ; vb. It fre- 
giare, Fr. friser fraiser to curl, frizzle, Sp. frisar to raise tlic 
nap on cloth, frisa = E. frieze (stuff), It. frisato, Fr. fraisette 
frizzet ruffle, Sp. frezada frazada a olankct. Prob. from the 
German name Frisa Fresa = curly, whence Fries, friste, E. 
frizzle. We find in L. L. frisii panni, saga fresonica, vesti- 
menta de Fresarum provincia. 

Fregola — fregare. 

Frelater le vin Fr. to adulterate wine; from Du. wyn verlaten 
to pour out wine. 

Frele Fr., E. frail; from fragilis. It. fraile, 

Frelon Fr. a hornet; from frele, cf. Berr. grelon from grele = 
gracilis, and Gr. (fcpi/^ connected with Cq)Cyy(o, and = tlie 
slender (compressed) insect. O. Fr. froilon is from O. Fr. 



form fraile (oiz=iai). The G. homiss, E. hornet, has reference 

to tlio huinuiing horn -like sound of its flight. 
Prelore O. Fr., and still in Fr. dialects, lost, forlorn, from the 

G. verloren. The form forefores = A. S. forloren, E. forlorn. 
Freluquet — farfaluca. 
Prene Fr. (f.) an ash, O. Fr. fresne fraisne; from fraxinus, Pg. 

Prente Sp. forehead; a cuplionic contraction of fruente (from), 

cf . fleco from flucco , estera from storea. 
Fresaie Fr. a screech-owl, V oii, prcsaic , Gasc. hresague, from 

prwsaga, the bird being regarded as one of ill omen, also 

called effraie, oheau de la mort , G. todtcnvogel , Icichhuhn. 
Fresange fresanche fraissenque O. Fr. a young pig, N. Pr. 

fraysse; from O. II. G. frisking, G. frischling a shoot. The It. 

frassuf/no = frisking friskung, l)ut derives it meaning from 

sugna, frassugno (fraysse sugna) = swine's fat. The Sic, fri- 

singa is prob. from the Fr. 
Fresco It. Sp. Pg., Pr. fresc, Fr. frais, f. fraklie, Wall, friss; 

from O. 11. G. frisc, A. S. fersc, E. fresh, W. fresg, Bret. 

Freso — fregio, 
Freste O. Fr. (m.), Pr. frest a gable ; from O. H. G. first top, 

Frestele O. Fr. flute, vb. frestckr, Pr. frcstelar, from fistella for 

Fret Fr., Pg. frete, Sp. flete; from O. H. G. frm, E. freight. 
Fretes — frette. 
Fr^tiUer Fr., Pr. frezilhar. From a L. fritillare (fritillm) to 

shake, though this should have given frediller. Frictillare 

would suit the form better. 

Fretin Fr. parings, refuse, fry; from frictiim, 

Frettare It., Pr. freiar to inib. It. fretta, N. Pr. freto haste: 
from fricare frictum. Fr. has f rotter for froiter^ Burg, fretter. 
From f rotter comes th(» Sp. frotar flotar, and Fr. dim. froler 
(frotler)y Nonn. freuler (=^ friculare). 

Frette Fr. (R. fret in heraldry) iron hoop, pi. grating, hence 
Sp. fretes; for ferrette, from ferrutn. 

Freux Fr. rook; from O. II. G. hruoch, A. S. hroc (cf. rorus 
queux), O. N. hrdkr, Dan. roge, L. G. E. rook, H. G. rueeh. 
For f •=h cf. frimas fnper. 

Frezada — fregio. 
Frezar — frizzare. 

Friand fl*icandeau fricasser — frique. 

Friche Fr. (f.) a fallow; from (x.frisch, Y,. fresh, cf. novate from 
novus according to Ducango, hntfrisch gives fraiche, so it is 


better to derive fricke, with Grimm, from fractitium, cf. 
Langiied. roumpudo, Norm, bnser to break up land. 

Friente O. Fr. = L. fremitus, It. fremito. Le Duchat writes 
frainte and derives from frangei^e. 

Frignare Lomb. to whine, whimper, also to jeer. Com. friffna 
a whimpering woman, Crem. nice, captious. Prob. for flignare 
from G. flennen to make wry faces, bw. flina, Dan. fline, E. 
frine, whence also Lomb. frigna = a ravine (prop, a grinning 
mouth), O. Fr. flan an embrasure (opening in the walls), G. 
flans a wry face. From frignare come It. infrigno infrignato 
wrinkled, morose, Dauph. se deifrind to be morose, cf. Fr. 
se refrogner se renfrogner, E. frown (refrogncr for refroigner, 
oi = i), 

Frileux Fr. frosty^ frigiduiostis , from L. frigidulus. 

Frimas Fr. rime, vb. Pic. f rimer. From O. N. hrim, A. S. hrim, 
E. rime, Du. rijm, Bav. reim pfreim. Pic. rimce has lost the /i. 

Fring^ello — fringuer. 

Pring^er Fr. to move quickly backwards and forwards , Bret. 
fringa, Langued. fringa to caress. From a root found in Lat. 
fringutire to trill, fringilla a finch, frigutire, frigidare, W. ffreg 
chatter. Bret, fringol a shake, trill, Fr. frijigoter, It. fringot- 
tare to trill , are from fringucr, frigoter from frigutire. From 
fringilla, root fring, is It. fringueUo, cornipted into filunguello, 
Crem. frangol, Piedm. franguel frangoi. 

Friper Fr. to wear out, consume greedily, Berr. friper = to lick 
a plate, Anj. fripe-=- Gk. otpov] f ripper to eat greedily, hence 
Yv.fripon a mirloiner, rogue, friperie, Yt.frippeiij (prop, stolen 

Sroperty). Fr. fr = N. hr (cf. frimas), friper c= Jj. hripa to 
o nastdy. 

Fripon — friper. 

Frique O. Fr., Pr. fric, N. Pr. fricand brisk, lively, Dauph. 
fricandela a sprightly damsel. From Goth, friks, O. H. G. 
freh eager, greedy, M. H. G. vrech, A. S. free bold, O. E. 
frek sprightly; for the connexion between boldness and 
sprightliness , cf. gaillard. Hence also N. Pr. fricand dainty, 
costly, fricot a dainty dish, Fr. fricandeau, vb. fricasser, the 
notion of daintiness being derived from that of greediness. 
Mahn, however, derives fricasser from f rictus (frigere), whence 
fricare for frictare. 

Frire Fr., E. fry; from frighe, It. friggere. Hence also friand 
dainty, nice. Norm, frioler to be eager, greedy, Kouchi frioler 
to hiss , sputter (of meats on the fire), Fr. affrioler to entice, 

Frisato firiso — fregio. 

Frisol frisuelo firejol Sp. a kidney -bean; L. L. fresa. Gloss. 
Plac: defresum detritum, unde adhuc fresa faba, qua: obtrita 


frangitur, faba fresa dicta quod earn frendant i. e. frangmU 

Frisone firosone Arusone a sort of finch; from frendere fresus. 
Frisson Fr. shivering, L. L. frictio; from a form frigitio contr. 

frictio fricon, from frigere, O. Fr. Pr. frire, 

Frizzare It. to gnaw, smart, ^^. frezar to consume, rub, dig 
up, N. Vy. frizd to grind, crash; sbst. Sf.freza, Fr. /ressa 
track. Partly from f rictus /"rictiare, partly from O. H. G. 
frezzan, G. fressen to eat, consume. Fr. froisser to crush, 
O, Sp. fresar to murmur, may be referred to frendere gnash, 
part, fressus, or from f rictus (cf. Pic. froicher). 

Proo Fr.,' E. frock. From L. floccus, Pr. floe with both L. and 
Fr. meanings , L. L. floccus froccus. Perhaps also connected 
with the O. II. G. hroch, G. rocky though, usually, only the 
N. hr becomes fr in Fr. (cf. frimas, friper freux), and we find 
no N. form hrockr. 

Froisser — frizzare. 

Froler — frettare. 

FroUo It. tender (of flesh -meat), weak. L. fluida raro = It 
came frolla: fluidulus, flollOy frolto, cf. stridulus strillo. 

Fromage — fonnaggio. 

Frombo — ronibo. 

Froncher O. Fr. to snarl, snort; from rhoncare (Sidonius), v. 

Froncir 0. Sp., Sp. frundr. Cat. frunsir, Sard, frunziri, Pr. 
froncir, Fr. froncer to gather into plaits, wrinkle, frounce^ 
Sp. fruncir las cejas to frown; O. Fr. sbst. fronce, E. flounce, 
Sard, frunza. Froncer = frontiar (from) prop, to contract 
the brows. Pg. franzir is a corruption. 

Fronde — ftonda. 

Frotar — frettare. 

Frotta frottola — fiotta. 

Frottep — frettare. 

Frouxo — floscio. 

Frugare It, Sp. hurgar, Pg. forcar, N. Pr. furgd, O. Fr. furgier 
to stir with a stick, sound, probe, search, with inserted 
vowel, Ven. furegare, Sard, forogai. Cf. It. rinvergare from 
verga, Piedm. fusiigne from fust is, L. percontari, which is, 
perhaps , from contus. 

Frullare It. to whistle, whizz, rustic: perhaps from fluctuare 
dim. fluctulare flullare frullare, cf. frollo, but more prob. a 
mere onomatop., fruilo ==■ the whirring noise made by par- 
tridges when they rise. 

Frusto It. = L. frustum; frustare to whip, scourge, prop, (as 
Pr. frustar) to slash, cut in pieces, lienor frusta a wnip. 


Fucar Sp. a rich man; from a German name Fwjger, v. ScLincl- 

ler 1, 516. 
Facia — fmcia. 
Fucile — fuoco. 

Fuoina It a forge, smithy. From focus, cf. fucile. 
Puero — foro, 
Fuerza — forza. 
Fuina — faina. 
Fuisca — falavesca. 
Pujo It. dark. From a Lat. form in -ins, furvus furvius furvjus, 

cf. Sp. agriOj curvio, crasio, sohcrbio, novio, and v. crojo, mezzo, 

rozzo, vizzo, bujo. 
Fula — foliare, 
Fulano Sp., O. Sp. fulan, Pg. fulano fudo = L. quidarn; from 

Arab, fdlan, 
Pulo Pg. = L. fulvus; for the loss of the v, cf. polilla. 
Fulvido It. shining; from fulgidus, with the v oi fulvus, 
Fumier Fr. dung, O. Fr. femier; from fimus, cf. O. Fr. Pic. 

Champ, fumelle for femelie, O. Fr. frumer for fertncr, 
Fummostemo It. a herb; corrupted from fumtis tcrrw, Fr. fume- 

ierre, E. fumitory. 
Funoho — finocchio. 
Fuoco It., Sp. fuego, Pg. fogo, Pr. fuec, Fr. feti, Wal. foe; from 

focus used for ignis in L. poets , and in L. L. focum faccre = 

facere ignem. Hence It. focile fucile, Fr. fusil a steel, fire- 

lock , musket (fusil), cf. G. flinte. 
Fuora fuori It., Sp. fuera, O. Sp. fueras, Pg. fora, Pr. foras 

fors, Fr. hors (h asp.), O. Fr. fors, Wal. fere, = L. extra; 

from foras forts. Hence, too, Rh. ora or. Pr. forceis for fors- 

eis = foras ipsum (cf. ancds, aincois); Fr. hor-mis =z foras 

missum; Sp. foraneo forano, Fr. forain, 0. Fr. deforain, E. 

Furafao — uracano. 
Furbo — forbire. 
Furo Sp. wild, shy, also hurano; like the It. furo from L. fur, 

cf. hacer furo to conceal a thing artfully. 
ForoUes Fr. (f. pi.) exhalations; for furoles from feu, formed 

like It. focajuolo, cf. flaimnerole ignis fatuus. 
Furon O. Sp., Sp. Huron, Pg. furdo, O. Fr. fuiron; It. furetto, 

Fr. furet, Du. /wr^r/ /ore?/ fret, ferret, Langued. fure a mouse ; 

vb. Sp. huronear, Sard, furittai, Fr. furetter to ferrety search. 

Prob. an old L. word; Isidore has: furo a furvo unde et fur; 

lenebrosos enim et occultos cuniculos effodet. From fur a thief, 

It. furone, L. L. furo; cf. G. mans (mouse), Sansk. mushika, 

from mausen, Sansk. mush to steal. 
Fosagffine It. the spindle -tree; iromfusus. 


Fuscello It. a fescue, straw; from fusiis, for fusiicello. 

Fusil — fmco. 

Fusta It. Sp. P^., Fr. fusfe a kind of galley, a foist; from fust is, 
Sp. fustCy Pr. fusty L. L. fustf's wood , cf. It. tc//no a ship, from 
Ihjmtm. Ilencc Fr. fitt = stock, cask &c., futaie a forest, affut 
ji^in- carriage (etre a Vnffnt to be on the watch), affuter to 
mount, set, It. affustare. 

Fustskgno firustagno It., Sp. fustan, Pr. fustani, Fr. futaine, E. 
fustian; from Fosttit in Lg}'pt, where it was made. 

Futaine — fustagno. 


Gktbardina — gahbano. 

Gktbbano It., Sp. (). Fr. gahan a coarse cloak; prob. from the 

same root as cabana, gatmetto (capanna); hence also Sp.gabar- 

(iina, gavardina, E. gaberdine. 
Gktbbia gaggia It., Sp. V^. gavia, X. Pr. gari (m.), Fr. E. cage, 

O. Fr. caivCy Yen. Sard, cabbia; from cavea. Hence dim. It. 

gabbiuolay Sp. gayota, Vy:,gaiota, (),¥r, gaote jaiole (Sp,jauia), 

E. gaol jail, Fr. geole. Hence cajoler, E. cajole, Fr. enjoler to 

wheedle, coax, inveigle, Sp. enjaular to imprison. Gabbione 

gives Fr. E. gabion. 
Gktbbiano — gavia. 
Gktbbo It., Pr. O. Fr. gab gap banter, jest, vidg. E. gab; vb. 

gabbare &c. ; from N. ^^/^^ jeering, vb. galiha. 
GktbeUa It. Pg., Sp. Pr. gabela tax, excise, Fr. gabelle salt- tax ^ 

vb. gabellare &c. From the A. S. gaful gafol, E. gavel (which 

is from gifan, Goth, giban, give), whence L. L. gablum gabu- 

lum , gabella Tprop. a plur. of gabcllum). 
Gkibinetto gabinete — capanna. 
Gkible Fr. (f.) E. From L. gabalus a cross, Varro: gahalnm cru- 

cem did veteres volunt. The Norm, gable is m. O. H. (1. ga- 

bala, G. g abet is y perhaps, nearer than the L. word. Cf. L, 

furra = gable. 
Gkiburo It., Crem. gabeurr a boor: from O. H. G. gaburd, 
Gkkcha — quatto. 
GkU^her Fr. to row, move, gdclic an oar, from O. H. G. umskan 

to wash ; hence gdchis puddle , O. Fr. tvaschicr to soil. 
Gado — ganado. 
Gktfa Sp. Pg., Fr. ga/fe, E. gaff' a hook, Sp. gafo cramped (of 

the ncnos), leprous; vb. Sp. gafar, Fr. gaffer to hook; from 

Celt., Gael, gaf, H. G. gaifung an iron ring, gaifeti to cut 

Gafar — gabella. 

GAGE — GAL. 217 

Gage — gaggxo. 

Gktggio It., Sp. Pg. Pr. Yri^gage pledge, wages (gages), Pr. gadi 
gaziyiiWy testament; vb. Vr, gat jar, O. Vr, gagcr to pledge, 
Fr. to wager; It. engaggiare, Vr.engatjar^ Vr. engager to pawn 
(K. engage); Fr.degager. L.L. has vadium wadinm bail pledge, 
f. vadi'a, vb. wadiarc, invadiare, disvadiare, revadiare. Hence 
N. Gr. pdSiov, Bas. bahia. Not from the L., for the v would 
remain soft, but from the Goth, vadi (partly from vidan to 
bind, partly from vas vadis), O. H. G. wetti, M. H. G. wette, 
O. Fris. vtf^ pledge, G. wette wager, vb. Goth, gavadjdti to 
promise, M. H. G. wetten, G. wet ten to bet. 

Gkkgliardo — gala. 

Gaglio — quagliare. 

GkkgliofTo It, Sp. gallofo gallofero, E. loafer, a beggar, rogue; 
Rouchi galoufe a glutton, Wall, gala fa gaioufe; Sp. gallofa a 
bit of bread, Rh. gagliaffa, Lomb. gajoffa. From Galli off a 
alms given in the monasteries to the French pilgrims toS. Jago. 
Cat. galyofol = Galli offvla, 

Gagliuolo It. husk, pod. Com. gajum a nutshell. From L. L. 
galgulus haca tcvqt^v Isid. ? The Wall, has gaille geie a nut, 
V. Grandgagnage , who derives it from callum. 

Gagner — guadagnare. 

Gktgnolare It. ; from gannire. 

Gago — ganguear. 

Gai — gajo. 

Gaif Fr. = E. waif, vb. guever; L. L. wagfium, res vaivw, way- 

viare. Gaif =^ E. waif orig. = animal errans or vagans, from 

E. wave waive, A. S. vaftan, 

Gkkillard — gala. 

Gaimenter waixnenter O. Fr. (Chauc. wagmentgnge), Pr. gagmen- 
tar, Y)2iXi^\i.gueimenta to lament, bewail. From tne inter j./7Wrtr/, 
on the analogy of lamenter. In Vr. guermenter wc see the Celtic 
root, Gael, gairm, W. garmis, Bret, garmi to cry, Du. kermen. 
Fr. se gramenter, however, points to G. gram. 

Gfbine — guaina. 

Gaita Sp. Pg. Cat. flageolet, bag-pipe ; from Pr. gaita a watcher, 
80 = watcher's pipe. Or better irom Arab, gai^tah flute. 

Gaivao gaivota — gavia. 

Ckgo It., O. Sp. gago, Pg. gaio, Pr. gai jai, Fr. gai, E. gag 

from O. H. G. gdhi rash, G.jdhe. Hence Sp. gayo gay a, Pr. 

gai jai, O.Fr. Pic.^ai, Yr.gcai, TSt.jag, Sp. //agar to variegate. 

CM O. Fr. a stone; hence Fr. galet a pebble, galette, Pr. galeta 
a flat cake, li. galet ta, Sj).galleta a biscuit; prob. an old Gallic 
word, connected with W. calen (f.) a whetstone. 


Gkkla It. Sp. Pg., O. Fr. (/(tie show, parade, immificence, charm- 
ing address &c. ; vb. ( )• Fr. galer; hence It. gallone, Sp. galon, 
Fr. galon, E. gnlloon, lace; Fr. galant, Sip.galanie galan gaiano 
(elegantly-di*essed), E. gallant; O. Fr. gaiois gallois &c. From 
O. H. G. geil proud , A. S. gdl lively, O. II. G. geili pride. 
It. gagliardo, Sp. gallardo, Pr. galhart, Fr. gaillard = A. S. 
gagol geagle wanton, cf. also ^Y.gail strength, O.Gael, galach 
strength, hardiliood. 

Galanga It. Sp. Pg., O. Sp. garingal, O. Fr. galange, garingai, 
E. galingal, G. gahjan galganl a root imported from China 
and Java; from Ar. khalatigdn which is from the Persian. 

Gkdant — gala. 

Gktlappio — chiappare. 

Gkilardon — guiderdone. 

Gkklaubia It. costliness, expenditure; from Goth, galaubs costly. 

Galbe Fr. (m.) the slope or arch of a roof; from M. H. G. walbe 
(m.) = G. walm slope, hence G. gewiilbe arch, vault. The al 
(for axi) of the Fr. snows the late origin of the word. 

Gkilbero It., Slil. Com. galbe a gold-hammer (bird); = L. gal- 
bula (Mart. Plin.). From the later form galgiUus, come Sp. 
galgxilOy It. ri-gogolo, rigoletto = aun'galgulus. Parm. galbeder, 
Crem. galpeder = galb- icterus. In Sp. the bird is also called 
oro-pendola , in Fr. loriot, 

Ottldre Sp. a loose overcoat; introduced from Guelder A^udi. 

Crale Fr. itch, se galer to itch. From the G. galle, E. gall to gall. 
It. gallttj Sp. agalla a tumour, all, perhaps, from L. galla a 
gall-nut. It. galla; Pictet refers to Irish galar galradh a 

Gralea It. O. Sp., Pg. gale, Pr. galea gale galeya, O. Fr. galee, 
galie, E. galley; It. galeotta, Sp. Pg. galeota, O. Fr. galiot; It. 
galeazza, Sp. Pg. galeaza, Fr. galeasse , E. galleass; It. gale- 
one, Sp. galeon, Pg. galeao, Fr. gallon, E. galleon. It. Sp. Pg. 
Pr. Lomb. galera, Fr. galere = galea and in Sp. Pff. a covered 
wagon. Probably from the Gk. (like so many otner nautical 
words) where ydkrj = i^sSQag £tdog (Hesych.) a gallery, which 
may well have given its name to a large ship with covered 
rows of seats ; tliis would account for the accent (galea). From 
gale = yd^rj, or from galera comes galleria &c., g (tilery, 

Galera galere — galea. 

Gralerno Sp. Pg., Pr. galerna, Fr. galerna a North-West wind, 
cf. Bret, gwalern gwalarn gwalorn. From Celtic gal, E. gale 
with a Pr. termination, cf. bolenia, bmrna, subema. 

Gulgo Sp. Pg. a greyhound; from canis Galltcus, cf. Ov. Met. 1, 
533. Ut cants in vacuo leporem cum gallicus arvo vidit. 

Gkdgulo — galbero. 

Gkdima Sp. pilfering, booty. From Ar. ghantma. 


Galimatias Fr. nonsense, a confused heap of words. The 
etym. is unknown. Cf . E. gallimawfrcy, Fr. gallimafree a con- 
fused heap of things, a hodge-podge, which Wedgw. makes 
an onomatop. 

Gallare It. to swim, exult, essere a galla to float. Not from the 
floating of the gall nut, but, prob. from gallus, cf. Sp. lener 
mucho gallo to be very arrogant , It. galloria exultation. 

Galleria It., Sp. galeria, Pg. galaria, Fr. galerie, E. gallery. In 
L. L. galeria = an ornamental building, hall, and a court- 
yard. V. s. galea, 

Gallofo — gaglioffo. 
Gkdlone — gala. 
Galocha galoche — galoscia. 
Galon — gcUa. 

Galoppare It., Sp. Pg. galopar, Pr. galaupar, Fr. galoper, E. 
galop, sbst. It. galoppo &c. It is the Goth, hlaupan, O. H. G. 
gahlaufan, A. S. gehledpan (E. leap), G. laufen to run, Pr. au 
= G. au, cf. aunir = hawijan, ratibar = raubdn, raus = ratis. 
The Du. walop is from the Fr. tvalop, waloper, It. gualoppare, 
w=g, cf. gar f on war con, gaignon waignon, gaquicre waquierc. 
It. galopo. It. galuppo, Fr. galopin (in fables = the messenger 
hare) a foot -boy, varlet = O. H. G. liloufo. 

Galosoia It., Sp. galocha, Fr. galoche, E. galosh; from L. gallica 
a slipper. Tne Sp. is haloza. Wedg. makes it a lengthened 
form of clog. 

Galtera — gota. 

Gkunaohe — ganiba. 

Gkunarra Sp. Pg. a martingale; also found in the Basque, whence 
like most words in arra, it is derived. But. cf. O. H. G. ga- 
marjan to hinder (mar), A. S. gemearra a hindering. 

Gamba It. Sp. Cat., Pr. gamba in gamhaut, Pg. gambia, Fr. 
jambe leg. We find forms with the tenuis , O. Sp. Pr. Sard. 
camba, Kh. comba, Alh.khembe, and without the ^, O.S^.cama, 
O. Fr.jame. From the root cam or camb found in cam -urns 
cam-erus crooked, cam- era an arch, cam -er are to arch, Colt. 
cam crooked, camineg a felloe, Pg. camba, which fonn prob. 
existed in L. = Gk. xa^Ttrj, Celt, cam for camb (cf. Cambodu- 
num&c). Besides Pg. camba a felloe, we find cambaio crooked, 
O. Sp. encamar to bend , Burg, camboisser. Ilencc , also , Sp. 
Jamba = K.jamb, It. gambo stalk, gambone, Vwjambon, Sp. 
jamon a ham, gammon, O. Fr. gamache a leg -covering, E. 
gamashes. Hence, also, Fr. gambiller to leap, E. gambol =O.Fi. 
gambaud, Fr. gambade. 

Gkunbais gambaison Pr., O. Fr. wambais, gambeson, O. Sp. 


gaml)ax, O. Pg. canhas a waistcoat, M. H. G. wambeis, G. 

warns y from O. H. G. wamha belly. 
Grambero It., Sp. gamharo, O. Fr. jumble, N. Pr. jambre, Dauph. 

chambro a crab ; from cammarns, 
Gkunbo — gamha. 

Gkunella Sp. Pg., Fr. gamcUe a wooden trough = camella a drink- 
ing vessel, 
Gamo gamuza — camozza, 
Gana It. Sp. Pg. Cat. appetite. From().H.G.^m()n = to gape, 

cf. badare, hiare, %aCvBiv^ and v. guadagnare. 
Granache — ganascia. 
Ganado Sp., Pg. gado flock, herd; from ganar, so = the gained, 

acquirecl, cf. O. Fr. proie = herd, Pr. aver, N. Pr. aver (f.) 

= sheep. Basq. atcknda a head of cattle == Sp. hacienda pos- 

Granar gan9ar — guadagnare. 

Ganascia It,, Fr. ganache a jaw. Augmen. from gena. 
Granchir guenchir Pr. O. Fr., Rh. guinchir to give way; from 

O. IT. G. wankjan tvenkjan, G. wanken. From sbst. wank 

conies Cora, guanch a fanlt. 
Gktncio It., Sp. Pg. gancho a hook, Fr. ganse a loop for holding 

a button. Prob. from root cam gam, v. ganiba, 
Grandir O. Fr., Pr. guandir to give way, retire, O. Fr. also gan- 

diller; from Goth, vandjan^ O. H. G. wantjan wetUjan, G. wen- 

defi to go , E. wend. 
Gktngamu Sic. a not; from ydyya^ov. 
Gtanghoro It. a hinge, Sard, cancaru, Mil. canchen, Pr. gantjtiH, 

ITesych. xdyxccXog. llenee It. sgangherare to uiiliinge, Pg. 

escancarar to open wide. 
Gangrene — cangrena. 
Gfingucar Sp. to speak through the nose, adj. gangoso. An 

Gtanivet — canif. 
Ganse — gancio. 
Gkknso — ganta. 
Gant — gnanie. 
Gfinta Pr. also ganto, a wild goose, O. Fr. gante, gente , Wal. 

gc'nscd' gensac (Pol. geska, lluss. gusak d^m.). Pliny has gantw, 

and Venant. Fort, distinguishes anser and ganla. It is the 

L. G. gante, Du. gent (E. gander), M. H. G, ganzc, O. H. G. 

ganazzo, whence Sp. ganso. 
Gfinzua Sp., Vg.gazwi a picklock; from B.gaco-iLsua a false key. 
Gfinon ganote Sp. windpipe ; from canna. 
Gara It. contest; from I r. gare = ware! It. garare to vie = Fr. 

garer to beware. 
Gtarabato Sp., Vg.garavato a pothook. Fromtlie Ai,garb(girab) 


the edge of a sword? Hence garaho garahato, cf. horca hor- 
cale; or from Ar. kulldb a pothook. Larram. derives it from 
a Basque word gorobaiu to seize. 

Garabia — garhino, 

Gkirabito Sp. a stall or booth; from B.garau a chamber and ifoa 
damp (Larramendi). 

Grarance Fr. (hence Sp. granzd), Pic. waranche, L. L. garantia, 
warentia madder; the Greeks called ^red' dlrjd'ivov, on the 
analogy of which may have been formed from verus verare, 
verantia varantia. 

Gktranon — gnaragno. 

Gktrant garante — guarento, 

Gkurba — gerbe, 

GkLrbanzo Sp. chick-pea; according to Larram., from B. garau 
com and antzua to dry. 

Gkirbillo Sp. a sieve, garhillar to sift, E. garble. The Ar. has 
girbdl y vd. garbalay but the Rom. word is, perhaps, from the 
L. cribellum, cf. carnero for creiiero, bergunle lor brig ante, 
Garbin a hair-net = cribrum? 

Qarbin — garbillo. 

Gkirbino It. Sp., N. Pr. garbin a south-west wind; from Ar. 
garb west , \h. garaba to set (of the sun), whence also Pg. ga- 
rabia west. It. has also agherbino. 

Gkurbo It. Sp. Pg. behaviour, elegance, E. garb; vb. It. garbare 
to please, Sp. garbar to show affectation; Pr. garbier a brag- 
gart; from 0. H. G. garatvi gartvi ornament, G. gerben, Du. 
gaerwen to deck ,b=zw, cf . falbo = falawer, 

Garbo Ven. Com. garb gherb (It. garbetto Yeneroni) bitter; from 
O. H. G. han(\ G. herbe sour. 

Gkirbuglio It., Sp. garbullOy O. Fr. garbovil grabouil tumult, con- 
fusion. From garrire and btdlirey cf. Sp. bulla, It. biiglione. 
Cat. bidyanga a noise. 

Gkurce gar9on — garzone. 

GkLrde garder — guardare. 

Gkurenne Fr., also varenne for warenne, E. warren, L. L. ira- 
renna. Perhaps from O. Fr. garer warer to guard , be ware^ 
enne for eyie = ine, cf. gaatine, guerpiue, ha'ine from G. roots. 
Du. has tvarande. 

Garer Fr., Pr. garar to take care, betvarc; from O. H.G. waton. 
Hence Pr. esgarar =r= garar, but Fr. e'garer, whence It. sgar- 
rare to mislead. 

Gurfio — graffia, 

Gku*fo — greffe, 

Gurgamela — gargatta. 

Gkirganta — gargalta. 

Gargatta It., O. Fr. Pic. gargaie, Rh. gargata , Genev. garga- 


tahie, Jura garfjuelotte &c., Bret, gargadeji, O. E. gargate^ Sp. 
Pg. Cat. gargauta throat; from gnrges with sufiix «//, and tEe 
oiiomatop. gargarizzarc io gargle, Su.^^r^/ir/r a gargling noise 
in tlie throat = Ar. vb. gargara, ct. It. gorgogiiare gorgozzOy 
gargagliare gargozza &c. llence also Sp. gargoia, Fr. gar- 
gouillCy E. gargoyle gurgoyle, also Pr. gargamela, Fr. garga- 
mvUe (Rabelais) throat, Pg. gorgomilos (ph)i Sp. gorgomillertL 

Gargo It. cunning, malicious, Piedm. gargh idle ; from O. H. G. 
karg crafty, cf. O. N. hargr obstinate , idle. 

Gargote gargotte Fr. cook-shop. From Pic. gargoter to seethe, 
an onomatop. 

Gkurlar Sp. to chatter; from garrulus. 

Gkkrlopa — varlope. 

Gfumache garnir gamiaon — guarnire, 

Gkurofano It., Sp. girofle girofre, Pr. Fr. girofle a clove, pink 
((). E. gillofer, gelofer, Shaks. gilly-vor, gilly - flower) ; from 
caryophyllum with the Gk. accent; xagvotpvlkov ^ but Wal. 
carofil qarofU, Ar. qaranfuL 

Garone — gherone. 

Garou — loupgarou. 

Garra Sp. Pg. a claw, talon, Pr. garra hough? (cf. squarar cou- 
per lejarrel), hun.jaro, (jfoncy.jaire. Hence It. garreito, 0. 
Fr. garret, Fr. jarret, Sp. Pg. jarreic hough, ham (whence 
jarretiere, gar tier, E. garter), N. Pr. garrou, Sard, garroni; 
Fr. garrot joint y cudgel, Sp. garrote, whence Fr. garrotte, E. 
garotte. From W. g&r shank, Bret, gar shin; cf. W. ciimez 
gar hough. V. Dief. Celt. 1, 129. 

Garrafa — caraffa. 

Ga.rrama Sp. Pg. tax, plunder; Ar. (jharAma, 

Gkirrio Pr., Cat. garrig the ilex. From garra J cf. chaparra. 

Gfirrido Sp. Pg. neat, pretty; from Ar. garl with Rom. suffix 
as in florido, 

Garrobo — carrobo. 

Garulla Sp. ripe grapes; from B. garau-ilfa dead grain Larr. 

Garza — garztme. 

G^rzo (garz) Lomb. heart of a cabbage (It. garzuolo), Mil. gar- 
zoeu bud of vine, Ven. garzolo bunch of flax on tlie distaff, 
Lomb. garzon milk thistle. From L. carduus through a form 
cardetis cardeare, cf. orzo from hordeum; we have cardare and 
garzar, garzdo and Parm. carzoe^d, garzon and Sic. cardedda, 
Fr. carde (carder, E. card) = It. cardo = L. cardus for car- 
duus, V. garzone. 

Gurzo Sp. Pg. blue -eyed, a corruption oi zarco, for carzo, cf. 
gavasa for bagasa. 

Garzo Sp. agaric; corrupted from agarlcm. 

G«rzone It., Sp. garzon, Pg. garcao, Fr. garcon, Pr. also gartz, 

GAS — GAUGE. 223 

O. Fr. gars a lad , f . garce a prostitute. Orig. = a Borvant 
boy, garce a servant uiaid, garcon also = a rascal, the first 
meaning being simply boy fpuer) and girl, of. Jura gars son, 
garse daughter. ProD. from the same root as garzuolo, garzo, 
from carduus, in the sense of a bud, stalk &c., of. It. toso, 
Fr. petit trognon, G. kteiner hiitzel, Gr. xogog, Gael, gasy ef. 
Mil. garzon = garzone and cardxius. For the medial of. Lorr. 
gade = carde, gadd = carder. Sp. garza a heron is prob. the 
same word as garce, and alludes to the tuft hanging down the 
heron's neck like a girl's hair, cf. garceta = a young heron 
and a lock of hair. 

Gkks Fr. It. &c., E. gas; from Du. geest, G. geist spirit, E. ghost. 

Gktsa — gaze. 

Gktsalha gazalha Pr., O. Fr. gazaille, L. L. gasalia a company; 
hQXiQeV^.agasalhar, Sp. agasajar gasajar to treat in a friendly 
w.ay, divert, O. Pg. agasalhar se com huma mtdher to marry. 
From O. H. G. gisello, gasaijo, G. geseU companion. L. L. 
gasalianes = Goth. pi. gasaljans. O. Pg. gasvillado = gasaillado. 

Gaspiller Fr. to lavish , Pr. guespiliar, Wall, caspou'i; from A. S. 
gespUlan (E. spill), O. H; G. gaspildan to consume. 

Gktsto It. in Com. gast a Igver; from G. gast , E. guest. 

Gkkte Kouchi Wall., Lorr. gaie, Champ, gaiette, Jura gaise; from 
Goth, gaitei, Du. geit, O. H. G. geiz, G. geifs drivel, slaver. 

G4teau Fr., O. Fr. gastel (Sic. guasteddu), Pr. gastal cake; from 
M. H. G. O. E. wastel (Chaucer). 

Gater — guastare. 

Gkktto It, Sp. gato, Cat. gat, Pr. cat, Fr. chat, f. gatta , gata, 
cata, chatte, N. Gr. ydxa a cat, not in Wall, which has metze, 
pisicH instead. From the Celtic and German ; Ir. cat, W. cdth, 
A. S. E. cat, O. N. kottr. The Lat. calm is late, v. Freund. 

Gkkuche Fr. left, O. E. gauk, E. gawk 'gawky. G = (}. w, for 
Kouchi /rere tvauquier stepbrother = Fr. frere gaiwher. From 
(). H. G. welk, E. weak, cf. It. mano stanca the tired, manca 
the maimed, Sp. zurda the deaf, redruha the giving way, 
N. Pr. man seneco the aged = the weak. Cf. M. H. G. tenc 
left with Sw. tehngg weak. The Pr. E. gaulic requires a Fr. 
gale. Sp. gaucho unlevel from gaxiche? Others, however, 
derive gauche from gawk and this from awk (awkward) with 
prefix ge; v. Gamett's Philol. Essays p. 66. 

Gaucher — gualcare. 

Gkkiifre Fr., Pic. wanfe, O. Sp. guafla, L. L. gafrum a cake; 
from G. waff el (E. wafer), connected with wabe honey -comb, 
so prop, a honey-comb (in texture) cake, this from vb. wehen, 
E. weave. 

Gauge O. Fr. in nois gauge walnut; from O. H. G. walah wale 
foreign (G. wdlsch, welsh) whence gauge, as from del'catus 


deufft'. A. S. was vcal-hnut , O. N. val-hnot, G. wallnuss, E 

Gkkule Fr., Rouehi traule a pole; from Goth, valus (= L. vallui 

whcnco the au)y Frit»sl. waluy not from L. vallus, which wonid 

b(* against the nilo. 
Gktupe Fr., Diir^. gaupilre a drab, dirty, ugly woman, perhaps 

from (). E. uallop a lump of fat. 
Gausser Fr. (ae f/aussrr firj to bo merr}' about anything; perhaps 

from Sj). fjozar^ wliich is also used roflexively. 
Gaut gualt gal O. Fr., Pie. Norm. Kh. gualf, Pr. gau gmU; from 

(j. walil wood, lloncc* (). Fr. gmidine, Pr. gaudina a thicket, 

Pg- gudhiha an estJiteV 
Gavasa — hagaacia. 

Gave Pie., Wall, gaf, Champ, giwffe a bird's crop, vb. Pic. se 
gaver, N. Pr. sv gava , l-hamp. gxwjfer, Fr. s^engouer to cram 
oneself, Fie. engaver to cram, Fr. gnvion throat, Langued. 
cngavnchd to throttle, Mil. gavaagia , Com. gavazza a lai^^ 
m(»uth. l\»rhaps from c(tvns cavea. In the South of France 
gavn gave ^= a mountain- stream, ef. Gave de Pau, Gave df 
Cntdcrels &e., which, according to Malm, is the O. Fr. gave 
: eav , aqua, Goth, ahva, 

QsLYela^V^f^.f Hit. gavifia, Vr.guavcUa, Fr. ^V/rr//^ sheaf , bundle, 
handful. From capuhta raprfius capeUay N. Pr. masc. gavel 
Pic. gaviau , ef. martulm, scrop/tula, which give marteUtis scro- 
phcUa (iTrouclle). 

Gavetta It., Sp. gahala, Yr.jatie a wooden bowl; from gahtVa 
an (mating- vessel, (.). II. G. gvhha , L. L. capita, cf. 'S.jafaa 
manger. Fr. ^V/Z/r from gaha/a, as deffr from dehifum. Pic. has 
gate, Norm, gadejade, O. Vi\ jadeau, Sp. gaveta a drawer is 
from the same. 

Gavia Sp. a sea-mew, Pliny's gavia. Hence Sp. gavhiay Pg. 
galvuta; Sp. Pr. Neap, gavina; It. galfbiano, Pg. gaivao a sort 
of swallow. 

Gavia — gabtda. 

Gavilan Sp., Pg. gavuto a spaiTow-hawk, Mil. Com. gavinel^ 
gauivel, Pr. gavanh. From L. L. capm (eajnre)y cf. G. habicM 
fr(»m habcn, Isid. fcapusj rapgs dalird Ihigud fatco divittiry 
S(!rv. /l^n. 1, 20, /V//r^> ///// 7'i/.vy7? lingad rapgs dfcitur. Cap-el-an 
- - gav-il-an from a iVim. raprttaSy ci. gemeitus gemelo gemeoi 
cap = gav as in gav-ela from cap-tdm. 

Gavina gaviota — gavia. 

Gavion — gave, 

Gayo — gajo. 

Gayola — gabbia. 

Gazdpo Sp., Cat. eatxap, Sard, gaeciapu, Pg. cacapu a young 


rabbit. Perhaps from dasypus Pliny {SaoviaSvg), g for rf, cf. 
camozza, apo for epo being a commoner termination. 

Gfraze Fr., Sp. ffasa, E. gauze; from C^^ira in Palestine. 

Gkksmono Sp. a hypocrite , a tartufFe ; from B. gazmuha one who 
kisses (sc. images and relics of saints). 

GkkBon Fr. turf, Arag. Crem. gason; from O. H. G. waso, G. 
wasen. A. S. vase, Du. wase = also mud, whence Fr. vase f., 
Pg. vasa^ Norm, gase, engaser = envaser. 

GkkBOidller — jaser. 

Gkuniza Sp. great hunger; from B. gose-utsa, 

Gkosa It., Pr. gachay agassa, Fr. agace a magpie; from O. U. G, 
agalstra, whence also It. gazzera. 

GkfcggeTla It., Sp. gazela, Fr. gazelle algazelle, E. gazelle; from 
Ar. gazdl. 

Gkutsetta It., Sp. gazeta, Fr. E. gazette; prop, the name of a 
Venetian coin (from gaza), so in Old English. Others derive 
gazette from gazza a magpie, which, it is alleged, was the 
emblem figured on the paper ; but it does not appear on any 
of the oldest Venetian specimens preserved at Florence. The 
first newspapers appeared at Vemce about the middle of the 
16*** century during the war with Soliman II, in the form of a 
written sheet, for the privilege of reading which a gazzetta 
(=z a crazia) was paid. Hence the name was transferred to 
the news-sheet. 

Cteai — gajo. 

Giant Fr. a giant, Vv.jayan; from gigas gigantes, 

Gtooohire It. in aggecchirsi to humble oneself, O. It gicchito, 
giachito, Mil. gecchiss = gecchirsi, Pr. geguir, O. Sp.jaguir to 
let pass, O. CsLtjaquir to permit, O. Fr. gelur to grant, say, 
confess. From O. H. Q.Jehan, Goth, aikan to utter, to con- 
cede. Aggecchirsi = to give in to a person, ch = h as in an- 

Oehir — gecchire. 

Geindre Fr. to groan , sigh ; from gemere. 

GMra Pg. as much land as coidd be ploughed in a day; tor ju- 
geira, h.Jugarius. 

Oeitar — gettare. 

Qeito Pg. figure, shape, gait; from jartus. 

Oeldra It. rabble, Pr. gelda, O. Fr. gelde a troop espec. of foot- 
men; from L. L. gelda, G. gilde, A. S. gild, E. guild. O. Fr. 
also gueude: gueude marchande = merchant's guild. 

Gelso It. mulberry tree ; for moro gelso = morus celsa as opp. the 
moms humilis tne blackberry; Sic. ceusu, Gen. sw?'sa = L. 
ceistis celsa. 

Gelsomino — gesmino. 

Genoive — gengiva. 



G^ne Fr. (f.), O. Fr. geliene torment, vb. gener; from Heb. 

Gtenevre — ginepro. 
Gtengibre — zenzovero. 
Gtengiovo — zenzovero. 
Gtengiva It. Pg. Pr., Sp. encia, Fr. gencive, Wal. gingie gum; 

from gingiva; cf. Sard, senzia, Pr. angwa, Cat. geniva. Bar. 

g endive, 
Gtenh; g^nie — ingegno, 
Gtenia It. oflfspring, Sic. jinia; from yBvia. 
G^nisse Fr., rr.Junega a heifer; {rom junix junicis ; cf. genem 

from juniperus. Jura gegna =zjunega; Com. has gioniscia, BL 

Gtenou — ginocchio. 
Qtena gea Pr., O. Fr. gens giem, N. Pr. ges or ^m. Cat. gents •-= 

Yv. point. From gentium, as j^r^^r {rom pretium; nan gens = 

non gentium = minime gentium; or from genus, nan genus = in 

no kind, not at all. 
Gtente O. It., O. Sp. gento, Pr. ^^/, f. gent a, O. Cat gini ginta, 

O. Fr. ^^w/ ^^w/^ handsome, fine, genteel; vb. agenzare agett- 

sar agencer to please ; probably from genitus a man of birth, 

homme fie naissance. 
Geole — gabhia. 
G^quir — gecchire. 
G^rbe Fr. O. E., O. Fr. garhe, Pr. Cat. Arag. garba a cheaf, 

vb. gerher, Arag. garhar; it is the O. H. G. garba, G. garbej 

Du. garve, E. garb (in heraldry). 
G^rcer Fr. jarcer to chap , crack , gerce a moth , a book - woim 

From a fonu catptiare (carptusj, ge lor ca, cf. caveoia gedle. 
G^rgo It., Sp. xcrga; It. gergone, Fr. T^. jargon; O. Sp. girgmz, 

Sp. gerigonza, Pr. gergonz unintelligible chatter. In O. Fr. 

wc find iov jargontier gargoner and in O. E. gargoun. Periiaps 

from the root garg (v. gargatta). Cf. also Sp. guirigag. 
Gterigonza — gergo. 
Gterla It., N. Pr. gerlo, O. Fr. geurlejarle a basket; from geru- 

lus a porter. 
Gemxandr^e — catamandrca. 
Gternxania Sp. gibberish, language of the Gipsies, who called 

themselves germani brothers, also hermania from hermano. 
Ges — gens. 
Gese O. Fr. a pike, from the O. Gallic gcesum, or O. Gael, gta^ 

(f.), L. L. gesa, B. gesi. 
G^sier Fr., E. gizzard (O.Fr. also^i/s/^r); by dissimilation from 

gigeria bird's entrails (Lucil. Petron. Apic). Pic. giger, g\r 

Gtesmino It. (corrupt, geisotnifio, Lang, gensemil), Sp. Fr. jas- 


min, "E. jasmine jessamine ; from the Arab, yasamun or yasamin 

Freyt. 4, 514*^. 
Gesta It., O. Fr. geste^ Pr. gesia lineage, stock. Lat. gesia used 

in the sing. = {\) exploits of a people (2) the chronicle of 

these exploits (3) lineage, stock. 
Gtoto — gettare. 
Oettare gittare It., Sp. jitar, Pr. getar giiar, Fr. jeter, Sp. echar 

to throw; irom jactare (in Gom^, jectare), sbst. Fr. E.jei, Pr. 

get. It. geto,E. jess. Fg. deitar (O. Vg. geitar) =^ dejeter, de- 

Oheda — ghiera. 

Oheppio It. a kestrel ; from yv^ yvjtog. 
Ghermire — gremire. , 
Oherone garone It., Sp. giron, Pg. girao, Fr. giron, a gore or 

gusset in a garment (in heraldry a triangle), a lap. From 

O. H. G. g^o ace. g&un, M. H. G. g^e, O. Fries, gare, 

from g^ a spear, cf. L. L. piium vestimenti, so called from 

the shape. 
Ohessolt. black or moorish ; from cegyptius, d.gheppiOy ghe=gy. 
Ohiado It. extreme cold, Pr. glay fright, Pr. Cat. esglay, O. Sp. 

aglayo; vb. It. agghiadare to benumb, O. Sp. aglayarse to be 

astonished, Pr. esglay ar. Pr. glay. It. ghiado also = gladitis, 

cf. desglayar to kill desglaziar = degladiare; O. Fr, glaive = 

shriek of death as well as sword (E. glaive). Cold and fright 

are so named from their piercing eflPects. 
Ohiaja It. gravel ; from glarea, O. Sp. glera. 

Ohiattire schiattire It., Fr. clatir, O. Fr. glatir, Sp. Pg. latir to 
yelp, bark; sbst. Pr. glat, O. Fr. glai (?) cry, shriek; an 
onomatop. like G. klatschen, Du. klateren, E. clatter, Gr. xld- 
^BLVy L. lat -rare. 

Ohiazzerino It, Si^. jacerina ^ Vg. jazerina , Vr, jazeran , O. Fr. 
jazerant jazerenc , whence Vg.jazerao a coat of mail; N. Pr. 
jaziran, Burg, jazeran a necklace. The word was orig. an 
adj., Sp. cota jacerina , Fr. hauberc jazerant. Prob. from Sp. 
^'flzflrmo= Algerian, from Ar. al-jazair (or al-gazdir) Algiers. 

Ohiera It. an arrow , from O. H. G. ger a missile. The Lomb. 
gaida a speer is the same word as the Piedm. Parm. gajda, 
Crem. Mil. gheda, Sard, gaja a gusset, cf. gherone. 

Ohignare and sghignare It. to snigger, Sp. guihar, Fr. guigner 
to wink, leer, peep; from A. S. ginidn to gape, O. II. G. 
ginen, or from 0. H. G. kinan adridere, thoiigli G. k does not 
usu. = g. 

Ohindare It. (for guindare), Sp. Pg. guindar, Fr. guinder to wind 
up; from O. H. G. windan, E. wind. Hence It, guindolo (bin- 
doloj, Sp. guindola, Fr. guindre; Sp. ¥g. guindaste, Fr. gw'ndas 



and vindas, from theDu. wind^as, G- wind-achse (axle), whence 

Bret, gwindask , E. windlass. 
Ghiotto It., Pr. O. Fr. glot a glutton; from ghltus, gluttus (gM- 

lire). It. ghioitone, Sp. Pr. gloton, Pr. glouton, E. glutton^ from 

glufo (Fest. s. v. itigiuvies) ; vb. It. inghiottire, Pr. engloiir, Fr. 

englouier from ghUtire. t rom tlie same root are the Pr. glot a 

bit, morsel, and It. ghiozzo. 
Ghiova It. for ghieva, L. gleha, cf. piovano tor pievano. 
Ghiozzo — ghiotto. 
Ghirlanda It., Sp. Pg. guirnalda, 0. Sp. guarlanda, Pg. aliso 

grinalda, Pr. Cat. garlanda, E. garland, Vr. guirlande. Prob. 

from a form wierelen of the M. H. G. wieren to bind, O. H. 6. 

wiara a wreath. ^ 

Ghiro It., Pr. glire, Fr. /o/r a dormouse; from glis gliris. Hence 

Fr. Sp. liron, Pg. lirao. The N. Pr. greoule is from glindus. 
Gia It. Sp. O. Pg. y«, Pg. Pr. O. Fr.^a, horn jam. Fr. ^>Vifor 

deja = It. <// gia. 
Giaco It., ^^.jaeo, Fr. jaque {., dim. Jar/uette, F,. Jacket, prop. 

a soldier's jacket, whence G. jacke. According to Ducange 

from Jaque the name of a Count of Beauvais c. 1 358- But v. 

Wedgw., who says the jack was a homely substitute for a 

coat of mail , being tlie familiar name used so generally for 

mechanical contrivances, e. g. boot -jack, roasting-jack &c. 
Gialda — geldra. 

Giallo It., SY>.jalde, Vg. jalde jaine , Fr.jame yellow. The Fr., 
orig.jalne, is i'rom galbinus (WnLgalbin) smi {rom jalne, jalde, 
Lomb. giaid. The It. gialio suits the O. H. G. gelo (G. gelbl 
E. yellow , a for e as in gialuru from gelo. Fr. bejaune gull, 
ninny r - bccjaune, properly of a yoimg unfledged bird; so 
gull §w. gul yellow. 

Giannetta — ginete. 

Giara It., Sp. Pg. Vr.jarra, Vr.jarre, F.jar; It. m. giarro, Sp. 
Pg. jarro &c. ; from Ar. jarrah a water- vessel. In O. Pg. vc 
find also zarra, z = Ar. j. 

Giardino It., S\). jardin, Pg.jardim, Vv.jardin gardin jerzin, 
Fr.jardin, gardin, f. Pr. giardina, E. garden; from O. H. 0. 
garto (gen. dat. gartin), or, as the form giardina would seem 
to hint , a Rom. der. from O. H. G. gart (orig. gard), E. yard, 
Goth. gardSy Gael, gart, W. gardd, E. garth. Wal. garden- 
closure is the Goth, gards. 

Giavelotto It. nrob. from the Fr.javeloly O. Fr. gavelot, Bret 
gavlod, M. H. G. gabilot; also It. giavelina, Sf.jabalina, Fr. 
javeline, F. javelin, Bret, gavlin. The root is found in the E. 
gavellock, A. S. gafldc, from the O. N. gcfja a spear, N. ^w/foA* 
gafeloc gafeluc (Grimm) ; or from Ir. gahbla a spear, W. gafi 


(Pott, Diefenbach). The O. Fr. has an unintelligible form 

gaverlot garloU 
Oibet — givibbeito. 
Oibier O. Fr. in €Uler engibier to hunt , Fr. giboycr, sbst. gibier, 

O. Fr, gibeiet (E.gihlet), Fr, gibeciere, F. gipciere gipser (Chauc.) 

a hunting-pouch, a purse. Perhaps connected with gibei gibbet 

(halter), whence gibier to catch birds in a noose? 
Gier gieres giers a particle found the oldest Fr. monuments = 

L. ergo; from erg ierg whence ger gier as from ego ieojeo gie, 
Oieser — gese. 
Giga It. O. Sp. Pr., O. Fr. gigue a string- instrument, Sp. giga, 

Fr. gigue, F.jig. From M. H. G. gige, vb. gigen, G. geige a 

violin , vb. geigen. Hence Fr. gigot a leg of mutton (from the 

shape), Sp. gigote minced meat 
GigUo It., Sp. Pg. lirio, Pr. lililinlis, Fr. Us, Piedm. Mil. liri, 

Sard, lillu, O. Sp. liiio, Rh. f. gilgia, M. H. G. gilge, Svf.jifge 

ilge a lily. A notable instance of the principle of dissimilation, 

the g and the r being used to prevent the repetition of the /. 

The Fr. reauires a form lilitis, cf. O. H. G. lilio, M. H. G. 

gilge (m.). V. Pott, Forsch. 2, 99. 
Oiler Norm., N. Pr. gilhd to hasten away; from O. H. G. gilan 

giljan (Pr. h =J) for gi-ilan to hasten, G. eilen. The Com. 

is zela cf. Com. zerio, zoja = It. gerio, gioja. 
Oilet Fr. a waistcoat; from Giiie, the name of the first maker 

Gina — agina. 
Oinepro It., Sp. enebro, Pg. zimbro (z rare for g), Fr. genievre; 

from juniperus. The e for u is Fr. (cf. genisse), whence Du. 

jenever, Dan. enebar. 
Oineta Sp. Pg., Fr. genette, E. genet a wild -cat, civet-cat (in 

the Levant^. Of Eastern origin. 
Oinete Sp. Pg. a light -armed trooper, gineta, It. giannetia a 

short spear carried by such, Sp. gineta ginete, It. ginnetto gian- 

netto, Fr. genet, F, jennet. Probably from yvftvifri^ff. 
Qingembre — zenzovero, 
Oinooohio It., Wal. genunche, Sp. hinojo, O. Sp. ginojo, Pg. 

gioiho joelho, Fr. genou (from genoit) knee; from gentwultim for 

Giocolaro giullaro It. from joctiiarius; Sp. joglar juglar, Pr. 

joglar from jocularis; It. giocolatore, O. Fr. jogleor, O. E. 

jogelour, F. juggler, Fr. jongleur, from joculator ; O.Fr.jongler 

{rom joculari. 
Oioglio It., Sp. joyo, Pg. joio, Pr. juelh darnel, from lolium, 

cf. giglio from lilium. It. has also lolio, Arag. luello &c. Hence 

Vg.jocira a winnowing- sieve. 
Oioja giojello — godere. 


Giomo It., Pr. O. Cat. ^orw, Ft. jour; from diurnum, L. L.^'or- 
fius; dies is found in It. di, Sp. Pg. Pr. dia. Hence It. sog- 
giomo, O. Sp. sojomo, Pr. sojorn, E. sojourn, Fr. sejour &c. 

Giostrare — giusta. 

Oiovedi It., Fr.jeudi, Pr. Cat. dijous; from /ot;ti$ dies, diesJovis; 
fip.jueves, Vr.jous, i'rom Jovis, Wal.701, Ven. Romag. zobia, 
Pg. quijita feira == niynLxii in Mod. Gr., M. H. G. pfinztac^ 
V. Sohmeller 1, 321. 

Giraffa It., Sp. girafa, Fr. girafe, E. giraffe; from Ar. zarrdfah, 

Girandola girandula girandole — giro, 

Gire It. to go, defective; from de-iref?), cf. L. L. de-ambulare, 

Girfalco gerfalco It., Sp. gerifalte (from the Fr.), Pr. girfaky 
Fr. gerfauty E. jer falcon; the ^/r ^^r is prob. the O. H. G. gir, 
G. geier = Sansk. grighra a vulture, and this was afterwiutls 
connected with gyrare so that we have in L. L. gyrofalco {agy- 
rando Albert. Mag.). Cf. It. ruota, Ven. ronda, Gr. xiQxog. 

Giro It. Sp., Pr. gir a circle, round; from gyrus. O. Fr. gires 
})ang8 of labour, Berr. girande gerente a woman in labour, It 
gir are, O. Fr. girer from gyrare; It. girandola, Sp. girandtda, 
Fr. girandole a fire- wheel, girandole, from a lost giranda = 
Fr. girande; Fr. girouette for girotette (cf. It. girotta) a weather- 

Girofle — garofano. 

Giron — gherone. 

Gisarme — guisarma, 

Giu — ^n^'o. 

Giubba giuppa It., Sp. al-juba, Pr.jupa, Fr.jupe, Com. Crem. 
gibha, Mil. Rh. gippa, M. H. G. gippejoppe; It. giubbone, Sp. 
jubon, Fg.jtibao gibao, Cat. gipo, Vr.jubon, Ft.jupon, Wal. 
jubea. From Ar. al-jtibbah a woollen petticoat. Hence also 
Sp. chupa, It. cioppa(?)y G. schatibe. 

Giubbetto giubbetta It., Fr. ///^^Z, whence E. gibbet. The It. is 
a dim. of giubba, a little jacket, a collar, a halter. For 1 from 
u, cf. genisse. 

Giuggiola It., Sp. jujuba, Fr. E. jujube; from zizyphum. The 
usu. Sp. word is azufaifa. 

Giulebbe It., ^^.julepe, Pr. Fr. F. julep; from Ar.jtdiib, from 
Pers. 17?// rose, and rf^ water. 

Giulivo It., Pr. O. Fr.joli for jolif, F. jolly, Fr.joli pretty; vb. 
O. Fr. joliver jolier to enjoy oneself. Not from Jovialis, but 
from O. N.yo/ a Christmas festivity (E.yule), Swed. Dan.^W, 
Goth, jiuleis. 

GiuUaro — giocolaro. 

Giumella It. as much as can be held in the two hands placed 
together; from L. gcmcllw. For the u from e, cf. Fr.jumeau. 

Giunare It., Wal. ajuna, Sp. ayunar, Fg.jejuar, Vt.jeonar, Fr. 


jeuner to fast; from jejunare (TertulL); the je is lost in Fr. 
jeuner, Sp. a-t/unar (cf . af/er from heri). For giunare we have 
It. digiunare, Pr. Cat. dejunar, adj. digiuno dejun fjejunusj, 
Fr. dejeuner, Sp. desagunar, Wal. dejuna break -fast. 

Giiinohiglia It., Sp. Junquilio, Fr. jonquille, E. jonquil; from 
juncus, its botanic name being narcissus juncifolius. 

Giusarma — guisarme. 

OiuBo It., contr. ^w, O. Sp. yu50 agusojus, O. Fg.juso, Vr.jos 
jotz jus, O. Fr. jus, Wal. </m j05 for L. m/ra. From deosum 
for deorsum, L. h. josum jusum asjarnus from diumus, O. Sp. 
also ^fti50. 

GiuBquiamo It., Sip.josquiamo, Fr. jusquiame (f.) henbane; from 
hgosciamus {vocxva^iog), corrupted into jusquiamus by Palla- 

Giusta giusto (cf. contra contro^, Pr. >05/<i^ O. Fr. ^V)5ftf jw5/tf; 
from ^'ua;/a also = secundum m Rom., which meaning it had 
often in L. L., and occasionally also in L. Hence It. giustare 
giostrare, Sp. Pg. justar, Pr. jostar justar, Fr.jouter, O. Fr. 
joster juster, F. joust orig. = to bring together; sbst. giostra, 
Vr.jostajusta, Fr.joute, F. joust, M.H.G. tjost, lA.Dxx. joeste ; 
Cf. Berr. mon champ joute au sien adjoins. Hence Pr. ajostar, 
Fr. ajouter to add, E. adjust. The F. jostle is a frequentative 

Givre Fr. (f.) a snake in heraldry, O.Fr. givre snake; for guivre 
from viper a, O. H. G. wiper a, whence also O. Fr. wivre, W. 
gwiber, Bret, wiber, E. viper. Givre also = a snake -like mis- 
sile and an icicle, Burg.^^r^, Vr. givre, gihre, Csii.gebre hoar- 
frost, vb. Pr. gibrar, Cat. gebrar. 

Glaba It. a layer, shoot; from clava; for the by cf. the form 

Glacier O. Fr. (glacoier) to glide. From glades, so to slip like 
ice, cf. brillare, to shine lite beryl, corbare to cry like a raven, 
formicare to swarm like ants. 

Glai — ghiattire. 

GlaleiQ — glaive. 

Glaire (f.) Pr., Pr. glara humeur visqueuse, Sp. clara (de huevo 
=giaire dCceuf), It. chiara, F. glare, gleire, glere (gleyre ChRnc). 

. Not (as Grimm) from A. S. glaere amber, which = L. glcesum,^ 
O. N. gler glas, Dan. Sw. glas, F. glass, nor (as Mahn) from 
the Celtic: Bret, giaour, W. glyfoer drivel, slaver, connected 
with Br. glao glav, W. gwlaw rain (connected with L. pluvia), 
"Br. gleb, W. gwleb gwlyb wet; but from clarum ovi, cf. Pr. 
clara d'un hueu, It. chiara, Sp. clara, M. H. G. eierkldr. It 
borrows the gender of glarea gravel (It. chiara also = sand- 

Glaise Fr., Pr. gleza clay; from L. L. glis glitis =: humus tenax. 


adj. gliteus = cretacetis. Glis is j perhaps, connected widi Gk. 

ylCa ^hie , ykLOXQO^, 
Glaive Fr. (in.), Pr. glnvi a sword , E. glaive y It. glare a sword- 

fisli. From gladius came Pr. glazi (z = dj, glai glari, cf, from 

adulter ium azulteh aidteri avulleri, vidua veuza veuva. Glaive 

= glnvi as saive = savi, O. Fr. glai (whence glaieul) =1= Pr. 

Glaner Fr., Pic. Champ, glener, N. Pr. glend, E. glean, Fr. glane 

a handfull of cars of com &c.; h.h.glenare. From the Celtic, 

W. glain gidn = clean, vb. glanhau to clean up, to glean. 
Glapir Fr. to yelp; Du. klappen, M. H. G. klaffen, O. H. G. 

klaffon. IIciicc Fr. clavaud, cf. Du. klahhaerdj E. clapper. 
Glas — chiasso. 
Glasto — guado. 
Glatir — ghiattire, 
Glave — glaive, 
Glay — ghiado. 
Gleton f). Fr., also glelleron, Fr. glouleron a burdock; from the 

G. klelte, O. H. G. chletto, ace. chlettun, chletton, 

Glette Fr. litharge; from the G. (silber-)^/df//e. 

Glisser Fr. to slip; from G. glit-sen glilschen, Du. glitsen. We 
find in It. glisciare, (). Fr. glinser, N. Pr. linsd, Bui^. linzer, 

Gloriette Fr., Sp. gloricta a bower, prop. = a fine, handsome 

chamber (gloria). 
GlouBser — chiocciare. 
Glouteron — gleton. 
Glouton — ghiotto. 
Glu Fr. (f.), Pr. glut, Vg. grude bird-lime, E.glue; from glm 

glntis (Ausoniiis). Hence Pic. englui, Pr. englut, Sp. engrudo, 

vb. engludar engrudar. 

Glui Fr., Pr. glueg straw; from Flem. geluye gluye, or from W. 

Gnaffe It. interj.; from mia fe. 
Gobbe Fr., Norm. (T/o^^/, Ya. gobbet, Nonn. gobine a meal, Fr. 

gober to gobble, E. gob a mouthful. Cf. Gael, gob, W. gwb a 

beak, v. Dicf. Goth. Wb. 1, 169. 

Gobbo It., Rh. gob a hump, Fr. gobin, from gibba gibbus, L. L. 
gybbus {xvq)og). Al. from W. gob a heap. 

Gobelet — coppa. 

Gobelin goblin Fr., E. goblin hob-goblin. From xd/3aAo^, whence 
also G. kobold? V. Grimm Myth. p. 420, Diefenb. Goth. 
Wb. 1 , 150, who compares Bret, gobilin an ignis fatuus. But 
the Bret, gobilin is doubtless the W. coblyn (properly = one 
who knocks , from cobio to knock), v. Wedgwood. 

Qoccia It., Crcm. (m.) gozy gouzy a drop. Not unmediately from 


gutta, but prob. from vb. gocciare, for gotteggiare = Pr. go- 
ieiar, Pg. gotejar. 

Gkxla N. Fr. a dirty slut, O. Fr. godon a rako, Fr. gouine a 
whore,- for godine, dim. BxiTg.godineia, Rouchi godineie, Burg. 
gaudrille, O. Fr. gouderois (cf. O. E. gaudery sprightliness) ; 
godemine pleasure; vb. O. Fr. goder, Fr. godailier, Berr. gou- 
ailler to feast, revel; also Sp. feipsy) godo godeno, godizo 
dainty, goderia a drinking-bout. Pied, gaudineta, Pg. engodar 
to allure, cf. Rouchi godan lure, bait. Basq. godaria = cho- 
colate (enticing drink) from the Rom. From the h.gatideref?), 
but the sbst. goda, adj. godo^ can only be referred to the W. 
god wantonness. Hence, perhaps, also the Fr. goinfre a rake, 
the rare termination being found also in gotdiafre. The verb 
godailier is referred by some to a sbst. godale == E. good ale. 

Godailier godon goinfre — goda, 

Gk>dere gioire It., O.Pg. gouvir, Pr. gauzir jauzir, Fr.jouir, Pic. 
se gaitdir, from gaudere; sbst. Pg. ^o/Vo, Vt. gang jot, Wald. 
goy, ^.joy, also f. It. gioja, Sf,jof/a, Pg. Yr.joia, Fr. joie, 
Sp. Pg.= jewel, Fr.=joy, It. rr.=joy, jewel, from gaudium, 
gaudia; hence It. giojello, S^.joyel, Vr.joiel, O. Ft. Joel, Fr. 
joyau, F. jewel, L. L. (wrongly) jocale for gaudtale. Vr.jau- 
zion, {.jauzionda from gaudibundus Apuleius and L. L. 

Gk>det Fr. a pitcher, for gote't = gottet from guttus, It. gotlo. 

Qodo — goda. 

Gotland Fr. a gull; from the Celtic, Bret, gwelaji , W.gwylan 
(E. gvllf), Gael, foilenriy from vb. gwela Bret., gwylaxo W., 
to cry. 

Goffo It., Sp.^o/b, Fr. goffe, F. gof guff {^ro\.) stupid, clownish. 
Perhaps the same word as L. L. gufa (vestis = villata) thick, 
coarse. Some derive it from the Gk. x(oq)6q. It is connected 
with the Bav. goff a blockhead. 

Gogna It. pillory, halter; shortened from vergogna, cf. Sp. ver- 
guenza, and gogna = dilemma. 

Gogues Fr. (pi.) merriment, goguettes tricks, se goguer, gogue- 
nard, gogaille, Lang, gougalios = goguettes, Bret, has gdge'a 
to mock, W. gogan satire, or gogues may be from G. gauch 
cuckoo, cf. O.N. gauka to be merry = goguer. Fr. gogue also 
= plentiful supply of good things to eat, dtre en gogo to live 
in clover, goguelu one so living, msolent, from W. gog super- 

Goi O. Fr. in vertu-goi = vertu de dieu, mort-goi, sang -got y N. 
Pr. Iron de goi^= morbleu, from G. god got. Vertu- guieu is 
for vertu- dieu. Similar corruptions are frequent in oaths. 

Goitre Fr. (m.), O. Fr. Pr. goitron; from guttur gutter, whence 
goetr goitre. We find h.h. gutturnia for guttumea, cf. roburnea 
from robur, whence L. L. guttumosus, Pr. gutrinos. 


Qoiva — gvbia. 

Qtoistre — grAiart. 

Qoldre Sp., Pg. coldre a quiver; from corytus. 

Qoliart O. Fr. Pr., O. Pg. goliardo, L. L. galiardus, O. E- gnU- 
ardeis (Chauc.) a low jester, parasite ^ It. goiiare to long for, 
from g^da , whence also Fr. gouUafre, Sp. golafre greedy, for 
term. ef. gain f re fgoda). 

QoUizo 8p. gorge of mountains &c. ; from gula, Sp. goia. 

Golondrina — rondine, 

Golpe It., O. Sp., Rh. guolpy goip, whence O. Sp. gtdpeja, O. Fr. 
goupille gourpiiie, usu. m. goupil govrpil, also wourpille tverpiie 
werpil a fox; vb. O. Fr. goupUler to creep, slink away; Fr. 
goupillon a tail, bnish (prop, of the fox), goupille the body of 
a nail as opp. the head. From vutpes, v ^= gu sometimes, ef. 
R. Or. 1, 187. Other names of this animal, so well known in 
the fables of the middle a^^es , are renard, Pr. guiner. Cat 
guineu, Sp. raposa, zorra, O. Sp. marota, guihara, Sard, mar- 
giant, Lang, mandro. 

Qomia Sp. (f.) a prodigal, glutton; from gitmia (grtmia?) LnciL 
and Apuleius. 

Oomito — cubiio, 

Gomona gomena giimina It., Sp. Pg. gumena, Fr. gcumene 
anchor -cable; from Ar. al -gonial or al-gomol. 

Gond — gonzo. 

Gonda gondola It., whence Sp. gondola, Fr. gondole a gondola. 
From xovdv = a drinking- vessel (Fr. gondole), or from an 0. 
L. gondus = scyphus patera (Menage from an old Glossary). 

€k>nfaIone It., 0. Pg. gonfalao, Pr. O. Fr. gonfanon, Fr. gonfa- 
lon a banner; from O. H. G. gundfano (aundja battle and fano 
cloth). From the form cundfano come ried. Sp. confalon, Pr. 
confaiio, O. Fr. confanon, Sic. cunfaluni, Ven. confaloniero, 

Gonfiare It., Fr. gonfler, W. gen fa to swell; from conflare for 
in flare (N. Pr. coufla). It. gonfto, Genev. gonfle = Fr. gonfle, 
as enfle = enfle. N. Pr. gofe full, vb. goufa, Genev. goffet 
thick , come from the same , not from go/fo. 

Gonna It. a petticoat, O. Sp. Pr. gona, O. Fr. gone a coat, monk*s 
habit, L. L. gunna, L. Gr. yovva, Alb. gune, Varro mentions 
a L. gaunacum a shaggy covering, but the form does not suit 
the Rom. word. Prob. the L. and Rom. are both from the 
Coltic, W. gwn, E. goion, though Diez says these may be 
from the Rom. (gwn from gone as ftvl from fol), v. Due. s. 
gmia, and Marsh, Origin and History of English, pp. 86, 542. 

Gonzo engonzo Pg., Sp. gonce gozne, Fr. gond, Pr. gofon for 
gonfon a hinge. Gonzo from L. conttis, gofon from gomphuSy 
gotid from contus and Lorr. angon = ancon. 

. GONZO — GOUGE. 235 

Qoxuso It. nidc; sottish. From Sp. ganso? or from Ven. gozzo 
= It. ghiozzo, 

Gora (o aperto) an aqueduct ^ miH-leat; from the Sw. wuor, Rh. 
vuor (so = guard), v. Frisch 2, 459''. 

Gk>rbia — guhia, 

Gk>rdo Sp. Pg., Pr. gort fat, thick, Fr. gourd stiff, engourdir to 
benumb ; from L. gurdus (Laberius in Gellius, and Quintilian) 
stupid, doltish; Quintilian says of gurdus: exHispanid duxisse 
origmem audivi, cf. O. Sp. = stupid. The It. ingordo greedy 
is rather from "m gwrgiiem^\ cf. O. Fr. adj. en f rum (It. ingor- 
darsi = se ingurgitare). 

Gore — gorre. 

€k>rge — gorgo. 

Gorgia gorgogliare — gorgo, 

€k>rgo It., Pr. O. Fr. gore gori, Fr. gour whirlpool; It. Sp. Pr. 
gorga, Fr. E. gorge, also It. gorgia; from gurges. Pr. gorgolh 
from gurgulio, vb. It. gorgogliare &c. 

Gorgojo Sp. weevil; from cureulio. 

Gormar — gourme, 

Goro — huero. 

Gorra Sp. Pg. It. a cap, Sp. also gorro. From the Basque gorria 
red, a favorite colour for caps. Articles of clothing are often 
named from their colour, cf. hujo. It. gorra = also an osier, 
prop, the red osier. O. Fr. gorres = rubans, livrees des nou- 
veaux manes Roquefort, gorrer gorrier gorriere = homme et 
femme magniftquemeni pares. O. Fr. gorre verole, mal vc- 

Gorupo — groppo. 

Go8 — cuccio. 

Goflier — gueux. 

Oata It, Pr. gauta, Fr.joue (whence Fi.jaw?) cheek, jaw; Cat. 
galta, Mod. golta, Rh. gaulta; Sp. has only galtera = cheek- 

Eiece of a helm. Pr. au gives o ai ou; gaula is the L. gahata, 
xJh.gavata (Bret, gaved) gauta, as parabola paravola paraula. 
Gahata = an eating -vessel (Langued. gaouda). 

Goto Pg. throat; from guttur. 

Gotta It., Sp. Pg. gota, Fr. goutte, E. goui; Wal. gufe, It. goc- 
ciola aBoplexy; from gut la. Or. troph: tropfen apoplexia in a 
Diet., elate 1445. These diseases were supposed to be caused 
by drops of water from the brain, v. Ducange. Hence Fr. 
esgout egout a drain, gouttiere a gutter. 

Goudron — catrame. 

GoufOre — golfo. 

Gouge — giibia. 

Gouge Ft. a wench, N. Pr. gougeo a maid; whence Fr. goujat; 
from Heb.^py people; the Jews called a Christian maid goye. 


€k>uine — goda. 

Qoujon Fr., E. gudgeon, from L. gohio (It. Sp.). 

Qouli!:;fre — goliart. 

Goupil goupillon — grApe. 

Goupiller — volpilh. 

Gtour — gorgo. 

Gourd — gordo. 

Gourde — ciicuzza, 

Gourme Fr. glanders; Pg. gosma foul humours , gosmar Sp. gw- 
mar to vomit ; Rouchi gourmet to sip, Fr. gourmand a gmtton, 
Norm, gourmacher to bo foul; Fr. gourmer to beat with the 
fists, to bit a horse, gourmcUe a bit, gourmander to maltreat, 
fall foul of. From N. gormr dirt (gorj, E. garni to soil (cf. 
Berr. eau gourmic dirty water), W. gorm repletion, whence 
gormes a burden, gormail oppression. Others make a separate 
word gourme found in Bret, gromm and in gourmeite, gourmerj 
gourmender, and coming from Celtic crom (crwmm) bent, cf. 
E. curb from Fr. courhe = curvus. 

Qourmette — gourme and grumo. 

QouBse — guscio, 

Goutte — goifa. 

Gozne — gonzo, 

€k>zo Sp. Pg. pleasure, mirth, vb. gozar, O. Val. gozar. Cat. 
gosar, N. Pr. gausd. From gaudium, Cat. goij, O. Val. gotjwr, 
cf. milj from medius, ratj from radius. From ^'ozo is Sp. re- 

Qozque — cuccio. 

Gozzo It. crop, craw, Lomb. goss. Shortened from gorgozzo 
from gurges; we have f. gorgozza and also corgozzo. For the 
loss of the 1*^ syllable, cf. cenno. Sorgozzone sergozz(me = 
sub guttur pugnus mflictus Ferrari. Trangugiare = trangor- 

Graal greal grasal 0. Fr., Pr. grazal, O. Cat. gresal a cup or 
bowl of wood, earth or metal. In South France grazal grazau 
grial grau arc used for various kinds of vessels , Fr. grassale 
= a bowl. From greal comes O. Sp. grial greal, Pg. gral (a 
mortar), 0. Ven. graellino. The Saint graal of the Romances 
was the dish which was used at the institution of the Holy 
Eucharist, M. 11. G. grdl. The d of the L. L. gradalis answers 
to the z of the Pr., which, therefore, would appear to be the 
earliest form. Two of the various derivations given may be 
mentioned as probable: (l) gradalis from gratia in L. L. = 
the Holy Supper, which, however, does not suit the Fr. 
graal; (2) crater, L. L. cratus whence crafalis, grazal, graal. 

Grabar -r- graver. 

Grabiige Fr. a quarrel, brawl, Rouchi grabuche, O. Fr. gra- 


heuge. Prob. a compound word, Pr. grahusa, vb. grahmar, 
O. Fr. gretise, Jura greuse. 

Gracco graoculo gracchialt.; S^.grajograja, Fg.gralho gralha, 
Pr. gralha, O. Fr. graiile a jay, jacdaw, from graculus, L. L, 

Graoidare It. to croak (of frogs), Sp. Pg. graznar (of ravens). 

Grada It. Sp., Pg. grade (f.), E. grate, Sp. Pg. also = harrowy 
from crates; It. gradella. From dim. craticola (L.L. graticula), 
come It. graticola, Fr. ^ri//^, ^r//, E. grill, Mil. grella, Fr. vb. 
gr tiler, E. ^nV/, for graiile graiile (i for «i , cf. chignon grignon) 
O. Fr. also ^r^i7, vb. graelier, graaillier, Berr. grdler. 

Grado It. Sp. Pg., Pr. grat, Fr. ^rc-', O. E. gree will, liking; 
from gratum. Hence It. malgrado, Pr. malgrat, Vr. malgre\ 
E. maugre (sc. a wa/ grado), cf. L. w«/e gratus. Vb. It. gradire, 
Pr. gradir; It. aggradire aggradare, Sp. agradar agreiar, Fr. 
agreer to please, approve, E. agree; It. agradevole, Sp. Pr. 
agradable, Fr. agreable, E. agreeable. 

Grafflo It., Sp. ^ar/?o garfa, Pr. ^rfl/?o a hook, claw; vb. It. 
graffiare, Burg. grafftner (sbst. grafltii); Fr. agrafe a brooch; 
li.aggraffare, ^^.agarrafar engarrafar, WsW.agraferio grasp. 
From O. H. G. krapfo krafo a hook,^. ^ra/;. 

Gragea — treggea. 

Graiile graja — gracco. 

Grama Sp. Romag., It. grdmola, Pg. gramaddra a brake (for 
hemp), Sf.gramilla; \h.Vg. gramar, Romag, gt^am^ to prepare 
hemp, Sp.^rflfwar to knead dough, It. gramolare in both senses. 
Perhaps from canninare. 

Gramalla — camaglio. 

Gramallera — cremaillon. 

Grammaire Fr., Pr. gramaira gramdiria, E. grammar; formed 
from ihcVr. gramddi •= grammaticus , whence gramadaria gra- 
mdiria, d being vocalized into i. O. Fr. masc. gramaire = 
grammaticus (grammaticarius), Basque gramaticaria , (.). II. G. 
gramatichare; hence Fr. grammairien. Cf. L. L. judicarius 
from judex. 

Grana It. Sp. Pr., Pg. graa, O. Fr. graine (whence E. grain^ a 
scarlet berry, coccus ilicis, scarlet cloth, in Sp. also = cochi- 
neal (coccus cacti), L. L. grana, M, H. G. gran; from gramim, 
cf. xdxxogf V. omn. Marsh, Lectures on Eng. Lang. Hence 
It. granata = a granate or garnet stone, and = Sp. granada a 

Granohio granoio It., Pr. Cat. crane, W. crane, Bret, krank, 
Wall, cranche a crab, Fr. chancre a cancer; a corruption of 
cancer cancri. Hence Pg. granquejo garanquejo, Sp. cangrejo 
from a dim. cancriculus. Hence, too. It. grancire to seize? 

Granoiporro It. cancer marinus; from cancer and pagurus. 


Orancire — granchio. 

Grange — granja, 

Grangear — granja. 

Granguejo — granchio. 

Granito It., Sp. granidOy Fr. granit, E. granite; from grmium 

b(.-caui<o of its grained appearance; granito prop, a partiGiple 

of vb. granire. 
Granja Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. grange; from granea L. L-, which h» 

also a form granica, whence O. Fr. granche, Pr, granga. Sp. 

has tlie special sense of farm, whence grangear to tiU^ gaun. 
Grantor — creanter. 
Grappa It., Sp. Pg. grapa hook, claw, Sp. grapon; Fr. grappin 

an anchor, Yen. grapeia bur; vb. It. grappare aggrappare, 

'Sorm.grapper, Pic. agraper fagrape, Vi2X!L.agrap=Yr, agrafe). 

From O. H. G. krapfo, G. krappen, W. crap, E. ^o^. Hence 

also It. grappa grappolo, Fr. grappe, O. Fr. Pic. Champ, crape 

grape -stalk, grape, Du. grappe krappe, E. grape. 
Grascia It. provisions, grascino inspector of marketa; from iyfh 

QuaCa. Grascia also = Fr. graisse fat. 
Graspo — raspare. 
Grasso It., Sp. graso, Pg. graxo, Pr. Rh. Wal. Fr. gras fat; fipom 

crassus, L.L. grassus; also It. Fg.crasso, Sp.crassio crasio, Fr, 

crasse , E. crass (usu. in metaph. sense). 
Grasta It. a flower-pot ; a Sicil. word, from ydaxQa a big-bellied 

Grattare It., Sf.Pr. graiar, Vr.gratter to scratch; from O.H.G. 

chrazdn, Du. kratsen &c. Hence Fr. gratin, egratigner; It. 

grattugio, Dauph. ^ra/w^/ a rasp, cf. It. grattugiare , Pr. gra- 

tuzar, O. Fr. gratuser. 
Gratuai — grattare. 
Gravelle gravier gravois — greve. 
Graver Fr., E. grave, Sp. grabar (from the Fr.); from G.graben 

rather than from yQcc(p€iv, q) =- ff', cf. ygatpiov greffe. 
Ghravir Fr. to climb; from gradus, It. gradire, Fr. gra-ir, grarir; 

cf. embiaver, parvis, pouvoir. 
Graznar — gracidare. 
Gr6 — grado. 
Gredon — gretto. 
Greffe Fr. (m.^ an office, bureau, O. Fr. grafe, Pr. grafi = L. 

graphium, ci. bureau for a similar extension of meaning. Hence 

Pr. grafinar to scratch, N. Pr. esgraffd, 0. Fr. esgraffer to 

scratch out, Fr. egraffigner to blot, soil. 
Groffo Fr. (f.), greffer = E. gra/f graft, M. Du. grafie, grafien. 

Identical with the former word, f. from n. plur.; the shoot 

would be sharp and pointed like the stylus, ct. Sp. mugron. 
Grdgues Fr. breeches ; from W. gioregys girdle. 


Grdle Fr., Pr. grade slini; thin, shrill; from gracilis. Hence 

O. Fr. sbst. graisle greile, Pr. graile a wind-instrument, cf. 

clairon from clair. 
Grdle grdjjpr — gres. 
Grelo — grillo. 
Grelot Fn a bell ; from grdle (v.grde), or from crotalum a rattle, 

grelotter to chatter with the teeth. 
Grembo lap; {rom gremium, grembio (whence grembiat a), gremho; 

cf. comhiato from commeatus, Mil. scimbia for scimmia, vendem- 

bia for vendemmia. 
Gremire ghermire to claw; from O. H. G. krimman. 
Grenon — grefia, 
Grenotdlle Fr., Pr. granolha a frog = It. ranocchia from a Lat. 

ranucuia, O. Fr. renouille, rane raine in several dialects. For 

the g prefixed cf. grenouillette for ranunculus, It. gracimolo = 

Grena Sp. tangled hair, Pg. grenha hair of the head, Pr. gren 

(m.) beard; whence O. Sp. grenon grinon, Pr. O. Fr. grignon 

grenon guemon beard or mustachio. From L. L. granus (vide- 

mus granos et cinnabar Gothorum Isid.) = O. H. G. granl (pi. 

whence the Rom. forms with the weak w), M. H. G. gran, 

O. N. gr6n beard, G. granne bristle, also Gael, granni long 

hair, W. grann "cilium". The Rom. / is prob. due to crinis, 
Greppia It. (creppia), Pr. crepia crepeha, O. Fr. crebe, greche, 

Fr. creche a crib; from O. H. G. krippa krippea, O. G. cribbia, 

E. crib. From tne kindred L. G. form krubbe come the Pr. 

crupia, Piedm. Ven. grupia. Gen. groeppia, Romagn. gropia. 

The B. has a similar form khorbua. The Sp. uses a L. word, 

pesebre, Lomb. parseiv, presef, 
Greppo It., Rh. grip. Yen. grebano, Com. grip crap (= Rh. crap 

carp gravel) cip (from clip) cliff; from O.K.Oc.klep, G.klippe, 

E. clifir, W. clip. 
Gres Fr. (m.) sand -stone, N. Pr. gres coarse sand, whence Pr. 

greza gressa (graissa), Yr. grile hail- stones, \h.greler; dim. 

Fr. gre'sil fine hail, Pr. grazil, vb. gresiller, grazilhar. Cf. N. 

Pr. grezo grit = O. Pr. greza hail, G. kieseln to hail from kies 

gravel. Gres comes from O. H. G. griez grioz, G. gries, E. 

grit, cf. grile (gresle) from M. H. G. griezel a grain, granule. 
Gr^sil — gres. 
Grdflillon O.Fr. a cricket; from gryllus, for grecillon, cf. oisillon 

from avis, pucelle from pttlla. 
Greto It. sandy shore; from 0. H. G. grioz, O. N. griot, E. grit. 
Gretto It. greed, or adj. greedy; M.H.G.^riV, adj.gritec greedy. 

With the L. G. d for t we find Fr. gredin, Pic. guerdin, Lorr. 

gordin, cf. Goth. grMus, O. N. grdd, E. greed. 
Greve It., Pr. greu, O. Fr. grief (Fr. sbst. E. grief), Wal. ^rew; 

240 GB^VE — GRILLO. 

from gravis y whence It. aggrevare, O. Fr. agrever, Pr. agrevt- 
jar (as if aggraviare aggreviare), O.Fr. agregier, O.E. agregge, 
= aggravate, Fr. rengrcger to make worse; grevis for gram, 
being often paired with its opp. levis, of. Pr. ni greu nileu. 
O. Fr. griete = gravitas, 

Qreve Fr. (f.) a flat sandy shore, Pr. Cat. grava gravel, RL 
grava greva sand -flat, \ en, grava bed of a mouutain stream, 
Fr. gravier, gravelle, gravois, E. gravel. Bret, has knu gmi, 
krua groa. Perhaps from crau, W. crag. 

Gricciare It. to scowl, to lon^j for; Com. sgriza to gnash; from 
same origin as Fr. grincer {\\. v.), O. H. G. grimiz&n to gnash. 
It. gricch gricciolo === shivering fit. 

Gridare It., Sp. Pg. gritar, Fr. crier (E. cry); sbst. It. griilo 
grida, Sp. grilo^ Fr. cri (cry); Panu. cridar, Von. criare. Mil. 
cn'a, O.Sp. cridar gridar, crida grida grido. The root is found 
in the Goth, gretan, E. greet, l)n. kryten, also in the Celtic, 
but the immediate etymon is L. qutrlfare whence kwHare cri- 
tare gridare, cf. Fr. Cricq from Qvirictis, friaca from iheriaca. 
It. sgridare, O. Fr. escrier have been influenced by tlie 0. H. 
G. scrian. 

Grief — greve. 

Grietar Sp., Pg. gretar to split, burst, sbst. grieta greta, Lomb. 
cretto; from crepitare, 

Griffe Fr. a claw, griff er to claw ; from O. H. G. grtfauy G. grd- 
fen, E. gripy sbst. grif, grip. Piedm. has grif. Com. grif sgrif 
a claw, Rh. grifla; It. grifo a snout. Connected with these is 
It. griff grifonCy ^^. grifo y Vr. grifo y Fr. griffon y Y,. griffin 
from L. gryp/niSy Fr. vb. gri/fer. It. grifagno, O. Fr. grifaigne 
expressed, in the latter language at least, not so much tlie 
rapacity of a bird of prey as a malignant tln-eatening as})ect: 
Charlie a la harbe grifaigne , cf. Dante: Cesare artnato con gH 
occhi grifagni (falcon eyes). 

Grifo — griffe. 

Grignon Fr. cinist of bread. Norm, grigne. Pic. grignette. N. Pr. 
grignonn == grape -stone &c. From granum, grignon for 
greignon or graignon, cf. chignon for chaignon, harguigner for 
bargaigner. From grignon comes Fr. grignoter. 

Grigio — griso. 

Gril grille — grada. 

Grille Sp., Pg.grilhOy Pi\ grilhd, Yr.grillet fetter, manacle; from 
the clanking soimd like the note of the cricket (gryllm), cf. 
O. Fr. grcsillon, which has both senses. 

Grillo It. Sp. caprice, whim ; from the sudden leap of the cricket 
fgrillo) ci.capricciOy and Rh.grilla in both senses. Wh. grillare. 

Grillo Sp., Cat. grily, Pg. grelo shoot, sprout, vb. griilar &c. 
From gracilis, tlirough the O. Fr. grel. 


Grim Pr. afflicted, grima affliction, grimar to be afflicted; from 
O. H. G. grim furious, E. grim, cf. gram (gramo). 

Grixna Sp. fright (at seeing something dreadful), Pg. aversion. 
From A. S. grima ghost, from same root as the preceding 
word , V. grimoire. 

Orimaoe — grimoire. 

Grizno It. wrinkled; from O. H. G. grim, E. grim, Sbst. grinza 
a wrinkle, grinzo wrinkled, aggrinzare from O. H. G. grim- 

Grimoire Fr. a conjuring- book, unintelligible talk (E.gramary); 
from O. N. A. S. grima a ghost ^whence Fr. E. grimace), gri- 
moire like executoire, monitoire &c. There are others words 
from the Norse mythology, e.g.catichemar, loup-garou, truiller, 
G^nin finds a form gramare for grimoire and refers them to 
grammaire (i. e. Latin). Then, the form must have been 
adapted to grima. O. Fr. ingremance, Pg. engrimanzo gib- 
berish are corruptions of nigremance, Pr. nigromancia. Wall. 
egrimancien from ne'cromancien. Littr6 (Hist, de la langue 
frangaise) approves of G^nin's derivation, which is, more- 
over, supported bv the E. form gramary, 

Grimper Fr. to climb; from O. H. G. klimban, E. climb, G. klim- 
men, or from Du. grijpen (G. greifen) to seize. Norm. Wall. 
griper = grimper; Berr. grimper =^- to seize. 

Grinar Pr. to grin; from O. H. G. grinan, G. greinen, E. grin; 
hence It. di-grignare. Com. grigna. Champ. Pic. grigner les 
dents, from an O. H. G. form grinjan ==■ A. S. grinian. Sbst. 
Rh. ^ri^na ffrimace. 

Grinoer Fr., Pic. grincher to gnash; from 0. H. G. gremizdn = 
A, S. grimetan. Cf. It. gricciare, 

GrintaLomb. a grim sallen look, haughtiness; Ven. ^nw/rt rage, 
scorn; from O. II. G. grimmida grimness. 

Grinsa — grimo. 

Gripo — gripper. 

Gripper Fr. to seize; Goth, greipan, E. grip, O. N. gripa, Du. 
grijpen, = O. H. Gt. grifan, G. greifen, Lomb. grippa to rob, 
It. grippo a pirate -ship, Sp. gripo a trading vessel. 

Grippo — gripper. 

Griflo grigio It., Sp. Pg. Fr. gris, grey, also sbst. Sp. Pg. O. Fr. 
gris, O. E. grys (Chauc. = grey fur). Iloncc It. griseUo, Sp. 
griseta , Fr. gnseite a sort ol grey stufl^, Fr. also a person of 
the lower orders, cf. E. borel folk, from bujo. From O. S. 
grh canus, M. H. G. gris grise, L. L. grisetts, whence It. gri- 
gio, Rh, grisch, O. Sp. grisco, 

Gritar — gridare. 

Grive Fr., Cat. griva a thrush; an onomatop. (Menage). 

Grogner groin gronder — grugnire. 



Qrole Fr. (f.) a rook. The fomi acul ought to give acle or ai, 
graculus graada graille (v. gracco), but as seuie from $endim 
so may have boon formed grmde grolCy v. meule. It. grda, 
Du. groi from tlie Fr. 

Gromma It. cnist (of wine); cf. Sw. grumleie sediment, Swed. 
gnims grummel. 

Grommeler Fr., Wall, groumi; G. grumeln grumen, E. grumble, 
cf. W. ab8t. gnvm. 

Gronda It., Rh. grunda, Fr. se'veronde, E. severans, Roncbi 
sotwronie, (). Fr. souronde eaves; from svhgrtmda (Varro). 
Hence grondare to drip , grondaia stiilicidium. 

Grongo gong^ro It.; from congrus, yoyygog, Fr. congre, L 
conger &c. 

Groppo gruppo It., Sp. grupo gorrvpo, Fr. groupe, E. group; 
It. groppa, Sp. grupa, Pg. garupa, Pr. cropa, Fr. croupe, E. 
m)?(p (cf . Fr. frousse in botli senses') ; vb. O. Fr. croupir to 
squat, Fr. to prop. Tlie root is founcl both in the Germ, and 
the (Jelt. prop. = something compressed, O. H. G. kropfj 
Norse kryppa a heap, bunch, O. II. G. krupel, G. A'rQppei, E. 
cripple, vb. N. kriupn, L. G. krupen to cower, Gael, mipto 
contract, W. cropa, E. cro/?. Hence groppone, croupion rump, 
O. Fr. crepon (c from N. krippa); E. crupper, 

Grosella Sp. Cat., Fr. groscille. Com. crosela, Pg. groselheira, 
Rouchi gnisielc, Wall, gruzale; from grossus coarse, G. Aroitf- 
/;^rrt' krdmelhecre , Sw. krvshar, Uu. kruisbezie, Eng. (corrupt) 
gooseberry, = It. wr« crespa , G. At^i« = rough. 

Grosso It. Pg., Sp. grueso, Pr. Wall. Fr. ^ro,9 thick, sbst. ^/w 
the name of a coin. L. L. grossus, G. ^;oz grandis^ crassiu, 
which latter, however, should have given Pr. ^raf//, and is 
found in Borr. groi grout, E. groat. Hence E. engross, grocer 
= Fr. marcJumd grossier one who sells by the gross. 

Grotesque — grotta, 

Grotta It., Sp. Pg. gruta, Fr. grotte, Pr. O. Fr. crota crofe n 
cavern, E. grotto y licence Burg. Gene v. cncrotter to bury; froui 
crypta (xQvnrrf), Wal. cn'pte; adj. It. grottesco, Fr. E. gro- 
tesque prop, like a grotto, fantastical in shape &c. 

Grouiller Fr. to crawl, stir; from O. H. G. grubilon, L. G. gru- 
twin to grabl)l(i, G. gnibeln, cf. O. N. gru/la, Cf. also O. n.(i. 
crewelon, Du. krcvehm, E. crawl, Jierr. gravouiltir, 

Gruau Fr. groats; for grueau = O. Fr. gruel which is for gmifi 
from A. b. grut, O. H. G. gruzl, (5. griitzCy whence also E. 
gruel, W. grual, (Jhamp. gru = bran. 

Gruccia — crocn'a. 
Grude — glu, 
Grueso — grosso. 


Gnifolare It. to grunt, to turn up the soil as a pig; from grifo 

snout, and grugnire to grunt. 
Gruger Fr. to chew a hard substance (O. E. grudge), egruger to 

Eound small, hence E. gurgeons. Perhaps from M. H. G. gruz, 
K E. grut, Pr. gru, E. groats, with suffix icare = Fr. ger 
(vindicare venger). N. Pr. gruci = to make groats. Cf. gruan. 

Grugnire It., Sp. grurdr, Pr. gronhir gronir, Wall, grogni; from 
grunnire. Also It. grugnare, Fr. grogner. Hence sbst. It. 
grugno, Pr. gronh, Fr. groin, O. Pg. gruin the snout. Cf. O. 
H. G. grun, grunni, E. groan, W. grwn. From grundire is Pr. 
grondir, O. Fr. grondir grondre, Fr. gronder. O. Fr. groncer 
= O. H. G. grunzen, E. grunt, 

Grulla Sp. a crane; from gruicula, 

Grumeler — grumo, 

Grumo It. Sp. Pg. a lump, clot, O. Fr. grume divers sorts of 
corn, It. grumolo heart of cabbage, Sp. grumete a boy, ship's 
boy (cf. garzone), whence Fr. gourmette; Fr. se grumeler to 
clot together, curdle; from grumus gnimulus a heap. 

Grupo — groppo. 

Gruta — grotta. 

Grayer Fr. forester. As verdier from viridis, so gruyer from G. 
griin, E. green, M. H. G. gruo = pratum. 

Grazzo gnizzolo It. heap , mass of tnings , Wal. gruelzi; of G. 
origin, cf. Sw. grutz,m., H. G. gruz. 

Guacharo — guado. 

Guadagnare It., Rh. gudoignar, Pr. gazanhar for gadanhar, Fr. 
gagner ior gaagner, Yi.gain; O. Sip. guadaiier to mow; sbst. 
It. guadagno, Pr. gazanh, Fr. E. gain; Sp. guadaila, Pg. gua- 
danha a scythe. The orig. meaning is prob. found in O. Fr. 
gaaigner to cultivate land {gaagnage gaaignerie profit of land), 
whence the sense of acquiring. From O. H. G. wcidan6n or 
ipeidanjan (G. weideti) to nunt, pasture. From guadagnare we 
have Pg. ganhar, Cat. Val. gutanyar. Sp. 0. Pg. ganar (L. L. 
ganare) is too old to be a mere contraction , and is prob. con- 
nected with gana (q. v.). From ganar, Pg. ganancia, ganca, 
vb. gancar, O. Pg. guaajicar from guadagnare. Dante Inf. 
24, 12 has ringavagnare from O. Fr. regaagner. 

Guado It., Pr. gud, Fr. ^w^'ford, from O. H. G. tvat, 0. N. vad; 
vb. It. guadare, Pr. guazar (guasar), Fr. gueer, from waian, 
G. waten, E. wade. Sp. has vado vadear from the Latin; 
esguazo esguazar from tiio Pr., It. guazzo guazzare. Guazzo 
= a drinking -place, Sp. guacharo = dropsical, guachapear 
to paddle in the water. 

Guado It., Fr. guede (f.), (). Fr. gaidc waide, provinc. vouede 
woad; from O. H. G. weit, A. S. vdd, E. woad. From an 
O. Fr. guesde came L. L. waisda, guaadium, guesdium. Wall. 


9c*jiss njval-bhii? for tcahi a^ cress lor cresi, L*. crista, af/mt 

t«.T fiotist. L- 'iu(;ustus . .Sp. P^. fffasio = Gallic giashum. 

Goal It. Sj'. Pjt:.. <;». Fr. irai. Fr. oii4t^: sbst. It. gftajo, Sp- Pp. 

i/wiy*i: tr»>m <j"th. i<j/. O. H. G. tct, E. iroc*. W. ^irar , L. iw. 

Guaizne It.. r>. Fr. ^ain . WalL waycn , Loir, rcycn , Fr, ir-^in 

aftemiaih: from O. H. G. icei«la pasture, G- tceidc, or fo>m 

vb. tc*rhh'»f\ . with K^.^m. sadf. t/ne* guad-imc guaime; cf. iL^vof- 

r/w^ fr«>iu »jun.<tar»r. Rouefai has tcamiay, Xorm. rouM (for 

//'•w/j <7//i/« . r>. Fr. rw/'/i. 

Goaina It., Fr. *jnhk^. <j. Fr. game, Ron. wame, W. ^ir<ini a 

^ heath: trom nifftn*!. Mil. ha» guadinna. Yen. guazina. 
Gualcare It., K«.ini. gvalche. O. Fr. gatu-her, Dauph. gouchier, = 
< ». E. »rW/. I*' tTiU: from <J.H.G. tcalchan, G. walken, ILu-aikf 
widker = = a fuller . Heiioe guaJehiera , O. Fr. gouchoir. 
Gualcire It. to pull to pieces: from O. H. G. icalzjan volvere, 

vellicare. G. tnilzen to roll, to waltz. 
Giialda Sp.. Viz.gualde. Fr. gaude. It. guadarelia a plant for 
dyt-ing yellow, wtrhi , whence Sp. gualdo, Pg. gualde^ 0. Sp. 
gwulo yellow: from E. weld, <.t. wau. 
Gualdana incursion i if soldiery, a troop of soldiers (Dante); 

from M. H. G. tnjidan a storming. 
Gualiar galiar Pr. to deceive . gwdiart scornful. From a G. 
sourer, Goth, dvah t\»oUsh, A. S. dvala error, dreHan dreiigan, 
to "^rr , Du. dwalen. For the loss of the d cf. guercio. 
Guancia It. cheek: from O. H. G. wanga wanAa, G. wanfif, 
yeap.gitn/ftila vuo/ffjfu is from'ida a bit of meat [cLbucca 
(i^ cheek j2 bit], or from C>, H. G. hiufila. 
Guanto It,. Sp. Pg. guante, Pn guan^ Fr. gant, dim. Sp, guatUt- 
Me. E. gauntlet. Beda has: tegumenta manuum gu€e Galii wm- 
tos vfjtant. From a G. source: O. X. v6(tr = van/r, Swed. 
Dan. rante. 
Guanir Sp. to gnmt; from A. S. van Jan, O. H. G. iccm&n, E. 


Guappo Neap., ilil. guapo haughty, Com. rap vain fv for guj, 

Sp. Pg. guapo bold, elegant, Gasc. gouapou; sbst. Sp.guapeza 

ostentation: vb. Norm, gouaper to sport. From a G. n)Ot, 

found in A. S. vapol a bubble, vb. vapolian, Du. wapperen. 

Guaragno It., Sp. guaraiion, O. Sp. guaran (Tal. guard), Pr. 

guaragnon a stallion; from L. L. waranio, which is from 

O. L. G. tirenjo, Du. wrene, O. H. G. reineo, cf. E. irr«^ = 

lasci\'us , the root being fomul in Sansk. vdra tail fveredus?J. 

Guardare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. guardar, Fr. garder, E. guard; from 

(}. II. G. wartcn to take care, AV. gwara, Sk. m to protect: 

sbst. It. Sp. guardia (f.), Pr. guarda (f.), Fr. ^arefe (f. m,), 

E. guard, from Goth, vardja, 0. H. G. war^o (^'li '^'^'''^^ O*)* 

Hence also It. guardiana, Sp. Pr. E. guardian , Yv. gardkii; 


It. guardingo, Sp. gar dingo; It. sguardare, O. Sp. esguardar, 
O. Fr. esgarder. 
Ouardingo — guardare. 

Guarento O. It., Sp. gar ante y Pr. guar an guiren, Fr. gar ant a 
guarantee, L.L. warens, E. warrant, O. Fries, werand warand; 
from 0. H. G. werdn to give bail for, tvarrant. The Pr. guiren 
is the orig. form , vb. It. guarentire &c. 
Ouari It., Pr. Cat. ^/iir^, Fr. guere gueres = h. multum. Besides 
gaire, Pr. has granren ganren (=^ grandis res), used with or 
without a negative. Both were used adjectivoly: ganren vega- 
das, gaire companhds, of. It. guan tempo. Guari is from O. H. 
G. wdri = L. verus, Pr. guaire gaire; for the sense of. L. 
probe, gawdri = probitas. Fr. naguere = il n'a guere, non ha 
guari non est multum (temporis); ViQAxn. pa-vaire not much 
= Pr. pas guaire. 0. Fr. guersoi great thirst = guere soif. 
Com. gerr is from O. It. gueri. Or from O. H. G. weiger 
(= O. Pr. form gaigre) "much'' only found in unweiger^=^ 
''not much^'. 

Onarire guerire It; O. Sp. O. Pg. guarir (Sp. guarecer), Pr. 
O. Fr. garir, Fr. gue'rir; from Goth, varjan, O. H. G. werjan, 
G. tvehren to defend. Hence Pg. guarita, Sp. garita, O. Fr. 
garite, Fr. guerite a safe place (E. garret, Chauc. warice, wa- 
fish), sentry-box &c. ; formed from an It. participial form gua- 
riia, c{. reussite from riuscita. Piedm. garita, Ven. gareta, 
Crem. garetta are from the Fr. ; the pure Sp. is guarida a lurk- 
ing place. Cf. Dief. Wb. 1, 205. 

Ouamacoia — guamire. 

Ouamire guemire It., O. Sp. guarnir, Sp. guamecer, Pr. Fr. 
gamir, E. garnish; from O. II. G. warndn, G. warnen (warn), 
or from A. S. vamian to take care of, O. Fries, wernia to 
protect, whence Rh. vamiar, but Lomb. guama suits the O. 
H. G. word. O. Fr. gamir also = inform, admonish, as 
O. H. G. warndn, A. S. vamian, E. warn. Hence It. guarnac- 
da guamacca, Sp. gamacha, Pr. gannacha, Fr. gamache a 
robe, cf. O. H. G. wama; It. guarnello an undergarment; It. 
guamimento, Fr. garnement, E. garment, and It. guarnigione, 
Fr. garnison, E. garrison. 

Ouasootto —^ hiscotto. 

Qxiastare It, O.Sp. O.Pg. Pr. guastar, Sp. Pg. gastar, Fr. gdter 
to spoil, waste. From vastare or from O. H. G. wastjan (from 
sbst wastjo, M. H. G. wasten, E. waste)? From the L., with 
the influence of the G. w; cf. adj. It. guasto, Pg. ^o^^o^ O. Fr. 
guaste = vastus; diguastare, deguastar, degdter = devastaer. 
O- Fr. gastir is from wastjan. O. Fr. guastine = waste, desert, 
adj. gastin. 

GKiatare guaitare It., Pr. guaitar, Fr. ^t^//^ to watch; sbst 


Oeni. Pr. (fuaita^ (). Fr. guetle, Fr. (m.) guet; from O. H. 6. 

uahteiky sl)6t. uahta, G. wachi, (4oth. vahtvo, E. watch. Hence 

It. aggualarCy Sp. Pr. aguaitar, O. Fr. aguetier = guaiare; It 

agualo, Sp. ^^^/V, Fr. ^/^m^^ (usu. in pL), ambush, nrhence 

dfiguet = d^agnet, 
Guattera — gnetre, 
Guaszo — guado, 
Gubia Sp., P<r. goiva, N. Pr. gubio, Fr. E. gouge. L. L. gwtk 

gubia and gulvia gulbia. From the Basque gubia a hole, gubM 

a throat. Larr. derives gubia from gurbia, cf. It. gorbiasgor- 

bin, L. L. gulbia, 
Gudazzo It., Crem. Com. gudazz a godfather, f. gudazza; from 

O. II. G. goUi, f. gota, G. ^o/^e. 
Gu6 — guado. 
Guede — guado. 
Guedeja — vedija, 
Gueder Fr. to satisfy (only in partio. guede); from O. H. G. tcei- 

don, G. weiden to pasture, \\'lien'c'e also Wall, waidi, 
Guenille Fr. rag, rogged coat; from Flem. qttene woollen over 

coat, or like souquenille from gonna q. v. 
Guenlpe Fr. a dissolute woman, slut, Dauph. ganippa; from 

Du. knipje trap, cf. knip brothel, G. kneipe ale-house. 
Guenon Fr. female ape; from quena woman, E. quean, queen; 

or from O. H. G. ivinja amica. Cf. It. monna a female ape* 

from madonna, 
Guepe Fr. a wasp ; from vcspa, the gu from the O. H. G. wefsa, 

G. wespa, E. wasp, cf. Lorr. voisse ^ro = O.H.G. wj, Cliauip. 

goucpe, Berr. gepe. 
Guar guerle — guercio, 
Guercho — guercio, 
Guercio It., Com. sguerc, Rh. guersch (uiersch), O. Sp. guercho, 

Pr. guer guerle, Dauph. gucrlio squinting. From O. n. G. tuxr 

dwerch, G. quer oblique, E. queer. 
Guerdon — guiderdone, 
Guere — guari, 
Gueret — barbecho, 
Gu^rir g^erite — guarire, 
Guermenter — gaimenter, 
Guerpir O. Fr., Pr. gueipir gurpir to give up, desert, resign, 

Fr. deguerpir; from Goth, vairpan, O. II. G. werfan, G. ir^- 

fen to throw. From an old German custom of throwing a 

straw into another's lap on ceding any property to mm. 

V. Ducange. 
Guerra It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. guerre, E. tear; from O.H.G. tverra, 

O. E. werre, vb. 0. H. G. werran to bring into disorder, so 
. guerrier in O. Fr. = enemy, make -bate. 


Ouet guetter — gualare. 

GuStre Fr. (f.), ^.gaiter, hsLUg. gueio, WsLU.gueUj Chamf. gu^te, 
Piedm. gheta, Rouchi guetton, Bret, gweltren. 

Gueude — gheldra. 

Gueux Fr. (f. gueuse) beggar, vb. gueuser, Sw. g6sen. Perhaps 
connected with gueuse throat. Whether gueuse be from It. 
gozzOy or Fr. g osier from It. gozzaja = gozzaria is doubtful. 
Others make gueux the same word as queux (coquus), cf. 

Gufo It. an owl; from O. H. G. huf huvo. 

Gui Fr. mistletoe. From Celtic givid, gue, guy , L. viscus (It 
visco vischio), 

Guiar — guidare. 

Guiche g^iige O. Fr. a ribbon thong (espec. of a shield), It 
guiggia. From O. H. G. windicas, plur. of windinc (fasciola 
^'vindinca'' GL). Hence also Provin. s'aguincher to deck one- 
self (with ribbons). 

Guichet Fr., O. Fr. wiket gmschet, Pr. guisquei, E. wicket, Du. 
winket; from O. N. vik, A. S. vie. 

Guidare It., Sp. Pg. guiar, Pr. guidar guizar guiar, Fr. guider, 
E. guide; sbst It. guida, Sp. guia, Pr. guida guit, O. Fr. guis, 
Fr. E. guide. Perhaps from O. H. G. vitan to watch, cf. It. 
scorgere, and for the medial O. Fr. hadir hair from hatan; 
sbst. guida = Goth. A. S. vita counsellor. From guidare is 
Fr. guidon. 

Guiderdone It, Pr. guazardon (for guadardon) guiardon guier- 
don, 0. Fr. guerredon guerdon, E. guerdon, Sp. galardon, Pg. 
galardao, 0. Cat. guardd, L. L. widerdonum; vb. guider do- 
nare &c. Widerdonum is a corruption (through donum) of the 
O. H. G. ividarldn recompensation, A. J5. widherlean, G. wider 
back , Ww = loan. Sp. galardon is for gadardon. Pr. Synon. 
guazardinc is through Lomb. fAina: garathinx. 

Guidon — guidare. 

Giiiggia — guiche. 

Giiigne — visciola. 

Giiigner — ghignare. 

Guijo Sp. guija gravel, guijarro pebble -stone. From Basque 
eguiya angle, guijarro from eguijarria angular stone, v. Lar- 

Guile O. Fr. E., Pr. guila, m. guil, vb. 0. Fr. guiler, Pr. guitar, 
E. beguile. From A. S. vile, E. wile, cf. W. gwill, Bret. gwU 
a thief. 

Guilde Fr. a shower of rain , Wall, walaie for waslaie; from 0. 
H. G. wasal rain; guilee like ondee &c. 

Goilena Sp. a plant, columbine; from aquilina. 


Guilha — guiler. 

Guilledin Fr., from ¥j. gelding. 

Guimauve — malvavischio, 

Guimple guimpe O. Fr. f., E. nimpie; from O. H. G. wimpalj 

G. uimjtel a pendant, streamer. Sp. impla a veil may come 

from wimpal as well as from in f via, ef. Andalucia from Yah- 

Guindar guinder — gfiindare, 
Guingois Y\\ unevenness; from O. N. kingr kengr a bend, for 

(jningoiSy by assimilation. For siiff. ois v. R. Gr. 2, 314. 
Guinar — ghignare. 
Guiper O. Fr. to work with silk thread , whence Fr. guipure a 

sort of lace; from Goth, veipan to festoon, O. H. G. wiffan to 

weave, (r. weifcn to reel. Of. aggueffare. 

Guirlande gnimalda — ghirlanda. ^ 

Guisa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. guise; vb. Sp. guisar; Pr. desguisar, 
Fr. deguiser, E. disguise; from O. II. G. wisa, G. weise. 

Guisarme O. Fr., Pr. gasnnna, O. Fr. gisarme jusiirme, Pr.yw- 
sarma, It. giusarma, O. E. gisarm gysam, also Fr. wisarme 
visarme, whence O. Sp. hisarma a sort of light weapon, L. L 
gisarmOy often found with epith. esmolue snarpcneor, ground. 
It is often found in connection with faix falautrum , which is 
translated by the O. H. G. getisarn (G. jdteisen a hoe% This 
\n^y \\^\Q h^iiomQ gctsarna gisarna , and then, through tfrm^?^ 
guisarma. The fonn with w follow the analogy of such words 
as guivre givre wivre, gachiere jachiere waguiere, Dief.^ derives 
it from gesarUy v. gese; others from gcesum and arma; which 
would be too artificial. 

Guiscart guichard O. Fr., Pr. guiscos sharp, acute; from-<X.K 
visk-r. Others make it = wizard, wiz and hart, wise-kearL 

Guita Sp. Pg. packthread; from vida through O. H. G. tpiia. 

Guitarra guitarre — chitarra. 

Guitran — catrame, 

Guivre — givre. 

Guizzare sguizzare, Ven. sguinzare, Mil. sguinza to quiver as 
fish do; from G. wiisen witschen. 

Guizzo — vizzo, 

Gume Pg. (m.) acutcness; from acunien, whence, perhaps, Sp. 
gumia, Pg. gomia agomia a poniard. 

Gurrumina Sp. uxoriousness ; from Basque gur-mina evil in- 

Gusano Sp. Pg. a worm; from cossus, whence also Rh. coss. 

Guscio It. shell of nuts, eggs &c., Fr. gousse (f.) husk, pod, 
Mil. guss (m.) gussa (f.), Romag. goss gossa; hence Fr. goussel 
fob, "E. gusseL Placidushas: galliciciola cortex nucis juglan- 


(fis, perhaps for galliciola from gallicia (nux gallic a a walnut), 
whicn might become It. galcia galscia guscio, Fr.gausse goussCy 
Com. s-gausc for s-galsc. 


Habla hablar habler — favola. 

Haca Sp., O. Sp. Pg. faca, O. Fr. hague (h asp.) a nag; O. Fr. 
hagtief, Sic. accheltu a nag, Pic. haguette a little mare; Fr. 
haquel a dray. From E. hack; hackney = Dii. hakke-nei CE, 
nag, Du. negg, G. nickel), whence Fr. haguenee, O. Sp. Pg. 
facanea, Sp. hacanea. It. acchinea, chinea. 

Hacha haohe — accia. 

Haoha — fiaccola, 

Hacia — f accia. 

Hacienda — faccenda. 

Hacina — fascio. 

Haoino Sp. stingy, niggardly; from Ar. ^hazin, 

Hagardl^r. {h asp.) stubborn, espec. of falcons, E. haggard, 
G. hagart; from E. hawk with depreciative suffix ard (as in 
btisart &c.). The E. adj. haggard is a diflferent word (from G. 
hager lean). 

Haie Fr. (asp.) hedge; from M. Du. haeghe, Du. haag (whence 
the Hague), O. FL G. hag a town (cf. town &c.). Vb. 0. Fr. 
hayer, O. H. G. hagan, G. hagen. 

Haillon Fr. (asp.) rag; from M. H. G. hadel, G. hader. 

Hair Fr. (asp.), O. Fr. hadir, from Goth, hatan, or, better, from 
A. S. hatian, O. Fris. halia, O. S. hetian, E. hate. O. Fr. he 
from Goth, hatis, A. S. heti hate; hence haior hai'ne, Fr. haine, 
whence haineux, E. heinous, Pr. has a comp. azirar airar 
(adirare), sbst. azir air. 

Haire O. Fr. (asp.) haircloth; from O. H. G. hara, O. N. haera 
hair- stuff. jJorm. hair (m.), E. hair = O. N. O. H. G. hdr. 

Haise (hese) O. Fr. (asp.), L.L. hesia, Norm, aiset, Rouch. asiau 
a small door or grating. Norm, haisier a cart- rack, Basque 
hesia a hedge. From hirpex a barrow, Fr. herse, E. hearse. 

Halt O. Fr. (asp.) pleasure, joy, haitier to animate, cheer, de- 
hait dejection, low spirits, vb. dehaitier, Fr. souhait wish, 
souhaiter. From Goth, ga-hait, O. H. G. ga-heiz, O. N. heit 
promise, vow, cf. L. votum (1) vow (2) wish; it hait = accord- 
ing to one's wish, souhait = secret desire. Wedg. connects 
hait with E. hey-day (= G. hey da), to hoit, hoity-toity. 

Halagar Sp., O. Sp. falagar afalagar, Val. falagar, Cat. af ale- 
gar j Pg. afagar to cajole, caress, sbst. haldgo &c. From a 


form flaihan of the Goth, (hlaihan to caress (or O. H. G. flehdn 
to fawn), whence fla// faJg falag. 

Halar Sp., Fr. holer {h asp.); Pg. alar; from O. N. hala^ 0. E 
G. haldriy E. haul, 

Halbran Fr. (asp.), albran Sp. Fr. a young wild duck , halbrene 
broken- winged, vb. halbrener to shoot ducks. From G. liatth 
cnte (half-duck) = anas ciuerquedula, so called from its smaD 
size, for halber ait (M. il. G. ant masc.) cf. halber ampfer, 
Ibuice, perhaps, E. auburn, Wedg, 

Halbren6 — halbran, 

Halcon — falcone. 

Hale Fr. (asp.) siunnier-heat, vb. hdlcr to burn up, dry. The 
circumflex is not for a lost s (cf. O. Fr. futller), the word being 
from Du. hael dry. 

Haleine — alcnarc, 

Haler — halar, 

Haligote harligote O. Fr. (asp.) rag, vb. haligoier harigoter; 
from E. harl a filament , 0. H. G. harluf licium. 

Hallar Sp., O. Sp. fallar (still used in the sense of finding a 
verdict = Fr. trouver) to find. The obs. form falar might be 
from Pg. a/lar (O. Sp. ajar v. achar), cf. Sp. sajar and jasoTj 
garzo and zarco, facerir and zafcrir. From aflar is Sp. ajar 
= to maltreat, cf. offendere (l) meet with (2) hurt. 

Halle Fr. (asp.), whence It alia; from O. H. G. Italia , A. S. 

heal, E. hall, 
Hallebarde — alabarda. 
Hallier Fr. (asp.), E. hallier, Pic. hallo a bush. L. L. ha%la in 

hasla i, e, in ramo. 
Halot Fr. (asp.) a rabbit's hole; from 0. H. G. hoi, A. S. hal, 

E, hole. 
Halt O. Fr. (asp.) abiding- place, Fr. halte, E. halt, It. Sp. alto; 

from G. halt, E. hold, O. II. G. fem. halta halt. 
Hamac hamaca — amaca. 
Hambre Sp. hunger; from fames G. faminis, cf. O. Sp. fame^ 

Sard, famini, v. Kom. Gr. 1 , 190. The Pg. has fome^ Com. 

fom, Wal. foame, 
Hameau Fr. (asp.) hamlet, O. Fr. Pic. ham; E. ham, Goth. 

halms ^ O. II. G. heim, E. home, 
Hame9on — ancmo, 
Hampa — vampo, 

Hampe Fr. (asp.) handle of a weapon; from O. H, G. hant haba, 
Hanafat O. Fr. a vt^ssel for honey; Du. honig-vat, O. S. hanig- 

fat, E. honey- vat, 

Hanap — anappo, 
Hanohe — anca. 


Hanebane henebane Fr. (asp.); from E. henbane = Fr. mart 
aux ponies. 

Hangar. — angar. 

Hanneton Fr. (asp.) a cockchafer; prob. a dim. of the G. hahn 
in weideti-hahn (meadow -hen) a name of the insect in pro- 
vincial G., cf. EcocA*-. chafer. Eton is a double dim. et-on, cf. 
banneton, caneton, ciocheion, feuilleton, brocheton, moineton, 
ceilleton, sommeton. From its buzzing -noise it is called in 
Lorr. hurlai, Pic. hourlon, bruant, Champ, equergnot, Wall, 
biese-a-baloive. Genin refers it to ane a duck, from a sup- 
posed likeness. 

Hansaos O. Fr. a knife. From A. S. hand-seax a hand -knife. 
Hence Fr. hansart a garden knife. 

Hanse Fr. (asp.) a trading -company, from O. H. G. hansa a 

Hante hanste 0. Fr. a spear -shaft; from ames amites (v. andas). 

Hanter Fr. (asp.), haniise O. Fr. hant, E. haunt, G. haniicren. 
From the O. N. heimta to long after (heim home), Dan. hente, 
Cf. its intrans. use: les seraines en la mer hantent Brut. 1, p. 37. 

Happe Fr. (asp.) a cramp-iron, happer to pack; from O. H. G, 
happa a sickle, G. happen to pack, Prov. E. happ, 

Haquen^e haquet — haca. 

Haraldo — araldo. 

Harangue — artngo. 

Harapo — arpa. 

Haras Fr. (asp.) a stud (of horses), L. L. haracium. From Arab. 
far as a horse (Sp. alfaras\ the Arab, breed being famous, 
(farii equi Ducange). We should, however, have expected 
an O. Fr. farasy L. L. faracium. 

Harasser Fr. (asp.) = E. harass. 

Harceler — herse. 

Hard hart Fr. (f. asp.) string, harde rope, herd, pi. hardes 
articles of clotning &c. ; cf. Sp. Pg. fardas, Fr. fardeau, O. Fr. 

Hardi — ardire. 

Hardier O. Fr. (asp. J to provoke; from same G. root as hardi, 
L. L. anharden to incite. 

Hareng — aringa. 

"HBitefr harier O. Fr., hence O. E. to hare and han'e; from har 
haro a cry for help f halloo!), cf. O. H. G. hdren to cry out. 
Connected is the O. Fr. haraler to plague, sbst. harale uproar. 
Some refer harer harier and harasser to an O. Fr. har witliy, 
rod, scourffe, but this is for hard or hart, and the dental could 
hardly be lost in derivatives. 

Hargne O.Fr. peevishness, surliness, adj. hergne, Lorr. haregne 
quarrel, Fr. hargneux (h asp.) quarrelsome, Norm, harigneux 


stubborn, vb. O. Fr. hargner to quarrel, Pic. to scoff, hergner 

to coin})lain. Some suit the O. H. G. harmjan (E. harm) 

Haricot In\ Qi asp.) small bean; Pic. harkotier a retailer. Genin 

shows that the orig, meaning was anything minced small, e,g. 

^^ haricot de mou(on'\ lie refers it to aliquod ("for haligote)! 
Haridelle Fr. (asp.) a jade, Kouchi hardele, E. harridan, cf. 

Wall, harotty Norm, harin, 
Harija Sp. mill- dust; from /'arriculum? 
Harlot — arlotlo. 
Harnacher hamois — arnese. 
Haro (asp.) a loud cry. From O. S. herod (O. H. G. hera hard) 

= L. hue, whence also vb. haroder, and the compounds har- 

loup, harlcvrier, and vb. harcr harier, 0, H. G. haren to cry 

out. The word was orig. used in such expressions as: harou 

harou! a Vors! 
Harouche — farouche. 
Harpe harper harpon — arpa. 
Harto Sn., 0. Sj). Pg. farto satiated, adv. Sp. hartOy O.Pg.farte 

enougn, wlnnice hartar fartar ; ivoia fareire farhis. 
Hasard — azzardo. 
Hascas fascas fasca O. Sp. adv. = L. pa^ne; from Sp. hasta- 

Haschiere O. Fr. (asp.) (whence haschic, Pic. haskie^ pain ; from 

(>. H. fr. harmscara smart, L. L. hascaria, O. Cat. ah'scara. 
Hase Fr. (asp.) female hare; from O. II. G, haso. Norm, heriis 

from O. N. hen\ 
Hasple — aispo. 
Hasta Sp., 0. Sp. 0. Pg. fasfa = L. tetius; from haeia and aia? 

V. te. Or, from the Arab, ^hatta? Hence vb. hasfar. 
Hastio — fastio. 
H&te Fr. (asp.) for haste, vb. hcUer, adj. hdtif, Pr. astiu, O. It. 

adv. astivamente; from G. Fr. haste, ]?f. hastr, E. haste, vb. K. 

hasta, M. II. G. hasten, E. haste, 
Haterel O. Fr. (asp.) nape, hasfcrel, Pic. hatereau, Wall, hairai. 

PVom O. II. G. halsadara, M. II. G,hatsadar, whence halsterel 

haUcrel haterel hasterel; cf. contraindre , It. poltro (for poistro) 

for the loss of .v between a liquid and a /. 
Hato Sp., Vg. fato clothes, effects, provisions, herd; from 0. 

WAj. fazza or faz (n.) a bundle, O. N. /V// = garment, pocket, 

cf. Swed. fate-bur store -house. 
Haubans Fr. (asp.) shrouds, O. Fr. hobenes; from O. N. hdfud- 

bendtir (pi.)? ^^* ^I« ^^^* hobant for hoofdt)ant. It would be 

more correct to write hohans. From I)u. raa-band is Fr. raban, 
Haubert — usbergo. 
Hausser — alzare. 


Haut Fr. (asp.), O. Fr. halt hault; from altus, the aspirate from 
N. ha or O. H. G. hdch, E. high. 

Have Fr. thin and pale; from A. S. hasva, M. H. G. heswe torri- 
dus pallidas. 

Haver O. Fr. Tasp.) to draw to oneself; from O. H. G. hahin, 
E. have = nold. From same root is O. Fr. /lavet a hook, 
from haba or haft with Fr. suff. et, cf. Wall, haveter from 

Haveron havron averon Fr. wild oats ; from O. H. G. haharo, 
or, since h is silent, for aveneron (avena). 

Havir Fr. (asp.) to sin^e; from O. H. G. heien to burn. 
Havre Fr. (m. asp.), 0. Fr. havene Tiavle hable harbour; from 
A. S. haffen, E. haven, O. N. h6fn, 

Havresac Fr. (asp.); from G. hahersack provision -bag. 
Haya — faggia. 
Haz — fascia. 

Haz Sp. Pg. (f.) array of soldiers &c. ; from acies. 
Haza aza op., O, Sp. faza a piece of garden or cultivated land ; 
= Pr. faissa (fascia) a strip of land. 

He Sp. in he -me he-te he-lo &c. = L. ecco; for feme = veme = 
vide me, so helo = It. vello. For f=v, cf. O. Sp. femencia 
= vehemefitia, Sp. hisca = fisca from viscum, refer entia for 
reverentia, R, Gr. 2, 387. 

H6 Fr. in helas (h silent) = L. ai (ar); Pr. ailas, E. alas. Las 
= lassus. 

Heaume — elmo. 

Hebilla Sp. buckle, Galic. fehilla; dim. oi fibula, Pr. fivela. 

Hebra Sp. thread, fibre; from L. It. fibra. 

Hechicero heohizo — fattizio. 

Hediondo Sp. fetid; = fcetebundus , Rom. Gr. 2, 310. 

Hedrar Sp. to dig twice ; from iterare. 

Heingre 0. Fr., Wall, hink slender, lank, Norm, haingre sickly; 
from ceger, n inserted. Hence Fr. mal-ingre sickly. Pied. 
Mil. malingher, O. Fr. Norm, mitigrelin, It. mingherlino. From 
cegrotus 0. Fr. engroty engrote. 

Hilas — lasso. 

Helecho — felce. 

Hellequin O. Fr. (asp.) from G. helle, E. hell (with depreciative 
term, as in bouquin, matinequin), dim. Uu. helleken hellekin, 
a ghost, in the form of a wild hunter, v. Curpenticr. Hence 
Dante's Alichino (name of a devil). Inf. 21 , 118. 

Halt heux — elsa. 

Henchir Sp., Pg. encher, 0. Pg. emprir to fill, stuflF, sbst. O. Sp. 
encha; from implere, It. empiere. For the h, cf. R. Gr. 1, 264. 

Hendrija — rendija. 


Hendure O. Fr. (asp.) handle of a dagger, hende provided with 

a handle; from O. N. /tntda, O. E. hend to seize. 
Henir Sp. to knead dough; from fingere. 
H^raut — araldo, 
Herde O. Fr. (asj).), Pic. herde, O. Wall, hierde herd; from 0. 

11. G. herddj Uoth. hairda, E. herd. O. Fr. herdier, Champ. 

hairdi, Du. herder, M. H. G. heriaere. 
Here Fr. (asp^ pauvre here = poor fellow. From G. herr. 
Herigaut G. Fr. (asp.) an over -garment, also hergaut, L. L. 

herigaldm, of. harigola (Diicange). 
H^risser h^risson — rtccio. 
Hermano Sp., Pg. irmao, Cat. germd, f. hermana, shortened Pg. 

mano mana; from germnnus in oldest L. L. = f rater (fraile). 

which was used for a friar. Hence Sp. cormano, Pg. coirmao 

8t(»p - brother = co7i - germanus, 
Hermine — armellino, 
HermoBO Sp., Pg. O. Sp. fermoso fremoso^ Wal. fmmos; from 

forfnosus (fuermoso fermoso). 
Heron — aghirone, 

Herpe Sp. Pg. Cat. a tetter, skin-eniption; from fQnrig a sore. 
Herpe Ir. (asp.); for harpe from harpe, Pr. arpa a claw. Cf. 

Nonn. herp<*r to seize. 
Herren — ferrana. 

Herrin Sp. rust ; from fctrugo ferruginis. Sp. hermmhre for fer- 
^ rumen, 
Herse Fr. (f. asp.) harrow, O. Fr. herce, L. L. herein; from Mr- 

prx hbpich, It. erpiee, N. Pr. erpi, Wal. tpre tpe; vb. Fr. her- 

ser, cf. E. hearse, A. S. hersta, O. H. G. harsta a gridiron. 

Hence harceler, O. Fr. herceler (asp.) to provoke, tease, cf. 

Herup6 hurepe O. Fr. Norm, rough, shaggy. Perhaps from A. 

S. hriopan to pull, tear. 
Hervero Sp. throat; from Basque erbera, v. Larraraendi. 
H^taudeau hestaudeau O.Fr. (asp.) a young capon; a dim. from 

O. II. G. hagastall cajlebs, tiro, L. L. Jimstaldus. 
Hetre Fr. (m. asp.) beech; from l)u. heesler heister a bush, L. G. 

hester a young beech , G. heister. 
Hour — augurio, 
Heurt heurter — uriare. 
Heux — elsa, 
Hibou Fr. (asp.) an owl ; an onomatop., cf. O. Fr. houpi, Sw. 

HidsJgo Sp. , O. Sp. Pg. fidalgo nobleman; also hijodalgo pi. 

hijosdalgo for hijo de ahjo (aliquod.) 
Hide hisde O. Fr. (f. asp.) fright, horror, hideur hisde^ir, hidevx 

(Fr.) hisdetix, E, iiideotis. //ispidosm (Catull.) 'rugged' would 

HIE — HOLGIN. 255 

hurdly suit the O. Fr. hide which should be more primitive than 
hisde. Perhaps hide for hede is from O. H. G. egidi " horror '^ 

Hie O. Fr. (asp.) power, stress; from Du. hijgen to strive, A. S. 
hige (hygc) zeal, vb. higan^ E. hie. Fr. hie = a rammer, 

Hieble — ebbio. 

Hienda — fiente. 

Hier — ieri, 

Higado — fegato. x 

Hijo Sp. son; from filixiSy Pg. Gal. fUho, O. Sp. fijo. 

Hillot Fr. a servant (Marot); for filloiy Beam, hih = fxU. 

Hilvan Sp. basting; from hilo vano useless stitches. 

Hincar — ficcare. 

Hinchar Sp., Pg. inchar to inflate; from inflarc, It. enfiare R. 
Or. 1, 210. Hence sbst. hincha inchn hatred. 

Hiniesta Sp. Spanish broom; from genista y It. ginestra. 

Hinojo — finocchio, 

Hinojo — ginocchio. 

Hipo Sp. hiccough, an onomatop. 

Hisca bp. birdlime; from viscum, pi. viscMy Pg. It. visco, v being 
changed first to /, then to h, y. he. 

Kisser — issare. 

Hita hito — fiilo. 

Hiver — invemo, 

Hober O. Fr. (obier) to stir, move away (neut.). Celt, ob de- 

Hobereau — hobin. 

Hobin O. Fr. (asp.) a nag, whence It. ubino; from E. hobby 

g)an. hoppe a mare), a small horse, also a small falcon, 
ence O. E. hobeler one who rides a hobby, O. Fr. hobereau 
(asp.) a squire, also a small hawk, L. L. hobellarius hobej^a- 
riiis, cf. Sp. tagarote a small falcon, and a poor nobleman. 

Btoc O. Fr. Pic, hoquet (h asp.), vb. Jioquer, ahoquer\ from A. S. 
hoc, E. hook, Du. hoek. Ir. f. hoche a notch, cf. broc broche, 
croc croche, Sp. hueca = hoche. 

Hoche — hoc. 

Hoche O. Fr. (asp.) a long garment; from M. Du. hoicke, Fries. 
hokke a mantle , W . hug. 

Hocher Fr. to shake ; Du. hoisen hutsen , Wall. hossK 

Hogaza — focaccia. 

Hoge O. Fr. (asp.) a hill. Norm, hogue, L. L. hog a; from O. N. 
haug-r, O. H. G. hdha hf)hL 

Holgar Sp., Pg. Cat. folgar to rest; from L. \j.foUicarc to breathe 
like bellows (foUis), to respire, rest, sbst. Pg. fdlego respira- 
tion. Cf. It. scialare. 

Hblgin — jorgina. 


Hollar — foUare. 

Hollejo Sp. peel ; from folUculus , It. folUcolo. 

Hollin Sp. soot; from fuligo fuliginis, It. fuUggine, 

Homard Fr. (asp.) crab ; from Swed. hummer. 

Hombre homenage hommage — uomo, 

Hondo — fondo, 

Honnir honte — <mire» 

Hontem ontem Pg. adv. = L. heri. From ante -diem, Sp, ante- 

dia = pridie, L. L. anicdie, v. Ducange. 
Hopo — houppe. 
HoquetFr. (asp.) hiccough; anonomatop.; of . Wall. AiA*^//, Bret 

hak, hik, E. /«V*- cough. 
Hoqueton — cotone. 

Horde O. Fr. a hoard, hoarding, vb. harder to protect, Fr. hourder 
to rough-cast; from O. H. Q, hurt, G. hurde, E. hoard hurdle. 
Horde — orda. 
Hore, vieille hore Norm. = an old woman; from O. 11. G. hara 

huora meretrix, E. whore. 
Horion Fr. (asp.) a hard blow (Norm, horgne), O. Fr. Norm. 

pest, contagion (Nonn. horique), vb. Lorr. hdrie' to cudgel. 
Hormazo Sp. a dry wall; Pliny, H. N. 35; 14 parietes quos ap- 

pei/ant formaccos, 
Honnis hors — fuora, 

Hornabeque Sp. honnvork; from the G. hornwcrk. 
Horro Sp., Pg. forro free, alforria freedom, from Ar. ^horr free, 

sbst. al-^horriyah. 
Hose — uom, 

Hostigar Sp. to molest, Pg. Pr. fusttgar, iroia fustis. 
Hote — oste. 

Hoto O. Sp., O. Pg. foto safety, Pg. fouto afouto sure, vb. afon- 
tar, 0. Sp. ahotadOy enhotado; from fotus nourished, sup- 
Hotte Fr. ; from Sw. huttc, G. hotze a cradle. 
Houblon Fr. (asp.). From O. Wall, hubillon, from Du. hop. 
Houe hoyau Fr. (asp.) hoe, vb. houer, Rou. hauwer; from 0. II. 

G. houwa , houwan, G. hauen, E. hew^ hoe, 
Houle O. Fr. (asp.) a pot; from L. olla, Sp. oHa. 
Houle O. Fr. brothel Ct*n taveiiie ou eti houlc Fabl. 3, 2S3), hoiier 
houlier a brothel- frequenter or = Bret, haulier a pander. 
H(Mice O. E. holard a lewd fellow, O. Fr. holerie. trora 0. 
H. G. hoU fem., O. N. hoia, E. hole^ G. hdhle. 
Houle — ola. 
Houp6e Fr. (asp.) the rise of a wave; from A. S. hoppan, 0. H. 

G. hup fan, E. hop, 
Houppe Fr. (asp.) a tuft, Sp. hopo a tufted tail. From Du. hoppe, 
Houret Fr. (asp.) a poor hunting -dog; cf. A. S. horadr tliin. 


Houseaiiz — uosa. 

Houspiller Fr. (asp.) to touse; connected with A. S. hosp injury. 

Housse Fr. (asp.) saddle -cJoth, housing; from O. H. Q. hulst, 

L. L. hiilcia, hulcitum. 
HouBsine houssoir — houx, 
Houx Fr. (a.sp.) holly; from O. H. G. hulis ruscum, L. Q. hul$c, 

Du. htUst, O.E. holme, hulver (Chauc. hulfere). Hence houssoir 

a besom , housser to brush , houssine a switch. 
Hoy — oggu 

Hoya hoyo Sp., Pg. fojo hole: from fovea, cf. foggia. 
Hoz Sp., Pg. fouce a sickle; iromfalx, Fr. faux; hence O. Sp. 

vb. hozar to cut off. 

Hoz Sp., Vg. foz a narrow pass, mouth of a river; (rom faux. 
It. foce. Hence Sp. hozar, Pg. focar to turn up the ground 
(of pigs), hocico, rg. focinho snout. 

Hu O. Fr. a cry, E. hue (in hue and cry), vb. huer, huard, huette 

(owl), Norm, huani (all asp.). An onomatop. Bret, hii, W. hw, 

cf. O. H. G. huwo owl. 
Huata — ovata. 
Huche Fr. (asp.) chest, Sp. O. Pg. hucha, O. Fr. huge, L. L. 

hutica as nache and nage = natica. From G. hiUte, E. hut? 

From huche or hutica comes E. hutch (or from A. S. hvdcca). 

Hucher O. Fr. (asp.), Pr. uchar to cry loudly. Hucher = hucar, 
cf. Pr. ucar. Pic. huquer, Pied, uche, cf. L. L. qui ad ipsos hue- 
cos cucurrerunt. From L. htic; M. Du. huuc, W. hwchw, Serv. 
uka. From hucher comes huchet a hunter's horn. Cf. Norm. 
houter, Rou. hutier, E. hoot, 

Hucia — fiucia. 

Huebos — uopo. 

Huebra Sp. (a form of obra^ a day's work; from opera often 
used by Columella (a Spaniard) in this sense. 

Hueco Sp., Pg. ouco hollow, sbst. cavity, vb. ahuecar to ex- 
cavate from occare, though ouco points to Goth, halk-s empty, 
V. R. Gr. 1 , 327. 

Huella — foliar e. 

Huer — hu. 

Huero Sp. empty, barren (of eggs), wind -egg; from ovptoff = 
ovQivog whence uiro, uerOj huero also gileio (cf. huerto and 
gHerto), whence Pg. goro, cf. eiiguerar = erihuerar. 

Huesped — oste (2). 

Hueste — oste (1). 

Huis huissier — uscio. 

Huitre Fr. (asp.) oyster; from ostrea, Sp. osira. It. ostricn. 

Huivar — urlare. 

Hulla — houille. 



Hulotte de lapin Fr. (asp.) a rabbit's burrow; from O. H. G. 

hulla, G. hulle, cf. W. hul a covering. 
Hulotte — uriare. 

Humer Fr., Pic. JieunuT (asp.) to sup; an onomatop. 
Humilde Sp. humble ; from humilis K. Gr. 1 y 266. 
Huna — hutu\ 
Hune Vy, (asp.) scuttle of a mast, whence Sp. huna; from 0. N. 

/lun (m.), M. Du. hww, 
Huppe — ypupa. 
Hura — hure. 
Huracan — uracano. 

Huraco Sp. hole, horncar (horadar) to pierce; from forare. 
Hurano — fitro, 
Hure Fr. (asp.) rough hair, wild boar s head, in (.). Fr.=muzzle 

of the wolt, lion ik.i.\, whence O. Sp. hurttj O. E. hure. Hence 

Fr. ahurir to perplex, Nonn. hure ru*jged, Rou. huree rough 

earth. Sw. huwcl (O. II. G. hiuwila) = a long- eared 6ic/. 

Perhaps hure is for hule = huwel, as O. Fr. mure from ««fe 

(mula)y navire from uftvile, 
Hurep6 — herupe, 
Hurgar — frugare, 
Husino — orma, 
Huta — hutte, 

Hutte Fr. (asp.), Sp. huta; from O. H. G. hultOy E, httt. 
Huvet O. Fr. mitra; from O. H. G. hithay O. N. hiifa. 


Ici — qui. 

Iddio — dio, 

leri It., Sp. aycr, Pr. her, Fr. hier, Wal. eri, from heri. Sp. a 

before y is euphonic, cf. ayantar aytiso for yaniar yttso; Cat. 

«///>, Sic. «;m'. 
If — iva, 
^jar Sp. (m.) flank, Pg. ilhal side, O. Fr. titers; from L, He ilia. 

Hence also Sp. ijnda, Pg. Hharga, 

n lo la It., Sp. el lo Uiy O. Sp. ello ella, Pg. oa, O. Pg. W lo la, 
V\\ lo la (il)y Fr. le la, (J. Fr. // lo la, Wal. /<* (I) la (oa a) 
article, from itle illutn, K. Gr. 2, 14 &c. Sard, su sa from ipse. 

Ilhal — ijar. 

Iluec iloques O. Fr. adv. of place, from illoc, Pic. iio; hence 
ic/lec cilec, 

Iman — diamante. 
Imbastare — hasto. 


Imbuto It., Sp. embudo, Cat. embut a funnel ; from butis a vessel, 

cf. Fr. enlonnoir, It. imboUatojo from botta, 
Immantinente It., Pr. mantenen, Fr. mamtetiant, = L. illico, 

Fr. = nunc. From in manum tenens. Pr. also de mantenen, 

O. Fr. de maintenani, Wald. atenent. 
Impacciare — pacciare. 

Impeciare impegolare impiccare impiociare — pegar, 
Imprenta impronta It.; Sp. Pr. empt^enta, Fr. empreinte, E. im- 

print; vb. It. imprentare, improntare, Sp. emprentar, whence 

T>\x. printen , 1£. print. From the Fr. partic. empreint, rather 

than from a freq. form imprimitare , the verb not being found 

in Fr. and Pr. Such a corruption as impronta would more 

easily take place in a borrowed word. 
Improntare It., Fr. emprunter to borrow, sbst. emprunt. The 

Wal. inprumut, vb. imprumuta point to the h. promutuum , in- 

promutuum, in-promtituare (improntare), 
Inafftare — achar. 
Inoalciare inoalzare It., O. Sp. encalzar, Pr. encamar, O. Yr.en- 

chancer to pursue; whence sbst. O. Sp. encalzo, O.Pg. encaico, 

Pr. encaus, O. Fr. enchatice; from calx. 
Incanto It., O.Sp.^ir^n/^, Pr. enquant encant, Fr. encan auction, 

M. H. G. gant; from m quantum; vb. It. incantare, Pr. enquan- 

tar, Fr. encanter. 
Incastrare — cassa, 
Inchar — hinchar, 
Inchiostro It., O. Mil. incostro ink; from encaustum (iyxavatov) 

red ink, used by the Greek Emperors; the It. and the Pr. 

encaut keep the Latin, the Fr. encre, enque, Wall, enche the 

Gk. accent (iyxavarov), Sic. inga, Du. inkt, E. ink. Atramen- 

turn is found in Pr. airamen, O. Fr. errement. Tinta is used in 

Sp. Pg. Cat. Sard., O. H. G. tinctd, dinctd, G. tinte. The Wal. 

has borrowed from the Slav, cerneale = black. 
Inciampare — tape (2). 
Incinta It., Pr. encencha, Fr. enceinte pregnant; from incincta, 

i. e. sine cinctu, discincta. Fr. sbst. enceinte is from incinctus 

in its classical sense. 
Inorescere rincresoere It. impers. vb. = L. ttedet, Rh, ancre- 

scher. From L. increscere, incresce = it grieves , prop. = is 

too much for me, M. H. G. mich bevilt. We find tne word in 

O. Fr. midt li encroist Bnit. 2, 215, and in L. L. ejus dissoluta 

conversatio omnibus increverat Act. SS. Oct. 1, 468. 
Incude inoudine, ancude ancudine It., Sp. yunqne ayunque, Pg. 

incude, Pr. encluget, Fr. enclume anvil; from incus incudis. 

Piedm. ancuso, Cat. eticlusa from nom. incus. 
Inda ainda Pg. adv. for L. adhuc, from inde ad, abinde ad. 
Indaco It., O. Sp. endico, Fr. E. indigo, Pr. indi endi; from L. 



indicum blue Indian pigment. Hence an O. Sp. adj. yndio, Pr. 
iudi, O. Fr. inde, 

Indafno It. = frustra ; from the Slav. adv. danno darom gratis, 
(Trimm 3, lOT, ef. Wal. in darCy (). It. a dono. The Fr. also 
has: 671 dar or e7i dart , so that it is hardly necessary to have 
recourse to the Slav. 

Indi It., 0. It. ende enne, whence en and ne, O. Sp. O. Pg. cnde, 
IV. en and ne, O. Fr. hit, enf, Fr. en, Wal. inde. Neiirer the 
orig. than the Fr. en is liouchi ^w</ in endaler = en alter, 0. 
It. ende == It. ne, whence nonde campo = non ne campo, ««/- 
lande = nulla ne, peronde = pero ne, Sp. dende for ^^jt/**, 
O. Sp. e/67i/, O. Pg, dtiide, O. Fr. ^/6fw from de-inde. 

Infingardo — faint. 

Infino — fino, 

Infrigno — frifjnare. 

Inganno It., Sp. engano, Pg. engano, Pr. engan deceit; vl>. in- 
gannarc, engaiiar, enganar, (). Fr. enganer to deceive, WaL 
ingena (from It.?) to mock. ]n L. L. we find gannat xkhvi^n^ 
sLst. tj annum scoff, gannatura. Not from ingenium but prob. 
from O. 11. 0. gaman, A. S. gamen (E. game) gamn, cf. r/dit/io 
fr(»m damnum y Sp. </^mo, Pg. //rtfwo, Pr. dan. For the meaning 
cf. E. to make game of. It. giuoco game, trick, Com. gioeuch 
deceit, Vr.jouer quelqu'wi to deceive. 

Ingegno It., O. Sp. engeho, Pr. engeinh geinh engin , Fr. engin 
giMiius and engine; from ingenium; (J. PV. engignier to outwit, 
Pr. engenhar to entrap, It. ingegnarsi, Fr. s'ingenier to strive, 
use one's wits ; sbst. Tr. enginhaire, Fr. ingenieur. It. ingegnerr, 
E. engineer, L. L. ingeniosus. 

Ingombro — colmo, 

Inguine It., Sp. <*w^/d; (for /y/wf'), N. Pr. lengue (for engue\ Fr. 
<//V/^' flank ; from inguen. It. anguinaglia from inguinatia. 

Innanzi — flrwr/. 

Innaverare — naverare. 

Innesto nesto It. a graft, innestare nestare to graft ; from insitvs, 

■ whence It. insetare inestare (for inaUare). 

Insepnia It., 0. Sp. ensena, Fr. enseigne, E. ensign; from L. in- 
signia pi. of itisigne. From signum Sp. 5(?ywr. 

Insegnare It., Sp. enseiiar, Pg. ensinar, Vr. enseigner to teach. 
From insignare fsignum segno seiia senJi), cf. Wal. insemna t«i 
infonn, from 5^;/^;/ = signum, 

Insembre insembra It., O. Sp. ensemhra ensemble, O. Pg. enstm- 
bra, Fr. etiscfnble, also It. insieme, Pr. ensems, O. Wald. ^w- 
.swwy; = L. una; from insimul, I being rejected or changed to 
t',- Wal. aseamene from adsimul. (). Fr. senps = simuL Cf. 

Xnsetare — innesto. 


Insieme — insembre, 

Insino — sino. 

Inteiricar — intero. 

Intero It., Sp. entero, Pg. inleiro, Pr. enieir, Fr. entier, E. entire; 
from integer integri, Lomb. Wall, intreg. Hence Pr. O.Fr. adj. 
enterin perfect, vb. O. Fr. enteriner to approve. Intero also 
= straight, upright, whence vb. intirizzare, Pg. inteiricar to 
benumb, adj. inteirico perfect (prop, rigid). Cf. G. steif, E. 
stiff used both in pnysical and moral sense. With a change 
of prefix we have O. Pg. Sp. aterir aterecer, Sp. ateritar. 

Intirizzare — intero. 

Intrambo entrambi It., Sp. entrambos, Pr. entrambs both to- 
gether, a compound with inter O. Rom. for L. una, v. R. Gr. 

2, 405; 3; 374. 
Intridere It., from interere, cf. conquidere, from conquirere, 
Introcque — mentre, 
Intiizzare rintuzzare It. (l) to blunt (2) to quench, check. Prob. 

a participial verb tutiare, from tutus, its latter meaning cor- 
responding with that of at-tutare. 
Invemo verno It., Sp. invierno (ibierno O. Sp.), Pr. ivem, Fr. 

hiver, Wal. earne; from hibernus hibernum. 
Investire It., Sp. embestir, Fr. investir, to invest a place; from m- 

vestire (ci.focum investire Msecen., scrupeo investita saxo Enn.). 
lo It.; Sp. yo, Pg. Wal. eu, Pr. Galic. ieu eu, O. Fr. eo ieojeojo, 

Yr,je; from ego by syncope eo, Fr. i added before short e as 

in dieu from deus. 
Iqui — qui. 
Irmao — hermano. 
Isard Langued., Cat. isart and sicart an izard; from Gr. t^a^og 

iBCliio eschio It. from asctdus. 
Isnel — snello. 
Issa — esso. 
Issare It., Sp. Pg. izar, Fr. hisser (asp.), from Swed. hissa, L. G. 

hissen (E. hoist). 
Itant — cotanto. 
Itel — cotale. 
Iva Sp. Pg., Fr. if (m.) yew; from O. H. G. iwa, G. eibe, A. S. 

iv, E. yew, W. yw. Corn, hivin. 
Ivi vi It., O. It. I, O. Sp, 0. Pg. Pr. hi y, Fr. y, Sp. Pg. ahi; 

from 1^1. 
Ivoire — avorio. 
Ivraie — ebbriaco. 

Izaga Sp. a reedy place; from B. izaga (iza reed, aga fullness). 
Izquierdo esquerro Sp., Vg.esquerdo, CB.t.Vr.esquer (i.esquerra) 

left. From the B. ezquerra ezquerdo, Sp. / for e when next 

262 IZZA — JABS. 

syllable has k, cf. cimiento, hiniesira, tiniebla, sinliese ($efil6f)\ 
mintiera fmentirj. 
I2za It. anger; from O. H. G. /«>«, G. htize. Ad-izzare a'hzm,\ 
Com. czziiy O. Fr. hesser to incite (esp. dogs), G. hetzen, L6.i 
hitsen, as Yen. uzzare, Veron. uzza from the prov. form hutzau 


Jabali Sp., Vg.javali wild boar, Sp.jabalina wild sow. Ar. khm- 

zir (jabali = Sp. puerco mantes mountain- or wild -boar. 
Jabot Fr. crop ot a bird, jaboUn- to murmur. Perhaps for^iM 

({^(.jaloux for (/eioux), from gibba a bump, cf. G. kropf, L 

crop = orig. a swelling, or, according to others, connectel 

with Vr.japper and Yl. jabber. 
Jacerina — ghiazzerino, 
Jaco — giaco, 

Jadis Fr. from jamdiu as tandis from (amdiu, Pr. tandius. 
Jaez Sp. Pg. harness ; from Ar. gaMz implements. 
Jaillir Fr. to shoot forth; for jailier iroia jacidari , cf. bandir. 
Jalde jalne — glallo. 
Jale Fr. a tub, measure ; O. Fr. jalon galon, E. gallon (L. L. qabf 

gaietus), Rou. galoi. Beside ^Vi/«? O. Fr. Imsjaiile (Due. v.^oto) 

= L. galea, dim. galcola vas vinarium Papias. 
Jalon — jaugen 
Jaloux — zelo. 

Jamba jamon, jambe jambon — gamba, 
Jangler O. Fr., Pr. janglar to insult, scoff, N. Pr. jangia to 

whine, O. Fr. jangle, Pr. jangla mockery; from L. G. Du. 

jangelen janken (K. jangle) to scold, whine, sl jangler, Chauc 

Jante Fr. (f.) felloe of a wheel. Not from canthus (m.), but fram 

L. L. cames camitis from root cam crooked , bent Tv. gamba); 

Sis jambe from camba, sojanfe from camitem. Wall, chame = 

nom. cames. 
Japper Fr., Fr.japar to yelp ; an onomatop., cf. G. jappen. 
Jaque — giaco, 
Jardin — giardino. 
Jargon — gergo, 
JsxTB, Jarre — gtara. 
Jarret jarrete — garra. 
Jars Fr. gander. The orig. form is found in the Pic. gars, Bret. 

garz. Wall. gedr. Probably from the O. N. gassi = gander 

(which is connected with the G. gans, E. gander, L. anseTf 

Gk. x^v, Sansk. hansa), Pictet, however, derives the Pr. 

from the Bret, garz wnich he gets from the Sansk. varaia 

JASER — JUGE. 263 

(protector of geese from vri to protect) , cf. W. gwart (qui 
garde), vb. gwara gwared tegere (vri). 

Jaser Fr., O. Fr. gaser, Pr. gasar to chatter, Vic.jaser. From 
0. N. gassi a gander, or chatterer, cf. Bav. gdnseln to babble. 
Hence, prob., gazotUller, O. Fr. gaziller to chirp, chatter. 

Jasmin — gesmino, 

Jasse — se, 

Jatte — gavetta. 

Jauger IV., Wall, ^at^^r, Y!i. gauge, Fr. jauge a gauging- rod. 
From a Kom. asqualificare egalger (cf. O. Fr. niger from nidifi' 
care) egauger ganger (cf. s. mine). Rouchi cauque gauque point 
to a form calc (calfc), cf. G. eichen = Du. ikjen from cequare. 
From wqualis also Fr.jalon a gauging -rod, pole. 

Jatila — gabbia. 

Janne — gialio. 

Javelina javelot — giaveioUo, 

Javelle — gavela. 

Jaiizion jauEir — godere. 

Jazerant — ghiazzerino. 

Je — io. 

Jeudi — giovedu 

Jeune — giunare. 

Joglar — giocolare. 

Joie — godere. 

Joindre Fr., F.join; (romjungere, It. giugnere. 

Joli — giulivo. 

Jongleur — giocolaro. 

Jorgina jorguina Sp. witch; from B. sorguina sorguina which 
from L. sors, Sp. suerle, B. zortea, and guina making. Hence 
enjorgtttfiar to cover with soot, as witches coming down 
chimneys, yor^t/in soot; holgina holgin ivova jorgina. 

Joubarbe — jtisbarba, 

Joue — goia. 

Jouer Fr. to play, ivomjocari; jcu hom jocus. 

Jouir — godere. 

Joup — giorno. 

Joute jouter — giusta. 

Joya joyel joyau — godere. 

Joyo — gioglio. 

Jabon — giubba. 

Juc Fr., Wall, joe a perch , vb. Fr. jucher, Pic. juquer, Wall. 
joquer, N.Pr. s'ajouca, E. to Juke, to roost, Bcrr. sbst. gueuche, 
vb. gueucher. The Norm, has hucher, which points to the Du. 
hukken, G. hockern to squat, cower. 

Jueves — giovedi. 

Juge Fr., Pr. Cat. juige, whence O. Sp. Juge, B. yuyea. Not 


hom judex which would give jus, but from jtiger (judkart), 

Srob. tlie only example, in the Rom., of a personal noun 
erivcd from a verb without suffix. 

Juillet Fr. July. In O. Fr. this month was called juinei or little 
June, cf. A.^.aerra Udha dfteraUdha (P^nild months 2"** mild 
month) = June , July. From juinet came Jmllct through L 
juUus. Sic. (prob. through Nonn.) giugne June, giugnelto July. 
In Neap, the former is called jon cerasiaro (cherry June), tfce 
latter ^w/o messoro (harv^est July). In Sard. July is called mm 
de (reidas (threshing -month). Rh. zareladur (weed -month) 
= June, fenadur (hay -month) = Jidy. In Pro v. Cat. they 
are called junh, juliol, in B. gan'lia, gar agar ilia (barley- 

Jujube — giuggola. 

Julep julepe — gitiiebbe. 

Jumart Fr.; prob. acorniption otjumentum, though the Langiiert. 
gimcre gimerou points to chimaera, 

Juzneau Vv. twin; from gemellus, Pr. gemel, cf. fumier from 
fwnus. Hence E. gimmal (= annulm gemellus). 

Jupe — gt'ubba. 

Jusant Fr. ebb; from 0. Fr. SiAwjtis down, formed on the ana- 
logy of courant, 

Jusarme — guisarme, 

Jusbarba Sp. butcher's broom, Ywjoubarbe, Pr. barbajol a leek; 
= L. Jovis bnrba (Pliny), It. barba di Giove. Sp. chttbarha 
stone- crop is prob. the same word, cf. chupe = Yr. jupe, 

Jusque Fr. from de-usque, O. Fr. usque dusque, Pr. duesca,juS' 
cas, O. Fr. bX?>o jesque (romjuesque (as (resque from (ruesque), 
Cf. dcvers = versus. Pr. truesca, (). Fr. trosqu'a = intro usqw 
ad, Rh. troqua antroqua. 

Juaqxiiame — giuschiamo, 

Justar — giustare. 


Kermesse Fr. a fair; a corruption of the G. kirch-messe (church- 
mess) orig. -- a church -ale, wake, festal gathering, ci\ fiern. 


La It., Sp. alia, O. Pg. aid, Pg. Id, Pr. la lai, Fr. la; from iliac, 
Labarda — alabarda. 

Labareda lavereda Pg. flame; from labarum a banner^ cL ori- 


Iiabaro It. Sp. Pg., Fr. iabarum, L. iabarum the baruior of the 
Roman Empire from the time of Constantine. Labarum = 
prop, the voice or oracle (Bret, iavar, W. Uafar, Ir. Gael. 
labhrad, Corn. Iavar, whence Celtic name Lahanis in SiliuH 
Ital.) sc. of God , alluding to the inscription on the standard 
of ConstAntine, iv tovra} vCxa V.Mahn, Etym. Unters. p. 65. 

I«abech — libeccw. 

Ijabriego Sp., Pg. labrego a peasant; from labor =■ field-labour 

Iiaoayo Sp. Pg., Fr. laquais, whence It. lacche, E. lackey pedis- 
sequus. 0. Pr. has lecai dainty, wanton (v. leccare), N. Pr. 
laccai a shoot (parasite) also = lackey, cf. Gk. aotpgj do6- 
6rir7JQ (Donaldson). O. Pg. lecco = Pr. lee (whence lecai) the 
same as lacayo, Wedgw. makes it the same word as the O. 
Fr. naquet, naquais (cf. livello, nwe/lo &c.) a ball -catcher at 

Iiacoa It., Sp. Pr. laca, Fr. laque, E. lake (whence laquer, 
lacquer) an Indian resin; Pers. Idk (Sansk. Idxd, root lakh 

I«acca It. a hole (Dante) ; from Gk. Xdxxog. 

Iiacohetta — racchelia, 

liaccia It., Sic. alaccia , N. Pr. Sp. alacha shad , Andal. lacha, 
G. alse; prob. corruptions of halec, according to Diefenbach 
= Celt, alatisa. From halec we have It. dlt'cc (f.), Sic. alerl 
anchovy, Sp. ale'ce (m.) fish -ragout, Sp. haleche a sort of 

Iiaocio It., Sp. Pg. lazo, Pr. lalz, Fr. lacs, Wal. lalzu, E. lace; 
from laqtiem; vb. It. lacciare allacciare &c., Fr. lacer, E. lace. 

Iiacerta It. Incerta lucertola (Sard, cahhccrta cahixeriula) , Sp. 
Pg. lagarto, Fr. lezard, Rurg. lezarde f., Rh. lusciard, E. 
lizard, Pg. lagarta caterpillar; from lacerta, with (in Sp. &c.) 
a change of ending to the suffix ard often found in names of 
animals. Hence It. alligatore, Sp. alegador, Fr. E. alligalor 
(Sp. el lagarto), spelt as if from adligare adligator. 

Iiache l&cher — lasciare, 

Iiacio Sp. faded, languid; from flaccidtis (also written Ihacio = 
llacioDQTCQo)y cf. llama from flamma, Lainez from Flainiz, 

liBora Sp. scar, fault, vb. lacrar to hurt; from M. Du. laecke, 

O. E. lake, E. lack, 
Iiacs — laccio. 
Iiadino — latino. 
Iiadre — lazaro. 

Iiadrillo Sp., Pg. ladrilho brick ; from latercultis. 
Iiasar Sp.JPg.'wine- press; from lacm. 
Iiagarta — lacerta. 


lament *, sbst. It. lagna, Pr. lanha; from laniare se pne 
if. Pg. carpirse (^=z carperc se), L. planget^e, Gk. xotcxb 

Lagnarsi It., O^ Sp. lamrse, Pr. 5t' lanhar, O. Fr. laigner to 


Lagot Pr. flattery, Sp. lagotear to flatter; cf. Goth, bi-iaig^ii 

to lick. 
Lague O. Fr. law ; from A. S. /ag, E. /fle^, hence tUltigue ullage 

outlaw, A. S. ut'iag, E. out-law, cf. ex-lex. 

Lai lais O. Fr., Pr. /^rw lay, E. lag, It, plur. lai. From O. N. lag 

law, melody (cf. vo^og), or from W. llais melody, Fr. Gael 

laoifh vsong. 
Laiche — lisca, 
Laido It. O. Sp. O. Pg., Pr. lail, Fr. laid ugly 5 from O. H. G. 

hid odious, 0. N. leid/tr, A. S. Wf//*. O. Fr. sbst. iait, Rh. 

/rt/V/, B. laf'doa, Vb. It. laidare, O. Sp. laizar, O. Pg. /nw/ffr, 

Pr. laizar, 0. Fr. laidcr to vex, injure; from leiddn, leiden; 

also It. laidire, Pr. O. Fr. toV//r from leidjan, A. S. iddhjan. 

(),Vr. laidenge (yh. laidengier), Vr. ledena (or iaidenha vexation, 

cf. O. H. G. leidunga accusation. 

Laie Fr. O. Pg. lada? a way through a wood, vb. layer un lois; 

from 0. N. leid, A. S. Idd, M. Du. lete, L. L. /^r/a. Hence 

S. Germain en laye, 
Laisse lease Fr. = E. leash, It. lascio, E. lasso; from laxvi 

laxare, cf. O. H. G. Idz from Idzan, G. lassen, cf. L. L. //wrfl- 

w?;/« habenw, 
Laisser — lasciare, 
Laiton — ottone. 

Laivo Pg. spot, stnin; from lahes, whence an adj. labeus? 
Lam Pr. lame, one-armed; O. II. G. lam, G. lahm^ E. lame, 

Piodm. lam = slack. 
Lama It. Sp. Pg., Dauph. lamma marsh, bog, mire; from L. 

lamaYior, Festus: aqum collectio qua: lamam dicunt ; found iu 

Dante in the same sense. 

Lama It. Pr., Fr. lame plate, blade, 0. Sp. laiia a slice, a band; 
from lamina. Hence O. Fr. lame grave -stone, and O. Fr. 
lemelc alemele (from I'alemelle for la lemele), Fr. alumelle. 

Lamaneur — locman. 

Lambeau Fr. shred or tatter, Com. lampel, Sp. lambel, Berr. 
latnhriche fringe, L. L. lablelhis, O. Fr. labeau, E. label; Fr. 
vb. dclabrer for dclabler. The m is prob. inserted, so dclabrer 
from labrum (Icvre cf. cabrer, chevre), label from labellum. The 
Com. form, however, approaches the G.lappen (shrod^ which 
is found also in Celtic, Gael, leab, W. llabed (R. lappef), 
Bret, labasken. Fr. lambrequin = Du. dim. lamperkm from 
lamper lamfer a veil, cf. mannequin = Du. mannekln. 

Lambel — lambeau. 


I«ambioco limbioco It., Sp. alambique, Pg. lamhique, Pr. elambic, 
Fr. alambic, E. alembic; from Ar. al-anbiq. 

I«ambre O. Fr. wainscot, from lamina a board, cf. marbre from 
marm'r. Hence Fr. lambris (m.). 

liambrequin — lambeau. 

I«ambrija Sp., Pg. lombriga a worm ; from lumbricus, It. lombricOj 
Sp. also lombriz. 

I«ambris — lambre. 

Iiambrusca It. Sp., Fr. lambruche, from labrusca, 

I«ainioare It. to arizzle; perhaps for lambicare to lick, cf. Sp. 
lamer from lamberc, B. lambroa drizzling- rain. 

Iiampione lampone It. raspberry. Pied, ampola, Com. ampoi, 
Rh. ompchia; it is the Sw. ombeer (hombeere himpel-beerej. 

Iiampo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. lamp lam, N. Pr. Ian blaze; from root 
lamp in lamp -as, cf. capo frow cap-ut. Hence Cat. llampeg, 
Sp. Pg. re-lamp-ago flash. 

Iiampreda It., Sp. Pg. lamprea, Fr. lamproie (E.lamprey); usually 
derived from J j.L. lam- peir a (lick -stone), because this fish 
clings to stones with its mouth. The Bret., however, hlamprez, 
which Legonidec derives from lampr slippery, shining. 

Iiance — lancia. 

Iiancha — lasca. 

Iiancia It., Sp. lanza, E. lance, from L. lancea, according to 
Varro (Geluus) a Spanish, according to others, a Gallic or 
German word; vb. It. lanciare and E. launch, L. lanceare (Ter- 
tullian); hence It. lancio, Sp. lance, Pg. lanco, Pr. lans throw, 
cast; It. slanciare, Vr.eslansar, Fr, elancer to spring; Fr. sbst. 
elan for elans. 

Iianda It. Pr., Fr. lande plain, heath, 0. Fr. lande saltus, B. 
landa field. Not from uoth. E. land, but from Bret, lann a 
thorny bush, pi. lannou a heath, cf. Fr. brande bush, pi. bran- 
des heath. Lann (land) is piire Celtic, v. Zeuss 1, 1G8. 

Iiandier Fr., O. Fr. andier, B. landera, E. andiron, Wall, andi, 
L. L. andena. Wedgw. makes andiron the same as Flem. 
wendijser (wenden to turn) prop, a rack for the spit; veruten- 
ttim, idem hoc andena v. Ducange. Landier for r andier, cf. 
loriot, lendemain, lierre, 

Iiandit Fr. fair of St. Denis; for fendit from indicium, the day 
being openly proclaimed , cf . feriae indictivae. 

Iiandra slandra It., Dauph. landra prostitute; N. Pr. landrin 
landraire a loiterer; Com, slandron a vagabond, Yen.slandrona 
a prostitute; \h.Vr. landra to walk the streets. Hence It. ma- 
landrino, Sp. N. Pr. malandrin, Ron. Lim. mandrin a pick- 
pocket, vagabond, for mal-landrino &c., Com. f. malandra 
meretrix, Occ. mandro (f.) a fox, mandrouno a bawd, Sp. mo- 
londro a mean fellow; adj. Pr. vilandrier for vil-landrier a 

208 LAN6E — L ASCI ABE. 

vagabond. From It. slandra is Wal.suleandre. From O. H.G. 
lantdni (for h. laird) = a land - plaffiie. 

Lange Fr. m. a biankf^t, O. Fr. a woollen garment ; from lanem. 

Laniere It., Pr. Fr. lanter, E. lanner, a small falcon ^ a merlin: 
--- I art/anus, a laniandis mnhus. Adj. lanier greedy. 

Lanquan Pr. = Fr. lorsque, for Can quan, an used as in ogan, 
an tun, 

Lanza — lancta, 

Lanzichenecco It. (shortened fanzo), Sp. iasquenete, Fr. /aw- 
qwnrt a G(^nnan foot soldier; from G. landskfiecht ; it also 
means a garner at cards played by these soldiers^ lansquenet. 

Lanzo — lanzichenecco, 

Lana — lama. 

Lapa Pg. an (»xeavation; from Ok. Xdna^ov a hole. 

Lapa Sp. scum; from Gk. kdni] Idfini]. B. lapa lees. 

Lapin Fr. aral>bit, dim. lapereau, cf. Dn. lampreei. The /i of 
lepus would require a v in Fr. (cf. leveret); lapm is prob. for 
vlapiny from r<>ot chip, whence se clapir to hide (of rabbits), 
clapicre a rabbit -burrow (q. v.), cf. loir for ff loir. 

Lapo Sj). blow with a Hat instniment; from O. H. G. lappa, G, 
lappen, cf. G. E. flap. Hence also Com. lapina a box on the 
(»ar, Perr. lapif/nc a rag, Idpeau a lazy feUow, Eh. lapi a sim- 
j)l('ton = G. lappa slack. Sp. solapar to button one lappet 
ov('r another, then to conceal. 

Lappare It., Fr. taper, Pr. lepar, Cat. llepar = G. lappen, EJap, 
(}, N. lepia, W. tlepio, Gk. XdjcrsLV &c. 

Laquais — lacatjo. 

Lar S]). Pg. ( )cc., Cat. liar hearth ; the L. Lar, found also in It. 
alare andiron, Sp. llarea pot- hangers. 

Laranja — araticio. 

Larcin Fr., Vi. larceny; from lalrocinium, Vr.laironici, Sp.ladro- 
nirio, It. ladroneccio. From latro we have ladrone, ladro, 

Larigot Fr. a pipe or flute. The form arigot might come from tlio 
Gallic arinca (Pliny) =rye, 0,^,1^. arena. Arinca becomes riguet 
in Dauph. Frisch derives larigo from largo (musical tcrml. 

Larmo Fr. from lacrima. In O. Fr. lairme (lerme) the g is vocal- 
ized into /. 

Larris O. Fr. Pic. an untilled field, L. L. larricium, from Du. 
laer laar an open place in a wood, v. Dief. Goth. Wb. 2, 129. 

Lasca It. a fish, barbel; from Gk. Xsvxi^xog. 

Lasca Sp. a plate, thin flat stone, strip of leather; a corniption 
of laxm laxa (which is also found in 8])./^/.^ or laja = lasca), 
Pg. lasca de presunfo = slice of ham. Sp. lancha = laxa. 

Lasciare lassare It., O. Sp. lexar lei.var, Pg. leixar, Pr. laissar, 
Fr. laisser, Wal. lesa (E. lease in release); from laxare (S]p. 


laxar), influenced by the G. lassen = E. let, v. Max Miiller 
(iiber deutsche Schattirung romanischer Worte). Hence Pr. 
s'esiaissar, O. Fr. s'eslaisser to rush in, sbst. eslais fall, rush, 
It. slascio; It. adj. lasco, Pr. lasc lasch, Fr. Idche, Ron. lake 
indolent, vb. Sp. lascar, O. Pg. laiscar, Pr. lascar laschar, Fr. 
Idcher, O. Fr. lasquer, from lascus for /flr.rf/**^ cf. Gael, leasg, Ir. 
/^w^, W. llesg = L. laxus, Gael, asgall, Corn, r/^r/^f -- L. 
axella, Champ, fisquer for ^;r^r, lusque for /f/a;^. 

Iiascio — /flrm*^. 

Iiasco — lasciare, 

Iiasso It. Pg., Sp. //3r50^ Fr. las, It. «/«' /flf^^o, f. ahi lassa, Pr. ^i 
las, O. Fr. //^/ /«a- (E. alas), Fr. //e//^/^ (v. he), from lassus; vb. 
It. lassare &c., from lassare. Hence also (). Fr. sbst. /f/i7^, laste, 
(J. Sp. lasedad weariness. 

Iiastar Sp. Pg. to pay for another, sbst. lasto. From (). H. G. 
leisten, G. leisten to bail. 

Iiaste — lasso. 

Iiastima — biasimo, 

Iiasto It., Fr. laste lest a ship's burden; from O. H. G. Mast , (). 
Fris. hlest, N. lest, G. last, A. S. last (E. /«aV = boat-load). 
Fr. balast, Du. G. E. ballast is a compound of last and ^w/, Ir. 
beat sand (garbheal = gravel), W. />«/ m balasarn ballast, Bret. 
bili caillou rond , plat et poll que la mer pousse sur quelques 
rivages, \j. sa-bul-um (saburra ballast), rik, bdlukd sand, v. 
Bopp, Glossary. For Sp. lastre, Fg. lastro, which are con- 
founded with this word, v. astre, 

Iiastra lastre — astre, 

I«atino It., Sp. latin, Pg. latim (1) Latin (2) knowledge (3) cun- 
ning: Sp. saber mncho latmo to be cunning, Sp. Pg. adj. ladmo 
cunning. What the Latin was to the h»arned, that their mo- 
ther tongue was to laymen ; hence lafifio was used for any 
dialect, even Arabic and the language of birds, cf. Dante: 
gli augelli ciascxino in sua latino, next it came to mean com- 
prehensible, accessible, easy, convenient, Dante, Par. 3, 63: 
si che m^ e piu ladino; ladino delta mano promptus, Uh. ladin 
Rwift. From latin is Pr. O. Fr. latinier linguist, interpreter, 
O. E. latynere, latymer (Latimer). 

I«atir — ghiattire. 

I«aton — ottone. 

E. lath, W. lldth (f.). Wal. has m. latz. 

Iiatta It., Sp. Pr. lata, Fr. latte; from O. H. G. latta, A. S. liitta, 

VV. lldth (f.). 
IiSttovaro lattuaro It., Sp. elect uario, O. Sp. lectuario, Pr. lacto- 

arilectoari, Fr. electuaire, (). Fr lectuaire, E. electuary, O. E. 

lectuary letuary; from L. elect arium electuarium (elinyoj, 
Iisud — liuio. 
Iisudemio — Iminga. 


Laiina Sp. a motal-plate &c. ; not from lamina but from lagamm^ 
(I changod to m, as in sagma salma sauma (soma). 

Lava It. E., Fr. lave; -- Neap, lava a torrent, from lavare, 

Lavagna It. slate, for la-ugna, from G. leie (ei =^ R. a), O.S. 
Ida, l)u. lei, W. llech, Gael. leac. 

Lavanco Sp. Pg. wild duck; from lavare, cf. E. duck (= diver). 

Lavanda lavendola It., Sp. lavandtda, Fr. lavande, E. iavendfr, 
(t, lavendel; from its being used in washing {latyare, It la- 
vanda ^= washing, whence Sp. lavandera. It. lavandaia, Fr. 
lavandiire (E. laundress), lavanderia = E. laundry. 

Lavange — avalange. 

Laveggio It. a pan ; = lehetium from lehes. 

Lavello — avello, 

Laya Sp. Pg. (1) two-pronged fork for digging (2) kind, nature, 
vb. latjar to dig. From I^. laya spade; the soil in Biscay being 
very hard n^quires a peculiar two -pronged instrument to 
work it. This is called latja, and the labour lot/aria. The 
word w^as so commonly used as to pass into proverbs : sm de 
una misma laya r=\\\i^y are of the same sort; hence mean- 
ing (2).^ 

Layette Fr. chest; from I)u. laeye, G. lade. 

Lazaro Sp. beggar, ^IWJazzer dirty, Fit\lazaire poor, Pr. O.Fr. 
ladre, lazer (also (). E.) a leper; hence O. Sp. laceria poverty; 
It. lazztretto, Sp. lazareto, E. lazaretto; It. lazzerone. Fnin 
tlu^ Lazarus of St. Luke ch. 16. Ladre for lazer, as madreivoxn 
masar, S, Ludre from -S'. Lusor, 

Laze — laccio. 

Lazzo It. sour; from laciduus for acidulus, ef. B. latzd, lacha. 

Le — //. 

Leans — ens. 

Leardo — Hart, 

Lebeche — liheccio. . 

Lebrel — levriere. 

Lobrillo Sp. an earthenware tub, pan; from lahrum. 

Leccare It., Pr. Uquar Hchar lerhar, Fr. lecher, Rh. lichiar, Wal. 
licet to lick; besides It. leccatore, (J. Fr. lecheor a glutton, 
parasite (E. lecher), we find Pr. Lomb. Pied, lee, Sic. liccu. 
It. leccone; Pr. adj. lecai licai (sbst. licai-aria) and licaitz (sbst. 
licaz-aria). We have L. I-., lee a tor lefio, lecacitas lenocinium, 
cf. Pr. lecaitz (lecax). From (). H. G. lecchon, A. S. liccfui 
leccon , A. S. liccian , E. lick; lee leccone = an (). H. G. sbst. 
lecco. Fr. relecher gives E. relish. 

Leccio — elce. 

Leehe — lisca. 

L6cher — leccare. 


Iiechino Sp., Pg. Hchino a tent of lint, lint; from licinium (from 
licium) Vegetius de arte vet. 

Iieohon Sp. a sucking-pick, from leche milk. Hence also lechuzo 
a suckling (colt &c.). 

laechiizo — lechon. 

laega It. Pr., Pr. Sp. legua, Fr. lieue, Pg. legoa, L.L. leuca, lettga, 
legtty lewa, E. league. Gloss. Isid. mensuras vianim nos miUiaria 
dicimus, Galli leucas. A word of Celtic origin, prop. = a stone 
(mile -stone, L. lapis), Ir. Gael, leac, W. llecli a flat stone, 
slate. Gr. kdag^ ksvg^ L. lap -id may be connected, v. Pott, 
Forsch. 1 , 218. O. Fr. loe'e = a league's distance. 

Iiega It., Sp. ley, Fr. lot aloi standard of metals, alloy; vb. It. 
allcgare, Sp. alear, Fr. aloyer; from lex, ad legem, cf. Pr. 
aleyalar to justify. 

Iiegamo Sp. slime, mud; from tUigo uliginis, not from B. lega- 
mia = Fr. levain, E. leaven. 

Iiege I6ger — lieve. 

Iiege Fr. not laden (of a sliip); from Du. leeg for G. ledig empty. 

IiOggiadro It. sprightly, pretty ; for leggiardo from levh; so bugi- 
adro bugiardo, linguadro linguardo. 

Iieggpiero — lieve, 

Iieggplo It. a reading-desk, L. L. legivum; from legere, cf. Ao- 
ytlov from Aoyog. 

laegs Fr. legacy; from lego, the s added to form a sbst. Cf. It. 
lascio from lasciare, O. Fr. lais. 

Iieizar — lasciare, 

IioUa — enola. 

Iielo Sp. ignorant, stupid. From the B. lelo, leloa = insulsus. 
Lelo was the name of a Biscayan, notable as a cuckold and 
famous in the ballads of the country; one of which begins : 
Lelo! il Lelo, Lelo! il Lelo, Leloa! v. Mahn, Unters. p. 58. 

Iiembrar — membrare. 

Iieme Sp. Pg. tiller (naut^. Cf. Sp. Fr. Imon shaft of a cart; 
from O. N. A. S. Urn, E. limb. Wall, limoti = Fr. solive, is 
prob. the L. limen. 

Ifendemain — mane, 

Iiendine It., Sp. liendre, Pg. lendea, Pr. lende, Fr. lente a nit; 
from lens lendis (lendinis); Fr. lente from lendine (Wall, lindhie) 
as page from pagina. Cat. llemena is a corruption of lletietna 
for llendema , m being from the ace. case. 

Itendore Fr. (m. f.) an idle drowsy fellow, vb. Norm. lendorei\ 
A purer form is the Bret, landar idle, vb. landrea, Umdreant 
a sluggard, whence O. Fr. landreux, Fr. lendc^re, which took 
its form from il endorf. From Du. lenteren to loiter, sbst. len- 
terer = G. schlendern, schlenderer, 

Iionte — lendine. 


Lenza It. a linon band, Sp. Uenzo a liamlkercliiof; from Units 
linti'um, llriuM* It. Av/r;/o//>, i^\). ie/tzuelo, V^.lancol, Vr.Un- 
soi, Fr. linccnl a slirt^t tfcc, L. linteolum, 

Lercio It. dirty, fjua-lrrrio (jvalerchio (1) dirty (2) squinting;; thf 
lattiT sfiisr jiniiits to tlie M. II. {\,ierz left {f/ua z=^ gHata)^ but 
wlifiKM* tin* sons<» of '•dirtv^V 

Lerdo - lurdu, 

L6ri Pr. piy, sj>ri^htly, N. Pr. len (f. leria) pretty, wanton. 

Frtim hihirius fhilaris)^ which was used as a Cliristian name. 
Lero - <7To. 
Les (). Kr., I*r. latz for h, juxfa; from iatus^ It. allato; stiB 

ftjuiid in nani(;8 of phu'cs, o. g. Pasxy-ies- Paris, PiessK-l^- 


Lesina It., Sj). /rsna, })('tter (). Sp. alesna, Pr. alena, Liin. /mio. 
Kr. ///<w' an owl; from O. H. (r. alatmi, aiastta, Sw. atasmr. 
It. /rshtft ( whonn* VrJesnif*) also = jmrsimonv. '^Zeiwn^", says 
Mrna^t*, *'du livrt* Italien, intitiiU'! IMla famosissima Coiu- 
papiia dclhi Lrsina ; rantciir frint que wtte Compagiiic fut 
ainsi appfh'M' di rorti Taceapioni, i quali, per niarcia, uiiHeria. 
rt avarizia, si mcttcvano a rattaceonar le scarpotte colla K*- 
sina, ondc pn^sonti quosto nomc della LrshtttJ' 

Lessare It. to bcn'I: L. L. ILvare to steep, Ux lie. Hence /'«- 
/rssfff't' to boil. 

Lossive '-— iisrira, 

Lesto It. P;^., Fr. irsir, Sp. fisio aetivt*, It. also clover; vb. It. 

allrstarr: frt>ni (ioth. lisf<*if/s, O. II. (t. Usfir clever, G.itsiig 

artful, suffix droj)j)rd as in It. rhiftsso from r/(fssi'cum, 0. Fr. 

rftsfr from nisf/nts, Sbst. Kh. //si (m.). 
Lest — /asffj. 
Lotame It. O. Sj>. dun«^: from hrtamrn (Pliny), L. L. Irrfare t«» 

niak<' fruitful (cf. Viry;. <piid Ifrttts se<;etes). 

Lettiora It. b(*dst<'ad, Sp. ///<7V/, Pr. Iridtra, Fr. litivre, E. lUler: 

L. L. ItTtaria , from /ccius. 
Leu — /rrr. 
Leude O. Fr., Pr. icmfa Irida ledda lesda , (.). Sp. /ezffa, Amji:. 

Ifiuift a ta\ or toll on «:;ot>ds or on carriages; Lang. Ieflu=. Fr. 

hnvu(ji\ From Irvihts j>artic. of /rvftrc (as cuhifu^ of mhart'i 

in such i)h rases as U'varr (rihutum = lever des wi/tofs. V. 

Leudo — I lev do. 
Leuj* — - ef/lf. 
Leurre — Ifff/oro, 
Levain Fr., Pr. Irvam , Yj, leaven: from levare, whence K. Irrer 

(__^ Fr. lev/'er) levu, v. lievito. 
Levantar Sp. to raise; a participial vc^rb from levare. 


Xiovante It. Sp. Pg., Fr. E. levant; ove il sole si leva, cf. Pg. 

nascente, Cat. sol-ixent, participles like ortens, occidens, cf. s. 

Iieve Pg., Pr. leu, Eh. lev, Pr. levada lights ; from levis, cf. E. 

lievistioo libistico It., Fr. liveche (levesse Menage), E. lavage a 

plant; from ligusticum, Veget. de re veter. levisticum, 
Iievriere It., Sp. lehrel, Fr. levrier a greyhound ; from leporarius. 
I16ZO8 Sp. flejosj adv. for L. longe, also adj. lexo. From laxus, 
lizard — lacerta. 

lezio It. affectation; from delicice, cf. delicias facere. 

It. stink, lezzare to stink; the form olezzare shows the 

der. from olere; lezzo is from the root ol, with term, as in 

rezzo for orezzo from ora aura. 
Ifi It., Sp. alii, Pg. alii adv. ; from illic. 
Ilia Sp. nusk of grapes, Pg. lia, Pr. Ihia, Fr. //^ (E. pi. lees), 

Bret, /y (Ven. lea mud), Papias: lia ^^amurca^\ Lix licis lye, 

would require a Sp. liga (cf. N. Pr. ligo, B. liga)j though Fr. 

lie may = licem, as her-lue from lucem. Dief. derives it from 

levare as G. A^/(? from hehen, bdrme (harm) from her an, cf. 

Itiaison Fr., Pr. toz^, from ligatio (Scribonius Largus). 

Iiiart O. Fr. (f. liarde), Pr. liar tear (hence It. leardo) of horses 

white, light -grey; from W. llai dark -grey, or from Icetus, cf. 

It. gajo, Fr. gai, Gk. q)ai8Q6q. Fr. Hard a coin is the S. Fr. 

li hardi, Sp. ardite, q. v. 
Iiibeocio It., Sp. lebeche, Pr. lahech (ahech), O. Fr. leheche lehech 

South-west wind; from kC-^ kifiog, Alban. live. 
Iiibello It., Pg. Pr. livel nivel, Sp. nivel, Fr. niveau, Bret, live, 

Wall, livai,^. level; vb. Sp. nivelar, Fr. niveler to level; from 

/i^^^/Zflf, R. Gr. 1, 241. 
Iiiccia lizza It., Sp. liza, Pr. lissa, Fr. /ic^, E. lists (lista?), a 

course, a place for combat &c. ; from licia pi. otlicium = girdle 

in the phrase : per lancem et licium. There may also be some 

reference to the M. H. G. letze a fence (letzen to keep off, let). 
Iiioe Fr., O. Fr. leisse, Pic. liche, Pr. leissa a hunting -bitcli for 

breeding; from the name Lycisca or rather Lycisce fmultum 

latrante Lyciscd Virg.). 
Iiicomo alioomo It., rg. alicomio, Fr. licorne f.; a corruption 

of unicornis, Sp. unicornio, unicorn. 
Idoou Ft. a halter; from lie-cou. 
Iiie Fr. gay, in the phrase faire chere lie; from Uetus, O. Fr. lie 

f. liee and lie. It. lie to. 
laidge Fr* cork; from leger (Pr. leuge). 
Iiiendre — lendine. 
Ifienzo — lenza. 



Lierre — edera. 

Lieue — lega. 

Lieve It., Sp. Pg. leve, Pr. lev light, from levis; Fr. instead of 
lief has lege (»mptv (of ships), cf. neige = Pr. neu. It. leggkro^ 
Pr. leugier, Fr. leger, from a form leviaritis; vb. Pr. leujar = 
L. L. leviare for levare, also aleujar aleviar, It. alleggiarty Sp. 
flr//r/Vr (sbst. alivh), Fr. alleger, O. E. allegge (= alleviate, cf. 
abridge = abbreviate, agredge aggravate). 

Li6vito It., Kouiag. /e'l/tf, Sp. /ewe/o fliebdoj, Pg. levedo risen, 
fcmiented (of dough) ; vb. It. levitare, Sp. leudar Heudar, alfu- 
dar alevadar, Pg. levedar to ferment dough with leaven. From 
levitus a partic. for levatus (levare), of. cubitus from cvbare, do- 
mare domitus, and unelass. dolitus for dolatus Varro, rart/vf 
for vocatus, provitus for probatus, rogitus for rogalus, cf. also s. 
fegato. So levitare is not a frequentative from levare. Another 
form is Pr. /a'«/, Cat. llevat, Wal. a/t/a/ leaven; Noap. /^o/o, 
Piedm. Mil. /efi;rt = It. lieviio. Eh. /^r;ow^ from the pres. par- 

Lige Fr., Pr. lilge, whence It. ligio, E. liege^ L. L. Ifgtus, sbst. 
O. Fr. lige'e, ligesse. The fundamental meaning seems to be 
unlimited , perfect. The homme lige had to render unrestricted 
service to the lige seigneur, who, in return, was bound to 
afford ?/;?cowe//Y/V>w^/ protection. Hence ligia potestas, ligia vo- 
luntas unbounded. Three derivations are given: (l) from the 
Kom. liga bond, but we cannot have a non- Latin adj. formed 
with -ius or -eus; (2) O. N. iidi a companion, whence lidi-us, 
lige, but here the sense scarcely suits; (.3) from G. ledig free: 
ligius homo, quod Teutonice dicitur ledigman Document of VS^ 

Ligio — lige. 

Lilac It. Sp. E., Pg. Hid, Fr. HI as; from the Pers. lilac. 

Limaoa limace lima^on — lumaccia, 

Limande Fr. a plaice ; from lima a file , by reason of its rough 
skin. It is called lima in It. 

Limier Fr. a hunting- do^, E. lime-hound, O. Fr. liemier loiemier 
loiemer, Bret, liamer; from Fr. lien, O. Fr. loien, L. ligamen, 
so prop. = a leash -hound. 

Limon — leme. 

Limone It., Sp. Pr. limon, Pg. limdo, Fr. limon, E. letnon, also 
It. Sp. Pg. lima. It. lomia, Sic. lumiuni; from Pers. Ihnii or Vmiin 
= tree and fruit, which is from Ind.nimbuka, Bcng.nimbu n9>a; 
hence also Ar. laimun. 

Limosina It., O. Sp. Pr. almosna, Sp. limosna, Pg. esmola (for 
elmosa), Fr. aumdne, E. alms; from eleemosyna; hence rV. 
aumdnerie, E. aivmery, almonry, 

Linoeuil — lenza. 


lainde Sp. 0. Pg. (m. f.), Pg. linda a boundary; from limes limi- 

tis, Pr. limit &c.; vb. lindar from limitarc; Pr. lindar lintel; 

from limitaris. Hence also Sp. linlel dintel, E. lintel. 
Iiindo It. Sp. Pg., N. Pr. linde neat, fine, pretty, from limpidus 

clear, whence in Piedm. = sincere. It. also limpido, Sp. lim- 

pio, cf. 7iitido and netto, torbido and torbo. 
Iiinea It. Sp. line, lineage, O. Val. linia, B. leinua, L. L. linea 

sanguinis. Hence Fr. lignee, O. Pg. linhada, O. Fr. lignage, 

E. lineage, Pr. link (m.) from linens, cf. Sp. lino row; O. Fr. 

lin is L. linum thread. 
Iiinge Fr. m., Pr. linge, B. lijiea; from lineus, as lange from 

Iiingot Fr. Twhence ingot, the / being taken for the article) ; from 

lingua, ci. lingula. Or E. ingot may be the original word; 

in -got (Chauc. = a mould), = G. ein-guss anything poured 

into a mould {giessen to pour). 
Iiinot linotte Fr., E. linnet; from linum, cf. G. leinfinke flachs- 

finke (flax -finch). 
Idppe Fr. underlip, O. Fr. lepe, Eou. liper to eat delicacies; 

from L. G. lippe, A. S. Uppa, E. lip (Gael, lip Hop f.); Com. 

leff lip, liffia mouth, from O. H. G. lefs, leffur. 
Iiira It. a coin; from libra (Fr. livre)y cf. bere from bibere. 
Iiirio — giglio. 
lairon — ghiro. 
Iiis — giglio. 
Iiisca It. stalk, festuca, Piedm. lesca. Mil. lisca, Fr. laiche (for 

leche) fish-bone; O. H. G. lisca fern, reed, Du. lisch. It. lisca, 

Piedm. lesca. Cat. llesca, N. Pr. lisco lesco, Fr. leche (not laiche) 

a small piece of anything; vb. Cat. llescar to cut in pieces. 

An old L. G. glossary has: lesc scirpus, papirus. 
Iiisoio It., Sp. Pg. liso, Pr. lis, Fr. lisse smooth, with numerous 

derivatives, v. It. lisciare ligiare, Sp. alisar, Fr. lisser to polish 

(perhaps connected with glisser q. v.). The Gk. has ic066g 

smooth, the O. H. G. lisi, G. leise soft. Hence Sp. deslizar to 

slip, Cat. lliscar. From 0. H. G. leisandn to follow a track, 

is O. Sp. deleznar to glide, adj. lizne smooth, and perhaps 

Eh. laischnar. 
Iiisciva It., Wal. lesie, Sp. lexia, Fr. lessive, Pr. lissiu (m/) lye, 

W. lisiu; from lixivia lixivium, L. L. leciva (Vocab. S. Crafl.). 
Iiisera lisiere — lista. 
Iiisiar Sp. to lame, maim. Cat. lesiar, Pg. lesar; from Icedere 

Icesus, O. Sp. lision = L. Iwsio. 
Iiiso — liscio. 
Igista It. Sp. Pr., Pg. lista listra, Fr. liste slip, stripe, border, 

E. list; from O.H.G^.lhta, G. leiste. Hence Fr. lisiere (whence 

Sp. lisera) hem, for listiere. 



Iiisto — lento. 

Liters litiere — lettieni, 

Liiito leuto liudo It.. Sji. hiiifl, Pjr. ahnide^ Pr. lauty lahui, O.Fr. 
hut , Kr. hah, ^^'al. laute aleute. X. Gr. kaov^o^ G. /tfulr, L 
lute. From tlu- Ar. 'i/// with article at-^iid. The Sp. iaud fahr 
the Ar. /////y ;:ave rise t«» the otlier Koiii. forms. 

Iiiveche — leristiro, 

laiverare livrare It., Pr. Uunir, Fr. lirrer to deliver, Sp. lihrar, 
P*r. iirrar -— dar nr entrtyun L. L. Uberare (e. g. dona); also 
Fr. three, It. tirrea, Sp. tihrea, E. /rir/y (prop- something 
furnished or {riven, orijr. something given as a livelihood), 
L. L. tiherata, lifferatio; henee Vr. defirrer, E. delivery L. L 
dt'litterare: fmm Itttemre to frt*t\ let go, give up, ef. Sp. «>//flr. 
The L. meaning is fnuud in It. lil^erare, Sp. Ubrar, Pr. //irrar, 
Fr. deUvret% E. detiver, 

Liza — tim'fi. 

Lisne — iisrfo, 

Llamar — ctiinmare, 

LlantenSp. plantain: from pitnitaffo, Ix.piantaggine, E.piantam. 

Llarea — irtr, 

Llegar S[»., V\:.rhe(/ar 1 1 » to bring near (2» intrans. to approach, 
hrn«*t- Sit*. ghicftrL Fri»m plicare, cf. \x, piegare come it renttt 
a nni tjli pietja Dante Inf. 5, 71). The <>. Sp. v^tk» plegar, and 
th<* meaning; aro>e orig.. perhaps, from the use of applicarf 
(navem &l\), 

Loba Sp. Pg. surplic**: from Fr. Vauhe. 

Lobe (), Fr. seoft, vl). tijter; from G. /o/> praise, vb- lobett, cf. 
Pr. fjahtir to jeer. Pg. tu jiraise. 

Lobrego Sp. Pg. sad, gloomy: from luguhriSy It. lugubre, 

Loc (). Fr., whence (). Fr. linjuet. It. lucchetto: from A. S. loCy 
E. Ifjcky O. II. G. In-loh (blmii) bar, block, Goth, ga-lukan 

to shut. 

Locco It. rXeap. Sicil. ('rem. loiirrh) fool, Sp. adj. /<>ro, Pj:. 
louroy N. Pr. /wv;w mad , fooli>h. Servius (ad Virg. Ec. S* 55 » 
mentions a L. alucus or ulucus = uhda^ hence It. ahfcco (Com. 
Piedni. olor/n = owl and blockhead, as Parm. cid; this was 
shortened into locco cNcc. 

Loche Fr., Sp. loj'a, E. loach. 

Lecher Fr. to shake: esloch/er to loos(»n (e. g. les dents), seslochier 

tti rise up; I^ou. hftrlocher to agitate. Perhaps from O. II. G. 

loc, O. Js. lockr, harlftckr fh*ck, hairlock), cf. froncer from 

Locman Fr. a pilot: from Du. loods-mitn, E. loadsman, O. E. 

lodcman lodesman (cf. lodestar). Hence, by corruption, Fr. 

Itimaneury formed after gouverncur helmsman. 


Iioco O. It. for L. hie (adv.), Sp. luego, Pg. logo, Pr. luec Juecx, 
O. Fr. lues, Wal. de loc = L. statira; from locus loco. 

Iiodier Fr. blanket; cf. O. H. G. Iddo over- garment, O. N. Idd, 
L. lodix. O. Fr. lodier loudicr a sluggard, f. lodiere, N. lod- 
dari (SL Dii. lodder, G. lotter-bube) are from the same root, 
cf. poliro. 

lK>dola — allodola. 

Boendro — oleandro. 

I*of Fr. wind -side of a ship; from E. loof, Du. loef. Hence vb. 
louvoyer to tack, G. lavieren, cf. bordayer = Sp. bordear, It. 
bordeggiare from bord, 

Iioge loger logis — loggia. 

Iioggia It., Pg. loja, Pr. lotja, Fr. loge, Sp. lonja, E. lodge &c.; 
from O. H. G. laubja, L. L. laubia, Q. laube bower, shed, 
whence also O. Fr. loge a tent, hut. Laubja from laub folium, 
as O. Fr. foillie from feuille. Nearer to the G. orig. is the Rh. 
laupia, Lomb. Pied, lobia a church -gallery. Hence Fr. loger. 
It. alloggiare, E. lodge; Fr. logis &c. 

liogoro It. (for logro?), Pr. loire (whence Fr. lorimier a saddler, 
E. lorimer), O. Fr. loitre, Fr. leurre (m.), E. lure, prop, a bit 
of leather used by falconers to lure back hawks ; from M. H. 
G. luoder (G. leder, leather) lure , It. g for d as in ragunare 
from radunare. Vb. Pr. loirar, Yr. leurrer, E. lure, allure; It. 
logorare to feast, revel = M. H. G. luodern, 

Iiogro Sp. Pg. gain, usury, Pr. logre, Sp. Pr. lograr to gain, 
Sp. logrear to lend on interest, logrcro usurer; from lucrum 
lucrari. Hence, with malo, Sp. malogro, Pg. maliogro failure, 
disappointment, vb. malograr, mallograr. ' 

Iioip — ghiro, 

Iioisir Fr., E. leisure; from licere, cf. plaisir irom placere. 

Iioja It. mud: perhaps from alluvies, cf. Bojano from Bovianum, 
But the B. has /oy^r in same sense. 

IioUa — loppa. 

Iiombard IV. a pawn-shop, a lombard (whence lumber), Du. 
lombaerd, O.Fr. adj. usurious, Qi,^iQi\Jumbardu an innkeeper; 
from the Lombards (= Italians, cf. Dante Purg. 16, 125: che 
me' si noma francescamente il semplice Lomb ar do = Italiano), 
who were noted in France and other countries as merchants 
and usurers , cf . Lombard Street. 

Iiomia — limone. 

Iiomo Sp., Pr. lom loin, chine; from lumbus, It. lombo. 

IfOna Pr. a lake, marsh; from lacuna la'una, N. Idn. 

Iionga — loggia. 

IfOnganiza Sp. a sort of long sausage; from L. longiino (Cselius 
Aurel. and Veget. de re vet.), gut, longanum Varro, longabo 
(Apicius) a sausage. 

278 LOXGE — LOBO. 

Iionge Fr. loin, O. Fr. Wall, logne, E. loin, Sp. ianja a slice of 

ham ; from an adj . Iti/nbea flumbusj. 
Longe Fr. f. rope of a halter; = alonge a lengthenings faiange 

= la longe. 
IiODja — longe (l). 
Lontano It., Pr. lonhdd, Fr. loin fain; from a L. longitanm, cf. 

forms witli /, longiter, longiludo, longiirorsus (Festus, wh«[ic« 

0. Miiller conjectures an adj. longiterus). 

Lontra It. Pg., Sp. lutria nutria, Pr. loiria luiria lunOj Fr. lovtn 
an otter (cf. hierre, ingot , ottone &c.); from Intra Gk. ivvd(^ 
(Sp. nutria^ 

Lonza It., Sp. Pg. onza, Fr. once, E. ounce. From Xvy%j o for 
1/ as in borsa, tomha, torso from fivQaog, tvfifiog^ ^VQifog, From 
the L. lynx we have It. lince, Sp. lince, BV. /y/io; (m.). Others 
from leovtiog lion -like. 

Iionza It. fleshy parts of an animal; from O. H. G. luniussa fat. 

Iionzo It. slack; cf.M.H.G./t/wr drowsiness, Bav. lunzei drowsy, 
M. Du. lompsch lazy, G. luntsch. 

Loppa It., Lomb. lop (m.) husk, dim. lolla for loppola] from 

Loque Fr. shred, not directly from G.locke (v. locher) but from 
N. Idkr a lock of hair or any appendage. Hence, perhaps, Fr. 
breloque, Ron. berloque, N. Pr. barlocco f., an appendage, 
charm, Rh. bargliocca a lock of hair, cf. Ron. berloquer, Kh. 
balucar to dangle, cf. also It. badalucco. Hence also YT.pende- 
loque, Ron. pendreloque an earring, {rom pen dul us , r = L 

Loquet — loc. 

Iiordo It. also lurido filthy; from luridtis, lurdus lordo, R. Gr. 

1, 113. Hence also Fr. lourd, Pr. lot for lort (E. lout), cf. 
Bernat for Bernart, Sp. Pg. lerdo for luerdo as f rente for 
fruente, slow, dull, stupid (O. It. /orrfo). For the transition 
from "dirty" to "stupid", cf. Fr. jwowrri rotten , Wall. /wwri 
sluggish, O. H. G. fid putridus, Du. vuil = Ft. foul, G.faul 
lazy. The der. from horridus It. ordo with prefixed article, 
is unsupported by analogy v. lazzo. Hence Fr. balourd dolt, 
^yhQr\ce it. balordo , Rh. balurd, Sp. palurdo vilordo, ba horn 
baer beer, so balourd = gaping blockhead ; cf . badaud. 

Lorgner Fr., Norm, loriner to spy, view, lorgnette a spying- 
glass ; from G. lauern to lurk, watch, Sw. loren luren. 

Loriot Fr. a yellow-hammer, E. oriole, O. Fr. oriouz, Pic. uriot, 
Pr. auriol, Sp. oriol, from aureolus, with article loriol, cor- 
rupted O.Fr./onow, Vr. loriot. Cf. lendemain, landier, lierreSiC. 

Lore Sp., Pg. louro tawny. Perhaps from aureolus, though there 
seems to be no instance of the article prefixed to an adj., cf. 
lazzo, Irodo. 

Loro — egli. 

. LORS — LUCERTA. 279 

Iiors — or a (2). 

Losa Piedm. Sp., Pg. loustty Pr. lama, O. Fr. lauze, B. arlauza 
(arri stone) a ffravestone , flat stone , prop, an epitaph , from 
L. laudes, cf. Sp. lauda tombstone. For tne form cf. lusinga. 

Iiosenge — lusinga. 

I*ot — lotto. 

Iiotto It. lottery, Pg. loie ra. kind, sort, number (lot), Fr. lot 
share (lot), Jrg. lotar to fix the number , tax (allot), Fr. lotir 
to share; loterie, E. lottery, cf. Fr. E. lot, Sp. lote; from the 
G., Goth, hlauts, O. N. hlutr, O. H. G. hldz, G. loofs xl'^gog 
sors, O. H. G. hluz something gained by lot, O. N. hlut share. 

IfOuange — Iminga. 

Iiouer Fr. to praise ; from laudare. 

Iiouer Fr. to hire, from locare; loyer rent, pay, from locarium, 
Pr. loguier. 

Iioupe Fr. a round swelling, a wen, also a lens ; from lupa a she- 
wolf, ct.Sf.lupia lobanillo a wen, W[i.luppa, G. wolfsgeschiotUst. 
O. Fr. lope = grimace, prop, thick lip. 

Iioup-garou Fr. a man who could assume a wolfs form, a were- 
wdf, G. wdhrwolf prop. = man -wolf, Xvnav^QC^Tiog , Pg. 
lobiS'homem , L. L. gerulphus (from A. S. verewolf). From 
genUphus came O. Fr. garonl garou, cf. Baoul Raou from Ra- 
dtdphus, in Marie de Fr. 1 , 178, garwall. So loup- garou is a 
pleonasm, like the Bret, bleiz-gard (bleiz = loup), cf. cor- 
moran, It. Mongihello (gibello from Ar. = It. mon). We have 
also O. Fr. loup-beroux, Pr. leberotm leberou, Berr. marloup, 
louara, birette. Norm, lubin, O. Fr. also millegroux and leu- 
waste; It, lupo mannaro. From garou is Norm, varouage nightly 
flitting about. Pic. garou = sorcerer. 

Iioura Pg. a burrow; from laurex a young rabbit, whence also 
lousa (s from c in lauricem). 

Ifourd — lordo. 

Iiotire O. Fr. ba^-pipe, Fr. a dance; from O. N. ludr, Dan. luta* 
a shepherd's pipe. 

Iioutre — lontra. 

IfOyer — louer. 

Iiosa Sp. an earthen vessel; from luteus lutea, whence also Rh. 
Com. lozza, Romag. lozz clay. 

IiOBano Sp., Pg. louzao luxuriant; from Goth, laus, O. H. G. Ids 
empty, light (G. los, E. loose). Pic. Wall. /o55 = jocular. 

IiTis Sp., Val. luga, Pg. luva a glove; from Goth. Idfa m., O. N. 
Idfi tne flat hand, A. S. gldfa m., E. glove. 

Iiuoame Fr. a dormer-window; from lucema, cf. Goth, lucam, 
Ir. luacham, W. llygom. 

Iiuoohetto — loc. 

Iiucerta -*- lacerta. 


Iiuchera — luquer. 

Iiucherino It., Von. lugarin; from L. ligurinm. 

Luchina Mod. <i fal^e tale; from O. H. G. lugina a lie^ G.lige. 

Lucillo S|). tomb, sareopIia^ii«, O. Fr. iuseau; from loceilus diiD, 
of loculus = coftin ill L. L. 

Luego — loco, 

Luette Fr. uvula; a dim. of L. ura, with article prefixed; It. 
uffoia for uvola, Com. vga for ura, Lang, nivouieio. 

Iiueur Fr., Pr. lugor, O. It. lucore; from lucere, wth the hardf 
of iucanus, luculeniuSy or the O. L. lucus = lux; from Iwtn 
we have Pr. luzor, It. luciore (as cuciore from cuocere). The 
sam<- root in Pr. lug -ana light, alucar, O. Fr. alucher to light 

Liiganega Mil. Ven. a sort of sausage, Pied, luganighin; from 
L. lucanica (Lucanian), B. lukhainca, 

Luglio It. July; from Julius, altered in form so as to distinguish 
it better from giugno June, ef. Pied, giugn, lilgn, and v. JuUlet. 

Lui It. a wren ; perhaps so called from the cry. 

Liii — (fgli. 

Lulla It. stave at the bottom of a cask, in the shape of a half- 
moon; from lunula, 

Liimaccia It., Sp. limaza, Pg. lesma, Fr. limace, limafan. It. /«- 
maca, Kh. limaga, Ven. limegay Cat. llimac a snail ; from limax, 

Lunedi It., Fr. lundi, Pr. dilus, Cat. dilluns Monday, Lume dirs; 
Sp. lunes, Pr. luns (q{, martcs), Wal. Itint, Ven. luni, Romag. 
Ion. The Pg. has instead segunda feira, cf. N. Gr. dsvxiQa. 

Liines — lunedi. 

Lunette Fr. eye-glass; It. lunelta aperture in a vault for light, 
from luna, 

Luquer Norm., loitqui Wall., Fr. reluquer to ogle, leer; prob. 
from O. H. G. luogen, luoken, A. S. loktan, E. look. Do the 

; It. Itiche'ra look, lucherare to look awry, belong here? The 
Lomb. lughcra spark is from O. H. G. loug flame. 

Luseau — lucillo, 

Lusinga It., Sp. lisonja, Pr. lauzenga lauzenja, O. Fr. loscnge 
flattery (O. Fr. Sp. E. lozenge, Sp. also losange orig. an 
heraltfic term), B. lauscngua; vb. lusingare, lisonjar, fauzettgar, 
loscnger; 8l)st. lusinghiere, lisongero (losengtTo), lauzengadtft 
lauzengier, losengeor, Fr, lauz-efiga from lauzar =laudare y\hh 
same suffix as in O. Fr. laid-enge, cost-enge, Fr. vid-ange. The 
s of losenge is radical, cf. los (m.) praise, ace. los, from laude$ 
fused as sing. = hymn), aloser to praise. The Sp. and It. are 
from the Fr. and rr.; the It. has also Genev. loso, Ven. h\x 
= los. The Fr. louange, louanger, louangeur are regularly 
formed from laudarc, which in its peculiar Rom. sense = to 
consent, arbitrari, has given rise to laudemiumlaudemia (which 
Pott compares to vindcmia and makes to mean the purchasing 

LUTH — MACCO. 281 

laus or permisBion from a feudal lord, cf. E. allow, allowance) 
from wnich juristic word come Pr, laudeme lauzimi lauzisme, 
It. Sp. laudemio dues paid to a feudal lord. O. Fr. los is found 
in the juristic formula los et ventes v. Ducange, laudare. 

Iiuth — liuto, 

lautin Fr. a hobgoblin, vb. lutiner; O. Fr. luiion, Belg. nuiton, 
Wall, nuton, Grimm Myth. p. 475, derives it from hwtus, so 
= a wailing ghost, wnich the lutin is not; Grandgagnage 
from Flem. luttil, E. little, as being dwarfish. Perhaps it is 
best to take nuiton as the orig. form, and derive it from nuit. 

Iiutrin Fr. a lectern, reading-desk, for le'trin, lectrinum, from 
L. L. lectrum ^^analogium, super quo legitur" Gloss. Isid. Gen. 
has letterin for It. leggio; E. lectern. 


Ma —^ mai. 

ICaoa — amaca. 

ICaoabre, danse IMEaoabre Fr. death's dance; from (1) 5. Maca- 
rius (2) chorea Macahmorum (3) Ar. maqdhir grave -yards? 
Cf. Lorr. maicaihre a grotto. 

SCacdri magari magara It. interj. for L. utinam; from fiaxaQiog 
(N. Gr. iiaxagi), voc. ^axdgu. In O. It, it was used as a con- 
cessive particle, since; so Wal, macdr ce, Serv. makar, All). 
mdcar; perhaps also O. Sp. maguar maguer maguera = though, 
O. Pg. maguer (which are by some derived from Fr. malgre 

^ maugre). 

Maocherone It., Ven. macarone (commonly used only in the 
plur.), maccaroni. Partly from macco or maccare (q.v.), partly 
from fiaxagia (Hesychius)'/Jp(»fta ix ^o/iot; xal dlfpitcov, prop. 
= happiness, hence delicious food. The Gk. word was known 
to the It., cf. macdri; to give maccherone macco would require 
an intermediate form maccaria, which is found in Neap., though 
in a different sense , v. macco, 

Maochia It., Sp.Pg.wiancAflr (for machd) stain &c., bushy ground 
(La Mancha), Wall, megure a woody hill, cf. G. flecken, E. 
spot (of land &c.); also It. maglia, Sp. Pg. Pr. malla, Fr. 
maille, E. mail (coat -of- mail); from macula; also Pg. mdgoa 
spot, vh. magoar. Mence Sf. mancilla spot, sore, i7/ for ul; 
Fr. maillot swadling clothes. From macchiare, Sp. macar or 
manchar, comes Fr./war^w^/^r (formed Rher marquer) to stipple, 
put in the lights and shades of a picture, wlience marqueterie 
checauered inlaid work. 

Kaooo It. bruising (whence It. ammaccare to poimd), a mash of 
bean food^ Com. mcu:h bruised barley, Sp. maca bruise on 


fniit, stain (perhaps an old Lat. word, whence macula), O.Fr. 
magpie a hemp-bniiser, Kou. maca a large hammer , maqvrt 
a sort of bolt, Wall, macloit a club, E. mace; vb. It. maawt 
maca re, am-maccare , s-maccare, Rh. smaccar, Sp. Cat. mKOTj 
Pr. macar machar, O. Fr. maquer to bruise, press; sbst. Neap. 
maccaria, O. Fr. machetwe butchery. The Bret, mdcha to press 
is from the same root. Some derive it from the Heb. maccak 
to sliiy, but the root is widely spread; of. Gk. iid66HVj L 
mar-uia, mac- ell um. It. macco macca plenty, O. Fr. maquei 
a heap, Wall, a make in plenty, perhaps orig. = somethuig 
pr<*ss»'d down , and heapea up. 

Maccu Sard, simpleton; from maccus (Apuleius') the fool in the 

Machacar machuoar machar — macho, 

Mdcher — masticare. 

Macho Sp. Pg. man, male. Not from mascuius which gives in 
O. Sp. masclo mash muslo, but; prob., the same word as macho 
a hammer (whence machar machacar machucar to hammer, 
pound, machado a luitchet, machete a chopping -knife), cf. It. 
marconc a husband. Macho from marcus (marcu/usj maUetn 
major Isid. Gloss., O. It. marco (Lat. proper name Marcus), 

Machurer — maschera. 

Macigno — mdcina, 

Mdcina macine mill -stone, macinare, Wal. macina to grind; 
from machina, whence a form machmens gives It. macigno 
quarrv- stone. 

Macio I^g. malleable , pliant ; Sousa derives it from Ar. masihy 
but why not from the same root as Sp. macho? 

Maciiillalt. a mace for bruising hemp, O. Fr. maque (v. macco) 
which = an It. macca, dim. macchi-ciulla, machdla, ni. f anti- 
cello fanciullo, 

Ma^on Fr., Pr. massd, E. mason, Isid. machio, perhaps for marcio 
from marcvs a hammer (v. macho), cf. tabellio from taMln, 
S]», has an old verb mazonar, Macon = machio, as bracel-ei 
= hrachiale. Or is the word from the root mac, v. macco? 

Madera madero Sp., Pg. madeira timber (hence Madeira); from 

Madexa — malassa. 

Madia It. kneading-trough; from L. maffis magidis, magida, Fr. 
(Jura) maid, Norm, met, Wall, mai. Pic. maie. Neap, matra. 
Mil. mama, N. Pr. mastra are from ^ccxtga^ vb. Wall, mairi 
to knead. 

Madio madios — dio, 

Madraco — materasso. 

Madr6 Fr. spotted, sbst. Norm, maire spot (on the skin), O. Fr. 
mazre madre a spotted kind of wood, L. L. scyphi maserini, 


O. Fr. adj. mazelin, madelin maderin a drinking- vessel; from 
O. H. G. masarj G. maser speck, speckled wood. 

Madrigale It., Sp. Fr. E. madrigal, O. It. mandriale, Sp. man- 
drial; from mandria, L. mandra a flock, herd; so = a herds- 
man's song, a pastoral. 

Kadrugar Sp. Pg. to rise early, O. Sp. madurgar = a L. matu- 
ricare, from maiurus. 

Maestro mastro It., Sp. maestro maestre, O.Sp. maese, Pg. mestre, 
Fr. maltre (from the O. Fr. maistre), Wal. mester, E. master; 
from magister. Hence It. maestrale, Sp. maestral, Cat. mestral, 
Fr. mistral North-west wind, Pr. maestre, so called from its 

ICagagna It., O. Fr. Wall, mehaing m., Crem. Mil. Pied, man- 
gagna a defect, bodily failing, maim; vb. It. magagnare, Pr. 
maganhar, O. Fr. mehaigner to maim. L. L. has mahamium 
mahamiare (E. maim?). Perhaps from a Germ, man-hamjan 
(man -maim) formed like man-slago (manslayer). In Com. we 
find besides magagn also mdga which would point to a root 
mag (^= mac \. macco?). Muratori derives magagno from man- 
ganum a catapult. 

Magazsino It., Sp. magacen almagacen almacen, Pg. armazem, 
Fr. magasin, E. magazine; from Ar. makhan al-mazan a 

ICaggese It. fallow ; froQi maggio May, in which month the fields 
were ploughed up, Mil. maggenh, 

Magione It., Pr. O. Sp. may son, O. Pg. meisom, Fr. maison 
(whence Sp. meson); from mansio (mansion). Hence It. mas- 
nada, Sp. mesnada manada, Pr. mainada, O. Fr. mesgne'e mes- 
nie, E. meiny (whence It. menial) y household, retinue, body 
of armed men &c., from a form mansionata (It. manata, Sp. 
Pr. manada a handful , from manus) ; from masnada (masna- 
dino) is It. mastino, Sp. Pr. mastin, Pg. mastim, Fr. mdtin, 
E. mastiff a house-dog, prop. = a member of the household 
(O. Fr. mastin). Further, from manere we have manotr, E. 
manor, Fr. masure (mansura), mas mes, E. manse (mansusj, Fr. 
E. messuage (L. L. man-suagium). 

Maglia — macchia. 

ICaglio It., Sp. Pg. mallo, Fr. mail, Wal. main, E. mall; from 
malleus; yh.It.magliare, Sp. majar, Pg.Pr. malhar, Fr. mailler 
to hammer; from malleare (malleatus). 

Magnano — maha. 
ICagoa — macchia. 
Magone Mod. crop; = O. H. G. mago, G. magen, E. maw, Rh. 

magun; Ven. Pied, magon, Gen. wa^wn = grudge, ill-will, 

cf. stomachus. 

284 MAGBANA — llAJO. 

Magrana emigrania It., Sp. migranuy Fr. migraine; from jfu- 
xp«i'«« acln* on one side of the head. 

Maguer — macnri, 

Mai ma It., < ). Sj». Pjr. Pr. //ifi/x, Sp. Pg. Fr. mas, Fr. mff&; from 
matjia, It. /////, Sp. IV. /;i/7,s\ Fr. mats used for L. sedy cf. GotL 
//I///V for maffis aiitl pothtSy L.L. *<*r/ /nflr^i> = sed poiius, Henc« 
Sp. (Irmas I'ji-teni.** , L. //f ;7i^^/d* in Festus (but = minus); adj. 
Sp. demasiatin niniius. 

Maidieu — din. 

Mail --- mag} UK 

Maille - march in, 

Maille - medatjlia. 

Main Fr. in main mrnue poor folk 5 from manus. 

Main adv. — mane. 

Mainada — matjioiu*, 

Mainbour mambourg C). Yr. guardian (Pr. manbor), vb. mam- 
boar nir, wli«*nce sbst. mainbournie. \ rom O. H. G. muntbanh 
A. S. munbhttra, I)ii. momboor, L. L. mundiburdus tutor, patn>- 
mis; L. L. mundibardis mundiburdum ^ (.). IT. G- munfbiirti = 
tutt'la.: from manf hand and beran fbearj, cf. main-tenir. Muni 
is altered \o Ktim. main (cf. manovaido), barf to boumir. F^r 
Himihir adaptations cf. battifrcdOj guiderdonCy candeiarbrt. 
orange &e. 

Maint Fr., i*r. /w///w/ manf (N. Pr. mant-un), hence It. mantokr 
L. multua. Three derivations are pro])(»sed: (1) W. maiid 
miiltitndi', cf. tmppo from tnippus (2) O. II, G. managed , Du. 
mmifftc a multitude (:|) O. II. G. adj. manag , G. manrhy in 
which case we should have to suppose a neut. from managaz 
managat. Fn»issart has fa- maint (== Sip, famaHo), whence It. 

Maintenant — immantincnie. 

Maintenir — mantenere, 

Maire Fr., Fi. mayor; for major, O. Fr. maire, G. meier, cf, major 

Mais — mai, 

Maison — magione, 

Maitre •— maestro, 

Maiz Sp., E. maize: an American (Haitian) word. 

Migada Sp., P;l^. mathada sheep-cote, inn; from magafia fmaga- 
fiata magliata), Cf. naguela, 

Mfgar — maglia, 

Majo It., Sp. mayo, Fr. mai, Pr. f. maia a sort of birch, May-tree, 
80 called because it flourishes in May; also any green trro, 
or branch of a tre(^, such as on May -night it was the custom 
fur lovers to plant before the doors «»f their mistresses. Kh. 
maig a bunch of flowers. 


Majolica It. counterfeit porcelain; from the island Majorca, 
where it was made. 

Majorana maggiorana It.; Sp. mayorana , Vg. maiorana mange- 
rona, Fr. marjolaine, E. marjoram, G. majoran; corrupted 
from amaracus. Sp. almoradux. Cat. moradux are from Arab. 
mardaqusch which is from the Persian murda-gdsh. Majorana 
may have been assimilated to major. 

Mai — ora (l). 

Mala Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. malle, E. matd trunk; Gael, mala, O. H. G. 
malaha sack , Du. maal maale, 

Malade — malato. 

Malaise — agio. 

Malandrin malandrino — landra. 

Malart Fr. male of the duck, Pic. mailiard, E. mallard; from 
mdle (masculus). 

Malato It. O. Sp., Fr. malade, Pr. malapte malaut. Cat. malall; 
It. malaitta, Fr. maladie^ E. malady, Pr. malaptia malaulia ma- 
latia, Cat. malallia. The Pr. forms point to the dor. from 
male aptus, cf. G. tmpdsslich from passen aptare, and E. m- 
disposed; Cat. malalt, as galta from gauta. The Fr. and It. 
(which, from aptus, should have been malate, malaito) may 
nave taken their form from a part, malatus from malum, as 
barhatus from barba, or from ammalalo (ammalare). 

Malaves — avieso. 

Malgr^ — grado. 

Malheur — augurlo. 

Malia It. sorcery, maliardo sorcery; from mains magical, Virg. 
Ec. 7, 28. ne rati noceal mala lingua futuro, 

Malingre — heingre. 

Mall-public O. Fr. public justice; L.L. mallum publicum, Goth. 
mathly O. H. G. mahal justice. 

Malla — macchia. 

Malle — mala. 

Mallevare It. to bail , Sp. Pr. manlevar, O. Pg. malevar to bail, 
to borrow; from manum hware to lift the hand, promise so- 
lemnly, cf. malluvium for manluvium. 

Mallo It. the green husk covering nuts &c.; = Fr. mnlle (maul 
chest) a repository? 

Malogro — ogro. 

Malotru — astro. 

MaLsin Sp., Pg. malsim tale-bearer, makebate, vb. malsinar. 
The verb might come from male signare; since, however, 
names of agents are rarely, if ever, derived from verbs with- 
out suffix, it may be better to derive the verb from the noun, 
and to make this a contraction of mal-vecino (bad neighbour), 
cf. It. O. Fr. malvicino malvoisin. 


Malt Fr. m.; from E. malt, O. H. G. malz. 

Malta It. mud; = L. maltha cement^ Rb. mauiia molta. 

Maltote Kr. t*. (^xtortion ; from O. Fr. toute tolfe (partie. of tollir 
fn)m (oUere) a levying of taxes, with mal, cf. It. maltolto mda- 
(id la: guar da Iwn la mal tdta moneta Inf. 19, 98 ; O. Pg. wd/Zfl- 
tuMa maltosta duty on wine. V. Due. v. tolta. 

Malvagio It., Pr. malvais, Fr. mauvais: It. malvagita, Pr. »«/- 
vastat malveataty <). Fr. mauvesltCy O. Sp. malvestad. Goth, bae 
a sl)st. balvarcnei hadncsB, adj. balvavesi-s bad = an O. H.G. 
balvfhi, honiM* balrais, .altered to malvais so as to connect it 
Vk'iih mal: for similar instances Qi. guiderdone , mambaiur^^ 
<ir. 2, 221) note. But is it unconnected with malvar? 

Malvar (). Sp. to deprave, Sp. malvado, Pr. malvai wicked, md- 
radesa wickedness. From mal-levar (cf. malograr for aw/- 
l Off tar) J and s«> = prop, to bring up badly. 

Malvavisohio It., Sp. malvavisco (Fr. maurisque) marsh- mallow; 
from malva ibiscum (^ifiiaxog) ; L. L. bismalva from ibiscum malta. 
Fr. It. guimauve for vimauve, v = b, 

Malvis — mauvi's. 

Mamma It., Sp. mama, Fr. maman, Wal. mame == E. mammOj 
Gen. &c. = nurse; from L. mamma (1) breast (so It. Sp. Pg.) 
^2) mother (Varro). Maman has an accusative form, which 
(liffers, however, from other forms such as non nain, Evatn &c., 
probably in order to make it less unlike 7;<7/;tf. Sp. mamarh 
to suck (L.L. mammare). The G. memme coward corresponds 
to Xoap. mammamia (m.). V. H. Stephani lex. Grsec. v. xra'a- 

Mammone It. prop, gattomammone a baboon; = Gk. fccfic}, M. 

Gr. N.Gr.fial]uoi5, \\d\,moime mcimuce, Alban. Turk, maimun^ 

Hung, mnjom ape. 
Mamparar Sp. Pg. to shelter, defend ; from manuparare to guard 

with the hand, v. pararc, 
Manada - - mag tone. 
Manaier 0. Fr. to protect, save, sbst. manaie, Pr. manayOy from 

manu ad jut are ^ hence also a form with d, manaidey menaide: 

cf. mantrnerc, mallevare, mamparar. 
Manant Fr. a native, a peasant; partie. pres. from O.Fr. manmr 

maindre = manere L. L. to dwell; adj. O. Fr. manant j Pr. 

manen wealthy, man antic wealth; G(»n. manente ploughman. 
Mancebo Sp., iV. O. Fr. mancip massip young man, t. manccha 

mancipa; from L. mancipium , L. L. mancipius. 
Mancha manchilla — macchia, 
Manche — manico. 
Mancia It. drink -monev, gratuitv. From L. L. manicia i»I. of 

manicium (manica) a sleeve, glove. Li. gttanto, paraguanb^j 

Sp. guantes, Fr. gants, Pg. luvas =^ mancia. Of. also Sp. 


. mangas perquisites, from manga a sleeve, costly sleeves having 
been used as presents. From mancia manciata handfull. 

Manoip — manceho. 

Manoo It. Sp. Pg., Pr. O. Fr. mane maimed defective: from 
mancus. Hence Fr. manchot = It. manco d'una mano, also Sp. 
manca the left hand, cf. gauche; vb. It. maneare, Sp. Pr. man- 
ear^ Fr. manquer to fail. It. moneo, vb. moncare (cf. Rh. mun- 
ear=manear) seems to borrow the o of theLomb./wocA: blunt, 
broken ofiF (0. H. G. far-muckit hebetudo, M. H. G. mocke 
mass, O. E. moek blunt), cf. It. moneone == Romag. mucdn. 

Mandil Sp. Pg. apron, saddle-cloth; from mantile, Ar. mandii 
a towel. 

Mandola mandore — pandura, 

Mandorla It. (mandola), Sp. almendra, Pg. amendoa, Pr. aman- 
dola, Fr. amande, E. almond, Du. amandel, G. mandel; cor- 
rupted from amygdala (d^vySdXrDf Wal. migdale as well as 
mandule'. Contracted forms are Pr. mella, ^.Fr.amello (Lang. 

Mandragola It., Lat. mandragoras; by corruption, Fr. main -de- 
gloire, E. mandrake. 

Mandria Sp. m. a coward ; from B. emandrea a weak woman, 
cf. Pg. mandnao Si woman's house -dress. 

Mane It., O. Sp. man f., Pr. man, O. Fr. maiti, Wal. mene morn- 
ing ; from mane, cf . Pr. lo bi md = bene mane. Hence It. adv. 
dimani domani, Pr. deman, Tr. demain, Wal. de mene, for 
which Sp. has manana, Pg. a manhaa. Hence Fr. lendemain, 
Pr. lendeman, for le en demain, cf. O. Cat. l-en-de-mig mean- 
while. From matutinum is It. matiino, Pr. mail, Fr. E. matin. 
For domani Sic. and other dialects have crai = eras. 

Manage Fr. (m.) ; from It. maneggio which is from maneggiare to 
manage, v. R. Gr. 2, 327. 

Manevir in amanevir O. Fr., Pr. amano'ir amanavir amarvir, mar- 
vir, to be ready, willing, hence O. Fr. partic. manevis ama- 
nevis, Pr. amanoi'tz amarvilz ready, fervid, Lang, amarbit 
lively. From Goth, manvjan = manoir (v = o). So Pr. adv. 
marves without hesitation, adj. marvier ready = Goth. adj. 

M&ngano It. a sling; hence manganello a cross-bow, Vt. man- 
gonel, O. Fr. mangoneau a sling for stones , Wal. mengeleu a 
mangle; from /layyavov, O.H.G. wflw^o, G^. mangel, Yi. mangle. 
Hence also Sp. manganilla sleight of hand. 

Hanger — mangiare. 

Mangiare It., O. Pg. Pr. manjar, Fr. manger, It. also manucare 
manicare, O. Fr. manner, Wal. menca menenca to eat, Pr. 
O. Ft. menjar menjiar, Lim. mindzd; from manducare used in 
late Lat. = edere: manducat et bibit = ic^iSL xal nivei Vulg. 


Matt. 11, 19; Pr. manjuiar, O. Fr. manjuer (pres. conjunct 
manjure) from tmmdcuare; Norm, tnoujuer manjusser. Fr. de- 
mantjer, Pied, smattfjv to itch, cf. Sp. comer (comedere). 

Mangil manohil P^. a butcher's cleaver: from Ar. menjd a 
sickle, whicli meiining is also given to tne Pg. word by Con- 

Mangla O. Sp., P^. mangra mildew; from melUgera honey-dew? 

Mangual Sp., I^g. mauffttal a flail , also a warlike instrmnent; 
from mannalis; for the inserted fjy v. tnenovare. 

Manico It., Sj). 1*^. minigOj Pr. margtiCy Fr. manche (m.) handle. 
The suffix //• ft»rms only feminines (v. oca)y bo it is best to 
make manicn not directly from manuSj but a variation of «fl- 
nira a sle(iV(» (It. ma/ifca = also handle). In Lomb. Ven. 
manega, Sp. 1*^. manga troop, body of men, we have a mean- 
ing «»f th<^ L. mauus. 

Manicordion — momwordo. 

Manier - meumr. 

Maniero It., Sp. mancro, Pr. manier handled, tame; from mana- 
rtas f«)r manttariuSj cf. mannaja. Hence sbst. It. maniera, Sp. 
manera, Pg. Pr. maneiraj Fr. man/ere ^ E. manner^ prop, 

Ifonigance Fr. trick, knack; from manica (manicare)y jugglers 
making us(; of their sleeves in j)erforming ti*icks. Cf. Papias: 
manirulare dolum. 

Maniglia smaniglia It., Sp. mantlla a bracelet, Fr. manilie: from 
moniliu (monile), a for o coming O.WAj.nulniH a moon-shaped 

Manigoldo It. a hangman (Sp. manigofdo). The same word as 
the (:). H. (r. propter name Manogald Managolt (whence 0. E. 
mangold a plant), which is probal)ly, through the Rom., from 
mano-autld one who administers (walfen) the halter (menni 

i)lur., (\»m. men, 0<^n. menu): (>. mangold is Com. menegoldj 
dil. meregoUly Pied, manigoi lettuce. 
Maniqui - mannequin, 
Ifonir Sp. to ke(^i) m(^at to make it tender; from manere used in 

trans, sense, to let remain. 
Ifonlevar — tna/lerare. 
Manna - mana. 
Manncga It. an executioner's axe, Lomb. manara, Rh. manera: 

from adj. manual ia, because two-handed. 
Manne Fr. a basket, Pic. mande; from Du. mand mande (f.), 

Ji.^.mondy E. maund; so also manne-quin from Du. mande-kln. 
Mannequin — manne. 
Mannequin Fr., hence Si>. maniqui mannikin; from M. Du. man- 

neLin , E. manniAifi. Wall, mani/x'et dwarf. 
Mano — hermano. 


Manoir — mas. 

Manojo Sp.^ Pg. manolho molho a liandfull; from manupulus for 
manipuliis, It. manipolo &c. 

Manopola It.; Sp. Pg. manopla a gauntlet ; from manipulus (ma- 
nupulus), cf. L. manipuia a towel. 

Manovaldo — monduaido, 

Manovra It., Sp. maniobra, Fr. manoeuvre; from mantis opera. 

Manser Sp. son of a prostitute; from the rabbinical mamser 
Buxtorf p. 1184. ^ 

MaiiBO It. Bp. Pg. tame; shortened from mansuetus (v. fino). 
Hence Sp. manso an ox or sheep that guides the herd, It. 
manzo ox, 

Mantaoo mantioe bellows, Papias: follis vulgo mantacum fahri ; 
from maniica wallet. Cat. has mancha = Sp. fuelle. 

Manteoa Sp., Pg. manteiga, Cat. mantega butter, hence Neap. 
manteca butter from sheep's milk , Sicil. fat of cheese , It. 
pomade. From maniica y or, perhaps, a very old word, con- 
nected with the Sanskrit manthaja (root math, manih agitare) 

Mantenere It., Sp. Pr. mantener, Pg. manter, Fr. maintenir, S. 
maintain; from manu tenere, cf. G. hand-haben; cf. maiievare 
and L. manstutor. Cf. Pr. cap-tener, O. Sp. cab-tener, from 
caput tenere; Wall, men-tui from manu-tueri. 

Manto It. Sp. Pg., It. also ammanto mantle, f. Sp. Pr. mania, 
Fr. mante a covering, contracted from manielum; It. mantelio, 
Fr. manteau, Sp. mantilla, E. mantle from mantellum; It. man- 
tile, S^p.manteltTommafitile mantele. Isid. has: mantnm Hispani 

ICanto — maint. 

"■TiiMiiTin. Sp., O. Sp. mazana, Pg. mazaa apple; L. malum Ma- 
tianum a peculiar kind of apple named auer a person of the 
Matian gens. Cf. Col. 5, 10, 19; Suet. Dom. 21. 

]CanaSp.,P^./7ia;}/t^ readiness, handiness; from machina macKna 
= craft. Hence also It. magjiano (Cat. many a, Fr. magnan 
magnier, VfsW.mignon) a lock-smith, prop, artifex. It. manna, 
Sp. maha a bundle {It. ammannare ammannire to tie into 
bundles, to bring together, set in order) is the Gael, mam a 
handfull (pi. maim). Com. man, 

Manana — mane. 

Maquereau Fr. for maclereau from manda, prop, spotted fish, 
hence E. mackerel, Du. makrrel , W , macrell; Champ, maquet. 

Maquereau Fr. a pander; probably the same word as the pre- 
ceding, cf. Donatus: leno (sc. in comoediis) 7>^///o rarii colon's 
utitur. It is, however, difficult to suppose tnat a word derived 
from the Roman stage would have been preserved only in the 
Fr.; 80 Diez derives it from Du. maker, from maken to nego- 




tiati* . go betwef n , O. H. (r. mahhari from mahkdn machinari, 
huor-mahhari leiio. 

Maquila Sij., V^.maquia miller s fee: from Ar.mikyd! a measure. 

Mar Fr. aciv. — ora UK 

Marais — mare, 

Marangone It. a diver, L(»mb. margon: from mergus maragme 
Mftrangone, i:{. fagotto fangoito. 

Maraaoa It. wild cherry^ amarasca, from amarus: also amamu. 

Maraud Fr. a b<'^gar^ scamp, maraude dissolnte Avoraan, marau- 
fierUt plunder; hence maraudeurn marauder, fiimdeTiug^ol^i^Tf 
vb. marfjder. sbst. marode (tlinmgli Sp. merode marodeaf). 
Several derivations have been given, il) Ar. marada audax 
esse, (2) male ntptus, = Sp. mai-roto, Pg. maroio, vb. uwrf- 
rottir marlotar, (3) maraudeur from moraior (Mahn% (4 and 
best) from marrir (q. v.) to strav, trouble, sbst. marancty «w- 
rison grief, with the depreeiative ending aud as in badaud, 
clabaud fclabauder clabaudeurj, m'gaud, ritntud, richaud. 

Maravedi Sp. Pg.. Pr. marabotin a Sp. coin; from Ar. murah^ti 
belonging to (eoined by) the Almoravides (al'murdh^tin) BXi 
Arab, dynasty in Spain. 

Maraviglia It., Sp. maravttla, Pg. maraviiha, It. Pr. (better) me- 
ravigiia, Fr. mervei/le, E. marvel: fivm pi. mirabilia. 

Marazzo - mare. 

Marc Fr. husks, grounds; Pic. mere; from emercum (amurca) 
found in Pliny and Columella, cf. mhia from hemina. 

Marca It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. marque marche (O. E. march), bound, 
limit, It. Sp. Pg. marcOy Pr. Fr. marc, O. Fr. also m«?rr mark, 
measure; vb. It. marrare marchiare, Sp. Pg. Pr. marcar, Fr. 
marquer merker to mark; sbst. It. marchesey Sp. Pr. marqutt, 
Fr. marquis, E. marquis, L, L. marchio. From Goth, marks 
boundary (Sk. mdrga a road, mdrg ijuajrere), O.H.G. marcha, 
A. S. mearc, E. O. N. mark, M. 11. (r. marc, vb. O. H. G. mar- 
kon , G. merken, E. mark. 

Marcassita It., Sp. marcasita marquesita, Fr. marcassife, marca- 
site a sort of stone; from Ar. marqashiUd (Freytag). 

Marchant — marche. 

Marchar - marcher. 

Marche - marca. 

Marche Fr. market, from mercatus; marchand {YA.merchant) troui 
D. Fr. marcheant (marchedant) ^= It. mercatantc , partic. from 
mercatare, Pr. mercadar, L. I^. mercadanles: also O. Fr. mar- 
chant markant = It. mercaitte from mercari. 

Marcher Fr., sbst. marche, hence It. marciare, Sp. marchar. E. 
march. From marche -- b(»und (v. marca); marcher = O. Fr. 
after de marche en marche. (.'f. Sk. mdrg qiia'rere, quiesitum ire. 

Marchese — marca. 


Marchito »Sp. withered; prob. a dim. of a lost adj. marcho = It. 
mardo, rv. mar-cit, -ida, from marcidus. Pg. is murcho q. v. 

Maroiare — marcher. 

Harootte — margGiia. 

Mardi — martedi 

ICare O. Fr. f. any collection of water, a pond, = Du. maar, 
E. mere. From maar come Du. maerasch maersche, L. G. 
marsch, A. S. mersc, E. marsh, whence O. Fr. maresq, Pr. 
marex (for marsex), O. Fr. marescat, maresquel, marescage, Fr. 
marecage &c. ; Fr. marais, It. marese, E. marish may also come 
from marasch, or through mare; Fr. mar age. It. marazzo are 
pure Rom. derivatives. V. Dief. Goth. Wb. 2, 44. 

Ibmcage — mar^. 

Ifariohal — mariscalco, 

Xaremma It. a maritime province, O. Fr. maremme; from mari- 

MJareee — mare. 

Marfil Sp. Fr., Pg. marfim ivory, from Ar. ndb tooth, fil ele- 

Margolato — margotta. 

Margotta It, Champ. Rou. margotte, Fr. marcotte a shoot, layer; 
from mergus. Hence also It. margolato. 

Xars^e — manico. 

]far£piillier Fr. churchwarden, O. Fr. marreglier; from matricu- 
iarius one who keeps a list of the poor {matrictda, whence Vv. 
matricuie, immairiculer, E. matriculate to register, enrol). 

lEarionnette Fr. a puppet, dim. of Marion (dim. of Marie) = a 
little girl. Hence fr. marotte (for mariotte). 

Xaripoea Sp. a butterfly, P^. an ornament in the shape of a 
butterfly, Sp. also a rushliffht Prob. from the flickering 
motion, like the rise and fall of the sea mar i posa sea and 
calm (Mahn), which is almost too poetical, though mar is 
often used metaphorically in Spanish. The Sp. name is bor- 
hdeta (q. v.). 

Mariaoaloo mamsoaloo malisoaloo It., Sp. Pg. mariscal, Pr. ma- 
nescalc, Fr. marechal a smith, farrier; from O. H. G. mar ah- 
scale (horse -attendant) a groom, G. marschaii, E. marshal, 
Cf. siniscalco. 

Miaijolaiiie — majorana. 

Xarlotar — maraud. 

Mamiaglia — merme. 

Marmelo Pg. a quince, whence marmeladaj E. marmalade; from 
meiimelum, Gk. iiaiinrjXov a sweet apple, apple grafted on a 
quince. The Sp. is membrillo. 

Marmita It. Sp. Cat., Fr. marmite a pot, saucepan; hence It. 
marmitane, Sp. Fr. marmiton a scullion; marmiteux poor, 




Ininjp'v, wn»tcliO(l. Perhaps an onoinatop. from boiling water, 
vi\ marmotter to hum , ning. Some derive it from Ar. marmfd 
a hole dnf^ in tlio ground for cooking. 

Marmotta marmotto It., Sp. Pg. marmota, Fr. marmotte, E. mar- 
tmtt. In Rh. it is montanella and murtnoni, O. H. O. muremwUo 
murmeiUi, 8w. murmet, which are from mus monUinus, by 
gradual cornii)tion, marmotta, 

Marmotter Kr.^ Com. marmota to murmur^ himi; an onomatop. 

Mame Fr., O. Fr. marie merle, Pic. marle^ E. marl y vb. mamer 
mar/rr to marl; from mart/a, according to Pliny a Gallic word: 
qwifl f/enm terra' vocant margam (Galliet BrUanni)j whence 
manjula: O. II. (j. mergil, (;ontr. marie mame as posterie po- 
ternr, T\w orig. form in found in It. Sp.marffay 3rcUmarg 
u\., the d<»rivativ(i word only being found in the other Celtic 
tongues: W. marl, Ir. Gael, merla, 

Maronier O. Fr. a seaman; from marinier as chardonal from car- 
(linal, vilonie from vilmie &c., prob. through marotiy a der. of 
mare as piou iA' pes, wht^ico maronnel pirate. 

Maroto — maraud, 

Marotte — marionnette. 

Marque marquis marques — marca, 

Marra — marron, 

Marraine Fr. godmother; Vr.main'na, It. Sp. madrma; Fr. is for 
marrinr, being assimilated to parrain, 

Marrano Sp. (It.) cursed ; espec. of baptized but suspected Jews. 
From marrar to deviate^ go wrong (mar); marrana a sow. 
= accursed (sc. by Jews) animal? May it not be connected 
with the N. Test, maranatha (Chaldee mdran athd = o\xt hGiA 
is come), Sp. maranata? 

Marrir Pr. (.). Fr. to lose one's way, to err, hence esmarrir. It. 
smarn're to confuse, perplex, Rli. smarir to lose; from Goth. 
marzjan, O.II.G. marrauy A. S. mearn'an (mar) to scandalize, 
hinder; L. L. legem y bannum, vet pra'ceptwn marrire (L. marta 
a clod-breaker?). Fn r' couj. Sp. marrar to go astray , partic. 
marrUh) amarrido cast-down, melancholy = Pr. manity Pied. 
mari. Pic. amarL From same root Sp. maraha maze, maranar 
to entangle. 

Marritto - ritto, 

Marroehino It., Sp. tnarroqui, Fr. marroquin, E. morocco, from 
Marrocco , Morocco, 

Marron Sp. a ram, Oat. marrd, Lang, marra mar-motUott, B. mar- 
roa; vb. Pg. marrar to butt. According to Diez from mas 
maris, cf. Sard, masca ram. Of the same origin he says is 
marra a hammer (cf. marho). But marra = a pick -axe" auJ 
= L. marra , cf . marrir. May not marroa rather come from 
this? V. macho, Morueco ram may be for maruecOy the o beiug 

I4ARR0NE — MAS. 293 

to distinffuish it from the name MarruecoSy or it may be for 
murueco nn O. Sp. = battering-ram) from murusy of. marueca 
a heap ot loose stones. 

Marrone It., Fr. marron a chestnut, Eiistat. ^ccQaov. Prob. an 
old Latin word the same as the L. nanre Maro. 

ICarsouin Fr. (in Belriuin) a porpoise fporkpisce=porcti$ piscisj ; 
quasi maris sus, O. H. G. merisuin, G. meerschwein, O.E. mere- 
swine, Champ, marsouin = a dirty fellow. 

Marteau — marieilo. 

ICartedi marti It., Fr. mardi, Pr. Cat. dimars; from Martis dies, 
dies Martis; Sp. martes, Pr. mars (from gen. Martis), Wal. 
mdrtzi, Ven. marti, Romag. mert. Pg. uses terza feira, N. Gr. 

Martello It. Pg., Sp. martUlo, Fr. marteau a hammer; from mar- 
tuius fmarculusj, martellus (in Carolus Martellus). 

Martes — martedi, 

Martin pesoatore It. a sea-fish , Sp. martin pescador, and paxaro 
de San Martin, Sard, puzone de Santu Martinu, Fr. martinet 
picheur kingfisher, Sp. martinete a small white heron, Fr. mar- 
tinet a kind of swallow (E. martinet), a martin , also a lamp 
with a handle like a martin's tail, It. martinetto a cross-bow 
windlass; all from the name Martinus, v. Grimm, Mythol. 

1083, 1233. 

Martora It., Sp. Pg. marta, Pr. mart, Fr. marte martre, E. 
marten; from L. martes (Martial), martora martre taking a G. 
form (marder). 

Marsa It. a graft, scion ; from Martins, the operation of grafting 
being chiefly performed in that month. 

Marsapane It., Sp. mazapan, Pg. mazapao, Fr. massepain, E. 
marchpane, L. X. marcipanis panis martius , Neap, marzapane. 
Sic. marzapanu a little box (prob. from the shape). March- 
pane -^ sweet-bread , macaroon. Some derive it from a man's 
name Marci panis (v. Mahn). The forms without r are prob. 
orig., the r being found first in the E. (Sydney 1554 — 1586, 
Shakspere &c.). Perhaps from maza (panis) Gr. ficfga (proD. 
• what is kneaded , from fidoosLv) barley-bread. Maza accora- 
ing to Forcellini = farina horaeacea, vel panis lacte, sero, 
aut aqua subactus. Ducange: maza ex faring oleo et aqua. 
Or is it connected with Sp. mazar to chum, knead? 

Pr., O. Fr. mas mes house, farm, Cat. mas; from L. L. 
mansus mansum, from manere, whence Pr. maner, O. Fr. ma- 
noir, E. manor; Pr. manen, O. Fr. manant opulent, L. L, 
manens colonus. Hence also Sp. masa. Mil. massa, O. Fr. 
mase farm, L. L, mansa massa; It. massaro massaio, O. Fr. 
mansiaire housekeeper, with several more derivatives. 
— mai. 

204 MASA — MATA. 

Masa — max. 

Mascar — mnMicare. 

Mascarra — maschera. 

Maschera It., Piod. masrraj Sp. Pg. ma$eara, Fr. masgwe, E. 
mfisA I'l I a mask (iv«rsona) (2) a masked person. From the 
Arab, maskhnrah jefT, laiigh, laugher, ooject of laoslitfrt 
liurtooii, a man in masquerade, from the rooi sakkira irrint 
(\, Malim. From the same come Wal. miscdri WoXy disgrace, 
Pg. mascarra dark .spot, vb. Pg. mascarrar, Fr. matcunr^ 
machurer to blacken. The L. L. mascus masca, Fr. masgrn, E. 
mask an* ftlu»rtened forms. Diez. however, considers them the 
orig. forms , and mf ntions 2 derivations (l) from mastkart^ 
Sp. masrar (Neap. <Tfn. masca a cheek), cf. L. manducus, (2» 
( K II. (1. mascf) a net, G. masche (E. mesh), cf. Plin. 12, 14: 
prrsofia adjicihir capUi densusve retindm, 

Masnada — magionc. 

Masque — masrhera. 

Massacrer Fr., <>. Fr. maschacler, sbst. massacre, E. massacre, 
L, L. mansacrhim mazacrhim. From G. metzgem to butcher, 
metzgrr a butclior (O. Fr. massecrier, cf. Piedm. massacra a 
maimer), this t'nim mefzcn to hew, connected with meizan to 
cut, Goth. meifaft = L,, mctere. '&\si,md, mdd. L. L. marcrr- 
rr/r// = sahutUc factor de frith carnibus infes/inomm ; It. ma:- 
zacara = th<; entrails of jioultry, mazzachera = an eel-spear. 
\ . Mahii. 

Massaro — mas. 
Masse massue — mazza. 

Massima It.; Sp. maxima, Fr. maxime, E. maxim (prop, prin- 
ciple) • from maxima sc. sententia, 

Masso It. a hu^fi stono ; from massa. 

Mastieare It., Wal. mesteca, Sp. Pg. masticar mastigar mascan 
Pr. masleffar maschar, Fr. mdcher, Rh. mastiar, B. mascatu tw 
chr*w, mast irate; from mastieare (Apideius &c. == fiatfratfcr). 
Noaj). Gen. masca = chock. 

Mastin mastino — magione, 

Masto mastro Pg., Pr. mast, Fr. mdt , Sp. mastil maste mast; 
from 0. II. (i. E. mast J O. N. mastr, A. S. mast. 

Mastranto mastranzo Sp. wild mint ; a corruption of L. men- 
tastrum (wild mint , from menta), It. mentastro. 

Mastuerzo — nasturzio. 

Mdt - - masto. 

Mata Sp. (1) copse, thicket, (2) bush; Pg. mata mato = (W 
Perhaps from Goth, maitan to hew, so orig. a cleared place in 
a foHist. Ducange: ipsum forest vei ipsam matam. But mata 
al.-o -— lock of tangled hair; so from matassa? 


Matar Sp. Pr. Pg. to kill; from mactare. Hence remaiar to end, 

remote an end. 
Matar — matto, 
Matassa It., Sp. madexa, Pr. madaisa, O.Fr. madaise hank, lock 

of hair &c., Wal. me'tasH silk; from mataxa raw -silk, also 

thread; from L. Gk. fidxal^a fihal^a, 
Matelas — maierasso. 
Matelot Fr. sailor; from matia a mat, maitarius one who sleeps 

on mats, matelot for materot, as matelas for materas; or from 

Da. maat, E. mate, but this is doubtful as the simple word is 

not found in Fr. 
Materasso It., Fr. materas matelas (E. mattrass), Pr. almatrac, 

Sp. Pg. almadraque. From Ar. al-maUra^h. Hence Pg. ma- 

drapo a sluggard? cf. poltro. 
Matin — mane. 
MAtin — magione. 
Matis Sp. m. shading, shade (of colours), vb. matizar to shade; 

from mata a bush, cf. It. macchia (1) bush (2) shading. 
Matois Fr. sly, cunning. Cf. enfant de la mate, the mate being a 

place in Paris , where thieves used to congregate. 
Matraoa Sp. Pg., hence It. matracca rattle ; from Ar. mftraqah, 

hammer, rattle. 
Matraa O. Fr., Pr. matratz matrat a missile weapon , O. Fr. ma- 

trasser, Fr.matrasseiar to cnish; from Gallic L./;}^/ar/i (Csesar), 

(mataris Livy), with suffix as, v. Zeuss 1, 97. 
Mattino — mane. 
Matto It., Sp. Pg. mate, Fr. mat, E. mate, Pr. O. Fr. also == 

sad, cast-Qown, G. matt languid; shortened from scaccomatto, 

Sp. xaquimate, Fr. echec et mat, E. check-mate; from the Pers. 

shdh mdt "the king is dcad^\ Cf. It. mattare, Pr. matar, Fr. 

mater to mate, to make feeble, hmnble, O. Fr. amatir. 
Matto It. silly. From L. mattm or matus TPetron. plane matus 

sum, vinum mihi in cerebrum ahiit) = SsLUfik.matta dnmk, from 

mad Isetari, inebriari, cf. Gk. ^arav (idraios, E. mad &c. 
Matto It. boy, matta girl, espec. in Northern Italy and Rha^tia; 

from O. H. G. magat, M. H. G. maget f. (G. magd). 
Mattone It., Fr. (pro v.) maton brick. Cat. mato cream -cheese. 

From G. matz matte curds, cheese. Pic. matte, a brick being 

shaped like a cream -cheese, cf. O. Fr. maton (1) brick (2) 

cheese - cake. 
Mauca Pr., Cat. moca belly; Sw. mauck a fat person, T>VL.moocke 

Maufe O. Fr. a name of the devil ; from male f actus, It. mat- 

fatto', cf. Neap, bruttofatto (ugly) = demonio. Wal. cowe =^ 

MaiiBsade — sade. 


Mauvais — mahagio, 

MauviB Fr. fin. O. Fr. f.) a beccafico, turdus iliacuH^ E. moru. 
Somctiiiios derivod from malum vHis, cf. Fr, grive de vendanffe, 
(«. weingarisrftffci y wcindrosacL It i** of Celtic origin, like m 
many other names of birds (v. aUodola)y Bret, milfid milvidf 
mUrhnuid; Corn, mvl-huez :^= lark (mdl huez Bweet breath). 
I'rom mauvh comes mauviefte a lark, Rou. mauviard turdm 

Mayota Sj). strawberry; prop. May- fniit from maj'us; cf . Mil 
magiostra, Lang, majoufo. 

ICazette Fr. a poor mare, a jade; from G. matz awkward. 

Mazmorra Sp. rg. a dunge^m; from Ar. mtftmurah a pit, cave. 

Mazza It., Sp. Pg. maza, Pr. massa, Fr. masse, E. mace; It. 
muzzn, Sp. mazo a mallet , Imndle; vb. It. mazzare (in mazzn- 
scf/e i^c., Com. maza), Rli. Sp. mazar, Pr. massar to cudgel, 
knovlv down, It. ammazzhre; 0. Pg. massuca massua, Fr. 
massue. Pie. machuque a elub, N. Gr. fxargoiTxa, Wal. meciucf. 
Mazza is from a h. matea (yi, piazza from plated)^ whence 
mateola a mallet in Cato de Re Rust., It. mazzuala, Pr. mas- 
so/a. For similar lost L. primitives, cf. hubone, claie, 

Mear Sp., Pg. m/Jar, from meiervy changed to 1*' conjugation. 

Mecer f^p. to stir, rock; from misrere, Pg. mexer. It. mescere. 

Meeha meehe — miccia. 

M^ehant Fr., (). Fr. mes-vhcant , partic. from mes-cheoir (minus 
cafiercj, sbst. ( >. Fr. mesrheancr, E. mischance. Of. O.Sp. mal- 
rnido unfortunate. 

M^chef - - mcnoscaho. 

Meda megano - - meta, 

Medaglia It., Sp. metalla, Fr. me'daille, E. medal: augni. meda- 
glionc <X:c. L. L. medalia = half a denarius , the same word 
as O, Pg. mealha , O. Sp. meaja, Pr. mealha, Fr. maille. Like 
so many Rom. substantives, from an adj. in -eus, meialleus 
mefal/ea, ^\), mefaila gold-leaf, cf. also t^V. mef'/tf// for metal, 
Pr. metalh. 

Modes (). Pg. Galic, Pr. medeis meteis medeps; from mei-ipsf 
mef-ipsum. Hence a superlative form, Pr. smefessme, medesme, 
( ). Fr. me'fsmr, Fr. memi\ (!). Sp. meismo, Sp. mismo, Pg. mesmo, 
\i.medesimOy lih.medem, ^Y r\<1. meset/me y from a Lat. semf/- 
ipsimus for semelipsfssimus , v. R. Gr. 2, 421. 

Media Sp., Pg. meia a stocking; prop, media calza, 

Medrar Sp. Pg. to improve; for mcldrar from mdiorare, 

Mege menge 0. Sp., O. Pg. mrg(\ Pr. mctgc , O. Fr. mege (Lim. 
medze) a physician; from medicus. Hence O. Sp. mengia me- 

M^gio Fr., mc'gissirr rAvhich supposes a f(»rm megis me'gisse, cf. 
/ttpissf'rr from fapis, sfntrissirr from saucisse) leatlier - dressing, 

MEGO — MENNO. 297 

leather-dresser. The Du. meuk softening would give Fr. me- 
guie, cf. Pic. meguichier = Fr. megissier. 

Mego Sp., Pg. meigo soft, mild. From O. N. makr quiet, calm, 
E. meeky O. H. G. gi-mah, or, better, from mitigatm, cf. san- 
tiguar from sancdficare, and cuerdo from cordatus. 

Mdgue Fr. (f.) whey (Pic. megre); from maigre, or from the 
Celtic, Gael, meog, W . maidh, L. L. has mesga, N. Pr. mergue 
whey. Wall. mesg€ soft. 

M^halng — magagna. 
Meiminho — mimo. 
Melange mdler — mischiare. 
Melaranoia — arancio. 
Meliaca muliaoa It. apricot; from armeniaca, 
MelliBo Sp. twin: fro^i a form gemellicius (gemellus). 
Melma It. mud; irom O. H. 0. melm dust, Goth, malma. 
Melo It. apple - tree ; from mains , the e being to distinguish it 
from malum (bad), cf. Gk. ftiyAov. 

Melsa — melza, 


Membrare It., O. Sp. Pr. membravj O. Fr. membrer, O. Sp. Pg. 
Pr. nembrar, Pg. lembrar, Lang, lembrd (E. re- member); from 
memorarej whence also adj. membrado, membrat, membre 
prudent, learned. 

Mdme — medes. 
Mena — menare. 
Menace — minaccia. 

Manage Fr., vb. menager; for mesnage, L. L. mansionaticum , v. 

Menare It., O. Sp. Pr. Cat. menarj Fr. mener to lead , sbst. It. 
Pr. mena. Diez derives it from a L. L. minare to drive with 
threats (minari) Apuleius: asinos minantes baculis; agasones 
equos agenies i. e. minantes Paulus ex Festo ; cf. Wal. mena to 
drive, Papias: minare = ducere de loco ad locum, so prominare 
(Apuleius; = O. Fr. se pourmener, Fr. se promener, whence 
the Italianized promenade for O. Fr. pourmenoir. Others point 
to the O. Fr. mainer and derive from manus, cf . menottes hand- 
cuffs; hence Fr. demener to move about, conduct, E. demean, 
demeanour, cf. sq. 

Menear Sp. Pg. to move from place to place, manage; from 
manus (tor manear) It. maneggiare , Fr. manier, E. manage. 

Meneater meneatral mdn^trier — mestiero. 

Menguar — menovare. 

Menil Fr. a farm-house; for maisnil (mansionile). 

Menino — mina. 

Menno It. castratus ; from minimus? 


Menoscabo Sp. Vg., O. Pg. mazcabo, Pr. mescap, Fr. medb/, 
K. mischief; from cabo end , caput; vb. menoscabar, mescdkr, 
C). Fr. meschever (mescaver), E. fnischieve. 

Menotte Fr. Iiaudcuif ; from ;;^r/m (manusj, of. It. manetta, v. a^- 

Menovare It., S^. menffuar, Vg.minffoar, Fr.minuar, Cat. minvar, 
Fr. di-mimur to diminish; Sp. men^ua, Pg. mingoa decay. 
From mimietr alt(Tod to tlio 1*^ con jug., L.L. minuare. In Sp. 
mr/if/uar, ua breomos ffurt as if it had been a G. wa, cf. man- 
ffuai from manualis, 

Mensonge — menzofjna, 

Mentar Sp» P«^., (). Fr. tfwnter to mention forig. a sbst.); It. am- 
mnttare rammenlare, O. Pg. amentar; Irom mens, ammentan 
being, probably, the oldest derivative. Pr. mentawre amfft- 
(aver, 0,V\\ mentoivre ment avoir, amentotvre amentevoir, ramm- 
tevoir (Moliere), from menfe, ad mentem habere. It. avere a 
mente, the orig. moaning '*to think of havin^passed into a 
factitive one "to mention" cf. R. Or. .3, 103. From metUeroir 
comes, probal>ly, tlui It. mentovare. Hence also It. dementarf, 
Sp. denu*ntar to make mad , demented, O. tV. detnenter to rant, 
dementare (Lactantius); It. dimeniicare to forget. 

Mente It. Sp. Pg. (i), Sp. mientre), Pr. men, Fr. ment adverbial 
suffix added to tiie feminine adjective, v.R.Gr. 2, 3S2. From 
the Lat. menlc, cf. bona, placidd , devotd, ceieri menfe, heuee 
gradually assuming a wider meaning, breve-mente , perfetia- 
mente, altra- mente s cf. M. 11. (i. ahte (1) mind^ intention 
(2) kind, manner. In Sp. we find such ox]n*ei)8ion$ as beting 
sut it mente , in Pr. sa net anient e devota, 0. Cat. fettonament d 

Mentira — menzogna, 

Mentoivre - 7nent(n\ 

Mentovaro — mentar, 

Montre It. Pr. <). Kr., Sj). tnientras, O. Sp. mientre, O. Pg. men- 
tres = L. dum, interim or intra; O. It. domentre, Sp. demien- 
tras, Pr. domentre dement re , (.). Fr. dementre dementres, ende- 
mentres, (). Pg. emmentres Slv. Muratori considers domentre 
the orig. form and derives it from dum inteti'm, the interchanfif 
of do and de being also found in domani domandare, Othens, 
from the ( ). Yen. domenfe. Gen. demenfe take the derivation 
dum mente, Th(^ ( >. Fr. dementiers dementieres seems to be from 
dum interea y (). Fr. entremente from interea mente, but Piedni. 
tramantre reproduces the r. P<itt Forach. 2, 100 makes iii«ifr*? 
from in inter, cf. Yi)\u mintro f= infinoj. O. It. introcgue Inf. 
20, 180 r:^ inter hftc with euphonic suffix. 

Menu menuet — minuzzare, 

Menuiser — minuzzare. 


Menzogn^ It., Pr. mensonga mensonja, Fr. mensonge. From men- 
titio, Pr. meniizd, formed on the analogy of the word which it 
replaced, calogna calonja chalonge (calumnia). The Pr. menso- 
nega is from mentitionica. The Sp. Pg. mentira is for. mentida 
(Catal.), cf. lampara for lampada, 

Meroe It., Sp. merced, Pg. Pr. merc^, Fr. merci = E. mercy and 
thanks. From merces = merce in L. L. Hence Pr. merceiar, 
O. Fr. mercier, Fr. remercier. 

Merooledi mercopdir It., Fr. mercredi, Pr. dimercres, Cat. dime- 
cres; from Mercurii dies, dies Mercurii; Sp. miercoles, Pr. 
mercres like martes (martedi), It. also mercore, Wal. mie'rcuri. 
It. (prov.) mez-edima = m^^/a hebdomas, Rh. mez-eamda, cf. 
G. mittwoch. Pg. has quart a feira = N. Gr. tstgaSi], 

Meroorella maroorella a herb, mercury; from mercurialis, Sp. 
mercurial (Fr. mercoret). 

Meroredi — mercoledl. 

Merino Sp., Pg. meirinho a circuit -judge, inspector of sheep- 
walks (hence adj. merino moving from pasture to pasture, 
whence the name of the merino sheep); from majorinus, v. 

Merir to pay , recompense ; L. L. suum serviiium vuli illi mererc 
Cap. Car. Calv., v. Ducange. In O. Fr. diex le vos mire, mire 
= miere (conjuctive, as ftere from ferir). 

Merlan Fr. a whiting, O.Fr. merlenc mellenc, Ron. merlen merlin, 
Bret, marlouan, Du. molenaar. 

Merlin Fr. = Du. mariijn, meerling, E. marline, vb. Du. marlen, 
E. marl. 

Merlo merla It., whence Sp. merlon, Pg. merlao, Fr. E. merlon; 
vb. It. merlare, Pr. merlar, Bolza derives it from a L. mwrus 
(for murus), whence mtvrulus merlo, but the open e does not 
represent the L. oe. Menage ref(;rs it to the L. mina (minula 
mirulaj. The Sic. has mergxda a merlon (from merga a fork), 
whence merla may be contracted, cf. G. gabel a fork = E. 

Merliusso It., Pr. merlm, Sp. merluza, Fr. merluche (f.) a cod; 
from maris lucius a sea-pike, cf. Cat. llus = merlus. 

MermeO.Fr. little; from minimus, like arme from anima. Hence 
Sp. merma, Pr. mermaria a lessening. Com. marmaria, It. mar- 
maglia poor folk. Com. marmel, Crem. marmeleen little finger; 
vb. Sp. Pr. mermar to lessen , decrease. 

Merode — maraud. 

Merrain Fr., Pr. mairam staves; from materiamen, L. materia. 

Merveille — maraviglia. 

M^sange Fr. (f.) a titmouse. A G. word with a Rom. suffix as 
in louange, laidenge &c., and a corruption of the L, G. dim. 
meeseke, Pic. maisaingue. 



Mesar Sp. to pull out the hair; from metere messus, cf. barbm 

metrre fnrciju* (Juvonal). 
Mesohino It., Sp. m^zquino, Pr. Fr. mesguin, O. Fr. also meseha 

(MK»r, wrrtehed. From Ar. miskhi, which is from a vb, sakmtn 
*\o\'i. 2, 335. In Pr. (). Fr. also = feeble, meschin =1)07. 
mesrhine j^irl , It. mcschina, Wall, meskene, 

Mesel O.Fr. loprous, O.Sp. mesyUo leper; from tnisellus, inL.L 
= a h^por; hence also G. misehucht. 

Mesle < ). Fr. medlar, mesUer medlar- tree; from mespiius. Hence 
E. medlar, cf. s. mhchiare, 

Messa It., Sp. mha, Vr.messe, Fj^ tnass; from the words missaest 
ronrio, Avitli Avhich the congregation was dismissod. 

Meat Pr. prep, for L. int<*r; from milium, cf. Dan. i-blandi from 
hhnifle (bl<»nding), E. a-mong. 

Mestiero mestiere It., Sp. D. Pg. menester, Pg. mister ^ Pr. mnnti- 
tier mesfier, Fr. metier busin<»8s, trade, craft (E. mystery, but 
V. Marsh, Lectures); from mhmterium. Hence Sp. Pr. mt- 
neutral, ]*g. menestrel, O. Fr. menestrel, menestrier menetrkr 
artisan, workman, minstrel, L. L. ministeriaUs a house- 8erTant 
fso in <). Fr.). As mestiere = opus, so It. e or fa mestiere, Sp. 
es menester = opus est. 

Mestizo Sp., Pr. mestis. Fr. metis a mongrel; from mixticim. 

Meta It. a heap of dung, Lomb. meda a hav-coek &c.. Sard, a 
lirap, Sp. Pg. tneda a stack of corn, O. S^r. moie a heap, E. 
mow; from L. meta. Hence Pg. medao a heap, Pg. medano me- 
dano a sand-hill (also megano cf. s. camozza); Sp. ai'mear{ioT 
al-medar) a hav stack. 

Meta - mezzii, 

M^tairie - mezzo, 

M^tal - medaglia. 

Metayer - mezzo, 

M^teil Fr. mcslin, mixf^d corn; = mi,rtwidum (mixtum). 

Metier mestiero. 

M^tis - - mestizo, 

Metralla - mitraille. 

Mots Fr. (O.Fr.w^'.s), Yi.mess: from missura that which is sened 
up. It. messo: cf. minestra, Mets has taken the / of mettere. 

Mettore It. Slv, to put. From mittere to send, in later L.=^ 
ponere, cf. Seuoca manus ad anna mittere, Lactantius /tmf/fi- 
menta mittere. The L. sense is preserved in derivatives. 

Meugler - - mugghiare. 

Meule Fr. (pro v. mtde) a heap of hay, com, or dinig, hence 
miilon, L. L. mtd/o, Rou. vh. muter. From metula dim. of 
meta, cf. O. Fr. seule from saeeulum, reide rule from regula. 
Pic. moie = meta. 

Mounter — molino. 


Meiirtre Fr., O. Fr. meurdre mordre, murder, vb. meurtrir to 
crush; O. Vr. mordrir to murder ; from Gotli. maurthr, G. mord, 
E. murder, vb. Goth, maurthrjan, O. H. G. murdjan. Com. 
mordar = wicked; O. H. G. murdreo thief, mord crime, Rh. 
morder = G. mOrder a murderer. 

Meute O. Fr. = motus, rising, insurrection, Fr. G. meuie = a 
pack of hounds. From movere (cf. etneute from emouvoir) 
through an old partic. movitus, cf. Sard, movida = It. mossa. 
From meute come mutin a mutineer, Sp. motin mutiny, Fr. mu- 
tiner, Sp. amotinar, It. ammutinare to cause to mutiny. 

Mezclar — mischiare. 

Mezzo It., Wal. mez, Sp. medio, Pg. meio, Pr. /wi^^^ from medius; 
Fr. parmi = It. />^ mezzo, Pr. enmiei, O. Fr. ^ww/ c= It. iw 
mezzo. Hence It. mezzano, Sp. mediano, Pr. zwe/flrn (E. mean), 
Fr. moyen from medianus, whence also O. Fr. menel, Fr. we- 
neati^ O. E. monial, moynal, moynel, monion, munion, muliion 

Srop. = qui est j^u milieu, the slender pier which forms the 
ivision between the lights of windows; It. meta, S^. mitad, 
Pr. me/tad, Fr. moitie\ E. moiety from medietas (Cicero), hence 
Fr. metayer, N.Pr. meytadier a farmer who gives half the pro- 
duce of his farm (metairie) to the owner, L. L. medietarius. 
The O. Fr. mitan a tenant -fanner, Fr. mitaine, E. mitten 
(half-glove) are rather from the G. mitte (O. H. G. mittamo). 
From It. mezzana come Fr. misaine, E. mizen (because amia- 

ICezzo It. (witli close e and sharp zz) soft, decayed, withered; 
from mitis through a form mitius mitjus, v. fujo. Crem. mizz, 
Neap. Gen. nizzo. Mil. nizz. 

Mica miga It. Pr., Fr. mie a particle used with negatives ; from 
mica a crumb; whence also Wal. m-wic = nihil, Fr. miche 
= a piece of bread. 

Miooia It., Sp. Pg. Pr. mecha, Pr. also meca (cf. coca cocha), Fr. 
mecJie (E. match) a wick. From myxa myxus, Gk. iiv^a a lamp- 
nozzle, also = a wick. The Fr. word was the original one 
(cf. laxus ldche)y whence the other forms were derived. 

Mioio xnioia It., Sp. micho mizo miza miz, Wal. metzu m^tzU, 
O. Fr. mite cat ; an onomatop. like G. mieze. Hence Fr. mitou 
matou a male cat, Wal. me toe; Fr. chatte-mite a flatterer, cf. 
proverb: si i'une est chate, I' autre est mite to denote perfect 
similarity. It. has also tnuci mucia muscia. 

Miohe — mica. 

Miomao Fr. trick, roguery; from G. mischmasch, E. mishmash. 

Mielga Sp. a plant, lucern; from medica, ci.julgar from judicare. 

Mien, lien, sien Fr. pronouns. From mi, ti, si with suffix en 
= L. anus as ancien from anzy cf. G. meinig from mein. 

Mieroolee — mercoledi. 

iV)2 MIK8 — MINA. 

Mies mies (). Fr.^ L. L. mezutm = 0.11.0. A,S. medo^ E. meoi, 
(1. mcfh, Or. |iif^i», Sk. madhu iX:c. 

Migllo It., Fr. mille (m. from the It.), Sp. Pr. f. «ii//ii = O. H. 0. 
mUGy {j.meile, Wtnile; from milUa (pasBiim), miglkt 
\\\w\\w tlio ^*in^. tfii'ffiio. 

Mignard — mignon, 

Mignatta — mtniare. 

Mignon Fr. neat, <l<'Iioato, as sbst. darling, whence It. miffncne, 
K. mimon . h(*nc(^ Fr. mignard, mignoier &e. From O. H. G. 
mhiiii or minnia (= minja) love, so from the Gael, min, v. mina. 

Migraine migrana - - magrana. 

Milagro Sp., Pg. mUagre a wondor; a corruption of mt'raculym. 

Milano Sp., Pg. miihatto, Fr. Pr. miian kite; from miluanus, a 
d<».rivative from miiuus (later milvus), B. tnirua. Vb. Sp. am/- 
ianar, v. aston\ 

Milano and t77n//o Sp. thistle-down, from viHus, cf. mimbre. 

Milgrana niingrana O. Sp. pomegranate (thousand - grains). 

Milieu Fr. from nwdius htcus, cf. It. tniluogo, Wal. mijioc^ 

Mille - migliiK 

Milsoudor missoudor <J. Fr., Pr. miholdor = r^va/ misoidor a 
valuabh* war horst»; from caballus mille solidonifn , cf. apoor 
horsi' : - bidet de quatre-viugt sous. For a similar fonnation 
vf. < >. Fr. qutn tenor -.— quatuor annorum, 

Milza It., Sp. melsa, N. Pr. mefso, Dauph. milza, Bui^. misse: 
from O. il. CJ. ;///7r/ (n.), (f. milz, E. wi7/, cf. Alb. meltzi 
liver, Mil. nitzft. I\li. snietdza, N. Pr. w^/r« melfo. Hence It. 
smilzii cm))ty. 

Mimar Sp. Pg. to coax, raress, mimo caress, adj. tnimoso: per- 
ha))s from minimus little, darling, whence It. mmma a aoll, 
Pg. meiminho litth^ finger. 

Mimbre Sp. also vimbre osier -twig; from vimen, cf. milano. 

Minuna - mimar, 

Mina It. Sp. Pg., Pr. mina meina, Fr. E. mine. Wall, jn^'nit; vb. 
It. minare, Sp. Pg. Pr. minar, Fr. Wall. w//*<t, Yl.minc. Hence 
(). Sj). minera, Pr. meniera, Fr. miniere a mine, whence It. 
mincrate, Sp. Pr. T^. mineral, Fr. mineral. From L. minarr 
J{oin. menare to lead, conduct, prepare, L. L. minarr consilium 
to ]irepare a plan, minas parare to lay an ambush. Hence 
//////// a passage under the walls of a town, passage, mine, cf. 
dorria a canal from ducere. The / for ^ was ]>erliap8 to dis- 
tinguish the meanings. Vr. mine r= Vj. miefi , G. mime, also 
com(»s from menare (Pr. mena), like gestus from gerere; Pr. jw' 
menar - - to behave on<^s(*lf. Hut v. s. menare. 

Mina n. Lim., (tase. menina, Pg. minino menino, f. minina me- 
nina, Si>. menino menina boy, girl, N. Pr. menig little, IWrr. 
/;//v//7 a chihl, Norm. ////V/^V minette; also Fr. minon minette m 


cat , Roil, minetie a girl , Cat. minyo a little boy (cf ., however, 
Fr. mignon). From Gael. 7nin little. 

Minaooia It., Sp. a-menaza, Pr. menassa, Fr. E. metiace; from 
minaciw for mince (Plautus). » 

Mince Fr. small, fine (whence E. mince). From 0. H. G. super- 
lative minnisto = G. mindeste, mince for mime, as rincer for 

Minohia It., L. menttda; hence minchione a dolt, as pincone from 
pinco, coglione from coglia. 

Mine Fr., Pr. /wma a measure; from hemina, whence Pr. emina, 
O. Fr. emine, Sp. hemina. 

Mineral — wm« (1). 

Minestralt. soup, pottage, minestrare to prepare soup &c.; from 
ministrare to serve, so minestra = something served up. Of. mets. 

Minette minon — mina (2). 

Mingherlino — heingre. 

Miniare It. to paint with vermilion (minium) illuminate ma- 
nuscripts &c., hence to paint in miniature, miniate. Hence It. 
miniatura, Fr. E. miniature. Menage also derives mignatta a 
leech , from minium. 

Minugiaminugio It. intestines; prop. = any thing chopped small 
(Sp. menudo); from minutia, L. L. minutia porcorum. 

Minuto minute — minuzzare. 

MiniiEzare It., Pr. menuzar, (J. Fr. menuiser to make small, mi- 
nish; from a form minutiarCy from minuttis, Fr. menu, Sp. me- 
nudo, Pg. miudo &c., whence It. Sp. minuto, Fr. E. minute, 
prop, minuto primo first division; minuto secondo, Fr. seconde, 
E. second = second division; minuto terzo, Fr. tierce (i\) the 
60*** part of a second. Hence Fr. menuisier a joiner, and (from 
Fr. menu) menuet, E. minuet a dance with short steps. 

Mirabella It., Sp. mirabel, Fr. mirahelle a kind of plum; a cor- 
ruption of myrobalanum fLvgofidXavog the ben -nut; It. also 
mirabolano, Fr. myrohalan. 

Mire O. Fr. Norm, a doctor, surgeon: qui court apres le miere; 
court apres ta biere (Dumoril), vb. mirer to heal. Perhaps from 
medicarius (medicus), which would not be so strange a word 
as medic-iamis (whence (). Fr. medecien, Fr. medecin), cf. gram- 
maire from grammatic-arius fgrammat/cusj, Veneroni gives It. 
mediearia = medecina. 

Miroir Fr., O.Fr. mireor, E. mirror, Pr. mirador; for miratorium, 
Sy.miradof^ a spectator, watch-tower, It, miradore a mirror. 
Another form is found in Pr. miraihj It. miraglio, Basq. mi- 
raila == L. miractdum. 

Mis It.; Fr. mes me, Pr. 7Jies mens, Sp. Pg. menos in comp. = L. 
mate or, better, G. E. mis, from which, however, it is not 
derived, but, as shown by the Sp. Pg. from minus; e. g. mis- 

SW MisA — Biono. 

prt'ijiarcy mens-, Mcg-prczar, mepriser, mrnas - preciar, E. m- 
pn'zf. The K. mis 1ms , tlius , a double origin. 

Misa - - mcssa. 

Mischiare It., Sj). 1*^. IV. mczelar mesciar, <). Fr. mesler medler, 
K. mt'flflir, Fr. mr/rr .-^- L. L. misruiare, Bb«t. It. mischia &e.: 
from miscere, llciu'<» sbst. Fr. melee, E. meliay (Tennysoni, 
if. /7///^7/ from voice: Fr. melange f. (O. Fr. in.), Pr. mesclanka, 
i*f. hmanf/ey laidanfje, 

Mismo — meiles. 

Mistral ■ - maestro. 

Mita S|)., Fr. mite; from O. H. (». w/ztf, A. S. mite, E. iw//<*. 

Mitad - mezzo, 

Mitaine — mezzo. 

Mitraille Fr. ( whonco Sp. metralla), small pieces of metal, grape- 
shot; from (). Fr. mite, E. mite a small coin, so for mitaille. 

Mo It., Nrap. mone, Com. ammt), Sard, wo/ immoi (cf. immo?). 
Will, /////w =-< even iioW; from moilo; Von. ///0//7 = mftdojam, 

Moeeio It. from mueeeus an adj. from mums (livxog)] hence moc- 
rera and moerirone a driveller, simpleton; from mticits murcuii 
also smorrare, Fr. mouclier , It. mmrolo candle-end, pn)p. 
caiidlo - snuff fmiHTolaja). Sp. //i(X'0 = mucus and snuff, 
I'irdm. morh, is\ 1^*. mouc mouquet snuff. 

Moehin moeho - - mozzo. 

Modano modine It., Sp. Pg. molde, Pr. molle, Fr. moule, mould 
jiattcrn; from moflu/ns, whence also It. mttdelio^ Fr. modele. 

Modele • - mod n no, 

Modorno It.Sn., Vwrnoderne, E. modern; from ;//of/r/7*i/s (Priscian 
and Cassiodonis) from modn, on analog}' of fwsierntis, ho- 
diernus , sempiternns. 

Modorra Sp. Pg. drowsiness, adj. modorro drowsy, vb. modorrar 
to makci drowsy, sl»st. modurria folly: from Tsanqui* fMtdorm 
-— >tnnip of a tree; so (.). Pg. modorra a heap. 

Moelle Fr. marn»\v; Ww meolle, V\\ meola, IX.midol/a, h. medulla, 
(■f. V'^s;. Joel/io i'ovjeollio. 

Mofa Sp. Pg. Cat., vb. mo/'ar to mock; O. 11. (J, mupfen to 
wrinkh' the nose, jeer - - Du. moppen , E. mop. 

Mofletes - muff are. 

Mofo moflno — mu/fo. 

Moggio It., Sp. moij(t, Pr. muei, (). Fr. moi (=z O. H. ii. mufti 
OIoss. (.'ass.), Fr. maid a bushel; from modius, 

Mogio murrio. 

Mogo <). Pg. a boundarv-stone, Sp. mogote an insulated rock; 
iViHn II. muga a bonndary, t>r is this from Sp. buega? Larra- 
mendi derives mogotes tops of deer's horns ^ from B. mocitu 
a point. 

Moho mohino — muff'o. 

MOIE — MOMER. 305 

Moip — meta. 

Holgnon — mmm. 

Hoineau Fr. sparrow. Not from moine (in allusion to the 
etgovd'tov uovd^ov of Psalm 101), though we have It. monaco, 
Sp. fraile, Fr. nonnette, G. dompfaffe used as names of birds. 
Tne Norm, is maisson, Wall, mohon, Cat. moxo from L. musca 
fmuscio), cf. G. grasmucke, Rou. mouchon, N. Pr. mousquet a 
small bird^ Norm, moisseron a finch; Pr. moizeta, Oat. moxeta 
a bird of prey. From moison came moisonel moisnel Fr. moi- 

Koire Fr. (f.), O. Fr. mohere mouaire; from E. mohair, v. Wei- 
gand 2, 184. 

Mbis — moscio. 

Mbisir Fr., Pr. to become mouldy; from mucerc or mucesce?'e, 

MbiBon O. Fr. measure; from mensio. 

KoiBson Fr., Pr. meissd; from messio. 

Koite Fr., O. Fr. moisie, E. moist. Not from madidm, but from 

humecius, cf. Pr. m^c and Isid. Gloss. : mactum est, humectum 

est, or from musteus fresh, new, cf. udus, vyQog, molle, for the 

connexion between tender, soft and moist. V. also s. moscio. 

Xoitid — mezzo. 

Koja It., Fr. mttt're brine, Sp. murria an ointment; from muria. 
Hence It. sala-moja, Sp. sal-muera, Pg. sal-moura, Fr. sou- 
mure, like aXfivgig. 
Kojar moje — molla. 
Xojon Sp., O. Pg. moiom, Sard. muUone heap, landmark: from 

Kolde — modano. 

Holho — manojo. 

Hiolino — mulino. 

^CoUa It., Pg. mola, Sp. muelle (m.) spring, in plur. tongs, Sp. 
molla crumb, calf oi the leg; hence It. molletta, Sp. mol/eta 
snuffers, molledo, Fr. mollet fleshy part of a limb, Sp. molleja 
sweet bread. It. moUica cnmib &e.; from tnoUis soft, pliant. 
Also It. adj. molle moist, from mollis soft, vb. mollare to yield, 
cmmollare to soak, Pg. Pr. molhar, Cat. mulyar, Fr. mouiller, 
Sp, mojar == molliare (cf. leviare, graviare); sbst. Pg. molho, 
Sp. mo/e sauce. Hence also Sp. mollera, Pg. molleira crown of 
the head. 

HbUot — molla. 

^^6lo It., Sp. muelle, Fr. E. mole a dam; from moles. For Sp. // 
= /,cf. R. Gr. 1,241. 

Jjolondro — landra. 

^^omer O. Fr. vb., sbst. momerie; from G. mummer mwnmerei, 
E. mtmmery mimmer. The word is derived from the name of 
a ghost mumel, v. Grimm's Mythol. p. 473. 


306 MON — MORCON. 

Mon O. Fr. particle = auite, actually, surely: c'est man it i* 
cjiiite 8(), lloliere Malad. Iniag. : ca-mon mafoL From L.muneif, 
like \\.pxire: the O. Fr. adj. was monde true, certain^ niasc. 
mon mond. 

Monoeau — mucchio. 

Monoo — manco. 

Mondualdo manovaldo O. It. guardian, tutor; from L. L. muff- 
dualdus = (). H. G. muntwalt administrator, cf. G. antcdi 
proxy. Manovaldo for monovaldo takes its spelling from maM, 
cf. mahibour, 

Monjoie O. Fr. a hill; (1) from mons Jovis (this i^hould give 
mon jot); (2) meum gaudiwn the name of Charlemagne's sword 
(this should give majoie); (3) mons ga^udii (in allusion to the hill 
on which St. Denis was martyred). 

Monna It., Sp. Pg. mona, N. Pr. mouno, Br. mouna she-ape, Fr. 
monnifw. t rom madonna the meaning of which it also bears. 

Monooordo It. ; then , as if from manus , Sp. Pg. manicordio, Fr. 
fnanicordion ixmanichord; cf. ftoi/d;|^opdoi/ a oue- stringed in- 

Monseigneur monsieur — signore. 

Montare — avaiange, 

Montoro S|)., Pg. monteiro huntsman; from mons. 

Montone It., Pic. monton, Ven. molfone, Pr. Cat. moUo, Pr. 
O. Sp. moton, Fr. mouton a wether, sheep (whence muttonX 
L. L. muUo, muUoncs cl verveces wideri in a Glossary" of the 
8*'' century. The O. Fr. molt vervex, Gael, mult, W. midlL 
Corn, molz, Bret, maout seems to have no root in the C'cltic: 
so, perhaps, all may come from the L. mutilus (others connect 
the word with multa a fine), which der. is strengthened by the 
N. Pr. mout, Com. mot, Rh. mutt = mutilus. Cf. the G. ham- 
mel, and O. Fr. castrois, 

Moquer O. Fr., Pr. mochar, E. mock. From Gk. (laxdv. Hence 
Sp. mueca a grimace. 

Mora It. a stack of brushwood &c., Sp. moron a hill , Fr. mo- 
raine a heap of stones ; cf , Bav. mur loose stones , and 0. N. 
mor, whence G. ?nurbe brittle. 

Morbleu Fr., O. Fr. morhieu; euphem. for morl dieu. 

Morbido morvido It. soft, mellow, tender, effeminate, delicate. 
From morbidus, Sp. morbido having both the Lat. and the It. 

Morbiglione morviglione It. measles ; from morbus. 

Moreeau Fr., O. Fr. morcel (E. morsel), Fr. amorce bait, vb. 
amorcer; from morstis, It. morseHo, c for s as in perccr, rincer, 
sauce &c. 

Morehia moreia It., Sp. morga , Cat. Mil. morca == L. amurca, 

Moreon Sp. black pudding; from B. morcoa bowel. 


Mordache Fr. tongs ; from mordax mordacis; Sp. mordacilia. 

Morello It., O. Fr. morel moreau, Sp. Pg. moreno dark -brown; 
from morus. Hence It. Pr. morella, Fr. morelle night -shade, 
E. morel (cherries), v. morille. 

Morfire It. to eat gluttonously, morfia mouth; from Du. morfen, 
M. H. G. murpfen to bite, eat. Hence It. sbst. smorfia = a 
wry face , if not from (ioQ(p7J. 

Morfondre Fr. to catch cold ; from morve fondre, v. mormo. 

Morga — morchia. 

Morgrueline — coq, 

Morille Fr.-, Pic. merouille merotde an edible fun^s, Du. morilje, 
E. morel, O. H. G. morhila, G. morchel, Swed. murkla; from 
its d^rk colour when cooked, v. morello, and cf. merida a 
blackbird, with the Pic. form. 

Morione It., Sp. morrion, O. Sp. murion, Pg. morriao, O. Fr. 
morion, E. morion. Perhaps from Sp. morra crown of the 
head, cf. moron, morro. 

Mormo Pg., Sp. muermo, Pr. vorma, Fr. morve (f.) (E. miir)^ 
Sic. morvu same from the nose &c., Sp. Pg. also = glanders. 
From morbus, cf. It. morviglione measles, L. L. morbiUi. Pr. 
vorma may be connected with Fr. gourme. From mormo comes 
O. E. mormal a gangrene (= morve mal). 

Mome Fr., Pr. morn dejected, gloomy; from Goth, mauman, 
O. H. G. motmdn, E. mourn. Pg. morno languid, feeble. 

Moron Sp. a hill; from B. murua a heap, hill. Hence the city 
3/ or on. 

Morondo Sp. bald; prop. = shaved like a moor. For the suffix 
ondo V. K. Gr. 2, 310. 

Morro Sp. a round substance , small rounded rock or stone (Pg. 
morro a round hill), also protuberant lips (B. muturrd); v. mo- 
ron. Hence Pr. mor morre, O. Fr. mourre a snout. 

Mortajo It., Sp. mortero, Pr. Fr. mortier, Wal. mojeriu, E. mor- 
tar; from morlarium. 

Mortella myrtle ; from myrtuSy whence also mirtillo myrtle-berry. 

Mortier — mortajo. 

Morue Fr. a cod-fish, gadus morhua, Prov. Fr. molue. From 
moruda as barbue from barbuda barbuta. Pr. morut (f . moruda), 
Sp. ^lorrw^o = thick-lipped. But, as this is scarcely a dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of the cod, others connect it with 
Sp. morros = round lumps or collops of the salted fish. 

Morueco — marron. 

Morve morviglione — mormo. 

Moschetto It. , Sp. mosquete, Fr. mousquet, E. musket, O. Fr. 
mouschete, L. L. muscheta; orig. a sparrow-hawk, Pr. mos- 
quet mosqueta, Fr. emouchct, It. moscardo. Cf. s. terzuolo. The 
mosquet was so called from its speckles (mouches), cf. Fr. 



moucheter to speckle (Diez). But th^ A. S. is mushafoc, and 
the origin is more probably Du. mossche mmsche a sparrow 
(E. tit- moiLse), 
Moscio It.^ Sp. mustio, Cat. mox faded; withered ^ gloomy^ Pr. 
mot's sullen, O. Fr. mots, Wall, muss dejected. From mticidm 
(mupditis mtistitisj ? d.muffo. Perhaps from the same root come 
Cat. mttstig lax, Lim. motisii, Rh. moust, Lomb. maisc^ £. 
moist (but V. moiie), It. vb. ammoscire, Pr. amasir. 

MoBcione It.^ Yen. mtisson, Romag. musslen, Lim. matistic t 
gnat; not from musca, but from musitm (mtisca cellaris Linn.), 
cf . moscione also = a winebibber. Isidor has : bibiones stmt 
qui in vino nascuntur quos vitlgo mttsfiones a mtisto appellant. 

MoBtaocio It., Sp. mostacho, Fr. E. moustache; from iivtrtai, 

Alban. mustdke. 
Mostarda It. Pg. Pr., Fr. moutarde, E. mustard, Sp. mostaza; 

from musttim, It. mosto, must being originally usea in prepar- 
ing it. 
Mostrenco mostrenoa Sp. unowned goods, waifs and strap; 

from mostrar, as the owner, in order to claim them, most 

point them out. 
Motin — meute. 
Motta It. a sloping bank of earth, Sp. Pg. mota, Fr. motte clod, 

O. Fr. mote, O. Pg. mota raised earthwork for defence, E. 

moat. Of G. origin, Bav. mott, Sw. mutte a peat- stack, Du. 

mot turf, Fr. mote tan. Sp. mota knot, loose thread on cloth, 

from B. motea = Du. moet, mdt spot = E. mote; Pg. mouta 

bush , cf. It. macchia. It. mota = malta q. v. 

Motto It., Sp. Pff. mote, Pr. Fr. mot; from mutire (E. muiter), 
L. L. muttum (Comutus ad Persium). 

Mou Fr. lung (of animals); from mollis ^ opp. heart and liver, 
called in Norm, le dur. O. Fr. mol = mollet calf of the leg. 

Moueher Fr., L. L. muccare to wipe the nose ; from mucus muc- 
cus. Hence mouchoir &c. 

Moue Fr., E. mow, mowe. If from the E., it will, prob., be con- 
nected with mouth, mund. But D. derives the E. from the Fr. 
and refers it to the Du. mouwe, O. H. G. mauwe pulpa, theu 
used of a protruding underlip , cf . faire la moue = faire la 

Mouette Fr., Pic. mamve a mew, sea-gull. Fr. Q. mdive mewe, 
O. H. Ot. meh, A. S. maev, O. E. moiv, E. metv. It. muanajo 
is from the Sax. form meum. 

MoTifette — muffo. 

Moufle moufler — muff are. 

Mouiller — molla. 

Moule Fr. muscle. Occ. muscle, Cat. musclo, O. H. G. musda; 


A. S. muscei, E. muscle. The form moule lies between musculus 

and muiilus. V. nicchio, 
Moule — modano. 
Moiilin — molino, 
Moiisqnet — moschetto. 
Mousae Fr.; Pr. mossa; from O. H. G. mos, G. moos, E. moss 

(It. Sp. musco, Wal. muschiu from muscus). Hence vb. mousser, 

e'motisser, sbst. mousseron (whence mushroom), so called because 

grown in moss. 

Mousse — mozzo. 
Mousse — mozo. 
Mousseline — mussolo. 
Mousser mousseron — nkmsse. 
Moustache — mostaccio. 
Moutarde — mostarda. 

Moutier Fr. church, monastery, O. Fr. moustier; from monaste- 
rtum, Lorr. mote = eglise.' 

Mouton — monione. 

Moyen — mezzo. 

Moyeu Fr., Pr. muiol nave of a wheel; from modiolus, cf. mozzo. 

Moyeu Fr., Pr. muiol mugol moiolj Gasc. mujou yolk of an ege. 
Frommedium ovi, Fr. moyeuf? Or irommytUus, mutulus a muscle 
(muiolus cf. scandula echandole) which resembles the yolk of an 
egg in size and colour and is, like it, enclosed in a shell. From 
mutdlus would come Pr. muiol, Fr. moyeul, cf. crayon for 
creion. The L. is vitellus. It. iuorlo (muscle), Sp. yema (bud), 
O. N. eggia-blomi (flower). E. yolk, yelk, (J. ei-gelb are from 
the colour. 

Moyo — moggio. 

MoEO Sp. Pg. young (hence It. mozzo, Fr. mousse); from mustus 
young, fresh, sbst. mozo = mustum. 

Moszetta — almussa. 

Mozzo It., Sp. mocho, Pr. mos (f. mossa), Fr. mousse maimed, 
lopped; from Du. mots, Sw. mutz, Du. vb. motsen mutsen, G. 
mutzen. From Fr. mousse comes It. smussare, smusso. Hence 
Sp. mochin. The root is the same as in mut-ilus if, indeed, the 
Sp. mocho be not immediately thence, as cachorro from catulus. 
Cf. B. muiila == a boy. 

Mozzo It. nave of a wheel; from modius for modiolus L. L. mo- 
zolus. Cf. moyeu. 

Muodhio It a heap. Usually derived from monticulus (monti- 
cellus gives Fr. monceau a heap), cf. cochiglia from conchylium. 
But a X>. L. mutulus is found and cf» Sp. mojon. 

Muceta — almussa. 

Muohaoho Sp. a boy; for mochacho from mocho (mozzo). 


Mucho Sp., Pg. miuto, Beam, much^ E. much; from mulhis, It. 
moKo, cf. K. Gr. 1, 245. Shortened mwj. 

Muci — micio. 

Mueoa — moquer, 

Muella — moUa. 

Muello — molo. 

Muer Fr., E. me%v to moult, O. Fr. to change, sbst. m^te, E. 
mew mue moulting, also = cage, prison; from muiare, Pr. ««■ 
dar &e. Fr. remtwr, Pr. remudar from re-mutare. 

Mufikre It. in camuffare for capo -muff are to muffle the head; 
from G. E. muff, from mow mouwe ermine. Hence Fr. mmfie, 
L. L. mufftda, Du. /»o;7(?/ a muff, G. vb. muffein, E. muffle; 
Pr. adj. moflety Pic. mouflu, Wall.^o/w^ soft, elastic; Fr. 
moufler to puflFout the cheeks, Sp. mofletestdX cheeks, Rouch. 

Mnffo It. musty, Com. Eomagn. f»o/f pale; sbst It. muff a, Pg. 
mofo, Sp. woAo mould, moss, Fr. moufette damp vapoiu-, 
mephitis; from Du. muf musty, G. muff isiovXdij vd. muffen. 
Hence also in moral sense Sp. moho laziness, mohino, Yen. 
muffo peevish , Pg. mofmo niggardly, cf. G. faul = putridns, 
piger, in Sw. malus. 

Mnfle Fr. snout, muzzle. Cf. G. muff el dog with hanging lips, 
muffeln to pout, mumble (muffle?), Norm, moufler to pouL 
V. also muffare. 

Mugavero It., Sp. almogarave, Pg. almogaure, O. Cat. almugaver, 
O. Val. almugdber, almugavar predatory soldier, partisan; 
from Ar. al-mughdvir a combatant. It. mugavero also = a 
weapon, cf. partigiana. 

Mugghiare It., Fr. mugler metigler to low; L. L. mugulare from 

Muggine It., Sp. mujol mugil, Pg. mugem, Fr. muge a mullet; 

from mugil. Fr. mulet, E. mtdlel from mullus. 
Mughetto — mugue. 
Mugnajo — mouette. 
Mugnajo — molhio. 

Mugre Sp. grime, dirt, grease; from mucor? 
Mugron Sp. shoot of a vine; from mturo cf. pua = point and 

shoot. Cat. mugro = stalk. 

Mugue N. Pr. hyacinth , Fr. muguel lily of the valley. It. mn- 
ghetto, ^iw^^mwo may -flower, O. Fr. musguet. From musaa 
musk, so = sweet- smelling. Hence also Fr. muguette, nm 
muguctte, G. muscat nuss, E. mdmcg, v. Wedgwood. 

Muid — moggio, 

Muir — mmigere. 

Muito — mucho. 


Mula It., Fr. mule, Sp. tnuliUa a slipper; from mtdleus? 
Muladar Sp., Sp. Pg. muradal a dust -heap; so called because 

rubbish was thrown just outside the wails (muri), 
Mulato Sp. Pg., Fr. muldtre, E. mulatto orig. =a jonngmuie (dim.). 

Engelmann derives it from the Ar. muwallad a half-breed. 
Mulet — muggine, 

Mulets Sp. Pg. a crutch, prop, a mule; v. bordone. 
Mulilla — mtda. 
Mulino It., Sp. molino, Pg. moinho, Fr. moulin mill; from molina 

for mola Ammianus Marcell. Hence mtUinaro mugnajo, Sp. 

molinero, Fr. meunier; It. rimolinare, Sp. remolinar, Pg. re- 

moinhar, O. Fr. remouliner to whirl round, It. Sp. remolino, 

Pg. redomoinho f retro) whirlwind, Sp. remolino, O. Fr. re- 

moulin sl lock of nair in form of a star on a horse's forehead; 

It. mulinello whirlwind^. From re-molere, re-moudre comes Fr. 

remous (m.) remote (f.) a whirlpool. 
Mulot Fr. a large fieldmouse ; from Du. mul, A. S. myl (= E. 

mould) dust. Cf. Du. mot, E. mole, perhaps shortened from 

G. mavHwurf (maut = mul), E. mouldiwarp. Meal is perhaps 

Miimiar Moden. = G. mummeln, E. mumble. 
Miimmia It., Sp. momia, Fr. momie mumie (E. mummy); from 

Pers. m6m, mum wax, v. Pott in Lassen's Zeitschrift 4, 279. 

Sp. adj. momio lean. The Pers. and Ar. have also mumiyd as 

the name of a mineral substance. 
Miineca — mmon. 
Mungere mugnere It., Sp. (Arag.) muir, Pg. mungir, N. Pr. 

mouzer, Wal. mulge to milk; from mulgere. The usual Sp. 

word is ordenar, Fr. traire, but O. Fr. mulger. Pic. moudre. 

Other forms are Lomb. molg. Pied, mouse, Sard, mulliri, Rh. 

mulger, Cat. mumr. From mungere comes It. adj. munto smunto 

emaciated, not from emunctus, 
Munir St), to summon; from monere, Pg. monir. 
MuDon op.. Cat. munyo, Sic. mugnuni, Fr. moignon muscle of 

the arm, brawn, stimip of an arm &c. ; vb. Com. mugna to 

mutilate. From Bret, moh mouh maimed , B. muh yolk of an 

egg (cf. torulus. It. tuorlo). Hence Sp. murieca wrist, doll (also 

muheco), Romag. mugnac block, stump. 
Mur O. Sp. O. Pg. (m.), Rh. mieur (f.) mouse. From mus muris. 

Hence rr. murena or mureca (better), N.Pr. murga formed like 

oca from avis; Pg. murganho, Sp. musgaho a shrew-mouse. Sp. 

morcillo murecillo muscle , is like musculus from mus, M. Gk. 

novtiKog ^rom ^vg Tcovtixog). 
MurFr., O.Fr. meurmaur ripe; from maturus, Vr.madur. Hence 

E. demure, cf. Fr. = discreet (de mure conduite). 
Murcho Pg. weak. From murcidus. 


Murciego O. Sp., Sp. murciegalo, Pg. marceffo a bat ; from mus 

ccecm, mfis calculus, 
Murganho musgano — mur. 
Murria — moja. 
Murrio Sp. melancholy^ sbst. murria; from moms stupid. It mo- 

gio may be from murrio morjo mojo, cf. pejus peggio &c. 
Musaioo it.; Sp. Pg. mosaico, Pr. mozaic, Fr. mosafque (E. mo- 

saic); a corruption of musivum (iiov6£tov), Pr. also musec. 
Musarana Sp. rg. Pr.^ Fr. musaragne (museraigne RabeUis), 

Rh. misiroign, Com. mus-de-ragn shrew-mouse; from mm 

Musoo amusoo Sp. brown; musk -coloxir, from muscus. 
MuAOo musehio It., Sp. musco, Pr. Fr. muse, L. L. muscus, E. 

musk; from Pars, muschk, Ar. al-misk whence the more usual 

Sp. al-mizcle, Pg. almiscar. Cat. almese. 
Museau musel — muso. 
Muso It. O. Sp., Pr. mus, Fr. museau, Pr. mursei (E. muzzkf 

Gael, muiseal); vb. It. musare, O. Sp. Pr. musar, O.Fr. mttffr, 

E. mme to gape, Fr. amuser, E. amme to make to muse, divert 

Muso is from morsus (mouth for bite) as giuso from deorsvm 

deosum; cf. Pr. from mursei. For the sense (to make a mouth, 

stand with open mouth) cf. G. maulaffe and s. badare. 
Musser Fr. to hide , also mucer = Pic. mucker, whence Sic. am- 

mucciare; Gris. micciar. From the M. G. sich muzen, G.sich 

maussen to hide like a mouse, L. mus, G. maus, which is from 

Sk. mush to steal. 
Mussolo mussolino It., Sp. muselina, Fr. mousseline, E. muslin; 

from Mausil or Mosul a city in Mesopotamia where the fabric 

was first made. 
Mustlo — moscio. 
Mutin — meute. 


N*a — donno. 

ITabisso — abisso. 

Nabot Fr. a dwarf. Perhaps from O. N. nabbi (E. knob). 

Naoar — nacchera. 

Naoehera gnaoehera It, Sp. nacara, Fr. nacre, O. Fr. nacairef 
M. Sp. nacar, It. naccaro mother of pearl, pearl-oyster shell, 
It. O.Fr. also cymbal, Castanet, Pr. necari; an oriental word, 
Kxxvdi.nakara (pk.nakhara a nail?). V. Pott, HoferV Zeitschr. 
2, 354. 

Nacelle Fr. a little boat ; from navicella, 

la'aohe — natica. 

r * 

NACBE — NA8TURZ10. 313 

Naore — nacchera. 
'Nada Sp. Pg., Occ. nado= L. nihil. From res nata, O. Fr. 

riens ne'e, cf. It. nulla for nulla cosa, once commonly used with 

non whence its negative force, cf. rien &c. Sp. nadie, O. Sp. 

nadi = n^wto, to the plur. form (cf. O. Sp. essi for esso &c. 

from nado. The Qasc. has n^/ fern, nada, Sp. Pg. nonada (f 

a trifle = non -nihil. 
Nage Fr. in phrase ^/r^ en nage to sweat = dire en age^ age = 

an old form of eau q. v. 
Nager Fr. to swim, O. Fr. also to sail; from navicare. 
Naguela O. Sp. hut; from magalia magaila maguela, nior m, cf. 

Naibo — naipe. 

Naie O. Fr. = O. N. net, G. nd, E. nay. 
Naif Fr. natural, artless, ingenuous, n«^iy native ; from nativm, 

It. native natio natural. Naif also = foolish, cf. silly, innocent, 

simple &c. 
Naipe Sp. Pg. (m.), It. naibo a playing-card; from the initials 

of the inventor Nicolao Pepin, or, according to Mahn, from 

the Arabic naib a representative, the four suits (spade, coppe, 

denari, bastoni) bemg representatives of the four classes of 

warriors, priests, merchants and labourers? 

Nalga — natica. 

Nana (pi.) O. Fr. pledges, furniture, also namps, L. L. namium, 
hence naniir to give a pledge, nantissement security; from 
O. N. ndm seizure, M. H. G. ndm (G. nehmen to take; cf. Sp. 
Pg. prenda from prendere, 

Nappe Fr. tablecloth (E. napkin, napron = apron), from mappa 
(cf. naguela). Only m the Fr.; Sp. has manteles, the It. tova- 
glia, but Piedm. mapa, Neap, mappina a towel. 

Naranja — arancio. 

Narguer Fr. to mock ; = naricare. Sbst. L. L. nario subsannans, 

whence O. H. G. narro, G. narr a fop. Com. nar, cf. Basq. 

narra foppish. Rou. naquer to smell is for narquer. Narqnois 

sneering is from narquois slang (prop, nasal, sneering talk) 

with same suffix as pat-ois, clerqu-ois. 

Narquois — narguer. 
Narria Sp. sledge; from B. narra. 
Naaitort — nasiurzio. 
Naapo — aspo. 

Naatro It. ribbon. Com. nasiola, Wall, ndle; from 0. H. G. 
nestila, G. nestel band. 

Nastursio It. &c., L. nasturtium, Ven. nasiruzzo, Fr. nasitort, 
N. Pr. nastocen, Sp. mastuerzo, Pg. mastruco, Sic. mastrozzu, 
Sard, mariuzzu. Pied, bistorce^ .L. nasturtium = nasitortium 



quasi fi Httso ton/uendu. Cat. is morritori (morro = nose). It 

also crescionr, Sp. herro. 
Nata Sp. r^. (^at. croam. Plin. 28, 9. quod super/ir?//!/, butymi 

est. It should have a dy but it might then have been eon?iifiel 

with nada nought. 
Natica It., Sp. nalga, Pr. nagga, O. Fr. nache nage buttock, 

L. L. natica; from nath, as cutica from cutis, auca from m 

(v. oca), 
Natte Fr. a mat, O. Fr. note; from maita L. L. Hence also Do. 

nattc, It. matta. Cf. nappe. 

Naucloro — nocchiero. 

Naut Vi\ high, sbst. nantcza; from in alto, cf. Wal. nait and 
inali, and n inferno, 

Nava S]). Pg. a plain. A pure Basque word found in Navarre, 

Navaja Sp., Pg. navalha razor; from nmmcula. 

Naverare It. in innaverare inaverare to bore, wound, Pr. Cat. 
nafraVy Fr. narrer (espec. in metaph. to break the heart); 
sbst. Pr. nafra. Norm, navre a wound; from O. H. G. ndh^ 
ger, G. ndbcr, Du. neviger neffiger, N. nafar an auger. 

Navet Fr. a turnip; from napns, It. navone, 

Naviglio navilio navile It., Pr. naviii, O. Fr. navi/e (navUie)y Fr. 

navire (cf. co(icire from consilium, Basire from Basilius), 0. Fr. 

also navirie f. Navile from navis, as civilis from civis, 

Navio Sp. Pg. a largv> ship; from navigium, Pr. navigi narei- 

Nario m the Gipsy language = body, cf. It. cassero. 
Navire — navilio, 
Ne Fr. from O. Fr. non, Nenni = O. Fr. nen- il = Pr. non H = 

non illud , v. oui and \l, (ir. 2, 401. 
Ne - - /w///. 

N^amnoins neant — nienfe, 
Nebli *Sp., Pg. nchri a falcon , Ar. nablL Perhaps from Ar. nahl 

arrow or nabtl noble. 
Nee — nido, 
Nedeo — nello, 
Neel — niello, 
Neflo — nespola, 
Nega9a — amgaza, 
Negare Von. fllil. (len. negii), Pr. negar, Fr. noyer, Rh. nagaff 

to drown; from nccarc which in L. L. has the Rom. meaning. 

Cf. E. starve from sterhen. It. has annegare, Sp. Pg. anetjnr 

from encrare, Wal. inneca. The Sansk. nac (= neco) has also 

the sj)ecial sense of perishing by drowning. 

Negromante nigromante It., Sp. Pg. nigromante, Wald. nigro- 
mant , Pr. nigromancid, Fr. necromancien , E. necromancer; It. 
negromancia, Vi\ nigromansia, O. Fr. nigremanccj ingremance 


&c. ; from vexgofLavngj vsxQOiiavteia. The form with / points 

to niger, cf. Sp. magia nagra (= nigromancia) black art. 
Keguilla — niello. 
Koige Fr. snow, from adj. ntveus nt'vea; O.Fr. nei/', Pr. neu from 

nix nivis. 
Keis — nessuno. 

Keloit neleg Pr. fault, mistake; from sbst. neglecius. 
n'ema Sp. a seal; from i/^/ia thread, on which, when wrapped 

round the letter , the seal was placed. 
n'emon Sp. hand of a sun-dial; from gnomon. 
XSTemps Pr. adv. from L. nimis. 
Kenhum — hiuno. 
n'enliures Pg. adv. for L. nusquam; from nee ubi as nenhum from 

nee unus. Cf . algures. 
'S&nxd — ne. 

•Neo It. mole; from nccvus. 
n'ervio Sp., Cat. nirvi, Pr. nervi nerve, Sp. nervioso, Cat. nirvios. 

Pr. nervios nervous; from nervium {vbvqCov) used by Varro 

and Petronius. 
Kesgs Sp. Pg. gore, gusset; from nexus. 
n'espera — nespola. 
n'espola It., Sp. Pg. nespera, Cat. nespla, Fr. nefle (fz=zp)n, 

medlar ^= tneslar); from mespilum, with the common change of 

m to n, cf. nappe &c. O.Sp. has mespero, B.mizpira, WaAl.mess. 
Nesstmo It., O. It. nissuno, Pr. neis-un, O.Fr. nes-un nis-tm 

= L. nullus. From Pr. neis, O. Fr. neis nis, from ne ipsum, 

and tm tmus, so = not even one. 
Netto It., Sp. neto, Pg. nedeo, Pr. Fr. net clear pure ; from nitidus. 
Niais — nido., 
Nibbio It. kite, Dauph. nibla; from milvtts milvim, m passing 

into n , V into b. 
Nioohio It. oyster; from mytilus, or mitultis, as secchia from si- 

tula, vecchio from vetulus, n for m as in nespola &c. In the fem. 

we have It. nicchia, Fr. E. niche, whence Sp. Pg. nicho, G. 

nische. Hence It. vb. rannicchiare to shrink in like a muscle, 

se recoqxdller to crouch. 
HioQ Fr. fool; from nescius, Pr. nesci, Sp. necio. For E. wic^r, v. 

Hlohe — nicchio. 
Hiohe — nique. 
Nloher Fr. to nestle, O. Fr. niger nigier; from nidificare , dc 

(nidfcare nidcarej =hoth eh and^. N.Pr.ww« from nis=nidtis. 
Nlchetto niocolino It. a precious stone; from ontjx onychis, Sp. 

onique, Cat. oniquel. 
BTioho — nicchio. 
RTido It. Sp., Fr. nid, Pr. niu nieu, Rh. ignieu nest, from nidus; 


It. nidio, from nidtdus nid'lus; Pg. ninho, Com. nin from dim. 
nidinus. Hence also It. nidiace nestlings dolt, BV. niaiSy E. 
nice (or = Fr. nice), nias, = a L. nidax. The Pr. maic ii 
formed with the suffix ac, so too, probably, with suffix <y, 
the Sp. nieffo (for nidego), Pg. ninhego. From the Sp. contt 
Pr. 7iec, whence Fr. nigaud. 

Niece Fr., E. niece. L. neptis, to give it a more decided f. aspect, 
became nepia in Rom., Pr. fiepta, Sp. nieta, Pg. Cat. neia. The 
Fr. took a form neptia, niece, Pr. netsa, It. nezza (rare). Fran 
the m. nepos come f. nepota, Pr. Cat. neboda, Wal. nepoate, 

Niego — nido. 

Niello It., Sp. Pr. niel, O. Fr. neel, Fr. niWfe (m.) dark inlaid 
work, enamel on gold or silver, L.L. nigellum; vb, It.nMflrf, 
Sp. Pr. nielar, O. Fr. noeler, E. anneal, L. L. nigeilare; from 
L. dim. nigellus. Hence also It. nigelia, Sp. neffuUha, Pr. «»rffe 
(f.) smut, blight, in Fr. and Sp. also = f ennel - flower. 

Niente It., Pr. neien nien, Fr. neant = L. nihil; fromi ens entk 
with negative prefix ne or nee. Hence Fr. neanmoms = It 
niente dimeno. 

Niflna niflfo niffolo It. (Flor.), Rh. gniff beak, Pr. nefa; from 
A. S. E. Du. neb, L. 6. nibbe nif, O. N. nebbi nef. Hence Urn. 
nifla, Pic. nifler, Fr. renifler to sniff, Rou. niflete snuffler, Lim- 
niflo nostril, Sw. niffen to turn up the nose, ^»,y.'niffeln, 
Piedm. ntifie = G. s-nUffeln, E. snuffle. 

Nigaud — nido. 

TSimo It. (Prov.), Sard, nemus (cf. cummegm =• con meco), WaL 
nime nimenea nobody, from nenw. 

Ninfemo — ahrigo, 

Ninguem Pg. nobody, from nee quern. 

Ninguno — niuno, 

Ninho ninhego — nido. 

Ninno ninna It., Sp. niho nina a child , infant. It. ninna nanna 
(also in Sp. and r^.) = a lullaby. It. ninnare to rock to sleep 
with a lullaby, N. Pr. nind to go to sleep. Lomb. nana = 
child and cradle (Fl. andare a nanna to go to bod), Sp. hacer 
la nana to sloep, S}). iiana also = nurse, mother; Cat. nen 
nena infant, Vcn. nena nurse, Lim. naina cradle. Words of 
the nursery are very primitive, and with the series under 
review may be compared vvvviov = a lullaby (Hesychiiis). 
For forms like ninna- nanna cf. Lomb. ginna-gianna a child's 
game, Uita-latia swing. Like x6())y and L. pupilla so Sp. nihOj 
Cat. Pr. nina ~- the pupil of the eye; cf. Pg. menina, Xeu.pu- 
Una, Romag. bamben. Sic. vavaredda (from vava v. bava), Pic. 
papare, Pr. anha the pupil = prop, little lamb. 

Nippe Fr. (only in plur.) ornaments, appare , nipper to fit out; 
from Du. nijpen, E. nippers, nip* 


NiqueFr. m faire la nique to nod at, laugh at, jeer; from G. 
nicken to nod. So also faire une niche to play a trick. 

Nitrire It. to neigh; from hinnitm (hinnitrus), anilnre from 

Ninno It., Sp. nhiguno, Pg. nenhum, Pr. neguti nengun neun, Wal. 

nici un, = nee unus, in Wal. neque unus. In O. It. neww, O. 

Sp. nengunOy O. Pg. neun, Cat. ningu, Rh. nagin, Com. negun 

nigun. O. IV. nvn. Champ, nune part = 7iulle pari; from ne 

Niveau nivel — iibello. 

Noooa It. knuckle; from M. H. G. knoche, G. knocften. 
Nooohiere It., Sp. nauclero, O. Sp. naochero nauchel, Pr. naucler 

nauchier, Fr. nocher pilot, ferryman; from nauclerus (vavxXrj' 

pog) used by Plautus. 
Kooohio It kernel, knot; from nucleus, Sp. nucleo. 
Kooher — nocchiere. 
Hbfil Fr. Christmas, from fiatalis, Pr. O. Sp. nadnl, for nael as 

poUe ioT paile R. Gr. 1, 164. 
Hoer — notare. 
HoiBe Fr., Pr. nausa, Cat. nosa quarrel, bustle, 7ioise. From 

nausea disgust, vexation, or, better, from noxa. 

Hoja It., Sp. enojo enoyo, Pg. 7iojo, Pr. ejiuei cnoi, Fr. ennui; vb. 
It. nojare &c., E. annoy. From in odio in the phrase est tnihi 
in odio, cf. It. bajo, Sp. bayo, Pr. ^^a/ from badlus. The O. Ven. 
has: plu te sont a inodio = It. piii ti sono a noja, Cf. It. na- 
bisso, ninfemo, ingordo. 

Kdo naulo It. whence nauleggioj Fr. nolis, O. Sp. wo/iV freight; 
vb. noieggiare, Fr. noliser; from naulum. 

Komble Fr. (f.) haunch of venison; from lumbulus. V. Pott: 

Etym. Forsch. 2, 100. 
Sombre Sp. name, O. Sp. nomne; from nomen, cf. hombre. 
Ifoinbril — ombelico. 
li'onada — nada. 
Nonnain — nonno. 
li'onno It. grandfatlier, nouna ^grandmother, Pr. nona, Fr. nonne 

nannain = E. nun, Lorr. nonnon, N. Pr. nounnoun uncle; from 

L. L. nonnus nonna (Hienmyni.). Fr. nonnain is from an ace. 

nonnam, as pjifain from put am, Sp. nowo = decrepit. 
^orabnena — or a (l). 

^opd Fr., whence It. Sp. norte; from A. S. nordh, E. north. 
^orvifl O. Fr. Norwegian, from tho name of the people Norvegr, 

also = proud, isolent. From the Fr. Normans wo have reponse 

normande = equivocal, ambiguous answer. 

^OBche O. Fr. (also nusche), Pr. noscla buckle; from O. !!• G. 


318 NOTARE — O. 

Notare It., O. Fr. noery Rh. nudar, Wal. in-noia to swim; ofor 
//, hence It. diphthong in pres. nuoto. 

Nourrain Fr. brood; fry; from nutrimen, Pr. noirim^ so for 

Novero It., vb. annoverare; from numerus, numerare. 

Novio Sp., Pg. noivo, Cat. Pr. novi newly married man, f. now 
Hoiva; from uovus nova (nova nuptaj. Pr. sbst. navias, LL 
nfffff'a* is used only in pi. after the analogy of nupticp. 

Noyau Fr. kernel; trom nucalis, Pr. nogalh. Dacanj^ derive* 
it from nodus nodeilus, of. boyau {rombudellus , O, Fr. no*, 
ntwt'ly note/, noyal, noyau, Yt. newel, noel, nou'd/ the colnnm 
round which the steps of a circular stair case wind, Fr. 
noyau descalicr. 

Noyer — neyare, 

Nualh Pr. worthless , only found in comp. nualhor, O. Pr. neat 
nualz and nuaiios, O. Fr. nueiilos; fi*om nuffaiis (Geihus) nv- 

Nuance — niter. 

Nuca It. Sp. Pg. Pr.; Fr. tiuque nape of the neck. {Cervix is 
found in all the languages, but not in common use. Instead, 
various words have oeen introduced: It. coUotiola, cottulOj Sp. 
coyote, pescuezo, pesforejo, tozuelo, Yr.nozador, Fr. ch^^nim, 
( ). Fr. halerel, Wall, hanet, Wal. ceafe gut &c.) Not, perhaps, 
from nux nun's though the Sicilians call it ntici (noce), dita 
from dux being peculiar. There seems to be a connexion 
between neck, 7iuca &c. and fdck, notch, Du. nocke , cf. cr/w. 
^uc(t may, ho weaver, be from nux and have taken its form to 
distinguish it from noce, for Du. nocke is rather = It. nocc^ 
knuckle, Lomb. ynucca nape (It. dcnoccolare to behead). 

Nuer Fr. to. shade ; from nue = nubes. Hence nuance. 

Nuitantre 0. Fr. adv. = noctu, L. L. noctanter on the analog}' 
of cuncianter. As soventre from sequente, so nuitanire from 
noctantCy cf. nuitamment = noctante mente. It. has nottarean- 
nottare, Fr. anuUier. 

Nuora It., Sj). nuera, Pg. Pr. nora, O. Fr. nore, Wal. nore. From 

' nvnis with fem. tennination , L. L. nora. 

]fu(^ue — nuca. 

Nutria — lontra. 


O od It., Sp. u, Pg. ouy Pr. oz, Fr. ou, Wal. au, from auL 

llcnee It. ovvero = aut verum. 
O O.Fr. Pr. pronoun from L. //or; in comp. O. Fr. fyj»^ (cf. ff*rr). 

poroc, sinoc. 


Obbliare It., Pr. O. Sp. oblidar, Fr. oublier, Sp. Pg. olvidar; 
frequentative form from ohlivisci ohlitus, Sbst. It. ohhlio, Pr. 
oblit, Fr. onbli, Sp. olvido, fern. It. ohhlia, Pr. ohlida. As the 
It. does not usu. syncopate a ty it probably got the word from 
the Fr. Scordarsi and dimenticare are more commonly used. 

Obsequias Sp. Pr,, Fr. obseques, E. obsequies; from obsequiw for 
exsequice, some reference being made to the obsequium of the 
attendant friends. 

Obus Fr. (hence Sp. obuz); from G. haubitze lE. howUzer), in 
15*** cent, haufnitz, from Bohem. haufnice a sling. 

Oca It. Sp. Pg., Fr. oie, with more primitive form Sp. Pr. Rh. 
auca, O. Fr. ottCy Wall, awe, Berr. oche goose. From avica 
(avis), cf. natica, L. L. cutica, caudica, It. moilica. In the 
Glossaries we find Ttxrivov. As the most useful domestic bird 
was called the bird "par excellence", so oxen were designated 
by the term atrniaUle = animaiia. For other transitions from 
the general to the specific, cLjtiment, mouton. Fr. dim. oison, 
cf. clercon from clerc. In Limous. we find a masc. auc, Veron. 
oco, Crem. ooch; Lim. also ooutzar = a Fr. oisard. 

Ootroyer — otriare, 

Oeillet Fr. a pink; from oeil. 

Oee — uopo. 

Ogan — uguanno. 

-% It., Rh. oz, Sp. hoy, Pg. hoje, Pr. hiwi, O.Fr. hui adv. from 
hodie. Hence It. oggimai omai C= oimai, cf. oi in ancoij not 
for ormai; Pr. hueimais; It. oggidi, Sp. ^oj^ (//«, Fr. aujourdlnii; 
O. It. ancoi V. s. ancJie. 

Ogni It., O.It. onni, from owwis, O. Ven. omia. The ^w originated 
either in ogn-uno = omnis umis, or in ogna = omnia. 

Ogre ogro — orco. 

Oibo It., Com. aibai an interjection, perhaps the Gk. aipoL 

Oio — oca. 

Oignon Fr., Pr. uignon, E. ortioti. From t/w/o (Columella). 

Oille — oila. 

Oindre Fr. part, oint, whence E. anoint y ointment; from ungere. 
It. untare, sbst. unto from unctus. 

Oiseau — uccello. 

Oiflif Fr. idle; from otium, with adjectival tenn. -ivus instead of 

Ola Sp. Cat., Fr. houle (h asp.) wave, surge ; from the Celtic, W. 
hoewal, Bret. houl. O. Fr. vb. holer to surge, sway. 

Oleandro It., Sp. oleandro eloendro, Pg. eloendro loendro, Fr. 
oleandre, E. oleander. In L. L. lorandum a corruption of tho- 
dodendrum through laurus, I being afterwards mistaken for 
the article and dropped. 

OlifBut O. Fr. (1) elephant (2) ivory (3) a wind-instrument, Pr. 

320 OLLA — ORA. 

uJifan = (1), Dn. olifant, Bret, ciifani. Com. oiiphans,'^. 

oii/fant. Coniiptod from elephas, -antis, as also is It /ifl/iwfr. 
OUa Sp. an earthen pot, whence Fr. oille; from L. olia, Pr. oto 

i\co,, ollu podrkhi (pndrida putrid, ripe, seasoned) = Fr.^ 

Olore It., iSd. Pr. olor, (J.Fr. olour odour; from L. o/or f=od(ir) 

N'arro ana Apuleius. 
Olvidar — obbliare. 
Ol2ina — elci\ 
Omai — oggi. 
Ombelieo bellico bilico, Wal. buriCy Sp. ombligo, Pg. mbig9 

embhjo, IV. ombeitc vmbnlh, Fr. wo»i^ri7 navel ; from umWiau. 

From umbiliculus come umbrilh and nombril (by dissimilatioD 

for lomhn'l with article, cf. Cat. Uombrigoi). Cat. has a 2^ 

fonn mcU(\ Kavel = centre, so It. bilico = point of equ^i- 

brium , bifictire to balance. 
Omelette Fr. ; from (vufs male's, 
Onmiaggio — uotrio. 
On — uomo. 
One onques — anche. 
Once — lonza. 
Oncle Fr. Pr. whence E. uncle (Wal. unchiu, Alban. unki). From 

aunruhta, not from unctilus (for avunculus), such aphiensis 

not being permissible in Fr. Avunculus was early used for 

pafnats, so i}, o/ietm, A. S. ef?w = mother's brother. 
Onde It., O. Sp. and, Pg. onde, Pr. ont on, Wal. unde; from 

undc. Hence It. Sp. Pg. donde, Pr. don, Fr. rfow/ = de nnde. 
Onire It., Pr. awiir, ().Fr. hotmir (h asp.) to insult, shame; from 

Goth, haunjan, O. II. G. lionjan, G. h6hnen to 8co£f. Sbst. Ii. 

outa , Pr. ////^fl (for auntd), Fr. ^ow/t*, O. Sp. fonta; from 0. H. 

(i. hunida, (). Sax. /i()/?r/a shame, hence It. onlare, O. Sp. tf/bw- 

/rtfr, Pr. a/tfar, O. Fr. ahonter, hotitoier. 
Onta — o////'^. 
Ontano It. alder. Perhaps from the collective alnctum, S^.al- 

nedo, Fr. aunaie, through a form alnetanus, cf. talpa topo, 

Sp. hclecho from collective filicUmi. Ven. is onaro. Mil. o////rrtf, 

Onza — lonza. 

Oppio It. a sort of pophir; from opulus (Varro) iov populus? 

Oqueruela Sp. a tangled thread ; from Basque oquerlzea to twist. 

Ora It. &c., L. horn, L. L. botia hora, mala hora t= It, in bum 
ordy in maV orUj Sp. en buena hora, en hora buena, norabuena 
good luck, noramala ill luck, Pr. en bon' hora, O. Yr. en bone 
hcure, bone heiire; so, at last, bona anA mala alone, It, mal 
Inf. 9. 54, Purg. 4. 72, Par. 16. 140, Sp. en buena, Pr. bona, 
O. Fr. bon bor mal mar, O. Pg. bora, Pg. embora (the r from 


hord). Mora and augurium meet ^ e. g. ^ bona ora (a la bonne 

heure) = en bon aur. 

It., Sp. Pg. hora, O. Sp. oras, Pr. ora oras or, O. Fr. ore 

ores or, Fr. or, adv. from hora. The Pr. has the forms ara 

aras ar, era eras er, Rh. er. Among the compounds are: Sp. 

ahora, Pr. aoras adoras, O.Fr. a ore. It. a ora from ad horam; 

Fr. flr/or^. It. allora from tf^ i//fl»i horam; Fr. /or5 from ^/a 

^orfl; O. Sp. Pg. fl^ortf from hac hora; It. ancora, O. Sp. ^- 

mrflr, Pr. encara enquera, Fr. encore, from Aanc horam; O. Fr. 

unquore uncore, from unquam hora; O. Sp. «ora, from ij!>5flr 

^ora; Pr. ^wora gt/or, Rh. ct/r« ^wr, from qtue ora, O. Fr. cor. 
Ora oreggio orezzo — aura. 
Orafo It. goldsmith ; from aurifex. 
Orage ore orear oreo — aura. 
Orange — arancio. 
Orbaooa It. laurel berry; for lorbacca from lauribacca, R. Qr. 

1 , 240. 
Orbo It., Pr. orb dorp, O. Cat. O. Fr. Wal. orb blind, a meaning 

which Isidorus considers to be the original one of the L. or- 

bus. Cf. Apul. en orba Fortuna. 
Oroo It., Neap, huorco, O. Sp. huergo uerco, Sp. ogro, Fr. E. 

ogre, A. S. ore; from Orctis. Sp. Ai/^co = mournful , and 

sbst. = skeleton. 
Orda It., Fr. E. horde (h asp.) a roaming body of Tatars ; G. 

horde, Alban. hordi, Russ. orda &c.; an Asiatic word, ordu 

or Urdu. 
Ordalie (f.^ Fr. ordeal; from L. L. ordalium, which from A. S. 

orddl (n.) = G. urtheil (ur out and theil part = a setting forth 

of parts^. O. Fr. had ordel (jn.). 
Ordenar Sp., Pg. ordenhar to milk; another form of ordenar to 

put in order, so = prop, to bring a cow into good order or 

condition , cf. Lim. odzustd to milk == Fr. ajuster. 
Ordo It., Pr. ort, O. Fr. Pic. ord ugly? dirty; Pr. ordeiar, O. Fr. 

ordoier to soil; It. Pr. ordura, Fr. E. ordure. From horridus, 

cf. Pr. orrejlf. orreza i. e. orreda) = ort, vb. orrezar = or- 
deiar. But W. makes ordo = lordo (luridus). 
Ordonner Fr. from ordinare (dontier from donner fordrej; O.Cat. 

ordonar, but O. Fr. ordener, N. Cat. Pr. Sp. Pg. ordenar. 

Ordnance = ordmance. 
Orecohia oreechio It., Wal. ureache ureche (f.), Sp. oreja, Pg. 

Pr. oreiha, Fr. oreille ear; from auricxda ear-lap, ear. 
Oreille — orecchia. 

Orendroit O. Fr., Pr. orendrei temporal adv., from or en droit. 
Orf&vre — forgia. 
Orfraie Fr. (f.) osprey ; from ossifraga, It. ossifrago, Sp. osifrago, 

Fr. ossifrague, E. ossifrage, osprey (with a reference topr^). 



Orfroi Fr., better orfrois, O. Fr. orfrais, O. E. arfrayt, Pr. mtr- 
freSy O. Sp. orofres a stuft" worked with gold, gold Uce, dim. 
O. Fr. orfrisiel, vb. orfroisder. The L. L. has auripkriffimj 
formed from aurum Fr. or And f raise f rise , v. fregto. 

Orge — orzo. 

Orgoglio It.; O. It. argogliOy also rigoglio, Sp. arguilo, 0. Sp. 
arguyo erguil, Pr. orgolh erguelh, O- Cat. arguii, N. Cat. argvil, 
Fr. orgueil pride; from O. H. G. urguaii, which from wyuoi 
insignia ; cf. O. 8p. adj. urgulioso. The root is found in the 
Sk. gur toliere. 

Orgueil — orgoglio. 

Orioalco It.; Sp. auricalco, Fr. archal; from aunchaicum, an- 
chalcwn Gr. OQeCxaknog. 

Oriflamme Fr., O. Vr, also oriflambe oriflant, Pr. aunflan, E. ori- 
flame y orig. the banner of St. Denis* monastery, a red flagon 
a gilded lance , then = the banner of an army. From aurvm 
and flamma = a pendant ^ streamer (so called from its shape) 
cf. Veget. flammuia. 

Orilla — orlo. 

Orin — ruggine. 

Oripeau — orpello. 

Oriuolo It., Mil. reloeuri, Sp. relox, Pg. relogio, Pr. rdotgt 
clock, watch; from horologium, Pr. horioge clock, manire 
watch (prop, indicator). 

Orlo It., Sp. orla orilla, O. Fr. orle border, edge; a dim. from 
vra, which to distinguish it from hora, is in some langnage? 
treated as masc, Sard, oru, Lomb. oevr, Pr. or, O. Fr. or w, 
Rh. ur (W. dr f.). Vb. It. orlare, Sp. orlar, Vr. ourler to hem, 
border, ourlct a hem. Another word for rim is Pr. vora. Cat. 
hora, Val. vora, O. Fr. ror^; perhaps la vora = ia ora, cf. 
Cat. llavors = Sp. a la hora, Ir. lors. 

Orma It., Wal. urme a track; vb. ormare, Wal. urma. Orma = 
perhaps, the Sp. husmo scent, track, husmar to track, 0. Fr. 
osme osmer, Lomb. Vcn. usma usmare; from Gk. daiiijy dc^id- 
ad-ai. The change of 5 to r in It. is unusual, but not more so 
unusual than the aphseresis of/", wliich would be necessary in 
deriving it from forma, cf. s. ciurma. 

Orme Fr. elm ; from ulmus, 

Ome O. Fr. adv. a orne '^all together"; from ad ordinem. 
Omi^re Fr. rut, track; from 0. Fr. Pic. ordiere, wh. from 
orbit aria (orhita). Wall, ourbire. 

Orondado Sp. undulatory (orondo pompous) ; from undtdatus on- 
dorado? Or from ol-andado {ola wave). 

Orpello It., Sp. oropel, Pr. ourpel, Fr. oripeau gold-leaf, tinsel; 
from aurum axidpellis, gold -skin. 


Orpimento It., Sp. oropimente, Fr. orpiment, orpin, E. orpment; 
from auri pigmentum. 

Orteil — artiglio. 

Oniga — nu:a. 

OrvaUio Pg. dew; from rorale roralia? The Gallic and Astur. 
have orhayo cold drizzling rain. 

Osole O. Fr. Pr. a present (Burg, ode, oclage); L. L. oscuiam 
^'donatio propter nuptias, quam solet sponsus interveniente oscuio 
dare sponsce^' Ducange. 

Oseille Fr. sorrel ; from d^aXig or d^dXiog sour. 

Osier Fr. E., Berr. oisis, Bret, aozil; from Gk. oloog, which is 
connected with ^T€a , trvg, vitex, with, Sk.vitilta, from root 
ve fvieoj. 

Oso Sp. bear, for orso from orsus, R. Gr. 1 , 249. 

Ostaggio It., Sp. hostaje, Pr. ostatge, Fr. dtage, E. hostage; L. L. 
hostagium hostaticum, It. statico; from obsidaticum, which is 
from the L. ohsidattis (obses), 

Oste It., Sp. hueste, Pg. hoste, Pr. O. Fr. ost, Wal. oaste an 
army, host, Pic. ost (pron. o) a flock. From hostis in L. L. = 
a host. The change of gender is remarkable ; L. L. fem.. It. 
masc. and fem., Sp. Pg. Wal. fem., O. Fr. fem. seldom masc. 
The fem. was perhaps used to distinguish it from the fol- 
lowing word. 

Oste It., Sp. huesped, Pr. hoste, Fr. hdte (E. host), Wal. ospet = 
host and guest; from hospes. Hence It. ospitale, ospedale, spe- 
daie, spitale (whence G. E. spital, Sp. Pr. E. hospital, Fr. hdpi- 
tal, L. L. hospitale; It. contr. ostale, Sp. Pr. hostai, O. Fr. E. 
hostei (hosteller = ostler J, It. ostello, Fr. hdtel. 

Ostico disagreeable or sour to the taste, sour, morose; from 
av6z6g (av6triQ6g). 

Ostugo Sp. (l) track (2) comer, hiding-place. From B. ostuquia 

^ stolen (Larram.). 

Otage — ostaggio. 

dter Fr., Pr. ostar to take away, E. oust. Ducanffe derives it 
from obstare, obstare viam = dter le chemin, me notion of 
hindering easily passing into that of depriving. Others from a 
L. haustare a frequent, of haurire, N. Pr. austd, cf. O. Fr. 
doster, Berr. doter, Lim. doustd from dehaurire. Haustare, 
however, is not found in L. L., and N. Pr. austd is usn. con- 
nected with hausser. 

Otero Sp., outeiro Pg. hill; L. L. oterum auterum, from alius, = 
aitarium raised altar, cf. It. adj. altiero. 

Otorgar — otriare. 

Otriare It., Sp. otorgar, Pg. outorgar, Pr. autorgar, auireyar, Fr. 
octroyer to allow, grant; from auctoricare (for auctorare) to 
authorise; the Fr. is thus nearer the orig. than the O. Fr. 




otroier. Hence Sp. artoffo (contract), Pr. auiore autrei, FV. 

octroi (grant, toll). 

Ottarda It., Sp. avutarda, Pg. abetarda heiarda, Pr. austardo, 
Fr. outarde, Champ, bisiarde, E. bustard. Not from otis {pxi^] 
with suffix ard, but from avis tarda, which Pliny (H. N. 10. 
22) gives as the name of the bird in Spain. Sp. avutarda con- 
tarns a repetition of avis, u- tarda for o- tarda and ave, as in 

Ottone It., Sp. laton alaton, Cat. llauto, Fr. laiton, Norm, latmj 
O. E. latoun, latten. From It. latta a plate of metal, cf. Sp. 
plata plate, silver. In Piedm. Mil. Com. Ven. ioton; the /has 
been mistaken for the article and dropped in It. ottone. SoDie 
derive it from iXatQOv (iXavvci), cf. lamina. 

Ou — 0. 

Ou — ove. 

Ouaiche Fr. (m.) course, track of a ship. Also ouaffe = Sf. 
aguage current = aquagium. 

Ouaille Fr. sheep ; from ovicula, Sp. oveja, Pr. ovelha oelha. Ovii 
is found in tlie O. Fr. oue wether, Wal. oae. Ouaille is now 
used only in fig. sense, being superseded by hrebis. It. pecora. 

Ouais — guai. 

Ouate — ovata. 

Oublie Fr. a cake; from oblate (for oublaie), from its resemblance 
to the sacramental wafer. 

Oublier — obbliare. 

Ouche ousche O. Fr. terra arabilis; L.L. olca, prob. a primitive 

L. word: campus tellure fecundus, tales enim tncoUe olcas vocant 

Greg. Tur. ; cf . dXxa (ace), cJ^ag a furrow. 

Quest Fr. (0. Fr. west), whence Sp. ovest; from A. S. vest, E. 

Qui Fr., Pr. oc affirmative particle. Pr. is from L. hoe, which, 

shortened into o becomes, with the addition of i7/t/^, theO.Fr. 

oil, whence Fr. out, used byMoliere and others as a dissyllable. 

With this use of hoc cf. L. ita, sic (from demonstr. roots), Gk. 

ravta. In O.Fr. we also find oie, Wall, atvoi. Oil corresponds 

to nenil v. ne. 
Otiragan — uracano. , 
Otirler — orlo. 
Outarde — ottarda. 
Outil Fr., O. Fr. ostil vstil. Wall, usteie (= a Fr. outille). Vten- 

site would have given ousil. Is it from usatellum a dim. of It. 

usato, cf. Com. usadel, Mil. usadei (kitchen utensils), O. Fr. 

ustil =:- Pic. otieu (ieu = ell). Rou. otil = knitted work = 

opus textile? 
Outreouidanoe — coitare. 


Ouvrir Fr., Pr. obrir, ubrir, O. It. oprire to open. Whence the 
0? the It. has aprire, Sp. obrir from aperire, Ovrir C= ouvrir J 
is prob. a shortened form of O. Fr. a -ovrir, a-uvrir, this for 
adubrir, which, with pref. a (as in ablasmar afranher), is from 
de-operire to uncover , open (Celsus), cf. N. Pr. durbir, Piedm. 
durvi, Wail, drovu Mil. Com. dervi, Crem. darver = de-aperire. 

Ovata It., Fr. ouate (Sp. huata) wadding, padding. From ovum, 
cf. lomho lomhata, giomo giornata, -ata denoting extension. 
The E. wad is rather from ouate than the reverse, for the E. 
d would not become t in Fr. But Du. G. has watte, Swed. 

Ove It., O. It. 0, u, O. Sp. 0, O. Pg. ou, Pr. o, Fr. ou where; 
from vibi. Hence It. dove, Fr. d'oii. 

Ove Fr. from ovum, It. uovolo, Sp. ovillo. 

Owero — 0, 

OxaUt Sp., Pg. oxala interj. =L. utinam; from Ar. inschd alldh 
(in if, schd wills, alldh God); n was lost, and i took the 
interjectional form o. 


Pabellon — padiglione, 

Pabilo Sp., Pg.pavio, Shrd. pavilu , Vr.pabil, Rh. pavaigl , W . 
pabwyr wick of a candle, snuff; from pabulum, cf. esca = 
tinder. Mil. pabi = L. pabulum. 

Pacciare It. in impacciare, Sp. Pg. Pr. empacher, Fr. empicher 
HE. impeach) to hinder; sbst. It. impaccio, Sp. Pg. empacho, 
Pr. empach, Rh. ampaig; It. dispacciare spacciare, §p. Pg. des- 
pachar, Fr. dep^cher to re]es,se , despatch. Impactare, a freq. 
of impingere, would give Sp. Pr. empachar, and Fr. empicher 
(cf. flechir from fleeter e, delecher from delectare); It. impacciare 
would require impactiare. This deriv. is supported by the Pr. 
forms empaitar empaig (cf . faita faig from facta factum) and 
by the meaning "to ingraft" (impingere). 

Paooo It, Fr. paquet, Sp. paquete a packet; from Du. pak or E. 
pack = Gael. jt?ar. V . baga. 

Pads Pg. a loaf; from panada, padeiro baker = Sp. panadero. 

Padiglione It., SsLvi. papaglioni , Sjp. pabellon , 'Pr.pabalhd, Fr. 
pavilion, E. pavilion, W.pabell, O. Fr. pupall; from papilio = 
pavilion in L. L. The O. Fr. paveillon has the meaning "but- 
terfly". For the It. form cf. R. Gr. 1, 164. 

Padnle It. marsh; a corruption of paludem, L. L.padulis. O. Sp. 
has paul (cf. Sard, pauli), paular, ¥g.paul. Wal. padure forest 

326 PAE8E — PALAIS. 

Paese It., Sp. Pg. pats (from the Fr. ?), Pr. paes, Fr. pays, from 
a form pagensis (pagus); O. Sf. pages, Pr. pages, h.h. pa- 
gensis a farm. Hence It. paesano, Sp. Pg. paisano, Fr. paysan, 
E. peasant. 

PaffUto — papa. 

Paflon — plafond. 

Pagano It. Sp., Pg. pagao, Pr. pagan pagan, Fr. paien, WaL 
p€gen, Boliom. pohan, E. pagan; from paganus, prop. = ai 
countryman, rustic; the name was given in the time of Con- 
stantine to tnose of the old creed who, to avoid persecution, 
fled to the country, cf. G. heide, O. H. G. heidan, Goth. fem. 
haithnd, E. heathen, from Goth, hatthi, E. heath. 

Pagare It., Sp. Pg. pagar, Pr. pagar payar, Fr. payer, E. /wy, 
sbst. It. Sp. Pg. Pr. paga, Fr. paie, E. pay; from pacare to 
appease, settle, cf. s. cheto. 

Paggio It., N. Pr. pagi, Fr. E. page fSp. p^i^tf from the Fr.); 
from naidCov. Brought to Italy by the Byzantines^ or Crusa- 
ders. L. L. is pagitis. 

Paglia It., Sp. paja, Pg. Pr. palha, Fr. paiile; Wal. paie straw; 
from paiea. Hence Pr. paillola bed; ^.pallet; Fr. paillasse; 
paillard lewd; Pg. espalhar to strew, scatter. 

PaiUard paiile — paglia. 

Pairar Pg. to hold out, endure a storm, distress &c., to hesitate, 
be irresolute, temporise, naut. to tack, lie to (also Sp.). Sol 
from parar to parry, though a mav become at in l*g. , cf. 
plaina, mainel, esfaimar, but from l3asque pairatu to bear, 
endure, hold out, whence the notion of temporizing &c. Com. 
paira, Piedm. paire, apaire, Gen. apajd, O. Yen. apairar to be 
at leisure (hold off from business). These It. words would 
rather support the der. from parar. 

Paisseau Fr. vineprop ; from paxillus. 

Paja — paglia. 

Palabra — parola. 

Paladino Sp. public, open, plain, O. Sp. vb. espaladinar. 0. It. 
paladino open, fair (Ciullod'Alcamo); {rom paiam, though the 
mode of formation is not clear. The Paladins of Charlemagne 
were those , whose names were public and famous , or = Pa- 
latines fpalatiumj. 

Palaftreno It., Sf.palafren, Fr. palafrei, Yr. palefroi, E. palfrey; 
from para-veredus side -horse, naQa and veredtis (cf. xagd' 
aei^Qog)^ L. L. parafredus, whence also G. pferd, O. H. G. 
pherit, O. Sax. pererd. Palafreno got its spelling, from frenum. 
Fr. has palafrenier groom. 

Palais Fr. palate. Not directly from palatum, but from palathtm^ 
in which was involved the notion of an arched roof. It. has 
il cielo delta bocca, Sp. el cielo de la hoca, Du. het gehemdte 


des monds, E. roof of the mouth, 6k. (y6Qavi6xog. Conversely, 

Ennius has C€Bli palatum = sky. 
Palandra It.; Sp. Pg. balandra, Fr. balandre a small ship for 

coasting; or for river or canal navigation; from L. G. binnen- 

lander ^n in/an^- trading shin). 
Palasoio It. a kind of sabre, O. Yr.palache; = B,u^^. paldsch, 

VfvA.paloSy Hxmg, palos , cf. BavtiT. plotzen. 
Palco — balco. 
Palefiroi — palafreno. 
Paleiron Fr. shoulder-bone: irom pala, through an Sidj. palarius, 

so = a Pr. palaird. Sp. nas paleta (also =^ palette), 
Pileto Sp. a fallow-deer. Yvom pala,^ Sf. paleta, from its flat 

shovel 'like antlers, hence its name in G. schaufel-hirsch. 
Palio It. Sp., Pr. palt, O. Fr.palipatle, ^.pall; from pallium, 

also = the woollen or silken stuff, from which paUs wer^ 

made; cf. ciclaton, O. H. G. has phellol, M. H. G. pfellel pfel- 

ler (palliolum). 
Palls — balla. 
PftlletotFr., O.Ft. palletoc, Sp.paletoque, Bret. paltdk, Burg.po/- 

toquai a clown (Fr, paltoquet); from palle-toque (hooded-coat). 
I^almiere It, Sp. palmero, O. Fr. paumier, E. palmer; qui de 

Hierosolymis veniunt, palmam ferunt. Ducange. 
^Utone It. a beggar, vagrant, Vr.paltom; hence It. paltoniere, 

Pr. O. Fr. pautonier, whence M. H. G. palianaere. For pali- 

tone from palitari (a frequentative of palari) used by Plant. 

Bacch. 5, 2, 5, and, probablv, in the vulgar speech. Cf. ciar- 
i^ione from ciarlare, castrone from castrare &c. 
Paltoquet — palletot. 
^alupdo — lordo. 

— spasimo, 
Fr., Pr. pampol; from pampinus. 

O. Fr. Pr. a piece of cloth (L. pannus, It. panno, Sp. pano), 
in O. Fr. also = something taken or seized, vb. paner, Pr. 
panar, Sp. apanar to take, seize, whence Ft. pawn and O. H. 
G.phani, O.Fns.pant a seizure (G. p/anrf a pledge, mort- 
gage), vh. penta Oc. pfdnden to distrain, pound, M.Dn. pant 
harm, loss. The Sp. verb, which also = to patch and to 
unwrap, clearly connects pan with pannus pano. Besides pan^ 
we find panir paneir, espanir espaneir espanoir espenir espenoir 
to pay penalty, espanisseur an officer of justice. Pfand &c., 
accoroin^to rott, are from L. panctum for pactum. From pan 
we have E. pane, dim. panel, Fr. panneau, It. pannello. 

^ikna — panne. 

^ftnaohe (m.) a tuft of feathers, a plume; (rom. penna, S^.pe- 
nacho, It. pennacchio. 

— banco. 


TejiolAli.ftif. pauza pancho, Fr.pansa, Fr.pfinse, ^.paunch: 
from pantcx panticis, Wal. pentece. Hence It. pandere, Sp. 
pancera, O. Vv. panchire, G. panzer. 

Pandura pandora It.; O. Sp. pandurria, Fr. pandore, Sp. aU 
biwdurria (Pg. bandnrra), bandoia, It. mandola, Fr. mandtk 
mandore a stringed instrument , banjo; from pandura pandit- 
rium, Qk. navSovQUj L. also J9an^arii$, pandorhim, accordinf: 
to some = Ilavbg dcoQov. 

Paniere It., O. Sp. panero, Pr. Fr. panier, E. pannier; fromjw- 
narium a bread-basket ^panis whence also paueierie, E. /Mm/ry 
and pantlerj. 

Panne Fr. whence Sp. p««a velvet, O. Fr. />«t^, Pr. pennepena, 
0. Sp. />677a fur; from penna a translation of the M. H. Q.fc- 
dere (feather) which was used for both pluma and penna. 

Panneau — pan. 

Pannoochia It., Sp. panoja; from panucula (Fest.) panucla (Kon.) 
{or pantcula a tuft, panicle fpanusj. 

Panse — pancia. 

Panser — peso. 

Pantalone It. a character on the Italian stage, Fr. paniahn, £. 
pantaloon y also =: a garment worn by him; the name was 
brought from Venice, where pantaione (a common Christian 
name, L. Pantaleon, Gk. JJavxakiGiv) was used as a nickname. 

Pantano It. Sp. Pg. marsh, swamp; L. L. pantanum. Perhap 
from Ttdrog Ttdrrjfia with n inserted as lupantofola. TheLomD. 
has palta (Piedm. pauia), paltau = pantano, which may be a 
corruption oi polta pap {irovi p%ds), for poltiglia = paita and 
polta, Rh. pantan = pidtan. 

Panteler — pantoh. 

Pantofola pantafola It., Wal. pantofle, S^.paniuflo, Fr. panioufle 
(i.) a slipper. The first part is , perhaps , patte a foot , sinc^ 
torms are foimd without the w, Du. patttfel, VxeAm. patofle; 
in the sense of a man of awkward, shuffling gait, Genev.jw- 
toufle, Roue. Norm, paiouf, Fr. pafaud. The Cat. has by a 
false ieriv.planiofa (piantaj. The termination is prob.the same 
as in a glove from manupula (v. manopoia), as/ow- 
defle horn fundibulum , ef. Fr. emmitoufler (amictus?) to muffle. 

Pantois Fr. breathless, sbst. Pr. pantais, Val. pantaix, Cat. pan- 
tcx breathlessness, Pr. also = distress; vb. O. Fr. panteiser, 
Pr. pantaisar, panteiar, N. Pr. pantaiged, Val, pantaixar, Cat. 
pfl/i/^ojflfr to be breathless , distracted, Fr. //^/t^oime;}/ asthma, 
panteler to cough. From E. pant, which from W.pantu to press 
down, pant pressure (akin to Sk. root pad panth to go, tread), 
■ From the Pr. the O. It. has vb. pantasare, Ver. pantesar, Ven. 
pantezare, Crcm. panselaa (for pant aselaa) = Fr. panteler. 
Pantorrilla Sp., Fg. panturrtlha calf of the leg; prop. = little 


belly from pant -ex, for pantig-orra; cf. Cat. ventrell de la 

cama, L. venter cruris, Gk. yaaxQO-xmjfiiov , Kh. vantrigl 


Ft. E., from papa, whence It. Sip. papa used for the native 

babbo and tatta. The same word is the It. Sp. Vg. papa, Fr. 

pape, E. pope. The L. papa pappa also =It. pappa, Wal. 

pap^, Sp. Pg. papa, O. Fr. popm papette, E. ^«/?, L. It. /?«/?- 

pare to eat pap = Sard, papai to eat (generally). It. pappo 

= bread, Sp. Pg. papo a morsel, also fowl's crop or craw 

(also papera), dewlap of oxen &c., Ven. Crem. papota papa 

fleshy cheeks, papon papoto fat, fleshy, Sp. papudo double- 
chinned, also It. paffuto z= papoto. Sic. haffit, cf. Pic. Norm. 

empafer to fill. The notion of crop may be partly from L. 

papula pimple, swelling, which in Sp. = tumour on the neck, 

in It. = swelling. 
Pape It. an interj. = L. jt^apa?, Gk. nanaC\ so Occ. babai = Gk. 

fiafiaif L. babee. 
Fapero It. gosling, cf. Sp.parpar to quack or cackle; an ono- 

matopoeion. Diefenbach compares the N. Gk. nanCa a duck. 

Cf. Sp. paparo a simpleton , clown. 
Papier Fr. (E, paper) not directly from papyrus but from an adj. 

papyrius, so for papur. The Sp. papel is from the sbst. 
PappagaUo It., Sp. Pg. papagayo, Pr. papagai, O. Fr. papegai 

papegaut, E. popinjay, M. Gk. TtaTtaydg, N. Gk. TtandyaXXog. 

From papa priest and Fr. geai, E. jay (or gallus). The Ar. 

babbagM is from the Rom., cf. Ar. -^o^rflr^=Hippocrates. Cf. 

Fappalardo It., Ft. papelard a hypocrite; prop, one who affects 

to be abstemious , 'but is , secretly, fond of bacon (pappe-lard). 

Other It. expression^ are badapile (kiss -pillar), stropiccione 

(besom, as sliding about on his knees), graffiasanti (saint- 

clawer), tordcollo (neck- twister). 
P&que — pasqua, 
Paquet paquete — pacco. 
Par Fr^rep., O. Fr. also per; from L. per, It. O. Sp. 0. Pg. Pr. 

per, Wal. pre. The O. Fr. par in trop par dure too too hard &c., 

is the \j2^,.per in perdoctus, cf. Ter. Andr. 3, 2, 6. per ecastor 

scitus = perscitus. 
Par Fr. in the form de par le rot in the king's name = part, as 

it was also written in O. Fr. 
Para — por. 
"P^OBfe (m.) Fr. a flourish with the pen in signatures &c. ; from 

Ok. nagdyQatpog itaQaygaqnj. 
Paraggio It., Pr. paratge, Fr. parage birth, lineage; prop. 
W equality of birth , from par, whence E. disparage. 
Paragone It., S^. paragon parangon , O. Fr.parangon, F.para- 


gon prop. = comparison. It is from the Span, para con: e.g. 
la criatura para con el criador, not from the Greek. 

Farangon — paragone. 

Parapet parapluie parasol — parare. 

Parare It.; Pr. parar to hold out, stn^tch forth, Sp./Mrrorin 
parar mienfes anhnum advertere; also It. Fr. = E. parry, Sf. 

■ to stop, leave otf, prevent. From the L. parare to prepaR 
were derived the notions (1) of holdinj:^ forth (prop, keeping 
in readiness) (2) of holding off, keeninji^ off, parrying (prop, 
^larding, protect in«^, cf. defendcre). From the notion of 
guarding we get It. para -petto, whence Fr. E. parapet; from 
that of warding off, It. para-sole, Fr. E. parasol. It. paravaUo 
&c., Fr. parapluie. Hence also It. rijHirare, Sp. reparar(E. 
repair) remedy, take care of, sbst. riparo reparo, E. repair 

Clace of defence; It. comperare comprare, Wal. ctmpera to 
II v; Sp. Pg. Pr. emparar amparar (cf. Sp. embroilar amM- 
lar) to take seize , Fr. s'emparer to make oneself master of, 
It. imparare (like apprendere) to learn; Fr. se remparer to in- 
trench oneself, sbst. rempart, E. rampart; It. sparare, Sp. rftf- 
parar to discharge (agiin). It. parare = also to make ready, 
adorn, Fr. parer (E. pare), whence parata, parade. 

Parbleu Fr., O. Fr. parbieu, for par dieu with a common disguis- 
ing of the sacred name, cf. Sp.pflr diohre ^= dios), Yr.moHfleu. 

Parce — cid. 

Parchemin Fr., E. parchment; from pergatnena, (charta), Gk. 
negyafirjvrj , Pr. parguamina &c., O. Fr. parcamin with an 
umiaual change of the g into c, hence parchemin. 

Parco It., Sp. Pg. parque, Pr. pare pargue, N. Vr. pargou, par- 
gadOy pargagi, Fr. pare (E. park) whence Fr. parqvet, vb. 
parquer. L. L. has parcm parricus, O. H. Gr. pfam'ch pferrichj 
G. pferch, A. S. pearrxic pearroc, Gael, pdirc, W. pare and 
parwg. The Rom. words are derived from the Celtic, and the 
root is found in the 'Sk. prich conjungcre, in the causative = 
coliigare. Pare = enclosure, cf. noQxog a fishing-net, jrd(>xi}^ 
a hoop, W. perced a bow -net. 

Pardo Sp. Pg. dark -coloured, gray. From pallidas palduspar- 
dus; cf. escarpelo from seal pel Itan, surco from stdctts; for the 
transition of meaning, cf. (). H. G. bleich pallidus (O.E. WtfAr) 
with A. S. bide pallidus, niger, black, Gk. nikXog with nolyi^' 
From pardo comes pardal gray sandpiper, cf. Rh. grischm, 

Parecchio It., Sp. parejo, Fr. pareil like, Wal. sbst. p&redckt 
peer ; dim. from par, L. L. pariculus. It. plur. parecchi = 
several, prop. = several things of the same kind. Hence It. 
vb. apparecchiare, Sp. aparejar, Pr. aparelhar, Fr. appareilleTf 
prop. = to pair (so still in Fr.), hence to combine, put together, 
prepare, apparel; sbst. apparecchio &c. 


Pareil parejo — parecchio. 

Farelle Fn a plant; rumex, Xdna^ov, Sp.paradeia; fromprfl- 
ium, cf. Hor. ^'herba lapathi prata amantis'\ 

Paresse — pigrezza. 

Pargolo pargoletto (or parvolo parvoletto, v. R. 6r. 1, 187. 

Farias Sp., Pg. parens (f. plur.) tribute paid by one prince or 
state to another; from L. joflria equivalent , return, payment, 
cf . par pari respondere == pariare to pay, pay tribute. 

Parier Fr. to bet, to wager, L. lu. pariare to make like, prop, 
to set like against like, Pr. pariar = to divide, share equally, 
V. preced. 

Pariar pariare parier — parola. 

Panni — mezzo. 

Parven Pr., O. It. parvente evident, Pr. parven, parvensa, It. par- 
venza appearance; from parere parens, v inserted to distin- 
guish it from parens a parent. 

Paroisse — parrocchia. 

Parola It., Sn. paiabra, Pg. palavra (E. palaver), O.Pg. paravoa, 
Pr. O. It. O. Sp. paratiia, Fr. parole; from parabola a parable, 
speech, word (so in early L. L.). It took the place of the L. 
verbum which , from religious scniples , was sparingly used 
(It. Sp. verbo, O. Sp. vierbo, Pr. verbi, Rh. vierpj; the Wal. 
vorbi (f. as O. It. verba), however = parola. Vb. It. pariare, 
Sp. Pr. pariar, Fr. parier (E. parly, parliament), O. Fr. paro- 
ler, L. L. parabolare, Fr. parloir in a nunnery = E. parlour. 

Parpado Sp. eye-lid; a corruption oi palpebra, Fr. paupiere &c. 

Parpaglione It., Vv. parpalhd, homh. parpaj parpaja butterfly; 
a corniption of papilio. Hence It. sparpagliare , Pr. espar- 
paJhar, O. Fr. esparpeiller, Fr. eparpiller, Sp. desparpajar to 
flutter, scatter; so N. Pr. esfarfalha from farfalla (q. v.) 
^=parpalhd. Other names are: 1\. farfalla, SslyA. faglie fa- 
rina , parabaiola , calagasu, Sp. mariposa, alevilla, Bresc. bar- 
bel, Pg. borboleta, Rh. buila, Lorr. bonble &c. 

Parque — parco. 

Parrain Fr. godfather, Vr.pairin, Sp.padrino&c, h.h.palri- 
nus. It would be more correctly written parrin. 

Parrooohetto It., Sp. periquito, Fr. perroquet, E. parroquet, par- 
rot. Prop. = priestling, from parochus, these birds being 
chiefly kept by ecclesiastics. The Sp. simple form perico, 
however, = Peterkin and parrot, is not from parochus, but is 
one of iiie many instances of names of men transferred to 

ParrooohJa It., Sp. Pr. parroquia, Fr. paroisse, E. parish; L. L. 
parochia a corruption (the spelling from parochus) of TCaQOixCa 
(parcecia in Augustine, Yv. paroisse) y v. Duq. parochia. 

332 PART — PA88EGG1ABE. 

Part Pr. prep, for Lat. ultra ^ trans; from pars in the sense if 
district, side. 

Partigiana It., O. Val. partcsana, Fr. perfwsane, E. partisn; 
Ral)(»lais ha^ part?usanej so partuisane borrowed, probably, iti 
spellin|j; from pertuis pertuiser to bore. The masc. partvn 
= the chief of a troop of light -armed (It. partigiana, E. par- 
tisan) and prob. gave tlie name to the weapon , cf. It. giMi 
from Pr. gelda infantry. It. mugavero, Sp. gineta lance from 
ghwte horse -sohlier, It. rubalda helmet from rtibaido. 

Partire It., Sp. Pr. Fr. pardr to depjirt, with and without the 
pronoim, orig. only with it (O. Fr. se par(ir); from partiri , 9t 
par tin to parf. 

Parvis Fr., O. ¥». parvise the fore -court or atriiim of a chard 
usually surroimded with cloisters, the cloister -garth. From 
paradisus (para'is paravis parvis cf. gravir, emblaver, pawot, 
R. Tir. 1, 164), ^CR^. paraviso, It. paradiso = Gk. xaQadei^ 

fark. Many towns m England which had monasteries have s 
'aradise street. The Cloister -garth at Chichester is called 
the Paradise, at Chester the Sprise 'gsrden. The same word 
is used for the area in front of any large public building, e.g. 
Westminster Hall ; cf . Chauc. Cant. Tales (Pro!.). "A Sei^giint 
of law ware and wise, that often had been at tine Pervise^. 

Pas Fr. as a complement of the negative; from passus: je ne rw 
pas = non video passum not a step. 

Pasa Sp., Pg. passa raisin ; from xwa passa. 

Pasmo — spasimo. 

Pasqua It., Sp. Yr.pascua, Fr. pdgue EsLster y Lat. pascha (^h. 
from Ileb. pcsech he crossed). The notion of feasting after ai 
long fast connected itself with pascua, hence the u; pascA 
would have given pdche. Pr. O. Fr. pascor spring is formed 
like nadalor (Jhristmas. 

Pasquino It. the name of a statue at Rome , to which lampoons 
were affixed, hence Fr. pasquin buflFoon, Sf.pasquin, Itpaf- 
quilto a lampoon. 

Passamano It., Sp. pasamano, Fr. passemeni fringe, border, trim- 
ming. Sp. pasamano = also baluster, porque pasamos par e! lo 
mann (Covarr.), whence it was applied to any fringe. Al. from 
passer because of the motion of the hand in netting. The G. 
has posament Tfrom the Fr.) lace, Swed./^flwiwaw, Yiung. paszmA 
paszomdn , Pol. pasaman. 

Passare It., Sp. pasar, Pg. Pr. passar, Fr. passer, Wal. peso, E. 
pass. Often transitive and so better from pandere as freq. in 
sense of opening, passing through (cf. pandere m(enia &c. and 
spassare = expandere) than directly from passus, which gives 
passeggiare, Sip.pasear. 

Passeggiare — passare* 


Pasaement — passamano. 

Pasta It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. pdte, E. paste; from pastus, influenced 

hy pastiilus, op. plasta being formed Sifter plasma. Hence It. 

pastelio, Sp. Fr. pasiel a crayon, Sp. pastilla, Fr. pastille; Fr. 

appdt bait; pi. appas charms. 

Pastoooliia It. a tale; from pasto, darpasio to allure with words. 

Pastoja It. a shackle for cattle at pasture, L. L. pastorium. 
Hence It. past wale, Fr. pdturon, E. pastern cf. fetlock, in G. 
fessel; vb. It. impastoiare , Fr. empetrer for empiturer to fetter 
(E. pester). It. pastoiare, Fr. depitrer to unshackle. 

Patan patrtilla — /^a^dr. 

Patata batata Sp. Pg., E. potatoe a word of American origin. 
Pataud — patta. 
P&te — /?a5//i. 

Pateoa Sp. pumpkin, water-melon; from Ar. hftichah, Pg. also 
albudieca, Cat. albudeca. Hence also Sp. Pg. hadea. 

Patin — patta. 

Patio Sp. Pg., Cat. N. Pr. pati hall or court. According to Sousa 
an Airican word, pathaton. 

Patois Fr.; cf. ^oMchi pati- pata chattering, Ya. patter; an ono- 

Patrana Sp., Pg. patranha a story; iov patarraiia from Cat. pa- 
iarra wn. from pata a goose, cf. preced. 

Patta Crem., N. Pr. pata a flap, Com. a foot, Sp. Cat. pata, Fr. 
patte a foot, paw, Sp. patear to treat; Sp. pato pata, Alb. pate 
a goose; Fr. pataud a turnspit (with broad feet); Sp. patan u 
clown: It. pattino, Vr. patin a skate, E. patten. Not, prob., 
from Gk. itdrog naxetv^ but an onomatop. like G. patschen. 

Pattino — patta. 

Pattuglia It., Sp. patrulla, Fr. patrouille, E. patrol; vb. Sp./?fl- 
trullar patullar, Fr. patrouiller to patrol. Also to stir any 
soft substance with hand or foot , also patouiller = E. paddle, 
patouille = puddle , patrouille a pot ladle, li is inserted, the 
root being pa/ to tread, cf. patta; cf. Rou. patoquer patroquer 
patriquer patouger. Champ, patoiller platrouiller. 

PfttOTon — pastoia. 

Pauznier pauxnoier O. Fr. to seize; from palma hand. Hence 

also Sp. palmear, Fr. paumer, L. L. palmare to slap with the 

hand fpaumej. 

Paupidre — parpado. 

Paasare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pausar, Fr. pauser, E. pause; from the 
late Lat. pausare. In trans, as well as intrans. sense we have 
It. posare, Sp. posar (sbst. posada resting-place, inn), Fr. 
poser (Prov. only pausar). Hence It. riposare, Sp. reposar. 



P^. repousar, Pr. repmisar, Fr. repaser, E. repose. But Fr. Iff- 
poaer, disposer, ejcposer, imposer, proposer are from deponereitt 
forinod on tho analogy oi pausar, for Pr. has de'pausar&Cf^ 
prop. Lat. fonn being only found where the simple yerbie 
us<'a in its Lat. sense; of. It. diporre, Sp. deponer &c.; theft, 
and Pr. pondre is only used in the restricted sense of ''Ujing 

Fautonier — paltone. 

Paver Fr., E. pave; {rom pavt're with change of conj. as in iouaer, 

Pavose palvese It., Sp. paves, ¥r. pavois large shield , Wal.jpf- 
veze, llxing. pais, Boh. pa weza. From Pavia, c£. pistoiesi km 

Pavilion — padiglione. 

Pavois — pavese. 

Pavot Fr. poppy. From papaver, the seeming reduplication 1»- 
ing droppoa and the term, changed, cf. Treves from Trenri; 
of. A. ^, papiff, popig, F,. poppy, ^V.pabi. The Horm.mahm 
is the O. H. G. mdgo, M. H. G. mdhen, G. mohn. 

Paxaro KSp., Pg. passaro, Wal. pasSre bird; from passer, with «r 
tor er, cf. passer non passar App. ad Probum, so anser nun 
ansar, bnt Sp. arisar; camera, non cammara, Sp. camara. 

Payon — patjuno. 

Payer - - pagare. 

Payla — /^o^'/f (l). 

Pays paysan — paese. 

Pazzo It. Hiad, furious, vb. pazziare. From O. H. G. barzjen 
parzjan, M. IT. O. harzen to be furious, cf. cucuzza fromnr- 
rurbita, gazzo = Sp. garzo, pesca from persica, dosso bom 
dorsum So.', lienc(»> it. slrapassare, Sp. estrapar, Fr. estrapasstr. 
sfrapasser, sl>st. strapasso, 

Peage — pedaggio. 

Peason O. Fr., Pr. j[>ear() foundation, base; L. Lt.pedatio from 
pedare to support. 

Pec O. Fr. feni. peque pecque (Moli^re), Fr. pec pegua^ Fg.peco. 

B. />^r/i stupid; from /y^'rw.v which is so used even in CW. 

Pecca It., Vr. prra pec fault, Sj). ;/^r«, Pg. peco speak; from 

Pecchia — ape. 
Pecchiero — hicchiere. 
Peche — persica. 

Pechina Sp. a sort of mussel , from pecten. 
Pecho pecha Sp., Vg. peiio peita tax, contribution, xh.pechar 

peitar to pay tiix; from pactum. 

Pecilgar — pellizcar. 


Pecora It. (f.) sheep, Wal. pecure; from pecora, orig. used as a 

collective ; cf. E. sheep. 
Peoorea — picorer. 
Pe9onha — pozione. 
Pedaggio It., Sp. peage, Fr. peage toll (paid by passengers); 

from pes pedis. 
Pedante It. Sp. Pg., Fr. pedant y E. pedant. Pedanti = quegli 

che avevano cura deifancMti insegnando loro e menandogli fuora 

(Varchi); from naiSsveiv whence a L. L. yh. pcedare. 
Pedaso Sp. Pg. a piece; from pittacium, pitacium a piece of paper, 

cloth ac. Cf. also Pr. pedas, Occ. petas, Fr. rapetasser (to 

patch). Y.pezza. 
Pedone It., S]^.peon, Fr. peonpezon, Fr.pion foot- soldier, E. 

pawn; from a form pedo (pes). Hence Pr. pezonier, O. Fr. 

peonier, Fr. pionnier, E. pioneer. Fr. pieton requires a L. pe- 

dito (irova pedes, L. h. peditarej. 

Sp. Pff. Pr. to cement, fasten, empegar empeguntar (comp. 

with untar) to pitch, apegar to adhere; from picare. Fr. poisser 

empoisser directly from pixpicis. It. impeciare = Fr. empoisser, 

empeser (sbst. empois); impegolare = Pr. empegar; appicciare 

impicciare appiccare to adhere, impiccare to hang up, spiccare 

to detach, not from piccare, cf. appiccare to take root = Sp. 

pegar; pice ior pec (Lat./?fc) was perhaps through the influence 

of the G. pichen. 
— pelago. 
Peigne peine — pettine. 
PeindreFr. to paint; irom.pingere, It. pignere, hnt S^. pintar, 

E. paint. 
Pfiljo Pg. impediment, yh. pejar, pejada pregnant (cf. Sp. emba- 

razada); from pedica with change of gender as in Fr. piege; 

for the j cf . Sp. mege from medcm. 
Pelago It., Sf.pielago, Fg.pego, Vr.peleg (peleagre) sea, high 

sea, main, vb. Cat. empelegar; from peiagus which inL. L. 

and Romance involved the notion of deep, fathomless water 

(Pg. pelago well). 
Pelare It., Sp. Pg. Fr.pelar, Fr. peler to pluck hair, peel; from 

Ptte-mdle Fr. (E. pell-mell); the 0. Fr. is mele-pele, mSle is 

clear enough but the second member, as usual in rhymed 

words of this kind (cf. tire-lire, chari-vari &c.) is difficult; is 

it O. Fr. paesle a pan, or pelle a shovel? Burg, paule-matde = 

earth thrown up. 
Pelear Sp., Pg. pelejar, Pr. peleiar to fight, struggle, sbst. pelea 

&c. From TcalaiBiv or from L. paltis (fencing stick)? 
Pelerin — pellegrino. 
Pelfre O. Fr. hoot j, pelf er to plunder; F.pelf, pilfer. 


Pelisse — j>eliiccia. 

Felitre — pilatro. 

Pella 8p. P^. ball, mass; ivovi pXla , which is not found ind» 

otiior lioin. langiiayos. Sp. pila, Pg. pilha, Fr. pile, 

comes trom plia a pillar. 
Fella — poelr. 
Pello Fr. shovol, K. j^eel; from ;?flf/«. It, Sp. Pr. pala. Hence It 

palrtta &c., palette. 
Polleja Sp. harlot; from pettis pcUicula in which sense it is ab 

iis(mI , c'f. srortiim. J*ellex would have given pellega. 
Pellegrino It., Pr. pelegrin pelerin, Fr. peierin, pUgrim; (pwb 

pncfjrinuSy Sp. peregrino. From the Koni. come E. G. pSghm. 

Pelliccia It., Pg. pellissa, ¥r. pelisse, Yu, pilch ^ O. H. Q, pdliz^ 

( I. pe/z; from adj. pelUceus pellicea. Hence Pr. sobrepelifz, Fr. 

surplis for sur pelts, E. surplice, 
Pellizcar pecilgar Sp., Pg. bellizcar to pinch; from pdlis, ct 

(). Fr. pelirer {from pellis, ^i. jyelicon) to pull. 

Pelmazo Sp. slow, dull; usu. derived from niXfia the sole of the 

foot, so, perhaps, orig. = heavy -treading, cf. Fr. paitnd 

from patte, 
Pelota pelote — pillotta, 
Polouse — prhicfie. 
Peltro It., Sp. Pe;. peltre, O. Fr. peaut re, Du. peaufer, E. petcter, 

Prrhai)s from rr. em-peltar to stuff, graft, mix (tin with lead 

or quicksilver). 
Peluoa — pilluccnre. 
Peluche Fr. (f.) a stuff composed of linen and earners hair. 

plush; from It. pvlvccio, peluzzo (pilus). Sp. is pelusa down ou 

fruit, nap of cloth, O. Sp.peluza, Cat. pehissa. From same 

root is Fr. pelouse , Lim. peleii, 

Penca Sp. Cat. prickly, sharp - pointed leaf, also lash; a Celti«' 
word, W. pine point, E. pink. 

Pencher Fr. to hang, slope, Pr. penjar pengor, O. Sp. pitijur: 
from pemlicare fpendrrej, 

Pendoloque — loque. 

Pendice It. slope, declivity; formed, on the analogy oi appen- 
dice, irom pendcre, O. Fr. pendant a hill. 

Pendon - - pennone, 

Penil — peltine. 

Penna It. peak of a mountain, Sp. peha, Vg. penha rock; fn^ni 
pinna a pinnacle, Vwpena, Fr. pignon, W.pignone; Fr. pinoek, 
K. pinnacle from pinnaculum. The Celt, pen head, top, woulJ 
have formed masc. derivatives. 

Pennone It., Sp. pendon, Pr. peno, Fr. E. pennon; O. Sp. = 


jamer. From penna feather; for Sp. d cf. pendola pen from 
nuia; so It. peyinoncelio = both streamer and plume. 

kr pensare penser — peso. 

Fr. slope ; iorpende as iente for tende; from pendere. Hence 
uente. Ci. It. pentoia, F,. pent -house. 

la It. a pot to hang over the fire; from pendtdus (Ii.j)en' 


>lo — pentola. 

— penna. 

— pedone. 
pepita — pipita. 

I Fr. a corn or grain, pepiniere nursery -garden. Some 
ive it from pepo (O. Fr. pepon, It. popon^ so = orig. a 
ipion or cucumber seed (Sp. pepino). Cf. It. pipita, Sp. pe- 
: seed , kernel , pip. Pepo is from tne Gk. ninav ripe. 

3no — piccolo. 

T — pertugiare. 

le Fr. a pole; L. pertica, Sp. Pg. percha, E. perch. 

b — cid. 

ce pemice It., Sp. Pr. perdiz, Fr. perdrix, E. partridge; 

n perdix. 

ix — per dice. 

•51 — petrosellino. 

a — pigrezza. 

Eur — profilare. 

mo It. a pulpit , stage ; from pergamum a tower. 

uito — parrocchetio. 

ursi It. to be ashamed. In Crem. Ven. Mil. peritare perita 

rate, tax, /?m^o valuer. Perhaps frompawriVare iterative 
murire (in spaurire), an being changed irregularly into e, 
IS to take the form of the O. L. peritare. But it may, bet- 
. be connected with the Sp. apretarse (v. prieto). 

It. Sp. Pr., Pg. perola fperiaj, Fr. perle, cf. O. H. G. pe- 

1 berala, A. S. E. pearl, Nor. perla, L. L. pertdus peruia, 
a, used instead of the L. unio. The trisyll. form seems 
orig. one, cf. Ven. perolo, L. L. peruia. The derivations 

3n are (l) piritia (from pirum, It. Sp. pera) cf. Sp. perilla 
ament in the shape of a pear (2) pilula a globule (Ven. pi- 
r) (3) pema mussel (v. Ducange), cf. Neap. Sic. pema = 
a, it. pernocchia motner-of-pearl, but these may have con- 
ned themselves to perna, (4) from G. berala (a corruption 
berylltis or a dim. of beere a berry, cf. baca). This is 
mm's conjecture, and seems the most likely. The Wal. is 
oe — perdice. 



Pemo It. Sp. Pg. hasp; bolt, hhiffe, Sp.pernfo hingc^ Tr.perrm 
a Hight ot Btairs *, according to Menage from perna, bnt cf. Gk. 

Pero It. Pr., Sp. O. Pg. pero, O. Fr. poro poruec for Lat igitar, 
sed , auteni , from per hoc and pro hoc the former used bj 
Apuloius and otliors for proptcrca. Hence Sp. empero, Pr. a- 
pero; It. perocche, L. L. per hocque. 

Perol Sp. a pan, large kettle, Vt. patrol; (rom paiina, 'whenot 
patin-ol patnd patrol (cf. engre for engne), patrol, 

Perola — perla. 

Perpunte — povrpoini, 

Perro Sp. dog (adj. = stubborn), Sic. perru, Diez gives no 
derivation, but connects it with the L.L. petrwwuius canis. h 
it from tlie Celtic? Perro is a common name for a dog in Wales. 

Perron — pemo. 

Perroquet — parrocchetto. 

Perruoa perruque — piluccare, 

Persa It. marjoram, N. Gr. xe(^a\ from 7CQd6ov a leek. 

Persioa pesca It., Sp. persigoprisco, with Ar. art. aij)ersko, at- 
berchige (Ar. al-bersq), Pg. pecego, alj^erchi, Pr. presega, Fr. 
piche, E. peach, WvA. pearsece; It. persico, pesco (Sp. melttcit 
ton), Pg. peceguetro, Fr. pesseguier, Fr.pecher, Waf, pearsec: 
from persicum, persicm. 

Persil — petrosellino. 

Per so It., Pr. O.Fr. O. E. pers dark, of a colour between puqJe 
and black; L. h. persus perseus ^^adpersei malt colorem ticce- 
dens^^ Ducange. 

Pertugiare It., Pr. pertusar, Fr. percer (whence E. pierce and 
Sic. pirciari) = pertuisier; It. sbst. pertugio, Fr. periuis a hole; 
from pertundere pertusus (pertmiare pertusiumj. 

Pertuis — pertugiare. 

Pertuisane — partigiana. 

Pesca — persica. 

Pesouezo Sp., Pg. pescoco nape of the neck; irorxi post (ct.pesio- 
rejo) and cuezo (v. cocca), so = hind -cask, cf. i^sita. 

Peso It. Sp. Pg., Pr. pens pes, O. Fr. poix, Fr. poids (a fonn 
which points to pondus), E. poise, irom penswn. Vb. It pesare, 
Sp. Pg. Pr. pesar, Fr. peser, poise; Sp. apesgar to overload; 
SLiao pensare , pensar pessar (Pr.) penser to think, from pensare, 
and with a different spelling, Fr. panser to attend upon, nur&o. 
dress woimds &c., cf. L. pensare sitim to satiate thirst. 

Pestana — pest are. 

Pestare It., Sp. pistar, Pr. pestar, also Sp. pisar, Pg. Pr. pizar. 
Fr. piser, Wal. pisa to stamp, tread, bray. The forms with .</ 
must be referred to L. pistus (It. pesto) fi)r pinsitiis, those witli 
s to pisare (Varro). Hence It. pest a, Sp. pista, Fr. piste tracJc, 


tread^ whence li. pistagna, Sf.pestana, Vg.pesiana fringe (track 

or stripe on cloth), in Sp. Pg. also eyelash, cf. Cic. /hnbria = 

end of locks of hair. Hence also It. pestone, Fr. E. piston. 
Pestillo Sp., Cat. pest ell bolt. Perhaps from pes-tt-illo (cL 

cabr-it-illo) for pesillo from pessulus, the form being varied 

so as to avoid confusion with pesillo a small weight, or so 

as to resemble j9/5/t7/f/m Si pestle. 
Pestorejo Sp. nape; from post (puest pest) and oreja ear, cf. pes- 

Pesuna Sp. hoof; from pedis ungula. 
Petaoa Sp. portmanteau, wallet; from MesicsLU petlacalli. 
Petardo It. Sp., Fr. E. petard; a coarse military word, from 

peto, pet, L. peditum. Hence Fr. pe'tiller. 
Petate Sp. rush -mat; from Mexican petlatl. 
Petecchie It., Sp. petequias, Fr. petechies (all plur.) fever-spots; 

a word introduced by physicians immediately from the Gk. 

nmaKiov, not from L. pittacium. 
P^iller — petardo. 
Petisoar — pito. 
Petit — pito. 
Peto Sp. breast -plate; from It. petto, L. pectus. From pectorale 

we have It. pettoraie, Sp. petral, Fr. poitral (also = dewlap), 

E. poitrel, petrel. 
Petrina — poitrine. 
Pdtrir Fr., Pr. pestrir to knead; from a form pisturire (pistura, 

pinsere), cf. cintrer from cinctura, accoutrer from ad-consuiura, 

It. scaltrire from scalptura. 
Petrosellino petrosemolo prezzemolo It., Sp. perexil, Fr. persil, 

parsley (= A. S. peterselige, G. petersiliej ; from petroselinum. 
Pettine It., Sp. peine, Fg.pente, Vr.penche, Fr. peigne comb; 

from pecten; vb. pettinare &c. Hence Fr. pe'nil (for peignit) 

groin, crines circa pudenda, Juv. pecten, It pettignone , Sp. 

empeigne, Gk. xxaCg, 
Peu Fr. adv., in O. Fr. also an adj. poies choses &c.; (rom pan- 

cus, Pr. pauc, It. Sp. poco. 
Pear Fr., O. Fr. paour fear; from pavor, It. paura. 
Pdvera It. also petriola. Mil. pidria, Romagn. pidarja. Com. pie- 

dria, Ven. impiria a wooden funnel; from impletorium? 
— picciuolo. 
peszo It., Sp. pieza, Pg. peca, Pr. peza pessa, Fr. piece, 

E. piece4 L. L. petium petia = a piece of land. Diez derives 

it from niia a foot, edge, border (cf. petiolus =pezzuolo, v. 

picciuolo). The contraction from Sp. pedazo, would, he savs, 

be too harsh. But another derivation which he mentions, tnat 

from the W. peth, Bret, pez, Gael, peos (whence a Lat. pethia, 

petia), seems more probable. 




Pessente pesiente It. beggar; from peiiens for petens^ cf. ca^ 

giente from cadien$ for cadem, reggente for videns. Cf. Pg. 

Fhiole Fr. a vial: fnmi phiala, It. fiala, Pied, fioia. 
Piaggia spiaggia It., Sp. Pr. play a, Pg. praia, Fr. /»//i^<> shore. 

L. L. pfagia, from i^iaga a region (It. piaggia), 
Pialla It. a carpenters plane , piaiiare to plane; for plantda 

planulare, from planus pianare, cf. lulia from itmtda. PiaUe 

also = adze, axe (for hewinc), and this points to the 0. G. 

piul, G. beii, E. bill; another form is pioia. 
Fianca Piedra. a plank for a bridge, Pr. pianca pJanchOy Fr. 

planche, plank, whence Sp. plancha a olate of metal, Pg. 

prancha a board; from pianca (Festus ana Palladias). It. Sp. 

Pg. palanca a pole, lever, is from palanga, Pie. pdangw, 

W al. pelanc, 
Piara Sp. herd ; from pecuaria. 

Piare It., Sp. piar (Fr. piailler), to chirp; an onomatopoeion. 
Piastra It. plate of metal, Sp. &c. piasfra, piastre; O-Fr. plaistre 

pavement, ceiling, Fr. pldlre stncco, plaster; It. piasirane, Pg. 

piastrdo, Fr. E. plastron; It. piasfrello. From emplastrum (ifi- 

jrAacyrpoi;) a surgical plaster, It. empiasiro, Fr. empidirty Sp. 

emplasto = Gk. ifinXa6tov, From plastrum (by rejection of 

the initial^ was formed vb. lastricare to plaster, sbst. lastrico 

astrico (Mil. astrich astregh, Com. astrach), L. L. asfricus, G. 

estrich. Hence also It. /a^/r/i , Sp. /ajf/rfl /fl^/ref a slab of stoue 

or metal, v. s. /^/*7o, ph. also O. Fr. astre aistre, Fr. atrr 

Piato It, Sp. pleito, Pg. pleito preito, Pr. plait plag^ O. Fr. /^/aic/, 

E. plea, law -suit, Rh. pled a word; It. piatire piateggiare, Sp. 

pleitear, Pg. preitejar, Pr. plaideiar, O. Fr. plaidier, plaidayer. 

Fr. plaider, E. plead, Rh. plidar. From L. L. placitum which 

was used = a convention for the discussion of affairs of state 

(placita habere), O. Pg. plarito, plazo prazo, Sp. piazo. 
Piatto It., Pg. Sp. cAa/o, Pr. Vr. plat flat, It. sbst. /;iV7//o, Sp. 

plato, Fr. /VflT^, plate; a root common to many languages and 

connected with Gk. jrAarv^, O. H. G. flaz. Hence alsoSp. 

Pg. plata silver, O. Fr. plate, E. plate, and ptatina; Sp. 

chata a flat -bottomed boat (It. sciatta, cf. Com. 5CfV7A/ = Sp. 

Piazza It., Wal. piatZy Sp. Pg. Pr. plaza placa plassa, Fr. E. 
place; vb. Fr. placer, E. place; from /?/<i/eflr (orilaTfra) a street. 

in Horace /?/fl/^r/, Goth, platja. It is first used by Lampridins 

= a court -yard (place). 
Picaro — picco. 
Piccino — piccolo. 
Piccione It., Sp. pichon, Pr. pijon, Fr. E. pigeon; from pipio 


(Lampridius), which is from pipare pipire, cf. Mil. pipi a little 

Ficciuolo It. stalk; Wal. picior foot; from petioltis little foot, 

stalk; Sp. pezon, Ven. picolo, Mil. ptcoU, Piedm. picol = 

Ficoo It.; Sp. Pg. picOy Pr. Fr.^pic, beak, peak &c. ; It picca, 

Sp. Pg. pica, Fr. pique pike; It. piccare, Sp. Pg. Pr. p/ctfr, Fr. 

piquer to prick. From L. picus woodpecker, Sp. pico, Fr. 

pic; of. W\ pi]^ a point, G. picken, picket, E. piicA: j^^cA: &c. It 

picchio (picuitisj = woodpecker, blow, picchiare to knock; Fr. 

/?«ro/ a pick-ayie, picoter to pick with an axe ; perhaps also Sp. 

picaro. It. piccdro a sharper. 
Piccolo It., Sp. pequeho, Pg. pequeno little, for which Pr. Cat 

Fr. have petit. From the O. Rom. pic a point (v. picco) so = 

minute Tas It. picco is used = punctum, so piccolo =punctU' 

ium). Tne Wal. jwc = drop. Alb. pice. Besides piccolo the It. 

has picciolo and piccino f^=piC'Ciolo pic-cino or pit-dolo pit-cino 

from root oi petit); N. Pr. has piccioun, Lim. pitsou, fem. /?i/- 

Pichd — hicchiere. 
Pichon — piccione. 
Picorer Fr. to prowl in quest of plunder, prop, of cattle; from 

pecus, cf. Sp. pecorea marauding. 
Pidocchio It, Sip. piojo, Pg. piolho, Vv.peoth, pezolh, Fr. pou 

gor peou) a louse; from pedictdus fpeduculusj L. L. peduclus. 
ence It spidocchiare , Sp. despiojar, Fr. e'pouiller. 

Pidce — pezza. - 

Piedestallo It, S^. pedestal , Fr. piedestal; formed with G. stal, 
V. stcUlo. 

Piegare It., Sp. Pr. plegar, Pg. pregar, Fr. plier, in comp. p/oy^ 
(E. ply, -ploy), Wal. j^/^ca to fold ; from plicare. Hence It. im- 
piegare, Sp. emplear, Pg. emplegar, Fr. employer, E. employ, 
from implicare; It. impiego, Fr. emploi, E. employ; It. spiegare, 
Pr. espleiar, Fr. deplier deployer (E. deploy) from explicare, 
de-explicare, cf. llegar. 

Pi^gefV. (m.) a snare; from pedica. It, piedica, WsA. peadece, 
masc. Pg. p^V>. 

Pier (pyerj Fr. to tipple ; from :rt£^, cf. Sp. empinar from ^fijr^- 
t/£ti^, Fr. trinquer from G. irinken. Hence pio/ a draught of 
wine, vb. Norm, pioter. 

Piema Sp. leg, Tg.pema; from pemo = the leg from the hip to 
the foot (Ennius), ham. 

Pietanzs It., Sp. Pr. pitanza, Fr. pitance (E. pittance) a monk*s 
daily allowance. The It. form had once also the meaning of 
pity, and was altered from pitanza so as to conform to pieta, 
cf. O. Pg. pitanpa = charitableness. Prob. from O. Rom. 



pite a morsel, small portion , through a verb piiare (Geno. 

pitia to pick). 
Piston — pedone, 

Fietre It. poor, needy. For piestre (rompedesiris? 
Pieu Fr, post. From palus, pal, pel, piel, pieu, cf. in O. Fr. cher 

(citrus) chier, ires tries, tel tiel tteu. As no instance of this 

process occurs in Modem Fr., Diez derives pieu from picvlvs 

piclus, so = It. picchio. 
Fieve It. district, parish, Rh. pleify It piovano, Wal. pieban a 

parish- priest; from L. L. plebs parish church, piebanus. 
Pieviale pivlale It. mantle; for piovale =pluvialis. Cf. pimaccm 

cushion = piumaccio, O. Pg. chimago and chumafo. 
Pieza — pizza. 
Pifaro piffero piflfre — pipa. 
Pigeon — piccione. 
Pigiare It. to press ; a participial verb from pinsere pinsus (pin- 

siare), cf. pertugiare from pertussis. 
Pigione It. house -rent; from pernio, Fr. pension, cf. magione 

from mansio, 
Pigliare It., Sp. pillar, Pg. Pr. pilhar, Fr. pHler to take, /w//, 

pillage; from piiare in expilare, compilare. The soft / is to 

distinguish it from It. pitlare, Fr. pUer to stamp ^ from pUa. 
Pignatta It. pot; from pinea, because the lid was shaped like a 

pi no - cone. Hence Sp. piiiata. 
Pignon pignone — pcnna, 
Pigolare — pipa. 
Pigrezza It., Sp. Pr. pereza, Pg. preguica, Fr. paresse idleness: 

from pigritia. 
Pihuela Sp. a fetter; with pic^a (cf. vihuela viola) from pes pedis; 

cl*. pi-ojo {rom pedicuitds. 
Pila — pella. 
Pilatro It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pelitre, Fr. pyreihre, E. pellitory a plant; 

from pyrethmm {nvQB^QOv). 
Pile — pella. 

Piler pillar piller — pigliare, 
PiUotta It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pelota, Fr. pelote, E. pellci (hence E. 

pelt); from pXla, L. L. pilotellus = Sp. pelotilla. Hence also 

Sp. Fr.peloton, F, platoon. 
Pilori Fr., E. pillory, Pr. espitlori, Pg. pelourinho. Due, from 

pilier, Grimm from M.H, G. pfilaere. The L.L. has pilloricum, 

pellericum, pallor ium, piliorium, spiliorium. 
Piloto It. Sp. Pg., also It. pilota, Fr. pilote, E. pilot. From the 

Du. pijloot, the origin of which is not clear. 
Piluccare It. to stone grapes , Pr. pelucar. Pic. piuquer, Norm. 

Champ, pluchotter; Fr. ephicher, Rh. spluccar to pluck out. 

From Lat. piiare with suffix uc (R. Gr. 2, 333), not from 


A. S. plvccian, E. pluck, which are from the Rom. Connected 

with pilluccare is Sard, pilucca, Lomb. peluch, Pied, pitich, 

Gen. pellucco, It. (corrupted) perruca parruca, Wb\. peroce, 

Fr. perruque, E. peruke (periwig), Occ. pamparrugo , Sp. j^e- 

luca (cf. machuca, almendmco &c.). 
Piment — pimiento. 
Pimiento pimienta Sp., P^. pimento (whence ^.pimento) pimenta 

pepper, Pr. pimenta spice, Pr. pimen, O, Fr. piment, L. L. 

pigmentum a drink maae of wine, honey, and spice, Yv. piment 

a medicine; from L. pigmentum a colouring material, hence 

juice of plants used for colouring, so anything aromatic. 
Pimpa — pipa. 
Fimpinella It., S^. pimpineia, Fr. pimpreneile, "E. pimpernel; from 

bipinella for bipennula (two- winged). The Cat. has pampinella, 

Pied, pampinela a mere corruption, for it has no connection 

with pampinus. In N. Pr. it is fraissineto, from fraisse = 

PimpoUo Sp. sucker, sprout, Pg. pmpolho; for pampinollo, a 

dim. oi pampinus, cf. sup. pampinella ior pimpinella. 
Pinaooia It., ^i^.pinaza, Yr. pinasse, Yt. pinnace; from pinus. 
Pinoer pinohar pinzo — pizza. 
Pinoione It., Sp. pinzon pinchon, Fr. pinpon. Cat. pinsd a finch. 

From W. pink (Ot. finke, E. finch) frolicksome, finch, cf. Fr. 

geai = ssiy ana jay. The Bret, has pint, Bav. pienk, Slav. 

pinka. Hung, pinty; N. Pr. quinson for pinson, Pg. pisco. 
Pino Pg. nail, point; a pino Sp. Pg. on tiptoe, cf. Sp. empinarse 

tO' stand erect (though this pino may be a diflFerent word, and 

derived irom pinus, cf. arboiarse); from E., GsLel.pinne, 

O. N. pinni, Ot. pinne. 
Pinque Fr. (f.), Sp. pinguejm.), pinco, Pg. pinque (m.), L. G. 

pinke (f.) a sort of ship, E. pink; from pinus pinica, pinca, cf. 

pinaza &c. 
Pinta Sp. Pg. paint -spot, mark, from pingere; hence also a 

marked measure for liquids, Fr, pinte, ii.pint, Wa\. pinte, 

cf . rubbio, 
Pintaoilgo 8p., Pg. pintasirgo a goldfinch ; from pictus passer- 

Pinsa — pizza. 
Pinson ••— pincione. 
Pinata — pignatta. 
Pioggia It., Sp. lluvia, Pg. chuva, Fr. pluie, WaL ploaie rain; 

from pluvia. Hence Sp. chubasco squall, cf. O. Sp. cheno from 

Pioletto It. (in Com. piolet) a little axe or bill; from the O. H. G. 

biaipial, G. beil, E. bill. 
Piombttre It. to sink perpendiculary; to iaXL plumb down, cadere 


a piombo; Pr. plombar, Fr. plonger (with suffix g = ic, plum- 
bicare y cf. venger from vindicare) a bye -form of plomber, cf. 
O. Fr. dinger, cnferger by the side of diner y etiferrer; E 
plunge (plumb, phunb); sbst. Fr. piongeon a diver. Not deriTed 
from, though connected with, Bret, piunia, W. piwng = 
Sansk. plavana (Pictet), for the der. from piumbicare is sup- 
ported by the Pic. plonquer, cf. Wall, plonc = Fr. plomh, 
plonki = plotiger. 

Fion pionnier — pedone, 

Fioppa pioppo It., Wal. plop (Alban. plepi), Wall, piopp, Pg. 
chopo choupo, Sp. popo chopo. Cat. clop, Neap, chiuppo. From 
populus, with a remarkable change of form to distinguish it 
from phpultis; L. L. plopptis, Lomb. pobbia, ^err. peuple for 
peuplier, Jura puble, Lim. piboul. 

Piomo Sp. Pg. Spanish broom; ph. tor picomo from pica a point, 
cf . pia from /?ira. 

Plot — pier. 

Fiota It. Dante Inf. 19, 120 = foot, sole, elsewhere = a grass- 
plot. From the Umbrian piotus plautus, cf. Festus : ploto$ ap- 
pellant Umbripedibus planis poeta quia Umber Sarsinas erai 

initio Piotus postea Plautus cosptus est did. . 

Fiovano — pieve. 

Flpa piva It., Sp. Pg. pipa, Pr. pimpa, Fr. pipe pipeau, Wal. 
pipe, E. pipe; from pi pare pipiare, Fr. piper (== ilUcere ave« 
pipilando, then t== cheat, espec. at cards^, whence also 0. H. 
G. pfifa, G. pfeife, E. fife, G. pfeifer which became in It /w/"- 
fcro, ?>^.pifaro, Fr. piff're emd fifre; Rh. /5/Vi. It. pivolo, FV. 
pivot tap, E. pivot are connected. Frora pipilare is IL pigolare 
for pivolare , g for «^, or, better, inserted in a iorm pioiare for 
pivolare. From pivare we have alsopiVier^, Fv.pltwier, K.plorer. 

Fipistrello It., also vipistrello, vispistrello, vespistrello a bat, from 
vespertillus for vespertilio. 

Fiplta It., Sip. pepita, Fg. pevide pivide, Pr. pepida, Fr. />«/»>, 
E. pip (in fowls); from pituita (pevita pipita, O. H. G. phiphis). 
Nearer the L. is the Mil. puida puvida. 

Fique — picco. 

Firouette Fr.; from a prunitive pive (= It. piva) •of pivot a peg, 
and roue a wheel. 

Fifl Fr. udder, O. Fr. breast, from pectus, Pr. peiiz, Lomb. pecc, 
Lim. piei (f.). 

Fisar piser piste — pestare. 

Fiseiare It., Wal. pisa, Vr. pissar, Fr. pisser; an onomatop. like 
the G. zischen, cf. Cat. pixar, N. Pr. picha, Fie. picker. 

Fistola It. Sp., Fr. pistole pistolet, E. pistol. Orig. = a dagger 
(worn secretly, like the pistol), and, according to H. Stepha- 
nus, from Pistoja, pistojese, pistolese, pistota. Others derive it 


(rom pfsiiilus , It. pestello a pestle, with a change of form, cf. 
Ven. piston peston a rifle, from It. pestone a large pestle. But 
here the change of suffix is imusual , the form should be pis- 
tuola, ol only following i as in oriolo &c. The pistole = a gold 
coin is prob. the same word, cf. Claude Fauchet (1599): ayant 
les escus d'Espagne este reduicts a une plus petite forme que les 
escus de France, ont pris le nom de pistolets (little pocket pistols), 
Fr. a clown; from pedes -itis, cf. pie'ton. 

Pito Sp. a small pointed bit of wood, O. Fr, pile a mite, Rou. 
pete a trifle, Com. pit small; hence Sf.pitorra woodcock (from 
its sharp bill). Wall, petion bee's sting, vb. fr. pilar to bill, 
Sp. apitar to instigate, O. Fr. apiter to pick with the fingers, 
Vg. petiscar to nip; "Mii.pitin small, Crem. peteen trifle, Sard. 
pitieu small. From a root pit found in W. pid = point. Hence 
O, It. pitettopetitto, Fr. Cat. Fr. petit , H.Fr.pitit, Wall pit i 
small, petty, dim. Pr. Cat. O. Fr. petitet; cf. piccolo from pic. 
Petit is for petet by an euphonic change. 

Pito Sp. a pipe, pilar to pipe; an onomatop., cf. pita a hen-call. 

Pitoooo It, a beggar, from nr(ox6g, perhaps influenced by pit 
small , cf . Lomb. piton poor. 

Pitorra — pito. 

Piva — pipa. 

PiYoine Fr., F. peony; from pceonia (xaicovia from TlauAv), It. 
Sp. peonia. 

PiYOlo — pipa. 

PiYOt — pipa. 

Pisarra Sp. Pg., Cat. pissarra slate. Perhaps from pieza piece, 
with suffix arra, cf. G. schiefer = prop, a fragment. 

Pisoa — pizza. 

Ven. pricking, itching, Sard, pizzu beak, Rh. pizza, Mil. 
pizz. Sic, pizzu, It. pinzo prick, Sp. pinzas, Fr. pince. It. pin- 
zette pincers; also It. pizzico, Sp. pizca a mite, small particle; 
Yen. pizzare. Wall, pissi, It. pizzicare, Wal, pit ziga pisca, Cat. 
pessigary N. Pr. pessugd, Sp. pizcar and pinchar, Fr. pincer 
epincer epinceler, E. pinch; Pg. piscar os olhos to wink the 
eyes. From Du. pitsen, G. pfetzen, itself from a root common 
in Rom.piV, w.pito. Others derive pinzare pifizo &c. from pirtus, 
pictiare, pinctus, pinctiare. But pingere (Sk./?/w; colorare) does 
not mean orig. to pierce, embroider? in the phrase acu pingere 
the sense of piercmg belongs to acus not to pingere. 

PisBioo — pizza. 

Placard — plaque. 

Plaoe — piazza. 

Plafond Fr. ceiling; from plat fond flat floor; hence Sp. paflon. 

Plage — piaggia. 

Plaid — piato. 


Plaindre Fr., O. E. plain; from plangere, Pr. plonker, iLpkh 

gnere, Sp. plnnir. 

Flais plaiBsa Pr. hedge, O. Fr. plaissier plessier to hedge, Pr. 
partic. as sbftt. plaissat, O. Fr.piessie, also Pr. plQissaditz , 0. 
Fr. plcisseis a park, Fr. Piessis; from plexus plexa twisted, so 
plats = basket- work. 

Planohe — pianca. 

Plaque Fr. plate, vb. plar/uer, sbst, placard; from Du. piak a flat 
mrce of wood, a shaving, plakken to paste up, fasten, not 
troin (ik. nkd^j since the word is only tound in Fr. 

Plasta — pasta. 

Plat Plata — piatto. 

Pldtre — piastra. 

Playa — piaggia. 

Plaza — piazza, 

Plegar — piegare, 

Plogaria Sp. public prayer; from precarius. 

Pleige — pletfir. 

Pleita Sp. nish- matting; irom plcclere. 

Pleito — • piafo. 

Plessier — plais. 

Plevir Pr. O. Fr. to pledge, Fr.plieu, Ft. pleige (= E. pledge), 
whence Ven. plezo, Sic. preggiu; plevir = prwbere (sc. fideiu), 
cf. temple from tempora, Planchais = Prancatitts for Pancni- 
tins. Pleige = prwhium a remedy, surety; Vr. p/evizo =zpnP' 
hiffo, Fr. plevine warranty, E. plevin, replevin. W. refers to a 
(i. source, Du. pleghe duty (G. pflicht), E. plight. 

Pile Fr. a plaice r= in me-aning L. platessa (Ausonius)^ Sp. pla- 
tija, Pg. patruca, E. plaice. IHie is for plaie from plate fem. of 
plat Hat, and is altered in form to distinguish it from plaie z= 

Plier — piegare. 

Plisser Fr. to fold; a participial verb, from plicare piic'tm 

Plonger — piombare. 

Ployer — piegare. 

Plusieurs Fr., Fr.plusor, O. It. plusori a comparative for L. plus 
(plures) which was appropriated to form the Romance com- 

Earativc ; from plus was der. pltisior, cf. Varro's plusimus, and 
I. L. pluriores. 
Poche Fr. introduced from England; A. S.pocca, Ft. poke. 
Pocima Sp. potion; from jcotiapa, 
Podar — potare. 
Podesta It. m. a magistrate; Pr. podestat poestat, Sp. potestad, 

L. potestas all fem. 
Podre Sp. pus, matter; homputer, = Pg. podre. 


Poe O. Fr., Pr. pauta, Cat. pota; from Du. pool = G. pfote foot. 

Podle Fr. f. a pan, O. Fr. paele paesle, E. peel pail; from L. pa- 
tella, It. padella , Sp. padilla. From Fr. paele come Sp. pay la 
and Fg.'pella. 

Fodle Ft. m. a canopy, pall, O. Fr. poesle; from nixakov, L. L. 
petalum a golden canopy hung over the Pope's head. Pallium 
would have given paile, Vr. pali. But v. Littr6, p. 69, who 
makes poile = poile = paile, 

Podle Ft. m. a heated room, a stove, O. Fr. poisle, L. L. has 
pisele, pisalis, which point to L. petisilis, pestle, cf. the expres- 
sions horreum pensile (LX domtis pensilis, camera pendens (L. 
L.). A Rom. form birle tor pirle is from pisle, as varlet from 
vaslet, L. L. pirale, O. H. G. pheral, not from nvQ which could 
only have given pirale. 

Poge — poggia. 

Poggia It. rope at the end of a sailyard, Fr. po^^(m.); from 
nodCov (icovg). The poggia was on the right, as the orza was 
on the left. It is one of the numerous nautical words borrowed 
from the Greek, cf. barca, sesio, golfo, artimone, falo. 

Poggio It., Pr. pueg puoi, O.Fr. pui a raised place (E. pew pue), 
Sp. Pg. poyo a stone bench near the door, O. Fr. puioi; from 
podium raised place; hence vb. It. poggiare, O. Pg. Vr. poyar, 
O. Fr. puier to moimt; It. appoggiare, Sp. Pg. apoyar, Fr. ap- 
puyer to support, lean; sbst. appui. 

Pol It., Sii^.pues, Fg.poz, Vr.pois, Ft. puis, trom posl; hence 
It. dipoi dope ^f. domani), the latter a very old form for Wal. 
has dup€, Pg. Pr. depois, Fr. depuis, L. L. de post; Sp. despues, 
Pr. despuois. Com. despo, Padu. daspo from de ex post. It. pos- 
da, Pr. poissas is from postea. 

PoidB — peso. 

Polgnard — pugnale. 

Poin9on — punzar. 

Poindre Fr. to prick, also to spur a horse, whence sbst. poindre 
assault in battle, M. H. G. poinder; from pungere, Pr. ponher, 
It. pungere, S^.pungir. 

Point — punto. 

Poiaon — pozione. 

Poiflser — pegar. 

Polaaon Fr. fish ; from piscis, Pr. peis, O. Fr. pescion, It. pescione. 

Fbitrine Fr., Yr. peitrina breast, from a form pectorina, Dauph. 
peiturina; ons. = breast -piece, or girdle, cf. Sj>. petrina pre- 
Una girdle. 0. Fr. has pis = pectus. Hence O. Fr. poictrinal 
petrmdl, E. petronel because worn in the girdle. 

Polea — poulier. 

Poledro puledro It., Sp. Pg. pofro, Pr. poudre, O. Fr.poutre a 
colt; from L. L. pulletrus poledrus; Scaliger's pulletra for puI- 


lastra in Varro, is a mere conjecture. Puleiro may be fromi 
Gk. jcoXidgiop for moXCSioVj {naXog^ of. in7tog\ txxidunij. 
Sp. pofro also = a wooden horse, cf. equtdeus (G. f alter from 
poh'drus), Fr. poutre a cross - beam to support another beam. 

Foleggio pideggio It., Pr. puleffi, Sp. poleo, Pg. poejo, 
Hot a plant, }K»nny - royal ; from pufegium. 

Polichinelle — pulcinella. 

Polilla Sp., Pg. poUlha a moth ; according to the Sp. etymologen 
from putvis, the v suppressed as in fulo from fulvus, Gmz^ 
for Gnnzalvo, 

Folisson Fr. a blackguard, whence S^.polizon; from /10/1//0 one 
who polishes the pavement, cf. nourricon fromi nutritio. Roue 
polisso = a smoothing iron. 

Polizza It., Sp. poiiza, Fr. po/ird? bill, certificate, paiiq/ (of in- 
surance &c.Vj a corruption of polyptychttm a catalogue 4c., 
usually in pi. polyptycha an account- book {'Xokv%rv%w)y abo 
polecfirum polcticum poletum, Fr. poulie, 

PoUarelt. to shoot, bud forth, whence rampotlare; {rom puliulan. 

PoUegar Pg., Sp. pulgar, Pr. polgar, O.Fr. pochier thumb; from 
polite nr is fpollexj. 

Poltro It. lazy, dastardly, whence /?o//ron^, Sp. poitron, Pg. jw>- 
trdo, Vr. poitron, E. poltroon all from the It., the prim. />o/frfl 
found only in Champ, pleutre. Connected with O.H.G. polstar 
hoist ar, E. bolster, cf . Fr. lodier (1) blanket (2) idler, and cf. 
It. boldrone holdra a part of the bed furniture; the commen- 
tators on Danto Inf. 24, 46 (spoltre) mention a sbst. poltro, 
Mil. poller, Rom. pultur a bed. The dropping of the initial 5 
may be owing to the 1st of the original, and the double initial 
points to a G. source. 

Pomo It. Sp., Fr. pommc apple; from pomum. Dim. It. pomellOj 
Fr. pommemi , E. pommel. Hence also E. pomander = pofnmr 
d'amhre, and pomatum (made from apples), v. Wedgwood. 

Ponco Fr., prop, pier re ponce pumice-stone; from pumex, It,p&- 
mirc, Sp. pomcz. Hence sbst. poncis, vb. poncer. Hence E. 

Ponceau Fr. purple, deep red; from puniceus punicellus , Fr.pu- 

Pondre Pr. Fr., Cat po?idrer to lay eggs; from ponere, which, 
in those three languages, is only foimd in this sense. 

Ponente It., Sp. poniente, Pr. ponent west, prop, sun- setting, 
ove il sol si pone; Wal. aptis (partic. from apune = apponer^, 
Fr. couchant, cf. lerante. 

Pontare puntaro It. to press, insist on, resist; = Fr. pointer, to 
point, cf. It. pontar la lancia contra alcuno, 

Ponzona — pozione, 

Popar Sp. to caress, Pg.poupar to spare, save; {Tomh.It, paipare. 


Popone — pepitu 

'Bopp9b It., Vr.popa, O. Fr. poupe breast; from piipa a doll (cf, 

coppa from cupa), hence Rh. popa, Fr. poupee (E. poppy), G. 

puppe. Cf. It. zita from G. zitze a teat? 
Pop Sp. Pg. O. Fr., Fr. jyour for L. pro, in Sp. Pg. also =per, 

so in early L. L. non territus pro hoc sacrificio. It is not found 

in It. but the Sard, has po (= por) prob. from the Sp., since 

peri is also used. O. Sp. O. Pg. pora, Sp. Pg. para = pro ad, 

Cat. pera, Prov. per a, O. Fr. por a. 
Pop puer O. Fr., Pr. por pore a particle = L. porro and used 

with certain verbs, such as gitar, traire, volar e. g. por gitar 

to throw away. 
Popo-epic Fr. corrupted from porc-espi, Pr. porc-espin (O. E. 

porpin a hedgehog whence, by corruption, porpentine in Shaks- 

pere). It. porco spino, porco spinoso, Sp. puerco espino, E. 

porcupine. The Fr. connected it with spica. 
Popoellana It., Sp. Pg. porcelana, Fr. porcelaine, E. porcelain. 

The word is of Italian origin ; porcellana = (l) a shell - fish, 

concha Veneris (2) porcelain, which resembles the shell in 

transparency, Porcellana in sense (l) is derived from L. porcus 

in a secondary sense, cf . Fr. pucelage with the same meaning. 

V. Mahn, Untersuchungen, p. 13. 
Foroellana — porfulaca. 

Popohe Fr. (m.), Pr. porge porch; froia porlicus , It. portico. 
Popende poren O. Sp. O. Pg. = por tanto from proinde. Pg. po- 

rem is for ndo porem , as pourtanl for non poiirtani. 
Fopfia Sp. Pg. Cat. obstinacy, porfiar to dispute obstinately, 

O. Pg. perfia, O. Sp. porfidia, so from perftdia. Cf. aTCiazCa 

faithlessness and disobedience, and for the form cf. Sp. hastio 

from fastidium. 
Popidad Sp., O. Pg. puridade = Sp. puridad secrecy, L. puritas. 
"Bomk Sp. Pg. Cat. a club-headed stick; ivova porrum a leek, or 

from a B. root. Hence porro heavy, dull. 
Poptulaoa It. Pr., Sp. verdolaga (through verde), Pg. verdoaga 

verdoega beldroega , a. ^Ismtj purslane; from portulaca. From 

Li.porcilaca {sAso porcasfrum) comes It. porcellana, Y,. purslane ; 

from pulli pes, Fr. pour pier. 
Popuoe — appo. 
Posap poser — pausare. 
FoBcia — poi. 
Posnde O. Fr. podnee haughtiness. For poussonee from pousser ? 

or connected with W. posned (m.) = sometliing round and 

Fossa poussa Pr. nipple ; = bud , Fr. pousse? 
Fosta It. Sp. Pg., Fr. poste, E. post; from positus, because of tlie 

rel€ty of horses. 


Fosticdo It., Sp. postizo, Fr.posfiche, also apposUceio, aposlizQr 
IV. aposiitz Hupposititious, counterfeit; L. appasiiicius. 

Fostierla — poierne. 

FostDla It. Pg. Pr.; Sp. postiia, Fr. apostille, E. paaU marginil 
notf^, coinmont; not from positus (wh. would have gifai 
poatella), but from post ilia (sc. verba auctoris). 

Fostilla Sp. scab; from pustula. 

Fostrar — prosirare. 

Fot-pourri — olla. 

Fotage potaggio — pote. 

Fotare It., Sp. Pg. Pr. podar, O.Fr. poder to prune; frompiiiar 
which is not found in Rom. in its figurative sense. Sp./MNfo«, 
Pg. podiio a hoe, O. Fr. poun from Sp. poda a pruning; Occ. 
pnudo a pruning- knife. 

Fotasse Fr. from G. poU-asche (also kesselascfie), E.poiash. 

Fete Sp. Pg., Pr. Fr. pot; from Du. E. pot, of. 'Pic. poiegym =^ 
Dm, poiekhi ; W,pot, QRel. peit. The It. has no mase. fom 
potto, but tlic fcm. potta has the secondary meaning which is 
found also in the Irish puite, and in L. and It. concha. It. vaso. 
Ilonce Fr. potage, TS,. pottage, It. potaggio, that which is pre 
parc^d therein , ef . formaggio that made in a forma. 

Foteau Fr., Pr. postel a post; from postis. 

Fotonce Fr. a crutch, gallows; from L. h.poientia prop. = sup- 

Fotoro It., Sp. Pg. Pr. poder, O. Fr. pooir (d lost)^ Fr. pauvoir 
(v inserted to prevent the hiatus), Wal.putea = h. passe, a 
now conjugation being formed as invelle&c, v. R. Gr. 2, 121. 
Sbst. It. podere, Sp. poder, Wal. puteare power, also = pos- 
Hossion, estate (like G. vermOgeti)^ It. form. 

Fotemo Fr., E. postern ; a corruption of O. Fr. posterle, Pr. pos- 
terlla. It. postietia , {rom posterula. 

Fotro — poledro. 

Fou — pidocchio. 

Fouaere Fr. filthy; formed from interjection pot/^A^ Burg. Norm. 
polacrc , Pic. polaque, N. Vr. pouldcre. 

Foudre Fr. (f.), E. powder, from pulvis pulveris (poTre poldre). Fr. 
poussi'ere i« for pourriere {ci\besicle)y O.Fr.porriere patddrierf- 

Foulain Fr. foal ; from pulhis, Pr. polin. 

Foulier Fr. to hoist ui), poidie (E.'pulley, Sf. pole'a, Fg. polf); 
from A. ii.pulimn, E.pull; but v. Wedg. s. v. ^^ pulley ^\ 

Fouliot — poleggio. 

Fouls — pulsar. 

Foupa — upupa. 

Four — por. 

Fourpier — portulaca. 

Fourpoint Fr., Vv.perponh, Sp. perpunte, pespwite, Pg. pesponto: 


L. L. perpunctum, so called because it was quilted. On pour 
for per cf . R. Gr. 2 , 353. 

FoiiBse poussif — boiso. 

FotLBser — puisare. 

PouBsiere — poudre. 

FoiiBsin Fr., Fr.pouzin a chicken; from pullicenus (Lampridius). 

Foutre — poledro. 

Poyo — poggio. 

Posione It., Sp. pocion, Pr. poizd drink, medicine, O. Sp. pozon, 
Ft. pQtson, E. poison; from potto a draught, a potion to work 
a charm or cure; vb. Pr. poizonar, Sp, ponzofktr, from po- 
iionare, whence Sp, Bhst. ponzona, Fg, peconha wison. Cf. Sp. 
yerba, Pg. erva poisonous plant, poison, O. Fr. enherber to 
poison, and G. gift poison = prop, dose {866ls). 

PosBO It., Wal. putzu, Sp. pozo, Pr. potz, Fr. puits (E. pit) well ; 
from puteus. Hence vb. Pr. pozar, Fr. puiser, epuiser. 

PoBBolana It. melted lava, so called because often found in the 
district of Pozzuoli. 

Praoe It. space between two furrows ; from ngaoia a garden-bed. 

Prebenda prevenda It. Pr., Sp. prebenda, Fr. prebende, E. pre- 
bend daily supply for tlie monks &c. The Vr.provende (whence 
O.pfrHnde, Y*, provender) ^ It, profenda has taken the prov from 
providere, cf. G. proviant. 

PreboBte — prevoste. 

PrdcherFr., E. preach, Pg. pregar &c., sbst, Fr, prMie, Pr. 
prezic; from prwdicare. 

Predella It. a foot- stool, Mil. brelta; from O. H. G. prei = G. 
brett board. 

Predella — brida. 

Pregno It., Pg. prenhe, Pr. prenh, O. Fr. prains, from prcegnas; 
vb. Pg. prenhar, Sp. part, preriado, Pg. emprenhar, Sp. em- 
prenar &c. 

Preguifa — pigrezza. 

Pregxintar Sp., Pg. perguntar to ask; from percontari. 

Preindre O. Fr. to press, Pr. premer; from premere. Hence Fr. 

epreindre = exprimere, etnpretndre = imprimere, depreindre 

(O. Fr.) = deprimere. Cf. imprenta. 

Prdle — esprelie. 

Prendar — nans. 

Prensar Sp., Cat. prempsar to press ; from pressare. 

Pres presque — presso. 

Presente It. Sp., Fr. present, E. present; L. L. prwsoitia (900 

A. D.), O. Fr. preseti (1150 A. D.) ; {rom prcesentare to present, 


It.; Pr. pres, Fr. pres = Ij. prope; from pressum, cf. ayxt^ 



iyyvg. Ilonce It. appresso, O. Pg. a pres, Pr. apres, Fr. aprh: 

It. pressor hr, Vr. prcstjue. 
Prostaro It., Sp. prestar, Fr. prefer to lend ; from prapstare = to 

Inul (Salvian, Veiiantius &c.). 
Presto — prctc. 
Presto It. Sp. Pff., Pr. presi, Fr. prii; from a late Li.prffstui, 

Tlio Pg. has ui»o prestes (indec.), cf. iestes and /es/o. 
Prdt - presto. 
Preto It., Sp. O. Pg. preste, Fr. pritre, O. Fr. Pr. prestre, priest, 

from presbyter; other forms are immediately from XQecfivri- 

Qog^ Pr. preveire, preire, Cat prebere, O. Fr. prov&ire pro- 

voire, cf. Pr. preveind preveirat from L. L. presbyteralh presby- 

teratus. It is remarkable that the It., though fond of the 

c(niibinati(m a7, has lost the 5 m prete, ^lil.prevei preL 
Prdter — prestare. 
Pretina — poitrine, 
Protto It. pure, unmixed (of wine &c.); for pureifo from punts. 

Hut tlie e in pretto is open, and the contraction is mmsoal. 

h<*nee Muratori derives it from O. H. G. bt^hi = E. bright. 

where the meaning does not suit so well. 
Prenx — pro. 
Preveire — prete. 
Prevosto It., Sp. Pff. preboste,^ot, Wal. preof, provost: 

from praposifus. Ilenec also Sp. Pg. prioste syndic. 
Pria It. adv. for prio from prius, the termination being prob. 

borrowed from poscia. 
Priego O. Sp., Pg. prego a nail, cf. A. S. prica, E. prick, Dn. 

prik, W. pric. 
Prieto Sp., 1^^. prefo pressed, thronged, miserable, mean, sordid 

(hence Sp. Pg. also = blackish), Pg. perto closely (It. presso), 

\h. aprefar, apertar to compress, sbst. ^^. presa\ii^ie\ pretar 

must be a freq. of preino (premito). 
Prigione It., Sp. pn'sion, Pr. preisd, Vr. E. ])rison; from prehensio 

prensin seizure (so in Sp.). The It. and Sp. words liave also 

th(i meaning of "prisoner". 
Primavera — ver. 
Prime Sp. Pg., E. prime, la obra es prima &c.; from primm for 

primarius, cf. Pr. prim (==-. E. prim) fine, pretty, pn'mbois = 

line, small ^vood for fagots, jmm preon very deep, cf. Naiviiis: 

pritne probus. 
Prime Sp. V^. primo hermano Sp. cousin, first cousin. Pr. prim 

= a near relative, quart a relative in the fourtli degree. 
Prince Fr., Pr. prince prinsi; whence It. prenze, pritice. From 

princeps; C). Fr. princier from primicerius. 
Pringue Sp. gi'case, fat; tvom pingw's. 
Printemps — ver. 


oote — prevosto, 
BOO — persica. 
don prison — prigione, 

t It. Sp. Pg. Pr., O. Fr. prou preu pro, for which also It. 
rodey O. Sp. O. Tg. proi, Pr. pron profit; from L. pro used 
8 a sbst. e. g. in It. in pro o in contro. For proficiat was writ- 
jn pro faccia for prodest prod' e (hence the d). Next, prode 
ras used as an adj. egli e prode z=:i prodest he is useful, brave, 
f. M. H. G. biderbe, G. frum and L. L. utilis in both senses. 
'he Pr. pros retains the s of declension as an integral part of 
le word, hence Ft, prevx, Bh.prus, adv. Pr. prosamen pro- 
$amen, O. Fr. proQsement though no adj. proos, proosa is 
)and. From the O. Fr. prou comes sbst. prouesse, E. prowess, 
ome derive ike nA], pro pros from probus, which is supported 
y the Pr. adv. pro, Fr. prou = satis, {rom probe, Cat. prou: 
ro batre alcun = probe percutere aliquern. 
a — prua. 

Che Fr., Vv,propi near; from propius in propiare, appropiare^ 
STal. apropia; whence Fr. approcher, Pr. apropchar, (). It. np- 
rocciare approach. Cf. reprocher, 
da — prua. 
fenda — prebenda. 

•fllare It., Fr. profiler (borrowed), Sp. perftlar to draw pro- 
les or outlines (Chauc. purfiie = edge, border, E. purfle, 
uri), sbst. li.profilOy Fr. profii (E, pro fiie), Sp. houih. per/ii, 
'rom fiJum line, outline. 

>fltto It., Vr. profieg, Cat. Ft. profit, Fj. profii; vb. profittare, 
rofeitar, profiter; from sbst. profectus. itence also (better 
ban from provectui) Sp. Pg. provecho proveito, O. Pg. profeito. 
mener — menare. 

»ne Fr. m. a sermon, prOner to preach; from prcecotwmi 
preone prone). 

»paggine It., Pr.probaina, Sjp.provena, Fr. provin (for pro- 
ain O. Fr.) a layer, shoot, vb. provigner; from propago, pro- 
^inare, whence also G. pfropfen (E. prop). 
ipio It. Sp., Cat. propi; from proprius, Wal. propiu, Sp. Pg. 
Toprio, Pr. propri, Fr. propre (E. proper). 
MKdutto — suco. 

Mrare It., Sp. prostrar (so Pg. Pr.), E. prostrate; from pro- 
trains (prostemere) treated as though of the first conjugation. 
>tooollo It. &c. From ngoitoxokkov the leaf prefixed and 
attached (ngcStog xokka) to the Byzantine papynis - rolls stat- 
ng by wnom, and under what ''comes largitionum" each 
^vas published. Thence the name was transferred to the public 
records which, by edict of Justinian, were to be always ac- 
companied by such a protocol. 


:i54 VROU — PULSAR. 

Ppou — pro, 

Proue — prua, 

Provano — iema. 

Provecoio proveoho — jfrofitto, 

Frovena — propayyhu*. 

Provende — prehenda. 

Provianda — viande. 

Provigner ppovln — prnpaggine. 

Prua It., Sp. Pg. Pr. pron, Fr. />rotir (E,.prow); from prora with 

rare euphonit* elision of the r for wnich d is substituted in the 

It. proda, the O. (t. has pro/. The It. proda in the Benso of 

e(l^<» , is l)ettor from the G. itroth prort In'ort than from prturn. 
Prude Fr. (E. sbst.) an adj. wanting in the sister- tongues and 

d(»rivod from tlie compound prud' homme for preud^ homme. 

Pr. prozom, Sp. prohombre, It. produamo Others derive 

it fn)m prudens. 
Prudere It., Pr. priizer, Pg. Cat. pmir (for prudir) to itch; from 

prurire, cf. proda from prora. 
Pruir — prudere. 
Puce — pulce, 
Pucelle — puleella, 
Puche Sp. pottage ; from puis pfdh's, It. poiia. Hence puchero a 

pot for cooking. 
Pues , puis — poi. 
Pugnale It., i^f.puiial, Yr. poignard a dagger; from pugio pu- 

Puiser puits — pozzo. 
Pidar Pg. to hop, spring, bud, geminate; from puUare (or pyl- 

lulare to sprout. 
Pulce It. f., Fr. puce f.. Cat. pussa, Sp. Pg. ptdga, Crem. peulegh 

iloa; from pulex m.; vb. It. spulciare, Fr. epucery (^Jat. espus- 

sar, Sp. Pg. Pr. espuigar, Val. esplugar, Sp. = also desphjfrr 

Puleella It., O. Sp. puncella poncella, O. Pg. Pr. puceila, Fr. pu- 

reiie, lih. purKcel/a maid, yoimggirl, Vr.piucei, Yr. pucetty, 

Kh. purscel yontli. A dim. from pullus (in L. only of animalsK 

dim. puUcella (A. 1>. 500), cf. O. Fr. polle a girl, potdot a little 

boy (still us<mI in I>erry and Normandy). 
Pulcinella It., Fr. poUchineUe a mask in the Neapolitan comodv; 

so called according to some , from Puccio iTAnMlo of Aoorra. 

the first to sustain the part; al. = little child, darling f]»ro|>. 

chickling [puUo])y thence transferred to the most |>opnlar 

stage -figure. Hence prob. E. Punch. 
Pulga — pulce. 
Pulsar Sp. Pg., Pr. polsftr, Fv. pousser (¥!,. push); from puhnre, 

whence also Sp. Pg. puxar to thrust out, outbid; sbst. It. 


polsOy Fr.pouis, TS,. pulse {rom ptdsus. The form expulser &c. 
is of more recent formation. 

Punchar — punzar, 

Punto It., Yr. pointy Vr. ponk point used to strengthen a negative; 
from punrtum ; cf.pas, rien, aucun &c., 11. Gr. 3, 395. 

Punzar punchar 8p., Pg. puncar, It. punzellare punzecchiarc to 
stick, E. pounce, a participial verb =p\mctinre from punctus, 
Sbst. It, punzone, Sp. punzon, Fr. poincon, E, punch, G. pun- 
zen, bunzen ; from punclio, which , becoming concrete, is made 
masculine, cf. tosone. 

Pupitre Fr. from pulpitum , It. puipito , pulpit. 

Puput — upupa. 

Pure It. particle used for solum and tamen; from />t/r^ = purely, 

Pusigno It. a meal after supper; {rom post - cwnium. 

Putput — upupa. 

Putto It., Sp. Pg. puto lad, It. f. putta girl, harlot (Sp. puta, Fr. 
putey A word from the spoken Lat., found in an epigram 
attributed to Virgil ^^me perdidit iste putus", cf. Sli.^putra = 
filius. Putillus in JPlaut. becomes It. putello. From putta comes 
It. puttana, O. Sp. putaHa harlot; instead of Fr. putaine we 
have putain (Pr, putan), from accusative putam, cf. Evain from 
Evam, Berlain from Bertham. 

Putto It., O. Sp.pudio, Pr. O. Fr, put base, mean, disgusting; 
from putidus, as net to from nitidus, 

Puxar — pulsar, 

Puya pua Sp., Pg. pua prickle, shoot, layer; from pttffio -onis, 
as buba from fiovpciv, cf. Sp. mugron in same sense , prop. = 
a dagger. 

Pusso puzza It. stink, \h, puzzare; ivoixx putidus putius, ai'.sozzo 
from sucidusy rancio from rancidus. 

Qua It., Sp. acd, Pg. cd from eccu' hac; cf. Pr. sa sai, Fr. ca, 

Lomb. scia from ecce hac. 
Quadro It. Sp. Pg. square, frame, picture, Pr. cadre frame, Pr. 

caire a square stone; from quadrttm. Hence Fr. carriere, E. 

f/uarry (where square stones are cut), L. L. quadraria, to be 

dist. from carriere career; It. quadrello, Sp. quadrillo, Pr. 

cairel, Fr. carreau a small square, an arrow-head, bolt, E. 

quarrel; It. squadra ^ Sp. esquadra, Fr. equerre, E. square, It. 

Sp. also = a band of people , whence Fr. escadre escouade ; 

It. squadrone, Sp. csquadron, Fr. escndron, E. squadron; all 

from squadrare (ex-quadrare) to square. 



Quaglia It., O. Sp. roalla, Pr. calha, Fr. cai/le (E. collet = Yr. 
raillet(e), Rh. quaera. E. quail; L. L. quaquila, on onomatop. 
coimectod with G. quaken, E. quack. The CslU guatila, ViL 
gusala is the 0. wahtala. The Wal. is prepeliize, piipeiacif 
Sard, circuri, Pied, cerlach, 

Quagliare oagliare It., Sp. cuajar, Pg. coalhar, Fr. raftV^ to 
coaguhite; from coagulare. From sbst. coagtUum is Pg. rort/*o, 
It. r^////io rennet, also gaglio, whence galium (Linnaeus). 

Quai — r«|/<>. 

Qualche It., O. Sp. qualque, Pr. quaisque, Fr. quelqve; from^o- 

//jf 7?/^///^ after th(^ analogy of quisquam. Hence It. guaitimo, 

qual'Chcd-uno, Fr. quelquun, 

Quan Sp., Pg. yw/7/>, Pr. can adv.; from quam. 
QuandiuB Pr. ; from quamdiu. 

Quaresima It., Sp. quaresma, Fr. careme (m.^, Wal. pirtasimi 
Lent; from quadragesima , Gk. TS66aQaxo6T7j. 

Quatto It., Pr. quait, Sp. rar^o gac?io crouching, fsjquat; Fr. 
c/ic/*^' hiding place; It. quattare, Fr.cacher to hide; Yr.ecacherf 
( ). Fr. esquachier, Pic. ecoachar, Sp. acachar agachar to ^ifOsA, 
squaah, {hiatto = coactus, quattare = coactare (of. coag^arty 
cailler, flectere flechir). Another form from coactus is Fr. f Jrtr 
to press = O. Fr. Pic. quatir. From cache cachet seal, cachelte 
hiding-place, cachot prison. Besides Pr. cachar we find qui- 
chary N. Pr. esquichd, Rh. squicciar, cf. (i. quetscheti. 

Quattrino It. a small coin = four danari. 

Que — che. 

Quebrantar — crehantar. 

Quebrar — crepare, 

Quec — chaque. 

Queda l*g. fall = Sp. caida from caer (L. cadere), It. caduta. 

Quedar quedo — cheio. 

Queixo — casso. 

Quelha — calha. 

Quelle It. as well as colui (prov. It. quelui), Sp. Pr. aquel, P^. 

aquelle , from eccn' ille; Wal. acel eel, Pr. aicei eel, (>. Fr. ictl 

eel as well as celui from ecce ille, cf. qui, 
Quelque — qualche, 
Quemar Sp., Pg. queimar to burn. From cremare, cf. quebntr, 

temblar. It is unnecessary, witli Larramendi, to derive it fn»m 

the Basque. 
Quenouille — conocchia. 
Querela querce (f.) It. an oak; from adj. querctms, cf. faggh 

from fageus, 
Queso — cascio, 
Questo It. and coshii (prov. It. ques/ui), Sp. Pg. aques/e, (.-at. IV. 


aquesi; from eccu' iste; so Wal. acest cesl, Pr. nicest cest, O. Fr. 

icest cest and cestui, Fr. cet, from ecce iste. 
Queue — coda. 

Queux Fr. (f.) a whetstone; from cos cotis, Pr. cot, It. cote. 
Queuz O. Ir. (m.) a cook; from coquus , It. cuoco. 
Quezar (quejar) ►^p. to complain; from a freq. questare from 

qtieri questus. For x from st, v. R. Qr. 1 , 225. 
Qui — che. 
Qui It., O. Fr. iqui equi and enqui anqui, Sp. Pr. aqui; from ^ccm' 

hie; also It. c/, Pr. aid aissi, Cat. awi, Fr. ici ci, Wal. flr/ci 

/ci, from ecce hie. Hence It. qui-ci, li-ci. 
Quien Sp., Pg. quern ; from L. quern, so alguien, alguem from flr/i- 

quem; cf. for quilibety Sp. quien- quiera, quern -quer (conj. of 

querer to be willing). ^ 

Qidgnon — cOfVi. 
Quilate — carato. 
Quilla quille — chiglia. 
Quimera — chimera. 
Quin quinn Pr. interrogative pronoun, Wald. f. quena; from 

quinam? Wal. cine. 
Quinoaille — clincaille. 
Quinoi It. adv. of place, from eccu' hincce, cf. quindi from eccu' 

inde, quivi from eccu' ibi &c. 
Quintana ohintana It., Pr. quintana, O. Fr. quintaine, £. quin- 
Quinon — coin. 

Quitare quite quitte quitter — cheto. 
Quivrer O. Fr. to wake, rouse; from E. quiver nimble, busy, 

A. S. cviferlike restless, E. quiver (verb). 
Quixada — casso. 
Quixote — coscia. 
Quisd quizas Sp., Pg. quica, O. Pg. quizais, Sard, chisa chisas, 

Sic. cusa adv. for L. fortasse; from qui sabe (Sp. quien sabe) 

"who knows", in the Poem. d. Cid qui sab. 
Quoi — che. 
Quora — or a (2). 
Quota It., Pr. cota, Fr. cote a contribution, quota; from quotus, 

Sp. Pg. cota also = an annotation, quotation. Hence It. quo- 
tare f Sp. Pg. cotar acotar, Fr. coter to quote; Sp. cote jar, Pg. 

cote jar to compare (bring together) ; Fr. coterie a body (prop. 

of contributors). 


Baban — haubans. 

Babano Sp., Pg. rabao radish ; from raphanus, It. rafano. 


Babarbaro It., Sn. Ppf. ruibarbo, Ft. rhubarbe, E. rhubarb, a 
plant which is iound growing wild on the banks of the Volga 
and in China; from rha barbarum, so called to distinguish it 
from rfui ponficnm (Pontus) a plant of the same kind known 
to the Romans. 

Babel — ribeba. 

Babesco — arabesco. 

B&ble Fr. (m.), O. Fr. roabie, Occ. redable an ovcn-rakc; from 

Babo Sp. Pg. a tail , according to Dicz , from rapere in allusion 
to tho quick motion of an animal's tail, but better^ with Maho, 
from rapum a carrot, cf. G. schwanzrfibe (tail - radish) = the 
thick part of the tail. Hence, perhaps, E. rabbi/, of. bunny 
from ?nm a tail , and cf. raposo, 

Baboter Fr. to plane (Sp. rabotear to dock), whence rabol a 
plane; corresponds to Pr. reboiar, It. ributtare (v. botiare), to 
thrust back, rebut, Fr. raboxUer; hence Fr. raboteux rough, 

Babrouer — bravo. 

Baca racca Pr.a jade, mare, Yt.recaille rabble; prob. from Norse 
racki, E. rack hound (Ci . rekel clown), cf. canaille from cani>, 

Bacchetta It. (corr. lacchctta)^ Sp. raqueta, Fr, raquelte, E. 
racket; from a form retichctta from rete, 

Bace — razza. 

Bachar ri^ar — raggh, 

Bache Fr. (f.) sediment of tar; from a form rasica from rash 
resin, cf. ragia, thus distinct from rasche rash scab, v. rascar. 

Bacher O. Fr., Wall, recbt, Pic. raquer, Pr. racar. Com. rack 
recti to spit; fnmi (). H. hrdki spittle, hra*kia to spit, A. J>. 
hra'kan (wreak), Fr. cracker is of the same origin, Pr. escra- 
car (sbst. craf), Sic. scaccare, Kh. scraccbiar. 

Bacino Fr., Pr. razitia root; from a form radicina (radix), Wal. 

Bacler — rascare. 

Bada It. Sp., Fr. rade road (for ships); from O. N. reide prepa- 
ration, equipment, Du. reede. 

Bade — raudo. 

Badeau Fr., Pr. radclh a raft ; from ratis. 

Badio (). Sp., Pg. arredio strayed; from a form crrativus? 

Bade It. an altered form of rarus, v. K. Or. 1 , 248- 

Badoter Fr. to talk nonsense, O. Fr. redoter; from Du. doten, 
E. dote, cf. W. dotio, Du. dutteti, M. U. G. tofzcfi to doze, y 
tott/y G. verdutzt abaslujd. 

Bafez rahez 0. Sp., O. Pg. refece light, small, bad; from Ar. 
rakhic easy, smooth , sbst. rokhc cheapness. 

Bafibre' It. in arraffare. Mil. raffa, Piedm. rafe, Rh. raffnr^ 


O. Fr. raffer, Lorr. raffua to seize &c.; sbst. Piedm. rafa 
booty, Lorr. Rouchi raffe, It. ruffaraffa a scramble, Rom. 
riffe raff a, Rh. riff a raff a, Sp. rifi-rafe (E. riff -raff); It. arraf- 
ftare (for arrafflare), Fr. rafter erafter, sbst. It. raffio a hook, 
Fr. rafte in /j/r^ rafte to seize everything. From M. H. G. 
reffen, G. raff en, E. raff" (from the Fr.); with / G. r/i/f^?/, vb. 
O. N. hrafta, sbst. Du. Swed. raffei, E. ra/"//^. Lorr. adj. rafife 
= sour (raff'en = corripere), of. O. H. G. raffi, E. rough, Com. 
rap, O. N. hrappr. 

Haffio rafler — raff are. 

Bagaszo It. boy, ragazza girl; according to Muratori, from paxi} 
rags, so = one who wears rags, a servant, boy, cf. puer = 
boy, servant (and cf. fanie), or from raca homo nihili in St. 

Basgio razzo It., Sp. Pg. r«yo, Pr. rai raig, Q. Fr. ra/, Fr. 
rayon, E. r«y, from radius; f. It. rflzza spoke, Wal. raze, Sp. 
Pg. Pr. rayay Fr. raii^ ray, stripe, streak; vb. It raggiare raz- 
zare to beam, Pr. rayar, O. Ir. rflr/W* ro/W- to beam, stream, 
Sp. rayar, Fr. r«y^ to stripe; from radiare. Sp. rflry^r = also 
to make strokes, lines, rajar to split, raja a splinter, Pg. 
rachar raxar, sbst. rflr;« racha. The O. Fr. r«i^ or rc^ie de miel. 
Norm, reve, Fr. rayon de miel honeycomb, Pg. raio de met 
point to O. S. rdta, M. Du. rdte, M. H. G. rdz, Fr. raie = 
channel (for water), O.Fr. roie, Pr. r^^a arrega, is from rig are, 

Baerift It., Rh. rascha resin; from an adj. raseus rasea (rasisj. 

Bagodter Fr. to provoke the appetite , hence ragoitt (cf . frican- 
deau a dainty dish); from re-ad-gustare. 

Baguer Fr. to rub, triturate; from N. raka to rub. 

Baie — raggio, 

Baifort Fr. horseradish ; from radix fortis, 

Bailler — raliar. 

Bain Fr. in rain de bois; from rain border, ridge. 

Bainar — hargner. 

Baiponoe — raperonzo, 

Baire Fr. to bellow (of a stag). On the analogy of mugire, rugire 
vagire was formed ragire, Fr. raire. It. ragghiare^ cf. mugire, 
muire, mugghiare. 

Baise O. Fr. rise an expedition; from O. H. G. reisa, G. reise. 

Baisin Fr., Pr. razim grape (E. raisin); from racemus, Sp. ra- 
cimo. Pic. O. Fr. rosin (G. rosine). 

BAler Fr. to rattle; from E. rattle, Du. ratelen, G. rasseln. Hence 
rdle, E. rail (a bird) = Pr. roufte, E. ruff', from vb. roufla = 
ronfler, cf. Pic. rousselet from G. rosseln, cf. also Sp. ronca, 
G- wiesenschnarcher. 

Rallnguea Fr. (m. pi.) ropes to fasten the sail, bolt-ropes; from 
Du. raa, Swed. ra yara, and Du. leik, Swed. Ilk rope. 



Ballar Sp. (.at., Pg. ralar to grate, plague, Fr. raiiier, E. raS^ 
ralhj; sbst. Sp. rallo, Pg. ralo grater. .From a vb, radiadare 

Bale Sp. Pg. thin. From rarulus, Plaut. rai/a vesiis ^/ == // as in 
novc/a, apelar), or from rnrus (R. Gr. 1, 247), the objection tci 
whieli is that the form raie is found in Lim. Rouchi, whereas 
the change of r to / between vowels is unknown in Fr. The 
form may, however, have been adopted from the Sp. 

Bamadouer — amadouer. 

Bambla Sp. Cat. sandy beach; from Ar. rami sand. 

Bame — risma, 

Bame It., Wal. aramr, Sp. arambre atambre, Pr. aram, Fr. airam 
coi)por; from (vramen (Festus), aramcnium a cop[>er vessel. 
The Kh. is irom a corniption of iram eram, like uffoni from 

Bame Fr. (f.) oar has taken its form from It. Sp. Pr. rama a 
br)Ugh, its moaning from remus, the proper Fr. form of which 
(rchi) was regarded as too slight an expression , cf. ramenu 
instead of rain from ramus. The CJael. ramh (m.) = bough 
and oar, (). Ir. rama' = remi, Rouch. is reme (f .), N. Pr. remo, 

Bame ramette Fr. printer's form (Sp. rama, Wal. rame); from 
the 0. rahm, 

Bamentovoir — mentar, 

Bamequin Fr.; from (J. rahm cream - cheese. 

Bamorino It., Sp. romero, Cat. Pr. romani, Pg. rosmanifiho, Fr. 
rdmarin, E. rosemary; corruptions or adaptations of ros ma- 

Bamero — ramingo, 

Bamfo It. (in Lomb. ramf ranf) cramp, from M. H. G. rampf. 
(t. krampf, 

Bamingo It., Pr. ramenc =~- a young falcon that flies from bough 
to bough (ramus), so unsteady, Fr. ramingue wilful. Ramingo 
- - Sp. ramcro, fern, ramcra a prostitute. 

Bammaricare — amaricarc. 

Bammentare — mentar, 

Bamolaccio It. horseradish; by dissimilation for ramoraccifty 
from armoracia, C-olumella armoracium. 

Bamon Fr. a besom, ramoner to swrep a chimney; from ramus, 
cf. Sj). ramnn tops of branches, ramonear to lop. 

Bampa It. claw, rampo hook, Pr. Sp. rampa cramp; vb. \i. ram- 
pare y O. Fr. ramper to clamber, Fr. to creep, part. Fr. K. 
rampant (her.), whence Fr. rampe, Sp. rampa mound. From 
same root as rappare (q. v.), L. O. rapen, Bav. rampfen lo 
seize, claw, sbst. Lomb. ramf ranf cramp, cf. E. cramp in 
both senses, G. krampf, Pr. drops the m rapar =z ramjxtr, 
led rapan = Sp. teon rampante. Hence It. rampone hook, vb. 


rampognare to jeer, O. Fr. ramposner ramponer to scoff, E. 

Pic. ram; from O. H. G. I)u. E. ram, 

Banohe Fr. f., E. rung of a ladder; from ramex bough, pole. 

Banoho — rang. 

Banoio — arancio. 

Banco It., Sp. renco, O. Fr. ranc hipshot, Ven. ranco distorted; 
vb. It. rancare arrancare to limp, dirancare distort, tear out, 
Sp. arrancar to wrest, force away, wrench (O. It. arrancare). 
From a German source; G. rank, Du. wrongk distortion, 
M. H. G. renken to wrench, Bav. renken to tear, A. S. vrenc 
deceit, Goth, vraigus crooked, E. wring, wrong, wrench. Thus 
arrancar is to be distinguished from Fr. arracher (q. v.), to 
with which the Sp. arraigar agrees in form but not m mean- 
ing. For Sp. renco we have also rengo conforming to , though 
not etymologically connected with, derrcngar (q. v.). 

Ban9onFr., O. Fr. raancon, E. ransom; from redemlio. 

Bancore It., 0. Sp. Pg. rr. rancor, O. Fr. rancaur, Sp. rencor, 
E. rancour; from rancor (1) a rancid taste (Palladius) (2) ran- 
. cour (Hieronymus and in L. L.); hence also Fr. rancune, It. 
O. Pg. rancura &c. 

Bancime — rancore. 

Banda Pr. extremity, Pr. It. a randa close upon, quite, urgently ; 
also Sp. randa, Pg. renda point-lace, prop, the rim or border, 

• cf. G. kante; from 0. H. G. rand = O. N. r6nd margo, extre- 
mitas , E. round. Hence O. Fr. randir to urge on ; Pr. O. Fr. 
randon urgency, vehemence, haste, adv. a randon and de ran- 
don, Sp. de randon , de rondon, Pg. de rondao, E. at random, 
vb. randonar randoner to rush at. 

Bandello It. a stick, cudgel; from G. rddci, reitel , Com. rat 

Bang Fr., Pr. renc arrenc, vb. Fr. ranger arranger (range ar- 
range), Pr. rengar arrengar; G. Du. Swed. rang, E. rank, W. 
rhenge, Bret, renk. Pied, ren ran. From the same root as 
aringo (q. v.), viz: O. H. G. hring, M. H. G. E. ring, so = 
prop, a collection of persons arranged in circular order, then, 
generally, a row, file, line, cf. 0. H. G. riga (v. riga); from 
ranger Sp. rancho mess, arrancharse to form a mess, mess 

Banger Pg. to grumble, snarl, growl. Verbs of the 2"** Rom. 
conj. are, without exception, derived from the 2"'' and 3"* of 
the Lat., so ranger must be referred to ringer e rather than to 
Gk. ^y^x^iv foyxd^st^v. 

Bangifero It. Sp. , Fr. rangier, Du. retjnger rein -deer; from 
L. L. rangifer, which is a corruption of Finnish raingo. Fr. 
renne is from N. hrein, ren, E. mn-deer, G. r^n-thier. The 


A. S. has hranas (pl.)> the O. E. rahw-deer, rane deer, rm 
deer. V. Dascnt in the ''Times" of Nov. 15*** 1862. 

Bajinicchiare — nicchio. 

Banocchia — gretwuille, • 

Bapar Pr. — rampa. 

Bapar Sp. — rappare. 

Bapaz Sp. Pg. boy, rapuza girl. Usually der. from rapax, and 
so to aenote the rapacity of children , cf. rapaceria childish- 
ness, rapagon from rapax, a&perdigon from perdrix, raigtm 
from radix. 

Baper — raspare. 

Baperonso raperonsolo rampozisolo It., Sic. raponzuiu, Romag. 
raponzal, Sp. repotiche miponce, Pg. ruiponio, Fr. raiponce, 
¥j. ntmpion, G. rapunzel; from rapa rape, with It. suffix. 

BapetsAser — pedazo. 

Bapiere Fr. an old sword -blade (depreciative), E. rapier; for 
nlpiere from rdpc rasp, so = a notched, useless blade? 

Baposo Sp. Pg. f. raposa fox, for which we also find zorra, the 
L. vulpes only appearing in the fem. dim. vuipeja. From Sp. 
rabo tail, cf. iobo lupino, cabra capruno, 

Bappa It. tuft, bunch; cf. M. H. G. M. Du. rappe stalk of 
grapes, = Piedm. rap (It. grappolo). 

Bappare It. in arrappare, Sp. Pg. Pr. rapar to plunder (E. 

rape), Lorr. rapoua to devour, trom L. G. Du. rapen, O. E. 

ra/fy rap, Swcd. rappa , G. raff en. Of the same stock is the 

It. rappa a cleft in a horse's foot = Du. rappe scab, Ven. 

Lomb. raparc rapa to shrink, shrivel = Bav. rdpfen to harden^ 

to encrust. 
Baquette — • racchetta. 
Basare It., Sp. Pg. rasar, Fr. raser (E. raze^ to shave. A freq. 

from radere ra$us. 
Bascare Sp. Pg. Pr. to scratch; Pr. rasca, O. Fr. raschc, E. rasfi 

(sbst.), for rasicare from radere rasas. Hence also \i.rasctmre, 

Cat. rasclar, O. Fr. rasc/er, Fr. racier, sbst. It. raschia = Pr. 

rasca, from a Lat. rasiculare. The Sp. Pg. rasgar to tear 

asunder, sbst. rasgo a sketch, flourish of the pen, is usually 

referred to resecare, though rasguiiar to scratca and sketch is 

evidently from rasicare. 
Baschiare — rascar. 
Bascia — raso. 
Basente — rez. 
Basgar rasgunar — rascar. 
Basilla — raso. 
Base It. Sp., Fr. ras satin, Sp. ras a smooth place; from rasm. 

Hence op. rasilla a kind of serge. In the It. rascia serge (G. 


rasck), some recognize Bascia (a Slavonic district, Dante Par. 
19, 140) whence the stuff came, others Arras (but v. Arazzo), 
In an old It. poet we find : vestiti di Doagio (Douai) edi Rascese. 
EMpare It, Sjp. raspar, Fr. rdper to rasp; from O. H. G. raspon 
to scrape, obst. It. raspo a stalk of grapes, mange, Sp. Pr. 
raspa a stalk of grapes, beard of com, rasp, Fr. rdpe rasp; 
It. also graspo, cf. gracimolo for racimolo. Tabac rdpe == E. 

raise 0. Fr., Pr. rasa, from O. N. rds, A. S. ra^s, E. race. 

Bassettare — assettare. 

Bastro It. Sp. rake &c.; from rasirum, Sp. rastro rasira, Pg. 
rasto sledge, dray, truck; dim. It. rastrello rastcllo, Sp. ras- 
trillo rastillo, Fr. rdieau rake. 

Bate Fr. (f.) milt; from Dui rate honeycomb, from its spongy 
cellular appearance, cf. raggio. Hence r/^ra/e brisk , gay = 
prop, without spleen. From the same root comes raton a cake. 

Bdteau — rastro. 

Batis ratin O. Fr. fern. Marcel. Empir. : herbal pteridis i. e. filt- 
cul(e quce ratis gallice dicitur. It is the W. rhedyn, Corn.reden, 
Bret, raden. 

Bato Sp. moment; from raptus. The Cat. estona is from G. 

Baton — rate. 

Batto It, Sp. Pg. rato, Fr. E. rat an animal unknown to the 
Romans. From 0. H. G. rato (m.), A. S. raet, L. G. ratta, 
Gael, radan, Bret. raz. From Sp. rato come radear to crawl, 
radero creeping, vile. The Ven. is j!;a/i/e'^flrn (big- belly) from 

Batto It. quick ; from raptus. Wall, toratt = It. tutto ratio. 

Baudal — raudo. 

Baudo Sp. rapid, O. Fr. Pic. rade; Sp. raudal a torrent; from 

Bans Pr., Bret, raoz, hence Pr. rauzel, Fr. roseau; from Goth. 
ratis, whence 0. H. G. rdr, G. rohr, cf. Rh. ror. 

Bansa (rauza) Pr., Lim. roouso sediment, crust of wine, Rom. 
rosa (with open 6) a crust; cf. O. H. G. rosd (roso?) crusta, 

Bausar rauxar rousar roixar O. Pg. to ravish , sbst. roucom. 
From a L. raptiare. 

Ba^er — rifmare. 

Baiist Pr. rough; from raucidxis? cf. G. rauh (l)aspcr (2)raucus. 

Bautar Pr. subito auferre. From rapt are, not found in the co- 
gnate tongues. 

Bavauder fV. to mend^ repair; from re- ad -validare. Ravauder 
= also to tease , plague , ravauderie silly nonsense (botch- 


Bavir Fr., E. ravish; from rapere, It. raphre. Hence also rarin, 

ravine y ravage. 
Bayer rayo rayon — raggio. 
Bazione It., Sp. radon , E, Fr. ration; from ratio in L. L, =jiis, 

ri|;i^ht, duo. 
Basza It., Sp. Pg. Pr. raza, Fr. E. race. Radicem would haTe 

given It. raccia; »o it is better to refer razza to the O. H. G. 

reiza line, of. L.L. linea sanguinis, Fr. ligne, E. line, lineage Sx, 

Cf. tlr (Wall.) 8. V. Here. 
Bazzo — arazzo. 
Be O. Fr. a pyre for burning malefactors , L. L. dim. redvius 

^^strues lignorum ardeniium'\ It is the L. reie, wh. appears 

also in the (). Fr. reiz, Sp. red net, gratings cage for pri- 
soners , cf. 0. Fr. ardoir dedenz un re. 
Beal Sp. Pg. a coin, Pg. pi. reaes reis; from regalis, whence also 

Sj). Pg. reai Sj). a camp, Pg. king's tent (also arraiaf), and 

royal salutation. 
Beame It., O. Sp. reame realme, Pr. reyalme, E. realm, Fr. 

rot/aume; from a form regaltmen (regalis), cf. dueheattmeO. Fr. 

lor duche, which is the only other instance of such a formatioo. 

From regimen comes Fr. regime, Pr. regisme. 
Bebano Sp., Pg. rchanho rabanho flock, herd; from Ar. ribbarUti^ 

a myriad, with Kom. suffix (rare), cf. almir-ante, ammiraglio. 
Bebatar Sp. Pg. to carry off, assault; from raptare, v. Rom. 

Gr. 1 , 281 . 
Bebbio It. tine of a fork, Sp. rejo spike. From an old form 

ripil of the G. riff el iron comb (cf. Du. reppen, E. ripple =ii* 

riffeln) ? 
Bebec — riheba. 

Bebentar roventar Sp. Pg. to burst; from ventm. 
Bebondre O. Fr. Pr. to hide, bury, partic. rebost , O. Fr. reboz, 

from repofiere. The Burg, has rebdtre = remetlre. 
Bebosar — versnre. 
Bobours rebrousser — broza. 
Becado — recandar. 
Becamare recamer — ricamare. 

Becare It. to bring; from 0. II. G. reichan, G. reichen, E. reach, 
Becato — catar. 
Becaudar Sp., Pg. recadar arrecndar to collect taxes &c., 0. Sp. 

O. Pg. recabdar to get, obtain, Sp. recaudo a tax - gathering, 

Sp. Pg. recado also = errand , message. Capiare would give 

rccatar recatttar, cautus recotar recoutar. Becaudar (O. Pg. re- 

cabedar, sbst. recabedo recabito) is the It. ricapitare to effect, 

appoint, sbst. ricapito appointment, from capitarc to j>erfect 

(q. v.); cf. caudiilo, cadiello from capilellus. 
Becear — zclo. 


Beoensar — n'ncer. 

B^cere It. to spit ; from reicere (Virg. Fest. &c.) for rejicerey but, 
probably, with some reference to the German , v. racher, 

Beohe reque Pie. sour, hence Fr. rechin, f. rechigne, Com. 
reschign, It. arcigno (from Fr.) sour, harsh, unfriendly, vb. 
Fr. rechigner to look sour, crabbed, to knit the brows. Com. 
reschignaSy Ven. randgnare (from theFr.); O. Fr. rechigner 
rechiner, Pr. rechignar = also to mutter, grow^l, Sp. Pg. recJii- 
nar to grate, creak, be reluctant. Recfie, for resche resque, is 
from G. resche r6sche harsh, rude, rough. It. rincagnarsi = 
Fr. rechigner owes its form to cane, cf. si are in cagnesco. 

Bechef — chef. 

Beohinar — reche. 

Bdoif — arrecife. 

Beoiner — dessinare. 

Beoio Sp. strong, stout; from rigiduSy though usually g only 
becomes c after a consonant, cf. arciiia. Hence arrecirse to 
be benumbed with cold. 

Beoodo — cubito, 

Becoi — cheto, 

Becourre reoousse — scuotere. 

Beom Fr. (of wood) aftergrowth, recruc recruiting, vb. recruier, 
E. recruit; from Fr. recroilre. 

Beoua Sp. Cat., Pg. recova, a drove of beasts ; from Ar. rakitha 
a camel or other animal for riding upon. 

Beoudir — cudir. 

Beoular reculer — rinctdare. 

Bedea — redina. 

Bedil Sp. Pg. sheep-fold ; from rete net, Sp. red enclosure, cf. re. 

Bidina It., Sp. (corr.) rienda, Pg. re'dea, Pr. regno, Fr. rene, 
O. Fr. resgnCy E. rein; from retinere; Pr. regna = reina for 
retna, as paire = patre. 

Bedingote Fr.; from E. riding -coat. 

Bedo in It. arredo, Sp. arreo, Pg. arreio, Pr. arrei, O. Fr. arroi, 
E. array; It. arredare, Sp. arrear, Pg. arrciar, Pr. aredar ar- 
rezar, O. Fr. arroier arre'er, E. array; also It. corredo, Pr. 
conrei, O. Fr. conroi equipment &c., Sp. conroi, Cat. correu 
benefit, favour. It. corredare, Pr. conrear, O. Fr. conreer to 
equip, adorn, Fr. conroyer to prepare leather (E. curry), clay, 
mortar &c. (sbst. conroi), Sp. conrear; also Pr. desrei, O. Fr. 
desroi derroi, Fr. desarroi, E. disarray, vb. Pr. desreiar &c. 
The simple roi is found in 0. Fr. mesure ne roi, and in Sp. 
arreo (= a reoj successively, Pr. darre = Sp. de arreo. From 
a German source, Goth, raidjan to order, A. S. ge-rwdian, 
M. H. G. ge-reiten to make ready, and more immediately con- 
nected, Du. riden. Others refer to the Celtic, Gael, reidh 


smooth, ready, Bret, reiz rule, order = Fr. roi, ss feiz=fm, 
efreix = rffroi , preix=proie, all which, however, maybe 
fn)ni the German. 

Bedor Sp. circh», circular mat, O. Sp. prepos, redor de aroand, 
ader-redor for arrededor, Sp. alrededor, IV. as redor &c- Redtur 
is perhaps for ruedor ruedol (roiuius), cf. ruisenor from /«- 

Bedruna Sp. left hand; prop, the hand that ''retreats'' or "gives 
way'' from reiro, Sp. redro. The sufF. wiio is very rare (cf. 

Bie — raggio. 

Befo It. thread; from Ok. ^atpijy or, better, from O. G. reif 
string, cord, cf. Piedm. tra, Rh. frau from G, drahi thread. 

Bef^n Sp., Pg. refrao proverb, Pr. re f rank, Fr, refrain, E. 
refrain. From refrangere, Pr. refranher^ Fr. refraindre. So 
J. Grimm derives fringutire and fringilla from frangere^ cf. 
0. N. X7tfA-« to break, klnka to sound, clink &c. For refraiihn 
the Pr. has also refrinlier from refringere; the sbst. r«/rfl« 
clap, crack, owes it^ form to fremitus, 

Befriega — fregare, 

Befrogner — frignare, 

Begain — guaime. 

Begalare It., Sp. Pg. regalar, Fr. regaler to regale, make pre- 
sents to ; It. Sp. Pg. regalOy Fr. regal a present. The Sp. re- 
galar means also to pamper, coax, O. Sp. to melt; this point< 
to the L. regclare to thaw, melt as the origin of the Koiu. 
word (not from rcgalis); cf. O. Sp. plamo regalado = moltcD 
h^'ul, Papias pluml/um regelatum = liquefactwn ; O. Fr. regeler, 
sbst. regiel = Sp. regalo. 

Began ar Sp., Pg. Pr. reganhar, Pr. also reganar to show the 
teeth, snarl, growl, grumble. These words seems identical 
with the 0. Fr. rccaner = (l) to show the teeth (2) to brar, 
Rerr. rechaner, archamier to neigh, chagner to snarl. From 
cachinnare to laugh with open mouth. The Fr. ricaner (ri for 
re perhaps from ridere rirej is only used for expressing the 
sneer of malice or the simper of idiotcy. 

Begazo Sp. Pp. lap, skirt, regazar to tuck up the skirt; 
from Basque sbst. galzarra with the same meaning. 

Begimber tr. to kick; not from rejamber (jamhe, gamba) for 
this would not account for the form regiber in O. Fr. ; m is in- 
serted before by not rejected. Cf. E. gib, 

B^gime — reatne. 

Begistro It. Sp., Pr. Fr. registre (E. register), Pg. registo, from 
L. L. registru?fi for regestum ^^ liber in quern regeruntur commn- 
larii quivis vel epistohc summorum ponlificum " Ducange. 

Beglisse — regoUzia. 


Regooio — gozo. 

B^oldar Sp. to belch; for regolar from gola, L. gtda. 

Begolizia legorizia It., Sp. regalicia, regalizay Sp. Pg. regaliz, 
Pr. regalicia reguiecia, regalussia, Fr. regiisse, E. licorice; from 
liquiridaJY egetixxB), which is the 6k. yXvxv^^t^a. 

Begretter F r. to regret, Fr. E. sbst. regret. According to Mahn 
(who finds an O. Pr. regradar regredar) from gratus, It. grado, 
Pr. grat, O. Fr. gret, Fr. gre, cf. grado; It. aggradare &c. = 
to take with thanks, so regradar might = to long for, regret 
(to receive back willingly). Though this may be the true der., 
yet the form is, doubtless, partly owing to the Goth, gr^tan, 
O.N. grdta, E. Pro v. greet to weep (the L. t in such positions 
is usu. dropped in Pr., but cf. agradar as well as agreiar), 

BehenSp., Pg. refem arrefem hostage; from Ar. rahuj arrahn 
pledge, hostage. 

Behusar — rifusare. 

Beinette Fr. a sort of apple, rennet; from reine regina, so = 
queen of apples. 

Beja Sp., Pg. relha iron lattice -work; from reticulum, v. also 

Bejo — rebbio. 

Belampago — lampo. 

Belayer Fr. to change horses &c., sbst. relais, E. relay. From 
religare, cf. frayer from fricare. Al. from the E. lay. 

Belha Pg. Pr., O. Fr. reille, Sp. reja ploughshare; from regula? 
O. Fr. reilhe de fer = regula ferrea. 

Belinchar Sp., Pg, rinchar to neigh. Hinnilitare (Lucilius) would 
give Sp. hinchar, thence re-hinchar red-inchar relinchar, though 
such process is unusual. From hinntiliare for hinnilitare, come 
Pr. endillar enilhar (Cat. renilyar) inhilar. 

Beloz — on'uolo. 

Beluquer — luquer. 

Bamate — matar. 

Bemedar arremedar Sp. Pg. to imitate; from re-imitari, 

Beimir Pg. to redeem ; = Sp. redimir, L. redimere. 

Bemolaoha Sp. beet-root; = It. ramolaccio, L. armoracia horse- 
radish, cf. rabano. 

Bemoloar remorquer — remorchiare. 

Bemorohiare It., Fr. remorquer, Sp. remolcar to tow; from re- 
mulcum a towing-rope. 

Bempart — parare. 

Bemuer — muer. 

Benard Fr. fox, O. Fr. renardie craftiness. From O. H. G. ^^- 
ginhart Reinhart (counsellor) the name of the fox in the Fables ; 
this in Fr. became an appellative and supplanted the O. Fr. 
volpUl (= vulpecula), goutpille, gotdpil (whence goupillon). 


Bencilla — reiiir. 

Bencontre — rimpeUo. 

Benda — randa, 

Bendere It., Sp. rendir, Pg. render, Pr. Fr. rendre, EL render, 

from reddcre; sbst. It. rendiia, Sp. Pr. rendiiOy Fr. rente, E. 

rent, from reddiium, pi. reddita. Pott derives from re-indere, 

but this would not suit the sense well (of. rendre paisible = 

placidum reddere), and the n is a mere insertion for strengthen* 

ing tiie fonn. 
Bendija Sp. crack, <*hink; O. Sp. rchetidija; a dim. fromfe/tdi 

split, Sp. also hendrija with metathesis of the r. 
Bdne — redina, 
BenArogner — frignare. 
Benge O. Fr. girdle, L. L. nncfl; from O. H. G. hrtnga'(ring) 

buckle , whence also Rh, rincla buckle. 
Benifler — niffa, 
Benou Pr. usury, prop. = sprout, short, Sp. renuevo, from reno- 

rare, cf. L. femts, Gk. rdxog, G. tvucher. Hence renwkr 

usurer, Rh. ranver, Sp. renovero, 
Benso It. fine flax; from Jihehns, whence it was brought. 
Bents — rez, 
Benir Sp., Pg. re/Mr, Cat. rentjir to quarrel, Sp. riiia qoarrel^ 

dim. rencilla; from L. ringi. 
Benne ■ — rangifero, 
Beo It. guilty, also = bad, wicked, in which sense we haveabo 

It. rio, Wal./rw. Sp. reo, Rh, revs are only used in the L, seiwe, 
Bepairer ( ). V\\, Pr. repairar, E. repair, sbst. O. Fr. Fr. repaire 

(in Fr. only = den, lair), E. repair; from repatriare. It. ^/«^ 

Bepit Fr., Pr. respieit , It. rispitto adjoununent, respite : from 

rrspecfus consideration, so = indulgence, forbearance. Vb. 

O. Fr. respitcr, E. respite from respectare, 
Bepollo Sp., Pg. repotho cabbage, from repuilulare to s])rout. 

Sp. also = bud. 
Beponche — raperonzo. 
Bepr^saille — ripresaglia, 
Beprocher Fr., Pr. repropchar, sbst reprodie repropche^ hence 

Sp. reprochar, reproche, E. reproach. As approcher from ap- 

pjopiare, so reprocher from repropiare to draw ne^r, advance 

(trans.) throw back in one's teeth, cf. Pr. reproc/iier reprwkr 

a proverb. 
Beptar (.). Sp. Sp. Pg. Pr., Sp. retar, O. Fr. reter to reproach, 

reprimand, to challenge, trom reputare = reproacli in L. L. 

cf. si quis alteri reputaverit , quod scutum suum Jactasset L. Sal., 

cf. appellare used in the s.ame way. The Rh. has raridar, r = 

L. p, / -- u. 


Bequin Fr. shark; a corruption of requiem which^form is found 
in some dictionaries. The name was given by the Norman 
mariners , who regarded this dangerous fish with the greatest 

Bee Sp,, Pg. rez head of cattle; from Ar. rds head; cf. caput, 
E. head. 

Beeoatar — accattare. 

Bdaeau Fr. net -work, small net; from a L. reiicellum; It. reti- 

Beeemblar — sembrare. 

Beema — risma. 

BeeoUar — sollar. 

Beequicio — quicio. 

BeeeenoLbler — sembrare. 
— soriire. 
It.; Sp. ristra, Pg. reste resiia, Pr. rest a string or trace 
of onions &c. ; from restis a rope. Piedm. risla hemp cor- 
responds to O. H. G. risia a bundle of flax. 

It., Sp. ristre enristre (m.), Pg. reste riste risire, E. resl 
(of a lance &c.), whence Pr. arestoi, O. Fr. arestuel handle of 
a lance; from resiare, Roman arresiare to resist, so prop. = 
resistance, support. 

— aresta. 
Bestamr — sianco. 

Beetio It. (for restivo), Pr. restiu, Fr. reiif, E. restive; from res- 
tare to resist. Mil. is restin. 

Beetreindre — etreindre. 

Betama Sp. Pg. broom (shrub); from Ar. rat amy ratamah. 

Betar — reptar. 

Bitif — restio. 

Betono Sp. a shoot, sprout, retoriar to shoot, sprout anew. 

Prom tumidus, retumiar (limpidtts limpiar), retonar, or from 

the Celtic, W. tun a projection. 

Betro It. in Comp., Pr. reire, E. rear, O. Fr. riere; from retro, 
for which Sp. re. atras. Hence It dietro drieto, Pr. dereire 
denier (also adj.), Fr. derriere from de retro; It. addietro, Pr. 
areire, E. arrear, Fr. arriere from ad retro; Pr. dereiran = a 
form deretranus, Fr. dernier = deretranarius. The r is 
dropped in dietro for diretro as in O. Fr. za en ayer = Pr. sa 
en areire. 

Betroenge retrowange O. Fr. also rotruange, rotruenge, rotru- 
henge, rotuenge, Pr. retroencha , retroenza a troubadour-song, 
ballad, dance -song; from retroientia, if an orig. Pr. retroensa 
(whence retroencha, Fr. retroenche, retroenge) may be sup- 




Beuper Pic. eructare = O. Sax. ropizon, O. H. G. rof-az(m^ 
G. reup'Sen, 

Betbier — rifusare. 

BdiiBsir — escire. 

Bevanche — vetigiare. 

Bdve Fr. dreaui, vb. rever to dream, rave, in O. Fr. reste rtscfr: 
the *• however is not orig., since we have Pr. rrrir, cf. tfte for 
eve (aqua). It is a prov. fomi for rage (rabies), cf. cage and 
caive; rabia raiva reve, E. rave. From rever couie Dii. revm, 
revelen, M. H. 0. reben; Fr. revasser. Burg, ratasser, 

Bevdche reves — rivescio. 

Bevel ( ). Fr. (rivel), E. revel revelry = Pr. revel resistance, 
r(^b(»llion, from vb. revellar, O. Fr, revelery L. rebellare, so = 
>rop. incitement, roushig. The form reviaus is against the 
[or. from reveiller, 

Bez Fr. sbst. level, rez-de-chaussee ground -floor; from old part 
reSy Pr. ras, L. rasus; also used as preposition in certaui 
phrases , e. g. rez terre on a level with the ground , cf. raderr 
littis, rez a rez y Pr. ras e ras, Pg. rez e rez close. Hence also 
I*r. part. pres. rasen, It. rasente. Cf. L. G. prep. r6r from 
rorrn to stir, touch; Mil. arenl, Neap. Pg. rente, from hwrens; 
O. Sp. pegante, iroiw peg ar to cleave to; Pic. tout serant, from 
serrer to press. 

Bezar Sp. rg.. Cat. resar to recite, pray; from reeilare, reclare, 

Bezelar — zelo. 

Bezno Sp. an insect, a tick; from ricinus, It. ricino. 

Bezza It. a sort of lace; from L. rele, pi. retia. 

Bezzo — aura. 

Bhume Fr. (f.) rheum, cold ; from L. rheuma (^svfia), Pr. rauma, 
It. rema. 

Bia Sp. Pg. Cat. mouth of a river; for nba, L. ripa bank, It 
n'va also limit, so = end of a river, cf. arrivare to reach the 
mouth of u river. 

Bibaldo It. Si). Pg., Pr. ribaui, Fr. riband, E. ribald; hence X. 
ribballdi, M. H. G. ribbalt, It. (corr.) rubaldo. L. L. ribaldvs, 
cf. Matthew Paris: fures, exules, fugitivi, excommunicati , qt^ 
omnes ribaldos Francia vulgariter consuevit appellare, = Gk. 
TtavovgyoL. The word ribaldi was also specially applied to 
the "cnfans perdus'^ the ''black guard'' of an army, hence 
It. rubnlda a sort of headpiece worn by such , Fr. ribaudequin 
a missile. The O. H. G. has a fem. hriba (hripaj prostitute, 
M. H. G. ribe, whence, with suffix aid, might be formed fh 
baldo; hence too Fr. riber to debauch a woman, perhaps also 
ribler to rove. 

Bibeba It. a musical instrument, rebeck ; from Ar. rabdb. Hence 
(corrupted) It. ribeca, Pg. rabeca, Cat. rabaquei, Fr. rebec (E- 


rebeck), Pr. rabey, also Sp. rahel, Pg, rdbel arrabil, O. Fr. 

rebeiie; for change of b into c, cf, Sp. jabeba jabeca a Moorish 

Ribreszo — brezza. 
Ricamare It., Sp. Pg. recamar, whence Fr. recamer to embroider; 

sbst. It. ricamo, bp. Pg. recamo; from Ar. raqama to weave 

a stripe in a piece of stuff , sbst raqm striped embroidery. 
Bioaner — reganar. 
Biooio It., Wal. aridu, Sp. erizo, Pg. ericio ourico, Pr. erisson, 

Fr. herisson (h asp. but in O. Fr. ericon, ire con whence E. 

urchin) a hedgehog: from ericius (Varro). Hence vb. It. ar- 

ricciare,Sp. erizar, rg. ouricar, Pr. erissar, Fr. herisser. 

Biooio It., Sp. rizo curled, frizzled, sbst. curl, Pg. rico shaggy 
K It. arricciare, Sp. rizar, Pg. < 
curl. From riccio &c., hedgehog, cf. L. L. reburrus ^^hispidus, 

stuff; vb. It. arricciare, Sp. rizar, Pg. ouricar ericar near to 

crispus'^, and Ducange (h. v.): habebat capillos crispos et rigi- 
das atque sursum erectos et, ut it a dicam, rebursos. 

Biooo It., Sp. Pg. rico, Pr. ric, Fr. riche (rich); from O. H. G. 
rihhi, Goth, reiks, G. reich. Fr. riche seems to be a fern, of 
ric or rique, cf. franc, blanc. 

Bioredersi It. to retract one's error, Pr. O. Fr. se recreire to 
retract, renounce, grow weary of a thing, L. L. se recredere. 
One who was vanquished in a judicial combat and forced to 
confess his wrong, was specially called recreditus, hence recre- 
zut recreu, recrezen recreant (E. recreant). Se recredere or cre- 
dere was a translation of the O. G. sih galaubjan = recedere, 
deficere of a friendly giving in or compliance , galaubjan = 
credere (G. glauben, E. be-lieve). 

BIddare It. to dance , move in a circle , sbst. ridda a dance in a 
circle ; from O. H. G. ga-ridan, M. H. G. rtden to turn about, 
move in a circle. 

Bider Fr. to wrinkle, ride wrinkle, curl, ripple, rideau curtain 
ffrom its folds) ; from ga-ridan to twist about, contort, whence 
U. adj. reid curled, twisted, v. riddare, or from A. S. vrtdhan, 
E. u>rithe. 

Bi^otto raddotto It., Sp. reducto, Fr. redoute (f.), E. redoubt; 
t from reductus. 

Biel Sp. a bar or ingot of uncoined metal; from reguia a rod, 

Bien Fr. used for L. nihil, from ace. rem; je ne vois rien = non 
video rem, nihil video. Pr. ren re = L. aliquid, guidquam. 
Cat. res; O. Pg. has una rem, algun rem, algorrem; Pr. ganren 
= gran ren much (Fr. grand' chose), N. Pr. quauquarren (quel- 
que chase), O. Pr. aldres (autre chose), 

Bienda — redina. 
— risicare. 


372 RIFFA — RIN. 

Bifilt It. (prop, rifa Com.), Sp. Pg. Oat. Sic. rifa scuffle, con- 
t(>st, raffle; vb. It. ar-riffare tojplay at dice^ raffle, Sp. Cat. 
Pg. rifar to disputo, jangle, raffle, 0. Fr. riffer to rifle, seize. 
Lorr. riffvr to tease flax. From a German source, Bav. rifftn 
(z=z 0. raufen to pull, pluck), cf. O. Fr. riffler to tear, E. 
rifle, scuffle, Wall, rifler to run blindly about, Roucb. rifeitr 
= riffei'y sbst. (X Fr. riffle a switch, stick (E. rifle^y NoniL 
rifle blow, scab, perhaps also It. riffilo apish face, Pied, rifia- 
dor Hie; from O. II. O. riffd riffUa saw, G. riff'el a flax-coiub, 
rittler, vb. riffeln, 

Rifiutare — rif'mnre, 

Rifusare It., Pg. Pr. refnsar, Sp. rehusar, Fr. refttser, E. r</iisr. 
From recHsare with i\\e f o{ refulare , It. nfiuiare, Pr. refudar 
--—- respuere, reiieere (L. L.). We find in Pr. O. Fr. a second 
form without ma f (cf. preon from profundus) rehuzar reOsar, 
rehuser reiiser raitser to give way, get out ol the way, ruser 
(espec. of wild animals) to turn or double so as to throw die 
dogs off the scent, whence Fr. ruse trick. 

Biga It. line, row, riyo rule, ruler, rigoletto circular dance, dance, 
(J. reigen; from O. H. G. riga line, circumference, M. H. G. 
rthe = G. reihe. 

Bigoglio — orgoglio, 

Bigogolo rigoletto — galbero. 

Bigole Fr. trench, O. Fr. rigoL From the Celtic: W. rfug in- 
cision, rhigol furrow, ditch, L, G. rige brook. It. rigoro may 
be corr. from rivulus. 

Bigoletto — • riga, 

Bigoro — rigole. 

Bigot Pr. curled hair, rigotar to curl. It. rigotiato curled. From 
( ). II. G. riga a row , circle. 

Bima It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. K. rime; vb. rimare, rimar, ritncr, ritne. 
In Pr. also m. rim. Norm. E. rym. The Rom, word belongs 
rather to the 0. II. G. rm numerus, O. Ir. rim, W. rhif, than 
to the h, riig/iivius y which would give rimmo or remmo. Hence 
O. Sp. adrimar, Sp. Cat. arrimar to put in order, bring toge- 
ther, put one tlung on another, stow (Fr. atritiker)^ cf. 0. il. 
G. rim = row , Sp. rima, cf. also Fr. enrimtn- (Berry) to Pft 
in order, Sp. rimero things put in order over each other. N. rr. 
rima to approach = Sp. arrimar. 

Bimbombare — bomha. 

Bimpetto, di rimpetto, a rimpetto a qc. It. prep, for contra. 
Froiny>6'//o fpec/usj, as rincontra (re -in -contra), Fr, renrontre, 
from contra. Vov this use oi petto, cf. Sp. hacia, cam, freide; 
cf. Dante Inf. S, 115: chiuser le porte net jwtto al mio signer, 
so It. appetto. 

Bin O. Fr. (m.) well. Com. rin streamlet, Wall, arene canal; a 


Celto - Germanic word, W. rhin (f.) canal, Goth, rtnnd a 

stream , O. H. G. rinnd, G. rinne. 
Rinoeau Fr. foliage; for rainceau = It. ramicello, from ramus, 
Rincer Fr. ; for rinser, cf . Pic. rinscr, E. rinse. It is the O. N. 

hreinsa to purify, G. reinigen. Distinct from Pr. recensar, Sp. 

recentar, (Jat. rentar i. e. receniiare, recentare to renew, reform. 

Bincon Sp., O. Sp. rancon rencon, Cat. raco a comer. Of the 

same ori^n as the Rom. ranco renco, so = something curved, 

Goth, vraiqos crooked. 
Bincontra — rimpetio. 
Binculare It., Sp. Pr. rectdar, Pg. recuar, Fr. reenter to recoil; 

from cuius, cf. G. sick drsen, I)u. aerselen. Hence Fr. adv. a 

reculons backwards, G. drschlings, M. H. G. erslingen, 
BinArignato — frignare, 
EUB^avagnare — guadagnare. 
Ringhiera — aringo, 
Bingla Sp., Cat. rengla line, row, Sp. renglon; from Fr. rang, 

or from regula? 
ftintuzzare — intuzzare, 
ftina — reriir. 
Etinon — rognone. 
ELiole O. Fr. striped; from G. riege, reihc a row, cf. It. rigato 

(from rig a), 
ELiotta It., Pr. riota, O. Fr. riotCy E. riot, vb. It. rioitare, Fr. 

rioter, E. riot (distinct from Fr. rioter to titter); for rivoter 

from riban to rub, whence Du. revot, ravot. Cf. Sp. refriega 

quarrel, {romfricare. 
Etiparo — par are. 
Etipentaglio It. danger. Cf. O. Fr. repentaille (repentir) forfeit, 

penance- money. 
Etiper Fr. to scrape, ripe scraper; from prov. G. rippen rihhen = 

G. reihen to nib, cf. Du. ripf (f,) scraper. •. 

EUpido It. steep , from ripa ; the t(»rm. idus is not found else- 
where in It., so, perliaps, the form was taken from rapidus. 

Upio Sp. Pg. small stone to fill up a crevice, ripia shingle, Pg. 

rjpfl board, lath. Sp. ripiar to plaster chinks in walls. The 

L. is replum, 
2ipire It. to clamber; from repere with a change of conj., cf. 

ftiggire. The Rh. has rever without change. 

iipresagliarappresaglia It., Sp. re?j9r^5a/m, Yt, represaille, E. 
reprisal; from reprehendere reprehensus. 

ItiBioare It., Sp. arriscar arriesgar, Pg. riscar, arriscar, Fr. ris- 
quer, E. risk; sbst. It. risico, risco, Sp. riesgo, Fr. risque, E. 
risk. Originally a nautical word , and = a dangerous rock, 
precipice, Sp. risco from resecare, cf. Sw. skdr rock (scaur) 

374 BISMA — ROBA. 

from skdra to shear, cf. sheer = precipitous; cf. N. Pr. rezegi 
to cut off, Mil. Com. resega Baw and danger^ vb. resega to 
saw and to risk; hence also Pg. risen stripe (cutting), riscar 
to strip<\ 

Bisma It., Sp. Pg. resma, Fr. rame, E. ream (of paper). The 
Gk. aQi^fidg became in It. arismns to correspond with arisme- 
tica (so L. L. Pr. O. Sp. Cat O. E. arsmetrik), hence rism 
risma, which latter, in Florence, also means a collection of 
people , a company. 

Biso It., Pr. ris, Fr. riz, Wal. urez, E. rice; from wyza. Sp. 
Pg. arroz is from Ar. amzz or ruzz (al-ruzz, ar-ruzzj. 

Bisque — risicare. 

Bissoler Fr. to roast brown; from the Norse, Dan. riste=iG. 
r^sien, E. roast, Icel. Swod. rist = G. r(5is/, hence dim. rissoler 
= G. rdsieln. The II. G. o appears in It rosolare. 

Bistre — resta. 

Bitorta It., Pr. redorta, O. Fr. riorie reorte roorie rorte. Norm. 
rofe osier, withe, wicker; prop. = twisted, from retorquere, 
whence also Sp. retoria, Fr. reiorfe, E. retort a vessel of 
twisted form. 

Bitroso It. stubborn; from retrorsus ^= retroversus). 

Bitto It. adj. right, as opp. left, prop. = straight hand (not 
crooked or maimed like the left hand), hence marritto comp. 
with mantis. Ilcnce It. diritto driito, Sp. derecho, Pg. direitOy 
Pr. dreit, Fr. droit ^ Wal. drept, L. directus; O. Fr. endroiten- 
drn't prep, for L. versus, Fr. sbst. endroit place, cf. contre'e, 
G. r/ef/nid. 

Biver Fr. to rivet a nail, whence Fr. rivet (sbst), E. rivet; per- 
haps from l)u. rljven or O. N. rifa to rake, clear away obstruc- 
tions &c., O. II. G. 7%any G. reihen, E. rive. N. f r. riblo a 
rammer = O. H. G. rihil (rlban) a pestle, ribla = river. 

Bivescio rovescio.'It., Sp. Pg. reveSy Fr. revers, reverse; from 
reverstis, whence also Pg. adj. revesso, Fr. reviche harsh, un- 

Biviera It., Sp. ribera (vera), Pg. Pr. ribeira, Pg. also beira, 0. 
Fr. riviere bank, shore, prop, parts about the bank or shore; 
from riparia. Influenced by riviis the meaning of "river'' was 
aided , Fr. riviere (E. river). 

Biz — riso* 

Bizo — riccio. 

Bizzare It. to erect, from a L. rectiare (rectm). From directiatf 
we have It. dirizzare drizzare, O. Sp. derezar, Pg. Sp. en- 
derezar, Pr. dressar, Fr. dresser, a -dresser, E. dress, address* 

Boba It. O. Sp., O. Pg. rouba, Pr. rauba, Fr. robe, E. robe, Sp. 
ropa, Pg. roupa clothes, apparel, stuff, and in older sense 
booty, Kh. rauba estate; masc. Sp. robo, Pg. roubo robbery; 


It. mbare, Sp. robar, Pg. roubar, Pr. raubar, O. Fr. rober, Fr. 
derober, O. Sp. robir; from O. H. Gt. roub spoHum, vb. Goth. 
biraubdn, O. H. G. roubdn roupdn, G. rauben, E. rob, cf. Gael. 

robainn, L. L. raubare. Hence O. Pg. roubaz rdbaz roaz 
thievish, formed like rapax. Wal. robi to take prisoner, from 
rob = Serv. rob, Alb. robi ropi prisoner, slave. 
Bobbio — roggio. 

Bobbo pob It., Sp. Fr. rob, Pg. robe, E. rob; from Ar. rt/ftft. 
Bobin — ruggine. 
Boble — rovere. 
Bobra Sp. a document to prove a sale 5 from roborare. Pg. ro- 

bora (revora)y L. L. robora = puberty; from robur. 
Boooa roccia It., Sp. roca, Pff. rr. roca rocha, Fr. roche rock 
(It. rocca also = bolt, lock), Cat. m. roc stone, Fr. roc; Pr. 
rockier, Fr. rocker; vb. O. Fr. rocker to stone; It. diroccare 
dirocciare, Sp. derrocar, Pr. derrocar derocar, Fr. deroquer 
derocker to throw from a rock, throw down, Sp. derrockar to 
waste, throw away, O. Fr. aroquer arocker to aash to pieces. 
The word is found in Gael, roc, E. rock, Du. rots, Basque 
arroca, W. rkwg (a projection). Diez considers that it does 
not properly belong to any of these languages, and he de- 
rives it from a L. rupea or rupica (rupes). 

Boooa It., Sp. rueca, Pg. roca a distaff, from O. H. G. rocco, 
O. N. rockr. Hence roccketta, E, rocket. 

Booohetto It., Sp. roquete, Fr. E. rocket (It. also roccetto), cf. 
Wal. rockic a woman's frock. L. L. roccus = O. H. G. roc, 
G. rock, A. S. roc, E. frock, O. N. rockr. Prop. = a garment 
with folds, cf. Pg. enrocar, It. arrocckettare to fold, from O. 
N. krucka, Gael, roc fold, E. ruck, to ruck. 

Booohio It. a block of wood or stone; It. ronckione; from rocca 
a rock? 

Boooo It., Sp. Pg. roque, Pr. Fr. roc, E. rook the castle in chess; 
from Pers. rukk (a camel with a tower for archers), which 
Forbes traces back to the Sanskrit roka a ship, that being 
the original form of the piece. 

Boohe rooher — rocca. 

Boobet — rocclictto. 

Booiada rooio — ros (l). 

Booin — ros (2). 

Bodela rodilla — rotella. 

B6der Fr. to roam, prowl. The Pr. rodar. It. rotare to roll. For 
rdder is found rouer, Rou. router. 

BodiUa — rotella. 

Bodrigon Sp. vine-prop; from ridica, but with allusion to the 
proper name Rodrigo, cf. rui- ponce for ri- ponce. 

Bolfla — ruff a. 


Boggio It., Sp. roxo, Pg. rouxo, Pr. rog (f. rojd), Fr. rouge, alao 
It. robbio, Sp. rubeo, Pg. ruivo, E. rt/fty, red; from rubeus; Fr. 
vb. rougir, Pr, ro^ir. Hence also robbia, Sp. riiMff madder. 

Bogna It., Sp. roAi, Pg. Pr. ronha, Fr. ro^Tie, Wal. r^iVi (cf. vk 
with It. t^i^wfl, sicnu with scrigno) itch, mange; from ro^i^o 
robiginis (Menage) a harsh, but possible, contraction (rcbgn 
rogn). Hence (). E. ronyon, 

Bogner Fr. to cut, clip, O. Fr. rooigner to cut the hair, Pr, re- 
donhar rezognar, Sp. (Murcia) des-ronar. From roiundare, 
wh(^nee Sj). redotidear, cf. Bergonha from Burgundia, and cf. 
Sp. circenar, v. rern'ne. 

Bognie Pic. a trunk of a tree; from O. H. G. rona (f. rono m.), 
M. H. G. rone ni., G. rahne f., a fallen trunk. 

Bognone It., Sp. niion, Vr.renMrenhd, Fr. roignon kidney, WaL 
renunchitt; from a form renio frenj, cf. vigliacco from vUi$. It. 
has also annone nrgnofWy cf. nrcigno from Fr. rechin. 

Bogo It. branibh*, blackberry, Wal. ntg; from nibm (rovo rogo) 
Sp. nd)o, 

Bogue Fr. adj. proud, haughty; borrowed from the Normansj 
O. N. hrok-r aiTogant, E. rog^ie (Gael. rdg). Wall, has orth 
guer to addre.«;8 haughtily. 

Boide Fr. stiff; from rigidm, It. rigido. 

Boitelet Fr. a goldhammer (usu. a wren, G. zaun-k^nig hedge- 
king), from its golden crown or tuft; = roi-ei-el-et with triple 
dim. suffix, cf. h.regidus, regaltohis, Gk. fiaailevg^ fiaaiXicxog^ 
TVQavvog^ It, reattino, Sp. reyezuclo, Pg. ave re, also Norm. 
re-pcptn, liorr. roi-bertaud, Saintongc roi-bcdelet, It. re di siepe 
f=z zaun-konig), 

Bojar — rozar, 

Bolde rollo — rotolo. 

Bole — rotolo, 

Boman — ro?nanzo, 

Bomanzo It., Sp. romance, Pr. O. Fr. romans, Fr. roman, Rh. 
romanach, L. L. romancixim, E. romance (language or com- 
position); hence vb. Sp. romanzar, Pr. romansar, 
manner to translate into Romance. From L. adv, romanice: 
parler romans ^= loqui romanice. O. Fr. romans took the form 
romant in the oblique cases, itL paJsans paisant , hence later 
noni. romant roman, adj. romant-ique, romantic. Cf. O.Fr. bre- 
tans = britannice, Sp. vascuence = Vascojiice. 

Bombo It., Sd. rumbo, Pg. nmbo rumo, Fr. E, mmb (E. also 
s|)elt rhumb), point of the compass, line, course of a ship; vb. 
^Y.arrumer to trace the course of a ship on the chart; accord- 
ing to some from Qv^og pole of a waggon, according to others 
from rhombm. But Fr. arrumer, Sp. armmar = to stow, and 


must come from Du. rum ship's -roo/w. Cf. Norm, arruner to 
arrange, deruner to disarrange. 

Bombo frombo It. a hamming, buzzing, romba fromba, rom- 
boia fromboia a sling, rombolare fromboiare to sling; from 
foiipog a top, foiipstv to whirl, sling. The f is onoma- 

Bombo Pg., Sp. romo, Cat. rom adj. blunt, obtuse; from G. 
sbst. rumpf, Du. romp (E. rump) tnmcus. Pg. rombo sbst. = 
hole, ef. huco. 

Borneo It. O. Sp., also romero, O. Fr. romier, E. roamer (vb. to 
roam) a pilgrim (prop, to Home), cf. Dante, Vita Nuova: chia- 
mansi romei inquanto vanno a Roma. 

Bomero — romeo and ramerino. 

Bomire It. to make a noise or bustle ; from O. H. H. hrdmjan 
hruomjan = G. ruhmen to extol. 

Bomito It., Sic. rimiia hermit; from eremita, 
Bonoa It. a sickle, javelin with a sickle-shaped point; from vb. 
runcare to mow. O. Fr. ronsge a spear. 

Bonoar Sp. Pg. Cat. to snore, snarl; from rhoncare, sbst. rhon- 

Bonoe Fr. (f.), Pr. ronser briar, thorn. From rumex a missile 
with barbed point (It. ronciglio hook, barb), cf. Fr. chardon 
= (l) thistle (2) spike. The Oce. is roumec. For the form, 
cf. Fr. ponce, Pr. pomser from pumex, Fr. pouce, Pr. polzer 
from poliex. From rumex also comes Pr. ronsar to sling, 

Boncear Sp., Cat. roncejar to loiter, behave sulkily, Sp. roncero, 
Pg. roncetro slothful; perhaps of the same ongin as the It. 
ronzare to hum. 

Bonchione — rocchio. 

Bonciglio — ronce, 

Boncin — rozza. 

Bonco Sp. O. Pg., Cat. rone hoarse; for roco from raucus (Pg. 
rouco), taking the n of the verb roncar = L. rhoncare to 

Bondine rondinella It., Wal. renduneOy Pg. andorinha, Pr. ironda 
irondella, Fr. hirondeile sw^ allow; Wal. rendurea, Pr. randola, 
N. Pr. endriotdeto andoureto dhidouleio, O. Fr. aronde alondre 
aronddle, Cat. aureneta oreneia, Val. oroneia. From hirundo 
hirundinis, Cat. orin-eta by loss of the d. Whence is the Sp. 
ffoiondrina (ffolondro == hoj)e , desire)? Ferrari recognises m 
it the Gk. xsXiSdv. 

Bondon — randa. 

Bonfler Fr., Pr. ronflar, Sic. runfuliari, Tusc. ronfiare, Ven. 
Lomb. ronfare to snore, snort; the root is seen in the O.H. G. 


rof-azon, O. S. ropiz^hi to belch; perhaps too in the Bret mfli 
to guzzle , Rh. g-rufflar to snort. 

Bonger Fr. to gnaw, bite, champ. From rnmigare to chew the 
cud , O. Fr. ronger, Sp. Pff. rumiar ronzar, Pr, romiar. It. ru- 
gumare, Mil. rumeguy Wal. nm€ga. 

Bonsar — rotice. 

Bonsare It. to hum, buzz, sbst. ronzone a blue -bottle. From 
O. H. G. runazdn, M. H. G. runzen, 

Bonsino — rozza. 

Bona — rogna. 

Boque — rocco. 

Boquete — racchetto. 

Boquette — ruca. 

Bos Pr. (m.) dew; the Pg. Sp. form from adj. roscidus, sbst. rri- 
cio, rocio, Sp. vb. rociar (cf. iimpidus iimpiar), Cat, ruxar, Pr. 
arrosar, Fr. arroser to bedew, besprinkle (E. rose of a water- 
ing-pot), ^vhenco Sp. Pg. rociada, Cat. ruxada, Pr. rwtada, 
Fr. rosee, It. ntgiada dew. 

Bosa It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. E. rose. From a form rOsa with lon^ 
0. From rfe« come It. mosa, Sp. rw<*5e, Wal. roas^. We fina 
a diphthongal form in Mil. roeusa, Piedm. reusa, Rh. r6sa, 

Bos^e — ros. 

Bospo It. toad; perhaps connected with ruspo rough, v. escuerza. 

Bosse — rozza, 

Bossignuolo It., Sp. rtdseiior, O. Sp. rossenol roseiior, rmiJcinM 
rouxinol, Pr. Fr. rossignol nightingale, Pr. f. rossinhola; from 
luscmiolus from luscmhts luscinia. Varro de ling.Lat. 5, 76 men- 
tions only a dim. Ivscinhla. L was changed to r for euphony, 
to avoid such combinations as lo iosignuoio; mscinia rosdnia 
are found as early as tlie 9**^ century. The Wal. uses priveghi- 
toare =pervigila(nx, Alb. W/^/7(='Pers. Turk, hxdbtd, bOibiil). 

Bosso It, Sp. roxo, Pg. 7'oxo, Pr. ros, Fr. roti^t, Wal. rosrtm 
red : from L. rtissus (rare). 

Bosta It. (1) stoppage (Dante Inf. 13, 17 rompieno ogni ro$ta)j 
Com. vl>. rosta to hinder. (2) fan, tail, vb. arrostare to fan, to 
wag; from G. rost a flood-gate, the grate of a helmet, a fan. 
Wal. rosteiu grate, lattice = Serv. rostilj, 

Bostire It. in arr astir e, Cat. rosiir, Fr. rdiir, Pr. raustir to roast; 
part, past as sbst. It. arrosiito, Fr. rdii a roast; sbst. from the 
root rr. raust, It. arrosto. It is the 0. H. G. rdstjan (Rom. i 
= O. II. G. ^), sbst. gi-rosti, E. roast, also in Celtic, Gael. 
rdist, W. rhostio, Bret, rosta. 

Bostro Sp., Pg. rosto face, countenance, Wal. rost mouth. Lat. 
rostrum for os occurs in Plautus, I^ucilius, Varro and Petro- 
nius; cf. A. S. neb os, E. neh rostrum, O.H.G. snabtd rostrum, 
O. Fris. snavel os. 

ROT — ROVE8CIO. 379 

Bot Fr. Cat. belch; from rucius, It. rtUto, 

Bote O. Fr. E., Pr. rota a stringed instrument, crowd. From a 
G. form (hroia, M. H. G. rotte) of the Celtic crot (O. Ir.), 
emit (Gael.), crwth (W.), the chrotta Britanna of Venantius 
Fort., E. crowd, crowder. It is named from the hollow frame ; 
W. crowth = protuberance , belly, Gael, emit a hump. 

Botella It., Sp. rodeia, O. Fr. roeie a round shield; It. rotella, 
Sp. rodilla, rr. rodeia knee-pan, knee; from rotella for rotula, 
cf. M. H. G. knie-rade, 

Bdtlr — rostire, 

Botolo nillo It., Sp. rollo rol, Pr. rotle rolle, Fr. rdie, E. roll (of 
paper &c.); from rotulus; \h.It.rotolare mzzolare, Sp.arrollar, 
Pr. rotlar, Fr. router, E. rolL Also Sp. rolde from rotulus as 
Boldan for Rotlan, Hence Fr. contrdle for contre-rdle (counter- 
roll), check, stamp on money, control, 

Botta It., Sp. Pg. Pr. rota, O. Fr. route, E. row/, Fr. d&oute; 
from mptus rupta, whence also Pr. rota, O.Fr. rote = a troop, 
L.L. rupta, G. ro//^, O. Fr. aroyiter to arrange; Fr. rou/e road 
CE. rote) = t;ia rupta, cf. O. Fr. &mf(? street, and Mala-routa 
(name of a place), Sp. Pg. rota derrota course , Fr. routier, 
routine; hence also Fr. roture = L. L. ruptura fresh land, a 
small farm, roturier one who held such a fanU; a commoner, 

Boture — rotta. 

Bouohe — mc?ie. 

Bou^ — roggio. 

Boaille — ruggine. 

Botdr Fr. to ret or steep flax or hemp ; from Du. roten rotten, 
G. rdsten, E. ret (part, rotten ^= steeped). 

Bonier — rotolo. 

Boussin — rozza. 

Boote routine — rotta. 

Boovre — rovere. 

Boox — rosso. 

Borajo It. north wind; of unknown origin. Menage gets it from 
barearius (borealis), by corr. rohearius rovarius. 

Bovello rovella It. anger, arrovellare to enrage; from rubellus, 
cf. L. ira rubens.* 

Bover O. Fr. to desire, request; from rogare (roar rovarj L. L. 
often = command. Not found in Pr., in It. rogare is only 
juristic, Sp. Pg. Cat. rogar, Wal. ruga = to beg (a favour), 
not like the Fr. to desire, order. So O.Fr. enter-ver, Pr. enter- 
var entre-var, Wal. intreba, from interrogare. Cf. corvee. 

Bovere It., Sp. Pg. robre roble, Pr. roure, Fr. rouvre an oak ; 
from robur roboris. 

Bovesoio — rivescio. 


Bovistare ruvistare It. to nimmage; from revisitare (Menage). 

Boxo — roggio. 

Boyaume — reame. 

Bozar Sp. Pg. to weed out, stub up, nibble, fret, rub: a frcq. 

from rodere rosus, so for rosar, or from an iter, rosifare, Froui 

rodicare comes Pg. rojar to scrape, sweep the ground, trail, 

rffjdo i\ scraping on the fiddle. 
BoBza It., Pr. rossa, Vr. rosse a jade, uiasc. Com. roz, Berg. 

ro.s*. The It. fonn seems to exclude the der. from G. ro$s. A 

df^rivative is found in Pr. rossi roci, O. Fr. rausstn, Sp. rocm 

and rocinanfe, Pg. rossim, and with inserted n, Pr. ronci, nm- 

cm (). Fr. (henc(» W. rhwnsi)^ Pic. ronchin, It. ronzino a nag, 

Lorr. Wall, ronsin a stallion, Fr. rotisstn, M. H. G. runzii^ 

a poor, sorry horscj. 
Bu Fr., (). Fr. rui stream, channel; from rivtts (cf. tuih from 

tegttla), Rouchi rieu, Vr.riu, Sp. r/o, It. r/t»o. Buisseau^^ 

form rivicelhts for rivuius , It. rmcello (from the Fr.). 
Bua — ruga, 
Bubaldo — rihaldo, 
Buban Fr. ribbon. Not from mbens, for then we should have 

had rubundier not ndfanier; prob. a compound with (t. band, 

like hauban, raban, Du. ring-band? O. ir. has also riban, E. 

riband , ribbon. 
Bubble It. a com -measure; from rubeus, because the division? 

were marked with r(id , cf. pinta. 
Bubiglio — rrvo. 
Bubino It., Sp. rubin rubi, Pr. robin , Fr. rubis, E. rubg; from 

Bubio — roggio. 
Buca It. Pr., Sj). Pg. oruga; also It. ruchetla, Sp. ruqueta, Fr. 

rot/ucttc, E. rocket a plant; from L. eruca. 
Buche Fr. beehive (orig. made of bark, cf. Sp. corcho = cork 

and ])eebive), also hulk of a ship (also written rouche), O. Fr. 

ruscbe rusque, Pr. rusca . ruscha , JPiedm. Lonib. rusca bark, 

Dauph. rucbi tan. Com. rusca to bark (a tree); a Celtic word? 

O. Ir. ruse, Gael, rusg, Bret, rusk, W. rhisg bark (E. ruskX 

Bret, rusken beehive. 
Biicio Sp., Pg. ruco greyish, light grey; from russeus. 
Bue — ruga. 
Bueca — roccn. 
Buer Fr. to throw, se riier to throw oneself on, Du. ruyen, rucr 

(neut.) to kick. From ruere, like other verbs in ttere (e. g. 

argiier, minuer) changed to the first conjugation. 
Buf — ruff a. 
BufHet It. a scramble, pulling; vb. arruffare to roughen, dishevel 

the hair. Com. rufa-su to frown, Pg. Cat. arrufar to curl, con- 


tract, roughen, Sp. arrufarse to be cross, ill tempered (cf. It. 
arricciarst), Sp. rvfo curly -haired (also red-haired), Pr. ruf 
rough (Lim. rufe), Berr. rufe rufle morose. Ar-ruffare = G. 
raufen (cf. tuffare = taufen), rupfen (cf. zuffa zupfen), cf. E. 
ruffy ruffle, Du. ruyffel wrinkle, O. N. rufinn rough, E. adj. 
rough, O. E. ruff. In connection are Mil. ruff, Piedm. Com. 
ruf a, Romag. rofta scurf, dirt (cf. It. roffia thick mist), O. Fr. 
roife rofee scurif, all = O. H. G. hrufy M. H. G. ruf, O. N. 
hrufa ruf a, Du. rof scurf, A. S. hreofl leprous. Hence It. ha- 
ruff a fray, Com. haruf a tuft of hair, Pr. hatTufaut fighter, 
brawler, from O. H. G. bi-roufan, cf. baroccio for biroccio. 
Sp. arrufar to incurvate , is from E. roof. 

Huffiano It., Sp. Pr. rufian, Fi*. ruffien pimp, bully, E. ruffian; 
it formerly meant not only '*leno" but "amasius", hence 
many have suspected a connexion with rufoy from the red 
(blond) or curlea hair (Sp. rufo) worn by such. Others con- 
nect it with ruffa ruf a (scurf, dirt) as implying moral filth, 
cf . Inf. 1 1 : ruffian baralti e simile lordura. 

Huga O. It., Sp. Pg. rua, Pr. ruda, Fr. rue street, Alb. ruga; 
from ruga a wrinkle, furrow, row. The Lat. meaning remains 
in It. rugay Sp. arruga, Pr. ruga rua. Al. from O. H. G. riga, 
G. reihe a row. 

Htiggine It. rust; from wrugo, Wal. rugine; Sp. robin from rw- 
bigo, orin from wrugo; Cat. rovely, Pr. roilh roilha, Fr. rouille 
a dim. from rubigo. 

Bngiads — ros. ^ 

Bngomare — ronger. 

Buido Sp. clamour; from rugilus, cf. ruL 

Buin Sp., Pg. ruim roim poor, pitiful, mean; from ruina. 

Buiponzo — raperonzo. 

Buisenor — rossignuolo. 

Buiflseau — ru. 

Bollo — rololo. 

Bomb — rombo. 

Boner Fr. to whisper; from O.H.G.rww^i, G. raunen, O.E. roun, 
cf. also O.Sf. ad-runar to guess, Goth.rww« mystery (E. runic). 

Busoello — ru. 

Base — rifusare. 

Buspare It. to scrape. From O. L. ruspari to examine (orig., 
prob., to scrape). 

Bnspo It. (1) now coin (2) rough. From O. H. G. ruspan to be 
stiff, cf. ruspil-hdr rough -hair. 

Bussare It. to snore; perhaps from ronchissare roncsare roxare. 
O. H. G. ruzzdn would have give It. ruzzare. 

Bnste O. Fr. strong, violent, sbst. O. Fr. ruslie, Pr. rusial; from 
ruslicus (cf. N. rusii a farmer), Fr. ruslre a boor. 

382 RUSTBE — 8AFRA. 

BuBtre — ruste. 

But Fr., E. rut (of deer); from rugitus, 

Buvido It. rough; from L. ruidus found in Plin. HLst. Nat ISy 

10 (23): major pars Italiee ruido tUitur pilo i. e. aspero et im- 

polito, cf. ftuidus fluvido. 
Ruvistioo roviatioo It. privet ; a corruption of i^ytisirum which 

was confounded with ligmticwn. 
Bluer Pr. to grunt (only in 3 sing. pres. ind. ruiz); fromL.nfdhr. 
Buszolare — rotoio. 


Sabana Sp., Pr. savena, O. Fr. savene bed-covering, altar-cover- 
ing; L. L. sabanum savanum, Goth, sabans, O. H. G. saban fine 
linen ; from 6k. cdBavov a linen towel ; hence Sic. insavonart 
to cover with a pall. The word is of Eastern origin (cf. taffr- 
tas, camelot &e.); Ar. sabanlya a fine linen made at Saban near 

Sabio — saggio. 

Sable — sciabla. 

Sable — zibellino. 

Sabot — ciabatta. 

Sabre — sciabla, 

Sabueso — segugio. 

Sacar Sp. Pg., O. Fr. sachier, Pie. sagf/^r to draw, draw out, 
produce &c., (Fr. saccade jerk, pull), orig. to take, sack; L.L. 
saccare, from saccus. 

Saccade — sacar. 

Saoco It., Sp. Pg. saco, Fr. sac, E. sack (of a city); vb. It. sac- 
cheggiare, Sp. saquear, Fr. saccager, to sack. From L. saccus; 
cf. s. sacar, and cf. G. plunder = (l) baggage, pack, (2) 
plunder. Hence It. saccomanno = N. Pr. sacaman, Du. E. 
sackman; Sp. sacomatio pillage. 

Saoho Sp. Pg. hoe, vb. sachar sallar; from sarcuium, sarctdare, 
It. sarchiare &c. 

S€kcomanno — sacco. 

Saore — sagro. 

Saoudir — cudir. 

Sade O.Fr. sweet; from sapidus savoury, cf. Pr. f. sabeza forw- 
beda = sapida. Hence Fr. maussade disagreeable, for malsadf, 

Sadie Pg. wholesome ; prob. a corruption of saudio (from saude 
L. salus), cf. Pr. salutatiu. 

SdflEkra Pg. a stony waste, adj. safaro wild, intractable, Sp. zdha- 
rem; from Ar. ca^hrd (sdhara) desert. 

Safira zafra Pg. a large anvil; from Ar. pachrah a hard stone. 


Safran — zafferano. 

Fr. greedy; from Goth, safjan to taste (for term. cf. bdfre, 

goinfre, gotdiafre), or = Du. schaffer (l) one who serves up 

eatables (2) a glutton ^ vb. schaffen. 
— saggio. . 

Sagerida — satureia, 
Saggio It., Sp. Pg. sabio, Pr. sabi salge, Fr. E. sage; from sa- 

pms (cf. Petron. nesapius^ sabius savins, O. Fr. saive. The Sic. 

has varva sapiu beard -wise, 
Saggio It., Sp. ensayo, Pr. essay, Fr. essai, E. assay essay; vb. 

It. saggiare, Sp. ensayar, Pr. essaiar, Fr. essayer, E. assay. 

From L. L. exagium (Sp. enjf = 6*0:) pensatio (cf. examen the 

tongue of a balance = exagimen). 

Sagire It. to put one in possession, Pr. sazir, Fr. saisir to take 
possession of, E. seize; It. sagina, Pr. sazina, O. Fr. saisine, 
£. sasine, seisin. O. Fr. had also the It. signification , and so 
in Fr. se saisir de. Hence dessaisir Pr. dessazir to dispossess, 
disseisin. From O. H. G. sazjan, G. setzen, E. sei, or, better 
for the sense, from bi-sazjan, besetzerij beset = occupy, so that 
the Fr. Pr. meaning would be the earlier. It. sagire = sazjan 
as palagio = paiazjum palatium. 

Sagro It., Sp. Pg. Fr. sacre a small hawk; a translation of the 
Gk. liQa^y cf. G. weihe, O. H. G. wiho kite, prop. = sacer, 
cf. iurbot. Al. from the Ar. pakr. Sagro, sacre, O. E. saker 
was also used for a kind of gun, cf. moschetlo. 

Sahir Pg. to depart, O. Pg. salir; from salire, Fr. saiiiir. The / 
was lost and h inserted to avoid the hiatus. 

Salmmar Sp. to perfume; for suhumar, L. suffumicare. 

Saie Fr. goldsmith's brush ; from seta bristle. 

Saime It., Sp. sain, Pr. sagin sain, Fr. sain-doux lard; from sa- 
gina Sp. sainete a dainty bit, also a farce. The form -ime and 
the gender (m.) are due to a L. sagimen. 

Sain sainete — saime. 

Saifl Pr. (f. saissa) gray (of hair) ; perhaps the rare L. coesius 
gray (of eyes), whence ceis seis sais, cf. plais tor pleis (plexum). 

Saisir — sagire, 

Saiflon — stagione. 

Si^a It., Sp. Pr. saya, Fr, saie, m. It. sajo, Sp. sayo woollen over- 
coat, coat, also the stuflF of wliich it was made, M. H. G. sei, 
O. It. sai; from saga TEnnius), usu. sagum a military cloak, 
according to Varro, 01 Gallic origin. Sagulatus (clad in the 
sagtUum) became in Pr. sailat, vb. Pr. sallar to cover. From 
saja comes It. sajetta, Sp. sayete, Pg. saieta saeta, Fr. sayette 
serge, M. H. G. seit. 

BBivt — sarrafar. 


Sala It. Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. saUe, Wal. sal^ hall ; from O. H. 
a house , dwelHng. 

Salade — celala. 

Salassare It. to blecd^ let blood; from sanfffie lasciare, cf. O.Pg. 
sanyuileixado. Also It. segnare from Fr. saigner, Pr. sangmr, 
Sp. sangrar, L. sanguinare. 

Salamoja — moja. \ 

Saldvo It., Fr. sale dirty; the latter is from O. H. G. uninflected ; 
salo muddy, tlie former from tlie inflected sttiatver, gen.Jff- , 
lawes. Hence Fr. vb. salir. i 

Salohioha — salsa, 

Saldo — soldo. 

Sale — salavo, 

Salitre Sp, I^g. salpetre, WfiLsalitru; from sal niinnn. It snlniiro. 

Sallar — saclio. 

Salle — sala. 

Salma soma It., 8p. salma xalma etixalma, Fr. somme burden, 
Pr. satwia a she-ass: from late L. sagma (jsdyfia), whence ako 
O. II. G. saum, Isidore has: sagma quw corrupte vulgosdmi 
dicitur, cf. S\).esmcralda from sma9'agdus. Hence lUassomareio 
load, Fr. assommer to cudgel; Fr. sommelier a butler, from 
loading or packing the casks of wine in the cellar, cf. It so- 
melln a little burden. 

Salmastro It., Fr. sanrmUre briny; from saltnacidus, Pr. samaciUf 
O. Fr. saumache. 

Salmuera — moja. 

Salope Fr. slut, dirty wench; for slope, cf. E. sloppg. 

Salpare — sarpare. 

Salpdtre Fr., E. saltpetre; from sal petra*. 

Salpiear Sp. Pg. Pr. to besprinkle; prop, with salt, cf. Fr. sau- 
poudrer; picar = to prick. 

Salsa It. Sp. Pr., Fr. sauce (for sause), E. sauce; from salsvs. 
Hence It. salsiccia, Fr. saucisse, Sp. salchicha, L. L. salsitia, 
E. sausage. 

Salsapariglia It., Sp. zarzaparilla , Fr. salsepareille, E. sana- 
parilla a Peruvian plant; from Sp. zarza bramble and ParHlo 
the name of the physician , who hrst used it. 

Salvaggio selvaggio It., Sp. salvage, Pr. salvatge , Fr, sauvagt, 
E. savage; from silvaticus, It. selvatico salvatico, Wal. silbaik* 
Hence sbst. It. salvaggina, Sp, salvagina, O. Fr. sidvagmc 

Salvano It. night-mare ; from silvanus, so selvatico from silvaticvs* 

Sambue O. Fr. a housing, horse -clotli, used by ladies of rank, 
L. L. sambuca; = O. H. G.samboh samhuoh sandmh a sedan. It is, 
probably, the same word as the L. sambtwa (l) a sort of luirp 
(2) a military engine of similar shape, used for scaling walls. 


Samedi Fr. Saturday; contracted from sabbati dies, Pr. dissapte, 
It. sdbaio, Wal. sembete &c. 

Sampogna zampogna It.; Sp. zampona, Pg. sanfonha, Pr. sin- 
phonia, O. Fr. symphonie chifonie, Wal. cimpoe a musical in- 
strument^ shawm, bagpipe; ixom. symphonia, cf. Venant. Fort.: 
donee plena suo cecinii symphonia flaiu, 

Sanoo — zanca. 

Sanoochar Sp. to parboil ; from semicoctus. 

Sandio Sp., rg. sandeu foolish, simple, perhaps orig. = one full 

of wonder, who is always saying sancte deus! cf. santiguarse 

to bless oneself, also = to wonder. Wall, dotidiew a hypocrite 

(doux dieu). 
Bangle — cinghia. 
Sanglier — cinghiale, 
Sanglot — singhiozzo. 
Sanna — zanna. 
SanB — senza, 

Sansonnet Fr. starling; prop. = little Samson. 
Santiguar Sp. Pg. to make the sign of the cross ; from sanctifi- 

care, cf. amortiguar from mortificare, apaciguar ivom. pact ficare, 

averiguar from verificare (-iguar = -igvar = -ivigar for ifigar, 

cf. fragua = fabricaj. 
Santoreggia — satureja, « 
Sana Sp., Pg. sanha rage ; from insania. 
Sap O. Fr. Pr. fir, whence Fr. sapin fir, sapine fir -wood (L. 

sappinus). Sap belongs to a L, primitive form , v. bubbone. 
Sape — zappa. 
Sapdre sav^re It., Pe. Sp. Pr. saber y Fr. savoir; from sdpere with 

change of accent, following the analogy of other modal verbs 

devere, potere, volere. The L. scire is only found in the Sard. 

and Wal. 
Sapo Sp. Pg. toad ; from Gk. 6i^^ 0rj7c6g a poisonous snake, Lat. 

seps? The Basque word is apoa zapoa. 

8aral>anda It. Pg., Sp. zarabanda, Fr. sarabande, a saraband 
(sort of dance); from the Pers. serbend, through the Spanish. 

Saroelle — cerceta, 
Saroia — sarte, 

Sardina It. Sp., Fr. £. sardine a fish; from L. sarda, Sardinia, 
Gk. 0aQ8ivti, It. also sardella, 

Sargento — sergente. 

Bargia It., Sp. sarga sirgo, Pr. serga, Fr. serge sarge, E. serge, 

a woollen stuff with a mixture of linen and silk, L. L. sarica; 

from serious serica silk, Basq. ciricua. Hence Sp. xergon, Pg. 

xergao enxergao a coarse stuff, straw-sack (x = i? as in ximio 

from simius), It. sdrgano &c. 



Sargotar Pr. to talk gibberish? ior sartagotar{sartago a medley)? 

Burg, sargolery however, == cahoter, cf. Sard, sarrdgu. 
Sarjar — sarrafar. 
Sama Sp. Pg. Cat. itch. Isidore : impetigo est sicca scabies . . . hant 

vulgus sartiam appellant. The B. is sarra zaragarra, cf. W. 

sum plaster , samaidh crusty. Perhaps the Sp. Pg. sarro in- 
crustation, sediment, belongs to tlie same root. 
Sarpare salpare It., Wal. sarpa, Sp. Pg. zarpar, Fr. sarper to 

weigh anchor. From aQTcd^HV, lor exharpagare. Hence Sp. 

zarpa claw. 
Sarraoina Sp. a tumultuous contest. From B. asserrecina, 
Sarraflar Pg. to scarify, make incisions ; prob. a corruption of 

scarificare, Sp. sarjar, sajar (scarfk:ar scarcar, L. re = Sp. rj)» 

\\, has sarciatu, 
Sarraja Sp., Pg. serrulha a vegetable; lactuca agrestis est, quam 

sarraliam nominamtis eo quod dorsum ejus in modum serrw est. 
Sdrria Sp. Pr, Cat. basket of rushes, net, O. Fr. sarrie, B. sar- 

rea, also Sp. sera, Pg. seira panier. O. H. G. sahar = rush, 

L. L. sarex = carex, cf. a^Qi^xog a basket. 
Sarriette — satureja. 

Sarta Sp. string of beads; from sertum, serta. 
Sarte sartie It. (plur A O. Fr. sarties, Sp. xarcia xarcias corda^, 

tackling: from L. Gk. i^dgxiov ship s tackle (J^dgzLov), whick 

is from ii^aQtC^aiv to equip a ship; the f. from Gk. neut, pi. 
Sarten Sp., Pg. sartagem sarta, Pr. sdrtan , cf. Sic. sartania a 

frying-pan; from L. sartago. 
Sas — staccio. 

Sastre Sp. tailor; euphonic for sartre from sartor. It. sartore. 
Satin — seta. 
Satureja santoreggia It., Sp. sagerida axedrea, Pg. saturagm 

segurelha cigurelha, Pr. sadreia, Fr. sarriette a herb, savory : 

from satureja. 
Sauce saueisse — salsa. 
Saudade Pg. (quadrisyllabic) ardent longing, adj. saudoso. For 

soledadc through a form so'idade, and so would orig. dcnott^ 

absence from a desired object, cf. disio. But Marsh (on the 

English Language, Lect. III.) compares saudade with the 

Scandinavian saknadr, saknad, saon. 
Sauge Fr., E. sage, from L. salvia, It. Sp. Pr. salvia^ Wal. sahk 

salie jale. 
Saule Fr. (m.) willow, for which Burg. Lorr. has sausse, Pr. 

sauze sautz, It. salcio^ Wal. salce, Sp. salce sauce sauz saz, B. 

saliga, all from salix salicis, whence also Fr. saussaie = sali'ir- 

turn. The Fr. saule, however, is to be referred to O. II. G. 

slilaha, sdla, cf. gaule from v^u. 
Sauniatre — salmastro. 


Samuure — moja. 

Saure — sauro. 

Sauro soro It, sorrel (of a horse), Fr. satire yellowish brown (Pr. 
saur sor blond, yellow, red), O. Fr. sorel in Affnes Sorel i, e. 
Agnes the Blond, E. sorel sorrel. From L. G. adj. soor, E. 
sear dried up, vb. A. S. searian, O. H. G. sdren, sauren to 
sear, Fr. saurer to smoke herrings {hareng sauret a dried, 
smoked, seared herring, or, according to Cotgrave, one that 
is smoked till it gets a sorrel hue, a red herring), cf. colora- 

! ridus (Pliny), xerampelinus (Juv.). Mahn derives sauro from 
the B. ztiria white. The Pr. eisaurar = a L. exaurare (aura), 
Fr. essorer, whence It. sorare to let soar, to air, s'essorer to 
soar, Fr. sbst. essor flight; It. sciorinare to air. 

Sauvage — selvaggio. 

Savai Pr. bad, wicked, oip^, pros. From savus, cf. ibri-ai ver-ai 
from ebrius, verus. 

Savate — ciahatla. 

Savoir — sapere, 

Saya — saja. 

Sayon Sp., Pg. saido executioner, officer of justice; from O. H. 
G. sago (G. soger = saimjer), L. L. saio sagio. 

Sason — stagione. 

Sbaglio — hagtiore. 

Sbarro — barra. 

Sbavigliare — badare. 

Sberleffe — balafre. 

Sbiadato — biavo. 

Sbieoo — bieco. 

Sbieaoio — biais. 

Sbl^ttire — bigot. 

Sbirro — birro. 

Sbriooo — bricco. 

Sbrizaare — sprazzare. 

Sbrocoo — brocco. 

Sbiilixno — bulimo. 

Soabino It. oftener schiavino, Sp. esclavin, Fr. e'chevm a sherifl; 
A German word: A. S. scepeno, O. H. G. sceffeno sceffen, G. 
scheffen schOffe schdppe, from schaffen to arrange, E. shape. 
The It. scabino was formed from L. L. scabinus. 

Scacoo It., Sp. xaque, Pg. xaquey Pr. escac, Fr. echec, E. check 
a figure (or move) at chess, chess (jeu des echecs); from Per- 
sian sMh king. Hence Fr. echiquier, E. exchequer a hall or 
court of justice, so called from its checquered fechiquetej ysLve- 
inent or table-cover. O. Fr. echec = robber is the O. H. G. 

Soafneae It. frame, stand; from M. H. G. schafe, Bav. schafen, 



Du. schap. Gen. scaffo = bedstead. Sic. Rh. scaffa = scaffaU. 
For G. schaffoty E. scaffold , v. catafalco. 

Soaglia It., Fr. e'caille, E. scale; vb. scagliare, ecaiiler, scaU. 
From G. schale, vb. schdien, O. H. G. scalja scaljan, E. <*W/, 
cf. Goth, skalja pot, tile. Hence also Fr. ecale nut or'^g-shefl. 

Scalabrone — calabrone. 

Scaloo It. cook; from (io^.skalks, O.H.6. 5ca/c servant, found 
also in siniscaico, mariscalco. 

Soalfire It. to scratch, from scaipere, cf. soffice from supplei. 
But whence scalfitto for scalfito. Is it from scarificarey scanfi- 
cere, scar fire scalfxre scalfUio? cf. Sard, scraffiri. 

Soalmo Bcarmo It., Sp. escalmo escaiamo, N. Pr. escaume, Fr. 
echome (m.) row -lock; from scalmuSy cf. echameau a raised 
bank for vines from scamellum. 

Scalogno It., Sp. escalona, Fr. echalbtie, £. shallot; from c«]p< 
Ascalonia the Ascalon leek. 

Soalterire soaltrire to sharpen, polish, scallrilo scaltro (cf. /Sn^fo, 
adj. /fwo) sharp, cunning. Scaltrire, according to the Crusca, 
is to shape from the rough, to make sharp, refine. It may be 
from scaipturire, so scaltro is related to scaipere, as yla^QOi 
to ykd(pBtv, The s was thought to be ^x, hence caliehre \fi 
scratch, (caltrito = scaltrito in sense). 

Seampare — scappare. 

Scana — zantia, 

Seaneia — escajiciar, 

Soaneio — sguancio. 

Soandaglio It., Sp. escandallo, Pr. escandalh plummet, A\h. scan- 
tale; vb. scandagliare scandigliare &c.; from scandere, cf.L.L 
scandilia steps of a ladder; the plummet- line would be so 
called, because marked at regular intervals. N. Pr. escandatin 
= to gauge. 

Seandella It., Sp. Pg. Cat. escandia &c., a kind of wheat, L. L 
scandula. Prob. from candidus, cf. wheat, which is connected 
with tvhite , v. Bopp, Gloss, s. v. sveta. 

Scappare It., Sp. Pg. rr. escapar, Fr. echapper, E. escape. From 
Kom. cappa mantle; excappare would = Gk. ix8vs06ttL 
0pp. scappare It. has incappare. It is to be distinguished from 
It. seampare, O. Fr. escamper = ex-campare (campus) to quit 
the field, Sp. escampar to clear aWay, Pr. Cat. to spread, cf. 
espassar from spathim. 

Scappino — Scarpa. 

Soaraflaggio It., Sp. escarabajo, Pr. escaravaih^QilG^ from scara- 
baeus (scarabajusj. It. scarabone, Pg. escaravelho, Pr. escara- 
vat, Fr. escarbot are from axaga^og. 

Soarafftoe It. to snatch away; from M. II. G. schrapfen, Bav. 
schrafen, Du. schrapeti to scrape, cf. escarbar. 


Soaramuooia sohermugio It., Sp. Pr. escaramuza, Fr. escar- 

moucJie a skirmish, whence (r. scharmutzel, E, scaramouch. 

From schennire to fight, 0.11.G[.skerman; the -uccia is merely 

terminational, cf. O. Fr. escarm-ie. 
Soardo — cardo. 
Soarlatto It., Sp. escarlate, Pr. escarlat, f. Fr. ecarlate, E. scarlet; 

an Eastern word, not from Galaticus (as Heindorf and Marsh, 

Lect. on Eng. Lang.). 
Scarpa It., Sp. escarpa, Fr, escarpe, E. ^c«rj» precipice, declivity ; 

vb. Sp. escarpar, Fr, escarpevy E. 5^ar/?. From O. N. 5/rar/?, 

O. H. G. scar/, G, scharf, E. ^/rarp. It. Scarpa shoe is so 

called because pointed, whence It. scappino^ O. Fr. escapin, 

Sp. O. Fr. escarpin slipper, sock. 
Soarpello — escopro. 
Soarsella — sciarpa. 
Soarso It., Pr. escars escas, Fn echars, Sp. escaso, Dii. schaars, 

E. scarce. From excarpsus for excerptus (root vowel used in 

comp. cf. R. Or. 2, 344, sns tortus, cf. nascoso, perso &c.) 

reduced, contracted. In the sense of "slender'' the It. also 

writes scarzo, 
Soartare It., Fr. ecarter, Sp. Pg. descartar to throw out cards, 

discard; from carta a card, L, charta. The O. Pr. has only 

encartar to register, from carta, Fr. charte a docimient, chart. 
Scarzo — scarso. 

Soatola It. a box, Rh. scatia, Wal. sc^'tulc^; from G. schachtel. 
Soegliere It. to choose. From ex-eligere, cf. for the doubling of 

the preposition scilinguare. Ex-ligere for eligere gives Sp. esleir, 

Pr. eslire, Fr. elire. 
Scellmo It., Sp. Pr. escalin, Fr. escalin a coin; from Goth, skil- 

liggs, O.YL.Gc. shilling, ^.shilling (from schild, shield, cf. scudo). 
Soemo It., O. It. semo, Pied. Pr. sem diminished, dwindled; vb. 

scemare, Piedm. seme, Pr. semar to diminish, O. Fr. semer to 

separate , Fr. sechemer to depart. L. L, has semus simare sce- 

matio. From semis half, cf. Sp. xeme a half- foot, 
Soempio It. punishment; from exemplum. 
Soenderelt. to descend; from descendere (Sp. descender &c.), 

like struggere from destruere. 
Soemere scemire It. to discern; from excemere, Pr. eissemir to 

select, part, eissemit, Pr. eis = ex. 
Soerpare It. to tear to pieces ; for seer per e from discerpere, with 

change of conjugation , v. R. Gr. 2, 117. Rh. scarpar, Com. 

Scarpa from dis- carper e. 
Soh^gia It. a splinter, scheggio a precipice; from schidia {axC- 

dvov) used by Vitruvius in the former sense. 
Soheletro It., Sp. esqueleto, Fr. squelette (m.), E. skeleton; from 

(TxeAfToi/ a dried body, a mummy. 


Sohonoire — sguancio. 

Soherano — schiera. 

Sohermo It. fight, skirmish; vb. It. schermire, Sp. Pg. esgrimir, 

Vr. (). Fr. escrimir; from O. H. G. skirm skcrm shield, vb. 

skirman (skirmjan is wanted for the Rom. fonns)^ Bav. schre- 

men. Hence It. schermare, Cat. esgrimar, Fr. escrimer to fence; 

sbttt. It. scherma scrima, Sp. Pg. esgrima, Pr. escrima, Fr. 

cscrime. One of the numerous words pertaining to the use of 

arniH, which the Kom. nations received from their Gothic 

Schermugio — scaramuccia. 
Sohomo It., Sp. escarnio, Pg. escamho, Pr. esqtiem, O. Fr. «- 

chern mockery, scorn ; vb. It. schemire, Sp. Pg. escamir, Pr. 

csquernir escarnir, O. Fr. eschernir escharnir; from O. H. G. 

skcm, vb. skemdn to mock, to scorn. 
Sohersare It. to sport, sbst. scherzo; from O. H. G. scherzen to 

frolic, connected with O. H. G. skerdn to be wanton. 
Sohiaooiare It. to squash, crack, sbst schiaccia; from O. H. 6. 

klackjnn to crack, clacky with intensive 5, M. H. G. zerklecken. 

Quito distinct from Fr. ccacher (quatto). 
Schiaffo It. a box on the ear; from O. H. G. schlappe, £. siap, 

through a conjectural form schlapfe. N. Pr. has vb. esclafa, 
Sohiamassare It. to cry out, sbst. schiamazzo, O. Fr. esclamasse 

(whence G. schlamasse) ; from exclamare, 
Schiantare It. to cnK'k, break, Pr. csclatar, Fr. dclater; sbst. It. 

schianto, Fr. eclat fragment, splinter, crack, hence Ven. schi- 

aiitizare to light(»n. The It, n is inserted, cf. lonira = loutrc: 

csclatar is from O.ll. G. skleizen. for sleizen to break in picce>., 

slice, cf. O. Fr. esclier = O. II. G. slizan. 
Schiatta It., Pr. esclata, O. Fr. esclate race, kind ; from O. H. G. 

si at ha, G. gc-schlecht. 
Schiattire — ghiattire, 
Schiavino — scabino. 
Schiavo It., Sp. esclavo, Pg. escravo, Pr. esclau, Fr. esclare (for 

(iclouj (). Fr. esclo-s escla-s); from G. sclave for slave, E. si five, 

prop, a Slave taken prisoner in battle; hence also It. schiavino. 

Sp. esclavina, O. Fr. esclavine, M. H. G. slavine a pilgrim's 

long robe. 
Sehidone — spito. 
Sohiena It., Ven. Piedm. Rom. Sard, schina, Sp. esquena, Pr. 

esquena esquina, Fr. echine spine. From O. H. G. skina a pin. 

cf. Lat. spina thorn and spine; It, schiniera, Sp. esquincUi 

greaves, from 0. H. G. skina skena a tube, bono. Not from 

spina, for in the West sp does not pass into sq, 
Schiera It., Pr. esqueira, O. Fr. eschicre a band; from O. H. G. 

scara, G. schaar (share). Vb. Pr. escarir, O. Fr. escharir to 


part, divide, L. L. scarire to fix, design, Pr. escarida, O. Fr. 
escherie lot. Pr. escaia, O. Cat. eschala, O. Fr. eschiele are 
corruptions of scara; from schiera Ferrari gets scherano a 

Schiettolt. pure, smooth (Pr. escief), Rh. schiielt worthless; from 
Goth, siaihis, O. H. G. sleht, G. schiicht schlecht, E. slighi. 
Neap. schittOy Rh. schiett = only, merely, Du. slechis, G. 
schlechthin, of. It. pure from purus. 

Sohifo It, Sp. Pg. esqut/e, Fr. esqutf a boat, skiff"; vb. O. Fr. 
esquiper to fit out a ship (go on board), Fr. equiper, E. eqttip, 
Sp. esquifar esquipar; from O. H. G. skif, Goth. A. S. O. N. 
*^ip s«p, E. .s^fp. O. Fr. eschipre eskipre from A. S. sciper, E. 
skipper, G. schiffer. 

Schimbesoio — sghembo, 

Sohinoio — sguancio. 

Sohiniera — schiena. 

Soliioppo It. corrupted scoppio a blow, crack, fire-arm, dim. 
schioppeito scoppietto, whence Sp. escopela, Fr. escopette a car- 
bine, blunderbuss, vb. scoppiare, L. L. sciupare to shoot. 
From theL. stloppus (or sclopus) (Persius), c{, fts flare = ftschi- 
are. For schioppo also stioppo, cf. stiaff'Oy slianto, slinco. 

Schippire It. to slip away, escape; for sclippire from M. H. G. 
slip fen, Du. slippen, A. S. slipan, E. ^/(p, G. schlupfen. 

Schiuxna It., Sp. Pg. Pr. escwna, Fr. ecutne foam, scum; from 
O. H. G. scum, N. skian, E. ^ct/;?}. 

Sohivare isohifeuro It., Sp. Pg. Pr. esquivar, Fr. esquiver, O. Fr. 
also eschiver (E. eschew), Kb. schivir to shun; from O. H. G. 
skiuhun, G. scheuen. Adj. It. 5cA/t;o schifo, Sp. esquivo, Pr. 
esqtuu, O. Fr. eschiu, Rh. «cA/o = G. 5cA«/,E. ^Ay. 

Schizso It., whence, perhaps, Sp. esqw'cio, Fr. esquisse, sketch; 
from schedium (Apmeius) anything made extempore, Gk. <y%/- 
dtoff, <y%fdtagati/ to extemporize, make a sketch. It. schizzare 
&c. As schizzo for schezzo, so L.L. schida for scheda (scindera 
and <T%^)y being thought of). 

Soiabla soiabola It., Ven. sabala, Sp, 5a^/^, Fr. E. sabre. From 
the Slavonic: Hung, szabhja, Serv. sabija, Wal. 5«^i6? &c. (ac- 
cording to Frisch 2, 139 from L. Gr. ^a^og crooked). 

Soiagiira — augurio. 

Soialaoquare It. to squander; from ex-adaquare according to 
Menage, from It. scialare and acqua according to others. 

Soialare It. to exhale; from exhalare, Sp. exhalar, It. also aso- 
lare to pant , Mil. esala. 

Soiame soiamo It., Sp. enxambre, Pg. enxame, Pr. eissam, Fr. 
essaim a swarm; from exametu Vb. Fr. echemer, L, examinare. 

Soiamito It., Sp. xamelc, Pr. O. Fr. samil, E. samite, G. sammet; 
from i^diiiros ga/itro^ six -threaded. 


Soianoato — anca. 

Soiarpa oiarpa It., Sp. charpa, from Fr. echarpe girdle, whence 
also Du. scaerpe, G. schihrpe, E. scarf. O. Fr. also = a pil- 

imm's scrip, O. H. O. scerhe, L. G. schrap, E. scrip scrap icf. 
ft. ciarpa = scraps, odds and ends). From «4*^ar;w? probably 

comes the dim. escarcelle (= escarp^eUe) a pouch, whence Sp. 

cscarceia, It. scarsella. 
Soiarra It. scuffle, fray, sciarrare to scatter, disperse; perha^ 

from G. zcrran to tear, whence ciarrare, and, with prosthetic 

s, sciarrare. 
Solatia — pialto. 
Sciatto It. rude, ugly; from ex and op/u^ TMenage), or from Sp. 

chaio flat, whence Rh. sciatt short and tat. V.piaiio. 
Soier Fr. to saw, scie a saw. It. sega; from secare, Pr. sef/ar &c., 

O. Fr. sier and soier, cf . p/iVrr and player from piicare. Hence 

Fr. E, 5c/o« a shoot or setting for sicion from secHo, cf. G. 

schnittling and E. cutting. 
Soilinguare It. to stutter; from ex elinguare. 
Soimitarra It., Sp. cimitarra, Pg. also samitarra, Fr. cimeterrry 

(m.) E. scimitar. Accordiilg to Larramendi, from the B. cime- 

tarra. Others derive it from the Pers. shamsher, or shemshlr, 
Soiooco It. dolt, foolish; from exsuccus. 
Sciogliere sciorre (sciolsi sciolto) to loosen, also disciogliere &c. 

to loosen, dissolve. (1) from exsolvere (2), or (1) and (2) from 

(iissolvere, Asciogliere to absolve is from absolvere. 
Scioperare It. to cease from work, whence sciopcro scio]}crone; 

from ex and operare. 
Sciorinare — sauro. 
Soipare It. to waste; from dissipare, Sp. disipar, cf. desver, and 

R. Gr. 1, 231. So sciupare from dissupare. 
Scipido sciapido It. insipid; from in-sipidus in-sapidus. 
Scirlnga soilinga It., Sp. siringa xeringa, Pr. siringua, Fr. se- 

ringue, syringe; from syrinx, 
Scirocoo soilocoo sirocco It., Sp. siroco xaloque, Pg. xaroco, Pr. 

Fr. siroc, sirocco South -East wind; from Ar. schoniq {scharq 

Scivolare — cigolare, 
Scodella — ecuelle. 
Scoglio It., Sp. escolio, Pg. escolho, Pr. escuelh, Fr. ecueil rock; 

from scopuius. Pott, however, conn(*,cts it with ZxvkXa (<yxiU- 

Afti/ axvkdi) = tearer, destroyer (of ships), v. Kuhn's Zeit- 

schrift 5, 255. 
Scojattolo It., Sp. P^. esquilo, Arag. esquirol, escurot, Fr. ecu- 

reuilyY,. squirrel; from sciurus sciurulus, L. L. sguiriolti.^. The 

combination iu being unusual, we find scuirus (whence esquirol 

escurol squirrel) and scurius (whence scoj-att-olo, v. R. Gr. 2, 


304) ; hence sci lost its soft sound. The more usual Sp. temi 

is ardilia. 
Soompigliare — pigliare. 
Soonflggere soonfiBsi aoonfitto It. to strike^ bruise ^ Pr. escon- 

fire escon fts esconfii; from ex-conficere, but inflected as if from 

Sooppiare — coppia. 
Sooppio — schioppo. 
Soorbuto It., Sp. Pg. escorbuto, Fr. scorbut, E. scurvy; from 

L. G. schorbock, Du. scheurbmk = G. scharbock, v. Frisch 

2, 220. 
Soorsiare It., Sp. escorzar, O. Fr. escorcer escoursser, Wal. /ror^i 

to contract, to fold; from curtuSy as hausser from a/^t/^. Sbst. 

It scorcio, Sp. escorzo contraction, O. Fr. escors escuers fold, 

Sooreggia — coreggia. 
Scorgere soorta — corgere. 
Scomare It., O. Fr. escomer, E. scorn; prop, to show pride or 

insolence towards one, comua sumere, from a form ex-comare; 

sbst. scomo, scorn. There is, probably, a reference to the G., 

V. 8. scherno. 
Soorticare — corteccia, 
Soorsa It, Wal. scoartze, Pr. escorsa, Fr. e'corce bark; vb. It. 

scorzare, Pr. escorsar, Fr. ecorcer. The sbst. is prob. derived 

from the vb. wliich is from ex-corliceare (cortex); for a form 

eX'Corticare, v. corteccia. 
Soorsone — escuerzo. 
Soorsonera It., Sp. escorzonera, Fr. scorsonere viper's grass; 

2 derivations are given: (1) scorzone a poisonous snake (v. 

escuerzo), = L. serpentaria, but this should give scorzoniera; 

(2) scorza nera = G. schivarz-wurz. The orig. form may have 

scorzoniera, by corruption scorzonera. 
800880 It. (only in Lomo. scoss) lap, bosom; from O.H.G. scdz, 

G. schooss. The Wall, has hd for ?idt, Du. shoot. 
Sootolare It. to swingle flax; from O. H. G. scutildn, G. schiit- 

telfiy cf. Wal. scutura to shake, agitate. Scotola = shuttle. 
Sootta It., Sp. Pg. escota sheet (naut.); from Swed. skot, G. 

schote (E. sheet), Du. shoot, from schiessen, schieten. 
Sootta It. way; from excocta; also called ricotta. Com. scocia = 

excocta as strecia = stricta &c. 
Sootto It, Sp. Pg. escote, Pr. escot, Fr. ero/, L. L. scotum share, 

scot. It is the G. schoss Tfrom schiessen?), O. Fris. skot, E. 

scot shot, O. Gael. sgot. The Fr. eco/ stump of a tree is the 

O. H. G. scuz, whence scuzlinf, G. sch6ssling. 
Soossone — cozzone. 
Soranxia It bench, stool; from O. H. G. scranna, G. schranne. 


Soriccio soriooiolo It. a wren; prob. an onoinatop., cf. lUyr. 

Scrooco It. parasite, spiinger, Fr. escroc swindler, Mil. scroch 
rogiie, Kh. scroc wight, vb. scroccare to spiinge, Fr. escroquer 
to cheat. Escroc is identical with Du. schrok glutton, which, 
however, may be from the Fr. They are, perhaps, to bere- 
f(»rred to the G. schurke rogue, O. H. G. scurgo, cf. It. scor- 

Seudo scudiere — ecu, 

Souffla — cuffia. 

Souotere It., Pr. eacodre (par tic. escos), O. Fr. escorrc escmrrt 
to shake otf; from excutere. Sbst. It. scossa, Pr. escossa, Fr. 
escussc concussion, spring; from excmsa. Hence It. n'scuotere, 
Pr. rcscodre (partic. rescos), Fr, recourre to recover, rescue, 
from re-exculere; sbst. It. riscossa, Pr. rescossa, Fr. recousse, 
E. rescue. Pr. secodre, O. Fr. secorre secourre, Fr. secowfy 
Sp. sacudir, Lomb. secudi, Rh. saccuder to shako, from succn- 
tere (It. scuotere); sbst. It. secousse. 

Scure It. an axe; from securis, Wal. secure, Sp. segur, 
Scuriada It., Fr. ecourgce (for escouriee), Isorm. courgee, E. 

scourge, Sp. zurriago; from excoriata so. scutica, a thong made 

of leather. 

Sdrajarsi It. to lay oneself at length; from Goth, straujan or 
(). II. G. strewjan sternore; sd = si as in sdrucciolare. 

Sdrucciolo It. slippery, vb. sdrucciolare to slip, whence Sp. 
esdruxulo a word of two short final syllables ; from O. H. G. 
struhhal stumbling, G. strauchcln to stumble. 

Sdrucire — cucire. 

So Pr. in anc-se, de-se, ja-sse = anc sempre &c. ; also eiijas$t 

perjasse, Chorubini mentions uMil.pussee which he derives 

from piii assat. 
Seau — secchia, 
Secchia It., Pg. Pr. selha, (). Fr. seille, also m. It. secchio, Pr. 

sclh a pail; ifrom situUt sHUa, h.h.sicia, stcius. Hence Mil. 

side/l, Com. sedell, (>. Fr. sect, Fr. seau, f. Mil. sideila, Com. 

sedela, L. sitella. Hence also the Ar. ai-sail assafi, wheucf 

0. Sp. celtre, Sp. aceire. 
Seehe — seppia, 
Socouer socousse — scuofere, 
Seda — seia, 
S^dano It., V'^en. seleno, Com. selar, Piedm. seler, Fr. ce/en\ K. 

celery; from Gekivov parsley =: celery in late Crreek, cf. Sp. 

npio duJce. Parsley r= pelro - selinum. 

Sedia seggia It., Fr. siege (m.), seat, siege, It. assedio assegyh 
siege; vb. It. nssediare, Sp. asediar, Fr, assieger to besiege; 


from sedes through a form assediwn assediare, no such form as 

sedia being found. 
— scier. 
Sdgale s^gola It., Pr. seguel, Fr. seigle (m.), Wal. seaire, B. 

cekharea rye; from secede, L. L. sigala, sigilum. 
Segniare — salassare. 
Segnio O. It., Pg. sinOy O. Cat. seny, Pr. senh, Rh. senn a bell, 

O. Fr. (eorr.) seint saint; from signum = bell in L. L., hence 

also B. ceinua, cf. tocsin. 
Sego — 5«;o. 

Segolo It. a hatchet; from secula a sickle. 
Seg^ugio It. bloodhound. Mil. saus savus, Piedm. stts, L. L. sigu- 

sius siusius seusius, Sp. sabueso, Pg. sabujo (from sausius sabusitts 

sahuiso sabueso). Probably, like many other names of dogs, 

from the name of a place, Segusium or Susa in Pieilmont. 

From Segusius for Segusianus came Seusius and Segutius Se- 

Segurelha — satureja, 
Seigle — segale. 
Seigneur — signore. 
Seille — secchia, 

Seine Fr. E. a drag-net; for satne from sagena L. It. 
Seira — sarria. 
Selon Fr. particle, O.Fr. selone; {roin secundum, with a reference 

to iongum. 
— scemo. 
sem Com., Mil. semma adv. = It. ora, e. g, faot sem = 

Valtra volt a; from semel. 
Semana semaine — settimana. 
Semaque Fr. (f.) a smack; from Du. smak, K. smack, cf. senau 

from Du. snauw, L. G. snau, E. snow (a small ship). 
Semblant semblar sembler semejar — sembrare. 
Sembrare sembiare It., Sp. Pr. semblar, Fr. sembler; from simu- 

larc similare. Hence It. sembiante, Sp. semb/anie, Fr. semblant; 

It. assembrare assembiare, Sp. Pr. asemblar, Fr, assembler, E. 

assemble, L. assimilare assimulare (with a refertuice to simul); 

It. rassembrare, Pr. Sp. resemblar, Fr. ressembler, E. resemble. 

Hence also It. simigliare somigliare, Sp. semejar, Pr. semelhar. 
Bdmillant Fr, brisk, lively. From the Celtic, W. sim free, loose. 
Gtomola It. Sp., Fr. semoule, E. dim. semolina; from simila. 
Seznonee — semondre. 
Seznondre Fr., Pr. somondre semondre to invite, summon, partic. 

semons, w^hence sbst. semonse, somonsa (E. summofis); from 

summontre, whence also, in the V^ conj. sommer, O. Fr. semo- 

ner (whence Fr.5^W0H/?^t/r). The Fr. has also semonce a lecture, 

semoncer to lecture, reprimand. Monerc in Rom, was treated 

396 SENA — 8ERAN. 

jis a verb of tho 3"* conj., hence, a part, monesius, whence 
amoncstary v. Littre , p. 34. 

Sona It., Sp. scna sen, rg. senne, Fr. setie, E. senna; from Ar. 

Senoillo Sp. simple; a dim. from simplex = It. sempUcello. 

Senda Sp. Cat. path; from semita; It. senfiero, Sp. sendero,Yt, 
semdUr sendieira, Fr. seniicr from scmitarius. 

Sendos Sp., Pg. senhos, O. Pg. selhos the only distributive re- 
maining in the Rom. languages in the orig. sense, L. singidi 
shtffuhs, R. Or. 3, 15. O. Sp. senero is from singtUarius, 

S^n^ohal senosoal — siniscalco, 

Sonne It., O. Sp. Pr. O. Fr. Rh. sen understanding; from 0. H. 
G. shiy G. Sinn. Hence Sp. senado, Pr. senai, O. Fr. sene 
sensible, Fr. for-ccne = It. for-sennato senseless. 

Sonopiii — sinople. 

Sensale It., Vr.censal, Pr. c^^so/ broker; from censuaiis a col- 
lector, cf. Papias: censuales stmt officiates qui censum per pro- 
vincias exiffuni, 

Sentare It. ((yom.), Sp. Pg. Pr. sentar (Pr. only in part, senlai) 
to place, set, settle; a participial verb from sedere sedens, R. 
Gr. 2, 333. Ilence It. asseniare, Sp. Pg. asentar, O. Fr. assen- 
tevy Sp. sbst. asiento a seat &c. 

Sentier sentiero — senda. 

Sentinella It., Sp. centinela, Fr. senfineiie, E. sentinei, snitnj. 
From It. sen fire to hoar, listen, cf. scoifa (scout) from scoitam. 
But this would leave the middle syllable unaccounted for. 
Galvani derives it from sentina the well-room of a ship, whore 
the sentinator was stationed to give notice of any leakage. 

Senza It., O. It. also sanza, N. rr. sense, 0. Sp. sines, O. Pr. 
series sens ses, O. Fr. sens, Fr. sans, also O. It. sen, Sp. sin, 
Pg. sem, Vr, sen preposition from L. 5/w^, with epenthetic^ 
senes sens, with euphonic a senza for setisa, as manzo for manso* 

Sena — insegna. 

Senor — signore. 

S^poule — spola. 

Seppia It., Sp. xibia, Fr. seche the cuttle-fish; from sepia. 

Ser — essere. 

Sera It. Pr., V<J^q\. scare, Pr. m. ser, Fr. soir evening; Pr. vb. 
aserar, O. Fr. aserier aserir enserir, Wal. insera vesperascerr: 
from serenus, Sp. serene evening dew, Vr.seren, Yr. serein, 
Neap, serena, also Pr. serena = It. serenata, Fr. serenade, E. 
serenade. For the sense, cf. Gk. evtpQ&in]. 

Sora — sarria. 

Serail — serrare. 

S^ran Fr. heckle, serancer to heckle; from M. Du. schrantsen to 
tear, M. II. G. schrenzen, sbst. M. Du. schrantse, M. 11. G. 

8ERBA — SERZIB. 397 

schrantz. The regular form in ¥t. would be ecrancer, but of. 

M. H. G. sranz for schrantz, 
Serba Sp. service -berry; for suerba from sorbum, It. sarba. For 

tie from o , cf . f rente. 
Serge — sargia, 
Sergente It. O. Sp., Sp. sargento, Fr. sergent, E. sergeant; from 

servtens, cf. pioggia from pluvia, cf. Pr. ^/rr^i ^= sergente) 

part, of servir, Piedm. servient. 
Sergoszone — gozzo. 
Serin Fr. a canary-bird; from gsiq^v (= a singing bird in He- 

Sermar — esmar. 
Serment Fr. an oath; from sacramenium , O. Fr. sairement , Pr. 

sagramen, L. prop, a soldier's oath of allegiance, a word 

spread throughout the Roman provinces by the soldiery, v. 

Pott, Kuhn's Zeitschrift 1, 348. 
SermoUino It. wild thyme; from serpyllum, It. also serpitio ser- 

polio, Sp. Pr. serpot, Fr. serpolet. 
Serorge O. Fr. brother-in-law; from sororius. 
Berpe It. Pg. O. Fr., Sp. sierpe, Pr. Rh. serp, Wal. serpe a ser- 
pent; a very old abbreviation of serpens, cf. W. sarf, Sk. 

sarpa (nom. sarpas). 
Berpe Fr., O. Fr. sarpe a bill, a pruning -hook; from sarpere, 

Fest. sarpere antiqui pro purgare dicebant, L. L. sarpa sarcu- 

lum. From sarpa in a passive sense , cf. sarmentum for sarp- 

mentum, would come Sp. serpa a shoot, layer; e for a as in 

aierce, lexos. 
— sarpare. 
O.It., Sp. sierra, Pg. Pr. serra sl mountain chain or ridge; 

prop, a saw, L. serra, cf. serratus serrated, Montserrat. 
Sorare It., Sp. Pg. cerrar, Pr. serrar, Fr. serrer to fasten, to 

press; sbst. It. serra a throng, Fr. serre talon, grasp; It. ser- 

raglio, O. Sp. cerraje, Pr. serralh, Fr. serail prison, seraglio; 

from sera a lock , bolt , L. L. serra. Sp. c is to distinguish the 

word from serrar to saw. 
Serrin Sp. (m.) saw -dust; from serrago serraginis, as orin from 

Sertir Fr. to set a jewel; from sertum, L. L. sertare to festoon, 

surround, enclose. N. Pr. is sartir. 
Serventese — sirvente. 
Serviette Fr. mapkin. Servir une table = to arrange the plates 

&c., L. ministrare, service = E. service (of plate &c.), minisie- 

rium. It. servito course, Pr. servit service, wnence serviette (for 

servilette, cf. Sp. servilleta) not from servir. Hence desservir to 

clear the table, dessert, E. dessert. 
Sersir — zurcir. 


Sesoha oesoa Pr. reed, sedge ^ Sf, xisca sugar-cane, H.saca. 
L. L. sisca. From the Celtic: Ir., Gael, seist/, W. hfsg, A.S. 
si'f/e serf/, E. scfiffe. 

Seso Sp., Pg. s/so understanding; from scpisus. 

Sesta seste It. cinnpasses, It. O.Pg. sesto measurement, measure; 
vl). It. sestarc assrsiare to measiure, cut off, Sp. asrsiar to ad- 
just a cannon, aim, level. From Gk. ^vcftw a masons toul 
a trowel, a level, or a square. From sestare comeO. H. G. 
ses(dn dispomjre, sestunga dispositio. 

Sestiere It., Sp. sextario, Pr. sesUer, Fr. seder h measure: from 
arxtarim, O. II. G. schiari; hence also It. siajo for sestajo, cf. 
iih. istcr for sesier, Lorr. steire. 

Seta It., Sp. Pr. seda, Fr. awV, L. L. seta; from the form seda is 
O.II. G. AiV/fl (as plna (rom petia tor poena, pris from preHum]^ 
G. AV'/V/r, It. stoda, W. xfV/a;i. From L. seia a bristle, a mean- 
ing still belonging to the Sp. and Fr., whence also It. stionej 
Fr. seiofi , E. sefoN. The fuU expression is found in L. L. selu 
anica. Ilence It. sefino, whence Pg. setim, Fr. E. saiin. 

Setter — sestiere, 

S6ton — seta. 

Seto Sp. hedge; from septum, 

Settimana semmana It., Sp. Pg. sernana, Pr. setmanOy Fr. it- 
mahie week; from L. L. septimami , prop. = seveutli, WaL 
septemefte, Ir. sechtrnaine. The Cat. O.rg. have, instead, damn 
from hebdomas, Sp. hebdomada, 

Seuil — suolo. 

Seve Fr. sap; from sapa, Pg. sevc &c. 

S^veronde — gronda, 

Sevo sego It. {g for v K. Gr. 1, 187), S]). Pg. seho, Pr. Wal. sett. 
Fr. suif {q\)Y\\)j Norm. Kouchi sieu (Ei. suet) fat, suet; from 
sebum sevum, 

Sevrer Fr. to wean; from separare, It. sceverare. 

Sezzo sezzajo zezzo It. = ultimo; from secius, cf. L. L. Gloss. 
srcius segnius, found also in da sezzo opp. da prima. 

Sfldare — disfidare. 

Sgarrare — garer. 

Sghembo It. oblique, crooked. Pied, sginho; from (). II. G. 
sUmb, Bav. sehlimm sehlemm oblique. Sic. has scalemhru for 
sclembru selembu. (Compounded with biescio (v. hiais') we have 
schimbcscio svhimbecio. 

Sghignare — ghignare, 

Sgneppa It. woodcock; Com. sgnep, Wal. sneap (ni.); from 0. 
II. (t. snepfa siwpfo, G. sehnepfa, E. stiipe. 

Sgombrare — eolmo. 

Sgomentare It. to fnghten, be frightened; from commt'titari to 
meditate, excommeftiari to make one out of his senses. 


Sgorbia — gubia. 

Sgridare — gridare, 

SfiTuanoio It. crookedness , obliquity ; from G. schwank flexible, 
Swed. sbst. svaiik crookedness, Du. zivanken to distort, hence 
perhaps scancio ioT sguancio, and, with inserted i = tschian- 
do, vb. schiancire. The Sic. sguinciu, Ne«ap. sguinzo awry 
(hence Sp. esguince?) is either a form of sguancio or from G. 
windisch, winsch oblique, cf. E. squint. It. schincio = sguinciu. 

Sguizsare — guizzare. 

Sfl^orare It. (Lomb. sgura), Sp. Cat. escurar, Fr. ecurer to scour ; 
not from G. scheuern, Du. schuren, E. scour, wliich are, prob., 
themselves from the L., but from ex- curare. Ven. and Pr. 
car are = to clean , Wal. curat = clean. 

Si It., Sp. si, O. Sp. sin, Pg. sim, Pr. Fr. si; from sic (ita was 
more commonly used as an affirmative). Sard, has imo or 
emmo from L. immo. 

8i O. Fr. particle = until. In conap. de si, dessi, desi que, 
tressi tressi que, entressi, enfressi. The It. has s\ in the same 
sense. Inf. 29, 30: non guardasti in la, si fu partito; Cocc. Dec. 
3; 9: ne mai ristette, si fu in Firenze. This may be a shortened 
fonn of sin (cf. no for now), and the word may have passed 
from Italy into France , or the Fr. word may be independent 
of the It., and may be derived from signum scopus. 

Siorano Pg. pronoun for h.quidam; from securus m the sense of 
certus. rr. has seguran. 

Sido It. excessive cold, assiderarsi to be benumbed with cold; 
from sidus numbness, siderari to be benumbed, G. erstarren. 

Sidro cidro It., Sp.sidra, Fr. cidre (E. cider) ^ Wal. eigheariu; 
from sicera (ciTtSQa), by corruption cicera, whence cidra as 
Fr. ladre from Lazarus. The 0. Sp. has sizra. 

Si^ge — sedia. 

Sien Sp. (f.) temple (of the head); from somnus (v. iempia), 
whence somn, suen, sien, or from segmen segm segn sien (cf. 
des'den) from dignus, and cf., according to Pott, tempus (from 
root T€fi) orig. = a division or part of the head (Forsch. 

2, 54.). 
Sien — mien. 
Sierra — serra. 
Siffler Fr. to whistle (O. Fr. also sibler); from sifilare an old 

ioTm of sibilare , Vr. siblar, siidar, also . chi/lar, Sf. siibar and 

chiflar, v. ciufolo. 
Siglaton — ciclaton. 
Sigle — singlar. 
Signore It., Sp. senor, Pg. Pr. senhor, Fr. seigneur; from senior, 

like Gk. nQsafitkagog and A. S. ealdor, E. alderman. Senior 

replaced the m. dominus whilst the f. domina remained. In 


Pg., hiiwovor, st'nhor was used f. as in L. Senior for 
is found iu L. L., aud is sometimes opposed to va$aUu&* The 
oldest Fr. fonn is nom. sendra, contr. ^/r*', ace seifinewr^ 
eoiitr. sivur, whence nom. messire, ace. monseigneur and mm- 
sim^. For >7re' = svndre (prob. a North - French contractioDj 
cf. Picard. teruns = tiethdrons^ iere = tendre. Of Fr. ori^ 
are tlie Pr. sire sira (nom. and ace.), Sp. ser sire. It. ser and 
sir<? (Pr. wV/r), E. sin wliich replaced the A. S. hearra. ^ 

Silhouette Fr. a profile ; so called from M. de Siihouette a finance- 
minister under Louis XV., who was notorious for his pw^ 
simony. V. Sismondi Hist, des Fran^ais 29, 94- 

Siller Fr. (intrans.) to run ahead (nav.), prop, to furrow theses, 
sUlun a furrow, wake: from N. siia to cut, sever, with liquid 
//, as in pilUr from pillare, Cf. Mil- sciloira, Pied, sioira a 
plough, V. uratro. 

Siller Fr. to sew up a falcon's eyes; for ciiler, from cHium. 

Silo Sp., B. siha, ciioa a granary, N. Pr. silo. Perhaps from L 
slrus, Gk. CeiQoq. 

Sim — sL 

Simigliare — sembrare. 

Sin — senza. 

Sin^elo P^. single; from a dim. L. singiilus, whence singiUnrws 

Singhiozzo singozzo It., Sp. roiiozo, Pr. singlot, sanglot, Fr. 
sanglht , Rli. sanglut a sob; vb. singhiozzare , singhioiiire, sdio- 
ztiKj sangio/ar, sanglolvr; corrupted from singultus, singvitan, 

Singlar Sp., Pg. singrar, Fr. angler to sail (with a favourable 
wind); from <). H. G. segelen, O. N. sigla, G. srgeln to saU, 
witli^ inscrtt^d ;/ as in singlatou. Immediately from the G. are 
O. Fr. sigle, (I. scgel a sail, vb. sigler, 

Siniscalco sescalco It., Sp. Pr. senescal, Fr. senechal, E. seneschd 
= prop, jigod servant, from O. H. G. sini-scalh, L. L. $ini- 
sra/rusy cf. mariscafco, scalco, 

Sino and insino It. particle for L. tenus; prob. from signum, ct. 
fifio from finis. 

Sinople Fr. green (in blazonry), whence Sp.sinople, and ako 
1 g. sinop/e a green jasper. But It. senopia, Pg. sinopla. E. 
smoper = red , red ochre, from L. sinopis red ochre, so called 
Irom Sinope on tlie Black Sea. Cf. a ilS. of 1400 (quoted iu 
.MenestncT orig. des arm.): sicut et in urbe Sinopolirubicundtm 
tnvemtur et viride dictum sinoplum. 
sUw ^^'*"*''^^'^^^5 from (Si'q)CDv a waterspout, Fr. siphon, L. 

^'Sv/^^'^^^''^ Biquiere Sp. adv. for L. saltiin; from si and 
f/tfu / a conjueti ve from f/uerer, so = si velit. 

SmE — SMAQARE. 401 

— signare. 
_ Sp. Pg. Cat, to tow (nautA sbs.t. sirga a tow-line; from 
a form siricare formed with sutfix ic from GHgav. 

Sirima It. the end of a strophe ; from syrma (GVQfia) a train^ Wal. 
$€rm€ a thread , Alb. sirme silk. 

Uroo — scirocco. 

Mroppo Bolroppo It., Sp. xarope, Pg. xarope, enxarope, Fr. 
sirop, E. syrup, strop, shrub; from Ar. schardb drink, wine, 

Stnrente Fr. (m.), O. Fr. serventois, Pr. sirventes, sirventesc, f. 
sirventesca, hence It. sirventese, a kind of song, eulogistic or 
satirical, opp. a love-song; from servims, so lit. a service-lay. 

Sisa Sp. Pg. petty theft, pilfering, excise, vb. Sp. sisar, Pg. 
scisar to filch, cut away. Due. makes it the same as Fr. assise, 
but, according to Diez, from Pr. sensa = L. census, as siso 
from sensus. Scisar, sisar may, however, be a freq. from scin- 

SiBOlar cisolar Pr., xisclar Cat. to whistle; from fistulare (It. 
fischiare), with the s of sibilare. 

Sitio Sp., Pr. seti setje place, site, vb. Sp. sitiar asitiar, Pr. ase- 
tiar, aseijar to besiege; perhaps from O. H. G. sizan, O. S. 
siitian (E. sit), cf. hisitlian to besiege. 

Bitot Pr. conj. for L. etsi; from si tot (tout) although, cf. It. tut- 

BiTelB — viaus. 

Stsel — cincel. 

Slandra — landra. 

Slinga (schlinga) Rh., Sp. esiingua, Pg. eslinga, Fr. e'iingue sling; 
vb. Bic. elinguer to shng (O. Fr. tinder) ; from O.H. G. slinga, 
G. schiinge, E. sting. 

Slitta It. sledge ; from O. H. G. stito. Hence Com. slitiga to make 

Smaoeare — macco, 

Sniaooo It. insult, vb. smaccare (to be distinguished from smac- 
care, from macco); from O. H. G. smdhi, G. schmach disgrace, 
vh.smdhin, G. schmdhen to abuse, smdhjan to debase. The 
double cc is found also in ricco from rlhhiy taccoia from tdha, 

flmagare O. It, O. Pg. esmaiar to be dispirited, dismayed, Pr. 
esmaiar, O. Fr. esmaier esmoyer, Berr. emeger to dismay; also 
Sp. Pg. desmayar, E. dismay; sbst. It. smago, Pr. esmai esmoij 
Sp. desmayo, E. dismay, swoon. The Fr. emoi anxiety, emo- 
tion, though usu. derived from mouvoir, is only another form 
of esmai. It is from the O. H. G. magan to be able (may) with 
the Rom. privative es = des, cf. O. H. G, magen to be strong, 
unmagin to faint. We seldom find the Rom. using the German 
word only in compounds, butcf. tra-stuttare from O. H. G. 



stvUan, Some derive smagare from O. H. G. smdhjan to d^n^r 
but this is found in smaccare, v. smacco. 

Smalto It.; Wal. smaltz (jumaJtzJ, Sp. Pg. esmalie, Fr. emaU, £. 
enamel (from the frequent combmation en emaii, pemdre a 
email &c.)y L. L. smaltum. From 0. H. O. smelzan smalzjan 
smaltjan, G. schmelzen, E. smelt. In the Fr. email, i is inserted 
after a (esmailt) and the / dropt as in gal for gall from G. 

Smalzo Yen. butter; from G. schmalz grease. 

Smdnia It. madness ^ smaniare to rage; from manta, Gk. ^vk^ 
It. also mania. 

Smarrire — marrir. 

Smeraldo It., Sp. Pg. f. esmeralda, Pr. esmerauda, Fr. emera^ 
E. emerald; from smaragdus (6(uiQaydog m. f.) Sansk. mara- 
kata, g changed to / as in sdlma from adyiia, Baldacco froa 
Bagdad; O. Sp. has also esmeracde, Pr. maracde. 

Smerare It., Sp. Pr. esmerar, O. Fr. esmerer to clean; from ex- 
merare as spur are from ex-purare, sgurare from ex -curare. 

Smeriglio It., Sp. esmerii, Fr. c'wim, E. emery; from tfftv^ 

Smeriglione — smerlo. 

Smerlo It., Pr. esmirle a sparrow hawk, merlin^ Sp. Pg. esmerU 

a small piece of ordnance (cf. falconete, moschetto &c.); It. 

smeriglione, Sp. esmerejon, Pg. esmerilhao, Fr. emerillan, E. 

merlin. IVom meria, L. merula a blackbird? TheO.H. 6. 

has AV«/r/. 
Smilzo — milza. 
Smorfla — morfia. 
Smussare — mozzo. 
Snello It., Pr. iVwe*/ iWi^/, O. Fr. ww^/ ignel enel nimble. Prom 

O. H. G. snel, G. schneil, though the i for e (esnel) is not easily 

accounted for. 
So — aid. 


Soanar — sosanar. 

Sobaco — barcar. 

Sobajar — sohar, 

Sobar Sp., Pg. sovar to knead, rub; from subigere, in usu. Rom. 

snbagere (Sp. sobajar), contr. into sohar as exporrigere into 

Sobbissare — obisso. 
Sobrino — cugino. 
Sobriquet Fr. nickname, also written soibn'quei, so perhaps from 

sot and O. Fr. briquet = It. bricchetto a young ass ; Piedro. 

subrichet = obstinate. The Pic. form is surpiguet. Others 

derive it from a form supricm (supra). But here the suffix 

icus instead of aticus is doubtful. 

80C — SOONA. 403 

800 Fr. plough -share, coulter, L. L. socus, L. 6k. r^oxo^, Gael. 
soc, W. swch plough -share, snout; It. zocco, Pr. soc, f. Pr. 
Cat. 80ca, Fr. souche stock, stem. From the L. soccus 
(1) wooden shoe (2) support, stem, stock. 5 becomes z abo 
m It. zdccoio, Sp. zocaio, zoclo zucco, Pr. zocs a wooden shoe, 
Pr. zode, socle. 

Soearrar Sp. Cat. to singe; from B. sucartu, according to Lar- 
ramendi, from sua fire and carta flame, but the so in the Sp. 
is prob. the preposition as in the synon. soilamar. For socarra 
= craft, cf. softama. 

Soda It. Sp. Pg. £., Fr. sonde; from solida. The Sp. sosa (from 
salsus) = the plant from which it is made. 

Sodo — soido. 

Boik It. Pg., Fr. sopha, sofa (m.), E. sofa; irom At. coffah a bench. 

SofBare It., 0. Sp. Pr. suflar, Fr. souffler, Sp. sojkar, Pg. soprar 
to blow; from sufflare. Hence Fr. sou ff let (1) bellows (2) box 
on the ear, cf. s. huf, and £. blow. The Pg. assoviar is con- 

Soflioe It. weak, supple, yielding; from supplex, whence also 
Fr. souple. F iov p is also found in catafalco, caffo and a few 
other words. 
Soifiratta O. It., Pr. sofraita, sofracha^ 0. Fr. souffraite defect, 
injury; O. It. soffrettoso, Pr. sofraitos, Fr. souffreteux poor, 
poorly; from suffringere soffr actus, Pr. so franker. 

It. (prov.) Sp. a cord, rope (in Dante = belt), Pg. Rh. 
suga, B. soca^ Sp. also = a measure of length (L. Gk. (fcDxa- 
QWVj L. L. soca soga), vb. soguear. Diefenbach compares W. 
ig a chain, Bret, sug a towing-rope, Gael, sugan. In Sp. 
le word has the widest range. 
^Oflio — suolo. 

^gna O.It., Pr. sonh, Fr. soin care; vb. Fr. soigner; It. bisogno, 
Pr. hesonh besonhOy Fr. besom, Kh. basengs need (Fr. besogne 
work, task). It. bisognare, Pr. besonhar; O. Fr. essoignCy es- 
some needy necessity, difficulty, excuse, essoigner to excuse 
oneself: 0. Fr. ensounier to employ, resoigner to fear. In L. L. 
we find sunnis sunnia sonia in tlie sense of legal impediment 
(hence delaying about a thing, careful attention, care), in 
which Grimm recognises a Frank word = O. N. syn, vb. 
synja, L. L. soniare to take care of. Goth, has sunja truth, 
sunjdn to justify, O.S.sunnea excuse, necessity, hindrance, 
0. H. G. sunne = essoigne (L. L. exonia exonium) and besom, 
which latter may be referred to an O. H. G. form (from an- 
other root) bi'Stunigi scrupulositas , whence a sbst. •^i-wt/wi 
may be interred. Due. denves from L. somnium and quotes a 
L. L. Gloss, somnium ^gomCg, but this may be merely an 
adaptation of sonium (soin), v. Pott, Kulm's Zeitschrift 1, 340. 



From soigner is O. Fr. mignante concubine, soignentage con- 

Sohes soez Sp. dirty, mean. Not from sub feece, which wonid 
be too artificial, but, probably^ from a form (used by the 
Spaniard Prudentius) suis for sus, z for $ which the Sp. is fond 
of retaining, cf. Dio$j Carlos &c.] for the accent on the last 
syllable , cf. juez. Parens gives adj. puerco. 

Bole — seta. 

Soif Fr. thirst, O. Fr. (more correctly) sot, Pr. set; from «d& 
For f from / cf . moeuf from modus, Mahnbeuf from Magnx^ 
dus, and R. Or. 1, 213. 

Soin — sogna. 

Soir — sera. 

Solapcur — lapo. 

Soldo It. brine; from O. H. O. sulza, G. suize. Pr. solz soui: 
''carnes in aceto''. Soicio is a rare instance of an It. m. from 
an O. G. f. in a. A G. form sttlz is also given. 

Soldo It., Sp. sueldo, Pr. sol, Fr. sol sou a coin; from solklm^ 
coin formerly of gold, afterwards of silver, prop, of thick, 
solid metal not of thin plate. Hence It. soldo, Sp. sueldo, Pr. 
soul, Fr. solde (f., solde m. = balance) payment, pay; It. sol- 
dato, Sp. soldadOy Fr. soldal, Pr. soudadier, O. Fr. soudoitr, t 
soldier, Loit. Pic. Dauph. soudard, cf. It. paga = soldier. By 
a change of the o into a we have It. adj. soldo also soda (cf. 
(a/pa topo), vb. saldare = Sp. soldar, Fr. souder^ E. solder; but 
It. soldare, Fr. solder to pay. 

Sole — suolo. 

Solfia It. Sp. Pg. Pr. gamut (in Sp. also = harmony); from 
Guide's u( re mi fa sol la taken backwards, the la serving ss 
the article (la sol fa); hence vb. It. solfeggiare (whence Pr. 
solfege), Sp. soifear, Fr. solfier; Sp. solfeo, soUfeador, soifisla. 

Solfo zolfo It., Sp. azvfre, Pg. enxofre, Pr. skfre, solpre, Fr. 
soufre; from sulphur. 

Solive Fr. rafter, joist. Perhaps from the L. solum, Fr. sol (in 
the sense of the floor of a nouse , It. suolo , Sp. sudo) and 
O. Fr. ive = L. equa, cf. Fr. poutre = (l) mare (2) beam. 
Isaac Vossius derives it from sublica, as O. Fr. mendive from 
mendica, but the sense hardly suits; others again from sviblt' 
vare through a sbst. sublevium = Sp. solivio, It. solliero a 
raising, support; but here we should expect souliiWy cf . stff- 
lever, soulager, 

SoUar Sp. to blow, breathe; from sufflare. 

SoUastre — souil. 

SoUazzo It., Sp. solas solaz, Pr. solalz^fi. Fr. soulas, E. solace; 
from solatium; vb. sollazzare, solazar, soulacier, L.L. solatiarif 


SoUetioare It. to tickle; for so-iellicare from stdf-titiilicare, cf. 
Neap, tdlecare. From titUlicare we have also dUeticare for 

Sollione It. dog-days; from sub leone, the sun being then in the 
sign of the Lion. 

86II0 It. loose. For solflo soUdo a dim. of sduius as muMo of 
mutus (cf. assoltd). So spalla for spafla, 

86II0 Sp. a sea-pike, Pg. solho; from suiilus. 

86II0B0 — « singhiozzo. 

Soltar Sp. to loosen ; for soluiar, freq. from solvo, 

Sombra Sp. Pg. Cat. shade. Subtmbrare =^ so-onibrar = som- 
brar (Fr. sombrer to founder), whence the sbst. sombra^ cf. Sp. 
sombrage = It. ombraggio. The Pr. form sotz-ombrar supports 
this derivation. The O. Sp. soiombra shade , vb. Pr. Dauph. 
soiombrar may be a mere corruption or may involve the article 
so fombra, cf. Lorr. ailaurbe = ombre, prop, a t ombre. The 
Fr. E. adj. sombre (Du. somber) is the same word. Hence Sp. 
sombrero a hat. 

Sommaoo It., ^^.zumaque, Yg.sumagre, 'Pr.Fr. sumac, £. sumach; 
from Ar. sommdq. 

Soinme sommelier — salma. 

Bommeil Fr., Pr. sonelh sleep; dim. from somnus (somnicuiusj, 
the dim. being used to distinguish between som (somnus) and 
son fsonusj. Hence someHieux, Pr. somelhos, It. sonnacMoso, 
L. somniculosus. 

Sommer — semondre. 

Sominet son — sommo, 

Sommo It., Sp. somo, Pr. som, O.Fr. som son summit; from sum- 
mum, Fr. son bran (what is uppermost in the sieve), Sp. soma 
coarse flour. Hence O. Sp. prepositional en somo, O. Fr. en 
som, en son and par som, par son, e. ^par son Faube = Pr. 
sus falba, sus en falba, It. in sulf alba. Hence Fn sommet (for 
O. Fr. som)y E. summit. Sp. Pg. Pr. asomar, 0. Fr. assommer 
to bring up, or out, show, appear. 

Somorgnjo Sp. diver, vb. somorgujar; from submergere, with a 
rare suffix, cf. gran-ujo, burb-uja. 

8<mda Sp. Pg., IV. sonde sounding -line; vb. sondar, sonder, E. 
sound. As Sp. sombra, Fr. sombre from sub umbra, so sondar 
from sub'Undare. 

Sopa Sp. Pg. Pr., Fr. soupe, E. soup. From O.N. saup, O. H. Q. 
smi/* broth, O. N. sup, L. G. soppe, O. H. G. suf, E. sop, sup; 
vb. Sp. sopar to sop, Pr. sopar, Fr. souper to sup (eat supper), 
cf. Bav. saufen to eat sop. Of a different origin are the It. 
zuppa, Sp. Pg. chupar to sip, sup, Fr. super, cf. G. zuppe 
zupfen supfen, 

Saplsr — soffkare. 

406 80RARE — SOSEGAR. 

Sorare — sauro, 

Sorbetto It., Sp. sorbete, Pg. sorveie, Fr. sorbet, E. sherbet; from 
Ar. sharba, sharbat a drink. Others derive it from sorbere^ but 
derivatives in -eti from verbs are doubtful. 

Scree soroio It., Sp. sorce, Pr. soritz, Fr. souris, Wal.soareee 
mouse : from screx. 

Soroier Fr. f. sorciere, E. sorcerer sorceress, sbst. O. Fr. sorcerk, 
E. sorcery; from sort lot, also = spell, enchantment. Sorckr 
is from sortiarius, It. sortiere, Sp. sorter o from scrtarius. 

SorgOBSone — gozzo, 

8om Pr. eloomy, sullen, sbst. sornura; O.Fr. ^om^ twilight, Sp. 
5orna m^ht; Fr. soumois malicious; It. somione, susommei 
dissembler, sneak, susomiare to grumble, mutter. From tlie 
Celtic, W. swm-ach growl, Com. sorren to be angrvi or from 
Satumus, Pg. Com. soturno, Piedm. satumo, Sara, satumu, 
Gen. satume, Sp. Flor. satumino, E. saturnine. Cf. so&l from 

Somette Fr. trifle, nonsense; prob. from W. swm trifle. An 
old Fr. vb. somer is also given. 

Sorra — zavorra, 

Sortija Sp., Pg. sortilha ring. From sorticula (sors) so = prop, 
a magic ring. In a will dated 1258 we find: que as suas sorit- 
las das vertudes (rings of magical virtue) as gardem para m 
enfermas. Cf. Pr. sortilhier a sorcerer. 

Sortire It., Fr. sortir (sorto, sors) to go out, issue, spring, Cit 
surtir to issue, spring, Pr. sortir, Sp. surtir, Pg. ^t^^ to 
spring out or back, rebound; Fr. ressortir (ressors) to go oat 
again, Sp, resurtir to spring back, Fr.ressort spring, elasticitj. 
Tne most probable derivation is that from surrectire (cf. sortt 
dc son siege, de table &c.), though participial verbs are asually 
of the 1*^ conj., but cf. ammortire, quatir (from coactus), 

Sortire It., Fr. sortir (sortisco, sortis) to get, obtain. It. also to 
draw lots, Sp. surtir. Com. surtl to provide; from sartiri; It 
assortire, Sp. asortir, Fr. assortir, E. assort; Fr. ressortir to be 
in the jurisdiction of, to appeal, resort, sbst. ressort appeal, 
jurisdiction, resort. It. risorto, cf. Due. ressortum quicquid wW 
sortcs continetur seu jurisdictionis terminos. The juristic mean- 
ing of the word is derived from that of the O. Pr. resortir to 
draw back, take refuge, resort to, sbst. resort; thence tbf 
sense of getting (sortir), recovering (ressortir) cf. ricovran 
(1) to recover (2) to seek refuge at; ricovrare ad tin luoffo\s 
like les pairies ressortissent au parlement, 

Sosanar O. Sp. to mock, scorn, sbst. sosano, O. Pg. sosano scorn; 
from siibsannare (sanna); Pr. soanar, O. Fr. sooner, sbst. «o«i, 

Sosegar (pres. sosiego), Pg. socegar to calm, be calm, sbst so- 

S080 — SOUPENTE. 407 

siego, socego, yiheuQe li. sussiego. For sos-eguar, from aL. 

sub'Wquare? From cequare in O. Sp. we find iguar eguar, Pg. 


Sp. (also zonzo) insipid; from instdsus, Pg. insosso. 
Sostare It. to still, calm, Pg. Pr. sostar to stop, restrain; from 

iubstare. Hence, perhaps, also Sp. Pg. susto, Sard, assuslu 

fright, Com. sust,\ en. susto, Sic. sustu sorrow, trouble. 
Sote — zote. 

Soto Sp., Pg. soldo a wood; from saltus, O. Pg. It. salio. 
Sottecoo Botteochi It. adv. clandestinely; from soft* occhio, Yen. 

Sotto It., 0. Pg. soto, Pr. sotz, Fr. sous, Wal. subt; from subtus, 

It. also sottesso (v. esso); Fr. dessous = It. ^i 50//0. Hence It. 

«o//ano lowest, imdermost, Bhsi. soiiana , Sf.soiana, Fr, sou- 
tane cassock. 
Sou — sMo, 
Souohe — soc, 
Souoi Fr. care; from adj. soUicUum, with change of accent solli- 

citum, or from the vb. se soucier, N. Pr. se soucidd, from se 

Soudain Fr., Pr. sobtan adj. and adv., E. sudden; from subi- 

Sonde — soda. 
Souder — soido. 
Soudre Fr. to solve, loose; from solvere solvere, as poudre from 

pulvis puiveris. 
Soufler souflet — sofftare. 
Baufte — soifo. 
Sonhalt — hait. 
Souil souille Fr. wallowing-place, Pr. solh dirt, suiha pig, sulhon 

porpoise, Fr. souillon slut, vb. Fr. souiller, E. sully, soil, Pr. 

sulhar, Ven. sogiare; It. sugliardo, perhaps also Sp. sollastre 

scullion. Pr. sulha (stdhon) is from sucula; Fr. souil from an 

adj.suillus swinish, and need not be referred to a German 

root, Goth. bi'Sauljan, or G. sudeln. 
Sodl Fr. satiated, glutted; from satullus, O. Fr. saoul, Pr. sadol, 

It. satollo, Rh. saduls, Wal. setul. Hence Prov. E. sool or 

Soulager Fr. to relieve; not = Fr. soulacier from solalium, but 

= Sp. soliviar = sub-leviare, so for souleger which is found 

in O. Fr. 
Soulier — suolo. 

8oap9on Fr. ^m.}, O. Fr. soupepon (f.) suspicion; from suspicio, 
■ Pr. sospeisso. O. Fr. vb. suscher from suspicari. 
Soupe — sopa. 
Soupente — pente. 


Souple — soffice. 

Souquenille — guenille. 

Source — sourdre, 

Sourdre Fr^ to spring, rise: from surgere, Pr. sorzer, It. sorgere, 
Sp. surgir. From the old partic. sors comes the sbst. source 
for sourse, O. Fr. also sorjon (Fr. surgeon a sucker), sordance, 
It. sorgenie, Sic. surgiva; so from resordre resars comes the 
sbst. ressource, E. resource. 

Souris — sorce, 

Soumois — som. 

Sous soutane — soUo. 

Souvent — sovente. 

Sovatto soatto It. leather, strap; from subacium = tanned. 

Sovente It., Pr. soven, soen, Vr. souvent; from subinde, with 
unusual change o{ d to t, perhaps on the analogy of repente, 
frequetite, immantinente, 

Soventre O. Fr. particle for L. secundum; from sequenie, Pr. x- 
guentre, Rh. suenier. 

Soverohio It., O. Sp. sobejo (for soberjo\ Pg. sobejo superabun- 
dant , excessive ; from a L. superculus. Hence sbst. soverchk- 
via superchieria abuse, over-reaching, whence Fr. supercherie, 
Sp. supercheria fraud , deceit. 

Sozzo — sticido. 

Spaocare It. to split; from O. H. G. spacha log, Du. spaecke 
polcV The Sp. espeque prop, lever, seems connected. 

Spaociare — pacciare, 

Spada It., Sic. spata, Sp. Pg. Pr. espada, Fr. epee, Wal. spate 
sword; from spatha spatula, Gk. Oicd^rj. Found also in Alb. 
spate, B. izpata, and in W. yspawd shoulder, Ir. spad, E. 
spade, O. H. G. spato, G. spaien. In O. Sp. it is masc, also 
in Pr. espas, ispieth, but Cat. f. la espd. 

Spago It., Hung, sparga twine , string. According to Ferrari, 
from spartum rush , Sp. esparto whence sparticus sparcus spo- 
cus. But we do not find Rom. masc. derivatives from fonu.^ 
in - icus. 

Spaldo It., Vcr. Yen. spalto balcony, plur. spaldi projecting 
gallery; prop. = battlement, opening, from G. sjjolt clefty 

Spalla It., Sp. espalda, O. Sp. espaila, Pg. espalda, espadoa, Pr. 
espada, Fr. e'patde, 0. Ft. espaide shoulder. From spaihnla 
dim. of spatha shoulder-blade of an animal, Wal. spate back, 
cf. Apicius : spatula porcina. The Sard, has instead L. /w/fl 
(= Gk. 67td^) used in Cselius Aurel. for a shoulder-blade. 
From spatida (not from palm) come It. spalliera, Sp. espal- 
dera, Fr. E. espalier, 

Spanna It. Rh., Wall, aspagne, masc. O. Fr. espan, Fr. empan 

SPANU — 8PELTA. 409 

a span; vb. It. spannare (or irom pannus?), Rh. spaniar. From 

O. H. O. spanna, G. sparine, the m. forms from M. H. G. span, 

E. span. 
Spanu Sic. scarce; from Gk. 6nav6g. 
SjMkragnare sparmiare risparmiare It.; Fr. epargner, Kh. sparg- 

nar, Burg, reparmer to spare. From O. H. G. spardn sparin, 

E. spare, though the process is not clear, but cf. Lomb. 

car-agn-are from O. H. G. kardn R. Gr. 1, 87, Fr. lor-gn-er 

from luren. 
Sparare — par are. 
Sparaviere sparviere It., O. Sp. esparvely Cat. esparver, Pr. ^5- 

parvier, Fr. epervier sparrow-hawk, Fr. also sweep-net, Sp. 

esparavel. From O. H. G. sparwari (G. sperber sparrow-hawk) 

which is from Goth, sparva, E. sparrow, Rh. spar. Hence 

also Rh. sprer vulture. Sp. is gavilan. 

Sparpagliare — parpaglione. 

Spasimo It., Sp. espasmo, Pr. espasme, Sp. Pg. also pasmo, E. 
spasm; vb. It. spasimare, Com. pasma, op. espasmar pasmar, 
Pr. esplasmar, espalmar, plasmar, Fr. pdmer; from L. spasmus 
^Pliny from 67ta0(i6g). The s was mistaken for ex and hence 
oropt in some forms. 

Spassarsi It. to amuse oneself, spasso recreation, whence G. 
spassen to sport, sbst. spass; a freq. from expandere expassus. 

Spavenio It. (for sparvenio?), spavento, Sp. esparavan, Fr. e'par- 
vin from O. Fr. esparvain, E. spavin. Menage derives it from 
epervier, because the disease makes animals lift their feet like 
hawks, an etym. confirmed by the Cat. form esparavenc = of 
or belonging to a hawk, Val. esparver. The Sp. esparavan 
also = a hawk. 

Spaventare spantare It., Sp. Pff. espantar, Pr. espaveniar, Fr. 
e'pouvanter, Rouch. epanter, Wal. (with m for v) speimenta to 
frighten, sbst. It. spavento &c. ; from expavere, part, expavens. 
In O. Fr. we find espaventer, espauenter, espoenter, espoventer 
{v inserted), Rh. spuventar. 

Bpaszare It., Sp. espaciar, Pr. espassar to extend, spread. It. 
spaziarsi, Sp. espaciarse to walk about; from spatiari. 

Specohio speglio It., Sp. espejo, Pg. espelho, Pr. espelh mirror; 
from speculum. The word is found in Fr. espiegle a trickish, 
cunning fellow, Ron. vilespieque, from G. Eulen-spiegel , in Fr. 
Uiespiegle. Hence vb. Sp. espejar to polish, clean, despejar to 
clean away, remove. 

Spedale — oste (2). 

Spegnere It. to extinguish. From expingere to paint out, obli- 

Spelta spelda It., Sp. espelta, Pr. espeiUa, Fr. e'peautre spelt; L. 


speita (5*** cent.) = O. H. G. spelta, spdza spelzo, A. S. Du. 
E. spelt, G. spelz, 

Speme spene It. (poet.) hope ; an accusative form from spem. 
This is better than to derive it^ as others ^ from spe likepaoi^ 
from pie, mene from me, tene from te &c.^ since n before a 
vowel does not become m in It. though the reverse process 
occurs, e. g. fomire ioT formire, sono from sum. 

Spendere It. to spend, from expendere, Sp. expender, whence 
also G. spenden, O. H. G. spent(^, E. spend; spesa expense 
from expensa, L. L. spensa, whence G. speise, O. H. G. s[Hsa, 
Rh. spisa; spendio from dispendhm. O. E. spence a store-room. 

Sperone sprone It., 0. Sp. esporon, Sp. espolon, Pg. esparSo, Fr. 
espero, O. Fr. esporon, Fr. e'peron spur; O. Sp, espuera, Sp. 
espueia, Pg. espora; from O. H. G. sporo, ace. sporon (whence 
the forms with n), E. spur. From the Rom. sbst. comes the 
vb. It speronare spronare, Sp. espolear, Pg! esporear, Pr. espe- 
ronar, Fr. eperonner, 

Spesa — spendere. 

Spesso It., Sp. espeso, Pr. espes, Fr. epais, O. Fr. e^io/^ e.9jM»^, 
Alb. spes thick; from spissus; adv. It. spesso, Pr. ^fpes often, 
cf. Petron. oscuia spissa frequent, Gk. xvxvdv, O. H. G. 

Spesie It., Sp. especie, Fr. epice (E. spice) drugs, spice; from 
species = spezie in L. L., O. Fr. espece. Hence It. speziale an 

Spiare It., fep. Pr. espiar, Fr. epier, E. spy, Rh. spiar; from 0. 
H. G. spehdn, = G. spdhen. Sbst. It. (m.) 5/?i<7, Sp. espia (m. 
f.), Pr. ^5p/« (f.), O. Fr. espie (f.), E. spy, also It. spione, bp. 
Fr. espion; from O. H. G. 5/?d^^a (f.) exploratio. The Du. has 

Spiccare — pegar. 

Spicchio — spigolo, 

Spiedo — spito. 

Spignere spingere It. to thrust out; from expingere on the ana- 
logy of impingere, cf. Pr. espenher and empenher. 

Spigolo It. edge ; from spictdum point, whence also spicchio head 
of garlic, quarter of a pear &c., slice of orange &c., Ven. sj^ 
goto, Neap, spicolo, Ven. Ver. spigo, L. spicus spicum, cf. Rh. 
spig mountain -peak. Rom. spigui = {\) spigolo (2) spicchio, 

Spillo It. (corr. squillo), pin (E. spill). From spinula, as orlo 
from oruia, R.Gr. 2, 271 ; ct. lulla from lunuUXy ella from enda- 
Hence also Fr. epingle (f.), N. Pr. espinglo, Neap, spingolo 
(from the Fr.), B. ispilinga, Champ, eplingue, ^ finserted to 
separate the liquids in epinle. The Romag. has spineU. Cf. 
Tac. Germ. 17: legmen omnibus sagum fibula aul, si desil, spina 


Spinaoe It., Sp. espinaca, Pg. espinafre, Pr. espinar, Fr. epinard, 

Wal. spenac, E. spinach; from 5pma^ the It. from spinaceus, 

the Pg. from spinifer. 
Spinetta It., Sp. espineta, Fr. epinetie, E. ^pme^ a stringed in- 

stroment; from spina, because struck with a pointed quill. 
Spingare — springare. 
Spirito It., Wal. spirit, Sp. espirilu, Pg. e^pirito, Cat. Pr. esperit, 

Fr. esprit, whence E. spright and spirit, O. Fr. Espir. The 

sanctily attaching to the word caused some anomalies , e. g. 

in the Sp. form with u, and the uncontracted Pr. form. 
Spitamo It., Sp. espita span ; from Oiti^afiij. 
Spito Neap., §p. Pg. espeto spit, Fr. epois stag's horns; from 

O.H.G. spiz, Du. L. G. E. spit. We have also a synonymous 

form with d: It. spiedo (spiedone, corr. schidone schidione), 

Romag. sped. Gen. spiddo, Sard, spidu, Sp. espedo espiedo. 
Spoglio spoglia It. (corr. scoglio, scoglia), 0. Sp. espojo spoil; 

from spolium, L. L. spalia. For this Sp. has despojo, Fr. (fe- 

pouitle, Pr. despuelh, despuelha, vb. despojar, depouiiler, des- 

poihar. T 
Spola spuola It, Sp. espoiin spool ; from O. H. G. s/nio/o (G. 

fpti/^, E. spool); Rh. 5po/, Limous. espoio; O. Fr. espolel 

spindle. The Fr. epotde is for espotdCj epoule, Lorr. ehpieule 

(eh = Fr. ^«^. 
Sponda It., Pr. esponda margin, parapet; from L. sponda, the 

sense of which has not altogether disappeared from the Rom. 
Sporto It. projection, balcony; from sporgere, L. exporrigere. 

But Menage derives sportello a little door from porta. 
SpoBO sposa It., Sp. esposo esposa, Pr. espos esposa, Fr. epoux 

epouse, E. spouse orig. == betrothed like the L. sponsus sponsa, 

but afterwards = also consort (which is the only meaning in 

Fr. and E.) ; vb. It. sposare, O. Sp. Pr. esposar, Fr. epouser 

from L. sponsare. 
Spranga It. bar, cross-beam, clasp; from O. H. G. spanga with 

inserted r. 
Sprassare sprizsare spruzsare It. to spirt, sprinkle = G. 

spratzen spritzen sprOtzen. So also sbrizzare to wet, Rh. sbrinz- 

iar, cf. sbrocco for sprocco. 
Spreoare It. to spill, squander; from A. S. spree, O. N. sprek 

a broken twig, cf. Sp. derramar from ramo; or from O. H. G. 

sprehha, M. H. G. sprecke spot, speck, A. S. sprdncan, G. 

sprenkdn, E. sprinkle. 
Springare It. Dante Inf. 19, 120 (al. spingare) to sprawl, O.Fr. 

espHngtier dance with leaps. Pic. to dance for joy; from O. 

H. G. springan, E. spring. O. Fr. espringale = (i) a dance 

(2) a machine for throwing missiles, a springald, It. spingarda 

a oattering-ram, Sp. espingarda a*small caiinon. 


Sprizsare — sprazzare, 

Sprooco — brocco. 

Sprazzare — sprazzare, 

Spuloiare — pulce. 

Spimtone spontone It., Sp. esponton, Fr. sponton, E. spontoon a 
sort of pike; from It. punione (punto, ptmctum) with streng- 
thening s. 

Squadra — quadro, 

Squaroiare It. to tear to pieces ^ prop, to quarter; from ex-quar- 
tare (It. squariare, Fr. ecarteler) ex-qnartire. Neap, squariatre 
= squarciare. 

Squelette — scheletro. 

Sqiiilla It.; Lomb. Rh. scheila, Sp. esqw'ia, Pr. esquella, esqueik^, 
O. Fr. eschiele bell; from O.H.G. skilla, skella, G. schelle bell; 
which come from vb. skellan to ring, whence It. squiliar^* 
L. L. is schilia. 

SquiUo — sptllo. 

Squinanzia It., Sp. esquinancia, Fr. esqumancie , E. squinancs/) 
quinsy; from xvvdyxri^ L. q/nanche. 

Squittire It. to chirp, cry; cf. Bav. quiischen, 

Staooa It., Sp. Pr. estaca, O. Fr. estaque estacke, from A. i 
staca, L. G. E. stake. 

Staocare — tacco. 

Staooio It., Neap, (more correctly) setaccio, Mil. sedazz, al^^ 
Sp. cedazo, O. Fr. saas, Fr. sas sieve ; L. L. sedatium, sitaceu^^ 
for a L. setacium from seta, because made of hair. Wal. hf»-' * 
sete, sitize, Norm. set. 

Stadico statioo It., Fr. dtage, E. hostage; from ostaticus, obsidc^' 
ticus (obses). 

Stafflk It. Rh. stirrup; from O. H. G. staph, stapho step, whence 
also L. L. stapia. Hence It. staff etta, Sp. estafeta, Fr. est 
fette: cursor tabellarius, cui pedes in stapede perpeiuo sunt Fe 
rari; also staffUe stirrup-leather, staffUare to scourge with 
thong (Fr. estafier to bully), staffdata a blow , Fr. estafUade 
slash, cut, vb. estafilader. 

Staggio It., Pr. estatge, Fr. etage (E. stage) state, dwellinj^ 
story, floor &c. ; from stare status statictis (Pr. f. estatga abode 

Staggire It. to sequester, seize, detain, staggina sequestrato 
Like so many other legal words, of German origin; from sti 
tigdn sistere, or from stdtian (stdtan) to fasten, hold, 

Stagione It. season, Sp. estacion, Pg. estacdo season, time; v 
It. stagionare to mature; from statio, cf. G. stunde mome 
from stehn stare. The Sp. Pr. sazon, Pg. sazao, Fr. saison, 
season (vb. sazonar, assaisonner, sasonare, season) can hardi 
come from statio, though we find z = st in Sp. Zuniga f(^ 
Estumga. Ducange derives them, with much probabilitjpr / 


from satio the nearest L. representative of ^^ season ^% cf. the 
expressions: saiio verna, cestiva, autumnalis (Columella). 

Stagno It.; Sp. esiano, Pr. estanh, Fr. etain and tain (tin -foil le 
tain = Vetain)y E. tin. Not from stannum for the L. nn 

J masses into It. gn only before i (grugnire from grunnirej, but 
rom the O. L. stagnum found in stagneus stagnatus. Fr. vb. 
etamer to tin from etain as venimeux from r^wm (venom), cf. 
abstemim from abstineo, according to some etymologers. 

Stigo — sestiere. 

Stallo It. O. Pg., O. Sp. estaio, Pr. O. Fr. e^/ff/ place, abode, 
Fr. e'tai stall (etaler retail), e'tau; fem. It. stalla, Sp. estala, 
O. Pg. 5^a/« stall, whence It. Stallone, Fr. etalon, E. stallion 
= equus ad stallum. From O. H. Q. stal locus (G. 5/^//^) sta- 
bulum, E. stall, vb. Du. stallen to expose for sale, G. awj- 
steilen. From L. stabulum we have Pr. estable, Fr. ^VaZ?/^ (f.). 
The Fr. eVaw = (1) stall, butcher's stall (so also e'tal, cf. eta- 
tier a butcher) (2) a vice. In the latter sense e'tau might be 
from stal in the sense of stand, trestle, frame, or from the 
O. Flem. stael stock, Du. steel, but the Lorr. eitauque, Bas. 
estoka are evidently from the G. (schraub-) stock r= vice, and 
etau is probably an abbreviation. 

Stambeooo It. wild goat; from the O.H.G. staihboc, O.Fr. bom- 
estain, Rh. stambuoch. 

Stamigno It., Sp. estamena, Pg. Pr. estamenha, Fr. etamine, E. 
stamin bolting-cloth, bunting, sieve; from adj. stamineus made 
of thread. 

Btampare It, Sp. Pg. estampar, Fr. etamper to stamp, punch; 
from O. H. G. stamphdn, G. stampfen, E. stamp; "Wal. steamp 
sbst. from O. H. G. stamph. 

Qtanoare It. to tire; Sp.Pg.Pr. estancar, Fr. etancher, E. stanch, 
adj. Sp. estancOy Fr. etanche, E. staunch (water-tight), in Pg. 
also = to wear jr. From stagnare to stop, hinder, whence to 
tire; gn becommg nc as in sbst. Sp. Pg. estanque, Pr. estanc, 
Fr. etang (instead of etain), Bret, stann from stagnum, the 
hardened form being used to distinguish the word from stag- 
num tin, though the soft gn is found in Sp. retahar, VaJ. 
estanyar = estancar; Piedm. stagn has both senses. In Pr. 
Cat. tancar to stop, Sp. atancarse to constrain oneself, the s 
is dropped as in Pg. tafique (E. tank), for estanque, v.s. stanga. 
Hence It. adj. stanco weary, Sp. estanco, Pg. estanque costive, 
Pr. estanc stul, stagnant, 0. Fr. ^static dull, languid; It. may 
be for stancato, but the rest must be from the sbst. stagnum 
(v. R.Gr. 2, 267), since adjectives are not formed from verbs 
except by means of suffixes. It. mono stanca = prop, the 
feeble, hand (M. H. G. tenc left, Wal. stunge), cf. It. (Prov.) 


mano siarta the distorted hand, and cf. senestrarsi un piede to 
sprain the foot. V. s. gauche. 

Stanga It. Rh. pole; bar, Fr. eiangues, E. iongs (cf. sianco), 
properly = that which rests on two supports or bars, Fr. 
siangue anchor -stock (heraldic), Wal. steange; from O. H. 6. 
stanga, G. stange a pole. 

Stanza It., Sp. estancia abode, room, Fr. estatisa position, Fr. 
etance eianpon prop; from a form stantia fstans stare). The 
stanza of a song is supposed to be the store-room, where the 
poets' art is concentrated (Dante). 

Stama It., Sp. Pg. estama a sort of partridge; from (avis) ex- 
terna, Fr. perdrix grecque. The O. H. G. siam, A. S. steam 
is the name of another bird, the starling. 

Steooo It. thorn, stecca staff, log, vb. stecchire; from O. H. 0. 
steccho a prick, sting, Du. stek, E. stick. Cf. s. etiquette. 

Stendardo it., Sp. estandartey Fr. estendart, estandart, Fr. eten- 
dard, whence M. H. G. stanthart, E. standard; from extendert, 
It. stendere le insegne. 

Stentare It. to be in want (E. stint), Rh. stentar to be weary. It 
stento need, hardship: from abstentare (or abstinere, to abstain, 
be hungry. Hence also It. bistentare bistento, Pr. (from ten- 
tiare) bistensar, bistens, O. Fr. bestancier, bestans. 

StOBso iBtOBso It. pronoun; from L. iste ipse. 

Stia It. henroost; from O. H. G. stiga, G. stiege ladder, hen- 

Stimare It. from cestimare, L. L. stimare. 

Stinoo It., Mod. Ven. schinco. Mil. schinca shin-bone, shin; 
from O. H. G. skinko reed, pipe, M. H. G. schinke bone. 

Stic, lino Stic It. a sort of flax, sown in March; from sativum 
(Menage), like staccio from setacium, or, better, from cestivwn* 

Stivale It., O. Sp. estibal, O. Fr. estival a boot, whence O. H.G. 
stiftU, M. H. G. stival, G. stiefeL Properly a summer-boot, 
from (BStivale (Ducange). 

Stivare It., Sp. Pg. estivar to stow, pack, estiva ballast, cai^; 
estivador packer, stevedore; from stipare. 

Stizzare — tizzo. 

Stocoo It., Sp. Pg. estoque, Pr. Fr. estoc = (1^ E. tuck (weapon), 
(2) stock, Com. stock a stick; from G. E. stock, Uael. stoc» 
Tne G. stocken is foimd in Pic. etoquer. For Fr. etau=: stock, 
V. s. stallo. 

StofHEt It., Sp. Pg. estofa, Fr. etoffe^ masc. It. stoffo, Pg. ej/o/o 
= E. stuff; vb. Sp. Pg. estofar, Fr. etoffer, etouffer, E. stuff* 
The vb. is synonymous with It. stoppare, Fr. etouper, E. stop 
(v. stoppa) and both alike are from L. stuppa tow, which in (}. 
became stupfa stuffa, hence Sp. estofa = also quilted stuff, E. 
stuff. Sp. estofar to stew from O. H. G. stuba, stot^e is distinct 


from esiofar to quilt (stoffa). The Gael. $t%»bh seems to be 
from the E., cf. scabhal from scaffold, Idbhte = loft, gibhte = 


Stoja It., Sp. estera for estuera (as frente for fruente)^ Pg. esteira 

mat; from storea. 
Stoppa It., Wal. stupe, Sp. estopa, Fr. etoupe tow; from stuppa. 

Hence It. stoppino match, Fr. etoupin, E. toppm, stopple, 

wad; It. vb. stoppare, O. Fr. estopar, E. ^/op, Fr. e'toupper = 

L. L. stuppare. 
Stoppia It., Pr. estohla, Fr. etouble == E. stubble, G. stoppel; the 

Fr. e'teule, however, is the L. stipuld, cf. O. Fr. net^^ from 

Stordire It. to be deaf, to deafen, stupefy, O. Sp. estordir ator- 
dir, Sp. aturdir, Fr. etottrdir, adj. stordito, aturdido, etourdi, 
stupid , heedless. Several derivations are given ^1) from tur- 
dus a thrush, cf. Sp. tener cabeza de tordOy and Gk. proverb 
xfotpizBQoq xix^ris, and cf. ericiare from ericius (2) W. ttvrdd 
noise, thunder, cf. etonner from tonus (3) E. sturdy (4) from 
torpidus, whence extorpidire extordire; as from tepidus comes 
tiedir to be lukewarm, so from torpidus tourdir to be numb. 

Stoiione It., Sp. estunon, E. sturgeon, Fr. etourgeon; from O. H. 

G. sturio. 
Stormo It., Rh. sturm, Pr. estom, O.Fr. estor storm; It. vb. stor- 

mire, Pr. O.Fr. estormir; from G. sturm, E. ^/or»i, vb. sturman 

found also in W. y storm, Bret, stourm, Gael, stoirm. 
Storpiare — stroppiare. 
Stovigli Btovlglie It. an earthen vessel; from O. H. G. stouf = 

O. N. stoup, A. S. stedp, E. stoup, dim. O.H.G. stoufili. Hence 

also O. Fr. esteu. 

Straooare It. to harass , weary (Pr. estracar), stracco for strac- 
caio exhausted; probably, from O. H. G. strecchan to stretch 
(on the ground). 

Straooiare It., Rh. stratschar, Sp. estrazar, Pr. estrassar to tear 
to pieces ; It. straccio, Sp. estrazo estraza rag. From extractus 
extractiare. Cf . tracciare. 

Strada It., Sp. Pg. Pr. estrada, O. Fr. estree, Pic. etree street; 
from L. strata sc. via, cf. Virg. strata viarum, E. street. In Fr. 
a street was also called cJiemin ferre, Pr. cami f err at, and 
sometimes simply ferree (cf. estree, brisee, route). Hence also 
It. strafo, Sp. estrado, Pr. estrd for estrat; Fr. estrade (from 
the Sp.) raised platform , from stratum. Hence also Pr. estra- 
dier, O. Fr. estraier a rambler, stray er (stray), cf. s. estraguar. 

Strambolt. crooked, bandy-legged, ViQA.,stranb limping, Romag. 
sframb strange, odd, Wal. stremb, Alb. stremp oblique, false, 
Pr. estramp unrhymed (verse), stramp, hence It. ^trambita 



want of rhyme , pcrrerseness; Wl. stramba to distort. From 

L. strabus squinting, cf. Sp. estramhosidad = It estrahimo. 

Ilcnec also bp. estrambote, It. strambotto burden of a song, 
)vo\). = that which transgresses ordinary rules, cf. Dante 
ni, 7, 40 (of a man), Yen. siraboto = blunder; adj. Sp. Pg. 

estrambotico strange, eccentric. F. Pasqualino has: strammotu 

ridicida caniiuncuia a strammu (It. strambo) ut mnuahir deflexio 

a vera significatione in maiam partem accepta. But with estram- 

bote cf. O. Fr. estrabot estribot (v. estribo) whence also a form 

estrimbote. It. stramba a rope of rushes is from a different root, 

cf. llfiwstrempfel withy; the vb. strambellare is from strampf^ 

to struggle, cf. Rh. strambl ire to shake. 
Stranio strano It., Wal. strein, Sp. estrano, Pr. estranh, Fr. 

etrange, E. strange , hence It. stranierOy Sp. extrangero, Pr. 

estratigier, E. stranger, Fr. etranger; from extraneus. 
Strapasser strapaszare — pazzo. 
Strappare It., sbst. strappata, Sp. estrapada, Fr. E. estrapade; 

from strapfen to draw, G. straff \i^i. V. estraper. 
Strasoinare — trassinare, 
Strato — strada. 
Stratto It. eccentric, extravagant; for astratto or distratto lost in 

Straziare It to ill-treat, abuse, sbst strazio; from distractus, 

Strebbiare — trcbbia. 
Strega It., Mil. stria, Pg. estriaf?), also It. stregona, Wal. stre- 

goc witch, masc. It. stregone, Wal. strigoiu; vb. stregare; from 

L. striga night-bird, owl, also witch (Petronius and Apuleias}, 

which is from strix, 
Stregghia streglia It., Cat. estrijot, Fr. etrilte curry-comb; vb. 

It. strecchiare, Sp. estrillar, Fr. etritter to curry; from ^- 

Stribord Fr. (also tribord), whence Sp. estribord; from A.S. ste&r- 

bord, E. starboard (G. steucrbord). 
Strillo It. loud cry, vb. stritlare (tritl?); from strididus. 
Stringa It., Sp. estringa string, yh, string are. ^ ot trom stringere, 

which would give strigna, cf. cigna from cingcre, but from the 

A. S. string streng, O.N. stronger, M.Du. stringhe, vb. stringer 

strefigen, v. Grimm 2, 37, and cf. Pg. forms estrinca esfrinqa^, 

Sp. esiringue estrenque rope. 
Striscia It. stripe, strip, vb. strisciare. From the G. strich, 

though G. ch IS not usually changed to It. sci; cf. una striscia 

dipaese = G. ein strich landes. 
Stronzare It. to cut, lop, from O. H. G. strunzan. Sbst. stronzo 

stronzolo dung, excrement, O. Fr. estront, Fr. etron^ cf. G. 

strunzen, strunzel a piece, dirt, Du. stront dung* 

STROPPIAKE — stfcIDO. 417 

Stroppiare storpiare It., Ven. strupiare, Mil. struppia, Rh. sirup- 
chiar, Sp. Pff. estropear, Fr. estropier to maim, mutilate, sbst. 
It. siroppio nindrance, check. Perhaps storpiare is the orig. 
form and comes from extorpiare for extorpidare. 

Stroppolo It., Fr.esirope, etrope rope; from A'/rt//v?W5 (Gellius), 
Sp. estrovo from stropus. Cf. Du. strop, G. striippe, E. s/rflj^. 

Strosoio — troscia. 

StroBsa It. throat, sirozzare to throttle; from O. H. G. drozza 

Stmflb strufolo It. a heap of rags; perhaps from Or. ^/rtfp/ any- 
thing torn, O. H. Q. stroufen to pluck, tear. 

Stmggere It. to destroy; for distmggere = desiruere. The gg 
stands for a euphonic inserted j (destrujere), cf. L. L. iragere 
for traere from trahere, cf. also O. Pg. irager, whence Pg. 
trazer, v. R. Qr. 1, 166. 

StruBso It., Pr. esirus ostrich, from struthio; Sp. av-estruz, Fr. 
au-truche (f .) for autrusse, E. ostrich, from flrr/^ struthio, L. L. 

Stuooo It. E., Sp. estuque, Fr. 5/t/c; from O. H. G. stucchi crusta. 
State It., Sp. Pg. estufa, Pr. estuba, Fr. etuve (E. sfetv) stove, 

vb. It. stufare, Sp. estufar, estofar estovar, Fr. ^Vt/rer (E. stew); 

L. L. 5/MZ>fl, O. H. G. stupa, M. H. G. 5^oZ>^, G. stube, Du. E. 

^/ot^e^ A. S. stofa, Gael. 5/o^A (from the E.). 

Stuolo It., O. Sp. estol troop, retinue, crew, O. Cat. Pr. estol 
army, fleet, WsA.stol fleet; from (TroAoff, h.stoltds (Cod.Theod.). 
The O. Fr. for classis was estoire (f.), whence M.H. G. storje; 
this answers to a L.L. storium (f. from neut.) which = stolium 
= 6x6Xlov, cf. navirie = navilie. This is better than to take 
it from estorer (q. v.) = imtaurare, for a derivative instaurium 
would not be regular. 

Stutare — tutare. 

Stxussioare It. to drive on, impel. Mod. stussa, Rh. stuschar; 
from G. stutzen to thrust. Veneroni gives also stozzare to im- 

8a — suso. 

Sabbia It. chisel; from subula awl. 

Sabbio It., Sp. enxullo, Fr. ensouple a weaver's beam ; from insu- 

Sao — cucuzza, 

Saoohiare It. to suck; from a L. succuiare, from sucus succuSy 
V. suco. Succhiare also = to bore, pierce, whence succhio a 
gimlet, prop. = a sucker. 

Saooiare sugare — suco. 

Saoer — suco, 

Sdoido 80SS0 It., Sp. sucio, Pg. sujo, N. Pr. sous dirty; from 



sucidus moist, cf. lana sua'da. Sozzo is from sucius Wi sezzo 
from secius. 

Suoio — stia'do. 

Suoo Buoco Bugo It., Sp. suco, xuQO , Fr. Pr. ^t^r juice; fromni- 
cm; hence It. sttgare, O. Sp. sugar (cf. O. H. G. sugan), Pr. 
sucar, H surk; It. asciugare, Sp. enxugar, Pr. eisugar, Fr. 
rsswj(Tf WaL usuca usca, from exsucare to dry up, wipe off 
moisture; It. asciutio, Sp. enxuto, Pr. eissug, Efcrr. ^£wy, Rh. 
Ar/«'^ dry, Fr. sbst. ^'awwi, from exsuctus; li. prosciugare from 
per-exst4care ; It. prosciutto, presciutlo (Pg. j^resunio) ham, from 
per - exsuchis. It. sncciare suzzare , Vr, sucer, is from sitctiare 
fsucfusj, cf. Pr. succio, Fr. suction. 

Suore — zucchero. 

Sud Fr., whence Sp. 5wr/, Pg. am/ (cf. Sp. flrr<?irf, Pg. ardii); from 
A. S. if?/<?A, E. 50W/A. 

Suela — 5t/o/o. 

Sueldo — 50/r/o. 

Suero Sp., Pg. soro, Sard, soru whey; from serum, the Pg. Sard, 
coming, probably, tlirough a Fr. sotr, for the change of an 
accented e to o before a single consonant is unexampled. 

Siighero It. cork ; for st'wero from suber, the v being lost and gh 
inserted to avoid the hiatus , cf. pavone paone pagone fpavoJ» 
Ven. Cat. suro avoids the hiatus by a contraction. 

Sugliardo — souil, 

Sugna It. fat, grease; for axungia cart -grease, cf. Ven. s<mz& 
(z = gi)y Mil. sonsgia, 

Suie Fr., Pr. suia, sueia, sugn, Cat. sulje (m.J soot. Of these the 
original form suga may be referred to tne A. S. sdtig (s6ig)^ 
E. sooty, from sbst. sol, E. soot, whence also Gael, sidth. 

Suif — sevo. 

Suinter Fr. to sweat, ooze, sbst. suin( suin; from O. H. G. 
snizan (orig. snitaii), E. sweat, with insertion of a nasal, v. 
R. Gr. 1, 332. 

Suivre Fr. to follow; from sequi, Pr. seguir and segre, L. L. 
severe, O. Fr. sevre, sivre, suire, suivre, E. sue. 

Sujo — sucido. 

Sumir — sumsir. 

Sumsir Bumpsir, somsir sompBir Pr. to sink, somsimen sinking. 
sftmsis abyss; a corruption o{ suf/mergere , Pr. somergir, g after 
r becoming s, as in esparser (spargere), terser (tergere); s*> 
sumrstr sumsir. Sp. Pg. have sumir, g liaving vanished as in 
espurrir fexporrigere), sobar (subagere) ; or is this from sumertt 
From somsir comes, probably, tlie Fr. sancir to founder; Pr. 
samrimen is found for sumsimeti. 

Suolo It., Pr. sol, sola, Sp. suela y Fr. E. sole (of the foot); It. 
soglia, soglio, Pr. sulh, sol, Fr. seuil threshold, Sp. suela floor; 



It. soglia, Sp. suela, Pg. solha, Fr. E. sole (fish). The forms 

with the / pure are from solum, the others from solea. From 

adj. solarius we have It. solajo, solare, Pr. soliery solar floor, 

E. sollar, Sp. solar ground, Fr. Soulier shoe. 
Super — sopa. 

Superoheria superoherie — soverchio. 
Sur Fr. preposition; from super, Sp. Pg. Pr. sobre, O. It. sor; 

O. Fr. sore, seure from supra. 
Sup Fr. sour; from O. H. Q. A. S. O. N. sur, W. sur, E. sour. 

Hence Rou. suriele. Wall, sural, Fr. surelle, E. sorrel = Du. 

SAp Fr., O. Fr. seiir (E. 5i/r^) segur; from securus, Pr. se^wr. 
Suroot — co//a. 
Sureau Fr. elder. Sabucus becomes in Sp. sauco, Wal. soc, Pr. 

^atic^ B. sauca, O. Fr. Pic. 5«i; for names of trees the Fr. is 

fond of the term, arius, dim. arellus, hence from seu the form 

sureau. The O. Fr, seiir is perhaps for seiir -eau rejecting the 

dim. suffix. 
Surgeon — sourdre. 
Surgia Pr. surgery; for srurgia for cirurgia, chirurgia, hence 

O. Fr. surgien, E. surgeon, Du. surgijn. 
Surplis — pelliccia. 
Surtir — sortire. 

Susina It. plum ; perhaps because brought from Susa (Muratori). 
8u8o It, shortened sii (cf. verso, ver), Rh. si, Sp. O. Pg. suso, 

Pr. O. Fr. sus; from susum for sursus, contr. L. sus in susque 

deque. Hence Fr. dessus, O. Sp. desu. 
SuBsiego — sosiego. 
Susto — sostare. 
Suserain Fr. prop. adj. (seigneurs.) a feudal word; from sus 

(z=z susum), on tno analogy of souverain ? 
Sussare — suco. 
Svaxiire — evanouir. 

Svellere svegliere It. ; from exvellere for evellere. 
— verza. 


Taba Sp. bone of the knee-pan; perhaps from Ar. lahaq a small 

bone between the vertebrce. 
Tabaooo It, Sp. labaco, Fr. iabac, E. lobacco; an American 

word , prop, a tobacco - bowl. 
Taballo — ataballo. 
Tabarin Fr. a jack-pudding; the name of a mountebank of the 

17*^ century (Roquefort). 


Tabarro It., Sp. Pg. tahardo, Fr. E. tabard, M. H. G. tapfart 
short coat, coat-of-arms , W. tahar, L. Gr. zafindQi^ov, Per- 
haps from iap-es a covering. It. tappeto, of. Rom. cap and cab 
from caput , where also the / vanishes. 

Tabique Sp. Pg. a partition -wall of lath and plaster; Sp. also 
taxhique, A. taschbik = twisting, plaiting, making lattice 
or net -work, the root being schabaka inseruit unam rem 
alteri, perplexuit, caneellatim struxit. V. Mahn, Untersuch. 

p. 71. 

Taboiiret — tamburo. 

Tabust tabut O. Fr. Pr. outcry, disturbance , vb, (abusier tabu- 
ter, tabustar tabussar, tustar turtar to knock, disturb, It. tarn- 
bustare to thrash; Pr. sbst. taburla, vb. tabomar, Vroia tabor 
tambor (tambour, drum), whence also Pr. talabusi, Fr. tara- 
buster to vex; L. L. taburcium taburlum = tabor. 

Taoano — taccagno, 

Taooagno It., ^^.tacaho, Vr.taquin niggardly; vb. It. iaccaffnare, 
Fr. taquiner, Lomb. zaccagna to wrangle about trifles. From 
G. zdhe tenacious, miserly, O. H. G. zdhi, cf. Lomb. taaiaard 
niggard. For c or cc from G. ^, v. s. gecchirCy smacco. 

Taooia — tacco. 

Taooo It. heel of a shoe TSp.Pg. taco peg seems to be of different 
origin), Rh. tac spot , aefect. Wall, tac plate, Rou. t€u:q a spot 
of land; f. It. tacca notch and spot, Pr. taca, O.Fr. Pic. teq'ue, 
It. tecca, Fr. tache. It. taccia, hp. Pg. tacha spot, Oec. tacho 
broad-headed nail; hence It. taccone patch, Sp. Pg. iacon heel 
of a shoe, tachon head of a nail, Rou. tacon = It. taccone and 
taccia; vb. Rh. taccar to notch, to cleave to, Ven. tacare, 
Lomb. taca to fasten, Pr. tacar, Fr. tacher to spot, Pr. techir; 
It. attaccare, Sp. atacar = Fr. attacher, E. attach also = Fr. 
aftaquer (the Picard form of attacher, v. Littr^ , Hist. d. la 
langue Fr., p. 13), E. attack (prop, to fasten on to, Gk. aarr^ 
a^aC TLvo<s)\ It. staccare, Fr. detacher, E. detach. The root is 
found in the Celtic as well as the German : Gael, tac. Com. 
tach, E. tack, Du. tack, G. zacke point, tooth, vb. Du. tacken, 
E. tack, cf. O. N. taca, A. S. tacan, E. take. The original 
meaning seems to be "something fastening or fastened'' then 
(2) patch (3) spot (4) stain, blemish. The It. meaning "notch*' 
is to be immediately referred to zacke. 

Taccola It. magpie, tdccolo jest, taccolare to chatter; from 0. H. 
G. tdha eornicula, or from a form tdhala, whence Germ, dohle 

Taoha taohe taoon — tacco. 

Taohe Fr. (f.) task, job, vb. tdcher to try. For tasche, cf. E. 
task. Cat. Ven. tasca^ Pr. tasca tascha rent, income; L. L 
tasca praestatio agraria. Found also in Celtic: W. tasg, Gael. 


iaisg. As Fr. Idche, Pr. lose from laxm, so tdche, iasca from 

iaxa (L. L. for iaxatio) = something demanded or exacted, 

cf. Rou. tasque = Fr. taxe. 
Taf&no It., Sp. tdbano, Pr. O.Fr. tavan, Fr. taon (for iaan), Wal. 

/«me a gadfly 5 from tahanus (tdbanus later tabdnus), cf. Papias : 

a$Um quern rusiici tabanum vocant, 
TsStitk It., Sp. tafetan, Fr. taffetas, taffeta; from Persian /d/Va/r. 
TafUr Pr. O. Fr. rogue, Sp. /a^wr gamester, cheat, Pg. taful 

also = debauchee, N. Jrr. vb. tafurd to disturb, confuse. 

From Arab, ^a^zle/ a cheat? 
Tagarote Sp. Pg. an Egyptian hawk; from the river Tagarros 

in Africa, on the banks of which it is chiefly found. 
Taglia It., Sp. taja, taila, Pg. Pr. taiha, Fr. taille cut, cutting, 

figure, tally, tallage; M. It. taglio, Sp. tajo, talle, Pr. talk, Fr. 

(only) detail, E. detail, entail; vb. tagliare, tajar, talhar, tailler, 

Waf. teia to cut; Pr. talhador, Sp. tallador (engraver), Fr. 

tailleur, E. /ai7or (for which It. has sartone, Sp. sastre); It. 

tagliere, Sp. taller, rr, talhador, Fr. tailloir, Sf.tajadero chop- 

Sing-block, trencher, plate, whence G. teller; and many other 
envatives. From L. /a/^a, cf. Nonius i, 473: ^flr/eo^ scissiones 
iignOrum vel prcesegmina Varro dicitde re rust. Lib. I, nam etiam 
nunc ^^rustica voce^^ intertaleare dicitur dividere vel exscindere 
ramum; this verb is the Sp. entretallar to cut out, Itfrasta- 

Tai O. Fr. mud, vb. entaiar; from Du. taai sticky, clammy, 
O. H. G. zdhi, which was used as an epithet of lime, glue, or 
clay, G. zdhe, Rh. zais. Sic. taja = mortar. 

Taio Fr. pillow-case; from theca covering, O.Fr. (more cor- 
rectly) toie, cf. notjer from necare, Cf. Rh. teija from theca, as 
speija from spica. The O. H. G. ziechd, G. zieche, E. tick are 
also from theca, as ziegal from tegula. 

Taie — taita, 

Taille tailler — taglia. 

Tain — stagno. 

TaXnar Pr. to loiter, delay, also trans, to delay, put off, impers. 
me taina =-- il me tarde, sbst. ta'ina. Hence rr. ata'inar, O. Fr. 
alainer to delay, also to dally, irritate, trifle (Bret, atahinein); 
sbst. atai'na, ataine, Burg, ataine, Bret, atahin (m.). It is per- 
haps connected with Fr. taquin, taquiner, from Q.zdhe clammy, 
though no forms tahin tahiner are found. 

Taisson — tasso. 

Taita Sp. (in children's speech) father. Com. Neap. Pic. lata, 
Wal. tate father, Rh. tat grandfather, tata grandmother; 
hence O. Fr. Pic. Wall, tagon grandfather. Pic. Champ, ra- 
tayon great-grandfather. It is the L. tata, Gk. xdra, Du. 
teyte, L. G. taite tatte, W. tdd, Ir. daid, E. dad, daddy. Fr. 

422 TAJA — TAMiGIO. 

taie is from tata, as crate from creia. Sp. tato tola = younger 
brother, sister, Romag. dad, dada. The Goth, atia, Sw. dOCj 
Gk. arra, Alb. af, is also found in Rom.: Com. aiia father, 
Rh. bis- at great-grandfather, L. atia (Festus). 

Taja tajar — iagilia. 

Tala Sp. Pg. Cat. felling of trees , vb. talar to fell trees , cf. Fr. 
name Boistalle. Not identical with tallar to cut. It seems to 
be an old Sp. word, B. tala ''excidium sylvarum'' (B. Gloss.), 
cf. the names of Sp. places, Tdla-hriga, Tala-mina, Tal-m, 
Tala- vera &c., = E. term, field, feld, cf. Humboldt Urbew. 
Hisp. p. 53. It may be the O. H. G. zdl6n diripere = L. L. 

Taladro — taraire. 

Taloo It. Sp. Pg., Fr.E. talc; from Ax.^talaq, perhaps of Persian 

Talega Sp., Fg.taleiffa, Pr. taleca bag, sack; from ^Xaxog^ 
Wal. tiledge. 

Talento It., Sp. talento talenfe talante, Pr. talen talan, Fr. E. 
talent. The O. Rom. meaning (It. talento, Sp. talente talmtte, 
O. Fr. O. E. taletit, Wall, dalent) was will, inclination, from 
talentum {xdXavrov) balance, weight, inclination. A later 
moaning was that of " talent '^ gemus; perhaps derived from 
the Parable of the Talents. Hence It. attalentare, Pr. atalen- 
tar, O. Fr. atalenter to please, entice, charm. 

Talevas O. Fr. a sort of shield; for tavelas, from It. tavolaccio a 
wooden shield (tabula), 

Talismano It., Sp. Fr. E. talisman; from Ar. ^tilsam which is 
from the Gk. reXsO^a an incantation. 

Tallo It. Sp., Pg. tola, Fr. talle (f.) shoot, sprout; from thaUus 

Tallone It., Sp. Pg. Fr. talon heel (E. talon); from talus ancle = 
talaiin in the Cass. Gloss., v. Due. talo, 

Tamarindo It. Sp., Fr. tamarin, E. tamarind; from Ar. tamaT 
hindl Indian date. 

Tambo Pg. bridal bed; from thalamus, with b inserted, 0. Pg. 

tamo marriage - feast. 
Tamburo It., Sp. Pg. tambor atambor, Pr. t(d?or (E. tabor), Fr. 

E. tambour, Si. H. G. tambur and tabiir drum , Wal. tambure 

lyre ; dim. It. tamburino &c., Fr. tabouret (E. tabret) foot-stool; 

u'om Pers. Uambur, Ar. Uombiir lyre. 
Tambussare — tabust, 
Tamica — tomiza. 
Tamigio It., Ven. tamiso, Sp. tamiz, Pr. Fr. tamis sieve; vb. It. 

tamigiare, Fr. tamiser to sift. From the Du. teems sieve (cf. 

O. H. G. zemisa bran). 

TAMPA — TAPE. 423 

Tampa tampon tampir — tape. 
Tan Sp., Pg. ido adv. from tantus, R. Gr. 2, 447. 
Tan Ft. E., vb. tanner to tan, Rou. tener, M. Du. tanen, teynen; 
hence Fr. tanne, E. tatvny, It. /«n^, Sard, tanau, Du. /ffw^y^ 
(= O. Ft. part, taneit). From G. /crnn^ fir, or from Bret, tann 
oak? The latter word is only found in one dialect of the 
Bret, and not elsewhere in Celtic. In L. L. we find ^'aluta 
locus ubi pelles in calce pilantur et tanantur". 

Tana It. Rh. N. Pr. a den. For sottana, L. subtana, subtanea, as 
Com. trana from sotterranea, subterranea. Or is it formed 
from Fr, taniere, as a primitive word? 

Tanabeto It., Sp. athanasia, Fr. tanaisie, E. tansy; from athafla- 
sia immortal. 

Tanaglia It., Pr. tenalha, Fr. tenaille (O. Fr. estenielle) pincers, 
tongs; from tenaculum, pi. tenacula (Terentianus Maurus). 
The Sp. word is tenaza from tenax, pi. tenacia. 

Tanoar — stancare. 

Tanoer — tencer. 

Tanohe Fr., E. tench; L. It. tinea. 

Tandia Fr. particle; from tantos dies, or from tamdiu cf. Pr. 
tandius, v. quandius. 

Tanfo It. from O. H. G. tamf, G. dampf, cf. Champ, tanfer to 
pant = O. H. G. tamfjan to be stifled. 

Tan^hero — tangoner. 

Tangoner Fr. to drive on, press; the L. L. tanganare to stick 
to, sbst. tanganum, cf. W. tengyn sticky, tenacious. Con- 
nected with it is the O. Fr. adj. tangre obstinate, = M. H. G. 
zanger sharp, obstinate, M.Du. tangher sharp, whence It. lan- 
ghero, Com. tangan gross, rude. 

Taniere Fr. den, O.Fr. taisniere, tesniere; prob. contracted from 
taissonniere , and so orig. = badger's hole. 

Tanque — • stancare. 

Tante Fr., O.Fr. ante (ace. antain), IE. aunt, Pr. amda, L. amita, 
Lomb. ameta, Crcm. medda, Rh. onda. The t is either merely 
euphonic as in «-/-//, voila-t-il, cafctier, or is for /a, cf. in 
Wall, <!est ^s monfre (mon frere) it is his brother, 5' matante 
his aunt. 

Taon — tafano. 

Tape Fr. a tap, tappu Sic. a bung, hence Fr. tapon, tampon, E. 
tampion a stopple; Sp. tapa^ rg. tampa a lid; vb. Fr. taper, 
Sp. Pg. tapar, Flor. tappare. Com. tapa, Pr. tampir to stop 
up, cover; from Du. E. tap. We have another form in the It. 
zaffOy vb. zaffare, from O. H. G. zapfo, zampillo a jet of 
water. The Sp. zampar to hide is another form of tapar to 

Tape Fr. a tap (blow), vb. taper, tapoter; from L. G. tappe foot, 


E. tap. A H. G. form of the same word is It. zampa, ciam^ 
(cf. zufolare, ciufolare), foot, zampare to kick, dampare,iih 
ciampare to stumble. 

Tapia 8p., Pg. taipa, Sard. m. iapiu a mud- wall, cf. Lomb. Mk 
a poor hut. Palafox's answer, when summoned to surrender 
SaragoBsa, was: Guerra hasta la ultima tapia. Prob. of Eastern 
origin, Turk. Ar. Udbiah rampart, bastion. 

Tapino — tapir. 

Tapir Fr. (se tapir) to squat, crouch, O. Fr. s'atapir to hide 
oneself, O. Fr. tapin, Pr. tapi hidden, disguised, a tapi, 0. Fr. 
en tapin in disguise, espce. of pilgrims , hence O. EV. ta^% 
pilgrim, tapiner to hide disguise, Fr. en iapinoishj st^th, 
secretly, O. Fr. en tapinage, L. L. tapinatio. From a G. root 
widely foimd in Rom. (v. tape l) zapf = a peg, wedge Ac., 
Fr./fl/>on= bundle, Swed. tapp; tapir = to form into a bundle, 
huddle together , cf. Fr. cacher. Ducange derives from talpOy 
the influence of which is certainly seen in Champ, taiqm 
secret. It. tapino poor, is prob. from razsLvog] ialpino taupino 
owe their forms to talpa. 

Tapis tapis — tappeto. 

Tappeto It., Sp. Pg. tapete tapiz, Pr. tapit, Fr. tapis carpet; 
partly from tapetum, partly from tapes tapetis. 

Taquin — taccagno. 

Tara It. Sp. Pg. Pr. , Fr. E. tare; from Ar. V/r*/r or ^twrra^h 
thrown away, set aside. 

Taradore — taraire. 

Taragona — targone. 

Taraire Fr. (m.), Fr. tarierCy Sp. taladro, Pg. trado, Rh. terader 
anger, gimlet. From L. L. taratrum = xiQSXQOv, In It. tara- 
dore a vine -worm, the same word is seen with the suffix /or, 
though no verb tnrar exists, cf. also Fr. tar-aud a borer, which 
presupposes such a verb. The word is also found in Celtic, 
\V. taradr, Bret, tarar, talar tarer terer borer, Gael, tora to- 
radh , cf. xogog graver. From L. terebelitim come It. triveUOy 
Pr. taravel, Dauph. taravella, Pic. terelle, Pg. travoella borer, 
Sp. teruvela moth. For Sp. taladro for taradro, cf. L. telebra 
for terebra (v. App. ad Probum). To the same family belong 
Sp. taraza, Pg. iraca moth, vb. tarazar, tracar to bite; per- 
haps = teredo with a change of suffix. 

Tarantola tarantella It., whence Sp. tarantula, Fr. tarentelley a 
tarantula (spider), so called because chiefly found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tarentum (It. Taranto), 

Taraud taraza — taraire. 

Tarazon — torso. 

Tarda Sp. Pg. (f.), Cat. tarde tarda evening, afternoon (from 


midday to night); from adv. iarde long, so late, cf. Pgadvg 
long, slow, N. Gk. figadv evening. 

Parga It., Sp. iarja, Pg. Pr. tarja, Fr. E. iargCj Sp. also darga 
adarga, O. Cat darga; vb. Pr. se iargar, Fr. se targuer (to 
pride oneself, boast). From O. H. G. zarga defence, shield, 
whence A. S. targe ^ O. N. targa shield; the G. meaning 
'n[)order, edge, brim'' (cf. G. zarge) is still found in Sp. atarjea 
edge of a canal or sluice. The Sp. adarga adaraga daraga may 
be referred to the Ar. addaraqah leathern shield. 

Parger O. Fr. to loiter, tarry. Pic. aiarger terger. From tardare 
through a freq. form tardicare, K&juger (rom jtidicare, cf. from 
clinare clinicare, from pendere pendicare. Rh. has with diff. 
suffix tardinar, and tardivar. O. Fr. targer is to Fr. tarder as 
O. Fr. enferger to enferrer. 

rargone It., Sp. taragona, Fr. targon, E. tarragon y Wall, dra- 
gronn, Ar. *tarkhun; from draco, in the sense of dracuncutus, 
cf. Sp. taragontea from dragontea. Hence also Pg. estragdo, 
Fr. estragon, 

Parguer — targa. 

rarida It. Sp. Pr. Cat. a ship, transport. Ar. Uaridah a transport. 

Farier O. Fr. to vex, plague; from L. G. targen, Du. tergen, 
M. H. G. zergen, O. H. G. zerjan, 

Faridre — tar aire. 

rarifb It., Sp. Pg. tarxfa, Fr. tanf(m.), tariff'; from Ar. ta'rif 
publication (^arafa to know). 

Farima Sp. Pg. (also tarimba) trestle, bedstead, bench; from 
Ar. Uarimah bedstead. 

Farin Fr. siskin, Paris, terin; perhaps from Pic. tere = tendre 
cf. terons = tiendrons\ so prop. = the pretty, tender bird. 
^o O. N. lita = (1) pretty (2) tit. 

Farir Fr. to dry, dry up; from O. H. G. tharrjan, darrjan. 

Farlo — tarma. 

Farma It. Sp., Rh. tarna moth, wood -tick; from tarmes (m.), 
with a change of declension L. L. tannus, tamus. It. tarlo is 
either a corruption of tarmo, or from a dim. tarmulus. 

Farraoena — arsenate. 

Fartagliare It,, Ven. tartagiare, Rh. tartagliar, Sp. tartajear, 
Pg. tartarcar to stutter, Pr. tartalhar; Sp. tartatear a reel, be 
perplexed; adj. Sp. tato, Pg. tdtaro, Sp. Pg. tarta-mudo stam- 
merer; an onomatop., Du. tateren to stammer. Ar. has tar- 
tara titubar6. 

Fartana It. Sp. P^., Fr. tartane, E. tartan (naut.) a boat with 
one mast; a derivative oi tarida, q. v. 

Fartaruga It Pg., Sp. tortuga, Pr. tortuga tartuga, Fr. tortue a 
tortoise, L. L. tortuca tartuca; so called from its crooked feet 



(tortus), cf. E. tortoise = Pr. tortesa crooked. Another name 
of the tortoise in It. is hotta scudaja = G. schildkrdte. 

Tartufo — truffe. 

TaB Sp. Fr.; Pr. tatz a heap, vb. tasser; from A. S. tass, E. Im 
a heap of com, which is the same word as Gael, dais,, 
E. dais. 

Tasajo Sp., Pg. tassalho a piece of smoked flesh, hung-beef ; from 
tax^a fat (Isidonis from Afranius)? or from tessella? 

Tasca It. Pr., Fr. Provin. tache, tasgue, tasse. Wall, tah, WaL 
tasce, O. H. G. tasca, G. tasche purse. Perhaps = O. H. 6. 
zesche a train, vb. zaschen zeschen to trail, drag == O. H. 6. 
zascdn, so the purse would be that which trails or hangs from 
the neck or girdle. This is better than Grimm^s der. from 
L. L. taxaca texaca a theft, so = receptacle of stolen goods, 
cf. the converse process in sacco, though in both cases the 
origin would be eventually the same, O. H. G. zascdn = 
to rob. 

Tascar Sp. Pg. to dress or heckle hemp &c.; from O. H. G. 
zascdn to tear, Bav. zaschen, v. tasca. 

Tasse — tazza. 

tasugo, Pg. teixugo, L.L. iaxus, taxo a badger; a word widely 
spread in Rom. (Wal. only has csure = L. esar eater , E. has 
brock, gray, badger, Dan. brok, grafting, Swed. grdfsvin); from 
O. H. G. dahs, O. L. G. das, G. dachs, where the d = th, cf. 
tedesco from diutisc, Pr. ties. The L. has meies, which appears 
in Neap, mologna, Fr. also blaireau, q. v. 

Tastare It., O.Sp. Pr. tastar, Fr. tdter to feel, E. taste, Q.tasten. 
A frequentative from taxare: taxare pressius crebritisque est 
quam tangere Gellius. Hence It. sbst. tasto handle of a lute, 
Sp. Pg. traste, Cat. trast, Andal. tast. 

Tasugo — tasso. 

T&ter — tastare. 

Tato — taita. 

Tato — tartagliare. 

Tattera It. trumpery; cf. E. tatters, L. G. tattern, O. H. G. zata 
shaggy stuff. 

Taudir O. Fr. to cover, Fr. taudis a hovel. Pic. taudion; prob. 
from a G. source, O. N. tialld, M. Du. telde, G. zelt tent, vb. 
O. N. tiallda to pitch tents. 

Taut — ataud. 

Taveler Fr. to spot, speckle; from tabic, O. Fr. tavele a chess- 

Tayon — taita. 


Tassa It., Sp. Pg. iaza, Pr. tassa, Fr. tasse a cup, Wal. tas, 
Scrv. ids; from Ar. Uassah a bason (from Pers. last or iashf). 
At. s often = Rom. z, cf. Pg. Zoiemao from Stdaimdn. 

Te It., Sp. ^e', Fr. the, E. /^a; from the Chinese. Neap, cha, It. 

Td at^ Pg., O. Pg. atem preposition; from tenus ad-tenus, O. Sp. 

atdnes. The synonymous O. Sp. O. Pg. fata ata are from the 

Ar. ^hattd. 
Tea Sp. Pg. torch, atear to light; from tceda. 
Teooa — tacco. 
Teoohire It., attecchire to thrive, grow; from Goth, theihan, 

O. S. thihan = O. H. G. dihan, G. gedeihen. The Fr. is tehir 

(cf . gecchire, gehir) = (1) grow (2) make to grow. Cf. Piedm. 

tec liiick, from O. H. (i. MiA:, G. dick, E. /AicA:. 
Teohir — tacco, 
Tecda Sp. Pg. Cat. Sard, key of a pianoforte &c.; from tegtda. 

The late origin of the word is shown by its incorrect form 

(Sp. should be teja, Pg. telhaX 
Tegola tegolo